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A CLASS-BOOK OF GEOGRAPHY. 



CI- A CLASS-BOOK 



OF 



GEOGRAPHY. 



BY 

C B. CLARKE, F.R.S. 



WITH EIGHTEEN COLOURED MAPS. 



IRE VIS ED EDITION.^ 



MACMILLAN AND CO. 

AND NEW YORK. 
1889. 

The Rip-Jtt of Translation and RehYoductinti re Rfs^mti/l 



Richard Clay and Sons, Limited, 
london and bungay. 



First Edit{o7i, 1878 

Reprinted, 1880, 1S81, 1883, t886 

New Edition, March 1889 

Rep^-inted, May and August 1889. 




PREFACE 

TO THE REVISED [1889] EDITION. 

This Class-Book of Geography was first published in 
1878; various errors have been corrected in subsequent 
editions, but no revision has been made. Messrs. Macmillan 
now inform me that a larger new edition is required, and 
suggested that the book should be brought up to date, which 
has been done for me by the Rev. G. E. IMackie, Head- 
Master of the Godolphin School. I have gone over his 
revision before going to press. The principal alterations 
are — ( i ) the putting in newer numbers for the population of 
towns; (2) the bringing up to date the political geography 
of Egypt, Turkey, &c.; (3) the mention of a few places, as 
Baku, which have lately become of importance; (4) the 
addition of an Appendix, intended to indicate what is meant 
by Astronomic Geography and Chartography. 

I have been asked, by friends of geographic eminence, 
to have better, i.e. more expensive maps. I prefer not to 
raise materially the price of the book (which the publishers 
have now fixed at 3J". in wrapper, 3^. 6^. in cloth) ; par- 
ticularly as Messrs. Macmillan have now, price one shilling, 
an Elementary School Atlas for those who are willing to 
pay for somewhat better maps. 

C. B. Cl.^rke. 



CONTENTS. 



ECTION 



PAGE 



I. — DEFINITIONS * 

II.— MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE GLOBE .... 7 

III. — EUROPE l6 

IV. — ENGLAND 23 

v.— FRANCE 70 

VI.— SPAIN 78 

VII. — PORTUGAL 85 

VIII. — ITALY 87 

IX. — GREECE 94 

X.— TURKEY IN EUROPE (INCLUDING THE PRINCI- 
PALITIES) .96 

XI. — AUSTRIA lOI 

XII. — SWITZERLAND I08 

XIII.- GERMANY II3 

XIV. — BELGIUM 122 

XV. — HOLLAND I25 

XVI. — DENMARK I28 

XVII.— SCANDINAVIA (SWEDEN AND NORWAY) . . . I30 

XVIIL — RUSSIA (IN EUROPE) 134 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION 

XIX. — ASIA 

XX.— SIBERIA (with MANTCHURIA 

XXI. — TURKEY (in ASIA) 

XXII. — TURKESTAN 

XXIII. — MONGOLIA .... 

XXIV. — CHINA 

XXV.— JAPAN 

XXVI.— MALAY ARCHIPELAGO 

XXVII. ^TRANS-GANGETIC PENINSULA 

XXVIfl. — INDIA 

XXIX. — AFGHANISTAN (WITH BELOOCHISTAN) 

XXX. — PERSIA ..... 

XXXI. — ARABIA 

XXXII.— AFRICA 

XXXIII. — NORTHERN COAST OF AFRICA . 

XXXIV. — EGYPT (WITH NUBIA) 

XXXV. — THE SAHARA .... 

XXXVI. — SENEGANABIA AND GUINEA 

XXXVII.— SOUTH WESTERN COAST . 

XXXVIII. — ABYSSINIA, ZANZIBAR, MOZAMBK^UE 

XXXIX. — THE SOUTH CENTRE OF AFRICA 

XL. — CAPE COLONY 

XLI. — THE AFRICAN ISLANDS 

XLII. — AUSTRALIA . 

XLIII.— NEW ZEALAND . 

XLIV. — POLYNESIA . 

XLV.— NORTH AMERICA 



CONTENTS 

SECTION 
XLVI.— GREENLAND 

XLVII.— CANADA DOMINION 

XLVIII. — THE UNITED STATES 

XLIX.— MEXICO 

L.— CENTRAL REPUBLICS 

LI. — BRITISH HONDURAS 

LII. — THE WEST INDIA ISLANDS 

LI 1 1. — SOUTH AMERICA 

LIV. — ECUADOR . 

LV. — COLOMBIA . 

LVI. — VENEZUELA 

LYII. — TRINIDAD , 

LVI 1 1. — BRITISH GUIANA 

LIX. — DUTCH GUIANA 

LX. — FRENCH GUIANA 

LXI. — BRAZIL 

LXII. — PERU . 

LXIII.— BOLIVIA 

LXIV. — PARAGUAY . 

LXV. — URUGUAY . 

LXVI. — LA PLATA . 

LXVII. — CHILI . 

LXVIII.— PATAGONIA 

LXIX.— THE FALKLAND ISLES 



PAGE 



APPENDIX. 

LXX.— ASTRONOMIC GEOGRAPHY . 
LXXI.— CHARTOGRAPHY . 



281 
296 



LIST OF MAPS. 



I. 


THE WORLD (MERCATOR) 


To face page i 


2. 


EUROPE 


.,, 16 


3' 


ENGLAND . . . „ . 


» 25 


4. 


SCOTLAND 


... „ 58 


5. 


IRELAND 


„ „ 63 


6. 


FRANCE 


M 70 


7- 


SPAIN AND PORTUGAL . 


„ 78 


8. 


ITALY 


„ 87 


9. 


GREECE 


n 94 


10. 


AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY 


,, „ 102 


II. 


NORTHERN GERMANY 


„ "3 


12. 


BELGIUM AND THE NETHERLANDS 


M J, 122 


13. 


ASIA 


M „ 146 


14. 


INDIA 


„ 181 


15. 


AFRICA 


„ 207 


16. 


AUSTRALIA 


„ 225 


17- 


NORTH AMERICA .... 


„ 234 


18. 


SOUTH AMERICA .... 


.. ,» 264 




160 140 120 IOOi^Tr80.fG^«x.60 40 20 

?.' ?■• A K. Jahnst cm.J 




and Lond an 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Sect. I. DEFINITIONS. 

1. OCEAN. The great mass of water on the surface of the 
globe is called the ocean, or the sea. And the chief divisions 
of that mass of water are called oceans: as the Indian Ocean. 
Smaller divisions are called seas : as the Mediterranean Sea. 

2. GULF. A part of the sea running into the land : as the 
Gii// of Mexico. 

3. BAY. A gulf with a wide mouth : as the Bay of 
Biscay. 

4. STRAITS. A narrow passage of water (between two 
shores) connecting two bodies of water : as the Straits of 
Gibraltar. 

5. CONTINENT. The largest divisions of the land-surface 
of the globe are called contments. Smaller divisions are 
called countries. Countries are sometimes called, according 
to their forms of government, empires (as Russia), kingdoms 
(as Spain), or republics (as Switzerland) ; and are divided 
into provinces, states, or counties. Thus Normandy is a 
province of France ; Pennsylvania is one of the United 
States J Kent is a county of England. 

6. MOUNTAIN. An elevated portion of the earth's surface, 
higher than a hitl. This elevated portion may sometimes be 
conical, but is more frequently lengthened out when it forms 

^ B 



2 * GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

a moitntaiji-range or mountain-chain : as the c/iaiu of the 
Alps. The highest points in a chain are the peaks ; and the 
lowest point of the chain between two peaks is called a saddle. 

7. VOLCANO. A conical mountain which at times throws 
out steam, mud, burning ashes, and streams of lava (that is, 
molten rock), or some or other of these. The conical 
mountain often grows in size by its own erupted products ; 
but sometimes it is itself blown away, wholly or partially, by 
the violence of its explosions. 

8. PLAIN. A tract of country level or at least having no 
marked elevations or depressions : thus in Salisbury P/ain 
are many steep small hills. A plain at a considerable eleva- 
tion above the sea is called 2i plateau or table-land. 

9. RIVER. A stream of fresh water, rising inland at 
some elevation, and flowing down usually into the sea. The 
point where it falls into the sea is called its mouth. 

The right bank of a river is that which is on the right 
hand of a person travelling from its source to its mouth- 
Thus the city of London is on the left bank of the Thames, 
Surrey is on its right bank. 

The smaller streams that fall into a river are called its 
affluents or tributaries. Thus the Cherwell is a tributary of 
the Thames. 

10. BASIN. The tract of land that is drained by a river 
is called its basin. Thus the area, all the drainage from 
which passes through London Bridge, forms the basin of 
the Thames. 

11. WATERPARTING. The high ground between two 
basins, which throws the water off on either slope. Thus 
the highest crest of the Alps is the waterparting separating 
the basin of the Po from that of the Rhone. But the ground 
between two great river basins is sometimes not perceptibly 
elevated : such is the waterparting between the Mississippi 
and the Red River. The waterparting line forms the 
boundary between two basins; it traverses the lowest pass 
or col between them. 

12. ESTUARY. The mouth of a river, especially when it 
is wide so that the tide of salt water can run up it, is called 



I.] DEFINITIONS. 3 

an estuary. Thus the upper portion of the Bristol Channel 
is the estuary of the Severn. 

13. DELTA^ Many rivers before they reach the sea, but 
near to it, divide ; and their waters reach the sea by two or 
more branches with separate mouths. The area included 
between the sea and the two farthest apart of these branches 
is called a delta because the Greek letter delta was shaped 
as a triangle (A), which is the form such an area usually 
takes. Large rivers that reach the sea through a very flat 
country frequently have deltas, as the Mississippi and the 
Nile. 

14.. LAKE. A tract of fresh water entirely surrounded by 
land. Where the water is salt, such a tract of water is 
usually called a sea : as the Dead Sea. The area, all the 
drainage from which falls into one lake, is called a la/ce- 
basin. 

15. ISLAND. A tract of land entirely surrounded by 
water : as the Isle of Wight, the Island of Australia. 

16. ISTHMUS. A neck, or narrow strip of land, that joins 
two larger pieces of land : as the Isthmus of Suez. 

17. PENINSULA. A tract of land almost surrounded by 
water : as the peiiinsula of Italy. 

18. ARCHIPELAGO. A collection of many islands situ- 
ated close together : as the Malay Archipelago. 

19. CAPE. A head-land, or point of land, that stretches 
out into the sea. Also called a Promontory : as the Cape or 
Pi'omontory of Good Hope. 

20. HARBOUR. A part of the sea running into the land 
in which ships may find security. A harbour used by ships 
for trade is also called a port, or haven. 

Sometimes the bottom of the sea near an open coast is of 
mud or clay, without rocks or much loose sand. Here ships 
can ride out ordinary storms at anchor ; as the anchor does 
not slip nor is the chain cut by rocks ; and such a spot is 
called a roadstead. We thus speak of the harbour of Dart- 
mouth, the port of Liverpool, the roadstead of Madras. 

21. OASIS. A spot of verdure, usually around a spring or 
fountain, in the midst of a desert. 



4 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

22. GliAClER. Fields of snow are formed on the shoulders 
of lofty mountains ; and in the upper valleys the snow, being 
greatly crushed together by its own weight, forms into rivers 
of ice, which move slowly down the valley, and sometimes 
extend far down into the warmer regions below before they 
disappear by melting. Such rivers of ice are called glaciers. 
The river Rhone springs from the melting foot of a large 
glacier which is known as the Glacier of the Rhone. 

23. POLES. The earth is a globe very little flattened at 
two ends, Avhich are called its Poles. That pole north of 
England is called the North Pole, and the other the South 
Pole. 

The line joining the two poles passes through the centre of 
the globe, and is the axis on which the earth turns round 
once every twenty-four hours. 

24. EQUATOR. A line drawn all round the earth at an 
equal distance from each pole is the equator. This equator 
is a circle, and divides the surface of the globe into two 
equal halves or hemispheres, M'hich are called the Northern 
and the Southern Hemispheres. 

25. LATITUDE. A line drawn all round the globe parallel 
to the equator is called a parallel of latitude. The distance 
from the equator to the North Pole is divided into 90 equal 
spaces, called degrees, because this distance is one quarter 
of the circle round the globe, and it is usual to measure parts 
of circles by supposing them divided into 360 equal parts or 
degrees. A parallel of latitude might be drawn at each 
degree, but on a small globe or a map of the world the 
parallels are usually drawn 10 degrees (written 10°) apart, 
because they cannot be drawn closer without crowding. The 
parallels of latitude would (if drawn) be all parallel to each 
other, and from the equator to the pole there would be 90 at 
one degree apart, and they are numbered 1°, 2°, &c., from 
the equator up to the North Pole, which is 90° latitude and 
a single point. Similarly in the Southern Hemisphere lati- 
tude is measured from the equator to the South Pole. There 
are thus two parallels of latitude distant 20° from the equator, 
and to distinguish them we call one 20^ N.L. ; that is, 



I] 



DEFINITIONS. 



20 degrees North Latitude, the other 20° S.L., 2>., South 
Latitude. 

Further, each degree is supposed divided into 60 minutes, 
marked 60', and each minute into 60 seconds, marked 60''. 
We are thus abie to measure very exactly the distance of 
any point from the equator. Moscow is 55° 42' N.L. ; while 
Edinburgh is 55° 57' N.L., and is therefore nearer the North 
Pole than Moscow. 

26. ZONES. Geographers draw on the globe a particular 
parallel, viz., that of 23° 28' N.L., which they call the Tropic 
of Cancer ; and also the parallel 23° 28' S.L., which they 
call the Tropic of Capricorn. They also draw the parallel 
of latitude which lies 23° 28' from the North Pole (and there- 
fore 66° 32' N.L.), which is called the Arctic Circle ; and the 
parallel of 66° 32' S.L., which is called the Antarctic Circle. 

The two tropics and the Arctic and Antarctic Circles 
divide the earth's surface into five bands or sones^ as shown 
in the annexed figure :— 



NorlhPoli 




MrtU Thi^erafs. Zone 



Torrid ^one 



Sovlh Tempentte Zime 
\Ajiturctic ^^one 



27. TORRID ZONE. The sun passes vertically over that 
part of the earth which lies between the tropics. This space, 



6 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

called for shortness the Tropics or the Torrid Zone, is thus 
excessively hot. 

28. ARCTIC ZONE. Within this zone the sun in winter 
remains for some days entirely below the horizon, and in 
summer he only rises a little way above the horizon. The 
Arctic Zojie is thus excessively cold, and ice and snow prevail 
there. Near the Pole the frost is perpetual. The Antarctic 
Zone is evidently similarly circumstanced ; and the Arctic 
and Antarctic Zones are sometimes called the Frigid Zones. 

29. TEMPERATE ZONES. In the North Temperate Zone, 
in countries next the Arctic Circle (as the South of Iceland) 
the climate is nearly Arctic, while in countries just north of 
the Tropic of Cancer, as Egypt, the climate is nearly tropically 
hot. Between these limits, that is as we pass from the 
Arctic Circle southwards to the Tropic of Cancer, we find 
at each step that we reach a warmer chmate. Thus England 
is warmer than Scotland but colder than France. 

In the South Temperate Zone the climate similarly is 
warmer as we proceed northwards ; thus South Australia 
is warmer than Tasmania. 

30. LONGITUDE. If we draw a line through Greenwich 
(near London) exactly north and south, it will cut all the 
parallels of latitude at right angles, and it will pass through 
both the poles. We shall find that such a north and south 
line is a semicircle. A similar north and south line may be 
drawn through any other town or station on the earth's sur- 
face, and will be its meridian of longitude ; while the line 
through Greenwich is taken as the prime (or first) meridian 
of loiigitude. Where the prime meridian cuts the equator 
Me mark o*^ o' o", and divide the equator into 360 equal 
spaces, each being 1° of that circle. We do not measure 
the 360° all the way round, but we mark off 180° EL. (that 
is, East Longitude from Greenwich), and 180° W.L. (that 
is, West Longitude). If now we draw^ a meridian of longitude 
through New York, and note where it cuts the equator, we 
can read off the longitttde of New York to be 73'' 58' west of 
Greenwich. 

Note that the position of our prime meridian may be taken 



XI.] MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE GLOBE. 7 

at pleasure ; the English use the meridian of Greenwich ; 
many European nations use the meridian of Ferro, one of 
the Canaries. Thus the longitude of all towns in a German 
atlas is different from that shown in an English atlas^ though 
the latitude is the same in both. 

Note also that, as the globe is a sphere very nearly 
indeed, 10° of latitude taken anywhere on the globe are 
equal in length to 10 degrees of longitude mcasjired along 
the equator; but that the meridians of longitude close toge- 
ther as we proceed from the equator to the pole ; so that by 
the time we reach the parallel of latitude 60", the meridians 
of longitude are there only half as far apart as they were at 
the equator. A degree of latitude is 69^ miles all over the 
earth's surface ; a degree of longitude at the equator is also 
69] miles ; close to the pole a degree of longitude is less 
than a yard. 

Sect. II. MAIN DIVISIONS OP THE GLOBE. 

31, HEMISPHERES. On looking at a globe we see the 
great mass of the land lying as two large islands in the 
midst of a continuous ocean. Taking as our line of refer- 
ence the meridian of longitude through Ferro, and dividing 
the earth's surface into two hemispheres lying respectively 
east and west of that line, the mass of land lying east is 
called the Eastern Hemisphere, and that lying west is called 
the Western Hemisphere. 

Note that, to an American residing in California, the 
Eastern Hemisphere lies west of him, the Western Hemi- 
sphere east of him. But as we reside near the meridian of 
Ferro, the Eastern Hemisphere is nearly all east of us : and 
if we were to journey to the meridian of Ferro it would be 
altogether east of us. 

The map in the atlas, called the World in Hemispheres, 
usually divides the world along the meridian of Ferro, or 
nearly so. 

32. OLD AND NEW WORLDS. The ancient Greeks and 
Romans were acquainted with a considerable portion of the 



8 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

land in the Eastern Hemisphere ; but the existence of the 
great mass of land in the Western Hemisphere was unknown 
till the discoveries of Christopher Columbus, who first 
reached the West Indian Islands in A.D, 1492, but did not 
see the coast of America itself till A.D. 1498. It is ascer- 
tained now that the Northmen discovered Iceland, and 
thence visited the coast of North America as early as 
A.D. 1000 ; but all memory of these voyages had long died 
away in Europe when Columbus made his memorable 
voyage. He found the men animals and plants so very 
different from all previously known in Europe that it was said 
uNeiv IVorld had been discovered. Thus the land situate in 
the Western Hemisphere being often called the Neiij Worldy 
that in the Eastern Hemisphere is called the Old World. 

33. PROPORTION OP LAND TO WATER, About three- 
fourths of the earth's surface is covered by water, leaving 
one-fourth land : we cannot say exactly, because we do not 
know how much land there maybe in the arctic and antarctic 
zones which are inaccessible to man by reason of their 
extreme cold. 

34. HEIGHT OF THE LAND. Large areas of the dry 
land are low plains elevated less than 500 feet above sea- 
level ; the highest mountain in the world (Deodunga) is 
29,002 feet above sea-level. There are a few small areas of 
the land (as the neighbourhood of the Caspian Sea) which 
are below sea-level. The most considerable mass of elevated 
land in the world is in the centre of Asia, north of the 
Himalaya Mountains, where there ar€ 400,000 square miles 
of country all raised more than 5,000 feet above the sea. 

35. DEPTH OF THE OCEAN. The oceans are merely 
land covered with water ; the bed of the ocean contains 
large flat areas, steep inclines, and deep depressions. Some 
of the deepest depressions are probably not less than 30,000 
feet deep, and there may be depths even 40,000 feet. It is 
exceedingly difficult to measure such great depths with a 
sounding-line, but a depth exceeding 27,000 feet has been 
sounded in the Atlantic. The bed of the oceans is in 
general much farther below the sea-level than the land is 



II.] MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE GLOBE. 9 

above it. A large portion of the bed of the Atlantic Ocean 
is 15,000 feet below the surface of the water; a large portion 
of the Pacific Ocean is 20,000 feet deep, and on this deep 
bed are situated some sub-marine volcanoes, the summits of 
which are far below the surface of the water. It has become 
of importance to us to discover flat places in the ocean bed 
at depths not exceeding a mile or two, as such are convenient 
for laying telegraphic wires upon. 

36. THE FOUR QUARTERS. Geographers have used as 
the large divisions of the globe, Europe, Asia, Africa, and 
America : as these divisions are four, they have been named 
\\\Qfoic7' qtiartej'soi the globe ; though they are very unequal 
in magnitude and importance and no one of them contains 
exactly a quarter of the area of the dry land of the earth's 
surface. 

37. THE ORIGIN OF THE NAMES OF THE CON- 
TINENTS. Europe was a name among the ancient Greeks 
for a considerable portion of the area we now call Eui'ope. 

Asia was the name given by the ancient Greeks to 
the western portion of Asia Minor. As late as the time 
of the writing of the Greek Testament, Asia was thus 
restricted in meaning ; the seven churches in Asia were all 
in Asia Minor. But the word Asia has been extended to 
include Asia Minor with all the old world east of Asia Minor. 

Afrygeh was the Phoenician word for a colony. The most 
important Phoenician colony w^as Carthage, which was thus 
called pre-eminently Afrygeh, equivalent to the colony. The 
territory round Carthage was consequently known to the 
Romans as Africa^ and this term got extended to the whole 
continent. 

America is named from an Italian, Amerigo Vespucci, who 
visited America in a.d. 1499. Before this time Christopher 
Columbus and others had seen America ; but Amerigo 
published the first account of the New World. 

38. ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL BOUNDARIES. 
Natural boundary lines to a country are the sea, a great 
river, or a lofty range of mountains, A political territory, as 
the kingdom of Belgium, may have no boundaries except 



lO 



GEOGRAPHY. 



[sect. 



those fixed by a treaty. Sometimes, as in the case of the 
boundary belween Switzerland and Italy, the boundary may 
be both natural and political ; though in this case the 
boundary of the Italian kingdom does not exactly coincide 
with the crest of the Alps. 

In the division of the great masses of land into continents, 
we cannot make use of political boundaries, and have to 
select such divisions as appear on the whole most natural. 
We adopt six main divisions or continents as in the sub- 
joined table, 

39 CONTINENTAL DIVISIONS: 





Area in square 
miles. 


Population. 


Inhabitants 
to sq. mile. 


C Europe . . . 

Eastern j -^^'^ .... 

Hemisphere j Africa . . . 

f Australia . , 

Western ( North America. 

Hemisphere \ South America. 


3,800,000 
17,210,000 
11,500,000 
3,000,000 
9,000,000 
7,000,000 


340,000,000 

800,000,000 

200,000,000 

3,000,000 

72,000,000 

28,000,000 


88 
45 
17 

8 
4 



The boundaries of the continents thus arranged are all 
natural, with the exception of the boundary line between 
Europe and Asia, which is artificial. Geographically, Europe 
is indeed hardly more than the North-west corner of Asia. 

40. POLYNESIA. The numerous islands of the Pacific 
Ocean are sometimes reckoned as a continent, under the 
name Polynesia or Oceania ; but they are mere dots in the 
vast expanse of water, and do not altogether make up a piece 
of land worthy the name of a continent. We shall say a 
little about them after Australia. 

41. ANTARCTICA. At Several points near the Antarctic 
circle, voyagers have come upon land which has been con- 
jectured to be part of a great continent round the South 
Pole, and for which the name Antarctica has been invented. 
But if there be any such continent, it is ever covered with ice 
and snow, utterly uninhabited by and useless to man. 

42. OCEANS. One ocean is not separated from the ad- 
joining ocean by any natural line, and the only artificial line 
we can make use of is a parallel of latitude or a meridian of 



II.] MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE GLOBE. ii 

longitude. The boundaries of an ocean can in short only be 
defined in a general way. The principal Oceans are : 

(i) The Atlantic Ocean, extending from the west side of 
the Old World to the east side of the New World. It was 
so named by the Romans, who, as they proceeded from Italy, 
reached that ocean by passing through the Straits of Gibraltar 
and there saw the ocean and Mount Atlas at once. 

(2) The Pacific Ocean, extending from the west side of the 
New World to the east side of the Old World. It was so 
named by the first voyagers because they found it less stormy 
than the Atlantic ; but further experience has shown that 
there is little difference in this respect between the Atlantic 
and the Pacific. 

(3) The Indian Ocean extends from India and the south 
coast of Asia to a line joining the southernmost point of 
Africa with the southernmost point of Australia, i.e. to the 
parallel of 35° S.L. or thereabout. 

(4) The Great Southern Ocean, which extends all round 
the globe from the parallel 35° S.L. (or thereabout) to the 
Antarctic Circle. 

(5) The Arctic Ocean extends round the North Pole within 
the Arctic Circle, we know not exactly how far. The sea 
is here often covered with ice, but a large expanse of sea is 
known to exist ; and it may continue even to the North 
Pole. 

43. CURRENTS OP THE OCEAN. There are permanent 
currents in some places in the ocean which are as it were steady 
slow-moving rivers running in the ocean itself. One such cur- 
rent flows always from east to west round the Cape of Good 
Hope ; so that ships sailing from England to India or Aus- 
tralia usually choose a course far south of the Cape of Good 
Hope to avoid it; while on their return from India to England 
they pass close to that Cape and often call at Cape Town. 

But the most important current in the world for us is 
the Gulf stream. This is a current setting out from the 
Gulf of Mexico at its north-east corner and running north- 
east across the Atlantic, so that the main branch of it passes 
by Ireland, and even reaches the north of Norway. This 



12 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

current as it leaves the Gulf of Mexico is of very warm 
water, and from its vast body it loses its heat very gradually. 
It thus warms the sea on the west coast of Britain and makes 
England much warmer than it otherwise would be. Had 
England as cold a climate as Labrador in the same latitude 
the island would become desolate. 

Climate is ruled chiefly by the latitude — the nearer the 
equator the warmer the climate, at the same level above the 
sea. But there are many local causes which interfere with 
climate. One of the most important differences is that 
between an Oceanic and a Continental climate. The prox- 
imity of the ocean moderates the heat in summer, the cold 
in winter. Thus, comparing, under about the same latitude, 
Brest with Vienna, Vienna is much colder in winter, warmer 
in summer. 

4-4.. WINDS. Between the Equator and about 30° N.L. 
the prevalent wind is from the N.E., between the Equator 
and about 30° S.L. it is S.E. These winds, from their regu- 
larity, are of great help to ships, and hence are called the 
Trade winds. North and South of latitude 30° the prevailing 
winds are westerly. 

4.5. HEMISPHERE OP MOST LAND. We may divide 
the globe in two hemispheres, so that one of them shall con- 
tain the greatest quantity of land. When this is done, it is 
found that London is very near the central point of the 
surface of that hemisphere. 

For trading purposes it is not the direct route, but the 
shortest sea route which is of most importance. Hence we 
should not expect the chief commercial city to be placed at 
the most central point of the lajtd. Moreover, England is 
on the north side debarred from trading routes by the 
extreme cold. 

4-6. NORTH-WEST PASSAGE. Thus English ships in 
order to reach China have to sail round the Cape of Good 
Hope. If they could cross the Arctic Ocean and pass through 
Behring's Straits the distance would be greatly shortened. 
This route is celebrated as the North-West Passage^ To 
discover this, or rather to show the possibility of a ship taking 



II.] MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE GLOBE. 13 

that route, the Enghsh government have despatched many 
expeditions. The most memorable was that sent in A.D. 
1845 under Sir John Franklin, and which never returned : it 
was only ascertained many years afterwards that the ships 
•were lost in the ice and that Sir John Franklin and the 
whole of his men perished by frost and starvation. 

47. ZOOLOGICAL DIVISIONS OF THE "WORLD. The 
six continents,, as we have defined them above, have natural 
geographical boundaries (except as to the boundary between 
Europe and Asia), and hence most geographers use these 
divisions. But by those who study the races of men and 
animals, very different divisions are used. All the Arctic 
Regions of the world and the part of the North Temperate 
Zone adjacent thereto present great similarity in their animals; 
hence this area is said to form one natural zoological province. 
There is easy communication between the Old and New 
World across Behring's straits and the same animals have 
thus been able to spread all over the Arctic Region, But 
animals cannot cross easily from Australia to South Africa 
or to South America. Hence we find that Australia is by 
itself a natural Zoological Province, that is to say, most of 
the animals found there are found nowhere else in the world. 
So Africa, south of the great desert, forms a Zoological 
Province. But in South America the animals are not pre- 
vented spreading north by either a desert or an ocean and 
all America from the Southern United States to Cape Horn 
may be reckoned as one large Zoological Province. We 
may divide the globe into six Primary Zoological Provinces 
as follows : — 

(i) The Arctic ; extending from the North Pole to 45° 
N.L. 

(2) The American ; extending from Cape Horn to 45° N.L. 
in America, 

(3) The African; extending from the Cape of Good Hope 
to 2 ]J^ N.L. in Africa and Arabia. 

(4) The Mediterranean; extending round the Mediter- 
ranean from 25° N.L. to 45° N.L. and east as far as the 
Indus. 



14 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

(5) The Indo-Chinese J including India, China, Malaya. 

(6) The Australian ; including Australia and New Guinea. 
4.8. RACES or MEN. We may on the same system 

divide the globe according to the chief divisions of the 
human race which occupy it. These are — 

(i) The Caucasian race ; who occupy Europe, the north 
of Africa, and the south-west of Asia as far as India. 

(2) The Mongolian race ; who have a yellow skin, little 
hair on their face, and slanting eyes : they extend over North- 
ern and Central Asia, over Eastern Asia including China, and 
into Arctic America. 

(3) The American race ; who have a copper-coloured skin, 
little hair on their face, and a full eye ; and extend over all 
America except the extreme north. They are perhaps a 
branch of the Mongolian race. 

(4) The Negro race ; who have a dark skin and woolly 
hair ; and extend throughout Tropical Africa. 

(5) The Malayan race ; who have a brown skin, very 
coarse straight black hair, and a large mouth. They occupy 
south east Asia, Malaya, Madagascar, and part of the Pacific 
Islands. 

(6) The Australian race ; who have a dark skin, slight 
lank bodies, and bushy heads of hair, whence they are some- 
times described as mop-headed. They occupy Australia and 
many islands adjacent. These divisions, like the chief 
Zoological Provinces, are only natural in a very general way, 
and subject to many exceptions. Moreover, in modern times, 
the English have colonized Australia and North America, 
and many negroes have been carried into America. Migra- 
tions of this kind complicate and confuse divisions of the 
globe founded on the races of men. 

49. CONTINENTAL COAST-LINES. The different 
continents are penetrated by seas in very different degrees. 
Thus Africa is a solid mass ; while Europe is penetrated on 
every side but the east by seas, which gives her a much 
greater extent of coast line m proportion to her area than 
Africa possesses. No part of Europe is very remote from a 
port ; trade has thus been facilitated, and the population of 



II.] MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE GLOBE. 15 

all parts brought into communication. In Africa, on the 
other hand, there is little trade and vast tracts of its interior 
have never been visited by any civilised traveller. Geogra- 
phers have inferred that the progress made by Europe has 
been due in some measure to the advantage it possesses in a 
very long coast line. There may be some truth in this ; for 
not only do we see in the other continents that the least 
advanced countries are those that are furthest from the sea, 
but in Europe itself we notice that the most backward part is 
that which is farthest from the sea, viz., the interior of Russia. 
But the theory must not be pushed too far ; for, if commerce, 
enterprise, and civilization depended largely on extent of 
coast-line, the south-east of Asia with its islands should be 
one of the most advanced portions of the globe. 

50. UNKNOWN PARTS OP THE WORLD. Some por- 
tions of the world remain still unknown ; the Arctic (and 
still more the Antarctic) zone is closed against us by the cold; 
a considerable area in Asia, to the north-east of India, is 
closed against travellers by savage inhabitants ; as is also 
a larger area in the centre of Africa. But our travellers are 
now every year diminishing these unknown areas. 

WORLD. (Abstract.) 

CONTINENTS. Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, North 
America, South America. 

OCEANS. Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Great Southern, 
Arctic. 

SEAS. Mediterranean, Baltic, Red, Java, Chinese, Carib 
bean. 

GULPS. Mexico, Guinea, Persian, Lyons (the Lion). 

BAYS. Bengal, Biscay, Hudson's. 

STRAITS. Gibraltar, Babelmandeb, Singapore, Behring's, 
Dardanelles. 

CAPES. Good Hope, Horn, North, Comorin. 

ISLANDS. Papua (or New Guinea), Borneo, Sumatra, 
fava, Madagascar, Britain, Cuba, New Zealand, Niphon. 

ARCHIPELAGOS. Malay, /Egean, West Indian, Japan. 



i6 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

MOUNTAIN-RANGES. Himalaya, Andes, Rocky, Alps. 

VOLCANOS. One row in Malaya ; another row in the 
Andes. 

RIVERS. Amazon, Mississippi, Nile, Ganges, Euphrates. 

WATERFALLS. Niagara, Victoria. 

LAKES. Superior, Victoria-Nyanza, Geneva. 

SALT-LAKES. Caspian Sea, Aral Sea, Dead Sea, Gieat 
Salt Lake. 

PENINSULAS. Italian, Spanish, Scandinavian, Indian. 
Malay, Californian. 

ISTHMUSES^ Suez, Panama. 

RACES or MEN. Caucasian, Mongolian, American, 
Negro, Malay, Australian. 

TOWNS (with their populations). London (4,000,000) ; 
Paris (2,250,000); Berlin (1,300,000) ; Vienna (1,100,000) ; 
Constantinople (800,000) ; Bombay (770,000) ; Pekin 
(1,500,000); Canton (1,600,030) ; Tokio (900,000); Calcutta 
(870,000) ; St. Petersburg (929,000) ; New York (1,250,00c). 

Sect. III. EUROPE. 

51. BOUNDARIES. On the South— the Mediteranean, 
the Black Sea, and the Caucasus : on the West— the Atlan- 
tic : on the North — the Arctic Ocean : on the East — the 
Ural Mountains, the Ural River, and the Caspian. 

The Eastern Boundary is artificial ; the country is similar 
on both banks of the Ural Rivfer. Some geographers make 
the boundary of Europe at this point to be the Volga. 

52. ATTACHED ISLANDS. Britain and Ireland, Ice- 
land. In the Mediterranean, SicUy, Sardinia, Corsica, 
Candia, Majorca. In the Baltic, Zealand. In the Arctic 
Ocean is Spitzbergen, uninhabitable, celebrated for its 
extreme cold. 

53. CLIMATE. Nearly one-third of Europe lies north of 
the parallel 57° 30' N.L. In this area little wheat is grown, 
the population is scanty, and the territory is of small political 
importance. Thus Sweden and Norway appear large coun- 
tries on the map, much larger than England or France ; 




10 Lan^.W. of Grepamili Long. E . of ffl:epn>-iiTi. 10 



WfiA-KLJoTjiLB 







'^i ^oixion 



III.] EUROrE. 17 

but we hear little of them because the larger northern por- 
tion is nearly uninhabited. The principal part of the popu- 
lation is congregated in the south of Sweden, where wheat 
will ripen. As regards Russia, the climate is colder in the 
east of Europe than in the west under the same latitude : 
Moscow is much colder than Edinburgh. Hardly half of 
Russia is a wheat-bearing country ; and in the part that 
does not bear wheat the population is very small. This 
non-wheat-bearing region we may call the Sub- Arctic zone 
with a Sub-Arctic climate. The three peninsulas of South 
Europe (viz. Spain and Portugal, Italy, Turkey and Greece), 
together with the south of France, may be classed as in 
the Warm-Temperate zone ; they lie south of the parallel 
45° N.L. In many parts of this area, rice, oranges, and 
figs may be grown. 

The rest of Europe, viz. from 45° N.L. to 57° 30' N.L., 
we may call Cool-Temperate ; the climate of the south of 
England will represent it to us. Wheat flourishes ; grapes 
and figs will ripen in some places ; rice cannot possibly be 
grown. 

54. MOUNTAINS AND pliAlNS. A mountainous band 
of country extends completely across Europe from west to 
east, from the north of Spain to the Caucasus. North 
of this band lies the great plain of Northern Europe ; south 
of it, the three peninsulas of warm-temperate climate. 

To trace the central band of mountains more particularly, 
we begin with the Pyrenees in the west ; the central group 
in Switzerland are the Alps, which bifurcate eastwards into 
the Carpathians and the Balkan : these two branches 
may be supposed to reunite eastwards in the Crimea and 
Caucasus. 

The Great Northern plain extends over the whole of 
Russia, Poland, the south-east of Sweden, North Germany, 
Denmark, the Netherlands, the east of England, and two 
thirds of France. 

The Alps reach 15,784 feet high, and the central range is 
generally more than 8,000 feet high. The Pyrenees reach 
11,168 feet, the Caucasus 18,572 feet, above sea-level. The 

c 



i8 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

other high mouataiii-ranges of Europe are the Dovrefeid, 
6,cx)o — 8,000 feet high (which belong to a mountain system 
quite separate from the central band) ; and the Apennines, 
which are distinctly an offshoot of the Alps. The Ural 
mountains are not of great elevation. 

55. PLATEAUS. Europe is on a much smaller scale than 
the other Continents (except Australia), and does not contain 
any very large plateau : that is, \iO plain high elevated above 
the sea. The two principal masses of high land in Europe 
are, (i) the country immediately north of the High Alps, 
i.e. Switzerland and the southern part of Germany ; and 
(2) the central part of Spain. Neither of these masses 
of high land, however, is a plain ; they are traversed by 
numerous mountain ridges : but the lowest parts of the 
valleys between are often 1,500 feet or more above the sea- 
level. 

56. RIVERS, (i) The Volga is the largest river in Europe ; 
its length 2,400 miles. Since all Russia is a plain, we 
know that the waterparting which separates its river basin 
from those of the Don, the Dnieper, and the Dwina, must be 
quite low. The Volga winds on a vast plain, and nearly its 
whole course is navigable. 

(2) The Don and several other large Russian rivers are of 
the same character. 

(3) The Danube (total length 1,750 miles), often reckoned 
the most important river in Europe, drains the great basin 
which lies between the two bifurcations of the Alps. The 
Balkan, part of the Alps, and the Carpathians lie on its 
waterparting. Near the boundary of Turkey and Austria 
the Danube passes through the gorge known as the Iron 
Gate. 

(4) The Rhine, the most renowned of European rivers ; 
length 800 miles. Its upper course is Alpine, i.e. it descends 
rapidly in a mountainous country ; until it emerges in a more 
level district below Basle. Near Coblentz it passes through 
a long gorge, and then flows with a slow current to the sea 
through many arms forming a Delta. It is the national 
river of the Germans. 



rii] EUROPE. 19 

57. LAKES. The European lakes fall into two classes, 
viz. (i) the Arctic lakes, lying in a flat country, and especially 
found in arctic or sub-arctic regions : such are Ladoga and 
Onega in Russia, Wener and Wetter in Sweden, with many 
smaller lakes of the same character near. 

(2) The Alpine lakes, lying among mountains : such are 
Greneva, Lucerne, Constance, in Switzerland ; Como, Mag- 
?iore, Garda, in Italy ; and many lakes of the same character 
imong the mountains of England, Scotland, and Ireland. 

58. COMMUNICATIONS. England, Belgium, Germany, 
;he north and east of France, and Switzerland, are covered 

(with a close network of railways, Turkey and Greece are 
:he worst supplied with railways ; and Russia is but poorly 
supplied. 
The most important systems oi canals are, (i) the internal 

c:anals of Russia, which connect the Black Sea, the Baltic, 
ind the White Sea by several routes ; (2) the canals of the 
;outh-west of France, which connect the Bay of Biscay with 

ilhe Mediterranean ; (3) the canals of Holland, which are 

*40 numerous as to a great extent to take the place of 

••oads. 

59. RACES OF MEN. Nearly the whole population of 
i^urope belongs to the Caucasian race ; and very nearly all 
t!he Caucasians in Europe belong to one branch of the 
iZaucasian, viz., that known as the Japhetic, Aryan, Iranian, 
or Indo-Germanic branch. Among the Aryans of Europe 
I 'here are four prominent divisions, viz. : 

(i) The Keltic ; to which division belong the Irish, the 
I jaels, the Welsh, the Bretons. 

(2) The Romanic and Greek ; to which division belong 
^he Italians, the Spanish, the Wallachians, the Greeks. 

(3) The Teutonic j to which division belong the English, 
he Scotch, the Dutch, the Germans, the Danes, and the 
Scandinavians. 

(4) The Sclavonic ; to which division belong the Bohe- 
lians, Poles, the old Russians, the Hungarians. 

Other Caucasians in Europe are the Jews, who belong to 
le Shemitic branch of the Caucasians ; and the Gipsies, 

c 2 



20 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

who perhaps belong to an elder Indian division of the Indo- 

Germans. 
Among the Non-Caucasian races in Europe are : 
(a) The Magyars of Hungary, the Finns, the Turks, and 

the Tartars in South Russia, who belong to the Mongolian 

race. 

(d) The Lapps of Lapland and the Basques in the Pyrenees, 

who belong to some ancient races who inhabited Europe 

before the Aryans came. 

60. LANGUAGES. The division of languages is nearly 
the same as of races ; that is to say, the Indo-Germanic 
peoples speak Indo-Germanic languages, and the Teutonic 
peoples speak Teutonic languages, which form one division of 
the Indo-Germanic. There are numerous exceptions : thus the 
Irish, a Keltic people, have nearly ceased to speak Ei-se, their 
Keltic tongue ; but speak instead English, a Teutonic tongue. 

61. RELIGION. The people of Europe are Christian in 
religion, except the few Turks, Tartars, Jews, and Gipsies. 

The Christian religion in Europe admits three principal 
divisions, viz. : — (i) the Roman Catholic, of which the head 
is the Pope of Rome ; (2) the Greek Church, of which the 
head is the Emperor of Russia ; and (3) the Protestant 
Churches which differ greatly in government, and have no 
one head ; subdivided into Lutheran and Calvinist. 

To the Catholic Church belong the Romanic races and the 
chief part of the Kelts. To the C7-eek Church belong the 
Sclavonic race and the Greeks. To the Protestant Churches 
belong most of the Teutons. 

The Turks and Tartars are Mahometans ; the Gipsies, 
Pagans. 

62. ANIMALS. Europe is poorer in large animals than 
Asia or Africa ; first, because it is much smaller ; secondly, 
because it is entirely without the tropics ; and thirdly, 
because it is so fully inhabited by mankind. Europe is thus 
distinguished by the absence of elephants and rhinoceroses, 
of lions and tigers, of camels and giraffes, rather than by 
the presence of large animals peculiar to itself. But in our 
river-gravels and caves we dig up the teeth and bones oi 



III.] EUROPE. 2t 

elephants, rhinoceroses, and tigers in profusion, and we know 
that the lion lived wild in Europe within historic times. 

The present chief European animals in their different 
tribes are : 

(i) Of Pachyderms ; the wild boar, 

(2) Of Ruminants; the deer, roe, elk, raindecr ; \kiQ cJid- 
mois, antelope, and ibexj the bison or aurochs is nearly 
extinct. 

(3) Ot Rodents ; the hare, rabbit, porcupine, and beaver 
(now become rare) ; the hamster and many kinds of rats^ 
mice, voles and lemmings j dormice, squirrels, and mar- 
mots. 

(4) Of Pinnipedia j several seals and the walrus. 

(5) Of Carnivoraj wolves and foxes; several smaller 
wild-cats and lynxes; the otter, weasels and martens j the 
badger, the glutton, and several bears. 

(6) Of insectivora ; the mole, the hedgehog, and many 
shrews. 

(7) Of Chiroptera; many bats. 

(8) Of Quadrumana j the Barbary ape, who has colonised 
the rock of Gibraltar, and is the only wild monkey in 
Europe. 

63. PLANTS. The variety of wild Trees in Europe is 
small compared with what may be seen in an equal tropical 
area. Moreover, in Europe the forests are often made up 
of a very few trees : we see many large woods in England 
containing nothing but oak and hazel. On the other hand, 
in America (even in the cool-temperate zone) wc find mixed 
forests ; so that we there obtain a much greater variety of 
trees. Nearly all our most valuable native forest-trees in 
Europe may be classed in a very few groups or Orders. 
Thus we have : 

(i) The//;/t'i" and j^wj-y including theyfr, larch, juniper, 
cypress. 

(2) The oaks and hazels; including the beech, Spanish 
chestnut, hor7ibeam, birch^ alder. 

(3) The poplars and willows j including the abele^ aspen, 
sallow. 



GEOGRAPHY. 



[sect. 



(4) The elm 2iX\^ plane. 

(5) The ash and olive. 

(6) The inaple^ sycainore, and horse-cJiestmct. 

The plants principally grown for food in Europe are 
botanically Grasses, viz. : 

(i) Wheat, everywhere south of the parallel of 58^ N.L. 

(2) Barley^ oats, and rye, throughout the centre of Europe, 
and extend farther north than wheat. 

(3) Rice and sitgaj'-cane, only in a few places in the three 
southern peninsulas and in the south of France. 

(4) Mai^e^ in the south of Europe and in some places in 
Germany. 

(5) Millet, in Russia. 

(6) Sorghinii, in Italy. 

Other plants which contribute materially towards the sup- 
port of considerable populations are/^V<:?/^<?j (grown nearly as 
extensively as wheat) ; peas, beans, and other pulse ; and the 
Spanish chestnut in the neighbourhood of the Mediterranean. 

64. DIVISIONS. Europe is divided politically as under : 



State. 


Capital Town. 


Area in 
Square 
Miles. 

121,135 
204,090 

"0,655 

24,977 
200,000 
261,649 

208^683 

".373 

12,680 

14,789 

295,714 

2,081,022 


Population 
in 1888. 

36,707,418 
37,885,905 
17,268,600 
4.306,554 
29,699,781 

1,979,453 

16,750,000 

41,056,206 

2,906,750 

46,840,587 

5,909.-975 

4,390,273 

2,033,959 

6,642,189 

100,000,000 


Inhab. to 

the Square 

Mile. 


Great Britain . . . 

France 

Spain 

Portugal .... 

Italy 

Greece 

*Turkey .... 

Austria 

Switzerland , . . 
Germany .... 
15elginm .... 
Holland .... 
Denmark .... 
Scandinavia . . . 
Russia 




305 

185 

88 

124 

268 

80 

80 

157 

182 

224 

520 

346 

138 

22 

48 


Paris .... 




Madrid . . . 




Lisbon . . . 








Athens . . . 




Constantinople 




Berne . . . 
Berlin . . . 




Brussels . . 
Amsterdam . 
Copenhagen . 
Stockholm . . 
St. Petersburg 





* Including the Principalities. 

Notice that Corsica belongs to France, Candia to Turkey, 
Iceland to Denmark : pohtically but not geographically. 



III.] EUROPE. 23 



§ EUROPE (Abstract). 

OCEANS. Atlantic, Arctic. 

SEAS. Mediterranean, Adriatic, Levant, Marmora, Black ; 
Azof ; Caspian ; North, White, Baltic. 

GULFS. Bothnia, Finland, Lyons (the Lion), Genoa. 

BAYS. Biscay, Naples, Riga. 

STRAITS. Gibraltar, Dover, Dardanelles, Constantinople, 
Messina, Bonifacio, Sound. 

CAPES. North, Matapan, Finisterre, Land's End. 

ISLANDS. Britain, Ireland, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, 
Candia, Iceland, Zealand, Gothland. 

ARCHIPELAGOS. Levant, Danish, Hebrides. 

MOUNTAIN RANGES. Alps, Pyrenees, Apennines, Car- 
pathians, Balkan, Caucasus, Dovre, Ural. 

VOLCANOS. Etna, Vesuvius, Hecla. 

RIVERS. Volga, Don, Dnieper, Dniester, Vistula, Danube,. 
Rhine. 

LAKES. Ladoga, Onega, Wener, Wetter; Geneva, Lu- 
cerne, Como, Maggiore, Garda. 

PENINSULAS. Italian, Spanish, Greek; Scandinavian, 
Denmark, Crimea. 

ISTHMUS. Corinth. 

RACES OF MEN. Keltic, Romanic, Teutonic, Sclavonic ; 
Turks, Tartars, Magyars. 

TOWNS (with their populations). London, 4,000,000: 
Paris, 2,250,000; Berlin, 1,300,000 ; Vienna, 1,100,000; Con- 
stantinople, 800,000 ; St. Petersburg, 929,000 ; Liverpool, 
600,000 ; Glasgow, 674,000 ; Manchester, 580,000. 



Sect. IV. ENGLAND. 

65. The Dominions of the Queen of England are given in 
the annexed table : — 



24 



GEOGRAPHY. 



[sect. 



Dominion. 



El- ROPE. 

England . . . 
Wales .... 
Scotland . . . 
Ireland .... 
Man . . . . 
Channel Islands 
Heligoland . . 
Gibraltar . . . 
Malta . . . . 



Asia. 
India (including Burmah 
Ceylon .... 
Straits Settlements 
Hong Kong . . • 
Labuan . . . 
Perim .... 
Aden and Socolra 
Cyprus .... 



Africa. 
Cape of Good Hope 

Natal 

Griqualand, West . 
Gold Coast . . . 
Gambia .... 
Sierra Leone . . 

Lagos 

Ascension .... 
St Helena . 
Mauritius .... 



Australia, 
New South Wales 
Queensland . . 
Victoria . . , 
South Australia . 
Western Australia 
Tasmania . . . 
New Zealand. . 
Fiji Islands . . 
New Guinea {part of; 

North America 
Canada Dominion 
Newfoundland . 
Bermudas . . . 
Jamaica . . . 
Leeward Islands 
Windward Islands 
Bahamas . . . 
Honduras . . . 



South America. 
Trinidad .... 

Guiana 

Falkland Islands . 



Date A.D. of 
Acquisition. 



1282 
1603 
1171 
[806—1829 
1066 
1804 
1704 
iSoo 



1750— 1885 

1796 
1785— 1819 

1843 

1846 

1855 



1878 



1806 

1806 

1871 
1660 — 1&72 

1631 
1778—1883 

1861 

1831 

1650 

1810 



1787 
1859 
1787 
1836 
1829 
1803 
1814 
1874 



1623 — 1760 

1583 

1609 
1629—1655 
1626—1763 
1605— 1803 

1629 

1670 



1797 
1803 



Area in Square 
Miles. 



Population. 



50.934 

7,377 

30,463 

32,531 

,280 

75 



1,600,000 

24,702 

1,385 



7 
3,070 
3,584 



213,000 
19,000 
17,800 
16,000 
69 
3,000 
5.000 



47 
1,063 



310,700 

668,224 

87,884 

903,690 

1,060,000 

26,215 

104,403 

7,424 

88,457 



3r470,257 

40,200 

41 

4.1,3 

738 

622 

5,794 

. 7,562 



1,755 
76,000 
6,500 



IV.] ENGLAND. 25 

In this section we shall deal with the Queen's dominions 
in Europe only. 

§ ENGLAND (the Country). 

66. EXTENT. England is about 350 miles long from 
Berwick to the Isle of Wight. It is very nearly triangular 
in shape ; so that if we draw three hnes, one from Berwick 
to Calais, another from Calais to Bodmin in Cornwall, and 
another from Bodmin to Berwick, the triangle thus formed 
will nearly fit the outline of England ; and moreover, the 
parts left out of the triangle will roughly equal the part of 
the sea included within it. 

Hence we can find pretty accurately the area of England, 
ifor the hne from Bodmin to Calais is about 280 miles, and 
the line from Berwick to the Isle of Wight is nearly perpen- 
dicular to it. Hence, as the area of any triangle is half its 
base multiplied by its height, the area of England in square 
miles will be half 280 multiplied by 350 = 49,000, which we 
can see by the above table is pretty near the truth. 

67. BOUNDARIES. On the East— the North Sea, called 
also the German Ocean : on the South— the English Chan- 
nel : on the "West— the Atlantic, Bristol Channel, Wales, the 
Irish Sea : on the North— Scotland. 

The boundary-line between England and Wales is an arti- 
ficial one, but follows in the main the division between the 
plains (as Hereford) and the hills (as Brecknock). The 
boundary between England and Scotland follows chiefly the 
Cheviot hills and the Tweed. 

ISLANDS. The Isle of Wi^ht, which is included in the 
county of Hampshire, and is less than a mile from the 
coast. 

The Scilly Isles, a group of islets off the extreme S.W. 
coast, enjoying a very mild climate. 

Lundy Island, in the Bristol Channel, almost unin- 
habited. 

Walney Island, off Furness. 



26 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Anglesey, on the N.W. of Wales : see pp. 54, 55. 

The Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands, which have 
their own governments, are described on p. 68. 

Several other so-called islands are really peninsulas, as 
Portland and Holy Island : or have long ceased to be 
really separated from the land, as Ely and Thanet ; or are 
islands only at high water, as St. Michael's Mount. 

69. CAPES AND HEADLANDS. 

(1) The Land's End and the Lizard Point in Corn- 
wall. 

(2) Start Point in Devon, and Portland Bill in Dorset. 

(3) Selsey Bill and Beachy Head in Sussex. 

(2) The North Foreland and South Foreland in Kent. 
(5) Flamborough Head and Spurn Head in Yorkshire. 

70. GULFS AND BAYS. 

(i) The Bristol Channel. 

(2) The Wash. 

(3) Solway Firth. 

(4) Morecambe Bay. 

71. ESTUARIES. The Severn, Thames, Humber, Mer- 
sey, and Dee. Also that of the Test and Itchen, better 
known as Southampton "W&ter. 

72. CLIMATE. We have already taken our English 
climate as the standard of the cool-temperate. Wheat 
flourishes in the whole of England. We call June, July, 
August, September, summer ; October and the first half of 
November, autumn; from mid-November to mid-April, 
winter : and the latter half of April with May, spring. 

We notice as peculiarities of the English climate : 
Fiist, that the climate is moist, with variable winds and 
much cloud. There is no settled rainy season ; but rain 
may fall any week in the year, and sometimes does fall in 
nearly every week. 

Second, as a consequence of the first, neither the cold 
nor the heat can often last many weeks in succession. The 
Enghsh climate is called therefore ^n 'Mnsular climate;" 
that is, the range of temperature is much less than in 
countries farther from the sea. In these (in the same 



IV.] ENGLAND. 27 

latitude) the summer is much hotter, the winter much 
colder, than that of England. 

Third, the mean temperature of England is higher, that 
is to say, the climate on the whole is warmer than that of 
other countries in the same latitude, owing to the Gulf 
Stream, as explained above^ p. 12. 

Fourth, the west side of England is moister than the 
east side, which has therefore a less insular climate. Thus, 
Norwich is much colder than Shrewsbury in winter, but is 
hotter in summer. There is more skating at Norwich than 
at Shrewsbury, but much less than at Amsterdam. Wheat 
prefers a dry climate, so that there is much less wheat grown 
in the western half of England than in the eastern. 

Fifth, England is placed in the centre of the temperate 
zone, so that a few miles more north makes a sensible differ- 
ence in the warmth. Thus the south coast of England is 
warmer than the valley of the Thames ; the harvest is a 
fortnight earlier in Hampshire than in Yorkshire ; the fig 
and the grape ripen tolerably in the open air in the South of 
England, but will not in the North. The myrtle and arbutus 
will endure the winter of the Isle of Wight or Devonshire, 
but not even that of the centre of England. 

73. MOUNTAINS AND RIVER-BASINS. We refer tO 
the annexed sketch-map which is drawn to show the prin- 
cipal mountains and river-basins disentangled from the 
towns and counties which obscure those natural features in a 
general map. 

In this sketch we have first drawn a main line of waterpart- 
ing from the Cheviots to the North Foreland in Kent. This 
is represented by a line of heavy dots ; all the water on its 
eastern side falls into the German Ocean ; all the water on its 
western side into the English Channel, Atlantic, and Irish sea. 

Next we have by lines of light dots separated out four 
principal river-basins, viz. Humber, Wash, Thames, Severn. 

Lastly, we have by shading represented the principal 
masses of high ground. 

* Starting from the Cheviots we see the principal mountain 
range of England extending along the boundary between 



2« 



GEOGRAPHY. 



[sect. 



Yorkshire and Lancashire to the mountain called the Peak in 
Derbyshire. This range is called the Pennine chain, and 
has been described as the natural backbone of England : it 



SCALE or MIICS 




maintains generally an altitude of i,ooo — 2,000 feet. Its 
steeper slope is the western, the more gradual slope is eastern : 
it therefore results that it is nearer the Irish Sea than the 



IV.] ENGLAND 29 

German Ocean, and that there is a larger area of high land 
in Yorkshire than in Lancashire. 

South from the Peak, the main vvaterparting (followed by 
our line of heavy dots) drops rapidly : and in the centre of 
England in Warwickshire, whence the water flows partly into 
each of the four basins (Humber, Wash, Thames, Severn,) 
there is no distinct range of hills that the main waterparting 
coincides with. But f.irther south, where it separates the 
basin of the Thames from that of the Severn, we find the 
Cotswolds, which (like the Pennine chain) have their steep 
slope westwards, their more gradual slope eastwards. 

We might have continued our main waterparting line thence 
to the Land's End, but we have brought it round eastwards, 
so that it may coincide with the waterparting of the Thames. 
Here it follows (along the northern boundary of Hampshire) 
the highest line of hills in the south-east of England. They 
exceed 1,000 feet in height, and have their steeper slope 
towards the Thames, their more gradual slope towards the 
English Channel. 

* * The principal group of English mountains is in Cum- 
berland : here is Scaw-Fell, 3,200 feet high, the highest 
English mountain ; and many other mountains nearly as 
high are near it. 

Dartmoor in Devonshire, 1,000 — 2,000 feet, is the principal 
English plateau : Exmoor in Devonshire is of the same 
character. The west of England is generally the hilly side, 
and this is still more true if we include Wales, and say the 
west of the island. The eastern side is indeed an outlying 
part of the great plain of Northern Europe. In our sketch 
there are three portions of it slightly shaded, but they denote 
only hills of 500 — 900 feet high, not of a mountainous cha- 
racter : these are : 

(i) the Wolds in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. 

(2) the Hills near Dunstable in Bedfordshire. 

(3) the North Downs in Surrey and Kent ; the South 
Downs in Sussex. 

*** The lowest tract of considerable area in England 
is the basin of the Wash : the lower portion of this is hardly 



30 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

above sea-level and has been reclaimed partly from the sea 
within historic times. The low swampy area is known as 
the Fens : and in part of Lincolnshire as Holland, i.e. the 
hollow land. 

Other low shores in England are the coast of Lancashire, 
of Essex, and of Somersetshire ; and Romney Marsh in 
Kent. The Goodwin Sands off the coast of Kent are a dan- 
gerous shoal. Popular tradition says that certain estates 
here, belonging to Earl Godwine the father of King Harold, 
were overwhelmed by the ocean. 

■*■*** The area of the four great river basins may be, 
roughly : 

Humber, 9,500 square miles. 

Wash 6,000 „ 

Thames 6,000 „ 

Severn 8,000 „ 

74-. RIVERS, (i) The Thames, length 200 miles ; rises 
in the Cotswolds, flows by Reading, Windsor, London, 
Woolwich, to the sea beyond Gravesend. 

A principal tributary is the Cherwell, on which stands 
Oxford. 

(2) The Severn, length 178 miles ; rises on Plinlimmon in 
Wales, flows by Shrewsbury, Worcester, Gloucester, to the 
Bristol Channel. 

A principal tributary is the Avon, on which stand Warwick 
and Stratford-on-Avon. 

(3) The Oxise (of Yorkshire), length 130 miles, on which 
stands York. 

Principal tributaries are the Aire, on which stands Leeds ; 
the Don, on which stands Sheffield. 

(4) The Trent, length 145 miles, which flows by Notting- 
ham. It joins the Yorkshire Ouse, the two uniting form the 
estuary called the Humber. 

(5) The Ouse (called the Bedford Ouse or Great Ouse, to 
distinguish it from the Yorkshire Ouse), length 160 miles, 
tiows by Buckingham, Bedford, Huntingdon, Ely, to the Wash 
near Lynn Regis. 

Several rivers in England have the same name. Afon in 



IV.] ENGLAND. 31 

Keltic Welsh, {i.e. ancient British) means "river" ; several 
rivers are hence named Avon. Uisge in Keltic means 
"stream" ; several rivers are hence named Usk, Oiise, Exe. 

(6) The Nen, length 100 miles, flows by Northampton and 
Peterborough to the Wash. 

(7) The Wye, rises near Plinlimmon in Wales, flows by 
Hereford and Monmouth into the estuary of the Severn. 

(8) The Tyne, on which stands Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

(9) The Mersey ; Liverpool stands at the mouth of its 
estuary. 

(10) The Avon, known as the Bristol Avon because Bristol 
is near its mouth in the Bristol Channel. 

(11) The Avon, known as the Wiltshire (or Hampshire) 
Avon ; Salisbury stands on it. Its upper basin is known as 
Salisbury Plain, though it is less level than most of the 
eastern counties of England. 

(12) The Medway, which passes by Maidstone, Rochester, 
and Chatham, and reaches the estuary of the Thames at 
Sheerness. 

75. LAKES. The English Lakes are all close together 
among the mountains of Cumberland belonging to the class 
we have named Alpine Lakes. There are about twenty 
larger called Lakes or Meres, and many smaller called Tarns : 
and the portion of Cumberland and Westmoreland which 
contains them is known as the Lake District. The largest 
English lake is Windermere, about ten miles long ; other are 
Xnieswater, Derwent-i^ater, Buttermere, Wast Water. 

76. COMMUNICATIONS. There are in England more 
I than 2,000 miles of canals, nearly all made before the 
■ days of railways, still employed for goods traffic. The rail- 
ways form a complete network, and to learn them completely 
is as little expected as to learn all the Queen's highways. 
But it is now everybody's business to learn the chief main- 
line routes which radiate from London. We enumerate 
these accordingly. 

(i) London and North- Western. London Terminus, 
Euston Square. 
Route {a) London, Rugby, Stafford, Lancaster, Carlisle 
to Edinburgh, 



32 GEOGRAPPIY. [sect. 

Route {b) London, Rugby, Stafford, Chester, Holyhead 

for Dublin. 
Commands also Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester. 

(2) Midland. London Terminus, St. Pancras. 

London, Bedford, Leicester, Sheffield, Leeds, Carlisle to 
Edmburgh. 

Commands also Derby, Nottingham, Halifax and Man- 
chester. 

(3) Great Northern. London Terminus, King's Cross. 
London, Huntingdon, Peterborough, Doncaster, York, 

Durham, Newcastle, Berwick to Edinburgh. 
Commands also Lincoln, Hull, Sheffield and Manchester. 

(4) Great Western. London Terminus, Paddington. 
Route {a) London, Reading, Swindon, Bath, Bristol, 

Exeter, Plymouth, Penzance. 

Route {b) London, Reading, Oxford, Leamington, War- 
wick, Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Shrewsbury, 
Chester, Birkenhead. 

Commands also Gloucester, Worcester, Hereford and 
South Wales. 

(5) South Western. London Terminus, Waterloo. 
Route {a) London, Basingstoke, Salisbury, Exeter. 
Route {b) London, Basingstoke, Winchester, Southamp- 
ton, Dorchester, Weymouth. 

Commands also Guildford, Portsmouth and the Isle of 
Wight. 

(6) Loudon, Brighton, and South Coast. London Terminus, 

London Bridge or Victoria, 
London, Brighton, Chichester. 

Commands also Newhaven, one route from London to 
Paris. 

(7) South Eastern. London Terminus, London Bridge, 

Cannon Street, or Charing Cross. 
London, Tunbridge, Folkestone, Dover for Paris. 
Commands also Hastings. 

(8) London, Chatham, and Dover. London Terminus, 

Ludgate Hill or Victoria. 
London, Rochester, Chatham, Canterbury, Dover for 
Paris. 



IV.] ENGLAND. 33 

Commands also Ramsgate and Margate. 
(9) Great Eastern. London Terminus, Liverpool Street, 

or St. Pancras. 
Route {a) London, Cambridge, Ely, Norwich, Yarmouth. 
Route {b) London, Chelmsford, Colchester, Ipswich, Yar- 
mouth. 

77. RACES OF MEN. The Angles, Engles, Engle-isc 
or English, are a Teutonic race. They belong to the Lovv- 
Gennan branch of the Teutonic race ; named Low because 
they occupied mainly the low lands near the North Sea and 
Baltic : the Angles came to England from some districts near 
the south of Denmark. In England, especially in the East and 
North, the Angles were mixed largely with the Scandinavian 
branch of the Teutonic race, called Danes or Northmen, 
who were in race nearly the same as the Angles themselves : 
so that the purity of the English race was not really affected 
by this mixture ; the race remained entirely Teutonic and 
purely of the Northern type of Teutonic. 

The Kymric race of the Kelts, whom we call now Welsh, 
mixed with the English in Cornwall, the Welsh border and 
Cumberland. There is perhaps some Kymric admixture in 
other parts of England ; and it is not improbable that the 
Angles slightly mixed with Sclavonians before they left the 
south of Denmark. 

The modern Englishman is therefore in general a pure 
North-Teuton ; with a possible small mixture of Kymric or 
Sclavonic blood in certain cases. He cannot be distinguished 
by his appearance from a Southern Swede, a Courlander, or a 
Dane ; he is much less like a High-German of Central 
Germany. 

78. HISTORIC SKETCH. The Romans left England 
about A.D. 400, the inhabitants being then Ancient Britons, 
i.e. Kymri, a Keltic race. Soon after, England was invaded 
(chiefly on the eastern side) by the Angles, who gradually 
overran the country, and in the course of 150 years drove the 
Kymri into Wales, Cornwall, and Cumberland. Subsequently 
the Northmen from the Baltic, commonly called Danes, 
effected large settlements on the eastern coast, in the ninth 

D 



34 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

century chiefly ; but soon coalesced with the Angles into one 
people. In A.D. 1066 the Northmen of Normandy con- 
quered England : not many Northmen came over and still 
fewer French ; but the Normans brought with them an Old- 
French tongue. The principal result of the Norman con- 
quest was that it consolidated all England into one state : up 
to the very time of that conquest, though there was one King 
of the English, England remained really in three divisions. 
At the Norman conquest England attained, as a consolidated 
state, its present limits, and has not had them invaded or 
altered since. 

Wales was conquered in a.d. 1282. In A.D. 1603 the 
Scotch king succeeded to the throne of England. Since that 
date England and Scotland have been under one King ; but 
they were only united by the fusion of their Parliaments in 
A.D. 1707. Ireland was conquered in A.D. 1171 and was 
always governed by England ; though the Irish Parliament 
was not fused with the English until A.D. 1801. 

79. PRESENT CONSTITUTION of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland. A hereditary Limited Mon- 
archy. The supreme power resides in Parliament : which con- 
sists of the Queen ; the Upper House, of Peers ; and the 
Lower House, of Commons. The Upper House contains 
nearly 550 members: of whom nearly 500 are hereditary 
English peers ; the remainder Scotch and Irish representa- 
tive peers, with 24 bishops and 2 archbishops. The House 
of Commons contains 670 representatives, who are elected 
by the people, viz. 465 from England, 30 from Wales, 72 from 
Scotland, and 103 from Ireland. 

The House of Commons alone has the power of taxation 
and of appropriating to such purpose as to them seems good 
the proceeds of taxes. The Queen, as well as each House, 
must consent to any law in order that it may have effect. 

The executive government is, in fact, carried on by the 
Cabinet, which consists of twelve or eighteen ministers 
selected from the Houses of Lords and Commons by the 
Queen. They can only carry on the Queen's Government so 
long as a mnjority of each House will support thtm— i.e. will 



IV.] ENGLAND. 35 

vote the taxes they require, and pass all the important laws 
they desire. At the present time the House of Commons has 
a preponderating influence ; and the House of Lords never 
outvotes (on a serious question) a Cabinet which is supported 
by a decided majority in the House of Commons. 

The Queen has the power of selecting a new body of 
Ministers when the Cabinet is driven to resign ; and can also 
exercise great personal influence on important questions (as 
of peace and war, or of high ecclesiastical appointments) 
within the Cabinet. 

80. RELIGION. The established religion in England is the 
Church of England, which is Protestant Lutheran— z.^'. it has 
separated from the Roman Catholic Church much on the 
same principles that Martin Luther did. It is guessed (as no 
census of religion is taken in England) that in England 
about 14,000,000 of the inhabitants belong to the established 
Church ; 2,000,000 are Roman Catholics ; 9,000,000 are 
Dissenters, mainly Protestant Dissenters who dissent from 
the Church of England on matters of Church Government, 
but differ only on trifling points from the thirty-nine Articles 
of Religion of the English Church. 

81. LANGUAGE. The language of the Angles or Engles 
was the English language, now called Old-English ; also 
called in modern times by a mistake, Anglo-Saxon. In 
England the Angles adopted a very few Keltic words from 
the Kymri and rather more Latin words from the priests ; 
but up to A.D. 1066, the time of the Norman conquest, the 
language of the country, though varying in the lapse of 
hundreds of years, and varying much in dialect in different 
parts of the kingdom, was Old-English. 

The Normans, who conquered the country in AD. 1066, 
spoke a dialect of French, a Roniance or Romanic language. 
This became the language of the upper and polite classes 
and of the Courts of Justice in England for 200 years or 
thereabouts. When the English-talking and Romance-talk- 
ing populations finally fused completely into one people again 
the language of England (the Modern and present English) 
.reappeared in literature as in the main English but with a 

D 3 



36 GEOCxRAPHY. [sect. 

very large number of Romance words taken in. Also, during 
this transition period, the Old-English tongue lost a great 
number of its inflexions. The standard of modern EngHsh 
is fixed by the Bible ; but we now use in conversation, and 
still more in writing, a much larger proportion of Romance 
words than is used in the Bible. Romance is derived almost 
entirely from the Latin. The English thus differ from their 
Teutonic brethren in Europe by speaking a language which- 
is indeed radically Teutonic but which is largely mixed with 
Romanic. 

82. ANiMAiiS. The larger wild animals of England are 
either extinct or remain only under protection. Some have 
become extinct in historic times. 

(i) Pachyderms. The ivild boar abundant in ancient 
times had become scarce by the time of Charles I. The 
present domestic swine are descended from him. 

(2) Ruminants. The red deer was abundant till about 
200 years ago ; (2ueen Anne saw a herd of 400 between 
London and Portsmouth. It still exists wild but protected 
in Scotland and on Exmoor. In England it is seen often 
in parks. 

The roe is still found wild in several parts of Scotland, and 
northern England ; much more commonly preserved in parks. 
The fallow-deer is only found in parks, and it is doubted 
whether it ever was wild in Britain. 

The rain-deer continued abundant in the North of Scot- 
land as late as Henry II.'s reign. 

The aurochs or European bison was abundant in Britain 
when the Kymri came thither. 

The large white cattle, known as the C/ulli?igham catile, 
because preserved in Chillingham and one or two other parks, 
are perhaps the remains of a wild breed of British cattle : 
the woods close to London were full of this ox in King 
Stephen's day. 

(3) Rodents. The hare and rabbit are plentiful. 
The beaver appears to have become extinct in Enyland 
about the time of Richard I. ; it is now rarely found in 
Central Europe. 



IV.] ENGLAND. 37 

The black English rat is nearly extinct ; the broiun or 
Hanovcnat, which was introduced in A.D. 1730, now abounds. 
Several mice are too common ; as are several voles of which 
two well-known examples are the common 'wate7'-rat and the 
short-tailed Jield-uwiise. England possesses one dormouse 
and one squirrel. 

(4) Pinnipedes. The common seal occasionally visits the 
northern coasts of England : it is common in Scotland. 

(5) Carnivora. The wolf was exterminated in England by 
the reign of Edward I.; but subsisted in Scotland down 
nearly to 1 700. 

The fox is still truly wild in Northern England : in the 
south of England he is preserved. 

'1 he wild cat has become excessively rare in England, but 
is occasionally captured in the larger woods. It differs by 
its blunt tail from the domestic cat run wild. 

The otter is still wild in some streams, but it is severely 
hunted, as being a destroyer of fish ; and thus scarce. It is 
one of the largest animals still truly wild (not preserved) in 
England. 

Several weasels and martens are still common in England ; 
among these the polecat and stoat are well known. 

The badger is not uncommon in the larger woods, but 
being a nocturnal animal is little seen. Hence the existence 
of so large an animal in civilized England in a truly wild state. 

The brown <^mr anciently inhabited England, but had dis- 
appeared from the island before the Norman conquest. 

(6) Insectivora. The mole is common and well-known, 
at least by his mole-heg.ps. 

Several shrews^ commonly called shrew-mice, exist in 
England, the common shrew being very common. 

The hedgehog is found in hedgerows all over England. 

(7) Chiroptera. Seventeen kinds of bat have been cap- 
tured in England, but only two or three species are at all 
common. 

83. PLANTS. The valuable forest-trees native to England 
arc : 

(i) The yew and the Scotch Jir, All our other numerous 



38 GEOGRAPPIY. [sect. 

pines, as the larch, spruce, &c., have been introduced by man: 
though several of them lived in England in geological ages 
past, died out, and thus are really re-introduced. 

(2) The oakj beech, hazel, hornbeam, birch, and alder. 

(3) The abele, aspen, and black poplars the withy, white 
willow and osier. 

(4) The elm, perhaps not indigenous, and the wych-elm. 
. (5) The ash. 

(6) The maple. 

In English farming the crops are divided into white and 
green. 

White crops are wheat, barley and oats. 

Green crops are, {a) turnips, swedes, and mangold-wurzel ; 
{b) grasses, clover, vetches, saint-foin. In ordinary four- 
course or four-shift farming, in each year, one-fourth the 
farm is in grass, one-fourth in roots, one-fourth in wheat, 
one-fourth in barley and oats. 

Potatoes are largely grown, occupying in some cases one- 
sixth of the farm. Peas and beans, also considerably grown, 
are reckoned white crops. 

Besides these crops a great variety of plants is cultivated 
in England, chiefly by market-gardeners or on small farms : 
the above limited list comprises nearly the whole of what is 
cultivated on large farms. 

84. MINERALS. Coal is the most important mineral of 
England ; above ^{^40, 000,000 sterling worth being now raised 
annually. The principal coal-fields are (i) The Newcastle, 
lying in the counties of Durham and Northumberland ; (2) 
the Midland, in Lancashire, South- West Yorkshire, Derby, 
Stafford and Warwick ; (3) the much smaller field of 
Gloucestershire and Somerset. 

Iron is manufactured to the value of ;!^ 15, 000,000 annually. 
It is largely found in the neighbourhood of the coal which is 
necessary for smelting it : the largest quantity is raised in the 
North and W^est Ridings of Yorkshire. 

Tin, for 2000 years the most important English mineral, 
has been raised in Cornwall. Little tin can now be got at 
less than 2000 feet deep, so thai Cornish tin-mining is 



IV.] 



ENGLAND. 



39 



becoming unprofitable ; tin can be obtained in large quan- 
tities near the surface in Banca, one of the Malay islands, 
and is now imported. 

Copper is in the same predicament as tin. Owing to the 
d«pth of the Cornish mines, it has become very expensive to 
keep them pumped clear of water ; while copper is largely 
imported from Australia, New Zealand, Chili, &c. Hence 
Cornish copper-mining is rapidly decreasing. 

Lead is produced both in Cornwall and Cumberland : small 
quantities of silver are found mixed with it. 

Salt is largely raised in Cheshire, also in Durham, 

S5. COMMERCE, The mercantile navy of England is 
equal to that of all the countries of the world put together ; 
and her trade has trebled within a quarter of a century. 

The six principal articles of import are cotton, corn, sugar, 
wool, silk manufactures and tea. 

The six principal articles of export are cotton-fabrics, 
woollens, iron, linen manufactures, coals and machinery. 

86. DIVISIONS. England has been divided into 40 
counties from Old-English times without alteration ; except 
as to Rutland. These are enumerated in the following 
table :— 



County. 


Northern Countiks. 


Northumberland . , . 


Cumberland . , , , 


Westmoreland , , , 


Durham 


Yorkshire 


Lancashire . . , . 


East Anglia, 


Lincolnshire , , , , 


Rutland 


Northamptonshire . . 
Bedfordshire . , . . 


Huntingdonshire . . 


Cambridgeshire , . . 


Norfolk 


Suffolk 


Essex 


Hertfordshire . . , 





Area in 


County Town. 


Square 

Miles, 


Newcastle , . . . 


1.952 


Carlisle . . 








1,564 


Appleby 








758 


Durham 








973 


York . , , 








S.983 


Lancaster 


i,9<^5 


Lincoln 


2,776 


Oakham , 








150 


Northampton 








985 


Bedford . 








462 


Hvmtingdon 








361 


Cambridge 








819 


Norwxh , • 








2,116 


Ipswich 








1,481 


Chelmsford 








1,657 


Hertford . . . 




611 



Population. 



434,086 

250,647 

64,191 

867,258 

2,886,564 

3.454.441 



469,919 
21,434 
272-555 
149.473 
59,491 
185,594 
444.749 
356,893 
576,434 
203,069 



40 



GEOGRAPHY. 



[sect 



County. 



Thames. 
Middlesex . . . 
Buckinghamshire 
Oxfordshire . . 
Berkshire . . . 
Surrey .... 



South Coast. 

Kent 

Sussex .... 
Hampshire . . 
Wiltshire . . . 



South-West Angle. 
C rnwall . . 
Devon . . . 
Uorsetshire . 
Somerset . . 
Gloucestershire 



Welsh Border 
Monmouth . . 
Heiefordshire 
Shropshire . . . 
Cheshire . . . 



Central. 
Derbyshire . . 
Staflordshire . , 
N ottinghamshire 
Leicestershire 
Warwickshire 
Worcestershire . 



County Town. 



Brentford . . 

Buckingham . 

(Jxford . . . 

Readmg . . 

Guildford . . 

Maidstone . . 

Lewes . . . 
Winchester 

Salisbury . . 

Truro. . . . 

Exeter . . . 
Dorchester 

Taunton . . 

Gloucester . . 

Monmouth 

Hereford . . 

Shrewsbury . 

Chester , . . 

Derby . . . 

Staflford . . . 

Nottingham . 

Leice'iter , . 
Warwick . 
Worcester . 



Area in 
Square 
Miles. 



Population. 



282 
730 
739 
705 

748 



1,627 
1,458 
1,672 

Ik}52 



1.365 
2,589 
988 
1,636 
1,258 



576 
836 
,291 
,105 



1,029 

1,138 

822 

804 

881 

?38 



2,920,485 
176,323 

179,559 

218,363 

1,436,899 



977,706 
490,505 
593,470 
258,965 



330,686 
603,595 
191,028 
469,109 
572.433 



211,267 
121,062 
248,014 
644,037 



461,914 
981,013 
391,815 
321,258 

737,339 
380,283 



Note that the ** County Town" is not necessarily the 
largest town in the county ; but that at which the county 
business is done, i.e. where the Quarter Sessions is held, and 
the Assizes, if any. 

The divisions "Northern," "Thames," &c., are not real 
divisions for any purpose : they are separated off to aid the 
memory in learning so long a table. 

87. TOWNS. The English large towns have in numerous 
instances grown so as to include, either as suburbs or alto- 
gether, other villages or towns near them. It thus becomes 
difficult to say what the population should be held to be. 
London is a striking instance : the population of the City of 
London strictly so called, viz. that which lies within the old 



IV.] ENGLAND. 41 

walls, is perhaps 60,000 ; the population of London as 
defined by the Local Management Act of Parliament, is 
3,834,354, and of the London Police District about 4,770,000. 
In the same way, Manchester contains about 380,000 in- 
habitants, but Salford, now coalescent with it (as West- 
minster is coalescent with London), contains 200,000 more. 

We enumerate here the English towns containing a popu- 
lation of 100,000 and upwards. 

(i) lioudon, chiefly in Middlesex on the left bank of the 
Thames, but partly in Surrey on the right bank, contains in 
one continuous town at least 4,000,000 souls ; exceeds in size 
and far more in wealth all the cities of the world. 

(2) Liverpool, in Lancashire on the right bank of the 
Mersey contains 592,000 souls, and Birkenhead its suburb on 
the opposite bank 84,000 more ; is the chief cotton port. 

(3) Mancliester, in Lancashire, with Salford contains 
577,000 souls ; is the principal cotton-manufacturing city. 

(4) Birmingham, in Warwickshire, population 400,000; 
manufactures hardware and iron. 

(5) Leeds, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, population 
345,000 ; manufactures wool ; also silk, tools, &c. 

(6) Sheffield, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, population 
316,000 ; manufactures iron and steel. 

(7) Bristol, in Somersetshire and Gloucestershire, on the 
Avon, population 250,000, is the chief port in the West of Eng- 
land, and was till the last century the second port in England. 

(8) Greenwich, in Kent, population 185,000, is a kind of 
outer port to London. 

(9) Wolverhampton, in Staffordshire, population 160,000; 
manufactures hardware. 

(10) Bradford, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, popula- 
tion 224,000 ; manufactures cloth and worsted. 

(11) Stoke-upon-Trent, in Staffordshire, population 
130,000 ; manufac Lures earthenware. 

(12) Newcastle, in Northumberland, population 145,000; 
is a port of the most valuable English coal-field. 

(13) Hull, in the East Riding of Yorkshire, population 
197,000, is the port especially for the Baltic and Holland trade. 



42 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

(14) Wednesbnry, in Staffordshire, population 115,000; 
manufactures iron. 

(15) Portsmouth, in Hampshire, population 128,000 ; is a 
Government Dockyard and a chief harbour of the Royal Navy. 

(16) Oldham, in Lancashire, population 111,000; manu- 
factures cotton. 

(17) Sunderland, in Durham, population 116,000; is a 
port of the most valuable English coal-field. 

(18) Brighton, in Sussex, population 107,000 ; is the sea- 
side residence most accessible from London, and forms as it 
were the seaside suburb of London. 

Blackburn, in Lancashire, population 117,000; and 

Bolton, in Lancashire, population 105,000; both manu- 
facture cotton. 

Croydon, in Surrey, population 100,000, a residential 
suburb of London. 

Leicester, in Leicestershire, population 143,000; woollen 
and other manufactures. 

Derby, in Derbyshire, population 100,000 ; silk manufacture. 

Nottingham, in Nottinghamshire, population 235,000 ; 
makes lace and hosiery. 

It should be noticed that the population of England is 
mainly collected round certain centres ; and the great in- 
crease of population in modern times takes place at those 
centres, while in the strictly agricultural districts the popu- 
lation is not dense, and increases httle. The principal 
centres of population are : 

(a) London. 

{d) The manufacturing districts of Lancashire and the 
West Riding. 

(r) The hardware and pottery districts of Warwickshire 
and Staffordshire. 

88. DETAIL OF THE COUNTIES. (l) Northumberland 
extending from the Cheviot Hills to the sea. A large part 
of the western side of the county is upland, more than 1000 
feet above the sea. Corn is not grown at this elevation, and 
such upland tracts, called locally The Fells, are only sheep- 
walks. The Tyne drains the southern portion of the county. 



IV.] ENGLAND. 43 

• 

where lie the great coal-fields producing the first-class coal 
known as Newcastle coal. 

The chief town is Newcastle-on-Tyne (population 145,000); 
and the next largest place is Tynemouth (including North 
Shields), which stands at the mouth of the Tyne and contains 
44,000 people. 

The northern corner of Northumberland with Holy Island 
(called also Lindisfarne) forms part of the county of Durham. 

l>erwick-on-Tweed (population 14,000) was conquered from 
Scotland before the union of Scotland with England; and 
still is reckoned as neither in England nor Scotland, but as 
a separate border town. 

(2) Cumberland. The knot of English mountains, with 
the Fells adjoining them, occupies most of the southern part 
of the county ; while the eastern boundary towards North- 
umberland and Durham is also Fell. The vale of the Eden 
is fertile, but the whole county lying on the west side of the 
backbone of England is moist for corn. 

The city of Carlisle on the Eden is the chief town and 
also the county town, population 36,000 ; and the next largest 
town is Whitehaven (population 19,000), a port, whence among 
other things slates are exported. 

(3) Westmoreland, a small county of the same character 
as Cumberland ; that is, mostly mountain and Fell, on which 
sheep pasture. The upper part of the valley of the Eden is 
the agricultural and best-peopled part of the county. Here 
the county town Appleby contains 2,500 people. Kendal, 
population 13,000, is the largest town. 

(4) Durham, formerly a palatinate of which the Bishop of 
Durham was Count, i? situated like Northumberland, that is 
extends eastwards from the backbone of England to the sea. 
The western portion is Fell, the eastern contains fields of 
excellent coal ; thus also resembling Northumberland. 

The largest town is Sunderland, population 116,000, a coal 
port near the mouth of the Wear. Gateshead, papulation 
66,000, is but a suburb of Newcastle across the Tyne : and 
South ShieMs is a coal port, population 57,000, facing North 
Shields and Tynemouth on the opposite bank of the Tyne. 



44 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Stockton, population 41,000, is the coal port at the mouth of 
the Tees which separates Durham from Yorkshire. Darling- 
ton also has a population of 37,000. Hartlepool, population 
17,000, is another coal port. 

Smaller than all these is the city of Durham (population 
15,000) with a grand Cathedral, and a University. 

(5) Yorkshire, extends from the Pennine range to the sea: 
the western side next the Pennine watershed is largely Fell. 
On the eastern side, not far from the sea are elevated tracts, 
the Wolds and the Moors ; in the centre and south-centre 
are the great vale of York and other wide level agricultural 
tracts. 

This large country is divided into three Ridings^ each as 
large as an average English county. 

{a) The North Riding contains the whole northern part 
ol the county from the backbone of England to the sea, and 
is an agricultural district, the eastern and western hilly por- 
tions being mainly pasture, the central more level portion a 
corn country. The North Riding contains few large towns ; 
the largest are Middlesborough (population 55,000), an iron 
manufacturing place ; and Scarborough (population 30,000), 
the chief sea-side watering-place of the North of England. 

{b) The East Riding: contains very much less than one- 
third of the whole county, viz. the south-eastern part between 
the North Riding and the estuary of the Humber. This 
riding is also mainly agricultural, with some ironworks in its 
northern part. It contains only one large town, Hull on the 
Humber, population 200,000, a first-class port. 

York, the county town, and seat of the Archbishop, the 
ancient capital of Northern England, on the Ouse, is not 
included in any of the Ridings ; population 50,000. 

if) The West Riding includes the whole of the county 
south-west from the Ouse. A large portion of it westward 
abutting on the Pennine range and the Peak mountains is 
Fell and sheep-walk. But the remainder is one of the most 
densely populous manufacturing centres of English industry, 
and of quite a different character from the rest of the county, 
possessing numerous towns of the first magnitude. 



IV.] ENGLAND. 45 

Leeds (population 345,000) on the Aire, manufactures 
wool, silk, linen, machinery. 

Sheffield (population 316,000) on the Don, manufactures 
iron and steel. 

Bradford (population 224,000), manufactures wool and 
worsted. 

Huddersfield (population 82,000), manufactures wool. 

Halifax (population 73,000), manufactures wool. 

Wakefield (population 30,000), manufactures wool and is 
also a market town. 

Next after these come numerous so-called " manufacturing 
villages," places little known by name out of the West 
Riding, but containing populations of 20,000 and upwards, 
indeed more souls thaa some of the most celebrated towns 
in England. 

Ripon is noted as the seat of a bishop. 

(6) Lancashire extends from the Pennine range to the 
■sea : but as the steeper face of this range faces west, only a 
small portion of the east side of Lancashire is Fell ; especl- 
;ally as the Pennine waterparting itself lies mainly within 
Yorkshire. The southern (larger) portion of Lancashire, 
south of the estuary of the Ribble, is the chief manufacturing 
district of England, especially of cotton in every shape. It 
is densely populous with many large towns. 

Liverpool (population 592,000) on the Mersey, is the great 
'Cotton port. 

Manchester, population (including Salford) 577,000, is tlie 
Ilargest cotton manufacturing town. There follow other 
imanufacturing (chiefly cotton- manufacturing) towns: 

Preston, Bolton, Oldham, Blackburn, containing each about 
loOjOco inhabitants : St. Helens, Rochdale, Burnley, Wigan, 
Bury, containing each about 60,000 inhabitants ; Warrington 
and Ashton, containing each over 40,000 inhabitants. 

Then follow a number of the large manufacturing villages. 

The county town, Lancaster, contains 17,000 inhabitants 
•only. 

The northern part of Lancashire, separated from the rest 
by the sea, is called the Furness district and produces iron. 



46 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Manchester has been made the see of a very modern 
bishopric, and of the new Victoria University (1880). 

These six northern counties form the ecclesiastical pro- 
vince of the Archbishop of York. The whole of the remain- 
ing thirty-four counties form the 'province of the Archbishop 
of Canterbury. 

(7) Iiincolnshire, the second English county in size, is 
agricultural. The northern half of the county comprises 
some elevated land, especially the Lincolnshire Wolds ; the 
south is generally flat, and the portion next the Wash is 
Fen, and is called Holland. 

The largest town is Lincoln (population 37,000), the see 
of a bishop and the county town ; on an eminence by the 
Witham. Great Grimbsy, the port on the southern side of 
the Humber estuary, conta"ns 28,000 people. 

(8) Rutland (not a shire) is the smallest county in England. 
It is flat with moderate undulations, and agricultural. No 
town in it contains so many as 3,000 inhabitants. Oakham 
is reckoned the county town. 

(9) Northamptonshire, an agricultural county, consists 
largely of the valley of the Nen : the northern part of the 
county is Fen. The only large town is Northampton, 
population 56,000, on the Nen, where boots are manufactured 
on a large scale. Peterborough, also on the Nen, is the seat 
of a bishop. 

(10) Bedfordshire, an agricultural county. The southern 
portion is undulated and hilly ; the northern flat and was 
anciently Fen, but has been drained. The chief town 
is Bedford on the Ouse, population 24,00c. Luton and 
Dunstable manufacture straw plait. 

(11) Huntingdonshire, an agricultural county, on the 
whole very flat and in many parts originally Fen. The 
largest town is Huntingdon on the Ouse, population 4,000, 
or including the suburb of Godmanchcster less than 7,00c. 

(12) Cambridgeshire, an agricultural county, nearly all 
very flat. The southern half is the valley of the Cam, the 
northern part is the Isle of Ely, thorough Fen. The chief 
town, Cambridge, contains 35,000 inhabitants, and is one 



iv.J ENGLAND. 47 

of the five English Universities. Ely is the see of a 
bishop. 

(13) Norfolk, an agricultural county, flat and Nvith in 
genera] a light soil. The chief town is Norwich, population 
88,000, the see of a bishop : it is in a manner the capital 
of the Eastern Counties, owing its large population to some 
manufactures of articles of dress. Yarmouth, at the mouth 
of the Yare, called Great Yarmouth to distinguish it from 
Yarmouth in the Isle of Wight, is the principal seaside 
watering-place of the Eastern Counties, with a population of 
46,000 : it possesses a roadstead where ships can hold on 
sheltered by some banks, and also cures herrings. Lynn, at 
the mouth of the Ouse, is the principal port on the Wash. 

(14) Suffolk, a county that grows wheat largely, flat, with 
much heavier soil than Norfolk. Ipswich, at the head of 
the estuary of the Orwell, population 50,000, is the county 
town. Bury St. Edmunds is an ancient market-town ; 
Lowestoft a modern seaside M'atering-place. 

(15) Essex, a flat county, with much heavy land that 
grows corn largely. The chief town is Colchester, population 
28,000. The county town is Chehnsford, population 10,000. 
The Essex marshes are next the sea : the coast of Essex 
and of the east of England generally from Lincoln to Kent is 
flat, not a bold coast with cliffs as in the south-west of 
England. 

(16) Hertfordshire, a corn-growing county, more hilly than 
the last eight or nine counties, and forming as it were a 
transition from East Anglia to the great Thames valley. 
The county town is Hertford, population 7,000. The largest 
town is the ancient city of St. Albans, population 
11,000, which has (in A.D. 1^76) been made the see of a 
bishop. 

(17) Middlesex, the metropohtan county, is bounded by 
the Thames on its southern side, which is flat ; but rises 
pretty rapidly from the Thames to Highgate, the northern 
suburb of London. London is a vast manufacturing town 
as well as a port. It has a bishop and a University. 
Markel-gardcning is largely carried on, corn being not 



48 GEOGRAPHY. [sect, 

much grown, except in the northern half. The county town, 
Brentford on the Thames, contains 12,000 inhabitants. 

(18) Buckinghamshire, an agricultural county, but more 
famed for pasture than corn. The county town, Buckingham 
on the Ouse, contains 4,000 souls only ; the largest town in the 
county, Aylesbury, contains 7,000, is celebrated for its ducks. 

(19) Oxfordshire, an agricultural county, but largely pas- 
ture. The county town and largest town is Oxford on the 
Cherwell, population 36,000, the see of a bishop, and cele- 
brated as one of the five English Universities. 

(20) Berkshire, a fertile agricultural county, the northern 
part occupying the vale of the Thames, the sou hern that of 
the Kennet. The county town, Reading on the Thames, 
contains 48,000 inhabitants and some manufactures. The 
next largest town is Windsor on the Thames, celebrated as 
the chief royal residence of the Queen of England. 

(21) Surrey is traversed from east to west across its centre 
by the North Downs. A great de:il of land in the neigh- 
bourhood of these is poor or heathy. The county south of 
these is very fertile; and also is rich and populous in the 
north along the Thames. 

Omitting South London and is suburbs, the largest town 
in Surrey is Croydon, with 100,000 inhabitants ; but this owes 
its population to being a residential suburb of the metropolis. 
The county town is Guildford, population 11,000, celebrated 
for its assizes, where a large number of London cases are 
tried at Nisi Prius. 

(22) Kent, called the Garden of England, is on a line with 
Surrey. The North Downs similarly cross it from east to 
Avest through the middle, but are less heathy than in Surrey. 
The north of Kent slopes from these to the estuary of the 
Thames : the southern part of Kent lies on the Weald, one 
of the most fertile soils in England. Kent is celebrated 
for hops, apples, nuts and cherries. It contains numerous 
important towns. 

Canterbury, the see of the Archbishop the Primate of 
En-land, is rec'oned the capital of Kent, contains 21,000 
inhabitants. 



IV.] ENGLAND. 49 

Maidstone, on the Medway, the county town, contains 
29,623 inhabitants. 

Greenwich, on the Thames, population 185,000, is really 
part of the port of London. 

Chatham, Rochester and Strood, at the head of the estuary 
of the Medway, may be reckoned as one town, population 
53,297. Rochester is a bishop's see. Chatham with Sheer- 
ness forms one of the chief military and naval stations of 
the empire. 

Dover, population 30,270, is the principal harbour for 
communication between London and Paris. 

Margate and Ramsgate are seaside watering-places in the 
Isle of Thanet, dear to the people of London, who can easily 
reach them by boat or rail. 

(23) Sussex, a fine agricultural county, comprising a con- 
siderable area of the Weald in its northern part ; the South 
Downs run near the coast along its southern part. 

The county town is Lewes, population 11,000. The 
largest town is Brighton, population 107,000, the chief sea- 
side watering-place of London. Hastings, another seaside 
watering-place, contains 52,000 people. 

Chichester is the see of a bishop. 

(24) Hampshire, of which the legal title is the County of 
Southampton, is an agric'taral county, not on the whole 
fertile. The northern part is high land, mostly light chalk~; 
while in the south large tracts about the New Forest are 
heathy. 

The largest town is Portsmouth, population 128,000 (in- 
cluding Portsea, Southsea and Gosport), a chief dockyard 
and naval station, standing at the mouth of Portsmouth 
Harbour. 

Southampton, population 64,000, at the head of the 
estuary called Southampton Water, is one of the principal 
English ports for passenger steamers to Madeira, Brazil, 
Jamaica, &c. 

Winchester, population 18,000, is the county town, the 
see of a bishop, and was anciently the capital of England. 

In the Isle of Wight are numerous seaside residences 



50 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

(Ryde, Cowes, Ventnor, &c.), now accessible from London 
in a few hours. 

(25) Wiltshire, an inland agricultural county, varies much 
in character, as it contains the head-waters of three systems 
of drainage. The south-east of the county, the upper valley 
of the Avon of Christchurch, is chalky and includes Salis- 
bury Plain, generally light land. The west of the county is 
much richer, the north-west containing the upper valley of 
the Avon of Bristol. The north-east contains the head- 
waters of the Kennet and part of the Thames. The capital 
is Salisbury, population 15,000, the see of a bishop. The 
assizes also are held here, but Wilton is held for some pur- 
poses the county town, though its population is only about 
2,000. 

(26) Cornwall is the chief mining county for tin and 
copper. It is hilly and the soil rocky ; it has the warmest 
climate in spring of any county in England, and produces 
early vegetables for the London market. The assize town 
is Bodmin, with barely 5,000 inhabitants ; Launceston has 
sometimes been reckoned the county town. Truro, the 
largest town, has but 11,000 inhabitants, and has been lately 
made the see of a bishop. Falmouth is one of the noblest 
harbours in England, but seems too far from the great 
centres of industry to become a large port. 

(27) Devonshire is rather a grazing and orchard than a 
corn-growing county ; and a considerable portion of its area 
is high moor (Dartmoor and Exmoor) with a veiy small 
population. 

The county town is Exeter, near the mouth of the Exe, 
population 37,000. It is the see of a bishop, and has been 
reckoned the capital of the south-west of England. 

The largest town is Plymouth, containing with Devonport 
over 1 20,000 inhabitants : one of the chief dockyards, with 
a fine harbour. 

Torquay, population 24,000, is celebrated as one of the 
wannest seaside watering-places in England. 

(28) Dorsetshire is an agricultural hilly county, the land 
generally light. 



IV.] ENGLAND. 51 

The county town, Dorchester, contains 8,000 souls. The 
largest town is Weymouth, population 13,000, a seaside 
watering-place, with a very fine harbour, called Portland 
Harbour, which is a harbour of refuge from storm, very little 
of a trading port. 

(29) Somersetsbire is especially a grazing county and 
with extensive flats which were once marshes. High hills 
rise somewhat suddenly from these plains both in the ex- 
treme west of the county in Exmoor, and in the north-east 
as the Mendips, 

The assize town is Taunton, population 17,000. Wells is 
the see of a bishop. The largest town is Bath, population 
52,000, the chief inland watering-place of England and the 
most ancient. 

(30) Gloucestershire contains the rich valley of the 
Severn in its centre, the long range of the Cotswold hills 
east of it, and the elevated Forest of Dean on the west. In 
the Forest of Dean and also in the south of the county are 
coal-fields. 

The county town is Gloucester, on the Severn, population 
36,000 ; here is one cathedral of the bishop, another is at 
Bristol. The largest town is Bristol, on the Avon, population 
250,000 ; the principal port on the Bristol Channel, and also a 
manufacturing town. Cheltenham, an inland watering-place 
at the foot of the Cotswolds, contains 50,000 inhabitants. 

(31) Monmoutbishire is a hilly grazing county, reckoned 
part of Wales till the reign of Henry VIII. Monmouth, on 
the Wye, is the assize town, population 6,000. The largest 
town is Newport, a port for minerals, population 35,000. 

(32) Herefordshire is the flattest and richest of the west- 
ern counties. The Wye quits the mountains of Wales to 
meander across Herefordshire, and as it approaches Mon- 
mouthshire meets with another hilly tract. Herefordshire is 
celebrated for hops, cider-apples, pears for perry, and grows 
much more wheat than any neighbouring county. The chief 
town, Hereford, on the Wye, population 20,000, the see of a 
bishop, is the only large town. 

(33) Shropshire, a hilly county, is agricultural, largely 

E 2 



52 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

pasture ; traversed by the Severn, which passes between the 
Wrekin and Wenlock Edge, both which hills approach a 
mountainous character. The county town is Shrewsbury, 
population 26,000, on the Severn. Wenlock is the next 
largest place, with 18,000 inhabitants. 

(34) Cheshirs is a grazing county, and in the portions of 
it bordering on Lancashire and Staffordshire, manufacturing. 
The salt-mines near Northwich supply the whole kingdom. 
Cheshire is generally flat or undulating. 

The county town is Chester, on the Dee, population 37,000, 
a bishop's see. The largest town is Stockport, a cotton 
manufacturing town, population 6S,ooo. Birkenhead, which 
is a suburb of Liverpool across the Mersey estuary and part 
of its port, contains 84,000 people. Macclesfield, population 
37,000, manufactures silk. 

(35) Derbyshire is hilly in the north, where the Pennine 
range ends and sinks suddenly in the Peak district. (The 
Peak is not a single conical mountain, as the name suggests.) 
The south of Derbyshire is undulating, and part of the 
central grazing country of England ; but Derbyshire is also 
both a mineral and a manufacturing county on a moderate 
scale. The chief town and county town is Derby, popu- 
lation 100,000; the next largest town, Glossop, has 19,000 
inhabitants. 

(36) Staffordshire is known as the head-quarters of the 
Potteries ; it also possesses an iron and coal tract in the 
south ; and is, next to Lancashire and Yorkshire, one of 
the chief manufacturing centres. 

Stoke-upon-Trent is the capital of the Pottery district, 
population 19,000 in the parish, but over 64,000 in the 
limits of the parliamentary borough. 

Wolverhampton contains 160,000 inhabitants, and is the 
chief town of the coal and iron district ; closely adjoining it 
are West Bromwich, 56,000 inhabitants, Walsall, 58,000, and 
numerous others making up a total population of 350,000 
within a very moderate distance of. Wolverhampton. Bir- 
mingham, just beyond the border of Staffordshire, is really 
a continuation of the Wolverhampton district. 



IV.] ENGLAND. S3 

Stafford, the county town, contains 20,000 inhabitants. 
Lichfield is the sec cf a bishop. 

(37) Nottinghamshire, a level agricultural county tra- 
versed by the Trent. The chief town, Nottingham, on the 
Trent, population 235,000, has extensive manufactures, chiefly 
of hosiery. The Forest of Sherwood was anciently on the 
western border of Nottingham. Southwell is a bishop's see. 

(38) Leicestershire, an agricultural, chiefly pasturage, 
county, contains some rocky ground in the ancient Charn- 
wood Forest. The chief town, Leicester, population 143,000, 
manufactures hosiery. The next largest town, Loughborough, 
has 12,000 inhabitants, and manufactures hosiery. 

(39) Warwickshire, the central county of England, is 
undulating and pasture land ; with a coal and iron tract in 
the north. 

Birmingham, population 400,000, is the capital of this 
central England iron and coal tract. Coventry, now manu- 
facturing bicycles, contains 47,000 people. Warwick, the 
county town, on the Avon, contains 12,000 inhabitants ; 
close adjoining it is Leamington, the central England 
watering-place, population 23,000. Stratford-on-Avon is 
south of the ancient Forest of Arden : which like many 
other ancient English forests has disappeared as a forest. 

(40) "Worcestershire lies in the central basin of the Severn 
the Malvern Hills forming its western border, and is on the 
whole a grazing county. In the north it abuts on the 
Wolverhampton coal and iron district. Here is the largest 
town, Dudley, population 46,000. 

The county town, Worcester, on the Severn, population 
40,000, is the see of a bishop, and manufactures crockery. 
Kidderminster on the Stour, population 24,000, manufactures 
carpets. 



54 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 



§ ENGLAND (Abstract). 

SEAS. Irish, North. Channels. Bristol, English. 

BAYS. Morecambe, Bridgewater, Bridlington. 

ESTUARIES. Solway, Mersey, Dee, Severn, Thames? 
Medway, Wash, Humber, Plymouth Sound, Southampton 
Water, Portsmouth Harbour. 

STRAITS. Dover, Solent. 

CAPES. Land's End, Lizard, Portland Bill, Beachy Head, 
North Foreland, Flamboro' Head. 

ISLANDS. Wight, Scilly, Thanet, Sheppey, Lundy. 

RIVERS. Yorkshire Ouse, Trent, Bedford Ouse, Nen, 
Thames, Severn, Wye, Mersey. 

LAKES. Windermere, Derwentwater, Ullswater. 

PENINSULAS. Portland, Purbeck. 

TOWNS (with their populations). London, 4,000^000; 
Liverpool, 590,000 ; Manchester, 580,000 ; Birmingham, 
400,000; Leeds, 345,000; Sheffield, 316,000; Bristol, 
250,000; Wolverhampton, 160,000. 



§ § WALES. 

89. EXTENT. Wales is one-seventh the size of England, 
but only contains one-twentieth the population. It is very 
mountainous, and moister than England, so that it is a 
country for pasture rather than for com. It possesses coal 
and iron in the south, where there is a large population ; 
and has valuable slate quarries in the north. 

90. BOUNDARIES. Wales is bounded on the North by 
the Irish Sea ; on the West by St. George's Channel ; on the 
South by the Bristol Channel. The boundary from England 
on the East is an arbitrary line which coincides roughly with 
the change from the mountains to the plains. 

91. ISLANDS. The considerable island of Anglesey con- 
stitutes a whole county of Wales. It is separated from the 



IV.] WALES. 55 

mainland by the Menai Straits, which, though a branch of the 
sea, are so narrow that they are bridged by two bridges— a 
suspension bridge for the high road, and a tubular iron 
bridge for the railway. 

92. BAYS. The coast of Wales is much broken by inlets, 
estuaries, bays, and harbours : such are the Estuary of the 
Dee, the harbour at Holyhead whence the passenger-steamers 
cross to Dublin, Carnarvo7i Bay, Cardigaft Bay, Milford 
Haven esteemed one of the finest harbours in the whole 
world, Caermarthen Bay, and Sivajtsea Bay. 

93. MOUNTAINS. Wales is so entirely of a mountainous 
character that it is only in the valleys near the sea in the 
southern counties that any considerable breadth of land is 
fit for the plough. 

The highest mountain in Wales is Snowdon, altitude 
3,590 feet — higher than any mountain in England but sur- 
passed in height by several Scotch mountains. A great 
many other mountains in Wales approach Snowdon in 
height, among which Cader Idi'is and Plitilimmon are two 
of the highest and best known. 

94. RIV£RS. The upper course of both the Seve7'?i and 
Wye is in the Welsh mountains. Nearly the whole course 
of the Dee is in Wales. 

LAKES. Wales, for so mountainous a country, is rather 
deficient in lakes. Bala Lake, through which flows the Dee, 
is the largest. 

95. COMMUNICATIONS. South Wales is provided with 
a close network of railways, and even the northern thinly 
inhabited mountainous portion has been penetrated by 
railways. The mail line from London to Holyhead for 
Dublin passes from Chester close along the north coast. 
Aberystwyth, Barmouth and Central Wales have their road 
to London by way of Crewe and the North-Western, or by 
Shrewsbury and the Great Western. The large railway 
traffic from South Wales can now pass by the new Severn 
Tunnel (4^ miles long) to Bristol, and so by the Great 
Western to London ; or by Hereford this traffic can get on 
the North-Western and other lines. 



S6 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

96. RACE OF MEN. The Welsh are a race of Kelts 
called Ky??iri ; known best to Englishmen as the Ancient 
Britons. 

97. HISTORIC SKETCH. The Ancient Britons occupied 
the whole of Britain, or nearly so, when the Romans arrived 
B.C. 55. After the Romans left, in about A.D. 400, the in- 
vasion of the island by the English took place, and in the 
course of a century and a half the principal remnant of the 
Kymri was driven into Wales. The Kymric kingdom of 
North Wales was finally conquered and added to England 
by Edward I., in A.D. 1284. 

98. RElflGlON. The Church of England is by Ikw estab- 
lished also in Wales ; but the Protestant Dissenters of 
various denominations are numerous in Wales. 

99. LANGUAGE. The Welsh language is a Keltic tongue, 
allied to the Gaelic (also a Keltic tongue), but considerably 
remote from the English, and quite unintelligible to an 
Englishman. This language is still known to a large pro- 
portion of the inhabitants of Wales ; but nearly the whole 
rising population of Wales understand English. About 
300,000 people speak Welsh only. 

100. MINERALS. No separate description is given of 
the Animals and Plants of Wales, as they are with small 
variation those of England. The minerals are of great 
variety and value. 

In Glamorganshire coal and iron exist in vast quantity : 
the coal-field extends into Caermarthen. Huge smelting 
works are carried on here of ore brought not merely from 
Cornwall but from Spain, and even New Zealand. Coal 
and iron also exist in Denbigh. 

Copper has been produced in enormous quantity in 
Anglesey. 

The finest slates are quarried in Carnarvon and Cardigan. 

Lead has been obtained in considerable quantity in several 
Welsh counties ; and gold and silver in small quantity. 

101. DIVISIONS. Wales is divided into North and 
South Wales ; and into twelve Counties, as in the annexed 
table. 



IV.] 



WALES. 



57 




102. TOWNS. (l) Merthjrr Tydvil, population 90,000, is 
the centre of the Glamorgan mining district. 

(2) Swansea, population 63,000, on Swansea Bay, in 
Glamorganshire, is the chief centre for smelting works. 

(3) Cardiff, population 100,000, is the port of Merthyr 
Tydvil. 

(4) Aberdare, population 40,000, is near Merthyr Tydvil, 
a mining place. 

(5) Pembroke, population 14,000, a royal dockyard, is on 
an arm of Milford Haven. 

(6) Carnarvon, population 29,000, the largest town of 
North Wales, is on the Menai Straits. 



WALES (Abstract). 



Bays. Carnarvon, Cardigan, Caermarthen, Swansea, 
Holyhead Harbour, Milford Haven. 
Straits. Menai. 
Island. Anglesea. 

Mountains. Snowdon, Plinlimmon, Brecknock Beacon. 
Rivers. Severn, Wye, Dee. 
Lakes. Bala, Llanberis. 



58 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Towns (with their populations). Merthyr Tydvil, 90,000 ; 
Swansea, 63,000 ; Cardiff, 100,000 ; Pembroke, 14,000 ; Car- 
narvon, 29,000. 

§§§. -SCOTLAND. 

103. EXTENT. Scotland, omitting its islands, is about 
half the area of England ; but its population is only about 
as large as that of London ; it is farther north than England, 
and more mountainous and rocky, and hence is less popu- 
lous in proportion to its area. 

104. BOUNDARIES. Scotland is bounded on the East 
by the North Sea ; on the North and North-west by the 
Atlantic Ocean ; on the South-west by the Irish (or North 
Irish) Channel ; on the South it is separated from England 
by a line that follows mainly the course of the Cheviots and 
the Tweed. 

105. ATTACHED ISLANDS. To the north are the Shet- 
land Isles and the Orkney Isles; the largest of the Western 
Isles is Lewis ; nearer the coast than the Western Isles are 
an inner group, of which Skye is the largest : off the mouth 
of the Clyde the islands of Biite and Arran make up a 
Scotch county. 

106. CAPES. The northernmost point of Scotland is 
John 0' Groafs House: on the south-west are two head- 
lands, the Mull of Cantire and the Mtill of Galloway. 

107. ESTUARIES. The inlets of the sea, called in Scot- 
land Firths, run deep into the land, providing admirable 
harbours. 

On the Firth of Fo7'th is Leith, the port of Edinburgh. 
On the Firth of Clyde is Greenock, the port of Glasgow. 
On the Firth of Tay is Dundee. 
On the Moray Firth stand Inverness and Cromarty. 
Solway Firth separates the south-west of Scotland from 
Cumberland. 

108. CLIMATE. The Scotch climate resembles that of 
England but is colder, and the farther north the more cold. 
The harvest is generally twenty days later than about 
London. At Inverness, frosts occur an hour before sunrise 



jiv.] SCOTLAND. 59 

iin the middle of summer. The west side of Scotland is 
hardly colder than that of England in winter, but is less 
warm in summer, being wet and windy. Scotland produces 
excellent gooseberries, but peaches and nectarines can hardly 
ripen in the open. 

109. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS. Suppose a line 
drawn from Greenock to Aberdeen ; Scotland is thus divided 
in two parts, the northern of which is called the Highlands, 
•the southern the Lowlands. 

The Highlands are very mountainous, and being also 
moist, little wheat is grown. The country is pasture and 
deer-forest, /. i:. mainly moor ; and the population exceedingly 
small ; hardly 350,000 souls. 

The Loivlands are conveniently again divided into the 
Central Plain- and the Southern Uplands. 

The Central Plain about Glasgow and Edinburgh, and 
extending also from Edinburgh to Perth, is much of it rich 
land, of the first quality, and is very skilfully farmed. Also 
coal and iron are found between the Firths of Clyde and 
Forth, and a large manufacturing industry has been deve- 
loped. This central plain may therefore be regarded as 
altogether similar to the best parts of England, the climate 
only being a little inferior. 

The Southern Uplands are like the "Fell" counties of 
England— Cumberland, Northumberland, and the North 
Riding ; they largely pasture sheep, and are of a hilly 
and rocky character, the population not being very 
dense. 

One of the most remarkable features of Scotland is the 
deep narrow valley that cuts completely through the High- 
lands from sea to sea, from the Moray Firth to Loch Linnhe. 
By the aid of some cuttings and lochs, the Caledonian Canal 
has been made through this chasm ; by this canal steam- 
Doats and sea-going vessels can cross through the centre of 
:he Highlands from sea to sea; passing close under Ben 
Nevis, the highest mountain in Britain, which rises 4,368 
"eet above sea-level. 
The most celebrated range of mountains in Scotland are 



6o GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

the Grampians, the highest point of which is Ben Macdhuij 
altitude 4,300 feet, near Braemar. 

110. RIVERS. The rivers of Scotland are short and swift, 
picturesque, but not of commercial value, except near their 
Firths. 

(i) The Tay^ no miles in length ; on it stands Perth. 

(2) The Forthj 100 miles in length ; on it stands Stirling; 
across its Firth is a gigantic bridge. 

(3) The Clyde, 98 miles in length ; Glasgow is near its 
mouth. 

(4) The Tweed, 96 miles in length, has Berwick at its 
mouth. 

(5) The Dee, 90 miles in length, has Aberdeen at its 
mouth. 

111. iiAKES. Scotland abounds in lakes, of the Alpine 
character ; that is, narrow clear sheets of water with moun- 
tains on each side. The Scotch word for lake is Loch ; but 
the Scotch also call an inlet of the sea a Loch, as for 
instance the salt-water Loch Fine, on which stands In- 
verary, which an English sailor would call a Creek. 

Celebrated among Scotch Lakes are Lomond, the largest 
and one of the most beautiful in Scotland, Katrine, ■ax\di Awe. 

112. COMMUNICATIONS. The central plain of Scot- 
land is fully provided with railways. In the south and east 
of Scotland there are a few railways ; in the Western High- 
lands none. 

From its broken outline, a large part of Scotland has 
excellent steamer communication : and the Caledonian Canal 
is an important steamer route. 

113. RACES OF MEN. The inhabitants of the High- 
lands, called Highlanders, are Gaels, a tribe of Kelts ; of 
these there may be a quarter of a million. The remainder 
of Scotland is peopled by the Lowland Scotch, who are 
similar in race to the inhabitants of the north of England, 
viz. Teutons of the Low- German stock : they are Angles 
largely admixed with Scandinavian blood. 

114.. HISTORY SKETCH. At the arrival of the Romans, 
northern Scotland was peopled by Caledonians, afterwards 



IV.] SCOTLAND. 6i 

called Picts ; it is doubtful whether they were Kelts or 
Teutons, but it is considered most probable that they were 
of Kymric race, as were then the inhabitants of the rest of 
Britain. 

About A.D. 300 the Scots^ a Gaelic tribe of Ireland, passed 
over to the south-west of Scotland ; they finally over- 
powered the Picts, and the whole country took the new name 
of Scotland. 

Between A.D. 500 and A.D. 950 the Angles and Northmen 
invaded and made extensive settlements in the centre and 
east of Scotland. 

And, at this time, the extreme north of Scotland was occu- 
pied by the Norwegians, also Northmen. About A.D, 1030 
the Teutonic earldom of Lothian came under the power of 
Malcolm the King of the Scots. In A.D. I3i4by the battle of 
Bannockburn, Scotland achieved complete independence of 
England. In A.D. 1603 the Scotch king succeeded peace- 
fully to the crown of England ; and the Scotch Parliament 
was united with the English Parliament in A.D. 1707. 

115. RELIGION. Scotland is Protestant Christian ; the 
Church-government being that by a Presbytery not by 
Bishops. The established Church of Scotland is there- 
fore called Presbyterian in contrast to the established Church 
of England which is called Episcopal. In Scotland, the 
Free Kirk has separated from the Established Kirk on 
a point of Church-government, and a large part of the 
population support this free church. 

116. LANGUAGE. The language of the Highlanders is 
Gaelic, but they can now nearly all speak English, and Gaelic 
is disappearing like Welsh. 

The language of the Lovvlanders is Lowland Scotch, 
which is very nearly the same as North-England English ; 
indeed it is nearer true ancient English than any English 
spoken in England, being somewhat less corrupted by the 
Norman French. 

117. DIVISIONS. Scotland, is divided into thirty-three 
counties, as in the following table : 



62 



GEOGRAPHY. 



County, 



Southern Hills. 
Berwick .... 
Roxburgh .... 

Selkirk 

Peebles 

Dumfries .... 
Kircudbright . . . 
Wi-'toa 



West Central Plain 

Ayr 

Bute 

RenFrew 

Dumbarton .... 

Stirling. . . . . . 

L.anark 

East Central Plain. 
Haddington .... 
Edinburgh .... 
Linlithgow ». . . . 
Clackmannan .... 

Kinross 

Fife 



County Town. 



Greenlaw . 

Jedburgh . 

Selkirk . . 

Peebles . . 
DumFries 
Kircudbrii^ht 

Wigton . . 



East Coast. 
Forfar .... 
Kincardine . . 
Aberdeen . . . 
Banff ... 

Nairn .... 
Elgin .... 



Ayr . . . 
Rothesay . 
Renfrew 
Dumbarton 
Stirling . . 
Lanark . . 



Haddington 
Edinburgh . 
Linlithgow 
Clackmannan 
Kinross . . 
Cupar . . 



Highlands. 
Perth .... 
Argyll .... 
Inverness . . . 

Ross 

Sutherland . . 
Caithness . . . 
Orkneys . . . 
Shetlands . . . 



Forfar . . 
Stonehaven 
Aberdeen . 
Banff. . . 
Nairn . . 
Elgin . . . 



Perth . 

Inverary 

Inverness 

Dingwall 

Dornoch 

Wick . 

Kirkwall 

Lerwick 



Area in 
Square 
Miles. 



450 
670 
25o 
356 
1,129 
954 



,016 
257 

462 



2S0 

397 

127 

46 

78 

513 



894 
1,970 
686 
215 
531 



2,834 
3.255 
4.255 
3,151 
1.886 



712 
450 
485 



The county of Edinburgh is called also Midlothian ; Had- 
dington is called East Lothian; and Linlithgow, West Lothian. 
The three together, called the Lothians^ are celebrated for 
rich soil and excellent fanning. 

118. TOWNS. The Scotch large towns are few: the following 
list comprises all whi'ch have as many, as 25,000 inhabitants. 

(i) Glasgow, population 674,000, on the Clyde, is a manu- 
facturing town and carries on a large foreign trade. 




f l^ 



IV.] IRELAND. 63 

(2) Edinburgh, the capital, population 236,000, near the 
Forth ; is the chief Scotch University and Literary centre. 

(3) Dundee, pop. 140,000, a manufacturing town and a port. 

(4) Aberdeen, population 105,000, a port. 

(5) Greenock, population 66,000, the port of Glasgow, on 
the Clyde. 

(6) Paisley, population 55,000, a manufacturing town. 

(7) Perth, population 28,000, on the Tay, the ancient 
capital of the kingdom. 

(8) Leith, population 59,000, the port of Edinburgh. 



SCOTLAND (Abstract). 

ESTUARIES. Forth, Clyde, Tay, Moray, Solway. 
STRAITS. Minch, Pentland Firth. 
ISLANDS. Shetland, Orkneys, Lewis, Skye, Bute. 
PIININSUI.AS. Galloway, Cantire. 
CAPES. Wrath, Mull of Galloway, Mull of Cantire. 
MOUNTAINS. Grampians, Cheviots. 
LAKES. Lomond, Katrine, Tay, Maree. 
RIVERS. Tay, Forth, Clyde, Tweed, Dee. 
TOWNS (with their populations). Glasgow, 674000 
lEdinburgh, 236,000 ; Dundee, 140,000. 



§§§§ IRELAND. 

119. EXTENT. Ireland is nearly three-fourths the size of 
jEngland, but contains only one-fifth the population. It is 
separated from the Mull of Cantire by the North Channel 
)nly about twelve miles across. But the principal passenger 
:ommunication with Britain is between Holyhead and Kings- 
own (for Dublin), 63 miles, which the mail boats accomplish 
inder four hours. 

120. CAPES. Cape Clear^ at the south-west angle, is well- 



64 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

known as the last point of land often seen in leaving Europe 
for America. 

12 X. ATTACHED ISLANDS are numerous, but small. 
The name of none is often heard except Valentia in the 
south-west, the point of departure of the Submarine Tele- 
graph Cable for America. 

122. ESTUARIES AND HARBOURS. (l) Dublin Bay, 
where stands Dublin at the mouth of the Lififey. 

(2) Shmnion Estuary ; Limerick stands near the mouth 
of the Shannon. 

(3) Cork Harbour, whereon stands Cork. 

(4) Belfast Lough, whereon stands Belfast. 

(5) Lough Foyle, whereon stands Londonderry. 

(6) Gahuay Bay, whereon stands Galway, 

(7) Water/ord Harbour, whereon stands Waterford. 

123. CLIMATE The climate of Ireland resembles that 
of the West of England, being moist and more favourable 
for pasture than corn. From the evergreen tint of the grass, 
Ireland is called the Emerald Isle. The south-west corner 
of Ireland has a milder winter than England, and the 
arbutus, or strawberry tree, flourishes at Killarney, though 
it is not indigenous in England. 

124. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS. Ireland consists 
of a central plain, 200 — 300 feet above sea-level, with 
extensive bogs. On the borders of this plain, on nearly 
every side of it, are groups of mountains 2,000—3,000 feet 
high, none very far from the sea. The south-west angle 
of Ireland is especially broken and mountainous in cha- 
racter : here are the celebrated Lakes of Killarney. The 
Wicklow mountains immediately south of Dublin are 
also well-known. 

125. RIVERS, (i) The Shanno?!, length 250 miles, is the 
finest river in the United Kingdom ; it drains a considerable 
portion of the central plain. 

(2) The Barrow, length no miles, is the next longest 
river, and has Waterford at its mouth. 

(3) The Foyle has Londonderry at its mouth. 

(4) The Boyne has Drogheda at its mouth. 



IV.] IRELAND. 65 

126. LAKES, (i) Lough A^eag/i, the largest lake in the 
United Kingdom, is near Belfast. 

(2) The Killarney Lakes in the south-west are celebrated 
for their picturesque scenery. 

127. COMMUNICATIONS. Ireland is provided with 
raikuays ; the network is much less close than the network 
in England : the population being less dense and the traffic 
proportionately still less. 

128. RACES OF MEN. The inhabitants of Ireland at the 
commencement of the Christian era were a Keltic tribe of 
the Gaelic branch, and very nearly allied to (if indeed dis- 
tinguishable from) the Scots ; but they are usually called in 
Ireland the Milesians, Erse or Irish. Ireland was little 
affected by the Teutonic westward migration of A.D. 500 — 
A.D. 900, though some Scandinavian settlements established 
themselves on the eastern coast. 

From the time of the Enghsh conquest in the reign of 
Henry II. the English have settled in Ireland in consider- 
able numbers, having got grants of land at various periods, 
and the Scotch (that is, the Teutonic people of South Scot- 
land, whom we now call Scotch, who have very little to do 
with the ancient Scoti) have passed over in large numbers, 
and settled specially in Ulster. 

As a result, about one-fourth of the people (chiefly in the 
north and north-west) are Teutons of the Low German 
branch ; the rest are Kelts of the Gaelic branch. 

129. HISTORIC SKETCH. Though Henry II. became 
paramount in Ireland, yet for several hundred years the 
English influence and English law were restricted to smali 
districts on the east coast near Dublin and Waterford. The 
rest of the island remained under the native petty chieftains 
in a very wild state. Under Elizabeth and James I. large 
grants of land were given to Englishmen who went over as 
colonists. A great rebellion of the Irish against the English 
colonists took place in the reign of Charles I, ; but Cromwell 
entirely reduced the island in A.D. 1649, and introduced more 
Teutonic colonists. The Irish again rose up in A.D. 1689, 
and were finally put down in the next year. Owing to the 

F 



66 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

large area of land which has been granted to Teutons 
(Sassenachs — i.e. Saxons, in Gaelic language) to the disposses- 
sion of the original Gaelic inhabitants, the Irish Keltic popu- 
lation remains to this day ill-affected towards the English 
government ; and during the last thirty years nearly three 
millions of the Keltic Irish have emigrated to America. 

130. RELIGION. The Kelts in Ireland are Roman 
Catholics, the Teutons Protestants, with very little exception. 
The Protestants are half of them Church of England Episco- 
palians, the other half Presbyterians or attached to various 
of the English dissenting bodies. 

131. LANGUAGE. The language of the Irish Kelts was 
anciently a dialect of Gaelic, known as Irish or Erse. There 
are still a million people in Ireland who can speak Erse, but 
most of these can speak English also ; and Irish as a 
language is disappearing. 

132. INDUSTRY. Ireland is a pastoral country with 
some manufactures, notably linen in the north-west ; but 
raises few minerals. Ireland exports butter, bacon, and young 
beasts. 

133. DIVISIONS. Ireland is divided into four Provinces : 
Ulster, Leinster, Munster, and Connaught. 

Ulster has been largely colonised by the Scotch, and is the 
most advanced part of Ireland in manufactures and farming. 

Leinster contains the old English pale. 

Munster has the warmest climate, and is eminently Keltic. 

Connaugiit is the wildest, least fertile, and least populous 
division. 

The subjoined table supplies the division of Ireland into 
Counties : — 



iv.l 



IREI.ANt), 



67 




tlLSTIiR. 
Donegal . . 
Londonderry ; 
Antrim . . . 
Down . . . 
Armagh . ; 
Monaghan . . 
Tyrone . . . 
Fermanagh 
Cavan . . 



County Town. 



Tvifford . . . 
Londonderry 
Carrickfergus 
Downpatrick 
Armagh . . 
Monaghan . 
Omagh . 
Enniskillen . 
Cavan . • 



Leinstek. 

Longford Longford 

Westme-ith Miillingar 

Meath Trim 

Louth 1 Drogheda 

Dublin I DubUn . . 

Wicklow I Wicklow . 

Kildare I Naas . . 

King's County . . . i TuUamore . 

Queen's County . . . i Maryborouj 

Kilkenny | Kilkenny 

Carlow Carlow . , 

Wexford Wexford . 

MUUSTRR. I 

Tipperary j Clonmel 

Waterford I Waterford . 

Cork I Cork . . 

Kerry_ | Tralee . . 

Limerick j Limerick . 

Clare [ Ennis . . 



Con NAUGHT. 

Galway .... 
R Of common . . 
Lei trim . . . . 

Sligo 

Mayo .... 



Galway 

Roscommon . . . 
Carrick-on-Shanncn 

Sligo 

Castlebar . . . . 



Area in 
Square 
Miles. 



1.86s 
810 

1,190 
957 
513 
500 

1,260 

714 
746 



421 

709 
906 
SI"? 
348 
7S1 
654 
772 
664 
795 
346 
901 



1,659 

721 

2,88s 

1,853 
1,064 
1,294 




2,447 
050 
613 
721 

2,231 



2&6,©3S 
164.991 
421.943 
272,107 
163,177 
102.748 
197,719 
84,879 
129,476 



46,568 
71.79S 
87,469 
77,684 

418,910 
70,386 
75,804 
72,852 
73,124 
9), 531 
46,568 

123,854 



199,612 
112,768 
495,607 
201,039 
180,632 
141.457 



242,005 
132,490 
90,372 
111,578 
245,212 



134. TOWNS, (i) Dublin, the capital, on the Liffey, 
population 350,000. Here is the Viceroy with his Court, and 
the principal Irish University, known commonly as Trinity 
College, Dublin. 

(2) Belfast, population 220,000, a port, and the principal 
seat of the linen manufacture, which is made from flax grown 
in the neighbourhood. 

(3) Cork, population 80,000, a port with a fine harbour. 

(4) Limerick, population 40,000, at the mouth of the 
Shannon. 

F 2 



^8 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

(5) Londonderry, population 30,000; the northern port. 

(6) Waterford, population 22,000, a port whence there is 
communication with Milford Haven and Bristol. 

7V<?/^.— There is no town of 20,000 inhabitants in Ireland 
away from the coast. 

IRELAND (Abstract). 

INLETS. Dublin Bay, Belfast Lough, Lough Foyle, Gal- 
way Bay, Shannon Estuary, Cork Harbour. 

RIVERS. Shannon, Barrow, Foyle, Boyne. 

LAKES. Lough Neagh, Killarney. 

DIVISIONS. Ulster, Leinster, Munster, Connaught. 

TOWNS (with their populations) Dublin, 350,000; BeU 
fast, 220,000; Cork, 8o,coo; Limerick, 40,000. 

MAN. 

135. MAN is about thirty miles long, with a population 
of 54,089. The chief town is Douglas, population 16,000. 
The inhabitants, the Manx, are a Keltic race, speaking a 
Keltic dialect which is now disappearing. 

Man has a legislative body and judges of its own, and does 
not, like the Isle of Wight, form part of England. 



CHANNEL ISLANDS. 

136. The CHANNEL ISLANDS are Jersey, Guernsey, 
Alderney, and several smaller islands. They lie off the 
coast of Normandy, and belong geographically to France ; 
but when France re-conquered Normandy from King John 
she did not recover the Channel Islands, which have re- 
mained to the Crown of England to this day. 

Jersey and Guernsey are each about ten miles long ; and 
the area of the whole group together' is less than half the 
Isle of Wight. 



iv.i GIBRALTAR. 69 

The Climate is warmer than that of any part of England, 
and several French wild-plants grow in these islands that 
are not found wild in England. The chaumontelle pear 
grows to a great size in Jersey ; and the cattle are celebrated. 

The Language of the people is still a dialect of Norman 
French ; and English Acts of Parliament do not include the 
Channel Islands unless they are specially mentioned. 

HELIGOLAND. 

137. HELIGOLAND, i.e. Holy Land, is a small island 
about thirty miles from the mouth of the Elbe, seized by the 
English in A.D. 1807. Its population are perhaps by descent 
pure Angles, or English. It is much resorted to by Germans 
for sea-bathing. 

GIBRALTAR. 



138. GIBRALTAR is a rock on the European side of the 
Straits of Gibraltar. It forms a fortress of great strength ; 
and is an important coaling station. The English hold it with 
a garrison of nearly 5,000 men, on the principle that the most 
complete of all defences is a strong attack upon the enemy. 

The town of Gibraltar, at the foot of the rock fortress, 
contains 18,000 inhabitants, Spaniards, Moors, and a very 
mixed population. 

MALTA. 

139. MALTA is an island south of Sicily, not much more 
than half as big as the Isle of Wight, but populous. Valetta, 
the capital, with an excellent harbour, is strongly fortified ; 
and is called one of the keys of the Mediterranean, Gibraltar 
being the other. The English keep a garrison of 5,000 men 
there, on the same considerations that they hold Gibraltar. 

The Population is a mixed race, speaking a dialect of 
Italian largely mixed with Arabic ; mostly Roman Catholics 
in religion. 



70 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Sect. V. FRANCE. 

140. EXTENT. France is four times the size of England, 
and half as large again as the Queen's European dominions. 
The superiority of France to England in size is increased by 
her superiority in situation, climate, and soil. But the popu- 
lation of P'rance is only a little larger than that of the United 
Kingdom, and is scarcely increasing at all. 

We may realize the scale of France better if we note that 
a French province such as Normandy or Brittany is twice 
the acreage of Yorkshire, and equal to about a dozen War- 
wickshires or Cambridgeshires. 

14-1. BOUNDARIES. France is bounded by the Pyrenees 
and the Gulf of Lyons on the South; the Bay of Biscay on 
the West; the English Channel on the North-iuest ; the 
Alps and the Jura on the East; and on the Noj^th-east by 
an irregular artificial line from Switzerland to the Straits of 
Dover. This line does not coincide with any river or chain 
of mountains. The French maintain it on their side by a 
chain of fortresses ; and the Germans and Belgians on their 
side by other chains of forts facing the French. 

The Gulf of Lyons is always so called in English atlases 
because it is supposed so named from the city of Lyons. 
But that city is more than 150 miles from the Mediterranean ; 
and the true name of the gulf is " Gulf of the Lion ; " and 
it is said to have obtained that name from the violent storms 
that rage there. 

142. DETACHED ISLANDS. Corsica is politically part 
of France, of which it forms one Department ; though it 
should geographically go with Sardinia, which is part of 
Italy. 

The other islands attached to France are small and un- 
important. 

143. CAPES. Finisterre is the most westerly point of 
Brittany. 

La Hogue is the north-west point of Normandy. 

144. ESTUARIES. The Seiiie^ where is the port of Havre. 



v.] FRANCE. 71 

The Gironde, at the head of which is the port of Bordeaux. 

145. CLIMATE. The chinate of the North of France is 
equal to the chmate of the best portions of the South of 
England. And as we proceed south the climate gets warmer, 
till on the shores of the Mediterranean in Provence oranges 
and rice will ripen and the date-palm will live in the open 
air. The interior of the north-east of France is as cold in 
winter as England : but the summer is more free from cloud, 
and hotter. The celebrated grape district of Champagne is 
but little south of England. 

146. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS, (i) The Pyrenees are 
the boundary between France and Spain, and attain 11,168 
feet in height ; the highest point in France is 10,820 feet high. 

(2) The Alps separate Italy from France. The highest point 
of the Alps, Mont Blanc, 1 5,784 feet high, is in French territory. 

(3) The /u?'a, separating France from Switzerland, are a 
much lower range. 

(4) The Vbs^es are only partially in France ; they arc 
wooded ranges at the south-east corner of Champagne, of 
no great elevation. 

(5) The extinct volcanoes of Atwergne are conical moun- 
tains with lava streams, now cold for ages ; locally called 
Buys ; the Plomb-de-Cantal is 6,095 feet in height ; the Puy- 
de-Dome is nearly as high. 

The principal mountains of France are thus on its borders ; 
and the compact breadth of the whole country may be re- 
garded as an undulating plain capable almost throughout of 
producing wheat. 

147. RIVERS, (i) The Loire, length 530 miles, drains 
the centre of France, has Orleans on its bank, Nantes near 
its mouth. 

(2) The Rhone, rising in Switzerland, has only its lower 
course in France ; but, reckoning only its affluent the Saonc, 
it has a long course in France. Lyons stands at the junction 
of the Rhone and Saone. 

(3) The Seine, length 470 miles, drains the north of France 
from Champagne to the English Channel. Paris stands on 
it, Havre near its mouth. 



72 GEOGRAPPIY. [sect. 

(4) The Garonne, the largest river of the south of France, 
falls into the sea below Bordeaux. The estuary formed by 
it and the Dordogne is called the Gironde. 

148. LAKES.^ France has none known to fame ; but her 
boundary now runs to the Lake of Geneva. 

149. COMMUNICATIONS. France has cafials uniting 
the great rivers, so that there are two routes by which 
barges may pass from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean. 

France has over 20,000 miles of railway open : the lines 
are made under State concessions, and enjoy a monopoly in 
their districts : the Service is therefore comparatively poor. 
The chief routes are : — 

1. Northern. Paris to Calais and Boulogne for Engla:d, 
to Lille and northern manufacturing towns for Belgium. 

2. Western. Paris to Dieppe, Havre, Cherbourg, and Brest. 

3. Southern. Paris by Orleans to Bordeaux, thence by 
Bayonne for Madrid. Orleans to Toulouse. 

4. Mediteranean. Paris by Dijon to Lyons and Mar- 
seilles, and thence along the Riviera for Genoa. 

5. Paris by Dijon and Magon through the Mont Cenis 
tunnel (7^ miles under the Alps) for Turin and Italy. 

6. Paris by Troyes and Belfort for Basle and Switzerland. 

7. Paris by Epernay and Nancy for Strasburg and Germany. 

150. RACES or MEN. At the commencement of the 
Christian era France was part of the Roman empire. The 
inhabitants were mainly Kelts, called Gauls by the Romans. 
In the south these Kelts were connected with the Iberians : 
in the valley of the Loire and Brittany they were connected 
with the Britons, i.e. the Kymric Kelts of England : and 
along the whole coast of the English Channel they were 
Belgai, who are supposed to have been a Keltic tribe largely 
mixed with Teutonic blood. 

All these Keltic elements were much affected in language 
and institutions, and probably considerably affected in blood, 
by the Latin influence of their rulers. Subsequently, on the 
break-up of the Roman Empire, large Teutonic invasions 
from the east and settlements took place : thus the Franks 
{i.e. French) chiefly settled on the centre of the Seine, the 



v.] FRANCE. 73 

Isle of France, and made Paris their capital. The Burgun- 
dians settled in the east, the Northmen (Scandinavian 
Teutons) in Normandy. 

From these numerous elements the modem French nation 
has descended ; in the south the people will be Iberian 
Kelts largely Latinized ; in the west in Brittany, Keltic 
Bretons (Kymri) ; in the north of France largely Teutons 
of the High German branch ; and in Normandy Teutons of 
the Low German branch. 

151. HISTORIC SKETCH. In A.D. I200, the King of the 
French at Paris was king of but a very small portion of the 
modern kingdom of France. In the west the King of 
England held a larger area of France, extending from Nor- 
mandy to Aquitaine, than did the King of the Franks. In A.D. 
1204, Phihp, the French King, gained all this territory, except 
Aquitaine (Guienne), which France did not get till A.D. 1453. 
Then the King of France was still hardly superior to the 
Duke of Burgundy, who held a kingdom comprising the east 
of France with parts of Switzerland and Belgium. France 
however obtained the greater part of Burgundy in A.D. 1477, 
and the kingdom of Provence in A.D. 148 1. 

France thus reached nearly her present limits. The kings 
succeeded in making themselves despots. In A.D. 1792 
occurred the French Revolution ; the King (Louis XVI. of the 
House of Bourbon) was guillotined ; and after a few years 
a successful and popular general. Napoleon Bonaparte, 
became supreme, and in A.D. 1804 Emperor. Bonaparte 
conquered or overran all Europe except England, Russia^ 
and Turkey, and called so much of it France as he pleased ; 
but after a short time, in 18 14, he was overthrown and 
France reduced to its old limits ; and a King of the House 
of Bourbon, Louis XVIII., was set up. 

In A.D. 1830 a revolution occurred which drove the House 
of Bourbon into exile and set up Louis Philippe, of the 
House of Orleans, as king. 

In A D. 1848 a revolution drove Louis Philippe into exile, 
and shortly afterwards Napoleon III. became Emperor. 

In A.D. 1870 Napoleon III. was defeated in battle by the 



74 GEOGRAPHY. [sect, 

Germans, after which the French would have no more to do 
with him, and set up a Republican government. 

In A.D. i88S the Republic is still the form of government 
in France, and the Republican party is the strongest ; but 
there are two other parties, viz. one for Prince Napoleon as 
Emperor ; the other for the Comte de Paris as legitimist 
king, representing both the old Bourbon House and its junior 
Orleanist branch. 

152. RELIGION. The French are mainly Roman 
Catholics; about one-fiftieth only are Protestants. 

153. iiANGUAGE. The language we call French is the 
form of Latin which became the dialect of the Gallic towns 
in the later days of the Roman Empire, containing a large 
number of words that are not Latin, and having undergone 
considerable changes since that day. 

In the south of France a dialect of this Gallo-Romanic 
tongue called the language of Oc (Langue d'Oc) was spoken 
which differed considerably from the Langue d'Oil spoken in 
the northern part. Oc and oil were the words for Yes in the 
two dialects respectively. 

The Langue d'Oil is that dialect which has become the 
language of Paris and of books. The Langue d'Oc still is 
current among the labourers in the south, and the great 
province of Languedoc is named from it. 

Among the peasants of Brittany a language resembling the 
British, i.e. Welsh, still prevails. The local dialect of Nor- 
mandy also considerably differs from what we call French. 

154-. ANIMALS. France, a Continental country, contains 
many animals that have been exterminated in England. 

The 7ui/d boar is found in most of the large forests. 

The wolf exists not merely in the mountains but almost 
throughout the country. In cold Aveather he is destructive to 
the flocks, and in some districts dangerous for children. 

The i}'?ix is now rare in the Pyrenees. 

The mouton, a curious wild sheep, is found in Corsica. 

The chainoix is found in the Alps. . 

The brown bear and the black bear have become rare in 
the Pvrenees. 



v.] FRANCE. 75 

155. PLANTS. Owing to her superior climate, France can 
grow all the crops known to farmers in England and many 
others besides. Among these additional crops are : 

(i) The %nnc. The wines of Champagne and Burgundy 
we call by those names j the wine of Bordeaux we call 
claret. 

(2) Beet-root, whence sugar is largely made. 

(3) Tobacco. This might be grown in England, but is for- 
bidden by the Excise. [It could not be grown with much 
profit, or the Excise would not be allowed to forbid it.] 

(4) Olives, in the South of France : whence olive-oil is 
made. 

(5) Mulberries, on the leaves of which silkworms are fed ; 
also in the south. 

(6) Maize and millet in the south of France : oranges 
only near the Mediterranean. Though the climate and soil 
of France are so excellently adapted for wheat and barley, 
much less of these is grown than in England. The French 
small farmers produce poultry and eggs in large quantity. 

156. MINERALS. France is on the whole poor in mine- 
rals. She has iron in many places, and coal in several ; but 
the coal-fields cannot compare in size, richness, or quality, 
with the Enghsh coal-fields, and are not sufficient to supply 
the country. In France, for domestic consumption, wood is 
chiefly used. 

157. commerce:. The chief trade of France is with 
England. She largely exports to England manufactured 
silk, leather, and furniture ; also wine, brandy, and butter. 
She imports wool, manufactured cotton, and coal. 

158. DIVISIONS. At the Revolution in 1792 all things in 
France were changed, and the country was divided into 
eighty-six Departments of tolerably equal size. The number 
may be called eighty-six still, France having acquired Savoy 
and Nice, but having by the war with Prussia in 1870 lost 
Alsace and half Lorraine. The names of these eighty-six 
Departments are mostly new. Before AD. 1792 France 
was divided into thirty-four Provinces very unequal in 
size : the namea of many of these, cspejially of the larger 



76 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

ones, are of historic importance, and several of them 
continually occur in English history. We enumerate the 
more celebrated : 

(i) Normandy is the province colonized in the tenth 
century, by the Normans or Northmen, the same called 
Danes in the Histories of England. This province in its 
inhabitants, ancient buildings, and many customs, resembles 
England. The capital is Rouen on the Seine. 

(2) Brittany, the country of the Bretons, the same people 
as the ancient Britons. Great Britain is so named, not be- 
cause it is absolutely very large, but to distinguish it from 
Little Britain, i.e. Brittany. The inhabitants of Brittany 
still speak a Keltic dialect nearly aUied to Welsh, the 
language of the ancient Britons. Circles of upright stones 
are found in Brittany resembling those at Stonehenge and 
Abury in England. The largest town in Brittany is Nantes 
on the Loire. 

(3) Flanders, i.e. French Flanders, is only a small por- 
tion of the ancient territory of the Count of Flanders. 
The greater portion will be found in the map of Belgium. 
The largest town is Lisle. 

(4) Isle of France, so called because, like the Isle of Ely, 
the principal settlement was anciently surrounded by swamps. 
The central duchy of the Kings of the Franks, with their 
capital Paris, on the Seine. 

(5) Champagne, an open undulating country, with many 
plains, part of the ancient kingdom of Burgundy ; celebrated 
for the wine called Champagne. Open, nearly level 
countries, are said to be champain in character. The chief 
town is Rheims. 

(6) Burgundy, a rich level country, celebrated for its wine 
called Burgundy. It formed the central duchy of the 
kingdom of Burgundy. The chief town is Dijon. 

(7) Anjou is celebrated as having given the Plantagenet 
line of princes (who were originally Angevins) to England. 
With Maine, Normandy, and Aquitaine it was long attached 
to the English crown. The chief town is Angers. 

(8) Poitou; a large provin:e, also anciently an earldom 



FRANCE. 



77 



attached to the English Crown and held down to the reign 
of Henry VI. The chief town is Poitiers. 

(9) Guienne, the centre of the old province of Aquitaine 
(of which word Guienne is a corruption), also held by the 
Kings of England down to Henry VI. The chief town is 
Bordeaux^ on the Garonne, where remain some fine build- 
ings constructed under English rule. The province is flat 
and rich, and produces claret. 

(10) Navarre is celebrated as having given Henry of 
Navarre as the first Bourbon King of Erance. 

(u) Languedoc, a large province, on the whole flat and 
highly cultivated, is rather hot and dusty ; the want of 
English turf is acutely felt in summer by Englishmen. 
Toulouse^ on the Garonne, is the chief town. 

(12) Provence, an ancient kingdom, the paradise of the 
Troubadours. The largest town is Marseilles. 

(13) Nice, a small province between the Maritime Alps 
and the Mediterranean, was ceded by Italy to France in 
1 861, as consideration for French aid against the Austrians. 
Nice is the chief town. 

(14) Savoy, ceded to France with Nice, naturally lies on 
the French side of the Alps. It is an alpine district with no 
large town. 

159. TOWNS. The chief towns of France, in order of 
population, are given in the annexed table : — 





Name of 
Town. 


Population 
1886. 


Department. 


Noted for. 




Pans. . . 


2,344,550 


Seine. 


The Capital ; manufactures. 




Lyons . . 
Marseilles 


401,930 


RhQne. 


Silk. 




376,143 


Bouches de Rhone 


A Port. 




Bordeaux . 


240,582 


Gironde. 


A Port. 




Lille . . 


188,272 


Nord. 


Carpets. 




Toulouse . 


147,617 


Haute-Garonne. 


Iron and Wool. 




Nantes . 


127,482 


Loire-Inferieure. 


A Port. 




St. Etienne 


117.875 


Loire. 


Iron. 




Le Havre 


112,074 


Seine-Inferieuro. 


A Port. 




Rouen 


107,163 


Seine-Iaf^rieurc. 


Cottons and Woollens. 




Roubaix . 


100,299 


Nord. 


Woollen goods. 




Reims . . 


97,903 


Marne. 


An historic city. 



7S GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

No other French town contains 90,000 souls. Paris is 
both the poHtical capital and the chief manufacturing town 
of France ; and here a vast accumulation of population has 
taken place. But elsewhere the people are much more 
uniformly scattered in France than in England. The soil is 
generally fertile, and there are not seen great manufacturing 
and mining centres as in England. 

FRANCE (Abstract). 

SEAS. Bay of Biscay, English Channel, Gulf of Lyons. 

ISLAND. Corsica. 

CAPES. Plnisterre, La Hogue. 

ESTUARIES. Gironde, Seine. 

RIVERS. Loire, Seine, Rhone, Garonne. 

MOUNTAINS. Alps, Pyrenees, Jura, Vosges, Puys of 
Auvcrgnc. 

DIVISIONS. Normandy, Brittany, Champagne, Burgundy, 
Guienne, Provence, &c. 

TOWNS (with their populations). Paris, 2,340,000; Lyons, 
400,000; Marseilles, 376,000; Bordeaux, 240,000; Lille, 
180,000; Toulouse, 140,000. 

COLONIES. In Asia : Pondicherry, Cochin China, Tonking. 

In Africa : Algeria, Senegambia, Bourbon. 

In America : Cayenne, and several of the smaller West 
Indian Islands. 

Sect. VI. SPAIN. 

160. EXTENT. Spain is three times as large as. England 
and Wales, but her population is only two-thirds as great. 

161. BOUNDARIES. Spain is bounded by the Mediter- 
ranean on the South and East ; by the Pyrenees and Bay of 
Biscay on the North. On the West^ for a short space, both 
in the north and south, the Atlantic is the boundary ; but 
the political line between Spain and' Portugal is arbitrary, 
cutting across the waterpartings and rivers at right angles 
regardless of geography. 




"W&A.K:. Jolmst 




< NE4N S EA 



2 Laurf. W. oi" Greemrich O l-aa^. Z. of Gicemrich 2 



VI.] SPAIN. 79 

162. ATTACHED ISLANDS. The Balearic group, com- 
prising Majorca^ Minorca, and smaller islands. Also the 
Canaries form an integral part of Spain (as Wight of 
England, Corsica of France), of which the largest are Great 
Canary and Teneriji\ 

163. CAPES. Finisierre, to be carefully distinguished 
from the French Finisterre, the same word with the Land's 
End : Trafalgar^ near the Straits of Gibraltar. 

164. CLIMATE. The south coast of Spain, next the 
Mediterranean is warm enough to produce rice and oranges ; 
the date-palm, sugar-cane, and the American aloe thrive. 
Here irrigation is necessary, the summer heats lasting long 
without rain. In the high central plateau of the country 
about Madrid the climate is bitter in winter, scorching and 
dusty in summer. 

The Western boundary towards Portugal is moister, and 
Galicia possesses one of the pleasantest climates in Spain. 
It has been supposed that the uncertain rainfall of Spain 
has been aggravated by the manner in which the forests 
have been cleared from the mountain ranges. There is 
nothing in the bare soil to hold the water ; the rivers are 
nearly dried up in summer, while they are liable to become 
torrents in winter. 

165. MOUNTAINS AND PLATEAUS. The Pyrenees are 
the highest mountains in Spain, attaining ii,i68 feet in 
height. The range is continued westward to Galicia and 
Cape Finisterre, forming the waterparting which divides the 
drainage of Spain that falls into the Bay of Biscay from the 
rest of the country. This narrow northern strip is called 
the Asturias provinces, and the mountains are called the 
Asturias range. 

Let us next draw the line of waterparting which separates 
the waters that flow into the Mediterranean from those 
that flow westward to the Atlantic. It will start from the 
Asturias range north of Burgos, and, speaking very roughly, 
will pass southwards near the meridian of 2° west longitude. 
This waterparting will be the eastern wall of the great table- 
land of Spain. The ground falls rapidly on its eastern side ; 



So GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

but on the western much more gradually ; and on this 
plateau lie the provinces of Old and New Castile, with an 
average height of near 2,000 feet above the sea. 

This plateau is the most striking instance of a high table- 
land in Europe. The SicTra Morena forms its southern 
wall. 

The Sierra Nevada in Granada is a lofty but isolated 
range. 

166. RIVERS, (i) The -E^^r^, the principal river of the 
Mediterranean drainage. 

(2) The Dotiro (the lower course of which is in Portugal) 
which drains Old Castile, the northern half of the great 
plateau. 

(3) The Tagus and Guadiana (also both partly in Portugal 
lower down), which drain New Castile, the southern half of 
the great plateau. 

(4) The Guadaigitiver, which drains similarly to the west 
a lower step as it were of the same plateau. 

167. COMMUNICATIONS. Spain is behind all the coun- 
tries of Europe, except Turkey, in railways as well as in 
o'her matters. About 6000 miles of rail are in use. 

(i) From Bayonne in France, round the western end of 
the Pyrenees by St. Sebastian and Valladolid to Madrid. 

A branch line runs by Saragossa to Barcelona. Another 
to Corunna, connected with northern ports. 

(2) From Toulouse in France, round the eastern end of the 
Pyrenees to Barcelona, thence along the coast to Valencia. 

(3) Madrid to Alcazar, thence (i) to Murcia and Alicante ; 
(ii) to Cordova, branching to Seville and Cadiz, and to 
Granada and Malaga. 

(4) Madrid by Talavera to Portugal and Lisbon. 
Cordova to Malaga and Granada. 

168. RACES OF MEN. The Iberian Peninsula (as the 
Romans called Spain and Portugal) was in their time 
peopled by a tribe of Kelts known as the Iberian Kelts. 
These were largely Latinized during the long Roman rule. 

In the fifth century, when the Roman empire was over- 
run, the Visigoths, a division of the Goths, a Teutonic tribe, 
established themselves in Spain ; and a Gothic kingdom 



VI.] SPAIN. 8i 

lasted 250 years. In a.d. 710, the Mahometans invaded 
Spain from Africa, overran it, and drove the Christian inhabi- 
tants (Kehs, Latins, Teutons) into the Asturias districts. 
The Caliph at Cordova then ruled over the rest of Spain. 
But the Christians soon began to press back upon the Moors, 
and by A.D. 1238 had recovered all Spain except the kingdom 
of Granada, which was not recovered till A.D, 1492. 

The inhabitants of Spain are thus a very mixed race : 
the Iberian Keltish element prevails in the west ; the 
Gothic Teutonic in the north ; the Moorish has left its 
traces especially in the south ; while the Latin influence 
has prevailed in language so greatly that it is usual to 
class the Spanish as one of the Latin races. Probably, 
so far as race is concerned, the Iberian is the prevailing 
element still ; mixed considerably with Teutonic blood, and 
overlaid by Latin civilization. 

The Spaniards proper are thus Aryan or Indo-Germanic 
by race ; but the Basques, a people who are found from 
the small province of Biscay on the north coast to the 
Pyrenees, are supposed to be non-Aryan, the relics of the 
people who inhabited Europe before the Aryans came. 
Their language, at all events, has no affinity with English, 
French, Spanish, or any Aryan tongue. 

169. HISTORIC SKETCH. In the days when the Moois 
ruled more than two-thirds of Spain, the Christians near 
the northern mountains were divided into several small 
monarchies, of which Aragon and Castile were the chief. 
Just at the time that the Moors were expelled from Spain 
(at the end of the fifteenth century) these crowns were 
united by the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella, so that 
Ferdinand of Aragon became monarch of the whole of 
Spain. 

Spain then discovered America, where she spread her 
colonies ; and the King of Spain becoming Emperor of Ger- 
many, became also the most powerful monaich in Europe. 
From A.D. 1600, however, the power of Spain has steadily 
declined down to the present time. In a.d. 1807, Buona- 
parte seized Spain, but he was overthrown in A. D. 18 14, and 

G 



82 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

the old King came back. He ruled absolutely, as all 
before him, but there were revolts against his authority. 
Spain about this time lost her American possessions. Since 
A.D. 1833, when Queen Isabella ascended the throne, Spain 
has been torn by revolutions, chiefly military, and has 
changed her government twice in form to a Republic ; has 
changed it really many times. 

170. PRESENT CONSTITUTION. A constitutional 
monarchy, modelled on that of England, Queen Christina 
(widow of the late king) as Regent for her infant son 
Alphonso XIII. rules through Ministers, who are respon- 
sible to the Cortes (/. e. Parliament), and can only retain 
power so long as they can command a majority of votes 
in th3 Cortes. 

Spain is the most backward country in Europe now ; and 
has moreover been insolvent since A.D. 1851. 

171. RELIGION. The Catholic religion has always been 
the established religion of Spain : and from A.D. 1500 to the 
present century the Inquisition was maintained in Spain, 
and no other religion was tolerated. Under the present con- 
stitution all religions are tolerated, and a great quantity of 
the Church property has been confiscated of late years. But 
the religion of nearly the whole people is Roman Catholic. 

172. LANGUAGE. The Spanish language has been 
much more affected by the Roman rule even than the 
people : it is essentially a Latin language, though contain- 
ing many Gothic and Moorish words, and is classed with 
Italian as a language descended from the ancient Latin. 

173. ANIMALS. The bear, the chamois^ the common 
lynx^ and the ibex are still found in the Pyrenees ; the wild 
boat and the ■zc^^ throughout the country ; tht pard, i.e. the 
pardine lynx, in many places. The Barbary ape is estab- 
lished on the rock of Gibraltar. 

Of domesticated animals the merino sheep is celebrated 
for its wool. 

174.. PLANTS. The Spanish chestnut, the cork oak, the 
olive, and the orange, are trees of Spain. On the southern 
coast rice is extensively cultivated. The I'ine is cultivated 



vr] SrAIN. 83 

very generally : we get Catalan wine from the Ebro valley, 
sherry from Jerez near Cadiz. A very large part of Spain 
is excellently adapted for wheat, but little is grown. 

175. MINERALS. In ancient times Spain was the most 
famed country in Europe for minerals, and there is no 
good ground for supposing her mines exhausted, but rather 
for believing that in her present state of national decay they 
are not properly worked. Large quantities of jnercury are 
now obtained from the cinnabar of Almaden. Iron is 
abundant in the Asturias range. Some tift and /cad are still 
raised, and iron ore is largely exported toEngland. 

176. DIVISIONS AND TOWNS : 

(i) AraiTon, in the Ebro basin, was anciently a Kingdom. 
Chief town, Saragossa, on the Ebro, contains 80,000 in- 
habitants. 

(2) Navarre, at the head of the Ebro basin, was 
anciently a Kingdom. Chief town is Pampeluna^ popula- 
tion 25,000. 

(3) Biscay, Asturias, Galicia, the three Provinces on the 
northern coast, have a moister climate than the interior and 
south of Spain. The largest town is Santiago, in Galicia, 
with less than 30,000 inhabitants. 

(4) Leon, on the Middle Douro, was anciently a Kingdom. 
The largest town is Salatnanca, celebrated anciently as a 
University, but now having only 17,000 inhabitants. 

(5) Estremaduras, on the Middle Tagus and Guadiana, 
This province, like Leon, is not on the higher table-land, and 
being in the west, its climate approach :s that of Portugal. 
The two provinces of Leon and Estremaduras should be 
among the richest and most populous territories of Europe j 
but they are quite otherwise. There is no large town in 
Estremaduras. 

(6) Old Castile, on the high table-land, chiefly on the 
Upper Douro. Valladolidh'SLS 50,000 inhabitants ; no other 
town above 20,000. 

(7) New Castile, on the high table-land, chiefly on the 
Upper Tagus and Guadiana. Madrid contains 500,003 
people perhaps ; the other towns are all small. 

2 



84 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

(8) Andalusia, mainly the basin of the Guadalquiver. Its 
chief towns are : 

Cordova, the ancient capital of the Caliphs, population 
48,000. 

Granada, the last Moorish capital, population 75,000. 

Malaga, a Mediterranean port, population 115,000. 

Seville, on the Guadalquiver, population 130,000. 

Cadiz ^ a fine port, population 65,000. 

Jerez, or Xeres, whence the name of Sherry wine, population 
64,000. 

(9) Murcia: chief town Murcia, population 90,000, in an 
irrigated rich plain with warm climate. 

Carthegena, population, 75,000, a naval arsenal. 
Lorca, population 52,000, an ancient city. 

(10) Valencia: its chief town, Valencia, contains 140,000 
souls, and some manufa:tures. 

(11) Catalonia: chief town Barcelona, on the Mediter- 
ranean, population 250,000; the most important town in 
Spain, with a great and increasing trade. 

No other town in Spain contains 40,000 inhabitants. 

(12) Balearic Isles, consisting of Majorca, Minorca, and 
Iviza, population together over 300,000, form a separate pro- 
vince. The chief town, PaLna, in Majorca, contains nearly 
60,000 inhabitants. 

SPAIN (Abstract). 

ISLANDS. Majorca, Minorca, Grand Canary, Teneriffe. 

CAPES. Finisterre, La Hogue, Trafalgar. 

MOUNTAINS. Pyrenees, Asturias, Sierra Nevada. 

RIVERS. Ebro, Douro, Tagus, Guadiana, Guadalquiver. 

DIVISIONS. Old Castile, New Castile, Andalusia, 
Aragon, Catalonia. 

TOWNS (with their populations) — Madrid, 500,000 ; Bar- 
celona, 250,000 ; Seville, 130,000; Cordova, 48,000 ; Valen- 
cia, 140,000; Malaga, 115,000; Granada, 75,000. 

COLONIES. In the West Indies, Cuba; in Asia, the 
Philippines, Mariana Islands, Carolina: and Pelews. 



vii.] PORTUGAL. 



Sect. VII. PORTUGAL. 

177. EXTENT. Portugal is a little larger than Scotland, 
with about the same population. It contains about one- 
sixth of the Peninsula ; that is, Spain is five times as large. 

176. BOUNDARIES. Portugal is bounded on the IVes/ 
and Soul/i by the Atlantic ; on the Nort/i and Eas/ by- 
Spain. 

179. ATTACHED ISLANDS. No island is geographically 
attached to Portugal ; but, politically, Madeira and the 
Azores form provinces of the Kingdom. 

180. CAPE. St. Vincent is the south-west corner of 
Portugal. 

181. CLIMATE. The climate of Portugal is very fine ; it 
is more moist than Spain ; and is a warm-temperate chme of 
the insular character ; the vine, fig, orange, and American 
aloe flourish. 

182. MOUNTAINS AND RIVERS. Portugal consists of 
the lower ends of three river basins : 

(i) The Douro, at the mouth of which is Oporto. 

(2) The Tagus, at the mouth of which is Lisbon. 

(3) The Guadiana, 

The most mountainous part of Portugal is the north : the 
waterpartings separating the three river basins are also 
mountainous in character. 

183. COMMUNICATIONS. One line of r^/7z£/^j proceeds 
north from Lisbon, by Coimbra to Oporto : another line 
proceeds due east from Lisbon to join the Spanish (and thus 
the European) railway system. Besides these t^Yo routes 
Portugal has only a few short lines of railway. Portugal 
is altogether deficient in communications, being very poorly 
off for roads. There is some boat traffic on the Douro and 
Tagus. 

184. RACES or MEN. The Portuguese are nearly the 
same race as the Spanish ; they contain perhaps more Iberian 
Keltic, less Gothic Teutonic blood. They are therefore 



86 GEOGRArHY. [sect. 

Latinized Iberians, with a considerable mixture of Gothic 
and some mixture of Moorish especially in the south. 

185. HISTORIC SKETCH. The Kingdom of Portugal 
was founded A.D. 1139, when the Moors were beaten back. 
It attained great prosperity by the fifteenth century, and 
spread its colonial empire widely over the world. It fell 
under the power of Spain in A.D. 1580, and ruled by her, 
declined with her. It recovered an independent government 
in A.D. 1640 under the House of Braganza. 

In 1807, Portugal having been overrun by Napoleon, the 
royal family fled to Brazil. In 1826 the monarchy was 
settled on a junior branch of the House of Braganza, and 
the government was established on popular Parliamentary 
principles : the Ministry is responsible to the Chamber of 
Deputies, and the power of the Sovereign is altogether 
limited, 

186. REIjIGION. The Roman Catholic religion is the 
established religion of Portugal ; and though other religions 
are tolerated, the Dissenters are very few. 

187. LANGUAGE. The Portuguese language was origi- 
nally but a dialect of the Spanish : it has, however, in the 
lapse of centuries separated so far that Spaniards and 
Portuguese cannot understand each other. Portuguese is 
essentially a Latin language therefore, with some Keltic 
and many Gothic and Moorish words. 

188. MINERALS. Portugal, like Spain, is naturally rich 
in minerals, but little mining is carried on. Some iron and 
copper is exported. 

189. DIVISIONS AND TOWNS. In Continental Portu- 
gal are only two towns that contain over 20,000 inhabitants, 
viz. : — 

(i) Lisbon, population 245,000, on the Tagus, the capital. 

(2) Oporto, population 105,000, on the Douro; whence 
Port wine is exported. The wine is grown on the Lower 
Douro basin, partly in Spain, partly in Portugal. 

Funchal, in Madeira, has 20,000 inhabitants. This fertile 
island exports the wine called Madeira. 

The Azores contain 275,030 inhabitants. They were cele- 




R A N C 



vi.i.] ITALY, S7 

brated for producing oranges, known as St. Michael's 
oranges, because the largest of the Azores is named St, 
Michael's. 

PORTUGAL (Abstract), 

ISLANDS. Madeira, the Azores. 

CAPE. St. Vincent. 

RIVERS. Douro, Tagus, Guadiana. 

TOWNS (with populations). Lisbon, 245,000 ; Oporto, 
105,00a. 

COLONIES. Goa in India. Angola, Mozambique in Africa, 
with the Cape Verde Islands, Timor, and other islands in 
Malaysia. 

Sect. VIII. ITALY. 

190. EXTENT. The Kingdom of Italy is a little less than 
Great Britain with Ireland, and contains about as many in- 
habitants as Great Britain only. It is about the same 
length as Great Britain, but on the average less wide. 

191. BOUNDARIES. Italy is bounded by the Mediter- 
ranean Sea and the Alps ; a very natural boundary. The 
political boundary by land follows the waterparting of the 
Alps very closely, commencing on the west where the Mari- 
time Alps run down to the sea, and following the crest round 
to the Carnic Alps north of Venetia, whence a short artificial 
boundary line is carried to the Adriatic Gulf west of Trieste. 

At two points the political frontier line deviates considerably 
from the waterparting, and in both cases to the disadvantage 
of Italy, viz. (i) The Tyrol south of the Alps belongs to 
Austria; (2) the province Ticino, south of the Alps, belongs 
to Switzerland. 

192. ATTACHED ISLANDS. Sicily and Sardinia form 
part of the kingdom of Italy. Corsica, geographically going 
with Sardinia, belongs to France. 

193. STRAITS. Messina, between Sicily and the mainland 
of Naples. Charybdis is an eddy on the Sicilian side; 



88 GEOGRAPHY, [sect. 

Scylla, a rock on the Italian side; the channel between, 
highly dangerous according to the ancient proverb, is easy 
to modern ships. 

Bonifacio, between Sardinia and Corsica. 

194.. GUIjFS. (i) The Adriatic Sea, the northern portion 
of which is called the Gulf of Venice. 

(2) The Gulf of Genoa. 

(3) The Gulf of Tarento. 

(4) The Bay of Naples, considered the most beautiful in 
Europe. 

195. CLIMATE. Italy in the warm-temperate zone is 
celebrated for its clear blue sky ; but it is liable to consider- 
able variations in temperature. In the north the winds from 
the Alps are bitterly cold in winter and late into the spring ; 
and heavy falls of snow occur little above sea-level as far 
south as Florence. The coast of Genoa is more sheltered 
from these winds by the maritime Alps. In the south, on the 
other hand, while snow is unknown, hot winds are frequent 
in summer and the grass is completely burnt up. Large 
districts in Italy are unhealthy ; and even the finely-wooded 
and picturesque island of Sardinia is from some little 
understood cause unhealthy. 

196. MOUNTAINS, (i) The Alps encircle the head of 
Italy with so continuous a range that the Saddles, the lowest 
passes, are 6,000 to 10,000 feet above sea-level. The highest 
point of the Alps, Mont Blanc (15,784 feet), is now in French 
territory; but Monte Rosa is 15,200 feet high, and many 
other peaks have elevations 12,000 to 15,000 feet. Above 
10,000 feet there is mostly snow in the Alps, even in 
summer. 

(2) The Apennines which, starting from the Maritime 
Alps near Genoa, run continuously the whole length of the 
Peninsula, forming everywhere the watershed between the 
rivers that flow into the Adriatic and those that flow west- 
wards. The highest point in this chain is Monte Corno 
(9,500 feet), nearly opposite Rome. Opposite Naples the 
Apennines bifurcate. 

(3) Volcanoes, viz., Etna in Sicily (10,874 feet), Vesuvius 



VII.] ITALY. 89 

near Naples (4,000 feet), and Stromboli, one of the Lipari 
Islands, near Sicily. 

197. RIVER BASINS. Italy naturally divides into three, 
(i) The northern or continental plain almost wholly 

drained by the Po. The Adige may be considered almost a 
branch of the Po, for the two rivers have a common delta. 

(2) The whole peninsula south-west of the Apennine 
watershed drained by the Tiber, Arno, and many lesser 
streams. 

(3) The whole peninsula north-east of the Apennine 
watershed drained by numerous streams of no great size or 
celebrity. 

198. RIVERS, (i) The Po, one of the finest rivers in 
Europe, is in its lower course retained within its channel by 
artificial banks of such size that the level of the river at 
Ferrara, for example, is 35 feet above that of the streets of 
the town. The maintenance of these banks is a cause of 
constant large expense, but affords the means of a very 
extensive system of irrigation. 

(2) The Adige drains the South Tyrol, its lower course 
only being in Italy. 

(3) The Tiber, a small stream, has Rome on its banks, 

(4) The Arno, a small stream, has Florence on its banks. 

199. LAKES. (l) Como, Maggiore, Garda, Lugano, at 
the foot of the Alps, are the most celebrated lakes in Europe 
for beauty of scenery. 

(2) Trasameno (anciently Thrasymene), Alba, and several 
other lakes in central Italy, though of small size, are cele- 
brated in Roman history. 

200. COMMUNICATIONS. There are over 6,000 miles 
of railway open ; the main routes are : 

(i) Mediterraneait. Nice to Genoa and Rome along the 
coast ; thence to Naples and the Gulf of Tarento ; thence by 
the coast to Reggio, for Sicily. 

(2) Adriatic. Turin by Bologna to Rimini ; thence along 
the coast to Brindisi ; the mail route to India. 

Branch lines crossing the Apennines connect these systems. 

(3) Northern. Genoa to Turin, Milan, Verona, Venice 



90 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

and Undine. Branch lines connect these places with the 
Adriatic line. 

(4) Bologna by Florence to Rome. 

The Italian lines are connected with the European by— 

1. Mont Cenis Tunnel, from Turin to France. 

2. St. Gothard Tunnel, from Milan to Switzerland. 

3. Verona by Innsbruck into Central Germany. 

4. Undine to Vienna. 

5. Undine to Trieste and Austrian ports. 

Besides these are several short lines ; the railway com- 
munication of Italy, though inferior to that of Germany or 
the Netherlands, is vastly superior to that of the Spanish 
Peninsula. 

201. RACES OF MEN. The ancient inhabitants of Italy 
were Latins in the Peninsula, Kelts in the basin of the Po. 
On the break-up of the Roman Empire, the East Goths, a 
Teutonic race, about a.d. 500 spread through Italy ; and in 
A.D. 568 the Lombards, another Teutonic people, settled in 
Lombardy (which took its name from them) and conquered 
part of the Peninsula. The Saracens conquered Sicily in 
the ninth century, and the Normans founded their kingdom 
of Sicily with Naples in the eleventh. 

The Modern Italians, descended from so many elements, 
are thus a very mixed race, formed of Latins, Kelts, and 
High Germans in the main. It is remarkable that there is 
now a much larger proportion of light-haired people in Naples 
than in Piedmont. 

202. HISTORICAL SKETCH, (i) During the Middle 
Ages Italy remained nominally under the Caesar or Emperor, 
who was a German. At this period many of the towns in 
Italy, as Genoa, Florence, Venice, were powerful independent 
States ; and many other towns possessed considerable free- 
dom, the power of the Pope on one side being balanced 
against that of the Emperor on the other. 

In A.D. 1494 the French invaded Italy, which became from 
that time a scene of political confusion and a battle-field for 
Europe. The Emperor, the Pope, and the King of Spain 
were the chief contending parties. In the beginning of the 



viii] ITALY. 91 

1 8th century the Duke of Savoy got a footing in Piedmont ; 
and by the middle of the 18th century he became also King 
of Sardinia. 

After the French Revolution in A.D. 1792 Italy was con- 
quered by Napoleon, and became virtually a portion of his 
F.mpire. 

(2) By the peace of Vienna in a,d. 1S15, Italy was 
divided : — 

Lombardy and Venetia formed part of the Austrian 
Empire. 

Piedmont, Genoa, and Sardinia formed the Kingdom of 
Sardinia under the reinstated House of Savoy. 

Tuscany, Modena, and Parma formed three Dukedoms, 
and were really subsidiary to Austria. 

Naples with Sicily again formed the Kingdom of the Two 
Sicilies. 

The Pope was made temporal prince of a large territory, 
extending from Naples to Tuscany and the Po. 

(3) By the aid of Napoleon III. between 1859 and i86r, 
A^ictor Emmanuel, the King of Sardinia, prevailed against 
the Austrians, and became King of all Italy except Venetia 
and a small area round Rome : and in 1870 Venetia and 
Rome v.-ere gained by Victor Emmanuel. 

203. PRESENT CONSTITUTION. Italy, thus completely 
united, is a constitutional limited hereditaiy monarchy. The 
Constitution is modelled on that of England. There is 
a Parliament, consisting of an Upper Chamber of Senators 
nominated for life by the King, and a Lower Chamber of Re- 
presentatives, elected by the people : and the King is bound 
to govern by Ministers who can command a parliamentary 
majority. Humbert, son of Victor Emmanuel, is king. 
. 204. RELIGION. Nearly the whole population of Italy 
is of the Roman Catholic religion. 

205. LANGUAGE. Italian is a Romance language directly 
descended from the Latin, but has altered so much in the 
lapse of centuries that a mere Latin scholar can make 
nothing of an easy Italian book. Far less can he hold any 
conversation in Italian, 



92 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

206. ANiMAiiS. T\iQ Wild boiir \s plentiful in the Apen- 
nines. The marmot is common in the Alps. The chamois 
is still hunted on the highest crags of the Alps ; but the ibex 
is becoming scarce. The camel is introduced at Pisa ; and 
there is a fine breed of white oxen in Tuscany, long since 
introduced from Hindoostan. 

207. PLANTS. The staple crop is wheat, the produce of 
which in Italy in proportion to its area is greater than that 
of any country in Europe except England and France. 
JUce, maize and millet are cultivated, and ripen even in the 
northern plain where irrigation is attainable. The vine is 
largely cultivated throughout Italy ; but the wines of Italy 
aie mainly consumed at home ; the English preferring those 
of Spain, France, and Germany. Olives and chestnuts are 
produced on a great scale, the chestnut forming a material 
portion of the food of the people. Silk is largely produced ; 
to feed the silkworms mulberry trees are grown. Oranges 
succeed as far north as the lakes at the foot of the Alps or 
the warm coast of Genoa. But one-third of the cultivable 
area of Italy is at present not cultivated ; and it is supposed 
that one-half of the whole area is unsuited for the plough. 

208. MINERALS. Italy is not on the whole rich in 
minerals ; but the chief European supply of sulphur is 
obtained from the volcanic regions of South Italy, especially 
from Sicily. Statuary nuvble is quarried from the Lower 
Apennines, especially near Carrara, and some iron and coppi r 
are got in Piedmont and Tuscany. 

209. DIVISIONS, (i) Naples, called sometimes Conti- 
nental Sicily, comprises the whole of the south of Italy on 
both sides the Apennines. It formed a separate kingdom up 
to A.D. i860. Calabria^ the southernmost part of Italy next 
Sicily, is a well-known sub-division of Naples. 

(2) The Pontifical States, or States of the Church, which 
(up to i860) formed a kingdom for the Pope, and lay on both 
sides the Apennines north of Naples. 

(3) Tuscany, a Grand Duchy before i860. 

(4) Continental Sardinia, which (before i860) comprised 
Piedmont, the upper basin of the Po ; Genoa, the narrow 



VIII.] ITALY. 93 

strip between the Maritime Alps and the Mediterranean ; 
Savoy and Nice, since ceded to France. 

(5) liombardy, comprising most of the lower basins of the 
Po and Adige. 

(6) Venetia, the north-east corner of Italy. 

(7) Parma and Modena, Duchies before i860, extending 
from the Po to the northern side of the Apennine range. 

(8) Island of Sardinia. 

(9) Island of Sicily. 

210. TOWNS. Italy exceeds most other countries in the 
number of her towns that have attained historic celebrity. 
The following list comprises a few of them. There are 
many others which are visited for their architecture, pictures, 
sculptures, or remains of antiquity. 

(i) Rome, population 273,000, the capital of the kingdom 
of Italy, on the Tiber. Here is the Vatican, the palace of 
the Pope, and hard by the cathedral of St. Peter's. Rome 
abounds in remains of antiquity, the grandest of all which is 
the Coliseiun. The neighbourhood of Rome, called the 
Campagna, densely peopled in ancient times, is now un- 
healthy and thinly inhabited. 

(2) Naples, population 463,000, the capital of the old 
kingdom of Naples, on the bay of Naples, with Vesuvius 
near, considered one of the finest sites in the world. Near 
it are Herculaneum and Pompeii, two Roman towns over- 
whelmed by lava and ashes from Vesuvius A.D. 79 ; now 
partially exhumed by digging away the lava. 

(3) Milan, population, 295,000. Its cathedral, adorned with 
white marble, is one of the largest in Europe. 

(4) Palermo, population 205,000, the capital of Sicily. 

(5) Turin, population 230,000, the capital of Piedmont. 

(6) Florence, population 134,000, on the Arno, celebrated 
for the beauty of its situation and its picture galleries. 

(7) Genoa, population 138,000, This was one of the 
princely merchant cities of the Middle Ages, and is still 
a port of much trade. 

(8) Venice, population 130,000, near the head of the 
Adriatic, and built on piles on a group of islands on a shallow 



94 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

coast. This also was a merchant city of great power in the 
Middle Ages : the palace of the Doge on the quay of St. 
Mark is one of the most celebrated buildings in Europe. 

(9) Messina, population 78,coD, in Sicily, opposite Italy. 

(10^ lieghom (Livorno, in Italian), population 78,000, the 
port of Tuscany, with a large foreign trade. 

(11) Bologna, population 103,000, the most ancient uni- 
versity in Italy. 

(12) Verona, population 60,000, on the Adige. 

(13) Ravenna, population 34,000, on the Adriatic, was the 
residence of the later Roman emperors, and contains some 
of the earliest remains extant of Christian antiquity. 

(14) Pisa, celebrated for its leaning tower. 



ITALY (Abstract). 

ATTACHED ISLANDS. Sicily, Sardinia. 

STRAITS. Messina, Bonifacio. 

GULFS. Venice, Genoi, Tarento, Bay of Naples. 

MOUNTAINS. Alps, Apennines, Etna, Vesuvius. 

RIVERS. Po, Adige, Tiber, Arno. 

LAKES. Como, Maggiore, Garda. 

DIVISIONS. Naples, States of the Church, Tuscany, 
Piedmont, Genoa, Lombardy, Venetia, Parma, Modena. 

TOWNS (with their populations). Naples, 460,000 ; Rome, 
270,000 ; Palermo, 200,000 ; Milan, 295,000 ; Turin, 230,000; 
Florence, 130,000; Genoa, 130,000; Venice, 130,000. 



Sect. IX. GREECE. 

211. EXTENT. Greece is four times the extent of York- 
shire, with about two-thirds the population of Yorkshire. 

212. BOUNDARIES. Greece is separated from Turkey on 
the north by a line that follows the range of the Pindus 
and other mountains : on all other sides Greece is bounded 
by the sea. 



IX.] GREECE. 95 

213. ATTACHED ISLANDS. Euboea and several of the 
islands of the Archipelago (Syra, Melos, and others) on the 
east side. The Ionian Islands (Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, 
Ithaca, and others) on the western side. 

214.. STRAITS. There are numerous straits and channels 
on the map of Greece : the best known are perhaps the 
Straits of Lepanto which connect the Gulf of Lepanto (some- 
times called the Bay of Corinth) with the Mediterranean. 

213. CLIMATE. Greece has one of the finest climates 
in Europe ; but it is liable to be burnt up in summer. The 
fig, olive, vine, and orange flourish : the currant grape is largely 
grown. Wheat, rice, cotton, and tobacco can be raised. 

216. MOUNTAINS AND RIVERS. Greece is a moun- 
tainous and rocky country ; the rivers being short and often 
dried up in summer. Mount Parnassus attains 8,ooo feet, 
and Mount Taygetus in the south of the Morea is nearly 
as high. The celebrated Olympus is the highest, 9,750 feet. 

217. RACES OF MEN. The population of Greece is now 
partly Albanian, but chiefly Greeks. By the Albanians are 
understood a people descended from an ancient Romanic 
race with some Sclavonic admixture. The so-called Greeks 
are believed to be mainly of Sclavonic blood. As fishers, 
seamen, and traders, they are known all over the waters of 
the Mediterranean. 

218. HISTORIC SKETCH. In the ruin of the Eastern 
Roman Empire Greece was invaded by various hordes 
especially of Sclavonians. For a time Venice had the chief 
influence, but the country fell completely under the power of 
the Turks in the fifteenth century, and was ruled by them. 
The Greeks frequently rebelled against their Turkish masters, 
and in 1832 succeeded with some foreign aid in establishing 
the modern Kingdom of Greece. 

219. RELIGION. The Greeks belong to the Greek branch 
of the Christian Church. 

220. LANGUAGE. Though the population of Greece is 
50 mixed and has so little of the ancient Greek in it, the 
mcient Greek language has descended with very little altera- 
:ion : so little indeed that any Greek scholar can read with 



96 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

ease the Greek newspapers. The Greek newspapers, how- 
ever, rather represent the dialect the educated classes are 
aiming at than the existing language of Greece. 

221. DIVISIONS, (i) The Morea, anciently called the 
Peloponnesus, united to the continent by the Isthmus of 
Corinth. 

(2) Continental Greece, including since 1880 Thessaly. 

(3) Euboea, and the adjoining islands of the Archipelago. 

(4) The Ionian Islands ; which were under British pro- 
tection from 181 5 to 1863, v/hen England handed them over 
to the kingdo:n of Greece ; to their misfortune. 

222. TOWNS, (i) Athens, population 85,000, the capital. 

(2) Patras, near the Straits of Lepanto, population 25,000, 
is the largest town in the Morea. 

(3) Corfu, population 16,000, the chief town in the island 
of Corfu. 

(4) Zante, population 16,000, the chief town in the island 
of Zante. 

(5) Syra, or Hermopolis, population 21,000, chief town 
ill island of Syra, rapidly increasing in importance. 

(6) Piraeus, population 21,000, the port of Athens. 

(7) Larissa, population 13,000, chief town in Thessaly. 

GREECE (Abstract). 

ATTACHED ISLANDS. Euboea, Corfu, Zante, Ithaca. 
ISTHMUS. Corinth. 

PENINSULA. Peloponnesus (now the Morea). 
TOWNS, with their populations. — Athens, 85,000 ; Corfu, 
16,000; Zante, i6,ood. 

Sect. X. TURKEY IN EUROPE (including the 
late Principalities). 

[Turkey in Europe forms only a portion of the dominion 
of the Sultan, and his authority over much of it, for years 
past only a nominal Lordship, was swept away in 1878.] 

233. EXTENT. Turkey is the size of France, but con- 
tains less than half the population. 



X.] TURKEY IN EUROPE. 97 

224. DIVISIONS. The former possessions of the Sultan 
in Europe are thus divided :— 

Roumania (population ^h minions) became in 1881 a 
kingdom under King Charles. Capital, Bucharest. 

Servia (population 2 millions) became in 1882 a kingdom 
under King Milan. Capital, Belgrade. 

Montenegro (population 250,000) has always claimed in- 
dependence, which is now admitted, under Prince Nikita. 
Capital, Cettinje. 

Bulgaria and Eastern Roumelia, two principalities separ- 
ated from Turkey in 1878, and now united under Prince 
Ferdinand. Total population 3 millions. Capital, Sofia. 

Bosnia and Herzegovina (population l^ millions) have 
been occupied by Austria. 

Roumelia, Macedonia, and Albania, forming Turkey 
proper (population 4I millions), are still und^r the direct 
, rule of the Sultan. 

225. BOUNDARIES. Turkey is bounded, on the Soui/i 
by Greece, by the sea of the Archipelago, and the Sea of 
Marmora ; on the JSasi by the Bosphorus and the Black 
Sea ; on the A^or/k by Russia and Austria ; on the IVes^ 
by the Adria.ic. 

The boundary between Russia and Turkey is the line of the 
rivers Pruth and Danube. The boundary between Austria 
and Turkey is mainly the river Save and the southernmost 
bend of the Carpathians. 

226. ATTACHED ISLANDS. Candia and sonie smaller 
islands of the Archipelago are the chief islands of Turkey 
reckoned in Europe. 

227. STRAITS. The Dardanelles or Hellespont ; the 
Bosphorus. 

228. GULFS. Saloniki, Sea of Marmora. 

229. CLIMATE. South of the Balkan, the climate of 
Turkey is that of Greece, viz. warm-temperate, one of the 
warmest in Europe ; here maize, rice, cotton, the vine, fig, 
and olive flourish. North of the Balkan the climate is con- 
tinental ; that is, there is a great difference between the 
temperature of winter and summer ; severe frosts are usual 

H 



98 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

in winter on the Lower Danube, while the summer is burning 
hot — with mosquitoes. But the hot dry summer produces 
wheat admirably. 

230. MOUNTAINS. The Balkan runs completely across 
Turkey from east to west. This range is 3,000 — 6,000 feet 
high ; becoming low towards the Black Sea. 

The P Indus range runs south from the Balkan, and is in 
Southern Turkey the waterparting between the rivers that 
flow into the Adriatic and those that flow into the sea of 
the Archipelago. In Turkey proper the loftiest mountains 
are the Rhodope or Despoto Dagh (7,464 feet) in the East, 
and the ranges of Albania in the West. To the latter be- 
longs the Skhar Dagh (10,000 feet), the culminating point of 
the whole Balkan peninsula. 

The southern bend of the Carpathians may be reckoned 
half in Turkey. 

231. RIVERS, (i) The Danube, which drains the whole 
of Turkey north of the Balkan. It cuts through the Car- 
pathians, where it enters Turkey by the celebrated gorge of 
the Iron Gate. The other two best known rivers of Turkey 
are two tributaries of the Danube, viz. : — 

(2) The Pruth, separating Turkey from Russia. 

(3) The Save, separating Turkey from Austria. 

The part of Turkey south of the Balkan produces no very 
large river, being mountainous and cut up into moderately- 
sized river-basins by numerous ridges,as is continental Greece. 

232. COMMUNICATIONS. The railway main-Hnes in 
Turkey proper are very few : those in the late Principalities 
are being rapidly extended. 

(i) The line from Constantinople to Adrianople, Philip- 
polis, and Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, joins the Austrian 
system near Belgrade. 

(2) A line is pushed north-west from Saloniki across the 
Balkan, intended ultimately to reach through Bosnia to the 
Austrian lines. 

(3) A line through the plain of Wallachia, passing by 
Bucharest, is carried to join the Austrian system near 
Belgrade, and reaches the Black Sea coast at Varna. 



X.] TURKEY IN EUROPE. 99 

Besides these railways and the great artery of the Danube, 
Turkey has no communications but a few inferior roads. 

233. RACES OF MEN. The population of Turkey is 
estimated to consist of— 

(i) Turks, 2,000,000: mainly in Roumelia ; partly in 
Macedonia and Bulgaria. 

(2) Roumanians, 5,000,000: in Roumania, z>. Moldavia 
and Wallachia. 

(3) Sciavonians, 6,000,000 : in Bulgaria, Servia, Bosnia, 
Croatia. 

(4) Amauts, 1,500,000 : in Albania. 

(5) Greeks, 1,000,000 : in Thessaly and Macedonia. 

(6) Armenians, 400,000 : scattered in the larger towns. 
The Turks are a Scythian or Mongolian race : but either 

from their frequent intermarriage with Caucasians, or some 
other cause, they have largely lost the characteristics of 
Mongolian physiognomy. 

The Roumanians or Romans profess to be descendants 
of the Roman colonies on the Lower Danube, but they are 
doubtless largely mixed with Sclavonic blood. 

The Arnauts, or Albanians, profess to be Greeks by 
descent, but they are certainly largely mixed with Sclavonic 
blocd. The same may be said of the Greeks. 

The Armenians^ a Caucasian race from Armenia, are now, 
like the Jews, scattered very widely over the globe as traders, 
having no home of their own. 

234. HISTORIC SKETCH. In A.D. 328 the Roman 
Emperor, Constantine, founded Constantinople to be the 
capital of the Eastern or Greek branch of the Roman 
Empire, which it remained for more than 1,000 years. In 
the break-up of the Roman Empire the Roman provinces 
on the Danube were overrun by Gothic (Teutonic) tribes, 
and subsequently by Sclavonic nations. In A.D. 1299 the 
Turks invaded Europe, and captured Constantinople in A.D. 
1453. They gradually conquered all the Danubian provinces 
and Hungary ; and they also conquered the southern 
provinces and Greece, partly from the Venetians. But 
after A.D. 1600 the Turkish power began on the whole to 

H 2 



100 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

retrograde. They lost Hungary in A.D. 1686; Greece in 
A.D. 1830 ; while, with regard to Roumania and Servia, their 
authority gradually decreased till it became nothing. 

Finally, by the war with Russia in 1877-8, they lost all 
their European territories except Constantinople, Macedonia, 
and Albania. Roumanii and Servia have become independ- 
ent kingdoms, and Bulgaria (including Eastern Roumelia) 
a virtually independent principality : Bosnia and Herzegovina 
have been annexed by Austria. 

235. PRESENT CONSTITUTION. The Sultan is abso- 
lute, but is bound to govern in accordance with the precepts 
of the Koran. 

In 1856 the Sultan issued a decree granting religious 
toleration and putting all his subjects, of whatever race, on 
equal ground. But this decree was never fairly carried out 
in execution. 

In 1877 the Sultan, in prospect of Russian invasion, issued 
a decree promising a constitutional Representative Govern- 
ment. This has been laid aside for the present. 

236. RELIGION. It is estimated that in Turkey there 
are — 

Of the Greek Chinch^ 10,000,000; Greeks, Armenians, and 
Sclavonians by race. 

Mahometans^ 4,000,000 ; Turks, Arnauts, Bosniaks by race. 
Of the Catholic Chinch 1,000,000; Sclavonians by race. 

237. LANGUAGE. The language of the Turks is a 
debased, largely corrupted dialect of Arabic. 

The Greeks speak (as in Greece) a dialect nearly ap- 
proaching ancient Greek. 

The Roumanians speak a language immediately descended 
from and very closely allied to the Latin. This is one of 
the numerous instances where the people are much more 
changed than the language. 

The Sclavonians speak various Sclavonic dialects. 

238. TOWNS, (l) Constantinople, population 8oo,000, 
the capital, on the Bosphorus, considered one of the finest sites 
for beauty, commerce, and political influence in the world. 

(2) Adrianople, pop. 140,000, the capital of Roumelia. 



xi.i AUSTRIA. lol 

(3) Gallipoli, population 50,000, on the Dardanelles. 

(4) Saioniki (Thessalonica, anciently), population 70,000, 
on the Bay of Saioniki. 

(5) Shumla, population 60,000, the chief town in Bulgaria. 

(6) Bosna-Serai, population 21,000, the chief town of 
Bosnia. 

(7) Bucharest, population 222,000, the chief town in 
Wallachia, and political capital of Roumania. 

(8) Jassy, population 90,000, the chief town of Moldavia. 

(9) Belgrade, on the Danube, capital of Servia : popula- 
tion 28,OGa 



TURKEY IN EUROPE (Abstract). 

SEAS. Black, Marmora, Adriatic, Levant Archipelago. 

STRAITS. Dardanelles, Bosphorus. 

MOUNTAINS. Balkan, Pindus, Rhodope, Carpathians. 

RIVERS. Danube, Pruth, Save. 

DIVISIONS. Roumania, Servia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, 
Roumelia, Bosnia, Macedonia. 

TOWNS (with their populations).— Constantinople, 800,000; 
Adrianople, 140,000 ; Bucharest, 222,000. 



Sect. XI. AUSTRIA. 

239. EXTENT. Austria is a httle larger than France, 
with very nearly the same population. It is about double 
the area of the Queen of England's territories in Europe, 
and contains a considerably larger population. 

24-0. BOUNDARIES. Austria is bounded on the AWf/i 
by Germany and Russia; on iheEiJsihy Russia and Turkey ; 
on the Souf/i by Turkey, the Adriatic and Italy ; on the 
Wesi by Switzerland and Germany. 

The boundaries are mainly political lines : but, omitting 
Galicia, or Austrian-Poland, which lies in the great northern 
plain of Europe outside the Carpathians, the boundary 



102 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

follows mainly natural lines. Starting from the south-east 
corner, the Carpathians, the river Save, the Adriatic and the 
southern face of the Alps make a boundary : whilst a ring 
of mountains encircles Bohemia in the north-west, to the 
western extremity of the Carpathians. 

Austria has among all the countries of Europe (Switzer- 
land excepted) the minimum coast line ; and but two ports, 
Trieste and Fiume, besides the naval arsenal of Pola. 

241. CLIMATE. Austria is a little south of England, but 
it is further from the Ocean : the climate on the average 
is therefore a little warmer than England, while the difference 
between summer and winter is greater. The result is that in 
Vienna or Hungary the winter is similar to the English 
winter, the summer heat considerably greater, so that the 
vine flourishes. The small part of Austria running from 
Trieste along the Adriatic is very much warmer still, has a 
climate like that of the three south Peninsulas of Europe, 
and grows rice. 

242. MOUNTAINS. Austria is the most mountainous 
country in Europe except Switzerland. 

(i) The Alps enter at the western frontier ; and the three 
large provinces of Tyrol, Illyria, Styria, are almost wholly 
mountainous. The Alps spread out here so, that while one 
branch runs nearly to Vienna, the other forms the water- 
parting between the Save and the Adriatic. 

(2) The Carpathians, which encircle more than half the 
boundary of Hungary : their highest point is 8,685 f^^t 
high. 

(3) The Bohemian mountains, which completely enclose 
Bohemia except at the narrow gap at the north through 
which the Elbe escapes. 

243. PLAINS, (i) The Hungarian plain. The centre of 
this plain between the Danube and the Theiss is very swampy 
and pasture land ; but large parts of it are admirable wheat 
land, especially the south, called the Banat. 

(2) Galicia, a fine wheat country though cold in winter. 
The wheat can pass by the Dniester to the Black Sea, or by 
the Vistula to the Baltic. 




?.' l~A-K ■■ohnstc 




-^'h and j.ondr 



XI.] AUSTRIA. 103 

(3) Bohemia, much less flat than the two preceding. 

(4) Moravia with Austria proper (the Ancient duchy of 
Austria). 

24.4. RIVERS, (i) The Danube, which flows through the 
centre of the country. Austria and Hungary are the countries 
of the Middle Danube. Principal tributaries of the Danube 
are the Theiss in Hungary, the Save from Croatia, and the 
Drave from Illyria. 

(2) The Vistula, some of the head-waters of which are in 
Galicia. 

(3) The Elbe. Bohemia is the upper basin of the Elbe. 

(4) The Adige, which drains the southern Tyrol. 

24.5. COMMUNICATIONS. Austria is in her western 
half well provided with r^//7e/<rKJ'y Hungary fairly well. The 
principal lines radiating from Vienna are :— 

(i) Vienna to Oderberg ; thence (i) Breslau and North 

I Germany ; (ii) Warsaw, in connection with the Russian 

: system ; (iii) Cracow and Lemberg : thence branches to 

' Czernowitz along Russian frontier, and to Odessa on Black 

Sea. 

(2) Vienna to Prague and Dresden in Saxony. 

(3) Vienna to Wels ; thence (i) Passau and Central Ger- 
many; (ii) Salsburg, Innsbruck, Brenner Pass, into Italy; 
(iii) Salzburg, Munich, express route to Paris. 

(4) Vienna, south-west by three routes to the Adriatic. 

(5) Vienna to Buda-Pesth; thence (i) by Kronstadt, (ii) 
by Temesvar, both to Bucharest and the Black Sea; (iii) 
Belgrade, Sofia, and Constantinople. 

There are many branch lines connecting these routes. In 
all over 14,000 miles of rail are open. 

246. RACES OF MEN, Austria is often called Austro- 
Hungary, as being a dual Government Avith two races of 
men, viz. the eastern, mainly Sclavonic, and the western, 
mainly Teutonic. But the mixture of races is more complex 
than this. 

In the centre of Hungary are 6,500,000 of Magyars, a 
Mongolian race allied to the Finns ; rround these are various 
Sclavonic races; viz. the Poles (4,500,000) in Galicia, the 



I04 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Czechs (3,000,000) in Bohemia ; and other Sclavonians along 
the whole south of Hungary. In all it is estimated that 
there are 18,000,000 Sclavonians in the empire, besides 
2,600,000 more Roumans who are largely Sclavonic in blood. 
The Teutons of the empire are estimated at 10,000,000, 
principally in the Duchy of Austria, Styria, Illyria and the 
Tyrol ; that is, only one-fourth the whole population of the 
empire, 40,000,000. 

247. HISTORIC SKETCH. The House of Hapsburg 
became Dukes of Austria in 1273; and to this moderate 
Duchy they added Hlyria, the Tyrol, and other smaller areas 
in the course of two centuries. In a.d. 1526 the Duke of 
Austria succeeded in right of his wife to Bohemia, Moravia, 
and Hungary : at this time the greater part of Hungary was 
in possession of the Turks : but as they were driven back the 
dominions of him who was both King of Hungary and 
Duke of Austria became greatly enlarged : also the title 
of Roman Emperor became in a way hereditaiy in his 
family. In 1772 Austria got a large slice of Poland, and 
afterwards a footing in Italy. 

Napoleon Buonaparte in a.d. 1805 checked for a while the 
aggrandisement of Austria; but by the peace of a.d. 1815 
she was fully reinstated, and perhaps reached the highest 
point of her power in Europe. She got at this peace all her 
old dominions, also Lombardy and Venice in Italy, with a 
preponderating influence over the whole of Italy. In like 
manner Austria was made the chief power in the Germanic 
Confederation, and could in reality sway all the southern states 
of Germany and Saxony also. 

In 1859 Austria lost Lombardy and her preponderating 
Italian influence. 

In 1866 Austria lost Venetia ; and what was of far more 
importance her hold on Southern Germany. 

Since 1878 Austria has, with the consent of the European 
powers, occupied and administered Bosnia and Herzegovina. 

248. PRESENT CONSTITUTION. Austria and Hungary 
have now separate legislatures and governments ; in Austria 
the Emperor reigns as Emperor of Austria, in Hungary as 



XI.] AUSTRIA. loS 

King of Hungary : in each case as a constitutional sovereign 
by means of a Ministry responsible to the Parliament. The 
Parliament of Austria as of Hungary consists of an Upper 
House— of peers, bishops, and magnates nominated by the 
Emperor ; and of a Lower House, elected by a popular vote. 
24-9. RELIGION, It is estimated that 30,000,000 of the 
population of Austria are Roman Catholics, 3,500,000 Greek 
ChrisHans, and 3,500,000 Protestants, besides about 500,000 
Mohannncdans, and about l,(iQO,OQO Jews. 

250. liANGUAGS. The languages of Austria are as 
diverse as the races. 

The Germans (and many Sclaves) speak German, the 
tongue of the Teutons. 

The Sclavonians speak many Sclavonic dialects ; thus the 
Poles speak Polish, the Wends on south-east Hungary speak 
Wend, and the Czechs of Bohemia speak Czech. 

The Magyars speak a language allied to the Finnic, 
altogether a non-Aryan language and remote from all the 
languages of Western Europe. 

The inhabitants of South Tyrol and South Illyria speak 
Romance J a language descended from the Latin and closely 
allied to it. It is from their likeness to this language that the 
other languages descended from the Latin (as French and 
Spanish) are classed as Romance languages. 

251. ANIMALS. Wolves are plentiful in the Carpathians 
and Eastern Alps, and bears are found in both the same 
localities. The beaver is now scarce in Central Europe. The 
chamois and the wild-goat are rare in the Eastern Alps ; the 
marmot less uncommon. Besides these animals, Austria 
contains nearly all known wild in Britain. 

262. PLANTS. The northern half of Austria has much 
the same wild plants as England ; and the climate is adapted 
similarly for wheat. The Alpine provinces of Tyrol and 
Illyria vary greatly in their vegetation with the elevation 
above sea ; at the lowest levels the vine flourishes, while in 
the mountains pastures and fir- woods are alone seen. In the 
southern part of Hungary much tobacco 2in^ maize txxq. grown : 
and the whole plain of Hungary is noted for its vineyards. 



io6 



GEOGRAPHY. 



[sect. 



The vegetation about Trieste and the Adriatic coast is that 
of the warm-temperate cHme ; maize ^ rice, oranges, Jigs, the 
olive and the vi7ie. 

253. MINERALS. Austria is one of the richest countries 
in minerals in Europe. 

The iro7t of Styria is superior even to that of England or 
Sweden, and is almost inexhaustible in quantity. 

In the peninsula of Trieste is one of the richest quicksilver 
mines in the world. 

The salt mines of Wieliczka near Cracow in Galicia have 
been most productive for 500 years ; they are the largest in 
the world. 

The silver and gold mines in the Carpathians in the north 
of Hungary have been long productive and are still worked. 
Copper is also obtained in this neighbourhood : lead and 
zinc in Carinthia : tin in Bohemia. Austria also possesses 
extensive beds of coal, which are not much worked, as the 
forests on her mountains continually renewing their growth 
supply immense quantities of fuel. 

254. DIVISIONS. Austria may be divided as under : 



Divisions. 


Area in Square 
Miles. 


Population. 


1. Grand Duchy of Austria 

2. Moravia (with Austrian Silesia) . . 
3 Bohemia 

/Salzburg \ 
1 Styria 1 


12,276 
10,472 
19,866 

30,516 

7.942 
34.012 
123,210 


3,000,000 
2,700,000 
5,475,000 

3,300,000 

1,100,000 
6,269,000 
18,000,000 


ICarniola | 
IXyrol ; 
5 Dalmatia (with Trieste coast) . . . 

6. Galicia (Austr.an Poland) .... 

7. Hungary (with Transylvania, &c.) . 



(i) The Grand Duchy of Austria is the ancient centre of 
the empire round which the other provinces have been 
agglutinated. It lies on both sides of the Danube, Upper 
Austria being mountainous, Lower Austria more level. 

(2) Moravia is a continuation northwards of the plain of 
Lower Austria. The Sudetic range separates it from Silesia, 
only a scrap of which province remains now to Austria, the 



XI.] AUSTRIA. 107 

greater portion having been seized by Frederick II. of 
Prussia, when Maria-Theresa became Empress of Austria. 

(3) Bohemia, anciently a Kingdom ; exceedingly fertile. 
Though the whole drainage is north, it is accessible from, 
and naturally attached to, Austria. 

(4) The five provinces lie on the Eastern Alps, hardly 
inferior to Switzerland in beauty, and superior in climate. 
Many peaks here rise 8,000 — 12,000 feet, and the general 
level of the country is 3,000 feet above the sea. The Dolo- 
mite mountains of Carinthia are the most precipitous in 
Europe ; but the lakes are small, not comparable with the 
Swiss. Constance, however, may be reckoned an Austrian 
lake, as the Tyrol (strictly the Vorarlberg) extends to its 
eastern end. 

(5) The strip of land from Dalmatia to Venetia, lying 
south of the great mountain range and next the Adriatic, 
forms another natural division of Austria. The population 

I of Dalmatia is Sclavonian, and partially even Turkish. 

(6) Gaiicia (including Bukowina and Cracow) lies outside, 
,i.e. north of the Carpathian mountains, and is part of the 

Polish plain. It is that part of the ancient Kingdom of 
Poland which fell to the share of Austria when Russia, 
Austria, and Prussia agreed to divide between them that 
Kingdom. 

So far as Austrian Poland is concerned, the Bureaucratic 
Government of Austria protects the peasantry in Gaiicia 
from the oppression anciently practised on them by the 
Polish nobles ; so that, in 1848, when the Magyars were 
in insurrection against the Austrian Government, the Poles 
of Gaiicia were for the Emperor. 

(7) Hungary, including Transylvania, the Banat, Sclavo- 
.nia, and Croatia. The military frontier is a belt of land 

next Turkey, where Austria has located colonics of soldiers ; 

the whole male population is liable to be called out to meet 

the Turk. 

^b^. TOWNS, (i) Vienna, population 1,100,000, on the 
[Danube, the Capital of the Empire, also a manufacturing 
'town. 



to8 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

(2) Prague, population 162,000, on the Elbe, the capital of 
Bohemia. 

(3) Pesth, population 240,000, on the Danube, with Buda, 
population 120,000, on the opposite banV, the capital of 
Hungary. 

(4) Trieste, population 144,000, on the Adriatic, the single 
port of Austria. 

(5) Gratz, population 97,000, in Styria. 

(6) Brunn, population 82,000, the principal town in 
Moravia, a manufacturing town. 

(7) Lemberg, population 109,000, the largest place in 
Galicia. 

(8) Maria-Theresienstadt, population 61,000, in the 
Banat. 



AUSTRIA (Abstract). 

MOUNTArNS. Alps, Carpathians, Bohemian. 

RIVERS. Danube, Elbe, Adige, Dneister. 

LAKE. Constance. 

SEA. Adriatic. 

DIVISIONS. Moravia, Bohemia ; Styria, Illyria, Tyrol ; 
Dalmatia, Trieste ; Galicia ; Hungary, Transylvania. 

TOWNS (with their populations). — Vienna, 1,100,000; 
Buda-Pesth, 360,000; Prague, 162,000; Trieste, 144,000. 



Sect. XII. SWITZERLAND. 

256. EXTENT. Switzerland is about half the size of 
Scotland ; its population is about two-thirds that of London. 

257. BOUNDARIES. The Southern boundary of Switzer- 
land coincides closely with the crest of the Alps, the main 
waterparting of Europe, separating the waters that flow into 
the Mediterranean from those that flow into the North Sea ; 



xri.] SWITZERLAND. IC9 

but the Canton of Ticino lies on the Italian side of the crest 
of the Alps. 

The boundary on the North and North-east is generally 
the Rhine, while that on the West is the Jura range. 

The adjoining countries to Switzerland are, Italy on the 
South, Austria on the East, Germany on the North, France on 
the West. It is the only completely inland country in Europe. 

258. CLIMATE. The sloping side of the Alps faces 
north ; hence what is called the valley or plain of Switzer- 
land is really a plateau 1,500—2,000 feet above the sea. 
From this cause, and because of the neighbourhood of 
mountains bearing large masses of snow and bringing much 
rain, the climate of Switzerland is inferior to that of other 
countries in the same latitude and even north of it. The 
average temperature is below that of the south of England ; 
and, except in the lowest ground in the north towards Basle, 
the grapes ripen poorly. 

259. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS. The Alps, Starting 
from Mont Blanc, at the south-west corner of Switzerland, 
run east (or a httle north of east) along its southern boundary. 
Monte Rosa is 15,217 feet high, and the Matterhom 
14,836 feet high; their summits being in Italy, the highest 
point in Switzerland is 14,924 feet high. 

Another range, called the Bernese Alps, or Mountains 
of the Oberland, run parallel with and close to the main 
Alps ; their highest point, the rinster Aarhorn, is 14,130 feet 
high ; the two ranges form a knot, where the head-waters of 
the Rhine and the Rhone start. 

The Jura, a much lower range, runs parallel with these 
two on the north-west. 

Switzerland is thus divided into three divisions, viz. (i) 
the less mountainous region north of the Bernese Alps, com- 
prising two-thirds of the whole country ; (2), the upper basin 
of the Rhone ; (3), the upper basin of the Rhine above the 
Lake of Constance. 

Switzerland also comprises a small area north-west of 
the Jura, the Canton Ticino, and the Engadine or head of 
the valley of the Inn. 



no GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

260. RIVERS, (i) The Rhine drains three-fourths of 
Switzerland. Only a small area, however, is drained by the 
Rhine proper into the Lake of Constance ; the whole of the 
centre of Switzerland is drained by 

(2) The Aar, and its tributaries, which falls into the Rhine 
above Basle. 

(3) The Rhone, which leaves Switzerland by Geneva at 
its south-west angle. 

(4) The Inn, which leaves Switzerland on the east, and 
ultimately falls into the Danube. 

(5) The Tlclno, which drains the canton of that name 
into the Po. 

261. LAKES. Switzerland is unsurpassed in the beauty 
of its lakes, which are all of the alpine class, narrow and 
between mountains. 

(i) Geneva, through which flows the Rhone, fifty-five miles 
long. 

(2) Constance, through which flows the Rhine, forty-five 
miles long. 

(3) Neuchatel, through which flows a branch of the Aar, 
twenty-five miles long. 

Other celebrated though smaller lakes are WaUcnstadt 
and Zurich^ which are on the Limmat, a branch of the Aar ; 
Lucerne and Ztig^ on the Reuss, a branch of the Aar ; Brienz 
and Thim on the Upper Aar. Besides these the Italian 
lakes of Lugano, chiefly, and of Maggiore, partly, are in 
Swiss territory. 

262. COMMUNICATIONS. Switzerland is very well 
furnished with railways considering the mountainous nature 
of the country. These lines communicate with the European 
system of railways only on the north and west. The railway 
centre of Switzerland is Olten if any. 

(i) Olten to Basle ; for Paris or Cologne. 

(2) Olten to Bern, Lausanne, Geneva, and South of France. 

(3) Olten to Neuchatel and Lausanne. 

(4) Olten to Lucerne. 

(5) Olten to Zurich, Wallenstadt, and the head of the 
Rhine. 



xiT.] SWITZERLAND. Ill 

(6) Lausanne to the head of the Rhone. 

(7) Bern to Lucerne, Zurich. 

From Zurich a network of railways covers the northern 
frontier of Switzerland and Constance. 

263. RACES OF MEN. Three-fourths of the population 
are Teutons of the High-German race ; the remaining fourth 
are French^ probably mainly Teutons of the Burgundian and 
other divisions. Ticino is Italian. 

The French are mainly in Geneva, Neuchatel, and the 
south-west of Switzerland. 

264. HISTORIC SKETCH. The three forest cantons, 
Schwytz, Uri and Unterwalden, revolted against Austria in 
A.D. 1308. William Tell shot the apple from his son's head 
at Altorf in Uri. The three cantons defeated the Austrians 
in a great battle ; and five other neighbouring cantons, 
Lucerne, Zurich, Zug, Glanis, Bern soon joined them. The 
eight cantons overthrew the power of Burgundy in A.D. 1476 ; 
and added other cantons, till in A.D. 15 13 the number was 
thirteen. This remained the state of Switzerland down to 
the time of Napoleon ; on his fall, at the peace of Vienna, 
the number of cantons was made up to twenty-two nearly as 
at present. 

265. PRESENT CONSTITUTION. The Confederate can- 
tons are a pure democracy. The National Council is elected 
by manhood suffrage, and equal electoral districts of 20,000 
electors. The National Council appoints a Federal Council 
of seven, who are the seven Executive Ministers of the nation. 
But the seven are only elected for three years ; their 
President can only hold office one year, and his salary is 
600/. for the year. No standing army is allowed within the 
limits of the Confederation, and the whole Federal expendi- 
ture is only about 2,000,000/. per annum. The national debt 
is extremely small. 

266. RELIGION. The Roman Catholics are 1,230,000, 
the Protestants 1,740,000. There are many French Catholics 
and French Protestants, German Catholics and German 
Protestants. 



112 



GEOGRArHY. 



[sect. 



267. LANGUAGE. The German families speak German, 
the French families French ; or, to put the horse be- 
fore the cart, those Swiss who speak French are reckoned 
French-Swiss ; thos2 who speak German, German-Swiss ; 
whatever hypothesis be raised concerning their descent 
by blood. 

268. ANIMALS. The ibex and chamois are rare on the 
High Alps, the marmot and wolves not uncommon. The 
black squirrel abounds in the high-level pine-Avoods. The 
bear is said to be not quite extinct. 

269. PLANTS. One- tenth of the whole of Switzerland is 
returned as under the plough ; the rest is pasture -forest or 
mountain-waste. In the uplands, milk, cheese, butter, and 
pine-forests are the chief produce. 

The Alpine plants, those that grow near the snow or 
glaciers, are celebrated for the brilliancy of their colours ; 
among the best known are the blue gentiaiis, the Adel-weis 
and the rJiododendro7i (or azalea). 

270. DIVISIONS. Switzerland is divided into twenty-two 
Cantons, as under :— 



Canton. 



Graubunden (Grisons) 

Bern 

WalHs (Valais) . . . 
Vciud (VVaadt) . . . 
Ticino (Tessin) . . . 
St. Gallen .... 

Zurich 

Luzern . . . . . 
Fribourg (Freiburg) . 

Aargau 

Un 

Schwyz 

Neuchatel (Neuenburg! 

Glariis 

Thurgau 

Unterwalden . . . 
Solothurn .... 

Basel 

Appenzell .... 
SchafiThausen . . . 
Geneve (Geuf) . . . 
2'.ig 



Area in 
Sq. JMiles. 



2.774 

2,66o 

2,026 

1.245 

1,095 

780 

665 

580 

644 

542 

415 

351 

312 

267 

382 

295 

303 
177 
162 
116 
109 
92 



Population. 



94,991 
532,164 
100,216 
238,730 
130,777 
210,401 
317,576 
134,806 
115,400 
198,645 
23,694 
51,235 
103,732 
34,213 
99,552 
27,348 
80,424 
124,372 
66,799 
'38,348 
101,595 
22,994 



Number of 
Representatives. 




WiAX Johns 



16 18 20 


V"-., 22 






^ftwV . , 




1 


M\, 






BALTIC\ SEA 1 


>^7^^L 




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XIII.] GERMANY. 113 

271. TOWNS. The five largest in Switzerland are, 

(i) Geneva^ population 68,000, manufactures watches; on 
the Rhone. 

(2) Basle, population 61,000, on the Rhine. 

(3) Berne, population 44,000, the capital, where the National 
Council sits. 

(4) Lausanne, population 25,000, on the Lake of Geneva. 

(5) Zurich, population 25,000, on the Lake of Zurich ; the 
principal University town. 

SWITZERLAND (Abstract). 

MOUNTAINS. Alps, Bernese Alps, Jura. 

VALLEYS. Oberland, Upper Rhone, Engadine. 

RIVERS. Rhine, Aar, Rhone, Inn. 

LAKES. Geneva, Constance, Neuchatel, Zurich, Lucerne, 
Maggiore, Lugano. 

TOWNS (with their population) — Geneva, 68,000 ; Basle, 
61,000 ; Berne, 44,000. 

Sect. XIII. GERMANY. 

272. EXTENT. Germany slightly exceeds France ill area, 
and has a population larger by one-fourth. 

273. BOUNDARIES. Germany is bounded on the ^'t?//;/// 
by Austria and Switzerland ; on the Westhy France, Belgium, 
and Holland ; on the No7-th by the North Sea, Denmark and 
the Baltic ; on the East by Russia and Austria. 

274.. ATTACHED ISLANDS. A few small unimportant 
islands in the Baltic. 

275. CLIMATE. The climate of Germany is nearly the 
same as that of England, the winters being a httle colder, 
the summers a little hotter, so that though no wine is made 
in England much is made in Germany. The south of 
Germany being generally higher land than the north is little 
warmer than it : indeed Bavaria is colder. 

276. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS, The whole of the 
north of Germany, from Holland to Russia, forms part of 

I 



114 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

the great plain of Northern Europe. It is on the whole 
dull and flat, in many places sandy. 

From this plain the country generally rises as \\c proceed 
south, to the very southern frontier of Germany ; the south 
of Bavaria being a high plateau abutting on the Alps. There 
are also several mountainous tracts in Central Germany, 
though the general level of the country is not so high. We 
may enumerate as having separate names : 

(i) The Bavarian Alps on the frontier between Bavaria 
and the Tyrol. 

(2) The Black Forest on the waterparting between the 
Danube and the Rhine in Baden. 

(3) The Bohemian mountains ; in the East of Saxony 
there is a district known as the Saxon Switzerland, abutting 
on these. 

(4) The Thuringian Forest; in the centre of Germany 
west from Saxony. 

(5) The Eifel, extinct volcanoes on the left bank of the 
Rhine, north of the Moselle, resembling the Puys of Central 
France. 

(6) The Hartz, the most northern group of German 
mountains, not far south-east from Hanover ; and narrowing 
at this point the great northern plain of Europe. 

277, RIVERS, (i) The Rhine, the national river of the 
Germans ; enters Germany at the Lake of Constance, and 
flowing west thence to Basle forms the southern frontier of 
the empire. At Basle it turns north and flows by Strasbourg 
to Manheim, and thence to Mayence. It receives the 
Neckar at Manheim, the Main at Mayence, both on its 
right bank. The plain of the Rhine from Mayence nearly 
to Strasbourg is wide and extremely fertile, and was known 
anciently as the Palatinate. The valley of the Rhine above 
this point from Strasbourg to Basle on the borders of Alsace 
and Baden is the warmest part of Germany ; maize even is 
grown here. From Mayence to Coblenz is the most pic- 
turesque piece of the Rhine, which here flows in a narrow 
valley, hills 1,000 feet high coming up close to its banks. 
Below Coblenz the banks become rapidly lower, till below 



XIII.] GERMANY. I15 

Cologne the country becomes quite flat and the Rhine reaches 
its delta. 

(2) The Main, which flows across the centre of Germany 
from east to west, and is considered the natural division 
between North and South Germany. After passing Frank- 
fort-on-Main it falls into the Rhine at Mayence (Maintz). 

(3) The Moselle, which rises in the Vosges and flows north 
by Metz to join the Rhine at Coblenz. 

(4) The Danube, which rises in the Black Forest, and flows 
east by Ulm and Ratisbon into Austria. A large part of the 
plateau of Bavaria forms the upper basin of the Danube and 
was anciently called Swabia. 

(5) The Neckar drains Wurtemberg and falls into the 
Rhine near Manheim. Its upper basin, together with part 
of the adjoining basin of the Main, forms the province 
anciently called Franconia. 

(6) The Weser, with its tributaries, drains the north-west 
of Germany, falling into the North Sea below Bremen. 

(7) The Elbe, emerging from the Bohemian ring of moun- 
tains, flows by Dresden and Magdeburg, and falls into the 
North Sea below Hamburg. 

(8) The Oder rises in Austrian territory in the Sudetic 
Alps, but quickly entering Prussia, flows by Breslau to the 
North Sea. 

(9) The Vistula only enters Germany from~ Russia in tlie 
lower part of its course, to fall into the North Sea at Dantzig. 

278. LAKES. Germany possesses no lake of fame, ex- 
cept that Constance half belongs to it. 

279. COMMUNICATIONS. Germany is excellently pro- 
vided with railways; but the network converges on so many 
centres that no very satisfactory enumeration, even of the 
main routes, can be made. 

(i) Berhn to Hamburg, Kiel and Denmark. 

(2) Berlin to Bremen, Oldenburg. 

(3) Berlin to Magdeburg, Hanover, Cologne (the express 
route for London). 

(4) Berlin to Leipzig; thence to Frankfort-on-Main or to 
Munich. 

I 2 



Ii6 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

(5) Berlin to Dresden ; thence to Prague and Vienna. 

(6) Berlin to Breslau ; thence to Cracow. 

(7) Cologne, down the Rhine, a line on either bank, to 
Wesel ; for Amsterdam and Rotterdam, 

(8) Cologne, by Aix-la-Chapelle to Liege ; thence to 
Brussels or to Paris (the express route). 

(9) Cologne, up the Rhine, a line on either bank to 
Coblenz and Mayence ; thence to Carlsruhe and Basle for 
Switzerland, or to Frankfort and Central Germany. 

(10) Strasbourg to Carlsruhe, Stutgard, Ulm, Augsburg, 
Munich, Passau (the express route from Paris to Vienna). 

(11) Mulhause, Basle, Constance. The Paris express to 
Mulhause is the direct route from Paris to the centre of 
Switzerland (Olten). 

280. RACES or MEN. Of the 47,cx)o,ooo people in 
Germany, 44,000,000 are Gertnans, 2,500,000 are Poles (in 
the east of Prussia), /. e. Sclavomans. Germany is the 
German fatherland, and the German is the tyf.e of the race 
called Teutonic. In South Germany the language and people 
are High-German, near the northern coast in the low country 
the language and people are Low-German ; but there is httle 
difference in these varieties. The Germans are as a whole 
ahead o'. the rest of the world in education and general 
culture ; and they have also of late years made great progress 
in commerce and colonisation. 

281. HISTORIC SKETCH. The German Empire takes 
its date from a.d. 800, when Charlemagne was crowned at 
Rome by the Pope as Roman Emperor. His successors 
were unable to hold together the Empire, and thus it came 
about that the dominions of the subsequent Roman Em- 
perors were Germany with so much influence in Burgundy 
and Italy as each Emperor might keep. 

From the very first Germany was parcelled out among a 
number of nobles, who had great independent power, each 
in his own principality ; the Emperor was Overlord. After 
the Swabian line of Emperors ended in A.D. 1254, the 
power of the independent princes increased while that 
of the Emperor continually diminished, so that Germany 



xiii.] GERMANY. 117 

became split up virtually into a great number of petty 
principalities. 

Prussia was in A.D. 1230 a non-Christian country, and the 
Emperor and the Pope despatched the Teutonic Knights on 
a crusade against it. The Teutonic Knights soon conquered 
Prussia and the adjacent coast of the Baltic northwards. 

Albert II. of the House of Hapsburg was elected Em- 
peror of Germany in a.d. 1437 ; and since his time down to 
the present century the title of Emperor of Germany was 
always held by an Austrian prince, though he usually had 
little influence as Emperor of Germany. The other princes 
of the Empire became independent princes, and each State 
has a history of its own. 

The Hanseatic League of Free Towns reached its greatest 
development in the 15th centuiy. In these troublous times 
the powerful commercial cities leagued themselves together 
for mutual protection against all comers, whether prince, 
emperor, or mere robbers. Such Free Towns were Hamburg, 
Bremen, Lubeck, and Frankfort ; at that time there were 
fifty towns in the league. 

Certain leading princes in Germany alone exercised the 
right of voting in an election of the Emperor of Germany ; 
they took thus the title of Elector. 

The Thirty Years' War, which ended in a.d. 1648, originally 
a war of the Reformation, ruined Germany and left it a help- 
less mass of principahties. Thus it remained till Napoleon's 
time, to fall temporarily a victim to him. 

At the peace of 1815 a Germanic Confederation was 
formed ; the Duke of Austria gave up the title of Emperor 
of Germany altogether. The old principalities were reformed 
as far as practicable. Much the two most powerful States of 
the new confederation were Prussia and Austria. This con- 
federation lasted till 1866, but it never worked as a national 
German confederation to any purpose at all. 

In A.D. 1866 Prussia conquered Austria, and annexed to 
herself (either absolutely as Hanover, or as subsidiary states 
as Saxony) the whole of Germany north of the Main. In 
A.D. 1871 the Germanic Empire was revived, King William 



ii8 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

of Prussia being elected Emperor ; this Empire includes 
all the German-speaking people except 10,000,000 in Austria 
and 1,500,000 in Switzerland. 

The rise of the Kingdom of Prussia within Germany is a 
separate story. The Elector of Brandenberg got a large 
increase of territory in A.D. 1648 at the end of the Thirty 
Years' War, and became an important power. Continual 
accessions of territory ensued, and in A.D. 1701 the Elector 
of Brandenberg took the title of King of Prussia. In 
A.D. 1740 Frederick II. seized Silesia and kept it. Prussia 
got large slices of Poland by the partitions of 1772, 1793, 
1795. In the re-formation of Europe at the peace of 1815 
Prussia got Westphalia. 

Out of the 47,000,000 people of the German Empire 
27,000,000 are subjects of the King of Prussia, the remaining 
20,000,000 are divided among several States, of which again 
several are appendages of Prussia. The Empire of Ger- 
many is thus at present dragged at the tail of the Prussian 
monarchy. 

282. PRESENT CONSTITUTION. The affairs of the 
German Empire are (under the constitution of 1871) to be 
transacted by the Emperor, the Federal Council, and the 
Federal Diet. The Emperor has the direction of foreign 
policy and of military matters for the whole Empire ; but 
Bavaria has a right reserved of sending her own political 
agents to foreign courts. The Federal Council contains 59 
members and represents the States of the Empire. The 
Federal Diet of 397 members is popularly elected, 236 of 
the members are returned by Prussia. 

For Px^ussia as a separate kingdom there is an altogether 
separate constitution of the King, a Chamber of Lords, and 
a Chamber of Deputies. The Deputies are elected by a 
double election ; every 250 voters choose an " Elector," and 
these " Electors " afterwards choose the Deputies. 

283, RELIGION. In North Germany two-thirds of the 
people are Protestant^ in South Germany two-thirds are 
Roman Catholic; but much the larger population is north of 
the Main, so that on the whole it is reckoned that there are 



XIII.] GERMANY. ug 

29,000,000 Protestants and 16,000,000 Roman Catholics in 
Germany. 

The Protestants are sub-divided ; the most numerous are 
the Lutherans ; the Calvinists are much fewer. 

284. LANGUAGE. 44,000,000 people speak German 5 
2,500,000 speak Polish, a Sclavonic language. 

285. ANlMAiiS. The animals of Germany are nearly 
the same as of Britain, a few others being added. The stag^ 
roebuck^ fallow -deer, and wild-cat are still in the forests ; 
and moreover, the wild boar. The otter is found in many of 
the rivers, and very rarely (in Bavaria) a beaver. The 
chamois is met with on the Bavarian Alps. The wolves are 
very nearly exterminated. The last lynx killed was in 1846, 
and the last bear killed was in 1835, both in the Bavarian 
Alps. It may be doubted whether a bear or a lynx is now 
alive wild in Germany. 

286. PLANTS. The wild plants of Germany comprise 
nearly every plant found wild in England ; but there are 
many others, of the same nature pretty much, added. The 
oak and beech prevail in the low-level forests, firs of several 
kinds form the woods of Swabia, and also prevail wherever 
the soil is sandv. 

The cultivated plants are, as in England, wheat, barley^ 
oats, rye ; green crops of turnips and mangold; and grass. 
Besides these, owing to the hotter, drier summers, wine can 
be grown to a profit in a considerable area of Germany ; not 
merely in the southern warmer valley of the Rhine, the centre 
of the hock country is north of the Main. 

Germany also grows large quantities of potatoes, tobacco^ 
beei-root, andyf^rx. 

287. IVIINERALS. Germany is rich in iron, also in 
numerous coal mines, but the coal is not generally of the 
first quality. There are two mining centres, at both of which 
nearly all the metals, including gold and silver, have been 
found, viz., the Hartz mountains, and Freyburg in Saxony. 
Germany is becoming more and more a great mining and 
manufacturing country, 



I20 GEOGRAPHY. 

288. DIVISIONS. 



[sect. 



States. 


Area in 
Square 
Miles. 


Population. 


jll 
lX-5 


.S « 

^1 


1 

Chief Town. 


/Prussia . . . 
c Mecklenburg . 
t Oldenburg . . 
"S ■' Brunswick . . 
o 1 Hamburg . . 
Z Lubeck . . . 
Bremen . . . 

"CJ Saxony . . . 
^ Hesse . . . 
j«l 12 small States 

g Alsace-Lorraine 
.n ) Bavaria . . . 
a 1 Wurtemberg . 
° [Baden . . . 


134.467 

5.137 

2.479 

i,4«S 

158 

"5 

99 

5,789 
^965 
7.821 

5,602 

29, •..9 » 

7.351 

5.803 


28,313.833 
575.140 
34».25o 
372.580 
518,712 
67,658 
166,392 

3,129,168 

956,170 

1,654,121 

1,563.145 
5,416,180 
1,094,849 
1,600,839 


17 

3 

1 
2 

1 
I 
I 

4 
3 
12 

4 
6 
4 
3 


7 
I 

3 

I 

23 
9 
17 

15 
48 
17 
14 


Berlin. 

Schwerln. 

Oldenburg. 

Brunswick. 

Hamburg. 

Lubeck. 

Bremen. 

Dresden. 
Mayence. 

Strasbourg. 
Rruiiich. 
Stutgard. 
Carlsruhe. 


208,502 


45:770.037 


62 


397 



(i) Prussia is made up of a number of separate provinces, 
viz. : — 

(a) Brandenherg, in the centre round Berlin, the ancient 
Duchy, the nucleus around which the Empire has aggluti- 
nated. 

(b) Poseti and much of Prussia proper, obtained from Poland. 

(c) Silesia, the valley of the Upper Oder, seized from 
Austria ; one of the most flourishing provinces of Prussia, 
with some manufactures. 

(d) Prussian Saxony, round Magdeburg as the capital. 

(e) Hanover, overrun and annexed in 1866. 

(f) Westphalia, or the Rhenish Provinces, in the centre 
of which are Cologne and Dusseldorf. 

(2) Mecklenburg, divided into two separate States. In the 
larger of these the Duke is landowner of the greater half of 
the State as well as Prince. 

(3) Oldenburg, a thinly-peopled sandy plain. 



XTii.l GERMANY. 121 

(4) Brunswick, now tacked on to Oldenburg. 

(5) Hamburg, Lubeok, Bremen, three of the old Hanse 
or Free Towns that have preserved their independence to 
the present day. 

(6) Saxony, an ancient kingdom, greatly reduced in 1815 
for having clung to the fortunes of Napoleon ; and all but 
absorbed by Prussia in 1866 for having clung to the fortunes 
of Austria ; must now be reckoned a subsidiary province of 
Prussia. 

(7) Hesse, a fine territory, may be reckoned the centre of 
the Fatherland. 

(8) Among the twelve smaller States is Saxe-Cobur&, 
which has the same area and population as Cambridgeshire. 

(9) Alsace-Lorraine is the province ceded by France in 
187 1 : it is Imperial Territory of the Emperor of Germany. 
The people of Alsace are largely German-speaking. 

(10) Bavaria consists of two separate pieces ; viz. the 
Palatinate on the left bank of the Rhine, and the larger 
Bavaria on the Danube and Main. It is the chief southern 
German State, but no counterpoise to Prussia. 

(11) Wurtemberg, a small kingdom, chiefly on the Neckar, 
undulating and fruitful, 

(12) Baden, the warmest and richest province in Germany, 
reaches back from the Rhine to the Black Forest. 

289. TOWNS, hi Prussia : 

1. Berlin, pop. 1,315,412 ; the capital, and a manufacturing 
town. 

2. Konigsberg, pop. 151,000, a chief port of the Baltic. 

3. Dantzig, pop. 115,000, a large grain port on the Baltic. 

4. Bresiau, pop. 300,000, capital of Silesia ; on the Oder. 

5. Hanover, pop. 140,000. 

6. Cologne, population 161,000, the capital of the Rhine 
provinces ; a great railway centre ; its cathedral one of the 
most celebrated in Europe. 

7. Eiberfeld with Barmen, pop. 210,000, the chief centre in 
Germany for manufacture of cotton and silk. 

8. Frankfort-on-tbe-Main, pop. 1 54,000 ; great annual fair. 

9. Dusseldorf, pop. 1 15,000; coal mining and manufactures. 



122 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

10. Magdeburg, pop. 1 14,000 ; strong fortress on the Elbe : 
large transit trade. 

11. Hamburg, pop. 407,000, at the mouth of the Elbe, is 
the principal port of northern continental Europe. 

12. Bremen, pop. 1 18,000 ; great port near mouth of Weser- 

13. Dresden, pop. 246,000, capital of Saxony. Its picture 
galleries are considered unsurpassed in the world. 

14. Leipsic, pop. 170,000, celebrated as a centre of the 
European book trade. 

15. Chemnitz, pop. iio,ooo, coal mining and wool manu- 
factures. 

16. Strasbourg, pop. 112,000, on the Rhine. 

17. Munich, pop. 260,000, the capital of Bavaria, with 
celebrated picture galleries. 

18. Nuremburg, pop. 1 16^000 ; chief emporium of Bavarian 
manufactures, especially toys. 

19. Stuttgart, pop. 125,000; capital of Wurtemburg. 

GERMANY (Abstract). 

MOUNTAINS. Bavarian Alps, Black Forest, Hartz. 

RIVERS. Rhine, Moselle, Elbe, Oder, Vistula, Danube. 

IjAKE. Constance. 

DIVISIONS. Prussia, Saxony, Alsace-Lorraine, Bavaria, 
Wurtemburg, Baden. 

TOWNS (with their populations). — Berlin, 1,300,000; 
Hamburg, 407,000 ; Munich, 260,000 ; Breslau, 300,000 ; 
Dresden, 246,000; Cologne, 161,000. 

COiiONiES. The Cameroons on West Coast of Africa : 
part of New Guinea in Malaisia. 

Sect. XIV. BELGIUM. 

290. EXTENT. Belgium is twice as large as Yorkshire, 
and contains rather more than twice as many people ; but 
deserves consideration beyond its size, being of all countries 
in Europe that most nearly on a par with England. 

291. BOUNDARIES. On the North, Holland; on the 
North-west, the German Ocean ; on the South-west, 
France j on the Eastj Luxembourg, Prussia, and Holland. 



XIV.] BELGIUM. 123 

These boundaries are (except the Ocean) quite arbitrary : 
there is neither river nor mountain to prevent the entrance 
of Belgium on any side. 

292. CLIMATE. Almost identical with that of Kent ; 
but rather colder in winter, rather hotter in summer. 

293. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS. There is nothing like 
a mountain in all Belgium. This district was anciently known 
as part of the Low Countries. The western half of it is 
very flat ;' the south-eastern is undulating and picturesque 
with wooded abrupt hills. The general slope of the country 
is northwards. 

294. RIVERSc (l) The Meuse. (2) The Scheldt. 

295. COMMUNICATIONS. Belgium is covered by a 
network of railways on a general system. The principal 
lines converging on Brussels are : 

(i) Brussels to Ghent and Ostend. 

(2) Brussels to Lille (thence by Calais the quickest route 
to London). 

(3) Brussels to Antwerp. 

(4) Brussels, Louvain, Liege, Aix-la-Chapelle (the express 
route to Cologne). 

(5) Brussels, Namur, Luxembourg. 

(6) Brussels to Mons on the direct route for Paris. 

296. RACES OF MEN. Nearly two-thirds of the popula- 
■ tion is Fleming. These are supposed to be descended from 
I the ancient Belga?, who are now believed to have been a 

Keltic tribe with some Teutonic admixture. 

One-third of the population, chiefly on the French border, 
is Walloon. This portion of the people of Belgium is 
usually stated to be by descent more Keltic and less Teutonic 
than the Flemish portion. This is very doubtful. The 
Walloons are closely allied to the French of north-east 
France, and are largely Burgundian. 

297. HISTORIC SKETCH. Belgium formed the northern 
Dart of the ancient Kingdom of Burgundy. After the break- 
up of that kingdom, Duke Philip retained Belgium and 
narried the heiress of Spain. On the rebellion of Holland 
xgainst Philip II. of Spain, Belgium remained '^obedient," 



124 GEOGRAPHY. Tsect. 1 

i.e. was retained by Philip II. At the end of the war of the 
Spanish Succession in A.D. 1713, Austria got Belgium, and 
retained it till the flood of the French Revolution swept 
away nearly all European landmarks. 

At the peace of 181 5 Belgium was joined with Holland to 
make a new kingdom, the Netherlands. By the revolution 
of A.D. 1 83 1 Belgium and Holland agreed to separate. 

298. PRESENT CONSTITUTION. By the constitution 
of 1 83 1 Belgium is a hereditary limited monarchy of a very 
liberal form. There are two Chambers, one of Deputies 
elected by the citizens, and another called the Senate 
elected by the same citizens, but sitting eight years without 
re-election. 

399. RELIGION. Roman Catholic entirely. 

300. LANGUAGE. The Flemings speak a Teutonic 
language which is neither German nor Dutch. The Walloons 
speak an old dialect of French. 

301. ANIMALS. Same as in England; the ■zf/^^ and wild 
boa?' are in the woods. 

302. PLANTS. The wild plants are the same as in Eng- 
land. The agriculture is, alone among European countries, 
equal to the English though not exactly of the same nature ; 
small farms, dairies, and market-gardening prevailing. 

303. MINERALS. Belgium possesses fine r^rt/ fields, with 
i7'0?i in the neighbourhood, from Namur to Liege : Jiere is a 
vast manufacturing industry, where among other things many 
locomotive steam-engines are made. 

304. DIVISIONS. The west of Belgium consists of the 
main portion of the ancient Duchy of Flanders. 

In the extreme south, the greater part of the ancient Duchy 
of Luxembourg is an integral part of the Belgian kingdom. 
But the town of Luxembourg itself with a considerable 
district round it belongs to the King of Holland under a 
European guarantee (England being one guarantor) that 
Germany shall not swallow it up. 

305. TOWNS, (i) Brussels, population 448,000, the capital. 
(2) Antwerp, population 207,000, the chief port at the 

mouth of the Scheldt. 



XV.] HOLLAND. 125 

(3) Ghent, population 143,000, on the Scheldt, the capital 
of Flanders, and a cotton manufacturing town. 

(4) liiege, population 136,000, on the Meuse, a coal and 
iron centre. 

No other Belgian town contains 100,000 inhabitants. 

BELGIUM (Abstract). 

RIVERS. Meuse, Scheldt. 
DIVISIONS. Flanders, Luxembourg. 
TOWNS (with their population). — Brussels, 448,000 ; Ant- 
werp, 207,000 ; Ghent, 143,000; Liege, 136,000. 



Sect. XV. HOLLAND. 

306. EXTENT. Holland has a rather larger population 
ithan Scotland, but is only two-thirds its area. 

307. BOUNDARIES. On the North andlVesi the German 
"Ocean ; on the South, Belgium ; on the East, Prussia. 

308. CLIMATE. Much the same as Lincolnshire ; but 
:the weather in winter is less misty and rainy, with prolonged 
clear frosts, during which the canals of Holland are frozen 
for weeks together. 

309. GULF. The great gulf called the Zuyder Zee was 
formed by an inroad of the sea at the end of the 13th 
century. The Haarlem Lake, shown still in most maps, was 
:pumped dry in 1853 ; and the Dutch have on foot a scheme 
ifor recovering the Zuyder Zee. 

310. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS. Holland, i.e. the 
Hollow Land, is mainly the delta of the Rhine. Consider- 
able areas of it are actually below the sea, which is kept out 
by enormous dikes. Windmills and steam-engines are ever 
pumping the water from the river into the sea. In some 
districts canals are more plentiful than roads ; and, traversed 
by barges in summer or on skates when frozen, they form an 
important portion of the communications of the country. 



126 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Such a country is one plain ; there are no mountains. 

311. RIVERS. Holland contains only the mouths of 
rivers, viz. : — 

(i) The Rhine, which splits up almost immediately on 
entering Holland. 

(2) The Meuse. 

(3) The Scheldt, of which little more than the estuary is 
in Holland. 

312. COMMUNICATIONS. The nature of Holland is not 
very favourable to railways ; the numerous arms of the sea 
and broad canals rendering either numerous large bridges or 
circuitous routes necessary. But Holland is nevertheless on 
the whole well furnished with railways. Among main routes 
are — 

(i) Amsterdam to Zutphen ; thence to Hamburg and 
Berlin. 

(2) Amsterdam to Utrecht and Arnheim ; thence to 
Cologne. 

(3) Amsterdam to Boxtel Junction, for Liege. 

(4) Rotterdam to Utrecht. 

(5) Rotterdam to Breda and Boxtel Junction and Antwerp. 

313. RACES OF MEN. The Dutch are a German people, 
of the Low-German branch to which the English belong. 
The people of north-east Holland are very near in race to 
the Angles. 

314. HISTORIC SKETCH. Holland formed with Bel- 
gium the Netherlands, and became with Belgium part of the 
empire of Philip II. of Spain. When he fiercely persecuted 
the Protestants in the Netherlands, the southern provinces 
remained "obedient;" but the northern, those that now 
form Holland, revolted. They had to fight for their exist- 
ence, but their independence was admitted after forty years 
war in A.D. 1609. 

The Dutch immediately almost became the first commer- 
cial people of Europe, and founded a great colonial empire. 

Holland was overrun by the French in 1794. At the peace 
of 1 81 5 (as stated under Belgium) they were formed into a 
kingdom with Belgium. But this was merely an arrangement 



XV.] HOLLAND. 127 

of Plenipotentiaries, and the Belgians separated in a.d. 
1831. 

315. PRESENT CONSTITUTION. Holland is a limited 
constitutional monarchy. The two Chambers of Deputies are 
both elected, the Lower Chamber by the great body of the 
people, the Upper by the great provincial towns from the 
wealthier citizens. The chambers are renewed by frequent 
elections, and the government is thoroughly popular. 

316. RELIGION. Three-fifths of the population are 
Protestants^ of the Presbyterian section ; two-fifths are 
Roman Catholics. 

317. LANGUAGE. The Dutch language is a dialect of 
Low-German, in many respects approaching English, so 
that it has been said that Dutch is only '* very bad York- 
shire." 

31Q. ANIMALS AND PLANTS may be Said to be 
almost exactly the same as those of the east of England. 

319. MINERALS. Holland has no mines. 

320. DIVISIONS. The old province of Holland proper 
comprised all the large commercial towns and ports. The 
eastern half of the kingdom is agricultural. 

321. TOWNS, (i) Amsterdam, population 394,000, the 
I capital and the chief port. It is said to be so intersected by 

canals that it stands on ninety-five separate islands. 

(2) Rotterdam, population 190,000 ; a port, at the mouth 
• of the Scheldt. 

(3) The Hague, population 138,000, is the seat of govern- 
iment, the political Ccipital of the kingdom. 

(4) Utrecht, population 70,000, one of the ancient Univer- 
sities of Europe. No other town in Holland possesses 
70,000 inhabitants. Amsterdam in 1785 contained 935,000 
inhabitants. 

HOLLAND (Abstract). 

GULF. Zuyder Zee. 
RIVERS. Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt. 

TOWNS (with their populations).— Amsterdam, 394>ooo ; 
Rotterdam, 190,000. 



128 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

COIjONIES. In Asia: Java, most of Sumatra, most of 
Borneo, the Moluccas, part of New Guinea, and many 
other islands of the Malay Archipelago. 

In the West Indies : Curacao and several smaller islands. 

In South America : Dutch Guiana, also called Surinam. 



Sect. XVI. DENMARK. 

322. EXTENT. Denmark is more than twice the size of 
Yorkshire, but contains less inhabitants than does that 
county. 

323. BOUNDARIES. Denmark is bounded on the South 
by Prussia ; on the West by the North Sea and the Skager 
Rack ; on the East by the Baltic and the Cattegat. 

324: ATTACHED ISLANDS. (l) Zealand, Funen, Laland, 
and smaller islands between the Cattegat and the Baltic. 

(2) The Faroe islands north of the Shetlands. 

(3) Iceland ; the English corruption for island, as pro- 
nounced in Denmark. Nothing to do with ice as a deriva- 
tion, though there happens to be much ice in Iceland. 

325. STRAITS. (l) The Skager Rack and Cattegat, 
and three narrow straits leading from the Cattegat into the 
Baltic, viz. : — 

(2) The Sound, between Zealand and Sweden. 

(3) The Great Belt, between Zealand and Funen. 

(4) The Little Belt, between Funen and the Danish Main. 

326. CLIMATE. Much the same as of Yorkshire. 

327. MOUNTAINS AND RIVERS. Denmark is, like 
Belgium and Holland, really part of the great plain of 
Northern Europe, and is as level as Prussia adjoining. The 
rivers are all necessarily small. 

328. COMMUNICATIONS. Denmark has good water 
communication, and this at once prevents the necessity of, 
and makes great difficulties in constructing, large railway 
communication. 

For rapid access to Europe, a railway proceeds west from 
Copenhagen across Zealand and Funen to Frederica on the 



xvi.] DENMARK. 129 

mainland ; but it is of course necessary to cross the Great 
and Little Belts by ferries, making two breaks in the rail. 

329. RACES OF MEN. The Danish are Teutons, of the 
Northern or Scandinavian branch. They are very like 
Englishmen, being the same people who largely settled in 
England under the name of Danes or Northmen. 

330. HISTORIC SKETCH. At the time of the Norman 
conquest Denmark and Norway wer^e influential states in 
Europe ; but in modern times the states of Northern Europe 
owing to their small population have come to be of much 
smaller importance. Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, have 
been joined together in various ways, and with very varying 
boundaries. In 1397 they were all united under one sovereign. 
In 1523 Sweden separated, but the King of Denmark 
remained King of Norway up till the time of Napoleon. At 
the peace of 181 5 Norway was given to Sweden because 
Denmark had adhered to Napoleon. Small as Denmark 
was thus made, she became materially smaller by the war of 
1864, when she lost Holstein and a large part of Slesvig to 
Prussia. 

331. PRESENT CONSTITUTION. A limited constitutional 
monarchy. There are two Chambers, the Lower elected by a 
popular election ; the Upper partly of crown life-peers, mainly 
of members elected from those who have served previously in 
the lower chamber. 

332. RELIGION. Protestant Christianity of the Lutheran 
form is the established religion in Denmark, and very nearly 
the whole population adheres to it. 

333. LANGUAGE. The Danish is a Teutonic language of 
the Scandinavian branch, not very remote from English. 

334. ANIMALS AND PLANTS. Very nearly the same 
as those of Yorkshire. The otter and pole-cat are still com- 
mon. The ivoifwdis extirpated only half a century ago ; the 
wild-boar a century ago. 

335. MINERALS. Denmark has no mines of importance. 

336. DIVISIONS, (i) The Danish mainland contains 
now only the province of Jutland, with a fragment of 
Slesvig. 

K 



I30 GEOGRAPHY.' [sect. 

(2) The metropolitan island Zeeland, with Fuuen, Laland, 
&c. 

(3) The Faroe islands, numerous small islands north of the 
Shetlands. 

(4) Iceland. The habitable part of this island is the 
south, just outside the Arctic Circle. The island in area is 
larger than all Denmark, but the greater part of it is ice and 
snow, unexplored. The population is 72,000 Scandinavians, 
i.e. Danes and Norwegians. 

Iceland is celebrated for the volcano Hecla, and the hot 
springs called the Geysers. A geyser at rest is like a well. 
At times, about once in twenty-four hours in the case of 
some of them, a column of water 50 to 100 feet high, nearly 
boiling, is shot up. 

337. TOWNS. Copenliagen, the capital, in Zeeland, a 
port on the Sound, contains 329,000 inhabitants. No other 
town in Denmark contains even 25,000 inhabitants. 



DENMARK (Abstract). 

ATTACHED ISLANDS. Zeeland, Funen, Feroe, Iceland. 

STRAITS. Skager Rack, Cattegat, Sound, Great Belt, 
Little Belt. 

MOUNTAIN. Hecla (in Iceland). 

DIVISIONS. Jutland, Slesvig, Zeeland, Funen. 

TOWN (with its population)— Copenhagen, 329,000. 

COLONIES. In the West Indies, St. Thomas and one or 
two other small islands. 

In North America, Greenland. 



Sect. XVII. SCANDINAVIA (Sweden and Norway). 

338. EXTENT. Norway and Sweden form the largest 
kingdom in Europe but Russia, being -half as large again as 
France. But the population is small ; not much larger than 
that of Ireland, though the country is nearly ten times as big. 



XVII.] SCANDINAVIA. 131 

339. BOUNDARIES. On the IVes^ and North, the North 
Sea ; on the East, Russia, the Gulf of Bothnia and the 
Baltic ; on the South, the Baltic, the Cattegat and the 
Skager Rack. 

340. ATTACHED ISLANDS are very numerous, both on 
the outer coast and in the Baltic, but small and unimportant. 
Gothland is perhaps the best known. 

341. HEADLANDS. (l) The North Cape, the most 
northernly point in Europe. 

(2) The Naze, at the southernmost point of Norway. 

342. GULFS AND BAYS, (i) The Baltic. (2) The Gulf 
of Bothnia. 

343. STRAITS. (l) The Skager Rack. (2) The Cattegat. 
(3) The Sound, less than three miles across. 

344. CLIMATE. The southernmost point of Sweden "we 
see to be in the same latitude neaily as Edinburgh. The 
climate of the south of Sweden is therefore much that of 
the centre of Scotland. But north of Stockholm very little 
■wheat can be grown. This is the reason that the population 
of Sweden and Norway is so small, and consequently their 
influence in European politics not great. 

We observe that the northern part of Sweden and Norway 
is within the Arctic Circle. Here the climate is Arctic ; the 
sun does not rise at all on the 21st December anywhere 
within the Arctic Circle ; and the snow remains frozen for 
months. 

The coast of Norway is less cold than corresponding lati- 
tudes in Sweden, inasmuch as the Gulf Stream reaches it, or 
at least the warm moist south-west wind. 

345. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS. The great Dovre- 
feld range covers the south of Norway with its ramifications, 
and forms the boundary northwards between Sweden and 
Norway. In the southern portion the Dovrefeld is 4,000 — 
8.000 feet high, but gets continually lower in the north of 
Norway till the mountains sink to 1,000—1,500 feet high. 

The shoulders of the Dovrefeld spread out westward 
to the ocean, forming the numerous fiords or salt-water 
lochs, so that nearly the whole of Norway is a mountainous 

K 2 



132 GEOGRAPHY. [secu 

country ; but the mountains sink rapidly eastwards, so that 
a great part of Sweden next the Baltic is very flat, and may 
be reckoned as included in the great northern plain of 
Europe. 

346. RIVERS. Numerous, but the names little celebrated. 

347. LAKES, (i) Wener, and (2) Wetter, are two of the 
largest lakes in Europe. They belong to the Arctic class, with 
low shores. Sweden abounds in smaller lakes of this kind. 

348. COMMUNICATIONS. Sweden possesses valuable 
canal and lake communications : and in the southern part 
(including the south-east corner of Norway) a network of 
railways has been completed, over 4,000 miles in all. 

1. Lines from Stockholm to Christiana, and from Gefle to 
Gothenburg, connecting the coasts, cross at Kil on Lake Wener. 

2. Stockholm to Gothenburg, passing between the lakes. 

3. Stockholm to Malmo, opposite Copenhagen, east of 
Lake Wetter. 

4. Christiana to Throndlijem, thence to Gefle. 

349. RACES OP MEN. The Swedes and Norwegians 
are Teutons of the Northern or Scandinavian branch, very 
nearly the same as the Danes and closely allied to the 
English. 

There are in the north of Sweden and Norway a few 
Lapps and Finns, who are not Aryans at all. The Lapps, 
a small people with round heads, are possibly connected with 
the Esquimaux. These Lapps are supposed to be the relics 
of the ancient inhabitants of Europe, who were driven up 
into its remote corners by the great Aryan immigration. 

350. HISTORIC SKETCH. Under Denmark it has been 
mentioned that in 1397, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark all 
came under one sovereign, and that in A.D. 1523 Sweden 
separated herself. In the thirty years' war Gustavus 
Adolphus, the Protestant Hero, the Lion of the North, ad- 
vanced with his Swedes into the heart of Germany and, at 
the peace of Westphalia, Sweden obtained a territory in 
what is now Prussia. In 1700 under. Charles XII. Sweden 
possessed Finland, part of Livonia, and gave the law to 
Poland. But by A.D. 1720 Sweden had lost most of the 



.vvii.] SCANDINAVIA. 133 

territories outside her present area. After this date Sweden 
suffered revolutions in her government and became gradually 
weaker. At the time of the French Revolution, Sweden 
lost Finland to Russia. At the peace of 1815 Sweden and 
Norway were made one kingdom. 

351. PRESENT CONSTITUTION. Sweden and Norway 
are one kingdom under one King, but they have entirely 
separate legislatures and governments. In each there are 
two Chambers elected on very liberal principles, and the 
monarchy is strictly a limited one. 

352. RELIGION. The Scandinavians are Protestant 
Christians of the Lutheran form. 

353. LANGUAGE. Swedish and Norwegian are hardly 
other than dialects of Danish ; i.e. they are Teutonic 
languages of the Northern or Scandinavian type : in short 
they are themselves that type. 

The Lapps and Finns speak non-Aryan languages. Finnish 
is akin to no language in Europe except the Magyar. 

354. ANIMALS. Most British animals are found in 
Scandinavia, and the wolf and bear in the northern woods. 
The elk also is met with. But the most celebrated animal is 
the ram-deer, kept in large herds by the Laplanders. 

355. PLANTS. The wild plants of Sweden are nearly 
the same as those of Scotland. In the south of Sweden 
alone are seen the oak and beech j over the greater part of 
the peninsula no trees but ////^j are seen. In the extreme 
north the dwarf birch, and the dwarf willow are woody 
plants, lower than some herbs. 

In cultivation, oals, bailey, and rye extend farther north 
than wheat. 

356. MINERALS. Scandinavia is rich in minerals. The 
Swedish /Vw/is reckoned superior to English. Copper ?^r\d 
silver are mined profitably, and some gold has been 
obtained. 

357. DIVISIONS, (i) Sweden, which is divided into three 
main divisions, viz. the southern, called Gothland; the 
central, Sweden Proper j the northern, Norrland. 

(2) Norway, which naturally divides into the outer coast 



134 GEOGRAPHY. fsECT. 

west of the Dovrefeld, and the tract round Christiana east 
of the Dovrefeld. 

(3) Lapland includes the parts of Sweden and Norway in 
the extreme north occupied by the Lapps. 

358. TOWNS. (l) Stockholm, population 223,000 ; the 
capital of Sweden. 

(2) Christiana, population 130,000; the chief town of 
Norway. 

(3) Gothenburg, population 75,000 ; a port at the entrance 
of the Cattegat. 

(4) Bergen, population 35,000; the port of western Norway, 



SCANDINAVIA (Abstract). 

&UI.FS. Baltic, Bothnia. 

MOUNTAIN. Dovrefeld. 

STRAITS. Sound, Cattegat, Skagerack. 

LAKES. Wener, Wetter. 

DIVISIONS. Sweden, Norway, Gothland, Lapland. 

TOWNS (with their populations).— Stockholm, 223,000; 



Sect. XVIII. RTTSSIA (in Europe). 

359. EXTENT. European Russia is considerably larger 
than all the rest of Europe, and is about forty times the size 
of England. Its average length is 1,500 miles, and its 
average breadth as much. Its population is not propor- 
tionately great, about 109,000,000, but it is increasing at the 
rate of a million every year. 

In this chapter we include a small part of Asia, viz., that 
part of Russia called Trans- Caucasia which lies south of the 
Caucasus, and is part of the ancient kingdom of Armenia. 

360. BOUNDARIES. Russia is bounded on the North 
by the Arctic Ocean ; on the West by Sweden, the Gulf of 
Bothnia, the Baltic, Germany, Austrra, Turkey ; on the 
South by the Black Sea, Turkey in Asia, and Persia ; on 



L XVIII.] RUSSIA. I3S 

the East^ by the Caspian, the river Ural, and the Ural 
mountains. 

Russia is not separated from any one of the kingdoms she 
touches by any natural boundary. The Ural mountains and 
river only separate Russia in Europe from Russia in Asia ; 
and this boundary line of geographers is not a boundary line 
of the Russian government. 

361. ATTACHED ISLANDS. None of importance. The 
mo5t valuable are at the mouth of the Gulf of Livonia. 

362. GULFS AND BAYS (l) The Caspian, on which 
is Astrakhan. 

(2) The Black Sea, on which are Odessa, Kherson, and 
Sevastopol. 

(3) The Sea of Azov, a branch of the Black Sea. 

(4) The Baltic. 

(5) The Gulf of Bothnia. 

(6) The Gulf of Finland, on which is Helsingfors. 

(7) The Gulf of Livonia, on which is Riga. 

(8) The "Wbite Sea, on w^hich is Archangel. 

363. PENINSULA. The Crimea. 
364-. CLIMATE. Russia, extending from north to south 

more than 1,500 miles, includes a great range of chmate. 
But everywhere the climate is of the character designated 
"continental" or "extreme," z.c\ there is a very great 
difference between summer and winter. Thus in the south 
at Astrakhan the temperature is permanently below freezing 
point in winter ; while in the north at Archangel the heat is 
very great for a short time in summer. We may, however, 
realize the climate better by treating of the country as in 
Zones bounded by parallels of latitude, though no such 
zones exist ; the climate varies by insensible degrees, 
getting warmer as we proceed from north to south. 

(i) We have the Arciic Zone, Russia within the Arctic 
Circle. Here the sun does not rise on the 21st December. 
We have stunted shrubs, polar bears, and hardly any inhabi- 
tants or cultivation. 

(2) The sub-Arctic Zone, extending from the Arctic Circle 
to north latitude 57" 30'. Here we have the birch and Jir 



136 GEOGRAPHV. [sect. 

ill plenty, and crops of ?ye and barley becoming more 
plentiful southwards. But the winter here lasts in one con- 
tmuoLis hard frost four or five months, and no wheat is 
grown. 

(3) The Cool-Temperate Zone between the parallels N.L. 
57^ 30' and N.L. 45°. Here wheat flourishes ; and though 
much of the east and south-east of Russia consists of barren 
treeless plains called Steppes, yet the south-west of Russia, 
the ancient kingdom of Poland, may be called a chief 
granary of Europe. 

(4) South of the 45° parallel of latitude, in the Warm- 
Temperate Zone, lies only the south of the Crimea and the 
Russian province of Caucasia. Here, in the valleys at 
least, the vine flourishes. 

365. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS (l) The Caucasus, 
which for a great distance maintains a height of 10,000 feet. 
The highest point, Elburz( 18,493 feet), isreckoned the highest 
point in Europe, considerably exceeding Mont Blanc. The 
Caucasus has its deep slope on the north side, descending 
rapidly to the plain reaching from the Sea of Azov to the 
Caspian, which is so low that it is supposed the water 
once extended right across it. 

(2) The Ural mountains, rarely exceeding 5,000 feet high, 
appear as a casual unimportant ridge on the great plain 
which includes Siberia as well as Russia. 

(3) The TValdai heights, not far south-east of St. Peters- 
burg, are not 1,000 feet high, and moreover are not a range of 
hills, but a mere dome-like swelling of the great plain. But 
they are, after the Caucasus and Ural, the prmcipal hills in 
Russia, so level is the great plain ; and the dome-like 
swelling, though hardiy a hill to the eye, is of geographical 
note as the waterparting of the great rivers. 

Russia, therefore, is wholly a portion of the great plain of 
Northern Europe. 

366. RIVERS, (i) The Volga, 2,400 miles long, the largest 
river in Europe. It is a sluggish river, wandering in a 
sandy plain ; but this character, which lessens its picturesque- 
ness, increases its commercial utility. It has no waterfalls. 



XVIII.] kUSSTA. 137 

and there are 250 steamers on it, and boats and barges 
innumerable. 

All the Russian rivers are of this dull useful character. 

(2) The Dnieper, length 1,230 miles, passes by Smolensk 
and Kiev to fall into the Black Sea at Kherson. 

(3) The Ural, length 1040 miles, forms the boundary 
between Europe and Asia. 

(4) The Don, length 995 miles, falls into the Sea of Azov. 

(5) The Dwina, 700 miles long, falls into the White Sea at 
Archangel. 

(6) The Dniester, partly only in Russian territory, falls 
into the Black Sea. Down it a large part of the wheat from 
the ancient kingdom of Poland is carried ; and near its 
mouth is Odessa, a very large grain port. 

(7) The Vistula, partly only in Russian territory. The 
wheat from the ancient kingdom of Poland is carried down 
to the grain port of Danzig ; and Warsaw is on its banks. 

(8) The D3rna (Dwina of some maps), falls into the Gulf 
of Livonia at Riga, another great grain port. 

(9) The Neva, a short but large river, drains the great 
lakes into the sea : at its mouth stands St. Petersburg. 

367. LAKES, (i) Ladoga, the largest lake in Europe, 
about the size of Yorkshire. 

(2) Onega. Both these lakes are of the strictly Arctic 
character, and the whole of Finland abounds in similar lakes. 
There are also jnany such throughout north-western Russia. 

Russia has also lakes of a very different kind in the huge 
ponds of brackish water near the Caspian. 

368. COMMUNICATIONS. Russia has about 18,000 miles 
of railway open, chiefly of trunk lines. From St. Petersburg, 

(i) To Helsingfors; thence to Nikolaistadt on Gulf of 
Bothnia. 

(2) Along south coast of Gulf of Finland to Revel. 

(3) To Diinaburg, thence branch to Riga, and direct to 

(4) Wilna, thence (i) to Konigsberg and N. Germany; 
(ii) by Warsaw to Vienna and S. Germany. 

(5) To Moscow, 400 miles. 

(6) Moscow to Vologda and northern provinces. 

(7) Moscow, east to Nijni-Novgorod on Volga. 



t3^ GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

(8) Moscow, west by Smolensk to Warsaw. 

(9) Moscow, south to Kursk; thence (i) by Kiev to the 
Austrian frontier and to Odessa ; (ii) by Kharkov to the 
Crimea, with branches to ports on the Sea of Azov. 

(10) Moscow, south-^ast to Rostow, thence to the Caucasus. 

(11) Moscow, east to Orenburg on the Ural river. 

(12) Odessa to Lemberg in Galicia and Cracow. 
These main routes are connected by branch lines. 

(13) Poti on the Black Sea by Tiflis to Baku on the 
Caspian ; thence steamers cross the Caspian to Michailovsk, 
joining the militar>' railway to Bokhara. 

369. PORTS. Russia has three sea-boards, and good har- 
bours on each, but her trade is hampered partly by the 
climate, partly by political arrangements. 

(i) The White Sea has the port Archangel, but it is frozen 
up half the year ; and it is in an almost uninhabited part 
of the country, so that no great trade can take place here. 

(2) The Baltic ports are frozen up several months in the 
year ; and the trade always lies at the mercy of Denmark, 
which holds the Sound. Riga, Revel, and St. Petersburg 
are still important trading ports. 

(3) The Black Sea ports are liable to be frozen up : and 
the trade is completely at the mercy of Turkey, which 
holds the Dardanelles. Odessa and Kherson are the ports 
of the Dniester and Dnieper ; Taganrog of the Don ; all 
are important grain ports. 

370. RACES OF MEN. (i) The Russians proper, 70,000, 000, 
occupy the centre of the kingdom round Moscow. They are 
Aryans, of the division Sclavonian, of the race Russian. 

(2) The Poles, 6,000,000, occupy Poland and south-west 
Russia. They are also Sclavonians, of the race Pole. So 
large a part of the Russian population is made up thus of 
Russ and Pole together, that it is essentially a Sclavonic 
Empire, though it contains various other peoples not Scla- 
vonic. 

(3) The Swedes and Germans along the Baltic, in the 
provmces of Courland, Livonia, Esthonia, and Finland, are 
numerous ; these provinces having belonged till modern 



XVIII.] RUSSIA. 13^ 

times to the Teutonic Knights, Swedes, &c. They are mostly 
Teutons of the Scandinavian race, some of the Low-German 
race, and greatly resemble the English people. 

(4) The liithuanlans ; perhaps 3,000,000 are Aryans. It is 
not settled exactly who they are, but they may be Sclavonic. 

(5) The Finns, 4,600,000 in Finland, are not Aryans at 
all. They are perhaps Mongolians. 

(6) The LappSj and various other tribes of short round- 
headed men, who live on the shores of the Arctic Ocean, are 
allied to the Finns, or at all events non-Aryan. They are 
not numerous. 

(7) The Tartars of the Steppes are Mongohans and nume- 
rous, probably over eight millions altogether. They extend 
from the basin of the lower Don to the Ural river, to the 
Caspian, to the Caucasus, and into the Crimea. 

(8) The Caucasians, Georgians and Circassians, in the 
Caucasus. These mountain-tribes are considered to display 
the Model of Beauty of the Aryan race, which is often there- 
fore called the Caucasian race. 

(9) The Armenians are an Indo-Germanic race, half-way 
between the Persian and the European Aryan. Their inde- 
pendence as a nation has been lost for ages. 

Besides the above there is a great mixture of races in the 
Caucasian provinces. Of Jews there are 3,500,000, who are 
especially numerous in Poland. 

371. HISTORIC SKETCH. TheRussianshadlong been held 
in subjection by the Mongol Tartars, but freed themselves in 
1477 under Ivan the Great, who became Emperor at Mos- 
cow. At this time and for long after Russia was completely 
remote from Europe, as the powerful large kingdom of 
Poland was where the whole of West Jlussia is now. 

Towards the end of the sixteenth century the Emperor 
Ivan the Terrible won Kazan from the Mongols and ex- 
tended Russia in the east to the Caspian Sea. 

Russia did not make any more great advances till Peter 
the Great, who reigned 1689- 1725. He conquered Livonia 
and other territories on the Baltic from Sweden, and pushed 
Russia to the Black Sea by conquests from the Tartars. 



140 GKOGRAPHV. [sECt. 

Catharine II., who reigned 1762— 1796, conquered the 
Crim-Tartars altogether. But in her time occurred the par- 
tition of Poland, one of the greatest events in the history of 
Europe. The yf;i-/ partition was in 1772, and was made by 
agreement between Catharine of Russia, Frederick the Great 
ot Prussia, and the Empress-Queen Maria Theresa of 
Austria. ThisyirVj'/ partition in 1772 was followed by subse- 
quent partitions in 1793 and 1795, which divided up the 
whole of Poland and blotted it out of the map of Europe. 
In these partitions Russia got far the largest share, and her 
border was brought down to the same line at which it now 
stands on her south-west frontier. 

At the peace of 1815, Russia secured Finland. Her 
progress in Caucasia has been gradual ; she first crossed the 
Caucasus in 1800, and has been pushing steadily southwards 
ever since. Siberia she conquered as long ago as 1582 ; 
that is Western Siberia ; it is only of late years that she 
has pushed in Amurland to the Chinese border, and an 
unknown distance east of the Caspian into Central Asia. 
The real sudden rise of Russia was her acquisition of the 
rich and populous kingdom of Poland ; and the large acces- 
sions of mere area since that date are comparatively of 
small importance. 

372. PRESENT CONSTITUTION. The Czar of all the 
Russians professes to rule as an irresponsible autocrat ; but 
his government is really altogether unlike that of an Asiatic 
King. He governs by means of separate Boards of Minis- 
ters called Councils ; he publishes an annual budget, and 
he takes but a very small percentage of the national income 
for his private expenditure. Moreover, he is checked in 
his political action by the old Russ nobility, a very wealthy 
body owning a large portion of the soil ; and still more by 
the bureaucracy or gigantic army of government officials 
in the government departments. The Emperor can in 
fact only carry out any change by the existing machinery ; 
and it is very difficult for him to carry out such a change 
against the opinion of the head of the department, sup- 
ported by his subordinates. The Emperor in 1861—63 



XVIII.] RUSSIA. 141 

arranged to free all the serfs, all the agricultural labourers 
liaving been previously serfs attached to the soil. This 
cliange has nearly freed the Emperor from all control by 
the nobles ; but it has raised up a great body of public 
national opinion, such that the Emperor is obliged, in all 
main questions, to govern in accord with it. 

373. RELIGION. The Russians proper belong to the 
Greek or Eastern branch of the Christian Church, of which the 
Emperor of Russia is head. No member of this Church is 
allowed to alter his creed. 

In Poland, Roman Catholicism prevails ; in the Baltic 
provinces, the Lutheran form of the Protestant Christian 
Church. The Tartars and the Mongolians in south-eastern 
Russia are largely Mahometans. It is estimated that 
there are more than 2,600,000 Mahometans in European 
Russia. 

374-. LANGUAGE. The Russians proper speak Russian, 
a Sclavonic tongue. The Poles speak Polish, another 
Sclavonic tongue. The Lithuanians speak an Aryan lan- 
guage, less removed from Sanskrit (the original Aryan 
language) than any other European tongue. The Finns in 
Finland, and the Tartais of the south, speak Mongolian 
tongues. In the Caucasian province the variety of lan- 
guages is as great as that of races. 

375. ANIMALS. Russia, partly owing to its size, partly 
owing to the considerable areas in it hardly occupied by 
man, is richer in wild animals than any other country in 
Europe. In Arctic Russia the walrus, seals, the polar-bear, 
the rain-deer, the arctic fox and the er7mne (or white-furred 
stoat) occur. In the sub-Arctic and cold-temperate zones 
are the brown bear, wolf, lynx, glutton, red-dar, badger, and 
otter ; and preserved in one forest in Lithuania (in the 
Russian government of Grodno, east of Warsaw) is a herd of 
^' atn'ochs''' z>. the European bison, once common through- 
out north Europe; now the only living examples are this 
one herd. 

Near the Caspian and in the Crimea may be seen the 
buffalo and Bactrian camel ; and in the southern steppes 



142 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

there are herds of semi-wild horses. The antelope and wild 
goat abound in Armenia. 

376. PLANTS. Large as Russia is, the forests in it 
contain no trees that would look strange to an English eye. 
The Scotch fir abounds in the northern half of Russia ; and 
in the sub-Arctic zone the spnice and larch also. In Central 
Russia the oak and beech^ the aspoi and -willow, are common. 
In the south the steppes are treeless wastes. In the south 
of the Crimea and in Armenia we come, however, to 
a great change : the ahno7id, olive, peach, Spanish chestnut 
and orange, appear among the cultivated trees, and a variety 
of non-European forest-trees begin to make their appearance. 

The main crops of Central Russia are, as in England, 
wheat, barley, oats, rye, potatoes, turnips. Flax and hemp 
are largely produced in the Baltic provinces : tobacco and 
beet-root are grown south-east of Moscow. In the Trans- 
Caucasian province of Armenia, and in the south Crimea, a 
great variety of fruits and crops are grown. 

377. MINERALS. In the Ural are important mines of 
gold and malachite, chiefly, however, on the Asiatic side 
of the range ; copper and lead are also produced. There 
are several coal-fields in Russia, particularly a very valuable 
one, recently discovered in the basin of the Donetz. Silver, 
gold and lead are also largely obtained in the Altai Moun- 
tains. The petroleum springs at Baku on the Caspian are 
apparently inexhaustible, and are rapidly rising into immense 
importance. 

I 378. DIVISIONS. 

(i) Poland, with Lithuania. The portion of Poland ab- 
sorbed in Russia may be taken to extend from Warsaw 
and Wilna nearly to the Black Sea at Odessa. It is one 
great plain ; and though containing extensive swamps and 
forests, and having a winter very cold for the latitude, it is 
the chief wheat-exporting country in Europe. Of late years 
England has taken 10,000,000/. worth from the Black Sea 
ports, but the quantity has recently somewhat declined. 

(2) The Baltic Provinces are Courland, Livonia, Esthonia, 
and St. Petersburg. These provinces closely resemble 



L XVIII.] RUSSIA. - 143 

Sweden. The people are largely Teutonic, of the Lutheran 
religion ; and are in many respects like English people, 
while they are totally unlike the Russ Proper. Riga has 
all the character of an old Hansetown. , ' 

The only Russian portion of these provinces is St. Peters- 
burg itself, which, being built in modern times by Peter 
the Great, and made the political capital, is Russian, not 
Esthonian. 

(3) Finland. The population is Finn, but very valuably 
improved by Swedish, and is principally collected along the 
coast line. This province has different institutions from the 
rest of the empire, the Emperor ruling as Grand Duke of 
Finland. In Finland every person can read and write, 
and the stage of civilization is very different from that 
reached in Old Russia. 

(4) North Russia. This may be taken to include Russia 
north of the parallel N.L. 57^ 30'. The area is enormous ; 
the province of Archangel alone is larger than any king- 
dom in Europe (except Russia). But as the population is 
only about one to each square mile, its importance is not 
proportionate to its appearance on the map. Here are im- 
mense forests of pines, and excellent bear-shooting in the 
winter. 

(5) Great Russia. This division includes Moscow, the 
whole of the upper basins of the Don and Volga, and the 
country south from Moscow to Koursk. 

The soil round Moscow is rich. The population here and 
on the Upper Volga is large ; and in Great Russia are also 
congregated the principal manufactories of the empire. On 
the Oka (south-east of Moscow") occur both iron and coal. 
Great Russia is the ancient centre of the empire, and is 
estimated to contain 50,000,000 Old Russians. 

(6) Little Russia,, or the Ukraine, is the name given to 
the middle basin of the Dnieper, of which Kiev is the 
centre. Kiev was anciently the capital of the Russians, but 
the Ukraine afterwards was for a long period part of the 
kingdom of Poland. Little Russia is estimated to contain 
15,000,000 people, mostly Russ. 



144 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

(7) South-east Russia includes the country bounded by 
the Ural river, the Caspian, and the Caucasus range ; also 
the lower basins of the Volga and Don. This immense 
territory is in its characteristics eminently Asiatic, and may 
be described as the western end of Turkestan. It is largely 
" steppe ; " i.e. a wide slightly undulating sandy plain, with- 
out trees, green for a short time in spring with grass and 
weeds, bare for the rest of the year ; interspersed with low 
tracts of brackish water or rivers that hardly move. In this 
region the people are mainly in the pasturage stage of 
society, i.e. they have not yet reached the agricultural stage. 
The Russian Government will not permit the population to 
remain nomadic, or the resemblance to Central Asia would 
be complete. But the people are largely Mongolian, and to 
some extent Mahometan, and prefer the keeping of flocks 
and herds to driving the plough. 

(8) Armenia. Ancient Armenia is divided between Persia, 
Turkey, and Russia ; and it cannot be stated (in 1878) 
exactly how much belongs to Russia. Armenia is naturally 
one of the most delightful countries in the world : highly 
picturesque, and producing most of the fruits of Southern 
Europe. The climate is, however, like all Russia, eminently 
continental, the cold in winter being bitter even in the 
valleys. A great deal of Armenia is high land, as the gradual 
slope of the Caucasus range is to the south ; and on such 
high lands the climate is of course still colder than in the 
neighbouring valleys ; the frost and snow are severe, but the 
summers nevertheless hot. 

379. TOWNS, (i) St. Petersburg, population 929,000: on 
the Neva, the modern capital. 

(2) Moscow, population 75 1,000, the ancient capital. The 
old Imperial palace, called the Kremlin, is a town of itself, 
containing churches and numerous separate buildings within 
its walls. 

(3) Warsaw, population 444,400 : on the Vistula, the 
ancient capital of Poland. 

(4) Odessa, population 217,000 : a grain port on the Black 
Sea. 



xix.j ASIA, 145 

(5) Kichenev, pop. 130,000 : the chief town in Bessarabia. 

(6) Saratov, pop. 112,000 : a trading centre on the Volga. 

(7) Riga, population 169,000: a grain port on the Baltic. 

(8) Wiina, population 93,000 : the ancient capital of 
Lithuania. 

(9) Kazan, population 140,000: a trading centre on the 
Upper Volga. 

(10) Kharkov, population 166,000, has a great trading fair. 

(11) Lodz, population 113,000, in Poland. 

(12) Tiflis, population 104,000 : the capital of Armenia. 

(13) Tashkent, pop, ioo,ooo: capital of Central Asia. 
Russia has no town of 100,000 inhabitants besides the 

above. Other towns of note are— 

(14) Nijni-Novgorod, population permanent small, but 
said to approach 300,000 at its annual fair, which attracts 
merchants from England on one side, China on the other. 

(15) Helsingfors, pop. 49,000 : the capital of Finland. 



RUSSIA IN EUROPE (Abstract). 

CrUiiFS. Caspian Sea, Black Sea, Sea of Azov, Baltic Sea, 
Bothnia, Finland, White Sea. 

MOUNTAINS. Caucasus, Ural. 

RIVERS. Volga, Don, Dnieper, Dniester, Vistula, Dyna, 
Neva, Dwina, Ural. 

LAKES. Ladoga, Onega. 

DIVISIONS. Poland, Lithuani^i, Baltic Provinces, Fin^ 
land. Great Russia^ Ukraine, Armenia or Trans-Caucasia. 

TOWNS (with their populations) — St. Petersburg, 929,000; 
Moscow, 751,000; Warsaw, 444,000; Odessa, 217,000; Riga, 
169,000. 

Sect XIX. ASIA. 

^80. EXTENT. Asia is five times as large as Europe, 
and contains far more people than all the rest of the world 
put together. 

L 



1-46 GEOGRAPHY. [sf.ct. 

. 381. BOUNDARIES. On the North the Arctic Ocean ; 
oft the East the Pacific Ocean ; on the South the Indian 
Ocean; on the West the Red Sea, the Suez Canal, the 
Mediterranean, the Sea of Marmora, the Black Sea, the 
Caucasus Mountains, the Caspian Sea, the River Ural, and 
the Ural Mountains. 

382. ATTACHED ISLANDS. (l) The Malay Ai-chi- 
PelagOf comprising Borneo, Sumatra, Java, and very many 
other islands. 

(2) The Japanese Archipelago comprising Niphon, 
Jesso, and many other islands. 

(3) Formosa, Hainan, and the Philippines in the Chinese 
Sea. 

C4) Ceylon. 

(5) Cyprus, Rhodes, and many islands of the Levant 
Archipelago. 

383. CLIMATE. So vast a continent as Asia, extend- 
ing from the Arctic Circle to the Tropics, exhibits all 
extremes of climate ; but a general character of climate may 
be given to large divisions of it. 

First, in India, South China, the Trans-Gangetic Penin- 
sula and Malaya, we have an excessively hot and moist 
climate. 

Secondly, in South-western Asia we have an excessively 
hot and dry cliitkate ; as in Arabia, Turkey, Persia, Afifghan- 
istan. 

Thirdly, in Siberia we have an excessively cold climate. 

Lastly, through Central Asia and North China we have a 
continental and extreme climate, generally dry ; the winter 
very cold, the summer hot. 

The extreme character of the Asiatic climate is of course 
aggravated when we ascend mountains or lofty plateaus. On 
these, while the direct rays of the sun are scorching, the cold 
far exceeds that of the neighbouring lowlands. 

384. MOUNTAINS AND PLATEAUS. A main water- 
parting runs from West to East, nearly straight across Asia, 
separating the basins that drain into the Indian Ocean from 
the remainder of the Continent. 










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xix.l ASIA. 147 

Commencing from the south side of the Black Sea we 
come to Mount Ararat (17,000 feet). Thence the line pro- 
ceeds along the south side of the Caspian, where the 
Elburz mountains attain 19,000 feet. The range is carried 
at great elevation along the north of Afifghanistan till in the 
extreme north of India it mounts somewhat suddenly to the 
Karakorum mountains, the highest of which is 28,800 feet 
high, the second highest peak in the globe. These Kara- 
korum mountains are only another name for the western end 
of the Himalaya, the mightiest mountain range in the globe ; 
under different names it is nearly 2,000 miles long, forming 
the northern frontier of India. Its highest point, the highest 
mountain in the world, is Deodunga (called Mount Everest 
in the Maps) 29,002 feet high. The Himalaya,, through its 
whole extent, contains numerous peaks exceeding 20,000 
feet in height ; and what is more important, it has no low 
gaps or saddles. The passes are rarely less than 16,000 
feet high. 

East of India the Himalaya line rapidly becomes lower; 
the maps usually show a break indeed between it and 
the mountains of South China, through which gap the 
Irrawaddy and Me-Kong rivers are carried. This part of 
the range is in fact unexplored, but most probably the 
water-parting is continuous into China, where it forms the 
southern water-parting of the Yang-tse-kiang, and may be 
taken to end at Formosa. In other words, it is most prob- 
able that the Irrawaddy and Me-Kong rise altogether south 
of this great wall. 

We have thus one great range extending from Ararat to 
Formosa : and in the centre, where it is most developed, 
viz., the Himalaya, we notice that the steep side of the 
mountains is to the south, the plain of Hindoosthan being 
little above sea-level. 

The Karakorum is the central knot of the mountains of 
Asia, not merely from its height, but because it is backed up 
by the highest plateaus in the world, and because other 
ranges of mountains of the first class radiate from it. 

On the west of the Karakorum is the table-land of Pamir, 

L 2 



148 GEOGRAPHY. [sfxt- 

called the " Roof of the World." Its general elevation 
is probably 16,000 feet above sea. It is a shoulder of the 
Karakorum, the descent from which to the Aral basin is 
very rapid. 

East from the Karakorum is the great table-land of Tibet, 
supposed to be on the average 13,000 feet above sea. It 
lies to the north of the Himalaya along the whole length of 
that range. The Sanpu valley is a comparatively narrow 
depression in the Tibet table-land, while the Upper Indus is 
south of the Karakorum range. 

There is a great descent somewhere about the 38th 
parallel of latitude from the plateau of Tibet to the great 
Gobi desert. This descent therefore forms a steep range of 
mountains from the Gobi desert, and is called the Kuen-iun 
range. This range, with the Thian Shan or Celestial moun- 
tains descending into it from the North, forms a great ring 
round Kashgar and Yarhand. The plain of Gobi is marked 
in the newest maps as only 4,000 feet above the sea ; but it 
is doubtful whether it is not on the average at least 7,000 
feet above sea-level. 

The plain of Gobi is bounded on the north side by the Altai 
ranges. These are mountains which radiate north-east from 
the Karakorum knot, and reach to Kamschatka, forming the 
watershed of the great rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean, 
and being the natural southern frontier of Siberia. The 
spur running north-east from the Karakorum knot is called 
the Thian- shan, and connects that knot with the proper 
Altai. 

Finally, the Suleiman range of mountains which bounds 
India on the west may be considered to coalesce with the 
great range north of Affghanistan. 

Asia abounds in plateaus. The whole interior of the south 
of India is a plateau 2,000—5,000 feet above the sea. 
Arabia is another such plateau, the western half of Persia 
another. 

The principal low-level plains in Asia are— (l) Siberia ; (2) 
the great plain of China ; (3) the Mesopotamian plain 
(Tigris and Euphrates valley) j (4) Hindoosthan, the plain 



XIX. J ASIA. 149 

of the Ganges and Indus ; (5) Mantchuria, the plain of 
the Saghalien ; (6) the low-level country round the sea 
of Aral. 

Taking a broad view of Asia, we may liken it to Europe on 
a vaster scale : we have a great range of mountains cross- 
ing the continent from east to west. We may hken the 
Karakorum to the Central Alps. Next we have three 
southern warm peninsulas : Arabia, corresponding to Spain, 
India to Italy, Malaya (or the Trans-Gangetic peninsula) to 
Turkey and Greece. Lastly, we have a vast northern plain 
extending the whole width of the continent. Such a com- 
parison is worth making if it helps to realize the general 
structure of the continent ; but it is almost puerile to 
compare the position of Ceylon with that of Sicily, to note 
that Malaya like Greece has an archipelago, for no real 
similarity is involved in sucH accidents. 

385. RIVERS, (i) The Yang-tse-kiang, 3,320 miles in 
length, is the longest and most important of Asiatic rivers, 
and its basin supports the largest population. 

(2) The Hoangho, length 2,305 miles, is the other great 
river of China. The upper courses of these two rivers are 
not known ; their position is inferred. 

(3) The Ganges, length 1,106 miles, is the great river of 
Hindoosthan, its valley being densely populous. 

(4) The Brahmapootra is the great river of North-east 
India. Its upper course is not certainly known ; it comes 
through the Himalaya in a deep gorge in the east of Assam 
under the name Dihong. No traveller has been able to 
trace the river up this gorge, as the savages on its banks are 
fierce and hostile ; but it is supposed that this river Dihong 
is really the lower course of the Sanpu of Tibet, and so it is 
usually shown in our maps. 

(5) The Indus, length 1,864 miles, is the chief river of 
North-west India. 

(6) The Euphrates, length 1,620 miles, rises in Armenia 
and flows into the Persian Gulf, 

(7) The Tigris may be considered a branch of the 
Euphrates. Mesopotamia between these two rivers wa? 



150 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

very populous in ancient times, and is still much more popu- 
lous than the neighbouring countries. 

These are the most important and noted rivers of Asia. 
There are very long rivers in Siberia, but of little use owing 
to the extreme cold ; and there are two mighty rivers in the 
Malay peninsula, the Me- Kong and Irrawaddy. 

386. IjAKES. Asia has not many fresh-water lakes : the 
largest is Baikal in Siberia. But it has three brackish-water 
inland seas, which have the peculiarity of being at or below 
the level of the ocean, viz., the Caspian, loo feet below sea 
level ; the Sea of Aral, hardly above sea-level, and the Dead 
Sea, 1,300 feet below sea-level. The Caspian and Aral Seas 
appear to be drying up. 

387. VOLCANOES. Volcanoes occur (in Asia) in the 
islands. There is one long line of volcanoes passing through 
Sumatra, Java, and the smaller islands eastwards ; and there 
is another line of active volcanoes in the Japan islands, of 
which line volcanoes in Kamschatka peninsula and in the 
Aleutian islands are a continuation. In many parts of the 
globe volcanoes occur in long rows, as though the pressure 
from below caused the earth's surface to give way along a 
crack. 

388. COMMUNICATIONS. Besides the natural rivers, 
the communications of Asia are limited to 13,000 miles of 
7'ailway in India, and some short I'ailways in Japan and Asia 
Minor, In very few of the countries of Asia are there many 
made roads. There are some large autals in India and China. 

389. RACES OF MEN. The great mountain range from 
the Caucasus to the East Himalaya divides Asia in such a 
way that the people south of it are mainly Caucasians, the 
people north of it Mongolians. 

Among the Caucasians, the Hindoos, Afghans, Persians, 
and Armenians, belong to the Aryan or Indo-Germanic 
division ; while the Arabs belong to the Shemitic division. 

We have in India, and eastwards to China, tribes who are 
supposed to be the remnants of the people who inhabited the 
country before the Aryan came, and who appear to be 
neither Aryan nor Mongol. 



XIX. ] ASIA. 151 

Of the Mongolian race the Turks, Mongols, and Chinese 
are typical examples. 

In the Malayan peninsula and islands are the Malayan 
race. And in some of the islands often reckoned in the 
Malay archipelago, but on the side next Australia, we come 
upon the Australian race separated by Straits of Macassar. 

390. REIIjIGION. In Western Asia, as far east as 
Northern India, the people are mainly Mahometa7is. We 
may call Turkey, Arabia, Turkestan, Persia, and Afghan- 
istan, Mahometan countries, and one-fifth of the population 
of all India is Mahometan. Also Mahometism largely pre- 
vails in Malaya. 

Brahminisin is the prevalent religion of India. 

Buddhism is the prevalent religion in Ceylon, the Trans- 
Gangetic peninsula, and Tibet, and is the religion of the 
uneducated in China. 

The religion of Fo^ or Confucius, is that of the educated 
Chinese. 

391. ANIMALS. As Asia possesses three main types of 
climate, so she possesses three main zoological provinces, 
viz. (i) the Arctic in the Norths which is much the same as 
the Arctic European ; (2) the West Asiatic or Desert type, 
which is closely allied to the Mediterranean and North 
African ; and (3) the Indo-Malay fauna, which is very 
rich, and very unlike anything in Europe. Taking the 
most prominent Asiatic Mammals in Classes we notice 
among — 

(i) Pachyderms : the ^/^///<:^;^/ (Indo-Malay), five rhinoceros 
(Indo-Malay), a tapir (Indo-Malay), and the wild-hog 
(general). 

Vast quantities of elephants have been found in Siberia, 
some with the flesh still preserved by the frost, so that the 
quadruped has not long been extinct there. 

(2) Cetacea {i.e. Mammals aUied to Whales) : a ixt'iYi- 
WTitQX porpoise is in the Indian rivers. 

(3) SolidnnfTtila {i.e. animals with solid hoofs) : the Dzig- 
getai (or wild ass of Mesopotamia) j and the kian^^ (or wild 
ftss of Tibet). 



152 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

(4) Ruminants : vnisk-deer (several species in Indo- 
Malaya, one in Central Asia) ; deet* (many species, 
especially numerous in In do- Malaya) ; antelopes (five 
or six species in dry, i.e. Western Asia) ; goats (five 
species in Central Asia and the Himalaya) ; sJieep 
(several species in the high mountain regions of Cen- 
tral Asia) ; the buffalo (in Indo-Malaya) and the yak (in 
the Himalaya). The native country of the camel is probably 
Western Asia, but the camel is not now known wild any- 
where. The same applies to the horse. 

(5) Edentata {i.e. Mammals without front teeth) : a 
scaly ant-eater in Indo-Malaya. 

(6) Rodents : great numbers, the animals not large,— ^.^. 
hares (extend throughout Asia, various species), \.\\^ porcupine 
(Indo-Malay), rats and mice (everywhere), squirrels^ mole- 
rats^ marmots (in the high mountains). 

(7) Pinnipedla : the walrus and seals on the shores of the 
Arctic Ocean. 

(8) Camivora : the wolf (in Northern Asia), the fox 
(general), the jackal (common in Southern Asia) ; the lion 
(in South-west Asia, extending to the centre of India) ; the 
tiger (extending from India to Mantchuria), the leopard (in 
nearly the whole south of Asia), the lyfix (in Siberia), the 
cheeta (in India and Persia) ; and numerous cats less than 
a leopard (especially in the Indo-Malay region) ; the hyena 
(in South Asia). Several civets and ichneumons in the Indo- 
Malay region, and a vast number of fur-bearing animals of 
the marten and ermine tribe in Siberia ; different species of 
otter occur from India to Siberia ; \\\q glutton (in Siberia) ; a 
badger (in India) ; bears of many species, some one or more 
in nearly every part of the continent and in the Malay 
islands ; the cat-bear or wah in the Himalaya. 

(9) Insectivora : many moles^ shrews, musk-rats, hedge- 
hogs ; the banxring of Sumatra is halt-hedgehog, half- 
squirrel. 

(10) Chiroptera: scores of bats, also \\\^ fox-bats of the 
Malay islands of very large size with heads resembling foxes' 
heads. 



xix.j ASIA. 153 

(11) Quadjrumana : several animals between bats and 
monkeys of the order called lemurs (all in Indo-Malaya), all 
nocturnal and arboreal, some resembling a monkey, but with 
a membrane enabling them to skid (not quite to fly) from 
tree to tree, others that crawl slowly along the branches of 
the trees. 

Of true monkeys very many in Indo-Malaya, of which 
the orang-outan of Malaya is the largest and most cele- 
brated. 

392. PLANTS. Asia as to its climate and animals has 
been divided into three principal regions, and we may extend 
nearly the same broad classification to its plants. 

1st. The Indo-Malay region includes India, South China, 
and all Asia south-east therefrom, including the Malay 
archipelago. This region is very hot and damp, abounding 
in rank vegetation called y>/;/»-/d?. 

2nd. The Western or Desert region includes Arabia, 
Turkey, Persia, Afghanistan and West India. This region 
abounds in deserts where there are few trees, and where the 
shrubs and herbs are often scrubby, harsh or prickly. 
Though a large proportion of this area is sandy or stony, 
veritable desert, there are numerous fertile valleys near 
rivers or by springs ; but the climate is generally dry and 
the vegetation is nowhere jungly. 

The great deserts of Turkestan and J^Iongolia resemble 
the western desert regions, but have a much cooler climate. 
They are very bare of trees, and contain a large number of 
saline plants, i.e. such as are seen on the sea shores of Europe. 

3rd. The Northern region extending from the Arctic Ocean 
to the Altai mountains and North China. Here we may 
find most of the trees and plants we see in England, or others 
very similar. For example, Siberia is covered with pine 
forests resembling those found in the northern half of 
Europe. 

These European forms of plants also extend along the 
great mountain range from the Caucasus by the Elburz to 
the Central Himalaya, where, if we cannot find many English 
plants exactly, we may find many like them. Thus we there 



154 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

see many kinds of oak, no one exactly like the English oak, 
many kinds of fir, several indeed very like the Scotch 
fir, but yet not exactly like. We see an elm, a plane, several 
maples, an ash, and two horse-chestnuts, but none exactly 
like the English trees so named. 

It is therefore possible to give to persons who have not 
visited Asia some idea of the vegetation of Northern Asia 
and even of the Himalaya. But when we descend to the 
plains of India and the Indo- Malay region the case is 
different ; the trees become very numerous, ten tunes as 
many sorts as in England ; and they mostly belong to 
families unknown in England, so that it is impossible to 
describe most of the Indo-Malayan trees usefully for 
English readers. Among the most celebrated are — 

a. The Palms, the date-palm, the Palmyra fan-palm, the 
cocoa-nut : the rattan is a twining palm. 

b. The Bamboos, gigantic grasses attaining 60 — loD feet 
high, the stems hollow and light, but immensely strong. 

c. Large Figs^ among which the banyan and india-rubber 
are well-known. 

d. Teak, a light wood that works easily and yet possesses 
great strength, one of the finest timbers in the world for 
ship-building. 

e. Cinnamon, cloves and mace, nutmegs. These (like 
teak) are trees bearing no true resemblance to any English 
tree ; their names only can be given. 

Turning to cultivated plants. Rice is the staff of life in all 
the hot and moist regions of Asia, but it is not prolific except 
where it is irrigated either artificially or by the overflowing 
of rivers. Hence the actual area occupied by rice is not the 
major part of the country even in China or India ; and in 
Persia it is restricted to a very narrow area. 

Wheat is very extensively cultivated in all the dry parts of 
Asia that are not too cold for it, and even in North-west 
India so largely that it is exported thence to England. 

Barley is cultivated in Siberia, in the valleys of the central 
plateau, in the plains of India, and thence to the Mediter- 
ranean, 



XIX.] ASIA. 155 

Maize is cultivated in Japan, the interior of China, the 
Himalaya and Northern India. 

Millets^ i.e. various kinds of grasses with small grains, are 
cultivated throughout Asia, from Ceylon to Siberia, from 
China to Turkey. The different kinds, all called millet by 
the English, are all true grasses and feed more people in 
Asia, probably, than any other one plant. 

SagOj the pith of the sago-palm, is largely consumed in 
Malaya, where also the bread-fruit tree (a kind of fig) has 
been introduced. 

Peas^ vetches, and French beans, of very numerous and 
varied kinds, form a large portion of theTfood of the Asiatic 
people ; the kinds grown in India and Malaya differing 
from those grown in Western Asia, and altogether from those 
grown in Northern Asia. 

Asia is supposed to be the original home of most of our 
cultivated fruits: the country from the north of Persia to 
Kashmir is supposed the home of the peach, apricot, vine, 
fig, pomegranate, damson, cherry, mulberry, walnut, apple, 
gooseberry, currant, strawberry, and many other fruits, but 
this is not certain. The orange, lime, lemon, &c., are sup- 
posed to have come from N orth-east India. The date forms 
a considerable portion of the food of the people in South- 
west Asia, and the plaintain (also called the Banana) in 
South-east Asia, Tea is indigenous in South-west China and 
North-west India ; coffee is cultivated in Arabia and India. 
Tobacco succeeds admirably in the driest part of Persia and 
in the moist climate of the Philippines ; while the potato is 
cultivated from the tropical plains of India to the sub-arctic 
region of climate. Pumpkins, melons, and cucumbers of 
numerous kinds, yams, and sweet-potatoes, buck-wheat 
and love-lies-bleeding, are perhaps indigenous food-plants : 
papaws, pine-apples, custard-apples, and guavas have been 

introduced from America. 

393. DIVISIONS. Asia is treated under the following 
divisions ; — 



156 



GEOGRAPHY. 



[sect. 



Country. 



Siberia with Mantchurla . . . 

Turkey 

Turkestan 

Mongolia 

China 

Japan 

Slalay Archipelago .... 
Trans- Gangetic Peninsula. . 

India 

Afghanistan with Beloochistan 

Peisia 

Arabia 



Area in Square 


Estimated 


Miles. 


Population. 


6,100,000 


4,500,000 


660,000 


16,000,000 


7co,ooo 


20,000,000 


2,^00,000 


63,000,000 


1,600,000 


320,000,000 


157.000 


38,000,000 


1,000, coo 


45,000,000 


650,000 


35,000,000 


1,600,000 


257,000,000 


400,000 


4,500,000 


650,000 


7,654,000 


1,200,000 


5,000,000 



Inhabitants 

to the 

Sq. Mile. 



less than 
24 
28 
27 
200 
242 
43 
53 
160 



Sect. XX. SIBERIA (with Mantchurla). 

394. EXTENT. Siberia is nearly twice as large as Europe, 
with only one-sixth the population of England. 

395. BOUNDARIES. Siberia is bouaded by the Ural 
mountains on the M^esf, the Arctic Ocean on the Norths the 
Pacific on the East. The South boundary is taken to be 
the Altai, the southern boundary of Mantchuria being con- 
sidered the water-parting of the Saghalien, and the line from 
the Altai to the Ural being taken at or near 53° N.L. 

All this territory belongs to Russia ; and, besides this, 
Russia possesses other Asiatic territory in Mongolia and 
Turkestan. The boundary here laid down for the South of 
Siberia is by no means the southern boundary of the poNver 
of Russia in Asia. 

396. ATTACHED ISLANDS. The larger part (the 
northern) of the island of Saghalien belongs to Russia. 

The Kurile islands and the Aleutian islands are celebrated 
as a line of volcanoes which connect the Japanese volcanoes 
with those of North America. 

397. GULFS. The sea oi Japan is closed in by the penin- 
sula Corea, the Japanese islands, Saghalien, and the coast of 
Mantchuria. 

The sea of Okhotsk is similarly closed in by the island 
ot Saghalien, the Kurile Islands, the penmsula of Kams- 
chatka, and the mainland. 



XX. 1 SIBERIA. 157 

398. CLIIVIATE. The northern part of Siberia is within 
the Arctic Circle ; here the ground at a few feet below the 
surface is always frozen, and the country is nearly unin- 
habited. The southern part of Siberia extends far into the 
temperate zone ; Irkutsk, the largest town, is south of York, 
and it might be supposed that the climate was like that of 
England. But while England has a very insular climate, 
Siberia has an extremely continental one. For two or three 
months in summer it is oppressively hot at Irkutsk, but the 
winter is very long and intensely cold, Lake Baikal being 
frozen for months. In short, the climate in Siberia is every- 
where s?vere. Mantchuria is still farther south, but here the 
great river Saghalien is frozen for four months, and the 
climate is rather inferior to that of Canada. 

399. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS. The Ural moun- 
tains, 3,000—5,000 feet high, bound Siberia on the west ; 
the Altai mountains, 3,000—7,000 feet high, bound it on 
the south ; the rest of Siberia is one vast plain little elevated 
above the sea. There are other mountain ranges in the 
extreme east, as in the Kamschatka peninsula, a long chain 
rising to over 15,000 feet, the beginning of the volcanic line, 
continued in the islands, and Alaska. 

400. RIVERS. Three great rivers, 2,500 miles long each, 
rise in the Altai and flow north to the Arctic Ocean, viz., 
the Obi, Yenisei, and Lena The thaw of spring affects 
their headwaters first, so that the floods from their upper 
part flow down over the ice in their lower, M'hich being 
covered with water therefore never thaws during the whole 
of summer. Northern vSiberia isthus a huge swamp above 
ice in summer, and far more impracticable to move about 
in than in winter. It seems impossible that much can be 
done to improve the country while all the rivers flow 
north in this way. 

The Saghalien or Amoor, 2,700 miles long, is the great 
river of Mantchuria, hence also called Amoorland. This 
drains east to the Pacific, rendering Mantchuria much more 
capable of improvement than any part of Siberia. 

401. COMMUNICATIONS. There are no railways, and 



158 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

hardly any roads. The great line of communication is 
from Perm (in Europe) by Tobolsk to Irkutsk close to 
Lake Baikal ; thence one route goes to Kiakhta, the border 
town of China (the Chinese half of the town is called 
Maimatchin) : another route goes to the Upper Amoor. A 
large part of the route between Perm and Irkutsk is by 
river, the upper portions of the Yenisei and Obi forming 
a good system of inland navigation. Lake Baikal is crossed 
on the ice. By this route Russia gets tea, though the 
distance from the Chinese tea districts to St. Petersburg 
must be more than 7,000 miles. 

402. RACES OF MEN. The inhabitants of Siberia are 
various Mongolian, mostly nomad tribes, from the Tartar 
to the Esquimaux. But the Russians having conquered 
Siberia nearly 200 years ago, there are now many Russian 
inhabitants. Both political and other criminals have been 
banished to Siberia, and the Sclavonic population is con- 
siderable in the less barbarous portions of the country. 
The religion of most of the Tartar races is Mahometan, 
of the Esquimaux-like Samoeides and others. Pagan ; of 
the races between, -some are imperfect Mahometans, some 
are imperfect Greek Christians. 

403. ANIMALS. Siberia is celebrated for supplying 
furs — sable^ ermine^ and many others — to the European 
market. The white bea?' is in the north, the black bear 
general. The tiger ranges into Amoorland, and is said 
sometimes to feed on the rain-deer, which with the elk is 
common in Siberia. Most northern European animals are 
found in Siberia, as the wolf, glutton, fox. 

The most remarkable animal of Siberia is the 7namnioth, 
or Siberian elephant. These are preserved in many cases 
with their flesh in countless multitudes in the frozen soil and 
ice of North-east Siberia, so that from their tusks 40,000 lbs. 
annually of fossil ivory is sent to Europe. These animals 
are too numerous to be a stray herd overwhelmed accidentally 
by Siberian cold ; it is clear that they lived here for ages : 
their coat is covered with hair and wool, and their stomachs 
contain the leaves of the Siberian fir-trees on which they 



xxr] TURKEV. 159 

fed. The carcase of a rhinoceros has also been dug out of 
this ever-frozen soil. 

4.04.. PifANTS. The trees of Siberia are mainly forests 01 
firs, but the birch, alder, and willow also endure the Siberian 
winter, and extend nearly to lat. 66°. 

Wheat is cultivated in the extreme south about Irkutsk, 
\iw\.-barlcy and rye are more common crops. 

A05. MINERALS. The Ural mountains are rich in 
metals : gold, silver, malachite, are produced , the produce 
of copper and irofi is, however, more valuable. There is 
another rich mineral area on the Upper Amoor, where quick- 
silver, tin, zinc, iron and lead in the form of graphite, are 
obtained. The Ural mines are also celebrated for gems — 
emerald, amethyst, topaz, &c. 

4.06. TOWNS. Irkutsk, population 36,000, is the largest 
town in Siberia, and is reckoned the capital of East Siberia. 
Tobolsk; population 20,000, is the capital of West Siberia. 
Tomsk, pop. 31,000, is the richest and most civilized town. 
Vladivostock, on the Pacific, is an important naval harbour. 

Sect. XXI. TURKEY (in Asia). 

4.07. EXTENT. Turkey in Asia is here taken to comprise 
the territory of the Sultan in Asia ; a vast area, thrice as large 
as France, but containing only half the population of France. 

408. BOUNDARIES. On the West the Mediterranean, 
the Levant, the Hellespont, the Sea of Marmora, and the 
Bosphorus ; on the North, the Black Sea ; on the Easty 
a line from Batoum on the Black Sea to Mount Ararat, and 
from Ararat to the junction of the Tigris and Euphrates, 
this latter line being nearly the eastern watershed of the 
Tigris. On the South the boundary is the Arabian Desert, 
along a line not fixed either politically or by geographers. 

409. ATTACHED ISLANDS. Cyprus, Rhodes, and many 
islands of the Levant Archipelago, among which Samos, 
Mytilene, Chios, and others are celebrated in ancient his- 
tory, but not now important. 

410. CLIMATE. The climate is generally hot and dry, 



i6o GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

partaking of the nature of the desert chmate of Western 
Asia. A large area between Syria and the Euphrates is 
desert, and there are other considerable tracts, in the interior 
of Asia Minor, desert in character. 

In so large a country there is a great range of climate, 
and that range is increased by the difference in elevations. 
Mesopotamia is excessively hot in summer, and Syria much 
burnt up ; while the climate of the coast of the Black Sea is 
warm-temperate, and that of the Armenian highlands is 
very severe in winter with prolonged snows. 

411. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS The Taurus range 
of mountains runs parallel with the south coast of Asia 
Minor, and at no great distance from it, and is the principal 
water-parting of Asia Minor. This water-parting may be 
continued so as to form the northern boundary of the basin 
of the Euphrates till it reaches Mount Ararat. From the 
Taurus rango the country slopes generally northwards gradu- 
ally, so that the interior of Asia Minor is a plateau, which 
contains many traces of volcanic action. The steep side of 
Taurus is towards the south. 

Ararat, height 16,964 feet, is the culminating point of the 
Armenian highlands ; considerable areas of these are 
5,000—6,000 feet above sea-level. 

The Lebanon range, which reaches 10,061 feet above the 
sea, is the highest of the series of ranges which lie near the 
Mediterranean in Syria, 

There is much undulating and hilly country in the north of 
Mesopotamia, the ancient Assyria, where the country rises 
gradually to the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates. South- 
ern Mesopotamia (the ancient Babylonia) is wholly level, as 
is the whole of Asiatic Turkey westward thence to the 
mountainous regions of Syria. 

412. RIVERS. The Euphrates, which rises near Erze- 
roum in Armenia, and forms the western boundary of Meso- 
potamia. Its total course is reckoned i,6co miles, nearly 
wholly in Turkey. 

The Tigris, whose sources are sout"h of the headwaters of 
the Euphrates, and which flows by Mosul and Bagdad. 



XXI.] TURKEY. i6i 

The Jordan, in Syria, which is remarkable for having 
much of its course below sea-level: 

The Meander, in Asia Minor, though not the largest river 
of Asia Minor, is a stream of historic celebrity, which has 
given us the word " meander," to signify the winding course 
of a river across a level plain. 

413. LAKES. Lake Van is a large lake in Armenia, and 
has no outlet. 

The Sea of Galilee is 653 feet below sea-level ; the Jordan 
runs through it. 

The Dead Sea is 1,292 feet below sea-level ; its shjores are 
the lowest known land. 

4-14.. COMMUNICATIONS. None, except 350 miles of 
suburban railway near Smyrna. Over the larger part of 
Turkey in Asia the camel supplies the chief means of com- 
munication. 

4.15. RACES OF MEN. A very large proportion of the 
inhabitants of Asiatic Turkey are Mahometans, and a large 
proportion are Turks or Mongolians (Kurds and other 
tribes) allied to the Turks. In the cities of the coast of 
Asia Minor and Syria, and in the islands, are many Greeks, 
who are Christians. Scarcely one-tenth of the population of 
Armenia consists of Armenians. The Armenian nation is 
(somewhat like the Jews) scattered over the earth as traders, 
at Rangoon, Calcutta, Bushire, Liverpool, and many other 
ports. Besides the above there are many Arabs (Caucas- 
ians of the Shemitic division) within the limits of Asiatic 
Turkey. 

The Kurds are a pastoral people, belonging to the great 
family of nomad tribes, which have occupied Central and 
Western Asia from the earliest dawn of history to the 
present day. 

416. PLANTS. Asiatic Turkey contains some of the most 
fertile districts on the face of the globe, where almost all the 
plants desirable to man may be grown, and which have in ■ 
past ages supported vast populations, but which now all lie 
in decay, poorly populated, miserably cultivated, after hun- 
dreds of years of Turkish rule. 

M 



i62 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

The north of Asia Minor on the shores of the Black Sea 
is a warm-temperate beautifully-watered country. Wheat 
and the vine flourish. The hills are clothed with fine woods 
of oak and numerous other valuable timber-trees, while the 
ground is profusely covered with wild flowers. 

Syria, though scorched up in summer, is still a most 
fertile country. Wheat, the vine, the ora^ige, the /ff, and 
the olive flourish as in ancient times. 

Lower Mesopotamia is capable of supporting now, as in 
Babylonish times, an enormous population. It is all capable 
of irrigation, and able to produce a rice crop every year. 
Under a government that should be equal to protecting life 
and property, it should be as populous as the lower basin of 
the Yang-tse-kiang and Hoangho, or of the Ganges and 
Brahmapootra. 

A17. DIVISIONS. Turkey in Asia falls into four great 
natur^ divisions ; — 

(i) Asia Minor, the country between the Mediterranean 
and the Black Sea. 

(2) Armenia, the whole mountainous or high-land pro- 
vinces in the north-east. 

(3) Syria, the strip east of the Mediterranean. 

(4) Mesopotamia, the country between the Tigris and 
Euphrates, together with the eastern basin of the Tigris. 

418. TOWNS (with their populations) : — 
(i) Smyrna, population 200,000 : a port and residence of 
many European merchants. 

(2) Damascus, population 200,000, the capital of Syria : 
an oasis on the edge of the Arabian desert, due (as are all 
other oases) to the irrigation of a stream. 

(3) Aleppo, population 120,000, has been desolated by 
earthquakes during the last fifty years : was formerly a larger 
place. 

(4) Scutari, population 30,000: the suburb of Constan- 
tinople across the Bosphorus. 

(5) Brusa, population 35,000 : a place of trade a little 
inland from the sea of Marmora. 

(6) Bagdad, population 180,000 : on the Tigris, a place of 



XXII.] TURKESTAN. 163 

trade to which the British India steamers run regularly from 
Bombay : cfelebrated as the capital of the eastern Caliphate. 
Haroun-al-Raschid was here in the ninth century. 

(7) Bassorah, population 50,000: the chief port of the 
Persian Gulf, near the mouth of the Tigris. 

(8) Jerusalem; population 33,000, of whom it is supposed 
one half may be Mahometans, one quarter Jews, one quarter 
Christians. 

(9) Erzeroum, population 55,000, is the chief town in 
Turkish Armenia. 

(10) Mosul; population 75,000, on the Tigris, is a trading 
town, whence came originally to Europe the fine cotton 
texture named thence muslin. Hard by once stood Nineveh. 
For the Turkish dependencies in Africa, see pp. 214, 215. 

Sect. XXII. TURKESTAN. 

4-19. EXTENT AND BOUNDARIES. Turkestan is here 
understood to extend from the main waterparting of Asia in 
the south to 53° N.L., and from the Caspian Sea and the 
river Ural to the mountains connecting the Karakorum with 
the Altai. Thus defined it is the area often marked Western 
Tartary, or Turcomannia, in maps, but it doas not represent 
any political state : the greater portion of it has of late years 
been annexed by Russia, and in the rest different Khans 
rule as far as each can. 

Turkestan thus means a vast area, more than thrice as 
large as France, but in general very thinly peopled. 

4.20. ClilMATE. In the low-lying part of Turkestan and 
along the rivers the climate is very warm in summer, and not 
excessively cold in winter : it is essentially a dry climate, 
the country being largely either steppe or desert, with very 
few trees anywhere. At a moderate elevation the climate 
becomes intensely cold in winter. Everywhere the climate 
is continental, that is, the difference between the summerand 
winter temperature is excessive. 

4.21. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS. The western and 
northern part of Turkestan generally lies low : on the south 

M 2 



i64 GEOGRAPHY. Isect. 

the level ascends to the line of the Elburz and Hindoo 
Koosb; on the east the land rises rapidly to the table-land 
of Pamir (alt. 1 6,000 feet), and to the spurs of the Thian 
Shan. These spurs run out a long way westwards, and 
divide the country into its river-basins. The Hindoo Koosh 
is 18,000—21,000 feet high. 

422. RIVERS. The two rivers are the Amu (anciently 
called Oxus)and the Sjrr (anciently called Sihon), which both 
flow into the Sea of Aral. The chief population of Turkestan 
is collected near these rivers, the country being very fertile 
where irrigation is attainable. 

423. COMMUNICATIONS. Turkestan lies open on the 
west and north : in the south-east, owing to the enormous 
height of the Hindoo Koosh and the Karakorum, there is 
no route into India practicable for more than a handful of 
men. There is a pass over to Mushed, whence the trade 
route passes to Herat and Cabul ; and the Bamian pass, 
elevation 8,450 feet, to Cabul, is the most easterly route 
across the great waterparting that is practicable for laden 
beasts. 

424. RACES OF MEN. Turkestan is so named as being 
the original home of the Turks. The population is largely 
of nomad Mongolian tribes who practise pasturage. In 
the valleys, however, there are large towns where the people 
speak Persian, and may be of Aryan descent, or partly so. 
All are Mahometans and fanatics, who exclude the Kafir, 
/. e. infidel, from the country, or murder him if he attempts 
to travel in it. 

The whole of this district is nov/ virtually included in the 
Russian province of Turkestan, and the Trans-Caspian rail- 
way has been carried to Merv and Bokhara. 

425. TOWNS (with their population). Bokhara, popula- 
tion, 70,000 ; a place of trade, is in the basin of the Amu. 

Tashkend, population 100,000, an advanced Russian post. 

Samarcand, population 36,000, the capital of Timour in 
ancient times, now ruinous. 

Khokan is an advanced Russian post on the Syr (popula- 
tion 50,000). 



xxiii.I MONGOLIA. 165 



Sect. XXIII. MONGOLIA. 

426. EXTENT AND BOUNDARIES. Under this head 
is considered the vast territory which lies between Turkestan, 
Siberia, China proper, and India. Its area is larger than 
that of all Europe except Russia, and is very imperfectly 
known. 

4-27. CLIMATE. A very large portion of Mongolia is many 
thousand feet above the sea : the climate is dry and cold — 
the winter and the nights in summer being very cold. It is 
a matter of course that in the deeper valleys the climate is 
greatly ameliorated, as also it is in Chinese Mantchuria, 
which is on a lower level, and near the sea : but even here 
the climate is continental in character, and intensely cold 
in winter. 

428. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS. Mongolia is the 
largest plateau in the globe, the great table-land of Asia. Its 
highest edge is on the south : its boundary being the Kara- 
korum and 'Himalayan ranges : the bottoms of the valleys 
here are 8,000 — 10,000 feet above sea-level. The general 
height of this plateau from the Karakorum northwards to 
the Kuen-lun is supposed to be 14,000 feet, and it has been 
described as the windiest, bleakest, barrenest wilderness on 
the face of the earth. 

The vast district lying west of China, north of Burma, and 
shown in the maps as the upper basin of the Yang-tse-kiang, 
is untraversed by any modern traveller, and is one of the 
largest unknown areas left on the map of the globe : but it 
must be very elevated, and probably is like Tibet, but the 
climate ameliorated and the soil better watered. 

North of these regions, from the Karakorum and Thian 
Shan to Chinese Mantchuria, extends the great desert of 
Gobi, or Shamo. This is supposed to be in general abso- 
lutely barren, sand or rocks ; a few streams ending in small 
lakes or slipping away in the sand occurring, where a small 
population is maintained ; all intercourse across this desert 



i66 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

being by marches from one such inhabited spot to the next. 
The Yarkand river is beHeved the largest example among 
these streams. This Gobi desert is bounded on the south 
by the Ktien-lun mountains, and is marked in modern maps 
only 5,000 feet above sea-level, but the western portion of it 
is probably higher. 

This great Gobi desert is bounded on the north by the 
Altai mountains ; from these the rivers descend regularly to 
the Arctic Ocean. 

429. RIVERS. The headwaters of most of the large 
rivers of Asia lie within the limits here assigned to Mon- 
golia, viz. : — 

The Yang-tse-kiang and Hoangho flowing eastward. 

The Tsanpoo, which is almost certainly the same river 
called in India the Brahmapootra. 

The Indus and Sutlej flowing south. 

The Obi and Yenesei flowing north. 

The Yarkand river is a river entirely contained within 
Mongolia, and is probably six hundred miles long. 

430. RACES OF MEN. The population is generally 
Mongolian ; being mostly Tartar Mahometan in the west, 
Chinese Buddhist in the east and south-east. 

431. DIVISIONS, (i) The Yarkand river-basin in the 
west contains the towns of Yarkand and Kashgar, now 
governed by Tartar Mahometan Khans. It has lately been 
penetrated from Kashmir by Europeans. The country and 
people resemble those of Turkestan. 

(2) Tibet, of which Lhassa is reckoned the capital, is com- 
pletely subordinate to China. It is regarded as the head- 
quarters of Buddhism. The country is exceedingly high, 
cold, and barren, the population being clustered along the 
Tsanpoo. 

(3) The upper basins of the Yang-tse-kiang and Hoangho, 
which country is so entirely unknown that many geographers 
carry the headwaters of the Irrawaddy and Me-Kong 
hundreds of miles up into it. 

(4) The desert of Gobi. 

(5) The wide margin from the desert of Gobi to the little 



XXIV.] CHINA. 167 

Altai (on or near 50° N.L.) ; a fairly watered series of valleys 
with a climate resembling but superior to that of South 
Siberia. This has all been practically annexed by Russia. 
It contains a large area well able to produce wheat, and is 
a valuable territory. 

(6) Chinese Mantchuria. Northern Mantchuria having 
been taken by Russia, only a strip of Mantchuria remains to 
China between the Great Wall and the basin of the 
Saghalien. It is a valuable territory, though with a cold 
winter ; Mukden, the capital, was estimated to contain a 
population of 200,000 by an Englishman who reached it, 

(7) The Corea, a peninsula of Mantchuria, is a separate 
Mongolian state, paying tribute to China, but with a king 
of its own, who has opened. to foreign trade the ports of 
Fusan, Gensan, and Nin-sen. The population is about 
ten millions. Capital Seul, population 220,000. 



Sect. XXIV. CHINA. 

4-32. EXTENT. China Proper is equal in area to all 
Europe (excluding Russia), and contains about the same 
population as all Europe, including Russia. 

4-33. BOUNDARIES. China Proper is bounded by the 
sea on the East ; Mongolia on the A'l^rMand West; Burma, 
Laos and Tonquin on the South, The boundary lines 
(except the sea on the east) do not follow any natural 
features. 

-434. ATTACHED ISLANDS. Formosa, iTaiiiaxi, Hong:- 
kong (an English possession). 

435. GULFS, (i) The Gulf of Tonquin, between Hainan 
and Tonquin. 

(2) The Chinese Sea washes the coast about Canton. 

(3) The Formosa Channel is the sea or strait between 
Formosa and the mainland. 

(4) The Yellow Sea washes the coast about Nankin. 

(5) The Gulf of Petcheli is opposite Pekm. 



i68 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

436. CLIMATE. China stretches through so many 
degrees of latitude that she possesses great variety of cli- 
mates. The south lies on the tropic of Cancer ; here in the 
plains rice is the staff of hfe, and in the mountains the Indo- 
Malayan animals, elephants, rhinoceros, tapirs, and monkeys 
are found. At Pckin, on the other hand, in lat. 40^, wheat 
is the principal grain, and the cold of winter is much more 
severe than it is at London more than 10° north of it ; the 
east side of both the New and the Old World in the north- 
temperate zone possessing a much more extreme climate 
than the western side. The climate of Pekin resembles that 
of New York — the summer very hot, the winter a set fro:,! ; 
for three or four months the ice in the river a foot thick. 
The north of China is a dry climate ; the south and south- 
east moist. It is in the southern half of China that tea, 
cotton, and silk, are mostly produced. 

4.37. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS. The broad physical 
features of China are very simple : the land rises as we 
proceed from the eastern sea-coast to the mountainous 
country on the western border : these mountains, the Yun- 
lingr, reach the limits of perpetual snow, though both north 
and south of this snowy chain the two great rivers break 
through. 

Again China naturally divides into three grand bands lying 
east and west : these are (i) the basin of the Hoangho, 
bounded on the south by the Peling, or Northern Moun- 
tains ; (2) the basin of the Yang-tse-kiang, bounded on the 
north by the Peling, on the south by the Nanling, or 
Southern Mountains ; (3) the basin of the Canton River, 
lying between the Nanhng and the sea. Of these three 
bands the central is much the largest. 

438. RIVERS, (i) The Yang-tse-kianff, length exceed- 
ing 3,000 miles, its upper course in Mongolia being unknown, 
one of the largest and perhaps most important rivers on the 
globe. It is navigable for seagoing vessels from the sea for 
about 800 miles up to the great gorge and rapids at Ychang. 
Below this point it irrigates the rice of the largest and densest 
population of the globe. 



XXIV.] CHINA. 169 

(2) The Hoangho, or Yellow River, length exceeding 
2,000 miles, its upper course not known. It irrigates, but 
also largely overflows, its lower plain. 

(3) The Choo-kiang or Canton River, over 1000 m. long. 

There are numerous other first-class rivers in China ; many- 
affluents of the Yang-tse-kiang are indeed large rivers, but 
their names are unknown out of China. There are several 
large sheets of freshwater in the basin of the Yang-tse-kiang, 
but the names of these lakes are unknown out of China. 

439. COMMUNICATIONS. Throughout the Eastern 
(plains) portion of China the rivers are the great channels of 
communication, and are covered with boats of various sizes. 
In Southern China there is a large population who live in 
boats altogether. 

The Grand Canal affords a continuous water-communica- 
tion from the lower basin of the Yang-tse-kiang to the river 
(Peiho) of Pekin, and thus is the route by which the capital 
is kept supphed with the rice of the south. But this route 
has been lately obstructed by the Hoangho having shifted 
its course. 

There are 47 m. of railroads, and 3,000 m. of telegraph. 

44.0. RACES OF MEN. The Chinese are a race of the 
Mongolian family. Their yellow skin, high cheek-bones, 
turned-up outer corner of the eye, beardless faces and 
straight hair, give a good idea of the typical Mongolian 
characteristics. Their language is entirely monosyllabic and 
uninflected, and is taken as the type of such languages in 
contrast to the Aryan languages. 

441. HISTORIC SKETCH. The great Chinese Wall on 
the northern frontier of China was built B.C. 220, to keep out 
the Tartars. China was conquered by the Mongolians in 
A.D. 1279, and came under the rule of the Mantchoo Tartars 
in A.D. 1644, which dynasty holds power to the present time. 
Hence the ruling class and the soldiers are Tartars, who 
form but a small fraction of the whole population. In A.D. 
1850 a national Chinese insurrection, called the Taeping, 
rose against the Tartars, but degenerated into sanguinary 
bands of plunderers, who were at length put down. 



170 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

4.42. RELIGION. The practical religion of China is 
worship of ancestors and respect for national customs. 
There exists little speculative faith in any religion. 

The religion of the educated classes is that of Confucius, 
which is a system of pure scepticism. 

The Taoust religion was originally also a rationalistic 
system, but has been degraded into a low form of idolatry. 
Its temples are now seen all over China, and the lower 
classes of Chinese are largely idolaters. 

Buddhism is a system of pessimism ; its ceremonial is 
merely formal, but it has the merit of being humane in its 
precepts. These do not amount to much : though a Budd- 
hist may not take life, he is at liberty to eat meat that some 
other man has slaughtered. Buddhists are not in general 
\egetarians. Buddhism is largely the religion of those 
Chinese who do not follow the Taoust religion. 

443. ANIMALS AND PLANTS. The eastern half of 
China is so densely populated that no large wild animals 
exist there. The camel is seen in the northern drier part 
of China ; the buffalo in the moister south. The country is 
entirely cultivated, so that few wild trees are seen. In the 
northern Hoangho plain hardly any trees are seen except 
willows. In the southern provinces bamboos, pahnSy and 
other inhabitants of the tropics abound. 

As to the interior mountainous west of China little is 
known, but from the curious similarity between the plants 
of North-east India and Japan, it is inferred that there 
is a chain of these plants along the western mountains of 
China. What little we know of these mountains confirms 
this view : they are described as covered with azaleas^ 
camellias^ magnolias, and honeysnckleSy while tigers, rhino- 
ceros, and beats are among the animals. 

444. MINERALS. China is known to possess mines of 
cnal^ iron, copper, gold, and silver, but the country is unex- 
plored, and the mmes actually discovered are worked by 
childish methods only. 

445. DIVISIONS. China is divided into eighteen pro- 
vmces, besides one province outside the Great North 



XXIV.] CHINA. 171 

Wall which belongs specially to the Emperor as that 
whence his dynasty sprang. Ten of these provinces are 
each as large and populous as England, or thereabouts ; but 
they are almost unknown to Europeans, so that we do not 
load our memories with their names. 

446. TOWNS. The same applies to the towns, many of 
which are very large ; but we only trouble ourselves with the 
ports which are of interest to the European merchants who 
reside in them. Till lately Europeans could only reside at 
the "treaty " ports ; that is to say, the Chinese would allow 
no Enghsh merchant to enter China ; but the English fought 
with them till the Chinese were glad to make treaties 
admittmg the English merchants to certain ports named in 
those treaties. 

(i) Pekin, population 1,500,000, by estimate ; the capital 
is surrounded by a wall with towers, and divided into two 
parts, one division containing the government officials and 
soldiers, the Tartars ; the other division contaming the 
commercial population, the Chmese. A large proportion 
of Chinese towns are built on this type. 
, (2) Nankin, the ancient capital, fell into the hands of the 
Taepings in 1853, who slaughtered all the Tartars in it, and 
pillaged and destroyed everything, and especially the cele- 
brated Nankin porcelain tower. It is now largely in ruins, 
but may contain 400,000 inhabitants. 

(3) Canton, population 1,600,000, one of the great southern 
ports. Macao, near the mouth of its estuary, population 
68,000, is a Portuguese settlement. Hong-Kon^, an island at 
the mouth of the Canton River, pop. 190,000, (of whom 8,000 
are English), is a British naval station, and has a great trade. 

(4) Shanghae, near the mouth of the Yang-tse-kiang, 
population 355,000, is one of the treaty-ports, and has grown 
up since 1842. 

(5) Amoy, population 95,000, a treaty-port opposite For- 
mosa. 

(6) Hankow, 700 miles up the Yang-tse-kiang, where the 
river Han joins the Yang-tse. European vessels are now 
allowed to ascend the river to this central point, where three 



i12 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

towns stand, viz., Hankow, on the left bank of the Yang-tse, 
on the left bank of the Han ; Hanyang, on the left bank of 
the Yang-tse, on the right bank of the Han ; Vou-chang, on 
the right bank of the Yang-tse, opposite the affluence of the 
Han. In these three towns and close round them are said 
to be clustered 8,000,000 souls. 

(7) Tientsin, population 950,000, a treaty-port and the 
port of Pekin. At least fifty towns have a population of more 
than 100,000. 

Sect. XXV. JAPAN. 

44-7. EXTENT. The principal island, Niphon, is larger 
than Britain ; the next island, Jesso, is larger than Ireland. 
The Japanese group of islands is considerably larger than 
the British, and contains a somewhat larger population. 

448. ATTACHED ISLANDS. The Japanese group com- 
prises the islands Niphon, Jesso, Kiusiu, Kicoco, and 
numerous smaller islands. To these are attached politically 
the southern part of Sagbalien, several of the Ktirile islands, 
and the Loo Choo group. 

449. CLIMATE. Japan Proper (omitting the attached 
islands) stretches through as large a range of latitude as 
from Norway to Italy, and exhibits an equally large range 
of climate. In the southern part of Niphon, in Kicoco and 
Kiusiu, rice, tobacco, and the sugar-cane are cultivated, 
palms and bamboos are common ; while in the north of Jesso 
the cold of winter is severe, the thermometer frequently 
falling to 10'' below zero of Fahrenheit. The climate is 
much less "continental " than that of North China adjoin- 
ing, but much less *' insular " than that of England, lying, 
as Japan does, on the east of a great continent ; in the 
north temperate zone its climate is more extreme than 
that of corresponding countries similarly situated in the 
west of such a continent. 

450. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS. The Japanese islands 
are generally beautifully diversified with hill and dale, and 
(like England) admirably suited for cultivation. Moreover 
the volcanic line passes through the islands, which contain 



XXV.] JAPAN. 173 

hot springs, rich soil of disintegrated igneous rocks, and 
many volcanoes, of which far the largest and most celebrated 
is Fusiyaxna, a cone 12,400 feet high. The rivers, from the 
shape of the islands, are all small. 

4.51. COMMUNICATIONS. The roads of Japan are 
excellent, and within the last few years the Japanese have 
themselves commenced railroads, and opened a line of 
seventeen miles from the capital Yedo to its port Yokohama. 
Altogether 370 miles are now open. 

452. RACES OF MEN. The Japanese are a Mongolian 
race, distinct from, but closely allied to, the Chinese. In the 
interior of Jesso are the Ainos, who are supposed to be the 
remains of a race that inhabited the island before the 
Japanese came. 

The Japanese language is entirely distinct from the 
Chinese ; it is said, indeed, to have more real affinity with the 
Finnish and Magyar languages than with the Chinese. 

453. RELIGION. The oldest form of religion is Sin- 
tuism, or faith in gods, and particularly faith in the Emperor 
(called Mikado), as lineally descended from the gods, and 
entitled to worship. The educated classes are often fol- 
lowers of Confucius. Christianity was spreading two cen- 
turies ago, when it was extirpated by a persecution in which 
all who would not abandon it were put to death, and 
foreigners thenceforth rigorously excluded from the country. 
Buddhism largely prevails, and the Japanese are almost 
entirely vegetarians (rice-feeders), proving that even in a 
cold climate animal food is not requisite for human vigour. 
Asa consequence, the wild birds are perfectly tame, and the 
wild deer walk about the streets of Osaka. The prejudices 
of the Japanese will not allow the English sportsman to 
slaughter these animals. Buddhism in theory forbids the 
taking the life of any animal. 

454. HISTORIC SKETCH. Japan has been governed 
for at least six centuries by the Emperor, the Mikado : but 
for two centuries previous to A.D. 1868 he had been only 
a puppet in the hands of a feudal body of nobies possessed 
of vast estates, or rather provinces. In a.d. 1859 the ports 



1^4 Geography. [sect. 

were opened to foreigners ; in a.d. 1868 the nobles were put 
down ; in A.D. 1874 the Mikado called a Parliament. The 
progress of the Japanese (according to the European stan- 
dard of progress) since a.d. 1859 has been extraordinarily 
rapid : they now send their most promising youths to 
England, the United States, &c., to learn engineering and 
other sciences ; they have zealously commenced railway- 
making and modelling their army in the European man- 
ner ; they have established a police in their cities. They 
have been lately denominated " the Anglo-Saxons of the 
East." 

455. ANiMAliS. The wild animals of Japan are very 
few, the country being insular and populous. Wolves and 
bears remain in the woods of northern Niphon and Jesso ; 
deer are plentiful. 

456. PLANTS, Japan is celebrated for the variety and 
peculiarity of its vegetation. The camellia and hydrangea 
are well known in cultivation in England : also several of 
its remarkable //;/^j and j/^2£/i' are known in English gardens. 
In the south tree-ferns are met with, connecting the 
vegetation of Japan closely with that of the Malay archi- 
pelago. Nearly all kinds of vegetables and fruits are culti- 
vated and found productive as to quantity, but are very 
generally deficient in flavour. No country in the world, 
taken as a whole, can be said to be superior to England, 
though many possess particular advantages that England 
does not. 

457. MINERALS. Japan is rich in mines of coal and 
copper, and also produces iron, lead, gold, silver, and 
sulphur. 

458. TOWNS, (i) Yedo, the capital, contains 900,000 
inhabitants. It is now better known by the name of Tokio. 

(2) Kioto, the ancient capital of Japan, contains 250,000 
inhabitants. 

(3) Nagasaki, the port of Kiusiu, contains 40,000 in- 
habitants. 

(4) Yokohama, the port of Yedo, contains 170,000 in- 
habitants. 



XXVI.] MALAY ARCHIPELAGO. 175 

(5) Osaka, a port in South Niphon, contains 350,000 in- 
habitants. 

(6) Hakodate, the port of Jesso, contains 40,000 inhabitants. 
Fifteen other towns have population of over 40,000. 



Sect. XXVI. MALAY ARCHIPELAGO. 

4-59. EXTENT. Three groups of islands are included 
here in insular Malaya, viz. : — 

(i) The Philippines, of which Luzon and Mindanao are 
the chief, 

(2) The Papuan islands, of vi?hich New Guinea (or Papua), 
Ceram, and Timor, are the chief. 

(3) The Malay Islands proper, i.e. those inhabited mainly 
by the Malay race, among which are Borneo, Sumatra, Java, 
Celebes. 

The area of the lands thus included is about that of all 
Europe leaving out Russia and Scandinavia. The popula- 
tion is guessed to be about that of Germany, but it is pro- 
bably very much larger ; the Archipelago is capable of 
supporting a much larger population than Europe. 

4.6O. CLIMATE. This splendid region, called the " Gar- 
dens of the Sun," lies under the equator, while the heat is 
tempered by the vast area of ocean around and between. 
The islands are thus never scorched like the interior of 
Africa, Australia, or even of India ; and though they have 
their year divided into wet and dry seasons, the rain is more 
evenly distributed than in Australia or India, which are 
countries of the tropic as compared with Malaya, an equa- 
torial region. Their climate is thus defined as Oceanic 
Equatorial. 

461. MOUNTAINS. High ranges of mountains exist in 
several of the islands ; the Sumatra mountains are known to 
reach 12,000 feet altitude, and the range in North Borneo 
14,000 feet altitude (these islands being each larger than 
Britain). But the most marked feature of the Archipelago 
is the great line of volcanoes which runs through the whole 



176 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

group, from Sumatra through Java, Sumbawa and Timor to 
New Guinea, There are forty-five volcanoes in Java alone, 
and several of them reach 10,000 feet in height. Many of 
the Malay islands have experienced most violent eruptions ; 
the explosions which accompanied the eruption of Sumbawa 
in 1815 were heard a thousand miles off; the ashes and 
dense smoke in the air rendered midday as dark as night in 
Java hundreds of miles off ; the floating cinders in the sea 
were two feet thick, so that ships forced their way through 
with difficulty. In Sumbawa itself large areas were over- 
whelmed by streams of molten lava, or showers of white-hot 
cinders ; terrific whirlwinds accompanied the explosions ; 
the sea rolled in as an earthquake wave twelve feet high 
over the shore ; 40,000 souls perished. The earthquakes that 
accompanied these eruptions were felt a thousand miles 
around. A similar disaster occurred in 1883. 

<462. RACES OF MEN. The Malay Islands are inhabited 
mainly by Malays^ the Papuan Islands by Papuans. The 
greater part of the inhabitants of the Philippines are reckoned 
Malay by race. But there are numerous local races in the 
Archipelago which appear neither Malayan nor Papuan ; 
among these the best known are the Negritos of the Philip- 
pines ; these have woolly hair, and have been supposed 
Papuans, but their diminutive stature negatives this hypo- 
thesis. There are scattered through the Archipelago many 
Chinese, some Europeans and Arabs. 

463. RELIGION. The Malays are largely Mahometans j 
in some islands there are Buddhists j in Bali and Lumbok 
the religion is Brahminical. The Papuans are in general 
altogether Pagans. 

464. PRESENT GOVERNMENT. The Dutch hold the 
chief empire in Malaya ; Java and Sumatra belong wholly to 
them ; Timor and Celebes partly ; they also are supreme in 
the south of Borneo, in the Moluccas, and have settlements 
in Celebes, New Guinea, and many other islands. 

The Portuguese rule (very badly) half Timor. 

The English own the island of Labuan, and the southern 
part of New Guinea, and possess influence in North Borneo. 
Germany has the East of New Guinea, and the Bismarck 
Archipelago near it. 



xxvi.] MALAY ARCHIPELAGO. 177 

The Spaniards possess the Philippmes. 

465. ANIMALS. This vast tropical region is one of the 
richest parts of the globe in animals. The Malayan, or 
western portion, is Indo- Malayan, and contains twenty-four 
kinds of monkeys including the ouraii-ouiang, two rhino- 
ceros, a tige7' and a score of other cats, the elephant, sun- 
bearsj tapirs, and a number of other Mammalia. The 
central Malay islands are also renowned for the Birds of 
Paradise, which are found nowhere else in the world. 

The Papuan islands, New Guinea and Timor, contain 
a strictly Australian set of Mammals; all that are known 
are Marsupials {i.e. belong to the kangaroo order), except 
two hats and a wild pig. 

The plants follow in some degree the same law ; that is 
to say, the flora of Java and Borneo is Indian in character ; 
that of Timor, Australian. But the plants of New Guinea 
(little knowji) seem largely Indian. 

4.66. DIVISIONS. We here enumerate the principal 
islands : — 

(i) liuzon, the chief of the Philippines, as large as Eng- 
land : celebrated for its produce of tobacco. Belongs to 
the Spaniards. Capital, Manilla : population, 150,000. 

(2) New Guinea, or Papua, the largest island of the whole 
group, as large as England and France together ; the 
coast is little known, the interior not at all. The Dutch 
have small settlements at its western end. The remainder 
was divided, in 1885, between Germany and England. 

(3) The Moluccas, consisting of Bouru, Ceram, and 
smaller islands, also called the Spice Islands, whence cloves 
and nutmeg are principally obtained. These belong entirely 
to the Dutch ; the chief town, Amboyna, is the second 
largest Dutch town in the Archipelago, the whole of which 
formerly was denominated the Moluccas. 

(4) Celebes, as large as Ireland. The Dutch have settle- 
ments at several points of this island, the principal being 
Macassar, in the south. 

(5) Borneo, very nearly as large as Papua. The chief 
Dutch settlement is Banjarmassing, in the south, whence 

N 



178 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

the Dutch extend their influence over nearly half the island. 
The north is ruled by the English North Borneo Company. 

In the north-west, Rajah Brooke, a private Englishman, 
founded his kingdom thirty-five years ago, and reigned at 
Sarawak, putting down piracy, head-hunting, and race- 
oppression. On his death his nephew succeeded him. The 
English Government, though offered this state of Sarawak, 
declined it, but keeps the island of Labuan off the north- 
west of Borneo, where is coal and an English bishop. 

(6) Java belongs to the Dutch, who administer the whole 
island, which contains I4,ckx>,ooo of souls. The capital is 
Batavia, population 100,000. The Dutch farm the island as 
an estate, transmitting the profits to Holland. 

(7) Sumatra, larger than .Britain ; the southern part of 
this island has long been completely under the power of the 
Dutch : their chief settlement being Palembang. Since 
1875 the Dutch have also conquered the northern part of 
the island, where the chief state is Acheen. 

Sect. XXVII. TRANS-GANGETIC PENINSULA. 

467. EXTENT. The Trans-Gangetic Peninsula is as large 
as Germany, France, and Britain together, and is supposed 
to contain as large a population as France. 

4.68. BOUNDARIES. On the North-east, China ; on the 
East, the China Sea ; on the South, the Gulf of Siam and 
Straits of Malacca ; on the West, the Bay of Bengal and 
Chittagong ; on the North-west, Assam ; on the North, 
between Assam and China, the country is wholly unknown. 

The boundaries to the Trans-Gangetic Peninsula are here 
fixed so as to include the Chief-Commissionership of Burma ; 
to exclude the Lieut-Governorship of Bengal, and the Chief- 
Commissionership of Assam. 

469. CLIMATE. The southern half of the Trans-Gangetic 
peninsula has an equatorial insular climate, approaching 
closely that of the Malay archipelago ; that is to say, 
the whole year is hot and moist without being scorching 
at any time. In the northern half the climate is more that 



xxvii.] TRANS-GANGETIC PENINSULA. 179 

belonging to the tropic ; that is to say, there is a definite 
winter or cold season with little rain ; a very hot season in 
April and May, and a rainy season June — September. 

4.70. MOUNTAINS AND RIVERS. The ranges of 
mountains throughout the vast area of the Trans-Gangetic 
peninsula have a remarkable tendency to run directly north 
and south. They are essentially ranges without any con- 
siderable plateaus as shoulders, with broad flat valleys 
between. Three vast rivers run north and south between 
the ranges, viz. (i) the Me-kong, i;4oo miles long at least; 
(2) the Meinam; (3) the Irrawaddy. 

One long range of mountains forms the waterparting 
between the China sea-coast and the valley of the Me-kong, 
and this range is taken as the boundary between Annam and 
Cambodia. 

Another long range of mountains form the waterparting 
separating the valley of the Me-kong from that of the 
Meinam, i.e. it separates Cambodia from Siam. 

A third long range of mountains form the waterparting 
separating the valley of the Meinam from that of the Irra- 
waddy, i.e. it separates Siam from Burmah. This range is 
prolonged southwards as the backbone of the remarkable 
peninsula of Malacca. 

Series of ranges running north and south, covered by 
gigantic jungle, separate Burmah from East Bengal. 

4-71. RACES OP MEN. The rice-feeding valley popula- 
tion (far the largest part) of this region are Mongolians of 
the Indo-Chinese variety, those of the eastern parts being 
closely related to the Chinese. The western people in 
Birma are also commonly considered Mongolian, but this 
is less certain. These valley peoples are mainly Buddhists ; 
but many of the eastern race allied to the Chinese are 
followers of Confucius. 

Besides these valley peoples, there is a race in the higher 
ground in Laos, in the northern more elevated part of 
Burma, and in the mountain ranges, called Kookie by 
Anglo-Indians, who are a people using a monosyllabic 
language, and who may possibly be Mongolians, but appear 

N 2 



i8o GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

rather to form a separate division of the human race. They 
have no religion but demon-worship. 

4-72. ANIMALS AND PLANTS. The Trans-Gangetic 
peninsula, under the combined influence of heat and mois- 
ture, exhibits the densest vegetation of any region in the 
globe (except some portions perhaps of South America). 
The cleared portions of the valleys are rich rice-fields, easily 
supporting a large population. The hills are clothed with 
jungle most difficult to penetrate. Large areas of these 
jungles are uninhabited, and are the home of numerous 
animals : elephants, rhinoceros^ tapirs; tigers, leopards, 
tiger-cats J monkeys of numerous species ; deer, buffalo, and 
wild oxen. 

473. DIVISIONS. (i)Anam comprises the whole eastern 
coast ; the northern part is called Tonquin, the southern 
Cochin-China. These districts were taken possession of 
by France in 1884, The people are nearly allied to the 
Chinese. The largest town, Hanoi, in Tonquin, is said to 
contain 100,000 inhabitants. 

(2) Cambodia, the lower valley of the Meinam, occupied 
now by the French, who came here in 1858. Their capital, 
Saigon, near the mouth of the Meinam, contains 150,000 
inhabitants. 

(3) Siam, the valley of the Meinam, with the eastern half 
of the Malacca peninsula. The capital, Bangkok, near the 
mouth of the Meinam, is estimated to contain upwards of 
300,000 inhabitants. 

(4) Laos, the name given to the Kookie tribes who occupy 
the higher ground across the upper valleys of the Meinam 
and Maykiang. Of these tribes many are tributary to China, 
Burma, Siam, and Anam ; but there appear to be large 
tribes of Kookies in this region quite independent. 

(5) Burma, the valley of the Irrawaddy, except the lower 
part. Capital, Mandalay. In 1 886 this kingdom was annexed 
by England, and placed under the Chief Commissioner of 
Burma, under title of Upper Burma. It produces gold, silver, 
iron, lead, rubies, sapphires, and abundance of mineral oil. 

(6) The Chief-Commissionership of Lower Burma, a 




A ir.Jo}mstaiv,£(Jmb-arph and London. 



XXVIII.] INDIA. i8i 

division of India, and under the Viceroy, comprising the 
provinces Pegu, Arracan, Tenasserim and the Straits' 
Settlements. Of these, Arracan and Tenasserim are narrow 
strips between the sea-shore and the range of mountains 
parallel thereto a short way inland. Pegu, the lower basin 
of the Irrawaddy, contains large rice swamps and nearly 
2,000,000 inhabitants. 

The Straiis Settlements, on the Straits of Malacca, form 
a separate government, and contain 423,000 inhabitants ; 
chiefly Chinese and Malays. 

Singapore, a town on an island of the same name, on the 
route to China, is a port with a vast trade and strong for- 
tifications, 

Malacca, a strip of the mainland, originally a Portuguese 
possession, passed from the Dutch to the Enghsh. 

Penang, or Prince of Wales Island, a small island. 

Province Wdlealey, a strip of the mainland. 

Perak, and other small states are under British Protectorate. 

The chief exports are tin, spices, and rattan canes. 

Sect. XXVIII. INDIA. 

4.7A. EXTENT. India exceeds all Europe excluding 
Russia both in area and population. 

In the present chapter we include Ceylon, which is a 
colony under the Secretary of State for the Colonies, and 
not under the Viceroy of India ; and we exclude the Chief 
Commissionership of Pegu, which is politically under the 
Viceroy of India. 

-475. BOUNDARIES. India is bounded on the South 
from the mouth of the Indus to Chittagong, by the Bay 
of Bengal and Indian Ocean ; on the East by the ranges 
of densely-jungly mountain ridges that run north and south 
on the eastern frontier of Bengal ; on the No7th by the 
Himalaya; on the West by the Suleiman mountains. 

The Himalayas are so uniformly lofty (there is no Pass 
lower than 16,000 feet in their whole length), and also so 
broad at a great height, that no considerable body of men 



l82 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

can possibly cross them. The routes by land into India for 
an army are — 

(i) From Kabul by the Khyber Pass to Peshawur. This 
has been the route by which all the great invasions of 
India have been made from Alexander's to the present 
time. 

(2) From Quetta in Afghanistan by the Bolan Pass into 
Scinde. 

(3) From Upper Burma into the extreme east of Assam. 

(4) From Burma across Arracan into Chittagong. 

476. CLIMATE. From the sea-level to 1,000 feet alti- 
tude the seasons throughout India are on the whole similar. 
November to March is winter ; there is little rain ; the wind 
is from the north without storms. In mid-winter at Cal- 
cutta a fire is agreeable, and near Calcutta, at 1,000 feet 
altitude, frosts occur. April to mid-June is the hot weather ; 
the wind is from the south. Violent storms occur frequently 
jn some of the eastern provinces ; hot winds are experienced 
in the north-west. From mid-June to October are the rains, 
with the wind from the south. About twice as much rain 
falls in this period as in the whole year in England. The 
heat from April to October is greater than the hottest 
weather experienced in England ; and even in December 
the sun is as strong as a hot summer sun in England. 

As India is about 2,000 miles long, it must be understood 
that there is a great difference between the climate of Ceylon 
and Lahore ; the heat is on the annual average less as we 
proceed from south to north, but the hot-weather heat is 
much the same throughout India up to 1,000 feet altitude. 
So also by ascending the mountains we may obtain any 
mean annual temperature we desire down to freezing at the 
snow line. The great India hill stations have a mean 
annual temperature not very different from that of England ; 
but they are all subject to a rainy season with a south wind 
from mid-June to October. India is in the region of the 
monsoons, and it is not till we get north of the outer 
Himalaya that we can escape the periodical rains and obtain 
a tolerably fine summer, as m Kashmir. 



xxviii.J INDIA. 183 

In Northern (continental) India the western (desert) side 
is very much drier than the eastern (Bengal) side. In 
southern (peninsular) India called the Deccan this is not the 
case ; the Malabar (western coast) being nearer the moun- 
tains is moister than the eastern (Coromandel) coast. 

In particular places, where the warm air saturated with 
moisture is suddenly elevated several thousand feet by the 
monsoon driving it against a steep range of lofty mountains, 
an extraordinary rainfall results. At Cherra (Sohra) in 
Khasia (Chief-Commissionership of Assam) a rainfall of 600 
— 700 inches in the year is not infrequent ; 150 inches falls 
sometimes in six days, while in London only 25 inches falls 
in a whole year. In the Malabar Ghats an equally large 
fall occurs. These great rainfalls are very local. 

477. MOUNTAINS AND PLATEAUS. (l) The Hima- 
layas rise very suddenly from the plains of India along 
the whole northern frontier for 1,500 miles, and are backed 
on their northern face by the great plateau of Central Asia 
hardly anywhere having a less mean height than 13,000 feet. 
The highest point of the Himalaya is Deodunga or Mount 
Everest, altitude 29,002 feet : there are numerous points 
exceeding 20,000 feet. 

(2) The whole interior of the Deccan is an elevated plateau 
sloping from its western face towards the east and north. 
The western face is formed by the Western Ghats, which 
run parallel to the Malabar coast along its whole length, and 
scarcely ever fifty miles from it. They have their steep 
face west, and their ridge is generally 4,000 — 6,000 feet 
above the sea in their southern portion. There is one 
important saddle opposite Calicut only 1,000 feet above 
sea, called the Gap of Coimbatore, of great former military 
and present commercial importance, the railway now passing 
through it. 

On the eastern Coromandel coast there is a broad belt of 
flat land near the sea. After crossing this westwards we 
come to a rise usually of 1,000 — 3,000 feet, called the Eastern 
Ghats, but when we have climbed this we do not find that 
we have to go down again the other side, we find ourselves 



i84 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

ou a nearly level plateau, sloping very gradually upwards all 
the way (perhaps 300 miles) to the Western Ghats. 

This great Oecoan plateau throws out long ridges north- 
wards, which gradually sink into the great plain of the 
Ganges. 

The rivers Nerbudda and Taptee flow in narrow valleys 
westwards ; that is, contrary to the general slope of the 
Dcccan plateau. The country rises rapidly on the north 
bank of the Nerbudda, the ridge being known as the 
Vlndhya mountains, with an elevation of 3,000 feet ; and 
all the physical features of the Deccan plateau recur in 
Malwa, though the Malwa plateau is generally considered 
to terminate south of the Taptee. 

The Nilffherry mountains are a small isolated part of the 
Western Ghats, attaining the height of 8,760 feet. Several 
other knots of the Western Ghats attain nearly this height, 
but the Nilgherries are the residence of many English, 
therefore well-known. Adam's Peak in Ceylon is 7,420 feet 
altitude, and may be considered an outlier of the Western 
Ghats. 

(3) All India, except the Himalayan ranges and the Dec- 
can plateau, forms the great plain of the Ganges and Indus, 
the centre of which is Hindoosthan. This is an almost un- 
broken plain : the waterparting between the basin of the 
Ganges and that of the Indus is 1,000 feet above sea-level, 
but the approach to it is so gradual on either side, that in 
travelling from Delhi to Lahore the country appears dead- 
level. 

Though so vast an area, the Deccan is throughout alike in 
its soils, the abrupt character of its mountains — called 
locally Droogs — its long gentle slopes, and its vegetation, 
from Ceylon to Rajmahal at the bend of the Ganges. India 
divides primarily into three very natural divisions ; viz., the 
Deccan, Hindoosthan, and the Himalaya, 

The northern edge of the plain of Hindoosthan, at the foot 
of the Himalaya, is a wet forest tract known as the Terai, 
and very unhealthy. From the Terai to the crest of the 
Himalaya is generally not less than sixty miles, and this 



XXVIII.] INDIA. 185 

tract, occupied by mountains 5,000—10,000 feet high, with 
only narrow valleys at lower levels, affords space for the 
kingdoms of Nepal, Bhotan, and Kashmir. 

4-78. RIVERS, (i) The Ganges rises in the north-west 
Himalaya (not far from the sources of the Sutledge), and 
after a course of nearly 1,500 miles, passing by Allahabad, 
Benares, and Patna, falls mto the Bay of Bengal. The head 
of its delta, where it commences to bifurcate, is 250 miles 
from the sea, and below this point it has been for ages 
shifting ; the main stream now is called the Pudma, but 
once it passed by Calcutta, where the Hooghly now flows. 

At Allahabad the Ganges receives the Jumna, which has 
good claim to be considered the main stream above Alla- 
habad ; on it stands Delhi. The country between the 
Jumna and the Ganges is called the Doab, a word equiva- 
lent to Mesopotamia, the country between the rivers. There 
are many doabs, therefore, in India, but this important one 
between the Ganges and Jumna, in the centre of Hindoos- 
than, is known as the Doab ; and the great canal lately made 
to irrigate it is known as the Doab Canal. 

Many other first-class rivers are among the affluents of the 
<ianges ; of these the best known are— on the left bank, the 
Goonxtee from Oude, the Gonduck and Kooshee from 
Nepal ; on the right bank, the Chumbal, from the Vindhyas 
and Malwa plateau, the Sone from Rewah. 

(2) The Brahmapootra enters Assam at its north-east 
corner, coming through a gorge of the Himalaya ; it is 
nearly certain that the river called Tsampoo in Tibet is its 
upper course. Its delta commences soon after it leaves 
Assam for Bengal, and unites with the Ganges delta About 
fifty years ago the Brahmapootra left its old course (still 
shown on most maps) and poured down a branch fifty miles 
westward into the Pudma (Ganges) ; it has continued to hold 
this course ever since. 

(3) The Megna contains a vast body of water descending 
from Sylhet, Cachar, and the rainy mountains east of 
Bengal. The combined waters of the Ganges and Brahma- 
pootra after falling into il take the name Megna. 



i86 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

The sea-face of Bengal is a mangrove swamp, interspersed 
with jungles of tall grass, uninhabited but by tigers, rhino- 
ceros, deer, and other wild animals, cut up in every direction 
by winding salt-water creeks and channels, and celebrated 
as the Soondreebun, i. e. Forest of Soondree trees. 

(4) The Indus rises in Tibet very near the sources of the 
Sutledge and Tsampoo, and flows north-west to Leh and 
Skardo in a narrow gorge. Six hundred miles from its 
source its bed is 7,000 feet above sea-level, and it has the 
magnitude of a river with the velocity of a mountain- 
torrent. It then turns south, enters the British territory 
near Attock, and flows south to the Arabian Sea. Its 
whole course is 1,850 miles. 

On the right bank it receives at Attock (as an affluent) 
the Cabui river, which flows from Cabul by Jellalabad ; and 
forms, with the Khyber Pass, the Great Western road into 
India. 

On the left bank it receives the waters of the Punjab 
(Panch-ab equivalent to Five rivers, as Do-ab to Two rivers), 
viz., the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravee, Be-ass, and Sutledge. The 
banks of these rivers, so far as their water can be led by 
canals, are fertile and populous, but the doabs (spaces 
between these rivers) are deserts ; for the province lying on 
the west of India is part of the great Desert of south-western 
Asia ; rightly, therefore, is the province named The Five 
Rivers (Punjab). 

In like manner the province of Scinde is desert and 
nearly rainless : the Indus banks only are inhabited. 

(5) The Nerbudda and Taptee flow in parallel valleys from 
Central India west to the gulf of Cambay. 

(6) The Mahax^uddy flows from Central India to the Bay 
of Bengal by Cuttack. It is formed by a number of feeders 
on the long gentle slopes of the Deccan plateau, and flows 
eastward to the edge of that plateau, where it descends 
the Eastern Ghats by rapids and waterfalls. It then mean- 
ders through the rice plain of Cuttack to the sea. 

(7) The Godavery, Kistna, and Cavery, are the three 
great rivers of the Deccan, each rising in the Western Ghats, 



r^xviii.] INDIA. 187 

i;atheiing up its affluents on the great plateau, tumbling 
down the Eastern Ghats, and then winding through the 
rice plain below (known as the Carnatic) to the sea. 

479. LAKES. India is very poor in lakes. The most 
celebrated are the Kashmir Lakes (the City Lake and the 
Woolar Lake), but these are of the rice-swamp class and 
not comparable with the alpine lakes of Europe. Through' 
out the higher Himalaya tarns are not infrequent. The 
Runn of Cutch is a lagoon or salt-water marsh that becomes 
nearly fresh water during the rains. 

480. COMMUNICATIONS, {a) Raads. Indian roads 
are in general very poor. Many are not metalled ; very 
few have bridges. l"he old Grand Trunk Road from Cal- 
cutta to Patna, Benares, Allahabad, Delhi, and Lahore was 
the most famous highway in India ; this has bridges over 
the smaller streams. 

{b) Navigable Rivers. The Ganges, Brahmapootra, 
Megna, and Indus are navigable for steamboats. The whole 
of Bengal proper is covered by a network of water navigable 
for boats. In the great Doab, the Government Canal serves 
for boats as well as for irrigation. 

{c) Railways, About 14,000 miles of railroad are open for 
traffic in India, which have been executed under Government 
^arantee, or by Government itself The principal routes are — 

(i) The East Lidiati from Calcutta by Patna, Benares, 
Allahabad, Cawnpore, Toondla, Allyghur to Delhi, 1,050 
miles ; and continued thence to Umritsir, Lahore, and 
Peshawur for the Khaibar Pass. 

(2) One of the India7i Peninsula lines runs from Alla- 
habad by Jubbulpore and Bhosawul to Bombay ; thus 
forming part of the present mail route between Calcutta 
and Bombay, 1,400 miles. 

(3) A loop hne leaves the East Indian at Benares, and 
passing by Lucknow rejoins the East Indian main line at 
Cawnpore ; and another loop from Lucknow passes by 
Bareilly to rejoin the East Indian at Allyghur. 

(4) The East Bengal, from Calcutta by Barrack pore and 



i88 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Kooshtea to Goalundo, at the junction of the Ganges and 
Brahmapootra. From Kooshtea a branch runs north (with 
a break at the Ganges where there is a break of gauge and 
no bridge) to the foot of the Himalaya in Sikkim below 
Darjeeling. 

(5) From Bombay by Surat, Broach, Baroda, Ahmedabad 
to Wudwan in Gujerat, and to Ajmere. 

(6) From Toondla (on the East Indian main line) to Agra, 
Bhurtpore, Jeypore and Ajmere, with a branch to line (2). 

(7) From Bhosawul (on No. 2 above) up the Taptee 
valley and on to Nagpore and Central Indij, where are coal- 
fields and cotton. 

(8) From Bombay to Poona, and thence nearly straight to 
Madras ; the Indian Peninsula main line. 

(9) Madras by Vellore, Salem, Erode, Coimbatore to 
Calicut, with branches by Trichinopoly to S.E. ports. 

(10) The Indus Valley lines, from Kurrachee to Ruk, 315 
miles, thence branching to (i) Quetta for Bolan Pass ; (ii) by 
Baha Wulpore to Mooltan, joining line (i) at Lahore. 

(11) From Colombo (the capital of Ceylon) to Kandy, 
among the Central Mountains. 

(d) Ports. India with a vast coast line has few first-class 
ports. Beginning from the east — 

(i) Chittagong is small, and the river has a bar at the 
mouth preventing large vessels getting up. 

(2) Calcutta is 100 miles from the sea, up a river full of 
shoals and liable to violent tides. It is one of the most 
dangerous and expensive ports in all the world. 

(3) The Coromandel ports are all of one class, viz., open 
roadsteads with very indifferent holding ground. Such are 
Ganjam, Vizagapatam, Coringa, Masulipatam, Madras, and 
Negapatam. The landing at Madras is always bad, and if 
it comes on to blow on shore the ships that cannot work out 
in time are liable to be driven from their anchors, in which 
case they are surely wrecked. 

(4) Trincomalee is a first-class harbour, and the chief 
dockyard for the Queen's ships in the East. But it com- 



XXVIII.] INDIA. 189 

mands no considerable population in the interior of the 
country, and has no trade. 

(5) Galle is a small (and not secure) harbour. It is a 
noted place of call with steamers for Madras, Calcutta, 
China, and Australia. 

(6) Cochin, Calicut, and Mangalore are tolerable harbours, 
but the trade at them is limited. 

(7) Bombay is a first-class harbour, and the chief commer- 
cial town of India. It is like the other ports of the Malabar 
coast, naturally crippled by the Western Ghats, which cut 
off its commerce with the interior. But these ghats having 
been now crossed by the two chief branches of the Great 
Indian Peninsular railway, Bombay has grown rapidly. 
Bombay, named by the Portuguese Buon-bahia, means Good 
Harbour. 

(8) Surat is the port of the Taptee ; Broach of the Ner- 
budda; but neither is safe for ships during the south-west 
monsoon. 

(9) Kurrachce has become lately one of the principal 
Indian ports. The harbour is excellent ; but all the goods 
landed there have to be sent by rail to Tattah before they 
can be put on the Indus steamers. 

4.8I. RACES OP MEN. The mass of the population of 
Continental India are Aryans of the elder branch. The 
Punjabees differ little from the Afghans ; the Rajpoots, the 
natives of Hindoosthan proper, and the Mahrattas differ 
little from the Punjabees. The typical Hindoo is thus seen 
to be closely connected with the Persian, and so with the 
Teuton and other races of the younger (Javan) branch of 
the Aryans. The Bengalees are also always reckoned an 
Aryan race, but they are more remote from the Caucasian 
type, and probably more mixed with anterior indigenous 
races. All these Aryan people speak languages derived 
from the Sanskrit or Persian. In the Deccan the languages 
are derived mainly from the Tamil ; and the people speak- 
ing them have been lately named " Dravidians," to indicate 
that they differ so largely from the Aryans that they ought 
to be classed separately. 



I90 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Besides the Aryans and Dravidians we find in the Indian 
mountains and jungles numerous tribes, called wild or in- 
digenous tribes, who are supposed to have inhabited the 
country before the Aryans came. These are in general 
imperfectly known, and their languages are as yet in many 
cases not reduced to writing ; but it has lately been recog- 
nised that there are among them people differing as widely 
as the Aryan differs from the Chinese. They have been 
roughly known hitherto to the English as Todas in the 
southern mountains, Gonds and Koles in Central India, &c. 
The Kookies of the Trans-Gangetic peninsula extend 
to East Bengal and the Eastern Himalaya ; and it has 
been supposed that the Mundarees of Central India are 
allied to them. 

In the Western Himalaya, the people on its southern 
face are Hindoo Aryans, but as we journey northwards we 
arrive by degrees at Tartars. The Aryan and Mongolian 
races have mixed along this border. Parsees (Persians) 
about Bombay, Armenians and Jews in the chief trading 
towns, Arabians and Chinese are met with in India, but they 
form a very small fraction of the whole population. 

The population of India is reckoned 238,000,000. The 
English are 62,000 soldiers, 64,000 others. The Feringhees, 
i.e. half-castes between Portuguese and natives, are few ; 
the Eurasians, half-castes between English and natives, 
still fewer, and diminishing in numbers. 

482. HISTORIC SKETCH. India was, at the earliest 
periods known historically, occupied by the Hindoos ; and 
the kingdoms and governments remained Hindoo up to 
A.D. 1200. The Hindoos are supposed at some period 
antecedent to history to have immigrated into India from 
Persia through Affghanistan, 

About A.D. 1200 fresh invasions from Affghanistan set up 
a Muhammadan empire at Delhi, and this empire gradually 
obtained political power over the whole of India, but not 
over Ceylon. 

The first Europeans to reach India, round the Cape of 
Good Hope were the Portuguese in ad. 1498, who rapidly 



XXVIII.] INDIA. 191 

established themselves in several settlements on the coast. 
The Dutch arrived later; and early in the seventeenth 
century the English and French established trading fac- 
tories in several places. The Portuguese and Dutch powers 
soon declined. There ensued a struggle in A.D. 1740 — 1748, 
between the English and French, in which the English were 
at the end completely victorious. The English then easily 
prevailed against the Muhammadan governments, which 
were in a decaying state. They became masters of Bengal 
by the battle of Plassey in A.D, 1757. Clive had shown that 
a small body of Englishmen could conquer a native host of 
any magnitude in. battle. Warren Hastings conceived the 
possibility of an English Empire in India as it now exists, 
and laid its foundation. From this period the English have 
advanced by an almost unbroken series of conquests, till at 
the present time their power is supreme throughout India, 
and the Queen of England has taken the title of Empress of 
India (Kaisar-i-Hind). 

4-83. RELIGION. The Aryans and Dravidians of India 
number 250,000,000, of whom 50,000,000 3xq M7ihammadans, 
180,000,000 Brahmanisls. The Muhammadans are in race 
undistinguishable from the Hindoos, and have been largely 
recruited from them by conversion ; but there are amcMig 
the Muhammadans of India a limited number of people of 
Mughul {i.e. Mongol) extraction, and others of Pathan {i.e. 
Afifghan) race. 

The Brahminical religion is hardly a religion in the sense 
of the English word, as it does not imply faith in any 
particular tenets or gods, though practically among the 
vulgar it is corrupted with a low form of idolatry. But the 
Brahminical system requires of its adherents that they 
follow strictly the customs of their race, village, and family. 

The Singhalese (inhabitants of Ceylon) are Buddhists, as 
are mostly the Tartars of the Himalaya. 

The Rookies and most of the wild tribes have no religion, 
but a fear of demons and a belief in witchcraft. They are 
more accessible to Christian Missionaries than any class of 
Hindoos, 



192 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

The Parsees 2iX^ fire-worshippers.. The Armenians belong 
to the Greek Church : the Feringhees are mainly Roman 
Catholic Christians ; the Eurasians and the English mainly 
Protestant Christians. 

4-84. PLANTS. India contains about ten times as many 
wild plants as England, but at least twenty-five times as 
many trees and large shrubs. Many of these belong to 
tribes not known in England, and consequently they cannot 
be described by reference to any English trees. There can 
only be noticed here a few broad features of the Indian 
Flora. 

The European Flora (as already mentioned) reaches the 
Himalaya, following the great line of the Caucasus and 
Elburz. We find in the Himalaya, chiefly in the cooler 
regions 5,000 feet and more above the sea, firs, yews, oaks, 
elm, ash, maple, horse-chestnut, walnut, alder, willow. The 
Himalayan species greatly resemble the English, and they are 
accompanied by brambles, bracken, wild strawberries, goose- 
berries, and currants, and numerous other plants, either 
exactly like or very closely allied to English plants. 

In the moist regions of East Bengal, from Bhotan to 
Chittagong, we meet with a Flora approaching the Malayan 
and of a very tropical character ; abounding in shrubs 
with shining evergreen foliage, trees with large flowers (as 
tree magnolias and their allies) the cocoa-nut, betel-nut, and 
many other palms, very many epiphytic orchids, tree-ferns, 
bamboos, bananas, screw-pines, numerous shrubs of the 
coffee, tea, and orange tribes, many kinds of large figs, 
among which the banyan and indiarubber are famed for 
their aerial roots. The Flora of the moist Malabar coast 
and Ceylon is in many respects allied to this, and resembles 
the Malayan. 

The Deccan is characteristically India, and possesses the 
characteristic Indian Flora, which though allied to the 
Malayan is also allied to that of Tropical Africa. It con- 
tains hardly a single English flowering plant. Teak is the 
most celebrated wood ; and that tree is not allied to any 
European tree. 



XXVIII.] INDIA. 193 

In Rajpootana, and western continental India, the desert 
flora of Western Asia with its numerous prickly plants 
prevails. The palmyra palm and the sugar-palm (nearly 
the same as the date) are common here, but extend also to 
Bengal. 

Of cultivated plants important for food we have first the 
grasses. Rice is the most esteemed cereal, but it can be 
grown only where water is plentiful. Wheat is largely 
cultivated in north-western India and exported to England. 
Barley is also grown from the plains (in the cold weather) 
to the valleys of the Himalaya at 12,000 feet altitude. 
Millets of many kinds feed perhaps nearly as large an 
Indian population as rice. The English reckon as millets 
any small-grained grass, not merely the true Panicums but 
Sorghum and Ragee (or Murwa), grasses resembling no 
English grass. Maize and the sugar-cane are also much 
cultivated. 

Among vegetables, potatoes ^ various cucumbers, melons 
and pumpkins, many sorts of peas and beans, pepper and 
chilies,yams. 

Among fruits, the coco-nut, mango, orange, banana. 

Other celebrated products of India are cotton- from Central 
India, jute from Bengal, tea from Eastern Bengal, coffee 
from Ceylon and the southern peninsula : cinnomon from 
Ceylon, opium from Behar and Malwa, indigo from Bengal. 

485. ANIMALS. Pachyderms. The elephant is wild in 
the forests of Ceylon and of Malabar ; but he is especially 
abundant in the forests of east and north Bengal, and 
ascends the Himalaya nearly to the snow-line. 

Four rhinoceros are found in Bengal, one in the Himalaya 
Terai, one in the Soonderbun, and two smaller ones in 
Chittagong. 

The -zcZ/rt^-z^^^r abounds throughout India and attains agreat 
size, exceeding sometimes four feet at the shoulder. 

Cetacea. One porpoise is found in the Ganges and Megna, 
another in the Indus. 

Soiidungula. The kiang, a kind of wild ass, is rare in the 
high Himalaya. 

O 



194 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Ruminautia. Deer of numerous species are plentiful. The 
axis, or spotted deer, and the sambur, a very large deer, are 
widely distributed in India, and three other large species of 
deer are known in the Himalaya. 

Four kinds of wild goat and two of wild sheep occur in 
the Himalaya. 

The four Indian antelopes are in the west and centre of 
India, preferring the desert style of country (as do all 
antelopes). 

The bufalo and two wild oxeji are found in East Bengal. 

Edentata. A scaly ant-eater occurs in East Bengal. 

Rodentia. Twelve squirrels ^ G.\g\\\:Jlying-sqjiirrelSf a mar- 
mot, in the Himalaya ; more than thirty kinds of rats and 
mice, of which some abound everywhere ; three porctipines 
and four hares. 

Carnivora. The tiger throughout India except Ceylon. 

The lion in Western and Central India. 

The leopard, general ; the ounce and ten smaller tiger-cats. 

The cheeta. The hycena and four foxes. 

T\\Q jackal everywhere abundant. A score of weasels and 
ichneumons. 

Three otters, a badger, three bears, and the curious cat- 
bear from the Central Himalaya. 

Insectivora. Two moles, twelve shrews, two tree-shrews, 
and two hedge-hogs. 

Chiroptera. At least fifty bats are known in India. 

Quadrumana. Two lemm's and ten monkeys. 

This list is not complete, but may serve to convey some 
idea of the wealth of a tropical country in animals. 

486. MINERALS. India is exceedingly poor in minerals. 
There are valuable coal mines in West Bengal and in 
Central India. Assam is known to produce mineral oils. 

.Oxide of iron occurs in the soil in many places, and is 
smelted on a small scale. 

487. DIVISIONS. We have divided India into the three 
great natural divisions of the Deccan, Hindoosthan, and the 
Himalaya. Politically the prime division is into — Enghsh 
States (containing 198,790,853 inhabitants in 1881); and 



xxvin.] 



INDIA. 



195 



Native States (containing upwards of 55,000,000 inhabitants 
by estimate). The Native States are classed— some as Inde- 
pendent, some as semi-Independent, some as Subsidiary. 
They are all really under the power of the British Govern- 
ment, but the degree of hberty allowed the native adminis- 
trators varies. In some the English resident merely reports, 
in others he rules altogether ; and the degree of interference 
varies with circumstances in the same State. Thus, during 
a minority, the Enghsh Government often takes a Native 
State in hand altogether. The Native States are in general 
managed by the Government of India directly by means of 
a Resident or Governor-General's agent; but some are 
attached to the Lieut.-Governors and controlled by them. 

The British States were for a long period arranged in 
three Presidencies, viz., Calcutta, which comprised Bengal 
and Hindoosthan ; Bombay, which comprised the Malabar 
coast ; and Madras, which comprised the Coromandel coast. 
This arrangement still apphes to the army, the doctors, and 
the chaplains. But for all administrative purposes India is 
now divided into eight separate Governments, as shown in 
the annexed table : — 



Governments. 


Rank of Governor. 


Capital. 


Area in 
Square 
Miles. 


Popula- 
tion. 


Bengal . . . . . 
North-west Provinces 

Madras 

Punjab 

Bombay 

Central Provinces . 

Assam 

Burma (Upper&Lower) 


Lieut.-Governor 

Lieut -Governor 

Governor 

Lieut.-Governor 

Governor 

Chief Commissioner 

Chief Commissioner 

Chief Commissioner 


Calcutta 

Allahabad 

Madras 

Lahore 

Bombay 

Nagpore 

Shillong 

Rangoon 


150,588 
106,111 
139,900 
106,632 
124,192 
84,445 
46,341 
227,000 


66,691,456 
44,107,869 
30,868,504 
18,850,437 
16,489,274 
9,838,791 
4,881,426 
7,000,000 


Ceylon 


Governor 


Colombo 


24,702 


2,825,090 



Note that Ceylon is a colony, under the Secretary of State 
for the Colonies, and in no respect under the Viceroy of 
India. The other eight Governments are set up by the 
Indian Government with separate budgets, and with large 

o 2 



196 



GEOGRAPHY. 



[sect. 



administrative independence, but are subordinate parts ot 
the Government of India. 

The principal Subsidiary States are shown in the annexed 
table :— 



Sute. 


Title of Ruler. 


Capital. 


Area in 
Square 
Miles. 


Popula- 
tion. 


Hyderabad . 
Rajpootana . 
Gwalior . . 
Indore . . 
Goojerat . . 
Mysore . . 
Travancore . 


Nizam (Muhammadan) 
Numerous Rajahs 
Scindia (NTahratta) 
Holkar (Mahratta) 
Guikwar (Mahratta) 
Rajah 
Rajah 


Hyderabad 

Gwalior 

Indore 

Haroda 

Seringapatam 

Trevandrum 


93,337 
114,391 

8,318 
40,116 
27,077 

4,722 


9,845,000 
10,268,000 
3,115,000 
1,000,000 
2,185,000 
4,186,000 
2,311,000 



Besides these the external States of Kashmir, Nepal, 
Muneypoor, and Tippera have each an English resident. 
Sikkim is entirely under English influence. Bhotan is 
occupied by a number of savage independent tribes. 

(i) Bengal is the richest, most populous, and most 
highly educated province of India. It contains (since 
Assam has been lately removed from it) four Provinces 
as under : — 



Province. 


Capital. 


Area in Square 
Miles. 


Population. 


Bengal Proper . . 

Behar 

Orissa 

Choia Nagpore 


Calcutta 
Patna 
Cnttack 
Ranchee 


84,105 
42,417 
23,933 
43,712 


36,845,000 
20,736.000 
4,800,000 
4,300,000 



Bengal Proper extends from the Bay of Bengal to the 
Himalaya, a vast level rice plain close studded with villages. 
Dacca (population 70,000) is the only town besides Calcutta. 

Behar is the province next west from Bengal along the 
Ganges, extending west to Benares. It is similar to Bengal 
Proper, but rather drier, and is bounded on the south by the 
spurs of the Deccan plateau. 

Orissa is a strip of rice land along the Bay of Bengal, with 
some jungly hills inland. 



XXVIII.] INDIA. 197 

Chota Nfigpore is the portion of the plateau west from 
Calcutta, south of Behar. 

The hill-station of Bengal is Darjeeling in British Sikkim ; 
hard by are many tea-plantations under English planters. 

(2) The North-west Provinces, or Allahabad Presidency, 
formerly known as "Bengal Upper Provinces," the four 
provinces now in Bengal being known as '* Bengal Lower 
Provinces." 

This Government has lately been greatly increased by 
throwing into it Oude, which heretofore constituted a 
separate Chief-commissionership. 

The North-west Provinces now contain the whole Upper 
Gangetic plain from Benares west to Meerut, but not Delhi 
(which is in the Punjab). It also contains a Himalayan 
province, Kumaon, with the English hill-stations Almora and 
Nynee Tal. 

The Upper Gangetic plain is drier than the lower, and 
rice is much less grown. Oude has been called the Garden 
of India. 

This Government contains many large towns, Lucknow, 
Agra, &c. 

(3) Madras contains not merely the whole Coromandel 
coast from Orissa to Cape Comorin, but stretches across the 
peninsula to the Malabar coast, where it comprises the 
provinces of Malabar and Canara on the west side of the 
Western Ghats, which are very moist, while the rest of the 
Madras Government is (for India) dry, so that rice can be 
little grown without irrigation. The great plain of the 
Carnatic is considerably hotter than Bengal (especially in 
winter) and much less covered with grass. Large areas of 
it are irrigated and produce rice largely, supporting a great 
population. In much of the rest of Madras millets rather 
than rice prevail. 

The English hill-stations for Madras are Ooty (Ootaca- 
mund) and adjoining towns on the Nilgheries. These 
mountains are the centre of the English coffee plantations. 

(4) The Punjab contains the extreme west of the Gangetic 
plain (including Delhi), the Punjab Proper (country of the 



198 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Five rivers), a strip west from the Indus to the mountains, 
and the province of Gurwhal in the Himalaya. 

This Government is in general a plain, but the Himalaya 
rises less abruptly from the plain here than it does in 
Bengal. There are outer ranges of hills, and the Salt range 
is somewhat distant from the Himalaya. 

The crops here are much the same as in the North-west 
Provinces, but the climate is drier, and in winter much 
colder. Snow falls occasionally in the plains at Lahore. 

There are several English hill-stations in Gurwhal, among 
which Simla is the summer residence of the Viceroy. In 
the Himalayan province of Chumba is the English hill- 
station Dalhousie, on the northern edge of the English 
territory. 

(5) Bombay contains the provinces Concan along the 
Malabar coast, Khandeish across the Taptee valley, Poona 
and Sattara on the Deccan plateau east of the Western 
Ghats, a strip of territory round the head of the Gulf of 
Cambay, and Scinde (quite detached) on the Indus. 

The climate varies from extreme moisture in the South 
Concan near the ghats, to burning dry heat in the deserts of 
Scinde. 

The English hill-station is Poona. 

(6) Central Provinces comprise the old Saugur territory, 
Berar (or Nagpore) annexed by Lord Dalhousie, and certain 
districts ceded by the Nizam. 

This Government lies wholly in the Deccan : it contains 
considerable areas of cotton soil, and also possesses coal 
mines. The railway up the Nerbudda valley has given the 
province a great commercial impetus, and is being still 
pushed eastwards. It will another day be the main line 
from Calcutta to Bombay. Three -fourths of the population 
are Hindoos, the remainder belonging to aboriginal tribes. 

(7) Assam comprises the valley of the Brahmapootra, 
Assam Proper, occupied mainly by impure Hindoos ; the 
Khasi range of mountains, 4,000 — 6,000 feet high, south of 
Assam, occupied by Khasis and other Kookie tribes ; and 
the districts of Svlhet and Cachar, in the plain south of the 



xxvin.] INDIA. 199 

Khasi range. Tea is largely cultivated by English planters 
both in Assam and Cachar. Assam is capable of support- 
ing a large population on rice, but was nearly depopulated 
under the Burmese regime. 

Shillong, the political capital, is the English station on 
the Khasi hills. 

(8) Ceylon, somewhat smaller than Ireland, presents a 
central group of mountains, with low-lying tracts all round 
to the sea. It is hot and moist, and celebrated for its belt 
of coco-nuts continuous along the south-west coast, its 
cinnamon, and its coffee plantations. The island was nearly 
depopulated under native rule, and large tracts on the eastern 
side are now jungles containing the ruins of large cities^ 
Palk Strait, which separates it from India, is too shallow 
to permit the passage of ships. Ceylon closely resembles 
Travancore, on the opposite coast of India. 

(9) Hyderabad is the heart of the Deccan, lying on the 
table-land, mostly 2,000 feet above sea-level. It contains a 
large area of black cotton-soil. Extensive irrigation works 
have been constructed, both on the Godavery and Kistna. 
It is a subsidiary state ; the sovereign, called the Nizam, 
i.e. Viceroy (of the Great Mogul), a Mahometan, has lately 
come of age and taken administrative charge. 

(10) Rajpootana. This large area is within the region of 
the Indian desert, and its numerous small states are often 
little more than oases. The Governor-General's agent for 
Rajpootana superintends the whole, and has under him resi- 
dents in the more important states, some of which are prac- 
tically ruled altogether by the Resident. 

The Rajput princes regard themselves as the highest-born 
men in India. 

On the Aravalli range is Mount Aboo, altitude 5,000 feet, 
where the Enghsh have a station, at which the Governor- 
General's agent often resides. 

(11) Gwalior is irregularly shaped, containing separate 
patches on the Chumbul, and includes a large area of the 
famous black cotton soil of India (disintegrated trap). Cotton 
and opium are largely exported. 



200 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Scindia is one of the subsidiary Mahiatta princes. By 
treaty he is entitled to keep a private army, and his artillery 
gained him the military compliments of the Prince of Wales 
at his Review. But in all these cases where native Rajahs 
are allowed to play at soldiers, the Government of India has 
the expense of maintaining a sufficient English force to 
overwhelm them whenever necessary. 

(12) Indore is a small but valuable territory, lying mainly 
along the central Nerbudda, but extending over the Vindhyas 
into the Mahva plateau, where is Holkar's capital, Indore. 

(13) The Guikwar has the peninsula of Goojerat and a 
small separate district in the continent, where is his capital, 
Baroda. 

(14) Mysore is a plateau 3,000 feet above the sea. Though 
nominally a Native State, it was in fact directly adminis- 
tered by the English Government for forty years, but was 
handed over to the present Maharajah upon his attaining his 
majority. 

(15) Travancore is closely under British protection. The 
Rajah employs several British officers in the higher adminis- 
trative posts, and has accumulated much treasure. He is a 
zealous Hindoo. 

488. TOWNS. Enumeration of those containing 100,000 
or more inhabitants : — 

(i) Bombay, population 770,000. 

(2) Madras, population 405,000. 

(3) Calcutta, on the Hooghly, pop. 870,000, including the 
suburbs, but only 400,000 within the Mahratta ditch. 

(4) patna, population 170,000, on the Ganges ; the chief 
town of Behar. 

(5) Benares, population 200,000, on the Ganges ; the 
Sacred City of the Hindoos. 

(6) Allahabad, population 148,000, at the junction of the 
Ganges and Jumna. 

(7) Agra, population 160,000, on the Jumna: here is the 
Taj, the most famed building in India. 

(8) Gawnpore, population 150,000, orr the Ganges, oppo- 
site Oude. 



XXIX.] AFGHANISTAN. 201 

(9) Lucknow, pop. 260,000, on the Goomtee ; the chief 
town of Oude. 

(10) Bareilly, pop. 105,000; the chief town in Rohilcund. 

(11) Delhi, pop. 75,000, on the Jumna. 

(12) Baroda, pop. 100,000, the capital of the Guikwar. 

(13) Ahmedabad, pop. 1 30,000, north of the Gulfof Cambay. 

(14) Hyderabad, pop. 350,000, the capital of the Nizam. 

(15) Nagpore, pop. 100,000, the chief town in the Central 
Provinces. 

(16) Bangalore, pop. 155,000, in Mysore. 

(17) Axnritsar, pop. 150,000, commercial city in Punjab. 

(18) Lahore, pop. 150,000, capital of the Punjab. 

(19) Jeypore, pop, 140,000, chief town of Rajpootana. 

(20) Rangoon, pop. 135,000, capital and port of Burma. 

(21) Poona, pop. 130,000, military capital of Bombay. 

(22) Surat, pop. 110,000, first English settlement. 

(23) Colombo, pop. 120,000, capital and port of Ceylon. 

Sect. XXIX. AFGHANISTAN (with BeloocMstan). 

4.07. EXTENT AND BOUNDARIES. Afghanistan is 
bounded on the North by the River Oxus ; on the East 
by India ; on the South by the Indian Ocean ; on the West 
by Persia and Russian Turkestan. 

490. CLIMATE. Afghanistan is intensely hot in summer 
and always dry. It is part of the Desert region of south- 
west Asia ; there are hardly any trees, except a belt at the 
base of the Hindoo Koosh, which may be regarded as a 
continuation of the Indian Terai. 

491. MOUNTAINS. Nearly the whole of Afghanistan 
is a raised table-land, and the northern part is very cold in 
winter. 

492. RIVERS. Owing to the drought there is no consider- 
able river in Afghanistan ; the small streams often dry up 
or slip away. Only small areas near water can be cultivated, 
but these are very fertile. Though the whole area of the 
country may be twice that of France, the population is 
probably less than that of Ireland. 



202 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

493. RACES OF MEN. The Afghans are an Aryan race 
of the elder branch, closely related to the Persians. They 
are Muhammadans in religion. On the coast of Beloo- 
chistan is a wretched, barbarous tribe, eating fish, who were 
found there by Alexander the Great 2,000 years ago, eating 
fish then. 

494. PRESENT POLITIC AL STATE. Different chiefs 
at different centres exercise a practically independent sove- 
reignty as far as they can ; the Ameer at Kabul is the largest 
chief. Beloochistan is a dependency of British India. 

495. COMMUNICATIONS. The caravan-route pro- 
ceeds from Peshawur along the Kabul river to Kabul, and 
thence directly west to Herat, branching thence to the 
Caspian, and to Persia. The Khaibar Pass to Kabul, and 
the Bolan Pass to Kandahar, the north-western gates of 
India, held by the British, are connected at Peshawur and 
Quetta with the railroads of India. 

496. ANIMALS AND PLANTS. Afghanistan possesses 
excellent horses and camels. Also, owing to the greater 
dryness of the climate, many fruits come to perfection here 
which cannot be grown with good flavour in India : such are 
7ftelo?is, grapes, apricots. 

497. TOWNS, (i) Kabul, capital ; population 140,000; 
(2) Kandahar, with extensive trade ; (3) Herat, strongly 
fortified ; population of both very fluctuating. 



Sect. XXX. PERSIA. 

498. EXTENT AND BOUNDARIES. Persia is bounded 
on the East by Afghanistan and Beloochistan ; on the South 
by the Persian Gulf ; on the West by Asiatic Turkey ; on the 
N^orth by Russia, the Caspian, and Russian Turkestan. 

Its area is more than treble France, population nearly 
twice that of Scotland. 

499. CLIMATE. Persia being part of the Western Desert 
region of Asia, is intensely hot in suminer and very diXy ; 



XXX.] PERSIA. 203 

the low lying parts are not cold in winter, but the elevated 
regions (far the larger portion of it) are swept by piercing 
winds in winter. 

500. MOUNTAINS AND PLATEAUS. The Elburz 
mountains run east and west across the north of Persia : the 
highest point, Demavend, is 18,464 feet altitude. 

The north-west of Persia, comprising part of ancient 
Armenia, is a mountainous and generally elevated country ; 
Ararat is at its north-west corner. 

The whole of eastern Persia and part of central Persia 
forms the main portion of the table-land of Aria, whence the 
Aryan nations are supposed to have spread eastwards and 
westwards. It is a plateau 3,000 — 4,000 feet above the sea, 
a salt desert, with scattered oases where there is water, 
otherwise uninhabited. The narrow tract between the 
Elburz and the Caspian lies low and is moist and hot, 
quite unlike the rest of Persia, growing rice and the sugar- 
cane. 

501. RIVERS. None of any magnitude. The streams of 
Persia are often dried up, and their water seldom reaches 
the sea. 

502. COMMUNICATIONS. There are no roads in Persia. 
The communication over the greater part of it is by caravans 
of camels which travel from one oasis to the next. The 
principal trade route from Herat is continued to Tabreez in 
Armenia. By this route from the most ancient times the 
products of India have reached the Black Sea and Europe. 

503. RACES OF MEN. The population of Persia is sup- 
posed equally divided between the Persians proper and the 
tribes. The Persians proper are descendants of the ancient 
Aryan Persians, but with much Mongolian and some Tartar 
admixture. The tribes are nomadic, but it is supposed nearly 
half of them no longer live in tents but have settled habita- 
tions. They are Turcomans of various Mongolian races, and 
some Arabs, especially near the Persian Gulf. 

504. ANIMALS. Persia possesses excellent cajnels, horses^ 
asses, and mules: and among wild animals, the lion, leopard j 
hyena, wild ass, and many antelopes. 



204 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

505. PLANTS. The east and centre of Persia is nearly 
treeless. The region near the Persian Gnlf produces 
excellent dates. The Elburz mountains are rich in wild 
plants, and at their base are found the peach, plu77i, pear, 
apricot, cherry, and many other fruits apparently wild ; 
whence this region has been often described as that whence 
the world has received many fruits ; but this is not certain, 

506. DIVISIONS. Persia is divided for administrative 
purposes into eight Governments ; but may be divided into 
four principal physical divisions, viz : 

(i) The Great Desert Plateau which occupies the east and 
centre of the country. Small portions of this adjacent to 
the Elburz are wooded. 

(2) The district near the Persian Gulf, of which Fars (a 
corruption of Paras, i.e. Persia) is the central province. 
This is much moister, and less desert. Shiraz, the capital 
of Fars, has been celebrated for its wine, rose-water, and 
tobacco, but is now a small town. 

(3) The damp low hot malarious tracts between the 
Caspian and the Elburz, where the vegetation attains almost 
Indian luxuriance. 

(4) Armenia and the mountainous country on the west of 
Persia, a healthy and well-wooded region ; but much of it 
elevated land with an extreme climate, intensely hot in 
summer, and two months snow in winter. 

507. TOWNS, (i) Tabreez, in Armenia, estimated to 
contain more than 150,000 inhabitants. 

(2) Mushed, on the route between Herat and Astrabad, 
supposed to contain 75,000 inhabitants. 

(3) Teheran, pop. nearly 200,000 ; the present capital, 
south of the Elburz. 

(4) Ispahan, population 90,000 ; a former capital. 



XXXI.] ARABIA. 205 

Sect. XXXI. ARABIA. 

6O8. EXTENT. Arabia is as large as all Europe exclusive 
of Russia and Scandinavia, but contains less people than 
Belgium. 

509. BOUNDARIES: Arabia is bounded on the JV^si by 
the Isthmus of Suez, the Gulf of Suez, and the Red Sea ; on 
the South by the Indian Ocean ; on the East by the Indian 
Ocean, the Persian Gulf, and the Lower Euphrates ; on the 
North by Asiatic Turkey, the boundary being a line not fixed 
in the Desert. 

510. STRAITS. Babel-Mandeb, leading from the Indian 
Ocean into the Red Sea : Ormuz, leading from the Indian 
Ocean into the Persian Gulf, named from Ormuz, a small 
island in the Straits. 

511. CLIMATE. Arabia is wholly within the Western 
Desert of Asia (which is in reality a portion of the Northern 
Desert of Africa). It is intensely dry and burning hot. The 
higher ground is very hot in summer, though liable to frost 
in winter. 

512. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS. Arabia is generally 
rocky and mountainous : at a short distance from the coast 
on all sides the country rapidly rises to the vast central 
plateau which occupies the whole interior of Arabia. The 
highest part of this plateau is near the southern sea-coast, 
where it is 6,000 feet high ; from this ridge it slopes north- 
wards, the centre of Arabia, called Nejd, being about 3,000 
feet above sea level. The northern part of Arabia is lower 
and flatter, a more sandy desert. 

In the peninsula of Sinai, at the head of the Red Sea, is 
Mount Sinai, altitude 7,000 feet. 

513. RIVERS. None of any size. Most Arabian water- 
courses are dry, except occasionally after storms. 

514.. ANIMALS AND PLANTS. The camel, horse, and 
ass are considered to attain their utmost perfection in 
Arabia. Dates also attain perfection, and form a material 
portion of the food of the people. CoJ'ee is largely culti- 



2o6 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

vated near the south coast. There is nothing approaching 
a forest in all Arabia. 

515. RACES OF MEN. The Arabians belong to the She- 
mitic branch of the Caucasian race. Their language, Arabic, 
is allied to Hebrew. Their religion is Miihammadaii. 

A large portion of the Arabs are still nomadic, commonly 
known as Bedouins. 

516. DIVISIONS. Arabia has no political existence : the 
western coast is more or less under the control of the 
Turks. Elsewhere, each chief or sultan rules as far as he 
can. The principal is the Sultan of Muscat, on the south- 
east coast ; another is the Sultan of Mocha, on the southern 
coast. 

Treating the country in natural divisions we have— 

(i) The Coast : a narrow strip on the southern coast 

called Arabia Felix produces dates and coffee ; the strip 

on the south-east coast called Muscat also produces dates ; 

the coast of the Red Sea is more barren, but has some 

population. 

(2) The high Table-land, 3,000 — 6,000 feet in the centre of 
the southern part of Arabia, an enormous tract, is almost 
totally Desert and uninhabited. 

(3) Nejd, the Centre of the country, elevated 2,000— 
3.000 feet above the sea, contains many oases and fertile 
valleys, with some water. This is essentially Arabia, and 
contains over a million inhabitants. 

(4"/ The Northern Desert, sandy and very hot ; nearly 
uninhabited, but much less impracticable than the southern 
high plateau, water being more frequently to be got. 

(5) Aden, a small peninsula at the southernmost point 
(with Perim, an island in the Strait of Babel-Mandeb) is an 
English possession, occupied by English soldiers, and is a 
coaling station on the overland route to India. 

517. TOWNS. Muscat, population 60,000, a port, is the 
largest town in Arabia. 

Mecca, population 45,000, the birth-place of Mahomet. 
Medina^ the burial-place of Mahomet ; a very small 
town. 




W:iA.K.Jolmsto; 




and London 



XXXII.] AFRICA. 207 

Sect. XXXII. AFRICA. 

518. EXTENT. Africa is more than thrice the size of 
Europe. Its population is guessed to be much less. 

519. BOUNDARIES. Africa is bounded on the North by 
the Mediterranean ; on the West by the Atlantic ; on the 
South by the Great Southern Ocean ; on the East by the 
Indian Ocean, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez and the 
Isthmus of Suez. 

If we take the Suez Canal as the physical boundary of 
Africa, we shall make it an island with natural boundaries 
altogether ; but the Suez Canal is not exactly the eastern 
boundary of the Egyptian Government. 

520. ATTACHED ISLANDS, (i) Madagascar. 

(2) Mauritius, Bourbon, the Seychelles, and some smaller 
islets. 

(3) The ocean islands of St, Helena and Ascension. 

(4) The islands off Cape de Verde, shortly called the 
Verdes. 

(5) The three groups of Macaronesia, viz : 

\a) The Canaries, {b^ Madeira, with adjoining islets, and 
{c), the Azores, or Western Isles. 

521. CLIMATE. Africa is the most tropical of the con- 
tinents ; five-sixths of its area comes vertically under the 
sun ; and the remainder is all included within the warm- 
temperate zone. 

Africa is also dry. The whole northern part is either 
Desert or desert in character, that is to say, intensely dry. 
The southern part without the tropic is also dry, suffering 
from droughts, and sometimes desert in character. 

But the central and south-central portion of Africa from 
10° N.L. to 15° S.L. is very different, subject to tropical 
rains. The greater portion of this area is as yet unvisited 
by any European, but it is certain that the whole of it is 
abundantly moist ; indeed, the portion immediately north of 
the equator has been inferred to consist of dense dripping 
jungle. However this may be, it is certain that the centre 



2o8 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

of the southern half of Africa contains numerous large 
lakes, supplying some of the largest rivers in the world, 
and that large areas there are inundated during the rains. 

522, MOUNTAINS AND PLATEAUS. A ring of moun- 
tains runs nearly all round Africa, not far from the coast. 
In the northern half of Africa, when we have ascended 
these, we may go down again the other side to sea-level, 
or nearly so. But in Africa, south of 5"^ N.L., inside the 
ring of mountains, the country is a plateau, elevated 2,000 
feet or more above the level of the sea. Following round 
the ring of mountains we meet with : — 

(i) The Atlas range, which is 10,000—13,000 feet high in 
its western end, runs south of Morocco and Algiers, from 
east to west. If we cross this range from the north side we 
descend on the south side again at the Sahara to the sea- 
level, and even below it. 

(2) The Kong range, of moderate elevation, parallel with 
the coast of Guinea. On the northern face of these again 
there is a descent to the Upper Niger. 

(3) The Abyssinian mountains attain an elevation of 
11,000 — 15,000 feet ; these highlands are really the northern 
end of the great range that runs parallel with the east coast 
of Africa, and not far from the coast. They form the prin- 
cipal waterparting of Africa, and their highest known point is 

(4) Kilimanjaro, alt. 18,712 feet, in the interior of Zanzi- 
bar. This main waterparting does not stop here, but con- 
tinues (with a small break through which the Zambesi pours) 
to the Cape of Good Hope, where Table mountain (height 
3,582 feet) may be considered its extremity. 

(5) The mountains on the South-west coast may be sup- 
posed to extend from the Orange River to the Congo Eiver, 
near the west coast. They are of much less height than the 
great waterparting on the east coast, and form the edge of 
the great southern plateau of Africa, which slopes westward ; 
that is, they are stairs up to the plateau, steep towards the 
sea, not having any great descent on their eastern face. 
This range is continued north of the great gorge of the 
Congo as 



XXXII.] AFRICA. 209 

(6) The Cameroon mountains, which have a height near the 
sea of 13,000 feet. This may be merely the western end of 
the northern waterparting of the Congo, but nothing is known 
here. From the days of classic history a range of moun- 
tains called the Mountains of the Moon has been described 
in Central Africa as those whence the Nile springs ; and 
very possibly some mountains will be hereafter discovered in 
Central Africa to which the name of " Mountains of the 
Moon" may be applicable. 

The Sahara, or Great Desert, is the largest desert in the 
world, and intensely hot. The central portion of it is rocky 
rather than sandy, and is elevated considerably above sea- 
level ; but all round its northern edge is a low sandy burning 
tract, which is in some places below sea-level. These were 
sea at no distant period, geologically speaking, and it has 
been proposed to dig a canal through the sand and let 
the sea in again ; with the double object of ameliorating 
the climate and of admitting commerce. The eastern 
half of the Sahara contains many more springs and oases 
than the western half. In this eastern half, consequently, 
it is far more easy to travel and the population is much 
greater. 

523. RIVERS, (i) The NUe, total length hardly less 
than 2,500 miles, flows from lakes Victoria Nyanza 
and Albert Nyanza, receiving as an affluent the Blue Nile 
from Abyssinia. Below Cairo it forms a delta, falling into 
the Mediterranean, one of its arms near Alexandria. Its 
widest point is 1,100 miles from, its mouth, where it receives 
its last affluent, the Atbara, for below this point it gets no 
rain (except altogether trifling showers), and loses by evapo- 
ration, percolation, and by being everywhere drawn upon 
for irrigation. 

(2) The Congo, the largest river in Africa, flows from 
Lake Tanganyika (or hard by) near the great continental 
African waterparting on the east, and falls into the Atlantic 
near Angola. Its volume is immense, as it drains a very 
large upland area subject to heavy tropical rain. 

(3) The Nigrer, which rises not far from the Atlantic, but 

P 



2IO GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

flowing at first towards the north-east has a course of nearly 
I J 500 miles , before it reaches the Gulf of Guinea. 

(4) The Zambesi, which flows from Lake Nyassa (perhaps 
also from Lake Ngami) eastward to the Indian Ocean. It 
bursts through . the great range of mountains not far from 
the eastern coast, by the Victoria Falls, supposed to be the 
grandest waterfall in the globe. 

(5) The Senegal, which falls into the Atlantic near the 
town of Senegal. > 

(6) The Orange, which flows into the Atlantic on the 
northern frontier of Cape Colony. 

524-. LAKES, (i) Tchad, the oldest known in Central 
Africa ; supposed to have no outlet, but this is very doubtful. 

(2) Victoria Nyanza and Albert Nyanza^ near the sources 
of the Nile. 

(3) Tanganyika, near the principal source of the Congo, 
has perhaps no outlet. 

(4) Nyassa, one of the sources of the Zambesi. 

525. COMMUNICATIONS. Africa in general has none 
but footpaths and unimproved rivers. The principal excep- 
tions are Egypt, where there are 1,276 miles of railway; the 
Cape of Good Hope, where there are 1,700 miles of railway; 
and Algeria, where the French have 1,240 miles of railway. 

526. RACES OF MEN. (l) The Negroes occupy Africa 
south of the Sahara, and are supposed to form two-thirds 
of the population of the entire continent. Different tribes 
among them vary very greatly, both in physical characters 
and in the civihsation attained ; but no Negro race is known 
ever to have discovered letters, though they often learn 
reading quickly from European teachers. 

(2) The Shemitic branches of the Caucasian race occupy 
the northern part of Africa, and speak Shemitic languages. 
Of these branches the chief are — 

(a) The Berbers, mainly on the Barbary coast and the 
Mediterranean. 

{b) The Arabs, scattered throughout the northern half of 
Africa. 

{c) The Abyssinians. 



xxxii.] AFRICA. 211 

{d) The Copts, who are believed to be partially descended 
from the ancient Egyptians. 

(3) The Malayan race is supposed to be represented in the 
large island of Madagascar. 

527. RELIGION. The Negroes are generally Fetish 
worsiiippcrs, idolaters, or pagans. The northern population 
of Africa is largely Miihammadan. There is found in 
Abyssinia a very impure form of Christianity. 

528. ANIMALS. Africa exceeds all Other continents in its 
large animals, not merely in variety of species, but in number 
of individuals. 

(i) Pachydenus. The African elephant, which is very 
like the Asiatic, but differs in having a more angular head 
and in his teeth. The African elephant is now not tamed, 
and is only found south of the Sahara. But the Romans 
used to tame him, and in their day he was plentiful on the 
Mediterranean shore. 

Four kinds of rhinoceros, one of which is generally dis- 
tributed. These African rhinoceros are much like the Asiatic 
species, but have no folds in their skin. 

The hippopotainus, found in all the rivers of Africa, and 
nowhere else in the globe. ~ A second species of hippo- 
potamus has been discovered in Western Africa. And in 
geological ages past there lived hippopotami both in Europe 
and Western Asia. 

Several kinds of wild-boar, and also several species of 
hyrax, a small animal allied zoologically to the hog, but in 
its habits approaching the rabbit. 

(2) Solidungula. Two zebras and a qnagga in South Africa. 
The ass and horse flourish in North Africa, but are not 

supposed to be wild there. • 

(3) Ruminants. The camel, the ship of the desert, is gene- 
rally employed in North Africa, from Arabia to Senegal 
and the Canaries. 

Thegiraje occurs from Nubia to the Cape of Good Hope, 
and in no other continent. 

Deer are absent in Africa, but their absence is supplied 
by numerous herds of antelopes, which love dry countries. 

P 2 



212 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

More than fifty species are known in Africa, varying in size 
from the slender gazelle of North Africa to the eland of the 
Cape of Good Hope, which is over six feet high at the 
shoulder, and nearly as heavy as an ox. The large antelopes 
occur commonly in small herds of six to twelve ; but the 
spriiig-bok has been seen in South Africa in a herd estimated 
at 15,000, and many other African antelopes are seen some- 
times in vast multitudes. 

Two kinds of wild-goat occur in Abyssinia, and another 
in the Atlas. 

The buffalo is now wild at the Cape of Good Hope. 

(4) Edentata. The ground-pig, an animal allied to the 
ant-eaters, lives near the Cape of Good Hope. 

(5) Rodents. Hares, rabbits, t\\e guifiea-pig {on the Guinea 
coast), the porcupine (on the Barbary coast), rats, mole-rats, 
jerboas (or jumping-rats), dormice, squirrels. 

(6) Camivora. The lio7i is common throughout Africa, 
but he is much less common on the Mediterranean coast 
than in Roman times ; and he has been driven out of Cape 
Colony. 

The leopard abounds everywhere, ^Yith several kinds of 
tiger-cat, lynx, and hycena. 

The Cape hunting-dog, the jackal, and several foxes ; 
also numerous animals of the weasel tribe. 

Only one bear is known in Africa, and that only in the Atlas. 

The ho ?iey -badgers live near the Cape of Good Hope. 

(7) Insectivora. Moles, shrews, hedgehogs, &c. 

(8) Chiroptera. Numerous bats 2Lnd /ox-bats. 

(9) Quadnimana. Lemurs and the aye-aye in Madagascar. 
Monkeys of very many kinds, among which are more par- 
ticularly famous the gorilla and the chimpanzee, near the 
equator, on the eastern coast ; and the dog-headed monkeys^ 
the true baboons, which are all African. Most of the African 
monkeys, however, are small, the " tailed apes." 

529. PLANTS, (i) The flora of the Sahara, of Nubia, 
Egypt, and the Mediterranean coast from Tripoli east- 
wards, is a desert flora, and very nearly identical with the 
desert flora of Western Asia. The prevalence of 



XXXII.] AFRICA. 213 

prickly, harsh or strong-smeUing plants, is a marked 
character of the wild flora, as is the prevalence of the date 
among the food-plants. Wherever water can be obtained 
the South-European cereals can generally be raised. 

On the Mediterranean coast from Tripoli westwards the 
flora is very closely allied to that of South Europe ; so that 
the country from the Atlas to the Mediterranean coast is 
reckoned as a part of the Mediterranean basin botanically. 

(2) The flora of Tropical Africa from 10° N.L. to the tropic 
of Capricorn is allied to that of the Peninsula of India. 
Among cereal grasses, maize, sorgJmm, and many millets 
are cultivated : also pumpkins of many kinds, yams, and the 
sweet-poiato. 

(3) The flora of the Cape of Good Hope consists of a 
large number of species (about 9,000 of flowering plants), 
which as a Avhole are very unlike the plants of any other 
region in the world, comprising great numbers of shrubby 
and bulbous plants. Cape heaths and Cape bulbs are two of 
the favourite classes of cultivated plants with English gar- 
deners. The climate being warm-temperate, the vifie and 
orange as well as wheat are readily cultivated at the Cape. 

530. DIVISIONS. Large portions of the interior of 
Africa are little or not at all known to geographers ; and the 
known portions are only imperfectly divided politically. 
Africa is hereunder divided into — 

(i) The northern coast. 

(2) Egypt and Nubia. 

(3) The Sahara. 

(4) The coasts of Senegambia and Guinea. 

(5) The south-western coast. 

(6) The eastern coast, Abyssinia, Zanzibar, Mozambique, 
&c. 

(7) The interior south of Lake Tchad. 

(8) Cape Colony. 

(9) The attached islands. 



214 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 



Sect. XXXIII. NORTHERN COAST OF AFRICA. 

531. EXTENT. The States Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, 
Tripoli, and Barca. 

532. BOUNDARIES. The tract is bounded on the IVesf 
by the Atlantic ; on the A^or/k by the Mediterranean ; on 
the South by the Sahara ; on the East by Egypt. 

533. MOUNTAINS. The Atlas range runs nearly parallel 
to the sea coast ; in Morocco it is 10,000—13,000 feet high, 
but becomes lower eastward, and dies quite away letting 
in the Sahara sands over Tripoli and Barca. 

534. PLANTS. Morocco is naturally fertile, and can 
grow rice, grapes, wheat, olives, sugar-cane, and tobacco, 
but is desolate under Moorish rule. Algiers and Tunis 
are little inferior. The coast eastwards becomes more 
barren. 

A strip of land at the southern base of the Atlas, lying 
between the mountains and the Sahara, is known as the 
" Land of Dates." The forest of date-palms is here almost 
continuous, and is abundantly productive. 

535. RACES OF MEN. The population consists of 
Berbers, Arabs, and Moors. The Moors are supposed to 
be a mixed race, but altogether of Shemitic descent. 

536. DIVISIONS, (i) Morocco is under a Moorish 
Emperor. It is supposed to contain about 5,000,000 in- 
habitants. Chief towns are Fez, pop. 80,000 ; and Morocco, 
pop. 50,000 ; it is little known to Europeans. 

(2) Algiers, formerly celebrated as a piratical and kid- 
napping state, was happily taken possession of by the French 
in A.D. 1830. The population is now 3,400,000, besides 
400,000 Europeans. Algiers, the capital, contains 70,000 
inhabitants. Under the French rule esparto grass, wheat, 
and silk are being largely produced, and considerable mines 
of iron, copper, lead, and salt have been developed. The 
French have also sunk some successful Artesian wells in 
desert spots, to the great delight of the inhabitants. 



XXXIV.] EGYPT. 215 

(3) Tunis, formerly subject province of Turkey under a 
Bey, has been since 1882 under French protectorate. The 
country contains 1,500,000 inhabitants, has 250 miles of 
railway ; exports esparto grass and grain. 

The ruins of Carthage are near Tunis, the capital, which 
contains 140,000 inhabitants. 

(4) Tripoli, with its dependency Barca, is under a 
.Muhammadan Bey. Tripoli is called by the Arabs " The 
White Sea," being covered with sand. Barca is a plateau. 
There is a cluster of oases in the Sahara south of Tripoli, 
which are attached to Tripoli politically, and marked as 
the district Fezzan in the maps. The population is about 
1.000,000. 



Sect. XXXIV. EGYPT, with Nubia. 

537. EXTENT. The natural area of Egypt is the valley 
of the Nile, which is rarely more than eleven miles wide, 
and often not more than two. On either side of this valley 
overflowed by the Nile, the hills rise abruptly ; in a few yards 
we pass from the green fields of Egypt completely into the 
great desert of Africa. The political area of Egypt extends 
to various oases at several days' journey west of it in the 
desert. 

Near Cairo we are at the apex of the delta of the Nile, 
and below this point the narrow valley greatly widens out. 
By the aid of the fresh-water canal (adjunct to the Suez 
Canal) the region of cultivated Egypt has been extended 
nearly to Suez. 

538. RIVER. Eg>'pt is the "Gift of the Nile;'' in 
central Egypt rain falls very seldom and then in shght quan- 
tity. The first cataract of the Nile in ascending the river is 
met with at the boundary between Egypt and Nubia. Above 
this point are several other cataracts, and the river- valley is 
still narrower than in Egypt : in many places the desert 
rocks come to the very edge of the river. But in Upper 
Nubia we arrive at a much moister climate. 



dl6 GEOGRAPHY. [secT. 

At Khartoum, in Upper Nubia, the Bkie Nile from 
Abyssinia joins the White Nile (the larger branch) which 
descends from the Lake Victoria Nyanza near the equator. 
And the Nile below this point receives on its right bank one 
large feeder, the Atbara. 

539. COMMUNICATIONS. The Nile is the great natural 
means of communication in Egypt. 

There is a railway from Alexandria to Cairo, also from 
Alexandria to Suez ; also a connecting link from Cairo to 
Suez. There are other pieces of railway from Cairo up 
the Nile, greatly shortening the time of ascending the river 
in the cold weather, when the wind blows often from the 
south. 

The Suez Canal enables large ships (steamers of 5,000 
tons, not drawing more than twenty-four feet of water) to 
pass from Port Said on the Mediterranean to Suez on the 
Red Sea. This is the route through which now a large part 
of the traffic from England to India passes, and it is still 
called the "overland route," in contradistinction to that 
round the Cape of Good Hope. 

540. RACES OF MEN. The inhabitants of Egypt are 
Arabs and Copts, with some Berbers ; they are estimated at 
6,800,000, and speak Arabic. The inhabitants of Nubia are 
11,000,000, and speak Berber. 

Egypt, nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, is inde- 
pendent, under a Khedive. 

In 1882 a military revolt in Lower Egypt was put down by 
the English, who have since kept an army in occupation, 
reorganized the native forces and the finances, and exercise 
a general control over the Government. 

Upper Egypt and the Soudan have been practically 
abandoned, after unsuccessful and disastrous attempts to 
suppress a revolt under a Mahdi, and rescue the Egyptian 
garrisons. 

541. PLANTS. Egypt (and Nubia up to the fifth cataract) 
contains hardly any trees besides the date-palm. The 
cultivated grains are chiefly rice^ sorghum^ wheat, and 
millets. 



XXXVI.] SENEGAMBIA AND GUINEA. 217 

542. TOWNS. Cairo, population 370,000, the capital. 
Near by are the Pyramids, the Sphinx, and the Serapeum. 

Alexandria, population 220,000, founded by Alexander 
the Great ; a port. 



Sect. XXXV. THE SAHARA. 

543. The Sahara extends from the shore of the Atlantic 
to the Nile, north from 17 N.L. It is nearly without 
fain. The heat is so great in the sun that meat can 
sometimes be cooked by placing it on the sand, and a 
lucifer-match dropped on the ground explodes. But, owing 
to the absence of clouds, the evaporation is very rapid at 
night, so that the nights are often cold. Also portions of 
the Sahara are as much as 3,000 — 4,000 feet above the sea ; 
in these rain occurs and water is generally attainable. 
The country of Tibesti, north of Lake Tchad, is said to be 
tolerably well watered. 

The inhabitants are Berbers and Arabs. The trade is 
carried on by caravans 'of Arab merchants, who cross the 
desert, from oasis to oasis, by camels in caravans. These 
Arab traders deal very generally in slaves, thus rendering 
the country unsettled and dangerous to travel in. Many 
of the southern Sahara nations are in a most barbarous 
state, given to bloody superstitions ; and in some canni- 
balism largely obtains. The eastern portion of the Sahara 
towards Egypt is generally in a better condition than the 
west and south. 



Sect. XXXVI. SENEGAMBIA AND GUINEA. 

544. EXTENT. This coast may be taken to extend from 
the river Senegal to the island of Fernando Po, and the 
basin of the Niger may be supposed connected with it. 

645. CLIMATE. The climate on this coast is moist and 



2i8 GEOGRAPHY. tsECT. 

malarious ; it is the climate of tropical Africa, not of the 
Sahara. 

54-6. MOUNTAINS. The waterparting runs not far from 
the coast, and nearly parallel with it, separating the head- 
waters of Senegal and Gambia from those of the Niger. 
The southern portion of the waterparting is much the higher, 
called the Mountains of Kong. The Cameroons, reaching 
13,000 feet, opposite Fernando Po, may be viewed as a con- 
tinuation of this range, through which the Niger bursts. 

54-7. RIVERS. The Niger: at its northernmost point 
not far from the Sahara is Timbuctoo, a large negro village. 
Its delta is very unhealthy, and is a British protectorate. 

The Senegal and Gambia flow parallel to each other 
directly to the west coast ; and the district Senegambia 
obtains its name by fusing the two words. 

54.8. DIVISIONS. The whole of this coast is traded with 
by Europeans, one chief article of export being the " palm- 
oil," the kind of butter so largely used for greasing railway 
axles and as the foundation of soap, which is the product 
of a Guinea palm. The French have a station at Senegal ; 
the English have stations at Bathurst on the Gambia, Sierra 
Leone, Cape Coast Castle, and Lagos. This district, origin- 
ally occupied as the headquarters of negro slave-trade with 
America, is now held to complete its suppression, and trade 
with interior. 

(2) Liberia is a State of liberated native slaves from 
America ; but many African negroes have placed themselves 
also under the protection of this state. Liberia was founded 
in 1848, and possesses over a million inhabitants, of whom 
18,000 are negroes from America ; it is lapsing through 
bankruptcy and anarchy into barbarism. 

(3) The native Negro States of the interior are celebrated 
chiefly for the atrocities their Chiefs perpetrate. Of these 
Dahomey, Yoruba, and Ashantee are the chief. Ashantee, 
which is mostly jungle, was overrun by the British in 1872 : 
the people are warlike and barbarous. The negroes here- 
about are typical negroes, shining black with very woolly 
hair. 



xxxviii.] ABYSSINIA, ZANZIBAR, MOZAMBIQUE. 219 



Sect. XXXVII. ^ SOUTH-WESTERN COAST. 

549. This district is under the Protectorate of various 
European powers ; of Germany from the Cameroons to the 
River Compos ; thence of France to the right bank of the 
Congo ; next of Portugal to Cape Frio ; and thence of 
Germany to the Orange River. Their posts, small, with 
very few Europeans, and widely scattered along a vast extent 
of coast, exercise little influence over the negroes of the 
interior, among whom slavery and the slave trade still exist. 

The Portuguese have had stations on this coast from the 
fifteenth century ; the French and Germans since 1883. 

The Congo Free State, constituted by International con- 
ference in 1885, includes the mouth and basin of the river, 
but south of the equator the left bank only ; trade is free to 
all nations. This state is the outcome of Mr. Stanley's 
explorations, and was founded by him with the support of 
the King of the Belgians. It is estimated at five times the 
size of France, with a population as large as that of England. 
Much of the soil is fertile ; but the people are all barbarous, 
some cannibal : navigation is stopped by cataracts 400 miles 
from the sea. 

Sect. XXXVIII. ABYSSINIA, ZANZIBAR, 
MOZAMBiaUE. 

550. The eastern coast of equatorial Africa greatly re- 
sembles the western, being moist, hot, and unhealthy ; and 
having a range of mountains parallel with the coast, and 
at no great distance from it. This western range, however, 
is at (or hear) the principal waterparting of Africa, and attains 
the snow-line in the interior of Zanzibar, where Mounts 
Kilima-Njaro and Kenia reach over 18,000 feet above the sea. 

Abyssinia is a country at a high level, much of it above 
5,000 feet, and very precipitous in character, but healthy and 
fruitful. Abyssinia enjoys tribal anarchy. The Italians have 
occupied Massowah on the Red Sea. 



220 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Zanzibar consists of a strip of coast and islands lying off 
it, under a Mohamedan Arab Sultan ; the capital contains 
80,000 people. A German Protectorate includes the districts 
between Nyanza, Tanganyika, and the sea ; north of Kilima- 
Njaro is a British Protectorate. The Portuguese claim a 
suzerainty over the Mozambique and Sofala coasts. 



Sect. XXXIX. THE SOUTH CENTRE OP AFRICA. 

651. This area is supposed to include the whole of the 
great interior basin of Africa, from the tropic of Capricorn 
to Lake Tchad. Nothing whatever was known concerning 
this region forty years ago. Since that date numerous 
explorers have travelled within the area, among whom stand 
pre-eminent Dr. Livingstone and Mr. Stanley. 

The Nile drains the northern part of the region, the Coftgo 
the centre, the Zambesi the south. Not only have the great 
lakes of Victoria Nyanza, Albert Nyanza, Tanganyika, and 
Nyassa been found, but it appears that in this equatorial moist 
region of Africa large tracts of country are flooded in the 
rainy season ; and it is believed that at this season the head- 
waters of the Zambesi and Congo communicate. The whole 
of this area, which is treated here so shortly, is, so far as 
known, fertile, not unhealthy for a tropical country, and 
capable of producing the most valued fruits and corn and 
of supporting a large population. The north-west portion, 
tie. the country immediately south from Lake Tchad, is 
still quite unknown. 

The inhabitants are Negroes ; they are allied to the 
Kaffirs and Hottentots, and speak a class of languages called 
the Bantu, which differs materially from the Negro languages 
of the Niger : these Bantus are a better kind of people than 
the Niger Negroes : but they have been demoralized by the 
Portuguese slave traders from Angola ajid Mozambique, and 
by Arab slave traders from the north-east. Wherever the 
slave trade has penetrated, it has destroyed all other trade, 



XL.] CAPE COLONY. 221 

has introduced war and cruelty, has entirely loosened the 
fabric of society, and rendered the population miserable. 

The first penetration of these African dark places was by 
Dr. Livingstone, who, 1852 — 56, surveyed the Zambesi and 
discovered the Victoria Falls. Lieut. Speke discovered the 
Victoria Nyanza in 1862, and has been followed by several 
others. Mr. Stanley has followed the Congo from near Lake 
Tanganyika to its mouth in 1877. 



Sect. XL. CAPE COLONY. 

552. EXTENT. The British colony of the Cape of Good 
Hope is bounded on the No7'th by the Orange River and 
Orange Free State ; on the East by Natal, and elsewhere 
by the sea. 

This district, larger than France, with 1,250,000 inhabitants, 
300,000 of whom are Europeans, consists of. Cape Colony 
proper, a settled and pastoral district ; Griqualand, East and 
West, producing gold and diamonds ; Kaffirland, Basuto- 
land, and other native dependencies ; and Walfisch Bay, a 
harbour on the west coast. 

Bechuanaland, north of the Orange River, is a Protectorate. 

Natal, also a British colony, lies between the Draken- 
bergen and the sea, pop. 425,000; north of it is Zululand, 
most of which is under British authority. 

Between these British colonies, north of the Orange River, 
lie the Orange Free State, founded 1854, and the South 
African Republic or Transvaal, reaching to the Limpopo : 
together these states have an area twice that of Great Britain, 
and a white population of 120,000. 

553. CLIMATE. Cape Colony possesses a very fine and 
healthy climate, warm-temperate, but dry. The western and 
northern parts of Cape Colony itself suffer from drought ; 
but the climate of Natal is nearly " perfect." 

554. MOUNTAINS AND PLATEAUS. The range of 
mountains which runs parallel and near the east coast from 
Cape Town to the tropic of Capricorn is part of the main 
waterparting of Africa. This range is in many places 5,000 



222 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

feet high, its highest point attaining 10,250 feet. It has its 
steep face to the east. On the west it is backed by a plateau 
3,500 feet above sea-level, which slopes gradually westward 
till near the sea coast, where the steep descent westward 
takes place. 

Table Mountain, close to Table Bay, is 3,582 feet high, 
with a flat summit, a prominent object to all ships visiting 
Cape Town. 

555. RIVER. The Orange, which follows the general 
slope of the country westwards. The lower basin of the 
Orange is very dry, and large tracts are deserts. The 
Orange descends from the plateau to the west lowland by 
high falls, and is of little use for navigation. 

556. COMMUNICATIONS. There are 1,700 miles of 
railway in Cape Colony. The ordinary way of travelling in 
the colony is in a heavy wage?! drawn by numerous bullocks, 
through the bush, the streams, and all other obstacles. Natal 
has 174 miles of railway. 

557. RACES OP MEN. There are two main Negro 
races met with, viz. (i) the Kaffirs, who are superior 
Negroes, dark-brown in colour, moderately intelligent ; and 
(2) the Hottentots, who are very inferior Negroes, shorter in 
stature, and dirty. The Zulus are a tribe of Kaffirs. The 
Bushmen are some of the lowest Negroes known. 

558. HISTORIC SKETCH. The Dutch planted a colony 
at Cape Town in 1650. The English captured the colony 
in 1795, restored it at the peace of 1803 ; captured it 
again in 1806, and have kept it ever since. 

While in Dutch hands, the settlers were mainly Dutch ; 
and from these are descended the Dutch boers or colonist 
farmers, who form a large part of the European population 
at the Cape of Good Hope. Since the English have held 
the colony the immigrants into it have been mainly English, 
partly Germans. The colony has been one of the least 
progressive of all English colonies. The boers have never 
approved the policy of the English Government : the Orange 
Free State and the Transvaal are States formed by boers 
leaving the English territory in order to obtain independence. 



xLi.] THE AFRICAN ISLANDS. 223 

Much of these districts is admirably suited for sheep, cattle, 
and ostrich farming. Wine is made in Cape Colony ; Natal 
will grow wheat. These colonies are important to England 
as an alternative route to India and the East. 

559. TOWNS. Cape Town, population 60,000, is the 
largest town, and bears still a resemblance to the towns of 
Holland. 

Graham's Town is the principal town in the west of the 
colony, with a population of 9,000 ; it is about 600 miles 
from Cape Town. 

Pieter-Maritzburg, the capital of Natal, contains 14,000 
inhabitants, and is about 400 miles from Graham's Town. 



Sect. XLI. THE AFRICAN ISLANDS. 

560. Madagascar is more than twice as large as Britain ; 
but the population is supposed less than that of Scotland, 
viz., about 3,500,000 souls. The climate of the lower region 
of the island is moist, tropical, and unhealthy ; but there are 
extensive elevated temperate healthy districts in the interior 
of the island, where the central range of mountains which 
runs the whole length of the island attains 10,000 feet 
altitude. 

The ruling nation of the island, the Hovas, are supposed 
to have affinity with the Malays ; the other more numerous 
tribes being Negro. 

Madagascar contains many curious animals and plants 
that are found nowhere else in the world (such as the aye-aye 
and lemurs) ; but its fauna and flora are most nearly allied 
to those of the nearest part of the African coast. Mada- 
gascar is known to contain gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, 
and coal. 

The Government of the Hovas is a monarchy, almost con- 
stitutional. But in 1885 the French established a virtual 
protectorate. The capital, Antananarivo, contains, 90,000, 
inhabitants. 



224 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

English Missionaries first established themselves in the 
island in 1820. After much persecution Christianity was 
acknowledged as the State religion by the Hovas, of whom 
nearly 400,000 are converts; ten per cent, of these are 
Roman Catholics. 

561. Reunion, Mauritius, and several smaller islands, 
constitute the Mascarene group of islands. 

Reunion is a sugar island belonging to France ; it contains 
an active volcano ; it was formerly called Bourbon. 

Mauritius^ colonized by the French, was captured by the 
English and retained by them at the peace of 1814. It pro- 
duces sugar, also coffee and cotton. The island is small, 
but has a population exceeding 370,000 nearly all black. 
The whites mostly speak French. Coolies from Bengal are 
largely imported to work the sugar plantations. 

562. St. Helena and Ascension are mid-ocean and small, 
and are occupied by England as stations where ships can 
get supplies ; but are less used since the Suez Canal was 
opened ; they are of volcanic origin. 

563. The islands off Cape St. Verde, called shortly The 
Verdes, are very hot, and suffer from drought. They 
belong to Portugal, and are a coaling station for steamships, 

564. The three Macaronesian groups (their ancient Greek 
name=The "Isles of the Blessed") were so named from 
their delightful climate and excellent fruits. They are all 
the summits of volcanoes that rise from the deep bed of the 
Atlantic so high that their tops are out of water ; and their 
soil is very fertile, as is usually the case with disintegrated 
volcanic rocks. 

{a) The Canaries are generally reckoned seven islands, of 
which Great Canary is the chief. Teneriffe is celebrated for 
its Peak, a volcanic cone 12,182 feet high. Ferro was the 
island through which the zero meridian of geographers (other 
than the English) passed. 

The Canaries are an integral part of Spain, as Wight is of 
England, and are inhabited by pure Spaniards. They are 
deficient in springs of water. They export wine and Spanish 
onions. 




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XLii.] AUSTRALIA. 225 

(d) Madeira (which has several islets attached to it) is 
better watered than the Canaries. It belongs to the Portu- 
guese, and the inhabitants are in the main Portuguese. It 
exports wine. 

{c) The Azores, or Western Islands, are cooler, windier, 
and wetter than the two former groups. They belong to 
Portugal. They formerly exported oranges ; they now ex- 
port pine-apples. 



Sect. XLII. AUSTRALIA. 

565. EXTENT. Australia is about three-fourths the area 
of Europe, but is larger than that portion of Europe which 
has a mild enough climate to grow corn. 

566. ATTACHED ISLAND. Tasmania, or Van Diemen's 
Land, is attached to Australia as Ceylon to India. New 
Guinea, and many other smaller islands of the Malay archi- 
pelago, belong to the Australian region of animals and 
plants. 

567. CLIMATE. About one-third of Australia lies within 
the tropics, and the remainder is warm-temperate. 

In tropical Australia the climate is hot and moist, 
much resembhng that of India. There is a regular season 
of rains, which follows the hot season of November and 
December. 

The southern coast of Australia is well into the temperate 
zone, and open to the prevailing south-west breeze from the 
ocean. It thus gets rain in the cold season (June to August). 

In the vast intermediate area of Australia the rain is 
insufficient and very irregular, so that particular districts 
may remain two or three years with scarcely any. A district 
thus suffering becomes a desert ; and there are also con- 
siderable permanent deserts in Australia. The heat of the 
sun in these Australian deserts is fully as great as in the 
Sahara ; and throughout even South Australia the heat of 
the sun in summer is extreme, and hot winds occur. But 

Q 



226 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

the climate of South AustraUa is on the whole one of the 
finest in the world ; the sky is clear, the air generally very 
dry, and even in winter there is little frost. The country is 
found eminently healthy for Englishmen, and suitable for all 
domestic animals that have been imported. 

568. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS. Australia differs 
from Europe, Asia, and Africa, in having no great central 
body of elevated land. A broad band running through the 
middle of it, from the Gulf of Carpentaria in the north to 
the Great Australian Bight of the south coast, and com- 
prising the greater part of its entire area, is but little raised 
above the sea, though isolated hills on it attain 2,000 feet. 

The principal range of mountains in Australia runs from 
Cape York in the north to Bass Strait in the south, and 
is sometimes called the Australian Alps . It runs near the 
eastern coast through its entire length, and forms a con- 
tinuous waterparting, so that no considerable river falls into 
the sea from the eastern coast of Australia. The most elevated 
part of it is the southern, where the highest points do not 
exceed 7,500 feet. 

In West Australia there are also mountain ranges running 
parallel with or near to the coast, but they in general do not 
exceed 1,000 — 2,000 feet in height, though particular points 
attain 5,000 feet. 

There is a line of extinct volcanoes near the south coast 
in Victoria and South Australia. 

Australia is on the whole a continent of extensive gently 
sloping plains, in some places grassy, and well adapted for 
grazing, but in many other places desert or producing only 
scrub. 

569. RIVERS. The only river of any size in Australia is 
the Murray, which, collecting the water from the west side of 
the Australian Alps, falls into the sea near Adelaide. 

The Swan river, on the west coast, gave its name to the 
government of West Australia, which was formerly called 
the Swan River Settlement. 

Many of the Australian rivers dry up in seasons of drought, 
while on the occasion of heavy rains they overflow and form 



XLii.] AUSTRALIA. 227 

large lakes, which again gradually dry up. Other Australian 
rivers seem to lose themselves in lagoons in the interior and 
never to reach the sea. 

570. COMMUNICATIONS. Australia has many fine 
natural harbours : such are Port Jackso?t, the port of Sydney ; 
Fori Philip, the harbour of Melbourne and Geelong ; Port 
Adelaide, King George's Sound; and Moreton Bay. 

There are good roads in all the populous settlements, and 
over 7,000 miles oiraihuay have been opened ; and an over- 
land telegraph from Adelaide to Port Darwin. 

571. RACES OF MEN. The indigenous Australian race 
is very low in physique, intelligence, and capacity for civil- 
ization. The Australian natives are much inferior to the 
Papuans and other branches of the race. Australia was 
very thinly peopled when visited a hundred years ago by 
the earlier navigators, and the Australians disappear before 
the European immigrant. They have utterly disappeared 
in Tasmania, and in Australia it is believed that not more 
than 30,000 of them remain, mostly in the north-west of 
the continent, where there is no European population. The 
whites in Australia are more than 2,800,000, mostly English. 

572. RELIGION AND LANGUAGE. The language of 
the white population is English, their religion Christianity. 
The religion of the blacks is Fetishism or none. The 
Christians belong mainly either to the Church of England 
or to various Protestant sects ; but 23 p. c. are Catholics. 

573. HISTORIC SKETCH. The existence of a great 
mass of land south of the Malay archipelago was dis- 
covered in A.D. 1616 by the Dutch, who gave it first the 
name of Terra Australia, i.e. the South Land, but afterwards 
called it New Holland. Not much was done, even in sur- 
veying the coast, till Captain Cook visited it in A.D. 1768. 
The first convicts were sent in A.D. 1787 to Botany Bay 
near Sydney, so named by Captain Cook because the 
naturalists attached to his ship landed and made good 
collections of novel wild plants there. Australia remained 
thus a convict settlement till A.D. 1836, when English 
settlers, attracted by the excellent pastures, multiplied in 

Q2 



22S GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Australia as sheep farmers. As their numbers increased, 
the transported criminals were found troublesome. Since 
A.D. 1840 no convicts have been sent to Botany Bay ; and 
for many years past transportation to Australia has been 
altogether abandoned. 

The Australian Colonies then commenced to grow very 
rapidly in wealth and population, by their flock-keeping and 
agriculture ; and their growth was further stimulated in A.D. 
1 85 1 by the discovery of gold in large quantities. 

574. ANiMAliS. All the Mammalia of Australia, except 
rats and bats, are quite unlike any animals in Europe, Asia, 
or Africa. They nearly all belong to the order of Mar- 
supials, i.e. pouched animals, so called because the young 
are born in a very helpless condition, and their mother has 
•u kind of pouch or pocket in which she can carry them 
about till they are able to run alone. The best known of 
the Marsupials are the kangaroos, of which there are many 
species, some attaining more than seven feet in length ; 
and the young of this great animal is only an inch long 
when born, and remains about eight months afterwards in 
the pouch. 

In Australia, though there are fierce carnivorous animals 
as well as harmless vegetable feeders like the kangaroo, 
nearly all the animals are pouched. Thus Australia pos- 
sesses a pouched hycena, a pouched rat, and a pouched 
bear J at least the general aspect of these three animals 
approaches that of a hyaena, rat, and bear, but they are 
all " Marsupial," and structurally more allied to kangaroos. 

The commonest Australian animals are the phalange7's, 
called by the English colonists, " opossums," which they 
very nearly are. The true opossums are natives of America, 
and are Marsupials, the only Marsupials now known out 
of Australia. But in past geological ages, Marsupials were 
widely spread over the globe. 

One of the strangest of Austrahan animals is the ornitho- 
rhynchus, an animal that has the form pretty much of an 
otter, the feet webbed, and a bill like a duck. 

Taken as a whole Australia is very poor in Mammalia, 



XLii.] AUSTRALIA. 229 

both as to variety and numbers, and is a great contrast to 
south-east Asia and Africa in this respect. 

575. PLANTS. The vegetation of tropical Australia, as 
on the Gulf of Carpentaria, is in several respects tropical. 
We find pahns, bananas, and bamboos. In temperate Aus- 
tralia we find pines, and some other trees reminding us of 
Europe, but as a whole the Australian vegetation is as pecu- 
liar as its fauna. It abounds in trees and shrubs with pale 
olive foliage. The gum-trees and acacias are prevalent fea- 
tures of the dry forests. Few of the native trees bear any 
useful fruit. We are told commonly that in the Australian 
cherry the stone grows outside the fruit ; this only means 
that the Australian fruit which the English settlers are 
pleased to call a cherry is really totally unlike a cherry. 
The Australian flora contains several orders of plants found 
nowhere else on the globe ; and also is somewhat allied to 
the peculiar flora of the Cape of Good Hope. But in past 
geological ages these peculiar plants, like the Marsupials, 
were widely spread over the globe. 

The valuable plants introduced into Australia thrive ad- 
mirably, and it is upon these that the colonists rely wholly 
for food. Wheat, maize, potatoes, all kinds of grasses and 
clove?-s, grapes, oranges, peaches, and most fruits, succeed in 
extratropical Australia. In Queensland, rice, cotton, tobacco, 
and the sugar-cane are raised with small trouble. 

576. MINERALS. Gold was first discovered in 185 1 in 
New South Wales, soon after in Victoria, and subsequently 
in South Australia, in Queensland, and in West Australia : 
in localities 2,000 miles apart, and in such quantities that in 
the first ten years gold to the amount of 100,000,000/. was 
obtained. But the produce of gold has greatly fallen off up 
to the present time. The richest gold-mines are in Victoria 
and Queensland. 

Copper has also been discovered in Victoria and South 
Australia. The mines are so rich that it has become (within 
the last few years) unprofitable to work the deep copper 
mines of Cornwall. 

Lead has been discovered both in South Australia and 



230 



GEOGRAPHY. 



[sect. 



West Australia. Coal has been found in many places. Salt 
is obtained in large quantity from the edges of the brackish 
lagoons when they dry up. 

577. DIVISIONS. Australia is divided into six separate 
States, each of which is administered by a Governor ap- 
pointed by the Queen, and a Parliament elected in the 
celony. The names of these States are : — 



State. 


Capital. 


Area in Square 
Miles. 


Population (English; 
in 1886. 


New South Wales 
\yest Australia . . 
Victoria .... 
South Australia . 
Queensland . . . 
Tasmania. . . . 


Sydney 

Perth 

Melbourne 

Adelaide 

Brisbane 

Hobart Town 


310,700 
1,060,000 

87,884 
903.690 
668,224 

26,215 


1,001, q66 
39.584 

1,019,106 
3»3.355 
342,614 
137)211 



(1) New Sonth Wales is the oldest colony. The high 
lands on the western side of the Blue Mountains afford 
excellent pasturage. Wool is largely exported. Coal the 
chief mineral product. Sydney contains 330,000 inhabit- 
ants. 

(2) West Australia, one of the oldest colonies, for many 
years advanced more slowly than the others where gold was 
earlier discovered. Only a very small area on the Swan 
River, near Perth^ is inhabited ; the greater portion of its 
enormous area is altogether unexplored. On Swan River 
black swans were first met with. West Australia is less 
subject to droughts and to hot winds than Victoria or New 
South Wales, and contains admirable pastures. 

(3) Victoria has wholly sprung up since A. D. 1837. Mel- 
hoitrne contains nearly 380,000 inhabitants, and is called the 
*' Queen of the South," for no city in the Southern Hemi- 
sphere can vie with it. Victoria has been a large gold 
exporting colony. 

(4) South Australia appears on the maps to possess a 
territory extending to the northern coast, but the northern 
half of this has really nothing to do with South Australia, 



XLiii.] NEW ZEALAND. 231 

and is now considered a " Territory," i.e. a State in the process 
of formation, and is called North Australia. Only a few 
explorers, at great risk and with great hardships, have suc- 
ceeded in crossing Australia from north to south, and several 
have lost their lives in the attempt. 

The population is almost wholly in the neighbourhood of 
Adelaide^ which town contains 128,000 inhabitants. South! 
Austra-ia has exported much copper, but is also productive 
in wheat and coal : the colonists possess immense flocks. 

(5) Queensland was only established as a separate Colony 
in 1859, but its progress has been rapid. It is the only 
tropical country where the English as yet have been able 
to live as colonists. The great Australian mountain range, 
called Blue Mountains near Sydney, sinks northwards, and 
spreads out into elevated grassy plains, where the English 
colonists can tend sheep, though within the tropics. The 
lowlands of (2ueensland grow sugar, coffee, cotton, and 
other sub-tropical plants; and on the Gulf of Carpentaria 
the sago-palm. S 

(6) Tasmania has of late years progressed more slowly : 
the emigrants being attracted to mining colonies as Vic- 
toria and South Australia in preference. It exports wool and 
is rich in gold, tin, coal, and iron. The capital, Hobart- 
Town, contains 25,000 inhabitants. The climate is sensibly 
cooler even than that of the south coast of Australia, but 
hot winds from the Australian continent sometimes reach it. 
Much orchard fruit is exported to Victoria. 

Sect. XLIII. NEW ZEALAND. 

578. EXTENT. New Zealand consists of two islands 
called respectively the North Island and the South Island, 
which together are larger than Britain. Several small islands 
are attached. 

579. CLIMATE. New Zealand is near the Antipodes, less 
far from the equator than England, and has an insular 
climate resembling a good deal that of England, but warmer. 
The South Island is a little warmer than England, the North 



232 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Island a good deal warmer. New Zealand has a moist and 
windy climate, without any extreme cold in winter. 

580. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS. New Zealand is much 
more mountainous than Britain ; the Southern Alps, near 
the west coast of South Island, attain 12,000 feet in height. 
There are also numerous volcanic cones of greater height : 
Mount Egxnont, in the south-west of North Island, attains 
8,270 feet ; several other cones are nearly as high, and the 
active volcano of Tongariro is 6,200 feet high. 

Though the scenery is varied by such fine mountains, it is 
yet estimated that two-thirds of the area of New Zealand is 
fit either for agriculture or pasture. 

581. RACES OF MEN. When Captain Cook visitcd New 
Zealand in 1769 the islands were inhabited by the Maori race, 
a Malay people, then estimated to be 200,000 in number. 
In 1 86 1 they were found to be 55,276. At the census of 
1886 there were found 578,000 English and 41,000 Maori. 

The Maori race are tall, intelligent, and superior examples 
of the Malay race, but fierce, and not free from cannibalism. 
Their extinction seems rapidly approaching. Though now 
protected rather than oppressed by the English Government, 
they appear unable to multiply in the presence of a more 
civilized race. 

582. ANIMALS AND PLANTS. The fauna and flora of 
New Zealand are allied to thos3 of the nearest continent, 
Australia. Like Australia, New Zealand is very poor in 
quadrupeds. But it contained, till late years, gigantic birds 
with such imperfect wings that they could not fly. Bones of 
these, representing birds nearly fourteen feet high, have been 
found. 

In New Zealand most of the plants and animals valuable 
to man that have been introduced by the colonists have 
succeeded well ; sheep-farming is the chief occupation. 

583. MINERALS. New Zealand, again like Australia, is 
very rich in minerals, and generally in the same minerals as 
Australia. Gold has been found in many places ; coal is 
abundant ; silver^ copper ^ tin and iro7i are found. 

594. HISTORIC SKETCH. The colony of New Zealand 



XLiv.] POLYNESIA. 233 

dates only from 1840. The Maori race has been nearly 
expelled from the South Island. The government (as in the 
Australian States) consists of a Governor appointed from 
England, and a Parliament elected in the colony. The 
Governor is obliged to employ as Ministers such men as can 
command a Parliamentary majority. 

The chief towns are— Auckland, pop. 65,000, the chief 
port ; Wellington, pop, 27,000, the capital ; Christchurch, 
pop. 44,000, and Dunedin, pop. 45,000, the chief ports of 
South Island. 



Sect. XLIV. POLYNESIA. 

585. The term Polynesia includes the tropical islets of 
the Pacific Ocean. They are all very small, the area of the 
whole being perhaps 60,000 square miles, that is, somewhat 
less than Britain ; and the whole population perhaps 800,000, 
that is, less than that of many an English county. 

The climate of these Pacific Islands is magnificent — that 
which has been designated Oceanic Equatorial ; they never 
suffer from cold, while the tropical heat is so tempered by 
the vast expanse of water and sea-breezes that it is neither 
disagreeable nor unhealthy to an Englishman. 

The islands may be thrown mostly into two classes, viz. 
(i) the Volcanic Islands, which have either volcanoes active 
on them, or volcanic rocks ; these islands are often moun- 
tainous : and (2) the Coral Islands, which are elevated little 
above the sea, having been built up by coral while the bed 
of the ocean slowly subsided. 

The inhabitants are of the Malayan race, except in the 
case of a few islands near Papua, which are inhabited by men 
of the Papuan or Australian race. 

These islands, when discovered, were almost without indi- 
genous quadrupeds (and without snakes), but the dog, pig, 
and rat are introduced. The natural main support of 
human life in them is the bread-fruit ; it is said that three 
bread-fruit trees per head are enough to support a human 



^34 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

population. Other plants cultivated are the yam, banana, 
sweet potato, and New Zealand taro. 

The population of Polynesia (as of Australia and New 
Zealand) has decreased regularly and vastly since its dis- 
covery by Europeans. Even where the indigenous popula- 
tion has not been ill-treated by the European visitor, rum 
and the small-pox have been introduced. Moreover, many 
complaints, petty among Europeans, spread in a fatal form 
among these fresh nations. 

The following are a few of the islands comprised in Poly- 
nesia : — 

(i) The Ladrones belong to Spain. Their population is 
now 8,000, but is said to have been 100,000 when the 
Spaniards first went there. 

(2) The Fiji, or Viti Islands, have been annexed by Eng- 
land in 1874. Formerly cannibalism was practised here. 
Now the people, 127,000, are professed Christians. 

(3) The Friendly Islands, so-named by Cook out of com- 
pliment to the character of the natives, who are reckoned 
the flower of Polynesians. 

(4) The Society Islands, of which the chief is Otaheite 
or Tahiti, annexed by the French. 

(5) The Marquesas, a cannibal group ; the French have 
got a station here. 

(6) The Sandwich Islands, of which the chief is Hawaii. 
Honolulu the chief town, population 20,000, is the port of 
the Pacific, on route from America to Asia. The government 
is European in form. The islands are volcanic ; Mauna 
Loa and Maunea Kea, over 13,000 feet, are active, Mount 
Loa having the largest crater in the world. 

Sect. XLV. NORTH AMERICA. 

586. EXTENT. The area of North America is more than 
double that of Europe : the population less than that of 
Russia. 

587. BOUNDARIES. On the North the Arctic Ocean 
or channels connected with it : on the East the Atlantic : on 



XLV.] NORTH AMERICA. 635 

the South the Gulf of Mexico and the Isthmus of Panama ; 
on the West the Pacific. 

588. ATTACHED ISLANDS. (l) Greenland and a 
number of other cold valueless islands in the Arctic Ocean : 
the boundaries of most are unknown : it is not easy to say 
where the land covered with glaciers ends and the frozen 
ocean begins. 

(2) Newfoundland. 

(3) The West India Islands, of which Cuba^ Hayti, 
Jamaica are the chief. 

(4) Vancouver's Island. 

589. GULFS. (l) Baffin's Bay^ Hudson's Bay. 

(2) The Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

(3) The Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. 

(4) The Gulf of California. 

690. PENINSULAS. (l) Labrador, (2) Nova Scotia, 
(3) Florida, (4) Yucatan, (5) California. 

591. STRAITS, (i) Davis Straits, leading into Baffin's 
Bay. 

(2) Hudson's Straits, leading into Hudson's Bay. 

(3) Yucatan channel, connecting the Gulf of Mexico with 
the Carribbean Sea. 

(4) Behring's Straits, connecting the Arctic Ocean with 
the Pacific. 

592. CLIMATE. About a third of the area of America 
is outside the wheat-bearing zone, i.e. it is either Arctic or 
what we have called Sub-Arctic. The east side of America 
is (as in the Old World in the north temperate zone) colder 
than the west side : and on this eastern side wheat is hardly 
cultivated north of 48° N.L. 

A very small area of North America is within the tropics : 
aand here up to 2,000 feet altitude we find a humid, hot 
'■climate, producing a jungly vegetation, and very malarious 
to man. 

The west coast of America, from Vancouver's Island to 
Mexico, is a very fine and healthy climate. The whole of 

I the vast region of the United States lies in the best region 
of the temperate zone, and is favourable to wheat and maize, 
ft 



236 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

593. MOUNTAINS AND PLATEAUS. (l) The Rocky 

mountains run parallel with the west coast of North America 
and at no great distance from it the whole length of the con- 
tinent, and the chain must be considered to extend (though 
under other names) to the Isthmus of Panama, where it 
finally sinks down nearly to sea-level. 

(2) The AUegliany mountains run parallel with the east 
coast and not far from it in the United States. 

The whole centre of the continent, from the Gulf of 
Mexico to the Arctic Ocean, and from the AUeghanies to the 
Rocky Mountains, is one vast plain ; very little broken in 
upon, even by local mountain ranges. It lies at small eleva- 
tion above the sea, quite unlike the central parts of the Old 
World continents. In journeying directly from the Gulf of 
Mexico to the headwaters of the Mississippi, and thence 
straight on to near the Arctic Ocean, a traveller would not 
have to cross any mountain range : he would see no lofty hill. 

Volcanoes are numerous in Mexico, and some have been 
active in modern times. On the north-west coast of America 
Mount St. £lias is an active volcano, attaining 17,860 feet 
altitude, and there are other cones near it. This volcanic 
area is considered a prolongation of the Japan volcanic 
line. 

(3) The Cascade Ranges is the name given to one of the 
many ranges that run parallel to the Rocky Mountains, and 
between them and the Pacific Ocean. The highest points 
of the Rocky Mountains are 16,000 feet high, but the general 
height of the range is hardly above 8,000, while many ranges 
between it and the Pacific exceed this elevation. But the 
Rocky Mountains are the true waterparting that separates 
the waters that flow into the Atlantic from those that flow 
into the Pacific. 

(4) The Salt Lake plateau lies between the Rocky Moun- 
tains and the Pacific, and is a region of internal drainage. 
Salt Lake is 4,210 feet above the sea. Hence we can draw 
hereabouts two lines of waterparting between the Atlantic 
and Pacific, one passing east and one west of Salt Lake ; or, 
more strictly, the line of waterparting from noi'th to south is 



XLV.] NORTH AMERICA. 237 

no longer a line here, but spreads out so as to cover the 
whole of the Salt Lake basin. 

(5) The Mexican plateau is 7,000 feet above the sea-level 
on the east side of the main waterparting. 

West from the Rocky Mountains there is a considerable 
area of elevated land, vv^here the rivers flow in narrow 
gullies 2,000 — 5,000 feet deep. The descent from the Cascade 
Ranges to the Pacific is rapid. East from the Rocky Moun- 
tains the descent is at first rapid, afterwards more slow, till 
the great plain of the Mississippi is reached. 

594. RIVERS. (l) The Mississippi, with its two great 
affluents, the Ohio on its left bank, the Missouri on its right. 
Measuring its course from the headwaters of the Missouri to 
the mouth of the Mississippi, the length exceeds 4,200 miles, 
and it is the longest river in the world. River steamers 
can ascend this main stream for more than 2,000 miles, and 
the whole Mississippi system has been calculated to possess 
more than 30,000 miles of river adapted for navigation. 

(2) The St. Lawrence, more than 2,000 miles long, drain? 
the great lakes, and flows by Quebec. Its navigation is 
impeded by waterfalls, and by its mouth being frozen up 
more than three months in the year. 

(3) The Rio del Norte, more than 1,800 miles long, runs 
through a country at present imperfectly civilized, but will 
become a very important river. 

(4) The Colorado, the chief river of California. 

(5) The Columbia, the chief river of Oregon. 

595. LAKES, (i) Superior, and the four other lakes of 
the St. Lawrence, viz. Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario. 
Superior contains 32,000 square miles, i.e. is the size of 
Ireland, and has been reckoned the largest body of fresh 
water in the world. 

Superior, Michigan, Huron, and Erie are all nearly the 
same level, viz. about 560 feet above the sea ; and Superior, 
Michigan, and Huron are all nearly 1,500 feet deep, so that 
their bottoms are below sea-level by 400 feet. Between Erie 
and Ontario are the falls of Niagara, reckoned the largest 
waterfall in the world before the Victoria Falls were 



i 
238 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. J 

discovered. The St. Lawrence is divided into two channels 
by an island at Niagara. The Horse-Shoe fall, on the Cana- 
dian side, is 600 yards wide, and 154 feet high; the fall: 
on the American side, 350 yards wide, and 163 feet high. 

(2) Winnipeg, and numerous other lakes, in the Sub-Arctic 
region of America. These lakes have low shores, and 
are altogether of the same class as the northern lakes of 
Europe (Ladoga, Wener, &c. ), and are not at all like the 
Alpine lakes of Switzerland or Scotland. The five great 
lakes of the St. Lawrence are also of the Arctic class. 

(3) Great Salt Lake : this is a lake without an outlet, and 
with brackish water ; so far like the Caspian, but very 
different in being 4,200 feet above sea-level. 

(4) Nicaragua, in Central America, often mentioned with 
reference to the possibility of making a ship canal across the 
Isthmus of Panama. 

596. COMMUNICATIONS. The United States possesses 
135,000 miles of railway. In the old settled parts near the 
Atlantic there is a complete network. Also there is a line 
from San Francisco passing by Great Salt Lake and Chey- 
enne to St. Louis, which connects the Atlantic and Pacific. 
There are railways in Canada ; and here also a line to the 
Red River and to the Pacific near Vancouver's island has 
been made. Mexico is rapidly building railways. 

The colonized portions of the United States and Canada 
possess roads. 

America also has valuable systems of canals ; there are 
several which connect the Ohio with the great lakes, and 
there are canals to enable vessels to avoid the rapids and 
waterfalls of the St. Lawrence. 

597. RACES OF MEN. (i) Two-thirds of the population of 
North America is imijiigrant from Europe, and Aryan ; 
mainly indeed it is English, but it is mixed with some High- 
German and some Irish (Keltic) blood. The French element 
is small, the Danish smaller. 

(2) The population of Mexico and Central America is 
Mestizo, or half-caste Spanish and Indian ; there may be 
8,000,000 of such. 



XLV.] NORTH AMERICA. 239 

(3) The Negroes, descendants of African slaves, number 
6,500,000. 

(4) The native Red Indians, who belong to the Americaru 
race, are probably now not more than 400,000, and possibly- 
much fewer. When America was first discovered, the voy- 
agers thought they had arrived at the east of Hindoosthan, 
and called the inhabitants accordingly Indians. These 
Indians, or Red Indians, have really nothing to do with 
India or the Aryan race, or any other race of the inhabitants 
of India. The Red Indians of America should be called 
Americans, and we do indeed talk about the American race. 
But there arises this difficulty, that by an '' American " is 
understood in England an Englishman born in America. 
Thus the term " Red Indian " or " American Indian" has to 
be preserved. 

(5) T\i^ Esquimaux m Greenland and the extreme north 
are supposed to be allied to the Lapps. Their numbers are 
very few. 

598. LANGUAGE, (i) The Aryans in America speak 
mostly English. French still maintains in Lower Canada, 
and there is some German in the Mississippi valley. 

(2) The Mexican Mestizos speak a corrupt Spanish. 

(3) The Negroes speak English. 

(4) The Red Indians speak a number of languages all 
allied to one another, forming the American class of lan- 
guages. These are of the Agglutinative type,/.*?, the cases 
of nouns are not indicated by inflexions but by the mere 
tacking of words together. The system in the Mongolian 
languages is the same ; and this is one of the reasons for 
considering the American race probably an offshoot from the 
Mongolian. 

599. RELIGION. Nearly all the English and Negroes 
are Protestant Christians ; the Mexicans and the French 
are mainly Catholic Christians ; the Red Indians and Esqui- 
maux are heathens, except in the case of the small number 
who have been converted to Christianity. 

600. ANIMALS. The animals of Arctic and Sub-Arctic 
America are much the same as those of North Europe and 



240 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Siberia. In many cases the species are exactly the same ; 
in other cases they are so nearly the same that naturalists 
kave doubted whether the American animal is a variety of 
the Old-world species or not. Thus the moose of North 
America is now found identical with the elk of North 
Europe ; and the caribou of North America is considerd a 
mere variety of the raindeer. 

But as we proceed southwards to warm-temperate and 
tropical America, we meet with a number of animals that 
are very unlike any known in the Old World. America is at 
least as rich as the Old World in plants, birds, and insects, 
but is much poorer in Mammalia. The American mammals 
are fewer in species and weaker than the corresponding Old- 
world mammals. Thus America has no elephant, rhi- 
noceros, or hippopotamus ; its best Pachyderm is a weak 
tapir, though in geological ages past America supported the 
mammoth and other elephants of the first class. The largest 
American cat, the jaguar, is inferior to the lion or tiger in 
strength. The following list of some of the best known 
animals of North America may be compared with that of 
Asia — 

(i) Marsupials : one opossum (the common Virginian), 
which extends over tropical and temperate North America ; 
is larger than a large cat, climbs trees well, carries off 
chickens and eggs, and '* plays possum," i.e. feigns death 
when it falls into the hands of the farmer. 

(2) Pachyderms : none. The hog has run wild. 

(3) Cetacea : the Greenland whale. 

(4) Solidungula : none. The horse has run wild. 

(5) Ruminants: four large deer \ the big-honi, a wild 
sheep of the Rocky Mountains ; the bison in myriads on the 
prairies ; the musk-ox in the Arctic regions. 

(6) Edentata: none. 

(7) Rodentia: hares, onQ porcupine, thQ beaver, rats, mice, 
one jumping mouse, many sqtiirrels, and the prairie-dog 
(allied to the marmot). 

(8) Pinnipedia: the walrus and- seals in the Arctic 
Ocean. 



XLV.] NORTH AMERICA. 241 

(9) Camivora : several foxes^ a wolf, the jaguar, the 
puma (called by Americans "the painter"), a civet in 
Mexico ; several of the weasel tribe, including the sable and 
the skunk in the north ; an otte7', the gluttoji ; several bears, 
especially the grisly bear of the Rocky Mountains ; and 
Tacoo7is. 

(10) insectivora : several animals between moles and 
shrews. 

(11) Chiroptera : many bats. 

(12) Quadruxuana : 77tofikeys, wixhin the tropics only, and 
few. 

601. PLANTS. North America, like Asia, extending from 
the Arctic regions of perpetual snow to the Tropical jungles 
of the Isthmus of Panama, contains a wide variety of trees. 
Even the cool-temperate portions of it contain a much 
greater variety of trees than the portions of Europe in corre- 
sponding latitude ; the forests of the northern part of the 
United States are commonly mixed forests, in which very 
many kinds of trees are mixed together, while in Europe 
forests are often seen to be almost wholly made up of one or 
two kinds of trees. 

The Arctic and Sub-Arctic flora of America greatly 
resemble that of the Old World, while the flora of Mexico 
is very unlike anything that can be found in the Old World. 
The plants herein follow the same law as the animals. It is 
supposed that the seeds of Arctic plants crossed Behring's 
Straits, and perhaps also by way of Iceland to Greenland, 
but that the seeds of the Tropical plants of Africa could not 
cross the Atlantic, and the cold of course would prevent 
their travelling in stages round by Iceland or Behring's 
Straits. 

In Canada and the cooler part of the United States we 
thus find numerous pines, oaks, maples, poplars, closely re- 
sembling trees in Northern Europe ; in the southern part of 
the United States we pass gradually into a region of plants 
very unlike those of Southern Europe. In the low Tropical 
districts of Central America we find palms, bamboos, and 
gingers ; but they are all different kinds of palms, bamboos 

R 



242 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

and gingers from those that grow in Indo-Malaya. The 
Mexican table-land contains a quantity of plants very unlike 
those of the Old World ; among these some of the most cele- 
brated are the cactuses^ species of which grow 30 to 60 feet 
high, and appear like gigantic candelabra scattered over the 
country. Such cactuses extend also north up the Rocky 
Mountain range. 

Of cultivated plants, North America possessed originally 
none of prominent value but maize : wheat, cotton, the sugar- 
cane, rice, and the coco-nut have been imported into it from 
the Old World, and flourish in different localities, as do many 
Old World fruits : tobacco and the potato have been imported 
from South America. (The potato may be indigenous.) 

602. MINERALS. Mexico has produced largely gold 
and silver; also copper^ tin, and quicksilver. California 
during the last quarter-century has produced gold in vast 
quantity, as has Columbia. The largest stock of coal known 
in the world is in the United States : and coal also exists in 
quantity in Nova Scotia and Columbia. Copper has been 
obtained in large quantity near Lake Superior. 

603. HISTORIC SKETCH. The existence of America 
became known to the Old World by the voyage of Columbus 
in A.D. 1492 : the whole of North America was then thinly 
inhabited by one family of races, the Red Indians, largely 
in the hunter stage of society ; Mexico was peopled by the 
Aztecs, who were possessed of the art of writing and tilled 
the soil. 

So much gold was found in America shortly after its 
discovery, that the Spaniards, then the leading nation in 
Europe, were greatly attracted thither : they conquered 
Mexico and appropriated some of the West-India islands. 
Soon after, the EngHsh and French planted small colonies 
in North-Eastem America. 

The native Americans rapidly diminished : partly from the 
oppression of the Spaniards, partly by the small-pox and 
rum. The Spaniards wanted labourers to work their mines, 
the planters wanted labour for their plantations. Thus it 
became very profitable to kidnap Negroes in Africa and 



XLVI.J 



GREENLAND. 



243 



bring them as slaves to America. The English joined freely 
in this lucrative trade. 

The Spaniards, as colonists, mixed largely with the natives 
and thus Mestizo races sprang up : the English mixed very 
little. The next point in the history of America was the 
war of 1756 — 1760, in which the English conquered the 
French in North America and became supreme in the north- 
ern half of the continent. But the chief English colonies 
revolted from the Crown in 1775 — 1782 ; and united them- 
selves into the independent Government called the United 
States. In 1820 — 1830 the Spanish Colonies revolted and 
Mexico became independent of Spain. In 1862 the slaves 
in the United States were made free. 

6O4. DIVISIONS. 



Division. 


Area in Pquare 
Miles. 


Population. 


Greenland . . > . 




850,000 

3,470,392 

3,501,404 

743.948 

168,305 

7.562 

95,000 


10.000 
4,324,810 
50,497,057 
10,460,703 
2.855,783 
27.452 
4,000,000 


Canada Doininiou . 
United States . . 
Alcxico ..... 




Central Republics . 
British Honduras . 
West India Islands. 



In this enumeration, Newfoundland is joined with Canada 
Dominion, though not yet politically united with it : and the 
Central Republics, which profess to be five different consti- 
tutions, are thrown under one head ; they are all close to- 
gether, of the same nature, and thrown into one would make 
but an insignificant State. 



Sect. XLVI. GREENLAND. 

605. The whole interior of Greenland is an elevated pla- 
teau covered perpetually with snow and glaciers, an unin- 
habited waste, much of it 3,000 feet above the sea. On 
the Southern Coast it thaws for a few months in summer, 
when the sea-shore appears from the sea to be green. There 

R 2 



244 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

are no trees. The Western Coast is somewhat less cold than 
the Eastern, and here are a few small settlements, wherein a 
few Danes control the Esquimaux. The population exists 
by fishing and seal-hunting. 

Sect. XL VII. CANADA DOMINION. 

606. EXTENT. British North America, all of which ex- 
cept Newfoundland is included in the Canada Dominion, is 
considerably larger than Europe, but contains not many 
more inhabitants than Scotland. 

607. BOUNDARIES. British North America is bounded 
on the East by the Atlantic ; on the North by the Arctic 
Ocean ; on the South by the United States ; on the West by 
the Pacific Ocean and the Territory of Alaska in 1867 pur- 
chased from Russia by the United States. 

608. ATTACHED ISIjANDS. Newfoundland, Van- 
couver's Island, and many large islands in the Arctic Ocean 
uninhabited or visited only by Esquimaux. 

609. ClilMATE. The small population of this vast area 
Is due to the coldness of the climate. Wheat can only be 
grown in small portions situate on its southern border. The 
climate is more extreme on the east coast than on the west. 
Labrador is in the latitude of England, but is quite unin- 
habitable by reason of the cold. The districts where wheat 
can be grown are four, viz. — 

(i) Upper Canada, the peninsula enclosed by Lakes Huron, 
Erie, and Ontario. Here, though the summers are hot, the 
snow lies for four months in winter, and all agricultural work 
is brought to a standstill. 

(2) Nova Scotia, which being nearly surrounded by sea 
has a somewhat insular climate. It is less cold than the 
adjoining mainland, but its climate is more rigorous than that 
of England. 

(3) The Red River Settlement, also called Manitoba, be- 
tween Lake Winnipeg and the United States boundary. The 
climate does not materially differ from that of Upper 
Canada. 



XLVii.] CANADA DOMINION. 245 

(4) Vancouver's Island and Fraser River. The climate 
here much resembles that of England, being moist and with' 
out long frost in the winter. 

610. MOUNTAINS. The Rocky Mountains run north and 
south not far from the western border of British America, 
and parallel to it. Some of the highest points in the whole 
range are in the interior of British Columbia (or the Fraser 
River Territory), attaining 16,000 feet high. But fortunately 
there are also several low saddles hereabout in the range, 
one less than 4,000 feet above sea, and through one of these 
the Canadian Pacific railroad has been taken. 

611. RIVERS, (i) The St. Lawrence, which with the 
great lakes forms the southern boundary of Canada. Its 
affluent, the Ottawa, is a large river. 

(2) The Red River, which rises in the United States' terri- 
tory, and flows north into Lake Winnipeg. 

(3) Fraser River, the river of British Columbia. 

(4) The Saskatchewan, much larger than the last, but 
having its course in a nearly uninhabited country. 

(5) The Mackenzie, with a course exceeding 2,000 miles, 
but flowing north into the Arctic Ocean it is hardly of more 
use or importance than the great rivers of Siberia. 

612. DIVISIONS. (1) Lower Canada, or Quebec, was 
colonised by the French, but conquered by the English in 
1759. The population is still mainly French, French-speak- 
ing and Roman Catholic. 

(2) Upper Canada, or Ontario. 

(3) New Brunswick, including Nova Scotia. 

(4) Red River, or Manitoba ; a new but increasing settle- 
ment. 

(5) British Columbia. Gold was discovered here in 1856, 
and a great rush being consequent thereon, the Colony was 
founded in 1858, and now contains more than 10,000 white 
settlers. 

The above five provinces are all included in the Canada 
Dominion, a Federal Government. They are all agricultural 
and lumbering settlements, possessing splendid forests of 
pine, oak, and maple. 



246 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

(6) North-'West Territory, formerly the hunting-grounds 
of the Hudson Bay Company ; the districts between Manitoba 
and the Rockies grow grain and cattle ; coal is abundant. 

COMMUNICATIONS. Rivers, lakes, and connecting canals 
form magnificent waterways for the Eastern provinces. 
Nearly 12,000 miles of railway are open ; including the 
C. P. R. crossing the continent from Montreal to Vancouver ; 
and bringing England five days nearer Eastern Asia ; with 
excellent coalfields and harbours at either end. 

(7) Newfoundland, which declines as yet to join the 
Canada Dominion ; the population lives wholly on the shores, 
and is devoted to fishing. 

613. TOWNS, (i) Quebec, population 65,000, the chief 
port on the St. Lawrence, and the capital of Lower Canada. 

(2) Montreal, population 186,000, also on the St. Lawrence, 
the largest town in Canada. 

(3) Toronto, population 126,000, on Lake Ontario, the 
chief town in Upper Canada. 

(4) Ottawa, population 34,000, is the political capital of 
the Canada Dominion, and seat of the Central Government. 

(5) Halifax, population 40,000, the principal port of 
Canada on the Atlantic, is open in winter when the St. 
Lawrence is frozen up, and is connected with Quebec by the 
Grand Trunk Railway of Canada. 

The population of British America is mainly congregated 
in the peninsula of Upper Canada and the banks of the St. 
Lawrence, and along the line of the C.P.R. The population 
is largely increased by immigration. 



Sect. XLVIII. THE UNITED STATES. 

614.. EXTENT. The United States exceed Europe in 
area, and the whole lies in that zone of the earth's surface 
which appears best adapted for the human race. The popu- 
lation, according to an estimate in 1887, is double that of 
Great Britain. 



XLViii.] THE UNITED STATES. 247 

615. BOUNDARIES. British America on the North; 
the Atlantic on the East j Mexico on the South j and the 
Pacific on the West. 

The Arctic territory of Alaska is quite separate ; its boun- 
dary from British territory is a parallel of longitude agreed 
upon. 

The boundary between the United States and Canada 
Dominion is, in the West^ the parallel of 49 N.L. ; in the 
East the St. Lawrence. The boundary between the United 
States and Mexico is, in the West, nearly the parallel of 32° 
N.L. ; in the East, the Rio del Norte. 

616. GULFS. Mexico. 

617. PENINSULAS. Florida, 

618. CLIMATE. The whole of the United States lies in 
the temperate zone, and nearly all of it in the warm- 
temperate zone. But extending over so many degrees of 
latitude the south is much warmer than the north. The 
great change in the climate occurs between New York and 
Charlestown. Carolina produces rice, while at New York 
the winter frost lasts several months. 

The Western States on the Upper Mississippi are exceed- 
ingly cold in winter. Mercury has been known to freeze 
in Wisconsin. 

The Pacific States enjoy as fine a climate as is to be met 
with in the whole world. In California there are only two or 
three months rainy ; both corn and fruits grow luxuriantly. 
Washington and Oregon are cooler and moister than Cali- 
fornia, but perhaps still more finely adapted to the Englishman. 

619. MOUNTAINS. (l) The Rocky Mountains are the 
western waterparting of the Mississippi. The highest points 
are from 1 1,000 — 14,000 feet above sea-level. 

(2) The Sierra Nevada is a range parallel with the Rocky 
Mountains and west of it ; and the Cascade and Coast 
Ranges (which form with it really but one system) lie parallel 
and west of the Sierra Nevada. 

Again, the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains form one 
system of ridges ; the highest points of the Sierra Nevada 
are higher than those of the Rocky Mountains main water- 



248 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

parting, and attain 15,000 feet; the Cascade range is lower, 
but its higher points are 6,000—14,000 feet above sea. 

The valleys between these three ranges in general drain 
into the Pacific ; but the great basin is enclosed on all sides, 
and its drainage is into the Great Salt Lake. 

(3) The AUe^hanies : this system may be taksn to extend 
from the State of Mississippi north-east to the State of Maine, 
and forms the eastern waterparting of the Mississippi. The 
highest points of the Alleghanies are 4000 —6000 feet, but the 
general height is 2000 — 3000 feet. 

The easternmost ridges of the Alleghanies in Carolina and 
Virginia are called the Appalachians. 

Mountains in New England, known as the Green Moun- 
tains and the White Mojtntains, are extreme spurs of the 
Alleghanies. 

620. PLAINS, (i) The great plain of the Mississippi 
valley. The north-western portion of this, extending from 
Lake Michigan and Illinois westward to the Rocky Mountain 
ascent, is the Prairie, a fertile region of rolling grassy country 
not covered by forest, becoming gradually drier and infertile 
westward. 

(2) The Atlantic border lying between the Alleghanies and 
the Atlantic. 

621. RIVERS, (i) The Mississippi; the whole course 
of this the longest river in the world and the whole of its 
basin (therefore all its affluents) are included in the area of 
the United States. Its principal tributaries are : on the left 
bank, the Ohio, of which the Tennessee is a branch : on 
the right bank, the Missouri (of which the Platte is a branch), 
the Arkansas, and the Red River. 

(2) The St. Lawrence, of which the right bank is the 
United States boundaryfor nearly half the length of the river. 

(3) The Rio del Norte, which forms the boundary between 
Texas and Mexico. 

(4) The Colorado, which falls into the Gulf of California ; 
its mouth not being in United States territory. 

(5) The Columbia, of which the larger fork is called the 
Snake, the principal river on the North-West Pacific. 



XLViii.] THE UNITED STATES. 249 

(6) The Sacramento, at the mouth of which stands San 
Francisco. 

(7) The Hudson, at the mouth of which stands New York. 

(8) The Potomac, near the mouth of which stands Wash- 
ington. 

(9) The Red River, which has only its headwaters in the 
United States. 

622. LAKES, (i) One half of the four great lakes, Superior, 
Huron,i:rie, and Ontario belongs to the United States ; and 
the whole of Michigan. 

(2) Great Salt and Utah Lakes, on the high plateau west 
of the Rocky Mountains watershed. These are brackish, 
having no outlet, though at a high elevation above the sea. 
Several other lakes of a similar kind are seen west of these 
in the State of Nevada ; all in the Great Basin. 

(3) Champlain, in the northern part of the State of New 
York, drains into the St. Lawrence. 

623. COMMUNICATIONS, (a) PORTS. The sea-coast of 
the United States both on the Atlantic and Pacific, though 
continuous in its general outline, affords many fine harbours. 
Among the chief Atlantic Ports are : 

(i) Boston in Massachusetts, the capital of New England. 

(2) Providence and Newhaven, two smaller ports in New 
England. 

(3) New York, with its suburb Brooklyn. 

(4) Philadelphia, at the head of the estuary of the Sus- 
quehanna or Delaware Bay. 

(5) Baltimore, at the head of Chesapeake Bay. 

(6) Charleston and Savannah, the two ports of the South 
on the Atlantic. 

On the Gulf of Mexico the chief ports are— 

(i) New Orleans, near the mouth of the Mississippi. 

(2) MobUe, the port of Alabama, near the mouth of Ala- 
bama River. 

(3) Galveston, at the mouth of Galveston Bay ; the port 
of Texas. 

On the Pacific the chief ports are — 

(i) San Francisco, near the mouth of San Francisco Bay. 



250 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

(2) Columbia, at the head of the estuary of the Columbian 
River. 

Not less important than the ports on the sea are the Lake 
Ports ; such are — 

(i) Chicago and Milwankee, on Lake Michigan. 

(2) Detroit, near the head of Lake Erie. 

(3) Buffalo and Saudusky, on Lake Erie. 

(4) Oswego, on Lake Ontario. 

{b) CANALS. There are three hnes of canal connecting 
the Ohio with Lake Erie ; also a canal connecting the 
Mississippi with Lake Michigan. A canal connects the 
Hudson River with the Champlain Lake, thus giving New 
York inland water conmiunication with the St. Lawrence. A 
canal also connects the Delaware with the Ohio, thus giving 
Philadelphia inland water communication with the West. 

Far more important than the canals is the vast mileage of 
river navigable for steamboats. Owing to the flatness of 
the great Mississippi plain, the rivers do not present water- 
falls. There are no falls on the Mississippi itself that obstruct 
steamboats up to the Falls of St. Anthony in Minnesota. 
The tributaries of the Mississippi are in general equally well 
adapted for steamboats, the chief danger being snags. 

{c) raiIj'WAYS. The railways of the United States are 
seven times those of England in mileage. In the peopled 
States there is a complete network : those parts of the map 
which show no railways having no population. We thus 
infer at a glance that the best settled States are Massachu- 
setts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa : for in these we see 
the railways to lie most closely. The Pacific Railway, uniting 
San Francisco with the Mississippi Valley and thus with 
New York, is one of the greatest railway undertakings ever 
completed ; the passage of the Rocky Mountains involving 
heavy viaducts and tunnels, and the line being carried for a 
great distance through unsettled country liable to the visit 
of hostile tribes of savages. 

624.. RACES OF MEN. The total population of the 
United States in 1880 was 50,497,057. Of these 6,580,793 



XLViiL] THE UNITED STATES. 251 

were Negroes, 339,098 Indians, the remainder white, mainly 
Teutons by race. The total population was estimated at 
61,000,000 in 1887 : the chief increase being in the North- 
Central agricultural States. 

Of the white population, 6,679,943 were returned as foreign 
born. The principal immigrants are Irish, Germans, 
English, and Scotch. 

625. LANGUAGE. The English language is spoken by 
the white population in general, and by all the Negroes. Of 
the German immigrants it is estimated two-thirds retain the 
German tongue, one-third have adopted English. 

626. RELIGION. Nearly the whole population are Pro- 
testant Christians. The Negroes and the majority of the 
whites are Methodists, or Non-Episcopalians. The Irish 
and French immigrants are largely Roman Catholics. 

627. ANIMALS. The United States comprise so wide a 
band of North America that the hst given in Sect. XLV. 
for the continent can mostly (omitting monkeys) be found 
within United States territory, the polar animals in Alaska. 
In the settled portions of the United States no large animals 
remain. 

628. PLANTS. Scvcn-tenths of the area of the United 
States is untilled. Wheat for export in excess of the wants 
of the local population is largely produced in Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Iowa, and the neighbouring States : also in Cali- 
fornia. Maize and buckwheat are largely grown in the 
northern portion of the United States. Virginia is celebrated 
for tobacco, South Carolina for rice, the lower Mississippi, 
Georgia, and Florida for cotton, Louisiana for sugar-cane. 
The North-eastern States grow handsome apples SiYid. peaches 
in quantity, Ohio grapes ; while the pi7ie-apple is plentiful in 
the Gulf-States. California and Oregon will ripen almost all 
fruits — strawberries, grapes, oranges. 

Of wild plants the most celebrated is the big tree of Cali- 
fornia (a pine called the Sequoia gigantea), which grows 400 
feet high. The northern half of the United States contains 
valuable forests of many kinds oi pines. The Red River and 
part of the Arkansas flow through swampy forests of vast 



252 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

extent. Parallel with the Atlantic coast in the Southern 
States are cypress swamps^ among which the Dismal Swamp 
in Virginia is pre-eminently celebrated. 

629. HISTORIC SKETCH. The first band of English 
colonists arrived in Massachusetts in 1620, and are known 
as the Pilgrim Fathers. By 1756 the English colonies, all 
on the Atlantic coast, contained 1,500,000 people. Negro 
slaves were largely employed in the South. By the war of 
1756 — 1760 the English won the valley of the Mississippi, 
which the French were endeavouring to occupy. Louisiana 
at this time belonged to the French, Florida to the Spaniards. 
By the war of 1775 — 1782 the colonies revolted from the 
English crown, achieved independence, and formed them- 
selves into the government called the United States. They 
purchased Louisiana from the French in 1803, Florida from 
the Spaniards in 1821. By a war with Mexico in 1845 — 1846 
the United States gained California, Arizona, New Mexico 
and Texas. Since this time California has been colonised, 
and the vast West explored. In 1862 the Negro slaves were 
emancipated. Alaska was purchased of Russia in 1867. 

630. CONSTITUTION. The general government is by a 
President and Congress at Washington. The Congress is 
popularly elected, and the President also by a double system 
of election, and for four years only. This central govern- 
ment administers the army, navy, foreign affairs, the post 
office, imperial taxation. Each State also by itself is a 
Sovereign State, with its Governor and Congress, exercises 
legislative power in all internal questions, and raises the 
State taxation, and sends two members to the Senate. 

Each State sends representatives to Lower House in 
proportion to its population. Those States that have not 
enough population to entitle them to a single representative 
are called Territories ; they may send each a delegate to 
Congress, who has a right of speaking but not of voting. 

631. DIVISIONS. The United States consist of thirty- 
eight States and nine Territories. Thes3 are given in the 
following table : 



XLVIII.] 



THE UNITED STATES. 



253 



Name of State or 
Territory. 



I. North. 

Maine . . . . 
New Hampshire . 

Verrriont . . . 
Massachusetts 

Rhode Island . . 

Connecticut . . 

New York . * . 

Pennsylvania . . 

New Jersey . . 

Delaware . . . 

Maryland . . . 

Columbia . . . 



II. South. 
Virginia . . . 
North Carolina . 
South Caroli: a . 
Georgia. . . . 
Florida .... 
Alabama . . . 
Mississippi. . . 
Lou'siana . . . 
Texas .... 
Arkansas . . . 
Tennessee . . . 



III. West. 
Kentucky . . . 
West Virginia . 

Ohio 

Michigan . . . 
Indiana .... 
Illinois . . . . 
Wisconsin . . . 
Minnesota . . . 
Dakota .... 
Nebraska . . . 

Iowa 

Missouri . . . 
Kansas . . . . 



IV. Rocky Mountai 
Colorado .... 
New Mexico . . . 
Arizona 

Utah 



Wyoming 
Montana 
Idaho . 
Nevada . 



V. Pacific. 
California . . . 
Oregon .... 
Washington . . 



State Capit.il. 



Augusta 

Concord 

Montpelier 

Boston 

Providence 

Hartford 

Albany 

Harrisburg 

Trenton 

Dover 

Annapolis 

Washington 



Richmond 

Raleigh 

Cohunbia 

Atlanta 

J'allahassee 

Montg mery 

Jackson 

New Orleans 

Austin 

Little Rock 

Nashville 



Frankfort 

Wheeling 

Columbus 

Lansing 

Indianapolis 

Springfield 

Madi on 

St. Paul 

Bismarck 

Lincoln 

Des Moines 

Jefferson City 

Topeka 



Denver 

Santa Fe 

Tucson 
\ Great Salt ) 
I L ke City. ) 

Cheyenne 

Helena 

Boisee 

Carson City 



Sacramento 

Salem 

Olynipia 



/5Ss5 c 



Are X in 
Square 
Miles. 



29,890 
9>oo5 
9 135 
8,040 
1,085 
4.845 

47,620 

44,985 

7.455 

1,960 

9,860 

60 



40.125 
48.580 
30,170 
58,980 
54.240 
51.540 
46,340 
45,420 
262,390 
53-045 
41,750 



40,000 
24 645 
40,760 
57.430 
35,910 
56,000 
54.450 
79,205 
147,700 
76,185 
55,475 
68,735 
81,700 



103,645 
122,640 
112,920 

82,190 

9-, 575 
145,310 

84,290 
109,740 



155,980 
94,560 
66,880 



Population 
in 1880. 



648,936 

346,991 

332,286 

1,783,085 

276,531 

622,700 

5,082,871 

4,282,891 

1,131,116 

146,^08 

934,9 3 
177,624 

1,512,565 

1,399.750 

995,577 

1,542,180 

269,493 
1,262,505 
1,131.597 

939.946 
1,591,749 

802,525 

1,542,359 



1,648,650 

618,457 

3,198,062 

1,636,937 

1,978,301 

3,077,871 

1,315,497 

780,773 

135,177 

452,402 

1,624,615 

2,168,380 

996,093 



194,327 
119,565 
40,440 

143.963 
20,789 

39.159 
32,610 
62,266 



864,694 
174,768 
75.116 



254 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

The increase of population 1870- 1880 was 11,597,412, at the 
rate of 3 per cent, per annum, still maintained. 

I. The '* North" contains New England (the six States 
■which stand first in the enumeration) and the great com- 
mercial central States, and contains more than a fourth of 
the population of the union, though hardly a twentieth of 
its area. 

New England was originally colonised by Puritans, and 
its population is now essentially English. It claims to be the 
most advanced portion of the United States ; Boston, its 
capital, is the centre of American literature, and close to it is 
the University of Harvard. 

The North is the commercial and manufacturing part of 
the United States ; agriculturally it hardly produces its own 
food. Cotton is largely manufactured. Much iron is smelted 
near Pittsburg in West Pennsylvania, and hardware manu- 
factured. Coal exists in vast quantities in the central hilly 
part of Pennsylvania. Petroleum is largely raised from wells 
in North-west Pennsylvania. 

II. The "South" is the region where before the war of 
1862 cotton and tobacco were raised by slave labour. The 
" South " was originally colonised by much more adven- 
turous and unsteady people than the " North," and the popu- 
lation is to this day less sober and steady. Tobacco, cotton, 
rice, and the sugar-cane are still the chief products ; Vir- 
ginia and Tennessee are excellently adapted for wheat and 
maize. 

The chief mineral of the district is coal ; the finest field 
known in the world is the Appalachian coal-field. 

All the Negroes of the United States are in the 
" South." 

In the Indian Reserve are located remnants of the Red 
Indian race brought from various distant points. They are 
given a grant to aid in their maintenance by the Washington 
Government, are provided with industrial schools, and super- 
intended by a Commissioner. The " Reserve " contains 
70,000 square miles, and plenty of game. i 

III. The " West" is the great agricultural district of the ^ 



XLvni. 



THE UNITED STATES. 255 



United States, Illinois and the States around it forming a 
level fertile wheat-field. Hence is largely fed England, the 
wheat proceeding by rail to the Lake ports. Stock-keeping, 
especially of pigs, is another large branch of agricultural 
industry : Cincinnati being called the City of Pigs from the 
enormous quantity of bacon there prepared. So abundant 
is wheat, and of so little value on the spot, that in some 
seasons the pigs are largely fed on wheat, and it is said wheat 
is used sometimes to make a hot fire. 

Most of the Germans in the United States settle in the 
West. 

This vast area contains coal and iron in abundance, but 
not much mining is done at present; lead is raised in 
Illinois. 

IV. The "Rocky Mountain '' tract consists mainly of 
high ground, and is as yet sparsely inhabited. In Utah 
there is some agriculture ; but the principal occupation at 
present is mining, especially for gold and silver. Nevada 
produces silver on such a scale as to affect the value of silver 
throughout the world ; Colorado produces gold largely. Gold 
has also been discovered in Dakota. 

In the North-west of Wyoming, the Yellow stone National 
Park has been set aside by Congress to be reserved from 
colonisation, an area of more than 3,000 square miles, con- 
taining gigantic geysers and hot-springs, together with 
scenery peculiar to itself. Some of the geysers play boihng 
water 300 feet high. 

V. The "Pacific" coast is both an agricultural and a 
mining region. California first attracted attention by its 
gold mines in 1848, and produced for twenty years nearly 
10,000,000/. gold per annum. Afterwards it was found to 
possess a climate unsurpassed in the whole world for corn 
and fruit : it exports wheat even to England. Oregon rivals 
California. 

Celebrated features of California (and the whole west 
Rocky Mountains) are the " Canons " or narrow Gorges with 
vertical sides, in which the rivers run. Some of the Canons 
are 4,000—6,000 feet deep, the sides so vertical for long 



256 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

distances that it is impossible to find a way down from the 
upland to the river bank. 

632. TOWNS. The following were by the census of i88c' 
the towns of the United States that contained more thar 
100,000 inhabitants : — ■ 

(i) New York (including the suburb Brooklyn), population 
1,772,962 ; the commercial capital of the Union, on the left 
bank of the Hudson, near its mouth. 

(2) Philadelphia, population 874,170 ; on the right bank of 
the Delaware, 120 miles from its mouth, but the largest ships 
can get up. 

(3) St. Iiouis, population 350,518 ; on the right bank ol 
the Mississippi, just below the confluence of the Missouri 
the capital of the West. 

(4) Chicago, population 503,185, on Lake Michigan, the 
chief of the Lake ports. 

(5) Baltimore, population 332,313, on the Chesapeake 
estuary : a port. 

(6) Boston, population 369,832 ; the port and capital ol 
New England. 

(7) Cincinnati, population 255,139 ; on the right bank of 
the Ohio. 

(8) New Orleans, population 216,090 ; the chief Gulf port. 

(9) San Francisco, population 233,959 ; the chief Pacific 
port : commonly called Frisco ; contains a large colony of 
Chinese. 

(10) Buffalo, population 155,134 ; a port on Lake Erie. 

(11) Washington, population 147,293, the political capital 
of the Union, near the mouth of the Potomac. The small 
district round it is made a Federal Territory, under the name 
of Columbia : that is, it is not included in any one of the 
States. 

(12) Newark, population 136,508; opposite New York, 
across the Hudson. 

(13) Louisville, population 123,758; on the Ohio; where 
a short canal enables steamers to avoid the Rapids of the 
Ohio when the river is low : when it is high the Rapids can 
be shot. Si.\ other cities have a population of over 100,000. 



XLix.] MEXICO. 257 



Sect. XLIX. MEXICO. 

633. EXTENT. Mexico is about the size of all Europe 
leaving out Russia, Turkey, and Scandinavia ; and has a 
population equalling that of Scotland and Ireland together. 

634.. BOUNDARIES. Mexico is bounded by the United 
States on the North j the Pacific on the West; the Gulf of 
Mexico on the East ; -and Guatemala and British Honduras 
on the South. 

635. GULFS. Mexico on the east ; California on the 
north-west included between the peninsula of California and 
the main continent. 

636. CLIMATE. Mexico is intersected by the Tropic of 
Cancer, about one half of it lying in the tropical, the other 
half in the sub-tropical (or warmest part of the temperate) 
zone. This latitude would indicate an excessively warm 
climate, but a large part of the area of Mexico is elevated 
5,000 feet above the sea, so that the climate of Mexico is one 
of the finest in the world. The low-lying tropical coasts are 
moist, hot, and subject to malarious fevers. 

637. MOUNTAINS AND PLATEAUS. Nearly the whole 
of Mexico (except a band near the sea-coasts usually about 
50 miles wide of low-lying country) is a plateau elevated 6,000 
— 8,000 feet above sea-level, and forming one of the most re- 
markable plateaus in the world. There rise from this plateau 
various mountain ranges and volcanoes, especially the line of 
volcanoes in the latitude of the city of Mexico itself. Of 
these the highest is Popocatepetl, alt. 17,783 feet, and others 
are nearly as high. In the north this plateau is continued 
and joins the southern broad end of the Rocky Mountain 
plateau. 

638. RIVERS. The Rio del Norte is the boundary for hun- 
dreds of miles between Mexico and the United States. 

639. COMMUNICATIONS. There are 3,700 miles of 
railway open : through trains are run to New York from 

s 



258 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

Mexico city. The coast-line affords few good harbours. 
There is no internal water communication. The roads are 
tracks, and trade is carried on pack-mules. 

64-0. RACES OF MEN. Less than half the population of 
Mexico is Red Indian; nearly all of these are "tame" 
Indians, but there are some fierce tribes in the north, akin 
to those of the Rocky Mountains. Nearly two millions of 
the population of Mexico may be Spaniiirds or very nearly 
white. The remainder of the inhabitants are Mestizo, i.e. 
Spaniard and Indian mixed in varied proportions. The 
Negro population in Mexico never was large, and is now 
grown small, but there is a good deal of Negro blood among 
the mixed population. Many French and Germans are 
scattered through Mexico as petty tradesmen. 

64.1. HISTORIC SKETCH. When Mexico first became 
known to the Old World, the Aztecs were the ruling race 
among many nations of Red Indians. They had a firmly 
established government, had executed pyramids and great 
works of irrigation, and their capital city possessed 300,000 
inhabitants. But they were a cruel people with sanguinary 
superstitions and practising human sacrifice. Cortez conquered 
the Aztecs in 1521, and Mexico remained a colonial province 
of Spain till 1820, when, like the other Spanish colonies in 
America, Mexico revolted and became independent. Since 
that time she has had military dictators, revolutions, and 
national bankruptcy. In 1862 the French conquered the 
country and set up Maxmilian (an Austrian Prince) as 
Emperor. But on the withdrawal of the French army, 
the Mexicans got Maxmilian into their power and at 
once despatched him (1867). The anarchy and misery 
of Mexico were extreme. The resources of the country are 
being largely developed by American enterprise and capital ; 
immigration is increasing. 

64-2. PRESENT CONSTITUTION. The constitution of 
Mexico upon paper is a Republic, on the model of the 
United States. The fall of the Empire was followed by a 
long and bitter struggle between the clerical party and their 
opponents. Under the Liberal rule Mexico is progressive. 



XLix.] MEXICO. 259 

643. RELIGION. The religion of Mexico is the most 
superstitious form of Roman Catholicism, the people believ- 
ing all kinds of fables, and the priests having great political 
and social influence. The wilder Indians are heathen. 

644. LANGUAGE. The language of all the white and par- 
tially white Mexicans is Spaiiish. The Indians speak a num- 
ber of different Indian languages, of which Aztec still is one. 

645. ANIMALS. Iht jaguar, pit?na, 2.xid black bear SiXQ 
the principal wild animals of Mexico. Vast troops oi horses 
roam, descended from horses imported by the Spaniards. 

646. PLANTS. Mexico is extraordinarily rich in wild 
plants, comprising every clime, viz. the hot moist tropical 
jungles of the coast level ; the sub-tropical or temperate 
slopes from 2,000 — 6,000 feet ; the temperate-open table- 
land at 6,000 — 8,000, and the upper zone from 8,000 feet to 
the snow-line on the mountains. We have therefore palms, 
bamboos, gingers, at the coast level ; oaks and pines at 7,000 
feet, and alpine herbs near the snow; 

Mexico is for the same reason adapted for nearly all culti- 
vated plants. Maize cultivated on the central plateau at 
6,000 — 8,ooQ feet elevation is the staple food of the people ; 
but very numerous other plants are cultivated, as the banajta, 
cacao, and sicgar-ca7ie, at the lowest levels ; cotton, cassava^ 
the vine and orange, somewhat higher up. Few countries 
are naturally richer than Mexico, and under the desolating 
effects of the present government fruit and vegetables of 
excellent quahty yet abound in the market of Mexico. 

647. MINERALS. For ages Mexico was regarded as the 
richest country of the world in gold and silver mines ; and 
it also possesses copper, tin, and qiiicksilver. Previously to 
the war of 1821 Mexico produced 5,000,000/. of the precious 
metals annually, but it has produced little since. There 
is no reason to suppose that the mines are exhausted. But 
capital cannot be embarked in Mexico, which now owes 
about 40,000,000/., and pays little of the interest due thereon. 

648. TOWNS, (i) Mexico, the capital, containing 300,000 
inhabitants, situate on a plain on the table-land at an 
elevation of 7,500 feet above the sea. Close by is a lake, 

S 2 



26o GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 

celebrated in history, and in full view about fifteen miles off 
is the line of volcanoes. 

(2) Puebla, population 75,000, on the old high road from 
Mexico to \'era Cruz, the chief port on the Gulf of Mexico. 



Sect.!. CENTRAL REPUBLICS. 

649. EXTENT. The area of the Central Republics is 
twice that of Great Britain ; the population is estimated at 
nearly three millions. 

650. BOUNDARIES. On the North, Mexico ; on the 
East^ the Gulf of Mexico (and British Honduras) ; on the 
South, Colombia ; on the West, the Pacific. 

651. MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS. The table-land of 
Mexico extends southwards, but becomes lower till, along a 
line that runs through Lake Nicaragua, there is a road from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific that hardly rises 170 feet above 
sea-level. 

In the northern part of the plateau, near Mexico, are 
numerous volcanoes, some attaining 13,000 feet in height : 
and the whole district is liable to frequent and severe earth- 
quakes. 

The climate about the isthmus of Panama is one of the 
most malarious in the world ; and the whole country along the 
coasts both of the Atlantic and Pacific is moist, hot, and 
unhealthy ; on the plateau above 4,000 feet the climate is 
excellent. 

652. COMMUNICATIONS. There is a railway from 
Aspinwall, the port on the Atlantic, to Panama on the 
Pacific ; a very large trade, between the Old World and the 
west coast of the New from Oregon to Peru, passes by this 
route. 

653. RACES OF MEN. The population contains few 
whites (Spaniards), many Red Indians, and a large number 
of Mestizos ; they resemble in all respects the Mestizos of 
Mexico, and are an equally worthless race. i 



J 



L. 



CENTRAL REPUBLICS. 



261 



654. HISTORIC SKETCH. The whole of Central 
America was claimed by Spain up to 1820, though the wars 
of Walpole and Pitt with Spain both largely turned on the 
English right to cut logwood in the Bay of Campeachy. This 
right was allowed by the Treaty of Paris, and the English 
Government protected tribes of Mosquito Indians down to 
i860. The English withdrew from Central America to 
satisfy the jealousy of the American Government, but still 
retain British Honduras. 

As to the Spaniards, Central America, like Mexico, in 
1820 — 23 revolted from Spain, since which time the country 
has had no settled government. At the present moment 
(1888) Central America is divided into five separate States, 
as follows : — 



Republic. 


"""Mnes^'"' Population. 


Costa Rica .... 

Guatemala 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 

San Sa.vador .... 


19)985 
46,774 
42,658 
Si,66o 
7,228 


213.78s 
1,284,004 
323,274 
400,000 
654,120 



Central America is exceedingly rich in vegetable and 
mineral products, much as Mexico. Hence is chiefly de- 
rived our supply of mahogany and logwood. Coffee and 
indigo are also grown for export. There are excellent 
harbours on either coast, and more than 500 miles of rail- 
way open. The largest towns are New Guatemala, popula- 
tion 60,000, and Leon in Nicaragua, population 25,000. 
These states have been the prey of political adventurers ; are 
all heavily in debt, on which little or no interest is ever paid. 
San Salvador is the most settled and industrious. 



262 GEOGRAniY. [sect. 



Sect. LI. BRITISH HONDURAS. 

655. British Honduras is an English Settlement on the 
coast of Yucatan, and has formed a separate colony since 
1853. How far the British territory extends back into 
the jungles is not determined. The area claimed as British 
is 13,500 square miles; many maps show 50,000 square 
miles as British. 

The chief town and port is Belize, built nearly entirely of 
wood, whence mahogany and logwood are exported. There 
are many Negroes in British Honduras. 



Seci LIL THE WEST INDIA ISLANDS. 

656. EXTENT. The West India Islands have a total area 
exceeding that of Britain, with a population exceeding that 
of Scotland. 

657. CIjIMATE. The climate is tropical, tempered by 
the great area of sea in which the islands lie. It is much 
healthier than that of the coast of America near it. The 
islands are excellently adapted for the growth of maize, 
sugar-cane, tobacco, rice, and cacao ; and also produce in 
abundance many tropical fruits, as custard-apple, pine- 
apples, guavas, &c. The vegetation of the forests is most 
luxuriant. Nearly the whole archipelago is subject to hurri- 
canes and to earthquakes. 

658. MOUNTAINS. The highest mountains in Cuba, 
Jamaica, and Hayti attain 7,000 feet in altitude, and in these 
larger islands it is possible to live in a temperate chmate at 
4,000 feet elevation. In the mountains of Cuba copper is 
raised, otherwise there is little mining. 

659. RACES OF MEN. The indigenous Caribs of the 
islands were on their discovery closely allied to those on the 
mainland, but these absolutely disappeared before the Euro- 
peans, by reason partly of oppression, partly of new diseases 



Lii.] THE WEST INDIA ISLANDS. 263 

introduced. Then Negroes were largely imported from 
Africa, and the population of the several islands consisted of 
Negro slaves, of their white masters (comparatively few in 
number), and of a mixed European and Negro race who 
sprang up. The whites were Spaniards chiefly ; also Eng- 
lish, French, and others. The Negroes generally follow the 
religion and language of the island they are in, speaking 
Spanish in the Spanish islands, English in the English 
islands. 

660. DIVISIONS, (i) Cuba and Porto Rica belong to 
Spain. Slavery in these islands was abolished by. law 
in 1886. Not one-third of the cultivable area of Cuba 
is occupied, and owing to slave revolts the island has for 
years been in a poor state. The capital Havaima contains 
230,000 inhabitants, and is by far the largest town in the 
archipelago. 

(2) Hayti, or St. Domingo, originally belonged half to 
France, half to Spain. In 1791 the slaves rose, slew their 
masters, and successfully resisted all attempts of the old 
countries to subdue them. Since that time the government 
has been much like the governments of Central America or 
Mexico : some man succeeds in establishing a military 
despotism, till he is assassinated. The state of Hayti is 
miserable, and trade has come to nothing. 

(3) Jamaica, an English colony. The slaves were emanci- 
pated in 1834. The produce of the island in rum and sugar 
has since diminished, but the Negroes have had a good time ; 
in so bountiful a climate they can with little exertion raise 
enough maize and pumpkins to satisfy their wants. The 
capital of Jamaica is Kingston^ population 40,000. 

(4) The Lesser Antilles, containing the Windward and 
Leeward Islands, are divided among the English, French, 
Dutch, and others. They are used as naval stations. 
Barbadoes, a British island, is a prosperous sugar-growing 
colony. 

(5) The Bahamas and the Bermudas are English colonies ; 
the latter are only outhers of the West Indies. 



264 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 1 



Sect. LIII. SOUTH AMERICA. 

661. EXTENT. The area of South America is nearly 
double that of Europe, the population is supposed not to 
exceed that of Britain. It is the uninhabited among con- 
tinents. 

662. BOUNDARIES. The Atlantic on the East; the 
Straits of Magelhan on the South; the Pacific on the West; 
the Caribbean Sea and the Isthmus of Panama on the 
North. 

663. ATTACHED ISLANDS. (l) Trinidad, near the 
mouth of the Orinoco. 

(2) Terra del Fuegro, off Cape Horn. 

(3) The Falkland Isles, not far east of Cape Horn. 
664-. CLIMATE. Nearly three-fourths of South America 

lies within the tropics, and of the extra-tropical portion all, 
except the peninsula of Patagonia, lies within the warm- 
temperate zone. The climate is highly favourable to vegeta- 
tion, and to the support of a large population. It appears 
to be on the whole more healthy than the tropical regions of 
Africa and Asia. The extra-tropical portion possesses a 
very fine climate, adapted excellently for man and beast ; 
and there are large areas within the tropics where elevated 
table-lands afford a temperate climate. No part of South 
America is rendered sterile by frost and snow (Patagonia is 
windy and rainy rather than frozen), and there are no huge 
sandy burning deserts as in all the other tropical continents, 
Africa, Asia, and Australia. 

665. MOUNTAINS, (i) The Cordillera of the Andes runs 
from the isthmus of Panama to Cape Horn, keeping close 
to the west coast of the continent the whole way. The 
steep side of the Andes thus faces the Pacific ; while attached 
to the more sloping side are several elevated plateaus. The 
main waterparting lying so close to the west of the continent, 
its drainage falls into the Atlantic. 

The Andes are very continuous, there being no low pass 



Liii.] SOUTH AMERICA. 265 

across them : their general elevation is very great (second 
only to that of the Himalaya), the average height of the 
waterparting being over 1 1,000 feet. The Andes are almost 
throughout their length studded with volcanoes, dormant or 
active, whose cones form the highest points of the chain. 
The highest is Aconagua, a cone in Chili attaining 22,422 
feet; but the highest portion of the Andes range is in 
Ecuador, where Chimboraso attains 21,422 feet above sea- 
level. 

(2) The ranges of mountains and high land which, com- 
mencing near Rio, extend to Bolivia. The ridges run 
mainly north and south, but form really a large band of high 
land separating the basin of the La Plata from that of the 
Amazon. The mountains immediately behind Rio are well 
known as the Organ mountains, and are 7,000 feet high : the 
1 Bolivian plateau is 9,000 — 11,000 feet above sea-level, and 
.he high land joins this. 

(3) The Sierra Parime, which separates the basin of the 
Orinoco from that of the Amazon. The highest part of this 
ange is south of Guiana (to which part of it the name 

iParim^ is not applied), which is 16,000 feet above sea-level. 
The mountains westward become gradually lower, till in the 
.vest it is said that in the rainy season a boat may from 
he Amazon ascend the Rio Negro and descend the 
Orinoco. 

666. PLATEAUS. The greater part of Peru and Bolivia 
;ast of the Andes consists of a pleateau 9,000—11,000 feet 
ligh ; that portion of it included between the main Cordillera 
of the Andes and its flanking parallel lower ridge being above 
12,000 feet elevation. 

From this plateau the waterparting between the basins of 
;he Amazon and the Parana extends east to Rio de Janeiro. 

In Colombia, a large plateau occupies the whole interior of 
he State. But the average elevation of South America 
ibove the sea is small ; less than that of the other con- 
inents except Australia. 

667. RIVERS, (i) The Amazon, the largest (though not 
he longest) river in the world. The tide is perceptible on it 



266 GEOGRAPHY. [sect.^ 

a thousand miles from its mouth ; at 400 miles out at sea 
from its mouth the water is perceptibly fresher than the 
ocean generally is. Large ships can ascend the river 2,000 
miles, and its extreme length is estimated at 3,900 miles. 

Its tributaries are first-class rivers : such are the Rio 
Negro on the left bank ; the Madeira, the Tapajos, and the 
Tocantins, on the right. 

(2) The Rio de la Plata, called " The Plate" by the English. 

(3) The Orinoco, in Venezuela. 

668. LAKES. None of importance : Titicaca in Peru 
is celebrated for its elevation (12,800 feet) above the 
sea. Maracaybo is only a remarkable gulf of the sea in 
Venezuela. 

669. COMMUNICATIONS. Railways: Over 12,000 
miles are open, chiefly in Brazil and the Argentine Republic. . 

A canal for sea-going ships is in construction across the 
isthmus of Panama. The Amazon is one of the grandest 
navigable rivers in the world. 

Roads: almost none fit for carriage traffic ; communication 
is by horses, mules, and llamas. 

670. HISTORIC SKETCH. The present States of America 
nearly all arose from colonies made in the first half of the 
1 6th century. The Portuguese colonised Brazil, and the 
Spaniards all the rest of the continent. The inhabitants 
were found to be of numerous tribes and languages, but all 
varieties of Red Indians, and speaking varieties of the Red 
Indian class of languages. The people of Peru were found 
to be the most advanced of the native races, and had a 
settled government under the Incas, as their sovereigns were 
called. They had executed large buildings and discovered 
the use of metals before the Spaniards arrived. 

In the early part of the 19th century, all the Spanish 
colonies revolted and set up separate States. These have since 
suffered in turn from revolutions and from military dictators. 
They have had much war, and they are now mostly bankrupt 
or nearly so. Brazil also in the beginning of the century 
became independent of Portugal. 



Lii.] SOUTH AMERICA. 267 

671. RACES or MEN. The population of each State in 
South America consists of European whites, mainly Span- 
iards (or Portuguese in Brazil), Red Indians, and Mestizos. 
There are also many Negroes in Brazil who were till lately 
slaves. The chief immigration at present from Europe is to 
the Argentine Republic and Chili, to which Germans, Italians, 
English, and Swiss resort. 

672. RELIGION. Generally Roman Catholics. The 
Spanish 'and Portuguese, and the Spanish and Portuguese 
Mestizos, are Roman Catholics. Further, the Indians have 
been largely converted by Roman Catholic Missionaries, 
especially Jesuits : and in many countries the Missionaries 
collect the Indians in villages, and partly instruct them in 
civilization, partly induce them to labour and to call them- 
selves Christians. 

673. LANGUAGES. The white and partially white popu- 
lation speak Spanish^ or in Brazil, Poringttese. The Indians 
generally retain India?!, languages. 

674. ANIMALS. South America is poor in large 
quadrupeds as compared with Africa or Asia; though 
geologists have discovered fossil skeletons showing that at 
some not distant period (geologically speaking) there were 
huge quadrupeds in South America. Also all the quadrupeds 
of South America are different from those of the Old World, 
and many of the Old-world families of animals are alto- 
gether missing in South America. The following is a list of 
the larger Mammalia : — 

(i) Marsupials : half-a-dozen kinds of opossums. 

(2) Pachyderms : two tapirs; three peccaries (much re- 
sembling small pigs). 

(3) Soiidunguia : none. But horses were introduced by 
the Spaniards, and vast herds of wild horses, sprung from 
these, now roam on the plains. 

(4) Ruminants : four kinds of lla7na or alpaca (unlike 
any Old-world animals, nearest the camel, but only about 
three feet high at the shoulder) : several species of deer. 

(5) Edentata : the great ant-eater and several smaller 
species ; the armadillos and sloths. 



268 GEOGRAPHY. [sect - 

(6) Rodentia : the cavies, gtimea-pigs, and several porcu ^ 
pines. Rats, sandrats, chinchillas, and squirrels. 

(7) Pinnipedia : seals in Patagonia. 

(8) Carnivora ; the jagicar, the puma, and some smallei 
cats; bears, rdcoons, and kinkajous. 

(9) Chiroptera : numerous bats, among them the vampires. 

(10) Quadrumana ; numerous monkeys, especially small or 
slender monkeys with long tails ; none of the large monkeys 1 
live in America. 

675. PLANTS. South America is as rich in variety and 
in quantity of vegetation as the tropical parts of the Old 
World : but its plants are generally very distinct from those 
of the Old World. It possesses palms, bamboos, and tree- 
/ems, but many orders of Old-world plants it is without 
altogether; while it possesses other orders of plants of 
which no species is found anywhere in the Old World. 

The dense tropical tree jungles, moist nearly the whole 
year, abounding in liaines (or gigantic creepers) prevail along 
the banks of the Amazon, and such swampy forests are 
known as Silvas. There are large plains bare of trees on the 
Upper Orinoco called Llanos, intensely hot. The plains 
temperate in climate bare of trees, but at some seasons 
covered densely with huge thistles, on the La Plata are 
called the Pampas. The upper levels of the Andes and the 
west side of the Andes waterparting have generally a dry 
climate and are bare of trees. 

Of indigenous useful plants South America has not pro- 
duced many : the chief is cacao, a bush, the berries of which 
are so plentiful and so nourishing a food that, it is said, land 
under cacao will support more souls than under any other 
known crop, and with far less labour. "Wi^ potato was indi- 
genous to the higher Andes. Mat^, or Paraguay tea, is a 
favourite substitute for tea in South America. Qitinifie, the 
most celebrated remedy for tropical fevers, is supplied by 
several species of trees native in Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, and 
Colombia. Maize is also perhaps indigenous ; manioc and 
bananas feed millions : sugar-cane, coffee, cotton and wheat, 
have been introduced from the Old World. 



LIV. 



ECUADOR. 



269 



676. MINERALS. The Andes are richly metalUferous for 
several thousand miles of their length. Peru is celebrated 
for its silver mines, and nearly every valuable metal has 
been obtained from the Andes — gold^ silver, mercury, copper) 
tin, lead, bismuth, cobalt, a7itimo7ty, arsenic. But the yield 
has much diminished in late years, principally because the 
political state of the country is such that capital will not go 
there. For 300 years after the discovery of America Peru 
(with Mexico) supplied the world with precious metals ; it 
has been reckoned 1,000,000,000/. worth of gold and silver 
in all. 

677. DIVISIONS:— 



State. 


Capital. 

Quito. 

Bogota. 

Caraccas. 

Port of Spain. 

George Town. 

Paramaribo. 

Cayenne. 

Rio Janeiro. 

Lima. 

Chuquisaca. 

Asuncion. 

Monte Video, 

Buenos Ayres. 

Santiago. 


Area in Square 
Miles. 


Population. 


Ecuador 

Colombia 

Venezuela . . . . ■ 

Trinidad 

British Guiana . . . 
Dutch Guiana . . 
French Guiana . . . 

Brazil 

Peru 

Bolivia 

Paraguay 

Urueuay 

La Plata 

Chili 

Falkland L-lands . . 


248,380 

504,773 

63^,695 

1,754 

109,000 

46,060 

46,880 

3,219,000 

463,747 

772,548 

92,000 

73,538 

1,125,000 

293,970 

6,500 


1,100,000 

4,000,000 

2,200,000 

171,914 

274,311 

71,800 

36,000 

13,000,000 

2,970,000 

2,300,000 

470,000 

593,248 

3,800,000 

2,524,476 

1,640 



Sect. LIV. ECUADOR. 



678. Ecuador, so named because it lies across the equator, 
is bounded on the West by the Pacific ; on the North by 
Colombia ; on the East by Brazil ; on the Sotcth by Peru. 
The boundary between Ecuador and Peru is often shown to 
be the Amazon, but it is really not fixed. 

The Territory includes a piece of the Andes chain, some 
sloping plains on the Upper Amazon, and a small strip of 



270 GEOGRAPHY. [f^ECT. 

the Pacific sea-board. Quito, the capital, contains 70,000 
inhabitants, and is on a plain 9,500 feet above the sea. The 
cUmate here is temperate ; in the low-level parts of Ecuador 
it is of course very hot. It produces on the eastern slopes 
cacao of excellent quality, which is exported ; in the 
temperate forests cinchona bark is collected for export. The 
state is agricultural and not mining. 

The two celebrated volcanoes of Chimborazo (21,424 feet 
altitude), and Cotopaxi are in Ecuador, the mountain 
territory of which is much subject to volcanic eruptions and 
earthquakes. The town of Riobamba in 1797 was blown up 
as if by a mine ; both the houses and the inhabitants were 
hurled across the river Lican. 

The port of Guayaquil, on the Pacific (population 35,000) 
is 270 miles by rail from Quito, and the chief line of com- 
munication of Ecuador, but it is impassable for half th© 
year. 

The Government of Ecuador is a Mestizo Spanish Re- 
public ; the State has enjoyed civil war nearly continwously 
for many years, and is hopelessly bankrupt. 



S3Ct.LV. COLOMBIA. 

679. Colombia^ also called New Granada, is bounded by 
Ecuador on the South; Venezuela on the East; the Carib- 
bean Sea on the North; the Pacific on the West; the isthmus 
of Panama is a Province of Colombia. 

The Andes Cordillera runs through the country from north 
to south in two or three ridges ; between the two main ridges 
the river Magdalena runs north into the Caribbean Sea. The 
headwaters of the Orinoco rise in the eastern part of 
Colombia. 

Much of Colombia is high land : Bogota, population 
100,000 the capital, stands 8,600 feet above the sea in a 
temperate climate ; many of the plains at middle level are 
"Llanos" bereft of trees. The lower levels produce excel- 
lent cacaOy and the temperate forests cinchona bark, as in 



Lvi.] VENEZUELA. 271 

Ecuador. Colombia also exports coj^ee, cotton, and india- 
rubber, Colombia contains richly gold, silver, copper, iron, 
lead,plati?ia, coal, and enter aids ; but little mining is carried 
on. 

The port is Cartagena, celebrated in history, but now 
decayed, and containing hardly 10,000 inhabitants. The two 
ports at the end of the Isthmus Railway are also in Colom- 
iDian territory, viz., Panama on the Pacific, Aspinwall on 
the Caribbean Sea. A ship-canal is being made. 

Colombia is a Mestizo Spanish Republic, and has had of 
late years much civil war. The whole revenue of the State 
is not enough to pay the interest of the debt, i,e, it is com- 
pletely bankrupt. 



S3ct. LVI. VENEZUELA. 

680. Venezuela is bounded on the West by Colombia ; on 
the South by Brazil ; on the East by British Guiana ; on the 
North by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic. 

Venezuela is the basin of the Orinoco ; this great river is 
four miles wide 250 miles above its mouth ; the plains on its 
banks are some wooded (Silvas), others bare (Llanos), on 
which large herds are kept. 

Venezuela is one of the best ^^<:<«^-producing countries ; 
sugar, cotton, tobacco, i7idigo, are also grown for export : the 
best populated parts of the country being mostly at low-levels. 
There is little mining. Earthquakes are frequent. Car- 
raccas the capital, population 70,000, is elevated 2,800 feet 
above the sea. Maracaybo, population 30,000, is on the 
lake (or rather bay) of that name. 

Venezuela is a Mestizo Spanish Republic, and has had for 
many years past much civil war. It is heavily in debt ; and 
irregular in payment of interest, The gold-fields on the 
Orinoco are very rich. 



272 GEOGRAPHY. [sect. 



Sect. LVII. TRINIDAD. 

681. Trinidad, commonly reckoned a West India island, 
is really close to South America. It is a British colony, 
and it is the most prosperous State in South America. 
The island is highly fertile, producing cacao^ sugar ^ coffee^ to- 
bacco, cotton^ &c. The English planters import coolies from 
Bengal as labourers for hire. Port-of-Spain, population 
31,000, is the capital. 



Sect. LVIII. BRITISH GUIANA. 

682. British Guiana is bounded by Venezuela on the 
West; Brazil on the South; Dutch Guiana on the East; 
the Atlantic on the North. 

The mountains in the south, which separate it from 
Brazil, attain 11,000 feet high. This colony is often called 
Demerara, from the river of that name, at the mouth of which 
stands George Town, population 50,000, the capital. 

The settled cultivated portion of the colony is the low land 
near the sea, where sugar is raised : the climate here is 
intensely hot and moist and the country swampy : but even 
this coast part of British Guiana is less unhealthy than most 
tropical sea-coasts. The interior of the territory is im- 
perfectly explored. 

The population consists of 12,000 whites, mainly English; 
1 5,000 coolies from Bengal, and the rest Negroes. 



Sect. LIX. DUTCH GUIANA. i 

683. Dutch Guiana is a parallel strip of territory to 
British Guiana, running back like it from the sea-coast to 
the mountains ; its circumstances of cultivation and popula- 
tion are also very similar. This colony is often called 



LXi.] BRAZIL. 273 

Surinam, from the river of that name, at the mouth of which 
stands Paramaribo, population 25,000. Dutch Guiana is 
inferior in population and progress to British Guiana, but 
still a thriving colony with a solvent and peaceful govern- 
ment. 



Sect. LX. FRENCH GUIANA. 

684-. French Guiana is another strip of Guiana ex- 
tending from the sea-coast back to the mountains, in its 
natural circumstances exactly similar to British and Dutch 
Guiana. But the French have little taste for colonization, 
and regard with horror this colony, used mainly as a place 
for transporting political criminals to ; known better under 
the name of Cayenne, from the chief town of that name on 
a sandy flat by the sea. Its population is 11,000 and the 
climate very unhealthy. 

Among other things capsicums are cultivated, whence is 
made red-pepper, often called therefore in England cayenne- 
pepper. 



Sect. LXI. BRAZIL. 

685. Brazil is as large as Europe, and it has been esti- 
mated that it could feed all the population now living in the 
world, such are its powers of vegetation and its climate. 
But only very small portions of it are inhabited at all. The 
Amazon in general flows through a gigantic forest ; at each 
of the few distant spots where the steamboats call is a small 
clearance and an Indian village managed by a Roman 
Catholic priest : the boundless forest closes the village in on 
every side, nor is there any road or approach to it other than 
by the river. 

The capital Rio Janeiro on the Atlantic coast, separated 
by 1,000 miles of uninhabited country from the Amazons, 
contains 350,000 inhabitants, and the country round.it for 
some distance is well peopled. Bahia, the other chief port, 

T 



274 GEOGRAPHY. [sectJ 

population 140,000, is also a centre of population and im- 
perfect civilisation. Pemambuco, port of sugar-growing 
district, pop. 130,000, is an important port. But the vasr 
area of Brazil is in general absolutely uninhabited and very 
imperfectly known. 

Besides the Amazon basin, the head-waters both of the 
Parana and the Paraguay are in Brazil. The chief moun- 
tains are the Organ mountains west of Rio, and the ranges 
west of them ; also the Parime mountains, which form the 
northern boundary of Brazil. 

The greater part of Brazil lies at a low level, and is 
intensely moist and hot with a profuse vegetation. Sugar- 
cane^ cotton^ 7ice, and tobacco^ are grown. On the middle- 
level pastures vast herds of cattle roam. Gold and diamofids 
are the chief mineral produce. 

There are about 5,000 miles of railway open, connecting 
the Atlantic ports with each other and the interior. 

The population, stated at about 13,000,000, is supposed to 
consist of 4,000,000 of whites, nearly 8,000,000 negroes and 
mulattoes, and the rest Red Indians. There are considerable 
numbers of German and Swiss emigrants settled in Brazil. 

The gradual emancipation of slaves culminated in the 
abolition of slavery by law in 1888. 

Brazil was discovered by the Portuguese in A.D. 1500, and 
colonised by them about A.D. 1550. In 1808, when Portugal 
was overrun by Napoleon Buonaparte, the royal family 
of Portugal sailed away to Brazil for refuge. In 1822, the 
head of the Portuguese royal family remained in Brazil as 
Emperor, and allowed a representative in the female line to 
resume the crown of Portugal. In this way Brazil became 
completely independent without a revolution. Brazil has not 
suffered by civil war ; and though the national debt is large, 
it is not bankrupt. 



Lxii.] PERU. 275 



Sect. LXII. PERU. 

686. Peru is bounded on the North by Ecuador ; on the 
East by Brazil and BoUvia ; on the South by Bolivia ; on the 
West by the Pacific. 

The Andes Cordillera runs through Peru parallel with its 
western frontier. Peru consists mainly of the narrow Pacific 
sea-board and the high plateau east of the Andes water- 
parting, but there also belongs to Peru a densely-wooded 
slope to the banks of the Upper Amazon and its tributaries. 
The Pg.cific region west of the Andes is nearly rainless, and 
consequently nearly bare of trees. The valley of the Upper 
Amazon is, on the contrary, very rainy, and a vast jungle. 

The population of Peru is chiefly collected at the temperate 
levels, and the principal agricultural produce is maize, po- 
tatoes, a.nd yarns. Cinchona bark is commonly called Peru- 
vian bark, the Upper Amazon forests containing several 
species of Cinchona-trees that yield quinine. Peru is also 
the native country of the potato, and is the home (at high 
levels of the Andes) of the llama and alpaca. 

Peru has for three centuries been famed for its mines of 
the precious metals, especially silve?'. Peru has, however, 
not produced silver very largely for some time, partly by 
reason of political anarchy, partly by reason that the best 
mines are in a desert region at high levels. The old Peru- 
vian proverb runs, " He who mines for gold will be ruined ; 
he who mines for silver may live ; he who mines for copper 
will make his fortune." Peru also owns the chief guano 
islands, and most of her public revenue has been derived of 
late years from an export duty on guano, an animal manure, 

Peru has constructed some railways, mostly to connect 
the mines with the Pacific, 1,600 miles being open. 

The chief town is Lima, population 100,000, distant only 
six miles from the port of Callao on the Pacific. Cuzco, 
population 18,000, the ancient capital of the Incas,is situated 
1 1 ,400 feet above the level of the sea. 



276 GEOGRAPHY. [sf. 

Three-fifths of the population of Peru is estimated to be 
Red Indian, the remainder Mestizo Spanish. Since the estab- 
lishment of the Republic there has been much war in Peru. 

Peru ceded the chief guano deposits to Chili, after a dis- 
astrous war, in 1883; and has paid no interest on national 
debt since 1876. 

Sect. LXIII. BOLIVIA. 

687. Bolivia is bounded on the A'orth by Brazil ; on the 
East by Brazil ; on the So7ith by the Argentine Republic, 
and Paraguay ; on the West by Peru and Chili. Bolivia 
thus possesses no sea-coast at all. 

Bolivia in its situation and products greatly resembles 
Peru. The Andes traverse the country from north to south. 
West of their main range is a very large elevated plateau, 500 
miles long, and averaging 13,000 feet above the sea. On the 
north and east the level of the country falls to the banks of 
the Madeira and Paraguay, and here cacao and india-rubber 
are produced in a tropical climate. 

The great plateau, in which is Lake Titicaca, is generally 
open, but in the lower levels are large forests, of the same 
character as the selvas of the Amazon. 

Bolivia is, like Peru, rich in minerals, gold, silver, and 
especially copper. The mines of Potosi produced under 
Spanish rule 250,000,000/. of silver, but they have produced 
little under the anarchy of the Mestizo Republic. Bolivia 
also resembles Peru in possessing cincJiona-irQQs. 

The population is supposed about 2,300,000, three-fourths 
of whom are more or less Indian, only half a million are 
returned as ''white." No financial statement is attempted 
by the government, but the condition of the national purse is 
known to be very bad. Bolivia has had, however, rather less 
civil war than most of the Spanish Mestizo republics, and 
has executed one short railway from Lake Titicaca to the 
chief town La Paz, population 26,000. Chuquisaca, or 
Sucre, pop. 12,000, is the present seat of Government. 
BoHvia suffered severely by war with Chili, and consequent 
cession of sea-coast, 1885. 



.XIV.] URUGUAY. 277 



Sect. LXIV. PARAGUAY. 

688. Paraguay lies in the fork between the Paraguay 
and Parana rivers, and is thus bounded by Brazil on the 
East; by the Argentine Republic on the West and South. 
It is a low-lying country (compared with Bolivia or Peru), and 
produces sugar-cane, cotton^ tobacco, manioc, and, in particu- 
Lir, Paraguay tea. This consists of the leaves of a kind of 
holly, which are dried like tea, and an infusion of them 
drunk in many parts of South America ; though really a holly, 
the leaves contain theine. 

The population is mainly Indian, and in the Spanish 
days Paraguay was celebrated as the seat of Jesuit missions. 
The Jesuits collected the Indians in villages, taught them 
the forms of Roman Catholic Christianity, and induced them 
to work as agricultural labourers, the Jesuit missionary him- 
self, in fact, apportioning wages and food despotically. 

Since Paraguay has become independent of Spain it has 
had a Republic and dictators, and has suffered from oppres- 
sion and war to such an extent that the male population has 
been nearly swept away, in a war with Brazil in 1865 — 1870. 
Since, in spite of civil war, population has risen, and finances 
been set right. The capital, Asuncion, contains 22,000 
inhabitants. 



. Sect. LXV. URUGUAY. 

689. Uruguay is bounded on the West by the River 
Uruguay j on the North by Brazil ; on the East by the 
Atlantic ; on the South by the Atlantic. It is a low-level 
country, and thus, while lying considerably outside the tropic, 
produces sugar-cane, cotton, and rice. But the interior, which 
is more elevated, consists of open plains, affording excellent 
pasturage, and the chief wealth of Uruguay is in cattle. 

The capital is Monte Video, population 104,000. The in- 
habitants of Uruguay arc miiinly Mestizo. The government 



278 GEOGRAPHY. [sect, 

is a Republic ; the State has had wars, has consequently a 
large foreign debt ; and a forced paper currency at home, 
but nevertheless is in a better condition than most Spanish 
Republics, 



Sect. LXVI. LA PLATA. 

690. La Plata, called also the Argenti7ie Confederation, 
is bounded on the West by Chili ; on the North by Bolivia ; 
on the South by Patagonia ; on the East by Paraguay, 
Brazil, and Uruguay. Its physical boundary on the west is 
the crest of the Andes, on the east the rivers Paraguay, 
Parana, and Uruguay. 

La Plata is generally a plain ; the Andes have no great 
plateau next them on the eastern side, as they have north- 
wards in Bolivia and Peru. La Plata comprises more espe- 
cially the vast treeless plains called the Pampas, on which 
cattle and herds of wild horses roam in vast numbers. The 
exports are mainly wool hides and tallow. The climate be- 
ing temperate, many Italians and Englishmen have come as 
settlers. The climate is liable to prolonged droughts, and in 
the north of the State there is a large area called the Great 
Desert, one of the barrenest tracts in South America. 

The territory being i,ooo miles from north to south, con- 
tains a considerable variety of climate. While wheat and 
barley succeed well near Buenos Ayres, rice, sugai'-cane, and 
manioc 2lXQ grown in the northern provinces. 

Of railways 4,150 miles arc open for traffig, and 1,000 
other miles are approaching completion. 

The Andes of La Plata are rich in gold, silver, and copper^ 
but little mining is carried on. 

The population of La Plata is mainly Mestizo, but is said 
to contain more white blood than that of any other part of 
South America except Chili. 

The government has been, since the country has become 
independent of Spain, a republic, which means in Spanish 
America a succession of military dictators. The national 



LXVii.] CHILI. 279 

debt is heavy, ; there have been wars and government 
murders in abundance, but the condition of the country is 
now tolerable and improving. 

The capital, Buenos Ayres (Good Air), contains a popula- 
tion of 460,000 ; the port is poor, there are no trees, nor any 
fresh water, except what can be brought in carts from a dis- 
tance, but it is healthy. Mendoza, population 18,000, though 
so near the Andes, is less than 3,000 feet above the sea : we 
thus see that the Andes here is reduced to a narrow ridge, 
and such it continues to Cape Horn, 



Sect. LXVII. CHILL 

691. Chili is bounded by La Plata on the East, by Bolivia 
on the North, by the Pacific on the West, by Patagonia on 
the South. But Patagonia has no political existence, and 
west of the Andes is a territory of Chili. 

Chili is thus a strip of seaboard, whence the land rapidly 
rises to the Andes crest, which is its boundary inland. The 
climate is dry, and the country generally open, without 
forests. In the south there is heavy rain and dense forest. 
The highest mountain in America is the extinct volcano 
Aconagua, 22,422 feet high. There are many other high 
volcanic peaks in Chili, some active. Earthquakes are here 
common, as on the western edge of La Plata. 

The centre and south of Chili is an agricultural and grazing 
country : wheat, barley, and vineyards flourish ; large flocks 
and herds are kept. The north is almost a desert, but very 
rich in mineral treasure : silver, copper, lead, iron, antimony, 
arsejiic, and quicksilver. The government of Chili is such 
that capital can be embarked in the country, and Chili has 
been and is far the most successful of the Spanish colonies 
of America : extensive mining for copper and silver is 
worked. Many English, French, and Germans are colon- 
ists, or at least denizens of Chili. The principal exports 
are copper, wheat, silver, cotton and wool. Of railway 1,593 
miles are open. 



28o GEOGRAPHY. [sect. lxix. 

Chili fought a desperate and successful war against Peru 
and Bolivia in 1879 — 1880, ending in the annexation and 
occupation of valuable territories. 

The capital is Santiago, population 230,000 ; the chief port, 
Valparaiso, population 110,000. The island of Juan Fer- 
nandez lies opposite it, but 350 miles off ; on this island the 
sailor Alexander Selkirk was left : his adventures suggested 
the story of Robinson Crusoe. Chili has suffered little from 
internal convulsions, and is the most prosperous and solvent 
among the South American nations. 

Sect. LXVIII. PATAGONIA. 

692. Patagonia is bounded by La Plata on Xht North; the 
Atlantic on the East; the Andes on the West. It is a southern 
continuation of the Pampas. The ground rises from the sea 
westwards to the foot of the Andes, but so gradually that the 
country seems level. It is a bare and generally barren plain. 
Though in a temperate latitude, the climate, especially of the 
southern portion, is bleak, windy, rainy, and chilly. 

Patagonia contains no towns or civilised inhabitants. The 
plains contain herds of wild horses, and the savage Indians 
who thinly people Patagonia live almost on horseback. They 
are very ill-disposed towards the whites. They are of tall 
stature, but not giants, as once believed. 

Patagonia is a territory of the Argentine Republic. 

Sect. LXIX. THE FALKLAND ISLES. 

693. The Falkland Isles are occupied by a few settlers 
(chiefly from Buenos Ayres), whose business is to supply 
fresh provisions to ships coming round the Horn. They are 
recognised as a British colony. The islands abound in seals, 
and penguins, and are the home of tussack-grass. Sheep 
succeed well. There are no trees. There are large herds of 
cattle and horses (introduced). 



APPENDIX. 



Sect. LXX. ASTRONOMIC GEOGRAPHY. 

694.. That the earth is not flat we may prove directly, as 
follows : 



B 



A, B, C, is a straight line, on the shore of a lake or of the 
sea ; and at A, B, c (say a B = B c = two miles) we place 
sticks A a', b b', c c' of exactly the same length (say each 
5 feet) vertically. 

Observe, in passing, that our picture is drawn in a sense to scale, 
i.e. A B = B c, and A a' = B b' = c c'; but that the vertical and hori- 
zontal scales are quite different : were these the same, A B would be 
only about 35 feet. On the other hand, if A B represents two miles, and 
we had drawn A A' to the same scale, A a' would have been less than 
the point of a pin, and the figure would have been unintelligible. Figures 
of the above kind, /. e. employing separate horizontal and vertical scales, 
are therefore frequently employed by physical geographers and engineers. 

Now, if the surface of the still water were flat, ABC would 
be a right line, and therefore a' b' c' would be a right line ; 
And therefore if we placed an eye at a' we should see b' and 



282 APPENDIX. [SECT. 

c' in one right line. But, as a matter of fact, in the above 
arrangement (which has been often tried), the top of the 
stick c' is seen to be considerably below the line a' b'. 

Hence the surface of still water must really fall away, 
somewhat as in the annexed figure : 



By using a telescope at a' and a long stick at c, we may 
place a mark at E, the point which is exactly in a line with 
a' b'. We can then measure c E, and c' E = c E — 5 feet. 

In whatever part of the world we take the line A B c 
(a B = B c = two miles), and in whatever direction (whether 
north and south or east and west), we find c' E very nearly 
the same number of inches. We hence infer that the 
" curvature " of the earth is equal in every direction and at 
every point. That is, the earth must be a sphere, or very 
nearly a sphere. Further, from the number of inches in c' E 
we can calculate the size of the globe approximately. 

695. That the earth is a body of a shape more or less 
rounded, we know by travelling round in various directions 
without coming to any corner. Thus the Spaniard Magellan, 
first in A.D. 15 19, starting from Spain, sailed through the straits 
named after him (viz. the Straits of Magellan at the south 
end of America) to the Pacific Archipelago (the Philippines), 
and thence his ship returned round the Cape of Good Hope 
to Spain. 

So also now-a-days many an Englishman travels from Eng- 
land through the Red Sea to India ; and then proceeds to 
Japan, San Francisco and New York ; -and thence across the 
Atlantic home again to England. This however does not 



Lxx.] ASTRONOMIC GEOGRAPHY. 283 

tprove that the earth may not be egg-shaped ; and indeed, as 
•we shall see hereafter, it is not exactly spherical. 

696. E F is supposed to be a boy standing on the shore of 




H' 



the ocean, at the foot of a lighthouse of which L is the 
lantern, E is the boy's eye, and E B H'' therefore his horizon, 
which is a tangent to the surface of the water at B. At a few 
miles from the shore is a ship, the hull of which is H and the 
top of the mast M. 

It is clear that the boy may, in such a position of affairs, 
see the upper part of the mast and sails, but not see the hull 
at all. This is not because the hull has become indistinct by 
reason of the distance of the ship, for if the boy ascends the 
lighthouse, he can from the lantern, L, see the hull distinctly. 
The reason he cannot see the hull from the base of the light- 
house is because a portion of the curved surface of the water 
comes directly between his eye and that hull. 

This is often given as a proof that the earth is round. It 
really only proves that the earth (or rather the surface of the 
ocean) is not flat ; so far as the disappearance of the ship's 
hull goes, the phenomenon would occur if the earth's shape 
deviated very far from the spherical — were that of a hen's 
egg for instance. 

697. The following is a proof that the earth must be very 
nearly an exact sphere. 

A sphere is the only body in nature such that, from what- 



284 APPENDIX. [SECT. 

ever external point we observe it, it appears bounded by a 
circular outline. Now the boundary line of the earth always 
appears a circle ; from the deck of a ship, in whatever 
ocean it may be, the boundary line between the earth and 
sky appears a circle ; if we go up to a great height in a.^ 
balloon the boundary line appears only a larger circle. 

698. The earth is nearly a sphere, and of about 4000 
miles radius. Though not exactly spherical, it is so nearly 
spherical that for all the purposes of common geography we 
may take it to be a sphere. As the radius of the earth is so 
large, the highest mountains (being less than six miles high) 
do not appreciably affect its roundness ; on a school globe 
they would be only as grains of sand if their elevation was 
represented to scale. 

699. If we cut a sphere into two parts by any plane 
section, as for instance if we saw it into two pieces, equal 
or unequal, the boundary line of each piece will be a circle. 

If we make the section through the centre of the sphere, 
the circular boundary will be the largest possible, and is 
called a great circle of the sphere. All other circles on the 
sphere are called small circles. 

Having cut the sphere in half by a plane section through 
the centre, let us place one half on its flat face on a table. 
Then the highest point of this hemisphere is called a pole of 
the great circle that bounds it. Any great circle that sur- 
rounds a sphere has thus two poles. Any other great circle 
that goes through these two poles, will cut the first great 
circle at right angles ; and between the first great circle and 
each of its poles, will be 90° of the arc of any one of the 
great circles that passes through such poles. All great 
circles on the same sphere will be of equal size ; hence if 
any one of them is divided into 360° the length in inches 
of one degree will be the same. 

700. If we mark the path on the earth's surface over 
which the sun passes vertically on March 21st or September 
2 1 St, we shall find that path very nearly a great circle, the 
Equator. Its poles are the Poles of the Earth. If, a few 
days after March 2 1 st, we mark the course on the earth over 



Lxx.] ASTRONOMIC GEOGRAPHY. 2S5 

•which the sun passes vertically in 24 hours, we shall find 
it a circle very nearly parallel to the equator, and on the 
northern side of it. We shall find the path of the sun on 
the earth, over which he passes vertically, to be daily more 
northerly till the 21st of June; when the path (marked on 
the earth where he passes vertically) will be the line on the 
globe marked the Tropic of Cancer, which is a small circle 
parallel to the equator. The sun will then turn back south- 
wards ; whence the word tropic^ which means in Greek, that 
which relates to tm'ni7ig. The sun proceeds southwards, 
crosses the equator on the 21st of September, and afterwards 
is found vertically over points of the southern hemisphere. 
His path in the southern hemisphere is indeed very nearly 
similar to that which he has described in the northern ; and 
on the 2 1st of December, the path marked on the earth 
where he passes vertically will be the line on the globe 
marked the Tropic of Capricorn. This will be seen to be 
another small circle parallel to the equator, and at the same 
distance from it on the southern side that the tropic of 
Cancer is on the northern. At this tropic of Capricorn, the 
sun turns again towards the equator : /. e. he alters his motion 
from southwards to northwards, and gets back vertically to 
the equator again on the 2ist of March. The next year he 
executes a similar motion to that just described. 

701. The sun does not move uniformly northward ; after 
the 2 1 St of March his northward daily motion diminishes 
steadily, so that as he approaches the tropic of Cancer his 
daily motion northwards becomes less and less, till at the 
tropic itself it becomes nothing. Hence the sun spends 
many days near the tropic of Cancer, and similarly many 
days near the tropic of Capricorn ; but much fewer days 
near the equator, as his motion when crossing the equator 
southward or northward is more rapid than his southward 
or northward motion at any other time. 

702. The cause of these phenomena (which can be merely 
stated here) is that, subject to secular variations (/. e. varia- 
tions of such a slow character that it is only in ages of time 
they produce a sensible effect) the earth revolves uniformly 



286 APPENDIX. [SECT. 

on the axis joining its poles; its centre simultaneously 
revolves (in a circle nearly) round the sun in the plane oi 
the ecHptic ; the earth's axis remaining parallel to itself at 
an angle of 23° 28' from the pole of the ecliptic. 

703. We have seen, § 700, that the sun passes vertically 
twice each year over every spot of the globe that lies be- 
tween the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. The part of the 
globe included between these lines is called the Torrid Zone 
(zone meaning belt), or very often, shortly, the Tropics. It 
is called torrid because it is hotter than other parts of the 
world in which the sun is never vertical. The torrid zone is 
nearly uniformly hot, that is, the part under the equator is 
little hotter than Calcutta ; for though the sun is on the 
whole more oblique at Calcutta than at the equator, and 
though he passes vertically over the equator twice a year, 
and over Calcutta only at one season, yet we have seen that 
he passes much more rapidly over the equator. So that on 
the whole there is no regular and considerable diminution 
of heat ivithin the tropics as we proceed away from the 
equator : there are local variations of temperature. 

704.. In the temperate zones there is in general a gradual 
diminution of heat as we recede from the Tropic towards 
the Pole ; the reason of which we proceed to explain. 



Lxx.] ASTRONOMIC GEOGRAPHY. 287 

The earth is^ in this figure, supposed to be cut by a plane 
section through the poles and centre, O ; so that all the 
points A, F, E, lie on one meridian of longitude. 

O S is the direction of the sun, which is always vertically 

- over some spot or other within the tropics. Therefore F, this 

point, must lie between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn ; 

and as the sun is vertical there it is noon {midday^ Latin, 

vtcTidies) at F. 

-Vlso it must be noon at every other point on the same meridian, as 
at A, For as the sun's daily path is very nearly parallel to the equator, 
it is at right angles to the plane of the paper. Drawing o A, and pro- 
ducing it to z, A z will be the vertical line at A. So that when the sun 
moves from the vertical over F, it must increase its angular distance 
from A z. And noon is that hour when the sun is nearest the vertical 
at any place. 

Now, as we go farther from the equator, outside the tropics^ 
the angular distance of the sun from the vertical at noon 
always increases. Thus, drawing A s', B s" parallel to O F S 
(since the sun is very distant these lines are very nearly 
parallel), we see that the angle z' B s" is greater than z a s'. 
That is, on any given day, the sun is lower at noon outside 
the tropics, according as the latitude of the place is higher. 
Thus, on every day in the year the sun at noon is higher at 
Paris than at London, higher at London than at Edinburgh. 
The lower the sun is from the vertical the less heat we feel 
from him. Delhi and Iceland are both in the temperate 
zone ; though the climate of one is tropical, of the other 
arctic. 

705. The regular diminution of average temperature in 
the temperate zones as we proceed further from the equator 
is a point of first-rate importance ; as the relative value of 
different countries depends thereon, and their different cir- 
cumstances can be explained thereby. The whole of the 
arctic zones (and a considerable portion of the temperate 
zones adjacent to them) is of little importance to man, corn 
cannot there be grown, and only a scanty population can be 
sustained by fishing or hunting. 

Thus Siberia appears to occupy a large part of Asia ; but 



288 APPENDIX. [SL,. 

we need pay little attention to Siberia, as there is hardly any 
corn grown there, and it is very sparsely populated. So 
Greenland looks a large island, bigger than Borneo even ; 
but it is nearly uninhabited and desolate, and we do not 
reckon it among the important islands of the globe. So in 
North America, British North America looks larger than the 
United States ; but it is less valuable or important, because 
only the southern borders of British North America are 
warm enough to grow corn ; while almost the whole of the 
United States can grow corn. Patagonia, the southern- 
most province of South America, is a very desolate wintry 
country. 

706. At any particular spot it is found that the temper- 
ature falls if we ascend, either in a balloon or up the side of 
a steep mountain. In England corn can hardly be grown 
at looo feet above the sea, and in the height of summer there 
are patches of snow in Scotland at little over 4000 feet 
altitude. In the tropics we find, on the same mountain, 
palms near the base, oaks at 5000 feet above the sea, pines 
at 10,000 feet above the sea, snow at 20,000 feet above the 
sea. There also occur in the tropics (as in Mexico, Queens- 
land, Madagascar) extensive table-lands where the general 
level is 5000 — 8000 feet above the sea, and the climate is 
temperate. 

707. Climate is affected by the length of the day. At 
any point in the earth's surface the day is as much longer 
than the night in summer, as the night is longer than the day 
in winter ; so that everywhere in the world the people get 
six months altogether of sunlight in the year, and six months 
without sun. But the difference between the length of the 
day and night on June 21st increases continually with the 
latitude outside the tropic. Thus, at Delhi, the day is then 
about 14 hours long ; at Constantinople, more than 15 ; at 
London, 16^ ; in the north of Scotland, 19^ ; in the south of 
Iceland, 23. This extreme length of the day is caused by 
the sun keeping all day very low, with his course very 
oblique ; he rises not far east of the north, skirts the horizon 
all round for so long a day, and then sets as far west of 



LXX.] 



ASTRONOMIC GEOGRAPHY 



2B9 



north as he rose east. During the short night he goes such 
a little way beneath the horizon, that it is twilight all night. 



v,^^ — ^ — jpS. 




Sou/JiJPole 



Let us consider, by the aid of the above figure, what 
happens at the arctic circle on December 21st. The sun 
is then vertically above the tropic of Capricorn, so that o c s 
is the directfon in which his light comes. As we have seen, 
he is so distant that his light reaches every point in the earth 
in parallel lines. Now, since the angle A o P is constructed 
23° 28' = angle E o c, A O C is a right angle ; hence at noon, 
when the sun is vertically over C, his rays only just reach A. 
Consequently at A on December 21st, the sun docs not rise 
at all ; half his disc would be just seen at noon. We should 
have therefore at A, one night of 24 hours on December 21st ; 
and we similarly see that we should have one day of 24 hours 
on June 21st. 

Consider next the appearances at Q, a point within the 
arctic circle farther north than A. Here it is clear the sun 
would not rise on December 31st, nor on any succeeding 

U 



29© APPENDIX. [sect. 

day, until in his return to the equator from the tropic of 
Capricorn, he had come vertically over R, a point such that 
the angle C O R = the angle A o Q. Suppose the sun would 
get back from the tropic to R on January the 30th. Then we 
see that at Q, there would be a winter night of seventy-eight 
days, viz. from November 12th to January 30th; that then 
there would be day and night (the days at first very short, 
but getting longer and finally very long) up to May 12th : that 
then there would be one long day from May 12th to July 
30th ; and then day and night again to November 12th. 

At the pole itself there is one day of six months, then one 
night of six months in the year. 

708. Since the circumference of the globe is about 2 5,.ooo 
miles, one degree of any great circle contains nearly 70 
miles ; and one minute (of angular measure) contains nearly 
i^ English mile. This distance is called a knot, or a 
geographical mile. 

Every meridian of longitude is a great circle ; conse- 
quently, every degree of latitude measured along its arc 
should contain nearly 70 miles. On measuring degrees in 
this way it is found that they all are very nearly 70 miles, 
but are not exactly equal in different parts of the world. If 
the globe were an exact sphere, the length of an arc of one 
degree on the meridian would l)e found to be always the 
same. From the different lengths of the arcs of one degree 
on the meridian, as actually measured in Madras, France, 
Ireland, Sweden, &c., mathematicians calculate the exact 
form of the globe. It turns out to be very nearly a perfect 
sphere, but a little flattened at the poles ; the polar diameter 
being 7899'i miles, any equatorial diameter is 7925*6 miles ; 
and the earth has other minor inequalities of form besides 
mountains, &c. The exact calculation of the shape of the 
earth is a branch of mathematics called geodesy, which we 
pursue no further here. The measurement of an " arc of one . 
degree on the meridian " is the fundamental operation on 
which hang all the subsequent calculations. The angular 
length of the arc measured is determined astronomically as 
follows : 



l.XX.] 



ASTRONOMIC CEOGRAPHY. 



291 



The figure represents a plane section of the earth through 
the centre and poles, so that the stations a and B are on the 



WortJiPole 




South f*ule 



same meridian ; and when a fixed star, S, is on the meridian 
of A it is also on the meridian at B. 

A z, B z' are vertical lines at a and B respectively. 

The fixed star s is very much more distant than the sun, 
so that A s and B s', the directions in which observers at 
A and B see the fixed star, are exactly parallel. 

The observer at a observes when the star is on his 
meridian the distance it is from the vertical, that is the 
angle s A z. And at the same time the observer at b 
observes the distance the same star is from his vertical, 
that is the angle s' b z'. 

Hence the angle boa, which is equal to the difference 
between the angles z' b s' and z b s, is known. Suppose it 
is 2° 21'. The distance A B is measured in miles ; suppose 
it is 161^ miles. Then we find the length of an arc of one 
degree of the meridian by Rule of Three, thus : 



As 2° 21' 



[6ii 



miles 
697. 



292 APPENDIX. [sect. 

And as the whole circumference is 360°, we have also by 
Rule of Three, 

miles miles 

As 2° 21' : i6i| : : 360° : 24,718. 

Also in this way the Greeks, before the Christian era. 
calculated the size of the globe. 

709. Since the equatorial and polar diameters of the earth 
are so nearly equal, the length in miles of the equator is 
nearly equal to that of any meridian circle. Hence the 
length of one degree of longitude measured along the 
equator is nearly equal to that of an arc of one degree on 
the meridian — /. e. it is nearly 70 miles. 

But it is at once seen that the meridians of longitude come 
more nearly together as we proceed from the equator, till at 
the poles they all unite. Hence, one degree of longitude 
will have any length from o up to 70 miles, according to the 
latitude of the place. Thus, in latitude 60° (north or south 
alike) the length of one degree of longitude will be found 
exactly half that at the equator — i. e. will be nearly 35 miles. 

We have shown that noon occurs at the same instant at 
all places on the same meridian of longitude. Thus, the 
time of day is very nearly the same at the Cape of Good 
Hope and at Vienna or Stockholm ; for though the Cape of 
Good Hope is very distant from those European capitals, it 
has nearly the same longitude. 

The sun travels uniformly round the earth in 24 hours 
along one of our parallels of latitude each day : so that his 
course, as traced on the earth's surface beneath him, is a 
circle. Hence, as he performs 360° in 24 hours, he performs 
15° in one hour, and 1° in four minutes. 

In globes, the meridians of longitude are commonly 
drawn 1 5" apart ; such are called hour-circles, because the 
sun is one hour later in crossing each of these meridians. 

710. We can now, having given the time of day at one 
place, find the time of day at any other place : the longitudes 
being supposed known. We take some examples. 

Ex. I. — What is the difference of time between London 
and Dublin ; the longitude of Dublin being given 6' 16' 1 



Lxx.] ASTRONOMIC GEOGRAPHY. 293 

min. min. sec. 

As 1° : 4 •• : 6° i6' : 25 4. 

Hence we see in Bradshaw that the Irish mail takes 10 
hrs. 25 min. from London to Dubhn, but 11 hrs. 15 min. 
from Dublin to London ; in other words, the journey either 
way occupies the same time, viz. 10 hrs. 50 min. ; but the 
times of arrival and departure at Dublin are given in Brad- 
shaw in Irish (/. e. Dublin) time. In the same way, a 
telegraph despatched from London at 5 minutes past one 
? may possibly be delivered in Dublin before one. 
X In a country of moderate size like England, it is most 
;; convenient for all the clocks to keep Greenwich time ; Green- 
wich being the Observatory of London. In a large country, 
as the United States, this is not possible, as the local clocks 
would be in some places two hours wrong by the day. 

Ex. 2. — Find the time at Calcutta when it is 6 o'clock in 
the morning at New York. 



Longitude of Calcutta 

, , New York ... 


= 88° 2/ East. 
= 73° 58' Wet. 


Difference of Longitude 


= 162° -2^ 


m. 
,*. As i" : 4 : : 162° 25' 


h. m. s. 
: 10 49 40 



Therefore, when it is 6 o'clock in the morning at New 
York, it is 4 hrs. 49 m.in. 10 sec. in the afternoon at Calcutta. 

Ex. 3. — By telegraphing to Greenwich, it is found that the 
clocks at New York are always 4 hrs. 55 min. 52 sec. slower 
then the clocks at Greenwich. What is the true longitude 
of New York? 

As the sun travels from east to west, New York must be 
west of Greenwich, that the time there may be behind that 
of Greenwich. And 

m. h. m. s. 

As 4 : 1° : : 4 55 53 : 73° 58' 

Therefore New York is 73° 58' west of Greenwich. 

This leads us to consider the time on the meridian 180' 



294 



APPENDIX. 



[sect. 



(east or west) from Greenwich. We see at once that it is 
12 hours different from Greenwich. Suppose now that at 
Greenwich it is 12 o'clock at night on December 31st, 1888, 
it is then 12 o'clock day on the 180° meridian. But what 
day? If we go round to the 180° parallel by way of India 
and Australia, it will be noon of January ist, 1889; but if 
we go round by way of New York and California, it will be 
noon of December 31st, 1888. 

Hence we see that in going round the world, the traveller 
gains or loses a day. When ships cross the meridian 180° 
they either drop or add one day — dropping a day if they go 
round from west to east ; adding a day {i. e. reckoning two 
successive days as Monday, December 31st, for instance) if 
they cross the meridian of 180° from east to west, on that 
day. 

We see now why it is convenient that the 180° meridian 
shall go down the middle of the Pacific Ocean. For on 
board a ship it is not very inconvenient to add or drop a day. 
But the inconvenience on land is very great. Thus at the 
town of Sitka, in Alaska, the Russians who have arrived 
across Asia find their Sunday to be reckoned Saturday by 
the Americans who have arrived from the United States. 

711. To find the latitude of any station. 



Fo7f SloT' 



I*^ 



ap 




LXX.] ASTRONOMIC GEOGRAPHY. 295 

In this figure the plane of the paper is the meridian circle 
passing through the poles and A, the station of which the 
latitude is required. 
I" Over the north pole is the pole star, which is so distant 
^- that it is seen in the same direction from every point on the 
earth's surface, so that the observer at A sees it in the 
direction A p'. The observer at A measures the angle 
between O A z (a vertical line at A) and the pole star ; /. e. he 
measures the angle p' A z, which is equal to P o A. Now, 
the latitude of A is the angle E O A, which is = 90° — the 
observed angle P o A, and is therefore known. 

712. To find the longitude of any station. 
1 Suppose the observer carries with him a very good watch 
(called a chronometer) that keeps Greenwich time. He 
observes the time by this watch when it is noon in the 
station, and at once finds the longitude of the station, as in 
§ 710 above. 

Thus, I find that when it is noon at my station, it is 
6.30 A.M. at Greenwich. What is my longitude.'* 

h. h. 

As I : 15° : : 55 : 82° 30' 

Therefore I am somewhere on the meridian of 82° 30' E. ; 
I may be near Allahabad, or off the east coast of Ceylon. 

It is difficult to get a chronometer that is quite trust- 
worthy ; and hence (though there were other astronomical 
ways of finding the Greenwich time at any station), till of 
late years we did not know with extreme exactness the longi- 
tudes of distant places. Now, however, the time at Greenwich 
may be telegraphed to New York or Bombay in a fraction of 
a second, and the longitudes of all places connected by 
telegraph are now known with extreme accuracy. 



296 APPENDIX. [SECT 



Sect. LXXI. CHARTOGRAPHY. 

713. On a globe the countries of the earth may be per- 
fectly represented by the following process : 

On the globe are first drawn the lines of latitude and 
longitude ; then Calcutta, New York, and every other point 
of which the latitude and longitude have been observed, can 
be laid down on such a globe. The position of places of 
which the latitude is not known (as of some towns in the 
centre of Asia) can only be laid down approximately. In 
countries where the latitude and longitude of the principal 
towns or mountains are known, the position of any other 
points can be determined by actual measurement with the 
chain and theodolite. This is essentially the process cf the 
construction of a school globe. As English ships have 
observed the latitude and longitude of the coasts of nearly 
all countries and islands, these are in general very accurately 
laid down by geographers : the interiors of the great conti- 
nents of Asia, Africa, and Australia are less correctly laid 
down. 

We observe that the outlines of a country c^^n be perfectly 
laid down on a globe. But a globe is a troublesome thing to 
carry about ; it is difficult to construct on a large scale ; and 
we use maps in which either the whole or part of the earth's 
surface is represented in outline on a flat surface. 

Where a small part of the earth's surface is represented 
on a map, as in the case of a map of one village, the curva- 
ture of the earth's surface is not very troublesome. And if 
from a large globe we cut off the paper which has England 
drawn on it, we can squeeze this piece of paper flat without 
tearing it or crumpling it very much. But if we cut half the 
paper off a globe and endeavour to squeeze it flat, so as to 
construct a flat map of the hemisphere therefrom, we shall 
find it impossible to do this without excessive tearing or 
distortion. 

As no part of the globe, however small, is perfectly flat, all 



1 XXI.] 



CHARTOGRAPHY. 



297 



our maps are more or less distorted : the globe is perfect : 
all maps are imperfect. In any school map of Asia it can 
easily be seen that the circles of latitude are not parallel, as 
they are in nature and on the globe. The construction of 
maps with the smallest distortion is a very abstruse branch 
of mathematics : and little more will be attempted in this 
book than to guard the student from the erroneous conclu- 
sions he often is found to draw from our necessarily imper- 
fect maps. In the maps of countries the distortion is com- 
paratively small ; but in the case of maps of continents or of 
a hemisphere it is so large that special " projections " are 
necessary. 

714-. The world is usually shown in hemispheres. We 
might cut a globe in half, so as to have the eastern hemisphere 
on one half, the western on the other half; then place the 
eastern hemisphere on a level table ; then let fall perpen- 
diculars from every point on the hemisphere on the table ; 
and thus draw on the flat table a map. But this would be 
frightfully distorted. 




For in the above figure the actual distances on the globe 
from 0° to 10°, from 10° to 20°, from 80° to 90°, are all equal, 
each being nearly 700 miles ; but we easily see by the eye 
that their " projections " on the map on the table are very 
unequal : the distance from 80° to 90° will be nearly 700 
miles, the distance from 30° to 40° hardly half so much, and 
the distance froni 0° to 10° hardly anything ; so that those 



298 



APPENDIX. 



[sect. 



countries on our globe near the point marked 90° will be 
fairly represented, while those near the edges of the hemi- 
sphere will almost disappear altogether. This kind of pro- 
jection is therefore never used, but by a little change in the 
plan the maps of hemispheres are constructed ; as follows : 



«©• ^ 




The hemisphere is placed on the table as before, and a 
point, E, is taken below its centre, C, such that c E = f its 
radius. The point E is then joined by right lines with each 
point on the hemisphere, and where the line cuts the table 
the corresponding point is there placed on the map. In the 
figure we have only (as before) shown the projections of 
meridians 10 degrees apart ; for it is clear that if the meridian 
circles are projected into our map with very little distortion, 
so will also be the outlines of countries drawn with reference 
to them. 

Now, it can be shown by numerical calculations, as well 



ixxi.] CHARTOGRAPHY. 299 

as is practically found to be the case, that if C E is taken 
(as proposed) |- the radius, the distances between o F', f' g', 
g' h', n' c, will be all nearly equal. 

Maps of the world in hemispheres have to be constructed 
on this laborious plan, and the result is not a perfect map ; 
some countries are represented a little too small in com- 
parison with the rest, and some a little too large ; but the 
general result is so good as not to seriously mislead the 
student. 

715. Mercator's projection is a very valuable kind of map 
for use in navigation, and for some other purposes ; but as 
the distortion it produces is without limit, schoolboys draw 
most mistaken conclusions from it. 

To construct this map, we first draw all the meridians 
equidistant and parallel. It has been pointed out that 
meridians are not parallel, and that in the latitude 60° they 
are only half as far apart as at the equator. If, therefore, on 
these meridians we drew the parallels of latitude at equal 
distances, we should have countries near the 60° parallel of 
latitude represented their proper length from north to south, 
but double their true breadth -from east to west. Such a 
distortion would render any map useless. Mercator there- 
fore distorts his parallels of latitude in proportion to the 
distortion of the meridians. Thus, one degree of latitude in 
the parallel of 60° is drawn in Mercator' s projection double 
the length of one degree at the equator ; though its real 
length is always the same, about 70 miles. 

It must be observed that Mercator cannot extend his map 
to include the whole of the frigid zones, because the distor- 
tion increases without Iwiit as we approach the poles. For 
at»the pole one degree of longitude measures nothing; 
hence, to maintain Mercator's proportionate distortion, his 
parallel of latitude 90° would have to be drawn altogether 
at an infinite distance ; so Mercator's projections stop some- 
where between 70° and 80° of latitude, and fade off into 
obscurity. By this proportionate distortion, the countries on 
Mercator's projection keep tolerably nearly their shape, but 
their size is enormously increased as we proceed from the 



300 APPENDIX. [SECT. 

equator ; an island about latitude 60°, like Iceland, is de- 
picted twice as long and twice as broad {i.e. four times as 
large) as the same island would appear drawn on the same 
map near the equator. As we proceed further north the 
exaggeration of the size increases rapidly further still ; so 
that the north end of Greenland is drawn on Mercator's 
projection larger than all India. 

The student must always recollect, in using Mercator's 
projection, that it is not a map drawn to a uniform scale. 

An additional inconvenience with Mercator's projection is 
that the valuable portions of the earth's surface, the torrid 
and warm temperate portions, are crowded into a small 
space; while the frigid zones, and the parts adjoining, 
Siberia, Iceland, Greenland, and other worthless and un- 
important countries, are shown with great prominence, 
occupying a large part of the whole area of the map. 

716. For smaller portions of the earth's surface, as for a 
map of Europe or of India, a conical projection is more fre- 
quently employed. If we take a piece of paper from the surface 
of a sphere, it cannot be spread flat without crumpling or 
tearing ; but a piece of paper of any size taken from the 
surface of a cone can be spread flat (by unrolling) without 
tearing or crumpling. Now, when a small portion of the 
earth's surface only is taken into account, as India, we may 
find the size, shape, and position of a cone such that a 
portion of the surface of the cone shall very nearly coincide 
M'ith the small portion of the sphere's surface ; and we may 
suppose India drawn on the cone instead of on the sphere ; 
then we may suppose the paper unwrapped from the cone, 
and we have at once a flat map of India. But the calcula- 
tions for, and practical carrying out of, such a conical pro- 
jection are very troublesome. Other projections are employed 
by geographers for special purposes. 

717. The imperfections of our projections, except in the 
case of Mercator's projection, do not seriously mislead us. 
But our ordinary maps have a serious imperfection in that 
they do not generally show us, except very imperfectly and 
indirectly, the elevation of the land above the sea at each 



Lxxr.] CHARTOGRAPHY. 301 

point of its area. To know more or less roughly, even, the 
elevation of a district above the sea, and to conceive clearly 
the structure of its mountains, are of more importance in 
teaching us the political value, climate, and capabilities of 
such a district, than to know very accurately its shape. 

Our ordinary maps represent mountains generally by 
shaded bands, supposed to follow the course of the axis 
of the chain. Thus, in a common map of India, we see the 
Western Ghats as a long dark line close to the west coast of 
the peninsula, and the Eastern Ghats as a long less dark 
line near the east coast. We might therefore suppose a 
vertical section of the peninsula from west to east, from the 
Indian Ocean to the Bay of Bengal, to be somewhat as 
under : 



TntliaTV A A BayitP 

Or ran — ' ^ / \ ,^.^^ £enqci* 

^V TVPslern Eastern E 

Chats Chatjt 



Now, in fact, simple ranges of mountains of the kind here 
imagined are comparatively rare in nature ; the commonest 
kind of mountain range is that which has one side steep, the 
other side sloping, so that a true section of the peninsula of 
India is really somewhat as under : 



Tier fern Cf/tata 



J^nstem Gihats 



.Bae/o/' 






That this is really the nature of the country we may infer 
by noticing that the rivers all rise close to the Western Ghat 
and flow thence to the Bay of Bengal. The Eastern Ghat is 
a mountain or big hill, which we have to ascend from the 
plains on the eastern side of it, but when we have got to the 



302 APPENDIX. [sect, lxxi.t 

top of the Ghats we find ourselves on a table-land, or plateau.; 
still ascending gradually westward. 

In the same way, if we make a section northwards from-l 
Calcutta to the Arctic Ocean we shall find it somewhat as ; 
under ; 



[In this diagram the student will recollect that the vertical 
scale is exaggerated, and may be 5 miles to an inch, while 
the horizontal is perhaps 500 miles to an inch. Were it 
not so exaggerated the Himalaya even would be undistin- 
guishable.] 

Various methods of shading maps have been invented in 
order that from a flat map it may be possible to infer accur- 
ately and readily the height of each point of the area above 
sea-level. None of these gives nearly so good an idea as a 
model ; one of the best is '' contour lines." On this plan one 
line is drawn over the whole map, passing through all points 
having 500 feet elevation above the sea ; another line through 
all points having 1000 feet elevation above the sea ; another 
at the 1 500 feet level, and so on. We can thus say at once 
of a certain point what its height above sea-level is to within 
500 feet, and by practice we may gain some notion of the 
physical aspect of the country by a very rapid glance at a 
good contour-line map. 

Ordinary maps do not give us this assistance, and their 
shading shows us mountains, at points of the Altai moun- 
tains for instance, which are thousands of feet lower than 
parts of Tibet, where there is no shading. Our best aid in 
understanding the real structure of continents and countries 
from such maps is to follow out the lines we can draw without 
cutting any rivers ; — the waterpartings [p. 2]. 



SUBJECTS FOR MATRICULATION 

IN THE 

INDIAN UNIVERSITIES. 



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Rev. J. B, LOCK, M.A. Third Edition, revised. Globe 
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3 



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The following List of Volumes is contemplated : — 

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GEOGRAPHY OF THE BRITISH COLONIES. By 

G. M. DAWSON and A. SUTHERLAND. 
GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE. By James Sime, M.A. 

[In the press. 

GEOGRAPHY OF NORTH AMERICA. By Prof. N. 
S. SHAYLER. 

GEOGRAPHY OF ASIA. 

GEOGRAPHY OF AFRICA. 

GEOGRAPHY OF THE OCEANS AND OCEANIC 

ISLANDS. 
ADVANCED CLASS-BOOK OF THE GEOGRAPHY 

OF BRITAIN. 
GEOGRAPHY OF AUSTRALIA AND NEW 

ZEALAND. 
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[/« the press. 

ADVANCED CLASS BOOK OF THE GEOGRAPHY OF 
EUROPE. ■ 

MACMILLAN AND CO., LONDON. 

6 



September t 1889 

A Catalogue 

OF 

Educational Books 



PUBLISHED BY 



Macmillan & Co. 

Bedford Street, Strand, London. 



CONTENTS. 



classics- 
Elementary Classics .••••.^* 

Classical Series , 

Classical Library, (i) Text (2) Translations . . 
Grammar, Composition, a.nd Philology .... 
Antiquities, Ancient History, and Philosophy 



mathematics- 
Arithmetic AND Mensuration . , , , 

Algebra 

Euclid, and Elementary Geometry 

Trigonometry , 

Higher Mathematics .......< 



science- 
Natural Philosophy 

Astronomy , 

Chemistry 

Biology 

Medicine 

Anthropology 

Physical Geography and Geology 

Agriculture 

Political Economy 

Mental and Moral pHitx>soPHY 

GEOGRAPHY 

Macmillan's Geographical Series 

HISTORY 

IiAW 

MODERN LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE— 

English 

French 

German 

Modern Greek 

Italian 

Spanish 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

ART AND KINDRED SUBJECTS 

W^ORKS ON TEACHING 

DIVINITY. ..f '. 



29 AND 30, Bedford Street, Covent Garden, 
London, W.C, Sef timber, 1889 



CLASSICS. 

ELEMENTARY CLASSICS. 

l8mo, Eighteenpence each. 



'ItHis Series falls into two Classes^- 

(i) First Reading Books for Beginners, provided not 
'Only with Introductions and Notes, but with 
NVocabularies, and in some cases with Exercises 
based upon the Text. 

(2) Stepping-stones to the study of particular authors, 
i intended for more advanced students who are beginning 
to read such authors as Terence, Plato, the Attic Dramatists, 
and the harder parts of Cicero, Horace, Virgil, and 
Thucydides. 

These are provided with Introductions and Notes, but 
mo Vocabulary. The Pubhshers have been led to pro- 
vide the more strictly Elementary Books with Vocabularies 
'by the representations of many teachers, who hold that be- 
ginners do not understand the use of a Dictionary, and of 
others who, in the case of middle-class schools where the 
cost of books is a serious consideration, advocate the 
Vocabulary system on grounds of economy. It is hoped 
that the two parts of the Series, fitting into one another, 
'may together fulfil all the requirements of Elementary and 
Preparatory Schools, and the Lower Forms of Public 
Schools. 



4 MACMILLAN'S EDUCATIONAL CATALOGUE. 

The following Elementary Books, with Introductioi 
Notes, and Vocabularies, and in some cases w 
Exercises, are either ready or in preparation ; — 



Aeschylus.— PROMETHEUS VINCTUS. Edited by Rev. 

M. Stephenson, M.A. 
Arrian.— SELECTIONS. Edited for the use of Schools, v, 

Introduction, Notes, Vocabulary, and Exercises, by Rev. Jo 

Bond, M.A., and A. S. Walpole, M.A. 
AuluS Gellius, Stories from. Being Selections s 

Adaptations from the Nodes Atticae. Edited, with Exercises 

the use of Lower Forms, by Rev. G. H. Nall, M.A., Assist; 

Master in Westminster School. 
Caesar.— THE HELVETIAN WAR. Being Selections fr 

Book I. of the " De Bello Gallico." Adapted for the use 

Beginners. With Notes, Exercises, and Vocabulary, by 

Welch, M.A., and C. G. Duffield, M.A. 
THE INVASION OF BRITAIN. Being Selections from Bo( 

IV. and V. of the " De Bello Gallico." Adapted for the use 

Beginners. With Notes, Vocabulary, and Exercises, by 

Welch, M.A., and C. G. Duffield, M.A. 
THE GALLIC WAR. BOOK I. Edited by A. S. Walpoi 

M.A. 
THE GALLIC WAR. BOOKS IL and IIL Edited by 1 

Rev. W. G. Rutherford, M.A., LL.D., Head-Master of We 

minster. 
THE GALLIC WAR. BOOK IV. Edited by Clement Bryai 

M.A., Assistant-Master at Dulwich College. 
THE GALLIC WAR. SCENES FROM BOOKS V. and \ 

Edited by C. Colbeck, M.A., Assistant-Master at Harro' 

formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
THE GALLIC WAR. BOOKS V. and VI. (separately). 

the same Editor. Book V. ready. Book VI. in preparation. 
THE GALLIC WAR. BOOK VII. Edited by Rev. Joi 

Bond, M.A., and A. S. Walpole, M.A. 
Cicero.— DE SENECTUTE. Edited by E. S. Shuckburg 

M.A., late Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 
DE AMICITIA. By the same Editor. 
STORIES OF ROMAN HISTORY. Adapted for the Use 

Beginners. With Notes, Vocabulary, and Exercises, by the R( 

G. E. Jeans, M.A., P'ellow of Hertford College, Oxford, a 

A. V. Jones, M.A. ; Assistant-Masters at Haileybury College. 
EutropiuS. — Adapted for the Use of Beginners. With Not< 

Vocabulary, and Exercises, by William Welch, M.A., and 

G. Duffield, M.A., Assistant-Masters at Surrey County Scho« 

Cranleigh. 
Homer. — ILIAD. BOOK t. Edited by Rev. John Bond, M./ 

and A. S. Walpole. M.A. 



ELEMENTARY CLASSICS. 5 

[iomer iltad. bookxviil the armsofachilles. 

Edited by S. R. James, M. A., Assistant-Master at Eton College. 
ODYSSEY. BOOK I. Edited by Rev. John Bond, M.A. and 

A. S. Walpole, M.A. 
i Horace. — ODES. BOOKS L— IV. Edited by T. E. Page, M.A., 

late Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge ; Assistant-Master 
r at the Charterhouse. Each is. 6d. 

Latin Accidence and Exercises Arranged for Be- 

^ GINNERS. By William Welch, M.A., and C. G. Duffield, 

M.A., Assistant Masters at Surrey County School, Cranleigh. 
L.ivy. — BOOK I. Edited by H. M. Stephenson, M.A., late 
I lead Master of St. Peter's School, York. 
BOOKS XXI. and XXII. (separately), with Notes adapted 
from Mr. Capes' Edition, for the use of junior students, and with 
Vocabularies by J. E. Melhuish, M.A., Assistant- Master in St. 
Paul's School. [In the press. 

THP: HANNIBALIAN war. Being part of the XXI. and 
XXII. BOOKS OF LIVY, adapted for the use of beginners, 
by G. C. Macaulay, M.A., late Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. 
THE SIEGE OF SYRACUSE. Being part of the XXIV. and 
XXV. BOOKS OF LIVY, adapted for the use of beginners. 
With Notes, Vocabulary, and Exercises, by George Richards, 
M.A., and A. S. Walpole, M.A. 
LEGENDS OF EARLY ROME. Adapted for the use of begin- 
ners. With Notes, Exercises, and Vocabulary, by Herbert 
Wilkinson, M.A. \_In preparation. 

ILucian. — EXTRACTS FROM LUC IAN. Edited, with Notes, 
Exercises, and Vocabulary, by Rev. John Bond, M.A., and 
A. S. Walpole, M.A. 
rNepOS.— SELECTIONS ILLUSTRATIVE OF GREEK AND 
ROMAN HISTORY. Edited for the use of beginners with 
Notes, Vocabulary and Exercises, by G. S. Farnell, M.A. 
COvid. — SELECTIONS. Edited by E. S. Shuckburgh, M.A. 
late Fellow and Assistant-Tutor of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 
EASY SELECTIONS FROM OVID IN ELEGIAC VERSE. 
Arranged for the use of Beginners with Notes, Vocabulary, and 
Exercises, by Herbert Wilkinson, M.A. 
STORIES FROM THE METAMORPHOSES. Edited for the 
Use of Schools. With Notes, Exercises, and Vocabulary. By 
J. Bond, M.A., and A. S. Walpole, M.A. 

IPhaedruS.— SELECT FABLES. Adapted for the Use of Be- 
ginners. With Notes, Exercises, and Vocabularies, by A. S. 
Walpole, M.A. 

'Thucydides.— THE RISE OF THE ATHENIAN EMPIRE. 
BOOK L cc. LXXXIX. — CXVIL and CXXVIII. — 
CXXXVIII. Edited with Notes, Vocabulary and Exercises, by F. 
H. CoLSON, M.A., Senior Classical Master at Bradford Grammar 
School ; Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. 



6 MACMILLAN'S EDUCATIONAL CATALOGUE. { 

Virgil.— ^NEID. BOOK I. Edited by A. S. Walpole, U.A ]'' 
yENEID. BOOK II. Edited by T. E. Page, M.A., Assistan ;| 

Master at the Charterhouse. '[ 

^NEID. BOOK in. EditedbyT. E.Page, M. A. [/«/r^/flra/w; i 
^NEID. BOOK IV. Edited by Rev. H. M. Stephenson 

M.A. 
^NEID. BOOK V. Edited by Rev. A. Calvert, M.A. , 

late Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. 
iENEID. BOOK VI. Edited by T. E. Page, M.A. 
iENEID. BOOK VII." Edited by A. Calvert, M.A. 

[In the press 
^NEID. BOOK IX. Edited by Rev. H. M. Stephenson 

M.A. 
GEORGICS. BOOK L Edited by T. E. Page, M.A. 

[/« the press 
SELECTIONS. Edited by E. S. Shuckburgh, M.A. 

Xenophon.— ANABASIS. BOOK L Edited by A. S 

Walpole, M.A. 
ANABASIS. BOOK I. Chaps. L— VIII. for the use of Beginners 

with Titles to the Sections, Notes, Vocabulary, and Exercises, by 

E. A. Wells, M.A., Assistant Master in Durham School. 
ANABASIS. BOOK II. Edited bv A. S. Walpole. M.A. 
ANABASIS, SELECTIONS FROM. BOOK IV. THE RE 

TREAT OF THE TEN THOUSAND. Edited, with Notes, 

Vocabulary, and Exercises, by Rev. E. D. Stone, M.A,, formerl) 

Assistant-Master at Eton. 
SELECTIONS FROM THE CYROPi^DIA. Edited, witl 

Notes, Vocabulary, and Exercises, by A. H. CooKE, M.A., FelloA^ 

and Lecturer of King's College, Cambridge. 



The following more adv^anced Books, with Introductions 
and Notes, but no Vocabulary, are either ready, or in 
preparation: — 

Cicero. — SELECT LETTERS. Edited by Rev. G. E. Jeans, 
M.A., Fellow of Hertford College, Oxford, and Assistant-iyiaster 
at Haileybury College. 

Euripides.— HECUBA. Edited by Rev. John Bond, M.A. 
and A. S. Walpole, M.A. 

Herodotus. — SELECTIONS FROM BOOKS VIL and VIIL 
THE EXPEDITION OF XERXES. Edited by A. H. Cooke, 
M.A., Fellow and Lecturer of King's College, Cambridge. 

Horace. — selections from the satires and 

EPISTLES. Edited by Rev. W. J. V. Baker, M. A., Fellow of 
St. John's College, Cambridge. 
SELECT ERODES AND ARS POETICA. Edited by H. A. 
Dalton, M. a., formerly Senior Student of Christchurch ; Assistant- 
Master in Winchester College. 



CLASSICAL SERIES. 7 

IPlatO. — EUTHYPHRO AND MENEXENUS. Edited by C. E. 
Graves, M.A., Classical Lecturer and late Fellow of St. John's 
College, Cambridge. 

TTerence. — scenes from the andria. Edited by F. w. 

Cornish, M.A., Assistant- Master at Eton College. 

The Greek Elegiac Poets. — FROM callinus to 

CALLIMACHUS. Selected and Edited by Rev. Herbert 
Kynaston, D.D., Principal of Cheltenham College, and formerly 
Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. 

TThucydides. — BOOK iv. Chs. l— xll the capture 

OF SPHACTERIA. Edited by C. E. Graves, M.A. 
>Virgil.— GEORGICS. book II. Edited by Rev. J. H. Skrine, 
M.A., late Fellow of Merton College, Oxford ; Warden of Trinity 
College, Glenalmond. 

%* OtJm Volumes to follow. 



CLASSICAL SERIES 
FOR COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS. 

Fcap. 8vo. 

iBeing select portions of Greek and Latin authors, edited 
^with Introductions and Notes, for the use of Middle and 
'Upper forms of Schools, or of candidates for Public 
lExaminations at the Universities and elsewhere. 
.^SChines. — in CTESIPHONTEM. Edited by Rev. T. 

GwATKiN, M.A., late Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, 

and E. S. Shuckburgh, M.A. \_In the firess. 

-^SChyluS, — PERS^. Edited by A. O. Prickard, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of New College, Oxford. With Map. 3^. dd. 
SEVEN AGAINST THEBES. SCHOOL EDITION. Edited 

by A. W. Verrall, Litt.D., Fellow of Trinity College, 

Cambridge, and M. A. Bayfield, M.A., Head-Master's Assistant 

at Malvern College. 3^. (>d. 
Andocides. — DE MYSTERIIS. Edited by W.J. HiCKiE,M,A., 

formerly Assistant-Master in Denstone College. 2s. 6d. 
Attic Orators.— Selections from ANTIPHON, ANDOCIDES, 

LYSIAS, ISOCRATES, AND ISAEUS. Edited, by R. C. 

Jeeb, Litt.D,, LL.D., Professor of Greek in the University 

of Cambridge. Second Edition. 6s. 
Csesar.— THE GALLIC WAR. Edited, after Kraner, by Rev. 

John Bond, M.A., and A. S. Walpole, M.A. With Maps. 6s. 
Catullus, — SELECT POEMS. Edited by F. P. Simpson, B.A., 

lale Scholar of Balliol College, Oxford. New and Revised 

Edition. 5^. The Text of this Edition is carefully adapted to 

School use. 



8 MACMILLAN'S EDUCATIONAL CATALOGUE. 

Cicero.—- THE CATILINE orations. From the Germai 
of Karl Halm. Edited, with Additions, by A. S. Wilkin s 
Litt.D., LL.D., Professor of Latin at the Owens College, Man 
Chester, Examiner of Classics to the University of London. Nev i 
Edition. 3j. dd. i 

PRO LEGE MANILIA. Edited, after Halm, by Professor A. S. i 
WiLKiNS, Litt.D., LL.D. 2s. 6d, I 

THE SECOND PHILIPPIC ORATION. From the Germar 1 
of Karl Halm. Edited, with Corrections and Additions 
by John E. B. Mayor, Professor of Latin in the University o . 
Cambridge, and Fellow of St. John's College. New Edition^ 
revised. 5^. 

PRO ROSCIO AMERINO. Edited, after Halm, by E. H. 
DONKiN, M.A., late Scholar of Lincoln College, Oxford; Assis 
tant-Master at Sherborne School. 4^. 6d. 

PRO P. SESTIO. Edited by Rev. H. A. Holden, M.A., LL.D., 
late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ; and late Classical 
Examiner to the University of London. $s. 

Demosthenes.— DE CORONA. Edited by B. Drake, M.A., 
late Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. New and revised 
Edition, edited by E. S. Shuckburgh, M.A. [In the press. 

ADVERSUS LEPTINEM. Edited by Rev. J. R. King, M.A., 
Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. 45. 6d. 

THE FIRST PHILIPPIC. Edited, after C. Rehdantz, by Rev. 
T. GwATKiN, M. A., late Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. 
2s. 6d. 

IN MIDIAM. Edited by Prof. A. S. Wilkins, Litt.D., LL.D., 
and Herman Hager, Ph.D., of the Owens College, Manchester. 

[/« preparation, 

Euripides.— HIPPOLYTUS. Edited by J. P. Mahaffy, M.A., 
Fellow and Professor of Ancient History in Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, and J. B. Bury, Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, ^s. 6d. 

MEDEA. Edited by A. W. Verrall, Litt.D., Fellow and 
Lecturer of Trinity College, Cambridge. 3^. 6d. 

IPHIGENIA IN TAURIS. Edited by E. B. England, M.A., 
Lecturer at the Owens College, Manchester. 4^. 6d. 

ION. Edited by M. A. Bayfield, M.A., Headmaster's Assistant 
at Malvern College. 3^. 6d. 

BACCHAE. Edited by R. Y. Tyrrell, M. A., Professor of Greek 
in the University of Dublin. [In preparation. 

Herodotus.— BOOK III. Edited by G. C. Macaulay, M.A., 

formerly P'ellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. [In preparation. 

BOOKS V. AND VI. Edited by J. Strachan, M.A., Professor 

of Greek in the Owens College, Manchester. [In preparation. 

BOOKS VII. AND VIIL Edited by Mrs. Montagu Butler. 

[In the press. 

Hesiod.— THE WORKS AND DAYS. Edited by W. T. 
Lendrum, Assistant Master in Dulwich College. [In preparation. 



CLASSICAL SERIES. 9 

Homer.— ILIAD, books i., ix., xl, xvl— xxiv. the 

STORY OF ACHILLES. Edited by the late J. H. Pratt, 
M.A., and Walter Leaf, Litt.D., Fellows of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. 6s. 
ODYSSEY. BOOK IX. Editedby Prof. John E.B. Mayor. 2s.6d. 
ODYSSEY. BOOKS XXL— XXIV. THE TRIUMPH OF 
ODYSSEUS. Edited by S. G. Hamilton, B.A., Fellow of 
Hertford College, Oxford. 3^. 6d. 
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II 



MATHEMATICS. 25 

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MATHEMATICS. 27 

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MATHEMAtiCS. 35 

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JKnox. — differential calculus for beginners. 

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d2 



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STABILITY OF A GIVEN STATE OF MOTION, PAR 
TICULARLY STEADY MOTION. Adams' Prize Essay foi 
1877. Svo. 8^. ed. 



MATHEMATICS. 37 

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SCIENCE. 39 

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SCIENCE. 41 

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SCIENCE. 47 

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SCIENCE. 49 

Foster and Langley. — a COURSE OF elementary 

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e 2 



52 MACMILLAN'S EDUCATIONAL CATALOGUE. 

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Bartholomew.— THE elementary school atlas. 

By John Bartholomew, F.R.G.S. 4fo. is. 

This Elementary Atlas is designed to illustrate the principal text- 
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A SCHOOL ATLAS. By the same Author. 4to. [In preparation. 
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Grove. — a primer of geography. By Sir George 
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HISTORY. 

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William III. By H. D. Traill. [Ready. 

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62 MACMILLAN'S EDUCATIONAL CATALOGUE. 

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HISTORY. 63 

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/ 



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MODERN LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE. 77 

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[/« the press-, 

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*^* Other Volumes to follow. 
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78 MACMILLAN'S EDUCATIONAL CATALOGUE. 

Pylodet. — NEW GUIDE TO GERMAN CONVERSATION ; 

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SPANISH. 

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ART AND KINDRED SUBJECTS. 79 

Cookery Book.— THE MIDDLE-CLASS COOKERY BOOK. 

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Cook.— THE NATIONAL GALLERY : A POPULAR'HAND- 
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Ellis.— SKETCHING FROM NATURE. A Handbook for 
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Hunt.— TALKS ABOUT ART. By William Hunt. With a 
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Meldola.— THE CHEMISTRY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. By 
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Taylor.— A PRIMER OF PIANOFORTE PLAYING. By 
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Arnold. — REPORTS ON ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. 1852- 
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Ball.— THE STUDENT'S GUIDE TO THE BAR. By Walter 
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BlakistOn — THE TEACHER. Hints on School Management. 

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(Recommended by the London, Birmingham, and Leicester 

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Calderwood. — on teaching. By Professor Henry Calder 
wood. New Edition. Extra fcap. Svo. 2s. 6d. 



DIVINITY. Si 

Carter.— EYESIGHT IN SCHOOLS. A Paper read before the 
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By R. Brudenell Carter, F.R.C.S , Ophthalmic Surgeon to 
St. George's Hospital. Crown 8vo. Sewed, is. 

Fearon. — SCHOOL INSPECTION. By D. R. Fearon, M. A. 
Assistant Commissioner of Endowed Schools. New Edition 
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Geikie.-— THE TEACHING OF GEOGRAPHY. A Practical 
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Gladstone. — object teaching, a Lecture delivered at 
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the London School Board. With an Appendix. Crown 
Svo. sd. 

" It is a short but interesting and instructive publication, ani our younger 
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few pages which they can learn and profit by." — The School Guardian. 

Hertel.— OVERPRESSURE IN HIGH SCHOOLS IN DEN- 
MARK. By Dr. Hertel, Municipal Medical Officer, Copen- 
hagen Translated from the Danish by C. Godfrey Sorensen. 
With Introduction by Sir J. Crichton-Browne, M.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S. Crown Svo. 3^. 6 J. 



DIVINITY. 

*^j* For other Works by these Authors, see Theological 
Catalogue. 

Abbott (Rev. E. A.)— BIBLE LESSONS. By the Rev. 
E. A. Abbott, D.D,, formerly Head Master of the City of 
London School. New Edition. Crown Svo. 4s. 6d. 

"Wise, suggestive, and really profound initiation into religious thought." 
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Abbott— Rushbrooke. — THE COMMON tradition of 

THE SYNOPTIC GOSPELS, in the Text of the Revised 
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John's College, Cambridge, and W. G. Rushbrooke, M.L., 
formerly Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. Cr. Svo. 3^. 6a', 

The Acts of the Apostles. — Being the Greek Text a"? 
revised by Professors Westcott and HoRT. With Explanatory 
Notes for the Use of Schools, by T. E. Page, M.A., late Fellow 
of St. John's College, Cambridge ; Assistant Master at the Charter- 
house. Fcap. Svo. 45-. 6d. 

i 



82 MACMILLAN'S EDUCATIONAL CATALOGUE. 

Arnold. — Works by Matthew Arnold, D.C.L., formerly Pro- 
fessor of Poetry in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Oriel. 

A BIBLE-READING FOR SCHOOLS.— THE GREAT PRO- 
PHECY OF ISRAEL'S RESTORATION (Isaiah, Chapters 
xl. — Ixvi.). Arranged and Edited for Young Learners. New 
Edition. i8mo, cloth, is. 

ISAIAH XL.— LXVI. With the Shorter Prophecies allied to it. 
Arranged and Edited, \vith Notes. Crown 8vo. ^s. 

ISAIAH OF JERUSALEM, IN THE AUTHORISED ENG- 
LISH VERSION. With Introduction, Corrections, and Notes. 
Crown 8vo. 4s. 6d. 

Benham.— A COMPANION TO THE LECTIONARY. Being 
a Commentary on the Proper Lessons for Sundays and Holy Days. 
By Rev. W. Benham, B.D., Rector of S. Edmund with S. 
Nicholas Aeons, &c. New Edition. Crown Svo. ^. 6d. 

Cassel.— MANUAL OF JEWISH HISTORY AND LITERA- 
TURE ; preceded by a BRIEF SUMMARY OF BIBLE HIS- 
TORY. By Dk. D. Cassel. Translated by Mrs. Henry Lucas. 
Fcap. Svo. 2s. 6d. 

Cheetham.— A CHURCH HISTORY OF THE FIRST SIX 
CENTURIES. By the Yen. Archdeacon Cheetham, 
Crown Svo. [/« the press. 

Cross. — BIBLE READINGS SELECTED FROM THE 
PENTATEUCH AND THE BOOK OF JOSHUA. By 
the Rev. John A. Cross. Second Edition enlaiged, with Notes. 
Globe Svo. 2J. dd. 

Curteis.— MANUAL OF THE THIRTY-NINE ARTICLES. 
By G. H. Curteis, M.A., Principal of the Lichfield Theo- 
logical College. [/« preparation. 

Davies.— THE EPISTLES OF ST. PAUL TO THE EPHE- 
SIANS, THE COLOSSIANS, AND PHILEMON; with 
Introductions and Notes, and an Essay on the Traces of Foreign 
Elements in the Theology of these Epistles. By the Rev. J. 
Llewelvn Davies, M.A., Rector of Christ Church, St Mary- 
lebone ; late Fellow of Tri lity College, Cambridge. Second 
Edition. Demy Svo. is. 6d. 

Drummond.— THE STUDY OF THEOLOGY, INTRO- 
DUCTION TO. By James Drummond, LL.D., Professor of 
Theology in Manchester New College, London. Crown Svo. $s. 

Gaskoin.— THE CHILDREN'S TREASURY OF BIBLE 
STORIES. By Mrs. Herman Gaskoin. Edited with Preface 
by Rev G. F. Maclear,D.D. Part L— OLD TESTAMENT 
HISTORY. iSmo. is. Part IL— NEW TESTAMENT. iSmo. 
IS PartIIL— THE APOSTLES: ST. JAMES THE GREAT, 
ST. PAUL, AND ST. JOHN THE DIVINE. iSmo. is. 



DIVINITY. 83 

Golden Treasury Psalter.— students' Edition. Being an 

Edition of "The Psalms Chronologically arranged, by Four 
Friends," with briefer Notes. iSmo. 35-. 6d. 

Greek Testament. — Edited, with introduction and Appen- 
dices, by Canon Westcott and Dr. F. J. A. Hort. Two 
Vols. Crown 8vo. icw. 6d. each. 

Vol. I. The Text. 

Vol. II. Introduction and Appendix. 
Greek Testament. — Edited by Canon Westcott and Dr. 
Hort. School Edition of Text. i2mo. cloth. 4J. 6d. iSmo. 
roan, red edges. 5^-. 6d. 

GREEK TESTAMENT, SCHOOL READINGS IN THE. Being 
the outline of the life of our Lord, as given by St. Mark, with 
additions from the Text of the other Evangelists. Arranged and 
Edited, with Notes and Vocabulary, by the Rev. A. Calvert, 
M.A., late Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. Fcap. Svo. 
4^-. 6d. 

THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. Being the Greek Text as 
revised by Drs. Westcott and Hort. With Explanatory Notes 
by T. E. Page, M.A., Assistant Master at the Charterhouse. 
Fcap. Svo. 4J. 6d. 

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING to St. MATTHEW. Being the 
Greek Text as revised by Drs. Westcott and Hort. With 
Explanatory Notes by Rev. A. Sloman, M.A., Head Master of 
Birkenhead School. \_In preparation. 

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING to St. MARK. Being the Greek 
Text as revised by Drs. Westcott and Hort. With Explanatory 
Notes by Rev. J. O. F, Murray, M.A., Lecturer in Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge. Fcap. Svo. \In preparation. 

THE GOSPEL ACCORDING to St. LUKE. Being the Greek 
Text as revised by Drs. Westcott and Hort. With Explana- 
tory Notes by Rev. John Bond, M.A. \In preparation. 

Hard wick. — Works by Archdeacon Hardwick : — 
A HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH, Middle 
Age. From Gregory the Great to the Excommunication of 
Luther. Edited by William Stubbs, M.A., Regivis Professor 
of Modern History in the Univer.-ity of Oxford. With Four 
Maps. New Edition. Crown Svo. \os. 6d. 
A HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH DURING 
THE REFORMATION. Ninth Edition. Edited by Professor 
Stubbs. Crown Svo. 10s. 6d. 

Hoole.— THE CLASSICAL ELEMENT IN THE NEW 
TESTAMENT. Considered as a Proof of its Genuineness, with 
an Appendix on the Oldest Authorities used in the Formation of 
the Canon. By Charles H. Hoole, M.A., .Student of Christ 
Church, Oxford. Svo. los. 6d. 

g 2 



84 MACMILLAN'S EDUCATIONAL CATALOGUE. 

Jennings and Lowe. — THE psalms, WITH intro- 
ductions AND CRITICAL NOTES. By A. C. Jennings, 
M.A. ; assisted in parts by W. H. Lowe, M.A. In 2 vols. 
Second Edition Revised. Crown 8vo. los. 6d. each. 

Kay.— ST. PAUL'S TWO EPISTLES TO THE CORIN- 
THIANS, A COMMENTARY ON. By the late Rev. W. 
Kay, D.D., Rector of Great Leghs, Essex, and Hon. Canon of 
St. Albans ; formerly Principal of Bishop's College, Calcutta ; and 
Fellow and Tutor of Lincoln College. Demy 8vo. gs. 

Kuenen.— PENTATEUCH AND BOOK OF JOSHUA: an 
Historico- Critical Inquiry into the Origin and Composition of the 
Hexateuch. By A. Kuenen, Professor of Theology at Leiden. 
Translated from the Dutch, with the assistance of the Author, by 
Phiixip H. Wicksteed, M.A. 8vo. 14J. 

The Oxford Magazine says: — "The work i'^ -osolutely indispensable to all 
speciil students of the Old Testament." 

LightfoOt. — Works by the Right Rev. J. B. Lightfoot, D.D., 
D.C.L., LL.D., Lord Bishop of Durham. 

ST. PAUL'S EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS. A Revised 
Text, with Introduction, Notes, and Dissertations. Ninth 
Edition, revised. 8vo. 12s. 

ST. PAUL'S EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPPIANS. A Revised 
Text, with Introduction, Notes, and Dissertations. Ninth 
Edition, revised. 8vo. I2s. 

ST. CLEMENT OF ROME— THE TWO EPISTLES TO 
THE CORINTHIANS. A Revised Text, with Introduction and 
Notes. 8vo. 8s. ()d. 

ST. PAUL'S EPISTLES TO THE COLOSSIANS AND TO 
PHILEMON. A Revised Text, with Introductions, Notes, 
and Dissertations. Eighth Edition, revised. 8vo. I2j. 

THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS. Part IL S. IGNATIUS— 
S. POLYCARP. Revised Texts, with Introductions, Notes, 
Dissertations, and Translations. 2 volumes in 3. Demy 8vo. 48^'. 

APOSTOLIC FATHERS. Abridged Edition. With short Intro- 
ductions, Greek Text, and English Translation. By the same 
Author. 8vo. [/« the press. 

ESSAYS ON THE WORK ENTITLED ''SUPERNATURAL 
RELIGION." (Reprinted from the Conte7nporary Review.) 8vo. 
\os. 6d. 

Ma clear. — Works by the Rev. G. F. Maclear, D.D., Canon of 
Canterbury, Warden of St. Augustine's College, Canterbury, and 
late Head-Master of King's College School, London : — 

A CLASS-BOOK OF OLD TESTAME-NT HISTORY. New 
Edition, with Four Maps. i8mo. 4J. 6d. 

A CLASS-BOOK OF NEW TESTAMENT HISTORY, 
including the Connection of the Old and New Testaments. 
With Four Maps. New Edition. l8mo. 5^. 6d. 



DIVINITY 85 

Maclear — cojitinued. 
A SHILLING BOOK OF OLD TESTAMENT HISTORY, 

for National and Elementary Schools. With Map. i8mo, cloth. 

New Edition. 
A SHILLING BOOK OF NEW TESTAMENT HISTORY, 

for National and Elementary Schools. With Map. iSmo, cloth. 

New Edition. 
These works have been carefully abridged from the Author's 

large manuals. 
CLASS-BOOK OF THE CATECHISM OF THE CHURCH 

OF ENGLAND. New Edition. i8mo. \s. 6d. 
A FIRST CLASS-BOOK OF THE CATECHISM OF THE 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND. W^ith Scripture Proofs, for Junior 

Classes and Schools. New Edition. i8mo. 6d. 
A MANUAL OF INSTRUCTION FOR CONFIRMATION 

AND FIRST COMMUNION. WITH PRAYERS AND 

DEVOTIONS. 32mo. cloth extra, red edges. 2s. 
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CREEDS. i8mo. 2s. 6d. 
CLASS BOOK OF THE THIRTY-NINE ARTICLES. 

{In the press. 
Maurice. — the LORD'S PRAYER, THE CREED, AND 

THE COMMANDMENTS. A Manual for Parents and 

Schoolmasters. To which is added the Order of the Scriptures. 

By the Rev. F.Denison Maurice, M.A. i8mo, cloth, limp. is. 
Pentateuch and Book of Joshua : an Historico-Critical 

Inquiry into the Origin and Composition of the Hexateuch. By 
A. KUENEN, Professor of Theology at Leiden. Translated from 
the Dutch, with the assistance of the Author, by Philip H. 
WiCKSTEED, M.A. 8vo. 14J. 

Procter. — a HISTORY OF THE BOOK OF COMMON 
PRAYER, with a Rationale of its Offices. By Rev. F. Procter. 
M.A. 1 8th Edition, revised and enlarged. Crown 8vo. los. 6d, 

Procter and Maclear. — an elementary intro- 
duction TO the book of common prayer. Re- 
arranged and supplemented by an Explanation of the Morning 
and Evening Prayer and the Litany. By the R^v. F. Procter 
and the Rev. Dr. Maclear. New and Enlarged Edition, 
containing the Communion Service and the Confirmation and 
Baptismal Offices. i8mo. 2s. 6d. 

Psalms, The, with Introductions and Critical 

Notes. — By a. C.Jennings, M. A., Jesus College, Cambridge, 
Tyrwhitt Scholar, Crosse Scholar, Hebrew University Prizeman, 
and Fry Scholar of St. John's College, Carus and Scholefield 
Prizeman, Vicar of Whittlesford, Cambs. ; assisted in Parts by W. 
H. Lowe, M.A., Hebrew Lecturer and late Scholar of Christ's 
College, Cambridge, and Tyrwhitt Scholar. In 2 vols. Second 
Edition Revised. Crown 8vo. los. 6d. each. 



86 MACMILLAN'S EDUCATIONAL CATALOGUE. 

Ramsay.— THE CATECHISER'S MANUAL; or, the Church 
Catechism Ilkistrated and Explained, for the Use of Clergymen, 
Schoolmasters, and Teachers. By the Rev. Arthur Ramsay, 
M.A. New Edition. i8mo. is. 6d. 

RendalL — the epistle to the Hebrews. English 

Text with Commentary. By the Rev. F. Rendall, M.A., 
formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Master of 
Harrow School. Crown Svo. 75. 6ii. 

Ryle.— AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CANON OF THE 
OLD TESTAMENT, By Rev. H. E. Ryle, M.A., Fellow 
of King's College, and Hulsean Professor of Divinity in the 
University of Cambridge. Crown Svo. [In preparati(fh, 

Simpson. — AN EPITOME OF THE HISTORY OF THE 
CHRISTIAN CHURCH DURING THE FIRST THREE 
CENTURIES, AND OF THE REFORMATION IN ENG- 
LAND. Compiled for the use of Students in Schools and 
Universities by the Rev. William Simpson, M.A., Queen's 
College, Cambridge. Seventh Edition. Fcap. Svo. 3J. 6J. 

St. James' Epistle. — The Greek Text with Introduction and 
Notes. By Rev. Joseph Mayor, M.A., Professor of Moral 
Philosophy in King's College, London. Svo. [In preparation. 

St. John's Epistles. — The Greek Text with Notes and Essays, 
by Brooke Foss Westcott, D.D., Regius Professor of Divinty, 
and Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, Canon of Westminstier 
&c. Second Edition Revised. Svo. 12s. 6d. 

St. Paul's Epistles. — Greek Text, with Introduction and Notes. 
THE EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS. Edited by the Right 
Rev. J. B. LiGHTFOOT, D.D., Bishop of Durham. Ninrh 
Edition. Svo. 12^. 

THE EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPPIANS. By the same Editor. 
Ninth Edition. Svo. izs. 

THE EPISTLE TO THE COLOSSIANS AND TO PHL 
LEMON. By the same Editor. Eighth Edition. Svo. 12s. 

THE EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS. Edited by the Very Rev. 
C. J. Vaughan, D.D., Dean of Llandaff, and Master of the 
Temple. Fifth Edition. Crown Svo. ']s. 6d. 

THE EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPPIANS, with Trcinslation, 
Paraphrase, and Notes for English Readers. By the same Editor. 
Crown Svo. 5j. 

THE EPISTLE TO THE THESSALONIANS, COMMENT- 
ARY ON THE GREEK TEXT. By John Eadie, D.D., LL.D. 
Edited by the Rev. W. Young, M.A., with Preface by Professor 
Cairns. Svo. 12s. 



DIVINITY. 87 

St. Paul's Epistles — co?itinued. 
THE EPISTLES TO THE EPHESIANS, THE COLOSSIANS, 
AND PHILEMON; with Introductions and Notes, and an 
Essay on the Traces of Foreign Elements in the Theology of these 
Epistles. By the Rev. J. Llewelyn Davies, M.A., Rector of 
Christ Church, St. Marylebone ; late Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. Second Ediiion, revised. Demy 8vo. 7j. 6d. 
THE TWO EPISTLES TO THE CORINTHIANS, A COM- 
MENTARY ON. By the late Rev. W. Kay, D.D., Rector of 
Great Leghs, Essex, and Hon. Canon of St. Albans ; formerly 
Principal of Bishop's College, Calcutta ; and Fellow and Tutor of 
Lincoln College. Demy Svo. 9j. 

The Epistle to the Hebrews, in Greek and English. 
With Critical and Explanatory Notes. Edited by Rev. Frederic 
Rendall, M. a., formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and Assistant- Master at Harrow School. Crown Svo. 6s. 
THE ENGLISH TEXT, WITH COMMENTARY. By the 
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