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Theological Seminary, 


i ^"^fi-5- ,A335 1000 

Adam, Alexander, 1741-1809 
^ Classical biography 




The proper NAMES, 




O F T H E 














. Printed for WILLIAM CREECH; 
And T, CADELL, Jun. & W. DAVIES, / 

J 8 o p. 

CntctcQ in Stationers roa!!. 


Tilnted hj Murr2'j '':^^ Craig's Clofe, Edinburgh, 


J. HE Compiler originally intended the fubftance of the follow- 
ing Pages as zn Appendix to a Latin and English Dictionary, 
which he has for feveral years been attempting. But having found 
that the execution of the whole of his delign will require longer 
time than at firfi: he imagined ; and perceiving his attention to be 
fom.etimes diftracted by profecuting two different fubjeds toge- 
ther, he refolved to lay afide the principal part of the Work till 
he fliould finifli the Appplndix of Proper Names : and in 
order to render it as inftruclive as poffible within moderate 
bounds, he thought it would be of advantage to give a fuller 
account of the principal Perfons mentioned in the Latin 
Claflics. This he has endeavoured to do with all the accuracy in 
his power ; and hopes that his performance will be ufeful, not 
only to younger Students, but alfo to fuch as are more||dvan- 
ced. The facls are all fupported by proper authorities ; aSldie 
different accounts of different Authors concerning the fame md:, 
when it is cf importance, are fairly uated. When any thing is 
more fully treated of in his Roman Antiquities^ or in his Summary 
of Geography and Hi/lory^ he has here made references to them, 
by prefixing an A for the one and a G for the other. The diph- 
thongs <2 and c are printed without contraction, ae and oe^ as 
they are found in Ancient Manufcripts. The Compiler, be- 
fore refuming his larger Work, prcpofes to publi/ii, by way of 
Appendix to his Grammar, a Ihort Abridgement or Manual of 
Latinity, for the ufc of Learners ; which is nearly ready for the 


'eft. 15. iSco.J 




O F 



ABAS, -anthy a king of Argos ; 
whence Ahanteus^ adj.; thus, Ah- 
ante'i Argi, Argi once governed by Ab- 
as, Ovid, Met. 15, 164. 

Abantiades, -ae, Acrifius, the fon 
of Abas, Ovid. Met. 4, 607. alfo put 
for Perfeus, his great-gratidfon, Ovid. 
Met. A,, 673, & 767. ; 5' >38- 

Abas, a noble Trojan, and compa- 
nion of Aeneas, Virg. Aen. i , 121.; 10, 
427. — alfo a Grecian flaia by Aeneas, 
ih. 3, 286. 

Abaris, -/V, V. -\dts; ace. -/m, v. -m; 
a man {lain by Perfeus, Ovid. Met. 5, 
86. — 51 2. A Rutulian killed by Eu- 
ryalus, Virg. Aen. 9, 344.-^3, A fa- 
mous Scythian, Herodot. 4. 36. ; Strab. 

Abarus, or Agharusj an Arabian 
prince, who mifled and perfidioufly 
deferted CraiTus in his expedition a- 
gainft the Parthian s, Appian. de Parth. 
p. 140. called Me%eres or Mazaras, 
a Syrian deferter, by Florus, 3, 11. 
and Ariamnes by Plutarch, in Crcjfo. 

Abderus. the fervant of Diome- 
des, a king of Thrace, who fed his 
herfcs on human flelh ; flain by Her- 
cules, Hygin. 30. 

Abdolonimus, or Ahdalommus^ a 
defcendant of the ancient kings of Si- 
don, fo poor that he .was obliged to 
work in a garden; when Alexander 
the Great, on account of his probity, 
raifed him to the throne j J^^ife 11, 
10. ; Curt. 4, I, J9j W 

A C C 

AbgXrits, the name of certain 
caflern princes, Capitolin. Ant. Pio. 
c. 9. ; Spartiari, Sever. 18. ; ViSor d$ 
Caefar. c. 20. 

\bissares, an Indian king, who 
meanly furrendered to Alexander, in- 
flead of bravely oppofing him, as Po- 
rus did, Curt. 8, 13. 

Absyrtus, -/, called alfo Aegtokux 
or Aegialus, the fon of Aeites^ king of 
Colchis, whom his fitter Medea, in 
her flight with Jafon, tore in pieces^ 
and fcattered his members by the 
way, that the gathering of themi 
might retard Aeetes, her father, in his 
piirfuit of her, Cic. Manil. 9. ; Nat* 
D. 3, 26. ; Ovid, Trijl. 3, 9. ; Senec. 
Med. 963. 

AcADEMUs, or Ecademus an Athe«* 
nian, the original proprietor of the 
ground where the gymnajium, called 
Academia, was built j whence its 
name, Paujan. i. 9. 

ACASTUS, a king of lolcos, de- 
throned by Peleus. K/V/. Peleus. 

AcASTus, a flave of Cicero's, Cic* 
Fam. 14, 5. ; 16, 5. &c. 

Acamas, -antis, one of tfie work« 
men of Vulcan, Fal. Flacc. i, 583. 

ACCA Laurentia, the nurfe of 
Romulus, Serv. in Virg, Aen. I, 277. 
called fimply Laurentia by Livy, i, 4, 
There was an annual feftival in honour 
of her, called Ace alia, -ium j or Lau^ 
REN tali A, -rum, Varr. L. 1^ ^, ^. 

ACCiUS or /\TTius, a celebr^- 
A ted 

A C C [2 

ted Roman tragic poet in the time of 
Sclpio \fricanus the younger, FaL 
Mix. 3, 7, II. ; ^I'maiL 10, i, 79 ; 
an intimate friend of D. Ju.iius Bru- 
tus, the Colleague of Scipio In the con- 
fulate, C'tc. Brut. 22, & 2'S.; Arch, i [. 
He alfo wrote annals, C'tc. Brut. 18. 
— Ayamemnon Jccianus, Agamemnon, 
as defcribed by Acclas, Cic Tufc. 3, 
26. ic iani verfiis, the verfes of Ac- 
cius, 7r. Fam 9, 16. 

ACCIUS. V. Aclius, V Att'ius Naev'i- 
vsi vel Navius, a famous ugur at 
Rome In the time of Tarquinlus Prif- 
eus, who is faid to have cut a whet- 
ftone with the king's razor, Liv. i, 
36. ; Cic. Div. I, 17. But this ftory 
was ridiculed by many in the time of 
Cicero, i5. 2, 38. 

T. Accius Pifaurenjs, a native of 
Pifaurum, a Roman eques, the accufer 
of Clucmtius, Cic. Br. 78. 

Accius Priscus, a noble painter 
iin the time of Vefpafian, Pliji. 35, 10. 

A ceo, -onis, a general of the Gauls, 
Caef. B G. 6, a. 

ACESTES, -aey a king of Sicily, 
of Trojan extradlion, the trufty friend 
of '\eneas, Firg. Aen. Sj'J ii- who gave 
name to the city Acella or Segefta, 
ih. 718. 

AcETEs, the armour-bearer of E- 
vander, I'irg. Aen. 11, 30. 

AcHAEM£NEs, -act V. -/V, a king of 
Perfia,the grandfather of Cyrus, //.?;Wo/. 
7, II. uho feems to have given name 
to the tii'oc or clan of the Ac ha em e- 
N'DAE, ib. 3, 6^. from which the Per- 
fian kings were dcfcended, , 125. ce- 
lebrated for his wealth, Hon Od. 2, 
12^ 1. whence Achaemenii campi^ 
the plains of Perfia, L.ucan. 8, 224. 
Achaemenium cojlum, Perfian ointment. 
Hot. Od. 3, I, 44. nariuTHj Id Epod, 
13,8 So Achaemcnius odor, the fmell ot 
Perfian perfumes, SiL 15. 23. The 
,ufe of perfumes is faid to have ta- 
ken its rile in Perfia, Plin- 13, I. 
Achaemeniae fa^ittae, Perfian arrows, 
Propert 2, 13, I. Achaemenio detrec- 
tans pralia ritu, pretending to fly in 
the manner of the Paitliiins or Perfi- 
ans, Sii' 7, 647. Acbaemmtae urhest i. e. 

1 A C I 

Perficaey Ovid. Met. 4, 212. W/<?j, Id. 
Art. Am. 226. 

Achaemenides, one of the fallors 
of UlylTes, left by his companions on 
the coaft of Sicily, where Aeneas found 
him, Firg. Aen. 3, 613. Sec. 

Achates, ^ae, the companion and 
faithful friend of Aeneas, Firg. Am. 
I, I'jg. et alibi pd/fini. 

AcHELOUS, the fon of Oceanus 
and Tethys, the god of the river 
Achelous in Epiie, who fought with 
Hercules for Dejanlra, (G. 4 !•) 
Apoll'jdor. 2, 5. Hygin. 31. He was 
the fath-r of the Syrens by the Mufe 
Melpomene, Apollod. I, 4. Hygin. 141. 
whence they are called x*. chelo'ides^ 
Ovid. Met, 5, 552. and Acheloi ADEs, 
ib. 14, 87. (Fid. G. Index,) 

Achillas, -ae^ the general of Ptole- 
my, king of Egypt, who was fent 
with Septimius, a tribune, to kill 
Pompey, Caef. B. C. 3, 104. Lucan. 8, 
538. &c. He was himfelf foon -ifter- 
wards put to death by Ganymedes, an 
eunuch, the confidant of .'!ifwde, the 
filler of Ptolemy. Hirt. B. Alex. 4. 
Lucan. 18, 523. 

ACHILLES, -is; vel ^chilleus, 
( 3 fy^^' ) '^^^ ' ^^ ^^"^ ^^^ fecond declen- 
fion, -eiy contracted -/ ;,the fon of Peleus 
and the fea-goddefs 1. hetis ; the brav- 
e •- of the Greeks ; called Armipotens, 
Virg. Aen. 6. 839. Magnanimus, Ovid. 
Met. 13, 298. 'Timor ilk Phrygumy dc' 
cics et tutela Pelafgi numlnis^ Ib. 12, 612. 
Cedere nejciusy Hor. Oi. I, 6., (>. Ter- 
roris expcrs, Catull. 62, 338. Priam» 
fatalisj Stat. Achil. i, 475. — In the 
accdf. in (lead of Achillem^ Lucan 
has Achillea, 10, 523. — Achilli- 
UEs, -aey the fon of Achilles, I. e. 
Pyrhus, Ovid. Ep. 8, 3. called Stirps 
Achillea^ Virg. Aen. 3, 326. — Achillea 
cufpis, the fpear of Achilles, Ovid. Met. 
13 580. Achillei manes y the ghoft of 
Achilles, ib. 448. — Achilleis, -/V//V, 
f. the unfinifhed poem of Statins con- 
cerning Achilles. (Fid. Or 449- y^ 

ACILIA, the mother of Lucan, 
Fid. Atilla. 

ACILII, -or urn y vel Acilia gens, a 
plebeian clan at Rome divided ini'» lwo 


A C I I 

families, the Glahriones and BalhU 
from which fprang feveraririuftrious 
men ; as, M. Acilius, a coiiful, 
who defeated Antiochus at Thermo- 
pylae, L'lv. 36, 19. He dedicated a 
temple to Piety, and ere£led a gilded 
ftatue to his father Glabrio, the firft 
of the kind in Italy, A. U. 569. Liv. 
4c, 34. Valerius Maximus fays this 
was done by his fon, 2, 5. i. The 
temple Hood in the herb-m.arket, (in 
foro ol'ttorio), on the fpot where a wo- 
man had dwelt, who fecretly nourifli- 
cd her father, when imprifoned and 
deprived of aliment, with her own 
milk ; on which account he was 
pardoned, Fcjlus in Pi etas. Pliny 
fays this was done by a daughter to 
her mother, 7, 36. So Val. Maxi- 
mus, ;, 4, 7. According to Pliny, 
the mother was not only pardoned, 
but file -aid her daughter were ever 
after fupported at the public expence, 
ib. The fame author alfo fays that 
the temple ftood on the fite of the pri- 
fon, where afterwards was the theatre 
of Marcellus, ib. 

M. Acilius Glabrio, a Praetor 
who prefided in the trial of Verres, Cic. 
^ci. I. in Ver. 17. and whofe father 
got a law paffed againft extortion, (de 
repetundis pecmuis {) called Lex A ci- 
lia, AJcon.ib. y Verr. I, 9. 

Acilius, a law7er, who wrote 
commentaries on the twelve tables, 
Cic. Leg. 2, 23. 

Acilius, an hiftorian, who wrote 
his hiftory in Greek, Cic. Of.7,, 32. 
which one Claudius tranflated into La- 
tin, (annales Ancdianos ex Graeco in La- 
iinum fermonem veriiij Liv. 25, 40. et 

35, 14 Several others of the fame 

name are mentioned, Liv. 2i, 25. 27. 
4.; Tacit. Ann. 3, 41. 12, 64. 14, 18.; 
Suet. J. 68. ; 67. 45. D. lo. 

AC IS, {-is, v. '^dis ', ace. Acin,) a 
Sicilian youth of uncommon beauty, the 
fon of Faunus and the nymph Syniae- 
thisf the daughter of the river Symae 
thus, Ovid. Met. 13, 750. whence he 
is called Simaethius heros, ib. 879. be- 
loved by Galatea, the Nereid, ib. 752. 
(t 86 r. crufhed with a ftone thrown at 

^ T A C R 

him by Polyphemus, who was enraged 
at Galatea's preferring Acis to him. 
Acis was turned into a river of the 
fame name, ib. 873, 897. 

Acme, -es, the miftrefs of Septimius, 
Catull 45, I. &c. 

AcoNTEUS, (3 fyll.) -eos, v. -ei, a 
Latin chief, V>rg Acn. II, 6[2.— f 2. 
A foldier of Perfeus, changed into a 
ftone, by looking at the head of Me- 
dufa, Ovid. Met. 5, 2" I. 

ACONTIUS, a young man of the 
ifland Cea, who having gone to De- 
los, to fee the facred rites which were 
performed there by a crowd of virgins 
in the temple of '- 'iana, fell defperate- 
ly in love with CYDIPPE ; but not 
daring to aflc her in marriage on ac- 
count of the meannefs of his birth, 
threw down at her feet an apple, on 
which were infcribed thefe words, Me 
tibi nupturam^ (felix eat omen^) Aconti^ 
Juro. quam colimusy numina magna Deae» 
Or according to others, Juro tibi facrae 
per myjiicajacra Diana£, Me tibi venturam 
comitemy fponfamque fuiuram. The vir- 
9\xi havnig taken up the apple, inad- 
vertently read the words, and thereby 
apparently bound herfelf by a prom.ife ; 
for by law, every thing uttered in that 
temple was held to be ratified. When 
her father, a little after, ignorant of 
what had happened, betrothed her to 
another man, (he was fuddenly feized 
with a fever. Whereupon Acontius 
fent her a letter, (exprefled by Ovid, 
Ep. 20.) to perfuade her that tier 
fever was caufed by Diana for not ha- 
ving fulfilled the promife which (he had 
made to him in the temple of that god- 
defs. Cydippe therefore refolved ^ to 
comply with the wifhes of Acontius, 
even againft the incHnation of her fa- 
ther. Her anfwer is the fubjed of 
Ovid's 21 ft epillle. 

ACRISIUS, a king of Argos, 
the fon of Abas, ( Abantiades^ Ovid. 
Met. 4, 606. ) the father of Danae, 
who is hence called Acrijionhs^ -tdis, 
Serv. in Virg. A en. 7, 41^'. ; but others 
make Acrifwneis here an adjeftive, to 
agree with co mis, i. e. with a colony 
of Argives; as jicrijtoneae arces, the 
A 2 towers 

A C R [4 

towers of Argos, OvU. Met. 5, 239. 
AcRisiONiADES, -fl^, Perfeus, the 
fon of Danae, ib. 69. —The father of 
Laertes, and grandfather of UlyiTes, is 
by fome called Acrifius, Ovid. Met. 
13, 144. but Arcefius is his real name ; 
whence UlyfTes is fometimes called 
^Apv-aa-isL^yit; in Homer. 

AC RON, a king of the Caeninen- 
fes, whom Romulus flew in battle with 
his own hand, and dedicated his fpoils, 
(called fpol'ia optma) to Jupiter, under 
the name of Feretrius, becaufe they 
Tvere carried on a frame, (feretro) 
Xiiy. I, 10. or Omine quod certo dux 
ferit enfe ducem, Propert. 4, 10, 45, 

ACT A EON, 'onii, the fon of Ari- 
ftaeus and Autonbe, the daughter of 
Cadmus, a famous hunter, who one 
day being fatigued with the chace, re- 
tiled into a fhady vale to refrefh him- 
felf ; where was a fountain called Par- 
thenius, in which the goddefs Diana 
by chance was then bathing herfelf, 
who to prevent him from telling it, 
changed him into a ftag ; and foon af- 
ter he v/as torn to pieces by his own 
bounds. Hygin. 181.; Ovid. Met. 3, 
138. kc. He is called y^utonocius he- 
rost from his mother, ib, 197. and 
Hyantiusj as being a Theban, ib. 147. 
ACTOR, -oris, the father of Me- 
Doetius, and grandfather of Patroclus, 
\vho is hence called Adoridesy -ae, Ovid. 
Met. 8, 308. Faft._ 2, 39.--Alfo an 
Auruncan, Firg. Aen. 12, 94, 

ADHEHBAL, ^alis, the fon of 
Micipfa and grandfon of MafinifTa, 
king of Nuraidia, flain by Jugurtha, 
Salluji. Jug. 26. 

Admetus, the fon of Pheres, 
(Pheretiades, Ovid. Art. Am. 3, 19.) 
king of Pherae in Theffaly, whofe 
flocks Apollo kept for feveral years, 
jlpollodor. I, 15. 

ADONIS, -is, et -'tdis, the fon of 
Cinyras king of Cyprus, by his daugh- 
ter Myrrha j — the favourite of Venus, 
on account of his uncommon beauty. 
Through the wrath of Diana, he was 
flain by the bite of a wild boar, which 
he had wounded while huntmg. Ve- 
pjs be>y4iled his death, and from com- 

3 A E A 

paffion changed him into a flower cal- 
led ^nemony, Ovid. Met. 10, 298, 
']\Q. adjin. Apollodorus makes Ado- 
nis the fon of Thoas king of AfTyria 
by his daughter Myrrha, 3, 13, 4. 
Annual games were inftituted to his 
mem.ory, named Adonia -ori/m, Ovid, 
ib. 725. ; MarceUin. 22, 24. Adonis is 
called from his father Juvenis CinyretuSy 
Ovid. ib. 7 r 2. ; from his beauty, FormO' 
Jus, Virg. E. I o, 1 8. Niveus, Propert. 
2, 10, 53. The ancient Latins fome- 
times called him Adoneus, Plaut* 
Men. I, 2, 35. 

ADRASTUS, a king of Argos, 
the fon of Talaon, hence called Tala- 
ONiDEs, Stat. Theb. 5, 18. and Ina' 
chius, defcended from Inachus, ib. 2, 
199. one of the feven leaders in the 
famous war againft Thebes, and the 
only one that furvived, j^pollodor. i , 9. 
f/ 3, 7. on which account his image 
is fuppofed to be reprefented as pale in 
the infernal regions, Serv. in Virg. Aen, 
6, 480. He was far advanced in life 
when the war began, whence he is cal- 
led Longaevusy Stat. Theb. 4, 74. Gf- 
nus Adrajli, Diamedes, his grandfon, 
Ovid. Fajl. 6, 433. Adrajleus Arion^ 
Arlon, the horfc of Adraftus, Stat, 
Silv. T I, 52. (G. 430.) 

Adrastea, the daughter of Jupi- 
ter and Necefiity, the fame with Ne- 
mefis, the punifher of guilt, MarceUin, 
14, II. 

Adrastus, a Phrygian exile, who 
by accident killed Atys, the fon 
of Croefus ; and though pardoned 
by Croefus, ftabbed himfelf on the 
prince's tomb, Herodot. i, 43, & 45. 
(G. 601.) 

Aelius ADRIANUS, f. HadrU 
anus, the 5th Roman Emperor, the 
fucceffbr of Trajan. 

AEACUS, the fon of Jupiter by Ae- 
glna ; the father of Telam^on and Pe- 
leus. He was king of Oenopia, 
which he named Aegina, after his 
mother. On account of his jufticc he 
was made a judge of the infernal re- 
gions with Minos and Rhadamanthus. 
The fon or any of the defcendants of A e- 
acus is called Aeacides, -ae, ( G. 385.) 

A E E [5 

particularly his grandfon Achilles, Firg. 
jien. I, 99. ; whence AeacicTinae minaey 
haughty threats like thofe of Achilles, 
Plaut. AJfin. 2, 3, l^> Aeacideia reg- 
no, the kingdom of Aeacus, OviJ. 
Met, 7, 472. 

AEeTA, or Aeetes, -ae, a king 
of Colcbis, the father of Medea ; who 
is hence called Aeetias, -ad'tSy Ovid. 
Met. 7, 9. Aeetis, WtSy Val. Flac. 
6, 479. and Aeetia virgo, ib. 267. 
Fines Aeeiaeii the territories of Aeetes, 
i. e. Colchis, Catull. 63, 3. 

AEGAEON, 'ontiy a giant, who 
IS faid to have had 100 hands and 
50 heads, Virg. Atn. 10, 565. called 
Briareus by the gods, Homer, IL i, 
403. A fter being vanquifhed by Ju- 
piter, he was tied by Neptune wiih a 
hundred chains to a rock in the ifland 
3cyro8 ; and there being a report that 
he was attempting to loofe his chains, 
Thetis was fent to examine the mat- 
ter. On this occafion having heard 
the noife of diverfion and dancing in the 
hall of Lycomedes, king of the ifland, 
and thence concluding that the in- 
habitants were effi-minate, fhe refolved 
to conceal with him her fon Achilles, 
Stat, Achili. I, 207. 

AEGEUS, in two fyllables, -eos, 
V. -e'u the fon of Neptune, Juvenal. 
13, 81. a king of Atht-ns, the father of 
Thefeus; hence calledry^^I^w, Ovid. Ep. 
4, 59. — ^ 2. A name given to Neptune, 
Virg. Aen. 3, 74. becaufe the poets 
make his chief abode to be in the bot- 
tom of the Aegean fea, near Aegae, 
a town of Euboea, Homer. IL 13, 21. 
A EG I ALE, the wife of Diomedes, 
king of Aetolia, to whom ftie proved 
falfe, and thus prevented his return to 
his native country, after the deftruc- 
tion of Troy, ^erv, in Virg. Aeiu 8, 
9, & II, 269. 

Aegialeus, (4 fyll.) the fon of 
A draft us, the only one that was flain 
of the feven, (Epigoni,) who went to 
avenge the death of their parents in 
the Theban war, Hygin. 71. 

Aegialus, the fame with Abfyr- 
tus, the brpther of Medea, Jujlin, 
42, 3. 

1 A E L 

Aegimius, a man who is faid t© 
have lived 200 years, PUn. 7, 48. 

Aegina, the daughter of Asopus, 
king of Boeotia, the mother of Aea- 
cus by Jupiter, Hygin. 52. 

AEGISTHUS, the fon ot Thyef- 
tes, (Thyejiiades^) by his daughter 
Pelopeia, who murdered his uncle A- 
treus ; and having ftduced Clytaemnef- 
tra, the wife of Agamemnon, by her 
afiiftance alfo murdered that hero, af- 
ter his return from the Trojan war. 
Aegifthus was himfelf flain by Oreftes, 
the fon of Agamemnon, to revenge 
his father's death, Hygin. 117, & 244. 
Pompey ufed to call Caefar by the 
name of Aegifthus, Suet, Caef. 50. 

Aegle, (i.e. fplendor, ) a beautiful 
nymph, Virg. Ed. 6, 21. 

AEGLES, a wreftler, born at Sa- 
mos, who though formerly dumb, upon 
feeing fraud committed at a facred 
contcft, while the combatants drew 
lots for their place, from indignation 
and an exceflive defire to fpeak, is 
faid to have broken the bonds of his 
tongue ; fo that ever afterwards he 
fpoke diftindly. Cell. 5, 9.; Vah Max, 
I, 8, Ext. 4. 

Aegoceros, -/, m. the fame with 
Capricortius, one of the figns of the 
Zodiac, Lucan. 9, 537.; accuf. ^^^0- 
ceron. Id. 10, 213, 

A EG ON, (i. c. caprarius,) the 
name of a fliepherd, Virg. Eel, 3, 2. — 
alfo put for the Egean fea, Stat, Theb, 

Aegypta, a freedman of Cicero's, 
Cic. Fam. 16, 15, 

Aegyptus, the fon of Belus and 
king of Egypt, whofe fifty fons mar- 
ried the fifty daughters of his brother 
Danaus, Hygin. 168. (G. 392.) 

Claudus A ELI ANUS of Praenefte, 
a Roman Sophift, in the time of A- 
drian, who wrote, in Greek, fixteen 
books concerning the hiftory of ani- 
mals, and fourteen books containing 
various hiftorical fads, (de Hi/ioria 
Varia,) which are ft ill extant, 

AELII, a plebeian gens or claq at 
Rome, containing feveral families, the 
Pa^ti^ TuberoneSf Catif 6cc, 


'A E L 

I 6 ] 

A E N 

Q^ A ELIUS, to whom Lucllfus, 
the firft writer of fatires, infcribed 
his poems, Cic. Heren, 4, II. a Stoic 
who wrote orations for others called 
Oratinnes Aeltanae ; but never deh'vered 
anyhimfelf. Cic. Brut. 46, & 56. the 
praeceptor of M. Varro, and alfo re- 
forted to by Cicero, ik He wrote 
concerning the Roman antiquities, Cic. 
yicad, I, 2. and the laws of the twelve 
tables, Cic. de Leg. 2, 23. 

Sex. AELIUS, called Catus, from 
his fl<ill in the civil law, Cic. de Oral. 

1, 45. on which he Avrote commen- 
taries, ih. 56. and on the twelve tables, 
€ic. Leg. 2, 23. He gave his advice 
freely to all citizens, Cic. Or. 3, 33. 
Phny mentions an Aelius Catus, 
who, when Conful, refufed a prefent 
of filver plate, fent to him by the am- 
bafladors of the Aetohans, who had 
feen him dining on earthen ware ; nor 
had he ever any other, except two 
filver cups, which his father-in-law 
L. PauUus had given him for his brave- 
ry in the war againft king Perftus, 
PUn. 33, II. f. 50. Ennius calls him 
a remarkably wile man, (Egregie cor- 
daius homo Catus Melius Sextusy) Cic. 
Tufc. I, 9. 

L. Aelius Lamia, a great friend 
of Cicero's, Cic. Pif. 27. et alihi pajj'm. 

AELIUS Galiusy governor of E- 
gypt under Auguilus, who conquered 
part of Arabia, iHin, 6, 28 f, 32. in 
which expedition he was attended by 
the geographer Strabo, whom he treat- 
ed as his friend and companion, Stral). 

2. p. 118, & 17. p. 816. To him 
Virgil infcribes his loth eclogue. 

AcLLO, -onis, m. one of Actaeon's 
dogs, Ovid. Met. 3, 219. 

AcLLO, 'liSy f. one of the Harpies, 
Ovid. Met. 13, 710. 

AEMILIA ge7i , a clan, in which 
were the families of the Borbulacy Le- 
pidij Mamerci and Mamerciniy PauUiy 
and Scauri. There was alfo a tribe 
called -EMILIA, Cic. At. 2 
an Ae MI LI A VIA, Cic. Fam. 
(G. 184.) 

/\emilius Indus, a fchool of gla- 
diators belonging to Aemilius Lepidus, 
Horat, Art. Poet, 32. 

I. and 

o, 30. 

L. AEMILIUS Paullus, a great 
general, who conquered Perfeus. king 
of Macedonia, Liv. 44, 41 ; Cic. ^^err, 
I, 21. ; whence Regiaque ^emilid ve£ta 
tropoea rate, the trophies or fpoils gain- 
ed from that king carried to Ronne in 
the fliip of Aemilius, to grace his tri- 
umph, Propert. 3. 3, 8 One of the 
fons of Aemilius Paullus was adopted 
by the fon of the great Scipio Afri- 
canus, the conqueror of Hannibal, 
and hence he was called P. Cornelius 
Scipio A EMI Li AN us. — Scc Scipio. 

Aemon, Aemusy &c. ; Vid. Hae- 
MON, &;c. 

AENfEAS, an illuftrious Trojan 
chief, the fon of Venus and AnchTfes ; 
who, after the deilruftion of Troy, 
being joined by numbers of thofe who 
had efcaped from the Greeks, left his 
native country, and, after various ad- 
ventures, landed with his companions 
at the mouth of the Tiber. Having 
married Lavinia, the daughter of LatT- 
nns, king of that part of Italy, he 
built a city which, from the name of 
his wife, he called Lavinium. His fon 
Afcanius built Longa Alba ; and from 
his poilerity, who reigned at Alba, 
RomuluSj the founder of Rcme, was 
defcended. Hence AeneAdae, the 
Trojans, Vhg. An. I, 157. ^)r Ro- 
mans, ib. 8, 648. (G. 187. &c.) 

Aeneides, or Aemdes, -ae^ lulus 
or Afcanius, the fon of Aeneas, ih. 9, 
653. from whom Julius Caefar pre- 
tended to be fprung ; w^hence he calls 
;\eneas meus, i. c. mens auliory a quo 
ego crtus Juniy Lucan. 9, 991. 

xAenilis, -uUsy V. '\doSy f. the poem 
of Virgil concerning the exploits of Ae- 
neas, Ovid. Trijl. 2, 533. ; Stat. Theb, 
12, 826. — Ae?ieia nutrix, Csijtia, f^irg. 
Aen. 7, I. Aeneia armay the wars of 
Aeneas, Ovid. mor. I, 15, 25. ; 
pietas. Id. Eaft. 4, 799. ; virtvsy Met. 
14, 381. ;/«/^, his death, Stat. Silv. 
5' 3> 37* Aeneia carminay the poem 
of Virgil concerning Aeneas, Lucan. 
ad Pif. 218. 

AENOBARBUS, v. Ahenoharbus^ 
the fjrname of a family of the gens 
Domitia ; iirft given to L. Domitius, 


A E O [7 

who, returning from the country, is 
faid to have been met by two young 
men of a more auguft appearance than 
human, who commanded him to c^rrj 
to th^ fenate and people, the news of 
a viAory, not then known for certain 
at Rome ; and as a proof of their be- 
ing more than men, (injidem majcjla- 
iis,J llroked his cheeks fo as to ren- 
der the hair of his beard, from be- 
ing black, ruddy and hke to brafs. 
This maik of diilinAion dcfcended alfo 
to his poilerity, who generally had a 
ruiMy beard, Sm'i. Ner% I. 

AEOLUS, a king of the Lipari 
iflands, between Italy and Sicily, call- 
ed from him InfiiJae A^oliae^ (G 275. )> 
/Ivilled in prognollicating the weathtr, 
a^^d ilierefore fuppofed to have the 
winds and clouds in his power ; hence 
ca)'ed the God of the winds, Serm, ad 
V'trg, Aen, I, 56. the fon of Hippo- 
tas ; hence called Hippofades, Ovid 
Met. 14, 221. — Aeolides, -as, the 
fon of Aeolus ; a name given to Mi- 
senus, the trumpeter of Aeneas, be- 
caufe the blowing of trumpets de- 
pei'ds on wind, Vlrg, Acn 6, 164. — 
A Eo LI DAK, plur the fons of Aeolus, 
who marri. d their lifters, Ovid. Met* 
9, 504. ; Horner^ O^yff* '^» ?• &c. 

Aeolus, a king of ThefTaly, the 
father of Sisyphus, who is hence called 
A tOLiDEs, Hur, Od* 2, 10, 20.; which 
name is alio applied by way of reproach 
to Ulyffes, as being fuppofed the fon 
of S ivphus, who was thought to have 
had connection with Anticlea, the mo- 
ther of Ulyflfcs, before her marriage 
with Laertes, Serv. ad Virg. Acru 6, 
529. 80 Aeoluies is put for Ptirixus, 
the grand fon of Aeolus, Val. Flac. 

I, 286. and Aeolidae^ for the fons of 
Phrixus, ih 5, 462 

Aeolis, 7^//V, Canace, the daugh- 
ter of eolus, voc. Aeoli, Ovid. Ep. 

II, 34- 

Aepulo, -0/WJ-, a king of the Klri- 
ans, who flew himfelf, that he might 
not fall alive into the hands of the 
Romans, Liv. 41, 11. Florus calls 
him Apulo, and fays that he was ta- 
ken in a Itate of intoxication, 2, 10. 


A E S 

AEPyTUS, one of the chief compa- 
nions of Amp h ion in the Theban war, 
Stat. Theh. 10, 400. entrufled with 
the defence of one of the gates of 
Thebes, Id. 11, 240. 

A E rope, .f.r, the wife of Atreus, 
feduced . by Thyeftes, the brother of 
Atreus, Ovid. Trl/l. 2, 391. [G. 405.) 

Aesacos, v. -usy the fon of Priam 
by the nymph Alexirhoe, who having 
become enamoured of the nymph Hef- 
perie, upon feeing her in the woods, 
whilft he purfued her flying from him, 
occafioned her death ; for in her flight 
(he was bit by a ferpent in the foot. 
Aefacus, overwhelmed with grief, threw 
himfelf from a rock into the fea, but 
Tethys, out of compaflion, transform- 
ed him into a cormorant, (mergus) ; 
but he, provoked that he could not 
die, never ceafes plunging himfelf into 
the fea, Ovid. Met. 11, 762. &c. Apol- 
lodorus fays that Aefacus was the fori 
of Priam hj his firft wife Aiiiba ; that 
he married Aflerdpe, the daughter of 
the river Cebren ; and that while he 
lamented her death, he was changed 
into a bird, 3, 11, 5. 

Aeschines, -is, an Athenian ora- 
tor, the rival of Demofthenes, Cic. de 
Orat. 3, 56. ; ^in^il. 10, i. — <[[ 2. 
A Socratic philofopher, Cic. Inv. i, 
31. — ^3. An Afiatic orator cotempo- 
rary with Cicero, Cic. Brut. 95. 

AESCHYLUS, the fon of Euph5. 
rion, Herodot. 2, 156. an Athenian tra- 
gic poet, (Tragaedias primum in lucem 
Aejchylus protidit^ fuUimis et gravis, et 
grandiioqiuis faepe ufque ad vitittm^ Sic.) 
Quin6lil. 10, I, 6G. ; who firft erec- 
ted a permanent Itage, and v/as the 
inventor of the mafic, (persona^) the 
long flowing robe, (palla v. fyrma,} 
and the high heeled flioe or buflcin, 
(cothurnus^) which ancient tragedians 
wore, Hor. A. P. 278.. (A. 355.) 
Hence Aefchyleo componere verba cothur' 
no. to compofe verfes in a lofty tragic 
ftyle, like that of Aefchylus, Prbpert. 
2, 34, 41. But Vulpius reads here 
. khilleo cothurno, i. e. in the flyle of 
epic poetry, ib. Aefchylus was diftin- 
guifhed for his bravery, as well as for 


A E S [J 

his genius. He was prefent in the 
battles at Marathon, Salamis, and Ar- 
temifium, Paufan, i, 14. For fome 
time before his death he lived in Sicily, 
whether in voluntary exile or not, is 
uncertain. We read of his having 
been once tried for impiety, and in 
danger of being ftoned to death for 
having introduced fomething irreligi- 
ous in one of his plays, but he was ac- 
quitted by the interpofition of his bro- 
ther Amineas, Jdian. Far. H. 5, 19. 
if ibi Perizon, Plutarch fays, that 
Aefchylus retired to Sicily in dffguft 
at being vanquifhed by S<>phocles, a 
young man, in the contetl for the 
prize of poetic merit, in Cimone, p. 483. 
A wonderful account is given concern- 
ing the death of Aefchylus. Being 
forewarned that on a certain day he 
fhould be killed by fomething falling 
on him, he left the city where he lived, 
and went to the open fields to avoid 
danger. While fitting on the ground, 
an eagle, miftaking his head, which 
was bald, for a ftone, dafiied againft 
it a tortoife he carried in his talons, in 
order to break the flicll, that he might 
get at the fiefh. Aefchylus was in- 
Itantly killed by th^e ftroke. P/in. 10, 
3. ; FaL Mux. 9, 12. exi. 2. Seven 
of his tragedies are ftill extant. 

Aeschylus, an orator, a native of 
Cnidos, under whom Cicero ftudied 
when a young man, Cic. Brut. 91. 

AESCUL APIUS, the fon of Apol- 
lo, (Phoeb'igena)^ and god of phyfic ©r 
medicine, F'trg. Aen. 7, 773. called ^/i- 
iauriusy from his being worfhipped at 
Epidaurus in Argolis, under the fiiape 
of a ferpent, Ovid. Met, 15, 725.; 
Prop, 2, I, 63. Deus Ep'idauriusy 
Propert. 2, t, 6[. Pergameus deus, 
from the lionour paid to iiim at Per- 
gamus, AlartiaL 9, 17. (G. 369.) 

Aeserninus, the name of a gla- 
diator, from Aefernia, Cic. Opt» Gen. 
die. 6.', ^Fr. 3, 4. 

AESON, -onis, ^^i"g of lolcos, the 
father of Jafon, who is hence called 
Aesonides, -ae, Ovid. Met. 7, 60. 
jiesonius heros, ib. 7, 156. Aejomus 
dux^ Id. Am. J, 15, 22. /fefcriia 

I 1 AFR 

domtts, the houfe of Acfon, Id, Ep» 
12, 134. (G 439. .^c.) 

AESOPUS, the famous author of 
fables ; a native of Phrygia, originally 
a flave, but made free on account of 
his genius. — Fahulae /^efopiae, non /iefo- 
pi., the fables compofed in the manner 
of Aefop, but not written by him, 
Phaedr. j, I, 11. So Aefopei logi, 
Senec. Confol. ad Polyb. 17. It is 
uncertain whether any of the fables 
we now have were written by Aefop. 
The life of Aesopus, afcribed to Maxi- 
mus Planudes, is full of abfurdities, 
and unworthy of credit. 

Claudius Aesopus, a celebrated ac- 
tor of tragedies, intimate with Cicero, 
Cic. Div. I, 37. ; who ftudied under 
him the art of delivery, Plutarch, in 
Cic. Aefopus accumulated an im- 
menfe fortune, and was very expenfivc 
in his manner of living, PHn, 10, 51. 
f. 72. et 35, 12. f. 46. 

Aesopus, the ador*s fon, was no- 
ted for his luxury, extravagance, and 
profligacy, Cic, Att, li, 13, &. ij. ; 
Hor Sat. 2, 3, 239. ; Plin, 9, 35, 
f. 59. ; 10, 51, f. 72. 

AETHON, one of the horfes of 
the fun, Ovid. Met. 2. 153. — ^2. 
The war horfe of Pallas, Virg. Aen. . 
II, 89. SiC. 

AETHRA, the daughter of Pit- 
theus, and mother of Thefeus, Hygin, 
79. who is hence called PitthFidos 
Aethrae Filius, Ovid. Ep. 10, 131. 
Nepos Aithracy Hippolitus, Ovid, in 
Ibiuy S71' 

Aethra, one of the maid-fervants 
01* confidants of Helena, Ovid. Ep. 17, 
150, & 267. Nygin. 92. 

^. ETiON, a painter, Cic. Brut, 18. 

L. '\franius, an excellent Romaa 
comic poet, Cic. Br, 45- ; Fin, 1,3.; 
Hor. Ep 2, I, 57. 

L. Afranius, the fon of Aulas, 
conlul a. 693. ; a luxurious, indo- 
lent man, Cic. Att. i, ]8, 19. &c. af- 
terwards one of the lieutenants of Pom- 
pey in Spain, Cic, Fam. 16, 12. where 
he was forced by Cacfar to furrender 
himfelr and his army, Caef. B. C 1, 8. 
He however again engaged in the ci- 

A F R C 9 ] 

vH war againft Cacfar ; an^ bein^ ta- 
ken piifoner after the battle of Zama 
jn Africa, was put to death, Htrt, B. 
jifr. 95. ; SueU Caef. 75. — Afraniana 
aciesj the army of Afranins, Caes. B. C. 
I, 8^. ; yifranianiffc. rni/ites, 'b. 43. 

Atricanus, a firname given to P. 
Cornelius Scipio, the conqueror of Han- 
nibal, Liv. 30, 45. ; Nor. Od. 4, 8, 18. ; 
Epod. 9, 25. and to his grandfon by- 
adoption, who deftroyed Carthage, call- 
•ed, by way of diiiin(3:ion, African us 
Minor, C'tc. OJpc. 1,32. 

Agamedes, -frf, and Trophonins, 
two architefts, who having built a 
temple to Apollo at Delphi, requefled 
from that god the beft thing that 
could be given to man ; and, the third 
morning after, were both found dead 
in their beds ; to fhew, as it was 
thought, that the gods judged death to 
be the beft thing for man, Cic. Tujc. I, 

AC5AMEMNQN, vel -0, ^ttus, the foQ 
of Atreus, king of Mycenae, and com- 
mander of the Greeks in the war againft 
Troy. Regum rex, Cic. Fam. 9, 14. 
Homer'icus et Accianusy as defcribed by 
the poets Homer and Accius, Id. Tufc. 
3, 26.' — Agameinnoriidcs^ -dae, Juv. 8. 
315' — ' Agamemnonius Orejies^ O reile s 
the fon -of -Agamemnon, f^i-g» 4m, 4, 
i^'] l,^-' /^gamemnonta putlla, Iphigenla. 
Sais daughter PropcH. A^., I, in.-— 
j^gamemnonlae Mycenae^ the city of A- 
gamemnon, V'lrg. Aen, 6, 838.; phalan- 
ges^ the troops of, iL 489.; rex, his for- 
tune or party, ih. 3, 54. ; Conjux ex 
AgamemnonUs una puella trilusj your 
choice of Agamemnon's three daugh- 
ters to wife, Ovid, Ep. 3, 38. 

AGATHOCLES, -ix, a tyrant of 
Sicily, the fon of a potter, Jujl'in. I. 2U 
& 23. ; Diedor, 19, 20. — Alfo an hif- 
torian, Cic. Div. i, 24. 

AGAVE, -ejf the daught^er of Cad- 
mus and Hermione, married to Kchi- 
on, a Theban, by whom fhe had a fon 
called Pentheus, whom {lie, with her 
fillers Autonoe and Ino, having met. 
while celebrating the facred rites of 
Bacchus, and being tranfported by the 
iafpiration of Bacchus, or impelled 

A G L 

by the furies, tore in pieces, bec^ufe 
he flighted the woriliip of that godj 
Ovid. Met. 3, 5 I J, — ad Jin. ; If or. Sat» 
2, 3. 303. ; Lucan. £, 574, ; 7, 7S0. 
Agave having come to herfelf, fled 
from Thebes to Theffaly, and having 
performed funeral rites to her fjn, 
built a city of the fame name with 
her native city, hence called Tbehae 
Echmnacy Lucan. 6, 356. ; Virg. in 
Cu/ice, no. — Efurit iniaSam Paridi 
n'iji vendii Agaven^ fc. Staihts., ftarves, 
unlcfs he fells his play called Agave, 
before he has recited or fhewed it to 
any one (inta&am)i to the ador Paris, 
the favourite of Domitian, Juven. 7, 78. 

Agelastus, a lirnamc given to 
CrafTus, the grandfather of that Craf- 
fus who was cist off by the Parthians, 
bccaufe he never laughed. Pirn. 7, 19.; 
Ck. Fin. 5, 31. 

AG EN OR, -ertV, a king of Phoeni- 
cia, the fon of Neptune, and brother 
of Belus ; the father of Cadmus, hence 

called A' 



jeaortaes, -ac^ uvid. Met. j, 

7. who founded Thebes ; hence Ags.' 
norea ifmene, i.e. 'Thebana^ Stat.Thcb. 

8, 5^5". Agenoris urbs, i.e. Carthage, 
built by the Phoenicians, f^'irg. Aen. i, 
338. Agenorea terra^ the p>art of Africa 
round Carthage, Sil. 17, 58. Agenoreae 
arces, its towers, ib. i, 14.; porlacy ita 
gates, 17, 197. /Igenoreus duBor^ Han- 
nibal, ih. 17, 392. Purpura Agmoreis 

fatunita micabjxt a/jenisf dyed in Tyrian 
vciTt'ls, ib. 7. 

AGEEiLAUi^ an illuftrioHS king of 
Sparta, N(p. 17. 

AG IS* 'idisf the name of fevcral 
kings of Sparta ; one of whom was flain 
by his citiztns for attempting to rertore 
the laws of Lycurgus, and introduce 
an equal divifion of land, Cic, OJf. 2, 23, 

AGLAIA, one of the three Gra- 
ces, (G. 364^) 

AG LA US, a poor .Arcadian, pro- 
nounced bv the oracle of Delphi tp 
have been happ'er than king Gyges, 
PUtt. 7, 46. ; Val. Max. 7, i 2. 

AGLAUROS, -i, the daughter of 
Cecrops, kir.g of Athens, turned into 
a ftone by Mercury, Ovid. Met. 2, ^^S' 
&c. €t 739. &c. 

B Agq^ 


AGO [10 

AooRACRiTUs, a famous ftatuary, 
^ native of Piros, the fcholar of Phi- 
dias ; fee Pliny, 36, 5. 

AGRICOLA, the celebrated Ro- 
man governor of Britain, under che 
emperors Vefpafian, Titus, and Domi- 
tian ; the father-in-law of Tacitus the 
hiftorian, who wrote his life. The fleet 
Ot Agricola is faid to have firft afcer- 
tained the infular form of Britain, by- 
failing round it, Tack. Agr. 10. 

AGJUPPA, the name of a noble 
family at Rome. 

Menemus Agrippa, a conful, who 
fcrought back the people to Rome when 
they made a feceffion to the Mons Sa- 
cer, Liv. 2, 32. 

M- Vipfan'ius Agrippa, the friend 
of Auguftus, born of a mean family, 
(ignobililoco), Tac. '\nn. i, 2. to whom 
that emperor was indebted for his vic- 
tories over Sextus Pompeius and An- 
tony, Plin. 7. 8. He died a. u. 741, 
equally lamented by Auguilus and by 
the Roman people, Dio 54, 38. Dio 
fays he was incomparably the firft man 
pf his age for worth and talents, 54, 
29. Though he difapproved of \ u- 
guftus converting the government of 
Kome into a monarchy, Dio, 52, 2. — 
14. yet he ferved him through life 
•with the greateft fidelitv^ D'lo, 54, 29. 
He is celebrated by Virgil, Aen- 8, 632. 
and Horace, Od. 1,6.; Sat. 2, 3, 185.; 
JBp. I, 12 26. Thofe of this name 
are faid to have been fo called from 
their being born with the feet fore- 
moft, (Vocabulo ah aegntudhie et pedibus 
confsSoj Gell. 16, 16. ut aegre parti, 


Agrippina, the daughter of M. 
Agrippa, and wife of Germanicus, 
Tactt. Ann. I, 53. Their daughter A- 
gripplna was the mother of Nero, ih. 4, 


AGRIUS, the fon of Parthaon 
king of Aetolia, \yhp deprived his 
brother Oeneus of the crown, and was 
himfclf afterwards dethroned by Dio- 
medes, the grandlon of Oeneus, Hygin. 
175.; Ovid. Ep 9, 153. 

Agr. I us, the father of Therfites, 
Ovid, Pont, 3, 9, 9, 

1 ^ Alt; 

AcylEUS, vel ^gyeus, (3 fyll.) -eo^^ 
a name of Apollo, Hor. Od. 4, 6* 28. 
Diiferent reafons of the name are gi- 
ven ; the moft probable is, becaufc 
ftatues were erefted to him by the 
Greeks in the public ftreets, e' rajf 
(cyoiaiq^ ScholiaJ}. iff Macroh. Sai. l, 9. 

AGYLLEUS, (3 fyll), a native 
of Cleone, (Cieona.'us), a famous wreil- 
ler, Stat. T beh. 6, 837. called Hercu^ 
leus, a fon of Hercules, ik 10, 249. 

Agyrtes, an infamous parricide, 
Ovid. Md. 5, 148. 

Agyrtes, a cornbatant in the The- 
ban war, Stat. Theh. 9, 281. 

Aha LA, a firname of the Servility 
Liv. 4, i^. ; Cic. Phil. 2, II. ; Cic. 
Mil. 3. ; Att. 2, 24, 

C. Servilius Ah ALA, matter of horfe 
to Cincinnatus, who fiew Mielius for 
refufmg to appear before the dictator, 
Liv. 4, 13, & 14. ; Cic. Cat. i, i. 

Ahenobarbus, a firname of the 
Domifii, Suet. Ner. i. & 2. Fid. \e- 


AJAX, the fon of Telamon, fTela- 
mamades, Ovid. Met. 13, 231. TeU" 
mone creatus, ib. 22. a - Jove tertins, ih. 
28. \t\ Jovis prone pos, ib. 142. Tele- 
monius heros, Virg. Cul. 314. )» by 
Hefione, the daughter of Laomedon 
king of .Troy, the braved of the Greeks 
next to Achilles ; Hcros ah Achille fc- 
cundus, Hor. Sat. 2, 3, 193. Acerru 
mus, Virg. .A en. 2, 414 Forti/Jimusy 
Cic. Tufc. 4, 23. Impatiens contnmeliae. 
Id. Off. I, 31. et iracy Ovid. Met. 13, 
194. called dull or foolifh (jhlidus) by 
Ulylfes, ih. 327 having his fhield co- 
vered with feven plies of a bull's hide, 
(Clypei donyinus fepttmpUcis 4jax), ib. 2. 

There was another AjAX, the 

fon of Oileus, Ovid. Met. 12, 622. 
king of Locris, hence called Narycius 
heros, from Nai*y:i, a city of Locris, 
ih. 14, 468. lefs palHonate than the 
former Ajax, ( modcratior ) , ib. 13, 356. 
but inferior in ftrength ; hence called 
Ajax fecwidusy Stat. Achill. i, 500. 
(See G. p. 450.) 

Aius Loquensy the name of an un- 
known god among the Romans, who 
is faid to have foretold, by a voice in 


tlie night-time, the approach of the 
Gauls ; whence a tempie was erefted 
to him under this name, C'lc. Div. 2, 
32. et I, 45. called alfo Locufius, Liv. 
5, 50. ; Gell 16, 17. 

Alabandus, the founder of Ala- 
banda, a city of Caria ; worfhipped 
by the inhabitants as a god, Cic. N. D. 

3> 19- 

Alabarches, -asf a nickname given 
to Pompey, on account of his having rai- 
led certain taxes in Syria, Cic. Att. 2,17. 

Alastor, one of the companions of 
Sarpedon, ilain by Ulyffes, Qvid. Met, 

ALBTA gtnsy a family at Rome, 
from which the poet Tibullus was de- 
fcended, who is fuppofed to be the 
Albius addreffedby Horace, ^^5. 1,4. 

Albi NOV ANUS, a Roman firname, 
Hor. Ep. 1,8. 

Celfus Albinovanus, the fecre^ 
tary of Tiberius Nero, and friend of 
Horace, ^or. Ep. i, 8. 

Pedo Albinovanus, a poet, and 
friend of Ovid's, Ovid. Pont. 4, 10. 

L. ALBINIUS, a Roman, who fly- 
ing from the Gauls with his wife and 
children in a waggon, made them alight 
to accommodate the Veftal virgins ; 
whom he carried with the iacred things 
to Caere, Lvo. 5, 4. 

Albinusj a hrname of the Pofl- 
huraian family, which produced feveral 
illuftrious men ; L'tv. et Cic. 

T. A LBUTius, a nobie Roman, who 
triumphed over Sardinia, Cic. Off.z^ 
14. and being afterwards banifhed, Id. 
Br. 26. took up his refidenee at A- 
thens, Id. Tufc. 5, 37. 

ALCAKUS, a tamous lyric poet, a 
native of Mitylene in Lell^os, Cic. N. 
D. 1,27. n/-. 4-33- (See G. 343.) 

Alcaeus, the Iwn of Perieus and 
Androm.eda, the father of Amphitryon^ 
the fuppofed father of Hercules, Apol- 
lodor. 2,4, 5. Paujan. 8, 14. Whence 
Hercules is called /\ lcides, -a^, Virg. 
Aen. 6, 8qi. 8, 203, &c. Hor. Od. i) 

IZy 25. 

Alcamenes, -is, a ftatuary, the 
fcholar of Phidias, Plin, 36, 5. 34, 8. 
Cic. N. D. li^Q, 

I ] A L C 

Alcakder, -drij a companidti oi 
Sarpedon to the Trojan war, Ovidi 
Met. 13, 258. — ^ 2. A Trojan, flain 
by Tun. us, Virg. Aen. 9, 767. 

Alcanor, -om, a Trojan who 
dwelt on mount Ida, the father of Pan- 
darus and Bitias, Virg. Aen. 9, 672. 
— ^ 2. An Italian, jQain by Aeneas^ 
Virg. Aen. 10, 338. 

Alcestis, -idisy V. -<", •<?/, th6 
daughter of Pelias, and wife of Adme- 
tus, king of Pherae in Theffaly, who 
fubmitted to a voluntary death, to favc 
her hufoand^s life ; but is laid to have 
been reftored by Proferpine, or 
brought back by Hercules, Apollodor» 
I, 15. e{ 2, 5. ; Hygin. 51. ; Juiyenal. 6^ 
651. called «."0Njux Paoasaea, fronx 
Pagafa, a city in Thellaly belonging to 
her father, Ovid. Art. A. 3, 19. 

Alcathous, a fon of Pelops, who 
became king of Megara, and gave to it 
the name of Alcathoc, Paufan. I, 4.J 
Ovid. Art. Am, 2, 421. ; Met. 7, 443. 

Alcathous, a Trojan flain by Cae- 
dicus, a Liitin, Virg. Aen. 10, 747. 

Alce, -cs, (i. e. robur,) one of Ac"!- 
taeon's hounds, OwV. Met. 3, 217. 

Alcibiades, -ij',an illuftrious Athe- 
nian general, A^^/>. 7. Someof hiswritings 
were extant in the time of Cicero, Cicn 
Or. i, 22. 

Algid A MAS, -antis^ a noted wreftler, 
Stat. TheL. 12, 500.— Another, the fa- 
ther of Cartheia or Cteiilla, Ovid. Met,. 

7> 369- 

Alcidamus, an ancient rhetorician^ 
who wrote an oration in praife of death, 
Cic. Tufc. 1, 48. 

Alcidi s, -fie, a name of Hercules, 
from his grandfather Alcaeus, the fa-* 
t her of A mphitryon, Serv. ad Virg. Aen* 
6, 123. 

Alcimachus, a renowned painter^ 
Plin. 35, ii.f. 40, 32. 

Alcimede, -es, the wife of Aefon* 
and mother of Jafon, Hygin, 3. and 
14. ; Val. Flac. I, 317. Stat. Theb. 5, 


Alcimedon, 'Ontis, a famous carver, 
Virg. Eel. 3, 37. 

ALCINOL^S, the fon ofNaufuhous, 

king of the Phaeacians.and of the ifland 

£ 2 Corcyra, 

A L C t s 

Corcyra, who KofpitaWy eMcrtaincd 
XJlyffes 'f remarkable for his attention 
to the cukiTation of gardens ; hence 
jilcinoi Syhaey apple trees, P^irg, G. 2, 
87. 'i Alcinot fowa^ thefineft apples, Ovid. 
Am. I, i-o, ^6, ; Pont. 4, 2, 10. ; 
J^ife'ra Ak'tno: pomaria, the orchards of 
Alcinou'^, which bear twice a-year, 
Stat. Silv. T , 3, 81.} PBn^i^, 4. ; C antes 
Alcinoi, the rocks of Corcyra, Ovid Met. 
14, 565. Alcinoique In cute curanda plus 
itequo Cfperata juventusj luxurious young 
men who took up too much time in 
adorning their perfonsj a» thofe who 
lived in the court of Alcinaus are faid 
to have done, Hor. Ep. i, 2, 29. Alci- 
noi men/dy luxurious i Apois^usj a tedi- 
ous incredible ftory, 

Atcipp-e, -fo, a woman who is re- 
ported to have brought forth an ele- 
phanc; or, as Harduin reads the paf- 
fage, a child with an ekphant^s head, 
Plin. 7, 3. like what is mentioned, 
Lh. 27, 1 1 . Fal. Max. 1, 6, 5. 

Alcippe, a Gom>tr.y woma«, Virg, 
Ec. 7, 14. 

Alci&, a deity worfhipped by the 
Naharvali., a nation of the Germans, 
^ac. G. 43, — ^2. A name given to 
Minerva by the Macedonians, Liv. 42, 

Alcisthene, -es, a female painter, 
Plin. 35, II f. 40, 43. 

Alcithoe, -es, a Theb^n v?oman, 
who ridiculed the facre-d rites of Bac- 
chus, and therefore was rcetamorpho- 
iied int(. a bat, Ovid-. Met< 4. pf. 

ALCMAKON, 'cnis, the fon of 
the augur Amphiaraus, {Amphiardldesj 
"Off Ovid. Fall. 2,43.), who, according 
to his father's order?, flew his mother 
Eriphllb, Hygin. 73, ; Virg^ Aen. 6, 
445.; Ovid. Met 9, 407, &c. J- called 
from his brother, Amphihcbi Fratevj 
Jd. Rem. Amor. 455. and from his 
iwife, CalUrrh'ies vir, Id. in I bide, 
^^Oi {vid. G. 43 2i) — Alcmaeoniae fu- 
riae, the furies which tortured Ale- 
maeon for his guilt, Propert. 3, 5, 41. 

Alcmaeon, -o«/V, a native of Mef- 
fenia, who being obliged to leave his 
country upon the invafion of the He- 
rqcHdae or defcendanw of iier<iule&, 

2 1 ALE 

fettled at Athens, (G. 409.). Hr3 
pofterity called Akm<ieoTndae^ became 
one of the noblcft families of that citVy 
and contributed greatly to the efta- 
bhlhment of its liberty, ib. 309. 

ALCMAN, an ancient Greek lyric 
poet, Paufan. I, 41. born at Sardis in 
Lydia ; but brought to Sparta when 
very young ; whence he is commonly 
called a Lracedemonian, Aelian. Var, 
H'lfi. 12, ^ ihi Perizon. Veil. 1, 18 f, 
Siat. Silv. ^, 3, 150. Plutarch. dcexiL 

ALe^fEHA or Alcumena, the 
daughter of Eleflryon king of Myce- 
nae or Argos. Apollodor. 2, 4. 6. Hygin, 
29. hence called Argoi'is Alcmeue., Ovid. 
Met. 9, 313. the wife of Amphitryon 5 
the mother of Hercules by Jupiter, 
Plaut. Amphltr. Ovid. Met. g^ 2S1. — 
whence fhe is called Genitrix AJcidaCf 
Sil. 8. - ATater Hercuka, Stat. Theb« 
10, 106. — Nitrus Akmenae, Dejanira, 
the wife of Hercules, Ovid. Met. 8, 
542. Alcmena brought forth at the 
fame birth Iphicles, f. -us, by Amphi* 
trj-'on, Apollodor. ib. 8. 

Alcon, -misf the name of a fhep- 
herd ; Servius fays, of a famous Cretan 
archer, Firg. E. ^y 11. — f 2. A na- 
tive of Mylae (Myleus) m Sicily, a 
dexterous carver, Ovii!. Met. 13, 683. 
■ — ^ 3. A native of Saguntum, who 
attempted to procure favourable con- 
ditions of peace for his contrymen from 
Annibal; but in vain, Liv. 21, 12. 

Alcyone, Vid. Halcyon e. 

Alea, a name of Minerva, from a 
town of Arcadia, where fhe was wor» 
fhipped, Stat. Sih. 4, 6, 51.; Tbeb, 4, 

Alebas, vel Alevas, -ae, a ty- 
rant of LariiTa in ThefTaly, who- was 
flain by his own life-guards, Ovid in 
Ihin. 325. 

A LECTO, -usy -0; one of the three 
infernal furies, Virg. Aen. 7, 479. 
Ale£liis alae Jiridentes anguibus, ib. 561. 5 
ociilijlammcii 448. ; os rabiduniy 4^1. 

Alemon, -onisy a virtuous man of 
Argohs, Ovid. Met. 15, 19. the father 
of Myfceios, who is hence called 
AletnonideSf ib. z6* 

ALE t I 

A LEO, -onisf a fon of Atreus, Cic, 
<« U. £)■ ?, 2 1. 

Alethls, -/j, a Trojan, Firg. /len, 
1, 125. 9, 246. 

ALEXANDER, -di-i, firiiamcd 
Magnus, the Great ; the fon of 
Philip, and king of Macedonia ; who 
overturned the empire of the Perfians, 
{G. 470.) He ordained that no one 
fliould make a pifture of him but Apel- 
Ics, nor a brazen llatue of him but Ly- 
fjppus, Cic. Fanu 5, 12. Plm. 7, 37 : 
He however fufftred himfelf to be cele- 
brated by Choerilus, a contemptible 
poet ; for which Horace blames him, 
Ep. 2, r, 232. 

Alexander Pheraeus^ tyrant of 
Plierae in Theffaly, Cic. hiv. 2, 49. 
killed by his wife Thebe, Cic. ib. et 
Off". 2, 7. ; Ovid, in I bin. 321.; Diodor, 
50, 15. ; Val. Max. 9, 14. 

A LEX ANDES Paris, the fon of 
Priam and the lover of Helena, ^uBor 
ad Her en. 4, 30. ; Varr. L, L. 6, 5. 
Vid. Paris. 

Alexicagus, (i. e. the driver a- 
way of evil,) an epithet of Hercules, 
as being the defender of men, Varr» 
L. L. 6, 5. 

Alexio, «y. -o/r, -onis, a phyfician, 
intimate with Cicero, Att. 7, 2. 13, 25. 
ei. 15, I, 2. 

Alexis, -/j-, a favourite flave be- 
longing- to Atticus, Cit. Ah. 5, 20. 
7, 2. &c. — ^ 2. A youth celebrated 
by Virgil, EcL 2, i. faid to have been 
given to him iu a prefent by Maece*- 
nas, MartiaL 8, 56, 12. et 5, 16, 12. 
according to others, by Pollio, Serv. 
ad Virg. E. 2, I. Dcnat, in vii. {^irg. c. 
5, 20. to whom Juvenal is thought to 
allude, 7, 69. — <|f 3. A noted Itatuary, 
Plin. 34, 8. 

Alexirrhoc, vid. Alyxgrhoe. 

P. ALFENUS Varus, a learned 
lawyer, the fcholar of Servius Sulpici- 
U3, Cell 6, 5. The fcholiail on Ho- 
race fays, that he was originally a fhoe- 
maker, (Jutor,) according to Cruquius 
and Bentley, a barber, (ton/or,) at Cre- 
mona ; and that having given up- his 
trade, he came to. Rome and turned 
lawyer: whence Horace calls him ^'^- 
Jer, fubtle, iiat, I, 3, 130. But others 

3 1 ALP 

fuppofe a different perfon to be here 

Aloeus, (3. fyll.) a giant, the fon 
of Titan and Terra, wh?)fe wife, Iphi- 
media, produced by Neptune the giants 
Otus and Ephialtes ; called from their 
fuppofed father, AloTdae, Firg. Aen, 
6, 582. et ibi Serv, Ltican. 6, 410. 

Alphesiboea, v. Arsinoe, the 
daughter of Phegeua, ( Phegis -^dts ;} 
king of Pfophis, who married Al-cmae- 
on, and received from him the fatal 
necklace of hi« mother Eriphyle. Alc- 
maeon having proved unfaithful to 
Alphefiboea, was flain by her brothers. 
But fhe, highly offended by what they 
had done, is faid to have avenged the 
deed by putting them to death, Property 
I, 15, 15. ApoUodorus, who calls 
Alphefiboea by the name of Arfinoe, 
fays that the fons of Phegeus were kill- 
ed by Amphoterus and Acarnan, the 
fons of Alcmaeon by Callirhoe, 3, 7, 
6. Hyginus fays that Alcmaeon waa 
killed by Phegeus, f. 244. 

Alphesiboeus, the name of a fhep- 
herd, Virg, Ed. 8, 1. 

ALPHIUS, or Alfius, the name 
of an ufurer, Horat, Epod, 2, 67. fup- 
pofed to be the fame mentioned by 
Columella, i, 7, 2. 

ALPHOEUS, or Alph?us, the god 
of the river of that name in Eli&, a di- 
vifion of Peloponnefus; who falling in 
love with the nymph Arethufa, purfued 
her till fhe was changed by Diana into 
a fountam. Whereupon Alpheus, lay- 
ing afide his human form, was changed 
into his own waters, that he might mix 
himfelf with her, (Vertitur in pro^ia's^ 
ut fe mlhi mijceat, undas. ) But Arethufa, 
finking below ground, ran under the 
fea all the v/ay from Elis to Sicily, 
v/here (he burit forth and formed a 
large fountain in the ifland Ortygia, 
on which part of the city of Syracufe 
flood, O'Did. Met. 5, 4v4. — 503. et 
570. — 641. Hence the fountain Are- 
thufa in Syracufe was fuppofed to com- 
municate with the river Alpheus in 
Elis, Virg. Eel. 10,. I. & 4. Aen. 3, 
694. Hence alfo the nymph is called 
AlphTiaS'i -udisi and the waters of the 



fountain, Eleae undae ; thus, Cum 
caput Elds Alphe'ms extuUt undts, Ovid, 
ib, 487. 

ALPINUS, a poet who wrote In 
a turgid or bombaft ftyle ; whence 
Horace, ridiculing him, fays, Turg'idus 
Jilpinus jugulat dutn Memnona^ while he 
inurders Memnon in his poem, by the 
wretched defcription he gives of Mem- 
non's death, Sat. i, 10, 36. Dumque 
dcfngitliiteum Rheni caputs and disfigures 
the muddy fource of the Rhine, i. e. by 
his defpicable manner of defcribing it 
makes it appear muddy, and not clear 
or limpid, as it really is, ih, 37. 
Bentlcy fuppofes Alpinus to be the 
fame with Furius Bibaculus, who is 
mentioned, Hor. Sat. 2, 5, 41. 

Alsus, the name of a fhepherd, 
Virg. Acn._ 12, 304.^ 

Althea, or /llthaea^ the daughter 
of Theftius, (Thciil'ias), the wife of 
Oeneus king of Calydonia, and mother 
of Meleager. .S"^^ G. ^.4:53. 

ALYATTES, •ae, C .h, vel Aly- 
atteusy -eiy a king of Lydia, the father 
of Croefus, (G. 600.), whence Reg- 
tium Alyatieiy the kingdom of Alyat- 
teus, i. c. Lydia, (2i\. Alyattlci, i. e. 
Croefijy Hor. Od. 3, 16, 41. 

Alyxothoe, -fj, (al. Alexhhoe), 
the daughter of the river Granlcus, 
and mother of Aesacus by Priam, 
Ovid. Met. II, 763. But Apollodo- 
Tus makes Arifba the mother of Aesa- 
cus, 3, iJ, 5_. 

Amalthea, the name of the goat 
which nuried Jupiter, and was convert- 
ed into a liar, O'vid. Fafl. 5, 117.; 
Hygin. AJlr. 2, 13. or of the nymph to 
whom that goat belonged, Ladant. i, 
21,38. — «|| 2. The name of a Sibyl, 
T'ibuU. 2, 5, 67. — ^ 3. Alfo a name 
given to the part of a villa, both by 
Cicero and Atticus, Ck. yltt. 1, 13. cc 
16. et 2, I. 

A MAN us, the name of a warrior, 
^/7. 17, 4^.6. 

Amaryllis, -tdls, (voc. AmaryUlJy 

the name of a country girl, Virg. EcL 

I, 5, & 37. 2, 14. 'yOvid. Trijl. 2, 537. 

■MASis, -/.., a iaraous king of ii- 

gypt, Lucan, 9, 155. (G. 666.} 

4 3 AMP 

Am ATA, the wife of king Latinusj 
andmother of Lavinia,/^/>^./^f«. 7,343^ 

Ambigatus, a king of the Celtae 
or Gauls, Liv. 5, ^4. 

Ambiorix, -'igis^ king of the Ehu' 
rones ^ in Gaul, Caef. 5. G. 5, 24. who 
cut off Q^ Tiberius Sabinus, the lieu- 
tenant of Caefar, with a legion and five 
cohorts, ib. et 36. Q^ Cicero, and the 
legion which he commanded, had near- 
ly fhared the fame fate, when they 
were reheved by Caefar, ib. 37,-50. 

Am HI VI us Turpie, a comic a6lor, 
who had a principal part in mofl of the 
plays of Terence. 

AMILCAR, vel Hamilcar, -ariSf 
a celebrated Carthaginian general, the 
father of Hannibal, Liv, 21, I. ; Nep, 
in Vit. Sil. 13, 731. 

Amineas, -ac, an Athenian, the 
brother of the poet Aefchylus, who 
obtained the firft prize of bravery in 
the battle of Salamis, Aelian. Var. HiJL 
5, 19. with one Eumenes, Herodot. 8, 


AMMON, ytlHammcn, -onis, a name 
of Jupiter, worfliipped by the Africans, 
Firg, Aen. 4, 198. under the form of 
a ram ; whence he is called Comiger, 
Lucan. 3, 297. ; Sil. 14, 572. Tor/is 
cornibus Hammoc, Luc. 9, 5 14* — /i'w- 
monis cornuy a gem of a golden colour, 
like a ram's horn, Plin. 27. 10. 

A MP ELDS, the name of a yo'uth 
beloved by Bacchus, O'u/W.F^. 3, 409. 

AMPH1ARA.US, the fon of Oe- 
cleus, (Ocdldesy Ovid. Met. 8, 317.)* 
a famous augur at Argos, ( /irglvus 
/'ugur^ Hor. Od. 3, 16, 12.), who, 
knowing that he fhould perifh in the 
Theban war if he went to it, hid him- 
felf in a place known only to his wife 
Eriphile. But flie, bribed by her bro- 
ther Adraftus with a golden necklace, 
difcovered him. Amphiaraus having 
gone to the war, was fwallovved up by 
an earthquake. Alcmaeon his fon» 
(Amphiar aides, Ovid. Fail. 2 43. )> ac- 
cording to his father's orders, llew his 
m^jther. Amphiaraus was worfhipped 
as a god after his death, Cic. Div. i, 
4G. (G. 431. & 301.) 

AMPHICTYON, ^msy the fon of 

AMP [ i^ 

Deucalion, a kin^ of Atliens, who 
'' procured the inftitution of a general 
council of the ftates of (>reece, the 
deputies of which were called from liim 
Amphictyones, and met twice an- 
nually, in fpring at Delphi, and in 
autumn at Anthela, a village near the 
ftraits of Thermopylae, Herodot. 7, 
200. ^(G. 308. & 460.) ; Cic. Inv. 2, 
23. ; Llv 3^, 5. ; Tac, A. 4, 14. 

Amphilochus, a fon of -imphia- 
raus, after his dtath worfhipped as a 
god at Oropus in Attica, as well as 
his father, L'li), 45, 27. ; Pl'in. 4, i. 
Cicero mentions him as a king of the 
Argives, and an Augur, Dhin. 1,40. 

Amphimedon, a Libyan, flain by 
Perfeus, 0-viJ. Met, 5, 75. 

Amphion, -onisy the fon of Jupiter 
and Antiope, or, according to others, 
of Mercury ; from whom having re- 
ceived a lyre, he played on it fo fweet- 
ly, that, by the found, he is faid to 
have moved the ftones to build the 
walls of Thebes, Horat. /^. P. 394. ; 
Od. 3, II, 2. ; Slat. Tbeb. 8, 233. ; 
Senec. Oedip. v. 6 1 2. which is hence cal- 
led Ampbionis arceSf Ovid. Met. 15, 
427. His brother Ztthus having a 
diflike to mufic, Amphion, to gratify 
him, is faid to have difcontinued the 
ufe of the lyre, Hor. Ep. i, i8, 42. ; 
C'lc. D'tv. 2, 64. Amphion married 
Niobe, who being flain with her chil- 
dren, [v'uL Niobe), Amphion killed 
himfeir, Ovid. Met. 6, 27T. He is cal- 
led Mains jujlijfimus Findex, Ovid. -rt. 
Am. 3, 323. becaufe he put to death 
Dirce, the rival of his mother, Hygin. 
7 . ( vld. Zethus). -— Jimphioma lyra , 
the lyre of Amphion Propert. 1,9, 
1 0. ; canes yimphion'ii, i. e. Thehanty Se- 
nec. Oedip. 178. — <^ 2. There was 
another Amphion, one of the Argo- 
nauts, Val. Flac. I, 367. 

Amphitrite, -es, the daughter of 
Oceanus and Doris, the wife of Nep- 
tune, Col. 10, 201. put for the fea, 
Ovid, Met, I, 13. ; FaJ}. 5, 731. par- 
ticularly for the Euxine fea, Catull. 67,^ 

Amphitryo, v. en, -onis, the huf- 
band of Alcmena, the mother of Her- 

1 AMY 

cules, Ovid. Ep, 9, 44. who is henct 
called 4mphttryoniadeSf ^ae, Virg. Aen. 
8 2 [4.; Ovid. Met. 9, 140. et 15, 
49. ; Lucan. 9, 644. 

Amp HI STRATUS, a flatqary, Plin, 

36, 5- 

Amphttus and Telchius, the cha- 
rioteers of Caftor and Pollux, Plin. 6, 5. 

Amu LIU s, the fon of Proca, king 
of Alba, who having fet afide his elder 
brother Numitor, reigned in his Head, 
Ltv, 1,3.; Ovid. Fajl, 3, 67. 

Amu LI us, a painter, Plin. 35, 10, 

AMycus, the foTi of Neptune, and 
a king of Bithyiria or Bebi'ycia, Virg, 
Aen. 5, 373. who ufed to challenge 
Itrangers to combat with him at the 
cejlus, and to flay thofe whom he con- 
quered, Apollodor. I, 9, 20.; but he was 
himfelf at lall vanquiihed and killed by 
Pollux, (G. 411.) — \2. A ctntaur,- 
the fon of Opliion, [ophwnides)^ Ovid* 
Met. 12, 245. — f 3. One of the 
companions of Aeneas, Virg, //en, i, 
221. who was thought to have perill- 
ed in a fhipwreck, ik but is fuppofcd 
to have efcaped with others, ib, 511. 
Two of this name were afterwards flain 
by Turnus. Whether this was one of 
them, is uncertain, ilf, 9, 772. et 12, 
509. probably that mentioned in the 
latter paffage as the brother of Diores, 
and confequently the fon of Priam, ib. 
J, 297. — A different Amycus from all 
thefe is mentioned, ib. 10, 704. 

Amyclas, -ae, the mailer of the 
boat in which Caefar in difguife em- 
barked from a plaCe near Oricum, in 
order to haften the paffage of his troops 
from Brundufium, F/or, 4, 2, 37. ; Lu" 
can. 5, 520,-677. 

Amymone, -es, a nymph violated 
by Neptune, and changed into a foun- 
tain, Hygin, 169. ; Stat, Theb, 6, 288. 

Amyntas, -ae, the father of Philip 
king of Macedonia, Nep, 21, 2. 

Amyntas, a fliepherd^ in Virgil, ^fil 
3, 28. & 73. 

Amyntor, -om, the father of Phoe« 
n"x, the praeceptor of Achilles, Ovid* 
Met. 8, 307. {Dolopum redory ib. I2> 
364.) whence Phoenix is called Amyn^ 
torides^ -ae, Ovid, iu Ibin. 259. 


AMY t 

Am YT HA ON, -on/V, the fon of Cre- 
t}i€U6, and the father of Melampus, 
who is hence called ^mythaonius^ Virg. 
G. 3, f^^o. ; Tibull. 4, I, 120. 

ANACHARSIS, -is, a Scythian 
pKilofopher in the time of vSoIon, who 
cxprefTed a great contempt of money, 
Cic. Tufc. 5, ^2. 

ANACREON, -ontis^ a lyrfc poet, 
born In Tecs, a towpi of Ionia in Afia 
Minor, hence called Te'tus Anacreon^ 
Hor. Epod. 14, 10. who wrote chiefly 
on amorous and fportive fubjefts, and 
that even when an old man; ^nd^ n'ifi 
cum mulio Vemrem conjiindere vino, Prae- 
eepit Lyrici Tela mufa Jems? Ovid. 
Trill. 2, 263. which Horace thus 
beautifully exprefTes by one word, Ncc^ 
Ji quid olim luiit Anacreov.^ Dehii'it aetas, 
Od. 4. 9, 9. He is fald to have been 
choaked by fwallowing the ftone of a 
ilried grape, Plin. 7, 7.; 2^^]. Anacreontius . 

Anadyomenf, -es^ a nam.e given to 
a celebrated pidure of Venus by Apel- 
les, in v;hich fhe was reprefented as 
emerging from the fea, Plin, 35, 101. 

36» '5- 

Anaitis, '^dh, a goddefs worfriip- 

ped by the Armenians, /•//«. 33, 4^ 24. 

Anaxagoras, -ae^ a native of Cla- 

zomene, {^Cla%omenius)^ a celebrated 

philofopher, the preceptor of Pericles, 

Cic, N. D. I, 10, & n. ; Acad. 4, 31.; 

^^' 3» 33- ; ^^^^- II- ; ^"A I* 43- 
(G. 12.) 

ANAXARCHITS, of Abdera, 
{^Ahder'tta)^ a follower of Democritus, 
{^Uemocritt fcSator^ vel Democrii'icus^y 
and a favourite of Alexander the 
Great ; after whofe deceafe he fell Into 
the hands of Nicocreon tyrant of Cy- 
prus, who cruelly put him to death, 
in. revenge of a fiiarp anfwer which 
Anaxarchus had made to him at the 
table of Alexander, Cic. l^ufc. 2, 22. ; 
Val, Max. 3, 3. extr, 4.; Ovid, in Ihin, 


Anaxarete, -fj, a beautiful girl of 

Salamis in Cyprus, who having by her 
cruelty occalioned the death of her lo- 
ver, was converted into a ftone, OvuL 
Met. 14, 799. 

Anaxilaus, a native of Mefsenc 

f6 T A NC 

in Peloponnefus, vtrho founded Mefsana 
in Sicily, Jujiln.j^^ 2 ; Macrob Sat. ?, ». i. 

ANAXIMANDER, v. -drus, -dri, 
an Illufttlous phllofophe*-, born at Mi- 
letus, who fald that al' things were 
produced from the infinity of nature, 
Cic. -4cad. 4, 37. ; that ^}\'Z gods were 
born, and mortal, N D r, 10. and 
foretold an earthquake which happened 
at Lacedaemon, Id. Div. i , 5 o. ( G 11.) 

Anaximenes, the fcholar of Ana- 
xlmander, (G. n.), who taught that 
all things were produced of air, Cic, 
Acad. 2» 57. and that the air was God, 
Cic. N.D. T, fo. 

ANCAEUS, the fon of Neptune, 
one of the A-rgonauts, who fucceeded 
Tipliys as pilot, Hygin. i. et iS. 

Ancaeus, the fon of Lycurgus, 
Hyg'in. 173. an Arcadian, /lain by the 
Calydonlan boar, Ovid. Met. 8, 315, 
391, cL 40T. ; Hygin. 248. 

Ancaeus, a rich man of the Ifland 
Samos, who is fald to have made his 
flaves work too hard in his vineyard ; 
on which account, he was told by one 
of them, that he fliould never drink 
the produce of his vines. When vin- 
tage came, Ancaeus, holding a cup in 
his hand, before he drank of it, fent 
for the flave, and told him that he was 
a falfe prophet. The flave calmly fald. 
Many things happen between the cup 
and the lip ; or, as the Greek verfe is 
rendered in Lntin, Multa cadunt inUr 
calicem fupremaque labra. At that in- 
ftant a meffage was fuddenly brought 
him that a wild boar had broken Into 
the vineyard. Upon this Ancaeus fet 
down the cup, and haftened to drive 
out the boar, but was killed in the at- 
tempt ; whence the words of the flave 
became proverbial. To this adage 
Gellius compares the faying of Cato, 
Alulfum inter ejl inter os et oj^aw^ 13, 17, 

Ancarius, v. Anchanusy a trioune 
of the commons, who oppoied the A-^ 
grarlan law of Caefar, Cic, Pif 38. ; 
Fam. 13, 40. 

Anchariana fnmiliay the (laves of 
one Ancharius, ^indil, 4, i, 74. et 
9, 2, 56. 

Anchemolus, the fon of Rhoetus, 


A N C C 

king of the Marrubiatis or Marfi, Firg, 
^en. lO, 389. et Hi Serv. 

Anchialus, the flave of L. Egna- 
tius, Ctc. Fam. 13, 45. — f 2. This 
word is fuppofcd to denote the form 
of an oath iifed by the Jews. But 
others, more properly, take it for the 
name of a boy, fpoken of, Martial. II, 

ANCHISES, -af, thefon of Capys, 
by Themis, the daughter of Ilus king 
of Troy, ApoUodor. 3,2. the father of 
Aeneas by Venus, Virg, u^en. I, 617. 
who is hence called Anclnfiadesy -ae, ib. 
5, 407.; Tros AnchifiadcSi 6, 126. dux<, 
348. — Ttimulus Ancbifaeus, the tomb of 
Anchlfes, ib. 5, 761. 

ANGUS Martins, the grandfon of 
Numa by his daughter, the fourth king 
of Rome, Virg. Aen. 6. 815. 

Andocides, an Athenian orator, 
contemporary with Socrates, Plutarch, 
de vit. Or. 2. 

Andraemon, -oTiisf the hufband of 
Dryope, Ovid. Met. 9, 333. and father 
of Thoas, who is hence called Andre- 
mone natus, ib. 13. 357. 

Andriscus, a pretended fon of 
king Perfeus, Ltv. Epit. 48, 49. et 50, 
et 52. 

Androcles, a prince of the Aca- 

manians, Ltv. 36. 16. ^2. A 

commander of king Perfeus, Id. 44, 32. 

Androclus, a Dacian flave, re- 
cognifed in the Circus Maximus by a 
lion, which he had formerly relieved 
when wounded in the woods, Gell. 5, 
14. ; Aelian.H'ifl. Animal. 7,48. to which 
Seneca is fuppofed to allude, de Benef. 

2, 19- ^ 

ANDROCyDES, -ae, an illuftriovis phy- 
fician, who wrote a letter to Alexan- 
der, warning him of the pernicious ef- 
feds of drinking, Plin. 14, 5 f. 7. 

ANDROGEOS, the fon of Minos 
king of Crete, and Pafiphae, flain by 
the Athenians and Megarenfians out 
of envy for his having defeated them 
all in the exercifes of the Palaeftra, 
Serv. in P^irg. G. I, 404. ; in the ge- 
nit. Sidrogeiy Virg. Aen. 2, 392. ; or 
Androgeoy in imitation of the Attic 
dialeili, (AvJ^pej^fw for t.vJ'cojEou"), 'th, 6, 20. 
'—•In the ace. we find Androgeuna^ from 

17 3 ANN 

Androgeony Propcrt, 2, I, 62. AndroJ 
geos is faid to have been reflored to 
life again by Aefculapius, ih. — Andro- 
geoneae poenas exfolvere caedis, to fuffer 
punifliment for the murder of Andro- 
geo3, CatuII. 62, (al. 63.), 77. 

ANDROMACHE,-fJ-, the wifc of HcC- 

tor, Virg. Aen. 3, 486. 

Andromache, a tragedy written 
by Ennius, Cic. Div. i, 13. 

Andromede,-^, V. -da, the daugh- 
ter of Cephens king of Ethiopia, by . 
Cafliope, freed from a fea-monfter, to 
which fhe was expofed, by Perfeus, 
whom file afterwards married, Hygin, 
64. — After her death flie was tranfla- 
ted into a conftellation, Id. AJlron. 2, 
II. ; Cic. N. D. 2, 43. ; Hor. Od, 3, 
29, 17. ; Plin. 5, 31. ; Propert. i, 3, 
4. 3, 21, 29. 

Andronicus, of Puteoli, an inti- 
mate of Cicero's, Ctc. Att. 5, 15. 

Lucius Andronicus, the firft author 
of comedy at Rome. Vid. Livius. 

Anemo, -dnis, vel Almo, properly 
a river near Rome, woriliipped as a 
god, Cic. Nat. D. 3, 20. 

Anetor, -oris, a native of Phocis, 
(Phoceus), the (hepherd of Peleus, 
Ovid. Met. II, 348. 

ANICIUS, a conful, a. u. 593, in 
whofe confulfiiip there was a remark- 
able vintage ; whence Ahicianum vinum^ 
wine then produced ; Aniciana nota, a 
caflc of that wine, Cic. Br. 83. — f 2. An- 
other mentioned by Cicero, Fam'. 7, 
16. 12, 21. whence Aniciana leStica^ a 
fedan ufed by king Ptolemy while at 
Rome, and prefented by him to Ani' 
cius, Cic. ^ Fr. 2, 10. Lapicidinae 
Anicianae, ftone-quarries belonging to 
one Anicius, in the territory of Tar- 
quinii, near the Lacus Volftniejifis, Plin. 
36, 2 2 f. 49. ; Piray a kind ef pears 
cultivated by one Anicius, Col. 5, lO. 

ANIUS, a fon of Apollo, and king 
of Delos, Virg. Aen. 3, 80. et ibiServ.', 
Ovid. Met. 13, 632, &c. 

Anna Perenna, a goddefs wor- 
fhipped by the Romans, fuppofed to 
be the fifter of Dido. See Ovid. Fajl, 
3, 523'— ^53' &c.; Sil. 8, 50,-202.5 
Martial. 4, 64, 16. 

C AN- 

ANN C 18 ] ANN 

ANNAEUS, the name oF a clan or vcmber, a. u. 534, Lh. 21, 35. ; Plin, 

18. 31. In dsfcending from the Alps 

gens at Rome, to which belonged Se- 
neca, Liican. Florus, See, 

ANNA LIS, a firn?.me given to the 
tribune L. Villi us, who firft propo- 
fed the law df^termining at what age 
eacli office miprht be foug^ht and enjoy- 
ed, Lh. 40, 43. which firname conti- 
nued to his poflerlty, ^nnciiL 6, 3, 86. 
ANNIB AL, vel HannlhaU -alis, the 
fon of Hamilcar, and chief commander 
of the Carthaginians again il the Ro- 
mans in the fecond Punic war, Nep. l^ 
Z,/x>. 21, 4. iZi 12, &c. — Annibal, 
when only nine years of age, is faid to 
have been led by his father Hamilcar 
to the altar, and there obliged to fwear 
that he would always be an enemy to 
the Romans, lAv. 21, i. ; S'll. i, 99. 
According to Silius, he fwore by Mars 
and Juno, ih, 118.; Martial fays, by. 
Hercules, 9, 44, 9 Amilcar having 
fallen in battle in Spain, where he had 
commanded for nine years, was fuc- 
ceeded by Afdrubal, his fon-in-law ; 
who fent for Annibal, as Livy fays, 
fcarcely yet come to the age of puber- 
ty, (ny'ix dum piiherem) ; though it ap- 
pears, from Livy's own account, that 
he was at kaft twenty-three, L'lv. 21, 
3. Annibal ferved three years under 
Afdrubal ; and he being alTaffinated by 
a Spaniard, Annibal was appointed 
chief commander, ih. 3. tt 4. He be- 
gan the war againft the Romans by 
the fiege of Saguntum, which he took 
by ftorm in the eighth month, ih. 15. 
The moft of tlie inhabitants deftroyed 
themfelves by fire, with their wives 
and children, and their moft valuable 
effects, or fought with defperate fury 
till they fell, ih. 14. et 24, 42. et 28, 
39. (V'td. Saguntum, G. Index.) 
Annibal having left bis brother Afdru- 
bal, and Hanno, to command in Spain, 
led his army into Italy, over the Py- 
renees, the Rhone, and the Alps, van- 
quishing all the nations that oppofed 
him. The lengtl* of this march, which 
he finiflied in five months, is computed 
by Polybius at 9000 Jiadla. above a 
thoufand miles, 3, 39. Aiinlbal ciof- 
fed the Alps about the middle of No- 

he is faid to have made a pafiage for 
his troops by foftening the rocks with 
vinegar, after he had heated them by 
burning a great pile of trees, (/^rden- 
t'ta faxa infufo aceto putrefactunty Liv, 
ib. 37. Didux'it fcopulos i et montem rupit 
accto, Juvenal- 10, 153.) But Polybius 
does not mention this incredible fad, 
3, 54. et 56. 

Annibal firft defeated the Romans 
under Scipio the conful, near the river 
TicTnus, Liv. 2 1 , 46. and foon after 
near the Trebia, under the other con- 
ful Sempronius, ii. 54. &c. Early 
next fpring, in paffing a marrti formed 
by the overflowing of the river Arnus, 
through fatigue and want of fleep, he 
loft one of his eyes, Liv. 22, 2. He 
rode on an elephant, the only one that 
remained, iL hesce, qualis fades, et 
quuli digna tahelldy Cum Gaetula ducem 
portaret hellua lufcuml Juvenal. lO, 157. 
He defeated the Romans a third time 
near the Trafimene lake, under Flami- 
niiis the cor/ul, who was killed, with 
15,000 of his men, Lit}. 22, (> et 7. 
The progrefs of Hannibal was for fome 
time checked by the prudent conduft 
of Fabius Maximus the didlator, Vid, 
Fabius. But in the year of the city 
537, Annibal defeated the Romans a 
fourth time under the confuls Paulus 
Aemilius and Terentius Varro, near 
Cannae, a fmall village in Apuha, on 
the river Auf idus, with the greateft 
/laughter that they ever fuffered in one 
battle, Li'v. 22, 50. According to 
Polybius, 70,000 foot and above 5000 
horfe were flain, 3, 117. Livy fays 
40,000 foot and 2700 horfe, ib. 49. ; 
but ill other places he makes them 
50^000, ih. 59. and more, /. 25, 6. 
About 13,000 were made prifoners. 
The lofs of Annibal, in comparifon, 
was inconfiderable, Polyb. ibid. Ma- 
harbal, who commanded the cavalry 
on iihe right wing, Liv. 22, 46. af- 
ter the victory, urged Annitjal to 
lead his troops direitly to Rome, 
afiuring him, that on the fifth day he 
fliould feaft in the Capitol. Annibal 


ANN [ 

was dazzled with the propofal, but 
faid it reqinVf-d time to deliberate on 
it ; upon which Maharbal exclaimed. 
** You know, Annibai, how ^^ con- 
quer,, but ycu know not how to im- 
prove your viftory." ( Vincere fcls. An- 
nthaU inSorid uti ne/cis). That day's 
debiy is thought to have faved Rome, 
Liv- 22, 51 The troops of Annibai 
were enervated by winterin^r at Capua, 
which city revoked to him foon after 
the battle of Cannaey Liv. 2^, 7. et 18. 
Hence Marcellus, who repulfed Anni. 
bal from Nola, and firft taught the 
Rc^'Uans, as Livy obferves, that An- 
nibai mis^ht be conquered, Liv. 23, 16. 
faid that Capua had proved a Cannae 
to Annibai, ( Capuam ^nnlbali C annas 
fulffd)^ ib. 45. ; et Flor. 2, 6. From 
this time the flrength of Annibai in 
Italy declined, the Carthaginians ha- 
ving neglected to fend him proper fup- 
plies, Lii). 23, 24. et 28, 12. A. u. 
542, in order to raife the fiege of Ca- 
pua, he led his army to Rome, and 
pitched his camp at the river Anio, 
three mihs from the city, and advan- 
ced with his cavalry to the Porta Colli- 
na^ Liv. 26, ID.; Juvenal 6, 290. and 
is faid to have even (hot a dart within it, 
Flin. 34, 6 f . 15. He was repulfed by 
a body of Roman cavalry. Propertius 
makes the Lares or tutelary gods of 
Rome to drive Hannibal from the Ro- 
man city, 3, 3, II. Next day he croffed 
the Auio. and drew up his forces in or- 
der of battle ; nor did the Roman con- 
fu^s decline the combat. But they were 
prevented from engaging by a violent 
llorra. The fame thing happened next 
day ; and affoon as they returned to their, the weather became calm, and 
wonderfully ferene. The Carthaginians 
confidered ihis as ominous ; and An- 
nibai is reported to have faid, that 
fom'::times the will, fomecimes the for- 
tune of taking the city Rome u'as de- 
nied him, Liv. ib. 11. Some other 
circumllauces difcouraged him. He 
therefore withdrew his army, not only 
from the city, but even to the remo- 
teil corner of Italy, leaving Capua to 
its fate, ib, 12. After this, however, 

19 ] ANN 

he was fucccfsful in feveral engagf- 
ments. But his hopes vvere quite funk 
by the deilru<ftion of his brother Af- 
drubal, a. u. 546, who was coming to 
his aiTiftance, Liv. 27,51. FiJ. N e ro. 
Annibai, hov/ever, was more worthy 
of admiration in adverfity than in pro- 
fpcnty ; for though he carried on war 
for fo many years in a foreign country jj, 
with an army compofcd of foldiers 
from many different nations, and often 
in the greateil want, yet there never 
happened a mutiny among them, IJv, 
28,12. At laft being recalled to defend 
his countr)% a u. J50, he left Italy 
with the bittereft vexation, Liv. 30, 20. 
fixteen years after he had invaded it, ib» 
28. Soon after his arrival in Africa, 
he fent to Scipio to aflc a conference, 
in order to treat concerning pe^ce. 
But not agreeing about the terms, 
they came to a decifive engagement 
near Zama ; where .Annibai, after do- 
ing every thing that courage or fl<ill 
could effeft, was complettly defeated. 
He, with difficulty, tfcaped with a 
few horfemen to Adtumetiim ; and 
from thence, being fent for, returned 
to Carthage, thirty- fix years after he 
had left it when a boy. In the fenate- 
houfe he declated that there was no 
hopes of fafety but in peace, ib. 35. 
The Carthaginians, therefore, were 
obliged to fubmit to the terms prefcri- 
bed by the victors, ib. 37. 

\nnibal remained for ffcveral years 
at Carthage, difcharsfing with fidelity 
the moil important offices ot the Hate. 
When praetor he abridged the exor- 
bitant power of the judges, and check- 
ed the embezzlement of the public re- 
venues ; by which means he incurred 
the enmity of many of the leading 
men, who accufed him to the Romans 
of ftriving to effect a renev^'al of holH- 
lities, Liv. 33, 48. The Romans, who 
fought only a pretext for indulging 
their hatred againft Annibai, contrary 
to the opinion of Scipio Africanus, 
fent an embaffy to Cartilage to com- 
plain of his conduct. Annibai, afraid 
of being given up to the Romans, fled 
to Antiochus king of Syria, whom he 
C 2 inftigated 


t 20 1 

A N -t^ 

'n{lig;ated to make war on the Romans, 
and attempted in vain to induce his 
countrymen to join him, Liv. tb. 49. ; 
Nep. 2 2, 7. etZ. After the defeat of 
Antiochus, Annibal fled to Prufias 
king of Bithynia, before whofe tent, 
according to Juvenal, h-2 was obh'gcd 
to wait as a client, till that prince 
pleafed to wake, [Donee Btthyno I'lbeat 
'vigllaretyranno)i]nvtn?i\ 10, 162. The 
Romans" fent T. Quintlius Flaminius, 
the conqueror of Philip, as an ambafla- 
dor to Prufias, to aflc rhat he would give 
up Annibal to them. Prufias not daring 
to refufe, the fort in which Annibal re- 
lided was immediately furronnded with 
armed men. Annibal, always appre- 
henfive of this fate, took poifon, which 
he had long kept ready for fuch an 
exigence, Lh. 39, 51. ; N'ep. 22, 12. 
and expired, in the 70th year of his 
age, Nep, lb. 13. 

Some affert that Annibal always 
kept poifon in the gem of his ring ; 
hence Juvenal fays, alluding to the 
three bufhels of gold rings taken ixprn 
the fingers of thofe Roman Equites and 
Patricians who were flain at Cannae, 
which Hannibal is faid to have fent to 
Carthage, Finem animaey quae res huma- 
nas mifcuit oliniy Non gladii, non faxq 
dahunti non tela^ fed tile Cannarum vin- 
(kx, ac tant't Jarigu'inis ultor j4nnuluSj 
10, 163. ; and adds farcaftically, /, 
ckmens, et faevus cur re per /llpesy Ut pue- 
ris placeasy et declamatio Jlas, ib. 1 66, 
Young orators ufcd to exercife them- 
felvcs in declaiming on different cir- 
cumftances in the life of Hannibal; 
as, whether he (liould have led his ar- 
my to Rome after the battle of Can- 
nae ; or whether he (hould have with- 
drawn his troops from Rome on ac- 
count of the ftorm ? Juvenal. 7, 161. 
Annibal, though fo much engaged 
in war, paid attention to learning, and 
■wrote feveral books in the Greek lan- 
guage, Nep. 2 2, 13. 

As Annibal reduced the power of 
Italy more than any one ever did af- 
ter the Romans became a great nation, 
(pojl magnitudinem nomlnis Romani Ital'iae 
ppes maxume adtrheratj Salluit Jng. ^.), 

fo that thofe who finally proved viAo- 
rious were the neareft to deftruttion, 
( ^deo — ut propius per'iculo fuer'int, qui 
'vicerint^ Liv. 21, I. Propiufque fuere 
periculo ^eis fuperare datum^ Sil- i, 
13.), the Roman authors generally 
fpeak of Annibal with great antipathy, 
and reprefent his character in a more 
unfavourable light than the hillory of 
his life will jullify. 'JT'hus Livy, after 
enumerating his good qualities, adds, 
Has tantas v'lr'i virhttes ingentia v'ltia ae~ 
quabant^ inhumana crudel'ttas^ perjid'ia plus 
quam Punkas nihil vert ^ nihil fanBi^ nuU 
lus deum metus, nullum jusjurandum^ nulla 
religio, Liv. 21,4.; hence he is called 
Dirus ylnnibal, Hor. Od. 2, 12, 2. et 
3, 6, 36. ; Dirus Afer^ ib. 4, 4, 42. ; 
Perjidm Annibal ^ ib. 49. ; Abominatus 
parentibust Id. Epod. 16,8.; CruentiiSy 
Lucan. 4, 789. ; Superbus perjuro enfey 
Stat. Silv. 4, 6, 77. ; Add. Martial. 4, 
14, 2. — Hannibal is called Tyrius, be- 
caufe the Carthaginians were fprung 
from Tyre, Juvenal. 12, 107. j fo Poe-^ 
nus Annibal, Lucan, i, 3P5. and fim- 
ply Poenusy ib. 31. 

Annicerii phihjQphi, the followers 
of Ariftippus, named from Annicerisy 
'tdis, the fcholar of Hegefias, who was 
the fcholar of Iriftippus ; called alfo 
Cyrenatci, from Cyrene, the native city 
of Ariliippub, Cic. Off 3, 33. 

ANNIUS, the name of feveral per^ 

fons mentioned by Cicero, Verr. 1,41. 

e/ 1, 5, 5, 29.; Balb. 20 ; Bnd. 20. &c. 

T. Annius Milo. See Milo. 

, ANSER, -tris^ a poet mentioned 

by Ovid, remarkable for his obfcenity, 

Trifl. 2, 435. probably the fame whom 

Servius lays Virgil alludes to, Eel. 9, 

•i^^. He was a favourite with Antony, 

who gave him a farm in the Falernian 

territory, which had belonged to Pom- 

pey. He accompanied Antony to the 

fiege of JN'Iutina ; whence Cicero fays 

of him, Hique, qui nunc Mutinam op- 

pugnant, D. Brut urn objident, de Falerno 

Anferes depellentur, (probably fneering 

at him as ^ goofe of a poet,) Cic, Phil, 

13, 5. Propertius is likevvife thought 

to allude to the fame perfon, 2, 25,, 84, 

ANTAEUS, a Libyan giant, the 


C 5« 

Ion of Neptune and Terra, who as often 
as he touclied the earth, when his h'mbs 
were wearied, was refredied. Her- 
culep, therefore, in contending with 
him, could only Hay him by railing 
him from the ground, and Iqueezing 
him to his breaft. Lucan. 4, 593> &c. ; 
Stat, Theh. 7, 891. ; SiL 3, 40. 

Antalcides, a Spartan, who be- 
ing fent into Alia, made a peace with 
Artaxerxes, very diiadvantageous to 
his country, Paufan. 9, I. 

Ant EN OR, -om, a Trojan, faved by 
the Greeks becaufe he had always 
been the advifer of peace, L'iv. 1,1. 
With a number of followers he reached 
the top of the Hadriatic Gulf, and 
there built Patavium, now Padua, tb. 
et Virg. Ae7i. I, 242, & 247. ; O'vid. 
Fajl. 4, 75. Antmoridae^ -arumy fons 
of Antenor, Virg. Jen. 6, 484. Flac- 
ce^ Antenorei fpes et ahimne larisf i. e. ot 
Padua, Martial, i, 77. 

A NT EROS, •Otis, a fon of Mars and 
Venus, the god of mutual love, or 
according to others, who made love 
ceafe, Cic. N. D. 3, 23. 

Ant EROS, a flave belonging to Atti- 
cus, Cic. Att. 9, 14, f/ 1 1, 1. 

Anthropographus, a name given 
to one Dionyfius, a portrait-painter, 
becaufe he painted nothing but men, 
Plin. 35, 10 f. 37 

ANTICLEA, 1;. -w, the daughter 
of Autolycus, and mother of UlylTcs, 
.Uygin.. 201. 

Antigenes, -is, a fhepherd, Virg, 
Ed, 5, 89. 

An TIG EN IDES, -isy V. -idas, -ae, an 
excellent muiician of Thebes, who, 
when his fcholar Ifmenias played very 
well before the people, but did not 
pleafe them, called out to him, Mihi 
cane et mufu, fing to me and the mufes, 
t. e. pleafe the learned or good judges 
and defpife the ignorant. Cic. Brut. 50. 
Val. Max. 3, 7. ext. 2. 

Antigone, -es, the daughter of 
Laomedon and fitter of Priam, meta- 
morphoftd into a ftork by Juno, for 
having prefumed to contend with her 
in beauty, Omd. Met. 6, 93. &c. 
Antigone, the daughter of Oedi- 

] ANT 

pus, king of Thebes, who attended 
her blind father, when expelled from 
his country by Creon, Stat. Theh. 12, 
350. Afterwards having buried her 
brother Polynices, contrary to the ex- 
prefs orders of Creon, (he was by hiin 
fentenced to be buried alive ; which 
fhc prevented by kiUing herfelf. Her 
lover Haemon, the fon of Creon, killed 
himfelf at her tomb, Propert. 2, 7, 83. 
Hygin. 73. But different authors tell 

this ftory differently. Antigones per- 

fona, the mafic ufed in ading the part 
of Antigone in a play, Juvenal. 8,229. 
Antigonus, one of the generals of 
Alexander the Great, who, after the 
death of that prince, becoming too 
powerful, was defeated and (lain by 
the other fucceffors of Alexander. 
The defcendants of Antigonus, how- 
ever, obtained poffeflion of Macedonia, 
which they retained, till Perftus, the 
lail of them, was defeated and taken 
prifoner by the Romans under Paulus 

An Ti LOCH us, the fon of Neflorby 
Eurydice, flain m the Trojan war by 
Mtmnon the fon of Aurora, Homer, 
Odyfs. 4, I, — 188. ; Juvenal. 10, 252.; 
Bor. Od. 2, 9, 13. Ovid fays, by 
He6lor, Ep, I, 15. 

Antimachus, a Greek poet, a na- 
tive of Colophon; called Clarius 
from ClaroSf an adjacent grove, where 
was a temple of Apollo, Ovid. Trijl. 
1,5, I. Having one day affembled 
a number of people to hear him read a 
long compoiition, when all of them be- 
ing tired had left him, except Plato ; 
" 1 will read on, fays he, notwithftand- 
ing ; for Plato alone is to me as good 
as a multitude," ( tlato enim mihi unus 
injiar eji omnium^) Cic. Brut. 51. He 
wrote in a tumid Ityle, Catid. 96, 10. 

Antiochus, the name of feveral 
kings of Syria ; one of whom, called 
Antiochus Magnus, made war on 
the Romans at the inlligation of An- 
nibal, Liv. 33, 49. He was defeated 
firil by AcUius Glabrio the conful, at 
Thermopylae, Id. 36, 15. and iinaily 
by L. Scipio, Liv. 37, 40. ; Cic de 
Orat. Zf J 8. J Ferr^ i, 2it 



Antiochus, a celebrated rhetori- 
cian and philo'opher, Cic. Acad* i, 3. 
whole leAures Cicero attended, Ck. 
JBr. 19, 

i) NT 10 PA, V. -pe, /J, the daughter 
of Nycteus (Ny^eis, -tdis^ Propert. i, 
4, 5. NyBeos Ant'iopr, Id. 3, 15, 12.) 
the motntr of Zethiia and AmphTon 
by Jupiter, Hyg'm, 7. who came to her, 
as it is faid, in the foim of a fatyr, 
Ovid 'Met. 6, no. 

Very different accounts are gWcn of 
Antiope, by Apollodorus, 3, 5, 5. 
Hygi.ius, 7. and 8. and Paufanias, 2, 
6. Homer makes her the daughter of 
the river Asopus, Odyf, 11, 259. So 
Apollonius of Rhodes, i, 735 ; who 
alfo makes her the ci^ughter of Nye-' 
teas, 4, 1090. After the death of 
her father, whoever he was, Lycus, his 
brother and fucceffor, is faid to have 
kept Antiope confined; and his wife 
Dirce, fufpecting that rtie was his con- 
cubine, ufed her cruelly, Propert. 3, 15, 
13, &c. But her wrongs were at laft 
avenged by her fons ; who flew Lycus, 
and tied Dirce by her hair to the mouth 
of a fierce bull, fo that (lie perifhed by 
a miferable death, Hygin. et Apollodor. 
ibid. Propert. 3, 15, 37. Vid. Zethus. 
A^fTI6pE, a queen of the Amazons, 
Jufiuu 24. 

Antiope, the name of a tragedy, 
written by Pacuvius* Perf, l, 77. 

Ant I PATER, -jfm, vel -/ri, of the 2d 
decl. the name of feveral philofophers 
mentioned by Cicero, Br. 1 6. de Orat. 
2, 12.; Leg, I, 2.; Ttifc. 5, 37; 
0^ 2, 14. ; Acad. 4, 5. — alfo a poet, 
de Orat. 3, 50. ; Fat. 2. 

Antipatfr, -/n, V. 'trisi a Mace- 
donian general, the friend of Alexan- 
der. 'Jiijiin, 9, 4. made governor of Ma- 
cedonia by Alexander when he went 
to the Pcrfian war, Id. 6, 7. ; Arrian. 
I, p. 30. The Lacedemonians and 
other ftates of Greece, encourage,d by 
Alexander's abfence to revolt, were 
completely 'Sefeated by Antipater ; 
and Agis, the Spartan king, fiain. Id. 
12, I. ; Curt. 6, I. The fervices of 
A'itipater were rewarded with ingrati- 
tude, through the jealoufy of Akxan- 

22 1 ANT 

der ; who, a little before his death, de- 
prived him of h:s government, and 
fummoned him to Babylon to give an 
account of his conduci. Antioater, 
apprfjhenfive of dang^er, as feveral of 
his moit faithful friends had already- 
been cut off. was fufpefted of having 
poifoned Alexander, by means of his fons 
Caffander and lolas, who were then at 
court, Jufl'm. 12, 14. ; Qurt. 10, 10, 
14. ; -rdd, Ovid, in I bin, 297. ; Plhi. 30, 
16 f. 53 ; Tacit. A-in. 2, 73.; Arrian.'] y 
p> 500. ; Vdl. Max. I, 7, 2. exl. f. ; 
Dlodor. 17, 118. Bui it was gene- 
rally believed thac Alexander died in 
confequence of cxceffive drinking, Plu" 
tare}], Alex. p. 707. ; Arrian. 7, p. 498. 
After the death of Alexander, Antipa- 
ter obtained the government of Mace- 
donia and Greece, Curt. 10, 10, 19. ; 
Jujlin. I3» 4. which he retained to his 
death, (G. 472.) A letter from this 
Antipater to his fon Caffander is highly 
praifed by Cicero, OJf. 2, 14. 

Antiphates, -aey a king of the 
Latjlrigonesy who deftvoyed a number 
of the companions of Ulyffes, Hor. Art. 
P. 145. J SiL 8, 531. ; Ovid Met. 14, 


Antoninus, the name of feveral 
Roman emperors: adj, Antonini- 
ANUs, Entropy 8, 10. 

ANTONIUS, the name of a Ro- 
man gens. 

C. Antonius, the colleacrue of Ci- 
cero in the confuliliip, Cic. Fam, 5, 5.; 
Flac, 38. ; Salluji. Cat. 24. He was 
fefit with an army againit Catihne ; 
with whom he was unwilling to fight 
on account of their former intimacy : 
He therefore gave the command to his 
lieutenant, M. Petreius, Sail. Cat, 59. 
who cut off Catiline and his army, ib, 
60. Antonius, after his confulfnip, 
obtained^the province of Macedonia, 
which he governed for two years. Up- 
on his return to Rome he was brought 
to his trial byCo.elius, for extortion, and 
for making war without his province, 
(de repetundis et de viajejlate), Cic. Vat. 
II. ; Cocl. 31. ; Liv. Epit. 103. and 
being found guilty, was condemned to 
perpetual exile, a. u. 694. 



[ *3 ] 


M. ANTONIUS, an Hluftnous ora- 
tor, Cic. Br, 36. ; 0^ 2, 14. conful 
with A. Albinus, a. u. 6$^^ Cic, ad 
^t'lr, pqft. Red, 5. who was put to 
death in the maffacre after the return 
of Marius from banllhment, and his 
head fixed on the Rojlra^ in which he 
had fteadily defended the repubhc when 
conful, and preferved the heads of ma- 
ny citizens ; as Cicero fays, lamenting, 
as it were ominoufly, the mifery of that 
fate which happened afterwards to him- 
feif, from the grandfon of this very 
Antonius, Or. 3, 3. 

M. ANTONIUS, the fon of the ora- 
tor, praetor a. 678. who, having through 
the inlereil of Cotta, the confui, obtain- 
ed the command of all the coafts of the 
Mediterranean fea, with unlimited au- 
thority, {^cum infinlto mperw)^ to gratify 
his avarice pillaged Sicily and the pro- 
vinces. But at lad making war on the 
Cretans unjuftly, he was defeated, and 
foon after died of grief, Cic. Verr, 2, 
3. ; et ihi Afcon, Add. ih. 3, 91. ; ei 
Liv. Epit. 97. hence, however, he got 
the firnamc of Creticus, Flor. 3, 7.; 
Plutarch, in Anton, pr, 

M. ANTONIUS, the fon of Cre- 
ticus, after the death of his father, 
way educated under the care of his 
mother Julia, of the family of the 
Caefars, who married for her fecond 
hufband Cornelius Lentulus, whom 
Cicero, by order of the fenate, put to 
death, as an accomphce in Catihne's 
confpiracy. This is thought to have 
been the firft ground of that violent 
hatred which Antony ever after bore 
to Cicero. He particularly complain- 
ed that Cicero had refufed burial to 
his ftcpfather, Cic. Phil. 2, 7. which 
charge, Plutaich obferves, was ground 

a great amount, Plutarch fays 250 ta- 
lents ; Cicero fays fejlertium fexagies^ 
above 48,0001. Phil. 2, 18. Curio was 
furety for the whole of this fum, which 
Curio's father, at the interceffion of 
Ciceio, paid, but discharged his fon 
for the future from keeping company 
with Antony, Cic. ib, Antony next 
aifociated himfelf with Clodius ; but 
being diffatisfied v/ith kis meafures, and 
forefeeing the dangerous confequences 
of them, he left Italy, and travelled 
into Greece, where he fpent his time 
m warlike exercifes, and in the ftudy of 
eloquence. He fcrved his firft cam- 
paign under Gabinius, the proconful 
of Syria, who appointed him com- 
mander of the horfe. In that ftatioii 
he gave proofs of uncommon courage 
and conduct. It was chiefly owing- 
to Antony that Gabinius undertook 
and eftedcd the reftoration of Ptolemy 
to the throne of Egypt, Plutarch, iu 
Anton, et Cic, Phil. 2, 19. Fid. Pto- 
LEMAEUs AuLETEs. After this he 
joined Caefar in Gaul, who made him 
one of his lieutenants, Caef, B. G. 7, 
81. Having remained there for fome 
time, he came to Rome to fue for the 
quaeuorfhip ; and being eleAed, he 
immediately returned to Caefar, with- 
out waiting for the ordinary appoint- 
ment, (Jine fenaius confuho, Jine forte y 
fine lege), Cic, PhiL 2, 20. ; Caef. B. 
G. 8, 2, & 24, & 46. Caefar was fo 
pleafed with the fervlces of Antony, 
that he exerted his utmoft intereft to 
get him created an augur, Caef, B, G, 
8, 50. and fucceeded, in oppofition to 
the party of Pompey, by means of 
Curio, Cic. Phil. 2, 2. 

In the end of the year 703, Antony 
came to Rome, and was made tri- 

lefs. Cicero afcribes the profligacy bune. Being devoted to Caefar, he 
and wickednefs of Antony to his ha- 
ving been educated in the houfe of 
Lentulus, ih. 

Antony in his youth was remark- 
able for his comelinefs and ftrength. 
He formed an intimacy with young 
Curio, by whom he was fcduced into 
drunkennefs, lewdnefs, and extrava- 
gance. This led him to contrad debt to 

oppofed all the decrees of the fenate 
againlt him ; and vrhen the final de- 
cree was paffed, ( Ut dent operant confides^ 
praetoresy tribiini pldis^, qui que pro con- 
fuhhus funt ad urbcmf ncquid refpullica 
detrimenti capiat)., on the 7th Jan. a. u. 
704, Antony, apprchendi;ig danger, 
fled from the city in difguiie, \»/ith 
Curio and Q^Calllius, another tribune, 


ANT C 24 1 

to Caefar, who was then at Ravenna, thofe Luperc'i, 
Caef. B. C I, 5.; Ck. Fam. 16, 11. 
and thus afforded Caefar a pretext for 
crofiing the Rubicon, the boundary of 
his province, and making war on his 
country ; whence Cicero fays, that 
Antony was the caufe of war and de- 
ftruftion to the Roman republic, as 
Helen was to the Trojans, PhiL 2, 
22. ; /Jti. 7' 9- . . 

During the civil war, A^ntony, on 
every occafion, diilinguiflied himfeif. 
In the decifive battle of Pbarfalia he 


inftituted in honour of 
Caefar, D'lo 44, 6. after running up 
and down naked, according to cuitom., 
with his companions, went up to Cae- 
far, who was then fitting before the 
Rojlrcit in the forum, on a golden chair, 
dreil: in a purple robe, to fee the di- 
verfionof running, and, producing a 
crown, attempted to put it upon Cae- 
far 's head ; but Caefar, obferving the 
great dilapprcbation of the people, re- 
fufed it, Cic. Phil. 2, 34. et 3, 5. ^/ 5, 

commanded the lefc wing, Caef. B. C. 
3, 89. After the battle, Caefar being 
created diftator, v/ent in puifuit of 
Pompey, and fent Antony to command 
in Italy, with the charader of m.afler of 
horfe, Plutarch, in Anton, Cicero fays 
that Antony was appointed to this of- 
fice by the favour of his friends, with- 
out the knowledge of Caefar, Phil. 2, 
25. Here Antony behaved with the 
greateft profligacy and extravagance, 
ih. His chief favourites were Sergius 
a comedian, and Cytheris an actrefs, 
Cic. Phil, 2, 2^. Attended by her, he 
made a progrefs through Italy, having 
his chariot drawn by lions, Plin. 8, 
16 f. 21.; Plutarch, in /Inton. ; Cic. Att, 
10, 13. & 17. 

Antony bought at a public auction 
the houfe of Pompey, which he m.ade 
the fcene of his revtUings, Cic, PhlL 2, 
27. & 28. He liad expelled that the 
purchafe-m.oney would never be aflvcd. 
But Caefar, difpleafed with his con- 
du6l, exadcd payment ; which provo- 
ked Antony to fuch a degree, that he 
is faid to have employed an aflaffm to 
difpatch Caefar, ih. 29. The difap- 
probation, however, which Caefar ex- 
prefled of Antony's courfe of life, gave 
fom.e check to his excelTive diflolute- 
nefs. He parted with Cytheris, and 
married Fulvia, the widow of Clodius, 
llumrch. ibid. ; Cic. Phil. 2, 28. He 
foon after regained the entire confi- 
dence of Caefar, who, in his fifth and 
lafl confulihip, a. 709, made Antony 
his colleague, ib. 32. At the ftftivai of 
the Lupercalia^ about the m.iddle of 
February, /Antony, who was one of 

14. et 13, 8, 15, & 19.; Dio, 44, I I.; 
Suet. Caef. 79. in fuch a manner, how- 
ever, that it was thought the matter 
had been concerted betv^-een him and 
Antony, ( ^od ab eo ita repuljum eratf 
ut non offcnfus videretur). Veil. 2, 56. 
This exprelTion of Caefar's defire to 
affume the name, as he had already 
ufurped the power of king, determi- 
ned Brutus and Caflius, and the other 
confpirators, to hallen the execution 
of their plot. Tliey propofed to put 
Antony to death at the fame time with 
Caefar ; but to this Brutus would not 
confent, thinking, as Plutarch fays, 
that an aftion undertaken in defence 
of juflice and the laws ought to be free 
from tlie leail appearance of injuftice. 
This lenity proved fatal to himielf and 
his alTociates, as well as to the liberty 
of his country. Hence Cicero often 
reproaches the principal confpirator^ 
with having left their work unhnifhed. 
Thus, writing to Trebonius, who en- 
gaged Antony in cenverfation at the 
door of the fenate-houfe, while the 
other confpirators difpatched Caefar, 
he fays, ^od a tCy 'viro cptbnoy Jeducia 
ejiy titoque benejicio adhuc vivit haec pejlisy 
(M. Antonius), inter dumy quod mini vix 
Jui cjly tibijubirajcor, Fam. lO, 28. So, 
ib, 12, 4. ; Ad. Brut, 2, & 7.; PhiL 2, 
14, &c. 

Antony having heard that Caefar 
was killed, ilripped himfeif of his con- 
fular robes, and fltd home in difguife, 
ib. 35.; Dioy 44, 22. He lay conceal- 
ed ail that day, till being allured that 
the confpirators, who had taken pof- 
fcffion of the capitol, meant no further 
violence, he refumed courage, and ap- 


pcared next morning in public. In 
the night-time he g:ot the papers and 
account-books ©f Caefar from Calpnr- 
nia, Caefar's wife, and caufed them to 
be carried to his houfe, yfppian. B. C. 
2, p. 507. He amufed the confpira- 
tors with fuch confummate art, that 
he prevented them from taking effec- 
tual meafures for their defence ; while 
he himfelf fecietly formed plans for 
their deftruAion, and for making him- 
felf mafter of the (late. Ke gained 
over Lepidus, then mailer of horfe, 
who commanded an army near the ci- 
ty, to favour his views. On the third 
day after Cael'ar^s death, he fummoned 
a meeting of the fenate in the temple 
of Tcllus, where, upon the motion of 
Cicero, a general amnefty was decreed, 
or an ad of oblivion for all that was 
paft, Cic. Phil. I, I. The confpira- 
tors were invited to come down from 
the capitol, and Antony fent his fon 
as an hoftage for thfir fecurity ; 
Lepidus alfo fent his fon, the ne- 
phew of Brutus by his fifter, who had 
been married to Lepidus, but was then 
dead, Cic. ad Brut, 17.; Veil. 2, 88. 
Accordingly that night Brutus fupped 
with Lepidus, and Caffius with Anto- 
ny, which gave great joy to the citizens, 
Cic. Phil. I, 13. et 2, 36. ; Veil 2, 58 ; 
Dio., 44, 34 ; Liv. Epit. Il6. ; Phi- 
tarch. in Brut. p. 992. 

In the fame meeting of the fenate 
Antony artfully procured a decree for 
the allowance of a public funeral to 
Caefar, and for the coniirmation of all 
his afts. Antony himfelf undertook 
the charge of the funeral. Having 
■brought the body of Caefar into the 
forum, he pronounced the cultomary 
funeral oration in his praife; in which, 
with great art, he endeavoured to in- 
cite the multitude againil the confpi- 
rators. Then expofing the bloody 
robe, in which Caefar was ^-aim ^Plutarch. 
(according to Appian, a waxen image 
of his body, with the marks of all his 
wounds, B. Civ. 2, p. 520. according 
to Dio, his real body, 44. 35.), he 
inflamed the multitude to fuch a de- 
gree, that, making a pile of tables and 

25], ANT 

forms in the very forum, they inftantly 
fet fire to it, (whence Cicero calls this 
irregular funeral, infepulta Jepultura^ be- 
caufe .the ufual rites were not perform- 
ed, Phil. I, 2.) and every one taking 
a brand, ran up and down in great fu- 
ry to the confpirators houfes, with a 
refolution to burn and deilroy them ; 
but the confpirators, being ftrongly 
guarded, repulfed them ; and only the 
houfe of L. Bellienus was burnt, Cic. 
Phil. 2, 36.; Plutarch, in Anton.\ Dio, 44, 
50.; Cic. Phil. 2, 36. Meeting v/ith C* 
Helvius Ciana, one of the tribunes, a 
friend of Caefar's, whom they miftook 
for Corn. Cinna, a praetor, who had ex- 
tolled from the ro(f ra the ad of killing 
Caefar, they tore him to pieces, and 
carried up and down his head fixed on a 
fpear, Dio., 44, 50. ; Val. Max. 9, 9, 2.; 
Suet. Caef. W^. Thefe exceifes were 
committed by a mercenary mob, chief- 
ly by the freed men of Caefar and hi- 
red flaves, Cic. Att. 14, 5. The con- 
fpirators, alarmed by this tumult, left 
the city. Some of them retired to 
the provinces which had been affigned 
to them. 

But after the confpirators were gone, 
Antony refumed his difguife, and pre- 
tended the fame moderation as before. 
He afcribed the late exceiics to the 
violence of the mob, affeded to fpcak 
v/ith the greateft refped of Brutus and 
Caflius, and by feveral motions which 
he made in the fenate, feemed to have, 
nothing fo much at heart as the public 
concord. Among other things, he 
propofed, that the name and office of 
didator fhould be abolifhed, which the 
fenate inftantly agreed to, without the 
formality of a vote, Cic, Phil, if i, die 
13. He put to death Marius. the 
ringleader of the mob, who pretended 
to be the fun of C. Marius, and order- 
ed his body to be dragged by a hook 
through the ftreets, and thrown into 
the Tiber, ib. 2. By thefe adions 
Antony recovered his credit wiih the 
republicans ; fo that Brutus, together 
with Caffius and other friends, had a 
ptrfonal confcence with him, vv'hich 
gave mutual latisiailio), Cic./^'tt. 14,6. 
D Anton? 

ANT [2 

Antony havincr fettled matters at 
Rome in the beft manner he could, 
made a progrefs through Italy, for the 
fake of vifiting the quarters of the ve- 
teran foldier?, and cnGrafring them to 
Ills fervice, by all fjrts of bribes and 
promifes. He left the government of 
the city to Dolobella, whom Caefar, 
upon his intended expedition to Par- 
thia, had nominated to fiicceed him in 
the confulfliip ; and though Antony 
had protefttd againft that defignation, 
yet after Caefar's death, when Dolo- 
bella, taking advantage of the general 
confufion, feized the enfigns of the of- 
fice, Antony quietly received and ac- 
knowledged him as his colleague, Cic: 
PhlL 1,13. 

In the abfence of Antony, Dolobel- 
la, by his condu(^, gave the friends of 
liberty the bed hopes of him, particu- 
larly by demonfliing an altar which the 
mob, at the inftiajation of the impoltor 
Marius, had eredted in the forum, on 
the fpot where Caefar's body was 
burnt, with a pillar of NumJdian marble 
twenty feet high, infcribcd, To the 
Fath'fr of his Country ; where 
they daily performed facrifices and di- 
vine rites to Caefar, as a deity, Sud. 
Caef. 85. Great multitudes liockcd 
to \his place, chiefly of the meaner 
fort, and were guilty of the groiTell 
outrages. The ringleaders, being fei- 
zed, were feverely punilhed ; fuch of 
them as were free were throwm from 
the Tarpeian rock, and the flaves cru- 
cified. This aftion of Dolobella's Ci- 
cero highly extols, Phil, i, 2. & 12. ; 
yitt. 14, 15. & 16. ; Fam. 9, 14. 

Antony having attached many of 
the veteran foldiers to his intereit, re- 
turned to Rome, and at lall: began to 
lay afide the mafl^. He made ufe of 
every method poffible, however violent 
and unjuli, to encreafe bis power. He 
now rtiewed for what purpofe he had 
been fo eager to get Caefar's acts con- 
firmed by the fenate ; for being tlie 
mafttr both of Caefar's papers, {com- 
mcnlariif chirographa, et liheiu, Cic. Phil. 
I, I. & 7')> and of Faberius, Caeiar's' 
fecretary, he inferted in them what 

6 ] 


things he thought proper, and made 
them pafs for the afts of Caefar ; in 
confequence of which he fold publicly 
for money whatever immunities were 
defired by countries, cities, princes, 
or private men, on pretence that they 
had been granted by Caefar, and en- 
tered into his books, Cic. Fam. 12, i.; 

j^it. 14, 9- ; P^''^^' 2' 36- ^ 37- 5> 4- 
f/ 3, 5. et 12, 5. ; App'ian. B. C. 2, p. 
507. ^/3, p.529.; /);•(?, 44, 53. ^J 45, 
23. ; Fell. 2, 60. ; So that, as Cicero 
obferves, all the adts, writings, fayings, 
promifes, and thoughts of Caefar had 
greater force after he was dead than 
when alive, j^ft. 14, 10. Befides, he 
feized the public treafure in the temple 
of Ops, amounting to above five mil- 
lions of our money, (frpties m'lhies fef- 
terlhnn), Cic. Phil. 2, 37. With this 
money he purchafed foldiers, and bri- 
bed his colleague Dolobella to concur 
with liim in his meafures, Cic. Att. 16, 
15. He was alio fupported by his 
two brothers, Caius, then one of the 
praetors, and Lucius, one of the tri- 
bunes ; fo that now he pofieffed abfo- 
lute power at Rome, and had the fair- 
ell profpetl: of becoming mailer of the 
empire. But all thefe hopes were fru- 
llrated by young Oftavins, whom Caefar 
had appointed his heir. SeeOcTAvius. 

Antonianae partes y the party of 
Antony, Fell. 2, 74- AvAoniam latro- 
cm'io libsrata r ef public a y Cic. Fam. 12, 14. 

ANTON I A Major et Minor, two 
daughters of M. Antonius the trium- 
vir, by Odavia, the filler of Auguftus. 
The eided was married to Domitius 
Aenobarbus, whofe grandfon was Ne- 
ro the emperor, Plutarch, in Anton, Jin, 
et Suet. Ner. 4^ & 5. The yonnger 
Antouia was married to Drufus the fon 
of Livia, who had two fons, Germa- 
nicus, tiie father of Caligula, and Clau- 
dius, who fucceeded Cahgula in the 
empire, Plutarch, ih. et Suet. Cal. 1. Cl.2, 

Julius or Julus ANTONirS, the 
fon of the triumvir by Fulvia, Z)io, 51, 
15. praetor a. u. 741, ib. 54, 26. con- 
ful a. 744, ib. 36 f. afterwards put to 
death for his intimacy with Julia, the 
daughter of Auguftus, Dio, ^^, 10. ; 


A N U 

7*^r//. Ain. 3, 18. et 4, 44 
lus fays that he flew hlmfelf, 2, 100. 
Horace infcribes to Julus Antonius the 
fecond ode of the fourth book, where 
he celebrates him as a poet, 1?. 26. & 
33. Orid mentions him as the author 
of licentious verfes, Pont, i, i, 23. 

Anubis, -h, a god of the I'-gyp- 
tians, painted with the head of a dog, 
hence called Latiator, Virg. Aen. 8, 
698. ; Latrans. Prop. 3, 9, 41. 

ANyxus, an Athenian, one of the 
accufers of Socrates, who is hence 
called Ariyt'i reust Hor. Sat. 2, 4, 3. 

AON, -onisf a fon of Neptune, Lu- 
tat. ad Slat. Theb. i, 34. et Achil 1,19. 
whence Aones, -um^ his pofterity in 
the mountainous part of Boeotia, which 
was called Aqnia ; Aonius, -a, -uniy 
Boeotian orTheban; /IctiidcSf -urn, the 
mufes. (G. 306.) 

APELLA, the name of a noted 
Jew at Rome, Hor. Sat. i, 5, 100. 
- — ^2. Alfo of a flave, Cic. Fam. 7, 
25,4, 10, 17,5. ; Ju. 12, 19. 

APELLES, 'is, the moil illuilri- 
ous painter of antiquity, a native of the 
ifland Cos, ^iinclil. 12, 10, 6. His 
mod celebrated pi£lure was that of 
Venus rifing from the fea, (^Anadycme- 
ti£ ;) of which Ovid fays, Ji Fenerem 
nufquam pcju'iffet Apellesy Merfa fuh ae- 
quorels ilia later et aquis. Art. Am. 3, 
401. So Propertius, In Veneris tabula 
J'umwam- (Jc. hudem) Jibi ponit Apelles, 
3, 9, I J. At his death he left a pic- 
ture of Venus imperfcdt, which no 
body would undertake to linifh, Plin. 
35, 10 f. 36. ; Cic. Fam. i, 9. Off'. 3, 
2. He ufed only four colours, (vvhite, 
yellovr, red, and black,) Piln. ib. He 
was in great favour with Alexander the 
Great, who prohibited, by an editSt, 
any one to paint hirn but Apelles, Hor. 

Ep. 2, I, 259 ; Cic. 


Apelleae tabulae, thepi6Lurcs of Apel- 
les, Propert. I, 2/2 2. Jlpelleo colore 
Jignatus, Stat. Silv. 5, i, 5. 

Aphareus, (in three lyllables, ) the 
father of Lynceus ; who is hence call- 
ed Apharcia proles y Ovid. Met. 8, 304. 
Aphrodite, -es, a name of Venus, 
rom her having been produced from 

C 27 ] A P O 

Patercu- the foam of the fea, Plin. ^6, 5. 
whence Aphrodifia, -orum, a feftival i^ 
honour of Venus, Plant. Poen. i, i, 
63. et I, 2, 45. 

Aphydnus, a foldier of Aeneas, 
Virg. Atn. 9, 702. 

APICIUS, a noted epicure at 
Rome, in the time of Augnllns and 
Tiberius, who having fpent an im~ 
rnenfe fortune on luxurious living, ter- 
minated his days by poifon, Senec. Ep, 
95.; Heh. 10. Vit. B. II.; Plin. 4, 
17. et 10, 48. ; 'Juvenal. 4, 23. ; Tacit, 
Ann. 4, I. ; Dio. 57, 19. ; Martial. 3, 
2 2. He was fo famous that Apicius 
is put for an epicure, Juvenal. 11, 3. ; 
Martial. 10, 73. — There leems to have 
been another of the fame name before 
the time of Cato the cenfor; whence 
Uvae Apiciae, Cat. R. R. 24, I. ; Vi- 
nam, ib. 6, 5. et. 7, 2. et 24, 2. ; Varr. 
R. R. 125. — There is faid to have been 
a third in the time of Trajan, Suidas in 

Apion, 'Onis, a celebrated gram- 
marian in the time of Tiberius, Plin. 

AFlS^'idis, v. -isf accus. Apim, v. -in, 
a name given to a calf or ox with par- 
ticular marks, which the Egyptians 
woriliippcd as a god, Ck. N. D. i, 29. 
CoRNIGER, Ovid. Amor. 2, 13, 14. ; 
Lucan. 9, 160. ; Plin. 8, 46 f. 71. 
(See Geog. p. 391, and 605.) 

APOLLO, -"inisy the fon of Jupiter 
and Latona, the god of poetry, mufic, 
medicine, and augury ; (See G. 365;.) 
hence ApoUinea ars, medicine, Ovid. 
Trjjl. 3, 3, 10. ; augury, id. in Ihin. 
264. Bihlis Apollinei correpta cupidine fra* 
tris, feizcd with a pailion for her brother 
Caunus, the grandfon of Apollo, Ovid, 
Mel. 9, 454. ; Proles /Ipollinea, Aef- 
culapius, /■/;. 15,533. Ludi A^olUnareSy 
games in honour cf Apollo, Liv, 25, 
12. Circus Apollindris, ib. 3> 63. Gro- 
novius reads, Apollinar% -dris, n, ApoU 
linaris herba, Plin. 10, 26f. 14. ApoUi- 
nis urbs, the capital of the ifland Dc- 
los, Virg. Aen. 3, 79. ; agri, the country 
of Lycia, ib. 12, 516. 

Apollodorus, a celebrated gram- 
marian and mythologift of Athens, 
P 2 who 

5. I-.— 

A P O [28 

vcho compofed feveral works ; of which 
the only one renriaining is that called Bi- 
BLiOTHECA, dividtd into three books ; 
treating of the fabulous hillor)'- of the 
Greeks. He flourifhed about 150 
years before Chrift, and was highly ho- 
noured by the Amply- Ely ones, Plin. 7, 37. 

"^POLLODORUS, a Greek comic 
poet ; from whom Terence is faid to 
have borrowed his Phormio, Ter, 
Phorm. infer. — ^ 2. A cruel tyrant, 
mentioned by Seneca, Ben, 7, 19. ; 
/r. 1,4. 

APOLLONIUS, a rhetorician of 
Alabanda, who taught for hire, but 
would teach none but fuch as were dif- 
pofed to learning, Cic. Or. i, 28. & 17. 

Apolloph ANES, -/*/, a phyiician, 
Celf. 5, 18. ; Plin. 22. 21 f. 29. 

AFPIO, V. -o«, V. Apion^ -onisf a 
name of Ptolemy, king of Cyrenaira ; 
•who left the Roman people his heir, 
Cic. RuH. 2, 19. 

APPIUS, a praenomen, peculiar to 
the Claudii or Gens Claudia ; derived 
ffom Atta, a name among the Sa- 
bines, Liv. 2, 16. and ufed alfo as an 
adjective, like the nome' or name of 
the gens: thus, Appia via, the way 
i!rft paved by Appius Claudius, the 
cenfor, leading to Capua, Liv. 9, 29. 
called fiTiply Appia, yl'. via, Cic. Mil. 
6. ; Hor. Sat. i, 5,6. ; Epod. 4, 14. 
Appii Forum, a town on the Appian 
way, about eighteen miles from Rome, 
Cic. Alt. 2, lo- — Aqua Appia, the 
firft water brought to Rome in an 
aqueduft conftruded by the fame Ap- 
pius Claudius, a. u. 442, Liv. 9, 29. 
Hence Appiades Deae, certain god- 
deffes, whofe images, as it is thought, 
were erefted in the Forum, where that 
water difcharged itlelf near the temple 
of Venus, Ovid. Art. Am. 3, 452. ufed 

iemplo Appias exprcjfis a'ira puljat aquis, 
where below the marble temple of Ve- 
nus, the Appian aqu-^^duct, iffuing 
through one of thefe iiiages, ftrikes the 


A R A 

alfo in the fing. .'^ppias, adis 
Subdita qua Veneris facfo de 

air with the waters forced out or flow- 
ing from it, Ovid. Art. Am. I, 82. 
|icnce put for Venus herfelf, frqm the 

vicinity of her temple to the place 
where that aqueduA iffued ; thus, Non 
illas lites Appias ipfaprobat. Id. Remed. 
Amor. 660. In allufion to thefe Ap- 
piades deae, Cicero fays in a letter to 
Appius, l)y way of pleafantry, ^am 
(fc. Minervam,) non folum Pallada,fed 
etiam Appiadanominaho^ Cic. Fam. 3, i. 

Appiana mala, a kind of apples 
which grew on trees engrafted by one 
Appius, Plin. 15, 14. — Appietas, 
^atis^ f. the nobihty of the Apii, Cic, 
Fam, 3, 7. 

APULEIA gens, a clan or family 
at Rome ; Apuleia lex, a law pafled by 
one called Apuleius, Cic. de Or. 2. 25. 

APULI'-IUS Saturmnus, a famous 
tribune of the commons in the time of 
Marius; often mentioned by Ciceix). 

APULEIUS, a native of Madaura 
[Madaurenjisy) in Africa, an orator, 
lawyer, and Platonic philofopher under 
the Antonines ; who wrote bouks on 
feveral fubjetts, which are ftill extant. 

Pontiui Aquila, one of the con- 
fpirators againd Caefar, Phil IT, 6. 
AQUILA, a freed man of Maecenas, 
whole affiitance he employed to diifufe 
the knowledge of his invention of writ- 
ing fh'^rt-hand. Die. 55, 7. 

AQUILLIA gens, the name of a 
family at Rome; fuppofed to be fo 
calied from their dark colour, i^ab aqui' 
lo colore. ) 

AQUILLIUS Gallus, a great ora» 
tor, Cic. Br. 42. ; Caecin. 27. whence 
Lex Aqjjillia, a law propofed by 
him, dedolo malo, Cic. Off. 3, 14. N. D, 
3, 30. 

Manius AQUILLIUS, a governor 
of Sicily in the war againit the fugi- 
tive flaves, Cic. Verr. 3, 54. ; RuII, 
2, 30. ; ;r. 62. ; Flac. 38, &c. 

Aquinius, a bad poet, Cic. Tufc, 
Sf 22. ; CatuL 14, 18. 

ARABaRCHES, -ae, a chief of 
the Arabians, or a tax-gatherer in E- 
gjpt, Juvenal, i, 130. Whether this 
be a proper or common name, com- 
mentators are not agreed. It is fup- 
pofed to be the fame with the name 
given to Pompey by Cicerp, Att. 2, 17. 
See Alabarches. 


A R A t 29 

ARACHNE, -isy a girl of Lydia, 
remarkable toi her il<iil in fpinring 
and weaviHg ; who having challenged 
Minerva to a conteft, and being worll- 
ed, hanged herfelf (laqueo J'lgavit gut- 
turaj Ovid. Met. 6, 134. but Miner- 
va, out of pity, turned her into a fpider, 
which is called f^re^x"' by the Greeks, 
and yJrama, by the Latins, ib* 

ARaTUS, a brave man of Sicyon, 
fSicyonius,) who freed his count: y i'rpm 
tyranny, and eftabliihed the Achaean 
Republic, Cic. Of. 2, 23.; Polyh, 2, 43. 

.ARATUS, a Greek poet, who 
compofed a book in verfe concerning 
aftronomy, Cic, de Or. i, 16.; /had. 
4, 20. which Cicero, when a very 
yoling man, [admodum adolefcentulus,) 
tranflated into Latin verfe, Cic. N. D. 
2, 41. and calls Aratium carmen, 
^^S' 2> 3' oi" Aratea, fc. carmina, 
Div. 2, 5. 

aRBACES, -is 'y vel i\RBACTUs, 
•ihe firit king of Media, Jujiln. i, 3. 
/ (See G. 598.) 

Arbuscula, an adrefs, Cic. Att. 
4, 15. who being hiifed by the popu- 
lace, and applauded by the Eqrntes, 
faid, " that fhe was fatisfied with the 
approbation of the worthy," lior. Sat. 
1, 10, 11' ^ ^ 

ARC AS, -adisy V. adoSf the fon of 
Jupiter by Calitto, O-vid. Met. 2, 2c8, 
Reconverted into the condeliation call- 
ed Bootes, (G. p. 417.) 

ARCE81LAS, -ae, the fcholar of 
Poleraon, Cic. de Or. 3, 18. the found- 
er of what was called the middle aca- 
demy ; as Plato was of the old, and 
Carneades of the new. He taught 
the fallacy of the fenfes, ib. and that 
nothing can be certainly known, not 
even that which Socrates had referved 
to himfelf, " that he knew nothing." 
Cic. Acad, i, 12.^/4, 24. 

ARCESIUS, the fon of Jupiter 
and father of Laertes, Ovid. Met. 13, 

ARCHELAUS, the general of 
Mithridates, Liv. Eptt. 76. defeated 
by Sylla, Id. 82. 

Archemorus, Vid- Ophel- 


1 ARC 

ARCHIAS, -ae, a Greek poet, 
the teacher and friend of Cicero ; who 
having his title to the right of being a 
Roman citizen called in queftion, w^as 
defended by that orator, Cic. pro Arch, 
He was called /iulus Licinius Arc hi as, 
becaufe he had obtained the right of 
citizenfhip by means of fome one of 
the LucuUiy and alTumed, according to 
cuilom, the name of their ^ctzj, Lici- 
nius, retaining his former name as 
firname. From whom he got the 
praenomen \ulus, is uncertain 

ARCHIAS, a noted maker of 
couches ; whence Archiaci le£li, couches 
made by Archias, Hor. Ep. 1,5, i. 

Archigenes, -is, a celebrated phy- 
fician in the time of Domitian, Juve- 
nal. 6, 235. 13, 98. et 14, 252. 

ARCHILOCHUS, a Greek poet, 
contemporary with Romulus ; who 
wrote in Iambic verfe, Cic. Tufc. i, I.; 
^dndU. lo, I. Lycambes having be- 
trothed to him his daughter Neohulet 
broke his promife, and gave her to 
another. On which account Archilo- 
chus wrote fo bitter a fatire againU 
them, that they both hanged thcm- 
felves, Hor. Epod. 6, 13 ; /7r/. P. 79, 
hence Archihchia in eum,(fc. Pompeium,) 
ediffa Bibuli, acrimonious, bitter, fati- 
ricil, Cic. Att. 2, 21. et 16, li. 

ARCHIMeDES, ~is, an illuftrious 
mathematician of Syracufc, who, by 
his wonderful engines, enabled his 
countrymen to make a long defence 
againll the Romans, and obliged Mar- 
cellus to turn the liege into a blockade. 
When at lail the city was taken by 
treachery, Archimedes was quite igno- 
rant of what had happened ; and a fol- 
dier having broken in to his apartment, 
found him engaged in defcribing fomc 
ligure on the floor. Being ordered by 
the foldier to come immediately to 
Marcellus, he anfwered coolly, that hc 
could not, till he finifhed his problem. 
Upon which the favage inftantly Hew 
him, Liv, 25, 31.; Cic. Fin. ^^ 19. 
Marcellus lamented his death, and or- 
dered a tomb to be ered:ed to his me* 
mory. Id, Verr. 4, 58. which, when 
forgotten by his countrymen, and over- 

ARC [3 

grown with weeds, was difcovered by 
Cicero, when quaeflor in Sicily, Cic. 
Tufc. ^,17,. Hence i^p;(^///->!i'f((5v ;rro/5x>i^.a, 
for any thing difficult, C'tc. Att. 12, 4. 

ARCHyTAS, -ae, a Pythagorean 
philofopher of Tarentum, C'lc. de Or. 
3, 34. cotemporary with Plato, C'lc. 
Fin. 2, 14. et 5, 29. Tu/c. 5, 2 2. who 
perifhedby'diipwreck, Hor.Od. i, 28. i. 

Arescusa, the name of a woman, 
faid to have been converted into a man, 
and then called Arescon, Plin. 7, 4. 

Arethusa, a nymph turned in- 
to a fountain; feeALPHEUs. Hence 
Arelhujaei lat'ices, the waters of Arethu- 
fa, Claudtan. de Rapt. Projerp. 2, 60. 
and Syracufe, where this fountain aqs, 
is called Arethusides Syracufae, Ovid. 
Fail. 4, 873. the inhabitants, Arethu- 
Jia proles^ Sil. 14, 357. 

ARGAi^THONlUS, a king of 
the Tarteffii, a people in the fouth of 
Spain, who reigned at Cadiz 80 years, 
and lived 120, C'tc. Sen. 19. Anacre- 
on fays, 150; Plin. 7,48. Sihus Ita- 
licus fays, 3C0 ; 3, 396. hence Argan- 
ihoniaci nepotes, his delcendants, ib. 

ARGO, -liSy and Argo in the other 
cafes,/, the name of the fliip in which 
Jafon and his companions failed in quell 
of the golden fleece, Cic. Tufc. 1, 20. 
whence they were called, 

ARGONAUTAE, y/or. Epod. 3, 
9. Argonautica, -Gruniy fc. Jcripta^ 
writings concerning the Argonauts ; 
as thoie of Valerius Flaccus, &c. 

This fhip is fuppofed to have been fo 
named either from Argus, the maker, 
or from its velocity, {^ab ^p>^>', velox ;) 
or from the mariners being Greeks, ( /Jr- 
gi'vi,) Cic.Tufc. I, 20. It is called Faii- 
^/"^^jbecaufe it is fiippofedto have utter- 
ed oracles, Val. luac. 1,2.; Claud. Bell. 
Gel. 16. It was fxually converted in- 
to a conflellation, Cic. Qtc.x. 126, oic. 
Man'd. I, 419. ; Hygin. Fab. 14. et 
Poet. /{/Iron. 2, 37. ; Col. 1 1, 2, 24. it 
66. — Martial plays on the word Argo- 
nauts : Non nautas puto res, fed Argo- 
nautaSf i. e. p'lgros nautas , (ab '^f/')?, 
fser\) 3, 67. 

ARGUS, a (liepherd, the fon of 
Arii'tor, i^ArijlorldeSf -as,) to whom 

o ] A R I 

Juno committed the charge of 10, 
when metamorphofed into a cow. Ar- 
gus had an hundred eyes, two of which 
took rcfl in their turn, while the others 
kept watch, that lo might not be ilolen. 
But Mercury, at the command of Ju- 
piter, having lulled Argus afleep, flew 
him : and Jupiter, having at lail miti- 
gated Juno, reftored lo to her former 
fhape, Ovid. Met. i, 625, — 747. 

AF.GYNNUS, a youth beloved 
by Agamemnon, who loll his lile as 
he was fv.imming in the river Cephi- 
fiis, 4thenae* 13, 8. ; Propert. 3, 7, 22. 
From, him Venus was called Argyn- 
Nis, -"idis. 

ARIADNE, -es^ the daughter of 
Minos, king of Crete, who falling in 
love with Thefeus, when about to en- 
ter the labyrinth, gave him a clue, 
which directed him ; fo that having 
flain the Minotaur, he made his efcapc, 
and, according to promife, carried off 
with him Ariadne ; but baiely deferted 
her in the ifland Naxos. There fhe 
was found by Bacchus, who married 
her. He gave her a beautiful crown, 
which, after her death, was converted 
into a conilellation, called ARIAD- 
NAEUM SIDUS, Oi>ul Fajl.s, 345. 
et 3, 462. &c. ; Propert. 3, 15, 7. ; 


Ariarathls, -/J-, king of Cappado- 
cia, the ally of Antiochus againil the 
Romans, Liv. 37, 31. ^/ 3S, 26. on 
which account he was obliged to pay 
200 talents of filver, ib. 37. He was 
afterwards admitted into friendfliip by 
the Romians, ib. 39. and ftnt his fon 
to be educated at Rome, id. 42, 19. 

Ariuaeus, a natural fon of Philip 
king of Macedonia, jufiin. 9, 8. ap- 
pointed by the army to fucceed Alex- 
ander the Great, Id. 13, 2. & 3. 
though not nominated by him at his 
death. Id, 12, 15. flain by the order of 
Olympias, Id. 14, 5. 

Ariobarzanes, -is, a king of Cap- 
padocia in alliance with the Roman 
people, expelled by Mithridates Cic, 
ManU. 2. 

Arion, 'onisy accus. AuTCna; a fa- 

A R I [3 

mous muCcian and poet of Methymnae, 
(Met/jymnaem) in the ifland Lefbos, 
F/in. 9, 8. (See G. 343.) hence yl- 
rioma lyra, Propert. 2, 26, 18. A'rioni- 
vm nomerif the fame of Arion, Ov'ul, 
Fajl, 2, 93. — ^2. Alfo the name of the 
horfe of Adrafhis, [eqiius Jidrajleus^^ 
Stat. Theb. 4, 43. 

ARISTAENUS, a praetor of the 
Achaeans, L'ii\ 32, 19, .See. 

ARISTAEUS, the fon of Apollo 
by Cy.hie^ the daughter of Peneiis, 
kingr of Arcadia, or according to the 
poets, of the river Peneus in ThefTaly, 
V'trg. G. 4, ^11. etib. Serv. According 
tojurtin, Ariilaeus was a king of Arca- 
dia, who firft taught mankind the ufe 
of bees and honey, the art of curd- 
Hng milk, &c. yuftin. 13, 7. whence he 
is called Arcad'ms mogijhr^ Virg. G. 4, 
283. On accoiTrt of his inventions he 
was worfliipped as a god; whence Vir- 
gil invokes him, under the title of C?;/- 
tor nemorumy inhabitant of the groves, 
V'lrg. G. 1, f4. and reprefents him as 
inhabiting Cea, lb, to which he retired 
after the unfortunate death of his fon 
Aftaeon, Ser'v. in Virg. ibid. Ariilaeus 
is faid by Cicero to have been the in- 
ventor of the olive, C/V. N. D. 3, 18. 
or of oil, Id. Verr. jSfi 57 f. in which 
lail paflage he is faid to have been the 
fon of Bacchus, (ut Graeci ferunty Li- 
bcriJiHusi) but thefe words arc thought 
to have been interpolated by fome 
tranfcriber, vid. Ermjii oillocuni : for in 
the former pafTage Cicero makes him 

the fon of Apoilc. Aristaeus, 

having fallen in love with Eurydu?, the 
wife of Orpheus, attem.pted to offer 
violence to her. She in her flight was 
bitten by a fnake ; which proved the 
caufe of her death, Virg. G. 4, 457. ; 
Ovid. Met. 10, 9. On this account 
the nymphs, her companions, being en- 
raged, dellroyed the bees of Ariilaeus, 
Virg. ib. 534. Hereupon he invoked 
the affiftance of his mother Gyrene, 
who is reprefented as rehding at the 
head of the river Peneus in Thelfaly, 
( TriJIis ad extrsml facrum caput adjiitit 
fimnisyVirg. G. 3 1 9. i. e. the fountain or 
ieiircc, according to Sevviusj but accord- 

t 1 

A R I 

ing to others, the mouth, which appears, 
as they think, from what is faid ib, 
359, and 362. and caput is put for the 
mouth of a river, Lucan. 2, 52. ; Val- 
Flacc. ^y 351. So Rhenus muhis capiti- 
bus in Qceanwn injluity Caef. B. G. ^, 
lO- But the reiidence of the nymphs 
was commonly at the fprings or fources 
of rivers; and caput in this very ftory 
is put for the fountain of a river, 1;. 368. 
Befidcs the ufual abode of Ariilaeus 
was Tempe, at the mouth of the Pe- 
neus, which he is faid to have left, ib, 


Cyrene conduced her fon to the fea- 
god Proteus, ib. 401. — 424. by whom 
he was informed, that the caufe of his 
difafter was the injury offered by him 
to Eurydice, ib. 453. whofe ftory Pro- 
teus recounts from i). 457. to 11. 527. 
According to the direftions of Cyrene, 
Ariilaeus facriiiced four bulls and as 
many heifers to appeafe the nymphs ; 
and having left their carcafes in a (hady 
grove, on the ninth day after, he re- 
turned and performed facrilices [infe- 
rias wittebat) to the manes of Orpheus 
and Eurydice ; whereupon he was a- 
llonifhed to fee fvvarms of bees ifluing 
from the putrid bowels of the vidlims, 
ib. 536. — 559. a manner of repairing 
the lofs of bees faid to have been prac- 
tiied by the Eo;yptians, //'. 287.-^315, 

Other authors alfo fpeak of bees be- 
ing thu^ produced : thus Apes nafcun- 
iur partim ex apibus , parlim ex bubulo cor- 
pore putrefaSot Varr. R. R. 3, 16, 4, 
So ibid. 2, ^, ^. Ovid. Fa ft. i, 374. — 
380. Progenerari pojfe apes juvenco per- 
empto Democritus et Mago, nsc minus 
Virgiliusy prodiderunt ^ Columell. 9, 14, 
6. And we read of Samfon's finding 
a fwarm of bees and honey la the car- 
cafe of a lion, judges, 14, 8. But fuch 
fpontaneous generation is now juilly 
exploded ; according to the aphorifm, 
Omne animal ex ovo. 

ARISTARCHUS, a noted gram- 
marian of Alexandria, defcended from 

Samothracia, who difcovered great a- 
. ..... , ^ 

cutencfs m cnticiling the verfes of Ho- 
mer J hence his name came to be put 


A R I [3 

a» a common noun for a critic ; thus, 
Meanim orailonum tu Aiijlarchis fx, i. e. 
the judge or critic, C'lc. At. i, 14. 
So Ck. Fam, 9, 10. f/ 3, 1 1 ; Horat. 
Art. P. 4j^o. ; Ovid. Pont. 3, 9, 23. 

Aristides, -isy an illuftrious Athe- 
nian, on account of his integrity firna- 
med the Just. See his life in Corne- 
lius Nepos^ and Plutarch. 

ARISTIO, V. -cff, -onis^ an Athe- 
nian fophift, who, uniting himfelf with 
Archelaus, the general of Mithridates, 
iifurped the government of his coun- 
try ; hut being reduced by Sulla, was 
forced to drink poifon, Liv. Ep. 81. 

ARTSTIPPUS, a native of Cyrene 
m Africa, the fcholar of Socrates, \vho, 
by his doftrine and pradlicc, recom- 
mended pleafure as the chief good of 
man, Cic. Fin. 2, 6. ; the founder of 
what was called the Cyrenaic fcCl of 
philofophers, Cic. Or. 3, 17. From his 
complaifance to the great, he was call- 
ed by Diogenes, Regius Cams. The 
mutual feoffs of thefe two philofophers 
are finely defcribed by Horace, £/>. i, 
17, 14. ; Sat. 2, 3, 100. See Vitrui}. 
6 prooem. ; hence ARisTiPPfcUs, adj. 
Cic. Fin. 2, 6. 

ARISTO, -onis., a native of Chios, 
{Chius), a Stoic philofopher, Cic. Acad. 
4, 42. ; Fin, 2, II. & 13. 

Aristo, -0,'iis, a tragedian, (aHor 
tragicus)i Liv. 24, 24. 

Aristo, v. -o«, a native of Tyre, 
whom Annibal fent from Epheliis to 
excite che Carthaginians to join Antio- 
chus in war againil the Romans, but 
in vain, Liv. 34, 61. 

Aristobulus, king of the Jews, 
made captive and ltd in triumph by 
Pompey, Flor. 3,5.^?;^ ; Eutrop. 6, 16.; 
Plutarch, in Pomp. 

Aristobulus, king of Armenia 
Minor, Tac. Ann. 13, 7 

Aristogiton, an Athenian, who, 
in conjun8;ion with his friend Harmo- 
dius, freed his country from tlie ty- 
ranny of the fons of Pililbatus, Cic, 
Tujc. I, 49. 

Aristomache, -esy the wife of 
Dionyfius the tyrant, Cic. Tufc. 5, 20. 

J ] A R R 

Aristomachus, the chief of th< 
popular party, f princeps pkbis ) , at Cro- 
to, by whofc means that city was given 
up to Hannibal, Liv. 24, 2. & 3. 

Aristom ENEs, -/j, a famous gene- 
ral of the Meffenians, {See G. p. 463. ) 

AristonIcus, the fuppofed fon of 
Eumenes king of Pergamus. After 
the death of Attains, who left the Ro- 
man people his heir, he invaded that 
kingdom ; but having fallen into the 
pov»-cr of Perperna the Roman general, 
he was ftrangled in prifon, Liv. Ep. 
69. ; Cic. Phil. 11, 8. ; RuU. 2, 33. 

Aristophanes, -w, a celebrated 
comic poet of Athens, Hor. Sat. I, 4, 

1. whence Aristophaneus, adj. Cic. 
Orat. 56. ; ^ i^r. 3, i, 6. 

ARiSTOR, -om, the father of 
Argus, who is hence called AriflorXdes^ 
-ae^ Ovid. Met. i, 624. 

ARES, the Greek name of Mars; 
whence Arius, vel Areus. adj. thus, 
Ariumy vel Areum judicium, the court of 
judges, called Areopagus, Tac. An. 2? 


ARISTOTeLES, -is, a native of 
Staglra, [Stagirltes^ -«^}, the fcholar of 
Plato, and praeceptor of Alexander 
the Great, the iounder of what was 
called the Peripatetic fed of philo- 
fophers. famous for h;s numerous wri- 
tings, which for many ages were held 
in the highell rcfpeCl ; greatly admired 
by Cicero for his eloquence, Cic. deOr» 

2, 36.; Brut. 31.; Orat i.; Acad. 4, 
38. ]rie-i\cc Arijlolelius moSf when one 
writes any thing in the form of a dia- 
logue, Cic. Fam. I, 9. Arijlofelia, v, 
'ic a pigment a, the ornaments of difcourfe 
]-ecommcnded by Ariftotie, Cic, Att. 2, 
\. \ de Or. 2, 39. 

Aristoteles, the praefc£t of An- 
tiochus at Chalcis, Liv. 36, 21. 

ARMINIUS, a general of the Ger- 
Hians againil the Romans, 'Tacit. Ann, 
I. & 2I 

ARRIA, the wife of Caecinna Pac- 
tus, who was condemned to death by 
the emperor Claudius, for having been 
concerned in the revolt of Scribonia- 
Suct. CI. 13. \rria having in 
ain foiidtcd for his pardon, perfuaded 




A R R [ 

bim to deftroy himfelf rather than fuf- 
fer the ignominy of perifhing by the 
executioner's hands ; and perceiving 
that he was not much inclined to the 
adl, in order to encourage him, fhe 
plunged the dagger in her own breaft ; 
then drawing it out, fhe prefented it 
to her hufband, with thefe memorable 
words, Paete, non dolet, Paetus, 
it is not painful, Plin. Ep. 3, 16. which 
Martial thus paraphrafes, St qua Jldes, 
vulnusy quod feci non dolet, inquii ; Sed 
quod tu fades, hoc mlhi. Pads, dolet, i , 
14.. Pliny relates feveral other inftan- 
ces of her heroifm, lb. 

ARRIA, her daughter, the wife 
of Thrafea, wifhed to imitate the ex- 
ample of her mother, when that vir- 
tuous man was condemned by Nero, 
but was diverted from it by her huf- 
band, Tac. /^nn. 16, 34. 

C. Arrius, the friend and neigh- 
bour of Cicero, Cic, jfitt. 2, 14, 15. 

Arsaces, -is, the founder of the 
Parthian monarchy ,j7//??n. 4 1,5, whence 
his fucceffors were called Arsacidae, 
•arum^ Serv. ad Aen. 6, 760. ; Lucan. 
1, 108. Arfacis de gente, Tacit. Ann. 
12, 14. Regnum Arfacis, for Arfacida- 
rum, the kingdom of Parthia, Tac. G. 
37. Arsacia aula, the Parthian court, 
Martial. 9, 36, 3. 

ARSINOE, -es, the fiRer and wife 
of Ptolemy king of Egypt, worfliipped 
as a divinity after her death. Di no- 
chares, an architect, had begun to 
build for her a ctiaptl, arched with load- 
ftone, in fuch a manner, that an iron 
image of her might feem to hang in 
the air. But this attempt was Itopt 
by the dearh of both the architedil and 
©f the king, Plin. 34, 14 f. 42. — Alfo 
the name ot feveral other queens. 

Artabanus, the fon oi Hyftafpes, 
and brother of Darius king of Perfia, 
who diJIuaded him from making war 
on the Scythians, Herodot. 4, 83. as 
he alfo diffuaded Xerxes from making 
war on the Greeks, Id. 7, 10, 11, 46. 

Artabanus, the fon of A.r tasy ras, 
the chief favourite of Xerxes, whom 

33 ] A R U 

he afTaflinated, in hopes of fucceedi'ng 
to the crown ; but was hirafclf put to 
death by Artaxerxes, the fon and fuc- 
cefTor of Xerxes, Ctef. Excerp. Hiji,. 
Pcrf 29. ; Diodor. lly'jg.i Jujlin. 3, 

Artabanus, a king of Parthia, 
Tacit. Ann. 2, 3. &c. expelled by his 
fubjedls for his cruelty, ib. 6, 31. 5c 
36. and recalled, ib. 43. 

Artaxer^ies, -is, the name of fe- 
veral kings of Perfia, Cic. Att. 10, 8. ; 
G. 614. & 616. 

Artemidorus, of Gnidus, ((?«/- 
diiis), a profeffor of the Greek lan- 
guage at Rome, who prefented to Cae- 
far, as he went to the fenatc-houfe, a 
paper containing an account of the 
confpiracy formed againll him ; but 
Caefar did not read it, Plutarch, in 
Caefarls vita. — <|[ 2. A famous pugiliil. 
Pan fan. Eliac. 2. ; Martial 6, 77, 3. 

Artemis, -idis, f. a name of Di- 
ana, Plin. 25, 7 f. 36. ; Macrob. 7, c* 

ARTEMISIA, the wife of Mau- 
solus king of Caria, who, after his 
death, drank the allies of his burnt 
body in her drink, and eredled a fplen- 
did monument to liis memory, one of 
the feven wonders of the world, Cic. 
Tufc. 3, 31. w^hence any fplendid mo- 
nument was called Mauf oleum. -» 

There was another Artemifia, queea 
of Caria or HalicarnafTus, who afliited 
Xerxes in his war againft Greece, and 
fought with fo great valour, that Xer- 
xes faid, " His men fought like wo- 
men, and his women like men," Hc' 
rodot. 7, 99. et 8, 68. ; Jufan. 2, 12. 

A RUNS, -7ttis, a Trojan chief, who 
flew Camilla, and was himfelf flain by 
the nymph Opis, the attendant of Di- 
ana, Firg. Acn, 11,759,-868. 

Aruns, thel' brother of Luciimo, 
and father ot Egerius, Ltv. i, 34. 

Aruns, the fon of Porsena, Liv, 
2, 14. 

ARUNS, a native of CluHum, who, 
from refentment on account of his 
wife's having been fcduced by Lucii- 
mo, a powerful young man, whole: 
guafdian he had been, is faid to liave 
E carried 

A R U C 34 1 

carried wine into Gaul, in order to ufed 
enrice that nation to invade Italy. He 
is fald alfo to have conduded them 
over the Alps, and to have advifed 
them to attack Clulium, Liv. 5, 33. 
F'id. He LI CO. 

Aruns Tarquinius, the fon of 
Tarqulnius Superbus, who attacked Bru- 
tus with fuch fury in battle, that they 
both fell by mutual wounds, Liv. 2, 

AscALAPHUs, the fon of Acheron 
and the infernal nymph Orphne, who 
having difcovered that Proferpine had 
eaten fruit in the infernal regions, pre- 
vented her return to earth ; on which 
account Proferpine metamorphofed him 
into an owl, Ovid. Met. 5, 539. 

AscANius, called alfo Julus or Ilitsy 
the fon of Aeneas and Creiifa, the 
daughter of Priam, the companion of 
his father's flight and dangers, Virg. 
Aen. I, 646. and his fucceffor in ttie 
government of Lavinium, L'ro. I, 3. 

AscLEpiADEs, -/V, a celebrated pliy- 
ficiaa, born at Prufa in Bithynia, who 
lived to a gieat old age without a com- 
plaint, and was at lalt killed by a fall 
from a ftair, (fcalarum lapfujy Plin. 7, 
37. He flourilhed in the time of 
Pompey ; recommended chiefly ab- 
ftinence and exercife : allowed the nfe 
of wine in certain difeafes, &c. Plin. 
26, 3 f. 7. He was originally a teach- 
er of rhetoric, (orandimagijler)^ which 
profcflion he changed for that of medi- 
cine, as being more lucrative, lb. A- 
puleius reckoned him the greated phy- 
fician next to Hippocrates, Florid, c. 
19. He wrote feveral books, fome of 
which are mentioned by Celfus, 1,3. 
et 2, 14. et ^. praef. Cicero fpeaks of 
him as the friend of Ci alius the orator, 
Cic. Or. I, 14. 

AscLEPiADEs, a philofopher of E- 
retria, (Eretrtcus), who having be- 
come blind, bore it with great equa- 
nimity, Cic. Tuic. 5, 39. 

AsCLEPiADEs, a tragic poet, the 
fcholar of Ifocrates, Plutarch, in vit. 
Ifocrat. ; Plin, in clench. Audior. I. 7. 
from whom, or from tome other poet 
of the fame name, that kind of verfe 

A S I 

by Horace in his firft ode hag 
been called Carmen Ajchpiadacum^ Af- 
clepiadean verfe, Dlomed. 3, p. 408. 

AscLEPioDORUS, a painter, admi- 
red by Apelles for the fymmetry of his 
pidures, Plin. 35, 10 f. 36. — «[ 2. A 
fculptor, Li 34, 8f. 19. 

AsCLETARiON, -dnis, an aftrologer, 
put to death by Domitian, Suet. Dum. 

ASCONIUS Pedianus, a gramma- 
rian, born at Padua, fuppofed to have 
been contemporary with Livy. 8jme 
of his valuable commentaries on Cice- 
ro are ftill extant. Fid. i^uniJil. 1,7, 
24. et 5, 10, 9. 

ASDRUBAL, vel Hafdruhal, -alts, 
the name of feveral Carthaginian gene- 
rals, particularly of a brother of Han- 
nibal's, who was defeated and flain by 
the coafuls Livy and Nero, near chc 
river Mctaurus, Liv. 27, 48. & 49. ; 
Hor. Od. 4, 4, 34. 

A SIN A, a Roman firname, faid to 
have been derived from a chief man 
of the gens Cornelia^ who being once 
required to give fureties, brought into 
the forum an afs loaded with money 
inflead of fureties, Macrob. Sat. i, 6. 
propejin. Hence Hoi ace plays on this 
firname, Ep. i, 13, 8. It feems that 
the firname of the father of Vinnius, f. 
Vinius, to whom this e-piftle is infcri- 
bed, was As in a, Scoliajl. ad loc——* 
From As IN A, or -«j, were derived al- 
io, as it is thought, the firnames AfeU 

la, or -US) and AfelUoy or -ius : thus, 

Finnius Asella, the friend of Ho- 
race, Ep. I, 13. 

Claudius AsELLUS, a famous horfe- 
man, to whofe firname his antagonift 
Taurea is thought to allude in that 
faying, Minime Jis cantheriura in fojfa^ 
Be nut an afs in a ditch, Liv. 23, 47. 
{^Vid. Rom. Antiq. /. 549.) 
AsELLio, or 

a Latin hiftorian, 
Cic, Leg. I, 2. called Sempronius A- 
fellio, Gell. 4, 9. 

ASINIUS, the gentile name of fe- 
veral illuftrions Romans. 

ASINIUS POLLIO, the friend 
of Antony, Cic. Fani, 10, 31, 32. & 
33. and afterwards in great favour with 
Augullus ; 

A s r C 

Auguftus ; an eminent orator, ^I'lndtil. 

pajfim, poet and hiftorian, Hor. Oct, 2, 

1,9.; F'lrg. Ed. 3, 84. & d>6. 4, 10. 

AsiNius Gallus, the fon of the 
former. Tacit. Ann, ly 12^ el 6, 2^. 

Both of them detracted from the 
merits of Cicero, ^AiicfiL 12, i, 22. 
The fon wrote a book, in which he 
compared the works of his father with 
thofe of Cicero, and endeavoured to 
fSiew the fuperiority of the former, 
Plln. Ep. 7, 4. The emperor Clau- 
dius wrote a learned anfwer to this 
book in defence of Cicero, Suet, CI. 
41. ; Gell. 17, I. 

Asopus, the god of the river Aso- 
pus, which runs paft Thebes, the fa- 
ther of Aegina, Stat. Theb. 7, 315. 
who is hence called Aesop is, -uUsy 
Ovid. Met. 6, 113. and grandfather of 
Aeacus, the fon of Aegina ; who is 
therefore called Afopiadesj -ae, ib. 7, 

ASPASIA, born at Miletus, a 
woman of uncommon accomplifhments, 
who taught eloquence at Athens. So- 
crates ftudied under her, and Pericles 
was fo captivated with her, that he 
married her, Plutarch, in Pericle. 

AsPAsiA, the wife of Xenophon, 
Cic. Inv. I, 31. ; ^indiL 5, II, 28. 

L. AsPRENAS, -fitis^ a proconful of 
Africa, Tac. Ann. i, 53. Conjularis 
jdfprenatum domus, the family of the 
Afprenates^ fome one or more of which 
had enjoyed the confulfhip, Plin. 30, 
7 f. 20. 

C. Nonius AspRENAS, a young 
nobleman, lamed in the diverrton cal- 
led Lufus Trojae, Suet. Aug. 43. 

AssABiNus, a god of the Aethio- 
pians, Plln. 12, ipf. 42. 

AssARACUs, the fon of Tros., the 
father of Capys, and grandfather of 
Aeneas ; hence Domus AJfaracU the 
Roman nation, Virg. jicn. 284. jif- 
Jaraci Proles, the Julian family, Id. G. 
3, 35. So Gens AJfarad, Id. Aen. 9, 
643. Romulus Ajjarac'i quem Janguhiis 
Ilia mater Educet, Virg. Aen. 6, 778. 
Ajfaraci Lar^ for Lares, the houfehold 
gods of Affaracus, carried into Italy 
by Aeneas, ih. 9, 259. Et Csnus AJ- 

3.-3 AST 

farac't Mnejlheus^ a defcendant of, ib» 
12, 127. 

AsTARTE, -eSf a goddefs of the 
Syrians, faid to be the fame with Ve- 
nus, Ctc. N. D. 3, 23. 

Aster I A, vel f , -es, the daughter 
of Titan, Hygln. ^i. the fider of La- 
tona, and mother of the Tyrian Her- 
cules by Jupiter, Ck. Nat. D. 3, 16. 
& 18. ; Ovid. Met. 6, 108. ; Serv. ad 

^><?- 3' 73- 

ASTRAEA, the daughter of A- 
ftraeus the giant, and of Aurora ; or, 
as others fay, of Jupiter and Themis ; 
put for Juftice or the goddefs of juf- 
tice, who, with feveral other deities, 
lived on earth m ihe golden age. But 
offended at the vices of men, they all 
left the earth ; and Aftraea, the laft 
of them, Ovid. Met. i, 150. She was 
trandated into the fign, between Libra 
and the Lion, under the name of Vir- 
go or Erigoney Manil. 4, ^:^2. ', Senec. 
0*fi:av!a, 422. 

ASTRAEUS, one of the Titans, 
who is faid to have begotten, on Au- 
rora, the winds, Hefiod. Theog, 378. 
whence they are called AsTRAti Fra- 
TRES, the Allrean brothers, Ovid, 
Met. 14, 545.^' 

AsTUR, -uris, aTufcan, who joined 
Aeneas in the war againft Turnus, 
Virg. Am. 10, 180. 

AsTYAGEs, -/J-, a king of Perfia, 
the grandfather of Cyrus, Juftin. i, 4. 
— Alfo a perfon whom Perieus is faid 
to have turned into a ftonc with the 
Gorgon's head, Ovid. Met. 5, 205. 

ASTylNAX, -aclisy (q. Urbts prin- 
cepi ) the Ton of He6tor and Andro- 
mache; who, after the taking of Troy 
by the Greeks, being concealed by his 
mother, was difcovercd by Ulyffes, 
and thrown headlong from a lofty 
tower, Ovid. Met. 13, 415. accuf. Af- 
tyanactdy Virg. Aen. 2, 457.; Add. 3, 

AsTYDAMiA, the daughter of Or- 
menus, [Onnenis -idisy) whom Hercules 
carried off after flaying her father, Ovid. 
Ep. 9, 50. 

Asrytus, one of the centaprs, an 

augur, who diffuaded his brethren from 

£ 2 lighting 

AST [36 

fighting with the LafithaCy Ovid. Met. 
12, 307 

ASyLAS, a Tufcan augur, who 
joined Aeneas againft Turnus, Virg, 
Jen. 10, 175. 

ATAL\NTA, the daughter of 
Jafius, Cjafis, id'is,) an Arcadian vir- 
gin, devoted to hunting ; who was the 
firll that wounded the wild boar of 
Calydon ; and on that account was 
belo.ed by Melea'^er, who flew the 
boar, Ot)id. Met. 8, 317. From her 
liative city Tegea, fhe is called Tegeaea, 
fb. et. 380, from the fountain Nona- 
cris, NonacrMj fc. virgo, ih. 426, and 
from mount Maenalus, Maenaha^ Id. 
Ep 4, 99, Manilius, fpeaking of 
Meleager, has Atalante't labores, 5, 
179. and Statius, jfamque Atalantae-_ 
m implerat nuntlus awes, had reached 
the ears of Pavthenopoeus, the ftm of 
Atalanta by Meleager, Theb. 4, 309, 

AT A L AN r A, a daughter of 
Schoeneus, king of the ifland Scyros ; 
hence called Schoene'iay Ovid. Mtt. 10, 
609. She agreed with her lovers to 
contend with them in running, on this 
condition, that fhe fhould marry the 
man that vanquiHied her ; but fuch as 
were vanquiflied, fhe fhould flay. Se- 
veral fuffeVed this fate. At lafl Hfp- 
pomenes conquered her, by throwing 
down, in different parts of the courfe, 
golden apples which he had received 
from Venus ; and while fhe flopt to 
gather them, he got before her, Ovid. 
Met. 10,565, &c. ; Hyg'tn. 185. Pro- 
pertius confounds her with the other 
Atalanta, calling her JqfiSi and her 
lover MiLANiON inflead of Hippomenest 

3, I, 9- 

C. ATEJUS Caplto, a tribune of 
the commons, who tried to prevent 
CrafTus from ii^oing on his expedition 
againil the Parthians, by telling bad 
omens, and even attempted to carry 
him to prifon, Dlo, 59, 39. on which 
account the cenfor Appius degraded 
Atejus from the rank of a fenator, al- 
leging as a caufc, that he had faililied 
the omens, Cic. Div. i, 16. 

£i.T ^AVi AS, -anthy the fon of Aeolus 

1 A T H 

and king of Boeotia or Thebes. He 
firft married Nephelf., by v^'hom he 
had Phrjxus and Helle. Having di- 
vorced Nephele^ he next married Ino 
the daughter of Cadmus, by whom he 
had two G)ns, Learchub and Melicerta 
or Melicertes. Phrixus and Helle, to 
avoid the machinations of their ftep- 
mother, fled on a ram with a golden 
fleece, which their mother Nephele ha- 
ving got from M:;rcury gave them. 
Soon after Athamas, through the wrath 
of Juno, being "feized with madnefs, 
killed his fon Learchus ; and Ino, to 
fave herfelf, fled with her fon Mellcer- 
tes, Apollodor. 1,9, i- & 2.; Hygin. i. 
& 2. whence Ino is called Athaman^ 
Tis, -/<^«, Propert. i, 20, 19. Atha-^ 
mantid^s undaey the fea adjoining to 
ThefTaly, into wfiich [no threw herfelf 
with her fon in her arms, ib- — Arha- 
mantidos Helles pecus^ the ram on which 
Helle and her brother Phryxus croflTed 
the Hellefpont, after\\'^ards converted 
into a conffcellation, Ovid. Fajl. 4, 903. 
So Athamani'idos aequora, Ovid, Ep. 1 8. 
137. — Athatnant'iades, -ae, a fon of 
Athamas, Ovid. Met. 13, 919. — ^tha- 
tnanteus Jlnus, the bofom of, 

Ovid. Met. 4, 497. Men vel Meum 

Aithamariticum, i. e. ab .nthamante inven- 
tum, Phn. 20, 23 f. 94. 

Athenaeus, a Greek grammarian, 
born at Naucratis in Egvpt [Naucrati- 
ta;) who flouriPaed under M. /Vnto- 
nius and Coramodus. He publifhed 
feveral works, of which that only re- 
mains called De'ipnofophijiae^ or the So- 
phifls at Supper ; containing many cu- 
rious anecdotes of the ancients ; but ia 
an imperfeft ilate. 

Athenio, -oniSy a general of the 
fugitive flaves in Sicily, Cic. Verr. 2, 
54. ; Har. Refp. 12. whence Clodlus is 
called b) that name, as being the leader 
of flaves and low people at Rome, Cic, 
/itt. 2, 12. 

Athenodorus, of Tarfus, (Tar- 
feTifis)y a phdofopher, the praeceptor of 
Augudus, Dioy 52, 36. et ^6, 43. ; Ae^ 
lian, 12, 2S' ; Zofim. i, 6. j Cic. Fam» 

h 7' 

A T [^ 

t 37 ] 

A T L 

3,7. — Different peifons of this name mountain of that name, by Perfcu« 

are mentioned, Cic. Atl. 16, 11. et 14.; 
Sv€t. Claud. 4. 

Athf.rius vel Aterius, a certain 
lawyer in the time of Cicero ; whence 
Tu ijlhlc te Athcr'tano jure ddcEtato^ ego 
me hie Hiriiauc, Wiiile you at Naples 
fip the meagre broth of Aterius, 1 at 
Rcn)e regale n.yfclf with the favory 
fot p of Hirtius, Cic. Fam. 9, 18. 

ATI A, V. ylulu, the daughter of M. 
Atius Balbus, by Julia, the filler of C. 
Julivis Caefar, the wife of C. O^lavius, 
and mother of Augullus, Suet, Aug. 4.; 
Paterc. 2, 59. ; Dio^ 45, 1. Virgil, in 
compliment to rVuguilus, derives the 
origin of the Atian family from Atys, 
the friend of lulus ; thus tracing the 
defcent of that emperor, both by the 
father's and miOther's fulc, from the 
mod remote antiquity, {Parvus jJtys, 
genus imde Jttii duxere Lattni^J Aen. 5, 
568. And becaufe the father of Atia 
was fprung from Aricia, [Ariclnusy) a 
town near Alba, he is alfo fuppofed 
to allude to that circumftance, {Vir- 
biusy injignem quern tnater Aricia iniftty) 
ib. 7, 763. et il/i, Serv. But others 
-here fuppofe that a nymph called 
Aricia is meant. 

ATlLlA gefis, a plebeian noble fa- 
mily at Rome, of which were M. .\ti- 
lius Rirgulus, Liv. Ep. 15, &c. M. Ati- 
lius Calatinus, ih. !"],$<. 19.; Cic. Fin. 
2, 35.; whence Praedia Atilianaf Cic. 
v^'//. 5, I. 

ATILLA, (al. Jtilia v. Jcilia,) 
the mother of the poet Lucan ; named 
by her Ion among the conlpirators 
againft Nero, Tuc. Ann. 15, 56. but 
not punifned. She was iuffered to 
live in lileut obfcurity, {d'ljfimulata., ib. 
71 f. 

ATINIA /<f,"c, a law propofed by 
one Atiniii?, a tribune, that Helen 
goods, how long foever poflciTed, 
might be reclaimtrd, {de rebus furto 
furreptis, non ufu capiendis,) Cic. Vcrr. 
1,42^; Gell. 17, 7. 

ATLAS, antis^ the fon of Japetus 
or Japetioi), [yapelionuiesy -ae,) king 
of Mauritania, aiid fuppofed by the 
poets to have been changed into a 

prefenting to his fight the head of the 
Gorgon Meciijfa, Ovid. Met. 4, 627, 
S:c. ; Lucan. 9, 6^y. which Perfeus 
did becaufe xAtlas refufed him an hof- 
pitable reception at his houfe, Ovid. Ih, 
When conlidered as a perlon. Atlas is 
reprefented as fupporting heaven on his 
(houldcrs, Hygin. 150. according to 
Vitruvius, becaufe he iirft obferved the 
courfe of the fun and moon, 6, 10. 
according to Cicero, from his fi<ill in 
adionomy (cackjlium divina cognitio^) 
Cic. Tufc. 5, 3. whence he is called 
Caelifer Atlasy Virg. Aen. 6, 797. 
When confidered as a m.ountain. Atlas 
is faid to fupport heaven on his top, 
(caelum qui verti.e fuhit,) Virgil, Aen. 
4, 246. For Atlas, though converted 
into a mountain, is defcribed by Virgli 
as fciil retaining a human form, ib. 
Atlas is faid to have exceeded ail mor- 
tals in lize, Ovid. Met. 4, 631. hence 
he is called Maximus Atlas, Virg. Aen, 
I, 741. Atlas has in the vocative, At' 
la, Ovid. Met 4, 643. To him the 
gat den of the Hefpcrides belonged, 
w hich contained the golden apples ; 
and he is faid to have been prevented 
from admitting Perfeus into his houfc 
by a predidlion he had received from 
an oracle, that a fon of Jupiter, which 
Perftus pretended to be, Ihould carry- 
off the golden apples from the tree, 
Ovid. ib. — Atlas was the grandfather 
of Mercury by his daughter Maia ; 
hence Mercury is called Atlantia- 
DEs, -ae, Ovid. Met. 8, 627. — Atlas 
had ftvcn daughters by the nymph 
Plddni'j who are faid to have been con- 
verted into the conllellation called the 
SEVEN STARS (Pltladcs;) named from 
their father Atlantides, -urn, Virg, 
G. I, 221. ; Vitruv. 6, 10. and Sor/j- 
res Atlantiades, -urn, Sil. 16, 137. 
— Homer makes Calypfo alfo a daughter 
of .\tias, Od^fs. 7, 245. ; fo Bygin. i\ 
125. whence Tibyllus calls her liland, 
Faecunda /^Itlantidos arva Cdlypfus^ 4, 
1,77. Hyginus fays, that Atlas had 
twelve daughters ; feven of whom were 
changed into the Pleiades; and five into 
the Byades, fab. 192. — Adj. Atlantia 


A T R C 

regna-, tTie kingdom or realms of Atlas, 
S'tl. 15, 37. Atlanthis jinh^ {ox jirn-y 
the country round Atlas, put for the 
moft remote parts of the earth, Horat. 
Od. I, 34, 1 I. Antlanticum aequor, the 
Atlantic Ocean, lb. r, 31, 14. Mare 
vel oeeanusy Cic. Somn. Scip. 6. • >- 
lantiacujn profundum^ Aufon. Mofell. 
144. Atlantaeum prope I'ltius ^ Lucr. 5, 
36. — There were feveral pcrfons of the 
name of Atlas. 

Atrax, -achy a TheiTalian ; whence 
Cencus, one of his defcendants, is fup- 
pofed to be called Atracides, -ae^ 
Ovid. Met. 12, 209. and Hippodame, 
Atracis, -/^/j. Id. %mor. 1,4, 8. 

ATREUS, (of twofyllables,) -e'l, 
vel -eosy the fon of Pelops and Hippo- 
damia king of Mycenae; the father of 
Agamemnon and Menelaus ; who are 
hence called Atridae, -annn^ Virg. 
A en. t, 462. et 2, 415. Atrides minor 
et major, Ovid. Met. 12, 623. But 
when Atrides is put by itfelf, it de- 
notes Agamemnon, Hor, Od. 2, 4, 7. ; 
Ovid. Met. 13, 655. ; Ep. i, 2, 12. 
(See Geog. p. 402.)— Atreus has in 
the accuf. Atrea^ Senec. Thy eft. 486. 
Voc. Atreuy (in two fyllables,) lb. 
513. — Adj. Atreus, i. e. Arglvus, 
Stat. Theh. 8. 743. 

Atropos, -z, f. oneof the three Fates, 
Ts-hole office it was to cut the thread 
of life, (ex « priv. et rpi-ruj verto, i. e. 
inc\ordhdii)y Jgnara moveri Atropos, 
Stat.Thcb. 3, 67. Ad/a r.tropos, prof- 
perous fate, Id. Sih. 4, 8, 18. as Atra 
denotes fad, difmal, Hor. Od. 2, 3, 16. 

Atta, (Titus ^i'mciius)^ a Roman 
dramatic poet, Horat. Ep. 2, 1, 79. 
{^Sic diaus, quod propter vitium crwum 
aut pcdiiviy plardii infijhns, potius altin- 
gere terram quam amhulare videbatur), 
Schohaft. ex Fcfto. 

Attalus, the name of feveral 
kings of Pergamus, the laft of whom, 
having no children, left the Roman 
people his heir, F/or. 3, 12. Hence 
Attaltcae cGnditicr.^s, the promlfe of the 
greateft riches, or the wealth of Atta- 
lus, Horat. Od. I, i, 12. Attalli- 
CA, 'Oruniy (\c. aulaca, \'q\ peripetafmata 
auro ititexta), a kiad of embroidered 

3? ] A T y 

tapeftry or hangings, Cic Verr. 4, 12* 
which Attalus is faid to have invented, 
Plin. 8, 48. Vejlcs Attalicae^ Piopert. 

3, 18, 19. P or lieu s aulaeis nohilis At- 
talicis. Id. 2, 32, 12. At tali: us torus, 
a couch adorned with fuch cloth, Id. 

4. 5» 24. 

Atthis, -^tdts, the daughter of Cra- 
naHS, who gave her name to the coun- 
try of Attica, Paufan. i, 2. ; Strah. 

9, 397. whence Ait'oules, Athenian wo- 
men, Stat. Theb. 12, 536. ; Martial, 
II, 54, 4. And Atthis is put for a 
nightingale, from Philomela, an 'Athe- 
nian woman, metamorphofed into that 
bird. Martial i, 54, 9- ; alfo for a 
fwallow, from Progne, the fifter of 
Philomela, who was changed into a 
fwallow, /^. 5, 68, 2. — 51 2. \ girl 
beloved by Sappho, Ovid. Ep, 15, 18. 

Attjcus, (properly an adj. of or 
belonging to Attica), a hrnajne given to 
Titus Pomponius, the friend of Cicero, 
from his fptaking the Greek likt an 
Athenian, or like a native of Attica, 
[Attice), Nep. ,'\ttlc. 4. whence the 
daughter of Atticus is called Atti- 
CULA, Cic. Att. 4, 5. 

Attius. See Accius. 

Atys, orATTYS, -yis', alfoATTis, 
■^tdis ; or Attin, -Iriis, a Phrygian 
young man, [Phryx puer), the favour- 
ite of Cybeie, the mother of the gods, 
who made him vow to her perpetual 
chaiiity ; and for having violated his 
prom.ife, punifhed him with infanity. 
Upon which he mutilated himfelf, (fc 
cajlravit ) , as all the priefts of that 
goddefs did, in imitation of his ex- 
ample, Ovid. Faji. 4, 27,3, — 245. He 
{Cyheh'ius Attis) is faid to have been 
changed into a pine tree, Ovid. Met. 

10, 103. (Berecynthius Jtlin, Pcrf. i, 


Atys, a Trojan youth, the favour- 
ite of lulus, from whom Virgil makes 
the Latin family of the Attii to be de- 
rived, in compliment to Attia, the 
mother ofAluguftus, Aen. 5, ^6S. 

Atys Silvius, a king of Alba, Liv. 

Atys, the fon of Croefus, killed 
by accident. Fid, Adrastus. 



C 39 3 


AVERRUNCUS, a god, who a- 
verted misfortunes, {^mala averrunca- 
bat)y Varr. L. L. 6, 5.; Gell. 5, 

AuFEiA //(j-//^, a Roman aqueduft, 
afterwards called Marti A, Plin, 31, 

Cn. AuFiDius, a fenator of prae- 
torian rank, who, though blind, ufed 
to dehver his opinion in the fenale, 
and wrote a Greek hiftory, Cic. Tufc, 
5, 39. When very old, he adopted 
Oreftes, Cic. Fin. 19. ; Dom. 13. 

T. AuFiDius, an eminent lawyer, 
Ck. Br. 48. who is thought to have 
been praetor of Afia, CAc. Flac. 19. 
and the competitor of Cicero for the 
confulihip, Cic. Atl. 1, I. 

M. AuFiDius Lnrcoy made an an- 
nual income of ftfterces, by 
fattening peacocks, Var. R. R. 3, 6. ; 
-Plin. 10, 20 f. 23. 

AUGA, V. -e, -esy the daughter of 
Aleus, and the mother of Tclephus 
by Hercules, Hygln. 99. & 100. 

AUGEAS, V. Aasy -ae^ a king of 
Elis, who is faid to have had a ftable 
which held 3000 oxen, and had not 
been cleaned for 39 years. Hercules 
cleaned it in one day, by turning the 
courfe of the river Alpheus or Peneus, 
Hygln. 30. according to ApoUodorus, 
by turning the courfe of both, 2, 5. 

AUGUSTA, a name firll given to 
Livia, the wife of Auguftus, Tacit. 
Ann. I, 8. and after her to fome of 
the wives and other female relations 
of the fucceeding emperors, 'Tacit, /inn. 
12, 26. et 15, 23.; Hijl. 2, 89. 

AUGUSTUS, a liiname given to 
Oc^avius or Oclavianus, the adopted 
fon and fucceffor of Juhus Caefar, Suet. 
Aug' 7. and after him to the fucceed- 
jng emperors; hence .'-Vugustales 
facerdotes, vel Sodaksi prieils appointed 
to Auguftus after his death, Tacit. 


w?«j, fc. currusy Id. Claud. 11. 


\viDiENus, a fordid fellow, firna- 
med Can IS, Dog, from his manner of 
living, Hor. Sat. 2, 2, ^^. 

AULUS,- a praenomen common a- 
mong the Romans, marked by the let- 
ter A. as, A. Gellius ; thus, Auli Lex^ 
Is put for Lex Galiniay Cic. Att. 6, 2.- 
AuLi FiLius, i. e. Afranius, Cic. 
Att. I, 20. 

AtJNUs, a Ligurlan, the father of 
a warrior flain by Camilla, Virg. Aeru 
II, 700. 

Aurora, the goddefs of the morn- 
ing, the daughter of Hyperion and 
Thea, Apollochr. i, 2, 2. or Aethra^ 
Hygin. Praef. who fell in love with 
Tithonus, the fon of Laomedon,^^^^^?//^- 
dor. 3, 11,4.; Hygin. 2 70. whence fhe 
is called by the poets the wife of Ti- 
thonus, Ovid. Ep. 18, III. et 16. 199-; 
Am. 2, 5, 15. ; Virg. Aen. 4, 447. 
bt-autifully and variouHy defcribed, Id, 
Aen./\.y6. 3, 389. & 521. 5,105. II, 
129. ; Ovid. Met. 2, 112. i, 598. 2, 
144. 4, 628. &c. put for the eaft, ib. 
I, 61. and the morning. See JLatln 

AuTOLycus, the fon of Mercury 
and Chione, ingenious at every kind of 
theft, who could turn whatever he 
ftoJe into any colour he pleafed. But 
he was at lail detected by Sisyphus ; 
who, while employed in making the 
detcttion, is faid to have feduced his 
daughter Anticlea, who was afterwards 
married to Laertes, and became the 
mother of Ulyffes ; whence Ulyffes is 
fuppofed to have derived his craftinefa 
from his grandfather by the mother's 
fide, ,'iutolycus, and from his alledged 
father Sisyphus, Hygin. f. 200. & 201.; 
Ovid Met. II, 312. &c. ; Col. I, 3, 7. 
{Vtd. G. 451.) 

A u T o M a T I a , a godde fs of fortune, 
Ann, I, 15. et 54. et 2, 83. et 3, 6. ; worlhipped by Timolcon, Nep. 20, 4. 
HiJl, 2,95. AvGV ST ALES ludi, games Automedon, -ontisy the charioteer 
inftituted in honour of Augudus, '/"tiW/. of Achilles, /^/r^. yA-zz. 2, 477. ; Ovid, 
Ann. I, 15. (?c 54. AuGusTANi equi- Tr'tft. 5, 6, 10. put for a charioteer, 
tesy a body of cavalry, fo called by Cic. Rofc. 35. ; Add. ib. 7, 
Nero, Tacit. Ann. 14, 15. Atjgus- Autonoe, -esy the daughter of 
TjANi, Suet. Ner. 25, Angujlinusy v. Cadmus and HermisnCf the wife of A- 


. A U T 
riftaeus, and mother of Adlaeon 
IS hence called Autonoctus hero.iy Ovid. 

Met. 3, 198. Alfo the name of a 

play, ywjJcnaL 6, 72. 

P. A u T R o N I u s Paetusy ele£led con- 
ful with P. Sulla, a. u. 687, but con- 
demned for bribery, Cic. Syll. 1. ; Sal- 
lu!l. Cat. 18. ; Dio, 36, 27. 01 courfe 
degraded from the rank of a fenator, 
and declared incapable of enjoying any 
public office. Id. 37, 25'. He after- 
wards confpired with Catiline and o- 
thers again 11 the ftate, Sallull. Cat. 17. 
& 18. ; Suet. Cacf. 9. After the death 

[ 40 1 B A L 

who per {cum adbibit) cornua fum'it^ ib. I, 239. 
or, as Diodorus fays, becaufe Bacchus 
firll taught the yoking of oxen, lib. 5. 
Bacchus is diftingLiiflied by various 
epithets ; Corymbljhr^ becaufe he de- 
lighted in ivy, and his votaries were 
crowned with it* Ovid. Faji. i, 393. 
Racemlfer^ Id. Met. 15, 413. Last!- 
tla.". dator^ Virg. Aen. i, 734., &c. — 
Adj. Ba'xbdus, V. -etusy et Bacchuus ; 
tiius Bella Bncchea, the wars of Bac- 
chus in India, Stat. Theb. 12, 791. 

cf Catil 

he efcaped to Greece, 

where Cicero, when forced into exile, 
was afraid of being attacked by him 
and his afibciates, Cic. Att. 3, 2. & 7. 
As an orator, Cicero fays his chief 
accompliflimeat was a good voice, j5rw/. 

AXILLA, a iuname of the Servi- 
Ki, which, by dropping the x, was 
changed into Ala, ( Vejhr Axilla Ala 
fadus eft fiJgd liter ae vajUorisJf Cic. Or. 
45;. The mother of M. Brutus, to whom 
Cicero infcribed his book called Or a* 
TOR, was of the gens Servilia, and 
therefore he fays P^ejler Axilla^ ib. 

Q^ AXIUS, a fenator, intimate 
with Cicero, Cell. 7, 3. w^ho had a 
villa in the beautiful plains of Rok-a, 
Cic. Att. 4, 15. f.' 3, 15.; Farr. R. R. 

3, 2. He fcems like wife to have been 
a.n ufurer, Cic. Ait. i, 12 Suetonius 
mentions a letter of Cicero's to him, 
Avhich is not now extant, Sitet. Caef. 

BAnyLO, 'onis, the name of a bank- 
er, Ter. Adel. 5, 7, 17. 

Bacchius, the uaaie of a gladiator, 
llor. Sat. I, 7, 20. 

BACCHUS, the fon of Jupicer and 
Semele, the god of wine, ( See G. 
581.) Comttyr uvae, the planter of 
the vine, Tihull. 2, 3, 67. ; O-vid. Met. 

4, 14. hence put for wine, V^ii'g. G, 
2, 143. ; Ovid. Rem. Am. 803. ; Firg. 
G. 4, 102. ; Sen. Here. fur. 697. re- 
|)refented with horns, Coma injignis, 
Ovid. Art. Am. 3, 348. becaufe wine 
makes people pctular.t and bold, Pliu- 

Cornuay ib. 9, 435;. Bacchei ululatusy 
Bacchean yellings, or the cries of the 
prielleffes of Bacchus, Ovid. Md. 11, 
17. Baccheia donay the gifts of Bac- 
chus, i. e. the vine, Virg, G. 2, 454. 
3Iuneray A u fon. Mo fell v. 153, Serta 
Bacchicdy garlands of ivy, Ovid. Trifl. 
I, 6, 2. 

Bacchia, a daughter of Bacchus, 
from whom the Bacchiadae were de- 
fcended, a family which ruled Corinth 
200 years, Sirab. 8, p. 378. whence 
Corinth is called Ephyre Bacchl'isy -tdisy 
Stat. Silv. 2, 2, 34. This family be- 
ing expelled, failed to Sicily under 
Archias, one of their number, and 
built Syracufe, Ovid. Met. 5, 407. ; 
Thucydid. 6. 

B AGO AS, -aey a famous eunuch 
at the Perfian court, (G 620.), fup- 
pofed to be ufeJ as a common name 
for a eunuch, ^tinuil. 5, 1 2, 21. which 
is confirmed from Piiny, (/« horto Ba^ 
gouy ila enini vacant Spadones) j Piin. 13, 
4 f. 9. Ovid makes the name Ba- 
Gous, voc. Bagoe, Am. 2, 2, i. 

BALATRO, 'Onii, an attendant 
on Maecenas, Hor. Sat. 2, 8, 2 i < 5c 33. 

B A LB US, a native of Cadiz, made 
a Roman citizen by Pompey, at the 
requeit of L. Cornelius Lcntvdus ; 
vv'hence he allumed the name of L. 
Cornelius Balbus, Cic. Balb. a great 
favourite with Julias Caefar, Cic, Ait» 
7, 3. by which meavis he afterwards 
even became conful, a. u. 714, Plih. 
7, 43 f 44.. He died fo rich, that h£ 
left each Roman citizen 25 d,'nariiy 
Uio, 48, 52. ; Veil. 2, 51. 

Corn BALBUS, nephew to the 
former, by hiij fiiltr, called Mino*, 


B A L [41- 

C'lc. Ait. 8, 9. to diftinguiHi him from 
his uncle, who is called Major, Plhu 
7, 43. quaeftor to Afinius Pollio in 
Spain, Id. Fam. 10, 32. who triumph- 
ed over the GaramanteSf and was the 
firft foreigner that enjoyed that ho- 
nour, I'l'm. 5, 5. ; Solin. c, 29. He 
built and dedicated a theatre, a. u. 741, 
which afterwards bore his name, Dioj 
54, 25. et 66y 24. ; Suet. Aug. 29. ; 
Plln. s>S' 

Bale I duOf two Stoic philofophcrs, 
Ck. deOr. 3, 21. ; Brut. 42.; Fam. 3, 
4.; N.D.u^. 

BALLIO, the comic name of a 
procurer, Cic. ^ Rofc. 7. ; Phil. 2, 6. 
from that of Plautus, Pfeud. i, 2, 59. 

M. BAMBALIO, a nick-name gi- 
ven to the father of Falvia. Fid. Fa- 


Barbatus, the name of a Roman 
family, Suet. CI. 2i. 

BARCA, Barcas, or Barchas, 
the firname of Amilcar, the father of 
Hannibal, Nep. 21, i. hence Barci- 
^A.famiHay the family of Hamilcar or 
Hannibal, Liv. 23, 13. So Barcina 

faaio, the party at Carthage which fa- 
voured Hannibal, Liv. 2if 2. 8c g. et 
30, 7 & 42. Maxijnus fecundum Bar- 
cirios duxy next to thofe of the family 
of Barca, i. e. next to Hannibal and 
his brothers, Liv. 28, 12. 

Bardus CaJJlus, a friend to Caefar 
and Antony, Cic, Phil. 13, 2. 

Bard Y LIS, a powerful illyrican rob- 
ber, Cic. Of. Zy II. 

Barinc, the name of a courtefan, 
Ilor. Od. 2, 8, 2. 

Barrus, a perfon vain of his beau- 
ty, Hor. Sat. }, 6, 30. 

Bars IN E, -es^ the wife of Alexan- 
der, murdered by Caffander, with her 
fon Hercules, piflin. 15, 2. 

Basilius, a parti zan of Caefar's, 
who afterwards confpired againll him, 
Cic. Fam. 6, 15. 

Basilus, an Iflrian commander, on 
the fide of Caefar in the civil war, Flor. 
4, 2. ; Lucan, 4, 416. 

Basilus, an orator in poor circum- 
ftances, and therefore dilregarded, Ju- 
'yenah 7, 145. 

3 BAT 

Basilus, a Roman governor, who 
plundered his province, Jiroenal.iOyliz. 

Bass a REUS, voc. Bajsarcu^ {\x\ three 
fyllables), a name of Bacchus, Hor. Od, 
I, 18, II. hence Bajfaricae comae, the 
hair of Bacchus, t'ropert. 3, 17, 30. 
Bas saris, -"idis, a prieftefs of Bac- 
chus, Prrf. I, 100. 

Bassus, a poet, famolis for his com- 
pofitions in Iambic verfe ; a friend of 
Ovid's, Trijl. 4, 10, 47. ; mentioned 
alfo by Propertius, 1,4, i. & 12. 

Bassus ^w/J'JzW, an hiftorian, in the 
time of Augudus and Tiberius, v/ho 
wrote an account of the German war, 
^linclil. 10, I, 103. and alfo of the 
civil war, Senile. Rhetor. Sua/. 6. Pliny 
the Elder began the hiftory of his own 
time w-here BafTus left off, P/in. Praef, 
et Plln. Ep. 3, 5. Neither of thefe 
works remains. 

Caefius Bassus, a poet, contempo- 
rary with Quinftilian, 10, I, 96. 

Several others of the name of BafTus 
are mentioned by the claffics, Cic. Alt. 

12, 5. 


iSil. 6, 3, 27. &c. ; Plin. 

Ep. 4, 15. ^/ 4, 9. et 10, ^2.; MartiaL 

Bathyllus, a young man of Sa- 
mos, the favourite of Anacreon, Flor, 
Epod. 14, 9. — <|[ 2. Alfo a pantomime, 
yuvenah 6, 6'^. ; Tacit. Ann. i, 54. 

BATTIS, -ulisy a native of Cos, 
{Coa)y Ovid. Pont. 3, 1, 58. the mif- 
trefs of the poet Philetas, Id. Tr. i, 

5, 2. 

BATTUS, a Lacedemonian, who, 
with a colony from the ifland Thera, 
founded the city Cyrene in Libya, //c- 
rodot. ^t 145, — 164.; Paiifan. 10, 15.; 
Sir ah. 17. p. 837. from whom the Cy- 
renians i^Cyrenenfes) were called Bat- 
TiADAE, -arum, Sil. 3, 253. and the 
poet Callimachus, a native of Cyrenae, 
who gave out that he was defcended 
from Battusi Strab. ib. is called BAT- 
TIaDES, -acy Ovid. Trill. 5, 5. 38. 
et in Ibin. 53. ; Stat. Silv. 5, 3, 157. 
Juitin fays that the founder of Cyrene 
v/as called Aristalus, and got the 
name of Battus, from a defetl in his 
fpeech, Jufm. 13, 7. 

Battus, the name of a fhepherd, 
E ^Yhom, 

B A U [42 

wKom, for having violated his promife 
of fecrecyj Mercury turned into a 
touch-ftone, (Lndi-x), Ovid. Met. 2, 
687, 707. 

Baucis, tdos^ the name of a poor old 
woman, who, with her hufbnnd Phile- 
mop, entertained Jupiter and Mercury, 
Ovid. Met. 8, 631. &c. hence put for 
any poor v/oman, Perf. 4, 2 i . 

BAVrUS, a contemptible poet in 
the tin.e of Virgil, Virg, Ed. 5, 90. 

Beeryx, ycis^ a king of that part 
of Spain vv'hich lies among the Pyre- 
uean mountains, Sil. 3, 423. ; but the 
adje:live is fhort ; thus, rromen Bchry- 
cia duxere a 'virglne colles^ the Pyrenean 
mountains derived their name from 
Pyrene, the daughter of Bcbryx, *S'/7. 
3, 420. 

BELLERoPF-iON, -onfis ; -vd 
Bellerophontes, -ae, an ilUiilrious 
Corinthian, diilinguiflied for his chaf- 
tity, and for his ikill in horfemanfliip. 
He difdaincd the advances of Steno- 
boea, the vv ife of Proetus, king of Ar- 
gos ; whence he is called Castus, 
Hor. Od. 3, 7. 15. and mounted on 
his horfe Pegafus flew the monfter 
Chimaera, (See G. 393.) whence E- 
ques ipfo meUor Bellerophonts, an incom- 

parcible nder, Hor. Od. 3, 12, 7. 

Bdlerophontei equi humor., the fountain 
Piippocrene, formed by the ftroke of 
the hoof of Pegafus. Propert. 3, 3, 2. 

Bellienus, a partizan of Pom- 
pey's, whofe houfe was burnt by the 
mob after the funeral of Caefar, Cic. 
Phil 8, 15. 

BELLoN'^, the goddefs of war; 
faid to be the fifter of Mars, LnBant. 
ad Stat. Theb. ^, 155. But Ciaudian 
makes her the daughter of that god, 
Stilic. 2, 372. She is, reprtfented as 
his conftant attendant, armed with a 
bloody whip, Virg, A en. 8, 703.; Lu- 
caUi 7. 569. and driving the horfes of 
his chariot, Stat. Theh. 7, 72. IShe is 
calicd Ha STAT A, Stat. Thcb. 2, 719. 
becaufe before her temple at Rome 
there was a pillar called Bellica, 
over which a fpear ufed to be thrown, 
when war was proclaimed, Fejlus et 
Serv. ad Aeri. 9. 53. Bellona is dc- 
fcribed, Sil, 5, 221. Ciaudian Ei:tv, 2, 

] BEL 

144. et de quart. Conf. Honor. 12.— A 
temple was vowed to her by Appius 
Claudius while engaged In, battle, Liv. 
10, 19. In this temple, which Itood 
without the walls of the city, the fe- 
uate was often afiembled, Liv. 26 21. 
28, 9, & 38. 3c, 22, & 40. 31,47. 
33, 22, & 24. 39, 29. 42, 21. The 
priefts of Bellona, (Bellonarii ; Turta 
enthcata Bellonae, Martial 12, 57, i i.), 
ufed to cut their arms and fhouldeVs 
when performing her facred rites, Lu- 
can. I, 566. TibuU. 1,5, 47. 

Bellovesus, the commander of 
the fir ft body of Gauk that crolTed the 
Alps, in the tim.e of Tarquinius Prif- 
cus ; and having defeated the Tufcans 
near the river TicTnus, took pofrefiion 
of that country, and built the city of 
Milan. Liv. 5, 34 

BELUS, the chief god of the Af- 
fyilans, Plin. 37. 10. f. 55. fuppofed 
to be the fame with Baal, often 
mentioned in the Bible. 

Belus, the Plercules of India, Cic, 
N. D. 3, 16. 

Belus, a king of Phoenicia, the 
father of Dido, Virg, Aen. i, 621. 
defcended from a remote progenitor 
of the fame name, Virg, ib. 729. Lac- 
tant. I, 21. From himi was fprung 
Barcas, the founder of the family of 
Hamilcar, and the companion of Di- 
do's flight from Tyre ; hence called 
Bdldes juvenis, Sil. i, "j'^. 

Belus, a king of Egypt, the fa- 
ther of Aegyplus and Danaus, who are 
hence called Bclldae fratres, Stat. 
Theb. 6, 291. (nom. Belides, -ae ;) 
and the daughters of l/anaus, (Da- 
vauUs,) are called from their grandfa- 
ther, Belules, (nom. f. Belis^ -idis,) 
thus, AJfuiue repetunt quas per dant, Be- 
lides iindas, they are continually taking 
up aga'u the waters which they lofe, 
Ovid. Met. 4, 463. Vid. Danaus. 
One of them is alfo cabled Beliasy -adis, 

Senec Here. Get. 960. ^Palame- 

des, one of the generals of the Greeks 
in the Trojan war, is called the fon.of 
this Belus, (Belides, -ae,) tjiough 
according to Servius, the feventh in 
dcfcent from him, yirg, Aen. 2, 81. 

B E R. [ 

Berenice, -es^ the name of fcvc- 
Tal queens of Egypt, particularly of 
one, whofe liair ( Berenice o vertke cae- 
faries), was converted into a conftella- 
tion, Catiill. 64, 5. De Coma Berenices. 

Berknice> a Jewiih princefs, of 
whom the Emperor Titus was fo fond, 
that he promifed to marry her, Suet. 
Tit. 7. S!ie is called Iiuejla by Juve- 
nal, Sat. 6, 157. becaufe fhe was faid 
to have had commerce with her bro- 
ther King Agrippa, jojeph. Ant. 20, 
5. with whom, flie lived for fome time 
after the death of her hufband, Herod. 
ib. 4, & 5. while Feftiis was governor 
of Judaea, zA*7j- 25, 13. Tacitus men- 
tions the paffion of Titus for Queen 
Berenice, Hijl. 2, 2. and chat flie even 
pltafed Vefpafian by the magniiicence 
of her prefents, ih. 81. 


Berenice, (al. PI. 

?Jf faid to 

have been the only woman that was 
the daughter, lifter, and mother of 
vigors at the Olympic games, (Olym- 
piomcarumjy Plin. 7, 41. and therefore 
the only woman admitted to fee the 
games, Val. Max, 8, 15. ext. 4, f. 
Aelian. Var. H'lft. 10, I. 

Be ROE, -es, the nurfe of Semele, 
the m.other of Bacchus, Oiud. Met. 3, 

Beroe, the wife of Doryclus, Virg» 
Aen. 5, 620. 

Beroe, the daughter of Oceanus, 
(Oceaiutisf -tdis,) and lifter of Clio, 
Flrg. G. 4, 341. 

Berosus, a famous aftrologer, to 
w'hom, on account of his divine pre- 
didlions, the Athenians ereded a fta- 
tue at the public expence, with a gilt 
tongue, in the gymnafium., Plin, 7, 37. 
Add. Fitruv. 9, 7. He is thought to 
be the fame with the hiltorian men- 
tioned by Jt)fephus, who is faid to 
have been a prielt of Belus at Baby- 
lon in the time of -lexander; lih. i. 
contra Aplon, and by Eufebius 10, 
Praep. E-vavgel. p. 289. Edit. Rob. 

L. Calpurnius BESTIA, a conful 
in the Jugurthine war, SalluJ}. jfug. 
27, &c. condemned by the Mauiillan 
Jaw, Cic. Or. 25 70.5 Brut. 24. 

} BIT 

BIAS, -antisy a native of Prlene in 
Ionia, one of the feven wife men of 
Greece ; who, upon the taking of 
that city by the enemy, having fled 
without taking any of his effefts with 
him, as others did, being aflved t^e 
caufe, faid, omnia me a mecum por- 
TO, I carry all my things with me, 
Cic~ Paradox, i. 

BiEULUS, a firname of the Cal- 
purnii : 

M. BiBDLus, the coljeague of Ju- 
lius Caefarin the confulftiip, Cic. Har, 
Refp. 2 2. Att. 2, 19. et alibi pajfim. 

BION, -o/kV, a celebrated fophift 
and poet, born in Scythia, near the 
river Boryfthenes ; hence called Borys- 
thenltesy Laert 4 46. contemporary 
with Socrates ib. He came to A- 
then-, where he diftinsjuilhed himfelf 
by his genius and wit, ib. Cicero men- 
tions one of his witty remarks, Tufc. 
3 26. He imitated Archilochus and 
Hipponax in his poems ; whence Bio- 
net fernmneSf the fatires of Bion, or 
fatirical compofitions like thofe of 
Bion, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 60. 

EIS^VLTIS, Adts, the daughter of 
Bifaltis or Bifaltes, v/ho being viola- 
ted by Neptune in the form of a ram, 
brought forth the ram with a golden 
fleece, which carried Phryxus, Ovid, 
Met. 6, 117. Hyginus calls her, Theo- 
phaney 188. 

BiSTON, -onisi the fon of Mars and 
Callirhoe, who built the city Biftonia 
in Thrace ; whence the Thracians are 
called Bifiones or Bijlonii ; Bjjlonii vi- 
ri, Ovid. Met. 13, 430. 

BiTiAS, a nobleman at the court 
of I >ido, Virg. Aen. 1, 738. 

BiTiAs, the fon of Alcanor, an 
inhabitant of Mount Ida, the brother 
of Pandarus, Virg Aen. 9, 672. uaiu 
by Turnus> ib. 703. et i\^ 396. 

BITON, -5ni/, the fon of the 
prieftefs of Juko at Ar-o^, ( ,^lrgiae 
.facer dot! s),, who one day at a fole rnn 
facrifu e, when the mules were too 
long of coming, together with his 
brother Cleobis, drew the chariot of 
their mother to the temple. Where- 
upon flie having prayed the goddefs 
J? 2 ta 

B L A t 44 

to beftow on her fons the greateft re- 
ward that could be given to man by a 
god, they were both found dead next 
morning, Herodot. I, 3 1. C'tc. Tufc. 
1, 47. PJufarch. de Corifolat. 

Blaesus, a firname given to Arif- 
taeus, or Battus, the founder of Cy- 
rene in Africa, from his Hfpmg man- 
ner of fpeaking, On}'uL In Ib'in. 541. 

Jiijlin.. 13, 7, Herodot 4, JC. ^ 2. 

J\lfo a firname of the family of the 
Sempronn at* Rome, Stat, Sih. 2, i, 
191. Tacit. H'Jl. I, 59. ^tod donas y 
facts ipff Blafianitm, you make the gift 
of Blaefus ; you call the feftival inlli- 
tuted in honour of him Fejium Blaefia- 
num. Martial 8, 38, 14. 

BocCAR, -arts, a Mauritanian name, 
put for any Mauritanian or African, 
"Junicnal. 5> 90. 

BoccHUs, a king of Mauritania, 
who dehvered Jugurtha in chains to 
Sulla, SalluL Jug. 113. 

BoETHUs, a carver and ftatuary, 
C'lc. Verr. 4, 14. Pl'in. 33, 55. et 34, 

8. a Carthaginian, Paufan. 5, J 7. 
BoETHUS, a Stoic philofopher, Cic, 

Di-v. I, 8. et 2, 20. Laert. 7, 143, 

BoGUDEs, -Is, a king of Maurita- 
nia Tingitana, Cic. Fam 10, 32. 

M. B0LANUS, a friend of Cicero's, 
C'lc Fam. 13, 77. 

BoLANUs or Bollaniis, a choleric or 
irritable perfon, who kept thofe who 
were apt to be impertinent at a dif- 
tancc ; whence Horace fays of him, 
te, B'jlane, cerebri felicemy O Bola- 
nus, happy in having a brain or tem- 
per eafily ruffled or irritated, Sat. i, 

9, II. et ibi Scholiafi. But others fup- 
pofe Boianus to have been a dull 
phlegmatic man, who could bear pa- 
tiently any impertinence or infipid dif- 
courfe, Cruquius. The firil: Interpre- 
tation, however, feems preferable ; 
whence cerebrofus is put for iracundus, 
pafhonate, Hor. Sat. i, 5, 21. 

BoMiLCAR, -aris, a Carthaginian 
general, cruciiied on fuipicion of trea- 
fon, called Rex, from his being fuf- 
pe(5i:ed of afpiring at fovcreignty, juf- 
tin. 22, 7. 

1 B R E 

BomilCAR, a commander of the 
Carthaginian fleet, Liv. 23, 41- 24, 
36, &c. 

BONA, vel Bona Dea, the name 
of a goddefs among the Romans, wor- 
fhipped only by women, Cic. Att. i, 
12. et 2y 4. Harufp. Refp. 1 7. Dom. 
40. 'Templum ejus virum introire non /i- 
cebat, Macrob. Sat. I, 12. Sacra Bo- 
nae maribus non adeunda deae, Tibul. I, 
6. 2 2. It was thought that any man 
that faw them would be deprived of 
fight, ib. 24. Add. Ovid. Fnjl. 5, 148, 
&c. Art. 3, 637, et 243, Juvenal. 6, 
314, et 2, 86. Propert. 4, 9, 25. 

Bootes, -ae, vel -/j, (i. e. bubu/cus, 
the ox-dnver), a conftellation near the 
Urfa Major^ Hygin. Aftron. 2, 2. 
called alfo Ar6l6phylax, Cic. N". D. 

2, 42. This name was given to Ar- 
eas, the fon of Caliilo, when tranfla- 
ted into a conftellation, [G. 417.) 
called piger, from the flownefs of his 
motion, Juvenal, 5, 23. ; Ovid. Fa/l. 

3, 405.; tardus. Id. Md. 2, 1 72. So 
Cur fcrus verfare boves, et plaujlra 
Bootes, Propert. 3, 5, 35. 

BOREAS, -ae, a king of Thrace, 
who married Orithyla, the daughter 
of Erechtheus, king of Athens, Hero- 
dot- 7, 189. or according to Ovid car- 
ried her off, Met. 6, 707. and had by 
her twins, Calais and Zethes, v/ho re- 
feniiiled their father in having wings, 
Ovid, in Ibin. 713. Boreas was faid 
to have power over the winds, and 
was afterwards worfhipped by the A- 
thenlans as the god of the north 
vi'ind, Herodot. ib. As fuch Ovid de- 
fcribts him, ib. 690, 5cc. 

BosTAR, a' Carthaginian prophet, 
Sil. 3, 647. 

Branch us, a fon of Apollo, Stat. 
Theb. 3, 479. called by the fame e- 
pithet with his father Intonsus, /5. 
8, 198. Apollo is alfo called Bran- 
chides, Mel. I, 17. pr. and the 
prieils of his temple in Ionia, Bran- 
ch idae, Plin. '5, 29,/. 30, Amnuanm 
Marcellin. 29, I. 

Brennus, a general of the Gauls, 
who took Rome, Liv. 5, 38, .^c. 

(G. 230;) <j| 2. Another, who 


B R I 

C 4 

Attempted to pluncjer the temple of 
Apollo at Delphi, but was miracu- 
j loufly prevented. Concerning the 
I manner authors differ, jfujlin, 24, 6, 
&c. ; Propert. 3, 13, 51.; P aujaiu 
23. ; Vol. Max. I, !, 18. 

Briareus, (3 fyll.) a huge giant, 
the fon of Caehis and Terra, faid to 
have an hundred hands, ( centumgemt' 
nusj, Virg. Aen, 6, 287. called alfo 
Aegaeon, ib. 10, 565. whence Bna- 
rews,-at umt Claudian. de Rapt. Pro- 
ferp. 3, 188. 

Br'imo, -uSf f. a name of Hecate 
or Proferpine, Propert, 2^ 2, 12. ; Stat. 
Sih. 2, 3, 38. 

Brisaeus, a name of Bacchus, 
either from Brifa., a promontory of Lef- 
bus, where he was worfhipped, or from 
Brifa, a lum.p of preffed grapes ; — add- 
ed as an epithet to the poet Accius, 
Per/. I, 96. becaufe poets vi'ere fup- 
pofed to be uudev the protection of 
Bacchus. But fome here read Bri- 
sk is, the name of a tragedy of Acci- 

Prise IS, -z'^/j, voc. Bnset^ a native 
of Lyrneffus, a city of Troas, remark- 
able for her -beauty ; who fell to the 
lot of Achilles, in the diftribution of 
the captives, when that city was taken 
by the Greeks. See Geog. p. 446. 

Britannicus, the fon of Claudius 
by MefialTna ; fo called becaufe under 
that emperor a part of Britain was fub- 
^wtdiy jfuvenaL 6, 124; Tacit, ""nu. 11, 
II. et 12, 2. deprived of the fuccefiion 
to the empire by the art of A,gripplna, 
the mother of Domitius Nero, Tac. 
Ann, 12, 25, 41, 68, &:c. and at laft 
poifoned by Nero, ib, 13, 16. ; Suet, 
Ner. 33. ^ 

Britomartis, a nymph, the 
daughter of Jupiter and Carme, a fa- 
vourite of Diam, who being beloved 
by Minos king of Crete, to avoid fall- 
ing into his power, threw herfelf from a 
rock into the fea, Virg. Cir.285, — 295.; 
CaUimach. in Dian. i8y, &c. But others 
fay, that (he was faved by fome fifliers, 
v;ho hid her under their nets, (J<xTua,^ 
whence ilie was alfo called Dictyn- 

5 ] B R XT 

NA, Diodor. 5, 76. ; Anton. Liheralis 
Metaph, c. 40. 

Bromius, a name of Bacchus, (~«'» 
Tw BpE^.ii , a fremendo,) from the noifc 
of thunder at his birth, Ovid. Met. 4, 
II.; Lucan. 5, 73. hence Bromius, -a 
-urn ; hromli remi, the oars of the fliip 
of Bacchus, Claudian. de Conjul, Stilic. 3, 


Brontes, -ae, one of the Cy dopes ^ 
who forged Jupiter's thunder-bolts, 
^B/)9vtk) Virg, Aen, 8, 4^4. 

Broteas, -ae, one of the Lapithac, 
Ovid. Met. 12, 262. — «jj2. Alfo a noted 
boxer, ih. 5, 107. 

Brotheus, -W Broteas,- g'fon of 
Vulcan, who being mocked for his de- 
formity, threw himfelf into the fire, and 
wa? confumed by the flames, Ovid, in 
Jlin. V. 519. But fome think this 
paffage has been interpolated. 

BRUTUS, the firname given to 
Lucius Junius, who expelled the Tar- 
quins, from his apparent ftupidity, Ll'O^ 
I, 66. (G. 204.) Bruins erat Jlulti /apt- 
ens imitator, ut ejjet "Tutus ab injidiis, dire 
Superbe, iuis, Ovid. Fail. 2, 717. called 
Ultor, becaufe he revenged the cruelty 
of king Tarquin, and the rape of Lu- 
cretia by his fon Sextus, Virg. Aen. 6, 
819.; Ovid. ib. S;^J. He punifhed his 
own fons with death for confpiring to 
reltore the regal government, ib. 820. ; 
Liv. 2, 5. it feems this aftion was 
blamed by fome in the time of VirgiL 
The poet therefore makes Anchifes add, 
Uteunque ferent ea fada miner es ; Vincet 
amor patriae, laudumque imnienfa cupido^ 
ib. 823. Propertius praifes this deed, 
by joining xXitfecures or axes of Brutus 
with the courage of Decius, 4, i, 45". 
Brutus fell in battle, fighting with 
Aruns Tarquinius, Liv>. 2, 6. 

M. jfunius Brutus, a tribune, who 
fupported the Oppian law concerning 
the drefs of matrons, Liv. 34, i. He 
was afterwards made praetor, Id. 35, 
24. and conful. Id. 40, 59. 

D. [al. A.) Junius Brutus, conful 
with. Scipio Africanus Minor, a. 616, 
Cic. Brut. 22. was put in prifon by the 
tribune Curiatius; C;V. Legg. 3, 9. Ha- 

B R U [ 

"^'ing conquered the Gallaect in Spain, 
he obtained a triumph, Ctc. Bivh. 1 7. 
whence he <vot the lirname of Gal- 
LAECUS. ^^//, 2, 5. He was a good 
Greek fcholar, {Gracce doBuSy) Cic. 
Brut. 28. and fo fond of poetry, that 
he adorned the entrances to the temples 
and monuments of his family by in- 
fcribing on them the verfes of his friend 
Attius, the poet, Gic. Arch. 11. 

M. Junius BP.UTUS, the fon of 
M. Brutus, lieutenant to the conful 
L.epidu3 in Cifalpine Gaul, who was 
put to death by order of Pompcy after 
having furrcndered himfelf, Plutarch, in 
Pomp, el Brut. App'tan^ B. C. 2, p. 497. 
His mother Servilia was fifter to Cato 
by the mother's lide, Cic. Tufc. 5, i. 
of the family of Servilius Ahala, who 
ilew Spurius Maelius. Brutus having 
loll his father when very youngs was 
educated with great care by his uncle 
Cato. Being adopted by his uncle 
Q^ Servilius Caepio, he is fometimes 
called Qj^ Caepio Brutus, Apfian. 
ibid. Cic. PhiL 10, il.; -itt. 2, 24. ; or 
fimply, Q. Caepio, Cic. Fam. 7, 2 1. , 
Dio. 41, 63. 

Brutus, not only in youth, but 
through the whole of his life, applied 
with the greateft attention to iludy. 
He was thoroughly acquainted with 
the doctrines of all the fedts, of the 
Greek philofophers ; but he chitfiy 
elleemed the old academy, or the Plato- 
nifts, Plutarch, in Brut. Ke wrote books 
on various fubjeds, Cic. Att. 12,5.^/13, 
8.; Acad. I, 3.; Fin. 1.4. and Cicero 
infcribes feverai of his books to him., 
Cic. Brut. I. Qrat. i. Tufc. i. &c. 
The talents and virtues of Brutus pro- 
cured him univerfal refpedt, ih. But 
fome circumftances are mentioned by 
Cicero concerning his connedi »n with 
ufurers not much to his credit, Cic. Att. 
5, 21. f/ 6, I. &c. In the civil war 
between Pompey and Caefar, though he 
hated Pompey, as the murderer of his 
father, yet he joined his pat ty, thinking 
it lefs dangerous to the liberty of his 
country than that of Caefar, Plutarch. 
Cic. /itt. 11,4. He was prefent in the 
battle of Pharialia 5 but after the de- 

46 ] B R U 

feat of Pompey, he fubmitted to the 
conqueror. Caefar had particularly 
charged his officers to fpare Brutus, 
out of tenderners to his mother Servi- 
lia, of v/hom Caefar in his youth had 
been paffionately fond ; and afterwards 
continued his attachment, fo that fome 
alleged Brutus v; as his fon, Plutarch in 
Brut. Suet. Caef. 50. ; Appian, 2, 49S. 
Whatever be in this, Caefar not only 
forgave him, but inilantly received him 
into favour. When about to make an 
expedition into Africa againft Cato and 
Scipio, he committed to Brutus the 
government of Cifalpine Gaul, where 
he conduced himfelf with the greateli 
prudence and integrity. 

Brutus> after his return to Rome, di- 
vorced his wife Claudia, without any 
ground of complaint, for the fake of mar- 
rying Porcia, the daughter of Cato and 
widow of Bibulus; for which he was 
much cenfured, Cic. Att. 13, 9. et to. 
A. U. 709, Caefar m.ade him city prae- 
tor in preference to CaiTius. But the 
favours of Caefar could not gain the 
friend (liip of Brutus. He could not 
bear the thoughts of owing; to a maf- 
tcr ihofe preferments which he fhould 
have received from a free people. He 
therefore always behaved to Caefar 
with diftance and referve. By the art 
of Cafiiu;^, who was married to his fifter, 
he v/as brought to join the confpiracy 
agai nil Caefar, Plutarch. But Dio makes 
Brutus the author of the plot, 44, [3. 
and fays that he brought Caffius to 
join in it, i^. 14, 'I'o this undertaking 
Brums is faid to have been prompted 
by various intimations from unknown 
hands. Under the Itatue of Brutus 
who expelled Tarquin w^ere written 
theie words, thai lue had a Brutus how.' 
thai Brutus ivere alive I The tribunal 
on which he fat as praetor was filled 
each morning with fuch infcriptions as 
thefe : ** You are afleep, Brutus ;" 
** You are not a true Brutus," Plutarch, 
in Brut. Dio. 44, i2. ; Appian. B. C. 
2, p. 498. ; Suet. Caef. 80. He was 
confirmed in his purpofe by the general 
difcontent at Caefar's ufurpation ; and 
thought that the only v.-ay of freeing 


B R U [ 47 1 B R U 

by cutting off the the right wing, gained the vi£lory and 

hh country, was 

ufurper. Hence .-Sntony ulcd to de- 
clare, that c-f all the confpirators, Hru- 
tus alone aded from virtuous motives, 
but that the reft were aftuated by pri- 
vate malice and envy, Plutarch, in Br, 
Caefar, when attacked by the confpira- 
tors in the fenate-lioufe on the Ides of 
March, a. u. 710, feeing Brutus rufliing 
on him, is reported to have faid in 
Greek, j^nd are you among them ; you, my 
Jcnl Suet. Caef. 82. But Dio denies 
the truth of this fatt, 44, 19. and Plu- 
tarch takes no notice of it, hi Brut. Ap- 
pian fays, that Caefar at iirft made a vio- 
lent reiiftance, but that being ftruck by 
Brutus, he covered his face with his robe, 
and quietly fubmitted to his fate. Bell. 
Civ, 2, p. 502. Suetonius fays, that 
he never uttered a word, ib. The in- 
activity of Brutus and his party, after 
perpetrating the deed, ruined their 
caufe. Fid. Octavius et Antonius. 

Brutus and Caffms being forced to 
leave Rome by the art of Antony, 
after remaining for fome time in Italy, 
pafled over into Greece. . They were 
every where received v.'ith the greattft 
honour, particularly at Athens; where 
brazen ftatueswere ereftedtothem, nigh 
to thofe of Harmodius and Ariitpglton, 
whom the Athenians regarded as the 
deliverers of their country from the ty- 
ranny of the fons of Pififtratus, about 
468 years before, Dio. 47, 20. Caffius 
fet out for the province of Syria, which 
he foon became mafter of. Brutus re- 
mained at Athens, hearing and conver- 
fing with the phiiofophers, as if he had 
nothing elfe in view. He fecretly, 
however, made preparations for war. 
At length he began to ad openly, and 
with fuch fuccelb, that in a fliort time 
he colledled a great army, equipped a 
numerous fleet, and got poffcllion of all 
Greece and Macedonia, Plutarch, in 
Brut. ; Dio. 47, 21, and 22. ; Fell. 2, 
6^. ; Lin). Epit. 118 

Brutus and Caffius having Joined 
their forces, came to a decifive engage- 
ment with Antony and 06lavius in the 
plains of Philippi. In this battle Lru- 
tus, who was oppofed to Odavius on 

took the camp of Oclavius. But An- 
tony was equally fuccefsful againft Caf- 
fius on the left ; who having retreated 
to fome rifing grounds adjoining, fent a 
centurion to enquire what Brutus was 
doing, for the duft intercepted his 
view. The centurion fell in with a 
body of cavalry which Brutus had fent 
in quell of Caffius, and returned ilowly 
with them as if there was no dnnger, 
Caffius obferving thefe cavalry ap- 
proach, and taking them for the e- 
nemy, ordered Pandarus, his freedman, 
to kill him. The centurion feeing the 
fatal efFedls of his tardinefs, alfo flew 
himfclf. Brutus lamenting the fate of 
Caffius, called him the " lail of the 
" Romans." Having now become fole 
commander of both armies, he wiflied 
to decline battle ; and if he had done 
fo, Antony and Odtavius muft have 
yielded, as they were in the utmoit 
want of provifions. Befides • the fleet 
of Brutus under Statius Murcus and 
Acnobarbus had gained a great vidory 
over the fleet of the Triuiiiixiriy under 
Domitius. But fearing the defertion 
of his men, whom Antony and Oftavi- 
us ufed every art to feduce, he v^^as led 
to rifk a fecond battle*; in which, after 
an obftinate conflid, he was entirely 
defeated. Hearing that a number of 
his friends had joined the conquerors, 
and being furrounded on all hands, ha- 
ving taken each of his friends by the 
hand, he addrefled them with a chear- 
ful countenance, and exhorted them to 
provide for their fafety. Then with- 
drawing with two or three of his par- 
ticular confidents, he fell on his fword 
and expired. Some fay, that Strato, 
his former fellow fl;udent, at his earnelt 
entreaty, held the fword, with his face 
turned away ; and that Brutus ruflied 
upon it with fo much violence, that 
entering at his breail, it paffisd quite 
through his body. Antony honoured 
Brutus with a fplendid funeral, and fent: 
his afncs to his mother Serviha, Plu- 
tarch. Suetonius fays that Oclavius 
fent the head of Brutus to Rome to be 
put below the ftatue of Caefar, uet, 


B R tJ 

I 4 

jfug-» 13. But according to Dio,- it 
was thrown into the fea, in a tempell 
(during the pafTagre froin Dyrrhachium, 
47, 46. Dio alfo relates, that Brutus 
before his death repeated in Greek 
this faying of Hercules ; " O rirtue, 
*' thou art an empty name : I have 
** wcrfliipped thee as a goddefs, but 
** thou art the flave of fortune," 47, 
49. So Florus, Mor'iens (fc. I'rutus) 
stfjlaiiity non in re^ fsd in verbo tanium ejfe 
vtrt-utem^ 4, 7, II. to which Horace is 
fuppofed to allude, Ep. i, 6, 32. et 7, 
41. Plutarch relates on the authority 
«f Vclumnius, who was then with Bru- 
tus, that Brutus, the night before his 
death, repeated two verfes ; the one of 
which was from the Medea of Euripi- 
des: " Punifh, great Jove^ the author 
of thefe ills,*' (meaning Antony;) the 
other he fays he had forgotten, P/«- 
tarch. in Brut. Jin. 

Brutus and Caffius are faid to have 
fallen by the fwords with which they 
flew Caefar, Dio, 48, l. So Suet, Caef^ 
89. Brutus was then about forty years 
©Id, Liv. Epit. 124. according to Vel- 
leius Paterculus, only thirty feven, /. 2. 

€. 72. 

Plutarch obferves, that Providence 
determined Brutus to fight before he 
heard of the fuccefs of his fleet, in or- 
der to remove out of the way the only 
man who was able to refiil him (Ofta- 
vius) who was denrlaed to change the 
government of Rome from a republic 
into a monarchy, irt^ruto. tit might 
have faid more juHly, that Providence 
involved the Romans in a long and 
bloody civil war, in fupport of the 
rnoft profligate characters, and Anally 
fubje6led them to the mod ignominious 
fervitude, as a puRifliment for their 
crimes, and for their cruelties to the 
nations which they fubdued. Vid Hor. 
Od, J, 1$, 33. et 2, I, 29. ; Epod, 7 
nd Jin. 16, l. &c. ; Juvenal. 4, 37. et 
6, 292- et 8, 98- &c. 

A confiderable time before the bat- 
tle of Philippi, a fpeclre is faid to have 
appeared to Brutus one night, while 
fitting alone in his apartment, which, 
ypon Brutus aflung, <' Who art thoui" 

% 1 B H U 

anfwered, *' I am thy evil genius, Brii* 
tus ; thou faalt fee me again at Philip- 
pi/* " Then,'' fays Brutus, without 
being difcompofcd, ** I will fee thee 
there." The fame fpeftre Is faid to 
have appeared to Brutus a fecond time, 
on the night before the lall battle, jip- 
pi an. Bell. Civ. 4. /. 668- ; Plutarch. 
in Brut. 

All the ancient writers agree In ex- 
tolling the viitues of Brutus ; but they 
generally condemn his confpirii^ a- 
galnll Caefar, VclL 2, 72. ; Appian. 4, 
666. &:c. Vid. praecipue Senec. de Be- 
ne/. 2, 20. The friends of Caefar char- 
ged Brutus and his affociates with bafe 
in£:;ratitude for kilHng their benefador; 
but Cicero and the republican party 
applaud them, for having preferred th<" 
liberty of their country to the obliga- 
tlons of private friendiliip, Cic. Phil. 2, 
3. & II. 

D. Juwus BRUTUS, one of the 
confpirators againll Caefar, of the fame 
fanvUy with Marcus, but not very near- 
ly related to him. He was adopted 
by A. PoJjJiumius Jloinus, and therefore 
is fomctimes called Decimus Brutus Al- 
hinvs, Appian. B. C. 2, 497. He had 
attended Caefar, and, though a young 
man, was greatly trulled by him in his 
Gallic wars, Caef. J5. G. 3, II, Sc 14. 
7, 9, & 87. In the civil war Caefar 
gave Brutus the command of his fleet 
at the fiege of Marfeilles, Caef. B. C. 
I, 36. where Brutus acled with great 
courage and ability, ib. ^6, 57. &c. 2, 
3, 6. Sec. He was In fo great favour 
with Caefar, that, when about to de- 
part t9 the Parthian war, he appointed 
Brutus to the command of Cifalpine 
Gaul and to the confulfliip of the fol- 
lowing year, and even named him fe- 
cond heir of his eilate in failure of the 
firil ; fo that people were particularly 
furprifed at his joining the confplva- 
cy, Cic. Phil. 10, 7. When Caefar 
hefitattd about going to the fenate- 
houfe on the fatal ides of March, on 
account of certain omens, as well as of 
bad health, Decimus Brutus, by ridi- ' 
culing his apprehenfion of omens, and 
by reprefentjng how improper it would 


B R U t 49 ] 

be to difappoir.t the fenators, who were gyptians to Diana 

waiting his arrival, removed his fcruples, 
and determined him to go, Suet. Caef. 
Si. ; D'lOf 44, 1 8. Brutus was pof- 
fefled of an immenfe fortune, and fup- 
ported a band of gladiators, at his own 
expence, for the diveiTion of the city. 
By thefe gladiators the confpirators 
were guarded, when, after killing Cae- 
far, they took refuge in the capitol, 
j^ppian. 2. p. 503.; Dh, 44, 21.; Phi- 
iarch. in Caef. et Bnit. Brutus having 
taken poffefficn of his province of Cif- 
alpihe Gaul, fpent about 400,000 1. in 
maintaining an army againil /Antony. 
Being befiegCQ by Antony at Mutina, 
he defended hinafelf with great bravery, 
till he was relieved by the confuls Hir- 
tius and Panfa, and Odavius. But 
the confuls being (lain, and 0<^avius 
having concluded an alliance with An- 
tony and Lepidus, Decimus Brutus 
being deferted by his foldiers, and at» 
tempting to efcape into Macedonia to 
his namefake Brutus, was taken by the 
foldiers of x\atony, and put to death, 
Veil 2, 64. ; Jppian. 3. />. 588. ; Val. 
Max. g, 13, 3. ; Dio, ^6, 53. 

Marcus and Decimus Bjutus were 
Relieved to be lineally defcended from 
L. Brutus, v/ho expelled Tarquin, by 
his third fon ; whence he is faid to be 
the author of their nobility, ( Princeps 
nohilitaUs Brutorum)y Cic. Phil. 1,6.; 
Tufc. 4, I. and Atticus, at the reqiiefl 
«f M. 'Brutus, drew up a genealogy of 
the Junian family from its firft origin, 
Nep. An. 18. But as the family of the 
firll Brutus was of Patrician rank, and 
that of the confpirators againil Cacfar 
plebeian, the latter were fuppoied by 
jnany not to have been fprung from the 
former, Plutarch, in Brut. pr. ; Dionyf. 
^.. p. 292.; Die, ^^y 12.; Fid. Manut. 
ad pr imam Ep. Cic. ad Brut. 

Brutiana caf.ra, the camp of M. 
fkutus. Fell. 2, 72. Brulianac Cii/fia- 
fiaequc partes, the party of Brutus and 
Callius, ib. 74. Confilla inire coepi Bru- 
i'lna plane (vejiri enim haec funt propria 
fanguinis) reipublicae liberandae, like thofe 
pf Brutus, Cic. ad Brut. 15. 

BuBASTis,, a name given by thre E- 

B U T 

Ovid. Met, 9, 6go> 

whence the city Bubastus was nam.e^, 
and the country around it, Bubasti- 
TEs NoMOS. Here meetings were 
annually held in honour of Diana, Hg^ 
rcdot. 2, 59, 137. & 156. and facred 
rites performed in her temple, called 
BuBASTiA, -oruniy Gratian. Cyneg. 42. 
Bucephalus, the horfe of Alex- 
ander the Great, fo named, either frorn 
his ftern afpe6l, or from the figure of 
a bull's head (.^mj- v.if<x\r,^ being bran^* 
ed on his fhoulder, Plin. 8, 42 f. 64. 5 
Solin. c. 45. He would admit no one 
to fit on his back but Alexander ; and 
when that king wifhed to mount him, 
he is faid to have kneeled to receive 
him, Ih. et Curt. 6, 5, 18. Vv'^hen this 
horfe died, Alexander celebrated his 
funeral obfequies, and built a city (cal- 
led Bucephalus, v. -^z, V. -eia) round 
his tomb, Ih. et Curt, 9, 3, 23. ; PUiu 
6, 20. ; Gell. 5, 2. ; Arrian. 5, 3. 

BuPALUs, a fculptor and ftatuary 
of Chios, who expofed the deformity 
of the poet Hipponax to ridicule by 
an image he made of him ; on which 
account the poet, being greatly incen- 
fed, wrote fo bitter a fatire againil Bu- 
palus, that he is faid to have hanged 
himfelf. But Pliny fays this report is 
falfe, Plin. 36, 5. Others fay that he 
and his brother Anthermus were only 
obliged to leave Ephefus* Hence, 
however, Horace calls Hipponax, A' 
cerhojlis Bupalo, Epod. 6, 14. 

BuRRHUs, vel BurruSy i.e. Pyrrhus* 
Burrum femper Br.nius, nunquam Pyrr- 
hum dicebati Cic. Orat. 48. j Quin£liL 
ij 4, 15- 

BURRUS Afranius, praefed of the 
praetorian guards, Tac. Ann. 12, 4^. 
the governor of Nero, ih. 13, 2. by 
whom his death was fuppofed to have 
been hallened, ih. 14, 51. 

Bus IRIS, -/V, vel -tdis, .a king of E- 
gypt, who ufed to facrifice his gueils 
to his gods ; whence he is called, illaw 
dalusy infamous, Virg. G. 3, 5. and 
his altars irnmites, cruel, Stat. Thcb, 12, 
154. HkC was flain by Hercules, Apol-' 
lodor. 2, II.; Ovid. Art. Am. I, 647. 
BUTEQ^ -JmV, tjip ^wim^ of a fa- 
G ttilr 

BUT C 50 

mily of the Pabii, Liv. 23, 21. 50, 26. 
33. 24. &c. derived from a hawk (^k- 
/fo) perching on the fhip of one of 
them when commanding a fleet, which 
was reckoned a lucky omen, Plin. 10, 
8f. 9. 

BUTES, -ae, the fon of Teleon, 
one of the Argonauts, /^poUodor. i, 16.; 
Hyg'tn. 14. the father of Eryx by Ve- 
nus, Hyg'in. f. 260. ; ApoUodor, 1,9, 25. 
— 51 2. A pugiliil of great bulk, de- 
fcended from Amycus king of Bebry- 
cia or Bithynia, flain by Dares in a 
combat of the cejlus^ V'lrg. Aen. 5. 372. 
1^-^ 3. A Trojan, (lain by Camilla, th. 
\ 1 , 690. 

BuzyGES, -w, (i.e. Bourn junclor')^ 
an Athenian, who is faid to have firll 
ploughed with harneffed oxen, [bovem 
€t aratrwn invenit)^ Plin. 7, ^6. j Varr. 
R. R. 2, 5* 4. which invention is com- 
fifjonly afcribed to Triptolemus, Bern), 
ad Vlfg G. 1 , 19. et Plin. ib. 

Byblis, •'tdls^ the daughter of Mi- 
letus, {Mileiis^ -1dis)t by the nymph 
dyane, who fell in love with her bro- 
ther Caunus 5 but being rejedled by 
him, and on that account wafted with 
grief, was, by the compaffTion of the 
gods, turned into a fountain, fS'ic lac- 
rymls confumpta fuis Phoeh'i'ia Byblis Ver- 
iitur in fontemjy Ovid. Met. 9, 449, — 
665. She is called Phoebeia BykliSf be- 
caufe Miletus was the fon of Apollo, 
ih. 662. But fhe is alfo faid to have 
ended her life by a halter, Ovid, Art, 
Am. 1, 284. 


CABALLUS, the firname of a 
Koman family, Martial, ly /^Zt 17. Nan 
€s Scxtiiis tile (Cabailus), Jed caballns, 
Yo-u are not equal to Sextius Cabailus 
in wit, but a mere beaft or horfe, ib. 20. 

CACUS, a moniler that emitted 
frames from his mouth, the fon of Vul- 
can, who refided in a cave on mount 
Aventine, and infcfted the neighbour- 
ing country by his thefts and robberies. 
Having ftolen fome of the cattle of 
-Hercules, he was (lain by that hero, 
Liv. I, 7.; Virg.Aen,%^ 193, — 268.; 
^y\d. Fajh It $S^' ^C. 

1 C A E 

CADMUS, the fon of A^enor, 
{^Agenorides)^ who founded TheheS', 
\See G. 426.), and i& faid to hnvc 
brought the knowledge of letters from 
Phoenicia into Greece ; hence Cadm 
ptgdlae Jiliae^ letters, Aufon, Epift. 2 1. 
jiliolae atrtcoloresy lb. 29. 

Cadimeis, -^dis, f. a daughter of 
Cadmus ; Cadmeus, v. -eius, -a, -umy 
dtfcended from Cadmus. Errant fit- 
rentes inipiae Cadjneides, i. e. Agave, 
Ino, Aubonoe, the daughters of Cad- 
mus, who tore Pentheus to pieces, Se- 
nec. Here. fur. 759. Talibus ignaram 
Juno Cadmeiiia diclis Formdratf i. e. Se- 
mele, the daughter of Cadmus. Ovid, 
Met. 3, 287. Cadnieis domus, for Cad" 
mea, the houfe or family of Cadii U3, 
ib. 4, 545. Matres Cadmeuksy the 
Theban matrons, ib. 9, 304. Conli- 
gerant te/li Cadmeida nubibus arcem, co- 
vered with clouds, they had reached > 
the citadel of Thebes, ib. 6, 217. cal- 
led Cadm E A, Nep. Pel. l. Thebai 
Cadmeae, Thebes built by Cadmus, 
P roper t. i, 7, i. yuvctitus Cadmea^ 
the Theban youth, Stat. Theb, 8, 
600. Cadmeum limetiy the threfhold 
of the palace of Oedipus, or of his 
fons, ib. 1, 123. Mater Cadmeay A- 
gavc, the daughter of Cadmus, and 
mother of Pentheus, Senec. Oedip. IC06. 
So Cadmeia Ino, ib. 446. Cadmeius 
Aeraon, tlie Theban Aemon, Stat. 'Theb. 

8, 519. — But G^jis Cadm E A, the Car- 
thaginian or Punic nation, as being of 
the fame origin with Cadmus, from . 
Phoenicia, SiL 1,6. So Cadmeajlirps^ 
ib. 106 manusi Id. 17, 58.2. 

Cadmus, a noted executioner in the 
tlmt of Horace ; hence Tradere Cadmo^ 
to fentence to death, Hor. Sat, i,,6, ^^» 

CAECILLUS, thenameof a Ko- 
man gens, containing feveral branches 
or familiasf particularly the Metelli; 
whence the family of the Metelli is cal- 
led Cae cilia familiar Veil. 2, il. 

C a EC 1 L I A Laciuca, a kind of 

lettuce, fo called from the name of 
Metellus, Coluw eh 10, 1H2. & 190. vel 
Caeciliana, Id, II, 3, 26. ; et Plin, 

9, 8. So Cerafa Caeciliana ^ Plin. 15, 


c A E r 

CAECILIUS Statiusy an ancient 
comic poet, contemporary with En- 
nius, originally a flavc, Gell. 4, 20. and 
an Infubrian Gaul by birth, Cic. Or, 2, 

10. commended for the gravity of his 
charatlers Hor. Ep. 2, i, 59. alfo for 
his wit and hiunoHr, Paten, i, 17. but 
not for the purity oi his ftyle, (malus 
enim au^or Latinitatis e/i)^ Cic. Att. 7, 
2. — CAECiLiANus/'^^^'r, the charader 
of a father, as defciibed by Caecilius, 
^InSil, II, I J 39. Vereor^ ne, Lucul- 
i'ls quontam Graecum poema cotidld'ity nunc 
ad i'aecilianam fabulam fpedety fc. ^"/rchi- 
as, I am afraid, Archias, fince he has 
finifhed his Greek poem for the Lucul- 

11, will now (inftead of writmg con- 
cerning my confulihip) fet about wri- 
ting a poem concerning Caectliui Me- 
tellus. (This poem Cicero calls Fahu- 
la Caec'iliana^ in allufion to the plays 
(fabidae) of the poet, Cic. ^tt. r, 16.) 

Z. CAECILIUS, a tribune, a. u. 
690, who propofed a bill to the people 
{Caectlia rogatio) for mitigating the 
punifhment enaded againil bribery by 
former laws ; but it does not appear to 
have been pafTed ijato a law, Cic. SylL 
22. & 23. 

Q. CAECILIUS, firnamed Niger, 
a Sicilian, the quaellor of Verres, a- 
gainft whom Cicero delivered an ora- 
tion called DiviNATio, ^indilian. 7, 

2, 2. II, I, 20. 

^ CAECILIUS, ^ R Metellus 
Pius Scipio, the father-in-law of Pompey, 
Cic. Fam. S, 8. See P. Scipio Nasica. 

^ CAECILIUS, a name affumed 
by Pomponius Atticus from his uncle 
by the mother's fide, who adopted 
him, Nep. Attic. 5. hence Cicero, when 
he congratulates Atticus upon his fuc- 
ceffion to the fortune of his uncle, 
which was very confiderable, infcribes 
his letter thus, Cicero S. D. (Jalutem 
dicit) Q^Caecilio Q: F* ( ^intiji- 
Uo) PoMPONiANO Attico The ad- 
Opted affumed the name of the adopter, 
and put his own gentile or family name 
after, changing the termination into 
the form of a poiTeffive ^djedive ; thus, 
Pamponianus, for Pomponius, as it were, 
belonging to the gens of the PomJ^omi, 

?i ] C A E 

Cic. Att. 3, 20. So Scipio 4emi/ianu/9 
Caefar O^avianusy Cffr. — Caecilia, thfi 
daughter of Atticus, Cic.Att. 6, 2, & 4. 

r. CAECILIUS Eutychides, a freed 
man of Atticus, Cic. /^tt. 4, 15. 

A. CAECiNA, a native of Vola- 
terrae, for whom Cicero made an ora- 
tion, Caecin. i, &c. He was after- 
wards banifhed, for having written a 
book againft Caefar, Cic. Fam. 6, ^, 
8, &9. 

CAEtrtiLus, the fon of Vulcan, the 
founder of Praenefte, Serv. ad Virg. 
Aen. 7, 681. from whom, according 
to Fefius, the family of the Caecilii at 
Rome was defcended. 

C A ECUS, a firname given to Appiu« 
Claudius from the lofs of hig fight, 
Li'i). 9, 27. ; Cic. Tufc. 5, 38. 

CAEDICIUS a centurion chofea 
as general by the Romans, who fled 
to Veji when Rome was taken by the 
Gauls, Liv. 5, 45. & 46. 

Caedicius, a fevere judge in th« 
time of Vitellius, JwvenaL 13. 197. 

CAELIUS, the name of a young 
man defended by Cicero, when accu- 
fed of being acceffory to CatiHne's 
confpiracy. See Coelius. 

C AENIS, -/V, a woman of Thefialy, 
changed by Neptune into a man, cal- 
led Caen E us, (in two fyllables), 0- 
liid. Met. 12, 179, — 210, et 469, &c. 
according to Virgil, changed again 
into her former figure, Aen. 6, 448. 

CAEPARIUS, one of Catihne's 
affociates, Cic. Cat. 3, 6. 

CAEPIO, -onisy a firname of the 
Serviiii : Vid. Servilius. 

CAESAR, -aris, the name of a 
branch or family of the Gens Julia^ 
or Julian clan at Rome ; the lirll of 
which is faid to have been fo named 
from his being cut out of his mother's 
womb, (ex caefo mairis uteroj, Plin. 
7, 9, or from his being born with hair, 
(cum caefarieji Feilus. Other reafons 
of this name are alTigned, Serv ad 
Virg. Aen. I, 290, et iiy 743. This fa- 
mily was rendered illuftrious chiefly by 
fubverted the liberties of his country, 
and ellabliflied a monarchical form of 

G 3 


C A s: [5 

gdvefrtftient at Rome, uftder tKe name 
of Tmperator. After him the name 
bf Caesar was Annexed to that of 
IMPERATOR, Taciu Hlft. 2, 60, & 
80. ef 3, 58, and the one often put for 
the other, Id. pq/ftm. but in later times 
tvas appropriated to the heir-apparent 
6f the empire. 

fon of C. Gaefar and Aurelia, the 
daughter of Cotta, born on the 12th 
July, {IV id. ^^uinalL) Macrob. Sat. 
i, 12. a- u. 653*; (ah 654.) in the 
confulfhip of C. Marius, for the fixth 
time, and L. Valerius Flaccus. In 
the 16th year of his age he loft his 
father, Suet. i. ^Yio died fuddenly at 
Pifae, after being praetof, (praeturd 
perfunclus ) ^ while he was putting on 
his (hoes, Plln. 7, 53 f- 54. The 
following yeir, ( fequent'ihus confuli- 
hui) Caefar was eleiled prieft: of Ju- 
piter, {flamen dialis). Having prirted 
with CofTutia, a rich heirefs, who had 
been bettothcd to him when a boy, 
(praefexfato)y he fnarried Corneh'a the 
daughter of Cinfia, by whom he foon 
$fter had Jiilia. Caefar continued 
faithful to Cornelia after the overthrow 
of her father, nor could he be compel- 
led by Sulla the dictator to divorce her. 
He was thefefore deprived of his pricft- 
hood, of his wife's fortune, and of 
fome inheritances that had fallen to 
iiim by the death of relations, (gSfUl- 
Uti'is haereditatibus mukatus. ) Being rf c- 
koned of the oppofite party, not on- 
ly on account of his connexion with 
Cinna, but becaufe his aunt Julia had 
been m.arried to Marius, he was obli- 
ged to abfcond ; and, though ill of a 
quartan ague, to change his lurking 
|)lace3 fevery night, and at one time to 
redeem himfelf frotfi the foldiers of 
Sulla, who were fearching thofe places 
for the profcribed, with a fum of ma- 
tiey, Suet. I. by giving their comman- 
der, Cornelius Phagita, two talents, 
Plutarch, in Caef.; Suet. 74. till by means 
01 the Vcftal Virgins, and of his kinf- 
inen and conneclions, he obtained a 
grant of his life. Sulla having long 
%v2th(lood the importunity of his bell 

2 1 C A E 

friends, and perfons of the highefl: 
rank, in behalf of Caelcir, at laft be- 
ing with diificulty prevailed on, is 
faid to have cried out, whether, fays 
Suetonius, by divine infpiration or by 
human conjedure, {Jive divimtus, i. e. 
per divinationem ; five al'tqua conjeBurdi 
i. e. a caufarum fcientia), " That 
they fhould have t,heir requeft, but 
bade them take notice, that he for 
whofe fafety they were fo felicitous, 
would one day be the ruin of the arif- 
tocratic party, which they together 
with him had defended.'* Suet, ib. 
And vvl^en they faid that it was be- 
low Sulla to feek the hfe of a boy ; 
he warned them to be upon their guard 
again il that loofe-girt boy, {ut male 
praecin^um puerum cmjcrent;) alluding to 
Gaefar's manner of always wearing his 
tunic loofely girded. Suet. 45. ; Dlo^ 
43, 43. " for in that boy, faid he, are 

many Mariufes," Suet. i. Plutarch 

differs from Suetonius in his account 
of this matter, as in feveral other par- 

Caefar ferved his firft campaign in 
Afia under Thermus the Praetor, by 
wiiom he was prefented with a civic 
crown at the fiege of Mitylene, Suet. 
2. Being fent by Thermus to fetch 
a fleet from Bithynia, he remained for 
fome time with Nicomedes, the king 
of that country, in fuch familiarity, 
as gave occalion to reports unfavour- 
able to his character, Suet. 2, & 49. 

After the death of Sulla Caefar re- 
turnt-d to Rom^e. He firft diftinguiih- 
ed himfelf by accufing Dolabella of 
extortion, {vid. Doiabella), ac- 
cording to the author ot the dialogue 
concerning the caufes of corrupt elo- 
quence, in the 21ft year of his age, 
c. 34. But it appears to have been 
in his 23d year, vid Cafaubon, et P'gh, 
ad Suet. Caef. 4. Dolabella being ac- 
quitted, Caelar, in order to avoid the 
odium of this profecution, refolved to 
retire to Rhodes, to iludy eloquence 
under ApoUonius, the fon of Molon, 
the moft celebrated mailer of rhetoric 
at that time. fn his way thither, 
near the iiland of Pharmacufa^ he fell 


C A E I 53 

into the handb of pirates, who then 
infefted thofe feas ; among whom, for 
near forty days, he behaved rather as 
their mailer than captive, often threa- 
tening that he would crucify thtm : 
which they taking in jell, iifed to 
laugh at him. But he having ranfom- 
€d- himfelf for 50 talents, made good 
his threat, Suet. ib. et 74. 

Plutarch makes Caefar repair to the 
court of Nicomedes, to avoid the 
cruelty of Sulla, and fays, that v^ fail- 
ing from thence he was taken by the 
pirates, who at firft demanded only 
twenty tal-ents for his ranfom, and 
that Caefar gave them forty ; after 
this, that he lludied rhetoric for fome 
time under ApoUonius at Rhodes ; 
that upon his return to Rome he ac- 
cufed Dolabella ; but takes no no- 
tice of his leaving Rome, and retiring 
to Rhodes, in confcquence of Dola- 
bella'* acquittal. 

Caefar difcovered fuch abilities in 
the profecution of Dolabella, that ever 
after he was ranked among the chief 
orators. Suet. Caef. SS' y ^^^' J-^ig^^' 
10. ; Brut, 72, & 75. ; Paterc. 2, 43. 

71ie tiril honour Caefar obtained by 
the fuffrages ot the people was the of- 
fice of military tribune in the army. 
Suet. 5. in oppofition to C. Popilius, 
Plutarch. He keenly promoted the 
law for reftoring the power of the tri- 
bunes, which Sulla had diminiflied, 
a» u. 683, and by a law which Ploti- 
us, a tribune, propofed at his iniiiga- 
tion, {rogat'ione Plot'ta), procured the 
liberty of returning from banifhment 
to his brother-in-law L. Cinna, and 
to thofe who together with Cinna had 
fided with the conful Lepidus, and af- 
ter his death had fled to Sertorius, 
Suet. ib. 

Caefar when quaeftor loft his wife 
Cornelia ; at which time alfo his aunt 
Julia, the wife oi Marius, died. Cae- 
far honoured both of them with a fune- 
ral oration from the ^ollra, Suet. 6. At 
the funeral of Julia he brought forth 
the image of Marius, which no one 
had ventured to do fmce the vidory of 
Sulla, Plutarch^, 

3 «: A E 

It fell to Caefar's lot to ^o as 
Qiiaeftor, a. u. 6-7, with the Praetor 
Antiftius Veter, Lh et FcU. 2, 43. to 
Farther Spain, Suet. 7. There, when 
by order of the Praetor he was going 
round the province to hold the affizfs 
for the adminillraiion of juftice, and 
had come to Cadiz, obferving an 
image of Alexander the Great in the 
temple of Hercules, he fetched a deep 
figh, as if grieved at his own inad;i- 
vity , becaufe he had performed no- 
thing memorable at an age {l"^), at 
which Alexander had conquered the 
world, ib. Dio fays, that this happen- 
ed while Caefar commanded after his 
praetorfnip in Spain, ;?7, 52. So Plu- 
tarch, who fays that Caefar, while 
reading the hillory of Alexander at a 
leifure hour, having fitten a long time 
very thoughtful, at lall hurft into 
tears ; and when his friends, being fur- 
prifed, aflced the caufe of it, he gave 
as a reafon what has juft now beea 

x^t the expiration of his quaeftor- 
(hip, Caefar m.arried Pompeia, the 
daughter of Q^Pompcius, and grand- 
daughter of Sulla, Plutarch. 

Caefar, when aedilc, by ihe magnt- 
ficence of his fliews, furpafled all hi« 
predeceffors in that ofSce. He is faid 
to have entertained the people with aa 
exhibition of 320 pairs of gladiators, 
Plutarch. But Suetonius informs us 
that he was not allowed to exhibit the 
whole of thofe he had purchafed, by a 
decree of the fenate, limiting the num- 
ber of gladiators which one might keep 
at Rome, c. 10. Caefar afterwards 
kept a great many gladiators at Capua, 
Caef. li. C. I, 14. In the flicw which, 
he exhibited the faine year for his fa- 
ther's funeral, he made the whole fur- 
nitui-e of the amphitheatre of folid fil- 
ver, ( omni apparatu arenae argenteo tijus 
ejl)^ which had never been feen before, 
Plin. 33, 3. f. 16 

Caefar, having thus gained the fa- 
vour of the people, tried, by means 
of a part of the tribunes, to get the 
province of Egypt affigned to him by 
a decree of the commons, (plebifcito ;) 


C A E r ?4 1 

tut he was prevented by the oppofi- didates 
tion of the nobility. On which ac- 
count he endeavoured to w^eaken the 
power of the ariftocratical party, [op- 
timatium fa8tonts)i by every method in 
his power, Suet. c. ii. He had the 
boldnefs to replace in the Capitol the 
ftatues and trophies of Marins, which 
Sulla had ordered to be thrown down 
and broken to pieces, ib. et Plutarch, 
in Caef. In the year after his aedile- 
(hip, bein^ appointed Judex quaejlio- 
fiisy or fubftitute to the Praecor, whofe 
office ft was to prefide in trials con- 
cerning the Sicarliy L e. thofe accufed 
of killing, or of carrying a dagger 
{Jica) with intent to kill ; he treated 
as Skaril all thofe who in Sulla's pro- 
fcription had received money from the 
treafury for bringing the heads oi Ro- 
man citizens. Suet. ih. He fuborned 
T. Labienus, one of the tribunes, to 
accufe C. Rabirius of treafon, [perdu- 
eHionis)^ for killing Saturninus thirty- 
fix years before, *vid. Rabirius.— He 
zealoufly promoted the Mantlian law, for 
conferring the command of the Mithri- 
datic war with extraordinary powers, on 
Porapey, that it might afterwards ferve 
as a precedent for himfelf, Dto, 36, 26. 
■ — He was fufpeded of being concern- 
ed in diiTf:rent confpiracies againil the 
date, firft vvith CraiTus, Sylla, and 
Autronius-, Suet. 9. and afterwards 
vith Catiline, ib. 13. 

Upon the death of Metellus Pius, 
the Pontifex Maxtmus^ a. u. 690, Caefar 
havinor laid afide all thoughts of the 

C A E 

37, 37. The tribune Labie- 
nus had paved the way for Caefar's 
fuccefs by the publication of a new 
law, for transferring the right of elec- 
tion from the college of priel'ts to the 
people, D'lQy lb. On the day of the 
election, as his mother conduced him%- 
to the door, with tears in her eves. 

he embraced her, and faid, Mothery 

province of Egypt, fued for the office 
of High Prieft with the nioft protufe 
bnbery, Suet. 13. ; and though only 
thirty-fix years of age, [adokfcentu- 
lus), carried it againft two pgwerful 
competitors, J^ Catuhs and C. Servi- 
lius JfauricuSf greatly fuperior to him 
in age and dignity ; one' of whom, 
(Catulus), had been Cenfor, and then 
was Prince of the Senate, the other 
had been honoured with a triumph : 
yet Caefar procured more votes in their 
own tribes than they boili in all the 
tribes, Suet. ib. Sallujl. Cat. 9. Dio 
fays, that there were many other can- 

to-day you Jloall fee your f on High Prieft y 
or an exile : Plutarch. He was fo in- 
volved in debt by his remarkable libe- 
rality in private, and his fplendid fhows 
in public, Salluft. Cat. 49. that if he 
had not obtained fome high office, he 
muft have gone into voluntary banifh- 

A. U. 690, [ah 691.) Caefar was 
ele^led Praetor. Before he entered on 
his office, the confpiracy of Catiline 
was detected, by the apprehenfion of 
Lentulus, Cethegus, Statilius, and o- 
thers. When the queilion concerning 
their punifhment was brought before 
the fenate on the 5th December, [No- 
nis Decembribus), and moil of the fena- 
tors agreed in opinion with Silanus, 
the conful eled, who fpoke firft, that 
they fhonld be put to death, Caefar, 
when it came to his turn to fpeak, 
gave it as his opinion, that their e- 
ftatcs fliould be confifcated, and their 
perfons clofely confined in the ftrong 
municipal towns of Italy. Caefar's 
fpeech made a great impreffion on the 
Houfe, and he would certainly have 
carried his point, had not the fpeech, 
firft of Cirero the conful, Cic. Cat. 4. 
and after him of Cato, then tribune 
eleft, determined the Senate to decree 
capital punifliment againft the confpi- 
rators, SalluJL Cat. ^2. \ Veil. 2, 35.; 
Dio, 37, 36. Caefar was fo ftrongly 
fufptfted of being concerned in the 
confpiracy, that fome Roman Equitesy 
whom Cicero had placed as a guard 
round the temple of Concord, where 
the fenate was afltmbled, threatened 
to kill him with their jfwords, as he 
came out of the fenate-houle, Sallujl. 
ib. 49. But Curio is faid to have 
fcreened him with his cloak, and Ci- 
cero to have given a fi^nal to the E- 


CAE [5?] CAE 

quifes to fpare him, Plutarch. Caef, in his office, {in integrum refliluit^ IndaSk 
p. 711. Suetonius fays, that this hap 
pened to him while he fat in the fe- 
nate, and that he was with diffi- 
culty protc6>ed by a few of his 
friends, c. 14. Caefar, difcouraged 
by what had pafled, did not come to 
the fenate for the reft of the year, 
(/'. €. from the 5th December to the 
I ft January, when he entered on his 
office), ih, 

Caefar, on the firft day of his prae- 
torfliip, a. u, 691. called Catulus to 
give an accoiint to the people about the 
repairs of the Capitol, and publKhed a 
bill for transferring the charge of hnifh- 
ing it to another, (meaning Pompey, 
Dioy 37, 44.) But being violently op* 
pofed by the nobility, he dropt the 
bill, [aBionem depojult^ i. e. rogatwmrn)y 
Suet. 15. Dio mentions feveral other 
circumftances concerning this affair, 
lb. et 43, 14. Add. Tac. H'lji. 3, 72. 

By the advice and fupport of Caefar, 
Metellus Nepos, one of the tribunes, 
promulgated a bill to the people, that 
Pompey fhould be ordered to tranfport 
his army from Afia to Italy, as if to 
fettle the ftate, and quiet the diforders 
occafioned by the confpiracy of Cati- 
line and the temerity of Cicero, Plut. 
Cic. p. 872. but in reality to make 
Pompey matter of the government, 
Plutarch. Cat. Min. p. 771. that by his 
affillance they might accomplifh their 
ambitious projeds, Dio. 37, 43. This 
caufed great difturfcances in the city, 
ih. At laft the fenate fufpended both 
Caefar and Metellus from the execution 
of their offices, {adm'imflrattone re'ipuhli- 
caefubmo'vehant,) Caefar at firll refol- 
ved to a6l in defiance of this decree, 
but finding a llrong force prepared to 
prevent him, he difmiffed his hftors, 
laid afide his toga praetexta, and retired 
as a private perfon U) his houfe. Tvi'o 
days after, when the mob affembled in 
a tumultuous manner, promifmg him 
their affiftance to alTert his dignity, he 
prudently checked them. The fenate 
pleafed with this unexpeded modera- 
tion, thanked him ; and having cancel- 
led their former decree, reinftated him 

priore decreto,) Suet. 16. Metellus fled 
to Pompey, Dio. 37, 43. 

After the defeat of Catiline in the 
confuhhip of Silanua and Murena, 
a. u. 69 1 , Caefar was again involved ia 
danger by a new information brought 
againil him as an accomplice in the 
confpiracy, by L. Vettius, bef(f>re No- 
vius Niger, the quaeftor, and by Q^Cu» 
rins in the fenate. To repel this charge 
Caefar implored the teftimony of Cice- 
ro, Suet. 17. which, fays Appian, Ci- 
cero durft not refufe to fo popular a 
chara£ler, B. Civ. 2, p. 431. Caefar, 
by his influence in the city, not only 
freed himfelf from danger, but obtain- 
ed at laft full revenge on his accufers. 
Suet. 17. ; Cic. Fatin. il. 5 Att, 2, 24.; 
Dio. 37,41- 

Towards the end of the year an affair 
happened in the family of Caefar, which 
made a great noiie in the city, and was 
produ6live of very important confe- 
quences. Publius Clodius, a young 
patrician, then quaeftor, having fallea 
in love with Pompeia, Caefar's wife, in 
order to procure an interview with her, 
by means of amaid-fervant,gotadmiffion 
to Caefar's houfe in the habit and dif- 
guife of a mufic girl, while Pompeia, 
as being the praetor's wife, and other 
matrons were celebrating the facred 
rites of the BonaDea, or Good God- 
defs, from which every male creature 
was excluded, and even their pictures 
ufed to be veiled during the ceremony, 
Juvenah 6, 339. But Clodius being 
dete6led, was driven out ot doors ; and 
foon after brought to a trial for his 
crime. By means of bribery he was 
acquitted. Vid. Clodius. Caefar 
immediately divorced Pompeia ; but 
being fummonsd as a witnefs in the 
trial, he declared that he knew nothing 
at all of the matter; though his mother 
Aurelia and his fifter Julia, who were 
examined before him, had given a faith- 
ful relation of the whole fact ; and be- 
ing interrogated why then he had di- 
vorced his wife ; **' Becaufe, fays he, I 
think that thofe who belong to mc 
ought to be free from fufpicion, as well 


C A E t 

as from gtiilt.** Suet, 'ja.. Caefar did not 
wifli to offend fo popular a man as Clo- 
d)U3, Dlo, 37, 45. ; App'ian. 2, f. 435. 
At the fame time Caefar was fufpeded 
of carrying on an intrigue with Mucia, 
^lewife of Pompey, SueL'^c. 

At the expiration of his praetorfliip, 
Caefar obtained by lot the province of 
Lufitania or Farther Spain. His cre- 
ditors now urged him for payment, and 
threatened to arrell him. CraiTas un- 
dertook to fatisfy the moil clamorous 
of them, to the amount of 830 talents, 
aiLout L. 1 60,000 oF our money, Plutarch. 
Appian mentions a faying of Caefar's 
at this time, ** That he wanted 250 
millions of feflerces, to be worth no- 
thing-,** [opus ejfs fihi his millies et quin- 
ge&ties centm'is mlUibuSy ut nihU haheret^ ) 
i. e. he needed L. 2,01 8,229 to pay his 
debts ! Appian. B. C. 2, ^^2. 

As Caefar iti \m way to Spain paffed 
% fmall village on the Alps, fome of his 
coFmpanions aficed him in jeil, if there 
were any contells for, power and pre- 
ierment there ; upon wliich Caefar is 
reported to have faid, " I would ra- 
ther be firll man there than fecond man 
in Rome,^' Plutarch, p. 712. Caefar 
conquered feveral ftates in Lufitania, 
which he made tributary to the Ro- 
mans ; by which means he acquired 
•great wealth to himfelf and enriched his 
ioldiers. He was as much praifed for 
liis llrifl adminiibatiofl of juilice as for 
Ilia military exploits. Before tlie end 
of the year, without waiting far a fuc- 
ceiTor, he returned to Roaieto demand 
a triumph and the confulihip. But as 
both were incompatible, without an ex- 
emption from the laws, which, from the 
oppoiition of Cato, he could not ob- 
tain, he dropt his pretenfions to a 
triumph, and fucd for the coniulihip,, 
Snd. 18. ; P hit arch, i.aef, p. 713- ; 
Cat. Minor, p. 774. ; Dio, 37, 54. 

Caefar's competitors were L. Luc- 
ceitis, the hiilorian, Ck. Fam» 5, 10. 
and M. ijibulus, who had been his col- 
league in the aedilefiiip and praetorfliip. 
<_aefar united himfelf with Lucceius, on 
condition tiiatLucceius, wiio was inferior 
to himieU iu iaterdlbut mote -rich, ftxould 

5<5 1 C A E 

furnifh money on their joint account 
to bribe the centuries. The nobility 
(optimatesy) appreheniive that Caefar 
would attempt any thing with a col- 
league fubfervient to his will, made a 
contribution to enable Bibulus to bribe 
as high as his competitors ; and thus 
procured hiseleftion. Accordingly he 
was made conful with Caefar, Suet. 1 9. 
From the fa:ne jealoufy of Caefar, 
the fenate decreed to the confula that 
ihould be elected for that year, pro- 
vinces of fmall importance, the care of 
the woods and roads. Caefar, provoked 
by this affront, tried by every means ia 
his power to gain the friendlliip of 
Pompey, and reconcile him to Craf- 
fus ; in which he fucceeded. According- 
ly thefe three entered into an agreement, 
which they confirmed by a folemn oath, 
not to allow any thing to be done in 
the Hate without their joint concur- 
rence, [ne quid ageretur in repnblica quod 
dtfplkmjfet ulli e tribusy) Suet, 19.; Dio, 
37, 57. This is that famous combina- 
tion commonly called theFiRSxTRiurvi- 
viPvATF, which in reality was nothing 
elfe but a criminal confpiracy of 
three meny to extort from their country 
by violence, what they could not ob- 
tain bylaw; and from the time when this 
confederacy was made, in the coufulfliip 
of Metellus and Afranius, all the Ro- 
man writers date the origin of the civil 
wars, {kx Mefello confide, a. u. 693, 
Horat. Od. 2, I, I.), which terminated 
in the fubverfion af the republic. 
Hence Horace calls the Triumvirate, 
Graves Principum amicitiaCf the fatal 
friendfnips of the chiefs ; of Pompey 
the molt powerful, CraiTus the moil 
opulent, and Caefar the ablell and 
moll popular man in Rome, Od. 2, I. 
4. SoVelleiusPatercuius: ^^c(Caefare) 
confide (it (hould be confnle defignatOy 
conful ele6l, according to Suetonius, 
ib.^ inter eum et Cn. Pompeium, et M. 
Crnffum inita potentiae focktasy &c. 2, 44. 
In the<^i//?i72<f of Livy it is, Eo conjulaius 
candidatOy et captantc rempuhlkam invade- 
rsy conjptratio inter tres prtncipts fa£ta ejiy 
\yc. Liv. Epit. 1 03. Pompey's chief 
motive for joining in this confederacy 



C A E [ 

yyas to get his ads in Afia confirmed 
by Caefar in his confulfhip. ( FhL PoM- 
ptius.) Caefar Jjerceived, that by- 
yielding to Pompey's glory, he fhould 
?i4vance his own ; and CrafTus hoped 
to gain, by the authority of Pompey 
and the influence of Caefar, that pre- 
eminence which he could not obtain 
^lone. Fell. 2, 44. Add. Flor. 4, 2, 
}l. But the chief advantage of the 
coalition redounded to Caefar. It 
proved, however, in the end as deflru'c- 
tive to thofe who made it, as to their 
country. ( ^ae^ fc. focietas, urbi orbique 
terrarum, nee mlntis, d'lverfo quoque tem- 
pore, \pfis^ CralTo primum, deinde Pom- 
peio, denique Caefari, exitiabtlis fuit,) 
Veil. 2, 44. The confederacy for fome 
time was kept fecret. The firft who 
4ifcovercd it wa« Cato, Plutarch. 

Caefar now afTured of the fupport of 
Pompey and CrafTus, endeavoured in 
his confulfliip to gain the favour, firft of 
the people, by promulgating an agra- 
rian law, and next of the Equltes, by 
remitting the third part of what they 
had ftipulated to pay 'for the Afiatic 
revenues, [Fid. A. p. 24. and 204.) 
When Bibulus attempted by his inter- 
pofition to prevent thefe laws from 
being pafied, he was treated fo roughly 
by the mob, that for the laft eight 
isionths of the year, (not the whole year, 
as Seneea fays, ad Marc. 14.) he fhut 
himfelf up in his houfe, and only en- 
deavoured to obftruft the proceedings 
of Caefar by his edids, Suet. 20. 
■Henceforth Caefar managed every thing 
as he chofe ; whence fome witty per- 
sons, when they figned any writing as 
*vitnefles, did not add. as uuial, " In the 
confulfliip of Caefar and Bibulus, but of 
Juhus and Caefar '* {non Caefare et B'lhu- 
lof Jed Julio et Caefare Cofs.J putting 
the fame perfon down twice by his 
name and firname. Suet. ib. ; Dio, 38, 
%, The bitter edicts ( Archilcchia edic- 
ta) of Bibulus, however, provoked 
Caefar fo lar, that he attempted to ex- 
cite the mxob to dorm his houfe and 
di'ag him out by force ; and Vatinius, 
the tribune, at Caefar's delire., adually 
mude iin ^ii'^ult on it, jJioj^gU without 

57 1 C A E 

luc; efs, Cie. 4tt. 2- 21. ; Faf. g. C;»- 
cero having, in a fpeech at the trial Gjf 
Antonius. his former colleague, com* 
plained too freely concerning the itate 
of the times, Caefar being informed 
of it, inftantly called an affembly of 
the people, and by the ailiftance of 
Pompey, who aded as augur, ratified 
the adoption of Clodius, Cicero's ene- 
my, into a plebeian family; that fo ''Jo- 
dius might be made a tribune, and 
thereby enabled to profecute Cicero 
for putting Lentulus and the other ac- 
complices of Catiline's confpiracy tp 
death without a trial, Su£t. 20. ; Plw 
tarch. CaeJ. p. 714. j Cic. Dom. 16.5 
Sext. 7. 

The violent proceedings of Caefar 
rendered the triumvirate odious to all 
ranks of men, and Pompey chiefly be- 
came the objed of the pubhc hatred, 
Cic. Att. 2, 13, 19, & 20. He nov/ 
began to be fenfible of his error in af- 
fociating himfelf wath Caefar ; whicji 
he frankly owned to Cicero, C'lc. Att^ 
2, 21, & 21. who urged him to the 
only remedy, an immediate breach witk 
Caefar ; but Caefar was more fuccefs- 
ful, and entirely alienated Pompey 
from Cicero, Cu. Phil. 2, 10. 

Caefar, to ftrengthen his union with 
Pompey, gave him in marriage his only 
daugiiter Julia; who, by her amiable 
difpofition and engaging manners, pre- 
ferved a good underftanding betweea 
her father and hufband while flie lived. 
Suet. 21. ; Clc. Att. 2, 17. About the 
fame time, to fecure the intereil of 
Pifo, his fucciiior in the confulate, 
Caefar married Calpurnia, Pifo' s daugh- 
ter, Suet. 11^ Dioy 3H, 9. 

In order to llrike a ten'or into thg 
oppofite party, Caefar bribed Vcttius, 
who had formerly accufed himfeif, to 
declare, that he had been folicited by 
fome of the nobility to afrafii.ate Pom*, 
pey ; and being produced to the people: 
ih the Rojirdi named feveral : but this 
plot being treated with merited con- 
tempt, Caefar was gbd to get rid of it^ 
by llran^'Hng or poiioning Vettius pr> 
vatclv in priic:;. and giving out that i^ 
WAS fipae by the .cpnipii;3X»^, ^u^* AO- » 

C A E [ ?8 

(?/V. jIu. 2, 24. ; Vat. II.; ^^rx. 63. ; 
App'^nn. 2, p. 244. Dio. who is rarely 
favourable to Cicero, afTerts, very im- 
probably, that Cicero and Lucullus 
aciually did attempt to perpetrate this 
cfime by means of Vettlus, 38, 9. 

Gaefar being now near the clofe of 
his conful^Tiip, employed his, the 
tribune- Vatinius, to procure from the 
people, by an extraordinary law, the 
province of Cifalpine Gaul and Illyri- 
Cum, for five years- with three legions, 
Suet. 21. \ Ctc. Dom. 9. ; Vat, 15. to 
which the fenate foon after, difregard- 
ing their former appointment, upon 
Caefar's defire, added likewife Tranf- 
alpine Gaul, and one legion more ; a- 
fraid left, if they fhould refufe it, he 
Ihould get that alfo from the people, 
without their confent. Suet, ib ; Dhj 
38, 8. while Cato in vain remonftrated, 
that, by their decrees, ihey were pla- 
cing the tyrant in a citadel, Plutarch. 
in Cat Min. p. 775. 

Though Caefar received at firfl only 
four legions, Dlo, 38, 8. 5c 41. ; Plu- 
tarch, lb. et Caef. />. 7 14.; Pomp. p. 644.; 
App'ian. 2, 435. he afterwards encrea- 
fed that number, at different times, 
Suet. 24. ; (.aef. Bell Gall 2, 2. & 23. 
to ten legions, th. 6, i, 31. & 32. At 
the end of the Gallic war he had thir- 
teen legions, befides the two which he 
gave to Pompey, ib. 8, 54. 

Caefar having laid down the conful- 
fliip, remained for fome time with his 
army before the city, D'to^ 38, 17. ; 
Ck. Sext. 18. ; PoJ}. Red. in Sen at. 13. 
Several of the fuccceding magidrates 
wanted to profecute him for his illegal 
proceedings during the former year, 
and to annul his acls; but Caefar, by the 
interpofition of the tribunes, whom he 
had gained, prevented them ; and, to 
fecure himfelf for the future, always 
took care, by every method, to attach 
to his intereil a majority of the annual 
magiftrates, Suet. 23. 

Caefar fet out for his province about 
the end of March, a. u. 695, Caef. B. 
G. 1,6. He firft conquered the Hel- 
VETii, who had left their coutry in 
quell of better fettlements; and forced 

] C A E 

them, after fuftaining prodigious lofs, 
to return to tlieir own territories, tb. 
21. He next defeated Ariovistus, 
a king of the Germans, who had fet- 
tled in Gaul, with great ilaughter, and 
obliged him to crofs the Rhine, ib 53. 
In the fecond year, a. u. 696, Cae- 
far fubdued the Belgae, Id. 2, 11. 
the SitefftoneSi c. 13. the Bellovaci. 4. 
the Nervii, c. 28. the -^ttuat^ci ; of 
whom' he fold 53,000 for (laves, be- 
caufe, after making a furrender, they 
again took up arms, c. 33. He alfo 
reduced feveral other ftates, c. 34. In 
the fame year, by mean:- of his lieute- 
nant Sergius Galba, he vtinquifhcd the 
Nan*uaiesy Veragri, and Srlilni, Id. 3, 
1, — 6. For thefe fucceffes, a thankf- 
giving (fuppUcatio) was decreed at 
Rome in hon.>ur of Caefar, for fifteen 
days, a greater number than had ever 
before been granted to any one, Id. 2, 

35 f- 

Caefar thinking that all Gaul was 
now fubdued, ib. et 3) 7- made a pro- 
grefs into Illyricum., ib. and from thence 
went to Luca in Italy, where Pompey 
and Craffus met him, to concert mea- 
fures for their mutual advantage. It 
was agreed that Pompey and Craffus 
fiiould be confuls for next year, and 
that they fhould procure for Caefar the 
prolongation of his command for five 
years more, w'l^h. money to pay his 
troops, Suet. Caef, 24. ; Appian. 2. 

^ 437- 

In the mean time a fudden war broke 
ont in Gaul with the Vemti^ and otner 
ftates bordering on the ocean, Caef. B. 
G. 3, 7. who, being vanquifhed m a 
naval battle, furrendered themfelves to 
Caefiir. Bat he, provoked at the Ve- 
ntti for having detained the Roman am- 
baffadors, ordered all their fenators to • 
be put to death, and the reft to be fold 
as fb.ves, /^. 7, — 16. Meantime Q^Ti- 
turius Sabinus, Caefar's lieutenant, by 
an artful ftra:agem, defeated the Unellip 
ib. 17, — 19. At the fame time P. 
Craffus, in Aquitania, having vanqaifti- 
ed the Satiates, forced tiiem to fubmit, 
ib. 20, — 25. with feveral other ftates 
©f the fame country, ik 27. In the 


C A E 

r 90 1 

C A E 

end of the fame fummer, Caefar attack, 
ed the Monni and Menu;>ih which were 
the oniy ftates in Gaul t'^at remained 
in arms, but, by the woody nature of 
their country, was prevented from com- 
pleting the conquell of them, ib. 28. & 
29.'^ but he effected it ntxt feafon, with 
great flaughtcr, Id. 4, 37. & 38. 

A. u. 698, when Pompey and Craf- 
fus were confuls, the Ufipetcs and Tmch- 
ther'i^ two German nations, bein^ ex- 
pelled by the Suevi, paiTed the Rhine, 
and feized the country of the Menapiif 
ib. 4, I, — 4. the EburoneSf and Con- 
drufi^ ib. 6. to the number of 430,000, 
ib. 15 Caefar defeated them with 
vaft flaughter, and without the lofs of 
a man on his own fide, ih. Plutarch 
fays that no lefs than 400,000 were 
flain, in CaeJ. p. 718. 

Caefar, that he might ilrike terror 
into the Germans, in his turn, and for 
feveral other reafons, which he men- 
tions, particularly that he might affill 
the Uhn againll the Sueviy refolved to 
crofs the Rhine, Id. 4, 1 6. He more- 
over was defirous of doing what no Ro- 
man had ever done before him, Dio, 39, 
48. Accordingly having made a wood- 
en bridge with lurprifmg difpatch, in 
ten days, he led over his army ; and 
Jiaving ravaged the country of the Si- 
famhri, who fled to their woods upon 
his approach, led back his troops into 
Gaul, after (laying beyond the Rhine 
only eighteen days ; and broke down 
the bridge, Caef. B. G. 4, 16, — 19. 
Dio fays that Caefar llaid twenty days 
in Germany, and that he left it, upon 
hearing that the Suevi were affembling 
to affiil the Sicambri, ib 

From the fame fondnefs of accom- 
pliiliing things never before attempted, 
though but a fmall part of the furamer 
remained, Caefar tranfported his army 
iiito Britain on pretext that the Bri 
tons had aflifted the Gauls in all their 
wars againft him. The Britons oppo- 
fed hiy landing with great bravery; but 
being defeated, were forced to aik 
peace, and to give hoftages, Id. 4, 20, 
.—36. In this expedition Caefar loft a 

number of !his (hips by a ftorm, tb» 28* 
& 29. 

Next year, a. u. 699, Caefat made 
a fecond expedition into Britain, Af- 
ter feveral contefts, in fome of which 
Caefar fuftained confiderable lofs, Caf- 
fibclaunus, the chief king of the ifland, 
w^as obliged to fue for peace ; upon 
which Caefar failed back with his army 
to Gaul, lb. 5, 5, — 23. Upon his land- 
ing he received letters informing him 
of the death of his daughter Julia, P/u- 

Next winter, on account of the fear- 
city of corn, Caefar diftributed his le- 
gions among the feveral dates, th. 24* 
On this account the Gauls, at the in- 
ftigation of Ambiorix and Cativulcus, 
the chiefs of the Ehurones., and of In- 
dutiomarus king of the Trcviri, form- 
ed a plan of attacking the Romans in 
their winter-quarters. Ambiorix ha- 
ving, by an artful fpeech, induced Ti- 
turius and Cotta to quit their camp, 
which w^as placed between the Maefe 
and the Rhine, in the country of the 
Ehurones., attacked them on their march, 
and cut them off, with all their forces, 
confiding of a whole legion and tive 
cohorts. Cotta had at firft ftrongly 
oppofed this meafure, but yielded co 
the opinion of Titurius, ib. 26,-36. 
Suetonius calls him Aurunculeius, aad 
fays, that he and Titurius were killed 
by an ambufcade in the territories 
of the Germans, Caef. 25. Ambio- 
rix being afterwards joined by the AtU' 
aiici and Nervii, attacked the camp of 
Q^ Cicero, the brother of the orator, 
who defended himfelf with great brave- 
ry ; but being reduced to the greateft 
flraits, mull have foon furrendered, had 
he not been relieved by Caefar ; who 
having heard of his danger, came to his 
afTillance with wonderful expedition, 
defeated the Gauls, and, to prevent 
their continual revolts, determined him- 
felf to pafs the winter in Gaul, ib. 37, 
— 51. Indutiomarus attacked the camp 
of Labienus, which was placed on the 
confines of the Treviri and Rnemi ; but 
being flain in the attempt, the Gauls 
H 2 feparated^ 

C A t I 69 

fc|5aratcd, and tranquillity was in a 
great meafure reftoied, iL 53- adf.n. 

Caefar, to repair his lofTes, levied 
three new legions. He next year, a. 
700, reduced the Neri^ti, by a fudden 
jnvafion, and forced the Carniltes and 
Menapl't to furrender. The Trennrt 
¥rere routed by the artful conduft of 
X.abienus his lieutenant, tb. 6, i, — 7. 
As the Germans had alTifled the Tre- 
virif Caefar again croffed the Rhine ; 
but underftanding from the Ubian 
fcouts that the Suc'vi were retired to 
their woods, and fearing the want of 
provilions, he in a fhort time returned 
into Gaul, Ih. c. 8, 9. & 28. Dio fays 
that Caefar retreated from fear of the 
Suevi, as before, 40, 32. He how- 
ever left a part of his bridge ftanding, 
having broken down only about 200 feet 
of it on the German fide, and, to fecure 
the reft, built at the extremity a ftrong 
tower of four ftories, where he left a 
garrifon of twelve cohorts, under the 
command of C. Volcatius Tullus, CaeJ. 
tt Dio, ibid. 

Caefar, after his return from Ger- 
many, ravaged the country of the E 
hurones. In the mean time the Sicam- 
hri having croffed the Rhine, attacked 
a party of the Romans under Cicero, 
and cut off two cohorts. They alfo 
attacked his camp ; but being beat off 
from it, they repafTed the Rhine with 
their booty, Caef. 6,31. ad Jin. 

A. n. 701, almoft all the ftates of 
Gaul confpired to recover their liberty 
imder the conduftof Vercingetorix, 
prompted, as Caefar himfelf fays, by 
hearing of the difturbances at Rome, 
occaficned by the murder of '..lodius, 
Ifp, y, I, — j;. After feveral defperate 
confiidls, repulfmg the Romans at Ger- 
govia, with the lofs of 700 men and 46 
centurions, ib. ^i. [legione ftisd. Suet. 
Caef. 25.), the Gauls were at laft en- 
tirely defeated at Alefia, and that city, 
together with Vercingetorix, and a 
great number of captives, furrendered 
to Caefar, ib. 8y. The fcnate at Rome 
being informed of thefe fuccefl'es by 
Caefar's letters, decreed a fupplication, 
;. c, that prayers and facrihces fhould 

1 C A E 

be tnade in all the temples, and fefti- 
vals celebrated for twenty days, ib. 90. 
Notwithftarding the dreadful defeats 
which the Gauls had fuftained, new 
efforts were flill made next year, a. 702^ 
to fhake off the Roman yoke, by diffe- 
rent ftates, by the Biturlges, Carn.fres', 
Bellovaciy Treviri, PiBones, jirmoncii 
Cadurci, Sec. but thefe were all fiiially 
crulhed, fome of them with the utmdll 
feverity, ib. 8, 1,-40. To prevent 
thefe repeated revolts by an exemplary 
puniihment, Caefar having taken Uxel- 
lodumimj cut off the hands of all thofe 
who had borne arms againft him, ib. A^. 
Thus Caefar cotnpletely fubdued all 
Gaul in lets than ten years. rSuetonius 
fays in nine years, f. 25. but in anothet 
place he fays in ten, r. 69. Dio makes 
the time only eight years, 39, 33. et 
44, 43. Caefar himfelf makes it nirie 
years, B. C. 1, 7. but a little after com- 
plains that he was recalled from his go- 
vernment fix months before his decen- 
nial period was completed, ib. c. 9. fo 
that he is commonly faid to have been 
ten years in conquering Gaul ; thus, 
Bellantem geminis tenuit te Gallia lujlris, 
Lucan. I, 283. Decimo jam vincitis an^ 
no, ib. 300. During that time he is 
faid to have taken 800 towns, to have 
fubdued 300 ftates, (Appian fays 400 
llateb), and to have engaged at diffe- 
rent times three millions of men, (Ap- 
pian fays four milHons), one million of 
whom he flew in battle, and made an- 
other million prifoncrs, Plutarch, in Caef. 
et Jppian. in Celt. p. 755. Piiny makes 
him to have flain 1,192,000 men, 7, 

39. Paterculus 400,000, 2, 47. • 

Though Caefar always gives plaufible 
pretexts for his wars, yet there is rea- 
fon to think that they were not always 
juftifiabie. Suetonius fays, that after 
he had augmented and difciplined his 
army to his mind, he declined no occa- 
fion of war, even though unjuft and 
dangerous, attacking confederate ftates 
as well as thofe that were hoftile ; fo 
that the fenate once decreed, that am- 
bafladors fliould be fent to examine the 
ftate of Gaul, and fome advifed that 
Caefar fuould be given up to the ene- 

C A E [6 

my ; but all oppofition was quafhed by 
his fplendid fiicceffes, 6"?/^/. CaeJ. 24. 

Caefar reduced Gaul to the form of 
<l province. To lecure its fubjeclion, 
he built forts in different places, and 
impofed an annual tribute of forty mil- 
lions of fc ftcrces, [quadringenties) , Suet. 
25.; Eutrop. 6, 14.; Dio, 40, 43. 

While Caefar profecuted his con- 
quefts with fo much vigour and fuc- 
cefs in Gaul, he .paid the utraoft at- 
tention to fupport and increafe his in- 
fluence at Rome. He always took 
care to oblige the annual magiftrates, 
and to aflilt none of the candidates 
with his intereil, but fueh as engaged 
to defend him in his abfence ; and to 
fecure their performance, he did not 
hefitate to exad from fome of them an 
oath, and even a formal bond or written 
obligation, (fyngrapham exigen)^ Suet. 
23. Every year, when he came to Cif- 
alpine Gaul to hold afiizes or courts of 
jultice, (ad conventus agendas), and to 
regulate the affairs of the province, a 
great many of the principal perfons in 
Rome came to pay their refpetlis to 
him. Plutarch informs us, that there 
were once at Luca at the fame time 
120 Hirers, and more than 2CO fena- 
tois, in Caefare, -p. -"jiS. So Appian, 
B. Civ. 2. p. 437. 

When Pompey was created fole con- 
ful, to quell the dilturbances which 
took place after the death of Clodius, 
a. u. 701, fome of the tribunes pro- 
pofed making Caefar his colleague ; 
but Caefar requeiled, that they would 
rather get a law paffed, that when the 
time of his command in Gaul was near 
expiring, he fhould be permitted to 
ttand candidate for the confulfliip in 
his abfence, Sui^L 26. Dio fays, that 
this difpenfation was granted to Caefar 
by Pompey, Dio, 40, 5 1, & 56. The 
law however appears to have been paff- 
ed by the joint appHcation of the tri- 
bunes, with the concurrence of Pom- 
pey, Cic. Fam. 8. 3. ; Appian. 2, 442. 
And Cicero acknowledges that he al- 
fo had lent his aid in that bufmefs, by 
engaging Coeiius, then one of the tri- 
bunes, to 'prompte the law ; which Ci- 

I 1 C A E 

ccro did at the requcH of Caefar, wbotli 
he had feen at Ravenna, and afterwards 
of Pompey himfeif at Rome. Hencfi 
Uh'i illae flint denfae dextrae ? Wlierc 
is that right hand, which you joined 
clofely to Caefar's, when you promifcd. 
to fupport his intereft ? Caefar and his 
friends will ail^, fays Cicero, if I aft 
again ll him, Cia. Att, 7, i. But Ci- 
cero aftervvatdfi afferted, very incoiifift. 
ently, that he had advifed Pompey not 
to grant Caefar this difpenfation, Cic, 
Phd. 2, 10. — Caefar, having obtained 
this fa^'our, raifed hi-^, views flill higher. 
He lavlilied immenfe fums to gain the 
favour of the people both in public and 
in private. He was the fure fuccour 
of criminals, of infolvent debtors, and 
prodigal young men ; nor was he Icfs 
iludious to gain the friendfliip of kings 
and of the allied Hates. He main- 
tained a large body of gladiators ia 
different places, particularly at Capua. 
He doubled the pay of his foldiers, 
and by his liberality gained their af- 
fections 10 a wonderful degree. Suet, 
ib. 26, 27, & 28. Cic, Att. 7, 3. Fanu 
8, 4, & 14. 

Pompey, who had fo long contri- 
buted to raife Caefar, (per decern anno* 
aluity Cic. Att. 7, 5). at lail became 
jealous of his power ; but, from a vaift 
couiidence in his own ilrength, neglect- 
ed to make proper preparations for hiss 
defence : and by the violent meafures 
which his party purfued, affoi'ded Cae- 
iar a pretext for bringing matters to 
extremity. For three years there was 
each year one of the confuls of the 
name of Marcellus, all of them inimi- 
cal to Caefar. 

A. U. 702, M. Marcellus made a 
motion in the fenate, that a fucceffor 
fhould be appointed to Caefar, and 
fmce the war in Gaul was finifhed, that 
he fnould be obliged to difband his ar- 
my, and come in perfon to fue for the 
confullhip; alleging that the law, which 
granted him leave to declare himfeif a 
candidate in his abfence, was not for- pafTed. But this motion of Mar- 
cellus was oppofed by his colleague 
Serv. Sulpicius, and fome of the tri- 

C A E t 

feunes, who were in the interell of Ca'- 
far, Suet. 28. It was difapproved of even 
by Pompey himfelf, who pretended 
not to wifh that Caefar fhould be de- 
prived of his command before the time, 
Dlo, 40, 59. and feems to have had no 
notion that Caefar would think of re- 
taining it longer, Cic. Fam. 8, 8. Ac- 
cordingly, after many warm debates, 
in which the fummer was chiefly fpent, 
a decree of the fenate was carried on 
the lail day of Septeiiber, " That the 
next confuls, L. Paiilus and C. Mar- 
cellus, (who was the coufm of Mar- 
cus), ihould, on the ift of March there- 
after, a. u. 703, move the fenate to 
fettle the confular provinces, &c." But 
to this decree four of the tribunes gave 
their joint negative, Cic. ib. M. Mar- 
celhis, not fatisfied with taking from 
Caefar his provinces and the privilege 
of being made conful in his abfence, 
alfo moved the houfe, that the free- 
dom of the city (hould be taken from 
thole planters, whom Caefar, by the 
Vatinian law, had fettled at Novum- 
comum. Suet, 28. ; and having caught 
a certain Comeniian magillrate, who 
was acting the citizen, he ordered him 
to be feized and publicly whipt ; as 
an indignity to Caefar, Appian. 2, 243. 
which a6: Cicero greatly condemns. 
An. 5, II. 

Caefar, alarmedby thefe proceedings, 
took every precaution for his defence ; 
he levied foldiers, colle6ted money, and 
tried to conciliate the Gauls by the 
mildneis of his adminiitration, D'lo-, 40, 
60. ; Caef. B. G. 8, 49. To counttr- 
ad the defigns of his enemies at Rome, 
he attached to his intereil L. Paulus, 
the conful, by no lefs a fum than 1590 
talents, about L. 279,500; and Cu- 
rio, one of the tribunes, by a ilili lar- 
ger fum, Db, lb. Appian. 2, 243. ; Phi- 
tar ch. Pomp. p. 650; Cdef. p. 722. 
(The fum given to Curio is faid 
to have been fexcenttes fejlertiumi i. e. 
L. 484,373, Val. Max. 9, 1,6. ; Pa- 
ierc. 2, 48.): But in moil editions of 
Paterculus it is cent'ies H. S. 

Under pretext of the Partiiian war, 
the fenate, which was now, at lealt a 

62 3 C A E 

great majority of it, in the intereft of 
Pompey, decreed, " that both 'aefar 
and Pompey fliould each give a legion 
to Bibiilus, the governor of Syria ;'* 
and Pompey demanded from Caefar the 
legion vv^hich he had lent him after 
the deftrutlion of Titurius and Cotta. 
Caefar, though he perceived that both 
thefe legions would be given to Pom- 
pey, as they adually were, yet readily 
fent them, Caef. B. G. 8, 54. becaufe 
it afforded him a plauiible reafon for 
levying ftill greater forces in their room, 
Dio, 40, 6^. At their departure he 
gave each legionary foldier 250 drach' 
maCi about L. 8, Plutarch. 

Thefe foldiers, whether from igno- 
rance or defign, fpread unfavourable 
reports of Caefar, " that his army, 
wearied of the war, would leadily de* 
fert, as foon as they came into Italy ;" 
which increafed the confidence and fe- 
curity of Pompey, and of his parti* 
fans, App'ian. 2, 446. 

The confuls eleded for the cnfuing 
year 704, were C. Cdaudius MarccUus, 
(the brother of Marcus), and L. Cor» 
nelius Lentulus, both of them attach- 
ed to Pompey. Caefar now alFumed 
the appearance of moderation, and pro* 
pofed to refign the command of his ar* 
my, provided others, meaning Pom- 
pey, (hould do the fame ; knowing 
from Curio, that Pompey would never 
agree to fuch a propofal. He even 
m.ade llill greater conceiTions, Suet. 29.; 
Flor. 4, 2. ; Veil. 2, 49. Caefar wrote a 
letter to this effed by Curio, who, af- 
ter laying down his office of tribune 
on the lOth December, had gone di- 
reftly to Caefar, D'lo^ 40, (^6. and re- 
turned with great difpatch to Rome 
before the ift of January 704, Appian. 
2, 247. Authors differ about fome 
particulars in this letter, but they all 
agree in the principal point of Caefar's 
propofmg to refign his command, if 
Pompey would do the fame, Appian, 
ibid. J Dioy 41, I. ; Plutarch. Caef. 727. 
The matter v.-as violei.tly debated in 
the fenate for feveral days. At lail a 
decree was made by a great majority, 
^t the motion of Scipio, " That Cae- 

C A E t «3 

far (lioulcl difmifs his army by a certain 
day, ^ r be declared an enemy ;" and 
when M. Antony and Q^ Caflius, two 
of t^be tribunes, oppofed theii negative, 
tbe fenate proceeded to that decree, 
^vhich was ufually made in cafes of ex- 
tremity, " That the confuls, prae- 
tors, tribunes, and all who were about 
the city with proconfular power, ihould 
take care that the repubhc received no 
detriment," (ut curarent, ne quid refp. 
detrimcnti caperet), Cic. Fam. i6, 1 1. 
Upon which Antony and Caflius, to- 
gether with Curio, fled, in difguife, his 
(vehiculo mtr'itor'iOy teS'i fervil'i habituj, 
to Caefar, who was then at Ravenna, 
Caef, B. C. I, 5. with only one legion, 
ib. 8. Plutarch fays, with about 5000 
foot and 300 horfe, the ufual num- 
ber of troops then in a legion, Plu- 
tarch, in Caef. p.'JZ'J. Add. Dio, 41,3.; 
j^pp'ian. 2, 248.; Lucan. ., 267, &c. 
When Caefar was informed of what 
had paffed, he immediately difpatched 
his cohorts before, and to avoid fuf- 
picion, fpent the day himfelf in public, 
attended a fhow of gladiators, and 
flipped as ufual with his friends. Af- 
ter fun-fet he rofe from the table, and 
fet out privately with a few attendants. 
Having travelled all night, he in the 
moming overtook his cohorts at the 
rivci Rubicon, the boundary of his 
province. Here he flopped a little, 
mufmg on the greatnefs of his cnter- 
prife, {reputans quantum moliretun) ; 
then turning to thofe who were next 
him, *' Still, fays he, we may go back, 
but if we pafs this little bridge, every 
thii^ muil be done by arms," f omnia 
arwls agenda erunt)y Suet. 31 f. Upon 
which he quickly croffed the river, fay- 
ing. *' The die is call," {alea jacta 
EST J, Suet. ib. Hic-) a'lty hie, pactniy te- 
nter at aque jura relinquOi Te, Fortuna fe~ 
guory &c. l.ucan. i, 225.) His troops 
readily followed him. He fpeedily 
led them to Ariminum, and took pof- 
feflion of the place without refiilance, 
6uet. 31, & 32. Plutarch, in Caef. 
727.; Jppian. 2, 249.; Lucan. 2, 
231. ; Flor. 2, 19. Lucan represents 
the Rubicon as fwelled by the winter 

1 C A E 

rains, and fays, that Caefar and his 
troops waded it with difficulty, the 
horfe entering fir ft, and oppofmg the 
rapidity of the current till the foot 
paffed, I, 217, &c. A prodigy is al- 
fo faid to have appeared to Caefar 
while he hefitatcd on the banks, which 
encouraged him to pafs, Suet. 32. Lu- 
can makes the image of Rome to ap- 
pear to Caefar, and addrefs a fpeech 
to him, I, 186. 

Caefar takes no notice of his paf- 
fing the Rubicon, but only mentions 

,^al at Aril 

B. C. T, 8. 

Here he met with Curio, and the tri- 
bunes. Having fummoned his troops 
to an aflembly, he brought forth the 
tribunes in the fame fervile habit in 
which they had fled from Rome ; aed. 
after Curio had given an affecting ac- 
count of all that had happened, Cae- 
far, with marks of the gieateft emo- 
tion, (Jlens, ac vefie a peBore dfc'i/fdj^ 
implored the proteAion of his foldiers. 
Suet. 33. ; Dio. 41, 4. ; Lucan. l, 
272, &c. Caefar takes no notice of 
this, but mentions his having made a 
fpeech to his foldiers at Ravenna, in 
which, after recounting the injuries he 
had fuffered, he conjured them to de- 
fend his reputation and dignity againft 
the malice of his enemies, B. C. i, n. 
From Ariminum Caefar fent orders to 
his army in Gaul to follow him with the 
utmoil expedition. But while he made 
the moil vigorous preparations for war» 
he profelTed the ftrongeft defire of an 
accommodation. Accordingly various 
overtures for peace were made on both 
fides, but without effed, Caef. ib.', Cic, 
Ait. 7, 14, & 15. ; f/ 8, 9. Fatn. 16, 
1 2. Though Caefar had the belt dif- 
ciplined army, yet his enemies were 
greatly fuperior to him in refources, 
particularly as they were m afters of the 
fea, Cic. Att. 10, 8. whence Cicero 
ufually fpeaks of Caefar's attempt as 
a kind of madnefs, {^cum amentia qua- 
dam raperetur).^ and did not imagine 
he would venture on fo defperate an 
enterprife, Cic. Fam. l6, 12. Pom- 
p.y not havi.g an army fulTicient to 
oppofe Caefar, till he fliould collect 


C A E [ f 4 

his forces from the different parts of 
the empire, feems originally to have 
formed the refolution of reh'nquifhing 
Italy; but imprudently concealed that 
deiign from his friends, Clc. ^4tt, 8, 


The news of Caefar's approach fill- 
ed Rome and all Italy with the great- 
eft conllernation. Many prodigies, as 
ufual, were reported. The fame ca- 
lamities were apprehended as happen- 
ed under Marius and Sulla, Cacf. ih. 
fy 14 ; Jppian. 2, 449. ; Dlo, 49, 5.; 
JLucan^ I, 466, — ad Jin, et 2, I, — 234.; 
Pompey iled from Rome to Capua, 
Id. 2, 392. declaring-, that he iliould 
confjder as enemies all thofe v.ho did 
not follow him, {^qui Komae remanif- 
fet}t, Caef. ib. c. 33. ^d re'ipublirae de- 
fuiffent. Suet. 7^.) which he is faid to 
bave done by the advice of Domitius, 
Suet. Ner. 2.; whereas Caefa'- declared, 
that he ihould eittem all thofe who re- 
mained neuter, [medios 

et iieutrius par- 
tis]j as his friends, Suet. 75. Cic. Lig, 
II. The coniuls, and moft of the .0- 
th<?r magillratt's and fenators, followed 
Poaipey, Cdc/l lb. 14.; 2)iof 41, 6. 
^c 9.; Ci^. i^<7?w. 16, 12. Appian 
fays that Pompey was urged by tfie 
confulg to leave the city, ib. 450. They 
dcpai-ted in fuch a huny, that they 
ueglefiied to tdie with them the mo- 
ney from the treafury, Ca^f. ib. ; Dioy 
41,6-; Cic. Att. 6, 7. The o-nly per- 
fon of note in Caefar's army that join- 
ed Pompey, was Labienus, Dio, 41, 
4. ; Cic. Att. 7, II, & 12. Caefar's 
chief lieutemip^t, jaiid then command- 
er of Cifalpine Gaul, Catf. B. G. 
8, 52. 

Caefar rcmuined for fonie time .Jtt 

■J C A E 

Domitius intended to make his e- 
fcape ; but his troops prevented him, 
and delivered him up to Caefar, who 
difmifled him in fafety, and reftorecj 
to him a great fum of money, ( fcfter^ 
tium ftxagies, fix milhons of fefterces), 
Avhich Domitius had depofited in the 
town. Caelar trea^ed with the fame 
lenity Lentiilus, the conful, and ma- 
ny other perfons of rank who fell into 
his power. He joined the foldlers of 
Domitius to his own, adminifiering to 
them the ufual military oath ; and in- 
ilantly m.arched from Corfinium to A- 
pulia, Caef. B. C, I, 23.; Dio, 41, 
II.; Liican. 2, 477. The news of 
Caefar's clem.ency to Domitius and 
the other captives, raifed the fpirits 
of fuch as remained in the city, and 
made many of thofe who had fied re» 
turn to their habitations, Plutarch. 

Pompey being informed of this dif- 
after, retreated to Brundufium, where 
Caefar endeavoured to block him up, 
Caef. B. C. I, 24, &c. But Pompey 
made his efcape, {^per obftfji claii/ira par- 
tus, noBurnd fu;jd eimfit, Flor. 4, 2.) 
on the 15th March, {Idib. Mart.) 
with all the forces he could carry 
with him, Cic. Att. 9, 14.; and failed 
to Dyracchium, Dio,, 41, 14. Several 
prodigies are faid to have been fecn by 
him in his paifage, ib. 

Thus Caefar, with very little blood- 
shed, in fixty days, made himfeif 
ter of «11 Italy, Plutarch. ; whence Ci- 
6 ccJeritaiem incre-. 
; and fpeaking of 

cero juiliy exclaims, 

dililem ! Att. 7, 2 2. 

the rapidity of liis progrels, he lays. 

Ilium luere imutianU ib. 7, 20. 

Caefar, unable to puifue Pompey 

for want of fhippiag, feat Valerius, 

Ariminum till he was joined ;by his liis lieuteaant, to take poiTeffion of 

Sardinia with one legion, and Curio 

He quickly 
15. and trien 

troops, Id, B, C. 1 
"Overran all PiGenirm, 
Jaid fiege to Corfinium, the chief town 
.of the Pehgoi ; where Domitius, who 
iiad been ap]>ointed his fucceffor by 
ttlie Xonate, had ftiut himfeU up with 
ithirty cohorts, or three legions ; e%- 
:pt-Pz\\ ■■: that Pompey would come to 
iis affiftance. But Caefar forced tlie 
ipiace to lun-jender m ifevaa d^irs. 

to Sicily with three, Caef. ib. 29, — 31. 
Catfar having diftributed his troops 
among the •ncarell towns, fet out for 
Rome. In liis progrels through Italy 
.he v\-as met by crowds from the differ- 
ent towns^ Cic, Ait. 8,. 1 6. Lucaa 
fays the contrary, 3, 8c. Notwith- 
ilanding the favourabie reports of his 
cloneiity* his :srriii^.l ia CLenie occa- 

f oned 

C A E [ 

iioned confiderable terror, Dw^ 41, 
1 6. ( Urbem Attonitam ttrrore fubit ; — 
fuit haec menfura ttmorts, Velle put ant, 
quodcunque potejly) Lucan. 3, 98, &c. 
But Caefar foon difpelled it, At)pian, 
2, 453. He aflembled fuch of the 
fenators as were in the city, ai d made 
a long fpeech to them, juftifying \m 
conduv5t, CaeC. B. C. i, ^2. Dio fays, 
that the fenate , was affembled by An- 
tony and Caflius, the -tribunes; who 
had a few months before been expelled 
from it, 41, 15. by Lentulus, the 
conful, Plutarch. Anton, p. 918. Lucan 
fays, that the fenate met in the temple 

65 i C A E 

fake of a Gallic war, whence it was 
called Aerarium Sanctum, Fhr, 
4, 2. ; but Caefar fald that he had re- 
moved that fcruple by conquerinir the 
Gauls, Appian. 2, 453. H<" is faid to 
have taken out 2j,ooo bars of gold, 
{lateres aurei), 35,000 bars of filver, 
and 40,000,000 federces in coined mo- 
ney, {in numerato, H. S. 'C'A-. i. €. 
qnadrlngentin), Plin. 33, 3 f. 17. 

Caefar does not* mention his break- 
ing open the treafury, but only that 
Metellus had been inftigated by his 
adverfaries to oppofe his meafures ; and 
that therefore he left the city witliout 

of Apollo, without being legally fum- effeAing what he intended, and march- 

moned, {nullo cogendi jure fenatus), 3 
103. There were no curule magif 
trates prefent, [omnia Caefar erat,) ib. 
108. Caefar regulated every thing as 
he thought propt^r. He reftored the 
children of thofe profcribed by Sulla 
to their former rights, Z)/'(?, 41, 18.; 
Suet, ^i.; Fell. 2, 43. He made a 
propofal that ambafladors fhould be 
fent to Pompey concerning peace ; 
but no one chofe to undertake that 
office, whether from a fear of Pom- 
pey, whom they had deferted, Caef. 
ib. 34. or from a fufpicion that Caefar 
was not fincerely defirous of peace, 
Plutarch, p. 735. Dio fays, that cer- 
tain perfons were chofen, but did not 
go, 41, 16. 

Caefar next went to take pofTeffion 
©f the treafure, which, by a ftrange 
overiight, Pompey had left. When 
he came to the temple of Saturn 
wliere the public treafure was kept, 
Metellus, one of the tribunes, attemp- 
ted to hinder him from entering ; but 
Caefar having threatened to kill him, 
he was forced to defift. The confuls 
had carried off the keys, and therefore 
the gates were broken open, Dio, 41, 
17.; Lucan. 7^, 114, 169.; [quia tar- 
dius aper'iehant trihuni, i. e. Metellus, 

ed into Gaul, Caef. ib. 33. f. He had 
propofed to make a fpeech to the 
people before his departure ; but per- 
ceiving that they were offended at his 
feizing the public treafure, he did not 
venture on it, and went away much 
difcompofed, [vehementer animit pertur- 
bato profedus), Cic. Att. 10, 4. 

Caefar having left the command of 
Italy to Antony, advanced again ft A* 
franius, Petreius, and Varro, the lieu- 
tenants of Pompey in Spain. He faid, 
" that he was going againft an army 
without a general, and then would re- 
turn againft a f«;eneral without an af- 
my," Suet. 34. Every town by the way 
opened its gates to him except Maf- 
feilles, which he immediately attack- 
ed ; but perceiving that it could not 
be foon reduced, after having ftaid 
for fome time before it, he fet cut for 
Spain ; leaving the charge of conduc- 
ting the fiege by land to Trebonius, 
his lieutenant ; and the command of a 
fleet, which he had quickly built, to 
D. Brutus, Caef B. C. i, 36. 

Caelar encountered great difficulties 
in his expedition againft Petreius and 
Afranius, and his army was expofed 
to the utmoft danger near Ilerda, by 
the overflowing of the river Sicoris ; 

jujjit effringi, fc. Caefar), Flur* 4, 2, but he e^itricated himfelf by wonder- 
21. ful ability and good fortune ; obliged 

Petreius and Afranius to retreat to- 
wards Celtiberia, and having overta- 
ken them on their march, by fuperior 

This treafure had long remained un- 
touched, Liv. 27, 10. and execrations 
were denounced againft any one who 
fhould meddle with it, unlefs for the generalfliip, 

at laft 

forced them to 

C A E 

[ 66 

{urrender with their whole army, con- 
fifting of five legions, befides auxilia^ 
ries, (Livy fays, feven legions, Ep'it, 
no.), on his own terms, " that they 
fhould difband their forces, and quit 
Spain." Caef. B. C. l, 7,'].— ad Jin, 
Soon after, Varro, who commanded 
two legions, being deferted by his 
men, was forced to fubmit, ih. 2, 20. 
Caefar, leaving Q^Caffius to command 
in Spain with four legions, returned 
to Marfeilles ; which, after a long and 
brave refiftance, was at lail obliged to 
furrender, ib. 22. ; Fell. 2, 50. ; Dlo, 
41, 19, & 25, 

Caefar, though greatly provoked at 
the people of Marfeilles, ( Maffd'icnfihus 
irat'ifjtmus), yet on account of the anti- 
quity and renown of the place, treat- 
ed them with gentlenefs, Caef. ih. 
C'lc. Phil. 8, 6. Dio fays, that he 
took from them every thing except li- 
berty, 41, 25. ; which they valued a- 
bove all things, i^quam potiorem omnibus 
habebant)^ Flor. 4, 2, 27. 

Caefar, having left two legions as a 
garrifon at Marfeilles, fet out for 
Kome, CaeJ. B. C. 2, 22 / In his 
■way thither fome of his foldiers muti- 
nied at Placentia, particularly the 
ninth legion ; but he fo moved them 
by a fpeech, particularly by calling 
them in the end of it Citizens, in- 
ilead of Fellow-Soldiers, [Difcedite 
cafris ; Tradite pojlra viris ignavi frgna 
QyiRiTES, Lucan. 5, 357-) that with 
tears they entreated his forgivenefs, 
which with difficulty they obtained. 
He however fekcted 120 of the ring- 
leaders, and having made them call 
lots, he caufed every tenth man to be 
beheaded, (decimabat) ; but it was 
found that one of thefe twelve had 
been abfent in the time of the mutiny. 
Caefar therefore ordered the centurion 
who had accufed him to be put to death 
in his ftead, Jppian. 2, p. 457. Dio 
fays, that the reft of the foldiers -^^'erc 
all difbanded ; but afterwards, having 
given proofs of their penitence, they 
were reftored, 41, 35, f. So Sueto- 
pius, Ciisf. 69, who fays, that it was 
t-he ioldiers pf the tent^h legion whom 

3 C A E 

Caefar reclaimed from a mutiny at 
Rome during the African war, by 
calKng them Qui rites inftead of Mi- 
LiTES, ib. 70. 

Caefar, before he left Marfeilles, 
was informed, that he had been made 
didator in his abfence, by Lepidus, the 
praetor, at Rome, B. C. 2, 21. Dio 
fays, that Lepidus advifed the people 
to create Caefar dictator, 41, 36.; but 
Dio afterwards fays, that Caefar was 
chofen dictator by Lepidus hinifelf, 
43, J. Appian fays, that the people 
in a great' fright elected him dictator ^ 
of themfelves, without either a decree ,■ 
of the fenate, or the fuperintendance ■ 
of a magiftrate, B. C. 2, 457. Lucan 
fays, that Caefar afluraed the office of 
di£tator at the requeft of the people, 
5, 382. Plutarch fays, that he was 
created by the fenate, in Caef. p. 725. 
It is certain that he was created in 
an uiiufual manner. 

Caefar, as didator, prefided at the 
Comitia for the election of magistrates. 
He himfelf, and P. Servilius Ifauri- 
cus were made confuls for the next • 
year, a, u. 705, (al. 706). Having 
made feveral regulations for the go- 
vernment of the ftate, ( Fid. R. A. Le- 
ges JuLiAt), he refigned the dicta- 
torfhip in eleven days, Caef. B. C. 3, I, 
& 2. Plutarch, et rlppian. ibid, and fet 
out to join his army at Brundufium, 
where he had ordered twelve legions 
and all the cavalry to affemble ; but he 
fcarcely found ihips fufficient to tranf- 
port 2c,QOO legionary foldiers, and 
600 horfe, Caef ib. With thefe he 
fet fail on the 4th of January, and 
next day landed at Pharsalus, a fmall 
place near Qricum ; which town he 
got poffeflion of the fame day, ib. c. 8. 
and foon after alfo of Apollonia, ih^ 

Caefar having landed his troops, fent, 
the fleet back the fame night to Brun-j 
dufiuni, to bring over the reft of his 
legions and cavahy, ib, c. 8. But as 
they were long of coming, Caefar dif- 
guiling himfeif, fet out in a fifl^ing- 
boat to bring them more fpeedily ; but 
a t^mpeft having arifen, the pilot re^ 


C A E [ 

fufed to proceed farther. Upon which 
Caefar difcovered himfelf, faying, 
** Be not afraid, you carry Caefar," 
Z)/o, 41, 46.; Plutarch. Caef, 726.; 
Apophthegm, p. 2q6. \ Suet.^S.; Appian. 

Civ. h. 2, 463, 522, &C. (Q^UID TI- 
MES ? Caesarem vehis, Flor. a^, 2.) 
But after many fruitlefs efforts he was 
at laft forced to fail back. His foldiers 
expreficd the utmoft joy at his return, 
ih. Caefar takes no notice of this 
bold adventure ; but that he wrote 
fharply to Antony and Calenus, his 
lieutenants at Brundufium, to lofe no 
time in endeavouring to join him. 
They quickly fet fail, and next day 
landed in Epire, to the great joy of 
Caefar, having narrowly efcaped the 
enemy's fleet, Caef. ih. 25, & 26. 

Caefar foon after forced Pompey, 
with an army much more numerous 
than his own, to fliut himfelf up in 
Dyrrachium ; and furrounded him with 
works of an amazing extent, CaeJ. ib. 
c. 43. — 47. Here many fharp conflidls 
took place, generally to the advantage 
of Caefar. At laft Pompey made a 
general fally, and broke through Cae- 
far*s lines, after making a great jQaugh- 
ter of his troops, ih. c. 52, — 72. 

Caefar led his army from thence to 
Theffaly, whither Pompey had the 
imprudence to follow him, and was 
completely defeated in the plains of 
Pharfalia. Vid. Pom pejus. 

The army of Pompey was much 
more numerous than that of Caefar. 
The army of Pompey was above 45,000 
men, and that of Caefar 22,000, Caef. 
-^. C. 3, 88, &: 89. Appian fays, that 
Caefar had only 22,000 foot and 1000 
horfe, but that Pompey had more than 
double, and of thefe 7000 were caval- 
ry. The nurrber of Italians on both 
fides are faid to have amounted to 
70,000, at lead to 60,000. Some 
made them 400,000, Appian. B. C. 2. 
^. 47 I. So Flo r us, T recent a amplius mil' 
lia hinc vel iliinCf praster auxilia regum et 
Sociorunii 4, 2. Caefar had auxiliaries 
both of horfe and foot from the different 
ftates of Gaul, and light-armed foldiers 
from feverai parts of Greece, Appian, 

67 1 C A E 

ih.p.^^2,; Lucan.if ^g6, — 465. The 
auxiliaries of Pompty were coUecfted 
from the various nations of the eaft, 
which are enumerated at great length, 
Appian. ib. ; Caef. .5. C. 3, 3, 4, & 5. j 
Lucan. 3, 169, — 295. The affemblage 
of fo many nations, as Lucan obferves> 
enabled Caefar to fubdue the world at 
once, [Acciperet felix ne non femel omnia 
Caefar., Vinccndum pariter Pharfalia 
praejlitit orbem)^ ib. 296. The troops 
from the conquered countries are faid 
to have fought with particular alacrity 
and vigour, that they might reduce the 
Romans to the fame fervitude to which 
the Romans had reduced them, Dioy 
41, 59/ As thefe foreign foldiers 
contributed \o eftablifh tyranny, fo 
they afterwards ferved to perpetuate it. 
Suet, et Tacit, pajjtm, Pompey did not 
allow his men to run to the charge 
with a fhout, as ufual, but ordered 
them to receive the attack of Caefar 
without changing their ground, which 
Caefar difapproves of, Caef. B. C. 3, 

Pompey depended chiefly on his ca- 
valry ; but Caefar fruftrated this hope 
by one of thofe contrivances which 
marked the fuperiority of his genius- 
Knowing that Pompey's horfemen 
were in a great meafure compofed of 
young men of rank, who were fond of 
their looks, Caefar felefhcd fix cohorts 
of his bravefl foldiers, Caef. B. C. 3, 
89, 5c 93. confilling of 3000 men, Ap- 
pian. ib. to oppofe them. Thefe he 
direded to aim their fpears at the ene- 
my's faces, ib. and during the fight 
rode up and down, calling out, Fa- 

CIEM FERI, MILES, FIcr. 4, 2, 47. 

which had the delired effect. Pom- 
pey 's cavalry, flruck with the dteadful 
wounds they received in their faces, 
took to flight, and drew the foot after 
them, Appian. ib. ; Plutarch. Caef 657. 
Caefar takes no notice of this flrata- 
gem, though he afcribes his vidory 
chiefly to thefe fix cohorts, ih. 94. 
Lucan makes Caefav's order to aim at 
the faces of the cavalry a general order 
to the whole army, 7, 322. In the 
purfuit Caefar charged his foldiers to 
I z fpar<'. 

C A E 

I 68 1 

C A E 

fpare citizens, Flor,ib. 50. [C1*j}s, qui 

fugfrit^ ejlo., Lucan. 7, 3 1 9.), and to 
daughter the auxiliaries, Appian.p, 4'~8. 
Thofe fenators and Equites whom he 
had formerly taken and difmiffed, he 
ordered to be put to death, except 
filch as were preferved by his friends, 
each of whom he permitted to fave the 
life of one of the adverfe party, Dioj 
41, 62 ; Suet. 7 J. Caefar, viewing 
thofe who were flain on the field of 
battle, is reported to have faid, " They 
would have it fo, {^hoc vo/uerunt) ; I 
Caius Caefar, after having performed 
fo great exploits, (hould have been con- 
demned, had I not aflced afliftance from 
my army," Suet. 30. 

After the viftory Caeiar immediate- 
ly attacked Pompey's camp, and took 
it. Here he found tables covered, 
plate difplayed, and other preparations 
for a feaft; fo that Pompey^s men feem- 
ed to have been confident of fuccefs, 
and not to have in the lead apprehend- 
ed an adverfe ilTue of the batile, Caef, 
ib. 96. The infatuation of Pompey is 
furprifing, in not having taken proper 
precautions againft a defeat ; and his 
flight to Egypt ftill more fo, when he 
had fo great refources ftill left in diffe- 
rent parts of the empire, by which he 
might have retrieved his aiTairs. Caefar 
burnt all the letters he found in the cof- 
fers of Pompey without reading them; 
for which he is juflly praifed, Dio<, 41, 
6^. ; Senec, Ir. 2, 24. ; PJ'm. 7, 25. 

Caefar next day forced a great num- 
ber of men to furrender, who had ta- 
ken refuge in a neighbouring moun- 
tain, ih. 98. The fmallnefs of Caefar's 
lofs in this battle is aftoniOiing, only 
30 centurions and 200 legionary fol- 
diers, ih. Some made the nu.iber of 
men 1200, App'tan. lb. 479. Of Pom- 
pey's army 15,000 were flain, and 
24,000 taken prifoners, ib, 99. Ap- 
pian fays, that on Pompey's fide there 
fell 25,000 Italians, lo fenators, among 
ivhom was Domitius, the fuccelfpr 
elect of Caefar, and 40 Equites ; but 
ados, that Afinius PoUio, one of Cae- 
far's generals, makes Pompey's flain 
amount only to 6000. The number 

of auxiliaries that fell was fo great that 
they could not be reckoned, App'tan, 
ib. 479. 

Caefar, immediately after his vi6lory, 
fet out in purfuit of Pompey, to prevent 
him from renewing the war, Caef.ib, 102. 
While crofling the Hellefpont in a t.*r- 
ry-boat, he fell in with one of P im- 
pey's fleets, confifting of ten galleys, 
(Appian fays 70, ib.^'^'i,.)^ under the 
command of L. Caffius ; but was fo far 
from flying, that going up clofe to 
Caflius, he exhorted him to furrender, 
and upon his compliance, took him in- 
to the boat to him, (fupplicem ad fe rC' 
cepit)y Suet. 63. Appian fays, that 
Caflius, ftruck with Caefar's wonderful 
fuccefs, and thinking that he was co- 
ming againll him, ftretched out his 
hands to aflc forgivenefs, and furren- 
dered his fleet, ib. So Dio, 42, 6. 

Caefar reached Egypt foon after the 
murder of Pompey, with a very fmall 
force, only twelve Rhodian gallies and 
a few from Afia, having on board no 
more than 3200 foot and 800 horfe ; 
but, trufliing to the fame of his ex- 
ploits, he thought that in any place 
he fliould be fafe, CaeJ. ib. c. 106. Up- 
on his arrival at Alexandria, perceiving 
a tumult on fliore, occafioned by the 
news of the death of Po. ipey, (an e- 
vent yet unknown to Caefar, Lucan. 9, 
1015. ; Caef. B. C. 3, 106.), he did 
not land immediately, [dubiis vent,.s fe 
credere regmsy Ab/linuit tellure ratesy Lu- 
can. 9, 1009.), but waited till Ptolemy 
returned from Pelufmm, and fent to 
him the head of Pompey with his ring, 
Dioy 42, 7. Caeiar, fliocked at the 
fight, ihed tears ; and, cxprefiing the 
utmoft difpkafure againft the murder- 
ers, ordered it to be iumptuoufly bu- . 
ried, ib. 8. ; Plutarch. p. 662. ; Appian, 
2,481.; Fal. Max. 5,1. Dio obferves, 
that this grief of Caefat was all pre- 
tended, ib. So Lucan, i^lacrymas non 
fponte cadentes Effudity gemitufque expref- 
fit pect'jre laeto), 9,. 1038, Sec. Thus 
Ptolemy was difappointed in his hopes, 
«'of gaining the friendfliip of Caefar by 
his deteilable preient, (foedus amicitiae 
cum Ca^are fanciendi, muito Pompeii ca* 

C A E C 69 ] C A E 

i. c. mediante, conjungente Ulud far's afTuming the right of determining 


foedus)* Flor. 4, 2. and Pothlnus the 
eunuch, the governor of the young 
king, and regent of the kingdom, (««- 
trilius puerty et procurator regniy Caef. 
B.C. 3, 112.), who had adviled the 
deed, and brought the prefent, inftead 
of receiving his expected rew^ard, was 
treated with deferved contempt and 
abhorrence, Plutarch. 730. ; Lucan. 9, 
1064, &c. 

Caefar now landed at Alexandria, 
with hi J lidlors walking before him, as 
being conful ; which the Egyptians 
thinking derogatory to the authority 
of their king, raifed fuch diilurbance, 
that Caefar, to avoid being infulted, 
made his way to the palace as fad as 
he could, Dio, 42, 7. ; Lucan. 10, 9, 
&c. Caefar takes no notice of the 
head of Pompey being fent to him ; 
but only fays, that at Alexandria he 
heard of his death, B. C. 3, 106. — The 
tumults amoug the Egyptians ftill con- 
tinued, and fevtrral of Cacfar's fol- 
ditrs were flain in different parts of the 
city, ib. on which account he fent 
for other legions from Afia, ib. 107. 
and in the mean time, to conceal his 
apprehenfion of danger till more forces 
(hould arrive, he amufed himlelf in,vi- 
fiting different parts of the city, and 
in hearing the philofophevs, Apptan. 2, 
483.; Lucan. 10, 14, 194, &c. Ac- 
cording to Dio, Caefar, thinking that 
nothing hoflile now remained after the 
deftrudtion of Pompey, fpent his time 
in collecting money and fettling the 
■ diff'-rcnces between Ptolemy and his 
fitter Cleopatra, D'lo^ 42, 9. l^Vid. 
Ptolema^us.) Ptolemy Auletes, 
the prefent king's father, owed Caefar 
no lefs than l'] ^^00,000 drachmae^ (Jep- 
imgentiesy H. S.'). Caefar had former- 
ly remitted to his children all above ten 
millions, [quadr'ingeni'ies H. S.), which 
he then dem.anded to maintain his ar- 
- my. Pothinus, the eunuch, remon- 
ftrated againft the payment of fo great 
a fum ; and the methods he took to 
raife it were calculated to excite ge- 
neral difcontent, Plutarch, ib. But 
what gave particular oifeiice was Cae- 

the difference between Ptolemy and 
Cleopatra concerning the pofTefTion of 
the crown, Caef. ib. 8. This diffatif- 
fadion was encreafed by Caefar*s par- 
tiality to Cleopatra, who, to get ac- 
cefs to Caefar without being difcover- 
ed, landed one evening from a fmall 
boat near the palace, and having cau- 
fed herfelf to be wrapped up m a co- 
verlet at her full length, was carried 
on the back of one of her attendants 
to Caefar's apartment. Caefar was 
pleafed with the ingenuity of the con- 
trivance, and Cleopatra, by her beauty 
and addrefs, foon gained his afFedions, 
( l^ultus ade/?Jfrecibus), Lucan. 10, 1 05.; 
13io, 42, 35. {^Aderat pudlae forma)^ 
Flor. 4, 2. Next morning young Pto- 
lemy, when he unexpededly faw his 
filter with Caefar, was tranfported with 
rage ; and running out to the people, 
cried that he was betrayed, and tear- 
ing the crown from his head, call it 
on the ground. This having caufed a 
great tumult, Caefar's foldiers fecured 
the king's perfon ; upon which the E- 
gyptians v/ere fo much provoked, that 
they would have inilantly ftormed the 
palace, as the Romans, who lived on 
a fiievidly footing with them, were not 
pi-epared for defence, had not Caefar, 
being greatly alarmed, come forth to 
them, and Handing in a lafe place, pro- 
mifed that he would do whatever they 
wilhed. Then having called an alTem- 
bly, and brought forth Ptolemy and 
Cleopatra, he read over their father's 
teilament, which ordained, that they 
fliould marry each other, according to 
the cuftom of the country, and reign 
jointly under the proteclion of the Ro- 
man people. For which reafon, Caefar 
added, it belonged to him, as being 
conful, (Dio fays didator), of the Ro- 
man people, to take upon hirnfelf the 
guardianlhip of the children, and exe- 
cute the father's will ; tht;reforc that 
he gave to the elder Pcolemy and Cleo- 
patra the kingdom of Egypt ; to the 
younger Ptolemy and lirs filler Arfi- 
noe he granted the ifiaiid of Cypi^us, 
which then was polTefied by the Ro- 

C A E 

[ 70 ] 

C A E 

rnang. Thus the tumult was allayed 
for the prefent, D/o, 42, 35. and a feaft 
was kept for the joy of this reconcilia- 
tion, Plutarch, ib. p. 731. [Excepere 
epulae iantarum (raud'ia rermn), Lucan. 
10, 108. of which Lucan gives a long 
delcription, ib, ad v. 3^2. 

In the mean time, Pothinus, appre- 
hending the lofs of his power, and 
perhaps of his life, fent privately to A- 
chillas to bring the army from Pelu- 
ilum to Alexandria, Z/w, 42, 36. Cae- 
far, unable to contend in battle with 
fo great forces, fortified himfelf m a 
part of the palace, (Paribus claufae fe 
protcgit nulae—nec toia vacalat Regia com' 
preffo : minimd colhgp.rut arma parte do- 
miiSf Lucan. 10, 440). and lent two 
Egyptians, Diorcorides and Serapion, 
as ambaffadors to Achillas, in the name 
of Ptolemy, to detire him to refrain 
from holHlities. But Achillas ordered 
them to be feized and put to death, [Sed 
neque jus mundi 'ualuit, neque foeder a fane- 
ta Gentibus, Lucan, ib. 47 1 • ) One 
was killed on the fpot, and the other, 
having received a dangerous wound, 
was carried off for dead by his attend- 
ants, Caef. B. C. 3, 109. ; Dioy 42, 
37. Lucan fpeaks only of one am- 
bafFador, ib, 

Caefar having difcovcred a corre- 
fpondence betwixt Pothinus and A- 
cbillaG, ordered Pothinus to be put to 
death, Cocf.ih. 1 1 2 f . Achillas quick- 
ly made himfclf mailer of Alexandria, 
and endeavoured to break into the pa- 
lace by force ; but was repulfed. He 
rextiittempted to feize the fhips in the 
harbour ; but Caefar,^ to prevent them 
from fallijig into the power of the ene- 
my, fet fire not only to thefe vefTels, 
butalfo to ail that were in the arfenals, 
Caef. ib. III. By this conflagration, 
a part of the famous Alexandrian li- 
brary was confumed conlUting of 
40C,oco volumes, Se:.'ec, Tra.'iqud/, yJru 
9. ; Gell. 6, 17.; Or OS. 6, 15. Marcel- 
linus fays 700,000 volumes, 22, 17. 

The war being thus begun, called 
the Alexandrian war, {Bellum Alex- 
ANDRiNUM,) Catfar fent for rtinfcrce- 
meiUs from all cj^uarters, and ufcd every 

art to defend himfelf againft the attacks 
of the enemy, Hirt, B. Alex. i. nor 
were the Alexandrians lefs attentive 
on their part, ib. 2. Many fierce com- 
bats were fought both by land and fea 
with doubtful fuccefs ; nor was Caefar 
ever in greater danger. At one time 
in defending the bridge which led to 
the ifland Pharos, which he had taken 
pofTefTion of, Hirt. ib, 19. ; Lucan. 10, 
509. being forced by a fudden fally 
of the enemy into a fmall flciff, (in 
fcapham. Suet. 64. Hirtius fays-, into his 
own galley, iri fuum navigiumferccepit, ib. 
2 1.) and many hurrying on board along 
with him, perceiving that the f]-:ifF mufl 
fmk, (as it aftually did), he jumped into 
the fea, and faved himfelf by fwiinming 
for 200 paces to the nearcft fhip, raifing 
his left hand, that fome papers which 
he held in it might not be wetted, and 
drawing after him his military robe in 
his teeth, that the enemy might not 
become mafler of his fpoils, Suet. Caef. 
64. Plirtius takes no notice of the 
two lad circumflances, f. 21. Appian 
fays that the enemy got pofTeffion of 
his cloak, B. C. 2, p, 484. So Dio^ 
42, 40. and Florus, 4, 2, 59. Plutarch 
fpeaks of Caefar's faving his papers, 
but fays nothing of his cloak, /;. 731. 
80 Or of as y 6, I J. Julius Celfus agrees 
v\'ith Suetonius, p, 218. Lucan, who 
alludes to this facl in the end <c-i his 
poem, ic, 534. fuppofes Caefar to have 
been prompted to attempt his efcapc 
in the manner he did, by reflecting on 
the wonderful braveiy of Scaeva, ih, 
544. one of his own centurions at Dy- 
racchium, Id, 6, 138, — 263. 

Arihioe, the filler of Ptolemy, made 
her efcape from the palace by the con- 
trivance of Ganymedes an eunuch, her 
governor, and joined Achillas. But a 
difference having arii'en between them, 
Arfmoe caufed Achillas to be put to 
death, and gave the com.mand of the 
army to Ganymedes, Caef. B. C. 3, 
112.; Hirt. B. A. 4. ; Z//0, 42, 39, & 
40. ; Lucan. 10, 520, 2cc. This tiap- 
pened foon after the com.mencement of 
hoflilities. Dio fays, that Caefar, a- 
fraid left Pothinus fliould alfo carry off 


C A E [7] 

Ptolemy by artifice, ordered him to be 
put to death, ib. 39. But other au- 
thors relate that Pothinus was put to 
death before, and for a different rea- 
fon, Caef. B.C. 3, 112 f. Plutarch 
fays that Caefar ordered Pothinus to 
be killed at a feaft ; and that Achillas 
efcaptrd to the army, and raifed a dan- 
gerous war againft Caefar, p. 731. 
Lucan mentions the death of Achillas 
immediately after that of Pothinus, as 
a fecond vidlim to the manes of Pom- 
pey, ( Altera^ MagnCf tuis jam vld'ima 
m'ltt'itur umhris ) , 10,524. 

The war was conduced with no lefs 
vigour by Ganymedes than it had been 
by Achillas. The Alexandrians, pre- 
tending to be tired of the war, fent 
ambaff.dors to Caefar to treat about 
peace, and to beg the releafe of their 
king. But having obtained their re- 
queil, they profecuted the war with 
unabated fiercenefs. Caefar having 
obtained fupplies, and being joined by 
Mithndfites of Pcrgamus, with a great 
body of forces, routed the Egyptians, 
took their camp, and thus put an end 
to the war. Ptolemy was drowned in 
his flight over the Nile, H'trt. ih. 23, — 
32.; Bio, 42, 42, & 43. Nine months 
were fpent in this conteft, ylppian. B. 
C, 2. /. 4S4. wriich was thought to 
have been undertaken chiefly on ac- 
coimt of Cleopatra. For this reafon 
Cicero fays, that Caefiir, confcious of 
his imprudence, was afaamed to write 
about it, ^if. ii, 15. and in fad he 
did not fo much as fend a letter to 
Rome concerning his affairs from De- 
cember to June. 

Caefar gave the kingdom of Egypt 
to Cleopatra j but, to fave appearan- 
ces, he joined with her in the govern- 
ment her younger brother Ptolemy, 
then a boy, and ordered that fhe fhould 
marry him, accordiug to the cuflom of 
the Egyptians, Dioj ib, 44. He re- 
moved Arfmoe out of the kingdom, 
Hlri. ib. 33. and aftervi'ards caufed her 
to be led among the captives in his 
triumph, D'lo, 43, 19. ; Flcr, 4, 2, 88. 

Caefar made a progrefs through E- 
gypt with Cleopatra, along the Nile, 


C A E 

in a large pleafure boat, [eadeni nave 
thalainego). Suet. 52. attended by 400 
fhips, Appian. ib. He would have ad- 
vanced as far Aethiopia, but his army 
refufed to follow him, Suet, ih. He 
was fo attached to Cleopatra, that flie 
would have detained him ;ftill long- 
er in Egypt, or have accompanied 
him to Rome, if he had not been o- 
bHged to march againft Pharnaces^ 
the fon of Mithridates ; who having 
heard of the dangerous fituation of Cac- 
far's affairs in Egypt, and thinking this 
a favourable opportunity for regaining 
his father's dominions, had defeated 
Domitius, one of Caefar s lieutenants, 
feized on Armenia Minor and Cappa- 
docia, and made himfelf mailer of all 

Pontus, Hirt. 34, — 42. But Caefar, 

having come up with him, crufhed him 
fo fpeedily, that giving an account of 
his victory to a friend at Rome, he 
made ufe of only three words, Veni, 
ViDi, Vici, I came, I faw, I con- 
quered, Appian. ib. p. 485. ; Z}/V, ih, 
48.; Plutarch, p. 111. Thefe words 
he afterwards ordered to be infcribed 
on a frame, which was carried before 
him in his Pontic triumph. Suet. 37. 
and ufed frequently to fpeak of the 
good fortune of Pompey, who had 
gained fuch renown by vanqulfhing fo 
feeble an enemy, ib. 35. Appian re- 
lates, that Caefar, feeing the enemy- 
fly fo foon, faid, *' O happy Pompey, 
who hadft to light with fuch men, 
and obtained the firname of Magnus 
the Great, for vanquifhing them," 
ib. But thi.s firname was given to 
Pom.pey by Sulla, Vid. Pompeius. 
Caefar gave the kingdom of Bofpho- 
rus, on the lake Mocotis, v.'hich Phar- 
naces had pofTelTed, to Mithridates, 
to whofe fervices in Egypt he had 
been fo much indebted, Hirt. ib. 78. 

Caefar, having left the fettlement of 
affairs in Afia to Domitius, the gover- 
nor of it, and having exafted large 
fums of money in the countries through 
which he pafTed, fet fail for Italy, 
Z)w, 42, 49. where great difturbances 
had been excited by the mifconduft of 
Antony, and of his other agents, ih, 


C A E [ 

27>— 34> ^ 50. ; Appian, ihid. \ Plu- 
tarch, p. 732. 

Caefar reached Italy in the month 
of September, a. u. 706, much fooner 
than he w^s i^xpefted. Upon his ar- 
rival at Rome he eafily quieted the 
commotions of the city ; but found 
g^reater difficulty in quelling a mutmy 
of his foldiers. Thofe of his favourite 
legion, the tenth, [decimani)y knowing 
that Caefar, on account of the renew- 
al of the war in Africa, needed their 
aflillance, and therefore thinking that 
they Hiould cafily obtain whatever they 
delired, infolently demanded their dis- 
charge, and rewards for their fervice. 
Caefar, contrary to the opinion of all, 
without hefitation faid, " That he dif- 
charged them ;'* and, to their aftonifh- 
ment, added, " That, after having 
triumphed with the reft, he would 
grant them all that he had promifed:** 
concluding with calling them Qui ri- 
tes, Romans, inftead of Milites, 
foldiers. This fo mortified them, that 
they all earneflly entreated to be con- 
tinued in the fervice ; to which re- 
queft Caefar, with apparent reludance, 
at laft confented App'tan, ib. p. 485, 
&c D/o, 42,52,Scc.; Plutarch. p. 732. 
Suetonius fays, that they followed 
Cafar into Africa, though he refufed 
their fervice ; and that notwithflanding 
he puniflied the moft feditious of them 
with the lofs of a third in their fhare of 
the plunder, and of the land defigned 
for them, c. 70. Caefar was blamed 
for not punifhmg them more feverely ; 
becaufc in their tumult they had kill- 
ed Gofconius and Gal ha, men of prae- 
torian rank, Plutarch, ib. and Sallufl, 
the hiftorian, then praetor, whom Cae- 
i^far fent to them with a melfage, nar- 
rowly faved his life by flight, Dio, et 
Jlpp'ian. ibid. 

About the middle of December, 
Caefar fet out for Africa ; where Cato 
a i Scipio had renewed the war, called 
the African war, (Bellum Africa- 
NUM ;) and, by the aflillance of j[uba, 
king of Mauritania, had collected a 
great army, Hirt. B. A. i. Here 
Caefar's ufual good fortune attended 

73 ] C A E 

him. He defeated Scipio and Juba, 
near Thapfus, with preat flaug];tcr; 
upon hearing which Cato, who com- 
manded at Utica, flew himfelf, that he 
might not fall into the hand- of Caefar, 
Z>/9, 43, I, — 14 ; H\rt ib. 8«. Ca<-faf 
is faid to have exprefft*d regret at th^ 
death of Cato, becaufe he had envied 
him the glory of faving his life, Dioy 43, 
12. Caefar pardoned many of 'is ene- 
mies who furrendered to him, Hirt. ib, 
89 but feveral he cauf:^d to be put to 
death, Dioj ib, et c. 13. He reduced 
the kingdom of Juba into the form of a 
province, arvd app >inted Sallufl to go- 
vern it, Appian, ib. The fenate at 
Rome having heard of Caefar^s fuccefs, 
decreed to him extraordinary honours, 
fome of them almoil divine, Dto, 43, 
14. He fet fail from Utica on the 
13th of June, [Idibus Jun.) a. 707; 
and on the third day after landed at 
Caghari in Sardinia, (Caralcs in Sardi' 
mam pervenitf) which ifland Cicero plea- 
fantly calls one of Caefar's farms {^prae- 
dium ;) intimating, that he now was 
as much mafter [dominus) of all the 
countries of the republic, as a proprie- 
tor of an eflate, Fam. 9, 7. Here he 
flaid till near the end of the month, 
Hirt. 98. and being detained by bad 
weather, did not arrive at Rome till 
near the end of July, Hirt. 98. 

Caefar, upon his return, celebrated 
four triumphs, with an interval of a few 
days between each : the firft over Gaul, 
the fecond over Alexandria, the third 
over Pontus, and the fourth over Africa, 
(or, as i)io expreffes it, over the Gauls, 
Egypt, Pharnaces, and Juba, 43, 16.) 
each of them wiih different apparatus 
and furniture, (diverjo apparatu et iri" 
Jiriimento,) Suet. 37. Appian adds, 
that though there could not properly 
be a triumph over Roman citizens, yet 
that reprefentations of the various de- 
feats, and effigies of all the vanquiflied 
leaders, except Pompey, were carried 
along, B. C. 2, 491. Plutarch men- 
tions only three triumphs, p. 733* 
After the Gallic triumph Vereingeto- 
rix and others were put 10 death, DiOf 



C A E [73 

After thefe triumphs Caefar gave 
large donations to his foldlers, and 
largefTes to the citizens. He enter- 
tained the people with feads and fpec- 
tacles. At one of thefe feails there 
were no fewer than 22,000 tables. He 
exhibited a fhew of gladiators and a 
nVLVzl fight in honour of his daughter 
Julia, Plutarch, ib. D'w^ 43, 22. After 
this he made a review of the people ; 
when the number of the citizens is 
faid to have been diminiihed one half by 
the deilru6lion occafioned by the civil 
war, j^ppian. ibid. So that inflead of 
520,000, there were only 150,000, Plu- 
tarch, ib. But this is to be undci flood 
bnly as a review of the poorer fort of 
the common people, who ufed to receive 
:il hionthly gratuity of corn from the 
J)ublic ; the number of whom Caefar 
to one half. Suet. 41, Dio, 
He enafted feveral ufeful 
iaws for the government of the (late. 
He correfted the irregularities in the 
Homan Calendar, and adjufted the 
tomputation of time to the courfe of 
^he fun ; which is ftill called the Ju- 
lian or Solar Year, [Vid. R. A. p. 
I ^29.) ; Z)io, 43, 26. In the mean 
I time Cleopatra came to Rome with her 
s brother or nominal hufband ; to whom 
\ Caefar affigned an apartment m his own 
i houfe, Dio, 43, 27. and fufFcired her to 
j tall a ion flie had Caesario, after his 
I ^wn name, Suet. 52. 

In the end of the year, Caefar fet out 
lor Spain, againft the fons of Pompey 
and Labienus ; whom he defeated near 
: Munda, after one of the molt obllinate 
; battles he ever fought. His foldiers 
I \yere fo preffed that they were forced 
[ to fly ; and it was with the greateft 

43, 21. 

difficulty that he rallied them. He is 
reported to have faid, *' That he had 
often before fought for viftory, but 
then for the hrft time for life," Appian. 
p. C. 2, 493. ; Plutarch, p. 734. He 
IS faid to have been reduced to fuch 
'defpair, that he once had thoughts of 
killing himfclf, Suet. 36. ; Flor. 4, 2, 
82. The vidlory, however, at latt was 
fo complete, that it put an end to the 
war. About 30,000 of the enemy 
w.^re (lain, Plutarch, ib. 

j C A E 

Caefar returned to Rome about the 
end of September, Suet. 76. ; Dio, 43, 
46. or the beginning of Oclober, 
a. 708. ; Fell. 2, 56. He celebrated 
his fifth and laft triumph with greater 
magnificence than had ever been feen, 
Appian. ib. p. 498. It was profeifedly a 
triumph over Spain, but in reality over 
the fons of Pompey, over the nobleft 
famihes of the repubhc, and over the 
liberties of his country. The people 
confidered it in this light ; and inftcad 
of admiring and applauding it, as Caefar 
expeftfcd, were fallen and filent. They 
efteemed it a difmal procefiion, [acerba 
pompa,) and exprelTed the fame difcon- 
tent, as they had done before at the 
Circenfian games, when Caefar's ftatue 
was carried along with the image of 
viaory, Cic. Att. 13, 44, — Caefar 
granted a triumph alfo to Fabius and 
Pedius, his lieutenants ; which occa- 
fioned great ridicule ; becaufe they, 
infiiead of ivory, ufed wooden images, 
Dto^ 43, 42. whence Chrifippus faid 
wittily, " That the images of Fabius 
were the cafes of Caefar's towns,** 
(thecal ejje oppidorum Caefaris^) QuinC- 
til 6, 3, 61. 

The honours which the fenate now- 
conferred on Caefar exceeded all 
bounds. They decreed to him a con- 
tinual confullhip, (Dio fays, for ten 
years, 43, 45.), the didatorihip for life, 
the fuperintendence of the public tt.q- 
rals, the praenomen of Imperator, 
the firname of Father of his Country, 
a fi.atue among the kings, an elevated 
feat in the theatre, a golden feat in the 
fenate -houfe and on the tribunal in the 
forum ; nay even temples, altars, and 
prieits, ias to a divinity. All thefe and 
other empty honours of the fame kiiicL 
Caefar accepted, Suet. 76. ; Dioy 44, 
4. & 5. though it might have been ex-» 
peeled his mind would have difdained 
them. The fenate beftowed on him 
the management of the public treafury, 
and the comn-and of all the forces of 
the empire ; alfo the nomination of all 
the magiftrates, Dloy 43, 45. which 
he afterwards fhared with the people, 
i^cemitia cum populo patiiius */?,) refcr- 


C A E 

C 74 ] 

C A E 

-v?hg to himfelf the choice of the con- 
suls, Suet. 41. 

Caefar, after his vi(5lory In the civil 
war, ufed great clemency to his adver- 
faries. But this, by many, was afcri- 
bed to policy, not to humanity ; whence 
Cicero calls it an injidious clemency, 
Cic. Jtt. 8, 16. 

Caefar's adivity was not diminifhed 
by his wonderful fiiccefs. He made 
various laws for the better reg-ulation 
oF the ftate, {Fid. R. A. Leges Ju- 
LiAF. ) He adminiftered juib'ce with 
grea? labour and ftrictnefs, Suet. 43. 
He fettled about 8c,ooo Roman citi- 
zens in colonies beyond feas. Id. 42. 
Among other places which he afiigned 
to them, were Carthage and Corinth ; 
which cities he ordered to be rebuilt, 
D'tOy 43, 50. He every day formed 
many important plans for adorning and 
improving the city, as alfo for fecuring 
and enlarging the empire, Suet. 44. 
Not fatisfied with his numerous con- 
quefts, he meditated an expedition a- 
gainil the Geiae and Parthians. But 
thtrfe mighty projects were prevented 
by his death, ih. His engrofiing all the 
powers of the ftate, and ruling with 
abfoliitc authority, created general dif- 
guft ; and his defire of afiuming the 
name of King encreafed the popular 
odium. What gave particular offence, 
v-as his receiving, one day, the fenate, 
which waited on" him in a body, with 
very honourable decrees in his favour, 
without deigning to rife, Suet. 78.; Plu- 
tarch, p. 736. At the fame time, 
though Caefar behaved thus haughtily, 
yet trufting to his acls of clemency, 
and perhaps prompted by a defire of 
furpafling Sulla, he difmilted his body- 
guards, and appeared in public attend- 
ed only by his li(fi;ors ; which facilita- 
ted any attempt on his life. A con- 
fpiracy was therefore formed againft 
}:im by more than fixty fenators, the 
chief of whom were Brutus and Caffius. 
H( was ftabbed in the fenate- houfe on 
the Ides of March, a. u. 709, (<?/. 710,) 
with three and twenty wounds. Suet. 82. 
and fell at the foot of Pompey's ftatue, 
Plutarch, p. 73.9. J Ck. Div* 2,9. in 

the 56th year of his age, Suet^9>9,. aftei" 
he had enjoyed the quiet poffeTion of 
the empire only for five months. Veil. 
2, ^6. which verified the prediffcion of 
Cicero, (id regnum vix seme^tre 
ESSE POSSE,) Cic. St, 10, 8. He was 
to have fct out on his Parthian expedi- 
tion four days after, App'ian. B. C 2, 
497. And Cicero, who at firft fo hig;hly 
extolled the a£lion of the confpirators, 
after he found that, by fparing Antony 
and by their mifconduA afterwards, 
the Romans had only changed ma*i:rs 
for the worfe, feems to think th;. t the 
confpirators were too precipitate, and 
that they ouj^ht to have waited rhe 
events of the Parthian war;, from which 
he imagined that Caefar would not 
have returned, (i/Z? ent?n nunquam rever- 
t'l/fet: but fome underlland this paffage 
differently,) C'tt. Att. 15, 4. Nay Ci- 
cero appears even to regret his death, 
(Si haec manent^ ut v'ukmur, if the pre- 
fent (late of public affairs continue j 
me Idus Martiae non deleclant: ^wnianif 
interfccto domino, liberi notifumuf, tion fuit 
dominus ilk [[c.CzQ^m') f'/gicndusy ib. ^V/^- 
lato enim tyranno, tyrannida (i. e. domi- 
nationem Antonii) manere video, ih. 14. 
14. A^a quidem ilia res, (fc. caedes 
Caefaris), animo virili, canfdio puerili: 
quis enim non videt, regni haredem relic- 
turn? fc. Antonium; ib. 21.) 

The opinions of men in that age 
were greatly divided, as they have been 
ever fince, whether Caefar was flain 
juftly or not, [cum ahis pejjlmum, alii^ piiU 
cherrimum facinm videretur, Tacit. Ann. 
1,8.) In general the favourers of a 
popular government, as Cicero, Lucan, 
&c. applaud the aftion, while the fup- 
porters of monarchy, as Virgil and Ho- 
race, Seneca, Dio Caffius, Si.c con- 
demn it. But the fentiments of writers 
are commonly influenced on this fub- 
je6l by the nature of the government 
under which they live. Suetonius, 
however, after enumerating the good 
qualities and aftions of Caefar, declares 
that his bad adions, in a political light, 
preponderate, and that therefore he 
was thought to have abufed his power, 
and to have been ilain juftly, [Praegra- 


C A E [ 

i\7nf tamen caetera faEla diBaque ejus, itt 
et ahuiijs fJowJnatloney et jure caefus ex'tjli- 
metur, c. 76. 

The death of Caefar was followed 
by the moit dreadful fcenes of war and 
maflacre ; fo that in this refjKift at leaft, 
it was a great misfortune to the Ro- 
mans. See Antonius and OcTAvius. 

Juvenal juftly afcribes the fate of all 
the firft 'Triumviri to their inordinate 
ambition ; ^id Crajfos, qukl Pompeios 
evertit, et ilium (fc. Caefarem), Jld 
fua qui domttos deduxit flagra ^uiri- 
tes ? Summus nempe locus nulla non arte 
quaefitus. The poet expreffes the 
meannefs of the fervitude to which Cae- 
far reduced the Romans, by his bring- 
ing them to bear his laHi, [ad fua Jia- 
gra) ; a punifhment which, under the 
republic, it was unlawful to inflid: on 
a Roman citizen, 10, 107. 

Julius Caefar is perhaps on the 
whole the moft diftinguiflied chara'tler 
in hiflory. He ppfTefTed very uncom- 
mon abilities, and was formed to ex- 
cel in peace, as well as in war. Ci- 
cero ranks him ^mong the greateft 
orators, Br. 75. ; Suet, Caef, ^^, His 
orations were admired for two qua- 
lities, not always found together, 
ftrength and elegance, [vis — et mirafer- 
monis, cujus pruprie jludiofus fuit, eiegan- 
iia), Quindil. 10, I, 114. Quindilian 
fays, *' that he fpoke with the fame 
fpirit with which he fought, (eodem 
animo dixiffe, quo bellavlt), and if he 
had devoted himfelf to the bar, (ft fo- 
ro tantum vacdjfet), would have been 
the only man capable of rivalling Cice- 
ro," ib. 

Caefar wrote memoirs or commenta- 
ries of his wars in Gaul, in feven books, 
and of his civil war with Pompey, in 
three books; which are ftill extant. 
The eighth book, concerning the Gal- 
lic war, was written by Hirtius. The 
author of the memoirs of Caeiar^s wars 
in Egypt, Africa, and Spain, is un- 
certain. Some afcribe them to Hir- 
tius, and others to Oppius, Suet. Caef. 
^6.' Cicero beftovvs the higheil praife 

on Caelar's commentaries, Br. 75 

But Pollio Almius thcu^ht that they So Seneca, P7:oe/u 4, 

K 2 

7^ ] ^. ^ ^ . 

were compofed with too lif^^e care, 

and without lufficient regard to truth. 

Suet. ib. Caefar alfo left two books 

on the Analogy of language, ib. or the 
Art of Grammar, ^jin^il. i, 7, 34, [de 
ratione Latine loquendi), Cic. Br. 72 in- 
fcribed to Cicero, Gell 19,8. He is 
faid to have written thisbook duringthe 
Gallic war, in his paflageover the Alps. 
He wrote his anfvver to Cicero's eulo' 
giuin on Cato about the time of the 
battle of Munda ; and while travelling 
from Rome to Farther Spain in his 
laft expedition, he compofed a poem, 
which he called Iter, the Journey. 
There were fooie of Caefar's juvenile 
poems extant in the time of Suetoni- 
us ; alfo feveral of his letters to the 
fenate, to Cicero, and to his familiar 
friends ; and a coUedlion of Apoph- 
thegms, or memorable fayings of emi- 
nent men, (dicta colleSlanea), Suet ib. 
which we learn from Cicero he conti- 
nued to improve in the height of his 
power, Cic. Fam. 9, 16. But Au- 
guftus is faid to have forbidden thefe 
books to be publiflied. Suet. ib. Such 
was the power of Caefar's mind, that 
while reading or writing, lie ufed to 
didate and hear at the fame time. He 
is faid to have didated letters on the 
moft important affairs to four fecreta- 
ries at once ; or if otherwife quite dif- 
engaged, [Ji nihil aliud ageret), to fe- 
ven, Plin. 7, 25. Happy had it been 
for Caefar himfelf, as well as for man- 
kind., if he had employed his wonder- 
ful talents to promote the good of his 
country, and not to enflave it, (Fe- 
lix — ft patriae hojles tantum , non et pa- 
triam incijfet. I. Celf. in Vita Caef. 
p. 246. But the defire of becoming 
Sovereign of Rome, and of the world, 
( Rex populi Romani dominufque omnium 
gaitium ejfe), made him difregard every 
other confideration, Cic. Offic. 3, 21. 
He ufed often to repeat two verles of 
Euripides, which he himfelf thus 
tianflated, Nam ft violancium eft jusy 
regnaridi gratia Fiolandum eji, aliis rebus 
pietatcm colas, Cic. O: . 3, 21. ; Suet, 
Caef. 3c. Euripid. P oeiiifT. n. 527. 
2 20. Hence 

e A E C 7'5 3 

X.ucail calls Gaefar's ufurpation y«j- Ji^i- i, i; 


C A L 

So Caefcirei PenaUs, Id. 

turn fceleri, I, 2. Thus, among the 
feoffs which his foldiers, according to 
cuilom, threw out againft him in his 
triumphs, this was one : Si rede fades, 
pkdere ; Jin male, regnab'is, " If you 
do right," I. e. if you rellore to the 
people "their liberty, ** you fhall be 
punifhed," (for what you have done 
contrary to law): *' But if you do 
wrong," L e. if you do not reilore li- 
berty, " you fhall be a king," D'to, 

43, 20. So Juvenal, Hie crucem preti- 
um fcderis tul'ity hic diademay 13, 105. 
Caefar after his death was ranked a- 
mong the gods, and worfhipped as a 
divinity, Suet. 58. 

Caefar is faid to have been tall, of 
a fair complexion, and very healthful,^ 
except that in the latter part of his 
life he was liable to the falHng fick- 
pefs, with which he was twice feized 
in the time of aftion, Suet. 45. ; D'to, 

44, 38.; Plutarch* in Caef. 715. <3c 

GAE^AR is often put for the em- 
peror, thus, V'fvaria Caefans, the em- 
peror's fifh ponds or ftews, Juvenal. 
4, 51. So Caefaris ad men/as. Id. 5, 
4. Calcemus Caesaris hojlem, i. e. Seja- 
rum. Id. 10, 86. Caefaris uxor, i. e. 
Meffalina, ib. 330. Caefaris Armentum, 
\. e. elephanti. Id. 14, ic6. Tumu- 
lus Caefarum, Tac. Ann. 3, 9. C. 


RES, the hves ot the twelve firft em- 
perors by Suetonius ; the ufual in- 
fcription to that work. Prope Caefa- 
ris hortos, near Gaefar's gardens, Hrjr, 
Sat. I, 9, 18. ; which he left to the 
Roman people, Suet. 83. adj. 


Caesareae doTuus feries, the fuccef- 
fors of Gaefar, Lucan, 4, 823. Gae- 
sAriani, fc. miiites, the foldiers of Gae- 
far, Hirt.B. Afr, 13, &c. whom Lu- 
can calls Coefaris pules, 3, 526. Caefa- 
rianae necis confdi^ privy to the death 
• of Gaefar, Syei. Ner^ 4 Sanguis Cae- 
fareus, the bipod of Julius Gaefar, 
"Ovidf Met. I, 20c. Caefarta domus, 
the ho^fe of Augullus Gaefar, Id, Trift, 

Met. 15, 864. Caefar iand celeritate utiy 
to be as expeditious as Gaefar, Cic. Att, 
16, 10. Caefarianum civile helium, the 
civil war between Gaefar and Pompey, 
Nep. 25, 7. 

Gaeyx. See Geyx. 

Gajeta, the nurfe of Aeneas, 
Firg, A en. 7, I. 

Caiuc, a frequent praenomen of 
men among the Romans j and Gaia 
of women. 

C'aius is marked by G. and Gaia by 
the fame letter inverted 3. ^tinflil. 

I, 7, 28. Gaia was a name af- 

fumed by every new-married woman. 
When on the marriage-night fhe ar- 
rived at the door of her hu(band, be- 
ing afked by him what was her name, 
fhe anfwered, uBi tu Gaius, et 
EGO Gaia, i. e. ivhere you are majler 
of the family, I am mijlrefs ; as it is 
faid, from Tanaquil, the wife of Tar- 
quinius Prifcus ; who was alfo called 
Gaia Gaecilia, Plin. 8, 48 f. 74, 
et Fejlus. et ^un3il. Ibid. adj. Gaja- 
N u s ; Caiana nex, the murder of Gaius 
Galigula, Suet. Tit. i. Emptum (fc, 
librum) plus minus affe Caiano Donas^ 
for one of Gaius Gaiigula's afies, /'. e, 
at the loweft price, Stat. Sih. 4, 9, 22. 
The as it> faid to have been dimiuiilied 
in weight by G. Galigula. 

Gal a IS, the fon of Boreas and O- 
rithyia, and brother of Zethes, both 
reprefented by the potts as furnifhed 
with wings. See Zethes. 

Gala MIS, -idis, m. a ilatuary, who 
was unrivalled in h's art of reprefent- 
ing horfes, i^equis femper fine aemulo ex-^ 
pre/JIs,) Plin. 34, 8 f. 19, ii. ; Pro- 
pert. 3, 9, 10. ; Ovid. Pont. 4, i, 33.; 
Quinctil. 12, 10, 7 

Gal AN us, a celebrated Indian phi- 
lofopher, who falling fick, caufed a 
funeral pile to be raifed, on which he 
was burnt at his own defire in pre- 
fcnce of Alexander and his army, Cic, 
Ttfc. 2, 21. He is faid to have pre- 
dicted the death of that prince, which 
happened foon after. Id. Div. i, 


E- 77 1 C A L 

fon of lophon, where he had a temple, StraJ^' 
14, p. 442. J OvicL Met, I, 515. — 
— Callimachu$ is efteemed by 
Quin6lilfan the chief ckgfac poet or 
writer of love poems : Cujus (fc.elegi- 
aej pr'mceps haheLur CaHitnachus^ 10, 
I, 58. But Horace feems to prefer 
Miinviermus, Ep. 2, 2, loi.— — Pro- 
pertius made Callimachus his mcrdel; 
whence lie calls him Celt the Roman 
Callimachus, Pmp^ri, 4, i, 64. Ho- 

G H A 

CALCHAS, -ant'isy the 
I'hellor, the foothfayer of the Greeks 
in the Trojan war, Cic. Or. 22 ; 
Div. I, 33.; Vlrg. Am. 2, 123.; 
^/7. 13, 38. 

CALDIUS, a firname gwt'^x to 
Tiberius by the foldiers from his fond- 
pefs of hot drinks, [cal'tdae potion^s ;) 
fnftead of Claudius, Suet. Tib. 42. 

C ALDUS, a fir name gu^w to rafli 
hot headed men, Cic. Inv. 2,9. 

CaligulA: the fourth Emperor of race is fuppofed to allude to Proper 
Rome, remarkable for his cruelty ; tius in thefe words : Difcedo .-licacus 

fo called from his being educated in 
the camp, and wearing the Ihoes or 
fliort boots [caltgas] of the common 
foldiers, Suei. CaL 9. 

^ Fujius Calenu^, a tribime of 
the commons, who got a law palled, 
called Lex Fufia, by which he pro- 
cured the acquittal of Clodius, when 
tried for violating the facred rites of 
the good goddefs {Bona Drx) ; Cic. 
/Itt. I, 14, & 16. an adviler of peace 
with Antony, Cic. Phil. 8, 3. 

M. Calidius, a remarkable orator, 
Cic. Br. 79. ^in3lL 70, i. 

Call I CRATES, -/j, an Athenian 
who impofed on Dion, and having 
caufed him to be put to death, feized 
on the fuprem.e power at Syracufe, 
Nep. 10, 8. & 9. ^ 2. A Lacedae- 
monian artiil, who made ants and o- 
ther little animals of ivory, fo fmall, 
that their parts could not be difcerned 
by any other perfons but himfelf, Plin. 
7, 21.; alfo chariots with their dri- 
vers, fo minute, that a tly could co- 
ver them with its wings, Jd. 56, 5. ; 
et A ell an. i, 17. 

Callicratipas, -ae, a^general of 
the Lacedemonians, CicOff. 1,24, & 30. 

Callimachus, a celebrated Greek 
poet, born at Cyrene in Africa, Cic. 
Tufc. I, 34, & 39. ; the fon or defcend- 
ant of Battus ; hence called Battia- 
DEs, -aci Ovid. Ain. I, 14, 53. ; Tr, 2, 
367. ; /?/ 5, 5, 33. ; in Ibin.sZ'\ called 
alfo Clarius poeta^ i. e. infplred by A- 
pollo, Ovid. Tr. 1,5, I. who is de- 
nominated Clarius, Virg. Aen. 

pimflo illius: lUe mco quis ? ^is niji 
Callimachus P I come off, or am made 
an Alcaeus by bis fuff.age ; and he 
a Callimachus hy mine, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 

Callimachus is commonly joined 
by the poets with Philetas ; thus, Ovid. 
Art. Am. 3, 330.; Rem. 760. ; Tr. i, 

5, I. ; Prepert. 3, i, i. So Seri;a Phi- 
leteisy &c. {Vid. Philetas); Et Cy* 
renams tirna mhiifiret aquas, and let mv 
urn furnifh me with the waters of Cy- 
rene, /. e. let me drink of the fame 
fountain, and thus imbibe the fame poe- 
tic enthufiafm with Calhmachu§, Prop^ 
4» 6, 3. ^ 

Calliope, -es, the chief of the nipe 
Mufes, who prefided over eloquence 
and heroic poetry, called alfo Cal- 
liope a, Ovid. Fqfl. 5, 80. the mo- 
ther of Orpheus, Virg. Ec. 4, 57, 

Callipho, -cinis, a philofopher, whd 
made the chief happinefs of man to con- 
fill in pleafure and virtue, Cic. Fin, 2, 

6, & II. ; Acad. 4, 42. ; Fin. 5, 25. 
Calli PEDES, -//, a name put pro- 
verbially for one who promifes a great 
deal, but does nothing, Cic. Ati. 13, 
12.; Suet. Tiber. 38. The caufe of 
this appellation is uncertain. 

Callirhce, -es, the daughter of 
the river Achelous, (Achtloia, Ovid. 
Met. 9, 413.), and wife of Alcmaeon, 
who obtained from Jupiter that her 
infant fons by Alcmaeon Ihould be- 
come men before their time, in order 
to avenge the dtath of their father^ 
Ovid. ib. 414. 

360.; from Claras, a grgve near Co- Callisthenes, -/x,, a native of O- 


C A L [7?? 

lynthus, [Olynth'ius), the fcholar of A- 
rlllotle, and companion of Alexander ; 
by whom he was put to death, becaufe 
he refufed to pay him divine honours, 
Cic. Raber. Pofth. 9. ; Tufc, 3, lo. 
He wrote the hiftory of his own coun- 
try, Cic» de Or. 2, 14. and of the Tro- 
jan war, Id. D'tv. i, ^^4. ^/ 2, 25. 

Callisto, -z/x, the daughter of Ly- 
caon king of Arcadia, converted by 
Jupiter into the conftellatioa Urfa 
iJf^or, the Greater Bear. (G. 417.) 

CallisTrItus, the name of feve- 
ral Athenians. 

CALPURNIA gens, the name of 
a clan at Rome, containing the families 
of the Phones, Be/liae, Bibuli, and Cae- 
fennini, Cic. Pif. 23. ; Att. 10, 8, &c. 

CALPURNIA, the daughter of 
L. Caluurnius Pifo, and the fourth 
wife of Julius Caefar, faid to have been 
"warned by a dream of her husband's 
death, Suet. Caef. 81. 

Calvena, a friend of Caefar's, C'lc, 
Jtt. 14, 5. 

Calvisius, a governor of Africa, 
Cic. Phil. 3, 10. the name of feveral 
eminent men, from one of whom is 
derived Actio Calvisiana, an aftion 
granted to a patron againll his freed 
man, for recovering what the freed 
man had defrauded him of, Digejl. 

Licinius Calvus, a fatirical poet, 
whofe works are loft, Cic. Fam. 7, 24. 
mentioned by Horace, Sat. i, 10, 19. 

C. Licinius Calvus, an orator, Cic. 
Fum. 15, 21. ; Fin. 1,2.; Brut. 8 I. 
— — ^ 2. A name given to M. Craf- 
fus, Cic. Att. I, 16. 

Calypso, -iisy (rarely Calypsonisy 
QuinAil. i, 5, 63. in the other cafes 
Calypso) i a nymph, the daughter of 
Oceanus and Tethys, or according to 
others, the daughter of Atlas, ( Atlan- 
tis j Adis)y who poiTeiTed the ifland O- 
gygia, the fituation of which is uncer- 
tain. When Ulyfies was fhipwrecked 
on her coaft, Calypfo gave him a hof- 
pitable reception, retained him in her 
ifland for fix or feven y^ars, and pro- 
miftd him immortality, if he would 
remain for ever with her, which he 
refufed, Hoimr, Odyjf. 7, 6c 15. j Ovid. 

] CAN 

Pont. 4, 10, 13. ; Amor. 2, 17, 15. ; 
Art. 2, (25.; Cic. Off. I, 13. 

CAMBysES -is, the fon of Cyius 
the Great, king of Perfia. (G 6. 3.) 

Camilla, the queen of the Volfci, 
who affifted Turnus againft Aeneas, 
famous for her fwiftnefs and courage, 
flain by Aruns, Virg. Aen. 7, 803. et 

CAMILLUS, the name of a branch 
or family of the Geus Furia. 

M. Furius CAMILLUS, an lUuf- 
trious Roman general, who cook Veji, 
after it had been bcfieged for ten 
years, and defeated the Gauls, who, 
under Brtnnus, had taken and facked 
RoT.e. He was celebrated as a fecond 
Romulus, and founder of his country. 
Extulit haec (fc. Italia) Decios, Marios, 
ma^nofque Camillos, for Magnum Camil' 
/urn. Virg. G. 2, 169. Reducefque Ca- 
viillosy fo called, becaufe he returned 
from banifhment to free his country, 
Lucan. 7, 358. (G. 218, &c.) 

CAMOENAE, WCamenae, (q. 
Canenae, a canendo), the Mufes. Fid* 

Campaspe, -es, a favourite concu- 
bine of Alexander's, whom Apell»s 
being ordered to paint naked, fell def- 
perately in love with her. Upon which 
Alexander gave her to him in a pre- 
fent. She was fo beautiful, that A- 
pelles is faid to have painted from her 
his Venus rifing from the fea, Plin. 35, 

Can ACE, -es, the daughter of Oe- 
olus, [Oeolis, -tdis ; voc- Oeoli), who 
had a child by her brother Macareus. 
Her father having got notice of it, or- 
dered the child to be expofed to wild 
beafts, and fent a fword to his daugh- 
ter, with which (he might kill herfelf. 
She complied with the command, but 
firft, according to Ovid, wrote a mo- 
ving epiftle to Macareus, who had fled 
to the temple of Delphi for proteAion, 
Ovid. Ep. II.; Amor. 2, 18, 23.; Trift. 
2, 384. ; in Jhin. 359, & 564. ; Hygin. 
Fab. 238. Macaieus is alfo faid to 
have killed himfelf, ib. 242. But Ho- 
mer makes Oeolus give his daughters 
in marriage to his fens, Odyff. 10, 7. 

Can ACE, 

CAN [79 

Camace, f. Canache, one of Ac- 
taeoa's dogs, Ovid. Met. 3, 217. ; Hy- 
gin. t8i. 

Can ACHUS, a ftatuary, Cic. Br. 18.; 
Plin. 34, 8. 

Candace, -es, a queen of Aethiopia, 
in the time of Auguftus, Plin. 6, 2i>. 

Can ENS, -entisy a beautiful nymph, 
remarkable for her fl<:ill in mufic, 
whence her name, the daughter of Ja- 
nus and Venilla, Ovid. Met. 14, 333. 
.whence Hie is called jfanigenay ib. 381. 
the wife of Picus king of theLaurentes; 
who having been turned by Circe into 
a bird, called Picus, Canens lamented 
his lofs fo much, that (lie pined away, 
and by degrees vanifhed into the thin 
air, i. e. ihe was changed into a voice, 
Ovid. Met. 14, 432. 

Canephorae, virgins at Athens, 
who, in the facred rites of Venus, car- 
ried canifters on their heads, Cic. Verr. 

CANIDIUS, the name of feveral 

C. CANINIUS Rehilm, one of 
Caefar's lieutenants In Gaul, Caef. B. 
G. 7, 83, & 90. 8, 26. alfo in the ci- 
vil wars. Id. B. C. i, 24, 26. ; Hirt. 
B. Hifp. 35. whom Caefar made con- 
ful, a. u. 708, at his own requeft, 
&e laft day of the year only for a few 
hours, (Vid. Q^Fabius Maximus), 
whence Cicero fays of him farcaftical- 
ly, Caninio confide, neinintm prandiffey 
that no one dined in lu's confulfhip ; 
becaufe he was nominated at the 
7tb hour, or one o'clock afternoon, 
\hord vli. renun-iatus ej}), and the 
ufual time of taking the prandium was 
atnndday, Cic. Ep.'], 30.; Ma rob. 
Sat. 2, 3. ; Add. Dio, 43, 46. ; Plin. 
7, 53. ; Tacit Hiji. 3,37.; Suet. Caef. 
76. ; Plutarch, in Caef. p. 735. 

Can 1 us, a learned Roman knight, 
cheated by Pytheas, a banker of Si- 
cily, Cic. Off. 3, 14. — ^ 2. A faccrtious 
poet, born at Cadiz, Martial. l, 62,29, 

Canuleius, a tr'bune of the com- 
mons at Rome, who procured a law 
to be made, that the Plebc-Ians might 
intermarry with the Patricians, Liv. 4, 
3, &c. 

] C A E 

P. Canutius, an eloquent orator, 
Cic. Brut, 56. ; T. Canutius, a tri- 
bune, Cic. Fam. 12, 3, & 23.; PhiL 


Cap HO, a veteran foldier, Cic. Phil. 

10, 10, & II, 9. A centurion of An- 
tony's, ib. 8, 3. 

Cap no, -onisf a firname of the Gens 

C. Cap I TO, a partiian of Caefar's, 
Cic. Fam. 8, 8. et 13. 29. 

Fontejus Cap I TO, a man highly ac- 
compllfhed, (ad wignem fadus homo)., 
an intimate friend of Antony's, Hor* 
Sat. I, J, 32. 

Capaneus, -i, (in three fyllables) j 
a noble Arglve, the hufband ofEvadne, 
one of the feven famous generals in 
the war again ft Thebes, Ovid. Trijl, 
4,3, 63.; Plin. 35, II. remarkable 
for his impiety, Stat. Theb- 9 545'. et 
3, 602. ; and therefore killed by Ju- 
piter with a thunderbolt, Hygin. 68» 

& 70. ; Ovid. Met. 9, 404. Adj. 

Capaneus, v. -eius ; thus, Capanea 
pe£tora, Stat. Theb. 12, 764. ; CcLpaneia 
conjux, ib. 545. 

Capetus, the fixth king of Alba, 
after Aeneas, Ltv. i, 3. ; Ovid. Met, 

C \ PYS, -yts, v. -yos ; ace. Capyniy v. 
•yn ; the fon of Affaracus and father 
of Anchifes, Firg. Aen. 6, 768.; OvicL 
Fajl. 4, 34.— Aifo a companion of 
Aeneas, who is faid to have given 
name to Capua in Italy, ih. 10. 145. 

Carcalla, a Roman emperor, 
remarkable for his cruelty. 

Car BO, a lirname of the Gens Pa" 
piria, Cic. Fam. g, 2 1. adj. Carbonianus, 

C. CARBO, an orator, faid to be 
the only one of that name that was a 
good citizen, ib.~'-^\ 2. Cn. Carbo, the 
friend of Marlus, thrice Conful, Cic, 
de Or at. 3, 3. flain by Pompey, Id, 
Fam. 9, 21. 

Carmenta, v. Carmentis, an Ar- 
cadian prophetef?, the mother of E- 
vander, Liv. i. 7. Virg. Aen. 8, 336. 
from whom the Porta Carmentatis at 
Rome is faid to have been named, ib. 

Carneades, -/j, a native of lyrene 
( Cyrenaeus }f 

CAR [ 

(Cyfenaius)y tlie founder of wKat is 
called the Third or New Academy, 
Ctc. Chrot, 1 , 1 1 . the fchokr of Dio- 
j^enes, the Stoic, Cic, Acad. 4, 30. ; 
b»it afterwards drfPered widely from 
that fe(^. He maintained that nothing 
can be certainly perceived by the fcnfes, 
*l5. 4, 9. He was remarkable for his 
eloquence ; and was fent to Rome 
^ith Dio^'enes as an atiibaiiador, Ck. 
Oral. 2, 3. Acad, 4, 45. 

S'punus C A R V I L 1 u s , the fi rfl Roman 
who divorced his wife, a. u. 521, VaL 
Mcr*. 2, I. 

Carus, a Roman emperor, EittroJ>, 

(CAkTHlLO, 'Cms^ the conmiander 
of Annibal's cavalry, 22, 15- 

CASCA, (a firnaihe of the Ser^'t- 
Ui) ; one of the confpiratovs ag?.in{l 
Caiefar, Ck. PUL 2,11. wlio gave him 
the Firfl. wonnd, Plutarch. Caefp. 739.; 
App'iiiny B. C- 2^ p. §01. 

CA SSANDER, -/h-}, the fon of An- 
ti^ater, governor of Macedonia under 
Arid^clis, who pnt to death Olympias, 
the mother of Alexander the Grtat, 
'Jufih. 14, 6. and others of that king's 
neareft relation?, 'uL 15, 2. 

CASSANDRA, the daughter of 
Priam, king of Troy, to whom Apol- 
lo granted the gift di prophecy, upon 
her proriiifmg to gratify his paffion ; 
tut afterwards, upon her refufal, he 
oidained that her prophecies, though 
tiTte, fiiould never be believed, V'lrg, 
Jen. 2, 246, Wighi. 93. Hence fhe is 
called Ani'tjiita Phochi^ Ovid. Met. 13, 

CassiDPE, -es, wCqffwpta ; and in 
later writers CnJJtopela^ the wife of Ce- 
3>heuskingof Aethiopia, and mother oF 
Andromeda ; converted into a coniiel- 
iation, and reprefer.ted in a fitting pof- 
tme, Cciumdl. 71, 2,78.; Cic. N. D. 2. 
4'S' ; ihs'"^'' Poet. AJiron. 2, 10.; Q'o'd. 
Mei.^y 737- 

CASSIUS, the name of a Roman 
gins; adj. Cassius, atid oftcntr Cas- 
siANUS. Cafjla famdla, the family of 
the Callii, Liv. 2,41. Hort'i Cajficmi, 
the gardens of one CaiHus, 6ic.Att.i2f 

So ] CAS 

Sp. CASSIUS nfceirmus, conful 
a. u. 261, who obtained a triumph for 
taking Pometia, Liv. 2, 17. the firil 
who was made matter of horfe, ib. 18. 
made conful a fecond time, a. 261, ih. 
33. a third time, a. 26B, when he firft 
promulgated an agrarian law, for divi- 
ding the lands taken from the enemy 
among the citizens and Lritins, which 
Vvas violently oppofed by the patricians, 
particularly by thofe who poffefled the 
public lands ; and therefore the law- 
did not pafs. On this acqount Caffius, 
after he refigned his office, was con- 
demned and put to death, on fufpicion 
of his having formed a plot to make 
him felf king, ih. 41. 

L. CASSIUS Longinusy a tribune 
a. 616, f. 617, who got a law paiTcd, 
[Lex Cajfia Tahellaria^y in the conful- 
fliip of Lepidas and Mancinus, that in 
all public trials, except for treafon, the 
people in the comitiay and the yudices 
felePa in the praetor's court, Ihould give 
their votes by ballot, and not viva voce 
as formerly, Cic. Br. 2, 27. ; Sext. 48. ; 
Leg. 3, 16. Caffias, when praetor, 
vv^as noted for his rigid ftridlnefs ; 
whence Cassiani judices, as ftrict or 
as upright as Caflius, Cic. Pofc. Am. 
30. ; Fcrr. 3, 60, & 62. Ille (Julia- 
nus) judlcihus Ca[fils trijjior, Marcelllu. 
i. 22. On account of his exceflive fe- 
rerity, his tribunal was called Scopulus 
reoruiuj the rock of criminals, Val. 
Max. 3, 7, 9. When he preiided in 
a trial for murder iDr the like, he char- 
ged the judices or jnrytnen to enquire, 
Cui BON® FUERiT ? To whom was it 
of advantage, or whofe interell was it ? 
He ufed this fiying fo frequently, that 
it was called Cassianum dictum, the 
faying of Caiiius, Cic. Mil. I2. et ihi 
Afcon. ; Phil. 2, I4.— ^Peduceus a tri- 
bune having complained of a fentence 
of Q^Meteilus, the Pontifex Maximus, 
and of the college oi Pentificesy concern- 
ing fome Veftai virgins, accufed of iu- 
cell, as partial, Caiiius being appoint- 
ed by the people to try the fame vir- 
gins anew, condemned feveral of them 
to death j Alccn. (hid, Liv. Eplt. 6^. 


C A. 9 [ 8i 

L. CASSIUS, praetor a.u. 644. So 
much refpetled for his integrity, that 
being fent by the people to bring Ju- 
gurtha to Rome on a public promife 
of fafety, {tnterpofita Jide publka^) when 
Caflius pledged his own promife, Ju- 
gurtha valued it no lefs than the pub- 
lic faith, Salluji. Jug. 33. Some fup- 
pofe this Caflius to have been the fame 
with the former, but he rather feems 
to have been a different perfon ; — pro- 
bably the fame who was conful with 
Marius, a. 647, and who was defeated 
and flain, and his army made to pafs 
unde.r the yoke, by the Tigunni, a can- 
ton or divifion (pagus) of the Helvetii, 
Caef. ^. G. 17, & 14. ; Liv. Epit.Ss-', 
Orojl 16, 17.; — Cassianum Bel/unif 
the war in which Caffius was flain, 
Caef. B.G.iy 12. 

C. Cass SI us Varus y a favourer of 
.the Manilian law, Cic. Manil. 23. con- 
ful with M. Terentius Varro LucuUus 
a. u. 680, the firft year that Verres 
was praetor of Sicily, Cic. Vert; 1,23. 

C. Cassius Lonpnusy the quaeftor 
of Craffus, in his expedition againft the 
Parthians ; after whofe death he col- 
leeled the remains of the Roman army, 
|! checked the pi ogrefs of the enemy, re- 
! pulfed them from the city Antioch, and 
\ preferved the province of Syria, Cic.Fam. 
! 2, 10. ct 5, 20. et 8, 10. ; Phil. 1 1, 14. ; 
. Veil. 2, 46.; Dio, 40, 28.; Or of, 6, 13. 
' Cafiius was tribune of the commons at 
' the beginning of the civil war. Pom- 
pey having fled from the city, fent Caf- 
fius to the confuls at Capua, to defire 
1 they would return to Rome, and carry 
off the money which they bad left in 
; the public treafury. But it was too 
late, Cic. An. 7, 21. Caflius command- 
i ed a large fleet under Pompey, confift- 
ing of Syrians, Phoenicians, and Cili- 
cians; with which he deilroyed a num- 
ber of Caefai's fliips at Mefsana in Sic: 
ly, and would have taken that town, 
had not the news of Caefar's vidory at 
Fharlalia, arriving juft at the time, pre- 
vented it, Caef. B. C. 3, 1 01. Alter 
tljjs Cafiius joined Cato in Greece, r^nd 
puflcd Qver with him to Cyrene ia 

] CAS 

Africa J but having there heard of the 
death of Pompey, he left Cato and went 
over to Caefar, Dio, 42, 13I Caefar's 
pardon had previoufly been fecured for* 
Cafflus by Brutus, to whofe After Caf- 
fius was married, Plutarch, in Brut.i 
Cic. Fam. 12, 2. Nay, fo far did Cae- 
far drop his refentment againfl Caffius, 
that he even made him one of his lieu- 
tenants, [Caffiumfihi legavit ) Cic. Fam. 
6, 6, 20. Caffius, however, afterwards 
became one of the chief confpirators 
againft Caefar; (See Brutus, and G. 
242, & 328.) Some afcribe this to his 
being offended becaufe Caefar had re- 
fuied liim the confuldiip, Veil. 2, 561 
others, becaufe Caefar gave Brutus the 
more honourable praetorfliip in prefer- 
ence to him, Plutarch, in Brut.; Appiam 
p. 498. But CafTius had aUvays dif- 
covered a high fpirit and a ftrong love 
of liberty. When a boy, he is ia'd to 
have given Sulla's fon, Fauftus, a box 
on the ear, for boailiug among his 
fchoolfellows of his father's greatnefe 
and abfolute power, (profcriptionem pa* 
ternam laudantem colapho percujjtt^ ) VaL 
Max. 3» X, 3. and when Pompey called 
the boys before him to give an account 
of their quarrel, Cafiius declared in his 
piefence, " that if Faullus fhould dare 
to repeat the words, he would repeat 
the blow," Plutarch, in Brut. 

Caflius in his later years deferted the 
fed of the Stoics, and became a con- 
vert to Epicurus, Cic. Fam, 15, 16. 
He, however, alv/ays lived as a Stoic ; 
was moderate in pleafures, temperate 
in diet, and a water drinker through 
life, [totd vita aquam bibiti) Senec. Ep« 
83. Hence Caefar, when admoniihcd 
to beware of Antony and Dolabclia, 
ufed to fay, " That it was not the fat 
and fleck men that he feared, but the 
pale and the lenn :" meaning Callius 
and Brutus, Plutarch. CaeJ.p.']^'). Ci- 
cero fpeaks of Callius as having kirmer- 
ly dehgned to difpatch Caefar in Cilicia 
at the mouth of the river Cydnus, o/r. 
Phil. 2, II. But when thia happened 
is uncertain, (See Brutus, and G. 242. 
& 32 S.} 

Z., Cassiusj, the brother <a the 
L iormer^ 


CAS [8 

fbVmer, Cic. Plan:, 24. made tribune 
after the death of Cacfar, C'lc. Phil. 3, 
9. He prefided at the celebration of 
the games exhibited by Brutus and 
C. C i '' us. the praetors, after the death 
of Caefar, when they themfelves could 
rfot be prefent in fafety on account of 
the defigns of Antony, CicFam. 12, 
2. ; y^tt. 14, 2. 

L. Cassius Lon^hms, a fenator, an 
accomplice in Catiline's cunfpiracy, 
SalluJ. Cat. 17. ; Sull. 13. ; Cat. 3, 4. 
who demanded the charge of fetting 
the city on fire, ih. 6. but made his 
cfcape before the confpiracy was dif- 
tioverecl, Sallujl. Cot. 44, 

L. Cassius, the commander of one 
cf Pompey's fleets, who might have 
taken Caefar prifoner after the battle of 
Pharfalia, while crofTmg the Hellef- 
pont ; but was fo ftruck with the fame 
oi Caefar's fuccefs. that he voluntarily 
furrendered to him. Suet. Caef. 63. V'ld. 
Caesar. Appian fays this was done 
by C. Cassius, B. C. 2, 497. in which 
feverril modern hiilorians have followed 
him ; and Cicero is fuppofed by fome to 
allude to the fame fact, Phil. 2,11. But 
Cains was at that time with his fieet on 
tht coafl of Sicily, Caef. B. C. 39, loi.; 
Dio, 42, 13. and did not furrender him- 
felf to Caefar, till after the death of 
Pompey, Dio, 42, 13. It is uncertain 
whether this was the other Caffius, (a/- 
ler CaJJius)^ mentioned among the con- 
fpirators againft Caefar, Suet. Caef. 82. 
fend fuppofed to be the brother of 
Caius, who is faid to have given Caefar 
the firfl: wound in the breaft a little be- 
low the throat, ih. Appian fays that 
Cafca was the firft that wounded Cac- 
far in the breail ; that another llabbed 
him in the fide, and that Caifius wound 
ed him in the face, B. C.p. ^oc. & 502. 
L, Cassius Lon^iuusj a lieutenant 
of Caefar's in the civil war, Caef. B. C. 
3, 34. & 36. 

^ Cassius Longlnusy chofen by 
Pompey to be his quaeftor, without 
calling lots for it, a. 700, Ck, Att. 
6, 6. ; but in the civil war he joined 
Caefar. He was tribune when ..he de 
cree of the fenate againft Caefar was 

2 ] CAS 

made, and gave his negative to 
with Antony, Caef. B. C. i, 2. And 
when iheir negative was difregarded, 
he fled with Antony and '~'urio to Cae- 
far, ib. 5.; Cic. Fam. 16, II.; Dioy 
41, 1. ; Appian. B. C. 2, 448. After 
the defeat of Afranius and Petreius, 
Cafliu3 was fent with two legions to 
Corduba, Caef. B. C. 2, 19.; and af- 
ter the furrender of Varro, Caefar 
gave him the command of the fouth 
part (jf Spain, with four legions, Caef 
B. C. 2, 21. ; Z?/o, 41, 24. ; 4ppian. ib. 
454. ; which country CalTius haraffed 
fo cruel ;y by his exactions, that the 
Spaniards attempted to kill him, Hirt, 
BpU. Alex. 48, — 53, &c. Being obli- 
ged, on account of his mifcondudl, to 
leave the province, he was drowned in 
the mouth of the Iberus, ib. 64. ; 
Dio, 42, 16. 

The com.m.otions excited by Caflius 
facilitated the attempts of the fons of 
Pompey and of Ltbienus to become 
mailers of Spain, Dio^ 43, 29.; and 
hence gave occanon to Caefar'slaft war 
in that country, Hiit. ib. ei B. Hfp. 

CASSIUS Panncnfts, probably fo 
called from his being a native of Par- 
ma. He was left by Brutus and C. 
Cafiius, when they marched againft 
Antony and Octavius, with a fleet and 
army to collect money. After their 
death, he, with young Cicero, the 
fon of the orator, joined Statius Mur- 
cus, Appian, B. C. 5, p. 672. The 
fcholiaft on Horace fays, that he reti- 
red to Athens, where he was killed by 
the order of Auguftus. He wrote tra- 
gedies and other poems, which were 
much ellccmed, Hot\ Ep. i, 4, 3. He 
is fuppofed by fome to have been the 
fame with Caihus the Tufcan, [Etruf 
cits)y who wrote fo much, that hi? 
papers and books ferved to compofe 
his funeral pile, Hor. Sat. i, 10, 6 1. 
But others, and with more juftnefs, 
fuppofe him to have been a different 

CASTOR, -oris, the fon of Jupi 
ttr by Leda, the wife of Tyndarus; 
tue t^, ;n-'>rother o' Pollux ; who . fteir 
their death were both ranked amongj 



CAT [ R 

tlhe ftars, and worfliipped as deities by 
inariners, (G. 411.) Ad Caftorls fc. 
aedem, at the temple of Caftor, Cic. 
^lint. 4.; Add., /■'^f/v. I, 49, &c. — 
adj. Castoreus. 

CASTOR, the grandfon of King 
Dejotarus, who accufed his grandfa- 
ther to Caefar of having plotted his 
death, Cic. Dej. \. 

L. Sergius Catilina, who formed 
a confpiracy to overturn the govern- 
ment of Rome, which was detected by 
Cicero, when conful, SalluJI. Cat, [See 
Cicero). — putfor any feditiousperfon, 
Juvenal. 14, 41.; adj. Catilinarus. 

Catillus, f. Cat'ilusy the leader of 
the Tiburtines, one of the confederates 
of Turnus, V'lrg, Aen. 7, 672. Hence 
Mcenia Cauliy the walls of Tibur, Hor. 
Od. I, 18, 2. ; the fame with Moema 
Tihurtla, fo named from Tiburtus, the 
eldeft brother of Catilus, Virg. ih. 670. 

P. CATiiiNus Plot'inusy a freedman, 
who was fo fond of his patron, that 
being left his fole heir, he threw him- 
felf on his funeral pile, Plin. 7, 36. 

Cativulcus, a king of the Ehui-o- 
ties, who poifoned himfelf, that he 
might not fall into the hands of Cae- 
far, Caef. B. G. 6, 30. 

M. Porcwsy firnamed C ATO, on ac- 
count of his wifdom, {q. catus) ; Cic. 
Sen. 2.; Plutarch, in vita ejus, pr. His 
original firname was Pr IS cus, ib. He 
was born at Tufculum , ( Tufculanus ) , Cic. 
Plane. S. of reputable parents, but not 
noble, Plutarch, ib. a. u. 520. the year 
before Q^Fabius Maximus was conful 
for the firil time, Cic. Sen. 4. ; Fal. 
Max. 3, 4. He refided in the country 
of the Sabines, where he had a farm, 
{hneredium), left him by his father, 
Nep. 23, 1.; near which was a fmall 
farm-houfe, which had belonged to Cu- 
rius Dentatus, whofe character Cato 
greatly admired, and ftrove to imitate, 
Plutarch, et Cic, Sen. 16. 

Cato, when very young, ferved un- 
der Fabius Maximus at the taking of 
Tarentum, ib. (Cicero makes him 
then quaeftor, Sen, 4. but the reading 
of this paflage is fuppofed to be incor- 
red, Vid, Gruter in Cic.) He was a 

^ 1 CAT 

military tribune in Sicily ; an^ after 
that gained great praife for his bravery 
in the battle of Metaurus, near Sena 
(Gallia), againft Hafdrubal, Nep. 2^, i. 

Cato is faid to have been induced 
by Valerius Flaccus, a nobleman whd 
lived in his -neighbourhood, to come to 
Rome and fue for preferments, Plw 
tarch. Being made qureftor, it fell to 
his lot to ferve under the great Scipio 
in Sicily, by whom he was appointed, 
with Laclius, to command the left 
wing of the fleet in the paflage to 
Africa, Liv. 29, 25. Plutarch fays, 
that Cato, difpleafed with Scipio's pro- 
fufion of the public money, and with 
his indulgence to his troops, returned 
to Rome ; and by his complaints 
againft Scipio in the fenate, with the 
affiftance of Fabius, caufed ambaffa* 
dors to be fent to Sicily to examine 
the ftate of Scipio's army. But Livy 
gives a different account of this matter, 
29, 22. _ 

Cato being created praetor, obtain- 
ed the province of Sardinia, Liv. 32, 
7, ^ 8, ; where he a6led with great 
integrity and difintereftednefs, [fanctus 
et innocens), but was thought too fevere 
in -checking ufury, ib, 27. a. u. 559.; 
he was made conful with his old friend 
Valerius Flaccus, a. 559, Liv. 33, 42. 
The province of Spain fell to his lot, 
ih. 43.; where he performed io great 
exploits as to met it a triumph, Id, 
34, 8, — 46. Before he left Rome he 
delivered a memorable fpeech againfl 
the abrogation of the Appian law, 
which limited the expences and drefs 
of women, ib. 2, — 5. In the war 
againft Antiochus he ferved under Ma- 
nius Acilivir., the conful, as lieutenant, 
[crjnfularis legatus), Liv. 36. 17.; Cice- 
ro fays, as military tribune. Sen. 10. ; 
and contributed greatly to the victory 
gained over Antiochus at Thermopy- 
lae, ih. 18. He *VMS fent by the con- 
ful to carry the news of the vidory to 
Rome, ib. 21. Cicero fays, that Ca- 
to v.-ent to the war againft Antiochus 
with L. Scipio, by n^'ftake, as it is 
thought ; or the worcs [cum Scipio" 
ne) are fuppofed to have been interpo- 
L 2 Uttd 

CAT [8 

lated by fome tranfcriber, Cic, Mun 


Cato was a great admirer of Fabius 

Maximus, Cic. Sen. 4.; and Inimical to 
Sclpio Afrlcanus, He fupported the 
charge brought againft him of having 
taken money from Antiochus, to pro- 
cure for that king favourable terms of 
peace, Lh. 38, 54.; and after the 
death of Afrlcanus, promoted a fimilar 
accufatlon againll his brother L. Scl- 
pio, who was condemned, Liv. 38, 54. 
^^, ^6, & 60. Cicero reprefents Cato 
as extolling Scipio Afrlcanus highly. 
Sen. 6, 9, & 23. But the dialogue re- 
quired this change of chara6ler. 

A. u. 570, Cato was created cenfor 
with Valerius Flaccus, who had been 
his colleague In the confulate. He ex- 
ercifed this office with fo great flrlftnefs, 
Liv. 39, 42 , & 44. that he was ever after- 
wards called Cato Censor, or Cen- 
sor i us, Plin. 7, 30.; ^'mclUian. I, 
7, 23.^/ alibi pqlfim. Durus CatOf rigid, 
fevere, Juvenal. 11, 90. Hence Cato 
is put for a cenfor, or cenforious per- 
fon ; thus, non pojfum libertum ferre Ca- 
tonemy I cannot bear a freedman to be 
a cenfurer of my condud. Martial. 
11,40, 15. Trijle fuperciUmii durique 
fever a Catonis Frons, Id. il, 2, I.; 
Cum trcmerent — durum Catonem, Juve- 
nal. 1 1 , 9c, The Pvoman people, even 
in Cato's lifetime, erected a ftatue to 
bim on account of his meritorious con- 
duct in his cenforfliip, Plutarch. 

Cato, by his rigid feverity againft 
luxury and vice, incurred great enml- 

t 3 CAT 

his dantem jura Catonem), A. 8, 670. 
Some afcrlbe this to Cato Uticeii/is. So 
^is tey Magne CatOy taciturn — relin- 
quat ?"ih. 6, 841. 

Horace, inveighing againft the luxu- 
ry of his time, contrafta It with the 
fimple manners of the age of Cato, 
whom he calls intonfus, becaufe bar- 
bers were then little uied, Od. 2, 15, 


Cato, though remarkable for tem- 
perance, was fond of convivial meet- 
ings, where he fometimes remained 

all night, and drahk freely, Cic. Sen. 

14. Hence narratur et Prifci Catonis 
faepe mero incaluijfe virtus^ Hor. Od. 2, 

21, II. Hence alfo Martial calls this 

Vitium Catonis, 2, 89, 2. 

Cato was one of the moft diftin- 

guifhed characters of ancient Rome 

as an orator, a lawyer, a general, a 
ftatefman, and a fcholar, Lrj. 39, 40.; 
Plin. 7, 27. ; Cic. Brut. 17.; Nep.2 7^, 
3. ; ^inSilian. 12, 11, 23. Through - 
moft part of his life he exprefled a 
great diflike to the learning of the 
Greeks, Plin. 7, 30. ; afraid, as he 
fald, left It {hould corrupt the Roman 
youth, and lead them to prefer the 
glory of fpeaking to that of acting well, 
Plutarch. ; but when old, having chan-» 
ged his mind, he applied to the ftudy 
of Greek with wonderful avidity, C/V, 
y^cad. 8, 2. ; Sen. I, 8, & 11. He 
wrote books on various fubje£ls. His 
principal work was on hiftory and an-, 
tiqultles, which he called Origin ts, 
in feven books, . ic. Brut. 1 7. ; Sen. 1 f. 

ty, efpecially among the nobility, who Nepos calls them Historiae, and 
never failed to arraign him whenever mentions the fubjeft of each book. 
hf v-ave the leaft ground for It. He In the fecond and third books he tra- 
ced the origin of eveiy city In Italy ; 
whence he gave the name of Origi- 
NEs to all the feven books. He did 
not begin to write them till he was 
an old man, Nep. 23, 3.; Cic Sen. 
II.; though LIvy, by a licence or 
anachronlfm, which he fometimes ufes 
in his fpeeches, makes the tribune Va-» 
lerius quote them while Cato was con- 
ful, and only thirty-nine years old, an 
early age for a new man ; but the /.<?- 
^es Anni^kf were not then ftridly ob-* 


is laid to have pleaded his own caufe 
forty -four times, [quater et quadragies); 
but was always acquitted, Plin 7, 27 
f. 28> ; and came off from every trial 
witi) increafed reputation, Liv. 39, 40. 
The republic was then governed, as 
Nepos obierves, not by power, but 
by j uftice, ( non potentidj fed jure ) , 2 3 , 2 . 
^uch was the reputation of Cato 
for inflexible jufticc, that Virgil repre- 
fents him as prefcribing laws to the 
pipus fliades belqw^ {fecrelof^ue pios ; 


[ S5 1 


ferved, and preferments were open to 
merit, L'lv. 34, 5. 

Of the various compofitions of Ga- 
te, mentioned, Cic. Or, 2, $2. ; OJl jy 
29.; Brut. 15, 16, 17. ; ^ilnBil 3, i, 
19. et 3, 6, 97. ; Gell. 7, 10. ; Pl'in, 
14, 4. et 29, I. ; MacroL Sat. 3, 5. ; 
Plutarch, in Cat. Maj. the only one 
now extant is his book on hufbandry, 
{^de re ruft'icay vel de rebus rujlkisy 
Cic. Sen. 15.) 

Cato is faid to have enriched the 
Latin language with feveral new 
words, Horat. Art. p. 5 6. Vocahula re- 
rum Prijcis memorata Catonibusy in the 
dat. for a Prifco Catsne, the names of 
things or nouns ufed by Old Cato, Id. 
Ep. 2, 2, 117. Salluft is accufed of 
having ftolen [furatus) or borrowed 
many of Cato's expreilions, ^iinSil. 
8, 3, 29.; Suet. Jug. 85. 

The Carthaginians and Mafinifra be- 
ing at war with each other, Cato was 
fent on an embafly, to enquire into 
the caufe of their quarrel. When he 
came to Carthage, he found it not in 
the low condition he expedled, but 
opulent, and flourifliing. Inftead, 
therefore, of endeavouring to fettle 
differences between the contending 
Hates, upon his return to Rome, he 
told his countrymen, that they would 
never be fecure, unlefs they deftroyed 
fo dangerous a rival ; and* after this, 
on whatever fubje6l he fpoke in the 
fenate, he always concluded with ad- 
vifmg the deitrudion of Carthage, 
Carthago est delenda, Flor. 2, 
15. Et hoc amplius censed, Car- 

tarch. Scipio Nafica judged more 
wifely, that Carthage fhould be pre- 
fervcd, ib. as the event fhowed, (G. 
6'jS).Jppian. Punic, n. 38. ; Feli. 2, 1.; 
Plin. 33, II f. 53. ; Flor. 2, 15. et 
3, 12. Juftice feems to have been lit- 
tle regarded either by the one or the 
other. The authority of Cato prevail- 
ed, as Cicero obferves, even after his 
death, [eiiam mortui). Off. I, 23. But 
Plutarch affirms, that Cato lived till 
after the beginning of the Third Pu- 
nic war, Cicerp favs, that Cato was 

eighty-five years old when he died ; 
and that he retained his vigour to the 
laft, fo as to accufe Serv. .Galba that 
very year before the people. Brut. 2a 
So Pliny, Atque hicy Cao DCV anno 
urbis nojlrae obiity LXXXV fuoy 29, i 
f. 8. But Livy fays, that Cato plead- 
ed his own caufe in his 86th year, and 
accufed Galba in his 90th year, 39, 
40. — So Valerius Maximus, 8, 7, i. 
If, however, Cato died in the year PH- 
ny mentions, he was only 85. 

Cato had a fon called alfo Marcus, 
a youth of great hopes, whom Cato 
himfelf taught the rudiments of learn- 
ing, Plutarch. He ferved as a foldier 
under Pompilius ; and when that ge- 
neral thought proper to difband the 
legion in which young Cato ferved, 
Cato wifhed to remain in the army, 
but would not fight agalnft the ene- 
my till he had taken the military oath 
anew. Cicero fays, that there was a 
letter extant in his time from old Cato 
to his fon, giving him this advice, 
0^ I, II. Cato's fon married the 
daughter of Paulus Aemllius, under 
whom he fought with uncommon bra- 
very in the battle agalnft Perfeus, 
Plutarch. He died when praetor, to 
the great grief of his father, lb. et Cic, 
Fam.^y 6. ; Sen. 23. 

Cato married a fecond time the 
daughter of his client Salonius, and 
had by her, after he was eighty, (o<5c- 
ge/imo exaBo)y a fon whom he called 
M. Cato Salonianus, or Salonius, from 
his mother's father, Plin. 7, 13.; Gell. 
13, 18. ; Plutarch, in Cat. Maj. This 
Salonius had a fon, called Marcus, who 
was the father of Cato Utlccnfis, Plu- 
tarch, et Cic. Off.^y c 6 — Cato, the Cen- 
for, is alfo called Major, to diftinguKli 
him from his great grandfon, who is 
called Cato Minor. Hence Cicero 
calls his treatife on old age, in which 
Cato the Cenfor is introduced as the 
principal fpeaker, Cato Major, Ciu 
Off. I, 42. ; Amic. I. 

M. Porcius CATO, .the great- 
grandfon (pronepos) of Cato the Cen- 
ior, loft his parents when ver)' young, 
and was brought up with his half-bro- 

CAT [8(5 

ther Caepio, and three half-fiHers, in 
the houfe of Livlus Drufus, his mo- 
ther's brother. From his very infancy 
he difcovcred a refolute, firm, and in- 
flexible temper. He was flow in learn 
ing, but what he once conceived, he 
faithfully retained, and conquered eve- 
ry difficulty by perfeverance. As he 
fpurned flattery, fo he fcorned threat- 
ening;s. Popoedius Silo, an It:ilian 
nobleman who had come to Rome to 
folicit for the allies the rights of citi- 
zens, and lodged at the houfe of Dru- 
fus, having become familiar with the 
boys, afl^ed them one day to intercede 
with their uncle, that he would be- 
friend their caufe. Caepio gave a 
fmile of confent ; but Cato, by his fi- 
lence and looks, intimated his refufal. 
Upon which Silo, fnatching him up, 
carried him to the window, and 
threatened to throw him over, if he 
would not confertt, holding his body 
out of the window, and fhaking him 
feveral times. But Cato remained all 
the time unmoved and unconcerned, 
Plutarch. Cicero is fuppofed to allude 
to this ftory in the expreffion, De 
Quadnmo Catone^ Fam. i6, 2 2. 

Sulla, the dictator, ufed frequently 
to invite Cato and his brother to his 
"houfe, and to talk familiarly to them., 
which he did to very few, Cato was 
then about fourteen years old. One 
da)', obferving the heads of feveral 
great men brought in, he a&ed Sarpe- 
do, his governor, " Why does no bo- 
dy kill this man V " Becaufe," fays 
he, " they fear him more than they 
hate him." " Why then," replied 
Cato, *' do you not give m.e a fword, 
that I may flab him, and free my 
country from this flavery ?" Sarpedo 
feeing his countenance full of anger 
and tury, was greatly terrified, and 
from that time, watched him ilridly, 
left he fnould attempt fomething def- 
perate, Ih. 

Cato early became acquainted with 
Antipater, the Stoic philofopher ; and 
finding the principles he taught acjree- 
able to his natural temper, cordially 
-mbraced them, ^nd adhered to them 

1 CAT 

fo {Icadily, that he has ahvays been 
juftly eftecmed one of the chief orna- 
ments of that fed, (pERFECTUb StOI- 
cus, C'lc. praef. Paradox.) The man- 
ners of the Romans being at that time 
very corrupt, Cato thought it requi- 
fite, in many things, to go contrary to 
the ordinary way of the v.'orld. See- 
ing, therefore, that a rich purple was 
rioft in fafhion, he always wore black. 
He often ufed to go out after dinner, 
(which was a flight meal, and ufed to 
be taken about mid-day), without ei- 
ther flioes or tunic ; not that he 
fought reputation from fuch pecuHa- 
rities, but wifhed to accuftom hlmfelf 
to be aivhamed of nothing but what 
was really fllameful, and to defpife 
all other things which were difefteem- 
ed by the world, Phtnrch. To this 
negligence of drefs Horace alludes, 
Ep. I, 19, 12. Having fucccedcd ta 
an eftate worth igo talents, he turned 
it all into ready money, v/hich he kept 
by him, that he might have it in his 
power to fervc fuch of his friends as 
needed it. Plutarch, w. 

Cato married Attiiia, the daughter 
of Soranus, whom, on account of her 
mifconduct, he was obliged to divorce. 
He after that married Marcia, the 
daughter of Philippus, a lady of exem- 
plary virtue, Plutarch. Hence Martial 
puts ' C atoms uxot for mutter cciPj/fima, 
II, 16, I. 

Cato ferved feveral campaigns with 
great reputation. The firft office he 
obtained from the people was that of 
military tribune ; in which capacity he 
ferved under Rubrius, praetor of Ma- 
cedonia. He took with him fifteen 
flaves, two freedmen, and four of his 
friends. Thefe rode on horfeback, 
but Cato always went on foot, to 
which hardinefs he had inured himfelf 
from his youth ; yet kept up with the 
reft, and converfed with them by turns 
on the way. After his arrival in the 
army he rendered the legion which he 
commanded a model for difcipline ; 
being, at the fame time, equally re- 
fpected and beloved by the foldiers. 
h\ his apparel, his diet, and manner of 


[ 87 1 


marching^, he was more like a common 
fol'^'er chan an officer; but in virtue, 
couvr^p^e, and wifdom, he exceeded 
molt commanders. 

Cato always difcovered the ftrongeft 
.afftction for his brother. Whilfl he 
was with the army in Macedonia, be- 
ing informed that Caepio had been ta- 
ken ill at Aenus in Tlirace, though 
it was the middle of winter, he in- 
ftantly fet fail in a fmall boat from 
Thelfaionlca, and with the utmoft ha- 
zard reached Aenus juft after Caepio 
expired. Cato, forgetting his Stoical 
principles, lamented the lofs of his 
brother with exprefiions of the deep- 
ell grief, and celebrated his funeral 
with the greateft n>agniticence, /3. 

Cato, having left the army, made a 
progrefs through Afia, to obferve the 
cuftoms of that country. Being little 
known, and traveUing with a fmall re- 
tinue, he often met with a poor recep- 
tion. But when he reached the camp 
of Pompey, who was then carrying on 
war againlt Mithridates, that general, 
knowing his confequence, received him 
with marks of thehigheli refpeft. Af- 
ter this, the cities through v/hich he 
paffed drove to outdo each other in 
expreffions of honour, and in the mag- 
nihctnce of their entertainments. King 
Dejoiarus offered him the richeft pre- 
fents, but Cato accepted none of thera, 

Cato, after his return to Rome, be- 
ing made quaeilor, difcharged the du- 
ties of that office with the utmoft fi- 
delity. His integrity was fo confpicu- 
ous, that it became proverbial among 
the peo! 'e, if any thing unlikely or in- 
credible were afferted, to fay, *' They 
would not beheve it though Cato 
himfelf fhould affirm it." In vacation 
time, as he was going to his country- 
feat in Lucania, with his books and 
philofophers, he happened to meet a 
great many horfes and attendants, 
which he was informed belonged to 
Metcllus Nepos, the brother-in-law of 
Pomipey, who was going to Rome to 
offer himfelf a candidate for the tri- 
Hunefhip. Cato, apprehending his dan- 

gerous defigns, immediately returned 
to the city, and fued for the fame of- 
fice, that he might oppofe them. They 
were both chofen. Cato, havinn- ob- 
ferved that the eleftion of confuls was 
commonly determined by bribery, de- 
clared, <' that he, would accufe whom- 
foever he fnould find giving money." 
Yet he excepted Silanus, who was 
married to his fifter Strviha ; but ac- 
cuied Murena, who was not more 
guilty than the other. Cato was join- 
ed in the accufation by Sulpicius, one 
of the difappointed candidates. Cice- 
ro, then couful, defended Murena, and 
in his pleading, expofed the paradox- 
es of the Stoic pliilofophers with fo 
much humour, that he raifed great 
laughter among the judges. Where- 
upon Cato faid to thofe Handing by, 
*' What a pleafant conful we have I*' 
Plutarch, in Cat. Mm. Murena was 
acquitted, and inftead of refenting the 
condud of Cato, always treated him 

with the greateft confidence, ib. > 

Cato, while tribune eledt, i. e, be- 
fore he entered on his office, by his 
memorable fpecch in the fenate, de- 
termined the fate of Lentulus, Cethe- 
gus, and the other accomphces of Ca- 
tiline, who were apprehended, (See 
Cicero). Plutarch relates, that this 
alone, of all Cato's fpeeches, was pre- 
ferved, by means of certain perfons, 
whom Cicero had taught to take down 
what was faid by certain abbreviation; i 
and that this ferved as the firft founda- 
tion of the arc of writing fhort hand, 
in Cat. Mill. 

Metellus the tribune, with the con- 
currence of Caefar, pr poicd a law for 
recalling hum.e Pompey with his armv, 
under pretext i^i preferving the city 
from the danger of Catiline's confpi- 
racy ; but their real defign was to deli- 
ver the republic into the hands of Pom- 
pey, and to give him abfolute power, 
I'his, however, was prevented by the 
firnmefs of Cato, whom Metellus, on 
the day for paffing the law, attacked 
in the forum with an armed force ; 
but Cato perfifted in his oppofition, 
with no fmall danger, C'lc. Sc'xf. 28. till 



L 88 1 

C A T 

at laft lie was extncated by the inter- 
vention of Murena the conful. Metel- 
lus thus being fruftrated, fled to Pom- 
pey. (See Caesar ) 

Next year, a. u. 692, Pompey re- 
turned from Afia, in the height of his 

When moft of the nobih'ty made a 
contribution (pecunias contulerunt) to 
enable Bibulus, in his fuit for the con- 
fulfliip, to bribe as high as his compe- 
titors Lucejus and Caefar, Cato is 
fa id to have approved of it, {ne C atone 

glory. Perceiving that he could not qu'idem abnuente earn largitlonem e repub- 
accompllili his defigns without the con- Hcajleri)y Suet. Caef. 19. 

currence of Cato, he fent his friend 
Minutius to propofe to Cato an inti- 
mate alliance with him, by marrying 
the eldeil of Cato's two nieces himfelf, 
fome fay his daughters, and his fon 
the youngeft. But Cato, without he- 
Ctation, immediately anfwered, " Go 
tell Pompey that Cato is not to be 

Caefar having got his law pafled for 
the diviiion of the lands of Campania 
among the poorer citizens, annexed a 
claufe to it, " That all the fenators 
fhould fwear to defend it.'* This Cato 
long refufed to do, and his admirer 
Favonius ; but moved by the entrea- 
ties of his family, and the perfuafion 

gained by female influence, though o- of his friends, among the reft of Cice- 

thervvife I very much value his kind- 
nefs. While he afts honourably and 
juftly, he fhall find in me a friendfhip 
more firm than any alliance; but I will 
not give hoftages to Pompey's glory 
againft my country's fafety." This 
anfwer, as may be imagined, was very 
difagreeable to the vvomen,'and however 

ro, he at laft complied, Plutarch, et 
Cic. Sext, 28. Cato, however, ftill 
continued to oppofe the laws of Cae» 
far, on which account Caefar one day 
ordered him to be carried to prifon ; 
but when many of the fenators follow- 
ed Cato, Caefar, fearing left fuch vio- 
lence fliould raife odium, defired one 

praife-worthy in Cato, proved in the end of the tribunes to interpofe, and libe- 

very unfortunate to his country; for rate Cato, Z)/o, 38, 3.; Suet, Caef. 20. ', 

Pompey foon after formed the fatal Cell. 4, 10. 

connexion with Caefar and CrafTus, A. \J. 695, Clodius, when tribune, 

which gave caufe to all the civil wars having effected the banlfhment of Ci- 

which followed, and linally to the de- cero, procured a law to be paifed. 

ftruclion of the republic. All this Ca- 
to might have prevented, by yielding 
a little. Hence Cicero blames him 
for acting as if he had lived in the re- 
public of Plato, not in the dregs of 
Romulus, {^tanquam in -^oxiruu Platonis, 
non tanquam in fatce Ronnih^^ Att. 2, i. 
The remaining part of Cato's life was 
employed in unavailing efforts to op- 
pole the unjuil dci'gns of the Triumvi- 
rate. The Romans, funk in luxury, 
and blinded by corruption, with a veiy 
few exceptions, lent a deaf ear to all 
his remonftrances, Dio, 37, 57. Cato 
vainly endeavoured co pveferve the an- 
cient forms of the conilitution, while 
the fpirit of it was gone. 

In the difpute between Lncullus and 
Pompey, Cato took part v^itli Lucul- 
lus, both from a fenfe of jufticc and 
regard to affinity, Lucullus being mar- 
ried to Cato's filter, Plutarch.' 

" That the kingdom of Cyprus fhould 
be taken from Ptolemy, and reduced 
into the form of a province." Cato 
was appointed to execute this law, in 
order to remove him aifo out of the 
way, that he might not thwart the 
unjuit proceedings of Clodius, nor the 
views of the Triumviri^ by whom Clo- 
dius was fuppovted, Cic. Dom. 8, 20, 
& 25. ; Sext. 18, & 28. ; D/>, 38, 30. 
et y^, 2 2.\ /^f//. 2,45. Cato, though 
he difapproved of the proceedings 
of Clodius, yet accepted this office, 
which viras impofed on him by what 
Cicero calls rogaiio feeler at'ijjimay a moft 
wicked law, Sext. 29. and dilcharged 
it with his ufuai fidelity. Upon his 
return to Rome he was received by 
the people and fenate with every mark 
of relped, Plutarch. \ Flor. ■?, 9. The 
fe.iate decreed him an extraordinary 
praetorlhip, or that he might ftand 


CAT [89 

candidate for that office before the le- 
gal time, and the right of viewing the 
fptftacles in a toga praetextay or in a robe 
bordered with purple. But Cato would 



fed the law concerning the provinces 
of the confuls, Cato, oppofing it with 
his ufual firmnefs, was ordered to be 
earned to prifon ; but when the peo- 

accept none of theie honours, Plutarch, pie followed him, liilening to him as 

ih,\ D'lo, 39, 23.; VaJ. Max. ^t i> H* 
Cato brought from Cyprus no lefs a 
fum than ycoo talents of fjlver, ib. et 
Lucan. 3, 164. 

Pompey and Craffus having agreed 

he fpoke by the way, Trebonius, being 
alarmed, commanded him to he relea- 
fed. When the law was propofed con- 
cerning the continuation of Caefar's 
command, Cato did not addrefs him- 

with Caefar to fue for a fecond conful- felf to the people, but to Pompey, fore- 
fliip, to continue to him his command warning him of what awaited himfelf 
for other five years, and to ftize for for his prefent conduft. But Pompev 
themfelves the riched provinces of the Hill \vent on, never imagining that 
empire,theonlycompetitor that appear- Caefar would change, and always con- 
ed againft them was Domitius Aheno- fiding in his own power and good for- 

barbus, who was married to Marcia, 
Cato's filler. But on the day of the 
election, Domitius and Cato, in their 
way to the Campus Martius, were at- 
tacked by the party of Pompey and 
Craffus, one of their attendants killed 
©n the fpot, feveral wounded, and the 
rell obhged to fly. After this Pompey 
and Craffus were declared confuls, Dioy 
39, 31. Cato, flill determined to op- 
pofe their meafures, offered himfelf a 
candidate for the praetorfhip ; but Pom- 
pey, by violence, artifice, and bribes, 
prevented his election ; and Vatinius, a 
man of a worthlefs charaClier, was cho- 
fen praetor, inftead of Cato, a. u. 698. 
Upon which Cato, Handing up in the 

tune, Plutarch, in Cat. Mm. 

Cato was eledled praetor next year. 
In this office lie was not more remark- 
able for his integrity than for his fin- 
gular drefs. In funimer he ufed to fit 
on the tribunal without a tunic, dreffed 
only in his toga, with drawers below, 
{campejln fub toga fc. praetexta c'lntius)^ 
in imitaiion of the brazen flatues of 
Romulus in the capitol, and of Camil- 
lus in the roftra, Afcon. 'in Cu. pro Scan- 
ro, fin. ; Val. Max. 3, 6, 7. alfo with- 
out fhoes ; both which Plutarch blames, 
in Cat. p. 780. 

The people then w^ere fo corrupted 
by the gifts of thofe who fued for of- 
fices, that many made a conflant trade 

alTembly of the people, for'?told, as if of felhng their votes. To check this 

t>y infpiration, all the calamities that 
afterwards befel the fiate, and exhort- 
ed the people to beware of Pompey 
and Craffus, who had been J^uilty 
■of fuch crimes, and had formed fuch 
dtfigns, that they had reafon to be a- 
•fraid of Cato for their praeior. .When 
tie had ended his fpeech, he was fol- 
lowed to his houfe by a greater num- 
ber of people than all the praetors to- 
gether, Plutarch, ih. [Si vere ae/limare 

non Catoni tunc praetura, fed 


fraeturae Cato ncgatus ejl, Val. Max. 
5, 6.). Cato was fupported in his ap- 
plication for the praetorfiiip by Cice- 
ro ; who foon after, through the in- 
fluence of Pompty, was reconciled to 
Vatinius, Cic. P'am. i, 9, 50. 

When Trebonius the tribune propo- 

corruption, Cato perfuaded the fcnate 
to make an order, that thofe who were 
clefted Into any office fhould be obli- 
ged to declare upon oath how they 
obtained their eledion. This fo of- 
fended the populace, that they made 
an attack one day on Cato as he was 
coming into the forum. But Cato 
having got into the rollra, by his firm 
2nd Iteady alpe6t, inllantly awed them 
into filenci.% Plutarch, hterally verif . ng 
the defcription of Vivgil, jlen. i, i '^^. 
The propofed regulation, however, i\.id 
fuch an effect, that the candidates tor 
the tribunelhip that year, agreed, tiiat 
each fiiould depofit in Cato's r.anda 
125,000 drachmae, about L. 4000, to 
be forfeited by any of them whom Ca- 
to ( judge guilty of bribery, Cic. 
M ' Aiu 


jfit.^, 15.; ^Fr.2, 15 
fed to take the money, and only re- 
quired eacli of them to find fecurity. 
On the day of elcAion, Cato having 
watchfully obferved all that pafTed, dif- 
covered one who had broken the agree- 
ment, and immediately ordered him to 
pay his money to the reft ; but they, 
greatly admiring the juftice of Cato, 
remitted the penalty, thinking the dil- 
honour a fufficient punifament, Plu- 
tarch. On this occafion Cicero is faid 
to have cried out, *' O happy Cato, 
from whom no body dares to aflc a dif- 
honeil thing !" {Otefelicem, M. Porc'ty 
a quo rem impt'olmn pttcre nemo audet !)y 
Plin. PrS-f. Cicero declares, " That 
if the tle<£lions fnould go on freely or 
without bribery, [gralulln), as was ex- 
pef^ed, that Cato alone would efl-ed 
more than all the laws and courts of 
juftice," (plus unus Cato fuer'it, qiiam 
cmnes leges y omncfque jud'ices, ib.). Such 
public confidence, however, procured 

[ 90 ] CAT 

Cato refu- power of Pompey and Caefar, if they 
agreed, would opprefs the republic, or 
If they differed, involve it In civil wars, 
that he might more effeftually avert 
both evils, flood candidate for the con- 
fulftiip againft next year, 702. But 
Cato's competitors, Serv. Sulplcius and 
M. Marcelius, being more acceptable 
to the people, were preferred. Cato 
could not Hoop to the arts of folicita- 
tion, and had offended the populace 
by his efforts to check bribery. Not 
being in the leafl dejected at this re- 
pulfe, he the fame day played at ball 
IP. the Campus Martins^ and after din- 
ner went to the forum, as ufual, with- 
out his flioes or his tunic, and there 
walked about vi^ith his acquaintances, 

"When fom.e of Caefar's friends pro- 
pofed In the fenate, that a thankf- 
givlng fhould be decreed for his vic- 
tories over the Germans, Cato decla- 
red, *' That Caefar ought to be dell- 

Cato as much envy as reputation. Pom- vered Into the hands of thofe whom he 
pey. In particular, conlidered the in- had fo unjuftly attacked.'^ Caefar, 
creafe of Cato's credit as a diminution upon hearing this, wrote a reproachful 

letter againft Cato, which was openly 
read In the fenate. Whereupon Cato 
laid open the whole defigns of Caefar 
from the beginning, and told the fe- 
nate, " That It was not the Britons 
and Gauls, but Caefar himfelf they had 
to fear," ih. 

When news was brought that Caefar 
had croffed the Rubicon, and was ad- 
vancing with his army tov/ards Rome^ 
all men, even Pompey himfelf, acknow- 
ledged, " that Cato alone had forefeen 
and clearly foretold the Intentions of 
Caefar." Cato faid, " That if the 
fenate had followed his advice, they 
would not nov/ be reduced to the ne- 
ceflity of fearing one man, nor of de- 
pending on one man for fafety " He 
however advifed them to entrufl the 
fupreme command to Pompey ; for, 
faid he, *' thofe who are the authors 
of great evils can beft remove them.'* 
Cato therefore concurred In all the fc- 
Vere decrees againfl Caefar, Caef. B. C* 
I, 3, 4, & 32. Whereas, had the con- 
llitution of the republic prevailed, both 


of his o^n power, and therefore con- 
tinually fet up men to rail againft him. 
Among thefe was Clodius, who now 
accufed Cato of having embezzled 
part of the treafure brought from Cy- 
prus. But Cato eaiily refuted this 
charge, by fhewing, " That, without 
taking any thing to himfelf, he had 
brought more treafure from Cyprus a- 
lone, than Pompey, after fo many wars 
and triumphs," Plutarch. 

On account of the tumults which 
happened after the death of Clodius, 
BibiiluG, .who vvas a relation of Cato'3, 
moved the fenate to create Pompey 
fole conful, a. 701, which Cato, con- 
trary to the expectation of sjl, agreed 
to, declaring, that any government was 
better than anarchy or confufion, Plu- 
tarch. Cato was one of the judges ap- 
pointed to try Milo, and gave his vote 
'vlvd voce for his acquittal, (palam lata 
ahfohit fententid), Veil. 2, 47. Milo, 
liowever, being odious to Pompey, was 
condemned, id?. 

Cato perceiving that the overgrown 

CAT r 9 

Caefar and Ponipey ouglit to have 
been deprived of their command, or 
rather fliould never liave obtained it. 
The Romans, by fnbmlttinc^ to the 
ufurped authority, fnft of Marius and 
Sulla, and afterwards of Pompey and 
Caefar, fnewed that they were prepa- 
red for fcrvitude. The fenate, and Ca- 
. to among the reft, by fwearing to fup- 
port fuch laws as thofe of Caefar and 
Clodius, not to mention others, gave 
up their legal means of refiftance. If 
Cato, and the few that joined him, had 
imitated the conduct of the virtuous 
MetcUus Numidicus, they would have 
aded more confiftently, and probably 
more for the good of their country. 
What Dio Caihus obferves took place 
after the battle of Philippi, in reality 
was the cafe long before. The conteil 
was not for freedom, but; what malter 
the Romans fliould fervc, D'lOy 47, 39. 
The army being then raoilly compofed 
of mercenaries, always fided with that 
party which they thought would pay 
them beft, [Nulla JiJes p'tctafque luris, 
qtii cajlra fequuntur, Vcnalejque manus : 
ibi FAS) ubi maxima merges, Lucan. 1 o, 
407.). Liberty cannot exift in any 
ration where the great body of the 
people are corrupted. Caefar knew 
that in fuch a ftate the moft virtuous 
patriots are of little avail, (twmina va- 
na Catones), Lucan. i, 313. Cato 
joined Pompey, becaufe, by doing fo, 
he thought that there was the beft 
chance for reftoring liberty ; but liberty 
\vas in equal danger from both Caefar 
and Pompey. Cato was fenfible of 
this, and followed Pompey only as the 
defender of the fenate. Thus Lucan, 
Ille (fc. Cato) ubi pendebant cafusy du- 
hiumqne manehat, ^em mundi domimim 
faccrcnt civilia bdla, Oder at d Magnum, 
quamvis comes i/Jct in anna, jdufpiciis rap' 
tus patriae, dutfuque fenatus, 9, 1 9. 

Cato had feveral years bfrfore volun- 
tarily given up his wife Marcia to 
Hortenfius, with the confcnt of her 
father Philippus ; and after the death 
of Horcenfms, who left her his eilate, 
Cato again formally married her, that 
ihe might take care of his family ; but 

1 ] CAT 

did not cohabit with her, Plutarch* 
Lucan makes Marcia come of herfelf, 
and requeft this of Cato, 2, 326, &c. 
( Da tantum nomen inane Connubii ; Li" 
ceat tumido Jcripjijfe, Catonis Mar- 
cia, ib. 342.^. After this Cato is faid 
never to have cut his hair nor ftiaved 
his beard, through grief for the cala- 
mities of his country, Plutarch, et Lu- 
can. ib. 375. The great purpofe of 
Cato's life was to ferve his country, 
and promote the good of mankind, 
( Patriae impcndere vitam ; Nee Jtbi, fed 
toil geni turn fe credere mundo), ib. 382. 

Cato had the government of Sicily 
afiigncd to him, which he might have 
defended, Cic. Att 10, 16. but hear- 
ing that Pompey had abandoned Italy, 
he was unwilling to engage the ifiand 
in a war, and therefore failed from 
thence and joined Pompey at Dyrra- 
chium, Plutarch. He always gave his 
advice to prolong the war, in hopes 
that matters might be amicably fettled. 
In a council of war he got a refolution 
paffed, that no city that was fubjeft to 
the republic fhould be facked, and no 
Roman killed, unlefs in the heat of 
battle. Pompey at firft defigned to 
give Cato the command of his fleet, 
w^hich confifted of 500 fhips of w^ar ; 
but refle6ling that as Cato's only aim 
was to free his country from ufurpa- 
tion, if Caefar were conquered, Cato, 
with fo great a force, would oblige 
Pumpey to lay dow^n his arms, and be 
fubjeft to the laws: Pompey therefore 
changed his mind, and made Bibulus 
admiral. Cato's zeal, however, for the 
public good continued unabated ; and 
he contributed greatly to the fucceff- 
ful fally at Dyrrachium, which made 
Caefar defift from his blockade of Pom* 
pey and his army. Whilft others re- 
joiced at this fuccefs, Cato alone be- 
wailed the fate of his country, and 
curfed that deftrudive ambition which 
made fo m.aiiy brave Romans murder 
one another, ib. 

When Pompey followed Caefar into 
Thelfaly, he left Cato to comirrand at 
Dyrrachium with only fifteen cohorts. 
After the overthrow at Pharfalia, Cato, 

M 2 


'"""' CAT C 92 ] CAT 

fappofing that Pompey had fled to E- 9, 890. — 940. Plutarch 
gypt or Libya, haflened after him with 

all the troops he could colleft. When 
they reached the coaft of Africa they 
met with Sextus, Pompey's younger 
fon, who told them of his father's 
death in Egypt. (According to Lu- 
can, Cneius, the elder fon of Pompey, 
accompanied Cato to Africa, 9, 120. 
whe^'eas Appian fays that he failed to 
Spain with Labienus, B. C. 2, p. 482.) 
All the troops declared, that after 
Pompey, they would follow no other 
leader but Cato. He therefore took 
upon himfelf the command, and march- 
ed toward the city of Cyrenae, which 
openedits gates tohim, though not long 
before it had refufed admiilion to La- 
bienus, Plutarch, Lucan fays that Ca- 
to forced his entrance into Cyrenae by 
taking the city, but did not ufe any 
feverity to the inhabitans for having ex- 
cluded him, {^Exclufus nulla fe vimlicat 
hd; Poenaqiie cle viElis fola ejl, vic'^e, 
Caionif ib. 298. Here being inform- 
ed that Scipio, Pompey's fathe»-in-law, 
h?.G retired to King Juba, and that Va- 
rus, the governor of Africa, under Pom- 
pey, had jomed them with his forces, 
Cato led his army, with incredible la- 
bour and difficulty, {^ingenti cum cli^cul- 
iate il'merum locorumque (al. aquarumqii^) 
inop'ui^ Veil. 2, 54.) through a fandy de- 
fert, infeiled with ferpents. Cato all 
the time went on foot, at the head of 
his men, and never made ufe of any 
horfe or carriage, ( Movjlrat tolerare la- 
lores, Nonjuhcty) Lucan. 9, 588.) Ever 
after the battle ot Pharfalia, he ufed to 
fit at table ; adding this to his other 
marks of mourning, that he never re- 
clined, but to fleep, Plutarch. Lucan 
gives a long defcription of the various 
ferpents produced in the deferts of Li- 
bya, 9, 619. — 890. As a defence 
againft this evil, Cato carried along 
wi^h him fome of tliofe people called 
PsYLLi, who curtd the bite of ferpents, 
by fucking out the poifon with their 
mouths, and had certain charms, by 
y/hich they llupilied and laid afleep the 
ferpents thernfelvesj Plutarch, et Lucan. 

fays that 
Cato was feven days in pafling this de- 
fert,/>. 787. Strabo fays thirty days, ult. 
libr. Lucan fays two months, {^Bis po- 
ftt'is Phoebe (i. e. I^un2i)jlammisf bis luce 
receptd, Vidit arenivagum furgens fug'iens' 
que Catonerriy) 9, 940. 

Cato having wintered in Libya, 

drew out his army, which amounted to 

about 10,000 men. He found the 

d Varus in a bad flate, 

affairs of Scipio an 
by reafon of a mifunderftaoding be- 
tu'een them ; which led them to make 
undue fubmiffions to Juba, who treated 
them with great arrogance. Cato pro- 
duced a reconciliation between Scipio 
and Varus, and obliged Juba to behave 
towards them with proper refpeft. All 
the army defired Cato to be their 
leader ; but Cato yielded the chief 
command to Scipio, as being fuperior 
to him in dignity ; Scipio having been 
conful, and he only praetor, [honorat'iori 
parere maluk, Veil. 2, 54.) Appian. 2, 
482 Befides, it was thought aufpici- 
ous to have a Scipio to command in 
Africa, and the very name gave courage 
to many of the foldiers, Plutarch, ib. et 
I)io, 42, 57. [fafale Africae nomcn Scipio- 
nurn via'ebatur, Flcr. 2, 15.) 

Scipio, having aiTumed the command, 
to gratify Juba, was inclined to put 
the inhabitants of Utica to death, and 
to raze the city, for its attachment to 
Caefar ; but was prevented by Cato, 
who took upon himfelf the government 
of the place, ib, He chofe 300 Ro- 
man citizens, who trafficked at Utica, 
for a council ; and deliberated with 
them on things of comm.on concern, 
Plutarch, liht. Bell. AJr. 88. Cato 
advifed Scipio, as he had Pompey, not 
to hazard a battle, but to prolong the 
war. Scipio, however, rejetled his 
counfcl ; and when Cato propofed to 
make a diveriion in Italy by tranfport- 
ing thither the troops which he had 
brought into Africa, Scipio derided 
the projeft. Cato now repented hig 
having refigned the command to Sci- 
pio ; and told his friends, thai he pla- 
ced but (lender hopes in generals wb< 


CAT C 93 

had To much prefumption and fo little 
condud. Cato's apprehenlions were 
fooner verified than he expefted, Sci- 
plo and Juba being completely defea- 
ted by Caefar at Thapfus, with the 
lofs of their camps. Cato wifhed to de- 
fend Utica, and had made every prepa- 
ration requifite for fupporting a long 
fiege. But finding the townfmen and 
many of his foldiers unwilhng to con- 
cur with him in that refolution, he de- 
termined to put an end to his days, that 
he miffht not fall into the hands of 
Caefar. He, however, was at great 
pains to conceal his intention from his 
friends. He provided fhips and what 
was necefTary for fuch as wifhed to de- 
part by fea ; he afforded money and 
other things requinte to thole who in- 
tended to efcape by land. He advifed 
t!ie people of Utica to fend fpeedily 
and make their peace with Caefar. In 
the evening he bathed, as ufual, and 
then went to fupper with a large com- 
pany, at which he fat, as he had al- 
ways done fince the battle of Pharfalia. 
All his friends, and the magillrates of 
Utica fupped with him. After fupper 
the converfation was carried on with 
much wit and learning : Several philo- 
fophical queflions were propofed and 
difcuHed : among the reft that maxim 
of the Stoics, " That the wife or 
good man alone is free, and that all 
wicked men are flaves." On this fub- 
ject Cato fpoke with fo great vehe- 
mence, that every one prefent faipeCted 
liis defign. This cccafioned -a pro- 
found filence, and the whole company 
were much dejcfted. Cato perceiving 
it, changed the fubjeft of dircourfe. 

After the entertainment was over, 
Cato walked with his friends, as he ufed 
to do after fupper, gave the neceffary 
orders to the captains of the guard, and 
retiring to his chamber, embraced his 
fon, and each of his friends, with more 
than ufual affection. Then laying him- 
felf down, he began to read rlato's 
Phaedoii or Dialogue concerning the 
immortality of the foul. Having read 
hair the book, upon looking up, he 
perceived that his fwcrd was not hang- 

3 CAT 

ing at the head of his bed in its ufu^Ll 
place ; for his fon had taken it away 
while he was at fupper. Hereupo" 
Cato ordered it to be brought ; 
and when this, after various delays, 
was done, " Now," fays he, " I am 
mailer of myfelf.'* Then he took up 
his book again, and, as it is reported, 
read it twice over. After this he flept 
fo found, that his breathing was heard 
by thofe who were in waiting without. 
About midnight he called for two of his 
freedmen, and fent one of them named 
Butas, to enquire if his friends were all 
embarked. Butas returned in a (hort 
time, and brought word, " That they 
all were gone." Upon which Cato 
laid himfeif down, as if to flcep out the 
reft of the night, and ordered Butas 
to (liutthe door. But after Butas went 
out, he took his fvvord, and ftabbed 
himfeif under the breaft. The wound 
not being inftantly mortal, with his 
ftruggling he fell from his bed, and by 
the noife alarmed hv friends, v/ho rufti- 
ing into the room, found him welter- 
ing in his blood, with part of his bowels 
fallen out, but ftill alive, and his eyes 
fixed upon them. They were all ftruck 
with horror. As the entrails were un- 
injured, the phyfician tried to put them 
in again, and to few up the wound. 
But Cato, coming to himfeif, thruft 
away the phyfician, plucked out his 
own bowels, and tearing open the 
wound, immediately expired, Plutarch* 
Appian fays, that Cato's phyficians 
adfually did put in his entrails and few 
up the wound ; that Cato pretended to 
be forry for what he had done, thank- 
ed his friends for having faved him, 
adding, that he needed quiet, and then 
laid himfeif down, as if to ileep. But 
when his friends were gone oui, beincr 
determined not to fubmit to a tyrant, 
(Ne cu'i Ciitonsm nut oc ciders hcerety aut 
fervan; cont'ingeret,) he pulled off the 
bandages, tore up the fewing, and for- 
ced open thp wound with his nails and 
fingers like a wild beaft ; and thus ex- 
pired, 2, 490. So Z>/o, 43, IT.; H'trt. 
B, j4fr. 88. {^Moribundas manus in ipfo 
vulmrc rdlquitt) Flo r. 4, 2, 71. {^nitdas 


CAT [94 

in 'vulnus mamis eg'tt^ et generofum ilium 
contemptoremque omnis potentiae fpir'itum 
non emlCtt^ fed ejecif,) Senec. Ep. 24. 
This refolute fiercenefs and ftern in- 
flexibility of mind is beautifully expref- 
fed by Horace In one word, JEt ciwMa 
f err arum fubaBa, praeter at roc em ani- 
mum Cafonhj Od. 2, 1,23. So Manilius, 
Invicfum devlctd morte Catonem, 4, 87. 
Hence Horace celebrates the death of 
Cato, as a noble deed, ( Caton'is noh'de h- 
thum,) Od. I, 12, 35. So Cicero, 
Cato praedare^ fc. per'iil^ Fam. 9, 1 8. 
who fays, " that Cato died in fuch a 
difpofition of mind that he was happy 
in having found a caufe for quitting 
life, C'lc. Tujc. I, 30. This Cicero 
thinks was a juil caufe ; but others 
have thoujyht the contrary, and for 
the very reafon which Cicero men- 
tions : " that we ought not to leave 
this life without the order of the Deity, 
who has placed us in it," (Vetat en'im 
do)r,ina7is His in nobis, injvJJ'u h'lnc nosfuo 
demigrare,) Tufc. i, 30. 

The people of Utica inftantly flock- 
ed round the houfe, calling Cato their 
benefactor, and their" fa viour, the only 
free and unconquered man. Though 
they knew that Caefar was approaching, 
yet they performed Cato's funeral ob- 
f.'quies with the greateli magnificence, 
and buried him by the fea-fide ; v/here, 
fays Plutarch, now flands his fhatue, 
holding a fwofd, ib. Hence Cato has 
ever fince been called Cato Uticen- 
sis, Dioy 43, II. Cato died in the 
forty- ninth year of his age, Lh. Epit. 
1 14. Plutarch fays that he was forty- 
eight years old, p. 794. Appian 
makes him about fifty, ib. 

Caefar, having heard of the fate of 
Cato, is reported to have faid, *' Cato, 
I envy thee thy death, fince thou hafl 
envied me the prefervation of thy life." 
Plutarch, ib. According to Dio, Cae- 
far faid that he was angry with Cato 
for having envied him the glory of fa- 
ving his hfe, 43, 1 2. So appian. p. 490. 
Caefar pardoned Cato's fon, who after- 
wards fell ligliting bravely in the battle 
pi Philippi, Plutarch, ib., 

1 CAT 

Cicero, after the death of Cato 
wrote a book in his praife, which he 
called, Cato, [Laus \t\ Laudatlo Qh- 
TON is), Dioy 43, 13. ; Tacit. Ann. 4, 
34. ; Appian. p. 490. Caefar wrote 
an anfwer to it, called Anticato, 
Dio, ib. ; Gelh 4, 16. divided into two 
parts or books. Suet. Caef 56 whence 
Juvenal calls it Duo Caesaris An- 
TicATONiLs, 6, 338. 

M. Fabias Gallus alfo wrote a book 
in praife of Cato, Cic, Fjm. 7, 24. ; 
as likewife Brutus, ind. Ciclro. In 
the time of Vefpafian, Maternus, a 
poet, wrote a tragedy called Cato. 
See Maternus. 

Cato was the moil celebrated cha- 
rafter of his time for virtue and pa- 
triotifm, Cic. Mur. 29, >^' 30. ; DiOf 
43, II. ; Hirt. B. Afr. 88. ; Appian. 
490 So Plutarch, who calls him Ca- 
to, tlie philofopher, in Cat. Major fin. 
Dio reprefents Cato as the only up- 
right fupporter of the liberty of his 
country, 37, 57. Cicero, in the book 
v.^hich he wrote in praile of Cato, is 
laid to have extolled him to the lilies, 
[Catonem coeJo aequavit,) Tacit. Ann. 
4, 34. The topics on which Cice- 
ro chiefly infilled, fcetn to have been 
the gravity and conilancy of Cato ; 
his having forefeen the things which 
happened, his efforts to prevent them, 
and his parting with Hfe that he might 
not fee them, Cic. Att. 12, 4. We 
may judge in what eftimation Cato. 
was held among his contemporaries by 
what Salluft fays of him, in the con- 
traft which he makes of the clipj-afters 
of Cato and Caefar ; At Caloni Jludium 
mcdcjliae, decoris, fed maximc fcverltatis 
erat. Non divitiis cum divite, nequefac- 
tione cum faSiofo ; fed cum Jlrenuo vir- 
lute, cum mode/io pudore, cum innocente 
aliftinentid certahat ; esse, quam vide- 
Ri BONUS malebat. CatiUn, 54. M. 
Cato, — homo 'virtuti Jtmillpnus, et per 
omnia ingenio diis quam hominilus pro- 
pior, qui nunquam rccte fecit, ut facere 
indereiur, fed quia aliter facere non po- 
terat, 6cc. Veil. 2, 35. Lucan fpcaks 
Hill more hyperbohcally in preferring 


CAT [ 9? 1 CAT 

the judgment of Cato, concerning the Favonius, who fat next to him 

cm'viI war, even to that of the Gods > 
J'^'iSrix caufa di'is placuit^ fed vida Ca- 
ionii I, 128. Martial calls Cato con- 

' fummatuSf i. e. perftclus Stotcus, a per- 
fed: charader, according to the tenets 
of the Stoics, who confidered fuicide 
in certain cafes as a virtue ; but this a6l 
Martial juftly difapproves, Nolo vlnmi^ 

' fac'di redlmti qui fangu'ine famam : Hunc 
voloy laudari qui Jine morte potejl^ Give 

. me the man who deferves renown for 
bearing misfortunes lleadiiy, without 
killing himfelf to get rid of them, i, 
9. Martial, however, in anotlier 
place, calls killing one's felf with the 
fvvord a Roman death, [rnors Romana^ 
i. e. multorum P^omanorum commu- 
nis, Lucretiae, &c. ), in oppofition 
to taking poifon, or ftarving one's felf; 
and by an artful piece of fiattcry to 
Domitian, prefers the death of Feltus, 
(a friend of that Emperor's, who, to 
get quit of a loathfome difeafe, ftab* 
bed himfelf), to that of Cato, who 
£itvf himfelf either from fear or hatred 
of Caefar, {^Ham mortem, (fc. Fefti), 
j'atii magni praeferre Catoms Fama po- 
tejl : hujus (fc. Feili), Caefar^ (i.e. 
Domicianus), amicus e rat ; (At Cato- 
ni Caefar inirnicus erat), i, 79, 9. 
Martial allows Cato, while alive, to 
have been fuperior evev,i to Caefar, 
(5"// CatOf dum vivitf fane W Caefare 
major) y 6, 32, 5. ; and as the higiitil 
coiD.pliment he could pay to Nerva, on 
the lenity of his government, he favs, 
that . -ato, if he were to rife from the 
infernal regions, would be a fupport- 
er of Nerva Caefar, ( Ipfe qiioqm hi:er- 
fiis revo'catus Ditis ah umhris., Si CatOy 
reddaiilry Caefarianus erity i. e. wuuld 
rather live under fo good an emperor, 
than under a repubhcan government, 
II, 6, 13.'; and would even be an imi- 
tator of Nerva, ib. 12, 6, 8. 

The Romans had fo great a venera- 
tion for the virtue of Cato, that once, 
while he was in the theatre, the peo- 
ple were afliamed to aflc certain inde- 
cent exhibitions, which uftid to be 
made at the feftival of Flora. Cato 
having learned this from his friend 

. left 
the theatre ; and upon his departure, 
the people raifed a loud fhout of ap- 
plaufe, Val Max, 2, 10, 8. ; Senec, 
Ep. 97. Whence Martial fays. Cur 
in t heat rum y Cato fevercy 'oenifli? An 
ideo taritum venerasy ut exires ? denoting, 
that, as he knew the cuitom, he fliould 
either not have come, or have remain- 
ed, 2, 3. ^'on intrst Coto t heat rum nof- 
Irnm ; autfi inlravtrit, fpcclety ib. Praef. 
Praifmg the morals of Latinus, a cele- 
brated mimic under Domitian, he 
makes him fay, " that he never did 
any thing, which he (hould have been 
alhamed of, even in the pi'efence of 
Cato, [qui fpeciotorem poiui fecijfe Cato- 
nem)y 9, 29, 3. — So Juvenal, lalhing the 
hypocritical philofophers of his time, 
makes Laronia, an immodeil woman, 
fay ironically to one of them, Felicia 
tempora ! quae te morihus opponunt : ha- 
beat jam Roma pudorem % Tertius e 
coELO CECiDiT Cato, Happy times! 
which have you for a cenfor : let 
Rome now be afaamed (to do any- 
thing bafe before you) ; A third Cato is 
dropped from the clouds ! 2, 40. 

Cato, like his great-gr-andfather, was 
fond of focial entertainments, w^hich 
fomecimes he ufed to prolong through 
a great part of the night. Juhus Cae- 
far reproached him upon that head, 
but in fuch a manner that he exalted 
the character of Cato while he endea- 
voured to expofe it. For, as Phny 
infor-ras us, Caefar writes, (probably 
ia his invedive againft Cato in Antica- 
tone)y " That while Cato was going 
home from one of thofe meetings a 
httle intoxicated, with his head cover- 
ed, that he might not be known, fome 
perfons whom he met having uncovei"- 
ed his head, Llufned when they difco- 
vered who he was. You would have 
thought that Cato had deteded them, 
not they Cato." Could the dignity of 
Cato, fays Piiny, be placed in a itrong- 
er light, than by reprefenting him thus 
venerable, even in la's cups ? FUn. Ep, 
3, 12. Hence Mar-tial fays, " That 
during the mierrim.ent of a feafl, even 
the rigid Caio would read his verfes. 


CAT [ 96 3 CAT 

(Turn me vel rigidl legant Catones), 10, and of the hi'gheft rank. 

19, 21. 

Quinftllian, fpeaking of both Catos, 
{^de uti'oque Catoue^y f^'js, ^orutn alter 
appeUatus ejl Sapif.sS) alter n'lfi creditur 
fui/fcy "v'lx fclo, cut rsliquerit hujus nomliils 
locum, 12 f 7, 4. 

Catonianus, adj. of or belonging 
to Cato; tluis, Catoniana linjua, the 
tongue of an hypocritical profligate, 
who pretended to imitate Cato in the 
ilriclnefs of his morals, Martial. 9, 28, 
14. — Catonini, 'orum, the favourers 
of Cato ; thus, Vereor ne in Catonium, 
{{. e. in Orcum vel inferos, a ^.x^, in- 
fra), Catoninosy (fc. piaecipitet vel agat 
Caefar), C'u\ Fam. 7, 25. 

C. CATO, the grandfon of Cato, 
the cenfor, and of Paulus Aemilius ; 
the fon of the filler of P. Scipio Afri- 
canus, the younger, a tolerable ora- 
tor, Cic, Br, 28. who was confiil, 
a. 640 ; and afterwards being con. 
demned for extortion, Cic. Verr. 4, 
10. by the Mamilian law, Cic. Br. 34. 
lived in exile at Tarraco, Ci:. Balb. J i. 

C. CATO, of the fame family with 
Cato Uiicerfis ; faid to be a young man 
void of prudence, Cic. ^ Fr. i, 2, 5. 
which he ihewed by his condud^, ib. 
Being created tribune, a. 697. he 
keenly oppofcd tlie reftoration of King 
Cic. Fam. I, 2, Sic. and 
a law for recalling Lentuius 
fclpintlier from his government of Ciii- 
cia, /i'. 4, & 5. At the inRigation of 
Pompey and Craflus, Dio, 39, 27. et 
28. he attempted to hinder the eltc- 
tioa of magiitrates, becaufe he was 
not ptrmitted by the confuls to hold 
any aQlmblies of the people for pro- 
mulgating his pernicious laws, (it. ^ 
Fr.2y 6. ; Liv. Epii. 105. He was 
next year brought to a trial, but was 
acquitted, Cic. Att. 4, 15, et 16. — 
Familia Catoniana, the fiaves of C. 
Cato, i. e. gladiatois and bejliarii, v^hom 
he had purchaled, bat was obliged to 
fell, becaufe he could not fapport them, 
Cic. ^Fr.2y 6. 

Faierius CAl^O, a grammarfan, the 


friend of Catull 
waidUtuded by 

Cat nil. 56, 


He was e- 
fteemed an excellent teacher, particu- 
larly for fuch as had a turn for poetry, 
Suet. Gram. 2y et ii. 

C. (al. Q. j Valerius CATULLUS, 
a celebrated poet, born at Verona, a. u. 
667, of a refpeilable family. His fa- 
ther Valerius was the friend of Ju- 
lius Caefar, who ufed to lodge at his 
houfe, Suet. Caef. 73. Catullus, though 
not opulent, appears to have polfelTed 
a moderate fortune. He fpeaks of 
Sirmio, a beautiful peninfula in the 
lake Benacus, as his property, 31, 
12. He went with Memmius, the Prae- 
tor to Bithynia ; but derived very little 
advantage from that expedition, c. 10, 
8, &c. In his way thither, when he 
reached Troas, he loft his brother, 
whom he often laments with great ten- 
dcrnefs, c. 64,5, &c. 67, 18, 90, &c. 
99, I, &;c.. Upon his return he confe- 
crated his (hip to Caftor and Pollux, 
4, 26. Catullus ufually refided at Rome, 
67, 34- and occafionally at Verona, ib, 
27. His genius procured him the 
friendihip of many perfons of the firil 
dillindlion ; fuch as Manlius Torqua- 
tus, whofe favours he gratefully ac- 
knowledges, c. 67, "y. 41, 66, &c. and 
upon whofe marriage he wrote a beau- 
tiful cpithalamium, c. 60. ; Cicero, 
f. 49. ; Calvus, an orator and poet, 53, 
3. et 94, 2. ; Cornelius Nepo?, to whom 
lie dedicated his book, i, z. et lOO, 3.; 
Cornihcius, 38, I. ; Afmius Pollio, 
tiien a young- man of great wit and 
humour, 12, 6, 5c c. ; Alphenus Varus, 
30. and feveral others. 

Catullus wrote bitter Invedlives a- 
gainil thofe whofe condud he difap- 
proved ot, in Iambic and Piialaeciaa 
verfe of eleven fyilables, (verfus He/i' 
dccafyllahi) ; againft Mamurra, Gellius, 
Vaiiuius, VettiuG, Cominius, &c. ; nor 
did he fpare even Caefar, whom he 
lalhes fevcrely under the name of Ro- 
mulus, for his profligacy and other 
crimtSj c. 29, 5,&c. ; Fiin. 36, 6. But 
upon making his acknowledgment. 

Caefar ^eneroudy pardoned him, and 

vifited his father (at Verona, when he 

to pafd that v»ay) in the 



CAT [ 

fame friendly manner as formerly, (hof^ 
pitioquc patris ejus^ Jicut confueveratj uti 
ptrfeveravit ) , Suet. Caef. 73. 

Many of the poems of Catullus are 
written on amorous fuhje£ls, and fome 
of them difgnft a modeil reader by 
their indelicacy : bwt this was owing 
to the grofs tafte of the times, when 
in coinpofitions of this fort obfcenity 
was not merely tolerated, but even 
applauded. Hence Catullus fays, " that 
the morals of a poet ought not to be 
cftimated from the nature of his ver- 
fcs ;" Nam cajliim ejfe decet plum poet am 
Ipfum, ijerjiculos nihil neccjje ejl : ^u^ 
turn denique hahtnt falem ac leporem. Si 
Jmt mollicxdi, ac parum pudiri, 16, 5. 
Hence Ovid juitilies himfelf by the ex- 
ample of Catullus, Triji. 2, 427. ; fo 
Maitial, I, pracf. and the younger 
Pliny obferv!.ii, Scimus — hnjus opufculi 
(epigrammatis nempe verfibus Hende- 
cafyilabls fcripti) illam eJfe ver'ijjiniam 
kgem, Ep. 4, 14. — The favourite mif- 
trefs of Catullus was called Clodia, 
whom he celebrates under the name of 
Lesbia, £-.5, I. ^/ 7, 2, &c. J Mea 
puellat 2, I. 3, 3, &c. ; which name he 
is fuppofed to have given her in ho- 
nour of Sappho, a native of the iHand 
Lefbos, (Lejhia). 

Catullus was a perfeft mailer of 
the Greek language, and traaflated 
from it two of his moil beautiful poems 
the 5^1 ft from Sappho, and the 65th 
fi om Callimachus ; for which reaion 
he is fuppofed to be called doctus, 
learned, Ovid. Amor* 3, 9, 62. ; Mar- 
tial. 8, 73, 8. tfi 14, ic. ; Tihull. 
3, 6. — Martial fays, that Catullus re- 
lieved as much honour on Verona as 
Virgil did on Mantua, ih. 195. et 10, 
103, 5. Thus Ovid, Mantua Firgilio 
gaudety Verona Catidlo, Amor. 3, \^, 
7. Catullus is commonly joined with 
Calvus, becaufe their ^oems were fi- 
milar, Herat. Sat. i, 10, 19. ; Ovid. 
Am. 3, 9, 62.; Plin. Ep. I. 16.; f/4,27. 

The elder Pliny mentions Catullus 
as his countryman, (conterraneus) Praef. 
and quotes him in different places with 
great approbation, 28, 2. et 36, 6. & 
2 1. f/ 37, 6/21. i^i'Ci the lati paffage 

97 ] CAT 

the beft editions have Q^ Catullus) -5 
fo the younger Pliny, Ep. i, 16, &C' 
Qjjinftilian alfo quotes Catullus feve- 
rai times, i, 5, 8 f/ 2Q. 6, 3, 18. 9, 
3,16, &c. ; but does not give him fo 
high a characler as fome others, and 
what he fays of him is fomewhat ob- 
fcure. He allows him genius, (ctijus ^c. 
iambi acerhitas in Catullo, &c.) 10, I, 
96. but afcribes to him infanity, 11, 

1, 38. In this laft paflfage he does 
not narpe him, but fimply calls him 
aliqnis poetariim. Martial often men- 
tions Catullus with the greateft refpeft, 

2, 71, 3. 5, 5, 6, &c. and reckoned it 
an honour to be ranked next to him, 
(uno minor Catu/Iojf lO, 78, 1 6. — The 
poem of Catullus moft celebrated by 
the ancients is that on the death of 
Lefbia's fparrow, c. 3. thus Juvenal, 
6, 7. So Martial, who calls this poem 
Passer, i, 8,3. f/ 7, 13, 3. 11, 7, 
i6.Catullus is ranked by Quinftilian a- 
mong the Iambic poets, 10, i, 96. and 
there is extant one poem of his [c. 25.) 
ia Iambic verfe, confiiling of fe- 
ven feet, and a caefura^ (verfus tam- 
hicus tetrameter cataleclus) ; fo that the 
boaft of Horace, when he fays, Parios 
ego primus lambos OJlend't LatiOy mull 
be reftrided to his firll introducing 
at Rome the Iambic verfe of Archi,-. 
lochtts, a nati\e of the iHand Pares, 
Ep. I, 19,23. 

Catullus is faid to have died in tha 
prime of life, when only about thirtTt 
years of age, Eufeb. Chronic. ; but if he 
was born in the 667th year of Ronie,- 
as the fame autlior favs^, he mult have 
been at leaft forry years old: for he 
mentions tl\e confullhip of Vatinius, 
f. 52. which was in the year 707.— 
Some fuppofe that Catullus lived to a 
great age, fo as to be familiar with. 
Virgil ; from thefe words of Martial; 
Sic for/an tener aufus eft Catullus Magno 
mittere pajjsrem Maroni : But Martial 
here means, " That perhaps Catullus 
would have ventured to fend his poem 
on the death of Leibia's fparrow to 
Virgil," (If they had been contempora- 
ry, as he (Martial) prefumes to fend 
liis pof'iris I© Siilus Ital:es.i3 : thus e- 
N qualUas 

CAT [ 98 1 

quailing Silius to Virgil, and Kimfelf nunciation. 
to Catullus), 4., 14, 13, 

Catulliana bafiay as many kiffes 
as Catullus af]<ed from Lefbia, Mar- 
tial, 1 1, 7, 14. f/6, 34, 7. CatuU. c. 5. 

CATULUS, a llrname of the Lu- 
tatii or LuBatii. 

a Lutatius CATULUS, conful a. 
652 ; who defeated the Carthaginian 
-^fltct at the iflands called Aegates, 
near Lilybaeum, and put an end to 
the iirft Punic war, Liv. Ep'it, 19. 
(G. 237). 

Q^Lutaths CATULUS, the col- 
league of Marius in his fourth conful- 
(liip, a. 652. a man of diilinguiflied 
merit, Cic. Arch. 3. yet twice difap- 
pointed of the confulfhip, Cic. Plane. 
5. Mur. 17. He fhared with Marius 
the glory of defeating the Clmbri, Cic. 
Tufc 5, 19. and, with the afTiftance 
of Sulla, his lieutenant-general, was 
thought to have contributed moll to 
the celebrated viftory over that people, 
Plutarch, in SulL p. 460. Catuhis, with 
part of the fpoils taken from the Cim- 
bri, (de manuhiis CimbricisJ, built a 
portico on the area where the houfe 
of M, Fulviuis Flaccus, who was llain 
with C. Gracchus, had ftood, Cic.Bom. 
;^8. ; Val Max. 6, 3, i. which is hence 
-called MoNUMENTUM Catuli, Cic. 
Verr. 4, 57. He alfo placed two lla- 
tnes in the temple of Fortune, Plin. 
34, 8. In the political conteft be- 
twixt Marius and Sulla, Catulus fup- 
ported Sulla On which account Ma- 
rius having returned from banifliment, 
doomed Catulus to death ; and when 
the friends of Catulus interceded for 
Ills life, he anUvcrcd In apaiuon, " Let 
him die," (Mohiatur) ; which he re- 


He left behind him feve- 
ral orations ; alfo memoirs of his con- 
fulfhip and of his exploits, written in 
the manner of Xenophon, Cic. Brut. 
35. He like wife amufed himfelf in 
writing amorous verfcs, Plin. Ep. 5, 
3. ; Gell 19, 9. He was intimate with 
the poet A. Furlus, Cic. Hid. and a 
great admirer of Rofclua, the play- 
aftor, Cic. N.D- 1,-28. 

^ Lvtatins CATULUS, the fon 
of the former, in his youth was mifled 

peated feveral times, Cic. Tvfc 5, 19. 
Catulus put an end to his days, by 
fhuttiiig hia-ifelf up in a room newly 
plaftered, with a lire in it, a. u. 666y 
Cic. 6y. 3, 3. ; Plutarch, in Mar. ; Ap- 
pian. B. C. p. 395.; y^elL 2, 22.; 
Flor. 3, 2. Cicero thought fo highly of 
this Catulus, that he calls him a fe- 
cund Laelius, Tufc. 5, 19. He was 
remaikable for the ^pvirity of his lan- 
guage, and the fweetnefs of hi:; pro- 

by luxury and the love of pleafure, but 
in after life became one of the moll 
dillingulfhed characters of his time, 
Val. Max. 6, 9, 5. He was conful 
the year in which Sulla died, a. 675, 
and, with the aflillance of Pompey, 
fuccefsfully refilled the attempts of his 
colleague Lepldus to refcind the laws 
of Sulla, Cic. Cat. 3, ic. ; Plutarch, 
in Pomp. — Vid. Lepidus. — Catulus 
and Pompey, after their vlftory, be- 
haved with great moderation, [vi^ores 
pace contenti Juerxini^, Flor. 3, 23. In 
the year 683, Catulus was named Prince 
of the Senate by the cenfors L. Gellius 
and Cn. Lentulus, Z);*o, 36, 13.; Afcon. 
in Cic. in Tog. Candid, and next -year 
dedicated the temple of Jupiter, which 
had been burnt down in the time of 
Sulla, a. 670, Liij. Epnt. 98. j Cic. 
Verr. 4, 31. Suetom'us menti,ons a 
wonderful dream which Catulus, on 
this occafion, is faid to have had con- 
cerning the future fuccefs of Auguftus, 
then a boy, Aug. 94. So Dio, 45, 2. 
But Auguflus was not born till live or 
fix years after this, in the confulate of 
Cicero, ^iJ. OcTAVius. A decree of 
the lenate was made, after Caefar de- 
feated Scipio and Juba in Africa, that 
the name of Catulus Ihould be erai'ed 
from the Capitol, and the name of Cae- 
far ihould be infcribed iix its place, Dioy 
43, 14. Bat this decree feems never 
to have been executed. For we learn 
from Tacitus, that the name of Luta- 
tiiis Catuhis remained on the Capitol 
till it was again burnt down, in the 
time of Vitellius, Hijl. 3, 72. ; P/«- 
tarch. Poplic. p. 104. Hence, Sic laU' 
dant Catidi vilia templa' fenesy old me A 


CAT [99 

prefer the mean temple of Catnlus to 
the magnificent temple then lately built 
by Domitian, iVIartiaL 5, 10. The 
common reading here is, yuUa temphy 
which commentators interpret variouf- 
ly. — Tacitus fays, that Sulla's not h- 
vin^ to dedicate this temple was the 
only thing- wanting to complete his 
happinefs, ih. Phny makes Sulla ac- 
knowledge this himfelf, 7, 43. Catu- 
lus keenly oppofed both the Gabinian 
and Manihan laws in favour of Pom- 
.pey, Dioy 36, 13, 3c c; C'lc. Maml. 17, 
& 20. Catulus was made cenfor with 
Crafius, a. 688. but not agreeing to- 
gether, they foon refigned that office, 
Pint arch. ^ in CraJ. 

A meeting of the fenatc being af- 
fembled on account of Caefar's having 
replaced the trophies of Marius in the 
Capitol, Catulus faidjthatCaefar now at- 
tacked the conftitution of the republic, 
not by mines, but by open battery, Plu- 
tarch, in Caef. Some time after, Catu- 
his was defeated by Caefar in his fuit 
for the office of Pontifex Maximus, 
Salhtfl. Cat. 49. After the fuppreffion 
of Catiline's confpiracy, Catulus, in a 
very full meeting of the fenate, be- 
ftowed on Cicero the honourable title 
of Father of his Country, {Me 
^ Catulus, pr'inceps hujus ordlnh, et auc- 
tor puhlici confiiiiy frequent'ijjimo fenatu 
parentem patriae nominav'itji Cic. Pii. 3. 
Thofe who fat as judges or jurymen on 
the trial of Clodius having dtfned from 
the fenate a guard to prote6t them 
from the infolence of the mob, Catulus 
happening to m-eet one of them after 
the acquittal of Clodius, which had 
been obtained by the moft Ihamelcfs 
bribery, aflced him, " What the jucii- 
ces meant by defiring a guard ? Were 
they afraid of being robbed of the mo- 
ney which Clodius had given them ?" 
Cic. Att. I, 16.; Senec. jE/. 97. Catu- 
his died foon after, in an advanced age. 
He, through life, was a zealous fup- 
porter of the ariftocratic party. Cicer- 
ro always fpeaks in the higheit terms 
of the character of Catulus, Manil. 17, 
& 20. ; Fam. 9, 15. et alibi pajjim, e- 
<jualling him to Pompey, Off. i, ,22» 

] C E L 

Catuliana Minerva, an image of 
Minerva made by Kupranor, and pla» 
ced by Catulus below the temple of 
Jupiter in the Capitol, when he dedi- 
cated it, Plin. 34, 8 f . 19 n. i6. 

Ce CROPS, -opis, commonly reckon- 
ed the firft king of Athens, (G. 418.), 
whence Cecrcp^c/ae, -arunty the Athe- 
nians ; Cecropisy -ulisy f. an Athenian 
woman ; Cecropiusy -a, -urn, Athenian, ih, 

Celeno, -usy f. one of the Har- 
pies, called Z)yr^, Virg. Aen. 3, 211. 
infelix vates, the prophctefs of unhappy 

events, ib. 245. ^2. Alfo one of 

the Pleiades, Ovid. Fajl. ^y 173. 

Celeus, 'it king of Eleufis, who 
hofpitably entertained Ceres, the god- 
defs of corn ; in return for which Hie 
taught his fon Triptolemus the art of 
huibandry, (G. 360.) 

Celmis, -is, voc. Cehnty v. -rnusyi, 
one of the IJaei Dadyliy who attended 
on Jupiter when a child. He was con- 
verted into an adamant, Ovid. Met. 4, 

Celotes, 'is, a painter of Teios, 
^lindiL 2, 13, 13. 

Aurelius Cornelius C E L S U S, an 
author, who flouriflied in the time 
of Tiberius. He wrote on different 
fubjc^ls, rhetoric, hufUandry, the mi- 
litary art, and medicine, ^indilian. 
12, IF, 24. His book on medicine 
is flill extant, and juftly held in 
the highefl elleem. QuinftiHan rec- 
kons him a man only of moderate ge- 
nius, ih. but allows him not to have 
been void of elegance, {nonfine cultuaa 
nitore), lO, I, 124. Celfus was not a 
phyfician by profeflion, but ftudied 
medicine as a branch of ufeful know- 
ledge, and derived the materials of his 
book from other authors, chiefly from 
Hippocrates ; whence he is fometimes 
called the Latin Hippocrates, and, from 
the beauty of his ftyle, the medical Ci- 

Celsus Alhinovanusy a companion 
of Tiberius Claudius Nero, in his ex- 
pedition to the eaft, Hor. Ep. i, 8, I. 
whom tlorace accufes of plagiarifm, ih, 

Julius Celsus, the author of com- 
N 2 mentaries 

C E N 

r 100 ] 


mentaries concerning the life of Caefar, 
who is fuppofed to have lived in the 6th 

-CtNSORiNUS, a learned gramma- 
rian, the author of a valuable little 
book, de Die Nat all, now extant, which 
he publifhed a. u. 991, as we learn from 
himfelf, c. 17, & 21. 

Ce PARI us, one of the affociates of 
Catiline, G'tc. Cat. 3, 6. 

Cephalus, the hufband of Procris, 
beloved by Aurora, Oind. Met. 7, (iGl.\ 
^rt.^m,7,,6%']. (Sec G,^. 421.) 


'ei -ei ; 

voc. -eu, abl. -eo), a king of Aethiopia, 
the father of Andromedji, OwV/. Md. 
4, 670. adjirt. et 5. /«//.; adj. Ceph^- 
lus. Cephe'ia arim, the territories of 
Cepheus, ib. 4, ^9. (See G. p- ^c)^-) 
— Cepheni proceresy the nobles of Ce- 
pheus, Ovid. Met, 4, 763. but this 
verfe is thought to be fpurious. Gen, 
plur. Csphenum, for Cephenorumf Id. 5, 
1, & 97. in Ibin. ^$6. more properly 
however Cephenum, from Cephe- 
NES, the ancient name of the Aethio- 
pians, as of the'Perfians, Herodot. 7, 61. 

Cephissus, vel Ceph'ifos, -/', the god 
of the river of that name, and father 
of Narciffus by the nymph Liriope, 
OvlJ. Met. 3, 343. whence NarcilTris is 
called Cephisius, /^. 351. 

Ceraunus, a firname of Ptolemy, 
the fecoTid king of Egypt, J^flin. 24, 

i^. 1^ 2. A name which Clearchus, 

tyrant of Heraclea in Pontus, gave to 
liis fon, in contempt of Jupiter's thun- 
der, (v.rfauvo?), JcL 1 6, 5. 

Cerberus, a dog that was fuppo- 
fed to guard the entrance of the infer- 
ual regions, [Janitor 'Orci), Virg. Aen. 
8, 296. reprefented as having three 
heads, (tncrps)y Virg. Aen. 6, 417. 
Horace gives him an hundred heads, 
calling hhn Bclliia ceniiceps, the hun- 
dred-headed monfter, Od. 2, 13, 34.; 
adj. Cerbereus; Os Cerbertum, Ovid. 
Met. 4, 501, 

Cercyon, 'crMy f. the fon of Vul- 
can, Nygm. 38, & 158. a noted rob- 
ber, that infciled the country round 
Eieulis, v.wd ufed to kill thofe whom 
he vanquifned in wreltling, Paufan. i. 

39. flain by Thefeus, Ovid. Met. 7, 439.; 
adj. Cercyon e us, Id. in /bin. 412. 

CERELLIA, V. Caerelliay a lady 
fond of books and philofcphy, Cic. Att. 
13, 21. and on that account familiar 
with Cicero, Cic. Fam. 13, 72. ; Att. 
15, I. 12, 51. et 14, 19.; ^inHil 6, 
3, 1 12. whence C^lcnus imputes to him 
(very improbably) an improper intima- 
cy with her, tho' fhc was feventy years of 
age, much olderthan himfelf, Dio,i^6, 1 8, 

CERES, ^eris, f. the goddefs of 
corn, often put for corn, (See G. 
360.) ; adj. Cerealis, -e. Turn Ce- 
rerem corruptam unJis Cereallaque arma 
exped'mnty they bring out corn fpoiled 
by the waves, and inttruments for 
grinding, Virg. Aen. I, 181. Larga 
Ceres y great plenty of corn, Lucan. 3, 
347, Munera Cerealiay bread, Ovid. 
Met. IT, 121. 

Ceth ileus, the firname of a very 
ancient family of the Cornelii. 

M. CETHEGUS, called Suadae 
Medulldy the marrovv^ of perfuafion, 
Cic. Sen. 14. the lirft who was efteem- 
ed eloquent at Rome. He flourirtied 
in the time of the Second Punic war, 
Cic. Brut. 15. 

C. Cethegus, the alTociate of Ca- 
tiline, Juvenal. 2, 27, et 2, 287. 

Ceto, 'USy the daughter of Pontus 
and Terra, the wife of Phorcys, and 
mother of the Gorgons, Lucan, 9, 645. 

Cryx, -yds, the fon of Lucifer, 
Ovid. Met. II, 272. and hufband of 
Alcyone, (See G. 444.) 

CPIABRIAS, -acy an Athenian 
general wlio defeated the Lacedae- 
monians, in a naval battle, Nep. 12. — 
Chahriae eajlra, a place in Egypt near 
PcJuuum, Plin. 5, 12 f. 14. 

CHAERi^A, the name of a young man 
in Terence's play called the Eunnchns. 

Chalciope, -('J, the vcifc of Phry- 
•XU3, and filler of Medea, Val, Flac, 
6, 479. ; Ovid. Ep. 17, 232. 

Chariclitus, the commander ot 
the Rhodian fleet, Liv. 37, 23. 

Charilaus, a principal citizen of 
Palaepolis, who gave up that city to 
Publilius Philo, the Roman command- 
er, Liv, 8, 25, 

C H x\ [ 101 

Charites, -«OT, the three graces, 
Aglaia, Thah'a, and Euphrofyne, 5"^- 
nec. Benef. 1,4.; Hejiod. Thecg. v. 909. 

CHARON, -otitis, the ferryman of 
the infernal regions, {porittor infero- 
rum); who tranfported in his boat the 
fouls of the dead over the river Styx 
and Acheron, Virg. Am. 6, 298. ; adj. 
Charoneae fcrohcs, openings \\\ the 
earth, {^fpiracula)y which emit a dead- 
ly vapour, as the grotto del Cano near 
Naples, Plin. 2, 93 f. 95. 

Charondas, -aey a native of Ca- 
tana, the famous leglflator of Thurll, 
(See G.p. 171.) 

Charopus, a chief man of Epire, 
friendly to the Romans, L'lv. 32, 6, 
& II, w^ho fent his fon to be educa- 
ted at Rome, L'lv. 43, 5. 

Chersiphron, • om/x, the chief ar- 
chiteft of the temple of Diana at E- 
phefus, Plin, 36, 14 f. 21. 

CHILO, -on'is, a philofopher of La- 
cedaemon ; one of the Seven Wife 
Men of Greece, who is faid to have 
died of joy, upon hearing that his 
fon had been vidorious at the Olym- 
pic games. Three of Chilo^s maxims 
were Infcribed in golden letters in the 
temple of Delphi, i. Know thyfelf. 
2. Dcfire nothing too much, 3. Mi- 
fery is the companion of debt and 
ilrife, Pl'in, 7, 32. 

CHIMAERA, the name of a poe- 
tical moniler, which breathed forth 
flames, refembling in the fore part a 
lion, in the middle a goat, and in the 
hinder part a fL^rpent, Lucr. 5, 902. ; 
Qv'id. Met. 9, 646. 

Chione, -es^ the name of a woman, 
derived from fnow, Martial. 3, 34. — 
^ 2. A daughter of Aquilo, and the 
mother of Eumolpus, by Neptune, 
Hyg'in. 157. ; wlio is hence called 
Chtomdes, -ae, O-vid, Pont. 3, 3, 41. 

^ 3. Alfo a nymph beloved by 

Mercury and Apollo at the fame. 

time, Ovid. Met. 11,300, &c. ^ 

4. The daughter of Daedalion, and 
mother of Autolycus by Mercury, and 
of Philammon by Apollo : flain by Di- 
ana for her prefumption, in preferring 
herfelf to that goddcfs, Ovid. Met. Ii, 
30I;— 327, 

I ^ C'HR 

CwiRON, -on'isy the mod celebrated 
of the Centaurs, the fon of Satura 
and Philyra ; hence called PhdyrUes, 
-ae, Virg. G. 3, ^S"^- ; Petron. 2, i, 
60. ; remarkable for his /Iciil in herbs ; 
whence Chironion, •/, n. an herb 
called from his name, Plln. 25, 4 f . 
13.; and Clnroniat -ae, f. a kind of 
vine. Id. 25, 4 f. 16. From his be- 
ing half man and half horfe, he is call- 
ed Geminusy Ovid. Met. 2,631.; and 
Senufer, ib. 634. Being converted in- 
to a conilellation, he was called Sa- 
gittarius, (G. 439.) 

Chloe, -fj, the name of a girl in 
Horace, Od. 3, 9, 9. 

Chloris, the daughter of AmphT- 
on, and wife of Neleus, by whom fhe 
had Nellor, and other fons, Hygin* 10. 
^ 2. Alfo the Goddcfs of flow- 
ers, called likewife Flora, Ovid. Fafl, 

CvoROEBUs, one who voluntarily 
devoted himfelf to death, to freeThebes 
from a peftilence, Stat. Theb. 2, 221,^/ 
6, 286. 

Choerilus, a poet noted for his 
unpoliflied and ridiculous verfes ; yet a 
favourite of Alexander the Great, Ho' 
rat. 2, I, 232. 

Chremes, -etisy v. Chremis, the 
name of an old man in Tei-ence. 

Chrestus, one who iniligated the 
Jews to make diflurbances at Rome in 
the time of Claudius, which occafion- 
ed their c.^puliion from that city, Suet. 
CL 25. 

Christus, (I. c. nndiusy) a name 
of our Saviour, Plin. Ep. 10, 97. 
ChrijVianusy a follower or difciple of 
Chrift ; a name flrll given at Antioch 
to thofe who profelFed to be Chrii- 
tians, A3s 11, 26. ymong the hea- 
thens, denoting criminality rather than 
refpea, Plin. tb. 

Chryseis, Adisy the daughter of 
Chryfes, the prieft of Apollo ; the 
miftrcfs of Agamemnon, (G. 406.) 

Chrysippus, a Stoic philofopher, 
born at Soli in Cih'cia, ( Solcnfis Ci- 
lixj'y Cic. Orat. i, 12. called by Zeno 
the Epicurean, tlirough contempt, 
Ch£Sippus, Id, Nah l3, i, 34. 


a freedman 

f 102 ] 

c r c 

ff 2. Alfo a freedman of Cicero's, 
who on account of his bad behaviour 
•was again reduced to fervitudc, Cic. 
Att. JtZy et II, 2. 

Chrysis, 'tdis, a courtefan in Te- 

Chrysogonus, a favourite freed- 
man of Sulla's, Cic. Ver. i, ^6.\ Rojc. 

yfm.pajim.\ P/in.^^y 1 8. ^ 2. A 

noted finger, JuvenaL 6, 74. 

C. CiCEREjus, originally the fecre- 
tary of Scipio Africanus, L'm. 41, 26. 
but afterwards, being made praetor, 
ih. 33, triumphed over the Corficans, 
Id. 42, 7, & 21. 

Cicero, -o«/V, the firname of a 
branch (familia) of the G^wj- Tullia^ 
faid to have been derived from the 
founder of the family being remark- 
able for cultivating vetches, P/i«. 18, 
3. ; or from an excrefcence on the 
tip of his nofe, refembling a vetch, {ci- 
/tct), Plutarch. Cic. p. 861. to which 
Calen\is alludes, D'lo^ 46, 18. en- 
nobled by M. Tullius Ciceroj the moft 
eloquent of the Romans; adj. Cic e- 


M.TuUlus CICERO was born at Ar- 
pTnum, a. u. 647. ( ^ Sertnlio Caep'ione 
€t C.Atll'io Serrano Cnfs.) Gell. 15, 28. 
on the third of January, (///. Noru 
Jan.) Cic. Att. 7, 5, et 13, 42.; in the 
iame year with Pompey, and the year 
after the firfi confuldiip of Marius, 
whom Cicero calls his countrj'man, 
(munlapem fuutn), as being alfo a native 
of Arpinum, Pojl Redit, nd ^ir. 8. 

Cicero was defcended from an an- 
cient family of equeftrian rank, C'tc. 
Leg. 2, I, & 2. none of which had 
ever obtained any curule magiflracy ; 
whence Cicero often calls himftlf a 
ne'W man, {nrrous homo). So Salluft, 
Cat. 23. Cicero, as being the firft- 
born of the family, received the prae- 
nomen of his father and grandfather, 
Marcus. His mother's name was 
Helvia, of a noble family, Plutarch. 
in Cic. ; who had a filler married to 
Aculeo, a Roman knight, diitinguifhed 
for his knowledge in the civil law, Cic. 

Or. 2. 

It is reir.aikable that Cice- 

ro no where fpeaks of his mother. 

But his brother Qiiintus has left a ilo- 
ry of her, which fhows her attention 
as a good houfewife : " that flie ufed 
to feal her wine cafks, the empty as 
well as the full- that when any of 
them were found empty and unfeal- 
ed, file might know that they had been 
emptied by Health, " Cic. Fam. 16, 26. 
a kind of theft then ufual in great fa- 
milies, Hor.Ep.z, 2, 133. 

Cicero's grandfather was living at 
the time of his birth, and appears to 
have been a man of confiderable abili- 
ties and influence in his country, Cic. 
Leg. 2, I, et 3, 16. His father was 
a wife and learned man, but being of 
an infirm conllitution, fptnt his hfe in 
the ftudy of letters, Cic. Leg. 2, i. ; 
and devoted his chief attention to the 
education of his fons, Cic, Or. 2, i, 
Cicero and his brother Quintus were 
brought up with their coufins the 
fons of Aculeo, according to the di- 
reftions of the celebrated orator Craf- 
fus, and by thofe very mailers whom 
Cralfus himfelf was in ufe to employ, 
Cic. Or. 2, I. They We're firft taught 
the Greek language, a method then 
univerfally obferved, Suet. Rhet. 2. ; 
and which Quincftilian, even in his 
time, recommends, (y^ Graeco fermone 
ptierum incipere mcdo ; quia Latinus vel 
nobis nolentibus fe praebctj 1, i, 12.) 

The Latins, before the time of Ci- 
cero, were fo rude and ignorant, that 
CralTus, when cenfor, prohibited them 
from teaching rhetoric, Ctc. Or. 3, 24. 
The firil noted Laiin, teacher of that 
art at Rome was Plotius, in the latter 
times of CralTus, ^incUh 2, 4. f. Senec. 
Contr. 2. prooem. He was much re- 
forted to, and young Cicero expreffed 
a great defire of becoming his fcholar; 
but was controuled by the authority 
of very learned men, who preferred 
the Greek teachers Suet. Rhet. 2. Ci- 
cero is faid to have made fo rapid pro- 
grefs in learning, that fiom the ac- 
counts of him which his fchool fellows 
carried home, their parents were often 
induced to vifit the fchool, for the 
fake of feeing a youth of fo furprifing 
talents, Plutarch. Among Cicero's 



t 103 1 

C I c 

otlier teachers was the poet Archias, 
from whofe inftrudlions he acknow- 
ledges with gratitude that he had de- 
rived the greateft advantage, Cic, 
Jrch. I, & 7. 

Cicero, having iinlflied his puerile 
ftudies, and having affumed the drefs 
of a man, {toga im-ili fitmptd), was in- 
troduced by his father to Scaevola, 
the augur, the principal lawyer, as 
well as llatefman, of that age, that he 
might derive knowledge from his ex- 
perience and converfation ; and after 
his death applied himfelf to Scaevola, 
the High-prieft, a man equally diftin- 
gullhed for his probity and ficill in the 
liw, Cic. j^mic. I. He, at the fame 
time, attended the pleadings of the 
orators in the courts of juftlce, and 
the public fpeeches of the magiftrates 
to the people. He alfo applied 
with great diligence to his private ixu- 
dles at home, after the manner which 
he beautifully defcrlbes in the perfon 
of Craffus, Or. i, 34. In the Italic 
war he ferved a campaign under Pom- 
peius Strabo, the conful, Phil. 12, 11. 
and under Sulla, Plutarch, in Cic. ei 
Cic. Div. I, 33. et 2, 30. But percei- 
ving the republic running into fac- 
tions, he left the army, and returned 
to his iludies ; which, during the con- 
vulfions that followed, he ardently 
profecuted with the afliftance of the 
ableil mafters, {Hoc tempore omni, noc- 
tes et dies, in omnium doclrinarum medita- 
tione verfabatur)y Br. 90. He iludied 
phllofophy under Philo, the chief of 
the Academy at Athens ; and rhetoric 
under Molo of Rhodes, a diftinguifh- 
ed orator and teacher, both of whom 
were then at Rome, ib. 89. He had 
in the houfe with him Diodotus, the 
Stoic, as his preceptor in various parts 
of learning, but particularly in logic ; 
yet with all this attention to philofo- 
phlcal ftudies he never fuffered a day 
to pafs without fome exercife in ora- 
tory ; chiefly that of declaiming, in 
company with his fellow iludents, often- 
cr in Greek than in Latin, ib. 9. Nor 
did he negled his poetical Iludies : 
'For he now wrote a poem in praife 

of Manus. Leg. 1,1.; and tranflatcd 
into Latin verfe Aratus on the ap- 
pearances of the heavens, Nat, Z). 2, 
41. He alfo tranflated a book of 
Xenophon's, called Oeconomicus, 
Off. 2, 24. At this time too he is 
tliought to have written his two books 
De Inventione, Cic. Or. i, 2. {quos 
fc. libi OS adolejcenti fibi elapfos ipfe dice- 
ret) y QninaiL 3, I, 20. 

Thus accomplilhed, Cicero appear- 
ed as a pleader at the bar. At the 
age of twenty-fix he defended the 
caufe of P. QuiNTius, Gell. 15, 28.; 
but this was not the firft in which 
he was engaged, Cic. ^int. \. Next 
year he undertook the defence of S. 
Roscius of Ameria, {Amerinm) ; ac- 
cufed of parricide, which he fays v/as 
the firft public or criminal caufe in 
which he was concerned, Br. 90. Ci- 
cero gained fo great honour, by pro- 
curing the acquittal of Rofclus, in op- 
pofition to the influence of Sulla, that 
he was henceforth looked on as an ad- 
vocate of the firft clafs, and equal to 
the moft important caufes, ik* et Off. 
2, 14. 

After being employed for two yeans 
in pleading caufes, on account of bad 
health,, (Plutarch fays from an appre-. 
henfion of Sulla's refentment), Cicero 
travelled into Greece and Afia, Cif- 
Br. 9 1 . He ftaid fix months at A- 
thens vv'ith Antiochus, the principal 
phllofopher of the old academy ; and 
exercifcd himfelf in oratory with De- 
metrius of Syria, an eminent rhetori- 
cian. After this he traverfed the 
whole of Afia, converfing with the 
moft diftingulfhed orators of the coun- 
try, and repeating with them his rhe- 
torical exercifes. At Rhodes he again 
placed himlc-lf under i\pollonius Mo- 
lo, [fe Jlpallcnio Moloni Rhodi forman- 
dum ac velut recoquendicm dedlty Quinc- 
til. 12, 6, 7.) whom he had formerly 
attended at Rome, Cic. Br. 91. (Plu- 
tarch fays, by mlllake, under Apollo- 
nlus, the fon of Molo, in vita Cic); 
who after hearing Cicero declaim be- 
fore him, is reported to have deplored 
the fortune of Greece, becaufe Cicero 


c r c c I 

was about to transfer the glory of 
eloquence from the Greeks to Rome, ib. 

Cicero returned to his native coun- 
try, after an abfence of two yf?rs, 
greatly improved in bodily ftrength, 
and in his manner of fptaking, Cic. 

The two mod diftinguiihed Roman 
orators at that time were Cotta and 
Hortenfius, wliom Cicero was ambi- 
tious of rivalling, particularly the lat- 
ter, ib, 92. Among the chid caufes 
which he pleaded the year after his 
return, was that of Q^Roscius, the 
famous comedian, z3. 

Cicero, next year, a. u. 678, when 
thirty-one years old, obtained the quef- 
torfhip, while Cotta was confiil, and 
Hortenfius aedik', Cif. Br. 9:.; Pif. l. 
It fell to the Ir.t of Cicero to act as 
^uaeftor In the weftern part of Sicily, 
under Sex Peducaeu?, the praetor, 
Cic. Br. 92. ; Jfcan. in Cic. Here he 
behaved with fo much integrity and 
prudence, that his condu6t was highly 
approved, Plutarch. Upon his return 
to Italy, he expected that every body 
would be full c.i his praifes, and was 
extremely mortified to iind, that an 
acquaintance he met with at Puteoli, 
did not even know that he had been 
abfent from Rome, Cic. Plane, 26. et 
Plutarch, in Cic. 

Five years after, being qnaeftor, Ci- 
cero was ' unaniuiouf]y elect':;d aedilc, 
Ci^. Br. 92. ; Pif. \. in his 37th year; 
in which year Hodenfius was conful. 
Cicero, after his ekdlion, and before 
he entered on his office, undertook, at 
the requeil of the Sicilians, the pro- 
iecution of Verres, Cic. Caedl. i, 
&c. Ferr. ^1 14. (See Verres.) Ci- 
cero, while aedile, is fuppuftd to have 
defended Fontejvs and Caecina. 

Two years after his edHelhip,- Cice- 
ro was created praetor, Cic. Manil. i. 

The comhia had betn put off -by 
violent diflenfions between the fenate 
and people, concerning fome popular 
laws, propofed by C. Cornelius, a 
tribune, Jljcon. in Cic. pro Cornel. Two 
different alfcmbiiesg coavened for {^.e 

04 ] CIC 

choice of praetors, had been difTolvcd 
on account of fome informality ; and 
it was only in the third comitia that 
the eleftion was legally effedled. Tiiis, 
however, fei-r'ed to (how the great af- 
fection of the people to Cicero. For 
he was declared every time the firll 
praetor by the fuffragcs of all the cen- 
turies, {jcr praetor primus centuriis cunc 
tis renunciatus e/l)^ Cic. Manil. I. It 
fell to Cicero's lot to prcfide in trials 
for extortion and rapine, {de pecuniis 
repettindis ) .t Cic. Cornel, i. ; Rabir. 
Poft. 4. In the capacity of a judge 
he adied with great juilice and inte- 
grity. Plutarch. 

Cicero, while praetor, delivered his 
firft fpeech to the people from the 
Rrjlraj in defence of the Manilian 
Law, Manil. i. for conferring ou 
Pompey the command of the Mithri- 
datic war, and of all the Roman ar- 
mies Ih Afia, Paterc, 2, 33. (Sec 

PoMPEius.) This oration is ftill 

extant, and commendable rather for its 
eloquence, than jull reafoning. It was 
alleged, that Cicero delivered it to 
gain the favour of Pompey, and of the 
popular party which fupported Pom- 
pey, Dio, 36, 2. though he himfelf 
Iblemnly declares the contrary, Manih 
24. Whatever be in this, it is cer- 
tain, that the beftowing on Pompey 
fach extraordinary power proved in 
the end fatal to the republic, as well 
as to Cicero himfelf. Cicero, du- 
ring his praetor iliip, alio defended the 
caufe of Cluentius. A\. the expirat'on 
of his o^lce he would not accept of 
any foreign province, Cic. Mnrm. 20* 
but choie rathe: to remain at Rome, 
ih order to canvafs for the confulfhip, 
the great object of his ambition, during 
the two years which it was neccffary 
fhould intervene between the praetor- 
fiiip and that office. In this interval 
his correfpondence with Atticus 
commenced, Cic. Att. I, I. Nepos 
fays, it continued from hit confuhhip 
to the end 'of his life, in Vita Attici, 
if). But feveral letters .of the uril 
book to Attic;u.s were written before 


C I c C 

Ms confulflr'p. None of his letters 
called Ad Familiares, written be- 
fore that time, are now extant. 

Cicero was made conful in his forty- 
third year, the age required by law for 
that office, C'lc. Phil. 5, 1 7. He was 
the firft neiu man, i. e. not a noble man, 
who had obtained that dignity for forty 
years, comput'og from the firft conful- 
flilp of Marius, Ck. RuH. 1,2. He 
was oppofed by fix noble competitors. 
Among ihefe was Catiline, fupported 
by the intereft of Crallus and Caefar, 
and many others of the nobility, Afcon. 
ad Ck. in Tog. cand. Catiline had 
fome time before been brought to a 
trial for extortion [repetumJarum) in 
Africa, which province he had obtain- 
ed after hi's praetorfhip, ib. et Salluji. 
Cat. 18. He aflced Cicero to under- 
take his defence, who, in order to ob- 
lige Catihne, at firft had thoughts of 
doing it, Cic, Alt. i, 2. but afterwards 
changed his mind, Afcon. ib. Such 
was the diffimulation of Catiline, that 
Cicero acknowledges that he himfelf 
was once almoll deceived by him, fo as 
to take him for a good citizen, Cic. 
Gael. 6. Catiline, however, had long 
entertained traitorous defigns agalnft 
the government, Salhj}. Cat. 5. and 
by various arts had engaged many to 
concur with him in his views, ib. 14. 
He had brought his plot to fuch ma- 
turity, that in the beginning of June, 
while he flood candidate for the conful- 
fliip, he called a meeting of his accom- 
plices ; among whom were feveral of 
fenatorian and equeftrian rank, befides 
many perfons of note from the colonies 
and municipal towns, ih. 17. Surmlfes 
of this confplracy having been fprcad 
abroad, caufed a general alarm, and 
determined all ranks of men to confer 
the coniullhip on Cicero, ib. 18-. The 
people not content with giving their 
lilent votes, declared their inclinations 
with a loud voice, Cic. Rull. 2,2.; 
Pif. I. Cicero's colleague was C. An- 
tonlus, who had formerly been the in- 
timate friend of Caiillne ; but Cicero 
detatched him from that party by 

10; ] CIC 

giving up to him the province he wifli 
ed, SalluJl. 26. ; Ck. Pif. 2. Sext. 5. 
Cael. 31. The provinces appointed for 
the confuls this year were Macedonf-i 
and Cifalpinc Gaul. The former ^qW 
to the lot of Cicero, but he yielded it 
to his colleague, who defired it, as beinsr 
the richeft; and foon after Cicero refigned 
his own province of Gaul in an afiembly 
of the people, contrary to their inclina« 
tion, {^reclamante populo^) Cic. Pif. 3. 
m favour of Q^Metellus, Plutarch, f, 
866. ; Dio^ 37, 33. Thus Antonius 
was brought to concur with Cicero iji 
all his meafures for the good of the 
ilatc, ib. 

Cicero had great dIfRculties to ftrug- 
gle with in difcharging his duty as 
conful, Cic. Rull. I, 8. Sep. et 2, ^. 
and difplayed wonderful abilities in 
furmounting them. P. Servillus Rul- 
Lus, one of the new tribunes, had pra- 
pofed an agrarian law, promifing the 
higheft advantages to the plebeians; but 
fuch was the power of Cicero's elo- 
quence, that he prevented it from bein^ 
paffed, Cic. Rull. i. et 2. et 3. Pif. 2. or 
as Pliny, in a beautiful apoflrophc to Ci- 
cero, ftrongly exprefTes it, Te dicente, 
legem agrariam, hoc ejl, aliment a fua abdi-- 
caveruut (I. e. rejecerunt) trihusj 7, 30 

L. Roscius Otho, a tribune, had 
got a lav/ pafTed three years before, 
while Cicero was praetor, affigning to 
the Equites dldind feats in the theatre, 
next behind the patricians, and before 
the plebeians. The people were highly 
offended on this account ; and there- 
fore, when Otho one day happened to 
come Into the theatre, he was received 
by the populace with an unlverfal hlfs, 
while the Equites honoured him with* 
loud applaufe and clapping-. Beth fides 
redoubled their clamour with great vie* 
ience, and from reproaches were prc- 
ceeding to blows. Cicero, being inform- 
ed of the tumult, came immediately to 
the theatre ; and funimoning the people 
into the temple of Bellona, fo moved 
them by an oration, which is now loft, 
that, alhamed of their copdu<^» they 
O r«turnc(E 

C I C [ io6 

feturned to the theatre, and changed 
their hiffes ngainfl Ocho into applaufes, 
Plin. ib. ; Cic. Att. 2, I. ; Plutarch, in 
C'tc.p. 867. To this Virgil is fiippofed 
to allude, P^irg. Aen. 1, 152. but more 
probably to Cato, {q. i\). Much about 
the fame time, there hapoened a third 
inftance, not lefs remarkable, of Cicero's 
great power of perfuafron. Sulla had, 
by an exprefs law, excluded the chil- 
dren of tliofe whom he had profcribed, 
from the fenate, and from all public 
honours, Veil. 2, 28. The perfons in- 
jured by this tyrannical aft, who were 
numerous and of the firll families, were 
now ufmg their utmoll efforts to get the 
law reverfed. But Cicero, though con- 
vinced of the equity of their requeft, 
yet from the condition of the times, 
judging It unfeafonable, prevailed on 
them to defift from their application, 
C'lc, P'lf. 2. (Te oraiite, prvfcr'iptorum li- 
ber as honores pctere pudu'it^^ Plin. ibid. 

The next important affair that en- 
gaged the attention of Cicero, was the 
defence of C. Rabirius, (7. T.)."But 
what chiefly ennobled the confullhip of 
Cicero, was the fuppreffion of the con- 
fpiracyof CATILINE ; who having 
been fruftrated in his application for 
the confuKhip the former year, fet every 
engine at work to forward the confpi- 
racy, {in d'les plura agitare, 3cc.), ih. 24. 
But notwithltandinc^^ thefe preparations, 
he declared himfelF a candidate for 
r.ext year, Sallnjh Cat. 1,26. and ur- 
ged his pretenfions by fuch open bri- 
bery,- that Cicero pnblifiied a new law 
agaiufl; that crime, with the additional 
puniihi'nent of a ten years exile ; prohi- 
biting likewife all Tnews of gladiators, 
within two years from the- time of f'ling 
for any magiilracy ; unlefs they were 
ordered by '.he will of a perfon decea- 
fed, and on a certain day therem fpeci- 
i\tA^ C\c. Murcn. z-'y ; Vatin. l^. Ca- 
tiline thinking that this law was aimed 
a^a^nd him, as it actually was, formed 
.a delign to kill Cicero on the day of 
the eicclion, with fome other chiefs of 
the faiate, Z)/o, 37, 29. Cicero fays, 
that Catiline wifhed to kill his compe- 
titors, Cic. Cal, I, 5. But Cicero ha- 

] CIC 

ving got notice of his intention, by 
means of Fulvia, a noble woman, the 
miilrefs of Q^Curius, one of the con- 
fpirators, prevented the attempt, by 
procuring a number of his friends to at- 
tend him to the Campus Mariius, and 
by wearing a bright coat of mail under 
his toga, which he took care to difplay 
to the afTembly, that fo all good citi- 

zens, perceiving their conful in danger, 
might concur to aluft and proteft him, 
Cic. Muren. 26. Thus Catiline being 
repulfed a fecond time from the conful- 
fhip, and difappointed in his hopes of 
affafiinating Cicero, (Sallud: fays, both 
the confuls. Cat. 27.) determined to 
make war, and to try all extremities, ib. 
et Diot 37, 30. Appian fays, that Ca- 
tiline, after being at iirfl rejected, dropt 
all thoughts of again concerning him- 
felf with the management of the re- 
public, B. C. 2, p. 42 S. But the con- 
trary appears fiom Cicero himfclf, ib„ 

The defitins of Catiline being nov7 
publicly known, excited fo great ap- 
prehenfion, that the fenate paflcd the 
folemn de<Tee, " That the confuls 
fhould take care that the republic 
might fuffer no harm," Sallujl. Cat. 29.; 
Cic. Cat. 1,2.; Dioy 37, 31. ; Plutarch, 
in Cic. Catiline, however, urged on 
liis purpofe. He fent Manllus, a bold 
and experienced centurion, who had 
fignalifed himfclf in the wars of Sulla, 
to Fefulae in ILtruria, to lake the com- 
mand of a body of men whom he had 
previoufiy prepared to take up arms ; 
and other perfons to diilerent places. 
He called a meeting of the chiefs of the 
confpiracy in the middle of the night, 
to tiie houfe of M. Porcius Laeca, 
where the molt defperate meafures were 
refolved on : that a general inlurrec- 
tion fnould be raifed through Italy un- 
der different leaders ; that Catihnc 
ihculd put himfelf at the head of the 
troops in Etruria : that Rome Ihould 
be fired In feveral places at once, and 
that all the nobility, who oppofed them, 
fnould be maffacred. But the vigi- 
lance of Cicero being the chief ob- 
flacle to all thefe projeAs, Catiline was 
very defirous to fee him taken off be- 


C I C C 1 

kirt he left Rome. Accordingly two 
of the company, C. Corneh'us, an eguesy 
and L. Vargunteius, a fenator, under- 
took to go to Cicero's houfe, early that 
morning, as if to faliite him, and toftab 
him unprepared in his bed. But Ci- 
_cero being informed by Fiilvia of what 
was intended, ordered them to be re- 
fufed admittance at the gate, Sallujl, 
ih. 28. Cicero fays it was two Equites 
that attempted this crime. Cat. i, 4. 
and names one of them C. Corneh'us, Syll. 
6. Plutarch calls them Marcius and 
Cethegus, in Ck. p. 868. Appian calls 
them P. Lentulus and Cethegus, B. C, 
2. p. 429. Dio fays only two perfons, 

Two days after the nodurnal meet- 
ing of the confpirators, Cicero, on the 
6th November, or, as others think, on 
the 8th, afiembled the fenate, for the 
fake of fecurity, in the temple of Jupi- 
ter Stator in the Capitol, where it was 
not ufually held, unlefs in times of 
alarm. There had been feveral debates 
before this on the fubje^: of Catiline's 
■eonfpiracy ; and a decree had pafied, to 
offer a pubhc reward to the firft dil- 
coverer of the plot. Yet Catiline, by 
a. profound diffimulation, and conftant 
profeffions of his innocence, ftill decei- 
ved many of all ranks ; reprefenting 
the whole as a f.ttion of his enemy Ci- 
cero, and offering to give fecurity for 
his behaviour, and to deliver himfeif to 
the cuflody of any one whom the fe- 
nate would name ; of M. Lepidus, of 
Q^Metellus, and even of Cicero himfeif. 
But none of them would take charge of 
him, Cic, Cat. 1, 8. (Dio fays that 
Metellus did receive him, 37, 32. ) Ca- 
tihne. Hill difguifiiig his intentions, had 
the confidence to come to this very 
meeting of the fenate in the Capitol ; 
which fo (liocked the whole aiitmbly, 
that none even of his friends and con- 
nexions fainted him, and the confular 
fenators left empty that part of the 
benches where he fat, Ck. Cat. i, 7. 
Cicero was lo moved by his prefence, 
(either with fear or anger, as Sallutl 
fays, c. 31.) that inilcad of proceeding 
to any bufniefs, he broke out into a 

07 1 C I c 

fevere iavedlive againft Catiiine, (Ora- 
tionem hahu'it luculentam atrjrte ut'ilcm rei' 
publkae ; guam po/leafcnptam edidit^) ib. 
This fpeech is ilill extant, and exhibits 
a ftriking proof of Cicero's wonderful 
powers of eloquence. Catihne was fo 
afreded by it, that m xt night he fet 
out with a fmall retime, (Plutarch fays, 
with 300 armed men, //; Ck.) to the 
camp of Manlius. His friends gave 
out, that, to avoid the violence of Cice- 
ro, he was gone to Marfeilles into vo- 
luntary exile, Ck. Cat. 2, 6. Cicero 
next day called the people together 
into the forum, and gave them a true 
account of the matter, Ck. Cat. 2. Im- 
mediately after, he afiembled the fenate. 

CatiUne hav'. g alfumed the fafcts and 
other badges of command, in a few 
days arrived at the camp of Manlius. 
Upon this news the fenate declared 
both Catiline and Manhus public ene- 
mies, with offers of pardon to fuch of 
their followers as returned to their duty 
by a certain day. But none accepted 
the offer, Sai/ii/l. ib. 36. The fenate 
alio decreed that the confuls (hould levy 
troops ; that Antonius fhould haften 
to purfue Catiline with an army, and 
that Cicero fliould guard the city, ih. 

Some time after the departure of 
Catihne, Cicero defended Mure n a, 
the conful eled, who was accufed of 
bribery by his competitor Sulpicius, 
lupported by Cato and Pofthumius. 
The oration is flill extant, though in 
fome paits imperfedi. 

In the mean time, the chiefs of the 
eonfpiracy in the city, Lentulus, Cethe- 
gus, Statilius, Gabiniusy and Caeparius, 
v^'iihing to induce the Allohroges, a na* 
tion of Gaul, to take part in the- war, 
by means of one Umbienus, apphed to 
their ambaflacois, who had come to 
Rome to complain of the avarice of 
their magiftrates, ih. 40. et Plutarch, in 
Cic. The Allohroges at firft eagerly 
liflened to the propofal, but afterwards 
changing their mind, difcovered what 
they knew of the eonfpiracy to L. Fa- 
bius Sanga, the patron of their nation, 
who immediately gave intelligence of it 
to Cicero, By his contrivance the con- 
O 2 fplrator 

C T C [ io8 

fpiratftrs Xftft apprehended, and the 
plot completely deteded, Salhi/7. ih. 41, 
— 48. On which account the fenate, 
among other things, decreed a public 
thankfgiving to the gods In Cicero's 
name ; an honour which had never be- 
fore been conferred on any one in the 
P)ga, I. e. in the r^>be of peace, without 
affurning the drefs of a foldier and go- 
ing to war, Cic. Cni. 3, 6. The con- 
fpirators were ordered to be kept In 
what was called free cudody {in liheris 
tuflodl'ts hahebantur,) i. e. in the hoafts 
of illultrlous citizens, who were bound 
to fecure them, ib. 47. After the dif- 
jniffion of the fenate Cicero weut direct- 
ly to the Roflraj and gave the people 
a particular account of- what had been 
done, Cic. Cat. 7^. 

Cicero appointed certain fenators to 
take notes of the evidence againfl the 
confpirators ; and after an account of 
the whole proceedings was made out, 



fes of It to be tranfcribed, 

and to be difperfed every where 
through Italy and the provinces, Ctc. 
Syll. 14, & 15. All this pafled on the 
3d of December ; and on the following 
night, according to annual curiom,( Vid. 
R.A. p. 333.) the myftic rites of the 
Good Goddess, or Bona Dea., were 
performed at the houfe of Cicero by 
his wife Terentia v.'ith the Velial vir- 
gins and the principal matrons of 
Rome. Cicero of courfe being exclud- 
ed from his own lodging, was forced to 
retire to the houfe of a friend. While 
he was dellba-ating there with a few 
confidents about the punlfliment of the 
confpirators, his wife came In all haile 
to Inform him of a prodigy, which had 
juft happened ; for the facrihce to the 
Bffna Dea being pvtr, and the fire on 
the altar feeraingly extindl, a bright 
jlame ifrued fuddenly from the afhes j 
whereupon the Yeftal virgins fent Te- 
rentia to her hufband, to encourage 
him to execute what he intended for the 
good of his country ; ^iV^cc the goddefs 
by this fign alnired him that he Ihould 
cfFe6l his defigns, not only with fafety, 
but alfo with glory, Plutarch, in Cic. 
p. 870,^ 874.; Z)ic, 37, 35. 

1 CIC 

Next day the fenate decreed rewards 
to the ambaffadors of the AUohroget, 
and to T. Volturcius, one of the con- 
fpirators, who, tempted by the pro- 
mlfe of a pardon, had turned Informer, 
Sallufl. c, 50. ; Cic. Cat. 4, 3. In the 
mean time the accomplices of the con- 
fpiracy made every effort to refcue their 
afTocIates. Cicero, therefore, on the 
day following, the 5th December, {Non, 
Deecmb.)y affembled the fenate, and put 
the queftion, ** What was to be done 
with the confpirators who were in 
cuftody ?'■ Sllanns, the conful elett, 
being firft afked his opinion, according 
to cullonri, decreed, that they fliould 
be put to death. Tib. Nero thought 
that the deliberation concerning their 
punii'hment fliould be deferred till the 
public guards were increafed and a 
greater number of troops raifed, (de ea 
re, praefidiis addiiis, refL-ruudum cenfuit,) 
Salluft. ib. or according to Appian, 
that the 7 (liould be kept In cuftody, 
till Catiline fhould be crufhed, and the 
whole truth thoroughly known, B. C, 
2. p. 430. The opinion of Caefar dif- 
fered but little from that of Nero, ib. 
but being enforced by an artful fpeech, 
made a great ImpreiTion on the houfe, 
Appian ih. 431. ; Sallujl. ih. 51. to re- 
move which Cicero delivered v^'hat Is 
called his fourth oration agalnll Cati- 
line ; wherein, while he feemed to (hew 
a perfect neutrality, he artfully inhnu- 
ated a preference to the opinion of Si- 
lanus, Biic Silanus himfelf, moved by 
the fpeech of Caefar, began to mitigate 
the feverity of his opinion, Sud. Caef, 
14. and declared that he would go In- 
to the opinion of Nero, Salhiji. 50. Ca- 
to, one of the new tribunes, rofe after 
Cicero, and fpoke fo forcibly againft 
the confpirators, that he entirely re- 
moved the effect of Caefar's fpeech, 
and determined the fenate to agree to 
his opinion, ** That capital punilhment 
fhould be Infiidled on the confpirators 
after the manner of their anceflors.'' 
SalluJ}. ^^. The decree of the fenate 
was drawn up In Cato's words, [Senati 
decretumJityJlciU ille cenfuerat,') ib. Ci- 
cero, without lofs of time, put the fen- 


C I C [109 

tence in execution, and caufed the con- 
fpirators to be ftrangled in prifon, iL 
^^, As he returned from thence 
through the foruiD, he faw a number 
of their accomplices {landing together 
in companies, ignorant of what had 
been done, expelling the night, as if 
the criminal's were ilill alive, and there 
were a poflibility of tlicir being refcued. 
But Cicero called out to them in a 
loud voice, VixERUNT, ** They have 
lived, or they are no more," an expref- 
fion which the Romans, to avoid inauf» 
picious words, made ufe of to fignify, 
*' They are dead." Upon which they 
all difperfed, Plutarch, in Clc. et Appian, 

p. 431. Cicero was conduced home 

by the whole body of the fenate and 
Equites ; the ftreets being all illumina- 
ted, and the women and children at the 
windows, and on the tops of houfes, to 
fee him pafs along through the accla- 
mations of the multitude, proclaiming 
him their preferver and deliverer, Plu- 
tarch, in Cic. p. 871. 

Thefe are the famous Nones of 
December, which Cicero fo often men- 
tions in his writings, Fam, 1,9.; Att. 
I, 18.; Flacc. 40,; Sext.6o.\ Plu- 
tarch, in Cic p. 872. and eileemed the 
moft illuftrious day of his life ; but 
which afterv^'ards proved to him the" 
fource of the grcateit misfortunes, iL 

The chief men of the ftate fpoke of 
the meritorious conduti of Cicero, in 
terms of the higheli refpedl ; particu- 
larly CraiTus and Pompey, Cic. Alt. 
I, 13. ; Of. I, 22. ; Se^Mt. 61. L. Gel- 
lius, who had been confiil and cenfor, 
faid in a fpeech to the fenate, ** that 
the republic owed Cicero a civic crown, 
for having faved them all from ruin," 
Cic. Pi/. 3. ; Cell. 5, 6. And Catulus, 
the prince of the fenate, called him^ in 
a full houfc. the Fatlier of his coun- 
try, (Pater Patriae), Cic.Pif.^.', 
as Cato like wife did in a fpeech to the 
people from the Roftra, Plutarch, ib. 
et Appian. p. 43 1, Whence Pliny, in 
honour of Cicero's memory, cries out, 
** Hail thou, who waft firil faluted the 
parent of thy country," (Sahe pri- 
mus omnium parens patriae appellate J ^ 7, 

3 CIC 

30. This title ufed to be conferred ou 
the emperors by the Romans when en- 
flaved ; but it was firft given to Cice- 
ro by Rome, while free : whence Ju- 
venal fays, Roma patrem patriae Cicero* 
nem libera dixit, 8, 244.r All the towns 
of Italy followed the example of the 
metropolis in decreeing extraordinary- 
honours to Cicero. The people of Ca- 
pua in particular chofe him for their 
patron, and ereded a gilt pillar to him, 
Cic, Pif. 1 1. — Salluft, who allows Ci- 
cero the charadler of an excellent con- 
ful, takes no notice of any of thefc 
honours, from perfonal enmity, as it is 
fuppofed, and to pleafe Auguftus, in 
whofe time Salluft publiHied his hiftory. 

The honours jufiily paid to Cicero 
cxafperated his enemies ftill more a- 
gainft him. The chiefs of the popu- 
lar party therefore embraced every op- 
portunity to mortify him. On the laft 
day of his office, when he appeaned 
in the Rojlray to make a fpeech to the 
people, as was commonly done, be- 
fore he took the ufual oath, " That 
he had dilcharged his duty with fideli- 
ty ;" the tribune Metellus would not 
fuffer him to fpeak, or to do any thing 
more than barely to take the oath ; 
declaiing, " that he, who had put ci- 
tizens to death unheard, ought not to 
be permitted to fpeak for himfelf»" 
Whereupon Cicero, who was never af 
a lofs, inftead of pronouncing the <k- 
dinary form of the oath, fwore aloud, . 
" that he had faved the republic and 
the city from ruin ;" which the wh<5le 
people prefent wich a general fhout 
fwore to be true, and conducted him 
from the Forum to his houfe v/ith lall 
poffible demonftrations of refpecl : fo 
that, as he himfelf expreiles it, ncme 
but thofe w^ho attended him, feemied 
to be Roman citizens, (ut nemo, iiiji 
qui mecum ejjety civium efje in numero n}i- 
JereturJ, Pif. 3. Fam. 5, 2. j , 

In the confulfliip of Cicero Luqlil- 
lus triumphed over Mithridates, wh ich 
honour he had been prevented frsm 
obtaining for three years, by the Je- 
traftion of his enemies, (inimicorum pa- 
lumnidj, Cic. Agad. 2, i. of Mtrn- 


C I C [I 

mius the tribune and others, at the in- 
ftigation of his rival Pompey, Plutarch, 
in LucuIL But Cicero, by his autho- 
rity, efTe^^ed it. Hence ke fays, that 
he had ahnoil introduced the trium- 
phal chariot of Lucullns into the city, 
ib. However, to gratify Pompey, af- 
ter the conclufion of the Mithridatic 
^^ar, ib. a public thankfgiving Vv\ts de- 
creed in hit* name, on the motion of Ci- 
cero, for ten days, Cic. Acad. 4, i. which 
was twice as long as had ever been 
decreed before to any General, C'lc. 
Conf. Prov, 1 1 4 

Cicero got two laws paiTed this 
year, called from him Leges Tul- 
LiAE, the one againll bribery in elec- 
tions, (p. 106). the other to abridge 
the time of a privilege, called a Free 
Legation, (legatio libera). Leg. 3, 8.; 
(R. A. 220.) 

One of the moft important objects 
■which Cicero laboured to accomplifli 
in his confulfliip, was to unite the po- 
pulace with the leading men, and the 
eijueft ■.in^ord':^r with the fenate, Pif. 3. 
The conjundlion of the two latter he 
efecled, Cic. Cat. 4, 10. ; fo that Pli- 
ny even fays it was Cicero that iirft e- 
flablifhed the Equites as a third order 
ii the ftate, 33, 2. From this union 
Cicero juftly hoped the greateil: bene- 
fit would arife to the republic, Cic. ib. 
' But it was foon after broken, by the 
f;;nate refufmg a petition of the Equi- 
tis to be relcafed from a difadvantage- 
ous leafe of the Afiatic revenues, Cic. 
Alt. I, 17. & I S. f/ 2, I. which Caelar 
afterwards granted them, Dio, 38, 7. ; 
hiet. CaeJ 20. (Vid. R. A. p. 24.). 

Ill the beginning of the next year, 
a. u. 691, Catiline was cut off with his 
srmy by M. Petreius, the lieutenant of 
C. Antonius, Salhijl. Cat. 61.; Liv. Ep. 
103. ; Dio, 37, 39. — In this fame year 
Cicero defended ?. Sylla, who had 
formerly been condemned with Autro- 
iiius for bribery, Salluji. Cat. 18. and 
■^-•dS then accufed of having tv/ice con- 
^ired with Catiline againfl: his coun- 
try, Cic. SuU. He was acquitted, 
vid. Sulla. — About this time Cice- 
7i) bought the hcuie of M. Craifus, on 

10 ] C T C 

the Palatine hill, partly with borrowed 
money, for H. S xxxv. i. e. tricies quin- 
quies, about L. 24,218, Cic. Ep. Fam, 
5, 6.; Att. I, 13.; Plin. 13, 15. et 7, 
38. In the trial of P.Clodius, then quae- 
ftor, for the violation of the facred rites 
of the Bona Dea, Cicero appeared 
as a witnefs againfl him, Cic. Att. i, 
\6. vidiich was the fource of the bitter 
hatred Clodius ever after bore to Cicero. 

A. U. 692, Cicero is fuppoftd to 
have made that elegant oration, ftill 
extant, in defence of his old praecep- 
tor, the poet Archias. 

A. U. 693, [al. 694). in the con- 
fuhhip of ^ietellus and Afranius, Ci- 
cero compofed in Greek a commiCnta- 
ry or memoirs of the tranfa<flions of his 
confuKhip, Att. I, 19. et 2^ i. He 
alfo publifhed a collection of the prin- 
cipal fpeeches, which he made when 
conful, under the title of Consular 
Oratio^js, in number twelve, the fub- 
je6t of each of which he mentions, Att. 
2, I. Four of them are now entirely 
loll:, and fome of the reil have not 
come down to us entire. He publifh- 
ed likewife at this time in Latin verfe 
a tranllation of the Prognostics of 
'Aratus, /^. Clodius now began to 
difclofe the plan which he had form- 
ed for ruining Cicero, and that was 
to get himfelf chofen a tribune. But 
as no patrician could by law obtain 
that office, he propofed to get himfelf 
adopted by a plebeian ; which could 
not be done without the order of the 
people. In this however he was op- 
pofed, for the preient year, by his bro- 
ther-in-law, the conful- Metcilus, Cic, 
Att. 2, 1.; Cael. 24. Biit the combi- 
nation between Cacfar, Pompey, and 
Craffus, commonly called tlie First 
Triumvirate, being formed towards 
the end of this year ; and Cicero, next 
year, in his defence of Antony, (who 
had been his colleague in the confulate, 
and was accufed by Caelius of the 
mal-adminiilration of his province of 
Macedonia), having uttered fome com- 
plaints concerning the Hate of the re- 
public, Dio, 38, 10. Caefar, vv'ho was 
then coniul, being informed of what 



C T C C I 

Cicero had faid, inftantly called an af- 
fembly of the people, and being afliil- 
ed by Pompey, as augur, to make the 
a£l legal and aufpicious, got the adop- 
tion of Clodius ratified by the people 
through all the forms, within three 
hours from the time of Cicero'? fpeak- 
ing, dc. Dom. l6. ; Suet. Caef. 2c. ; 
and thus the bow, as Cicero calls it, 
which had been kept bent againli him 
and the republic, was at lall difchar- 
ged, Sext. 7. Cicero, among other 
caufes which he pleaded this year, de- 
fended L. Valerius Flaccus, who 
had been praetor in Cicero's conftd- 
fhip, and had aflifted him in appre- 
hending the confpirators with the am- 
bafuidors of the Allobroges, C'lc, Cat. 
3, 2. h 6. He was now accufed by 
P. Laelius of rapine and oppreffion in 
his province of Afia. The ipeech is 
fhill extant, but fomewhat mutilated. 
Flaccus was acquitted. 

Caefar and Pompey knowing that 
Cicero dlfapproved of their ufurpation, 
and fearing left he might oppofe their 
meafures, determined to fupport Clo- 
dius in his defigns againli him, Cic. 
Ait. 2, 18, 19, (SiC. et 9, 2.; ^int. Fr, 

1, 2.; latere. 2, 45. Caefar wifhed 
to bring Cicero to concur with him in 
his plans, and therefore offered to miike 
him one of the twenty comm.iffiuners 
appointed to di (tribute the lands cf 
Campania among the planters fent from 
R(nne to occupy them ; but Cicero 
refuied it, Cic. Att. 2, 18. & 19. which 
is faid to have offtnded Caeiar, C'lc. 
Prov. Cotif. 17.; fo that, as Caefar 
could not gain him, he refolved to 
humble him, ih. 9, 2. ; Veil. 2, 45. 
But Pompey gave Cicero the ftrongcil 
affurances ol his protection ; declaring 
that he would fooner be killed hiu.felf 
than fuffer Cicero to be hurt, Cic. Att. 

2, 20. Pompey however foon fnowed 
that all thefe prom.ifes were falfe, and 
Clodius, as he himfelf declared, was 
in reality as much luppcrted by Pom- 
pey and Craffus as by Caefar, Cic. 
Har. Refp. 22. Clodius, being cre- 
ated tribune, and having procured 
the concurrence of Pif» and Gabi- 

ir 1 C T C 

nius, the confuls of the following year* 
a. a 695", by granting them the pro- 
vinces they wiihed» promulgated feve- 
ral popular laws to gain the people. 
Then he propofed a fpecial law, " That 
whoever had put to death a Roman 
citizen uncondemned, fliould be pro- 
hibited from fire and water," /WA 2, 
45. Cicero, though not named, was 
plainly pointed at by this law. He 
therefore changed his habit, and affu^ 
med the drefs of a criminal j which he 
was afterwards Cenfible he ought not 
then to have done, Cic. Att.^'^, 15. 
For Clodius, at the head of his mer- 
cenaries, contrived to meet and in- 
fult Cicero at every turn, Plutarch, in 
Cic. The equeilrian order, to tlic 
number of 20,000, and the fenate, 
changed their habit on Cicero's ac- 
count, Cic. pojl red. in Sen. 5. ad ^ir, 
3.; Plane. 35.; Sext. Ii, &c. ; Fam. 
II, 16. But the confuls, by an edidt, 
ordered the fenate to refume their or- 
dinary drefs, Cic. Fain. 11, 14. Cae- 
far, who w^as then before the city with 
his army, about to fet out for his pro- 
vince of Gaul, offered to make Cicero 
one of his lieutenants ; but this, by 
the advice of Pompey, he declined, 
Dio, 38, 15. CraiTus, though fecret- 
ly inimical to Cicero, ik yet, at the 
j)erfuarion of his fon, wdio was a great 
admirer of Cicero's, (Ac. ^ Fr. 2, 9. 
did not openly oppofe him, Cic. Sext, 
17. & 19. But Pompey, who had gi- 
ven Cicero the ftrongell affurances of 
fupport, dtferted him, Cic. Pif. 31, 
and even refufed liis fupplication when 
he threw himfelf at Pompey's feet, al- 
leging tiiat he could do nothing againfl 
the will of Caelar, Cic. Att. 10, 4. Plu- 
tarch fays, that Pompey, when Cicero 
came to entreat his nililtance, went out 
at the back door, and would oot fee 
him, in Cic. 

Several of Cicero's friends, and in 
particular Lucullus, advifed him to de- 
fend himfelf by force ; but Cato, and 
above all I-Iortenfius, urged him Lo fa ve 
the effufion of bloud, by retiring till 
th^. ftorm fliould blow over : which 
concuiring with the advice of Atticr.?, 

C I C [I 

as well as with the fears and entreaties 
of all his own family, made him refolvc 
to leave the city> and go into volunta- 
ry exile, Ck, Atu i o, 4. A little be- 
fore his departure he took a fmall lla- 
tue of Minerva, vi^hich had been long 
woHhipped in his family, as a kind of 
tutelar deity ; and carrying it to tlie 
Capitol, placed it in the ternple of Ju- 
piter, C'lc. Leg. 2, 17, wirh this infcrip- 
tion, To Minerva, the Guardian 
OF Rome, Plutarch., p. 876.; D'lo,, ^8, 
17. ; Cic. Fam. 12, IS- Dom. 57. Jtt. 
7, 3. Leg. 2, 15. . , . ^ 

Cicero left the city privately m the 
night time, about the end of March, 
accompanied by a number olhis friends, 
Plutarch, After his departure Clodius 
frot a law pafTed, which prohibited him 
from coming within 46S miles of 
Rome, under pain of death to himfelf, 
and to any perfon who entertained 
him, Cic, Att. 3, 4. ; L)'iOy 38, 17.; 
Plut, Cic. p, 876. This law, as being 
informal, Cicero calls Privilegium, 
Dom. 10, 17, 42, &c. Cicero's hou- 
fes, both in the city and in the coun- 
try, were burnt, and his furniture 
plundered, Cic, Dom. 24. Red. in 
Senat, 7. His wife and children were 
treated with great cruelty, Cic. Scxf. 
24. Dom. 23. Fam. 14, 2. To 
make the lofs of bis houfe in Rome 
irretrievable, Clodius confecrated the 
area on which it Hood, and built on it 
a temple to the Goddefs Liberty, Cic. 

Dom. 40, & 51. Cicero, notwith- 

ftanding the law again ft him, was e- 
very where received with the greateil 
refpedt, Cic. Dcni. 20, 40. & 41. ex- 
cept in a very few inftances. He at 
firil pvopofed going to Sicily, and on 
the 8th of y\pril, had got as far as 
Vibo, in his way thither, Cic- Att, 3, 
4. but was forbidden by C. Virgiiius, 
the governor of it, though an old 
friend, and intimate acquaintance, 
Plane. 40. ; Philarch. in Cic. He 
therefore direfted his courfe towards 
Greece. He ftaid thirteen days in the 
villa of M. Lenius Flaccus at Brundu- 
fiuin, Cia Plane, 45.; Fam, 14, 4. 

12 -] CIC 

On the laft day of April he embark- 
ed for Dyrracchium, Cic. Ait. 3, 7. 
where he (laid but a fhort time, being 
apprehenfive of danger from the ac- 
complices of Catiline's confpiracy, ma- 
nv of whom had fied to that country 
after the death of their leader. Cice- 
ro therefore went to ThefTalonTca in 
Macedonia, whither he was conduil- 
ed by Plan ci us, the quaeftor oi' 
Appuicius, the governor of that pro- 
vince, with whom he remained almoll 
the whole time of his exile, Plane. 41.; 
Pofl red. in Sen. 14. Cicero did not 
bear his baniiliment with fortitude?, but 
fliowed marks of deje£tion, and uttered 
exprefPions of grief unworthy of his for- 
mer charader, Dio, 38, t8.; Cic. Att, 

3, 7, &c. He was reilored with great 
honour nest year, after an abfence of 
fixteen months, by a decree of the fe- 
nate, and by a law paffed at the Co- 
mitia Centitriata, on the 4th day of Au- 
guft, in the confulfhip of Lentulus and 
Metellus, chiefly through the influence 
of Pompey, who then needed the af- 
fiftance of Cicero to oppofe the de- 
fi<ins of Clodius a^ainil himfelf, Cic. Att, 

4, I. Fam, I, 9. Pojl red. ad. ^ur. 7. 
in Senat. il. ATd. 20. Pif. 15. ; Z>io, 
38, 30, et 39, 8. The number of 
p.-cple that met Cicero on the way to 
congratulate him on his return was fo 
great, that Plutarch fays, the faying 
of Cicero concerning it was lefs than 
the truth, " that all Italy brought 
him back on its (hoalders," < ic. po/l 
red. in Sen, 15. ; Pif. 22. ; Scxt. 63. 

Cicero, on the day after his return, 
the 5th Septen^bcr, {^Non. Septemb.) 
thanked the fenatc, Cic. Ait, 4, i, 
and next day, the people, in two ora- 
tions, which are itill extant. As he 
was overjoyed on being reftored to 
his country, fo he was in^.modcrate in 
his exprellio^s of gratitude, Poured, 
in Sen. 4, &c. ad ^Ar, 7. 

There happened at that time to be 
a great dearth of corn, which occa- 
fioned a tumult in the city. To re- 
medy this calamity, Cicero propofed 
in the Icuate, that the charge of pro- 


etc [I 

vifions fiiould be conferred on Pom- 
pey for five years, with extraordinary 
powers, through the whole empire. 
To this the fenate agreed, and a law 
was foon after enacled by the people 
for that purpofe. Such then was the 
influence of Pompey's name, that his 
credit immediately reduced the price of 
provifions, Cic. Att. 4, i. Dom, 4, 
&:c. ad ^lir, 8. in Senat. 14. ; Dio, 
39, 9. Pompey was allowed to chufe 
fifteen lieutenants, and named Cicero 
the firft, Cic. Jtt. 4, i. Cicero ac- 
cepted the employment, but foon af- 
ter refigned it to his brother, il. 2. 

Cicero was reftored to his former 
dignity, but never received a full com- 
penfation for the ruin of his houfes 
and eftates, although it had been de- 
creed, Cic, Att. 4, 2. The reafon was, 
as he himfelf expreffes it, ** Thofe who 
had dipt his wings had no mind to 
let them grow again," ih. Nor indeed 
did Cicero after this behave with the 
fame independence he had done before. 
*' If he rofe from his fall," as a modern 
critic (^MongauU) expreffes it, ** he al- 
ways appeared, however, to be fome- 
vvhat ftunncd by the blow." There was 
fome difficulty about the area of his 
houfe on the Palatine mount, which Clo- 
dius had confecrated. But the Pontift- 
CCS, to whom the affair was referred by 
the fenate, decreed, " That if he who 
performed the office of cdnfecration 
had not been fpecially appointed to it 
by the people, then the area in quef- 
tion might, without any fcruple of re- 
ligion, be reftored to Cicero." The fe- 
wate, therefore, decreed, that Cicero's 
houfe fhould be reftored to him, il\ 
The pleading of Cicero before the 
Pontijices on the occaiion, is ftill ex- 
tant j and he himlelf was particularly 
pleafed with the compofuion of it, 

Clodius ftill continued his a6ls of 
violence againft Cicero to fuch a de- 
gree, that it feems ft range that any 
government fhould have permitted 
them to pafs with impunity, Cic, Att. 
4; 3. Clodius, however, not only e- 

'3 1 CIC 

fcaped punifliment, but was even creat" 
ed aedilc next year, a. 697. The tri* 
umvirs found him ufeful in promoting 
their meafures, and therefore fupport- 
ed him ; and the fenate were pleafed 
to fee him fometimes even attack the 
triumvirs themfelvcs, Cic. Refp. Har. 
24. The moft fuccefsful opponent of 
Clodius was Milo, the friend of Cice- 
ro, who repelled force with force, 
Cic. Off. 2, 17. and of courfe their 
contefts excited the grcateft commo- 
tions in the ftate, ( ic. Att. /\j 'i,. ^. 

Fr. 2 

» 0- 

They fucceflively brought 

each other to a trial for a6ls of vio- 
lence, but without efPeft, ib. 

In the beginning of the year 697, 
Cicero es^erted all his influence to get 
the commiffion for reftoring Ptolemy 
to the throne of Egypt, confirmed to 
Lentulus, the conful of la ft year, Cic. 
Fam. I, I, &c. ^int. F. 2, 2. ; but 
without effedt, Vid. Ptolemaeus. 

rin March, Cicero undertook the 

defence, and procured the acquittal of 
Sextius, who, in his tribunefliip the 
former year, had been very aAive in 
promoting the reftoration of Cicero, 
and was now accufed of public vio- 
lence, by M. TuUius Albinovanus, at 
the inftigation of Clodius, Cic. ^ Fr. 
2, 5, & 4. Sext. 13. Vatinius, 
the creature of Caefar, having appear- 
ed as a witnefs againft Sextius, Cice- 
ro, inftead of interrogating him in the 
ordinary way, took occafion to ex- 
pofe the profligacy of the whole life 
of Vatinius, and particularly the crimes 
of his trlbunelliip, by a ferics of quef- 
tions ; whence Cicero calls his oration 
againft Vatinius, which is ftill extant, 
Interrogatio, Fam. i, 9. So Con* 
cludam jam interrogationem mearriy Cic. 
Vat. 16. 

About this time many prodigies 
were faid to have happened ; concern- 
ing which the Harufpices^ or foothfay- 
eis, being confulted, alTigned various 
reafons for the divine wrath ; among" 
the reft, that facred places were held 
as profane ; which Clodius applied to 
Cicero's houfe. On this account Ci- 
P cero 

C I C [11 

Cero next day made an oration in the 
fenate, now infcribed, De Haruspi- 
cuM RESPONsis, 111 which hc fhows, 
that all the parts of the anfvver of the 
Harufpices were applicable to the crimes 
of Clodius, Dioy 39, 20. ; Cic. Har. 

About the middle of fummer the le- 
nate began to deliberate as ufual, 
about the provinces to be affigned to 
the next confuls. On this occafion 
Cicero dthvered that oration, infcri- 
bed De PRoyiNCiis Consularibus ; in 
which he advifed, that Pifo (hould be 
recalled from Macedonia, and Gabi- 
nius from Syria j becaufe they had be- 
haved ill in their government. But 
■when moft of the fenators who had 
fpoken before him had decreed that 
one of the Gauls fliould be taken from 
Caefar, and given to one of the con- 
fuls, Cicero oppofed it ; and with 
great eloquence urged the propriety of 
prolonging Caefar*s command, as like- 
wife of granting him what he requeil- 
cd,' money to pay his troops, and per- 
milTion to employ ten lieutenants, Cic. 
de Prov. Corif. 10, &c. Balb. 27. ; 
though all this was contrary to his 
private opinion, Cic. Fam. I, 7. Att. 
2, 17. Thus Cicero, by a mean com 
pllance, contributed to confirm that 
power, which in the end proved fatal 
to hinnfelf, as well as to the liberty of 
his countiy* The excufe he makes for 
this conducl is, ** That he v,'as forced 
by the envy and malevolence o.f the 
ariftocratic party, [optimatium)^ at laft 
to pay regard to his fafety, without 
forgetting his dignity, Cic. Fam. i, 7, 
17. Plane, %(^. 

About this time Cicero defended 
Li. Cornelius Balb us, whofe right to 
be a Roman citizen was called in quef- 
tion ; and M. GoELius, who was ac- 
cufed of being concerned in the afTaf- 
fination of Dio, the chief of an em- 
bafly from Alexandria, and of an at- 
tempt to poifon Clodia, the fifter of 
Clodius. Cicero was fuccefsful in both 
pleadings. The orations arc flill ex- 

4 ] CIC 

A.U. 698, in the confuifhip of Pom- 
pey and Craffus, Pifo, having returned 
from his province of Macedonia, which 
he had grievoufly oppreffed, yet truft- 
ifig to the influence of Caefar, his fa- 
ther-in-law, attacked, in the fenate, 
Cicero, in confequence of whofe opi- 
nion he had been recalled. Cicero, in 
reply, delivered that fevere inveftive, 
(/n Pi SON em), which is ftill extant, 
though fomev/hat mutilated. Vid. Cic 
in Pif. This year Cicero finifhed his 
three books concerning the accomplifli- 
ments of an orator, (De Orjtqre), Cic. 
Jtt. 4, 13, & 16. Div. 2, I. 

i\. U. 699, Cicero fupported Craf- 
fus in his abfence agaiuil an attempt 
which was made in the fenate to recal 
him from his province, or at leafb to 
prevent him from executing his known 
intention of making war againft the 
Parthians, Cic. Fam. 1,9. et 5, 8. in 
which war Craffus foon after periflied. 

About this time Cicero entered into 
a more familiar correfpondence with 
Caefar, by means of his brother Qui nc- 
Tus, who had been made one of Cae- 
far's lieutenants, and of Trebatius 
the lawyer, whom Cicero had recom- 
mended to Caefar, Cic. J^ Fr. 2, 15. 
et 3, I. Fam. 7, 5, 6, &c. 

Caefar and Pompey had fo complete- 
ly engrolTed the power of the ftate, that 
Cicero found it neceffary to do many 
things which in his heart he difappro- 
vcd, Cic. Fam. I, 9. (f/ 7, i. At the 
requcft of Caefar and Pompey, hc 
fppke in defence of feveral criminals, 
who had formerly been his greateil e- 
nemies. Thus, during the prefent year, 
he defended Gabinius and Vatinius, 
who had aflifted Clodius in effecting 
his banifhm.ent, and againft whom he 
had uttered the bittereft inveftives in 
his fpeeches, Cic.Rahir. Pqfl. 8, & 12. 
Fam. I, 9. et 5, 9, &c. ; VaL Max. 4, 
2,4.; ^inBilian. 11, 1,75. though 
in the cafe of Gabinius hc had de- 
clared, *' that he muil incilr eternal in- 
famy if he defended him, ad ^ Fr. 3, 
4. and that P'ompey fhould never pre- 
vail on him to be reconciled to Gabi- 


C I C [ i 

nius, if he retained the Icaft fpark of 
liberty," [nee, fi ullam partem lihertatis 
eneboy prqficiet), ib. i. The only ex- 
cufe he could make for his eondu6l 
was, " That his quarrels were mortal^ 
his friendfhips immortalj" Cic. Rabir. 
Pojl, I 2. Valerius Maximus, however, 
praifes Cicero's defence of Vatinius 
and Gabinius as an ad of great huma- 
nity, 4, 2,4. Cicero was conllrained to 
accommodate his conduct to the ne- 
cellity of the times, as he laments to 
his brother, ^ Fr. 3, 5. fo that, as 
he expreffes it, his votes in the fenate 
were luch as pleafed others rather than 
himfelf, ib, 2,15. Bribery and corrup- 
tion were now carried to an incredible 
height, Ck, Att. 4, 15, & 18. Of 
thefe vices Cicero always fpeaks with 
the utmoft dcteftation, and often fore- 
tells that they would prove the dcllruc- 
tion of the republic. Lie. Div. 2, 2. 
Fam. 2, 5. ^Fr. 3, i, 2, 3, 4, «Scc. jltL 
4, 16. et alibi pajfim. 

This fame year, from a principle of 
gratitude, Cicero defended Cn. Plan- 
cius, who had entertained him in his 
exile; and being now chofen aedile, was 
accufed of bribery and corruption by 
a diiappoinced competitor, M. Late- 
renlis. The oration is Itill extant. Plan- 
cius was acquitted. 

Cicero was now fo much engaged 
in pleading caufes, that there fcarcely 
paffed a day without his fpeaking for 
fome one, Cic. ^ Fr. 2, 16. et 3, 3. 
But the only other otation now extant 
of thofe he delivered this year is that 
for C. Rabirius Posthumus, whofe 
trial was conncCled with that of Gabi- 

A. U. 700, Cicero was chofen an 
augur, in the room of young Crafl'us, 
who had perifhed with his father in 
the expedition againil the Farthians, 
Cic. Phi/. 2, 2. 

A. 701, Cicero defended MILO, 
in his trial for the murder of Clodius. 
The Forum was furrounded with arm- 
ed men, to prevent diilurbance, a thing 
unufual on fuch occafions, Cic, Mil. i. 
Cicero, when he rofe to fpeak, being 

15 ] CIC 

received with a loud clamour from the 
favourers of Clodius, is faid not to have 
fpoken with his ufual firmnefs, [nort 
ea, quafoUtuserat, conjlaniid dixit), A-i- 
con. in Cic. Milo was condemned, 
and went into exile to Marfeilles. The 
fpeech for Milo now extant was after- 
wards writs en by Cicero ; and Milo, 
when he read it, is reported to have 
faid, " That if Cicero had fpoken fo, 
he (Milo) fhould not then have been eat- 
ing mullets, (a kind of lifh he was fond 
of), at Marfeilles, Dio^ 40,54 — Ci- 
cero (liewed fo much joy at the death 
of Clodius, irfiat Milo was faid to have 
killed him at Cicero's Iniligation, (w^- 
nu Milonis caedem ejft faBam, confiUo ver^ 
maj^ris alicujus), Cic. Mil. 18. Cicero 
feems to have had fome anticipation of 
what happened, Cic. Att. 4, 3. though 
he fays that Milo did the deed before 
any one fufpe6ted that he vt'ould do it, 
Cic. Phil. 2, 9. Cicero thought the 
death of Clodius an event of fuch im- 
portance, that he dates a letter thus, 
Pqfl Lsudricam pvgnam die feptingente/imo 
fexagefimo quinto. Cicero calls the ren- 
counter in which Clodius was killed by 
Milo Leu^rica pugna, becaufe, as it is 
thought, Milo, by killing Clodius, re- 
ftored liberty and fecurity to the Ro- 
man republic, as Epaminondas, by the 
battle' of Leudtra, freed Greece from 
the dominion of the Lacedaemonians, 
Cic. Att, 6, I f. 

Soon after the trial of Milo, Cicero 
accufed Plancus Bursa, for the adls 
of violence he committed after the 
death of Clodius, and got him con- 
demned and banifhed, though he wa3 
defended by Ponipey, Cic, Fam. 7, 2. 
This v/as the only caufej excepting 
that of Verres, in which Cicero a6i:ed 
the part of an accufer, Dio fays, that 
Cicero accufed Plancus with not more 
ability than he defended Milo, 40, '^$. 

About this time Cicero is thought 
to have written his treatife on laws, 
{^De Leoibvs), Cic. Leg. 2, 17 It 
is luppofed to have been divided into 
nx books, as another work which he 
had compofed fome tlm,£ before con- 
P 3 csrning 

C I C [ 1 

ceniing government, (De Retublica). 
Nothing of the latter remains but fome 
fcattered fragments ; of the former 
Only three books, and thefe in fome 
places imperfeft. 

A. U. 702, in confeqiience of a law 
inacle by Pompey, that no conful or 
praetor fliould hold any province till 
five years after the expiration of their 
magillracies ; and in the mean time, 
that the fenators of confular and prae- 
torian rank, who had never held any 
foreign command, fhould divide the 
vacant provinces among themfelves by 
lot, D'io, 40, ^6. v/hich had formerly 
been ordered by a decree of the fenate, 
rh. 30, & 46. Cicero was obliged, a- 
gainft his will, to undertake the go- 
T^rnment of the province of Cilicia, 
in Vvdiich he fucceeded Appius Clan- 
diu?, who had been conful a. 699. To 
Cilicia were annexed Pilidia, Pamphi- 
lia, and three diflri<Sts [d'loecefes) of A- 
fra, together with the ifland of Cyprus. 
Here, by the wifdom and integrity of 
his adminiftration, Cicero merited the 
liigheft praife, Clc. Att, 6, 2. ; Plu- 
tarch, in Ck. and for his military ex- 
ploit?, though not very confiderable, 
was faluted Imperator by his army, 
Cic. yitt. 5, 10. He was well fuppon- 
€d by his four lieutenants, his brother 
Quindus, who had left Caefar to ac- 
company him, Pontinius, who had tri- 
umphed over the Allohroge:^ M. An- 
neius, and M. Tullius ; chiefly by Pon- 
TiNius. A thankfgiving to the gods 
(Jupplicaho) war, decreed by the fenate 
at Rome for Cicero's fuccefs, to v/hich 
decred Cato gave his diffent, though 
Cicero liad written him a long cpillte 
to procure hi" concurrence, Ck. Fcaa. 
15,4. Cato, however, wrote Cicero 
a letter of apology, the only letter of 
Cato now extant, in which he highly 
praifes Cicero's nprighl adminiftration 
of his province, ih. 5. On thi^ occa- 
iion Caefar wrote Cicero a congratula- 
tory letter, Ck. Alt. 7, i. 

AVhilc Cicero was in Cilicia, he Lad 
a regular account fent him by Cae- 
Liu^ of whTit pa (Ted 'A the city, Ck 

16 1 CIC 

F(tfn. 8, I, U<z. A profecu^on being 
raifed againft Appius Claudius by Do- 
lobella, who had lately married Tullia, 
Cicero's daughter, CiCero neverthelefs 
profeffed the warmefl attachment to 
Appius, C'lc. Fam. 3, 10. in which he 
could not be fmcere; for he mentions fe- 
veral inf^ances of opprefTion and cruelty 
committed by Appius, which fhew that 
he was far from being unjuflly arraigned 
by Dolobella, Ck. Att. 5, 1 6, & 1 7. 6, 
I, & 2. But to Appius himfelf Cicero 
writes in very different terms, Ck.Fam. 
3, II, & 12. Appius had too power- 
ful connedtions for Cicero to break 
with him. One of the daughters of 
Appius was married to a fon of Pom- 
pey's, and another to M. Brutus. By 
the influence of Pompey Appius was 
not only acquitted, but foon after made 
cenforwith Pifo, the father-in-law of 
Caefar, Ck. Fam. 8, 6, & 11. ; Dio, 
4c, €3. (/^/V/. Appius.) At this time 
nothing fo bafe or fo viilanous could be 
perpetrated, that by interell was not 
fare of efcaping punifliment, {et her- 
cuk conftpta omnia faeda et inhonefla funt^, 
Cic. Fam. 8, 6. 

Cicero, impatient to return to Rome, 
left his province at the expiration of a 
year, to thecare of hisquaeftor, C. Cae- 
lius, and fet out for Italy, Ck. Ep. Fam.. 
2, 15. Att. 6,§, 8<. 6. He ftaid a few daya 
at Rhodes for the fake of his fon and 
nephew, (puerorurn causa,) who were 
then profecuting their rtudies, Ck. Att. 
6, 7. Here he heard of the death of 
Hortenfiu?, AV. i. From Rhodes he 
failed to Ephtfus, and thence to Athens, 
Ck. Fam. 14, 5. On his anival at 
Brundufium he found all things tend- 
ing to a civil warj which he ufed every 
method in his power to prevent, Ck. 
An. 7, 3, 4. Sec. As he had preten- 
fion3 to a triumph, he was attended 
by hia liciors, v/ith their fafces, accord- 
ing to cuitonv wreathed with laurel, ib. 
I, £c 2. He reached Rome on the 4th 
January, a. 704. Great multitudes came 
out to meet hirn with ail poiTible de- 
mon ft rations of honour, {ut nihil poffet 
f.cri orn.ithus^y Cic, Fam, 16, 11. H« 


C I C [ II 

fell, as he himfelf fays, into the very 
flame of civil difcord. ^he decifive 
decree had juft been pafled arming the 
confuls with abfolute power againft 
Caefar, ik In this confiifed ftate of 
affairs, the fenate demanded in a very 
full houfe, that a triumph Ihould be de- 
creed to Cicero ; but Lentulus, the 
conful, defired that it might be deferred 
till the piefent comniotions were fet- 
tled ; giving his word, that he would 
then be the mover of it liimfeif, tb. 
But Cacfar's fudden march towardtv 
Rome, put an end to all further 
thouglits of it ; and ftruck the fenate 
with fuch a panic, that, as if Caefar 
had already been at the gates, they re- 
folved prefently to quit the city, and 
retreat towards the fouthern parts of 
Italy. All the principal fenators had 
particular diilricts alhgned to their care. 
Cicero had Capua, with the infpectlion 
of the fea-coaft from Formiae, Cic. Alt. 
7, II. Fam. 1 6, 12. But finding his 
new province wholly unprovided againft 
an enemy, and that it was impolTible to 
hold Capua, without a llrong garrifon, 
he refigned his charge, and chofe not 
tG aft at all^ C'lc. An. 8, ii, & I2. 

Cicero was long in fufpenfe, what 
courfe to take, whether to reniain 
neuter, as Caefar and his friends llrong- 
ly exhorted him, Cic. Alt. 9, 6, 8, 9, 
II, &c. or to join Pompey. Caefar 
wrote Cicero feveral letters, and had an 
interview with him at Formiae, in his 
return from Brundufium, after Pom- 
pey's flight to Greece. Caefar labour- 
ed to prevail on Cicero to return to 
Rome, and take his feat in the fenate. 
But Cicero with great fpirit refifed to 
do it, C'tc, An, 9, 18. Cicero ib'ii re- 
tained his liftors and other marks of 
command, though he found them very 
inconvenient, CAc. Fam. 2, 16, Ait. 10, 
10. At lail, on the i ith June, (III Id. 
Jun.) Cicero fet fail with his brother, 
his fon, and nephew, Fam. 14, 7. Ck. 
Att. 9, I, & 6. and joined Pompey 
"at Dyrrachium, Ih. But he foon re- 
pented of what he had done, when he 
law how ill matters were condudled in 

■7 ] etc 

Pompey's camp, Cic. Fam. 7, 3. and 
efpecially when he found his coming 
blamed by Cato, who thought that he 
might have been more ufeful to his 
country by remaining neuter, Plutarch, 
in Cic. Cicero perceiving that he was 
neither employed nor truiled by Pom- 
pey, refumed his ufual way of raillery, 
tb^ An. 11,4. for which Antony after- 
wards blamed him, Cic. Phil. 2, 16. 

Cicero was not prefent at the battle 
of Pharfalia, having ilaid behind at 
Dyrrachium on account of bad health, 
Plutarch, p. 880. but his fon command- 
ed one of the wings of horfe, and be- 
haved with great bravery, Cic. Off". 2, 
13. Lucan reprefents Cicero not only 
as 'prefent in the battle, but as the chief 
advifer of it, in name of the whole 
army, (cvn^lorum voces — pertulit,) 7,62, 
Sec. Cato, who commanded at Dyr- 
rachium with fifteen cohorts, when 
Labienus brought them the news of 
Pompey's defeat, offered the chief com- 
mand to Cicero, as being of confular 
rank, and therefore his fuperior in dig- 
nity, but Cicero declined it. Upon 
which young Pompey was fo enraged, 
that he drew his fword, and would have 
killed Cicero, if Cato had not inter- 
pofed and prevented it, Plutarch.- ih. 
This fa6l is not mentioned by Cicero ; 
but he is thought to refer to it. Mar-- 
cell. 5. A few days after, thofe who 
were at Dyrrachium difperfed to dif- 
ferent places, Cic.Divin. J, 32. Cice- 
ro determined to throw himfelf on the 
mercy of the conqueror, and therefore 
pafFed over to Brundufium, about the 
end of Od:obfcr, a. 705. Cic. Fam. 7, 3, 
et 14, 12. where he remained till Cac- 
far's return from Egypt, Plutarch. He 
foon repented of his coming to Brun- 
dufium fo haflily, when the reft of his 
party had cither remained in Achaia, 
or pafied over into Africa, which was 
ftiil in the power of the Pompeians, Cic. 
Att. II, 6, 7, 9, &c. Cicero's brother 
Quint us with liis fon followed Caefar 
into Afia, to obtain their pardon from 
him in peifon; and, to jullify them- 
felves, tiircw all the blame on Cicero ; 


c r c [ I 

which gave him great pain, lb. 8, & 
lo. But his behaviour to them vv^as 
quite the reverfe of theirs to him, ib, 
12. Cicero fufFered many mortifica- 
tions, [tnultas graves o^enfionfs,) while 
he remained at Brundufium, ib. He 
was entirely in the power of Antony, 
who governed all things In Italy with 
abfolute authority. He had befides 
feveral grievances of a domefh'c kind, 
particularly from the uncomfortable 
flate of his daughter Tullla, whom 
I^olabella foon after divorced, ib. 3. 
He was alfo in fome diftrefs for want of 
money, having lent moil of what he had 
to Pompey, ib. 2, 3, 13, Sec. His health 
likcwife began to be afFecled by the air 
of the place,//'. 22. At lail he was 
relieved by a very obliging letter from 
Caefar, who confirmed to him the full 
enjoyment of his former ftate and digni- 
ty, and defired him to refume hkfqfces 
and title of Imperatoi-, as bt^fore, Cic. 
Fam. 14, 23. Llgar. 3. Caefar hlm- 
felf foon after arrived in September, 
and treated Cicero at meeting with par- 
ticular marks of refpcft, Plutarch. 

Cicero being now excluded from all 
concern in the management of public 
affairs, became reconciled to his old 
friends, as he fays, his books, {^reciilt cum 
tcteribvs atfiicis, id fji, cum iilrls fuis in 
gratiam,) Fam. 9, i. from which he de- 
rived, not only amufement, as formv.'rly, 
but alfo fupport, ib. 2. et 6, 1 3. He at 
this time wrote his dlalofrue on famous 


orators called Bk^utus, but it was 
not publilhcd till the year foil 
Cic. Brut. I. He is 
compofed much about the fame tiuie 
Lis Par.titiones Oratoriae, or the 
art of ordering and dillributing the 
parts of an oration. 

Cicero now divorced his wife Te- 
rentla, with whom he had lived above 
thirty years, being difpleafed with her 
bad teniperand want of oeconomy, Cic. 
Ep. Fam. 4, 14. ; Plutarch, in Cic. 
p. 881. He married a young woman 
called Pu.BLiLiA, to whom he had been 
guardian, on account of her beauty, as 
T^rentla alleged ; but, as his favourite 
-freed man Tire laid, for the lake of her 

thought to have 

8 ] CIC 

fortune. This ftep, however, expofed 
Cicero to much cenfure, Z)/o, 46, 18. 
nor was he happy in his new connec- 
tion , Plutarch, ib. 

Caefar wiihed that Cicero w^ould 
take a part in the government under 
his ufurpatlon, but In vain, Cic. Fam. 
9, 15, &c. Cicero, how^cver, lived in 
habits of great intimacy wuth the chiefs 
of Caefar's party, ib. 6, 7, 16, &c. — 
After the death of Cato Cicero wrote 
a book In his praile, which he called 
Cato, Cic. Att. 12, 4 & 15. et 13, 
46. jF^m. 7, 24. Div. 2f I. (GeUius 
calls it Laus Catonis, 13, 19.; and 
fo alfo Cicero himfelf, Laus vel lauda- 
iio Catonis, Att. ibid.) This Caefar 
was fo far from taking amifs, that he 
wrote an anfwer to it, called AntiCx\- 
TO, in which he accuied the whole hfc 
and conduft of Cato as in a pubhc tri- 
al before judges, at the fame time be- 
llowing great pralfes on Cicero, Ta^ 
cit. Ann. 4, 34. ; Dio, 43, 13. ; Ap- 
pian. B. C. 2, 490.; Plutarch. Cic. p. 
8S0. ; et in Caef. p. 708, & 733- ; m 
Cat, Minor, p. 764. ; Gell. 4, 16. It 
was divided into two books ; hence 
the fcholiaft on Juvenal fays, that Cae- 
far wrote two books on this fubjeft, 
Sat. 6, 338. So Suetonius, {Antica^ 
tones tolidtm^ I. e. duos icreUquit), ^6, 
Caefar did not finifh his Anticato till 
afttr the conclufion of the Spanifli 
war. In the mean time HIrtius com- 
pofed a book on the fame fubject in 
the form of a letter to Cicero, filled 
with objections to Cato's character, 
but with high compliments to Cicero 
himfelf, which Cicero confidered as a 
fpecimcn of what Caefar's work was 
to be, and caufcd it to be pubhdied, 
Cic. Att. 12, 40, & 41. Brutus alfo 
wrote a book in praife of Cato, who 
was his uncle and father-in-bw, ( Vid, 
Brutus), Cic. Fam. 7, 24. Att. 13, 
46. to wiiich Auguilus afterwards 
wrote an anfwer. Suet. 85. Cicero 
fays, that Brutus had fallen Into fome 
millakes in his account of Cato ; par- 
ticularly in fpeaking of the debate in 
the fenate concerning the puniiaineni; 
of the confpiratQrs, Att. 12, 21. Mid- 
dle ton 

C I C [I 

dleton thinks, that Salluft took his ac- 
count of this matter from Brutus, and 
chofe to copy even his miilakes, rather 
than do juitice to Cicero, (See Middle- 
tori's Life of Cicero, vol. 2. p» 346.) 
It may be remarked, that Salluft gives 
Cicero the fame character of an excel- 
lent confnl, (optimus conful). Cat. 43. 
with v,'hich Cicero exprefles himfelf to 
be difTatisficd from Brutus, {^^lis enim 
jejunius dixit inimicus ? Did ever an ene- 
my fpeak of me in colder terms ?) iL 
It feems this book of Brutus was not 
remarkable for elegance of compoix- 
tion ; whence Caefar faid, " That by 
reading Cicero's Cato he became more 
copious, but after reading the Cato of 
Brutus, he thought himfelf even elo- 
quent,'* Cic. Jit. 13, 46. 

After this, Cicero, at the requeft 
of Brutus, compofed his book called 
Orator, containing a delineation of 
what he thought the befl: manner of 
fpeaking, or of a perfect orator, Cic. 
Or. I. This he calls his fifth book con- 
cerning oratory ; the three firll were 
Dr Oratore, and the fourth Bru- 
tus, Cic. Div. 2, I. Cicero fays, 
that he had difplaycd in that book 
whatever llciil he pofTeiTed in the art, 
"and was willing to reft his reputation 
as an orator on the merit of it, Cic. 
Ep.6y 19. 

About this time M. Matcellus ha- 
, ving been mentioned by Pifo in the 
fenate, and his brother Caius having 
thrown himfelf at Caefar's«feet, all 
the fenators rofe up, and advancing 
forward to Caefar in a fuppiicating 
manner, obtained from him the par- 
don of Marccilus. This ad of Caciar's 
broke Cicero's refolution ofobferving 
a perpetual filence in pubhc. Accord- 
ingly, v/lien all the fenators, who had 
been ail<:ed their opinions before him, 
had returned thanks to Caefar, ex- 
cept Volcatius, iq. 1).) Cicero made 
his acknowledgments, i^gratias egit), 
in that admirable fpeech, entitled. 
Pro Marcello ; of which he gives 
an account to Sulpicius, Fam. 4, 4. 
!~— Soon after this Cicero difplayed 

19 ] C T C 

the power of his eloquence In defence 

of LiGARlUS, [q. V.) 

Next year, a. 708, while Caefar was 
engaged in the war againil the fons of 
Pompey and Labienus in Spain, Ci- 
cero loft his beloved daughter Tul- 
LiA, who died in childbed, in the 
houfe of her hufoand, Plutarch, in Cic. 
[apud quern {c. P. Lentulum Yiol^hnW^mj 
ilia ex partu decejfity Afcon. in Cic. Pif.) 
who was then in Spain with Caefar, 
Cic. Phil. 2, 30. Cicero wrote to him 
an account of Tullia's death, in fuch 
terms, as fliow, that the divorce which 
had taken place between Dolabella 
and TuUia was with mutual confent, 
Fam. 9, II. ; and Cicero after this, in 
writing to Dolabella, ufes the ilrong- 
eft exprefiions of friendihip, Fam, 9, 

12, 13, 14, &c. Dolabella was 

too great a favourite of Caefar's, for 
Cicero to quawel with him. By 
reading the letters of Cicero to Do- 
labella, one would imagine him to 
have been a perfon of great virtue, 
Cic. Fam. 9, 12, 13, 5cc. Ncverthe- 
lefs, Cicero afterwards reprefents him 
as a moniter of lewdnefs and inhuma- 
nity, PhiL II, 4. Cicero's warmth 
of temper often made him exprefs him- 
felf too ftrongly, both with refpecl to 
his friends' and enemies ; and fome- 
times in fpeakmg of the fame perfons, 
to ufe very different terms, as he was 
differently affedted towards them. 

Cicero was greatly afHIded for the 
lofsofhis daughter, Cic. Att. 12, i ^, 
&c. Piutarch relates, that the philo- 
fophers came from all parts to com- 
fort him. But this is no where men- 
tioned by Cicero himfelf. Confolato- 
ry letters were indeed written to him 
by different perfons ; by Atticus, ib. 
Brutus, iL 13. Lucceius, Cic. Fam. 
5, 13, & 14. Sulpicius ib. 4, 5 & 6. ; 
and by Caefar himfelf, dated at Se- 
ville, the laft day of April, Cic. Att. 

13, 20. But, as Cicero himfelf fays, 
he derived his chief comfort from his 
books, Cic. Alt. 12, 14, & 15. He 
wrote a book to confole himfelf, which 
he called Con?olatio, ib. 14, & 28. 


C I C [I 

Dlv. 2f 1. Tufc. 4, 29= Tlie trcatife 
commonly annexed to Cicero'5 works, 
entitled Consolatio, is thought to 

be fpurious. Cicero alfo dciigned to 

build a temple to Tullia, as a kind oi 
deity, Cic. Ait. 12, ^6,41,43, &c. ; 

but never efteftcd his defign. -He 

iiow divorced his young wife Publi- 
LiA, bccaufe, as it is faid, flic feemed 
to rejoice at the death of Tullia, Plu- 
tarch, in Cic. p. 882, ; Dio, 46, 18. 

Cicero at this time wrote a book 
called KoRTENsius, in praife of phi- 
lofophy, Cic. Div. 2, I. Tiyfc. 2, 2. ; 
which is now lofl. — He then alfo com- 
pofed his Academicae Quaestio- 
NES, in four books, containnig an ac- 
count and defence of the philofophy 
of the academy ; the fecl which he 
himfelf preferred, Cic. Div. 2, i. He 
had formerly written two books on the 
fame fubje£l;, infcribed the one to 
Catulus, and the other to Lucul- 
i,us ; but he now divided the work 
into four books, which he addrefTed 
to Varro, Att. 13, 12. whom he calls 
his fodalis, Att. 13, 13. Here he took 
on himfelf the part of Philo, who de- 
fends the principles of the academy ; 
be alTigns to Varro the part of Ak- 
TiocHUS, [partes Antiochinas)y who 
oppofes and confutes them ;"and intro- 
duces Atticus as the moderator of the 
dffpute, C'ic. Acad, i, pr. Fam. 9, 8. 
He was fo partial to this work, that he 
fays, " There was nothing on the fub- 
iedequaltoit, eyenamong theGreeks,'* 
"Att. 13, 13, 16, c^ 19. All thefe four 
books are loll, except part of the firil ; 
whilll the fecond book of the two 
which he pubhihed hril remains entire 
under its original title of I^ucul- 
Lus. It is commonly infcribed, Acad, 
^aefiionum liber quartus ; but impro- 
perly ; for it appears to have been a 
feparate book, and written after that 
which was addrefTed to Catulus, Cic. 
Acad. 4, 3. 

Cicero next publi:lied one of the no- 
bleft of his works, called Ds Finibus, 
(:T:pj T£?.a>v); <« Concerning the chief 
good aiKl ill of man ;" written in ths 

20 } CIC 

manner of Arlilotle, Cic. Att. 13, 19. 
Fin. I, 4. The work confifts of five 
books. In the two firft, the Epicu- 
rean doftrine is defended by Torqua- 
tus, and confuted by Cicero, in a con- 
ference fuppofed to be held in his Cu' 
man Villa ; in the prefence of Triarius, 
a young nobleman, who came with 
Torquatus to vifit Cicero. The two 
next books explain the do6lrine of the 
Stoics, which is fupportcd by Cato, 
and oppofcd by Cicero, in a friendly 
debate, upon their meeting accidental- 
ly in the library of Lucullus. The 
flhh book contains the opinions of the 
Old Academy, or of the Peripatetics, 
explained by Pifo, in a third dialogue, 
fuppofed to be held at Athens, in the 
prtfcnce of Cicero, his brother Quln- 
tus, his coufm Lucius, and Atticus. 
This work is infcribed to Bi utus, Fin. 
r, I. in return for a book which Bru- 
tus a little before had fent to Cicero, 
♦* concerning virtue," ih. 3. 

Not long after, Cicero publiflied an- 
other work of equal importanc«, call- 
ed his Tupculan Disputations or 
Questions ; alfo infcribed to Bru- 
tus, and confining of five books. The 
firll teaches us to contemn death, and 
to confider it as a blclfing rather than 
an evil ; the fecond, to bear pain and 
aitiicLion with fortitude ; the third, to 
appeafe our grief and uneafinefies un- 
der the accidents of life ; the fourth, 
to moderate all our other pafiions ; and 
the fifth ^emonflrates the fufficiency of 
virtue alone to m.ake a man happy. Ci- 
cero is fuppofed to have fpent five 
days at his Tufculan villa, in difcuifing 
with his friends the feveral queilions 
juft mentioned. After declaiming in 
the morning, they ufed after mid-day 
to retire into a gallery, called the Aca- 
demy., which Cicero had built for phi- 
lofophical conferences. Here he defi- 
red any one of the company to pro- 
pofe fome queftion, which he wirtied 
to be difcufled ; and then Cicero dif- 
puted Oil it either fitting or walking, 
Cic. Tujc. 1,4. ^/ 2, 3. ^^ 3, 3. Each 
of thcfc difputstions was called Scho- 


C I C [I 

tA, t!>. d Pif. 25, d IJ. ; Fin. 2, i.; 
Tufc. 3, 34. 

Much about this time Cicero alio 
wrote a funeral encomium (laudatw) 
on PoRCiA, the fifter of Cato and wife 
of Domitius Ahenobarbus ; which fub- 
jeft Varro andLollius likevvife attempt- 
ed, Cic. An. 13,48, & 37. But all 
the three are now loft. 

While Caefar remained ia Spain, 
Cicero was urged by Atticus, among 
his other works, to write fomcthing 
to Caefar. He therefore drew up a 
letter to him, which he communicated 
to Hirtius and Balbus ; but as they 
thought fome things in it rather too 
freely exprefled, it was never fent C'lc, 
Att. 12, 51. et 13, 27, et 2%. Cicero, 
it feems, in this letter advifed Caefar 
to reilore the republic, and to drop 
his intention of going to the Parthian 
war, ih. 31, Caefar however having 
now publifhed his anfwer to Cicero's 
Cato, which he had written before, 
Cicero, pleafed with the compliments 
which Caefar had paid him, [Bene en'im 
exijiimo de illis librisy fc Caefaris, Cic. 
Att. 13, 51.) fent a letter of thanks to 
Caefar, for the great civility with 
which he had treated him, ib 50. Ci- 
cero was pleafed with the iffue of the 
war in Spain. He widied rather, to 
ufe the words of Cailius in a letter to 
Cicero, to keep his old and clement 
mafter, than try a new and cruel one ; 
which was the opinion he had of young 
; Pompey, /ift. 12, 37.; Fam. 15, ig. 
Some time after Caefar's r: turn from 
Spain, a. 708, Cicero delivered his 
oration in defence of king Dfjota- 
; Rus, (q. v.). On the third day of the 
I Saturnaha, Caefar paid a viiit to Cice- 
\ to at his country -feat on the Formian 
coalt near Cajeta. Catfar had lodged 
the night before at the houfe of Philip, 
the next neighbour of Cicero, who was 
married to Attia, Caefar's niece, and 
mother of Octavius, afterwards called 
Auguftus. Cicero gives a pleafant de- 
; fcription of this entertainment, Alt. 13, 

52- . 

Cicero w^as not concerned in the con- 
fpiracy againft; Caefar j but was pre- 

2T ] CIC 

fent at his death, Cic Att. 14, 14. J 
and Brutus, after Caefar was flain* 
holding up his bloody dagger, called 
on Cicero by name, to congratulate 
with him on the recovery of their li- 
berty, Cic. Phil. 2, 12. AH the con- 
fpiratovs, prefently running out into the 
Forum with their daggers in their 
hands, and proclaiming liberty to the 
city, every now and then caflcd aloud 
on Cicero, Dio 44, 20. Whence An- 
tony afterwards accufed Tlicero of ha- 
ving been privy to the confpiracy, and 
the chief advifcr of it, Phil. 2, 11.; 
Fam. 12, 2, & 3. 

Cicero followed the confpirators to 
the capitol, and urged them to adopt 
vigorous meafures ; but Brutus and 
Caffius, deceived by Antony, prefer- 
red pacific plans, and thus ruined both 
themfelves and their caufe, Cic. Att. 

14, 10. ; Phil. 2, 35. When the con- 
fpirators, by the art of Antony, were 
obliged to leave the city, Cicero foon 
after left it alfo, Cic. ad Brut. 15. great- 
ly mortified to fee things take a wrong 
turn by the indolence of his friends. 
He ufed often to fay, " That the Ides 
of March had produced nothing that 
pkafed him but the aft of the day ; 
which had been executed indeed with 
manly fpirit, but fupported with chiid- 
ifli counfels,'* Cic. Att, 14, 6, £'^21. et 

15, 4. *' That tyranny lived, when 
the tyrant was killed," /3. 14, 9, {^Vid. 
Caesar, p. 74.) 

Cicero, while he ftaid in the coun- 
try, wrote his treatife on the nature ot 
the gods, in three books, (De Napu- 
RA Deorum), addreffed to Brutus, 
Cic. hat.D. 1, 6.; alfo on Divina- 
tion, in two books, Cic, Div. 1,4.; 
on old age, in one book, called Cato 
Major, addreffed to Atiicus, Cic. Sen, 
I,; on Friendship, alfo addreffed to 
Atticus, Cic. Amic, i, and on Fate ; 
which is fuppoftd to have been the 
fubje6t of a conyerfation with Hirtius, 
in his inlla near PuteoU. 

Cicero was now alfo compofmg a 
hiflory of his own times, or rather of 
his own conduft, which he calls his 
Anecdote («v£)c^otovj ; or anecdotes. 

C I C [I 

in tlie fatirical manner of Theopompus, 
( Theopomp'ino genere, aut ct'iam afperiore 
multo)y CIc. Att. 2, 6. et 14, 17. At- 
ticus wifhed him to continue this work 
down through Caefar's government ; 
but this he referved for a diftinft hifto- 
ry, in which he defigned to vindicate 
the juftice of kilhng a tyrant, lb. cl \ 5, 
3. ; Fam, 12, 16. Dio fays, that Ci- 
cero delivered this book fealed to his 
fon, (T^-raih.) with ilrift orders not 
to read or publifh it till after his deatli, 
39, 10. ; but he never after this faw his 
fon. Some commentators therefore ap- 
ply the cxpreffion of Dio, (ra -rxtli, 
piiero), to Tiro, the favourite (lave, 
and afterwards freedman of Cicero. 
Cicero probably left the work unfinifli- 
cd, thougli fume copies of it afterwards 
got abroad, from v;hich his commen, 
tator Afconius has quoted feveral par- 
ticulars, in Tog. candid. Boethius alfo 
quotes it, De Mufica^ i, i. 

As Antony, by means of Caefar's 
veteran foldierp, podcffcd all povver at 
Rome, Cicero now refolved to make a 
voyage to Greece, and fpend feme 
months with his fon, who was then 
ftudying at Athens under the philofo- 
pher Ariilippus. On this account he 
wrote to the confuls Antony and Do- 
labella, to procure for him the privi- 
lege of a free legation [legatlo libera) y 
Att. 15, 8. Dolabella immediately 
named him one of his own lieutenants ; 
which pleafed Cicero better, ib. 11. 
While Cicero ftaid in the coun- 
try preparing for his voyage, he began 
his book of ofTices, [l)c nficus,) for 
the ufe and inilrudtion of his fon, Att. 
15, 13, et 14. He alfo wrote a treatife 
on Glory, ib. 27. which is faid to have 
been extant after the invention of priiit- 
ing ; but fomchow was loft. See Middle- 
ion's life cf Cicero J vol. 3, p. 64. 

Cicero thinking that he would fail 
more fafcly in company with Brutus 
and Cafiius, v/ho v^ere then prcpaiing 
to pafs over into Greece, frequently 
gave hints of his wifhes to Brutus. 
But finding his propofal received more 
coldly than he expected, he fet fail 
ulone in the month of July, with three 

22 1 CIC 

fmall galleys, Att. 16, 4, 5. with a re- 
folution of returning to Rome before 
the end of the year, that he might be 
prefent in the fenate on the i il of Ja- 
nuary, when Hirtius and Panfa were 
to enter on their confulfnip, ib. 6. et 

pili I, 2. V/hilft Cicero failed 

along the coaft from Velia, he wrote 
his treatife on topics, (Topica), or 
the art cf finding arguments on any 
queftion ; addreffed to Trebatius, to 
Vv'hom he fent it from Rhegium, Clc, 

Fam. 7, 19. ; Top. I. In reading 

his books on the academic philofophy, 
he difcovered that the preface to the 
third book was the fame with what he 
had prefixed to his book on Glory. It 
was his cullom, it feems, to prepare at 
leifure a number of different prooems, 
which, by a little alteration, might be 
adapted to any fubjeft, [Habeo volu- 
men prsoeniiorum. ex eofellgere /oleoj i5'c.) 
So that by miftake he had ufed thia 
preface twice without remembering it. 
He therefore compofed a new one for 
his book on Glory, and fent it to At- 
ticus, Clc. Att. i6y6- 

Cicero arrived at Syracufe on the 
iftof Auguft; whence he failed next 
day, and -vivas driven back by crofs 
winds to Leucopetra, Clc. Phil. 1,6.; 
yJtt. 16, 7. Here he met with fome 
people lately from Rome, who brought 
him news of an unexpedled turn of af- 
fairs there tov>'ards a general pacifica- 
tion. Upon which he dropped all 
thoughts of purfuing his voyage, and 
immediately fet out on his return to 
Rome, lb. At Velia, he had a confe- 
rence with Brutus, the laft they ever 
had, Clc. Att. 16, 7,; Fam. 12, 25.; 
ad Brut. 1 5 ; Phil, i , 4. Cicero, up- 
on his arrival at Rom.e on the laft day 
of Auguft, was met by great numbers 
of the citizens who came out to con- 
gratulate him on his return, Plutarch* 
He did not however find things in the 
favourable ftate which he expefted. 
The fenate met next morning, to which 
he was particularly fummoned by An.- 
tony, but cxcufed h.imfelf by a civil 
meftage, as being indifpofed by the fa- 
tigue of his journey : at which Anto- 

C I C [I 

ny was fo offended, that he threaten- 
ed to order his houfe to be pulled 
down, if he did not come immediate- 
ly ; till by the interpolition of the af- 
fembly, he was diffuaded from ufing 
any violence, Cic. Phil, i, 5. The fe- 
nate met again next day, when Anto- 
ny being abfent, tb. 5, 7. Cicero deli- 
vered the firft of thofe orations, which, 
in imitation of Demollhenes, he after- 
wards called Philippics. Antony 
was greatly enraged at this fpeech, and 
fummoned another meeting of the fe- 
nate, where he again required Cicero's 
attendance. But Cicero, though de- 
firous to go, [ciip'iens venire j) was pre- 
vented by his fiiends, who were appre- 
henfive of fome defign againft his life, 
Cic. Phil. 5, 7.; Fam. 12, 2 J. Their 
apprehenfions were confirmed by An- 
tony's fpeaking with fuch fury, that, 
as Cicero fays, alluding to what An- 
tony had done a little before in public, 
he feemed rather to fpew than to fpeak, 
Cic» Fam. 12, 2. Cicero, feeing that 
a breach w^ith Antony was now inevi- 
table, for the fake of fecurity remo- 
ved from Rome to fome of his villas 
near Naples, where he compofed the 
Second Philippic, by way of reply 
to Antony ; which was not delivered 
in the fenate, but afterwards publifli- 
ed. It is a bitter invedlive againll the 
whole life of Antony, and was fup- 
pofed to have been the chief caufe of 
the death of Cicero. It was fo great- 
ly admired, that Juvenal calls it a di- 
vine compofition. After mentioning 
a verfe of Cicero's on his confulfhip, 
fortunatam natam^ me confule. Remain! 
which was much ridiculed, he adds, 
ylntonii gladlos potuit centemnere^ Ji Jic 
omnia dixijfet. Ridenda poemata malo^ 
quam te^ conjpicuae divina P h i l i p p i c a 
famacy Volveris a prima qiiae prox'nraf 

i. e. fecunda, 10, 122, Sec. After 

this Cicero finiflied his book of Offi- 
ces, or the duties of man, for the ufe 
of his fon, Cic, y///. 16, ii. He now 
alfo, as it is thought, compofed his 
Stoical Pa R A D o X E s , or an illu llrat ion 
of the particular doftrines of that (cti, 
addrefled to Brutus. 

23 ] CIC 

Antony left Rome about the end 
of September, to meet four legions, 
which were coming from Macedonia 
to Brundufium, and by money to en- 
gage them in his fervice ; but three of 
them rejeded his offers, and would 
not follow him. Upon which he in- 
vited their centurions to his lodging, 
and ordered fuch of them as he fuppo- 
fed inimical to be maffacred, to the 
number of 300, Cic. Fam. 12, 23. ; 
Phil. 3, 2, SiC. et 5, 8. ; Z)/o, 45, 13. 
He returned to Rome in great rage, 
and publiflied feveral threatening e- 
dids ; but hearing that two of the le- 
gions from Brundufium, the fourth, 
and that called Legio Martia, had de- 
clared for Oftavius, he fuddenly af- 
fembled the fenate, made feveral haf- 
ty decrees, and then left Rome to 
feize on Cifalpine Gaul, which was 
then poffeffed by D. Brutus as his pro- 
vince, Cic. Phil. 3, 2, &.C. 5, 2, &c. ; 
Fell. 2, 61. 

About this time Cicero, at the car- 
neft requeft of Oppius, formed an u- 
nion with 06lavius, on condition that 
Oftavius fnould befriend Brutus and 
his accomplices, Cic. Att. 16, 15. Ci- 
cero, however, often expreffed his 
fufpicions that Oclavius could not be 
fincere in fupporting the confpirators, 
Cic. Ait. 16, 8, 9, II, 14, &c. Pie 
therefore was careful to arm him on- 
ly with a power fulhcient to crufli An- 
tony, yet fo checked and limited, that 
he Ihould not be able to opprefs the 
repubhc, ih. But in this he was out- 
witted by Odavius, Appian. B. C. p. 

Cicero having heard of the retreat 
of Anto'iy, returned to Rome, where 
he arrived on the 9th December. The 
new tribunes, (one of whom was Caf- 
ca, who gave the firll blow to Cae- 
far), in the ab fence of the luperior 
magiftrates, called a meeting of the 
fenate on the 19th, {^xii'i. Kal. Jan.) 
Cicero had refolved not to go to the 
fenate till the tirlt ot January ; yet 
happening on that day to receive the 
edid of D. Brutus, which prohibited 
Antony from entering his provinces, 
0^2 he 

[ 124 1 

and this foldiers 

C I c 

he went to the fenate early- 
being obferved by the other fenators, 
prefently drew together a full houfe, 
Ck. Ep. Fam. il, 6. Here Cicero de- 
livered his Third Philippic, in 
which he gave it as his opinion, among 
other things, ** that what Oftavius 
(called alfo Caefar Oftavianus) had 
done as a private perfon, ihould be 
conlinried by public authority ; that 
the legions which had deferted from 
Antony and joined Ottavius, fliould 
be rewarded ; and that D. Brutus by 
his fervices had deferved well of the 
republic," PJAL 3, 15. A decree of 
the fenate was made agreeably to Ci- 
cero's opinion. Cicero pailed from 
the fenate-houfe directly to the forum, 
and informed the people from the rof- 
ira of what the fenate had done, in his 
Fourth Philippic. Thefe two 
fpeeches were fo well received, that 
Cicero afterv^'ards declared publicly, 
that he fhould have been falisfied, if 
this had been the lall day of his life, 
when the people with one voice ex- 
claimed, *' that he had a fecond time 
faved the republic," Phil. 6, i. In 
the mean time Antony had laid fiege 
to Mutina, where D. Brutus, unable 
to oppofe Antony in the field, had 
fhut himfelf up. 

On the ill of January a. 710, {////-- 
iioet Panfa Co^),Q^Fulius Calen us. 

■who was firft aflced 

nis opmion, a; 


ing the father;-in-law of Panfa, adviled, 
'* that ambaffadors fnould be fent to 
Antony, to order him to dcfiil from 
the fiege of Mutina, and fubmit to 
the authority of the fenate." Pilb and 
feveral others were of the fame mind. 
But Cicero warmly oppofed this mo- 
tion in his Fifth Philippic, by the 
ilrongeft arguments, ib. I, — 12. and 
gave it as his opinion, *' That no fur- 
ther mention Ihould be made of an 
embaffy, that war fhould be inftantly 
entered upon, that a vacation from all 
civil bufinefs [jujiitium), fliould be 
appointed, that the militai7 drefs 
fhould be alTumed, inftead of the togaj 
{fagajumi oj^ortere), and that levies of 

C I c 

fhould be made in the city, 
and through Italy, without admitting 
any exemption or excufe, ( fuhlatls va- 
Ciitionibus) ; that the whole republic 
fliould be committed to the confuls, 
to take care that it received no detri- 
ment," &c. iL Cicero next propofed, 
that particular honours fliould be de- 
creed to D. Brutus, to Lepidus, and 
Oclavius, whom he calls C. Caefar, iL 
13, &c. With refpecl to the honours, 
though thofe prop©fed to Oclavius 
v/ere very extraordinary, the fenate 
readily agreed with Cicero. But the 
houfe was much divided about the 
main queilion of fending a deputation 
to Antony. Some of the principal fe- 
nators were for it. The confuls them- 
ftlvcs fecretly favoured it, and therefore 
arLfully avoided putting it to the vote; 
as it appe?red the majority would have 
confirmed the opinion of Cicero. But 
after the debate had continued for 
three days, Salvius, a tribune, by his 
interpofition, prevented a decree of 
the fenate from being made, Cic. Phi/, 
6, I, et 14, 7. Appiatup. 559. At lall 
the friends of Antony, a lew days af- 
ter prevailed that an embaffy Ihould 
be fent. Three fenators of confular 
rank were prefently nominated, S. 
Sulpicius, L. Pifo, and L. Philippus» 
The unufual length of thefe debates 
having greatly excited the curiolity of 
the people, Cicero was loudly called 
upon to give them an account of what 
had been done. Being, therefore, 
produced in the rof.ra by Apuleius, the 
tribune, he recounted to an affembly 
of the people the proceedings of the 
fenate in his Sixth Philippic, in 
which he difapproved of the embafly, 
and predided the refult of it, Phil, 
6, I, &c. In the mean time, the 
friends of Antony, at the head of 
whom was Calenus, endeavoured to 
mitigate the public refentmeut againfl 
Antony by various arts. Cicero, there- 
fore, in a meeting of the fenate, call- 
ed about ordinary matters, took occa- 
fion to roufe the affembly, and to point 
out to them the mifchievous vievi^s of 


C ! C [ 12 

t^ofe wKo advifed an accommodation 
with Antony, in his Seventh Phi- 

Sulpicius died on his embafTy. PI- 
fo and Phih'p returned about the be- 
ginning of February, without fuccefs, 
as Cicero had predi<Sied ; bringing un- 
fufFerable demands from Antony, who 
did not difccntluue the ficge of Muti- 
ra for a moment, but battered it fu- 
rioufly with his engines, even in pre- 
fence of the ambafTadors, Cic. Phil 8, 
7, «?cc. Stili, however, the partizans 
of Antony ftrove to foften the decree 
of the fenate again ft him, and partly 
fucceeded in oppofition to Cicero, 
PrjiL 8, I, & 10, ct 12, 7. Fam. 12, 4. 
Cicero next day, in his Eighth Phi- 
lippic, ftrongly expoftulates with 
the fenate for their imprudent lenity ; 
and concluded with prcpofing, " That 
impunity (hould be granted to fuch as 
deferted Antony before the Ides of 
March, but if any one (hould go over 
to Antony except L. Varius Cotyla, 
his ambaffador, that the fenate would 
confider him as an enemy to his coun- 
try, PhiL 8, 1 1. The fenate being 

aflembled by Panfa to confider what 
marks of refpeft fhould be decreed to 
the memory of Sulpicius, Cicero pro- 
pofed, in his Ninth Philippic, 
*' that a magnificent funeral (hould be 
made for him at the public expence, 
and a ftatue of brafs erefted to him 
in the roflra, with other honours ;" 
to all which the fenate agreed, PhiL 

Brutus having fent public letters to 
the confuls, concerning his fuccefTcs 
in Macedonia, (See Brutus), Pan- 
fa called a meeting of the fenate, and 
having fpoken largely in praife of Bru- 
tus, moved that public honours and 
thanks (hould be decreed to him. Then, 
according to his ufual cuftom, he iirft 
aflced Calenus his opinion, who ha- 
ving deti acted from the merits ot Bru- 
tus, was (harply attacked by,CIcero, 
in liis Tenth Philippic. The (e- 
iiate, according lo the opinion of Ci- 
cero, coatirmtd what Brutus had done, 

and ordered him to proteft Macedonia 
and Greece with the army which he 
had raifed, in conjunction with Ql 
HoRTENsius, the proconful, by whom 
he had been greatly affifted, P/jIL 10, 

1 1. The news being brought to Rome, 
that Dolabclla had furprifed and cru- 
elly killed TreboniuS) the governor 
of Alia at Smyrna, Dolabella was 
judged an enemy by the fenate at the 
motion even of Calenus, with whom 
Cicero concurred, in his Eleventh 
Philippic. But there was a differ- 
ence of opinion about the appoint- 
ment of a general againft Dolabella ; 
fome propofing Scrvlllus, and others 
the two confuls. Cicero, however, 
gave his opinion for Caffius, Phi/. 11, 

12. and afterwards fupported it in a 
fpeech to the people, in oppofition 
to the authority of Panfa, and the 
wifhes even of CalTius's neareft rela- 
tions, Cic. Fam. 12, 7. 

D. Brutus being reduced to great 
ftraits at Mutina, and the friends of 
Antony having given aiTurances that 
he was difpofed to peace, Cicero, an- 
xious to preferve Brutus, had agreed 
to go on an embafly to Antony with 
Servilius, and three others of ccnfu- 
lar dignity. But having learned that 
there was no change of mind in Anto- 
ny, and that he was as much fet on 
the deftruclion of Brutus, and on pro- 
fecuting the war, as ever, Cicero re- 
tracted his opinion, and gave many 
convincing reafbns for it in the fenate, 
in his Twelfth Philippic, c. i, 2, 
&:c. Soon after, Panfa fet out with 
the forces which he had newly raifed, 
to join iHirtius and Octavius againft 
Antony. In the mean tinie Lepldu^ 
who commanded a great army in Gaui, 
and had lately made peace with Scx- 
tus, the fon of Pompey, wrote a pu- 
blic letter to the fenate, to exhort 
them to rneafures of peace with An- 
toiiy, witnout taking any notice of 
t)\e honours which the Senate had de- 
creed to him. Cicero, in ttis Thir- 
teenth Philippic, fpeaks in praife 
of peace, but infiils, that there could 


etc t I 

\je no peace with Antony, P/j/Z.ij, 
1, 2, & 3. He however airented 
to a vote propofed by Servilius, to 
thank Lepidus for his defire to reftore 
peace among his countrymen, P//i/. 
13, 21. and wrote Lepidus a letter to 
that efFeft» Fam. 10, 27. Cicero, at 
the fame time, read over in the fenate, 
a letter, which Antony had written 
to Hirtius and Oclavius, with a view 
to detach them from the intereft of 
the fenate. But they, inftead of an- 
fwering the letter, fent it £0 Cicero, 
to make what ufe of it he thoug-ht 
proper. Cicero read it to the fenate, 
paragraph by paragraph, with perti- 
nent remarks on each, Phi!. 13, 10, — 

The news of Antonyms defeat at 
Mutina reached Rome on the 20th 
April, where it raifed an incredible 
joy. The people prefently aflembled 
at Cicero's houfe, carried him in a 
kind of triumph to the capitol, and 
from thence home, Cic. Phil. 14, 5. 
ad Brut. 5. Cicero received a parti- 
cular account of this battle from Gal- 
ba, one of the confpirators, who bore 
a principal command in it, Fam. 10, 
30. There came alfo public difpatch- 
es from the confuls and Caefar ; which 
Comiitus, the city praetor, next day 
laid before the fenate. Servilius gave 
It as his opinion, *' That the citizens 
(liould lay afide the faguniy and refurae 
the togdj and that a public thankfgi- 
ving Ihould be decreed in honour of 
the confuls and Oclavius." Cicero, 
in his FouRTSENTH and lad Philii- 
pic, gave it as his opinion, " that the 
fdgum (hould not be laid aiide till they 
were fure that the fiege of Mutina was 
raifed, and Brutus freed from danger," 
Phil. 14, I. ; but agreed with Servili- 
us, in decreeing a tliankfgiving for fif- 
ty days ; as alfo rewards to the offi- 
cers and foldiers who had diftinguifh- 
ed themfelves in battle, and that the 
fame rewards fliould be given to the 
relations of thofe who had fallen, as 
to themfelves, if alive, ib. 14. Soon 
after, Hirtius and' Odavius attacked 

26 1 Clc 

Antony's entrenchments before Muti- 
na, and being aided by a fally of Bru- 
tus from the town, forced the camp 
of Antony, who fled precipitately 
with all his cavalry towards the Alps. 
Hirtius was killed in the a6lion ; and 
Panfa, the day follovi^ing, died at Bo- 
logna, of the wounds he hud received 
in the former battle, Cic. Ep. ad Brut.. 
4. Fam. 10,33. ^^ *^» *3' ^ppi^in. 3, 
p. 372. Thus Oclavius became maf- 
ter of the three armies. Whereupon, 
inflead of improving his victory, he 
determined to form an union with An- 
tony and Lepidus, againft the party 
of the fenate, and the confpirators, 
for whom he had hitherto fought, 
(See OcTA\-ius.) 

Cicero was foon aware of the dan- 
gerous turn which the death of the 
two con f 'lis was likely to give to pu- 
blic affairs, Fam. 12, 25 f/ 11, 9, 5c 
13. He therefore implored Brutus 
to bring his legions into Italy, as the 
only thing which could fave the re- 
public, ad Brut. 10. He attempted 
alfo to fecure every other refource in 
his power, by writing to Lepidus, 
Plancus, and Pollio, to preferve their 
attachment to the republic ; and they, 
for fome time, ftruck with the defeat 
of Antony, gave Cicero the ilrongeft 
affuranccs of their fidelity, Cic. Fam, 
10, 11, 12, 15,-33, & 34._ He even 
had fome hopes of prevailing on Oc- 
tavius to continue ftedfaft to the fe- 
nate, ad Brut. 3. Nor did Oclavius 
at ^i\-^ difcover his real intentions till 
he got every thing he wifhed decreed 
to his army, and himfelf made conful, 
with (y^Pcdius, in the room of Hirtius 
and Panla, Suet. Aug. 26. ; Dio^ 46, 
45. Plutarch fays, that Cicero, old 
as he was, fuffercd himfelf to be du- 
ped by fo young a man as Oftavius, 
(who was not yet twenty), by the of- 
fer of the confulfhip to himfelf ; and 
that Cicero, on this account, brought 
over the fenate to favour the views of 
Odavius. Brutus, in a letter to Ci- 
cero, fays, that he had heard that Ci- 
cero adlually was made conful, ad 


C I G [12 

Brut,/^. But Cicero, writing to Bru- 
tus, gives a very different account of 
the matter from that of Plutarch, ib. 

lo. The firft thing 06lavius did, 

after being made conful, was to feize 
all the public money, and divide it a- 
inong his foldiers ; complaining of fe- 
veral affronts, which he alleged had 
been put upon him by the fenate ; 
particularly of their calling him a boy, 
DiOf 46, 41.; Sitet. ylug. 12. For 
on account of his youth, he was com- 
monly dillinguiflied by the name of 
*' The young man, or the egy,'* 
Appian. p. 537, 545, 554, & 557.; 
D'w, 46, 30. ; C'lc. Ph'iL 13, II. He 
alio complained of Cicero's having u- 
fcd an ambiguous exprefTion concern- 
ing him, Lmidandum adolefcentem^ or- 
iiandumy tollendum; which lafl word 
fignifies either, " that he ought to be 
advanced to honour, or cut off." 
Octavius added, " that he would take 
care not to put it in any man's power 
to cut him off," C'lC. Fam. 11, 20.; 
P't'Il. 2, 62.; Suet. Avg. 12. Odavi- 
us now was Independent of the fenate, 
and had no further ufe for Cicero. 
He therefore was glad to lay hold of 
any pretext to break with them. 

Oclavius, \ntony, and Lepidus, 
having concluded an alliance, agreed 
on a profcription of their enemies. 
06lavius is faid at firft to have oppo- 
fed this meafure, Suet. Aug. 27. and 
to have'ftruggled for two days to pre- 
ferve Cicero ; but at laft gave him up 
to pleafe Antony, Plutarch, in C'lc. ; 
Veil. 2, 66. Cicero being informed 
of the profcription, attempted to make 
liis efcape, and might have fucceeded, 
if he had ufed fufficient difpatch ; but 
being overtaken by a party of foldiers, 
under the command of Popilius Lae- 
iias, a centurion, whom Cicero had 
formerly defended in a trial for parri- 
cide, (whence Seneca calls him the cli- 
ent of Cicero, Tranquil, an. 15.), he 
fubmltted to his fate with great forti- 
tude. Popilius cut off his head, and 
risjht hand, which had written the 
P.Mippi'jp, and carried them to Anto- 

7 1 C I C 

ny, who then liappened to be fitting" 
in the forum. Antony greatly rejoi- 
ced at the death of Cicero, liberally 
rewarded the centurion, and ordered 
the head and hand to be fixed on the 
roftra, Appian. B. C. p. 600. & 60 1. 

Plutarch relates feveral circUmftan- 
CCS concerning the death of Cicero dif- 
ferently. He fays, that the foldiers 
were commanded by Herennius, a 
centurion, and Popilius, a tribune ; 
that Herennius cut off Cicero's head 
by Antony's command, and his hands 
alfo, with which his Philippics had 
been written ; and that Antony, when 
thefe members were brought to him, 
faid, " Now, let there be an end of 
our profcriptions," in Cic. p. 885. ; 
btit in another place, Plutarch fays, 
that Antony ordered only the head 
and right hand to be cut off, in Anton, 
p. 894. So the epitomifer of Livy, 
who calls Popilius a legionary foldier, 
and writes thus : Ciceronls — caput quo- 
que cum dextrd manu in rojlris pofitum 
ejl, Epit. 120. So alfo Valerius Maxi- 
"^"s, 5, 3, 4. But in a fragment of 
Livy, prefervcd by the elder Seneca, 
the head of Cicero is faid to have been 
fixed on the roftra, between his two 
hands, Senec. Suafor. 6. Cremuti- 
us Cord us however, as quoted by 
the fame author, mentions only the 
right hand, ib. So Juvenal, alluding 
to this fad, Ingenio manus efl et cer- 
vix caefa^ 10, 120. Fulvia, the wife 

of Antony, is faid to have infulted 
the head of Cicero in a Shocking man- 
ner, pulling out the tongue, and pier- 
cing it with a hair bodkin, Dio, 4;/, 

8. Cicero was killed in his villa 

near Cajeta, on the 7th December, 
in the 64th year of his age. His 
death is faid to have been foreboded 
in a remarkable manner by crows, 
Appian. et Plutarch, ib. Val Max, I, 
4. 5- 

The ancient authors feem to labour 
for exprellions to deplore the fate of 
Cicero, and moft of them to deteft 
the cruelty of Antony ; thus, Abjlu- 
lit una dies aevi decus, ictague luSlu Con- 


C I C [ 

ticutt Lat'tae trljlis facundla linguae, — 
PuMica vox faev'ts (?\ civis) aefdrnum 
ohmutvk arm'ts. Corn. Sever, apud Se- 
ll ec. Suafor 6. Chit as lacrhnas ten ere 
lion potuitf Qt/um rec'ifum Ciceronts caput 
in ilTis Juh rqfirts videretur, Flor. 4, 6. 
Caeteronim htelus fr'ivatos tudus excita- 
Tfi'unt, ilia una comrnunem, Cordus a- 
pnd Senec. ib. Velleius Paterculus, 
after narrating the murder of Cicero, 
addreffes a pathetic apoftrophe to An- 
tony ; Nihil tamen egijliy M. Anionic 
mercedem caelejlijjimi oris, et clarijjimi 
SJciJfi numerando, (fc. Popih'o Laena- 
ti,) &c. Plvit, vi-vetque per omnium 
faeculorum memoriam : Omnijque pojleritas 
iUius in te fcripta mirahitur, tuum in eum 
faBum execrabitur, citiiifque tn munda 
genus homimim, quarn hnjus nomen cadets 
2, 66. Livy fays of Cicero, /^/r mag- 
nuSf aeeff memorahiTts fuit., et in cujiis 
hi^ides fequendas Cicerone laudatore opus 
Jmrit. apud Senec. ibid. Add. Plin» 
10, 30, f. 3i. Valeiius above all juft- 
ly execrates the ingratitude of Popili- 
its> 5, 54. Cicero perhaps defended 
Popilius, though he knew him to be 
guilty. If fo, the return he met with 
is remarkable. I: is more worthy of no- 
tice, that Cicero, fpeaking of Antony's 
grandfather, whofe fate was very fimi- 
lar to his own, fays to Antony, 
(though abfent), Acerbi/fimum ejus diem 
fupremum malim, quam L. Cinnae donii- 
nafum, a quo die crudelijfiiue ejl interjec- 
tuSf Phil. I, 14. 

Cicero, as to his perfon, was tall 
and (lender, with a long and fmall 
Beck, {^procerum et t::nue cclliim), Cic. 
Br. 91. but his appearance was grace- 
fol, ^decora fades), Senec. Suaior. 6 
He was naturally of a v/eak conlti- 
tHtion, but fticngtheiied it io much 
by care and temperance, that he en- 
jo)^ed health and vigour to the laft, 
«5. When attacked by any flight in- 
c!ifpafition, his ufual remedy was ab- 
fiinencc, Cic. Fam. 7, 26. 

Cicero had a great number of fine 
Jioufes in different parts of Italy, fome 
reckon up eighteen, all built or pur- 
chafed by himfclf, except the family 

12^ ] CIC 

- feat at Arpinum. Thefe, on account 
of their elegant flrufture and pleafant 
fituation, he calls the eyes or the beauties 
of Italy, {oChL'LO^ Italiae), Cic. Att. 
16, 3, &: 6. His favourite villas were 
thofe of Tufculuai, Antium, Aflura, 
Formiae, Cumae, Puteoli, and Pom- 
peii, all of them large enough for the 
reception, not only of his own family, 
but of his friends and guefls. Befides 
thefe, he had feveral fmall inns [diver- 
Jiola) or re'ting places, in palTmg from 
one villa to another, Cic, Att. 14, 8. 
Cicero's revenues muft have been very 
confiderable to enable him to build and 
fupport fo many great houfes. As his 
paternal fortune was but fmall, the 
fources from vi^hich he derived his funds 
were, the emoluments of his public of- 
fices, the prcfents of his clients, and 
the legacies left him by his friends ; 
which laft, he himfelf informs us, a- 
mounted to near 200,000 1. (amplius 
H. S, ducenties ) , Phil. 2, 16. The furni- 
ture of Cicero's houfes was fultable 
to their elegance. There was a cedar 
table of his remaining in Pliny's time, 
faid to have been the firft of the kind 
in Rome, and to have coil about L. 80 
(H. S. X.), Plin. 13, 15, & 16. By» 
thefe expences Cicero was often invol- 
ved in pecuniary difficulties, Vid. Ep, 
ad Alt, pajfim. 

Cicero's moral charadler, though 
cenfured by his enemies, ^indiU 12, 
I, 14. was on the whole irreproach- 
able. His ruling paflion was the love 
of glory, Cic. Att. 1, 15. <?/ 2, 17. Fam, 
9, 14. Arch. II. Mil. 35. He was 
blamed for his vanity, and for boafling 
too frequently of the actions which he 
performed in his confulihip, Dio, 38, 
12. Bat, as Quinftilian obferves, he 
feldom did this without reafon ; either 
to repel calumny, or to vindicate his 
conduA when attacked, 11, i, 17. So 
he himfelf fays, Dam, 35, & 36. Har, 
Rejp. 8. He was alfo accufed of timi-' 
dity, which charge he allows to be jufl, 
Fam. 6, 14. Att. 13, 37. but, by way 
of explanation, adds, that he was not 
timid in encountering dangers, but in 


C I C [I 

forefeein^ tKem ; which, as Quindlh'an 
juftly obfcrvcs, he confirmed by many 
parts of his condu6l, and chiefly by his 
death, 12,1, 17. But Quinttih'an carries 
his eulogiiim too far, when he reprcfents 
Cicero as a perfect patriot, (Nee Mar- 
co "TttUio defuiffe video in uUa parte civis 
optimi twlutilatemjf ib. 16. Unfortu- 
nately there are too many iiillanccs on 
record of his mean compliance to thofe 
in power, which ou^ht to be afcribed 
chiefly to his timidity. Hence the 
fharp repartee of Laberius, the writer 
of farces, {^mimographus)^ to Cicero ; 
who one day obferving Laberius feek- 
ing for a feat in the theatre, faid to 
him while pafling by, " I (hould give 
you a feat, if I were not ftraitened for 
room,'' [n'lfi augujl^ federem). ^^ It is 
a wonder you are ftraitened foi* room, 
fays Laberius, when you ufe to fit on 
two ftools," [miruyn ft augujle fedes y qui 
J'oles duabus fellis federe) , alluding to Ci- 
cero's profclTions of friendfhip both to. 
Pompey and Caefar, while he was fin- 
cerely attached to neither, Senec. Con- 
trov. 3, 18.; Macroh. Sat. 2, 3. — Cice- 
ro was apt to be too much elated in 
profperity, and dejeifted in adverfity, 
Senec. Sua/. 6. ; BruL ad C'lc. 4. 

But Cicero is chiefly to be admired, 
not merely as a ftatefman, but as an 
orator, a man of genius, and a fcholar, 
in all which, taken together, he has 
perhaps never been equdlled. His in- 
dufl:ry in fl:udy amidft fo many ])ublic 
and private engagements is aftonirtiing. 
Catullus, his contemporary, in thank- 
ing him for fome favour, addrefles him 
thus, Dijertiffime Komuli nepofum, ^lot 
funty quotque fuerey ^otque pojl a His erunt 
in annisy Slc. 47. ; and Julius Caefar 
faid, that Cicero had acquired a laurel 
fuperior to that of all triumphs, in as 
much as it was more glorious to have 
extended the fame of Roman genius, 
than to have enlarged the limits of the 
empire, {quant plus ejl ingenii Romani 
ierminos in tanium promovlffcy quam impe- 
.rii)y Plin. 7, 30. During the domi- 
.nion of the Triumviri and of Auguilus, 
it was fafliionable among the flatterers 

29 1 C I c 

of power to difparage the merit of Ci- 
cero, {adulatores praefentis potentiae .non 
rcjponfurum invaferunt)y Quindil. i?,- 
10, 13. The Oily writer of that pe- 
riod who fpeaks of Cicero with refpec^, 
is Livy. Virgil and Horace do not fo 
much as mention his name. Virgil h 
fuppofed to have him in view when he 
yields the fuperiority of eloquence to 
the Greeks, [Orabunt canfas melius y fc. 
alii, nempe Graecl), Aen. 6, 849. But 
fucceeding authors do Cicero ample 
juftice. Quinftilian compares him with 
Demoftheues, and feems, on the whole, 
to ^\^t Cicero the preference, lo, i, 
105, ^c. He calls him Optimus auBor 
ac magifler eloquentiae, 5^, 11, 17. Lati- 
nae eloquentiae princepSy 6,3,1. Caele/lis 
in dicetido vir, ic, 2, 18. In omnibus e- 
nnnentiJTimuSy 12,10, 12. Nam mihi vi- 
detur M. Tullius effnxtJTe vim Denujlhe- 
nisy copiam Plaionisy jucunditatem Ifocra- 
tisy 10, I, 108. ^are non immerito ah 
hominibus aetatisfuae regnare in judiciis 
didus ejl ; apud pqjleros vero id confecutiis," 
ut jam non hominis nomeny fed eloquentiae 
habeatur. Hunc igiturjpedtemusy hoc pro- 
pofitum nobis Jit exemphm ; illefe profecijfe 
fciaty cui Cicero valde placebity ib. 112, 
Lucan calls him, Romani maximus au8or 
eloquiiy 7, 62. There were, however, 
many who cenfured Cicero's diction, 
as loofe and languid, tumid and exu- 
berant, ^indil. Oy 4, 1. 12, I, 22.^/ 
12, 10, 12.; Dial, de Orat. 1.8, & 22. 
Hence Ciceromastix, -Igisy the • -^ le 
of a book written by one Lar^ii s La- 
cinius, againft the fl:yle of Cicero, Gell. 

None of Cicero's hifl:orical compofi- 
tions remain, nor of his poems, but de- 
tached paffages in different parts of his 
works, which are far from being defti- 
tute of merit. Hence Plutarch ranks 
him among the moft eminent of the 
Roman poets, in Cic. But as he was 
greatly inferior to the poets of the fuc- 
ceeding age, and did not polifli his 
poem.s with fufHcient care, a fev? bad 
lines being picked out and turned into 
ridicule, ferved to difcredit all the refl: ; 
whence Qui n (Lilian fays, In carminibus 
R utimim 


[ MO ] 

C I C 

vtmam peperclffety quae non defierunt car- 
fere malignly ll, i, 24. Thus Martial, 
fpeaking of a bad poet, Carmina quod 
fcrihis, Mufis et Apelline nullo (i. e. invi- 
to) — hoc (fc. vitium) C'tceronls hahes, 2, 

But of all Cicero's works his philo- 
fophical writings are the moft ufeful ; 
in which, though he explains and fup- 

came mader of the ftate, gave orders 
to his friends to report to him the wit- 
ty fayings which happened to drop 
from Cicero in their company, that he 
might infert them among his Apo- 
thegms, lb. 9, 1 6. But the moft com- 
plete coUef^ion of Cicero's fayings was 
publiflied after his death by Tiro, his 
freedman, or by fome other perfon, in 

ports the opinions of all the different three books ; who, it feems, fhewed 
fe6ls, yet he in private approved the 
dodlrine of the Academics, who af- 
firmed nothing for certain, but fatisfied 
themfelves with embracing, after a care- 
ful inveftigation, what appeared moft 
probable, C'lc. Acad. 4, 3, & 4. T^fi- i> 
9. Orat.fn. The pradice of the Aca- 
demics of difputing for and againft 
every opinion, (de omnibus rebus In con- 
trarias partes dtfferend'i, ) was particular- 
ly ufeful to an orator, in teaching him 
to fpeak readily on all fubjeds, Cic. 
'Tufc. 2, 3. Cicero therefore called it 
the ** Parent of elegance and copiouf- 
■nefs," and often declared, " that he 
owed whatever eloquence he had, not 
fo much to the fchools of rhetoricians, 
as to the walks of the Academy," 

(^Ego aiitem fateor, me oratorem^Ji modo 

more folicitude to compile all that oc- 
curred, than judgment to make a pro- 
per feleftipn, ^ilndil. 6, 3, 5. None 
of thefe books are now extant. 

M. TuHlus Cicero, ikf. F. the fon of 
the orator by Terentia 5 born in the 
year before his father was conful, a. 689. 
(L, Caefare et C. F'tgulo Cofs.) Cic, 
Attr 1,2. commanded a wing of Pom- 
pey's horfe in the battle of Pharfalia, 
where he was greatly applauded for his 
courage, Cic, Off. 2, 13. He wifhed 
to attend Caefar in his expedition to 
Spain, but his father would not agree 
to that propofal, Cic. Att. 12, 7. and 
fent him to Athens, with proper at- 
tendants, to ftudy philofophy under 
Cratippus, ib. 32, 52, & 53, Off, i, i. 
Here he remained till after the death 

Jim^ aut et'iam quicunqiie fim, non e^ Rhe- of Caefar, when he joined Brutus, who 
toriimofficms., fed ex Academiae fpati'is ex 

thffey Cic. Orat. 3. Non tantumfe debere 
Jchol'is rhetorum-, quantum Academ'tae fpa- 
ttis, frequenter ipfe tefiatus eJU Quin Ail. 1 2 , 
2, 23. Ex ph'dofophis plurimum fe traxffe 
eloqueni'iae,ld. lO, T, 81. D'lcend't facuU 
iatsm ex inlimis fapimt:aefontibusJiuere,i2, 
2, 6.) From the fcepticifm of the Aca- 
demic philofophy Cipero perhaps partly 
derived that want of decifion which was 
difcoverablc in feveral parts of his con- 

Cicero was as diitinguilhed for his 
wit as for his eloquence. Several fpu- 
rious colleftiqns of his fayings were 
handed about in his own lifetime, Cic. 
Fam. 7, 32. et 9. 16. till his friend Tre- 
bonius, after he had been conful, 
thought it worth while to publilh a ge- 
nuine edition of them, in a volume 
which he addreffed to Cicero himfelf, 
lb» 15, 2i> Caefir alfo, after he h%- 

made hi-.n one of his lieutenants, and 
wrote his father a very flattering account 
of his abilities and conduct, ad Brut.z,^, 
which ^vas confirmed by Lentulus, Cic, 
Fam. 12, 14. and Trebonius, ib. 16. and 
by the fon's own letters to his father, 
Cic. Att, 14, 7, 15, 16, & 17. but none 
of thefe now remain. Young Cicero, 
with the troops which he commanded 
in Macedonia, completely defeated C. 
Antonius, and took him prifoner, Plu- 
tarch, in Brut, et Cic. ad Brut. 2, 7. 
After the battle of Phihppi and the 
death of Brutus, he made his efcape to 
Sex. Pompeius ; and after Pompey's 
treaty with the triumvirate, returned 
to Rome, Appian.p. 619, .672, & 713. 
Cicero now, having nothing to do, 
funk into a life of indolence and plea- 
fure, and the intemperate love of wine, 
Flin. 14, 22. He afterwards, however, 
was made augur, Appian.p. 619= and 


C I C f I 

conful, {Vid. OcTAVius,) and at laft 
proconful of Afia, or, as Appian fays, 
of Syria, ib. after which we read no- 
thing more concerning him. He is 
faid to have had nothing of his father's 
genius, but his wit and pohtenefs, («r- 
bankatefn,) Senec. Suafor. 6. There 
are ftill extant two letters of his to Ti- 
ro, when he was about nineteen years 
old, the former of which gives us a 
very favourabl<l; fpecimen both of his 
difpofitions and abilities, C/V. Fam. i6, 
21, &. 25. 

. J^ Tul/ius Cicero, the brother of 
the orator ; after his praetorfliip, a. 
692. fucceeded Flaccus as governor 
ofAfia, Cic. Flac. 14. Fam. 1,28.; 
where he continued for three years, 
but did not gain great reputation by 
his conduft. In the third year of his 
government, he received from his bro- 
ther an admirable letter of advice, Cic, 
^. Fr. 1,1. He afterwards diftin- 
guiflied himfeif as one of Caefar's lieu- 
tenants in Gaul, Fid. Caesar, /. 59. 
He left Caefar to accompany his bro- 
ther to Cilicia, as one of his lieute- 
nants, Cic. Fam. 15, 4. In the civil 
war he joined Pompey, contrary to 
his brother's advice, Cic. yf//. 9, r, 
& 6. But after the battle of Pharfa- 
lia, he and his fon, in order to make 
their peace with Caefar, bafely threw 
all the blame on Cicero, Cic, uitt, 11, 
8, 9, &c. who on the contrary aded 
with great generofity to them, ik. 
They were both with Cicero at his 
Tufculan villa, when they received the 
accounts of their being profcribed by 
the Triumvirate. They might have 
eicaped, had they inftantly fled ; but 
Qu^intus and his fon returned to 
Pwome, to furnirti them.felves with mo- 
ney and other neceffaries. Plere they 
were overtaken by Antony's emiffaries. 
The fon was found out firft ; who, 
defirous to preferve his father, nobly 
refufed to difcover the place of his 
concealment. But the foldiers inftant- 
ly putting him to the rack, the father, 
to refcue his fon from torture, burft 
from his hiding place, aijd vQlyatarily 

31 ] C I N 

furrendered himfeif, making no other 
requeft to his executioners, than to be 
difpatched firft. The fon urged the 
fame petition ; fo that the afl'aflins, 
to fatisfy both, taking them apart, 
killed them according to agreement at 
the fame time, Dio, 47, 10.; Appian. 
p. 601. ; Plutarch, in Cic, Jin. 

CiCERONES pueri^ young Marcus 
and Quintus, the fons of Cicero and 
of his brother, whom Cicero carried 
with him to Cilicia, Cic. Fam. 2, 17. 

CicERRus, a buffoon defcribed by 
Horace, Sat. i, 5, 51. 

CicuTA, an ufurcr, Hor, Sat. 2, 3, 


CiLNiUM genus i an opulent family 
or clan in Etruria, Liv. 10, 3. 

CiMON, 'onis, the fon of Miltiades, 
an illuftrious Athenian general, who 
defeated the Perlians in feveral en- 
gagements, (G. 466.), no lefs diftin- 
guifned for his liberality than valour, 
Nep. 5,4. ; Cic. Of, 2, 18. 

M. CINCIUS Alimentoy a tribune 
of the commons at Rome, who got a 
lav/ paffed, a. u. 549, called Lex Cin- 
ciA, prohibiting any one to receive 
from a client money or prefents of 
any kind, Cic, Sen, 4. j ■ Tacit, Ann. 


CiNCiNNATUs, a firname of the 
Gens ^intia vel ^lin^ia ; vid. Quin- 


Cine AS, -ae, the minifter and fa- 
vourite general of Pyrrhus, (G. 231.) 

CINNA, a firname of feveral Ro- 
man gentes or clans, particularly of the 
^ens Cornelia. 

L. Cornelius C INNA, firft dift inguifh- 
ed himfeif as a lieutenant-general in the 
Social or Italic war, after his praetor- 
ftiip, Cic. 2' out. 15. He was conful with 
Cn. Odavius, a. u. 664, the year after 
Sulla and Q^Pompeius were confule. 
Sulla, knowing Cinna to be inimical 
to him, before he fet out to the war 
againil Mithridates, obliged him to 
fwear that he would do nothing a- 
gainft his intereft in his abfence. But 
no fooner was Sulla gone, than Cin- 
na openly avov/ed his enmity to Sulla. 
Ri ' He 

C 1 N [I 

He propofed a law, «< That the Ita- 
lians, who had lately been made citi- 
zens, fhould be diftributed through all 
the thirty-five tribes,'* inftead of vo- 
ting in eight feparatc tribes by them- 
felves, Veil. 2, 20. ; being bribed, as 
was fuppofed, with 300 talents, y//- 
p'tan, B. C. I, p. 389. This vi'as violently 
oppofcd by Oftaviiis and the Patrici- 
ans, who expelled Cinna from the ci- 
t}'-, after a bloody conteft, to which 
Cicero alludes, Sext. 36. deprived him 
of his olflce, and eletled Merula con- 
ful in his room. But Cinna, being 
joined by Sertorios and Carbo, raifed 
forces in different parts of Italy ; and 
having recalled Marias and the other 
exiles, advanced againft the city with 
a great army in four divifions. Several 
bloody contefts took place before the 
walls, lb. el Liv. Epit, 79. At lad 
0(?l:avius and the fenate were forced 
to fubmitj and receive Cinna into the 
city. Marias flopped at the gates, 
on pretext, that being an exile, he 
could not enter the city, till the de- 
cree of his banifhment was reverfed. 
Cinna inftantly fummoned an aflembly 
for this purpofe ; but Marius waiting 
only till three or four tribes gave their 
votes, entered the city, as if taken by 
ftorm, Plutarch, in Mar. f>. ^'^i. Cin- 
r.a and Marius .made a horrible mafTa- 
cre of their enemies, 'vid. Marius. 
Liv. Epit. 80.; Fell. 2, 22.; Cic. 
Phil. Ij 14.; Tufc. 5, 19.; Flor. 3, 
21, 13.; Appian. p. 391, 5cc. Cinna, 
without any formality of election, (««/ 
lis comitiis hahitis)^ declared himfelf and 
Marius confuls for the next year. Ma- 
rius having died in the firll irx)nth, 
Cinna nominated in l-is ftead Valerius 
Flaccus/ wh(>m he fent into Afia with 
two legions, to fuperfede Sulla in the 
command of the war againil: Mithri- 
dates. But Flaccus being killed by 
!Fimbria, [q. 1;.) his quaeilor, Cinna 
chofe Carbo as his colleague in the con- 
fulate for the tw^o next years, Liv. 
Epit. 83. Cinna, when conful for the 
fourth time, gave his daughter Gwrne- 
lia in marriage to Julius Caefar, Suet* 

32 ] C I N 

Caef. I. During the dominion of 
Cinna m Italy, moft of the nobility 
fled to Sulla ; v^'ho having now com- 
pletely vanquifhed Mithridates, and ha- 
ving forced the two legions under Fim- 
bria to join him, was preparing to re- 
turn with his victorious army into I- 
taly, ap,ainfl: his enemies. Cinna and 
Carbo made the moft vngorous efforts 
to oppofe him, Liv. Epit. 83. But. 
before the arrival of Sulla, Cinna was 
cut off in a mutiny of his foldiers at 
Ancona ; {^vir dtgnior, qui arbitrio vie- 
tornm moreretur, qvam iracumUd fnilitum, 
de quo vere diet poiefiy aufwn eum, quae 
nemo auderet bonus, perfecijfe quae a nuU 
lo nift a fori'ilfiino perjici prx/fent). Veil. 
2, 24. Thus Lucan, Sylla potensy Ma- 
riiijque ferox, et Cinna cruentus, 4, 822. 
Ad Cinnas ATariofque venis, you come 
to be ranked with Cinna and Maiius, 
ib. 2, 546. Cinna nimin potens, Cic. 
Phil. 2, 42. Hence Cinnae faevitiaf 

Cic. N. D. 3, 32. CiNNANUM /^»|- 

pus, Cic. Red. in Senat. 4. Cinnani 
ttmporis iniquitas, ib. 3 1. Cum per tri" 
ennium^ Cinnanae Marianaeque partes 
Italiam olfiderent, the party of Cinna 
and Mariua, Veil. 2, 24. 

CINNA, an excellent poet, Virg, 
Aen, 9, 35. who took nine years to 
write a poem, called Smyrna, CatulL 
89. (ai. 92.) to which Horace is fup- 
pofed to allude in his advice to au- 
thors, to keep their works by them 
for nine years, {^nonumque prematur in 
annum), Art. P. 388. et ibi Scholiajl. 
Cinna is faid to have been rather ob- 
fcure. Martial. 10, 21, 4^; and in 
fome places alfo obfcene, Ovid. Tri/l. 2, 
435. None of bis works now remain* 
Some take him to have been the fame 
with C. Helvius Cinna, a tribune, who 
was torn in pieces by the mob, 
through millake, at the funeral of 
Caefar, Suet. Caef. 85. ; Val. Max. 9, 
9, 2. ; Appian. B. C. 2, 521. ; becaufe 
Plutarch calls him a poet, in Brut, p, 
993. et in Caef. 740. But they fecm 
to have been different perfons. 

CiNNAMus, a barber at Rome, 
made an eques by the favour of his 


C I N [I 

miftrefs ; but having dlHipated his for- 
tune, became bankrupt, and an exile, 
Martial. J, 6$. 

CiNyRAs, -aft a kln;sr of Cyprus, 
who bu.'lt a temple to Venus at Pa- 
phos, where was an oracle, the hrft 
pried of which was Thamyris, a Ci- 
lician ; but his pofterity religncd that 
office, and one of the royal family 
was always elefted. Hence Cinyra- 
DEs, -aej a fon or defcendant of Ci- 
nyias, Tac. Hifl. 2, 3. 

CIPIUS, W Capius, a complai- 
fant hufhand, who would affeft to nod 
while his wife indulged her amours. 
But a flave coming into the room 
while he was in one of thefe obliging 
flumbers, and attempting to carry off 
a flaggon that ftood on the table, Sir- 
rah, fays he, Non omnibus dormio, 
I do not fleep to all, Fejlus in Non. 
tt Cic, Fain. 7, 24. 

Cipus, a Roman, on whofe fore- 
head two horns are faid to have grown, 
which an Harufpex declared was an 
emblem of fovereignty, and that if he 
entered the city, he fhould become 
king of it ; on which account he ne- 
ver went within the walls, Ovid. Met. 

Circe, -esy the daughter of Sol, or 
Titan, (Tttanis, 'ulisj voc. Tifantf 
Ovid. Met. 14, 14.) a famous forccrefs. 


CiRis, -iS) f. a name given to Scylla, 
the daughter of Nifus, when changed 
into a bird, Ovid. Met. 8, 150. 

Cispius, a tribune, who coming to 
afiill his colleague Fabricius, on the 
day on which the law about recalling 
Cicero from banifhment was to be pro- 
pofed, was attacked by Clodius, and 
driven from the forum with great 
(laughter, Cic. Sext. 35. poji red. in 
Sen, 8. Cicero afterwards defended 
him in a trial v/ith much earneftnefs, 
{^cum multis hichniis)^ but without fuc- 
cefs, Cic. Plane. 3 1 . 

CissEUs, (in two fyllables), -eos., a 
king of Thrace ; the father of Hecii- 
ba, who is hence called Cifseii, -tdis, 

33 ] C L A 

the daughter of ' Ciffeus, Firg. jlen, 
7, 320. et 10, •^05. 

Claranus, an illuftrlous gram- 
marian, Senec. Ep. 66. \ Martial. 10, 

CLAUDIA, 'oel Clodia gens, an 
ancient and noble clan at Rome, di- 
vided into feveral branches or families, 
fome of which were of patrician rank, 
as the Nerones, Pulchri, 8cc. others ple- 
beian, as the Marcel LI, Suet. Tib. i.; 
Cic. Or. I, 38. ; Afcon. in Cic. pro 
Scaur. The Gens Claudia originated 
from one Atia Clausus, a chief of 
the Sabines ; who being obliged to 
leave his countiy by a domeftic {^^\^ 
tion, came to Rome from Regillum, 
with a great body of his clients, Liv. 
2, 16. (Servius fays 5000, in Virg^ 
Aen. 7. 706. ) about five years a « tx the 
cxpulfion of the kings. They were 
admitted into the freedom of the ftate, 
and lands affigned to them beyond the 
Anio. Their number being after- 
wards encreafed by new acceflions from 
the fame country, they were called 
The old Claudian Tribe, Atta Clau- 
fus got the name of Appius Clau- 
dius, and being chofen into the fe- 
nate, became one of the chief men in 
the ftate, Liv. ib. Virgil afcribes the 
orisjin of both the Claudian tribe and 
Gens to Claufus, a Sabine chief, who 
came to the affiftance of Turnus againfl 
Aeneas, ( Claudia nunc a qua diff'anditur 
et tribiis et gens)y Aen. 7, 708- Sueto- 
nius fays, that the patrician branch of 
the gens Claudia carne originally from 
Regilliy (v. -us, V. -um)^ a city of the 
Sabines ; but is uncertain about the 
time of its removal to Rome, whether 
in the time of Romulus, by the advice 
of Titus Tatius, or of Atta Claudius, 
the chief of the clan, about fix years 
after the expulfion oF the kings, Tib. i: 
Dionyfius agrees with Livy as to the 
time when the Claudil came to Rome, 
( Valeric quartum et Lucrctio iterum Cojf. 
a. u. 250), and makes their number 
amount to 5000 men that could bear 
arms, 1. 5, p. 308. So Plutarch, in 

C L A 

Poplicola, p. 1 08. 
branch of this clan, ( Patricia g^ns Clai 
dia)i from which the Emperor Tibe- 
rius was defcended, is faid to have ob- 
tained twenty-eight confulfliips, five 
diftatorlhips, feven cenforfhips, feven 
triumphs, and two ovations. Suet. ib. 
This family is faid to have rejected by 
joint confent, the firname of Lucius, 
becaufe two diftinguiified by that fir- 
name had been condemned for capital 
crimes, ib. But this muft be under- 
itood only of the patrician branch. 

[ lU 1 C L A 

The patrician bunes Volero and Laetorius, to pre-* 
vent the paffing of a law, that the, 
plebeian magillrates ihould be created 
at the Comiiia Tributa \ but without 
fuccefs, ib. et 57. Being fent againft. 
the Volfci with an army, he treated 
his fold fers with great feverity, ib. 58. ; 
on v.'hich account they Ihowed the 
utmoft ftubbornnefs, and even fuifered 
them.felves to be defeated by the ene- 
my, ib. 59. Appius punilhed them 
with extreme rigour, ib. Next year 
two of the tribunes raifed a criminal 

For we find a L. Claudius mcntiontd, profecution againft him before the peo- 

Cic. Hay. R.6.', and Liv. 41, 21. — 
Tlie gens Claudia was always remark- 
able for fiipporting the privileges of 
the patricians, (^maje/Iatis pairtim pro- 
puj^nafrix), Liv. 6, 4r. and inimical to 

pie, (diem ei cJixere.) Appius once 
pleaded his caufe, not in the tone of a 
criminal, but with the haughtinefs of 
an accufer, [accufatorio fpiritu)^ and 
fo llruck the tribunes and people by 

the rivets of the plebeians, [iuiviica pie- his firmnefs, that they voluntarily ad- 
bi)i Id. 9, 34. with the fingle excep- journed his trial to another day. Ap- 

tion of P. Claudius or Clodius, the 
enemy of Cicero, Suet. Tib. 2. whence 
Tacitus fays of Tiberius, that he pof- 
fcffed the pride always inherent in 
the Claudian family, [vetere atque infi- 
td Claudiae ftnniiiae fuperbid), Ann. i, 

4. adj. Claudius et Claudia- 

Nus ; thus, Claudiae manu St X\ith?^Vids, 
i. e. the flrength or fotce of the Clau- 
dian family, put for the Claudii, al- 
luding to the fteplons of Augulius, 
Jior. Od. 4, 4, 73. vid. Nero. Clan- 
diana cajlra, tlie camp of Claudius, 
Liv. 23, 31, 39, & 48, firft fortified 
by Claudius Marcellus, ib. 17.; and 
kept up for feveral years ; whence it 
retained his name, JAv. 25, 22. 

Appius CLAUD1U8 being rr.ade 
conful, a. 259, fhevvtd himfelf a keen 
fupporter of the power of the fenate, 
and inimical to the plebeians, Liv. 2, 
21, — 28. He advifed the patricians 
to baffle the power of the tribunes 
by procuring one or n^.ore of their 
number to interpofe their negative a- 
gainft: the rell, ib. 44. 

Ap. Claudius, the fon of the for- 
mer, conful a. 282, was as holiile to 
the plebeians as his father, and (liil 
moFe hated by them, Liv. 2, 56. 
He had a vicknt conteit with the tri- 

puis, however, died of a difeafe before 
the day of adjournment [prodida dies) 
arrived, ib. 61. 

C. CLAUDIUS, the fon of Ap- 
pius, conful a. 294. was as fteady as 
his father in fupporting the caufe of 
the nobility, but m.ore moderate, Liv. 
3, 15, & 35. Having loft his col- 
league P. Valerius, who was killed in 
quelling an infurrection of the ilaves un- 
der Kerdoniu.i, ib. 18. he got L. Quin- 
tius CJncinnaius chofen in his Head, 
ib. 19. Ke ilood candidate for the 
Dccemvirate, the fecond year after 
the iniiitution of that office, but was 
uflappointed by the intrigues of his 
litplRVV [fratris fdii) Appius, ib. 35. 
Afterwards, hovvevcr, when A])pius 
was impeached, he interelled himfclf 
warmly in his favour, though without 
fuccefs, ib. 58. When the tribunes 
urged the palTiiig of a law, that " one 
of the confuls iliould be chofen from 
the plebeians," Caius gave his opi- 
nion, " that the confuls Ihould ufe 
force of arms againft them, [confules 
annahat in tribunes)', but this was pre- 
vented by the expedient of creating, 
inftead of conffds, military tribunes 
with confular power, Liv. 4, 6. - 

Appius CLAUDIUS, the chief of 


C L A C ] 

the decemvirs, (called Regillanus, 
Suet, Tib, 2. from Regillum, the an- 
cient country of the Claudii, Liv. 3, 
58.) He was conful elect:, a. 301, 
(al. 303,) when the ckceminri were firft 
created, Liv. 3, 33. After it was de- 
termined that decemvirs, inftead of 
confnis, fliould be created for a fecond 
year, fevcral of the chief men in the 
ilate declared themfelves candidates. 
Appius Claudius took uncommon pains 
to ingratiate himfelf with the people. 
Though the youngeil of his colleagues, 
he was appointed to preiide at the elec- 
tions, that he might not return him- 
felf; which no one had ever done, ex- 
cept the tribunes of the commons, a.Tid 
that by a very hurtful precedent. But 
Appius having, by his addrefs, fet 
afide the moil refpeftable candidates, 
among the reil his own uncle, got per- 
fons of a very inferior charafter, [ne- 
quaquam Jplendore vliae pa res) f to be 
chofcn, and himfelf among the firll, ib. 
35. Appius having procured the con- 
currence of his new colleagues, hence- 
forth did every thing according to his 
own pkafure, ib. 36. But his crimi- 
nal paffion for Virginia foon put a pe- 
riod to his power and his life. Being 
divelled of his office, and thrown in- 
to prifon, he killed himfelf, ib. 57, & 
58. (G. 215, & 216.) 

Appius Claudius Crajfusy the fon 
of the decemvir, one of the military 
tribunes with confular authority, a.33 i, 
I,iv. 4, 35. and praefe6l of the city, 
ib. 36. He (liewed the fame hatred 
again il the tribunes and plebeians that 
his anceftors had done, ib. 36. 

/Ippius CLAUDIUS, the decem- 
vir's grandfon, and the youngeil fena- 
tor, a. 339, advifed the fenate to fol- 
low the counfel of his anceftor, the 
iiril Appius Claudius, to balHe the 
power of the tribunes by the protelts 
of their colleagues, //it'. 4, 48. When 
military tribune, a. 352, Liv. 5, i. he 
made a noble fpeech, to perfuade the 
people not to difcontinue the fiege of 
Veji in winter, ib. 3, — 7. with fuccefs, 
ib. When Veji was about to be taker;. 

3? 3 C L A 

he gave it as his opinion in the fenate, 
" That the money arillng from the 
plunder of that city fliould be reduced 
into the public treafury;" but this ad- 
vice was not followed, ib. 20. Appius 
keenly oppofed the law for eleding 
one of the confuls from among the ple- 
beians, Liv. 6, 40. but without effed, 
ib, 42. He was made dictator, a. 393, 
Liv. 7, 6. and conful with Camillus, 
a. 405, ib, 24. in which olKce he died, 
ib. 25. 

yip. CLAUDIUS, cenfor with C. 
Plautias, a. 442, who paved the road 
named from him p^'ia Appia, Gic. Mil. 
7. and firil brought an aquaeduft into 
the city, hence called y^qua Claudia^ 
Liv. 9, 29. His colleague having- re- 
iigned his office on account of the fcan- 
dal and odium incurred from their im- 
proper choice of fcnators, ib, et 39. 
Appius, from an inflexibility of temper 
long inherent in his family, retained 
the cenforfliip alone. Appius is faid 
firil to have difgraced the fenate, by 
chuling into it the fons of freed men, 
{lihertinorum Jiliis le&is), Liv, 9, 46. 
(Vid. R. A. p. 6.) The tribunes at- 
tempted to force Appius to lay down 
the cenforfliip, ib. 33. but without ef- 
fe6l, ib. 34. -— He was made conful 
a. 446^ ib. 42, interrex, a. 453, to pre- 
iide at tiie eledion of confuls, Liv, 10, 
1 1, when he would not admit plebeian 
candidates, CicBr. 14. Being made 
conful a fecond time, a. 456, Liv. 10, 
15. he was feiit againll the Tufcans 
and Samnites. At iiril he was unfuc- 
cefsful, ib. 1 8. but afterwards gained 
a iignal viclory, by the affiilance of 
his colleague Volumnius, ib. 19. The 
year after, being made praetor, ib, 22. 
he fought a fecond battle againft the 
Samnites with equal fuccefs, in the ter- 
ritory of Stella, [in agro, v. ca7npo SkL 
hai)f where alfo he was affifted by Vo- 
lumnius, now proconful, z^. f/31. Ap- 
pius in his old age loil his fight; whence 
he is often called Appius Caecus, the 
Blind. His blindncfa was confidered as 
a puiuninicnl from heaven, for his ha. 

C L A C 1 

ving, when cenfor, advffed the Pinarian 
family to delegate their performance of 
the facred rites of Hercules to public 
flaves,Zi'u.9,39. (7?. ^.3 14.) In confe- 
quence of this misfortune, he withdrew 
himfelf from all concern in public af- 
fairs ; till hearing that a majority of 
the fenators, gained by the eloquence 
and prefents of Cineas, were inclined 
to make peace with Pyrrhus, he came 
into the fenate, and fpoke with iuch 
energy, that a decree was inftantly pafT- 
cd, according to his opinion, " That 
the Romans would never make peace 
with Pyrrhus while he remained in Ita- 
ly," (G. 232.), Liv. Epit, 13. ; Sen. 
6. ; Flor. I, x8. Cicero fays, that this 
happened only feven years after his fe- 
cond confulfhip. Sen. 6. But Cicero 
fpeaks ef Appius having borne public 
ofHces after being deprived of his fight, 
Clc. Tt/fc. 5, 38. and that he poffelTed 
fuch vigour of mind, that neither old 
age nor blindncfs prevented him from 
attending both to private and public 
bufinefs, tb. et Sen. ir. Appius Clau- 
dius appears to have been a man of 
great abilities, but more dillinguifhed 
for the arts of peace than of war, Liv. 
9, 42. (?/ 10, 22. ; Cic. Br. 14. ; Cael. 
■ 14. 

Jp. Claudius, the brother of Ap. 
Claudius Caecus, GeU. ,17,21.; Viclor. 
de lUvJlr. vir. c. 7,1. couful a. 489, in 
which year the firil Punic war began, 
Zii?. 3 1 , T . ; Plin . 33,3.; Sfjlin. i , Ap- 
pius was firnamcd Caudex, becaufe 
be firft perfuaded the Romans to fit 
out a fleet, [Romanh primus perfuafit 
navem conjcendere ; Caudex oh hoc Ipfum 
oppellatuc^qu'ia plurlum fabularum contextus 
caudex apud antiquos appcilahatur)^ Se- 
nec. de Brev. vit. 13. The Romans 
at that time Vv'ere ignorant of ihip-build- 
ing. They had noLning but open boats, 
made of rough planks, {^ex tahul'is craf- 
Jlor'ibusy Feilus), called Naves caudka- 
r'tae. and in their firfc expedition to Si- 
cily borrowed fliips from the people of 
Tarentuin, Locri, Elea, and Naples, 
Polyb. I, 20. Appius having, by a 
bcld ftratagem, tranfportcd his troops 

36 ] C L A 

to Sicily, though the Carthaginians 
were mailers at fea, firft defeated Hie« 
ro, the tyrant of Syracufe, and then 
forced the Carthaginians to raife the 
fiege of Mefsana, Polyb. i, 11, & 12. 
Suetonius favs, that Appius expelled 
them from Sicily, Tib. 2. which was 
not the cafe. Aurelius Vi6lor expref- 
fes it more properly, Carfhaginienfes 
Mejfand expvht, r. 37. Hiero was ob- 
liged to fue for peace, which was grant- 
ed to him, Polyb. 1,16. Claudius was 
the firft Roman that triumphed over a 
tranfmarine people, Sil. 6, 660.; Eutrop, 
2, 18. 

P. CLAUDIUS Pulcher, the fon 
or grandfon of Ap. Caecus, Cic. Div, 

1, 16. ; Gel/. 10, 6. conful a. u. ^o^. 
Being fent againll the Carthaginians, 
before he engaged in battle, he ordered 
the omens to be confulted by the feed- 
ing of chickens. When he was told 
that they would not eat, " Then, fays 
he, let them drink," and immediately 
ordered them to be thrown into the 
fea. Having thus engaged contrary 
to the aufpiccs, his fleet was defeated 
by the Carthaginians with great flaugh- 
ter, Cic. N. D. 2, 3. ; Dlv. 1, 16. et 

2, 8. ; Liv. Epit. 19.; Po^yb. i, 51.; 
Flor. 2, 2, 29. After this, being re- 
called by the fenate, and ordered to 
name a diftator, he in derifion named 
M. Claudius Glicia, or Glycias, his 
fecretary or viator^ certainly a man 
of m.ean rank, Liv. Epit. \g. ; Suet. 
Tib. 2 Polybiusfays, that, after his re- 
turn, he was tried, and a heavy fine 
impofed on him, i, 52. 

App. CLAUDIUS Pulcher, con- 
ful a. 542, who laid fiege to Capua, 
Liv. 25, 3. and being wounded, Id. 
26, 6. died after the furrender of that 
city, ib. 16. 

C. CLAUDIUS Pnlcher, the fon 
of the former, when conful, a. 577, 
Liv, 41, 8. triumphed over the Iftri- 
ans and Ligurians, ib. 13. Being 
created cenfor with Tib. Sempronius 
Gracchus, a. 585, Liv. 43, 14. on ac- 
count of the vigorous difcharge of his 
duty, he was brought to a trial before 


C L A E I 

lae people by Rutllius, a tribune, and 
with difficulty efcaped being condemn- 
ed, tb. 1 6. 

^pp, CLAUDIUS Pulchery con- 
ful a. 609, {al. 611,) was firft de- 
feated by the Sahijfiy a Gallic nation, 
inhabiting the Alps ; but afterwards 
conquered them. On this account, up- 
on his return to Rome, he triumphed 
by his own authority, contrary to the 
will of the fenate and' people ; which 

. he is faid to have effected by means of 
In's daughter, (or filler. Suet. Tib. 2.), 
a Veftal virgin, C'ic. Coel. 14. who ha- 
ving mounted the triumphal chariot, 
attended him to the capitol, and thus, 
by the refped paid to her facred cha- 
radcr, prevented any of the tribunes 
from Interpofmg and hindering the tri- 
umph, ib. el Val. Max. 5, 4, 6. ; DiOf 
34. 79. ; Orof. 5, 4. 

yipp. CLAUDIUS Pulder, y^pp. 
F. C. N. conful withDomltlus, a. 700 ; 
the predeceflbr of Cicero in the go- 
vernmentofCiiicia,wW. Cicero, p. 1 16. 
accufed by Dolabella of improper con- 
duct in his province ; but acquitted by 
the influence of Pompey and Horten- 
fms, Cic. Fanu 8, 6. et 3, 12. and af- 
terwards made cenfor, ib. 12. ei 14. 
which office he exercifed with great 
ftriftnefs, though liimfelfby no means 
oF an irreproachable charadler ; degra- 
ding many of the fenators and Equites 
for their immoral conduct, ib. among 
.the reft Salluft the hillorian : and thus, 

; without intending it, he ftrengthened 
the party of Caefar, Dio-, 40, d^. He 
perifhed in the civil war. One of his 

: daughters was married to Cn^ius, the 
fbn of Pompey, CAc. Fam. 3,4.; and 

I another to M, Brutus, Cic. Br. 77. He 
was a learned orator, drilled in the Civil 
law, and in the law of augurs, ib. On 
the fubjeft of augury he wrote a book, 
{librum auguraUfn,) which he dedicated 
to Cicero, Cic. Fam. '^i^yct 11. Appius 
is faid to have been the only augur who 

I maintained the truth of divination ; 

I for which he was ridiculed by his col- 

1 leagues, Cic. Div. i. 47. f/ 58. ; Tufc. 

37 1 C L A 

CLAUDIUS ^mdrigarius, an hif- 
torian contemporary with Sulla, Velf, 
2, 9. fuppofcd to have been the fame 
wlio is faid to have tranflated the an- 
nals of AciHus, Liv. 25, 39 ; and is 
quoted by Livy in other places, 8, 19. 
9,- 5. 33, ic. f/3^, 14. 

riberius CLAUDIUS Drvfus, the 
fon of Drufus and Antonia ; the 5th 
emperor of Rome, Suet. CL i. in his 
youth affllAed with various diftempers, 
which were fuppofed to have rendered 
him dull, ib. 2. and therefore defpifed 
by hls^ relations, ib. 4, 5, &c. He 
however applied with uncommon at- 
tention to the liberal fciences, and 
made confiderable proficiency in them, 
ib. 3. Tac. Ann. 6, 46. Having ob- 
tained the empire by a wonderful acci' 
dent. Suet. CL 10. he at ilrft behaved 
fo as to render himfelf very popular, 
ib. 12. but afterwards became the mere 
tool of bis wives and freedmen, who 
in his name committed a6ls of the moft 
fiiocking rapacity and cruelty, c. 29. 
He was at lafl polfoned by his wife 
Agripplna,.as was generally believed, 
with a mulhroom, of which kind of 
food he was very fond, ib 44. Tac* 
Ann. 12, 67. Hence Boktum, quakm 
Claudius edit, edas. Martial, i, 20, 4* 
So Juvenal, 5, 146. et 6, 420. 

CL AUDI ALE^^w/k/ww, a certaia 
number o^JIamJnes or priefts, inftltuted 
in honour of Claudius, as a divinity, 
after his death, Tac. Ann, 13, 2. 

Many other illuftrlous men of the 
Gens Claudia are mentioned in the Claf- 
fics : See Nero and Marcellus. Se- 
veral women of this family alfo are ce- 
lebrated ; particularly^ 

CLAUDIA, the daughter of Ap- 
pius Caecus, who being incommoded 
by the crowd of people in the ftreets, 
fo that her carriage, while returning 
from the games, could with difficulry 
proceed, Is faid to have uttered loudly 
a wIlli, " That her brother Pulcher 
were alive again, to lofe another fleet, 
that there might be a lefs- throng at 
Rome.*' On which account (he was 
brought to a trial and fined, Suet. TiB. 
S 2.V 

C L A C I 

2. ; Val. Max. 8, i, de DamnatiSy 4. ; 
Cell. 10, 6. 

CLAUDIA, the grand- daughter 
of Appius Caecus, i^Jlppii Caen, proge- 
nieSf) Cic. Coel. 14. called Qu in ta, 
as it is thought, becaufe fhe was the 
fifth daugliter of. her family, ik et Liv. 
29, 14. Being appointed with other 
matrons of the firil rank, {^inter matro- 
nas pr'imores civiiruis,) to receive the 
image of Cybele, (poet. Cybelie v. Cy- 
bebe^) the mother of the Gods, brought 
from Pcfsinus in Phrygia, [Caelico- 
lum Phrygid gcnhr'trem fede petita7n, vSil. 
17, 4.) when the fhip, which carried 
the image, ftuck on a fliallow place in 
the Tiber, and, as it is faid, could not 
be moved by any force, Claudia ha- 
ving prayed to the goddefs, *' that fhe 
would follow her, if her virtue were un- 
tainted," [fifibipudicitiacoujlaret)., eafi- 
ly drew oif the (liip with her girdk or 
with a rope ; and thus retrieved her 
charafter for chaflity, v/liich before 
had been fufpedted, on; account of the 
levity of her drefs and behaviour, Suet, 
''Tib. 2. ; Appmn, BsU. Haumbal, p. 345. ; 
Plin, 7, 35. ; Cic. Cod. 14. ; Har. 13. ; 
Di9nyf.2,%. This ftory is told at 
great length by Ovid, Fq/l, 4, 30 5, 
^. — 344, who alludes to it, Pont, i, 
2, 144.; alfo by Silius Italicus, 17, 
2 — 45. ; and by Herodian, wlio 
makes Claudia a Vellal virgin, i, i r, 
f. 35.; as Statius does, SHv. i, 2, 146. 
But (lie is generally faid to have been 

a matron. A flatue was erecled to 

Claudia in the veflibule of the temple 
of Cybele, which, when that temple 
was twice burnt down, flood untouch* 
ed by the flames, Fal, Max. 1,8, 1 1. 

CLAUDIANUS, an excellent La- 
tin" poet, in the time of Theodofius 
and Honorius, whofe works are Hill 

Cleantkes, -is,y.-ae, a Stoic philo- 
' fophcr, Cic. Jcad. 2, 13. the mailer 

©f Chryuppus, 'Id. Fat:']. —Clean- 

THEA turba, the fedl of the Stoics, 
Claudian. Cpnf. Mall. 88. 

Clearchus, a general cf the La- 
cedaemonians, who comprehended mi- 

38 3 C L O 

litary difcipline in the following ma- 
xim, which he often inculcated on his 
army, " That a commander ought to 
be more feared by his foldiers than the 
enemy," Val. Max. 2, 7. ext. 2. 


Cleobulus, one of the feven wife 
men of Greece, (G. 464.) 

' Clkombrotus, a general of the 
Lacedaemonians, who engaged raflily 
with Epaminondas at Leuctra, and was 
defeated, Cic. OJf. i, 24. (G. 469.) 
■ 5[ 2. A native of Ambracia, {^Am- 
hraciota,^ who threw liimfelf into the 
fea, after having read the Phaedo of 
Plato, Cic. Titfc. I, 34.; Ovid, in Ibin. 


Cleomenes, 'is, the name of feve- 
ral kings of Sparta, [G. 474, &c,) 

CLEONyMus, a general of the La- 
cedaemonians, who invaded Italy, Liv. 
10, 2. 

CLEOPATRA, a queen of Egypt, 
who captivated Julius Caefar by her 
charms, and ruined Antony. Vid. Cae- 
sar et OcTAvius. — Cleopatra was a 
name common to feveral queens of 
Egypt, Liv. 21, 4. 37, 3. 45, 13. &c. 

CLIO, -us one of the nine Mufes, 
who are hence called C'"?^J"y^'"0/'^J"j Qvid. 
Art. A.m., I, 27. 

Clisthenls, -isy the chief of he 
family of Alcmaeon, wlio having ob- 
tained the afiiilance of the Lacedae- 
monians by ineans of the Pythia or 
priellefs. of Delphi, forced Hippias to 
abdicate the tyranny at Athens, and to 
leave the city, Herodot. 5, 62, — 66. 

CLITUS, ^an intimate friend of 
Alexan^'er the Great, whom that king 
flew in a fit of drunkenntfs. Curt. 8, 
12, 18. 

. CLODIA gens, the fame with Gtns 
Claudia, Cic. Dom. 44. 

CLODIUS, a Latin hiilorian, Cic. 
'Leg. 1,2. Liv. 29, 12. 

P. CLODIUS, a patrician of noble 
birth, the brother of App. Claudius 
Pulcher, poffelied of uncoinmon abili- 
ties, but extremely profligate ; dif^e- |J 
garding all laws, both human and d.i- ^ 
vine, to fnch a degree, that he was ac- 


C L O [I 

tufed of Inceft with his own fifters, Veil 
2, 45. Cic. Har. R. 20. Sext. 7, 17, & 
54. Pif. 12. Dom. 34. Plutarch, in 
IaiciiU. p. 515, & 517. Lucullus was 
married to one of them. Clodius ha- 
ving gone into, Aiia to ferve in the army 
•of Lucullus, but not obtaining the 
rank to which he thought himfelf en- 
titled, fomented a rriutiny in the army 
of Lucullus, which, joined to other cir- 
cumrtances, occaiioned that illuftrious 
commander to be recalled from Aha, 
and x\\t charge of the Mithridatic war. 
to be transferred on Pompey, Plutarch 
ib. Dioy 35, 14. Clodius being obliged, 
on this account, to leave the artny of 
Lucullus, retired to Marcius Rex, the 
governor of Cilicia, who was married 
to another of Clodius's lifters, and was 
inimical to Lucullus, Z)/o, 35, 17. 
Marcius gave Clodius the charge of na- 
val afl""ftirs, ib. Clodius having fallen 
into the hands of the pirates, fent to 
Ptolemy, king of Cyprus, requeiling 
money to pay his ranfom ; Ptolemy 
fent him two talents, a fum fo fmall, 
that the pirates fcorned to accept it, 
and let Clodius go without ranfom, 
Strnb. 14./). 684. ; Jlppian. p. j^d^-i. as it 
is faid, for fear of Pompey, Dio^ ib. 
Clodius then repaired to Antioch in 
, Syria, where, attempting to excite 
fome fedition, he was near being killed, 
ih. He fled from thence to Rome, 
where he ufed every art to ingratiate 
himfelf with tjie people, who were now 
fo corrupt, that the irreligion and im- 
morality of Clodius feem to have been 
no obftruftion to his obtaining the iiril 
place in their favour. Hence he is call- 
ed Illapoptiii A p u L E I A, ( i. e. alter Apuk- 
ia Saturnhms, feditiofus tribiimis ; et Apu- 
LEiA, propter libidinum infatniam)) Cic. 
Att. 4, I r. Being eleAed quaeftor, 
before he entered on his office, he con- 
trived to get admiffion into Caefar's 
' houfe during the celebration of the fa- 
cred rites of the Bona Dea, in order 
to procure an interview with Pompeia, 
Caefar's wife. But being deteded, he 
quickly made his efcape, Cic. Att. 1,12. 
FiJe Catsar, p. ^^. Ileucc Clodius 

39 1 C L O 

is put for any adulterer ; thus, Clodius 
accufet maechosy Juvenal 2, 27.; Sed 
nunc ad quos non Clodius aras^ Before 
what altars is there not now a Clodius ? 
Id. 6, 344. It was a vulgar opinion, 
that whatever man fhould pry into thefe 
myfteries, would be inllantly ftruck 
blind. Cicero fays that it was impof- 
hble before to knov/ the truth of this, 
becaufe no man but Clodius had ventu- 
red on the experiment, Cic. Har. R. 18. 
He obferves, that in his cafe, the blind- 
nefs of the eyes was converted to that of 
the mind, Cic. Dom. 40. The fenators 
who hated Clodius wiihed to improve 
this opportunity to banifh him from the 
ilate ; but Caefar, who was chiefly in- 
terefted, knowing the popularity of 
Clodius, did not in the leafl. refent the 
affront ofi'ered him, Dio^ 37> 45? & 46* 
Various confultations of the fenate were 
held concerning the manner in which, 
he fliould be tried, Cic. Att. i, 14. 
At laft it was determined, that he 
fliould be tried by the praetor and a 
fcledl number of judges, ib. 16. By 
means of the molt fcandalous bribery 
Clodius was acquitted, ib. (Ilia furia 
muUehrium rehgionum, qui non pluris fecerat 
Bonam Deam, quam tresforores-^ impuni' 
tatera — ejl ^orifeciitus., Cic. Fam. i, 9, 34.) 
Clodius henceforth always harboured' 
the bittereil enmity to the fenate, and 
chiefly to Cicero, who had appeared ia 
court as an evidence againfl: him, Cic.ib, 
Plutarch, in Cic. Val. Max. 8, 5, 5. 
That he might execute his purpofes of 
revenge, with the alTiftance of Caefar, 
then conful, he caufed himfelf to be 
adopted by C. Herennius a plebeian, 
though younger than himfelf, Cic. Dom, 
13. Att. 2, 7, & 12. and was elefted 
tribune. Clodius having fecured the 
concurrence of the confuls Pifo and 
Gabinius, and of a majority of his col- 
leagues, hrlb paifed feveral laws calcula- 
ted to gain the favour of the people ; 
next by artifice and violence, he forced 
Cicero into baniihment, ( J'^id, Cicero, 
p. 112.) and then, in order to punlfli 
Ptolemyking of Cyprus, forfendinghim 
io imall a fum Ibr his ranfom when taken 
S 3 by 

C L O 

140 ] 

C L 

by the pirates, he appointed Cato to re- 
duce Cyprus into the form of a Roman 
province, Strab, 14, p. 684. {FicL Ca- 

Clodius, elated with this fuccef?, car- 
ried- his prefumption fo far as to infult 
Pompey, Cic, Dom. 25, and even, as 
was faid, to attempt his h'fe, Clc. Sext, 
32. Pif. 12. On which account Pom- 
pey, to mortify Clodlus, determined to 
reltore Cicero, Cic. Att. 3, 8, & ]8. 
This Clodius endeavoured to prevent 
by the utmoft violence, and in the 
llruggle occafioned great (laughter of 
the citizens, C'tc. pojl reel ad ^/ir. 5. 
in Sennl. 3, &c. Sext. 35. Dto, 39, 7, 
& 8. The chief opponent of Clodius 
was Milo, who refilled him in his own 
way, by force of arms, and at the fame 
time brought him to a trial for public 
violence and breach of the laws, D'lo, 
39, 7, & 8.; Cic. Mil. 13, & 1/5.. Clo- 
dius, however, not only efcaped punKh- 
ment, but Vv'as even created curule 
aedile without oppofition, a. 697, Dio, 
39, 1 8, &. 19.; Cic. Sext. 44. ; Har. Refp. 
1I,&I3. Milo was now in his turn 
brought to a trial for the fame crime 
by Clodius, but after feveral warm dif- 
putes and bloody contefts, the matter v;as 
dropt, Cic. ^ Fr, 2,3. Sey.t, 44. ; Dioy 
39, 18, &c. The hofiihty, hov/ever, be- 
twixt Clodius and Milo continued, till 
at lail it terminated fatally, while Clo- 
dius Vv'as candidate for the office of 
praetor and Milo for the confulflup. 
They met accidentally near Bovillae, 
on the Appian road, not far from 
Rome, about three o'clcck in the after- 
noon. Clodius was coming from A- 
ricla, on horfeback, with three com- 
panions and about thirty flaves, well 
armed. Milo was going to Lanuvium 
in a chariot with his wife and one 
friend, but with a much greater reti- 
nue, and among them fome gladiators. 
A fray took place betv.'ixt the flaves on 
both fides, in which Clodius interfering, 
was wounded, and carried to a neigh- 
bouring inn. Milo being Informed of 
what had happened, refolvcd not to 
leave the matter unfiniflied. He there- 

fore ordered the inn to be flormed, and 
Clodius to be dragged out and killed, 
Appian. ^ B. C. 2, 439. ; Dio, 40, 39.; 
Ajcon. in Cic. Argum. Mil. Cicero fays 
that this was done without the know- 
ledge of Milo, Mil. 10. Several of the 
flaves of Clodius being ilain, and the • 
reft having fled for fafety, his body was 
left on the road, till one S. Tedius, a 
fcnator, happening to come by, took it 
up into his carriage, and brought it to 

Rome, A/con. ib. Clodiani vd 

Clodianae operae, the mercenaries of 
Clodius, Cic. Fat. ij. ^ Fr, 2, 3. 
So Clodiana manus, Cic. Sex. 37. Clodi" 
anum imperiumy Cic. Dom. 10. 

P. Clodius, the fon of the former 
by Fulvia, and the ftep-fon of Antony, 
who married Fulvia, Cic. Ait. 14, 13. 

Sex. Clodius, a kinfman of P. Clo- 
dius, who, the day after Clodius was 
killed, carried his body naked, fo as 
all the wounds might be feen, into the 
forum, and placed it m the roftra ; 
whence the mob, inflamed by a fpeecli 
from, one of the tribunes, and headed 
by Sex. Clodius, conveyed it into the fe- 
nate-houfe,and there tearing up the ben- 
ches, tables, and every thing combuft- 
ible, erected a funeral pile on the fpot, 
and, together with the body, burnt 
the houfe itfelf, with a public hall ad- 
joining, called Porcia Bafdica. They 
then attempted to ftorm the houfe of 
Milo, and of Lepidus, at that time In- 
ter rex , but were repulfed in both at- 
tacks with lofs, A/con. in Cic. Arg. Mil. 
On account of thefc exceffes S. Clo- 
dius was banifhed, ib. but was after- 
wards reftored by Antony, Cic.Att. 14, 


CLODTA, the fifter of P. Clodius, 
and wife of Metellus, as wicked and 
profligate as her brother, Oic. Coel. 13, 
14, 20, & 32. Cicero alleges that fhc 

poifoncd her hufband, ib. 24. ^ 2. 

Clodia, the wife of Lucullus, was 
divorced for improper condudl, Plu' 
tarch in Lucullo. — Concerning the other 
fifter of Clodius, who was married tp 
Marcius, there is nothing particular 


C L U C 1 

Clodius Licinius, a Roman hifto- 
rlan, Lh. 29, 22. 

CLOELIA, one of the hoftages 
given to king Porsena, who having 
deceived her keepers, fwam over the 
Tiber amidft the darts of the enemy, 
and efcaped to Rome, Llv. 2, 13.; 
Flrg.Jen. 8,'65l. ; Juvenal. 8, 265. 

CLOELII, one of the chief fami- 
lies of the Albans, chofen into the 
number of fenators at Rome, Llv. i, 


Cloelius TuUuSi a Roman ambaf- 
fador, killed by the order of Toluna- 
nius king of the Vejentes, on which 
account a ftatue was ere^led to him in 
the rollra, Llv. 4, 17. 

T. Cloelius Slculusj one of the fir ft 
tribunes with confular power, Liv. 4, 

CLOTHO, -us, one of the three 

Fates, {G. 589 ) ^y 2. A daughter 

of Nereus, a goddefs of the fea, Flrg. 
Aen. 9, loi. But here the beft edi- 
tions read Doto, as in Vol. Flac. i, 


CLUENTIUS, the name of a Ro- 
man gens, faid to have been derived 
frtAn a Trojan, Cloanthus, Virg. Aen, 
5» '23. 

A. Cluentius Av'itus, a native of 
Larluum, (^Lannas, -atls), ace u fed by 
his mother Safiia of having poifoned 
his father-in-law OppianTcus ; defended 
by Cicero in an oration ftill extant. 

Clusius, a name given to Janus, 
when the gates of his temple v/ere (hut, 
{claufae), Ovid. Fall, i, 130. 

Cluvia, a Campanian courtefan, 
rewarded by the Romans for her kind- 
nefs to their captives, Liv. 26, 33, & 


Clymene, -fj, the daughter of O- 
ceanus and Thetys, the mother of Pha- 
ethon, Ovid. Met. 1,765.; adj. Clyme- 
NEUS, V. -elus 'y proles Clymen'ia, i. e. 
Phaethon, ib. 2, 19. Clymhindes altae, 
the filters of Phaethon, metamorphofed 
into tall poplars, AuBor ad Liv. i n. ; 
hence Clymenaea germinay i. e. amber, 
fuppofed to be formed by the tears 
fhed by the fillers of Phaethon, StaU 

Sllv. I, 2, 12^. 

41 1 COL 

Clymenos, a name of Pluto, OW^/. 
Faft. 6, 757. ; but moft editors read 
Pluto, fome Lachefis. 

Clymenus, a king of Arcadia, 
Hygitu 206. who is faid to have given 
name to an herb, Plin, 25, 7 f. 33. 

Clytia, v. -f , -es, a nymph beloved 
by Sol, (G. 373,) 

CLYT AEMNESTRA,the daugh- 
ter of Tyndarus by Leda, the wife of 
Agamemnon, and mother of Oreftes. 
She caufed Agamemnon to be killed 
by her paramour Aegillhus, and was 
htrfelf flain by Oreftes, (G. 407.) 

Clytius, a young man, beloved by 
Cydon, Virg. Aen. 10,325. 

CocALUS, a king of Sicily, to whom 
Daedalus fled from Crete, Ovid. Met. 
8, 261.; (G. 421.). CocaUdcs, -um^ 
the daughters of Cocalus, BiU 14, 

COCCEIUS, one who owed Cicero 
money, Cic.Att. I2, 13, & 18. proba- 
bly the fame who was afterwards the 
quaeftor and lieutenant of Antony, and 
the author of peace between him and 
Auguftus, Appian. B. C. 5, 1122. mea- 
tionedby Horace, Sal.iy^, 2^. thought 
to have been the great-grandfather of 
the emperor Cocceius Nerva. 

COCLES, -ttls, m. afirname given 
to P. Horatius, who alone fuftained 
the attack of Porsena^s army on the 
Sublician bridge, (G. 208.) ; Cic. OJl 
I, 18. Paradox. I. Leg. 2,4.; Liv. 2, 
10. ; Plln. 36, 15. from the lofs of one 
of his eyes, (Coclifes diBl, qui nafcereri' 
tar altera lumine orli), Plin. Hi 37. 

CODRUS, the laft king of Attica, 
who devoted liis life to fave his coun- 
try, Clc. Fin. 5, 22. Tufc. 1,48. N.D, 
3, 19. (G. 425.). — The name of a man 
noted for his poverty, Juvenal. 3, 208. 
— Of a bad poet. Id. i, 2. — And of a 
good one, Firg. Eel. 7, 30. 

COELIUS, an ancient Roman hif- 
torian, Liv. 21, 38. 22, 31. 23, 6. 

G COELIUS Caldus, Cicero's quae- 
ftor in Cilicia, to whom he entrufted the 
charge of the province when he left it, 
GiV. Atf. 6j Kf k 6. Fam. 2, 15, 

C O E [142 

MCOELIUS Rufiis, a young noble- v. 
man, who accui'ed C.Antouius, who had 
beenCicero^s colleague inthe confulfliip, 
of mifcondiift in his province of Mace- 
donia, and got him condemned, C/V.Co^-/. 
31. He alfo accufcd L. Atratinus of 
bribeiy, on which account Cotlius was 
accufed by the fon of Atratinus of pu- 
blic violence, and of an attempt to poi- 
fon Clodia, in which caufe he v,'as de- 

3 COR 

ib. et Varr. L. L.5, 3. firfl 



fended by Cicero, C'lc. CoeJ. i. and ac- 
quitted. Coelius poflefied confiderable 
talents as an orator, Ck. Br. 79. 

Tarquin'ws COLLATINUS, the 
hiiftand of Lucretia, Liv. 1,57. crea- 
ted conful with Brutus, ib. 60. but ob- 
liged to abdicate that oiHce, and go 
into banifhment, on account of his be- 
ing of the family of Tarquinius, Liv. 
2, 2. 

COLUMELLA, (L. Jun. Mode 
ratus)i a native of Gades, the author 
of an excellent book on hufbandiy and 
gardening, ftill extant. 

Combe, -f.r, the daughter of Ophi- 
us, {Ophias, -aJis). Ovid. Met. 7, 382. 

Co METES, -ae, m. the father of A- 
fterion, who was one of the Argonauts, 

P. CoMiNius, a Roman egues^ who 
accufed C. Cornelius, in oppofition to 
Cicero, who defended him, Cic. Cornel. 

CoMMODUS, the fon of M. Antoni- 
nus, a Roman emperor. [G. 246.) 

Com us, the god of nofturnal revels; 
whence comijfori -ariy to revel. 

Concordia, the goddefs of concord, 
Liv. 9, 46. J ; OivW. Fr^l. 
i> 639. 

CoNNUS, a mufician, the maftcr of 
Socrates, Cic. Fam. ^9 22. 

Con ON, -onis, a general of tlie A- 

thenians, Nep. ^ 2. An illuilrious 

allronomer, Firg. Eel. 3, 40. ; C^iuU. 
de Coma Berenices, ep. 6^. 

Con SID! us, governor of Africa the 
year before the commencement of the 
civil war, Cic. Ligar. I . 

CONSUS, the god of counfel, Fef- 
tus. et Serv. in Firg. Jen. 8, 636. whofe 
fcllival v.aa called Consu.^lia, -iunii 

inllituted by Romulus, Liv. 
FaJL 3. 119. 

C. CopoNius, a prudent and learn- 
ed man, Cic. Fam, i, 31. praetor in 
the confulfhip of C. Marcellus and Len- 
tulus, Cic. An. 8, 12. 

Coras, -ae, a leader of the troops 
of Tibur, who came to the affiftance 
of Turnus^ Virg.Aen. 7,672. the bro- 
ther of Catillus, ih. et 11,465, & 604. 
Co RAX, -acis, a Sicilian, who firft 
wrote on rhetoric, Cic. Or, i, 20. ^/ 3, 
21. Brut. 12. 

CoRBULO, -onisf a Roman general 
in the tim.e of Nero, Tacit. Anna/. 13, 
8, &c. 

CoRFiDius, vel CwfJius, a Roman 
eques, who is mentioned among the 
friends of Ligarius, as having appear- 
ed in court to fupport him, (aclvocatus), 
Cic. Ligar. ii. by miftake, as it ihould 
feem ; becaufe Cicero difcovered, after 
the fpeech for Ligarius was publiilied, 
that Curfidius was dead before that 
time, and therefore defiied the name 
to be erafed, Aft. 13, 44. But too 
many copies had got abroad for that 
to be done. This is fuppofed to be 
the perfon who is faid to have come to 
life again after his funeral had been or- 
dered, and to have buried the under- 
taker of his funeral, i^locatorcrn funeris)^ 
Plin. 7, 52. 

CORINNA, a native of Tanagra 
in Boeotia, the moft beautiful woman 
of her time ; fo excellent a poetefs, that 
file is faid to have got the better of 
Pindar himfelf, in a contell of fkil) at 
Thebes ; on which account the people 
of Tanagra erefted a llatue to her in 
the moil confpicuous part of the city, 
and placed her pidure in their gymna- 
fium., Puu/an. 9, 2 2. Aelian fays, that 
Corinna gained the viclory over Pindar 
feven times, 13, 25. But both thefe 
authors afcrlbe the decifion to the un- 
flcilfulnefs of the judges, ib. Perhaps 
it was owing m.ore to their partiahty. 
Corinna feems to have been older than 
Pindar ; and therefore Plutarch fpeaks 
of her giving advice to Pindar when a 




young man, on Ins inattention to mu- 
fic and the life of fable, and afterwards 
ridiculing liim for his having introduced 
in the beginning of a poem too much 
fable, de Glor. AthenicnJ. p. 347. Co- 
rinna thought I'afic a divine invention. 
She faid that Apollo had been taught 
to play on the flute by Minerva, Plu- 
tarch, de Mufica, p. 1136. The poems 
of Corinna are celebrated by Proper- 
j tius, 2, 3, 21. and by Statius, S'lh. 5, 

I 3i JS^. <([ 2. The name which O- 

I vid gave to his millrefs, Am, 2, 6, 48, 
j &c. Art. Am. 3, 538. T'r'ijl, 4, 10, 60.; 
Mart'ud. 5, 10, 10. €t 12, 44, 6. 

CORIOLaNUS, a cdebtated- ge- 
neral of the Romans, fo called from 
his bravery at the taking of Corioli, 
JJv. 2, 33. (G. 212.) 

CORNELIA ^tw, a great clan at 
Rome, containing many noble families; 
as, the Scip'iGnes, Lentidi^ Syllae, &c. 

CORNkLIA, the daughter of Sci- 
pio Africanus, Clc. Inv. i, 49. the mo- 
ther of Tiberius and Caius Gracchus, 
remarkable for the purity of her lan- 
guage, Cic. Brut. 58. who educated 
her fons with the greateft care, ib. 

"'!^CORNIFICIUS, the competi- 
tor of Cicero for the confulfhip, Cic, 
' Ait. I, I. 

COROEBUS, an Athenian, Avho 
firlt invented the art of pottery, (Jigl'i- 

vqs fc. artes invemt)^ Plin. 7, ^6. 

«T 2» The fon of Mygdon, {Mygdont- 
d:s)y the lover of Cailandra, Virg. Aen. 

CoRONAE, a name given to two 
■ yoiing men, who are faid to have 
fprung from the afhes of two virgins, 
Ovid. Met. 13, 698. Vld. Orion. 

CoRONis, -/^^/j-, a nymph of LarifTa, 
{Lar'ifaea), in TheiTaly, the mother of 
Aefculapius by Apollo, Ovid. Met. 2, 
543. whence Aefculapius is called her 
Ion, (^CoronideSf -ae), Ovid. Fall. 6, 
. 746. 

■Ti. CGRUNCANIUS, the firft 
plebeian Pontifex Matdmusy Cic. N. D. 
3, 2. and the iirll who gave his advice 
freely as a lawyer to any citizen that 
applied to him, Ck. Or. 3, 33. 

43 1 COS 

C. CORNUTUS, a tribune, an U 
mitator of Cato, hence called Pfeudo- 
Cato, Cic. Att. I, 14. praetor in the 
confulfhip of P. Lentulus Spinther, 
pic. Red. in Sen at. 9. 

M. CoRNUTus, praetor in the con- 
fulfhip of Hirtius and Panfa, Cic. Fanu 
10, 12. Phil. 14, 14. 

CORNUTUS, a Stoic philofophcr, 
the praeceptor of Perfius, to whom 
that poet dedicated his fifth fatire. 
Per/. 5,23, &c. He is faid to have been 
confulted by Nero concerning an hif- 
torical compofition which that emperor 
propofed to undertake, and to have 
been banifhed, becaufe he mentioned 
his objections too freely againft it, Dio, 
62, 29. 

CORVUS, a firname given to M. 
Valerius, from a raven perching on his 
helmet while engaged in fingle combat 
with a Gaul, Liv. 7, 26. v,rhence his 
poflerlty were called Corvini. 

CoRVBAs, -antisj the fon of Jafon 
or Jafus and Cybele, from whom the 
priefts of Cybele were called Cory- 
ban tes, -tiumj Horat. i, 16, 8. adj. 
Corybantius ; Corybantia aera^ the bra- 
zen cymbals ufed by the priefts of Cy- 
bele \\\ performing her facred rites, 
Virg. A en. 3, i J I. 

CoRyciDEs, -«w, a name of the 
Mufes, who were fo called from Cory- 
cus, a ridge, or rather a cave, of Mount 
ParnafTus, near Delphi, Ovid. Met* i, 
320. ^ 

CoRyooN, -onisy the name of a fliep- 
herd frequently mentioned by Theocri- 
tus and Virgil, Virg. EcL 2, & 7. 

CoRYNKTEs, v. -asy -ae, the fon of 
Vulcan, Hygin. 158. [Fulcani proles) y 
a robber, that infefted the territory of 
Epidaurus, (lain by Thefeus, Ovid. Met. 


CoRyTHus, an ancient king of E- 
truria, who founded Cortona; whence 
that town is called Corythusy v. -umy by 
the poets, 10.; Si/, ^yj 21. 

A. Cornelius COSSUS, a Roman 
general, who was the fecond that gain- 
ed t\\tfpolia ophnay by flaying \\\ battle 
Lar Tolumnius king of the Vejentes, 
a. u. 318, Liv, 4, 20, 5c 32. 



CossuTii, or Cojfetii, an equeilrian 
family at Rome, from which Cofiutia, 
Caefar's firft wife was defcended, Suet. 
Caef. I, whence Tahernae Cojfut'ianaey 
fnops or taverns belonging to one Cof- 
futius, Cic, Ep. 1 6, 27. perhaps to him 
who is mentioned Ctc. Verr. 3, 27, & 

Cot is ON, -owV, v. -ontis, a king of 
the Getae, Suet, Aug, d^, or of the 
Dacians, Horat. Od. 3, 8, 18. ; for the 
Getae were called Daci by the Romans, 
P/in.^, 12 f. 25. ; DiOf 51, 22. 

COTTA, a firname of the Gens Au- 

Lucius COTTA, the colleague of 
Torquatus in the confulfhip, a. 688, 
Ck. Cat, ^,S, RuIL2, 1 7. He thought 
that there was no need of propofing a 
law forCicero^s reflioration, becaufe the 
law for his banifliment was not legally 
pafTed, Cic. Fam, 12, 2. et 2, 21. Att. 
12, 23. 

CoTTios, a king of a country lying 
among the Alps, Suet, Tib, 37. ; Ner. 
18. whence that part of thofe moun- 
tains was called Alpes Cotliacy or Cottia- 
tiacf Tacit. Hilt i, 61.; Ammian. 15, 

CoTYS, -yts, or -yosy a king of 
Thrace, who fided with Pompey in 

the cKil wars, Cacf. B. C, 3, 4. 

The Cotys mentioned by Tacitus, who 
was murdered by his uncle in the time 
of Tiberius, feems to have been a diffe- 
rent perfon, Annai 2, 64, &c. To him 
Ovid appears to have written one of 
his epiftlcs from Pontus, 2, 9. 

COTYTTO, -zix, the goddefs of 
lewdnefs, Jwvenoh 2, 92. whence the 
nodturnai facred rites performed to her 
by her prieils [Baptae) were called Co- 
vtyttia facray Horat. Epod. 17, <^6, 

CRAN FOR, -mis, a celebrated phi- 
iofopher, born at Soliy a town of Cili- 
cia, a fcholar of Plato, Cic. Acad, i, 
10. {yetus Academcus^y ''^, j\y /f^ji^. He 
wrote a book on grief, called Conso- 
LATio, Cic. Tufc. I, 48. which Cicero 
calls lihellus aureolusy and fays, after Pa- 
iiaetius, that every word of it fliould be 
got by heart, {ad verlum cdifcendiis)^ 

44 ] C R A 

Acad. 4, 44. Horace places him in 
the fame rank with Chryfippus, Ep. i, 

2, 4-' 

Crassipes, -edisy a firname of the 
gens Furiay Liv. 38, 42. One of this 
family married Tullia,'the daughter of 
Cicero, Cic, Alt. 4, 5.; ^ Fr. 2, 5, 
6. but foon after divorced her. 

CRASSUS, a firname of the Li- 
ciNii, adj. Crassianus. 

P, Licinlus CRASSUS, one of the 
molt diilinguifhed citizens of his time 
for ever)" accomplifhment, Li-v. 30, i. 
called Dives, on account of his 
wealth, ih. et 27, 21. This is the firlt 
of the Crassi diftinguilhed by that 
firname. Pliny alludes to fome other 
one ; but what perfon he means is 

uncertain, 33, 10 f. 47. Craffus 

obtained the office of Pontifex Maxi- 
viusy before he had been aedile, in op- 
pofition to two competitors, who had 
each of them been twice conful and 
cenfor, Lro. 25, 5. He was appoint- 
ed mailer of horfe by Q^Fulvius, the 
dictator, a. 542. ; Liv, 27, 5. Soon 
after he was chofen cenfor before he 
had been either praetor or conful, ih. 
6, et 2\, But his colleague Veturi- 
us having died before they performed 
any public function of their office, 
Craffus alfo abdicated the cenforfliip, 
ih. 6. according to cullom, Lin). 5, 31. 
He was made conful with Scipio, the 
conqueror of Annibal, a. u. 547. ; 
Lii!. 28, 38. {^cum fuperiore Africanoy 
Cic. Br. 19.) ; and the province of 
Bruttii affigned to him, Liv. ib. But 
he and his army being feized with a 
grievous diftemper,. were forced to 
remain inactive, Liv. 29, 10. Next 
year, being continued in his com- 
mand, ib. 13. ; and having joined his 
forces with Sempronius the conful, he 
defeated Annibal near Croton, ib. 36. 
He died, a. 571. After his death a 
diflribution of flefh was made to the 
people, (vifceratio data), a fliow of 
1 20 gladiators exhibited, and funeral 
games celebrated for three days, Liv. 

39> 46- 

P, Licinius CRASSUS, a praetor, 


C R A 

C 145 1 

C R A 

who cxcufed himfelf from going into 
Ill's province of Hither Spain, on ac- 
count of a folemn facrifice, Z,iz>. 41, 
15. Being eleftcd conful, he was fcnt 
into Macedonia againih Perfeus, by 
whom he was defeated, /Ji;. 42, 28, 
32, 58, & 59. ; but in a fecond bat- 
tle proved victorious, ilf. 66. He be- 
liavcd with great rapacity, and cruelty 
in Greece, Liv. 43, 4. 

Z. Llrmius CRASSUS, the chief 
orator of his time, Cic. Brut. 38, &c. 
The only one to be compared with 
him was Antonius, iL 47. ; Paierc. 2, 
9. ; whence Cicero introduces thefe 
two as the principal fpeakcrs m his 
book (le Oratore. CrafTus was colleague 
with Scaevola in all the public offices, 
{^omnibus in magijlratibus^ except thofe 
of tribune and cenfor, ih. 43 When 
a very young man, {^Adolejcentulasy 
Cic. Or. I, 10. Annos natus unmn et 
vigintif al. undevig'mtit ib. 3, 20. nonO' 
dcc'imo aetatis anno. Dial, de Orat. c. 
34.) he accufed C. Carbo, the year 
after he was conful, a. 634, of various 
capital crimes, Cic. Or. 2, 40, & 43.; 
0^. 2, 13. with fo great eloquence, that 
Carbo, fearing the iffue of the trial, 
put an end to his own life by poifon, 
Cic. Brut. 27.; Fam. 9, 21. Valerius 
Maximus fays, that he was baniflied, 
3, 7, 6. During the trial a flave of 
Carbo's brought to Craflus a box, 
containing fevcral papers which would 
have ferved to convidl Carbo ; but 
Cvaffus deteiting fuch villany, ordered 
the flave to be carried back iir chains 

to his mafter, Id^ 6, 5, 6. Next 

year Cialfus was appointed one of 
three commifiioners to fettle a colony at 
Narbonne in Gaul, Cic. Br. 43. ; by a 
law he had recommended in a popular o- 
ration, which he publilhedj Cic. Cluent. 
51. Or. 2, 'C^^. But he afterwards pu- 
bhfhed another oration in fupport of 
the ariftociatic party ; which contra- 
riety of opinion having been caft up 
to him in a trial by Brutus, drew from 
CrafTus a fhirp reply, which Cicero 
extols, th. So Quinftilian, 6, 3, 43, 
^ 44. CrafTus delivered this oration 

when thirty.four y-^ears old, a. tl. 647, 
the year in which Cicero was born, 
Cic. Br. 43. CrafTus difcharged the 
olHce of aedile with Q^Mucius Scae- 
vola very magniricently, Cic. Ojf. i, 

16. When conful with the fame 

Mucins, a. u. 659, he palTed a law, 
(called from them Lex Licinia Mucia 
de civihus rcgundis)^ *' that no one fliould 
pafs for a citizen that was not fo,'* Cic, 
Off. 3, II.; Ball. 21.; which was one 
principal caufe of the Itahc or Marfic 
war, that took place three years af- 
ter, Afcon. ui Cic, pro Cornel. Craf- 
fu3, after his confulrtiip, obtained the 
province of Gaul, which he ruled with 
great juftice, and freed from robbers, 
whom he was at great pains to detetl 
and deftroy. On this account, upon 
his return, he aflced a triumph, which 
the fenate was difpofed to grant him ; 
but his former colleague, Scaevola, 
thinking that he had not deferved that 
honour, prevented it, Cic. Inv. 2, 37.; 
Pif 26, et ibi Afcon. The fon of Car- 
bo v^rent with CrafTus to his province, 
to be a fpy on his condud, whom 
CrafTus was fo far from excluding from 
his prefence, that he afiigned him a 
place on the tribunal, and never de- 
termined any thing without having 
him for one of his counfel, Val. Max. 
3, 7, 6. CrafTus, however, vv'hen he 
law himfelf fo v/atched, is reported to 
have faid, " that he never repented 
any thing fo much as his accufation 

of Carbo,'' Cic. Verr. 3., t. Craf- 

fus being made cenfor with Cn. Domi« 
tins Ahenobarbus, ordered fome La- 
tins, who profefTed to teach rhetoric, 
to fhut up their fchool, [cludere ludiim, 
\. e. JchoUim hnpudentiacy as it was then 
called), on account of their ignorance, . 
Dial, de Orat. c. 35. ; Cic. Or, 3, 24. ; 
Suet. Clar. Rhet. i.; Gell. 15, u, ; 
(Vid. CiCKRO, p. 102.)., CrafTus did 
not agree with Domitius, whom he 
raUied with great humour for his au- 
llerity and dullnefs, Cic. Or. 2, ^6.', 
Br. 44. ; Suet. Ner. 2. while Domitius 
blamed him for his luxury, PHn. I'J, 1. 
ft 33, Ji. et 34, 3. et 36, 3. J FaL 
T Max. 

C R A 

Max. gf I, 4. ; Macrob. 2, ll. . 
linn. H'rjl. Animal. 8, 4. CrafTus ha- 
ving engaged in a violent altercation 
with PhiHppus, the conful, in the fe- 
nate, was fucldenly feized with a pain 
in his fide, of which he died in feven 
days after, a. u, 661, happy, as Ci- 
cero thinks, in being thus prevented 
from feeing fo many dreadful calami- 
ties as foon after befel the ftate, C'lc. 
Or, 3, I, & 2.; VaL Max. 6, 2, 2. 

P. L'tc'inhis CRASSUS, Mucianm 
Dives, the adopted fon of P. Craf- 

fus Dives, who fought againft Anni- 
bal, the natm-al fon of Mucins, and 
brother of P. Scaevola, an orator of 
fome repute, Cic. Br. 26.; Or. l, 37.; 
Pontifex Ma:i:imus, and colleague oi 
L. Valerius Flaccus in the conful- 
ihip, a. 622, Cic. Phil. 11, 8. He 
perifhed in the war againft Ariftoni- 
cus, Veil. 2, 4. ; Liv. Epit. 39. 

M, Crassus, fuppofcd to be the 
-foil of the former, praetor a. 648, Cic. 
Or. I J 36. called «>'£x«<rTc,-, becaufe he 
was faid to have laughed but once in 
his life, Cic. Fin. 5, 30. Pliny fays 
never, {^Ferunt Crajfimiy avum Crafft in 

Parihis intere/npti 

nunnuam n 11 e 

P. Crassus, the fon of the former, 
lieutenant to L. Caeiar in the Italic 
war, Cic- Font. 15. ; Appian. p. 446.; 
conful with Cn. Lentulus, a. 657.; 
in which year liuiian facrifices are faid 
to have b^^en urft ptohibitcd by a de- 
cree of the fenate, hi Plin. 10, 2, et 
30, I f. 3.; {Plutarrh. ^me/l. Rom. 
83.) and cenfor with L. Julius Cae- 
far, a. 664, Cic. Arch. 5. He flew 
himfelf to avoid the cruelty of Marins, 
Cic. Or. 3, 3. Plutarch lays, that he 
and his brother were ilain by Cinna 
•and Marius, in Crajjo. Florus fays, 
that CrafTus and his Ion v/erc flain in the 
fight of each other, {Crqjji, pater ct 
Jilius, fc. trucidantur, m Kiutuo alter al- 
Urius afpe^Uy 3, 21.) according to Lu- 
can, by Fimbria, {^truncos laceravit Fim- 
bria Craffos), 2, 124. 

M, Licinius CKAS^US Dives, Tri- 
■jmx'irj the Cgn of the fgrmer, v/ho ha- 

[ 146 1 C R A 

Ae- ving cfcaped from the cruelty of Ma- 
rius and Cinna, fled with three friends 
and ten ilaves into Spain, where he 
had been fome years before with his 
father, when governor of that pro- 
vince. Here he lay concealed in a 
cave for eight months ; till hearing of 
the death of Cinna, he left his con- 
cealment, raifed 2500 men, atid ha- 
ving procured !tippiiig> pafTed over 
with them into Africa and joined, Me- 
tellus Pius. But differing with him, 
he went over to Sulla, with whom he 
returned into Italy ; and having raifed 
a conl-lderable number of forces, was of 
great fervice to Sulla in the civil war. 
But finding himfelf lefs refpetlcd by 
Sulla than Pompey, a much younger- 
man, he was greatly piqued at the pre- 
ference ; which laid the foundation of 
a violent jealoufy between Craffus and 
Pompey for a long time after, Plu- 
tarch, in Crajf. ; Sallujl. Cat. 17. In the 
dreadful battle, and the laft which Sul- 
la fought, at the Porta Collina, under 
the walls of the city, Craffus com- 
manded the right wing, and was vic- 
torious, when the left wing was obli- 
ged to give way, Plutarch, ih. ; Appian., 
p, 407. Craffus, by purchafing the e- 
flates of the profcribed, which Cicero 
calls the harvell of that time, ( Sullani 
temporis mejfem, Paradox. 6, 2.) and by 
other unjuftifiable methods, accumula- 
ted an immenfe fortune, amounting 
in lands to Sejlertium his millies, i. c. 
L. 1,614,583 : 6 : 8, befides money, 
flaves, and honfehold-furniture, Plin. 
33, 10 f. 47. which may be ellimated 
at as much more. Plutarch fays, that, 
after confccrating the tenth of all he 
had to Hercules, feafcing the people 
at 10,000 tables, and giving to every 
citizen corn fufKcient to ferve him fof 
three months, his eftate amounted to 

7 1 00 talents. Craffus ufed to fay> 

" That no one ought to be called rich,' 
who could not with his income main- 

.) 7. 

tam an army, 
tarch. in Crnjfo _ 
ny, a legion, 

27. ; Plutarch. 

ih. I. OJf. I, 8.; Ph- 

or, according to Pli- 

ih. (^Ts^TorzSov, Dio, 40, 

in CraJf. 544). Th© 


C R A C 

number of his flavcs is faid to have 
been equal to that of an army. Thefe 
he employed in fuch a manner, as not 
only to fupport themfelves, but alfo to 
enrich their mafter. He had above 
500 mafons and architefts conftantly 
employed in building or repairing the 
houfes of the city, the greatelt pait 
of which had become his property, 
Plutarch, ik CraiTus however was very 
hofpilable to ftrangers, and often lent 
money to his friends without intereft ; 
but was pundual in exafting payment, 
id. As he was inferior to his rival 
Pompey in military exploits, he ap- 
plied himfelf to eloquence, Cir. Br. 66. 
and tried by every art to gain the fa- 
vour of the people ; in which he was 
very fuccefsful, Plutarch. Being crea- 
ted praetor, he was appointed to con- 
duit the war 'againll the fugitive 
flaves under Spartacus, C'lc. Ver. 
5, 2. whom he crufhed with great 
llaughter, Flor. 3, 20. ; and on 
that account obtained the honour of 
an ovation, in which, by a decree of 
the fenate, he was permitted to wear 
a laurel crown, the proper ornament 
of a triumph, inltead of a myrtle 
crown, whi«^h ufed to be worn in an 
ovation, GelL ^t 6.; Plln. 15, 29. ; 
Cic. Pif. 2j. 

Cralfus in this war decimated 500 of 
his foldicrs for cowardice ; a kind of 
punifhment which had long been difcon- 
tinued, Plutarch, in Crajj. p. 548, on 
which account Craffus was called rigid 
and fevere, Dio^ 48, 42. Having be- 
come reconciled to Pompey, he was 
made conful with him, a. 684. But 
their agreement was of Ihort continu- 
ance. In the exercife of their office 
they difTered almoft in every thing. 
They were made friends again jull be- 
fore the expiration o^f their office, at 
the requeit of the people. The moft 
important thing that took place in 
their confulihip was the rciloration of 
the power of the tribunes, Plutarch. \ 
Sallujl. Cat. 38. Craffus was eleded 
ccnfor with Catvilus ; but they too 
happening to difagrce, refigned their 

147 ] C R A 

office without doing any thing, (Vid. 
Catulus), Craffus is faid to have 
been engaged with Caefar, Pifo, and 
others, m a dreadful confpiracy againft 
the (late, which was fortunately pre- 
vented, Suet. Caef. 9. ; Sallujl. Cat. 18, & 
19. He was fufpeAed of being con- 
cerned in Catiline's confpiracy ; and 
one Tarquinius, an informer, named 
him as an accomplice. But the power 
of Craffus quafhed all enquiry about 
the matter. Craffus afcribed this af- 
front to the contrivance of Cicero, 
which increafed their former enmity. 
They were however afterwards recon- 
ciled, C'lc. Fam. I, 9, 57. et 5, 8. ; SaU 

lujl. Cat. 48.— Ponlpey and Craffus 

were foon again at variance, but were 
at lail firmly united, by the art of Cae- 
far, in the famous triumvirate, (Vid.. 
Caesar, p. <^6.) 

Craffus, in his fecond confulfliip, 
{^Vid. Caesar, p. 58. ; and Cato, 
/>. 89.) having obtained the province 
of Syria for five years, was fo impa- 
tient to take poffcffion of it, that he 
left Rome two months before his con- 
fullliip was expired. He openly de- 
clared his intention of making war a- 
gainft the Parthians, though they had 
given the Romans no provocation, nor 
was Craffus commiffioned to attack 
them, jDi(5, 40, 12.; Appian. Parthlc, 
135. ; Plutarch, in Cra[j\ p. 553. But 
Craffus had conceived the moil extra- 
vagant expeftations from this expedi- 
tion, and both Caefar and Pompey 
encouraged him to profecute it, P/a- 
tarch. His dehgn however was gene- 
fally difapproved. The tribunes there- 
fore attempted to hinder his departure, 
by denouncing to him, while facri- 
hcing as ufual in the Capitol, that the 
omens were unfavourable : and when 
Craffus diiregarded this, Atejus, one 
of the tribunes, (Fiorus calls him Me- 
tellus, 3, II.) attempted to carry him 
to prifon ; but being prevented by his 
colleagues, he went to the gate of the 
city, and having dreffed up a little al- 
tar, with certain ceremonies, devoted 
Craffus, as he paffed, to dedrudion, (ho- 
T 2 pllhus 

C R A C 14S ] 

filihus clinsDsroriTy) Flor. 3. 11.; P/w- Lucan, 

^tarch, in Crnjfoy p. 553. ; D'lOi 39, 39. ; 

App'ian, in Parth. p. 135. ; Cic. Dlv. 
1, 16. 

Velleius afcribes this aft to all the 
tribunes, {^Craffuniy proficifcentem in Sy- 
rianif dlris omnibus tribuni plebis frujlra 
retinere conatiy) 2, 46. So Lucan, 
Crajfumque in bellafecutae Saeva tribuni- 
tiae voverunt praelia dirae, 3, 126. Craf- 
fus was in fo great halte to fct out, 
that he embarked at Brundufium in 
the middle of winter, and loll a num- 
ber of his fhips in the pafiTage. 

While Craffus was putting his troops 
on board at Brundufumi, one happen- 
ed to be crying figs from Caunus in 
Caria to fell, (Caunea? fc. ficus da- 
mitabat ;) which was thought a bad 
omen, as if the word Caimeas were a 
contraction for Cave ne sas, Cic, 
Div, 2, 40. 

Craffus, after his arrival in Syria, 
was more attentive to the exaction of 
money than to military affairs. He is 
faid to have plundered the temple of 
Jerufalem of a large fum, Jojeph, Antlq, 
14, 12. et Bell. Jud. I, 6. In his ex- 
pedition againft the Parthian*? he afted 
with great imprudence. Several bad 
omens are faid to have happened while 
he croffed the Euphrates, Dto, 40, i 8.; 
Plutarch, in Crajfo, p. 554. and at other 
times, Vol. Man. I, 6, 11. Some of 
his friends advifed him not to advance 
into the enemy's country. But he 
flighted their advice?, and, deceived by 
the art of one Agbarus, an Arabian, 
(Phitarch calls him Ariamnes, ih.p.^^^. 
jlorus calls him Mazarcs, 3, ii.), he' 
led his army to a diilance from the ri- 
ver into a vaft; plain without trees or 
%\'ater, where he was furrounded, by 
the Parthians under Surcna, (v. -as.) 
the chief general of king Orodes, and 
the greatell part of his army cut to 
pieces. Craffus with a fmall number 
efcaped to Carrae, a town of Mefopo- 
tamia ; where being decoyed by Surc- 
na into a conference, as if to treat about 
peace, he was killed, his head cut off, 
and fent, together with his right hand, 

4:o Orodes, Dio, 40, 20,-28. Hence 

C R A 

mijcrando funere Craffus Af- 
fyrias Latio maculavit Janguine Carras, 
I, 104. It is faid that the Parthians, 
by way of derifion, poured melted 
gold into his mouth, Dio, 40, 27. ( Ut 
cujus animus arferat auri cupiditatef ejus 
etiain rnortiium et exj'angue corpus auro ure- 
retur, Flor. 3, 11.) Plutarch and Ap- 
pian take no notice of this circum- 
ilance, though they mention a fimilar 
thing done to Aquilius by Mithridates, 
Plutarch, p. 564, et Appian. in Mithrida- 
tic. p. 184. But Plutarch mentions 
a different kind of infult offered to the 
head of Craifus by Surena and Orodes, 
p. 564, &c. So Appian, in Parthicis, 
p. 154, 155. — After the deftruclion of 
Craffus moll of his foldicrs efcaped 
through the mountains ; fome were 
taken by the Parthians, Dio, 40, 27. 
and conformed to the cultoms of the 
country; which Horace fpeaksofwith 
great difapprobation, Milefne Crajfi^ &c. 
Od. 3, 5, 5. Caffuis, the quaellor of 
Craffus, having colleded fuch as fur- 
vived, efcaped to Antioch, Veil. 2, 46. 
{^Vid. Cassius.) — The overthrow of 
Craffus, (Jirages CraJJiana, Val. Max. 3, 
4, 5.) was one of the greateft difaffcrs 
that ever befel the Romans. Concern- 
ing the number of men that were loff, 
authors differ. They are commonly 
reckoned at 20,000 flain and JO,oco 
taken. Appian. Parth. 154. Juftin 
fays that the whole army of Craffus 
was deffroyed, 42, 4. So nearly Flo- 
rus, 3, 1 1, and Pliny, 2, 56. 

The death of Craffus was calami- 
tous to the republic, not merely from 
the lofs of fo great an army, but chief- 
ly becaufe it removed the only bond of 
union which, after the death of Juiia, 
remained between Pompey and Caefar, 
or rather the only check to their am- 
bition, {^Solafuturi CraJJus erat belli me- 
dius moray — faeva arnta ducum dirimens. ) 
The intervention of Craffus was the on- 
ly thing which kept Pompey and Cae- 
far from quarrelling, as he would na- 
turally join the weaker, Lucan, i, lOO, 
& 104. [Exlnde, quoniam mktuo metu te- 
nebantur^'—Jiatim aemulatio erupit, Flor. 4, 
2.) Hence Lucan jullly fays, that 


C R A 

t 149 1 


tlie dellruftlon of Craffus by the Par- 
thians, [Pofthia damnai i. c. clades a 
Parthis illata^) gave caufe to the civil 
war, ih. 106. Cicero, while he (hews 
how happy it is for men that they are 
ignorant of what is to befal them, de- 
fcribes in a {t\v words tlie miferable 
fate which juftly befel not only Craf- 
fus, but alfo Pompey and Caefar, in 
confequcnce of their criminal ambi- 
tion, and to which Cicero himfelf not 
a little contributed by fupportlng their 
unjull meafures, contrary to the con- 
vitllon of his own mind, C'lc, Div. 2, 
9. {Ful CiCEKOj p. 114.) 

Plutarch obferves, " that divine juf- 
tice failed not to punifli both Orodes 
for his cruelty and Surena for his per- 
fidy ; for Surena was not long after 
put to death by Orodes, who envied 
his glory ; and Orodes at lall was mur- 
dered by his ion Phraates," in Cra/s. 
Jin. — The poets contemporary with 
Auguftus take particular notice of the 
defeat of Craffus, while they celebrate 
the greatnefs of Augullus, who by the 
terror of j^is arms recovered the liand- 
ards which Craffus had loft ; thus Ovid, 
Fa/I. 5, 583. et 6, 465. ; Jrt. Jin, I, 
179. ; Propert. 2, 10, I'^.et 4, 6, 83. 

P. CRASSUS, the Yon of the trl- 
umvir, a young man of an amiable cha- 
ra£ler, of a quick genius, and highly 
cultivated by learning ; but perverted 
by ambition and an immoderate paffion 
for military glory, Cic. Brut. 81. Fam. 
5, 8. et 13, 16. He gained much 
honour by his bravery and conduct as 
one of Caefar's lieutenants in Gaul, 
Caef. B. G. I, 52. et 2, 34. et 3, 7, 11, 
ao, — 28. When his father and Pom- 
pey fued for the confulihip a fecond 
time, young CrafTus came to Rome to 
vote for them with a number of fol- 
diers, Dlo, 39, 31, whom Caefar had 
promiied to lend for that purpofe, Plu- 
tarch. In C rajs. p. 551. in Pomp, p, 646. 
Next year he joined his father in Syria 
with a thoufand chofen horfe from 
Gaul, given him by Caefar, Appian. 
Parth. 136. and in the fatal battle 
againll the Parthians, commanded the 
left wing. Having, in the beginning 

of the fight, advanced too far in pur- 
fuit of a body of the enemy, who pre- 
tended to fly, he was furrounded, and 
fcorning to fave his life, which he might 
have done, by deferting his men, he 
was, at his own defne, killed by his 
armour-bearer, being difabled by a 
wound to do it himfelf. The Parthi- 
ans returned to the combat in triumph 
with his head fixed on a fpear. The 
father bore the fight with uncommon 
fortitude, but it greatly deprefled the 
courage of the army, Plutarch, in Crajs. 
559. ; Apptan. ih. 147. 

CPvATe RUS, a general much truft- 
ed by Alexander the Great ; after 
whofe death he was llaln in a battle a- 
gainit Eumenes, Nep.Eum. 4. — ^ 2. An 
eminent phyficlan in the time of Cice- 
ro, Cic. Att. 12, 13, & 14. fuppofed 
to have been the fame mentioned by 
Plorace, ^^2/. 2, 3, 161. and by Per- 
fius, 3, 65. 

CRATES, -his, a native of Mallos, 
[Mallotesj -ae,) who being fent as an 
ambaffador to the fenate from Attains, 
king of Pergamus, firft introduced the 
ftudy of grammar at Rome, between 
the fecond and third Punic war. Suet. 
Gram. 2. — ^\ 2. An academician phl- 
lofopher, Cic. Acad, i, 9. 

CRATiNUS, a celebrated ancient 
comic writer at Athens, Hor. Sat. i, 
4. I. rather too fond of drinking. Id. 
Ep. I, 20, I. uncommonly fatlrical, and 
therefore termed Audax, daring, becaufe 
he foared nobody, Perf. I, 123. 

CRATIPPUS, a philofopher, born 
at Mitylenae, an intimate acquaintance 
of Cicero's, Cic. Div. 1, 3. whofe lec- 
tures on philofophy Cicero's fon attend- 
ed at Athens, Cic. Off. i^ i, 

Crenis, -'idis, the name of a nymph, 
Ovid. Met. 12, 313. 

CREON, -ntis, a king of Thebes, 
the father of Jocafta the wife Oedipus, 
(Apoilodorus fays, her brother, 3, 5, 
7.) who, after Polynlces and Eteocles, 
the fons of Oedipus, were flain, refum- 
ed the government, (G. 430.) He 
gave his daughter Megara in mar- 
riage to Hercules, {^G. p.\oo.) 

Creon, the fon of SIfyphus king of 


Corintti, [G. Ai6.) whofe daughter, 
Creufa, Jafon married, after divorcing 
Medea, {G.p. 443.) 

Cresphontes, a king of Mefienia, 
Cic. Her. 2, 24. from whofe ftory Euri- 
pides wrote a tragedy called Cres- 
PHQNTEs, Cic. Tufc. 1, 48. 

Cretheus, -eos, v. -e'l^ the Ton of 
Aeolus, and father of Aefon, by Tyro, 
the daughter of Salmoneus, Apollodor. 
1, 7. whence Jafon, the fon of Aefon, 
is called Crethulesy -ae., Val. Flacc. 6, 
609.; Crethcm proles ^ Id. 8, 112.; and 
Helle, the daughter of Aefon, Firgo 
Crefheia, Id. 2, 61 2. 

Creusa, the daughter of Priam, 
and wife of Aeneas, P'"irg.Aen. 2, 651. 
who, while flie followed her hufhand, 
in his flight from the burning of Troy, 
by fome unfortunate accident was lol't, 

tb. 737, Sec. ^ 2. The daughter or 

Creon king of Corinth, whom Jafon 
married, after having divorced Medea, 

Crispinus, a Stoic philofopher, 
Hor.Sat. 2, 7, 45. 

CRISPUS, a firname of the SalhflU. 
In the works of Salluil, the cognomen 
Crifpus is put before the nojnen Salluf- 
tius, which is not ufually the cafe. So 
Horace, addveinng the grandnephew 
and adopted fon of the hiftorian, has 
Crifpe Salltiftiy Od.'2, 2, 3. But in. the 
infcription to this ode the names are in 
their regular order, jlfl C. Sallnjlium 

CRITIAS, -acy one of the thirty 
tyrants fct over Athens by the Spar- 
tans, who caufcd Theramcnes to be 
put to death, Gic. Tufc. 1, 40. noted 
for his eloquence, Cic. Or. 3, 34. vSome 
of the writings of Critias were ext&ut 
ill the time ot Cicero, ih. 2, 22. 

CRiTO, -cnisy the Icholar and in- 
timate friend of Socrates, Cic. Div. i , 
25. who attended his praecptor in his 
lail moments, Cic. Tufc. i, 43. 

CRlTOBuLUS, a ikilful phyil- 
ci-'^n, who extradted an arrow from the 
eye of Philip king of Macedonia, when 
wounded by After, (G. 325.), with- 
out disfiguring his face, P/in. 7, 37. 
Ke attended Alexander into India, and 

5c ] C R O 

extra6lcd a dart from his body when 
dangeroufly wounded, 5, 25. 

CRITOL^US, a general of the 
Achaeans, who, by his imprudence, 
involved his country in a war with the 
Roman?, which occafioned the deftruc- 
tion of Corinth ; and hence he is faid 
to have overturned that city, Cic.Tufc. 

N. D. 3, 38. 5f 2. An Ariltotelic 

philofopher, Cic. Fin. 5, 5. who came 
to Rome on an embafly from Athens, 
Cic. Or. I, II. 

Crocale, -esy the daughter of the 
river Ifmenus, Oind. Md. 3, 169. 

Crocus, a beautiful youth, who, 
having fallen in love with Smilax, was, 
together with her, turned into fmall 
iiovv'ers of the fame name, Ovid. Met. 
4, 283. 

CROESUS, king of Lydia, con- 
quered by Cyrus, (G. 601 ), put for a 
rich man, Ovid. Triji. 3, 7, 42. and fo 
in the plur» Croefiy rich m,en. Mar- 
tial. 1 1 . 6. 

Crutopus, the fon of Agenor, a 
king of Argos, Panfin. 2, 16. the 
father of Pfamathe, and grandfather 
of Linus, who is hence called Crq- 
TOPiADEs, -acy Ovid, in Ibin. 482. 
Pfamfithe having fe ere tly brought forth 
a fon by Apollo, gave him to be 
brought up by the keeper of the kingj's 
flock ; but the child being carelelsly 
left by him in the woods, was devour- 
ed by dogs. Pfamathe, deploring the 
lofs of her child, whom flie called Li- 
nus, in the tranfports of her grief, 
difclofed the whole truth ; on which 
account her merciiefs father ordered 
her to be put to death* Apollo, in 
revenge, fent a monller into the coun- 
try of Argos, which tore the children 
from the bofoms of their mothers, and 
devoured them. The moniler at lall 
was flain by Choroebus. Apollo next 
brought a peftilence on the country, 
which deilroyed a number of people ; 
till Choroebus having gone to the tem- 
ple of Delphi, and voluntarily offered 
himfelf as a vi6lim, by this a6l pacihed 
Apollo, and procured a refpite from 
the plague, Stat. Theh. i, 557. ad fin. 
Paufanjas telk the itorv femewhat djtFe- 

c T E Cm 

rently, i, 43. It (hould feem that Cro- 
topus himfelf periflied by the plague ; 
for he is Tdid to have been driven to 
Tartarus by Apollo, Ov'id. in Ibhu 575. 

Ctesias, -«.", a native of Cnidus, 
the phyfician of Artaxerxes Mnemon, 
Plutarch, m Artax. p. 1012, &c. who 
wrote the hiftory of Perfia, in twenty- 
three books, JJ'wdor. 2, 2, & 23,; Plitu 
2, 106. 

Ctesibius, a native of Alexandria 
in Ejrypt, the inventor of the pump 
and other hydraulic machines, Plin. 7, 
37. ; V'/tni-v. 9, 9. whence the pump 
is called MacJ/wa Ctefib'ica, Id. 10, 12. 

Ctesilochus, anoted painter, Pl'in. 

Ctesiphon, 'OntiSy an Athenian, 
who propofed in an aiTembly of the 
people, that Demollhenes fhould be 
prefented with a golden crown for his 
public fervices, particularly for his ha- 
ving rebuilt the walls of Athens at his 
own expence ; which was oppofed by 
Aefchines, the rival of Demollhenes, 
who brought a formal accufation a- 
gainft Ctefjphon. Demofthcnes under- 
took his defence, or more properly his 
own, in that admirable oration, (^ff« 
c-rapayou^ de cofoiia), whicli is ftill extant. 
Ctefiphon was acquitted, and Aefchi- 
nes baniflicd for his falfe accufation, 
Cic. Or. 3, 56. 

CupiDo, -uilst Cupid, the god of 
love; plar. CupiDiNES, Cupids. — Cu- 
pidlnea ttla^ the darts of Cupid, Ovid. 
Tnjl.^, 10,65. (G. 364.) • 

CURIO, a firname of one of the fa- 
milies of the Gens Scribonia. There 
were three orators of this family in fuc- 
cefiion, which Pliny mentions as an in- 
ilance of fmgular felicity, ( Una familia 
Cur'iom.m in qua tres continud ferie oratorts 
€sj}iterunt)y 7, 41 f. 42. 1. C, CU- 
RIO, the grandfather, Cic. Br. 32. 

2. C. Scrihonius CURIO, the fon, conful 
a. 677, Cic. Br. 16, & 60. Fam. I, 4. 
Next year having obtained the pro- 
vince of Macedonia, he made war on 
the Dardiinii a neighbouring nation, 
whom in three years he fubdued, and 
extended his conauefts tg the Danube. 

I 1 CUR 

Upon his return to Rome he was hof 
noured with a triumph, Liv. Epit. 92, 
95, & 97. ; Flor. 3, 4. ; Eutrop. 6, 2. ; 
Cic, PiJ\ 19, & 24. As an orator, Ci- 
cero commends him for the fplendour 
and copioufnefs of his diftion, Br. 59. 
but he was remarkable for a weak me- 
mory, and for the violent agitation of 
his body from one fide to another while 
fpeaking ; fo that one Junius ridiculed 
him, by aflcing, who it was that fpokc 
from a boat, {^ds loqueretur e lintre ? 
ib. 60, & 61.), or in a boat, [^is in 
lint re loqueretur? Qjainftil. Ii, 3, 129.) 
On this account Sicinius, a tribune, 
one day faid to Octavius, the colleague 
of Curio in the confulate, who, while 
Curio was delivering a tedious harangue, 
fat filently by him, wrapt round with 
bandages, and bcfmeared with oint- 
ments, to eafc the pain of the gout, 
*' You are greatly obliged to your col- 
league, Oftavius, for if he had not toff- 
ed himfelf from fide to fide in his ufual 
way, the flies would have this day de- 
voured you,*' Cic. et ^inclil. ib. Hence 
Curio got the firname of Buruuleius, 
from a play-aftor of that name who 
had a funiiar impropriety of gefture, 
Plin. 7, 12 f. 10. ; Fal. Max. 9, 14, 5. 
3. C. CURIO, the ion of the for- 
mer, a young man of great natural abi- 
lities, but not fufficiently cultivated by 
iludy, [a magijlris parum injtitutus, natu- 
ram hahuit admirahikm ad cricendum), 
Cic. Br. 81. He was early recomciend- 
ed by his father to the attention of Ci- 
cero, who endeavoured to infpire him 
with the defire of true glory, ib. ; but 
Curio, feduced by the love of plea- 
fure, became exceedingly profligate and 
extravagant, whence, on account of his 
effeminacy, Cicero calls him fliola Cu- 
rionisy Cic. Att. I, 14. Curio formed 
a detellable conne6lion with Antony, 
from which he was withdrawn by the 
interpofition of Cicero, Cic. Phil. 2, iS. 
who, knowing the fliining talents of 
Curio, ilill llrovc to engage him to fup- 
port the interefts of the republic. The 
fix firfl letters of Cicero's fecond book 
of FamiU:\r Epiftks are addreffed to 


CUR [ 

Curio, while he was (as is fuppofed, 
quaeflorto Caius Claudius) in Afia, Cic. 
Fam. 2, 6. DuriHg this period Curio 
loft his father, ih. z. in honour of whom 
he propofed exhibiting a fplcndid ihew 
of gladiators, from which Cicero tried 
to difluade him, but in vain, ib. 3. On 
this exhibition (funebri patr'is munere) 
Curio expended an immenfe fum, and 
exceeded all that had gone before him 
in the ingenuity of his contrivances to 
amufe the people, Pl'in, 36, 15 f. 24. 
By fuch profufion he contracted fo 
much debt, that, as Pliny expreffes it, 
he had no eftate left, but in the hope 
of a civil war, {ut nihil in cenju habuerity 
practer d'tfcorA'mm principum)^ 36, 15. 
and was at laft reduced to the neceffity 
of felling himfelf to Caefar. The debt 
of Curio is faid to have amounted to 
no kfs a fum than fexcentles fejhrttum,, 
near 500,000 L Val. Maat. 9, 1,6. and 
this fum he is fuppofed to have received 
from Qiefar, who attached him to his 
jnterelt by paying all his debts, D'tOy 
40, 60. VelL Paterculus makes the 
fum only cenhes BS. 2, 48. But it is 
thought that here we fhould read fex- 
centusy becaufe Appian fays that Cae- 
far induced Curio to co-operate with 
him for more than 1500 talents, the 
fum which he gave to Paulus the conful, 
B. C, 2. p. 443. So Plutarch in Cae- 
fare, p, 722. ei Pomp. p. 650. Sueto- 
nius does not mention the fum, but 
iimply fays, Aemilium Paulum (confu.- 
Icm) Caiumqua Curionem violerui/fmium 
ir'ihunoytim ingeiiti mercccle defenjores para- 
int, Caef. 29. ^Vid. Caesar, p. 62.). 
Virgil is thought to allude to Curio, 
Vendid'it hic auro patriam, <Sjc. Aen. 6, 
62 f. ; and Lucan, after obferving that 
all thofe who had opprefled the liberty 
of their country effected their purpofe 
by money, [emcre omnes), adds, Hic 
(Curio) vcndidit url^m, 4, 824. 

Curio had been a keen fupporter of 
the power of the fenate and of Pom- 
pey, [H':c primo pro Pompeii partih us ^ id 
ej}, ut tunc habebatur, pro republican Veil. 
ib.)r by whofe influence he was made 
tribune, a. 703, DiQj 40? 59. On this 

152 ] CUR 

occafion Cicero wrote him from Cilicia, 
an admirable letter of advice, in which, 
however, he infmuates fome apprehen- 
fion of his unfteadinefs. Fain. 2, 7. The 
caufe of Curio's oppoiition to Caefar is 
faid to have been the contempt with 
which Caefar treated him, and the op- 
pofition made by Cacfar's friends to his 
eleftion, Cic. Fam. 8, 4. Curio, after 
he had fold himfelf to Caefar, acled 
with exquifite art. He did not imme- 
diately diicover his having changed 
fides, but appeared ftiil to go along 
with his former friends, that thus he 
might become more thoroughly acquain- 
ted with their fecret views, Dio, 40, 61. 
He feemed for fome time to be wholly 
inaftive, [Curioni iribunafut conglaciot 
ve\frigei)y Cic Fam. 8, 6. Som.etimes 
he pretended to be equally again fl Pom- 
pey and Caefar, {^moxfimulationey contra 
Pompeium et Caefar em). Veil. 2, 48. At 
lait, however, he threw off the mafic, 
and, that he might have a pretext for 
breaking with the fenate, made feveral 
extravagant demands, which he knew 
would not be granted, Z)/<?, 40, 61. ; 
Appian. p. 443, Then he joined the 
popular party, and openly avowed his 
attachment to Caefar, [trans fugit adpo^ 
pulumy et pro Caefar e loqui coepit), Cic. 
Fam. 8, 6. which change did not fur- 
prife Cicero, {^is hoc putarei prcuter 
me ? nam, ita vivamy putavi), ib. 2, 13. 
Curio fupported the caufe of Caefar in 
the fenate with great addrefs during his 
tribunefliip, and, after laying down his 
olnce, went directly to Caefar, Dioy 40, 
66 f. fpeedily returned with a letter. 
Id. ^ly I. and after the final decree 
was paffed, fled with Coehu? and the 
tribunes Antony and Caflius, ib. 3. 
(Audax 'venali comitatur Curio lingua, 
Lucan. i, 269.), to Caefar, whom he 
inftigaced to war, Appian. p. 447. ; Lu- 
can. I, 273, — 293. Hence Curio is faid 
to have been the perfon that firfl kin- 
dled the civil war, and even prevented 
an accomm.odation, when Pompey and 
Caefar were inclined to it, [Bello civili 
— -fubjecitfacem ; — et coakjcentis conditions 
pads difiujit ac rupit), Veil. 2, 48. (Mo-, 



C ts^ 1 

C Y M 

meniumque fult mr/tafus Curio rerum, GaU 
lorum captus fpoliis et Caefarts aiiroy Lu- 
can. 4, 819.) 

Curio was fent by Caefar with an ar- 
my to Sicily, Lucan. 3» 59 which he 
got pofl'efiion of without a batrle, Caef. 
Bell, C. I, 30, & 31. Cato having left 
it upon hearing of Curio's arrival, ib. 
{S^eC.ATO, 91.), D'lOy 41, 41. Curio 
paflfcd over from Sicily toAfrica, where 
he deft'ated Varus, who commanded in 
that country for Pompey, and laid fiege 
to Utica, I)iof ib. ; Cocf B, C. 2, 34, 
&c.; Lucan. ^, C83, 661. & 713. But 
Juba king of Mauritania, whom Curio, 
while tribune, had tried to deprive of 
his kingdom, Caef. B.C. 2, 25. {Lege 
tribunitid f«liO depdlere avorum Curio ten- 
tdratf Lylnamqite auferre tyranno, Lu- 
can, 4, 694.), having fpeedily come to 
the afiillance of Varus, artfully decei- 
ved Curio, who feeing himfelf furround- 
ed, and fcorning to flee, though he 
might have efcaped, fell fighting brave- 
ly, {Caef. ib. 36, — 430> ^n^idlt heaps 
of his men, {ceciilitque in Jlrage fiwrumy 
Jmpiger adletbum, et foitis inrtvte coadd. 
^id nunc rojlra tihi profunt turhata^ Jo- 
rumquCy Unde trihunilid plebeius figrilfer 
arce Arvia dahas popuiis P quid prod/la 
jura fenatus, Et gcner at que foe er hello con- 
cur r ere jujfi P Lybicas en nobUe corpus 

Pafcit aveSf nullo confeSus Curio lujto, 
Lucan. 4, 797, — 809. et 5, 39. 

CUR I US, the name of a Roman 
gens ; the moft illullrious of which was 
M. CuRius DtntatuS) who conquered 
the Samnites, and forced Fyrrhus to 
leave Italy. He was a man as remark- 
able for his contempt of ricl es and 
frugality, as for his bravery in war, {G. 
p. 230, & 231.). He is faid to have 
had his hair undrefied, becaufe in his 
time there were no barhtrs in Rome, 
Horat. 1 , 12, 41. ^i Curios fimulant 
Bacchanalia iji'vunt, pretend to live as 
foberly as Curius, Juvenal. 2, 3. who 
uied to dine on pot herbs, which he 
drelTed himftlf. Id. 11.78.— Adj. Cu- 
RiAKUs, ^tinclih 7i 6, 9. ; Cic. Or. l^ 

Mettius Curt I us, a Sabine chief, 
Liv. 1,12. who is faid to have given 
name to the Curtian lake in Rome, tb, 


M CuRTius, a brave young man, 
who threw himfelf into a great opening 
in the forum, produced by an earth- 
quake, or fome other caufe, in order, 
as he fuppofed, to appeafe the divine 
wrath, Liv. 7, 6. The Curtian lake 
is fuppofed to have been named rather 
from this Curtius, ib. 

CvANE, -esy a nymph of Sicily, 
who attempting to hinder Pluto in 
carrying off Proferpine, was by him 
changed into a fountain, Ovid. MeL 

5» 409- 

Cyanee, v. -ea, the daughter of 
the river Maeander, the mother of 
Byblis and Caunos, by Miletus, the 
fon of Apollo, Ovid. 9,451. 

Cybele, Cybelle, v. Cybebe, 
'es, the mother of the gods, {G. 355.) 
Hence Cybeleius Attis, the fon of Cy- 
bele, Ovid. Met. TO, 104. 

Cycnus, or Cygnus, the fon of 
Neptune, invulnerable by a dart ; 
cruflicd to death by Achilles, and me- 
tamorphofed into a fwan, Ovid. Met* 

12, 72, — 145. H 2. A Boeotian 

youth, the fon of Apollo and Hyric, 
beloved by Phyllius ; who having refu- 
fed to give him a bull, which at the 
defire of Cycnus he had tamed, Cyc- 
nus, in a fit of paflion, threw himfelf 
from a lofty rock on mount Teumefui 
in Boeotia, and was turned into a 
fwan ; whence a beautiful vale near 
that place was called Cycneta Temper 
plur. Ovid. Met. 7, 371, &c. (vid. G- 

CvDiAs, -ae, a fl<:ilful painter, PUn^ 

35» i'- 
Cydippe, -fj-, a virgin beloved by 
Aconlius ; vid. Acontius. 

Cyllarus, a beautiful centaur, 
Ovid. Met. 12, 393. flain in the battle 
of the centaurs wiih the Lapithae, ib» 

420. ^ 2. The horle of Pollux, 

Virg. G. 3^ 89. 
Cymqdoce, 'CSy or CymodGc^a, a 

C Y M [ T54 I DAE 

fca-nympli, the daughter of Nereus xes, was ftoned to death, CzV. 0^ 3, Tt» 

and Doris, Vir^. Jen, 10, 225.; Stat. CYR.US, the founder of the Per- 

Sih. 2, 2, 20. fian empire, (G' 600.) -R'^dditum Cyri 

Cymotkoc, -fj, another daughter folio Phranten, 8cc. Phraate< reftored to 

of Nereus, Serv. ad Virg. Aen. i, the throne of Cyrus, t e. of Parthia, 

the Parlhians being tnafters of Perfia in 
the time of Horace, Horat. Od. 2, 2, 

17. vid. OCTAVIUS. 

Cyrus minor, Cyrus the younger, 
who attempting to expel his brother 
Aftaxerxes from the throne by the 

Cynafgirus, an Athenian, the fon 

of Euphorion, and brother to the poet 

Aefchylus ; who, after the defeat of 

the Pcrfians at Marathon, took hold 

of one of th.eir (hips with his hand, 

and it being cut oiF, fell, Herodot. 6, afhftance of Graecian mercenaries, was 

114. Juftin relates, that, after both flain in battle through his own rafh- 

his hands were cut off, he ftized the nefs, in the moment of vi6lory, (G. 

{hip with his teeth, 2, 9, (G. 3C0.) 468.) C'lC, Div, i, 23, & 25. 

Cyrus, an architcv^, Ck. Alt, 2, 3.;. 
Md, 17. hence Cyrea, fc. op^ra, the 
works of Cyrus, Cic, AtL 4, 10. 

Cytheris, -Ws, an aftrefs, the fa- 
vourite miftrefs of Antony, Ck. Phil. 

CynTci, a feit of piiilofophers, re- 
markable for the rulb'city and indelica- 
cy of their manners, (G. 295 ) 

Cynosura, the conriellation called 
Urfa Minor, the leiTer bear, Ovid. Fafi. 
3, 107 ; Sil 3, 6(Ss. 

Cynthius, a name given to Apol- 
lo, from Cynthos, a mountain in De- 
los, \vhe:e he was born, Virg. Am. 

6, 3. Cyntkia, a name given to 

Diana, or Luna, the moon, Ovid. Fajl. 

2, 24, & 25. ; Fam. 9, 26 ; Att. 10, 
10, &■ i6. ; properly called Volumnia, 
as being the freed-woman of Volumni- 

us Eutrapelus, Ck. Phil. 2, 24. 

Servius on Virgil makes Cytheris the 
fame with Lycoris, beloved by Gallus ; 

2, 91 51 ^' '^^'^^ name which Pro- but feveral circumilances mentioned by 

pertius gave his miflrefs, I, l. et alibi Virgil ccicerning Lycoris, /:i:/. 10, 2, 

^qfflm. Martial 14, 187. 

Cyparissus, a bc-iutlful youth, be- 
loved by Apollo ; who having acci- 
dentally killed a ftag he was fond of, 
and being inconfolable in his griei, 
.was turned into a cyprefs-tree, which 
tvab ahvays ufed at funerals, Ovid. Met. 
*IG,, 1065 — 142* 
** 'Cyf.selus, a tvrant of Cori-ith, 

&c appear to be inconnftent with the 
account given concerning Cytheris in 

. D. 
Daedalion, -cr/j-, the fon of Lu- 
cifer, and brother of Ceyx, Ovid. Met. 
I r, 295. who was fo aifefted with the 
death of his daughter Chicne, flain by 
Diana, that he threv," himfelf from the 
■^thoie government Demaratus, the fa- top of Parnaffus ; but Apollo pitying 

ther of Tarquinius Prifcus, the fifth 
king of Rome, being unwilling to 
bear, retired to Tarquinii in Tufcany, 
Cic. tiifc. 5, 37. 

Cyrehe, -es, the daaghcer of the 
river Peneus, and mother of Ariitaeus 
by Apollo, (G. 371.) 

him, made him a bird, called a fal/jn 
cr liawk, [accipller), ib. 345. 

DAEDALUS, a native of Athens, 
a famous architeft, the conitrudor of 
the labyrinth in Crete,- where being 
fnut up with his fon Icarus, he con- 
trived' to make his efcape by m.eans of 

Cyrenaici, the followers of the waxen wing? ; but Icarus foaring too 

philofopher Ariilippus, a native or 
Cyrene in Africa, Cic. Tufc. 3, 12. ; 
Acad. 4, 7, & 46. 

CyrsIlus, an A.thenian, who ha- 
ving' advi fed h?s .countryrTien' to'' re- 
'rnain in the city, -^nd fubmit to Xcr- 

high, had his wings melted by the heat 
of the fun, and fell into the fea, call- 
ed from him the Icarean fea, [G, 
42 1 .") 'Hence, Et mare perniffum pucrot 
(i. e. Icaro)^ fahrumque, (f e. Daeda- 
lum) 1-olantsnii Juvenal, I, 54. P-'O- 


DAM [ 155 

ponhnus Uluc Ire fai'igaias uhl Daedalus 
exuit alas, i. e« Cumas, Id. 3, 25. ; 
Virg. Aen. 6, 14. ; Hor, Od, 1,3, 44.; 
lUe ceratis ope Daedaled mt'itur penniSy in- 
treo daturas ncmina ponto, Ibars on 
waxen wings by the aflidance or art 
of Daedalus, about to fall like Icarus, 
and give name to the azure fea, /'. e. 
be will fail in his attempt to equal 
Pindar, lb, 4, 2, 2, Daedaleo ocior I- 
carOi fwifter than Icarus, the Ton of 
Daedalus, /. e. not retarded like him 
in my flight, lb. 2, 20, 13. Daedale- 
vm iter rexii, direfted liis road through 
the windings of the labyrinth made by 
Daedalus, Propert. 2, 14, 8. DaeDA- 
LA teclaj the cells of the bees, curionf- 
iy made, Firg, G. 4, 179. So Dae- 

dala tellus, L,ucr. i, 7, & 229. carmi- 
fia. Id. 2, 504. ; J^gna (/. e. ftatuas) 
polire, Id. 5, 1450. ; J'^erborum Daedn- 
la lingua^ which curioufly forms the 
founds of words, Id. 4, ^<^^. ; Vtd. 
C'lc. A^. Z). 2, 59. Natura Dae dala re- 
rum, the curious former or framer of 
things, Lucr. 5, 235.; Daedala Circe, 
ingenious, Virg. /Jen. 7, 282. 

Damalis, -is, the name of a drunk- 
en woman, Hor. ^il. i, 36, 13. 

DAMASiPPUS, a lirnameofthe 

Dam AS IP PUS, a nobleman fond of 
ftatues, Cic. Fam. 7, 23. ; whence 
Pfciidodamajippus, an admirer of itatues 
like Damatippus, ib. — Suppofed to be 
the fame with the Damaiippus m.en- 

tioned by Horace, Sat, 2, 3, 64. 

^ 2. One who having fpent his for- 
tune, hired himfclf as a player, Jwce- 
nal 8, 185. 

/.. Jtmius Brutus DAMASIPPUS, 
city praetor in the third confulfhip 
of Carbo, and the younger M'arius ; 
who having affembled the fenate, by 
the order of Marius, cruelly put to 
death a number of the chief fenators, 
under pretext of their being the fa- 
vourers of Sulla ; among the reft Scae- 
vola, the High Prieft, Fell. 2, 26. ; 
Cic. Fam, 9, 21. ; Appian. B, C. i. p, 
403, & 404. ; Liv. Epit. 86. Dama- 
iippus was afterwards llain bv the or- 
Ja- of Sulla, Sallujh Cat. 51.' 

1 DAN 

DAMOCLES, As, a flatterer of 
Dionyfius, who ufed often to extol the 
happinefs of that prince. Upon which 
Dionyfitis al'ked if he would make 
trial of it. When he readily afiented, 
the tyrant ordered him to be placed 
on a golden couch, and the moll deli- 
cious dilhes to be fet before him, with 
every thing elfe that could regale hi$ 
fenfes. But in the midil of the en? 
tertainment he caufed a fwovd to be 
let down from the ceiling, fufpended 
by a horfe-hair over his head ; which 
fo terrified liamocks, that he was un- 
able to tafte any of the delicacies, and 
begged that he might be allowed to 
depart. Thus Dionyfius Avowed, that 
no one can be happy over whom fomc 
terror always hangs, Ci^. Tufc. 5,21. 

To this ftory Horace alludes, 

DiJlriElus erjis cut fuper hvpia Cervice pew 
dct, &c. Od. 3, I, 17. ' 

DAMO, V. -on, and Phintias, or 
Pythias, Pythagoreans, who gave a 
rare example of friendfhip at Syracufe 
\\\ the time of Dionyfius. One of them 
being condemned to die by the tyrant, 
afked a few days refpite to fettle his 
affairs, and the other became furety 
for his return, fo that he muft have 
died if he failed. But he came on the 
day appointed. Dionyfius admiring 
fuch fidelity, not only pardoned him, 
but requefted to be admitted as a 
third 'perfon in their friendfhip, Cic, 
Off. 3, 10. ; Val, Max, 4, 7, ext. i. 

Damon, a mufician, Cic. Or. 3, 33. 

Damophilus, a ftatuary and pain- 
ter, PUn. t^, 12. 

DanaJ:, -es, the daughter of Acri- 
fiU3, king of the Argives, and the mo- 
ther of Pcrfeus by Jupiter, (G. 395.) 
who is hence called D A n a E i u s heros^ 
Ovid. Met. 5, I. 

D:->.NAUS, a king of Argos, the 
fon of Belus, and brother of Aegyp- 
tus, whofe fifty daughters, (Danauks, 
-umj, ilew their huibands on the mar- 
riage night, except Hypermneftra, 
who preferved her huiband Lynceus. 
For this crime the Danaids were fup- 
pofed to be condemned to pour water 
for ever into a tub full of holes, {G, 
U 2 392.) 

DAP [156 

19 2.) From Danaus the Greeks were 
called Dan A I. 

Daphne, -es, the daughter of the 
river Peneus, beloved by Apollo, 
changed into a laurel, Ovid. Met, J, 

Daphnis, -is, V. -ullsi a beautiful 
toy, the fon of Mercury, Atl'ian, 10, 

x8. 5[ 2. The name of a fhepherd, 

V'trg, Aen. 2, 5, & 8. 

Dardanus, the fon of Ele£lra and 
Jupiter, the founder of the Trojan na- 
tion, (G. 187 ) Iliacae primus pater 
urhis et auSor^ Virg. Aen. 8, 34. put 
for any Trojan, (q. Dardanius)^ Crw 
delis JDardanus, i. e. Aeneas, Virg, 
Aen. 4, 661. — Dardanipes, -dae^ a 
fon or defcendant of Dardanus, Virg'. 
Aen. 10, 545. plur. Dardanidae, 
^arunii the Trojans, ii. 3 > 94- 5 > 45. 
— -Dardanis, -7diSf a Trojan woman, 
Matres Dardamdesy the Trojan ma- 
trons, O'vid. Met, 13, 412. — Darda- 
Nius, adj. Trojan; l^irg. 'en. 5, 711. 
— Dardania, 'Of., fc. wbs^ Troy, ib, 
jr, 324. or fc. regiOi Troas, the coun- 
try of Troy. 

Dares, i^//x, an hiftorian that wrote 
the hiftory of the Trojan war, Ijidor, 

*" ^ 2. The name of a noted boxer or 

combatant at thec^eftus, Firg.A.^y 375. 

DARIUS, the name of three kings 
cf Perfia, namely, the fon oi Hy/iafpiSy 
J^othusy ard Codomatinus, (G. 6c8, — 

614; 616; 620.)-^ Daricus, -/, 

m. <i daric, a coin marked with the 
image of Darius, An/on. Ep. 5y 21. 

DATis,rij", the general of Daiius, 
whom Miltiades defeated at the battle 
of Marathon, Nep. 1,4. 

DAUNUS, the fon of Pilumnus 
and Danae, who reigned in the north 
of Apulia ; whence that country was 

cralled Daunia, (G- p. 158,) The 

father of Turnus, Firg. Aen. 10, 616, 
«? 12, 90. ; whence Daunius herosj i. e, 
Turnus ih. \2, 723. Daunia dea, i. e, 
Juturna, thefiller of Turnus, iZ". 12, 785* 

Davus, the name of a flave, which 
often O'curs in Terence : faid to have 

] DEI 

DECIUS, the nam.c of a Roman 
gens; ennobled by the three Dfcii, 
who devoted themfelves for their coun- 
try, Cic Tufc. I, 37. JLivy mentions 
only two, the father, 8, 9, & 10. ; and 
the fon, TO, 28, & 29, Vid. Firgif, 
A. 6, 825. ; Jwvenalt 8, 254, & 258, 
14, 239. 

De J AN IRA, the mofl illuftrions of 
the wives of Hexxules, (G. 401,) the 
daughter-in-law of Alcmena, the mo- 
ther of Hercules, hence called AlcmC' 
naenurusy Ovid. Met. 8, 542. 

D E i D A M I A, or Deiam'ia, the daugh- 
ter of Lycomedes, king of Scyros, and 
the m.other of Pyrrhus by Achilles, 


Dejoces, -isf the firfl king of the 
Medes, (G. 599.) 

Deione, -esf the mother of Mile- 
tus by Apollo ; whence Miletus is 
called Dewmdesy -acy the fon of Deio- 
ne, Oind. Met. 9, 442. 

Dejotarus, the king of Galatia, 
who fided with Pompey in the civil 
war ; but after the battle of Pharfalia, 
having fubmitted to Caeiar, was left in 
the pofTeflion of his kingdom. He 
was afterwards accufed by his fon De- 
jotarus and one Phihppus, of having 
plotted the death of Cacfar ; but be- 
ing defended by the eloquence of Ci- 
cero, he was acquitted, Cic. Dejot. i, 
&c. _ ^ _ 

Deiopeia, lu-peay v.-play one of 
the nymphs of Juno, whom ihe pro- 
mifed in marriage to Aeolus, Virg. 

Aen. 1. 


■^2. A water-nymph 

been derived from Dahacy v. Daacy a 
people of Scythia, Donat. in Terent, 
Andro Frinc, 

that frequented the lake Afia in Ly- 
dia ; hence called AJia Deiopeay Virg, 

G. 4»343-^ 

Deiphobus, the fon of Priam and 
Hecuba, who, after the death of Pa- 
ris, married Helena, by whom he v/as 
bttrayed to the Greeks, Firg. Aen. 6, 

494» ^^' 

Deiphobe, -^^, the daughter of 
Glaucus, the prieftefs of the temple of 
Apollo at Cuniae, Virg. Aen. 6, 35. ; 
hence called the Cumean Sibyl ( Cu- 
maea Sibylla,) ib. 98. who attended Ae- 
neas to the infernal regions, ib. 262, 


D E M [ I 

Demades, -/'j, an Athenian orator, 
contemporary with Dcmoftheries, Cic. 
Brut. 9. Or. 26. orio-inally a failor ; 
whence Quindtilian lays of him. Ex 
rem'ige orator fatl us y 2, 17, 12. 

Demaratus, a king oF Lacedae- 
mon, who being bani(hcd from his 
country, fled to Pcrlia, and lived in 
exile at the court of Xerxes. Percei- 
ving that Xeixes meditated war againft 
Greece, he gave the Lacedemonians 
notice of his defign, Jujiin, 2, 10. & 

13. <|[ 2. The father of Tarqui- 

nius Prifcus, who, on account of the 
tyranny of Cypfelus, retired from Co- 
rinth to i'arquinii in Etruria, Cic, 
Tufc, 5, 37.; Liv. I, 34. 

Dlmea, the name of an old man 
in Terence, Adelph. I, 2, i, &c. 

DEMETRIUS, the fon of Antl- 
gonus, called Poliorcetes ( ic. Off. 
2, 7. {O.p. 341. & 471.) — Demetri- 
us Phalereus, the fcholar of Thco- 
phraRus, Ch, Fin. 5, 9- ; Br. 9. and 
governor of Athens under CalTander, 

(G. 472.) 

DEMETRIUS, the fon of Philip, 
king of Macedonia, given by his fa- 
ther as a hollage to the Romans, Liv. 
33, 30. and led in triumph by T. 
Quintius Flaminius, LI, 34, 52. He 
was afterwards reilored to his father. 
Id. 36. ; and being fent by him on an 
embaiTy to Rome, was treated with 
great refpeift by the fenate. Id. 39, 47. 
■which foon after became a ground of 
odium againll him, ib. 48. For being 
invidioufly accufed by his brother Per- 
feus of deiigns againit his life, and of 
undue attachment to the Romans, he 
was put to death by the order of his 
father, Liv, 40, 5, — 24, who having 
difcovered the guilt of Perfeus, and the 
innocence of Demetrius, was lo racked 
with remorfe, that it put a pi.rzod to 
his life, ib. 54, $$. & S'^' 

Democ HARES, -«, an A.thenian ora- 
tor, the filter's fon of Demofthenes, 
called Parrhefmjlesy on account of his 
loo great freedom of fpeech, Cic Or, 
2, 23. ; Br. 83. Being fent among 
others on an embaffy to Philip, when 
that Prince allied what he could do 

57 1 DEM 

moft agreeable to the Athenians ; ** Ta 
hang yourfelf," replied Democharei, 
** Tell your countrymen,'* fays Phi- 
lip to the other ambafladors, ** that 
thofe are more haughty, who fay fuch 
things, than thofe who hear them with 
impunity," Sencc. ds Ir. 3, 23. 

D £ M c R A T £ s, -/V, a phy fician, PUn, 
2a, 7- 

DEMOCRiTUS, of Abdera, {AU 
der'ilesy -acj the parent of experimental 
philofophy, called the Laughing philo- 
fop})er^ (G. 16.) btcaufe he laughed 
at the follies of m.ankind ; whence Ju- 
venal fays of him, Perpetuo riju pulmo- 
Item agitare folebat, 10, 34. From ade- 
fne of learning he gave up his patri- 
mony, Cu:. 1 ufc. 5, 39. and traverfed 
the moft remote countries in qued of 
knowledge, Cic. Fin. ^, 29. He is faid 
to have deprived himifelf of fight, that 
his mind might not be withdjawn from 
the contemplation of truth by external 
objects, ib. ei Gtll. lo, 17. But Cice- 
ro doubts the truth of this, ih. and Plu- 
tarch exprefbly denies it, De Curiof, 
Cicero thinks him one of the greateil 
men, fvir magm/s in primis, J N. D. I, 
43. — Fience Democritici, the fol- 
lowers of Democritus, Cic. Or. I, 10. 
Dernotriiea fc. d'icld, v. dogmata ^ the fay- 
ing> or opinions of Democritus, Cic, 
Di-v. 2, 13. 

Demodocus, a mufician at the 
court of Alcinbus, Homer, Odyfs. 8, 44. 
— ^ 2. A Trojan chief, Vtrg. ^. 10. 

Demoleus, •;, a Greek flain by 
Aeneas at Troy, Virg. /len. 5, 260. 

Demoleon, -oniis^ a centaur, killed 
by The feus, Ovid. Met. 12, 356. 

Demophoon, -ntisy the fon of The- 
fcui, and Phaedra, one of the leaders 
of the Greeks in the Trojan war, 


DEMOSTHeNES, -w, an Athc- 
nian. the prince of the Greek ora- 
tors, ^indiL 10, I, 76. et iz, 2, 22. 

(longepi7'fcL{'iffimiis Graecorum^ Id. 10, 2, 
24.) faid to have been the fon of a 
blackfraith, i^^tem pater ardentis maffae 
fuligine Itppus A carbone^ l^c. ad rhetor et 
mjfitj Juvenal, xo, 130. But Plutarch 



C 15S 1 

T) r D 

fays that the father of Demofthenes 
was a man of birth and probity, and 
died when his fon was only feven years 
of age, m Demollh, Demofthenes firfl 
applied to philofophy under Plato, 
whom he greatly admired, Cic. Or. 4. ; 
^uinciil. 12, 2, 22, ei 12, 10, 24. He 
afterwards ftudied eloquence under I- 
faeus and other mailers. He at firft 
could not pronounce the letter R, but 
by attention and induftry, got fo much 
the better of this and other defefts, 
that no one fpoke more diltindlly, Cic. 
Div» 2, 46. Or. 1, 61. and acquired an 
excellence in his art thalhasfcarcely ever 
been equalkd; {^DemojJhenis commemoraio 
nomine y maximae eloqnmtiae conjummaiio au- 
dicntis onimo oboritiir,\ A. Max. 8, '],ext. 
1.) But his eloquence at lall proved 
fatal to him ; for Antipater, iiaving 
vanquifhed the Athenians, demanded 
that their orators fliould be given up to 
him. Upon which Demofthenes fled, 
and to prevent his falling into the 
hands of his enemies, put an end to his 
life by poifon, in the ifland of Caiauria, 
Strnb. 8, 374.; Plutarch, in Den.oJIh. 
Dentatus, a fn-name given to M. 
Curius, becauie he is faid to have been 
born with teeth, Phn. 7, \6f. 15. 

Deois, -idisy i. e. Proierpine the 
daughter of Ceres, who is called Dcot 
by the Greeks, Ovid. Met. 6, 114. 

D ERG ETC, 'USi or Dercilisy -isf voc. 
Derccti, Ovid. Met. 4, 45. (or Ceto, 
-us J Plin. 5, 13.) the name of a Syrian 
gcddcis called by the Syrians Atar- 
GATis, rlin. 5, 23.; Strab. 16,/. 748. 
or Aihara, W Mhara^ ih. 785. iuppo- 
fcd to be the fame with Afitaroih^ men- 
lioned in the facred fcriptures, — in the 
upper part refem.bling a woman, and in 
the lower a fifii, Ovid. ib. et Lucian. de 
Dea Syria; hence csilkd prodigiofa, Piin. 

DEUCaLION, -oiiis, thefon of Pro- 
nietneus, and hufoand of Pynha, king 
of TheJaly ; in whofc time happened 
the deluge, {G. 436.) — Deucalio- 
KLUS adj. Dtucalioneas tjfugit inolrtiLus 
undas, efcaped Deucalion's iiood, Ovid. 
Met. 7,356. So DeucaliGii^l imhres, ex- 

ceffive fhowers, fuch as fell before Deu- 
calion's flood, Lucan. 1, 653. 

DiAGON'DAS, -ae, a Theban, who 
aboiiflied all nodlurnal facred rites, Cic. 
Leg. 2, ly 

DiAGQRAS, -ae^ a native of Melos, 
(Melius,) a fcholar of Dejuocritus, 
called Atheos, v. -us, the Atheift, be- 
caufe he denied the exiilence of the 
gods, Cic N. D. I, i,5i 23. e/3, 37. — 
^2. A combatant, famous for his 
victories at the Olympic games [Olym- 
pionices nobdis,) who had three fons 
(Cicero fays two, 'Tuft. 1,46) that 
gained the prize of viciory in different 
contefts on the fame day. When they, 
embracing their father, placed their 
crowns on his head, and the people 
with congratulations threw flowers up- 
on him, the old man, tranfported with 
joy, expired amidft the kifles of his fons, 
Cell. 3, 15. 

DIANA, tlie goddcfs of hunting, 
(G. 377.) v\hence dogs are called Tur- 
la D I Am A, Ovid. FaJ}. 5, 141. Diani" 
um, fc. iemplum, the temple of Diana, 
Liv. I, 48. 

DiCAEARCHUs, a Peripatctick phi.- 
lofcpher, the fcholar of Ariitotle, 
whofc writings Cicero much admired, 
Cic. yitt. 2, 2, and particularly com- 
mends his maps, {^tabilas gecgraphicas,) 
ib. 6, 2. — ^ 2. A chief of the Aeto- 
lians, Liv. 35, 12. 36, 28. et 38, 10. 

DiCTYNNA, a name of Diana, Ovid. 
Met. 2, 441.; Stat. Thcb. 9, 632. 

DICTYS, -yiii -yi, -ym v. -yn^ (fvC. a 
fiflier that educated Peifcus, Slat, Silv. 
2, 95. — <{| 2. One of the centaurs, 
Ovid. Met. 12, 334. — ^ 3. DrcTYS 
of Crete, Cretcvjisy to whom is aicribed 
a hiftory of the Tiojan war. 

DiDAS, -ae, a Macedonian, the go- 
vernor of Paeonia under Piiilip, em- 
ployed by Perfcus to effe6l the deihuc- 
tion of his brother Demetrius, Liv. 40, 
23, & 24. and afterwards as one of his 
prmcipai generals, Liv. ±2, 5I> & ^"^^ 
DiDius, the name of a Roman ^f/zx. 
P. DiDius, the lieutenant of L. 
Caefar in the Italic war, Cic. Font. 15. 
Jit. I?,, 32. ; Fell. 2, 16. 

T. DiDius, 

D T N 

[ '59 1 

T. DiDius, conful with Q^Caecili- 
us Metellus, who paffed a law called 
Lex Caectlia Did'ia-, about the manner of 
propofing and paffin;jr laws, Ck. Att. 
2, 9. ; Phil. 5,3. Didius, being made 
governor of Macedonia, obtained a tri- 
umph over the Scordifci, Ck. Plane. 25.; 
P//. 25. 

DIDO, 'US V. -onlsy the daughter of 
Belus, and fifter of Pygmalion, king of 
Tyre and Sidon, and of Phoenicia ; 
whtnce fhe is called Phoen'i/fa Dido, 
Virg. Aen. i, 670. and Sidonla., ib. 446. 
Sichaeus, the hufband of Dido, being 
flain by Pygmalion, on account of his 
riches, fhe fled into Africa, and there 
founded the city Carthage on a fpot of 
ground which (he purchafed, [urbem ex- 
iguam preiio pofuky Virg. Aen. 4, 211.) 
about 300 years after the deftvuflion of 
Troy ; (G./'. 189, 3^678.) Ellfa was 
her proper name ; (lie v/as called Dido 
from her mafculine courage ; which 
word in the Phoenician language figni- 
feed the fame as Virago in Latin, Sew. 
ad Virg. Aen. 4, 36. 

DiDYMAON, -onis, 2. Hotcd maker of 
arms, Virg. Asn. 5, 359. 

DiESPiTER, (i. e.^/f/vel. lucis/^/^r,) 
a name given to Jupiter, Hor. Od. i, 
34,5. et7, 2, 29. 

Sex. DiGiTiUE, a marine, ^focitis na- 
'valis vel cla//kus,) who, iifter the taking 
of New Carthage in Spain, claimed the 
prize of valour [deciis virli/iij,) in oppo- 
lition to Q^ Trebellius, a centurion. 
When their comrades warmly efpouled 
the caufe of each, Scipio, the command- 
er in chief, to prevent the difagrteable 
confequences of a difpute between the 
army and navy^ conferred a mural cvown 
on them both, as having fcaled the wall 
or entered the town together, [quod 
pariter mjirum nfcendijfent vel in tirhem 
trar^fctndilfcnt,) Liv. 26, 48. 

DiNDYiJENE or Diiidyms, -es, a name 
of Cybele, the mother of the Gods, 
from Dind}'mus a mountain of Phrygia, 
where fhe was worfliippcd, (G.p. SSS-) 

Ding W Dinon, -dnis, a Greek hi- 
ll orian, who wrote an account of Vcr- 
i^a, Cic. D:v. I, 2'^.Nep. 9, 5. — > — 

D \ O 

prince of the 

5[ 2. A prince of the Rhodi 
ZiV. 44, 23^ 

Din GO RATES, 'is, praetor of the 
Meffenians, Liv. 39, 49. 

DiNGMENES, -is, one of the guards 
of Hieronymus, who confpired againil 
him. Liv. 24, 7. and afterwards was 
made praetor of Syracufe, ib. 23. 

DiocLEs, a chief of the Aetollans, 
7.^^.35, 34. 

DiO, vel DION, -o«/V, a Syracufan 
who freed his country from the tyran- 
ny of Dionylius, {G. 274.) Nep. in viia 

DIO, an academic philofopher, Cic 
Ac-ad. 4, 4. who having come to Rome 
as an ambafiador from the people of 
Alexandria to accufe Ptolemy Auletes, 
was murdered by the contrivance of 
that king, Cic. Coel. 10. ; Strabo, 17, 
p. 1 147. — Several others of tiul^ name 
are mentioned by Cicero, Leg. 3, ^, 
Fam. 9, 26. Veir. i, 10. Place, 30* 
Verr. 2, 7. 

DIO Caffms vel Dion, a native of 
Nice in Bithynia, of noble defcent, who 
flouriihed under Severus and his fons, 
and was raifed to the higheft dignities 
of the ilate. He wrote in Greek the 
Roman hiftory in eighty books, from 
the arrival of Aeneas in Italy, to the 
eighth year of Alexander Severus, m 
which year Dio Caifius was conful for 
the fecond time, a. u. 982. ; A. D. 229, 
The hrfl thirty-four books are loir. 
Part of the thirty- fifth and the eighteen 
following books, from the thirty- 
fixth to the fifty-fourth, remain entire. 
The four next are very imperfeft. 
There Is an abridgement of Dio from 
the thirty-fifth to the eightieth book, 
compiled by Xiphilin [Joannes Xi- 
pbilinus,) a native of Trebifond, [Trape- 
zunlius,) brother to the Patriarch of 
Conilantinople in the cleventii century. 
The liiilory of Dio is very valuable, as 
it contains an account of many impor- 
tant facts which are to be found no 
where elfe. 

DiocHARES, a favourite.' freedman 
of Gaefar's, Cie. /-(it. 1 1 , 6. Illas Diochn- 
rinae, fc. literae, the letter from Dio- 
chares, ib. 13, 45. 


D T O t 

DIOCL ETIANUS, a Roman em- 
peror, called Diocles till he afTnmed 
the empire, Eutrop. 9, 19. from Dio- 
dea, a city of Dalmatia, Plin. 3,23. 
After a vigorous reign of twenty-two 
years, he reil^ned the empire, and h'ved 
in retirement till his death, Awel, Vic- 
tor^ Eplt. 39- ; Eutrcp. 9, 22. 

DIODoRUS, a Greek hiftorian, 
who fiourifhed under Auguitus, called vSi- 
CULUS, from Sicily, his native country. 
His works are ftill extant. — % 2. A 
peripatetic philofophcr, Cic. Tufc.^ 5, 3. 

^3. A praefcct of AmphipoKs, 

Ur^. 44, 44. 

DiODOTUS, a Stoic philofo])her, the 
mafler of Cicero in logic, {in d'tahSicis^') 
Cic. Br. 90. Fam. 13, 16. 

Diogenes, -w, a Cynic philofopher, 
in the time of Alexander the Great, 
(G. 295.) 

Diogenes, called Laertius, {La- 
.ert'ienftsj v. Laertes^ ) from his birth-place 
Laerte^ v. -£?, a town of Cilicia, who li- 
ved under Severus, and wrote the lives 
of the Greek philofophers ; which 
work is ftill extaat. 

DIOMeDES, -h, the fon of Ty- 
deus (Tydidesy -ae,) king of Aetolia, 
hence called Aetclius htrosy Ovid. Met. 
14, 461. one of the Graecian chiefs in 
the war againfl: Troy. His wife ^sgi- 
ale having proved unfaithful to him in 
his abfence, he did not return to his 
native country, but v^rent into Italy, 
and hiving married the daughter of 
Daunus, king of that part of Apuha, 
afterwards called from him Daini'ia, 
fliared the fovereignty with Daunns, and 
built feveral cities, (G. 186, &45S.) 
Some of his compaiiions are faid to 
have been changed into birds, Ovid. 
Met. 14, 484, &c. called the birds of 
Diomedes, ( -'ves Dirnnedis vel D'lomc 
deae.) Plin. 10, 44 f. 61. Hence Dio- 
medes fays, Et focd (fc. mei) admlfjls 
(i. e. celeribus) petierurt atlhera pennis, 
Vircr. Aen. 11, 272. Diamedis urhsy ib. 
8,9. i.e. Arpi feu Argyrlpa, ib. 11, 
246. Dlomedis campus y a plain near 
Cannae, Llv. 25, 12. Dismadeae inJnJae., 
fpaall iilauds oa the CQall of Apulia, 

160 ] D I O 

near mount Gafganns, frequented by 
thefe birds, Plin. 3, 26 f. 30. 

Diomedes, a king of Thrace, who 
fed his hovfes on human flefh. He was 
flain by Hercules, (G. p. 339.) 

DiONE, -esy the mother of Venus, 
put for Venus hevfelf, (G. 363.) 
whence Caefar is called Dionaeusy as 
being defcended from Venus and An- 
chifes, l>^it'g. E. 9, 47. ; Columhae. Di- 
onaeae, pigeons facred to Venus, Stat, 
S'dv. 3, 5, 80. So Dionaeae avesy Id, 
Theb! 7,261. 

Dionysus, a name of Bacchus, (G. 
382.) vv'hence Dionysia, -arum, the 
feafts of Bacchus, Ter, Heaui, i, i, 

DiONYSius, the name of two ty- 
rants of Syracufe, father and fon, (G. 

DIONYSIUS, a native of Hali- 
carnaflus, the capital of Caria ; hence 
called Halicarnasseus, or H alt car- 
nnj'trfisy who came to Rome after Au- 
guftus put an end to the civil wars, in 
the middle of the 187th Olympiad, a- 
bout thirty years before the birth of 
Chrift. After having ftaid at Rome 
for twenty-two years, he wrote an ac- 
count of the origin, culloms, and 
tranfa6tions of the Romans till the be- 
ginning of the firll Punic war, m 
twenty books,, of which only the firll 
eleven remain, ending with t!'.e 3 [2th 
year of the city ; and fpme fragments. 
Dionyfius alio compofed feveral books 
concerning rhetoric, fome of wliich are 
ftill extant. 

D 1 6 N Y s I u s of Heraclea, ( Heradeo* 
tesy -ae)y firil a Sloic, Cic. ykad. 4, 
22. but afterwards an JXpicurean, Cic. 

Fin. I, ?i. «| 2. A native of Jvlag- 

nefia, [Moznesy -eilsy) a rhetorician, 

intimate with Cicero, Cic. Br. 91. » 

^ 3. A fiave of Cicero's, his reader, 
[anngnGj}es)y Cic. Fai'n. 5, 10. and li- 
brarian, ib. 13. 77. But having fto- 
len many of his ma'icr^s books, he 
fled for fear of puaiihment, th. He 
feems to have returned, and to have 
been taken into favour ; for Cicero 
coiTiplains Qi his having d<:fertcd him 


D I O [ 

in the beginning of the civil war, Jlit. 

9, 12. 51 4- ^ ^^^^ o^ freedman 

of Attfcus, whom Cicero employed In 
arranging his library, C'tc. Att. 4, 7, 
11,15. Fam> \2, 24.. — There were 
many others of ihis name. Fabric. 
BihI. Graec. torn. 2, p. 794., &0. 

DiONysus, a name of Bacchus, 
(G. 382.) whence Dionysia, -lirum, 
the feads of Bacchus, Ter. Heant. i, 
I, 1 10. There were many of this 
name, [multos Dlonyfos hahemus, Cic. 
N. D. 3, 23.) 

DiOPHAMES, -/V, a native of Mi- 
tylcnae, art eloquent Greek orator, 
the praeccptor of the Gracchi, Cic. 
Brut. 27. 

DioscorTdes, -isy a native of A.- 
nazarba, ( Ana%arhsttSy 4 fyll. ) in Ci- 
licia ; a phyfician in the time of Nero, 

whofc works are dill extant. ^ 2. 

An eminent engraver in the time of 
Auoruftus, Plin. 37, I. ; Suet. Aug. 50. 
— There were many others of this 
name, vid. Fabricii Biblioth. Graec. vol, 

Dioscuri, -orum^ \. e. Jovis liheri, 
a name given to Caflor and Pollux, 
Cic. /V. 2). 3, 21. {vid. G. 411.) 

Dioxippus, a noted wreftler, Plin, 

^^^, II.- ^ 2. A Trojan ilain by 

Turnus, Virg. Aen. 9, 574. 

DiPMiLUS, an architect, flow in 
peVforming his work ; whence Diphilo 
tardiorj uncommonly flow, Cic. i^. Fr, 

3» i» •• 

DiPsAS, -adisy a drunken old wo- 
man, Ovid. Am. I, 8, 2. 

DiRAE, ,the furies, Tifiphone, A- 
lefto and Megaera, Virg. ^f«. 4, 473. 
8, 701. et 12, 845. 

DIRCE, esy the wife of Lycu?, 
king ol: Tliebes ; who jealous of An- 
tiope, treated her with great cruelty. 
' On which account Zethus and Am- 
phion, the fons of Antiope, when 
they grew up, having flain Lyctis, 
tied Dirce by the hair to the tail of a 
fierce bull, (Propei^tius fays, to the 
tnouth or neck, Vinxerunt Dircen fub 
frucis era bovisy 3, 15, 38.) and thus 
file periilied by a miferable death, Ovid, 

161 1 tiOh 

in /bin. 537.; Plaut. Ps, I, 2, 65. J 
La&ant, In Stat Thsb. 4, 570. (vid* 
Antiope.) Dirce is faid to have 
been changed into a fountain near 
Thebes, which was called after her 
name, Stat. Th^b. 3, 205. {Ex cujus 
cor pore fons in Cithxerone na'us e/i, qui 
Dircaeus ejl appellatus. Hygin. fab. 7.) 
ApoUodorus fays, that Zethus and 
AmphTon threw her body into a foun- 
tain, called fiom her Dirce, 3, 5, 5. 
— Hence Dircaeus Amphiotty i. e. The- 
baniis, Virg. Eel. 2, 24. So Dircaein 
cnhorsy Luc an. 4, 590. Difcaeus cyg-^ 
nusi the Dircaean fwan, i. e, Pindar, 
Hor. Od. 4, 2, 25. 

Dis, djtis, the god of riches, Pla- 
to, fqui dives fc. e/f)j Cic. N. D. 2^ 
26 {^ia mini me dives Jit) ^ Quinilil, 
I, 6, 34. Domina ditisy Proferpinc, 
the wife of Phito, Virg. Aen. 6, 397. 
Atri janua Ditis, the entrance to tha 
infernal regions, iby 127. 

DiscoRDiA, the goddefs of difcord'^ 
Virg. Aen. 8, 702. j Hor. Sal, I, 4> 

DiTHYRAMBUS, a name of Bac- 
chus ; whence a poem in honour of 
Bacchus, filled with bold and fubiime 
expreflions, was called by that name, 
Hor. Od. 4, 2, 10. So alio a kind of 
poetic meafure, Cic. Or. 3," 48. — - 
DiTKYRAMBrci, ic. poetac, poets who 
wrote Dithyrambics, Cic. Opt. gen. die* 

DiviTiAcus, a chief of the Aedui^ 
Caef. B. G. I, 3. friendly to the Ro- 
mans, and on that account in great 
favour with Caefar, ib, 19, &c. on6 
of the Druids, Cic. Div. 1,41. The 
Aedui being hard prtfTed by Ariovif-* 
tus, before Caefar comm.mded irx 
Gaul, Divitiacus went to Rome to 
afk afiiftance, Caef. 6, 11. when he. 
feems to have formed a friendlbip witht 
Cicero, Cic. ib. 

DOLABELLA, the firname of a 
branch of the gens Cornelia. 

Cn. DoLABELLA, COuful with M. 

Tullius Deciila, a. 672. ; Appian. B. C. 

I, 412. after which he obtained the 

prcvin,ce of Macedonia, and was ho- 

X Qoured 

D O L 

[ 1^2 ] 

D O L 

noured with a triumpK over the Thra- 
cians, Cic. Pif. 19. He was accufed 
by Caefar, then a young man, of ex- 
tortion, Suef. Caef. 4. He was de- 
fended by Cotta and Hortenfiiis, and 
acquitted, Cic. Br. 92. ^B'lones Dola- 
hellae, the fpe^ches of Dolabella airainft 
Caefar, wiien accufed by hinm, which 
he feems to have publiflied. Suet, Caef, 

On. Dolabella, city praetor, a. 
672 ; before whom the caufe of Quin- 
tius was tried, Cic. ^I'ln. 8. He af- 
terwards was orovernor of Cilicia, where 
Verres was his quaeftor; who appear- 
ed a^ainll bin, when he was brought 
to liis trial for extortion by Scaurus, 
and condemned, Cic. i, 15, &c. 32, 

P. Corneous Lentnliis DOLABEL- 
LA, the third hufband of Tullia, the 
daughtei of Cicero, Cic. Ftim. 2, 15, 
ei 8, 13, ^ 16.; ^//. 6, 6, ei 7, 3.; 
ivho accufed Appius, Cicero's prede- 
ceiTor in the government of Cih'cia, 
of crimes againlt the ^late, and bribe- 
ry, (maj'jlatis et amhitus)^ without Ci- 
cero's knowledge, aad without fuc- 
cefs, Cic. Fam. 3, 10, ri, & 12. 

Dolabella was a keen partifan and 
great favourite of Caefar's. He wiis 
prefent at all his battles during the ci- 
vil war, Cic. Phil. 2, 30. Tnou-rh a 
very your g m'-m, he co;nmanded a fleet 
in tlie Adriatic fea, where he was de- 
feated by the generals of Fompey. a. 
u. 705. Siu-t. Aug. 36.; Fh>r. 4, 2, 31 
Dl . - - -^ 


ving- caufed hinifelf to be adopted by 
a plebeian, that he might be eleded 
tribune, a. u. 707. be propofed a 
law concerning the abolition of debts, 
{de novis tabuiis)^ which occafioned 
.j^reat ditlurbances in the city, Dio, 
42, 29, 30, &c. ; Cic. Ail. II, 12, 13, 
.14, 5c 23. ; Lii}. Epit. 113. but thefe 
were fuppreffed by tlie unexpected ar- 
rival of Caefar, after the overthrowof 
Pharnaccs, Z)/o, 42, 33.; Appian, B. 
C. Z^ p. 485. ; Hiri. tic Bell. .ihx. c. 
ult. Dolabella was apprehenfivc of 

^ 1 , 40. After the battle of Phar- 
he returned to Rome, and ha- 

Caefar's difpleafure, Din, ih. 32. but 
Caefar, mindful of his fervices, made 
no enquiry about his condutl, and af- 
terwards railed him to the highefl pre- 
ferment, ik 33. A. U. 708, a divorce 
took place between Dolabella and 
Tullia, probably with mutual confent ; 
for it made no appareit interruption 
in the friendfhip between him and Ci- 
cero, Cic. Alt. 11,23. Fam. 14. 13.; 
He owed s^eat obligations to Cicero, 
who had defended him in two capital 
trials, Cic. Fam. 3, 10, '4. et 6, II. 
and Cicero was unwilling to break with 
D glabella, on account of his influ- 
ence with Caefar, Cic. Fam. 14, 13. 
Tullia foon after died in childbed at 
her hufband's houfe, Plutarch, in Cic, 
leaving a fon by Dolabella, called 
Lentulus, which name the father feems- 
to have acquired by adoption, ^tt 12, 
28, & 50. It is uncertain whether 
this Lentulus was born by TuUia at 
her lad delivery, or at a former one 
mentioned, ib. 10, 18. 

Caefar had promifed to make Dola- 
bella coaful with Antony, a. u. 710, 
though greatly below the confular age, 
being only twenty five years old, Zip- 
pian. B. C. 2. p. 509. but was prevented 
by the art of Antony, Plutarch. 'In- 
t^n. p. 921.; who, jealous of Dolabel- 
la, as a rival in Caefar's favour, had 
prejudiced Caefar againfl him, fo that 
Caefar took the confulate to himfelf. 
On which account Dolabella, on the 
firfl of Jan. a. 7»o, inveighed bitterly 
againft Antony in the lenace-houfe, 
\a prefence of Caefar ; who, to paci- 
fy him, faid, that before he fet out 
to the Parthian war, he would order 
that Dolabella fliould fucceed him in 
the confulihip, Cic. Phil. 2, 32,; Dio, 
43, 51. Accordingly after the death 
of Caefar, Dolabella immediately fei- 
zed the ensigns of the confular office. 
Veil. 2, 28. ; and was acknowledged 
by Antony, as his colleague, Dio, 44, 
53. ; Cic. Phil. 1,13. He at firil 
went up to the confpirators in the Ca- 
pitol, and by his w .rcjs and adions 
gave them the greated reafon to hope 


D O L C i^^ 3 DOM 

that he would concur with them in lb, 12. &c. In the mean time Cafliu:} 

re'lonng the liberty of their country, having made himfelf marter of Syria, 

D'lOt 44, 22.; /Ippian. 2, p, 505. He and having defeat,;d Dolabella, fhut 

confirmed thefe hopes by his condu6l him up in Laodlcea, where he killed 

in the abfence of Antony, particular- himfelf, to prevent his falling into the 

ly by cutting off the impoftor Marius hands of CaiHus, Cic. Fam. 12, 13, & 

and his affociates, and by dcmolilhing 15. ; '^ppian 4, 625.; Dlo, 47, 30.; 

a pillar, which they had raifed in ho 
nour of Caefar in the forum, on the 
fpot where his body was burnt, Suet, 
Caef. 85.; Dlo, 44, 51.; for which 
Cicero extoh Dolabella with the great- 
eft praifes, Ck. Phil, i, 2, & 12, 

L'lv. Ep'u, 121. 

DoLON, -omsy a Trojan, fent to fpy 
the camp of the Greeks; flain by Dio- 
medes and Ulyifes, Serv. ad V'lrg. Aen, 
12,347.; Ovid, Met, 13,98. 

iiOMITIUS, the name of an illuf- 

^/Z. 14, 15, &: 16. iv7m. 9, 14. But trious^^/zjat Rime, diftin ruifhed by va- 
being overwhelmed with debt, Dola- rious firnames, as A'imharhus^ Calvhmst 
bella was foon corrupted by the bribes ^fi^'y Labeoy Mnrfus, &c. ' -a-lj. Do- 
of Antony; fo that, as Cicero expref- 
fes it, he not only deferted, but over- 
turned the republic, Cic. Att, 16, 15. 
Before the expiration of his confullhip 
he fet out for Syria, which province 
had been alfigned to him by the con- 
trivance of Antony ; though it had 
form.erly been deftined to Caffius by 
Caefar, App'ian. 3, 527, & ^i'^. Ha- 
ving arrived before Smyrna, where Tre- 
bonius then refided, without any ap- 
pearance of hoilility, he defired only a 
free paffage through that country to 

M in AN us. The two chief branches 
ffam'd'taejy were the Cahini and Ahs^ 
nobarhi. The latter ufed no other />r^f- 
nomen but Cneius and Lucius, Suet, 
Ncr. I. 

Cn. DoMiTius, a conful, a. 422, 
Llv. 8, 17. 

Cn. Do Minus Ahenobarbus, aedile 
of the commons, Lin). 33, 42. prae- 
tor, 34, 42. When conful, a. 11. 562, 
he was fent againll the Boji, ib. 22. who 
furrendered to him, ib. 40. and was 
fucceeded in that province by P. Corne- 

his province. Trebonius refufed toad- lius Scipio NFasTca, Llv. ^i), 37. C 

mit him into the town, but confented 2. A Pontlfexy chofen when very young, 

to fupply him with refrefiiments with- [oppldo ndoJefcens)^ Ll-v. 42, 28. fent 

out the gates ; where Dolabella made as amba.Tador into Macedonia, to in- 

great profeffions of amity and friend- 
ihip to Trebonius, and fet out as with 
an intention to proceed on his journey. 
But returning fuddenly in the night- 
time, he took the city without oppo- 
fition, and feizcd Trebonius in his bed, 
before he knew any thing of his dan- 
ger, Dlo, 47, 29. Dolabella treated 
him with the utmoft cruelty ; kept him 
two days under torture to extort a dif- 
covery of all the money in his cufto- 
dy ; then ordered his head to be cut 
off, and carried about on a fpear, and 
his body to be dragged about the 
llreets, and thrown into the fea, Cic. 
Phil. II, 2, & 3. When the news of 
this reached Rome, Dolabella was un- 
animoufly declared a public enemy by 

fpecl the army of L. Aemilius Paulus, 
Id. 44, 18. and afterwards as one of 
the ten commiffijners who were ap- 
pointed to aliill that general in fettling 
the affairs of Macedonia, after the o- 

verthrovv of Perfeus, /^/. 45, 17. — 

^ 3. A conful with C. Fannius, a. 
631, Ck. Br 26. who conquered the 
yli'vernl and Allobroges, Cic. Font, 
I z. ; Liv. Eplt. 61. ; Orof. 5, 13. This 
Suetonius by miltake afcribes to his 
fou, Ner. 2. and Eutropius to Sex, 
Domitius Calvinus, 4, 16. Domitius 
made a mad through the country, call- 
ed from him Via DoMiriA, Cic. Font, 
4. He eredled a trophy of his victo- 
ry, a thing formerly not ufed by the 

Romans, and adorned it with the fpoils 
the fenatej and his ellate conhfcated, of the enemy, Flor. 3, 2. He made a 

X 2 progrefs 

BOM C i<?4 1 DOM 

progrefs through his province, mount- cient eloquenGC to fupport his dignity 

ed on an elephant, with a, nun^ber of 
his foldiers following him in a kind of 
triumphal proceflion, [quaft inter Jolen- 
fiia tr'iumph'i)^ Snet. Ner, 2. 

Cn. DOMITIUS Jhenobarhus, the 
fon of the former, and grandfather to 
the great grandfather of the emperor 
JvTero, iota-vus ejus.) When tribune, 
he got a law paffed for transferring the 
elediion of priefts from their own col- 
leges to the people, Suet. Ner, 2, a. u, 
649. ; Afcon. in Cic, Cornel, p, 142, or 
a. 650. ; Veil. 2, 12. ; Cic. Rull. 2, 7. 
He accufed D (al. M.) Junius Sila- 
rus, a man of confular dignity, be- 
caufe, when governor of Gaul, he had 
injured Egritomarus, a friend of bis 
father's, Cic. Caecil. 20. ; Verr. 2, 47- 
Soon after his acquittal he accufed M, 
6cauru8, then prince of the fenate, of 
certain offences againll religion, and 
was near getting him condemned, 4f- 
con. in Cic. pro Scaur, p 171. Domi- 
tius was Incenfed at Scaurus, for having 
prevented him from being chofen au- 
gur in his father's room, ih, ; which 
Suetonius fays, was the caufe of his 
paffmg t^ie law concerning the eleftion 
of priefts, Ner. 2. During the trial 
of Scaurus, one of the (laves of Scau- 
rus came to Domitius, offering to fur- 
iiilh him with grounds of accifation 
flgainft his mailer ; but Domitius, 
fcorning to take advantage of ibis in- 
formation, ordered the flave to be foi- 
led and carried back to Scaurus, Cic. 
Dejot, ll.\ Fa!. Max, 6, 5,5. Do- 
iritius was afterwards made coniul, 
cenfor, and Pontifex Maximus, Cic. ib. 
He was cenfor with CralTus the ora- 
tor, with whom he had many fharp al- 
tercations, Cic, Or, 2rj 56. Br. 44. ; 
JTm. 17, I.; Fdl. Max. 9, i, 4, — r— 
In one of thefe CrafTus faid to him, 
** there was no wonder that he had a 
beard of bvafs, ( vid. Ahenobarbus), 
who had a face of iron, and a heart of 
lead," Suet, Ner. 2. [vid. Crassus.) 
Cicero fpeaks of Domitius as a man of 
great gravity and authority. Or. 2, 56. 
Ylipugh not ao orator, he had fuff^- 

as a magiftrate, Cic. Br. 45. 

/.. DOMITIUS Ahenobarbus, 


fon of the former, curule aedile a. 
691. ; when he exhibited in the circus 
ICO Numidian bears, and as many Ae- 
thiopians to contend with them., (ve- 
natores, Plin. 8, 36 f. 34, i. e. qui cO" 
m'lmu urfos f.gebanty Juvenal. 4, 99.) 
When praetor, a. u. 695, the year af- 
ter Caefar was conful, he made h mo- 
tion in the ftnate about annulling Cae- 
far's a6ls ; but the fenate not chufmg 
to undertake the bufinefs, it was dropt. 
Suet. Caef. 23. (vid. Caesar, p. 58.) 
Domitius is faid, in his practorfliip, 
to have prevented a pernicious law 
from being paffed, " That freedmen 
(libertini) fhould vote promifcuoufly in 
all the tribes ;*' to which Cicero al- 
ludes, Mil. 8. / et ibi Afcon. He was 
the only one who appeared as competi- 
tor with Pompey and Crallus, when 
they fued for the confullhip a fecond 
time ; but was obliged by violence to 
dehlf, fvid.CATO 89.) Suetonius fays, 
that Caefar obliged Pompey and Craf- 
fus to feek a fecond confullhip, in or- 
der to difappoint Domitius, who threats 
ened, that vvhen conful he would do. 
what he could noc effeCl when praetor, 
and would take his armies from Caefar, 
Suet. Caef. 24. Domitius, however, 
next year, a. 699, obtained the conful- 
fhip with App. Claudius, Dio, 39, 60. 
but did notliing of importance in that 
olhce. Both he and his colleague dif- 
graced themfelves by an infamous bar- 
gain with tw^o of thofe who were can- 
didates to fucceed them in the conful- 
fliip, Cic. Att. 4, 18. In conieqnence 
of the violent ferment v^hich this oc- 
cafioned, there was in the beginning of 
next year an interregnum foi lix months, 
the tribunes, by their interpohtion, al- 
ways hindering the comitia, Cic. ^ 
Fr. 3,5. Att. 4, 16. Fam.'j, II.; 
Diot 4Q, 45, 

Domitius was appointed by the fuf- 
frages of the peopie to prclide at the 
trial of Milo, (fujfraglo popuJl quaefitor 
creates ej}., Afcoii. jn Cic. Mil. praef. p» 


D a M^ 

r 1^5 1 

D O M 

'190.) according to the hw pafTed by 
Pompey ; whence be is faid to have 
been appointed by Pompey, fhuic quae- 
JlionipraeejJ'e), Cic. MIL 8. 

When Pompey and Caefar came to 
an open breach, Doinitius was appoint- 
ed to rucceed Caefar in the province 
of Tranfalpine Gaul, Cic, Fam. i6> 
12. ; Sud. 34. ; jlppian. p. 448. Do- 
initius, unable to oppofe Caefar in the 
field, inflead of retreating and joining- 
jPompey, as he ought to have done, 
imprudently threw himfclf into Coifi- 
pium, with a confiderable force, and 
ibme of the principal fenators, expect- 
ing to be relieved by Pompey; bur he 
was oblii'^ed to furrender himfelf to 
Caefar, who treated him with }.^reat 
clemency, (wcL Caesar, 64.) Ap- 
plan p. 45 J Domitius fearing the re- 
fentment of Caefar, had ordered his 
phyficlan, who was alfo his flave, to 
give him a dofe of poifon. But hear- 
ing of Caefar's lenity, he lamented his 
having taken it. Whereupon the flave 
told hixn, that he had given him only a 
foporlterous potion. Domitius, over- 
joyed at this, immediately rofe and 
went to Caefar, Plutarch, in Caef, p. 
724. ; Stnec. de Benef. 3, 24. Sueto- 
nius fays, " that from the fear of death 
he took a vomit to enable him to throw 
up the poifon, and manumitted his 
flave, for having given him a very gen- 
tle dofe," A>?'. 2. Phny fays, " that 
having drunk the poifon, he did every 
thing he could to fave his life," 7, 53. 
But Lucan, probably to flatter Nero, 
reprefeuts Domitius as always adlng 
with the greated fortitude, 2, 478. — 

526. Domitius remained for a fhort 

time in his vlila near Cofa, [in Co/a- 
no)i Cic. An. 9, 6, & 9. till having col- 
lected and manned feven fhlps, he fail- 
ed to Marfeilles, Caef. B. i, 34. took 
upon himfelf the command of that ci- 
ty, ih. 36. ; DiOi 41, 21. which he de- 
fended with great vigour agalnll Cae- 
far's heutenants, ih. et 2, 3, &c. But 
the Maliilians being forced to furren- 
der, Domitius made his efcape with a 
number of his friends to Pompey, ih. 

22. being privately let go by tbe ^o- 
ple of Marfeilles in the night time» 
Dio, 41, 25. 

In the battle of Pharfalin, Domitiua 
commanded the left wing of Pompey'a 
army, Appian. p. 475. According Xo, 
Lucan, the right wing, 7, 220. Afn 
tcr the defeat, Domirius, in his flight 
from the camp to the mountains, be* 
coming faint through fatigue, was o» 
vertaken and killed by forne horfemert. 
Domitius is the only Pompelan whofj* 
death Caefar mentions, B. C. 3, 99^ 
Cicero fays that he was killed by An- 
tony, Phil, 2,29 Lucan fuppofes Oo^ 
micius to have fallen in the held of bat* 
tie, and, as, highly extols his cou- 
rage. Mors tamcn eminuii. clarorum in 
Jlrage virorum Pugnacis Do?n2/i, &c. 7, 
579. He rtprefents him as happy in 
dying before his country v^as enilaved, 
[falvd LihertaU perit^ ib. 603.) and 
Avithout needing a fecond pardon from 
Caefar, alluding to the firll at Coifi- 
nium, {Labitur ac vaiid gauckt carutlfe 
JecunddJi ib. 604. Lucan deviates full 
farther from the truth of hii':o!y, ia 
making Caefar to upbraid Domitius, 
while weltering m his blood, (Jam 
Magni, {i.e. Pompeii), dcfcris arma^ 
Succejfor Doinltiy ib. 607.) and Domiti- 
us to return a bold anfvver, //-. Gio, 

Cicero feems to have had but a poor 
opinion of the underflandlng of Domi- 
tius ; for writing to Auicus, he fays> 
Nemo Jluhior eji quam L. Domitius, 8, r. 
In an.jther place, however, he exprcf- 
fes himfelf quite differently, Fortes illi 
luri et Japientes Doniitiiy et Leiituliy 5cc* 
Fam. 6, 21. So Fat. 10. Ipeaklng of 
Domitius as an orator-, he fays, *' that, 
though unacquainted with the rules of 
art, yet he fpoke his native language 
with purity, and had much freedom of 
addrefs," Br. 77. Suetonius fay?, 
" Domitius was inconilant and 
cruel." When Pompey confulted v/ilh 
his friends, how thofe who remuiaed 
neuter ought to be treated, DomlLius 
alone gave it as his opinion, "that they 
fhould be reckoned as enemies," Sud» 
Ner. ?. add. Cic Att. Ii, 6. 


r O M I i66 1 DOM 

Cn. DOMITIUS, the Ton of the preferments of the ftate, iL In the Pe- 

former by Marcia, the fifter of Cato 
Uticenfis, was prefent with his father 
in the battle of Ph-irfaHa, but feems 
to have taken no further concern in the 
war, Cic, Fam. 6, 22. He was one of 
the confpirators againil Caefar, Cic. 
Phil. 2, II. and on that account pro- 
fcnbed by Anguftus, Apfnan. p. 703, 
& 707. though innocent, according to 
Suetonius, who extols him as inco upa- 
rably the mofl: virtuous man of his fa- 
mily, (gentis)t Ncr. 3. But that he 
was concerned in tfie confpiracy againfl 
Caefar, the authority of Cicero is ex- 

rufian war, fviJ. Octavius), he fi- 
ded with Lucius, the brother of Anto- 
ny, againit Auguflus, for which Au- 
eufliis, from thf particular fitnation of 
his affairs, was induced to pardon him, 
Dioi 48, 29 Domitius wasconful, a. 
721, with C. So'nus, Dio, 50, 2. a. 
721, the year hi which the iiua^ breach 
t(^k place between Antony and Cae- 
far, iL 6. Both the conluls left Rome 
and joined Antony, ib. 2, Sc 20. with 
the coiifent of Augaflus, SurL ^ug. 17, 
But Domitius, beinjr difofu'ted with 

Cleopatra ( n-%nquam reginam nifi nomine 
prefs, and to be preferred to that of falutavit, i. e Cleopatram non reginam 
Suetonius, ib. or of Cocceius, Appian. vocavit, Veil. 2, 84 ) and 
*. 707. Domitius was the only one of 
thofe condemned by the Pedian law, 

84 ) and confidering 
Antonyms affairs as defperate, deferted 
to AuQ-r.dus, and foon after was cut 

(ivV. Octavius). that wjs afterwards off by a dikafe, Dio^ 50, 13. Plutarch 
reftored to his country, Sutt. ib. He 
had left Rome before the triumvirate 
was formed, or the profcription took 
place, and join-d Brutus in Macedonia; 
where he had the addrefs to bring over 
to the fide of Brutus and Cafhus a bo- 
dy of cavalry, which Pifo was leading 
into Syria to join Dolabella, Cic. Phil. 
10, 6. Domitius was fent by Bnuus 
and Cafiius with a fleet of 50 fail, and a 
confiderable body of land forces, to join 
Murcus, and intercept the fupplies of 
Caefar and Antony, Appian. p. 639. 

It appears rhat Domitius was piefent 
at the battle of Philippi ; whence Dio 
fay, he was the only one of the 
confpirators that made his efcape, 
48, 7. Having coUedled a number of 

fays, of a fevrr, occalioned by remorfe 
for his perfidy, in Anton, p. 495. An- 
tony alleged that Domitius had left 
him from a delire to fee a favourite 
miflref^. Suet. Ner. 3. 

L. Domitius, the fon of Cneius 
jull mentioned, diflinguiflied himftlf in 
the German war under Tiberius, 'Tacit. 
Ann. I, 6'2^. et 4, 44. but in his general 
character was arrogant, prodigal, and 
cruel, Suet. Ner. 4. whom however his 
cotem.pcrary Velleius Patercuius, from 
delp'cable fiattery, calls a man of the 
moll en'inent virtue, (eminentjjjtmae ac 
wMhJjmae Jimplicitatis ) i 2, 72. He mar- 
ried Antonia, the elder daughter of 
Antony and 06lavia, the filler of Au- 
sriiftus. Suet. Ner. ^. ei Cal. I. Tacitus 

(hips, and being joined by many of the fays, the younger Antonia, Ann. 4, 44, 

foldiers of Brutus, he, in conjundion 
with Murcus, kept pofTefilon of the 
Ionian lea for a c >nfidcrable time, and 
greatly^ annoyed the enemy, ih. et Pa- 
ten. 2, 72, & 76. ; Appian. 679. He af- 
terwards, at the iiiitigation ofAfinius 
PoUio, joined Antony at a very criti- 
cal time, a. 713, Apptan.p. 700, & 703.; 
DiOi ^8, 16. I'Aid thereby laid Antony 
under' great obligations to him, (et in- 
gentis meriii loco tradiciit, fc, clafTem), 
Suet. Ner. 3. Being thus reftored to 
iiis country, he obtained the higheft 

f/ 12, 64. Dio fays by miftake, that 
Antonia was betrothed to Cneius 

Domitius, the father, 48, 54. 

C«. Domitius, their fon, is faid to 
have been deteflable in every part of 
his life. Suetonius mentions the moft 
fiiocking inftances of his perfidy, pro- 
fligacy, and cruelty, Ner. 5. He how- 
ever is called by Paterculns clariffimus 
juvenisi 2, 72. and was conful a. u. 785, 
A.C. 32, Tac.Ann. 6, i. He married 
AgrippTra, the daughter of Germani- 
cub, and by her was the father of the 


DOM t t67 3 D R U 

emperor NERO, .^w^/. *i5. whofc origi- firfl rank, Dio, 48,42. 

nal name was L. Domitius Ahenobar- 
bus. Tac, -Tin. i [, it. F/V/. Nero. 

Cn, DOMITIUS Cah'inus, lieiite- 
nant under Flaccus in Aiia, Cic. Flacc, 
13. tribune in the confulfnip of Blba- 
lus and Caefar, C'lc. Sext. 5^. made 
conful with Mefj^ala, after an interreg- 
num of fix months, a. 700, Dlo, 40, 
17. & 45. wounded in attempting to 
quell a tumult raifed by Milo and his 
competitors for the confuKbip next 
year, ib. 46. — In the civil war Domi- 
tius joined Caefar, who fent him with 
two legions and 500 cavalry into jMa- 
cedonia, Cnef. B. C. 3, 34. where he 
was oppofed to Scipio, the father-in- 
law of Pompey, ih. 36, 37, ^c. Ac- 
cording to Dio, he was driven from 
Macedonia by Fauflus the fon of Sulla, 
one of Pompey's lieutenants, 41, 51. 
but Caefar does not mention this cir- 
cumftance. Domitius fought two bat- 
tles with Scipio ; in the firft he was 
defeated, but in the fecond was vi6lo- 
rious, ih. Cmf. ^. C. 3, 37, & 38. Some 
time after Caefar having left Dyrac- 
chiwm, came into Theffaly and joined 
Domitius, Caef. ib. 78, — 80. In the 
battle of Pharialia Domitius command- 
ed the centre of Caefar's army, ib. 89. 
After this be wa^^ made governor of 
Afia, whence he fent affiilance to Cae- 
far in Egypt, H'irt. B. Alex. 9. Do- 
mitius being attacked by Pharnaces, 
the fon of Mithrldates, with fuperior 
forces, was defeated with coni derable 
lofs, though aifillied by Dejotarus and 
Ariobarzanes, ih. 34, — 41.; D'lO., 42, 
46. ; Slid. Caef, 36. But Pharnaces 
bei'.ig Ipeedily crufhed by Caefar, Do- 
mitius was ftill continued in his former 
command, Dio, 42, 52. He foon after, 
however, attended Caefar in his CKpe- 
diiion to Africa, Hirl. B. Afr. 86, & 
93. He was conful a fecond time un- 
der the triumvirate, a. u. 715, Z)/©,48, 
15. The next year he obtained the 
province of Spain, where he decimated 
two centuries of his army for having 
iled from battle. Pie, for the fame 
crime, iniiidcd capital punii'bment aUb 
•n feme centurions, oiic of them of the 

Veil 2, 78. 
He then marched agalnft the Ceretanit 
v.'hom he completely defeated, and on 
that account was honoured with a tri- 
umph, Dio, ib. 

DoMiTiANUS, the fon of Vefpafian, 
a Roman emperor, [G. 246.) 

DoRCEus, (2 fyll. ), -eosj ace. -ea, 
one of Aifi:aeon*s dogs, Ovid. Met. 3, 

210. ^ 2. One fkilled in mufic, 

Val. Flacc. 3, 159. 

Doris, -tdis, a nymph, the daugh- 
ter of Oceanus and Teihys, and wife 
of Nereus, who was the mother of a 
great number of nymphs. — Sometimes 

put for the feg, Virg.Ecl. 10, ^. 

^ 2. A native of Locri, (^Locrerifis)y 
the wife of Dionyfius, the tyrant of 
Syracufe, Cic. Tufi. 5, 20. 

DoROTHEus, a remarkable painter 
in the tim.e of Nero, Plin. 35, 10. 

DORSO, -onisf a firname of the 
Gens Fahia ; thus, C. Fabius DoRSO, 
Div. 5, 46. 

DoRus, the fon of Neptune, who 
reigned over a part of Greece, and 
gave name to the Dori or Dorien- 
SES ; whence Doricusy -^, -uniy Gre- 
cian, Serv. ad Virg. Aen. 2,27. 

DoRycLus, the brother of Phineus 
king of Thrace, Virg. Aen. 5, 620. 

DoRyLAs, -ae, faid to have been 

rich in land, Ovid. Met. 5, 129. • 

^ 2. The name of a centaur, ih. 

Do SON, a firname given to Anti- 
gonus a king of Macedonia, becaufe 
he promifed fairly, but did not per- 
form ; for he alvrays faid to thofc that 
requeiled any thing, Ac^o-i;, I will give 
it, Plutarch, in Coriolano. 

DKACO, -onis, the moll ancient 
lawgiver of the Athenians, Cic. Or, i, 
44. whofe laws puniihed all crimes e- 
qually with death ; whence they were 
faid to have been written with blood, 
Gell. II, 18. (G./.464.) 

Drances, -isy a counfeilor of king 
Latinus, inmiicalto Turnus, Virg. Aen. 


Dkuidae, -arumy vel Druides, 
'Um, the prieils of the ancient Gauls 
and Britons, (G. 492, Sc 5^0-) 


D R U 1 

DRUSUS, a firname of the Gens 
JLima. This firname was firft; alTumed 
hj crtie of the Lhii, who had (lain a 
gcfteral of the enemy called Dranfus in 
clofe combat, [com'inus)y Suet. Tib. 7,. 
—-'His great-gvandfon, (abnepos'j^ M. 
D) ufus, was colleague to C. Gracchus 
m the tribunefhip, ( Plutarch, in Gracch. 
j*, 838.), and for his great fervices in 
the caufe of the nobility againll Grac- 
chus, {^oh exiriuam ad'uerfus Gracchos 0- 
feram. Suet. Tib. 3. ^iod C. Gfac:hum 
itertim triL pi. fregity Cic. Brut. 28.), 
was called the Patros of the fenate, 
Sttet. Tib. 3. 

M. DR.USUS, the fon of the for- 
mer, ( M. fil')y a man of great elo- 
quence and intef^ity, {^eloquertli/Jimus et 
JantTrJitnus), tribune of the comm.ons, 
a. u. 662, who, wifhino^ to reconcile 
the inlerefts of the nobility with thofe 
of the plebeians, had the misfortune to 
pleafe neither party. He was flain by 
fome aiTaffin at his own houfe, upon 
bis return from the forums while fur- 
i*ounded with a great num.ber of his 
friends. No enquiry was made con^ 
ccrniuc^ the ^zcd, Paterc. 2, 13, & 14. ; 
Ck. Mil. 7. The afraifm is faid to 
have been Q^VariiTS, who afttrwards 
perifhed miferably, N. D. 3, 33. But 
author? differ about the manner of the 
death of Drufu^-. ( Fid. R. A. p. 2c8.) 

Liv'ius DllUSUS, D'lo, 48, 44. ; 
Pafsrc.z, 71. or Drufzis Claudlanns, ib. 
75. th.e father of Li via Drufiila, the 
wife of Auguilus, {^Pld. Livia), was 
crngaged on the fide of Brutus in the 
battle o^ Philippi, and after their de- 
feat llcw hirnfc'lf, ib. 



'd Dt 

Claudhts DP.U- 

SUS, the fon of Tib. Claudius Nero 
and Li'vii, born three months after Li- 
via married Angnfcus, a young man of 
^n|^lar merit, who, before the age 
required l;>y l:nv, was raifed to the high- 
#!!: honours of the ilate. He command- 
ed with great fuccefs againil the RLa^ti 
and P^enddicly Hur. Od. 4, 4. and aifo 
againit the Germans. He is faid to 
bave been the firfi Roman general that 
faded on the northern oc^an. To cca- 

6^ 1 D R IJ 

vey lu's troops thither, he cut a great 
canal, [novi et immtnfi opsris. Suet. CI. 
I.), from the Rhine to the Sala or If- 
lel between Ifelfort and Djefbourg, for 
about eight miles, called Fossa i3RU- 
s I AN A, or in the plural. Fossae Dru- 
siAN AE, Suef. CI. (.; Tac. Ann. 2,8. He 
died of a difeafe in Germany, a. u. 745, 
Suet. ib. ; Dloy 55, 2. according to the 
epitomifer of Livy, in confequence of 
a fra^iure of his leg, occafioned by a 
fall from his horfe, Liv. Ep. 140. His 
body was conveyed to R'»me, Tiberius 
his brother g.^ing before it on foot all 
the way. Suet. 'Tib. 7. Several prodi- ] 
gies are faid to have preceded the death 
of Drufus, [Dioy ^^, I. Pedo Albino- 
lyanus v. Ovid, in mortem Drufiy ad Li' 
via>??i V. 401. &c. ) ; and a barbarian 
woman of extraordinary fize, fuppofed 
to be the genius of Germany, is faid 
to have appeared to him, forbidding 
him to proceed farther, Dioy ib. ; Suet. 
CI. t. Drufus died when conful, Dio, ib.; 
Ovid, ad Liv. 293. et 177, 199, & 4J7. 
The aifcdtion which Tiberius exprelfed 
for hi? brother is extolkd by hillorians 
and poets. When he heard of hh bro- 
ther's fickncfs, he travelled 200 miles ^ 
in one day and night, Plin. 7, 20. and j 
arn'ved jud before Drufus breathed his ' 
lail, Suet. CI. 2. ; Senec. ad Polyb. 34. ; 
Ovid, ad LJv. 89. ; Tacit. 3, 5. The 
army wifhed to retain the corpfe, that 
they might pay it military honours, but 
Tiberius carried it off, ( Ahjhdit invitis 
corpus venerabile f rater) y Ovid. ad. Liv. 
171.; Senec. ib. The funeral was ce-* 
lebrated with the greateil magnificence. 
His elogium was pronounced in the fo- 
rum both by Tiberius and Auguftus, 
Dioy 55, 2. In the fpeech which Au- 
gullas delivered to the people in his 
praife, he prayed to the gods that they 
would make his Caefars (i. e. Caius 
and Lucius his grandfons) like to 
Drufus, and that they would grant 
himfclf an equ:;lly honourable exit^ 
whenever it fhould happen. Suet. ib. 
The fer.ate confctred the firnamc of 
GP:RMANICUS on Drufusandhis 
•poilQvilj. Paterculus fays he poffefTecl 


DRY [ 

as many and as great virtues as human 
nature admits or induftry can acquire, 

2, 97. He always declared that he 
would reftore the ancient ilate of the 
republic, if ever he could, Suet. ib. He 
is faid to have even conferred with his 
brother about forcing Auguftus to re- 
ilore liberty. Suet. Til. 50. add. Tac. 
Jnn. r,'33. et 2, 82. Drufus left by 
Antonia, the younger daughter of An- 
tony by Oclavia the filler of Auguftus, 
three children, Germanicus, who af- 
terwards became fo illuftrious, and 
whole fon, Caligula, fucceeded Tibe- 
rius in the empire ; Livilla ; and Clau- 
dius, who fiicceeded Caligula, Sud. CL 

1 . It happened unfortunately for 

Rome, that thofe of the family of Au- 
guftus who were fit for government, 
and might have made the Romans hap- 
py, were all cut off", and only thofe 
furvived who became deteftable for 
their wickednefs and cruelty. What 
Virgil fays of Marcellus the fon of Oc- 
tavia, may be applied to others of her 
defcendants, — Nimium 'vobh Romana 
frcpago Vifa pot ens, Superi, propria haec 
Ji dona fuijfent ! A en. 6, 87 i. 

Dryades, -um, nym.phs or goddef- 
fes of the woods, Virg. G. i, 11. et 

3, 40. ; OviJ. Ep. 4, 49. ; Claudian. de 
Rapt. Prof. 271, &'38l. 

Dry AS, -antis, (voc. Drya, Ovid. 
Met. 12, 294.), the fon of Orion, flain 
in the Theban war by Diana with an 
invifible weapon, Stat. Theh. 9, 842, & 
875. Dry as was the father of Lycur- 
gus, king of Thrace, who is hence cal- 
led Dry ANT IDES, Oiiid. in Ibin, 347. 

Dryope, -es, a daughter of Eury- 
tus, the fifter of lole by the father's 
fide, but by a different mother, Ovid. 
Met. 9, 327. violated by Apollo, ib. 
332. afterwards married to Andraemon, 
/^. 333. and turned into a lote tree, as 
lule, who was then prefent, relates the 
ftory to \\zx mother-in-law Alcmena, 

*^' 325'— 394- 

C. DUILLIUS, or Diiellius, the 
fivft Roman geneial that gained a naval 
triumph over the Carthaginians, (G. 
237.) ; Cic.Sen. 13. 

169 ] E G E 

DuRis, a Greek hiftorian, born in 
Samps, Cic. Att. 6, i. 

Dymas, -antisy the father of Hecu- 
ba, Ovid. Met. II, 761. who is hence 
called Dymantis, -tdis, ib. 13, 620. — 
f^id. Hecuba. 

Dymas, a Trojan warrior, F^irg. 
Jen. 2, 394. 


EcHECRATEs, -is, a Pythagorean 
philofopher of Locri, [Locrenjis), con- 
temporary with Plato, Cic. Fin. 5? 29- 

EcHiON, -onis, one of the five w^ho 
furvived of thofe produced from the 
dragon's teeth, which Cadmus fowed 
in the ground, and who aflifted Cad- 
mus in building Thebes ; whence Echl' 
omae Thebae, Thebes built by EchTon, 
Hor. Od. 4, 4, 64. Pkbs Echionia, the 
Theban people, Stat.Theb. \\ 169. Ar^ 
ces Echioniae, the citadel of Thebes, 
Ovid. Trijl. 5, 5, 53. No men Echioni- 
urn, a Theban name, Virg.Aen. 12, 515. 
— EcHiONiDES, -ae, Pentheus, the fon 
of EchTon, Serv. ad Virg. ib- 'et Ovid, 

Met. 3,51 3. ^ 2. One of thofe who 

affembled to hunt the wild boar of Ca- 
lydon, Ovid. Met. 8, ^^ 11. — Ecbwneus 
lacertus, the arm of Echion, ib. 345. 

ECHO, -uSf a loquacious nymph, 
whofe ftory is recorded, Ovid. Alet. 3, 

Eetion, -onis, the father of An- 
dromache, the wife of Heftor; whence 
Eetion EAE Thebae, Thebes, a city 
of Myfia, lubjea to Eetion, Ovid. Met. 
12,' no. 

Egeria, a nymph, with whom Nu- 
ma, the fecond king of Rome, pretend- 
ed to have nocturnal meetings, and gave 
out, that by her advice he inftituted 
facred rites, and appointed pricfts, Li-v. 
I, 19. — called his wife, [corijux), \\y. % 
Ovid. Met. 15, 547, &c. and his mif- 
trefs, [arnica), Juvenal. 6, II. 

Egerius, the grandfon of Demara- 
tus, and fon of Aruns, fo called from, 
his poverty, [abinopia), Liv. i, 34. 

Egesinus, an academic philofo- 
Y pber, 


[ 170 1 

E N N 



v-'ithdrew the Mar/ian legion 
tony to Ociavius Caefar, 

pher, the fcholar of Evander, Cicc A- 
cad. 4, 6. 

EGNATIUS, the name of a Ro- 
man ^ens. 

Cn. Egnatius, a fcnator, Cic. CIu- 

ent. 48. Others of this name are 

mentioned, Cic. Att. 6, i. et 7, 18. et 
13, 4. Fam. 1^3, 34. 

a qiiaeftor, who 

from An- 

Clc. Phil. 3, 


Elatus, vel Elateus^ one of the 
Laptthac^ the father of Caenis, vvho is 
hence called Elaiela prohs, Ovid. Met. 
3 2, 189. and when changed into a man, 
Caeneus Elatetus^ ib. 497. — fuppoled to 
have been afterwards changed into a 
bird, ib. 53^1. 

Electra, the daughter of Atlas, 
(Atlantis, 'tdis, Ovid. Fad. 4, 31.)* ^'^^ 
mother of D:'.rdanus by Jupiter, Firg. 
Aen. 8, 135. whence Eleciria tellus, the 

ifland Samos, Val. Place. 2, 431. 

^ 2. The fifter of Oreiles, Ovid. Trift. 
2, 395. ; Hor. Sat. 2, 3, 140. and wife 
of Pylades, {G. 408.) 

ELECT RYON, -mm, the fon of 
Perfeus and Andromeda, king of My- 
cenae or Argos, the father of Alcmene, 
Apollodor. 2, 4,6. 

Elegeia, the goddefs of elegiac 
jpoets, Oind. Am.'T^, i, 7. 

El]£lei^s, (3 fyll.), --foj, a name of 
Bacchus, O-vid. Md. 4, 15. whence E- 
7.ELEIS, idis, a female worfhipper of 
Bacchus, a Bacchanal, Ovid. Ep. 4, 47. 

Elicilts, a name given to Jupiter, 
from the fuperftitious anxiety of the 
Romans to dra^o) or obtain from the 
gods prodigies or omens of fucurity, 
i^ad elictenda prodigia ex divinis mentilus), 
Eiv. I. 20. Eliciunt coelo te, [Jupiter, O- 
vid. Faft. 3, 327. 

El ICO. Vid. Helico. 

Elisa, the proper name of Dido, 
Virg. Aen. df, 335. \\\\tViQQ. Elisei patrcs, 
the Carthaginian fenators, Sil. 6, 346. 

Elpenor, -oris, one of the compa- 
nions of UlyiTes, changed into a hog 

by -Circe, yuvenal. 1^, 
14, 252, SiC. Havin; 

23.; Ovid. Met. 
recovered his 

former (hape, he Is faid to have been 
afterwards killed by a fall from the top 
of a hoafe, Ovid. Trijl. 3,4, 19.; Mar" 
tial. II, 82. 

Elym- s. Vid. HELYMrs. 

EMPEDoCLES, is, an illuftrious 
philofopher and poet of Agrlgentum, 
Lucr. I, 717, — 735 ; Cic. Or at. 1, 50. 
(G. 14.). Adj. EMPEDOCLiius ; Salluf- 
tii Empedoclea^ fc. poemata, poems con- 
cerning the philofophy of Empedocles, 
or written in the manner of Empedo- 
cles, Cic. ^ Fr. 2, 11. N:c tarn ve- 
geta mens ant in corde, cercbrove, ant in 
Empi'docleo fanguine demerfa jaceat. Nor 
can the foul, pofieirmg fuch vigour and 
activity, be plunged or lie funk in the 
heart or brain, (as fome think), nor 
In the blood, as Empedocles thought, 
Cic. Tufc. I, 17, k 9. 

Enceladus, a giant, the fon of T'^r- 
ra, ftruck with a thunderbolt byjupiter, 
and buried under mount Aetna, from 
which volcano he was fnppofed by the 
poets to breathe forth flames, and, by 
turning himfclf, to fliake Sicily with 
earthquakes, F'lrg. Aen. 3, 578. 

Endymion, -onis, the favourite of 
Luna or Diana, (G. 378.'), put for a 
beautiful young rhan, Juvenal. 10, 318. 
En CON AS IS, -is, f. (q. m genibus), 
a name given to the confteilation Her- 
cules, becaufe reprefented as on his 
knees, ( Engona/in vocitant, genibus quia 
nixaferatur), Cic. N. D. 2, 42. 

^ ENNIUS, an ancient poet, born 
at Rudiae in Calabria, (hence called /£z/- 
diiis homo, Cic. Arch. lO.), a.u.513, Cic. 
Br. 18. Tufi:. 1,1. who wrote the Ro- 
inan annals in hexameter verfc. In eigh- 
teen books, and an epic poem, Infcri- 
bed to Scipio Africanus the Elder, in 
both of which he celebrated the ex- 
ploits of that great commander, Hor. 
Od. 4, 8, 17. whence Ennius is faid to 
have been fo great a favourite with Sci- 
pio, that ht is fuppofcd to have order- 
ed a (latue of Ennius to be erecled on 
his tomb, {in fepulchro Scipioniim putatur 
is, fc. Ennius, effe conjlifutus e marmore), 
Cic. Arch. 9. So Livy, 38, 56. ; O- 
vid, Art. Am. 3, 409. j Valerius Maxl- 


E N N [17 

miis, 8, 14, I. ; Soliniis, c, 7. Ennius 
alfo compofed tragedies, comedies, fa- 
tires, epigrams, 6!.c. of all which no- 
thing now remains but fome fcattcied 
fragments. Ennius pretended that the 
image of Homer had appeared to him 
in his fleep, and explained to him the 
nature of things, Lucr. i, 125. or, ac- 
cording to others, he dreamed, that Ho- 
mer having appeared to him, declared 
that his foul was tranfmigrated into the 
body of Ennius ; whence Cor jubet hoc 
£mn, pojlquam deJlertuH ejfe Maeonides, 
after he gave over dreaming that he 
was Homer, Perf. 6, 10. To this Per- 
feus alfo alludes, Prol. v. 2. Ci- 
cero obferves, that Ennius, when he 
awoke, did not fay that he had feen 
Homer, but thought that he had feen 
him, or thought himfelf Homer, Acad. 
4, 27. The words of Ennius himfelf 
are, V'ljus Homerits adejfe poeta, ib. 16. 
Thefe imaginations ot Ennius Horace 
calls Soniiila Pythagnrea, Ep. 2, 52. 
Ennius is faid to have borrowed feveral 
things from Naevius, who was older 
than Ennius, but an inferior poet, C'tc. 
Br, 19. Ennius died in poverty, at 
the age of 70, Cic. Sen. 7. or 72, 
as it Ihould feem, from the confuls un- 
der whom he is faid to have died, ib. — 
Lucretius allows Ennius to have been 
the tiril Roman poet of real merit, Z-z/^r. 
I, 118. Ennius is often quoted with 
great praife by Cicero, Or. i> 45. "Tufc. 
1,15. et al'ihi pajfim. Virgil tranfcribed 
many verfes trom Ennius, Macrob. Sat. 
6, I. Horace, by a metonymy, calls 
the poems ot Ennius Calabrae Piertdes, 
the Calabrian Mufes, Qd. 4, 8, 20. He 
fays, that Lucilius ufed to ridicule fome 
of the verfes of Ennius, as being inac- 
curately compofed. Sat. I, 10, 54. En- 
nius is faid to have been too fond of 
wine. He ufed never to fet about de- 
fcribing battles without having firft 
drunk freely, Hor. Ep. i, 19, 7. Ho- 
race however allows, that Ennius en- 
riched his native language, by the in- 
troduction of new words, Jlrt. P. ^6. 
Ovid fays that Ennius had great ge- 
nius, but wanted art, (^Ennius ingenio 
7nai<imus, arts rudis), Tnil. 2; 424. A- 

I ] E P H 

mor. I, 15, 19. So Statius calls the 
mufe of Ennius rudisy Silv. i. proba- 
bly alluding both of them to Riuitae, 
the place of his nativity. Quin6tiliari 
efteems Ennius venerable on account 
of his antiquity, [Ennluni, Jicut facros 
'vctujiate lucoif adoremus, l^c. 10, I, 88.) 
— Adj. En N I AN us. 

Ennosigaeus, (i. e. terram qua- 
ilens), a name of Neptune, ^«^»d'/2J/. 10, 
182. ; Ge/I. 2, 28. 

ENyo, -uSf a name of Bellona, the 
goddefs of war. Si/. 10, 203. hence A''^- 
va/is Enyoy a naval battle, Martial. 
Spe£l. 24. Cum dubitaret belli civilis E- 
nyo, when the fortune of the civil war 
between Otho and Vitellius was doubt- 
ful, Id. 6, 32, i. 

Eos, Edisy the goddefs of the morn- 
ing, Ovid. Fajl. 3, 877. put for the 
morning, /3. 4, 389. Ep.^, 57. 

Eous, -/, one of the horfes of the 
fun, Ovid. Met. 2, 153. alfo the morn- 
ing ftar, Virg. G. I, 288. adj. eailern, 
Ovid. Fajl. 3, 466. &c. 

EPAiMINONDAS, -ae, the cele- 
brated general of theThtbans, [ciwi quo 
Thebanoriim gloria et nata eft et ex/intla, 
Juftin. 6, 8.), mortally wounded in the 
battle of Man tinea, but furvived till he 
heard that his men had defeated the 
Lacedaemonians, Cic. Fam. ^^ 12. (G. 

Er APHRODiTus, the freed man of 
Nero, Tac. 15, 55. who aflilled that em- 
peror in killing himfelf, on which ac- 
count he was afterwards put to death by 
Domitian, Suet. Dom. 14.; Plin. Pan. 53. 

Epaphus, the fon of Jupiter and 
lo, Ovid. Met. I, 74S. 

Epeus, the fiamer of the Trojan 
horfe, Firg. j^en. 2, 264. 

Ephialtes, 'isy a giant, the fon of 
Neptune, who grew nine inches eveiy 
month. He was flain by the arrows 
of Apollo and Diana, Serv. ad Virg. G. 

1, 2S2. 

Ephorus, an hiftorian, born at Cu- 
mae, the fcholar of Ifocrates, Cic. Or. 

2, 13, & 23. Mnit. 56. Orat. 51, & 57. 
EpKyREj 'CSy et-<2, -/7^^a fea-nymph, 

the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, 
Firg. G. 4, 343. 

y 2 ^?l^ 

E P I [ 1 

Epicharis, a freed woman, who 
was concerned in a ronfpiracy again ft 
Nero, 1 ac. Ann. 15, 51. but could not 
be forced by any tortures to difcover 
her accomplices, and chofe rather to 
put an end to her life than confefs, ib. 


EPICHARMUS, a Sicilian poet 
and philofopher in the time of Cicero, 
whom Piautus is faid to have imitated, 
Hor. Ep. 2, 1,57. His works abounded 
with excellent maxims, which Cicero 
mentions, [praecepta Epicharmi), Q^Fr. 
3, 1,7. He ufed to fay, that the 
principal requifite in a philofopher was 
not to believe raflily, Cic. Att. i, 19. 
Ep'tcharmium illitd tenetpy Neriws atqiie 
art us fap'ientiac non temere credere, Cic. 
de Petit. Conful. c. 10. 

Epicrates, -isy a chief man among 
the Athenians, Cic. Fam.if), 2 J. The 
name denotes a fupreme ruler, and is 
applied to Pompey, Cic. Att. 2, 3. 

Epictetus, a ftoic philofopher in 
the time of Nero, Gell. 2, 18. 17, 19. 
19, I. He was born at Hierapolis, a 
town in Phrygia. Being brought to 
Rome as a flave, he was purchafed hy 
Epaphroditus, the ireed man of Nero. 
He is faid to have lived to the time of 
the emperor M. Antoninus, (^Suidas), 
who mentions him with great praife, i, 
7. et 4, 4. f/ 7, 19. f/ 1 1, 34, 36, & 
37. Gellius calls him Sioicorun vel 
viGXtmus, I, 2. mnximus philofophorum, 
17, 19. Lucian, who is feldom favour- 
able to philofophers, calls Epi6letus an 
(idmirahlc old man^ and informs us, tl»it 
his memory was fo refpected, that his 
lamp fold for 3000 drachmae^ (^fo; 
ttTTxiSi Tov). Epictetus ufed to exprefs 
the fum of his philpfophy in two words, 
•jtv£ vov Kcti 'ayfixo^, i. e. fuftine et aljline, 
bear and forbear, ih. He Wt^s banifhed 
from Rome, with all the other philofo- 
phers, by Domitian, GelL 19, r. St 
Auguftine calls him NobiJlfJlmus Sioicus, 

de civ. Dei, 9, 5. -Arrian publifhed 

the dilTertations of Epictetus after his 
death, under the name of Encheiri- 
D!ON Epicteti, Geil. g, 2. which are 
ilill extant, and juilly held in the high- 
eft eftimationc 

72 ] ERA 

Epicurus, born at Gargettus, a 
village of Attica, whence he is called 
Senior Gargettius, Stat. Silv. i, 3, 94. 
He was the fcholar of Xenocrates and 
Plato, and afterwards became the foun- 
der of that feft of philofophers v/ho 
held pleafure to be the fupreme good, 

Cic. Fin. 1,7, &c. Epicureus, 

a difciple or follower of Epicurus, ib. 
Epicureorum fcribtay ib. I, 2. 

Epigoni, (i. e. pofteri), the fons 
of the feven chiefs in the iirft Theban 
war, (G. 432.) by which name a tra- 
gedy of Euripides on this fubjedl was 
called, Cic. Of. i, 31. ; Tufc. 2, 25. 
The offspring of the foldiers of Alex- 
ander the Great by Perfian women 
got the fame name, Jujlin. 12, 4. 

EpiMENiDiiS, -is, a Cretan poet, 
contemporary with Solon ; faid to have 
flept in a cave fifty-feven years, Piin. 
7, 52. and to have foretold future e- 
vents by a kind of infpiration, Cic. Div. 
I, 18. 

Epimetheus, {4 fyll.), -eos, v. -ei, 
the fon of Japetus, and father of Pyr- 
rha ; who is hence called Epimethis^ 
idisy Ovid. Met. i, 390. (G. 435.) 

EpiPHANES, -/'/, (i. e. illujlris), a 
fnname of A.ntiochus king of Syria. 
^ 2. An Afiatic prince in the ar- 
my of Otho, the fon of Antiochus, 
king of Commagene ; called rex, af- 
ter the manner of the Greeks, who 
gave the name of ^aTOAv;, not only to 
kings, but alfo to their fons, Tac. 

EpyTUS, a king of AJba, O'vid. Fajl. 

4» 44- 

Epytides, -ae, v. .?>, the governor 
and companion of Afcanius, Virg. Aen. 

5' 547; 

Erato, -ui, one of the nine Mufes, 
invoked by fuch as wrote on amorous 
fubjeds, Oi)/t/. Art. Am. 2, 16. put for 
Miifa, any mufe, or for Calliope, the 
chief of the Mufes, Virg. Aen. 7, 37. 

ERATOSTHiiNEs, -is, a native of 
Cyrene, the fcholar of Ariflo of Chi- 
os, and of Callimachus the poet, illuf- 
trious as a philofopher and poet ; but 
ciiiefiy as a geographer and allronomer, 


ERE [ 173 

2, 6. He flourifhed under 

C'lc. Jtf 

Ptolemy Euergetcs, and had the charge 
of the library of Alexandria, (G. 18.) 

Erebus, the Ton of Chaos and 
Daiknefs, (Caligo), Hygin. Pracf, 
the hufband of Nox, Cic.N. jD. 3, 17. 
— put for the infernal regions, Virg. 
6, 247. 

Erechtheus, -W, v. -eos^ a king 
of Athens, (G. 419.) whence Erech- 
THis, Adis^ the daughter of Erech- 
theus, t. e. Procrls, O-oid. Mct.'^^ 726. 
ErechthIdae, 'Ciriim, the Atheni- 
ans, lb. 430. Arces Erechlheae, the ci- 
tadel of '\thens, ih. 8, 547. 

Erich T HO, -us^ a rheiTalian wo- 
man, noted for her flcill in forceries, 
Liican. 6, 508. ; Ovid, Ep. Sapph. 


Erichthonius, the fon of Vulcan, 

a king of Athens, (G. 418.) whence 

Popidus Erichthonius, the Athenians, 

Propert. 2, 6, 4. Ele is faid to have 

invented chariots, Virg, G, 3, 113. 

and the ufe of filver, Piin, 7, ^6. He 

was converted into the conftellation 

wiurlga, the waggoner, Hygin, Poet. 2, 

Erigone, -es.) the daughter of I- 
carius, a naiive of Attica, (hence call- 
ed Maralhonia Virgo, Stat. Silv. 5, 3, 
74.) who, hearing that her father had 
been flain by fome fhepherds, whom he 
had taught the ufe of wine, was fo 
overcome with grief, that flie is faid 
to have hung herfelf ; but through the 
commiferation of the gods, was chan- 
ged into a conftcliation called Virgo, 
Hygin. f. 1 30. ErigoruTiJ! canis^ i. e. Mae- 
ra, the dog of Icarius, who is faid 
to have led Erigone to the place where 
the dead body of her father lay, u^poi- 
lodor. ^y 13,7.; and f>;eing his mif- 
trefs dead, pined avv'ay, and was chan- 
ged into the conftellation called Ca-r 
nicida, the LciTer Dog Star, Hygin, 
Poet, 2, 4. ; O'vid. Fafi, 5, 723. 

Er ICON us, a noted painter, Plin, 

Erinna, v. -NE, -es, a poetefs, the 
contemporary, and as Is thought, the 
friend of Sappho ; mentioned, Pro- 
pert, 2, 3, 2 2. J Plin, 34, 8. 

] E R Y 

Erinnys, -yis, a name common to 
any one of the three Furies, a fury, 
Ovid. Met, I, 241. f/ If, 14. ; having' 
her. head and arms furrounded with 
fnakes, lb. 4, 490. Patriae communis E- 
rlnnys, i. e. Elelena, Virg, Jen. 2, 573. 
Dedeciis Jegypti, Latio fa rails Erinnys, 
i. e. Cleopatra, Liican. 10, 59. 

EriphJ-lk, -^j, V. Eriphyla, the fif- 
ter of Adraftus, king of Argos, and 
wife of Amphiaiatis the augur, who, 
bribed with a golden necklace by Po- 
lynTces, Apollodor. 3, 6, 2. or oy A^ 
draftus, Hygin. 73. difcovered the place 
where her hulband lay concealed to a- 
void going to the war againfl Thebes, 
in which he knew that he muil perifh. 
Amphiaraus, before he fet out, char- 
ged his ion Alcmaecn to avenge his 
death ; which Alcmaeon did by flaying 
his mother, Serv, ad Virg, Aen, 6, 
445.; Clc. Verr.\\, 18.; Inv, 1,50- 

(G. 431.) -Qccurrent multae tlbi ~— 

Erlphylae, you will meet with many 
EriphykiG, I. e. many as wicked as E- 
riphylc, Juv, 6, 654. 

Eris, -tdlsy the goddefs of flrife or 
difcord, Hygin. 92. 

Erisichthon, -onis, a ThefTalian, 
the fon of Triopa, who having impi- 
oufly cut down an oak facred to Ceres, 
was by that goddefs feized with fo vo- 
racious hunger, that after having fpent 
his whole patrimony, he at laft devour- 
ed his own members, Ovid. Met, 8, 

Ero, -lis. vid. Hero. 

Eros, -otis, a comedian, the fcho- 

lar of Rofcius, Clc. ^ Rofc, 11. . 

5j 2. The name of a flave, Clc, Att, 
10, 15. 

Erythras, -acy a king of Arabia, 
from whom the Arabian fea, the A- 
rabian and Perfian gulfs, were called 
Mare Erythraeuniy and by the Latins 
Rubrtwi mare. Curt. 8, 9, 14. ; Plin, 
6, 23. ; whence Lapllll Erythraely pearls 
from any of thefe feas, Stat, Sllv. 4, 
6, 18. So Tibullus, 3, 3, 17. 

ERYX, -yds, a king of Sicily, the 
fon of Venus and Butes, or accord- 
ing to others, oi Venus and Neptune ; 
who ufed to challenge all ftrangers to 


E T E [I 

contend with him in boxing, and flew 
thofe he vanquidied. At laft he htrn- 
felf was flain by Hercules, and gave 
name to the mountain in Sicily where 
he was buried, S:irv. ad Virg. Aen. 5, 
24, & 759. adj. Erydnus. 

Eteocles, -is, fon of Oedipus, 
(Oed^podes, -as), and king of Thebes, 

Claudius ETRUSCUS, a Roman, 
taifed by Vefpalian from a mean rank 
to the equeftrian order, for his fcrvices 
in the JewiPn war, Stat. Slh. 3, 3, 140, 
&c. who being banifhed by Domi- 
tian, was attended by his fon in his 
exile. Hence, when he was reftored 
from banifhment, the fon is faid to have 
been grateful to Domitian, both for be- 
ing allowed to accompany his father, 
and to return with him, ( Muneris hoc u- 
trumque tii'i tejlatur Etnifcusy Fje quod et 
comiti contlgit et reduci), Martial. 6, 83, 
7. The grief of the fon on the death 
of his father is celebrated by Statius 
in a poem, infcribed Lacrymae E- 
TRUSCi, Silv. 3, 3. (^Cuin lugeret ve- 
rts lacrhnis fcnem patrem^ i. e. non fal- 
fi3 lacrimis, ut praeficae, lb. Pracf.) 

and by Martial, 7. 39. A bath 

built by this Etrufcus is highly extol- 
led by Statius, (Balneum 
ci), Slh. 1,5. and by Martial, [De 
Etrufci thermis)^ 6, 42. 

EvADNEj-fj-, the daughter of Iphis, 
(Iphiasy -adlSi Ovid. Art. Am. 3, 21.) 
and the v/ife of Capaneus, whom 
fhe was fo fond of, that flie threw her- 
felf on his funeral pile, and perifhed in 
the flames, Propert. i, 15, 22. (G. 


EvAGON, a native of Cyprus, of 

that kind of people called Ophiogenes, 

who were not hurt by ferpenis, PUn. 

28, 3. 

EvAGORAS, -aey a king of Cyprus, 
(G. 618.) 

Evan, -antis, a name of Bacchus, 
Ovid, Ma. 4, 15. hence Evans, adj. 
plur. Evantes, raging or exulting like 
Bacchanals, Virg. Jen. 6^ 517.; Pro- 
pert. 2, 3, 18. j S'd. 1 5 101. i and Evoey 

74 1 EUC 

Evohe, or Euoe, the exclamation ufed 
by Bacchanals, Hor. Od. 2, 19, 5. ; 
Plant. Men. 5, 2, 82. 

EVANDER, v. -dnis, -drl, the 
fon of Mercury and Carmenta, or 
Carmentis, ViBor. de orig. P.oni. c. 5. 
the grandfon of Pallas king of \rca- 
dia, who being forced to fly from his 
native country by a fedition, pafled 
over into Italy, accompanied by his 
mother and a number of Arcadians; 
whence he is called Rex Areas, Virg. 
Aen. 8, [02. ; Arcadius ducior, Sil. 6, 
631. He built a few cottages on the 
top of one of the hills on which Rome 
afterwards flood, and gave to the place 
the name of Pallanteum, from one of 
his progenitors, Virg. Aen. 8, 51. or 
from his native town in Arcadia ; 
whence the mountain was called Pala- 
tium, or mons Palatinus, Liv. 1,5.; 

Ovid. Faft. I, 470, &c. Evander 

is faid to have firjl introduced the 
knowledge of letters into that country, 
which Vv'-onderful difcovery {inlracu- 
lu7n) made him much refpefted by the 
rude inhabitants, and he was ftill more 
revered for the fuppofed divinity or 
prophetic powers of his mother, Liv, 
I, 7. Evander alfo introduced the 
worfliip of Pan, Faunus, and other 
rural deities, Liv. F, 5. ; Ovid. Fajl. 2, 
279. et 4, 65. et 5, 90, — Hahehis Evan- 
drum, you will And me a frugal hofl: 
or landlord, who will entertain you 
with as fimple fare as Evander did Her- 
cules and Aeneas, jfuvenal. 11, 61. 

[G. 186.) Adj. EvANDRius ; thus 

Re'gna Evandria, the country which 
Evander ruled, i. e, the territory of 
Rome, Sd. 7, 18. Evandrlus enjis, the 
fword of Evander, Virg. Aai. 10, 394. 
Mons Evandrius, the Palatine hill, 
Claudian Conf. Honor. 6, 1 1 . 

Evander, a noted carver, Acron, 

ad Horat. Sat. i, 3, 91. ^ 2. A 

fculptor, Plin. 36, 5. 

Eu GLIDES, 'is, a native of Mega^ 
ra, {3'Iegareiis), a fcholar of Socrates, 
(G. 302.) from whom a feft of anci- 
ent phiiofophers wer: called Mi:gari- 

E U D [I 

ct, Cic. Acad. 4, 42. ; Or. 3, 1 7. 

«j 2. A geometrician of Alexandria, 
Cic. Or. 3, 33. ; Gell 6, lO. 

EuDEMUs, a philofopber of Cy- 
prus, intimate with Ariilotle, Cic, 
Div, I, 25. 

EuDOXUs, a fcholar of Plato's, a 
celebrated ailronomer, Cic. Div. 2, 42. 
(G. ,6.) 

EuHEMiiRUS, v. Evemerusy an an- 
cient hillorian of Sicily, who wrote 
a book concerning the gods ; which 
was tranflated by Enriius, Cic. N. D. 

Eve NOR, -oris, a painter, the fa- 
ther and inilru'ilor of Parrhafius, Plin. 

EuERGETES, -ts, [i.e. Benefuf^'), 
a title given to three of the Ptole- 
.mies, kings of Egypt, on account of 
their fervices to the Greek Hates, Curt. 
7, 3, I.; Jujiin. 12,5. 

Evius, a name of Bacchus, Hor. 
Od. 2, 11, 17. ; whence Evias, -adhy 
a female vvorlhipper of Bacchus, a Bac- 
chanal, Ih. 3, 25, 9. 

EuMAEus, the fwine-herd or fnep- 
hevd of UlyfTes, (G. 457.) 

EuMELUs, the fon of Admetus, 
king of ThelTaly, by his wife Aicef- 
tis ; and father of Parthenope, the 
founder of Naples ; who is hence call- 
ed EuMELis, -Xdis^ the daughter of 

Eumelus, Stat. Sih.. 4, 8, 49. ^ 

2. A Trojan, Virg. ylen. 5, 664. 

EuMENEs, '/j, a native of Cardia, 
one of the principal ofiicers of Alexan- 
der the Great, and the only faithful 
adherent to the family of that prince 
after his death, Nep. in Fit. (G-471.) 

5[ 2. The name of feveral kings 

of Pergamus, Liv. 

EuMfiNis, -idisf any one of the Fu- 
ries, a fury, SU. 2, 559.; Lucan. I, 

57I.plur. EUMENIDES. 

EuMOLPUS, the hriL chief prieft of 
Ceres at Eleufis ; whofe defcendants, 
called EuMOLPiDAE, -<3rtt?w, continued 
to enjoy that office for many ages, 
(G. 420.) 

EuNEUs, V. -osy -if the fon of Ja- 
fon and Hypfipjde, Hygin, 15, & 273. 
vhc twin-brother of 'i'hoas ; whence 

7? 1 EUR 

they are called jfasomdae juvenes, Stat. 
Theb. 6, 340. Thoas was named 
from his maternal grandfather, and Eu- 
NEOs, (ex £w. bene, et vfa), navigo)^ 
was fo called, that his name might be 
a good omen of a profperous voyage to 
the Argonauts, (amine didus Argoo), 
lb. 343. 

EuNUS, a Syrian by birth, who ha- 
ving roufed his fellow-flaves in Sicily 
to attempt to regain their liberty, foon 
collected an army of 60,000 men, with 
which he defeated feveral Roman ge- 
nerals fent againft him, but was at lalt 
cruflied by Perperna, Flor. 3, 19. 

EuPHORBus, the fon of Panth5us, 
(^Pantho'ides, -ae), who was the firil 
that wounded Patroclus, Homer. II. 16, 
809. and was afterwards killed by Mene^- 
laus, //-. 17,43. Pythagoras pretended 
that his foul had animated the body of 
Euphorbus, Ovid. Met. 15, 161. and 
therefore, obferving the fliield of Eu- 
phorbus in a temple, he palled it down, 
as having been once his own, Hor. Od. 
I, 28, II. 

EuPHORiON, -onisf a tragic poet, 
born at Chalcis, ( Chalcidenfis ) , Cic. 
Div. 2, 64. ; Tujc 3, 19. 

EuPHRANOR, -oris, an excellent lla- 
tuary, Plin. 34, 8. and painter, Id. 35, 
II.; jfuvenal. 3, 217. 

EupoLis, -idis, y. -is ; a.ccu(. -Udem. 
v. -/«, an ancient comic poet of A- 
thens, Hor. Sat. i, 4, i. f/ 2, 3, 12. 
Per/. I, 124. 

Euripides, -is, a celebrated A- 
theuian tragic poet, born at Sala- 
rais on the day that Xerxes was de- 
feated by the Greeks ; the fcholar 
and friend of Socrates. Nineteen of 
his tragedii;S remain. Cicero fpeaks 
of him with the liighed pvaife, Fum. 
16, 18. So Quinitiiian, 10, i, 67, 
&c. While he was at the court of 
Archelaus, king of Macedonia, with 
whom he lived on terms of familiarity, 
returning one night from fupper with 
that prince, he was torn by dogs, fet 
on him by fome invidious perfon, and 
died of his wounds, GelL 15, 20. — 
Eus.iviDF.uM carmen, a poem of Euri- 

pides, Cic. Tup-. 




EuROPA, V. -PE, -es, the 
of Agenor, carried off by Jupiter in 
the {liape of a bull, (G. 384.) the mo- 
ther of Minos ; who is hence called 
Ditx Eziropaeus, Ovid. Met. S, 23. 

Eur Y ALUS, the friend of Nifus, 

Flrg. ^m. 9, 295, &c. ^ 2. A 

play-actor, yuvena/. 6, 81. 

EuRYBATEs, -<7tf, a Dative of Ithaca, 
whom Agamemnon fent with Talthy- 
bius to bring Briseis from the tent of 
Achilles, Oind. Ep. 3, 9. 

EuRYBi APES, ./.!■, a Lacedaemonian, 
the commander in chief of the Graecian 
fleet againft Xerxes, (G. 334.) 

EuRYDAMAs, ■aiitis^ (i. c. latc-domi- 
ioTy) a firuame of Hercules, OvlcL in 
Jbln. 331. ; SiL 2, 186. 

EuRYDiCE, -es, the wife of Orpheus, 
to recover whom, when deadj he is faid 
to have gone down to the infernal re- 
gions, Virg. G. 4, 486, &c. (G. 371.) 

€[[ 2. liie wife of Amyntas, king 

of Macedonia, and mother of Philip ; 
who attempted to deilroy her hufband, 
that (he might marry her fon-in-law, 
Jifin. 7, 4. 

EuRYLOCHUs, one of the compa- 
nions of UlyiTcs, who alone did not 
laifc the potions of Circe, and there- 
fore was not transformed into the (liape 
or a fwinc, like the reft, Ovid. Mtt. 14, 

EuRVM ACHUS, one cf the fuitors of 
Penelope, Ovid, Ep, i, 92. 

E u R Y M E D o N , - outis^ (i.e. late impe- 
raris,) a fon of Faunus engaojed in the 
Thtban war, Staf, Thd, ii, 32. 

EuRVMUs, the father of Telemus, 
th'.^ augur, who is hence called Eury- 
tnules, -aer Ovid. Met. 13, 77 [. 

EuRYNOME, -es. the wife of Orcha- 
mus, king of the Acliaemenians . in 
Arabia, and^ mother of Leucothce, 

Ovid. Md. 4, 210, &c. ^ 2. The 

daughter of Do;^>'clus, and wife of 

Codrus, 7'aL FItjcc. 2, 156. ^3. 

I'he daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, 
jlpoUodcr. I, 2,. 2. the iriother of the 
Graces by Jupiter, Id. 1,3, i. 

EuRYONE, -es. the daughter of A- 
myntas xiing of Macedoni;t, who f.ived 

U 176 ]^ 

daur^hter her father 

E U T 

from being cut off by the 
fnares of her mother, Juflin. 7, 4. 

EuRypvLvs, the fon of Euaemon, 
from Orm.enium, a city of Theffaly, 
who accompanied Agamemnon to the 
Trojan war with forty fliips. Homer. II, 
2, 737. called Ferox^ Ovid. Met. 13. 
357. — <f| 2. A fl^ilful Graecian au- 
gur, Virg. Aen. 2, 1 14. 

Ev^RYSTHENEs, -«, thc twin-brother 
of Procles, who were both joint kings 
of Lacedaemon, Cic. Div. 2, 43. 

EURYSTHEU8, (three fy II.) -^Z, 
V. -?osj the fon of Sthenelus, and 
grand fon of Perfeus king of Argos, 
who was de (lined by the fates to com- 
if^and Hercules, Homer. II. 19, 98, &c. 
Odyfs. ir, 619. though greatly inferior 
to him in merit ; whence he is called 
deterior hems, fc. Herculis, Catull. 66, 
114. At the inftigatioH of Juno, he 
impofed on Hercules his twelve la- 
bours, (G. 398.) Hence he is called 
drrrus, Virg, G. 3, 4. and cruentus, Se- 
nec. Here. 061. 1973- Cicero men- 
tions a tragedy of Euripides, in which 
Hercules is reprefented as having (lain 
the fons of Euryilheus, Acad. 4, 28. 

EuRyTus, king of Oechalia, (lain 
by Hercules, becaufe he refufcd to give 
to Hercuks his daughter lole, (called 
Eirrytisy -ulis, Ovid. Met. 9, 395.) ac- 
cording to promife, [G. 402.) 

EvKy^Tus, a fkilful artift, vi^ho made 
a fuit of armour for Pallas, the fon of 

Evandtr, Virg. Aen. 10,499. H 2' 

One of the Argonauts, Oiid. Met. 8, 
(J 1 1., fT ^^^ ^ fon of Lycaon, tlse 

brother of Pandarus, Virg. Aen. 5, 


Euterpe, -es. one of the nine Mufes, 

Hor.Od. r, i,33-(G. 368.) 

E l: T H Y' c R A T K s , -isy a renowned paint- 
er, the fon of Lyfippus, Plin. 34, 8. 

€| 2. A ftatuary, Id. 4. 8. 

EuTHYMEDHs, -i/, a painter, PIm. 

EiTRAPELi's, a name given to Vo- 
lumnius, the friend of Antony, Cic, 
Fid. 13, 2. fiom his great politenef?, 
wit, and turn for raillery, Cic. Fam. 



fuppG(:d to be the fame 

E U T [ 

vviio is mentioned by Horace, Ep, i, 

E'jTROPius, a Lati'n hiHomn, who 
lived in the time of Julian, whom he 
attended in his unfortunate expedition 
againfl: the Parthians, Eiitrop. 10, 16. 
He addrcffed his hillory toVaiens, Praef. 

EuTycHE, -cs^ a woman of Traiks 
in Lydia, [Tralliana^) who had thirty 
children, twenty of whom attended 
her funeral, Plin, 7, 3. 

E'jTYCHiDEs, -isi a freedman of Afc- 

ticus, Ctc. Jn. 4, 15. ^ 2. A ila- 

tuary, Pl'uu 34, 8. 

Ex AG ON, one of that kind of people 
called Pfyll'h wlio having come to 
Rome as an ambaffador, and a report 
having fpread, that no fcrpent would 
bite him, he was, for the fake of an ex- 
ptriment, thrown, by the order of the 
confuls, into a caflc full of ferpcnts, 
where, to the ailonilhment of all, he 
remained quite unhurt, Plitu 28, 3. 

FABIUS, the name of an illuftri- 
ous patrician gens. (Fabia Gens, 
Ovht Poitt. 4, 6, 9. ) one of the nobleil 
m Rome, {JJkra Fablos gradus cogno- 

■lis nuUus ejl. Id. Fall. I, 605.) — 
v..vided into feveral/cxwi/z'^z^"; the Fibu- 
lani, j'lmbiifi'i^ Maxlmiy P'ldlores, Doi'soneSf 
Laheores, Gurgites^ and Buteoncs. The 
Fabii are faid to have been cieicended 
from Fabius, the fon of Hercules, 
Piularch. in Fab. Max. p. 174. by Vin- 
duna, the dauThter of Evai.der, [Ar- 
eas, 1. e. Arcadia puella, — ngla v'lrgo,) 
Sii. 6, 633. Hence the family of the 
Fab'ii is called Herculea gens, Ovid. 
F. 2, 237. — '$iO Fabius Tirynthia proles, 
the offspring of Hercules, Sll. 2, 3. 
Nat us in Harculeo Fabius bare, in the 
houfe of Hercules, JwvenaL 8, 14. 
But others derive the name fi'om fome 
one of the family who paid particular 
attention to the cultivation of beans, 
(fabae,) Plin. 18, I. Fabium no- 
men, the name or family of the Fabii, 

Liv. 2, 42. The Fabian gens by it. 

felf alone, a. u. 275, undertook to car- 
ry on war againit the rej-nl^-s, which 

177 1 FA B 

they did for fome time with fuccefs. 
At laft, being brought into an ambuf- 
cade, they were all cut off to the num- 
ber of 306, Liv. 2, 48, — 51. Ovid 
makes only 300, faji. 2, 196, & 2C'3. ; 
Poni. I, 2, 3. So 8iiius Italicus, 2, 4, 
ei 6, 637. This difafler happened 011 
the ibth July, (xv. Kal. Sextil.) a. u. 
277, near the river Cremera ; whence 
that day, wliich was ever after held as 
an unlucky day, was called Dies Cre- 
MERENsis, and in future tiiTkes more 
frequently Allien sis, becaufe the de- 
feat of the Rom.ans by the Gauls under 
Brenuus, at Alha, happened on the 
fame day, Liv 6, i. j Tac. Hi]}. 2, 91. 
It ?b faM that there was only one boy 
of the Fabian family left, from whom 
the illulh-ious men of that nam.e, who 
afterwards appeared, were defcended, 

Liv. 2, 50 f. ; Ovid. Fajl. 2, 239. 

Fabia trihus, a tribe called from the 
name of the Fabii, Pirn-. Ep. i, 6, 52. 

^ FABIUS, the only one who 
furvived the deflru6lion of his family at 
Cremera, was three times conful, Liv. 
3, I, 2, V £2. and one of the decem- 
virs, ib, 36. after which he was banifn- 
ed, lb. 58. 

j^ FABIUS Rullus vel RuUianus, 
five times conful, Liv. 8, 38. et 10, 22, 
didator, Li. 9, 22. and cenfor, ib. 46. 
He gained feveral vidlories over the 
Samnites, Tufcans, and Umbrians, 
Liv. 8, 30, 9, 23, & 41. et 10,. 14. 
He obtaiufd his hnl vidlory over the 
Samnites wlu-n mailer of horfe to Pa- 
pirius Curiov, the dictator; in whofe 
able nee Fabius fought that fucccfsful 
bat lie contrary to orders ; for which 
papirius WGuld have punilhed him with 
deaih, but v.^as prevented,. Liv. 8, 29, 
— 23. FabiUS, when cenior, includ- 
ed all the poorer citizens in the four 
city-tribes, whereas formerly they ufed 
to vote in all the tribes promifcuoully ; 
on which account he got the firname of 
Maximus, Liv. 9, 46. 

^ Fabius Maximus Gurges, the fon 

of Ruiius or Rullianus, conful a. 461, 

Liv. 10, 47. Being fent againft the 

Samnites, he was defeated with great 

Z iofs, 

lofs, fo that the fenat 
priving him of his command, but the 
father deprecated that indignity, promi- 
iing to ferve as his fon's lieutenant. By 
his advice and aiTiilance the fon gained 
a com^)lete vidory, took Pontius the 
Samnite general, and having led him in 
triumph, ungeneroufly ordered him to 
be beiieaded, Liv. Epit. ii. 

^FABIUS Maximus, called Ver- 
rucofus, from a wart on his upper lip, 
the grandfon of Rullus, Llv. 30, 26. 
Plutarch makes him the great- grandfon, 
in vit. Fah, Max. He alfo was five 
times conful. In his firft confulfliip, 
a. 521, he triumphed over the Liguri- 
ans, Plutarch, in Vita ejus. After the 
taking of Saguntum by Annib?.!, he 
was fent at the head of an embafTy to 
Carthage, to demand whether what 
Annibal had done, was by pubhc au- 
thority or not. An ambiguous anfwer 
being returned by one of the principal 
Carthriginian fenators, Fabius, having 
formed his toga into a hollow, (Jinu ex 
togn fadto^) faid, " Here we bring you 
peace and war ; take which of the two 
you pleafe." The Carthaginians upon 
this, calling out fiercely, ** That he 
might give which he chofc,'' Fabius, 
liaving as it were poured out what was 
in the hollow of his robe, (finu ej'ufo,) 
faid, " That he gave them war,'' 
f^iv. 21,18. So Si!. 2,384..; Flor. 2, 6. 

After the dreadful defeat at the Tra- 
fu-nene lake, Fabius being created dic- 
tator or prodidator, was fent againft 
Annibal, whofe impetuolity he checked 
by declining battle, [cundtandoi'i.e. prae- 
lium detretlando, Liv. 22, 12.), on 
which account he got the firname of 
Cunctator; whence Virgil fays, ^10 
fejjiim (fc. me,) rapitisy Fabli. Tu Max- 
IMUS illeesy Unus qui nobis cun^ando re- 
Jlituis rem, A. 6, .S46. Tne Lift verfe 
Virgil borrowed from Ennius, {^n ce- 
cinit njiBrkes moras Fabil, i. e. Fabium 
Cundlacorem, P-ropert. 3, 3, 9.), to 
which Ovid alfo alludes, Fajl. 2, 242. 
At one time Fabius had io hemmed 
in Annibil, that he could not have 

C 17S ] 

thought ofde- for which that 


great general was re- 
markable. Fid. Liv. 2 2. 16, & 17.; 
Nep. 2 2. 5. ; Plutarch, in Fabio. Fabius 
having been recalled to Rome to per- 
form fome facred rites, Minucius, his 
mafter of horfe, in his abfence gained 
fome advantage over Annibal. For. 
this reafon the people difapproving the 
dictator's dilatory conduct, by an un- 
precedented aft, made Minucius equal 
in command with him. Fabius fhewed 
no refentment at this indignity ; but 
when Minucius, by his rafhnefs, had 
brought himfelf and his army into the 
greateft danger, Fabius haftened to 
their relief and refcued them. Mi- 
nucius having gratefully acknowledged 
his deliverance, again chearfuUy fub- 
raitted himfelf to the command of Fa- 
bius ; who, at the expiration of fix 
months, refigned the didatorihip, i3.i6, 
1 — 31. After the overthrow at Can- 
nae, every thing was regulated by the 
advice of Fabius, ib. 55. Next year, 
upon the death of one of the confuls, 
Fabius was fubftituted in his room, 
Liv. 23, 31. and re-elected the follow- 
ing year with Marcellus, Liv. 24, 9. 
Fabius was fucceeded in the confulate 
by his fon of the fame name, who was 
created conful in his abfence, ib. 43. 
under whom Fabius ferved as lieu- 
tenant, ib. — When Annibal led his 
army to Rome, Fabius gave his opi- 
nion againft raifing the ficge of Capua, 
Liv. 26, 8. Fabius, in his fifth con- 
fuliliip, a. 545, was chofen prince of 
the fenate, Liv. 27,13. and retook Ta- 
rentum, ib. 18.; Cic. Br. 18. Or. 2, 67, 

■^ Fabius ftrongly oppofed Sci- 

pio's plan of transferring the war into 
Africa, Liv. 28, 40. but his oppofition 
being thought to proceed not merely 
from caution, but partly from envy, 
was in vain, i^. 45, When the -news of 
Scipio's fplendid viftories in Africa were 
brought to Rome, Fabius ftill perfifted 
in his opinion. He did not five to fee 
Scipio's final fnccefs. Fie died at 
an advanced age, Liv. 30, 26. about 
" ' Plu- 

the time that Annibal left Italy, 
Reaped without one of thofe ftratagcnis tfirch, iL Fgibius was called the Shield 



and Marcellus the Sword of the Ro- 
man people, Flar, 2, 6. — Fabiani mi 
/lies J the foldiers of Fabius ; put for 
brave well-difcipHned troops, Ncp, 11, 

C. FABIUS, who firft got the fir- 
name of Pictor, from his flcill in 
paintins^, a. u. 45c, P/in. 39,4. 

^ FABIUS Finor, C.F.CN. an an- 
cient hiftorian, (hijloricus, ann al'i urn f crip- 
tor, Cic. Or. 2, 12. Div. i, 26.), who 
lived in the time of the fecqnd Punic 
war, Liv. 22, 7. add. i, 44. 2, 40. 8, 
30. 10, 37. After the battle of Can- 
iiae, he was fent to Delphi to confult 
the oracle how the divine wrath might 
be appeafrc], lAv. 22, 57. f^ 23, 11. 

Numerius Fabius Pictor, fuppofed 
to be the fon of the former, who wrote 
the annals of Rome in Greek, Cic. Div» 
1, 21. 

J^ Fabius Jemilianus, the grand- 
fon of Paulus AemiHus, F^eli. 2, 10. 
and brother to Scipio Africanus, the 
younger, Plin. 33, 11. who conquered 
the Allobroges, Plin. ib. et 7, 50. from 
whofe fpoils he built an arch, called 
jFornix: Fabian us, Cic. Or. 2, 66.; 
Act. I. in Verr. 7. et ibi Afcon. 

^ Fabius Maximus, made conful 
by Caefar only for the three lad 
months of the year, {^Vid. Treboni- 
us,) He died on the lail day of his 
office, Dio, 43 , 46. Vid. C a n i n i u s. 

Fabius Lupercus, one of the piiells 
of Pan, Pi'opert. j^y I, z6. who were 
divided into two claffes, called Fabiani 
and ^tindiliani from their firlt chiefs, 
[a pratpo/itis fuis,) Ydlus. The Fabii 
were the friends of Remus, and the 
^unclilii, of Romulus, Ovid. Fajl. 2, 
375, .vc. 

Fabi •, a veflal virgin, the fiftcr of 
Terentia the wife of Cicero ; who was 
accufed of incell with Catihne, but ac- 
quitted, Afcon. in Cic. in Toga Candi- 

FABRICIUS,vel/^fl^nVm, the name 

of a plebeian ^f«j. Pens F'abricius, 

a bridge which joined the city to an 
ifland in the Tiber, built by fome one 
of this family, Hor. Sat. 2, 3, 36. 

79 ] F A U 

C. FABRICIUS Liifcinusy a cele- 
brated Roman general againil Pyrrhus> 
remarkable for his integrity and con- 
tempt of riches, {G. 232, &c.) Cic. Off, 
I, 4, & 15. et 3, 15, k 22. Br. T4. 
Tufc. 3, 23.; Liv. Epil. 13, & 14.; 
P hilar ch. in Pyrrh. \ Vail. Max. 4,3.; 

Aurel Fi^. Fir. III. 35. «[ 2. A 

praetor, a. 559, Liv. 33» 42» & 43- 
one of the lieutenants of Scipio Afiati- 
cas, Id. 37, 4. 

^Fabricius, a tribune, who pro- 
pofed the law for reftoring Cicero 
from banifliment, Cic. Sext. ^^. ; Red. 
in Sen. 8. 

^Fadius, a freed man, {^lihertifius 
homo,) the father of Fulvia, the wife of 
Antony, Cic. Phil. 2, 2. called Bam- 
balio, ib. 36. on account of his ftutter- 
ing or hefitating manner of fpeaking, 
Cic. Phil. 3, 6. 

T. Fad I us, quaeftor when Cicero 
was conful, Cic. Red. in Sen. 8. tribune 
in the confulfhip of Lentulus Spinther, 
Cic. Att. 3, 23. afterwards banifhed 
by what was thought an unjuft fen- 
tence, Cic. Fam. 5, i8» 

C Falcidius, a tribune, and the 
year after a lieutenant, Cic. Manil. 19. 

C. FANNIUS, the fon-in law of 
Laelius, who wrote annals, Cic. Br. 21. 
and a hiftory, not inelegant, ib. 26, Sc 
87. Tujc. 4, 17. Leg. I, 4. of which 
M. Brutus made an abridgment, Epi' 
tome Fanniana vel Farinianorum, Cic. 

Att. 12, 5. 5f 2. A tribune, Cic. 

Sext. 53. one of the Pontifices, Id. Har, 
R. 8. He was appointed by the fe- 
nate to command in Sicily, at the be- 
ginning of the civil war, Cic. Att. 7, 
15. After the death of Ca far, he 
was fent to Cneius, the fon of Pompey, 
to advife him to go to Mutina and re- 
Heve D. Brutus, Cic. Phil. 13, 6. 

Fannius, a contemptible poet m 
the time of Horace, vain of hia own 
compofitions, Hor. Sat. i, 4, 2 I- 

M. Faucius, a Roman eques, one of 
the magillrates of ArpTnum, [decuri9 
Arpinatium,) Cic. Fam. 13, 11. 

FAUMUS, a rural deity, who wag 
fuppofed to foretel future events, Cic» 

F A V [ i3o ] F I M 

N'. D, 3, 6. There were many of be made to Feronia, Z/ij. 22, t 

thcfe rural divinities, Agrejlum niimina, 

Faunl, Virg. G. 1 , 10. Rujl'ica numina^ 

Faun'i, Ovid, i, 193. ; Cic. N. D. 2, 

2. Div. I, 4c;, '^ 50. — Littora Faun'iy 

the fliore of the Traiimene lake, 6"//. 5, 

627. (G. 380, & 381.) ^'f 2. A he led his army from Rome, L 

kin^ of Latium, the fon of ^icus and 

temple of Feronia was enriched with 
numerous gifts from the neighbouring 
people, hiiu 26, 11. whence (he is 
called fi'/wj-, Sih 13, 84. It was plun- 
dered of all its riches by Annibal^ when 

grajidfon of Saturn, the father of La- 
tiniis, V'lrg. Aen, 7, 48. whence Fau- 
NiGENAE, -aruin, the Latins or Ititli- 
ans defcended from Faiinus, SiL 8, 357. 

Favonius, a great imitator of C;jto, 
fo- that he was called his ape, [Slmia 
Catonls,) Val. Max. 2, 10. cruelly put 
to- death by Auguftus, after the battle 
of Philippi, Suet. Jug. 13. 

Faustulus, chief (liepherd to king 
Proca?, who preferved and brought up 
Romulus and Remus, Llv. 1, 4, & 5. 

Fx-iUSTUS, a praenomen gl-^iw by 
SiiHa to a Ton born to him after he was 
made diftator, on account of his won- 
derful fuccefs, Plutarch, in SulJ. c. 67. 
Cicero often calls him by this name, 
Sail 19. Chieut. 34. Fat. 14. Ait. 4, 10. 

et^,\, FAUST A, the daughter 

of Sulla, the twin-filter of Faullus, Plu- 
tarch, ih. the wife of Miio, Cic. Att. 5, 

FERETRIUS, a name^ given to 
Jupiter by Romulus, from his bringing 
{quodferehat)t\\>i fpoils of xAcron, king 
of the ^'aeninenfes, whom he had 
flain in fmgle combat, to the temple of 
that God, fufpended on a frame, (fire- 
tio,) Liv. i, 10. or fromyr,-i;r ; Omi;ie 
quod certo dux ferit cnfe ducemy Fropert. 

4, TI, 46. 

Ffronia, a nymph of Campania, 
•the mother of Henlus, Plrg. Aen. 8, 
564. a goddefs worfbipped at Anxur, 
ib. 7, 8qc. where a fbuutain -.vas confe- 
crated to her. If or. Sat. i, 5, 24. faid 
td be the. goddefs oi freedmen, bccaufe 
flaVes, v,dien made free> fiiaved thtir 
head, and received a- cap from their 
mafter in her temple, Sirv.- ad. Firg. 
■Aen. 8", 564. whence we -read of the 
freedwoir.en [liheriinae) befng ordered 
td contribute money according to their 
abilitiv^s, out of -which a preknt might ■ 

FID I US, or Dius, v. Deus Fid i us, 
a name of Hercules, as being the god 
of faith or truth, (deus Jidei)^ per Deuni 
Fidiuniy by Hercules, the god of truth, 
or of honour. Plant. Afin. I, I, 48. 
Mediiis FidiuSf i. e. Me deus Jidei, Ic. 
juvet, May Hercules, the god of ho- 
nour or of truth, aiTiit me. The fame 
with Afeljercley i. e. Me Hercules^ fc, 
juvetj a common and. folemn oath a- 
mong the Romans, S<dJuJl. Cat. 36. ; 
Liv. 2 2, 59. ; Piin. Ep. 4, 3 f, & 10, 

C. FiDicuLANius Fakula, a fena- 
tor, Cic. Caecin. 10. ; Cludnt. 37. 

M. FiDusTius^ a fenator, who was 
lirft profcribed by Syila, but had the 
good fortune to efcape; Fie was thir- 
ty-three years after profcribed by An- 
tony, and put to death, Piin. 7, 43. ; 
Dio,\'], /. 333. 

C. Marcius FIGULUS, created 
conful with P. Scipio NasTca, a. 592. ; 
but on account of fome informahly in 
their eleftion, they were both obhged 
to abdicate their office, Cic, N. D* 2, 
4. Div. 2, 35. Figulus was after- 
wards conful with Lentalus, a. 598. 

Cic. Br. 2C. «j[ 2. Conful with L, 

Caefar, a. 689, Cic. Att. i, 2. whofc 

very fumptuous, Cic. 

fcpulchre was 
Leg. 2, 25. 

P. Nigidius FIGULUS, a Roman 
fenator, remarkable for his knowledge 
in aitrology, Lucan. I, 639. vid. Ni- 

C. Flavlus FIMF>RIA, conful with 
Marius, a. 649. Cic. Rabir. 7. OJf. 3. 
19. Having >fterwards gone into A- 
fia asheutenant'^to L. Valerius Flaccus, 
the coftflilj who was fent by Cinna to 
carry on; the war againil Mithridates 
in place of Sulla, Fimbria, on account 
of ftime offence, flew Fiaccus, defeat- 
ed the forces of Mithridates in feveral 


engageiftents, and at- one time was near 
taking that king himfelf. But Sulla 
having pi^irtd over into Aiia, and made 
peace with Michridates, Fimbria being 
defttted by his troops, put an end to 
hi^ days by the aiSllance of a Have, 
Lhu Epit.iz, & 83. 

FLA ecus, a finiame of the Fulvli 
and Vahriiy faid to have been given 
t lie m from their broad and loofe ears, 
{ex jlaccis auribus), Plin. ii, 37 ^. ^0* 
ijick FuLvius et Valerius. 

C. FLAMINIUS, vel Flamini- 
Nus, twice conful, a, u. 530, & 536. 
Inhis fecond confulatehe perifiied in the 
unfortunate battle at the Tlirafymene 
lake again (l Hannibal, which he fought 
in contempt of the auf pices, Cic. A^af. 
D. 2, 3. Div. I, 35, et 2, 33. ; Liv. 
22, 4, — 6., Flor. 2, 7. Wlien cenfor 
he paved the fla F/aniinia, and laid 
out the Circus FlajnimaSy Fellus. Liv. 

Epit. 2C. et 23 23. Flaminiana of- 

teniay the omens flighted by Flamini- 
ua, Ck. Div, 2, 3.1, 

T. ^lintius FLAMININUS, v. 
FlaminiuSf a conful who conquered 
Philip king of Macedonia n\ the battle 
at Cynocephalae, Cic. Mur. 14. ; Liv. 
33, 7, &c. 

Z. Shiintius Flamininus, the bro- 
thvr of the former, under whom he 
commanded the fleet, Liv. 32, 16. He 
was afterwards conful, LI. 35, lo. He 
was expelled from the feiKite by Cato, 
when cenfor, on account of his crimi- 
nal conduft, Liv, 39, 42. ; Cic. Sen, 
12. He however ftill continued to en- 
joy the honour of prieilhcod, Liv. 43, 

C. FLAVIUS, the fon of a freed- 
man, the fcribe or fecretary of Ap- 
pius ClaAidius, who ftole or copied the 
bot^k of Appius, in which the forms 
of procefs in courts of law, ( act 10- 
NEs), and the legal days for adm.inif- 

tering juiliiee, were 

iged ; and 

pivbliihed them to the people, froi 
whom all theie things were then con- 
cealed by the patricians; whence the 
book of Flavins was called jus Civi- 
Li> Flavian UM, Ci;,Or, l,4{. Mur, 

81 1 FLA 

II. Att, 6, I. Gell.Gyg.i ^//>^ 3^ 
I f. 6. ; Fal. Max. 2, 5, 2; In re- 
turn for this fervice. Flavins was made 
curule aedile by the people, Liv, 9, 

M. Flavius, a tribune, who pro- 
pofed a bill to the people, (Fiavia. ro- 
gatio), about puniihing the people of 
Tufculum, Liv. 8, 37. At the fune- 
ral of his mother he made a diftribu- 
tion of raw flefh [vifceratio) to the 
people, ih, 22. 

L. Flavius, a tribune in the conful- 
fhip of Metellus and Afranius, who pro- 
pofed an Agrarian law, but could not 
get it pafled, Cic. Jtt. i, 18, & 19.; 
Bioi 37, 52 — He was elected praetor 
in the confulfliip of Caefar and Bibuluf?, 
Cic. ^ Fr. I, 2, 2. ; an adherent of Cae- 
iar's in the|civil war, Cic. Att. 10, i. 

Titus FLAVIUS Vefpajmnns, the 
tenth Roman empiiior, defcended of 
mean parents; whence that part of 
the gens Fiavia., from which he was 
deicended, is faid to have been ob* 
fcure, and without any images of an- 
ceftors, /. e. nonfe of Vefpafian's an- 
ceilors had enjoyed any curule ofiice, 
Suet. Vefp. I. FLAyi».Ni, the adhe- 
rents or favourers of Vefpafian, Fac, 
Hijl. 3, 7, & 23. So Flavianae partes^ 
the party of Vefpafian, ih. i, & 13. 
Flavicrnus exercitusy the army of Vefpa- 
fian, ib. 63. Fl/vvius u/timus, i. e. 

the emperor Domitian, the laft of the 
Flavii, JnivenaJ. 4, 37. called calvus 
Neroy the bald Nero, io, 38. on ac- 
count of his cruelty and baldnefs. 
Suet. Dom. 10, & 18. He degenera- 
ted fo much from Vefpafian his father, 
and Titus his brother, that Martial, 
who had often grofsly flattered .Domi- 
tian, is faid to have written the fol- 
lowing dtilich on him after his death, 
in the form of an adclrefs to the Fla- 
vian family, Fiavia gcns\ quantum fiFi 
tertius akJluHt heres, (i, e. Douiitianus.) 
Pene fuit tanti, non hahuijfe duos, (i. c. 
Vefpafianum et Titum), SchoUajl. in 

'Juvenal. Void. -Fl\vi\ templa, the 

temple of Jupiter in the- Capitol, re- 
built by Domitian, 3,Ia-iitiiL 9, 4, 12. 


FLO r I 

et t5. 35, 2. and a temple which Do- 
mitian built in honour of the Flavian 

family, Suet. Dom. 1 7. Collegium 

Flavialium, a body of priefts ap- 
pointed by Domitian to take care of 
the temple, and to perform facred rites 
to the deified Flavii., ib. 4. 

FLORA, the goddefs of flowers. 
Tloralis Jlamen, the priell of Flora, 
F^arr. L. L. 6, 3. Floral e fejlum., 
the fedival of Flora, O'oid. Fajl. 5, 195. 
— but oftencr Floralia, -turn, feili- 
Tal days kept in honour of Flora, 
which began on the 28th of April, ( iv. 
KaL Maii)y and continued to the end 
of the month, Plin. 18, 29. Florali- 
ciae ferae^ hares, goats, and other ani- 
mals exhibited by the aediies at the 
feilival of Flora, Martial. 8, 67, 4. 

FONTEJA gens, a plebeian, fami- 
ly, into which Clodius, the enemy of 
Cicei'o, was adoptt^ by P. Font ejus, 
a man younger than himfelf, Clc. Dom. 

13, 19, & 44. Foktejanum no- 

men Clodlo adoptato Indltum, Cic. Refp. 
Arufp. 57. — M. FoNTEjus, gover- 
nor of Gaul for three years after his 
praetorfliip, Clc. Att. 4, 15. in de- 
fence of whom Cicero delivered an o- 

ration, Font, i, 5<c. Fonteja, his 

lifter, a veftal virgin, Clc. Font. 17. 

Fontejus Capita, a friend of An- 
tony's, Hot'. Sat. I, 5, 32. 

7*. FoNTEjus Capita, a praetor, 
Liv. 40, 59. ; governor of Spain, Id. 

41, 2, & 19. 

FoNTiNALiS, a god who prefided 
over fountains, Plaut. Stlch. 5,4, 17. 
FoNTiNALiA, -lum, a feitival celebra- 
ted in honour of fountains, when chap- 
lets of flowers were thrown into them, 
Varr. L. L. $, ^. 

FoRN>x, -iiclsy a goddefs, whofe 
fedival (FoRN \c ' LI A, -lum), was not 
Hated, {Jlata), but appointed [Indicia) 
by the Curio Maxlmus, Ovid. Fail. 2, 
527, &c. Fefcus. 

Fort UNA, the goddefs fortune, wor- 
fhipped in various places ; at Rome, 
Lin]. 2, 40. 10, 46. 24, 47, &c. at 
Praenelle, Lin). 23, 19. ; Clc. Dm. 2, 
41. Leg. 2, II.; at Antium, Hor. 

%t -] F U L 

Od. I, 35, I. and, as Pliny fays, by the 
whole world, 2, 7. — Nos te, nos fact' 
mus, Fortuna, deam caeloque locamus, Ju- 
venal. 2, 366. Fortune was reprefent- 
ed as blind, Plln. lb. et 13, 5. ; Clc. 
Amlc. 15. One of her chief appenda- 
ges was a wheel, Clc. Pis. 10. ; TlbulL 
I, 6, 32. 

Fronto, -dnis, a learned man, who 
taught the emperor M. Antoninus phi- 

Mettns, V. Meftlns FUFFETIUS, 
dictator of the Albans, who having ac- 
ted perfidioully to TuUus Hoitilius, 
was by his order tied to two carriages, 
and his body torn to pieces, Llv. i, 
28. ; Flrg. Aen. 8, 642. 

FuFiDius, an orator, Clc. Brut. zg. 

FuFius, the name of a Roman ^^«j-, 
often confounded with Fujius by the 
editors of Cicero. 

FuLViA, the v/ife, firft of Clodius, 

the enemy of Cicero ; next of Curio, 

and then of Antony, Flor. 4, 5. ; Pa- 

2, 74. adj. FuLviANUs, Plin. 26, 


FULVIUS, the name of a gens, 
which originally came from Tufculum, 
Clc. Plane. 8. 

L. FuLvius, conful a. 432, Ufv. 
8, 38, the lirll of that name who ob- 
tained any office at Rome. The Tuf- 
culans had rebelled againft; the Ro- 
mans, lb. 14, & 37. and Fulvius, who 
was conful of Tufculum, having come 
over to the Romans, was inveiled with 
the fame honour at Rome ; and is faid 
to have been the only perfon who the 
fame year in which he had been an 
enemy, triumphed at Rome over thofe 
whofe conful he had been, Plin. 7, 43 
f. 44. But this feems inconfillent with 
Livy's account. He w^as afterwards 
matter of hoi-fe under Q^ Aemilius, 
Ll'D. g, 21. 

^ FULVIUS Flaccus, feveral times 
conful and once dictator in the fecond 
Punic war, Llv. 27, 6. He took Capua^ 
and put to death eighty of the princi- 
pal fenators, contrary to the opinion of 
App. Claudius, who had a joint com- 
mand with him in conduding the fiege, 


F U L [ T 

and without reading the decree of the 
fenate; which a meffenger had juft 
brought him from Rome, to ftop the 
punlfhment, Liv. 26, 15, & 16. Ci- 
cero fays, that Capua was taken when 
Fulvius and Fabius Maximus were con- 
fuls, Rull. 2, 33. But according to 
Livy, Fulvius was then proconful, ib. 
When Annlbal led his army to Rome, 
Fulvius followed with part of the troops 
that bcfiegtd Capua, leaving the reil 
with Claudius, iiv, 26, 8.; ^/7. 12, 
571. Fulvius was fome time af- 
ter made diclator, to hold the comitia ; 
in which, notwithllanding oppolition 
from the tribunes, he himi'elf and Fa- 
bius weie made confuls, Liv. 27, 6. 
Fulvius was cenfor with A. Poilhumi- 
us, Cic. Verr. 1,41. 

M. FULViUS Nohllhr, a conful 
who triumphed over the Aetolians, Liv. 
37, i>^o. ft 39, 5. He built a temple 
to the Mules and Hercules from the 
fpoils, Cic. Arch. \ i. and brought from 
Ambracia a piclure of the Mufes by 
Zeuxis, to adorn it, Plin. 35, 10. He 
carried Ennius along with him to Ae- 
tolia, Cic. lb. et Tufc. 1,2. He was 
cenfor with M. Lepidus, a. 574. ; Liv. 
40, 45, 5. c. ; Cic. Prov. Com. 9. 

^ FULVIUS Flaccusy a great fa- 
vourite with the people ; fo that after 
being elefted curule aedile, upon the 
death of a praetor, he would have been 
chofen praetor in his room, though it 
was unprecedented, had not L. Porci- 
us, the conful, and the fenate, pievent- 
ed it, Liv. 39, 39. by forbidding any 
ele6iion to be made. Two years after, 
a. 572, being regularly elected, ib. ^6. 
he got the province of Hither Spain, 
/^/. 40, I. where he conquered the Ccl- 
tiberians, and ravaged their country, 
ib. 30, — 33. Upon his return to Rome, 
he was cholen one of the Poniifices, ib. 

42. and foon after made conful, while 
he ftaid without the city previous to 
his triumph ; and on the day after his 
election entered the city in triumph, ib. 

43. When cenfor, he took the mar- 
ble tiles or flags from the temple of La- 

S3 ] FUR 

cinian Juno, to cover a temple which 
he was building to Equeftrian Fortune 
at Rome^ in confequence of a vow he 
had made in the Cantabrian war ; but 
thisbeino' univerfally difapproved of, he 
was obliged to reftore them, Xm 42, 
3. (G. 179.) Next year, being over- 
whelmed with grief on account of the 
death of a fon, he ftrangled himfelf. It 
was thought that Juno had deprived 
him ot his judgnient for having unroof- 
ed her temple, ib. 28. 

ful a. 6. 9, being fent to the afiiftance 
of the people of Marfeilles, he is faid 
to have been the firil that fubdued the 
Ligures beyond the Alps, Liv. Epif. 
60. Having afterwards joined C-. Grac- 
chus, he was on that account flain by 
Opimius, the conful, with liis fon, Ap^ 
pian. B. C. I. p. ^6q ( occifus eji cwn li- 
beris), Cic. Cat. I, 2. his houfe levelled 
with the ground, and the area declared 
to be the property of the public, [ejus 
domus ever fa et publiccita ejT)^ CiC, Dom. 

48. Fl^ccian \ arl:a, the area on 

which the houfe of Flaccus itood, Val, 
Max. 6, 3, I. 

C. FuNDANius, a friend of Cicero's, 
Cic. ^ Fr. 1,2, 3. the father-in law 
of Varro, Varr. R R. 1,2. 

C. FuNDANius, a comic poet in the 
time of Auguftus, whom Horace prai- 
fes for his agreeable defcription of art- 
ful courtefans and cunning flaves, Sat^ 
I, 10, 42. et 2, 8, 19. 

M. Fun DAN I us, a tribune who pro- 
pofed the abbrogating of the Oppian 
law, Liv. 34, I. 

FURIAE, -arum^ the three Furies, 
AJe^o, Tyiphone, and Mcgaera^ fuppo- 
fed to be the avengers of wickednefe 
and crimes, Cic. N. D. 3, 18. — Adj. 
Flrialis; iiwiSf furialia membra, the 
members or torm of a fury, P^irg. Aen. 

FuRiNA, the goddefs of thieves; 
anciently worlhipped ; and her fellival, 
or facred rites, called F. RiN'tiA, 
Varr. L. L. ^, 3. but altogether dilu- 
fed in later tiaiesj iL et Cic. N, D. 3, 



C I 

1 8. A grove however continued to be 
called after her name, Luc is Fi ri- 
N^E, Cic. N. D. 3, 18. Ad Furinae, fc. 
templum, C'tc. 9\ Fr. 3, i, 2. 

FURIUS, the name of an illuftrf 
iQMi^ gens^ or clan, at Rome ; ancient- 
ly the fame with Fusius, Lii). 3* 4. ; 

^uind'tL 1,4, 13. T'ht: fam'mae J or 

fubdiviiions of it, were diftinguiilied by 
various firnames, as Aculco, Liv. ^^i, 
^^. Bibaciilus, Id. 22, 49. Camillus, 5, 
I. Crafsipes, 34, 53. Lufcus, 39, 7. 
Pacihis, 4, 12, &c. PhiJiis, 22, 35. 

Purpureo, 31, 29. As many of this 

gcTis happened to be employed as ge- 
nerals againfl the Gauls, it was faid, 
** That the Gallic wars were, by fome 
fatality, dellined to the Fur'ian family, '^ 
Liv. 3?, 48. 

M. FURIUS Camillus, feven times 
military tribune with confular authori- 
ty, Liv. 6, 18, & 22. ; five times dic- 
tator, ib. 42. He took Veji, and tri- 
umphed over it, Lro. 5, 21, & 23.; 
whence he is called the conqueror of 
the Tufcan nation, i^Furlus pophli fupe- 
rator Etrufc'ry Ovid. Fail, i, 641.) He 
conquered the Falifci, and by his gene- 
rous conduct induced them to furrender 
to him their capital Falerii,/;^. 27. which 
Ovid, (vvhofe wife was from that coun- 
ti-y), when he vifited it, thus defcribes, 
Moenia contjglmiis 'utda, CarAlhytibi,Ara. 

3, 13, 2. r— Camillus being unjullly 

accnfed by L. Apulejus, a tribune, 
went into voluntaiy banifhm.ent to Ar- 
dea, lb. 32. He was foon recalled to 
deliver his country fiom the Gauls, 
Viho had taken and facked F^ome. Ca- 
millus defeated them with great ilaugh- 
ter, and entered the city in triumph, 
ih. 49. Hence Virgil celebrates him as 
bringing back the Roman ilandards 
which he had recovered from the Gauis, 
(referentem Jigna Camllium), Aen. 6, 
826. So Propertius, 3, n, 67. Ca- 
millus next conquered the Volfci, and 
triumphed over them, Lin). 2, 2, & 4. 
When dittator for the fifth time, he 
gained a fecond viftory over the Gauls, 
and obtained a fourth triumph, lb. 42. 
He was cut off by the plague in the 

84 1 F U S 

80th year of his age, having merited, 
by his uncommon fervices, to be eftecra- 
ed another Romwlus, and a fecond 
founder of the city, Ltv. 7, -i . ( G. 2 1 8. 
— 222.) All the Roman writers con- 
cur in ^xtoUing the. virtue of Camillus, 
Clc. Doin. 32. Tujc. r, 37. ; Vtrg. 
G. 2, 169.; Propert. 3, 9, 31. ; Ho- 
rat.O'l 1, 12, 42.; Ep. I, 1,64.; 
Juvenal. 2, 154. et 16, 1 5. ; Lucan, 
I, 160. 2, 544. 6, 786. ; SIJ. 7, 598. ; 
Martial, i, 25. 3, 9, 28, [lu'vuius pro 
llbertate Camillus J ^ 11, 6, 7. (vid. Ca- 

Sp. FuRius Camillus, M. F. firfl 
praetor, Llv, 7, i. 

L. FuRius Ci3rm7/«j, didlator and 
conful, a. 406, Lit). 7, 24. He alfo 
gained a viftory over the Gauls, ib. 
26. and vowed a temple to Juno, af- 
tenvards called Moneta, Llv. 26, 28. 
(vld. Moneta.) Ovid con ounds this 
Furius with the great Camillus, F. I, 

L. FuRius McduUinus, feven times 
military tribune, Llv. 4. 25, & 35. 5, 
32. tiolce confuU Id. 4, 51, 5; 54. But 
fome of thefe offices are fuppofed to 
have been held by different perfons of 
the fame name. 

FcRius, a friend of Catulius, IT, 
I. in indigent circumllances, 23, i, & 

FUR.IUS, firnamed 3ibacul-;s, as 
it is fuppcfed, from liis fondnefs for 
drinking ; a poec, contemporary with 
Julius Caefar and Catullus, who wrote 
bitter faiires in Iambic verfe, ^nlncllL 
10, I, 96. f Tac. Ann. 4, 34. Horace 
is fuppofed to have ridiculed the falfc 
fuhlirne of his ftyle, Sat. 2, 5, 41. et ibi 
JchQliaJl. ^incill. 8, 6, 17. Furius was 
blamed for framing new words, Gelh 
18, II. Virgil however is faid to have 
borrowed feveral verfes from him. Ma- 

crob. Sat. 6, i. Furiana poemata, 

the poems of Furius, Cell. 18, 11. 

C. FuRNius, a friend of Cicero's, 
Ctc. Fam, 10, li ; the lieutenant of 
Plancus, lb. 6, & 8. 

FUSCUS Arylluii a grammari-' 
an, a poet, and orator j a man of wit 


r U S C r 

and of great intcgnty, muclV beloved 
by Horace, Hor, Sat. i, 9, 61.; Od. 
I, 22, /\i. Ep. r, ro, I. 

Sp. Fi'Sius vel Furius, the Pafer 
patratus, or herald' appointed to take 
the piibh'c oath in making a treaty with 
the Albans, Liv. 1, 24. 

Z,. F'Sius vel FuF^us, an orator, 
C'lc, Br, J\X), k 69. ; Or. 2, 22. et 3, 13.; 
Of. 2y 14. Btit the beil commentators 
on thele paffages read Furius, or Fu- 
Fius. So C. ^ M Fusil, Cic. F/ac. 

20. {Fid. Pearce ad Cic. Or. 2, 22. et 
Ernejli th'id. et Flcuc. 20. Ctc Fam. 9, 

2 1. J Fejiusin R. ; Macroh. Sat. 3, 2.) 

^. GABINIUS, a nobleman of 
Rome, who, when tribune, got a lav/ 
to be paffed, {Lex Gal^inia), appoint- 
ing Pompey commander againft the pi- 
ratesgr who atth^t time infeiled the feas, 
67V. Aland. 17. When conlul, he af- 
fifted Clodiiis. in effecling the banilh- 
irient of Cicero ; as a compenfation for 
which, he obtained the province of Sy- 
ria, Cic. Dem. 9. ; Sext. 25. After his re- 
turn from thence to Rome he was tried 
for his criminal condud:, and banilhed, 
Dlo, 39j 55> — 63. He v/as afterwards 
recalled by Caefar, and aCitd as one of 
his heutenants in the civil war, Z)/o, 
42, II.; App'ian. in JHyY. 762.; H'lrt. 
B. ilex. 43. At lait being befiegcd 
by Odtaviiis at Salonae, he died of a 
diicafe, lb. 

P. Gabinius Capito, praetor a. 
664, Cic. Arch. 5. accufed of extortion 
in Achaia^ Cic. Caedl. 20. 

Galanthis, -ulis, the handmaid 
{Oniid. Met. 9, 306, & 324.) of Alc- 
mena ; who iiaving effected the delive- 
ry of her miftrefs, by deceiving Ili- 
thyla, was by that goddel's turned into 
a weafel, [raujlela,) ib. 321, &c. 

Galatea, a fea-nympb, the daugh- 
'terof Nereus and Doris, beloved by 
the Cyclops Polyphemus ; to avoid 
whom ihc plunged into the fea, Ovid. 

Met. I , 742,-897.^ -f 2. The 

irjftrefsof Corydon, Virg. E. 7, 37, 

85 31 GAL 

Gala, a king of Niimidia, Liv, 
24, 48. the father of MaffiniiTa, ih, 49. 
et 29, 29. in alliance with the Cartha- 
ginians, /<^. 24, 49. 

Galea, the name of a branch ( fa- 
mi li a) of the Gens Sulpiciay vvhence 
the emperor Galba was defcended, 
Suet. Galb. 3; 

Sergio Sy v. Seri'ius Sulpicius GALBA, 
the molt eloquent orator of his time, 
*SV^/. Galb. 3.; Cic. Br. 21. ; Oa i, 
53. the firil of his family who dif- 
tinguifned himfclf 'in the (late. Suet, ib. 
After his praetorfliip, he obtained the 
province of Spain, a U. 601, ib. Cic. 
Or. I, 53; where, by the bafeft perfi- 
dy, he cut off 7000 of the Lufitani- 
ans, Fal. Max. 9,6, 2. ; Appian. Hifpan. 
288.* Suetonius fays 30,000, Galb. 3.; 
which gave rife to the war againft Vi- 
riatus, ii$. When hfe returned to Rome, 
he was? accui'ed of this Crime by Scri- 
bonius Libo and M. Cato ; but de- 
fended hirrifelf with fo great elo- 
quence, that he was acquitted, Cic. Or.^ 
1,53. Fyltir. 28 ;' Liv. E pit. ^i).) Tacit. 
Ann. 3, 66'. . He w^as afterwards conful' 
with L. Aurelius Cotta, a. 610. ; 
whence he is ranked among the ConfU" 
lares, Cic. Rabir. 7. 

C. Galea, the fon of Servius Gal- 
ba, the orator, who v/as condemned by 
the Mamilian (ah Manillan) hw. He 
is faid to have been the firft perfon 
of the college of priefts" that was con- 
demned by a piiblic fcntence, Cic. Or, 
I, ^6.; Br 26, & 34. 

Sergius Galba, the fon of C. and 
grandlon of Sertr. the lieutenant of 
Catfar in Gaul, X'^^J ^. (?. 3, i. & 4, 3, 
Sec. and afterwards One of the confpi- 
rators agaiiifl him, Suet. Galb. 3. ; Pa^ 
terc. 2, 56. ; Cic. PhU. 13, 1 6. ; Fam, 
ic, 30. et II, 18. He was the great- 
grandfather of the emper-or Galba, Suet, 

Sulpicius Ga l b a, the emperor's grand- 
father, never rofe higher than the prae- 
torfliip. He devoted his chief atten- 
tion to literary purluits, and publifhed 
a hiflory, containing a great variety of 
interelling information, Suet'. Galb. 3. 
A a but 

GAL [ 

but on what fubje(£^ we are not told. 
Voflius thinks, that Sulpicius, the hif 
torian, nientioncd by Nepos, 22, 13. 
Avas the fame with Galba ; but this 
fcems improbable, as Galba appears to 
have been younger than Nepos. 

j4 Galea, f. Gabba, a witty buf- 
foon at the court of Auguilus or Ti- 
berius, y^/Tf/jd!/. 5, 4. f/ Scholia/}, i Mar- 
tial. I, 42, 16. et 10, loi. 

Galeo, -onisy one who left Cicero 
his heir, Cic, Att. 11, 11. 

Galli, the priefts of Cybele, Ovid. 
F. 4, 361, named from Gallus, a river 
of Phrygia, ib. 364. 

Galli, v. GaUii duoy two of the 
name of Gallus or GaUius, Cic, Fam. 
8, 4. 

Gallonius, a public crier (prae- 
co) noted for his luxury, Cic. Fin. 
^ind. 3c. and on that account cenfu- 
red by Lucllius, Cic. Fin. 2,8.; Hor. 
Sat. 2, 2,47, 

, . Gallus, a fenator, Cic. Ver. 3, 

Gallus, a Roman noted for his 
knowledge of aftronomy, ((?./>. 22.) 

Corn. GALLUS, a poet in great 
favour with Auguftus, Suet. Aug. 66. 
to whom Virgil infcribes his laft ec- 
logue, Virg.E. 10. etih. Serv. ^inc- 
til. ly S, S. et lOy I, 93. ; Propert. 2, 
25, 91. In the war againll Antony he 
took Paraetonium,and preferved it with 
great courage and condud, Dio, 51, 
9. He was the firil Roman governor 
of Egypt, Dio, S^^ ^V But behaving 
\mdutifully towards Auguftus, and a- 
buhng his truft, he was fentenced to 
be banifhed, and l>is goods confifcated ; 
which fo affeded him, that he laid 
violent hands on himfelf, DiOf 53, 23. 
Auguilus however lamented his death, 
Suet. 66. 

Jelius GALLUS, governor of E- 
gypt, alter the former, who is laid to 
Lave been the firll and only Rom,an 
that made war on the Arabians, Dio, 
53, 29. : Fiin. 6, 28, ; Add. Strak 16. 
^.'780, 17. //. 816, 5c 819.; JofepL 
B. Jud 15, .2. 

Gakymepes, vV, the fon of Tros^, 

186 3 GAL 

. king of Troy, whom, on account of 

his beauty, Jupiter caufed to be car- 
ried to heaven by an eagle, and made 
him his cup-bearer in place of Hebe, 
Cic. Tufc. I, 26.; Hor. Od. ^f 2, i. 
-^called FlavuSf yellow haired, beau- 
tiful, Nor. Od. 4, 4, 4. Phrygius, of 
Phrygian extraction, Ovid. Met. 10, 
195. faid to have been carried off, 
while hunting on Mount Ida, Virg, 
Aen. 5, 252. Propertius makes Ju- 
piter himielf in the form of an eagle, 
[yupiter avis)y to carry off Gauymedes 
from Troy, 2, 30, 30. Adj. Gany- 
mede u s, -eae comae ^ beautiful hair like 
that of Ganymedes, Martial. 9, 17. 

Gar G I LI us, a vain man, who paffed 
through the Roman forum in the morn- 
ing with his flaves and inftruments for 
hunting, and returned in the evening 
carrying a boar, which he had bought, 
that he might appear to have caught 
it himfelf, Hor. Ep. i, 6, 58. 

L. Gavius Firmanus, a trader in 
Cilicia, whom Cicero made one of his 
praefcds, Cic. Att. 6, i. but he proved 
ungrateful, ib. 3. 

Geganius, the name of a patrician 
gensy chofen from among the chief men 
of Alba, (Geganii ex Albanis principibus 
in patres letti,) Liv. i, 50. 

M. Geganius Macerlnusy a conful, 
Liv. 3, 65, &c. who triumphed over 
the Volfci, 4, 10. 

Gellius, a common name amon 
the Romans, CicetLiv.paJfn 

L. Gellius, an orator, Cic Br. 27, 

& 47.: H 2. A conful a. 681. and 

cenfor with Cn. Lentulus, Cic. Balb. 8, 
'\ 14. who beftowed on Cicero the 
highell praifes for having cruflied the 
confpiracy of Catiline, Cic. ad ^ir, 
poji nd. 7. Pif. 3. 

J. (i. e. Aulus,) GELLIUS, an 
ingenious and learned mifcellaneous 
writer, [vir ekgantijjimi e/oquii, ac multae 
et facundae faentiacy Auguilin de Civ, 
Dei, 9, 4.) in the time of Adnan and 
the Anionines, who compoied a valu- 
able v/ork called Noctes Atticae, 
in twenty books, which is ftiU extant. ^ 
Some call him Agellius, 



G E G [ 1 

Cn, et Sext. Gellii, Latin hiftori- 
ans, but of little repute, C'tc. Div, i, 
26. Leg. I, 2. 

Gelo vtl Gc'/on, 'Onisy a tyrant of 

Syracufe, (G. 274.) <|| 2. A fon 

of Hlero's, who revolted to the Car- 
thac^lnians, Liv. 23, 30. et 24, 5. 

Geminius Metjus, a Tufculan (lain 
by T. Matilius IniingIecombat,Zy7=u.8,7. 

GeNIUS, voc. Gent, the guardian 
deity of each individual, Cenforin. de die 
Natali, c. 2, & 3. Apulei. de Genio^ vel 
Daevione Soc rails ; fuppofed to be born 
and to die with every one, Horat. Ep. 
2, 2, 187. worfhipped by facrifices, 
L'tv. 2 1 , 62. ; Tibul. 4, 5, 9 .; Per/. 2, 3. 
invoked in oaths, Senec. Ep. 12. and 
intreaties, Hor. Ep. i, 7, 94. Thus it 
was common to fvvear by the genius of 
the emperor, Tertidl. Apol. c. 27^ & 32. 

The guardian deities of women 

were called Ju nones, Senec. Ep. 1 10. ; 
Plin, 2, 7. TibuUus mentions both, 
Magne Genif cape thura lihcnSy 4, 5, 9. 
Nat alls yutio fandos cape t hurls acervosy 
4, 6, I. Hence Juvenal fpeaking of 
the effeminacy of Otho, reprefents his 
flave as fwearing by the Juno of his 
mafter, inftead of fwearing by his ge- 
nius, {^Et per jfunonem domint jurantc ml' 
nljlroy) 2, 98. In this manner fome 
explain the following paffage of Virgil ; 
Cm non rlfere parentes, nee dens, ( i. e. 
genius,) hunc menfd, dea, (i. e. yuno na- 
talls ) nee dlgnata ciiblH ejl ; but others 
more fimply explain it thus, " Neither 
l;ias a god admitted to his table, nor a 
goddefs to her bed, the boy on whom 
his parents have not fmiled at his birth,'* 
Vlrg. E. 4, 63. i. e. fuch a child has 
never enjoytd the happinefs promifed 

to tlie fon of Pollio, lb. 15. Places 

alfo and cities had each their genius, 
Flrg.Jen. 5, 95. ; Llv. 2i, 62. 

T, Genucius, a tribune, killed at 
Ms own houfe, as was believed, by the 
influence of the patricians, Llv. 2, 54^ 

C. Genucius, one of the iirft ple- 
beian augurs, Llv. 10, 9. 

GEHMaNiCUS, the fon of Dru- 
fus and Antonia, who, when vefy 
young, was entrufled by Auguftus 
with the command of the army ©n the 

87 ] GET 

Rhine, confifting of eight legions, Tac» 
An. I, 3, & 7. His uncommon merit 
made him univerfally belovi.'d. Upon 
hearing of the death of Auguftus, his 
foldiers mutinied, and wifhed to make 
him emperor, Ih. 33» & 35. But he 
obftinately refufed the offer, and ha- 
ving, with great danger, quelled the 
fedition, led his army againit the Ger- 
mans, whom he defeated in feveral en- 
gagements, /5. 51. 5cc. Being recall- 
ed by Tiberius, ih. 2, 26. he was 
honoured with a triumph, lb. 41. and 
foon after was fent with an army to the 
eaft, under pretext of fettling fome 
commotions in that part of the em- 
pire, but in reality to remove him out 
of the way ; his tranfcendent virtue 
having rendered him odious to the jea- 
lous emperor, lb. 43. He died at An- 
tioch, in the thirty-fourth year of his 
age, having been poifoned, as was fuf- 
pe6led, by Pifo and his wife Plancina, 
at the indigation of Tiberius and his 
mother Livia, Suet. Cal. i, & 2.; Tat. 
lb. 69. The death of Germanicus 
caufed incredible grief, not only at 
Rome, but among foreign nations, Suet, 
lb. 5, & 6. ; Tac. lb. 2, 82, &c. He 
left nine children by his wife Agrip- 
pTna, the daughter of Julia, and grand- 
daughter of Auguftus, Suet. Cal, 7. 

Geryon, -onls,v. GeryOnes, -ae, a 
king of Spain, feigned by the poets 
to have had three bodies, becaufe he 
ruled over three iflands, Ivica, Majorca, 
and Minorca, Serv. ad Vlrg. A. 7, 661. 
hence called Ter amplus, Hor. Od. 2, 
14, 7. 'Tergemlnl vis Ceryondl, for Ge- 
ryonae, Lucr. 5,28. Tergcm'mus Geryon^ 
Vitg. Aen. 8, 202. Forma trlccrporls 
umbrae, ib. 6, 289. Prodiglum trlpLx^ 
Ovid. Ep. 9, 91. ilain by Hercules, lb, 
(G. 399.) — adj. Geryon Eus ct Ge- 
ryon a c e u s ; Gerycnaceum genus, like a 
moniler, Plaut. Aul. 3, 6, 18. 

Geta, a Roman nobleman, expelled 
from the fenate, and yet himfelf after- 
wards made cenfor, Cic. Cluent. 42.; Val, 
Max,2,^, 9. — ^ 2. The name of a Have 

in Terence, Aael. et Phor. ^ 3. A 

Roman emperor, the fon of Severus, 

/Iain by bis brother Caracalla, (G. 247.) 

Aa s Ct^BRiOj 

G L A [ iS3 

Glabr 10, -onisf a firname of the j4d- 
//■/, Cic. Brut. 68. 

M. Glabrio, praetor and inquifitor 
in the caufe of Verres, Cic. Ad, I. in 
Verr- 2. 

Gi/AuciA, a firnaine d'i xSit Ser'villiy 
Cic. Or. %, 41. e^ 2, 61, 

C. GlauCia, a praetor, flain by the 
confuls Marius and Valerius, Cic^ Rabir. 
7. Cat. ;^, 6. 

GLAUC.US, t^e fon of Hfppolo- 
chus, who came to the afiiilance of the 
Trojans, Homer. II. .6, 236. — ^ — f 2. A 
;fifherman of Ajithedon in Euboea, 
converted into a fea god, . O'vid. Met. 
13, 90 J, Sec, ibence cailec] Enhoicus tu- 
midarum cultor aquannn^ Id. 14, 4,— — 
11^ 3. The fon of Sisyphus, the king of 
Pqtniae near Thehes in Boeotia, who 
was devoured .by the mares that drew 
his carriage, which are faid to have 
-been rendered furious by Venus, y^'irg. 

C. Zy 267. 

Glycera, v. 'Cy 3. girl beloved by 
Horace, Od. i, jg, 5. >/ 30, 3. 

Glycerium, -i, f. the miilrefs of 
Paipphtlus, Ter. And. I, 5, 9. 

GLYCON, -Znis, a man of uncom- 
mon ftrencTth, Hor, Ep. i, 1, 30. 

GoRDiANus, a Roman emperor, 


GoRDius, made king of Phrygia, 
from being a peafant. — He confecrated 
his cart in the temple of Jupit,er at 
Gordium, the yoke of which was fo 
artfully bound, that no one could un- 
tie the knot. Alexander the Great, 
being told that there was a prediction, 
that whoever untied this knot (lioiild 

k become mailer of Afia, after having 
attempted it in vain, cut the knot 
afunder with his f'.vord ; and pretend- 
ed that thus he had fidnlled the pro- 
phecy, Ji-jTm. II, 7. ; Curt, 3, i. i6. ; 
jirnan. 2, />. 87. 

GORGE, -es, one of the fillers of 
Meleagcr, Ovid. Met. 8, 942. 

GORGE, -csj one of the daughters 
of Oeneus and Althaea, the wife of 
Andraemon, ApoUodor. i, 8, i. who 

. with Dejanira retained their form when 
their fillers were changed into birds by 

] G O R 

Diana after the death of their brother 
Meleager, Ovid. Met. ^^ 542.; Hygin. 
174. as it is faid, by the interceffion of 
Bacchus, who obtained that favour 
from Diana, Anton. Liberal, Metaph. 
c. 2 

GORGIAS, -ae, a celebrated fo- 
phift and orator of Leontini in Sicily, 
(^Leontinus,) Cic. In v. 1, 5. Or. i, 22. 
et 3, 32. Being fent by his country- 
men to folicit afliftance from the Athe- 
nians againfl: the Syracufans, he indu- 
ced them to undertake their fatal expe- 
dition to JSicily, Diodor. 12, 53, & 83. 
Gorgias w'as the firft that undertook 
to fpeak in public extempore., on any fuh- 
je6l that was prcpofed to him, Cic. Fin. 
2, I. Or. I, 22. He was fo famous^ 
-that a golden (latue was ered;ed to him 
at Ddphi by the whole of Greece, Cic, 
Or. 3, 32. Pie was the mafter of So- 
crates, and of many other phiiofophers 
and orators. He lived to the age of 
J 07, Cic. Sen. 5. From him Plato gave 
the name of Gorgias to his dialogue 
again ft the fophifts, Cic^ Or. i, 11. 

GQRGO, V. Gorgon^ 'Onis, plur. 
GoRGONEs, three fa;bulous fillers, the 
daughters of Phorcus, a king of Afri- 
ca, called S4hejio,JLuryaley and Medufa, 
having fnakes iuftead of hair, and turn- 
ing into ilone every one that looked at 
tl>em ; all of them immortal, except 
Medufa, whofe head Perfeus cut off, 
(G. 395.) Ovid fays that there were 
only two fitters, and that Med u fa's 
head alone was fuiTounded with fer- 
pents. Met. 4, 774, & 791. Hence 
GoRGO, V. -on, onis, the gopgon in the 
fmg. put for Medufa, Cic Fer. 4, 56. 
or for her head, which Perfeus, after 
havingliniftied his exploits, prefented to 
Minerva, who placed it in her (hield, 
Firg. A en. 2, 616. ; Ovid. Met. 4 /. 
whence Minerva is called Gorgopho- 
RA, Pfeud. Cic. anteqnam tret 
c. 10. — Gorgon I A, ae, f. coral, (quia 
in duriiiem lapidis mutatur,) Plin. 37, 10. 

Gorgon EUs crinis, the hair 

Medufa, Ovid. Met. 4, 801. Gorgcneae 
domusy the habitation of the Gorgons, . 

ih, ri'^' 


G O R C I 

CoRGONius, a perfon mentioned 
hy 'Horace as ihaving an offenfive fmcll, 
^Sat. T, .2, 27. 

GilACCHUS, the firname of a 
-branch f/nmiliaj of the Gens Sempro- 
nja. adj. Gracchanus ; Gracchanum 
jllud, that faying of Gracchus, ^tinclil. 
II, 7,, 115. 

Tib. Sempromus GRACCHUS, maf- 
ier of horfe to M. Junius, who was 
made di<ftator by the authority of the 
fenate, a. 538, after the defeat at Can- 
jiae, Liv. 22, 57. Next year Grac- 
chus was elefted conful, Id. 23, 24. 
-though at the time he was curule aedile 
and mailer of horfe, lb. 30. His col- 
league -was JFabiu5 Maximu; Marcelhis 
had been chofen con.ful, but the augurs 
declared his election invahd, becaufe it 
•happened to thunder while he perform- 
ed the folcmnities u-fuiil on entering 
-upon his office, (quod ineuntl confidalum 
4onui(j'';Jt ) . The fenators alleged tliat 
the gods were difpleafed, becaufe then, 
for the tirft time, two plebeians had 
been made confuls, ih. 31. The army 
which fell to the lot of Gracchus, was 
compofed chiefly of the flaves who vo- 
luntarily enlifted after- the overt,hrow 
at Cannae, (hence called Volones, 
Z/'-y. 2, 57.) and 2 5,000 allies, /./=u. 23, 
^2. Th(=fe undifciplined troops Grac- 
chus trained with fo great difpatch and 
prudence, that with them he perform- 
ed the molt important fervices to the 
flate. He took the camp of the Cam- 
pani by an unexpected attack in the 
night-time, ih. 35. and foon after for- 
ced Aniiibal to raife the fiege of Cu- 
mae, d). 37. The following year, be- 
ing continued in his command. Id. 24, 
10. he defeated an arm.y of Carthagi- 
nians and Italians under Hanno, in a 
pitched battle near Bcnevtntym, with 
great (laughter. The volunteer flaves " 
(^volcjnes) fought v,'it"h fuch courage, 
that next day Gracclius, by the au- 
thority of the fenate, granted them 
their liberty, iL 15, .Sc 16. The year 
after, Gracchus being made conful a 
fecond time in liis abfence, ib. 43. 
fought many fl<:irn-.i(hes and reduced 
feveral places in Luc?Ri:a, but perfonn- 

?9 1 G R A 

ed no aftion of great importance, Liv. 
25, I. Next year he was ftdl conti- 
nued in his command, ib. 3. Being led 
■into an.ambufcade by the treachery of 
his hoft, he fell fighting bravely, ib. 1 6.; 
Nep. 22, 5. There were different; ac- 
counts concerning the manner of his 
death, Liv. 1 7. which is faid to have been 
foreboded to him by a prodigv, lb. 16. 
Td^. Sempronlus G-RACCHUS, P. 
F. (i. e. Pubnifdlus.Cicp'w. I, 18.,) 
•when a young man, waa<' diftinguifhed 
for his activity above all the youth qf 
-bis time ; on which account, m the war 
againft Antiochus, he was fent by L. 
Scipio on an important embafly to 
Philip, king of Macedooia, and execu- 
ted that commifiion to tlxe great fatis- 
faclion of his commander, Liv. 37, 7. 
When tribune, he defended Scipio A- 
fricanus, though formerly inimical to 
him, from the accuf^'on of the Fefdlly 
his colleagues in the tribunefliip, lb. 38, 
& 52. On account of this generous 
condu£l he was thanked in the fenat£ 
by the chief men of the ftate, lb. 53, 
and Scipio, as a mark of his approba- 
tion, gave him his younger daughter 
Cornelia, for the elder 1. ad been form- 
erly married to P. Cornelius Scipio Na- 
-sica, ib. But this fail is related dif- 
ferently by different authors, Liv. 38, 
57. ; Fal. Max. 4, 2, 3. ; G.dl. 2, 8. 
After the death of Africarius,Gracchup, 
with equal firmnefs, fupported the caule 
of L. Scipio, Z/=t;.38,6o.; ' Ic. Prov.Conf. 
8. Gracchus, v/hen praetor, obtained 
the province of Hither Spain, Liv. 40, 
35. Next year, being continued in his 
command, he took the city Munda, 
defeated the Celtiberians, 48, &c. and 
having reduced them to a furrender, 
returned to the city in triumph, Liv» 
41, 7. Gracchus being made conful, 
a. 577, t3. 8. v;as fent againff the Sar- 
dinians, whom he fubducd, and tri- 
umphed over them, Liv. 41, i 7, &c.— r- 
A. U. 585, he was eleded cenfor with 
C. Claudius Pulcher, Liv. 43, 14. In 
this ofHce Gracchus and his colleague 
acled with great unanimity, and with 
fo much llriclnefs, that they engaged 
ill a diipute with a tribune of the com* 


G R A [I 

mons, who fummoned them both to a 
trial before the people. Claudius 
would have been banifhed had not 
Gracchus prevented it by declaring, 
that if his colleague were condemned, 
he would go into voluntary exile along 
with him, ib. 1 6. Gracchus in his 
cenforiliip built a hall for holding 
courts of juftice, afterwards called Ba- 
silica Sempronia, Z/'i). 44, 16. He 
ordained that all freed men (hould be 
included in one of the four city-tribes, 
namely the Efquiline, Id. 45, 15. Ci- 
cero fays, in the four city-tribes in ge- 
neral, ( Itbertinoa in urbanas trihus tranf- 
tullii) and highly commends the regu- 
lation. Or. I, 9. So Aurel. Victor. 
ae Fir. Illnji. 55. — Gracchus next year 
was fent on an embaffy into Afia to 
examine how the different powers, par- 
ticularly Antiochus and Eumenes, 
flood affeftcd tpvards the republic, 
Polyb. Legal. 105. Upon his return 
he was made conful a fecond time ; Ci- 
cero fays, on account of his meritorious 
behaviour when cenfor, Inv. i, 30. 

Gracchus prefided at the eledion of 
the next confuls, when Sclpio Nasica 
and Figulus were chofen ; after which 
he wtnt' to Sardinia, which had been 
allotted to him as his province. There 
recolleding that he had not properly 
taken the omens at the ele<!^ion oi con- 
fuls, he wrote of it to the augurs ; and 
they having communicated his letter 
to the fenate, a decree was immediate- 
ly pafied, " That the confuls, (who 
had not only entered on their office, 
but had gone to their provinces,) 
fnould refign their office ;" which they 
accordingly did, and new confuls v.ere 
fubftituted in their place, dc.N. D. 2, 
4. Di-o- 1,17. ^ i'V. 2, 2. ; Fal. Max. 
Ij I. 2.*— Two fnakes of different lexes 
having been found in the houfe of 
Gracchus, he is faid to have cor.iulted 
the Harufplcesy who declared, tliat if he 
let go the male ferpent, his wife muft 
die in a fliort time ; but if the female, 
himfeif. Gracchus, who extremely 
loved his v^'ife, and behdes thought it 
fitter that he, an old man, fiiould die, 

90 1 G R A 

than Cornelia in the prime of life, kill- 
ed the male ferpent, and let the female 
efcape. In a few days after he died, 
Cic. Div. I, 18. f/2, 29.; Fal. Max. 
4, 6, I. leaving behind him twelve chil- 
dren by Cornelia, all of whom died be- 
low the age of puberty, except, a 
daughter, who was married to Sciplo 
Africanus the younger, and two-fons, 
Tiberius and Caius, Plutarch, in Tib* 
Graccho pr. Cicero extols Gracchus as 
a man of confummate wifdom, and en- 
dued with every virtue, Proi). Conful. 8. 
Br. 20. N. Z?. 2, 4, &c. To him Vir- 
gil is thought to allude, ^lis Gracchi 
genus? fc. taciturn relinquatj A. 6, 842. 

Tib. GllACCHUS, T. F. P. N. 
was nine years older than his brother 
Caius. They were educated with the 
utmoft care by their mother Cornelia, 
a woman of uncommon virtue and ac- 
comphfhments ; who procured for them 
the ableft mailers from Greece, (exqui- 
Jitos a Graecia magifiros); and among 
thefe Diophanes of Mitylene, the 
moil eloquent man of his time, Cic. 
Br. 27. Tiberius was of a mild and 
compofed temper, but Caius v.^as ardent 
and paffionate. There was a fimilar dif- 
ference in their manner of fpeaking ; 
but they were equally remarkable for 
valour, juftice, integrity, temperance, 

and fobriety. Tiberius, when but a 

young man, was held in fuch eftima- 
ticn, that he was admitted into the 
college of augurs ; and Appius Clau- 
dius, who was then prince of the fenate, 
and excelled all his contemporaries in 
wifdom, offered him his daughter in 
matriage : Vv'hich propofai Tiberius with 
much fatisfaftion embraced. When 
Appius went home and told his wife, 
that he had betrothed his daughter ; 
(lie faid in furpriie, " Why fo fudden- 
ly ! What means this haile ? Unlefs 
you have betrothed her to Tiberius 
Gracchus.'* Plutarch. Tiberius, while 
he ferved in Africa under his brother- 
in-law Scipio Africanus the younger, 
excelled all the young men of the army 
in regularity of behaviour, as well as 
courage. At the taking of Carthage 


G R A C 191 ] 

he was the firft that mounted the wall, glned, 

Plutarch. After his return to Rome, 

being made quaellor, it fell to his lot 
to attend Mancinus, the conful, to the 
Numantine war. Mancinus was a man 
of virtue, but unfortunate. Being de- 
feated and furrounded by the Numan- 
tines, he was obliged to beg a truce ; 
but the Nuinantines refuled to nego- 
tiate with any one but Tiberius Grac- 
chus; who concluded with them a treaty 
on equitable terms, and thus faved from 
deftruAion 20,000 Roman citizens, be- 
fides flaves and futlers, who attended the 
army, [praeter calones et lixas ) . But the 
fenate and people at Rome very unjuiUy 
annulled this treaty, and ordered Man- 
cinus, with his own concurrence, [Lh. 
Ep'it. ^6.', Cic. 0^.' 3, 30.) for having 
made it, to be delivered naked and 
bound to the Numantines. Gracchus, 
however, the chief author of the trea- 
ty, was exempted from this puniili- 
ment, and for his fake the other offi- 
cers, who had fworn to the treaty, 
Plutarch. Gracch. p. 827. Tiberius go- 
ing through Tufcany, in his way to 
Numantia, had obferved the country ve- 
ry much depopulated, there being hai d- 
ly any hufbandmen or fliepherds in the 
fields, except (laves or barbarians, which 
was occalioned by the nobility having 
in a great meafure engrofled the pro- 
perty of land, [vid. R. A, p. 543.) and 
deprived the poorer citizens ot their 
poffeffions, Plutarch, ih. ; Salltiji. Jug. 
41.; App'ian. B. C. i, p. 353, &c..; 
Lucan. I, 167. Tiberius, therefore, be- 
ing created tribune of the people, a. 
620, refolved to correil: this abufe by 
enforcing the Licinian law, <' that no 
one fhould pofTcfs above 500 acres of 
land," [A. 207, & 216.). The fame 
thing had been attempted by C. Lae- 
lius in his tribunelhip ; but he perceiv- 
ing the oppofition which fuch a mea- 
fure would meet with from the rich, 
prudently defifled ; whence he got the 
firname of sapiens, the wife, Plutarch, 

Tiberius profecuted his defign with 
great eagernefo, as it was generally ima- 

G R A 

at the inftigation of his prae- 
ceptor Diophanes, the orator, and Blo- 
fius, a philofopher. Some faid that he 
was pi-ompted to it by his mother Cor- 
nelia often calling up to him, " that 
the Romans fliU called her the mother- 
in-law of Scipio, and not the mother 
of the Gracchi," Plutarch. Ih. He was 
hkevvife incited by bills affixed to por- 
ticoes, to the corners of llrcets and 
monuments, imploring him to reftore 
the public lands to the indigent citi- 
zens, ib. Cicero fays, that Gracchus 
was moved by refentment againllthe fe- 
nate for having difappi-oved of the trea- 
ty which he had made with the people of 
Numantia, Har. Refp. 20. So Pater- 

culus, 2, 2. Tiberius, in drawing up 

his law, was direded by the advice of 
the wifeft men in the ftate. Among 

whom were Craffus the high pricft. Mu- 
cins Scaevola then conful, and his fa- 
th^^r-in-law Appius Claudius, Plutarch, 
ib, ; Clc. Acad, 4, 5. Plutarch fays, 
that never was a law propofed more 
mild and gentle againft fucli iniquity 
and oppreffion, ih. The nobility, how- 
ever, and the pofieiTors of the public 
lands, being greatly alarmed, ufed eve- 
ry means to oppofe it. For this pur- 
pofe they procured the affiftance of M. 
06tavius, one of the tribunes, and for- 
merly the friend of Tiberius, Cic, Br, 
25. ; who was intereiled in refilling the 
law, as he hirafelf poffefTed a confider- 
able portion of the public lands. Ti- 
berius, though not rich, offered to in'" 
demnify him for his lofs, if he would 
defiil from his oppofition ; but in vain. 
Whereupon, by order of the people, 
Oiitavius was depofed from his office, 
Clc. N.D, I, 38. and then the law be- 
ing pafled concerning the public lands, 
Tiberius himfelf, his brother, and fa- 
ther-in-law, were^ appointed commif- 
fioners to divide them. Tiberius was 
now in the height of his power, whence 
he is faid to have a6ted for a few- 
months with fovereign authority, {reg- 
ndjje paucos menfes), Cic. Amic. 12. la 
the mean time, news being brought 
of Pergamus had 

thiit Attalus king 

G R A f 

left tlie Roman people his heir, Grac- 
chus promulgated a law, " That the 
ready nioney ariiin^ from that inheri- 
tance fhoiild be diftributed among fuch' 
poot* citizens as were to be Iharers iiV 
the public laiid«, to enable them to 
purchafc riiilic utenfils, and other 
things, requifite for cultivating the 
jrroh'nd.'- By this propofal Tiberius' 
cxafperated the fenate li'ill more than 
eVer. His friend?, therefore, appre- 
h'cfnllve of danger, advlfed him to aflc 
that he might be (Continued in the tri- 
bunediip for another year. In the 
n\ean time he propofed feveral popular 
laws, to fecure the attachment of the 
people^ while the patricians exerted all 
their power to oppofe him. As it was 
towaids the end of fummer, many of 
the friends of Tiberius were eng^aged 
in the country, fo that he was obliged' 
to depend on the plebeians" of the city. 
The day before the comltia were held 
for voting abont the laws he had pro- 
pofed, Plntatch. ih. p. 832. (Appian 
fays for the deftion of liew tribunes, 
th. p. 358. So Lh. Ep'it. 58.), Tibe- 
rius having expreiTcd his fear of being 
attacked in his houfe by his enemies, a 
riiihlber of people kept watch before 
bis gate during the night, Plutarch. 
Next morning feveral unlucky omeiis 
are faid to have appeared to' him. 
When, howt^ver, he heard that the 
people Were affembled in the Capitol,-, 
he inilantly went thither, arid was re- 
ceived wnth Joud acclamatiolis. But 
fodn after he was' informed by Fulvius 
Flaccns a fenator, that the rich men' 
in the fenate, feeing they could not 
pre\^-il on the conful to join with them 
in their defign, had refolved to aiTalfi- 
nate him themfelves, and for that pur- 
pofe had' armed a number of their 
clients arid' flavesi- Tiberius having 
cofnmiitiicatcd this intelligence to 
thofe around him,' they immediately 
tucked up their g'Owns,- and feized 
whatever inflruments of defence they 
could hnd. Upon which, thofe who 
ftood at a diftarxe being furpfifed, and 
demanding the cauf^ of the tariiilt, 

f92' T G R A 

Tiberias, knowing that they couM 
not hear his words, raifed his hand to 
his head, thereby intimating that his 
life was in danger. His adverfaries ob- 
fefving thisjprefently ran to the ienate- 
houfe,' and told " that Tiberius aiked 
from the people a diadem.'* All the 
feilators were thrown into great jiertur- 
batiOn. Scipio Nafica,- th.e high-prleft 
arid coufui-german to Tiberius, de- 
manded that Miicius Scaevo^a, the con- 
ful, would defend the government and 
deftroy the tyrant : When the coni'ul 
repHed gently, " that he would not 
beg'Iii to life violence, nor put any 
citizen to death uncondemned ;" Sci- 
pio ftarting up, faid, " Thofe who 
wifh to fupport the laws, aiidprefcrve 

throwing the ilcirt of his' toga over his 
head, (or,' as Paterculus fays, wrap- 
ping it round his left arm, circumdatd 
Ictevo brdchio fdgae lacinid, 2, 3.), he 
haftened to the Capitol, accompanied 
by a number of the patricians and their 
dependents, armed with clubs, knock- 
ing down all that came in their way ; 
fo that the people were foon difperfed, 
and many of them killed. Tiberius in 
his flight was Hopped by one who took 
hold of his clothes ; but having left 
his toga, and efc?.ping in his tunic, 
he happened toUumbie over fome of 
thofe v;^ho had fallen before him, 
Whilit he endeavoured to recover him- 
felf, he was (truck on the head with 
the foot of a ftool by P. Saiureius, one 
of his colleagues in the tribunelhip. He 
was diipatched by a fecond blow from 
L,. Rutus, who boafted of what he had 
done, as an honourable deed. Plutarchy 
p, 833. Some fay that Tiberius was 
killed without moving from the place 
wiiere he Hood, A. ad Herenn. 4, ^^, 
Florus fays, that the maffacrc began in 
the forumi and that Tiberius fled from 
thence to the Capitol, 3, 14, Appian, 
who differs from Plutarch in feveral 
particulars, fays,^ that Tiberius vras 
flain in the tumult, wi«-h many of his 
friends, near the gate of the te:nple, 

before the ftatues of the kings, p. 



G R A C 

The number of thofe that fell was 
above 300. They were all killed with 
clubs or flones, without any military 
weapon, and their carcafes thrown in- 
to the Tiber. Cains was not permit- 
ted to bury the body of his brother, 

though he earneftly requeued it. 

This was the hrft civil blood llied iu 
Rome, which afterwards flowed in 
fuch abundance, VelL 2, 3. (y^. 140.) 
Tiberius Gracchus is faid to have 
been flain by Scipio NasTca, becaufe 
he was the chief author of his d^ ath. 
Cic, Cat. I, I. This deed C'cero 
hii^hly extols, ib. Phih 8, 4. ei alibi 
pQJftm. and declares that Africanus did 
not more proBt the republic by de- 
ftroying Numantia, than Nasica by 
killing Tib. Gracchus, Off* i. 22. So 
Fall. Max. 5, 3. 2. To the fame pur- 
pofe Velleius Paterculus, 2, 3. who, 
however, beftows an Tiberius the fol- 
lowing juft eulogium ; Tribunns pi. crea- 
titSj 'vir alioqui 'vitd tnnocenttjfimus, in- 
genlo Jlorentiffimvs, propofuo fan^iffimuSi 
tantis dcniqiie adornatus 'viriutibus, quan- 
tas perfe6la et naturd ei indujlrid mortalis 
conditio redpit, ib. 2. Plutarch, p. 834. 
and Appian, p. 360. blame the con- 
du6l of the fenate. The opinion of 
Appian feems to be juft, " that Ti- 
berius was actuated by the bed inten- 
tions, but profecuted his dehgn too 
violently," ib. Many of the friends of 
Tiberius were afterwards put to death 
or banifhed, which fliewed that the 
nobility were animated more by refent- 
ment than regard for the public well- 
fare, Plutarch, ib. ; Val. Max. 6, 3. 
Vid. Scipio Nasica. 

C. GRACCHUS, for feverr.1 years 
after his brother's death, lived in re- 
tirement, applying himfelf with great 
attention to the ftudy of eloquence, 
in which he excelled all his con- 
temporaries, Cic. Br. 33.; ^inQil. I, 
10, 27. Being made quaellor, a. 627, 
he attended the conful Oreftcs to 
Sardinia, where he gave a noble fpe- 
cimen of every virtue. While he Hood 
candidate for the quaeilorfliip, his 
brother is faid to have appeared to 
Vim in a dream, and forewarned him 

193 1 G R A 

that he rtiould perlfh by the fame deatli 
with himfelf, Cic. Div. i, 26. ; Fal. 
Max. I, 7, 6. After his return from 
Sardinia, being eledled tribune, he got 
feveral laws enafted, to raife the autb.o- 
rity of the people and lefTen thatof ibe 
fenate. Gracchus took from the fe- 
nators the right of ailing ^s judges or 
juiTmen, becaufe they had abufed it, 
and confened it on the equites. Plu- 
tarch fays, by miftake, that he divided 
this right between the fenators and 
equites ; but this was not done till after 
the time of Gracchus. Though Grac- 
chus abridged the power of the fenate, 
becaufe he thought it exorbitant, yet 
he did not wilb to annihilate it. On 
the contrary, he confirmed to the fenate 
feveral important privileges, which by 
the law of Gracchus {^Lex Setnpronia) 
it continued to enjoy till the time of 
the Emperors, Cic. Dom. 9. ; Pronj, 
Conf. 2, & 7. ; Vat. 15. ; Sallujl, Jug, 
27. ; and when the fenate in their de- 
liberations weie difpofed to liflen to 
his advice, he nevti gave any that was 
not fuitable to their dignity, Plutarch. p* 
837. The fenators however in general 
were greatly diffatisfied, and many of 
them entertained the bittereft refent- 
ment againft Gracchus for diminirtiing 
their authority. The people at large 
were highly pleafed with the regula- 
tions of Gracchus, and therefore with 
great unanimity re-ele£led him tribune 
for a fccond year, without his alking It. 
The fenate, in order to oppofe the 
proceedings of Gracchuf?, engaged on 
their fide M. Lis'ius Drufus, (q. v.) 
one of the tribunes, who acl^d with 
great art. He propofed laws ftill more 
for the advantage of the people than 
thofe of Gracchus, declaring that he 
did fo with the concurrence of the 
fenate. Gracchus had propofed to 
plant only two colonies, which were 
to confift of fome of the moll eieferving 
citizens ; but Drufus propofed twelve 
colonies, and thefe to confiil of the 
meaneft of the people. Gracchus or- 
dered that a fmall rent fliould be paid 
for the lands which were to be divided; 
B b but 

G R A 

[ 194 ] 

G R A 

but Driifus exempted his planters from 
paying any thing. Cicero, however, 
from his ufual partiality to the fenate, 
fays, that Drufus healed the wounds 
■which Gracchus had infliAed on the re- 
public, Fin. 4, 24. — Drufus indeed ap 
peared more difinterelled than Grac- 
chus ; for he never allowed himfelf to 
be appointed a commiflioner for ex- 
ecuting any of his own laws, as Grac- 
chus had done. Nay, he even caufed 
Gracchus to be nominated one of three 
commifTioners {triumvir^ Salluft. Jug. 
42.) for fettling a colony at Carthage, 
with Fulvius Flaccus, the friend of 
Gracchus, who had been conful, a. 
628. This however was no favour, 
but the contrary. For while Grac- 
chus was abfent from Rome on that 
bufinefs, his enemies were plotting his 
deftrudlion. After his return Opimius, 
the conful, propofed annulling all the 
laws of Gracchus, which caufed great 
commotions in the city. One of the 
Mors of Opimius having been killed 
in the tumult, the fenate armed Opi- 
mius with abfolute power, by the fo- 
lemn decree, l/t v'ulereff ne quid refpuhti' 
(a detrirnent'i caperet. Gracchus, who 
was extremely concerned for the death 
pf the liftor, wiihed to accommodate 
matters, and fent the youngefl: fon of 
Flaccus to propofe terms. But Opi- 
mius would hften to no conditions. A 
proclamation was publifhed, offering a 
pardon to fuch of the adherents of 
Gracchus as dcferted him ; which offer 
many of them accepted. Caius was 
obliged to fly for his life. Finding 
himfelf every where furrounded, he 
ordered Epicrates, (a), Euphorus,) 
his flave and only attendant, to kill 
him. Epicrates obeyed, and imme- 
diately after difpatched himfelf. Fui- 
"vius Flaccus, who had attempted to 
make refinance, was aifo killed with 
his elded fon j and the youngeft, a 
beautiful youth about eighteen years 
old, who had been kept in cuftody, 
\vas like wife put to death without 
mercy, as it is faid, by Opimius him- 
felf. Veil 2, 6, & 7. The head of Grac- 

chus w^as brought to Opimius by one 
Septimuleius, (the friend of Opimius, 
Plutarch, p. 842. according to Pliny, 
the intimate of Gracchus, 33, 3 f. 14, 
So Val. Ma?!. 9, 4, 3.) who received 
as a reward its weight in gold. To 
make it weigh the m.ore, he is faid to 
have taken out the brains and filled 
the fcull with lead. Caius periflied 

about ten years after his brother. 

Opimius pi-ofecuted his vitlory with 
great cruelty : About 3000 of the 
friends of Gracchus were flain, and 
all their bodies thrown into the Tiber. 
Plutarch, in Gracch. p. 842. ; Appian, 
/..366. ; Liv. Epit. 60, & 61.; Veil. 
2, 6.; Flor. 3, 15.; Victor de Vir, 
Illujlr. 6^, Vid. Opimius. 

Cicero, in an oration which he ad- 
drelfed to the people when conful, be- 
(lov^s the higheft praifes on the Grac- 
chi y and acknowledges, that many of 
their laws which remained in force af- 
ter their death, were very beneficial t§- 
the ftate, {^non Jum autem is confuly qui, 
lit pkrique ncfas ejje arhitror, Gracchos 
laudare ; quorum corifiUis, fapientid, legi- 
busy mult as ejfe "video reipuhlicae partes con- 
Jlitutas.) Rull. 2, 5, & 29. He allows 
Caius to have furpaffed all his contem- 
poraries in virtue and eloquence, pro 
C. Rahir. 5. ; Br. 33. ; that he was 
prompted to oppofe the fenate by a de- 
fire to revenge his brother's death, Har, 
Refp. 20. ; and that he was killed on- 
ly on account of ccnaln fujpicicns of fe- 
ditious pradices, Cat. 1,2. But Ci- 
cero, in other parts of his works, fpeaks 
very differently, Rull. i, 7. Cat. i, 12. 
f/ 4, 2. P^at. 9.' Phil. 8, 4. 0^ 2, 2 I. &c. 
Caius Gracchus, when he fpoke in 
public, was apt to becom.e too vehe- 
ment ; for which rcafon he had an in- 
genious flave, called Licinius, w^ho 
llood behind him with a pitch-pipe, 
which he founded when his mailer be- 
gan to overftrain his voice ; whereupon 
Gracchus checked the violence of his 
attion, and tone of voice, Plutarch, p. 
825. Cicero fay<5, that this flave, wMtk 
an ivor}' flute, [el'urnedjijiuld), ufed to 
modulate the tone of bs mailer's voice, 


G R A 

C 195 ] 


whether he fpoke too high or too low, 
Or. 3, 60. So Quinftilian, i, 10, 27. 
and Val. Maximus, 8, 10, i. 

The people, though at firft deject- 
ed by the deftrudion of the Gracchi, 
yet afterwards erefted ilatues to them, 
and worfhipped them as deities. — Cor- 
nelia bore the death of her fons with 
great magnanimity, Plutarch, p. 843. 
When her friends condoled with her 
on her lofs, ihe faid, " that Ihe fliould 
always think herfelf happy in having 
brought forth fuch fons," [confolantl- 
bus miferanique dkentibus, Nunquam 


GRACCHqis PEi'ERi), Sencc. Confol. ad 
Marc. c. 16. {^Jos qui bonos viros Tie- 
gaveritf magnos falebiiurf Senec. ib.) 
The people alfo afterwards ere6led a 
flatue to her, with this infcription, 
Cornelia, the mother of the 
Gracchi, Plutarch. />• 836. Horace 
puts Gracchus for an accomplifhed o- 
rator, Ep. 2, 2, 89. Juvenal, for any 
noble man, or one of the family of the 
Gracchi, 2, 117, & 143. et 8, 210. 
and Cornelia mater Gracchorum, 
for a lady of the higheft rank, 6, 166. 
— ^is tukrit Gracchos de feditione que^ 
rentis P i. e. very feditious men, Id. 2, 4. 

GKACCUAtii judices, judges, who, 

to revenge the death of C. Gracchus, 
condemned Opimius, Cic. Br. 34. ( l^id. 

Gratiae, the three Graces, ^glaia, 
Thalia, and Euphrosyne ; called alfo 
Charites, (f. v.) 

Grvllus, the fon of Xenoplion, 
who killed Epaminondas at the battle 
of Mantinea, and was himfelf foon after 
Hain, Paufan. 8, 11, &c. 

Gyas, -acy a companion of Aeneas, 
one of the competitors for pre-emi- 
nence in the conteft of quick-faihng, 
Firg. Aen. 5, 117, &c. 

Gyges, -is, a king of Lydia, who 
Is faid to have had a ring, which, 
when he put it on, rendered him invi- 
fible^ (G. 6co.) From him a celebra- 
ted lake in that country was named 
Gygaeum Jlagnum, Phn. 5, 29 f. 30. 

Gygcus lacus, Propert. 3, 9, 18. 

Gyges, Gycsy or Gyas^ the name of a 

giant, Hor. Od. 2, 17, 14. f/ 3, 4, 69* 
Gylippus, a general of the Lace- 
demonians, who gained a celebrated 
victory over Nicias and Demollhenes, 
the Athenian generals, before Syracufe, 
(G. 467.) Jufun. 4, 4. ; Tibull 4, i, 


C. Pabius Hadrianus, a praetor of 
Africa, burnt by the people of Utica* 
for having confpired with flaves to de- 
llroy their chief men^ Cic. Verr. 1,27. 
et 5, 26. 

Haemon, -onis, the fon of Creon 
king of Thebes, who v/as fo fond of 
Antigone, that he flew himfelf on her 
tomb, Propsrt. 2, 7, 83. ; O^Sid. in Ibin, 

Haemon IDES, (al. jlcmonides), an 
Italian prieft of Apollo and Diana, flaia 
by Aeneas, Firg. Aen. 10, 537. 

Hales us, a Graecian or Argive, 
who fettled in Italy near Mount Mafli- 
cus, defcended from the family of Aga- 
memnon, whence he is called Agameni" 
«o«m,Virg. Aen. 7,72 3,b.ut not his fon, 
for the father of Halefus was a foothfay- 
er, ib. 10, 41 7. Halefus was flain by Pal- 
las, ib. 425. — ^Ovid m.akes Halefus the 
fon or grandfon of Atreus, [Atrldes), 
and fays that he gave name to the coun- 
try o( Falcrii, [terra Falifca), F. 4, 730 
which city he built on a high fituation, 
( Moenia felici condidit aha manu). Amor. 
3, 13, 34. So Solinus, c. 8. ; Servius, 

ad Firg. Aen. 7, 795. Silius Italicus 

fays, that Halefus or Alefus from Ar- 
gos, (ArgoUcus), built Alfium in £tru- 
ria,^8, 475. 

PIalirrhotius, the fon of Neptune 
and Euryte, killed by Mars for ha^nng- 
violated his daughter Alcippe ; on which 
account Mars was brought to his trial 
before the other gods, in a place which 
afterwards formed a part of the city A- 
thens, and hence was called Areopa- 
gus, (Apnof 7tyyo<;"^^ the Hill or Village 
of Mars, Paufan. 1,21, 3c 28. Mara 
was acquitted, Apollodor. 3, 13, 2. 

HAMADRYADbS, '■um, f. [^ex 'aux^ 

Jimul, et S{>v^^ querciis^ dat. plur. Hama- 

dryafwy Piopeit. t, 20, 32.), the 

E b 2 uymphi 

HAM [ 19^ 1 H E C 

nymphs or protecting deities of oaks the daughter of Venus by Mars, and 

and other trees, fuppofed to be produ- 
ced and to perifh with them ; for the 
ancients believed that every tree had 
its guardian divinity, in the fame man- 
ner with men and women, Serv. ad 
Virg. Eel. 10, 62. ; Ovid. Md. I, 690. 

14, 624. et 8, 77 T. Fajl. 2, 155. 

The Hamadryades are fometimes con- 
founded with the Dry ADES, Ovid. Met. 
8, 777. ; Propert. i, 20, 22. and with 
the Naiades, Ovid. Met. i, 691. 

HAMILCAR, -aris, a Carthagi- 
nian general, the father of Hannibal. 
yid. Amilcar. 

Ham MOV. Vld. Ammok. 

HANNIBAL, -alisy the famous ge- 
neral of the Carthaginians in the fecond 
Punic war. V'ld. Annibal. 

HANNO, -dnis, a frequent name a- 
mong the Carthaginians ; the moll il- 
lullrious was he who gave his voice a- 
gainft attacking the Romans in the fe- 
cond Punic war, Llv. 21, & 30. 

HARMODIUS, an Athenian, who, 
to revenge an affront oifered to his fif- 
ter by Hipparchus, the fon of Pififtra- 
tus, and tyrant of Athens, in conjunc* 
lion with his friend Ariftoglton, form- 
ed a confpiracy for the deltrudion of 
Hipparchus and bis brother Hippias. 
Hipparchus was affaffinated, and Har- 
modius cut to pieces by the tyrant's 
guards. Arillogiton being feized, was 
put to the rack ; but inftead of naming 
his accomplices, he accufed the mod 
faithful partifans of Hippias, who or- 
dered them to be inftantly executed. 
Hereupon if^ritlogiton, exulting in ha- 
\ung extinguiflitd the chief fupporters 
of tyranny, declared to Hippias what 
he had done, and fubmitted to his fate 
with the greated intrepidity. After 
this Hippias became more tyrannical 
than before, vsrhich in about three years 
after occafioned his expullion, Herodot. 
5, ^^. et 6, 123. ; Thucydid. 6, 59. ; 
Senec. Ir. 2, 25. ; Jnftin. 2, 9. The 
greatell honours were paid to the me- 
mory of Hat modi us and Arillogiton, 
ClcTufc. I, 49.; Pl'in. 34, 8.; Gdl. 9, 2. 

Harmon I A, -acj v. Hcrmioncy -es^ 

the wife of Cadmus, (G. 426.) 

HARPALycE, -w, a queen of the 
Amazons, Virg. Aen. 1,317. 

Harpagus, a riiepherd, who pre- 
ferved Cyrus, (G. 600.) 

Harpocrates, •/>, the god of {i" 
lence, fuppofed to be the fon of Ifis 
and Serapis. His Image was ufed by 
the Egyptians in their facred rites, re- 
prefented with his finger preffed on his 
fhut mouth, intimating, that filence 
fhould be obferved in religbus worrtiip. 
Hence he is thus defcribed, ^lique (fc. 
Harpocrates) ^r<f;«i; vocem, digitoque ft- 
le?tfia fuaddy Ovid. Met. 9, 69 1. [Digita 
qui Jignificat S'T, Varr. L. L. 4, 10.} 
Facere aliqnem Harpocraleniy to make one 
fiktit, Catnll. 73, 4. 

Harpviae, -aruniy harpies, vora- 
cious moiiilers, half women half birds, 
Serv, ad Virg. Am. 3, 2 1 6. 

HiLbe, -esy the daughter of Jupiter 
and Juno, Apollodor. 1,3.; Paufan. I, 
19. according to others the daughter 
of Juno alone, conceived without the 
participation of Jupiter, by eating im- 
moderately of lettuce at a feaft ; whence 
fhe is Q^MtA jfunonia Hebe, Ovid. Met. 
9,400. andgoddefsof youth; called 
Juventas, -atis, by the Latins, Cic, 
Tvfc. r, 26. ; Liv. 36, 36. or Juven- 
ta, Ovid. Pont. I, 10, 12. on account 
of her beauty appointed by Jupiter to 
be his cupbearer, Paufan. 2, 13. But 
having fallen in an indecent polture 
at a teaft, flie was deprived of that of- 
fice, and Ganymedes placed in her 
room. When Hercules was exalted to 
heaven, Juno became reconciled to him, 
and gave him Hebe in marriage. Pro- 
pert. I, 13, 23. whence flie is called 
HercuUs uxor, Ovid. Fail. 6, 6$. ; Ju- 



faid to have 

poiTeiTed the power of reftoring to 
youth whomfoever fhe picafed, Uvid, 
Met. 9, 400. 

He c ale, -et, a poor woman, that 
entertained Thefeus- when going t© 
fight againft the bull of Marathon, 
Plutarch, et . >pul. Met. I . put for any- 
old woman, Ovid^ Remed. Am. 747. 


H E C t 197 1 H E L 

Hecataeus, of Miletus, an hifto- He^ oris Andromache, ib. 319 
rian who lived in the time of Darius 

the fon of Hyftafpi?, Herodot. 2, 143. 
- ' -^ 2. A fculptor, I^/in. 33, 12. et 

Hecate, -^j, the daughter of Per- 
fes king of Taurtca ; hence called Fer- 
scisf -hiisy Ovid. Met. 7, 174. and of 
Afteria, Ck. N. D. 3, 18.; Apollodor. 
I, 2, 4. According to Diodorus Sicu- 
lus, flie was the inventrefs of poifonous 
' di^ugs and incantations, tlie wife of 
Aeetes, and mother of Medea and Cir- 
ce, D'iodo7\ 4, 45. Plecate is com- 
monly put for an infernal goddefs, faid 
to have had three bodies; hence termed 
Tergemmci^ Virg. A. 4, 511. Diva tri- 
formisy Ovid. Met. 7, 177. and triceps j 
ib. 194. — called /y?;n^2 in heaven, Diana 
on earth, and Proferphia or Hecate in 
the infernal regions, Serv. in Virg. iL 
on which account (he was reprefented 
with three heads, Ovid, Fajl. i, 141. 
Her infernal form is called Hecates pars 
vhimay Lucan. 6, 700. Fades Erebiy 
pallenti tahida formdy very different from 
her appearance in heaven, [ad Deos alio 
procedere vuhufolet)y ib. 736. She was 
fuppofed to prefide over forccries or 
incantations, Ovid, et Virgil ib. and 
was invoked with bowlings in the night- 
time, Virg. Aetu 4, 609. Her power 
was great, both in heaven and in the in- 
fernal regions, z^. 6, 247. — Adj. Heca- 
te lus; thus, Hccateia carminay power- 
ful charms, fuch as were invented by 

Hecate, Ovid. Met. 14, 44. HtCA- 

TJiis herla, -Idisy vel -Idos, a poifonous 
herb, fuch as were ufed by Hecate, ib. 

6, 139-^ 

He c A TO, -onisy a Rhodian, the fcko- 
}ar of Panaetius, who wrote concerning 
the duties of man, Cic.'Ojf.'i^y 15. 

HECTOR, 'Orisy the fon of Priam 
and Hecuba, the braveft of the Tro- 
jans, flain by Achilles, (G. 447.), A- 
demplus Hector Tradidit fejjis kviora tolli 
Pergama Grdiisy the death of Hector 
made 1 roy more eafy to be taken by 
the Greeks, Hor.Od. 2, 4, 10. ; Senec. 
Troad. 1 24. — adj. Hectoreus : — ea 
conjux, Andromache, the wife of Hec- 
tor, P^irg. Aen. 3, 488, the fame with 

opibus, by the power or affiftance of 
HeClor, Hor. Od. 3, 3, 28. 

Hecuba, the daughter of Ciifeus 
king of Thrace, (Ci/sas, -idis, Virg, 
Aen. 7, 320.), or according to others, 
of Dymas, a Phrygian prince. Homer. 
II. 16, 71^.; Serv. ad Virg. Aen, 7, 
320. (Dym^ntis, -idis, Ovid. Met. 
i3» SlS')y Apollodor. 3, 11,9.; Hygin. 
91. and wife of Priamus king of Troy, 
(C. 414.). Overwhelmed with grief 
on account of her fufferings, and utter- 
ing dreadful imprecations againft the 
Greeks, fhe is faid to have been at laft 
changed into a bitch, Cic. Tufc. 3, 26.; 
Hygin. Ill, & 243.; Ovid. Met. 13, 
404, — 569.; Juv.nal. 10, 271. whence 
her tomb was called Cynossema, i. e. 
Canis tumulus y Plin. 4, I I. 

Hedymeles, -isy a mufician, fo na- 
med from the fwectnefs of his melodv, 
Juvenal. 6. 383. 

Hegesias, -aey a philofopher born 
at Cyrene, [Cyrenauus), who ufed in 
his leflures to defcribe fo pathetically 
the miferies of life, that he is faid to 
have made feveral of his hearers put an 
end to their days ; on which account 
he was prohibited by Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus to difcourfe any more public- 
ly on that fubjedl, Cic. Tufc. i, 34.—-, 
•[ 2. An Athenian orator, Cic. Brut. 
83. yjltt. 12, 6. 

HELeNA, the daughter of Tyn- 
darus [Tyudarisy -tdis) king of Spar- 
ta, or of Jupiter and Eeda, the wife 
of Menelaus, carried off by Paris the 
fon of Priam, which gave occafion to 
the Trojan war, and all its memorable 
confequences, ( G. 413, Sec). Fratres 
Helenae, i. e. Caitor and Pollux, Hor. 
Od I, 3, 2. 

Hf.lenor, -orisy the natural fon of 
the king of Lydia by Eicymnia a Have, 
fent to Troy to the afliftance of Priam, 
{vetttis armisy in forbidden arms, as it 
is faid, becaufe among the Pwomans 
flaves w^ere not permitted to ferve in 
the army) ; a companion of Aeneas in 
his voyage to Italy, where, having fal- 
len with one of the turrets on the ram- 
part of the camp while in flames, and 


H E L C 198 ] HER 

belao- furrounded by the enemy, he who being drowned in the 

rufhed on the thickeft of their ranks, 
and was flain, Virg, Aen. 9, 543, 


Helenus, the fon of Pnam, ( Pr/- 
Gmides,-ae, Virg. Aen. 3, 295. )> ^'-'^^• 
ed in augury, {vates), ib. 712.; Cic. 
Div. I, 40. who, after variojs adven- 
tures, at lall became the hufoand of 
Andromache, the widow of his brolhtr 
HetE^or, and alio king oi Chaonia in 
Epire, Vh-g. Aen. 3, 325. S:c. At Bii- 
throtum, his capital city, he entertain- 
ed Aeneas, and gave him directions at 
his departure concerning his voyage, 
ih 381, &c. 

Heliades, -um, (1. e. Soils fiiae), 
the daughters of Sol and i hmene^ who 
lamented tlie fate of their brother 
Phaethon, till they were changed into 
alder or poplar trees, U'uld. Met. 2, 
■540, &c. Hence Nemus Ileliadum, a 
grove of the Hd'uidesj i. e. pc-plar trees, 
ib. 10, 91. which are faid to have firil 
grown on the banks of the Po, Lucan. 
2, 410, and were fuppofed to diftil 
amber, Owd. Amor. 3, 12, 38. whence 
Heliadnm cmfuie, cups of amber, Juve- 
nal 5, 3^- 

HfcLico, vcl Erico, -onis, a citizen 
of Helvetia, who having llaid fome 
time at Rome in order to learn or ex- 
erclfe the art of a fmith or carpenter, 
(fahrilem ob artem), when he returned 
to his native country, carried with him 
dry figs and grapes, and choice famples of 
oil and wine, [ok'ique ac i)in! praewlfa), 
which is fuppofed to have firll induced 
the Gauls to invade Italy, PIln.i2y i f. 
2. So L ivy. Earn gent em tradiiu}\fan:a 
dukcdimfrugum niaximeque vini, nova turn 
voluptate, captam, Alpes travxijje, 5, 33. 

Kellice, -^j, a name given to Cai- 
lifto, or the conileliation Urfa Major., 
Cic. Acad. 4, 20. (G. 417.) 

Heliogabalus, a Roman empe- 
ror, remarkable for his effeminacy and 
cruelty, (G. 247.) 

Hellanicus, an ancient Greek 
hiflorian, Cic. Or. 2, 12. 

HELLE, -fs, the daughter of A- 
thamas king of Thebes, and Nt p h e l e, 

flrait be- 
tween the Aegean fea and the Propon- 
tis, gave name to it ; fo that it was 
thenceforth called Helles pontusy the fea 
cf Helle, (G. 349.) 

HtLviDius, the name of a Roman 

HEPHAESTI.ON, -dnls, the fa- 
vourite general of Alexander tiie Great, 
Curt. 3, 12, 16. et 10, 4, II. 

Hera GLIDES, -ij-, a very learned 
philofopher, born at Heraclea in Pon- 
tus, a fchoiar of Plato's, Cic. Tufc. 5, 
3. D'l'V. I J 23. who entertained Ihange 
notions concerning the deity, Cic.N.D. 
I, 13. He wrote concerning govern- 
ment, {de republica), Cic. Leg. 3, 6, 
Cicero fpeaks fevcral times of writing 
lomething iimilar to the work of Hera- 
elides, Ck. Att. 15, 4, & 13, & 29. f/ 

16, 2. Many others of this name 

are mentioned in ancient writers. 

Heraclitus, a celebrated natural 
philofopher of Ephefus, ( Pbyficus), 
Cic. Tufc. 5, 36. He thought "that all 
things were produced from fire, Ck. 
Acad. 4, 37. He was remarkable for 
his cbfcurity, Ck. Fin. 2," 5. Div. 2, 
64. which he fometimes ufed on pur- 
pofe, Cic. N. D. I, 26. and therefore 
was varioully interpreted, ib^ 3, 14. — 
called the "Weeping Philosopher., 
becaufe he often wept at the vices and 
confequent miferies of xnan|cind, juvd- 
nul. 10, 3c. 

Hercaeus, an epithet of Jupiter, 
fo named from his akar being placed in 
the iniplwo'rum or open court, in the 
middle of the hcufe, called by the 
Greeks fVy-o^' ; thus, Cui nihil Hercei pro- 
fuit ara Jo^nsy i. e. Priam, who v/as 
{lain by Pyirhus before the altar of Ju- 
piter in the impluvium, Ovid, in Jhin. 
286. (Aidilus in mediis, nudcque fub 
aetheris axe ; vel in penetralibusjt where 
the Penates, were worfliipped, Virg. 
Aen. 2, 512, &c. ; Juvenal. 10, 268. 
Herceae aracj the altar of Jupiter 
Hcrceus, before which Priam was IJain, 
Lucan. 9, 979. Around this altar tliere 
feem to have been feveral images of the 
godsj probably tbofe cf the Penates, 


K E R [ 1 

Plrg.iL 517. which Ovid calls Patrio- 
rnm figna Deorum^ Met. 13, 412. 

The ancient Greeks placed the temple 
of Jupiter Hercaeus in the j4ula^ or A- 
TRiUM, At hen. 4, p. 189. Fid. Eu- 
rip.Troad. 48 2, &c. ; Paiifan. 2, 24. 

4, 17, ^/ 10, 2^. 

HERCuLES, 'is, (vel Hercukus, 
•ei^ contrafted Herculi ; thus, Hirtulei 
lahos tjl, iox Herculis, Catull. ^^, 13.) 
the moll famous hero of antiquity, the 
fon of Jupiter and Alcmena, the wife 
of Amphitryo, (G. 398. i^077?.y/. 286.) 
who is c'AWtd fiilfiparnis Amphitryoniades ^ 
becaufe Hercules was fuppofed to be 
the fon of Amphitryon, when in rea- 
li^ he was the fon of Jupiter, Catull. 

6^112. Adj. Herculeus : thus, 

Herculci lahoresy the labours of Hercu- 
les ; Herculea clava, the club of Her- 
cules ; Heracleapocula, l^^ge, Cic. Verr. 
4, 18. but the bed editions have 77^*?- 

riclea : Heraclidae, the de- 

fcendants of Hercules, Patifan. 2, 18. 
[G. 403, & 410.) — — Hercule, v. 
Hcrde, adv. by Hercules, a form of 
fwearing, or a ftrong aiTeveration : So 
Mehercide, or Mthercules^ fcjuvetj may 
Hercules afiift me ! by Hercules, up- 
on my honour, Cic. Or. 47.; Plane. 

Herennius, the name a Roman 

gens : A tribune of the commons 

who propof!:;d the law about permit- 
ting Clodius to be adopted by a ple- 
beian, Cic. yltt. T, 18. 

HerIlus, a king of Praenelle, flain 
by Evander, Virg. Aen. 8, 583. 

Hlrillus, a philofopher of Chal- 
cedon, the fcholar of Zeno, who pla- 
ced the chief good [Jummum bonum)^ in 
learning and knov>'ledge, Cic Acad. 4, 

42- ^ 

Herm ACHUS ofMitylene, the friend 
of Epicurus, Cic. Acad. 4, 30. ; Fin. 
30. whom that philofopher left his heir, 
Laert. 10, 2 1. 

HiLRMAGORAs, -«<?, a celebrated 
rhetorician, Cic. Br. 76.; Inv, i, 6 
& 51. 

HERMAPHRODiTuSjthefon of Mcr- 
cnry and Venus, united into one body 
with the nymph Saimacis j whence a- 

99 1 HER 

nimals participating of both fexes were 
called Hermaphrodites <, [G. 363.) 

HERMES, the Greek name of 
Mercury, which Virgil traufiates, In- 

terpres divum, Aen. 4, 356. Her- 

MAE trunci^ ihapelefs polls with a mar- 
ble head of Mercury on them, jfuve- 
nal. 8, 53. 

Herm p. s 'Trifmcgijlus, (i.e. ter maxt" 
tnus)f a celebrated Egyptian philofo- 

FIfrmiom", -eSf the daughter of Me- 
nelausby ?Ielena ; hence called Ledaea, 
from Leda, the mother of Helena, 
Firg. Aen. 3, 328. betrothed to Oref- 
tes the fon of Agamemnon, but carri- 
ed off by Pyvrhus, the fon of Achilles ; 
on which account Oreftes killed Pyrr- 
hus, and recovered her, tb. et Ovid. 

Ep. 8, 1. ^ 2. The fame with. 

Harm ONI A, the wife of Cadmus, (<^. 

Hermodorus, a native of Ephefus, 
baniflied from thence through envy, on 
account of his fuperior virtue, as A- 
riltides was from Athens, Cic. Tufc, 
5, 36. After which he came to Rome, 
and explained the laws of the Greeks 
to the Decemviri, who compiled the 
laws of the twelve tables, Plin. 34, 5. 

Hermotimus, a prophet of Clazo- 
mene, whofe foul is faid to have left 
his body, and afcer wandering up and 
down to a great diftance, and revealing 
wonderful things to people, ufed to 
return to it again. In the abfence of 
the foul, the body v/as apparently dead. 
His enemies having difcovered this, bu- 
ried it, Plin. 7, 5. Lucian fays that 
this was done by his wife. 

HERO, "od Erg, -us ; v. H':rom, 
'OJiis, a beautiful young woman of Sef- 
tos, beloved by Leander of Abydos, 
who ufed to fwim over in the night to 
vifit her, and return before day-light ; 
till at lail he periihed in the waves, 
(G. 349.) hence Heroae «y. Eroa^, 
turres, the tower from which Hero held 
a torch to give light to her lover as he 
fwam, Lucan. gj g^^. (G. 349.) 

Herodes, 'is, the fon of Antipater 
of Idumaea, who was made king of the 
Jews, by the favour of Antony, and re- 


r 200 ] 

H I E 

tained that power by his mean fubmif- 
fion and flattery to Auguftus, jofephus. 
Herodis palmcta pinguia, Herod's fertile 
groves of palm-trees, which produced a 
great revenue, Horat. Ep. 2, 2, 184. 

^ 2. An Athenian writer in the 

time of Cicero, Lie. /Itt. 2, 2. 

HsRODiANTTs, a Greek hillorian of 
Alexandria, who wrofe the lives of 
Commodus and his fucceiTors to the 
younger Gratian. This work is ftill 

HER0D6TUS, a native oF Hali- 
carnafTus, the mofi; ancient Greek hif- 
torian extant ; wliom Cicero calls, Hif- 
iorlae parens f the facher of hiltory, C'lc, 
Leg, I, I. He was the firil of the 
Greeks who adorned hitiory, Cic. Or. 
2, 12. but did not ftudy harmony in 
his periods, Cic. Or. ^^. Add. D'lv. 

Herophile, -esy a prieftefs of A- 
pollo, T'lhull. 2, 5, 67. 

Herophilus, a celebrated phyfi- 
cian, who reRored Phalaris to health, 
Plhi. T I, 37, &c. 

HePvOStratus, a man who fet fire 
to the temple of Diana at Ephefus, 
that he might obtain a more extenfive 
fame after death, Sol'in. c. 53. 

Hers"-', -esy a daughter of Cccrops, 
king of Atliens, beloved by Mercury, 
Ovid. Met. 2, 725. 

Hersilia, the wife of Romulus, 
Ulu. I, II. called Ora, after (lie was 
made a goddefs, as Romulus was call- 
ed QuiRiNus, after his deification, 
Q'vid. Met. 14. fin. 

Herthum vel Hcrtha^ i. e. the 
earth, WOT (hipped .by tlie ancient Ger- 
mans as a goddefs, Tacit. G. 40. 

HESI6DUS, an ancient Greek 
poet, born at Afcra in Boeotia; whence 
he is called Afcraeus Senex^ Virg. E. 6, 

70. Adj. Hesiodius. IHudHefiodi- 

uniy fc. didumy that faying of Hefiod's, 
CAc. Brut. 4. Hejiodi theogoniay the ge- 
neration of the gods, a book written 
by Hefiod, Cic.N. D. i, 14. Brut, 4. 
flill extant, 

Hesione, -fj, the daughter of Lao- 
medon, king of Troy, and fifter of 
Friam ; v/hora Hercules fretd from a 

fea-monRer, to which fiie was expo* 
fed ; and having taken Troy, gave her 
in marriage to Telamon, Ovid. Met, 
II, 2r7. [G. 339.) 

HESPERIE, -esy a nymph, the 
daughter of the river Cebren, (Ce- 
BRENis, ■'idis)y Ovid. Met. 11, 769. 
Fid. Aesacus. 

Hesperus, the brother of Atlas, 
who is faid to have gone up to the 
top of mount Atlas to obferve the ftars, 
and never afterwards to have been feen; 
on which account the evening Rar was 

called by his name, Diodor. Hes« 

PER IDES, -uiriy nymphs, the daughters 
of Hefperus, who had a garden in the 
extremity of Africa, in which \^^e 
golden apples, guarded by a dra^n 
that never llept. Hercules flew the 
dragon, and brought fome of the gol- 
den apples to EuriRheus, (G. 399.) 

Hests, a god of the Gauls, fuppo- 
fed to have been the fame with Mars, 
Lucan. I, 440. 

Hi AREAS, W Iapbas, -ae^ a king of' 
Lybia, who wiflied to marry Dido, 
(G. 678.) Fir-. Jen. 4, 36. but Dido 
preferred Aeneas to him ; whence Ae- 
neas is called zelotypo juvenis praelatus 
Hiarlncy the young man preferred to 
the jealous larbas, jfuvenal. 5, 45. — 
— ^ 2. A king of Africa, conquered 
and (lain by Pompey, Liv. Epit. 89. j 
Eutroj). 5, 6. 


Hi EM p SAL, -alisy the fon of Micip* 
fa, king of Numidia, murdered by Ju- 

gurtha, Sallufi. Jug. 12 5[ 2. A 

king of Mauritania, Cic. Riill. i, 4. ; 
Fatin. 5. 

HIERO, -onisy a king of Syracufc, 
a faithful ally of the Romans, Liv. 24, 

4, &C. (G. 274.) PIlERONICA leXf 

a law made by Hiero, concerning corn, 
Cic. Ferr. 2, 13, & 60. 

HiEROCLES, -ij, the father of king 
Hiero, defcended from Gelon, jfujlin. 
23, 4. ^ 2. A philofopher of Alex- 
andria, who Rourifhed about the mid- 
dle of the fifth century, and wrote a 
commentary on the golden verfes of 
Pythagoras ; — Rill exant. Fid, Fabric, 
BibliQth, G. /. 2. a 12, 7, 


H I E 

[ 20I ] 

H I R 

HiERONyMus, the grandfon and 
fuccefTor of Hiero, flain on account of 
his cruelty, Liv. 2 Ay 4» «S:c. ; Sil. 14, 
87. — 5[ 2. A peripatetic philofopher, 
a native of Rhodes, Ck. Or. 57. who 
maintained, that the abfencc of pain 
was the chief good, C'lc. ^^cad. 4. 42. 

HIPPARCHUS, the fon of Pifif- 
tratiis, and tyrant of Athens ; fond of 
learning and learned men. Pie invited 
to his court the poets Anacreon and 
Simonides, and treated them with the 
greateft liberality. According to Pla- 
to, he was the lirft who arranged the 
poems of Homer ; which honour Cice- 
ro afcribes to his father Pififtratus, Cic. 
^^* 3> S3' Hipparchus was alTaffinat- 
ed by a confpiracy , Pld. H a r m d i u s. 
— '■ — <f[ 2. A celebrated philofopher of 
Alexandria, the moil i]<:ilful alh-onomer 
in ancient times, ( G. ly) 

HIPPIAS, -iae, the fon of Pififtra- 
^S) and tyrant of Athens, v/ho beine^ 
Txpelled from thence, repaired to the 
court of Darius, and fell in the battle 
of Marathon. Cicero calls him Nefa- 
Rius, becaufe he made war on his na- 
tive country, y^lL 9, i i. ^ 2. A 

celebrated fophiit of Elis [Eleus), in 
the time of Socrates, Cic. Or, 3, 32. 
who ufed to boaft that there was no- 
thing in any art of which he was igno- 
rant. His cloak, his fhoes, his ring, 
Slc. were all of Us own making, ib. ^ 
JBrat.S, .^85. 

HIPPOCRATES, the fon of 
HeraclTdes, born in the iiland Cos, 
[Cous), b. C. 460, the moil illuflrious 
phyfician ^of antiquity, Celf. pracf. ; C'lc. 
N. D, 3, 38. He came to Athens in 
the time ot" a plague, where he exerted 
his great abihties at the hazard of his 
life. Artaxerxes king of Perfia, at 
the fame time, ufcd every motive to 
prevail on him to come to his court, 
but in vain. The Athenians, penetra- 
ted with gratitude, decreed to him the 
higheft honours, (G. 467.). His a- 
phorifms are flill extant. — Adj. Hip- 


HippoDAME, -fj-, V. -amlat the 
daughter of Oenomuus king of Pifa, 

who became the, wife of Pelops, [G. 

404.). f 2« The daughter of A- 

draftus king of Argos, and wife of Pe- 
rithous, at whofe marriage the conttlt 
between the Centaurs and Lapithae 
took place, (G. 439 ) 

HippoLy-TE, -esf queen of the A- 
mazons, and wife of Phefeus, (G.423.) 

<[T 2. The wife of Acallo, who 

fell in love with Peleus, (G. 444.) 

HiPPOLyrus, the fon of Thefeus 
and Hippolyte, (G. 424.) 

HippoMEDON, ■ontis, one of the 
feven leaders in the war againft Thebes, 
( G. 43 1 . ), Stat. Iheh. 5, 664. et 6, 654. 

HippoMENEs, -IS, the fon of Ma- 
cafeus, who, by means of three golden 
apples, vanquifhed Atalanta in run- 
ning, and thus procured her confent to 
marry him, (G. 433.) 

HrppoNAX, attis^ a fa-nous poet of 
Ephefus, who, by the fliarpnefs of his 
fatirical raillery, is faid to have impel- 
led perfons to hang themfclves, Pl'in,, 
36, 5. whence Praeconhim Hippona£leu?n, 
a fatirical poem, Cic. Fam. 7, 24. /*<?- 
des Hipponatleiy the feet ufed in Iambic 
vtrle, in which fuch poems were writ- 
ten, Cic. Or. ^6. 

HippoTOs, X'. -us, the father of Ae- 
olus, who is hence called Hippotades, -acy 

(G. 276.). HippoTADEs, -ae, is 

ufed as a proper name, and not a pa- 
tronymic, Siat. Theb. 8, 699. 

yl. HIRTIUS, the friend and com- 
panion of Julius Caefar, who wrote the 
eighth book of the Commentaries con- 
cerning Caefar's wars in Gaul, and al- 
fo, as it is thought, the hiftory of the 
Alexandrian, African, and Spanifli 
wars ; but fome afcnbed thefe works 
to Appius, Suet. Caef. ^d. Accord-ng 
to the appointment of Caefar, Cic.Att. 
14, 6; Hirtius becauic conful with. 
Panfa, the year after Caefar's death. 
Being fent againll Antony, together 
with his colleague and Caefar Ofta- 
vius. Suet. Aug. 10.; Cic. Phil. 7, 4. 
after the defeat of Antony, he was 
killed in attacking his camp, Cic. Fam, 
10, 30. et 33. J Suet. Aug. II. (F/i/. 
CicCRO, /. 126.) 

C c HO. 

H O M [ 202 1 H Y D 

HOMeRUS, the firfl and moft ex- him to Maecenas, S/rL i, 6, 55. who 

celleni of the Greek poets, who flou-^ introduced him to Aiiguftus. Horace 

rilhed 160 years before the founding of foon became a great favourite with both. 

Rome. He is thought to have been Maecenas gave him a beautiful farm in 

born near Smyrna, (G. 587.). — Adj. the country of the Sabines, wherein 

HoMERicus, jfuv. 13, 113. Ho- fummer he ufually rtfided, (G. 162.) 

MERONIDES, -oe, an imitator of Ho- Horace died in the 97th year of his 

itier, P/aut. True. 2, 6, 4. Home- age, a few months after Maecenas. — 

ROMASTix, -Igis, (i. e. Homerijlag^ 

Idtor), a firname given to one Zoilus, 
who wrote bitterly againft Homer ; put 
for any fnarhng critic, Pl'in. praef. 11. 
HopLEUS, ^2fyll.), e'ts v. -eos i 
V. -ea^ 

Adj. Hon ATI AN us. 

HORTENSIUS, a celebrated ora- 
tor, contemporary with Cicero, Cic. 
Br. 64. v^'hence Cicero calls one of his 
books by that name, Cic. D'lv. 1,1, 

zee. -eumf v. -ea^ an Argive, flain by Horten si an a f/o.jWi^w/'w, the eloquence 

Aepytus, Stat. Theb. 10, 400. of Hortenhus, Fal. Max. 8, 8, . 

HoRAE,-rtr«fw, the^^'oz/rj', thedaugh- «T 2. A poet, Ovid. Tri/i. 2, \/\.l 

ters of Jupiter and Themis, Hcjiod. 
'Theog. 901. the attendants of Phoebus, 
Ovid. Met. 2, 26. who yoked the horfes 
of his chariot, ib.iii%. the keepers of 
the gates of heaven, Ovid. Fajl. i, 125. 
■ The Seafons, Hor. Od. i, 12, 16. 

Tullus H03TIL1US, the third 

king of Rome, (G. 196.). ^ 2. A 

lawyer, by whom certain forms of law 
were compofed, called Hostilianae 
aclioneSf Cic. Or. 1,57. 

HYACINTHUS, a boy beloved 

the twelve divifions of the day, Martial, by Apollo, (G. 372, & 41 1.) — Hya 

ciNTHiA, 'Orum-, a feail in honour of 
Hyacinthus, Ovid. Met. lO, 209. 

HYAS, -acy V. -antis, the fon of At- 
las and Pleione or Aethra^ the daughter 
of Occanus, flain by a lion or boar 

4, B. 

HORaTIUS, the name of a Ro- 
man gensy ennobled by the Horatii^ who 
fought with the Ciiriatii, Li v. i, 25. 
and by Horatius Codes, who defended 

the Sublician bridge againft the army Avhile hunting. — His twelve fillers la- 

pf Porsena, Liv. Zt 10. By one of mented his death fo much, that they 

this gens the father of the poet Horace pined away with grief. Jupiter, from 

having been freed from flavcry, aiTumed, compafiion, changed them into ftars. 

according to cuftom, the name of his Five of them were placed in the head 

patron. or face of Taurus, and called Hyades, 

QuiNTUS PIORATIUS Flaccus, -wm, from their brother, Ovid. Fajl. 5, 

the prince of Latin lyric poets, was 182. or becaufe when they rife they 

born at Venufia in December a. u. 689, were fuppofed to occafion rain, (ab iuvi 

Hor. Ep. I, 20, 27. Od. 3, 2 1. His plue}-e)y Hygin. f, 192. ; Plin. 2, 29. 

father carried him to Rome when a ^/ 18, 26 f. 66. hence termed pluviae, 

boy, and educated him with great care, rainy, Virg. Aen. 3,516, and irijlcs. 

Sat. I, 6, 76. At the age of twenty Hor. Od. 1,3, 14. Seven of them 

or twenty-one he went to Athens to were placed in the neck of Taurus, and 

fludy philofophy, Ep. 2, 2,43. He called Pleiades, Hygin ib. et Poet. 2, 

was led from thence to the civil war 21. Hyas, -antis, a king of Boe- 

by Brutus, who made him a military otia ; whence Hyantius juvenis, Actae- 

tribune. Sat. i, 6, 47. In the battle on, the Boeotian or Theban youth, 

of Philippi, Horace faved himfelf by Ovid. Met. ^y 147. Hyantea Aganippey 

flight, Od. 2, 7. After his return to ib. 5, 312. Hyanteus lolausy the The- 

Rome, finding his father dead and ban lolaus, Ovid. Met. %y 310. 

his fortune ruined, he applied himfelf Hydra, a dreadful ferpent with nine 

to writing verfes. Pp. 2, 2, 52. The heads, the daughter of Typhon and E- 

poets Virgil and Varius recommended chidna, flain by Hercules at the foun- 


H Y G 

[ 203 ] 

H Y R 

taiti or lake of Lerna, H^gth. praef. et 
f. 151. — called in Latin Excetra, be- 
caufe when one head was cut off, three 
grew lip in its place, Vtrg.Aeu. 
6,287. Hercules dipt his arrows in 
the gall of this moniler, which made 
them fatal to every one they ilruck, 
Jlygln. 30. and at laft proved his own 
deflru6tion, ih. 34. (G*. 402.) 

Hygie/i, Hygea, W ia, thegod- 
defs of health, the daughter of Aefcu- 
lapius, Pl'in. ^^^ Ti f. 36, 31.; Martial 
Ji, 6r. 

HygInus, a freed man of Auguf- 
tus, who had the charge of the Pala- 
tine library, GelL l, 7, &. 10.; Suet. III. 
Gram. 20. The books on mythology 
and aftronomy, which bear the name 

of Hy: 

are fuppofed to be of a 

later date., a centaur, who fought 
with the Lnptthaey (G. 439.) — adj. 
Hylaeus ramus, (i. e. clava), the club 
of Kylaeus, Prop. 1,1,13. his bow or 

arrov/, OvuL Art. 2, 191. ^ 2. The 

name of Adaeon's dog, O'uid. Met. 3, 

HYLAS, vel -a, -ae, a beautiful 
youth, the fon of Theodamas, and fa- 
vourite of Hercules, whom he accom- 
panied in the Argonautic expedition. 
Being fent to get water, while drawing 
his pitcher from a river or fountain, he 
fell in, and was drowned. The poets 
feign, that the nymphs, enamoured of 
his beauty, carried him off; fo that 
Hercules and his companions could not 
find him, Apollodor. i, 9, 19. Annual 
facred rites ate faid to have been indi- 
tuted to his honour, in which he was 
often invoked by name, (Hyla, Hy- 
la), as he had been by Hercules and 
the Argonauts when he was loft, Serii. 
ad Vlrg. Eel. 6, 44. 

Hyllus, the foh of Hercules by 
Dejanira, (G. 403. & 405.) 

Hy LONG ME, -es, a female centaur, 
who, upon the death of her hufband 
Cyllaru.s, flew herfelf, O'vid. Met. 12, 
405, &c. 

Hymen, -cms, vel H y m e n A e u s , the 
god of marriage, Donat. ad Ter. And. 

5? 7> 7- ; O'md. Met, ij 480. a ^, 761. 

— Hymenaeus is fometimes put fof the 
nuptial fong, Virg. Aen. 7, 398. and 
in the plur. for the nuptials, Virg. Aeh. 
I, 6$$. 4, 99. & 6, 613. G. 3, 60. 

Hyperides, -is, vel ae, an Athe- 
nian orator contemporary with Demoft- 
henes, greatly commended by Cicero, 
Or. I, 13. et 3, 7. et 26, & 3 1.; and 
by Quindihan, 10, i, 77. 

HypERioN, -onls, faid to be the 
father ot Sol, Ck.N.D. 3, 21. ufually 
put for the fun, (<?• 373.) ; whence 
currus Hyper'ionius, the chariot of the 
fun^ Fal. Flac. 2, 34. So Hyperwnia 
lux, Sil. 15, 214. 

HypErmnestra, the daughter of 
Danaus, and wife of Linus or Lynceus, 
whom fhe faved, when her fifters, by 
the order of their father, flew their huf- 
bands, (G. 392.) 

Hypsaea, a woman of the Plauttan 
family, who is fuppofed to have had 
bad eyes, or to have been fo blinded 
by a paflionate fondnefs for a man of a 
difagreeable appearance, that fhe was 
infenfible of his bad looks, Hor. Sat, 
I, 2,91. 

Hypsaeus, the brother of Aeacus, 
Stat. Theb. 7, 


5[ 2. A candi- 

date for the confulfliip with Milo, C'lc. 
Att.^, 8. 

HYPSipyLE, -es, 3, queen of Lem- 
nos, who preferved her father Thoas, 
when all the other men in the ifland were 
flain hy the women, (G. 441.). They 
having found that Hypilp)']e had faved 
her father, wanted to kill her ; but flie 
fled : and being taken by pirates, was 
carried to Nemea, and fold to Lycur- 
gus the king of that place as a flave, 
Apollodor. 3, 6, 4. ; Ladant. ad Stat. 
Theb. 5, 29. Kyginus fays, that (he 
was carried to Tliebes, and fold to king 
Lycus, / 15, & 74. Tellus Hipfipylia^ 
i. e. Lemnos, Ovid. Fall. 3, 82. 

HyRiE, -es, the mother of Cycnus, 
who having heard of the fall of her fon, 
and not knowing that he was faved bv 
being changed into a fwan, difl'olved 
away {dtlicuit) with weeping, and form- 
ed a lake called after her own name, 
Ovid. Mit 7, 379. 

C c 2 Hyr- 

H Y R 

Hyrtacus, a Trojan, 

of Nifus, who is hence called Hyrtaci- 
des, -ae, Virg. Aen. 9, 177. 

Hystaspes, -;>, the father of Darius 
king of Periia, (G. 608.) Jnjlin. 1,10. 


lACCHUs, the fame with Bacchus; 
iput for wine, Virg. E. 6, 15. 

lALysus, V. Ialyssus, the fon of 
Hercules, Clc. Verr. 4, 60. — f 2. The 
grandfon of Sol, C'tc, N. D, 3, 21. — 
adj. I A Ly SI LIS, OviJ. Met. 7, 365. 

JaNUS, the moft ancient king of 
Italy, {G. 1S5, & 357.) worfhippedas 
a god after his death ; reprefented 
vith two faces, [bifrons^ ^ "g* Aen. 
J 2, 198. f/ 7, 180.) or with two heads, 
{biceps, Ovid. Fall, i, 6$.) His tem- 
ple was open in time of war, and flint 

in time of peace. Jx\NUS is put 

for any thoroughfare or pafTage from 
cue place to another, {^tranfnio pervia,) 
Cic. N. D. 2, 27. probably from its 
having an arch and an image of Janus 
over it, with one of the faces looking 
one way at the entrance, and the other 
looking another way at the outlet or 
egrefs. Such were thofe mentioned, 
IJv. 41, 32.; SucL Domit. 13. Pom- 
peii J}atuam marynoreo Jano fuppofuit, he 
placed the ftatue under a marble arch, 
which ferved as a thoroughfare. Suet, 

u4ug. 31. Janus is alfo the name of 

a ilreet or alley, in which bankers tranf- 
aftcd bufmefs, Cic. Of. 2, 25. ; Phil 6, 
5. ; Hor. Ep. T, 1, 54- Sat. 2, 3, 18. 
and where books ufed to be fold, Hor. 
Ep. I, 20, I. 

Iantke, Vid. Iphis. 

lAPiiTUs, the fon of Caelus and 
Terra, and the father of Prometlieus, 
■who is hence calkd Satus Japeto, Ovid. 
Met. I, 82. Japcti genus ^ Hor. Od. i, 

^j 27. Alfo the father of Atlas, 

hence called lapeilomdes, Ovid. Met. 

Ja PET IDES, -ne, a mufician, killed 
at the nuptial feail of Perfeus and An- 
dromeda, G'vid. Met. 5, III. 

lAPis, -)dis, the fon of Jafus [las'i- 
des,-ae,) a phyfician, w^ho, by the af- 

[ 2C4 ] I B Y 

the father fiftance of Venus, cured the wound of 

Aeneas, Virg. Aen. 12, 391, & 420. 

i A p Y X , -ygisy a fon of Daedalus, who 
having fettled in the fouth eaft corner 
of Italy, gave the name of Japygia to 
that part of the country, (G. 158.) 
which is hence called Japygis arva, 
Ovid. Met. iStS^' II 2. A north- 
weft wind, blowing from Japygia, and 
favourable to fuch as failed from Brun. 
difium to Greece, Nor. Od. i, 3, 4. 

lARBAS, (three fyll.) a king of 
Gaetulia or Mauritania, who wiflied to 
marry Dido, Virg. Aen. 4, 36, 2x6, & 
326. — Plence larb'tta, v. -as, a Moor, 
fuppofed to be put for Cordus, a rhe- 
torician, a native of MauritJtiia ; whom 
a defire of imitating the wit of Ti- 
ma2;enes is faid to have made to burft 
with envy, {Rupit larbitam Timagenis 
tiemula lingua.) Some think larbitashere 
a proper name, Hor. Ep. i, 19, 15. 

lAsius, (four fyll.) the brother of 
Dardanus, Virg. Aen. 3, 168. and grand- 
father of Adraftus, who is hence called 
Dux lasmesy -ae, Stat. Theb. 6, 914. 

5[ 2. I ASUS V. lafnis, the father 

of Paiinurus, hence called iastdes, -ae, 

Virg. Aen. 5, 843. ^ 3. Another, 

called alfo Schoeneus, the father of 
Atalanta, hence called 11 sis, -tdis, 
Propert. i, i, 10. 

lASON, (three fyll.) -onis, the fon of 
Aef;>ii, [AefomdeSi -ae,) king of lolcos, 
and" of Alcimede ; th:^ leader, of the 
Argonauts in the expedition to Colchis 
in queft of the golden fleece, (G, 439.) 
Hence lasonia puppis, the fhip Argo, 
in which they failed, Avien. Arat. 
Phaen. 'j^ 808. Jajonia rapina, Ja- 
fon's can-ying off the golden fleece, 
Stat. Achil. J, 6^. 

Jasonidae j?/w/7^j-, the two fons of 
Jalon and Hypfipyle, Thoas and Eu- 
neus, Stat. Theb. 6, 340. 

IBIS, -^disy ace. I bin, abl. Ihtde, a 
fici'tious name which Ovid gave to a 
perfon on whom he wrote a fatirical 
poe.:i called Ibis ; ftill extant. 

iBycus, a poet of Rhenium, noted 
for his am.orous verfes, Cic. Tufc. 4, 33. 
whofe murderers were wonderfully dif- 
coveied, (G. i75«) 


I C A [ 205 ] I L U 

IcADTUS, a robber, who perifhed by difregarding his father's advice, foared 

too high, fo that the fan having melt- 
ed his wings, he fell, down into that 
part of the iEgean Sea afterwards call- 
ed the Icarian Sea, and was drowned, 

a ftone which fell from a cave on his 
legs, C'lc. Fat. 3. 

iCARIUS vel icar-us, an Athenian, 
who hofpitably entertained Bacchus ; 
whence he is called CunSis Baccho jucun- 
dior hofpes, Tibull. 4, 1,9. On this ac- 
count Bacchus firll taught him the art 
of making wine, and defired him to 
propagate it through the world. Ica- 
rius gave a quantity of wine to fome 
fhepherds, who having drunk of it 
greedily, became intoxicated ; and ima- 
gining that Icarius had given them a 
poifonous drug, killed }iim with theiV 
clubs. Next day, being fenfible- of 
what they had done, they buried him. 
Erigone, his daughter, having difcover- 
ed where he lay by the hovvling of his 
dog Maera, hung herfelf, Apollodor. 3, 
13, 7. Some fay that the body was left 
unburied, Hyg'tn, 130.; Poet. 2, 4. 
Maera, affefted by the lofs of his mafter 
and miftrefs, pined away. Jupiter, in 
compaffion, changed the three into flars. 
Icarius was called Bodies or ArBtlrus ; 
Erigone, Virgo ; Maera, Can'icula or 
the Leffer Dog liar, ib. — Hence Lca- 
Rii bo'ves, the liars of Urfa Major, 
which Icarius or Bootes was fuppofed 
to drive, Propert. 2, 33, 24. But the 
poets commonly make Bootes the fame 
with Areas the fon of Hellice, [q. v.) 
— Icarium ajlrum, Stat. Theb. 4, 
•777, the fame with Icarius cams, \.t. 
canicula, the leffer dog-ilar, Ovid, in 
Nuce, 118. 

icARi-'S, vel Icarus, the father of 
Penelope ; whence (he is called Ica- 
Ris, -^idis, Ovid, in Ibin, 391 ; or Ica- 
RiOTis, -idis, voc. Icarioii, Propert. 3, 
13, 10. — Adj. Icariotis tela, abl. Icari- 
otide, Penelope's web, O-vld. Pont. 3,1, 
1 1 2. Icarius is faid to have urged Pe- 
nelope to marry one of her fuitovs in 
the abfence of Ulyfles, Oind. Et). 1,81. 

The father of Penelope is by fome 

confounded with the father of Erigone; 
but iir.properly. 

Icarus, the fon of Daedalus, vi'ho 
flying with his father from the laby- 
rinth In Crete, on waxen wings, and, 

( G. 42 !•) Ic AR I > fiuStus, the waves 

of the Icarian Sea, Hor. Od. 1, I, I J. 
So Icariae aquae, Ovid. Trift. 5, 2, 28. 
IcELOS, one of the fons of Somnusy 
who' imitated the appearance of wild 
beafts, birds, and ferpents, as Morpheus 
did that of men, Ovid. Met. \ 1, 638. 

Idmon, -onis, (i. e. Jciens,) the fon of 
Apollo and Afteria, a foothfayer among 
the Argonauts, Fa/. Flac. i, 228. 

Idomeneus, (four fyll. gen. -eif 
Virg. Aen. 11, 264. ace. -ea, ib.3,122.) 
a king of Crete, one of the Graeciaii 
leaders in the war againft Troy, who 
being expelled by his fubjefls, failed 
into Italy with a number of compani- 
ons, and fettled in Calabria, near the 
Japygian or Sallentine promontory, 
Firg. Aen. 3, 121, & 400. (G. 459.) 

Idya,WIdyj\, the wife of Aee- 
tes, and mother of Medea, Cic. N. D. 
3, 19. Ovid calls her Ipsea, Ep. 17, 

Ignigena, a name of Bacchus, as 
having been brought into the world 
by the force of lire or lightning, Ovid. 
Met. 4. 12. 

Ilia, the mother of Romulus and 
RemAis, (G. 192.) 

Ilione, -fj", the eldeft daughter of 
Priamus king of Troy, Firg. Aen. I, 


I L I o N E u s , (four fyll. g e n. -eos et -et, 

accuf. -ea, Virg. A. i, 611.) a Trojan, 
one of the chief companions of Aeneas ; 
always diftinguifhed in Virgil by his elo- 
quence, as his father Phovbas is in Ho- 
mer, Scrv. ad Firg. Aen. i, 525, &c. 

iLYTHyi ', the goddefs who pretld- 
ed over women in phikl birth, Ovid, 
Met. 9, 2 ''3. faid to be the fame with 
rylana, Hor. Car. Saec. 14. called alfo 
Ij. cin , Ovid. ib. 294.; Hor. ib. 15. 
To gratify Juno fhe is faid to have re- 
tarded the birth of Hercules, Ovid.ib, 
284.; Apollodor.^, ^, S. 

ilyUS, the fon of Tros; and fourth 



[ 206 ] 

J O C 

king of Troy, from whom that city- 
was called Ilium, (G. ^Sy.) whence 
Ilia tellus^ the country of Troy, Firg. 
Aen. II, 24 J. I LI A CI murif the wails 
of Troy, Ih. i, 48'^. Iliades, -urn, 
the Trojan women, ih. 480. Iliades, 
-fl<?, Ganymedes, the grandfon of Ilus, 
/ O'otd. Met. 10, 160. 5f 2. The ori- 
ginal name of lulus or Afcanius, the 
fon of Ae-neas, V'lrg. Aen. i, 268. 

Imbrasus, the name of a man, 

V'lrg. Aen. 12, 343. Imbrasides, 

-ae, the fon of Imbrafus, ib. 10, 123. 
ace. plur. Imbrojldas, ib. 12, 343. 

InaCHIa, the name of a girl beloved 
by Horace, Hor. Epod. 1 1, 8. ct 12. 14. 

iNaCHUS, the x%a king of the Ar- 
gives, (G. 39I.) hence called pnfcusy 

Hor. Od, 2, 3, 21. In AC HIS, -id'is, 

lo or Ifis, the daughter of Inachus, 
Ovid. Met. 1 , 6 1 f . called I n a c h i \ 
Juvenca, Virg". G. 3, 153. becaufe 
changed by Jupiter into an heifer, 

Ovid. ib. In a c h I de s, -ae, Epapluis, 

the fon of lo and grandfon of Inachus, 
Ovid. Met. I, 7<J3. in the plur. put for 
Argivi, the Argivcs, Stat. Theb. 3, 365. 
Jnachules ripae, the banks of the river 
Inachus, Ovid. Met. i, 64c. to which 
river Inachus gave name, and after his 
death was fuppofed to prefide over it 
as a divinity, Ovid. ib. 511. On the 
Ihleld of Turnus was reprefented the 
figure of, lo converted into a heifer, 
and her father Inachus pouring his 
river from an embofled urn, Virg. Aen. 
7. 789. According to Virgil, Turnus 
v»a3 defcended from Inachu;, j'hn. 7, 

371. Inachii Argi^ Argosthe ca- 

pitol of Inachus, Virg. Am. 7, 286. 
Jnachiae urbes, the cities of Inachus, 
i. e. of the Argives or Greeks, Virg. 
Afn. II, 286. So Stat. Theb. I, 324. 
Jnachiae rates, Graeoian fliips, Ovid. Ep. 
13, 134. Jnachium Uttus, the (liore of 
ArgOiis, Id. Fii!:. 5, (y^^. 

INO, -7/J, the daughter of Cadm'is, 
and wife of i\thamas, king of Thebes, 
who flying from her frantic hufband 
with her fon Meiicerta, threw herfelf 
from a high rock into the fca. By the 
power of Neptune, (lie aud her lou 

were both changed into fea-deities, the 
mother called Leucothoe, or by the Ro- 
mans Matuta^ and the fon Palasmon or 
PortumnuSi (G. 427.) ; hence Indus 
Meiicerta, the fon of Ino, Virg. G, 
I, 437.; Palacmon, Id. A. 5, 823. 
Inoi Jinus, the bofom of Ino, Ovid. 
Met. 4, 497. Inoi doli, the artifices of 
Ino to dellroy her ftep-chiidren, Ovid. 
Art. A. 3, 176. Inoum Lechaeum, the 
promontory of Lechaeum, the port of 
Corinth, whence Ino threw herfelf, 
Stat. Silv. 2, 2, 35. ; and hence Indus 
I/Ihmas, the illhmus of Corinth, ib. 4, 
3, 60. Indus Learchus, the fon of 
Ino, Val. Flac, i, 280. 

INUUS, a name given to Pan by 
the Latins, Liv. l, 5. ; Serv. ad Virg. 
Aen. 6, J'JS- 

10, -us, (in all other cafes /o,) the 
daughter of Inachus, {^Inachis -idis,) 
king of Argos, beloved by Jupiter, 
and by him converted into a beautiful 
heifer, to conceal her from Juno ; who 
fufpecling the fraud, aflced the animal 
in a prefent from Jupiter ; and having 
obtained her requeft, commxitted her 
to . the charge of a fnepherd, cal- 
led Argus. But he being flam by 
Mercury, [Vid. Argus,) lo, after 
many wanderings, at laft reached 
Egypt, where Cue was reflored to her 
former ihape, married Osiris, the king 
of that country ; and after her death 
was worfiiipped as a goddefs by the 
Egyptians, under the name of Ifis, 
Ovid. Met. I, 588, — 747. Ep. 14, 85, 
&c. ; ScTv. ad Virg. Aen. 7, 789. 
Propertius feems to intimate that fhe 
retained the form of a cov^, after fne 
was deified, 2, 28, 17. (ah 2, 2i, 19.) 
or rather becaufe liis was worihipped 
in the form of a cow ; whence flie is 
reprefented vvith horns like thofe of 
the'moon, Ovid. Met. 9, 687, et 782. 

Jo BATES, -is, v. -ae, a king of Ly- 
cia, the father of Sthenoboea, the wife 
of Pmetus, who fent Bellerophon a- 
gainit the Chimaera, (G. 393.) Apol-r 
lodor. 2, 3. ; Hygin. 57. 

JOCASTA, the daughter of Creon, 
and wife of Laius, kir>g of Thebes ; 


Ignorantly mar 
own ion by Laius 

1 L [ 

after wbofe death fae 

ried Oedipus, her 

and had by him Eteocles and Poly- 

nlces. Having difcovered the truth, 

flie hanged herfelf in defpair, (G. 


iOLAS, -ae, the name of a fliepherd 

in Virgil, E. 2, 57, et 3, 79. f 2. 

A Trojan flain by Catillus of Tibur, 
Virg. ken, II, 640. 

ioLAUS, the fon of IpliJclus, Apol- 
loder. 2, 3, II. a Thtban ; hence cal- 
led HyanteuSf (i. e. Thebajius^) Ovid. 
Met. 8, 310, who afljftcd Hercules in 
deftroying the hydra, Jlpollodor. 2,4, 2. 
faid to I'.ave been reilored to youth 
in his old age by Hebe, O'v'uL Met. 9, 

399, &c. ^2. The fon of Iphiclus 

and Diomedea ; called ufually Pro- 
tefilaus, Hygin. 103. 

ioLE, -esi the daughter of Eurytus, 
king of Oechalia, [F'uL EuRyr us,) 
beloved by Hercules ; after whofc 
death (he married Hyllus, the fon of 
that hero, Ovid. Met. 9, 279. (G. 

iON, 'On'iSt the fon of Xuthus, 
an Athenian ; from whom firil the 
country on the north of the Corin- 
thian gulf, and afterwards part of Afia 
Minor, w^as called Ionia, (G. 409.) 

«][ 2. An inhabitant of Pifa, a fol- 

dier in the Theban war, Stat. Thcb. 8, 

ioPAs, -ae, a mufician at tne court 
of Dido, who had been inftrucled by 
Atlas ; defcribed, as having long hair, 
(crinlluSf) according Lo the cullom of 
harpers, probably in imitation of A- 
polio, P^irg. ylen. i, 740, et Ihi Serv. 

ioPE, (al. /&/?,) -esj a nymph, Pro- 
pci-t. 2, 28, 51. 

Joseph us, the celebrated Jevviili 
liiftorian, who being made prifoner by 
Nicanor, one of the officers of Vefpa- 
fian, the governor of Judaea, and be- 
ing ordered by that commander to be 
put in chains, preditled, that he fhould 
loon be releafcd by the fame Vefpafian, 
when made emperor, Suet. Vefp. 5. ; 
Jofe.pl3. de Bell. JiuL 3, 14, (al.'2 7.) 

Jo VI?, ufcd aucieutly in the nom. 


- for 

1 I P H 

Jupiter, Far. L. L. ']i 7^^,f.zn^ 
alfo by later writers, Petron. 47, & 58.; 
^J'c?"- 53' 54» 63, 75, &c. 

Iphianassa, one of the daughters 
of Proetus, and wife of Melampus, 
(G. 393. vld. Proetus et Melam- 
pus.) ^ 2. A name given to Iphi- 

genla, (genit. Iphianajsa'h for -ae), 
Lucr. I, 86. 

IPHiCLES, -IS, or Iphiclus, -/, 
a Theban, the fon of Amphitryon and 
Alcm.ena, born at the fame birth with 
Hercules, Apollodor. i, 8, 2. et 2, 7, 

3. When Hercules killed the two 
fnakes fent by Juno to deftroy him ,in 
his cradle, Iphiclus is faid to have dif- 
covered ilrong marks of fear, Id. 2, 

4, 8. Serv. ad Vhg. Jen. 8, 288. 

<|y 2. A king of Phylace, a city of 
Theflaly, (G. 322.) the father of Pro- 
tefilaus, Apollodor. 3, 9, 8. ; Hygin. 103, 

et 173.; Ovid. Ep. 13, 25. ^ 3. 

One of the Argonauts, the fon of 
Theflius, JpollodGr. i, 9, 16. 

IPHICRaTES, -is, an Athenian 
general, diilinguifhed for his fliill in the 
military art, and for the improvements 
he made in the armour of the foot-fol- 
diers, Nep. 11, i. 

IPHIGENIA, the daughter of Aga- 
memnon, oifered up as a facrifice to ap- 
peafe the wrath of Diana, and to pro- 
cure favourable winds for the Graeciaii 
fleet, then weather-bound at Aulis, 
Virg. A en. 2, 116.; Propert. 3,5,53. ; 
Cic. Tufc. I, 48. But others fay, that, 
while (he was juft about to be facriil- 
ced, (lie was refcued by Diana, who 
fubtlituted an hart in her ftead, hence. 
Nee fperet tragicae fiirtiva piacula cerva, 
he cannot hope that his dauglijter will 
be fecretly carried off as Iphigenia was, 
and a hart fubftituted as an expiation 
to Diana, in her llead. The hart is 
called tragicay becaufe this incident was 
often exhibited in acling the tragedy 
of Iphigenia on the ilage, Juveyial. 12, 
120. Diana is faid to have conveyed 
her in a cloud to Taur^icay w^here '^c 
became the prieilefs of the altar of that 
goddefs, (G. 406.) 

Iphimedia, the mother of the gi- 

I P H 

r 208 ] 

I S I 

ants, Otus and Ephialtes. [Vld, Alo- 


Iphinoe, -es, the eldeft of the 
daughters of Proetiis, JpoUodor. 2, 2, 

2. C| 2. One of the women of Lem- 

nos, that flew their -hufoands, and en- 
tertained Jafon and his companions, 
Val Flacc. 2, 162, & ^27. 

Iphis, -id'is^ (ace. Iph'm, Ovid. Met. 
14, 753. abl. Iph'ide, ib. 9, 667.) a young 
man of Salamis in Cyprus, of mean ex- 
traction, who having fallen defperately 
in love with Anaxaretc, a girl of noble 
birth, and on that account being trea- 
ted by her with coldnefs and contempt, 
hanged hirrfelf. Anaxarete, looking 
out to his funeral, as it pafled along, 
was turned into a (lone, Ovid. Met. T4, 

698, — 760. <}[ 2. A Cretan girl, 

whom her mother Telecufa brought up 
as a boy, to deceive her hufhand Lig- 
diis, who being in narrow circumllan- 
CC3, according to the cruel cuftom of 
the ancients, had ordered the child, if 
a daughter, to be killed. Iphis being 
betrothed by her father as a hufband 
to I ANT He, was, by the power of His, 
on the day of her nuptials, changed in- 
to a male, Ovid. Met. 9, 665, &c. ad 
Jiji.^-^- ^ 3. A fon of Mercury's, one 
of the Argonauts, Val Flacc. 1,441. 

^ 4. An Argive, flain by Atha- 

mas in the Theban war, Stat. Theb. 8, 

445. ^ 5. The fon of AleCior, 

who fliowed PolynTces a method of in- 
ducing Amphiaraus to accompany him 
to the war againft Thebes, ApoUodor. 

3, 6, 2. ^ 6. The father of Evad- 

ne, the wife of Capdneus ; whence fhe 
is called IPHIAS, -ad'is, Ovid. Art. 
Am. 3, 22.; Pont. 3, I, III.; Trill. 
5, 14, 38. (G. 431.) 

IPHiTl'S, the fon of Eurytus, 
king of Oechalia, and brother of lole, 
(G. 401.)- <[} 2. A Trojan, enfee- 
bled by age, {gravior ann'is), the com- 
panion of Aeneas, Virg. Aen. 2, 435. 

■ ^ 3. A king of EHs, who retto- 

red the Ohmpic games, which had 
iird been inftituled by Hercules, (G. 

Ip£EA, the mother of Medea, Ovid. 
is/. 17,232. 

IRIS, Irtdisi (ace. Irim, v. Ir'w ; 
voc. /W), the goddefs of the rainbow, 
the daughter of Thaumas, {jThauman.' 
tiaSf -adis), Stat. Silv. 3,3, 8.; the mef- 
fenger of Juno, (nuncia jfunonis), Ovid. 
Met. I. 270, et II, 585, et 14, 830. ; 
hence called Iris jfunonia, ib, 14, 85. 
beautifully defcribed, Virg. Aen. 4, 
700. ; fuppofed to draw water from the 
earth to the clouds, (G. 6^.') 

IRUS, a beggar of Ithaca, of a 
large lize, but ugly and feeble ; fup- 
ported by the fuitors of Penelope on 
account of his drolleiy ; flain by Ulyf- 
fes. {Vid. G. 457.) 

IsAEUs, a celebrated Athenian ora- 
tor, ^dnuil. 12, 10, 2 2.; the mailer 
of Demofthenes ; prailed by Juvenal, 
3, 74. Several of his orations are ilill 
extant. There was a Roman orator of 
the famft name, who is extolled by Pli- 
ny the younger, Ep. 2, 3. ; to whom 
fome think Juvenal alludes, ib. 

ISIS, Isidis^ Ifidi^ IJim, v. -///, JJiy 
Ifulcy a goddefs of the Egyptians, fup- 
pofed by the poets to be the fame with 
lo, the daughter of Inachus ; hence 
called In AC HIS, Ovid. Met. 9, 686.; 
and the river Inachus, Aveclae (fc. in 
Aegyptum) pater Ifidis^ Lucan. 6, 
363. Her image was covered with fine 
linen ; whence flie is called Linigera 
juvenca, Ovid. Art. Am. 1,77. Linige- 
ra Ifis; Id. Amor. 2, 2, 25. ; Pont, i, 
I, 51. ; and tliofe who worfhipped her 
were dreifed in a llneu robe, Suet. 0th. 
1 2. ; whence her priefts are called Turba 
linigera, Ovid. I, 747. ; Add, Lucmu 
10,175. Grex limgery Juvenal. 6, 532. 
and when about to celebrate her facred 
rites, clofcly iliaved their heads ; whence 
they are called Grex calvus, ib. Lint- 

geri cahii Martial. 12, 29, 19. Ifis 

carried in her right hand zfijirum, by 
a ftroke of which flie was luppofed to 
infiift difeafes, Juvenal. 13, 93. Her 
priells alfo carried a fiilrum, Perf. 5, 
186. ; Ovid. Met. 9, 776. whence they 
are called Sift rata turba. Martial. 12, 

29. The worfhip of Ifis, and other 

Egyptian deities, was admitted at 
Rome towardj the end of the republic, 


t S U I 

which Lucan mentions with indigna- 
tion, 8, 831. Tacitus fays, that a 
part of the S^fevi in Germany facri- 

ficed to Ifis, cie Mor, Germ. 9. 

Isi Acus, -/, 3 pricft of Ifis, Stie\ Dom. 

1.; Fal.Max.'], 3,8. Ifiac'i foc'iy 

the altars of Ifis, Qvid. Pont, i, I, 52. 

Ifaci conjedores, priclls of Ifis, who 
preiended to be fortune-tellers, Cic. 
Div. ex {innio poeia, i, 58. 

IsMENE, -fSf a daughter of Oedi- 
pus, betrothed to Athys or Atys, a 
youth of Cyrra, who was flain by Ty- 
dcus before the nuptials ; called y^ge-^ 
norea Ifmene, i. e. Thehamiy becaufe 
Thebes was founded by Cadmus, the 
fon of Agenor, Stat. Theh. 8, <^z,^. Sec. 

Ism EN us, a fon of Apollo and 
Melia, one of the Nereides^ who gave 
name to the river Ismenus in Boeotia, 
near Thebes, Paufan. 9, 10. 

ISOCRaTES, 'is, an Athenian o- 
rator, called by Cicero the father of 
eloquence, Or. 2, 3. contemporary with 
Plato, Clc. Or. 6. His houfe was, as 
it were, the rhetorical fchool of ail 
Greece, Ck. Brut. 8. He rarely fpoke 
in public himfelf, but compofed ora- 
tions for others, ih. 12.; ^nn&ll. 3, 
T, 14. He is faid to have written 
his famous oration, or book called 
PanathenaicuSf in the 94th year of his 
age, and to have lived five years af- 
ter, Cic. Sen. 5, & 7.; ^inail. ib. 
About thirty-one of his orations are 
flill extant. 

209 ] i\3 c 

IToNUS, vd Ithmus, tlie firft king 
of ThelTaly, who is faid to have invent- 
ed the art of melting metals, and of 
coining money, Lucan. 6, 402. 

ITYS, -yns.y (ace. -yn), the fon of 
Tereus, a king of Thrace, (Tercides 
puer)y Ovid, in Ibide ; killed by his mo- 
ther Prognc, and ferved up as a feafi: 
to his father, to revenge the injury done 
by him to Philomela, the filler of Prog- 
ne. Itys was changed into a pheafant, 
{G. 419.) He is called by CatuUua 
IryLus, 64, 14. 

JUBA, a king of Mauritania, who 
joined the party of Pompey in the civil 
war, and defeated Curio, (^."z^. ) But 
at laft being vanquifhed by Caefar, in 
the battle of Thapfus, {^vid. Caes-\r, 
p, 72.) and being deferted by his fub- 
je6ls, he flew himfelf by the afliftance oi" 
a (lave, Hirt. B. Afr. 94. — — Juba, his 

Script ores, qui funt 
ah IJocrate, the followers of Ifocrates, 
^linSlil. ^, 2, 31. i. e. Ifocratem fecuti. 

Id. 9, 4, 35. Adj. IsOCRATEUS. 

Thus, Placet omma did Ifocrateo more, 
"in the manner of Ifocrates, Cic. Or. 61. 
JJocratea ratio oratoria, the oratorial rules 
of Ifocrates, or his art of rhetoric, Cic. 
Fam. I, 9, 6'. 

iTz\LUS, a king of Sicily, who 
fettled in that part of Italy where Tur-' 
iius afterwards reigned ; and gave his 
name to the country, which it ilill re- 
tains, Scrv. ad Virg. Aen, I, 530. ; 
Dionyf. I, 12. 

Ithyphallus, a name of Priapus, 
Col !o, 32, 

fon, was led in triumph by Caefar, but 
afterwards recovered his father's king- 
dom by the favour of Auguftus, and 
married Cleopatra, the daughter of An- 
tony, Dio, 51, 15. He was greatly dif- 
tinguifhed for his learning : he wrote SL 
hiilory of Rome in Greek, and feveral 
other works, which were much efteem- 
ed, Plin. 6, 27, &C. — = — -Julae tellus^ 
Mauritania, Hnr* Od. i, 2 3, 15* 

JUGURTPIA, a king of Numi- 
dia, the grandfon of Mafmiffa, re- 
markable for his cunning and cou- 
rage, conquered by Marius^ (y. "u, ) by 
whom, being led in triumph, he is faid 
to have been killed in prifon, Sallujh 
Jug- I f^. ; Plutarch, in Mario. Hence 
Marias is faid, Frangere colla ^Tttgurthae^ 
Lucan. 9, 6wC. and when to fave him- 
felf from Sulla, he was obliged to fly 
to Africa ; Nuda triumphati jacitit per 

VFgna Jugurthae, ib. 2. 9Q. File (fc. 

Marius) Jugurthmo clarus Cimhroque 
triumphoy famous for his triumph over 
Jugurtha and the Cimbri, O'Sid. Pont. 
4, 3, 45. BcUum Jugurthiniim, the war 
againft Jugurtha, Hor, Epod. 9, 23. 
'Jugurthinae conjurationis invidia^ the o- 
dium of being concerned as a party to 
fupport Jugurtha, or of being bribed 
by him, Cic. Brut. ^t,. ^aejlio conju-» 
D d ratiQrils 

I U L [2 

railonh jfugufthinaey the inquifition into 
the conduA of thofe who were thus 
concerned or corrupted, Cic. N. D. 3, 
30. ; Salluj}. yt'g. 40. yugurthinae con' 
ditor hjftor'mey the hiftonan of the Ju- 
gurthine war, i. e. SaUuft, ^nn5lil. 8, 
3, 29. 

iULUS, called Afcanius, the fon of 
Aeneas, according to Virgil, by Crtu- 
fa ; but Livy fays it is unceriain whe- 
ther by Creufa or Latinia. The ac- 
count of Dlonyfius is different from 
both, [ind, G. 191.) 

JULIA gensf the Julian clan, which 
claimed lulus as the author of its name, 
Lh. 1, 3. Julius Caefar, in particular, 
wiflied it to be believed, that the branch 
of it to which he belonged, [famtlia 
Caefarum), was defcended from lulus, 
(fl P^'enere lulii, [c. funt ; ciijus gerd'is fa- 
milia ejl nrjlra)^ Suet. 6. ; Dio, 41, 34. 

tt 43, 22. Julius a magno dmijfum 

nomen lulo, Virg. Acn. i, 288. After 
the deftrudlion of Alba, the JuHi are 
iirft mentioned among the chiefs of the 
Albans, chofen by Tullus into the pa- 
trician order at Rome, {^in pat res lecft)y 
liiv, I, 30. Or'igo yullae gentisy Tac. 

Ann. 4, 9. Julius men/is, the 

month formerly called ^'mli/is, named 
Julius y from Juhus Caefar, (A. 327.) 
JuLiAE hgeSi laws paffed by Ju- 
lius Caefar and Augulhis, (A. 203.) 
^\ji.\\jn fiJuSy the Julian ftar, i. e. a 
comet which appeaved after the death 
of Caefar, Hor. Od. 1,12, 47. and was 
fuppofed to be the foul of Caefar, after 
he was received into heaven, Sud. Caef. 
88. On which account the mark of a 
ftar was affixed to the head of the lla- 
tue which Auguilus dedicated to Caefar 

an the Forum, Plin, 2, 25. Domus 

Julia^ the Julian family, Ovul. Faft. 4, 

40. Julius partus, a harbour made 

by Auguftus near Baiae, by letting in 
the fea to the Lucrine lake, and the 
lake Avernus, Suet. Jug. 16. ; whence 
Virgil calls the water thus let in Jidia 
jinda, G.2, 163. yuliatempla, the tem- 
ple of Venus, built by Julius Caefar, 

Qvld. Pont 4, 5, 21. lulhis, in 4 

fyll. Tempus yule'is eras ejl naiaie Kalen- 
d'iSf to-morrow will be the calends, or 

!0 1 JUL 

firil day of July, Ovid. Fajl. 6, 797. 
Surgit luleo ju'venis cognomine digrtus, i. e. 
Germanicus, Ovid. Pont. 2, 5, 49. Geri' 
its luleae nomina fanSa fero, I bear the 
facred name of Auguftus, I venerate his 
divinity, ib. i, i, 46. Et tot Juleae no- 
bili'atis avos, fc. 'videt, fees fo many an- 
ceilors defcended from the noble race 
of lulus, Id, Fajl. 5, 564. Ut fcilicet 
olim magnus Juleos Caefar haheret avos^ 
ib. 4, 124. Jctia Julaeae pelagus monU' 
menta carinae, gf the fhips of Auguftus, 
Propert. 4, 6, 17. Cujus luleae ca~ 
piti nafcantur Glivae, on whofe head the 
Julian olives grow, i. e. who is to be 
crowned with olive by Caefar, i. e. by 
Domitian, Martial 9, 36, 9. — Poffef- 
five adj. Julian us ; JuUani, fc. militeSf 
the foldiers of Caefar, Suet. Caef. 75. 
Vedigalia JuUana, the taxes impofed 
by. Julius Caefar, Cic. Phil. 13, 15. 

JULIA, the daughter of Juhus 
Caefar, by Cornelia, the daughter of 
Cinna, Suet. Caef. i. married firft to 
Servilius Caepio, whom her father o- 
bliged her to divorce that (he might 
marry Pomper, ib. 2 1 . The unfortu- 
nate death of this amiable woman, 
broke the connexion between her fa- 
ther and hufband, ib. 26. et Paterc. 2, 
47. ; and their difagreement foon after 
gave rife to the civil wars, which ter- 
minated in the extinftion of the liber- 
ties of Rome ; hence Lucan, Tufola 
furentem Inde 'virum poteras, atque hinc 

rctirere parentem ; Morte tua difcuf- 

fa Jldes, bellumque mover e Permiffum eji 
ducihus, I, 125. i^Vid. Pompeius.) 
^ 2. The only daughter of Au- 
guftus, Infamous for her lewdnefs, Tac. 
Ann. I, s?>' (G. 244.) 

JuLiANUs, {Titius vel Tertlus), a 
lieutenant of Otho's, prefented with 
confular ornaments for his bravery, 
Tac. Hi/l* I, 79. He afterwards join- 
ed the party of Vefpafian, ib. 2, 85. 
et 4, 39, 2c 40. 

Salvius Ju LI ANUS, a lawyer, who, 
by the order of the emperor Adrian, 
collected and arranged all the edlAs of 
the praetors, and formed them into 
one, called Edictum Perpetuum, 
Eutrcp, 8, sj. 


JUL [211 

Dldius Julian us, the grandfon or 
great-grand foil oFthe former, a wealthy- 
lawyer, who, after the mnrderof Com- 
modus, bribed the praetorian cohorts 
to make him e:nperor ; but he was 
(lain In a fliort rime after, by order of 
Sevenis his fucceiTor. Spartianus fays 
that JuHan was emperor only two 
months and five days, r. 9. Dio fays, 
fixty-fix days, 73, 17. Eutropius 
fays, feven months, 8, 17. So Victor, 
Ep'tt. c. 19. who by miftake afcribes 
the arrangeinent of the praetorian e- 
Aidis to this JuUan, Je Caef. 19. 

Jul I AN us, the fon of Conftantius, 
the brother of Conftantine the Great, 
who fucceeded liis coufin-german Con- 
ftantius, the fon of Conftantine, in the 
empire, a. u. 11 13. A. D. 361. — cal- 
led the Apojlate, from his relinquifhing 
Chriftianity, and reiloring the Pagan 
worfliip. He perilhed in an expedi- 
tion againft the Perfians, in which Eu- 
tropius fays he was prefent, 10, 16. 
(G. 249.) 

JUNIA gem^ a patrician clan; 
whence was defcended L. Junius Bru- 
tus, who expelled Tarquin ; but the 
Bruti who flouriflied towards the end 
of the republic, were of plebeian ex- 
traction, V'ld. Brutus. — Several of 
the name of Junius are mentioned in 
Cicero, Ver. i, 6, Jt &i. 50. N. D, 2, 
3. Leg. 3, 20, &c. 

JUNIA, the daughter of D. Ju- 
nius Silanus, the ni^ce of Cato, the 
half-fifter of Brutus, (FzV/. Servilia,) 
and the wife of Calfius, who lived 
fixty-four years after the battle of Phi- 
lippi in great opulence, and died under 
Tiberius, Tac. Ajin. 3, 76. 

JUNO, -onis, the fifter and wife of 
Jupiter, (Jut germana marliiy) Ovid. 
Fail. 4, 17. called Saturn i a from her 
father ; Reglna or Regia, as being 
queen of the gods ; Pronuba, as be- 
ing the goddefs of marriage ; Lu- 
CINA, as prefiding over births, Slc. 
(G. 359. ji. 275.) — put for a wife, 

Rlaut. Caf. 2, 3, 14. Men/is Ju- 

NONius, the month of June, facred 
to Juno, Ovid, FaL 6, 61. called 

] J tr p 

alfo jfunonale fempuT, ib. 63. ; j4vU 
Junonia, the peacock, Ovid. Art. Am» 
I, 627.; Junonia templa. Id. Trift. 2, 

291. yunontcolae Falifcij worfliip- 

pers of Juno, Ovid. Fajl. 6, 49. . 

jfunonigenaj -ae^ m. Vulcan the fon of 
Juno alone, without the participation 
of Jupiter, Ovid. Met. 4, 173. (G. 


JuPiTER, Jovis, the chief god 
of the Greeks and Romans, (G 358, 
&c. A. 275.) yet fometimes rcprefent- 
ed by the poets as committing the 
groffeft crimes, (G. 384, 391, 395, 
&c.) Hence, A deo fenuerunt Jupiter et 
Mars ? (fc. ut ftupra in montibus et 
filvis perpttrare non poffmt,) jfuvenaL 
6, 59. In gentral, however, he is de- 
fcribed, as he ought to be, the friend 
of virtue, and enemy of vice ; whence, 
Sivivere cum Jove tendis, if you wifh to 
pleale Jupiter by the integrity of your 
life, Perf. 5, 139. — Jupiter was fup- 
pofed to throw the thunderbolts and 
lightning [ignis Jovis-, Virg. A. I, 
42.) with his right hand, [rubente dex- 
trdi Hor, Od. {, 2, 2. et 3, 3, 6.) 
whence they are called his weapons, 
[tela jfovis,) Lucan. 7, 197. ; and 
Jupiter himfelf is called Ton an s, the 
Thunderer, Ovid. Met. i, 170.2,466, 

kc. Martial. 7, 59. 8, 39, &c 

Pythagoras fuppofed the deity to be the 
loul of the univerfe, Cic. N. D. i, 11. 
So nearly the Stoics, {ipfum mundum^ 
dtum ejfcy et ejus animi fiijionem univer- 
fani,) ib. 15. Hence, Jupiter ej}^ quod- 
cunque vides, quocunque moverisy Lucan. 
9, 580. So Virgil, Jbvis omnia plena^ 
E. 3, 60, 

Jupiter Is often put for the air or 
ficy, (Chryfippus difputat^ aether a ejfe 
eum quern homines Jovem appellant^) Cic. 
N. D. I, 15. Hence, Sub Jove fri* 
gidof under the cold air, Hor. Od. i, 
1, 25. ^ofubdioi Ib. 2, 3,23. Ju-> 
piter humidus (al. uvidus) aujlris^ the 
air moift with the fouth winds, Virg. 
G. I, 418. So Madidus Jupiter , a 
moift atmofphere. Martial. 7. 35. 
Phirimus et laeto defcendet Jupiter imbri, 
Y'ug. E. 7, 60. Et jam maturis mC" 
D d 2 tmndus 

J UP [21 

iuendus yup'ifer uvis, and Jupiter, or 
the air, is to be feared, even when the 
grapes are ripe, Id. G. 2, 419. Fre- 
meret faeva qtium grandine vernus yupiter, 
the air in fpring, Juvenal. 5, 79. Malus 
yup'iter^ bad or inclement air, Hor. Qd, 
1,22, 19. Terra non ind'tga Jovis, a coun- 
try that does not need rain, i. e. Egypt, 
Luc an. 8, 447. So Id. g, 436. — Jovis 
ales, the bird of Jupiter, i. e. the 
eagle, Virg. Aen. i, 594. called alfo 
his armour bearer, i^. 5, 255. Jupiter 
avisf i. e. Jupiter transformed into aa 

eagle, P roper t. 2, 30, 30. Siygius 

Jupiter, i. e. Pluto, /^/V^. ^f/z. 4, 638. 
Nigri Jovis regiia, the infernal re^^ions, 
Senec. Her, Oet, 13. {Fid. G. 359.) 

Justin us, the epitomifer of the 
hiftory of Trogus Pompeius, who is 
thought to have lived under the An- 
tonincs j but this is not certain. Juf- 
tin's abridgment is ftill extant, in 
forty-four books, entitled, HiJIoria- 
rum Philipplcarurn et totius mundi Origi- 
num et terrae Jit us ex "Trogo Pompelo ex- 
cerptarurriy Libri XLIV. It feems that 
Trogus called his work the Philippic 
Hiilory, becaufe it treated chiefly con- 
cerning the Macedonian empire found- 
ed by Philip, or concerning Philip and 
his fuccefTors. 

JuTURNA, a Latin nymph, the fifter 
of Turnus, violated by Jupiter, F'irg. 
Jen. 12, 139, .^c. 

Decimus Junius JUVENILIS, an 
exceilent poet, born at Aquinum, 
Juv. 3, 319. contemporary with Mar- 
tial, who infcribed to him three of his 
epigrams, 7, 23, & 90. et 12, 18. 
Juvenal was at firft bred to the lludy 
of eloquence, and he is thought not to 
have applied to poetry .till late in life. 
Sixteen of his fatires are Hill extant, 
which many prefer to thofe of Horace ; 
but they are written in a very different 
flyle. It is faid that Juvenal, having 
offended Paris, a pantomime player, 
in great favour vvith I)omitian, was 
banilhed at an advanced age to Egypt, 
where he died. Suet, feu P rob. in vita ejus, 
Qthers fuppofe that he returned after 
the death of l^pnaitian, and wrote his 

I 1 LAB 

fifteenth fatire, on the religions dif- 
ferences and fupcrftitions of Egypt ; 
Fid. Pelopea. 

JUVENTA, -ae, the l^me with 
Hebe, the. goddefs of youth, Ovid. Potif, 
1, 10, II. but oftener of the third de- 
clenfion, Juventas, -atis, Hor. Od. 
I, 30, 7.; Cic. Tuf. I, 26. Brut. 18, 
Att. I, 18. ;. Liv. 5, 54. 21, 62. f/36, 
^6.', Plin. 29, 4 f. 14. 

JuvENTius, the fu-ll plebeian that 
was made curule edile, Cic. Plane, 

IX ION, 'Cnis, the fon of Phlegyas, 
a king of Thcflaly, the father of the 
Centaurs ; who having been admitted 
by Jupiter to an entertainment of the 
gods, attempted to violate Juno. On 
this account he was ftruck with thun- 
der to Tartarus, and by the order of 
Jupiter tied with twifted fnakes, Serv, 
ad Firg, G. 3, 38. to a wheel which 
continually turns round, (G. 438.); 
hence, Atque Ixionii vento rota conjiiiit 
orhis, the whirling of Ixion's wheel 
ilopt with its wind, or with the wind 
that moved it, (al. cantu, at the fmg- 

ing of Orpheus,) Firg.G. 4, 484. 

IxIoNiDES, -ae, Perithous, the fon of 
Ixlon, Propert. 2, I. 38.; Ovid^ Met^ 
8, S^^' 

Labdacus, the father of Laius, 
and grandfather of Oedipus, king of 
Thebes, Apollochr. 3, ^, l*', whence 
Polynices, the fon of Oedipus, is cal- 
led from his great-grandfather, Lab- 
DACiDEs, -AE, Stat, Thch, 6, 451. 
Labdacius dux, lb, 3, 418. Labda- 
CIDAE, 'dru?n, m. the Thebans, ///. 
10, 36. 

Labeo, 'onis, a firname of the 
Antijlii, /^fconii, Cethegi, &c. feid to> 
have been given to fome one from his, 
large lips, Plin. 1 1 , 37 f. 60. 

M. Aniijlius LABEO, a celebrated 
lawyer in the time of Augullus and 
Tiberius, remarkable for his indepen^ 
dent fpirit, {incorruptd libertate,) Tac. 
Ann. 3 J 75. which he always expreiTed- 


LAB C 21 

without regarding eitiier tlie fmiles or 
frowns of the emperor, Suet, /lug- 54. ; 
JD'tOf 54, 15. ; fomt'times^ however, as 
his more obfequious rival Accius Capito 
alleged, without prudence, (Sed agi- 
tahatt inqult, hoynlnem libertas qumdam 
tilmia aiq^ie Tecots,) Gell. 13, 12. ; 
whence Horace ridicules him for his 
infanity, [Laheone inJan'iDr inter Sanos 
habeatur,) Sat. i, 3,82. et ibi Scoliaft. 
Bentley thinks that Horace does not 
here allude 10 Antiilius Labeo, but to 
cue Labienus, mentioned by Seneca, 
Contr. ^ pr. and that therefore we Ihould 
lead Lab'ieno, Poffihly a different per- 

fon of the name of Labeo is meant. 7- 

Labeo feems to have retained the re- 
publican principles of his father, who 
fought at the battle of Philippi under 
Brutus, and after their defeat, having 
refolved not to furvive the lofs of pub- 
lic liberty, ordered himfelf to be dif- 
patched by one of his domcilics, whom 
he enfranchifed, that he might not 
fall by the hands of a flave, App'ian. 4, 
p. 669. — Labeo never rofe higher than 
the office of praetor, whereas Capito 
was promoted to the confuifhip, Tac.ih, 
Wc are told by Pomponius, that the 
confulfliip for part of the year was of- 
fered to Labeo, and rejected, Dige/I. 

I, 2, 47. — Labeo is often mentioned 
in the Digeil as an oracle of law. He 
15 faid to have left behind him no Icfs 
than 500 volumes on that fubjeft, 
many of which were extant in the 
time of JuHinian, ib, 

Laberius, a Roman eques^ a com- 
pofer of mimic performances or farces, 
(miimts \t\ mlmographusy) dc. Fam. 7, 

II. et 12, 18.; H^r, Sai, I, 10, 6. 
At the games exhibited by Caefar, he 
adled one ol his own plays, {mmium 

Juvm egiii) Suet.Caef. 39. 

T, \Attius. LABIeNUS, a tribune 
ii] the time of Cicero's confulate, who 
accufed C. Rabirius of trealon before 
the people, for having many years be- 
fore killed Saturninus, C'lc. RaLlr. 
Perd. 1. — afterwards one of Caefar's 
h'eutenants in Gaul, Caef. B. G. i, 
21, &c. In the beginning of the civil 

3 1 LAD 

war he left Gaefar and joined Pompey» 
Cic. An. 7, II, & 12.; on which ac- 
count he was little refpeded, Ck. Att. 
S, 2.. Hence, Fort is in annis 
Labienus erat ; nunc transfuga 'vilis,- 
Lucan. 5, 345. He efeaped from the 
battle of Pharfalia, Cic. Fam. i, 32, 
and was flain in the battle of Munda, 

Hirt. Bell. Hifp. 31. -Labieniani 

GciUiy Gauls ferving under Labienus, 
Hirt. B. AJr. 29. 

Labi'llus, a rich man at Rome, 
whom Martial exeufes himfelf from at- 
tending on as a client, 11, 25. and 
complains that he wifned to be elteem- 
ed liberal by giving contemptible pre- 
fents. He therefore calls him, Opti^ 
mus malorum, the moil munificerit of 
miiers, 12, 36, 7. ; but compared with 
generous patrons, Ultinms bonorum^ the 
meanell or leaft munificent of the truly- 
liberal, ib, V. 10. 

LABycAS, -ae^ a beautiful youth. 
Martial. 7, 86, 9. 

Laches, -his,, a praetor of the A- 
thenlans, Cic. Div, i, 54. 

Lachesi-s, -isf one of the three 
Parcae or fates, [G. 389.) who was 
fuppofed to fpin the thread of human 
life; whence, Dum fuperejl Lachcfi quod 
torqueaty whiKt Lacheiis has fome thread 
to fpin, i. e. whilil I have the appear- 
ance of living for fome time, 'Ju'v. 3, 

L ACT AD a E,. thofe of the fame Curiae 
(curialds) with Cimon at Athens, Cic, 
Of. 2, iB f. 

LAcyDES, "isi a phlloiopher of the 
middle academy, the fcholar of Arce- 
Silas, Cic. Acad, 4, 6. 

Ladas, -aCi a rcrsarkable runner at 
the Olympic games, A. ad Heren. 4, 3.; 
the fwifteil of. his age, Paufan. 2, 19. 
3,21.^/10, 23. ; yldd. Catuil. 55, 25, j 
but faid to have been poor, Ju-venaL 

13, 97. Habeas licet alteram pedem 

Ladae, Inept e^ f^^ifira crure Hgneo curres^ 
Suppole you liav? one foot, as fwift 
as that of Ladafi, and the other of 
wood, you will attempt to run in vain, 
(fo you will as little get the character 
o.f a poet by intermixing my verfes 



with your own.) Martial. lO, 


100, 5. 

^id Ji per grac'iles vlas petauri Inv'ttum 
jtibeas Subire Ladam ? What if you 
fhould order Ladas agalnft his will td 
mount the machine called Petaurusy 
and become a rope-dancer ? (he would 
fcorn fuch an exercife. So poets of 
genius difdain to write verfes on trifling 
fubjefts.) Martial. 2, 86, 7. 

Lades-, -ae, the fon of Imbrafus 
{^Lnhrasnhs,) a Lycian, one of the 
companions of Aeneas ; flain by Tur- 
nus, Virg,u4en. 12, 343. ^ 

Ladon, -onls, a Trojan flain by 

Halefus, Virg. Jen. 10, 413. f 2. 

A failor on the Tiber, Martial. 10, 85. 

' 11 3' ^"^ of Actaeon's dogs, (al. 

Lagon,) Ovid. Met. 3, 216. 

M. Porcius LaeC'., an accomplice 
in the confpiracy of Catihne, Sallujl, 
17. in whofe houfe the confpirators 
met, ih. 26. In Cicero, he is called 
M. Lecca, Cic. Cat. I, 4. 

Laelaps, -apis, (i. e. Tempejlas,^ 
the name of the dog of Cephalus, Ovid. 
Met, 7, 772. which his wife Procris 
gave him in a prefent, having hetfelf 
got him from Diana, ih. 753- ; fofwift 
that no beail could efcape him, Hygin. 

f. 389 ^ 2. One of the dogs of 

A^laeon, ih. f. 181. 

LAELltTS, the name of a Roman 

C. Laelius, the commander of the 
Roman fleet in the fecond Punic war, 
under Scipio, Liiu 26, 42. prefenced 
with a golden crown and thirty oxen 
for his bravery, ih. He was the chief 
affiftant of ijcipio in all his exploits, 
Un^. 27, 7. 29, 1,-15: H^ ^'^3 
made conful with L. Scipio, the bro- 
ther of Africanus, a. u, 563, Id. 36, 

45.; Cic. Phil. II, 7. f 2. Ihc 

Con of the former ; called Sapiens, on 
account of his wifdom, Cic. Off. 2, II. 
ct 3, 4, &c. ; the companion and friend 
of Scipio Africanus, the younger ; 
concerning whom Cicero fays many 
things in his book on friendfliip, [De 
Jmicitia,) which he infcribes with the 
name of Laelius. — Horace celebrates 
the gentlenefs and good fenfe of Lae- 
lius, Sat. 2, I, 72% 

214 1 LAI 

Laenas, -atis, a firname of the ^^»j 
Popilia ; firll given to M. Popilius, be- 
caufe, when conful, being informed of 
an infurrcdlion of the people againfl the 
patricians, while engaged in a folema 
facrifice, he rufhed out to the affembly, 
clothed as he was with his facerdotal 
robe, (laend), and quafhed the fedition, 
Cic. Brut. 14. 

Laenius. Vid. Lenius. 

Laertes, -ae,, the fon of Acrifius, 
or Arcefius, Ovid. Met. 1 3, 144. and fa- 
ther of Uiyfles, (G. 453.) vvho is hence 
called Laertiades, Ovid. Met. 13, 
48.; Ltican. ad Pif. 6i. Laertius 
herds, Ovid. Met. 13, r24. ; and Itha- 
ca, his kingdom, Lae^tia rkgna, 
Acn. 3, 273. 

Laetus, a friend of Cicero's, who 
had a houfe at Naples, Cic /Jtt. 4, 9. 

Laevin'.'s, a firname of the Vak' 
rii, Hor. Sat. I, 6, 2. 

P. Valerius \ a :viNus, a conful who 
fought againfl; Pyrrhus, and was de- 
feated by him, {G. 231.) 

M, Valerius 1 AEViN- s, a general 
who performed many fignal exploits in 
the fecond Punic war, Liv. 23, 24, 
30, he. 24, 40, ^'c. He was created 
conful in his abfence, Liv 26, 22. ; 
and drove the Carthaginians out of all 
Sicily, ih. 36. ; Ck. Verr. 3, 54. 

Laevus CifpixiSy a lieutenant of Plan- 
cus, Cic. Fam. 10, 18, & 20. 

Lag us, the father of Ptolemy, the 
general of Alexander, and the hrfl; of 
the Macedonian kings in Egypt; hence 
Cleopatra, in addrefling Caefar, lays, 
Pharii proles clarjjjtma Lagi) — Complec- 
tor regina pedes, L a queen, defcended 
from Ptolemy the illuftrious fon of La- 
gus, fall down at your feet, or fuppli- 
cate your affiftance, Lucan. 10, 86. 
So Regia Lagi) the royal feat of the 
kings of Egypt, i. e. Alexandria, ih, 

527. Lagea Proles y i. e. Arfmoe, 

the younger filler of Cleopatra, ih. 522. 
Ultima Lageae jlirpis proles ^ the laft of 
the Ptolemies, Id. 8, 692. Lagea do' 
musi the royal family of Egypt, put 
for the Egyptians, Id. 10, 414. Do' 
nata ejl regia Lagi, the kingdom, or 
throne of Egypt, Id. $j 62* So Reg^ 


LAI in 

num Lagtf Id. lo, 4. /^rva Lagi, the 
country of Egypt, LI 8, 443. So Ru- 
ra Lagi, ib. 8o2» Lageajuventusy the 
Egyptians, Id. 10, 394. Lageus Ni- 
lusf the Nile, the river of Efrypt, LI. 
I, 684, So Amnis Lageus ^ Sil. i, 196. 
Flumina LagU Id. 17, 596. 

Lagus, one of the warriors of Tur- 
nus, flain by Pallas, Virg. 10, 381, 

Lais, -'idist a famous courtezan of 
Corinth, Gelh i, 8. Multis Lais ama- 
ta virisi Ovid. Am. 1,5, 12. ; admi- 
red even by the philofopher Ariftippus, 
Cic. Fam. 9, 26. 

Lai"S, a king of Thebes, the fon 
of Labdacus, and father of Oedipus, 
(G. 429.) 

Lalage, -esy the name of a girl ce- 
lebrated by Horace, Od. i, 22, 23. 

5f ^' ^ ^'^^y reproached for her 

cruelty. Martial. 2, 66. 

Lamachus, a general of the Athe- 
nians in Sicily, flain before Syracufe, 
Jujlm, 4, 4. 

LAMIA, a firname of the Aelii, 
faid to be derived from Lamus, an an- 
cient king of the Laejlr'igones^ Hor. Od. 

3, 17, I . ; vrho is fuppofed to have been 
the fame with that mentioned by Ho- 
mer, OdyJ". 10,81. Several illullrious 

men of the family of the Lamiae are 
mentioned, Cie, poji red. in Sen. 5. 
Sext. 13, Fam. 12, 29, et II, 16, & 
17. ; Hor. Od. i, 26, 8. Ep. I, 14, 6.; 

Tac. Ann. 6, 27. Juvenal ufes La- 

miae not only for thofe of that family, 
but alfo for the chief nobility of Rome, 
6, 385. Hoc nocuit Lamiarum caede ma- 
denti. This, (viz. his becoming an ob- 
jeft of terror to people of the mcaneft 
rank), proved fatal to Domitian, reek- 
ing with the blood oT the Lamiae, and 
of the noble ft men in Rome, Juvenal. 4, 
154.; Suet. Dom. I, & 10. — —Adj. 
HoRTi Lamiani, the gardens of the 

Lainiae, Cic. Att. 12,21. ^ 2. A 

woman of Segefta \.\\ Sicdy, Cic. Verr. 

4, 2f\ 

Lampedo, 'o. Lampido, a Lace- 
deraoTiiai! lady, who is fa id to have been 
the only woman in any age that was a 

5 1 LAO 

king's daughter, a king's wife, and a 
king's mother, Plin. 7, 41. She was 
the daughter of Leotychidas, the wife 
of Archidamus, and the mother of A- 
gis, all of them kings of Sparta, Plato 
in Alcihiade, 

Lampetie, -fj, one of the fifters of 
Phaethon, turned into a poplar tree, 
Ovid. Met. 2, 349. 

Lamus, a king of the Laejlrigones, 

{Fid.L,AMiA.) 51 2. A fon of 

Hercules by Omphale, queen of Ly- 
dia ; whence he is called Lydus LamuSf 
Ovid. Ep. 9, 54. 

LaoCoON, -ontisy a Trojan, the 
prieft of Neptune, who ftrongly advi- 
fed his countrymen not to admit the 
wooden image of a horfe, made by the 
Greeks, into the city, and even fhot a 
dart into its fide, Virg. Aen. 2, 41, &c. 
In a Ihort time after, while he was fa- 
crificing on the fiiore, two huge fnakes 
having fwum from Tenedos, made 
ftraight towards him, and firft devour- 
ed the bodies of his two fons, (little 
boys, who probably aflifted him in the 
facrifice) ; then, while^he attempted to 
afliU them, the ferpents folding round 
his middle, difpatched him likewife. 
The Trojans confidering this as a juft 
punifhment on Lacc5on for his impie- 
ty, in having violated the facred image, 
carried the horfe filled with armed men 
into the city, and placed it in the cita- 
del. The armed men next night being 
let out by Sinon, opened the gates, ad- 
mitted their companions, and took the 
town, Ib. 201, &c. 

Laodamia, the wife of Protesila- 
us, to whom the accounts of the death 
of her hufband proved fatal, (G. 460.) 
hence, Aut comes extinclo Laodamia viro, 

Ovid.Tr. I, 5, 20. (G. 460.) ^ 2. 

A daughter of Beilerophon, the mo- 
ther of Sarpedon by Jupiier, according 
to Homer ; but others make Europa 
the mother of Sarpedon, Apoliodor. 3, 
I, I. 

LAOi>icE,or Laodoce, -es, one of the 

daughters of Priam, Hygin. f. 90. • 

5[ 2. A nymph beloved by Neptune, 
Ovid.Fp, 19, lis- 


LAP [21 

Laodamas, -antisi a fon of Alcf- 
nous, who challenged UJyfles to con- 
tend with him in boxing, Homer. Od. 
8, 130, &c. 

IjAOmldon, -OW//J-, a king of Troy, 
(G. 187,372,399.) the father of Pn- 
am ; who is hence called, Ljomeijoj^' 
TTABE~?j Jwoenal. 6, 325. ace. Laome- 
dontiaden Pr'uimumy Virg. A en. R, i ^8, 
& 162. L^OMEDONTiADAE, the Tro- 
jans, defcendants of Laoniedon, by way 
of reproach, tb. 3, '248. — LAOMznoN- 
rws HERoSy Aeness, ii>. iS. Laome- 
elontiapuhes, the Trojan yoiitli, tb. 7,10^. 
Laomtdordeae luhnus perjuria '7'rojae, we 
have atoned for the perjury of Troy, 
buitt or pofieffed by Laomedon, (Avho 
defrauded Neptune and Apollo of the 
h*re which he promifed them, for af- 
iifling him to build t!ie walls of Trov), 
Firg. G. I, 502. (Fid G. 372.) Paf. 
tor LaomedonfeuSf i. e. Parif, Sid 7, 
437. Urbs Laomedonteay Rome, Id. 


Lak., Lars, V. Lartesy -isy a name 
common to the kings of Etriiria, which 
fecms to h'ive denoted their rank or 
dignity, Liv. 2, 9. ef 4, 17. ; Cic. 
Phil. 9, 9. 

Lara, a nymph of the^Tyber, {nviv- 
fha Tlberlnis, -7dfSj vel Naisy -idis), 
fuppofed to be the daughter of the ri- 
ver Almo, deprived of her tongue by 
Jupiter, for having told of his amoors 
to Juno. The mother of the La- 
res by Mercury, O'vid. F'ljl. 2, 599, 
&c. called alfo Larunda, Varr. L. L. 
4, ro. ; Laclant. i, 20, 35. Her ori- 
ginal name was Lala, from her loqua- 
city, (>^>fy, hqv.or), Ovid. ib. 

Largus, or Largius, a firname of 
the Scrihorniy Cic. Or. 2, 59. ; Fam. 6, 

8 -«[ 2. A Latin poet, who wrote 

a poem on the arrival ot Antenor in 
Italy, Galiica qu\ Phry^iwn duxit in ar- 
va feneniy who led the Trojan old man, 
i. e. Antenor, into the country, of G:iul, 
i. e. dcfcribcd his voyage from Phry- 
gia, and his fettlement in that part of 
Cifalpine Gaul where Pataviurn or Pa- 
dua was built, Ovid. Pont. 4, 16, 17. 

6 J L A T 

LarTdfs, -m, or Larldiis, ?. Volf- 
cian or Rutulianf the fon of Daucu?, 
and twin-brother of Thymber, to whom 
h^- was very like. [Daucia Larlde 
Thymherque, JinnlUma pfbles.)' He 
had his rigiit hand cut off by Pallas, 
yirg. uicn. \o>, 390, &c. 

Larina, an Italian virgin that at- 
tended Camilla to the war againft Ae- 
neas, Virg. Aen. 11,655. 

Lartidius, a name of reproach, u- 
fed by Cicero to denote a fraudulent 
agent ; fignifying, according to fome, 
as cunning as Ulyffes, the fon of Laer- 
tes ; according to others, the name is 
taken from fome noted knave or thief, 
Cic. Att. 7, 1. 

M. LATERENSIS, a friend of 
Cicero's, who would not fland candi- 
date for the oiSce of tribune of the 
commons, that he might not be obli- 
ged to fwear to fupport the Agrarian 
law of Caefar, [ne juraret in Caefarii 
legem Agrariam)y Cic. Att. 2, 18. Be- 
ing repulfed in his application for the 
aedileiliip, he accufed his fuccefsful 
competitor Plancius of bribery, Cic. 
Plane, f . Pie was praetor in the con- 
fuliTiip of Marcellus and Paulus, Cic, 
P'anu 8, 8. Pie was afterwards the lieu- 
tenant of Lepidus, and laid violent 
hands on hirnfelf, when Lepidus dtfert- 
ed the republican party, and joined 
Antony, Cic. Fam. ic, 2i, & 23. Ci- 
cero extols bis honour and attachment 
to his country,, ib. et Vat. 1 1. 

Ijateranus, a noble Roman, put 
to death by the command of Nero. He 
fubmiited to his fate with wonderful 
fortitude, Tac.Ann. 15,49, & 60. His 
houfe, ( Lateranae aedes), was fuddenly 
befet by a cohort of armed men, and 
b.e was fo quickly difpatched, that he 
was not permitted to embrace his chil- 
dren, ib. ei jfuvenal. 10, 17.; Arrian. 
I, r. A magnificent houfe in Rome 
ilill retains the nam.e of this family. 

Lat?nus, the fon of Faun us and 
Marica, a Laurentlan ; king of 
Latium, when Aeneas arrived in that 
country, Virg. A.n, 7, 45, &c. ; Liv. 

i n. 



L A T [2 

Latinus Syhiins, one of the kings 
of Alba, by whom ftveral colonies were 
planted, called the ancient Latins, 
(Prifc'i LatiniJ, Liv. I, 3. 

Latinus, a lieutenant of Calvifius, 
the governor of Africa, C'tc. Fam. 12, 

Latinius LatiariSj a man of prae- 
torian rank, who, to gratify Sejanus, 
by the bafeft treachery, procured the 
de(lru£lion of Sabinns, the friend of 
German icus, Tac. Ann, 4, 68, &c. 
After the fall of Sejanus, he met with 
the juft punilhment of his guilt, ih. 6, 


Latinius PancluSf the pro-praetor 
of Moefm, Tac. Ann. 2, 66. 

LAT6NA, the mother of A^pollo 
and Diana by Jupiter, (G. 365.) ; 
whence they are called Latonae duplex 
genus, Virg. Aen. J2, ig8. Duo Lato- 
nigenae^ Ovid. Met. 6, 160. Apollo is 
called Latoides, -ae, .9/^/. Theh. i, 
^(i'^. Latous, Omd. Met. 6, 384. 
voc. Latocy Herat. Od. I, 31, 18. Piier 
Latonae^ ib. 4, 6, 37. Latonae fJ'ius, 
Tibuil. 3,4, 72. Latenia proles, Ovid. 
Met. 8, 15. Trift. 5, I, 57. Latonia 

vel Latomjlirbs, Id. Triil. 3,2, 3. — 

Diana is called Latonia, Virg. Acn. 9, 
405. ; Ovid. Met. i, 696. et 8, 394. ; 
Stat. Theb. 9, 679. Latdia, Ovid. 
Met. 8, 541. Latoisy -uiis, v. -ulos. Id. 
Ep. 21, 153. — Latoulos arae, the al- 
tars of Diana, O-v'id. Met. 8, 278. Ca- 
laureae Lato'idos arva, the fields of Ca- 
laurea, an ifland facred to Latoi.ia, 0- 
iiid. Met. 7, 384. Latdae arae, the al- 
tars of Latona, Id. 6, 274. — Delos 
Latonia, the ifland Delos, in which 
Latona brought forth Apollo and Dia- 
na, Virg. G. 3, 6. ; On)] a. in Ihtde, 479. 

L-VEiiNA, the goddefs of thieves 
and fraudulent perfons, Hor.Ep. 1,16, 
60. ; Plant. Aul. 2. 3, 31. 

Lavinia, the daughter of king La- 
tinus aitd Amata, and the wife of Ae- 
neas, (G. 190.) 

Laurenti , the wife of Fauftulus, 
and nurfe of Romulus and Remus, 
'. jLf-u. 1 , 4. Fid. Ace A. 

Lausus, the fon of Mezentius, llain 

17 1 L E K 

by Aeneas, Firg. Aen. 10, 8t4,-^-*-*« 
f 2. The fon of Numitor, and brother 
of Ilia, (lain by his uncle Amulius, 0- 
'vid. Fajl. 4, ^^, 

Leander, W Leandrus, -driy a 
native of Abydos, (Ahydenus), famous 
for his love for Hero of Sellos, whom 
he ufed to fwim over the Hellefpont 
in the night-time to vifit, and to re- 
turn before morning, till in a ftormy 
night he was drowned, (G. 349.); 
hence Hellespontus Leandrius, 
i.e. in quo Leander periit, Sil. 8, 622. 

Le arc HUB, the fon of Athamas and 
Ino, whom his father, being fcized with 
a fudden madnefs, killed, (G. 427.); 
hance Learcheae umbrae, the fhade Or 
ghoft of Learchus, Ovid. Fajl. 6, 491. 

Lecca. Vid. Laeca. 

LEDA, the wife of Tyndarus, the 
fon of Oebalus, king of Lacedaemon, 
who is faid in fable to have laid two 
eggs, from the one of which were pro- 
duced Pollux and Helena by Jupiter, 
who had come to Leda in the form of a 
fv/an ; and from the other Cailor and 
Clytaemneftra, by Tyndarus, (G. 41 1.); 
whence Bii Ledaei, Cailor and Pollux, 
Ovid. Fajl. 1,706. So Fratres Ledaei, 
Id ad Liv. 283. etS'il. 15,23. Ledaea 
Helena, the daughter of Leda, Virg. 
Acn. 7, 364 alfo Ledaea Hennione, the 
daughter of Helena, and grand-daugh- 
ter of Leda, ih. 3, 328. 

Lelex, -'egisy a native of Naryx, 
{^Narycius), one of thofc who afTembled 
to deftroy the wild boar of Calydon, 
Ovid. Mtt. 8, 312 ^-5[ 2. An inha- 
bitant of Troezen, [Troezenius heros), 
the companion of Thereus, Ovid. Met. 
8, 566. a man of experience a.d good. 

fenfe, ib. 617. 5[ 3. An E^^yptian 

that fettk^d at Meg^xra, from wi'om the 
Lcleges are fuppolcd to have derived 
their name, Pau/an.^, i. (See Geogr. 

LtNArus, a name of Bacchus, (a 
A>'v-'f, torcular, a vine-prefs), Ovid. Met. 
4, 14. whence Lena .Us honor, wine, 
Vir^. Aen. 4, 301. So Leuaei latices. 

Id. G. 3, 510. «1 2. A king of Pon- 

E e tJJs, 

L E N [2 

tus, TvVio Is faid to have been left naked 
on the ifland of Leuce, ( Achillea humo)^ 
Ovid, in Ibide, 331. ^V'td. G.448.) 

G. b' AT. Len n W L a - n 1 1, two bro- 
thers, who entertained Cicero at Brun- 
dufium, notvvithilanding the threats of 
Clodius, Cic.Fam. 13, 63. Ait. ^, 20, 
& 21. Plane. 41. Sext. 63. One of 
thefe (Marcus) is thought to be the 
perfon who is faid firft to have invented 
an aviary at Brundurmm, I' arr. R. R. 
3, 5, 8. Pliny calls him M. Laenius 
Strabo, [al. Laelius), 10, 50 f. 72. 

L'-NTiDi'. s, one of the agents of 
Clodius, Cic. Dom. 33. Sext. 37. 

L:.NTO Caefcnius, one of itv&n em- 
ployed by Antony to command in part 
of Etruria ; hence Cicero fpeaks of his 
feptemviral authority, PhiL 12,9. 

LENTuLUS, the hrname of a 
noble family of the Gens Cornelia^ deri- 
ved from fome one who excelled in rai- 
fing that kind of pulfe called icntiles, 

Plh, iS, 3. Lentulitas, -Jt/V, f. 

a word ufed jocularly by Cicero to de- 
note the nobility of the Leniuli, Fam. 

L. Cornelius Lentulus, conful, 
a. 427, Llv. 8, 22. appointed to com- 
mand againft the Samniteb, ib. 23. As 
he could not leave the army, and bis col- 
league alfo was abfent from Roine, he 
named a didlator in the camp to hold the 
comltia for eleftmg new magiilrates, ib, 
"When the Roman army v/as furrow nd- 
ed by the Samnites at Caudium, Len- 
tulus, who then ferved as a lieutenant, 
was fent on an embaffy to Pontius, the 
general of the Samnites, and upon his 
return advifed the confuls to accept the 
terms prefcribed, Liv, 9, 4. 

Cn. Cornelius Lentulus, a military 
tribune, who, in his flight from the 
battle of Cannae, obfcrving the conful 
Paulus Aemihus fitting on a Hone co- 
vered with blood, in confequence of 
his wounds, offered him his horfe, 
which that great man refufed, char- 
n-ing Lentulus to baften his elcape, and 
tell the fenacors to make proper prepa- 
rations for the defence of the city be- 
fore the approach of the enemy, Liij. 


18 ]. L E N 

22, 49. Lentulus was quaeftor to T» 
Gracchus, and after his death com- 
manded the army, Liv. 25, 17, & 19. 
— In the confulihip of Lentulus, a. 5 53, 
peace was concluded with the Cartha- 
ginians, Liv. 30, 44. Lentulus was 
defirous of having the province of A- 
frica •, and the fear of being fupplanted 
by a fuccelTor made Scipio grant the 
Carthaginians more favourable terms, 
ib. The province of Hither Spain was 
given to Lentulus, Id. 31, 50. where, 
by his exploits, he obtained the ho- 
nour of an ovation, Id. 3^, 27. 

L. Cornelius LENTULUS, a Ro- 
man $^eneral, to whom, in conjunction 
with L. Manlius, Scipio entrufted the 
command of the army when he left 
Spain, Liv. 28, 38. Here Lentulus 
behaved fo well, tb. 29, 2, & 3. that he 
was .created curule aedile, in his ab- 
fence, with Cn. Lentulus, ib. 1 1. and 
continued in his command, ib. 13. Up- 
on his return to Rome he aflced a tri- 
umph, which was refufed him, becaufe 
he had never been conful, having com- 
m.andcd with only the title of proconful. 
He was, however, permitted to enter 
the city m an ovation, 31, 20. He 
was made confjl, a. ^^^, ib. 49. but 
performed nothing memorable in that 
office, ib. 32, 7, 8, & 9. 

P. Cornelius LENTULUS, prince 
of the fenate, who received a danger- 
ous wound while he affifted Opimius 
the conful in attacking C. Gracchus 
and Fulvius Flaccus on the Aventine 
hill, Cic. PhiL 8, 4. Cat. 4, 6. He af- 
terwards became fo odious that he was 
obliged to leave the city. He retired 
on what was called libera legatio to Si- 
cily, where he died, Val. Max. 5, 3, 2, 
^ 2. The grandfon of the for- 
mer, Cic. ib. ; Dio, 46, 20. firnamed 
Su:;a, ( Fid. Plutarch, in Cic, p. 868.), 
conful a. 682, afterwards expelled from 
the fenate, (as it is thought by the 
cenfors Cn. Lentulus and L. Gellius}, 
on account of his diffolute morals ; — - 
made praetor a. 690, that thas he 
might regain his fenatorian dignity, 
^iOj 37, 3 O.J Plutarch, ib. ( Vid. A. 7.) 


L E N [2 

Having engaged in the confplracy of 
Catiline, and being detcfted by the e- 
vidence of T. Volturcius and the Allo- 
broges, he was put to death, with fe- 
veral of his alFociates, [Vid. CictRO, 
/. 107, &c.) 

P. LENTULUS Splnther, curule 
aedile in tlie conlulfliip of Cictro, who 
exceeded all that had been before him 
in the magnificence of his games, Cic. 
Off. 2, 16. When conful, a. d^jd^ he 
ftrenuouily promoted the rclloration of 
Cicero, for which Cicero often expref- 
fes his gratitude in the llrongell terms; 
thus, P, Leniuliis confuU parens^ deus 
falulls nqjlraey vitae^ fortunae, ^c, Cic. 
poft red. ad Quir. 5. in Sen. 4. &c. 
i3o Fam. I, I, ^vC, LentuUis, after his 
confuhhip, obtained the province of 
Cilicia, and wiflied to be commiffioned 
to reltore king Ptolemy, but was dif- 
appointed, (ivV/. Ciccro, />. 113.) He 
periflied in the civil war, Cic, Fam. 6, 
21. — He left a fon of the fame name, 
who, after the death of Caefar, per- 
formed fome exploits in Afia, which 
he himfeif enumerates in two letters 
iliil extant, Cic. Fam. 12, 14, & 15. 

Leo, -onis, the name of feveral em- 
perors of Conftantinople, (C. 478.) 

Le DC HA RES, -isf a notcd engraver, 
Plin. 34, 8. 

Lc:ON, -onisy the chief man of Phlius, 
{^Phliafiorum princeps)^ to whom Pytha- 
goras explained the reafon of his affu- 
ming the name of philofopher, Cic. 

fujc. 5, 3.- % 2. A native of Mega- 

ra, [Mcgarenjis), Cic. Verr. 5, 6. 

Leonatus, one of the generals of 
Alexander, Nep. 18, 2. 

LEONiDAS, -ae, a king of Spar- 
ta, who, with a fmall body of men at 
Thermopylae, bravely oppofed the 
■whole Perfian army under Xerxes; and 
at lall being furrounded through the 
treachery of a ThefTalian, he and his 
men nobly devoted their lives for their 

country, ( G. 3 1 1 , & 465.) ^ 2. A 

native of Lilybaeum, Cic. Verr. 5, 5. 

Leon IDES, -ae, a chijf man at A- 
thens, who wrote to Cicero a favour- 
able account concerning his fon, Cic, 

19 1 LEU 

Fam. 15, 21. Att. 15, 16, 3c 18. 16, 

Leontium, an Epicurean courte- 
zan, who wrote a book againfl: Theo- 
phraftus, Cic. N. D. I, 33. 

L^.ONTius, a famous engraver, Plin* 

Leotychides, -/V, a king of La- 
cedaemon, who commanded the Lace- 
demonian flea at the battle of Mycale, 
in which the Perfian fleet was deftroy- 
ed, (G. 466.) 

Lepidus, a firname of the Aemillu 

M. Aemilius LEPIDUS, the trium- 
vir with Antony and Auguftus, (G. 
242.), Cic. Phil. 5, 14, & 15. Fam. 10, 
20. ei 12, 10. He mariied one of the 
fifl:ers of Brutus, and Caflius another ; 
whence Cicero, writing to Cafiius, calls 
Lepidus his relation, (inus neceffarius) y 
Fam. 12, 2. [affnisy ib. 8.). After 
the death of Caefar, the fon of Lepi- 
dus married one of Antony's daugh- 
ters, with which connection Lepidus 
was much pleafed, [ajinitate ro'vd deleC' 
tatur), ib. et Dio, 44, 33. [Fid. An- 

Lh PI LI us, the courier [tahellarius) 
of L. Metellus in Sicily, Cic* Verr, 
2, 26. 

^ LcpTA, the commander of the 
artificers or captain of artillery (preie- 
feSus fahrttm) to Cicero m Cilicia, Cic. 

Fam. 3, 7. 1[[ 2. The fon of the 

former, Cic. ib. 6, 1 8, 

Leptines, -is, an Athenian, a- 
galnll whom Demofthenes delivered an 

oration, Cic. Or. 3 f. ^ 2. The per- 

fon who affafTmated Cn. Octavius, 
when fent as ambaffador to Antiochus, 
Cic. Phil. 9, 7. 

Lepus, -oris, the hare, the name of 
a conffellation, Cic.N.D. 2,44.; Cohi- 
mel. 11,2. 

Leucaepis, -uiis, ace. Leucajpim, 
one of Aeneas's companions, loll in a 
florm, Firg Aen. 6, 334. 

LEUCIPPUS, the mailer of Demo- 

critus, and auth*. 

the doArine of 
Ke thought 

atoms, Cic. N. D. i, 24 

that all things were produced from a 

pknum and a vacuum^ Cic. Acjad. 4, 37. 

E e 2 LEiJ^irrus, 

LEU [220 

Leucipphs, the fon of Perieres and 
Gor^oplione the daughter of Perfeus, 
the brother of Tyndarus, JpoIIodor. i, 
9, 5. one of the Argonauts, Gv'id. Met. 
8, 306. the father of Phoebe and Elaira, 
who are hence called Leucippides, 
Ov'id. Ep. 16, 327. fing. Leucippis Phoe- 
be, Propert. i, 2, 15. They were be- 
trothed to two brothers, Lynceus and 
Idas, and carried oflP by Caftor and 
Pollux on the day of their marriage, 
Uygin.f. 80. 5 Omd, Fajl. 5, 699, &c. 


Leitcon, faid to be the brother of 
one Spartacus, a king of Pontus, whofe 
wife he feduced, and then flew the king, 
hoping thus to poffefs the crown ; but 
the king's wife killed him in revenge, 
Ovid, in Ihin. 309.' ^ 2. One of 

A^^aeon*s dogs, Ovid. Met. 3, 218. 

Lelconoe, -es^ 3. woman whom 
Horace dilTuades from confulting aftro- 

logers, Od. I, i r. ^| 2. A nymph 

who recounts the amours of Sol, Ovid. 
M^t.4., 168. 

LtucoTHEA vel Leucothoe, -fj, 
the name given to Ino by the Greeks 
after ihe was converted into a fea-god- 
defs, Cic. N. D. 3, 15. Tufc. I, 12 f. ; 
Ovid. Met. 4, 542. 

Leucqthoe, -es, a virgin beloved 
\>y So J, Ovid. Met. 4, 196, [G. 373.) 

LIBER, -eriy a name of Bacchus, 
{G. 382.), becaufe, as commentators 
fay, wine frees (iiberat) the mind from 
cares, yocofi mun^ra Liberi, the gifts of 
merry or joyous Bacchus, i. e, wine, 
Hor. Od.'^y l^t 26. Modici tranfdire 
iniinera Liheri, to exceed a moderate 
ufe of the gifts of Bacchus, i. t. to 
drink to exccfs, /i^. i, 18, 7. :.lne Cere- 
re et Libera frig^tt Venusy without bread 
and wine love grows cold, Ttr. Eun, 4, 

Libera, a name given to Ariadne 
by Bacchus when he married her, 

Ovid. Fajl. 3, 512.-- Cicero fpeaks of 

Liber and Libera^ the children of Ceres, 
whom the Romans worfnipped W'ith 
great veneration, Cic. N. D. 2, 24, 
Here Lieer denotes Triptolemus, the 
fp^Ypyrite 0^ Ceres 5 and LiberAj Prc^ 

] LIB 

ferpine, her daughter ; both of whom 
were worfhipped under thefe names at 
Enna in Sicily; whence the Romans 
feem to have derived the worfhip of 
Ceres and of her children, Cic. Verr. 
4, 49, & 53. Hence we find the temple 
of Ceres joined with that of Liber and 
Libera, Liv. 3, 55. ^^ 41, 28. Three 
brazen ftatues erected to them out of 
the money arifing from tines, [ex argento 
nndtaiitiOy) Liv. 33, 25. 

Lib ERA LI A, -iumy et -iorum, a fefti- 
val in honour of Bacchus, celebrated on 
the 1 6th of March, (xvi. KaL Jpril.) 
on which day young men ufed to af- 
fume the Toga virilis, Cic. Att. 6, i. 

LiBERTAs, -a/is, Liberty, worfliip- 
ped as a gcddefs at Rome, Liv. 24, 16.; 
Cic. Dam. 35.; Ovid. Trifl. 3, i, 72. 

LIBITiNA, the goddefs of fune- 
rals ; hence Libitinam vitare, Hor. Od. 
3, 3, 7. Evadere Libitinam, to efcape 
death, jfuvenal. 12, 122. Miraturque 
nihil, niji quod Libitina facravit, admires 
no work, unlefs the author has been 
longfince dead, Hor. Ep. 2, 1,49. — In 
the temple of Libitina the things re- 
quifite- for funerals were fold, Plutarch^ 
^uaeji. Rom. 23. A certain coin alfo 
was paid for every one that was buried, 
according to the inftitution of Servius 
Tullius, Dionys, 4, 15. and an account . 
(ratio) kept of thofe who died ; thus, 
jiutu'innufque gravis, Lihitinae qiiaejlns a- 
cerbae, iickly autumn, the gain of cruel 
Libitina, Hor. Sat. 2, 6, 19. i. e. of 
thofe who took care of funerals, [qui 
funera exercehant, Val. Max. 5, 2, 10.) 
and attended in the temple of Libitina, 
hence called Libitinarii, Senec. Bcncf. 
6, 38. ^o Phaedrus fpeaking of a mi- 
fer fays, J^/i circumcidis omnern impen- 
fam funeris Libitina (i.e. Libitinarii) 
ne quid de tuo (i. e. de tua re) faciat lu- 
crum, lib. 4, fab. 19, 21. Pejlilentia uniiis 
autumni, qua triginta funerum millia in ra- 
tionem Libitinae venerunt, 30,000 people 
died, as appeared by the account-books 
of the temple of Libitina, Suet. Ner. 
39. Pejlilentia in urh taniafuit, ut Libi- 
tina tunc vixfiifficeret, that the temple of 
Libitina coiiid fcarcely fupply what 

L I R C ill 

was neceflary to bury the dead, Llv. 40. 
19. (for in the temple of Libitina all 
things reqiiilite for funerals were fold, 
Plutarch, ^latj}. Rom, 23.) Eoritm (fc. 
fervorum)j/?/-rt^'-^j- per omnes inas infepul- 
torum erat : Ne I'lherorum quukm funsri- 
biis LihiUnaJiiJfic'iehaty the temple of Li- 
bitina could not afford a fuffieient 
number of perfons to bury the free ci- 
tizens, Lin). 41, 21. Libitina is 

fomctimes put for a coffin or funeral 
pile ; thus Una duos tit Libitina feiat, 
tiiat one funeral couch or cofiin may 
carry both, Martial. 8, 43, 4. Dinn 
levis arfurajlriiitur Libitina papiro, while 
the funeral pile is ratfed with paplrus, 
ready to be burnt, Martial. 10, 97, [. 
LiBO, 'onis^ a lirname of the Scri- 
honii. — Futeal Libonis, vel Scribonianum, 
a place in the forum, near which the 
praetor fat, ( Vid. R. Ant. p. 247.) 

L. LiBO, a writer of annals, Cic, 
Att. 13, 31, & 32. 

Lie HAS, -ae, the fervant of Hercu- 
les, who brought to him from Dejani- 
ra the empoifoned robe, which proved 
fatal to that hero. Hercules in his 
rage threw Lichas into the fea. Li- 
chas is faid to have been converted in- 
to a rock of the fame name in the Eu- 
bean fea, Ovid. Met. 9, 155, — 229.;', {G. 402.) 

LICINIUS, the name of a nume- 
rous gefis or clan the Romans, 
comprehending many branches or fa- 
miliae ; as, the Crojfi, LticuUi, Murenae^ 
Nervae, Stolones, Sec. — Hence Atria 
Licinia, courts or hall? built by L. Uv- 
cinius CralTiis, when aediie, for holding 
auftions or the like, Cic. ^dnt. 3. ; 
I/icinia oliva, a kind of olive cultivated 
by one Licinius, Col. 12, 49, & 52. 
called alfo oka Liciniana, Cato, R. R. 6. 
So Donius Liciniana, the houfe of Lici- 
nius, Cic. i^ Fr, 2, 3. — Horace in- 
fcribes the tenth ode of the ftcond book 
to Licinius Varro Murena, the brother 
of Tcrentia, the wife of Maecenas. 
£go pcjf.deo plus Licinis, I am richer 
than the Licini, i. e. than Licinius 
Craffu?, called Dives on account of hij 
riches, juvetml. i, 109. So Praedives 
Llchus, for any rieh man, Id, 14. 306, 

3 L 1 G 

C. LICINIUS Cahus Stolo, a ple- 
beian, married to the younger daughter 
of M. Fabius Ambuilus, a patrician, 
Liv. 6, 34. Moved by the chagrin of 
his' wife at finding herfelf married to a 
man who could not enjoy the fame 
honours with her filler's hiifband, he 
got himfelf elected tribune ; and, in 
conjundion with L. Sextius, propofed 
laws againft the power of the nobility, 
and lor the advantage of the commons; 
particularly, " That no one Pnould 
polfefs more than 500 acres of land, 
and that one of the confuls fiiou'd be 
a plebeian.'* Thefe laws being vio- 
lently oppofed by the patricians, Lici- 
nius and Sextius got themfelves to be 
fucceffively re-elecled tribunes for five 
years, and during all that time hinder- 
ed patrician magiftrates from being 
created, ib. 35. till at laft, after vio- 
lent ftruggles, they got their laws paff- 
ed, a. u. 388, Ib. 42. Sextius was the 
firll plebeian created conful, Liv. 7, I. 
and in the year following Licinius was 
the next, ib. A few years after, Lici- 
nius being profecuted by M. Popilius 
Laenas, a tribune, by his own law, was 
fined in 10,000 ajfes, becaufe, with his 
fon, he pofleiTcd a thouiand acres of 
land, and by emancipating his fon, had 
eluded the law, (fvaudem legi fccijfet,) 
ib. 16. 

Macer Licinius, an ancient Roman 
hiftorian, Liv. 4, 23. 

LiGARius, the name of a Roman 

LIGARII fratrcs, three brothers ; 
one of whom, called ^lintus, Tided with 
Pompey, the other tV\'o with Caefar, 
The two brothers had nearly prevailed 
in procuring the pardon of Quintus, 
but were prevented by one Tubero, 
who inltigated Caefar againll him. 
Cicero made an oration in his defence, 
with fuch effeA, that he is faid, by 
Plutarch, to have made Caefar, who 
fat as judge, tremble, and to have ex- 
torted from him a pardon againft his 
will. Ligarius was afterwards one of 
the confpirators againll Caefar. Plu' 
tarch. in Caejarc, Cic, pro Lig. t, II, 
^ 12. — -*-LiGAHiANA, fc. oratio, the 


L I G [2 

©ration for Ligarius, Cic, Atl. 13, 12, 
19, 20, & 44. 

LiGUR, V. L'tgus, 'urh, a firname 

of the Jeliit Cic. Cluent, 26. «[2. x\r). 

Italian warrior, {lain by Camilla, Virg. 
^eru II, 715.; but Ligns here is ra- 
ther a patrial noun. 

LiGURius, an intimate friend of 
Caefar's, Cic, Fam. 16, 18. Jtt. ii, 9. 
^ Fr. 3, 7. 

LiNDUs, tbe founder of Lindas, a 
city of Rhodes, Cic. N. D. 3, 21. 

LINUS, V. Linasy an ancient poet, 
the fon of Apollo, yirg. Aetu 4, 57. 
by the nymph Urania, Hygiriy f. 161. 
He is reprefentcd by Virgil as a fhep- 
herd, though not really f o ; (Linus 
di'vino carmine pajlor^^ ib. 6, 67. killed 
by Hercules in a lit of paffion, with 
* a harp, which Linus taugnt that 
hero to play upon, Apollodor. 2, 3, 9. 
Hercules is faid to have been provoked 
at Linus, for ridiculing his awkward- 
jiefs in holding the harp, Pauj'an. 9, 
29. ApoUodorus fays, that Linus, as 
being his teacher, ftruck Hercules, ib, 
Apollo gieatly lamented the death of 
Linus, Ipfe meum Jlevi, dixit ApoJloy 
Linony Martial. 9, 88, 4- — Tacitus 
mentions Linus {^Linum Tkehanvn.) a- 
inong the inventors of letters, Ann, 1 1, 


LiRiOPE, -es, a nymph, the daugh- 
ter of Oceanus and Tethyp, the mo- 
ther of NarcilTus, by the river CephiiTus, 
Ovid, Met. 3, 342, &c. 

LIViUS, the name of a Roman 
^ens or familia. Suet. Tib. 3. 

M, LIVIUS Salinator, a Roman 
conful, who dc'feated Ilaldrubal, Liv, 
27, 46, — 49. Hvi got the tirname of 
Salinator, from his having impoled 
an unpopular tax on ialt, while cenfor, 
Liv. 29, 3-7. 

M. LIVIUS Andrcnlcus, the freed- 
man of Saiinator, and the praecept jr of 
his fons, who was the tiril dramatic poet 
at Rome, {Via, R. A. p. 352.) He ■ 
exhibited his hrfl. play (Jahuiam dedit) 
about 5 1 o years aker the foundation oi 
Rome, Cic, Tujc, i, i. or 514 years, 
'.(primus fahulam docuit, Caio Clodio, 
Ca(ci Jilioi et M, Tudctano, confulil'us, 

It -] LTV 

anno Ipfo antequam natus ejl Ennius ; pojl 
Romam condl'am autem quarto dectmo et 
quingentejimoy Cic. Brut. 18. Sen. 14.) 

LiviANAE fcdulae, the plays of 

Li vius, Cic. Br. 18. Liviant modiy 
Cic. Leg. 2, 15. Carmina Livij for 
Liviiy the poems of Livius, Hor. Ep, 

2, I, 69. 

Titus LIVIUS, boni at Padua [Pa- 
tavinus) a. u. 695, Eufeb. Chrnn. who 
wrote tlie Ronian hillory from the 
foundation of the city to the year 744> 
in 140 or 142 books; of which only 
thirty-five remain ; the ten hril, and 
from the beginning of the twenty-firll 
to the end of the forty-fifth. In the 
oldelt editions of Livy there are only 
twenty-nine books, and thefe not en- 
tire. The red were difcovered after 
the invention of printing, at different 
times, ( Vid. Fabric. Bibuoth. Lat.vol, I, 
p. 181.) Some of them, however, are 
Itill imperfect. The lofs of the works 
of no ancient author is more regretted 
than that of the writings of Livy. 

Q^intilian calls Livy, Vir inirae fa- 
cundiacy 8, i, 3. in concionibus, jupra 
qudm enarrari poteji, eloquens, 10, I, 
101. and compares him to Herodotus, 
ib. He feys, that Livy, by his agree- 
able copioufncfs, {laciea ubertas^^ had 
equalled the admirable conciienefs of 
Salluft, ib. 32, & 10 1. AfiniustPoilio, 
however, thought that there was in 
Livy's flyle a certain provincial impro- 
priety, which, from his birth-place, 
Pollio called Patavinitas, Id. i, 5, 
^6. et 8, I, 3. Though Livy was 
treated with marks of great refpeft by 
AuguPtUs, yet he extolled Pompcy fo 
highly, that Auguihis ufed to call him 
a Fompeian ; he alfo beftowed deferved 
praiies on Brutus and Cafliiis, the ene- 
mies of Auguftus ; which however did 
not interrupt their frienddiip, Ta:. Ann. 

3, 34. X^ivy is luppofed to have 

been appointed by Augullus tutor to 
Claudius Caefar, afterwards emperor ; 
becaufc Suetonius fays that Claudius, 
when ^ young man, attempted to write 
hiftory by the exhortation of Livy, 

CI. 41. Livy died at Padua, a, u. 

771, in the fourth year of Tiberius, 

L I V [2 

Eufeh. He left a fon, to whom he 
wrote a letter on the fubjed of rhe- 
toric ; in which he advifcd him to read 
chiefly Dtmollhenes and Cicero ; next, 
fuch authors as mofl reCembled Demoil- 
henes and Cicero, ^uindil. 2, 5, 10. et 
10, I, 39. This letter is fuppofed to 

be alhided to, Id. 8, 2, 18. Such 

was the fame of Livy during his h'fe- 
time, that an inhabitant of Cadiz (Grt- 
d'ltanus) is faid to. have travelled to 
Rome on purpofe to fee him ; and as 
foon as he had fatisfied his curiofity he 
returned home again, Plin. Ep. 2, 3, 8. 
Livy has been acculed of fuperilitious 
credulity, and, not without reafon, of 
partiality to his countrymen. 

M. LIVIUS Drufus, a tribune a. 
662, whopublifhed feverallaws, (Leg^s 
LiviAE, R. A. 208.) Vid. Drusus. 

LIVIA Dnifllay the daughter of 
Livius Drufus, who being profcribed 
after the battle of Philippi, as one of 
the friends of Brutus, flew himfclf. 
Dm. 48, 44. p. 383. Paterculus calls 
him Drufus Claudianus, 2, 94. Livia 
was fir ft married to Tiberius Claudius 
Nero, by whom {[\t had Drufus, and 
Tiberius, afterwards emperor. Auguf- 
tus having fallen in love with her, 
forced Nero to refign her to him ; and 
divorced his own wife Scribonia, in 
order to marry Livia, w^horn he brought 
home to his houfe, while big with 
child. Within three monchs after, (lie 
bore Drufus, Dio,ib, ; Suet. CI. i. Li- 
via had no children to Auguftus, but 
by her influence over that emperor, 
prevailed on him to appoint her fon 
Tiberius his fuccelTor, in preference 
to his own grandchildren, Tac. jinn. 
1, 3. et 5, I.; Suet. j^ug. 62, 63. 
Tib. I, — 22. Livia is faid to have 
mitigated the cruelty of Auguilus to 
his enemies, by her advice, which Dio 
details at great length, ^1^, 14, — 22, 
She was fvifpedied of having 
haftened the death of Auguftus by 
poifon, ih. 22. ^r/ 56, 30. ; Tac. Jinn, 
I, 5.; Plin. 7, 45. for the fake of her 
fon Tiberius, who proved ungrateful 
to her. By the will of Auguilus, 

23 3 L O L 

Livia was adopted into the Julian fa- 
mily, with the title of Augusta, 
Tac. Ann. 1,8.; Suet. Aug. 102. ; Add. 
Plin. 15, 30. by which name after 
this flie was called, Tac. Ann. i, 13. 
14, 33, &c. ; Suet. Cat. 10, 15, &c. 
or Julia Augijla^ Tac. Ann. 3, 64. 
et 5, I. L)ivine honours were de- 
creed to her by her grandfon, the em- 
peror Claudius, Suet. Claud. 1 1. which 
Ovid by way of flattery had predicted. 
Sic Augujia novum yuUa (al. Livia) nu- 
men erit, Faft. i, 536. The fenate 
propofed this after her death, but Ti- 
berius hindered it, Tac. Ann. 5, 2. 
Suetonius feems to fay, that the name 
oi Augujia was refufed by Livia, Matrt 
cognomen Augujlae (fc. decernendum 
curavit Claudius) ab avia recufatum. 
Suet. CI. I f. But this by the bed 
commentators is referred to his grand- 
mother Antonia ; for Suetonius him- 
felf mentions the order of Auguftus in 
his will, that Livia fliould bear the 
name of Augusta, Suet. Aug. 102. 

L,iv I AE portu'uSf Suet. Aug. 29, 

or as an adj. Z.ivia porticus, Ovid. Faft. 
6, 639. a portico which Auguftus 
built on the ground where the houfe 
of Vedius Poilio, which he deftroyed, 
had ftood, and called after the name of 

Livia, Dio, 54, p. 537. Livia- 

NUM aes, a kind of copper or brafs, 
found in Gaul, named from Livia, Plin. 
34» 2. 

Locust A, a woman j[]<illed in poi- 
foning, and a great favourite with Nero, 
Tac, Ann. 12, 66. et 13, 15,; Juve- 
nal. I, 71. 

LOLLIUS, the name of a Roman 
family ; ftveral .perfons of which are 
often mentioned by Cicero, Att. 2, 2. 
et 12, 21. ; Ferr. 3, 25. ; and by other 
clafiic author... 

AL LOLLIUS, conful with Lepi- 
dus, a. u. 733, when Horace was for- 
ty-four years of age, as he himfelf in- 
forms us, jEp. I, 20, 26. Lollius was 
firft made conful alone, ti;e other place 
being rcferved for Auguilus, who was 
ebfent ; but he not chufing to accept 
it, Lepidus was elected, Dio, 54, 6. 


L O L 

224 1 


To LoUius Horace infcnbes Od. 4, 
9. Ep. I, 2, & 18. Lollius, when 
praefed of Gaul, being fuddenly at- 
tacked by a body of Germans, lod part 
of his army, Dlo, 54, 20. This Taci- 
tus calls Loll'iana dades^ Ann. 1, 10. 
So Suetonius ; who fays it wa? attend- 
ed with more infamy than lofs, {^ma- 
joris infawlae quam detrir.^sntt) ^ ^^Z' ^3* 
About twenty years after this, Lol- 
lius being appointed a kind of director 
(qunfi moderator) to Caius, the grand- 
fon of Auguftus, while governor of 
Syria, fhowed himfelf very unworthy 
of the praifes beilov/ed on him by Ho- 
race. For by the information of the 
Parthian king, he was found to have 
entertained traitorous defigns againft 
his country. He died a few days af- 
ter, whether by a natural or voluntary 
death is uncertain, a. u. 753, Patera, 
102. Pliny fays, he took poifon, 9, 
35 f. 54. This happened feveral years 
after the death of Horace ; and we 
reed not be furprifed at Horace being 
deceived with refpecft to the charadler 
of Lollius, when he impofed even up- 
on Auguilus. He was, as Pdercu- 
lus inforniS us, Homo in omnia ptcitn'tas 
quam rcSe faciendi cupidior, inter fom- 
mam ifitiorum difftmuiationem, intiujijji- 
mus. Pa i: ere. 2, 97. 

LoLLiA PauHlna, the daughter of 
M. LoJhus, TacAnn, 12, I. the fon of 
M. Lollius lall mentioned, Pl'in. 9, 35: 
f^ 37. remarkable for her beauty ; tnar- 
ried firll to C. Mtmmius Regiikis, Tac. 
Ann. 12, 22. and forcibly taken from 
him by Caligula, who foon after di- 
vorced lier, Suet, Cal. 25. After the 
death of Meffriina, fhe was propcfed as 
wife to the emperor Claudius, Tac. Ann. 
12, 1. ; Suet. CI. 26. which excited the 
hatred of AgrippTna, whom Claudius 
married. This proved the caule of 
the death of Lollia, Tac. Ann. 12, 22. 
Pliny gives a curious defcription of 
the fplencor of LoUia's drefs, y, 55 f. 

LoNGiMANUS, -/, a firnam.c given 

• to Arcaxerxes, king of Perfia, from 

the uncommon length of his hands, (G. 


LoNCiKrrs, a firname of the CafTif, 

Cic. Plane. 24. ^ 2. A friend of An- 

tonius the orator, very ll'cilled in jurif- 
prudence, hiftory, and antiquities, Cic, 

Or. I, 60. «j| 3. The fecretary of 

Zenubia queen of Palmyra, author of 
an excellent treatife on the fublime ; 
put to death by the emperor Aurelian, 
when he took Palmyra, (G. 248.) 

Cajjius LoNGiNus, the hufband of 
the grand -daughter of Tiberius, {pro- 
gener), Tac. Ann. 6, 45. 

Tr. I oNGus, the colleague of P. 
Scipio Africanus, in his fecond confu- 
late, a. u. 559, when the feats of the 
fcnators at the fpeftacles were firil fe- 
parated from thofe of the people, Cic. 
Corn. I. 

LoTis, '^disi a nymph, who, flying 
from the violent attempts of Priapus, is 
faid to have been changed into a tree 
called lotus, Ovid. Met. 9, 347. ■ 

Lu A, a goddefs, fuppofed to be the 
fame with Rhea or Ops, Liv. 8, l. et 

45» 33- 

M. Annaeus LUCANUS, the fon 
of Annaeus Meila, Tac. Ann. 16, 17. 
a celebrated poet, author of the Phar- 
SALiA, a poem, which contains an ac- 
count of the civil wars between Caefar 
and Pompey. Lucan, having entered 
into a confpiracy againlt Nero, Tac. 
Ann. 15, 49. was put to death, ib. 7c. 
His veins were cut, and he died with 
undaimted courage, repeating fome ver- 
fes of the Pharialia, Lucan. 9, 806. ; 
Tac. ib. But vvhen he was fird appre- 
hended, and threatened with being put 
to the rack, tempted by a prom.ife of 
pardon, he had the weaknefs to name 
his own mother Attilla among the con- 
fpirators. Tac. Ann. 15,56. Tacitus 
expcfes this timidity of I^ucan, and 
others of the fame rank, by coRtrad- 
ii-g it with the noble conflancy of E- 
picharis, a freed woman, whom no 
tortures could force to betray her ac- 
complices, ib. 57. Lucan was born at 
Cordiiba in Spain, which was a'fo the 
bii th place of the two Senecas ; whence 
Martial fays, Duofque Senecas, urJcum- 
que Lucanuvi Facutida loquitur Corduba, 

LUC t 22^ 1 LUC 

and therefore thinks that venal. I, 20. the firft author of fatire. 

1, 62, 7- ? . 

the river Baetis, which runs pall Cor- 
duba, fhould be mixed with the foun- 
tain C^ftalia, or be ranked with it a- 
mong the flreams facred to the Mufes, 
Id. 7, 21, 4. Martial kept the birth- 
day of Lncan, wham he efteemed the 
next Latin epic poet to Virgil, ib. 22, 

2. and declares, that Nero was to be 
more execrated for the death of no one 
{^nuUdque hi'v'ifior umbra) than for that 
of Lucan, il. 20, 3. 

LUCCEIUS, the name of a Ro- 
man gens. 

L. LUCCEIUS, the intimate friend 
of Pompey, Cic. Alt. i)j i. Fam. 13, 
41, & 42.; Caef. B. Ckf. 3, 18. who 
wrote the hiftory of the Marfic war, 
and of the civil war between Marius 
and Sylla. Cicero fo much admired 
the abilities of Lucceiiis as an hiilorl- 
an, that he requefted of him to write 
the hiftory of his confulfiiip, Cic* Fam. 
5, 12. Lucccius joined Pompey in the 
civil war, Caef. B. C. 3, iS. but was 
pardoned by Caefar. Nothing of Luc- 
ceius remains, but a coniolatory letter 
which he fent to Cicero upon the death 
of his daughter Julia, Cic. Fam. 5, 14. 
— Several others of this name are men- 
tioned by Cicero, Fam. 12, 25, & 30. 
PWr. 5, 64. Flacc. 33. Jtt. 5, 21. 

LUC I ANUS, a Greek author of 
great wit and learning, born of poor 
parents at Samofata, a city of Syria, In 
the time of Trajan. He was lirft bred 
to be a llatuary under his uncle ; then 
he applied to the ftudy of rhetoric, and 
after that of philofophy. At laft he 
was appointed procurator of Egypt, 
{Fid. A. 166.) by Marcus Aurelius, 
the emperor. He died of the gout at 
the age of ninety. — The enemies of 
Lucian fabricated a ftory, that he was 
torn in pieces by dogs. — The writings 
of Lucian are ftill extant. 

Lucifer, -erl, m. the name of the 
morning liar, or of the planet Venus 
when it appears in the morning, P'^irg* 
Aen. 2, 801. 8, 5S9. G. 3, 60. 

C'.Ll'CiLlUS, apoetb6rn at Au- 
Tunca, a city of Latium ; whence he 
is called Magnus Auruncac alumnus ^ Ju* 

, I, 69. SecuH 
I. 114. Add. Ju' 
Cic. Fam. 1 2 , 

at Rome, {in fat'ira primus magnam law 
dem adeptus eft), Qiiinftil. 10, I, 93.—^ 
Cum eji Lucilius aufus Primus in hum 0- 
ptAs componere morem, Hor. Sat. 2, i, 
62. or as Pliny expreffes it, qui primus 
condtditjlili nafum, Praef. who fliarply 
reproved the vicious morals of the time, 
{Sale multo urbem defricvit), Hor. Sat. 
1 , 10, 3« Primores populi arripuit popu- 
lumque trlhutimf Ib. 2 
Lucilius urbem, Perf. 
venal, i, 165. ; Cic. Fam. I2, 16 i Ho- 
race praifes Lucilius for his wit, but 
blames him for his hally and inaccurate 
compoiition. Sat. 1,4, 6, <Scc. et i, 10, 

1. unjuftly in the opinion of QuInCtl- 
lian, 10, T, 94. Lucilius ejfe laboras, 
you attempt to write fatn-es, Martial. 
12, 96, 7. Lucilius was contempora- 
ry with Sclpio Afticanus the younger, 
andLaelius, with both of whom he lived 
on tlie moft intimate footing, ib.z, 1,73. 
He ufed to fay, that he wrote neither 
for the very learned, nor for the very 
unlearned, Cic. Or. 2, 6. Cicero, in the 
charafter of Craffus, reprefents Lucili- 
us as a man of learning, and of great 
politenefs, {dodus et perurbanus) ; and 
mentions a frequent obfervation of his 
with approbation, ** that no one ought 
to be accounted an orator who is not 
accompliflied in all the liberal arts,'* 
{qui nonjit omnibus iis artibus, quae Junt 
lilero dignae, perpolitus), Cic. Or. i, 16, 
Nothing of the works of Lucilius re- 
mains but fcattered fragments. Lu- 

CILIANO cbaraBere libelli, books writ- 
ten in the manner of Lucilius, Farr. 
R. R. 3, 2, 17. Sine vallof v. nyalo (al. 

fine/ale v.Jiilo) Luciliano^ without uiing 
a fatirical ftik-, or fpeaking fatu'ically, 
Cic. Att. 16, I r . 

L. Lucilius Balbus, the praecep- 
tor of Serv. Sulpicius, Cic. Brut. 42. 

Lucilius Bajfus, commander of the 
Roman fleet under Vitellius, Tac. Hijl. 

2, 100, who betrayed it to Vefpaiian, 

ib. 1 01. ^ 2. A contemptible poet, 

Cic. Att. 12, 3. 

Sext. Lucilius, a military tribune 
in the army of Bibulus, Cic, Att. 5, 

F f Lu- 

LUC [ 226 

LuciLius, the commander of Do- 
labella's fleet in Afia after the death 
of Caefar, Ck. Fcnn. 12, 13. Appian 
calls him L. FiguUis, on which account 
Manutius tliinks LuciHus is here put for 
the praenomen Lucius ; but Viclorius 
imagines, that Figulus was the cogno- 
77i£n of jLucilius. 
>.LuciNA, a name of Juno, when in- 
voked by women in child-birtli. Tu 
Ltuc'ma dolmi'ihiis Jimo ■ dida puerperis, 
Catu]]. 32, 13. thus yitno Ljicina^ fer 
operrit Ter. And. 3, i» 15. [funo Luc'i- 
na, tuamjidem^ fc. imploro, Plaut. Aul. 
4, 7, II. fo named, either from her 
bringing they<7(ft'uj' to hght, [inlucem), 
or from a grove, [a luco), on the Ef- 
quihne hill at Ronie, facred to Juno, 
Plin. 16, 44 f. 85. ; Ov'd. Fafl. 2, 449, 
Zl 451. Aetas Lucinam palU the pro- 
per age for bearing young, Virg. G. 3, 
60. yil/era turn primes lAicinne experta 
labores, i. e. having brought forth her 

iirft child, '/^. 4, 340. The name of 

Lucina is alfo given to Diana, Hor. 
Carm. Saec. 15. So Tu modo nafcenti 
puero — Cajlafa've Lucina: tuus (fc. Ira- 
ter) jam regnat Apollo, Virg. Aen. 4, 
10. — Cum Luna a lucendo nom'maiajil ; 
eadcm ejl enirn Lucina, C'lc. N. D. 2, 

Lucius, ^^ praenomen o^ t\\^ Romans, 
{Lucii, qui orient e luce 'vel prima luce naf- 
cuntur, Feftus ; et Varr. L. L. 5, 2, et 
8 , 38 . — L u c I p o R , - oris : Alitcr opud 
antiquos, finguU Marcipores, Lucipon's- 
iie dominorum gentilesy omnem 'viUwn in 
promifcuo habehant, the ancients had 
jiot fo great, a number of Haves ; each 
had one, who. was called after his own 
name ; thus, the boy or fervant of Mar- 
cus or Lucius, as if of the fame gens, 
and they ate promifcuoufly at tiie fem.e 
board with their mafter, Plin. 33, if. 

LUCRETIUS, the name cf a Ro- 
man gens. 

LUCRETI A , the daughter of Spn- 
rius Lucretius Triciplnnus, and the v»-ife 
of Tarqu''nius C'»llatini-s, who having 
been bafely violated by Sex. Tarquini- 
us, the fon of king Tarquinius Super- 
l^us, flcv*' heifelf ; which occafioned the 

] LUC 

abolition of regal government at Rome, 
Cic. Fin. 2, 20. Leg. 2, 4. ; Liv. I, 
57, .S:c. (G. /». 205.) Bruto lihertatem 
debemus, Lucretiae Brutumy Seh^. ad 
Marciam, c. 16. EJfe indeharis, fateor, 
Lucretia nobis, as chafle as Lucretia, 
Martial. I, 91, 5.; Add. Ii, 10^, 21. 

r. LUCRE i lUS Cams, a Roman 
poet, born at Rome a. u. 659 ; who 
having ftudied at Athens, imbibed the 
do£lrines of Epicurus, which he has 
explained and endeavoured to eftabhfli, 
in an elegant poem of fix books, en- 
titled De Rtruni nafura, and dedicated 
to his friend Memmius, Lucr. i, 26, 
&c. Of the poems of Lucretius Ovid 
fays, Carmina [ublimis tunc funt peritura 
Lucreti, Exitio ierris cum dabit una dies. 
Amor. I, 15, 23. Cicero commends 
them, but not in fuch high terms, Lu- 
cr elii poemata, ut Jcribis, it a funt ; non 
•niultis luminibus ingenii, multae tamen ar- 
tis, ad. Q^Er. 2, t r. Quinctilian joins 
Lucretius with Macer, who wrote a 
poem concerning herbs, which is nowr 
1 ")ft : Macer et Lucretius legendi quidem 
(fc. oratori) ; fed non ut phrafin, id e/l, 
corpus eloquentiae faciant : elegantes quif- 
que in fua materia, fed alter (fc. Macer) 
humilis, alter (Lucretius) difficilis, 10, 
i, 87. ; Add. Ld. I, 4, 4. r/ 3, I, 4. 
et 8, 6, 45. et 12, I I, 27. Lucretius 
died in the 43d year of his age, on the 
fame day, as it is faid, on which Vir- 
gil was born. Eufebius relates, that he 
put an end to his days in a fit of deli- 
rium, occafioned by a love-potion, gi- 
ven him by his wife or miftrefs, Lucilla. 
But with regard to the time or manner 
of his death, we are uncertain. 

LucTATius, (al. Lutatius), the 
name of a Reman gens ; the moft re- 
markable branch or fam.iiy of which was 
that of the CatuU, (q. v.) 

LUCULLUS, a hrname of the Li- 

L. Licinivs LUCULLUS, a cele- 
brated Roman general, who carried on 
war for feveral years againft Mithri- 
dates, remarkable for his wealth and 
magnificence, Plutarch, in vita ejus. ; 
Cic. Leg. 3, 13. Ojf. 1, ^c). He wrote 
feme hiilorical books in Greek, Cic, 


LUC [2 

Att. r, 19. concerning tlie Marfic- war, 
Plutarch. Cicero has kft a fine eulo- 
ginm on this great man, in the lil 
chapter of the. 4th bonk of his Acade- 
inical Qiiellions, which Is commonly en- 
titled Lu c u L L u s. — L u c u L L E u M maj'' 
trior, a kind of marble, fo called hecaufe 
LiUCLillus was very much delighted with 
it, Fljn. 36, 6 f. 8. Fil/a LucuUi, the 
villa of Lucullus near Mifenum, which 
afterwards became the property of the 
emperors, where Tiberius died, Tac, 
Arm. 6, 50. Horti LucuUi, Tac. Ann. 
II, I. \<:\ Liiciilliani, adj. the gardens 
of Lnculhis, wiiere Mcfi'alina was kill- 
ed by NarcilTiis, the freed ii"; an of Clau- 
dius, Tac, Ann. 1 1, 32, & 37. 

LiUCUMO, -dnisf the name of Tar- 
qui'.iius Prifcus, the fifth king of ilom.e, 
befoie he came to that city, Llv. i, 34. 
(G. i99')v JLucamo, in the Tufcan 
language, denoted a king, prince, or 
chief, 8erv. ad V'lrg, Aen, 2, 278. et 8, 

^5? ^ 475' ^^ i<^j 202. 

LUNA, the moon, the daughter of 
Hyperion and Thia, Apollodor. i, 2, 2. 
or Aethra, Hygin. Prasf. fuppoied by 
fome to be the fame with Diana, {^vid. 
G. 377.)« There was a temple of Lu- 
na at Rome, on mount Avcatine, L'lv. 
40, 2. 

Li/PERCi, the priefts of Pan, Qc. 
PhiL 2, 34. whence Lupercalia, 
'tuniy the fellival of Pan, celebrated in 
February, i^. 33. [A, l-i,^,) 

Lu FERGUS, a mifer, to whom Mar- 
tial infcribes an epigram, 11, 118. 

Lupus, a firname of the Rut'dil. 

P. Rutil'ius Lupus, conful a. u. (SG'i^, 
feverely laflied in the fatires of Luci- 
lius, C'lc. N. D. I, 23. ; Hor. Sal. 2, 

P. Lupus, a tribune, C'lc. Fam. i, 
I. afterwards praetor, LL Att, 8, 12. 
ct 9, I. 

Lupus, the author of a poem con- 
cerning the return of M.uelaus and 
Helen to Sparta after the Trojan war, 
(^Auclor Tantalidae reducls "Tyndaridof- 
que), O^id. Pont. 4, 16,26. 

LuRCO, a lirname of the AuMii. 

M. LuRCO, a tribune, and an inti- 
mate friend of Cicero's, C'lc, Flac. 4. 

37 1 L Y C 

Alt. 1,16. This is fuppofed to be the 
M. Aufidius Lurco who is faid to have 
firft invented the method of feeding 
peacocks, by which he made a great 
fortune, Varr. R. R. 3, 6, i. ; Pl'in, 
10, 2C. 

Lyaeus, a name of Bacchus, (of 
a fimilar import in Greek to Lrber in 
Latin), Firg. Acn. 4, 58. Tecln Ly- 
acif the temple of Bacchus, Martial, 
l> 7'> 9> — P^^t for wine ; thuo, Tern- 
pora lida Lyaeo, Hor. Od. i, 7, 2 2. 
So yocojo Lyaro arcanum retegerCf ib. 3, 
21, 14. Didci Lyaiv curain folvere^ 
Id. Epod^9, 38. Inhal'iUs uva Lyaeoy 
grapes unht for making wine. Martial, 
r 1 , 22. Torraco Campano tan turn ccjjii- 
ra Lyaco, which will yield only to the 
Cauipanian wine, i. e. which produces 
as good wine as any part in Italy, ex- 
cept Campania, Id. ii.y 118. Annofus 
Fyatusy old wine, Tihull. 3,2, I. Lar- 

gi Jlumina Lyat 
wine, Stat. S'lh. 

great abundance of 
, 6, 95. And by a 

bold trope, Puh.fcens f.yaeus^ the vine 
grape growing ripe, ih, 2, 2, i&o. — 
Latex Lyaeus, adj. wine, Firg. Aen. I, 

Lyc.^bas, -ac, a Tufcan, one of 
the mariners who carried off Bacchus 
from Chia, and lefufing to land him 
in Naxos, "according to promife, were, 
by that god, changed into dolphins, 

Ov:d. V/>/. 3, 624. &c. f 2. An 

A-fiyrian, flain by Pcrfeus, (al. Lyca- 

bus), ib. 5, 60. ^ 3. One of the 

Ijaplthac, who fled from the battle 
which was fought at the marriage of 
Piritiious, ik 12, 302. 

Lycambl s, -is, V. -ae, a Tbeban, 
who promifed his daughter .Neobiile ia 
ma;;nage to the poet Archilochus, but, 
violating his engagement, gave her to 
another of greater wealth wiio aflced 
her. Whereupon Archilochus wrote fa 
bitter a fatire againlt them, that thro' 
defpair both the father and daughter 
are faid to have hanged themfelvis, A- 
ri/lotel. Rhet.Ub. 3. ; hence, ^alis Ly- 
cambae fpretm irjido gener, \. e. .'\rchl- 
lochus, Horat. Epod, 6, 13. Parios 
ego primus ianibos OJlenui Latio, numcros 
aiiimojque Je cuius ArcFihchl^ nan res et 
F f 2 agentia 

L Y C 

agetiiia verha Lycamhen, not the matter 
and expreffionR that forced Lycambes 
to hang himielf, Hor. Ep. i, 19, 23. 
Nee focerum quaerit^ quern verfibvs oblinat 
atrisi Nee jpcnfae laqueum fanwfo earmius 
peflitf ib. 30. — Tinffa Lycamheo f anguine 
tela, \. e. bitter invcdives, fuch as ihofe 
of Archilochus againft Lycambes, 0- 
vU. in Ibky 53. ^uid prcdtfli cuptant 
fum qutdam nojlra iiidtri, S'lqua Lycam- 
leo f anguine tela madenty What does it 
avail, if any anonymous poets defire 
their fatirical verfes to pafs for mine, 
(when no one will believe it, who 
knows I never write verfes of that 
kind). Martial. 7, 11,5. 

Lycaon, -onisy the fon of Pelafgiis 
and the nymph Melibaea or Cyllene, a 
king of Arcadia, /^poUodor. 3, 8, i. 
turned into a wolf by Jupiter, becaufe 
Lycaon, to try the divinity of Jupiter, 
when his gueft, had fet before him the 
flefli of a human body, Ovid. Aid. i, 
165. &-C. (G. 417.) hence Menfae Ly- 
caoniae faeda m'lnijieria, the fl-iocking 
feaft of Lycaon's table, ib. Notus feri- 

tate Lycaony ib. 1 98. Lycaon is, 

ridtsj voc. Lycaoni, Calillo the daugh- 
ter of Lycaon, Ovid. Fojl. 2, 173. chan- 
ged by Juno into a bear ; and aUer- 
'^vardg by Jupiter converted into the 
conilellation called the Bf ar, Lyca- 
on i a Arctos, Qyld.FcJ}. 3, 793, near 
the north .pole ; hence j^xis Lycaoniusy 
the north pole, Ovid. Trijl, 3, 2, 2. 

Lycaon, a fldlful Cretan artift, 
Virg. Jen. 9, 304,. 

Lycvs, -acy an Italian, cut out of 
his mother when dead, (lain by Aeneas, 
yirg.Jen. 10, 315. 

Lych\s. f^/V. Lichas, 

Lycidas, -ae, the name of a cen- 
taur, Qvid. Met, 12, 310. <[[ 2. A 

flieplierd, Virg. Eel. 7, 67 ^ 3. A 

beautiful boy, Hor. Od. i, 4, 19. 

Lycisca, the name of a bitch, (de- 
noting either begotten by a wolf, or 
like a wolf), Ovid. Met, 3, 220, ; Virg. 
Eel. 3, 18. 

Lyciscus, the name of a youth, 
Hor. Ep.nd. 1 !, 36. 

Lyco, -onisy a Peripatetic philofo- 
pher, the fucceffoy cf Strato, Cic TuJ'c. 

l 228 ] L Y C 

32. called alfo Glyco, on account of 


the fv^^eetnefs of his difcourfe, Diogen* 

Laert. $y6$. 

Lycomedes, -zV, king of the ifland 
Scyros, to whom Thetis committed 
her fon Achilles to be concealed under 
a female drefs among that king's daugh- 
ters, that he might not go to the war 
againft Troy, (G. 446.). Cicero fays, 
that Neoptolemus, the fon of Achilles, 
would never have taken Troy, if he 
had liftened to Lycomedes, with whom 
he was educated, who, wMth many tears, 
wifhed to hinder his departure, (thus 
confounding part of tlie ftory of A- 
ehlUes with that of Pyrrhus his fon), 
Amic. 20. 

Lycophron, -onisy a poet born 
at Chalcis in Euboea, [Chalcldcnfis)y 
who flouriflied in the time of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus. He wrote feveral tra- 
gedies, whence he is called colhumatusy 
Ovid, in Ibin, 533. He wrote alfo an 
obfcure poem called Alexandra or Caf- 
fandrdy ftill extant ; whence he is cal- 
led atery vel tcnecrofus ; thus, Tenelraf- 
que Lycophronis atriy Stat. Silv. 5, 3, 
157. He is faid to have been killed 
by a poifoned arrow fhot at him by an 
adverfary, Ovid. ib. 

Lycoris, 'idis, the miflrefs of C. 
Cornelius Gallus, the friend of Virgil, 
Virg. Eel. 10, often celebrated by Gal- 
lus in his verfes, which are now loft, 
Ovid. Am. I, 15,30. Art. Am. 3, 537. 
'TriJ}. 2, 44^. whence Martial lays, 
Ingenium Galii pulehra Lyeoris erat, i. e, 
infpired Gallus, 8, 73. 5. She is faid 
by Servius to have been the fame with 
Cytheris, the freed woman of Volum- 
nius, and therefore alfo called Volum- 
nla, the niiftrefs of Antony. But this 
feems very doubtful. f 2. A beauti- 
ful woman, often celebrated by Martial. 

LYCUllGUS, the famous lawgiver 

of Lacedaemon, (G. 461.). f[ 2. A 

king of Thrace, Virg. Aen. 3» 14. the 
fon of Dryasj Apollodor, /i^y ^y i. flain 
by Bacchus for violating his facred 
rites, Ovid. Met. 4, 20. ; Hor. Cd. 2, 
19, 16. Apollodorus fays, that Ly- 
curgus, being feized with madnefs by 
the wrach of Baccbu£| flew his fon 

Dry as. 

L Y C [22 

Dry'as, then cut off his own limbs with 
a fcythe, and at lalt was torn to pieces 

by his own horfes, ib, fl 3. A king 

of Nemaea, Stal. Theb. 5, 39. ; Apollo^ 

dor. 3, 6, 4. ^ 4.. An Athenian o- 

rator in the titr.e of Aelchines, remark- 
able for his probity and Itrictnefs ; a 
vehement profecutor of the wicked and 
profligate, i^accufatur vehemens), i/tc. ad 
Brut. 9, & 34. Being entruiied with 
the police of the city, he freed it from 
thieves and robbers, Plutarch, in vita 
ejus. Hence Najmetipfi Lycurgei a 
princip'io fuyfemus, would have been as 
rigid and inflexible as Lycurgus againft 
Clodius and his alTociates, Cic. Att. i, 

Lycus, a Trojan, a companion of 
Aeneas, drowned in a ftorm, Virg. Aen. 
1, 222. ^2. Another, who, ha- 
ving efcaped with Helenor from a tur- 
ret, which, being in flames, fell from 
the rampart, was ilain by Turnus, Ib, 
9, 556. &c. Vid. Helenor. 

Lycus, a king of Thebes, (Iain by 
Zethus and AmphTon, the fons of An- 
tiope, on account of his unjull treat- 
ment of their mother, Apallodor. 3> 3, 
5. But Hyginiis fays, that Mercury 
ordered them not to kill Lycus, and 
commanded l^ycus to refign the king- 
dom to Amphion, Fab. %f. Vid. An- 


Lyde, -esj the wife or miflrefs of 
the poet Caliimachus, Ovid. Tr'iJL 1, 

5' I- 

Lydia, Horace's miftrefs, whom he 

often celebrates, Od. 1,8. 3, 9. <Scc. 

Lydts, the fon of Atys, from whom 
the country of Lydia was named, which 
formerly was called ^loEOUi \, licrodot. 
7, 74. ; Serv. ad Virg. Aen, 8, 479. 

Lynccus, one of the hfty fons of 
Aegyptus, the only one laved by his 

wife Hypermnellra, {G. 392.). 

% 2. The fon of Aphareus king of Mef- 
fenia, of fuch quickncfs of fight that 
he was fuppofed to fee under ground, 
Hygin. 14. hence, ^is ejl tarn Lyncevs^ 
ib quick-fighted, Cic. Fam, 9, 2. Non 
pojjis Gculo quantum contendere Lynceus, 
(in two fyllables), you cannot fee as 
far as Lynceus, Hor, Ep, i, i, 28, Nti 

9 1 L Y S • 

corporis optima Lynceis Conlemplere oculisf 
with Lyncean eyes, i. e. as quick-fight- 
ed as thofe of Lynceus, Id. Snt. i, 2, 
90. Add. Flin. 2, 17. ; Fa/. Flacc. i, 
462. ; Senec. Tvled. 228. — Lynceus was 
Ilain by Caftor, (G. 412.). — Accord- 
ing to Ovid, Caftor was (lain by him ; 
hence PeBora trnjedus Lyncso Cajlor ah 
enfcy Fafl. 5, 709. 

LyncIdes, -ae, a patronymic noun, 
the fon of Lynceus ; or rather a pro- 
per name, Ovid. Met. 4, 768. 5, 99, &; 

Lyncus, a king of Scythia, who 
hofpitably entertained Triptolemus, 
fent by Ceres through the world to 
teach men the ufe of corn, and wifliing 
to take the glory of the invention to 
himfelf, attempted to kill his guell 
while afleep ; but Ceres changed him 
in the very acl into a lynx, {^conantem 
lyncafecit)^ Ovid. Met. 5, 650, — 660.; 
Serv. in Virg. i, 323. 

Lyra, the name of a conftellation, 


^ 79- 


a celebrated gene- 

Varr.R.R, 2, 5.; 
Fajl. 2, 75. 

Lysandfr, 'dr 
ral of the Lacedaemonians, who having 
defeated the Athenians at Aegos Pota- 
mos, took Athens, and fet over it 
thirty men called Tyrants, from the 
cruel ufe they made of their power, 
Nep. 6, I. ^/ 8, I. (G. 467.) 

LYJSIAS, -ae, an Athenian orator, 
Cic. Brut. 16. the firft who maintained 
that there is an art in fpeaking, {^ejfe 
art em dicendi), ib. 12. He left a great 
many orations, ib. 16. of which only 
a few remain. He wrote an oration 
for Socrates to ufe at his trial, which 
that philofopher praifed, but declined 
ufmg it, Cic. Or. i, 54. 

Lysidicus, a partiian of Antony's, 
whom Cicero, playing on his name, 
calls the deilroyer of all law and juf- 
tlce, [qui jura omnia di/pJvit^i Phil. 
II, 6. 

Lysimachus, one of Alexander's 
generals, and afterwards king ot Thrace, 

(<^-473-) J#«- '7»2. 

Lysippe, -es, one of the daughtei^ 
of Proetus, ApoIIodor, 2, 2, 2. 

Lysipyus, d, cekbrated fculptor, 
' born 

L Y S [2 

born at Si'cyon, (Siyonius)^ the only- 
one whom Alexander the Great would 
allow to make a ilatue of him, Cic, 
Fam. 5, 12. Add. ///. Brut. 86. Or. 
3, 7. ; H^ren. 4, 6. ; Horat. Ep. 2, I, 
239, &c. ; Piin. 34, 7, 3c 8.; Stat. Sih. 
I, I, 86. Gloria cjl Lysippo animofa ef- 
Jingtre fignay to make ftatuts to the life, 
Fropert. 3, 7, 9. After the battle of 
Granicus, Altxander prevailed on Ly- 
fippus to make Ilatues of thofe horfe- 
men who had fallen, and to place A- 
lexauder's ftatue among them, Paterc, 
I, II. Thefe ilaraes Metelliis, having 
fubdued Macedonia, brought to Rome, 
il. et Piin. 34, 8 f . 19. 


Pythagorean philofo- 

pher, born at Tarentum, the mailer of 
Epaminondas, Cic. Gr. 3, 34. Of. 1, 
44. Nep. 15. 2. 

Lysistratus, the brother of Ly- 
fippus, who firlt made ftatues of gyp- 
fiim and potters earth, Piin. 354 12. 

Lyso, -dnis, a native of l^atrae in 
Achaia, {Patrenfs), the hofl of Cice- 
ro, whom he fpeaks of as a very Wor- 

thy man, Cic. Fam. 13, 19. ^ 2. A 

native of Li^ybaeum, {Lilybaetanus)y 
Cic. Fam, 13, 34. 


Mac A RE us, -eij (voc. Alacareu, in 
three fyll. ) the fon of Aeolus, who fe- 
duced his own lUter Canace, Ovid. 
Trifi. 2, 384. Ep. II. in Ihin. 359, & 
564. Amor. 2, 18, 23. V/hen detect- 
ed, he fled to the temple of Apollo, 
which was a fancluary. But, hearing 
of the fate of his hfter, ( VicL C/ n a c £ ) , 

he fiew liimfelf, Hygin. 242 ^ 2. Kcrl- 

tius MlcAREus, (in three fyh-) a na- 
tive of Ithaca, from Ner^itus, a moun- 
tain in that ifl?nd, one of the compa- 
nions of Ulyffes, found by the Tro- 
jan: on their arrival in Italy,, at the 
promontory rfterwards called Cajeta, 
and being recognifed by Achejiienides, 
whom Aeac.-.s had brought with him 
from the country of the Cyclops, they 
mutually recounted to each other their 
adventures, Ovid. Met. 14, 159, — 441. 

"^ ^ 3. A priefc of Bacchus, At^Iian, 

Var^IiijL 13, 2. 

30 ] MAC 

MACER, -crii a firname of the Z/- 

C. Lkinius Macer, an orator, Cic, 
Brut. 67. condemned for extortion, 
while Cicero was praetor, Cic. Att. i, 
4. Various accounts are given of the 
manner of his death. Plutarch fays, 
that when he heard that he was con- 
demned, he took to his bed and died 
immediately, in Fit. Cic. Valerius 
Maximus fays, that Macer was hirnfelf 
in court during the trial, and perceiving 
the caufe about to be determined a- 
gainft him, he preverited fentence be- 
ing pronounced, by Hopping his breath 
with a handkerchief, and thus putting 
an end to his days ; whereby his eO.ate 
was faved to his fon- Licinius Calvus, 
who afterwards became, an oracor of 
diilinguiihed merit, Fal. Max. 9, 12, 7. 
Bui Cicero fays exprcisly, that Macer 
was actually condemned, Cic. Att. \ , 4, 

This Licinius Macer is thought 

to have been the Roman hiltorian 
fpoken of by Cicero, Leg. i, 2. and 
often mentioned by Livy, 4, 7, lo, «Sc 
23. 7, 9. et 10, 9, &c. 

Aemylius Macer, a poet bora at V^^ 
rami [Fcronefj/is), in the time ofAu- 
guihis, who v.'rote a poem concerning 
birds, ferpcnts, and the virtues of herbs; 
which Ovid fays he often, when old, 
ufed to read to him., when a young 
man, {^Saepe fuas valuer es legii mihi gran- 
dior aevoy ^aeqii^ necet fcrpens, quae 
junket hcrha, Macer y Ovid. Triit. 4, 10, 
43. Ke alfo wrote concerning the 
I'rojan war aitcr the death of Heclor, 
as a iupplemint to the IHad of Homer, 
as Ovid lays in an epiftle to Macer, ( Fu 
cauls aeterno quicquid rtjiahat Homero, 
Ne careant Junvnd Froica hclla nianu,) 
Ovid. Pont. 2, 10, 13. whence he is 
called Fliacus Macer, ib. 4, 16, 6. 
- Macerinvs. Fid. Geganius. 

M chanidas, -«^, a tyrant of La- 
cedaemon, Fiv. 27, 30. et 28, 5. who 
had refolved to attack the Eleans, 
v.-hlle preparing to celsbrate the Olym- 
pic games, but was prevented. by the 
terror of Philip king of Macedonia, 

Flv' 28, 7, 



MAC [23 

MACHaON, -onisy the fon of Aef- 
culapius, a phyfician in the Trojan 
war, {G. 370.) put for any phyfician ; 
tlius F'lrma (Tc. corpora) valent per fe 
nvUumquc Machaoiia quaenint^ need no 
phyfician, O'v'id. Pont. 3, 4, 7 hence' 
Machaoniae artesy the arts of me- 
dicine, f^. i, 3, 5. So Ilk MachaoTiid 
'V1X ape fanus^ Id. Rem. Amor. 546- 
Saeva Machaomo coierunt vulnera fucco,, 
Stat. Siiv. 1,4, 114. — Virgil mentions 
Machaon as the firft, or among the fore- 
mofl, who came out of the Trojan horfe, 
(primufqtie Machaon) y Virg. A en. 2, 

Macro, -onisi a perfon efleemed by 
Atticus, Ck. Att. 4, 12. 

MACRO, praefed of the praeto- 
rian guards under Tiberius, T^r. Ann. 6, 
15, & 23. whence he acquired great 
power, th. 45. which he employed with 
fuccefs to defbroy thofe he hated, ih, 
29. He was the chief inftrument 
whom Tiberius employed to crufii Se- 
janus, il. 48. Tp^ards the clofe of the 
emperor's life, he tried to gain the fa- 
vour of Caligula by the bafell means, 
ih. 45. Tiberius perceiving it, faid to 
him reproachfully, that he turned from 
the fetting to the rifmg fun, {Occiden- 
tem ah eo defer'i, Onsnfem fpe^lari^) ib. 
46. Tiberius in his lafl illnefs having 
fallen into a fwoon, thofe prefent 
thought that he had expired. Where- 
upon Caligula began to a6l as empe- 
ror. , But Tiberius having recovered 
from his faint, they were all (buck 
with terror. Macro, however, relie- 
ved them by ordering theoldemperor to 
be fmothered by thross ing on him a heap 
of bed-clothes, ih, 50. Suetonius men- 
tions different accoiints concerning that 
emperor's death, Tih, 73. Macro foon 
after met with the juft puniihment of 
bis crimes, being (lain by the order of 
Caligula, Suet. Cal. 26. 

Macro B I 'J s, an author in the time 
of Theodolius, who compofed a leai ned 
work called Saturnalia^ in feven books ; 
and alfo a coinmentary on the Sojnn/um 
Scipionis of Cicero, in two books; which 
works are both extant. 

Macula, one who offered Cicero 

T ] m a e 

the ufe of his villa in the Agcr Falernust 
Cic. Fam. 6, 19. fuppofed to be the 
fame who is called Pompeius Macula, 
Macroh. Sat. 2, 2. 

MAECeNx^S, .Ms, a Roman E- 
ques (of the gens Cilnia ; hence he is 
called Cilnius Maecenas equejiris ordinisy 
Tac. Ann. 6, 11.) faid to have been 
defcended from the ancient kings of 
Etruria, whence he is called Tyrrhena 
regum progenies^ Hor. Od. 3, 2(^. and 
Tufcus eques, Marcial. 8, 56, 9. So 
Silius Italicus fays the name of Maece- 
nas v>'as anciently refpeftable in Etru- 
ria, and dignihed with the fceptre, 
(Maecenas, cut Maeonid (i. e. Etruria) 
venerahile terra, Et fceptris o/im celebra" 
turn fiomen Elrufcis, Sil. 10, 40. He was 
the favourite of Augullus, and a great 
patron of learned men. To Maecenas 
Virgil infcribed his Georgics ; and Ho- 
race his firft ode, his firil fatire, and 
firfl c piitle. Hence, Sint Maecenatcs, 
non deerunt, Flacce, Mar ones, O F!ac- 
cus, let therc be patrons like Maecenas, 
and there will not be wanting good 
poets like Maro, i. e. Virgil, Martial. 

8, 56, 5. Turris Maeccnatiana, the 

tower of Maecenas, Suet. Ner. 58. — 
Cicero mentions a Roman knight call- 
ed C. Maecenas, Cluent. ^6, 

Sp. MAECIUS Tarpa, (ah Mcclus, 
vel Met/us), a great critic of theatrical 
compofitions ; confulted by Pompey 
concerning the fplendiJ fpe6lacles he ex- 
hibited in his fecond coniulihip, which, 
however, Cicero feems not to have 
been much pleafed with : Nohis autem 
erant ea perpetienda, qunefcdicet Sp. Mae- 
cius prohcro'ijjit, Cic. Fam. 7, i. -He 
is fuppuied to have been the fame with 
that Maecius- who was one, and per- 
haps the chief, of ii%'e perfons, whom 
Augulfus appointed to jud^-^e of the 
merit of poetical comporilifins in the 
temple of Apollo, to diitt-ibute prizes 
to the m.oil deferving, and to deter- 
mine vvhat plays were to be reprefent- 
ed on the ihi;p;e : Hence Horace fays, 
Haec (fc. carmina) ego ludo, ^ai nee in 
Aede fonent ccrtantia, judice Tarpa, I 
amufe rnyfjlf in >A'ritiag thefc iatires, 
which will not be recited in the temple 


MAE [2 

of Apollo to contend for the piize, be- 
fore Tarpaprefiding as judge, Hor. Sat. 

1, lO, 38. el ib'i Scboltaft. The writers 
of plays feem to have fubmltted their 
works to the infpeftion of Maecius, 
before they read them to the five judges 
ill the temple of Apollo ; hence, Si 
quid tarncn olim Scripferisf in Met'i't defcen- 
dat jud'ic'is auresy Et patriSy et nojlrasy 
K'mumque prematur in annum. If, how- 
ever, you fliall hereafter write any 
thing, firll read it to the judge Metius, 
(or to Metius, who is a good judge,) 
to your father, and to me, i. e. fubmit 
it to our examination ; and then keep 
it by you for nine years, before you 
pubhdi it, Id. Jrt. 386. 

Maelius. Vid. Melius. 

Maenades, 'um, women fuppofed 
to be infpired by Bacchus, Bacchanals, 
Catull. 64, 23. fuTg. Marnas, Scnec. 
Med. V. 382. 

Maenalus, a fon of Lycaon, Jpol- 
lodor. 3, 8, I. from whom Maenalus, 
(plur. -^1,) a mountain in Arcadia is 
faid to have been named. 

MAENIUS, the name of a Roman 

C. MAENIUS, a conful, who con- 
quered the ^r/Viwi, Lai/inii, :ir)d Veliterni, 
joined with tlie Antiales Volfci, Liv. 8, 
13. Part of the (Iiips of the Antiates 
were brought to Rome ; and with their 
beaks the place in the forum, from 
which fpeeches ufed to be made to the 
people, (fuggijlt^ni vel t h m p l u m , IJi). 

2, ^G. et 3, 17.; Cic. Vat. 10.) v/as 
adorned, hence called Rostra, Liv. 
8. 14. A column was ered^ed to Mae- 
r.ius for his victories, a. u. 416, Plin. 
34, 5 f. I. This feems to have been 
the column called Column v Maenia, 
r.igh vvhich thieves and worthlefs flaves 
iifed to be punifhed, Cic. Caecil. 16. 
et ibi Afcon. Cluen-. 1 3. by the Trinrnvhi 
Capitales ; hence Cicero, fpeaking of 
one. Afniius, Vvho being fulpetted of 
murder was brought before Q^ Manir 
h'us, who was then Triumvir, adds : 
Jlle ManiUus ex petulanti atque improho 

fcurra in d/fcordlis civltatis ad cam colam- 
nam, ad quam faepe muJtorum coninciis 
^erdudus crat, timfd/'ragi's populi jW-rvcrie- 

32 ] MAG 

rat. i. e. he had been chofen a Triumvir 
by the people to judge of caufes near 
that pillar, to which he had been often 
brought as a criminal, Cic. Cluent. 13. 
This column feems alfo to be the fame 
which Maenius, (probably one of the 
defcendants of C. Maenius, the conful), 
v/hen he fold his houfe, (called Atrium 
Maeniuin,) to the cenfors Flaccus and 
Cato, that on the ground where it 
ftood they might build a court of juf- 
tice (hajdica), referved to himfelf the 
right of one column, on which he 
might build a projeftion ; whence he 
and his pofterity might view the fhews 
of gladiators, which were then exhi- 
bited in the forum, Afcon, ibid. Hence 
the balconies or open galleries erefted 
on the farther or femicircular end of 
the circus were called Maeniaka, Suet. 
Cal 18. 

C. Maenius was made dictator for 
holding trials concerning confpirators, 
( quaejTwnum de conjuratis exercendarum 
caufdy) Liv. 9, 26. 

C. Maenius, a praetor, appointed 
to hold inquifitions concerning forceries 
and poifonings, i^de veneficiis), Liv. 40, 

L. Maenius, a tribune, who pro- 
pcfed a bill to the people about re- 
ducing the intereil of money to one 
per cent, {^de unciario fcenore,^ Liv. 7, 

P*'L Maenius, the author of an agra- 
rian l?.w, Liv. 4, 53. 

Maeonides, -ae, a name given to 
Homer, from his being born in Lydia, 
anciently called Maeonia, MartiaL 5, 

Ma ERA, a woman, metamorphofed 

into a dog, Ovid. Met. 7, 362. 

^ 2. A prieftefs of Venus, Stat. 7heh. 

7, 477. ^ 3 The dog of Icarius, 

who. by his cries, fliev^ed to Erigone 
the place whei"e the dead body of her 
father lay unburied, Hygin. 130. Vid. 

Maevius, a contemptible poet, con- 
temporary with Horace and Virgil, 
Hor. Ep. TO, 2. ; Virg. E. 3, 90. 

MAGI, magicians, a name given to 
Wife and learned men among the Per- 


MAG [2 

fians, Ck. Div. i, 23. who ufed to af- 
feirtble In a temple for the take of me- 
ditation and conferring together, fL 41. 
Their bodies, when dead, are faid not 
to have^been buried, unlefs they were 
firil: torn by dogs, I J, Tufc, i, 45. 

Magius, the name of a Roman ^^«x. 

P. Magius (h'llo^ v. Ciloy an inti- 
mate friend of M. Marcellus, whom, 
however, he murdered at Athens ; and 
after perpetrating the deed, flew him- 
felf, Ctc. Fam. 4, 12. in a fit of infanity, 
as it was fi?ppofed, for the real caufe was 
not certainly known, C'lc. Att. 13, 10. 

L. Magius, an adherent of Marius, 
after whofe death he fled to Mithri- 
dates. He was fent by that king to 
conclude an alliance with Sertorius In 
Spain. Having afterwards proved 
treacherous to^Mithridates, he returned 
to the Romans, and dvveit at Myndus, 
Cic. Verr. \ , 34. et ihi Afcon, 

Dec, Magius, a noble Campanian, 
remarkable for his firm attachment to 
the Romans in the fccond Punic war, 
L'lv. 23, 7, & 10. The Magii of Capua 
are m.entloned by Cicero, among others, 
as a family remarkable for their pomp 
and magnificence, Cic.RulL 2,'S^^,Flf. 1 1. 

Magnes, -etisy the name of a fhep- 
herd on mount Ida, who is faid to have 
firft difcove^ed the magnet ftone, (call- 
ed from him inagncs), by the nails of 
his flioes and tiie point of his flaft' 
fticking in it, PUn, 36, \6. But Lu- 
cretius fays the magnet Is fo named 
from its being found in the country of 
the Magnates, ling. Magues ; i.e. in IViag- 
nefia, a part of Theilaly, L^tcr. 6, 908. 

«j| 2. A firnatiie of Demetrius, the 

contemporary of Cicero, and friend of 

^ Attlcws, Cl\ Att. 4, II. ^/ 8, 11.— 

alfo of iJcmetrlus, the rhetorician, and 
co^npanion of Cicero when a iludent 
in Afia, Cic. Brut. 9 i . 

Magni s Claudius^ the brother of VI- 
fo, who was adopted by Galba, Fac.H. 
) , 48. put to death by Claudius, ih. 

Magnus, the Great, a firname given 
to Pompey ; thus, Mngni amhuhttOf the 
walk or portico built by Pompey, Catull. 
$$i 6' So Senjit et Ipje metum Magnus y 
i. e. Pompeius, Lucan* 2; 598, S^ic* This 

33 1 MAL 

name is alfo applied to Cneius, the 
eldeft fon of Pompey. ih. 9, 12 i , & 145. 
Fid. POMPEIU s. 

MAGO, a frequent name among 

the Carthaginians. A brother of 

Hannibal's, who commanded the cen- 
tre of the Carthaginian army at the 
battle of Cannae, Liv. 22.46. and after 
the vi6^ory, was fent by his brother 
to give an account of his exploits to 
the fenate, ih. zi,^ i2. At laCt, being 
conquered in battle by the Romans, 

he died of his wounds, ib. 30, 1 8 

^ 2. An author, v/ho wrote twenty- 
eight books on hufbaadry, Cic. Or, i, 
58. which, after the taking of Car- 
thage, the Romans ordered to be tranf- 
lated Into Latin, Farr, R, R, i, i.; 
Plin. 18, 3. 

Maharbal, -alis, the fon of Himil- 
co, a Carthaginian ; entrulled by Han- 
nibal with the command of the army 
which befieged Saguntum, Liv, 21, 
12. After the vidory at Cannae, he 
advlfed Hannibal to march diredly to 
Rome, Liv. 22, 51. et 23, 18. Fid, 
Annibal, p. 18. 

Mil A, the daughter of Atlas, and 
mother of Mercury by Jupiter, (G. 
378.) who is hence called Almae fdivs 
Maine, Hon Od. i, 2, 43. Natiis Maid, 
Id. Sat. 2, 6. 5. Genitus Maid, Virg, 
Aen. I, 297. Mala with her fix fillers 
were changed into fo many ftars, call- 
ed Pleiades, [G. 379.), whence one 
of them is called Mala, Virg. G, l, 
225. and Phias is put for Mala, Ovid, 

Met. I, 670.- Some derive the name 

of the month May (menjts Mains) from 

Maia, Mac rob. Sat. i, 12. 

' Malleolus, a firnam.e of the P«- 


Cn. Malleolus, the quaefior of 
Dolabella in Afia, Cic. Verr. i, 15. 
Plis fon was pillaged by his guardian 
Verres, ih. 36. 

Malleolus, one who m.urdered his 
mother, and on that account was few- 
ed into a fack, and thrown Into the 
fea, A. ad Herenn. i, 13. This hap- 
pened a. u. 653, and he is faid to have 
been the firil perfon punlflied In this 
manner, Orof, 5, 16. ; Liv. Epit. 68. 
G g Mallius, 

M A L [ 234 ] 

Mallius Glauciay a freed man, the beian that was 
client of T. Rofcius Magnus, Cic. Rofc. 


M A N 
created Curio Maximum, 

Mamercinus or Mamercus, a 
name of the Aemilti, 

Lucius AemiVius Mamercinus, twice 
conful, Lin}. 8, I, & 20. and twice dic- 
tator, Liv. 8, '6. ^/ 9, 21. 

Mam E ROUS, a very rich man, who 
having omitted to feek the aedilefhip, 
becaufe that office occafioned great ex- 
pence, was on that account re|e6ted, 
when he appHed for the confulfliip, 

Cic. Off. 2, 17. 5[ 2. A conful, 

the colleague of D. Brutus, Cio. Br. 


Mamertes, -iV, (al. Vimtifrmus), a 
Corinthian, who is faid to have killed 
his brother's children, that he mi^ht 
fucceed to the crown ; but the brother 
being informed of the deed, put him to 
death in the moft cruel manner, by mu- 
tilating his members, Ovid, in Jbin, 


Oaav. Mam I LI us, didator of Tuf- 

culum, Cic. N. D. 2, 2. and chief of 
the Latin nation ; who is faid to have 
been defcended from the goddefs Circe, 
Lii). I, 49. He fell in battle at the 
lake Regillus, while fighting again ft the 
Romans under Pofthumiusthe dictator, 
in order to reilore his father-in-law Tar- 
quinius Superbus to his kingdom, Liv. 
2, 20. 

L. Mamilius, diftator of Tufcu- 
lum, v/lio brought afiiftance to the Ro- 
mans, when the Capitol was fuddenly 
feized by Heidonius with a body of 
flavcs, Lii) 3, 18. and on account of 
his fervices was prefented with the free- 
dom of thp city, ih. 29. 

C. Mamilius Limetanus^ a tribune, 
who propoied a bill to the people a- 
bout the puniihment of thofe who had 
taken bi'Jbes from Jugurtha, Sallujl. Jug. 
40. called MaiTiilia rogatioy ib. et Cic. 
:3rut. 33. 

Mamilius Mancimu, a tribune, who 
propofed a bill to the people about 
trant^ferring the command of the v/ar a- 
gainit Jugurtha from Metellus to Ma- 
j-ius, Salluji. Jvg. 73. 

C. MA>jii;iys Vitulus^ th? iirH pie- 

Liv. 27, 8. 

Manius Mamilius, {ah Manilius), 
a lawyer and conful a. u. 603, who 
Gompofed forms to be ufed immaking 
bargains, called Leges 'uenalium venden- 
dorurri) Cic. Or. I, 58. W Actiones, 
Varr^ R, R. 2, 3, 11. An example of 
which we have, ib. 2, 3, 5.— .-Mamilius 
and Manilius are often put the one for 
the other. 

MAMURRA, a Roman eques, born 
at Formiae, praefecius fabrum to Cae- 
far ; a rich luxurious man, Cic. Att. 7, 
7. ^/ 13, 52. who firft covered all the 
walls of his houte on the Caelian mount 
at Rome with cruits of marble, Plin, 
36, 6 f. 7, There is a bitter epigram 
in Catullus, Infcribed, In Mamurram 
et Caefaretny $$. and a ftill more bitter 
one againft Mamurra himfelf, 27, 
Urbs Mamurraruniy i. e, Formiae, whence 
the family of the Mamurrae came, Hor. 
Sat. I, 5, 37, — — ^ 2. Mamurius 
vel MamUriusy a worker in brafs in the 
time of Numa, who, at the defire of 
that king, made eleven round fliields, 
(ancilia)y exactly like thnt anclle which 
was fuppofed to have fallen from hea- 
ven, that it might not be ilolen ; and 
when Numa aflced, what reward he de- 
fired for his labour, he anfvvcred, ** to 
have his name handed down to pofteri- 
ty as the maker of the fhields ; and 
that the Salii fhould repeat it in- the end 
of their fongs," which was granted, 
(Inde facer dotes operi promijja 'vctujh 
Praemia perfohunt, Mamuriumque va- 
cant), Ovid. Fail. 260, — 383, &c. ; 
Propert. 4, 2, 61, 

C. H^jIHIhs MANCINUS, conful 
with Lepidus, a. 617. Cic. Brut, 27. 
who being furrounded with his arm.y 
by the people of Numantia, was ob^ged 
to beg a truce, and conclude a treaty 
with them, ( Vid.T. Gkacckits), which 
being difapproved of at Rome, he was, 
with bis ovvn confent, given up to the 
Numantines, but they would not receive 
him, Cic. Or. i, 40. ; Off. 3, 30. It 
was made a queftion at Rome, when 
he returned, whether he fhould be con- 
fidered as a citizen or not. Cicero w^s 
■ ■ of 

MAN E 2 

of opinion that he ought, Cic. Caecin. 
34. Or. I, 4. 

Mandane, -es, the mother of Cy- 
rus the great, (G. 600.) 

Mandonius, the brother of Indlbi- 
lis, prince of the Illcrgetes in Spain, 
Li'v. 22, 21. whofe wife and daughters 
having fallen into the power of Scipio, 
and being honourably treated by him, 
I All. 26, 49. Indibills and Mandoni- 
us deferted from the Carthaginians to 
the Romans, Li<v. 27, 19. But Sci- 
pio having fallen into a dangerous dlf- 
eafe, they revolted, Zi-u. 28, 24. Be- 
ing conquered in a great battle, they 
were treated with lenity, ih. 33, & 34. 
They again rebelled, but with no bet- 
ter fuccefs, L'lv. 29, 2. Indibilis'fell 
in battle, and Mandonius being given 
up to the Romans by his countrymen 
to fave themfelves, was put to death, 
ik 3. 

Mania, v. Mana, the mother of the 
Lares, Varr. L. L. 8, 38. 

Man I LI us, the name of a plebeian 
gens at Rome. 

C. Manilius, a tribune, the author 
of the Manilian law, {lex Manilla), 
which conferred on Pompey the charge 
of profecuting the war againft Mithri- 
dates, C'lc. Manil. 24. 

M. Manilius, a lawyer, Cic. Or. 
I, 48. who ufed to offer his advice free- 
ly to all the citizens who chofe to ai]<; 
it, {facer e omnibus ci-vibus confilii fui co' 
f)iam), Cic. Or. 3, 33. Conful with L. 
Cenforinus, a. u. 604. Cic. Brut. 27. 
^cad. 4j 32. 

Manilius vel Manlius, the author 
of a poem on aftronomy, dill extant ; 
which is thought to have been publifh- 
ed towards the latter end of the reign 
of Auguftus, from his mentioning the 
defeat of Varus, and other circumftan- 
ces. But Manilius is not mentioned by 
any author of that period, and there- 
fore fome fuppcfe him to have lived as 
late as the time of Theodofius. 

Manius, a Roman praendmeny (quod 
mane quis initio natus Jit, ut Lucius qui 
luce), Varr. L. L. 8, 38, written M', 
to diilinguifh it from M. for Marcus. 

Manius Marcius, an aedile of the 

3$ 1 MA>;r 

commons, who firft gave corn to the 
people at an as the bufhel, Plin. 1 8, 3* 

MANLIUS, the name of a patri- 
cian gens. 

A. MANLIUS, conful, Li^. 2, 544 
a violent oppofer of the Agrarian law, 
and therefore, after the expiratimi of 
his office, he with his colleague L. Fu- 
rius were fummoned to a trial before 
the people by Genucius, a tribune. But 
on the day of the trial, the tribune was 
found dead at his houfe, ih. This Man- 
hus was oiie of the ambaffadors fent to 
Athens, to examine the laws of Solon, 
and the inlHtutions of the other ftates 
of Greece, Zk*. 3, 3 1. f. and after his 
return made one of the decemnnri, ib. 


M. MANLIUS, who defended the 
Capitol, (G. 221), and hence got the 
firname of Capitolinus, Liv. ^, 31, 
& 47. ; Plin. 7, 28. But being after- 
wards fufpedled of aiming at fovereign- 
ty, he was condemned and thrown from 
the Tarpelan rock, Liv. 6, 20. By a 
decree of the Manlian family, it was 
decreed, that no one fhould be called 
Marcus Manhus, Cic. Phil, i, 13. 
His houfe was overturned^ and the 
ground where it Hood covered with two 
groves, Cic. Dom. 38. 

L. Manlius, a diftator, called Im- 
PERiosus, on account of his haughty 
imperious temper, and rigorous feveri- 
ty, in holding a levy of foldiers, Liv. 
7, 3, & 4. Being on this account 
brought to a trial before the peof)]e, he 
was extricated by the generous interpo- 
fition of hts fon, ib. 5. j Cic. Off". 3, 31. 
(G. 223.) 

r. MANLIUS, L. F. on account 
of his dutiful behaviour to his father, 
was made a military tribune by the peo- 
ple, Liv. 7,5. Having killed a Gaul 
in fingle combat in fight of both ar- 
mies, he fpoiled him of nothing elfe 
but a golden chain, {uno torque Jpolia- 
vit), which, ail bloody as it was, he 
threw round his own neck ; and hence 
got the firname of TORQLTaTUS, 
which he tranlmitted to hib pofterity, 
ib, 10. He was three times conful, and 
twice didator. In his third confulate, 
C g 2 tein^ 

MAN [ 236 ] MAR 

being fent as general againft the La- ter the battle of Cannae, Marcellus, 
tins, he ordered his own fon, for ha- then praetor, was fent to receive the 
ving fought with the enemy contrary to remains of the army from Varro, the 
orders, though viftorious, to be behead- conful, L'lv. 22, 57. Having thrown 
ed, Llv. 8, 7. hence Manliana impe- himfelf into Nola, by a fuccefsful fally 

ri^, »ManHan commands, for commands 
unrimfonably fevere, ih. et 4, 29. thus 
Vide ne iflajint Manhana veJlrOf aut ma- 
jora etlarriy Ji hnperes quod facere non pof- 
Jimt See that thofe requilitions be not 
as unreafonable as thofe of Manhus, 
your anceftor, or m.ore fo, &c. Ck. Fin. 
2, 32. Manliaxum, ic. praedlum, a 

from that city, he firil (howed the Ro. 
mans that Hannibal could be conquer- 
ed, Liv. 23, 14, & 16. He was made 
conful the third time in his abfence, 
Li-v. 2\, 9. ; and the province of Sici- 
ly decreed to him, ii. 21. He took 
Syracufe after a fiege of near three 
years, Liv. 25, 23, &c. drove the Car- 

villa of Cicero's, probably fo called, be- thaginians from the idand, ik 27, & 

caufe it had anciently belonged to one 
Manlius, Cic. ^ Fr. 3, i, i. 

7*. Manlius Torquatus, a defcend- 
ant of the former, in whofe confulfhip 
the temple of Janus was Ihjt afier the 
end of the fecond Punic war, Liv. i, 

C. Manlius, one of Catiline's affoci- 
ates, who commanded the army of the 
confplrators, till Catiline joined it, Cic. 

28. and fettled the affairs of that coun- 
try with great integrity and prudence, 
ib. 41. In his fourth confulfhip, he 
fought feveral battles againil Hannibal 
In Italy with various fuccefs, Liv. 27, 
2, 12, &c. In his lifth confulfhip, be- 
ing led into an ambufcade, he was cut 
off by Hannibal, ih. 26, & 27. 

Marcellea, -orurrti a feftival, obfer- 

ved annually by the Sicilians in honour 

.Cat. 3, 6.; Sail. Cat. 27, 32, &c. and of Marcellus, which Verres abohfhed, 

commanded the right wing in the bat 
tie againil Petreius, where he fell, ih. 
59, & 60. 

Mann us, the nam.e of a llave who 
gave Information, that a dangerous hie, 
which broke out at Rome, had been 
raifed by fome Campanlan young men, 

and fubftltuted one in honour of him- 
felf, called Verrea, Cic. Verr. 2, 2i. 
m. MARCELLUS, the fon of the 
former, was with his father when he 
fell by the artiiice of Hannibal ; and 
though w^ounded, made his efcape, 
Liv. 27, 27. He dedicated the temple 

whofe parents had been beheaded by Q^ of Virtue, a. u. 550, the 1 7th year af- 

Fulvius Flaccus, Liv. 26, 27. 

Manto, -usy the daughter of Tlre- 
fias, the Theban prophet, who, after 
her father's death, came into Italy, and 
had by the river Tiber {JTufcus amnis) 
Ocnus, who founded Mautua, and call- 
ed It after his mother, Virg. Aen. 10, 

MARCELLUS, the firname of a 
moft illuftrious plebeian family of the 
gens Claudia. 

M. Claudius MAPvCELLUS, five 
times conful. In his firil confuKliip he 
defeated the Galli lasuhresy and having 
killed their king Viridoraams {yi\. Bri- 
tonarus) with his own hand, gained 
the fpo/ia opima the fecond after Ro- 
mu'us, a. u. 530. Liv. Epit. 20. Hence 
^fpice ui iiifignis Jpoliis Marcellus opimis 
ingrcditui-f ^Q, Virg. Aen. Gj ^^6. Af- 

ter it had been vowed by his father in 
his iirfl confulfliip at Claftidium in 
Gaul, Liv. 29, 1 1. He was afterwards 
tribune of the commons, ih, 20. curulc 
edile, Id. 31, 50. praetor, LI. 32, 7. in 
which office he got Sicily for his pro- 
vince, Id. 32, 8, & 27. When conful, 
33, 24. he triumphed over the Insuhres 
and ComcnfeSi ib. 37. When cenfor, 
37, 58. he performed the ordinary fa- 
crifice at the conclution of the cenfus, 
(iujlrumcondidit), Id. 38, 36. and died 
a pontifex, Id. 41, 13. 

M. Claudius Marcellus, probably 
the fon of the former, praetor, Liv, 
43, II. conful, 45,44. three times, 
Liv. Epit. 47*, Sc 48. Being fent on an 
embaffy to MafinilTa, he perifhed by 
/fnlpwreck, Liv. Epit. 50. ; Cic. Pif, 
19. which he is reported to have fore- 

MAR t 237 1 MAR 

told many years before would be his hopes, [tngenuarum artium, laetufque a- 

fate, Ck. Div. 2, 5. Fat, 14. 

Three of the family of the M.vr- 
CELLi were confuls for three years 
fuccefiively before the civil war broke 
out between Caefar and Pompey, all 
of them attached to the intered of 
Pompey, and inimical to Caefar ; al- 
though one of them was married to 
Odavia, the grand-niece of Caefar, 

Dioy 40, 59. J Suet. Jul. 27. 

M. Claudius Marcel Lus was con- 
ful with Serv. Sulpicius, a. u. 703, Dio, 
40, 58. C. Claudius MAKCEhhv Si the 
coufin-german of Marcus, was conful 
next year with L. Aemilius Paulus, ib. 
59.; Suet.Caef. 29.; and C. Claudius Mar - 
CELLus, the brother of .Marcus, was 
conful the year following, a. u. 705, 
with L. Cornelius Lentulus, when the 
war began, Dioj 41,1. 

M MARCELLUS, after the bat- 
tle of Pharfalia, retired to Mitylenae, 
where he fpent his time in literary pur- 
fuits, without concerning himfelf any 
farther in the war. He remained there till 
upon the requell: of his brother Caius, 
and the entreaty of the whole fenate, 
Caelar granted him permilfion to return 
to Rome. On this occafion, Cicero, 
who happened to be prefent, made that 
noble fpeech, infcribed pro Marcello, 
which is ftill extant. In his way to 
Rome, Marcellus was afTafiiaated at A- 
thcns by Magius Chiio, (^q. «u.) Sul- 
picius, formerly his colleague in the 
confulate, and then the Roman gover- 
nor of Greece under Caefar, wrote an 
intereiling account of this event to Ci- 
cero, Cic. Fam. 4, 1 2. ( Fid. Magiu s.) 

M. MARCELLUS, the fon of C. 
Claudius Marcellus conful a. u. 703, 
and of 06lavia the grand-niece of 
Julius Caefar and lifter to Auguftus, 
Sutt. CaeJ. 27. firft betrothed to Pom- 
peia, the daughter of Sextus Pompeius, 
Dio, 48, 38. ; Appian. de Bell. Civ. I. 5. 
p. 714. married to Julia, the daughter 
of Auguilus, when very young, {^tan- 
tutn quod pueritmm egrejfusy having juli; 
palted the age ol boyhood, i. e. being 
only feventeen years old, Suet. Aug. 6'^. ; 
^^^1 5S> 27.), a young man of great 

nhni et ingenify fortunaeque in quam aleba* 
tur, capax,) Paterc. 2, 93. S.o Virgil, 
Nee puer I lined qiitfquam de gente Latinos 
In iantum fpe toilet avos, i. e. tantam 
de fe fpem faciet, Aen. 6, 876. def- 
tined, as it was believed, by Auguftus 
to be his fucceftbr in the empire, 
•^'*''» 53» 3*^- {Succeffloni praepara- 
ius fuae,) Sencc. ad. Polyb. c. 34. [in 
proximo fihi fajligio collocatusy) Tac 
Hill. I, 15. But being feized with a 
diftemper, he was cut off by the Inju- 
dicious application of the cold bath, 
prefcribed by Antonius Mufa ; who 
not long before had cured Auguftaa 
from a dangerous difeafe by the farac 
means, i^io, 53, 3c. ; Suet. Aug. 59,; 
Plin. 25, 7 f. 38. Pie died at Baiae,, 
Propert. 3, 16, 7, ; Serv. in Firg. 6, 86 1. 
to the great grief of the Roman people, 
with whom he was a great favourite, 
( M arcellumjlagrantibus plebis Jludiis intra 
juventain ereptuniy) Tac. Ann. 2, 41 f. 
Livia was fufpcdled of having had a 
hand in his death, becai^fe he was pre- 
ferred to her fons, Z)io, 53, 33. He 
was buried in the Campus Martius, m 
the Maufoleum of Auguftus, who paid 
the greateft honours to his memory, 
ib. 30. That emperor built a theatre, 
and called it after his name, ( Theatrum 
Marcelli,) Tac. Ann. 3, 64. ; Suet, 
Aug. 29, & 43. Dio, ib. et 54, 26. the 
fcene of which was renewed by Vef- 
palian, (fcena tbeatri MarceUiajiiy) Suet. 
Vefp. 19. — But the name of Marcellus 
has been more effectually immortalifed 
by the beautiful eulogium of Virgil 
than by all thofe honours, P'irg. Aen^ 6, 

In the life of Virgil, commonly 
afcribed to Donatus, (but as many 
think fallely,) Auguftus is faid to have 
requefted ol: Virgd to fend him part of 
the Aeneis, which the poet long ex- 
cufed himfelf from doing. At laft he 
read to Auguftus the fecond, fourth, 
and fixth books. He is fuppofed to 
have fmiftied the fixth book Icon after 
the death of Marcellus. "When in read- 
ing it, he had pronounced thefe words, 
Heu^ mijerande puer I Ji qua Jata afpera 


TumpaSf Tu Marcellus eris . 
tavia, who was fitting by, is reported 

to have fainted away. When (he came 
to herfelfj^ fiie ordered ten feficrt'ia (a- 
bove L. 80 of our money) to be given 
to the poet for each verfe ; about 
IL,.2o8o for the whole twenty-fix verfes. 
— But this fact is mentioned by no 
other author. 

Sanadon, and Jani who follows him, 
afcribe to the fon of Oclavia the ftanz^ 
in Horace, Od. i, 12, 45. Crefcit oc- 
ciiho^ &c. the fame of the young Mar- 
cellus encreafes like a tree with imper- 
ceptibk growth ; the Julian ftar, i. e. the 
ornament ot the Julian family, (as the 
Tiber li are called Sit las jiroenihy Ovid. 
Triih 2, 1 67. and Fabius, Fahiaefdiis 
gentis, Ovid. Pont. 2, 5, 49.) fhiries, 
or is diftinguiftied amofig all the other 
families of Rome, as the moon among 
the leffer flats. — But moil commenta- 
tors, more agreeably to the context, 
apply the firll part of the ftanza to the 
great Marcellus, the antagonifl of Han- 
nibal ; and the latter part to Julius 
Caefir, who is fiid to excel ail the 
other heroes before mentioned, as much 
la glory as the moon does the ilars in 
fplendor, Hor. Od. i, 12, 43:. 

Marcia, the wife of Regulus, w-ho 
to revenge the dcatfi of her hulhr.nd, 
got from the public feveral Carthaoji- 
nian prifoners, whom fhe put to death 
with the mod exquifite tortures ; to 
fuch a degree that the fenate were obli- 
ged to interpofe and Hop her cruelty, 
Dlodor. I. 24. Gellius fays, that thefe 
captives were given up to the children 
oi Regulus, who put them to death 
with the fame cruelty that was ufed 
againft their father, GelL 6, 4. 

Nunia MARCIUS, the fon of Mar- 
clus, a patrican, made Pontifex Maxl- 
mus by Numa, Z.iv. r, 20. 

ylnciis MARCIUS, the grandfon 
of Numa Pompilius, by his daughter, 
the fourth king of Romie, Liv. i, q2. 

C. MARCIUS, firnamed Coiiio- 
LANU.s, from his bravery in taking the 
city Corioli, L'tv. 2, 33. Being ba- 
nifhed by the rancour of the tribunes 
and the hatred of the plebeians, hs 

[ 23S 1 MAR 

Oc- went to the country of the Votfa, 
whence he led an army againfb his 
copintry ; and having defeated the Ro- 
mans in every engagement, reduced 
the city to the greatefl diftrefs. After 
feveral fruitlefs embafhes, he was at 
lall prevailed on, by the interpofition of 
his mother Veturia, to withdraw his 
troops, (G. 212.) 

6\ MARCIUS Rurdus, the firil 
plebeian dictator, who having conquer- 
ed the Tufcans, firfl: triumphed by the 
order of the people without the autho- 
rity of the fenate, Liv. 7, 17. He was 
alio the nrft plebeian cenfor, ih. 22. and 
four times conful, ib. 38, & 39. 

L. MARCIUS, a Roman eqiies, and 
a centurion of the ftrft rank, {prlmipili 
cenUirlo, ) who, after the two Scipios were 

cut off by the Carthaginians in Spain, 
by his courage and conduft faved the 
Roman army. Being chofen command- 
er by the foldiers, he took two camps of 
the enemy, Llv. 25, 39. and preferved 
the Roman conquefts in quiet, till 
P. Scipio, afterwards called Africanus, 
was fent with proconfular authority in- 
to Spain, ib. et 26, 19. Marcius, in 

writing concerning his exploits to the 
fenate, had affum.ed flie title of Pro- 
praetor, which gave offence to many, 
who, though they efteemed his at- 
chievements as highly meritorious, yet 
thought it a dangerous precedent that 
commanders fliould be chofen by the 
army, Liv. 26, 2. Scipio, how^ever, 
always treated Marcius with the great- 
etl refped, Liv. 26, 20. made him one 
of his lieutenants, and employed him 
in the moft impcrtant affairs, Liv. z"^, 
14, 19, 22, &c. Before the arrival of 
Scipio, Marcius had concluded a treaty 
with the people of Cadiz, (^Gaditani,) 
Liv. 32, 2. which, though not confirm- 
ed by the Roman people or fenate, was 
ever after held valid, Cic. Ball. 15, & 
16. and from him vv'as called Foedus 
Marcianum, ib. 17. 

March Reges, a family of the 
Gens Marcia, who pretended to be 
fprung from king Ancus Marcius, and 
therefore retained the firname Rex, 
Stist. CasJ. 6. The fam« Mardi Reges 


MAR r 239 ] 

are fuppofed to be alluded to, j4. ad clus Galba 
Herenn. 3, 2 1. 

MARCIUS, a famous diviner, {jva- 
tes illujlriiy) who is laid to have foretold 
the defeat of the Romans at the battle 
of Cannae ; whence the phiin where 
the battle was fought is faid to be 
Damnatufque cleum quondam per carm'tna 
campus, Sil. 7, 483. The fulhlment 
of this predidion being known after 
the event, procured belief to another 
prediction of Marcius, concerning the 
expulfion of the Carthaginians from 
Italy. In order to effecJi: this, the Ro- 
mans were directed to appoint folemn 
games in honour of Apollo, which 
were accordingly inftituted, Liv. 25, 
12. Thefe predictions [carmina Mar,- 
ciana) are fuppofed to be alluded to 
by Silius Italicus, ib. — Cicero mentions 
tv/o brothers of this name, defcended 
of a noble family, who were diviners, 
{^divinantes,) Cic. Div. i, 40. but 
fpeaks only of one afterwards, (^vates^) 
ib. 50. evidently the fame with that 
mentioned by Livy. 

^ MARCIUS Rex, the colleague 
of Metellus in the confulihip, a. u. 686, 
C'lc. P'lf, 4.; Dioj 35, 4. who after his 
confullliip got the province of Cilicia, 
where he did not properly affill Liicul- 
lus in the war againft Miihridates, 
D'Wi ib. 15, & 17. probably infiigated 
by P. Clodius, to whofe filler Marcius 
was married, ib* Marcius was foon 
after obliged by the Manilian law to 
leave his provincp before the legal time, 
D'w, 36, 26. and to give up his army 
to Pompey, ib. 31. Upon his return 
to Italy he claimed a triumph ; but 
was hindered from obtaining that ho- 
nour i^impeditus tie triumphanij) by the 
detraction probably of the partifans of 
Lucullus. (Salluil fays, ccdumnid pau- 
corum quibus omnia hone.fla atque inhonejla 
'vcndere mos erat. Cat. 30.) In the 
mean time the confpiracy of Catiline 
broke out, and Marcius was fent to 
Faefulae, to oppofe the attempts of 
Manlius and the other confpirators in 
Etruria, Salluft. ib. 

^ MARCIUS Rex, a praetor a.u. 
1^19, in the confulihip of Scry. Sulpi- 

M A R 

and L. Aurelius Cotta, 
who being ordered by the fenate to re- 
pair the old aquedufts, built alio anew 
one, and called it by his own name, 
AQUA MARCIA, Plin. 36, 15 f. 

24. which Pliny calls the moil famous 
aquedu6l in the world. It took it3 
rife in the mountains of the Peligni, a- 
bove fixty miles from Rome. From 
the territory of Tibur it was carried 
to Rome on arches for nine miles. Pli- 
ny fays it was begun by king Ancus 
Marcius, 31, 3 f. 24. Plutarch fays it 
was built by two brothers, Publius and 
Quintus March, in vita Corlolani, priuc. 
Thcylqua L'larcia was afterwards repair- 
ed by Ajgrippa, Plin. ib.; et Dio, 49, 42. 
The u^qua Mania is faid to have been 
the bell for drinking of all the waters 
in Rome, on account of its coldnefs 
and falubrity, Plin. ib.f. 23, & 24, & 

25. as the jlqua Virgo \va3 for fwim- 
ming, ( ^antum Virgo taciu, tantum 
praejiat Marcia haujiu), Piin. ib. f. 23^. 
whence Statins, in his poem on the 
Bath of Etrufcus, reprefents thefe two 
waters as particularly agreeable to the 
nymphs, and defcribes their magniii- 
cence, ( ^as, fc. Nymphas, except ura 
natatus (i. e. homines ad natandum cla- 
ritate aquae invitans) Virgo, Marfafqns 
nives etjrigora ducens Marcia, praecelfis 
quarum vaga molibus unda Crefcit, et in- 
numero pendens tranjmlttitur arcu), Silv. 
i> 5> 25. 

Marcus, a frequent praenomen z- 
moug the Romans, the origin of which 

is uncertain. Marcipor, -oris, i. e. 

/^larci puer, the boy or Have of Marcus, 
Plin. 33, I.; ^inciil. i, 4, 46. (/7J, 

Marica, a Laurentine nymph, the 
mother of king Latinus, Virg. Aen. 7, 
47. worfhipped as a goddels by the 
people of Minturnae ; whence Marlcae 
littora, the fliores of Minturnae, Hor* 
Od. 3, 17, 7. Umbrojae regna fVlaricae, 
the wood round the temple of Marica, 
on the fide of the river Liris, below 
Minturnae, Lucan. 2, 424. Siha Ma^ 

ricac, Mtirtial. 13, 83. 

Mario, onis, 
Cic, Fam, 16^ \o 

a Have of Cicero's, 



C 240 1 


MARIUS, the name of a plebeian 
family at Rome, rendered illuftrious by 
C. MARIUS, born at ArpTrtinn, ( Ar- 
phias), a town of the Volfci, Sallu/f. 
Jug. 63. of fa mean a family *, that 
in his youth he is faid to have wrought 
for hire as a ploughman, (pofcere mer- 
cedes al'ieno la/Jus aratro) ; then he be- 
came a common foldier, (^Nodofam poji 
haec frangehai vcrtice viiemj Si lentus pi- 
grd muniret cajlra dolabrd, he had the 
knotty vine {i. e. the inftrument of 
punifhment ufcd by a centurion) bro- 
ken on his head, if he worked lazily 
with his axe in fortifying the camp), 
Juvenal. 8, 245, &c. He ferved un- 
der P. Scipio Africanus the younger 
at Numantia, Cic. BalL 20. who pro- 
mottd him for his courage, Plutarch, in 
vita Marii. When he came to Rome 
to fue for the office of military tribune, 
which was conferred by the people, tho' 
moil wcr« unacquainted with his appear- 
ance, yet being eafily known (facile no- 
tus) by his character, he was unanimouf- 
ly chofen by all the tribes. Sail, jug. 
63. He obtained the of&ce of tribune 
of the ccmxmons by the intereft of Me- 
telius, whofe family had long been pa- 
trons to Marius and his anceftors, 
Plutarch. In this office he propofed 
a law about regulating the manner of 
voting at the eietlion of magiilrates, 
in order to prevent bribery, which, 
notwithdanding the oppofuion of Cot- 
ta and I'orquatus, he got palTed, a. u. 
634, ih. €t Cic. Leg. 3, 17. In his ap- 
phcation to be made aedile, he was 
twice repulfed, [duahus aedilitatis accep- 
tis repujfis), Cic. Plane. 21. in one day, 
being tiril refufed the office of aedilis 
curiilis, and then that of aedilis non cu- 
ridis, Plutarch. After his praetorfnip 
he got the province of Spain, which 
he is faid to have freed from robbers, 
ib. Cicero fays he paffed feven years 
after his praetorfhip unnoticed, (jacc' 
bat), Cic. Off. 3, 20. In the, war a- 
gainft Jugurtha, being appointed by 

• Paterculus fays, natus equejlri hco, 2, I4. 
but here fome read agrejl'i loco ; becaufe the 
fame author, in another place, makes Marius 
of an ignoble origin, {ignotag sri^init)^ 3, 128, 
as all others do. 

Metellus one of his lieutenants, he aft- 
ed with great courage and conduct; 
but prompted by ambition, he proved 
ungrateful to his benefad^or. By cri- 
minating Metellus, he obtained the 
confiilfhip, and, by the favour of the 
people, got the province of Numidia, 
which the fenate had decreed to Metel- 
lus, to be transferred on himfelf, ib. et 
Sallujl. Jug. 64, G^j 82, &c. Having 
hnifhed the war fuccefsfully, he was 
fent againfl tlie Cimbri and Teutoves, 
whom he defeated in two different en- 
gagements with vaft flaughter. The 
Romans were fo afraid of this enemy, 
that, contrary to law, the confullh.ip 
was continued to Marius for five years. 
In the fifth year Catiikis was liis col- 
league, who contributed more to the 
victory over the Teutones than Marius. 
Marius, however, carried off the chief 
glory ; whence Nohilis ornatur lauro col' 
Icga (fc Catulus) ficunddt Juvenal. 8, 
253. Marius having returned to Rome, 
obtained, by bribery, the confulihip a 
fixth time. Being oppofed in his mea- 
fiires by Metellus, he procured his ba- 
nifhment by means of Saturninus a tri- 
bune and Glaucia a praetor, whom, 
after having ferved his purpofe with 
them, he foon after caufed to be cut 
off, Plutarch. ; Cic, Cat. 1,2. & 3, 6. 
This perfidious conduct made Marius 
juiciy unpopular. To avoid the public 
odium, he took a journey to Afia, 
where he endeavoured to excite the 
kings of the country, particularly Mi- 
thridates, to war againft the Romans, 
that he might again be employed as 
general, Plutarch. In the Mar fie or I- 
talian war he was eclipfed by his rival 
Sulla ; who being created coni'ul, was 
appointed by the fenate to carry on 
the war againft Mithridates. Ma- 
rias envying Sulla this command, by 
means of the tribune Sulpicius, pre- 
vailed on the people to transfer it 
on himfelf. Upon this Sulla, who was 
then befieging Nola, marched with 
his army to Rome, put to death Sul- 
picius, with feveral of his partizans, 
and forced Marius to fly for his life, 
Mariusj after efcaping many dangers, 


MAR r 

was at lafl: obliged to plunge into a 
muddy part of the lake of Minturnae 
to conceal himfelf. But being dragged 
from thence, he was put in prifon, and 
a Cimbrian or Gaul fent by the magi- 
flrates of Minturnae to kill him. Ma- 
rius feeing the Gaul approach, with a 
fierce look called out, " Fellow, dare 
you kill Caius Marius ?" [Homo, tune 

audes occidere Caium Mai 


B. C. I. p. 652. The Gaul, ftruck 
with terror at the fparkling of Marius's 
eyes, and the tremendous found of his 
voice, or pretending to be fo, dropt 
his fword, and ran out, crying, *' that 
he could not kill Marius *." The Min- 
turnenfes now, touched with compaf- 
fion, gave Marius a fliip, in which he 
efcaped to Africa, and lay concealed 
for fome time amidll the ruins of Car- 
thage ; a ilriking inflance of the un- 
certainty of foriune ! Being forced 
to fly from thence by Sextius or Sex- 
tilius the Roman governor, he retired 
to the ifland of Cercina, adjacent to 
the Syrtis Minor. At latl hearing that 
his party, with Cinna the conful at 
their head, had regained the alcendan- 
cy, Marius returned to Italy, and join- 
ed them. He entered Rome in a ho- 
ftile manner, {vul. Cinna, /. 132.), 
and with the moft horrible cruelty put 
all his enemies to tiie fword, without 
regard to age, dignity, or former fer- 
vices. Among the rell fell the conful 
Cn. Oclavius, the two brothers L.. 
Caefar and C. Caefar, P. Craflus, and 
M. Antonius the orator, ( Fid, Anto- 
Nius, p. 23.) ; alfo Q^Catulus, for- 
merly Marius's colleague in the conful- 
fliip, [vid.p.gS.). Marius had given 
orders to the foldiers that attended him 
to kill every one to whom he did not 
ilretch out his hand to kifs when they 
faluted him ; hence Lucan fays, Spes 
una falutis, Oscula pollutae Jixjjfc tre- 
mentia dextrae, 2, 113. Manus and 
Cinna caufed themfelves to be declared 
confuls. But Marius did not long en- 
joy his iU-gotten power. He died on 

* Cicero takes no notice of this laft cir- 
CUmftance, Plar.c. 10. ad ^uir. ptji red. 8. Fif. 
19. whence fome think it was afterwards fa- 
bricated, to make the relation mere alTc^aiig. 

2+1 ] MAR 

the 17th of January, in the 70th year 
of his age, and in his 7th confulate, 
an honour, [i.e. being feven times con- 
ful), which no Roman before him had 
ever attained. By military talents a- 
lone he raifed himfelf, without learn- 
ing, which he pretended to defpife, 
and without integrity or patriotifm ; 
for all his a6tions were diredtcd, not 
to promote the public good, but only 
to the advancement of his own private 
intereft: and glory. That a man fo 
crafty, cruel, covetous, and perfidious, 
fhould have been fo fuccefsful, is urged 
by Cotta the academic as one argument 
among others againft the exiftence of 
a providence, Cic.N.D. 3, 32. Many 
authors, however, forgetting his vices, 
on account of his illuftrious warlike ex- 
ploits, rank him among the moll vir- 
tuous citizens. Thus Virgil, Extulit 
haec (fc. Italia) Deciosy Marios, mag' 
nofque Camillosy {by 3. Jynecdoche for Z)<r- 
cium, ^c), Virg. G. 2, 1 69. So Ci- 
cero, Muren. 8. addrelTing the Romans, 
calls Marius, Pater patriae', parens 'vsjlrae 
libertatis atque hujtifce reipuhlicae, C. Ra- 
bir. I o. Vir optimus et fap'ientijfimus, ib. 
II. Citjlos hujus urhis. Cat. 3, lO. Cu" 
Jlos civitatis atque imperii, Cic. ad Quir. 
pod red. 4. J^i his Italiam obfidione et 
metu fervltutis liheravit, by defeating firit 
the Citnbri and then the Teutones, Cic, 
Cat.. 4, 10. 

Juvenal, in fpeaking of the difad- 
vautages of long life, has the jiiftefl: 
remarks on the lile of Marius: ExiUumf 
et career, A'linturnarumque prJudcs, Et 
inenJicatus victd Carthagine pants, Hinc 
(fc. ex longa vita) caujas habuere, ^icl 
dlo civc tuliffet Natura iti I err is, quid Ro- 
ma heatius unquam. Si circumducio capti- 
vorum agrnine, et omni Bdlorum pompd, 
unimam exhaldjftt ophnam. Cum de T'eu- 
tonico vellet dejcendere curru, 10, 276. 
So Ovid, Ilk Jugurthino clarus Gimhro- 
que triumpho, ^0 viclrix totia cnnfuU 
Romafuit, In coeno latuit Marius, can- 
naque palujiri ; Pertulit et tanto multapu- 
denda viro, Pont. 4, 3, 45. 

The frequent allufions of the poets 

to the difterent circumflances in the 

life of Marius, makes it necelTary to be 

H h ac- 


acquainted with them. 
nal 8, 245, — 253. ; Lucan. 2, 69, — 
138. ; Propert, 2, I, 24. et 3, ^, 16, 
Statuas inter et arma Man^ (for Vani), 
Id. 3. 1 1, V. 9, 46. the trophies ereded 
in hon ur of Marlus, which were de- 
molifhed by •'^ulla, and reftored by Ju- 
lius Caefar, Suet. Caef. 1 1 . Olim 'vera 
jideSi Sylla Marioqus recepth^ Tihertat'is 0- 
bit : Pompeio relus ademiOy Nunc et Jida 
perit, The true poffeflion of h"berty 
was loft after Marius and vSylla were 
permitted, the one after the other, to 
enter the city in a hoftile manner, but 
iliU fome colour of it remained : now 
fince the death of Pompey, even the 
femblance of liberty is gone, Id. 9, 204. 
yus licet in jugulos nojlros fibi fecerit enfe 
Sylla pot ens y VJariufque ferox, et Cinna 
cruentm ; Caefareaeque domus feries, cui 
ianta potejlas Concejfa efl : emere omnest 
hie (fc. Curio) vendidit urbem, i. e. 
though all thefe procured tyrannical 
power by the fword, they purchafed 
k by bribing fuch venal men as Curio, 

Id. £>.,jin. ExuUbus Mariis helhrum 

maxima merces Roma recepta fuit, the 
chief object whicl* Marius and his af- 
fociatef? fought by war, was a return 
to their native country, Lucan. 2, 227. 
— Ad Cinnas Mariolque vents ^ you imi- 
tate, or you come to be ranked with 
Marius and Cinna, ih. 546. Truces 
Marii, the cruel Marius with his fon 
and brother. Id. 6, 794. 

Ma p. I A lex, a law propofed by Ma- 
rius, Cic. Leg. 4, 17. — Miles Maria- 
Nus, a foMier of Marius, ^>iri3il. 3, 
ji^ x^. — MAP.iANAE/^r/fj, the party 
of Marius, Paterc. 2, 24. ; Liv. Epit. 
84. — Sertorius, qui Marianarum partium 
fuerat, of the Marian party, Eiitrop. 
'6, £. — Mariana rabies^ the rage of Ma- 
rius, Flor. 4, 2, 2. Mariana tempejiasy 
the ftorm of Marius, i3. 3, 12, i!-~ 
yiKKiA-^iXinfcutum Cimbricumy the Ihitld 
of Marius, on which was painted a 
Cimbrian of hideous fuape, the fign of 
forne ihop, (a). Manlianum), Cic. Or. 
2, 66. 5 .^linalL 6, 3, 38. y Plin. 35, 
4 f. 8. Aut quihus in campis iVariano 
praella figno 5/^«/, . battles are fou-rht 
'under the banner or command of Ma- 
v.'Mq, ivho apDronnated the eagle p.s the 

[ 242 ] MAR 

Thus, Jwue- ftandard of the Roman legion, Propert. 
3, 3, 43. ^iid ergo ait Marianus tri- 
bunus pishis, qtii nos Sullanos in invidiam 
rapit? what fays this tribune, who wifli- 
es to appear popular, and expofes me 
to odium as a favourer of the nobility, 
Cic. RuU. 3, 2. — MuLi Mariani, a 
kind of forks on which Marius appoint- 
ed that the foldiers fhould carry their 
baggage, Fejlus in Aerumnula; et Plu- 
tarch, in Mario. Colonia Mariana, a co- 
lony planted in Corfica by Marius, 
Plin. 3, 6 f . 12. 

Marius, a poem written by Cicero 
concerning the exploits of Marius, Cic. 
Leg* 1,1. Div. I, ^"/.-—Mariana quer- 
cus, the oak of Marius, a tree fo called, 
in the territory of Arpinum, mention-" 

ed in that poem, Cic. Leg. 1, i, 

C. Marius, the fon of the great 
Marius, whether natural or adopted is' 
uncertain, the companion of his fatheP 
in his banifhment and return, made con- 
ful with Carbo when only twenty-fix 
years of age, a. u. 672, Paterc. 2, 26. 
Being defeated by Sulla, he fliut him- 
felf up in Praenefte, and, attempting 
to make his efcape from thence, v/as 
(lain, ib. 27. or, as others fay, killed 
himfelf, Appian.B. C.i.p.6Si. When 
reduced to extremity, and defpairing 
of relief, he wrote to Damafippus, then 
praetor of the city, to call a meeting 
of the fenato>"s, as if on bufmefs of im- 
portance, and put the principal of them 
to the fword. In this mafTacre many 
of the nobles periihed ; among the relt 
Scaevola the high-prieft was flain be- 
fore the altar of Veila, Paterc, 2, 26. j 
Cic. N. D. 3, 32. 

M. Marius Gratidianus, a prae- 
tor, the brother or uncle of Marius, 
vi^hom Catiline having fcourged with 
rods through the city, put to death 
with the greateft torture, Cic. de Pe- 
tit. Conf. c. $.; Plutarch, in Syll. Val. 
Maximus fays he was dragged to the 
tomb of Catulus, (ad fepulchrum Luta- 
tiae gentis), and there, by the orders of 
Sylla, cruelly butchered, 9, 2, i. ha- 
vlncr his members mangled one bv one, 
Lucan. 2, 175, — 192. 

Several others of the name of Marius 


MAR [2 

are mentioned by Cicero and Livy, 
Cic. Fam. 7, I, kc. Alt. 12, 49. Brut. 
45. Fam. 12, 15. Sex. Rofc. 32. ^Fr. 
3, 1,4, &c. in other places alio beiides 
Rome, Liv. 23, 7. & 35. 22, 42. j Cic. 
Verr. 5, 16. 

MARO, -om, a firname of the P^- 
pirlan patrician family, C'tc. Fam. 11, 
21. — the firname of the poet Virgil ; 
whence his poems are called Alt'tjoni 
Maronis carnnna, Juvenal. II, 178. 
Grande cothurnati Maronis opus, lofty, 
fublime, 'Martial, 5, ^,8. Sic Mjro nee 
Calabri tentavit carmina Flacci, Virgil 
did not attempt fuch pocn*is as Horace 
wrote. Martial. 8, 18, 5. Silius haec 
tnagni cekbrat monumenta Maronis, Silius 
Italicus refpeded the tomb of Virgil as 
a temple, Id. 11,49. Sacra' cothurnati 
non atligit ante Maronis, Implevit magni 
quam Ciceronis opus, Silius did not ap- 
ply himfelf to poetry till he had com- 
pletely iliudied Cicero, i. e. he was an 
advocate before he was a poet, Id. 7, 
62, 5. ^lam hrevis immenfum cepit mem- 
brana Maronem ! Ipfms vultus prima ta- 
heila gerit, what a fmall book of parch- 
ment holds the poems of Virgil ! the 
image of the poet is marked on the 

firft page, Id. 14, 186. Ma rones 

is put for good poets like Virgil, Id. 

8, ^6, 5. Maroneum templum, the 

tomb of Virgil, which Statists vifited 
with the fame religious veneration as 
a temple, SiliJ. 4, 4, 54. So Silius I- 
talicus. Martial. I \, j\<^. Virgilii (fc. 
imaginem v. llatuam) ante omnes (venc- 
rabatur), cujiis nataiem religiofius quam 
fuum, cclebrabat ; NeapoH maxitne, ubi 
monumentum ejus adire, ut templum, fole- 
hat, Plin. Ep. 4, 7, 8. Haec prima ju- 
venis canes fub aevo. Ante annos Liilicis 
Maroniani, younger than Virgil was 
when he wrote his poem called Culex, 
Stat. Sih. 2, 7, 73. 

MARS, the god of war, Martis, vel 
Maa^ors, -rtis, the fon of Jupiter and 
Juno, or, according to Ovid, of Juno 
only, Fajl. 5, 231. called Pater Gradi- 
vus, P^'irg. Aen. 3, 35. ; Liv. i, 20. et 2, 
45. from the military pace {agradiendo,) 
and when peaceable, Q^'irinus, Senv. 
ill Firg. Acn. I, 296. (G. 362.) — %/j- 

43 1 MAR 

Martem tunica fe&um adamantma Drgne 
fcripferit ? Who can properly cele- 
brate Mars, covered with his adaman- 
tine coat of mail, Hor. Od. i, 6, 3. 
According to Martial, the coat of 
m.ail of Mars was made of the hides of 
animals ; hence, Et Martis Getico ter- 
gorejida magis, (fc. lorica,) more trufty 
or ftronger than the coat of mail of 
Mars made by the Getae, (by whom he 
was worihipped,) 7, 1,2. Dant alios 
Furiae torvofpeclacula Marti, the Furies 
make fome fpe(^\acles to ilern or cruel 
Mars, who delights in flaughter, i. e* 
make them fall in battle, ib. i, 28, 17. 
Protinus et graves iras, et invifum nepbtem 
— Marti redonnbo, 1 will give up to 
pleafe Mars, or for his fake, my heavy 
refcntment, and my hated grandfon 
(Romulus,) i. e. I will lay afide my 
refentment and hatred againll hmi, ib. 
3, 3, 30. Hac (fc. arte vtl virtute, 
nempe juftitia et conftantia ) ^urinus 
Martis equis Acheronta fugit, Romulus 
efcaped the infernal regions, i. e. reach- 
ed heaven, in the chariot of Mars, i. e^ 
by warlike coinage, ib. 15. or as Ovid 
exprefles it, Rex patrlis ajlra petehat e- 
quis, afcended to heaven in his faiher's 
chariot, Fcyl. 2, 496. Mars ipjs eod 
acie fortijfimum quemque pignorari folet, to 
take to himfelf as his own, i. e. 
the braveft ulually fail, Cic. Phil, i/^.^ 
12. Sin nnjlrum annuerint notis viBoria 
Martem, if victory (hall (how that Mars 
is favourable to us, i. e. if we fhail gain 
the victory, Virg. Aen. r2, 187. 

Mars is often put tor war, or the for- 
tune of war, ibr battle, &c. thus, Frujtra 
cruento Marte carebimiis. In vain (hall we 
be free from bloody war, Hor. Od. 2, 
14, 13. Marti apta co'pora^ for war, 
Ovid. Ep. i^, 2^1. So, M arte exlinciif 
Id. Pont. 3, 6, 55, Sub adverfo larte, 
m adverfe or unfuci efstul battle, Jd. 
Fajl. 1,60. So InfraSi •idverfo \iarte,, 
broken or reduced by unfuccefsful war^ 
Virg. Aen, 12, I. Nee apertt copia 
Aiartis ullafuit, there was not any op- 
portunity or poffibihty of open iight. 
Id. Met. 13, 208. Civili Marfe per- 
emplos, by civil war, by fighting with 
one another, Id. Ep, 6, 35. Collato 
H h 2 Dlartf^ 


JVtarte, in clofe fight, Id. 
379. Caeco in Marte, in the doubtful 
or uncertain battle, Lucan. 7,111. So 
A'larte caeco rejijlunt, or rather in the 
nofturnal conflift, fought in the dark, 
Virg. Aen, 2, 335. Caeco contendere 
Marte, in a blind or dark encounter or 
attack, to fight under the cover of a 
teftudo formed by their fhields, ih. 9, 
518. DcteElo Marte, in open war, 
lAican. 10, 346. Dextr't frons Mart'is, 
the right wing of the army, Lucan. 7, 
Dtd'ius medlls Mars err at in ar- 
Mars hovers between the two 
armies, uncertain to which fide to give 
the vidory, Firg. G. 2, 283. ^?W 
duhius Mars eji, &:c. is doubtful, i. c. 
the event of battles is uncertain, Ovid. 
Am. 2, 9, 47. So Mars dub'ws eji, 
lb. I, 9, 29. Durofuh Marte f in the 
hard confiid, Firg. Aen. 12, 410.; 
but Nunc hifanus amor dur'i me Mart'is in 

armis detinet, raging love detains me 

in the arms of cruel Mars, Virg. E. 


10, 44. . 

Faemineo Marte, in fighting with 
a woman, by the hand of a woman, 
Ovid. Met. 12, 610. Marte feroci, in 
fierce war, ib. 13, 11. Mars ferus et 
damnijit modus ilk tui, and let that cruel 
■war (which proved fatal to Troy,) be 
the end of your calamities, i. e. may 
you never be engaged in anotlier war. 
Id. Ep. 7, 160.; but Utquefero Marti 
p-imam dedit ordlne Jortem, gave the 
name of the firft month (March) to 
cruel Mars, Id. Fajl. 4, 25. Finiiimo 
civdus premor undique Marte, furrouiided 
with hoftile neighbours, Ovid- Tr'tJ}. 5, 
2, 69. Finito Marte, the' war being 
ended. Id. Met. 14, 246. Falere 
Marte for enji, to be a powerful pleader 
at the bar, Id. Pont. 4, 6, 29. Hec- 
ioreo folum conairrsrc Marti, to engage 
in fingle combat with Kedor, Id. 
Met. 13, 275. Mart em indomitum cer- 
nimus, the battle unallayed, as fierce as 
ever, Firg. Aen. 2, 440. Infani Mar- 
tis amor, a defire for furious war, Firg. 
Aen. 7, 550. Inopino Marte, by an 
unexpecled attack, Ovid. Pont, i, 8, 
15. Totumque injirvdo Marte videres 
Fervere Leucaten, you could difcern 
Leucates all in a ferment, i. e. the 

C 244 1 M A R ^ 

Met. 3 2, whole entrance of the Ambracian gulf 
covered with the fleets of Auguftus 
and Antony, drawn up in order of bat- 
tle, Firg. Aen. 8, 676. In Marte 
medio, in the midll of war, Ovid. Am. 2, 
18, 36. Aut cedent Marti Doric a cajlra 
meo, the Graecian army will yield to, 
or will be defeated by my troops, Ovid. 
Ep. 16, 369. Arva Marte populata 
nojiro, by our army, Hor. Od. 3, 5, 
24. Marte noJlro, by my own ftrength, 
without affiftance, Cic. Off. 3, 7. Prae- 
fertim cum vos ve/lro Marte his rebus om- 
nibus abundetis, of yourfelves, you have 
enow of your own, without any of his, 
Cic. Ferr. 3, 4. Rex Juo Marte res 
fuas recuperavit, recovered his efFedls, 
the countries that formerly belonged to 
him, by his own ftrength or bravery, 
Cic. Phd. 2, 37. Ferecundiae erat (fc. 
peditibus,) equitcmfuo alienoque Marte pug- 
nare, th^it the cavalry fiiould fight on 
horfeback and on foot, Liv. 3, 62. 
Novum Martem tentare, a new or un- 
ufual war, Sil. 15, 360. Parentali peri- 
turae Marte rebellant, they renew the 
war, about to perllh by fighting at the 
tomb of their parent Memnon, to ap- 
peafe his manes, as gladiators who 
fought at the tombs of the dead, Ovid. 
Mel. 13, 619. (G. 449.) 

Propria Marte. by your own warfarejor 
experience. Id. Pont.^, 7> H* Ufi Marte 
fecundo, having fought fuccefsfully, Lu- 
can. 4, 388. Martemque Jecundum Jam 
niji de genero fatis debcre recufat, Cacfar 
refufes to be indebted to the fates for 
a vidory unlefs over Pompey, his 
former fon-in-law, Id.JS, 4. Songuinei 
munera Martis fufcipcre, to become a 
foldier, Id. Rem. Am. 153. Sub- 
duSlo Pi'Jarte ruis, the enemy being 
withdrawn, or having retreated, there 
being no body to fight witii, you lall. 

6, 250. Falido Marte, with 

great force, Ovid. Fnjl. 2, 208. 

Acqiio, vario, v. Ancipite, incerto Marte 
pugnalum eji, with equal, various, 
doubiful fuccefs ; Atque ea per campos 
aequo dum l\iarte geruntur, with equal 
lofs on both fides, (hitherto, for after- 
wards the cafe was altered,) Firg. Aen. 
7, 540. Dlmicare prope aequo Alartf, 


MAR Chj] mar 

almofl on equal terms, with equal ad- fuo Utiglofa vacent, let courts of juilice 
vantages, Caef. B. G, 7, 19. Vario 
Marte pugnatum eruditus eft fermo, is 
a learned expreffion or a trope, ^:indiL 
8, 6, 24. Mars communis^ the com- 
mon chance or fortune of war, Cic. 
Mel. 2 1. Very. 5, 50. Phil. 10, 10. 
Cum omnis belli Mars comnnmis, et cum 
femper incerti eixitus praeliorum furit, Cic. 
JSp. 6, 4. Martis opus, fighting. Vug. 
Am. 8, 516. 

Martem accendere cantu, to roufe the 
fight, to excite the foldiers, to battle, 
by the found of his trumpet, Vlrg.Aen. 
6, 165. Aeneas acutt Martem^ (liai-pens 
his martial ardour, roufes his warlike 
courage for battle, ih. 12, 108. Mar- 
tem cientesi roufmg the martial fpirit of 
the foldiers, ib. 9, 766. Martemque fa- 
t'lgant, loudly demand war, \b. 9, 582. 
Jnvadunt Martem^ rufii on the combat, 
begin the battle, ib. 12, 712. Cum 
prima moverd in praelia Marfetn, roufe 
Mars to battle, i. e. when they enter 
his temple, where the ancilia or facred 
fhields were fufpended, and claili upon 

be free trom their war, i. e. from litiga- 
tion or law-fuits, Id. FaJ. 4, 188. 
Martem cecinit Enn'ius, fung of battles. 
Id. Trijl. 2, 423. Martem coluere,'^r?iC- 
tiied or ftudied war. Id. Fajl. 3, 79. 
^/i Martem terra, Neptunum effvgit in 
und'tSi Conjugis Atrides vidima dira fuit^ 
wlio efcaped the dangers of battle by- 
land, and llonns by fea, Qnnd. Art. Am. 
1, 333. Martem fpirare diceres, that he 
breathes nothing but war, that he has 
the fpirit of Mars, Cic. Att. 15, 15. 
S pedes, dum laxent aequora Martem, at- 
tend or wait till the water in which the 
naumcchia or fea fight was exhibited, 
being let out, fliall leave room for in- 
troducing gladiators in the fame place. 
Martial. Sped. 24, 5. Vid. Suet. Tit. 7. 

them with thefe words. Mars evigila, 
Mars awake, ib. 7, 603. et ibi Serv. 
Nunc fine Marte capi, without war, 
without fighting, Ovid. Met. 3, 540. 
So Nonfine Marte tamen, ib. 14, 450. ; 
AA^.Amor. 2, 14, 3. Cum Marte quid fit 
poetae, what has a poet to do with Mars 
or war ? Ovid. Fajl. 3, 3,9. Necfunt tilt 
Marte fecundi, fecond or inferior to you 
in v/ar. Id. Met. 13, 360. Et Marte 
Poenos proteret altera, will defeat the 
Carthaginians in a fecond engagement, 
or in another war, Hor. Od. 3, 5, 34. 
Vindelici didicere nuper ^id iViarte ptf- 
feSi what you could do in war, have iclt 
your power in war, ib. 4, 14, 9. Suo 
Marte cadunt fratres, by their own 
war, by fighting with one another, 
Ovid. Met. 3, 122. Diruta Marie tuo 
LyrneJJla moenia vidi, by your attack. 
Id. Ep. 45. Si quaerit "Julus, Unde 
fuo partus Marte triumphus eat, feeks an 
opportunity of gaining a triumph by 
bis own bravery, ib. 7, 154. Marie 
fuo c apt am Chryseida vi6lor amah at, made 
captive by his own army, or by himfelf 
in war, id. Rem, 469, Et Fora Marts 

et Dio, 66, 25, et ibi Reimarum. 
Bella velint, Martemque ferum, and fierce 
battle, Id. 6, 2 J, 7. Damnavit multo Jha- 
turum fanguine Martem, a war or battle 
that would coll much bloodflied, Id. 
6, 32, J. Hermes gloria Marlis wiiver- 
fi, the glory of all combatants or gla- 
diators, Ikilled in all kinds of arms, the 
moil excellent gladiator in the world. 
Id. 5, 25, T4. Defperabantur promijji 
praelia Martis, the contefts of wild 
bealls, which had been promifed, were 
defpaired of, Id. Sp. 22, 3.' Ei Mars 
iratus ejl, he has been unfortunate in 
v/ar, Plaut. 3, 3, 32. An tibt Mavors 
in lingua femper eritP Shall your courage 
always lie in your tongue ? Firg. Aen. 
II, 389. In manibus Mars ipfe, the 
battle is in your power, you arejufl 
about to engage, ib. 10, 280. Si patrii 
quid Martis habes, any of your native or 
paternal courage, ib. 1 1, 374. Cautius 
ut faevo velles te credere Marti, to trufl 
yourfelf more cautioufly to the fierce 
pombat, ib. 153. 

MARTLS Stella, the planet Mars, 
Cic. N. D. 2, 2. Habet v.ntus, incer- 
taque fulmina Mavors^ rules tlie winds 
and thunders, Lucan. io. 206. The 
planet Mars was fuppofed to portend 
v/ar, ib. 1 , 660, ic 663. AJlrum Martis^ 
put for Mars, Juvenal. 10, 3 12. — Curia 
Martis, the Areopagus, at Athens, 


MAR [2 

ywvenal 9, loi. [G. 291.) — I\flartis 
frammy the fpcar of Mars, Jwvenal. 13, 
79. Hafiam y>artis Praenejle Juafponte 
promotarriy that the fhield of Mars at 
Praeneile moved forward of its own 
accord, Liv. 24, 10. — Mart'u imago^ 
Virg. A en. 8, 557. Exornanfque deos 
ac nudum pedore Martem Armis, Scaeva, 
tuts, they adorn the temples of the 
gods, and the naked image of Mars, 
with your arms, Lucan. 6. 256. — Mar- 
tis urhsy Rome, Martial. 8, 65, 12. So 
Cppidum March J Id. ic, 30, 2. Mavor- 
tis urhsy Virg. Aen. 6, 872. ; Ovid. 
Met. 8, ^.— Marth Kafendae, the firft 
of March, Martial. 9,9, 92, 15. diBae 
a PrlartCy Id. ic, 29, 3. Martiae Kalen- 
dae. Id. 9, 53, 3. which he thus ad- 
drelTes, Marts alximne dies, becaufe he 
was born on that day, 12, 60, i. — Mar- 
tis Ultorts aedesj a temple built by Au- 
guflus to Mars for having revenged the 
death of JuHus Caefar, Snet. 29. ; Mar- 
tial. 7, 5c, 4. very magnihcent, Q-vld. 

FaJ}. s,SS^' 

MAR riUS (adj.) angu'is, facred to 
Mars, warh!ke, iierce, Ovid. Met. 3, 32. 
So Martia piciis avis. Id. FalL 3, 37. 
JMartia cum durum Jlcrnit arena ffJiim, 
when the ground or the forum is cover- 
ed with fand for exhibiting fhews of 
gladiators, Ovid. Trij'L 2, 282. ; Mar- 
tia bsllay fierce wars, Id. Fafi. 3, 232. ; 
Nor at. Art. p. 402. Campus Martins , a 
field or plain along the Tiber, which 
had belonged to king Tarquin, and 
after his expuliion was confecrattd to 
Mars, Liv. 2, i, 44. f/ 2, 5. where 
afTembhes of the people were held, Liv. 
6, 2C. and the youth perfonned their 
exercifes, Horat. Od. ^, ^j 39- Certa- 
mine Martio, in battle, Hor. Od. 4, 14, 1 7. 
Martius ille aeris rauci canory the warlike 
found of hoarfe brafs, i. e. the parti- 
cular buz or noife which bees make be- 
fore they faliy forth from their hives, 
Virg. G. 4, 71. Martius Hannibal, war- 
like, Sil. 15, 407. Martia Icgio, the 
name of a legion, fo called from Mars, 
(nomen a Marfe rjl,) Cic. Phi). 14, 12. 
which deferted Antony and joined 
Augullus, Cic. ib. 3,3. Martiui lupus, 

46 ] MAR 

facred to Mars, cruel, Virg. Aen. 9* 
^66. Martius miles, for milites, brave, 
valiant, Ovid. Met. 14, 798. Conf. 
Martial II, 8, 5. Martia proles, Ro- 
mulus and Remus, the offspring of 
Mars, Ovid.Fafl. 3, 59. Martia Roma, 
warlike or built by Romulus, the fon 
of Mars, Id. Trifl. 3, 7, 52. Pont, i, 
8, 24. et 4, 9, 6$. Liv. 246. Mavor- 
tius Romulus, warlike, or the fon of 
M^YS, Virg. Jen. 6, 778. So Martia 
Penthcfilea, warlike, or the daughter of 
Mars, ih, 11, 662. Mavortia moenia, 
the walls of Rome, ib. i, 276. Terra, 
a country facred to Mars, warlike, i. e. 
Thrace, ib. 3, 13. Tela inter Martia, the 
weapons of war. Id. E. 9, 12. Vulne- 
ra, martial or brave, honourable, Virg, 

Aen. 7, 182. Martius menjis, 

March, (wf;7/?j nomine Martis,)Ov\di.Yz^. 
5, 88. anciently the firft month of the 
year, ib. 75. Martiae Kalendae, the 
hrft day of March, the birth-day of 
Martial, 10, 24, i. kept as a feftival 
by married people, Hor. Od. 3, 8, i. 
particularly by matrons, Ovid. Foji. 3, 
170, &;c. obferved by Horace, becaufe 
on that day he had nearly been killed 
by the fall of a tree, Hor. ib. 7. Idus 
IVjartiae, the 15th, the day on which 
JuHus Gaefar was killed, Cic. Phil. 2, 
36. J Cvid. Faft. 3, 697. and on which 
m.agiftrates anciently entered on their 
ornce, Liv. 22, i. 26, i, & 26. 27, 7. 

.V' 5-' 38, 35- 39> 45- 40» 35- ^^42, 

M. RTicoLA, -ae, m. a worfhipper 
of Mars, Ovid. Trijl. 5, 3, 22. Pont. 4, 
14, 14. 

Map.tigena [-ae, m.) Quirinus, 
Romulus the Ion of Mars, Ovid. Fafi. 
1, 199. Martigenae, plur. Romulus 
and Remus, Id. Amor. 3, 4, 39. Mar- 
tigeha bellua, the Inake killed by Cad- 
mus, Plaut. Amph. 4. Suppof. 2, 13. 

Martia LIS Jlarnen, the prieft of 

Mars, Cic. Phil. 11, 8. Martiales 

minijlri publici Martis, Id. Ciuent. 15. 
lylariiaks lupi, facred to Mars, raven- 
ous, Hor. Od I, 7, 9. 

MARSYAS, V. Marfya, -ae, a Phry- 
gian mufician, who challenged Apollo 



MAR [247 

to a contcft of /l-cill in mufic, and be- 
ing worfted by him, was flayed alive 
for his prefuraption, Ovid. Met. 8, 6, 
383, &c. [G. 372.) There was a 
ftatue of Marfya in the Roman forum 
near the place where the praetor's tri 
bunal ftood, to deter unjull litigants, 
Hor. Sat. I, 6, 120. 

M. Valerius MARTIALIS, a cele- 
brated poet, a writer of epigrams, who 
flouriihed under X)omitian and Trajan, 
whofe works are ftill extant. 

Marullus Epidius, a tribune of the 
commons, deprived of his office by 
Caefar, for having puniflied one of the 
people who had put a laurel crown on 
Caefar's ftatue. Suet. Caef. 79. ; C'tc. 
Phil. 13, 15. In doing which, Pater- 
culus obferves, he had ufed unfeafoni- 
ably too great liberty towards Caefar^ 

MASINISSA, a king of Numldia, 
firft an enemy and afterwards a faithful 
friend to the Romans, as long as he 
lived, Liv. 27, &c. ; SaUuJI. Jug. 5. 
He retained uncommon vigrour at the 
age of 90, Cic. Sen. 10. 

Maso, -onis, the name of feveral per- 
fons mentioned by Cicero, N. D. 3, 
20. Balh. 23. Fam. 9, 2i, &c. 

Mastanesosus, v. -es, -ae, a king 
of part of Mauritania, as it is thought, 
Cic. Vat. 5. 

MATERNUS, a poet and fopbift, 
in the time of Vefpalian, who compo- 
fed<i tragedy, called C a to, which is 
faid to have offended the ruling powers, 
(offendijfe poieniium animos,) Dial, de 
Orat. 2, & 3. Hence he was afterwards 
put to death by Domitian for having 
written againft tyrants, Z)/o, 67, 12. 

P. Matin lus, a trader, who had a 
difpnte with the people of Salamis 
about a fum of money which he lent 
them, Cic. Att. 5, 21. 

C. MATIUS, a very learned and 
accompHflied Roman, Cic. Fam. j, 15. 
the friend of Caefar, as well as of Ci- 
cero, iL 6, 12. et II, 27. an advifer 
of peace, Cic. jitt. 9, 11. He v/rote 
a beautiful letter to Cicero, j unifying 
his attachment to Caefar, and regretting 
his death, Cic. Fam, 11, 28.; Add. 

] M A U 

Sitet. Chef. 52. ; Tac. Ann. 12, 60. He 
was employed by Auguilus as one of 
the managers [procuratores) of the 
games which Auguftus celebrated in 
honour of Caefar, Cic. AiU 15, 2. He 
lived long a ter in great friendfliip 
with Auguilus, but appears never to 
have accepted any public office. He 
feems to have fpent the remainder of 
his days in an elegant and pleafureable 
retreat. Pliny, who calls him the friend 
of Auguftus, afcribes to him the inven- 
tion of cutting trees and groves into re- 
gular forms, {^nemora tonfdia), 12, 2 f. 
6. alfo of inoculating and propagating 
certain foreign fruits, Plin. 15, 14 f. 
15. He publlihed three books about 
the manner of letting out a table, and 
furnilhing fplendid entertainments, («/-- 
hanas menfas-t et lauta convivia inflruere.^ 
The firft of thefe books he called the 
cook, i^cocus^ ; the fecond, the fifhmon- 
ger, [cetarius) ; and the third, the oil- 
man, { fa/gam ari us) f Columel. 12, 44. 
It appears that Matius hkewife made a 
verfe-tranfiatioh of Homer's Iliad; from 
-Gellius, 6, 6. who calls him a very 
learned man ; but gives feveral inftances 
of his being fond of ufing new and un- 
common words, 15, 25. which however 
feem to have been ingenioufly contri- 
ved, Id. 20, 9. 

Mato, v. Mathoy -onisf a Roman 
firname, Cic. Or. 48. of the gens Pompo- 
nia, Fam. 9, 25. and of the gens Nae- 
via, Liv. 39, 32. 

Marti Nius, the name of feveral ob- 
fcure perfons, Cic. Fam, 2, 15. Verr, 
3, 24. Cluent. 45. Balb. 2j. 

Matuta, the Latin name of Ino, 
when changed into a fea-goddefs, Cic. 
Tvfc. I, 12. called Parens Matutay Mo- 
ther Matuta, Ovid.Faft. 6, 479. et 545. 
Maier Matuta, Liv. 5,21. 25,7. 28, 
II. (?/ 41, 28. ; Thehana dca, Ovid. Faft. 
6, 476. Matralia, -ium, the facred 
rites or fcftival of Matuta, ib. 475. 

MAUSoLUS, a king of Caria, in. 
Afia Minor, after whofe death his wife, 
Artemifia, erefted a fplendid monument 
in honour of him, which was reckoned 
one of the feven wonders of the world, 
GcIL 10, 18. ; Cic, Tufc. 3, 31. ; call- 

MAX [2 

cd Maufoleum fepulchruniy Propert, 3, 
2, 21. dcfcrlbed, Plin. 26, 5 f. 4. 9. 
whence all magnificent fepulchres were 
called Mausolea ; thus, Maufoleum 
Caefaruniy the fepulchre of the CacCars, 
Suet. Jug. 10 1. Ner.^6, Fcjp.2l.', 
Add. Fior. 4, 1 1 . f. 

MAXiMUS, aiirname firft given to 
Q. Fabius, the cenfor, who, in order 
to prevent the election of magiftrates 
from being in the power of the lov/efl 
people, tiirew all of that defcripcioa 
(omnemforeHfem turhari) into four tribes, 
and called them city tribes, [urbanas)y 

Xiiv. 9, 46. No family in Rome dif- 

tinguiflied itfelf more by its merits than 
that of the Falli ; Nee gradus ejl ultra 
Fabios cognominh ullusy Ilia domus trier i- 
tis Maxima diEta fuhy Ovid. Fa ft. i, 
605. Virgil chiefly celebrates Fabius, 
who, when oppofed to Hannibal, by 
declining battle, faved the Roman Hate, 
(Tk Maximus illees, &c.) A- 6, 846. 
So Ovid, Fafl. 2, 241. See Fabius. 

Medea, the daughter of Aeetes, 
(Aeetlasy -adis), king o( Colchis, by 
his wife Idyia, Cic. N. D. 3, 19, a fa- 
mous forcerefs, who afiifted iafon to 
carry off the golden fleece. In return 
for which, he married her, (G. 442.) 
Barharae Mideas venenay the drugs Uicd 

by Medea, Horat. Epod. 5, 61. 

MedEIDEs herhaey (fing. Medeis),mB.- 
gic herbs, Ovid. JrL Am. 2, 10 1. 

Me DON, -ontlsy the fon of Codrus, 
the firfl: archon of Athens, whofe fuc- 
ceffors, being chofcn of the fame fami- 
ly for 2CO years, were called Medon- 
TIDAE, Paufan. 4, 5. (G. 426.) 

Medus, the fon of Medea, who is 
faid to have given name to the country 

of Media, [G. ^A^-Y 11 2. The name 

of one of the tragedies of Facuvius, Clc. 

OJ. 1,31- 

Medusa, the daughter of Phorcus, 
(Phorcis, -yis. Prop. 3, 22, 8. or 
Phorcynisy -ulisy Lucan. 9, 629.) the 
chief of the three Gorgons, a female 
monPccr, with ferpents on her head in- 
ilead of hair, which turned every one 
into ftor.e that looked at her. She was 
jQain by Perfeus, (G. 395.) and from 
her blood fprur.g the winged horfe Pe* 

48 ] MEL 

gafus ; hence called Equus Pegafaeust 
Ovid. Faft. 5, 8. ■ --Medusarum os, 
the face of Mcdufa, with which Per- 
feus turned people into ftone, Ovid, 
Met. 5, 249. Chelydri Medufaely the 
hair on the head of Medufa, Sil. 7. 

MEGABysus, one of the Periian no- 
bles that expelled the Magiy (G. 607.) 

^ 2. A general of Artaxerxes, (G. 

61^.) We learvi from Strabo, /. 14, 

p. 950. that the priefts of Diana at E- 
phefus, whoni it behoved to be eunuchs, 
were called Megabyzi. Hence Me- 
gabyzus is thought to be put for an eu- 
nuch, or one of thofe priefts, and not 
ufed as a proper name, ^incilL 5, 12, 
21. ; Pl'tn. 35, 10. 

Megaera, one of the three infernal 
furies, Virg. Aeii. 12, 846.; Lucan. i, 
577. f/6, 730. 

Megalc, (^f/.iy;i\yi f^rrrp, magna ma" 
ter)y the Greek epithet of Cybele, the 
mother of the goJs : whence the fefti- 
val kept in honour of her was called 
MEGALESIA, 'orunif Liv. 29, 14. 
34,54. el 36, 36. ; Juvenal. 6, 69. vel 
ludi MEGALF.siAy Ovid. Fajl. 4, 357. ; 
^inBiL I, 65. or Meg;. LENS I A, -iumy 
V. Megalenfes ludi; Ip/ts MegalenJihuSy 
on the feilival-day of Cybele, (the 4th 
or 5th of April), when games were ex- 
hibited in the Circus, {^ludi Circenjh)y 

Cic. Fam. 2. r I. de Har. Rsfp. 12. 

Hence M:galefiacae fpedacula mappae^ 
the fpedlacles of the ivjegalenan or Cir- 
cenfian games, the fignal for beginning 
which was given by dropping a napkin 
or towel, [miltendo mappam)y Juvenal. 
I r , « 93. which cuftom took its rife 
from Nero, Suet. 2 2. 

Meg A R A, the lirll wife of Hercules, 
flain by him in a fit of madnefs, Senec, 
Here. fur. 1015, &c. (G. 400.) 

Meg A RE us, (3 fyll. ) the fon of On- 
cheilius, and grandfon of Neptune; the 
father of Hippomanes, Ovid. I\^ht. 10, 
605. who is hence called Megaretus he- 
ros, ib. 659. 

Mela, a companion of Antony's, 
Cic. Phil. 13, 2. 

Potnponius MELA, a celebrated geo- 
grapher, born at Tingentera vel Tingi 
Cetraria, a town of Spain, McL 2, 6, 

MEL E 249 ] MEL 

S5. who wrote an excellent book, in- by that name, 0-vld. Met. 8, 534. fup- 

fcribed De fiiu orl'is^ whicli is ftill ex- 
tant. He flourinied between the time 
of i\uga(lus and Vcfpalian. 

MELAMPUS, -odh, the fon of 
Amythaon, [Amylhaone cretus, Stat. 
Thcb. 3, 453. Amythaonius, Virg, 
G. 3, 550.) a famous foothfayer and 
phyfician at Arjros, who cured the 
daughters of Proetus, [Proei'idss)y by 
prefcribing hellebore, Apollodor. \ , 9, 
11. et 2, 2, 2.; V'trg. Ed. 6,48.; 
wlience a fpecies of h^'llebore was call- 
ed Melampodmii v. -ir/m, Plin. 25, 5 f. 
2(. Cicero makes Melampus the fon 
of Atreus, A^. i). 3, 2 £. and fpeaks of 

his predidions, Leg. 2, 13. ^ 2. 

The name of a dog from his black feet, 
OvUL Met. 3, 206. 

MtLAKEus, (3fyll.) the name of 
a dog, from his black colour, Gvid. 
IS let. 3, 22:!. 

Melanippe, Via. Menalippe. 

Melantheus, -eos, ace. -ea, a per- 
fon guilty of murder, who, while con- 
cealing himfelf, was difcovered by his 
mother, ignorant of what had happen- 
ed, Ov'id. in Ihhij 61^. 

MELANTHIU3, a Rhodian, a 
fcholar of Carncades, Cic. Acad. 4, 6. 

— ^ 2. A noted painter, Pl'in. 35, 7. 

f 3. The goat-herd of Ulyffes, 

Homer. OdyJ]". 21, 175. who readily af- 
foided to the fuitors of Penelope what 
part of his flock they defired, and join- 
ed with them in devouring his mailer's 
fubftance, ib. 20, 175. ; Oiiid. Ep. I, 
95. On which account he was put to 
death by Tclemachus with the greateft 
torture, Elomer. Od. 22, 473, &c. 

MELEaGER, v. Meleagrus, 
'grly the fon of Oeneus, [Oaudes), who, 
having (lain the wild b.^ar of Calydon, 
gave the i]<iu and head to Atn'anta, 
who had fivfl wounded him. The un- 
cles of Melcager, attempting to rob 
Atalanta of her preient, were flain by 
Meleager. Whereupon Althaea 'nis mo- 
ther, in a paflion, threw a log of wood, 
on which the life of her fon depended, 
into the fire ; and as foon as it was con- 
fumed, Meleager expired, [G. 434.) 
His fillers, [Meleagndes^y lamenting his 
death, were changed into birds, culled 

pofed to be Guinea-hens, Pli/i. 10, 26 
f. 38. ^ 2. A Greek poet, a na- 
tive of Gadara in Syria, who flourifiied 
150 years before the Chrillian aera. 
He was the firft coUeftor of the Greek 
epigrams, entitled Aiithologla. 

MELEsiGiiNEs, -w, a name given to, from Meles^ a river of Ionia, 
near which he was born, (G. 587.) 

Melete, -eSf one of the four Mu- 
fes, faid to have been produced by the 
fecond of the three Jupiters, mention- 
ed by Cicero, N. D. 3, 21. 

Me L I BO E us, the name of a fhepherd, 
Virg. E. I, 6. but Mcl'ihoeus dux^ i. e. 
Philoftetes, from his birth-place Meli- 
boea, Firg. Aen. 3, 401. 

Melicerta, Melicertes, -acy \\ 
-us, the fon of Athamas and I no. Vid» 

Melissus, the firft king of Crete, 
the father of Am.althea and Meliffa, 
who fed Jupiter, when a child, with 
milk and honey, (G. 356.) Meliffa is 
faid to have been changed by Jupiter 
into a bee. Col. 9, 2. 

MELISSUS, a philofcpherofSamos, 
the fcholar of ParmenidfS, Laert. 9, 24* 
who believed in the infinity and eterni- 
ty of the univerfe, {hoc, quod 'ejfct infi- 
nitum et immutali/e, femper fuijfe etforej^ 
Cic. Acad. 4, 37. 

Sp. Melius, a wealthy Roman citi- 
zen, fufpefted of aiming at foveveignty, 
becaufe, in the time of a great dearth, 
lie diilribu^ed corn among the people at 
a lov^' price. On this fufpicion, being 
fummontd to appear before Cincinna- 
tus, the dictator, and rcfufing to obey, 
he was (lain by Q^Servilius Ahala, maf- 
ter of horfe to the dictator, Liv. 4, \ 3, 
— 16.; Cic. Cat. I, I. Dam. 38. Sen, 

16.; Amic. 8, & II. -Maeliani, 

the parLiinns of Maelius, Liv. 4, 14, 
Frumentum Maelianum, the corn which 
had been purchai'ed by Maeh'us, ih. 

Annaeus MELLA, i;. Mela, the 
brovher of Seneca the philofopher, and 
fatlier of the poet Eucan, who was put 
to death by Nero, Tac. Ann. 16, 17. 

MELPOMilNE, -es, one of the nine 
Mufes, Hor. Od. i, 24, 3. (G. '>^CZ.) 

MEM [2 

' MEMMIUS, the name of an illuf- 
tnou3 plebeian gens at Rome, faid to 
have been derived from the Trojan 
Mneilheus, Vtrg. Aen, 5, 116. Hence 
the Memmti w^ere among thofe called 
Trojugenae, by Juvenal, i, 100. 

C. MEMMIUS, a tribune of the 
commons, who boldly accufcd the cor- 
ruption of the nobility in the war again ft 
Jugurtha, Salluft. 'Jug. 27. and roufcd 
the people to punirti the guilty, ih. 30, 
& 31. Cicero fpeaking of this Mem- 
tnius,join5 him with his brother Lucius: 
C. et h. Memmii fuerunt oratores medio* 
cres, accufatores acres atqus acerhu Ita- 
que hi jwiicium capitis niulios vocaverunty 
pro reis nonfaepe dixerunty Brut. ^6. We 
learn from Cicero tliat C. Memmius 
brought Beftia to his trial, but whether 
for his conduct in the Jugurthlne vi'-ar 
or not, is uncertain, Cic. Or, 2, 70. 
Memmlus, when candidate for the con- 
fulPnip in oppofition to Glaucia, was 
affaflinated by ruffians whom Glaucia 
and Saturninus employed to attack him 
with bludgeons, in the comitlum, in 
pfefence of the people, Appian, B. C. 
I, p. 369.; Cic. Cat. 4, 2. 

C. MEMMIUS, L.F. an acute and 
agreeable fpeaker, but too carelefs in 
his compofition, highly accomplidied in 
Greek literature, but indifferent about 
the Latin, Cic. Brut. 70. Q^aeftor to 
Pompeyin thewarapjainilSertorius, Cic, 
Balh. 2. He had an intrigue with the 
wives of Lucullus and Pompey, the for- 
mer of whom Cicero, in telling the fact, 
calls Menelaus, and the latter Agamem- 
non, Cic. Ate. I, 18. Memmlus having 
divulged a fliameful paction, which he 
and Cn. Domitius, when candidates for 
the-confulfhip, had made with the confuls 
Appius and Ahenobarbus, Cic, Att. 4, 
16, & 18. (Vid. Domitius.) and be- 
ing condemned of bribery, lived in 
exile at Athens, Cic. Fam. 13, 1. Cu- 
rio propofed getting him recalled, Cic. 
Att. 6, I. but whether he effeded it, is 
uncertain. To this Memmius, firnamed 
Gemellus, Lucretius is thought to 
have infcribed his poem De Re rum 

KATURA, 1,43, 412, & IO5I; 2, 142, 

&c. Lucretius fometimes calls him by 
a patronymic name, Memmiades, v. 

50 3 MEN 

-DA, dat. -net l, 25. voc. Memmtadaf 

ib. 45 . M E M M I A N A praedia, the 

farms or ellate of Memmlus, Cic. Att. 
5. I 

MEMNON, -onis, the fon of Tltho- 
nus and Aurora, the general of the Ae- 
thiopians who came to the affiflance of 
Priam, flain by Achilles, (G. 449.) 
Color Memnoniiis y black, the colour of 
the Aethiopians, OtvW. ^x Pfi'/z^ 3, 3,96. 
Alemnonia regna, the nations of the eaft, 

Lucan. 3, 284. Mem NOV IDES, -wriy 

(ling. Memnonis), certain birds, fuppo- 
fed to have been produced from the afh- 
es of Memnon, Ovid Met. 13, 618. 

Mem NGN, a native of Rhodes, the 
principal general of Darius Codoman- 
nUvS, who alone fuggefted to that mo- 
narch the proper means of Hopping the 
progrefs of Alexandc*, (G. 620.) 

MEN A, v. Mcnasy -acy a frecdman 
of Pompcy the Gieat, Paterc. 2, 73. 
after v^'hofe death he followed the for- 
tunes of his fon Sex. Pompey, who gave 
him the command of part of his fleet, 
ih. He deferted from Pompey to Au- 
guftus ; and from Auguflus again to 
Pompey. He a fecond time left Pom- 
pey, and joined Auguilus, bringing o- 
ver with him a part of Pompey's fleet. 
Caefar bountifully rev./arded him, and 
made him a military tribune. He was 
the only whom Auguftus ad- 
mittedtohis table, Suet. Aug. 74. — When 
Augullus and Antony, after having 
made an agreement with Sex. Pompey, 
paid Pompey a viiit in his fhip, Mena 
propofed to Pompey to aflafiinate them 
both, and thus fecure the recovery of 
his father's fortune ; but Pompey no- 
bly rejected the propofal, Plutarch, in 
Antonio. Appian, in relating this fact, 
calls him Men odor us, Bdl. Civ. ^y p. 
714. — Horace feems to have had a great 
antipathy to this rnan, Epod. 4. if it be 
the fame Mena againft whom he writes 
his bitter invectives. Some think It 
muft be a different perfon, becaufe, a- 
mong the other charges againit his cha- 
racter, the moft reprehenhble part of 
his conduct is not mentioned. 

Menalcas, -acy the name of a fhep- 
hcrd, Virg, Ed, 2, 15. et 3, 13. 9, 16. 
et 10, 20. Menalippe, 


C 251 ] 


Menalippe, v. Melanippe, -est the 
daughter of Defmontes, or Aeolus, 
who, being violated by Neptune, bore 
two fons, (as Dionyfius of Halicarnaf- 
fus fays, in the ox-Hall of her father, 
(/e Jrte Rhetor. /• 57. to which Varro 
alludes, R. R. 2, 5, 5.) Defmontes, 
enraged at the difcovery, (hut up Me- 
nalippe in prifon, after having deprived 
her of fight, and ordered the infants to 
be expofed. A cow is faid to have come 
and given them fuck ; in which Hate 
the fhepherds found them. In the mean 
time Metapontus, king of Icaria, being 
anxious to have children, Theano, his 
queen, applied to the Ihepherdsto pro- 
cure for her a fuppofititious child. 
Whereupon they fent her the infants 
they had found. Thus theft infants be- 
came the reputed fons of Metapontus, 
under the name of Boeotus and Aeolus. 
After this Theano had two fons of her 
own ; and when they grew up, having 
difcovered to them that their fuppofed 
brothers were fuppofititious, fhe advifed 
them to take an opportunity of cutting 
them off. But the fons of Neptune, 
when attacked, by the affiitance of their 
father, flew their aggrefibrs. Theano, 
ftruck at the fight of their bodies, which 
were carried back to the palace, flew 
herfelf. Boeotus and Aeolus fled to 
the fliepherds by wh