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<^ PRINCETON, N. J. '* 


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Division . 
Section ..., Xt. 

....^..L. LI 0.5" 


• w^^^ • • •• 

l$y tijc same Stutijor. 

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"Lucidity of expression, descending at times almost to the colloquial 
style, an admirable clearness of arrangement, and careful study of all the 
recorded forms of the written language, are apparent on every i)age. No 
less able and admirably lucid is the treatment of the verb, in which all 
the numerous combinations which this supremely flexible language pos- 
sesses, are drawn out in a logical and transparently clear sequence. The 
syntax is particularly good, bringing out in the clearest and most refresh- 
ingly intelligent way, in spite of occasional misapprehensions, the many- 
sided expressiveness of a language which has no parallel for vivacity 
and graceful turns of phrase, except in the most polished Parisian 
French. We conclude, then, by congratulating Professor Dowson on 
having written by far the best Urdu Grammar that has yet appeared, 
and having thus rendered the acquisition of the most elegant and useful 
of all the Indian vernaculars both easy and pleasant to the student." — 
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Containing a Series of Passages and Extracts adapted for 
Translation into Hindustani. 

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Translated from the Hindustani. 

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The Muhammadan Period. Edited from the Posthumous Papers of 
the late Sir H. M. Elliot, K.C.B., East India Company's Bengal Civil 
Service. Revised and continued by Professor John Dowson, M.R.A.S., 
Staff College, Sandhurst. 

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In this work an endeavour has been made to supply the 
long-felt want of a Hindu Classical Dictionary. The late 
Professor Wilson projected such a work, and forty years 
ago announced his intention of preparing one for the 
Oriental Translation Fund, but he never accomplished his 
design. This is not the first attempt to supply the void. 
Mr. Garrett, Director of Public Instruction in Mysore, 
published in India a few years ago a " Classical Dic- 
tionary of India," but it is of a very miscellaneous char- 
acter, and embraces a good deal of matter relating to the 
manners and customs of the present time. It has not 
obtained favour in Europe, and it cannot be considered 
as any obstacle in the way of a more complete and 
systematic work. 

The main portion of this work consists of mythology, 
but religion is bound up with mythology, and in many 
points the two are quite inseparable. Of history, in the 
true sense, Sanskrit possesses nothing, or next to nothing, 
but what little has been discovered here finds its place. 
The chief geographical names of the old writers also have 
received notice, and their localities and identifications are 
described so far as present knowledge extends. Lastly, 
short descriptions have been given of the most frequently 
mentioned Sanskrit books, but only of such books as 



are likely to be found named in the works of European 

It must be understood from the first that this work 
is derived entirely from the publications of European 
scholars. I have not resorted to oricjiiial Sanskrit autho- 
rities. My remaining span of life would at the best be 
quite insufficient for an investigation of their manifold 
and lengthy volumes. But I have gleaned from many 
European writers, and have sought to present a summary 
of the present condition of our knowledge of the religion 
and mythology of Ancient India. 

The work is no doubt very defective. The full harvest 
of Sanskrit learning has not yet been gathered in, but 
the knowledge which has been stored by former labourers 
ought to be made readily available for the service of their 
successors, to lighten their labours and strengthen them 
for onward progress. There is nothing in this book for 
which authority is not to be found in some one or more 
of the many works upon Hindu literature and religion, 
but the aim has been to condense and brins^ to<iether in 
a compact form that information which lies scattered in 
many volumes. Hindu mythology is so extensive, and 
the authorities are often so at variance with each other, 
that I cannot but feel diffident of the success of my 
labours. I have worked diligently and carefully, I hope 
also intelligently, but mistakes have no doubt been made, 
and it may be that matters have been passed over which 
ought to have been recorded, and others have been printed 
which miglit well have been left unnoticed. But while 
I have no expectation of any near approach to perfection, 
I do hope that a good beginning has been made, and 
that a basis has been laid on which a greater and more 
worthy structure may hereafter be raised. If the work is 


received with anything like favour, I shall be constantly 
on the watch to improve it, and honest criticism will be 
welcomed and carefully considered. 

The book would be more valuable and interesting were 
it well illustrated with plates and cuts, but the work is a 
speculative one, and does not directly appeal to a large 
field of students and readers. The expense of befitting 
illustrations would be heavy, too great to be at once 
ventured upon. But if the work is approved, and illus- 
trations are desired, an attempt will be made to supply 
the want by a series of plates containing a selection of 
subjects from the stores of our museums and from other 

It is unnecessary to specify all the works that have 
been used in the compilation of this book. Some have 
been referred to occasionally, but tlie mainstays through- 
out have been the " Original Sanskrit Texts " of Dr. Muir 
and the works of the late Professor H. H. Wilson, includ- 
ing his translation of the i^t'g-veda, and more especially 
that of the VishTiu Pura?ia, republished with additional 
notes by Dr. FitzEdward Hall. I have also levied 
numerous contributions from the writings of Williams, 
Max Mtiller, Eoth, Bohthlingk, Lassen, Weber, Whitney, 
WoUheim da Fonseca, and many others too numerous to 


The Aryan settlers on the banks of the Indus and in the land 
of the Five Rivers were possessors of a large number of hymns 
addressed to the elements and powers of nature. Some of these 
hymns they no doubt brought from their earlier homes to the 
West, but others were composed after they had reached the 
land of their adoption. These ancient hymns cover a long 
period, the length and the era of which can only be conjectured, 
but fifteen hundred years before Christ is about the mean of 
the various ages assigned to them. The hymns form what is 
called the i^^'g-veda Sanhita, a collection which embraces all the 
extant compositions of the early Aryans. It is the i^/g-veda 
which is of primary importance in Hindu religion and mytho- 
logy ; the other Vedas are later in date, and the second and 
third Yedas consist almost exclusively of hymns derived from 
the Rig, but specially arranged for religious purposes. The 
fourth or Atharva-veda borrows less from the i?zg-veda, but it 
is considerably later in date, and is of a different character. 

The Aryan hymns of the Veda embody the ideas of the 
Indian immigrants. These ideas were inherited from their 
forefathers. They were originally the property of the united 
progenitors of the Aryan races, and the offshoots of this great 
human stock have spread their primitive ideas over a large por- 
tion of the earth. In the Vedic h^nnns the ideas and myths 
appear in their simplest and freshest forms, directly connected 
with the sources from which they sprang by clear ties of lan- 
guage. Comparative philology and mythology go hand in hand ; 
and as the language of the Vedas has proved the great critical 
instrument in the construction of the science of philology, so the 


simple myths of the Vedic hymns furnish many clues for un- 
ravelling the science of mythology. For where the etymology 
of a mythic name or term yields a distinct sense of its mean- 
ing, the origin of the myth is not far to seek. The language of 
the Vedas has in many instances supplied this clue, and led 
to a definite comprehension of what was previously hidden and 
obscure. The Yedic hymns have preserved the myths in their 
primitive forms, and, says Max Midler, " JSTowhere is the wide 
distance which separates the ancient poems of India from the 
most ancient literature of Greece more clearly felt than when we 
compare the growing myths of the Veda with the full-grown 
and decayed myths on which the poetry of Homer is founded. 
The Veda is the real Theogony of the Aryan races, while that of 
Hesiod is a distorted caricature of the original image." 

The Aryan settlers were a pastoral and agricultural people, 
and they were keenly alive to those influences which affected 
their prosperity and comfort. They knew the effects of heat 
and cold, rain and drought, upon their crops and herds, and 
they marked the influence of warmth and cold, sunshine and 
rain, wind and storm, upon their own personal comfort. They 
invested these benign and evil influences with a personality; 
and behind the fire, the sun, the cloud, and the other powers of 
nature, they saw beings who directed them in their beneficent 
and evil operations. To these imaginary beings they addressed 
their praises, and to them they put up their prayers for temporal 
blessings. They observed also the movements of the sun and 
moon, the constant succession of day and night, the intervening 
periods of morn and eve, and to these also they gave personali- 
ties, which they invested with poetical clothing and attributes. 
Thus observant of nature in its various changes and operations, 
alive to its influences upon themselves, and perceptive of its 
beauties, they formed for themselves deities in whose glory and 
honour they exerted their poetic faculty. They had no one 
god in particular, no superior deity guiding and controlling tlie 
rest, but they paid the tribute of their praise to the deity whose 
bounties they enjoyed, or whose favours they desired for bodily 
comfort. They lauded also in glowing language the personifica- 
tions of those beauties of nature which filled their minds with 


delight and kindled the poetic fire. So each of the deities in 
turn received his meed of praise, and each in his turn was the 
powerful god, able to accomplish the desires of his votary or to 
excite a feeling of awe or admiration. 

Thus there were many distinct deities, and each of them had 
some general distinctive powers and attributes ; but their attri- 
butes and characters were frequently confounded, and there was 
a constant tendency to elevate now this one now that one to the 
supremacy, and to look upon him as the Great Power. In 
course of time a pre-eminence was given to a triad of deities, 
foreshadowing the Tri-miirti or Trinity of later days. In this 
triad Agni (Fire) and Surya (the Sun) held a place, and the 
third place was assigned either to Vayu (the Wind) or to Indra 
(god of the sky). Towards the end of the i?/g-veda Sanhita, in 
the hymns of the latest date, the idea of one Supreme Being 
assumed a more definite shape, and the Hindu mind was per- 
ceiving, even if it had not distinctly realised, the great con- 

As the Yedic hymns grew ancient, ritual developed and 
theological inquiry awoke. Then arose what is called the Brali- 
marza portion of the Veda. This consists of a variety of com- 
positions, chiefly in prose, and attached to the different Mantras. 
Ritual and liturgy were the chief objects of these writings, but 
traditions were cited to enforce and illustrate, and speculation 
was set at work to explain, the allusions of the hymns. The 
simplicity of the Yedic myths gradually became obscured, the 
deities grew more personal, and speculations as to the origin 
of the world and of the human race invested them with new 
attributes. Later on, in the Ara?zyakas and Upanishads, which 
form part of the collective Brahma?ia, a further development 
took place, but principally in a philosophical direction. 

Between the times of the Sanhita and of the Brahma«a the 
conception of a Supreme Being had become established. The 
Brahma?zas recognise one Great Being as the Soul of the Uni- 
verse, and abound with philosophical speculations as to the work 
of creation and the origin of man. A golden ^gg was produced 
in the universal waters, from which in course of time came 
forth Prajapati, the progenitor — or, the quiescent Universal Soul, 


Brahma, took a creative form as Brahma the Prajapati. From 
the Prajapati, or great progenitor, there was produced a daughter, 
and by her he was the father of the human race. The explana- 
tions and details of this connection vary, but there is a general 
accord that the Prajapati was the progenitor of all mankind by 
a female produced from himself. Before the times of the Brah- 
ma?ias some of the old myths of the hjTnns had crystallised, the 
personifications had become more distinct, and the ideas from 
which they had been developed had grown hazy or were quite 
forgotten. Philosophy speculated as to the origin of the world, 
theories were founded upon etymologies, and legends were in- 
vented to illustrate them. These speculations and illustrations 
in course of time hardened into shape, and became realities 
when the ideas which gave them birth were no longer remem- 
bered and understood. The priestly order had advanced in 
power, and had taken a more prominent and important position, 
but the Ivshatriya or second class held a high place, and asserted 
something like an equality with the Brahmans even in matters 
of learning. 

Another interval elapsed between the days of the Brahma^^a 
and of Manu. The theory of the golden ^gg is held by Manu, 
and he calls the active creator who was produced from it Brahma 
and Narayana, the latter name being one which was afterwards 
exclusively appropriated by Yishmi. But the most remarkable 
change observable in Manu is in the condition of the people, in 
the great advancement of the Brahmanical caste, the establish- 
ment of the four gTeat castes, and the rise of a number of mixed 
castes from cross intercourse of these four. In a hjmm called 
Purusha-sukta, one of the latest hymns of the i?/g-veda, there 
is a distinct recognition of three classes, Brahmans, Kshatriyas, 
and Vai^yas, and these appear more distinctly in the BrahmaTza, 
but no mention of the Siidras and mixed castes has been found 
before the work of Manu. 

The Ramayana and Maha-bharata are poems of the heroic 
age, and though they are full of marvels, they deal more with 
the actions of mortal men and romantic creations than the might 
and majesty of the gods. The old deities of the Vedas have 
retired into the background, and some have disappeared alto- 


getlier. Indra retains a place of some dignity; but Brahma, 
ySiva, and Yish?zu have, in the Epics, risen to the chief place. 
Even of these three, the first is comparatively insignificant. 
His work of creation was over, and if he was ever an object of 
great adoration, he had ceased to be so. Vishwu and /Siva both 
appear in these poems ; and although YishTiu is the god who 
holds the most prominent place, still there are many passages in 
which /Siva is elevated to the supreme dignity. The Vish?m 
who, in the Vedas, was the friend and companion of Indra and 
strode over the universe, has become the great deity of preserva- 
tion, and the terrible and howling Rudra is now >S^iva, the deity 
of destruction and renovation. Each of these two gods in his 
turn contends with and subdues the other ; now this, now that, 
receives the homage of his rival, and each in turn is lauded and 
honoured as the chief and greatest of gods. 

The Avataras or incarnations of VishTzu assume a prominent 
place in the poems, and still more so in the Purawas. The first 
three, the Fish, the Tortoise, and the Boar, have a cosmical cha- 
racter, and are foreshadowed in the hymns of the Vedas. The 
fourth, or Man-lion, seems to belong to a later age, when the 
worship of YishTzu had become established. The fifth, or 
Dwarf, whose tliree strides deprived the Asuras of the dominion 
of heaven and earth, is in its character anterior to the fourth 
Avatara, and the three strides are attributed to Yish?zu in 
the Veda. The fifth, sixth, and seventh, Parasu-rama, Rama- 
chandra, and K?'?'sh?za, are mortal heroes, whose exploits are 
celebrated in these poems so fervently as to raise the heroes to 
the rank of gods. The ninth Avatara, Buddha, is manifestly 
and avowedly the offspring of the preaching of Buddha ; and 
the tenth, Kalki, is yet to come. 

When we reach the Purarzas there is found a very difierent 
condition of things. The true meaning of the Vedic myths is 
entirely lost, their origin is forgotten, and the signification and 
composition of many of the mythic names are unknown. Mar- 
vellous legends have gathered round the favourite divinities, and 
many more have been built upon fanciful etymologies of the old 
names. The simple primitive fancies suggested by the opera- 
tions of nature have disappeared, and have been supplanted by 


the wild imaginings of a more advanced civilisation, but of a 
more corrupt state of society and religion. The Tri-miirti or 
triad of deities has assumed a distinct shape, and while Bralimil 
has quite fallen into obscurity, Yish??u and /Siva have each 
become supreme in the belief of their respective followers. 
Yishwu, in his youthful form KWshwa, is the object of a sensuous 
and joyous worship. The gloomy and disgusting worship of 
/S'iva, in his terrible forms, has grown side by side with it. Tlie 
worship of his fierce consort, Devi, has become established, and 
the foundation has been laid of the obscene and bloody rites 
afterwards developed in the Tantras. 

The Yeda, in modern Hinduism, is a mere name, — a name of 
liigh authority, often invoked and highly reverenced, — but its 
Lmguage is unintelligible, and its gods and rites are things of 
the past. The modern system is quite at variance with the 
Yedic A\Titings out of which it grew, and the descendant bears 
but few marks of resemblance to its remote ancestor. 

The Pura?ias and later writings are the great authorities of 
modern Hinduism ; their mythology and legends fill the popular 
mind and mould its thoughts. The wonderful tales of the great 
poems also exercise a great influence. The heroes of these 
poems are heroes still ; their exploits, with many embellishments 
and sectarial additions, are recounted in prose and verse, and the 
tales of Rfima and the PaTK^avas, of Hanumat and Ravana, are 
still read and listened to with wonder and delight. A host of 
legends has grown up around the hero K77'sh?ia; they attend 
liim from his cradle to his pyre ; but the stories of his infancy 
and his youth are those which are most popular, and interest all 
classes, especially women and young people. The mild and 
gentle Rama, " the husband of one wife," pure in thought and 
noble in action, is in many places held in the highest honour, and 
the worship paid to him and his faithful wife Slta is the purest 
and least degrading of the many forms of Hindu Avorship. 

This later mythology, Avitli its wonders and marvels, and its 
equally marvellous explanations of them, is the key to modern 
Hinduism. Tt is curious to trace its descent, to contrast such 
legends as are traceable with their simple beginnings in the 
Yedic hymns, and so to follow the workings of the mind of a 


great people throiigli many centuries. Such a survey supplies 
important and interesting matter for the history of religion, 
and gives a clear and complete view of the degradation of a 
mythology. But for the purposes of comparative mythology 
the Pauranik legends are of trifling importance. The stories of 
the Epic poems even are of no great value. It may be, as has 
been maintained, that tliey " are simply difi'erent versions of one 
and the same story, and that this story has its origin in the 
phenomena of the natural world and the course of the day and 
the year ; " but still they are of later date, and afl'ord no direct 
clue for unravelling the mythology of the Aryan nations. 

The most ancient hymns of the i^zg- veda are the basis upon 
which comparative mythology rests, and they have already sup- 
plied the means of unfolding the real source and signification 
of several Greek and Zoroastrian myths. The science is young, 
and has a wide field before it. Some of its results are beyond 
doubt, but there are other deductions which have not advanced 
as yet beyond conjecture and speculation. In the present work 
some of the more obvious identifications, or proposed identifica- 
tions, have been mentioned as occasion offered ; in a work of 
reference like this it would be out of place to have done more. 
The reader who wishes to pursue the study must consult the 
writings of Max Miiller and the " Aryan Mythology " of the 
Eev. Sir George Cox. In them and in the books to which they 
refer he will find ample information, and plenty of materials for 
investigation and comparison. 


If this work answers the purpose for which it is intended, it 
will be used by students who are acquainted with the alphabet 
in which Sanskrit is written, and by readers to whom that 
alphabet is unknoTVTi. Its system of transliteration ought then 
to be such as to enable a student to restore any word to its 
original letters, but the ordinary reader ought not to be em- 
barrassed with unnecessary diacritical points and distinctions. 
The alphabet of the Sanskrit is represented on the following 
plan : — • 


a as ir 
i ,, 

I America, 

The V 

a as in last. 
i , , police. 
u ,, rule. 
rl „ chagrin, 
owel Iri will not be met with. 


e as in ere or fete, 
ai ,, aisle. 


o ,, so. 

an as ou in house. 


Guttural k 
Palatal ch 
Cerebral t 
Dental t 
Labial p 
Semi-vowels y 
Sibilants s 

kh g gh n 

chh j jh n 
th d dh n 
th d dh n 
ph b bh m 
r 1 V, w 
sh, s Aspirate h Visarga h Anusw£ 


To the uninitiated Englishman the chief difficulty lies in the 
short ' a,' the primary inherent vowel of the Sanskrit, pro- 
nounced as in the word * America,' The English alphabet has 
no distinct letter for this sound, but uses every one of its vowels 
in turn, and some even of its double vowels to represent it ; so 
it is the ' a ' and ' e ' in * servant,' the ' i ' in ' bird,' the ' o ' in 
' word,' the ' u ' in ' curd,' the ' y ' in ' myrtle,' and the * ea ' in 
' heard.' The Sanskrit short ' a ' has this sound invariably, and 
unafifected by any combination of consonants ; so Sanskrit ' ham ' 
must be pronounced not as the English 'barn' but as 'burn.' 
The pronunciation of the other vowels is sufficiently obvious. 
The vowel ' ri ' is represented in italics to distinguish it from 
the consonants 'r' and 'i.' 

Of the consonants, the cerebral letters ' ^,' ' /A,' ' ^,' ' dhj' and 
'w,' the palatal sibilant '5,' and the visarga 'A,' are represented in 
italics. Practically these are the only distinctions necessary. 
The guttural nasal is used only in combination with a guttural 
letter ('nk' or *ng'); the palatal nasal is used only with 
palatals (' ncli ' and ' nj '), and no other nasal can be combined 
with these letters. The anuswara, and the anuswara onlv, is 
used before the sibilants and ' h,' so in ' ns,' ' nsh,' ' ns,' and ' nh,' 
the nasal is the anuswara. The letter m before a semi-vowel 
may be represented either by m or anuswara. In all these 
instances the combinations distinctly indicate the proper nasal, 
and no discriminative sign is necessary. 

Of tlie pronunciation of the nasals it is only necessary to 
notice the anuswara. This, with a sibilant, is a simple n, but 
l)efore li it is like ng or the French n in hon; so the Sanskrit 
iSinha, in the modern derivative tongues, is written and pro- 
nounced Singh. 

The aspirates are simple aspirations of their respective con- 
sonants, and make no other change of their sounds ; so ' th ' is 
to be pronounced as in the words ' at home,' and ' ]ih ' as in ' up- 
hill,' never as in 'thine' and in ']>hysic.' The letter *g' is 
always hard as in 'gift.' The palatals are the simple English 


sounds of ' cli ' and ' j ' as in ' church ' and 'just.' The cerebrals 
and the dentals are similar letters, but the former are drawn from 
the roof of the mouth and the latter from the tips of the teeth. 
In 'train' and 'drain' we have cerebrals; in 'tin' and 'due' 
we have dentals, or an approach to them. The ordinary English 
' t ' and ' d ' are more cerebral than dental, and the natives of 
India in transcribing English names use the cerebrals for our 't' 
and 'd.' The palatal sibilant '5' has a sound intermediate 
between 's' and 'sh,' resembling the double 'ss' in 'session.' 
The visarga, the final ' li^ has no distinct enunciation, but it 
is nevertheless a real letter, and changes in certain positions into 
' s ' and ' r. ' Thus the name /S'una/isephas is sometimes written 

[In French the palatal ' ch ' is represented by ' tch ' and the 
'j ' by ' dj.' In German the 'ch' is expressed by 'tsch' and 
the ' j ' by ' dsch.' These very awkward combinations have 
induced Max Midler and others to use an italic ' h ' and ' g ' 
instead of them.] 

Some words will be found with varying terminations, as 
'Hanumat' and 'Hanuman,' 'Sikha7Z(iin' and 'Sikha?i(ii.' The 
explanation of this is that Sanskrit nouns have what is called 
a crude form or stem independent of case termination, and the 
nominative case very frequently differs from it. So ' Hanumat' 
and ' Sikha?zc?in ' are crude forms ; ' Hanuman ' and * SikhawcZi ' 
are their nominative cases. Tliere are other such variations 
which need not be noticed. 

The letters b and v are often interchanged, so words not 
found under the one letter should be sought for under the other. 


ABHASWARAS. A class of deities, sixty-four in number, 
of whose nature little is known. 

ABHIDHANA. A dictionary or vocabulary. There are 
many such works. One of the oldest of them is the Abhidhdna 
ratna-mdld of Halayudha Bha/^a (circa 7th cent.), and one of 
the best is the Abhidhdna Chintd-mam of Hema-chandra, a Jaina 
^vi'iter of celebrity (13th cent.). The former has been edited by 
Aufrecht ; the latter by Colebrooke and by Bohtlingk and Rieu. 

ABHIlMANl. Agni, the eldest son of Brahma. By his 
wife Swaha he had three sons, Pavaka, Pavamana, and iS'uchi. 
" They had forty-five sons, who, with the original son of Brahma 
and his three descendants, constitute the forty-nine fires." See 

ABHIMANYU. Son of Arjuna by his wife Su-bhadra, and 
known by the metronymic Saubhadra. He killed Lakshmawa, 
the son of Dur-yodhana, on the second day of the great battle 
of the Maha-bharata, but on the thirteenth day he himself fell 
fighting heroically against fearful odds. He was very hand- 
some. His wife was Uttara, daughter of the Raja of Virata. 
His son, Parikshit, succeeded to the throne of Hastinapura. 

ABHIRA, ABHiRA. A cowherd ; according to Manu the 
offspring of a Brahman by a woman of the Ambash^ha or 
medical tribe. A people located in the north of India along 
the Indus. There has been a good deal of misapprehension 
respecting this people. Hindu writers have described them as 
living in the north and in the west, the quarter varying accord- 
ing to the locality of the writer, and translators have mixed 


them up witli a neighbouring people, the *Siidras, sometimes called 
<Siiras, with whom they are generally associated, and have called 
them Siirabhiras. Tlieir modern representatives are the Ahirs, 
and perhaps there is something more than identity of locality 
in their association with the /Siidras. It has been suggested 
tliat the country or city of the Abhiras is the Ophir of the 

ABHIRAMA-MAiVI. A drama in seven acts on tlie history 
of Rama, written by Sundara Misra in 1599 a.d. ''The com- 
position possesses little dramatic interest, although it has some 
literarv merit. " — JFilson. 

ACHARA. 'Rule, custom, usage.' The rules of practice of 
castes, orders, or religion. There are many books of rules whicli 
have this word for the first member of their titles, as Achdra- 
chandriJcd, ' moonlight of customs,' on the customs of the >Sudras ; 

Aclidrddarsa, 'looking-glass of customs;' Achdm-dij)a, 'lamp 
of customs,' &c., &c. 

ACHARYA. A spiritual teacher or guide. A title of Dro/m, 
the teacher of the Pa?ic?avas. 

ACHYUTA ' Unfallen ; ' a name of Vish?m or Knsh?m. 
It has been variously interpreted as signifying " he who does 
not perish with created things," in the Maha-bharata as "he 
who is not distinct from final emancipation," and in the Skanda 
Purawa as " he who never declines (or varies) from his proj)er 

ADBHUTA-BRAHMAM. 'The Brahma?2a of miracles.' 
A Brahmawa of the Siima-veda which treats of auguries and 
marvels. It has been published by "Weber. 

ADIIARMA. Unrigliteousness, vice ; personified as a sou 
of Brahma, and called "the destroyer of all beings." 

ADHIRATIIA. A charioteer. The foster-father of Karwa , 
according to some he was king of Anga, and according to others 
the charioteer of King Dh^'itarash/ra ; perhaps he was both. 

ADHWARYU. A priest whose business it is to recite the 
prayers of the Yajur-veda. 

ADHYATMAN. The supreme sjiirit, tlie soul of the uni- 

A]:)HYATMA RA^MAYA.YA. A very popular work, whicli 
is considered to be a part of the Brahmawrfa Puray/a. It has 
been printed in India. See Ramayana. 


ADI-PURAiVA. 'The first Pura?ia,' a title generally con- 
ceded to the Brahma Piira/za. 

ADITI. 'Free, unbounded.' Infinity; the boundless heaven 
as compared with the finite earth ; or, according to M. Mliller, 
"the visible infinite, visible by the naked eye; the endless 
expanse beyond the earth, beyond the clouds, beyond the sky.'' 
In the i^ig-veda she is frequently implored " for blessings on 
children and cattle, for protection and for forgiveness. " Aditi is 
called Deva-matri, ' mother of the gods,' and is represented as 
being the mother of Daksha and the daughter of Daksha. On this 
statement Yaska remarks in the Nirukta : — " Hovy' can this be 
possible ? They may have had the same origin ; or, according to 
the nature of the gods, they may have been born from each 
other, have derived their substance from one another." "Eight 
sons were born from the body of Aditi ; she approached the 
gods with seven but cast away the eighth, Martta726/a (the sun). " 
These seven were the Adityas. In the Yajur-veda Aditi is 
addressed as " Supj^orter of the sky, sustainer of the earth, 
sovereign of this world, wife of Vish^iu ; " but in the Maha- 
bharata and Ramaya?ia, as well as in the Pura?2as, Vish^iu is 
called the son of Aditi. In the Vishwu Purawa she is said to be 
the daughter of Daksha and wife of Kasyapa, by whom she was 
mother of Yish7iu, in his dwarf incarnation (wherefore he is 
sometimes called Aditya), and also of Indra, and she is called 
"the mother of the gods" and "the mother of the world.'' 
Indra acknowledged her as mother, and Yishwu, after receiving 
the adoration of Aditi, addressed her in these words : " Mother, 
goddess, do thou show favour unto me and grant me thy bless- 
ing." According to the Matsya Pura?ia a pair of ear-rings was 
produced at the churning of the ocean, which Indra gave to 
Aditi, and several of the Pura/ias tell a story of these ear-rings 
being stolen and carried off to the city of Prag-jyotisha by the 
Asura king Naraka, from whence they were brought back and 
restored to her by Krish/za. Devaki, the mother of K?ish72a, is 
represented as being a ncAv birth or manifestation of Aditi. See 
Max MiiUer's Fdg Veda, i. 230; Muir's I'exts, iv. 11, v. 35. 

ADITYA. In the early Yedic times the Adityas were six, 
or more frequently seven, celestial deities, of whom Yaru^ia was 
chief, consequently he was the Aditya. They were sons of 
Aditi, who had eight sons, but she approached the gods with 


seven, liaving cast away the eighth, ^Martta^zc/a (the sun). In 
after-times the number was increased to twelve, as representing 
the sun in the twelve months of the year. Aditya is one 
of the names of the sun. Dr. Muir quotes the following from 
Professor Koth : — " There (in the highest heaven) dwell and 
reign those gods who bear in common the name of Adityas. 
We must, however, if we would discover their earliest character, 
abandon the conceptions which in a later age, and even in that 
of the heroic poems, were entertained regarding these deities. 
According to this conception they were twelve sun-gods, bearing 
evident reference to the twelve months. But for the most 
ancient period we must hold fast the primary signification 
of their name. They are the inviolable, imperishable, eternal 
beings. Aditi, eternity, or the eternal, is the element which 
sustains or is sustained by them. . . . The eternal and inviol- 
able element in wliich the Adityas dwell, and which forms their 
essence, is the celestial light. The Adityas, the gods of this 
light, do not therefore by any means coincide with any of the 
forms in which light is manifested in the universe. They are 
neither sun, nor moon, nor stars, nor dawn, but the eternal 
sustainers of this luminous life, which exists, as it were, behind 
all these phenomena." 

The names of the six Adityas are Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, 
Varu7m, Daksha, and Ansa. Daksha is frequently excluded, 
and Indra, Savitri (the sun), and Dhatri are added. Those of 
tlie twelve Adityas are variously given, but many of them are 
names of the sun. 

AJJITYA PURAATA. One of the eighteen Upa-pur5»as. 

AG A8TI, AG A8TYA. A i^ishi, the reputed author of several 
hymns in tlie itig-veda, and a very celebrated personage in 
Hindu story. He and Yasish^ia are said in the it/g-veda to be 
the offspring of Mitra and Varuiia, whose seed fell from them at 
the sight of ; and the commentator Saya?ia adds that 
Agastya was born in a water-jar as "a fish of great lustre," 
wlicnce he was called KalasZ-suta, Kumbha- sambhava, and 
Gha/odbhava. From his parentage he was called ]\raitra-varu?ii 
and Aurvaslya ; and as he was very small when he was born, 
not more than a span in length, he was called Mfma. Though 
he is thus associated in his birth with Vasish^ha, he is evidently 
later in date, and he is not one of the Prajapatis. His name. 


Agastya, is derived by a forced etymology from a fable which 
represents him as having commanded the Vindhya mountains to 
prostrate themselves before him, through which they lost their 
primeval altitude; or rather, perhaps, the fable has been invented 
to account for his name. This miracle has obtained for him the 
epithet Yindliya-ku^a ; and he acquired another name, Pitabdhi, 
or Samudra-chuluka, ' Ocean drinker,' from another fable, 
according to which he drank up the ocean because it had 
offended him, and because he wished to help the gods in their 
wars with the Daityas when the latter had hidden themselves in 
the waters. He was afterwards made regent of the star Canopus, 
which bears his name. The Pura^zas represent him as being the 
son of Pulastya, the sage from whom the Rakshasas sprang. He 
was one of the narrators of the Brahma Pura?2a and also a writer 
on medicine. 

The Maha-bharata relates a legend respecting the creation of 
his wife. It says that Agastya saw his ancestors suspended by 
their heels in a pit, and was told by them that they could be 
rescued only by his begetting a son. Thereupon he formed a 
girl out of the most graceful parts of different animals and 
passed her secretly into the palace of the king of Yidarbha. 
There the child grew up as a daughter of the king, and was 
demanded in marriage by Agastya. Much against his will the 
king was constrained to consent, and she became the wife of the 
sage. She was named Lopa-mudra, because the animals had 
been subjected to loss {loim) by her engrossing their distinctive 
beauties, as the eyes of the deer, &c. She was also called 
Kausitaki and Vara-prada. The same poem also tells a story 
exhibiting his superhuman power, by which he turned King 
ISTahusha into a serpent and afterwards restored him to his 
proper form. See Nahusha. 

It is in the Ramayavia that Agastya makes the most distin- 
guished figure. He dwelt in a hermitage on Mount Kunjara, 
situated in a most beautiful country to the south of the Vindhya 
mountains, and was chief of the hermits of the soutL He kept 
the Eakshasas who infested the south under control, so that the 
country was "only gazed upon and not possessed by them." 
His power over them is illustrated by a legend which represents 
him as eating up a Rakshasa named Yatapi who assumed the 
form of a ram, and as destroying by a flash of his eye the 

6 aghAsura—agni. 

Raksliasa's brother, Ilvala, who attempted to avenge liim. {See, 
Vatapi.) Rama in his exile wandered to the hermitage of 
Agastya with 8ita and Lakshma??a. The sage received him with 
the greatest kindness, and became his friend, adviser, and pro- 
tector. He gave him tlie bow of Yish/?u ; and when Rama was 
restored to his kingdom, the sage accompanied him to Ayodhya. 

The name of Agastya holds a great place also in Tamil litera- 
ture, and he is " venerated in the south as the first teacher of 
science and Hterature to the primitive Dravi(/ian tribes;" so says 
Pr, Caldwell, who thinks " we shall not greatly err in placing 
the era of Agastya in the seventh, or at least in the sixth cen- 
tury B.C." AVilson also had previously testified to the same 
effect: "The traditions of the south of India ascribe to Agastya 
a principal share in the formation of the Tamil language and 
literature, and the general tenor of the legends relating to him 
denotes liis having been instriimental in the introduction of tlie 
Hindu religion and literature into the Peninsula." 

AGHASURA. (Agha the Asura.) Aii Asura who was Kansa's 
general. lie assumed the form of a vast serpent, and Knsh?ia'G 
companions, the cowherds, entered its mouth, mistaking it for a 
mountain cavern : but K/-/sh?ta rescued them. 

AGNAYl. Wife of Agni. She is seldom alluded to in the 
Yeda and is not of any importance. 

AGXEYA. Son of Agni, a name of Kfirttikeya or ]\[ars ; 
also an appellation of the Muni Agastya and others. 

AGNEYASTRA. 'The weapon of fire.' Given by Bharad- 
waja to, the son of Agni, and by him to Dro72a. A 
similar weapon was, according to the Yish?m PuraTia, given by 
the sage Aurva to his pupil King Sagara, and with it "he 
conriuered the tribes of barbarians who had invaded his patri- 
monial possessions." 

AGNEYA PURAA^A. See Agni Pura??a. 

AGNI. (Nom. Agnis= Ignis.) Fire, one of the most ancient 
and most sacred objects of Hindu worship. He appears in three 
phases — in heaven as the sun, in mid-air as lightning, on earth 
as ordinary lire. Agni is one of the chief deities of the Yedas, 
and gj'cat numbers of tlie hviims are addressed to him, more 
indfod llinii to any (itluT god. IFe is one of the tlirec greatdeities 
— Agni, \;\\\\ ((.!• Indiii), niid Sfivya — who respectively preside 
over eartli, air, and sky, and arc all e(]ual in dignity. "He is 

AGNI. 7 

considered as the mediator between men and gods, as protector 
of men and their homes, and as witness of their actions ; hence 
his invocation at all solemn occasions, at the nuptial ceremony, 
tfec. Fire has ceased to be an object of Avorship, but is held in 
honour for the part it performs in sacrifices." Agni is repre- 
sented as having seven tongues, each of which has a distinct 
name, for licking up the butter used in sacritices. He is 
guardian of the south-east quarter, being one of the eight loka- 
palas (q.v.), and his region is called Pura-jyotis. 

In a celebrated hymn of the i^ig-veda attributed to Yasish/ha, 
Indra and other gods are called upon to destroy the Kravyads 
* the flesh-eaters,' or Rakshas enemies of the gods. Agni himself 
is also a Kravyad, and as such he takes an entirely different 
character. He is represented under a form as hideous as the 
beings he is invoked to devour. He sharpens his two iron tusks, 
puts his enemies into his mouth and swallows them. He heats the 
edges of his shafts and sends them into the hearts of the Rakshas. 

"He appears in the progress of mythological personifica- 
tion as a son of Angiras, as a king of the Pitv/s or Manes, 
as a Marut, as a gTandson of ASawc^ila, as one of the seven 
sages or ^/shis, during the reign of Tamasa the fourth Manu," 
and as a star. In the Maha-bharata Agni is represented as hav- 
ing exhausted his vigour by devouring too many oblations, and 
desiring to consume the whole Kha?z^ava forest as a means of 
recruiting his strength. He was prevented by Indra, but having 
obtained the assistance of K?7'shwa and Arjuna, he baffled Indra 
and accomplished his object. In the Vish?iu Purawa he is 
called Abhimani, and the eldest son of Brahma. His wife was 
Swaha; by her he had tliree sons, Pavaka, Pavamana, and ^S'uchi, 
and these had forty-five sons; altogether forty-nine persons, 
identical with the forty-nine fires, which forty-nine fires the 
Vayu Pura?^a endeavours to discriminate. He is described in 
the Hari-vansa as clothed in black, having smoke for liis stan- 
dard and head-piece, and carrying a flaming javehn. He has 
four hands, and is borne in a chariot drawn by red horses, and 
the seven winds are the wheels of his car. He is accompanied 
by a ram, and sometimes he is rejDresented riding on that 
animal. The representations of him vary. 

The names and epithets of Agni are many — Yahni. Anala, 
Pavaka, Yaii'wanara, son of Yiswanara, the sun ; Abja-liasta, 


' lotus in hand ; ' Dhiinia-ketu, * whose sign is smoke ; ' Hutiusa 
or Huta-bhuj, * dcvourer of offerings ; ' ^Siichi or /S'ukra, ' the 
bright;' Eohita^wa, 'having red horses;' Chhaga-ratha, 'ram- 
rider;' Jatavedas (q.v.); Sapta-jihva, ' seven-tongued ; ' Tomara- 
dliara, ' javeHn-bearer. ' 

AGXI-DAGDHAS. Pit?-/s, or Planes, who when alive kept 
up the household flame and presented oblations with fire. Those 
who did not do so were called An-agni dagdhas. See Pitris. 

AGNI PXJRAA^A. Tliis Purawa derives its name from its 
having been communicated originally by Agni, the deity of fire, 
to the Muni Vasish/ha, for the purpose of instructing him in the 
twofold knowledge of Brahma. Its contents are variously 
specified as " sixteen thousand, fifteen thousand, and fourteen 
thousand stanzas." This work is devoted to the glorification 
of /Siva, but its contents are of a very varied and cyclopsedical 
character. It has portions on ritual and mystic worship, 
cosmical descriptions, chapters on the duties of kings and the 
art of war, which have the appearance of being extracted from 
Bome older work, a chapter on law from the text-book of 
Yajnawalkya, some chapters on medicine from the Susruta, and 
some treatises on rhetoric, prosody, and grammar according to the 
rules of Pingala and Pawini. Its motley contents " exclude it 
from any legitimate claims to be regarded as a Pura7ia, and prove 
that its origin cannot be very remote." The text of this Purazia 
is now in course of publication in the Bihliotheca Indica, edited 
by Riijendra Lai Mitra. 

AGNISHWATTAS. PitWs or Manes of the gods, who 
when living upon earth did not maintain their domestic fires 
or offer burnt-sacrifices. According to some authorities they 
were descendants of Marichi. They are also identified with the 
seasons. See Pitris. 

AGNIYE5A. A sage, the son of Agni, and an early writer 
on medicine. 

ATIALYA. Wife of the jRishi Gautama, and a very beautiful 
woman. In the RfimayaTza it is stated that she was the first 
woman made by Bralimii, and that he gave her to Gautama. 
She was seduced by Indra, Avho had to suffer for his adultery. 
One version of tlie Ramayay^a represents her as knowing the 
god and being flattered by his condescension ; but anotlicr ver- 
sion states that tlic god assumed the form of her husband, and 


so deceived her. Another story is that Iiidra secured the help 
of the moon, who assumed the form of a cock and crowed at 
midnight. This roused Gautama to his morning's devotions, when 
Indra went in and took his place. Gautama expelled Ahalya 
from his hermitage, and deprived her of her prerogative of being 
the most beautiful woman in the world, or, according to another 
statement, he rendered her invisible. She was restored to her 
natural state by Rama and reconciled to her husband. This 
seduction is explained mythically by Kumarda Bha^/a as Indra 
(the sun's) carrying away the shades of night — the name Ahalya, 
by a strained etymology, being made to signify 'night.' 

AHI. A serpent. A name of Vritra, the Vedic demon of 
drought : but Ahi and Vritra are sometimes " distinct, and mean, 
most probably, differently formed clouds." — WiUon. 

AHI-CHHATRA, AHI-KSHETRA. A city mentioned in 
the Maha-bharata as lying north of the Ganges, and as being the 
capital of Northern Panchala. It is apparently the Adisadra of 
Ptolemy, and its remains are visible near Eam-nagar. 

AINDRI. ' Son of Indra.' An appellation of Arjuna. 

AIRAYATA. 'A fine elephant.' An elephant produced at 
the churning of the ocean, and appropriated by the god Indra. 
The derivation of this name is referred to the word Iravat, 
signifying 'produced from water.' He is guardian of one of the 
points of the compass. See, Loka-pala. 

AITAREYA. The name of a Brahma??a, an Ara?iyaka, and 
an XJpanishad of the -K/g-veda. The BrahmaTia has been edited 
and translated by Dr. Haug ; the text of the Ara^z-yaka has been 
published in the B'lhliotheca Indica by Rajendra Lala, and there 
is another edition. The Upanishad has been translated by Dr. 
Roer in the same series. " The Aitareya Ara^iyaka consists of five 
books, each of which is called Ara?^yaka. The second and third 
books form a separate Upanishad, and a still further subdivision 
here takes place, inasmuch as the four last sections of the second 
book, which are particularly consonant with the doctrines of the 
Vedanta system, pass as the Aitareyopanishad."^/F(gZ)gr. 

A J A. 'Unborn.' An epithet applied to many of the gods. 
A prince of the Solar race, sometimes said to be the son of 
Raghu, at others the son of Dilipa, son of Raghu. He was 
tlie husband chosen at her swayam-vara by IndumatI, daughter 
of the Raja of Vidarbha, and was the father of Dasaratha and 


grandfather of Rama. The Raghu-van^a relates how on his way 
to the swayam-vara he was annoyed by a wild elephant and 
ordered it to be shot. "Wlien the elephant was mortally wounded, 
a beautiful figure issued from it, which declared itself a gand- 
harva who had been transformed into a mad elephant for derid- 
ing a lioly man. The gandharva was delivered, as it had been 
foretold to him, hy Aja, and he gave the prince some arrows 
which enabled him to excel in the contest at the swayam-vara. 
AMien Dasaratha grew up, Aja ascended to Indra's heaven. 

AJAGAVA. The ' primitive bow ' of ^'iva, which fell from 
heaven at the birth of Pr?'thu. 

AJA]\IILA. A Brahman of Kanauj, who married a slave and 
had children, of whom he was very fond. 

AJATA->SfATRU. 'One whose enemy is unborn.' i. A 
king of Kusi, mentioned in the Upanishads, who was very 
learned, and, although a Ivshatriya, instructed the Brahman 
Gargya-balaki. 2. A name of >Siva. 3. Of Yudhi-shfliira. 4. 
A king of ]\fathura who reigned in the time of Buddha. 

AJAYA-PALA. Author of a 8ansk>-/t vocabulary of some 

AJIGAKTTA. A Brfdiman 7?/Vlii who sold his son SxavAh- 
*-ephas to be a sacrifice. 

AJITA. ' Unconquered. ' A title given to Vish/m, >Siva, 
and many others. There were classes of gods bearing this name 
in several Manwantaras. 

AKRU^RA. A Yadava and uncle of Kr/sh/^. He was son 
of >S'wa-plialka and Gandini. It was he who took Kr?'sh?ia and 
Hama to ^Nfathura when the former broke the great bow. He is 
chiefly noted as being the holder of the Syamantaka gem. 

AKSHA. The eldest son of RavaTza, slain by Hanuman. 
Also a name of GarucZa. 

AKSHA MALA. A name of Arundhati (q.v.). 

AKULT. An Asura priest. See Kilatfikuli. 

AKUPARA. A tortoise or turtle. The tortoise on whicli the 
earth rests. 

AKUTI. A daughter of Manu Swfiyambhuva and /S'ata-riipa, 
whom he gave to the patriarch Ruchi. She bore twins, Yajna 
and Dakshiz/a, who became husband and wife and had twelve 
pons, tlie deities called Yilmas. 

AL.MvA. The cajtilal of Jvuvuia and tlic abode of the 


gandliarvas on jVIount Mem. It is also called A'asu-dhara, 
Vasu-sthall, and Prabhii. 

ALAKA-NAXDA. One of the four brandies of the river 
Ganga, wliicli flows south to the country of Bharata. This is 
said by the Vaishwavas to be the terrestrial Gangii which ^S'iva 
received upon his head. 

ALAMBUSHA. A great Rakshasa worsted by Satyaki in 
the great war of the Maha-bharata, and finally killed by Gha/ot- 
kacha. He is said to be a son of itishyasr/nga. 

ALAYUDHA. A Rakshasa killed after a fierce combat by 
Gha/otkacha in the war of the Maha-bharata (Fauche, ix. 278). 

AMARA-KAA^IAKxi. 'Peak of the immortals.' A place 
of pilgrimage in the table-land east of the Vindhyas. 

AMARA-KOSHA. This title may be read in two ways — 'the 
immortal vocabulary,' or, more appropriately, ' the vocabulary of 
Amara or Amara Sinha.' " The oldest vocabulary hitherto known, 
and one of the most celebrated vocabularies of the classical 
Sanskr/t." It has been the subject of a great number of com- 
mentaries. The text has been often printed. There is an 
edition published in India with an English interpretation and 
amiotations by Colebrooke, and the text with a French transla- 
tion has been printed by Deslongchamps. 

AMARA SINHA The author of the vocabidary called 
Amara-kosha. He was one of the nine gems of the court of 
Yikrama. (See Nava-ratna. ) Wilson inclines to place him in the 
first century B.C. Lassen j)laces him about the middle of the 
third century a.d., and others incline to bring him down later. 

AMARA V ATI. The capital of Indra's heaven, renowned for 
its greatness and splendour. It is situated somewhere in the 
vicinity of Meru. It is sometimes called Deva-pura, ' city of the 
gods,' and Piisha-bhasa, * sun-splendour.' 

AMARE^SWARA. 'Lord of the immortals.' A title of 
Vish?m, 6'iva, and Indra. Name of one of tlie twelve great 
lingas. See Linga. 

AMARU-/SATAKA. A poem consisting of a hundred stanzas 
written by a king named Amaru, but by some attributed to the 
philosopher ^ankara, who assumed the dead form of that king 
for the 23urpose of conversing with his widow. The verses are 
of an erotic character, but, like many others of the same kind, a 
religious or philosophical interpretation lias been found for them. 


There is a translatiou in Freuch by AjDudy with the text, and 
a translation in German by RUckert. 

AMBA. ' ^Mother.' i. A name of Durgi. 2. The eldest 
/laughter of a king of IsSxsl. She and her sisters Ambika and 
Ambrdika were carried off by Bhishma to be the wives of Vichitra- 
vfrya. Amba had been previously betrothed to a Raja of ^alwa, 
and Bhishma sent her to him, but the Raja rejected her because 
she had been in another man's house. She retu^ed to the forest 
and engaged in devotion to obtain revenge of Bhishma. 5'iva 
favoured \wv, and promised her the desired vengeance in another 
birth. Then she ascended the pile and was born again as ^ik- 
hdiudm, M'ho slew Bhishma. 

A!MBALIKA. The younger Tvidow of Vichitra-virya and 
mother of V&ndu by Vyasa. See Maha-bharata. 

AMBARISHA. i. A king of Ayodhya, twenty-eighth in 
descent from Ikshwaku. {See AS'unaAsephas.) 2. An appellation 
of >S'iva. 3. x^Tame of one of the eighteen hells. 

AMBASHTHA. A military people inhabiting a country of 
the same name in the middle of the Panjab ; probably the 
' A'jL^dsrai of Ptolemy. 2. The medical tribe in Manu. 

A^MBIKA. I. A sister of Rudra, but in later times identified 
witli Uma. 2. Elder widow of Vichitra-virya and mother of 
Dhrita-rash^ra by Vyasa. See Maha-bharata. 

AMBIKEYA. A metron^^mic ajiplicable to Ganesa, Skanda, 
and Dh?7ta-rash/ra. 

AMXAYA. Sacred tradition. The Vedas in the aggregate. 

AMi?7TA. 'Immortal.' A god. The water of life. The 
term -was known to the Vedas, and seems to have been applied 
to various things offered in sacrifice, but more especially to the 
Soma juice. It is also called Nir-jara and Piyiisha. In later 
times it was the water of life produced at the churning of the 
ocean by the gods and demons, the legend of which is told Avitli 
some variations in the RamayaTza, the Maha-bharata, and the 
Pura??as. The gods, feeling their weakness, having been worsted 
by the demons, and being, according to one authority, under the 
ban of a holy sage, repaired to Vish?iu, beseeching him for 
renewed vigour and the gift of immortality. He directed them to 
chum the ocean for the Am?-ita and other precious things which 
had boon lost. The story as told in the Vish?^u Purawa has been 
rendered into verse by I'rofessor Williams thus : — 


" The gods addressed the mighty Vishnu thus — 
* Conquered in battle by the evil demons, 
• We fly to thee for succour, soul of all ; 
Pity, and by thy might deliver us ! ' 
Hari, the lord, creator of the world. 
Thus by the gods implored, all graciously 
Replied — ' Your strength shall be restored, ye gods ; 
Only accomplish what I now command. 
Unite yourselves in peaceful combination 
With these your foes ; collect all plants and herbs 
Of diverse kinds from every quarter ; cast them 
Into the sea of milk ; take Mandara, 
The mountain, for a churning stick, and Vasuki, 
The serpent, for a rope ; together churn 
The ocean to produce the beverage — 
Source of all strength and immortality — 
Then reckon on my aid ; I will take care 
Your foes shall share your toil, but not partake 
In its reward, or drink th' immortal draught.' 
Thus by the god of gods advised, the host 
United in alliance with the demons. 
Straightway they gathered various herbs and cast them 
Into the waters, then they took the mountain 
To serve as churning-stafF, and next the snake 
To serve as cord, and in the ocean's midst 
Hari himself, present in tortoise-form. 
Became a pivot for the churning- staff. 
Then did they churn the sea of milk ; and first 
Out of the waters rose the sacred Cow, 
God-worshipped Surabhi, eternal fountain 
Of milk and ofl'erings of butter ; next. 
While holy Siddhas wondered at the sight. 
With eyes all rolling, Varum uprose, 
Goddess of wine. Then from the whirlpool sprang 
Fair Parijata, tree of Paradise, delight 
Of heavenly maidens, with its fragrant blossoms 
Perfuming the whole world, Th' Apsarasas, 
Troop of celestial nymphs, matchless in grace, 
Perfect in loveliness, were next produced. 
Then from the sea uprose the cool-rayed moon, 
Which Maha-deva seized ; terrific poison 
Next issued from the waters ; this the snake-gods 
Claimed as their 0"v\rQ. Then, seated on a lotus, 
Beauty's bright goddess, peerless >SrI, arose 
Out of the waves ; and with her, robed in white. 
Came forth Dhanwantari, the gods' physician. 


Higli in liis hand he bore the cup of nectar — 
Life-giving draught — longed for by gods and demons. 
Then had the demons forcibly borne off 
The cup, and drained the precious beverage; 
Had not the mighty Vish/iu interposed. 
Bewildering them, he gave it to the gods ; 
AVhereat, incensed, the demon troops assailed 
The host of heaven, but they with strength renewed. 
Quaffing the draught, struck down their foes, who fell 
Headlong through space to lowest depths of hell ! " 

There is an elaborate article on the subject in Goldstiicker's 
Dictionary. In after-times, Yislmu's bird GaruiZa is said to 
have stolen the Amrfta, but it was recovered by Indxa. 

AXADHi?/SH2T. A son of Ugrasena and general of the 

AXAKA-DU:N'DUBHL 'Drums.' A name of Vasu-deva, who 
was so called because the drums of heaven resounded at his birth. 

AXAXDA. 'Joy, happiness.' An appellation of ^iva, also 
of Bala-rama. 

ANAXDA GIRL A follower of >Sankaracharya, and a 
teacher and expositor of his doctrines. He w^as the author of a 
Sanhara-vijaya, and lived about the tenth century. 

AXAXDA-LAHARI. ' The w^ave of joy.' A poem attributed 
to ASankaracharya. It is a hymn of praise addressed to ParvatI, 
consort of >Siva, mixed up with mystical doctrine. It has been 
translated into French by Troyer as LOnde de Beatitude. 

AXAXGA 'The bodiless.' A name of Kama, god of love. 

AXANTA. 'The infinite.' A name of the serpent ^eslia. 
The term is also applied to Vishnu and other deities. 

ANARAZVYA. A descendant of Ikshwiiku and king of 
Ayodhyii. According to the Ramayawa, many kings submitted 
to Rava7?a without fighting, but when Anara?iya was summoned 
to fight or submit, he preferred to fight. His army was over- 
come and he was thrown from his chariot. Rava^aa triumphed 
over his prostrate foe, who retorted that he had been beaten by 
fate, not by Ravawa, and predicted the death of Rrn'a7?a at the 
hands of Rama, a descendant of Anara??ya. 

AXARGHA RAGHA V A. A drama in seven acts by Murfiri 
Misra, possibly written in the thirteenth or fourteenth century. 
Raghava or Rama is the hero of the piece. " It has no dramatic 
merit, being deficient in character, action, situation, and interest 


As a poem it presents occasionally poetic thoughts, but they are 
very few, and are lost amid pages of flat commonplace, quaint 
conceit, hyperbolical extravagance, and obscure mythology." — 
JFilson. It is also called, after its author, Murari Na/aka. 

AN-ARYA. 'Unworthy, vile.' People who were not Aryans, 
barbarians of other races and religion. 

ANAStJYA. 'Charity.' Wife of the i?ishi Atri. In the 
Ramaya?^ she appears living with her husband in a hermitage 
in the forest south of Chitra-kii/a, She was very pious and 
given to austere devotion, through which she had obtained 
miraculous powers. When Sita visited her and her husban( I, 
she was very attentive and kind, and gave Sita an ointment 
which was to keep her beautiful for ever. She was mother of 
the ii-ascible sage Durvasas. A friend of >S'akuntala. 

ANDHAKA. i. A demon, son of Kasyapa and Diti, with a 
thousand arms and heads, two thousand eyes and feet, and called 
Andliaka because he walked like a blind man, although he sa^v 
very well. He was slain by /Siva when he attempted to carry 
off the Parijiita tree from Swarga. From this feat iS'iva obtained 
the appellation Andhaka-ripu, ' foe of Andhaka.' 2. A grand- 
son of Krosh^ri and son of Yudhajit, of the Yadava race, 
who, together with his brother Yrisli?ii, is the ancestor of the 
celebrated family of Andliaka- Yrish^iis. 3. The name was borne 
by many others of less note. 

ANDHRA, ANTDHRA. Xame of a country and peoj)le in 
the south of India, the country of Telingana. It was the seat 
of a powerful dynasty, and the people were known to Pliny as 
gens Andarce. 

ANDHRA-BH^/TYA. A dynasty of kings that reigned in 
Magadha somewhere about the beginning of the Christian era. 
The name seems to indicate that its founder was a native of 
Andlira, now Telingana. 

AKGA. I. The country of Bengal proper about Bhagalpur. 
Its capital was Champa, or Champa-pim. {See Anu.) 2. A sup- 
plement to the Vedas. See Vedanga. 

AXGADA. I. Son of Lakshma?m and king of Angadi, 
capital of a country near the Himalaya. 2. Son of Gada (brother 
of K?ish?2a) by Vn'hati. 3. Son of Ball, the monkey king of Kish- 
kindhya. He was protected by Rama and fought on his sido 
against Ravawa. 


ANGIRAS. A Pikhi to whom many hymns of the i2ig-veda 
are attributed. He was one of the seven Maharshis or great 
it/shis, and also one of the ten Prajapatis or progenitors of man- 
kind. In later times Angiras was one of the inspired lawgivers, 
and also a writer on astronomy. As an astronomical personifica- 
tion he is BrOiaspati, the regent of the planet Jupiter, or the 
planet itself. He was also called "the priest of the gods," and 
"the lord of sacrifice." There is much ambiguity about the 
name. It comes from the same root as agnij ' fire,' and resembles 
that word in sound. This may be the reason why the name 
Angiras is used as an epithet or synonjTue of Agni. The name 
is also employed as an epithet for the father of Agni, and it is 
found more especially connected with the hymns addressed to 
Agni, Indra, and the luminous deities. According to one state- 
ment, Angiras was the son of Uru by Agne}a, the daughter of 
Agni, although, as above stated, the name is sometimes given to 
the father of Agni. Another account represents that he was 
born from the mouth of Brahma. His wives were Sm?7'ti, 
' memory, ' daughter of Daksha ; iS'raddlia , ' faith,' daughter of 
Kardama ; and Swadlia ' oblation,' and Sati, ' truth,' two other 
daughters of Daksha. His daughters were the ^ichas or Vaidik 
hymns, and his sons were the Manes called Havishmats. But he 
had other sons and daughters, and among the former were 
Utathya, Brihaspati, and Marka?z^eya. According to the Bhaga- 
vata Purawa " he begot sons possessing Brahmanical glory on the 
wife of Rathi-tara, a Kshatriya who was childless, and these 
persons were afterwards called descendants of Angiras." 

ANGIRASAS, ANGIRASES. Descendants of Angiras. 
" They share in the nature of the legends attributed to Angiras. 
Angiras being the father of Agni, they are considered as 
descendants of Agni himself, who is also called the first of 
the Angirasas. Like Angiras, they occur in hjonns addressed to 
the luminous deities, and, at a later period, they become for the 
most part personifications of light, of luminous bodies, of divi- 
sions of time, of celestial phenomena, and fires adapted to 
peculiar occasions, as the full and change of the moon, or to 
particular rites, as the Aswa-medha, Raja-suya, &c." — Goldstilcher. 
In the /Sataj^atha Bralima?ia they and the Adityas are said to 
have descended from Prajapati, and that " they strove together 
for the priority in ascending to heaven." 


Some descendants of Angiras by the Kshatriya wife of a 
childless king are mentioned in the Pura/^as as two tribes of 
Angirasas who were Brahmans as well as Kshatriyas, 

The hymns of the Atharva-veda are called Angirasas, and the 
descendants of Angiras were specially charged with the protec- 
tion of sacrifices performed in accordance with the Atharva-veda. 
From this cause, or from their being associated with the descen- 
dants of Atharvan, they were called distinctively Atharvrmgirasas. 

ANGIRASAS. A class of Pitris (q.v.). 

ANILA. ' The wind.' See Vayii. 

ANILAS. A ga?ia or class of deities, forty-nine in number, 
connected with Anila, the wind. 

ANIMISHA. 'Who does not wink.' A general epithet of 
all gods. 

ANIRUDDHA. 'Uncontrolled.' Son of Pradyiimna and 
grandson of K?'^sh?^a. He married his cousin, Su-bhadra. A 
Daitya princess named Usha, daughter of Ba?ia, fell in love with 
him, and had him brought by magic influence to her apartments 
in her father's city of Sonita-pura. Ba/ia sent some guards to 
seize him, but the valiant youth, taking an iron club, slew his 
assailants. Ba?ia then brought his magic powers to bear and 
secured him. On discovering whither Aniruddlia had been 
carried, Krish??a, Bala-rama, and Pradyumna went to rescue 
him. A great battle was fought ; Ba?ia was aided by /S'iva and 
by Skanda, god of war, the former of whom was overcome by 
Kr'/sh?m, and the latter was wounded by Garu(ia and Pradyumna. 
Bawa was defeated, but his life was spared at the intercession 
of /Siva, and Aniruddlia was carried home to Dwaraka with 
Usha as his wife. He is also called Jhashanka and Usha-pati 
He had a son named Vajra. 

AN J AN A. I. The elephant of the west or south-west quarter. 
2. A serpent with many heads descended from Kadru. 

ANJANA. Mother of Hanumat by Vayu, god of the wind. 

ANNA-PURiVA. ' Full of food. ' A form of Durga, worshipped 
for her power of giving food Cf. the Roman Anna Perenna. 

AN-SUMAT, ANaSUMAN. Son of Asamanjas and grandson 
of Sagara. He brought back to earth the horse which had been 
carried off from Sagara's Aswa-medha sacrifice, and he discovered 
the remains of that king's sixty thousand sons, who had been 
killed by the fire of the wTath of Kapila. 



AXTAIvA. ' The ender.' A name of Yama, judge of the dead, 

ANTARlKSHA The atmosphere or firmament between 
heaven and earth, the sphere of the Gandharvas, Apsarases, and 

ANTARYEDI. The Doab or country between the Ganges 
and the Jumna. 

ANU. Son of King Yayati by his wife Sarmish/ha, a Daitya 
princess. He refused to exchange his youthful vigour for the 
curse of decrepitude passed upon his father, and in consequence 
his father cursed him that his posterity should not possess 
dominion. Notwithstanding this, he had a long series of de- 
scendants, and among them were Anga, Banga, Kalinga, &c., 
Avho gave their names to the countries they dwelt in. 

AXUKRAMAA^I, ANUKRAMAiVIKA. An index or table 
of contents, particularly of a Veda. The Anukrama?as of the 
Vedas follow the order of each Sanhita, and assign a poet, a 
metre, and a deity to each hymn or prayer. There are several 

ANUMATI. The moon on its fifteenth day, when just short 
of its fuU. In this stage it is personified and worshipped as a 

ANU/S'ARA. A Rakshasa or other demon. 

ANUVINDA A king of Ujjayini. See Yinda 

APARANTA. 'On the western border.' A country which 
is named in the Yish?iu Pura»a in association with countries in 
the north ; and the Yayu Pura7ia reads the name as Aparita, 
which Wilson says is a northern nation. The Hari-vansa, how- 
ever, mentions it as "a country conquered by Parasu-rama from 
the ocean," and upon this the translator Langiois observes : 
" Tradition records that Parasu-rama besought Yaru7ia, god of 
the sea, to grant him a land which he might bestow uj^on the 
Erahmans in expiation of the blood of the Kshatriyas. Yaru/^a 
withdrew his waves from the heights of Ookar^a (near 
Mangalore) down to Cape Comorin" {As. Researches, v. i). 
Tliis agrees with tlic traditions concerning Parasu-rama and 
jNIalabar, but it is not at all clear how a gift of territory to 
Erahmans could expiate the slaughter of the Kshatriyas by a 
Erahman and in behalf of Erahmans. 

APARYA. According to the liari-vansa, the eldest daughter 
of Ilimavat and Tvlena. She and her two sisters, Eka-par;ia and 


Eka-pa/ala, gave themselves up to austerity and practised 
extraordinary abstinence; but while her sisters lived, as their 
names denote, upon one leaf or on one pa/ala (Blgnonia) re- 
spectively, Apar?ia managed to subsist upon nothing, and even 
lived without a leaf (a-parnd). This so distressed her mother 
that she cried out in deprecation, 'XJ-ma,' 'Oh, don't.' Aparwa 
thus became the beautiful Uma, the wife of *S'iva. 

APASTAMEA. An ancient writer on ritual and law, 
author of Siitras connected with the Black Yajur-veda and of a 
Dharma-sastra. He is often quoted in law-books. Two recen- 
sions of the Taittirlya Sanhita are ascribed to him or his school. 
The Sutras have been translated by Biililer, and are being re- 
printed in the Sacred Books of the Bast by Max Miiller. 

APAVA. *Wlio sports in the waters.' A name of the 
same import as Naraya?2a, and having a similar though not an 
identical application. According to the Brahma Pura^^a and the 
Hari-vansa, Apava performed the office of the creator Brahma, 
and divided himself into two parts, male and female, the former 
begetting offspring upon the latter. The result was the produc- 
tion of Vish?iu, who created Viraj, who brought the first man 
into the world. According to the Maha-bharata, Apava is a name 
of the Prajapati Vasishflia. The name of Apava is of late intro- 
duction and has been vaguely used. Wilson says : " According 
to the commentator, the first stage was the creation of Apava or 
Vasish/ha or Viraj by Yish?zu, through the agency of Brahma, 
and the next was that of the creation of Manu by Viraj." 

APSAEAS. The Apsarases are the celebrated nymphs of 
Indra's heaven. The name, which signifies ' moving in the water,' 
has some analogy to that of Aphrodite. They are not prominent 
in the Vedas, but Urvasi and a few others are mentioned. In 
Manu they are said to be the creations of the seven Manus. In 
the epic poems they become prominent, and the Eamaj^awa and 
the Purawas attribute their origin to the churning of the ocean. 
(See Am?'ita.) It is said that when they came forth from the 
waters neither the gods nor the Asuras would have them for 
wives, so they became common to all. They have the appella- 
tions of Suranganas, ' wives of the gods,' and Sumad-atmajas, 
* daughters of pleasure.' 

" Then from the agitated deep up sprung 
The legion of Apsarases, so named 


That to tlie watery element tliey owed 
Tlieii- being. Myriads were they born, and all 
In vesture heavenly clad, and heavenly gems : 
Yet more divine their native semblance, rich 
With all the gifts of grace, of youth and beauty. 
A train innumerous followed ; yet thus fair, 
Kor god nor demon sought their wedded love : 
Thus Ea;j;hava ! they still remain — their charms 
The conmion treasui'e of the host of heaven." 

— {Rdmdijana) Wilson. 

In the Pura7^as various ga/ias or classes of tliem are mentioned 
with distinctive names. The Vayn Pura^ia enumerates fourteen, 
the Ilari-vansa seven classes. They are again distinguished as 
being rftu'ivX-a, 'divine,' oilaukika, 'worldly.' The former are said 
to be ten in number and the latter thirty-four, and these are the 
heavenly charmers who fascinated heroes, as Urvasi, and allured 
austere sages from their devotions and penances, as Menaka and 
Eambha. The Ka^i-khawf/a says " there are thirty-five millions 
of them, but only one thousand and sixty are the principal." 
Tlie Apsarases, then, are fairyhke beings, beautiful and volup- 
tuous. They are the wives or the mistresses of the Gandharvas, 
and are not prudish in the dispensation of their favours. Their 
amours on earth have been numerous, and they are the rew^ards 
in Indra's paradise held out to heroes who fall in battle. They 
have the power of changing their forms ; they are fond of dice, 
and give luck to whom they favour. In the Atharva-veda they 
are not so amiable ; they are supposed to produce madness (love's 
madness?), and so there are charms and incantations for use 
against them. There is a long and exliaustive article on the 
Apsarases in Goldstlicker's JDidlonary, from which much of 
the above has been adapted. As regards their origin he makes 
the following speculative observations: — "Originally these 
divinities seem to have been personifications of the vapours 
wliich are attracted by the sun and form into mist or clouds ; 
their character may be thus interpreted in the few hymns of tho 
it'ig-veda where mention is made of them. At a subsequent 
period . . . (their attributes expanding with those of their 
associates the Gandliarvas), they became divinities which repre- 
sent phenomena or objects both of a physical and ethical kind 
closely associated with that life " (the elementary life of heaven). 

AKAiVYAKA. 'Belonging to the forest.' Certain religious 


and pliilosopliical writings which expound the mystical sense 
of the ceremonies, discuss the nature of God, &c. They are 
attached to the Brahma?? as, and intended for study in the 
forest by Brahmans who have retired from the distractions of the 
world. There are four of them extant : i. Brihad ; 2. Taittiriya; 
3. Aitareya ; and 4, Kaushitaki AraTzyaka. The Ara??yakas are 
closely connected with the Upanishads, and the names are 
occasionally used interchangeably: thus the Brihad is called 
indifferently Bn'had Ara;?yaka or Brzhad Ara7^yaka Upani- 
shad ; it is attached to the ^S'atapatha Brahma?za. The Aitareya 
Upanishad is a part of the Aitareya Brahma?ia, and the Kaushi- 
taki AraTiyaka consists of three chapters, of which the third is the 
Kaushitaki Upanishad. " Traces of modern ideas (says Max 
Miiller) are not wanting in the Ara?zyakas, and the very fact 
that they are destined for a class of men who had retired from 
the world in order to give themselves up to the contemplation of 
the highest problems, shows an advanced and already declining 
and decaying society, not unlike the monastic age of the 
Christian world." " In one sense the Ara?iyakas are old, for they 
reflect the very dawn of thought ; in another they are modern, 
for they speak of that dawn with all the experience of a past 
day. There are passages in these works unequalled in any 
language for grandeur, boldness, and simplicity. These passages 
are the relics of a better age. But the generation which became 
the chronicler of those Titanic wars of thought was a small race ; 
they were dwarfs, measuring the footsteps of departed giants." 

ARANYA#I. In the itig-veda, the goddess of woods and 

ARBUDA. ]\Iount Abu. Name of the people living in the 
vicinity of that mountain. 

ARBUDA. * A serpent.' !N"ame of an Asura slain by India. 

ARDHA-NARl. 'Half-woman.' A form in which ^S'iva is 
represented as half-male and half-female, typifying the male and 
female energies. There are several stories accounting for this 
form. It is called also Ardhanarisa and Parangada. 

ARISHJA. A Daitya, and son of Bali, who attacked K?'?sh?za 
in the form of a savage bull, and was slain by him. 

ARJUNA. ' Wliite.' The name of the third Pandu prince. 
All the five brothers were of divine paternity, and Arjuna's 
father was Indra, hence he is called Aindri. A brave warrior. 


liigli-minded, generous, upright, and handsome, the most pro- 
minent and the most amiable and interesting of the five hrothers. 
He Avas taught the use of arms by Dro7ia, and was his favourite 
pupil By his skill in arms he won Draupadi at her Swayam- 
vara. For an involuntary transgression he imposed upon him- 
self twelve years' exile from his family, and during that time 
he visited Parasu-rama, who gave liim instruction in the use of 
arms. He at this period formed a connection with Uliipi, a 
Naga princess, and by her had a son named Iravat. He also 
married Cliitrangada, the daughter of the king of :Ma?npura, by 
whom he had a son named Babhru-vahana. He visited K?-ish?2a 
at Dwaraka, and there he married Su-bhadra, the sister of 
Kr/shTia, {See Su-bhadra.) By her he had a son named 
Abhimau}-!!. Afterwards he obtained the bow Ga?zf/Iva from 
the god Agni, with which to fight against Indra, and he assisted 
Agni in burning the Khaw^ava forest. Wlien Yudhi-shifhira 
lost the kingdom by gambling, and the five brothers went into 
exile for thirteen years, Arjuna proceeded on a pilgrimage to 
the Himalayas to propitiate the gods, and to obtain from them 
celestial weapons for use in the contemplated war against the 
Kauravas. There he fought with iS'iva, who appeared in the 
guise of a Kirata or mountaineer ; but Arjuna, having found 
out the true character of his adversary, worshipped him, and ^Siva 
gave him the pasupata, one of his most powerful weapons. 
Indra, VaruTia, Yama, and Kuvera came to him, and also pre- 
sented him with their own peculiar w^eapons. Indra, his father, 
carried him in his car to his heaven and to his capital AmaravatI, 
where Arjuna spent some years in the practice of arms. Indra 
sent him against the Daityas of the sea, whom he vanquished, 
and then returned victorious to Indra, who " presented liim 
with a chain of gold and a diadem, and with a war-shell which 
sounded like thunder." In the thirteenth year of exile he 
entered the service of Raja Vira/a, disguised as a eunuch, and 
acted as music and dancing master, but in the end he took a 
leading part in defeating the king's enemies, the king of Trigarta 
und the Kaurava princes, many of whose leading warriors he 
van(,'d in single combat. Preparations for the great struggle 
with the Kauravas now began. Arjuna obtained the personal 
assistance of KnshTia, who acted as his charioteer, and, before 
the gTeat battle began, related to him the Bhagavad-gitiL On 



tlie tenth day of the battle he mortally wounded Bhishma ; on 
the twelfth he defeated Susarman and his four brothers ; on 
the fourteenth he killed Jayadratha ; on the seventeenth, he 
was so stung by some reproaches of his brother, Yudhi-sh^hira, 
that he would have killed him had not Iv?ish?ia interposed. 
On the same day he fought with KarTza, who had made a vow 
to slay him. He was near being vanquished when an accident 
to KarTza's chariot gave Arjuna the opportunity of killing him. 
After the defeat of the Kauravas, Aswatthaman, son of Drowa, 
and two others, who were the sole survivors, made a night attack 
on the camp of the Pa/i-c/avas, and murdered their children. 
Arjuna pursued Aswatthaman, and made him give up the 
precious jewel which he wore upon his head as an amulet. 
"V\nien the horse intended for Yudhi-sh;!hira's Aswa-medha sac- 
rifice was let loose, Arjuna, with his army, followed it through 
many cities and countries, and fought with many Rajas. He 
entered the country of Trigarta, and had to fight his way through. 
He fought also against Yajradatta, who had a famous elephant, 
and against the Saindhavas. At the city of Mardpura he fought 
with his own son, Babhru-vahana, and was killed ; but he was 
restored to life by a Naga charm supplied by his wife UliipT. 
Afterwards he penetrated into the Dakshi/ia or south country, and 
fought with the Nishadas and DravifZians : then went westwards 
to Gujarat, and finally conducted the horse back to Hastinapura, 
where the great sacrifice was performed. He was subsequently 
called to Dwaraka by Ivnshwa amid the internecine struggles 
of the Yadavas, and there he performed the funeral ceremonies 
of Yasudeva and of Knsh?ia. Soon after this he retired from 
the world to the Himalayas. {See, Maha-bharata. ) He had a 
son named Iravat by the serpent nymph Ulupi ; Babhru-vahana, 
by the daughter of the king of Mampura, became king of that 
country ; Abhimanyu, born of his wife Su-bhadra, was killed 
in the great battle, but the kingdom of Hastinapura descended 
to his son Parikshit. Arjuna has many appellations : Bibhatsu, 
Gu(ia-kesa, Dhananjaya, Jishmi, Kirl/in, Paka-sasani, Phiilguna, 
Savya-sachin, ^Sweta-vahana, and Partha. 

ARJUNA. Son of K?'ita-vlrya, king of the Haihayas. He 
is better known under his patronymic Kiirta-virya (q.v.). 

ARTHA-aS'ASTRA. The useful arts. IMechanical science. 

ARUA^A. ' Red, rosy.' The dawn, personified as the charioteer 


of the sun. This is of later origin than the Vedic TJshas (q.v.). 
He is said to be the son of Kasyapa and Kadru. He is also 
called Rumra, ' tawny,' and by two epithets of which the mean- 
ing is not obvious, An-uru, ' thighless,' and A.smana, ' stony.' 

ARUXDHATI. The morning star, personified as the wife of 
the it/shi Yasish^ha, and a model of conjugal excellence. 

ARUSHA, ARUSHL ' Red.' ' A red horse.' In the Big- 
veda the red horses or mares of the sun or of fire. The rising sun. 

ARYAX, ARVA 'A horse.' One of the horses of the 
moon. A fabulous animal, half-horse, half-bird, on which the 
Daityas are supposed to ride. 

ARVAYASU. 8ee Raibhya. 

ARYA, ARYAX. 'Loyal, faithful' The name of the im- 
migrant race from which all that is Hindu originated. The 
name by which the people of the jRig-veda " called men of their 
own stock and rehgion, in contradistinction to the Dasyus (or 
Dasas), a term by which we either understand hostile demons 
or the rude aboriginal tribes " of India, who were An-aryas. 

ARYA-BHArA. The earliest known Hindu writer on alge- 
bra, and, according to Colebrooke, " if not the inventor, the 
improver of that analysis," which has made but little advance in 
India since. He was born, according to his own account, at 
Kusuma-pura (Patna), in a.d. 476, and composed his first astro- 
nomical work at the early age of tw^enty-three. His larger work, 

the Arya Slddhdnta, was produced at a riper age. He is pro- 
bably the Andubarius (Ardubarius f) of the Chronichon Faschale, 
and the Arjabahr of the Arabs. Two of his works, the Dasdglti- 

saira and Aryctshtasata, have been edited by Kern under the 
title of Aryabha^Iya. See Whitney in Jour. Arner. Or. Society 
for i860, Dr. Bhau Daji in /. E. A. S. for 1865, and Barth in 
Ilevue Critique for 1875. There is another and later astronomer 
of the same name, distinguished as Laghu Arya-bha/a, i.e., Arya- 
bha/a the Less. 

ARYAIMAN. 'A bosom friend.' i. Chief of the Pitris. 2. 
One of the Adityas. 3. One of the Yiswe-devas. 

ARYA SIDDHANTA. The system of astronomy founded 
by Arya-bha/a in liis work bearing this name. 

ARYAYARTA. 'The land of the Aryas.' The tract between 
the Himalaya and the Yindhya ranges, from the eastern to the 
western sea. — Manu. 


ASAMANJAS. Son of Sagara and Kesini. He was a wild 
and wicked young man, and was abandoned by his father, but 
he succeeded him as king, and, according to the Hari-vansa, he 
was afterwards famous for valour under the name of Panchajana. 

ASAlsTGA. Author of some verses in the i?*g-veda. He was 
son of Playoga, but was changed into a woman by the curse of 
the gods. He recovered his male form by repentance and the 
favour of the i^^shi Medhatithi, to whom he gave abundant 
wealth, and addressed the verses preserved in the Veda. 

AaS'AEA. a Rakshasa or other demon. 

ASHrAVAKRA. A Brahman, the son of Kahof^a, whose 
story is told in the Maha-bharata. Kahotia married a daughter 
of his preceptor, Ucldalaka, but he was so devoted to study that 
he neglected his wife. Wlien she was far advanced in her 
pregnancy, the unborn son was provoked at his father's neglect 
of her, and rebuked him for it. Kahoc?a was angry at the 
child's impertinence, and condemned him to be born crooked ; so 
he came forth with his eight (ashta) limbs crooked (vaJcra) ; hence 
his name. Kaho6?a went to a great sacrifice at the court of 
Janaka, king of Mithila. There was present there a great 
Buddhist sage, who challenged disputations, upon the under- 
standin!^ that whoever was overcome in arcrument should be 
thrown into the river. This was the fate of many, and among 
them of Kahoc?a, who was drowned. In his twelfth year Ash- 
tavakra learned the manner of his father's death, and set out to 
avenge him. The lad was possessed of great ability and wisdom. 
He got the better of the sage who had worsted his father, and 
insisted that the sage should be thrown into the water. The 
sage then declared himself to be a son of YaruTza, god of the 
waters, • who had sent him to obtain Brahmans for officiating at 
a sacrifice by overpowering them in argument and throwing 
them into the water. "Wlien all was explained and set right, 
Kaho(/a directed his son to bathe in the Samanga river, on doing 
which the lad became perfectly straight. A story is told in the 
VisliTiu Pura?ia that Ashtavakra was standing in water perform- 
ing penances when he was seen by some celestial nymj)hs and 
worshipped by them. He was pleased, and told them to ask a 
boon. They asked for the best of men as a husband. He came 
out of the water and offered himself. "When they saw him, 
ugly and crooked in eight places, they laughed in derision. He 


•was angry, and as lie could not recall his blessing, he said that, 
after obtaining it, they should fall into the hands of thieves. 

ASTKNL The Vedic name of the Chinab, and probably the 
origin of the classic Akesines. 

A-.SIRA?^. ' Headless.' Spirits or beings "without heads. 

A/S'^rAKA. Son of MadayantI, the wife of Kalmasha-pada 
or Saudasa, See Kalmusha-pada, 

A6'0KA. A celebrated king of the Maurya dynasty of 
!Magadha, and grandson of its founder, Chandra-gupta. " This 
king is the most celebrated of any in the annals of the 
])uddhists. In the commencement of his reign he followed the 
lirahmanical faith, but became a convert to that of Buddha, and 
a zealous encourager of it. He is said to have maintained in 
liis palace 64,000 Euddhist priests, and to have erected 84,000 
columns (or topes) throughout India. A great convocation of 
liuddhist priests was held in the eighteenth year of his reign, 
which was followed by missions to Ceylon and other places." 
He reigned thirty-six years, from about 234 to 198 B.C., and 
exercised authority more or less direct from Afghanistan to 
Ceylon. This fact is attested by a number of very curious Pali 
inscriptions found engraven upon rocks and pillars, all of them 
of the same purport, and some of them almost identical in words, 
the variations showing little more than dialectic differences. 
Tliat found at Kapur-di-giri, in Afghanistan, is in the Bactrian 
Pali character, written from right to left ; all the others are in 
the India Pali character, written from left to right. The latter 
is the oldest known form of the character now in use in India, 
but the modern letters have departed so far from their proto- 
types that it required all the acumen and diligence of James 
I'rinsep to decipher the ancient forms. These inscriptions show 
.1 great tenderness for animal life, and are Buddliist in their 
diaracter, but they do not enter upon the distinctive peculiarities 
of that religion. The name of A^'oka never occurs in them ; the 
king who set them up is called Piyadasi (Sans. Priya-dar^i), 'the 
beautiful,' and he is entitled Devanam-piya, * the beloved of the 
gods.' Buddhist writings identify this I'iyadasi with Asoka, and 
little or no doubt is entertained of the two names represent- 
ing the same person. One of the most curious passages in 
these inscriptions refers to the Greek king Antiochus, calling 
him and tlirec others " Turamayo, Antakana, Mako, and Alika- 


simari," which represent Ptolemy, Antigonus, Magas, and Alex- 
ander. " The date of Asoka is not exactly that of Antiochus 
the Great, but it is not very far different ; and the corrections 
required to make it correspond are no more than the inexact 
manner in which both Brahmanical and Buddliist chronology 
is preserved may well be expected to render necessary." See 
Wilson's note in the VisliTiu Pura?ia, his article in the Journal 
of the Royal Asiatic Socidij, vol. xii., Max IVriiller's Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature, and an article by Sir E. Perry in vol. iii. of 
the Journal of the Bombay Asiatic Society. 

A/S'RAMA. There are four stages in the life of a Brahman 
which are called by this name. See Brahman. 

ASTlKA. An ancient sage, son of Jarat-karu by a sister of 
the great serpent Vasuki. He saved the life of the serpent 
Takshaka when Janamejaya made his great sacrifice of serpents, 
and induced that king to forego his persecution of the serpent race. 

ASURA. ' Spiritual, divine.' In the oldest parts of the Eig- 
veda this term is used for the supreme spirit, and is the same as 
the Ahura of the Zoroastrians. In the sense of ' god ' it w^as 
applied to several of the chief deities, as to Indra, Agni, and 
Varuwa. It afterwards acquired an entirely opposite meaning, 
and came to signify, as now, a demon or enemy of the gods. 
The word is found with this signification in the later parts of the 
i^ig-veda, particularly in the last book, and also in the Atharva- 
veda. The Brahma?? as attach the same meaning to it, and 
record many contests between the Asuras and the gods. Accord- 
ing to the Taittirlya Brahma?ia, the breath (asu) of Prajapati 
became alive, and "with that breath he created the Asuras." 
In another part of the same work it is said that Prajapati " be- 
came pregnant. He created Asuras from his abdomen." The 
/S'atapatha Brahma^za accords with the former statement, and 
states that " he created Asuras from his lower breath." The 
Taittiriya Ara?iyaka represents that Prajapati created "gods, 
men, fathers, Gandharvas, and Apsarases " from water, and that 
the Asuras, Rakshasas, and Pisachas sprang from the drops 
which were spilt. Manu's statement is that they were created 
by the Prajapatis. According to the Vish?iu Pura?2a, they were 
produced from the groin of Brahma (Prajapati). The account 
of the Vayu Pura?2a is : " Asuras were first produced as sons 
from his (Prajapati's) groin. Asu is declared by Brahmans to 


mean breath. From it these beings were produced ; hence they 
are Asiiras." The word has long been used as a general name 
for the enemies of the gods, including the Daityas and Danavas 
and otlier descendants of Kasyapa, but not including the 
Rakshasas descended from Pulastya. In this sense a different 
derivation has been found for it : the source is no longer as,u, 
' breath/ but the initial a is taken as the negative prefix, and 
a-sura signifies ' not a god ; ' hence, according to some, arose the 
word sura, commonly used for 'a god.' See Sura. 

ASURI. One of the earliest professors of the Sankhya 

AjS'WALAYAXA. a celebrated writer of antiquity. He 
was pupil of /Saunaka, and was author of /S'rauta-siitras, Grihya- 
sutras, and other works upon ritual, as well as founder of a 
iSakha of the i^/g-veda. The Sutras have been published by Dr. 
Stenzler, and also in the Bihliotheca Indica. 

AjSWA-]\IEDHA ' The sacrifice of a horse.' This is a sacri- 
fice which, in Vedic times, was performed by kings desirous of 
offspring. The horse was killed with certain ceremonies, and 
the wives of the king had to pass the night by its carcase. 
Upon the cliief wife fell the duty of going through a revolting 
formality which can only be hinted at. Subsequently, as in the 
time of the Maha-bharata, the sacrifice obtained a high import- 
ance and significance. It was performed only by kings, and 
implied that he who instituted it was a conqueror and king of 
kings. It was believed that the performance of one hundred 
such sacrifices would enable a mortal king to overtlu'ow the 
throne of Indra, and to become the ruler of the universe and 
sovereign of the gods. A horse of a particular colour was con- 
secrated by the performance of certain ceremonies, and was then 
turned loose to wander at wiU for a year. The king, or his 
representative, followed the horse with an army, and Avlien the 
animal entered a foreign country, the ruler of that country was 
bound either to fight or to submit. If the liberator of the 
horse succeeded in obtaining or enforcing the submission of all 
the countries over which it passed, he returned in triumph with 
the vanquished Riljas in his train ; but if he failed, he was dis- 
graced and his pretensions ridiculed. After the successful 
return a great festival was held, at which the horse was sacri- 
ficed, either really or figuratively. 


ASAYA-MUKHA. 'Horse faced.' /S'^^e Kinnara. 

A>SWA-PATI. ' Lord of horses. ' An appellation of many kings. 

ASAVATTHAMAK Son of Dro?ia and Kripa, and one of 
the generals of the Kauravas. Also called by his patronymic 
Drau?iayana. After the last great battle, in which Dur-yodhana 
was mortally wounded, Aswatthaman with two other warriors, 
Kripa and Krita-varman, were the sole survivors of the Kaurava 
host that were left effective. Aswatthaman was made the com- 
mander. He was fierce in his hostility to the Pa'/ic?avas, and 
craved for revenge upon Dh?-ish^a-dyumna, who had slain his 
father, Dro?za. These three surviving Kauravas entered the 
Pa?zc?ava camp at night. They found Dh?'ish/a-dyumna asleep, 
and Aswa^/haman stamped him to death as he lay. He then killed 
/S'ikhandin, the other son of Drupada, and he also killed the five 
young sons of the Pa7ic?avas and carried their heads to the dying 
Dur-yodhana. He killed Parikshit, while yet unborn in the 
womb of his mother, with his celestial weapon Brahmastra, by 
which he incurred the curse of Krisli?za, who restored Parikshit 
to life. On the next morning he and his comrades fled, but 
Draupadi clamoured for revenge upon the murderer of her 
children. Yudhi-sh;!hira represented that Aswatthaman was a 
Braliman, and pleaded for his life. She then consented to 
forego her demand for liis blood if the precious and protective 
jewel which he wore on his head were brought to her. Bhima, 
Arjuna, and K?'ish?2a then went in pursuit of him. Arjuna and 
K?'ish72.a overtook him, and compelled him to give up the jewel 
They carried it to Draupadi, and she gave it to Yudlii-sh^hira, 
who afterwards wore it on his head. 

' Horsemen.' Dioskouroi. Two Vedic deities, twin sons of the 
sun or the sky. They are ever young and handsome, bright, 
and of golden brilliancy, agile, swift as falcons, and possessed of 
many forms ; and they ride in a golden car drawn by horses or 
birds, as harbingers of Ushas, the dawn. " They are the earhest 
bringers of light in the morning sky, who in their chariot hasten 
onwards before the dawn and prepare the way for her." — Roth. 
As personifications of the morning twihght, they are said to be 
children of the sun by a nymph who concealed herself in the 
form of a mare ; hence she was called Aswini and her sons 
Aswins. But inasmuch as they precede the rise of the sun, 

30 ASlVIiVS. 

they are called his parents in his form Puslian. Mythically 
they are the parents of the Pa?Z6?u princes Nakula and Sahadeva. 
Their attributes are numerous, hut relate mostly to youth and 
beauty, light and speed, duality, the curative power, and active 
benevolence. The number of hymns addressed to them testify 
to the enthusiastic worship they received. They were the 
physicians of Swarga, and in this character are called Dasras 
and iS^asatyas, Gadagadau and Swar-vaidyau ; or one was Dasra 
and the other Nasatya. Other of their apjDellations are Abdhi- 
jau, ' ocean bom ; ' Pushkara-srajau, ' wreathed with lotuses ;' 
Earfaveyau, sons of the submarine fire, Baf/ava. Many instances 
are recorded of their benevolence and their power of healing. 
They restored the sage Chyavana to youth, and prolonged his 
life when he had become old and decrepit, and through his 
instrumentality they were admitted to partake of the libations 
of soma, Hke the other gods, although Indra strongly opposed 
them. (aS'^c Chyavana.) The Aswins, says Muir, " have been 
a puzzle to the oldest commentators," who have differed widely 
in their explanations. According to different interpretations 
quoted in the ISTirukta, they were " heaven and earth," " day 
and night," " two kings, performers of holy acts." The follow- 
ing is the view taken of them by the late Professor Goldstiicker, 
as printed in IMuir's Texts, vol. v. : — 

" The myth of the Aswins is, in my opinion, one of that 
class of myths in which two distinct elements, the cosmical and 
the human or historical, have gradually become blended into 
one. It seems necessary, therefore, to separate these two 
elements in order to arrive at an understanding of the myth. 
The historical or human element in it, I believe, is represented 
by those legends which refer to the wonderful cures effected by 
the Aswins, and to their performances of a kindred sort ; the cos- 
mical element is that relating to their luminous nature. The 
link which connects both seems to be the mysteriousness of the 
nature and effects of the phenomena of light and of the healing 
art at a remote antiquity. That there might have been some 
horsemen or warriors of great renown, who inspired their con- 
temporaries with awe by their wonderful deeds, and more 
especially by their medical skill, appears to have been also the 
o])inion of some old commentators mentioned by Yaska [in the 
Kirukta], for some * legendary writers,' he says, took them for 


< two kings, performers of holy acts,' and this view seems like- 
wise borne out by the legend in which it is narrated that the 
gods refused the Aswins admittance to a sacrifice on the ground 
that they had been on too familiar terms with men. It would 
appear, then, that these Aswins, like the i^ibhus, were originally 
renowned mortals, who, in the course of time, were translated 
into the companionship of the gods. . . . 

" The luminous character of the Aswins can scarcely be matter 
of doubt, for the view of some commentators, recorded by Yaska, 
according to which they are identified with ' heaven and earth,' 
appears not to be countenanced by any of the passages known 
to us. Their very name, it would seem, settles this point, since 
Aswa, the horse, literally ' the pervader,' is always the symbol of 
the luminous deities, especially of the sun. . . . 

" It seems to be the opinion of Yaska that the Aswins repre- 
sent the transition from darkness to light, when the intermin- 
gling of both produces that inseparable duality expressed by the 
twin nature of these deities. And this interpretation, I hold, 
is the best that can be given of the character of the cosmical 
Aswins. It agrees with the epithets by which they are invoked, 
and with the relationship in which they are placed. They are 
young, yet also ancient, beautiful, bright, swift, &c. ; and their 
negative character, the result of the alliance of light with dark- 
ness, is, I believe, expressed by dasra, the destroyer, and also by 
the two negatives in the compound ndsatya (na + a-satya) ; 
though their positive character is again redeemed by the ellipsis 
of ' enemies, or diseases ' to dasra, and by the sense of ndsatya, 
not untrue, i.e., truthful" 

ATHAEVA, ATHAEYAN. The fourth Yeda. See Yeda. 

ATHAEYAN". Name of a priest mentioned in the Rig- 
veda, where he is represented as having " drawn forth " fire and 
to have " offered sacrifice in early times." He is mythologically 
represented as the eldest son of Brahma, to whom that god 
revealed the Brahma- vidy a (knowledge of God), as a Prajapati, 
and as the inspired author of the fourth Yeda. At a later 
period he is identified with Angiras. His descendants are 
called Atharvanas, and are often associated with the Angirasas. 

ATHAEYANGIEASAS. This name belongs to the descen- 
dants of Atharvan and Angiras, or to the Angirasas alone, 
who are especially connected with the Atharva-veda, and these 


names are probably given to the hymns of that Veda to confer 
on them greater authority and holiness. 

ATMA-BODHA. 'Knowledge of the sonl' A short work 
attributed to /S'ankaracharya. It has been printed, and a 
ti-anslation of it was pubhshed in 1812 by Taylor. There is a 
French version by Neve and an EngUsh translation by Kearns 
in the Indian Antiquary, vol. v. 

ATMAN", ATMA. The souL The principle of life. The 
supreme souL 

ATREYA. A patronymic from Atri. A son or descendant 
of Atri ; a people so called. 

ATRI. 'An eater.' A itishi, and author of many Vedic 
hpnns. " A Maharshi or great saint, who in the Vedas occurs 
especially in hymns composed for the praise of Agni, Indra, the 
Aswins, and the Yi.swa-devas. In the epic period he is con- 
sidered as one of the ten Prajapatis or lords of creation engen- 
dered by Manu for the purpose of creating the universe ; at a 
later period he appears as a mind-born son of Brahma, and as 
one of the seven jR/shis who preside over the reign of Sw^ayam- 
bhuva, the first Manu, or, according to others, of Swarochisha, the 
second, or of Vaivaswata, the seventh. He married Anasuya, 
daughter of Daksha, and their son was Durvasas." — Goldstilcher. 
In the RamayaTia an account is given of the visit paid by Rama 
and Sita to Atri and Anasuya in their hermitage south of Chitra- 
ku^a. In the Purawas he was also father of Soma, the moon, 
and the ascetic Dattatreya by his wife Anasuya. As a Ri^hi 
he is one of the stars of the Great Bear. 

AURVA. A jRishi, son of Urva and grandson of Bhrigu. 
He is described in the Maha-bharata as son of the sage Chyavana 
by his wife Arushi. From his race he is called Bhargava. The 
Maha-bharata relates that a king named Knta-virya was very 
liberal to his 2:)riests of the race of Bh?'igu, and that they grew 
rich upon his munificence. After his death, his descendants, 
who had fallen into poverty, begged help from the Bh?-igus, and 
met with no liberal response. Some of them buried their money, 
and when this was discovered the imjDoverished Kshatriyas were 
so exasperated that they slew all the Bhrigus down to the chil- 
dren in the womb. One w^oman concealed her unborn child in 
her thigh, and the Kshatriyas being informed of this, sought the 
child to kill it, but the child " issued forth from its mother's 


tliigli M'itli lustre and blinded the persecutors. From being 
produced from the thigh (uru), the child received the name of 
Aurva. The sage's austerities alarmed both gods and men, 
and he for a long time refused to mitigate his wrath against the 
Kshatriyas, but at the persuasion of the PitHs, he cast the fire 
of his anger into the sea, where it became a being with the face 
of a horse called Haya-siras. While he was living in the forest he 
prevented the wife of King Bahu from burning herself with her 
husband's corpse. Thus he saved the life of her son, with Avhom 
she had been pregnant seven years, "\^^len the child was born 
he was called Sagara (ocean) ; Aurva was his preceptor, and 
bestowed on him the Agneyastra, or fiery weapon with wdiich he 
conquered the barbarians who invaded his country. Aurva had 
a son named i^ichlka, who was father of Jamadagni. The 
Hari-vansa gives another version of the legend about the off- 
spring of Aurva. The sage was urged by his friends to beget 
children. He consented, but he foretold that his progeny would 
live by the destruction of others. Then he j)roduced from his 
thigh a devouring fire, Avhich cried out with a loud voice, " I 
am hungry ; let me consume the world. " The various regions 
were soon in flames, when Brahma interfered to save his 
creation, and promised the son of Aurva a suitable abode and 
maintenance. The abode Avas to be at Bac?ava-mukha, the mouth 
of the ocean ; for Brahma was born and rests in the ocean, and 
he and the newly produced fire were to consume the w^orld 
together at the end of each age, and at the end of time to devour 
all things with the gods, Asuras, and Rakshasas. The name 
Aurva thus signifies, shortly, the submarine fire. It is also 
called BafZavanala and Samvarttaka. It is represented as a 
flame with a horse's head, and is also called Kaka-dliwaja, from 
carrying a banner on which there is a crow. 

AU^'ANA, or AU/S'AXASA PURAiYA. See Purawa. 

AUTTAMI The third Manu. See Manu. 

AYANTl, AYANTIKA. A name of Ujjayinl, one of the 
seven sacred cities. 

AYATARA. 'A descent.' The incarnation of a deity, espe- 
cially of Yish??u. The first indication, not of an Avatara, but 
of what subsequently develojDcd into an Avatara, is found in 
the itig-veda in the "three steps" of "Yishnu, the unconquer- 
able preserver," who "strode over this (universe)," and "in 



three places planted his step." The early commentators under- 
stood the " three places " to be the earth, the atmosphere, and the 
sky ; that in the earth Vish7iu was fire, in the air lightning, 
and in the sky the solar hght. One commentator, Aurwavabha, 
whose name deserves mention, took a more philosophical view 
of the matter, and interpreted " the three steps " as being " the 
different positions of the sun at his rising, culmination, and 
setting." Sayawa, the great commentator, who lived in days 
when the god Yishwu had obtained pre-eminence, understood 
"the three steps" to be "the three steps" taken by that 
god in his incarnation of Yamana the dwarf, to be presently 
noticed. Another reference to " three strides " and to a sort 
of Avatara is made in the Taittiriya Sanhita, where it is 
said, " Indra, assuming the form of a she-jackal, stepped 
all round the earth in three (strides). Thus the gods ob- 
tained it." 

Boar Incarnation. — In the Taittiriya Sanliita and Erahma??a, 
and also in the /S'atapatha Brahma?za, the creator Prajiipati, 
afterwards known as Brahma, took the form of a boar for the 
purpose of raising the earth out of the boundless waters. The 
Sanhita says, " This universe was formerly waters, fluid. On it 
Prajapati, becoming wind, moved. He saw this (earth). Be- 
coming a boar, he took her up. Becoming Yiswakarman, he 
wiped (the moisture from) her. She extended. She became 
the extended one (Prithvl). Prom this the earth derives her 
designation as 'the extended one.' " The Brahma?za is in accord 
as to the illimitable waters, and adds, "Prajapati practised 
arduous devotion (saying). How shall this universe be (de- 
veloped) ? He beheld a lotus leaf standing. He thought, 
There is somewhat on Avhich this (lotus leaf) rests. He, as a 
boar — having assumed that form — plunged beneath towards it. 
He found the earth down below. Breaking off (a portion of 
her), he rose to the surface. He then extended it on tlie lotus 
leaf. Inasmuch as he extended it, that is the extension of tlic 
extended one (the earth). This became (ahhaf). From tliis 
the earth derives its name of Bhumi." Further, in the Tait- 
tiriya Arawyaka it is said that the eartli was " raised by a black 
boar with a hundred arms." The /S'atapatha Brahmawa states, 
" She (tlie earth) was only so large, of the size of a sjian. A 
boar called Eniusha raised her up. Her lord, Prajapati, in 


consequence prospers him with this pair and makes him com- 
plete." In the Rfimaya/za also it is stated that Brahma "be- 
hecanie a boar and raised up the earth." 

Kurma or Tortoise. — In the /Sktapatha Brahmawa it is said 
that " Prajapati, having assumed the form of a tortoise (kurma), 
created offspring. That which he created he made (akarot) ; 
hence the word Ktirma." 

Fish Incarnation. — The earliest mention of the fish Avatiira 
occurs in the /S'atapatha Brahma?ia, in connection with the 
Hindu legend of the deluge. Manu found, in the water which 
was brought to him for his ablutions, a small fish, which sjDoke 
to him and said, " I will save thee " from a flood which shall 
sweep away all creatures. This fish grew to a large size, and 
had to be consigned to the ocean, when he directed Manu to 
construct a ship and to resort to him when the flood should 
rise. The deluge came, and Manu embarked in the ship. The 
fish then swam to Manu, who fastened the vessel to the fish's 
horn, and was conducted to safety. The Maha-bharata repeats 
this story with some variations. 

The incarnations of the boar, the tortoise, and the fish are 
thus in the earlier writings represented as manifestations of 
Prajapati or Brahma. The " three stej)s " which form the germ 
of the dwarf incarnation are ascribed to Vishmi, but even these 
appear to be of an astronomical or mythical character rather 
than glorifications of a particular deity. In the ]\Iaha-bharata 
Vishmi has become the most prominent of the gods, and some 
of his incarnations are more or less distinctly noticed ; but it is 
in the Pura?ias that they receive their full development. Ac- 
cording to the generally received account, the incarnations of 
Vish?iu are ten in number, each of them being assumed by 
Vislmu, the great preserving j)ower, to save the world from 
some great danger or trouble. 

I. Matsya. 'The fish.' This is an apjoropriation toYislmu 
of the ancient legend of the fish and the deluge, as related in 
the A^atapatha Brahma?^a, and quoted above. The details of this 
Avatara vary slightly in different Puranas. The object of the 
incarnation was to save Yaivaswata, the seventh Manu, and 
l^rogenitor of the human race, from destruction by a deluge. 
A small fish came into the hands of Manu and besoudit his 
protection. He carefully guarded it, and it grew rapidly until 

2,6 AVATAR A. 

nothing but the ocean could contain it. Manu tlien recognised 
its divinity, and worshipped the deity Yish?Ri thus incarnate. 
The god apprised Manu of the approaching cataclysm, and bade 
him prepare for it. Wlien it came, Manu embarked in a ship 
with the it/shis, and with the seeds of all existing things. 
Yishmi then appeared as the fish with a most stupendous horn. 
The ship M^as bound to this horn with the great serpent as with 
a rope, and was secured in safety until the waters had subsided. 
The Bhagavata Pura?ia introduces a new feature. In one of 
the nights of Bralima, and during his repose, the earth and the 
other worlds were submerged in the ocean. Then the demon 
Haya-griva drew near, and carried off the Yeda which had 
issued from Brahma's mouth. To recover the Yeda thus lost, 
Yish^m assumed the form of a fish, and saved Manu as above 
related. But this Purawa adds, that the fish instructed Manu 
and the ii'/shis in " the true doctrine of the soul of the eternal 
Brahma ; " and, when Brahma awoke at the end of this dis- 
solution of the universe, Yish?iu slew Haya-griva and restored 
the Yeda to Brahma. 

2. Ivurma. ' The tortoise.' The germ of this Avatara is found 
in the >S'atapatha Brahma?ia, as above noticed. In its later and 
developed form, Yish?zu appeared in the form of a tortoise in 
the Satya-yuga, or first age, to recover some things of value 
which had been lost in the deluge. In the form of a tortoise 
he placed himself at the bottom of the sea of milk, and made 
his back the base or pivot of the mountain Mandara. The gods 
and demons twisted the great serpent Yasuki round the moun- 
tain, and, dividing into two parties, each took an end of the 
snake as a rope, and thus churned the sea until they recovered 
the desired objects. These were — (i.) Amrita, the water of 
life; (2.) Dhanwantari, the physician of the gods and bearer of 
the cup of Am?-ita ; (3.) Lakshmi, goddess of fortune and 
beaut}'', and consort of Yish?ui ; (4.) Sura, goddess of wine; 
(5.) Chandra, the moon ; (6.) Rambha, a nymph, and pattern 
of a lovely and amiable woman ; (7.) Uchchai/i-sravas, a won- 
derful and model horse; (8.) Kaustubha, a celebrated jewel ; 
(9.) Pririjata, a celestial tree; (10.) Surablii, the cow of plenty j 
(it.) Airavata, a wonderful model elephant; (12.) /S'ankha, a 
shell, the conch of victory; (13.) Dhanus, a famous bow; and 
(14.) Yisha, poison. 


3. Yaralia. 'The boar.' The old legend of the Lrahmawas 
concerning the boar which raised the earth from the waters has 
been appropriated to Vish?m. A demon named Hira?^yaksha 
had drao-o'ed the earth to the bottom of the sea. To recover it 
Vish^iu assnmed the form of a boar, and after a contest of a 
thousand years he slew the demon and raised up the earth. 

4. Nara-sinha, or ]Sr7>sinha, ' The man-lion. ' Yishnu assumed 
this form to deliver the world from the tyranny of IIira?zya- 
ka5ij)u, a demon who, by the favour of Brahma, had become 
invuhierable, and was secure from gods, men, and animals. This 
demon's son, named Prahlada, worshipped Vishmi, which so 
incensed his father that he tried to kill him, but his efforts were 
all in Vain. Contending with his son as to the omnipotence and 
omnipresence of Yishwu, Hirawya-kasipu demanded to know if 
Vishrm was present in a stone pillar of the hall, and struck 
it violently. To avenge Prahlada, and to vindicate his own 
offended majesty, Yisliwu came forth from the pillar as the 
jSTara-sinha, half-man and half-lion, and tore the arrogant Daitya 
king to pieces. 

These four incarnations are supposed to have appeared in the 
Sat^^a-yuga, or first age of the world. 

5. Vamana. ' The dwarf.' The origin of this incarnation is 
" the three strides of Yishwu," spoken of in the itfg- veda, as 
before explained. In the Treta-yuga, or second age, the Daitya 
king Eali had, by his devotions and austerities, acquired the domi- 
nion of the three worlds, and the gods were shorn of their power 
and dignity. To remedy this, Yish?zu was born as a diminutive 
son of Ivasyapa and Aditi. The dwarf appeared before Bali, 
and begged of him as much land as he could step over in three 
paces. The generous monarch complied with the request. 
Yishmi took two strides over heaven and earth ; but respecting 
the virtues of Bali, he then stopped, leaving the dominion of 
Patala, or the infernal regions, to Bali. 

The first five incarnations are thus purely mythological ; in 
the next three we have the heroic element, and in the ninth 
the relio;ious. 

6. Para5u-rama. ' Kama with the axe. ' Born in the Treta, 
or second age, as son of the Brahman Jamadagni, to deliver the 
Brahmans from the arrogant dominion of the Kshatriyas. See 


7. Eama or Eama-cliandra. ' The moon-like or gentle Rama/ 
the hero of the Eamayawa. He was the son of Dasaratha, king 
of Ayodliya, of the Solar race, and was born in the Treta-yiiga, 
or second age, for the purpose of destroying the demon Rava?^a. 

8. Iv?'zsh7za. ' The black or dark coloured.' This is the most 
poj^ular of all the later deities, and has obtained such pre- 
eminence, that his votaries look upon him not simply as an 
incarnation, but as a perfect manifestation of Yishwu. When 
Krishna is thus exalted to the full godhead, his elder brother, 
Bala-rama takes his place as the eighth Avatara. See ~Krh\m^ 
and Bala-rama. 

9. Buddha. The great success of Buddha as a religious 
teacher seems to have induced the Brahmans to adopt him as 
their ovm, rather than to recognise him as an adversary. So 
Yishwu is said to have aj)peared as Buddha to encourage demons 
and wicked men to despise the Vedas, reject caste, and deny the 
existence of the gods, and thus to effect their o^vn destruction. 

10. Ivalki or Kalkin. ' The white hors«.' This incarnation 
of VishTiu is to appear at the end of the Xali or Iron Age, 
seated on a white horse, with a drawn sword blazing like a 
comet, for the final destruction of the wicked, the renovation of 
creation, and the restoration of purity. 

The above are the usually recognised Avataras, but the number 
is sometimes extended, and the Bhagavata Pura?ia, which is the 
most fervid of all the Pura?zas in its glorification of Vishwu, 
enumerates twenty-two incarnations: — (i.) Purusha, the male, 
the progenitor; (2.) Yaralia, the boar; (3.) Narada, the great 
sage; (4.) Isara and Narayawa (q.v.) ; (5.) Kapila, the great 
sage; (6.) Dattatreya, a sage; (7.) Yajna, sacrifice; (8.) jR/shabha, 
a righteous king, father of Bharata ; (9.) Prithu, a king; (10.) 
Matsya, the fish; (11.) Kiirma, the tortoise; (12 and 13.) 
Dhanwantari, the physician of the gods; (14.) Xara-sinha, the 
man-lion; (15.) Vamana, the dwarf; (16.) Parasu-rilma ; (17.) 
Veda-Vyasa; (18.) Rama; (19.) Bala-rama; (20.) Kr/slma; (21.) 
Buddha; (22.) Kalki. But after this it adds — "The incarna- 
tions of Yishmi are innumerable, like the rivulets flowing from 
an inexhaustible lake, itishis, INIanus, gods, sons of Manus, 
PrajTipatis, are all portions of him." 

AVATARAYA. An abode of the Rakshasas. 

AYODHYA. Tlic modern Oude. The capital of Ikshwrdai, 



the founder of the Solar race, and afterwards the capital of 
Rama. It is one of the seven sacred cities. The exact site has 
not been discovered, 

AYUR-YEDA. ' The Veda of life.' A work on medicine, 
attributed to Dhanwantari, and sometimes regarded as a supple- 
ment to the Atharva-veda. 

AYUS. The first-born son of Purfiravas and Urvasi, and the 
father of Nahusha, Kshattra-vnddha, Rambha, Raji, and Anenas. 

BABHRU-YAHANA. Son of Arjuna by his wife Chitran- 
gada. He was adopted as the son of his maternal grandfather, 
and reigned at Mampura as his successor. He dwelt there in a 
palace of great splendour, surrounded with wealth and signs of 
power. When Arjuna went to Mampura with the horse intended 
for the Aswa-medha, there was a quarrel between Arjuna and 
King Babhrii-vahana, and the latter killed his father with an 
arrow. Repenting of his deed, he determined to kill himself, 
but he obtained from his step-mother, the Naga princess Uliipi, 
a gem which restored Arjuna to life. He returned with his 
father to Hastinapura. The description of this combat has been 
translated from the Maha-bharata by Troyer in his Rdja 
Taranginl, tome i. p. 578. 

BADARAYAiYi. A name of Yeda Yyasa, especially used 
for him as the reputed author of the Yedanta philosophy. He 
was the author of the Brahma Sutras, published in the Bibliotheca 

BADARI, BADARIKA^AMA. A place sacred to Yishmi, 
near the Ganges in the Himalayas, particularly in Yish?iu's dual 
form of ]S^ara-Naraya?^a. Thus, in the Maha-bharata, >5'iva, 
addressing Arjuna, says, " Thou w^ast ISTara in a former body, 
and, with Narayawa for thy companion, didst perform dreadful 
austerity at Badari for many myriads of years." It is now 
known as Badari-natha, though this is properly a title of Yish?iu 
as lord of Badari. 

BAD AY A. 'A mare, the submarine fire.' In mythology it 
is a flame with the head of a horse, called also Haya-siras, 
* horse-head.' See Auiysl. 

BAHIKAS. People of the Panjab, so called in Pamni and 
the Maha-bharata. They are spoken of as being impure and out 
of the law. 

BAHU, BAHUKA. A king of the Solar race, wdio was van- 


i|uished and driven out of his country by tlie tribes of Haihaj-as 
and Talajanghas. He was father of Sagara. 

BAHUIvA. The name of Xala when he was transformed 
into a dwarf. 

BAHULAS. The K?-/ttikas or Pleiades. 

BAHYi?/CHA. A priest or theologian of the it%-veda. 

BALA-BHADRA. See Bala-rama. 

BALA-GOPALA. The boy l\.rk\\n^. 

BALA-RA]\IA. (Bala-bhadra and Bala-deva are other forms 
of this name.) The elder brother of Ivr/shwa. AA^lien K?'ishwa 
is regarded as a full manifestation of Yishmi, Bala-rama is 
recognised as the seventh Avatara or incarnation in his place. 
According to this view, Avhich is the favourite one of the 
Vaishwavas, K?'ish7ia is a full divinity and Bala-rama an incar- 
nation ; but the story of their birth, as told in the Maha-bharata, 
places them more upon an equality. It says that Vish?iu took 
two hairs, a white and a black one, and that these became Bala- 
rama and K?'ish?ia, the children of Devaki. Bala-rama was of 
fair complexion, K?7'sh?^a was very dark. As soon as Bala-rama 
was born, he was carried away to Gokula to preserve his life 
from the tyrant Kansa, and he was there nurtured by Nan da as 
a child of Rohinl. He and Krish^za grew up together, and he 
took part in many of K?-ish?za's boyish freaks and adventures. 
His earliest exploit was the killing of the great Asura Dhenuka, 
who had the form of an ass. This demon attacked him, but 
Bala-rama seized his assailant, whirled him round by his legs 
till he was dead, and cast his carcase into a tree. Another Asura 
attempted to carry off Bala-rama on his shoulders, but the boy 
beat out the demon's brains with his fists. AVhen K?'fsli?ia went 
to Mathura, Bala-rama accompanied him, and manfully supported 
him till Kan.m was killed. Once, when Bala-rama was intoxicated, 
he called upon tlie Yamuna river to come to him, that he might 
bathe ; but his command not being heeded, he plunged his 
ploughshare into the river, and dragged the waters whithersoever 
he went, until they were obliged to assume a human form and 
beseech his forgiveness. This action gained for liini the title 
Yamunfi-bhid and Kalindi-karsha?2a, breaker or dragger of the 
Yamuna. He killed Rukmin in a gambling brawl. Y^'hen 
»9rimba, son of K?7slma, was detained as a prisoner at Hastinapur 
by ]Jur-yodhana, Bala-rama demanded his release, and, being 


refused, lie tlirust his plouglisliare under the ramparts of the 
city, and drew them towards him, thus compelling the Kaura- 
vas to give up their prisoner. Lastly, he killed the great ape 
Dwivida, who had stolen his weapons and derided him. 

Such are some of the chief incidents of the life of Bala-rama, 
as related in the Pura?^as, and as popular among the votaries of 
Ivrish^ia. In the Maha-bharata he has more of a human cha- 
racter. He taught both Dur-yodhana and Bhima the use of the 
mace. Though inclining to the side of the Paw^avas, he refused 
to take an active part either with them or the Kauravas. He 
witnessed the combat between Dur-yodliana and Bhima, and 
beheld the foul blow struck by the latter, which made him so 
indignant that he seized his weapons, and was with difficulty 
restrained by K?/sh?2-a from falling upon the Pa?i(iavas. He 
died just before Kr/slw^a, as he sat under a banyan tree in the 
outskirts of Dwaraka. 

Another view is held as to the origin of Bala-rama. Accord- 
ing to this he was an incarnation of the great serpent <S'esha, and 
when he died the serpent is said to have issued from his mouth. 

The " wine-loving " Bala-rama (Madhu-priya or Priya-madhu) 
was as much addicted to wine as his brother K^isliTia was 
devoted to the fair sex. He was also irascible in temper, and 
sometimes quarrelled even with K?■^sh?^a : the Pura?zas represent 
them as having a serious difference about the Syamantaka jewel. 
He had but one wife, RevatI, daughter of King Raivata, and 
was faithful to her. By her he had two sons, Msa/fha and 
Ulmuka. He is represented as of fair complexion, and, as Nlla- 
vastra, ' clad in a dark-blue vest.' His especial weapons are a club 
{khetaka or saunanda), the ploughshare (halo), and the pestle 
(musala), from which he is called Phala and Hala, also Hala- 
yudha, ' plough-armed ; ' Hala-bh?'it, ' plough-bearer ; ' Langali 
and Sankarsha/ia, ' ploughman ; ' and Musali, ' pestle-holder. ' 
As he has a palm for a banner, he is called Tala-dhwaja. Other 
of his apjDellations are Gupta-chara, ' who goes secretly ;' Kam- 
pala and Samvartaka. 

B ALA-RAM A YAiV^A. A di-ama by Raja-5ekhara. It has been 

BALEYA. A descendant of Bali, a Daitya. 

BALHI. A northern country, Balkh. Said in the Maha- 
bharata to be famous for its horses, as Balkh is to the present time. 


BALHIKAS, BAHLlKAS. "Always associated Avith the 
people of the north, west, and ultra-Indian provinces, and usnally 
considered to represent the Bactrians or people of Balkh." — TFilson. 

BALL A good and virtuous Daitya king. He was son of 
Yirochana, son of Prahlada, son of HiraTzya-kasipu. His wife 
was VindhyavalL Through his devotion and penance he defeated 
Indra, humbled the gods, and extended his authority over the three 
worlds. The gods appealed to Yishwu for protection, and he be- 
came manifest in his Dwarf Avatara for the purpose of restrain- 
ing Bah. This dwarf craved from Bali the boon of three steps 
of ground, and, ha"vdng obtained it, he stepped over heaven and 
earth in two strides ; but then, out of respect to Bali's kindness 
and his grandson Prahlada's virtues, he stopped short, and left to 
him Patala, the infernal regions. Bali is also called Maha-bali, and 
his capital was Maha-bali-pura. The germ of the legend of the 
three steps is found in the itig-veda, where Yishmi is represented 
as taking three steps over earth, heaven, and the lower regions, 
typifying perhaps the rising, culmination, and setting of the 

BALI, BALIIST. The monkey king of Kishkindhya, who was 
slain by Rama, and whose kingdom was given to his brother 
Su-griva, the friend and ally of Rama. He was supposed to be 
the son of Indra, and to have been born from the hair (bdla) of 
his mother, whence his name. His wife's name was Tara, and 
his sons Angada and Tara. 

BAiVA. A Daitya, eldest son of Bali, who had a thousand 
arms. He was a friend of Siva and enemy of Vishmi. His 
daughter tJsha fell in love with Aniruddha, the grandson of 
KnshTia, and had him conveyed to her by magic art. K?'/sh7ia, 
Bala-rama, and Pradyumna went to the rescue, and were resisted 
by Bawa, who was assisted by Siva and Skanda, god of war. 
S'lYB, was overpowered by Krishna ; Skanda was wounded ; and 
the many arms of Bawa were cut off by the missile weapons of 
Kn'shwa. iS'iva then interceded for the life of Bawa, and K?"islma 
granted it. He is called also Vairochi. 

BANGA. Bengal, but not in the modern application. In 
ancient times Banga meant the districts north of the Bhagirathi 
— Jessore, Krishwagar, &c. See Anu. 

BARBARAS. Name of a people. " The analogy to * bar- 
barians ' is not in sound onlv, but in all the authorities these are 


classed with borderers and foreigners and nations not Hindu." 
■ — JVilson. 

BAEHISHADS. A class of Pitrfs, wlio, wlien alive, kept 
np the household flame, and presented ofl'erings with fire. Some 
authorities identify them with the months. Their dwelling is 
Vaibhraja-loka. See Pit?-2*s. 

BAUDHAYANA. A writer on Dharma-sastra or law. He 
was also the author of a Siitra work. 

BHADRA. Wife of Utathya (q.v.). 

BHADRACHARU. A son of K?'isliwa and RukminL 

BHADRA-KALl. Name of a goddess. In modern times 
it applies to Durga. 

BHADRA/S'WA. i. A region lying to the east of Meru. 2. 
A celebrated horse, son of UchchaiA-sravas. 

BHAGA. A deity mentioned in the Yedas, but of very 
indistinct personality and powers. He is supposed to bestow 
wealth and to preside over marriage, and he is classed among 
the Adityas and Yiswedevas. 

BHAGA-NETRA-GHNA (or -HAN). ' Destroyer of the eyes 
of Bhaga.' An appellation of ^S'iva. 

BHAGAYAD-GiTA. 'The song of the Divine One.' A 
celebrated episode of the Maha-bharata, in the form of a metrical 
dialogue, in which the divine Kr/shwa is the chief speaker, and 
expounds to Arjuna his philosophical doctrines. The author of 
the work is unknown, but he " was probably a Brahman, and 
nominally a Yaishwava, but really a philosopher and thinker, 
whose mind was cast in a broad mould." This poem has been 
interpolated in the Maha-bharata, for it is of much later date 
than the body of that epic ; it is later also than the six Dar^awas 
or philosophical schools, for it has received insjjiration from 
them all, especially from the Sankhya, Yoga, and Yedanta. The 
second or third century a.d. has been pro]30sed as the probable 
time of its appearance. Krishwa, as a god, is a manifestation of 
Yish?iu ; but in this song, and in other places, he is held to 
be the supreme being. As man, he was related to both the 
Pa?z<:?avas and the Kauravas, and in the great war between these 
two families he refused to take up arms on either side. But he 
consented to act as the Paw^ava Arjuna's charioteer. AVlien 
the opposing hosts were drawn up in array against each other, 
Arjuna, touched with compunction for the approaching slaughter 


of kindred and friends, appeals to KWsliTia for guidance. This 
gives the occasion for the philosophical teaching. " The poem 
is divided into three sections, each containing six chapters, the 
philosophical teaching in each being somewhat distinct," bnt 
"undoubtedly the main design of the poem, the sentiments 
expressed in which have exerted a powerful influence throughout 
India for the last 1600 j^ears, is to inculcate the doctrine of 
Bhakti (faith), and to exalt the duties of caste above all other 
obligations, including those of friendship and kindred." So 
Arjuna is told to do his duty as a soldier Avitliout heeding the 
slaughter of friends. " In the second division of the poem the 
Pantheistic doctrines of the Yedanta are more directly inculcated 
than in the other sections. Iv?"^sh7za here, in the plainest lan- 
guage, claims adoration as one with the great universal spirit 
pervading and constituting the universe." The language of this 
poem is exceedingly beautiful, and its tone and sentiment of a 
very lofty character, so that they have a striking effect even in 
the prose translation. It was one of the earliest Sanskrit works 
translated into English by Wilkins ; but a much more perfect 
translation, with an excellent introduction, has since been pub- 
lished by Mr. J. Cockburn Thompson, from which much of the 
above has been borrowed. There are several other translations 
in French, German, &c. 

BHAGAYATA PURAYA The Pura?ia "in which ample 
details of duty are described, and which opens with (an extract 
from) the Gayatri ; that in which the death of the Asura V?-itra 
is told, and in which the mortals and immortals of the Saraswata 
Kalpa, with the events that then happened to them in the 
world, are related, tliat is celebrated as tlie Bhagavata, and 
consists of 18,000 verses." Such is the Hindu description of 
this work. " The Bhagavata," says Wilson, " is a work of great 
celebrity in India, and exercises a more direct and powerful 
influence upon the opinions and feelings of the people than 
perhaps any other of the Purawas. It is placed fiftli in all the 
lists, but the Padma ranks it as the eighteenth, as the extracted 
substance of all the rest. According to the usual specification, 
it consists of 18,000 slokas, distributed amongst 332 chapters, 
divided into twelve skandlias or books. It is named Bliiigavata 
from its being dedicated to the glorification of Bhagavata or 
Yislmu." The most popular and cliaractcristic part of this 


PuraTza is tlie tentli book, which narrates in detail the history 
of IvrishTza, and has been translated into perhaps all the ver- 
nacnlar languages of India. Colebrooke concurs in the opinion 
of many learned Hindus that this Pura?ia is the composition of 
the grammarian Vopadeva, who lived about six or seven cen- 
turies ago at the court of Hemadri, Kaja of Deva-giri (Deogurh 
or Daulatabad), and "Wilson sees no reason for calling in 
question the tradition which assigns the work to this writer. 
This Purawa has been translated into French by Burnouf, and 
has been published with the text in three volumes folio, and 
in other forms. 

BHAGlEATHI. The Ganges. The name is derived from 
Bhagiratha, a descendant of Sagara, whose austerities induced 
iS'iva to allow the sacred river to descend to the earth for the" 
purpose of bathing the ashes of Sagara's sons, who had been 
consumed by the wrath of the sage Kapila. Bhagiratha named 
the river Sagara, and after leading it over the earth to the sea, 
he conducted it to Patala, where the ashes of his ancestors were 
laved with its waters and purified. 

BHAIRAYA (mas.), BH AIR A VI (fem.). 'The terrible.' 
Names of /Siva and his wife Devi. The Bhairavas are eight in- 
ferior forms or manifestations of iS'iva, all of them of a terrible 
character: — (i.) Asitanga, black limbed; (2.) Sanhara, destruc- 
tion; (3.) Ruru, a dog; (4.) Kala, black; (5.) Krodha, anger; 
(6.) Tamra-chii(ia, red crested ; (7.) Chandra-chiic^a, moon crested ; 
(8.) j\Iaha, great. Other names are met with as variants : Ka- 
pala, Rudra, BhTsha?za, Un-matta, Kn-pati, &c. In these forms 
iS'iva often rides upon a dog, wherefore he is called /Swaiw^a, 
'whose horse is a clog.' 

BHAMATl. A gloss on >Sankara's commentary upon the 
Brahma Sutras by Yachaspati Mi^ra. It is in course of publi- 
cation in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

BHANUMATI Daughter of BhSnu, a Yadava chief, who 
was abducted from her home in Dwaraka, during the absence of 
her father, by the demon Nikumbha, 

BHARADWAJA. A Bkhi to whom many Yedic hjmms are 
attributed. He was the son of Brdiaspati and father of Dro/ta, 
the preceptor of the VandaYas. The Taittiiiya BrahmaTza says 
that " he lived through three lives " (probably meaning a life of 
great length), and that " he became immortal and ascended to 


the heavenly world, to union with the sun." In the Maha- 
bharata he is represented as Hving at Hard war ; in the Kamaya?ia 
he received Eania and Sita in his hermitage at Prayaga, wliich 
was then and afterwards much celebrated. According to some 
of the Pura7ias and the Hari-vansa, he became by gift or adop- 
tion the son of King Bharata, and an absurd story is told about 
his birth to account for his name : His mother, the wife of 
Utathya, was pregnant by her husband and by Br/haspati. 
Dirgha-tamas, the son by her husband, kicked his half-brother 
out of the womb before his time, when Br/haspati said to his 
mother, ' Bhara-dwa-jam,' ' Cherish this child of two fathers.' 

BHARADWAJA. i. Dro?ia. 2. Any descendant of Bharad- 
waja or follower of his teaching. 3, Xame of a grammarian and 
author of Siitras. 

BHARATA. i. A hero and king from whom the warlike 
people called Bharatas, frequently mentioned in the i?ig-veda, 
were descended. The name is mixed up with that of Viswami- 
tra. Bharata's sons were called Yiswamitras and Yiswamitra's 
sons were called Bharatas. 

2. An ancient king of the first Manwantara. He was 
devoted to Vish?m, and abdicated his throne that he might 
continue constant in meditation upon him. While at his 
hermitage, he went to bathe in the river, and there saw a doe 
big with young frightened by a lion. Her fawn, which was 
brought forth suddenly, fell into the water, and the sage rescued 
it. He brought the animal up, and becoming excessively fond 
of it, his abstraction was interrupted. " In the course of time 
he died, watched by the deer with tears in its eyes, hke a son 
mourning for his father ; and he liimself, as he expired, cast his 
eyes upon the deer and thought of nothing else, being wholly 
occuj)ied with one idea." For this misapj)lied devotion he was 
born again as a deer with the faculty of recollecting his former 
life. Li this form he lived an austere retired life, and having 
atoned for his former error, was born again as a Brahman. But 
his person was ungainly, and he looked like a crazy idiot. Ho 
discharged servile offices, and was a palankin bearer; but he 
had true wisdom, and discoursed deeply upon philosophy and 
the power of Yishyzu. Finally he obtained exemj^tion from 
future birtli. This legend is '' a sectarial graft upon a Paura?iik 


3. Son of Dasaratlia by his wife Kaikeyi, and lialf-brotlier 
of Rama-chandra. He was educated by his mother's father, 
Aswa-pati, king of Kekaya, and married Ma?2(iavi, the cousin 
of Sita. His mother, through maternal fondness, brought 
about the exile of Rama, and endeavoured to secure her own 
son's succession to the throne, but Bharata refused to su^^plant 
his elder brother. On the death of his father Bharata per- 
formed the funeral rites, and went after Rama with a complete 
army to bring him back to Ayodliya and place him on the throne. 
He found Rama at Chitra-kii/a, and there was a generous con- 
tention between them as to which should reign. Rama refused 
to return until the period of his exile was completed, and 
Bharata dechned to be king; but he returned to Ayodhya 
as Rama's representative, and setting up a pair of Rama's 
shoes as a mark of his authority, Bharata ruled the country in 
his brother's name. " He destroyed thirty millions of terribla 
gandharvas " and made himself master of their country. 

4. A prince of the Puru branch of the Lunar race. Bharata 
was son of Dushyanta and iSakuntala. Ninth in descent from 
him came Kuru, and fourteenth from Ivuru came /Santanu. 
This king had a son named Vichitra-virya, who died child- 
less, leaving two widows. Krzslwa Dwaipayana was natural 
brother to Yichitra-virya. Under the law he raised up seed to 
his brother from the widows, whose sons were Dh?'ita-rash/ra 
and Pa?i(iu, between whose descendants, the Kauravas and 
Pa/ic/avas, the great war of the IMaha-bharata was fought. 
Through their descent from Bharata, these princes, but more 
especially the Pa/it^avas, were called Bharatas. 

5. A sage who is the reputed inventor of dramatic entertain- 

6. A name borne by several others of less note than the 

BHARATA. A descendant of Bharata, especially one of the 
Fa,ndii princes. 

BHARATA- VARSHA. India, as having been the kingdom 
of Bharata. It is divided into nine Kha?if/as or parts : Indra- 
dwipa, Kaserumat, Tamra-varwa, Gabhastimat, ISTaga-dwIpa, 
Saumya, Gandharva, Yaru?za. 

BHARATi. A name of SaraswatL 

BHARGAA^A. a descendant of Bh?i'gu, as Chyavana, /Sau- 


naka, Jamad-agni, but more especially used for the latter and 

BIIAETit/-HAEL A celebrated poet and grammarian, wbo 
is said to have been the brother of Yikramaditya. He wrote 
three A^atakas or Centuries of verses, called — (i.) /6Vmgara-5ataka, 
on amatory matters ; (2.) Mti-5ataka, on polity and ethics; (3.) 
A^'airagya-sataka, on religious austerity. These maxims are said to 
have been written when he had taken to a religious life after a 
licentious youth. He was also author of a grammatical work of 
high repute called Yakya-padiya, and the poem called Bha//i- 
kavya is by some attributed to him. The moral verses were 
translated into French so long ago as 1 6 7 o. A note at the end 
of that translation says, " Trad, par le Brahmine Padmanaba en 
flamand et du flamand en fran9ais par Th. La Grue." The text 
Avith a Latin translation was printed by S chief ner and Weber. 
There is a translation in German by Bohlen and Schiitz, in 
French by Fauche, and of the erotic verses by Regnaud; in 
English by Professor Tawney in the Indian Antiquary. 

BHASHA-PARICHCHHEDA. An exposition of the NySya 
philosophy. There are several editions. 

BHASKARACHARYA. (Bhaskara + Acharya.) A cele- 
brated* mathematician and astronomer, who was born early in 
the eleventh century a.d. He Avas author of the Bija-gamta on 
arithmetic, the Lilavati on algebra, and the Siddhanta /S'iromam 
on astronomy. It has been claimed for Bhaskara that he "was 
fully acquainted with the principle of the Differential Calculus." 
This claim Dr. Spottiswoode considers to be overstated, but he 
observes of Bhaskara : " It must be admitted that the penetration 
shown by Bhaskara in his analysis is in the highest, degree 
remarkable ; that the formula which he establishes, and his 
method of establishing it, bear more than a mere resemblance — 
they bear a strong analogy — to the corresponding process in 
modern astronomy ; and that the majority of scientific persons 
will learn with surprise the existence of such a method in the 
writings of so distant a period and so distant a region." — Jour. 
R A. S., 1S59. 

BHA7TACHARYA. See Kumfirila Bha//a. 

BHArn-KAYYA. A poem on the actions of Rama by 
Bha^^i. It is of a very artificial character, and is designed to 
illustrate the laws of grammar and the figures of poetry and 


rhetoric. The text has been printed with a commentary, and 
part has been translated into German by Schiitz. 

BHAUMA. Son of Bhumi (the earth). A metronymic of 
the Daitya Naraka, 

BHAUTYA. The fourteenth Mann. See Mann. 

BHAYA. I. A Yedic deity often mentioned in connection 
Avith /S'arva the destroyer. 2. A name of Rudra or /S'iva, or of 
a manifestation of that god. See Rudra. 

BHAYA-BHUTL A celebrated dramatist, the author of 
three of the best extant Sanskrit dramas, the Maha-vira Charita, 
Uttara Rama Charita, and Malati Madhava. He was also 
known as /Sri-kan^ha, or ' throat of eloquence. ' He was a Brah- 
man, and was a native either of Beder or Berar, but Ujjayini or 
its neighbourhood would seem, from his vivid descriptions of the 
scenery, to have been the place of his residence. The eighth 
century is the period at which he flourished. His three plays 
have been translated by Wilson in blank verse, who says of 
Malati Madliava, " The author is fond of an unreasonable display 
of learning, and occasionally substitutes the phraseology of 
logic or metaphysics for the language of poetry and nature. At 
the same time the beauties predominate over the defects, and 
the language of the drama is in general of extraordinary beauty 
and power." 

BHAYISHYA PURAiYA. " This PuraT^a, as its name im- 
jilies, should be a book of prophecies foretelling what will be." 
The copies discovered contain about 7000 stanzas. The work 
is far from agreeing with the declared character of a Purawa, 
and is principally a manual of rites and ceremonies. Its deity 
is iS'iva, There is another work, containing also about 7000 
verses, called the Bhavishyottara PuraT^a, a name which would 
imply that " it was a continuation or supj)lement of the former," 
and its contents are of a similar character. — Wilson. 


BHAWAISI'I. One of the names of the wife of ^iva. See 

BHELA. An ancient sage who wrote upon medicine. 

BHIKSHU. A mendicant. The Brahman in the fourth 
and last stage of his religious life. See Brahman. 

Any mendicant, especially, in its Pali form, Bhikkhu, a Bud- 
dhist mendicant. 


so BHIMA. 

BHlMA, BHIMA-SENA. 'The terrible.' The second of 
the five Pam?u princes, and mythically son of Vayu, ' the god of 
the wind.' He was a man of vast size, and had great strength. 
He was M'rathful in temper, and given to abuse, a brave warrior, 
but a fierce and cruel foe, coarse in taste and manners, and a 
great feeder, so that he was called Vrikodara, 'wolfs belly.' 
Half of the food of the family was allotted to him, and the other 
half sufficed for his four brothers and their mother. The weapon 
he generally used was a club, which suited liis gigantic strength, 
and he had been trained in the use of it by Drowa and Bala- 
rama. His great strength excited the envy of his cousin Dur- 
yodhana, who poisoned him and threw his body into the 
Ganges ; but it sank to the reahn of the serpents, where it was 
restored to health and vigour, and Bhima returned to Hastina- 
pura. At the passage of arms at Hastinapura, he and Dur- 
yodhana engaged each other with clubs ; but the mimic combat 
soon turned into a fierce personal conflict, which Dro?ia had to 
put an end to by force. It was at tliis same meeting that he 
reviled Karwa, and heaped contempt upon him, increasing and 
converting into bitter hatred the enmity which Kar^za had pre- 
viously entertained against the PaTif/avas. When he and his 
brothers were in exile, and an attempt was made, at the instiga- 
tion of Dur-yodhana, to burn them in their house, it was he who 
barricaded the house of Purochana, the director of the plot, and 
burnt him as he had intended to burn them. Soon after this 
he met the Asura Hit^imba, whom he killed, and then married 
his sister Hi(iimba. He also slew another Asura named Yaka, 
whom he seized by the legs and tore asunder ; afterwards he 
killed his brother, Kirmira, and other Asuras. This brought the 
Asuras to submission, and they engaged to refrain from molest- 
ing mankind. After the V^ndw 2)rinces were estabhshed at 
Indraprastha, Bhima fought in single combat with Jarasandha, 
king of Magadha, who had refused to recognise their supremacy. 
As ' son of the wind,' Bhima was brother of Hanuman, and was 
able to fly with great speed. By this power of flight, and with 
the help of Hanuman, he made his way to Kuvera's heaven, 
higli up in the Himalayas. A\^ien Jayadratha failed in his 
attem2)t to carry off Draupadi, he was i)ursued by Arjuna and 
Bhima. The latter overtook him, dragged him by the hair from 
his chariot to the ground, and kicked him till he became sense- 

BHIMA. ' 51 

less. At Arj Una's remonstrance Bliima refrained from killing 
him ; but lie cut off all his hair except five locks, and compelled 
him to acknowledge publicly that he was the slave of the 
Pa?i(^avas. Bhima refused to listen to his brother's plea for 
Jayadratha's release, but at Draupadi's intercession he let him 
go free. In the second exile of the PaTZcZavas, they went to the 
Kaja of Yira^fa, whose service they entered. Bhima, holding a 
ladle in one hand and a sword in the other, undertook the duties 
of cook ; but he soon exhibited his prowess by fighting with and 
killing a famous wrestler named Jimuta. Draupadi had entered 
into the service of the queen as a waiting-maid, and attracted 
the admiration of the king's brother-in-law, Kichaka. When she 
rejected his advances, he insulted and brutally assaulted her. 
Her husbands did not seem disposed to avenge her, so she 
appealed to Bhima, as she was wont when she sought revenge, 
DrauiDadi made an assignation with Kichaka, which Bhima kept, 
and after a sharp struggle with the disaj^jDoiiited gallant, he 
broke his bones to atoms, and made his body into a large ball 
of flesh, so that no one could tell how he had been killed or 
who had killed him. Draupadi was judged to have had a share 
in his death, and was condemned to be burnt alive ; but Bhima 
drew his hair over his face, so that no one could recognise him, 
and, tearing up a large tree for a club, he rushed to the rescue. 
He was taken for a mighty Gandliarva, the crowd fled, and 
Draupadi was released. Kichaka had been the general of the 
forces of Yira;!a and the mainstay of the king. After his death, 
Su-sarman, king of Trigartta, aided and abetted by the Kaiiravas 
and others, determined to attack Vira/a. The Raja of Yira/a 
was defeated and made prisoner, but Bhima pursued Su-5arman 
and overcame him, rescued the prisoner, and made the conqueror 
captive. In the great battle between the Kauravas and Pam/a- 
vas, Bhima took a very j)rominent part. On the first day he 
fought against Bhishma ; on the second he slew the two sons of 
the Raj a of Magadha, and after them their father, killing him 
and his elephant at a single blow. In the night between the 
fourteenth and fifteenth day of the battle, Bhima fought with 
Dro?za until the rising of the sun ; but that redoubted warrior 
fell by the hand of Dh?'ish/a-dyumna, who continued the combat 
till noonday. On the seventeenth day he killed Duh-sasana, 
and drank his blood, as he had long before vowed to do, in 

52 ■ BHIMA, 

retaliation of the insults Duli-sasana had offered to DranpadT. 
On the eighteenth and last day of the battle Dur-yodhana fled 
and hid himself in a lake. "When he was discovered, he would 
not come out until he had received a promise that he should not 
have to fight with more than one man at a time. Even then 
he delayed until he was irritated by the abuse and the taunts 
of the Pa7i<iavas. Bhima and Dur-yodhana fought as usual 
with clubs. The battle was long and furious ; the parties were 
equally matched, and Bhima was getting the worst of it, when 
he struck an unfair blow which smashed Dur-yodhana's thigh, 
and brought him to the ground. Thus he fulfilled his vow and 
avenged Draupadi. In his fury Bhima kicked his prostrate 
foe on the head, and acted so brutally that his brother Yudlii- 
sh^hira struck him in the face with his fist, and directed Arjuna 
to take him away. Bala-rama was greatly incensed at the foul 
play to wliich Bhima had resorted, and would have attacked 
the Pawf^avas had he not been mollified by Krishna. He de- 
clared that Bhima should thenceforward be called Jihma-yodhin, 
'the unfair fighter.' After the conclusion of the war, the old 
king, Dh?-'ita-rash/ra, asked that Bhima might be brought to him. 
K?'isliwa, who knew the blind old man's sorrow for his son, 
whom Bhima had killed, and suspecting his intention, placed 
before him an iron statue, which Dlwita-rash^ra crushed in his 
embrace. Dh?'ita-rash/ra never forgave Bhima, and he returned 
the ill feeling with insults, which ended in the old king's retir- 
ing into the forest. Bhiraa's last public feat was the slaughter 
of the horse in the sacrifice which followed Yudhi-sh/hira's 
accession to the throne. Apart from his mythological attributes, 
the character of Bhima is natural and distinct. A man of burly 
form, prodigious strength, and great animal courage, with coarse 
tastes, a gluttonous appetite, and an irascible temper ; jovial and 
jocular when in good humour, but abusive, truculent, and brutal 
when his passions were roused. His repartees were forcible though 
coarse, and he held his own even against K?'/sh?ia when the 
latter made personal remarks upon him. See Mahii-bharata. 

By his Asura wife Hi<:?imba he had a son named Gha^otkacha ; 
and by his wife Balandhara, princess of Kiisi, he also had a son 
named Sarvatraga or Sarvaga. Other appellations of Bhima are 
Bhima-sena, Bahu-sfdin, ' tlie large armed,' Jarasandha-jit, ' van- 
quisher of Jarasandha.' 


BHIMA. Il^ame of the father of Damayanti. A name of 
Kudra or of one of his personifications, ^ee Rudra. 

BHIMA aSANKARA, BHIME^'WARA. Name of one of 
the twelve great Lingas. See Linga. 

BHIMA-SENA. A name of Bhima. 

BHISHMA ' The terrible.' Son of King ^S'antanu by the 
holy river goddess Ganga, and hence called /S'antanava, Gangeya, 
and Nadi-ja, 'the river-born.' When King /Santanu was very 
old he desired to marry a yonng and beautiful wdfe. His son 
^antanava or Bhishma found a suitable damsel, but her parents 
objected to the marriage because Bhishma was heir to the throne, 
and if she bore sons they could not succeed. To gratify his 
father's desires, he made a vow to the girl's parents that he 
would never accept the throne, nor marry a wife, nor become 
the father of children. iS'antanu then married the damsel, whose 
name was Satyavati, and she bore him two sons. At the death 
of his father, Bhishma placed the elder son upon the throne, but 
he was headstrong and was soon killed in battle. The other 
son, named Yichitra-viryya, then succeeded, and Bhishma acted 
as his protector and adviser. By force of arms Bhishma obtained 
two daughters of the king of Ka5i and married them to Vichitra- 
viryya, and when that prince died young and childless, Bhishma 
acted as guardian of his widows. By Bhishma's arrangement, 
Knsh?za Dwaipayana, who was born of Satyavati before her 
marriage, raised up seed to his half-brother. The two children 
were Pa?zc?u and Dh?"ita-rash/ra. Bhishma brought them up and 
acted for them as regent of Hastina-pura. He also directed the 
training of their respective children, the Pa?zc?avas and Kauravas. 
On the rupture taking place between the rival families, Bhishma 
counselled moderation and peace. When the war began he 
took the side of the Kauravas, the sons of Dhr/ta-rash/ra, and 
he was made commander-in-chief of their army. He laid down 
some rules for mitigating the horrors of war, and he stipulated 
that he should not be called uj)on to fight against Arjuna. 
Goaded by the reproaches of Dur-yodhana, he attacked Arjuna 
on the tenth day of the battle. He was unfairly wounded by 
/S'ikhandin, and was pierced with innumerable arrows from the 
hands of Arjuna, so that there was not a space of two fingers' 
breadth left unwounded in his whole body, and when he fell 
from his chariot he was upheld from the ground by the 
arrows and lay as on a couch of darts. He was mortally 


wounded, but he had obtained the power of fixing the period 
of his death, so he survived fifty-eight days, and dehvered 
several long didactic discourses. Bhishma exhibited through- 
out his life a self-denial, devotion, and fidelit}^ which remained 
unsullied to the last. He is also known by the appellation 
Tarpawechchhu, and as Tala-ketu, 'palm banner.' iiee Maha- 

BHISHMAKA. i. An appellation of /Siva. 2. King of 
Vidarbha, father of Rukmin and of Rukmini, the chief wife of 

BHOGAVATI. ' The voluptuous.' The subterranean capital 
of the Xagas in the Naga-loka portion of Piitala. Another name 
is Put-kari. 

BHOJA. A name borne by many kings. Most conspicuous 
among them was Bhoja or Bhoja-deva, king of Dhar, who is said 
to have been a great patron of literature, and probably died 
before 1082 a.d. 2. A prince of the Yadava race who reigned 
at ]\I?7'ttikavatI on the Par?2,asa river in Malwa; he is called 
also Maha-bhoja. 3. A tribe living in the Vindhya mountains. 
4. A country ; the modern Bhojpur, Bhagalpur, &c. 

BHOJA-PRABANDHA. A collection of literary anecdotes 
relating to King Bhoja of Dhar, written by BalHla. The text 
has been lithographed by Pavie. 

BHit/GU. A Vedic sage. He is one of the Prajapatis and 
great i^/shis, and is regarded as the founder of the race of the 
Bhrigus or Bhargavas, in which was born Jamad-agni and Para^u 
Rama. Manu calls him son, and says that he confides to him 
his Institutes. According to the Maha-bharata he officiated at 
Daksha's celebrated sacrifice, and had his beard pulled out by 
/Siva. The same authority also tells the following story : — It is 
related of Bhrigu that he rescued the sage Agastya from the 
tyranny of King Nahusha, who had obtained suj^erhuman 
power. Bli?-igu crept into Agastya's hair to avoid the potent 
glance of Nahusha, and when that tyrant attached Agastya to 
his chariot and kicked him on the head to make him move, 
Bh7-/gu cursed Nahusha, and he was turned into a serpent. 
Bh/igu, on Nahusha's supplication, limited the duration of his 

In the Padma Purana it is related that the i^ishis, assembled 
at a sacrifice, disputed as to which deity was best entitled to the 



homage of a Brahman. Being unable to agree, they resolved to 
send Bhngii to test the characters of the various gods, and he 
accordingly went. He could not obtain access to ^S'iva because 
that deity was engaged with his wife ; " finding him, therefore, 
to consist of the property of darkness, Bhrigu sentenced him to 
take the form of the Linga, and pronounced that he should have 
no offerings presented to him, nor receive the worship of the 
pious and respectable. His next visit was to Brahma, whom he 
beheld surrounded by sages, and so much inflated with his own 
importance as to treat Bhngu with great inattention, betraying 
his being made up of foulness. The Muni therefore excluded 
him from the worship of the Brahmans. Repairing next to 
Vishmi, he found the deity asleep, and, indignant at his seeming 
sloth, Bh?'igu stamj^ed upon his breast with his left foot and 
awoke him ; instead of being offended, VisliTiu gently pressed 
the Brahman's foot and expressed himself honoured and made 
happy by its contact ; and Bhrigu, highly pleased by his humi- 
lity, and satisfied of his being impersonated goodness, proclaimed 
Vishvzu as the only being to be worshipped by men or gods, in 
which decision the Munis, upon BhW-gu's report, concurred." — 

BHit/GUS. 'Roasters, consumers.' "A class of mythical 
beings who belonged to the middle or aerial class of gods." — 
Roth. They are connected with Agni, and are spoken of as 
producers and nourishers of fire, and as makers of chariots. 
They are associated with the Angirasas, the Atharvans, i^ib- 
hus, &c. 

BHU, BHUMI. The earth. 8m Pnthivi. 

BHUR. Sm Yvahnti. 

BHURI-^SRAYAS. A prince of the Balhikas and an ally of 
the Kauravas, who was killed in the great battle of the Maha- 

BHUR-LOKA. See Loka. 

BHUTA. A ghost, imp, gobhn. Malignant spirits which 
haunt cemeteries, lurk in trees, animate dead bodies, and delude 
and devour human beings. According to the YishTZu PuraTia 
they are "fierce beings and eaters of flesh," who were created by 
the Creator when he was incensed. In the Vayu Pura?ia their 
mother is said to have been Krodha, 'anger.' The Bluitas are 
attendants of /Siva, and he is held to be their king. 


BHUTE^S'A, BHUTE^S^YARA. 'Lord of beings or of 
created things.' A name applied to Yish?zii, Brahma, and 
K?7shna; as 'lord of the Bhutas or goblins,' it is applied to 

BHUYANES'WARA. A ruined city in Orissa, sacred to 
the worship of /S'iva, and containing the remains of several 
temples. It was formerly called Ekamra-kanana. 

BHUYAR. See Yyahnti. 


BIBHATSU. 'Loathing.' An appellation of Arjuna. 

BIXDUSARA. The son and successor of Chandra-gupta. 

BRAHMA, BRAHMAN (neuter). The supreme soul of the 
universe, self-existent, absolute, and eternal, from which all things 
emanate, and to which all return. This divine essence is incor- 
poreal, immaterial, invisible, unborn, uncreated, without begin- 
ning and without end, illimitable, and inappreciable by the sense 
until the film of mortal blindness is removed. It is all-pervading 
and infinite in its manifestations, in all nature, animate and in- 
animate, in the highest god and in the meanest creature. This 
supreme soul receives no worship, but it is the object of that 
abstract meditation which Hindu sages practise in order to 
obtain absorption into it. It is sometimes called Kala-hansa. 

There is a passage in the /S'atapatha Brahma?ia which repre- 
sents Brahma (neut.) as the active creator. See Brahma. 

The Yeda is sometimes called Brahma. 

BRAHMA (masculine). The first member of the Hindu 
triad; the supreme spirit manifested as the active creator of 
the universe. He sprang from the mundane ^^^g deposited by 
the supreme first cause, and is the Prajapati, or lord and father 
of all creatures, and in the first place of the i?ishis or Praja- 

When Brahma has created the world it remains unaltered for 
one of his days, a period of 2,160,000,000 years. The world and 
all that is therein is then consumed by fire, but the sages, gods, 
and elements survive. When he awakes he again restores crea- 
tion, and this process is repeated until his existence of a hundred 
years is brought to a close, a period which it requires fifteen 
figures to express. When this period is ended he himself expires, 
and he and all the gods and sages, and the wliole universe are 
resolved into their constituent elements. His name is invoked 


in religions services, "but Puslikara i^iodie Pokliar), near Ajmir, 
is the only place where he receives worship, though Professor 
Williams states that he has heard of homage being paid to him 
at Idar. 

Brahmil is said to be of a red colour. He has four heads ; 
originally he had five, but one was burnt off by the fire of *Siva's 
central eye because he had spoken disrespectfully. Hence he is 
called Chatur-anana or Chatur-mukha, 'four-faced,' and Ash/a- 
karwa, 'eight-eared.' He has four arms ; and in his hands he 
holds his sceptre, or a spoon, or a string of beads, or his bow 
Parivita, or a water jug, and the Veda. His consort is Saraswati, 
goddess of learning, also called Brahmi. His vehicle is a swan 
or goose, from which he is called Hansa-vahana. His residence 
is called Brahma-vfinda. 

The name Brahma is not found in the Vedas and Brahmawas, 
in which the actiA^e creator is known as HiraTiya-garbha, Praja- 
pati, &c. ; but there is a curious passage in the AS'atapatha Brah- 
nia?2a which says : " He (Brahma, neuter) created the gods. 
Having created the gods, he placed them in these worlds : in this 
world Agni, Yayu in the atmosphere, and Siirya in the sky." 
Two points connected with Brahma are remarkable. As the 
father of men he performs the work of procreation by incestuous 
intercourse with his own daughter, variously named Vach or 
Saraswati (speech), Sandliya (twilight), /S'ata-rupa (the hundred- 
formed), &c. Secondly, that his powers as creator have been 
arrogated to the other gods Yishwu and .Siva, while Brahma has 
been thrown into the shade. In the Aitareya Brahma?ia it is said 
that Prajapati was in the form of a buck and his daughter was 
Kohit, a deer. According to the ^S'atapatha Brahma?m and Manu, 
the supreme soul, the self-existent lord, created the waters and 
deposited in them a seed, which seed became a golden ^<g^^ in 
which he himself was born as Brahma, the progenitor of all the 
worlds. As the waters (nara) were " the place of his movement, 
he (Brahma) was called Xaraya?ia." Here the name Narayawa is 
referred distinctly to Brahma, but it afterwards became the name 
of Vishmi. The account of the Ramayawa is that " all was water 
only, in which the earth was formed. Thence arose Brahma, the 
self-existent, with the deities. He then, becoming a boar, raised 
up the earth and created the whole world with the saints, his 
sons. Brahma, eternal and per23etually undecaying, sjDrang from 


tlie ether ; from him was descended Marlclii ; the son of Marichi 
was Ka^vapa. From Kasyapa sprang Yivaswat, and Manu is 
declared to have been Yivaswat's son." A later recension of 
this poem alters this passage so as to make Brahma a mere 
manifestation of A'ishmi. Instead of " Brahma, the self-exis- 
tent, with the deities," it substitutes for the last three words, 
"the imperishable Vishmi." The Mshwu PuraTia says that the 
" divine Brahma called Xarayawa created all beings," that Pra- 
jrii)ati "had formerly, at the commencement of the (previous) 
kalpas, taken the shape of a fish, a tortoise, &c., (so now), 
entering the body of a boar, the lord of creatures entered the 
water." But this "lord of creatures" is clearly shown to be 
Vishmi, and these three forms, the fish, the tortoise, and the boar, 
are now counted among the Avataras of Yishwu. {See Avatara.) 
This attribution of the form of a boar to Brahma (Prajapati) 
had been before made by the *Satapatha Brahmawa, which also 
says, " Having assumed the form of a tortoise, Prajapati created 
offspring." The Linga Purawa is quite exceptional among the 
later works in ascribing the boar form to Brahma. The Maha- 
bharata represents Brahma as springing from the navel of 
Vishmi or from a lotus which grew thereout ; hence he is called 
Xabhi-ja, 'navel-born;' Kanja, 'the lotus;' Sarojin, 'having a 
lotus;' Abja-ja, Abja-yoni, and Kanja-ja, 'lotus-born.' This 
is, of course, the view taken by the Vaish?iavas. The same 
statement appears in the Eamayawa, although this poem gives 
Brahma a more prominent place than usual. It represents 
Brahma as informing Ila,ma of his divinity, and of his calling 
him to heaven in "the glory of Vish^m." He bestowed boons 
on Rama while that hero was on earth, and he extended his 
favours also to Rava7ia and other Rakshasas who were descen- 
dants of his son Pulastya. In the Purilwas also he appears as a 
patron of the enemies of the gods, and it was by his favour that 
the Daitya King Bali obtained that almost universal dominion 
which required the incarnation of Vishwu as the dwarf to repress. 
He is further represented in the Riimaya^ia as the creator of the 
T)eautiful Alialya, whom he gave as wife to the sage Gautama. 
Brahma, being thus inferior to Vishnu, is represented as giving 
homage and praise to Vislmu himself and to his form K?'/sh?ia, 
but tlie Vaish?iava autliorities make him superior to Rudrn, 
who, they say, sprang from his foreliead. The ^Saiva authorities 


make Maha-deva or Rudra to be tlie creator of Brahma, and 
represent Brahma as worshipping the Linga and as acting as 
the charioteer of Rudra. 

Brahma was the father of Daksha, who is said to have sprung 
from his thumb, and he was present at the sacrifice of that 
patriarch, which was rudely disturbed by Rudra. Then he had 
to humbly submit and appease the offended god. The four 
Ivumaras, the chief of whom was called Sanat-kumara or by the 
patronymic Vaidliatra, were later creations or sons of Brahma. 

Brahma is also called Yidlii, Vedhas, Druhi?ia, and Srash/y /, 
'creator;' Dhatn and Yidhatn, 'sustainer;' Pitamaha, 'the 
great father ; ' Lokesa, ' lord of the world ; ' Paramesh/a, 
'supreme in heaven;' Sanat, 'the ancient;' Adi-kavi, 'the 
first poet ; ' and Drii-ghawa, 'the axe or mallet.' 

BRAHMACHARl. The Brahman student. See Brahman. 

BRAHMADIKAS. The Prajapatis (q.v.). 

BRAHMA- GUPTA. An astronomer who composed the 
Brahma-gupta Siddhanta in A.D. 628. 


BRAHMAN". The first of the four castes; the sacerdotal 
class, the members of which may be, but are not necessarily, 
priests. A Brahman is the chief of all created beings ; his per- 
son is inviolate ; he is entitled to all honour, and enjoys many 
rights and privileges. The >S'atapatha Brahmawa declares that 
" there are two kinds of gods ; first the gods, then those who 
are Brahmans, and have learnt the Veda and repeat it : they are 
human gods." The chief duty of a Brahman is the study and 
teaching of the Vedas, and the performance of sacrifices and 
other religious ceremonies ; but in modern times many Brahmans 
entirely neglect these duties, and they engage in most of the 
occupations of secular life. Under the law of Manu, the life 
of a Brahman Avas divided into four a.sramas or stages : — 

1. Brahmachdrl. — The student, whose duty was to pass his 
days in humble and obedient attendance upon his sp)iritual 
preceptor in the study of the A-^edas. 

2. Griliastha. — The householder ; the married man living 
with his wife as head of a family engaged in the ordinary duties 
of a Brahman, reading and teaching the Yedas, sacrificing and 
assisting to sacrifice, bestowing alms and receiving alms. 

3. Vdnap'asfha. — The anchorite, or " dweller in the woods," 


who, liaving discharged his duties as a man of the world, has 
retired into the forest to devote himself to self-denial in food 
and raiment, to mortifications of various kinds, to religious 
meditation, and to the strict performance of all ceremonial 

4. Sannydsl. — The religious mendicant, who, freed from all 
forms and observances, wandors about and subsists on alms, 
practising or striving for that condition of mind which, heedless 
of the joys and j)ains, cares and troubles of the flesh, is intent 
only upon the deity and final absorption. 

The divisions and subdivisions of the Brahman caste are almost 
innumerable. It must suffice here to notice the great divisions 
of north and south, the Pancha Gauc/a and the Pancha Dravif/a. 
The five divisions of Gau<:/a, or Bengal, are the Brahmans of — 
I. Kanyakubja, Kanauj ; 2. Saraswata, the north-west, about the 
Saraswati or Sarsiiti river; 3. Gaur?a; 4. Mithila, ISTorth Bihar; 
5. Utkala, Orissa. The Pancha Dravif/a are the Brahmans of 
— I. Maha-rash/ra, the Mahratta country; 2. Telinga, the Telugu 
country ; 3. Dravi(Za, the Tamil country ; 4. Karna/a, the Cana- 
rese country ; 5. Giirjjara, Guzerat. 

BEAHMAiVA. ' Belonging to Brahmans.' Works composed 
by and for Brahmans. That part of the Veda which was intended 
for the use and guidance of Brahmans in the use of the hymns 
of the Mantra, and therefore of later production ; but the Brah- 
mana, equally with the Mantra, is held to be /S'ruti or revealed 
word. Excepting its claim to revelation, it is a Hindu Talmud. 
The Brrdimawa collectively is made up of the different Brrdimawas, 
which are ritualistic and liturgical writings in prose. They con- 
tain the details of the Vedic ceremonies, with long explanations 
of their origin and meaning ; they give instructions as to the use 
of particular verses and metres ; and they abound with curious 
legends, divine and human, in illustration. In them are found 
" the oldest rituals we have, the oldest linguistic explanations, 
the oldest traditional narratives, and the oldest philoso^^hical 
speculations." As literary productions they are not of a high 
order, but some " striking thoughts, bold expressions, sound 
reasoning, and curious traditions are found among the mass of 
pedantry and grandiloquence." Each of the Sanhitiis or collec- 
tion of hymns has its Brahma/zas, and these generally maintain 
the essential character of the Veda to which they belong. Thus 


the BrahmaTzas of the Big are specially devoted to the duties of 
the Hotri, who recites the richas or verses, those of the Yajur to 
the performance of the sacrifices by the Adhwaryn, and those of 
the Saman to the chaunting by the Udgatri. The Big has the 
Aitarej^a Brahma?za, which is perhaps the oldest, and may date 
as far back as the seventh century b. c. This is sometimes called 
Aswalayana. It has another called Kaushitaki or /S'ankhayana. 
The Taittiriya Sanhita of the Yajur-veda has the Taittiriya 
Brahma?ia, and the Yajasaneyi Sanhita has the iS'atapatha Brah- 
mawa, one of the most important of all the Brahma^ias. The 
Sama-veda has eight BrahmaTias, of which the best known are 
the Praucflia or Pancha-vin^a, the TRndja, and the Sha/i-vinsa. 
The Atharva has only one, the Gopatha Bra,lima?ia. In their 
fullest extent the Brahma?ias embrace also the treatises called 
AraTzyakas and Upanishads. 

BKAHMANASPATI. A Vedic equivalent of the name Brl- 

BRAHMAiVDA PURAiVA. " That which has declared, in 
12,200 verses, the magnificence of the egg of Brahma, and in 
which an account of the future kalpas is contained, is called 
the Brahma72t?a Pura^za, and was revealed by Brahma." This 
PuraTia, like the Skanda, is " no longer procurable in a collective 
body," but is represented by a variety of Khawc^as and Maha- 
tmj^as professing to be derived from it. The Adhyatma Rama- 
yaTza, a very popular work, is considered to be a part of this 

BRAHMAA"!. The female form, or the daughter of Brahma, 
also called A^ata-riipa (q.v.). 

BRAHMA-PURA. The city of Brahma. The heaven of 
Brahma, on the summit of ]\Iount Meru, and enclosed by the 
river Ganga. 

BRAHMA PURAiVA. In all the lists of the PuraTzas the 
Brahma stands first, for which reason it is sometimes entitled 
the Adi or " Pirst " Pura?za. It was repeated by Brahma to 
MarTchi, and is said to contain 10,000 stanzas, but the actual 
number is between 7000 and Sooo. It is also called the Saura 
Pura?za, because " it is, in great part, appropriated to the worship 
of Siirya, the sun." " The early chapters give a description of 
the creation, an account of the Manwantaras, and the history 
of the Solar and Lunar dynasties to the time of Krish?za in a 


summary manner, and in words "vvliicb. are common to it and 
several other Pura/ias. A brief description of the universe 
succeeds ; and then come a number of chapters relating to the 
holiness of Orissa, with its temples and sacred groves, dedicated 
to the sun, to /S'iva, and Jagan-natha, the latter especially. These 
chapters are characteristic of this Purawa, and show its main 
object to be the promotion of the worship of Krishna as Jagan- 
natha. To these particulars succeeds a life of Iv7'ish7ia, which is 
word for word the same as that of the Yish/iu Pura?ia ; and the 
compilation terminates with a particular detail of the mode in 
which Yoga or contemplative devotion, the object of wliich is 
still VishTiu, is to be performed. There is little in this which 
corresponds with the definition of a Pancha-laksha?2a Pura??a, and 
the mention of the temples of Orissa, the date of the original 
construction of which is recorded, shows that it could not have 
been compiled earlier than the thirteenth or fourteenth century." 
This Pura?ia has " a supplementary or concluding section called 
the Brahmottara Pura?za, which contains about 3000 stanzas. 
This bears still more entirely the character of a Mahatmya or 
local legend, being intended to celebrate the sanctity of the 
Balaja river, conjectured to be the same as the Banas in Marwar. 
There is no clue to its date, but it is clearly modern, grafting 
personages and fictions of its own invention on a few hints from 
older authorities." — Wilson. 

BEAHMARSHI-DEaS'A. " Kurukshetra, the Matsyas, the 
Panchalas, and the Surasenas. This land, wliich comes to 
Brahmavartta, is the land of Brahmarshis. " — Manu. 

BRAHMARSHIS. it/shis of the Brahman caste, who were 
the founders of the gotras of Brahmans, and dwell in the sphere 
of Brahma. See /tishi 

BRAHMA-SAVARAT. The tenth Manu. See Manu. 

BRAH]\1A SUTRAS. Aphorisms on the Vedanta philosophy 
by Badaraya?ia or Yyasa. They are also called Brahma Mimansa 
Siitras. They are in course of translation by the Rev. K. M. 
Banerjea in the Blhliotheca Indica. 

BRAPBIA YAIYARTA PURAAA. " That Pura7?a which 
is related by SavarTii to Narada, and contains the account of the 
greatness of Krishy^a, with the occurrences of the Rathantara- 
kalpa, where also the story of Brahma-varaha is repeatedly told, 
is caUed the Brahma Yaivarta Purawa, and contains 18,000 


stanzas." The copies known ratlier exceed this number of 
stanzas, but the contents do not answer to this description. 
" The character of the work is so decidedly sectarial, and the 
sect to which it belongs so distinctly marked — that of the wor- 
shippers of the juvenile K?'/sh7ia and Kadlia, a form of belief of 
known modern origin " — that it must be a production of a com- 
paratively late date. A specimen of the text and translation has 
been published by Stenzler. 

BRAHMA YARTTA. "Between the two divine rivers, 
SaraswatI and Dr ishadwati, lies the tract of land which the 
sages have named Brahmavartta, because it was frequented by 
the gods." — Manu, ii. 17. 

BRAHMA- YED A. A name given to the Atharvan or fourth 
Yeda, the Yeda of prayers and charms. 

BRAHMA-YUGA. 'The age of Brahmans.' The first or 
Knta-yuga. See Yuga. 


B?'iliad Ara?i,yaka Upanishad belongs to the /S'atapatha Brah- 
mawa, and is ascribed to the sage Yajnawalkya. It has been 
translated by Dr. Roer, and published in the Bibliotheca Inclica. 
See Arawyaka and Yajnawalkya. 

Bi^/HAD-DEYATA. An ancient work in slokas by the 
sage /S'aunaka, which enumerates and describes the deity or 
deities to which each hymn and verse of the i^ig-veda is 
addressed. It frequently recites legends in support of its attri- 

B^/HAD-RATHA. The tenth and last king of the Maurya 
dynasty, founded by Chandragupta. 

Bi^/HAX NARADIYA PURAYA. See ^rada Pura?za. 

Bit/HASPATI. In the J?ig-veda the names B?7haspati 
and Brahmanaspati alternate, and are equivalent to each other. 
They are names " of a deity in whom the action of the wor- 
shipper upon the gods is personified. He is the suppliant, the 
sacrificer, the priest, who intercedes with gods on behalf of men 
and protects mankind against the wicked. Hence he appears as 
the prototype of the priests and priestly order; and is also 
designated as the Purohita (family priest) of the divine com- 
munity. He is called in one place 'the father of the gods,' and 
a widely extended creative power is ascribed to him. He is 


also designated as 'the sliining' and 'the gold-coloured,' and as 
' havino: the thunder for his voice.' " 

In later times he is a i^/shi. lie is also regent of the planet 
Jupiter, and the name is commonly used for the planet itself. 
In this character his car is called Niti-ghosha and is drawn by- 
eight pale horses. He was son of the iti'shi Angiras, and he bears 
the patronymic Angirasa. As preceptor of the gods he is called 
Animishacharya, Chakshas, Ijya, and Indrejya. His wife, Tara, 
was carried off by Soma, the moon, and this gave rise to a war 
called the Taraka-maya. Soma was aided by Usanas, Eudra, and 
all the Daityas and Danavas, while Indra and the gods took the 
part of Brdiaspati. " Earth, shaken to her centre," appealed to 
Brahma, who interposed and restored Tara to her husband. She 
was delivered of a son which Br/haspati and Soma both claimed, 
but Tara, at the command of Brahma to tell the truth, declared 
Soma to be the father, and the cliild was named Budlia. There 
is an extraordinary story in the Matsya and Bhagavata Purawas 
of the itishis having milked the earth through Brihaspati. {See 
Vish?iu Pura7ia, i. pp. i88, 190.) Brdiaspati was father of 
Bharadwaja by Mamata, wife of Utathya. {See Bharadwaja,) 
An ancient code of law bears the name of BrHiaspati, and he is 
also represented as being the Yyasa of the " fourth, Dwapara 
age." There was a itislii of the name in the second Manwan- 
tara, and one who was founder of an heretical sect. Other epi- 
thets of B)-diaspati are Jiva, ' the living,' Didivis, ' the bright,' 
DhishaTia, 'the intelligent,' and, for his eloquence, Gish-pati, 
' lord of speech.' 

Bit/HAT-KATHA. A large collection of tales, the original 
of the Katha-sarit-sagara (q.v.). 

Bi^/HAT-SANHITA. A celebrated work on astronomy by 
Yaraha Miliira. It has been printed by Kern in the Bihliotheca 
Indica, who has also published a translation in Jour. B. A. S. 
for 1870 and following years. 

BUDDHxi. Gotama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. 
VisliTiu's ninth incarnation. See Avatara. 

BUDHA. 'Wise, intelligent' The planet Mercury, son of 
Soma, the moon, by Rohi?iI, or by Tiirfi, wife of B^/haspati. (See 
B7-ihaspati.) He married Ha, daughter of the ]\Ianu Vaivaswata, 
and by her had a son, Pururavas. Budha was author of a liymn 
in the itig-veda. {See Ha.) Prom his parents he is called 


Saiimya and Raiiliineya, He is also called PraliarsliaTza, Rod- 
hana, Tunga, and AS'yamanga, 'black-bodied.' The intrigue of 
Soma with Tara was the cause of a great quarrel, in which the 
gods and the Asuras fought against each other. Brahma com- 
pelled Soma to give up Tara, and when she returned to her 
husband she was pregnant. A son was born, who was so beau- 
tiful that B?'zhaspati and Soma both claimed him. Tara for a 
long time refused to tell his paternity, and so excited the wrath 
and nearly incurred the curse of her son. At length, upon the 
command of Brahma, she declared Soma to be the father, and 
he gave the boy the name of Budha. This name is distinct 
from Buddha. 

CHAIT ANYA-CHANDRODAYA. ' The rise of the moon 
of Chaitanya.' A drama in ten acts by Kavi-kar?ia-pura. It is 
published in the Bihliotheca Indica. Chaitanya was a modern 
Vaishwava reformer, accounted an incarnation of l\.Tishna. 

CHAITRA-RATHA. The grove or forest of Kuvera on 
Mandara, one of the spurs of Meru ; it is so called from its being 
cultivated by the gandharva Chitra-ratha. 

CHAKORA. A kind of partridge. A fabulous bird, supposed 
to live upon the beams of the moon. 

CHAKRA-YARTI. A universal emperor, described by the 
YisliTiu Pura?^a as one who is born with the mark of Yish/iu's 
discus visible in his hand ; but, Wilson observes, " the gram- 
matical etymology is, ' He who abides in or rules over an exten- 
sive territory called a Chakra,'" 

CHAKSHUSHA. The sixth Manu. See Manu. 

CHAMPA. Son of Prithu-laksha, a descendant of Yayati, 
through his fourth son, Anu, and founder of the city of 

PA-PURL The capital city of the country of Anga. Traces of 
it still remain in the neighbourhood of Bhagalpur. It was also 
called Malinl, from its being surrounded with champaka trees 
as with a garland (maid). It is said to have derived its name 
from Champa, its founder, but the abundant champaka trees 
may assert a claim to its designation. 

CHAMTJiYDA. An emanation of the goddess Durga, sent 
forth from her forehead to encounter the demons ChaTz^a and 
'Munch. She is thus described in the MarkawtZeya Purana : — 



" From the foreliead of Ambika (Durga), contracted with wrath- 
ful frowns, sprang swiftly forth a goddess of black and formid- 
able aspect, armed with a scimitar and noose, bearing a ponde- 
rous mace, decorated with a garland of dead corses, robed in the 
hide of an elephant, dry and withered and hideous, with yawning 
mouth, and loUing tongue, and bloodshot eyes, and filling the 
regions with her shouts. " "When she had killed the two demons, 
she bore their heads to Durga, who told her that she should 
henceforth be known, by a contraction of their names, as Cha- 

CHAiVAKYA. A celebrated Brahman, who took a leading 
part in the destruction of the Nandas, and in the elevation of 
Chandra-gupta to their throne. He was a great master of finesse 
and artifice, and has been called the Machiavelli of India. A 
work upon morals and polity called Cha?iakya Siitra is ascribed 
to him. He is the chief character in the drama called Mudra- 
rakshasa, and is known also by the names Vish/iu-gupta and 
Kau^il3"a. His maxims have been translated by Weber. 

CHAA^Z>A, CRANDl. The goddess Durga, especially in the 
form she assumed for the destruction of the Asura called 

same as the Chawc?ipa^ha. 

CKANDlFAT, CRANDIFATRA. A poem of 700 verses, 
forming an episode of the Markam?eya Pura7za. It cele- 
brates Durga's victories over the Asuras, and is read daily in 
the temples of that goddess. The work is also called Devi- 
mahatmya. It has been translated by Foley and by Burnouf. 

CHANDRA The moon, either as a planet or a deity. See 

CHANDRA-GUPTA This name was identified by Sir W. 
Jones with the Sandracottus or Sandrocyptus mentioned by 
Arrian and the other classical historians of Alexander's cam- 
paign ; and somewhat later on as having entered into a treaty 
with Seleucus Nicator througli the ambassador Mcgasthenes. 
The identification has been contested, but the chief writers on 
Indian antiquities have admitted it as an established fact, and 
have added confirmatory evidence from various sources, so that 
the identity admits of no reasonable doubt. This identifica- 
tion is of the utmost importance to Indian chronology; it is the 


only link by which Indian history is connected with that of 
Greece, and everything in Indian chronology depends upon the 
date of Chandra-gupta as ascertained from that assigned to San- 
dracottiis by the classical writers. His date, as thus discovered, 
shows that he began to reign in 315 B.C., and as he reigned 
twenty-four years, his reign ended in 291 b.c. Chandra-gupta is 
a prominent name in both Brahmanical and Buddhist writings, 
and his accession to the throne is the subject of the drama 
Mudra-rak shasa. 

When Alexander was in India, he learned that a king named 
Xandrames reigned over the Prasii (Prachyas) at the city of 
Palibothra, situated at the confluence of the Ganges and another 
river called Erranaboas (the Sone). At this time, Sandracottus 
was young, but he waged war against Alexander's captains, and 
he raised bands of robbers, with whose help he succeeded in 
establishing freedom in India. 

Hindu and Buddliist writers are entirely silent as to Alex- 
ander's appearance in India, but they show that Chandra-gupta 
overthrew the dynasty of the Nandas, which reigned over 
Magadha, and "estabhshed freedom in India by the help of 
bands of robbers." He established himself at Pa^ali-putra, 
the capital of the ISTandas, which is identical with the Greek 
Palibothra, and this has been shown to be the modern Patna. 
That town does not now stand at the confluence of two rivers, 
but the rivers in the alluvial plains of Bengal frequently 
change their courses, and a change in the channel of the Sone 
has been established by direct geographical evidence. There is 
a difliculty about Xandrames. This is no doubt the Sanskrit 
Chandramas, which some consider to be only a shorter form of 
the name Chandra-gupta, while others point out that the Greek 
references indicate that Xandrames was the predecessor of San- 
dracottus, rather than Sandracottus himself. 

The dynasty of the JSTandas that reigned over Magadha are 
frequently spoken of as the " nine Nandas," meaning apparently 
nine descents ; but according to some authorities the last ISTanda, 
named Maha-padma, and his eight sons, are intended. Mahii- 
padma Nanda was the son of a /Siidra, and so by law he was a 
^iidra himself. He was powerful and ambitious, cruel and avari- 
cious. His people were disafi'ected ; but his fall is represen- 
ted as having been brought about by the Brahman Chawakya. 


Cliandra-giipta was then raised to the throne and founded the 
Mauryan djTiasty, the third king of which was the great Asoka, 
grandson of Chandra-giipta. The Erahmans and Buddliists 
are widely at variance as to the origin of the Maurya family. 
The drama Miidra-rakshasa represents Chandra-gupta as being 
related to Maha-padma JSTanda, and the commentator on the 
yisli?^u PiiraTia says that he was a son of JSTanda by a woman of 
low caste named j\Iura, wherefore he and his descendants were 
called Mauryas. This looks very like an etymological invention, 
and is inconsistent with the representation that the low caste of 
Nanda was one cause of his deposition ; for were it true, the 
low-caste king would have been supplanted by one of still lower 
degree. On the other hand, the Buddhists contend that the 
Mauryas belonged to the same family as Buddha, who was of the 
royal family of the ^akj'as. The question of the identification 
of Sandracottus and Chandra-gupta has been discussed at length 
by Wilson in the preface to the Mudra-rakshasa in his Hindu 
Theatre, and in the Yish?m Purawa, vol. iv. p. 185 ; also by 
Max Miiller in his History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature. 

CHANDRA-HASA. A prince of the south, who lost his 
parents soon after his birth, and fell into a state of destitution, 
but after going through a variety of adventures came to the 
throne. See Wlieeler, vol. i. p. 522. 

CHANDRA-KANT A. 'The moon-stone.' A gem or stone 
supposed to be formed by the congelation of the rays of the 
moon ; a crystal is perhaps meant. It is supposed to exercise a 
cooling influence. So in the Megha-diita — 

" The moon's white rays the smiling night illume, 
And on the moon-gem concentrated fall. 
That hangs in woven nets in every Lall ; 
AVhence cooling dews upon the fair descend, 
And life renewed to languid nature lend." 

It is also called Mam-chaka. 

CHANDRA-KETU. i. A son of Lakshma??a. 2. A king 
of the city of Chakora. 3. A country near the Himalayas. 

CHANDRA-YAN.S'A. The Lunar race. The lineage or 
race which claims descent from the moon. It is divided into 
two great branches, the Yadavas and Pauravas, respectively 
descended from Yadu and Puru. Ivrish?2a belonged to the line 
of Yadu, and Dushyanta with the Kuru and V\xnd\i princes to 



the line of Puru. The following is a list of the Lunar race as 
given in the Yishwu Pura/^a, but the authorities vary : — 

The Lunar Race. 

Atri, the i^/shi. 
Soma, the Moon. 
Budha, Mercury. 
Ayii, Ayus. 

Nahusha (and 3 others). 
Yayati (and 5 others). 


Yadu, eldest. 

Krosh^u (and 3 others), 






Pr/thusravas (one of a 

milhon sons). 

or > 

Ruchaka. j 

Kratha . 


Puru, youngest (and 3 

Riteyu (and 9 others). 

or > adopted. 

Vitatha ) 
Brihatkshatra (and 

many others). 

Hastin (of Hastinapur), 
Ajamifiha (and 2 

J?*ksha (and others). 
Jahnu (and many 


Kings of K a. si 
Pratardana. ^ 


















The Lunar VvXc^—ContiMrd. 



Andhaka (and 6 others). 


Vasudeva (and 9 others), 
KWshwa and Bala- 

Kings of Kdsi, 



Yddavas. Pauravas. 







/Santanu (and 2 others). 









{Extinct.) Ushwa. 









Sun ay a. 













CHAiVURA. A wrestler in the service of Ivansa, who was 
killed by Krishna. 

CHARAKA. A writer on medicine who lived in Vedic 
times. According to his own statement, he received the 
materials of his work from Agnivesa, to whom they were de- 
livered by Atreya. A legend represents him as an incarnation 
of the serpent /Sesha. The work was translated into Arabic 
before the end of the eighth century. The text has been 
printed in India. 

* See Table under Maba-bbarata. 


CHAKAKA. One of the chief schools of the Yajur-veda. 

CHARAKA-BRAHMAiV^A. A Bnihmawa of the Black 

CHARAiVA. A Yedic school or society. It is explained by 
a commentator as "a number of men who are pledged to the 
reading of a certain /S'akha of the Veda, and who have in this 
manner become one body." 

CHARAiVA.S. Panegyrists. The panegyrists of the gods. 

CHARMAA^VATI. The river Chambal. 

GUPTA. Sons of Krishwa and Rukmim. 

CHARU-DATTA. The Brahman hero of the drama Mrich- 

CHARU HASINI. ' Sweet smiler.' This epithet is used for 
Rukmim and for Lakshmawa, and perhaps for other wives of 

CHARU-MATI. Daughter of Kr^shm and Rukmim. 

CHAR YAK A. i. A Rakshasa, and friend of Dur-yodhana, 
who disguised himself as a Brahman and reproached Yudhi- 
sh^hira for his crimes, when he entered Hastina-pura in triumph 
after the great battle. The Brahmans discovered the imposture 
and reduced Charvaka to ashes with the fire of their eyes. 2. 
A sceptical philosopher who advocated materialistic doctrines. 
He probably lived before the composition of the Ramayawa, and 
is perhaps identical with the Charvaka of the ]\Iaha-bharata, 
His followers are called by his name. 

CHATUR-YARVA. The four castes. See Yarwa. 

CHEDI. Name of a people and of their country, the modern 
Chandail and Boglekhand. The capital was /Sukti-mati, and 
among the kings of this country were Dama-ghosha and ^S'isu-pala. 

CHEKI TANA. A son of Dhrishi^a-ketu, Raja of the Ivekayas, 
and an ally of the Pawiiavas. 

CHERA. A kingdom in the south of the peninsula, which 
was absorbed by its rival the Chola kingdom. 

CHHANDAS, CHHANDO. Metre. One of the Yedangas. 
The oldest known work on the subject is " the ChhandaA-^astra, 
ascribed to Pingala, which may be as old as the second century 
B.C." It is published in the Bibl'wtheca Indica. The subject is 
one to which great attention has been given by the Hindus from 
the earliest times. 


CHHANDOGA. A priest or chanter of the Sama-veda. 

CHHANDOGYA. Xame of a Upanishad of the Sama- 
veda. {See Upanishad.) It has been printed by Dr. Eoer, and 
it has been translated into English by Rajendra Lai, and pub- 
lished in the Bihlioilieca Indica. There is also another printed 
edition of the text. The Chhandogya Upanishad consists of 
eight out of ten chapters of the Clihandogya Brahnia?ia ; the first 
two chapters are yet wanting. This work is particularly dis- 
tinguished by its rich store of legends regarding the gradual 
development of Brahmanical theology. 

CHHAYA. 'Shade.' A handmaid of the sun. Sanjna, wife 
of the sun, being unable to bear the fervour of her lord, jDut her 
handmaid Chliaya in her place. The sun, believing Chhaya to 
be his wife, had three children by her : Sani, the planet Saturn ; 
the Manu Savar?^i ; and a daughter, the Tapati river. As mother 
of Saturn, Chhaya is known as ^S'ani-prasii. The partiality 
which she showed for these children provoked Yama, the son of 
Sanjna, and he lifted his foot to kick her. She cursed him to 
have his leg affected with sores and worms. This made it clear 
that she was not Sanjna and mother of Yama, so the sun went 
in search of Sanjna and brought her back. According to one 
PuraTia, Chhaya was a daughter of Yiswakarma, and sister of 
Sanjna, the wife of the sun. 

CHINTA-MAA'L 'The wish-gem.' A jewel which is sup- 
posed to have the power of granting all desires. The jjhilo- 
sopher's stone. It is said to have belonged to Brahma, who is 
himself called by this name. It is also called Divya-ratna. 

CHIRA-JIVIK ' Long-lived.' Gods or deified mortals, who 
live for long periods. 

CIIITRA-GUPTA. A scribe in the abodes of tlie dead, 
who records the virtues and vices of men. The recorder of 

CHITRA-KUrA. 'Bright-peak.' The seat of Yrdmlki's her- 
mitage, in which Rama and Sita both found refuge at diffe- 
rent times. It is the modern Chitrakote, on the river Pisuni, 
about fifty miles south-east of Banda in Bundelkhand. It is a 
very holy place, and abounds with temples and shrines, to which 
thousands annually resort. " The whole neighbourhood is Rama's 
country. Every headland has some legend, every cavern is con- 
nected with his name." — Cast in "Calcutta Review." 


CHITRA-LEKHA. A picture. Name of a nymph wlio 
was skilled in painting and in the magic art. She was the 
friend and confidante of tJslia. See tJsha. 

CHITRANGADA. The elder son of King ^antanu, and 
brother of Bhishma. He was arrogant and proud, and was 
killed in early life in a conflict with a Gandharva of the same 

CHITRAXGADA. Daughter of King Chritra-vaha?za of 
]Ma7ii-pura, wife of Arjuna and mother of Babhru-vahana. 

CHITRA-RATHA. 'Having a fine car.' The king of the 
Gandharvas. There are many others known by this name. 

CHITRA-SEI^A. i. One of the hundred sons of Dhrita- 
rash/ra. 2. A chief of the Yakshas. 

CHITRA-YAJJSTA. A modern drama in five acts upon the 
legend of Daksha. It is the work of a Paw^^it named Yaidya- 
natha Yachaspati. 

CHOLA. A country and kingdom of the south of India 
about Tanjore. The country was called Chola-ma?if?ala, whence 
comes the name CoromandeL 

CHYAYANA, CHYAYAJSTA. A sage, son of the i^zshi 
BhWgu, and author of some hymns. 

In the i?ig-veda it is said that when " Chyavana had grown 
old and had been forsaken, the Aswins divested him of his 
decrepit body, prolonged his life, and restored him to youth, 
making him acceptable to his wife, and the husband of 
maidens." This story is thus amj)lified in the /S'atapatha Brah- 
ma?ia : — The sage Chyavana assumed a shrivelled form and 
lay as if abandoned. The sons of yS^aryata, a descendant of 
Manu, found this body, and pelted it with clods. Chyavana 
was greatly incensed, and to appease him /Skryata yoked his 
chariot, and taking with him his daughter Su-kanya, pre- 
sented her to Chyavana. The Aswins endeavoured to seduce 
her, but she remained faithful to her shrivelled husband, and 
under his direction she taunted them with being incomplete 
and imperfect, and consented to tell them in what respect they 
were deficient, if they would make her husband young again. 
They directed that he should bathe in a certain pond, and 
having done so, he came forth 'with the age that he desired. She 
then informed them that they were imperfect because they 
were excluded from a sacrifice the other gods were performing. 


They departed and succeeded in getting admitted to join the 
other gods. 

According to the ^laha-bharata, Chyavana besought Indra to 
allow the Aswins to partake of the libations of soma. Indra 
repHed that the other gods might do as they pleased, but he 
would not consent. Chyavana then commenced a sacrifice to 
the Aswins ; the other gods were subdued, but Indra, in a rage, 
rushed with a mountain in one hand and his thunderbolt in 
another to crush Chyavana. The sage having sprinkled him 
with water and stopped him, " created a fearful open-mouthed 
monster called Mada, having teeth and grinders of portentous 
length, and jaws one of which enclosed the earth, the other the 
sky; and the gods, including Indra, are said to have been at the 
root of his tongue like fishes in the mouth of a sea monster." 
In this predicament " Indra granted the demand of Chyavana, 
who was thus the cause of the Aswins becoming drinkers of the 

In another part of the Maha-bharata he is represented as 
exacting many menial offices from King Kusika and his wife, 
but he afterwards rewarded them by " creating a magical golden 
palace," and predicted the birth of " a grandson of great beauty 
and heroism (Parasu-rama)." 

The ]\Iaha-bharata, interpreting his name as signifying *the 
fallen,' accounts for it by a legend which represents his mother, 
Puloma, wife of Bh?*;*gu, as having been carried off by the demon 
Puloman. She was pregnant, and in her fright the child fell 
from her womb. The demon was softened, and let the mother 
depart with her infant. 

The version of the story as told in the Maha-bharata and 
Purawas is that Chyavana was so absorbed in penance on the 
banks of the Narmada that white ants constructed their nests 
round his body and left only his eyes visible. Su-kanya, daughter 
of King ^Saryata, seeing two bright eyes in what seemed to be 
an anthill, poked them with a stick. The sage visited the 
offence on fcyata, and was appeased only by the promise of the 
king to give him Su-kanya in marriage. Subsequently the 
Aswins, coming to his hermitage, compassionated her union with 
so old and ugly a husband as Chyavana, and tried to induce her 
to take one of them in his place. When their persuasions failed, 
they told her they were the physicians of the gods, and would 


restore her hiistand to youth and beauty, when she could make 
lier choice between him and one of them. Accordingly the three 
bathed in a pond and came forth of like celestial beauty. Each 
one asked her to be his bride, and she recognised and chose her 
own husband. Chyavana, in gratitude, compelled Indra to admit 
the Aswins to a participation of the soma ceremonial. Indra at 
first objected, because the Aswins wandered about among men 
as physicians and changed their forms at will. But Chyavana 
was not to be refused ; he stayed the arm of Indra as he was 
about to launch a thunderbolt, and he created a terrific demon 
who was on the point of devouring the king of the gods when 
he submitted. 

According to the Maha-bharata, Chyavana was husband of 
Arushi or Su-kanya and father of Aurva. He is also considered 
to be the father of Harita. 

The name is Chyavana in the jR?g-veda, but Chyavana in 
the BrahmaT^a and later writings. 

DADHYANCH, DADHlCHA (Dadhicha is a later form.) 
A Vedic itishi, son of Atharvan, whose name frequently occurs. 
The legend about him, as it appears in the ^^g-veda; is that 
Indra taught him certain sciences, but threatened to cut off his 
head if he taught them to any one else. The Aswins prevailed 
upon Dadhyanch to communicate his knowledge to them, and, 
to preserve him from the wrath of Indra, they took off his own 
head and replaced it with that of a horse. When Indra struck 
off the sage's equine head the Aswins restored his own to him. 
A verse of the itig-veda says, " Indra, with the bones of Dadhy- 
anch, slew ninety times nine Vritras ;" and the story told by the 
scholiast in explanation is, that while Dadhyanch was living on 
earth the Asuras were controlled and tranquillised by his appear- 
ance ; but when he had gone to heaven, they overspread the 
whole earth. Indra inquired for Dadhyanch, or any relic of 
him. He was told of the horse's head, and when this was 
found in a lake near Kuru-kshetra, Indra used the bones as 
weapons, and with them slew the Asuras, or, as the words of 
the Vedic verse are explained, he " foiled the nine times ninety 
stratagems of the Asuras or Vritras." The story as afterwards 
told in the Maha-bharata and PuraTias is that the sage devoted 
himself to death that Indra and the gods might be armed with 
his bones as more effective weapons than thunderbolts for the 


destruction of Y^i'tra and the Asuras. According to one account 
he was instrumental in bring about the destruction of "Daksha's 
sacrifice." See Daksha. 

DAITYAS. Titans. Descendants from Diti by Kasyapa. 
They are a race of demons and giants, who warred against the 
gods and interfered with sacrifices. They were in turn victorious 
and vanquished. They and the Danavas are generally associated, 
and are hardly distinguishable. As enemies of sacrifices they 
are called Kratu-dwishas. 

i)AKIXl. A kind of female imp or fiend attendant upon 
Kah and feeding on human flesh. The Dakinis are also called 
A^ra-pas, ' blood drinkers.' 

DAKSHA. 'Able, competent, intelligent.' This name 
generally carries with it the idea of a creative power. Daksha 
is a son of Brahma; he is one of the Prajapatis, and is some- 
times regarded as their chief. There is a great deal of doubt 
and confusion about him, which of old the sage Parasara could 
oidy account for by saying that " in every age Daksha and 
the rest are born and are again destroyed." In the itig-veda it 
is said that " Daksha sprang from Aditi, and Aditi from Dak- 
sha." Upon this marvellous mutual generation Yaska in the 
Nirukta remarks, " How can this be possible % They may have 
had the same origin ; or, according to the nature of the gods, 
they may have been born from each other, and have derived 
their substance from each other." Eoth's view is that Aditi is 
eternity, and that Daksha (spiritual power) is the male energy 
which generates the gods in eternity. In the *S'atapatha Brah- 
mawa, Daksha is identified with Prajapati, the creator. As son 
of Aditi, he is one of the Adityas, and he is also reckoned 
among the Yiswadevas. 

According to the Maha-bharata, Dakslia sprang from the right 
thumb of Brahma, and his wife from that deity's left thumb. 
The Purfmas adopt this view of his origin, but state that he 
married Prasiiti, daughter of Priya-vrata, and gi'and-daughter of 
Manu. By her he had, according to various statements, twenty- 
four, fifty, or sixty daughters. Tlie Rrimaya??a and Maha- 
bharata agree in the larger number ; and according to Manu and 
the Maha-bharata he gave ten of his daughters to Dharma and 
thirteen to Ka.syapa, who became tlie mothers of gods and de- 
mons, men, birds, serpents, and all living things. Twenty-seven 

DAKS HA, yj 

"were given in marriage to Soma, the moon, and these became 
the twenty-seven Nakshatras or lunar mansions. One of the 
daughters, named Sati, married >Siva, and killed herself in con- 
sequence of a quarrel between her husband and father. The 
Kasi Kha7ic?a represents that she became a sati and burnt 

Another legend of the Maha-bharata and Purawas represents 
Daksha as being born a second time, in another Manwantara, 
as son of the Prachetasas and Marisha, and that he had 
seven sons, "the allegorical persons Krodha, Tamas, Dama, 
Viknta, Angiras, Kardama, and Aswa." This second birth is 
said to have happened through his having been cursed to it by 
his son-in-law >S'iva. Daksha was in a certain way, by his 
mother Marisha, an emanation of Soma, the moon ; and as 
twenty-seven of his daughters were married to that luminary, 
Daksha is sometimes referred to as being both the father and 
the offspring of the moon, thus reiterating the duality of his 

In the Hari-vansa Daksha appears in another variety of his 
character. According to this authority, Yish?iu himself became 
Daksha, and formed numerous creatures, or, in other words, he 
became the creator. Daksha, the first of males, by virtue of 
yoga, himself took the form of a beautiful woman, by whom 
he had many fair daughters, whom he disposed of in marriage 
in the manner related by Manu and above stated. 

An important event in the life of Daksha, and very fre- 
quently referred to, is " Daksha's sacrifice," which was violently 
interrupted and broken up by /S'iva. The germ of this story 
is found in the Taittiriya Sanhita, where it is related that the 
gods, having excluded Rudra from a sacrifice, he pierced the 
sacrifice with an arrow, and that Piishan, attempting to eat 
a portion of the oblation, broke his teeth. The story is found 
both in the Ramaya?ia and Maha-bharata. According to the 
latter, Daksha was engaged in sacrifice, when ^S'iva in a rage, 
and shouting loudly, pierced the ofi'ering with an arrow. The 
gods and Asuras were alarmed and the whole universe quaked. 
The ii/shis endeavoured to appease the angry god, but in vain. 
" He ran up to the gods, and in his rage knocked out the eyes 
of Bhaga with a blow, and, incensed, assaulted Piishan with 
liis foot and knocked out his teeth as he was eating the offer- 


ing." The gods and itishis humbly propitiated him, and when 
he was appeased " they apportioned to him a distinguished share 
in the sacrifice, and through fear resorted to him as their refuge. " 
In another part of the same work the story is again told with 
considerable variation. Daksha instituted a sacrifice and appor- 
tioned no share to Kudra (»S'iva). Instigated by the sage Dad- 
hlchi, the god hurled his blazing trident, which destroyed the 
sacrifice of Daksha and fell with great violence on the breast 
of Narayawa (Yishwu). It was hurled back with violence to 
its owner, and a furious battle ensued between the two gods, 
which was not intermitted till Brahma prevailed upon Eudra 
to propitiate Karayawa. That god was gratified, and said to 
Rudra, " He who knows thee knows me ; he who loves thee 
loves me." 

The story is reproduced in the Purawas with many embellish- 
ments. Daksha instituted a sacrifice to Yish7^u, and many of 
the gods repaired to it, but iS'iva was not invited, because the 
gods had conspired to deprive him of sacrificial ofi'erings. The 
wife of >S'iva, the mountain goddess Uma, perceived what was 
going on. Uma was a second birth of Sati, daughter of Daksha, 
who had deprived herself of life in consequence of her father's 
quarrel with herself and her husband, /S'iva. Uma urged her 
husband to display his power and assert his rights. So he 
created Vira-bhadra, " a being like the fire of fate," and of most 
terrific appearance and powers. He also sent with him hundreds 
and thousands of powerful demigods whom he called into exist- 
ence. A terrible catastrophe followed ; " the mountains tottered, 
the earth shook, the winds roared, and the depths of the sea 
were disturbed." The sacrifice is broken up, and, in the words 
of Wilson, " Indra is knocked down and trampled on, Yama has 
his staff broken, Saraswati and the Matris have their noses cut 
off, Mitra or Bhaga has his eyes pulled out, Pushan has his 
teeth knocked down his throat, Chandra (the moon) is pummelled, 
Yahni's (fire's) hands are cut off, Bhrigu loses his beard, the 
Brahmans are pelted with stones, the Prajapatis are beaten, and 
the gods and demigods are run through with swords or stuck 
with arrows." Daksha then, in great terror, propitiated the 
wrathful deity and acknowledged his supremacy. According to 
some versions, Daksha himself was decapitated and his head 
thrown into the fire. /S'iva subsequently restored him and the 


other dead to life, and as Daksha's Tiead could not be found, it 
was replaced by that of a goat or ram. The Hari-van-sa, in its 
glorification of Vishwu, gives a different finish to the story. The 
sacrifice was destroyed and the gods fled in dismay, till Yishwu 
intervened, and seizing /Siva by the throat, compelled him to 
desist and acknowledge his master. 

" This," says Wilson, " is a legend of some interest, as it is 
obviously intended to intimate a struggle between the worship- 
pers of >5'iva and VisliTZu, in which at first the latter, but finally 
the former, acquired the ascendancy." 

Daksha was a lawgiver, and is reckoned among the eighteen 
writers of Dharma-5astras. 

The name Daksha was borne by several other persons. 

DAKSHA-SAYAEA^A. The ninth Manu. See Manu. 

DAKSHAYAATA. Connected with Daksha. A son or de- 
scendant of that sage. 

DAKSHAYAA'l. A name of Aditi as daughter of Daksha. 

DAKSHIYA. A present made to Brahmans ; the honora- 
rium for the performance of a sacrifice. This is personified as a 
goddess, to whom various origins are assigned. 

DAKSHIYACHAKIS. Followers of the right-hand form of 
»S'akta worship. See Tantra. 

D AMA. A son, or, according to the Yishwu Purawa, a grand- 
son of King Marutta of the Solar race. He rescued his bride 
Su-mana from his rivals, and one of them, named Yapushmat, 
subsequently killed Marutta, who had retired into the woods 
after relinquishing his crown to his son. Dama in retaliation 
killed Yapushmat and offered his blood in the funeral rites of 
Marutta, while he made an oblation of part of the flesh, and with 
the rest fed the Brahmans who were of Kakshasa descent. 

DAMA-GHOSHA. King of Chedi and father of ^S'isu-pala. 

DAMAYANTI Wife of Nala and heroine of the tale of 
Nala and Damayanti. She is also known by her patronymic 
Bhaimi. See Nala. 

DA]\IBHODBHAYA. A king whose story is related in the 
Maha-bharata as an antidote to pride. He had an overweening 
conceit of his own prowess, and when told by his Brahmans that 
he was no match for ISTara and Narayawa, who were living as 
ascetics on the Gandha-madana mountain, he proceeded thither 
with his army and challenged them. They endeavoured to dis- 


suade him, but lie insisted on fighting. !N"ara then took a hand- 
ful of straws, and using them as missiles, they whitened all the 
air, and penetrated the eyes, ears, and noses of the assailants, 
until Dambhodbhava fell at ISTara's feet and begged for peace. 

DAMODAEA. A name given to Kr?shwa because his foster- 
mother tried to tie him up with a rope (dclma) round his belly 

DAXAVAS. Descendants from Danu by the sage Kasyapa. 
They were giants who warred against the gods. See Daityas. 

DAiVDA-DHARA. ' The rod-bearer.' A title of Yama, the 
god of death. 

D AiVDAKA. The ara^iya or forest of Dandaka, lying between 
the Godavari and ISTarmada. It was of vast extent, and some 
passages of the Ramayawa represent it as beginning immediately 
south of the Yamuna. This forest is the scene of many of Rama 
and Sita's adventures, and is described as "a wilderness over 
which separate hermitages are scattered, while wild beasts and 
Rakshasas everywhere abound." 

DANTA-YAKTRA. A Danava king of Kariisha and son of 
Vriddha-sarma. He took a side against li.rish7ia, and was even- 
tually killed by him. 

DAXU. A Danava. Also the mother of the Danavas. The 
demon Kabandha (q.v.). 

DARADA. A country in the Hindu Kush, bordering on 
Kashmir. The people of that country, " the Durds, are still 
where they were at the date of the text (of the Yish^iu Purarza) 
and in the days of Strabo and Ptolemy ; not exactly, indeed, at 
the sources of the Indus, but along its course above the Hima- 
laya, just before it descends to India." — Wilson. 

D AREAS. 'Tearers.' Rakshasas and other destructive 

DARDURA. Name of a mountain in the south ; it is 
associated with the Malaya mountain in the Maha-bharata. 

DARa^ANA. 'Demonstration.' The ShacZ-dar^'anas or six 
demonstrations, i.e., the six schools of Hindu philosophy. All 
these schools have one starting-point, ex nihilo nihil fit ; and all 
have one and the same final object, the emancipation of tlie soul 
from future birth and existence, and its absorption into the 
supreme soul of the universe. These schools are : — 

I. Nyaya, founded by the sage Gotama. The word nyaya 


means propriety or fitness, the proper method of arriving at a 
conclusion by analysis. This school has been called the Logical 
School, bnt the term is applicable to its method rather than to 
its aims. It is also said to represent " the sensational aspect of 
Hindu philosophy," because it has "a more pointed regard to 
the fact of the five senses than the others have, and treats the 
external more frankly as a solid reahty." It is the exoteric 
school, as the Yedanta is the esoteric. 

2. Vaiseshika, founded by a sage named Kawada, who lived 
about the same time as Gotama. It is supplementary to the 
Nyaya, and these two schools are classed together. It is called 
the Atomic School, because it teaches the existence of a transient 
world composed of aggregations of eternal atoms. 

Eoth the Nyaya and Vai^eshika recognise a Supreme Being. 

3. Sankhya. The Sankhya and Yoga are classed together 
because they have much in common, but the Sankhya is atheis- 
tical, while the Yoga is theisticaL The Sankhya was founded 
by the sage Kapila, and takes its name from its numeral or dis- 
criminative tendencies. The Sankhya-Karika, the text-book of 
this school, has been translated by Colebrooke and Wilson, and 
part of the aphorisms of Kapila were translated for the Biblio- 
theca Indica by the late Dr. Eallantyne. 

4. Yoga. This school was founded by Patanjali, and from 
his name is also called Patanjala. It pursues the method of tlie 
Sankhya and holds with many of its dogmas, but it asserts the 
existence not only of individual souls, but of one all-pervading 
spirit, which is free from the influences which aff'ect otlier souls. 

5. Purva-mimansa. 6. Uttara-mlmansa. The prior and later 
Mimansas. These are both included in the general term Yedanta, 
but the Piirva-mimansa is commonly known as the JMlmansa and 
the Uttara-mimansa as the Yedanta, ' the end or object of the 
Yedas.' The Piirva-mimansa was founded by Jaimini, and the 
Uttara-mimansa is attributed to Yyasa, the arranger of the 
Yedas. " The object of both these schools is to teach the art of 
reasoning with the express purpose of aiding the interpretation 
of the Yedas, not only in the speculative but the practical por- 
tion." The principal doctrines of the Yedanta (Uttara) are that 
" God is the omniscient and omnipotent cause of the existence, 
continuance, and dissolution of the universe. Creation is an act 
of his will ; he is both the efficient and the material cause of the 



world." At the consummation of all things all are resolved into 
him. He is " the sole-existent and universal soul," and besides 
him there is no second principle ; he is adivaita, ' without a 
second.' *Sankaracharya was the great apostle of this school 

The period of the rise of these schools of philosophy is uncer- 
tain, and is entirely a matter of inference, but they are probably 
later than the fifth century B.C. The Yedanta (Uttara-mimansa) 
is apparently the latest, and is supposed to have been evoked by 
the teachings of the Buddhists. This would bring it to within 
three or four centuries B.c. The other schools are to all appear- 
ance older than the Yedanta, but it is considered by some that 
all the schools show traces of Buddliist influences, and if so, the 
dates of all must be later. It is a question whether Hindu 
philosophy is or is not indebted to Greek teaching, and the later 
the date of the origin of these schools the greater is the possi- 
bihty of Greek influence. Mr. Colebrooke, the highest authority 
on the subject, is of opinion that " the Hindus were in this 
instance the teachers, not the learners." 

Besides the six schools, there is yet a later system known as 
the Paurawik and the Eclectic school. The doctrines of this 
school are expounded in the Bhagavad-gita (q.v.). 

The merits of the various schools have been thus summed up : — 
" AYlien we consider the six Darsanas, we shall find that one of 
them, the Uttara-mimansa, bears no title to be ranked by the 
side of the others, and is really little more than a mystical 
explanation of the practical injunctions of the Vedas. We shall 
also admit that the earlier Vedanta, very different from the 
school of JSTihilists now existing under that name, was chiefly a 
controversial essay, seeking to support the theology of sacred writ, 
but borrowing all its philosophical portions from the Yoga school, 
the most popular at the time of its composition. Lastly, the 
Nyaya is little more than a treatise on logic, introducing the doc- 
trines of the theistic Sankhya ; while the A^aiseshika is an essay on 
I)hysics, with, it is true, the theory of atoms as its distinguishing 
mark, though even to this we feel inclined to refuse the imputa- 
tion of novelty, since we find some idea of it lurking obscurely 
in the theory of subtile elements which is brought forward in 
Kapila's Sankhya. In short, the basis of aU Indian pliilosoi)liy, 
if indeed we may not say the only system of philosophy really 
discovered in India, is the Sankhya, and this forms the basis 


of the doctrines expounded in the Bhagavad-gita." — Cochhurn 

Colebrooke's Essays are the great authorities on Hindu philo- 
soj)hy. Ballantyne has translated many of the original aphorisms, 
and he, Cockburn Thomson, Hall, Banerjea, and others have 
written on the subject. 

DxlRUKA. Ivr/sh?ia's charioteer, and his attendant in his 
last days. 

DA^'A-KUMARA-CHARITA. ' Tales of the ten princes,' 
by Sti 'Ddiiidl. It is one of the few Sanskrit works written in 
prose, but its style is so studied and elaborate that it is classed 
as a Kavya or poem. The tales are stories of common life, and 
display a low condition of morals and a corrupt state of society. 
The text has been printed with a long analytical introduction 
by H. H. Wilson, and again in Bombay by Biihler. There is an 
abridged translation by Jacobs, also a translation in French by 
Fauche, and a longer analysis in vol. iv. of Wilson's works. 

DA*SA¥AN"A. ' Ten faced.' A name of Eava?za. 

DA*SA-RATHA. A prince of the Solar race, son of Aja, a de- 
scendant of Ikshwaku, and king of Ayodhya. He had three wives, 
but being childless, he performed the sacrifice of a horse, and, 
according to the Ramayawa, the chief queen, Kausalya, remained 
in close contact with the slaughtered horse for a night, and the 
other two queens beside her. Four sons were then born to him 
from his three wives. Kausalya bore Rama, Ivaikeyi gave birth 
to Bharata, and Su-mitra bore Lakshmawa and AS'atru-ghna. Rama 
partook of half the nature of Yish^Ri, Bharata of a quarter, and 
the other two shared the remaining fourth. The Ramaya?ia, in 
explanation of this manifestation of Yish?iu, says that he had 
promised the gods to become incarnate as man for the destruction 
of Rava??a. He chose Dasa-ratha for his human parent ; and 
when that king was performing a second sacrifice to obtain pro- 
geny, he came to him out of the fire as a glorious being, and 
gave him a vessel full of nectar to administer to his wives. 
Da^a-ratha gave half of it to Kau5al3"a, and a fourth each to 
Su-mitra and Kaikeyi. They all in consequence became preg- 
nant, and their offspring partook of the divine nature according 
to the portion of the nectar each had drunk. There were several 
others of the name. See Rama-chandra. 

DA>S'ARHA, DAaSARHA. Prince of the Dasarhas, a title of 
K?ishwa. The Dasarhas were a tribe of Yadavas. 


DAaS'A-EUPAKA. An earlv treatise on dramatic com- 
position. It has been published by Hall in the Bihliotheca 

DASAS. 'Slaves.' Tribes and people of India who opposed 
the progress of the intrusive Aryans. 

DASEAS. 'Beautiful.' The elder of the two Aswins, or in 
the dual (Dasrau), the two As^^ins. 

DASYUS. In the Yedas thev are evil bein^^s, enemies of the 
gods and men. They are represented as being of a dark colour, 
and probably were the natives of India who contended with the 
immigrant Aryans. It has, however, been maintained that they 
were hermits and ascetics of Aryan race. In later times they 
are barbarians, robbers, outcasts, who, according to some autho- 
rities, descended from Yi^wamitra. 

DATTAKA-CHAXDRIKA A treatise on the law of adop- 
tion by Devana Bha/;'a. Translated by Sutherland. 

DATTAKA-MlMAXSA. A treatise on the law of adoption 
by Xanda Pam/ita. Translated by Sutherland. 

* D ATTAIvA->SIRO:^IA.YI. A digest of the principal treatises 
on the law of adoption. Printed at Calcutta. 

DATTATREYA. Son of Atri and Anasuya, A Brahman 
saint in whom a portion of Brahma, Yish?2u, and /S'iva, or more 
particularly Yishnu, was incarnate. He had three sons, Soma, 
Datta, and Dur-vasas, to whom also a portion of the divine 
essence was transmitted. He was the patron of Karta-virya, and 
gave him a thousand arms. 

DAYA-BHAGA. 'Law of inheritance.' This title belongs 
especially to the treatise of Jimiita Yahana, current in Bengal 
Translated by Colebrooke. 

DAYA-KRAMA-SAXGRAHA. A treatise on the law of 
inheritance as current in Bengal, by Sri KrxshTia Tarkalankiira. 
Translated by Wynch. 

DAYA-TATWA. A treatise on the law of inheritance as 
current in Bengal, by Raghunandana Bha/^acharya. 

DEYA. (Xom. Devas = Deus, from the root Liv, to shine. ) 
God. A deity. The gods are spoken of as thirty-three in num- 
ber, eleven for each of the three worlds. 

DEYAKA. Father of Devaki and brother of Ugrasena. 

DEYAKI. Wife of Yasu-deva, mother of Kr/shna and 
cousin of Kansa, She is sometimes called an incarnation of 


Aditi, and is said to have been born again as Pri^ni, the wife of 
King Su-tapas. 

DEVALA. A Vedic i?ishi, to whom some hymns are attri- 
buted. There are several men of this name ; one was author 
of a code of law, another was an astronomer, and one the grand- 
father of Pacini. 

DEVALA. Music, personified as a female. 

DEYA-LOKA. The world of the gods, i.e., Swarga, Indra's 

DEVA-MATi?/. ' Mother of the gods.' An appellation of 
Aditi (q.v.). 

DEYA-RATA. i. A royal Rk\\i of the Solar race, who dwelt 
among the Yidehas, and had charge of >S'iva's bow, which de- 
scended to Janaka and was broken by Rama. 2. A name given 
to iS'una^-sephas. 

DEYAESHIS. (Deva-r/shis.) i^isliis or saints of the celes- 
tial class, who dwell in the regions of the gods, such as Narada. 
Sages who have attained perfection upon earth and have been 
exalted as demigods to heavem 

DEYATA. A divine being or god. The name Devatas 
includes the gods in general, or, as most frequently used, the 
whole body of inferior gods. 

of the Sama-veda. The text has been edited by Burnell. 

DEYAYANI. Daughter of >S'ukra, priest of the Daityas. 
She fell in love with her father's pupil Kacha, son of B?'/haspati, 
but he rejected her advances. She cursed him, and in return 
he cursed her, that she, a Brahman's daughter, should marry a 
Ivshatriya. Devayani was companion to Sarmish/ha, daughter 
of the king of the Daityas. One day they went to bathe, and 
the god Yayu changed their clothes. Ylien they were dressed, 
they began to quarrel about the change, and Devayani s^^oke 
" with a scowl so bitter that Sarmish/ha slapped her face, and 
pushed her into a dry well." She was rescued by King Yayati, 
who took her home to her father. /S'ukra, at his daughter's 
vehement persuasion, demanded satisfaction from Sarmish/ha's 
father, the Daitya king. He conceded Devayani's demand, that 
upon her marriage Sarmishfha should be given to her for a ser- 
vant. Devayani married King Yayati, a Kshatriya, and Sar- 
niish/ha became her servant. Subsequently Yayati became 


enamoured of Sarmisli/ha, and slie bore liim a son, the discovery 
of which, so enraged Devayani that she parted from her husband, 
and went home to her father, having borne two sons, Yadu and 
Tiirvasa or Turvasu. Her father, iSukra, cnrsed Yayati with the 
infirmity of old age, but afterwards offered to transfer it to any 
one of Yavati's sons who would submit to receive it. Yadu, the 
eldest, and progenitor of the Yadavas, refused, and so did all the 
other sons, with the exception of Sarmish/ha's youngest son, 
Puru. Those who refused were cursed by their father, that their 
posterity should never possess dominion; but Puru, who bore 
his father's curse for a thousand years, succeeded his father as 
monarch, and was the ancestor of the Pa7it^?avas and Kauravas. 

DEYA-YONI. ' Of divine birth.' A general name for the 
inferior gods, the Adityas, Yasus, Yiswadevas, and others. 

DEYI. 'The goddess,' or Maha-devi, 'the great goddess,' 
wife of the god /Siva, and daughter of Himavat, i.e., the Hima- 
laya mountains. She is mentioned in the Maha-bharata under 
a variety of names, and with several of her peculiar cliaracter- 
istics, but she owes her great distinction to the Pura??as and 
later works. As the /S'akti or female energy of /Siva she has two 
characters, one mild, the other fierce ; and it is under the latter that 
she is especially w^orshii^ped. She has a great variety of names, 
referable to her various forms, attributes, and actions, but these 
names are not always used accurately and distinctively. In her 
milder form she is Uma, 'light,' and a type of beauty ; Gauri, 
' the yellow or brilliant ; ' Parvati, ' the mountaineer ; ' and 
Haimavati, from her parentage ; Jagan-mata, * the mother of the 
world ; ' and Bhavanl. In her terrible form she is Durgii, ' the 
inaccessible ; ' Kali and /S'yama, ' the black ; ' C\\^ndl and Chaw- 
Jika, 'the fierce;' and Bhairavi, 'the terrible.' It is in this 
character that bloody sacrifices are offered to her, that the bar- 
barities of the Durga-puja and Charak-piija are perpetrated in 
her honour, and that the indecent orgies of the Tantrikas are 
held to propitiate her favours and celebrate her powers. She 
has ten arms, and in most of her hands there are weapons. As 
Durga she is a beautiful yellow woman, riding on a tiger in a 
fierce and menacing attitude. As Krdi or Kalikii, ' the black,' 
" she is represented with a black skin, a hideous and terrible 
countenance, drij^ping with blood, encircled with snakes, hung 
round with skulls and human heads, and in all respects resem- 

DEVI. 87 

"bling a fury rather than a goddess." As Vindhya-vasini, 'the 
dweller in the Yindliyas,' she is worshipped at a place of that 
name where the Yindhyas approach the Ganges, near Mirzapur, 
and it is said that there the blood before her image is never 
allowed to get dry. As ]\Iaha-maya she is the great illusion. 

The ChaTi^i-mahatmya, which celebrates the victories of 
this goddess over the Asuras, speaks of her under the fol- 
lowing names : — i. Durga, wdien she received the messengers 
of the Asuras. 2. Dasa-bhuja. 'Ten-armed,' when she 
destroyed part of their army. 3. Sinha-vahini. ' Riding on a 
lion,' when she fought with the Asura general Rakta-vija. 4. 
Mahisha-mardini. 'Destroyer of Mahisha,' an Asura in the 
form of a buffalo. 5. Jagad-dhat/Y. ' Fosterer of the world,' 
when she again defeated the Asura army. 6. Kali. 'The 
black.' She killed Rakta-vija. 7. Mukta-ke6i. 'With dis- 
hevelled hair.' Again defeats the Asuras. 8. Tilra. 'Star.' 
She killed vS'umbha. 9. Chhinna-mastaka. 'Decapitated,' 
the headless form in which she killed' Nisumbha. i o. Jagad- 
gauri. ' World's fair one,' as lauded by the gods for her 
triumphs. The names which Devi obtains from her husband 
are : — Babhravi (Babhru), Bhagavati, Is-anT, Iswari, Kalanjari, 
Kapalini, Kausiki, KiratT, Maheswari, Mric^a, M^^VZani, Rud- 
ra/ii, /Sarvam, /S'lva, TryambakL From her origin she is called 
Adri-ja and Giri-ja, ' mountain-born ; ' Ku-ja, ' earth-born ; ' 
Daksha-ja, ' sprung from Daksha.' She is Kanya, ' the virgin ; ' 
Kanya-kumari, ' the youthful virgin ; ' and Ambika, ' the 
mother ; ' Avara, ' the youngest ; ' Ananta and Nitya, ' the ever- 
lasting ; ' Arya, ' the revered ; ' Yijaya, ' victorious ; ' i^iddhi, 
' the rich ; ' Sati, ' virtuous ; ' Dakshi?ia, ' right-handed ; ' Pinga, 
' taw^ny, dark ; ' Karburi, ' spotted ; ' Bhramarl, ' the bee ; ' 
Ko/ari, ' the naked ; ' Kar?za-moti, ' pearl-eared ; ' Padma-lanch- 
hana, ' distinguished by a lotus ; ' Sarva - mangala, ' always 
auspicious ; ' iS'akam - bhari, ' nourisher of herbs ; ' iSiva - diiti, 
'xS'iva's messenger;' Sinha-rathi, 'riding on a lion.' As addicted 
to austerities she is Apar?ia and Katyayani. As Bhuta-nayaki 
she is chief or leader of the goblins, and as Gawa-nayaki, the 
leader of the GaTzas. She is Kamaksln, 'wanton-eyed;' and 
Kamakhya, 'called by the name of Kama, desire.' Other 
names, most of them applicable to her terrible forms, are Bhadra- 
kali, Bhima-devI, Chamu?2tZa, Maha-kall, jMahamari, Mahasuri, 


Matangi, Rajasi, 'the fierce;' and Rakta-danti, 'red or bloody 

DEYI BHAGAVATA PURA.VA. A ^aiva PurSria, which 
is by some placed among the eighteen PuraTzas instead of the 
aSti Bhagavata, which is devoted to YisliTiu. This is devoted to 
the worship of the /S'aktis. 

DEYl MAHATMYA. 'The greatness of De^^.' A poem 
of 700 verses, which celebrates the triumphs of Devi over 
various Asuras. It is the text-book of the worshippers of 
Devi, and is read daily in her temples. It is an episode of the 
j\Iarkawf/eya Pura/ia, and is also called Cha?i(Zipa/ha. 

DHiVNA-DA. ' Giver of wealth.' Kuvera, the god of riches. 

DHAXAX-JAYA. 'Conqueror of riches.' A title of Arjuna 
and of several others. 

DHAXAXJAYA YIJAYA. 'Victories of Dhananjaya' 
(Arjuna). A drama in one act on the exploits of Arjuna when 
in the service of the Raja Yira/a. 

DHAXA-PATI. ' Lord of wealth.' Kuvera. 

DHAXEaS'WARA. ' Lord of wealth,' i.e., Kuvera. 

DHANUR-YEDA. The science of archery, the military art. 

DHANWANTARL i. Xame of a Yedic deity to whom offer- 
ings at twilight were made in the north-east quarter. 2. Tlie 
physician of the gods, who was produced at the churning of the 
ocean. He was a teacher of medical science, and the Ayur-veda 
is attributed to him. In another birth he was son of Dlrgha- 
tamas, and his " nature was exempt from human infirmities, and 
in every existence he had been master of universal knowledge." 
He is called also Sudha-pawi, ' carrying nectar in his hands,' and 
Amrita, 'the immortal.' Other physicians seem to have had 
the name applied to them, as Bhela, Divo-dasa, and Pulakapya. 
3. A celebrated physician, who was one of " the nine gems " 
of the court of Yikrama. See Xava-ratna. 

DIIARAA^I. The eartli. The wife of Parasu-riima. 

DHARMA, DHARMA-RAJA. 'Justice.' A name of 
Yama, the judge of the dead. 

DHARjMA. An ancient sage, sometimes classed among the 
Prajiipatis. He married thirteen (or ten) of the daughters of 
Daksha, and had a numerous progeny ; but all his children " are 
manifestly allegorical, being personifications of intelligences and 
virtues and religious rites, and being therefore appropriately 



wedded to the probable authors of the Hindu code of religion 
and morals, or the equally allegorical representation of that code, 
Dharma, moral and religious duty." — Wilson, 

DHARMA-PUTRA. ' Son of Dharma.' A name of Yudhi- 

DHARMARAiV^YA. A sacred grove, i. A forest in Mad- 
hyadesa into which Dharma retired. 2. A city mentioned in 
the Ramaya?2a as founded by Amiirta-rajas, son of Kusa. 

DHARMA-RAJA. i. Yama, king of the dead. 2. A title of 
Yudlii-shfhira, who was mythically a son of Yama. 

DHARMA-.S'ASTRA. A law-book or code of laws. This 
term includes the whole body of Hindu law, but it is more 
especially applicable to the laws of IManu, Yajnawalkya, and other 
inspired sages who first recorded the Sm?7'ti or "recollections" 
of what they had received from a divine source. These works 
are generally in three parts : — (i.) Achara, rules of conduct 
and practice; (2.) Yyavahara, judicature; (3.) Prayaschitta, 

The inspired lawgivers are spoken of as being eighteen in 
number, but the names of forty-two old authorities are men- 
tioned. Manu and Yajnawalkya stand apart by themselves at the 
head of these writers. After them the eighteen other inspired 
sages are recognised as the great authorities on law, and the 
works ascribed to them are still extant, either wholly or par- 
tially, or in an abridged form: — (i.) Atri ; (2.) Yishwu; (3.) 
Harita; (4.)U5anas; (5.) Angiras; (6.) Yama; (7.) Apastamba; 
(8. ) Samvarta ; (9. ) Katyay ana ; (10.) BHhaspati ; (11.) Parasara ; 
(12.) Yyasa; (13, 14.) ^ankha and Likhita, whose joint trea- 
tise is frequently quoted; (15.) Daksha ; (16.) Gotama ; (17.) 
/Satatapa; (18.) Yasish/ha. But there are others who are 
more frequently cited than many of these, as Narada, Bhngu, 
Marichi, Kasyapa, Yiswamitra, and Baudhayana. Other names 
that are met with are Pulastya, Gargya, Pai/hlnasi, Sumantu, 
Lokakshi, Kuthumi, and Dhaumya. The writings of some 
of these lawgivers have appeared in different forms, and are 
referred to with the descriptive epithets of Ynddha, ' old ; ' 
Bnhat, ' great ; ' and Laghu, ' light or small.' 

A general collection of the Smr/tis or Dharma-sastras has been 
printed in Calcutta under the title of Dharma-sastra-sangraha, by 


DHARMA-SAYAE.VI. The eleventh Mann. See Mann. 

DHARMA-SL^TRAS. The Samayacharika Siitras are so 
called becanse they had among them maxims of a legal natnre. 

DHARMA-A^YADHA. 'The pious hnntsman.' This man 
is represented in the Maha-bharata as living by selling the flesh 
of boars and bnffaloes, and yet as being learned in the Yedas 
and in all the knowledge of a Brahman. This is accounted for 
by his having been a Bralmian in a former birth, and cursed 
to this vile occupation for having wounded a Brahman when 

DIIATTi/. ']\Iaker, creator.' In the later hymns of the 
i?/g-veda, Dhat?'i is a deity of no very defined powers and func- 
tions, but he is described as operating in the production of life 
and the preservation of health. He promotes generation, brings 
about matrimony, presides over domestic life, cures diseases, 
heals broken bones, &c. He is said to "have formed the sun, 
moon, sky, earth, air, and heaven as hefore.^^ He appears also 
as one of the Adityas, and this character he still retains. In 
the later mythology he is identified with Prajaj)ati or Brahma 
the creator ; and in this sense of " maker " the term is used as 
an epithet of Yishwu and Kr/shwa. Sometimes he is a son of 

DHAUMYA. I. The younger brother of Devala and family 
priest of the Paw/avas. There are several others of the same 
name. 2. Author of a work on law. 

DHENUKA. A demon killed by Bala-rama. Kr/shwa and 
Bala-rama, as boys, picked some fruit in a grove belonging to 
Dhenuka, when he took the form of an ass, and running to the 
spot began to kick Bala-rama. The young hero seized him by 
the heels, whirled him round till he was dead, and cast his- 
carcase on to the top of a palm-tree. Several of his companions 
who ran to his assistance were treated in the same way, so 
that " the trees were laden with dead asses." 

DH/iJ/SHTA-DYUMNA. Brother of DraupadI, and com- 
mander-in-chief of the PaTZcZava armies. He killed, somewhat un- 
fairly in combat, Dro?za, who had beheaded his father, and he in 
his turn was killed by Dro?ia's son, Aswatthaman, who stamped 
him to death with his feet as he lay asleep. 

DH7?7SHTA-KETU. i. A son of Dh?7shta-dyumna. 2. 
A son of /S'liii-j^ula, king of Chedi, and an ally of the Pa?2f?a- 


vas. 3. A king of the Kekayas, also an ally of tlie Pa?i^avas. 
4. Son of Satyadlinti. 5. Son of Xnga. 

DH7?/TA-RASHrRA. t. The eldest son of Yichitra-vlrya 
or Yyasa, and brother of Pawc?u. His mother was Ambika. He 
married Gandhari, and by her had a hundred sons, the eldest of 
whom was Dur-yodhana. Dhnta-rash/!ra was bhnd, and PawcZu 
was affected with a disease supposed, from his name, "the pale," 
to be a leprous affection. The two brothers in turn renounced 
the throne, and the great war recorded in the INIaha-bharata was 
fought between their sons, one party being called Kauravas, 
from an ancestor, Kuru, and the other Pa?i6?avas, from their 
father Pa7^c?u. Dhrita-rash/ra and his wife were burned in a 
forest fire. (/S'ee Maha-bharata.) 2. An enormous serpent of 
many heads and immense strength. 

DHRUVA. The polar star. According to the Yishmi 
Pura?ia, the sons of Manu Swayam-bhuva were Priya-vrata and 
Uttanapada. The latter had two wives ; the favourite, Suruchi, 
was proud and haughty; the second, Suniti or Sun?i'ta, was 
humble and gentle. Suruclii had a son named Uttama, and 
Suniti gave birth to Dhruva. "While quite a child Dhruva was 
contemptuously treated by Suruchi, and she told him that her 
own son Uttama would alone succeed to the throne. Dhruva 
and his mother submitted, and he declared that he wished for 
no other honours than such as his own actions should acquire. 
He was a Kshatriya, but he joined a society of it/shis, and 
becoming a iiishi himself, he went through a rigid course of 
austerities, notwithstanding the efforts of Indra to distract him. 
At the end he obtained the favour of YisliT^u, who raised him 
to the skies as the pole-star. He has the patronymic Auttana- 
padi, and he is called Grahadhara, 'the stay or pivot of the 
planets. ' 

DHtJMA-YARYA. ' Smoke coloured.' A king of the ser- 
pents. A legend in tlie Hari-vansa relates that Yadu, the 
founder of the Yadava family, went for a trip of pleasure 
on the sea, where he was carried off by Dhuma-var/ia to the 
capital of the serpents. Dhiima-varTia married his five daugh- 
ters to him, and from them sprang seven distinct famihes of 

DHUNDHIJ. An Asura who harassed the sage Uttarika in 
his devotions. The demon hid himself beneath a sea of sand, 


but was dug out and killed hj King Kuvalaya-iwa and liis 
21,000 sons, who were undeterred by the flames which checked 
their progress, and were all killed but three. This legend pro- 
bably originated from a volcano or some similar phenomenon. 
From this exploit Kuvalaya^swa got the name of Dhundhu- 
niara, ' slayer of Dhundhu.' 

DHUXDHU-MARA. See Dhundhu and Kuvalayaswa. 

DHUR-JAn. ' Haying heavy matted locks.' A name of 
Rudra or ^Siva. 

DHURTA-NARTAKA. ' The rogue actors.' A farce in two 
parts by Sama Raja Dikshita. " The chief object of this piece 
is the ridicule of the ^Saiva ascetics." 

DHURTA-SAMAGAMA. 'Assemblage of rogues.' A 
comedy by ^Sekhara or Jyotir Iswara. "It is somewhat indeli- 
cate, but not devoid of humour." It has been translated into 
French by SchoebeL 

DIG-AMBARA. ' Clothed with space.' A naked mendi- 
cant. A title of /Siva. 

DIG-GAJAS. The elephants who protect the eight points 
of the compass: — (i.) Airavata; (2.) PumZarika; (3.) Ya- 
mana; (4.) Kumuda; (5.) Anjana; (6.) Pushpa-danta ; (7.) 
Sarva-bhauma ; (8.) Su-pratlka. 

DIG-YIJAYA. ' Conquest of the regions (of the world).' 
I. A part of the Maha-bharata which commemorates the con- 
quests effected by the four younger Pa7iJava princes, and in 
virtue of which Yudlii-sh^hira maintained his claim to uni- 
versal sovereignty. 2. A work by /Sankaracharya in support 
of the Yedanta philosophy, generally distinguished as /S'ankara 

DIK-PALA. ' Supporters of the regions.' The supporters 
of the eight points of the compass. See Dig-gaja. 

DILIPA. Son of Ansumat and father of Bhagiratha. He 
was of the Solar race and ancestor of Rama. On one occasion 
he failed to pay due respect to Surabhi, the ' cow of fortune,' 
and she passed a curse upon him that he should have no 
offspring until he and his wife Su-dakshi?iri liad carefully 
tended Surabhi's daughter Nandinl. They obediently Avaited 
on this calf Nandinl, and Dilipa once offered his own life to 
save hers from the lion of >S'iva, In due time the curse was 
removed, and a son, Raghu, was born to them. This story is 

dIrgha-sra VAS—DIVO-DASA. 93 

told in the Eagliu-vani'a. There was another prince of the 
name. See Khahvanga. 

DIRGHA-zS'RAVAS. Son of Dirgha-tamas, and therefore a 
it/shi, but as in a time of famine he took to trade for a liveH- 
hood, the itz'g-veda calls him " the merchant." 

DIRGHA-TAMAS, DlRGHA-TAPAS. 'Long darkness.' 
A son of Kasi-raja, according to the Maha-bharata ; of Uchathya, 
according to the i?/g-veda; and of Utathya and Mamata in 
the PuraTias. His appellations of Auchath3'a and Mamateya 
favour the latter parentage. He was born blind, but is said to 
have obtained sight by worshipping Agni (R. V. iii. 128). He 
was father of Kakshivat and Dhanwantari ; and he is said (in 
the V. P.) to have had five children by Su-desh?za, wife of 
Bali, viz., the countries Anga, Banga, Kalinga, Pu?zc^ra, and 

DITI. A goddess or personification in the Vedas who is 
associated with Aditi, and seems to be intended as an antithesis 
or as a complement to her. 

In the RamayaTza and in the Purawas she is daughter of 
Daksha, wife of Kasyapa, and mother of the Daityas. The 
Vishwu Pura?ia relates that having lost her children, she begged 
of Kasyapa a son of irresistible prowess, who should destroy 
Indra. The boon was granted, but with this condition : " If, 
with thoughts wholly pious and person entirely pure, you care- 
fully carry the babe in your womb for a hundred years." She 
assiduously observed the condition ; but Indra knew what was 
preparing for him. So he went to Diti and attended upon her 
with the utmost humility, watching his opportunity. In the 
last year of the century, Diti retired one night to rest without 
Avashing her feet. Indra then with his thunderbolt divided the 
embryo in her womb into seven portions. Thus mutilated, the 
child cried bitterly, and Indra being unable to pacify it, became 
angry, and divided each of the seven portions into seven, thus 
forming the swift-moving deities called. Maruts, from the words, 
' Ma-rodiA,' ' Weep not,' which Indra used to quiet them. 

DIYO-DASA. I. A pious liberal king mentioned in the Rig- 
veda, for whom it is said that Indra demolished a hundred stone 
cities, meaning perhaps the mythological aerial cities of the 
Asuras. 2. A Brahman who Avas the twin-brother of Ahalya. 
He is represented in the Veda as a "very liberal sacrificer," 


and as being delivered by the gods from tlie oppressor 
iSambara. He is also called Atitlii-gwa, ' he to whom guests 
should go.' 3. A king of Kasi, son of Bhima-ratha and father of 
Pratardana. He was attacked by the sons of King Vita-havya 
and all his sons were slain. His son Pratardana (q.v.) was born 
to him through a sacrifice performed by Bharadwaja. He was 
celebrated as a physician and was called Dhanwantari. 

DRAUPADL Daughter of Drupada, king of Panchrda, and 
wife of the five Pawdiu princes. Draupadi was a damsel of dark 
complexion but of great beauty, " as radiant and graceful as if 
she had descended from the city of the gods." Her hand was 
sought by many princes, and so her father determined to hold a 
swayam-vara and allow her to exercise her own choice in the 
selection of a husband. The swayam-vara was proclaimed, and 
princes assembled from all parts to contend in the lists for the 
hand of the princess ; for although in such contests the lady was 
entitled to exercise her swayam-vara or own choice, it generally 
followed that the champion of the arena became her husband. 
Most astonishing feats of arms were performed, but Arjuna out- 
shone all by his marvellous use of the bow, and he became the 
selected bridegroom. When the five brothers returned to the 
house where their mother, Kunti, was staying, they told her that 
they had made a great acquisition, and she told them to share it 
among them. These words raised a great difficulty, for if they 
could not be adroitly evaded they must be obeyed. The sage 
Vyasa settled the matter by saying, " The destiny of Draupadi 
has already been declared by the gods ; let her become the wife 
of all the brethren." So she became their common wife, and it 
was arranged that she should stay successively two days in the 
liouse of each, and that no one of them but the master of the 
house should enter it while she was there. Arjuna was 
her favourite, and she showed her jealousy when he mar- 
ried Su-bhadra. In the great gambling match which the 
eldest brother, Yudhi-sh/hira, played at Ilastinii-pura against 
his cousins, the Kauvaras, he lost his all — his kingdom, his 
brothers, himself, and their wife Draujiadl. So she became 
a slave, and Dur-yodhana called her to come and sweep the 
room. She refused, and then Duh-sasana dragged her by 
the hair into the pavilion before all the chieftains, and taunt- 
ingly told her that she was a slave girl, and had no right to 


complain of being touched by men. lie also abused lier 
and tore off her veil and dress, while Dur-yodhana invited her 
to sit on his thigh. Knshwa took compassion upon her, and 
restored her garments as fast as they were torn. She called 
vehemently upon her husbands to save her, but they were 
restrained by Yudhi-sh/hira. Bhima was in a rage of passion ; 
he was prevented from action ; but he vowed in loud words 
that he would drink the blood of Duh-sasana and smash the 
thigh of Dur-yodhana in retaliation of these outrages, which 
vows he eventually fulfilled. Draupadi vowed that her hair 
should remain dishevelled until Bhima should tie it up with 
hands dripping with the blood of Duh-5asana. The result 
of the gambling match was that the Pa?2<iavas, with Draupadi, 
went into exile for twelve years, and were to dwell quite 
incognito during another j^ear. The period of thirteen years 
being successfully completed, they were at liberty to return. 
Twelve years of exile were passed in the jungle, and in the 
course of this period Jayad-ratha, king of Sindhu, came to the 
house of the Pa?if?avas while they were out hunting. He was 
courteously received by Draupadi, and was fascinated by her 
charms. He tried to induce her to elope with him, and when 
he was scornfully rej^ulsed, he dragged her to his chariot and 
drove off with her. "When the Pa?i6/avas returned and heard 
of the rape, they pursued Jayad-ratha, and pressed him so close 
that he put down Draupadi, and endeavoured to escape alone. 
Bhima resolved to overtake and punish him ; and although 
Yudhi-sh/hira pleaded that Jayad-ratha was a kinsman, and 
ought not to be killed, Draujmdi called aloud for vengeance, 
so Bhima and Aijuna continued the pursuit. Bhima dragged 
Jayad-ratha from his car, kicked and beat him till he was sense- 
less, but spared his life. He cut off all Jayad-ratha's hair except 
five locks, and made him publicly acknowledge that he was a 
slave. Draupadi's revenge was then slaked, and Jayad-ratha was 
released at her intercession. In the thirteenth year, in which 
her husbands and she were to live undiscovered, they entered 
the service of the king of Vira/a, and she, without acknowledg- 
ing any connection with them, became a waiting-maid to the 
queen. She stipulated that she should not be required to wash 
feet or to eat food left by others, and she quieted the jealous 
fears which her beauty excited in the queen's mind by represent- 


ing that she was guarded by five Gandharvas, who would prevent 
any improper advances. She lived a quiet life for a while, but 
her beauty excited the passions of Kichaka, the queen's brother, 
who was commander-in-chief, and the loading man in the king- 
dom. His importunities and insults greatly annoyed her, but 
she met with no protection from the queen, and was rebuked for 
her complaints and petulance by Yudhi-shHiira. Her spirit of 
revenge was roused, and she appealed as usual to Bhima, whose 
fiery passions she well knew how to kindle. She complained of 
her menial position, of the insults she had received, of the in- 
difference of her husbands, and of the base offices thev were 
content to occupy. Bhima promised revenge. An assignation 
was made with Kichaka which Bhima kept, and he so mangled 
the unfortunate gallant that all his flesh and bones were rolled 
into a ball, and no one could discover the manner of his death. 
The murder was attributed to Draupadi's Gandharvas, and she 
was condemned to be burnt on Kichaka's funeral pile. Then 
Bhima disguised himself, and tearing up a tree for a club, went 
to her rescue. He was supposed to be the Gandharva, and 
every one fled before him. He released Draupadi, and they 
returned to the city by different ways. After the term of exile 
was over, and the Pa/ic?avas and she were at liberty to return, 
she was more ambitious than her husbands, and complained to 
K?7'shria of the humility and want of resolution shown by 
Yudhi-sh^hira. She had five sons, one by each husband — 
Prati-vindhya, son of Yudhi-sh/hira ; 6ruta-soma, son of Bhima ; 
/S'ruta-kirtti, son of Arjuna ; /Satanika, son of Xakula ; and 
iS'ruta-karman, son of Saha-deva. She with these five sons was 
present in camp on the eighteenth and last night of the great 
battle, while her victorious husbands were in the camp of the 
defeated enemy. Aswatthaman with two companions entered the 
camp of the Pa?irt'avas, cut down these five youths, and all whom 
they found. Draupadi called for vengeance upon Aswatthaman. 
Yudhi-sh^hira endeavoured to moderate her anger, but she appealed 
to Bhima. Arjuna pursued Aswatthaman, and overtook liim, but 
he spared his life after taking from him a celebrated jewel which 
he wore as an amulet. Arjuna gave this jewel to Blilma for 
presentation to Draupadi. On receiving it she was consoled, 
and presented the jewel to Yudhi-sh/hira as the head of the 
family. When her husbands retired from the world and went 


on their journey towards the Himalayas and Indra's heaven, she 
accompanied them, and was the first to fall on the journey. See 

Draupadi's real name was K?•^shwa. She was called Draupadi 
and Yajna-seni, from her father ; Parshati, from her grand- 
father Prishata ; Panchali, from her country ; Sairindhri, ' the 
maid-servant ' of the queen of Virata ; Panchanii, ' having five 
husbands ; ' and Nita-yauvani, ' the ever-young. ' 

DRAVIZ^A. The country in which the Tamil language is 
spoken, extending from Madras to Cape Comorin. According 
to Manu, the people of this country were originally Kshatriyas, 
but sank to the condition of ^ildras from the extinction of 
sacred rites and the absence of Brahmans. As applied to the 
classification of Brahmans it has a much wider application, em- 
bracing Gujarat, Maha-rash^a, and all the south. 

D^ISHADWATI. A common female name. i. The wife of 
King Divo-dasa. 2. A river forming one of the boundaries of Brah- 
mavarta, perhaps the Kagar before its junction with the Sarsuti. 

DROiVA. 'A bucket.' A Brahman so named from his 
having been generated by his father, Bharadwaja, in a bucket. 
He married Kripa, half-sister of Bhishma, and by her was father 
of Aswatthaman. He was acharya, or teacher of the military 
art, both to the Kaurava and Pa?^(iava princes, and so he 
was called Dro?zacharya. He had been slighted by Drupada, 
king of Panchala, and became his enemy. Through the in- 
strumentality of the Pa?if?avas he made Drupada prisoner, and 
took from him half of his kingdom ; but he spared his life 
and gave him back the other half of his country But the 
old animosity rankled, and ended in the death of both. In the 
great war Drojza sided with the Kauravas, and after the death 
of Bhishma he became their commander-in-chief. On the fourth 
day of his command he killed Drupada, and in his turn he was 
unfairly slain in combat by Dh?i'sh/a-dyumna, who had sworn 
to avenge his father's death. In the midst of this combat 
Dro7?a was told that his son was dead, which so unnerved him 
that he laid down his arms and his opponent decapitated him. 
But Dro?ia was a Brrdiman and an Acharya, and the crime of 
kiUing him was enormous, so it is glossed over by the statement 
that Dro?2a " transported himself to heaven in a glittering state 
like the sun, and Dh?ish/a-dyumna decapitated merely his lifo- 


less body." Dro7ia was also called Ku/a-ja. The common 
meaning of Ku/a is ' mountain-top,' but one of its many other 
meanings is 'water-jar.' His patron}Tnic is Bharad^Yaja. 

DEUHYU. Son of Yayati, by Sarmish^ha, daughter of the 
Daitya king Y?'/sha-parvan. He refused to exchange his youth 
for the curse of decrepitude passed upon his father, and in conse- 
quence Yayati cursed him that his posterity should not possess 
dominion. His father gave him a part of his kingdom, but his de- 
scendants became "princes of the lawless barbarians of the north." 

DKUPADA. King of Panchala and son of P?*/shata. Also 
called Yajna-sena. He was schoolfellow of Drowa, the preceptor of 
the Kaurava and Pa?iG?ava princes, and he mortally offended his 
former friend by repudiating his acquaintance. Dro?za, in pay- 
ment of his services as preceptor, required his pupils to make 
Drupada prisoner. The Kauravas attacked him and failed, but 
the Pa7?(/avas took Drupada captive and occupied his territory. 
Dro?2a spared his life and restored the southern half of his to him. Drupada returned home burning for revenge, 
and, to procure it, he prevailed upon two Brahmans to jDerform 
a sacrifice, by the efficacy of which he obtained two children, 
a son and a daughter, who were called " the altar-born," be- 
cause they came forth from the sacrificial fire. These children 
were named Dh?7'sh/a-dyumna and Ivr/sli?za, but the latter 
is better known by her patronymic Draupadi. After she had 
chosen Arjuna for her husband at her swayam-vara, and she had 
become, with Drupada's consent, the wife of the five Pa??c/avas, 
he naturally became the ally of his sons-in-law. He took an 
active part in the great battle, and on the fourteenth day he 
was killed and beheaded by Drowa, who on the following day 
was killed by Dhrish/'a-dyumna, the son whom Drupada had 
obtained for wreaking his vengeance on Dro?ia. Besides the 
two children mentioned, Drupada had a younger son named 
/S'ikha?zf/in and a daughter 6'ikha?2f/inl. 

DU//-aSALA. The only daughter of Dh?7'ta-rash<ra and wife 
of Jayad-ratha. 

DU//-aS'ASAXA. ' Hard to rule.' One of the hundred sons 
of Dhr/ta-rash^ra. '\Yhen the Piiwf/avas lost their wife Draupadi 
in gamljling witli Dur-yodhana, Du/i-sasana dragged her forward 
by the hair and otherwise ill-used her. For this outrage Bhima 
vowed he would drink his blood, a vow wliich he afterwards 
I'ciformed on the sixteenth day of the great battle. 

D UR- GA—D UR- \ 'ODHA NA . .99 

DUR-GA. A commentator on the Nirukta. 

DUR-GA ' Inaccessible.' The wife of /S'iva. See Devi. 

DUR-MUKHA. 'Bad face.' A name of one of Dhnta- 
rash^ra's sons. Also of one of Rama's monkey allies, and of 
several others. 

DUR-VASAS. 'Ill-clothed.' A sage, the son of Atri and 
Anasiiya, but, according to some authorities, he was a son or 
emanation of A^iva. He was noted for his irascible temper, and 
many fell under his curse. It was he who cursed /S'akuntala 
for keeping him waiting at the door, and so caused the separa- 
tion between her and King Dushyanta. But it was he who 
blessed KuntI, so that she became a mother by the Sun. In . 
the Vish?zu Pura?ia he is represented as cursing India for treat- 
ing with disrespect a garland which the sage presented to him. 
The curse was that " his sovereignty over the three worlds 
should be subverted," and under it Indra and the gods grew 
weak and were overpowered by the Asuras. In their extremity 
they resorted to Yish?Lu, who directed them to churn the ocean 
of milk for the production of the Am?7ta (water of life) and 
other precious things. In the Maha-bharata it is stated that on 
one occasion K7"ish?ia entertained him hospitably, but omitted 
to wipe the fragments of food from the foot of the sage. At 
this the latter grew angry and foretold how Iv?'/sh?ia should be 
killed. The Yishwu Pura?2a states that Krishwa fell according 
to " the imprecation of Dur-vasas," and in the same work Dur- 
vasas is made to describe himself as one " whose nature is 
stranger to remorse." 

DUR-YASASA PURAA^A. One of the eighteen Upa Pu- 
rawas. See Pura??a. 

DUR-Y0DHA:N'A. 'Hard to conquer.' The eldest son of 
King Dlw^ta-rash/ra, and leader of the Kaurava princes in the 
great war of the Maha-bharata. His birth was somewhat mar- 
vellous. {See Gandhari.) Upon the death of his brother Pa/zc^u, 
Dh?7'ta-rash^ra took his five sons, the Pa?ifZava j)rinces, to his own 
court, and had them educated with his hundred sons. Bicker- 
ings and jealousies soon sprang up between the cousins, and 
Dur-yodliana took a special dislike to Bhima on account of his 
skill in the use of the club. Dur-yodhana had learnt the use of 
this weapon under Bala-rama, and was jealous of any rival. He 
poisoned Bhima and threw his bodj" into the Ganges, but Bhima 


sank to the regions of the Xagas, where he was restored to health 
and vigour. Allien Dh?-ita-rash/ra proposed to make Yudhi- 
sh/hira heir-apparent, Dur-yodhana strongly remonstrated, and 
the result was that the Pawc^avas went into exile. Even then 
his animosity pursued them, and he laid a plot to hurn them in 
their house, from which they escaped and retaliated upon his 
emissaries. After the return of the Pa?iJavas from exile, and 
their establishment at Indra-prastha, his anger was further 
excited by Yudhi-sh/hira's performance of the Raja-suya sacrifice. 
He prevailed on his father to invite the Pa7ic?avas to Hastina- 
pura to a gambhng match, in which, with the help of his 
confederate ^akuni, he won from Yudhi-sh/hira everything he 
possessed, even to the freedom of himself, bis brothers, and his 
wife Draupadi. Dur-yodliana exultingly sent for Draupadi to 
act as a slave and sweep the room. When she refused to come, 
his brother, Du/i-sasana, dragged her in by the hair of her head, 
and Dur-yodhana insulted her by inviting her to sit upon his 
knee. This drew from Bhima a vow that he would one day 
smash Dur-yodhana's thigh. Dhrita-rash/ra interfered, and the 
result of the gambling was that the Pa?z(/avas again went into 
exile, and were to remain absent thirteen years. While the 
PawcZavas were living in the forest, Dur-yodhana went out for 
the purpose of gratifying his hatred with a sight of their poverty. 
He was attacked and made prisoner by the Gandharvas, probably 
hill people, and was rescued by the Pa7ic?avas. This incident 
greatly mortified him. The exile of the Pa?zc?avas drew to a 
close. War was inevitable, and both parties prepared for the 
struGfde. Dur-vodhana sought the aid of K?-2sh?ia, but made 
the great mistake of accepting K?'/sh?ia's army in preference to 
his personal attendance. He accompanied his army to the field, 
and on the eighteenth day of the battle, after his party had been 
utterly defeated, he fled and hid himself in a lake, for he was 
said to possess the power of remaining under water. He was 
discovered, and with great difficulty, by taunts and sarcasms, was 
induced to come out. It was agreed that he and Pjlilma should 
fight it out with clubs. The contest was long and furious, and 
Dur-yodhana was getting the best of- it, when Bhima remembered 
his vow, and, although it was unfair to strike below the waist, 
he cjave his antacjonist such a violent blow on the tliigh that the 
bone was smashed and Dur-yodhana fell. Then Bliinia kicked 


liim on the head and triumphed over him. Left wounded and 
alone on the field, he was visited hy Aswatthaman, son of 
Dro7ia, and two other warriors, the only survivors of his army. 
He thirsted for revenge, and directed them to slay all the Paw- 
6?avas, and especially to bring him the head of Bhima. These 
men entered the camp of the enemy, and killed the five youthful 
sons of the Pawc?avas. The version of the Maha-bharata used 
by Wheeler adds that these warriors brought the heads of the 
five youths to Dur-yodliana, representing them to be the heads 
of the five brothers. Dur-yodhana was unable in the twilight 
to distinguish the features, but he exulted greatly, and desired 
that Ehima's head might be placed in his hands. With dying 
energy he pressed it with all his might, and when he found 
that it crushed, he knew that it was not the head of Bhima. 
Having discovered the deception that had been played upon 
him, with a redeeming touch of humanity he reproached Aswat- 
thaman for his horrid deed in slaying the harmless youths, 
saying, with his last breath, " My enmity was against the 
Pa?2C?avas, not against these innocents." Dur-yodhana was 
called also Su-yodhana, 'good fighter.' 

DUSHAiVA, A Eakshasa who fought as one of the generals 
of Rava72a, and was killed by Rama. He was generally asso- 
ciated with RavaTia's brother, Khara. 

DUSHMANTA, DUSHYANTA. A vahant king of the 
Lunar race, and descended from Puru. He was husband of 
/Sakuntala, by whom he had a son, Bharata. The loves of Dush- 
yanta and iSakuntala, her separation from him, and her restora- 
tion through the discovery of his token-ring in the belly of a 
fish, form the plot of Kali-dasa's celebrated play 5akuntala. 

DUTANGADA. ' The ambassador Angada.' A short play 
founded on the mission of Angacla to demand from Ravawa the 
restoration of Sita. It is attributed to a poet named Subha/a. 

DWAIPAYA^^A. 8ee Yyasa. 

DWAPARA YUGA. The third age of the world, extending 
to 864,000 years. See Yuga. 

DWARAKA, DWARAYATL ' The city of gates.' Knsh72a's 
capital, in Gujarat, which is said to have been submerged by 
the ocean seven days after his death. It is one of the seven 
sacred cities. Also called Abdlii-nagarL 

DWIJARSHIS. (Dwija-?-ishis.) See Brahmarshis, 


DAYIPA. An insular continent. The Dwij^as stretcli ont 
from tlie mountain Meru as their common centre, like the leaves 
of a lotus, and are separated from each other by distinct circum- 
ambient oceans. They are generally given as seven in number : 
— I. Janibu, 2, Plaksha or Go-medaka, 3. >S'rdmala, 4., 5. 
Krauncha, 6. *Suka, 7. Pushkara; and the seas which surround 
them are — i. Lava/ia, salt water; 2. Ikshu, sugar-cane juice; 
3. Sura, wine; 4. Sarpis or Ghfita, clarified butter; 5. Dadhi, 
curds ; 6. Dugdha or Kshira, milk; 7. Jala, fresh water. In 
the Maha-bharata four Dwipas are named: — i. Bhadraswa, 2. 
Ketu-mala, 3. Jambu-dwipa, 4. Uttara Kuru. Jambu-dwipa 
has nine varshas or subdivisions: — i. Bharata, 2. Kim-purusha, 
Kin-nara, 3. Hari-varsha, 4. Ila-vr^ta, which contains Meru ; 

5. Ramyaka, 6. Hira/i-maya, 7. Uttara Kuru, 8. Bhadrilswa, 9. 
Ketu-milla. According to the Yish?m Pura?2a, Bharata-varsha or 
India is divided into nine Dwipas or portions: — i. Indra-dwipa, 
2. Kaserumat, 3. Tamra-var?2a, 4. Gabhastimat, 5. Il^aga-dwipa, 

6. Saumya, 7. Gandharva, 8. Yaru7za; 9. is generally left without 
a name in the books, but Bhaskara Acharya calls it Kumaraka. 

DAVIYIDA. I. An Asura in the form of a great ape, who 
was an implacable foe of the gods. He stole Bala-rama's plough- 
share weapon and derided him. This was the beginning of a 
terrific fight, in which Dwivida was felled to the earth, and 
" the crest of the mountain on which he fell was splintered into 
a hundred pieces by the weight of his body, as if the Thunderer 
had shivered it with his thunderbolt." 2. A monkey ally of Rama. 

D YAUS. The sky, heaven. In the Yedas he is a masculine 
deity, and is called occasionally Dyaus-j)it?"2', ' heavenly father,' 
the earth being regarded as the mother. He is father of Ushas, 
the dawn. Cf. Zsuc, Deus, Jovis, Ju-piter. Dyava-p?'ithivi, 
'heaven and earth,' are represented as the universal parents, 
not only of men but of gods; but in other places they are 
spoken of as having been themselves created; and then, again, 
there are speculations as to their origin and 2^nority. In one 
hymn it is asked, "AYliich of these two was the first and 
which the last? How have they been produced? AAHio 
knows ? " The >S'atapatha Brrdima?ia declares in favour of the 
earth, saying, " This earth is the first of created beings." 

EKA-CHAKRA. A city in the country of the Kichakas, 
where, by advice of Yyasa, the Pa?if?avas dwelt for a time during 


tlieir exile. General Cunningliam has identified it with the 
modern Ara or Arrah. 

EKA-DANSHTRA, EKA-DANTA. 'Having one tusk.' A 
name of 

EKALAVYA. Grandson of Deva-sravas, the brother of Yasii- 
deva. He was brother of /S'atru-ghna. He was exposed in 
infancy, and was brought up among the Nishadas, of whom he 
became king. He assisted in a night attack upon Dwaraka, and 
was eventually killed by K^i'shr^a, who hurled a rock at him. 

EKAMRA, EKAMRA KANAKA. A forest in Utkala or 
Orissa, which was the favourite haunt of iSiva, and became a 
great seat of his worship as the city of Bhu vanes wara, where 
some very fine temples sacred to him still remain. They have 
been described by Babii Rajendra Lala in his great work on 

EKA-PADA. ' One-footed.' A fabulous race of men spoken 
of in the PuraTias. 

EKA-PARiVA, EKA-PArALA. These, with their sister 
Aparwa, were, according to the Hari-vansa, daughters of Himavat 
and Mena. They performed austerities surpassing the powers 
of gods and Danavas, and alarmed both worlds. Eka-par?ia, 
took only one leaf for food, and Eka-pa/ala only one pa^fala 
(Bignonia). Apar?ia took no sustenance at all and lived a-parwa, 
'without a leaf.' Her mother being distressed at her abstinence, 
exclaimed in her anxiety, " U-ma " — " don't." Through this 
she became manifest as the lovely goddess Uma, the wife of 

EKASHrAKA. A deity mentioned in the Atharva-veda 
as having practised austere devotion, and being the daughter of 
Prajapati and mother of Indra and Soma. 

EMUSHA. In the BrahmaTia, a boar which raised up the 
earth, represented as black and with a hundred arms. This 
is probably the germ of the Varaha or boar incarnation. See 

GAD A. A younger brother of K?-ishwa. 

GADHI, GATHIK A king of the Kusika race, and father 
of Viswamitra. He Avas son of Kusilmba, or, according to the 
Vis]i?iu Purawa, he was Indra, who took upon himself that form. 

GALAYA. A pupil of Viswamitra. It is related in the 
jMaha-bhilrata that at the conclusion of his studies he importuned 


his master to say wliat present he should make him. Yi.swa- 
mitra was annoyed, and told him to bring 800 white horses, each 
having one black ear. In his perplexity Galava applied to 
Garu^a, who took him to King Yayati at Pratish/hana. The 
king was unable to provide the horses, but he gave to Galava his 
daughter MadliavL Galava gave her in marriage successively 
to Haryaswa, king of Ayodhya, Divo-dasa, king of Kasi, and 
Usinara, king of Bhoja, receiving from each of them 200 of the 
horses he was in quest of, upon the birth of a son to each from 
Madhavi. Notwithstanding her triple marriage and maternity, 
Madhavi, by a special boon, remained a virgin. Galava pre- 
sented her and the horses to Yiswamitra. The sage accepted 
them, and had a son by Madhavi, who was named Ash/aka. 
A\Th.en Viswamitra retired to the woods, he resigned his her- 
mitage and his horses to Ash/aka, and Galava having taken 
Madhavi back to her father, himself retired to the forest as his 
preceptor had done. The horses were first obtained by the 
Brahman it/chlka from the god Yaru?za. They were originally 
1000 in number, but his descendants sold 600 of them, and 
gave the rest away to Brahmans. 

According to the Hari-van,sa, Galava was son of Yi.swamitra, 
and that sage in a time of great distress tied a cord round his 
waist and offered him for sale. Prince Satyavrata (q.v.) gave 
him liberty and restored him to his father. From his having 
been bound with a cord {gala) he was called Galava. 

There was a teacher of the White Yajur-veda named Galava, 
and also an old grammarian named by Pa?iini. 

GAiYA-DEYATAS. ' Troops of deities.' Deities who gene- 
rally appear, or are spoken of, in classes. Kine such classes are 
mentioned: — (i.) Adityas ; (2.) Yiswas or A-^iswe-devas ; (3.) 
Yasus ; (4.) Tushitas ; (5.) Abhaswaras ; (6.) Anilas ; (7.) 
Maharajikas ; (8.) Sadhyas ; (9.) Rudras. These inferior deities 
are attendant upon iSiva, and under the command of Gawesa. 
They dwell on Ga/ia-parvata, i.e., Kailasa. 

GAYA-PATI. See Gae/isa. 

GAA'APATYA. A small sect who worship Gawa-pati or 
Ganesa as their chief deity. 

GAYAS. See Ga/ia-devatas. 

GAYZ)AKL The river Gandak (vulg. Gunduk), in Oude. 

GANDHA-MADAXA 'Intoxicating with fragrance.' i. A 


mountain and forest in Ilavnta, the central region of the world, 
which contains the mountain Meru. The authorities are not 
agreed as to its relative position with Meru. 2. A general of the 
monkey allies of Rama. He was killed by Ravawa's son Indra-jit, 
hut was restored to life by the medicinal herbs brought by Hanu- 
man from Mount Kailasa. 

GANDHARA, GANDHARA. A country and city on the 
west bank of the Indus about Attock. Mahomedan geographers 
call it Kandahar, but it must not be confounded with the 
modern town of that name. It is the Gandaritis of the ancients, 
and its people are the Gandarii of Herodotus. The Vayu Pur- 
a?za says it was famous for its breed of horses. 

GANDHARI. Princess of Gandhara. The daughter of Su- 
bala, king of Gandhara, wife of Dhrita-rash/ra, and mother of 
his hundred sons. Her husband was blind, so she always wore 
a bandage over her eyes to be like him. Her husband and she, 
in their old age, l)oth perished in a forest fire. She is also 
called by the patronymics Saubali and Saubaleyi. She is said 
to have owed her hundred sons to the blessing of Yyasa, who, 
in acknowledgment of her kind hospitality, offered her a boon. 
She asked for a hundred sons. Then she became pregnant, and 
continued so for two years, at the end of which time she was 
delivered of a lump of flesh. Vyasa took the shapeless mass 
and divided it into 10 1 pieces, which he placed in as many 
jars. In due time Dur-yodhana was produced, but with such 
accompanying fearful portents that Dlwita-rashifra was besought, 
though in vain, to abandon him. A month afterwards ninety- 
nine other sons came forth, and an only daughter, Du/i-sala. 

GANDHARYA. The ' heavenly Gandharva ' of the Veda 
was a deity who knew and revealed the secrets of heaven and 
divine truths in general. He is thought by Goldstiicker to 
have been a personification of the fire of the sun. The Gand- 
harvas generally had their dwelling in the sky or atmosphere, 
and one of their offices was to prepare the heavenly soma juice 
for the gods. They had a great partiality for women, and had 
a mystic power over them. The Atharva-veda speaks of " the 
6333 Gandharvas." The Gandharvas of later times are similar 
in character; they have charge of the soma, are skilled in 
medicine, regulate the asterisms, and are fond of women. Those 
of Indra's heaven are generally intended by the term, and they 


are singers and musicians who attend the banquets of the gods. 
The Pura?zas give contradictory accounts of the origin of the 
Gandharvas. The Vish?iu Purar^a says, in one place, that they 
were born from Brahma, " imbibing melody. Drinking of the 
goddess of speech {gam dhayantah), they Avere born, and thence 
their appellation." Later on it says that they were the offspring 
of KasA^apa and his wife Arish/a. The Hari-vansa states that 
they sprang from Brahma's nose, and also that they ^vere de- 
scended from Muni, another of Kasyapa's wives. Chitra-ratha 
was chief of the Gandliarvas ; and the Apsarases were their 
wives or mistresses. The " cities of the Gandliarvas " are often 
referred to as being very splendid. The Vishwu Pura^^a has a 
legend of the Gandharvas fighting vvith the Nagas in the in- 
fernal regions, whose dominions they seized and whose treasures 
they plundered. The ^N^aga chiefs appealed to YisliTiu for relief, 
and he promised to appear in the person of Purukutsa to help them. 
Thereupon the Nagas sent their sister Narmada (the ISTerbudda 
river) to this Purukutsa, and she conducted him to the regions 
below, where he destroyed the Gandharvas. They are sometimes 
called Gatus and Pulakas. In the Maha-bharata, apparently, a 
race of people dwelling in the hills and Avilds is so called. 


GANDHARVA-VEDA The science of music and song, 
which is considered to include the drama and dancing. It is 
an appendix of the Sama-veda, and its invention is ascribed to 
the Muni Bharata. 

GANDIXI. J. Daughter of Kasi-raja ; she had been twelve 
years in her mother's womb when her father desired her to 
come forth. The child told her father to present to the Brahmans 
a cow every day for three years, and at the end of that time she 
would be born. This was done, and the child, on being born, 
received the name of Gandini, *cow daily.' She continued the 
gift as long as she lived. She was wife of ASVa-phallca and 
mother of Akrura. 2. The Garn^^a or Ganges. 

GAiVi^iVA. The bow of Arjuna, said to have been given by 
Soma to Varuwa, by VaruTia to Agni, and by Agni to Arjuna. 

GAAEaSA (Gawa + La), GA.YA-PATI. Lord of the Garias 
or troops of inferior deities, especially those attendant upon 
»S'iva. Son of *S'iva and ParvatT, or of I\~irvati only. One 
legend represents that he sprang from the scurf of I^arvati's 

GANESA. 107 

"body. He is the god of wisdom and remover of obstacles ; 
hence he is invariably j)ropitiated at the beginning of any im- 
portant undertaking, and is invoked at the commencement of 
books. He is said to have written down the Maha-bharata from 
the dictation of Yyasa. He is represented as a short fat man 
of a yellow colour, with a protuberant belly, four hands, and 
the head of an elephant, which has only one tusk. In one hand 
he holds a shell, in another a discus, in the third a club or 
goad, and in the fourth a water-lily. Sometimes he is de- 
picted riding upon a rat or attended by one ; hence his appel- 
lation Akliu ratha. His temples are very numerous in the 
Dakhin. There is a variety of legends accounting for his 
elephant head. One is that his mother Parvati, proud of her 
offspring, asked ^ani (Saturn) to look at him, forgetful of the 
effects of /S'ani's glance. ^Sani looked and the child's head was 
burnt to ashes. Brahma told Parvati in her distress to replace 
the head with the first she could find, and that was an elephant's. 
Another story is that Parvati went to her bath and told her son 
to keep the door. /S'iva w^ished to enter and was opposed, so he 
cut off Ga?iesa's head. To pacify Parvati he replaced it with an 
elephant's, the first that came to hand. Another version is that 
his mother formed him so to suit her own fancy, and a further 
explanation is that /S'iva slew Aditya the sun, but restored 
him to life again. For this violence Ka.syapa doomed /S'iva's 
son to lose his head ; and when he did lose it, the head of Indra's 
elephant w^as used to replace it. The loss of one tusk is ac- 
counted for by a legend which represents Parasu-rama as coming 
to Ivailasa on a visit to iS'iva. The god was asleep and Gawesa 
opposed the entrance of the visitor to the inner apartments. 
A wrangle ensued, which ended in a fight. " Ga?2-esa had at first 
the advantage, seizing Parasu-rama with his trunk and giving 
him a twirl that left him sick and senseless. On recovering, 
Parasu-rama threw his axe at Ga?iesa, who, recognising it as his 
father's weapon (/S'iva having given it to Parasu-rama), received 
it with all humility on one of his tusks, which it immediately 
severed; hence Ga?iesa has but one tusk, and is known by the 
name of Eka-danta or Eka-dansh/ra (the single-tuskecl). These 
legends are narrated at length in the Brahma Yaivartta Puraria. 
Gawesa is also called Gajanana, Gaja-vadana, and Kari-mukha, 
* elephant-faced;' Heramba;' 'boastful;' Lamba-karTia, 'long- 


eared;' Lambodara, ' pendant - bellied ; ' Dwi-delia, 'double- 
bodied;'" Yiglmesa, Vighna-hari, 'remover of obstacles.' A pecu- 
liar appellation is Dwai-matura, ' having two mothers,' in allusion, 
it is said, to his birth from the scurf of Parvati's body. 

GAiV^E.S'A-GITA. The Bhagavad-glta, but with the name 
of GaTzesa substituted for that of K?ishwa It is used by the 
Ganapatyas or worshippers of Ganesa. 

GANESA PURAiVA. An Upa Pura?ia having especial refer- 
ence to the glory and greatness of Gawesa. 

GAISTGA. The sacred river Ganges. It is said to be mentioned 
only twice in the ^zg-veda. The Pura7ias represent the Yiyad- 
ganga, or heavenly Ganges, to flow from the toe of Yishwu, and 
to have been brought down from heaven, by the prayers of the 
saint Bhagiratha, to purify the ashes of the sixty thousand sons 
of King Sagara, who had been burnt by the angry glance of the 
sage Kapila. From this earthly parent the river is called 
Bhagirathi. Ganga w^as angry at being brought down from 
heaven, and *Siva, to save the earth from the shock of her fall, 
caught the river on his brow, and checked its course with his 
matted locks. From this action he is called Gancja-dhara, 
'upholder of the Ganges.' The river descended from A^iva's 
brow in several streams, four according to some, and ten accord- 
ing to others, but the number generally accepted is seven, being 
the Sapta-sindhava, the seven sindhus or rivers. The Ganges 
proper is one of the number. The descent of the Ganges dis- 
turbed the sage Jahnu as he was performing a sacrifice, and in 
Ills anger he drank up the waters, but he relented and allowed 
the river to flow from his ear, hence the Ganges has the name 
of JahnaA'T. Personified as a goddess, Gangil is the eldest 
daughter of Himavat and IMena, and her sister was Uma. She 
became the wife of King /S^antanu and bore a son, Bhishma; who is 
also known by the metronymic Gangeya. Being also, in a peculiar 
way, the mother of Kartikeya (q.v.), she is called Kumara-sii. 
Gold, according to the Maha-bharata, was borne by the goddess 
Ganga to Agni, by whom she had been impregnated. Other 
names and titles of the Ganges are Bliadra-soma, GandinI, 
Kirati, Deva-bhuti, ' produced in heaven ;' Hara-sekhara, ' crest of 
/Siva;' Khapaga, 'flowing from heaven;' Mandiikinl, 'gently 
flowing ; ' Tri-patha-ga or Tri-srotaA, ' triple flowing,' running in 
heaven, earth, and liclL 


GANGA-DHARA. A name of /Siva. See Gaiiga. 

GA:N'GA-DWARA. The gate of the Ganges. The opening 
in the Himalaya mountains through which the river descends 
into the plains, now known as Hardwar. 

GANGA-SAGARA. The mouth of the Ganges, a holy 
bathing-place sacred to Yishmi. 

GANGEYA. i. A name of Bhishma, from his reputed mother, 
the river goddess Ganga. 2. Also of Karttikeya. 

GARGA. An ancient sage, and one of the oldest writers on 
astronomy. He was a son of Vitatha. The Vish?iu Pura?ia 
says, " From Garga sprang iSina (or >S'ini) ; from them were de- 
scended the Gargyas and /S'ainyas, Brahmans of Kshatriya race," 
The statement of the Bhagavata is, " From Garga sprang /S'ina ; 
from them Gargya, who from a Kshatriya became a Brahman." 
There were many Gargas ; one was a priest of Krish?2a and 
the Yadavas. 

GARGAS, GARGYAS. Descendants of Garga, who, 
" although Kshatriyas by birth, became Brahmans and great 
^ishis. " 

GARGYA, GARGYA BALAKI. Son of Balaki. He was a 
Brahman, renowned as a teacher and as a grammarian, who dealt 
especially with etymology, and was well read in the Veda, but still 
submitted to receive instruction from the Kshatriya Ajata-satru. 

GARUi)A. A mythical bird or vulture, half-man, half-bird, 
on which Yish?m rides. He is the king of birds, and descended 
from Kasyapa and Yinata, one of the daughters of Daksha. 
He is the great enemy of serpents, having inherited his hatred 
from his mother, who had quarrelled with her co-wife and 
superior, Kadru, the mother of serpents. His lustre was so 
brilliant that soon after his birth the gods mistook him for Agni 
and worshipped him. He is represented as having the head, 
wings, talons, and beak of an eagle, and the body and limbs of 
a man. His face is white, his wings red, and his body golden. 
He had a son named Sampati, and his wife was Unnati or 
Yinayaka. According to the Maha-bharata, his parents gave 
him liberty to devour bad men, but he was not to touch Brah- 
mans. Once, however, he swallowed a Brahman and his wife, 
but the Brrdiman so burnt his throat that he was glad to dis- 
gorge them both. 

GraufZa is said to have stolen the Amrita from the gods in 


order to purchase with it the freedom of his mother from Kadni. 
Indra discovered the theft and fought a fierce battle wdth 
Garuc?a. The Amr/ta was recovered, but Indra was worsted in 
the fidit, and his thunderbolt was smashed. 

Garur/a has many names and epithets. From his parents he 
is called Ka-syapi and Yainateya. He is the SuparTia and the 
Garutman, or chief of birds. He is also called Dakshaya, AS'al- 
malin, Tarkshya, and Yinayaka, and among his epithets are 
the following : — Sitanana, ' white faced ; ' Eakta-paksha, ' red 
winged ; ' /Sweta-rohita, ' the white and red ; ' Suvar;za-kaya, 

* golden bodied ; ' Gaganeswara, ' lord of the sky ; ' Khageswara, 

* king of birds ; ' ISTagantaka, and Pannaga-na^ana, ' destroyer 
of serpents ; ' Sarparati, ' enemy of serpents ; ' Taraswin, ' the 
swift ; ' Easayana, ' who moves like quicksilver ; ' Ivama-charin, 
' who goes where he will ; ' Kamayus, ' who lives at pleasure ; ' 
Chirad, ' eating long ; ' Yish?iu-ratha, ' vehicle of Yish7?.u ; ' 
Am?'2tahara?2a and Sudha-hara, ' stealer of the Am?'ita ; ' Suren- 
dra-jit, ' vanquisher of Indra ; ' Yajra-jit, ' subduer of the thun- 
derbolt,' &c. 

GAEUZ^A PUEAA^A. The description given of this Pura?2a 
is, " That which YisliTiu recited in the Garu^/a Kalpa, relating 
chiefly to the birth of GarufZa from Yinata, is called the Garuf/a 
Pura?w, and in it there are read 19,000 stanzas." The works 
bearing this name which were examined by Wilson did not cor- 
respond in any respect with this description, and he considered 
it doubtful if a genuine GarufZa Purawa is in existence. 

GATHA. A song, a verse. A religious verse, but one not 
taken from the Yedas. Yerses interspersed in the Sansk?7't 
] Buddhist work called Lalita-vistara, which are composed in a 
dialect between the Sanskrit and the Prak?-/t, and have given 
their name to this the Gatha dialect. The Zend hymns of the 
Zoroastrians are also called Gathas. 

GATU. A singer, a Gandharva. 

GAUD A, GAUitA. The ancient name of Central Eengal ; 
also the name of the capital of the country, tlie ruins of which 
city are still visible. The great northern nation of Brahmans. 
^ce Brahman. 

GAUPAYANAS. Sons or descendants of Gopa. Four 
ii/shis, who were the authors of four remark-able hymns in the 
.^/g-veda. One of them, named Su-bandliu, was killed and 

GA URI— GA \ 'A TRL 1 1 1 

miraculously "brought to life again. The hymns have been 
translated by Max Mliller in the Journal R. A. S., vol. ii. 1866. 

GAXJRI. The ' yellow ' or ' brilliant,' a name of the consort 
of /Siva. (See Devi.) Varu7za's wife also is called Gauri. 

GAUTAIMA. * I. A name of the sage iS'aradwat, as son of 
Gotama. He was husband of Ahalya, who was seduced by 
Indra. This seduction has been explained mythologically as 
signifying the carrying away of night by the morning sun, Indra 
being the sun, and Ahalya being explained as meaning night. 2. 
Author of a Dharma-sastra, which has been edited by Stenzler. 
3. A name common to many mem 

GAUTAMEaS'A. ' Lord of Gautama.' Kame of one of the 
twelve great Lingas. See Linga. 

GAXJTAMI. I. An epithet of Durga. 2. Name of a fierce 
Eakshasi or female demon. 

GAY A. A city in Biliar. It is one of the seven sacred cities, 
and is still a place of pilgrimage, though its glory has departed. 

GAYATRl. A most sacred verse of the itig-veda, which it 
is the duty of every Brahman to rejieat mentally in his morning 
and evening devotions. It is addressed to the sun as Savitr2', 
the generator, and so it is called also Savitn. Personified as a 
goddess, Savit?Y is the wife of Brahma, mother of the four Yedas, 
and also of the twice-born or tliree superior castes. Colebrooke's 
translation of the Gayatri is " Earth, sky, heaven. Let us medi- 
tate on (these, and on) the most excellent light and power of that 
generous, sjjortive, and resplendent sun, (praying that) it may 
guide our intellects." Wilson's version is, in his translation of 
the itig- veda, " We meditate on that desirable light of the 
divine Savitri who influences our pious rites." In the Yislmu 
Pura?za he had before given a somewhat different version, " We 
meditate on that excellent light of the divine sun : may he 
illuminate our minds." A later version by Benfey is, " May we 
receive the glorious brightness of this, the generator, of the god 
who shall jDrosjDcr our works." 

Wilson observes of it: " The commentators admit some variety 
of inter^Dretation ; but it probably meant, in its original use, a 
simj)le invocation of the sun to shed a benignant influence upon 
the customary offices of worshij) ; and it is still employed by the 
unphilosbphical Hindus with merely that signification. Later 
notions, and es2:)ecially those of the Yedanta, have ojDcrated to 


attach to the text an import it did not at first possess, and have 
converted it into a mystical propitiation of the spiritual origin 
and essence of existence, or Brahma." It is considered so holy 
that copyists often refrain from transcribing it. 

The name given to ^Sata-rupa (q.v.), Brahma's female half, 
daughter, and consort, as " the declarer of sacred knowledge." 
It is also applied to the consort of ^S'iva in the Hari-vansa, 

GHArA-KAEPAEA. A poet, who was one of the " nine 
gems " of the court of Vikramaditya. There is a short artificial 
poem, descriptive of the rainy season, bearing this name, which 
has been translated into German by Dursch. The words mean 
' potsherds,' and form probably an assumed hterary name. 

GHArOTKACHA A son of Bhima by the Eakshasi 
Hic/imba. He was killed in the great battle by Kar?ia with the 
fatal lance that warrior had obtained from Indra. 

GHOSHA. It is said in the Veda that the Aswins " bestowed 
a husband upon Ghosha growing old," and the explanatory 
legend is that she was a daughter of Kakshivat, but being a 
leper, was incapable of marriage. A^Tien she was advanced in 
years the Aswins gave her health, youth, and beauty, so that she 
obtained a husband 

GHit/TACHl An Apsaras or celestial nymph. She had 
many amours with great sages and mortal men. She was mother 
of ten sons by Eaudraswa or Kiisa-nabha, a descendant of Puru, 
and the Brahma Vaivartta Purarza attributes the origin of some 
of the mixed castes to her issue by the sage Yiswa-karman. The asserts that she had ten daughters as well as ten sons 
by Eaudra-swa. Another legend represents her as mother by of a hundred daughters, whom Yiiyu wished to 
accompany him to the sky. They refused, and in his rage he 
cursed them to become deformed; but they recovered their 
natural shape and beauty, and were married to Brahma-datta, 
king of Kampila. 

GIEI-JA 'Mountain born.' A name of ParvatI or Devi. 
S&e Devi. 

GIEI-VEAJA. A royal city in Magadha, identified with 
Eaja-griha in Bihar. 

GiTA. The Bhagavad-glta (q.v.). 

GiTA-GOVINDA. A lyrical poem by Jaya-deva' on the 
early life of K?7'sh7ia as Go vinda the cowherd. It is an erotic 


work, and sings the loves of K7"isli?ia with Radha, and other of 
the cowherd damsels, but a mystical interpretation has been put 
upon it. The poems are supposed to have been written about 
the twelfth or thirteenth century. There are some translations 
in the Asiatic Researches by Sir W. Jones, and a small volume 
of translations has been lately published by Mr. Edwin Arnold. 
There is also an edition of the text, with a Latin translation and 
notes, by Lassen, and there are some others. 

GOBHILA. An ancient writer of the Siitra period. He was 
author of some G?'*hya Sutras, and of some Siitras on gram- 
mar. The G?7'hya Siitras have been published in the Bihliotheca 

GO-KARiYA. * Cow's ear.' A place of pilgrimage sacred to 
/S'iva, on the west coast, near Mangalore. 

GO-KULA. A pastoral district on the Yamuna, about Ma- 
thura, where Kn'sh?za passed his boyhood with the cowherds. 

GO-LOKA. 'The place of cows.' K?'ish?ia's heaven; a 
modern addition to the original series of seven Lokas. 

GO-MANTA. A great mountain in the Western Ghats. 
Accordinq; to the Hari-vansa it was the scene of a defeat of 
Jara-sandlia by K?7'sliiza. 

GO-MATl. The Giimti river in Oude ; but there are others 
which bore the name. One fell into the Sindhu or Indus. 

GO-PALA, GO-Yi:^DA. ' Cow-keeper.' A name of the 
youthful Krish?ia, who lived among the cowherds in Yrinda- 

GOPALA-TAPANI An ITpanishad in honour of Knsh?ia. 
Printed in the Bihliotheca Indica, 

GO-PATHA BRAHMAiV^A. The Brahmawa of the Atharva 
or fourth Yeda. It has been published by Rajendra Lala in the 
Bihliotheca Indica. 

GOPATI-i^/SHABHA. ' Chief of herdsmen.' i. A title of 
/S'iva. 2. A demon mentioned in the Maha-bharata as slain by 

GOPIS. The cowherd damsels and wives with whom 
Iv?'ish??a sported in his youth. 

GOTAMA. The founder of the Nyaya school of philosophy. 
He is called also /S'atananda, and is author of a Dharma-sastra 
or law-book, which has been edited by Stenzler. He is fre- 
quently called Gautama. 



GO-YARDHAXA. A mountain in Vrindavana, wliicli 
Knshwa induced the cowherds and cowherdesses to worship 
instead of Indra. This enraged the god, who sent a deluge 
of rain to wash away the mountain and all the people of the 
country, but K?'ish7ia held up the mountain on his little finger 
for seven days to shelter the people of V^'/ndavana. Indra 
retired baffled, and afterwards did homage to K?tshria. 

GOA^ARDHAXA-DHARA ' Upholder of Govardhana.' A 
title of K?-zsh?ia. 

GO-YINDA ' Cow-keeper.' A name of K?-ish?ia. 

GRAHA. 'Seizing.' i. The power that seizes and obscures 
the sun and moon, causing eclipses ; the ascending node, Rahu. 
2. Evil spirits with which people, especially children, are pos- 
sessed, and which cause sickness and death. They are supposed 
to be amenable to medicine and exorcism. 

Git/HA-STHA. 'Householder.' A Brahman in the second 
stage of his religious life. See Brahman. 

Gi?/HYA SUTRAS. Rules for the conduct of domestic 
rites and the personal sacraments, extending from the birth to 
the marriage of a man. {See Sfitra.) The Grihya Siitras of 
A.swalayana have been printed in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

Gi^/TS A-MADA. The reputed Rkhi of many hymns in the 
second ]\Ia?^f/ala of the jRig-veda. According to the Yish?ni 
PuraTza he was a Kshatriya and son of iSuna-hotra, being de- 
scended from Puriiravas of the Lunar race. From him sprang 
/S'aunaka, the eminent sage versed in the iifg-veda " who origi- 
nated the system of four castes." The Yayu PuraTza makes 
/S'unaka to be the son of G?'itsa-mada, and /S'aunaka the son of 
^Sunaka : this seems probable. "It is related of him by Siiyawa 
that he was first a member of the family of Angiras, being the 
' son of ^Suna-hotra. He was carried off by the Asuras whilst 
]>erforming a sacrifice, but was rescued by Indra, under whose 
authority he was henceforth designated as G?*itsa-mada, the son 
of iS'unaka or 6'aunaka of the race of Bh?7gu. Thus the Anukra- 
mamka says of him : He who was an Angirasa, the son of 
iSuna-hotra, became /S'aunaka of the race of Bb?igu." According 
to the Maha-bharata, he was son of Yita-havya, a king of the 
Ilaihayas, a Kshatriya, who became a Brahman. {See Yita- 
havya.) The Maha-bharata alludes to a legend of his having 
assumed the semblance of Indra, and so enabled that deity to 


escape from the Asuras, who were lying in wait to destroy him. 
There are several versions of the story, but they all agree that 
after Indra had escaped G?*itsa-mada saved himself by reciting 
a hymn in w^hich he showed that Indra was a different person. 

GUi)A-KE/S'A. '"WHiose hair is in tufts.' An epithet of 

GUI! A. 'Secret.' i. A name of the god of war. {See, 
Karttikeya.) 2. A king of the Mshadas or Bhils, who was 
a friend of Eama. 3. A people near Kalinga, who possibly 
got their name from him. 

GUHYAKAS. 'Hidden beings.' Inferior divinities atten- 
dant upon Kuvera, and guardians of his hidden treasures. 

GUPTAS. A dynasty of kings who reigned in Magadha. 
The period of their ascendancy has been a subject of great con- 
tention, and cannot be said to be settled. 

GURJJARA. The country of Gujarat. 

HAIHAYA. This name is supposed to be derived from 
haya, ' a horse.' i. A prince of the Lunar race, and great-grandson 
of Yadu. 2. A race or tribe of people to whom a Scythian origin 
has been ascribed. The Vishnu Purawa represents them as de- 
scendants of Haihaya of the Yadu race, but they are generally 
associated with borderers and outlying tribes. In the Vayu and 
other Pura?2as, five great divisions of the tribe are named : Tala- 
janghas, Yiti-hotras, Avantis, Tu?2(iikeras, and Jatas, or rather 
Su-jatas. They conquered Biihu or Bahuka, a descendant of 
King Haris-chandra, and were in their turn conquered, along with 
many other barbarian tribes, by King Sagara, son of Bahu. 
According to the Maha-bharata, they were descended from *S'ar- 
yati, a son of Manu. They made incursions into the Doab, and 
they took the city of Kasi (Benares), which had been fortified 
against them by King Divo-dasa ; but the grandson of this king, 
Pratardana by name, destroyed the Haihayas, and re-estal)lished 
the kingdom of Ka.?I. Arjuna-Kartavirya, of a thousand arms, 
was king of the Haihayas, and he was defeated and had his 
arms cut off by Parasu-rama. 

The Yindhya mountains would seem to have been the home 
of these tribes ; and according to Colonel Todd, a tribe of Hai- 
hayas still exists " near the very top of the valley of Sohagpoor, 
in Bhagelkhand, aware of their ancient lineage, and, though 
few i". number, still celebrated for their valour." 


HALA-BIIi^/T. 'Bearing a plough.' Bala-rama. 

HALAYUDHA. ' "WTio has a ploughshare for his weapon/ 
i.e., Bala-rama. 

HAXSA. I. This, according to the Bhagavata Purii/za, was 
the name of the " one caste," when, in olden times, there was 
only "one Veda, one God, and one caste." 2. A name used 
in the Mahu-bharata for Krish^za. 3. A mountain range north 
of ]\reru. 

HAXSA. Hansa and Dimbhaka were two great warrior- 
brothers mentioned in the ]\Iaha-bharata as friends of Jara-sandha. 
A certain king also named Hansa was killed by Bala-rama. 
Hearing that " Hansa was killed," Dimbliaka, unable to live 
w^ithout him, committed suicide, and when Hansa heard of this 
he drowned himself in the Yamuna. 

monkey chief. He was son of Pavana, ' the wind,' by Anjana, 
wife of a monkey named Kesari. He was able to fly, and is 
a conspicuous figure in the Ramaya?za. He and the other 
monkeys who assisted Rama in his war against Rava??a were of 
divine origin, and their powers were superhuman. Hanuman 
jumped from India to Ceylon in one bound ; he tore up trees, 
carried away the Himalayas, seized the clouds, and performed 
many other wonderful exploits. {^See Surasa.) His form is " as 
vast as a mountain and as tall as a gigantic tower. His com- 
plexion is yellow and glowing like molten gold. His face is as 
red as the brightest ruby ; while his enormous tail spreads out 
to an interminable length. He stands on a lofty rock and roars 
like thunder. He leaps into the air, and flies among the clouds 
with a rushing noise, whilst the ocean waves are roaring and 
splashing below." In one of his fights with Rriva??a and the 
Eakshasas, they greased his tail and set it on fire, but to their 
own great injury, for with it he burnt down tlieir capital city, 
Lanka. This exploit obtained for him the name Lankil-drdiL 
His services to Eiima were OTcat and man v. He acted as liis 
si)y, and fought most valiantly. He flew to the Himrdayas, 
from whence he brought medicinal herbs witli which he restored 
the wounded, and he killed tlie monster Killa-nemi, and thou- 
sands of Gandharvas who assailed him. He accomi)anied Riima 
on his return to Ayodhya, and there he received from liim the 
reward of perpetual life and youth. The exploits of Hanuman 


are favoiirito topics among Hindus from cliildliood to age, and 
paintings of tliem are common. He is called Marut-putra, and 
lie has the patronymics Anili, Maruti, &c., and the metronymic 
Anjaneya. He is also Yoga-chara, from his power in magic or 
in the healing art, and Eajata-dyiiti, ' the brilliant.' Among his 
other accomplishments, Hanumat was a grammarian ; and the 
RamayaTia says, "The chief of monkeys is perfect; no one 
equals him in the sastras, in learning, and in ascertaining the 
sense of the scriptures [or in moving at will]. In all sciences, 
in the rules of austerity, he rivals the preceptor of the gods. 

... It is well known that Hanumat was the ninth author 
of grammar." — Muir, iv. 490. 

HANUMA:N'-NATAKA. a long drama by various hands 
upon the adventures of the monkey chief Hanuman. This 
drama is fabled to have been composed by Hanuman, and in- 
scribed by him on rocks. Valmiki, the author of the Eamaya?m, 
saw it and feared that it would throw his own poem into the 
shade. He complained to the author, who told him to cast the 
verses into the sea. He did so, and they remained concealed 
there for ages. Portions were discovered and brought to King 
Ehoja, who directed Damodara Mi.sra to arrange them and fill 
up the lacunEe. He did so, and the result was this drama. 
" It is probable," says Wilson, " that the fragments of an ancient 
drama were connected in the manner described. Some of the 
ideas are poetical, and the sentiments just and forcible ; the 
language is generally very harmonious, but the Avork itself is, 
after all, a most disjointed and nondescrijDt composition, and the 
patchwork is very glaringly and clumsily put together." It is a 
work of the tenth or eleventh century. It has been printed in 

HARA. A name of /Siva. 

HAEI. A name which commonly designates Yishmi, but it 
is exceptionally used for other gods. 

HAEI-D WAEA. ' The Jiate of Hari, ' The modern Hardwcar. 
The place where the Ganges finally breaks through the moun- 
tains into the plains of Hindustan. It is a great j^lace of 

HAEI-HAEA. A combination of the names of Vishwu and 
iS'iva, and representing the union of the two deities in one, a 
combination which is differently accounted for. 


HAEI5'-CHAXDRA. Twenty-eighth king of the Solar race, 
and son of Tri-5anku. He was celebrated for his piety and 
justice. There are several legends about him. The Aitarej^a 
Brahma?ia tells the story of his purchasing /SunaA-sephas to be 
offered up as a vicarious sacrifice for his own son. {See SiinpJi- 
sephas.) The ]\Iaha-bharata relates that he was raised to the 
heaven of Indra for his performance of the Eaja-siiya sacrifice 
and for his unbounded liberality. The 'Mivrkandeja, Purawa 
expands the story at considerable length. One day while Haris- 
chandra was hunting he heard female lamentations, which pro- 
ceeded " from the Sciences, who w^ere being mastered by the 
austerely fervid sage Viswamitra, and were crying out in alarm 
at his superiority. " Hari.'^-chandra, as defender of the distressed, 
went to the rescue, but A^iswamitra was so provoked by his 
interference that the Sciences instantly perished, and Hari^- 
chandra was reduced to a state of abject helplessness. Yi.swa- 
niitra demanded the sacrificial gift due to him as a Brahman, 
and the king offered him whatever he might choose to ask, 
" gold, his ow^i son, wife, body, life, kingdom, good fortune," 
wdiatever was dearest. Yiswamitra stripped him of wealth and 
kingdom, leaving him nothing but a garment of bark and his 
wife and son. In a state of destitution he left his kinsjdom, 

> 7 

and Viswamitra struck A^aibya, the queen, with his staff to hasten 
her reluctant departure. To escape from his oppressor he pro- 
ceeded to the holy city of Benares, but the relentless sage was 
waiting for him and demanded the completion of the gift. 
"With bitter grief wife and child were sold, and there remained 
only himself. Dharma, the god of justice, aj^peared in the 
form of a hideous and offensive Clmndala, and offered to buy 
him. Notwithstanding the exile's repugnance and liorror, 
Viswamitra insisted upon the sale, and Haris-chandra was 
carried off " bound, beaten, confused, and afflicted," to the 
abode of the Chanddla. He was sent by his master to steal 
grave-clothes from a cemetery. In tliis horrid place and de- 
grading work he spent twelve months. His wife then came 
to tlio cemetery to perform the obsequies of her son, who liad 
died from the bite of a serpent. They recognised each other, 
and Hari.s-chandra and his wife resolved to die upon the funeral 
pyre of their son, though he hesitated to take away his own life 
witliout tlie consent of liis master. After all was prejDared, he 


gave himself up to meditation on Vislirm. The gods then 
arrived, headed by Dharma and accompanied by Yiswamitra. 
Dharma entreated him to refrain from his intention, and Indra 
informed him " that he, his wife, and son, had conquered heaven 
by their good works." Hari.s-chandra declared that he conld not 
go to heaven without the permission of his master the Cha?i(Zala. 
Dharma then revealed himself. A¥hen this difficulty was 
removed, Haris-chandra objected to go to heaven without his 
faithful subjects. " This request was granted by Indra, and 
after Viswamitra had inaugurated Rohitaswa, the king's son, to 
be his successor, Haris-chandra, his friends, and followers, all 
ascended in company to heaven." There he was induced by 
the sage Narada to boast of his merits, and this led to his 
expulsion from heaven. As he was falling he repented of his 
fault and waTs forgiven. His downward course was arrested, 
and he and his followers dwell in an aerial citv, which, accord- 
ing to popular belief, is still visible occasionally in mid-air. 

HAEITA, HARiTA. i. A son of Yuvana-swa of the Solar 
race, descended from Ikshwaku. From him descended the 
Harita Angirasas. In the Linga Pura?^a it is said, " The son of 
Yuvariaswa was Harita, of whom the Haritas were sons. They 
were, on the side of Angiras, twice-born men (Brahmans) of 
Ivshatriya lineage ; " or according to the Vayu, " they were the 
sons of Angiras, twice-born men (Brahmans), of Kshatriya race," 
possibly meaning that they were sons raised up to Harita by 
Angiras. According to some he was a son of Chyavana. 2. 
Author of a Dharma-sastra or law-book. 


HARITS, HARITAS. ' Green.' In the i^ig-veda the horses, 
or rather mares, of the sun, seven or ten in number, and typical 
of his rays. " The prototype of the Grecian Charites." — Max 

HARI-VA]Sr>SA. The genealogy of Hari or Vish?zu, a long 
poeni of 16,374 verses. It purports to be a part of the Maha- 
bharata, but it is of much later date, and " may more accurately 
be ranked with the Paura?uk compilations of least authenticity 
and latest date." It is in three parts ; the first is introductory, 
and gives particulars of the creation and of the patriarchal and 
regal dynasties ; the second contains the life and adventures of 
K?'ish?za ; and the last and the third treats of the future of the 


world and the corruptions of the Kali age. It contains many 
indications of its having been written in the south of India. 

HAESHAiVA. A deity who presides over the /S'raddha offerings. 

HARYAjS'WA. a grandson of the Kuvalayaswa who killed 
the demon Dhundhu. The country of Panchala is said to have 
been named from his five {panclia) sons. There were several 
others of this name. 

HARYA*SWAS. Five thousand sons of the patriarch 
Daksha, begotten by him for the purpose of peopling the earth. 
The sage Narada dissuaded them from producing offspring, and 
they " dispersed themselves through the regions and have not 

HASTIM-PUEA. The capital city of the Kauravas, for 
which the great war of the Maha-bharata was waged. It was 
founded by Hastin, son of the first Bharata, and hence, as some 
say, its name ; but the Maha-bharata and the Vish?m Pura?2a 
call it the " elephant city," from hastin, an elephant. The ruins 
are traceable near an old bed of the Ganges, about 57 miles 
N.E. of Delhi, and local tradition has preserved the name. It 
is said to have been washed away by the Ganges. 

HASYARiVAVA. ^ Ocean of laughter.' A modern comic 
piece in two acts, by a Vdrndii named Jagadisa. ''It is a severe 
but grossly indelicate satire upon the licentiousness of Brah- 
mans assuming the character of religious mendicants." — JFilson. 

HAYIR.BHUJ, HAYISH-MATA. PitWs or Manes of the 
Kshatriyas, and inhabitants of the solar sphere. See Pitris. 

HAYA-GRlYA. ' Horse-necked.' According to one legend, 
a Daitya who stole the Yeda as it slipped out of the mouth of 
Brahma while he was sleeping at the end of a kalpa, and was 
killed by YishTiu in the Fish Avatara. According to another, 
Yishwu himself, who assumed this form to recover the Veda, 
which had been carried off by two Daityas. 

HAYA-.SIRAS, IIAYA-^lRSIIA. 'Horse-head' In the 
Maha-bharata it is recorded that the sage Aurva (q.v.) "cast the 
fire of his anger into the sea," and that it there " became the 
great Haya-siras, known to those acquainted with the A^eda, 
which vomits forth that fire and drinks up the waters." A form 
of Vish?iu. 

In the Bhagavata Puriiwa Brahma is represented as saying, 

In my sacrifice Bhagavat himself was Haya-6'irslia, the male of 



the sacrifice, whose colour is that of gold, of whom the Yedas 
and the sacrifices are the substance and the gods the sonl ; 
when he respired, charming words came forth from his nostrils." 

HELIA-CHANDRA. Author of a good Sansk?-it vocabulary, 
printed under the superintendence of Colebrooke. 

HEMADRI. 'The golden mountain,' /.g,, Meru. 

HEMA-KU2A. 'Golden peak.' A chain of mountains re- 
presented as lying north of the Himalayas, between them and 
Mount Meru. 

HIDIMBA (mas.), HIDIMBA (fem.). A powerful Asura, 
who had yellow eyes and a horrible aspect. He was a cannibal, 
and dwelt in the forest to which the Pa?i(iavas retired after the 
burning of their house. He had a sister named Hif/imba, whom 
he sent to lure the Pa7ic?avas to liim ; but on meeting with Bhima, 
she fell in love with him, and offered to carry him away to 
safety on her back. Bhima refused, and while they were par- 
leying, Hifiimba came up, and a terrible fight ensued, in which 
Bhima killed the monster. Hic^imba was at first much terrified 
and fled, but she returned and claimed Bhima for her husband. 
By his mother's desire Bhima married her, and by her had a 
son named Gha/otkacha. 

HIMACHALA, HIMADRI. The Himalaya mountains. 

HIMAVAT. The personification of the Himalaya mountains, 
husband of Mena or Menaka, and father of Uma and Ganga. 

HIRAi\^YA-GARBHA. 'Golden egg' or 'golden womb.' 
In the i^ig-veda Hira?iya-garbha " is said to have arisen in the 
beginning, the one lord of all beings, who upholds heaven 
and earth, who gives life and breath, whose command even the 
gods obey, who is the god over all gods, and the one animating 
principle of their being." According to Manu, Hira7?ya-garbha 
was Brahma, the first male, formed by the undiscernible eternal 
First Cause in a golden ^^g resplendent as the sun. " Having 
continued a year in the egg, Brahma divided it into two parts 
by his mere thought, and with these two shells he formed the 
heavens and the earth ; and in the middle he placed the sky, 
the eight regions, and the eternal abode of the waters." 8ee 

HIRAiVYAKSHA. 'Golden eye.' A Daitya who dragged the 
earth to the depths of the ocean. He was twin-brother of Hira- 
??yaka5ipu, and was killed by YisliTiu in the Boar incarnation. 


HIEA7\^YA-KA6'IPU. ' Golden dress.' A Daitva who, ao 
cording to the jNIaha-bharata and the Pura??.as, obtained from ^Siva 
the sovereignty of the three worlds for a million of j^ears, and 
persecuted his son Prahlada for worshipping Vish?ai. He Avas 
slain by Yisliwu in the Nara-sinha, or man-lion incarnation. He 
and HiraTzyaksha were twin-brothers and chiefs of the Daityas. 

HIT0PADE6A. ' Good adyice.' The well-known collection 
of ethical tales and fables compiled from the larger and older 
work called Pancha-tantra. It has been often printed, and there 
are several translations; among them is an edition by Johnson 
of text, vocabulary, and translation. 

HOT/t/. A priest who recites the j^rayers from the J?/g- 

HT^/SHIKEaS'A. a name of K?'/shwa or Yislmu. 

HtJiYAS. According to AYilson, " the White Huns or Indo- 
Scythians, who were established in the Panjab and along the 
Indus at the commencement of our era, as we know from Arrian, 
Strabo, and Ptolemy, confirmed by recent discoveries of their 
coins," and since still further confirmed by inscriptions and 
additional coins. Dr. Pitzedward Hall says, " I am not pre- 
pared to deny that the ancient Hindus, when they spoke of 
the HiiTzas, intended the Huns. In the Middle Ages, however, 
it is certain that a race called HiiTia was understood by the 
learned of India to form a division of the Kshatrivas." — V. P. 
ii. 134. 

HUX-DEaS'A. The country round Lake Manasarovara. 

HUSHKA HUYISHKA.*^ A Tushkara or Turk i king, whose 
name is mentioned in the Raja Tarangiwi as Hushka, which has 
been found in inscriptions as Huvishka, and upon the corrupt 
Greek coins as Oerki. He is supposed to have reigned just at 
the commencement of the Christian era. See Kanishka. 

Ii)A. In the i?^"g-veda Ma is primarily food, refreshment, or 
a libation of milk ; thence a stream of praise, personified as the 
goddess of speech. She is called the instructress of j\lanu, and 
frequent passages ascribe to her the first institution of the rules 
of performing sacrifices. According to Sriya??a, she is the goddess 
presiding over the earth. A legend in the *S'atapatha BrfdimaTza 
represents her as springing from a sacrifice wliich IManu per- 
formed for the purpose of obtaining offspring. She Avas claimed 
by Mitra-Yaru?ia, but remained faithful to liiin who had pro- 


duced lier. IManu lived with her, and praying and fasting to 
obtain offspring, he begat upon her the race of Mann. In 
the Pura?2as she is daughter of the Mann Vaivaswata, wife of 
P>udha (Mercury), and mother of Pururavas. The Manu Yaivas- 
wata, before he had sons, instituted a sacrifice to Mitra and 
Varu?ia for the purpose of obtaining one ; but the ofhciating 
priest mismanaged the performance, and the result was the birth 
of a daughter, I(ia or Ila. Through the favour of the two 
deities her sex was changed, and she became a man, Su-dyumna. 
Under the malediction of /S'iva, Su-dyumna M^as again turned into 
a woman, and, as Ila, married Budha or Mercury. After she had 
given birth to Pururavas, she, under the favour of Yisli^iu, once 
more became Su-dyumna, and was the father of three sons. 
According to another version of the legend, the Manu's eldest 
son was named Ila. He having trespassed on a grove sacred 
to Parvati, was changed into a female, Ila. Upon the supplica- 
tions and prayers of Ila's friends, /S'iva and his consort conceded 
that the offender should be a male one month and a female 
another. There are other variations in the story which is appa- 
rently ancient. 

YBKNYDK. Daughter of Trwabindu and the Apsaras Alam- 
busha. There are different statements in the Puranas as regards 
her. She is represented to be the wife of Yisravas and mother 
of Kuvera, or the wife of Pulastya and mother of Visravas. 

IKSHWAKU. Son of the Manu Yaivaswat, who was son 
of Yivaswat, the sun. " He was born from the nostril of the 
Manu as he happened to sneeze." Ikshwaku was founder of the 
Solar race of kings, and reigned in Ayodhya at the beginning of 
the second Yuga or age. He had a hundred sons, of whom the 
eldest was Yikukshi. Another son, named Nimi, founded the 
Mithila dynasty. According to Max Miiller the name is men- 
tioned once, and only once, in the itig-veda. Respecting this 
he adds : " I take it, not as the name of a king, but as the name 
of a people, probably the people who inhabited Bhajeratha, the 
country washed by the northern Ganga or Bhaglratlii." Others 
place the Ikshwakus in the north-west. 

ILA, ILA. See, I(^a. 

ILAYILA. See Irfavi(ia. 

ILYALA. See Yatapi. 

INDPA. The god of the firmament, the personified atmo- 

124 INDRA. 

sphere. In tlie Vedas lie stands in the first rank among the 
gods, but he is not uncreate, and is represented as having a 
father and mother : " a vigorous god begot him ; a heroic female 
brought him fortL" He is described as being of a ruddy or 
golden colour, and as having arms of enormous length ; " but 
his forms are endless, and he can assume any shape at will." 
He rides in a bright golden car, drawn by two tawny or ruddy 
horses with flowing manes and tails. His weapon is the thun- 
derbolt, which he carries in his right hand ; he also uses arrows, 
a great hook, and a net, in which he is said to entangle his foes. 
The soma juice is his especial delight ; he takes enormous 
draughts of it, and, stimulated by its exhilarating qualities, he 
goes forth to war against his foes, and to perform his other 
duties. As deity of the atmosphere, he governs the weather 
and dispenses the rain ; he sends forth his lightnings and 
thunder, and he is continually at war with Y?'itra or Ahi, the 
demon of drought and inclement weather, whom he overcomes 
with his thunderbolts, and compels to pour down the rain. 
Strabo describes the Indians as worshipping Jupiter Pluvius, no 
doubt meaning Indra, and he has also been compared to Jupiter 
Tonans. One myth is that of his discovering and rescuing the 
cows of the priests or of the gods, which had been stolen by an 
Asura named Pa?ii or Yala, wdiom he killed, and he is hence 
called Yala-bhid. He is frequently represented as destroying the 
"stone-built cities" of the Asuras or atmospheric demons, and of 
the Dasyus or aborigines of India. In his warfare he is sometimes 
represented as escorted by troops of Maruts, and attended by his 
comrade Vishwu. More hymns are addressed to Indra than to any 
other deity in the Vedas, with the exception" of Agni. For he 
was reverenced in his beneficent character as the bestower of rain 
and the cause of fertility, and he was feared as the awful ruler 
of the storm and director of the lightning and thunder. In 
many places of the i?ig-veda the highest divine functions and 
attributes are ascribed to him. There was a triad of gods — 
Agni, Vayu, and Siirya — which held a pre-eminence above the 
rest, and Indra frequently took the place of Yfiyu. In some 
parts of the Veda, as Dr. INIuir remarks, the ideas expressed of 
Indra are grand and lofty; at other times he is treated with 
familiarity, and his devotion to the soma juice is dilated upon, 
though nothing debasing is perceived in his sensuality. Indra 

INDRA. 125 

is mentioned as having a wife, and the name of Indnmi or 
Aindri is invoked among the goddesses. In the /S'atapatha 
Brahma^a she is called India's beloved wife. 

In the later mythology Indra has fallen into the second rank. 
He is inferior to the triad, but he is the chief of all the other 
gods. He is the regent of the atmosphere and of the east 
quarter of the compass, and he reigns over Swarga, the heaven 
of the gods and of beatified spirits, which is a region of great 
magnificence and splendour. He retains many of his Vedic 
characteristics, and some of them are intensified. He sends the 
lightning and hurls the thunderbolt, and the rainbow is his bow. 
He is frequently at war with the Asuras, of whom he lives in 
constant dread, and by whom he is often worsted. But he slew 
the demon Yntra, who, being regarded as a Brahman, Indra had 
to conceal himself and make sacrifice until his guilt was purged 
away. His continued love for the soma juice is shown by a 
legend in the Maha-bharata, which represents him as being com- 
pelled by the sage Chyavana to allow the Aswins to partake of 
the soma libations, and his sensuality has now developed into 
an extreme lasciviousness. Many instances are recorded of his 
incontinence and adultery, and his example is frequently referred 
to as an excuse in cases of gallantry, as by King Nahusha when 
he tried to obtain Indra's wife while the latter was hiding in 
fear for having killed the Brahman in the person of the demon 
V/itra. According to the Maha-bharata he seduced, or endea- 
voured to seduce, Ahalya, the wife of the sage Gautama, and 
that sage's curse impressed upon him a thousand marks resem- 
bling the female organ, so he was caUed Sa-yoni ; but these 
marks were afterwards changed to eyes, and he is hence called 
JSTetra-yoni, and Sahasraksha 'the thousand-eyed.' In the 
Eamaya/za it is related that RavaTia, the Rakshasa king of Lanka 
or Ceylon, warred against Indra in his own heaven, and that 
Indra was defeated and carried off to Lanka by Eava??a's son 
Megha-nada, who for this exploit received the title of Indra-jit 
(q.v.), ' conqueror of Indra.' Brahma and the gods had to sue 
for the release of Indira, and to purchase it with the boon of 
immortality to the victor. Brahma then told the humihated 
god that his defeat was a punishment for the seduction of 
Ahalya. The Taittiriya Brahma?ia states that he chose Indram 
to be his wife in preference to other goddesses because of her 

126 INDRA. 

voluptuous attractions, and later authorities say tliat he ravished 
her, and slew her father, the Daitja Puloman, to escape his 
curse. Mythologically he was father of Arjuna (q.v.), and for 
him he cheated Kar?ia of his divine coat of mail, but gave 
Kama in recompense a javelin of deadly effect. His libertine 
character is also shown by his frequently sending celestial 
nymphs to excite the passions of holy men, and to beguile them 
from the potent penances which he dreaded. 

In the Pura/zas many stories are told of him, and he appears 
especially in rivalry with K?*ish72a. He incurred the wrath of 
the choleric sage Dur-vasas by slighting a garland of flowers 
which that sage presented to him, and so brought upon himself 
the curse that his whole dominion should be whelmed in ruin. 
He was utterly defeated by the Daityas, or rather by their ally, 
Eaja, son of Ayus, and grandson of Pururavas, and he was 
reduced to such a forlorn condition that he, " the god of a hun- 
dred sacrifices," was compelled to beg for a little sacrificial 
butter. Puffed up by their victory, his conquerors neglected 
their duties, and so they became the easy prey of Indra, who 
recovered his dominion. The Bhagavata Pura/ia represents him 
as having killed a Brahman, and of being haunted by that crime, 
personified as a Chawc?ali. 

Indra had been an object of worship among the pastoral 
people of Yraja, but Krislma persuaded them to cease this 
worship. Indra was greatly enraged at this, and sent a deluge 
of rain to overwhelm them; but K?'ish?2a lifted up the mountain 
Govardhana on his finger to shelter them, and so held it for 
seven days, till Indra was baffled and rendered homage to 
K?'ishwa. Again, when Kr/shwa went to visit Swarga, and was 
about to carry off the Parijata tree, Indra resented its removal, 
and a fierce fight ensued, in which Indra was worsted, and the 
tree was carried off. Among the deeds of Indra recorded in 
the Purawas is that of the destruction of the offspring of Diti 
in her womb, and the production therefrom of the Maruts (see 
Diti) ; and there is a story of his cutting off the wings of the 
mountains with his thunderl^olts, because they were refractory 
and troublesome. Indra is represented as a fair man riding on 
a white horse or an elephant, and bearing the vajra or thunder- 
bolt in his hand. His son is named Jayanta. Indra is not the 
object of direct worship, but he receives incidental adoration, 


and there is a festival kej)t in liis honour called iS'akra-dhwajot- 
thana, ' the raising of the standard of Indra.' 

Indra's names are many, as Mahendra, ^akra, Maghavan, 
i^ibhuksha, Yasava, Arha, Datteya. His epithets or titles also 
are numerous. He is V?"itra-han, ' the destroyer of Yritra ; ' 
Vajra-pawi, ' of the thunderbolt hand ; ' Megha-vahana, ' borne 
upon the clouds ; ' Paka-sasana, * the subduer of Paka ; ' 
*Sata-kratu, ' of a hundred sacrifices ; ' Deva-pati and Sura- 
dhipa, ' chief of the gods ; ' Divas-pati, ' ruler of the 
atmosphere ; ' Marutwan, ' lord of the winds ; ' Swarga-pati, 
' lord of paradise ; ' Jishmi, ' leader of the celestial host ; ' 
Puran-dara, ' destroyer of cities ; ' Uluka, ' the owl ; ' IJgra- 
dhauAvan, ' of the terrible bow,' and many others. The heaven 
of Indra is Swarga; its capital is Amaravati; his palace, Yaija- 
yanta ; his garden, ISTandana, Kandasara, or Parushya ; his 
elephant is Airiivata ; his horse, Uchchai/t-sravas ; his chariot, 
Yimana ; his charioteer, Matali ; his bow, the rainbow, ^Sakra- 
dlianus ; and his sword, Paran-ja. 

INDEA-D YUMNA. Son of Su-mati and grandson of 
Bharata. There were several of the name, among them a king 
of Avanti, by whom the temple of Yishym was built, and the 
image of Jagan-natha was set up in Orissa. 

INDEA-JIT. Megha-nada, son of Ravawa. When Rava?za 
went against Indra's forces in Swarga, his son Megha-nada 
accompanied him, and fought most A^aliantly. Indra himself 
was obliged to interfere, when Megha-nada, availing himself of 
the magical power of becoming invisible, which he had obtained 
from ^Siva, bound Indra and carried him off to Lanka. The 
gods, headed by Brahma, went thither to obtain the release of 
Indra, and Brahma gave to Megha-nada the name Indra-jit, 
'conqueror of Indra.' Still the victor refused to release his pri- 
soner for anything less than the boon of immortality. Brahma 
refused, but Indra-jit persisted in his demand and achieved his 
object. One version of the Ramaya?ia states that Indra-jit was 
killed and had his head cut off by Lakshma?ia, who surprised 
him while he was engaged in a sacrifice. 

INDRA-KlLA. The mountain Mandara. 

INDRA-LOKA. Indra's heaven, Swarga. See, Loka. 

INDRAiVI. Wife of Indra, and mother of Javanta and 
Jayanti. She is also called ^achl and Aindrl. She is men- 


tioned a few times in the it/g-veda, and is said to be the most 
fortunate of females, " for her husband shall never die of old 
age." The Taittiriya Brahma?ia states that Indra chose her for 
his wife from a number of competing goddesses, because she 
surpassed them all in voluptuous attractions. In the Ramayawa 
and Purawas she appears as the daughter of the Daitya Puloman, 
from whom she has the patronymic Paulomi. She was ravished 
by Indra, who killed her father to escape his curse. According 
to the Maha-bharata, King Xahusha became enamoured of her, 
and she escaped from him with difficulty. Indra/zi has never 
been held in very high esteem as a goddess. 

INDRA-PRAMATI. An early teacher of the i?/g-veda, who 
received one Sanhita direct from Paila. 

INDRA-PRASTHA. The capital city of the Pa7ic?u princes. 
The name is still known, and is used for a part of the city of 

IXDRA-SENA (mas.), INDRA-SENA (fem.). K'ames of the 
son and daughter of Xala and Damayanti. 

INDU. The moon. See Soma. 

INDU-MATl Sister of Bhoja, king of Yidarbha, who chose 
Prince Aja for her husband at her sway am- vara. She was 
killed by Narada's garland falling upon her while asleep in an 

IISrDU-MAiVI. The moon gem. See Chandra-kanta, 

IRAYAT. A son of Arjuna by his ISTaga wife Ulupi. 

IRA V ATI. The river Ra-vl or Hydraotes. 

ISA. 'Lord.' A title of /S'iva. jSTame of a Upanishad 
(q.v.) which has been translated by Dr. Roer in the Bihliotlieca 

ISA^A. A name of Siysl or Rudra, or of one of his manifes- 
tations. (See Rudra.) He is guardian of the north-east quarter. 

ISHTI-PAaSAS. 'Stealers of offerings.' Rakshasas and 
other enemies of the gods, who steal the oblations. 

LSWARA. ' Lord.' A title given to Siva. 

LS'WARA Kit/SIIiVA. Author of the philosophical treatise 
called Sankhya Karika. 

ITIIIASAS. Legendary poems. Heroic history. " Stories 
like those of Urvasi and Puriiravas." The term is especially 
applied to the Maha-bharata. 

JABALI, JAYALI. A Brahman who was priest of King 


Dasa-ratlia, and held sceptical pliilosopliical opinions. He is 
represented in the Eaniaya?ia as enforcing his views upon Rama, 
•vvho decidedly repudiated them. Thereupon he asserted that 
his atheistical arguments had been used only for a purpose, 
and that he was really imbued with sentiments of piety and 
religion. He is said to have been a logician, so probably lie 
belonged to the Nyaya school 

JAGAD-DHATi^/ (DHATA). ' Sustainer of the world.' 
An epithet given to both Saraswati and Durga. 

JAGAN-MATi^J (MATA). ' Mother of the world.' One of 
the names of /S'iva's wife. Bee Devi. 

JAGAN-NATHA 'Lord of the world.' A particular form 
of yish?iu, or rather of Knshwa. He is w^orshipped in Bengal 
and other parts of India, but Puri, near the town of Cuttack, in 
Orissa, is the great seat of his worship, and multitudes of pil- 
grims resort thither from all parts, especially to the two great 
festivals of the Snana-yatra and Katha-yatra, in the months of 
Jyaish/ha and Ashaiiha. The first of these is when the image is 
bathed, and in the second, or car festival, the image is brought 
out upon a car with the images of his brother Bala-rama and 
sister Su-bhadra, and is drawn by the devotees. The legend of 
the origin of Jagan-natha is peculiar. K?'ishwa was killed by 
a hunter, and his body was left to rot under a tree, but some 
pious persons found the bones and placed them in a box. A 
devout king named Indra-dyumna was directed by VisliTZ-u to 
form an image of Jagan-natha and to place the bones of Kmh?za 
inside it. Yisvv^a-karma, the architect of the gods, undertook to 
make the image, on condition of being left quite undisturbed 
till the work was complete. After fifteen days the king was 
impatient and went to Viswa-karma, who was angry, and left off 
w^ork before he had made either hands or feet, so that the image 
has only stumps. Indra-dyumna prayed to Brahma, who pro- 
mised to make the image famous, and he did so by giving to it 
eyes and a soul, and by acting as high priest at its consecration. 

JAHNAVI. The Ganges. Bee Jahnu. 

JAHNU. A sage descended from Pururavas. He was dis- 
turbed in his devotions by the passage of the river Ganga, and 
consequently drank up its waters. He afterwards relented, and 
allowed the stream to issue from his ear, hence Ganga is called 
Jahnavi, daughter of Jahnu. See Ganga. 




JAIMINI. A celebrated sage, a disciple of Vyasa. He is 
said to have received the Sama-veda from his master, and to 
have been its publisher or teacher. He was also the founder 
of the Piirva-mimansa philosophy. Tlie text of Jaimini is 
printed in the Bihliotheca Ind'ica. 

philosophy by Madliava. It has been edited by Goldstiicker 
and Cowell. 

JAJALL A Brahman mentioned in the Maha-bharata as 
having by ascetism acquired a supernatural power of locomotion, 
of which he was so proud that he deemed himself perfect in 
virtue and superior to all men. A voice from the sky told him 
that he was inferior to Tuladhara, a Yaisya and a trader. He 
went to this Tuladhara and learnt wisdom from him. 

JALA-EtJPA. The fish or the Makara on the banner of 

JALA-zSAYIIsr. ' Sleeping on the waters. ' An appellation 
of YisliTiu, as he is supposed to sleep upon his serpent couch on 
the waters during the rainy season, or during the submersion of 
the world. 

JAMAD-AGXI. A Brahman and a descendant of Bhngu. 
He was the son of itichika and Satya-vati, and was the father 
of five sons, the youngest and most renowned of whom was 
Parasu-rama. Jamad-agni's mother, Satya-vati, was daughter of 
King Gadlii, a Kshatriya. The Yish?iu Purawa relates that 
when Satya-vati was pregnant, her {Brahman husband, i^ichika, 
prepared a mess for her to eat for the purpose of securing that 
her son should be born with the qualities of a Brahman. He 
also gave another mess to her mother that she might bear a 
son with the character of a warrior. The women changed the 
messes, and so Jamad-agni, the son of /tichlka, was born as a 
warrior-Brahman, and Yiswamitra, son of the Kshatriya Gadhi, 
was born as a priest. The Maha-bharata relates that Jamad- 
agni engaged dee])ly in study and " obtained entire possession 
of the Vedas." He went to King Eewu or Prasena-jit of the 
Solar race and demanded of him his daughter Rezmkru The 
king gave her to him, and he retired with her to his hermitage, 
where the princess shared in his ascetic life. She bore him five 
sons, Rumawwat, Sushena, Vasu, Vi.swavasu, and Para^'u-rama, 
and she was exact in the performance of all her duties. One 


day she went out to bathe and beheld a loving pair sporting and 
dallying in the water. Their pleasure made her feel envious, 
so she was " defiled by unworthy thoughts, and returned wetted 
but not purified by the stream." Her husband beheld her " fallen 
from perfection and shorn of the lustre of her sanctity." So he 
reproved her and was exceeding wroth. His sons came into the 
hermitage in the order of their birth, and he commanded each 
of them in succession to kill his mother. Influenced by natural 
affection, four of them held their peace and did nothing. Their 
father cursed them and they became idiots bereft of all under- 
standing. Wlien Parasu-rama entered, he obeyed his father's 
order and struck off his mother's head with his axe. The 
deed assuaged the father's anger, and he desired his son to make 
a request. Parasu-rama begged that his mother might be 
restored to life in purity, and that his brothers might regain 
their natural condition. All this the father granted. 

The mighty Karta-virya, king of the Haihayas, who had 
a thousand arms, paid a visit to the hermitage of Jamad-agni. 
The sage and his sons were out, but his wife treated her guest 
with all proper respect. Unmindful of the hospitality he had 
received, Karta-virya threw down the trees round the hermi- 
tage, and carried of the calf of the sacred cow, Surabhi, which 
Jamad-agni had acquired by penance. Parasu-rama returned 
and discovered what had happened, he then pursued Karta- 
virya, cut off his thousand arms with arrows, and killed him. 
The sons of Karta-virya w^nt in revenge to the hermitage of 
Jamad-agni, and in the absence of Parasu-rama slew the pious 
sage without pity. When Parasu-rama found the lifeless body 
of his father, he laid it on a funeral pile, and vowed that he 
would extirpate the whole Kshatriya race. He slew all the sons 
of Karta-virya, and " thrice seven times " he cleared the earth of 
the Kshatriya caste. 

JAMADAGXYA. The patronymic of Parasu-rama. 

JAMBAVAT. King of the bears. A celebrated gem called 
Syamantaka had been given by the Sun to Satra-jit. He, fear- 
ing that Krfsh?ia would take it from him, gave it to his brother, 
Prasena. One property of this jewel was to f)rotect its wearer 
when good, to ruin him when bad. Prasena was wicked and 
was killed by a lion, which was carrying off the gem in its mouth, 
when he was encountered and slain by Jambavat. After Pra- 


Sena's disappearance, Kr/sli;ia was suspected of having killed 
him for the sake of the jewel. K77sh?ia with a large party- 
tracked the steps of Prasena, till it was ascertained that he had 
been killed by a lion, and that the lion had been killed by 
a bear. K?'ish7za then tracked the bear, Jambavat, into his 
cavern, and a great fight ensued between them. After waiting 
outside seven or eight days, Krishna's followers went home and 
performed his funeral ceremonies. On the twenty-first day of 
the fight, Jambavat submitted to his adversary, gave up the 
gem, and presented to him his daughter, Jambavati, as an 
offering suitable to a guest. Jambavat with his army of bears 
aided Rama in his invasion of Lanka, and always acted the part 
of a sasje counsellor. 

JAMBAYATL Daughter of Jambavat, king of the bears, 
wife of K?'ish7ia, and mother of A^amba. 

JAMBHA. Xame of several demons. Of one who fouglit 
against the gods and was slain by Indra, who for this deed was 
called Jambha-bhedin. Also of one Avho fought against Arjuna 
and was killed by K?*ish?2a. 

JAMBU-DWlPA One of the seven islands or continents 
of which the world is made up. The great mountain, IMeru, 
stands in its centre, and Bharata-varsha or India is its best part. 
Its varshas or divisions are nine in number : — (r.) Bharata, south 
of the Himalayas and southernmost of all. (2.) Kim-purusha. 
(3.) Hari-varsha. (4.) Ila-V7'ita, containing Meru. (5.) Ramyaka. 
(6.) Hiraw-maya. (7.) Uttara-Kuru, each to the north of the pro- 
ceding one. (8.) Bhadra-swa and (9.) Ketu-mala lie respectively 
to the east and west of Ila-vrita, the central region. 

JAMBU-MALI. A Rakshasa general of Rava?2a. He was 
killed by Hanumrm. 

JANAKA. I. King of Mithila, of the Solar race. A\nien 
Nimi, his predecessor, died without leaving a successor, the 
sages subjected the body of Nimi to attrition, and produced 
from it a prince " who was called Janaka, from being born 
without a progenitor." He was the first Janaka, and twenty- 
generations earlier than Janaka the father of Slta. 

2. King of Videha and father of Sitil, remarkable for his 
great knowledge and good works and sanctity. He is called 
/S'ira-dhwaja, 'he of the plough banner,' because his daughter 
Sitil sprang up ready formed from the furrow when he was 


ploughing the ground and preparing for a sacrifice to obtain 
offspring. The sage Yajnawalkya was his priest and adviser. 
The Brahnia72as relate that he "refused to submit to the hier- 
archical pretensions of the Brahmans, and asserted his right 
of performing sacrifices without the intervention of priests." 
He succeeded in his contention, for it is said that through 
his pure and righteous life he became a Brahman and one of 
the Rajarshis. He and his priest Yajnawalkya are thought to 
have prepared the way for Buddha. 

JAIN'AKI. A patronymic of Sita (q.v.). 

JANA-LOKA. See Loka. 

JANAMEJAYA. A great king, w^ho was son of Parikshit, 
and great-grandson of Arjuna. It was to this king that the 
Maha-bharata was recited by Yaisampayana, and the king lis- 
tened to it in expiation of the sin of killing a Brahman. His 
father, Parikshit, died from the bite of a serpent, and Janema- 
jaya is said to have performed a great sacrifice of serpents 
(Nagas) and to have conquered the Naga people of Taksha-sila. 
Hence he is called Sarpa-sattrin, 'serpent-sacrificer.' There 
were several others of the same name. 

JANARDDANA. 'The adored of mankind.' A name of 
K?*ish?ia, but other derivations are offered, as ' extirpator of the 
wicked,' by Sankaracharya. 

JAXA-STHANA. A place in the Da?2(7aka forest where 
Rama sojourned for a while in his exile. 

JAR AS. 'Old age.' The hunter who unwittingly killed 

JARA-SA:N'DHA. Son of Br^had-ratha, and king of Ma- 
gadlia. B?-ihad-ratha had two wives, who after being long barren 
brought forth two halves of a boy. These abortions were re- 
garded with horror and thrown away. A female man-eating 
demon named Jara j^icked them up and put them together to 
carry them off On their coming in contact a boy was formed, 
who cried out so lustily that he brought out the king and his 
two queens. The RakshasI explained what had happened, re- 
signed the child, and retired. The father gave the boy the 
name of Jara-sandha, because he had been put together by Jara. 
Future greatness was prophesied for the boy, and he became an 
ardent worshipper of ^Siva. Through the favour of this god he 
prevailed over many kings, and he especially fought against 

134 7'-^^^ T-KARU—JA TAYU. 

Kf ishwa, who had killed Kansa, the husband of two of Jara- 
sandha's daughters. He besieged ]\Xatliura, and attacked K?-ish?«a 
eighteen times, and was as often defeated ; but K?7'sh?za was so 
weakened that he retired to Dwaraka. ■ Jara-sandha had many 
kings in captivity, and when Kr/sh?2a returned from Dwaraka, 
he, with Bhima and Arjuna, went to Jara-sandlia's capital for 
the purpose of slaying their enemy and liberating the kings. 
Jara-sandha refused to release the kings, and accepted the alter- 
native of a combat, in which he was killed by Bhima. 

JARAT-KARU. An ancient sage who married a sister of the 
great serpent Yasuki, and was father of the sage Astlka. 

JARITA. A certain female bird of the species called *Sarn- 
gika, whose story is told in the Maha-bharata. The saint 
Manda-pala, who returned from the shades because he had no 
son, assumed the form of a male bird, and by her had four sons. 
He then abandoned her. In the conflagration of the Kha??c?ava 
forest she showed great devotion in the protection of her chil- 
dren, and they w^ere eventually saved through the influence of 
Manda-pala over the god of fire. Their names were Jaritari, 
Saris?'ikta, Stamba-mitra, and Drowa. They were ." interpreters 
of the A^edas ; " and there are hymns of the i?/g-veda bearing 
the names of the second and third. 

JATASURA, A Rakshasa who disguised himself as a Brah- 
man and carried off Yudhi-sh/hira, Saha-deva, Nakula, and 
Draupadi. He was overtaken and killed by Bhima. 

JATA-YEDAS. A Yedic epithet for fire. " The meaning is 
explained in five w^ays : — (i.) Knowing all created beings ; (2.) 
Possessing all creatures or everything existent ; (3.) Known by 
created beings; (4.) Possessing vedas, riches; (5.) Possessing 
vedas, wisdom. Other derivations and explanations are found in 
the Brahma??as, but the exact sense of the word seems to have been 
very early lost, and of the five ex2)lanations given, only the first 
two would seem to be admissible for the Yedic texts. In one 
passage a form, Jiita-veda, seems to occur." — Williams. This 
form of the term, and the statement of INIanu tliat the Yedas 
were milked out from fire, air, and the sun, may perhaps justify 
the explanation, ' producer of the Yedas.' 

JAjf'AYU, JAjfAYUS. According to the Ramriya?ia, a bird 
who was son of Yish?iu's bird Garuf?a, and king of the vultures. 
Others say he was a son of Aru?ia. He became an ally of 

JA TILA—JA YAD-RA 7 ha. 135 

Rama's, and he fouglit furiously against Rava7ia to prevent the 
carrying away of Sita. Rava?^a overpowered him and left him 
mortally wounded. Rama found him in time to hear his dying 
words, and to learn what had become of Sita. Rama and 
Lakshmawa performed his funeral rites to "secure his soul 
in the enjoyments of heaven," whitlier he ascended in a 
chariot of fire. In the Pura/^as he is the friend of Da^a-ratha. 
AVlien that king went to the ecliptic to recover Sita from ^S'ani 
(Saturn), his carriage was consumed by a glance from the eye of 
the latter, but Ja/ayu caught the falling king and saved him. 
The Padma Pura?i-a says Da^a-ratha assailed Saturn because of a 
dearth, and wdien he and his car were hurled from heaven, 
Ja/a3ru caught him. 

JATILA. A daughter of Gotama, who is mentioned in the 
Maha-bharata as a virtuous Avoman and the wife of seven hus- 

JAYA-DEVA. A poet, author of the Gita-govinda (q.v.). 

JAYAD-RATHA. A prince of the Lunar race, son of Brdian- 
manas. He was king of Sindhu, and was "indifferently termed 
Raja of the Sindhus or Saindhavas, and Raja of the Sauviras, 
or sometimes in concert Sindhu-sauviras," the Saindhavas and 
Sauviras both being tril^es living along the Indus. Jayad-ratha 
married Du/i-sala, daughter of Dhr^ta-rash^ra, and was an ally of 
the Kauravas. AVhen the Pa?2C?avas were in exile he called at 
their forest abode while they were out hunting and Draupadi 
was at home alone. He had with him six brothers and a large 
retinue, but the resources of the Pa?Z6?avas were equal to the 
occasion, and Draupadi was able to supply five hundred deer 
with accompaniments for breakfast. This is explained by the 
statement that Yudhi-sh/hira, having w^orshipped the sun, ob- 
tained from that luminary an inexhaustible cauldron which was 
to supply all and every viand that might be required by the 
Pa??£i?avas in their exile. Jayad-ratha was captivated by the charms 
of Draupadi, and tried to induce her to elope with him. "WTien 
he was indignantly repulsed he carried her off by force. On 
the return of the PaTK^avas they pursued the ravisher, defeated 
his forces, and made him prisoner. His life was spared by 
command of Yudlii-sh/'hira, but Bhima kicked and beat him 
terribly, cut off his hair, and made him go before the assembled 
Paw<iavas and acknowledge himseK to be their slave. At the 


intercession of Draupadi he was allowed to depart. He was 
killed, after a desperate conflict, by Arjuna on the fourteenth 
day of the great battle. 

JAYA^TA. Son of Indra, also called Jaya. 

JAYANTi Daughter of Indra. She is called also JayanI, 
Deva-sena, and TavishL 

JllMtJTA. A great wrestler, who was overcome and killed 
by Bliima at the court of Yira/a. 

JIMUTA-YAHANA 'Whose vehicle is the clouds.' A 
title of Indra. A name borne by several persons, and among 
them by the author of the Daya-bhaga, 

JISHiV'U. A name of Arjuna. 

JUSHKA A Turushka or Turki king, who ruled in Kash- 
mir and in Northern India. See Kanishka. 

JWALA-MUKHI. 'Mouth of fire.' A volcano. A cele- 
brated place of pilgrimage in the Lower Himalayas, north of the 
Panjab, where fire issues from the ground. According to the 
legend, it is the fire which Sati, the wife of /S'iva, created, and in 
which she burnt herself. 

JYAMAGHA A king of the Lunar race, proverbial as 
" most eminent among husbands submissive to their wives." 
/S^aibya, his wife, was barren, but he was afraid to take another 
wife till, having overcome an enemy and driven him from his 
country, the daughter of the vanquished king became his cap- 
tive. She was beautiful, and Jyamagha desired to marry her. 
He took her in his chariot and carried her to his palace to ask 
the assent of his queen. When »S'aibya saw the maiden, she 
was filled with jealousy, and angrily demanded who the " light- 
hearted damsel " was. The king was disconcerted, and humbly 
replied, " She is the young bride of the future son whom thou 
shalt bring fortK" It had ceased to be with jS'aibya after the 
manner of women, but still she bore a son who was named 
Yidarbha, and married the captive j)rincess. 

JYOTISHA. Astronomy. One of the Yedangas. The object 
of this Yedanga is to fix the most auspicious days and seasons 
for the performance of sacrifices. There has been little dis- 
covered that is ancient on this subject ; only one " short tract, 
consisting of thirty-six verses, in a comparatively modern style, to 
which scholars cannot assign an earlier date than 300 years b.c." 

KA. The interrogative pronoun " who ? " This word has 


been raised to tlie position of a deity. In the words of Max 
]\Iiiller, " The authors of the Brahma?zas had so completely 
broken with the past, that, forgetful of the poetical character of 
the hymns (of the Veda) and the yearning of the poets after the 
unknown god, they exalted the interrogative pronoun itself into 
a deity, and. acknowledged a god Ka or Who % In the Taittiriya 
Brahma7?-a, in the Kaushitaki Brahma/ia, in the Ta?z6?ya Brahmawa, 
and in the ^atapatha Brahmawa, wherever interrogative verses 
occur, the author states that Ka is Prajapati, or the lord of 
creatures. Nor did they stop here. Some of the hymns in 
which the interrogative pronoun occurred were called Kadvat, 
i.e., having Imd or quid. But soon a new adjective was formed, 
and not only the hymns but the sacrifice also ofi'ered to the god 
were called Kaya or Who-ish. ... At the time of Pamni, this 
word had acquired such legitimacy as to call for a separate rule 
explaining its formation. The commentator here explains Ka 
by Brahman. After this we can hardly wonder that in the later 
Sansk?-it literature of the Pura?^as Ka appears as a recognised 
god, as a supreme god, with a genealogy of his own, perhaps 
even with a wife ; and that in the laws of ]\Ianu one of the 
recognised forms of marriage, generally known by the name of 
the Prajapati marriage, occurs under the monstrous title of 
Kaya." The Maha-bharata identifies Ka with Daksha, and the 
Bhagavata Purawa applies the term to Kasyapa, no doubt in 
consequence of their great generative powers and similarity to 

KABANDHA. i. A disciple of Su-mantu, the earliest teacher 
of the Atharva-veda. 2. A monstrous Eakshasa slain by Eama. 
He is said to have been a son of the goddess 5'ri. He is de- 
scribed as " covered with hair, vast as a mountain, without head 
or neck, having a mouth armed with immense teeth in the 
middle of his belly, arms a league long, and one enormous eye 
in his breast." He was originally a Gandharva, and his hideous 
deformity arose, according to one account, from a quarrel with 
Indra, whom he challenged, and who struck him with his thun- 
derbolt, and drove his head and thighs into his body. According 
to another statement, his deformity arose from the curse of a 
sage. Wlien mortally wounded, he requested Kama to burn 
his body, and when that was done he came out of the fire m 
his real shape as a Gandharva, and counselled Kama as to 


the conduct of tlie war against RavaTza. He was also called 

KACIIA. A son of Bnhaspati. According to the Maha- 
l)liarata he became a disciple of ^Sukra or U^anas, the priest of 
the Asuras, with the object of obtaining from him the mystic 
power of restoring the dead to life, a charm which iSukra alone 
possessed. To prevent this the Asuras killed Kaclia again and 
again, but on both occasions he was restored to life by the 
sage at the intercession of Devayani, his daughter, who had 
fallen in love with Kacha. They killed him a third time, burnt 
his bodv, and mixed his ashes with >S'ukra's w^ine, but Devavani 
again implored her father to bring back the young man. Unable 
to resist his daughter's importunity, ^S'ukra once more performed 
the charm, and to his surprise heard the voice of Kacha come 
out from his own belly. To save his own life, ^Sukra taught his 
pupil the great charm. He then allowed himself to be ripped 
open, and Kacha, upon coming out, performed the charm, and 
restored his master to life. This incident is said to have caused 
/S'ukra to prohibit the use of wine to Brahmans. Kacha resisted 
the proposals of Devayani, and refused to make her his wife. 
She then cursed liim, that the charms he had learnt from her 
father should be powerless, and he in return condemned her to be 
souf^ht bv no Brahman, and to become the wife of a Kshatriva. 

KADA^IBARl. A daughter of Chitra-ratha and JNIadira. 
Her name has been given to a well-known prose work, a kind of 
novel, written by Yawa or Bawa-bha//a, in the seventh century. 
The work has been printed at Bombay. 

KADEtJ. A daughter of Daksha, and one of the thirteen 
that were married to Kasyapa. She was mother of "a thousand 
powerful many-headed serpents, the chief amongst whom were 
^'esha, Vasuki, . . . and many other fierce and venomous ser- 
pents." The Vishnu Purawa, from which this is taken, names 
twelve, the Vayu Pura7?a forty. Her offspring bear the metro- 
nymic Kadraveya, 

KAHOi)A. A learned Brfdiman, fatlier of Ash/Tivakra. He 
with many others was overcome in argument at the court of 
Janaka by a Buddhist sage, and as a penalty was thrown into 
tlie river. Some years afterwards he was recovered by his son, 
who overcame the supposed Buddliist sage, and tlius brought 
about a restoration. /S'ee Asli^avakra, 


KAIKASI. Daughter of the Eakshasa Sii-mah and his wife 
Ivetii-mati, wife of Visravas and mother of Ravawa. — Muir, iv. 

487, 488. 

KAIKEYA. Name of a country and of its king. He was 
father-in-law of Krishwa, and his five sons were allies of the 
Pa?i<^avas. His real name appears to have been Dhrish/a- 

KAIKEYAS, KEKAYAS. The people of Kaikeya, one of 
the chief nations in the war of the Maha-bharata. The Rama- 
yaTza places them in the west, beyond the SaraswatI and Byas. 

KAIKEYI. A princess of Kaikeya, wife of King Dasa-ratha, 
and mother of Bharata, his third son. She carefully tended 
Dasa-ratha when he was wounded in battle, and in gratitude he 
promised to grant any two requests she might make. Urged by 
the malignant counsels of Manthara, a female attendant, she 
made use of this promise to procure the exile of Rama, and to 
promote the advancement of her own son, Bharata, to his place. 
See Dasa-ratha, Rama. 

KAILASA. A mountain in the Himalayas, north of the 
Manasa lake. /S'iva's paradise is said to be on Mount Kailasa, 
so also is Kuvera's abode. It is called also Ga?2a-parvata and 
Rajatadri, * silver mountain.' 

KAI7ABHA. Kai^abha and Madhu were two horrible 
demons, who, according to the Maha-bharata and the Pura?ias, 
sprang from the ear of Yisliwu while he was asleep at the end of 
a kalpa, and were about to kill Brahma, who was lying on the 
lotus springing from Yish?iu's navel. Yish/m killed them, and 
hence he obtained the names of Kai/abha-jit and Madhu-su.dana. 
The Markawfeya Pura?ia attributes the death of Kai/fabha to 
TJma, and she bears the title of Kai/abha. The Hari-vansa 
states that the earth received its name of Medini from the 
marrow (medas) of these demons. In one passage it sajs that 
their bodies, being thrown into the sea, produced an immense 
quantity of marrow or fat, which NarayaTza used in forming the 
earth. In another place it says that the medas quite covered 
the earth, and so gave it the name of Medini. This is another 
of the many etymological inventions. 

KAKSHIYAT, KAKSHlYAK A Yedic sage, particularly 
connected with the worship of the Aswins. He was the son of 
Dirgha-tamas and Usij (q.v.), and is author of several hymns in 


the ifc/g-veda. He was also called Pajriya, because lie was of 
the race of Pajra. In one of his hymns he lauds the liberality 
of King SAvanaya. The following legend, in explanation, is 
given by the commentator Sayawa and the Xitl-manjara : — Kak- 
shlvat, having finished his course of study, took leave of his 
preceptor and departed homewards. As he journeyed night 
came on, and he fell asleep by the roadside. In the morning 
he was aroused by Eaja Swanaya, who, being pleased with his 
appearance, treated him cordially and took him home. After 
ascertaining his worthiness, he married him to his ten daughters, 
presenting him at the same time with a hundred nislikas of gold, 
a hundred horses, a hundred bulls, a thousand and sixty cows, 
and eleven chariots, one for each of his ten wives, and one for 
himself, each dra"svn by four horses. With these he returned 
home to his father, and recited the hymn in praise of the muni- 
ficence of Swanaya. 

KAKUDMIK A name of Eaivata (q.v.). 

KAKUT-STHA. See Puranjaya. 

KALA. 'Time.' A name of Yama, the judge of the dead. 
In the Atharva-veda Time is addressed as the source and ruler 
of aU things. " It is he who drew forth the worlds and encom- 
passed them. Being their father, he became their son. There 
is no other power superior to him." The Vishwu, Bhagavata, 
and Padma Pura/zas state that Brahma existed in the form of 
Time, " but the Puranas do not generally recognise Time as an 
element of the first cause." 

KALAKA. A wife of Kasyapa. According to the Rama- 
yaTia and INIaha-bharata she was a daughter of Daksha, but 
the Yish?zu Pura?ia states that she and her sister Pulomil were 
daughters of the Danava Yaiswanara, " who were both married 
to Kasyapa, and bore him 60,000 distinguished Danavas, called 
Paulomas and Kfdakanjas, Avho were powerful, ferocious, and 
cruel." The INlaha-bharata states that she obtained from the 
deity, in reward for her severe devotion and penance, the 
privilege of bringing forth children without pain. The giants 
or Danavas were called after her Kfdakeyas. 

KALAKANJAS, KALAKEYAS. Sons of Ka^yapa by his 
wife Krdaka. There were many thousands of them, and they 
were " distinguished Danavas, who were powerful, ferocious, 
and cruel." 


KALA-MUKHAS. ' Black faces.' Peoi^le who sprang from 
men and Eaksliasa females. 

K ALAN AS. (Kalytwa.) A Brahman who yielded to the 
inducements of Alexander the Great and left his native country 
to accompany the court of the conqueror. He afterwards re- 
pented of what he had done and burnt himself at Pasargada. 

KALA-NEMI. i. In the Ramaya?ia a Rakshasa, uncle of 
Ravawn. At the solicitation of Ravawa, and with the promise 
of half his kingdom, he endeavoured to kill Hanuman. Assum- 
ing the form of a hermit-devotee, he went to the Gandha-madana 
mountain, and when Hanuman proceeded thither in search of 
medicinal herbs, the disguised Rakshasa invited him to his 
hermitage and offered him food. Hanuman refused, but went 
to bathe in a neighbouring pond. Upon his placing his foot 
in the water it was seized by a crocodile, but he dragged the 
creature out and killed it. From the dead body there arose a 
lovely A]Dsaras, who had been cursed by Daksha to live as a 
crocodile till she should be released by Hanuman. She told 
her deliverer to be beware of Kala-nemi ; so Hanuman went 
back to that deceiver, told him that he knew him, and, taking 
him by the feet, sent him whirling through the air to Lanka, 
where he fell before the throne of Rava?za in the council-room. 
2. In the Purawas a great Asura, son of Yirochana, the grandson 
of Hira^iya-kasipu. He was killed by Yish?zu, but was said to 
live again in Kansa and in Kaliya. 

KALA-YAYANA. (Lit. ' Black Yavana,' Yavana meaning 
a Greek or foreigner.) A Yavana or foreign king who led an army 
of barbarians to Mathura against K?'ish?ia. That hero lured 
him into the cave of the mighty Muchukunda, who being dis- 
turbed from sleep by a kick from Kala-yavana, cast a fiery 
glance upon him and reduced him to ashes. This legend 
appears, to indicate an invasion from the Himalayas. Accord- 
ing to the A^ish?zu Purawa and Hari-vansa, Kala-yavana was the 
son of a Brahman named Garga, who had an especial spite 
against the Yadavas, and was begotten by him on the wife of 
a childless Yavana king. 

KALHA:N"A pandit. Author of the Raja TarangiwI, a his- 
tory of Kashmir. He is supposed to have lived about 1 148 a.d. 

KALI. The Kali-yuga, personified as the spirit of evil. In 
playing dice Kali is the ace, and so is a personification of ill luck. 

1 42 kAli—kAli-dasa . 

KALI. ' The black. ' In Yedic days this name was asso- 
ciated Avith Agni (fire), who had seven flickering tongues of 
flame for devouring oblations of butter. Of these seven, Krdl 
was the black or terrific tongue. This ineaning of the word is 
now lost, but it has developed into the goddess Kali, the fierce 
and bloody consort of Siva. See Devi. 

KALI-DASA. The greatest poet and dramatist of India. 
He was one of " the nine gems " that adorned the court of King 
Yikramaditya at Ujjayini. AVilson inclines to the behef that 
this was the Yikramadit}'a whose era begins in 56 B.C., but Dr. 
Ehau Daji argues in favour of Harsha Yikramaditya who lived 
in the middle of the sixth century, so the date of Kali-dasa is 
unsettled. AVilliams thinks that Kali-dasa wrote about the 
beginning of the third century. Lassen places him half a 
century earlier. Some believe that there w^as more than one 
poet who bore this name as an honorary title. Kali-dasa was 
author of the dramas /S'akuntala and Yikramorvasi, and a third 
drama Malavikagnimitra is attributed to him. >S'akuntala was 
translated by Sir W. Jones, and first brought Sansk?-it literature 
to the notice of Europe. AYilson has translated Yikramorvasi, 
and given a sketch of Malavikagnimitra. The following poems 
are ascribed to Kali-dasa : — Raghu-vansa, Kumara-sambhava, 
Megha-diita, ^itu-sanhara, Nalodaya, but his authorship of all 
these, especially of the last, may well be doubted. He was also 
author of the ^ruta-bodha, a work on prosody. The merits' of 
Kali-dasa as a poet are well attested by his great popularity 
in India, as well as by the great favour with which ^S'akuntala 
w^as received in Europe, and the praise it elicited from Goethe : — 

" Willst du die Blutlie des friihen, die Frlichte des Rpiiteren Jahres, 
"Willst du, was reizt und entzuckt, willst du, was sattigt und niihrt, 
Willst du den Himmel, die Erde, mit eiiiem Namen begreifen, 
Nenn' ich 5akuntala dich, und so ist AUes gesagt."' 

" Wouldst thou the young year's blossoms and the fruits of its decline. 
And all by which the soul is charmed, enraptured, feasted, fed ? 
Wouldst thou the earth and heaven itself in one sole name combine ? 
I name thee, /S'akuntala ! and all at once is said." 

Lassen in his IncUsche Alterthumshunde says, " Kfdi-dasa may 
be considered as the brightest star in the firmament of Hindu 
artificial poetry. He deserves this praise on account of the 


mastery witli which he wields the language, and on account of 
the consummate tact with which he imparts to it a more simple 
or more artificial form, according to the requirements of the 
subjects treated by him, without falling into the artificial dic- 
tion of later poets or over-stepping the limits of good taste ; 
on account of the variety of his creations, his ingenious con- 
ceptions, and his happy choice of subjects ; and not less on 
account of the complete manner in which he attains his poetical 
ends, the beauty of his narrative, the delicacy of his sentiment, 
and the fertility of his imagination." Many of his works have 
been translated, and there is a French translation of the whole 
by Fauche. 

IvALIKA. The goddess Krdi. 

KALIKA PURAiVA. One of the eighteen Upa Pura7ias. 
" It contains about 9000 stanzas in 98 chapters, and is the 
only work of the series dedicated to recommend the worship of 
the bride of AS'iva, in one or other of her manifold forms as 
Giri-ja, Devi, Bhadra-kali, Kali, Maha-maya. It belongs, there- 
fore, to the iS'akta modification of Hindu belief, or the worship 
of the female powers of the deities. The influence of this 
worship shows itself in the very first pages of the work, which 
relate the incestuous passion of Brahma for his daughter, San- 
dhya, in a strain that has nothing analogous to it in the Vayu, 
Linga, or ^S^iva Pura?ias. The marriage of ^S'iva and Parvati is a 
subject early described, with the sacrifice of Daksha and the 
death of Satl. And this work is authority for >S'iva's carrying 
the dead body about the world, and the origin of the Pi^ha- 
sthanas, or ^^laces where the different members of it were scat- 
tered, and where Lingas were consequently erected. A legend 
follows of the births of Bhairava and Yetala, whose devotion to 
the difierent forms of Devi furnishes occasion to describe, in 
great detail, the rites and formulce of which her worship consists, 
including the chajDters on sanguinary sacrifices translated in the 
Asiatic Researches (vol. v.). Another peculiarity in this work is 
afi'orded by very prolix descriptions of a number of rivers and 
mountains at Kamarupa Tirtha, in Assam, and rendered holy 
ground by the celebrated temple of Durga in that country, as 
Kamakshi or Kamakshya. It is a singular and yet uninvesti- 
gated circumstance, that Assam, or at least the north-east of 
Bengal, seems to have been, in a great degree, the source from 


which, the Tantrika and >Sakta corruptions of the religion of the 
Yedas and Piiruwas proceeded." — Wilson. 

KALIXDI A name of the river Yamuna, as daughter of 
Kalinda (the sun). 

EL^LIXGA. The country along the Coromandel coast, north 
of Madras. The Calingaa proximi mari of Pliny. The Purawas 
absurdly make it one of the sons of Bah. 

KALIYA. A serpent king who had five heads, and dwelt in 
a deep pool of the Yamuna, with numerous attendant serpents. 
His mouths vomited fire and smoke, and he laid waste all the 
country round. K?7'sh?2a, while yet a child, jumped into his 
pool, when he was quickly laced and entwined in the coils of 
the snakes. His companions and friends were horrified, but 
Bala-rama called upon him to exercise his divine power. He 
did so, and the serpents were soon overcome. Placing his foot 
on the middle head of Ivaliya, he compelled him and his 
followers to implore mercy. He spared them, but bade Kaliya 
and his followers to free the earth from their presence, and to 
remove to the ocean. The Asura Kala-nemi is said to have been 
animate in him. 

KALI YUGA. The fourth or present age of the world, which 
is to endure for 432,000 years. It commenced in 3102 b.c. 
See Yuga. 

KALKI, KALKIK 'The white horse.' Yish?zu's tenth 
incarnation, which is yet to come. Bee Avatara. 

KALMASHA-PADA. A king of the Solar race, son of 
Su-dasa (hence he is called Saudasa), and a descendant of 
Ikshwaku. His legend, as told in the Maha-bharata, relates 
that while hunting in the forest he encountered jS'aktri, the 
eldest son of Yasish^ha, and as this sage refused to get out of 
his way, he struck him with his whip. The incensed sage 
cursed him to become a cannibal. This curse was heard by 
Yiswamitra, the rival of Yasish/ha, and he so contrived that the 
body of the king became possessed by a man-eating Riikshasa. 
In this condition he caused human flesh to be served up to a 
Brahman named Mitrasaha, who discovered what it was, and 
intensified the curse of 6'aktri by a new imprecation. One of 
Kalmasha-pada's first victims was >S'aktri himself, and all the 
hundred sons of Yasish/ha fell a prey to his disordered appetite. 
After remaining twelve years in this state, he was restored to 


liis natural condition by Vasish/ha. The Visliwii Pura?ia tells 
tlie story differently. The king went out to hunt and found 
two destructive tigers. He killed one of them, but as it expired 
it was changed into a Eiikshasa. The other tiger disappeared 
threatening vengeance. Kalmasha-pada celebrated a sacrifice at 
which Vasish^ha officiated. When it was over and Yasish/ha 
went out, the Eakshasa assumed his appearance, and proposed 
that food should be served. Then the Rakshasa transformed 
himself into a cook, and, preparing human flesh, he served it to 
Vasish/ha on his return. The indignant sage cursed the king 
that henceforth his appetite should be excited only by similar 
food. A wrangle ensued, and Vasish/ha having found out the 
truth, limited the duration of his curse to twelve years. The 
angry king took water in his hands to pronounce, in his turn, a 
curse upon Yasish/ha, but was dissuaded from his purpose by 
his wife, Madayanti. " Unwilling to cast the water on the 
ground, lest it should wither up the grain, and equally reluctant 
to throw it up into the air, lest it should blast the clouds and 
dry up their contents, he threw it upon his own feet," and they 
were so scalded by it that they became black and white, and 
so gained for him the name of Kalmasha-pada, 'spotted feet.' 
Every day for twelve years, at the sixth watch of the day, he 
gave way to his cannibal appetite, " and devoured multitudes of 
men." On one occasion he devoured a Brahman in the midst 
of his connubial happiness, and the Brahman's wife passed upon 
him a curse that he should die whenever he associated with his 
wife. At the expiration of Yasish/ha's curse, the king returned 
home, but, mindful of the Brahmarii's imprecation, he abstained 
from conjugal intercourse. By the interposition of Yasish/ha, 
his wife, Madayanti, became pregnant, and bore a child in her 
womb for seven years, when she performed the Csesarean opera- 
tion with a sharp stone, and a child came forth who was called 
Asmaka (from Asman, 'a stone'). 

KALPA. A day and night of Brahma, 4,320,000,000 years. 
8ee Yuga. 

KALPA, KALPA StJTEAS. Ceremonial; one of the 
Yedangas. A ceremonial directory or rubric expressed in the 
form of Sutras, short technical rules. 

KAMA, KAMA-DEYA. The god of love. Eros, Cupid. 
In the itzg-veda (x. 129) desire is said to have been the first 


146 KAMA. 

movement that arose in the One after it had come into life 
through the power of fervour or abstractioiL " Desire first arose 
in It, which was the primal germ of mind ; (and which) sages, 
searching with their intellect, have discovered in their heart to 
be the bond which coimects entity with non-entity." " It is 
well known," observes Dr. Muir, " that Greek mythology con- 
nected Eros, the god of love, with the creation of the universe 
somewhat in the same way." " This Kama or desire, not of 
sexual enjoyment, but of good in general, is celebrated in a curi- 
ous hymn of the Atharva-veda," which exalts Kama into a 
supreme God and Creator : " Kama was born the first. Him 
neither gods, nor fathers, nor men have equalled. Thou art 
superior to these and for ever great." In another part of the 
same Yeda Kama appears to be first desire, then the power 
which gratifies the desire. Kama is also in the same Veda often 
identified with Agni, and when " distinguished from each other, 
Kama may be looked upon as a superior form of the other 
deity." According to the Taittiriya Brahmawa, he is the son of 
Dharma, the god of justice, by /S'raddha, the goddess of faith; 
but according to the Hari-vansa he is son of Lakshmi. Another 
account represents him as springing from the heart of Brahma. 
A fourth view is that he was born from water, wherefore he is 
called Irii-ja, 'the water-born ;' a fifth is that he is Atma-bhu, 
' self-existent,' and therefore he is called, like other of the gods, 
A-ja, 'unborn,' or An-anya-ja, ' born of no other.' In the Pui'a«as 
his wife is Rati or Reva, the goddess of desire He inspired 
^iva with amorous thoughts of Parvati while he was engaged in 
penitential devotion, and for this ofi'ence the angry god reduced 
him to ashes by fire from his central eye. ^'iva afterwards 
relented and allowed Kama to be born again as Prad^Timna, son 
of Krishna and Rukmi?ii or Maya, 'delusion.' He has a son 
named Aniruddlia, and a daughter, T?'isha. He is lord of the 
Apsarases or heavenly nymphs. He is armed with a bow and 
arrows : the bow is of sugar-cane, the bowstring a line of bees, 
and each arrow is tipped with a distinct flower. He is usually 
represented as a handsome youth riding on a j^arrot and attended 
by nymphs, one of whom bears his bamier dis])laying tlie Makara, 
or a fish on a red ground. 

The mysterious origin of Kama and tlic universal operation 
of tlie passion he insijircs have accumulated upon him a great 


variety of names and epithets. Among his names are Ishma, 
Kanjana and Kinkira, Mada, Kama or Eama?za, and Smara. 
As produced in the mind or heart he is Bhava-ja and Mano-ja. 
As Pradyiinma, son of Krish?ia, he is Karshm, and as son of 
Lakshmi he is Mayi or Maya-siita and ^S'ri-nandana. As reduced 
to ashes by 6'iva he is An-anga, ' the bodiless.' He is Abhi-rupa, 
* the beautiful;' Darpaka and Dipaka, 'the inflamer ;' Gada- 
yitnu, Gr^i'dliu, and Gr/tsa, ' lustful or sharp ; ' Kamana and 
Kharu, ' desirous ;' Kandarpa, ' the inflamer of Brahma;' Kantu, 
'the happy;' Ivalakeli, ' the gay or wanton ; ' Mara, 'destroyer;' 
Mayi, 'deluder;' Madliu-dipa, 'the lamp of honey or of spring;' 
Muliira, ' the bewilderer ; ' Murmura, ' the crackling fire;' Eaga- 
vrmta, ' the stalk of passion ;' Eupastra, ' the weapon of beauty;' 
Eata-naricha, ' the voluptuary ; ' /S'amantaka, 'destroyer of peace;' 
Sansara-guru, 'teacher of the world;' Smara, 'remembrance;' 
>S'?'mgara-yoni, 'source of love;' Titha, 'fire;' Yama, 'the 
handsome.' From his bow and arrows he is called Kusuma- 
yudha, 'armed with flowers;' Pushpa-dhanus, 'whose bow is 
flowers ;' and Pushpa-5ara, 'whose arrows are flowers.' Prom 
his banner he is known as Makara-ketu ; and from the flower 
he carries in his hand he is Pushpa-ketana. 

KAMA-DHENU. The cow which grants desires, belonging 
to the sage Yasish^ha. She was produced at the churning of 
the ocean. Among the examples of her supernatural powers 
was the creation of a host of warriors who aided Yasishflia 
against Karta-virya. She is called also Kama-duh, iS'avala, and 

KAMAKSHL A form of Devi worshipped at Kamarupa- 
tirtha in Assam. See Kahka Purawa. 

KAMANDAKI. Author of a work known by his name on 
"The Elements of Polity." The text has been printed in the 
Bihliotheca Indica by Eajendra Lala Mittra. 

KAMAEUPA. The north-eastern part of Bengal and the 
western portion of Assam. The name still survives as Kam- 

KAMBOJAS. A race or tribe always associated with the 
tribes living to the north-west, and famous for their horses. 
They were among the races conquered by King Sagara, 

KAMPILYA. The city of King Drupada in the country 
of the PanchalaSj where the swayam-vara of Draupadi was held 


It corresponds with the Kampila of modern times, situated 
in the Doab on the old Ganges, between Badaiin and Farrukh- 

KAMYAKA. The forest in which the Pa?it?avas passed their 
exile on the banks of the Saras wati. 

KAA^AJDA. The sage who founded the Vaiseshika school of 
philosophy. See Dar^ana. 

KANCHI. One of the seven sacred cities, liodie Conjeveram. 

KAXDAEPA. The Hindu Cupid. See Kama. 

KAiV7)ARSHI. A i^i'shi who teaches one particular Kawc?a 
or part of the Yedas. 

KAiVDU. A sage who was beguiled from long and severe 
austerities by Pramlocha, a nymph sent from heaven by Indra 
for this purpose. He lived with her some hundreds of years, 
which seemed to him only as a day, but he at length repudiated 
her and " went to the region of Vish?m." Pramlocha gave birth, 
in an extraordinary manner, to his daughter Marisha (q.v.). 

KANISHKA. " Hushka, Jushka, Kanishka." These are the 
names recorded in the Raja Tarangiwi of three great Turushka, 
that is Turk or Tatar, kings, who were of the Buddhist religion. 
It may, perhaps, be taken for granted that Hushka and Jushka 
come in their natural succession, for the names might be trans- 
posed without detriment to the metre ; but the short syllable 
of the name Kanishka is required where it stands by the rules 
of prosody, so that the position of the name in the verse is not 
decisive of his place in the succession of kings. Nothing is 
known of Jushka beyond the simple recital of his name as 
above quoted, but the names of Kanishka and Hushka (or 
Huvishka) have been found in inscriptions and upon coins, 
showing that their dominions were of considerable extent in 
Northern India, and that they were, as the Rrija Tarangi/il re- 
presents, great supporters of the Buddhist religion. The name 
of Kanishka has been found in inscriptions at Matlmra, Manik- 
yala, Bhawalpur, and Zeda, while his name appears on the 
corrupt Greek coins as Kanerki. Iluvishka's name has been 
found at Mathura, and on a metal vase from Wardak in 
Afghanistan ; on the coins his name is represented as Oerki. 
Kanishka preceded Huvishka, and it is certain that their reigns 
covered a period of fifty-one years, and probably more. The time 
at which they reigned seems to have been just before the Chris- 


tian era. A Eoman coin of tlie date 2,Z ^•^' ^^^ found in the 
tQpe of Manikyala, wliicli was built by Kanishka. 

KAN^S'A. A tyrannical king of Mathura, son of Ugra-sena 
and cousin of Devaki the mother of K?'ish?ia ; so he was the 
cousin, not the uncle, of K7*ish?ia, as he is often called. He 
married two daughters of Jara-sandha, king of Magadha. He 
deposed his father. It was foretold that a son born of Devaki 
should kill him, so he endeavoured to destroy all her children. 
But Bala-rama, her seventh son, was smuggled away to Gokula, 
and was brought up by Rohi??-!. When Krishwa the eighth was 
born his parents fled with him. The tyrant then gave orders 
for a general massacre of all vigorous male infants. Ivansa 
became the great persecutor of K?ish?2a, but was eventually 
killed by him. Kansa is also called Kalankura, 'crane.' He is 
looked upon as an Asura, and is in some way identified with 
the Asura Kala-nemi. 

KANaS'A-BADHA. a drama in seven acts upon the de- 
struction of Kansa by K^'ishwa. The author is called Krishwa 
Kavi, and the play was probably written about two centuries 
ago. It is weak as a drama, but " the language is in general 
good, although highly elaborate." — Wilson. 

KATVWA. Bee iS'atapatha Brahmayia. 

KAiVWA. I^ame of a i?ishi to whom some hymns of the 
i?*g-veda are ascribed ; he is sometimes counted as one of the 
seven great i^ishis. The sage who brought up /S'akuntala as his 
daughter. There are several others of the same name. 

KAiV^WAS. The descendants or followers of KaTiwa. 

KANYA-KUBJA. The modern form of the name is Kanauj 
or Kinnauj, spelt in a variety of ways. i. An ancient city 
of Hindustan on the Kali-nadi, an affluent of the Ganges, and 
lying a little to the west of the latter. It was once the capital 
of a powerful dynasty. It was known to classical geographers 
as "Canogyza." The name means "humpbacked damsel," and 
refers to a legend relating to the hundred daughters of King 
Kusa-nabha, who were all made crooked by Vayu for refusing 
to comply with his licentious desires. 2. A great national divi- 
sion of the Brahman caste. Bee Brahman. 

KANYA-KUMARI. 'The virgin-damsel.' A name of 
Durga. Her worship extended to the southernmost extremity 
of India in the days of Pliny, and 'Kumarl' still appears in the 
name Cape Comorin. 


KAPAKDIX. ' Wearing the kaparda,' a peculiar braid or 
knot of hair. This epithet is applied to /Siva, to one of the 
Rudras, and some others. 

KAPI-DHWAJA. An epithet of Arjiina, because he bore 
an ape Qcain) on his standard (dhicaja). 

KAPILA. A celebrated sage, the founder of the Sankhya 
philosophy. The Hari-vansa makes him the son of Vitatha. 
He is sometimes identified with Yishmi and sometimes with 
Agni. He is said to have destroyed the hundred thousand sons 
of King Sagara with a glance. See Sagara. 

KAPILA, KAPILA-VASTU. A town on the river Rohim, 
an affluent of the Rapti, which was the capital of /S'uddhodana, 
the father of Gotama Buddha. 


KAPIaSA. Mother of the Pi^achas, who bear the metro- 
nymic Kapiseya. 

KARALl ' Dreadful, terrible.' In Vedic times one of the 
seven tongues of Agni (fire), but in later days a name of the 
terrible consort of /Siva. See Devi. 

KARDAIMA. According to the Maha-bharata and Ra,maya?ia, 
he is one of the Prajapatis who sprang from Brahma. Accord- 
ing to other authorities, he, or another sage of the same name, 
was a son of Daksha or a son of Pulaha, 

KARMA-MIMANSA. The Piirva-mimansa. See Darsana. 

KARMA - MIMANSA - SUTRA. A work on the Vedanta 
philosophy, ascribed to Jaimini. 

KARiV^A. Son of Pritha or Kunti by Siirya, the sun, before 
her marriage to Pa?ic?u. Karwa was thus half-brother of the 
Paw^Zavas, but this relationship was not known to them till 
after his death. KuntI, on one occasion, paid such attention 
to the sage Dur-vasas, that he gave her a charm by virtue of 
which she might have a child by any god she preferred to 
invoke. She chose the sun, and the result was Kar?ia, who 
was born equipped with arms and armour. Afraid of censure 
and disgrace, Kunti exposed the child on the banks of the 
Yamuna, where it was found by Nandana or Adhiratha, the 
suta or charioteer of Dhrita-rashi^a. The charioteer and his 
wife, Radhii, brought him up as their own, and the child passed 
as such. When he grew up, Indra disguised himself as a Brah- 
man, and cajoled him out of his divine cuirass. He gave him 


in return great strength and a javelin charged with certain death 
to whomsoever it was hurled against. Karwa became king of Anga 
or Bengal. Some authorities represent his foster-father as having 
been ruler of that country, but others say that Kar?ia was made 
king of Anga by Dur-yodhana, in order to qualify him to figlit 
in the passage of arms at the swayam-vara of Draupadi. This 
princess haughtily rejected him, saying, " I wed not with the 
base-born." Kar/ia knew that he was half-brother of the Pa?^- 
6?avas, but he took the side of their cousins, the Kauravas, and 
he had especial rivalry and animosity against Arjuna, whom 
he vowed to kill. In the great battle he killed Ghatotkacha, 
the son of Bhima, with Indra's javelin. Afterwards there was a 
terrific combat between him and Arjuna, in which the latter was 
nearly overpowered, but he killed Kar7^a with a crescent-shaped 
arrow. After Kar?ia's death his relationship to the Pa?z6?avas 
became known to them, and they showed their regret for his 
loss by great kindness to his widows, children, and dependants. 
From his father, Vikarttana (the sun), Karwa was called Yaikart- 
tana ; from his foster-parents, Vasu-sena ; from his foster-father's 
profession, Adhirathi and Suta ; and from his foster-mother, 
Radheya. He was also called Anga-raja, ' king of Anga ; ' Cham- 
padhipa, 'king of Champa;' and Kanina, 'the bastard.' 

KARiVA-PRAVARAAA^S. Men whose ears served them 
for coverings. They are mentioned in the Maha-bharata, Rama- 
yawa, and other works. 

KARA^ArA, KARA^AJAKA. The country where the 
Canarese language is spoken, in the central districts of the 
Peninsula, including Mysore. The name " Carnatic" is derived 
from this. 

KARTA-VlRYA. Son of Knta-virya, king of the Haihayas. 
This is his patronymic, by which he is best known ; his real 
name was Arjuna. " Having worshipped a portion of the divine 
being called Dattatreya, sprung from the race of Atri, he sought 
and obtained these boons, viz., a thousand arms and a golden 
chariot that went wheresoever he willed it to go ; the power of 
restraining wrong by justice ; the conquest of the earth and the 
disposition to rule it righteously ; invincibility by enemies, and 
death at the hands of a man renowned over the whole world. 
By him this earth was perfectly governed," and of him it is 
said : — " No other king shall ever equal Karta-vlrya in regard 


to sacrifices, liberality, austerities, courtesy, and self-restraint." 
"Thus he ruled for 85,000 years with unbroken health, prosperity, 
strength, and valour, " — V. P. He visited the hermitage of Jamad- 
agni, and was received by that sage's wife with all respect ; but he 
made an ill return for her hospitality, and carried off by violence 
" the calf of the milch-cow of the sacred oblation." For this 
outrage Parasu-rama cut olBf his thousand arms and killed him. 
In another place a different character is given to him, and more 
in accordance with his behaviour at Jamad-agni's hut. "He 
oppressed both men and gods," so that the latter appealed to 
Yish?m for succour. That god then came down to the earth as 
Para5u-rama for the especial purpose of killing him. Karta- 
virya was the contemporary of Eavawa, and when that demon 
monarch came " in the course of his campaign of conquest to 
Mahishmati (the capital of Karta-virya), he was captured with- 
out difficulty, and Avas confined like a wild beast in a corner of 
his city." The statement of the Yayu Pura?ia is that Karta- 
virya invaded Lanka, and there took Eavarza prisoner. 

KAETTIKEYA. The god of war and the planet Mars, also 
called Skanda. He is said in the Maha-bharata and Eamayawa 
to be the son of ^Siva or Eudra, and to have been produced 
without the intervention of a woman. iSiva cast his seed into 
fire, and it was afterwards received by the Ganges : Kartti- 
keya was the result ; hence he is called Agni-bhii and Ganga-ja. 
He was fostered by the Pleiades (K7'ittika), and hence he has 
six heads and the name Karttikeya. His paternity is some- 
times assigned to Agni (fire) ; Ganga (the Ganges) and Parvati 
are variously represented to be his mother. He was born for 
the purpose of destroying Taraka, a Daitya whose austerities had 
made him formidable to the gods. He is represented riding on 
a peacock called Paravawi, holding a bow in one hand and an 
arrow in the other. His wife is Kaumarl or Sena, He has 
many titles : as a warrior he is called Maha-sena, Sena-pati ; 
Siddha-sena, ' leader of the Siddhas ; ' and Yudha-ranga ; also 
Kumara, the boy ; Guha, ' the mysterious one ; ' /S^akti-dhara, 
' spear-holder ; ' and in the south he is called Su-brahmawya. 
He is Gangii-putra, ' son of the Ganges ; ' ASara-bhfi, ' born in 
the thicket;' Taraka-jit, 'vanquisher of Taraka;' 
and Dwadasaksha, ' twelve-handed ' ami ' twelve-eyed ; ' iiiju- 
kaya, 'straight-bodied.' *S'c'6' Krauncha. 


KARUSHAS. A people of Malwa, inhabiting the back of 
the Yindhya mountains. They are said to be descended from 
Karusha, one of the sons of the Manu Vaivaswata. 

KA/S'I Benares. 

KAaSI KHAiVDA. A long poem, forming a part of the 
Skanda Purawa. It gives a very minute description of the 
temples of /Siva in and around Benares, and is presumably an- 
terior to the Mahomedan conquest. 8e& Skanda PuraT^a. 

KA/SYAPA. A Vedic sage to whom some hymns are attri- 
buted. All authorities agree in assigning to him a large part 
in the work of creation. According to the Maha-bharata, the 
RamayaTza, and the Purawas, he was the son of Marichi, the son 
of Brahma, and he was father of Yivaswat, the father of Manu, 
the progenitor of mankind. The iSatapatha Brahma?za gives 
a dijfferent and not very intelligible account of his origin 
thus : — " Having assumed the form of a tortoise, Prajapati 
created ofFs]oring. That which he created he made (akarot) ; 
hence the word Jcurma (tortoise). Kasyapa means tortoise ; 
hence men say, ' All creatures are descendants of Kasyapa.' 
This tortoise is the same as Aditya." The Atharva-veda says, 
" The self -born Kasyapa sprang from Time," and Time is 
often identical with Yishwu. The Maha-bharata and later 
authorities agree in representing that Kasyapa married Aditi 
and twelve other daughters of Daksha. Uj)on Aditi he 
begat the Adityas, headed by Indra, and also Yivaswat, and 
" to Yivaswat was born the wise and mighty Manu." The 
Eamaya?2a and Yislmu Pura?ia also state that "Yishmi was 
born as a dwarf, the son of Aditi and Kasyapa." By his 
other twelve wives he had a numerous and very diversified 
offspring: demons, nagas, reptiles, birds, and all kinds of 
living things. He was thus the father of all, and as such is 
sometimes called Prajapati. He is one of the seven great Bishis, 
and he appears as the priest of Parasu-rama and Rama-chandra. 

KA-TANTRA. A Sanskrit grammar by Sarva-varman. 
Edited by Eggeling for the JBibliotheca Indica. 

KATA-PRIJ. ' Worm.' A class of beings similar to or iden- 
tical with the Yidya-dliaras. 

KATHA. Kame of a Upanishad (q.v.). It has been 
translated by Dr. Roer in the Bihliotheca Indica. 

KA^'HAKA. A school or recension of the Yajur-veda, 


occupying a position between the Black and the ^\niite. It is 
supposed to he lost, 

KATHAitiVAVA. * Sea of stories.' A compilation of mis- 
cellaneous stories in four hooks ; the first two are the originals 
of the Hindi Baital Pachisi and Singhasan Battisi. 

KATHA-SAEIT-SAGAEA. 'The ocean of the rivers of 
stories.' A collection of popular stories by Soma-deva-bha^^a of 
Kashmir, made about the beginning of the twelfth century a.d. 
It is drawn from a larger work called Brihat-katha. Thet ext 
has been printed and in part translated by Brockhaus. 

KATYAYAXA. An ancient writer of great celebrity, who 
came after Pacini, whose grammar he completed and corrected 
in what he called Yarttikas, ' supplementary rules and annota- 
tions.' He is generally identified with Yararuchi, the author of 
the Prak?7'ta Prakasa. Max Miiller places him in the second 
half of the fourth century B.C. ; Goldstiicker in the first half 
of the second century B.C. ; AYeber about twenty-five years 
B.C. Besides his additions to Pacini's Grammar, he was the 
author of the )S'rauta-sutras which bear his name, and of the 
Yajur-veda Pratisakhya. His Siitras have been edited by Weber. 
A story in the Katha-sarit-sagara makes him the incarnation of 
a demigod named Pushpa-danta. A Katyayana was author also 
of a Dharma-sastra. 

KATYAYAXL A name of Durga. See DevL 

KAUMARA. The creation of the Kumaras (q.v.). 

KAUMODAKL The mace of Xrish?za, presented to him by 
Agni when engaged with him in fighting against Indra and 
burning the KhaTZ^ava forest. 

KAUNDIiVYA An ancient sage and grammarian. He 
offended /S^iva, but was saved from that god's wrath by Yish?zu : 
he was hence called Yishwu-gupta, ' saved by Yish?zu.' 

KAUNTEYA. Son of Kuntl. A metronymic applicable to 
Yudlii-sh^hira, Bhima, and Arjuna, but commonly applied to 

KAURAYAS. Descendants of Kuru. A patronymic espe- 
cially applied to the sons of Dhrita-rash/ra. See Maha-bharata. 

KAUSALYA (mas.), KAUSALYA (fem.). Belonging to 
the Kosala nation. There are several women known by this 
name. The wife of Puru and mother of Janamejaya. The 
wife of Dasa-ratha and mother of Rama. {See Dasa-ratha.) The 


mother of Dhrita-rasli^ra and the mother of Vmclu both were 
known by this name, being daughters of a king of Kasl. 

KAU/SAMBI. The cajDital of Vatsa, near the junction of the 
Ganges and Jumna. An inscription found at Karra on the Ganges 
mentions that place as being situated in Kau6ambi-maw/ala, the 
circle of Kausambi; but General Cunningham identifies the 
place with the village of Kosam, said to be still called Kosambi- 
iiagar on the Jumna, about thirty miles above Allahabad. It is 
the scene of the drama Ratnavali. 

KAUSHlTAKl. i. A sakha of the i^ig-veda. 2. (Kaushl- 
taki) the name of a Brahmawa, an Ara?2-yaka, and a Upanishad. 
{See those terms.) The Brahmawa has been published with a 
translation by Professor Cowell in the Bibliotheca IncUca. 

KAU>S'IKA. A devotee mentioned in the Maha-bharata as 
having gone to a hell of torment for having pointed out to 
robbers a road by which they pursued and killed some persons 
who fled from them. 

KAUaS'IKAS. Descendants of Kusika (q.v.). • In one of the 
hymns of the Big the epithet is given to Indra. 

KAU>S'IKI. The river Kosi in Bihar, but there were more 
rivers than one bearing this name. Satyavati, mother of Jamad- 
agni is said to have been changed into a river of this name. 

KAUSTUBHA. A celebrated jewel obtained at the churn- 
ing of the ocean, and worn by YishTiu or 'Krishna, on his bosom. 

KAUTILYA. Another name of Chawakya, the minister of 
Chandra-gupta. See Cha?iakya. 

KAUTSA. A rationalistic philosopher, who lived before the 
days of Yaska the author of the Nirukta. He regarded " the 
Veda as devoid of meaning, and the Brahmawas as false inter- 
pretations." Yaska replied to his objections. 

KAUTUKA-SARVASWA. A modern farce, in two acts, 
by a 'PsLudit named Gopi-natha. "It is a satire uj)on princes 
who addict themselves to idleness and sensuahty, and fail to 
patronise the Brahmans." — Wilson. 

KAYASHA, KAYASHA-AILtJSHA. Son of Iliisha by a 
slave girl. He was author of several hymns in the tenth book 
of the i^ig-veda. The Aitareya Brahmawa relates that the ^ishis 
were performing a sacrifice on the banks of the Saraswati, and 
that Kavasha was with them ; but they drove him from among 
them because he was the son of a slave, and therefore unworthy 


to drink the water of the Saraswati. When he was alone in the 
desert, a prayer was revealed to him hy which he prevailed over 
the Saraswati, and its waters came and surrounded him. The 
7?/shis saw this, and knowing that it was by the special favour 
of the gods, they admitted him to their society. 

KAYI-EAJA. Author of a poem of studied ambiguity 
called Eaghava-Pa7zc?aviyam (q.v.). 

KAYYA-DAR>S'A 'Mirror of poetry.' A work on the 
Ars Poetica by >S'ri Dawc^L It has been j^rinted in the Biblio- 
theca Indka. 

KAVYA-PRAKAaS'A. a work on poetry and rhetoric by 
Mamma /a Bha/^a of Kashmir. It has been printed at Calcutta. 

KAY YAS, KAYYAS. A class of Pitns ; according to some 
they are the Manes of men of the third caste. 

KAYAYYA. The son of a Kshatriya by a Xishada female, 
who is related in the Maha-bharata to have risen by virtue, 
knowledge, and devotion from the state of a Das}ai to perfection. 

KEDARE>S'A, KEDAEA-XATHA. A name of >S'iva. :N"ame 
of one of the twelve great Lingas. It is a shapeless mass of 
stone at Kedara-natha in the Himalayas. See Linga. 

KEKAYA. See Kaikeya. 

KELI-KILA A demigod attendant upon /S'iva. 

KEXA, KEXOPANISHAD. Xame of a Upanishad (q.v.) 
translated by Dr. Eoer for the Bihllotheca Indka. 

KEEAKAS. One-footed men who live in forests, according 
to the Maha-bharata. 

KEEALA. The country of Malabar proper on the western coast. 

KE5AYA. ' Having much or fine hair.' A name of Yishwu 
or Krish?2a. 

KEaSI, KEaS'IN'. In the Maha-bharata, a demon who fought 
Avith and was defeated by Indra. In the Pura?ias, a Daitya who 
took the form of a horse and attacked Krishna, but was killed 
by that hero's thrusting his arm into his jaws and rending him 

KE/STNl. Wife of Yi.sravas and mother of Eavawa ; also 
called Kaikasi. 

KE>SI-DH WA JA. Son of Krita-dhwaja. Kesi-dhwaja " was 
endowed with spiritual knowledge," and he had a cousin, Khaw- 
r?ikya, who "was diligent in the way of works and was renowned 
for religious rites." There was contention and hostilities 'je- 


tween tliem, and Kha?i(iikya was driven from his dominions. 
But they subsequently became useful to each other and friendly. 
Kha?i6?ikya by his practical religion enabled Kesi-dhwaja to 
make atonement for the killing of a cow, and Kesi-dhwaja 
initiated Khawc^ikya in the mysteries of spiritual meditation 

KETU. The descending node in astronomy, represented by 
a dragon's tail ; also a comet or meteor, and the ninth of the 
planets. He is said to be a Danava, and son of Viprachitti and 
Sinhika. He is also called A-kacha, ' hairless ;' Aslesha-bhava, 
'cutoff;' Mu?2C?a, 'bald.' /S'e^ Rahu. 

country on the banks of the Yamuna, which the Pa?ic?avas 
received as their moiety when Dhr/ta-rash/ra divided his king- 
dom. In it they built the city of Indra-prastha and made it 
their capital. The forest was consumed with fire by the god 
Agni assisted by K?ish?za and Arjuna. 

KHAYi)IKYA. &ee Kesi-dhwaja. 

KHARA. A man-eating Rakshasa, the younger brother of 
Ravawa. He was killed by Rama-chandra. 

KHARYA. A dwarf. Bee Yalakhilya. 

KHASA. A daughter of Daksha, wife of Kasyapa, and 
mother of the Yakshas and Rakshasas, called after her Khasat- 

KHA^AS, KHASAKAS, KHASlKAS. An outlying or 
border people classed with the fS'akas and other northern tribes. 
Professor Wilson thought that traces of them might be sought 
among the barbarous tribes on the north-east of Bengal, the 

KHAr WANGA (also called Dilipa). i. A prince of the Solar 
race. In a battle between the gods and the demons he rendered 
great assistance to the former, who desired him to ask a boon. 
He begged that he might know the duration of his life, and the 
answer was, " Only an hour." He hastened to the world of 
mortals, and by earnest prayer he became united with the sup- 
reme being, Yish?iu. " Like unto Kha^wanga will there be no 
one upon earth, who, having come from heaven and dwelt an 
hour amongst men, became united with the three worlds by his 
liberality and knowledge of truth." — V. P. 2. A club; the club 
of /Siva ; it is also called Khinkhira and Pansula. 


KlCHAKA. Brother-in-law of the king of Yira/a, who was 
commander of the forces and general director of the affairs of 
the kingdom. He made love to Draupadi, and was slain by 
Bhima, who rolled his bones and flesh into a ball, so that no one 
could tell how he was killed. 

KIKATA. A country inhabited by people who were not 
Aryans ; it is identified with Magadha or South Bihar. 

KILATAKULI (Kilata + Akuli.) Two priests of the Asuras, 
who, according to the ^Satapatha BrahmaTza, exercised a special 
influence between Manu and aii " Asura-slaying voice," 

KIM-PUEUSHA. ' A^Hiat man V An indescribable man ; 
one of a low type, partaking of the nature and appearance of 
animals. In later times it is synonjinous with Kin-nara. IS'ame 
of a region between Himavat and Hema-ku/a. (iS'ee Jambu-d^vlpa.) 
Also of a king of the latter region. 

KIN-K'AKAS. 'A^Hiat men?' Mythical beings with the 
form of a man and the head of a horse. They are celestial 
choristers and musicians, dwelling in the paradise of Kuvera on 
Kailasa. They sprang from the toe of Brahma with the Yakshas, 
but according to others, they are sons of Kasyapa. They are 
also called Aswa-mukhas Turanga-vaktras, ' horse-faced,' and 

KIRATAKJU^IYA. A poem descriptive of the combat 
between iS'iva in the guise of a Kirata or mountaineer and the 
Paw?u prince Arjuna. The story is first told in the Maha- 
bharata, and has been worked up in this artificial poem of 
eighteen cantos by Bharavi. Part of it has been translated into 
German by Schiitz. There are several editions of the text. 
See Arjuna. 

KIRATAS. Foresters and mountaineers living in the moun- 
tains east of Hindustan. (There is a tribe in the Central Hima- 
layas called Kirantis.) They are described in the Ramaya?ia as 
" islanders, who eat raw fish, live in the waters, and are men- 
tigers " (men below and tigers above, according to the commenta- 
tor). Their females are described as " gold-coloured and plea- 
sant to behold," and as having " sharjD-pointed hair-knots." 
They are perhaps the Cirrhadoe placed on the Coromandel coast 
by classic writers. 

KIRITIISr. ' Crowned with a diadem.' A title of Indra 
and also of Arjuna. 


KIKMIRA. A monster Rakshasa, brother of Yaka. He 
opposed the entrance of the Pawc?avas into the Kamvaka forest, 
and threatened that he would eat Bhima. A furious combat 
ensued, in which Bhima and he hurled large trees at each other, 
but the demon was at length strangled and had all his bones 
broken by Bhima. 

KISHKINDHYA. A country in the peninsula, thought to 
be in the Mysore, which was taken by Rama from the monkey 
king Ball, and given back to his brother Su-griva, the friend 
and ally of Rama. The capital city was Kishkindhya. 

KOHALA. An ancient sage, to whom the invention of the 
drama is attributed ; also a writer on music. 

KOSALA. A country on the iSarayu river, having Ayodhya 
for its capital. The name is variously applied to other 
countries in the east, and in the south, and in the Yindhya 
mountains. It probably widened with the dominions of its 
rulers, and part of Birar is called Dakshina-Kosala, the Southern 

KOrAYl, KOrARl, KOrrAYI. *A naked woman.' A 
mystical goddess, the tutelary deity of the Daityas, and mother 
of BaTza the demon. The name is sometimes applied to Durga. 

KRAMA-PATHA. See Pa^ha. 

KRATU. One of the Prajapatis, and sometimes reckoned 
among the great itishis and mind-bom sons of Brahma. {See 
i?ishi.) The Yish?iu PuraTia says that his wife Samnati brought 
forth the 60,000 Yalikhilyas, pigmy sages no bigger than a joint 
of the thumb. 

KRAUjSTCHA. I . A pass situated somewhere in the Himalayas, 
said to have been opened by Parasu-rama with his arrows to 
make a passage from Kailasa to the southwards. The Yayu 
Purawa attributes the splitting of the mountain to Karttikeya. 
Indra and Karttikej^a had a dispute about their respective 
powers, and agreed to decide it by running a race round the 
mountain. They disagreed as to the result, and therefore 
appealed to the moimtain, who untruly decided in favour of 
Indra. "Karttikeya hurled his lance at the mountain and 
pierced at once it and the demon Mahisha." 2. A confede- 
rate of the demon Taraka, against whom Karttikeya led the 
gods and triumphed. 3, One of the seven Dwipas. See 


KEAYYAD. 'A flesh-eater.' A Eaksliasa or any carnivo- 
rous animal In the Yeda, Agni is in one place called a Kravyad 
of terrible power. Fire is also a Kravyad in consuming bodies 
on the funeral pile. See Agni 

K-K/PA. Son of the sage iS'aradwat, and the adopted son of 
King ^Santanu. He became one of the privy council at Hastina- 
pura, and was one of the tliree surviving Kuru warriors who 
made the murderous night attack upon the camp of the Pa?if?avas. 
He was also called Gautama and /Saradwata. See K?7'pa and 

Ki^/PA, KT^/PI. Wife of Dro?ia and mother of Aswattha- 
man. The sage /S'aradwat or Gotama so alarmed Indra by his 
austerities that the god sent a nymph to tempt him. Though 
she was unsuccessful, two children were found born to the sage 
in a tuft of grass. King ^Santanu found them and brought them 
up out of compassion {kripa), whence their names, Kr/pa and 
K?'/pa. The children passed as iS'antanu's own. Dro?2a was a 
Erahman and /Santanu a Kshatriya : the myth makes Kripi a 
Erahma?il, and so accounts for her being the wife of Dror^a. 
The Yishmi Pura?za represents them as children of Satya-dhriti, 
grandson of *S'aradwat by the n}Tiiph Urvasi, and as being exposed 
in a clump of long grass. 

Kit/SHiYA 'Black.' This name occurs in the it/g-veda, 
but without any relation to the great deity of later times. The 
earliest mention of Krish?ia, the son of Devaki, is in the Clihan- 
dogya Upanishad, where he appears as a scholar. There was a 
iiishi of the name who was a son of Yi.swaka. There was also 
a great Asura so named, who with 10,000 followers committed 
fearful devastation, until he was defeated and skinned by Indra. 
In another Yedic hymn, 50,000 K?'ish?2as are said to have been 
slain, and it is added in another that his pregnant wives were slain 
with him that he might leave no posterity. This is supposed 
to have reference to the Eakshasas or to the dark- coloured 
aborigines of India. 

The modern deity Krishna is the most celebrated hero of 
Indian mythology, and the most popular of all the deities. 
He is said to be the eighth Avatara or incarnation of Yish?m, 
or rather a direct manifestation of Yishwu himself. This hero, 
around whom a vast mass of legend and fable has been gathered, 
probably lived in the Epic age, when the Hindus had not ad- 


vanced far beyond their early settlements in the north-west. He 
appears prominently in the Maha-bharata, where his character 
is invested with a certain degree of mysticism. Additions and 
interpolations have raised him to divinity, and it is in the 
character of the " Divine One " that he delivered the celebrated 
song, Bhagavad-gita, a production of comparatively late date, 
now held to be part of the great epic. In this work he dis- 
tinctly declares himself to be the Supreme Being. He says : — 
" All this universe has been created by me ; all things exist in 
me;" and Arjuna addresses him as "the supreme universal 
spirit, the supreme dwelling, the eternal person, divine, prior 
to the gods, unborn, omnipresent." The divine character of 
Krishna having thus been established, it was still further deve- 
loped in the Hari-van5a, a later addition to the Maha-bharata ; 
and in the Purawas, especially in the Bhagavata Pura?^a, it 
attained full expansion. There the story of the life of Krish?ia, 
from his earliest days, is related with minute details, and it is 
upon this portion of his life that the popular mind delights 
to dwell. The mischievous pranks of the child, the follies of 
the boy, and the amours of the youth, are the subjects of 
boundless wonder and delight. All these stories, as told in the 
Bhagavata Pura?za, have been made accessible and popular by 
the Hindi translation known by the name Prem Sagar, ' ocean 
of love,' and by other versions. Much of the story of the early 
days of Krzshwa is thus of comparatively modern invention, 
while the incidents of his relations with the Pa^ic^ava princes are 
among the most ancient. 

Krishna was of the Yadava race, being descended from Yadu, 
one of the sons of Yayati. The Yadavas of old were a pastoral 
race, and dwelt on the river Yamuna (Junma), in V?'mdavana, on 
the western side, and in Gokula on the other. In those days, 
Kansa, Eaja of the Bhojas, having deposed his father, Ugrasena, 
ruled in the city of Mathura, near Yrindavana. Ugrasena had a 
brother named Devaka, and Devaka had a daughter named De- 
vaki, who married Vasu-deva, son of ASiira, also a descendant of Yadu. 
The history of K?-ish?ia's birth, as given in the Maha-bharata and 
followed by the Vish?iu Pura?ia, is that Vish7iu plucked out two of 
his own hairs, one white, the other black. These two hairs entered 
the wombs of Eohim and Devaki ; the white hair became Bala- 
rama and the black {krishna) hair (/jesa) became Krishna, orKesava. 


His reputed father, Vasu-deva, was brother of Kunti, the wife of 
PamZu, and so Krishna was cousin of the tliree elder PantZava princes. 

The Maha-bharata gives two summaries of his exploits, of 
which the following are abridgments : — " ^^^lile K?*/shwa was 
growing up as a high-souled boy in the tribe of cowherds, the 
force of his arms was rendered famous by him in the three 
worlds." He slew the king of the Hayas (horses), dwelling in the 
woods of the Yamuna. He slew the direful Danava, who bore 
the form of a bulL He also slew Pralambha, Naraka, Jambha, 
and Pitlia, the great Asura, and Muru. He overthrew ami 
slew Kansa, who was supported by Jara-sandha. With the help of 
Bala-rama he defeated and destroyed Su-naman, brother of Kan^a 
and king of the -S'iirasenas. He carried off the daughter of the 
king of the Gandharas at a swayam-vara, and princes were yoked 
to his car. He secured the death of Jara-sandha and slew ^Si-su- 
jjala. He overthrew Saubha, the self-suj^porting or flying city 
of the Daityas, on the shore of the ocean. He conquered the 
Anitas and Bangas, and numerous other tribes. Entering the 
ocean filled with marine monsters, he overcame Yaru/ia. In 
Patala he slew Panchajana, and obtained the divine shell Pan- 
chajanya. With Arjuna he propitiated Agni in the Ivha?^c?ava 
forest, and obtained the fiery weapon the discus. Mounted on 
Garut/a, he alarmed AmaravatI, the city of Indra, and brought 
away the Piirijata tree from thence. 

In another passage, Arjuna rehearses some of K7'/sh7ia's ex- 
ploits. He destroyed the Bhoja kings in battle, and carried 
off Rukmiwi for his bride. He destroyed the Gandharas, van- 
quished the sons of Nagnajit, and released King Su-darsana, 
whom they had bound. He slew Paw6?ya with the fragment of 
a door, and crushed the Kalingas in Dantakfira. Through him 
the burnt city of Benares was restored. He killed Ekalavya, 
king of the Nishadas, and the demon Jambha. With the aid of 
Bala-rama he killed Su-naman, the wicked son of Ugrasena, and 
restored the kingdom to the latter. He conquered the flying 
city of Saubha and the king of the /S'alwas, and there he 
obtained the fiery weapon 5ata-glini. jS^araka, son of the earth, 
had carried off the beautiful jeweUed earrings of Aditi to 
Prag-jyotisha, the impregnable castle of the Asuras. The gods, 
headed by Indra, were unable to prevail against ISTaraka, so 
tliey appointed Kr/slma to slay him. Accordingly he killed 


Muru and the Eiiksliasa Ogha ; and finally lie slew Xaraka and 
brought back the earrings. 

It further appears in different parts of the Maha-bharata that 
K?'ish?ia, prince of Dwaraka, was present at the swayam-vara of 
Draupadi, and gave his judgment that she had been fairly won 
by Arjuna. While the PaWfiavas were reigning at Indra-prastha, 
he paid them a visit, and went out hunting with them in the 
'KhmddiYdi forest. There he and Arjuna allied themselves with 
Agni, who was desirous of burninoj the Kha?ic?ava forest, but 
was prevented by Indra. Agni having secured the help of 
K?'ish?ia and Arjuna, he gave the former the celebrated chakra 
(discus) Vajra-nabha, and the club Kaumodakl. Then Indra 
was defeated and Agni burnt the forest. Arjuna afterwards 
visited K77sh'fta at Dwaraka, and was received with great 
demonstrations of joy. Arjuna, with the connivance of Knsh?ia, 
eloped with Su-bhadra, Iv7'ish7za's sister, much to the annoyance 
of Bala-rama, her elder brother. When Yudhi-sh/hira was 
desirous of performing the Raja-siiya sacrifice, Krishwa told 
him that he must first conquer Jara-sandha, king of Magadha. 
Jara-sandha was attacked and slain, and K?'ish?ia was thus 
revenged upon the enemy who had forced him to leave Mathura 
and emigrate to Dwaraka. KWsh?ia attended the Raja-siiya 
sacrifice performed by Yudlii-sh^hira, and there he met /Sisu-pala, 
whose betrothed wife he had carried off. /S'isu-pala reviled him 
and acted very violently, so Kr/sh?za cast his discus and cut off his 
enemy's head. He was present at the gambling match between 
Yudhi-sh/hira and the Kauravas. ^\Tien Draupadi had been 
staked and lost, she was dragged into the public hall by DuA- 
5asana, who tore off her clothes, but KrishTia pitied her, and 
renewed her clothes as fast as they were torn away. After the 
close of the exile of the Pa?2^avas, K?'/shwa was present, and took 
part in the council which preceded the great war, and strongly 
advised a peaceful settlement. Then he returned to Dwaraka. 
Thither Arjuna and Dur-yodliana followed him with the object of 
enlisting his services in the coming w^ar, but he refused to take 
any active part because he was related to both parties. He 
gave them the choice of his personal attendance or of the use 
of his army. Arjuna, who had arrived first, and therefore had 
the first choice, asked for Kr/sh?2a himself, and Dur-yodhana 
joyfuUy accepted the army. K^ishwa then became the charioteer 

1 64 KRISHNA, 

of Arjima. After this, at the request of the PawtZavas, he went 
in splendid state to Hastina-pnra as a mediator, but his efforts 
were unavailing, and he returned. Preparations for action were 
then made and the forces drawn out. On the eve. of the battle, 
while acting as Arjuna's charioteer, he is represented as relating 
to Arjuna the Bhagavad-gita or divine song. He rendered 
valuable services to Arjuna throughout the battle, but on two 
occasions he suggested unfair dealing. He prompted the lie by 
which Yudhi-shiShira broke down the prowess of Dro72a, and he 
suggested the foul blow by which Bhima shattered the thigh of 
Dur-yodhana. He afterwards went to Hastina-pura with the 
conquerors, and he also attended their Aswa-medha sacrifice. 
On returning to Dwaraka he issued a proclamation forbidding 
the use of wine. Portents and fearful signs appeared, and a 
general feehng of alarm spread among all in Dwaraka. K?'/sh??a 
gave directions that the inhabitants should go out to Prabhasa 
on the sea-shore and endeavour to propitiate the deity. He 
gave permission also that wine might be drunk for one day. 
A drunken brawl followed, in which his son Pradyumna was 
killed in his presence, and nearly all the chiefs of the Yadavas 
were slain. Bala-rama went out from the fray and died peace- 
fully under a tree, and K?'ishwa himself was killed unintention- 
ally by a hunter named Jaras, who shot him with an arrow, 
mistaking him at a distance for a deer. Arjuna proceeded to 
Dwaraka and performed the obsequies of Krish^ia. A few 
days afterwards the city was swallowed up by the sea. Five 
of K^'ishwa's widows were subsequently burnt upon a funeral 
pile in the plain of Kuru-kshetra. 

" Among the texts of the Maha-bharata," says Dr. ]\Iuir, 
" there are some in which K?'ish?za is distinctly subordinated to 
Maha-deva (*Siva), of whom he is exliibited as a worshipper, and 
from whom, as well as from his wife Uma, he is stated to have 
received a variety of boons. Even in these passages, however, 
a superhuman character is ascribed to K?*isli?2a." 

The popular history of Krishwa, especially of his childhood 
and youth, is given in the PuraTias, and is the subject of many 
a story. The Bhagavata Purawa is the great authority, and from 
that the following account is condensed : — 

The sage Narada had foretold to Kan^a that a son of Devaki, 
his brother's daughter, should destroy him and overthrow his 


kingdom. To obviate this danger, Kan^a kept his cousin Devaki 
confined in his own palace, and six children that she bore he 
caused to be put to death. She conceived a seventh time, but 
the child was an incarnation of Vish/m, and was miraculously 
preserved by being transferred from the womb of Devaki to that 
of Rohi?iI, Avho was Yasu-deva's second wife. This child was 
Bala-rama. Devaki again conceived, and her eighth child was 
born at midnight with a very dark skin, whence he was called 
Kr/sli?ia. He had a peculiar curl of hair, called sri-vatsa, upon 
his breast. The gods interposed to preserve the life of this 
divinely begotten child. The guards of the palace were over- 
powered with sleep, and bolts and barriers were removed. Vasu- 
deva took up the child and escaped with him from Mathura. 
He repaired to the bank of the Yamuna (Jumna), and, crossing 
the river, went to the house of IsTanda, a cowherd, whose wife, 
Yasoda, had on that very night been delivered of a female child. 
Yasu-deva secretly changed the infants, and carried back the 
daughter of Yasoda to his wife DevakL Kansa discovered that 
he had been cheated, and in his wrath he ordered that every 
male infant that gave signs of vigour should be put to death. 
Yasu-deva and Devaki, being no longer dangerous, were set at 
liberty. Nanda, alarmed by the order for the massacre, took the 
young child and removed with Yasoda and with Rohim and 
Bala-rama to Gokula. Here KrfshTia was brought up, and wan- 
dered about in company of his elder brother Bala-rama. They 
played many pranks and passed many practical jokes ; but they 
exhibited such marvellous strength and such godlike powers 
that they soon became famous. Kansa was continually forming 
schemes for the death of Iv?'/shwa. The female demon Piitana 
assumed a lovely form, and tried to kill him by suckling him, 
but the child sucked away her life. Another demon tried to 
drive a cart over him, but he dashed the cart to pieces. A 
demon named Tri?iavartta took the form of a whirlwind and 
flew off with him, but the child brought the demon to the 
ground with such violence that he died. One day K?7'sh?ia 
broke the vessels of milk and curds and ate the butter, which 
made Yasoda angr}^ She fastened a rope round his body, and 
tied him to a large bowl, but he dragged the bowl away till it 
caught between two trees and uprooted them. From this feat 
he got the name of Damodara (rope-belly). He had a terrible 

1 66 KRISHNA. 

conflict with the great serpent Kaliya, who lived in the Yamuna, 
and he compelled him to go away. On one occasion, when the gopls 
or milkmaids were bathing, he took away all their clothes and 
climbed up a tree, and there he remained till the damsels came 
to him naked to recover them. He persuaded I^anda and the 
cowherds to give up the worship of Indra, and to worship the 
mountain Govardhana, which sheltered them and their cattle. 
Incensed at the loss of his offerings, Indra poured down a heavy 
rain, which would have deluged them, but K?'ish?ia Hfted up the 
mountain Govardhana, and held it upon his finger as a shelter 
for seven days and nights, till Indra felt that he was foiled. 
From this feat he obtained the name of Govardhana-dhara and 
Tungisa. As he had protected the kine, Indra expressed his 
satisfaction, and gave him the title of Upendra. He was now 
approaching manhood, and was very handsome. The gopis were 
all enamoured of him, and he dispensed his favours very freely. 
He married seven or eight of them, but his first and favourite 
Avife was Radlia. At this period of his Hfe he is represented 
with flowing hair and with a flute in his hand. One of his 
favourite pastimes was a round dance, called MawcMa-nr^'tya or 
Kasa-maw/ala, in which he and Eadha formed the centre Avhilst 
the gopls danced round them. But his happiness was inter- 
rupted by the machinations of Kansa, who sent formidable 
demons to destroy him — Arish/a in the form of a bull, and 
Kesin in the form of a horse. These attempts having failed, 
Kansa sent his messenger, Akriira, to invite K?'«sh?za and Bala- 
rama to Mathura to attend some games, and he formed several 
plans for their destruction. They accepted the invitation, and 
went to Mathura. Near the city they found Kansa's washer- 
man engaged in his calling. They threw down some of his 
clothes, and he addressed them insolently, upon which they killed 
him, and took such clothes as they liked. In his progress he met 
Kubjii, a crooked damsel, who gave him some unguent, and he 
repaid her gift by making her straight. In the games he killed 
Chawura, the king's boxer. Afterwards he killed Kansa himself, 
and replaced TJgrasena on the throne. He remained in Mathura, 
and studied the science of arms under Sandipani. He went 
down to the infernal regions and brought back his six brothers, 
whom Kansa had killed, and these, having tasted the milk of 
their motlier, ascended to heaven. During this period he killed 


a demon named Pancliajana, ^vho had attacked the son of his 
teacher. Tliis demon lived in the sea in the form of a conch- 
shell, and KrisliTia afterwards used this shell, called Pancha- 
janya, as a trumpet. Kansa's two wives were daughters of 
Jara-sandha, king of Magadha. This king assembled his forces 
and marched against Mathura to chastise Krishna, but he was 
defeated. He renew^ed his attacks eighteen times, and was as 
often defeated. A new enemy then threatened K^'ishwa, a 
Yavana or foreigner named Kala-yavana, and Krzsh?2a had been 
so weakened that he knew he must succumb either to him or to 
his old enemy the king of Magadlia, so he and all his people 
migrated to the coast of Guzerat, where he built and fortified 
the city of Dwaraka. [The Maha-bharata makes no mention 
of this foreign king, and says that Knshwa retired before the 
eighteenth attack of Jara-sandlia. The foreign king would, 
therefore, seem to be an invention of the Pura?zas for saving 
K?'ish?za's reputation.] 

After his settlement at Dwaraka, Krishna carried off and 
married Eukmi?2i, daughter of the Raja of Yidarbha, and the 
betrothed of ^S'isu-prda. An incident now occurred wdiich brought 
him two more wives. A Yadava chief named Satrajit had a 
beautiful gem called Syamantaka, which Kr^sh?^ wished to* 
possess. Satrajit, for the sake of security, gave the gem into 
the charge of his brother Prasena, and Prasena was killed in the 
forest by a lion, who carried off the jewel in his mouth. This 
lion w^as killed by Jambavat, the king of the bears. Satrajit 
suspected K?'*sh7ia of taking the jewel, and he, to clear himself, 
went out into the forest, ascertained the manner of Prasena's 
death, fought with Jambavat, and recovered the jewel. KrishTza 
then married Jambavati, the daughter of Jambavat, and Satya- 
bhama, the daughter of Satrajit. But the number of his wives 
Avas practically unlimited, for he had 16,000 and a hundred or 
so besides, and he had 180,000 sons. By Rukmim he had a son 
Pradyumna and a daughter CharumatT. His son by Jambavati 
was /S'amba, and by Satya-bhama he had ten sons. Indra came 
to visit Krishwa at Dwaraka, and implored him to suppress the 
evil deeds of the demon Naraka. Knsh?za accordingly went to 
the city of Naraka, killed the demon Muru, who guarded the 
city, and then destroyed Naraka himself. Iv?i'sh?2a next went 
to pay a visit to Indra in Swarga, taking with him his wife 


►Satya-bhama. At her request he requited the hospitality shown 
him by carrying off the famed Parijata tree, which was produced 
at the churning of the ocean. The tree belonged to ^S'achi, wife 
of Indra, and she complained to her husband. Indra drew out 
his forces and tried to recover it, but was defeated by Krfshwa. 
Pradyumna, son of Kr/shTia, had a son named Aniruddha, with 
whom a female Daitya, Usha, daughter of Bawa, fell in love. 
She induced a companion to carry off the young man, and 
Krishna, Bala-rama, and Pradyumna went to rescue him. Bawa, 
with the whole Daitya host, and assisted by ^S'iva and Skanda, 
the god of war, encountered them. K?'ish?za, " with the weapon 
of yawning, set >S'iva agape," and so overpowered hiim Skanda 
was wounded. Ba?ia maintained a fierce combat with Krzshwa, 
and was severely wounded, but Krishwa spared his life at the 
intercession of *S^iva, and Aniruddha was released. 

There was a man named PauTif^raka, who was a Vasu-deva, or 
descendant of one Vasu-deva. Upon the strength of the identity 
of this name with that of Vasu-deva, the father of Krishna, this 
man Pau7?c?raka assumed the insignia and title of K?*isliwa, and he 
had the king of Kasi or Benares for an ally. KrishTza slew PauTi- 
c?raka, and he hurled his flaming discus at Benares and destroyed 
that city. Such are the principal incidents of the life of Knshwa 
as given in the Hari-vani^a, the Pura?ias, and the Prem Sagar. 

Similarity in the sound of the name, and some incidents in 
the life of Krishria, have led some to believe that the legend of 
Krishna had its origin in the life of Christ, but this is not the 
general opinioiL 

Krishna has many appellations derived from his family rela- 
tions, his exploits, and personal characteristics ; and there are 
many which apply both to the full deity, Vishnu, and his incar- 
nation, Krishna. 

Ki?/SHiVA. The personal name of DraupadL 


K7?/TANTA. A name of Yama, the god of deatli. 

K/t/TA-VARMAN. A Kuru warrior, one of the last sur- 
viving three who made the murderous night attack upon the 
camp of the Pan^avas. {See Maha-bhilrata.) He was killed in 
a drunken brawl at Dwaraka. He was also called Bhoja. 

K7?/TA-VlRYA. Son of Dhanaka and father of the 
Arjuua who is better know by his patronymic Karta-virya. 


K?'ita-virya was a great patron of the Blingus, and according 
to the Purawas, "he ruled over the whole earth with might 
and justice, and offered 10,000 sacrifices. Of him this verse 
is still recited, ' The kings of the earth will assuredly never 
pursue his steps in sacrifice, in munificence, in devotion, in 
courtesy, and in self-control.' " 

Ki^/TA YUGA. The first age of the world, a period of 
1,728,000 years. See Yuga. 

Ki^/TTIKAS. The Pleiades. The six nurses of Karttikeya, 
the god of war. They were daughters of a king according to 
one legend, wives of i^ishis according to another. 

KKIYA-YOGA-SAEA. A portion of the Padma Purawa 
treating of rites and ceremonies. Bee Padma Pura^za. 

KEODHA, KRODHA-YAS'A. One of the many daughters 
of Daksha and sister-wives of Kasyapa. She was the mother 
"of all sharp-toothed monsters, whether on the earth, amongst 
the birds, or in the waters, that were devourers of flesh.'' 

KSHAiVADA-CHARA 'Night walkers.' Ghosts of evil 
character, gobhns, Rakshasas. 

KSHAPAiVAKA. An author who was one of " the nine 
gems " at the court of Yikramaditya. See Nava-ratna. 

KSHATRIYA. The second or regal and warrior caste. 
See Yarna. 

KSHATTRI. A name by which Yidura was familiarly 
called. The term, as explained in Manu, means the son of a 
*Sudra father and Brahman mother, but Yidura's father was a 
Brahman and his mother a slave girL 

KSHEMAKA Son of Nira-mitra or Nimi, and the last 
prince of the Lunar race. There is a memorial verse quoted in 
the YishTiu Pura?ia which say, " The race which gave origin 
to Brahmans and Kshatriyas, and which was purified by regal 
sages, terminated with Kshemaka in the Kali age." 

KSHEMA-YJ?/DDHL A general of the iS'alwas who had 
a command in the army which attacked Dwaraka, and was 
defeated by K?'ish7ia's son, iSamba. 

KULA-PARYATAS. 'Family mountains.' A series or sys- 
tem of seven chains of mountains in Southern India. They are 
Mahendra, ]Malaya, Sahya, iS'uktimat, i^iksha (for which Gan- 
dlia-madana is sometimes substituted), Yindhya and Paripatra. 
Mahendra is the Orissa chain ; Malaj'a, the hills of Malabar 


proper, the soutli part of the AVestern Ghats ; Sahya, the 
northern parts of the Western Ghats ; ASuktimat is doubtful ; 
^iksha, the mountains of Gondwana ; Yindhya is here apphed 
to the eastern di^dsion of the Yindhya mountains ; and Paripatra, 
or Piiriyatra as it is frequently written, applies to the northern 
and western portions of the same range. The classification seems 
to have been known to Ptolemy, for he specifies seven ranges of 
mountains, but liis names are not in accord. 

KULIKA. One of the eight serpent kings, described as 
of a dusky brown colour and having a half-moon on his head, 

KULIXDAS. A people living in the north-west. 

KULLUKA - BHAITA. The famous commentator on 
Manu, whose gloss Avas used by Sir W. Jones in making the 
translation of Manu. 

KUMARA. A name of Skanda, god of war. In the Brah- 
mawas the term is applied to Agni. 

KUMARAS. Mind-born sons of Brahma, who, declining to 
create progeny, remained ever boys and ever pure and innocent. 
There were four of them, Sanat-kumara, Sananda, Sanaka, and 
Sanatana ; a fifth, ^ibhu, is sometimes added. 8ee Yishwu 

KUMARA-SAMBHAYA. ' The bii^th of the war god (Ku- 
mara).' A poem by Kali-dasa. The complete work consists of 
sixteen cantos, but only seven are usually given, and these have 
been translated into Latin by Stenzler. Parts have been ren- 
dered into English verse by Griffiths. There are several editions 
of the text. 

KUMARI. 'The damsel.' An epithet of /SitS, also of 
Durga. Cape Comorin. 

])rated teacher of the Mimansa philosophy and opponent of the 
Buddhists, whom he is said to have extirpated by argument and 
by force. He was prior to iSankaracharya, in whose presence he 
is recorded to have burnt himself. 

KUMBHA-KARA^A. Son of Yisravas by his Rakshasa wife 
KesinI, and full brother of Ravawa. A monster who, under the 
curse of Brahma (or, as otherwise represented, as a boon), slept 
for six months at a time and remained awake for only a single 
day. When Ravana was hard pressed by Rama he sent to 
arouse Kumbha-kar?ia. This was effected with great difficulty, 


After drinking 2000 jars of liquor lie went to consult with liis 
brother, and then took the field against the monkey army. He 
beat down Su-griva, the monkey chief, with a large stone, and 
carried him a prisoner into the city of Lanka. When he 
returned to the battle he encountered Rama, and after a stout 
fight he Avas defeated, and Rama cut off his head. 

KUMUDA. 'A lotus,' A Naga or serpent king whose 
sister, Kumudvati, married Ivusa, son of Rama. 

KUMUDYATI. A Kaga or serpent princess whose mar- 
riage to Ku5a, son of Rama, is described in the Raghu-vansa, 

KUiV"i)INA-PURA. The capital of Yidarbha. It survives 
as the modern Kundapur, situated about 40 miles east of Ama- 
ravati, in Birar. 

KU]S[TALA. A country in the Dakhin, about Adoni ; the 

KUNTl (also called Pnthaand Parshwi). i. Daughter of the 
Yadava prince fSiira, king of the >S'iirasenas, whose capital was 
Mathura on the Yamuna. She was sister of Yasu-deva, and was 
given by her father to his childless cousin Kunti-bhoja, by whom 
she was brought up. In her maidenhood she showed such 
respectful devotion to the sage Dur-vasas, that he gave her a 
charm by means of which she might have a child by any god 
she pleased to invoke. She called upon the sun, and by him 
had a son named KarTia, but without any detriment to her vir- 
ginity ; stiU, to keep the affair secret, the child was exposed on 
the banks of the Yamuna. Subsequently she married Pawc/u, 
whom she chose at a swayam-vara, and bore three sons, Yudhi- 
sh/hira, Bhima, and Arjuna, who were called Pa?2(iavas although 
they were said to be the sons of the gods Dharma, Yayu, and 
Indra respectively. This may have happened, as is stated, from 
the potency of the old charm, but if so, it is strange that MadrT, 
the second wife of Paw6?u, should have enjoyed the same privilege, 
and have borne twin children to the Aswins. This difficulty, 
however, is got over by a statement that KuntI imparted to her 
the charm. Kunti was a discreet and devoted mother, and 
although rather jealous of Madri, she was a kind mother to her 
children after Madri was burnt on her husband's pyre. After 
the end of the great war she retired into the forest with Dhnta- 
rash^ra and his wife Gandhari, and there they all perished in 
a forest fire. 2. Name of a people and country in Upper India. 


KUXTI-BHOJA. King of tlie people caUed Kimtis. The 
adoptive father of KimtL 

KURMA-AYATAE. The tortoise incarnation. See Avatara. 

KUPaiA PURAiVA. " That in which Janardana (Vishwu), 
in the form of a tortoise, in the regions under the earth, ex- 
plained the objects of life — duty, wealth, pleasure, and libera- 
tion, — in communication with Indra-dyumna and the jRishis in 
the proximity of ^Sakra, which refers to the Lakshmi Kalpa, 
and contains 17,000 stanzas, is the Kiirma Pura/ia." The 
account which the Pura?ia gives of itself and its actual con- 
tents do not agree with this description. " The name being 
that of an Avatara of Yish?iu, might lead us to expect a Yaish- 
?iava work; but it is always and correctly classed with the 
/Saiva PuraTzas, the greater portion of it inculcating the worship 
of A^iva and Durga. The date of this PuraTia cannot be very 
remote. " — Wilson. 

KURU. A prince of the Lunar race, son of Samvarana by 
Tapati, a daughter of the sun. He ruled in the north-west of 
India over the country about Dellii. A people called Kurus, 
and dwelling about Kuru-kshetra in that part of India, are con- 
nected with him. He was ancestor both of Dhrita-rashte and 
Vmdw, but the patronymic Kaurava is generally applied to the 
sons of the former. 

KURU-JAK'GALA. A forest country in the upper part of 
the Doab. 

KURU-KSHETRA. 'The field of the Kurus.' A plain 
near Dellii where the great battle between the Kauravas and 
Pawcfavas was fought. It lies south-east of Thanesar, not far 
from Panipat, the scene of many battles in later days. 

KU/SA. One of the twin sons of Rama and Slta. After the 
death of Rama, his two sons Kusa and Lava became kings of 
the Southern and IS'orthern Kosalas, and Kui'a built Kusa-sthall 
or KusavatI in the Yindhyas, and made it his capital. See Rama. 

KU6'A-DHWAJA. A brother of Janaka, king of INIithila, 
and consequently uncle of Sita. His two daughters, MawJavi 
and /Sruta-kirtti, were married to Bharata and iS'atru-ghna, the 
sons of Janaka. Some make him king of Sankrusya, and others 
king of Kasi, and there are differences also as to his genealogy. 

KU>SAMBA. Son of Kusa and a descendant of Puriiravas. 
He engaged in devout penance to obtain a son equal to Indra, 


and that god was so alarmed at his austerities, that he himself 
became incarnate as Gadlii, son of Kusamba. 

KU/S'A-STHALI. i. A city identical with or standing on the 
same spot as Dwaraka. It was built by Raivata, and was the 
capital of his kingdom called Anarta. When Raivata went on 
a visit to the region of Erahmii, his city was destroyed by 
PuTiya-janas, i.e., Yakshas or Rakshasas. 2. A city built by Kusa, 
son of Rama, on the brow of the Vindhyas. It was the capital 
of Southern Kosala. Also called Kusa-vati. 

KU/SA-YATl. The capital of Southern Kosala, built upon 
the Vindhyas by Kusa, son of Rama. 

KUSHMAiVDAS. 'Gourds.' A class of demigods or de- 
mons in the service of iSiva. 

KU/S'IKA. A king who, according to some, was the father 
of Vi,9wamitra, or, according to others, the first of the race of 
Kusikas from whom Gadhi, the father of Yiswamitra descended. 

KUSUMA-PURA. 'The city of flowers.' Pa/tali-putra or 

KUSUMAYUDHA. A name of Kama, or Cupid as the 
bearer of the bow {dyudha) of flowers (kusuma). 

KUTSA. A Yedic ^ishi and author of hymns. He is re- 
presented as being persecuted by Indra, but on one occasion he 
was defended by that god against the demon iSuslma. It is 
said that Indra took him to his palace, and that they were so 
much alike that AS'achi or Pushpotkafa, Indra's wife, did not 
know which was her husband. 

KUYALAaS'WA, KUYALAYAiSWA. a prince of the 
Solar race, who, according to the Yish?iu Pura?^a, had 21,000 
sons, but the Hari-vansa numbers them only as 100. Attended 
by his sons he attacked the great Asura, Dhundliu, who lived 
in a sea of sand, and harassed the devotions of the pious sage 
Uttanka. They unearthed the demon and slew him, from which 
exploit Kuvalaswa got the title of Dhundhu-mara, slayer of 
Dhundhu ; but all his sons except three perished by the fiery 
breath of the monster. 

KUYALAYAPli)A. An immense elephant, or a demon in 
elephantine form, belonging to Kansa, and employed by him to 
trample the boys Knsh?2a and Bala-rama to death. The attempt 
failed and the elephant was killed 

KUYERA. In the Yedas, a chief of the evil beings or spirits 

174 KUVERA. 

living in the shades : a sort of Pluto, and called by his patronymic 
Yai^ravana. Later he is Pluto in another sense, as god of wealth 
and chief of the Yakshas and Guhyakas. He was son of Yisravas 
by Ifi^a^dfZa, but he is sometimes called son of Pulastya, who was 
father of Yisravas. This is explained by the Maha-bharata, accord- 
ing to which Ivuvera was son of Pulastya, but that sage being 
offended with Kuvera for his adulation of Bralima, " reproduced 
the half of himself in the form of Yisravas," and had Havana 
and other children. {See Yisravas.) Kuvera's city is Alaka 
(also called Prabha, Yasu-dhara, and Yasu-sthali) in the Hima- 
layas, and his garden Chaitra-ratha on Mandara, one of the spurs 
of Mount ]\Ieru, where he is waited upon by the Kinnaras. 
Some authorities place his abode on ]\Iount Kailasa in a palace 
built by Yiswa-karma. He was half-brother of EavaTia, and, 
according to the Eamaya?2a and Maha-bharata, he once had 
possession of the city of Lanka in Ceylon, which was also built 
by Y*iswa-karma, and from which he was expelled by Ravawa. 
The same authority states that he performed austerities for 
thousands of vears, and obtained the boon from Brahma that he 
should be immortal, one of the guardian deities of the world, 
and the god of wealth. So he is regent of the north, and the 
keeper of gold and silver, jewels and pearls, and all the trea- 
sures of the earth, besides nine particular Xidhis, or treasures, 
the nature of which is not well understood. Brahma also gave 
him the great self-moving aerial car Pushpaka (q.v.). His wife 
is Yakslil, Charvl, or Kauverl, daughter of the Danava j\Iura. 
His sons are Mam-gT?iva or Yarwa-kavi and iSTala-kubara or 
Mayu-raja, and his daughter Mmakshi (fish-eyed). He is repre- 
sented as a white man deformed in body, and having three legs 
and only eight teeth. His body is covered with ornaments. 
He receives no worship. The name Ku-vera, as also the variant 
Ku-tanu, signifies ' vile body,' referring to his ugliness. He is 
also called Dhana-pati, 'lord of wealth;' Ichchha-vasu, 'who 
has Avealth at will ;' Yaksha-raja, ' cliief of the Yakshas ; ' Mayu- 
rfija, 'king of the Kinnaras ;' Rakshasendra, ' chief of the Rak- 
shasas ;' Ratna-garbha, 'belly of jewels ;' Raja-raja, 'king of 
kings;' and Nara-raja, 'king of men' (in allusion to the power 
of riclies). From his parentage he is called YaisravaTza, Paulas- 
tya, and Ai(^avic?a or Ailavila. As an especial friend of ^S'iva he 
is called Isa-sakhi, &c. 


LAGHU-KAUMUDI. A modern and very much simplified 
edition of Pardni's Grammar by Yarada Kaja. It has been edited 
and translated by Dr. Ballantyne. 

LAKSHMAiVA. i. Son of King Dasa-ratha by his wife Sii- 
mitra. He was the twin brother of /S'atru-ghna, and the half- 
brother and especial friend of Kama-chandra. Under the pecu- 
liar circumstances of his birth, one-eighth part of the divinity 
of Yishwu became manifest in him. {See Da.5a-ratha.) But 
according to the Adhyatma Ramayawa, he was an incarnation of 
/S'esha. When Rama left his father's court to go to the hermi- 
tage of Yiswamitra, Lakshmawa accompanied him, and after- 
wards attended him in his exile and in all his wanderings. He 
was also very attached to Rama's wife Sita, which gave rise to 
the reproach that the two brothers were husbands of one wife. 
On one occasion, indeed, Sita reproached Lakshma/^a that he 
did not hasten to rescue Rama from danger, because he wished 
to obtain herself. His own wife was Urmila, the sister of Sita, 
and he had two sons, Angada and Chandra-ketu. While Riima 
and Lakshma/ia were living in the wilderness, a Rakshasi 
named /S'lirpa-nakha, sister of Ravawa, fell in love with Rama 
and made advances to him. He jestingly referred her to Laksh- 
ma/ia, who in like manner sent her back to Rama. When she 
was again repulsed she attacked Sita, whom Rama was obliged 
to defend. Rama then called upon Lakshmawa to disfigure the 
Rakshasi, and accordingly he cut off her nose and ears. The 
mutilated female called upon her brother to avenge her, and 
a fierce war ensued. When Sita was carried off by Ravawa, 
Lakshmawa accompanied Rama in his search, and he ably and 
bravely supported him in his war against Rava/ia. Rama's 
earthly career was drawing to a close, and Time was sent to 
inform him that he must elect whether to stay longer on earth, 
or to return to the place from whence he had come. \Vliile 
they were in conference, the irascible sage Dur-vasas came and 
demanded to see Rama instantly, threatening him with the 
most direful curses if any delay were allowed to occur. To save 
his brother Rama from the threatened curse, but aware of the 
consequences that would ensue to himself from breaking in upon 
Rama's interview with Time, he went in and brought Rama out. 
LakshmaTza knowing his fate, retired to the river AS'arayii and 
resigned himself. The gods then showered down flowers upon 


him and conveyed liim "bodily to heaven. 2. A son of Diir- 
yodhana, killed by Abhimanyu. 

LAKSHMl. The word occurs in the i?/g-veda with the 
sense of good fortune, and in the Atharva-veda the idea has 
become personified in females both of a lucky and unlucky char- 
acter. The Taittiriya Sanhita, as explained by the commenta- 
tor, makes Lakshmi and iS'rl to be two wives of Aditya, and the 
/S'atapatha Brahma?ia describes Sy\ as issuing forth from Pra- 

Lakshmi or SrL in later times is the goddess of fortune, wife 
of Vish7iu, and mother of Kama. The origin ascribed to her by 
the Ranlaya?^a is the one commonly received. According to this 
legend she sprang, like Aphrodite, from the froth of the ocean, in 
full beauty with a lotus in her hand, when it was churned by the 
gods and the Asuras. Another legend represents her as floating 
on the flower of a lotus at the creation. With reference to this 
origin, one of her names is Kshirabdhi-tanaya, ' daughter of the 
sea of milk.' From her connection with the lotus she is called 
Padma. According to the Purawas, she was the daughter of 
Bhr^'gu and Khyati. The Yish'^u Purawa says, " Her first 
birth was the daughter of Bhr/gu by Khyati. It was at a sub- 
sequent period that she was produced from the sea at the churn- 
ing of the ocean. . . . When Hari was born as a dwarf, Lakshmi 
appeared from a lotus (as Padmil or Kamala). When he 
was born as Rama of the race of Bh?'igu (or Parasu-rama), she 
was Dharam. When he was Raghava (Rama-chandra), she was 
Sita. And when he was Krish?za she became Rukmim. In 
the other descents of yish?iu she is his associate." One version 
of the Ramayawa also aflirms that " Lakshmi, the mistress of 
the worlds, was born by her own will, in a beautiful field 
opened up by the plough," and received from Janaka tlie name 
of Sltii. 

Lakslimi is said to liave four arms, but she is the type of 
beauty, and is generally depicted as having only two. In one 
hand she holds a lotus. " She has no temples, but being god- 
dess of abundance and fortune, she continues to be assiduously 
courted, and is not likely to fall into neglect." Other names of 
Lakshmi are Hira, Indira, Jaladhi-ja, 'ocean born;' Chanchala 
or Lola, ' the fickle,' as goddess of fortune ; Loka-milta, ' mother 
of the world.' 


LALITA-VISTARA. A work in Sanskrit verse on the 
life and doctrines of Buddha. It has been printed in the 
Bibliotheca Indica. 

LANG ALL ' Armed with a ploughshare.' Bala-rama. 

LANKA. I. The island of Ceylon or its capital city. The 
city is described in the Ramayawa as of vast extent and of great 
magnificence, with seven broad moats and seven stupendous 
walls of stone and metal. It is said to have been built of gold 
by Viswa-karma for the residence of Kuvera, from whom it was 
taken by RavaTia. The Bhagavata Pura?ia represents that the 
island was originally the summit of Mount Meru, which was 
broken off by the god of the wind and hurled into the sea. 2. 
Name of one of the AS'akinis or evil spirits attendant on >S'iVa 
and Devi. 

LATA. A country comprising Kandesh and part of Guze- 
rat about the IMhye river. It is also called Lar, and is the 
Aaoiy.71 of Ptolemy. 

LArYAYANA. Author of a Siltra work. It has been 
printed in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

LAY A. One of the twin sons of Rama and Sita. He 
reigned at /Sravasti. See Rama. 

LAVAiVA. A Rakshasa, son of Madhu by Kumbhinasi, the 
sister of RaA^a/za and daughter of Yisravas. He inherited from 
his father an invincible trident which had been presented to 
him by ^iva. He was surprised without his weapon and killed 
by /S'atru-glina. Lava?^a was king of Mathura and >Satru-ghna 
succeeded him. 

LIKHITA. Author of a Dharma-sastra or code of law. 

LiLAYATL ' Charming.' The fanciful title of that chapter 
of Bhaskara's Siddlianta-siromam which treats of arithmetic 
and geometry. It has been translated by Colebrooke and Dr. 
Taylor, and the text has been printed. 

LINGA, LINGAM. The male organ. The phallus. The 
symbol under which iS^iva is universally worshipped. It is of 
comparatively modern introduction and is unknown to the Yedas, 
but it receives distinct notice in the Maha-bharata. " The 
emblem — a plain column of stone, or sometimes a cone of 
plastic mud — suggests no offensive ideas. The people call it 
^iva or Maha-deva, and there's an end." In the /Siva Purawa, 
and in the Nandi Upa-pura?ia, /S^iva is made to say, " I am 


omnipresent, but I am especially in twelve forms and places." 
These are the twelve great Lingas, which are as follow : — 

1. Soma-ndtha. 'Lord of the moon.' At Somnath Pattan, a 
city which still remains in Guzerat. This was the celebrated 
" idol " destroyed by Mahmiid of GhaznI. 

2. MallikdrJuTia ov Srl-saila. 'The mountain of SrV On a 
mountain near the river Krishwa. 

3. Makd-kdla, Mahd-kdleswara. At TJjjain. Upon the capture 
of TJjjain in the reign of Altamsh, 1231 A.D., this deity of stone 
Avas carried to Delhi and there broken up. 

4. Omkdra. This is also said to have been at TJjjain, but it 
is probably the shrine of Mahadeva at Omkara Mandhatta, on 
the JSTarmada. 

5. Amareswara. ' God of gods.' This is also placed at TJjjain. 

6. Vaidya-ndtha. ' Lord of physicians.' At Deogarh in Bengal. 
The temple is still in being, and is a celebrated place of pil- 

7. Bdmesa oi Bdmeswara. ' Lord of Kama.' On the island of 
Ramisseram, between the continent and Ceylon. This Lingam, 
whose name signifies ' Rama's lord,' is fabled to have been set 
up by Rama. The temple is still in tolerable re23air, and is one 
of the most magnificent in India. 

8. Bhlma Sankara. In DakinT. This is in all probability the 
same with Bhimeswara, a Lingam worshipped at Dracharam, in 
the Rajamahendrl (Rajamundry) district, and there venerated as 
one of the twelve. 

9. Visweswara. 'Lord of all.' At Benares. It has been for 
many centuries the chief object of worship) at Benares. Also 
called Jyotir-lingam. 

10. Trijamhaka, Tryaksha. ' Tri-ocular. ' On the banks of the 

11. Gaiitamesa. ' Lord of Gautama.' 

12. Keddresa, Keddni-ndtha. In the Himalaya. The deity is 
represented as a shapeless mass of rock. 

jSTaga-natha or Naga-niithesa and Yameswara are other names, 
probably of Xo. 6 and No. 11. 

LINGA PURAiVA. " Where IVIaheswara (5iva), present in 
the Agni Linga, explained (the objects of life), virtue, wealth, 
pleasure, and final liberation, at the end of the Agni K(dpa, that 
Pura?ia, consisting of 11,000 stanzas, was called the Linga by 


Brahma Iiimself." The work conforms accurately enough to 
this description. " Although the Linga holds a prominent place 
in this PuraTia, the spirit of the worship is as little influenced 
by the character of the type as can well be imagined. There is 
nothing like the phallic orgies of antiquity : it is all mystical 
and spiritual. The work has preserved, apparently, some iS'aiva 
legends of an early date, but the greater part is ritual and mysti- 
cism of comparatively recent introduction." — Wihon. It is not 
likely that this Pura^za is earlier than the eighth or ninth cen- 
tury. This Purawa has been lithographed in Bombay. 

LOHA-MUKHAS. 'Iron-faced men.' Described in the 
Maha-bharata as swift, one-footed, undecaying, strong men-eaters. 

LOKA. A world, a division of the universe. In general 
the tri-loka or three worlds are heaven, earth, and hell. Another 
classification enumerates seven, exclusive of the infernal regions, 
also seven in number which are classed under Patala. The 
upper worlds are : — (i.) Bhur-loka, the earth. (2.) Bhuvar-loka, 
the space between the earth and the sun, the region of the 
Munis, Siddhas, &c. (3.) Swar-loka, the heaven of Indra, be- 
tween the sun and the polar star. (4.) Mahar-loka, the usual 
abode of Bh?'/gu and other saints, who are supposed to be co- 
existent with Brahma. During the conflagration of these lower 
worlds the saints ascend to the next, or (5.) Jana-loka, which 
is described as the abode of Brahma's sons, Sanaka, Sananda, 
and Sanat-kumara. Above this is the (6.) Tapar loka, where the 
deities called Vairagis reside. (7.) Satya-loka or Brahma- 
loka, is the abode of Brahma, and translation to this world 
exempts beings from further birth. The first three worlds are 
destroyed at the end of each kalpa, or day of Brahma; the 
last three at the end of his life, or of a hundred of his years ; 
the fourth loka is equally permanent, but is uninliabitable from 
heat at the time the first three are burning. Another enumeration 
calls the seven worlds earth, sky, heaven, middle region, place 
of birth, mansion of the blest, and abode of truth ; placing the 
sons of Brahma in the sixth division, and stating the fifth, or 
Jana-loka, to be that where animals destroyed in the general 
conflagration are born again. The Sankhya and Yedanta schools 
of philosophy recognise eight lokas or regions of material exist- 
ence : — (i.) Brahma-loka, the world of the superior deities; 
(2.) Pitn'-loka, that of the Pitris, jRishis, and Prajapatis; (3.) 


Soma-loka, of the moon and planets; (4.) Indra-loka, of tlie 
inferior deities; (5.) Gandliarva-loka, of heavenly spirits ; (6.) 
Kakshasa-loka, of the Rakshasas ; (7.) Yaksha-loka, of the 
Yakshas ; (8.) Pi^acha-loka, of the Pisachas or imps and fiends. 

LOKALOKA. ' A world and no world,' A fabnlous belt 
of mountains bounding the outermost of the seven seas and 
di\dding the visible world from the regions of darkness. It is 
" ten thousand yojanas in breadth, and as many in height, and 
beyond it perpetual darkness invests the mountains all around, 
which darkness is again encompassed by the shell of an egg." 
It is called also Chakra-vac^a or Chakra-vala. 

LOKA-PALAS. Supporters or guardians of the world. 
The guardian deities who preside over the eight points of the 
compass, id, the four cardinal and four intermediate points of 
the compass : — (i.) Indra, east ; (2.) Agni, south-east ; (3.) Yama, 
south ; (4.) Smya, south-west ; (5.) YaruTza, west ; (6.) Yayu, 
north-west; (7.) Kuvera, north; (8.) Soma, north-east. Nirr/ti 
is by some substituted for No. 4, and P7'ithivl or iS'iva, especially 
in his form Isana, for Xo. 8. Each of these guardian deities 
has an elephant who takes part in the defence and protection of 
the quarter, and these eight elephants are themselves called 
Loka-palas : — (i.) Indra's elephant at the east is Airavata. He 
is also called Abhra-matanga, ' elephant of the clouds ; ' Arka- 
sodara, ' brother of the sun ; ' jN^aga-malla, ' the fighting ele- 
phant;' Sada-dana, 'always in rut;' Madambara, 'covered with 
ichor.' His wife's name is Abhramu. (2.) Agni's elephant at 
the south-east is Pu?zf/arika and his female Kapila. (3.) Yama's 
at the south is Yamana and his female Pingala. (4.) Surya's at 
the south-west is Kumuda and his female is Anupama. (5.) 
Yaruwa's at the west is Anjana, Avhose female is Anjanavati. 
(6.) A^ayu's at the north-west is Pushpa-danta, whose female is 
*S'ubha-dantI. (7.) Kuvera's at the north is Sarva-bliauma ; and 
(8.) Soma's elephant at the north-east is Su-pratika. • The two 
other females are Anjana and Tamra-kar?ii, whose spouses are 
doubtful. Anjanilvatl is sometimes assigned to Su-pratlka.. In 
the Ramiiya^za (t.) Indra's eastern elephant is called Yirupaksha; 
(2.) Yaru??a' s elephant at the west, Saumanasa; (3.) Yama's at 
the south is jMalia-padma, and (4.) Kuvera's at the north is 

LO^MA-HARSITAiVA (or Roma-harsha?za). A bard or pane- 
gyrist who first gave forth the Purfuias. 


LOMA-PADA (or Roma-pada). A king of Anga, chiefly 
remarkable for his connection with itishya-srmga (q.v.). 

LOPAMUDRA. A girl whom the sage Agastya formed 
from the most graceful parts of different animals and secretly 
introduced into the palace of the king of Vidarbha, where the 
child was believed to be the daughter of the king. Agastya 
had made this girl with the object of having a wife after his 
own heart, and when she was marriageable he demanded her 
hand. The king was loath to consent, but was obliged to yield, 
and she became the wife of Agastya. Her name is explained 
as signifying that the animals suffered loss {lopa) by her engross- 
ing their distinctive beauties (mudra), as the eyes of the deer, 
&c. She is also called Kaushitaki and Vara-prada. A hymn in 
the J^ig-veda is attributed to her. 

MAD A. * Intoxication.' Described in the Maha-bharata as 
" a fearful open-mouthed monster, created by the sage Chyavana, 
having teeth and grinders of portentous length, and jaws one 
of which enclosed the earth and the other the sky," who got 
Indra and the other gods into his jaws " like fishes in the 
mouth of a sea monster." 

MADAYANTI. Wife of King Saudasa or Kalmasha-pada. 
She was allowed to consort with the sage Yasish/ha. According 
to some this was a meritorious act on the king's part and a favour 
to Vasish/ha ; according to others it was for the sake of obtaining 
progeny. See Kalmasha-pada. 

MAD HAY A. A name of Krishwa or Yish?iu. 

MADHAYA, MADHAYACHARYA. A celebrated scholar 
and religious teacher. He was a native of Tuluva, and became 
prime minister of Yira Bukka Raya, king of the great Hindu 
state of Yijaya-nagara, who lived in the fourteenth century. He 
was brother of Sayawa, the author of the great commentary on 
the Yeda, in which Avork Madliava himself is believed to have 
shared. Wilson observes, " Both the brothers are celebrated as 
scholars, and many im^^ortant works are attributed to them ; 
not only scholia on the Sanhitas and Brahma?ias of the Yedas, 
but original works on grammar and law ; the fact no doubt 
being, that they availed themselves of those means which 
their situation and influence secured them, and employed the 
most learned Brahmans they could attract to Yijaya-nagara 
upon the works which l^ear their names, and to Avhich they 
contributed their own labour and learning; their works were 

i82 MADHA vi—madhvandina. 

therefore compiled under peculiar advantages, and are deservedly 
held in the highest estimation." Among the works of Mad- 
hava are the Sarva-darsana-sangraha and the Sankshepa iS'ankara- 
vijaya. jSIadhava was a worsliipper of Yishmi, and as a re- 
ligions pliilosopher he held the doctrine of dwaita or dualism, 
according to which the supreme soul of the universe and the 
human soul are distinct. Thus he was opposed to the teaching 
of >S'ankaracharya, who was a follower of -Siva, and upheld the 
Vedanta doctrine of a-dtvaita, "no duality," according to which 
God and soul, spirit and matter, are all one. 

MADHAYI. A name of Lakshmi. 

MADHU. I. A demon slain by Kr/shna. (See Kai/ahha.) 
2. Another, or the same demon, said to have been killed by 

MADHU-CHHAXDAS. A son of Yiswamitra, who had 
fifty sons older and fifty younger than this one ; but they are 
spoken of as " a hundred sons." He is the reputed author of 
some hymns of the ^ig-veda. 

MADHU-KA/SA. Described in the Atharva-veda as "the 
brilliant grand-daughter of the Maruts, the mother of the Adityas, 
the daughter of the Vasus, the life of creatures, and the centre 
of immortality." She " sprang from the sky, the earth, the air, 
the sea, fire, and wind ; " and it is added, " all creatures, worship- 
ping her who dwells in immortality, rejoice in their hearts." 

MADHUEANIRUDDHA. A drama in eight acts by ^a- 
yani Chandra ASekhara. It is quite a modern work. " The sub- 
ject is the secret loves of tjsha, daughter of the Asura Ba??a 
and Aniruddlia, grandson of K?'/sh?za. The piece abounds too 
much with description to be a good play; the style lias con- 
siderable merit." — Wilson. 

MADHU-StJDANA. ' Slayer of Madhu.' A name of Knsliwa. 

MADHYA-DE»S^A. The middle country, described by Mann 
as " the tract situated between the Himavat and the Yindliya 
ranges to the east of Yinasana and to the west of Prayilga 
(Allahabad)." Another authority makes it the Doab. 

ISIADHYANDmA. A Yedic school, a subdivision of the 
Yajasaneyi school, and connected with the ^atapatha Brah- 
mawa. It had also its own system of astronomy, and obtained 
its name from making noon (madhya-dina) the starting-point of 
the planetary movements. 


MADIRA. A name of Varum, wife of Varu?ia, and goddess 
of wine. 

MADKA. Name of a country and people to the north-west 
of Hindustan. Its capital was iS'akala, and the territory ex- 
tended from the Biyas to the Chinab, or, according to others, 
as far as the Jhilam. 

made! a sister of the king of the Madras, and second 
wife of Pa?z^u, to Avhom she bore twin-sons, jSTakula and Saha- 
deva ; but the Aswins are alleged to have been their real father. 
She became a sati on the funeral pile of her husband. 

MAGADHA. The country of South Bihar, where the Pali 
language was spoken. 

MAGHA. A poet, son of Dattaka, and author of one of the 
great artificial poems called, from its subject, >S'isupala-badha, or, 
from its author, Magha-kavya. 

MAGHAYAT, MAGHA VAX. A name of Indra. 

MAHA-BALI. A title of the dwarf Bali, whose city is 
called Maha-bali-pura, which name is applied to the Tamil 
*' Mamallai-pura," or Seven Pagodas near Madras. See Bali. 

MAHA-BHAKATA. 'The great (war of the) Bharatas.' 
The great epic poem of the Hindus, probably the longest in the 
w^orld. It is divided into eighteen ^arvas or books, and con- 
tains about 220,000 lines. The poem has been subjected to 
much modification and has received numerous comparatively 
modern additions, but many of its legends and stories are of 
Vedic character and of great antiquity. They seem to have long 
existed in a scattered state, and to have been brought together 
at different times. Upon them have been founded many of the 
poems and dramas of later days, and among them is the story 
of Rama, upon which the Ramayawa itself may have been based. 
According to Hindu authorities, they were finally arranged and 
reduced to writing by a Brahman or Brahmans. There is a 
good deal of mystery about this, for the jDoem is attributed to 
a divine source. The reputed author was KrisliTia Dwaipayana, 
the Vyasa, or arranger, of the Vedas. He is said to have taught 
the poem to his pupil Vaisampayana, who afterwards recited it 
at a festival to King Janamejaya. The leading subject of the 
poem is the great war between the Kauravas and Pa?zf/avas, who 
were descendants, through Bharata, from Puru, the great an- 
cestor of one branch of the Lunar race. The object of tlie 


great struggle was the kingdom whose capital was Hastina-pura 
(elephant city), the ruins of which are traceable fifty-seven miles 
north-east of Dellii, on an old bed of the Ganges. 

KWshwa Dwaipayana Vyasa is not only the author of the poem, 
but the source from whom the chief actors sprung. He was the 
son of the itislii Parasara by a nymph named SatyavatI, who, 
although she had given birth to a son, remained a virgin. There 
was a king, a descendant of Bharata, named ^SUntanu, who had 
a son called ^Santavana, better known as Bhishma. In his old 
age jS^antanu wished to marry again, but the hereditary rights of 
Bhishma were an obstacle to his obtaining a desirable match. 
To gratify his father's desire, Bhishma divested himself of all 
rights of succession, and AS'antanu then married SatyavatI. She 
bore him two sons, the elder of whom, Chitrangada, succeeded 
to the throne, but was soon killed in battle by a Gandharva 
king who bore the same name. Vichitra-virya, the younger, 
succeeded, but died childless, leaving two widows, named Am- 
bika and Ambalika, daughters of a king of Kasi. SatyavatI 
then called on K?'ish?ia Dwaipayana Vyasa to fulfil the law, and 
raise up seed to his half-brother. Vyasa had lived the life of 
an anchorite in the woods, and liis severe austerities had made 
him terrible in appearance. The two widows were so frightened 
at him that the elder one closed her eyes, and so gave birth to 
a blind son, who received the name of Dhr/ta-rash/ra ; and the 
younger turned so pale that her son was called Pa?i<iu, ' the 
pale.' SatyavatI wished for a child without blemish, but tlie 
elder widow shrank from a second association with Vyasa, and 
made a slave girl take her place. From this girl was born a 
son who was named Vidura. These children were brought up by 
their uncle Bhishma, who acted as regent. WHien they became 
of age, Dhrita-rash/ra was deemed incapable of reigning in con- 
sequence of his blindness, and Pa7ic?u came to the throne. The 
name Pa?ic?u has suggested a suspicion of leprosy, and either 
through that, or in consequence of a curse, as the poem states, 
he retired to the forest, and I)hrita-rash^ra then became king. 

V\xndw. had two wives, Kunti or Pntha, daughter of /Sura, king 
of the /Sura-senas, and Madri, sister of the king of the Madras ; 
but either through disease or the curse passed upon him, lie did 
not consort with his wives. He retired into solitude in the 
Himalaya mountains, and there he died ; his wives, who accom- 


paiiied him having borne him five sons. The paternity of these 
children is attributed to different gods, but Pamfu acknowledged 
them, and they received the patronymic of PaTic^ava. Kunti was 
the mother of the three elder sons, and Madri of the two younger. 
Yudhi-sh/hira (firm in fight), the eldest, was son of Dharma, the 
judge of the dead, and is considered a pattern of manly firmness, 
justice, and integrity. Bhima or Bhima-sena (the terrible), the 
second, was son of Vayu, the god of the wind. He was noted 
for his strength, daring, and brute courage ; but he was coarse, 
choleric, and given to vaunting. He was such a great eater that 
he was called Yrikodara, ' wolf's belly.' Arjuna (the bright or 
silvery), the third, was son of Indra, the god of the sky. He is 
the most prominent character, if not the hero, of the poem. He 
was brave as the bravest, high-minded, generous, tender-hearted, 
and chivahic in his notions of honour. Kakula and Saha-deva, 
the fourth and fifth sons, were the twin children of Madrl by the 
Aswini Kumaras, the twin sons of Surya, the sun. They were 
brave, spirited, and amiable, but they do not occupy such pro- 
minent positions as their elder brothers. 

Dhr^ta-rash/ra, who reigned at Hastina-pura, was blind. By 
his wife Gandhari he had a hundred sons, and one daughter 
named Du/i-salii. This numerous offspring was owing to a bless- 
ing from Vyasa, and was produced in a marvellous w^ay. [See 
Gandliari.) From their ancestor Kuru these princes w^ere known 
as the Kauravas. The eldest of them, Dur-yodhana (hard to 
subdue), w^as their leader, and w^as a bold, crafty, malicious man, 
an embodiment of all that is bad in a prince. Wliile the Pa?^u 
princes were yet children, they, on the death of their father, 
were brought to Dhrita-rash^ra, and presented to him as his 
nephews. He took charge of them, showed them great kindness, 
and had them educated with his ow^n sons. Differences and dis- 
likes soon arose, and the juvenile emulation and rivalry of the 
princes ripened into bitter hatred on the part of the Kauravas. 
This broke into an open flame when Dhrita-rash/ra nominated 
Yudlii-sh^hira as his Yuva-raja or heir-apparent. The jealousy 
and the opposition of his sons to this act was so great that 
Dhrita-rash/ra sent the Pa?it/avas away to Yarawavata, where 
they dwelt in retirement. AYliile they were living there Dur- 
yodhana plotted to destroy his cousins by setting fire to their 
house, which he had caused to be made very combustible All 


the five brothers were for a time supposed to have perished in 
the fire, but they had received timely warning from Yidura, and 
they escaped to the forest, where they dressed and lived in dis- 
guise as Brahmans upon alms. 

AATiile the PawZavas were living in the forest they heard that 
Draupada, king of the Panchalas, had proclaimed a swayam-vara, 
at which his daughter Draupadi was to select her husband from 
among the princely and warlike suitors. They went there, still 
disguised as Brahmans. Arjuna bent the mighty bow which 
had defied the strength of the Kauravas and all other compe- ' 
titors, and the Pa?i6?avas were victorious over every opponent. 
They threw off their disguise, and Draupadi was won by Arjuna. 
The brothers then conducted Draupadi to their home. On their 
arrival they told their mother KuntI that they had made a great 
acquisition, and she unwittingly directed them to share it among 
tliem. The mother's command could not be evaded, and Vyasa 
confirmed her direction ; so Draupadi became the wife in com- 
mon of the five brothers, and it was arrancfed that she should 
dwell for two days in the house of each of the five brothers in 
succession. This marriage has been justified by a piece of 
special pleading, which contends that the five princes were all 
portions of one deity, and therefore onl}^ one distinct person, to 
whom a Avoman might lawfully be married. 

This public appearance made known the existence of the 
Pa?if/avas. Their uncle Dhrita-rash/ra recalled them to his court 
and divided his kingdom between his own sons and them. His 
sons received Hastina-pura, and the chief city given to his 
nephews was Indra-prastha on the river Yamuna, close to the 
modern Dellii, where the name still survives. The close proxi- 
mity of Hastina-pura and Indra-prastha shows tliat the territory 
of Dhrita-rash/ra must have been of very moderate extent. The 
reign of Yudhi-sli/hira was a pattern of justice and wisdom. 
Having conquered many countries, he announced his iirbention 
of performing the Raja-suya sacrifice, thus setting up a claim to 
universal dominion, or at least to be a king over kings. Tliis 
excited still more the hatred and envy of the sons of Dlwita- 
rfish^ra, who induced their father to invite the Pa??-f?avas to 
Hastina-pura. The Kauravas had laid their jilot, and insidiously 
prevailed upon Yudhi-sh/liira to gamble. His opponent was 
<Sakuni, uncle of the Kaurava princes, a great gambler and a 


cheat. Yiidhi-sli/liira lost his all : his wealth, his palace, his king- 
dom, his brothers, himself, and, last of all, their wife. Draiipadi 
was brought into the assembly as a slave, and when she rushed 
out she was dragged back again by her hair by Du/i-6'asana, an 
insult for which Bhima vowed to drink his blood. Dur-yodhana 
also insulted her by seating her upon his thigh, and Bhima 
vowed that he Avould smash that thigh. Eoth these vows he 
afterwards performed. Through the interference and commands 
of Dhrita-rash/ra the possessions of Yudhi-sh/hira were restored 
to him. Eut he was once more tempted to play, upon the con- 
dition that if he lost he and his brothers should pass twelve 
years in the forest, and should remain incognito during the 
thirteenth year. He was again the loser, and retired with his 
brothers and wife into exile. In the thirteenth year they en- 
tered the service of the king of Vira/a in disguise — Yudhi-sh/hira 
as a Brahman skilful as a gamester ; Bhima as a cook ; Arjuna 
as a eunuch and teacher of music and dancing; Nakula as a 
horse-trainer ; and Saha-deva as a herdsman. Draupadi also took 
service as attendant and needlewoman of the queen, Su-desh«-a. 
The five princes each assumed two names, one for use among 
themselves and one for public use. Yudhi-sh/hira was Jaya in 
private, Kanka in public ; Bhima Avas Jayanta and Ballava ; 
Arjuna was Vijaya and Brihan-nala ; Nakula was J aya-sena and 
Granthika; Saha-deva was Jayad-bala and Arish/a-nemi, aYaisya. 
The beauty of Draupadi attracted Kichaka, brother of the queen, 
and the chief man in the kingdom. He endeavoured to seduce 
her, and Bhima killed him. The relatives of Kichaka were about 
to burn Draupadi on his funeral pile, but Bhima appeared as a 
wild Gandliarva and rescued her. The brothers grew in favour, 
and rendered great assistance to the king in repelling the attacks 
of the king of Trigartta and the Kauravas. The time of exile being 
expired, the princes made themselves known, and Abhimanyu, 
son of Arjuna, received Uttara, the king's daughter, in marriage. 
The Paw6?avas now determined to attempt the recovery of 
their kingdom. The king of Yii^a/a became their firm ally, and 
preparations for the war began. Allies were sought on all sides. 
Krishwa and Bala-rama, being relatives of both parties, were re- 
luctant to fight. KrisliTia conceded to Arjuna and Dur-yodhana 
the choice of himself unarmed or of a large army. Arjuna chose 
Kr/sh?za and Dur-yodhana joyfully accepted the army. K7ish72a 


agreed to act as charioteer of liis especial friend Arjuna. It was 
in this capacity that he is represented to have spoken the divine 
song Bhagavad-gita, when the rival armies were drawn up for 
battle at Kuru-kshetra, a plain north of Dellii. Many battles 
follow. The army of Dur-yodliana is commanded in succession 
by his great-uncle Bhishma, Dro72a his military preceptor, Karwa, 
king of Anga, and ^Salya, king of Madra and brother of JMadrl. 
Bhishma was wounded by Arjuna, but survived for a time. All 
the others fell in succession, and at length only three of the 
Kuru warriors — K?'/pa, Aswatthaman, and K?'ita-varma — were 
left alive with Dur-yodhana. Bhima and Dur-yodliana fought in 
single combat with maces, and Dur-yodhana had his thigh broken 
and was mortally wounded. The three surviving Kauravas fell 
by night upon the camp of the Pawc^avas and destroyed five 
cliildren of the Pa7i(iavas, and all the army except the five bro- 
thers themselves. These five boys were sons of Draupadi, one 
by each of the five brothers. Yudhi-sh^hira's son was Prati- 
vindliya, Bhima's Avas /Sruta-soma, Arjuna's was iSruta-kirtti, 
Xakula's was ^S'atanika, and Saha-deva's was /Sruta-karman. 
Yudhi-shifhira and his brothers then went to Hastina-pura, and 
after a reconcihation with Dhr/ta-rash/ra, Yudhi-sh/hira was 
crowned there. But he was greatly depressed and troubled at 
the loss of kindred and friends. Soon after he was seated on 
the throne, the Aswa-medha sacrifice was performed with great 
ceremony, and the Pa?ic/avas lived in peace and prosperity. 

The old blind king Dhrita-rash/ra could not forget or forgive 
the loss of his sons, and mourned especially for Dur-yodliana. 
Bitter reproaches and taunts passed between him and Bhima ; 
at length he, with his wife Gandhiirl, with Kunti, mother of 
the PaTiiZavas, and with some of his ministers, retired to a 
hermitage in the woods, where, after two years' residence, they 
perished in a forest fire. Deep sorrow and remorse seized 
upon the Pawf/avas, and after a while Yudhi-sh/hira abdicated 
his throne and departed with his brothers to the Himfdayas, in 
order to reach the heaven of Indra on Mount Meru. A dog 
followed them from Hastina-pura. The story of this journey is 
full of grandeur and tenderness, and has been most efi"ectively 
rendered into EngUsh by Professor Goldstiicker. Sins and 
moral defects now prove fatal to the pilgrims. First fell Drau- 
padi : "too great was her love for Arjuna." Next Saha-deva : 
"he esteemed none equal to himself." Then Nakula : "ever 


was the thought in his heart, There is none equal in beauty to 
me." Arjuna's turn came next : "In one day I could destroy all 
my enemies." " Such was Arjuna's boast, and he falls, for he 
fulfilled it not." '\\nien Bhima fell he inquired the reason of his 
fall, and he was told, "When thou gazedst on thy foe, thou hast 
cursed him with thy breath ; therefore thou fallest to-day." 
Yudhi-sh^hira went on alone with the dog until he reached the 
gate of heaven. He was invited by Indra to enter, but he 
refused unless his brothers and Draupadi were also received. 
" Not even into thy heaven would I enter if they were not 
there." He is assured that they are already there, and is again 
told to enter "wearing his body of flesh." He again refuses 
unless, in the Avords of Pope, " admitted to that equal sky, his 
faithful dog shall bear him company." Indra expostulates in 
vain. " j^ever, come weal or come woe, will I abandon yon 
faithful dog." He is at length admitted, but to his dismay he 
finds there Dur-yodhana and his enemies, but not his brothers or 
Draupadi. He refuses to remain in heaven without them, and 
is conducted to the jaws of hell, where he beholds terrific sights 
and hears wailings of grief and anguish. He recoils, but well- 
known voices implore him to remain and assuage their sufferings. 
He trium^Dhs in this crowning trial, and resolves to share the 
fate of his friends in hell rather than abide with their foes in 
heaven. Having endured this supreme test, the whole scene is 
shown to be the effect of mdija or illusion, and he and his brothers 
and friends dAvell with Indra in full content of heart for ever. 

Such is the leading story of the Maha-bharata, which no 
doubt had a basis of fact in the old Hindu traditions. Different 
poets of different ages have added to it and embellished it by 
the powers of their imagination. Great additions have been 
made in later times. The Bhagavad-gita and the episode of 
Kala, with some others, are the productions of later writers ; the 
Hari-vansa, which affects to be a part of the Maha-bharata, is 
of still later date, and besides these, it cannot be doubted that 
numerous interpolations, from single verses to long passages, have 
been made to uphold and further the religious opinions of sects and 
individuals. To use the words of Max Miiller, "The epic character 
of the story has throughout been changed and almost obliterated 
by the didactic tendencies of the latest editors, who were clearly 
Brahmans brought up in the strict school of the laws of Manu." 

The date of the Maha-bharata is very uncertain, and is at best 

1 90 MA HA-BHARA TA . 

a matter of conjecture and deduction. As a compiled \york it is 
generally considered to be about a century later in date than the 
Ramaya?ia, though there can be no doubt that the general thread 
of the story, and the incidents directly connected with it, belong 
to a period of time anterior to the story and scenes of that epic. 
The fact that the scene of the Maha-bharata is in Upper India, 
while that of the Ramayawa is in the Dakhin and Ceylon, is of 
itself sufficient to raise a strong presumption in favour of the 
superior antiquity of the former. TVeber shows that the Maha- 
bharata was known to Dion Chrysostom in the second half of the 
first century a.d. ; and as Megasthenes, who was in India about 
315 B.C., says nothing about the epic, Weber's hypothesis is that 
the date of the Maha-bharata is between the two. Professor 
Williams believes that " the earliest or pre-brahmanical composi- 
tion of both epics took place at a period not later than the fifth 
century B.C.," but that "the first orderly completion of the two 
poems in their Brahmanised form may have taken place in the 
case of the Ramayawa about the beginning of the third century 
B.C., and in the case of the Maha-bharata still later." Lassen 
thinks that three distinct arrangements of the Maha-bharata are 
distinctly traceable. The varied contents of the Maha-bharata 
and their disjointed arrangement afford some warrant for these 
opinions, and although the Ramayawa is a compact, continuous, 
and complete poem, the professed work of one author, there are 
several recensions extant which differ considerably from eacli 
other. Taking a wide interval, but none too wide for a matter of 
such great uncertainty, the two poems may be considered as having 
assumed a complete form at some period in the six centuries pre- 
ceding the Christian era, and that the Ramaya^za had the priority. 
The complete text of the Maha-bharata has been twice printed in 
India, and a complete translation in French by Fauche has been 
interrupted by his death. But M. Fauche's translations are not 
in much repute. This particular one, says Weber, " can only 
pass for a translation in a very qualified sense." Many episodes 
and portions of the poem have been printed and translated. The 
following is a short epitome of the eighteen books of the Malia- 
bhiirata : — 

I. Adi-parva, 'Introductory book.' Describes the genealogy 
of the two families, the birth and nurture of Dh?7'ta-rrish/ra and 
Vimdu, their marriages, the births of the hundred sons of the 
former and the five of the latter, the enmity and rivalry between 


the young princes of the two branches, and the winning of 
Draupadi at the swayam-vara. 

2. Sahha-;parvaj 'Assembly book.' The assembly of the 
princes at Hastina-pura when Yudhi-sh/hira lost his kingdom 
and the Pawc/avas had to retire into exile. 

3. Vana-parva, ' Forest chapter.' The life of the Pa?i(;?avas in 
the Kamyaka forest. This book is one of the longest and con- 
tains many episodes : among them the story of IsTala, and an 
outline of the story of the Eamaya?ia. 

4. Virdta-jmrva, 'Yira/a chapter.' Adventures of the Paw?- 
avas in the thirteenth year of their exile, while they were in the 
service of King Vira/a. 

5. Udyoga-joarva, 'Effort book.' The preparations of both 
sides for war. 

6. BMshma-parva, 'Book of Bhishma.' The battles fought 
while Bhishma commanded the Kaurava army. 

7. Drona-parva, 'The Book of Dro?za.' Dro?ia'"s command of 
the Kaurava army. 

8. Kariia-jjarva, ' Book of Karwa.' Karwa's command and his 
death at the hands of Arjuna. 

9. Salya-parva, 'Book of jS'alya.' ^Salya's command, in which 
Dur-yodhana is mortally wounded and only three Kauravas are 
left alive. 

10. Sauptihi-parva, 'Nocturnal book.' The night attack of 
the three surviving Kauravas on the Pa7ic?ava camp. 

11. Stn-jMTva, 'Book of the women.' The lamentations of 
Queen Gandliari and the women over the slain. 

12. Sdnti-parva, 'Book of consolation.' A long and diffuse 
didactic discourse by Bhishma on the morals and duties of kings, 
intended to assuage the grief of Yudhi-sh/hira. 

13. Anusdsana-parva, 'Book of precepts.' A continuation of 
Bhishma's discourses and his death. 

14. A^wa-medhika-parva, ' Book of the Aswa-medha.' Yudlii- 
sh/hira's performance of the horse sacrifice. 

15. A^raraa-parva, 'Book of the hermitage.' The retirement 
of Dhrita-rash/ra, Gandhari, and KuntI to a hermitage in the 
woods, and their death in a forest fire. 

16. Mausala-parva, 'Book of the clubs.' The death of 
Kr/slma and Bala-rama, the submersion of Dwaraka by the sea, 
and the mutual destruction of the Yadavas in a fight with clubs 
(musala) of miraculous origin. 



17. Mahd-prasthdmka~parva, 'Book of the great journey.' 
Yiidhi-sh/liira's abdication of the throne, and his departure with 
his brothers towards the Himalayas on their way to Indra's 
heaven on Mount INIeru. 

18. Swargdrohcma-parva, 'Book of the ascent to heaven.' 
Entrance into heaven of Yudhi-sh/hira and his brothers, and of 
their wife Draupadi. 

The Hari-va?2sa (q.v.), detailing the genealogy, birth, and life 
of Kr/shwa at great length, is a supplement of much later date. 


Atri, tlie i^i'shi. 

Soma (Chandra or Indu), the Moon. 

Bud ha. 

- 1 




DevayanI + Yayati + ^ 



Puru (and two other sons). 

Yadu (and another son). 


1 Pauravas. 
Dushyanta + /Sakuntala. 













Kj'ishna. Bala-rama. 

(Line extinct.) 


Dh?'^ra + Gandhari. 

Ganga + -Santanu + Satyavati. 

Bhishma. [ | 

Chitrangada. Vichitra-vlrya, 

Vyasa + the two widows of 

-KuntI + PaucZu + Madri. 

Dur-yodhana and Kama. ] I 

99 other sons. I I 

Yudhi-shthira. Blilma. Arjuna. Nakula. Saha-deva. 


. I 


{See Chandra- vansa for the intervening and following names.) 


MAIIA-BHASHYA. A commentary by Patanjali on the 
Grammar of Pamni, in answer to the criticisms of Katyayana. 
A fine 2Dhoto-lithographed edition has been produced, under the 
superintendence of Professor Goldstiicker, at the expense of the 
Indian Government. The work has received a long notice in 
Weber's Indische Studien, vol, xiii., and has been the subject of 
much discussion in the Indian Antiquary. Other editions have 
appeared in India. 

MAHA-BHOJA. See Bhoja. 

MAHA-DEVA. ' The great god.' A name of /Siva. One 
of the Eudras. 

MAHA-DEYl. ' The great goddess.' A name of Devi, the 
wife of iS'iva. See Devi. 

MAHA-KALA. * Great Time.' i. A name of >Siva in his 
destructive character. [See /Siva.) 2. One of the twelve great 
Lingas. {See Linga.) 3. In the caves of Elephanta this form of 
/Siva is represented with eight arms. In one hand he holds a 
human figure ; in another, a sword or sacrificial axe ; in a third, 
a basin of blood ; in a fourth, the sacrificial bell ; with two he 
is drawing behind him the veil which extinguishes the sun ; and 
two are broken off. 4. Chief of the Ga?^as or attendants on /Siva. 

MAHA-KAVYAS. 'Great poems.' Six are classified under 
this title: — (i.) ; (2) Kumara-sambhava ; (3.) 
Megha-diita ; (4.) Kiratarjuniya ; (5.) /Sisupala-badlia ; (6.) 

MAHA-MAYA. See Maya. 

MAHA-^UIAKA. 'The great drama.' The Hanuman- 
na^^aka (q.v.). 

MAHA-PADMA NANDA. The last of the Nanda dynasty. 
See Chandra-gupta. 

MAHA-PRALAYA. A total dissolution of the universe at 
the end of a kalpa, when the seven lokas and their inhabitants, 
men, saints, gods, and Brahma himself, are annihilated. Called 
also Jahrmaka, Kshiti, and Sanhara. 

MAHA-PURAiVAS. 'The great PurS?2as.' The Vishwu 
and the Bhagavata, the two great Pura^zas of the Yaishnavas. 

MAHA-PURUSHA. ' The great or supreme male ; ' the 
supreme spirit. A name of Yish?m. 

IMAHARAJIKAS. A Gawa or class of inferior deities, 236 
or 220 in number. 


MAHAR. See Yyah?7'ti. 

MAHA-RASH JRA. The land of the Mahrattas. 

MAHAR-LOKA. See Loka. 

MAHARSHIS (Maha-rishis). 'Great i?ishis.' The great 
jR/shis or Prajapatis. See it/shi. 

MAHA-SEXA- 'The great captain.' A name of Kartikeya, 
god of war. 

MAHAT. The great intellect produced at the creation. 
See Vishnu Purawa, i. 29. 

MAHATMYA. 'Mamanimitv.' A lec^end of a shrine or 
other holy place. 

MAHA-YIRA CHARITA. ' The exploits of the gi-eat hero 
(Rama).' A drama by Bhava-bhiiti, translated into English by 
Pickford There are several editions of the text. " The situa- 
tions and sentiments of this drama are of a stirring and martial 
description, and the language is adapted with singular felicity to 
the subject from which it springs." — WiUon. 

MAHA-YOGL ' The great ascetic' A name of /S'iva. 

MAHA-YUGA. A great Yuga or age, consisting of 
4,320,000 years. See Yuga. 

MAHEXDRA. A name of Indra. One of the seven moun- 
tain ranges of India ; the hills wdiich run from Gondwana to 
Orissa and the Northern Circars. See Kula-parvatas. 

MAHE.SWARA. A name of .S'iva. 

MAHE^WARA PURAiVA. See Pura;^a. 

MAHISHA, MAHISHASURA. i. The great Asura or de- 
mon killed by Skanda in the Maha-bharata. {See Krauncha.) 
2. Also a demon killed by ChawfZa or Durga. 

MAHISHMATi, MAHISHMATl. The capital of Karta- 
virya, king of the Talajanghas, who had a thousand arms. It 
has been identified by Colonel Tod witli the village of Chuli 
INIahe.swar, which, according to him, is still called " the village 
of the thousand-armed." 

MAHODAYA. A name of the city of Kanauj. 

MAHORAGA (Maha + uraga). ' Great serpent.' The serpent 
*S'eslia, or any othey great serpent. 

MAIXAKA. A mountain stated in the IMahri-bliarata to be 
north of Kailasa ; so called as being the son of Himavat and ]\le- 
naka. When, as the poets sing, Indra clipped the wings of the 
mountains, this is said to have been the only one which escaped. 


This mountain, according to some, stands in Central India, and, 
according to others, near the extremity of the Peninsula. 

MAITREYA. A i^ishi, son of Kusarava, and disciple of 
Parasara. He is one of the interlocutors in the Vishmi and 
Bhac:avata Purawas. 

MAITREYI. Wife of the jRishi Yajnawalkya, who was in- 
doctrinated by her husband in the mysteries of religion and 

MAITRI, MAITRAYAA^I. An Upanishad of the Black 
Yajur-veda. It has been edited and translated by Professor 
Cowell for the Bihliotheca Indica. 

MAKANDI. A city on the Ganges, the capital of Southern 

MAKARA. A huge sea animal, which has been taken to be 
the crocodile, the shark, the dolphin, &c., but is probably a 
fabulous animal. It represents the sign Capricornus in the 
Hindu zodiac, and is depicted with the head and forelegs of 
an antelope and the body and tail of a fisk It is the vehicle 
of Varu?ia, the god of the ocean, and its figure is borne on the 
banner of Kama-deva, god of love. It is also called Ka?i/aka, 
Asita-dansh/ra, ' black teeth,' and Jala-riipa, ' water form.' 

MAKAKAS. The five m's. See Tantra. 

MAKHAVAT. A name of Indra. 

MALATI-MADHAVA (MalatI and Madhava). A drama by 
Bhava-bhuti, translated by Wilson. "This drama," says the 
translator, " off'ers nothing to offend the most fastidious dehcacy, 
and may be compared in this respect advantageously with many 
of the dramas of modern Europe which treat of the passion (of 
love) that constitutes its subject," 

MALAYA. The country of Malwa. 

MALAYIKAGXIMITRA (Malavika and Agnimitra). A 
drama ascribed to Kali-dasa, and although inferior to his other 
productions, it is probably his work. The text, with a translation, 
has been published by Tullberg. There is a German translation 
by Weber, an English one by Tawney, and a French one by 
Poucaux. The text has been printed at Bombay and Calcutta. 

MALAYA. The country of Malabar proper ; the moun- 
tains bordering Malabar. See Kula-parvatas. 

MALINA-MUKHA. ' Black faced.' Eakshasas and other 
demons, represented as having black faces. 


MALINI. ' SuiToimded with a garland {rndla) ' of Champa 
trees. A name of the city of Champa. 

MALLIKARJU:N'A. a name of iS^iva. One of the twelve 
great Lingas. See Linga. 

MALLIXATBA.. A poet, and author of commentaries of 
great repute on several of the great poems, as the Raghu-vansa, 
Megha-duta, /Sisupala-badha, &c. 

MAX AS A. ' The intellectual.' A name of the supreme being. 
Thus defined in the Maha-bharata : " The primeval god, with- 
out beginning or dissolution, indivisible, undecaying, and im- 
mortal, who is known and called by great ii/shis Manasa." 

MAXASA, MAXASA-SAROVARA. The lake Manasa in 
the Himalayas. In the Vayu Purawa it is stated that when the 
ocean fell from heaven upon Mount Meru, it ran four times 
round the mountain, then it divided into four rivers which ran 
down the mountain and formed four great lakes, Aruwoda on the 
east, Sitoda on^the west, Maha-bhadra on the north, and Manasa 
on the south. According to the mythological account, the river 
Ganges flows out of it, but in reality no river issues from this 
lake, though the river Satlej flows from another and larger lake 
called Ravawa-hrada, which lies close to the west of Manasa. 

MAXASA, MAXASA-DEYl. Sister of the serpent king 
♦S'esha, and wife of the sage Jarat-karu. She is also called Jagad- 
gaurl, Xitya (eternal), and Padmavati. She had special power 
in counteracting the venom of serpents, and was hence called 

MAXASA-PUTRAS. ' Mind (born) sons.' The seven or ten 
mind-born sons of Brahma. See Prajapati. 

MAXAS-TALA. The lion on which Devi rides. 

MAXAYA DHARMA-aS'ASTRA. The code of Manu. See 
Manu Sanhita. 

MAXAVA KALPA-SUTRA. Manu's work on Vaidik rites. 
Part of it has been published in facsimile by Goldstiicker. 

MAXAVA PURAiVA. See Purawa. 

MAXAVi. The wife of Manu. Also called IManayl. 

MAXDA-KARYI. A sage who dwelt in the Dam^aka forest, 
and is said in the Ramiiyawa to have formed a lake which was 
known by his name. His austerities alarmed tlie gods, and 
Indra sent five Apsarases to beguile him from his penance of 
" standing in a pool and feeding on nothing but air for 10,000 


years." They succeeded, and became his wives, and inhabited a 
house concealed in the lake, which, from them, was called Pan- 

MANDAKINL The heavenly Ganges. The Ganges. An 
arm of the Ganges wliich iBiows through Kediira-natha. A river 
near the mountain Chitra-kii/a (q.v.) in Bundelkhand. It was 
near the abode of Rama and Sita, and is mentioned both in the 
Ramayawa and Maha-bharata. It would seem to be the modern 

MAiV7)ALA. 'A circle, orb.' A circuit or territorial division, 
as Chola-ma726?ala, i.e., CoromandeL According to one arrange- 
ment, the Sanhita of the iiig-veda is divided into ten Ma7if/alas. 

MAi\^i)ALA-Xi^/TYA. A circular dance. The dance of 
the Gopis round Krishwa and Radha. 

MANDA-PALA. A childless saint, who, according to the 
Maha-bharata, after long perseverance in devotion and asceticism, 
died and went to the abode of Yama. His desires being still 
unsatisfied, he inquired the cause, and was told that all his 
devotions had failed because he had no son, no ])uh'aj {'put, 
* hell,' tra, ' drawer '), to save him from hell. He then assumed 
the form of a species of bird called /Sarngika, and by a female 
of that species, who was called • Jarita, he had four sons. 

MANDARA. The great mountain which the gods used for 
the churning of the ocean. It is supposed to be the mountain 
so named in Bhagalpur, which is held sacred. See Kiirma- 
avatara, under Avatara. 

IMANDAYl. Daughter of Ku5a-dhwaja, cousin of Sita, and 
wife of Rama's brother Bharata. 

MANDEHAS. A class of terrific Rakshasas, who were hos- 
tile to the sun and endeavoured to devour him. 

MANDHATi^/. A king, son of Yuvanaswa, of the race of 
Ikshwaku, and author of a hymn in the it/g-veda. The Hari- 
vansa and some of the Purawas make Mandhat^'i to have been 
born in a natural way from his mother Gauri, but the Yishwu 
and Bhagavata Pura?ias tell an extraordinary story about his 
birth, which is probably based upon a forced derivation of his 
name. Yuvanaswa had no son, which gTieved him much. 
Some holy sages near whom he lived instituted a religious rite 
to procure progeny for him. One night they placed a conse- 
crated vessel of water upon an altar as part of their ceremony, 

198 mandodarI—manthara. 

and the water became endowed with, prolific energy. Yuvan- 
aswa woke up in the night thirsty, and finding the water, he 
drank it. So he conceived, and in due time a child came forth 
from his right side. The sages then asked who would suckle 
the child, whereupon Indra appeared, gave his finger for the 
child to suck, and said, " He shall suck me," mam ayam dhds- 
yati. These words were contracted, and the boy was named 
Mandhatri. When he grew up he had three sons and fifty 
daughters. An old sage named Saubhari came to Mandhatri 
and asked that one might be given him to wife. Unwilling 
to crive one to so old and emaciated a man, but vet afraid to 
refuse, the king temporised, but at length yielded to the sage's 
request that the matter might be left to the choice of the girls. 
Saubhari then assumed a handsome form, and there was such 
a contention for him that he had to marry the whole fifty, 
and he provided for them a row of crystal palaces in a most 
beautiful garden. 

MANDODARl. Rava7za's favourite wife and the mother of 

MAiVi^UKEYA. A teacher of the ii/g-veda, who derived 
his knowledge from his father, Indra-pramati. 

MAiVDUKYA. J^ame of an Upanishad translated by Dr. 
Roer in the Bihliofheca Indica. 

MAXGALA. The planet Mars, identified with Kartikeya, 
the god of war. He was son of Siysl and the Earth, and as son 
of the Earth is called Angaraka, Bhauma, Bhiimi-putra, Mahl- 
suta. He is also called 6'iva-gharma-ja, ' born of the sweat of 
>S'iva ;' Gaganolmuka, ' the torch ,of the sky ; ' Lohita, 'the red ; ' 
Navarchi, ' the nine-rayed ; ' Chara, 'the spy;' Tt/Viantaka, 'ender 
of debts, patron of debtors.' See Kartikeya, 

MAiYI-BHADRA. The chief of the Yakshas and guardian 
of travellers. 

MAiVIMAT. A Rakshasa slain by Bhima. 

MAA^I-PURA, A city on the sea-coast of Kalinga, where 
Babhru-vahana, the son of Arjuna, dwelt. AAHieeler identifies it 
Avith the modern Munnipur or Muneepore, east of Bengal ; but 
this is very questionable. 

MANMATHA. A name of Kama, god of love. 

MANTHARA. An ugly deformed slave, nurse of Queen 
Kaikeyi, who stirred up her mistress's jealousy against Rama- 


cliaiidra, and led her to persuade King Da,9a-ratha to banish 
Rama from court. /S^atru-ghna beat her and threatened to kill 
her, but she was saved by his brother Bharata. 

MANTRA. That portion of the Yeda which consists of 
hymns, as distinct from the BrahmaTias. See Veda. 

MANU. (From the root man, to think.) ' The man.' This 
name belongs to fourteen mythological progenitors of mankind 
and rulers of the earth, each of whom holds sway for the period 
called a Manwantara [manu-antara), the age of a Manu, i.e., a 
period of no less than 4,320,000 years. The first of these Manus 
was Swayam-bhuva, who sprang from Swayam-blm, the self- 
existent. The self-existent, as identified with Brahma the 
creator, divided himself into two persons, male and female. 
From this pair was produced the male Viraj, and from him 
sprang the Manu Swayam-bhuva. As the acting creator, this 
Manu produced the ten Prajapatis or progenitors of mankind, 
called also Maharshis (mahd-rishis). According to another ac- 
count, this Manu sprang from the incestuous intercourse of 
Brahma with his daughter and wife, xS'ata-riipa* Brahma created 
himself Manu, " born of and identical with his original self, and 
the female portion of himself he constituted AS'ata-riipa," whom 
Manu took to wife. The law-book commonly known as Manu is 
ascribed to this Manu, and so also is a Siitra work on ritual bear- 
ing the same name. The Manu of the present age is the seventh, 
named Yaivaswata, 'sun-born,' who was the son of Vivaswat, the 
sun, and he is a Kshatriya by race. He is also called Satya-vrata, 
There are various legends about his having been saved from a 
great flood by Vishmi or Brahma. The names of the fourteen 
Manus are — (i.) Swayam-bhuva, (2.) Swarochisha, (3,) Auttami, 
(4.) Tamasa, (5.) Raivata, (6.) Chiikshusha, (7.) Vaivaswata or 
Satya-vrata, (8.) Savarwa, (9.) Daksha-savarwa, (10.) Brahma- 
savarTza, (11.) Dharma-savarwa, (12.) SavarTza or Rudra-savarwa, 
(13.) Rauchya, (14.) Bhautya, 

The sons of Manu Yaivaswata were — Ikshw^aku, Nabhaga or 
N?'iga, Dh?'zsh^a, jS'aryati, Narishyanta, Pran,su, Nabhaganedish/a 
or Nabhanedish/a, Kariisha, and*Pnshadhra. But there is some 
variety in the names. 

With the seventh Manu, Yaivaswata, is connected the very 
curious and interesting legend of the deluge. The first account 
of this is found in the ^S'atapatha Brahma?za, of which the fol- 

200 MANU. 

lowing is a summary : — One morning, in the water which was 
brought to Manu for washing his hands, he caught a fish which 
spake, and said, " Take care of me and I will preserve thee," 
Manu asked, " From what wilt thou preserve me ? " The fish 
answered, " A flood will carry away all living beings ; I will save 
thee from that." The fish desired Manu to keep him alive in 
an earthen vessel, to remove him to a dyke as he grew larger, 
and eventually to the ocean, " so that he might be beyond the 
risk of destruction." The fish grew rapidly, and again addressed 
Manu, saying, " After so many years the deluge will take j^lace; 
then construct a ship and pay me homage, and when the waters 
rise, go into the ship and I will rescue thee." Manu did as he 
was desired, he built the ship, conveyed the fish to the ocean, 
and did him homage. The flood rose, and Manu fastened the 
cable of the ship to the fish's horn. Thus he passed over the 
northern mountain (the Himalaj^a, as the commentator explains). 
The fish then desired Manu to fasten the ship to a tree, and to 
go down with the subsiding waters. He did so, and found that 
the flood had swept away all living creatures. He alone was 
left Desirous of offspring, he offered sacrifice and engaged in 
devotion. A woman was produced, who came to Manu and 
declared herself his daughter. " With her he lived, worshipping 
and toiling in arduous religious rites, desirous of offspring. With 
her he begat the offspring which is the offspring of Manu." 

The story, as told in the Maha-bharata, represents Manu as 
engaged in devotion by the side of a river, and the fish craving 
his protection from the bigger fisli. Manu placed the fish in a 
glass vase, but it grew larger and larger till tlie ocean alone could 
contain it. Then it warned IManu of the coming flood, and 
directed him to build a shij:) and to embark with the seven 
jKishis. He did so, and fastened liis ship to the horn of the fish. 
Then, according to the rendering of Professor Williams — 

" Along the ocean in that stately ship was borne the lord of men, 

and through 
Its dancing, tumbling billows and its roaring waters ; and the 

Tossed to and fro by violent winds, reeled on the surface of the 

Staggering and trembling like a drunken woman : land was seen 

no more, 


Nor far horizon, nor the space between ; for everjwhere around 

Spread the wild waste of waters, reeking atmosphere, and bound- 
less sky. 

And now, when all the world was deluged, nought appeared above 
the waves 

But Manu and the seven sages, and the fish that drew the bark. 

Unwearied thus for years on years that fish pulled on the ship 

The heaped-up waters, till at length it bore the vessel to the peak 

Of Himavan ; then, softly smiling, thus the fish addressed the 
sage : 

^ Haste now to bind thy ship to this high crag. Know me, the lord 
of all, 

The great creator Brahma, mightier than all might, omnipotent. 

By me, in fish-like shape, have you been saved in dire emergency. 

From Manu all creation, gods, Asuras, men, must be produced ; 

By him the world must be created, that which moves and moveth 

The commentators on this legend of the Malia-bharata give a 
metaphysical turn to the legend, and endeavour to illustrate it by 
pliilosophical and allegorical interpretations. The same story is 
reproduced with variations in the Matsya, Bhagavata, and Agni 
Pura?2as, and Muir has given translations of the passages in 
voL i. of his Sanshrit Texts. 

In the Eamayawa mention is made of a female IManu, and 
it appears that the word is sometimes used for " the wife of 

MANU-SANHITA. The well-known law-book, the Code 
of Manu, or Institutes of ]\Ianu. It is attributed to the first 
Manu, Swayam-bhuva, who existed nearly thirty millions of years 
ago, but it bears the marks of being the production of more than 
one mind. This is the first and chief of the ^A'orks classified as 
Sniriti, and is a collection or digest of current laws and creeds 
rather than a planned systematic code. It is the foundation of 
Hindu law, and is held in the highest reverence. The w^ork 
belongs to aj period later than that of the Vedas, when the 
Brahmans had obtained the ascendancy, but its deities are 
those of the Yedic rather than the Epic or Pura?zic age. It is 
apparently anterior to the philosophical schools. The fifth cen- 
tury B.C. is supposed to be about the time when it was composed, 
but the rules and precepts it contains had probably existed as 


traditions long before. It is commonly called the Code of Manu, 
and was current among the Manavas, a class or school of Brah- 
mans who were followers of the Elack Yajur-veda; but it deals 
with many subjects besides law, and is a most important record 
of old Hindu society. It is said to have consisted originally of 
100,000 verses, arranged in twenty-four chapters; that Xarada 
shortened the work to 12,000 verses; and that Sumati made a 
second abridgment, reducing it to 4000, but only 2685 are extant. 
It is evident that there was more than one redaction of the laws 
of the Manavas, for a Brihan or Yrihan Manu, 'great Manu,' and 
Vriddha Manu, ' old Manu,' are often referred to. Sir W. Jones's 
translation, edited by Haughton, is excellent, and is the basis of all 
others in French, German, &c. The text has often been printed. 

MA:N'WANTARA (Manu-antara). The life or period of a 
Manu, 4,320,000 years. 

MARICHA. A Rakshasa, son of Taraka. According to the 
KamayaTia he interfered with a sacrifice which was being per- 
formed by Yiswamitra, but was encountered by Eama, who 
discharged a weapon at him, which drove him one hundred 
yojanas out to sea. He was afterwards the minister of Rava-^a, 
and accompanied him to the hermitage where Rama and Sita 
were dwelling. There, to inveigle Rama, he assumed the shape 
of a golden deer, which Rama pursued and killed. On receiv- 
ing his death-wound he resumed a Rilkshasa form and spake, 
and Rama discovered whom he had killed. In the meanwhile 
Ravawa had carried off Sita. 

MARICHI. Chief of the Maruts. Name of one of the 
Prajapatis. {See Prajiipati.) He is sometimes represented as 
springing direct from Brahma. He was father of Ka^yapa, and 
one of the seven great it/shis. See itishi. 

MARISHA. Daughter of the sage Kaw(7u, and wife of the 
Prachetasas, but from the mode of her birth she is called 
" the nursling of the trees, and daughter of the wind and the 
moon." She was mother of Daksha. Her motlier was a celestial 
nymph named Pramlocha, who beguiled the sage Iva??f?u from 
his devotions and lived with liim for a long time. When the 
sage awoke from his voluptuous delusion, he drove her from his 
presence. " She, passing through the air, wiped the perspira- 
tion from her with the leaves of the trees," and " the child she 
had conceived by the 7?ishi came forth from the pores of her skiu 


in drops of perspiration. The trees received the living dews, 
and the winds collected them into one mass. Soma matured 
this by his rays, and gradually it increased in size till the ex- 
halations that had rested on the tree-tops became the lovely 
girl named Marisha." — Vishnu Purdna. According to the same 
authority Marisha had been in a former birth the childless 
widow of a king. Her devotion to Vish?zu gained his favour, 
and he desired her to ask a boon. She bewailed her childless 
state, and prayed that in succeeding births she might have 
" honourable husbands and a son equal to a patriarch." Slie 
received the promise that she should be of marvellous birth, 
should be very beautiful, and should have ten husbands of 
mighty prowess, and a son whose posterity should fill the 
universe. This legend is no doubt an addition of later date, 
invented to account for the marvellous origin of Marisha. 

MARKAiVDEYA. A sage, the son of Mrika^uh, and reputed 
author of the Marka7i6?eya PuraTia. He was remarkable for his 
austerities and great age, and is called Dirghayus, 'the long-lived.' 

MARKAA^DEYA PURAA^A. "That Purawa in which, 
commencing with the story of the birds that were acquainted 
with right and wrong, everything is narrated fully by Mar- 
'kandejsi as it was explained by holy sages in reply to the 
question of the Muni, is called the Markawf^eya, containing 
9000 verses." This Purawa is narrated in the first place by 
MliTkandeja, and in the second by certain fabulous birds pro- 
foundly versed in the Vedas, who relate their knowledge in 
answer to the questions of the sage Jaimini. " It has a character 
different from all the other Pura?ias. It has nothing of a 
sectarial spirit, little of a religious tone ; rarely inserting prayers 
and invocations to any deity, and such as are inserted are 
brief and moderate. It deals little in precepts, ceremonial or 
moral Its leading feature is narrative, and it presents an un- 
interrupted succession of legends, most of which, when ancient, 
are embellished with new circumstances, and, when new, par- 
take so far of the spirit of the old, that they are disinterested 
creations of the imagination, having no particular motive, being 
designed to recommend no special doctrine or observance. 
Whether they are derived from any other source, or whether 
they are original inventions, it is not possible to ascertain. 
They are most probably, for the greater part at least, original ; 


and the whole has been narrated in the compiler's own manner, 
a manner superior to that of the Pura?ias in general, with ex- 
ception of the Bhagavata." The popular Durga Mahatmya or 
Cha?26?ipa/ha is an episode of this Pura?m. In the absence of 
any guide to a positive conclusion as to the date, it may con- 
jecturally be placed in the ninth or tenth century. Professor 
Banerjea places it in the eighth century. This Pura?ia has been 
published in the Bihliotheca Indica, and translated by the Rev. 
Professor K. M. Banerjea. 

MARTTANDA. In the Yedas the sun or sun god. 

MARTYA-MUKHA. 'Human-faced.' Any being in which 
the figures of a man and animal are combined. 

MARUTS. The storm gods, who hold a very prominent 
place in the Yedas, and are represented as friends and allies 
of Indra. Yarious origins are assigned to them. They are sons 
of Rudra, sons and brothers of Indra, sons of the ocean, sons of 
heaven, sons of earth. They are armed with lightnings and 
thunderbolts, and "ride on the whirlwind and direct the storm." 
The number of them is said in one place to be thrice sixty, and 
in another only twenty-seven. In the Ramaya?ia they are repre- 
sented to have their origin in an unborn son of Diti, whom 
Indra dashed into forty-nine pieces with his thunderbolt, and in 
compassion converted into Maruts. This is also the storj'- 
told in the Purawas, and they are said to have obtained their 
name from the words md rodih, *weep not,' which Indra ad- 
dressed to them. A scholiast on the Yeda says, that after their 
birth from Diti, as above told, /S'iva and Parvati beheld them in 
great affliction, and the latter asked Siva to transform the lumps 
of flesh into boys ; he accordingly made them boys of lil^e form, 
like age, and similarly accoutred, and gave them to Parvati as 
her sons, Avhence they are called the sons of Rudra. Other 
legends are, that Parvati, hearing the lamentations of Diti, 
entreated iS'iva to give forms to the shapeless births, telling them 
not to weep (md rodlh) ; and another, that he actually begot 
them in the form of a bull on Prithivi, the earth, as a cow. 
(See Diti.) AU these legends have manifestly been invented to 
explain those passages of the Yedas Avhich make the Maruts 
the sons of Rudra. The world of the Maruts, called IMiiruta, is 
the appointed heaven of Yai^yas. 2. The god of the wind, and 
regent of the north-west quarter. 


IMARUTTA. I. A descendant of Manu Yaivaswata. He was 
a Cliakravarti, or universal monarcli, and performed a celebrated 
sacrifice. " Never," says the Visli7iu Pura?za, " was beheld on 
earth a sacrifice equal to the sacrifice of Marutta. All the im- 
plements and utensils were made of gold. Indra was intoxicated 
with the libations of soma juice, and the Brahmans were en- 
raptured with the magnificent donations they received. The 
winds of heaven encompassed the rite as guards, and the assembled 
gods attended to behold it." According to the Vayu PuraTia, 
Marutta was taken to heaven with his kindred and friends by 
Samvarta, the officiating priest at this sacrifice. But the Mar- 
ka?zc?eya Pura?ia says he was killed after he had laid down his 
crown and retired to the woods. 2. A king of the Solar race, 
who was killed by Vapushmat, and fearfully avenged by his son 
Dama (q.v.). 

MATALI Charioteer of Indra. 

MATANGA. 'An elephant.' A man who was brought up 
as a Brahman but was the son of a Cha?^c?ala. His story, as 
told in the Maha-bharata, relates that he was mercilessly goading 
an ass's foal which he was driving. The mother ass, seeing this, 
tells her foal that she could expect no better, for her driver was 
no Brahman but a Cha?Z(^ala. Matanga, addressing the ass as 
*' most intelligent," begged to know how this was, and was in- 
formed that his mother when intoxicated had received the 
embraces of a low-born barber, and that he, the offspring, was a 
Cha?Z(r/ala and no Brahman. In order to obtain elevation to the 
position of a Brahman, he went through such a course of aus- 
terities as alarmed the gods. Indra refused to admit him. He 
persevered again for a hundred years, but still Indra persistently 
refused such an impossible request, and advised him to seek 
some other boon. Nothing daunted, he went on a thousand 
years longer, with the same result. Though dejected he did not 
despair, but proceeded to balance himself on his great toe. He 
continued to do this for a hundred years, when he was reduced 
to mere skin and bone, and was on the point of falling. Indra 
went to support him, but inexorably refused his request, and, 
when further importuned, " gave him the power of moving 
about like a bird, and changing his shape at will, and of being 
honoured and renowned." In the Ramayawa, Rama and Sita 
visited the hermitage of Matanga near ^ishya-miika mountain. 


MATARI--S^VA]S'. An aerial being who is represented in the 
i?ig-veda as bringing down or producing Agni (fire) for the 
Bhngus. By some supposed to be the wind. 

MATHUEA. An ancient and celebrated city on the right 
bank of the Yamuna, surviving in the modern Muttra. It was 
the birthplace of Krisli7ia and one of the seven sacred cities. The 
Vishmi PuraTia states that it was originally called Madhu or 
]\Iadhu-vana, from the demon Madliu, who reigned there, but 
that when Lavawa, his son and successor, was killed by /S'atru- 
ghna, the conqueror set up his oa^ti rule there and built a city 
which he called Madliura or Mathura. 

MATii/S. ' Mothers ' The divine mothers. These appear 
to have been originally the female energies of the great gods, as 
Brahma?a of Brahma, Maheswarl of iS'iva, Yaish??avi of Yislmu, 
Indrawi or Aindrl of Indra, &c. The number of them was 
seven or eight or sixteen, but in the later mythology they have 
increased out of number. They are connected with the Tantra 
worship, and are represented as worshipping ^Siva and attending 
upon his son Kartikeya. 

MATSYA. 'A fish.' i. The Fish Incarnation. (iS'^e Avatara.) 
2. Name of a country. Wilson says, "Dinajpoor, Rungpoor, 
and Cooch Behar ;" but there was more than one country of this 
name, and one would appear to have been situated in Northern 
India. Manu places Matsya in Brahmarshi. According to the 
Maha-bharata, King Yira/a's capital was called Matsya, his people 
also were called Matsyas, and he himself was styled Matsya. 
General Cunningham finds it in the neighbourhood of Jaypur, 
and says that the town of Yira^ or Baira/, 105 miles south of 
Dcllii, was its capital. 

MATSYA PURAYA. This Purawa is so called from its con- 
tents having been narrated to Manu by Yish7m in the form of a 
fish [mafsya). It consists of between 14,000 and 15,000 stanzas. 
This work " is a miscellaneous compilation, but includes in its 
contents the elements of a genuine Purilwa. At the same time, 
it is of too mixed a character to be considered as a genuine work 
of the PaurarJk class. Many of its chapters are the same as 
parts of the Yishwi and Padma Puriiwas. It has also drawn 
largely from the jMahfi-bharata. " Although a iS'aiva work, it is 
not exclusively so, and it has no such sectarial absurdities as the 
Kiirma and Linga." 

AfA UNE YA S— MED ml 207 

MAUNEYAS. A class of Gandharvas, sons of Kasyapa, 
who dwelt beneath the earth, and were sixty millions in num- 
ber. They overpowered the Nagas, and compelled them to flee 
to YishTiu for assistance, and he sent Purukutsa against them, 
who destroyed them. 

MAUEYA. The dynasty founded by Chandra-gupta at 
Pa^ali-putra (Patna) in Magadha. According to the VisliTiu 
Pura?ia, the Maurya kings were ten in number and reigned 137 
years. Their names were — (i.) Chandi-a-gupta, (2.) Bindu-sara, 
(3.) Asoka-vardhana, (4.) Su-ya6'as, (5.) Dasa-ratha, (6.) Sangata, 
(7.) /S'llli-siika, (8.) Soma-6'arman, (9.) /S'asa-dharman, (10.) Bn'- 
had-ratha. The names vary in other Puril?ias. See Chandra- 

MAYA. A Daitya who was the architect and artificer of the 
Asuras, as Viswa-karma was the artificer of the Suras or gods. 
Ho was son of Yiprachitti and father of Yajra-kama and Mando- 
dari, wife of Kava?ia. He dwelt in the Deva-giri mountains not 
very far from Delhi, and his chief works were in the neighbour- 
hood of that city, where he worked for men as well as Daityas. 
The iMaha-bharata speaks of a palace he built for the Pa7i<iavas. 
In the Hari-vau5a he appears frequently both as victor and van- 
quished in contests with the gods. 

MAYA, ' niusion, deception,' i. Illusion personified as a 
female form of celestial origin, created for the purj^ose of beguil- 
ing some individual Sometimes identified with Durga, as the 
source of spells, or as a personification of the unreality of worldly 
things. In this character she is called Maya-devi or Maha- 
maya, 2. A name of Gay a, one of the seven sacred cities. 

MAYA-DEYl, MAYA-YATl. Wife of the demon ^ambara. 
She brought uj) Pradyumna, the son of Krish7^a, and subse- 
quently married him. Pradyumna is represented as being a 
revived embodiment of Kama, the god of love ; and in accord- 
ance with this legend Maya-vati is identified with his wife Eati, 
the Hindu Yenus. See Maya, 

MAYU. ' Bleater, bellower.' The Kinnaras are called Majois. 

MEDHATITHI. j!^ame of a Ka?iwa who was a Yedic i^ishi. 
There is a legend in one of the Upanishads that he was carried 
up to heaven by Indra in the form of a ram, because the god had 
been pleased with his austerities. Cf. Ganymede. 

MEDIXI. The earth. See Kai/abha. 


MEDIXi, ]\rEDINl - KOSHA. A weU-kuown Sanskrit 
vocabulary. There are printed editions. 

MEGHA-DUTA. ' Cloud messenger.' A celebrated poem 
by Kali-dasa, in wliicli a banished Yaksha implores a cloud to 
convey tidings of him to his wife. It has been translated into 
English verse by Wilson, and there are versions in French and 
German. The text has been printed with a vocabulary by 

MEGHA-NADA. A son of Kavawa. See Indra-jit. 

!MEKALA. Name of a mountain from which the l^armada 
river is said to rise, and from which it is called jNIekala and 
Mekala-kanya, 'daughter of Mekala.' There was a people of 
this name, who probably lived in the vicinity of this mountain. 
Their kings were also called Mekalas, and there appears to have 
been a city Mekala. 

MEN A, MENAKA. i. In the i?«*g-veda, a daughter of 
V?ishan-aswa. A Bralima?ia tells a strange story of Indra 
having assumed the form of Mena and then fallen in love with 
her. In the Pura?ias, wife of Himavat and mother of Uma and 
Ganga, and of a son named Mainaka. 2. An Apsaras sent to 
seduce the sage Viswrimitra from liis devotions, and succeeding 
in this object, she became the mother of the nymph ^S'akuntala. 

MERU. A fabulous mountain in the navel or centre of the 
earth, on which is situated Swarga, the heaven of Indra, con- 
taining: the cities of the ^0^% and the habitations of celestial 
spirits. The Olymjms of the Hindus. Regarded as a terrestrial 
object, it would seem to be some mountain north of the Hima- 
layas. It is also Su-meru, Hemadri, ' golden mountain ; ' Ratna- 
sanu, 'jewel peak;' Kar/akachala, 'lotus mountain;' and 
Amaradri and Deva-parvata, 'mountain of the gods.' 

:MERU-SAVARiVAS. The ninth, tenth, eleventh, and 
twelfth Manus, said to be the " mind-engendered sons of a 
daughter of Daksha by himself and the three gods Brahma, 
Dharma, and Rudra, to whom he presented her on Mount 
Meru." The signification of the appellation INIeru is obvious ; 
that of SavarTia or Savar;d signifies that they were all of one 
caste (varnct). 

MiMANSA. A school of j)hilosophy. See Dar.s^ana. 

MI^IANSA-DAR/S'ANA. A work on the IMlmiinsa philo- 
sophy. Printed in the Bihliothcca Indica. 


MIMANSA-YARTTIKA. A work on the Mimansa philo- 
sophy by Kumarila Eha//a. 

MINJIKA (mas.) and MINJIKA (fern.). Two beings who, 
according to the Maha-bharata, sprang from the seed of Rudra, 
which was spilt upon a mountain. They are to be worshii^ped 
by those who desire the welfare of children. 

MITAKSHARA. A commentary by Vijnaneswara on the 
Smriti or text-book of Yajnawalkya. The authority of this 
book is admitted all over India, with the exception of Bengal 
proper. The portion on inlieritance has been translated by 
Colebrooke, and into French by Orianne. The text has been 
printed in India. 

MITHILA. A city, the capital of Videha or North Bihiir, 
which corresponds to the modern Tirhut and Puraniya, between 
the GandakI and Ko5i rivers. It has given its name to one of 
the five northern nations of Brrdimans {see Brahman), and to a 
school of law. It was the country of King Janaka, and the 
name of his capital, Janaka-pura, still survives in " Janakpoor," 
on the northern frontier. 

MITRA. Probably connected with the Persian Mithra. A 
form of the sun. In the Vedas he is generally associated with 
Yaru??a, he being the ruler of the day and Varu?ia the ruler of 
the night. They together ujDhold and rule the earth and sky, 
guard the world, encourage religion, and chastise sin. He is 
one of the Adityas or sons of Aditi. 

MITRA-SAHA. A king called also Kalmasha-pada (q.v.). 

MLECHHAS. Foreigners, barbarians, people not of Aryan 

MOHA-MUDGARA. ' Hammers for ignorance.' A poem 
in explanation of the Yedanta philosoj^hy. It has been printed 
and translated by IST^ve. 

Mi?/CHCHHAKATi 'The toy-cart.' A drama in ten acts 
by King /Sudraka, supposed to be the oldest Sansk?'it drama 
extant, and to have been written in the first or second century 
A.D. The country over which ^Siidraka reigned is not known. 
This play, says Wilson, its translator, " is a curious and interest- 
ing picture of national manners . . . free from all exterior 
influence or adulteration. It is a portrait purely Indian. It 
represents a state of society sufhciently advanced in civilisation 
to be luxurious and corrupt, and is certainly very far from 



offering a flattering similitude, although not without some 
attractive features." Williams observes, " The dexterity with 
which the plot is arranged, the ingenuity Avith which the inci- 
dents are connected, the skill with which the characters are 
delineated and contrasted, the boldness and felicity of the 
diction, are scarcely unworthy of our own great dramatists." 
There are translations in French and several editions of the 

Mi?/GAXKA-LEKHA. A play in four acts, written by 
Yiswa-natha at Benares. The piece takes its name from the 
heroine, a princess of Kamariipa. It is a comparatively modern 

Mi^/TYU. ' Death.' A name of Yama, the god of the dead. 

MUCHUKUXDA. In the Pura?ias, son of Mandhat?'/, and 
called 'king of men.' He rendered assistance to the gods in 
their wars with the Asuras or demons, and he asked and 
obtained as a reward the boon of a long uninterrupted sleep. 
AYliosoever disturbed him was to be burnt to ashes by fire 
issuing from his body. Kala-yavana was lured into his cave 
by Kr^'shwa and woke the sleeper, who cast a fiery glance upon 
the intruder which destroyed him. Muchukunda then paid 
laud and honour to Knsh?ia, who gave him power to go to 
whatever celestial region he wished, and to enjoy all heavenly 
pleasures. Muchukunda left his cave and went to Gandha- 
madana to perform peiiance. The Maha-bharata says he was 
reproved by Kuvera for trusting to his priest more than to his 
own prowess for success in war, but he replied that the religious 
aid of Brahmans was as necessary as the warlike powers of 

MUDGALA. A Yedic Tiishi from whom the Maudgalya 
Brahmans sprang. There were several other Brahmans named 
JSIudgala. A sage of this name is recorded in the Maha-bharata 
to have " lived a life of poverty, piety, and self-restraint, otler- 
ing hospitality to thousands of Brahmans, according to his 
humble means, with the grain which he gleaned like a pigeon, 
and which (like the widow of Zarephath's oil) never underwent 
diminution, or rather increased again, when it was required." 
The choleric sage Dur-vasas went to test the patience of Mudgala, 
and six times devoured all the food which his host possessed 
without ruffling his temper. Dur-vasas in his admiration de- 


clared that Mudgala would go bodily to heaven, and the mes- 
senger of the gods arrived with his heavenly car. The sage, 
before accepting the invitation, desired to be informed of the 
joys and ills of heaven. After hearing a full explanation, he 
found that the enjoyments of heaven must come to a close, so 
he declared that he " had no desire for heaven, and would seek 
only that, eternal abode where there is no sorrow, nor distress, 
nor change." He dismissed the messenger of the gods, and 
began to practise ascetic virtues, becoming indifferent to j)raise 
and blame, regarding clods, gold, stones, and gold as alike. 
Pure knowledge led to fixed contemplation ; and that again 
imparted strength and complete comprehension, whereby he 
obtained supreme eternal perfection in the nature of quietude 

MUDEA-RAKSHASA. 'The signet of the minister.' A 
drama by Visakha-datta. This play has an historical interest, for 
Chandra-gupta, the Sandracottus of Greek writers, is a leading 
character in it. The date of its production is apparently the 
eleventh or twelfth century a.d. It is one of the dramas trans- 
lated by Wilson, who says, " The author was not a poet of the 
sj)here of Bhava-bhiiti or Kali-dasa. His imagination rises not to 
their level, and there is scarcely a brilliant or beautiful thought 
in the play. As some equivalent for the want of imagination, 
he has a vigorous perception of character and a manly strain of 
sentiment, that are inferior only to elevated conception and deli- 
cate feeling. He is the Massinger of the Hindus. The language 
of the original partakes of the general character of the play ; it is 
rarely beautiful or delicate, but always vigorous, and occasion- 
ally splendid." 

MUGDHA-BODHA. A standard Grammar by Yopadeva, 
written towards the end of the thirteenth century. It has been 
edited by Bohtlingk, and there are several Indian editions. 

MtJKA. A Danava, son of Upasunda. He assumed the form 
of a wild boar in order to kill Arjuna, but was himself killed by 
/Siva in his form of the Kirata or mountaineer. 

MUKHAGNL ' Fiery-faced. ' Spirits or goblins with faces 
of fire, perhaps meteors. 

MUiVDA. 'Bald.' An appellation of Ketu. Is^ame of a 
demon slain by Durga. 

MUiVDAKA. Name of a Upanishad (q.v.) translated by 


Dr. Eoer in tlie EihVwiheca Indica and by Eammoliim Eoy. 
There are several editions of tlie text. 

MUX I. " X holy sage, a pious and learned person, endowed 
with more or less of a divine nature, or having attained to it by 
rigid abstraction and mortification. The title is applied to the 
^/shis, and to a great number of persons distinguished for their 
writings considered as inspired, as Pa?iini, Tyasa." Their super- 
human powers over gods and men have been often displayed in 
blessings, but more frequently in curses. 

MUEA, ]\IUEU. A great demon who had seven thousand 
sons. He was an allv of the demon Xaraka, who ruled over 
Prag-jyotisha, and assisted him in the defence of that city 
against KWsh;?a. He placed in the environs of the city " nooses 
the edges of which were as sharp as razors," but K//sh«a cut 
them to pieces with his discus, slew Muru, " and burnt his seven 
thousand sons like moths with the flame of the edge of his discus." 

MUEAEI. ' The foe of Mura.' An appellation of K;'/sh«a, 

MUEAEl ^IIaS'EA. Author of the drama Murari Xafaka or 
Anargha Eaghava (q.v.). 

MUSALA. The pestle-shaped club carried by Bala-rama. It 
was named Saunanda. 

'Armed with a pestle.' An appellation of Bala-rama. 

MUSHJIKA.. A celebrated boxer in the service of Kan^a, 
who directed him to kill Krishna or Bala-rama in a public en- 
counter, but Bala-rama overthrew him and killed him. 

iJ^DISH JIIA. A son of jNIanu, who, wliile he was living as 
a Brahmachari, was deprived of his inlieritance, by his father 
according to the Yajur-veda, by his brothers according to the 
Aitareya Brahma 7?a. He subsequently acquired wealth by im- 
parting spiritual knowledge. 

NACHIKETAS. The story of Xacliiketas is told in the 
Taittiriya Bralima7?a and Katha Upanishad. Vaja-c<;ravasa or" 
Aruwi, the father of Xachiketas, desirous of attaining heaven, 
performed great sacrifices, and was profuse in his gifts to the 
priests. The son told him that he had not given all, for that 
he, his son, was left, and said, " To whom shall I be given % " 
On repeating the question, the father angrily replied, "To death.'* 
So the son dejiarted to the abodes of death, and, after staying 


there three nights, Yama was constrained to offer him a boon. 
He prayed to see his father again and be reconciled. This boon 
was granted and another offered. All kinds of blessings were 
proposed, but the youth refused to be contented with anything 
but a true knowledge of the soul. Yama then proceeded to 
instruct hiuL The story has been done into verse by Muir 
(Texts, vol. V. p. 329). 

NAGA. A snake, especially the cobra-capella. A mythical 
semi-divine being, having a human face with the tail of a ser- 
pent, and the expanded neck of the cobra. The race of JS'agas 
is said to be a thousand in number, and to have sprung from 
Kadru, the wife of Kasyapa, for the purpose of peopling Patala, 
or the regions below the earth, where they reign in great 
splendour. From the name of their mother they are called 
Ivadraveyas. Their mother is sometimes called Su-rasa. This 
dominion was taken from them by the Gandharvas, but they 
recovered it through their sister, the Xarmada river, who induced 
Yishwu to send Pratardana to their assistance. Their females 
were handsome, and some of them intermarried with men, as 
Ulupi with Arjuna. 

The IS^agas, or a people bearing the same name, are historical, 
and have left many traces behind them. There were mountains so 
called, and Naga-dwipa was one of the seven divisions of Bharata- 
varsha. Kings of this race reigned at ]\Iathura, Padmavati, &c., 
and the name survives in the modern Xagpur. There are various 
speculations as to who and what they were, but it seems clear 
they were a race distinct from the Hindus. The mythological 
accounts are probably based upon the historical, but they have 
been mixed up together and confused. The favourite theory is 
that they were a Scythic race, and probably obtained their name 
from worshipping serpents or holding them in awe and reverence. 

iJsi'AGA-LOKA. Patala, the residence of the Kagas. 

NAGA-NAXDAXA. A Buddhist drama in five acts by Ai 
Harsha Deva. It has been translated by Boyd. The text has 
been printed. 

XAGAEA. A city. There are seven sacred cities which 
confer eternal happiness — (i.) Ayodhya, (2.) Mathura, (3.) Ma^^a 
(Gaya), (4.) £a<bi (Benares), (5.) Kanchi (Conjeveram), (6.) 
Avanti or Avantika (Ujjajini), (7.) Dwaraka or DwaravatL 

XAHUSHA. Son of Ayus the eldest son of Pururavas, and 


father of Yayati. This king is mentioned by Mann as having 
come into conflict with the Brahmans, and his story is repeated 
several times with variations in different parts of the ]Maha- 
hharata as well as in the Pura/zas, the aim and object of it 
evidently being to exhibit the retribution awaiting any man who 
derogates from the power of Erahmans and the respect due to 
them. " By sacrifices, austere fervour, sacred study, self-restraint, 
and valour, jSTahusha acquired the undisturbed sovereignty of 
the three worlds. . . . Through want of virtuous humility the 
great king Xahusha was utterly ruined." — Maim. One version 
of the story says that he aspired to the possession of Indra?zi, wife 
of Indra, when that god had concealed himself for having killed 
a Brahman. A thousand great Rkhis, bore the car of Xahusha 
through the air, and on one occasion he touched with his foot 
the great Agast^^a, who was carrying him. The sage in his anger 
cried out, " Fall, thou serpent," and Nahusha fell from his 
glorious car and became a serpent. Agastya, at the supplication 
of Xahusha, put a limit to the curse ; and according to one ver- 
sion, the doomed man was released from it by the instrumentality 
of Yudhi-shrtiira, when he threw off " his huge reptile form, 
became clothed in a celestial body, and ascended to heaven." 

ISTAIKASHEYAS. Carnivorous imps descended from Xi- 
kasha, mother of Ravarza. They are called also Nikashatmajas. 

NAIMISHA, XAIMISHARAiVYA. A forest {arawja) near 
the Gomati (Gumtl) river, in which the Maha-bharata was 
rehearsed by Sauti to the assembled itishis. 

XAIRit/TA. Belonging to the south-west quarter; the 
regent of that quarter. An imp, goblin, or Efdvshasa. 

the life of Xala, king of Nishadha, by AS'ri Harsha, a great scep- 
tical philosopher who lived in the eleventh or twelfth century 
A.D. It is one of the six Mahii-kavyas. There are several 
printed editions. 

NAKSHATRAS. Mansions of the moon, lunar asterisms. 
At first they were twenty-seven in number, but they were 
increased to twenty-eight. They are said to be daughters of 
Daksha who were married to the moon. See Daksha. 

NAKULA. The fourth of the Pfrndu princes. He was the 
twin son of Madrl, the second wife of Pawdu, but mythologicaUy 
he was son of the Aswins, or more specifically of the Aswin 

NALA. 215 

Nasatya. He was taught tlie art of training and managing 
horses by Dro?za, and when he entered the service of the king 
of Viril/a he was master of the horse. He had a son named 
Nir-amitra by his wife Karemi-matl, a princess of Chedi. See 

NALA. I. King of Nishadha and husband of Damayantl. 
The story of Nala and Damayanti is one of the episodes of the 
]\raha-bharata, and is well known from having been translated 
into Latin by Bopp and into English verse by Dean Milman. 
Damayantl was the only daughter of Ehima, king of Yidarbha 
(Birar), and was very lovely and accomplished. Nala was brave 
and handsome, virtuous, and learned in the Vedas, skilled in 
arms and in the management of horses, but addicted to the vice 
of gambling. They loved each other upon the mere fame of their 
respective virtues and beauty, and Damayantl pined for the 
presence of her unknown lover. Bhima determined that his 
daughter should hold a swayam-vara. Rajas flocked to it in 
crowds, and among them Nala. Four gods, Indra, Agni, 
YaruTia, and Yama, also attended. Nala met them on the 
way, and reverently promised to do their will. They bade him 
enter the palace and inform Damayantl that they would pre- 
sent themselves among the candidates, and that she must choose 
one of them. Kala reluctantly performed his task, but his 
presence perfected his conquest, and the maiden announced her 
resolve to pay due homage to the gods, but to choose him for 
her lord. Each of the four gods assumed the form of Nala, 
but the lover's eye distinguished the real one, and she made her 
choice. They married and lived for some time in great happi- 
ness, a son and a daughter, named Indrasena and Lidrasena, 
being born to them. Kali, a personification of the Kali or iron 
age, arrived too late for the swayam-vara. He resolved to be 
revenged, and he employed his peculiar powers to ruin Nala 
through his love of gambling. At his instigation, Pushkara, 
Nala's younger brother, projoosed a game of dice. Kali charmed 
the dice, and Nala went on losing ; but he was infatuated ; the 
entreaties of friends and ministers, wife and children, Avere of 
no avail ; he went on till he had lost his all, even to his clothes. 
His rival Pushkara became king, and proclaimed that no one 
was to give food or shelter to Nala, so the ruined monarch 
wandered forth into the forest with his wife, and suffered great 

2i6 NALA. 

privations. Some birds flew away with his only garment. He 
resolved to abandon his wife in the hope that she would return 
to her father's court, so he divided her sole remaining garment 
while she slept and left her. Thus left alone, DamayantI 
wandered about in great distress. She did not go home, but 
she at length found service and protection with the princess of 
Chedi. Xala fell in with the king of serpents, who was under a 
curse from which Nala was to deliver him. The serpent bit I^ala, 
and told him that the poison should work upon him till the evil 
spirit was gone out of him, and that he should then be restored 
to all he loved. Through the effects of the bite he was transformed 
into a misshapen dwarf. In this form he entered the ser^dce of 
itituparwa, king of Ayodhya, as a trainer of horses and an 
accomplished cook, under the name of Bahuka. Damayanti 
was discovered and conducted to her father's home, where she 
found her children. Great search was made for Xala, but in 
vain, for no one knew him in his altered form. One Brahman, 
however, suspected him, and informed Damayanti. She re- 
solved to test his feelings by announcing her intention of hold- 
ing a second swayam-vara. King it^tuparwa determined to 
attend, and took Nala with him as driver of his chariot. Riiw- 
parna was skilled in numbers and the rules of chances. On 
their journey he gave a wonderful proof of this, and he in- 
structed I^ala in the science. "Wlien Xala had acquired tliis 
knowledge the evil spirit went out of him, but still he retained 
his deformity. Damayanti half penetrated his disguise, and 
was at lens^-th convinced that he was her husband bv the flavour 
of a dish which he had cooked. They met, and, after some 
loving reproaches and the interference of the gods, they became 
reconciled, and Xala resumed his form. He again played with 
Pushkara, and staked his wife against the kingdom. Profiting 
by the knowledge he had obtained from itituparw.a, he won 
back all and again became king. Puslikara then humbled him- 
self, and Nala not only forgave him, but sent him home to his 
own city enriched with many gifts. The text of this poem 
has been often printed, and there are translations in various 

2. A monkey chief, said to be a son of Yi^nva-karma. Accord- 
ing to the Ramaya?ia, he had the power of making stones float 
in water. He was in Rfinia's army and built tlie bridge of 


stone called Eama-setii, or Nala-setu, from the continent to 
Ceylon, over which Eiima passed with his army. 

NALA-KUVAEA. A son of Kiivera. 

NALODAYA (Xala + udaya). ' The rise of Nala.' A poem 
describing the restoration to power of King Nala after he had 
lost his all. It is ascribed to a Kali-dasa, but the composition 
is very artificial, and the ascription to the great Kali-dasa may 
well be doubted. The text has been printed, and there is a 
metrical translation by Yates. 

NALOPAKHYANA. The story of Xala, an episode of the 
]\Iaha-bharata. 8ee IS'ala. 

NAMUCHL A demon slain by Indra with the foam of 
water. The legend of IsTamuchi first appears in the ii/g-veda, 
wdiere it is said that Indra ground "the head of the slave 
Namuchi like a sounding and roUing cloud," but it is amplified 
by the commentator and also in the ^S'atapatha Brahma?ia and 
Maha-bharata. When Indra conquered the Asuras there w^as one 
Namuchi who resisted so strongly that he overpowered Indra 
and held him. JN'amuchi offered to let Indra go on promise not 
to kill him by day or by night, with wet or with dry. Indra 
gave the promise and was released, but he cut off Xamuchi's 
head at twilight, between day and night, and with foam of 
water, which was, according to the authorities, neither wet nor 
dry. The Maha-bharata adds that the dissevered head followed 
Indra calling out " wicked slayer of thy friend." 

IS'ANDA. I. The cowherd by whom K7"ish?ia was brought 
up. 2. A king, or dynasty of kings, of Magadha, that reigned 
at Pa/aH-putra, and was overthrown by Chandra-gupta the 
Maurya about 315 B.C. See Chandra-gupta. 

NANDANA. The grove of Indra, lying to the north of Meru. 
• NANDI. The bull of *S'iva. The Vayu Pura/^a makes him 
the son of Kasyaj)a and Surabhi. His image, of a milky white 
colour, is always conspicuous before the temples of /S'iva. He is 
the chamberlain of ^Siva, chief of his personal attendants {ganas), 
and carries a staff of office. He is guardian of all quadrupeds. 
He is also called >S'alankayana, and he has the apj)ellations of 
]S'adi-deha and Ta?i(iava-talika, because he accompanies with 
music the tawc^ava dance of his master. 

NANDI-MUKHAS. A class of Pit?-/s or Manes, concerning 
whose character there is a good deal of uncertainty. 


NANDIXI. The cow of plenty belonging to tlie sageYasish- 
/lia, said to have been born of Surabhi, the cow of j^lenty that 
was prodnced at the churning of the ocean. 

NANDI-PURAiVA. See Piirawa. 

NAXDI>SA, :N^AXDI^'WARA. 'Lord of Nandi.' A title of 
^iva. It is related in the Ramayawa that Rava?za went to the 
<S'ara-vana, the birthplace of Karttikeya, and on his way through 
the mountains he beheld " a formidable, dark, tawny-coloured 
dwarf called iSTandiswara, who was a follower of j\Iaha-deva, or 
rather that deity himself in another body. This being desired 
Rava?ia to halt, as /Siva was sporting in the mountain, and no 
one, not even a god, could pass. Ravawa asked derisively who 
>S'iva was, and laughed contemptuously at IsTandlswara, who had 
the face of a monkey, l^andiswara retorted that monkeys hav- 
ing the same shape as himself and of similar energy should be 
produced to destroy Ravawa's race. In reply to this menace, 
Ravawa threatened to pull up the mountain by its roots and let 
/S'iva know his own danger. So he threw his arms round the 
mountain and lifted it up, which made the hosts of AS'iva tremble 
and Parvati quake and cling to her husband. /S'iva then pressed 
down the mountain with his great toe, and crushed and held 
fast the arms of Rava?za, who uttered a loud cry which shook 
all creation. Rava?2a's friends counselled him to propitiate 6'iva, 
and he did so for a thousand years with hymns and weeping. 
/S'iva then released him, and said that his name should be Rava?ia 
from the cry [rdvoi) which he had uttered. The origin of this 
story is sufficiently manifest, it has been built up on the name 
Ravawa, to the glory of AS'iva, by a zealous partisan of that deity. 

KARA. * Man.' The original eternal man. 

NARAD A. A i^ishi to whom some hymns of the it/g-veda 
are ascribed. He is one of the Prajapatis, and also one of the 
seven great i^zshis. The various notices of him are somewhat 
inconsistent. The ^ig-veda describes him as "of the Kamva 
family." Another authority states that he sprang from the 
forehead of Brahma, and the Vish7m Purawa makes him a son 
of Kasyapa and one of Daksha's daughters. The Maha-bharata 
and some Purawas state that he frustrated the scheme which 
Daksha had formed for peopling the earth, and consequently 
incurred that patriarch's, curse to enter again the Avomb of a 
woman and be born. Daksha, however, relented at the solici- 


tation of Brahma, and consented that iSI^arada should be born 
again of Brahma and one of Daksha's daughters ; he was hence 
called Brahma and Deva-brahma. In some respects he bears a 
resemblance to Orpheus. He is the inventor of the vma (lute), 
and was chief of the Gandharvas or heavenly musicians. He 
also went down to the infernal regions (Patala), and was de- 
liirhted with what he saw there. In later times he is connected 
with the legend of Kr/sh?ia. He warned Kansa of the imminent 
incarnation of Vish?2u, and he afterwards became the friend and 
associate of K?'ish?ia. 

The Narada-pancha-ratra relates that Brahma advised his ^ 
son Narada to marry, but i^arada censured his father as a false 
teacher, because devotion to Ivrzsh?ia was the only true means 
of felicity. Brahma then cursed Narada to lead a life of sen- 
suality, in subjection to women, and Narada retorted the curse, 
condemning Brahma to lust after his OAvn daughter, and to 
be an object unworthy of adoration. I^arada has the appella- 
tions, Kali-karaka, ' strife-maker ;' Kapi-vaktra, ' monkey-faced;' 
Pisuna, ' messenger or spy.' 

Narada was also one of the great writers upon law. His 
text-book, called " Naradiya Dharma-5astra," has been translated 
into English by Dr. Jolly. 

NAEADA PANCHA-KATRA. A ritualistic work of the 
VaisliTiavas. It has been printed in the Bibliotheca Inclica. 

Narada has described the duties which were observed in the 
B?'ihat Kalpa, that is called the l^aradiya, having 25,000 
stanzas." But the only copy that AVilson analysed contained 
not more than 3000 stanzas. There is another work called the 
Brihan or Great Naradiya, but this extends only to 3500 verses. 
These PuraTzas, says Wilson, bear " no conformity to the defi- 
nition of a PuraTza ; both are sectarial and modern compilations, 
intended to support the doctrine of Bhakti or faith in Yishmi." 
They are modern compositions, possibly even of so late a date as 
the sixteenth or seventeenth century. One of them refers to 
the " killers of cows " and " contemners of the gods," meaning, 
no doubt, the Mohammadans, so that the passage would seem 
to have been written after India was in their hands. 

NARAKA. Hell ; a place of torture to which the souls of 
the wicked are sent. IManu enumerates twenty-one hells : — 

220 NARAKA—NArA van a. 

Taniisra, Andha-tamisra, Maha-raiirava, Raiirava, Xaraka, Kala- 
sutra, Malia-naraka, Sanjivana, Malia-vichi, Tapana, Samprata- 
pana, Sanliata, Sakakola, Kuc^mala, Puti-mrittika, Lolia-.sanku, 
it/jisha, Panthana, ASTilmali, Asi-patra-vana, and Lolia-daraka. 
Other authorities vary greatly as to the numbers and names of 
the hells. See Vish?iu Pura?ia, ii. 214. 

NARAKA. An Asura, son of the Earth. In the Maha- 
bharata and Visli?iu Pura?ia he is said to have carried off the 
ear-rings of Aditi to the impregnable castle of Priig-jyotisha, but 
Knsh??a, at the request of the gods, went there and killed him 
and recovered the jewels. In the Ilari-vansa the legend differs. 
According to this, Naraka, king of Prag-jyotisha, was an implac- 
able enemy of the gods. He assumed the form of an elephant, 
and having carried off the daughter of Viswa-karma, he subjected 
her to violation. He seized the daughters of the Gandharvas, and 
of gods and of men, as well as the Apsarasas themselves, and 
had more than 16,000 women, for whom he built a splendid 
residence. He also appropriated to himself jewels, garments, and 
valuables of all sorts, and no Asura before him had ever been 
so horrible in his actions. 

I^ARA-NARAYAA^A. Two ancient itishis, sons of Dharma 
and Ahinsa. The names are sometimes applied to K?'ish72a 
and to K?*ish7ia and Arjuna. The Vamana Pura?za has a 
legend about them which is alluded to in the drama of Yik- 
ramorva^i. Their penances and austerities alarmed the gods, 
so Indra sent nymphs to inspire them with passion and disturb 
their devotions. Naraya??a took a flower and placed it on his 
thigh. Immediately there sprung from it a beautiful nymph 
whose charms far excelled those of the celestial nymphs, and 
made them return to heaven filled "with shame and vexation. 
NarayaTza sent this nymph to Indra with them, and from her 
having been produced from the thigh {iiru) of the sage, she was 
called Urvasi. 



NARA-VISHWANA. 'A man-devouror;' a Rakshasa or 
other malignant being. 

NARAYAA^A. i. Tlie son of Xara, the original man, and 
often identified or coupled with Xara. 2. The creator Brahma, 
who, according to jManu, was so called because the waters (nam) 


were his first ayana or place of motion. Tlie name is found for 
the first time in the /S'atapatha Brahma?? a. Tlie name as com- 
monly used applies to Vish^iii, and is that under which he was 
first worshipped. 

NARMADA. The Nerbndda river, which is esteemed holy. 
The personified river is variously represented as being daughter 
of a i?ishi named Mekala (from whom she is called Mekala and 
Mekala-kanya), as a daughter of the moon, as a ' mind-born 
daughter ' of the Somapas, and as sister of the I^agas. It was 
she who brought Purukutsa to the aid of the Kagas against the 
Gandharvas, and the grateful snake-gods made her name a charm 
against the venom of snakes. According to the Yishwu Pura^za, 
she had a son by Purukutsa who was named Trasadasyu. The 
Matsya Pura?ia gives Du/i-saha as the name of her husband. 
The Hari-vansa is inconsistent with itself. In one place it 
makes her wife of Purukutsa and mother of Trasadasyu ; in 
another it makes her the wife of Trasadasyu. She is also called 
Eeva and Purva-ganga, and, as a daughter of the moon, Indu-ja 
and Somodbhava. 

NASATYA. Name of one of the A.swins. It is also used 
in the plural for both of them. 

NAYA-RATNA. The nine gems : pearl, ruby, topaz, dia- 
mond, emerald, lapis lazuli, coral, sapphire, and one not identified 
called Go-meda. The nine gems of the court of Yikrama, pro- 
bably meaning Yikramaditya, whose era the Samvat begins in 
56 B.C. A verse gives their names as Dhanwantari, Kshapa?iaka, 
Amara Sinlia, /S'anku, Yetala-bha/^/a, Gha/^a-karpara, Kali-dasa, 
Yaraha-mihira, Yararuchi. The date of Yikramaditya is by no 
means settled. Bhau Daji endeavours to identify Yikrama with 
Harsha Yikramaditya, who lived in the middle of the sixth 

NIDAGHA. A Brahman, son of Pulastya, who dwelt " at 
Yira-nagara, a large handsome city on the banks of the Devika 
river " (the Gogra). He was a discij^le of the sage ^ibhu, and 
when iiibhu went to visit his discij^le, Nidagha entertained him 
reverentially, iitbhu instructed him in divine knowledge until 
he learned to " behold aU things as the same with himself, and, 
perfect in holy knowledge, obtained final liberation." 

JSTID ANA-SUTRA. An old work upon the metres of the Yedas. 

NIDHI. * A treasure.' Nine treasures belonging to the god 


Kuvera. Each of tliem is personified or has a guardian spirit, 
which is an object of worship among the Tantrikas. The nature 
of these Nidliis is not clearly understood. See a note by Wilson 
on verse 534 of the Megha-diita, Collected Works, iv. 379. 
Their names are Kachchhapa, Mukunda, ISTanda (or Kunda), 
Kharba, ]Makara, Xila, ^ankha, Padma, and Maha-padma. The 
Xidliis are called also JSTidhana, ISTikara, and ^S'evadlii. 

NIDRA. ' Sleep.' Sometimes said to be a female form of 
Brahma, at others to have been produced at the churning of the 

KIGHAiVrU, NIGHAiV^rUKA. A glossary, especially of 
synonyms and obsolete and obscure Yedic terms. There was 
at least one work of this kind before the days of Yaska. Bee 

XIKASHA. A female demon, the mother of Ravawa. The 
mother of the carnivorous imps called Pisitasanas, or by their 
metronymic JSTaikusheyas and Kikashatmajas. 

KIKUMBHA. I. A Rakshasa who fought against Rama. He 
was son of Kumbha-karwa. 2. An Asura who, according to the 
Hari-vansa, received the boon from Brahma that he should die 
only by the hands of Vish7iu. He was king of Sha^-pura and 
had great magical powers, so that he could multiply himself into 
many forms, though he commonly assumed only three. He car- 
ried off the daughters of Brahma-datta, the friend of K?'ish?2a, 
and that hero attacked him and killed him under different 
forms more than once, but he was eventually slain outright by 
Kr/sh?za, and his city of Sha^pura was given to BrahmJi- 

NILA, ' Blue.' I. A mythic range of mountains north of 
Meru. 2. A mountain range in Orissa. 3. A monkey ally of 
Rama. 4. A Pa7if?ava warrior killed by Aswatthaman." 

NILA-KAN7TIA. ' Blue tliroat.' An epithet of AS'iva. See 

NIML Son of Iksliwaku, and founder of the dynasty of 
INIitliila, He was cursed by the sage Vasish/ha to lose his cor- 
poreal form, and he retorted the imprecation ujDon the sage. 
]jotli abandoned the bodily condition. Yasish/ha was born 
again as the issue of ^litra and Yaru?za, but " tlio corpse of 
Nimi was preserved from decay by being embalmed with fra- 
grant oils and resins, and it remained as entire as if it were 


immortal. " The gods were willing to restore liim to bodily life, 
but Nimi declined, declaring that the separation of soul and 
body was so distressing that he would never resume a corporeal 
shape and become liable to it again. " To this desire the gods 
assented, and Nimi was j^laced by them in the eyes of all 
living creatures, in consequence of which their eyelids are ever 
opening and shutting." — Vishnu Pur ana. A wink of the eye 
is called nimisha, and the legend was probably built upon the 
resemblance of the two w^ords. 

Il^IRiVAYA-SINDHU. A work on religious ceremonies and 
law by Kamalakara. It has been printed at Bombay and Benares. 

NIRi^/TI. 'Death, decay.' Death personified as a god- 
dess ; sometimes regarded as the wife and sometimes as the 
daughter of A-dharma. One of the Rudras. 

NIRUKTA. ' Etymology, glossary.' One of the Vedangas. 
The Nirukta is devoted to the explanation of difficult Vedic 
words. The only work of the kind now known to us is that of 
Yaska, who was a predecessor of Pa7^ini ; but such works were 
no doubt numerous, and the names of seventeen writers of 
Niruktas are mentioned as having preceded Yaska. The 
Nirukta consists of three parts : — (i.) Israigha?«-/uka, a collection of 
synonymous words ; (2.) Naigama, a collection of words peculiar 
to the Vedas ; (3.) Daivata, words relating to deities and sacri- 
fices. These are mere lists of words, and are of themselves of 
little value. They may have been compiled by Yaska himself, 
or he may have found them ready to his hand. The real Nirukta, 
the valuable portion of the work, is Yaska's commentary which 
follows. In this he explains the meaning of words, enters into 
ethnological investigations, and quotes passages of the Vedas 
in illustration. These are valuable from their acknowledged 
antiquity, and as being the oldest known examples of a Vedic 
gloss. They also throw a light upon the scientific and religious 
condition of their times, but the extreme brevity of their style 
makes them obscure and difficult to understand. The text of 
the Nirukta has been published by Roth. 

NISHADA. A mountain tribe dwelling in the Vindhya 
mountains, said to have been produced from the thigh of Yena, ; 
the Bhils or foresters, and barbarians in general (See Yena.) 
Any outcast, especially the offspring of a Brahman father and 
*S'iidra mother. 


NISHADHA. I , A mythic range of mountains lying soiitli of 
Meru, but sometimes described as on the east. It is north of the 
Hima-laya. 2. The country of Nala, probably the Bhil country. 

NISH JIGRL In the i?ig-veda, the mother of Indra. 

NIaS'UMBHA. An Asura killed by Durga. See >S'umbha. 

NiTI-MANJARl A work on ethics by Dya Dwiveda, 
exemplified by stories and legends with special reference to the 
Yedas. Some specimens are given in the Indian Antiquary, 
vol. V. 

NITI-aS'ASTRAS. Works on morals and polit}^, consisting 
either of proverbs and wise maxims in verse, or of stories and 
fables inculcating some moral precept and illustrating its effects. 
These fables are generally in prose interspersed with pithy 
maxims in verse. 

NIVATA-KAVxiCHAS. ' Clothed in impenetrable armour.' 
A class of Daityas descended from Prahlada, " whose spirits 
were purified by rigid austerity." According to the Mahil- 
bharata they were 30,000,000 in number, and dwelt in the 
depths of the sea. They were destroyed by Arjuna. 

NitJ-SINHA. The Nara-sinha or man-lion incarnation. See 

Ni^J-SIXHA PURAATA. See Pura??a. 

Ni^/-SINHA TAPANI. An Upanishad in which Yishwu is 
worshipped under his form Nri-sinha. Published with the com- 
mentary of /Sankaracharya in the Bihliotheca Inclica. 

NYAYA. The logical school of philosophy. See Darsana. 

of Gotama on the Xyaya pliilosophy. They have been printed. 

Oi)R,A. The country of Orissa A man of that country. 

OM. A word of solemn invocation, affirmation, benediction, 
and consent, so sacred that when it is uttered no one must hear 
it. The word is used at the commencement of prayers and re- 
ligious ceremonies, and is generally placed at the beginning of 
books. It is a compound of the three letters a, u, m, which are 
typical of the three A^edas ; and it is declared in the XJpanishads, 
where it first appears, to have a mystic power and to be worthy 
of the deepest meditation. In later times the monosyllable re- 
presents the Hindu triad or union of the three gods, a being 
Vish?iu, w /S'iva, and m Brahma, This monosyllable is called 


OMKAEA. The sacred monosyllable Om. Name of one of 
the twelve great lingas. 8ee, Linga. 

OSHADHI-PRASTHA. 'The place of medicinal herbs.' 
A city in the Himalaya mentioned in the Kumara-sambhava. 

OSHI'HA-KARTVAKAS. A people whose lips extended to 
their ears, mentioned in the Maha-bhilrata. 

PAD A. The Pada text of the Yedas, or of any other work, 
is one in which each word {pada) stands separate and distinct, 
not joined with the next according to the rules of sandhi (coali- 
tion). See Pa/ha. 

PADMA, PADMAYATL A name of Lakshmi. 

PADjMAVATI. Name of a city. It would seem, from the 
mention made of it in the drama Malati Madhava, to lie in the 
Vindhya mountains. 

PAD MA -K ALP A. The last expired kalpa or year of Brahma. 

generally stands second in the list of PuraTias, and is thus de- 
scribed : — " That which contains an account of the period when 
the world was a golden lotos (padma), and of all the occurrences 
of that time, is, therefore, called Padma by the wise. It con- 
tains 55,000 stanzas." The work is divided into five books or 
Kha?2t/as : — " (i.) Srish/i Kha?Z(/a, or section on creation ; (2.) 
Bhiimi Kha?Z(ia, on the earth ; (3.) Swarga Kha?2(ia, on heaven; 
(4.) Patala Kha»(^a, on the regions below the earth; (5.) Uttara 
Khaw/a, last or supplementary chapter. There is also current 
a sixth division, the Kriya-yoga-sara, a treatise on the jDractice 
of devotion." These denominations of the various divisions 
convey but an imperfect and partial notion of their heterogene- 
ous contents, and it seems probable that the different sections 
are distinct works associated together under one title. There is no 
reason to consider any of them as older than the twelfth century. 
The tone of the whole Pura?za is strongly Yaish?2ava ; that of the 
last section especially so. In it 5'iva is represented as explain- 
ing to Parvati the nature and attributes of Vish7?u, and in the 
end the two join in adoration of that deity. A few chapters 
have been printed and translated into Latin by Wollheim. 

PAHL AVA. Name of a people. Manu places the Pahlavas 
among the northern nations, and perhaps the name is connected 
with the word Pahlavi, i.e., Persian. They let their beards grow 
by command of King Sagara. According to ]Manu, they were 



Ivshatriyas wlio had become outcasts, but the Malia-bliarata says 
they were created from the tail of Yasish/ha's cow of fortune ; 
and the Kamayaria states that they sprang from her breath. 
They are also called Pahnavas. 

PAIJAYAXA. A name of the King Sudas, his j^atronymic 
as son of Pijavana. 

PAILA. A learned man who was appointed in ancient days 
to collect the hymns of the i^ig-veda. He arranged it in two 
parts, and must have been a coadjutor of Yeda Yyasa. 

PAKA-5'ASAXA. A name of Indra, and of Arjuna as de- 
scended from Indra. 

PALAKAPYA. An ancient sage who wrote upon medicine, 
and is supposed to have been an incarnation of Dhanwantari. 

PA]\IPA. A river which rises in the ^ishyamuka mountain 
and falls into the Tungabhadra below AnagundL Also a lake 
in the same locality. 

PAXCHA-CHUDA. A name of Eambha. 

PAXCHAJAXA. I. Xame of a demon who lived in the sea 
in the form of a conch-shell. He seized the son of Sandipani, 
under whom K?*ish?ia learnt the use of arms. KrisliTza rescued 
the boy, killed the demon, and afterwards used the conch-shell 
for a horn. 2. A name of Asamanjas (q.v.). 

PAXCHAJAXYA. K7-ishwa's conch, formed from the shell 
of the sea-demon Panchajana. 

PAXCHALA. Xame of a country. Prom the Malia- 
bhrirata it would seem to have occupied the Lower Doab ; Manu 
places it near Kanauj. It has sometimes been identified with 
the Panjab, and with " a little territory in the more immediate 
neighbourhood of Hastinapur." AYilson says, "A country ex- 
tending north and west from Dellii, from the foot of the Hima- 
layas to the Chambal." It was divided into Xorthern and 
Southern Panchalas, and the Ganges separated tliem. X^unning- 
ham considers Xorth Panchrda to be Rohilkliand, and South 
Panchala the Gangetic Doab. The capital of the former was 
Ahi-chhatra, wliose ruins are found near Eamnagar, and of tlie 
latter Kampilya, identical with the modern Kampila, on the old 
Ganges between Badaun and Farrukhabad. 

PAXCHA-LAKSHAYA. The five distinguishing character- 
istics of a Pura?za. See Pura?ia. 

PAXCHALI. DraupadI as princess of Panchrda. 



PAXCHAN'ANA. * Five-faced.' An epithet applied to 

PAXCHAPSAKAS. Fame of a lake. See Manda-kami. 

PAXCHA-aS'IKHA. One of the earliest professors of the 
Sankhya philosophy. 

PAXCHA-TANTRA. A famous collection of tales and 
fables in five (pancha) books (tcmtra). It was compiled by a 
Brahman named Vish?zu-5arman, about the end of the fifth 
century a.d., for the edification of the sons of a king, and was 
the original of the better-known Hitopadesa. This work has 
reappeared in very many languages both of the East and West, 
and has been the source of many familiar and widely known 
stories. It was translated into Pahlavi or old Persian by order 
of Xaushirvan in the sixth century a.d. In the ninth century 
it appeared in Arabic as Kalila Damna, then, or before, it was 
translated into Hebrew, Syriac, Turkish, and Greek ; and from 
these, versions were made into all the languages of Europe, and 
it became familiar in England as Pilpay's Fables (Fables of 
Bidj)ai). In modern Persia it is the basis of the Anwar-i 
Suhaili and lyar-i Danish. The latter has reappeared in Hin- 
dustani as the Khirad-afroz. The stories are popular through- 
out Hindustan, and have found their way into most of the lan- 
guages and dialects. There are various editions of the text and 
several translations. 

PAXCHAYATl. A place in the great southern forest near 
the sources of the Godavari, where Rama passed a long period 
of his banishment. It has been proposed to identify it with 
the modern Xasik, because Lakshma?ia cut off Siirpa-nakha's 
nose (ndsika) at Panchavati. 

PAXCHAVIX/S'A. See Prauc/lia Brrdima^^a. 

PAXCHA-Vi^/KSHA. 'Five trees.' The five trees of 
Swarga, named Mandara, Parijataka, Santana, Kalpa-v?*iksha, 
and Hari-chandana. 

PAXCHOPAKHYAXA. The Pancha-tantra. 

PAA^DAA'AS. The descendants of Fsmdii. 

TANBJJ. 'The pale.' Brother of Dhn'ta-rash/ra, king of 
Hastina-pura and father of the Pa?i(iavas or Tandu princes. See 

PAJV7)YA. Tandjo., Chola, and Chera were three kingdoms in 
the south of the Peninsula for some centuries before and after the 

228 PANINI. 

Christian era. Pfiw^Zya was well known to the Romans as the 
kingdom of King Pandion, who is said to have sent ambassadors 
on two different occasions to Augustus Csesar. Its capital was 
jMadura, the Southern Mathura. PaTZC^ya seems to have fallen 
under the ascendancy of the Chola kings in the seventh or 
eighth centur}'. 

PAiVIXI. The celebrated grammarian, author of the work 
called Pa?zinlyam. This is the standard authority on Sanskrit 
grammar, and it is held in such respect and reverence that it is 
considered to have been written by inspiration. So in old times 
Pawini was placed among the itishis, and in more modern days 
he is represented to have received a large portion of his work by 
direct inspiration from the god ;Siva. It is also said that he 
was so dull a child that he was expelled from school, but the 
favour of >S'iva placed him foremost in knowledge. He was not 
the first grammarian, for he refers to the works of several Avho 
preceded him. The grammars which have been Avritten since 
his time are numberless, but although some of them are of great 
excellence and much in use, Pamni still reigns suj^reme,' and 
his rules are incontestable. " His work," says Professor Wil- 
liams, " is perhaps the most original of all productions of the 
Hindu mind." The work is written in the form of Siitras or 
aphorisms, of which it contains 3996, arranged in eight (ashta) 
chapters {adhydya), from which the work is sometimes called 
Ash/adhyayi. These aphorisms are exceedingly terse and com- 
plicated. Special training and study are required to reach their 
meaning. Colebrooke remarks, that " the endless jDursuit of 
exceptions and limitations so disjoins the general precepts, that 
the reader cannot keep in view their intended connection and 
mutual relations. He wanders in an intricate maze, and the key 
of the labyrinth is continually slipping from his hand." But it 
has been -well observed that there is a great difference between 
the European and Hindu ideas of a grammar. In Europe, gram- 
mar has hitherto been looked upon as only a means to an end, 
the medium through which a knowledge of language and litera- 
ture is acquired. With the Vsmdii, grammar was a science ; it 
was studied for its own sake, and investigated with the most 
minute criticism ; hence, as Goldstiicker says, " Pa?i^ini's work is 
indeed a kii>d of natural history of the Sanskrit language." 
PaTiini was a native of /Salatura, in the country of Gandhara, 


west of the Indus, and so is known as /STdottariya. He is 
described as a descendant of PaTzin and grandson of Devala. 
His mother's name was Dakshi, who probably belonged to the 
race of Daksha, and he bears the metronymic Daksheya. He 
is also called Ahika. The time when he lived is uncertain, but it 
is supposed to have been about four centuries B.C. Goldstiicker 
carries him back to the sixth century, but "Weber is inclined 
to place him considerably later. Pacini's grammar has been 
printed by Bbhtlingk, and also in India. See Goldstlicker's 
Pdnini, his Place in Literature.^' 

PAiV^IS. 'Niggards.' In the jRig-veda, " the senseless, false, 
evil-speaking, unbelieving, unpraising, unworshipping Pawis were 
Dasyus or envious demons who used to steal cows and hide them 
in caverns. " They are said to have stolen the cows recovered by 
ASarama (q.v.). 

PANISTAGA. A serpent, snake. See Naga. 

PAPA-PURUSHA. ' Man of sin.' A personification of all 
wickedness in a human form, of which all the members are great 
sins. The head is brahmanicide, the arm cow-killing, the nose 
woman-murder, &c. 

PARADAS. A barbarous people dwelling in the north-west. 
Manu says they were Kshatriyas degraded to be /S'u.dras. 

PARAMAESHIS (Parama-rishis). The great i^ishis. See 

PARAMATMAK The supreme soul of the universe. 

PARAMESHTHIK 'Who stands in the highest place.' 
A title applied to any superior god and to some distinguished 
mortals. A name used in the A'^edas for a son or a creation of 

PARA>S'ARA. A Yedic i^ishi to whom some hymns of the 
jRig-veda are attributed. He was a discij)le of Kapila, and he 
received the Vislwiu PuraTza from Pulastya and taught it to 
Maitreya. He was also a writer on Dharma-sastra, and texts of 
his are often cited in books on law. SiDcculations as to his era 
differ widely, from 575 B.C. to 1391 B.C., and cannot be trusted. 
By an amour with Satyavati he was father of Ki'ishTia DwaijDa- 
yana, the Yyasa or arranger of the Vedas. According to the 
Nirukta, he was son of Vasish/ha, but the Maha-bharata and 
the VisliTiu PuraTza make him the son of ♦S'aktri and gTandson of 
Vasish/ha. The legend of his birth, as given in the Maha-bharata, 


is tliat King Kalmaslia-ptida met with >Saktri in a narrow path, 
and desired him to get out of the w^av. The sage refused, and the 
Raja struck him with his whip. Thereupon the sage cursed the 
Raja so that he became a man-eating Eaksliasa. In this state 
he ate up ^Saktri, whose wife, Ad?"/5yant!, afterwards gave birtli to 
Parasara. A^'lien this chiki grew up and heard the particulars 
of his father's death, he instituted a sacrifice for the destruction 
of all the Rakshasas, but was dissuaded from its completion by 
Yasish/ha and other sages. As he desisted, he scattered the 
remaining sacrificial fire upon the northern face of the Himalaya, 
where it still blazes forth at the phases of the moon, consuming 
Rakshasas, forests, and mountains. 

PARA6'ARA-PURAiYA. See Purawa. 

PARA^S'IKAS. Parsikas or Farsikas, i.e., Persians. 

PARA6'U-RAMA. ' Rama with the axe.' The first Rama 
and the sixth Avatara of Vish?iu. He was a Brahman, the fifth 
son of Jamad-agni and ReTiuka. By his father's side he descended 
from Bh?-igu, and was, 'par excellence, the Bhargava; by his 
mother's side he belonged to the royal race of the Kusikas. He 
became manifest in the world at the beginning of the Treta- 
yuga, for the purpose of repressing the tyranny of the Kshatriya 
or regal caste. His story is told in the Maha-bharata and in the 
Pura72as. He also ap23ears in the Ramaya?za, but chiefly as an 
opponent of Rama-chandra. According to the Maha-bharata, he 
instructed Arjuna in the use of arms, and had a combat with 
]>hlshma, in which both suffered equally. He is also represented 
as being present at the great war council of the Kaurara princes. 
This, the sixth Avatara of Yishwu, appeared in 
the world before Rama or Rrima-chandra, the seventh Avatara, 
but they were both living at the same time, and the elder incar- 
nation showed some jealousy of the younger. The ]\Ialia-bliarata 
represents Parasu-rama as being struck senseless by Rama- 
chandra, and the Ramavawa relates how^ Parasu-rilma, who was 
a follower of /S'iva, felt aggrieved by Rama's breaking the bow 
of ^iva, and challenged him to a trial of strength. This ended 
in his defeat, and in some way led to his being " excluded from 
a seat in the celestial world." In early life was 
under the protection of /Siva, who instructed him in the use of 
arms, and gave him the parasu, or axe, from which he is named. 
The first act recorded of him by the Maha-bhrirata is that, by 


command of liis fatlier, lie cut off the head of his mother, Re/mka. 
She had incensed her husband by entertaining impure tlioughts, 
and he called upon each of his sons in succession to kill her. 
Parasu-rama alone obeyed, and his readiness so pleased his father 
that he told him to ask a boon. He begged that his mother 
might be restored pure to life, and, for himself, that he might be 
invincible in single combat and enjoy lengtli of days. 
rama's hostility to the Kshatriyas evidently indicates a severe 
struggle for the supremacy between them and the Bra-hmans. 
He is said to have cleared the earth of the Kshatriyas twenty- 
one times, and to have given the earth to the Brahmans. The 
origin of his hostility to the Kshatriyas is thus related : — Karta- 
vlrya, a Kshatriya, and king of the Haihayas, had a thousand 
arms. This king paid a visit to the hermitage of Jamad-agni in 
the absence of that sage, and was hospitably entertained by his 
wife, but when he departed he carried off a sacrificial calf be- 
longing to their host. This act so enraged Parasu-rama that he 
pursued Karta-vlrya, cut off his thousand arms and killed him. 
In retaliation the sons of Karta-virya killed Jamad-agni, and for 
that murder Parasu-rama vowed vengeance against them and the 
whole Kshatrij^a race. " Thrice seven times did he clear the 
earth of the Kshatriya caste, and he filled with their blood the 
five large lakes of Samanta-panchaka." He then gave the earth 
to Kasyapa, and retired to the Mahendra mountains, where he 
was visited by Arjuna. Tradition ascribes the origin of the 
country of Malabar to Parasu-rama. According to one account 
he received it as a gift from Yaru?za, and according to another 
he drove back the ocean and cut fissures in the Ghats with blows 
of his axe. He is said to have brought Brahmans into this 
country from the north, and to have bestowed the land upon 
them in expiation of the slaughter of the Kshatriyas. He bears 
the appellations Kha?2C?a-parasu, ' who strikes with the axe,' and 
Nyaksha, 'inferior.' 

PARAYASU. ^ee Raibhya and Yava-krita. 

PARIJATA. The tree produced at the churning of the 
ocean, " and the delight of the nymphs of heaven, perfuming the 
world with its blossoms." It was kept in Indra's heaven, and 
was the pride of his wife AS'achi, but when K?7"shwa visited Indra 
in Swarga, his wife Satya-bhama induced him to carry the tree 
away, which led to a great fight between the two gods and their 
adherents, in which Indra was defeated. The tree was taken to 


Dwaraka and planted there, but after Ivr/sh?ia's death it returned 
to Indra's heaven. 

PAKIKSHIT. Son of Abhimanyn by his wife Uttara, 
grandson of Arjuna, and father of Janamejaya. He was killed 
by Aswatthaman in the womb of his mother and was born dead, 
but he was brought to life by K?i'shrza, who blessed him and 
cursed A.swatthaman. "VVlien Yudhi-sh^hira retired from the 
world, Parikshit succeeded him on the throne of Hastina-pura. 
He died from the bite of a serpent, and the Bhagavata Pura7ia 
is represented as having been rehearsed to him in the interval 
between the bite and his death. Also written Parikshit. 

PARIPATRA. The northern part of the Yindhya range of 
mountains. According to the Hari-vansa, it was the scene of the 
combat between K?'ish?ia and Indra, and its heights sank down 
under the pressure of Iv?ish?2a's feet. Also called Pariyiitra. 

PARISHAD. A college or community of Bralimans asso- 
ciated for the study of the Vedas. 

PARI>S'ISHTA. A supplement or appendix. A series of 
works called Pari.sish/as belong to the Yedic period, but they 
are the last of the series, and indicate a transition state. They 
" supply information on theological or ceremonial points which 
had been passed over in the Sutras, and they treat everything in 
a popular and superficial manner, as if the time was gone when 
students would spend ten or twenty years of their lives in 
fathoming the mysteries and mastering the intricacies of the 
Erahma7ia literature." — Max Muller. 

PARIVRAJAKA. A religious mendicant. A Eriihman in 
the fourth stage of his religious life. See Brahman. 

PAR J ANY A. I. A Vedic deity, the rain-god or rain per- 
sonified. Three hymns in the i^ig-veda are addressed to this 
deity, and one of them is very poetical and picturesque in de- 
scribin^j rain and its effects. The name is sometimes combined 
with the word vdta (wind), imrjanyar-vdtaj referring probably to 
the combined powers and effects of rain and wind. In later 
times he is regarded as the guardian deity of clouds and rain, 
and the name is applied to Indra. 2. One of the Adityas. 

PARSHADA Any treatise on the Yedas produced in a 
Parishad or Yedic college. 

PARTHA. A son of Pntha or KuntT. A title applicable to 
the three elder Pfrnt^avas, but especially used for Arjuna, 


PARVATI. ' The mountaineer.' A name of the wife of *Siva. 
See Devi. 

PA/SU-PATI. ' Lord of creatures.' A name of Riidra or of 
one of his manifestations. See Rudra. 

PATALA. The infernal regions, inhabited by ISTagas (ser- 
pents), Daityas, Danavas, Yakshas, and others. They are seven 
in number, and their names, according to the Yish?m Purawa, are 
Atala, Yitala, ISTitala, Gabhastimat, Mahatala, Sutala, and Patala, 
but these names vary in different authorities. The Padma 
Pura/ia gives the names of the seven regions and their respective 
rulers as follow : — (i.) Atala, subject to Maha-maya ; (2.) Yitala, 
ruled by a form of /S'iva called Hatakeswara ; (3. ) Sutala, ruled 
by Bali; (4.) Talatala, ruled by Maya; (5.) Mahatala, where 
reside the great serpents; (6.) Rasatala, where the Daityas and 
Danavas dwell; (7.) Patala, the lowermost, in which Yasuki 
reigns over the chief NTigas or snake-gods. In the /S'iva Pura?^a 
there are eight : Patala, Tala, Atala, Yitala, Tala, Yidhi-patrda, 
;Sarkara-bhiimi, and Yijaya. The sage Narada paid a visit to 
these regions, and on his return to the skies gave a glowing ac- 
count of them, declaring them to be far more delightful than 
Indra's heaven, and abounding with every kind of luxury and 
sensual gratification. 

PA^ALI-PUTRA. The Palibothra of the Greek writers, and 
described by them as being situated at the confluence of the 
Erranaboas (the Sone river) with the Ganges. It was the capital 
of the Kandas, and of the Maurya dynasty, founded by Chandra- 
gupta, which succeeded them as rulers of Magadha. The city 
has been identified with the modern Patna ; for although the 
Sone does not now fall into the Ganges there, the modern 
town is smaller in extent than the ancient one, and there is 
good reason for believing that the rivers have changed their 

PATAjSTJALA. The Yoga philosophy. See Darsana. 

PATANJALI. The founder of the Yoga philosophy. (,S'^6' 
Darsana.) The author of the INIaha-bhashya, a celebrated com- 
mentary on the Grammar of Pa7iini, and a defence of that work 
against the criticisms of Katyayana. He is supposed to have 
written about 200 B.C. Ram Krish?za Gopal Bha?if/arkar, a late 
inquirer, says, " He probably wrote the third chapter of his 
Lhashva between 144 and 142 B.C." Weber, however, makes 


liis (late to be 25 A. D. He is also called Gonardlya and Gowika- 
putra. A legend accounting for liis name represents that he fell 
as a small snake from heaven into the palm of Pa?^ini {'pata, 
' fallen ; ' an j all, ' palm '). 

PArHA. ' Reading.' There are three forms, called Pachas, 
in which the Yedic text is read and written : — (i.) Sanhita- 
pafha, the ordinary form, in which the words coalesce according 
to the rules of Sandhi ; (2.) Pada-j)a/ha, in which each word 
stands separate and independent; (3.) Ivrama-pa/ha, in which 
each word is given twice, first joined with the word preceding 
and then with the word following. 

PATTAXA. ' City.' Several great places have been known 
as Pattan or 'the city.' Soma-natha was Pattan; Anhalwara 
is still known as Pattan, and there is also Patna. 

PAULOMAS. Ka.syapa by his wife Puloma had many 
thousand " distinguished Danavas called Paulomas, who were 
2)owerful, ferocious, and cruel." They were killed by Arjuna. 

PAUiVDPtA, PAUiYi)RAKA. Belonging to the country of 
Vwndr^i. The conch-shell of Bhishma. 

PAUYDRAIvA A pretender who, on the strength of being 
a Yasu-deva, or descendant of one named Yasu-deva, set himself 
up in opposition to K?"isli?ia, who was son of Yasu-deva, and 
assumed his style and insignia. He was supjiorted by the king 
of Ka^l (Benares), but he was defeated and killed by K?-/sh?ia, 
and Benares was burnt. 

PAURAYAS. Descendants of Puru of the Lunar race. See 

PAYAXA. ' AVind.' The god of the wind. See A'ayu. 

PHALGUXA. I. A name of Arjuna. 2. Name of a month. 

PIYDARAKA. A watering-place on the coast of Gujarat, 
near Dwaraka, resorted to occasionally by K?'/sh?za. It still 
survives as a village, and is held in veneration. It is about 
twenty miles from the north-west extremity of the Peninsula. 

PIXGALA. I. The great authority on the Chhandas or 
Prosody of the Yedas. He is suj-jposed to have written about 
two centuries B.C. 2. Xame of one of the serpent kings some- 
times identified with the foregoing. 

PIPPALADA. a school of the Atharva-veda, founded by a 
snge of that name. 

PI6'ACHAS (mas.), PLS'ACHl (fern.). Fiends, evil spirits, 


placed by the Ycdas as lower than Rakshasas. The vilest and 
most malignant order of malevolent beings. Accounts differ as 
to their origin. The Brahmawa and the ]\Iaha-bliarata say that 
they vrere created by Brahma, together with the Asuras and 
Kakshasas, from the stray drops of water which fell apart from 
the drops out of which gods, men, gandharvas, &c., had been 
jn'oduced. According to Manu they sprang from the Prajapatis. 
In the Pura?zas they are rej^resented as the offspring of Ka.^yapa 
by his wife Krodhavasa, or Pi^acha, or Ivapisa. 

PI^"ACHA-LOKA. See Loka. 

PI>S'ITA>S'ANAS, PI^S'ITA^S'INS. Carnivorous and cannibal 
imps descended from Nikasha. 

PITA-MAHA. A paternal grandfather. A name of Brahma 
as the gTeat father of all. 

PiTAMBAEA. ' Clothed in yellow garments.' A name of 

PlrHA-STHANA. ' Seat,' or lit. ' place of a seat.^ " Fifty- 
one places M'here, according to the Tantras, the limbs of Sati 
fell when scattered by her husband AS'iva, as he bore her dead 
body about and tore it to pieces after she had put an end. to her 
existence at Daksha's sacrifice. This part of the legend seems 
to be an addition to the original fable, made by the Tantras, as 
it is not in the Pura?ms. {See Dakslia.) It bears some analogy 
to the Egyptian fable of Isis and Osiris. At the Pi/ha-sthanas, 
however, of Jwala - mukhi, Vindhya - vasini. Kali - glia?', and 
others, temples are erected to the different forms of Devi or 
Sati, not to the phallic emblem of Maha-deva, which, if present, 
is there as an accessory, not as a jmncipal ; and the chief object 
of worship is a figure of the goddess — a circumstance in which 
there is an essential difference betw^een the temples of Durga 
and the shrines of Osiris." — Wilson. 

PITi^/S. Patres ; the fathers ; the Manes. This name is 
applied to three different classes of beings : — i. The IManes of 
departed forefathers, to whom 'pindas (balls of rice and flour) 
and water are offered at stated periods. 2. The ten Prajapatis 
or mythical progenitors of the human race. 3. " According to 
a legend in the Hari-vam<Ja and in the Yayu Pura?m, the first 
Pitris were the sons of the gods. The gods haviug offended 
Brahma by neglecting to worship him, were cursed by him to 
become fools ; but, upon their repentance, he directed them to 


apply to tlieir sons for instruction. Being tauglit accordingly 
the rites of expiation and penance by tlieir sons, they addressed 
them as fathers ; whence the sons of the gods were the first 
Pitris." The account given of the Pit?"is is much the same in 
all the PuraTzas. " They agree in distinguishing them into seven 
classes, three of which are without form, or composed of intel- 
lectual, not elementary substance, and assuming what forms they 
please ; and four are corjDoreal. When the Purawas come to the 
enumeration of the particular classes, they somewhat differ, and 
the accounts in all the works are singularly imperfect." The 
incorporeal Pitris, according to one enumeration, are the Yaira- 
jas, Agnishwattas, and Barhishads. The first of these seem also 
to be called Subhaswaras, Somasads, and Saumyas. The cor- 
poreal are the Su-kalas or Su-kalins, Angirasas, Su-swadlias, and 
Somapas. The Sukalas are also called Manasas ; the Somapas 
are also called Ushmapas ; the Angirasas seem also to be called 
Havishmats, Havirbhiijas, and Upahutas ; and the Su-swadlias 
are apparently the same as the Ajyapas and Kavyas or Kavyas. 
The Yairajas are the Manes of great ascetics and anchorites, 
the Agnishwattas are the Pit?'is of the gods, the Barhishads of 
demons, the Somapas of Brahmans, the Havishmats of Ksha- 
triyas, the Ajyapas of Vaisyas, and the Su-kalins of the /Sudras ; 
T)ut one authority, the, makes the Somapas belong 
to the /S'udras, and the Su-kalins to the Brahmans, and there 
appears to be good reason for this. Other names are given by 
Dr. F. Hall from various authorities (Yish^m Pura?ia, iii. 339) : 
Ra-smipas, Phenapas, Sudhavats, Garhapatyas, Eka5?ingas, Cha- 
turvedas, and Kfdas. Besides these there are the Vyamas, 
' fumes,' the Pitris of the barbarians. The i^/g-veda and Manu 
make two independent classes, the Agni-dagdlias and the An- 
agni-dagdhas, those ' who when alive kept up (or did not keep 
uj)) the household flame,' and presented (or did not present) 
oblations with fire. The Vish?m Purawa makes the liarhishads 
identical with the former, and the Agnishwiittas with the latter. 
Yama, god of the dead, is king of the Pitris, and Swadha, 
' oblation,' is sometimes said to be their mother, at others tlieir 
wife. — WiUon, Vishnu Furdna, in. 157,339- /St'd Manu, iii. 192. 

PIT7i'/-L0KA. See Loka. 

PITA^/-PATL 'The lord of the Manes.' Yama, judge of 
the dead. 


PIYADA6T. See Asoka. 

PRABHASA. A place of pilgrimage on the coast of Gujarat, 
near to Dwarakil, and also near to the temple of Soma-natha. 

PRABHAVATl Wife of Pradyumna (q.v.). 

PRABODHA-CHANDRODAYA. 'The rise of the moon 
of knowledge.' A philosophical drama by IvWsh?za Misra, who 
is supposed to have lived about the twelfth century. It has 
been translated into English by Dr. Taylor, and into German 
by Rosenkranz and by Hirzel. 

PRACHAA^i^A-PAA^DAYA. ' The incensed Pa7?^avas.' A 
drama in two acts by Raja ^Sekhara, the main incident in which 
is the outrage of Draupadi by the assembled Kaurava princes. 

PRACHETAS. i. One of the Prajapatis. 2. An ancient sage 
and law^giver. 3. The ten Prachetasas were sons of Prachina- 
barhis and great-grandsons of Prithu, and, according to the 
Yishmi Pura?2a, they passed ten thousand years in the great 
ocean, deep in meditation upon Yish?zu, and obtained from him 
the boon of becoming the progenitors of mankind. They took 
to wife Marisha, daughter of Kawc^u, and Daksha was their son. 
See Daksha. 

PRACHYAS. The people of the east; those east of the 
Ganges ; the Prasii of the Greeks. 

PRADHAXA. jMatter. Primary matter, or nature as opposed 
to spirit. 

PRADYUM^N'A. A son of Kn*sh?2a by Rukmim. "V^Hien a 
child only six days old, he was stolen by the demon >Sambara 
and thrown into the ocean. There he was swallowed by a fish, 
Avhich was afterwards caught and carried to the house of iS'ambara. 
When the fish M^as opened, a beautiful child was discovered, and 
Maya-devi or Maya-vati, the mistress of iS'ambara's household, 
took him under her care. The sage Narada informed her who 
the child was, and she reared him carefully. When he grew up 
she fell in love with him, and informed him who he was and 
how he had been carried ofi" by >S'ambara. He defied the demon to 
battle, and after a long conflict slew him. Then he flew through 
the air with Mayavati, and alighted in the inner apartments of his 
father's palace. Krishna presented him to his mother RukmiTzT. 
" with the virtuous Mayavati his wife," declaring her really to 
be the goddess Rati. Pradyumna also married Ivakudmati, the 
daughter of Rukmin, and had by her a son named Aniruddha. 


Pradyumna was killed at Dwiiraka in tlie presence of liis father 
during a di-unken brawL Though Pradyumna passed as the 
son of Krish?ia, he was, according to the legend, a revival or 
resuscitation of Kama, the god of love, w^ho was reduced to ashes 
by the fiery glance of >S'iva, and so the name Pradyumna is used 
for Kama. {See Kama.) The Yislimi PuraTza puts the follow- 
ing words into the mouth of JSTarada when he presented Prad- 
yumna to Rukmim : — " AA-lien Manmatha (the deity of love) had 
perished, the goddess of beauty (Rati), desirous to secure his 
revival, assumed a delusive form, and by her charms fascinated 
the demon /Skmbara, and exhibited herself to him in various 
illusory enjoyments. This thy son is the descended Kama ; 
and this is (the goddess) Rati, his wife. There is no occasion 
for any uncertainty ; this is thy daughter-in-law." In the Hari- 
vansa he has a wife named Prabhavati, daughter of King Vajra- 
nabha. Wlien he went to see her for the first time, he changed 
himself into a bee and lived in a garland of flowers which had 
been prepared for her. According to the Maha-bharata, he was 
Sanat-kumara, the son of Brahma. 

PR AD YUMX A - YIJ AY A ' Pradyumna victorious. ' A 
drama in seven acts upon the victory of Pradyumna over the 
Daitya Yajra-nabha, Avritten by iSankara Dikshita about the 
middle of the last century. " The play is the work of a Pa7ic?it, 
not of a poet." — Wilson. 

PRAG-JYOTISHA. A city situated in the east, in Kama- 
riipa on the borders of Assam. See Naraka. 

PRAHLADA, PRAHRADA. A Daitya, son of Hirawya- 
kasipu and father of Bali. Hira?iya-ka5ij)u, in his wars with the 
gods, had wrested the sovereignty of heaven from Indra and 
dwelt there in luxury. His son Prahlada, while yet a boy, 
became an ardent devotee of Yisliwu, which so enraged his 
father that he ordered the boy to be killed ; but not the weapons 
of the Daityas, the fangs of the serpents, the tusks of the 
celestial elephants, nor the flames of fire took any efiect, and his 
father was constrained to send him back to his preceptor, where 
he continued so earnest in performing and promoting the wor- 
ship of YisliTiu that he eventually obtained final exemption 
from existence. According to some accounts, it was to avenge 
Prahlada, as well as to vindicate his own insulted majesty, that 
Yislmu became incarnate as the Nara-sinha, ' man-lion,' and slew 


Hira7z.ya-ka.«ipu. After the death of his father, Pralilada be- 
came king of tlie Daityas and dwelt in Patala ; but, according 
to the Padnia Pura/ia, he was raised to the rank of Indra for 
life, and finally united with Vish/iu. The Padma Pura?ia 
carries the story farther back to a previous birth. In this pre- 
vious existence Prahlada was a Brahman named Soma-^arman, 
fifth son of ^Siva-sarman. His four brothers died and ol)- 
tained union with Vish/iu, and he desired to follow^ them. 
To accomj)lish this he engaged in profound meditation, but he 
allowed himself to be disturbed by an alarm of the Daityas, and 
so was born again as one of them. He took the part of his 
race in the war between them and the gods, and was killed by 
the discus of Vislwiu, after that he was again born as son of 

PKAJA-PATL 'Lord of creatures,' a progenitor, creator. 
In the A^eda the term is applied to Indra, Savit?'i, Soma, Hir- 
a/iya-garbha, and other deities. In Manu the term is applied to 
Brahma as the active creator and supporter of the universe ; so 
Brahma is the Praja-pati. It is also given to Manu Swayam- 
bhuva himself, as the son of Brahma and as the secondary 
creator of the ten ii/shis, or "mind-born sons" of Brahma, from 
whom mankind has descended. It is to these ten sages, as 
fathers of the human race, that the name Prajil-pati most com- 
monly is given. They are Marichi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, 
Pulaha, Kratu, Vasish^ha, Prachetas or Daksha, Bh?/gu, and 
Narada. According to some authorities the Praja-patis are only 
seven in number, being identical with the seven great i^fshis. 
{See itishi.) The number and names of the Praja-patis vary in 
different authorities : the. Maha-bharata makes twenty- one. 

PKAKAaSAS. Messengers of Vislmu, also called Yish/iu- 

PRAKit/TA. The Prakrits are provincial dialects of the 
Sansk?'it, exhibiting more or less deterioration from the original 
language ; and they occupy an intermediate position between 
that language and the modern vernaculars of India, very similar 
to that of the Romance languages between the Tatin and the 
modern languages of Europe. They resemble the European 
languages also in another respect : they have in them a small 
proportion of words which have not been affiliated on the original 
classical language, and are apparently remnants of a different 


tongiie and an older race. The Prak?7'ts are cliiefly known from 
the dramas in which kings and Brahmans speak Sansk^'/t, while 
characters of inferior position speak in different Prak?7ts. 
Sometimes these Prak?*it passages are so very debased that it 
hardly seems possible for them to be specimens of really spoken 
vernaculars. Such passages may perhaps be comic exaggerations 
of provincial peculiarities. The Prak?'/ts have received careful 
study, and the Prakrita-prakasa, a Grammar by Yararuchi, 
translated by Professor Cowell, was probably written about the 
beginning of the Christian era. K^ee Katyayana. 

PRAKii/TI. Nature ; matter as opposed to spirit. The per- 
sonified will of the Supreme in the creation, and the prototype 
of the female sex, identified with Maya or illusion. The ^akti 
or female energy of any deity. 

PRALAMBA. An Asura killed by K?7'sh?2a, according to 
the Maha-bharata. His story as told in the Yislmu Purii/ia is, 
that he was an Asura and a dej^endant of Kansa. With the 
object of devouring the boys Krishna and Bala-rama, he joined 
them and their playmates in jumping. Pralamba was beaten 
by his opponent Bala-rama, and by the rules of the game had 
to carry the victor back on his shoulders to the starting-place. 
He took up Bala-riima and then exjoanded his form, and was 
making off with his rider when Bala-rama called U2X)n K?*ish7?a 
for assistance. Krz'sh?za made a long speech, and ended by tell- 
ing him to suspend aAvhile his mortal character and do what was 
right. Bala-rama laughed, squeezed Pralamba with his knees, 
and beat him on the head with his fists till his eves were knocked 
out and his brain forced through his skull, so that he fell to the 
ground and expired. 

PRALAYA. A dissolution of the world at the end of a kalpa. 

PRAMATHAS. A class of demi-gods or fiends attendant 
upon >Siva. 

PRAMLOCHA. A celestial nymj^h sent by Indra to beguile 
the sage Ka?if?u from his devotion and austerities. She lived 
with him for some hundreds of years, which were but as a day to 
the sage. AVhen he awoke from his delusion lie drove the nymph 
from his presence. The child with which she M^as pregnant by 
him came forth from her body in drops of perspiration, which 
she left upon the leaves of the trees. These drops congealed 
and became eventually the lovely nymjDh Marisha (q.v.). 


PEAiVA. ' Breath or life. ' In the Atharva-veda it is per- 
sonified and a hymn is addressed to it. 

PRASANNA-RAGHAVA. A drama by Jaya-deva in seven 
acts. It has been printed at Benares. 

PRASEj^A. Son of Nighna and brother of Satra-jit or 
Sattriijita. He was killed by a lion. See, Syamantaka. 

PRAaS'ISTA. ISI^ame of an Upanishad (q.v.). 

PRASUTI. A daughter of Mann and wife of Daksha. 

PRATARDANA. Son of Divodasa, king of Kasi. The 
whole family of Divodasa was slain by a king named Yita-havya. 
The afflicted monarch through a sacrifice performed by Bh?7gii 
obtained a son, Pratardana, who became a mighty warrior, and 
avenged the family wrongs upon his father's foe. Yita-havya 
then flew to the sage Bh?'igu for protection, and w^as by him 
raised to the dignity of a Brahmarshi. 

PRATI/S'AKHYAS. Treatises on the jjlionetic laws of the 
language of the Yedas, dealing with the euphonic combination 
of letters and the peculiarities of their pronunciation as they 
prevailed in the different iS'akhas or Yedic schools. Tliese 
treatises are very ancient, but they are considerably later than 
the hymns, for the idiom of the hymns must have become 
obscure and obsolete before these treatises were necessary. Pour 
such treatises are known : — 

Eig-veda. — One which is considered to belong to the /STddiala- 
sakha of this Yeda, and is ascribed to >Saunaka, It has been 
edited and translated into German by Max Midler, and into 
French by ]M. Regnier. 

Yajur-veda. — Taittiriya-pratisakhj-a, belonging to the Black 
Yajur, jDrinted in the Bihliotheca Indica and also in the Journal 
of the American Oriental Society, with a translation by Professor 

Vdjasaneyi-prcdisdkhya. — Belonging to the White Yajur. It 
is attributed to Katyayana, and has been edited and translated 
by Weber. 

A tharva-veda.- — The iS'aunakiya Chaturadliy ayika, i. e. , ^S'aunaka's 
treatise in four chapters. Edited and translated into Enghsli 
by Whitney. 

No Pratisiikhj^a of the Sama-veda has been discovered. 

PRATI-SHrHA:NrA. An ancient city, the capital of the 
early kings of the Lunar race ; " it was situated on the eastern 



side of the confluence of the Ganges and Jumna," opposite to 
the modern Allahabad. The capital of ASalivahana on the Goda- 
vari, supposed to be the same as " Pattan " or " Pyetan." 

PRATJDHA-BRAHMAA'A. One of the eight BrahmaTias of 
the Sama-veda. It contains twenty-five sections, and is there- 
fore also called Pancha-vin^a. 

PRAYAGA. The modern Allahabad. The place where tlie 
Ganges, Jumna, and the fabled subterranean Saraswati unite, 
called also Tri-vem, 'the triple braid.' It has always been a 
celebrated place of j^ilgrimage. 

PRETA. A ghost ; an evil spirit animating a dead carcase, 
and haunting cemeteries and other places. 

Pi?/SHADHRA. A son of Manu Yaivaswata, who, accord- 
ing to the Hari-vansa and the Purawas, became a AS'ddra because 
he killed the cow of his religious preceptor. 

Pi^/SHATA. Drupada's father. 

PitJ/S'iS^I. In the Yedas and Pura?ias, the earth, tlie mother 
of the Maruts. The name is used in the Yedas also for a cow. 
There were several females of this name, and one of them is 
said to have been a new birth of Devaki. 

PRITHA. A name of Kunti. 

P7?/THI, Pi?/THU, PJ?/THI - YAIA^YA. Pr/thi or 
P?'ithi-vai7iya, ■i.e., Prithi, son of Yewa, is mentioned in the 
7t/g-veda, and he is the declared i^/shi or author of one of the 
hymns. The Atharva-veda says, " She (Yh-ry) ascended : she 
came to men. Men called her to them, saying, 'Come, IriivatT.' 
Manu Yaivaswata was her calf, and the earth her vessel. Prithl- 
vainya milked her ; he milked from her agriculture and grain. 
Men subsist on agriculture and grain." The /Siitapatha P)rahma?ni 
refers to Prithi as "first of men who was installed as a king." 
These early allusions receive a consistent form in the Purawas, and 
we have the following legend : — P/ithi was son of Yewa, son of 
Anga. He was called the first king, and from him the earth 
received her name Prithivi. The Yislmu Purilwa says that the 
i(?/shis " inaugurated Yewa monarch of tin; eartli," but he was 
wicked by nature and prohibited worship and sacrifice. Incensed 
at the decay of religion, pious sages beat Ye/ia to death with blades 
of holy grass. In the absence of a king robbery and anarchy arose, 
and the Munis, after consultation, proceeded to rub the thigh 
of the dead king in order to produce a son. There came forth 


" a man like a charred log, with flat face and extremely short." 
This man became a Nishada, and witli him came out the sins of 
the departed king. The Brahmans then rubbed the right arm 
of the corpse, " and from it sprang the majestic Prithu, Vewa's 
son, resplendent in body, glowing like the manifested Agni, . . . 
At his birth all creatures rejoiced, and through the birth of this 
virtuous son Ye?ia, delivered from the hell called Put, ascended 
to heaven." Pr/thu then became invested wdth universal 
dominion. His subjects, who had suffered from famine, be- 
sought him for the edible plants which the earth withheld. 
In anger he seized his boAv to compel her to yield the usual 
supply. She assumed the form of a cow and fled before him. 
Unable to escape, she implored him to spare her, and promised 
to restore all the needed fruits if a calf were given to her, through 
which she might be able to secrete milk. " He therefore, hav- 
ing made 5wayam-bhuva Manu the calf, milked the earth, and 
received the milk into his own hand for the benefit of mankind. 
Thence proceeded all kinds of corn and vegetables upon which 
people subsist now and perpetually. By granting life to the 
earth P^'ithu was as her father, and she thence derived the 
j)atronymic appellation P^'ithivi." This milking the earth has 
been made the subject of much allegory and symbolism. The 
Matsya Pura/za specifies a variety of milkers, gods, men, Nagas, 
Asuras, &c., in the follow style : — " The i?ishis milked the 
earth through B?'ihaspati ; their calf Avas Soma, the Vedas were 
the vessel, and the milk was devotion." Other Pura?ms ao;ree with 
only slight deviations. "These mystifications," says Wilson, "are 
all, probably, subsequent modifications of the original simple alle- 
gory which typified the earth as a cow, who yielded to every class 
of beings the milk they desired, or the object of their wishes." 

Pi^/THIVI. 'The broad.' The earth or wide world. In 
the Yedas the earth is jDersonified as the mother of all beings, and 
is invoked together with the sky. According to the Yedas there 
are three earths corresponding to the three heavens, and our 
earth is called Bhumi. Another name of the earth is Urvi, ' wide.' 
In the Yish?Ri Pura?za she is represented as receiving her name 
from a mythical person named Prithu, who granted her life, 
and so was to her as a father. See above, P?-ithi or Prithu. 

Pii/THU. A king of the Solar race, a descendant of Iksh- 
waku. There are many Pr/thus. See Prithi. 


PEIYA-DAE6I See Asoka. 

PRIYAM-YADA. A Yidya-dliara, son of the king of the 

PRIYA-YRATA. One of the two sons of Brahma, and 
*S'ata-rupa ; or, according to other statements, a son of Mann 
Swayam-bhuva. " Priya-vrata being dissatisfied that only half 
the earth was illuminated at one time by the solar rays, followed 
the sun seven times round the earth in his own flaming car of 
equal velocity, like another celestial orb, resolved to turn night 
into da}'." He was stopped by Brahma. " The ruts which 
were formed by the motion of his chariot Avheels were the seven 
oceans. In this way the seven continents of the earth Avere 
made." — Bhcigavata Purdiia. In the Yishmi Vwrnndt, his wife is 
stated to be Kamya, daughter of Kardama, by whom he had 
ten sons and two daughters. Three of the sons adopted a re- 
ligious life, and Priya-vrata divided the seven continents 
among the others. 

PULAHA. Name of one of the Praja-patis and great ii/shis. 
His wife was Kshama, and he had three sons, Kardama, Arva- 
rivat, and Sahish?iu. A Gandharva (q.v.). 

PULASTYA. One of the Praja-patis or mind-born sons of 
Brahma, and one of the great iiishis. He was the medium 
through which some of the Pura?zas were communicated to man. 
He received the Yish?m PuriiTza from Brahma and communi- 
cated it to Parasara, who made it known to mankind. He was 
father of Yisravas, the father of Kuvera and Rava/ia, and all 
the Rakshasas are supposed to have sprung from him. 

PULINDAS. Barbarians ; barbarous tribes living in woods 
and mountains, especially in Central India ; but there were 
some in the north and on the Indus. 

PULOjMAX. a Danava and father of /S'acliT, wife of Indra. 
He was killed by Indra when he Avished to curse that deity for 
having ravished his daughter. 

PUA^X>ARIKAKSIIA. 'The lotus-eyed;' a name of Yisli?m. 

PUA^Z)RA. A country corresponding " to Bengal proper, 
Avitli part of South Bihiir and the Jungle INIahals." A fabulous 
city between the Hima-vat and Hema-ku/a. 

PUiY YA - 6'LOK A (mas. ), PUiY YA - ^XOK A (f em. ). 
'Hymned in holy verse.' An appellation applied to Kn'slma, 
Yudhi-sh/hira, and Nala, also to Draupadi and Sitil 

PURANA. 245 

PURAi\''A. ' Old,' hence an ancient legend or tale of olden 
times. The Pura?ias succeed the Itihasas or epic poems, but 
at a considerable distance of time, and must be distinguished 
from them. The epics treat of the legendary actions of heroes 
as mortal men, the Pura?zas celebrate the powers and works of 
positive gods, and represent a later and more extravagant deve- 
lopment of Hinduism, of which they are in fact the Scrij)tures. 
The definition of a Pura?u by Amara Sinha, an ancient Sansk?'/t 
lexicographer, is a work "which has five distinguishing topics : — 
(i.) The creation of the universe ; (2.) Its destruction and reno- 
vation; (3.) The genealogy of gods and patriarchs; (4.) The reigns 
of the Manus, forming the periods called Manwantaras. (5.) 
The history of the Solar and Lunar races of kings." These are 
the Pancha-lakshaTias or distinguishing marks, but no one of the 
Purawas answers exactly to the description ; some show a partial 
conformity with it, others depart from it very widely. The 
Vish?Ri Pura?2a is the one which best accords with the title. 
Wilson says, " A very great portion of the contents of many is 
genuine and old. The sectarial interpolation or embellishment 
is always sufficiently palpable to be set aside without injury to 
the more authentic and primitive material; and the Purawas, 
although they belong especially to that stage of the Hindu reli- 
gion in which faith in some one divinity was the prevailing 
principle, are also a valuable record of the form of Hindu belief 
which came next in order to that of the Yedas, which grafted 
hero-worship upon the simpler ritual of the latter, and which had 
been adopted, and was extensively, perhaps universally, estab- 
lished in India at the time of the Greek invasion." According 
to the same authority, Pantheism " is one of their invariable 
characteristics," and underlies their whole teaching, " although 
the particular divinity who is all things, from whom all things 
proceed, and to whom all things return, is diversified according 
to their individual sectarian bias." The Pura?ias are all written 
in verse, and their invariable form is that of a dialogue between 
an exponent and an inquirer, intersj)ersed with the dialogues and 
observations of other individuals. Thus Pulastya received the 
Yish^iu Pura?ia from Brahma ; he made it known to Parasara, 
and Parasara narrated it to his disciple Maitreya. The Pura?ias 
are eighteen in number, and in addition to these there are 
eighteen Upa Pura?2as or subordinate works. The Purawas are 

246 PURANA. 

classified in tliree categories, according to tlie prevalence in them 
of the qualities of purity, gloom, and passion. Those in which 
the quality of Sattwa or purity j)revail are — (i.) Yish7?-u, (2.) 
Naradiya, (3.) Bhagavata, (4.) Garuc/a, (5.) Padma, (6.) Yaraha. 
These are Vaishnava Pura/?as, in which the god Yish??Ai holds 
the pre-eminence. The Purawas in which Tamas, the quality of 
gloom or ignorance, predominates are — (i.) ]\ratsya, (2.) Kurma, 
(3.) Linga, (4.) ^S'iva, (5.) Skanda, (6.) Agni. These are devoted 
to the god ^iva. Those in which Rajas or passion prevails 
relate chiefly to the god Brahma. They are — (i.) Brahma, (2.) 
Brahmawc/a, (3.) Brahma-vaivarta, (4.) ^MarkaTZC^eya, (5.) Bhavi- 
shya, (6.) Yamana. The works themselves do not fully justify 
this classification. ISTone of them are devoted exclusively to one 
god, but Yishmi and his incarnations fill the largest space. One 
called the Yayu Purawa is in some of the PuraTias substituted 
for the Agni, and in others for the *S'iva. This Yayu is appa- 
rently the oldest of them, and may date as far back as the sixth 
century, and it is considered that some of the others may be as 
late as the thirteenth or even the sixteenth century. One fact 
appears certain : they must all have received a supplementary 
revision, because each one of them enumerates the whole 
eighteen. The Markaw(/e3''a is the least sectarian of the Pur- 
a?ias ; and the Bhagavata, which deals at length Avith the incar- 
nations of Yishwu, and particularly with his form K?"ish7ia, is the 
most poj^ular. The most jierfect and the best known is the 
Yislmu, which has been entirely translated into English by 
Professor Wilson, and a second edition, with many valuable 
notes, has been edited by Dr. F. E. Hall. The text of the Agni 
and Marka?if/eya Pura/zas is in course of publication in the 
Bibliotheca Indica. The Purfmas vary greatly in length. Some 
of them specify the number of couplets that each of the eighteen 
contains. According to the Bhagavata, the sum total of couplets 
in the whole eighteen is 400,000 ; the Skanda is the longest, 
with 81,000, the Brahma and the Yamana the shortest, with 
10,000 couplets each. 

TheUimPurawas are named — (i.) Sanat-kumiira, (2.) Xara-sinha 
or N?7*-sinha, (3.) Naradlya or Yr/han (old) Naradlya, (4.) 51 va, 
(5.)Dur-vasasa,(6.)Kapila, (7.)j\[rinava, (8.)Ausanasa, (9.)ATiruwa, 
(10.) Kalikti, (11.) AS'amba, (12.) Nandi, (13.) Saura, (14.) Para- 
sara, (15.) Aditya, (16.) INIilheswara, (17.) Bhagavata, (18,) 


Vasish/ha. These works are not common. Other modern 
Avorks exist to which the term PuraTZ-a has been applied. 

An account of each of the eighteen great Piiray^as is given 
under its own name. 

PURAN-JAYA. ' City-conqneror.' A prince of the Solar 
race, son of Yikukshi. His story, as told in the Yishmi Piirawa, 
is that in the Treta age there was war between the gods and 
the Asuras, in which the former were worsted. They had re- 
course to Yislmu for assistance, and he directed them to obtain 
the aid of Puran-jaya, into whose person he promised to infuse 
a portion of himself. The prince complied with their wishes, 
and asked that their chief, Indra, Avould assume the form of a 
bull and carry him, the prince, upon his hump. This was done, 
and tlius seated Puran-jaya destroyed all the enemies of the 
gods. As he rode on the hump he obtained the cognomen of 
Kakut-stha. In explanation of his title Puran-jaya, the Bha- 
gavata Pura?za says that he took the city of the Daityas situated 
in the west. 

PURO GHANA. The emissary of Dur-yodhana who at- 
tempted to burn the Pa?^o?avas in their house and was burnt in 
his own house by Bhima. See Maha-bharata. 

PURU. The sixth king of the Lunar race, youngest son 
of Yayati and Sarmish/ha. He and his brother Yadu were 
founders of two great branches of the Lunar race. The descen- 
dants of Puru were called Pauravas, and of this race came the 
Kauravas and Pa?i(7avas. Among the Yadavas or descendants 01 
Yadu was K?i*sh7?a. Bee Yayati. 

PURUKUTSA. A son of Mandhat?i, into whose person 
Yish?iu entered for the' purpose of destroying the subterranean 
Gandharvas, called Mauneyas. He reigned on the banks of the 
]!^armada, and that river personified as one of the J^agas was his 
wife. By her he had a son, Trasadasyu. The Yish/m Purawa 
is said to have been narrated to him by " Daksha and other 
venerable sages." 

PURU-RAYAS. In the Yedas, a mythical personage con- 
nected with the sun and the dawn, and existing in the middle 
region of the universe. According to the ^ig-veda he was son 
of Ila, and a beneficent pious prince ; but the Maha-bharata 
says, "We have heard that Ha was both his mother and his 
father. The parentage usually assigned to him is that he was 


son of Budlia by Ila, daughter of Manu, and grandson of tlie 
moon." Tlirongh his mother he received the city of Pratish/hana. 
{See Ila.) lie is the hero of the story and of the drama of 
Vikrama and Urvasi, or the " Hero and the jSTymph." Puru-ravas 
is the Vikrama or hero, and Urvasi is an Apsaras who came 
down from Swarga through having incurred the imprecation of 
Mitra and YaruTia. On earth Purii-ravas and she became ena- 
moured of each other, and she agreed to live with him upon 
certain conditions. " I have two rams," said the nympli, 
" which I love as children. They must be kept near my bed- 
side, and never suffered to be carried away. You must also 
take care never to be seen by me undressed ; and clarified butter 
alone must be my food." The inhabitants of Swarga were 
anxious for the return of Urva^i, and knowing the compact 
made with Purii-ravas, the Gandharvas came by night and stole 
lier rams. Purii-ravas was undressed, and so at first refrained 
from pursuing the robl)ers, but the cries of Urvasi impelled him 
to seize his sword and rush after them. The Gandharvas then 
brought a vivid flasli of lightning to the chamber which dis- 
played the person of Purii-ravas. So the charm was broken and 
Urvasi disappeared. Purii-ravas wandered about demented in 
search of her, and at length found her at Kuru-kshetra bathing 
with four other nymphs of heaven. She declared herself preg- 
nant, and told him to come there again at the end of a year, 
when she would deliver to him a son and remain with him for 
one night. Purii-ravas, thus comforted, returned to his capital. 
At the end of the year he went to the trysting-place and received 
from his eldest son, Ayus. The annual interviews were 
repeated until she had borne him five more sons. (Some autho- 
rities increase the number to eight, and there is considerable 
variety in their names. ) She then told him tliat the Gandharvas 
had determined to grant him any boon he might desire. His 
desire was to pass his life with Urvasi. The Gandharvas then 
brought him a vessel with fire and said, " Take this fire, and, 
according to the precepts of the Yedas, divide it into three fires ; 
then, fixing your mind upon the idea of living with Urvasi, offer 
oblations, and you shall assuredly obtain your wishes." He did 
not immediately obey this command, but eventually he fulfilled 
it in an emblematic way, and " obtained a seat in the sphere of 
the Gandharvas, and was no more separated from his love." As 


a son of Ila, liis metronymic is Aila. There is a hymn in the 
ifc/g-veda which contains an obscure conversation between Piirii- 
ravas and Urvasi. The above story is first told in the iS'atapatha 
BrahmaTza, and afterwards reappears in the PuraTias. The 
Bhagavata Purawa says, " From Puru-ravas came the triple 
Veda in the beginning of the Treta (age)." 

The story is supposed to have a mythic origin. Max Miiller 
considers it " one of the myths of the Vedas which expresses 
the correlation of the dawn and the sun. The love between the 
mortal and the immortal, and the identity of the morning dawn 
and the evening twilight, is the story of Urvasi and Puru-ravas. " 
The word Urvasi, according to the same writer, " was originally 
an appellation, and meant dawn." Dr. Goldstiicker's explanation 
differs, but seems more apposite. According to this, Purii-ravas 
is the sun and Urvasi is the morning mist ; when Purii-ravas is 
visible Urvasi vanishes, as the mist is absorbed when the sun 
shines forth. Urvasi in the story is an Apsaras, and the Apsa- 
rases are " personifications of the vapours which are attracted 
by the sun and form into mists or clouds." 

PURUSHA. ' Man.' i. The original eternal man, the Sup- 
reme Being, and soul of the universe. 2. A name of Brahma. 

PURUSHA-XARAYAiVA. The original male. The divine 
creator Brahma. 

PURUSHA-StJKTA. A hymn of the i^ig-veda in which 
the four castes are first mentioned. It is considered to be one 
of the latest in date. See Muir's Texts, i. p. 7. 

PURUSHOTTAMA. Literally ' best of men ;' but the word 
Purusha is here used in its mythic sense of soul of the universe, 
and so the compound means the "supreme soul." It is a title 
of Yishmi, and asserts his right to be considered the Supreme 
God. So the Hari-vansa says, " Purushottama is whatever is 
declared to be the highest, Purusha the sacrifice, and everything 
else which is known by the name of Purusha." 

PURUSHOTTAMA - KSHETRA. The sacred territory 
round about the temple of Jagannatha in Orissa. 

PURYA-jNIiMANSA. A school of philosophy. See Darsana. 

PUSHAjST. a deity frequently mentioned in the Yedas, but 
he is not of a distinctly defined character. Many hymns are 
addressed to him. The word comes from the root 2^ush, and 
the primary idea is that of " nourisher '' or Providence. So the 


Taittirlya Bralima?ia says, " AVlien Prajapati formed living 
creatures Pushan nourished them." The account given in Bbh- 
thngk and Roth's Dictionary, and adopted by Dr. Muir, is as 
follows : — "Piishan is a protector and multiplier of cattle and 
of human possessions in general. As a cowherd he carries an 
ox-goad, and he is drawn by goats. In the character of a Solar 
deity, he beholds the entire universe, and is a guide on roads 
and journeys and to the other world. He is called the lover of 
his sister Surya. He aids in the revolution of day and night, 
and shares with Soma the guardianship of living creatures. He 
is invoked along with the most various deities, but most fre- 
Cjuently with Indra and Bhaga." He is a patron of conjurors, 
especially of those who discover stolen goods, and he is connected 
with the marriage ceremonial, being besought to take the bride's 
hand and bless her. (See Miiifs Texts, v. 171.) In the 
Xirukta, and in works of later date, Pushan is identified 
with the sun. He is also called the brother of Indra, and is 
enumerated among the twelve Adityas. Pushan is toothless, 
and feeds upon a kind of gruel, and the cooked oblations offered 
to him are of ground materials, hence he is called Karambhad. 
The cause of his being toothless is variously explained. Accord- 
ing to the Taittirlya Sanhita, the deity Rudra, being excluded 
from a certain sacrifice, shot an arrow at the offering and pierced 
it. A portion of this sacrifice was presented to Pushan, and it 
broke his teeth. In the Maha-bharata and in the Purawas the 
legend takes a more definite shape. " Rudra (/S'iva), of dreadful 
power, ran up to the gods present at Daksha's sacrifice, and in 
his rage knocked out the eyes of Bhaga with a blow, and, in- 
censed, assaulted Pushan with his foot, and knocked out his 
teeth as he was eating the purof?a5a offering." In the Pura?zas 
it is not /Siva himself, but his manifestation the Rudras, who 
disturbed the sacrifice of the gods and knocked Pushan's teeth 
down his throat. Pushan is called Agh^'mi, ' splendid ; ' Dasra, 
Dasma, and Dasma-varchas, ' of wonderful appearance or power,' 
and Kapardin (q.v.). 

PUSHKARA. A blue lotus. A celebrated tank about five 
miles from Ajmir. One of the seven Dwipas. (See Dwipa.) 
The name of several persons. Of the brother of Nala to whom 
Nala lost his kingdom and all that he possessed in gambling. 
Of a son of Bharata and nephew of Rama-chandra, who reigned 
over the Gandharas. 


PUSHKARAVATL A city of the Gandliaras not far from 
tlie Indus. It is the Tli\)-A.iKaZ)ri? of Ptolemy, and the Poiise- 
kielofati of Hiouen Thsang. 

PUSHPA-DANTA. 'Flower-teeth.' i. One of the chief 
attendants of AS'iva. He incurred his master's displeasure by 
listening to his private conversation with Parvati and talking of 
it afterwards. Por this he was condemned to become a man, 
and so appeared in the form of the great grammarian Katyayana. 
2. One of the guardian elephants. See, Loka-pala. 

PUSHPAKA. A self-moving aerial car of large dimensions, 
vrhich contained within it a palace or city. Ivuvera obtained it 
by gift from Brahma, but it was carried off by Eava/za, his 
half-brother, and constantly used by him. After Rama-chandra 
had slain Rava^ia, he made use of this capacious car to convey 
himself and Sita, with Lakslima?ia and all his allies, back to 
Ayodliya ; after that he returned it to its owner, Kuvera. It is 
also called Ratna-varslmka, " that rains jewels." 

PUSHPA-KARAiVDIKI. A name of Ujjayini. 

PUSHPA-MITRA. The first of the ^unga kings, who suc- 
ceeded the Mauryas, and reigned at Pa/ali-putra. In his time 
the grammarian Patanjali is supposed to have lived. 

PUSHP0TKA2A. A Rakshasi, the wife of Yi.sravas and 
mother of Ravawa and Kumbha-ka?'na. 

PUT. A hell to which childless men are said to be condemned. 
'- A name invented to explain the word ^w//7'(X, son (hell-saver)." 

PUTAI^A. A female demon, daughter of Bali. She attempted 
to kill the infant K?-ish7?a by suckling him, but was herself 
sucked to death by the child. 

RADHA. I. Wife of Adhiratha and foster-mother of Ivar7?a. 
2. The favourite mistress and consort of Krish??a while he lived 
as Go-pala among the cowherds in Vrmda-vana. She was wife 
of Ayana-ghosha, a cowherd. Considered by some to be an in- 
carnation of LakshniT, and worshipped accordingly. Some have 
discovered a mystical character in Radha, and consider her as 
the type of the human soul drawn to the ineffable god, Kf/sh?ia, 
or as that pure divine love to which the fickle lover returns. 

RADHEYA. a metronymic of Ivar?2a. 

RADHIKA. a diminutive and endearing form of the name 

RAG A (mas.), RAGINl (fern.). Tlie Ragas are the musical 


modes or melodies personified, six or more in number, and tlie 
Rasfinis are their consorts. 

RAGHAYA. Descendant of Eaglm, a name of Rama. 

RAGHAYA-PAA^DAYiYA, A modern poem by Kavi 
Raja, which is in high repute. It is an artificial work, which 
exhibits extraordinary ingenuity in the employment of words. 
As its name implies, the poem celebrates the actions of Raghava, 
i.e.^ Rama, the descendant of Raghu, aiid also those of the Vknd- 
ava princes. It thus recounts at once in the same words the story 
of the RamayaTia and that of the Maha-bharata ; and the com- 
position is so managed that the words may be understood as 
applying either to Rama or the Pa72(iavas. It has been printed. 

RAGHAYA-YILASA. A poem on the life of Rama by 
Yiswa-natha, the author of the Sahitya-darpawa. 

RAGHU. A king of the Solar race. According to the 
Raghu-vansa, he was the son of Dilipa and great-grandfather of 
Rama, who from Raghu got the patronymic Raghava and the 
title Raghu-pati, chief of the race of Raghu. The authorities 
disagree as to the genealogy of Raghu, but all admit him to be 
an ancestor of Rama. 

RAGHU-PATL See Raghu. 

RAGHU-YAN.SA. 'The race of Raghu.' The name of a 
celebrated poem in nineteen cantos by Kali-dasa on the ancestry 
and life of Rama. It has been translated into Latin by Stenzler, 
and into English by Griffiths. There are other translations and 
many editions of the text. 

RAIIU. Rclhu and Ketu are in astronomy the ascending and 
descending nodes. Rahu is the cause of eclipses, and the term 
is used to designate the eclipse itself. He is also considered 
as one of the planets, as king of meteors, and as guardian of the 
south-west quarter. MythologiaUy Rahu is a Daitya who is 
supposed to seize the sun and moon and swallow them, thus 
obscuring their rays and causing eclipses. He was son of Yipra- 
chitti and Sinhika, and is called by his metronymic Sainhikeya, 
He had four arms, and his lower part ended in a tail He was 
a great mischief-maker, and when the gods had produced the 
Amrita by churning the ocean, he assumed a disguise, and in- 
sinuating himself amongst them, drank some of it. The sun 
and moon detected him and informed Yish?m, who cut off his 
head and two of his arms, but, as he had secured immortality, 


his "body was placed in the stellar sphere, the upper parts, re- 
presented by a dragon's head, being the ascending node, and the 
lower parts, represented by a dragon's tail, being Ketu the de- 
scending node. Eiihu wreaks his vengeance on the sun and 
moon by occasionally swallowing them. The Yish?iu Purawa 
says, " Eight black horses draw the dusky chariot of Rahu, and 
once harnessed are attached to it for ever. On the Parvans 
(nodes, or lunar and solar eclijDses) Kahu directs his course from 
the sun to the moon, and back again from the moon to the sun. 
The eight horses of the chariot of Ketu, swift as the wind, are 
of the dusky red colour of lac, or of the smoke of burning 
straw." Rahu is called Abhra-pisacha, ' the demon of the sky ; ' 
Eharam-bhu, 'born from the asterism Bharam;' Graha, 'the 
seizer;' Kabandha, 'the headless.' 

RAIBHYA. A sage who was the friend of Bharadwaja. 
He had two sons, Arvavasu and Paravasu. The latter, under 
the curse of Bharadwaja, killed his father, mistaking him for an 
antelope, as he was walking about at night covered with an 
antelope's skin. Arvavasu retired into the forest to obtain by 
devotion a remission of his brother's guilt. When he returned, 
Paravasu charged him with the crime, and he again retired to 
his devotions. These so pleased the gods that they drove away 
Paravasu and restored Raibhya to life. See Yava-krita. 

RAIYATA. I. Son of Reva or Revata. Also called Kakud- 
min. He had a very lovely daughter named Revati, and not deem- 
ing any mortal worthy of her, he went to Brahma to consult 
him. At the command of that god he bestowed her upon Bala- 
rama. He was king of Anarta, and built the city of Ku5asthali 
or Dwaraka in Gujarat, which he made his capital 2. One of 
the Manus (the fifth). 

RAIYATA, RAIYATAKA. The range that branches off 
from the western portion of the Yindhya towards the north, 
extending nearly to the Jumna. 

RAJA-Gi?/HA. The capital of Magadha. Its site is stiU 
traceable in the hills between Patna and Gaya. 

RAJANYA. A Yedic designation of the Kshatriya caste. 
RAJARSHI (Raja-?ishi). A it?shi or saint of the regal 
caste ; a Kshatriya who, through pure and holy life on earth, 
has been raised as a saint or demigod to Indra's heaven, as 
Yiswa-mitra, Puru-ravas, &c. 


KAJA /S'EKHAK^L A di^amatist who was the author of the 
dramas Yiddha->Salabhanjika and Pracha7Zf?a-Paw(iava. He was 
also the writer of KarjDura-Manjarl, a drama entirely in Prakrit, 
Another play, Bala-Ramajawa, is attributed to him. He appears 
to have been the minister of some Eajput, and to have lived 
about the beginning of the twelfth century. 

EAJA-StJYA. 'A royal sacrifice.' A great sacrifice per- 
formed at the installation of a king, religious in its nature but 
pohtical in its operation, because it implied that he who in- 
stituted the sacrifice was a supreme lord, a king over kings, and 
his tributary princes were required to be present at the rite. 

EAJA-TAEANGIiVl. A Sanskrit metrical history of Kash- 
mir by Kalhana Pa?^it. It commences with the days of fable 
and comes down to the year 1027 a.d. The author probably 
lived about 1148 a.d. This is the only known work in Sans- 
krit which deserves the name of a history. The text has been 
printed in Calcutta. Troyer published the text with a French 
translation. Wilson and Lassen have analysed it, and Dr. 
Eiililer has lately reviewed the work in the Indian Antiquarj/. 

EAJI. A son of Ayus and father of 500 sons of great 
valour. In one of the chronic wars between the gods and the 
Asuras it was declared by Brahma that the victory should be 
gained by that side which Eaji joined. The Asuras first sought 
him, and he undertook to aid them if they promised to make 
him their king on their victory being secured. They dechned. 
The heavenly hosts repaired to him and undertook to make 
him their Indra. After the Asuras were defeated he became 
king of the gods, and Indra paid him homage. Ylien he re- 
turned to his own city, he left Indra as his deputy in heaven. 
On Eaji's death Indra refused to acknowledge the succession of 
his sons, and by the help of Brihaspati, who led them astray 
and effected their ruin, Indra recovered his sovereignty. 

EAKA. A Erdvshasi, wife of Yisravas and mother of Khara 
and Surpa. naklifi. 

EAKSIIASAS. Goblins or evil spirits. They are not all 
equally hhd, but have been classified as of three sorts — one as a set 
of beings like the Yakshas, another as a sort of Titans or enemies 
of the gods, and lastly, in the common acceptation of the term, 
demons and fiends wlio haunt cemeteries, disturb sacrifices, 
harass devout men, animate dead bodies, devour human beings, 


and vex and afflict mankind in all sorts of ways. These last 
are the Erdvshasas of whom Rava?ia was chief, and according to 
some authorities, they are descended, like Ravawa himself, from 
the sage Pulastya. According to other authorities, they sprang 
from Brahma's foot. The YisliTiu Purawa also makes them de- 
scendants of Kasyapa and Kha^a, a daughter of Daksha, through 
their son Rakshas ; and the Ramayawa states that when Brahma 
created the waters, he formed certain beings to guard them who 
were called Rakshasas (from the root rokili, to guard, but the 
derivation from this root may have suggested the explanation), 
and the Visli?Ri Pura?ia gives a somewhat similar derivation. 
It is thought that the Rakshasas of the epic poems were the 
rude barbarian races of India who were subdued by the Aryans. 

When Hanuman entered the city of Lanka to reconnoitre 
in the form of a cat, he saw that " the Rakshasas sleeping in 
the houses were of every shape and form. Some of them dis- 
gusted the eye, while some were beautiful to look upon. Some 
had long arms and frightful shapes ; some were very fat and 
some were very lean : some were mere dwarfs and some Avere 
prodigiously tall. Some had only one eye and others only one 
ear. Some had monstrous bellies, hanging breasts, long pro- 
jecting teeth, and crooked thighs ; whilst others were exceedingly 
beautiful to behold and clothed in great splendour. Some had 
two legs, some three legs, and some four legs. Some had the 
heads of serpents, some the heads of donkeys, some the heads of 
horses, and some the heads of elephants." — [Rdmdyana.) 

The Rakshasas have a great many ejDithets descrij^tive of their 
characters and actions. They are called Anusaras, Asaras, and 
Ilanushas, 'killers or hurters ;' Ish/i-pachas, 'stealers of offer- 
ings;' Sandhya-balas, 'strong in twilight ;' Kshapa/as, jSTaktan- 
charas, Ratri-charas, and ^amani-shadas, 'night-walkers;' Nr/- 
jagdhas or Nri-chakshas, 'cannibals;' Palalas, Paladas, Palan- 
kashas, Kravyads, 'carnivorous;' Asra-pas, Asr/k-pas, Kauna- 
pas, Kilrda-pas, and Rakta-pas, 'blood-drinkers;' Danda-sukas, 
'biters;' Praghasas, 'gluttons;' Malina-mukhas, 'black-faced;' 
Karburas, &c. But many of these epithets are not reserved 
exclusively for Rakshasas. 


RAKTA-YIJA. An Asura whose combat with the goddess 
Chamu?ZfZa (Devi) is celebrated in the Devi-mahiitmya. Each 

256 7^ A MA. 

drop of his blood as it fell on tlie ground produced a new Asura, 
but Cliamuw(ia put an end to this by drinking his blood and 
devouring his flesh. 

RAMA. There are three Riimas : Parasu-rama, Rama-chan- 
dra, and Bala-rama ; but it is to the second of these that the 
name is specially applied. 

RAMA, RAMA-CHANDRA. Eldest son of Dasa-ratha, a 
king of the Solar race, reigning at Ayodhya. This Rama is the 
seventh incarnation of the god A'ishwu, and made his appearance 
in the world at the end of the Treta or second age. His story 
is briefly told in the Yana Parva of the Maha-bharata, but it is 
given in full length as the grand subject of the Ramaya^^a. 
King Da.9a-ratha was childless, and performed the aswa-medlia 
sacrifice with scrupulous care, in the hope of obtaining ofi'spring. 
His devotion was accepted by the gods, and he received the pro- 
mise of four sons. At this time the gods were in great terror 
and alarm at the deeds and menaces of Rava?ia, the Rakshasa 
king of Lanka, who had obtained extraordinary power, in virtue 
of severe penances and austere devotion to Brahma. In their 
terror the gods appealed to Yishyiu for dehverance, and he 
resolved to become manifest in the world with Dasa-ratha as 
his human father Dasa-ratha was performing a sacrifice when 
Yishwu appeared to him as a glorious being from out of the 
sacrificial fire, and gave to him a pot of nectar for his wives to 
drink. Dasa-ratha gave half of the nectar to Ivausalya, who 
brought forth Rama with a half of the divine essence, a quarter 
to Kaikeyi, whose son Bharata was endowed with a quarter of 
the deity, and the fourth part to Su-mitra, who brought forth 
two sons, Lakshma7ia and iS'atru-ghna, each having an eighth 
part of the divine essence. The brothers were all attached to 
each other, but Lakslima??a was more esj^ecially devoted to 
Rama and /Satru-ghna to Bharata. 

[The two sons of Su-mitra and the pairing off of the brothers 
have not passed without notice. The version of the Ramaya7?a 
given by Mr. Wheeler endeavours to account for these circum- 
stances. It says that Dam-ratha divided the divine nectar be- 
tween his senior wives, Ivausalya and Kaikeyi, and that when 
the younger, Su-uiitrii, asked for some, Dasa-ratha desired them 
to share their portions with her. Each gave her half, so Sumitrii 
received two quarters and gave birth to two sons : " from the 

RAM A. 257 

quarter wliich she received from Kausalya she gave birth to 
Lal^shmawa, who became the ever-faithful friend of Rama, and 
from the quarter she received from Kaikeyi she gave birtli to 
*S^atru-ghna, who became the ever-faithful friend of Bliarata." 
This account is silent as to the superior divinity of Riima, and 
according to it all four brothers must have been equals as mani- 
festations of the deity.] 

The four brothers grew up together at Ayodhya, but while 
they were yet striplings, the sage Viswamitra sought the aid of 
Rama to protect him from the Rakshasas. Dasa-ratha, though 
very unwilling, was constrained to consent to the sage's request. 
Rama and Lakshma?za then went to the hermitage of Viswa- 
mitra, and there Rama killed the female demon Taraka, but it 
required a good deal of persuasion from the sage before- he was 
induced to kill a female. Viswamitra. supplied Rama with 
celestial arms, and exercised a considerable influence over his 
actions. Viswamitra afterwards took Rama and his brothers to 
Mithila to the court of Janaka king of Yideha. This king had 
a lovely daughter named Sita, whom he offered in marriage to 
any one who could bend the wonderful bow which had once 
belonged to ^Siva. Rama not only bent the bow but broke it, 
and thus won the hand of the princess, who became a most 
virtuous and devoted wife. Rama's three brothers also Avere 
married to a sister and two cousins of Sita. 

This breaking of the bow of jS'iva brought about a very curious 
incident, wliich is probably an interpolation of a later date, in- 
troduced for a sectarian purpose. Parasu-rama, the sixth incar- 
nation of VisliTiu, the Brahman exterminator of the Kshatriyas, 
was still living upon earth. He was a follower of /S'iva, and was 
off'ended at the breaking of that deity's boAv. Notwithstanding 
that he and Rama were both incarnations of YisliTiu, he chal- 
lenged Rama to a trial of strength and was discomfited, but 
Rama spared his life because he was a Brahman. 

Preparations were made at Ayodhya for the inauguration of 
Rama as successor to the throne. Kaikeyi, the second wife of 
Dasa-ratha, and mother of Bliarata, was her husband's favourite. 
She was kind to Rama in childhood and youth, but she had 
a spiteful humpbacked female slave named Mantharil This 
woman worked upon the maternal afi'ection of her mistress until 
she aroused a strong feeling of jealousy against Rama. Kaikeyi 


2 53 RAA[A. 

liad a quarrel and a long struggle with her husband, but he at 
length consented to install Bharata and to send Riima into ex,ile 
for fourteen years. Rfima departed with his wife Sita and his 
brother Lakshmawa, and travelling southwards, he took up his 
abode at Chitra-ku^a, in the Dawc/aka forest, between the Yamuna 
and GodavarL Soon after the departure of Rama, his father 
Dasa-ratha died, and Bharata was called upon to ascend the 
throne. He declined, and set out for the forest with an ami}' 
to brintr Rama back. ^\nien the brothers met there was a Ioulj 
contention. Rama refused to return until the term of his 
father's sentence was completed, and Bharata declined to ascend 
the throne. At length it was arranged that Bharata should 
return and act as his brother's vicegerent. As a sign of Rama's 
suj^remacy Bharata carried back with him a pair of Rama's 
shoes, and these were always brought out ceremoniously when 
business had to be transacted. Rama passed ten years of his 
banishment moving from one hermitage to another, and went at 
length to the hermitage of the sage Agastya, near the Yindhya 
mountains. This holy man recommended Rama to take up his 
abode at PanchavatI, on the river Godavari, and the party 
accordingly proceeded thither. This district was infested witli 
Rakshasas, and one of them named Siirpa-nakha, a sister of 
RavaTia, saw Rama and fell in love with him. He repelled her 
advances, and in her jealousy she attacked Sita. This so en- 
raged Lakshmawa that he cut off her ears and nose. She brought 
her brothers Khara and Diisharz-a with an army of Rakshasas to 
avenge her 'WTongs, but they were all destroyed. Smarting under 
her mutilation and with sjrretce injuria foi'mte, she repaired to 
her brother Rava/ia in Lanka, and inspired him by her descrij)- 
tion with a fierce passion for Sita. RavaTia proceeded to Rama's 
residence in an aerial car, and his accomplice Mariclia having 
lured Riima from home, Rava^a assumed the form of a religious 
mendicant and lulled Sita's apprehensions until he found an op- 
portunity to declare himself and carry her off by force to Lanka. 
Rama's despair and rage at the loss of his faithful wife were 
terrible. He and Lakshmawa went in pursuit and tracked the 
ravisher. On tlieir way they killed Kabandlia, a headless 
monster, whose disembodied spirit counselled Rama to seek the 
aid of Su-griva, king of the monkeys. The two brothers accord- 
ingly went on their way to Su-grlva, and after overcoming some 

RAMA. ' 259 

obstacles and assisting Su-grlva to recover Kislikindhya, his 
capital, from his usurping brother Balin, they entered into a firm 
alliance with him. Through this connection Rama got the 
appellations of Kapi-prabhu and Kapi-ratha. He received not 
only the sui:)port of all the forces of Su-grlva and his allies, but 
the active aid of Hanuman, son of the wind, minister and 
general of Su-grlva. Hanuman's extraordinary powers of leap- 
ing and flying enabled him to do all the work of reconnoit- 
ring. By superhuman efforts their armies were transported to 
Ceylon by " Rama's bridge," and after many fiercely contested 
battles the city of Lanka was taken, Ravana was killed and 
Sita rescued. The recovery of his wife filled Rama with joy, 
but he was jealous of her honour, received her coldly, and 
refused to take her back. She asserted her purity in touching 
and dignified language, and determined to prove her innocence 
by the ordeal of fire. She entered the flames in the presence of 
men and gods, and Agni, god of fire, led her forth and placed her 
in Rama's arms unhurt. Rama then returned, taking with him 
his chief allies to Ayodhya. Re-united with his three brothers, 
he was solemnly crowned and began a glorious reign, Lakshma/ia 
being associated with him in the government. The sixth section 
of the Ramaya7ia here concludes ; the remainder of the story is 
told in the Uttara-kawc?a,. a subsequent addition. The treatment 
which Slta received in captivity was better than might have 
been expected at the hands of a Rakshasa. She had asserted and 
proved her purity, and Rama believed her ; but jealous thoughts 
would cross his sensitive mind, and when his subjects blamed 
him for taking back his wife, he resolved, although she was 
pregnant, to send her to spend the rest of her life at the hermi- 
tage of Yalmiki. There she was delivered of her twin sons 
Kusa and Lava, who bore upon their persons the marks of their 
high paternity. When they were about fifteen years old they 
wandered accidentally to Ayodhya and were recognised by their 
father, who acknowledged them, and recalled Sita to attest her 
innocence. She returned, and in a public assembly declared her 
purity, and called upon the earth to verify her words. It did so. 
The ground opened and received " the daughter of the furrow," 
and Rama lost his beloved and only wife. Unable to endure life 
without her, he resolved to follow, and the gods favoured his 
determination. Time appeared to him in the form of an ascetic 

26o FAMA. 

and told him that he must stay on earth or ascend to heaven and 
rule over the gods. Lakshma?ia with devoted fraternal affection 
endeavoured to save his brother from what he deemed the 
baleful visit of Time. He incurred a sentence of death for his 
interference, and was conveyed bodily to Indra's heaven. Rama 
with great state and ceremony went to the river iSarayu, and 
walking into the water was hailed by Brahma's voice of wel- 
come from heaven, and entered "into the glory of Yislinu," 

The conclusion of the story as told in the version of the 
RamayaTia used by Mr. "Wlieeler differs materially. It repre- 
sents that Sita remained in exile until her sons were fifteen or 
sixteen years of age. Rama had resolved upon performing the 
Aswa-medha sacrifice ; the horse was turned loose, and ^S'atru- 
ghna followed it with an army. Kusa and Lava took the 
horse and defeated and wounded ^S'atru-ghna. Rama then sent 
LakshmaTza to recover the horse, but he was defeated and left 
for dead. Next Bharata was sent with Hanuman, but they 
were also defeated. Rama then set out himself to repair his 
reverses. AVhen the father and sons came into each other's 
presence, nature sjDoke out, and Rama acknowledged his sons. 
Sita also, after receiving an admonition from Yalmiki, agreed to 
forgive her husband. They returned to Ayodhya. Rama per- 
formed the Aswa-medha, and they passed the remainder of their 
lives in peace and joy. 

The incidents of the first six kaTZ^as of the Ramayawa supply 
the j)lot of Bhava-bhilti's drama Maha-vira-charita. The Uttara- 
kawf/a is the basis of his Uttara-rama-charita. This describes 
Rama's jealousy, the banishment of Sita, and the birth of her 
sons ; but the subsequent action is more human and affecting 
than in the poem. Rama repents of his unjust treatment of his 
wife, and goes forth to seek her. The course of his wanderings 
is depicted with great poetic beauty, and his meeting with his 
sons and his reconciliation with Sita are described with exquisite 
pathos and tenderness. The drama closes when 

" All conspires to make their happiness complete.'' 

The worship of Rama still holds its ground, particularly in 
Oude and Bihar, and he has numerous worshippers. " It is 
noteworthy," says Professor Williams, " that the Rilma legends 
have always retained their purity, and, unlike those of Brahma, 


K?isli?za, /S'iva, and Durga, have never been mixed up with inde- 
cencies and licentiousness. In fact, the worship of Rama has 
never degenerated to the same extent as that of some of these 
other deities." This is true ; but it maybe observed that Rama 
and his wife were pure; there was nothing in their characters sug- 
gestive of license ; and if " the husband of one wife " and the 
devoted and aliectionate wife had come to be associated with 
impure ideas, they must have lost all that gave them a title to 
veneration. The name of Rama, as ' Ram ! Ram ! ' is a common 
form of salutation. 

RAMAYAiVA. ' The Adventures of Rama.' The oldest of 
the Sansk?"/t epic poems, written by the sage Valmiki. It is sup- 
posed to have been composed about five centuries B.C., and to have 
received its present form a century or two later. The MSS. of 
the Ramayawa vary greatly. There are two well-known distinct 
recensions, the Northern and the Bengal. The ISTorthern is the 
older and the purer ; the additions and alterations in that of 
Bengal are so numerous that it is not trustworth}^^, and has even 
been called "spurious." Later researches have shown that the 
variations in MSS. found in ditferent parts of India are so 
diverse that the versions can hardly be classed in a certain 
number of different recensions. Unfortunately the inferior 
edition is the one best known to Europeans. Carey and Marsh- 
man translated two books of it, and Signor Gorresio has given 
an Italian translation of the whole. Schlegel published a Latin 
translation of the first book of the I^orthern recension. The 
full texts of both these recensions have been printed, and Mr. 
Wheeler has given an epitome of the whole work after the Ben- 
gal recension. There is also a poetical version by Griffiths. 

Besides the ancient Ramaya?ia, there is another popular work of 
comparative modern times called the Adhyatma Ramaya^za. The 
authorship of it is ascribed to Yyasa, but it is generally con- 
sidered to be a part of the BrahmaTZfia Pura?ia. It is a sort of 
spiritualised version of the poem, in Mdiich Rama is depicted as 
a saviour and deliverer, as a god rather than a man. It is divided 
into seven books, which bear the same names as those of the 
original poem, but it is not so long. 

The Ramayawa celebrates the life and exploits of Rama 
(Rama-chandra), the loves of Rama and his wife Sita, the rape 
of the latter by Rava7?a, the demon king of Ceylon, the war 


carried on by Eama and liis monkey allies against Eava?za, end- 
ing in the destruction of the demon and the rescue of Sita, the 
restoration of Kama to the throne of Ayodhya, his jealousy and 
banishment of Sita, her residence at the hermitage of Valmiki, 
the birth of her twin sons Ku5a and Lava, the father's discovery 
and recognition of his children, the recall of Sita, the attesta- 
tion of her innocence, her death, Kama's resolution to follow 
her, and his translation to heaven. 

The Kamaya/^a is divided into seven kiiw/as or sections, and 
contains about 50,000 lines. The last of the seven sections is 
probably of later date than the rest of the work. 

1. Bala-ka?w/a. The boyhood of Kama. 

2. Ayodhya-kaw(/a. The scenes at Ayodhya, and the banish- 
ment of Kama by his father. King Dasa-ratha. 

3. AraTiya-ka/if/a. ' Forest section.' Kama's life in the forest, 
and the rape of Sita by Kava?ia. 

4. Kishkindliya-ka?k7a. Kama's residence at Kislikindhya, 
the capital of his monkey ally. King Su-griva. 

5. Sundara-ka?i(ia. ' Beautiful section. ' The marvellous passage 
of the straits by Kama and his allies and their arrival in Ceylon. 

6. Yuddha-ka?ic/a. ' War section.' The war with Kava?2a, 
his defeat and death, the recovery of Sita, the return to Ayod- 
hya and the coronation of Kama. This is sometimes called the 
Lanka or Ceylon KamZa. 

7. Uttara-ka7iJa. ' Later section. ' Kama's life in Ayodhya, 
his banishment of Sita, the birth of his two sons, his recognition 
of them and of the innocence of his wife, their reunion, her 
death, and his translation to heaven. 

The Avriter or the compilers of the Kamayawa had a high esti- 
mate of its value, and it is still held in very great veneration. 
A verse in the introduction says, " He who reads and repeats 
this holy life-giving Kamayawa is liberated from all his sins and 
exalted with all his posterity to the highest heaven;" and in 
the second chapter Brahma is made to say, "As long as the 
mountains and rivers shall continue on the surface of the eartli, 
so long shall the story of the Kamayana be current in the world. " 
(For the age of the Kamaya?za, see p. 190.) 

RAMA-GIKI. 'The hill of Kama.' It stands a short dis- 
tance north of Xagpur. 

KAMA-SETU. ' Kama's bridge,' constructed for him by his 


general, Nala, son of Vmva-karma, at the time of his invasion 
of Ceylon. This name is given to the line of rocks in the 
channel between the continent and Ceylon, called in maps 
" Adam's bridge." 

Atharva-veda, in which Rama is worshipped as the supreme god 
and the sage Ytijnawalkya is his glorifier. It has been printed 
and translated by Weber in his Indische Shidien, yo\. ix. 

RAMBHA. An Apsaras or nymph produced at the churn- 
ing of the ocean, and popularly the type of female beauty. She 
was sent by Indra to seduce YisAvamitra, but was cursed by that 
sage to become a stone, and remain so for a thousand years. 
According to the Ramaya/^a, she was seen by Rava/ia when he 
went to Kailasa, and he was so smitten by her charms that he 
ravished her, although she told him that she was the wife of 
Nala-kiivara, son of his brother Kuvera. 

RAME^'WARA. 'Lord of Rama.' Xame of one of the 
twelve great Lingas set up, as is said, by Rama at Rameswaram 
or Ramisseram, which is a celebrated place of pilgrimage, and 
contains a most magnificent temple. 

RAMOPAKHYAIS'A. ' The story of Rama,' as told in the 
Yana-parva of the Maha-bharata. It relates many, but far from 
all, of the incidents celebrated in the Ramaya?ia ; it makes no 
mention of Yalmiki, the author of that poem, and it represents 
Rama as a human being and a great hero, but not a deity. 

RANTIDEYA. A pious and benevolent king of the Lunar 
race, sixth in descent from Bharata. He is mentioned in the 
Maha-bharata and Purawas as being enormously rich, very reli- 
gious, and charitable and profuse in his sacrifices. The former 
authority says that he had 200,000 cooks, that he had 2000 
head of cattle and as many other animals slaughtered daily 
for use in his kitchen, and that he fed innumerable beggars daily 
with beef. 

RATI. ' Love, desire.' The Yenus of the Hindus, the god- 
dess of sexual pleasures, wife of Kama the god of love, and 
daughter of Daksha. She is also called Reva, Kami, Priti, 
Kama-patni, 'wife of Kama;' Kama-kala, 'part of Kama;' Kama- 
priya, ' beloved of Kama ; ' Raga-la/a, ' vine of love ; ' Mayavatl, 
' deceiver ; ' Kelikila, ' wanton ; ' /S'ubhangi, ' fair-limbed.' 

RATNAYALI. ' The necklace.' A drama ascribed to a 

264 ^^ UCHYA—RA VA NA. 

king of Kaslimlr named Six Harsha Deva. The subject of the 
play is the loves of Udayana or Vatsa, prince of Kausambi, and 
Yasava-datta, princess of UjjayinL It was written between 
1 1 13 and 1 125 A.D., and has been translated by Wilson. There 
are several editions of the text. 

EAUCHYA. The thirteenth IManu. See INIanu. 

RAXJDRA. A descendant of Rudra. A name of Karttikeya, 
the god of war. 

RAYAA^A. The demon king of Lanka or Ceylon, from 
which he expelled his half-brother Kuvera. He was son of 
Yi^ravas by his wife Xikasha, daughter of the Rakshasa Su-mali. 
He was half-brother of Kuvera, and grandson of the it/shi Pula- 
stya ; and as Kuvera is king of the Yakshas, Ravana is king of 
the demons called Rakshasas. Pulastya is said to be the pro- 
genitor, not only of Rava?ia, but of the whole race of Rakshasas. 
"By penance and devotion to Brahma, Rava?ia was made invul- 
nerable against gods and demons, but he was doomed to die 
tlirough a woman. He was also enabled to assume any form he 
pleased. All Rakshasas are malignant and terrible, but Ravawa 
as their chief attained the utmost degree of wickedness, and was 
a very incarnation of evil. He is described in the Ramayawa as 
having " ten heads (hence his names Dasanana,, 
and Pankti-griva), twenty arms, and copper-coloured eyes, and 
bright teeth like the young moon. His form was as a thick 
cloud or a mountain, or the god of death with open mouth. He 
had all the marks of royalty, but his body bore the impress of 
wounds inflicted by all the divine arms in his warfare with the 
gods. It was scarred by the thunderbolt of Indra, l)y the tusks 
of Indra's elephant Airavata, and by the discus of Yishwu. His 
strength was so great that he could agitate the seas and split the 
tops of mountaius. He was a breaker of all laws and a ravisher 
of other men's wives. . . . Tall as a mountain peak, he stopped 
with his arms the sun and moon in their course, and prevented 
their rising." The terror he inspires is such that where he is 
" the sun does not give out its heat, the winds do not blow, and 
the ocean becomes motionless." His evil deeds cried aloud for 
vengeance, and the cry reached heaven. Yishmi declared that, 
as Ravawa had been too proud to seek protection against men 
and beasts, he should fall under their attacks, so Yisli?m became 
incarnate as Rama-chandra for the express purpose of destroying 

RAVANA. 265 

"Ravana, and vast numbers of monkeys and "bears were created 
to aid in the enterprise. Rama's wars against the Rakshasas 
inflicted such losses upon them as greatly to incense Ravawa. 
Burning with rage, and excited by a passion for Sita, the wife 
of Rama, he left his island abode, repaired to Rama's dwelling, 
assumed the appearance of a religious mendicant, and carried off 
Sita to Lanka. Ravawa urged Sita to become his wife, and 
threatened to kill and eat her if she refused. Sita persistently 
resisted, and was saved from death by the interposition of one of 
Rava?ia's wives. Rama called to his assistance his allies Su-griva 
and Hanumiin, with their hosts of monkeys and bears. They 
built Rama's bridge, by which they passed over into Lanka, and 
after many battles and wholesale slaughter Rava?ia was brought 
to bay at the city of Lanka. Rama and Ravawa fought together 
on equal terms for a long while, victory sometimes inclining to 
one sometimes to the other. Rama with a sharp arrow cut off 
one of Ravawa's heads, " but no sooner did the head fall on the 
ground than another sprang up in its room." Rama then took 
an arrow which had been made by Brahma, and discharged it at 
his foe. It entered his breast, came out of his back, went to the 
ocean, and then returned clean to the quiver of Rama. " Ravawa 
fell to the ground and expired, and the gods sounded celestial 
music in the heavens, and assembled in the sky and praised 
Rama as Yish^iu, in that he had slain that Rava7ia Avho would 
otherwise have caused their destruction." Rava?za, though he 
was chief among Rakshasas, was a Brahman on his father's side ; 
he was well versed in Sansknt, used the Vedic ritual, and his 
body was burnt with Brahmanical rites. There is a story that 
Rava??.a made each of the gods perform some menial office in his 
household : thus Agni was his cook, Yaruwa supplied water, 
Kuvera furnished money, YajTi swept the house, &c. The 
Vishmi Pura?ia relates that Rava?ia, " elevated with wine, came 
on his tour of triumph to the city of Mahishmati, but there he 
was taken prisoner by King Karta-virya, and confined hke a beast 
in a corner of his capital." The same authority states that, in 
another birth, Rava?za was ^Sisu-pala. Ravawa's chief wife was 
]\Iandodari, but he had many others, and they were buriit at his 
obsequies. His sons were Megha-nada, also called Indra-jit, 
Ravawi, and Aksha; Tri-sikha or Tri-siras, Deviintaka, ISTarantaka, 
and Atikaya. See Kandi^a. 


EAYI. The sun. See Surya. 

REiV^UKA. Daughter of King Prasenajit or Keren, wife of 
Jamad-agni, and mother of Parasu-rama. A sight of the connubial 
endearments of King Chitra-ratha and his wife inspired her with 
impure thoughts, and her husband, perceiving that she had 
"fallen from perfection," desired her sons to kill her. Ru- 
mawwat, Su-shena, and Yasu, the three seniors, declined, and 
their father cursed them so that they became idiots. Param- 
rfima, the fourth son, cut off her head, which act so gratified his 
father that Jamad-agni promised him whatever blessings he de- 
sired. Among other things, Parasu-rama asked that his mother 
might be brought back to life in ignorance of her death and in 
perfect purity. He also desired that his brothers might be 
restored to their senses. All this Jamad-agni bestowed. She 
was also called Konkana, 

REYA. The Narmadii river. 

REYA. I. Wife of Karrea. 2. A name of Rati. 

REYANTA. A son of Surya and Sanjna. He is chief of 
the Guhyakas, and is also called Haya-vahana. 

RE Y ATI Daughter of King Raivata and wife of Bala-rama. 
She was so beautiful that her father, thinking no one upon eartli 
worthy of her, repaired to the god Brahma to consult him about 
a husband. Brahma delivered a long discourse on the glories of 
Yish/m, and directed Raivata to proceed to Dwaraka, where a 
portion of Yishwu was incarnate in the person of Bala-rama. 
Ages had elapsed while Raivata was in heaven without his 
knowledge. When he returned to earth, " he found the race of 
men dwindled in stature, reduced in vigour, and enfeebled in 
intellect." He went to Bala-rama and gave him Revati, but 
that hero, " beholding the damsel of excessively lofty height, he 
shortened her with the end of his ploughshare, and she became 
his wife." She had two sons. Revati is said to have taken 
part with her husband in his drinking bouts. 

i^/BHAYAS. See 7^/bhus. 

it/BHU. 'Clever, skilful.' An epithet used for Indra, 
Agni, and the Adityas. In the Pura^iic mythology, T^ibhu is a 
" son of the supreme Brahma, who, from his innate disposition, 
was of a holy character and acquainted with true wisdom." 
His pupil was Nidagha, a son of Pulastya, and he took especial 
interest in his instruction, returning to him after two intervals 


of a thousand years "to instruct him further in true wisdom." 
The YishTiu Puraria, " originally composed by the ii/slii (Nara- 
yawa), was communicated by Brahma to itibhu." He was one 
of the four Kumaras (q.v.). 

it/BHUS. Three sons of Su-dhanwan, a descendant of An- 
giras, severally named i?/bhu, Vibhu, and Vaja. Through their 
assiduous performance of good works they obtained divinity, 
exercised superhuman powers, and became entitled to receive 
praise and adoration. They are supposed to dwell in the solar 
sphere, and there is an indistinct identification of them with 
the rays of the sun ; but, whether typical or not, they prove the 
admission, at an early date, of the doctrine that men might 
become divinities. — WiUon. They are celebrated in the i^ig-veda 
as skiKul workmen, who fashioned Indra's chariot and horses, 
and made their parents young again. By command of the gods, 
and with a promise of exaltation to divine honours, they made 
a single new sacrificial cup into four. They are also spoken of 
as supporters of the sky. 

i^/BHUKSHAN. The first of the three i^ibhus. In the 
plural, the three itfbhus. 

ii/CHIKA. A i?fshi descended from Bhrigu and husband 
of Satyavati, son of tJrva and father of Jamad-agni. {^te 
Viswamitra.) In the Maha-bharata and Yislmu PuraTza it is 
related that jR/chika was an old man when he demanded in 
marriage Satyavati, the daughter of Gadhi, king of Kanya-kubja. 
Unwilling to give her to so old a man, Gadhi demanded of him 
1000 white horses, each of them having one black ear. i?/chika 
obtained these from the god Yarn??a, and so gained his wife. 
According to the Eamayawa, he sold his son /S'unaA-i'ephas to be 
a sacrifice. 

it/DDHI. ' Prosperity.' The wife of Kuvera, god of wealth. 
The name is also used for ParvatT, the wife of /Siva. 

2?/G-VEDA. See Veda. 

jR/G-YIDHAISrA. Writings which treat of the mystic and 
jnagic efiicacy of the recitation of hymns of the iiig-veda, or 
even of single verses. Some of them are attributed to iS'aunaka, 
but probably belong only to the time of the PuraTzas. — Weher. 

it/SHABHA. Son of Nabhi and Meru, and father of a 
hundred sons, the eldest of whom was Bharata. He gave his 
kingdom to his son and retired to a hermitage, where he led a 


life of sucli severe austerity and abstinence, that lie became a 
mere " collection of skin and fibres, and went the way of all 
flesh." The Bhagavata Pura7za speaks of his wanderings in the 
western part of the Peninsula, and connects him with the estab- 
lishment of the Jain religion in those parts. The name of the 
first Jain Tirthakara or saint was i?isliabha. 

it/SHL An inspired poet or sage. The inspired persons to 
whom the hymns of the Vedas were revealed, and under whose 
names they stand. " The seven it/shis " (sajjtarshi), or the 
Praja-patis, " the mind-born sons " of Brahma, are often referred 
to. In the ^S'atapatha BrahmaTia their names are given as Go- 
tama, Bharadwaja, Viswamitra, Jamad-agni, Yasish/ha, Kas^'apa, 
and Atri. The Maha-bharata gives them as ]\larlchi, Atri, 
Angiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, and Yasish/ha. The Yayu 
Purawa adds Bh?'/gu to this list, making eight, although it 
still calls them " seven." The Yishwu Pura?za, more consistently, 
adds Bhr/gu and Daksha, and calls them the nine Brahmarshis 
(Brahma-rishis). The names of Gautama, Kawwa, Yalmiki, 
Yyasa, Manu, and Yibha?ic?aka are also enumerated among the 
great itishis by different authorities. Besides these great jR?shis 
there are many other Bishis. The seven i?/shis are represented 
in the sky by the seven stars of the Great Bear, and as such are 
called itz'ksha and Chitra-sikha?if/inas, ' having bright crests.' 

^/SHI-BRAHMAYA. An old Anukrama?^/, or Index of the 

i^/SHYA-MUKA. A mountain in the Dakhin, near the 
source of the Pampa river and the lake Pampa. Eama abode 
there for a time with the monkeys. 

EISKYA-SBI^GA. ' The deer-horned.' A hermit, the son 
of Yibha?Z(iaka, descended from Kasyapa. According to the 
RamayaT^a and Maha-bharata he was born of a doe and had a 
small horn on his forehead. He was brought up in the forest by 
his father, and saw no other human being till he was verging upon 
manhood. There was great drought in the country of Anga, and 
the king, Lomapada, was advised by his Brahnians to send for 
the youth i^ishya-snnga, who should marry his daughter iSanta, 
and be the means of obtaining rain. A number of fair damsels 
were sent to bring him. He accompanied them back to their 
city, the desired rain fell, and he married iSanta. This *S^anta 
was the adopted daughter of Lomapada ; her real father was 


Dasa-ratlia, and it was i^/shya-snnga who performed that sacri- 
fice for Dasa-ratha which brought about the birth of Rama. 

i?/TU-PARiVA. A king of Ayodhya, and son of Sarva- 
kuma, into whose service Nala entered after he had lost his 
kingdom. He was "skilled profoundly in dice." 

i?/TU-S ANKARA. 'Tlie round of the seasons.' A poem 
attributed to Kali-dasa. This poem was published by Sir W. 
Jones, and was the first Sanskrit work ever printed. There are 
other editions. It has been translated into Latin by Bohlen. 

ROHIiVl. I. Daughter of Kasyapa and Surabhi, and mother 
of horned cattle, including Kama-dhenu, the cow which grants 
desires. 2. Daughter of Daksha and fourth of the lunar as- 
terisms, the favourite wife of the moon. 3. One of the wives 
of Vasu-deva, the father of Knsh?ia and mother of Bala-rama. 
She was burned with her husband's corpse at Dwaraka. 4. 
Krish/ia himself also had a wife so called, and the name is 

ROHITA. 'Red.' A red horse; a horse of the sun or 
of fire. I. A deity celebrated in the Atharva-veda, probably 
a form of fire or the sun. 2. Son of King Haris-chandra. He 
is also called Rohitaswa. The fort of Rohtas is said to derive 
its name from him. See Hari.s-chandra. 

ROMA-HARSHAiVA. See Loma-harsha?ia. 

RUDRA. 'A howler or roarer; terrible.' In the Yedas 
Rudra has many attributes and many names. He is the howl- 
ing terrible god, the god of storms, the father of the Rudras 
or Maruts, and is sometimes identified with the god of fire. 
On the one hand he is a destructive deity who brings diseases 
upon men and cattle, and upon the other he is a beneficent 
deity supposed to have a healing influence. These are the germs 
which afterwards developed into the god >S'iva. It is worthy of 
note that Rudra is first called Maha-deva in the "WHiite Yajur- 
veda. As applied to the god 6'iva, the name of Rudra generally 
designates him in his destructive character. In the Bnliad- 
ara7iyaka Upanishad the Rudras are " ten vital breaths (prdna) 
with the heart (inanas) as eleventh." In the VisliTiu Purawa 
the god Rudra is said to have sprung from the forehead of 
Brahma, and at the command of that god to have separated his 
nature into male and female, then to have multiplied each of 
these into eleven persons, some of which were white and gentle, 


others black and furious. Elsewhere it is said that the eleven 
Eudras were sons of Kasyapa and Surabhi, and in another 
chapter of the same Purawa it is represented that Brahma 
desired to create a son, and that Rudra came into existence as a 
youth. He wept and asked for a name. Brahma gave him the 
name of Rudra ; but he wept seven times more, and so he 
obtained seven other names : Bhava, iSarva, Isana, Pai'upati, 
Bhima, Ugra, and Maha-deva. Other of the Purawas agree in 
this nomenclature. These names are sometimes used for Rudra 
or ^S'iva himself, and at others for the seven manifestations of 
him, sometimes called his sons. The names of the eleven 
Rudras vary considerably in different books. 

RUDRA-SAVARiYA. The twelfth Manu. See Manu. 

RUKMIIS". A son of King Bhishmaka and king of Yidarbha, 
who offered his services to the Pa7i6?avas and Kauravas in turn, 
but was rejected by both on account of his extravagant boast- 
ings and pretensions. He was brother of Rukmim, with whom 
K?7'sh?ia eloped. Rukmin pursued the fugitives and overtook 
them, but his army was defeated by Kri'shwa, and he owed his 
life to the entreaties of his sister. He founded the city of 
Bhoja-ka/a, and was eventually killed by Bala-rama. 

RUKMIA^i. Daughter of Bhishmaka, king of Yidarbha. 
According to the Hari-vansa she was sought in marriage by 
K?-ish?2a, with whom she fell in love. But her brother Rukmin 
was a friend of Kan^a, whom K?'ish7ia had killed. He therefore 
opposed him and thwarted the match. Rukmi?ii was then 
betrothed to iS'isu-pala, king of Chedi, but on her wedding day, 
as she was going to the temple, " Krishna saw her, took her by 
the hand, and carried her away in his chariot." They were 
pursued by her intended husband and by her brother Rukmin, 
but Knsh?za defeated them both, and took her safe to Dwaraka, 
where he married her. She was his principal wife and bore him 
a son, Pradyumna (q.v.). By him also she had nine other sons 
and one daughter. "These other sons were Charu-deshwa, 
Su-deslma, Charu-deha, Su-shena, Charu-gupta, Bhadra-charu, 
Charu-vinda, Su-charu, and the very miglity Cliaru ; also one 
daughter, Charu-matl." At K?'ish?ia's death she and seven other 
of his wives immolated themselves on his funeral pile, 

RtJIMA. \Yife of the monkey king Su-grlva. 

/S'ABALAaS^WAS. Sons of Daksha, one thousand in number, 


brought fortli after the loss of the Harya.9was. Like their pre- 
decessors, they were dissuaded by Narada from begetting oil- 
spring, and " scattered themselves through the regions " never 
to return. 

aS^ACHL Wife of Indra. See Indra^ii. 

SADHYAS. A Garnx or class of inferior deities ; the per- 
sonified rites and prayers of the Vedas who dwell with the 
gods or in the intermediate region between heaven and earth. 
Their number is twelve according to one authority, and seven- 
teen according to another, and the PuraTias make them sons 
of Dharma and Sadhya, daughter of Daksha. 

SAGAKA. A king of Ayodhya, of the Solar race, and son 
of King Bahu, who was driven out of his dominions by the 
Haihayas. Biihu took refuge in the forest with his wives. 
Sagara's mother was then pregnant, and a rival wife, being 
jealous, gave her a drug to prevent her delivery. This poison 
confined the child in the womb for seven years, and in the 
interim Bahu died. The pregnant wife wished to ascend his 
pyre, but the sage Aurva forbad her, predicting that she would 
give birth to a valiant universal monarch. When the child was 
born, Aurva gave him the name of Sagara (sa, ' with,' and garcij 
* poison '). The child grew up, and having heard his father's 
history, he vowed that he would exterminate the Haihayas and 
the other barbarians, and recover his ancestral kingdom. He 
obtained from Aurva the Agneyastra or fire weapon, and, armed 
with this, he put nearly the whole of the Haihayas to death 
and regained his throne. He would also " have destroyed the 
/S'akas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Paradas, and Pahlavas," but they 
applied to Yasishifha, Sagara's family priest, and he induced 
Sagara to spare them, but "he made the Yavanas shave their 
heads entirely ; the Sakas he compelled to shave (the upper) 
half of their heads ; the Paradas wore their hair long ; and the 
Pahlavas let their beards grow in obedience to his commands." 
Sagara married two wives, Su-mati, the daughter of Kasyapa, and 
Kesini, the daughter of Kaja Yidarbha, but having no children, 
he besought the sage Aurva for this boon. Aurva promised 
that one wife should have one son ; the other, sixty thousand. 
Kesini chose the one, and her son was Asamanjas, through 
whom the royal line was continued. Su-mati had sixty thou- 
sand sons. Asamanjas was a wild immoral youth, and his 


father abandoned him. The other sixty thousand sons followed 
the courses of their brother, and their impiety was such that 
the gods complained of them to the sage Kapila and the god 
Vish/iu. Sagara engaged in the performance of an As^Ya-nledlla 
or sacrifice of a horse, but although the animal was guarded by 
his sixty thousand sons, it was carried off to Piitala. Sagara 
directed his sons to recover it. They dug their way to the 
infernal regions, and there they found the horse grazing and the 
sage Kapila seated close by engaged in meditation. Conceiving 
him to be the thief, they menaced him with their weapons. 
Disturbed from his devotions, " he looked uj^on them for an 
instant, and they were reduced to ashes by the (sacred) flame 
that darted from his person." Their remains were discovered 
by Ansumat, the son of Asamanjas, who prayed Kapila that the 
victims of his wrath might be raised through his favour to 
heaven. Kapila promised that the grandson of An.sumat should 
be the means of accomplishing this by bringing down the river 
of heaven. Ansumat then returned to Sagara, who comj^leted 
his sacrifice, and he gave the name of Sagara to the chasm 
which his sons had dug, and Sagara means ' ocean.' The son of 
Ansumat was Dilipa, and his son was Bhagiratha. The devo- 
tion of Bhagiratha brought down from heaven the holy Ganges, 
wliich flows from the toe of Yishwu, and its waters having laved 
the ashes of the sons of Sagara, cleansed them from all impurity. 
Their Manes were thus made fit for the exequial ceremonies and 
for admission into Sw^arga. The Ganges received the name of 
Sagara in honour of Sagara, and Bhagirathi from the name of 
the devout king whose prayers brought her down to earth. {See 
Bhagirathi.) The Hari-vansa adds another marvel to the story. 
Sagara's wife Su-mati was delivered of a gourd containing sixty 
thousand seeds, which became embryos and grew. Sagara at 
first placed them in vessels of milk, but afterwards each one had 
a separate nurse, and at ten months they all ran about. The 
name of Sagara is frequently cited in deeds conveying grants of 
land in honour of his generosity in respect of such gifts. 

SAHA-DEVA. The youngest of the five Vixndu princes, 
twin son of IMadrl, the second wife of Pam/u, and mythologically 
son of the Aswins, or more specifically of the A.swin Da^ra. 
He was learned in the science of astronomy, which he had 
studied under Drona, and he was also well acquainted with the 


management of cattle. {See Maha-bharata.) He had a son 
named Sii-hotra by his wife Vijaya. 

SAHASRAKSIIA. ' Thousand - eyed.' An epithet of 

SAHITYA-DARPAiVA. 'The mirror of composition.' A 
celebrated work on poetry and rhetoric by Yiswanatha Kavi 
Raja, written about the fifteenth century. It has been trans- 
lated into English for the Bibliotheca Indica. There are several 
editions of the text. 

aS'AIBYA. Wife of Haris-chandra (q.v.); wife of Jyamagha 
(q.v.) ; wife of /S'ata-dhanu (q.v.). 

SAINDHAYAS. The people of Sindhu or Sindh, of the 
country between the Indus and the Jhilam. 

SAIYA PURAiVA. Same as ^S'iva Purawa. 

<S^AKA. An era commencing 78 a.d., and called the era of 
/Sahvahana. Cunningham supposes its epoch to be connected 
Avith a defeat of the iSakas by /Salivahana. 

aSAKALA. The city of the Bahikas or Madras, in the Pan- 
jab. It has been identified with the Sagala of Ptolemy on the 
Hyphasis (Byas), south-west of Lahore. Cunningham says it is 
the Sangala of Alexander. 

^AKALYA. An old grammarian and expositor of the Vedas 
who lived before the time of Yaska. He is said to have divided 
a Sanhita of the Yeda into five, and to have taught these por- 
tions to as many disciples. He was also called Veda-mitra and 

/S'AKAPUiYI, ^AKAPtJRYI. An author who arranged a 
part of the itig-veda and appended a glossary. He lived before 
the time of Yaska. 

/SAKAS. A northern people, usually associated with the 
Yavanas. Wilson says, "These people, the Sakai and Sacae of 
classical writers, the Indo- Scythians of Ptolemy, extended, about 
the commencement of our era, along the West of India, from the 
Hindu Koh to the mouths of the Indus." They were probably 
Turk or Tatar tribes, and were among those recorded as con- 
quered by King Sagara, who compelled them to shave the upper 
half of their heads. They seem to have been encountered and 
kept back by King Yikramaditya of UjjayinT, who was called 
*S^akari, ' foe of the >S'akas.' 

/S'AKArAYAI^A. An ancient grammarian anterior to Yaska 



and Pamni. Part of his work is said to have been lately dis- 
covered by Dr. Biihler. 

iS'AKHA. ' Branch, sect.' The /S'akhas of the Vedas are the 
different recensions of the same text as taught and handed 
down traditionally by different schools and teachers, show- 
ing some slight variations, the effect of long-continued oral 
tradition. See Veda. 

/S'AKIoSriS. Female demons attendant on Durga. 

iS'AKRA. A name of Indra. 

/S'AKKAA^I. Wife of Indra. See Indrara. 

aSAKRA-PRASTHA. Same as Indra-prastha. 

SAKTA. A worshipper of the ^Saktis. 

aSAKTI. The wife or the female energy of a deity, but 
especially of >S^iva. See Devi and Tantra. 

^AKTI, ^S'AKTRI. A priest and eldest son of Yasish/ha. 
King Kalmasha-pada struck him with a whip, and he cursed 
the king to become possessed by a man-eating Rakshasa. He 
himself became the first victim of the monster he had evoked. 

iSAKUXI. Brother of Queen Gandliari, and so uncle of the 
Ivaurava princes. He was a skilful gambler and a cheat, so he 
was selected to be the opponent of Yudhi-sh/hira in the match 
in which that prince was induced to stake and lose his all. He 
also was known by the patronymic Saubala, from Su-bala, his 

>SAIvXJjN^TALA. a nymph who was the daughter of Viswa- 
mitra by the nymph Menaka. She was born and left in a 
forest, where she was nourished by birds until found by the 
sage KaTZwa. She was brought up by this sage in his her- 
mitage as his daughter, and is often called his daughter. 
The loves, marriage, separation, and re-union of /S'akuntalii and 
King Dushyanta are the subject of the celebrated drama iSakun- 
tala. She was mother of Bharata, the head of a long race of 
kings, who has given his name to India ( Bharata- varsha), and 
the wars of Avhose descendants are sung in the Maha-bharata, 
The story of the loves of Dushyanta and *S'akuntala is, that 
while she was living in the hermitage of Ka?iwa she was 
seen in the forest by King Dushyanta, who fell in love with 
her. He induced her to contract with him a Gandharva mar- 
riage, that is, a simple declaration of mutual acceptance. On 
leaving her to return to his city, he gave her a ring as a pledge 


of his love. When the nymph when back to the hermitage, she 
was so engrossed with thoughts of her husband that she heeded 
not the approach of the sage Dur-vasas, who had come to visit 
Kawwa, so that choleric saint cursed her to be forgotten by her 
beloved. He afterwards relented, and promised that the curse 
should be removed as soon as Dushyanta should see the ring. 
/Sakuntala, finding herself with child, set off to her husband ; 
but on her way she bathed in a sacred pool, and there lost the 
ring. On reaching the palace, the king did not recognise her 
and would not own her, so she was taken by her mother to the 
forest, where she gave birth to Bharata. Then it happened that 
a fisherman caught a large fish and in it found a ring which he 
carried to Dushyanta. The king recognised his own ring, and 
he soon afterwards accepted /S'akuntala and her son Bharata. 
Ivali-dasa's drama of /S'akuntala was the first translation made 
from Sansk7'it into English. It excited great curiosity and 
gained much admiration when it appeared. There are several 
recensions of the text extant. The text has been often printed, 
and there are many translations into the languages of Europe. ' 
Professor WiUiams has published a beautifully illustrated trans- 

iS'ALAGRAMA. A stone held sacred and worshipped by the 
Vaish?2avas, because its spirals are supposed to contain or to be 
typical of Yish7m. It is an ammonite found in the river Gan- 
dak, and is valued more or less highly according to the number 
of its spirals and perforations. 

/S'ALIVAHANA. A celebrated king of the south of India, 
who was the enemy of Vikramaditya, and whose era, the /S'aka, 
dates from a.d. 78. His capital was Prati-sh/hana on the 
Godavarl. He was killed in battle at Karur. 

aSALAYA. Name of a country in the west of India, or Raja- 
sthan ; also the name of its king. 

/S^ALYA. King of the Madras, and brother of ]\Iadri, second 
wife of Pa7Zf?u. In the great war he left the side of the Paw^a- 
vas and went OA^er to the Kauravas. He acted as charioteer of 
Kar/ia in the great battle. At the death of Karwa he suc- 
ceeded him as general, and commanded the army on the last day 
of the battle, when he was slain by Yudhi-sh/hira. 

SAMA-YEDA. The third Yeda. See Yeda. 

SAMA-YIDHANA BRAIDIAA^A. The third Brahmawa 

276 samayachArika sutras—sambara. 

of the Sama-veda. It has been edited and translated by Bur- 

SAMAYACHARIKA SUTRAS. Rules for the usages and 
practices of everyday life. See Siitras. 

aS'AMBA. a son of K?i'sh7za by Jambavati, but the Linga 
Puraiia names Rukmi?ii as his mother. At the swayam-vara of 
Draupadi he carried off that princess, but he was pursued by 
Dur-yodhana and his friends and made prisoner. Bala-rama 
undertook to obtain his release, and when that hero thrust his 
ploughshare under the ramparts of Hastina-pura and threatened 
it with ruin, the Kauravas gave up their prisoner, and Bala- 
rama took him to Dwaraka, There he lived a dissolute life and 
scoffed at sacred things. The devotions of the three great sages, 
Viswamitra, Dur-vasas, and Narada, excited the ridicule of /Samba 
and his boon companions. They dressed iSamba up to represent 
a woman with child and took him to the sages, inquiring 
whether he would give birth to a boy or a girl. The sages 
answered, " This is not a woman, but the son of Krish?za, and 
he shall bring forth an iron club which shall destroy the w^hole 
race of Yadu, . . . and you and all your people shall perish by 
that club." /Samba accordingly brought forth an iron club, 
which Ugrasena caused to be pounded and cast into the sea. 
These ashes produced rushes, and the rushes when gathered 
turned into clubs, or into reeds which were used as swords. 
One piece could not be crushed. This was subsequently found 
in the belly of a fish, and was used to tip an arrow, which 
arrow was used by the hunter Jaras, who with it unintentionally 
killed K?ishwa. Under the curse of Dur-vasas, /Samba became a 
leper and retired to the Panjab, where by fasting, penance, and 
prayer he obtained the favour of Siirya (the sun), and was cured 
of his leprosy. He built a temple to the sun on the banks of 
the Chandra-bhaga (Chinab), and introduced the worship of that 

ASA^MBA-PURAiVA. See Purawa. 

aSAMBARA. In the A^edas, a demon, also called a Dasyu, 
who fought a^i^ainst Kincj Divodiisa, but was defeated and had 
his many castles destroyed by Indra. He appears to be a 
mythical personification of drought, of a kindred character to 
V?-itra, or identical with him. In the Pura/ias a Daitya who 
carried off Pradyumna and threw him into the sea, but was 


subsequently slain by bim. (See Pradyumna.) lie was also 
employed by Hirawya-kasipu to destroy Prablada. 

yS'AMBHU, A name of /Siva ; also one of the Rudras. 

/SAMBUKA. A A^udra, mentioned in the Raghu-vansa, who 
performed religious austerities and jDenances improper for a man 
of his caste, and was consequently killed by Rama-chandra. 

iS'AMI. The Acacia suma, the wood of which is used for 
obtaining fire by friction. So Agni, or fire, is called /Sami- 
garbha, 'having the yS'ami for its womb.' It is sometimes per- 
sonified and worshipped as a goddess, /S'ami-devi. 

SAMP ATI. A mythical bird who appears in the RamayaTia 
as son of Yishmi's bird Garuda, and brother of Ja/ayus. Ac- 
cording to another account he was son of AruTza and A^yeni. 
He was the ally of Rama. 

SAMYARAA^A. Son of it/ksha, fourth in descent from 
Ikshwaku, and father of Kuru. According to the Maha-bharata 
he was driven from Hastina-pura by the Panchalas, and forced 
to take refuge among the thickets of the Indus. When the 
sage Vasish/ha joined his people and became the Raja's family 
priest, they recovered their country under Kuru. 

SAMVARTA. Writer of a Dharma-sastra or code of law 
bearing his name. 

SAM VAT, SAMYATSARA. ' Year.' The era of Yikrama- 
ditya, dating from 57 b.c. 

/SAN AI5'-CHARA. ' Slow-moving. ' A name of Sam or Saturn. 

The four Ivumaras or mind-born sons of Brahma. Some specify 
seven. Sanat-kumara (or Sanat-sujata) was the most prominent 
of them. They are also called by the patronymic Yaidliatra. 
See Kumara. 


SAiSTDHYA. 'Twilight.' It is personified as the daughter 
of Brahma and wife of /Siva. In the Siva Pura/ia it is related 
that Brahma having attempted to do violence to his daughter, 
she changed herself into a deer. Brahma then assumed the form 
of a stag and pursued her through the sky. Siva saw this, and 
shot an arrow which cut off" the head of the stag. Bralima then 
reassumed his own form and paid homage to Sixa. The arrow 
remains in the sky in the sixth lunar mansion, called Ardra, 
and the stag's head remains in the fifth mansion, ]\Iriga-siras. 


SAXDHYA-BALA. ' Strong in twilight.' Eakshasas and 
other demons, supposed to "be most powerful at twilight. 

^S'AiVDILYA. A descendant of >S'a?i(7ila. A particular sage 
who was connected with the Chhandogya Upanishad ; one who 
Avrote a book of Siitras, one who wrote upon law, and one who 
was the author of the Bhagavata heresy : two or more of these 
may be one and the same person. The Siitras or aphorisms 
have been pubHshed in the B'lUiotheca Indica. 

SANDlPANI. A master-at-arms who gave instruction to 
Bala-rama and K?*/sh?ia. 

SANDKACOTTUS. See Chandra-gupta. 

SA:N'GITA-EAT]S^AKARA. a work on singing, dancing, 
and pantomime, written by /S'arngi Deva. 

SANHITA. That portion of a Yeda which comprises the 
hymns. See Yeda. 

S ANHITOPANISHAD. The eighth BrahmaTza of the Sama- 
veda. The text Avith a commentary has been published by 

/S'ANL The planet Saturn. The regent of that planet, re- 
presented as a black man in black garments. /S'ani was a son of 
the sun and Chhaya, but another statement is that he was the 
offspring of Bala-rama and Revati. He is also known as Ara, 
KoTia, and Ivroda {cf. Kooto^), and by the patronymic iS'aura. His 
influence is evil, hence he is called Kriira-d^-is and Krura-lochana, 
'the evil-eyed one.' He is also Manda, ' the slow ;' Pangu, ' the 
lame;' Sanais-chara, 'slow-moving;' Saptarchi, 'seven-rayed;' 
and Asita, ' the dark.' 

SAN JAY A. I. The charioteer of Dh?-/ta-rash/ra. He was 
minister also, and went as ambassador to the PiiTit^avas before 
the great war broke out. He is represented as reciting to Dh?ita- 
rash/ra the Bhagavad-gita. His patronymic is Gavalga?u, son of 
Gavalgawa. 2. A king of Ujjayini and father of Yasava-datta. 

SANJ]SrA. 'Conscience.' According to the Puriiwas, she 
was daughter of Yiswa-karma and wife of the sun. She 
had three children by him, the Manu A^aivaswata, Yama, and 
Yami (goddess of the Yamuna river). " Unable to endure the 
fervours of her lord, Sanjnii gave liim Chhaya (shade) as his 
handmaid, and repaired to the forests to practise devout exer- 
cises." The sun beheld her engaged in austerities in the form 
of a mare, and he approached her as a horse. Hence sprang the 


two Aswins and Revanta. Surya then took Sanjna back to his 
own dwelling, but his effulgence was still so overpowering, that 
her father, Viswa-karma, placed the sun upon his lathe, and cut 
away an eighth part of his brilliancy. She is also call Dyu- 
mayi, ' the brilliant,' and Maha-virya, ' the very powerful,' 

aS'ANKARA. 'Auspicious.' A name of ^iva in his creative 
character or as chief of the Rudras. 

/6ANKARACHARYA (iS^ankara + acharya). The great reli- 
gious reformer and teacher of the Vedanta philosophy, who lived 
in the eighth or ninth century. He was a native of Kerala or 
Malabar, and lived a very erratic life, disputing with heretics and 
popularising the Vedanta philosophy by his preaching and vn?it- 
ings wherever he went. His travels extended as far as Kashmir, 
and he died at Kedaranath in the Himalayas at the early age of 
thirty-two. His learning and sanctity were held in such high 
estimation and reverence, that he was looked upon as an incarna- 
tion of /S'iva, and was believed to have the power of working 
miracles. The god ^iva was the special object of his worship, and 
he was the founder of the great sect of Smartava Brahmans, who 
are very numerous and powerful in the south. He established 
several maths or monasteries for the teaching and preservation 
of his doctrines. Some of these still remain. The chief one is 
at Srmga-giri or Sringiri, on the edge of the Western Ghauts 
in the Mysore, and it has the supreme control of the Smartava 
sect. The writings attributed to him are very numerous ; chief 
among them are his Bhashj^as or commentaries on the Sutras or 
aphorisms of Yyasa, a commentary on the Bhagavad-gita, some 
commentaries on the Upanishads, and the Ananda-lahari, a 
hymn in praise of Parvati, the consort of iS'iva. 

iS'ANKARA-VIJAYA. ' The triumph of 6'ankara.' A bio- 
graphy of AS'ankaracharya relating his controversies with here- 
tical sects and his refutation of their doctrines and superstitions. 
There is more than one work bearing this name ; one by Ananda 
Giri, which is published in the Bihliotheca Indica ; another by 
Madhavacharya ; the latter is distinguished as the Sankshepa 
^Sankara-vijaya. The work of Ananda Giri has been critically 
examined by Kashinath Trimbak Telang in the Indian Anti- 
quary, voL V. 

SANKARSHAVA. A name of Bala-rama. 

^S'ANKHA. AYriter of a Dharma-csastra or law-book bearing 


liis name. He is often coupled witli Likhita, and the two seem 
to have worked together. 

SAXKHAYAXA. i. Xame of a writer who was the author 
of the Sankhayana Brahma?ia of the ^/g-veda, and of certain 
/S^rauta-siitras also called by his name. 2. He is the oldest 
known writer on the Ars Erotica, and is author of the work 
called Sankhayana Kama-siitra. 

SAXKHYA. A school of philosophy. Bee Darsana. 

SAXKHYA-DARS'.yV^A. Kapila's aphorisms on the San- 
khya philosophy. They have been printed. 

SAXKHYA-KARIKA. A work on the SSnkhya philo- 
sophy, written by Iswara Kr/sh/ia j translated by Colebrooke 
and AVilson. 

SAXKHYA-PRAYACHAXA. A text-book of the Sankhya 
philosophy, said to have been written by Kapila himself. 
Printed in the Bihliotheca Indica. 

SAXKHYA-SARA. A work on the Sankhya philosophy by 
Yijnana Bhikshu. Edited by Hall in the Bihliotheca Indica. 

SAXXYASl. A Brahman in the fourth and last stage of his 
rehgious life. (See Brahman.) In the present day the term has 
a wider meaning, and is applied to various kinds of religious 
mendicants who wander about and subsist upon alms, most of 
them in a filthy condition and with very scanty clothing. They 
are generally devotees of A^iva. 

SANTA. Daughter of, son of Aja, but adopted 
by Loma-pada or Roma-pada, king of Anga. She was married 
to itishya-snnga. 

/S'AXTAXU. A king of the Lunar race, son of Pratipa, 
father of Bhishma, and in a way the grandfather of Dhrita- 
rash^ra and Vsindu. Regarding him it is said, " Every decrepit 
man whom he touclies with his hands becomes young." (See 
Maha-bharata. ) He was called Satya-vach, ' trutli-speaker,' and 
was remarkable for his "devotion and charity, modesty, con- 
stancy, and resolution." 

/SAXTI-aS'ATAKA. a century of verses on peace of mind. 
A poem of repute writen by iS'ri /S'ililana. 

SAPTARSHI (Sapta-7-islii). The seven great itishis. See 

SAPTA--1SATT. A poem of 700 verses on the triumphs of 
Durga. It is also called Devl-mahatmya. 


SAPTA-SIXDHAYA. 'The seven rivers.' The term fre- 
quently occurs in the Yedas, and has been widely known and 
somewhat differently applied. It was apparently known to the 
Romans in the days of Augustus, for Virgil says — 

" Ceu septem-surgens sedatis amnibus altus 
Per tacitum Ganges." — Eneid^ ix. 30. 

They appear iri Zend as the Hapta-heando, and the early Mu- 
hammadan travellers have translated the term. But their Saba' 
Sin, 'seven rivers,' according to Biriini, applies to the rivers which 
flow northwards from the mountains of the Hindu Koh, and 
"uniting near Turmuz, form the river of Balkh (the Oxus)." 
The hymn in which the names of the rivers have been given 
has the following description : — " Each set of seven (streams) 
has followed a threefold course. The Sindhu surpasses the 
other rivers in impetuosity. . . . Receive favourably this my 
hymn, Ganga, Yamuna, Saraswati, /S'utudri, Parushni; hear, 
Marud-vridha, with the Asikni and Yitasta, and thou, Arjikiya, 
with the Sushoma. Unite first in thy course with the Trish/ama, 
the Susartii, the Rasa, and the Sweti ; thou meetest with the 
Gomati, and the Krumu w^ith the Kubha and the Mehatnu." 
According to this, the " seven rivers " are — (i.) Ganga (Ganges) ; 
(2.) Yamuna (Jumna); (3.) Saraswati (Sarsuti) ; (4.) /S'utudri 
(Satlej) ; (5.) Parush?ii ; (6.) Marud-v?idha ; (7.) Arjikiya (the 
Yipasa, Hyphasis Byas). Wilson says " the Parushm is iden- 
tified with the IravatI " (Hydraotes, Ravi), but in this hymn it 
is the Marud-v?idha which would seem to be the Iravati, because 
it is said to unite with the Asikni (Akesines, Chandrabhaga, Chi- 
nab) and the Yitasta (Hydaspes or Jhilam). This would leave 
the Parush?2i unsettled. The other names, with the exception of 
the Gomati (Giimti), are not identified. Sushoma has been 
said to be the Sindhu, but in this hymn the Sindhu is clearly 
distinct. In the Maha-bharata the seven rivers are named in 
one place Yaswokasara, I^alini, Pavani, Ganga, Sita, Sindhu, 
and Jambii-nadi ; and in another, Ganga, Yamuna, Plakshaga, 
Rathastha, Saryu (Sarju), Gomati, and Gandaki (Gandak). In 
the Ramayawa and the Pura?ias the seven rivers are the seven 
streams into which the Ganges divided after falling from the 
brow of /Siva, the JSTalini, Hladini, and Pavani going east, the 
Chakshu, Sita, and Sindliu to the west, while the Ganges proper, 


the Bhagiratlii, flowed to the south. The term is also used 
for the seven great oceans of the world, and for the country of 
the seven rivers. 

SAPTA- YADHRI. A Yedic i^ishi. In a hymn he says, 
" As wins, by j^our devices sunder the wicker work for the libera- 
tion of the terrified, imploring itishi Sapta-vadhri." Concerning 
this the following old story is told. Sapta-vadhri had seven 
brothers who determined to prevent his having intercourse with 
his wife. So they shut him up every night in a large basket, 
which they locked and sealed, and in the morning they let him 
out. He prayed to the Aswins, who enabled him to get out of 
his cage during the night and to return to it at daybreak. 

iSARABHA. I. A fabulous animal represented as having 
eight legs and as dwelling in the Himalayas. It is called also 
Utpadaka and Kunjararati. 2. One of Rama's monkey alUes. 

aSARA-BHANGA. a hermit visited by Rama and Sita in 
the Dawrfaka forest. AVhen he had seen Rama he declared that 
his desire had been granted, and that he w^ould depart to the 
highest heaven. He prepared a fire and entered it. His body 
was consumed, but there came forth from the fire a beautiful 
youth, and in this form ^Sara-bhanga departed to heaven. 

/SARADA-TILAKA. i. A mystic poem by Lakshmawa. 2. 
A dramatic monologue by ^S'ankara, not earlier than the twelfth 
century. 3. Name of a Tantra. 

>S'ARAD^yAT. A Eh\\\ said to be the father of Kr/pa. He 
is also called Gautama. See K?7'pa. 

SARAMA. I. In the ii*/g-veda the dog of Indra and mother 
of the two dogs called, after their mother, Sarameyas, who each 
had four eyes, and were the watchdogs of Yama. Sarama is 
said to have pursued and recovered the cows stolen by the Pa/zis, 
a myth which has been supposed to mean that Sarama is the 
same as Ushas, the dawn, and that the cows represent the rays 
of the sun carried away by night. 2. The wife of YibhishaTia, 
wdio attended upon Sita, and showed her great kindness when 
she was in captivity with Rava?ia. 3. In the Bhagavata Pura?ia, 
Sarama is one of the daugliters of Daksha, and the mother of 
wild animals. 

SARAMEYAS. The two children of Sarama, Indra's watch- 
dog ; they were the watchdogs of Yama, and each had four eyes. 
They have been compared with the Greek Hermes. 


SAEAiVYtJ. 'The fleet runner.' A daughter of Twashifn. 
She has been identified with the Greek Erinnys. The begin- 
ning of this myth is in a hymn of the itig-veda, which says — 
" I. Twash^n makes a wedding for his daughter. (Hearing) this, 
the whole world assembles. The mother of Yama, the wedded 
wife of the great Vivaswat (the sun), disappeared. 2. They 
concealed the immortal (bride) from mortals. Making (another) 
of like appearance, they gave her to Vivaswat. Sara^iyii bore 
the two Aswins, and when she had done so she deserted the two 
twins." In the IsTirukta the story is expanded as follows : — 
" Sara?^yu, the daughter of Twash^H, bore twins to Vivaswat, 
the son of Aditi. She then substituted for herself another 
female of similar appearance, and fled in the form of a mare. 
Vivaswat in like manner assumed the shape of a horse and 
followed her. From their intercourse sprang two Aswins, while 
Manu was the offspring of Savar?ia (or the female of like appear- 
ance)." The B?'ihad-devata has another version of the same 
story: — "Twash^?i had twin children, (a daughter) Sarawyii and 
(a son) Tri-siras. He gave Sara^^yu in marriage to Vivaswat, to 
whom she bore Yama and Yami, who also were twins. Creat- 
ing a female like herself without her husband's knowledge, and 
making the twins over in charge to her, Sara?Z}ii took the form 
of a mare and departed. Vivaswat, in ignorance, begot on the 
female who was left Manu, a royal ^ishi, who resembled his father 
in glory ; but discovering that the real Sarawyu, Twash/ri's 
daughter, had gone away, Vivaswat followed her quickly, taking 
the shape of a horse of the same species as she. Recognising 
him in that form, she approached him with the desire of sexual 
connection, which he gratified. In their haste his seed fell on 
the ground, and she, being desirous of offspring, smelled it. 
From this act sprang the two Kumaras (youths), Xasatya and 
Dasra, who were lauded as Aswins (sprung from a horse)." — 
Muir's Texts, v. 227. See the Pura?iic version under " Sanjna." 

SARASWATA. i. In the Maha-bharata the J?/shi Saraswata 
is represented as being the son of the personified river SaraswatT. 
In a time of great drought he was fed with fish by his mother, 
and so was enabled to keep up his knowledge of the Vedas, 
while other Brahmans were reduced to such straits for the means 
of subsistence that study was neglected and the Vedas were 
lost. When the drought was over, the Brahmans flocked to 


him for instruction, and 60,000 acquired a knowledge of the 
Vedas from him. " This legend," says Wilson, " appears to 
indicate the revival, or, more probably, the introduction of the 
Hindu ritual by the race of Brahmans, or the people called 
Saras wata," who dwelt near the Saraswati river. Saraswata 
Brahmans still dwell in the Panjab, and are met with in many 
other parts. 2. The country about the Saraswati river. 3. A 
great national division of the Brahman caste. 

SAEASAVATl. '"Watery, elegant.' In the Vedas, Saras- 
wati is primarily a river, but is celebrated in the hymns both as 
a river and a deity. The Saraswati river was one boundary of 
Brahmavartta, the home of the early Aryans, and was to them, 
in all likelihood, a sacred river, as the Ganges has long been to 
their descendants. As a river goddess, Saraswati is lauded for 
the fertilising and purifying powers of her waters, and as the 
bestower of fertility, fatness, and wealth. Her position as Vach, 
the goddess of speech, finds no mention in the J?ig-veda, but is 
recognised by the BrahmaTias and the Maha-bharata. Dr. Muir 
endeavours to account for her acquisition of this character. He 
say, " Allien once the river had acquired a divine character, it 
was quite natural that she should be regarded as the patroness 
of the ceremonies which were celebrated on the margin of her 
holy waters, and that her direction and blessing should be in- 
voked as essential to their proper performance and success. 
The connection into which she was thus brouglit wuth sacred 
rites may have led to the further step of imagining her to have 
an influence on the composition of the hymns which formed so 
important a part of the proceedings, and of identifying her with 
Vach, the goddess of speech." In later times Saraswati is the 
wife of Brahma, the goddess of speech and learning, inventress 
of the Sansk?7't language and Deva-nagari letters, and patroness 
of the arts and sciences. " She is represented as of a white 
colour, without any superfluity of limbs, and not unfrequently 
of a graceful figure, wearing a slender crescent on her brow and 
sitting on a lotus." — Wilson. The same authority states that " the 
VaishTiavas of Bengal have a popular legend that she was the wife 
of Vishmi, as were also Lakshmi and Ganga. The ladies dis- 
agreed ; Saraswati, like the otlier prototype of learned ladies, 
IMinerva, being something of a termagant, and Vish?m finding 
that one wife was as much as he could manage, transferred 


Saraswati to Brahma and Ganga to /S'iva, and contented liimself 
with Lakshmi alone. [See Vach.) Other names of Saraswati 
are Bharatl, Brahml, Piit-kari, ^Sarada, Vagiswari. The river is 
now called Sarsuti. It falls from the Himfdayas and is lost in 
the sands of the desert. In ancient times it flowed on to the sea. 
A passage in the i?/g-veda says of it, " She who goes on pure 
from the mountains as far as the sea." — Max Muller, Veda, 45. 
According to the Maha-bharata it was dried up by the curse of 
the sage Utathya (q.v.). See Sapta-sindhava. 

SAKASWATI KAiVmABHARAA^A. A treatise on poeti- 
cal and rhetorical composition generally ascribed to Bhoja Raja. 

SARAYU. The Sarju river or Gogra. 

SARMISHTHA. Daughter of Y?-ishaparvan the Danava, 
second wife of Yayati and mother of Purii. See Devayanl. 

>S'ARXGA. The bow of Knsh?za. 

SARYA, /S'ARVA. A Vedic deity ; the destroyer. After- 
wards a name of ^iva and of one of the Rudras. See Rudra. 

SARYA-DAR^AATA SANGRAHA. A work by Madhava- 
charya which gives an account of the DarsaT^as or schools of 
philosophy, whether orthodox or heretical. It has been printed. 

^SARVARl. A woman of low caste, who was very devout 
and looked for the coming of Rama until she had grown old. 
In reward of her piety a sage raised her from her low caste, and 
when she had seen Rama she burnt herself on a funeral pile. 
She ascended from the pile in a chariot to the heaven of 

SARYA-SARA. I^ame of an Upanishad. 

aS'A/S'ADA. 'Hare-eater.' A name given to Yikukshi (q.v.). 

aS'A^I, aS'A/S'IN. The moon, so called from the marks on the 
moon being considered to resemble a hare (sasa). 

ySASTRA. 'A rule, book, treatise.' Any book of divme or 
recognised authority, but more especially the law-books. 

/SATA-DHAjSTU. a king who had a virtuous and discreet 
wife named iS'aibya. They were both worshippers of Yislmu. 
One day they met a heretic, with whom ^S^ata-dhanu conversed ; 
but the wife " turned away from him and cast her eyes up to 
the sun." After a time ^ata-dhanu died and his wife ascended 
his funeral pile. The wife was born again as a princess with a 
knowledge of her previous existence, but the husband received 
the form of a dog. She recognised him in this form and placed 


the bridal garland on his neck. Then she reminded him of his 
previous existence and of the fault wliich had caused his degra- 
dation. He was greatly humiliated and died from a broken 
sj^irit. After that, he was born successively as a jackal, a wolf, 
a crow, and a peacock. In each form his wife recognised him, 
reminded liim of his sin, and urged him to make efforts for 
restoration to his former dignity. At length " he was born as 
the son of a person of distinction," and >S'aibya then elected him 
as her bridegroom ; and having " again invested him with the 
character of her husband, they lived happily together." "WHien 
he died she again followed him in death, and both " ascended 
beyond the sphere of Indra to the regions where all desires are 
for ever gratified." "This legend," says Wilson, "is peculiar 
to the Yish?2-u PurfiTia, although the doctrine it inculcates is to 
be found elsewhere. 

^ATA-DHAXWAX, .SATA-DHAXUS. ' Having a hundred 
bows.' A Yadava and son of Hridika. He killed Satrajit, 
father of Satya-bhama, the wife of Ivn'sh?ia, in his sleep, and 
was himself killed in revenge by K?7'sh??a, who struck off his 
head with his discus. 

^ATA-DKU. 'Flowing in a hundred (channels).' The 
name of the river Sutlej, the Zaradrus of Ptolemy, the Hesudrus 
of Pliny. 

aSATA-GHNI. ' Slaying hundreds.' A missile weapon used 
by Krishna. It is described in the Maha-bharata as a stone 
set round with iron spikes, but many have supposed it to be 
a rocket or other fiery weapon. 

6^ATA-KEATU. ' The god of a hundred rites ; ' Indra. 

/SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. A celebrated Brahmarza at- 
tached to the White Yajur-veda, and ascribed to the i?ishi 
Yajnawalkya. It is found in two Sakhas, the Madhyandina 
and the Kamva. This is the most complete and systematic as 
weU as the most important of all the Brahma/^as. It has been 
edited by Weber. 

^ATA-RUPA. 'The hundred-formed.' The first woman. 
According to one account she was the daughter of Brahma, and 
from their incestuous intercourse the first Manu, named Swayam- 
bhuva, was born. Another account makes her the wife, not 
the mother, of IManu. The account given by Manu is that 
Brahma divided himself into two parts, male and female, and 


from tliem sprang Manu. She is also called Savitrl. See Yiraj 
and Brahma. 

aS'ATATAPA. An old writer on law. 

iS'ATA-VAHAISrA. A name by which iS'ali-vahana is some- 
times called. 

SATI. A daughter of Daksha and wife of Kudra, i.e., Siva,. 
The Vishmi Piirawa states that she " abandoned her body in 
consequence of the anger of Daksha. She then became the 
daughter of Himavat and Mena; and the divine Bhava again 
married Uma, who was identical with his (AS'iva's) former 
spouse." The authorities generally agree that she died or killed 
herself in consequence of the quarrel between her husband and 
father ; and the Kasi lQ.ia7ich, a modern work, represents that 
she entered the fire and became a Sati. See Pi/ha-sthana. 

SATRAJIT, SATRAJITA. Son of Nighna. In return for 
praise rendered to the sun he beheld the luminary in his projDer 
form, and received from him the wonderful Syamantaka gem. 
He lost the gem, but it was recovered and restored to him 
by IvWsh?za. In return he presented 'Krishna, with his daughter 
Satya-bhama to wife. There had been many suitors for this 
lady's hand, and one of them, named /S'ata-dhanwan, in revenge 
for her loss, killed Satrajit and carried off the gem, but he was 
afterwards kiUed by 'Krishna. 

/SATRU-GHXA. 'Foe destroyer.' Twin-brother of Laksh- 
ma?za and half-brother of Rama, in whom an eighth part of 
the divinity of Yishwu was incarnate. His wife was ^Sruta-kirti, 
cousin of Sita. He fought on the side of Rama and killed the 
Rakshasa chief Lavawa. See Dasa-ratha and Rama. 

SATYA-BHAMA. Daughter of Satrajita and one of the 
four chief wives of Krishna. She had ten sons, Blianu, Su- 
bhanu, Swar-bhanu, Prabhanu, Bhanumat, Chandrabhanu, Bri- 
hadbhanu, Atibhanu, ^S'ribhanu, and Pratibhanu. Krishna, took 
her with him to Indra's heaven, and she induced him to bring 
away the Parijata tree. 

SATYA-DHii/TI. Son of >S'aradwat and grandson of the 
sage Gautama. According to the Yish7;u Pura^za he was father 
by the nymph Urvasi of Kriipa, and Kr/pi. 

SATYAIvI. A kinsman of Knsh?ia's, who fought on the 
side of the Pa?zf/avas, and was K?-zsh?ia's charioteer. He assassi- 
nated K?ita-varma in a drinking bout at Dwaraka, and was him- 


self cut down by the friends of his victim. He is also called 
Daruka and Yuyiidhana ; and ^aineya from his father, ^S^ini. 

SATYA-LOKA. See'Lok^i. 

SATYAVAX. See Savitrl. 

SATYA-VATL i. Daughter of Uparichara, king of Chedi, by 
an Apsaras named Adrika, who was condemned to hve on earth 
in the form of a fish. She was mother of Vyasa by the i^zshi 
Para,sara, and she was also wife of King /S'antanu, mother of 
Yichitra-virya and Chitrangada, and grandmother of the Kaur- 
avas and Pawt^avas, the rivals in the great war. The sage 
Parasara met her as she was crossing the river Yamuna when 
she was quite a girl, and the offspring of their illicit intercourse 
was brought forth on an island (dwipa) in that river, and was 
hence called Dwaipayana. (See Vyasa.) She was also called 
Gandha-kah, Gandha-vati, and Kalangani; and as her mother 
lived in the form of a fish, she is called Dasa-nandini, Diiseyi, 
Jhajhodari, and j\Iatsyodari, 'fish-born.' 2. A daughter of King 
Gadlii, wife of the Brahman i?ichika, mother of Jamad-agni and 
grandmother of Parasu-rama. She was of the Kusika race, and 
is said to have been transformed into the Kausiki river. See 
ifcichika and Yiswamitra. 

SATYA-YRATA. i. Xame of the seventh Manu. See 

2. A king of the Solar race, descended from Ikshwaku. He 
was father of Haris-chandra, and is also named Yedlias and Tri- 
sanku. According to the Ramayawa he was a pious king, and 
was desirous of performing a sacrifice in virtue of which he 
might ascend bodily to heaven. Yasish^ha, his priest, declined 
to perform it, declaring it impossible. He then applied to 
Yasish/ha's sons, and they condemned him to become a Clia?ic?ala 
for his presumption. In his distress and degradation lie applied 
to Yiswamitra, who promised to raise him in that form to 
heaven. Yiswamitra's intended sacrifice was strongly resisted 
by the sons of Yasish/ha, but he reduced them to ashes, and 
condemned them to be born again as outcasts for seven hundred 
births. The wrathful sage bore down all other opposition, and 
Tri-5anku ascended to heaven. Here his entry was opposed by 
Indra and the gods, but Yiswamitra in a fury declared that he 
would create " another Indra, or the world should have no Indra 
at all." The gods were obliged to yield, and it was agreed that 


Tri-<?ankii, an immortal, slioiild hang with his head downwards, 
and shine among some stars newly called into being by Viswa- 

The VisliTiu Pura/za gives a more simple version. While 
Satya-vrata was a Cha?i<:?ala, and the famine was raging, he suj:*- 
ported Yiswamitra's family by hanging deer's Jflesh on a tree on 
the bank of the Ganges, so that they might obtain food without 
the degradation of receiving it from a ChawtZala : for this charity 
Yiswamitra raised him to heaven. 

The story is differently told in the Hari-vansa. Satya-vrata 
or Tri-sankn, when a prince, attempted to carry off the wife of a 
citizen, in consequence of which his father drove him from home, 
nor did Yasish/ha, the family priest, endeavour to soften the 
father's decision. The period of his exile was a time of famine, 
and he greatly succoured the wife and family of Yiswamitra, 
who were in deep distress while the. sage was absent far away. 
He completed his twelve years' exile and penance, and being 
hungry one day, and having no flesh to eat, he killed Yasish^ha's 
wondrous cow, the Kama-dhenu, and ate thereof himself, and 
gave some to the sons of Yiswamitra. In his rage Yasish/ha 
gave him the name Tri-5anku, as being guilty of three great 
sins. Yiswamitra was gratified by the assistance which Satya- 
vrata had rendered to his family ; " he installed him in liis 
father's kingdom, . . . and, in spite of the resistance of the 
gods and of Yasish/ha, exalted the king alive to heaven." 

^'ATYAYANA. I^ame of a Brahma?za. 

SATYA-YAUYAXA. A certain Yidya-dhara. 

SAUBHA. A magical city, apparently first mentioned in 
the Yajur-veda. An aerial city belonging to Haris-chandra, and 
according to popular belief still visible occasionally. It is 
called also Kha-pura, Prati-margaka, and Tranga. In the 
Maha-bharata an aerial or self-supporting city belonging to the 
Daityas, on the shore of the ocean, protected by the >Salwa 

SAUBHAPI. A devout sage, who, when he was old and 
emaciated, was inspired with a desire of offspring. He went 
to King Mandhat?"i, and demanded one of his fifty daughters. 
Afraid to refuse, and yet unwilling to bestow a daughter upon 
such a suitor, the king temporised, and endeavoured to evade 
the request. It was at length settled that, if any one of the 



daugliters should accept liiiii as a bridegroom, the king wouhi 
consent to the marriage. Saubhari was conducted to the pre- 
sence of the girls ; but on his way he assumed a fair and hand- 
some form, so that all the girls were captivated, and contended 
with each other as to who should become his wife. It ended 
by his marrying them all and taking them home. He caused 
Viswa-karma to build for each a separate palace, furnished in the 
most luxurious manner, and surrounded with exquisite gardens, 
where they lived a most happy life, each one of them having her 
husband always present with her, and believing that he was 
devoted to her and her only. By his wives he had a hundred 
and fifty sons ; but as he found his hopes and desires for them 
to daily increase and expand, he resolved to devote himself 
wholly and solely to penance and the worship of Vish7iu. 
Accordingly, he abandoned his cliildren and retired with his 
wives to the forest. See Yish7m Pura/^a. 

SAUDASA. Son of King Sudas. Their descendants are 
all Saudasas. See Kalmasha-pada. 

SAU]SrA]S'DA. A club shaped like a pestle, which was one 
of the weapons of Bala-rama. 

/S'AU]!!^AKA. A sage, the son of /S'unaka and grandson of 
Gritsa-mada. He was the author of the B?'ihad-devata, an Anu- 
krama^ii, and other works, and he w^as a teacher of the Atharva- 
veda. His pupil was Aswalayana. There was a family of the 
name, and the works attributed to ^S'aunaka are probably the 
productions of more than one j)erson. 

SAUKA PURAA^A. See Pura^za. 

SAURASHrRAS. The people of SurSshfra. 

SAUTI. ]^ame of the sage who repeated the Maha-bharata 
to the itfshis in the Naimisha forest. 

SAUVlRAS. A people connected with the Saindhavas or 
people of Sindh, and probably inhabitants of the western and 
southern parts of the Panjab. Cunningham says that Sauvira 
was the plain country. 

SAYARA^A, SAVARA^I. The eighth T^Ianu. The name is 
used either alone or in combination for all the succeeding Manus 
to the fourteenth and last. See Manu. 

SAVARYA. AVife of the sun. " The female of like appear- 
ance," whom Saranyu, wife of Yivaswat, substituted for herself 
when she fled. (See Sarawyu.) Manu was the offspring of 


SavarTia. This is the version given in the Nirukta. In the 
Yish?m Pura?ia, Savarwa is daughter of the ocean, wife of 
Prachinabarhis, and mother of the ten Prachetasas. 

SAVITit/. ' Generator.' i. A name used in the Yedas for 
the sun. Many hymns are addressed to him, and he is some- 
times distinguished from that deity. 2. One of the Adityas. 

SAYITRI. I. The holy verse of the Veda, commonly called 
Gayatri. 2. A name of iS'ata-riipa, the daughter and wife of 
Brahma, who is sometimes regarded as a personification of the 
holy verse. 3. Daughter of King Aswa-pati, and lover of Sat- 
yavan, whom she insisted on marrying, although she was warned 
by a seer that he had only one year to live. When the fatal 
day arrived, Satyavan went out to cut wood, and she followed 
him. There he fell, dying, to the earth, and she, as she sup- 
ported him, saw a figure, who told her that he was Yama, king 
of the dead, and that he had come for her husband's spirit. 
Yama carried off the spirit towards the shades, but Savitri 
followed him. Her devotion pleased Yama, and he off'ered her 
any boon except the life of her husband. She extorted three 
such boons from Yama, but still she followed him, and he was 
finally constrained to restore her husband to life. 

SAYYA-SACHIK ' A^aio puUs a bow with either hand.' 
A title of Arjuna. 

SAYAYA. Sa5"a7iacharya, the celebrated commentator on 
the ^/g-veda. " He was brother of Madhavacharya, the prime 
minister of Yira Bukka Raya, Raja of Yijaya-nagara, in the 
fourteenth century, a munificent patron of Hindu literature. 
Both the brothers are celebrated as scholars, and many important 
works are attributed to them ; not only scholia on the Sanhitas 
and Brahma7?as of the Yedas, but original works on grammar 
and law ; the fact, no doubt, being that they availed themselves 
.of those means which their situation and influence secured them, 
and employed the most learned Brahmans they could attract to 
Yijaya-nagara upon the works which bear their name, and to 
which they also contributed their own labour and learning ; 
their works were, therefore, compiled under peculiar advantages, 
and are deservedly held in the highest estimation." — Wilson. 

aS'ESHA, ^ESHA-NAGA. King of the serpent race or Nagas, 
and of the infernal regions called Patala. A serpent with a 
thousand heads which is the couch and canopy of Yishwu whilst 


sleeping during the intervals of creation. Sometimes *Seslia is 
represented as supporting the world, and sometimes as upholding 
the seven Patalas or hells. Whenever he yawns he causes earth- 
quakes. At the end of each kalpa he vomits venomous fire 
which destroys all creation. AYhen the gods churned the ocean 
they made use of >S'esha as a great roj)e, which they twisted round 
the mountain Mandara, and so used it as a churn. He is repre- 
sented clothed in purple and wearing a white necklace, holding 
in one hand a plough and in the other a pestle. He is also 
called Ananta, ' the endless,' as the symbol of eternity. His 
wife was named Ananta-sirsha. He is sometimes distinct from 
Yasuki but generally identified with him. In the Pura?ias he 
is said to be the son of Kasyapa and Kadru, and according to 
some authorities he was incarnate in Bala-rama. His hood is 
called MaTii-dwipa, ' the island of jewels,' and his j)alace Ma?2i- 
bliitti, 'jewel-walled,' or Mam-maTic/apa, 'jewel palace.' 

SETU-BANDHA. ' Rama's bridge.' The Hne of rocks be- 
tween the continent and Ceylon called in maps "Adam's bridge." 
It is also know as Samudraru. There is a poem called Setu- 
bandha or Setu-kavya on the subject of the building of the 
bridge by Rama's allies. 

SHAD-DAR^S'ANA. See Darsana. 

SHAD-YIX^S'A. ' Twenty-sixth.' One of the Brrdimawas of 
the Sama-veda. It is called " the twenty-sixth " because it 
was added to the Prauc^ha Brahma?za, which has twenty-five 

SHAT-PURA. ' The sixfold city,' or ' the six cities ' granted 
by Brahma to the Asuras, and of which Nikumbha was king. 
It was taken by Krislma and given to Brahma-datta, a Brahman. 
— Hari-vansa. * 

SIDDHAS. A class of semi-divine beings of great purity 
and holiness, who dwell in the regions of the sky between the. 
earth and the sun. They are said to be 88,000 in number. 

SIDDHANTA. Any scientific work on astronomy or mathe- 

SIDDHANTA KAUMUDl. A modern and simplified form 
of Pacini's Grammar by Bha//oji Dikshita. It is in print. 

SIDUHAKTA-^IROMAiYI. A work on astronomy by 
Bhaskarachiirya. It has been printed, and has been translated 
for the Bibliotheca Indlca. 


^'IKHAiVDIX, ;S'IKHAJ\^i)INL Si\\2.ncVm\ is said to have 
been the daughter of Kaja Drupada, but according to another state- 
ment she was one of the two wives whom Bhishma obtained for 
his brother Vichitra-virya. " She (the widow) perished in the jun- 
gle, but before her death she had been assured by Parasu-rama that 
she should become a man in a future birth, and cause the death of 
Bhishma, who had been the author of her misfortunes." Accord- 
ingly she was born again as AS'ikha7Z6?in, son of Drupada. Bhishma 
fell in battle pierced all over by the arrows of Arjuna, but ac- 
cording to this story the fatal shaft came from the hands of 
/Sikhayzc^in. Bee Amba. 

aSIKSHA. Phonetics ; one of the Vedangas. The science 
which teaches the proper jDronunciation and manner of reciting 
the Vedas. There are many treatises on this subject. 

aSILPA-aSASTEA. The science of mechanics ; it includes 
architecture. Any book or treatise on this science. 

SINDHU. I. The river Indus ; also the country along that 
river and the people dwelling in it. Prom Sindhu came the 
Hind of the Arabs, the Hiiidoi or Indoi of the Greeks, and 
our India. 2. A river in Malwa. There are others of the 
name. See Sapta-sindhava. 


SINHASANA DWATKKsTaS'AT. The thirty-two stories 
told by the images which supported the throne of King Vikra- 
maditya. It is the Singhasan Battisi in Hindustani, and is 
current in most of the languages of India. 

SINHIKA. I. A daughter of Daksha and wife of Ivasyapa; 
also a daughter of Ivasyapa and wife of Viprachitti. 2. A Rak- 
shasi who tried to swallow Hanuman and make a meal of him. 
He allowed her to do so and then rent her body to pieces and 
departed. Her habit was to seize the shadow of the object she 
wished to devour and so drag the prey into her jaws. 

aS'IPRA. The river on which the city of XJjjayini stands. 

SIRA-DHWAJA. ' He of the plough-banner.' An epithet 
for Janaka. 

^SI/S'UMARA. 'A porpoise.' The planetary sphere, which, as 
explained by the Yishwu PuraTza, has the shape of a porpoise, 
Yish7zu being seated in its heart, and Dhruva or the pole star in 
its tail. " As Dhruva revolves, it causes the sun, moon, and 
other planets to turn round also ; and the lunar asterisms follow 


in its circular path, for all tlie celestial luminaries are, in fact, 
bound to the polar star by aerial cords." 

6'IaS'U-PALA. Son of Dama-ghosha, king of Chedi, by S'nita- 
deva, sister of Vasu-deva ; he was therefore cousin of Krishwa, 
but he was K?i'shwa's implacable foe, because lO'ishwa had car- 
ried off Rukmi7zi, his intended wife. He was slain by Kn'shTza 
at the great sacrifice of Yudlii-sh^hira in punishment of oppro- 
brious abuse. The Maha-bharata states that /S'i5u-pala was born 
with three eyes and four arms. His parents were inclined to 
cast him out, but were warned by a voice not to do so, as his 
time was not come. It also foretold that his superfluous mem- 
bers should disappear when a certain person took the child into 
his lap, and that he would eventually die by the hands of that 
same person. KrisliTza placed the child on his knees and the 
extra eye and arms disappeared ; K?'/sh72a also killed him. The 
YishTiu Purawa contributes an additional legend about him. 
" /S'i^u-pala was in a former existence the unrighteous but valiant 
monarch of the Daityas, Hirawya-kasipu, who was killed by the 
divine guardian of creation (in the man-lion Avatara). He was 
next the ten-headed (sovereign E-avaTza), whose unequalled 
prowess, strength, and power were overcome by the lord of the 
three worlds (Rama). Having been killed by the deity in the 
form of Raghava, he had long enjoyed the reward of his virtues 
in exemption from an embodied state, but had now received 
birth once more as /Sisu-pala, the son of Dama-ghosha, king of 
Chedi. In this character he renewed -with greater inveteracy 
than ever his hostile hatred towards Pu?ic?arlkaksha (Yish/iu), 
. . . and was in consequence slain by him. But from the cir- 
cumstance of his thoughts being constantly engrossed by the 
supreme being, ASisu-pala was united with him after death, . . . 
for the lord bestows a heavenly and exalted station even upon 
those whom he slays in his displeasure." He was caUed S\x- 
nltha, ' virtuous.' 

iST^'UPALA-BADHA. ' The death of Si5u-pala ; ' an epic poem 
by Magha, in twenty cantos. It has been often printed, and has 
been translated into French by Fauche. 

SIT A. 'A furrow.' In the Yeda, Sita is the furrow, or hus- 
bandry personified, and worshipped as a deity presiding over 
agriculture and fruits. In the Ramaya?ia and later works she is 
daughter of Janaka king of Yideha, and wife of Rama. The 

SITA. 295 

old Vedic idea still adhered to her, for she sprang from a furrow. 
In the Eamayarza her father Janaka says, " As I was ploughing 
my field, there sprang from the plough a girl, obtained by me 
while cleansing my field, and known by name as Sita (the fur- 
row). This girl sprung from the earth grew up as my daughter. " 
Hence she is styled Ayonija, 'not born from the womb.' She 
is said to have lived before in the K?7ta age as VedavatI, and to 
be in reality the goddess Lakshmi in human form, born in the 
world for bringing about the destruction of Rava7?a, the Rak- 
shasa king of Lanka, who was invulnerable to ordinary means, 
but doomed to die on account of a woman. Sita became the 
wife of Eama, who won her by bending the great bow of /Siva. 
She was his only wife, and was the embodiment of purity, ten- 
derness, and conjugal affection. She accompanied her husband 
in his exile, but was carried off from him by Ravawa and kept 
in his palace at Lanka. There he made many efforts to win her 
to his will, but she continued firm against all jDersuasions, threats, 
and terrors, and maintained a dignified serenity throughout. 
'When Rama had slain the ravisher and recovered his wife, he 
received her coldly, and refused to take her back, for it was hard 
to believe it possible that she had retained her honour. She 
asserted her purity in touching language, and resolved to estab- 
lish it by the ordeal of fire. The pile was raised and she entered 
the flames in the presence of gods and men, but she remained 
unhurt, and the god of fire brought her forth and placed her in 
her husband's arms. JN^otwithstanding this proof of her inno- 
cence, jealous thoughts passed through the mind of Rama, and 
after he had ascended his ancestral throne at Ayodhya, his people 
blamed him for taking back a wife who had been in the power 
of a licentious ravisher. So, although she was pregnant, he 
banished her and sent her to the hermitage of Yalmiki, where 
she gave birth to twin sons, Kusa and Lava. There she lived 
till the boys were about fifteen years old. One day they strayed 
to their father's capital. He recognised and acknowledged them 
and then recalled Sita. She returned and pubHcl}^ declared her 
innocence. But her heart was deeply wounded. She called 
upon her mother earth to attest her purity, and it did so. The 
ground opened, and she was taken back into the source from 
which she had sprung. Rama was now disconsolate and resolved 
to quit this mortal life, i^ee Rama.) Sita had the appellations 

296 SIVA. 

of Bhunii-ja, Dliaram-suta, and Parthivl, all meaning ' daugliter 
of the eartli.' 

aS^IVA. The name Siva is unknown to the Yedas, but 
Rudra, another name of this deity, and almost equally common, 
occurs in the Yeda both in the singular and plural, and from 
these the great deity Siva and his manifestations, the Rudras, 
have been developed. In the i^ig-veda the word Rudra is used 
for Agni, and the Maruts are called his sons. In other passages 
he is distinct from Agni. He is lauded as " the lord of songs, 
the lord of sacrifices, who heals remedies, is brilliant as the sun, 
the best and most bountiful of gods, who grants prosj^erity and 
welfare to horses and sheep, men, women, and cows ; the lord 
of nourishment, who drives away diseases, dispenses remedies, 
and removes sin ; but, on the other hand he is the wielder of 
the thunderbolt, the bearer of bow and arrows, and mounted on 
his chariot is terrible as a wild beast, destructive and fierce." 
In the Yajur-veda there is a long prayer called ASatarudriya which 
is addressed to him and appeals to him under a great variety of 
epithets. He is " auspicious, not terrible ; " " the deliverer, the 
first divine physician ; " he is " blue-necked and red-coloured, 
who has a thousand eyes and bears a thousand quivers ; " and in 
another hymn he is called " Tryambaka, the sweet-scented in- 
creaser of prosperity ; " "a medicine for kine and horses, a medi- 
cine for men, and a (source of) ease to rams and ewes." In the 
Atharva-veda he is still the protector of cattle, but his character 
is fiercer. He is " dark, black, destroying, terrible." He is the 
" fierce god," who is besought to betake himself elsewhere, "and 
not to assail mankind with consumption, poison, or celestial fire." 
The Brahmawas tell that when Rudra was born he Avept, and his 
father, Prajapati, asked the reason, and on being told that he 
wept because he had not received a name, his father gave liim 
the name of Rudra (from the root rud, 'weep'). They also relate 
that at the request of the gods he pierced Prajapati because of his 
incestuous intercourse with his daughter. In another place he is 
said to have applied to his father eight successive times for a name, 
and that he received in succession the names Bhava, Sarva, Pasu- 
pati, Ugradeva, Mahandeva, Rudra, Isana, and Asani. In the 
IJpanishads his character is further developed. He declares to the 
inquiring gods, " I alone was before (all things), and I exist and 
I shall be. No other transcends me. I am eternal and not 

SIVA. 297 

eternal, discernible and imdiscernible, I am Brahma and I am 
not Bralima." Again it is said, "He is the only Rudra, he is 
Isana, he is divine, he is Mahe-swara, he is Mahadeva." " There 
is only one Rudra, there is no place for a second. He rules 
this fourth world, controlling and productive ; living beings 
abide with him, united with him. At the time of the end he 
annihilates all worlds, the protector." " He is without begin- 
ning, middle, or end ; the one, the pervading, the spiritual and 
blessed, the wonderful, the consort of Uma, the supreme lord, 
the three-eyed, the blue-throated, the tranquil. . . . He is 
Brahma, he is /S'iva, he is Indra ; he is undecaying, supreme, self- 
resplendent ; he is Yislmu, he is breath, he is the spirit, the 
supreme lord ; he is all that hath been or that shall be, eternal. 
Knowing him, a man overpasses death. There is no other way 
to liberation." In the RamayaT^a /S'iva is a great god, but the 
references to him have more of the idea of a personal god than 
of a supreme divinity. He is represented as fighting with 
Vish?zu, and as receiving worship with Brahma, Vislimi, and 
Indra, but he acknowledges the divinity of Rama, and holds a 
less exalted position than Yishmi. The Maha-bharata also gives 
Yishmi or ILrishna. the highest honour upon the whole. But it 
has many passages in which ^S'iva occujDies the supreme place, 
and receives the homage and worship of Yishmi and Ivrishna. 
" Maha-deva," it says, " is an all-pervading god yet is nowhere 
seen ; he is the creator and the lord of Brahma, Yish?2,u, and 
Indra, wdiom the gods, from Brahma to the Pisachas, worship." 
The rival claims of /S'iva and YisliTiu to supremacy are clearly 
displayed in this poem ; and many of those powers and attributes 
are ascribed to them which were afterwards so widely developed 
in the Purawas. Attempts also are made to reconcile their con- 
flicting claims by representing Siva and Yish72-u, Siva, and 
K?*ish7?a, to be one, or, as it is expressed at a later time in the 
Hari-vansa, there is " no difference between Siva who exists in 
the form of Yish?m, and Yishmi who exists in the form of /S'iva." 

The PuraTzas distinctly assert the supremacy of their particular 
divinity, whether it be /S'iva or whether it be Yishmi, and they 
have developed and amplified the myths and allusions of the 
older writings into numberless legends and stories for the glori- 
fication and honour of their favourite god. 

The Rudra of the Yedas has develojDed in the course of ages 

298 SIVA. 

into the great and powerful god ^iva, the tliird deity of the 
Hindu triad, and the supreme god of his votaries. He is shortly 
described as the destroying principle, but his powers and attri- 
butes are more numerous and much wider. Under the name of 
Rudi-a or Maha-kala, he is the great destroying and dissolving 
power. But destruction in Hindu belief implies reproduction ; 
so as Siva, or iSankara, ' the auspicious,' he is the reproductive 
power which is perpetually restoring that which has been dis- 
solved, and hence he is regarded as Iswara, the supreme lord, and 
Maha-deva, the great god. Under this character of restorer he 
is represented by his symbol the Linga or phallus, typical of re- 
production ; and it is under this form alone, or combined with 
the Yoni, or female organ, the representative of his ^S'akti, or 
female energy, that he is everywhere worshipped. Thirdly, he 
is the Maha-yogl, the great ascetic, in whom is centred the 
highest perfection of austere penance and abstract meditation, by 
which the most unlimited powers are attained, marvels and 
miracles are worked, the highest spiritual knowledge is acquired, 
and union with the great spirit of the universe is eventually 
gained. In this character he is the naked ascetic Dig-ambara, 
' clothed with the elements,' or Dlmr-ja^i, ' loaded with matted 
hair,' and his bodv smeared with ashes. His first or destructive 
character is sometimes intensified, and he becomes Ehairava, 'the 
terrible destroyer,' who takes a pleasure in destruction. He is 
also Bhiiteswara, the lord of ghosts and goblins. In these char- 
acters he haunts cemeteries and places of cremation, wearing 
serpents round his head and skulls for a necklace, attended by 
troops of imps and trampling on rebellious demons. He some- 
times indulges in revelry, and, heated with drink, dances furiously 
with his wife Devi the dance called Tawt^ava, while troops of 
drunken imps caper around them. Possessed of so many powers 
and attributes, he has a great number of names, and is represented 
under a variety of forms. One authority enumerates a thousand 
and eight names, but most of these are descriptive epithets, as 
Tri-lochana, ' the three-eyed,' Nila-kantha, ' the blue-throated,' 
and Panch-anana, 'the five-faced.' S'lYSi is a fair man with five 
faces and four arms. He is commonly represented seated in 
profound thought, with a third eye in the middle of his fore- 
head, contained in or surmounted by the moon's crescent ; his 
matted locks are gathered up into a coil like a horn, which bears 

S/VA. 299 

upon it a symbol of the river Ganges, wliich he caught as it fell 
from heaven ; a necklace of skulls (mu?i6?a-mala), hangs round his 
neck, and serpents twine ahout his neck as a collar (naga-ku?i^ala); 
his neck is blue from drinking the deadly poison which would 
have destroyed the world, and in his hand he holds a tri.siila or 
trident called Pinaka. His garment is the skin of a tiger, a deer, 
or an elephant, hence he is called Kntti-vasas ; sometimes he is 
clothed in a skin and seated upon a tiger-skin, and he holds a deer 
in his hand. He is generally accompanied by his bull JSTandi. He 
also carries the bow Ajagava, a drum (tkmaru) in the shape of 
an hour-glass, the Kha/wanga or club with a skull at the end, or 
a cord (pasa) for binding refractory offenders. His Pramathas 
or attendants are numerous, and are imps and demons of various 
kinds. His third eye has been very destructive. With it he 
reduced to ashes Kama, the god of love, for daring to inspire 
amorous thoughts of his consort Parvati while he was engaged 
in penance ; and the gods and all created beings were destroyed 
by its glance at one of the periodical destructions of the universe. 
He is represented to have cut off one of the heads of Brahma 
for speaking disrespectfully, so that Brahma has only four heads 
instead of five. /S'iva is the great object of worship at Benares 
under the name of Visweswara. His heaven is on Mount 

There are various legends respecting /S'iva's garments and 
weapons. It is said that " he once visited a forest in the form 
of a religious mendicant, and the wives of the itishis residing 
there fell in love with his great beauty, which the Bishis, per- 
ceiving, resented ; in order, therefore, to overpower him, they 
first dug a pit, and by magical arts caused a tiger to rush out of 
it, which he slew, and taking his skin wore it as a garment ; 
they next caused a deer to spring out upon him, which he took 
up in his left hand and ever after retained there. They then 
produced a red-hot iron, but this too he took up and kept in 
his hand as a weapon. . . . The elephant's skin belonged to an 
Asura named Gaya, w^ho acquired such power that he would 
have conquered the gods, and would have destroyed the Munis 
had they not fled to Benares and taken refuge in a temple of 
/S'iva, who then destroyed the Asura, and, ripping up his body, 
stripped off the (elephant) hide, which he cast over his shoulders 
for a cloak." — Williams. 


Other names or epithets of ;S'iva are Aghora, 'horrihle;' 
Babhrii, Bhagavat, 'divine;' Chandra-sekhara, 'moon-crested;' 
Ganga-dhara, 'bearer of the Ganges;' GirLsa, ' mountain lord ; ' 
Hara, 'seizer;' Isana, 'ruler;' Ja/a-dhara, 'wearing matted 
hair;' Jala-murtti, 'whose form is water;' Kala, 'time;' Kalan- 
jara ; Kapala-malin, 'wearing a garland of skulls;' Maha-kala, 
'great time;' Maliesa, 'great lord;' M?7tyunjaya, 'vanquisher 
of death;' Pa5u-pati, 'lord of animals;' iS'ankara, /Sarva, 
Sada^iva or /S'ambhu, 'the auspicious;' /Sthanu, 'the firm;' 
Tryambaka, 'three-eyed;' Ugra, 'fierce;' Yiriipaksha, 'of mis- 
formed eyes ;' Yiswanatha, 'lord of alL' 

SlXk. PURA^^A. See Purana. 

aSTYL Son of Usinara, and king of the country also called 
Usinara, near Gandhara, The great charity and devotion of 
;S'ivi are extolled in the INIaha-bharata by the sage ]\Iarka?2Jeya. 
Agni having assumed the form of a pigeon, was pursued by Indra 
in the shape of a falcon. The pigeon took refuge in the bosom 
of iS'ivi, and the falcon would accept nothing from SW\ instead 
of the pigeon but an equal weight of the king's own flesh. ^S'ivi 
cut a piece of flesh from his right thigh and placed it in the 
balance, but the bird was the heavier. He cut again and again, 
and still the pigeon drew the scale, until the king placed his 
whole body in the balance. This outweighed the pigeon and 
the falcon flew away. On another occasion Yish?iu went to 
/S'ivi in the form of a Brahman and demanded food, but would 
accept no food but ^S'i^ni's own son Yi'ihad-garbha, whom he 
required >S'ivi to kill and cook. The king did so, and placed 
the food before the Brahman, who then told him to eat it him- 
self. /S'ivi took up the head and prepared to eat. The Brahman 
then stayed his hand, commended his devotion, and restoring 
the son to life, vanished from sight. 

SKAMBHA. ' The supporter.' A name sometimes used in 
the i?ig-veda to designate the Supreme Deity. There is con- 
siderable doubt and mystery about both this name and deit}'. 
"The meaning of the term," says Goldstiicker, "is 'the fulcrum,' 
and it seems to mean the fulcrum of the whole world in all its 
physical, religious, and other aspects." — Mu'ifs TextSy v. 378. 

SKANDA. God of war. See Kilrttikeya. 

SKANDA PURAA^A. " The Skanda Purfma is that in which 
the . six-faced deity (Skanda) has related the events of the 


Tatpurusha Kalpa, enlarged with many tales, and subservient to 
the duties taught by Maheswara. It is said to contain 81,800 
stanzas : so it is asserted amongst mankind." "It is uniformly 
agreed," says Wilson, " that the Skanda Purawa, in a collective 
form, has no existence; and the fragments, in the shape of 
Sanhitas, Kha?Z6?as, and Mahatmyas, which are affirmed in 
various parts of India to be portions of the Purawa, present a 
much more formidable mass of stanzas than even the immense 
number of which it is said to consist. The most celebrated of 
these portions in Hindusthan is the KasI Khaw?a, a very minute 
description of the temples of /Siva in or adjacent to Benares, 
mixed with directions for worshipping Maheswara, and a great 
variety of legends explanatory of its merits and of the holiness 
of Kasi. Many of them are puerile and uninteresting, but 
some of them are of a higher character. There is every reason 
to believe the greater part of the contents of the Kasl Kha/if/a 
anterior to the first attack upon Benares by Mahmiid of Ghazni. 
The Ka5i Kha?2C?a alone contains 15,000 stanzas. Another con- 
siderable work is the Utkala Khawtia, giving an account of the 
holiness of Orissa." A part of this Pura72a has been printed at 

SMARTA Appertaining to the Smriti. The Smarta-siitras. 
See Siitras. 

SMJ?/TI. ' What was remembered.' Inspiration, as dis- 
tinguished from /S'ruti, or direct revelation. What has been 
remembered and handed down by tradition. In its widest 
application, the term includes the Yedangas, the Siitras, the 
I^amaya??a, the Maha-bharata, the Purawas, the Dharma-sastras, 
especially the works of Manu, Yajnawalkya, and other inspired 
lawgivers, and the ISTiti-sastras or ethics, but its ordinary applica- 
tion is to the Dharma-sastras; as Manu says, " By ^ruti is meant 
the Veda, and by Sm/'iti the institutes of law," ii. 10. 

SMii'/TI-CHANDRIKA. A treatise on law, according to 
the Dravi(:^ian or Southern school, by Devana Bha/^/a. 

SOMA. The juice of a milky climbing plant (Asdepias acida), 
extracted and fermented, forming a beverage offered in libations 
to the deities, and drunk by the Brahmans. Its exhilarating 
qualities were grateful to the priests, and the gods were repre- 
sented as being equally fond of it. This soma juice occupies 
a large space in the ii/g-veda ; one Ma^i^ala is almost wholly 

302 SOMA. 

devoted to its praise and uses. It was raised to the position of a 
deity, and represented to be primeval, all-powerful, healing all 
diseases, bestower of riches, lord of other gods, and even iden- 
tified with the Supreme Being. As a personification, Soma was 
the god who represented and animated the soma juice, an Indian 
Dionysus or Bacchus. 

" The simple-minded Arian people, whose whole religion was 
a worship of the wonderful powers and phenomena of nature, 
had no sooner perceived that this liquid had power to elevate 
the spirits and produce a temporary frenzy, under the influence 
of which the individual was prompted to, and capable of, deeds 
beyond his natural powers, than they found in it something 
divine : it was to their apprehension a god, endowing those into 
whom it entered with godlike powers ; the plant which afforded 
it became to them the king of plants ; the process of preparing 
it was a holy sacrifice ; the instruments used therefor were 
sacred. The high antiquity of this cultus is attested by the 
references to it found occurring in the Persian Avesta ; it seems, 
however, to have received a new impulse on Indian territory." — 

In later times, the name was appropriated to the moon, and 
some of the qualities of the soma juice have been transferred to 
the luminary, who is Oshadhi-pati, or lord of herbs. So Soma 
is considered the guardian of sacrifices and penance, asterisms 
and healing herbs. 

In the Puramc mythology Soma, as the moon, is commonly 
said to be the son of the Eishi Atri by his wife Anasiiya, 
but the authorities are not agreed. One makes him son of 
Dharma ; another gives his paternity to Prabhakara, of the race 
of Atri ; and he is also said to have been f)i'oduced from the 
churning of the ocean in another IManwantara. In the Yish7iu 
Pura?ia he is called " the monarch of Brahmans ; " but the 
Brihad Ara^iyaka, an older work, makes him a Kshatriya. He 
married twenty-seven daughters of the Bishi Daksha, who are 
really personifications of the twenty-seven lunar asterisms ; but 
keeping up the personality, he paid such attention to Rohi??i, the 
fourth of them, that the rest became jealous, and ajipealed to 
their father. Daksha's interference was fruitless, and he cursed 
his son-in-law, so that he remained childless, and became affected 
with consumption. This moved the pity of his wives, and they 


interceded with tlieir father for him. He could not recall his 
curse, but he modified it so that the decay should be periodical, 
not permanent. Hence the wane and increase of the moon. 
He performed the Raja-suya sacrifice, and became in consequence 
so arrogant and licentious that he carried off Tara, the wife of 
Brihaspati, and refused to give her up either on the entreaties 
of her husband or at the command of Brahma. This gave rise 
to a wide-spread quarrel. The sage Usanas, out of enmity to 
Bi'ihaspati, sided with Soma, and he was supported by the 
Danavas, the Daityas, and other foes of the gods. Indra and 
the gods in general sided with Brihaspati. There ensued a 
fierce contest, and " the earth was shaken to her centre." Soma 
had his body cut in two by diva's trident, and hence he is called 
Bhagnatma. At length Brahma interposed and stopped the 
fight, compelling Soma to restore Taril to her husband. The 
result of this intrigue was the birth of a child, whom Tara, 
after great persuasion, declared to be the son of Soma, and to 
whom the name of Budha was given : from him the Lunar race 

According to the PuraTias, the chariot of Soma has three 
wheels, and is drawn by ten horses of the whiteness of the jas- 
mine, five on the right half of the yoke, and five on the left. 

The moon has many names and descriptive epithets,, as 
Chandra, Indu, >S'asi, 'marked like a hare;' ISTi^akara, 'maker 
of night;' Xakshatra-natha, 'lord of the constellations;' iS^ita- 
marichi, ' having cool rays ;' Sitansu, ' having white rays ;' Mri- 
ganka, ' marked like a deer;' /Siva-sekhara, 'the crest of iS'iva; ' 
Kumuda-pati, ' lord of the lotus ; ' /S'weta-vajT, ' drawn by white 

SO]MADEYA BHATJA. The writer or compiler of the 
collection of stories called Katha-sarit-sagara. 

SOMAKA. Grandfather of Drupada, who transmitted his 
name to his descendants. 

SO]\IA-LOKA. See Loka. 

SOJMA-NATHA, SOMEaS^^ARA. ' Lord of the moon.' The 
name of a celebrated Lingam or emblem of ^Siva at the city of 
Somnath-pattan in Gujarat. It was destroyed by Mahmiid of 

SOMAPAS. ' Soma-drinkers.' A class of Pitris or Manes 
who drink the soma juice. See Pit?'is. 


SOMA-YAN/SA. See Cliandra-vansa. 

/S^ADDHA. I, Faith, personified in the Yedas and lauded 
in a few hymns. 2. Daughter of the sage Daksha, wife of the 
god Dharma, and reputed mother of Kama-deva, the god of 

by the former name in the Brahma?ias, and hy the latter in the 
Maha-bharata. The latter is commonly applied to Yama. 

/S'RAUTA. Belonging to the Siwti. See ^S'ruti and Sutra. 

^'RAUTA-StJTRA. See Sutra and Yedangas. 

aS'RAYASTI. An ancient city which seems to have stood 
near Faizabad in Oude. 

aS'RI. ' Fortune, prosperity.' i. The wife of Yish?zu. (See 
Lakshmi.) 2. An honorific prefix to the names of gods, kings, 
heroes, and men and books of high estimation. 

.S'RI BHAGAYATA. See Bhagavata PuraTza. , 

>S'Rl DAMA CHARITRA. A modern drama in five acts by 
Sama Raja Dikshita, on the sudden elevation to alSuence of Sri 
Daman, a friend of Kr/shwa. It is not a good play, " but there 
is some vivacity in the thoughts and much melody in the style." 
— J'Filson. 

aS'RI-DHARA SWAMI. Author of several commentaries of 
repute on the Bhagavad-gita, Yish?iu Pura?za, &c. 

/SRI HARSHA. A great sceptical philosoj^her, and author 
of the poem called JSTaishadha or iSTaishadhiya. There were 
several kings of the name. 

.S'RI HARSHA DEYA. A king who was author of the 
drama RatnavalT. 

/S'i^/XGA-GIRI. A hill on the edge of the AYestern Ghats 
in Mysore, where there is a math or monastic establishment of 
Brahmans, said to have been founded by /S'ankaracharya. 

SEI^GARA TILAKA. 'The mark of love.' A work by 
Rudra Bha^/a on the sentiments and emotions of lovers as exhi- 
bited in poetry and the drama. 

aS^/NGA-YERA. The modern Sungroor, a town on the 
left bank of the Ganges and on the frontier of Kosala and the 
Bhil country. The country around was inhabited by Nishiidas 
or wild tribes, and Guha, the friend of Rama, was their chief. 

>SRI-aSAILA. The mountain of *S'rI, the goddess of fortune. 
It is a holy place in the Dakliin, near the K?-ishwa, and was 


formerly a place of great splendour. It retains its sanctity but 
has lost its grandeur. Also called /Sri-parvata. 

/SRI-VATSA. A particular mark, said to be a curl of hair 
on the breast of Yishwu or Knsh?za, and represented by ^^ 

aSRUTA-BODHA. a work on metres attributed to Kali-dasa. 
It has been edited and translated into French by Lancereau. 

^RUTA-KIRTTI Cousin of Sita and wife of ^'atru-ghna. 

^RUTAESHL A i^^'shi who did not receive the /Sruti 
(revelation) direct, but obtained it at second-hand from the 
Yedic i^ishis. 

^SRUTI. '^Vliat was heard.' The revealed word. The 
Mantras and Erahma?zas of the Vedas are always included in 
the term, and the Upanishads are generally classed with them. 

STHALl - DEYATAS, DEYATAS. Gods or goddesses of 
the soil, local deities. 

STHANU. A name of ^iva. 

STHAPATYA-YEDA. The science of architecture, one of 
the Upa-vedas. 

STHUYA, STHUiYl-KARYA. A Yaksha who is repre- 
sented in the Maha-bharata to have changed sexes for a while 
with iSikhawfiini, daughter of Drupada. 

SU-EAHU. 'Five-armed.' i. A son of Dhnta-rash/fra and 
king of Chedi. 2. A son of >S'atru-ghna and king of Mathura. 

SU-BALA. I. A king of Gandhara, father of Gandhari, wife 
of DhWta-rash^Jra. 2. A mountain in Lanka on which Hanuman 
alighted after leaping over the channel. 

SU-BHADRA. Daughter of Yasu-deva, sister of KWsh?^a, 
and wife of Arjuna. Bala-rama, her elder brother, wished to 
give her to Dur-yodhana, but Arjuna carried her off from Dwaraka 
at Knsh??a's suggestion, and Bala-rama subsequently acquiesced 
in their union. She was mother of Abhimanyu. She appears 
especially as sister of K?*ish?za in his form Jagan-natha, and 
according to tradition there was an incestuous intimacy between 
them. When the car of Jagan-natha is brought out the images 
of Su-bhadra and Bala-rama accompany the idol, and the inti- 
macy of Jagan-natha and Su-bhadra is said to provoke taunts and 

aS^UBHANGI 'Fair-limbed.' An epithet of Rati, wife of 
Kama, and of Yakshi, wife of Kuvera. 

SU-BHANU. Son of Krish?ia and Satya-bhama. 



SU-BODHIXL A commentary by Yisweswara Blia//a on the 
law-book called Mitaksliara. 

SU-BKAHMAi\^YA. A name of Karttikeya, god of war, 
used especially in the South. See Karttikeya. 

SU-CHAEU. A son of KfisliTia and Eukmi?ii. 

SU-DAR>SAjS"A a name of Kr/sh?ia's chakra or discus 
weapon. See Yajra-nabha. 

SUDAS. a king who frequently appears in the i?/g- veda, 
and at whose court the rival ^I'shis Yasish/ha and Yiswamitra 
are represented as living. He was famous for his sacrifices. 

SU-DESHXA. Son of K?7'shwa and Rukmi?ii, 

,S'U-DESHiSrA. 'Good-looking.' i. Y^ife of the Raja of 
Yira/a, the patron of the disguised Pa?zf/avas, and mistress of 
Draupadi. 2. Also the wife of Balin. 

SU-DHARMA, SU-DHARMAK The hall of Indra, " the 
unrivalled gem of princely courts," which lO'/shwa commanded 
Indra to resign to Ugrasena, for the assemblage of the race of 
Yadu. After the death of K?'/sh7ia it returned to Indra's 

aS'UDRA. The fourth or servile caste. See Yarwa. 

>S^DRAKA. A king who wrote the play called jMr/chchha- 
ka/i, ' the toy-cart,' in ten acts. 

SU-DYUM^A. Son of the j\Ianu Yaivaswata. At his birth 
he was a female, Ila, but was afterwards changed into a male and 
called Su-dyumna. Under the curse of iS'iva he again became 
Ha, who married Budha or Mercury, and was mother of Puru- 
ravas. By favour of Yisli?iu the male form was again recovered, 
and Su-dyumna became the father of three sons. This legend 
evidently has reference to the origin of the Lunar race of kings. 

SU-GRlYA. 'Handsome neck.' A monkey king who was 
dethroned by his brother Bfdin, but after the latter had been 
killed, Su-gaiva was re-installed by Rama as king at Kishkin- 
dliyii. He, with his adviser Hanuman and tlieir army of 
monkeys, were the allies of Rama in his war against Rava?w, in 
which he was wounded. He is said to have been son of the sun, 
and from his paternity he is called Ravi-nandana ajid by other 
similar names. He is described as being grateful, active in aiding 
his friends, and able to change his form at will. His wife's 
name was Ruma. 

SUHMA A country said to be east of Bengal. 


iSTJKA-SAPTATI. 'The seventy (tales) of a parrot.' This 
is the original of the Tuti-namah of the Persian, from which 
the Hindustani Tota-kahani was translated. 

>S'UKEA. The planet Yenus and its regent. ^S^ukra was son 
of Eh?7gu and priest of Bali and the Daityas (Daitya-giiru). He 
is also called the son of Kavi. His wife's name was /S'lisuma or 
/S'ata-parwa. His daughter Devayani married Yayati of the 
Lunar race, and her husband's infidelity induced ^ukra to curse 
him. ^S'ukra is identified with Usanas, and is author of a code 
of law. The relates that he went to AS'iva and asked 
for means of protecting the Asuras against the gods, and for 
obtaining his object he performed " a painful rite, imbibing the 
smoke of chaff with his head downwards for a thousand years." 
In his absence the gods attacked the Asuras and yish?m killed 
his mother, for which deed /S'ukra cursed him "to be born seven 
times in the world of men." ^S^ukra restored his mother to life, 
and the gods being alarmed lest ^S'ukra's penance should be 
accomplished, Indra sent his daughter JayantI to lure him from 
it. She waited upon him and soothed him, but he accomplished 
his penance and afterwards married her. ^ukra is known by 
his patronymic Bhargava, and also as Blmgu. He is also Kavi 
or Kavya, ' the poet.' The planet is called Asphujit, 'Ap^o^/V?j; 
Magha-bhava, son of Magha ; Shodasansu, ' having sixteen 
rays ; ' and /S'weta, 'the white.' 

SUKTA. AVedichymn. 

STJ-MANTRA. The chief counsellor of Raja Da-sa-ratha and 
friend of Rama. 

SXJ-MANTU. The collector of the hymns of the Atharva- 
veda ; he is said to have been a pupil of Yeda Yyasa, and to 
have acted under his guidance. 

iSUMBHA and NISHUMBHA. Two Asuras, brothers, 
who were killed by Durga. These brothers, as related in the 
Marka7i(ieya Purawa, were votaries of >S'iva, and performed severe 
penance for 5000 years in order to obtain immortality. AS'iva 
refused the boon, and they continued their devotions with such 
increased intensity for 800 years more, that the gods trembled 
for their power. By advice of Indra, the god of love, Kama, 
went to them with two celestial nymphs, Rambha and Tilottama, 
and they succeeded in seducing the two Asuras and holding them 
in the toils of sensuality for 5000 years. On recovering from their 


voliiptuoiTS a"berration they drove the nyinphs back to paradise 
and recommenced their penance. At the end of looo years 
A^iva blessed them " that in riches and strength they should 
excel the gods." In their exaltation they warred against the 
gods, who, in despair, appealed in succession to Brahma, A^ish?iu, 
and ^iva, but in vain. The latter advised them to apply to 
Durga, and they did so. She contrived to engage the Asuras in 
war, defeated their forces, slew their commanders, Chawc?a and 
MuTif/a, and finally killed them. See Sunda. 

SU-MEE,U. The mountain Meru, actual or personified. 

SU-MITRA. Wife of Dasa-ratha and mother of Lakshmawa 
and 6'atru-ghna. See Dasa-ratha. 

SU-MUKHA. ' Handsome face.' This epithet is used for 
Garu(ia and for the son of Garuc?a. 

/STJ^A^-aS'EPHAS. The legend of >S'una/i-sephas, as told in 
the Aitareya Brahma?ia, is as follows : — King Haris-chandra, of 
the race of Evshwaku, being childless, made a vow that if he 
obtained a son he would sacrifice him to Yaru^za. A son was 
borii who received the name of Kohita, but the father post- 
poned, under various pretexts, the fulfilment of his vow. Wlien 
at length he resolved to perform the sacrifice, Rohita refused 
to be the victim, and went out into the forest, where he lived 
for six years. He then met a poor Brahman Rkhi called 
AjTgartta, who had three sons, and Rohita purchased from 
Ajigartta for a hundred cows, the second son, named /S'unaA- 
sephas, to be the substitute for himself in the sacrifice. Varuwa 
approved of the substitute, and the sacrifice was about to be per- 
formed, the father receiving another hundred cows for binding 
his son to the sacrificial post, and a third hundred for agreeing 
to slaughter him. /Suna^-,9ephas saved himself by reciting verses 
in honour of different deities, and was received into the family of 
Vi.swamitra, who was one of the ofliciating priests. The Rrima- 
ya72a gives a different version of the legend. Ambarlsha, king 
of Ayodhya, was performing a sacrifice when Indra carried off the 
victim. The officiating priest represented that this loss could be 
atoned for only by the sacrifice of a human victim. The king, 
after a long search, found a Brahman itzshi named ii/chika, who 
had two sons, and the younger, *S'unaA-scplias, was then sold by 
his own consent for a hundred thousand cows, ten millions of gold 
pieces, and heaps of jewels. AS'una/i-sephas met with his mater- 


nal uncle, Viswamitra, who taught him two divine verses which 
he was to repeat when about to be sacrificed. As he was bound 
at the stake to be immolated, he celebrated the two gods Indra 
and Vish?iu with the excellent verses, and Indra, being pleased, 
bestowed upon him long life. He was afterwards called Deva- 
rata, and is said to have become son of Yiswamitra. The Maha- 
bharata and the PuraTias show some few variations. A series of 
seven hymns in the it^g-veda is attributed to /SunaA-sephas. See 
Muir's Texts, i. 355, 407, 413 ; Vishnu Furana, iv. 25 ; Midler's 
Sanskrit Literature, 408 ; Wilson's Big-veda, i. 60. 

SU-J^TAMAK Son of Ugrasena and brother of Kansa. He 
was king of the >S'urasenas. When Kansa was overpowered in 
battle by Knslma, Su-niiman went to succour him, but was en- 
countered and slain by Bala-rama. 

SU-NANDA. A princess of Chedi who befriended Dama- 
yanti when she was deserted by her husband. 

SUNDA. Sunda and Upasunda, of the Maha-bharata, were 
two Daityas, sons of iJ^isunda, for whose destruction the Apsaras 
Tilottama was sent down from heaven. They quarrelled for her, 
and killed each other. See /S'umbha. 

SU-PARiVAS. ' Fine-winged' " Beings of superhuman char- 
acter, as Garu6?a, and other birds of equally fanciful description ; 
one of those classes first created by the Brahmadikas, and in- 
cluded in the daily presentation of water to deceased ancestors, 
&c." — Wilson. 

SU-PARaS'WA. a fabulous bird in the Ramayarea. He was 
son of Sampati and nephew of Ja/ayus. 

SU-PRIYA. ' Very dear.' Chief of the Gandharvas. 

>S'URA. A Yadava king who ruled over the /Siirasenas at 
Mathura ; he was father of Vasu-deva and Kunti, and grand- 
father of Iv?'ish?za. 

SURA. Wine or spirituous liquor, personified as Sura-devi, 
a goddess or nymph produced at the churning of the ocean. 

SURABHI. The ' cow of plenty,' produced at the churning 
of the ocean, who granted every desire, and is reverenced as " the 
fountain of milk and curds. " See Kama-dhenu and NandinL 

SURAS. In the- Vedas, a class of beings connected with 
Siirya, the sun. The inferior deities who inhabit Swarga ; a 
god in general. According to some, the word is allied to swar, 
'heaven;' others think it to have sprung from the deriva- 


tiou assigned to asura, and as a-sura is said to signify ' not a 
god,' sura has come to mean 'god.' 

SU-KASA. A Rakshasi, mother of the Kiigas. ^^Hien Hanii- 
man was on his flight to Lanka against EavaTia, she tried to save 
her relative by swallowing Hanuman bodily. To avoid this 
Hanuman distended his body and continued to do so, while she 
stretched her mouth till it was a hundred leagues wide. Then 
he suddenly shrank up to the size of a thumb, darted through 
her, and came out at her right ear. 

aSURASEXAS. iN'ame of a people, the Suraseni of Arrian. 
Their capital was Mathura on the Yamuna, which Manu calls 

^RPA-]^AKHA. 'Having nails like winnowing-fans.' 
Sister of RavaTza, This Rakshasi admired the beauty of Rama 
and fell in love with him. When she made advances to Rama 
he referred her to Lakshmawa, and LakshmaTza in like manner 
sent her back to Rama. Enraged at this double rejection, she 
fell upon Sita, and Rama was obliged to interfere forcibly for the 
protection of his wife. He called out to LakshmaTza to disfigure 
the violent Rakshasi, and Lakshma^/?a cut off her nose and ears. 
She flew to her brothers for revenge, and this brought on the war 
between Rama and Ravawa. She descanted to Rava?ia on the 
beauty of Sita, and instigated his carrying her off*, and finally 
she cursed liim just before the engagement in which he was 

StJRYA. The sun or its deity. He is one of the three chief 
deities in the Yedas, as the great source of light and warmth, 
but the references to him are more poetical than precise. Some- 
times he is identical with Savit7'i and Aditya, sometimes he is 
distinct. " Sometimes he is called son of Dj'aus, sometimes of 
Aditi. In one passage, Ushas, the dawn, is his wife, in another 
he is called the child of the dawns ; he moves through the sky 
in a chariot drawn by seven ruddy horses or mares." Surya has 
several wives, but, according to later legends, his twin sons the 
Aswins, who are ever young and handsome and ride in a golden 
car as precursors of Ushas, the dawn, were born of a nymph 
called Aswini, from her having concealed herself in the form of 
a mare. In the Ramayawa and Purrmas, Surya is said to be the 
son of Kasyapa and Aditi, but in the Ramilyawa he is otherwise 
referred to as a son of Bralima. His wife was Sanjna, daughter 


of Yiswa-karma, and by her he had tliree children, the Manu 
Vaivaswata, Yama, and the goddess Yami, or the Yamuna 
river. His effulgence was so overpowering that his wife gave 
him Chhaya (shade) for a handmaid, and retired into the forest 
to devote herself to religion. While thus engaged, and in the 
form of a mare, the sun saw her and ajiproached her in the form 
of a horse. Hence sprang the two Aswins and Eevanta. Surya 
brought back his wife Sanjna to his home, and her father, the 
sage Yiiwa-karma, placed the luminary on his lathe and cut 
away an eighth of his effulgence, trimming him in every part 
except the feet. The fragments that were cut off fell blazing to 
the earth, and from them Yiswa-karma formed the discus of 
Yishmi, the trident of A^iva, the weapon of Kuvera, the lance of 
Ivarttikeya, and the weapons of the other gods. According to 
the Maha-bhiirata, Karwa was his illegitimate son by KuntT. He 
is also fabled to be the father of /Sani and the monkey chief Su- 
griva. The Manu Yaivaswata was father of Ikshwaku, and from 
him, the grandson of the sun, the Surya-vansa, or Solar race of 
kings, draws its orio;in. In the form of a horse Siirva commu- 
nicated the '\Yhite Yajur-veda to Yajnawalkya, and it was he 
who bestowed on Satrajit the Syamantaka gem. A set of terrific 
Rakshasas called Mandehas made an attack upon him and sought 
to devour him, but were dispersed by his light. According to 
the Yishmi Pura^ia he was seen by Sattrajita in "his proper 
form," " of dwarfish stature, with a body like burnished copper, 
and with slightly reddish eyes." Surya is represented in a chariot 
drawn by seven horses, or a horse with seven heads, surrounded 
with rays. His charioteer is Aru?ia or Yivaswat, and his city 
Yivaswati or BhaswatL There are temples of the sun, and he 
receives worship. The names and epithets of the sun are number- 
less. He is Savitn, ' the nourisher ; ' Yivaswat, ' the brilliant ; ' 
Bhaskara, ' light-maker ; ' Dina-kara, ' day-maker ; ' Arha-pati, 
' lord of day ; ' Loka-chakshuh, ' eye of the world ; ' Karma- 
sakshT, ' witness of the deeds (of men) ; ' Graha-raja, ' king of 
the constellations ; ' Gabhastiman, ' possessed of rays ; ' Sahasra- 
kira?za, ' having a thousand rays ; ' Yikarttana, ' shorn of his 
beams' (by Yiswa-karma); Marta?z^a, ' descended from M?ita?i6Za,' 
&c. Surya's wives are called Savarwa, Swati, and Maha-virya. 

SUR Y ATLANTA. 'The sun-gem.' A crystal supposed to 
be formed of condensed rays of the sun, and though cool to the 


touch, to give out heat in the sun's rays. There is a similar 
moon-stone. It is also called Dahanopala. See Chandra-kanta. 

SURYA SIDDHANTA. A celebrated work on astronomy, 
said to have been revealed by the sun (Siirya). It has been 
edited in the BiUiotheca Indica by Hall, and there are other 
editions. It has been translated by Whitney and Burgess. 

SURYA- YAN/SA. The Solar race. A race or lineage of 
Kshatriyas which sprank from Ikshwaku, grandson of the sun. 
Rama was of this race, and so were many other great kings and 
heroes. Many Rajputs claim descent from this and the other 
great hneage, the Lunar race. The Rana of Udaypur claims to 
be of the Surya-vansa, and the Jharejas of Cutch and Sindh 
assert a descent from the Chandra-vansa. There were two 
dynasties of the Solar race. The elder branch, which reigned at 
Ayodhya, descended from Ikshwaku through his eldest son, 
Yikukshi. The other dynasty, reigning at Mithila, descended 
from another of Ikshwaku's sons, named Nimi. The lists of 
these two dynasties on the opposite page are taken from the 
Yishwu Pura?^a. The lists given by other authorities show some 
discrepancies, but they agree in general as to the chief names. 

SU->S^ARMAN. A king of Tri-gartta, who attacked the Raja 
of Yira^a, and defeated him and made him prisoner, but Bhima 
rescued the Raja and made Su-5arman prisoner. 

SUSHENA. I. A son of K?-ishwa and Rukmim. 2. A phy- 
sician in the army of Rama, Avho brought the dead to life and 
performed other miraculous cures. 

>SUSHiVA. An Asura mentioned in the i^/g-veda as kiUed 
by Indra. 

SUaS'RUTA. a medical writer whose date is uncertain, but 
his work was translated into Arabic before the end of the eighth 
century. The book has been printed at Calcutta. There is a 
Latin translation by Heple* and one in German by Yullers. 

SUTA. ' Charioteer.' A title given to Kar??a. 

SU-TiKSHA^A. A hermit sage who dwelt in the Da/iiaka 
forest, and was visited by Riima and Sita. 

SUTRA. ' A thread or string.' A rule or aphorism. A verse 
expressed in brief and technical language, — a very favourite 
form among the Hindus of embodying and transmitting rules. 
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the Kalpa Sutras, relating to ritual; the Griliya Siitras, to 
domestic rites ; and the Samayacharika Sutras, to conventional 
usages. The Kalpa Sutras, having especial reference to the Yeda 
or /Sruti, are called ^Srauta ; the others are classed as Smarta, being 
derived from the Sm?-?ti. The Sutras generally are anterior to 
Manu, and are probably as old as the sixth century B.C. Several 
have been published in the Bihliotheca Indica. 

>S'UTUDRI. The river Satlej. See /S'ata-dm. 

SU-YAHU. A Rakshasa, son of Taraka. He was killed by 

SU-YELA. One of the three peaks of the mountain Tri- 
kii/a, on the midmost of which the city of Lanka was built. 

SU-Y0DHA:N'A. ' Fair fighter.' A name of Dur-yodliana. 

S WAD HA. 'Oblation,' Daughter of Daksha and Prasuti 
according to one statement, and of Agni according to another. 
She is connected with the Pitr/s or Manes, and is represented 
as wife of Kavi or of one class of Pitr/s, and as mother of 

SWAHA. 'Offering.' Daughter of Daksha and Prasuti. 
She was wife of Yahni or Fire, or of AbhimanT, one of the 

^SWA-PHALKA. Husband of Gandini and father of Akrura. 
He was a man of great sanctity of character, and where " he 
dwelt famine, plague, death, and other visitations were un- 
known." His presence once brought rain to the kingdom of 
Ka5i-raja, where it was much wanted. 

SWAR. See Yyah?-iti. 

SWARGA. The heaven of Indra, the abode of the inferior 
gods and of beatified mortals, supposed to be situated on Mount 
Meru. It is called also Sairibha, Misraka-vana, Tavisha, Tri- 
divam, Tri-pish/apam, and Urdhwa-loka. ISTames of heaven or 
2:)aradise in general are also used for it. 

SWAR-LOKA See Loka. 

SWAROCHISHA. Is^ame of the second Manu. See Manu. 

SWASTIKA. A mystical religious mark placed upon per- 
sons or things. It is in the form of a Greek cross with the ends 

bent round '^pfi 

SWAYAM-BHU. ' The self-existent' A name of Brahma, 
the creator. 


SWAYAM-BHUVA. A name of the first Manu (q.v.). 

aSWETA-DWIPA. ' The white island or continent' Colonel 
"VVilford attempted to identify it with Britain. 

/S'WETA-KETU. A sage who, according to the Maha-bharata, 
put a stop to the practice of married women consorting with 
other men, especially with Brahmans. His indignation was 
aroused at seeing a Brahman take his mother by the hand and 
invite her to go away with him. The husband saw this, and 
told his son that there was no ground of offence, for the practice 
had prevailed from time immemorial. /S'weta-ketu would not 
tolerate it, and introduced the rule by which a wife is forbidden 
to have intercourse with another man unless specially appointed 
by her husband to raise up seed to him. 

S"\yETA6'WATAEA. An Upanishad attached to the Yajur- 
veda. It is one of the most modern. Translated by Dr. Koer 
for the Bibliotheca Indica. 

aSYALA. ' A brother-in-law.' A Yadava prince who in- 
sulted the sage Gargya, and was the cause of his becoming the 
father of Kala-yavana, a great foe of Krisll?^a and the Yadava 

iS'YAMA. 'The black.' A name of diva's consort. See 

SYAMANTAKA. A celebrated gem given by the sun to 
Satrajita. " It yielded daily eight loads of gold, and dispelled 
all fear of portents, wild beasts, fire, robbers, and famine." But 
though it was an inexhaustible source of good to the virtuous 
wearer, it was deadly to a wicked one. Satrajita being afraid 
that Krish?2a would take it from him, gave it to his own brother, 
Prasena, but he, being a bad man, was killed by a lion, Jam- 
bavat, king of the bears, killed the lion and carried off the gem, 
but K?'zsh?ia, after a long conflict, took it from him, and restored 
it to Satrajita. Afterwards Satrajita was killed in his sleep 
by /S'ata-dlianwan, who carried off the gem. Being pursued by 
K?"ish?2a and Bala-rama, he gave the gem to Akriira and con- 
tinued his flight, but he was overtaken and killed by Kn*sh?ia 
alone. As K7*ish?ia did not bring back the jewel, Bala-rama 
suspected that he had secreted it, and consequently he upbraided 
him and parted from him, declaring that he would not be im- 
posed upon by perjuries. Akriira subsequently produced the 
gem, and it was claimed by K7'/sh7za, Bala-rama, and Satya- 


bhaina. After some contention it was decided that Akrura 
should keep it, and so " he moved about like the sun wearing a 
garland of light." 

aSYAYAaSWA. Son of Archananas. Both were Yedic itisliis. 
In a hymn he says, " /SasiyasI has given me cattle, comprising 
horses and cows and hundreds of sheep." The story told in 
explanation is that Ai^chananas, having seen the daughter of 
Raja Rathaviti, asked her in marriage for his son /S'yavaswa. The 
king was inclined to consent, but the queen objected that no 
daughter of their house had ever been given to any one less 
saintly than a Rklii. To qualify himself /S'yavaswa engaged in 
austerities and begged alms. Among others, he begged of >S'asI- 
yasl, wife of Raja Taranta. She took him to her husband, with 
whose permission she gave him a herd of cattle and costly orna- 
ments. The Raja also gave him whatever he asked for, and 
sent him on to his younger brother, Purumlllia. On his way he 
met the Maruts, and lauded them in a hymn, for which they 
made him a itishi. He then returned to Rathaviti, and received 
his daughter to wife. 

TA7)AKA. See Taraka. 

TAITTIRIYA. This term is applied to the Sanliita of the 
Black Yajur-veda. {See Yeda.) It is also applied to a Brah- 
ma7ia, to an Ara7^yaka, to an Upanishad, and a Pratisakhya of 
the same Yeda. All these are printed, or are in course of print- 
ing, in the Bibliotheca Inclica, and of the last there is a transla- 
tion in that serial. 

TAKSHA, TAKSHAKA. Son of Bharata, and nephew of 
Rama-chandra. The sovereign of Gandhara, who resided at and 
probably founded Taksha-5lla or Taxila, in the Pt^njab. 

TAKSHAKA. ' One who cuts off; a carpenter.' A name of 
Yi.swa-karma. A serpent, son of Kadru, and chief of snakes. 

TAKSHA-zSlLA. A city of the Gandharas, situated in the 
Panjab, It w^as the residence of Taksha, son of Bharata and 
nephew of Rama-chandra, and jDerhaps took its name from him. 
It is the Taxila of Ptolemy and other classical writers. Arrian 
describes it as " a large and wealthy city, and the most populous 
between the Indus and Ilydaspes." It was three days' journey 
east of tlie Indus, and General Cunningham has found its 
remains at Sahh-dharl, one mile north-east of Kala-klsarai. 

TALAJANGHA. Son of Jaya-dhwaja, king of Avanti, of 


the Hailiaya race, and founder of the Tala-jangha tribe of Hai- 
hayas. See Haihaya. 

TALA-KETU. ' Palm-banner.' An appellation of Bhishma; 
also of an enemy killed by Kr ish?ia. Eala-rama had the synonym- 
ous appellation Tala-dhwaja. 

TALAM. The throne of Durga. 

TALAVAKx\RA. A name of the Kena Upanishad. 

TAMASA. The fourth Manu. See Manu. 

T AM AS A. The river " Tonse," rising in the i?iksha moun- 
tains, and falling into the Ganges. 

TAMRA-LIPTA. The country immediately west of the Bha- 
girathi ; Tamlook, Hijjali, and Midnapore. Its inhabitants are 
called Tamra-liptakas. 

TAMRA-PARiVA, TALIRA-PARATI. Ceylon, the ancient 
Taprobane. There was a town in the island called Tamra-parwl, 
from which the whole island has been called by that name. 

TAiV7)U. One of /S'iva's attendants. He was skilled in music, 
and invented the dance called Tawt?ava. See ^Siva. 

TA7V"i)YA, TAiVZ)AKA. The most important of the eight 
Brahmawas of the Sama-veda. It has been published in the 
Bihliotheca hidica. 

T ANTRA. ' Rule, ritual.' The title of a numerous class of 
religious and magical works, generally of later date than the 
Pura?zas, and representing a later development of religion, 
although the worship of the female energy had its origin at an 
earlier period. The chief pecuHarity of the Tantras is the pro- 
minence they give to the female energy of the deity, his active 
nature being personified in the person of his ^Sakti, or wife. 
There are a few Tantras which make Vish?m's wife or Radha 
the object of devotion, but the great majority of them are 
devoted to one of the manifold forms of Devi, the ^Sakti of jS'iva, 
and they are commonly written in the form of a dialogue between 
these two deities. Devi, as the ^S'akti of /S'iva, is the especial 
energy concerned with sexual intercourse and magical powers, 
and these are the leading topics of the Tantras. There are five 
requisites for Tantra worship, the five Makaras or five m's — (i.) 
Madya, wine; (2.) Mansa, flesh; (3.) Matsya, fish; (4.) Mudra, 
parched grain and mystic gesticulations ; (5.) Maithuna, sexual 
intercourse. Each ^S'akti has a twofold nature, white and black, 
gentle and ferocious. Thus Uma and Gauri are gentle forms of 


the ASakti of 5iva, while Diirga and Kali are fierce forms. The 
>Saktas or worshippers of the 5aktis are divided into two classes, 
Dakshinacharis and Vamacharis, the right-handed and the left- 
handed. The worship of the right-hand >Saktas is comparatively 
decent, but that of the left hand is addressed to the fierce forms 
of the /S'aktis, and is most licentious. The female principle is 
worsliipped, not only symbolically, but in the actual woman, 
and promiscuous intercourse forms part of the orgies. Tantra 
worship prevails chiefly in Bengal and the Eastern provinces. 


TAP ATI. The river Tapti personified as a daughter of the 
Sun by Chhaya. She was mother of Kuru by Samvarawa. 

TARA. Wife of the monkey king Balin, and mother of 
Angada. After the death of Balin in battle she was taken to 
wife by his brother, Su-griva. 

TARA, TARAKA. Wife of Bnhaspati. According to the 
Pura/ias, Soma, the moon, carried her off, which led to a great 
war between the gods and the Asuras. Brahma put an end to 
the war and restored Tarii, but she was delivered of a child 
which she declared to be the son of Soma, and it was named 
Budha. See Brzliaspati. 

TARAKA. Son of A^ajranaka. A Daitya whose austerities 
made him formidable to the gods, and for whose destruction 
Skanda, the god of war, was miraculously born. 

TARAKA. A female Daitya, daughter of the Yaksha Su-ketu 
or of the demon Sunda, and mother of Maricha. She was 
changed into a Rakshasi by Agastya, and lived in a forest called 
by her name on the Ganges, opposite the confluence of the Sarju, 
and she ravaged all the country round. Yiswamitra desired 
Rama-chandra to kill her, but he was reluctant to kill a woman. 
He resolved to deprive her of the power of doing harm, and cut 
off her two arms. Lakslima?ia cut off her nose and ears. She, 
by the power of sorcery, assailed Rama and Lakshma?ia with a 
fearful shower of stones, and at the earnest command of Yiswa- 
mitra, the former killed her with an arrow. — Ramdyana. 

TARAKA-MAYA. The war which arose in consequence of 
Soma, the moon, having carried off Tara, the wife of Brihaspati. 

TARKSIIYA. An ancient mythological personification of 
tlie sun in the form of a horse or bird. In later times the name 
is applied to Garu6?a. 


TATWA SAMASA. A text-book of the Sankliya pliilo- 
sopliy, attributed to Kapila himself. 

TELINGA. The Telugu country, stretching along the coast 
from Orissa to Madras. 

TILOTTAMA, Name of an Apsaras. She was originally a 
Brahman female, but for the offence of bathing at an improper 
season she was condemned to be born as an Apsaras, for the 
purpose of bringing about the mutual destruction of the two 
demons Sunda and Upasunda. 

TIMIN, TIMIN-GILA. The Timin is a large fabulous fish. 
The Timin-gila, 'swallower of the Timin,' is a still larger one; 
and there is one yet larger, the Timin-gila-gila or Timi-timin-gila, 
'swallowerof the Timin-gila.' Cf. the Arabic Tinnin, sea-serpent. 
It is also called Samudraru. 

TISHYA. The Kali Yuga or fourth age. 

TITTIRI. ' A partridge.' An ancient sage who was the pupil 
of Yaska, and is an authority referred to by Pamni. Some attri- 
bute the Taittirlya Sanhita of the Yajur-veda to him. See Yeda. 

TOSALAKA. An athelete and boxer who was killed by 
Iv7*fsh?ia in the public arena in the presence of Kansa. 

TRAIGAETTAS. The people of Tri-gartta (q.v.). 

TRASADASYU. A royal sage and author of hymns. Ac- 
cording to SayaTza, he was son of Purukutsa. When Purukutsa 
was a prisoner, "his queen propitiated the seven itishis to obtain 
a son who might take his father's place. They advised her to 
worship Indra and Yaruwa, in consequence of which Trasadasyu 
was born." He was renowned for his generosity. According to 
the Bhagavata Pura?^a he was father of Purukutsa. 

TRETA YUGA. The second age of the world, a period of 
1,296,000 years. See Yuga. 

TRI-BHUVANA, TRI-LOKA. The three worlds, Swarga, 
Bhiimi, Patala — heaven, earth, and helL 

TRI-DAaSA. 'Three times ten, thirt}^' In round numbers, 
the thirty-three deities — twelve Adityas, eight Vasus, eleven 
Rudras, and two Aswins. 

TRI-GARTTA. 'The country of the three strongholds,' 
lately identified with the northern hiU state of Kotocli, which is 
still called by the people "the country of Traigart." — Wilson. 
General Cunningham, however, clearly identifies it with the 
Jalandhar Doab and Kangra. 


TRI-JATA. An amiable Eaksliasi wlio "befriended Sita 
when she was the captive of EavaTia in Ceylon. She is also 
called Dhanna-jna. 

TEI-KAiV7)A aS'ESHA A Sanskri't vocabulary in three 
chapters, composed as a supplement to the Amara-kosha. It 
has been printed in India. 

TRI-KUJA. 'Three peaks.' i. The mountain on which 
the city of Lanka was built. 2. A mountain range running 
south from Meru. 

TRI-LOCHANA. ' Three-eyed/ ?'.g., iS'iva. The Maha-bhSrata 
relates that the third eye burst from /Siva's forehead with a great 
flame when his wife playfully placed her hands over his eyes 
after he had been engaged in austerities in the Himalaya. This 
eye has been very destructive. It reduced Kama, the god of 
love, to ashes, 

TRI-MURTI. 'Triple form.' The Hindu triad. This was 
foreshadowed in the Yedic association of the three gods Agni, 
Vayu, and Surya. The triad consists of the gods Brahma, A^iva, 
and Yish?iu, the representatives of the creative, destructive, 
and preservative principles. Brahma is the embodiment "of 
the Rajo-guwa, the quality of passion or desire, by which the 
world was caUed into being ; ^Siva is the embodied Tamo-guwa, 
the attribute of darkness or wrath, and the destructive fire by 
which the earth is annihilated ; and Yish/iu is the embodied 
Satwa-gu?ia, or property of mercy and goodness by which the 
world is preserved. The three exist in one and one in three, as 
the Veda is divided into three and is yet but one ; and they 
are all Asrita, or comprehended within that one being who is 
Parama or ' supreme,' Guhya or ' secret,' and Sarvatma, ' the soul 
of all things.' " — JVilson. 

The Padma Vumna, which is a Yaish^^ava work and gives the 
supremacy to Yishwu, says, " In the beginning of creation, the 
great Yislmu, desirous of creating the whole world, became three- 
fold : creator, preserver, and destroyer. In order to create this 
world, the supreme spirit produced from the right side of his 
body himself as Brahma ; then in order to preserve the world he 
produced from the left side of his body Yislmu ; and in order to 
destroy the world he produced from the middle of his body the 
eternal ^S'iva. Some worship Brahma, others Yisli?m, others /Siva; 
but Yishwu, one yet threefold, creates, preserves, and destroys, 


therefore let the pious make no difference between the three." 
The representation of the Tri-murti is one body with tliree 
heads : in the middle Brahma, on the right Yish?iu, and on the 
left /Siva. The worship of Brahma is almost extinct, but YisliTiu 
and /Siva receive unbounded adoration from their respective 
followers, and each is elevated to the dignity of the supreme 
beinsf. * 

Tii?/iVAYARTTA. A demon who assumed the form of a 
whirlwind and carried off the infant K?*ish?ia, but was over- 
powered and killed by the child. 

TRI-PADA. 'Three-footed.' Fever personified as having 
three feet, symbolising the three stages of fever — heat, cold, and 

TRI-PURA. ' Triple city.' i. According to the Hari-vansa 
it was aerial, and was burnt in a war Avith the gods. 2. A name 
of the demon Ba?2a, because he received in gift three cities from 
/Siva, Brahma, and Yishmi. He was killed by /Siva. His name 
at full length is Tripurasura. The name is also applied to /Siva. 

TRI-PURI. The capital city of the Chedis, now traceable 
in the insignificant village of Tewar, on the banks of the JSTar- 

TRI-^ANKU. See Satya-^Tata. 

TRI-/SIRAS. ' Three-headed.' i. In the Yedas, a son of 
Twash/ri; also called Yiswa-riipa. 2. Fever personified as a 
demon with three heads, typical of the tliree stages of heat, cold, 
and sweating. 3. Kuvera, god of wealth. 4. An Asura killed 
by Yishwu. 5. A son or a friend of Ravawa killed by Rama. 

TRI-^tJLA. ' A trident.' The trident of ,Siva. 

TRITA, TRITA APTYA. A minor deity mentioned occa- 
sionally in the ii%-veda, and generally in some relation to Indra. 
Thus " Indra broke through the defences of Yala, as did Trita 
through the coverings (of the well)." In explanation of this and 
similar allusions, a legend is told by the commentator to the 
effect, that Ekata, Dwita, and Trita (first, second, and third), 
were three men produced in water by Agni, for the purpose of 
rubbing off the remains of an oblation of clarified butter. Agni 
threw the cinders of the offerings into water, and from them 
sprang the three brothers, who, from their origin in water (aj?), 
were called Aptyas. Trita w^ent one day to draw water from a 
well and fell into it. The Asuras then heaped coverings over 


the mouth of it to prevent his getting out, but he broke through 
them with ease. The Nitl-manjari tells the story differently. 
Ekata, Dwita, and Trita were travelling in a desert and suffered 
from thirst. They came to a well from which Trita drew water 
and gave it to his brothers. In order to appropriate his pro- 
perty the two brothers threw him into the well, placed a cart- 
wheel over it, and there left him. Trita prayed earnestly to the 
gods, and with their help he escaped. 

Ti?/TSUS. A people frequently mentioned in the Yeda. 
Saya?za says they were " priests who were Vasishifha's disciples." 
Vasish/ha himself is said to have belonged to the tribe. 

TRI-YEiYl. ' The triple braid.' A name of Prayaga. It is 
so called because the Ganges and Jumna here unite, and the 
Saraswati is suppased to join them by an underground channel 

TRI-YIKKAMA. A name of Yish/iu used in the itig-veda, 
and referring to three steps or paces which he is represented as 
taking. These steps, according to the opinion of a commentator, 
are "the three periods of the sun's course, — his rising, culminating, 
and setting. " An old commentator says, ' ' Yislmu stepped by sepa- 
rate strides over the whole universe. In three places he planted 
his step, one step on the earth, a second in the atmosphere, and 
a third in the sky, in the successive forms of Agni, Yayu, and 
Surya." The great commentator Saya?ia, a comparatively modern 
A\Titer, understands these steps as being the three steps of Yishnu 
in the Yamana or dwarf incarnation, and no doubt they were 
the origin of this fiction. 

TRYAMBAKA. ' Three-eyed,' or ' Having three wives or 
sisters.' i. A name of /Siva. 2. One of the Rudras. 3. Name 
of one of the twelve great Lingas. See Linga. 

TRYARUYA. A king, son of Trivrishan, of the race of 
Ikshwaku. He was riding in a chariot which Yrisa, his puro- 
hita or family priest, was driving. The vehicle passed over and 
killed a Brahman boy, and a question arose as to who was 
responsible for the death. The question was referred to an 
assembly of the Ikshwiikus, and they decided it against 
The purohit by his prayers then restored the boy to life, and 
being very angry with them for what he deemed partiality, " fire 
henceforth ceased to perforui its functions in their dwellings, 
and the cooking of their food and other offices ceased." The 
Ikshwakus appeased him, and upon his prayers the use of 


fire was restored to them. This story is told by Sayawa in 
elucidation of a Yedic allusion, and he quotes the /Satyayana 
Brahma?ia as the authority. 

TUKIIARAS. A northern tribe from whom Tukharistan 
obtained its name. They are probably the tribe of /S'akas, by 
whom Bactria was taken from the Greeks. They are also called 

TULADHARA, A trading Vaisya mentioned in the Maha- 
bharata as very virtuous and learned, to whom Jajali, an 
arrogant Brahman, was sent by a voice from the sky to learn 

TULUNGA. Tuluva, or the country where the Tulu lan- 
guage is spoken, on the western coast below Goa. 

TUMBURU. Name of a Gandharva. See Viradha. 

TUA7)A. A demon slain by Nahusha, the son of Ayus. 
He had a son named Vituw^ia, who was killed by Bhagavati 

TURANGA-VAKTRA. ' Horse-faced people.' See Kinnaras. 

TURUSHKAS. Turks; the people of Turkistan. The 
Indo-Scythians, who, under Kanishka and other kings of the 
race, held Northern India. 

TURYA^A, TURYA^U. Son of Yayati by DevaySni. He 
refused to bear the curse of premature decrepitude passed upon 
his father, and so his father cursed him that his posterity should 
" not possess dominion." His father gave him a part of his 
kingdom, but after some generations, his line merged into that 
of his brother Puru, who bore for a time the curse passed upon 
his father. 

TUSHARA. See Tukhara. 

TUSHITAS. A ga?ia or class of subordinate deities, thirty- 
six in number, but sometimes reduced to twelve, and identified 
with the Adityas. 

TWASH Ti?/. In the i?zg-veda this deity is the ideal artist, 
the divine artisan, the most skilful of workmen, who is versed 
in all wonderful and admirable contrivances, and corresponds in 
many respects with Hephaistos and Yulcan. He sharpens and 
carries the great iron axe, and he forges the thunderbolts of 
Indra. He is the beautiful, skilful worker, the omniform, the 
archetype of all forms, the vivifier and the bestower of long life. 
He imparts generative power and bestows offspring. He forms 


husband and wife for each other, even from the womb. He 
develops the seminal germ in the womb, and is the shaper of 
all forms, human and animal. He has generated a strong man, 
a lover of the gods, a swift horse, and has created the wdiole 
world. As the >S'atapatha Brahma?ia expresses it, " He has pro- 
duced and nourishes a great variety of creatures ; all worlds (or 
beings) are his, and are known to him ; he has given to heaven 
and earth and to all things their forms." He created Brahmanas- 
pati above all creatures, and generated Agni along with heaven 
and earth, the waters and the Bh?-igus. He is master of the 
universe, the first-born protector and leader, and knows the 
region of the gods. He is supplicated to nourish the worshipper 
and protect his sacrifice. He is the bestower of blessings, and 
is possessed of abundant wealth, and grants prosperity. He is 
asked, like other gods, to take pleasure in the hymns of his 
worshippers and to grant them riches. He is associated with 
the iiibhus, and is represented as sometimes envying and some- 
times admiring their skill He is represented as being occa- 
sionally in a state of hostihty w^ith Indra, and he had a son 
named Yiswa-riipa (omniform) or Tri-siras, who had three heads, 
six eyes, and three mouths, who was especially obnoxious to 
Indra, and was slain by him. He had a daughter, Sara?iyu, 
whom he married to Vivaswat, and she was the mother of the 
Aswins. In the Purawas Twashi!?'i is identified with Viswa- 
karman, the artisan of the gods, and sometimes also with Praja- 
pati. One of the Adityas and one of the Rudras bear this name, 
as also did a prince descended from Bharata. 

UCHCHAIiT-iSEAVAS. The model horse. The white 
horse of Indra, produced at the churning of the ocean. It is 
fed on ambrosia, and is held to be the king of horses. 

TJCHCHHISHTA. The remains of a sacrifice, to which 
divine powers are ascribed by the i^ig-veda. 

UDAYA-GIRI PAEVATA. The eastern mountain from 
behind which the sun rises. 

UDAYANA. I. A prince of the Lunar race, and son of Sahas- 
ranika, who is the hero of a popular story. He was king of 
A^atsa, and is commonly called Yatsa-raja. His capital was 
Kausiimbi. Yasava-dattii, princess of Ujjayini, saw him in a 
dream and fell in love with him. He was decoyed to that city, 
and there kept in captivity by the king, Cha?Wasena ; but when 


he was set at liberty by the minister, he carried off Vasava-datta 
from her father and a rival suitor. 2. A name of Agastya. 

UDDHA Y A. The friend and counsellor of KnsliTia. Ac- 
cording to some he was Knsh?za's cousin, being son of Deva- 
bhaija, the brother of Vasu-deva. He was also called Pavana- 

UDGATJ?/. A priest whose duty it is to chaunt the prayers 
or hymns from the Sama-veda. 

UDKANKA. Haris-chandra's aerial city. See Saubha. 

UGRA. A name of Rudra, or of one of his manifestations. 
See Rudra. 

UGRASENA. A king of Mathura, husband of Karm, and 
father of Kansa and Devaka. He was deposed by Kansa, but 
K?'?sh?za, after killing the latter, restored Ugrasena to the tlirone. 
See Kansa. 

UJJAYAlSri. The Greek 0^j^v?j and the modern Oujein or 
Ujjein. It was the capital of Yikramaditya and one of the 
seven sacred cities. Hindu geographers calculate their longitude 
from it, making it their first meridian. 

ULIJIvA. ' An owl ' Son of Kitava. He was king of a 
country and people of the same name. He was an ally of the 
Kauravas, and acted as their envoy to the PawcZavas. 

ULUPl. A daughter of Kauravya, Raja of the !N"agas, 
with whom Arjuna contracted a kind of marriage. She was 
nurse to her step-son, Babhru-vahana, and had great influence 
over him. Accordins^ to the Yish?iu Pura/ia she had a son 
named Iravat. 

TJMA. 'Light.' A name of the consort of iS'iva. The 
earliest known mention of the name is in the Kena IJpanishad, 
where she appears as a mediatrix between Brahma and the other 
gods, and seems to be identified with Yach. See Devi. 

UMA-PATI. ' Husband of Uma,' that is to say, ^S'iva. 

UPANISHADS. 'Esoteric doctrine.' The third division 
of the Yedas attached to the Brahmana portion, and forming 
part of the ^S'ruti or revealed word. The Upanishads are generally 
written in prose with interspersed verses, but some are wholly in 
verse. There are about 150 of these works, probably even more. 
They are of later date than the BrahmaTzas, but it is thought that 
the oldest may date as far back as the sixth century b.c. The 
object of these treatises is to ascertain the mystic sense of the 


text of the Veda, and so they enter into such abstruse questions 
as the orgin of the universe, the nature of the deity, the nature 
of soul, and the connection of mind and matter. Thus they con- 
tain the beginnings of that metaphysical inquiry which ended 
in the fuU development of Hindu pliilosophy. The Upanishads 
have " one remarkable peculiarity, the total absence of any 
Bralimanical exclusiveness in their doctrine. They are evidently 
later than the older Sanhitas and Brahmawas, but they breathe 
an entirely different spirit, a freedom of thought unknown in 
any earlier work except the i?ig-veda hymns themselves. The 
great teachers of the higher knowledge and Brahmans are con- 
tinually represented as going to Kshatriya kings to become their 
pupils." — Professor Cornell. The i?/g-veda has the Upanishad 
called Aitareya attached to the Aitareya BrahmaTza. The 
Taittiriya Sanhita of the Yajur has an Upanishad of the same 
name. The Vajasaneyi Sanhita has the Isa, and attached to 
the iS'atapatha Brahma??a it has the B?-ihad Ara?iyaka, which is 
the most important of them. The Sama-veda has the Kena and 
Chhandogya. All these have been translated into English. The 
Atharva-veda has the Ka/ha, Prasna, Muw^Zaka, Mandukya, and 
others, altogether fifty-two in number. These are the most im- 
portant of the Upanishads. Many of the Upanishads have been 
l^rinted, and several of them translated in the Bibliotheca Indica, 
and by Foley. There is a catalogue by Miiller in the Zeitschrift 
des D. M. G., vol. xix. 

UPAPLAVYA. Matsya, the capital of the king of Vira/a. 

UPA-PURAiVAS. Secondary or subordinate Pura?ias. See 

UPARICHARA. A Yasu or demigod, who, according to the 
Maha-bharata, became king of Chedi by command of Indra. He 
had five sons by his wife ; and by an Apsaras, named Adrika, 
condemned to live on earth in the form of a fish, he had a son 
named Matsya (fish), and a daughter, Satya-vatI, who was the 
mother of Yyasa. 

UPAaSRUTI. a supernatural voice which is heard at night 
revealing the secrets of the future. 

UPASUNDA. A Daitya, son of Nisunda, brother of Sunda, 
and father of Muka. See Sunda. 

UPA- VEDAS. Subordinate or inferior Yedas. These are 
sciences which have no connection whatever with the Svuti or 


revealed Yeda. They are four in number — (i.) Ayur-veda, 
medicine; (2.) Gandharva-veda, music and dancing; (3.) Dha- 
nur-veda, archery, military science; (4.) Sthapatya-veda, archi- 

TJPENDKA. A title given to Iv?-tsh7ia by Indra. 

URAGAS. The ISTagas or serpents inhabiting Patala. 

tJRMILA. Daughter of Janaka, sister of Sita, wife of Laksli- 
mawa, and mother of Gandharvi Somada. 

URVA. Father of ^ichika and grandfather of Janiad-agni. 

UEYA/S'L A celestial nymph, mentioned first in the Big- 
veda. The sight of her beauty is said to have caused the gene- 
ration, in a peculiar way, of the sages Agastya and Yasish/ha by 
jNIitra and Yaru?ia. A verse says, " And thou, Yasish/ha, art 
a son of Mitra and Yaruwa." She roused the anger of these two 
deities and incurred their curse, through which she came to 
live upon the earth, and became the wife or mistress of Purii- 
ravas. The story of her amour with Purii-ravas is first told in 
the >S'atapatha Era,hmawa. The loves of Purii-ravas, theYikrama 
or hero, and of Urvasi, the nymph, are the subject of Kali- 
dasa's drama called Yikramorvasi. See Puru-ravas. 

U/S'ANAS. I. The planet Yenus or its regent, also called 
^ukra (q.v.). 2. Author of a Dharma-sastra or law-book. 

USHA. A Daitya princess, daughter of Ba?2a and grand- 
daughter of Bali. She is called also Priti-jusha. She fell in 
love with a prince whom she saw in a dream, and was anxious 
to know if there were such a person. Her favourite companion, 
Chitra-lekha, drew the portraits of many gods and men, but 
Uslia's choice fell upon Aniruddha, son of Pradyumna and 
grandson of Kfish?ia. Chitra-lekha, by her magic power, brought 
Aniruddha to Usha. Her father, on hearing of the youth's 
being in the palace, endeavoured to kill him, but he defended 
himself successfully. Bawa, however, kept Aniruddha, "binding 
him in serpent bonds." Kn'sh??a, Pradyumna, and Bala-rama 
went to the rescue ; and although BaTza was supported by /S'iva 
and by Skanda, god of war, his party was defeated, and Aniruddha 
was carried back to Dwaraka with his wife tJsha. 

USHAS. The dawn, the ^uJ; of the Greeks and Aurora of 
the Latins. She is the daughter of heaven and sister of the 
Adityas. This is one of the most beautiful myths of the Yedas, 
and is enveloped in poetry. Uslias is the friend of men, she smiles 


like a young wife, she is the daughter of the sky, she goes to 
every house, she thinks of the dwellings of men, she does not 
despise the small or the great, she brings wealth ; she is always 
the same, immortal, divine, age cannot touch her ; she is the 
young goddess, but she makes men grow old. " All this," adds 
Max Miiller, " may be simply allegorical language. But the 
transition from Devi, ' the bright,' to Devi, the goddess, is so 
easy ; the daughter of the sky assumes so readily the same per- 
sonality which is given to the sky, Dyaus, her father, that we can 
only guess whether, in every passage, the poet is speaking of a 
bright apparition or of a bright goddess, of a natural vision or a 
visible deity. " She is called Aliana and Dyotana, ' the illumer. ' 

USHMAPAS. The Pitr/s or a class of Pitns (q.v.). 

TJ>S'IJ. Mentioned in the it/g-veda as the mother of Kak- 
shivat. A female servant of the queen of the Kalinga Raja. 
The king desired his queen to submit to the embraces of the 
sage Dirgha-tamas, in order that he might beget a son. The 
queen substituted her bondmaid Uiij. The sage, cognisant of 
the deception, sanctified Usij, and begat upon her a son, Kak- 
shivat, who, through his affiliation by the king, was a Kshatriya, 
but, as the son of Dirgha-tamas, was a Brahman. This story is 
told in the Maha-bharata and some of the Pura/^as. 

UTATHYA. A Brahman of the race of Angiras, who 
married Bhadra, daughter of Soma, a woman of great beauty. 
The god Yaru?ia, who had formerly been enamoured of her, car- 
ried her off from Utathya's hermitage, and would not give her 
up to Xarada, who was sent to bring her back. Utathya, greatly 
enraged, drank up all the sea, still VaruTia would not let her go. 
At the desire of Utathya, the lake of Varuwa was then dried up 
and the ocean swept away. The saint then addressed himself to 
the countries and to the river : — " SaraswatI, disappear into the 
deserts, and let this land, deserted by thee, become impure." 
" After the country had become dried up, Varu7?a submitted 
himself to Utathya and brought back Bhadra. Tlie sage was 
pleased to get back his wife, and released both the world and 
VaruT^a from their sufferinfj;s." 

UTKALA. The modern Orissa. It gives its name to one of 
the five northern nations of Bnlhmans. See Bra,hman. 

UTTAjMAUJAS. a warrior of great strength, and an ally 
of the Pa7i(iavas. 


UTTAXA-PAD. 'Outstretched, supine.' In tlie Yedas, a 
peculiar creative source from which the earth sprang. Su})- 
posed to refer to the posture of a woman in parturition. 

UTTAXA-PADA. A son of Manu and /S'ata-rupa. By his 
wife Su-nrita he had four sons, Dhruva, Kirtiman, Ayushman, 
and Yasu. Some of the Pura?zas gave him another wife, Su-ruchi, 
and a son, Uttama. Bee Dhruva. 

UTTAEA (mas.), UTTARA (fern.). A son and daughter of 
the Raja of Yira/a. Uttara was killed in battle by /Salya. The 
daughter married Abhimanyu, son of Arjuna. 

UTTARA-KURU. A region lying far to the north. {Bee 
Jambu-dwipa.) (Plural.) The inhabitants of this region. 

UTTARA MiMANSA. A school of philosophy. See Darsana. 

UTTARA-NAISHADA-CHARITA. A poem on the life 
of Nala, king of Kishada, written about the year 1000 a.d. by 
/S'ri Harsha, a celebrated sceptical philosopher. It has been 
printed in the Bihllotheca Indica. 

UTTARA-RAMA-CHARITA. ' The later chronicle of Rama. 
A drama by Bhava-bhiiti on the latter part of Rama's life. The 
second part of King Rama, as the Maha-vira-charita is the first. 
The drama is based on the Uttara Ka?i(ia of the Rrimaya?ia, 
and quotes two or three verses from that poem. It was pro- 
bably written about the beginning of the eighth century. It has 
been translated in blank verse by Wilson, and more literally by 
Professor C. H. Tawney. There are several editions of the text. 

YA. A name of YaruTza ; also name of his dwelling. 

YACH. ' Speech.' In the i^ig-veda, Yach appears to be the 
personification of speech by whom knowledge was communicated 
to man. Thus she is said to have " entered into the i^^'shis," 
and to make wdiom she loves terrible and intelligent, a priest 
and a itishi. She was " generated by the gods," and is called 
" the divine Yach," " queen of the gods," and she is described 
as "the melodious cow who milked forth sustenance and water," 
"who yields us nourishment and sustenance." The Brahmawas 
associate her with Prajapati in the work of creation. In the 
Taittirlya BrahmaTZ-a she is called " the mother of the Yedas," 
and " the wife of Indra, who contains within herself all worlds." 
In the 5'atapatha Brahmawa she is represented as entering into 
a sexual connection with Prajapati, who, " being desirous of 
creating, connected himself with various spouses," and among 


them, " through his mind, with Vach," from whom "he created 
the waters ; " or, as this last sentence is differently translated, 
" He created the waters from the world [in the form] of speech 
(Vach)." In the Kathaka Ui^anishad this idea is more distinctly- 
formulated : — " Prajripati was this universe. Yach was a second 
to him. He associated sexually with her ; she became pregnant ; 
she departed from him ; she produced these creatures ; she again 
entered into Prajapati." 

The Aitareya Brahma?ia and the ^Satapatha Brahma?ia have a 
story of the Gandharvas having stolen the soma juice, or, as one 
calls it, " King Soma," and that as the Gandharvas were fond of 
women, Yach was, at her own suggestion, "turned into a female" 
by the gods and ii/shis, and went to recover it from them. 

In the Atharva-veda she is identified with Yiraj, and is the 
daughter of Kama (desire). " That daughter of thine, Kama, 
is called the cow, she whom sages denominate Yach- Yiraj." 

The Maha-bharata also calls her " the mother of the Yedas," 
and says, " A voice derived from Brahma entered into the ears 
of them all ; the celestial Saraswati was then produced from the 
heavens." Here and " in the later mythology, Saraswati was 
identified with Yach, and became under different names the 
spouse of Brahma and the goddess of Avisdom and eloquence, and 
is invoked as a muse," generally under the name of Saraswati, 
but sometimes as Yach. 

The Bhagavata Purawa recognises her as " the slender and 
enchanting daughter " of Brahma, for whom he had a passion, 
and from whom mankind was produced, that is the female Yiraj. 
{See Yiraj and >S'ata-rripa.) Saraswati, as wife of Brahma and 
goddess of wisdom, represents perhaps the union of power and 
intelligence which was supposed to operate in the work of crea- 
tion. According to the Padma Purawa, Yach was daughter of 
Daksha, wife of Ka^yapa, and mother of the Gandharvas and 

YADAYA, YAZ)AYANALA Tlie submarine fire which 
" devours the water of the ocean," causing it to throw off the 
vapours which are condensed into rain and snow. The word is 
also written YacZava and BacZava. See Aurva. 

YAHANA. 'A vehicle.' Most of the gods are represented as 
having animals as their vjlhanas. Brahma has tlie Hansa, swan 
or goose ; Yish/m has Garuf/a, half eagle, half man ; /S'iva, the 


"bull iN^andi ; India, an elephant ; Yama, a buffalo ; Karttikeya, 
a peacock ; Kama-deva, the marine monster Makara, or a parrot ; 
Agni, a ram ; VaruTia, a fish ; Ganesa, a rat ; Vayu, an antelope ; 
/Sani, or Saturn, a vulture ; Durga, a tiger. 

VAHNI Fire. See Agni. 

YAHUKA. ' Charioteer.' A name and office assumed by 
Nala in his time of disguise. 

YAIBHOJAS. The Maha-bharata says, " The descendants of 
Druhyu are the Yaibhojas." "A people unacquainted with the 
use of cars or beasts of burthen, and who travel on rafts ; they 
have no kings." — Wilson. 

YAIBHEAJA. A celestial grove ; the grove of the gods on 
IVIount Suparswa, west of Meru. 

YAIDARBHA. Belonging to the country of Yidarbha or 
Birar. The people of that country. 

YAIDEHA. Belonging to the country of Yideha or Tirhoot, 
&c. The king or the people of the country. Janaka was called 
Yaideha and Sita was Yaidehi. 

YAIDYA-NATHA. ' Lord of physicians.' A title of ^iva. 
!Name of one of the twelve great Lingas. See Linga. 

YAIJAYAXTA. The palace or the banner of Indra. 

YAIJAYANTl. i. The necklace of Yish^iu, composed of five 
precious gems, pearl, ruby, emerald, sapphire, and diamond; it " is 
the aggregate of the five elemental rudiments." 2. A law-book 
current in the south. It is a commentary by ISTanda PaTZtZita on 
the Yishmi Smriti. 

YAIKAETTANA. A name of Kar?^a from his putative 
father, Yikarttana, the sun. 

YAIKUNTHA. The paradise of Yishmi, sometimes de- 
scribed as on Mount Meru, and at others as in the Northern 
Ocean. It is also called Yaibhra. Yish?iu liimself is sometimes 
designated by this term. 

YAIXATEYA. A name of Yishwu's bird Garui?a. 

YAIRAJ. Manu the son of Yiraj. 

YAIRAJAS. Semi-divine beings or Manes unconsumable by 
fire, who dwell in Tapo-loka, but are capable of translation to 
Satya-loka. The Kasi-kha?i6Za explains this term as the Manes 
of "ascetics, mendicants, anchorets, and penitents, who have 
completed a course of rigorous austerities." See Pitris. 

YAIROCHANA. A name of Bali. 


VAIaS'ALI a city founded by Yi^ala, son of T7-/;^abindu. 
This is " a city of considerable renown in Indian tradition, but 
its site is a subject of some uncertainty." It was a celebrated 
place among the Buddliists, and would seem to have been situated 
on the left bank of the Ganges. General Cunningham places 
it about 27 miles north of Patna. It is frequently confounded 
with Yisala, i.e., Ujjayini. 

VAIaS'A^SIPAYAXA. a celebrated sage who was the original 
teacher of the Black Yajur-veda. He was a pupil of the great 
Yyasa, from whom he learned the Maha-bharata, which he after- 
wards recited to King Janamejaya at a festival. The Hari-vansa 
is also represented as having been communicated by him. 

YAI/SESHIKA. The Atomic school of philosophy. See 

YAIaSTRAYAI^A. Patronymic of Kuvera. 

YALS'WAjS'ARA. a name by which Agni is occasionally 
known in the it/g- veda. 

YAIaSYA. The third or trading and agricultural caste. See 

YAITAN'A StJTEA. The ritual of the Atharva-veda. The 
text has been published by Dr. Garbe. 

YAITARAYI. ' (The river) to be crossed,' that is, the river 
of hell, which must be crossed before the infernal regions can 
be entered. This river is described as being filled with blood, 
ordure, and all sorts of filth, and to run with great impetuosity. 
A second river stated by the Maha-bharata to be in the country 
of the Kalingas ; it must be the river of the same name (vulg. 
" Byeturnee ") somewhat higher up in Cuttack. 

YAIYASWATA. Name of the seventh Manu ; he was son 
of Siirya and father of Ikshwaku, the founder of the Solar race 
of kings. 

YAJASANEYI-SANHITA. The body of hymns forming 
the "VYliite Yajur-veda. See Yeda. 

YAJIjN". a priest of the Wliite Yajur-veda. 

YAJRA. I. The thunderbolt of Indra, said to have been 
made of the bones of the Eh\\i Dadlilchi. It is a circular 
weapon, with a hole in the centre, according to some, but others 
represent it as consisting of two transverse bars. It has many 
names: — Asani, Abhrottha, 'sky-born;' Bahu-dara, 'much cleav- 
ing;' Bliidira or Chhidaka, 'the splitter;' Dambholi and Jasuri, 


Mestriictive;' Hradin, 'roaring;' Kulisa, 'axe; ' Pavi, 'pointed;' 
Phena-vahin, 'foam-bearing; Sha^-kona, 'hexagon;' 6'amblia and 
Swaru. 2. Son of Aniriiddlia. His mother is sometimes said 
to be Aniruddlia's wife Su-bhadra, and at others the Daitya 
princess Usha. K?ishwa just before his death made him king 
over the Yadavas at Indra-prastha. See the next. 

VAJEA-NABHA. The celebrated chakra (discus) of Krishwa. 
According to the Maha-bharata it was given to him by Agni for 
his assistance in defeating Indra and burning the Kha?i(iava forest. 

VAKA. ' A crane.' A great Asura who lived near the city 
of Eka-chakra, and forced the Kiija of the place to send him 
daily a large quantity of provisions, which he devoured, and 
not only the provisions, but the men who carried them. Under 
the directions of KuntI, her son Bliima took the provisions, and 
when the demon struck him, a terrific combat followed ; each 
one tore up trees by the roots and belaboured the other, till 
Bliima seized the demon by the legs and tore him asunder. 
Kuvera is sometimes called by this name. 

VALA-KHILYAS. i. Eleven hymns of an apocryphal or 
peculiar character interpolated in the /^ig-veda. 2. " Pigmy 
sages no bigger than a joint of the thumb, chaste, pious, resplen- 
dent as the rays of the sun." So described by the Vish?iu 
Pura72a, which says that they were brought forth by Samnati 
(humility), wife of Kratu, and were 60,000 in number. They are 
able to fly swifter than birds. The it/g-veda says that they sprang 
from the hairs of Prajiipati (Brahma). They are the guards of 
the chariot of the sun. They are also called Kharwas. Wilson 
says " they are not improbably connected with the character of 
Daumling, Thaumlin, Tamlane, Tom-a-lyn, or Tom Thumb." 

VALMlKI. The author of the Eamaya??a, which he in Yedic 
phrase is said to have "seen." He himself is represented as 
taking part in some of the scenes he describes. He received 
the banished Sita into his hermitage at Chitra-ku/a, and edu- 
cated her twin sons Ku5a and Lava. " Tradition has marked a 
hill in the district of Banda in Bundlekand as his abode." The 
invention of the sloka is attributed to him, but it cannot be his, 
because the metre is found in the Yedas. 

YAMACHARlS. Followers of the left-hand sect. See Tantra. 

YAMA-DEYA. i. A Yedic i?ishi, author of many hymns. 
In one of his hymns he represents himself as speaking before his 


birth, saying, " Let me not come forth by this path, for it is 
difficult (of issue) : let me come forth obliquely from the side." 
SayaTza, the commentator, says in exj^lanation, " The Rk\\i 
Vama-deva, whilst yet in the womb, was reluctant to be born in 
the usual manner, and resolved to come into the world tlirough 
his mother's side. Aware of his purpose, the mother prayed to 
Aditi, who thereupon came with her son Indra to expostulate 
with the jRishi." [This story accords with that told by the 
Buddhists of the birth of Buddha.] In the same hymn Vama- 
deva says, " In extreme destitution I have cooked the entrails of 
a dog," and Manu cites this to show that a man is not rendered 
impure even by eating the flesh of dogs for the preservation of 
his life. In another hymn he says, " As a hawk I came forth 
with speed ; " and a commentator explains, " Having assumed 
the form of a hawk, he came forth from the womb by the power 
of Yoga, for he is considered to have been endowed with divine 
knowlege from the period of his conception." 2. A Vedic sage 
mentioned in the Maha-bharata as possessor of two horses of 
marvellous speed called Yamyas. 3. A name of >S'iva ; also of 
one of the Rudras. 

YAM ANA. The dwarf incarnation of Yish?iu. See Ava- 

YAMAXA PURAA^A. "That in which the four-faced 
Brahma taught the three objects of existence, as subservient to 
the greatness of Tri-vikrama (Yishwu), which treats also of the 
^iva kalpa, and which consists of 10,000 stanzas, is called the 
Yamana Purawa." It contains an account of the dwarf incarna- 
tion of Yish?m, and "extends to about 7000 stanzas, but its 
contents scarcely establish its claim to the character of a Purawa." 
" It is of a more tolerant character than the (other) Purri7^as, and 
divides its homage impartially between iSiva and Yishwu with 
tolerable impartiality. It has not the air of any antiquity, and 
its compilation may have amused the leisure of some Brrdiman 
of Benares three or four centuries ago." — Wilson. 

YAXA-PRASTHA 'A dweller in the worlds.' A Brahman 
in the third stage of his religious life, passing his time as an 
anchorite in the wood? See Brfdiman. 

YANA-CHARAS (mas.), YAKE- CHARTS (fem.). Wan- 
derers of the woods. Fauns, Dryads, or sylvan guardians. 

YAN/S'A. A race or familv. Lists of the ii'/shis or successive 


teachers of the Vedas which are found attached to some of the 
Brahma?ias are called Vansas. 

VANaS'A-BRAHMATVA. The eighth Brahma?ia of the Sama- 
veda. It has been edited by BurnelL 

VAPUSHMAT. A man who killed King Marutta of the 
Solar race. Dama, son or grandson of Marutta, in retaliation 
killed Vapushmat. With his blood he made the funeral offer- 
ings to the Manes of Marutta, and with the flesh he fed the 
Brahmans who were of Rakshasa descent. 

YARA-DA. ' Bestower of boons.' A name of Devi, also of 

VARAHA. The boar incarnation of Yish/iu. See Avatara. 

VARAHA-KALPA. The present kalpa or year of Brahma. 
See Kalpa. 

VARAHA MIHIRA. An astronomer who was one of " the 
nine gems" of the court of Yikramaditya. {See Nava-ratna.) 
He was author of Brihat-sanhita and Brihaj-jataka. His death 
is placed in *Saka 509 (a.d. 587). 

VARAHA PURAVA. "That in which the glory of the 
great Varaha is predominant, as it was revealed to Earth by 
Vishwu, in connexion, wise Munis, with the Manava kalpa, and 
which contains 24,000 verses, is called the Varrdia PuraTza \ " 
but this description differs so from the Pura?za which bears the 
name in the present day, that Wilson doubts its applying to it. 
The known work " is narrated by Vish?iu as Varaha, or in the 
boar incarnation, to the personified Earth. Its extent, how- 
ever, is not half that specified, little exceeding 10,000 stanzas. 
It furnishes also itself evidence of the prior currency of some 
other work similarly denominated." " It may perhaps be 
referred to the early part of the twelfth century." 

VARAVASi. The sacred city of Benares ; also called KasT. 

VARAVAVATA. The city in which the Paw/avas dwelt in 

VARARUCHI. A grammarian who is generally supposed to 
be one with Katyayana (q.v.). There was another Vararuchi who 
was one of " the nine gems " at the court of Vikramaditya. 

VARDDHA-KSHATRl. A patronymic of Jayad-ratha. 

VARKSHl. Daughter of a sage, who is instanced in the 
Maha-bharata as being a virtuous woman, and wife of ten 


YARA^A. ' Class or caste.' The Cliatiir-varwa, or four castes, 
as found established in the code of Manu, are — 

1. Brahman. The sacerdotal and learned class, the members 
of which may be, but are not necessarily priests. 

2. Kshatriya. The regal and warrior caste. 

3. Yaisya. Trading and agricultural caste. 

4. >S'udra. Servile caste, whose duty is to serve the other 

The first three castes were called dwi-ja, " twice born or rege- 
nerate," from their being entitled to investiture with the sacred 
thread which effects a second birth. The Brahmans maintain 
that their caste alone remains, that the other three have been 
lost or degraded, and it is generally believed that there are no 
pure Kshatriyas or Yai-syas now existing. The numerous castes 
which have sprung up from the intercourse of people of different 
castes or from other causes are called Yarwa-sankara, 'mixed 

castes. ' 

YARSHA. A region. I^ine varshas are enumerated as 

situated between the great mountain ranges of the earth : — (i.) 

Bharata-varsha, India ; (2.) Kim-purusha or Kin-nara ; (3.) 

Hari; (4.) Ramyaka ; (5.) Hiraw-maya; (6.) Uttara-kuru ; 

(7.) Ilav?'ita ; (8.) Bhadraswa ; (9.) Ketu-mala. 

YARSHiVEYA. A name of KrisliTia as a descendant of 
Y?*ish7il Name of King Nala's charioteer. 

YARTTIKAS. Supplementary rules or notes to the gram- 
mar of Pardni by later grammarians, as Katyayana, Patanjali, 
&c. Katyayana is the chief of these annotators, and is called 
Yiirttika-kara, 'the annotator.' 

YARUYA. Similar to Ohoavdg. ' The universal encom- 
passer, the all-embracer.' One of the oldest of the Yedic deities, 
a personification of the all-investing sky, the maker and up- 
holder of heaven and earth. As such he is king of the universe, 
king of gods and men, possessor of illimitable knowledge, the 
supreme deity to whom especial honour is due. He is often 
associated with Mitra, he being the ruler of the night and Mitra 
of the day ; but his name frequently occurs alone, that of Mitra 
only seldom. In later times he was chief among the lower 
celestial deities called Adityas, and later still he became a sort of 
Neptune, a god of the seas and rivers, who rides upon the 
;Makara. This character he stiU retains. His sign is a fish. 



He is regent of the west quarter and of one of the Nakshatras 
or lunar mansions. According to the Maha-bharata he was son 
of Kardama and father of Puslikara. The INIaha-bharata relates 
that he carried off Bhadra, the wife of Utathya (q.v.), a Brah- 
man, but Utathya obhged him to submit and restore her. He 
was in a way the father of the sage Yasish/ha (q.v.). In the 
Vedas, Yaru?2a is not specially connected with water, but there 
are passages in which he is associated with the element of water 
both in the atmosphere and on the earth, in such a way as may 
account for the character and functions ascribed to him in the 
later mythology. 

Dr. Muir thus sums up in the words of the hymns the func- 
tions and attributes of Yaru^ia : — " The grandest cosmical func- 
tions are ascribed to Yaru?za. Possessed of illimitable resources 
(or knowledge), this divine being has meted out (or fashioned) 
and upholds heaven and earth, he dwells in all worlds as sove- 
reign ruler ; indeed the three worlds are embraced within him. 
He made the golden and revolving sun to shine in the firma- 
ment. The wind which resounds through the atmosphere is his 
breath. He has opened out boundless paths for the sun, and 
has hollowed out channels for the rivers, which flow bv his com- 
mand. By his wonderful contrivance the rivers pour out their 
waters into the one ocean but never fill it. His ordinances are 
fixed and unassailable. They rest on him unshaken as on a 
mountain. Through the operation (of his laws) the moon walks 
in brightness, and the stars vfhich appear in the nightly sky 
mysteriously vanish in daylight. Neither the birds flying in 
the air, nor the rivers in their ceaseless flow can attain a know- 
ledge, of his power or his wrath. His messengers behold both 
worlds. He knows the flight of birds in the sky, the paths of 
ships on the ocean, the course of the far-travelling wind, and be- 
holds all the things that have been or shall be done. ]^o creature 
can even wink A^dthout him. He witnesses men's truth and false- 
hood. He instructs the it/shi Yasish/ha in mysteries ; but his 
secrets and those of Mitra are not to be revealed to the foolish." 
" He has unlimited control over the destinies of mankind. He 
has a hundred thousand remedies, and is suj^plicated to show his 
wide and deep benevolence and drive away evil and sin, to untie 
sin like a rope and remove it. He is entreated not to steal away, 
but to prolong Hfe, and to spare the suppliant who daily trans- 



gresses his laws. In many places mention is made of the bonds 
or nooses with which he seizes and punishes transgressors. 
Mitra and Yariuza conjointly are spoken of in one passage as 
heing barriers against falsehood, furnished with many nooses, 
which the hostile mortal cannot surmount ; and, in another 
place, Indra and Varu?ia are described as binding with bonds 
not formed of rojDe. On the other hand, Yaruwa is said to be 
gracious even to him who has committed sin. He is the wise 
guardian of immortality, and a hope is held out that he and 
Yama, reigning in blessedness, shall be beheld in the next world 
by the righteous." 

" The attributes and functions ascribed to Yaruwa impart to 
his character a moral elevation and sanctity far surpassing that 
attributed to any other Yedic deity." 

The correspondence of Yaruwa with Ouranos has been already 
noted, but " the parallel will not hold in all points. There is 
not in the Yedic mythology any special relation between 
YaruT^a and P?*ithivi (the earth) as husband and wife, as there 
is between Ouranos and Gaia in the theogony of Hesiod ; nor is 
Yaru?^a represented in the Yeda, as Ouranos is by the Greek 
poet, as the progenitor of Dyaus (Zeus), except in the general 
way in which he is said to have formed and to preserve heaven 
and earth" (Muir^s Texts, v. 58). IManu also refers to Yaru?ia 
as "binding the guilty in fatal cords." 

In the Pura?ias, Yaruwa is sovereign of the waters, and one 
of his accompaniments is a noose, which the Yedic deity also 
carried for binding offenders : this is called Naga-pasa, Pula- 
kanga, orYiswa-jit. His favourite resort is Pushpa-giri, 'flower 
mountain,' and his city Yasudha-nagara or Suklia. He also 
possesses an umbrella impermeable to water, formed of the hood 
of a cobra, and called Abhoga. The Yishmi Pura?za mentions 
an incident which shows a curious coincidence between Yaru?ia 
and Neptune. At the marriage of the sage ii'/chika, Yaruwa 
supplied him with the thousand fleet white horses which the 
bride's father had demanded of him. Yaru?ia is also called 
Prachetas, Ambu-raja, Jala-pati, Kesa, ' lord of the waters ; ' 
Ud-dama, ' the surrounder ; ' Pri6\a-bh?7't, ' tlie noose-carrier ; ' 
Yiloma, Yari-loma, ' watery hair ; ' Yada/i-pati, ' king of aquatic 
animals. His son is named Agasti. 

YARUA^ANI, YAEUAL Wife of Yaru?ia and goddess of 



wine. She is said to have sprung from tlie churning of the 
ocean. The goddess of wine is also called Mada and Sura. 

VASANTA. Spring and its deified personification. 

YASANTA-SENA. The heroine of the drama called M?-ich- 
chhaka^i, * the toy cart. ' 

YASAYA-DATTA. A princess of Ujjayini, who is the heroine 
of a popular story by Subandhu. The work has been printed 
by Dr. F. Hall in the Bihliotheca Indica. He considers it to have 
been written early in the seventh century. See Udayana. 

YASISHTHA. 'Most wealthy.' A celebrated Yedic sage 
to whom many hymns are ascribed. According to Manu he 
was one of the seven great Bishis and of the ten Prajapatis. 
There was a special rivalry between him and the sage Yiswa- 
mitra, who raised himself from the Kshatriya to the Brahman 
caste. Yasish/ha was the possessor of a " cow of plenty," called 
NandinT, who had the power of granting him all things (vasu) 
he desired, hence his name. A law-book is attributed to him, 
or to another of the same name. Though Yasish/ha is classed 
among the Prajapatis who sprang from Brahma, a hymn in the 
iiig-veda and the commentaries thereon assign him a different 
origin, or rather a second birth, and represent him and the sage 
Agastya to have sprung from Mitra and YaruTza. The hymn says, 
" Thou, Yasish/ha, art a son of Mitra and Yavwna, born a Brah- 
man from the soul of Urvasi. All the gods placed in the vessel 
thee the drop which had fallen through divine contemplation." 
The comment on this hymn says, "When these two Adityas 
(Mitra and Yaru?za) beheld the Apsaras Urvasi at a sacrifice their 
seed fell from them. ... It fell on many places, into a jar, into 
water, and on the ground. The Muni Yasish/ha was produced 
on the ground, while Agastya was born in the jar." 

There is a peculiar hymn attributed to Yasish/ha in the Big- 
veda (Wilson, iv. 1 2 1 ), beginning "Protector of the dwelling," 
which the commentators explain as having been addressed by 
him to a house-dog which barked as he entered the house of 
YaruTza by night to obtain food after a three days' fast. By it 
the dog was appeased and put to sleep, " wherefore these verses 
are to be recited on similar occasions by thieves and burglars." 

In the same Yeda and in the Aitareya Brahmawa, Yasish/ha 
appears as the family priest of King Sudas, a position to which 
his rival Yi^waniitra aspired. This is amplified in the Maha- 


bliarata, where lie is not the priest of Siidas but of his son 
Kabnasha-pada, who bore the patronymic Saudasa. It is said 
that his rival Viswamitra was jealous, and wished to have this 
office for himself, but the king preferred Yasish^ha. Yasishifha 
had a hundred sons, the eldest of Mdiom Avas named iS'aktri. 
He, meeting the king in the road, was ordered to get out of the 
way ; but he civilly replied that the path was his, for by the 
law a king must cede the way to a Brahman. The king struck 
him with a whip, and he retorted by cursing the king to be- 
come a man-eater. Viswamitra was present, but invisible, and 
he maliciously commanded a man-devouring Rakshasa to enter 
the king. So the king became a man-eater, and his first victim 
was >S'aktri. The same fate befell all the hundred sons, and 
Vasish/ha's grief was boundless. He endeavoured to destroy 
himself in various ways. He cast himself from the top of 
Mount Meru, but the rocks he fell upon were like cotton. He 
passed through a burning forest without harm. He threw 
himself into the sea with a heavy stone tied to his neck, but the 
waves cast him on dry land. He plunged into a river swollen 
by rain, but although he had bound his arms with cords, the 
stream loosened his bonds and landed him unbound (vijmsa) on 
its banks. From this the river received the name of Vipasa 
(Byas). He threw himself into another river full of alligators, 
but the river rushed away in a hundred directions, and was con- 
sequently called iS'ata-dru (Sutlej). Finding that he could not 
kill himself, he returned to his hermitage, and was met in the 
wood by King Kalmasha-pada, who was about to devour him, 
but Vasish^ha exorcised him and delivered him from the curse 
he had borne for twelve years. The sage then directed the king 
to return to his kingdom and pay due respect to Brahmans. 
Kalmasha-pada begged Yasish/ha to give him offspring. He 
promised to do so, and " being solicited by the king to beget 
an heir to the throne, the queen became pregnant by him and 
brought forth a son at the end of twelve years." 

Another legend in the Maha-bharata represents Viswamitra 
as commanding the river Saras wati to bring Vasish/ha, so that 
he might kill him. ]jy direction of Vasish/ha the river obeyed 
the command, but on approaching Viswamitra, who stood ready 
armed, it promptly carried away A^asish/ha in another direction. 

The enmity of Vasish/ha and Viswamitra comes out very 


strongly in the Ramaya??a. Yiswamitra ruled the earth for 
many thousand years as king, but he coveted the wondrous cow 
of plenty which he had seen at Yasish/ha's hermitage, and 
attempted to take her away by force. A great battle followed 
between the hosts of King Yiswamitra and the warriors pro- 
duced by the cow to support her master. A hundred of Yiswa- 
mitra's sons were reduced to ashes by the blast of Yasish/ha's 
mouth, and Yiswamitra being utterly defeated, he abdicated and 
retired to the Himalaya. The two met again after an interval 
and fought in single combat. Yiswamitra was again worsted by 
the Brahmiinical power, and " resolved to work out his own ele- 
vation to the Brahmanical order," so as to be upon an equality 
with his rival. He accomplished his object and became a priest, 
and Yasish/ha suffered from his power. The hundred sons of 
Yasish/ha denounced Yiswamitra for presuming, though a 
Ivshatriya, to act as a priest. This so incensed Yiswamitra that 
he " by a curse doomed the sons of Yasish/ha to be reduced to 
ashes and reborn as degraded outcasts for seven hundred births." 
Eventually, " Yasish/ha, being propitiated by the gods, became 
reconciled to Yiswamitra, and recognised his claim to all the 
prerogatives of a Brahman itishi, and Yiswamitra j^aid all hon- 
our to Yasish/ha. 

A legend in the Yishwu Purawa represents Yasish/ha as being 
requested by Nimi, a son of Ikshwaku, to officiate at a sacrifice 
which was to last for a thousand years. The sage pleaded a 
prior engagement to Indra for five hundred years, but offered to 
come at the end of that period. The king made no remark, 
and Yasish/ha, taking silence as assent, returned as he had 
proposed. He then found that ]^imi had engaged the i^zshi 
Gautama to perform the sacrifice, and this so angered him that 
he cursed the king to lose his corj)oreal form. Kimi retorted 
the curse, and in consequence " the vigour of Yasish/ha entered 
into the vigour of jNIitra and Yaru72a. Yasish/ha, however, 
received from them another body when their seed had fallen 
from them at the sight of Urvasi." 

In the Marka?w/eya Purawa he appears as the family priest of 
Haris-chandra. He was so incensed at the treatment shown to 
that monarch by A-^iswamitra, that he cursed that sage to be 
transformed into a crane. His adversary retorted by dooming 
him to become another bird, and in the forms of two monstrous 


birds tliey fought so furiously that the course of the universe 
was disturbed, and many creatures perished. Brahma at lengtli 
put an end to the conflict by restoring them to their natural 
forms and compelling them to be reconciled. 

According to the Yishmi Purawa, Vasish/ha had for wife 
Urja, one of the daughters of Daksha, and by her he had seven 
sons. The Bhagavata Pura7za gives him Arundhati for wife. 
The Yishwu Pura?za also makes him the family priest " of the 
house of Ikshwaku ; " and he was not only contemporary with 
Ikshwaku himself, but with his descendants down to the sixty- 
first generation. " Yasish/ha, according to all accounts (says 
Dr. Muir), must have been possessed of a vitahty altogether 
superhuman," for it appears that the name Yasish/ha is " used 
not to denote merely a person belonging to a family so called, 
but to represent the founder of the family himself as taking 
part in the transactions of many successive ages." 

"It is clear that Yasishflia, although he is frequently designated 
in post-vedic writings as a Brahman, was, according to some 
authorities, not really such in any proper sense of the word, as 
in the accounts which are given of his birth he is declared to 
have been either a mind-born son of Brahma, or the son of 
Mitra and Yaruwa and the Apsaras Urvasi, or to have had some 
other supernatural origin" (3fidr, i. 337). Yasish/ha's descen- 
dants are called Yasish/has and Yashkalas. 

YASTOSH-PATI. ' House protector.' One of the later gods 
of the Yeda, represented as springing from Brahma's dalliance 
with his daughter. He was the protector of sacred rites and 
guardian of houses. 

YASU. The Yasus are a class of deities, eight in number, 
chiefly known as attendants upon Indra. They seem to have 
been in Yedic times personifications of natural phenomena. 
They are Apa (water), Dhruva (pole-star). Soma (moon), Dhara 
(earth), Anila (wind), Anala (fire), Prabhasa (dawn), and Pra- 
tyiisha (light). According to the Ramaya^ia they were children 
of Aditi. 

YASU-DEYA. Son of Sum, of the Yadava branch of the 
Lunar race. He was father of Krislma, and Kunti, tlie mother 
of the TrndaYQ, princes, was his sister. He married seven 
daughters of Ahuka, and tlie youngest of them, Devaki, was the 
mother of Krishna. After the death of Kr/sliTia and Bala- 


riima he also died, and four of his wives burnt themselves with 
his corpse. So says the Mahri-bharata, but according to the 
Vislmu Purawa he and DevakT and Rohi?ii burnt themselves at 
Dwaraka. He received the additional name of Anaka-dundubhi, 
because the gods, conscious that he was to be the putative 
father of the divine Krish?2a, sounded the drums of lieaven at 
his birth. He was also called Bhu-kasyapa and Dundu, ' drum.' 

VASU-DEVA. A name of K?'ish?za, derived from that of his 
father, Vasu-deva ; but as that is incompatible with his claims 
to divinity, the Maha-bharata explains that he is so called " from 
his dwelling (vasandt) in all beings, from his issuing as a Vasu 
from a divine womb." The name was assumed by an impostor 
named Pau?zc/raka, who w^as killed by Ivrz'shwa. See Pauw/raka. 

YASUKI. King of the Nagas or serpents who live in Patala. 
He was used by the gods and Asuras for a coil round the moun- 
tain Mandara at the churning of the ocean. See ^S'esha. 

VASU-zS'EN'A. A name of Kar^za. 

VATA. ' Wind. ' Generally the same as Vayu, but the 
name is sometimes combined in the Veda with that of Parjanya, 
and Parjanya-vata and Vayu are then mentioned distinctively. 

VATAPI. Vatapi and Ilwala, two Rakshasas, sons either of 
Hrada or Viprachitti. They are mentioned in the Ramaya^ia 
as dwelling in the Da^zf/aka forest. Vatapi assumed the form 
of a ram which was offered in sacrifice and afterwards eaten by 
Brahmans. Ilwala then called ujDon him to come forth, and 
accordingly he tore his way out of the stomachs of the Brah- 
mans. He tried the same trick upon Agastya, but that austere 
sage ate and digested him. Ilwala, as before, called his brother 
to come forth, and assaulted the sage, who told him that his 
brother would never return. Then Ilwala was burnt up by fire 
from the eyes of Agastya. The Maha-bharata's story varies 

VATA-VASIK ' Dwelling in fig-trees ' (vaia). Yakshas. 

VATSA, A^ATSA-RAJA. King of Vatsa, the capital of 
which was Kausambl. A title of the prince Udaj'ana. There 
are many persons named Vatsa. 

VATSYAYANA. A sage who wrote upon erotic subjects, 
and was author of the Kama-sutras and Nyaya-bhasha. He is 
also called Malla-naga, 

VAYU. * Air, wind.' The god of the w^ind, Eolus. In the 


Yedas he is often associated with Indra, and rides in the same 
car with him, Indra being the charioteer. The chariot has a 
framework of gold which touches the sky, and is drawn by a 
thousand horses. There are not many hymns addressed to hiuL 
According to the jSTirukta there are three gods specially con- 
nected with each other. " Agni, whose place is on earth ; 
Yayu or Indra, whose place is in the air ; and Siirya, whose 
place is in the heaven." In the hymn Purusha-siikta Yayu is 
said to have sprung from the breath of Purusha, and in another 
hymn he is called the son-in-law of Twash^ri. He is regent of 
the north-west quarter, where he dwells. 

According to the Yishvzu PuraTia he is king of the Gandhar- 
vas. The Bhagavata Purawa relates that the sage Xarada in- 
cited the wind to break down the summit of Mount Meru. He 
raised a terrible storm which lasted for a year, but Yish?iu's bird, 
Garuf?a, shielded tlie mountain with his wings, and all the 
blasts of the wind-god were in vain. iSTarada then told him 
to attack the mountain in Garu<ia's absence. He did so, and 
breaking off the summit of the mountain, he hurled it into the 
sea, where it became the island of Lanka (Ceylon). 

Yayu is the reputed father of Bhima and of Hanumat, and he 
is said to have made the hundred dauo-hters of Kinf>- Kusanabha 

o o 

crooked because they would not comply with his licentious 
desires, and this gave the name Kanya-kubja, ' hump-backed 
damsel,' to their city. 

Other names of Yayu (wind) are Anila, Marut, Pavana Yata, 
Gandha-vaha, ' bearer of perfumes ; ' Jala-kilntara, * "whose gar- 
den is water ; ' Sada-gata, Satata-ga, * ever moving,' &c. 

YAYU PUKAYA. " The Pura/ia in which A^ayu has de- 
clared the laws of duty, in connection with the /Sweta kalpa, 
and which comprises the Mahatmya of Kudra, is the Yayu 
Pura?ia ; it contains twenty-four thousand verses." jS^o MS. con- 
taining this number of verses has yet been discovered, but there 
are indications of the work being imperfect. The PuraTia is 
divided into four sections, the first begimiing with the creation, 
and the last treating of the ages to come. It is devoted to the 
praise of /S'iva, and is connected with the /S'iva Puriij^a, for Avhen 
one of them is given in a list of Purawas the other is omitted. 

YEDA. Koot, m/, ' know.' ' Divine knowledge.' The Yedas 
are the holy books which are the foundation of the Hindu reli- 

VEDA. 345 

gion. They consist of hymns written in an old form of Sansk?-it, 
and according to the most generally received opinion they were 
composed between 1500 and 1000 b.c. But there is no direct 
evidence as to their age, and opinions about it vary considerably. 
Some scholars have thought that the oldest of the hymns may 
be carried back a thousand years farther. It seems likely that 
some of the hymns were composed before the arrival of the 
Aryan immigrants in India, and there is no doubt that the hymns 
vary greatly in age and spread over a very considerable period. 

There are various statements as to the origin of the Yedas, 
One is that the hymns emanated like breath from Brahma, the 
soul of the universe. It is agreed that they were revealed orally 
to the i^ishis or sages whose names they bear ; and hence the 
whole body of the Veda is known as iSruti, ' what was heard.' 

The Yedas are now four in number: — (i.) Rig, (2.) Yajur, 
(3.) Sama, (4.) Atharva ; but the Atharva is of comparatively 
modern origin. The other three are spoken of by Manu as the 
" three Yedas," and are said by him tothave been '^ milked out, 
as it were," from fire, air, and the sun. In reality the i?ig- veda 
is the Yeda, the original work ; for the Yajur and the Sama are 
merely different arrangements of its hymns for special purposes. 

Each Yeda is divided into two parts. Mantra and BrahmaTia. 
The Mantra, or ' instrument of conveying thought,' consists of 
prayer and praise embodied in the metrical hymns. The Brah- 
ma?ia, a collective term for the treatises caUed Brahma?zas, is of 
later date than the Mantra. It is written in prose, and contains 
liturgical and ritualistic glosses, explanations, and applications of 
the hymns illustrated by numerous legends. To the Brahma/ias 
are added the Ara/^yakas and Upanishads, mystical treatises in 
prose and verse, which speculate upon the nature of spirit and 
of God, and exhibit a freedom of thought and speculation which 
was the beginning of Hindu philosophy. All the Yedic ^mtings 
are classified in two great divisions, exoteric and esoteric: the 
Karma-ka?z<ia, ' department of works,' the ceremonial ; and the 
Jnana-kam/a, 'department of knowledge.' The hymns and prayers 
of the Mantra come under the first, the philosophical specula- 
tions of the Brahmanas, and especially of the Upanishads, under 
the second division. All are alike Svuii or revelation. See 
Bra,hma7ia, Upanishad, &c. 

The Mantra or metrical portion is the most ancient, and the 

346 VEDA. 

Look or books in wliich the hymns are collected are called San- 
liitas. The JR^g-veda and the Sama-veda have each one Sanhita; 
the Yajur-veda has two Sanhitas. 

As before stated, the it/g-veda is the original Veda from 
which the Yajur and Saman are almost exclusively derived. It 
consists of 1017 Siiktas or hymns, or with eleven additional 
hjTiins called Yalakhih^as of an apocryphal character, 1028. 
These are arranged in eight xish/akas, ' octaves,' or Kha??6?as, 
* sections,' which are again subdivided into as many Adhyayas, 
'chapters,' 2006 Vargas or 'classes,' 10,417 7i/ks or 'verses,' 
and 153,826 Padas or 'words.' There is another division, which 
runs on concurrently with this division, in ten ]\Ia?Zf^alas, 
' circles ' or ' classes,' and 85 Anuvakas or ' sections.' The total 
number of hymns is the same in both arrangements. It is a 
generally received opinion that the hymns of the tenth Mawf?ala 
are later in date than the others. 

A few hymns of the i?/g-veda, more especially some of the 
later hymns in the terfth Ma?i6?ala, appear to contain some 
vague, hazy conception of one Supreme Being ; but as a whole 
they are addressed directly to certain personifications of the 
powers of nature, which personifications were worshipped as 
deities having those physical powers under their control. From 
these powers the Vedic poets invoked prosperity on themselves 
and their flocks ; they extolled the prowess of these elemental 
powers in the struggles between light and darkness, warmth and 
cold, and they offered up joyous praise and thanksgiving for the 
fruits of the earth and personal protection. Chief among the 
deities so praised and worshipped were Agni, Indra, and Surya. 
More hymns are addressed to Agni (Ignis), 'fire,' than to any other 
deity, and cliiefly in its sacrificial character, though it receives 
honour also for its domestic uses. Indra was honoured as the 
god of the atmosphere, who controlled the rains and the dcAv, 
so all-important to an agricultural people. Srir3'a, ' the sun,' 
was ' the source of heat,' but he shared this honour with 
AcTii, the sun bcincc considered a celestial fire. Amono: the 
most ancient of the myths was that of Dyaus-pitar, ' heavenly 
father,' the regent of the sky. Others Avere Aditi, ' the infinite 
expanse;' Varuwa {OhooLvog), 'the investing sky,' afterwards 
god of the waters ; Uslias {n^g), ' the dawn,' daughter of the 
sky ; the two Aswins, ' twin sons of the sun,' ever young and 

VEDA. 2>A7 

handsome, and riding in a golden car as precursors of the 
dawn. Pr/thivT, ' the broad one,' as the earth was called, re- 
ceived honour as the mother of all beings. There were also the 
IMaruts or storm-gods, personifications of the wind, the especial 
foes of Vntra, the spirit of drought and ungenial weather, who 
was in constant conflict with Indra ; Rudra, the howling, furious 
god, who ruled the tempest and the storm ; Yam a, the god of 
the dead and judge of departed spirits, also received his meed of 
reverence ; last, though apparently not least in the estimation of 
the Aryan worshippers, was Soma, the personification of the fer- 
mented juice of the plant so named. This exhilarating liquid 
was alike acceptable to the gods and their worshij)pers, and many 
hymns are addressed to it as a deity. 

To each hymn of the i?ig-veda there is prefixed the name of 
the it/shi to whom it was revealed, as Yasish/ha, Yiswamitra, 
Bharadwaja, and many others ; and these sages are frequently 
spoken of as authors of the hymns bearing their names. It is 
quite unknown when the hymns were first committed to writing. 
They were transmitted orally from generation to generation, and 
continued to be so handed down even after they had been 
collected and arranged by Ivrish?za Dwaipayana, ' the arranger,' 
The oral teaching of the Yedas produced what are called the 
/S'akhas or ' schools ' of the Yedas. Different learned men, or 
bodies of men, became famous for their particular versions of 
the text, and taught these versions to their respective pupils. 
These difl'erent versions constitute the iSakhas ; they present, as 
might be expected, many verbal variations, but no very material 

" The poetry of the jR/g-veda," says Professor Cowell, " is 
remarkably deficient in that simplicity and natural pathos or 
sublimity which we naturally look for in the songs of an early 
period of civilisation. The language and style of most of the 
hymns is singularly artificial . . . Occasionally we meet with 
fine outbursts of poetry, especially in the hymns addressed to 
the dawn, but these are never long sustained ; and as a rule we 
find few grand similes or metaphors." A similar opinion is 
expressed by Professor AVilliams, who finds them " to abound 
more in puerile ideas than in striking thoughts and lofty 

The Yajur or second Yeda is composed almost exclusively of 

348 VEDA. 

hymns taken from the Rig, but it contains some prose passages 
which are new. Many of the hymns show considerable devia- 
tions from the original text of the Rig. These differences may 
perhaps be attributable either to an original difference of the 
traditional text or to modifications required by the ritualistic 
uses of the Yajur. The Yajur-veda is the priests' office-book, 
arranged in a liturgical form for the performance of sacrifices. 
As the manual of the priesthood, it became the great subject of 
study, and it has a great number of different /Sakhas or schools. 
It has two Sanhitas, one called the Taittiriya Sanhita, the other 
Yajasaneyi Sanhita, commonly kno^vn as the Black and AVhite 
Yajur, Of these, the former is the more ancient, and seems to 
have been known in the ihird century B.C. These Sanhitas 
contain upon the whole the same matter, but the arrangement 
is different. The "\AT-iite Yajur is the more orderly and sys- 
tematic, and it contains some texts which are not in the Black. 

The Sanhita of the Taittiriya or Black Yajur is arranged in 
7 Kaw/as or books, 44 Prasnas or chapters, 651 Anuvakas or 
sections, and 219S KaTic^ikas or pieces, " fift}^ words as a rule 
forming a Ivr.TZ^ika." The Sanhita of the Vajasaneyi or IMiite 
Yajur is in 40 Adhyayas or chapters, 303 Anuvakas, and 1975 

How the separation into two Sanhitas arose has not been 
ascertained. It probably originated in a schism led by the sage 
Yajnawalkya ; but if it did not, it produced one, and the 
adherents of the two divisions were hostile to each other and 
quarrelled like men of different creeds. In later days a legend 
was invented to account for the division, which is thus given by 
the Yishmi and Yayu Pura?zas : The Yajur-veda, in twenty-seven 
branches (AS'akhas), was taught by Yaisampayana to his discipl(3 
Yajnawalkya. Yaisampayana had the misfortune to kill his 
sister's child by an accidental kick, and he then called upon his 
disciples to perform the appropriate expiatory penance. Yajna- 
walkya refused to join the " miserable inefficient Brfdimans," 
and a quarrel ensued. Tlie teacher called upon the disciple to 
give up all that he had learnt from him ; and the disciple, with 
the same quick temper, vomited forth tb.e Yajur texts which he 
had accj[uired, and they fell upon the ground stained with blood. 
The other pupils were turned into partridges (Tittiri), and they 
picked up the disgorged texts ; hence the part of the Veda 

VEDA. 349 

wliicli was thus acqiiircd was called Taittiiiya and Black. 
Yajnawalkya sorrowfully departed, and by the performance of 
severe penances induced the Sun to impart to him those Yajur 
texts which his master had not possessed. The Sun then 
assumed the form of a horse (Yajin), and communicated to him 
the desired texts. The priests of this portion of the Veda were 
called Yajins, while the Sanhita itself was called Yajasaneyi, 
and also AYliite (or bright), because it was revealed by the sun. 
The statement that Yajnawalkya received this Yeda from the 
sun is, however, earlier than the Pura?ms, for it is mentioned by 
the grammarian Katyayana. A more reasonable and intelligible 
explanation is, that Yajasaneyi is a patronymic of Yajnawalkya, 
the offspring of Yiijasani, and that Taittirlya is derived from 
Tittiri, the name of a pupil of Yaska's. Weber, the man best 
acquainted with this Yeda, says, " However absurd this legend 
(of the PuraTias) may be, a certain amount of sense lurks beneath 
its surface. The Black Yajur is, in fact, a motley undigested 
jumble of different pieces ; and I am myself more inclined to 
derive the name Taittirlya from the variegated partridge (Tittiri) 
than from the itislii Tittiri." Goldstlicker's view is, that the 
" motley character of the Black Yajur-veda arises from the cir- 
cumstance that the distinction between the Mantra and Brah- 
ma?za portions is not so clearly established in it as in the other 
Yedas, hymns and matter properly belonging to the Brahma?ias 
being there intermixed. This defect is remedied in the Wliite 
Yajur-veda, and it points, therefore, to a period when the mate- 
rial of the old Yajur was brought into a system consonant with 
prevalent theories, literary and ritualistic." 

The Sama-veda Sanhita is wholly metrical. It contains 1549 
verses, only seventy-eight of which have not been traced to the 
-Rig-veda. The readings of the text in this Yeda frequently 
differ, like those of the Yajur, from the text as found in the 
Pag, and Weber considers that the verses "occurring in the Sama 
Sanhita generally stamp themselves as older and more original 
by the greater antiquity of their grammatical forms." But 
this opinion is disputed. The verses of the Siima have been 
selected and arranged for the purpose of being chaunted at the 
sacrifices or offerings of the Soma. Many of the invocations are 
addressed to Soma, some to Agni, and some to Indra. The 
Mantra or metrical part of the Sama is poor in literary and 

350 VEDA. 

historical interest, but its Bralimawas and the other literature 
belonging to it are full and important. 

There were different sets of priests for each of the three 
Vedas. Those whose duty it was to recite the it/g-veda were 
called Hotris or Bahv?'ichas, and they were required to know the 
whole Yeda. The priests of the Yajur, who muttered its formu- 
las in a peculiar manner at sacrifices, were called Adliwaryus, and 
the chaunters of the verses of the Saman were called Udgat?-/s. 

The Atharva-veda, the fourth Yeda, is of later origin than the 
others. This is acknowledged by the Brahmans, and is proved 
by the internal evidence of the book itself. It is supposed to 
date from about the same period as the tenth Ma?ic?ala of the 
i?ig-veda, and as Manu speaks of only " the three Yedas," the 
Atharva could hardly have been acknowledged in his time. 
Professor Yliitney thinks its contents may be later than even 
the tenth Ma?zf?ala of the Pdg, although these two " stand nearly 
connected in import and origin." There are reasons for suppos- 
ing it to have had its origin among the Saindhavas on the banks 
of the Indus. One-sixth of the whole work is not metrical, 
" and about one-sixth (of the hymns) is also found among the 
hymns of the jRig-veda, and mostly in the tenth book of the 
latter; the rest is peculiar to the Atharva." The number of the 
hymns is about 760, and of the verses about 6000. Professor 
Whitney, the editor of the Atharva, speaks of it thus : "As to 
the internal character of the Atharva hymns, it may be said 
of them, as of the tenth book of the Pdg, that they are pro- 
ductions of another and a later period, and the expressions of a 
different spirit from that of the earlier hymns in the other 
Yedas. In the latter, the gods are approached with reverential 
awe indeed, but with love and confidence also ; a worship is 
paid them that exalts the offerer of it ; the demons embraced 
under the general name Kakshasa are objects of horror whom 
the gods ward off and destroy ; the divinities of the Atharva are 
regarded ratlier with a kind of cringing fear, as powers whose 
wrath is to be deprecated and whose favour curried, for it knows 
a whole host of imps and hobgoblins, in ranks and classes, and 
addresses itself to them directly, offering them homage to induce 
them to abstain from doing harm. The ^lantra prayer, which 
in the older Yeda is the instrument of devotion, is here rather 
the tool of superstition ; it wrings from the unwilling hands 

VEDA. 351 

of the gods the favours which of old their good-will to men in- 
duced them to grant, or by simple magical power obtains the 
fulfilment of the utterer's wishes. The most prominent charac- 
teristic feature of the Atharva is the multitude of incantations 
which it contains ; these are pronounced either by the person 
wdio is himself to be benefited, or more often by the sorcerer 
for him, and are directed to the procuring of the greatest variety 
of desirable ends ; most frequently perhaps long life or recovery 
from grievous sickness is the object souglit ; then a talisman, 
such as a necklace, is sometimes given, or in very numerous 
cases some plant endowed with marvellous virtues is to be the 
immediate external means of the cure ; farther, the attainment 
of wealth or power is aimed at, the downfall of enemies, success 
in love or in play, the removal of petty pests, and so on, even 
down to the growth of hair on a bald pate. There are hymns, 
too, in which a single rite or ceremony is taken up and exalted, 
somewhat in the same strain as the Soma in the Pavamanya 
hymns of the Rig. Others of a speculative mystical character 
are not wanting ; yet their number is not so great as might 
naturally be ex.pected, considering the development which the 
Hindu religion received in the periods following after that of 
the primitive Veda. It seems in the main that the Atharva is 
of popular rather than of priestly origin ; that in making the 
transition from the Vedic to modern times, it forms an inter- 
mediate step rather to the gross idolatries and superstitions of 
the ignorant mass than to the sublimated Pantheism of the 
Erahmans." Such is the general character of the fourth Veda, 
but Max Miiller has translated a hymn in his Ancient Sanshit 
Literature, of which Professor Wilson said in the Edinburgh 
Review, "We know of no passage in Vedic literature which 
approaches its simple sublimity." This hymn is addressed to 
Varuwa, " the great one who rules over these worlds, and be- 
holds all as if he were close by ; who sees all that is within and 
beyond heaven and earth," &c. 

This Veda is also called the Brahman Veda, " because it 
claims to be the Veda for the chief sacrificial priest, the Brah- 
man." It has a Brahma?ia called Gopa/ha and many Upanishads. 
An entirely new recension of this Veda has lately been found 
in Kashmir. It is in the hands of Professor Roth, and is 
believed to show many important variations. 


The whole of the ^ig-veda, with the commentary of Saya?2a, 
has been magnificently printed in six large quarto vols, under the 
editorship of Max Miiller, at the expense of the Governmetit of 
India. Editions of the text separately in the Sanhita and in the 
Pada forms have been published by him ; also another edition 
with the Sanliita and Pada texts on opposite pages. There is also 
a complete edition of the text in Koman characters by Aufrecht, 
and a portion of the text was published by Roer in the Bibliotheca 
Indica. Dr. Eosen published the first Ash/aka of the text, with 
a Latin translation, in 1838. Pour volumes of Wilson's incom- 
plete translation have appeared. There is a French translation 
by Langlois, and Max Miiller has printed a critical translation 
of twelve hvmns to the Maruts. There are other translations of 
portions. Translations by Ludwig and by Grassmann have also 
lately appeared. The text, with an English and Mara/hi trans^ 
lation, is appearing in monthly parts at Bombay. 

The Sanhita of the Black Yajur-veda has been published by 
Roer and Cowell in the Bibliotheca Indica. The '\Miite has been 
printed by Weber, and another edition has been published in 

Of the Sama Sanhita, the text and a translation have been 
published by Dr. Stevenson. Benfey has also jDublished the 
text with a German translation and a glossary ; and an edition 
with the commentary of Saya/za is now coming out in the Biblio- 
theca Indica (vol. i.). 

The text of the Atharva-veda Sanhita has been printed by 
Roth and Whitney, and a part of it also by Aufrecht. 

VEDA-MATT^/. ' Mother of the Yedas.' The Gayatri. 

YEDANGAS. (Veda + angas. ) 'Members of the Veda,' The 
Shac/-angas or six subjects necessary to be studied for the reading, 
understanding, and proper sacrificial employment of the Vedas : — 

1. ^ikshd. Phonetics or pronunciation, embracing accents, 
quantity, and euphony in general 

2. Chhandas. Metre. 

3. Vydharana. Grammar. Said to be represented by Pawini, 
but rather by older grammars culminating in his great work. 

4. Nirulda. Etymology or glossary-, represented by the glos- 
sary of Yaska. 

5. Jyotisha. Astronomy. Such knowledge of the heavenly 
bodies as was necessary for compiling a calendar fixing the days 


and hours suitable for the performance of Yedic sacrifices and 

6. Kalpa. Ceremonial. Eules for applying the Yedas to the 
performance of sacrifices. These rules are generally written in 
the form of Sutras or short aphorisms, and so they are known as 
the Ivalpa-siitras or /S'rauta-siitras. 

VEDANTA. The orthodox school of philosophy. See Darsana. 

VEDANTA-PARIBHASHA. A modern text-book on the 
Vedanta philosophy. 

VEDANTA-SARA. 'Essence of the Vedanta. ' A short 
popular work on the Vedanta philosoph}^ It has been trans- 
lated by Ballantyne, and also by Bbhtlingk, Roer, and Frank. 

VEDANTA-SUTRA. The aphorisms of Badaraj'a^za on the 
Vedanta philosophy. They are commonly called Brahma-sutras, 
and a translation under that name by the Rev. K. M, Banerjea 
is progressing in the Bihliotlieca Indlca. There is a French 
translation by Foley. 

VEDARTHA-PRAKA/S'A. ' Elucidation of the meaning of 
the Veda.' This is the name of Saya?ia's great commentary on 
the i??g-veda. Also of a commentary on the Taittirlya Sanhita 
by INIadhavacharya. 

VEDAVATI. The 'vocal daughter' of the Hk\\i Kusa-dhwaja, 
son of B?7'haspati. When Rava?za was passing through a forest 
in the Himalaya he met with A-^edavati, a damsel of great beauty 
dressed in ascetic garb. He fell in love and tried to win her. 
She told him that gods and Gandharvas had sought to woo her, 
but her father would give her to no one but Vish?iu, whom he 
desired for his son-in-law. Provoked at this resolution, /Sam- 
bliu, king of the Daityas, slew her father ; but she remained 
firm to her father's wish, and practised austerities to gain A-^ishTiu 
for her spouse. Nothing daunted, Rava?m urgently pressed his 
suit, and boasted that he was superior to Vish?m. He then 
touched her hair with the tip of his finger. This greatly 
incensed her, and she forthwith cut off her hair, and said she 
would enter into the fire before his eyes, adding, " Since I have 
been insulted in the forest by thee who art wicked-hearted, I shall 
be born again for thy destruction. " So she entered the blazing fire, 
and celestial flowers fell all around. It was she who was born 
again as Sita, and was the moving cause of Rava?2a's death, 
though Rama was the agent. — Muir's Texts, ii. 498, iv. 458. 



YEDA-YYASA. ' The arranger of tlie Yedas.' Bee Yyasa. 

YEDODAYA. ' Source of the Yeda.' An epithet Jf the 
sun as the source of the Sama-veda. 

YEGAYAT. ' Swift.' i. A son of K?-2sh72a. 2. A Danava 
who fought on the side of the >Salwas against K?i'sh?ia, and was 
killed by /S'aniba. 

YEiYA. Son of Anga, and a descendant of Manu Swayam- 
bhuva. AYhen he became king he issued this proclamation : — 
" Men must not sacrifice or give gifts or present oblations. Who 
else but myself is the enjoyer of sacrifices % I am for ever the 
lord of offerings." The sages remonstrated respectfully with 
him, but in vain ; they admonished him in stronger terms ; but 
when nothing availed, they slew him with blades of consecrated 
grass. After his death the sages beheld clouds of dust, and on 
inquiry found that they arose from bands of men who had taken 
to plundering because the country was left without a king. As 
Ye?ia was childless, the sages, after consultation, rubbed the 
thigh (or, according to the Hari-van5a, the right arm) of the dead 
king to produce a son. From it there came forth " a man like 
a charred log, with flat face, and extremely short." The sages 
told him to sit down (N^ishida). He did so, and thus became 
a Nishada, from whom " sjDrang the ISTishadas dwelling in the 
Yindhya mountains, distinguished by their wicked deeds." The 
Brahmans then rubbed the right hand of Ye?2a, and from it 
"sprang the majestic Prithu, Ye/ia's son, resplendent in body, 
glowing like the manifested Agni." The above is the story as 
told, with little variation, in the Maha-bharata, the Yish?zu and 
Bhagavata PuraTias, and the Hari-vansa. The Padiua Purawa 
says that Yewa began his reign well, but fell into the Jaina 
heresy. For this the sages pummelled him until the first of the 
Nishadas came forth from his thioh and Pr?thu from his right 
arm. Being freed from sin by the birth of the iJ^ishada, he 
retired to a hermitage on the Narmada, where he engaged in 
penance. Yish?Ri was thus conciliated, and granted him the 
boon of becoming one with himself. See, P?"ithi. 

YEYl-SANHAEA. ' The binding of the braid.' A drama 
by Bha//a Narayami. The plot is taken from the Maha-bharata. 
Draupadi, the wife of the Pa?i6?u princes, was dragged by the 
hair of her head into the hall of the Kauravas by Uuh-sasana, 
and she vowed that it should remain dishevelled until the insult 


was avenged. After the death of the Kaiiravas she again braided 
her hair. Wilson has given an analysis of the drama. There are 
several editions of the text. 

VENKA7'A, VENKArADEI. A hill which was a seat of 
the worship of Vish7iii. It is the modern Tripati. 

VETALA. A ghost or goblin ; a sprite who haunts cemeteries 
and animates dead bodies. 

VETALA-PANCHAVIX^ATl. The twenty-five stories of 
the Vetala. It is the Baital Pachisi of Hindustani, and has been 
translated into all the languages of India. The work is ascribed 
to an author named Jambhala-datta. 

YETEAYATi. The river Betwa, which rises in the Yind- 
liyas and falls into the Jumna below Kalj^i. 

YIBHAYDAKA. Son of Kasyapa. An ascetic who retired 
from the world and lived in the forest with his infant son 
iiishya-5Tmga (q.v.). A sage of this name is sometimes classed 
among the great i^ishis. 

YIBHISHANA. 'Terrible.' A younger brother of Eavawa. 
He, like his brother, propitiated Brahma, and obtained a boon. 
His was that he should never commit an unworthy action even 
in the greatest extremity. He was virtuous, and opposed to the 
practices of the Eakshasas. This led to a quarrel between him 
and EavaTza, who kicked him from his seat: He flew off to 
Kailasa, and under the advice of ^Siva he went and allied himself 
with Eama-chandra, who received and embraced him as a friend. 
After the defeat and death of Eava?ia he was raised by Eama to 
the throne of Lanka. 

YICHITEA-YlEYA. Name of a king. See Maha-bharata. 

YIDAGDHA-MADHAYA. A drama in seven acts by Eiipa 
on the loves of Krish?za and Eadha, written in 1533 a.d. " It 
is weak as a drama, and its literary merits are small." 

YIDAEBHA. Birar, and probably including with it the 
adjoining district of Beder, which name is ai:)parently a corrup- 
tion of Yidarbha. The capital was Ku?i(iina-pura, the modern 
" Kundapur," about forty miles east of AmaravatL 

YIDDHA-6'ALABHAXJIKA. 'The statue.' A comedy of 
domestic intrigue by Eaja iS'ekhara. It was 2)robably written 
earlier than the tenth century. 

YIDEHA. An ancient country, of which the capital was Mi- 
thila. It corresponds with the modern Tirhut or Xorth Bihar. 


VrDHxiTi?/. * Creator.' A name of Bralima, of Vishmi, 
and of Yi5wa-karma. 

YIDUEA. A son of Yj^asa by a *S'udra slave girl, who took 
the place of his consort. Yidura was called Kshattri, a term 
ordinarily applied to the child of a ^STidra father and Brahman 
mother. He enjoyed the character of the "wisest of the wise," 
and gave good advice to both Kauravas and Payzt^avas, but in 
the war he sided with the latter. See, Maha-bharata. 

YIDURA. A mountain in Ceylon, probably Adam's Peak. 

YIDYAX-MODA-TARA^^GIYL ' fountain of pleasure to 
the learned.' A philosophical work by Rama-deva, translated 
into English by Raja Kali K?7sh?m. 

YLDYA-DHARA (mas.), YIDYA-DHARI (fern.). 'Pos- 
sessors of knowledge.' A class of inferior deities inhabitinsj the 
regions between the earth and sky, and generally of benevolent 
disposition. They are attendants upon Indra, but they have 
chiefs and kings of their own, and are represented as inter- 
marrying and having much intercourse with men. They are 
also called Kama-ru^^in, ' taking shapes at will ; ' Khechara and 
Nabhas-chara, 'moving in the air;' Priyam-vada, 'sweet-spoken.' 

learning.' A title of Madhavacharya, as patron of the city of 
Yidya-nagara, afterwards altered to Yijaya-nagara, the capital of 
the last great Hindu dynasty of the Dakhin. 

YlJA-GANITA A work on algebra, translated by Cole- 
brooke and by Strachey. It is a chapter of the work called 
Siddhanta-5iroma?zi, written by Bhaskaracharya. There are 
several editions of the text. 

YIJAYA-NAGARA The capital of the last great Hindu 
dynasty of the south. It was originally called Yidya-nagara, 
' city of learning,' after the great scholar and minister Miidha- 
vacharya, entitled Yidyara^zya, ' forest of learning.' But in the 
days of its glory the Yidya was altered to Yijaya, ' victory.' 

YIJNANE6YYARA Author of the law-book caUed Mitak- 

YIKARYA. A son of Dh?-ita-rrish/ra. 

YIKRAMADITYA. A celebrated Hindu king who reigned 
at XJjjayini. He is said to have been the son of a king named 
Gardabhila. His name has been given to the Samvat era, com- 
mencing 57 B.C. He was a great patron of learning, and his 


court was made illustrious by the ISTava-ratna, or nine gems of 
literature, who flourished there. He is a great hero of romance, 
and many improbable stories are told of him. His real position 
is uncertain. He appears to have driven out the >S'akas, and to 
have established his authority over K'orthern India. He is said 
to have fallen in battle with his rival /Salivahana, king of the 
Dakhin, who also has an era called /S'aka dating from 78 a. d. 

YIKRAMORYA^I. ' The hero and the nymph.' A cele- 
brated drama by Kahdasa, translated in "Wilson's Hindu Theatre. 
There are many editions and translations. See Purii-ravas. 

YIKUKSHI. A king of the Solar race, who succeeded his 
father, Ikshwaku. He received the name of iSasada, ' hare-eater.' 
He was sent by his father to hunt and obtain flesh suitable for 
off'erings. Being weary and hungr}^ he ate a hare, and Vasish/ha, 
the priest, declared that this act had defiled all the food, for what 
remained was but his leavinojs. 

YIMADA. In the i?/g-veda it is said the Aswins gave 
a bride to the youthful Yimada, and the commentator explains 
that Yimada had won his bride at a swayam-vara, but was stopped 
on the way home by his unsuccessful competitors. The Aswins 
came to his succour, repulsed the assailants, placed the bride in 
their chariot, and carried her to the home of the prince. 

YINATA. A daughter of Daksha, one of the wives of 
Kasyapa, and mother of Garuc?a. According to the Bhagavata 
Purawa she was the wife of Tarksh^^a or Garu6?a. 

YINDA. Yinda and Anuviuda were joint kings of Avantij 
and fought in the great war. 

YIXDHYA. The mountains which stretch across India, and 
divide what Manu calls the Madhya-desa or * middle land,' the 
land of the Hindus, from the south, that is, they divide Hindustan 
from the Dakhiru The mountain is personified, and according to a 
legend he was jealous of the Himalaj^a, and called upon the sun to 
revolve round him as he did round Meru. AATien the sun refused 
the mountain began to raise its head to obstruct that luminary, 
and to tower above Himalaya and Meru. The gods invoked the 
aid of Agastya, the spiritual guide of Yindliya. That sage called 
upon the mountain to bow down before him, and afi'ord him an 
easy passage to and from the south. It obeyed, and Agastya 
passed over. But he never returned, and so the mountain remains 
in its humbled condition, far inferior to the Himalaya. 


VIXDHYAYALI. Y^ife of Bali the Asiira. 

VINDHYA-A^ASIXl. ' The dweUer in the Vindlijas.' The 
wife of iSiva. ^iee Devi. 

YIPA6', YIPA*SA. The river Byas, the Hyphasis or Bibasis 
of the classical ^vriters. A les^end relates that it obtained its 
name through the sage Yasish/ha, who, wishing to commit 
suicide, bound his limbs with cords and threw himself into the 
water. The river, declining to drown him, cast him unbound 
(vipdsa) on its bank. 

YIPRACHITTI. Son of Kasyapa and Danu. He is chief 
of the Danavas. 

YiRA-BHADRA. A son or emanation of iS'iva, created from 
liis mouth, and having, according to the Yayu Pura72a, " a thou- 
sand heads, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet, wielding a thou- 
sand clubs, a thousand shafts ; holding the shell, the discus, the 
mace, and bearing a blazing bow and battle-axe ; fierce and 
terrific, shining with dreadful splendour, and decorated with the 
crescent moon ; clothed in a tiger's skin, dripping with blood, 
having a capacious stomach and a vast mouth armed with for- 
midable tusks," &c., &c. The object of his creation was to stop 
Daksha's sacrifice, and harry away the gods and others who were 
attending. He is an especial object of worship in the Mahratta 
country, and there are sculptures of him in the caves of Ele- 
phanta and Ellora, where he is represented with eight hands. 

YIRA-CHARITA. A book of tales by Ananta, which de- 
scribes the feuds between the descendants of Yikramaditya and 

YIRADHA. A horrible man-eating Rakshasa, son of Kiila 
and /S'atahrada. By penance he had obtained from Brahma the 
boon of invulnerability. He is described as " being like a 
mountain peak, a man-eater, loud-voiced, hollow-eyed, large- 
mouthed, liuge, huge-bellied, horrible, rude, long, deformed, of 
dreadful aspect, wearing a tiger's skin, dripping with fat, wetted 
with blood, terrific to all creatures, like death with open mouth, 
bearing three lions, four tigers, two wolves, ten deer, and the 
great head of an elephant witli the tusks, and smeared with fat, 
on the point of an iron pike, shouting with a loud voice." Rama, 
with Lakshmawa and Sita, encountered him in the Daiidaka 
forest, when he foully abused and taunted the brothers, and 
seized upon Sita, The brothers proved with their arrows that 

VIRAJ— vis ALA. 3 5 9 

lie was not invulnerable, but he caught them, threw them over 
his shoulders, and ran off with them as if they had been chil- 
dren. They broke both his arms, threw him down, beat him 
with their fists, and dashed him to the earth, but they could not 
kill him, so they dug a deep hole and buried him alive. After 
his burial there arose from the earth a beautiful person, who 
said that he was a Gandliarva who had been condemned by 
Kuvera to assume the shape of a Rakshasa, from which Rama 
had enabled him to escape. He was also called Tumburu. 

VIRAJ. Manu thus describes Yiraj : — " Having divided his 
body into two parts, the lord (Brahma) became with the half a 
male, and with the (other) half a female ; and in her he created 
Viraj. Know that I (Manu), whom that male Yiraj himself 
created, am the creator of all this world." {See Manu.) One 
passage in the it'ig-veda says, "From him (Purusha) sprang 
Viraj, and from Viraj (sprang) Purusha" (Muir^s Texts, v. 50, 
369), like as Aditi is said to have sprung from Daksha, and 
Daksha from Aditi. Viraj, the male half of Brahma, is sup- 
posed to typify all male creatures ; and /S'ata-riipa, the female 
haK, all female forms. 

VlRA-MITRODAYA. A law-book by Mitra-misra, of autho- 
rity in the Benares School. It is in the form of a commentary 
on the Mitakshara. The text is in print. 

VIRATA. A country in the vicinity of the modern Jaypur. 
The present town of Baira^ is 105 miles south of Delhi. Its king 
was called Raja of YiiM-a. or Raja Vira/a. It was at his court 
that the Pawc^ava princes and Draupadi lived in disguise. They 
rendered him great services against his enemies, and he fought 
on their side in the great war and was killed by Dro??a. See 

VIROCHANA. A Danava, son of Prahlada, and father of 
Bali. He is also called Drisana. When the earth was milked, 
Virochana acted as the calf of the Asuras. See Pr/thi. 

VIRtJPAKSHA. 'Deformed as to the eyes.' A name of 
^iva, who has three eyes. Also one of the Rudras. Also a 
Danava, son of Kasyapa. 

VI.S^AKHA-DATTA. Author of the drama " Mudra-rak- 
shasa." He is said to be of royal descent, but his family has 
not been identified. 

VIaSALA. a name of the city UjjayinL 

36o VISHNU. 

YISHiYU. Root, vish, 'to pervade.' The second god of the 
Hindu triad In the /i/g-veda Yishjm is not in the first rank of 
gods. He is a manifestation of the solar energy, and is described as 
striding through the seven regions of the universe in three steps, 
and enveloping all things with the dust (of his heams). These 
three steps are explained by commentators as denoting the three 
manifestations of light — fire, lightning, and the sun ; or the three 
places of the sun — its rising, culmination, and setting. In the 
Yeda he is occasionally associated with Indra. He has very 
little in common with the Yishwu of later times, but he is called 
"the unconquerable preserver," and this distincth'- indicates the 
great preserving power which he afterwards became. 

In the Brahma?ias Yishwu acquires new attributes, and is in- 
vested with legends unknown to the Yedas, but still very far dis- 
tant from those of the Pura?zas. In Manu, the name is men- 
tioned, but not as that of a great deity. In the ]\Iaha-bharata 
and in the Purawas he is the second member of the triad, the 
embodiment of the Satwa-guwa, the quality of mercy and good- 
ness, which displays itself as the preserving power, the self- 
existent, all-pervading spirit. As such, his votaries associate 
him with the watery element which spread everywhere before 
the creation of the world. In this character he is called Nara- 
yawa, ' moving in the waters,' and is represented pictoriaUy in 
human form slumbering on the serpent ^S'esha and floating on 
the waters. This, too, is the position he assumes during the 
periods of temporary annihilation of the universe. 

The worshippers of Yish/iu recognise in him the supreme 
bein£f from whom all things emanate. In the Maha-bharata and 
in the Pura?zas he is the Prajapati (creator) and supreme god. 
As such, he has three Avasthas or conditions : — i. That of 
Brahma, the active creator, who is represented as springing from 
a lotus which grew from Yishwu's navel while he was sleeping 
afloat upon the waters. 2. Yish?m himself, the preserver, in an 
Avatara or incarnate form, as in K77sh?ni. 3. iSiva or Rudra, 
the destructive power, who, according to a statement 'of the 
Maha-bharata, sprang from his forehead. But though the INIaha- 
bliiirata generally allows Yishwu the supremacy, it does not do 
so invariably and exclusively. There are passages which uphold 
/S'iva as the greatest of the gods, and represent Yishwu as jjaying 
him homage. The /S'aiva Pura/ias of course make iSiva supreme. 

VISHNU. 36't 

Yishwu's preserving and restoring power has been manifested 
to the world in a variety of forms called Avataras, literally ' de- 
scents,' but more intelligibly ' incarnations,' in which a portion 
of his divine essence was embodied in a human or supernatural 
form possessed of superhuman powers. All these Avataras 
became manifest for correcting some great evil or effecting some 
great good in the world. The Avataras are ten in number, but 
the Bhagavata PuraTia increases them to twenty-two, and adds 
that in reality they are innumerable. All the ten Avataras are 
honoured, but the seventh and eighth, Eama and Kr/sh?za, are 
honoured as great mortal heroes and receive worship as great gods. 
K?*2sh?2a is more especially looked upon as a full manifestation 
of Yishmi, and as one with Vish/iu himself, and he is the object 
of a widely extended and very popular worship. See Avatara. 

The holy river Ganges is said to spring from the feet of 

As preserver and restorer, Yishiiu is a very popular deity, 
and the worship paid to him is of a joyous character. He has 
a thousand names (Sahasra-nama), the repetition of which is a 
meritorious act of devotion. His wife is Lakshml or /S'ri, the 
goddess of fortune, his heaven is Yaikun/ha, and his vehicle 
is the bird Garuc?a. He is represented as a comely youth of a 
dark-blue colour, and dressed like an ancient king. He has four 
hands. One holds the Panchajanya (q.v.), a iS^ankha or conch- 
shell ; another the Su-dar5ana or Yajra-nabha, a chakra or quoit 
weapon ; the third, a Gada or club called Kaumodaki ; and the 
fourth, a Padma or lotus. He has a bow called >Sarnga, and a 
sword called ISTandaka. On his breast are the peculiar mark or 
curl called ^Sri-vatsa and the jewel Kaustubha, and on his wrist 
is the jewel Syamantaka. He is sometimes represented seated 
on a lotus with Lakshmi beside him, or reclining on a leaf of 
that plant. Sometimes he is portrayed reclining on the serpent 
^esha, and at others as riding on his gigantic bird Garuf?a. 

Of the thousand names of Yishmi the following are some of 
the most common : — Achyuta, ' unf alien, imperishable ;' Ananta, 
' the endless ; ' Ananta-5ayana, ' who sleeps on the serpent 
Ananta;' Chatur-bhuja, * four-armed ;' Damodara, 'bound round 
the belly with a rope,' as Kr?sh7Z.a ; Govinda or Gopala, ' the 
cowkeeper ' (KHsh?ia) ; Hari ; Hrishikesa, ' lord of the organs 
of sense ; ' Jala-5ayin, ' who sleeps on the waters ; ' Janarddana, 


' whom men worship ; ' Ke.<^ava, ' the hairy, the radiant ; ' Kiri- 
tin, ' wearing a tiara ;' Lakshmipati, ' lord of Lakshmi ;' Madhn- 
sudana, ' destroj^er of Madliu ;' Madhava, 'descendant of Madhu;' 
Mukimda, 'deliverer;' Murari, 'the foe of Mura;' Nara, 'the 
man ; ' Naraya?za, ' who moves in the waters ; ' Panchayudlia, 
' armed with five weapons ; ' Padma-nabha, ' lotus-navel ; ' Pitam- 
bara, ' clothed in yellow garments ; ' Purusha, ' the man, the 
spirit;' Purushottama, 'the highest of men, the supreme spirit;' 
^arngin or *Sarngi-pam, ' carrying the bow 6'arnga ; ' Yasudeva, 
K?'ish72a, son of Yasudeva; Yarshweya, 'descendant of Yr/shwi;' 
Yaikun^'ha-natha, ' lord of Yaikun/ha (paradise) ; ' Yajnesa, 
Yajneswara, 'lord of sacrifice.' 

YISHYU. Author of a Dharma-sastra or law-book. 

YISHYU PURAiYA. This PuraTza generally stands third 
in the lists, and is described as " that in which Parasara, begin- 
ning with the events of the Yaraha Kalpa, expounds all duties, 
is called the Yaishnava, and the learned know its extent to be 
23,000 stanzas." The actual number of stanzas does not amount 
to 7000, and there is no appearance of any part being wanting. 
The text is in print. 

Y-^ilson, the translator of this PuraTza, says, " Of the whole 
series of Purawas the YishTiu most closely corresponds to the 
definition of a Pancha-laksha72a Purawa, or one which treats of 
five specified topics (Primary Creation, Secondary Creation, 
Genealogies of Gods and Patriarchs, Eeigns of the Manus, His- 
tory). It comprehends them all ; and although it has infused 
a portion of extraneous and sectarial matter, it has done so with 
sobriety and judgment, and has not suffered the fervour of its 
religious zeal to transport it to very wide deviations from the 
prescribed path. The legendary tales which it has inserted are 
few, and are conveniently arranged, so that they do not distract 
the attention of the compiler from objects of more permanent 
interest and importance." The whole work has been translated 
with numerous elucidatory notes by Wilson, and a second edi- 
tion has be&n published with additional valuable notes by Dr. 
F. Hall. 

YISMAPANA. ' Astounding.' The aerial city of the Gand- 
harvas, which appears and disappears at intervals. 

YIaS'RAYAS. Son of the Prajapati Pulastya, or, according 
to a statement of the Maha-bharata, a reproduction of half 


Pulastya himself. By a Bralimani wife, daughter of the sage 
Bharadwaja, named I^avic^a or Ilavif/a, he had a son, Kuvera, the 
god of wealth. By a Rfdcshasi named Nikasha or KaikasT, 
daughter of Sumali, he had three sons, Ravawa, Ivumhlia-karTza, 
and Vibhishana and a daughter named Surpa-nakha. The 
Vish??u PuraTza substitutes Kesini for Nikashii. The account 
given by the Mahii-bharata is that Pulastya, being offended with 
Kuvera for his adulation of Brahma, reproduced half of himself 
as Yisravas, and Kuvera to recover his favour gave him three 
Rakshasi handmaids : Pushpotka/a, the mother of PavaTia and 
Kumbhakar?za ; MalinI, the mother of Vibhishana; and Raka, 
the mother of Khara and Surpa-nakha. 

VI6'WA-DEYAS, YI^WE-DEVAS. 'All the gods.' In 
the Vedas they form a class nine in number. All the deities of 
inferior order. They are addressed in the Yeda as " preservers 
of men, bestowers of rewards." In later times, a class of deities 
particularly interested in exequial offerings. The accounts of 
them are rather vague. They are generally said to be ten in 
number, but the lists vary, both as to the number and the names. 
The following is one list: — (i.) Yasu, (2.) Satya, (3.) Kratu, 
(4.) Daksha, (5.) Kala, (6.) Kama, (7.) Dhnti, (8.) Kuru, (9.) 
Purii-ravas, (10.) Madravas. Two others are sometimes added, 
Rochaka or Lochana and Dhuri or Dhwani. See Yishmi Pura?za, 
Hall's edition, vol, iii. pp. 178, 188, 189. 

YI/S'WA-KARMA, YIaS'WA-KARMAK 'Omnificent.' This 
name seems to have been originally an epithet of any powerful 
god, as of Indra and Siirya, but in course of time it came to 
designate a personification of the creative power. In this cha- 
racter Yiswa-karma was the great architect of the universe, and 
is described in two hymns of tlie itig-veda as the one " all-seeing 
god, who has on every side eyes, faces, arms, and feet, who, 
when producing heaven and earth, blows them forth (or shapes 
them) with his arms and wings ; the father, generator, disposer, 
who knows all worlds, gives the gods their names, and is beyond 
the comprehension of mortals." In these hymns also he is said 
to sacrifice himself or to himself, and the ISTirukta explains this 
by a legend which represents that " Yiswa-karma, son of Bhu- 
vana, first of all ofi"ered up all worlds in a Sarva-medlia (general 
sacrifice), and ended by sacrificing himself." 

In the Epic and Puramc periods Yiswa-karma is invested 


with the powers and offices of the Yedic Twash^?-z, and is some- 
times so called. He is not only the great architect, but the 
general artificer of the gods and maker of their weapons. It was 
he who made the Agneyastra or " fiery weapon," and it was he 
who revealed the Sthapatya-veda, or science of architecture and 
mechanics. The Maha-bharata describes him as " the lord of 
the arts, executor of a thousand handicrafts, the carpenter of the 
gods, the fashioner of all ornaments, the most eminent of artisans, 
who formed the celestial chariots of the deities, on whose craft 
men subsist, and whom, a great and immortal god, they continu- 
ally worship." 

In the RamayaTia, Yiswa-karma is represented as having built 
the city of Lanka for the Rakshasas, and as having generated 
the ape IsTala, who constructed Rama's bridge from the continent 
to Ceylon. 

The Purawas make Yiswa-karma the son of Prabhasa, the 
eighth Yasu, by his wife "the lovely and virtuous Yoga-siddha. " 
His daughter Sanjna was married to Surya, the sun ; but as she 
was unable to endure his effulgence, Yiswa karma placed the sun 
upon his lathe and cut away an eighth part of his brightness. 
The fragments fell to the earth, and from these Yiswa-karma 
formed " the discus of Yishwu, the trident of iSiva, the weapon 
of Kuvera the god of wealth, the lance of Karttikeya god 
of war, and the weapons of the other gods." Yiswa-karmil 
is also represented as having made the great image of Jagan- 

In his creative capacity he is sometimes designated Prajapati. 
He also has the appellations Karu, ' workman ; ' Takshaka, 
* woodcutter ; ' Deva-vardhika, ' the builder of the gods ; ' Su- 
dhanwan, ' having a good bow.' 

YIaS'WAMITRA. a celebrated sage, who was born a Kslia- 
triya, but by intense austerities raised himself to tlie Brahman 
caste, and became one of the seven great R'lshis. According to 
the 7?/g-veda he was son of a king named Kusika, a descendant 
of Ku5a, but later authorities make him the son of Gilthin or 
Gadhi, king of Kanya-kubja, and a descendant of Puru ; so 
Yiswamitra is declared in the Hari-vansa to be " at once a Pau- 
rava and a Kausika" by lineage. According to some, Giidhi was 
of the Kusika race, descended from Kusika. Yiswamitra is 
called Gadhi-ja and Gadhi-nandana, ' son of Gadhi.' The story 


of Yiswiimitra's birth, as told in the Vishvzu Purawa, is that 
Gaclhi had a daughter named Satyavati, whom he gave in mar- 
riage to an old Brahman of the race of Bh?-igu named iti'chika. 
The wife being a Kshatriya, her husband was desirous that she 
might bear a son having the qualities of a Brahman, and he gave 
her a dish of food which he had prepared to effect this object. 
He also gave her mother a dish intended to make her conceive a 
son with the character *of a warrior. At the instigation of the 
mother the dishes were exchanged, so the mother gave birth to 
Viswamitra, the son of a Kshatriya with the qualities of a 
Brahman ; and Satyavati bore Jamad-agni, the father of Parasu- 
rama, the warrior Brahman and destroyer of the Kshatriyas. 

The most noteworthy and important feature in the legends of 
Viswamitra is the active and enduring struggle between him 
and the Brahman Rkhi Yasish^fha, a fact which is frequently 
alluded to in the J?ig-veda, and is supposed to typify the con- 
tentions between the Brahmans and the Kshatriyas for the 
superiority. Both these i?/sliis occupy a prominent position in 
the i?ig-veda, Yiswamitra being the itishi of the hymns in the 
third Mawfiala, which contains the celebrated verse Gayatri, and 
Vasish/ha of those of the seventh. Each of them was at differ- 
ent times the Purohita or family priest of King Su-das, a position 
of considerable importance and power, the possession of which 
stimulated if it did not cause their rivalry. The two sages 
cursed each other, and carried their enmity into deeds of vio- 
lence. Yiswamitra's hundred sons are represented as having 
been eaten or burnt up by the breath of Yasish/ha. On the 
other hand, the hundred sons of Yasish/ha were, according to 
one legend, eaten up by King Kalmasha-pada, into whom a 
man-eating Rakshasa had entered under the influence of Yiswa- 
mitra, or, according to another legend, they were reduced to 
ashes by Yiswamitra's curse " and reborn as degraded outcasts 
for seven hundred births." The Aitareya Brahma?ia states that 
Yiswamitra had a hundred sons, but that when he adopted his 
nephew AS'una/i-se^^has he proposed to make him the eldest of his 
sons. Fifty of them assented, and them Yiswamitra blessed 
that they should " aboimd in cattle and sons ; " the other and 
elder fifty dissented, and them he cursed "that their progeny 
should possess the furthest ends (of the country)," and from 
them have descended many of the border tribes and most of the 


Dasyus. The Malia-bliarata has a legend of Yiswamitra having 
commanded the river Saraswati to bring his rival Yasish/ha that 
he might kill him, and of having turned it into blood when it 
flowed in another direction and carried Yasish/ha out of his 

Yiswamitra's relationship to Jamad-agni naturally places him 
in a prominent position in the Ramaya/ia. Here the old animo- 
sity between him and Yasish/ha again appears. He as a king 
paid a visit to Yasish&a's hermitage, and was most hospitably 
entertained ; but he wished to obtain Yasish/ha's wondrous cow, 
the Kama-dhenu, which had furnished all the dainties of the 
feast. His offers were immense, but ^vere all dechned. The 
cow resisted and broke away when he attempted to take her by 
force, and when he battled for her, his armies were defeated by 
the hosts summoned up by the cow, and his "hundred sons were 
reduced to ashes in a moment by the blast of Yasish^ha's mouth." 
A long and fierce combat followed between Yasish/ha and 
Yiswamitra, in which the latter was defeated ; the Kshatriya 
had to submit to the humiliation of acknowledging his infe- 
riority to the Brahman, and he therefore resolved to work out his 
own elevation to the Brahmanical order. 

'\Miile he was engaged in austerities for accomplishing his 
object of becoming a Brahman he became connected with King 
Tri-5anku. This monarch was a descendant of King Ikshwaku, 
and desired to perform a sacrifice in virtue of which he might 
ascend bodily to heaven. His priest, Yasish/ha, declared it to 
be impossible, and that priest's hundred sons, on being applied 
to, refused to undertake what their father had declined. When 
the king told them that he would seek some other means of 
accomplishing his object, they condemned him to become a 
Cha7ic/ala. In this condition he had resort to Yiswamitra, and 
he, taking pity on him, raised him to heaven in his bodily form, 
notwithstanding the opposition of the sons of Yasish/ha. The 
Hari-vansa version of this story is difl'erent. Tri-sanku, also 
called Satya-vrata, had attempted the abduction of the young 
wife of a citizen. For this his father banished him, and con- 
demned him to " the performance of a silent penance for twelve 
years." During his exile there was a famine, and Tri-sanku 
succoured and supported the wife and family of Yiswamitra, 
who were reduced to the direst extremity in that sage's absence. 

V/S WAMITRA . 367 

Yasish/lia, the family priest, had done nothing to assuage the 
wrath of the aggrieved father, and this offended Tri-sanku. At 
the end of his penance, being in want of meat, he killed Vasish- 
ftia's wonder-working cow and partook of her flesh; for this 
act Vasish/ha gave him the name of Tri-5anku, ' guilty of three 
sins.' Yiswiimitra was grateful for the assistance rendered by 
Tri-5anku, and gave him the choice of a boon. He begged that 
he might ascend bodily to heaven. Viswamitra then installed 
Tri-sanku in his father's kingdom, " and in spite of the resist- 
ance of the gods and of Yasish/ha he exalted the king alive to 

The Maha-bhiirata and the Ramayawa tell the story of Yiswa- 
mitra's amour with Menaka. His austerities had so alarmed the 
gods that Indra sent this Apsaras to seduce Yiswamitra " by the 
display of her charms and the exercise of all her allurements." 
She succeeded, and the result was the birth of >S'akuntala. 
Yiswamitra at length became ashamed of his passion, and " dis- 
missing the nymph with gentle accents, he retired to the northern 
mountains, where he practised severe austerities for a thousand 
years." He is said also to have had an amour with the nymph 

The result of the struggle between Yasish/ha and Yiswamitra 
is thus told in the Ramaya?ia : — " Yasishi!ha, being propitiated 
by the gods, became reconciled to Yiswamitra, and recognised 
his claim to all the prerogatives of a Brahman i^ishi. . . . Yiswa- 
mitra, too, having attained the Brahmanical rank, paid all honour 
to Yasish/ha." 

The Ramaya?2a gives many particulars of Yiswamitra's con- 
nection with Rama. It was Yiswamitra who prevailed upon 
King Dasa-ratha to send his son Rama for the protection of the 
Brahmans against the attacks of Rava?za and his Rakshasas. He 
acted as his guru, and returned with Rama to Ayodliya, where 
the prince obtained the hand of Sita. 

In the MarkawZeya and other Pura?2as the story is told of 
Yiswamitra's implacable persecution of King Haris-chandra (see 
Haris-chandra), one result of which was that Yasish/ha and 
Yiswamitra cursed each other so that they were turned into 
birds, and fought together most furiously till Brahma put an 
end to the conflict, restored them to their natural forms, and 
compelled them to be reconciled. 


YIS'WA-RtJPA. ' Wearing all forms, omniiDresent, universal ; ' 
a title of Yishwu. 

YI^SWAVASU. A chief of tlie Gandliarvas in Indra's 

YLSWE-SWARA. 'Lord of aU.' A name of ^iva. The 
celebrated Linsi^a or emblem of AS'iva at Benares. See Linp^a. 

YiTA-HAYYA A king of the Haihayas. His sons attacked 
and slew all the family of Divodiisa, king of Ivasi. A son, 
named Pratardana (q.v.), was subsequently born to Divodasa, 
and he attacked the Haihayas and compelled Yita-havya to fly 
to the sage Bhr^gu for protection. Pratardana pursued him, and 
demanded that he should be given up. Then " Yita-havya, by 
the mere word of Bh?igu, became a Brahman it/shi and an 
utterer of the Yeda" (Maha-bharata). His son, Gritsa-mada, 
was a highly honoured it/shi, and author of several hymns in 
the jRig-veda. He was the founder of the tribe of Haihayas 
called Yita-havyas. 

YITASTA. The classic Hydaspes, the Behat of later days, 
and the modern Jhelam. 

YIYADA-BHANGARAA.YA. A code of Hindu law ac- 
cording to the Bengal school, composed by Jagan-natha Tarka- 
lankara at the end of the last century. It has been translated 
by Colebrooke, and is commonly known as ColebrooJce's Digest 

YIYADA-CHANDRA. A law-book of the Benares school 
by Lakhima Devi, a learned lady. 

YIYADA - CHINTAMAA^I. A law-book of the Mithila 
school by Yachaspati INIisra. The text is in print. 

YIYADA-RATNAKARA. A law-book of the Benares school 
by Chandeswara, Avho lived about 13 14 a.d. 

YIYADA-TAiYDAYA. A law-book of the Benares school 
by Ratnakara. 

YIYASWAT. 'The l)right one.' The sun. {See Surya,) 
Used sometimes perhaps for the firmament. 

YIYINDHAYA. A Danava killed in battle by Chfiru- 
deslma, son of Kn'sh/ia. See Maha-bharata. 

YOPA-DEYA A grammarian of great repute, who lived 
about the thirteenth century a.d. at Deva-giri, and wrote the 

YRAJA. A pastoral district about Agra and Mathura, where 
Krislma ]3assed his boyhood with the cowherds. 


YE AT Y A. " Persons whom the twice-born beget on women 
of their own classes, but who omit the prescribed rites and 
have abandoned the Gayatri, are to be designated as Yrat^^as." 
— Manu. 

Yi?/DDHA. 'Old.' An epithet frequently found jDrefixed 
to the books of ancient writers, and evidently implying that 
there are one or more versions or recensions — as Ynddha 
Manu, Yriddha Harita. See Dharma-sastra. 

Yi^/HAT-KATHA. 'Great story.' A large collection of tales 
from which the Katha-sarit-sagara was drawn. There is a 
critical examination of this work by Dr. Btililer in the Indian 
Antiquary, vol. i. 

Yi?/HAT-SANHITA. The astronomical work of Yaraha 

Yi^/HAN NAEADlYA PUKAYA. An Upa-pura?ia. See 

Yi?/HASPATI. See Br^haspatl 

YEIKOBAHA. ' Wolf beUy.' An epithet of Bhima. 

YFil^BA-YAl^A. A wood in the district of Mathura where 
Is^rishnsL passed his youth, under the name of Gopala, among the 

Yit/SHYI. A descendant of Yadu, and the ancestor from 
w^hom K?"zsh??a got the name Yarshweya. 

Yi?/SHY1S, Y7^/SHYAYAS. The descendants of Ynshm, 
son of Madhu, whose ancestor was the eldest son of Yadu. 
l^rishna, belonged to this branch of the Lunar race. 

Yii/TEA. In the Yedas he is the demon of drought and 
ungenial weather, with whom Indra, the god of the firmament, 
is constantly at war, and whom he is constantly overpowering, 
and releasing the rain. Sometimes called Y?'itrasura. 

Yi^/TEA-HAK The slayer of Yntra. A title of Indra. 

YYADI. An old grammarian and lexicographer, somewhat 
later in time than Pa^zini. A story in the Y?ihat-katha repre- 
sents him as contemporary with YararuchL 

YYAHit/TIS. Three mystical words said by Manu to 
have been milked from the Yedas by Prajapati — the word bliur, 
from the i^^g-veda ; the word bhuvah, from the Yajur-veda; and 
the word swar, from the Sama-veda {Manu, ii. 76). The /Sata- 
patha Brahma?ia defines them as " three luminous essences " 
which Prajapati produced from the Yedas by heating them. 

2 A 


'' He littered the word hlmr, which became this earth ; hhuvah, 
which became this firmament ; and sivar, which became that 
sky." A fourth word, maliar, is sometimes added, and is pro- 
bably intended to represent the Atharva-veda. See Loka. 

YYAKARAiVA. 'Grammar.' One of the Yedangas. The 
science of grammar has been carefiUly studied among tlie Hindus 
from very ancient times, and studied for its own sake as a science 
rather than as a means of acquiring or regulating language. The 
grammar of Pa?iini is the oldest of those known to survive, but 
Pawini refers to several grammarians who preceded himself. One 
of them was named ^S'aka/ayana, a portion of whose work is 
said to have been discovered lately. 

VYASA. ' An arranger.' This title is common to many old 
authors and compilers, but it is especially applied to Yeda-vyasa 
the arranger of the Yedas, who, from the imperishable nature of 
his work, is also called /S'aswatas, ' the immortal' The name is 
given also to the compiler of the IMaha-bharata, the founder of 
the Yedanta philosophy, and the arranger of the Purawas ; all 
these persons being held to be identical with Yeda-vyasa. But 
this is impossible, and the attribution of all these works to one 
person has arisen either from a desire to heighten their antiquity 
and authority, or from the assumed identity of several different 
" arrangers." Yeda-vyasa was the illegitimate son of the Pikhi 
Parasara and Satyavati, and the child, who was of a dark colour, 
was brought forth on an island (dwipa) in the Yamuna. Being 
illegitimate he was called Kanina, the ' bastard ; ' from his com- 
plexion he received the name Krishwa, and from his birtliplace 
he was called Dwaipayana. His mother afterwards married King 
^S'antanu, by whom she had two sons. The elder was killed in 
battle, and the younger, named Yichitra-vlrya, died childless. 
Knsh7za Dwaipayana preferred a life of religious retirement, 
but in accordance with law and at his mother's request, he took 
the two childless widows of her son, Yichitra-vlrya. By them 
he had two sons, Dh?ita-rash^ra and ViHidw, between whose 
descendants the great war of the Malia-bharata was fought. 

The Pura?i!as mention no less than twenty-eight Yyiisas, 
incarnations of Yislmu or Brahma, who descended to the earth 
in different ages to arrange and promulgate the Yedas. 

YYAYAHARA-CHINTAMAA^I A law-book of the Benares 
school by Yachaspati Misra. 


YYAVAHARA-MAYUKHA. A law-book of the Maliratta 
school by Nilakan/ha Bha//a. Translated by Borrodaile. 

VYAVAHARA-TATWA. A modern work on law accord- 
ing to the Bengal school by Raghunandana, who is also called 

YADAVA. A descendant of Yadii. The Yadavas were the 
celebrated race in which Kr/shwa was born. At the time of his 
birth they led a pastoral life, but under him they established a 
kingdom at Dwaraka in Gujarat. All the Yadavas who were 
present in that city after the death of KrishTia perished in it 
when it was submerged by the ocean. Some few were absent, 
and perpetuated the race, from which many princes and chiefs 
still claim their descent. The great Rajas of Vijaya-nagara 
asserted themselves as its representatives. The Aash?iu Pura/z^a 
says of this race, " Who shall enumerate the wdiole of the mighty 
men of the Yadava race, who were tens of ten thousands and 
hundreds of hundred thousands in number ? " 

YADU. Son of King Yayati of the Lunar race, and founder 
of the line of the Yadavas in which Knsh?ia was born. He 
refused to bear the curse of decrepitude passed upon his father 
by the sage ^S'ukra, and in consequence he incurred the paternal 
curse, "Your posterity shall not possess dominion." Still he 
received from his father the southern districts of his kingdom, 
and his posterity prospered. 

YAJA. A Brahman of great sanctity, who, at the earnest 
solicitation of King Drupada, and for the offer of ten millions of 
kine, performed the sacrifice through which his " altar-born " 
children, Dh?7'sh^a-dyumna and Draujjadi, came forth from the 
sacrificial fire. 

YAJXA. 'Sacrifice.' Sacrifice personified in the Purawas 
as son of Ruchi and husband of Dakshiwa. He had the head 
of a deer, and was killed by Vira-bhadra at Daksha's sacrifice. 
According to the Hari-vansa he was raised to the j^lanetary 
sphere by Brahma, and made into the constellation Mr/ga-siras 

YAJ:N'A-DATTA-BADHA. ' The death of Yajna-datta.' An 
episode of the Ramaya?m. It has been translated into Prench 
by Chezy. 

YAJNA-PARIBHASHA. A SCitra work by Apastambha. 

YAJXA-SENA. A name of Drupada. 

372 YAyiVA IVA LK \ A . 

YAJNAWALKYA. A celebrated sage, to wliom is attri- 
buted tbe 'Wniite Yajur-veda, the ^S'atapatba Brahmawa, tbe 
Erihad Ara7zyaka, and the code of law called Yajnawalkya- 
sm?7'ti. He lived before the grammarian Ivatyayana, and was 
probably later than Mann ; at any rate, the code bearing his 
name is posterior to that of Mann. He was a disciple of Bash- 
kali, and more particularly of Yai^ampayana. The Maha-bharata 
makes him present at the Raja-siiya sacrifice performed by 
Yudlii-sh/hira ; and according to the >S'atapatha Brahma7ia he 
flourished at the court of Janaka, king of Yideha and father of 
Sita. Janaka had long contentions with the Brrdimans, in which 
he was supported, and probably prompted, by Yajnawalkya. 
This sage was a dissenter from the religious teaching and prac- 
tices of his time, and is represented as contending with and 
silencing Brahmans at the court of his patron. A Brahman 
named Yidagdha ^Sakalya was his especial adversary, but he 
vanquished him and cursed him, so that " his head dropped off, 
and his bones were stolen by robbers." Yajnawalkya also is 
represented as inculcating the duty and necessity of religious 
retirement and meditation, so he is considered as having been 
the originator of the Yoga doctrine, and to have helped in pre- 
paring the world for the preaching of Buddha. He had two 
wives, Maitreyi and Katyayani, and he instructed the former in 
his philosophical doctrine. Max IMiiller quotes a dialogue be- 
tween them from the iSatapatha Brahma?ia {Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature, p. 22), in which the sage sets forth his views. 

The White Yajur-veda originated in a schism, of Mdiich 
Yajnawalkya was a leader, if not the author. He was the ori- 
ginator and compiler of this Yeda, and according to some it was 
called Yajasaneyl Sanhita, from his surname Yajasaneya. See 

What share Yajnawalkya had in the production of the Sata,- 
patlia Brahma?/a and Brihad Arawyaka is very doubtful. Some 
part of them may, j^erhaps, have sprung directly from him, and 
they were probably compiled under his superintendence ; but it 
may be, as some think, that they are so called because they treat 
of him and embody his teaching. One portion of the B/v'had 
Ara/iyaka, called the Yajnawalkiya Iviinch, cannot have been his 
composition, for it is devoted to his" glorification and honour, and 
was probably written after his death. 


The Sm?'iti, or code of law which bears the name of Yajna- 
walkya, is j^osterior to that of Mann, and is more precise and 
stringent in its provisions. Its authority is inferior only to that 
of Mann, and as explained and developed by the celebrated 
commentary Mitakshara, it is in force all over India except in 
Eengal proper, but even there the original text-book is received. 
The second century a.d. has been named as the earliest date of 
this work. Like Manu, it has two recensions, the Brihad and 
V?'iddha, perhaps more. The text has been printed in Calcutta, 
and has been translated into German by Stenzler and into Eng- 
lish by Roer and Montriou. 

YAJUR or YAJUSH. The second Veda. See Veda. 

YAKSHAS. A class of supernatural beings attendant on 
Kuvera, the god of wealth. Authorities differ as to their origin. 
They have no very special attributes, but they are generally 
considered as inoffensive, and so are caUed Pu?iya-janas, ' good 
people,' but they occasionally appear as imps of evil. It is a 
Yakslia in whose mouth Kali-dasa placed his poem Megha-diita 
(cloud messenger). 


YAKSHI, YAKSHIVI. i. A female Yaksha. 2. Wife of 
Kuvera. 3. A female demon or imp attendant on Durga. 

YAM A. * Restrainer.' Pluto, Minos. In the Vedas Yama 
is god of the dead, with whom the spirits of the departed dwell. 
He was the son of Vivaswat (the Sun), and had a twin-sister 
named Yami or Yamuna. These are by some looked upon as 
the first human pair, the originators of the race ; and there is a 
remarkable hymn, in the form of a dialogue, in which the female 
urges their cohabitation for the purpose of perpetuating the 
species. Another hymn says that Yama " was the first of men 
that died, and the first that departed to the (celestial) world." He 
it was who found out the way to the home which cannot be taken 
away : " Those who are now born (follow) by their own paths 
to the place whither our ancient fathers have departed." "But," 
says Dr. JMuir, " Yama is nowhere represented in the i^/g-veda 
as having anything to do with the punishment of the wicked." 
So far as is yet known, " the hymns of that Veda contain no 
prominent mention of any such penal retribution. . . . Yama is 
still to some extent an object of terror. He is represented as 
having two insatiable dogs with four eyes and wide nostrils, 


374 VAMA. 

wliicli guard the road to his abode, and which the departed are 
advised to hurry past with all possible speed. These dogs are 
said to wander about among men as his messengers, no doubt 
for the purpose of summoning them to their master, who is in 
another place identified with death, and is described as sending 
a bird as the herald of doom." 

In the epic poems Yama is the son of the Sun by Sanjna 
(conscience), and brother of Yaivaswata (Manu). Mythologically 
he was the father of Yudhi-sh^hira. He is the god of departed 
spirits and judge of the dead. A soul when it quits its mortal 
form repairs to his abode in the lower regions ; there the re- 
corder, Chitra-gupta, reads out his account from the great 
register called Agra-sandhani, and a just sentence follows, when 
the soul either ascends to the abodes of the Pitris (Manes), or 
is sent to one of the twenty-one hells according to its guilt, or 
it is born again on earth in another form. Yama is regent of 
the south quarter, and as such is called Dakshinasa-pati. He 
is represented as of a green colour and clothed with red. He 
rides upon a bufi'alo, and is armed with a ponderous mace and a 
noose to secure his victims. 

In the Pura7?as a legend is told of Yama having lifted his 
foot to kick Chhaya, the handmaid of his father. She cursed 
liim to have his leg affected with sores and worms, but his 
father gave him a cock which picked off the worms and cured 
the discharge. Through this incident he is called iS'lr/za-pada, 
'shrivelled foot.' 

Yama had several wives, as Hemamala, Su-sTlii, and Yijaya. 
He dwells in the lower world, in his city Yama-pura. There, in 
his palace called Kalichi, he sits upon his throne of judgment, 
Vichara-bliu. He is assisted by his recorder and councillor, 
Chitra-gupta, and waited upon by his two chief attendants and 
custodians, Chanda or Maha-chanda, and Krda-pursusha. His 
messengers, Yama-diitas, bring in the souls of the dead, and the 
door of his judgment-hall is kept by his porter, Vaidliyata. 

Yama has many names descriptive of his office. He is M?7*tyu, 
Kala, and Antaka, ' death ; ' Kntanta, ' the finisher ; ' ^Samana, 
' the settler ; ' Dandi or Darz^a-dhara, ' the rod-bearer ; ' Bliima- 
siisana, ' of terrible decrees ; ', ' the noose-carrier ; ' Pitri- 
pati, ' lord of the manes ; ' Preta-raja, ' king of the ghosts ; * 
/Sraddha-deva, ' god of the exequial offerings ; ' and especially 


Dharma-raja, 'king of justice.' He is AiidumLara, from Udum- 
liara, ' the fig-tree,' and from liis parentage he is Vaivaswata. 
There is a Dharma-sastra which bears the name of Yama. 

YAIMA-VAIYASWATA. Yama as son of Yivaswat. 

YAMl. The goddess of the Yamuna river. Sister of Yama 

YAMU!N"A. The river Jumna, which rises in a mountain 
called Kalinda (Sun). The river Yamuna is personified as the 
daughter of the Sun by his wife Sanjna. So she was sister of 
Yama. Bala-rama, in a state of inebriety, called upon her to 
come to him that he might bathe, and as she did not heed, he, 
in a great rage, seized his ploughshare-weajDon, dragged her to 
him and compelled her to follow him whithersoever he wandered 
through the wood. The river then assumed a human form and 
besought his forgiveness, but it was some time before she could 
appease him. Wilson tliinks that " the legend probably alludes 
to the construction of canals from the Jumna for the purposes of 
irrigation." The river is also called Kalindi, from the place of 
its source, Siirya-ja, from her father, and Tri-yama. 

YASKA. The author of the Nirukta, the oldest known gloss 
upon the text of the Yedic hymns. Yaska lived before the 
time of Pamni, who refers to his work, but he was not the first 
author who wrote a Nirukta, as he himself refers to several 
predecessors. See Nirukta. 

YASODA. AYife of the cowherd Kanda, and foster-mother 
of Kr/sh?^a. 

YATUS, YATU-DHANAS. Demons or evil spirits of various 
forms, as dogs, vultures, hoofed-animals, &c. In ancient times 
the Yatus or Yatu-dhanas were distinct from the Eakshasas 
though associated with tliem, but in the epic poems and 
Pura??as they are identified. Twelve Yatu-dhanas are named 
in the Yayu Purawa, and they are said to have sprung from 
Kasyapa and Su-rasa. They are associated with the Dasyus, and 
are thought to be one of the native races which opposed the 
progress of the immigrant Aryans. 

YAYA-KRI, YAYA-KRITA. ' Bought with barley.' Son 
of the sage Bharadwaja. He performed great penances in order 
to obtain a knowledge of the Yedas without study, and having 
obtained this and other boons from Indra, he became arrogant 
and treated other sages with disresjDect. He made love to the 


wife of Paravasu, son of his father's friend, Eaibhya. That sage 
in his anger performed a sacrifice which brought into being a 
fearful Rakshasa who killed Yava-krita at his father's chapeL 
Bharadwaja, in grief for his son, burnt himself upon the funeral 
pile. Eefore his death he cursed Paravasu to be the death of 
his father, Eaibhya, and the son killed his father in mistake 
for an antelope. All three were restored to life by the gods in 
recompense of the great devotions of Arvavasu, the other son of 
Eaibhya (q. v. ). — Mahd-bhdraia. 

YAYAXAS. Greeks, 'idovsg, the Yavans of the Hebrew. 
The term is found in Pacini, who speaks of the writing of the 
Yavanas. The Purawas represent them to be descendants of 
Turvasu, but they are always associated with the tribes of 
the north-west frontier, and there can be no doubt that the 
Macedonian or Bactrian Greeks are the people most usually in- 
tended by the term. In the Bactrian Pali inscriptions of King 
Priyadar^i the word is contracted to Yona, and the term Yona- 
raja " is associated with the name of Antiochus, probably Antio- 
chus the Great, the ally of the Indian prince Sophagasenas, 
about B.C. 2IO." The Purfu^as characterise them as "wise and 
eminently brave." They were among the races conquered by 
King Sagara, and "he made them shave their heads entirely." 
In a later age they were encountered on the Indus by Puslipa- 
mitra, a Mauryan general, who dethroned his master and took 
the throne. In modern times the term has been applied to 
the Muhammadans. 

YAYATI. The fifth king of the Lunar race, and son of 
Nahusha. He had two wives, Devayani and Sarmish/ha, from 
the former of whom was born Yadu, and from the latter Puru, 
the respective founders of the two great lines of Yildavas and 
Pauravas. In all he had five sons, the other three being 
Druhyu, Turvasu, and Anu. He was a man of amorous dis- 
position, and his infidelity to Devayani brought upon him the 
curse of old age and infirmity from her father, ^Sukra. This 
curse /S'ukra consented to transfer to any one of his sons who 
would consent to bear it. All refused except Puru, who under- 
took to resign his youth in his father's favour. Yayiiti, after a 
thousand years spent in sensual pleasures, renounced sensuality, 
restored his vigour to Puru, and made him his successor. This 
story of Puru's assuming Yayuti's decrepitude is first told in the 

VA YATI— yon I. 377 

Malia-bharata. The above is the version of the Vishnu Purawa. 
In the Padma it is told in a different manner. Yayati was in- 
vited to heaven by Indra, who sent Matali, his cliarioteer, to 
fetch his guest. On their way they held a philosophical dis- 
cussion, which made such an impression on Yayati that, when 
he returned to earth, he, by his virtuous administration, rendered 
all his subjects exempt from passion and decay. Yama com- 
plained that men no longer died, and so Indra sent Kama-deva, 
god of love, and his daughter, Asruvindumati, to excite a pas- 
sion in the breast of Yayati. He became enamoured, and in 
order to become a fit husband for his youthful charmer he made 
application to his sons for an exchange of their youth and his 
decrepitude. All refused but Puru, whose manly vigour his 
father assumed. After awhile the youthful bride, at the insti- 
gation of Indra, persuaded her husband to return to heaven, and 
he then restored to Puru his youth. The Bhagavata Purawa and 
the Hari-vansa tell the story, but with variations. According to 
the latter, Yayati received from Indra a celestial car, by means 
of which he in six nights conquered the earth and subdued the 
gods themselves. This car descended to his successors, but was 
lost by Jamamejaya through the curse of the sage Gargya. 
Yayati, after restoring his youth to Puru, retired to the forest 
with his wife and gave himself up to mortification. Abstaining 
from food, he died and ascended to heaven. He and his five 
sons are all called Rajarshis. 

YAYATI-CHARITRA. A drama in seven acts on the life 
of Yayati. It is attributed to Rudra-deva. The subject is 
Yayati's intrigue with Sarmish/ha. 

YOGA A school of philosophy. See Darsana and Yajna- 

YOGA-NIDRA. 'The sleep of meditation.' Personified 
delusion. The great illusory energy of Yislmu and the illusory 
power manifested in Devi as Maha-maya, the great illusion. 

YOGIXl. A sorceress. The Yoginis are eight female demons 
attendant on Durga. Their names are Marjani, Karpiira-tilaka, 
Malaya-gandhinl Kaumudika, Bheru?2f/a, IMatali, Nayaki, and 
Jaya or /S'ubhacliara ; Su-lakshawa, Su-nanda. 

YONI. The female organ. Alone, or in combination with 
the Linga, it is an object of worship by the followers of the 


YUDHI-SHrniKA. Tlie eldest of tlie five Vrndu princes, 
mythologically the son of Dharma, the god of justice. With 
the Hindus he is the favourite one of the five brothers, and 
is represented as a man of cabn, passionless judgment, strict 
veracity, unswerving rectitude, and rigid justice. He was re- 
noAvned as a ruler and director, but not as a warrior. Educated 
at the court of his uncle, Dhr/ta-rash/ra, he received from the 
family j)receptor, Drorza, a military training, and was taught the 
use of the spear. "VThen the time came for naming the Yuva-raja 
or heir-apparent to the realm of Hastina-pura, the Maha-raja 
Dhn'ta-rash/ra selected Yudhi-sh/hira in preference to his own 
eldest son, Dur-yodhana. A long-standing jealousy between 
the Paw(iava and Ivaurava princes then broke forth ojDcnly. 
Dur-yodhana expostulated with his father, and the end was that 
the PaTiffavas went in honourable banishment to the city of 
YaraTzavata. The jealousy of Dur-yodhana pursued them, and his 
emissaries laid a plot for burning the brothers in their dwelling- 
house. Yudhi-sh/hira's sagacity discovered the plot and Bhima 
frustrated it. The bodies of a Bhil woman and her five sons 
were found in the ruins of the burnt house, and it was believed 
for a time that the Pa7?fZavas and their mother had perished. 
When Draupadi had been won at the swayam-vara, Yudhi- 
sh^hira, the eldest of the five brothers, was requested by his 
juniors to make her his wife, but he desired that she should 
become the wife of Arjuna, by whose prowess she had been won. 
Through the words of their mother, Kunti, and the decision of 
the sage Yyasa, the princess became the common wife of the five 
brothers. An arrangement was made that Draupadi should 
dwell in turn with the five brothers, passing two days in the 
separate house of each, and that under pain of exile for twelve 
years no one of the brothers but the master of the house should 
enter while Draupadi was staying in it. The arms of tlie 
family were kept in the house of Yudhi-sh^hira, and an alarm 
of robbery being raised, Arjuna rushed there to procure his 
weapons while Draupadi was present. He thus incurred the 
pain of exile, and departed, though Yudhi-sh/hira endeavoured 
to dissuade him by arguing that the elder brother of a fatherless 
family stood towards his juniors in the position of a father. 
After the return of the Pam/avas from exile and their establish- 
ment at Tndra-prastha, the rule of Yudlii-sh/liira is described as 


having been most excellent and prosperous. The Raja "ruled 
his country with great justice, protecting his subjects as his own 
sons, and subduing all his enemies round about, so that every 
man was without fear of war or disturbance, and gave his whole 
mind to the performance of every religious duty. And the Raja had 
plenty of rain at the proper season, and all his subjects became 
rich ; and the virtues of the Raja were to be seen in the great 
increase of trade and merchandise, in the abundant harvests and 
the prolitic cattle. Every subject of the Raja was pious ; there 
were no liars, no thieves, and no swindlers ; and there were no 
droughts, no floods, no locusts, no conflagrations, no foreign 
invasions, and no parrots to eat the grain. The neighbouring 
Rajas, despairing of conquering Raja Yudhi-sh/hira, were very 
desirous of securing his friendshij). Meanwhile Yudhi-sh/liira, 
though he would never acquire wealth by unfair means, yet 
prospered so exceedingly that had he lavished his riches for a 
thousand years no diminution would ever have been perceived." 
After the return of his brother Arjuna from exile, Yudlii-sh/hira 
determined to assert his supremacy by performing the Raja-silya 
sacrifice, and this led to a war with Jarasandha, Raja of ]Maga- 
dha, who declined to take part in it, and was in consequence 
defeated and killed. The dignity which Yudhi-sh/hira had 
gained by the performance of the sacrifice rekindled the jealousy 
of Dur-yodhana and the other Kauravas. They resolved to 
invite their cousins to a gambling match, and to cheat Yudhi- 
shfliira of his kingdom. Yudhi-sh/hira was very unwilling to 
go, but could not refuse his uncle's invitation. /S'akuni, maternal 
uncle of Dur-yodhana, was not only a skilful player but also a 
dexterous cheat. He challenged Yudhi-sli!!hira to throw dice 
w^ith him, and Yudhi-sh/hira, after stipulating for fair- play, 
began the game. He lost his all, his kingdom, his brothers, 
himself, and his wife, all of whom became slaves. When 
Draupadi was sent for as a slave and refused to come, Duh- 
5asana dragged her into the hall by the hair, and both he and 
Dur-yodhana grossly insulted her. Bhima was half mad with 
rage, but Yudhi-sh/hira' s sense of right acknowledged that 
Draupadi was a slave, and he forbade Bhima and his brothers to 
interfere, AYhen the old Maha-raja Dhrita-rashfra was informed 
of what had passed, he came into the assembly, and declaring that 
his sons had acted wrongfully, he sent Draupadi and her hus- 


bands away, imploring tliem to forget what had passed. Dur- 
yodhana was very wroth, and induced the Maha-raja to allow 
another game to avoid war, the condition being that the losers 
should go into exile for thirteen years, and should remain con- 
cealed and undiscovered during the whole of the thirteenth year. 
The game was played, and loaded dice gave 5'akuni the victory, 
so the Pa?it/avas went again into exile. During that time they 
rendered a service to Dur-yodhana by rescuing him and his com- 
panions from a band of marauders who had made them prisoners. 
When Jayad-ratha, king of Sindhu, was foiled in his attempt 
to carry off Draupadi, the clemency of Yudhi-sh/hira led him 
to implore his brothers to spare their captive's life. As the 
thirteenth year of exile approached, in order to keep themselves 
concealed, the five brothers and Draupadi went to the country 
of Yira/a and entered into the service of the Raja. Yudhi- 
sh^hira's office was that of private companion and teacher of 
dice-playing to the king. Here Yudhi-sh/hira suffered his wife 
Draupadi to be insulted, and dissuaded his brothers from inter- 
fering, lest by so doing they should discover themselves. When 
the term of exile was concluded, Yudlii-sh/hira sent an envov to 
Hastina-pura asking for a peaceful restoration to the Paw<iavas 
of their former position. The negotiations failed, and Yudhi- 
sh/hira invited K77'sh?ia to go as his representative to Hastina- 
pura. jSTotwithstanding Yudhi-sh/hira's longing for peace the 
war began, but even then Yudhi-shi!hira desired to withdraw, 
but was overruled by K7'zsh?2a. 

Yudhi-sh/hira fought in the great battle, but did not distin- 
guish himself as a soldier. The version of the JMaha-bharata 
given in Mr. AYlieeler's work makes him guilty of downright 
cowardice. At the instigation of Knsh?ia he compassed the 
death of Dro?ia by conveying to that warrior false intelligence of 
the death of his son Aswatthaman, and his character for veracity 
was used to warrant the truth of the representation. His con- 
science would not allow him to tell a downright lie, but it was 
reconciled to telling a lying truth in killing an elephant named 
A.swatthaman, and informing the fond father that Aswatthaman 
was dead. He retreated from a fight with Karwa, and after- 
wards reproached Arjuna for not having supjDorted him and 
Dhlma. This so irritated Arjuna that he would have killed him 
on the spot had not K?'zsli?2a interposed. After the great battle 



was over K7'isli?ia sainted him king, but lie showed gi^eat disin- 
clination to accej^t the dignity. His sorrow for those who had 
fallen was deep, especially for Karyza, and he did what he could to 
console the bereaved Dhnta-rash/ra and Gandhari, as well as the 
many other sufferers. He was made king, and was raised to the 
throne with great pomp, he acting as ruler under the nominal 
supremacy of the old King Dli?'ita-rash/ra. There, after an inter- 
val, he asserted his universal supremacy by performing the great 
Aswa-medha sacrifice. The death of Krishna at Dwaraka and 
regrets for the past embittered the lives of the Pa7i(;/avas, and 
they resolved to withdraw from the world. Yudhi-sh^hira 
appointed Parikshit, grandson of Arjuna, to be his successor, 
and the five brothers departed with Draupadi to the Himalayas 
on their way to Swarga. The story of this journey is told with 
great feeling in the closing verses of the Maha-bharata. See 

Yudhi-sh^hira had a son named Yaudheya by his wife Devika; 
but the VisliTiu Pura?ia makes the son's name Devaka and the 
mother's YaudheyL 

YUGA. An age of the world. Each of these ages is preceded 
by a period called its Sandhya or tAvilight, and is followed by 
another period of equal length called Sandhyansa, ' portion of 
twilight,' each being equal to one-tenth of the Yuga. The 
Yugas are four in number, and their duration is first computed 
by years of the gods : — 

1. KWta Yuga, . 
Sandhyansa, . 

2. Treta Yuga, , 
Sandhyansa, . 

3. Dwapara Yuga, 
Sandhyansa, . 

4. Kali Yuga, 
Sandhyan^a, . 










382 YC'CA. 

But a year of the gods is equal to 360 years of men, so 



360 = 




360 ^ 




360 = 




360 = 


Total, . 4,320,000 

years, forming the period called a Maha-yuga or Manwantara. 
Two thousand Maha-yugas or 8,640,000,000 years make a Kalpa 
or night and a day of Brahma. 

This elaborate and practically boundless system of chronology 
was invented between the age of the J?/g-veda and that of the 
]\Iaha-bharata. JSTo traces of it are to be found in the hymns of 
the Big, but it was fully established in the days of the great 
epic. In this work the four ages are described at length by 
Haniimat, the learned monkey chief, and from that description 
the following account has been abridged : — 

The K7*ita is the age in which righteousness is eternal, when 
duties did not languish nor people decline. JSTo efforts were 
made by men, the fruit of the earth was obtained by their mere 
wish. There was no malice, weeping, pride, or deceit ; no con- 
tention, no hatred, cruelty, fear, affliction, jealousy, or envy. 
The castes alike in their functions fulfilled their duties, were 
unceasingly devoted to one deity, and used one formula, one rule, 
and one rite. Though they had separate duties, they had but 
one Veda and practised one duty. 

In the Tretil Yuga sacrifice commenced, righteousness decreased 
by one-fourth ; men adhered to truth, and were devoted to a 
righteousness dependent on ceremonies. Sacrifices prevailed 
with holy acts and a variety of rites. Men acted with an object 
in view, seeking after reward for their rites and their gifts, and 
were no longer disposed to austerities and to liberality from a 
simple feeling of duty. 

In the Dwapara Yuga righteousness was diminished by a half. 
The A'eda became fourfold. Some men studied four Vcdas, 
otliers three, others two, others one, and some none at all. 
Ceremonies were celebrated in a great variety of ways. From 
the decline of goodness only few men adhered to truth. When 
men had fallen away from goodness, many diseases, desires, and 
calamities, caused by destiny, assailed them, by which they were 


severely afflicted and driven to practise austerities. Others 
desiring heavenly bliss offered sacrifices. Thus men declined 
through unrighteousness. 

In the Kali Yuga righteousness remained to the extent of 
one-fourth only. Practices enjoined by the Vedas, works of 
righteousness, and rites of sacrifice ceased. Calamities, diseases, 
fatigue, faults, such as anger, &c., distresses, hunger, and fear 
prevailed. As the ages revolve righteousness declines, and the 
people also decline. When they decay their motives grow 
weak, and the general decline frustrates their aims. — Muir, i. 

In the K?'ita Yuga the duration of life was four thousand 
years, in the Treta three thousand, in the Dwapara two thou- 
sand. In the Kali Yuga there is no fixed measure. Other pas- 
sages of the Maha-bharata indicate " that the K?'ita Yuga was 
regarded as an age in which Brahmans alone existed, and that 
Kshatriyas only began to be born in the Treta." 

YUGAN-DHARA. A city in the Panjab. A people dwell- 
ing there and in the vicinity. 

YUVANAaSWA. a king of the Solar race, father of Man- 
dliatri. A legend represents this son as being conceived by and 
born of his father. 

YUYA-EAJA. ' Young king.' The heir-apparent to a 

YUYUDHANA. A name of Satyaki. 

YUYUTSU. A son of Dhnta-rash^ra by a Yai.sya handmaid. 
On the eve of the great battle he left the side of the Kauravas 
and joined the Pa?ic?avas. When Yudhi-sh^hira retired from 
the world he established Yuyutsu in the kingdom of Indra- 


ALdlii-jau = Aswins. 
Abdhi-nagari = D waraka. 
Abhayada, 69. 
Abhimani — Swaha. 
Abhiriipa = Kama. 
Ablioga— Varu«a. 
Abhra-matanga — Loka-pala. 
Abhramii — Loka-pala. 
Abhra-pisacha = E,ahu. 
Abhrottha = Vaj ra. 
Abja= Brahma, 58. 
Abja-hasta = Agni. 
Abja-yoni = Brahma, 58. 
A-dharma — NirritL 
Adhiratha — Kama. 
Adliirathi= Kar?ia. 
Adhisima — 'Krishna,, 70. 
Adhwaiyu — Veda 350. 
Adhyaya — Veda 346. 
Adi-Kavi = Brahma. 
Adi-parva, 190. 
Adityas — Daksha. 
Adri-ja = Devi. 

Adrika — Satyavati, Uparichara. 
Adr?'5yanti — Parasara. 
Adwaita — Madhava. 
Adwaita, 82. 
Agasti — VariiJz a. 
Agastya — Bhregu. 
AghW?ii — Pushan. 
Agneyastra — Vi,swa-karma. 
Agneyi — A ngiras. 
Agni — Angiras, Twash^re. 
Agni-bhu = Karttikeya. 

Agnivar?ia, 313. 
Agnivesa — Agneyastra. 
Agra-sandhani — Yama. 
Ahamyati, 69. 
Ahana = Ushas, 
AM — Indra. 
Ahlnagu, 313. 
Ahinara, 70. 

Ahinsa= Nara-Narayana. 
Aic^avic^a ) ^^ 
Ailavila 5=Kuvera. 

Aila — Puru-ravas. 
Aindri = Indra?ii, Matr/s. 
A-ja=Kama. . 
AjamicZha, 69. 
Ajyapas — Pitm. 
A-kacha = Ketu. 
Akhu-ratha= Gane^a. 
Akrodhana, 70. 
Aksha = Ravawa. 
Alambusha — Idayida. 
Alarka, 69. 
Amaradri = Meru. 
Amarsha, 313. 
Amaru — Amaru *S'ataka. 
Ambika— Chamu??f/a. 
Ambu-raja=:Varu?2a 338. 
Am?'ita = Dhanwantari. 
Amritaharawa = Garuc^a. 
Amurta-rajas — Dharmarawya. 
Anala = Agni, Vasu. 
An-anga = Kama. 
Ananta = Devi. 
Ananta-saj'ana = Vishwu. 
Ananta = 5irsha — /Sesha. 

2 B 



An-anya- ja = Kama. 
Anara^iva, 313. 
Anarta — Ku5a-sthali. 
Anavaratha, 69. 
Andliaka-riiju — Andhaka. 
Andhaka-v?'/:>h?n — Andhaka. 
Andha-tamisra — Naraka. 
Anenas — Ayus. 
Anenas (tAvo), 313. 
Aiiga — Anil, Champa, Dirgha- 

tamas, Kama, Prt'thi. 
Angadi — Angada. 
Anga-raja = Kar/^a. 
Angaraka = Mangala. 
Angirasa = Br^haspati. 
Anila, 69. 

AnUa — Vasu, Yavu. 
Anili = Hanumat. 
Animishacharya — Br^haspati. 
Anjana, 313. 
Anjana — Loka-pala. 
An j aneya = Hanumat. 
An^a — Aditya. 
Ansu, 70. 

Anupama — Loka-pala. 
Aniiratha, 69. 
An-uru = Aruna. 
Anusaras = Bakshasas. 
Aniisasana-parva, 190. 
Anuvaka— Veda 346, 348. 
Apa — Vasu. 
Aparita — Aparanta. 
Aptyas — Trita. 
Arawya-kawc/a — Bamaya??a. 
Aravin, 69. 

Archananas — »S'yava5"vva. 
Aidra — Sandhya, 313. 
Arlia = Indra. 
Arlia-pati = Surya. 
Arish^a — Gandharva 106. 
Arish^a-iiemi = Saha-deva, 187, 

Ar j ikiya — Sapta-sindhava. 
A rka-sodara — Loka-pala, 
Aruwa — Ja^ayu, Sanii)ati, Surya. 
Aru?ii — Nachiketas. 
A lunoda — Manasa. 

Arushi — Aurva, Chyavana, 75. 
Arvarivat — Pulaha. 
Arya = Devi. 
Ar3'aman — Aditya. 
Asani — Siwa, 296, Vajra. 
Asaras = Bakshasas. 
Ash^adhyayi — Panini. 
Ash^aka — Galava, Veda 346. 
Ash^a-kania — Brahma 57. 
Asikni — Sapta-sindhava. 
Asi-patra-vana — Naraka. 
Asita = >S'ani. 

Asita-dansh^ra = Makara. 
Asitanga — Bhairava. 
Aslesha-bhava — Ketu. 
Asmaka, 313. 
A^maua = Aru??a. 
Asphujit = ^S'ukra. 
Asrania-parva, 190. 
Asra-pas = Dakinis. 
Asra-pas — Bakshakas. 
Asrik-pas = Bakshakas. 
Asrita — Tri-murti. 
Asruvindumati — Yayati. 
Asuras — Dadliyauch. 
Aswa, 77. 
Aswalayana Brahma?ia — Brali- 

Aswamedhadatta, 70. 
Aswa-medhika-parva, 190. 
Aswa-pati — Savitri. 
A«wini — As wins. 
Aswins — 73, 75, Sara?iyu. 
Atala— Patala. 
Atikaya = Bava?ia. 
Atithi, 313. 

Atithi-gwa = Divo-dfisa. 
Atma-Wiu = Kama. 
Auchathya = Dirgha-tamas. 
Audumbara = Yama. 
Aur/^avahha — Avatara 34. 
Aurvasiya — Agastya. 
Auttanapfidi — Dhruva. 
Avantis — Haihaya. 
Avara = Dcvi. 
Avastha — Vish»u 360. 
Ayana-ghosha — Badha. 
Ayana — Narayana. 



Ayodhya-kawc^a — Ramayawa. 
Ayoni-ja = Sita. 
Ayushnicm — Uttana-pada. 
Ayutayus— 70, 313. 

Babhiavi = Devi. 

Babhru = 5iva. 

Bac^ava-mukha — Aurva. 

BafZavanala — Aurva. 

Bahikas — ^Sakala. 

Brihu— Aurva. 

Bahu-dara = Vajra. 

Baliugava, 69, 

Bahuka, 313. 

Bahulaswa, 313. 

Bahu-salin = Bhima. 

Bahv;7"chas — -Veda 350. 

Balaja river, 62, 

Bala-kawc?a — Ramaya/ia. 

Balaki — Gargya. 

Bakmdliara — Bhima. 

Ballala — Bhoja-prabandha. 

Ballava = Bhima, 187. 

BaTia-bhai^^a — Kadambari. 

Bawa — Tripura. 

Banga — Dirgha-tamas. 

Bashkali — Ya j na walky a. 

Bhadra — Utathya. 

Bhadra-soma = Ganga. 

Bhadraswa — Dwipa, Jambu-d. 

Bhaga — Aditya, Daksha, 77, 

Bhagavad-gita, 82. 

Bhagavat = ^Siva. 

Bhagavati = Devi. 

Bhagnatma = Soma. 

Bhaimi= Damayanti. 

Bhajamana, 70. 

Bhaj eratha — Ikshwaku. 

Bhakti — Narada PuraHa. 

Bhanu — Satya-bhama. 

Bhanumat — Satya-bhama, 313. 

Bharadwaja, 69. 

Bharawi — Rahu. 

Bhara??i-bhii — Rahu. 

Bharata, 69. 

Bharata-varsha — Dwipa, Jam- 

Bharati = SarasAvati. 

Bharga, 70. 

Bharga-bhiimi, 70. 

Bhargava — /Sukra. 

Bhaskara = Svirya. • 

Bhaswati — Surya. 

Bha^^a Naraya7?a — Yenl Sanhara. 

Bha^i^oji Dikshita — Siddhanta- 

Bhaum a = ]\Ian gala. 
Bhava-ja = Kama. 
Bhavani = Devi. 
Bhavanmanyu, 69. 
Bhela — Dhanwantari. 
Bheru?2(ia — Yogini. 
Bhidu'a = Vaj ra. 
Bhimaratha (two), 69. 
Bhima-5asana = Yama. 
Bhisha;?a — Bhairava. 
Bhishma-parva, 191, 
Bhoja — Kri'ta-varman. 
Bhoja-kaifa — Rukmiii. 
Bhramari= Devi. 
Bh^'igu — Aurva, Twash^r^, Khy- 

ati, Pnthivi, Pratardana, S\\- 

Bhrigus — Krtta-virya. 
Bhtimi, 34. 
Bhumi-ja = Sita. 
Bhumi-putra = Mangala. 
Bhtita-nayaki = Devi. 
Bhuvana — Viswa-karma. 
Bindu-sara — Maurya. 
Brahma — Bhr^gu. 
Brahma = Narada. 
Brahma-datta — Ghj'/tachi, Ni- 

Brahmadikas — Su-parwas. 
Brahmanaspati — Twash^ri. 
Brah mawi — Mat?7's. 
Brahman- veda — Veda 351. 
Brahmastra — Aswatthaman. 
Brahma-varaha — Brahma-vai- 

Brahma-vidya— Atharvan. 
Brahma-v/^mda, 57. 
Brahmi — 57, SarasAvati. 
Brihada^wa, 313. 



BrAadbala, 313. 
B/'iliad-bhanu — Satya-blicinia. 
B^'iliadratha — 70, Jara-sandha, 

Maury a. 
B;v'haduktha, 313. 
Br/haj-jataka — Varalia Mililra. 
B?'/liaii-Manu — Maim. 
B?Yhan-nala = Arjuna, 187. 
Brilian Naradiya Pura/ia — Na- 

rada Purawa. 
Bn'haspati — Pr/thi. 
Br/hat —Dliarma-sastra. 
B/v'hatkshatra, 69. 
Buddha, 26, 38, 68. 

Chakora — Chandra-ketu. 
Chakra — Chakra-varti. 
Chakra-vac^a, "| ^ 
Chakra- vala, / Lokaloka. 

Chakshas = Br^'haspati. 

Chakshu — Sapta-sindhava. 

Champadhipa = Kar?ia. 

Chanchala = Lakshmi. 

Cha?ic^ika = Devi. 

Chawf^a — Chamu«c?a, Devi. 

Chanda — Yama. 

Chandeswara — Vivada Katna- 

Chandra-hhaga — ,S'rimba, Sapta- 

Chandrabhanu — Satya-bhama. 

Cliandia-chuc^a = Bhairav^a. 

Chaudramas — Chandra-gupta. 

Chandra-sekhara = /S^iva. 

Chara = Mangala. 

Charak-puja — Devi. 

Charvi, 174. 

Chatur-ruiana = Brahma, 57. 

Cliatur-bhuja = Visli?ai. 

Chatur-niukha= Brahma, 57. 

Chatur-var?ia — Varna. 

Chaturvedas — Viirm. 

Chhfiga-ratha — Agui. 

Chhala, 313. 

Chhidaka= Vajra. 
Chirad = Garuf^a. 
Chitra-ratha, 65, 69, 70, 138. 

Chitra-5ikhanc?inas — i?/shig. 
Chitra-vahana — Chitrangada. 
Chola — Panf/ya. 
Chunchu, 313. 
Chyavana — ]Mada. 

Dadhi — Dwipa. 

Dahanopala = Stirya-kanta. 

Daitya — Asura. 

Daitya-guru — /S'ukra. 


Daksha — Aditya, Viswa-devas. 

Daksha- j a = Devi. 

Dakshaya = Garuf/a. 

Daksheya = Pa?iini. 

Dakshi — Pa/iini. 

Dakshiwa — Aktiti, Arjuna 23. 

Dakshi«a = Devi — Yajna. 

Dakshiwasa-pati — Yama. 

Dala, 313. 

Dama, 77. 

Damaru — SixB;. 

Dambholi — V a j ra. 

Damodara Mi,sra — Hanuman-- 

Danava — Asura. 
Da«c/a-dhara = Yama. 
Dandasukas — Bakshakas. 
Dantakura, 162. 
Darpaka =: Kama. 
Daruka = /Stityaki. 
Dasa — Arya. 
Dasa-bhuja = Devi. 
Dasa-kan^ha = Bavawa. 
Dasa-nandini = Satya- vati. 
Da^a-ratha — Ja^ayu, Maurya, 


Da6arha, 69, 

Daseyi = Satya- vati. 

Dasma . __ . 


Dasra = Pushan. 
Dasyu — Arya. 
Dattaka — Magha. 
Datteya= Indra. 
Dcva-bliuti — Gang;!. 
Deva-brahmiX= Narada. 



Deva-giri — Bliagavata 45, Maya, 

Devaka — Yiidlii-sh^hira. 
Deva-kshattra, 69. 
Devamif/liuslia, 70. 
Deva mitra = ^Sakalya. 
Devana Blui^^a— Dattaka Clian- 

drikix, Smr/ti Cliandrika. 
Deva-nagari— Saraswati. 
Devanani-piya = Asoka. 
Deviinika, 313. 
Devantaka — Havana. 
Deva-parvata = INIeru. 
Deva-pati = Indra. 
Deva-rata — 69, 313. 
Deva-sena — Jayanti. 
Deva-5ravas — Ekalavya. 
Devatitlii — 70. 

Deva-vardhaka — Viswa-karma. 
Devika — Nidagha,Yudhi-sli^liira. 
Dhanaka — K^^ta-virya. 
Dhanus — 36. 
Dllal^^vanta^i — 69. 
Dhara — Vasu. 
Dharani — LakshmT. 
Dharani-suta := Sita. ' 

Dharma — Nara Narayana, Haris- 

Dharma-jna = Tri-jaifa. 
Dhaiimya — Dharma-6fastra. 
Dhislia^^a — Br^haspati. 
Dhr^'sh^a-ketu — 69, 313. 
Dhrish^a — Manii. 
Dhriti — 313, Viswa-devas. 
Dhruva — Vasu. 
Dhruvasandlii, 313. 
Dhuma-ketii = Agni. 
Dhuri — Viswa-devas. 
Dhwani — Vmva-devas. 
Dhyushitaswa — 3 1 3. 
Didivis = Br^liaspati. 
Dilipa, 70. 
Dimbhaka — Hansa. 
Dina-kara = Surya. 
Dipaka = Kama. 
Dirgha-bahu, 313. 
Dirgha-tamas — Bharadwaja,U5ij. 


Dirghayus = Marka?ic?eya. 
Divodasa, 69, 104. 
Divya-ratna — Clii nta-mawi. 
Draiiwayana = As wattliaman, 
Dridbaswa, 313. 
Drisana =: Virocbana. 
Dr/sbadwati river — Brabnia- 

Dro>ia — Jarita. 
Drowa-parva, 191. 
Drii-gba7«a = Brabma, 59 . 
Drubiwa = Brabma, 59. 
Drubyu — Vaibbojas. 
Dugdba — Dwipa. 
Du/i-saba — Narmada. 
Dundu = Vasu-deva. 
D u]-ga- pu j a — D e vi. 
Dur-vasas — Mudgala. 
Dusbyanta, 69. 
Dwadasa-kara ) t - • 
Dwadasaksba \ = I^^rttikeya. 

Dwai-matura= Gawesa. 
Dwaita — Madbava. 
D waraka = Kiisa-stbali. 
D wi-deba = Gsmessk. 
Dwi-ja — Var«a. 
Dwita — Trita. 
Dwivida — Bala-rama 41. 
Dya Dwiveda — Niti-manjari. 
Dyaiis =■ Usbas. 
Dyava-pntbivi — Dyaus. 
Dyotaiia = Usbas. 
Dyiimat, 69. 
Dyumayi = Sanjna. 

Eka5?'mgas — Pitre's. 
Ekata — Trita. 

Gabbastiman = Surya. 
Gabliastimat — Bbarata-varsba, 

Dwipa, Patala. 
Gada — Au gada. 
Gada — Visb^m 361. 
Gadagadau = Aswins. 
Gada-yitnu = Kama. 
Gadbi — Kusambba. 


— Viswamitra. 



— Gawesa. 

Gag;ane5wara = Garur/a. 
Gaganolmuka = Mangala. 
Ga;ia-nayaki = Devi. 
Gawa-parvata = Kailasa. 
Ganda- vaha = Vayu. 
Gandha-kali ) 
Gandha-vati [ =Satya-vatT. 

Gandha - madana — Kula - parva- 

Gandharva — Bharata - varsha, 

Gandharvas, 99. 
Gandhan^ Somada — Urmila. 
Ganga-ja = Karttikeya. 
Ganga-putra = Karttikeya. 
Ganga — Sapta-sindhava. 
Gardhabila — Vikramaditya. 
Garga — Kala -ya van a. 
Gargya-balaki — A j ata-5atrn, 
Gargya — Dliarma-sastra, >Syala; 

Garhapatyas — Pitn's. 
Garutman = Garut^a. 
Gatu = Gandharva. 
Gauri — Mandhatri. 
Gautama — Kr^'pa. 
Gavalgawa ) _, 
Gavalgani } =Sanjaya. 

Gaya — ^Siva 299. 
Gha^odbhava = Agastya. 
Gbatotkacha — Alambusha. 
Ghrita — D wipa. 
Giri5a = >S'iva. 
Gish-pati = Brj^'haspati. 
Go-kanza — Aparanta. 
Gomati — Sapta-sindhava. 
Go-meda — Nava-ratna. 
Go-mcdaka Dwipa — Dwipa. 
Gonardlya — Patanjali. 
Gomkaputra = Patanjali. 
Gopa — Gaupayanas. 
Gopi-natha — Kautuka-sarvaswa. 
Gotama — K?'ipa. 
Grahadhara = Dhniva. 
Graha-rfija = Surya. 
Granthika = Nakula, 187. 

Gridhu = Kama. 
G7vtsu = Kama. 
Guhya — Tri-mtirti. 
Gupta-chara= Bala-rama. 

Haihayas — Bahu. 

Haimavati = Devi. 

Hala, 41. 

Hala = Bala-rama. 

Halayudha Bha^^a — Abhidhana. 

Hansa-vahana= Brahma 57. 

Hanushas =. Bakshasas. 

Hara-5ekhara= Ganga. 

Hari-chandana — Pancha-vr^ksha, 

Harita, 313. 

Harita — Chyavana, 75. 

Hari-varsha — Dwipa, Jambu-d. 

Haryaswa — Galava, (three) 313. 

Harsh a Vikramaditya — Kali- 

dasa, Nava-ratna. 
Hastina-piira — Bala-rama, Savh- 

Hatakeswara — Patala. 
Havishmats— Angiras. 
Haya-griva, 36. 
Hayas, 162. 
Haya-5iras — Aurva. 
Haya-vahana — Revanta. 
Hema Chandra — Abhidhana. 
Hemadri — Bhagavata Purawa, 

Hema-mala — Yam a. 
Heramba= Gawesa. 
Hima-pa/if/ara — Loka-palas. 
Hira = Lakshmi. 
HiraTi-maya — Dwipa, Jambu-d. 
Hira;?ya-ka6-ipu, 37, A^isu-pala. 
Hirawyaksha, 37. 
Hira^yanabha, 313. 
Hladini — Sapta-sindhava. 
Hraswaroma, 313. 
Ilrulika, 70, /Sata-dhanvan. 
Iluta-bhuj = Agni. 
IIuta5a = Agni. 

Ichchha-vasu = Kuvcra. 
Idduraati — Aja. 



Ijya = Briliaspati. 

Ikshu — Dwipa. 

I ksh wakiis — Try aruwa. 

I la — Su-dyumna. 

Ilavila, 313. 

Ila-vnta — Dwipa, Gandha-ma- 

dana, Jambu-dwipa. 
Iliisha — Kavasha. 
Indira = Lakshmi. 
Indra — 64, 74, 75, Dur-vasas, 

Twasli^/'i', Krauncha. 
Indra - dwipa — Bharata - varsha. 
Indra-pramati — Ma?i(iukeya. 
Indra-prastha, 186, 
Indra?ii — MatWs. 
Indrasena ( — sena) Nala. 
Indrejya = BWhaspati. 
Indu-ja— Narmada. 
Ira-ja = Kama. 

Irtivat — xA.iravata, Arjuna, Uliipi. 
Iravati — Pritlii, Sapta-sindhava. 
I5a-saklii = Kuvera. 
Ish^ipachas = Bakshasas. 
Iswara K?'ishwa — Sankhya-kari- 

I5\vari = Devi. 

Jagad-dhatri = Devi. 
Jagad-gaiiri = Devi. 
Jagad-gauri = INIanasa. 
Jagad-isa — Hasyarwava. 
Jagau-mata = Devi. 
Jagan-natha, 62. 
Jasan-natha Tarkalankara — Vi- 

vada Bliangar;iava. 
Jahanaka = Maha-pralaya. 
Jahnu, 69. 
Jala — Dwipa. 
Jaladhi-ja= Lakshmi. 
Jala-kantara = Vayu. 
Jala-murtti = /Siva. 
Jala-pati = Varu?ia, 338. 
Jala-rupa = Makara. 
Jamblia-bliedin — Jambha. 
Jambhala-datta — Vetala Pancha- 


JambH-nadi — Sapta-sindhava. 
Janaka — Yaj nawalkya. 
Janaka-piira= INIithila. 
Jara — Jara-sandha. 
Jaras — /S'amba. 
Jarasandha-jit = Bhima. 
Jarat-karu — Astika. 
Jaritari — Jarita. 
Jata — Haihaya. 
Ja^a- dhara = /Siva. 
Jiita-vedas = Agni. 
Jay a, 313. 

Jaya-deva — Prasanna-Baghava. 
Jaya-dlnvaja — Talajangha, 
Jaya — Yogini. 
Jaya = Yudhi-sh^hira, 187. 
Jayad-bala = Saha-deva, 1 87. 
Jayani = Jayanti. 
Jay anta = Bhima, 187. 
Jayanti — /Siikra. 
Jayasena, 69. 
Jaya-seiia = Nakula, 187. 
Jhajhodari — Satya-vati. 
Jhashanka = Aniruddha. 
Jihma-yodhiii = Bhima, 
Jiniuta, 69, 
Jishwu = Indra. 
Ji va = BWhaspati. 
Jnana-kaw(fa — Veda 345. 
Jwala-mukhi — Pii(ha-sthana. 
Jyamagha, 69. 
Jyotir-lingam — Lingam. 
Jyotir Iswara — Dhtirta-samaga- 

Kabandha — Rahu. 
Kachchhapa — Nidhi. 
Kadraveya — Kadru. 
Kadvat — Ka. 
Kaka-dhwaja = Aurva. 
Kakudmati — Pradyumna. 
Kalar=;Siva, Bhairava, Viradha, 

Viswa-devas, Yama. 
Kalakeli = Kama. 
Kalangani — Satya-vati. 
Kalanjara = *S'iva. 
Kalanjari — Devi. 



Kalankura = Kansa. 

Kala-purusha — Yama. 

Kalas — Pitrz's. 

Kala^i-suta = Agastya. 

Kala-siitra — Naraka. 

Kfila-yavana — 167, /Syala. 

Kali — Nala. 

Kalichi — Yama. 

Kali-gha^ — Pi^ha-sthana. 

Kali-karaka = Narada. 

Kalinda — Kalindi, Yamuna. 

Kalindi-karsha;;a = Bala-rama. 

Kalinga — Anu, Dirgha-tama^. 

Kalpa-v;■^k.sha — Pancha-vriksha. 

Kalyawa — Kalanas. 

Kama — Vach, Viswa-devas. 

Kama-chariii= Garuc/a. 

Kama-dull = Kama-dhenu. 

Kama-kala ) 

Kama-patni \ =Ilati. 

Kama-priya ' 

Kamakhya = Devi, Kalika Pa- 

Kamala =: Lakshmi. 

Kamalakara — Nirnaya - sindhu. 

Kamala-yoni = Brahma. 

Kamana = Kama. 

Kamarupa Tirtha — Kalika Pu- 

Kama-rupin — Vidya-dhara. 

Kama-sutras — Vatsyayana. 

K a may us = Garuc^a. 

Kami = Rati, 

Kiim-pala = Bala-rama. 

Kamya — Priya-vrata. 

Kawc?a — Veda 348. 

Kandasara — Indra. 

Kawt/ika — Veda 348. 

Kanina=Karwa, also = Vyasa. 



Kan j ana — Kama. 

Kanka=: Yudhi-shdiira, 187. 

Kawtaka= Makara. 

Kantu = Kama. 

Kawwa - sakhii — /S'atapatha - briili- 

Kanya = Dcvi. 

Brahma 58. 

= Rama. 

Kapala — Bhairava. 

Kapala-malin = Siwdi. 

Kapalini — Devi. 

Kapila — Loka-palas. 



Kapiseya — Kapisa. 

Kapi-vaktra = Narada. 

Karambhad = Pushan. 

Karambhi, 69, 

Karburi := Devi. 

Karburas = Rakshasas. 

Kardama — Angiras, Daksha 77. 

Kare?iu-mati — Nakula. 

Kari-mukha = Gawe^a. 

Karma-ka?^o?a — Veda 345. 

Karma-sakshi = Surya. 

Karwa-moti = Devi. 

Karwa-parva, 191. 

Kar/ii — Ugrasen a. 

Kar;iikachala = Meru. 

Karpura-manjari — Raja *S'ekhara. 

Kai-piira-tilaka — Yogini. 

Karshwi = Kama. 

Karttikeya — Kraun cha. 

Karu — Viswa-karma,. 

Karur — /S'alivahana. 

Karusha — Danta-vakra, Manu. 

Kasa, 69. 

Kaserumat — Bharata - varsha, 

Kasi — Amba. 
Ka^iraja, 69. 
Kasyapa — Gandharva. 
Katy ayani = Devi, Ya j naAvalkya. 
Kaumari — Karttikeya. 
Kaumudika — Yogini. 
Kaunapas = Rakshakas. 
Kausalya — Dasaratha. 
Kaushitaki ) Agastya, Lopamud- 
Kausitaki ) ra. 
Kausiki = Devi, Satya-vati. 
Kau^ilya — Cha;iakya. 
Kauveri, 174. 
Kavi - kar;?a - pura — Chaitanya, 

Kavi^/Sukra, Swadlia, 



J^"^^"^' ( Pitns. 
Kavyas, ) 

Kaya — Ka, 

Kelikila = Kati. 

Ke5a = Varu2ia 338. 

Ke^aii — Hanumat. 

Kesini — Sagara, Asamanjas. 

Ketu-mala — Dwipa, Jambu-dwi- 

Ketu-mati — Kaikasi. 
Ketumat, 69. 
Khageswara = Garuc/a. 
Klia?if/a — Veda 346. 
Khandapawi, 70. 
Kha?ic/a-para5u = Parasu-rama. 
Kliawc^ava — Agni. 
Kha-pura = Saublia. 
Kharba— Nidhi. 
Kharwas = Valakhilyas. 
Khasatmajas — Kha^as. 
Khechara — Vidya-dhara. 
Khetaka — Bala-rama 41. 
Khinkira — Kha^wanga. 
Khyati — Lakshmi. 
Kilala-pas = Rakshasas. 
Kim-purusha-dwipa — Dwipa, 

Kinkira = Kama. 
Kin-nara-dwipa — Dwipa. 
KiratI = Devi = Ganga. 
Kiritin = Vish?iu. 
Kirtiman — Uttana-pada. 
Kisbkindhya-ka/io?a — Ramayawa. 
Kitava — Ultika. 
Kona = >S'ani, 
Konkana — Rewuka. 
Kratha, 69. 
Kratii — Viswa-devas. 
Kratu-dwisbas = Daityas, 
Krauucha-dwipa — Dwipa. 
Kravyad— Agni, Rakshasas. 
Kmaswa, 313. 
Knsb^ia = D raupadi. 
Knsh;ia-kavi — Kansa-badha. 
Kn'shna-nn^ra — Prabodba Chan- 

KWta, 313. 

Krita-dhwaja— Ke^i-dhwaja. 

Kntanta = Yama. 

Kn'taratba, 313. 

KHti, 313. 

Krztirata, 313. 

Kritti-vasas = /Siva. 

Kroda = ;Sani. 

Krodha — Bhairava, Daksha 77. 

Krosb^ri — Angada. 

Krosh^u, 69. 

Krumu — Sapta-sindbava. 

Krura-dris \ —o • 

Krura-lochana \ -'^aiii- 

Kshama — Pulaba. 

Kshapa^as = Rakshasas. 

Ksbattra-vreddhi — Ayiis, 69. 

Ksbema-dbanwan, 313. 

Kshemaka, 70. 

Ksbemaii, 313. 

Kshira — Dwipa. 

Ksbirabdbi-tauaya = Lakshmi. 

Kshiti = Maha-pralaya. 

Kubha — Sapta-sindhava. 

Kubja, 166. 

Kuc^mala — Naraka. 

Ku-ja = Devi. 

Kulisa = Va j ra. 

Kumara = Karttikeya. 

Kumaraka — Dwipa, 

Kumara-su — Ganga. 

Kumbba-sambbava = Agastj-a. 

Kumbhina^i — La va w a. 

Kumuda — Dig-gaja, Loka-pala. 

Kumuda-pati= Soma. 

Kunda — Nidhi. 

Kuni, 313. 

Kunjara = Agastya. 

Kun j ararati — /Sar abb a . 

Kunti, 69. 

Ku-pati — Bhairava. 

Kuru — Viswa-devas. 

Kuru-vatsa, 69. 

Kusa — Dbarmarawya. 

Kusa-dhwaja — VedavatT. 

Ku5a-dwipa — Dwipa. 

Knsamba — Gadhi. 

Ku5a-nabba — Ghrttachi, Kanya- 

kubja, Vayu. 
Ku5a-rava — Maitreya. 



Ku^ika, 74. 
Ku^a-ja = Drona. 
Ku-tanu — Kuvera. 
Kuthumi — Dliarraa-sastras. 
Kuvalaya^^wa, 69. 

Laghu — Dharma-^astra. 
Lakhima-devi — Vivada Chandra. 
Lakshma?ia (author) — >S'arada- 

Lakshmi-pati = Vish^iu. 
Lalita-vistara — Gathas. 
Lamba-kar/ia = Ga;^esa. 
Lambodara = Ga?ie5a. 
Lanka-dahi = Haiiumat. 
Lavawa — D wipa. 
Likhita — Dharma-^astra, /S'an- 

Linga — Bhrigu. 
Lochaiia — Vmva-devas. 
Lohita = Mangala. 

Loha-daraka, ) ^^ ^ 

T 1 1 \ JNaraka. 

Loha-5anku, ) 

Loka-chakshuh = Surya. 

Lokakshi — Dharma-sastra. 

Loka-mata = Lakshmi. 


Lopa-mudra — Agastya. 

Mada = Vani?iani. 
Madambara — Loka-palas. 
Madhava — Jaiminiya. 
Madhavacharya — Sarva-dar^ana- 

Madhavi — Galava. 
Madhu — Lavana. 
Madhu — Mathurfi, 69. 
Madhu-dipa = Kama. 
Madhu-priya = Bala-rama. 
Madhu-sudana — Kai^abha. 
Madhu-vana — ]\Iathura. 
Madhyandina-sakha — *S'atapatha- 

Madira — Kadambari. 
Madravas — Viswa-devas. 
Magha-bhava = /S'ukra. 
Mahil-bhadra — Manasa. 
Maha — Bhairava. 

i\Iaha-chanda — Yama. 
Mahadhn'ti, 313. 
Maha-kali — Devi. 
Mahamari = Devi. 
Maha-maya = Devi. . 
jNIaha- maya — Patala. 
INIaha-naraka — Naraka. 
Mahandeva — >S'iva 296. 
Maha-padma — Loka-palas, Nid- 

Maha-padma Nanda — Chandra- 

Maha-prasthanika Parva, 192. 
Maharajika — Gana. 
Maha-raurava — Naraka. 
Maharoman, 313. 
]\Iahasuri = Devi. 
Mahaswat, 313, 
Mahatala — Patala. 
INIaha-vichi — Naraka. 
Maha-virya= Sanjna. 
Maha- virya = Surya 313. 
Mahesa = ,Siva. 
Mahe^wari — Devi. 
]\Iahe5wari — Mat?-is. 
Mahisha-niardini= Devi. 
Mahishmati— Ravawa. 
Mahi-suta = Mangala. 
Maitra-varu«i = Agastya. 
]\Iakara— Nidhi. 
Makara-ketu = Kama. 
]\Ialaya-gandhini — Yogini. 
Malini — Visravas. 
Malla-naga = Vatsj'aj^ana. 
]\Iamata — Br/haspati. 
Mamata — Dirgha-tamas. 
INIamateya = Dirgha-tamas. 
INIamma^a Bha^^a — Kavya Pra- 

Mana = Agastya. 
M an asas — Pi trt's. 
Manasyu, 69. 
ISIanavas — Manu-sanhita. 
Manda = /Sani. 
INIandfikini = Ganga. 
Manda-pala — Jarita. 
Mandara, 36. 
Mandara — Pancha-vr/ksha. 



]\ra«f/avl, 47. 
Ma«i-bhitti — /Sesha. 
Mani-chaka — Chandra-kanta. 
INIawi-chvipa — *S'esha. 
Mani-griva = Kuvera. 
Mani-niandapa — /S'esha. 
Ma;a-pura — Arjima 23, Babhru- 

Mauo-ja = Kama. 
Manu Savar^ii — Chliaya. 
JNIara = Kama. 
Mariclii — Agnishwattas. 
Mar j ani — Yogini. 
Marka?if/eya — Aiigiras. 
Marttawc^a — Aditi. 
Maru (two), 313. 
Marud-vredha — Sapta-sindhava, 
Maruta — Maruts. 
Maruti = Hanumat. 
Marut-putra = Hanumat. 
Maruts — Diti. 
Marutwan = Indra. 
Matali — Yayati, 
;Ma tali — Yogini. 
INIatsya — Uparichara. 
Matsyodari = Satya-vati. 
Mi5,tangi = Devi. 
Maudgalya — Mudgala. 
INIauryas — Asoka, Chandra-gup- 

Mausala-parva, 191. 
INIaya — Patala. 
Maya, 189. 
Maya-suta = Kama. 
Mayi = Kama. 
Mayu-raja = Kuvera. 
Mayus — Kin-naras. 
Medas — Kai^abha. 
INIedhatithi — Asanga. 
Medhavin, 70. 
Megha-vahana = Indra. 
Mehatnu — Sapta-sindhava. 
Mekala, ) 

IVIekala-kanya, ) 
Mena — 'Aparna. 
Meru — i^ishabha. 
MinakshI — Kuvera. 
IVIinaratha, 313. 


INIisraka-vana = Swarga. 

Mitaksliara — Su-bodliini. 

Mitra — Aditya, Daksha 78, Va- 

Mitra-misra — Vira Mitrodaya. 
Mithila— Nimi. 
Mitrasalia — Kalmasha-pada. 
Mr/da, ) ^ 
Mr^Wani, \ =^^^^- 
MWdu, 70. 
Mr/ganka = Soma. 
Mr^ga-5iras — Sandliya, Yajna. 
Mrz^ka??£/a— Marka?ic?eya. 
MWttikavati — Bhoja. 
Mre'tyun jaya = /Siva. 
Muhira = Kama. 
Mukta-kesi = Devi. 
Mukuuda = VisliTiu — Nidhi. 
Mulaka, 313. 

Muwc?a = Ketu — Cliamuwc?a. 
Muwc?a-mala, 299. 
Muni, 106. 

Mura — Chandra-gupta. 
Murari Misra, ) Anargha Rag- 
Murari Na^aka, ) hava. 

Murmura = Kama. 
Muru, 163, 167, 174. 
Musala, 41. 
Musali = Bala-rama. 

Nabhaga, 313. 

Nabliaga — Manu. 

Nablias, 313. 

Nabhas-cliara = Vidya-dhara. 

Nablii — i^/sliabha. 

Nablii-j a = Brahma, 58. 

Nadi-deha — Nandi. 

Nadi-ja = Bhishma. 

Naga-dwipa — Bharata-varsha, 

Naga-kuwcZala, 299. 
Naga-malla — Loka-pala. 
Nagantaka = Garu^a. 
Naga-pasa — Varu??a. 
Nagas — Gandharvas, Janame- 





Nagnajit, 162. 
Naigama— Nirukta- 
Naighaii^uka — Nirukta. 
Nakshatra-natha = Soma. 
Nakshatras— Daksha 77. 
Naktancliaras - Raksliasas. 

Nala, 313. 

Nalini— Sapta-sindhava. 

Nanda— Nidhi. 

Nanda PancZita — Dattaka INIi- 
mausa, Vaijayanti. 

Naiidaka — Vish?^u, 361. 

Nandana— Indra 127, Kar;?a. 

Naudini — Dilipa, Vasishdia. 

Nandivardhana, 313. 

Narada — Utathya. 

Naradiya Dharma-sastra — Na- 

Nara-Narayana — Badari, Dam- 

Narantaka — Ravana. 

Nara-raja = Kuvera. 

Nava-ratha, 69. 

NarayaTza, 78. 

Nari-kavacha, 313. 

Narishyanta — Manu. 

Nasatyas = Aswins. 

Navarchi = Mangala. 


Netra-yoni = Indra. 

Kicliakru, 70. 

Nidhana — Nidhi. 

Nidhi, 174. 

Nighiia — Prasena. 

Nikara— Nidhi. 

Nikasha — Pisitasana.s. 


Nikumbha — Bhanumati, 313, 

Nilakan^ha Bha^^a — Vyavahara 


Nihi-vastra = Bala-riima. 

Nimi — Janaka, Kshemaka. 

Nimisha — Nimi. 

Niramitra, 70, Kshemaka, Na- 

N i r- j ara — Am riia. 
Nir-riti— Loka-palas. 

Nir-vriti, 69. 
Nisakara = Soma, 
Nisa^ha — Bala- ram a, 41. 
Nishada— Prithl. 
Nishadha (King) 313. 
Nikumbha — Devi. 
Nitala — Patala. 
Niti-ghosha — Brihaspati. 
Niti-5ataka — Bhartri-hari. 
Nitya = Devi, 
Nitya = Manasa. 
Nitya-yauvani = Draupadi. 
Nri-chakshas = Kakshakas. 
Nr/chakshush, 70. 
Nriga — Dhrishta-ketu, Manu. 
Nrz'-jagdhas = Kakshakas. 
Nrtpanjaya, 70. 
Nyaksha = Parasu-rama. 
Nyaya-bhasha— Vatsyayana. 

Ogha, 163. 
Oshadhi-pati = Soma. 

Padma— Nidhi. 
Padma-lanchhana = Devi. 
Padma-nJibha = Vishnu. 
Padma vati = Manasa. 
Pahnava — Pahlava. 
Paila — Indra-pramati. 
Pai^hinasi — Dliarma-sastra. 
Pa j ra — Kak shivat. 
Pajriya — Kakshivat. 
Paladas = Kakshakas. 
PalaLas = Kakshakas. 
Palankashas = Kakshakas. 
Panchali = Draupadi. 
Panchami = Draupadi. 
Pancha-vinsa — Praut^ha Brah- 

Panchayudha = Vishnu. 
Vsnidyn, 162. 
Pangu = /S'ani. 
Pankti-griva = Kiivawa. 
Pannaga-nasana = Garuc?a. 
Pan.sula — Kha^wanga. 
Panthana — Naraka. 
Parama— Tri-murti. 
Paramcsh^a = Brahma. 



Parfingada = Arclha-nari. 

Paran-ja — India 127. 

Parava>ii — Kfirttikeya. 

Paravrit, 69. 

l*arijataka — Pancha-vn'ksha. 

Paripatra — Kiila-parvatas, 313. 

Pariplava, 70. 

Pari vita, 57. 

Pariyatra— Kula-parvatas. 

Panifisa — Bho j a. 

Parsliati = Draupadi. 

Parsliwi = Kunti. 

Parushwi — Sapta-sindhaya. 

Parushya — Indra 127. 

Parvan — Rahu. 

Pasa — >S'iva 299. 

Pa^a-bhrit = Varuwa. 

Pasi = Yama, 

Pasupata — Arjuna 22. 

Pasu-pati = S'wsl. 

Patala, 37. 

Paulast ya — Knvera. 

Pauloma — Kalaka. 

Paulomi = Indrawi. 

Paiinc^raka, 168. 

Pavaka — Agni, 

Pavamana — Agni. 

Pavamanya — Veda 351. 

Pavana-vyadhi — Uddliava. 

Pavani— Sapta-sindhava. 

Pavi=: Vajra. 

Phala = Bala-rama. 

Plienapas — Pitr/s. 

Phena-vahin — Vajra. 

Pi j a van a — Pa i j a vana. 

Pinilka — Siyn. 

Pinga = Devi. 

Pingala — Loka-pala. 

Pisuna — Narada. 

Pitabdhi = Agastya. 

Pitha — 162. 

Pidia-sthana — Kalika Purana. 

Pitri-pati = Yama. 

Piy usha = Aniv-ita. 

Piy adasi — Asoka. 

Plaksha-dwipa — Dwipa. 

Plakshaga — Sapta-sindhava. 

Playoga — Asanga. 

Prabha = Alaka, 
Prabhakara — Soma 302. 
Prablianu — Satya-bhama. 
Prabhasa — Vas u . 
Praclietas — Varu^ia. 
Prachinabarhis — Praclietas, Sa- 

Prachinvat — 69. 
Prachyas — Chandra-gupta. 
Pragliasas = Rakshakas. 
Prag-jyotisha — Aditi. 
Praharshawa = Budha. 
Prahlada— Nivata-kavacha. 
Pransu — Manii. 
Prasena — Jambavat. 
Prasenajit — Jamad-agni, 313. 
Pra^na — Veda 348. 
Prasusruta, 313. 
Prasuti — Swadha, Swaha. 
Pratibandhaka, 313. 
Pratibhanu — Satya-bhama. 
Pratikshattra, 70. 
Prati- margaka — Saubha. 
Pratipa — >Santanu. 
Prati-shdiana — Puru-ravas. 
Prati- vindhya, 96, 188. 
Pratyusha — Vasu, Vi^wa-karma. 
Pravira, 69. 
Preta-raja = Yama 
Prishada5\va, 313. 
P/7'thu-laksha — Champa. 
Pn'thu-sravas, 69. 
Priti — Rati. 
Priti-jusha = tJsha. 
Priya-madhu =: Bala-rama. 
Priyam-vada = Vidya-dhara. 
Priya-vrata — Dakslia 76, Dhru- 

Pulaha — Kardama. 
Piilaka= Gaudharva. 
Pulakanga — Varuj^a 338. 
Pulastya — Dharma-sastra. 
Puloma — 74, Kalaka. 
Puloman — 74, Indra 126. 
Pu?ifZarika — Dig-gaja, Loka-pa- 

las, 313. 
Punc/ra — Dirgha-tamas. 
Pu??ya-janas — Ku^a-sthali. 



Puwva-janas = Yakshas. 
Pura-jyotis — Agni. 
Purandara = Iiidra. 
Puriiliotra, 69. 
Purukutsa, 106, 313. 
Purumillia — Syava^wa. 
Puru-ravas — Viswa-devas. 
Pun^a-ganga = Narmada. 
Pushau — Aswins. 
Piislian, 77. 
Pushkara, 57. 
Pushkara-dwipa — Dwipa. 
Pushkara-srajau = Aswins. 
Pushkara — Varu?ia, 337. 
Pushpa-danta — Dig-gaja, Katy- 

ayana, Loka-pala. 
Pushpa-dhanus = Kama. 
Pushpa-giri— VaruMa, 33S. 
Pushpa-ketana = Kama. 
Pushpa-mitra — Yavanas. 
Pushpa-5ara = Kama. 
Puslipotka^a — Kutsa, Visravas. 
Pushy a, 313. 

Put — Manda-pala, Vrii\\\. 
Puti-mr^ttika — Naraka, 
Ptit-kari — Bhogavati. 
Put-kari — Saraswati. 

Raga-laia = Pati, 
Paga-v/v'nta = Kama. 
Raghunandaua Bha^^acharya. 

Daya Tatwa, Vyavahara Tat- 

Raghu-pati — liaglm. 
Paivata — Kusa-sthali. 
Raja — Indra 126. 
Pa j a-raj a = Ku vera. 
Ilil j arshi s — Yay ati. 
Rajas — Purawa 246. 
Raj a-.sckhara — Bal a Ramaya?ia — 

Piachawc/a Pa?i<iava. 



a-suya, 186. 


ata-dyuti — Hanumat. 

i — Ay us. 

o-gu»a — Tri-murti. 

ica— Visravas. 

= Kama. 

Rakshaka — Asura. 

Rakshasendra = Kuvera. 

Rakta-dantI = DeA^i. 

Rakta-imksha = Garuf/ii. 

Rakta-pas — Rakshasas. 

Rakta-vija — Devi 87. 



Rama-deva — Vidvan-^NIoda. 

Rambha — Aj'us. 

Ramyaka — D wipa, Jambu- dwi- 

Rantinara, 69. 

Rasa — Sapta-sindhava. 

Rasatala — Patala. 

Rasayana = Garuo?a. 

Rasmipas — Pitr/s. 

Rata-naiicha = Kama. 

Rathantara-kalpa — Brahma Vai- 

Rathastha — Sapta-sindhava. 

Rathaviti — »S'yava5wa. 

Ratha-yatra — Jagan-natha. 

Rathi-tara — Angiras. 

Ratna-garbha = Kuvera. 

Ratnakara — Vivada Tant/ava. 

Ratna-sanu = Meru. 

Ratna-varshuka — Pushpaka. 

Ratri-charas = Rakshasas. 

Raudraswa — 69, Ghritachi. 

Rauhinej^a = Budha. 

R aura va — Narak a. 

Ravana — Vedavati, 

Ravawa-hrada — Manasa, 

Ravawi — Rava?ia. 

Ravi-uandana = Su-griva. 





Reva — Kama, Rati, Narmada. 

i^ibhu — Kumfiras. 

i^ibhuksha = Indra. 

Ribhus — Aswins, Twash^n. 

iiVcha, 70. 

i^/chas — Angiras, Viddha - Ssi- 

^/chika — Galava. 





2?i(idlii = Devi. 

Bi] u-kaya = Karttikeya. 

i^ijisha — Naraka. 

jRiks — Veda 346. 

i2i«aiitaka = Mangala. 

i?/ksha — 69, 70, Kula-parvatas, 

Samvarawa, Ehhi. 
Eita, 313. 
i?itadhAvaja, 69. 
^i'teyii — 69. 
i^itiijit, 313. 
Kochana — Viswa-devas. 
Rodhana = Budha. 
E,ohi??i — Budha. 
Rohit, 57. 
Rohitaswa — Agni, Hari^-chan- 

dia, 313. 
Ruchaka, 69. 
Ruchi — Akuti, Yajna. 
Rudra — Bliairava, Daksha. 
Riidra Bha^^a — Sri'ngara Tilaka. 
Rudra-deva — Yayati-charitra. 
Rudra?ii = Devi. 

Rula-parvatas, Samvarana, Eishi. 
Rukmakavacha, 69. 
Rukmi^ii — Lakshmi. 
Ruma?ivat — Jamad-agni,Rewuka. 
Rupastra = Kiinia. 
Riimra = Aruwa. 
Rupa — Vidagdha Madhava. 
Ruru — Bhaiiava. 
Ruruka, 313. 
Rusliadgu, 69. 

Sablm-parva, 191. 
^achl — Kutsa. 
Sada-dana — Loka-pala. 
Sada-gata = Vayu. 
Sadhya — Sadliyas. 
Sahasra-kirawa = Surya. 
Sahasraksha — Indra. 
Sahasra-nama — Vislmu 361. 
Sahasranika — Udayana. 
Saliishnii — Pulaha. 
Sahya — Kula-parvatas. 
Saindhavas — Jayad-ratlia. 
/S'aineya = Satyaki 

Sainhikeya = Raliu. 
/Sainyas — Garga. 
Sairibha = Swarga. 
Sairindhri = Draupadi. 
^Saka-dwipa — Dwipa. 
Sakakola — Naraka. 
/Sakala — Madra. 
/Sakara-bhari = Devi, 
S'akfiri = >S'alivahana. 
/Sakhala-sakha — Pratisakhya. 
^akini — Lanka. 
/Sakra-dhanus — Indra 127. 
/S'akra-dhwajotthana — Indra 127. 
>Sakta — Kalika Pura^ia. 
/S'akti-dhara = Karttikeya. 
*S'aktri — Parasara. 
A^akuni — Dur-yodhana, 69, 186. 
^S'akj^as — Chandra-gupta. 
>S'alankayana = Nandi. 
Salatura — Pawini. 
»Sali-5uka — Maurva. 
/Salmala-dwipa — Dwipa. 
/Salmali — Naraka. 
/Salmalin = Garuc^a. 
Salottariya = Pacini. 
>S'alya-parva, 191. 
/Samana = Yama. 
^S'amani-sliadas = Rakshasas. 
Samanga — Ashi^avakra. 
>S'amantaka = Kama. 
Samanta-panchaka — Para,su- 

Sama Raja Dikshita — Dhurta- 

nartaka, »S'ri Dama Charita. 
<Sanibha — Va j ra. 
Sambliuta, 313. 
^Sambhu— Vedavati. 
iSami-garbha — Sami. 
Samin, 70. 
Samnati — Kratu. 
Sampratapana — Naraka. 
Samudra-cliuluka = Agastya. 
Samudraru = Setu-bandlia. 
Samudriiru =: Timin. 
Samvara^m, 69. 
Samvara^ia — Kuru. 
Samvarta — Dharma-sastra, Ma- 

rutta, Avatara, 36. 




Samvarttaka — Aurva, Bala-ra- 

Samyati, 69. 

Sanaka — Loka. 

Sananda — Loka. 

Satiat = Brahma. 

Sanat-kiimara — Loka. 

Sandhya-balas = Rakshasas. 

Sandhya — Kalika Pura?ia. 

Saudhya, ) 

Sandliyansa, ) 

Sandipa;n, 166 — Panchajana. 

Sangata — IVIaurya. 

Sauhara — Bhairava, 

Sankara = Maha-pralaya. 

Sanhata — Naraka. 

Sanhataswa, 313. 

SsLni — Ga?ze5a, Ja^ayu. 

/Sani-prasu — Chhaya. 

Sanjaya, 313. 

San j i vana — Naraka. 

<Sankara Dikshita — Pradyumna- 

Sankasya — Kusa-dhwaja. 
j Dharma-sastra. 

>Sankha, ^ xi^iinn, 361, Nidhi. 

/S'ankbanablia, 313. 

<S'ankhayana Brahmawa — Brah- 
ma wa. 

Sankshepa /Sankara-vijaya — 
/Sankara V. 

<Sanku — Nava-ratna. 

Sannati, 69. 

Sansara-guru — Kama. 

<S'anta — i2/shya-5rmga. 

Santaiia — Paiicha-vriksha. 

*STintaTiava= Bhishma. 

Santati, 69. 

>9anti-])ai-va, 191. 

Sapta-j ihva = Agni. 

Saptarchi = /S'ani. 

<S^ara-bhu — Karttikeya. 

^Saradfi = Saraswati. 

♦Sfiradwata = K?'ipa. 

Saraswati — Kavaslia. 

SaraswatI (river) — Brahmavartta. 

5^ara-vana — Nandi^a, 

Sarayu, Saryu — Sapta-sindhava. 

ii, ] 


Sarisrzkta — Jarita. 
/S'arkara-bhumi — Patala. 
*S'arngi-deva— Sangita-ratnakara. 
/S'arngika — Jarita. 
Sarojin = Brahma. 
Sarparati = Garu^f a. 
Sarpa-sattrin =: Janamejaya. 
Sarpis — Dwipa. 
Sarvabhauma, 69. 
Sarva-bhauma — Dig-gaja, Loka- 

Sar vaga — Bh ima. 
Sarvakama, 313. 
Sarva-kama — iiitu-parwa. 
Sarva-mangala = Devi. 
Sarva-medha — Viswa-karma. 
Sarvatma — Tri-miirti. 
Sarvatraga — Bhima. 
Sarva-varman — Ka-tantra. 
^Saryata — Chyavaua. 
>S'aryati — Haihaya. 
^Saryati = INIanu. 
S'asabindu, 69. 
/S'asa-dharman — IVIaurya. 
Sasartu — Sapta-sindhava. 
/Sasiyasi — Syava^wa. 
>S'aswata, 313. 
jSa^watas = Vyasa. 
/Satadyumna, 313. 
5atahrada — Viradha. 
/S'ata-kratu = Indra. 
/Satananda = Gotama. 
/Satanika, 96. 
/S^atanika (two), 70, 188. 
/S'ata-parwa — /Sukra. 
/S'atarudriya — *Siva. 
Satata-ga = Vayii. 
^S'atatapa — Dhamia-^astra. 
Sati — Angiras, Daksha. 
Sati = DevI. 

Satra-jit, ) Jambavat, Pra- 
Sattrajita, ) sena, 167. 
/S'atru-ghna — Madhu. 
/Satrujit, 69. 
Sattwa — Purana. 



Satwa-guna — Tri-miirti, 

Satwa-Purawa — Tri-muiti. 

Satwata, 70. 

Satya-dh?'jti — Kr^'pa, 313. 

Satyadhriti — Dhr/shta-ketu. 

Satyadlnvaja, 313. 

Satyaketu, 69. 

8aty a — Vis wa- de vas. 

Satyaratha, 313. 

Satyarathi, 313. 

ISaubala — /S'akuni. 

Saubali = Gandhari. 

Saubaleyi = Gandhari. 

Saubha, 162. 

Saubhadra = Abhimanyii. 

Saudasa = Kalmasha-pada. 

>S'auiiaka — Aswalayana, BWhad- 
devata, Gr2tsa-mada, Prati- 

Saumanasa — Loka-pala. 
Saumya — Bharata-varsha, Bud- 

ha, Dwipa. 
Sauniyas — Pitns, 
^Saunakiya Chaturadhyayika — 

Saunanda — Bala-rama, 41, Mu- 

Saiiptika-parva, 191. 
Saura-Purawa — Brahma Purawa. 
Sauti — Naimisha. 
Sauviras — Jayad-ratha, 
<S'avala ~ Kama-dhenu. 
Savarna — Meru. 
Savarwa — Saranyfi, 
*S'ayaiii Chandra .Sekhara, INIa- 

Sa-yoni — Indra. 
»Sekhara — Dhnrta-samagania. 
Sena = Karttikeya. 
Seiia-pati = Karttikeya. 
Setu-kavya — Setu-bandha. 
iSevadhi — Nidhi. 
Shac^-angas = Vedangas. 
Sha^-kona = Vaj ra. 
Sha^-pura — Nikumbha. 
Shodasansu = /Sukra. 
Siddhas — Amr^ta. 
Siddha-senai= Karttikeya. 

/S'ighra, 313. 

/Sikhawc^ini — Sthuwa. 

/Sina — Garga. 

Sindhu-dwipa, 313. 

Sindhu — Sapta-sindhava. 

Sindhu-sauviras — Jayad-ratha. 

Sinha-rathi = Devi. 

Sinha-vahini = Devi. 

Sinhika — Ketu, Rfihu. 

/S'lr/ia-pada = Yama. 

Sita = Lakshmi, Vedavati. 

iS'ita-niarichi = Soma. 

Sita (river) — Sapta-sindhava. 

Sitanana = Garuc/a. 

Sitan^u = Soma. 

Si^eyus, 69. 

Sitoda — Manasa, 

/S'iva — Ardha-nari, Arjuna, Bhri- 

/Siva-duti — Devi. 

/Siva-gharma-ja = Mangala. 

<Siva-sarman — Prahlada. 

*Siva-sekhara = Soma. 

Smara = Kama. 

Smarta Bha^^acharya — V^'ava- 
hara Tatwa. 

Smartava — >S'ankaracharya. 

Smnti — Angiras, Dharma-sastra. 
Snana-yatra — Jagan-natha. 
Soma — B?'diaspati, Vach, Vasii, 

Veda 347. 
Soma-deva Bha^^a — Katha-sarit- 

Somapas — Pitn's, Narmadii. 
Soma-sarman — Maurya, Prah- 
Somodbhava = Narmada. 
Sonita-pura — Aniruddha. 
>S'raddha — Angiras. 
/S'raddha-deva = Yama. 
Srash^n = Brahma, 59. 
/S'ravasti — Lava. 
/Sravasta, 313. 
/S'ribhanu — Satya-bliama. 

a . T^ J I Dasa Kumara Cha- 
on Va,nai, } •- t^- i 

1 rita, Kavya-darsa. 

Sri Harsha Deva — Naga-nandaua, 


2 c 



Sri Harsha — Naishadha Charita. 

/S'ri-kantha = Bhava-bhuti. 

Sri Kr/sh;ja Tarkalankara — Daya 

Krama Sangraha. 
/S'ri-naiidana := Kama. 
^Sr/ngara-sataka — Bhartrj-hari. 
»S'rmgara-yoni = Kama. 
/S'ri Paivata^ASri >S'aila. 
»S'ri Sihlana — >Santi-sataka. 
»Sruta (two), 313. 
*9ruta-deva — ^S'i^upala. 
*S'ruta-karmaii, 96, 188. 
,S"ruta-kii-tti, 96, 188 — Kusa-dhwa- 

*S^ruta-soma, 96, 188. 
Srutayus, 313. 
Stamba-mitra — Jarita. 
Sthrinu = >S'iva. 

►Sthapatya-veda — Vi^wa-karma. 
Stri Parva, 191. 
Su-bala — Gandhari, >S'akuiii. 
Sii-bandhu — Gaupayana. 
ASiibbachara — Yogini. 
/S^ubha-danti — Loka-palas. 
Sii-bbadra — Aniruddha. 
»S'iibba)igi = Rati. 
Subh ami — Satya-bhama. 
Subhasa, 313. 
Subhaswaras — PitWs. 
Su-bha^a — D utangada. 
/S'lichi, 313. 
»S'uchi = Agni. 
Su-dakshina — Dilipa. 
»Sii-dar5ana, 162, 313. 
Sudasa, 313. 
Suddhodana — Kapila. 
Su-deshHa — Dirgha-tamas. 
8udhu-liara = Garu<ia. 
Su-dhanwan — ^ibluis, 313. 
Su-dhanwan = Viswa-karma. 
Sadlia-pfi^i = Dhanwaiitari. 
Sudhavats — Pitm. 
»S'udras — Abblra. 
8adyumiia, 69. 
Sulima — Dirgha-tamas. 
8ubotra (two), 69. 
»Su-hotra — Saha-deva. 
Sii-jata — Haihaya. 

Su-kalas — Pitns. 
Su-kanya — Chyavana. 
Su-kalius — Pit^^'s. 
Sukha — Varu??a 338. 
Suketu, 69, 313. 
/S'ukra — Kacha. 
Sukta — Veda 346. 
>S'ukti-mati, 71. 
iS'uktimat — Kula-parvatas. 
Sukiimfira, 69. 
Su-laksha«a — Yogini. 
Siimad-atmaja = Apsaras. 
/S^unaka — Gritsa-mada. 
Su-mali — Kaikasi. 
Sii-mana — Dama. 
Sumanas, 313. 
Su-mantu — Dharma-sastra. 
Su-mantu — Kabaudha. 
Su-mati — Indra-dyumna. 
Su-mati — Sagara. 
/S^umbha — Devi, 87. 
Su-mitra — Dasa-ratha. 
/S'mia-hotra — Gn'tsa-mada. 
Su-naman, 162. 
Su-nanda — Yogini. 
Sunaya, 313. 

Sundara-ka;2^a — Ilamaj^a7ia. 
Suudara Misra — Abhirama-ma?ii. 
Sunitha, 69. 
Su-nitha = >S'i5ii-pala. 
Suniti — Dhriiva. 
Siinga — Pushpa-mitra. 
Sunri'tii — Dhruva. 
Su-par7ia= Garii(7a. 
Supar^wa, 313. 
Suparswa — Vaibhra j a. 
Su-pratika — Dig-gaja, Loka- 
Sura, 70. 
Sura — KuntT. 
Sura — Dwipa. 
Sura — Varu /ijlni. 
Surabhi — Kama-dhcnu. 
/S'luTibbiras — Abhira. 
Suradbipa = Indra, 
Surfinganfi = Apsaras. 
<Suras — Abhira. 



Su-rasa — Naga, Yfitus. 
>S'urasenas — 162, Kunti. 
Suratha, 69. 
Surendra-jit — Garuc?a. 
Suruchi — Dhruva. 
Sfirytl — Pushan, 
Suiya-ja = Yamuna. 
Susandhi, 313. 
Susarmau — Arjuna 23. 
Sushena — Jamad-agui, Re/m- 

SxiBhnii — Kutsa. 
Su-sila — Yam a. 
Sushoma — Sapta-sindhava. 
Susriita, 313. 
<S^usuma — *S'iikra, 
Su-swadlias — Pitns. 
Sutala — Patala. 
Su-tapas — Devaki, 
/S'utudri — Sai)ta-sindhava. 
Suvar;iaroma, 313. 
Suvarwa-kaya = Garuc/a. 
Suvibhu, 69. 
Su-ya^as — Maun'^a. 
Sii-yodliana — Dur-yodhana. 
Swadha — Angiras, Pitr^s. 
Swaha — Agni. 
Swahi, 69. 

Swanaya — Kaksliivat. 
^Swa-phalka — Akrura, Gan- 

Swar-bhanu — Satya-bhama. 
Swarga — Indra. 
Swarga-pati = Indra. 
S^yargaroha?^a-parva, 192. 
Swaru = Vajra. 
Swar-vaidyau = A^wins. 
Swati — Siirya. 
Swayamblioja, 70. 
S^yeia = /S'ukra. 
S weta-rohita = Garuffa. 
^S'weta-vilhana = Arjuna. 
iSweta-vaji = Soma. 
Sweti — Sapta-sindliava. 
SyaTna = 'De\i. 
*Sy amanga = Budha. 

Syamantaka — Vishwu 361. 
Syeni — Sampati. 

Taittiriya — Pratisakhya. 
Takshaka — Astika. 
Takshaka = Viswa-karma. 
Taksha-5ila — Janamejaya. 
Tala — Patala. 
Tala — Patala. 
Tala-dhwaja = Bala-rama. 
Talajanghas — Bahu. 
Talatala — Patala. 
Tamas, 69, 77, 246. 
Tamas-Pura»a — Tri-mtirti. 
Tamisra — Naraka. 
Tamo-gu7ia — Tri-murti. 
Tamra-cliuc^a — Bliairava. 
Tamra-kar/ii — Loka-palas 
Tamra-varwa — Bharata-varslia, 

Tawc^ava — >S'iva, Nandi, 
Tawc/ava-talika = Nandi. 
Tansu, 69. 
Tapana — Naraka. 
Tapati — Chhaya, Kuru. 
Tara — Bali. 
Tara — Bali, Brihaspati, Budlia, 

Taraka — Rama. 
Taraka-jit =Karttikeya. 
Taraka-maya — Brthaspati. 
Taranta — /Syavaswa. 
Taraswin = Garuc/a. 
Tarksliya = GarucZa. 
Tarpawechchhu = Bhislima. 
Tavisha = Swarga. 
Tavishi = Jayanti. 
Tigma, 70. 
Titha = Kama. 
Tomara-dhara = Agni. 
Tranga = Saubha, 
Trasadasyu — Purukutsa, Nar- 

mada, 313. 
Trayaru»a, 313. 
Tri-dhanwan, 313. 
Tri-divam = Swarga. 
Trigartta, 187. 
Tri^a-bindu — Idaxida. 



Tri-patha-ga — Ganga. 
Tii-pish^apam = S warga. 
Tri-^anku — Haris-chaiidra, Satya- 

Tr^sha — Aniruddha. 
Trisbfama — Sapta-sindliava. 
Tri-siklia = Eava/ia. 
Tri-5iras — Rfiva^a. 
Tri-srotali = Ganga. 
Tn-5ula, 299. 
Tri-yama= Yamuna. 
Tryambaki = Devi. 
Tulildhara — Jajali. 
Tu/ic/ikeras — Haihaya. 
Tungisa, 166. 
Twaslitri — Sara?iyu. 

Uchathya — Dirglia-tamas. 
Udavasu, 313. 
U day ana, 70. 
Uddalaka — Asliiavakra. 
Uddama — Yaruna. 
Udgatn — Yeda 350. 
Udgitha = Om. 
Udyoga-parva, 191. 
Uf'ra = *S'iva. 
Ugra-dlianwan = Indra. 
Uktha, 313. 
Ulmuka — Bala-rama. 
Uluka= India. 
Uma — Apar^ia, Daksha, 78. 
Un-niatta — Bliairava. 
Unnati — Garuc^a. 
Upagu, 313. 
U pahutas — Pitn's. 
Uparichara — Satyavati, 
Upasunda — Muka. 
Upendra, 166. 
tJrdhwa-loka — S warga. 
tjrja — Yasishdia, 342. 
Urjavaha, 313. 
Urniila — Lakshmawa. 
Uru — Angiras. 
Uiva — Aurva. 
Uiva^i — Nara Naraya^ia. 
Urvl — P?7'tliivl. 
U.sanas — B/Zluispati, 69. 

Usha-pati — Animddlia. 

Ushmapas — Pitris. 

Ushna, 70. 

Usinara — Galava, »S'ivi. 

Utath^^a — Angiras, Bliaradwaja, 

Utpadaka = /S'arabha. 
Uttama — Dhruva. 
Uttanka — Dhundhu. 
Uttara — Abliimanyu. 
Uttara-kawf/a — Ramayana. 
Uttara Kuru — Dwipa, Jambu-d. 

Yacbaspati Misra — Bbamati, Yi- 

vada Mitrodaya, Yyavabara- 

Cbintjlma?d, • 
Yach-viraj — Yach. 
Yadaveyau = A^wins. 
Yafrlswari — Saraswati. 
Yaibbra = Yaikun^ba. 
Yaibbraja-loka — Barbisbads. 
Yaidehi— Yaideba. 
Yaidbatra = Sanat-kumara. 
Yaidbvata — Yama. 
Yaidya-natba Yacbaspati — Cbit- 

Yaijayanta — Indra, 127. 
Yaikundia-natba = Yishviu. 
Yaikarttana = Kania. 
Yainabotra, 70. 
Yainateya = Garuc/a. 
YairagI — Loka. 

Yairagya-sataka — Bbart;7'-liari. 
Yairajas — PitWs. 
Yairocbi = Ba»a. 
Yaisampaj-ana — Yajnawalkya. 
Yai sb» avi — ]\Iatm. 
Yai.sravana = Kuvera. 
Yaiswanara — Agni, Kalakji. 
Yaivaswata = Yama. 
Yaja — jRibbus. 
Yajasaneyi-pratisakbya — Prati- 

Yajasani — Yeda 349. 
Yaja-.sravasa — Nacbikctas. 
Ycljin — Yeda 349. 
\'ajra — Aniruddba. 
Vajra-datta — Arjuna ^t,. 



vijaya, 313. 

Vaj ra- j it = Ganir/a, 
Va j ra-kama — Maya. 

Vajra-nabha, \ 

Vajra-piiwi = Indra. 

Vakya-padiya — Bhartri-hari. 

Vala — Indra, Trita. 

Vala-bhid = Indra. 

Valmiki — Hanuman-nataka. 

Vama — Kama. 

Vamana — Dig-gaja, Loka-pala. 

Vameswara — Linga. 

Vana-parva, 191. 

Varada Raja — Laghu Kaumudi. 

Varawavata, 185. 

Vara-prada — Agastya, Lopa- 

Vararuchi — Katyayana. 
Varga — Veda, 346. 
Vari-loma = Varii?ia. 
Var?2a-kavi — Kiivera. 
Varttika — Katyayana. 
Varuwa — Aditya. 
Varu?ia — Bharata-varsha. 
VaiiiJia — Utathya. 
Varuwa-dwipa — Dwipa. 
Vasava-datta — Ratnavali. 
Vasava = Indra. 
Vashkalas — Vasish^ha. 
Vasishdias — Vasishifha. 
Vasu — Jamad-agni, Re/iuka, Ut- 

tana-pada, Vkwa-devas. 
Vasudana, 70. 
Vasudha-nagara — Varuwa. 
Vasu-dhara = Alaka. 
Vasuki — Kadru, ^Sesha. 
Vasu-sena — Kama. 
Vasu-sthali — Alaka. 
Vatsa, 69. 

Vaswokasara — Sapta-sindliava. 
Yatsa — Ratnavali. 
Yeda, 36. 

Veda-mitra = /S'akalya. 
Vedas — Jata-vedas. 
Vedhas = Bralima 59, Satya-vrata. 
Vena — Vrii\\\. 
Vetala-blia^^a — Nava-ratna. 
Vibliu, 69. 

Vibliu — 7?ibhus. 
Vibudlia, 313. 
Vichara-bliu — Yama. 
Vidagdha /Sakalya — Yfijnawal- 

Yidarbha — 69, Jyamaglia. 
Yidhi = Brahma, 59. 
Yidhi-patJlla — Patala. 
Yiduratlia, 69, 70. 
Yidya-nagara — Yidyara?iya. 
Yighna-hari, ) ., 
Yighne^a, | =C.a;ie.a. 

Yijaya = Arjuna 187. 
Yijaya^Devi, Saha-deva, Yama. 
Yijaya (kings), 313. 
Yijaya (patala) — Patala. 
Yijnana Bhikshu — Sankhya-sara. 
Yikarttana — Karwa. 
Yikarttana = Surya. 
Yikrita, 77. 
Yik?•^ti, 69. 
Yikukslii, 313, 
Yiloma= Yaruwa 338. 
Yimana — Indra 127. 
Yina — Narada. 
Yinasana — Madhya-de^a. 
V^inata — Garuc^a, Garuc^a Pu- 


Yindhya — Kula-parvatas. 
Yindhya-ku^a — Agastya. 
Yindhy a-vasini := Devi, Pi^ha- 

Yipasa — Sapta-sindhava. 
Yiprachitti — Ketu, Ralm. 
Yira-bhadra, 78. 
Yiraj — PWthi, Yacli. 
Yira-nagara — Nidagha. 
Yira^a-parva, 191. 
Yirupaksha — Loka-palas. 
Yi^akha-datta — Mudra-Rak- 

Yi^ala — Yaisala. 
Yisha, 36. 

Yisha-liara = INIanasa. 
Yisli7iu — Bhrigii, Daksha, 79. 
Yisli?m-duta = Prakasas, 




Vishnu-gupta = Cha?2akya. 
Vish/m-gupta — Kaundinya. 
A"ish?2,u-ratha — Garuf/a. 
Vish;m-5aiman — Pauclia-tantra. 
Visrutavat, 313. 
Viswagaswa, 313. 
Vi^wa-jit— Varii;«a 2Z^' 
Viswaka — Kr^'sh/ia. 
Viswa-karman — 34, Surya. 
Viswamitra — Haris-cliandra. 
Vi^wa-natha — Kaghava-vilasa, 

Viswa-natlia (dramatist) — Mre- 

Viswasaha, 313. 
Viswavasii — Jamad-agni. 
Viifwe-devas — Dakslia. 
Visweswara Bha^fa — Subod- 

Vitahavj^a, 313. 
Vitala — Patala. 
Vitasta — Sapta-sindhava. 
Vitatha — 69, Garga, Kapila, 
Viti-hotra — Haihaya. 
VituwcZa — Tuwc/a. 
Vivaswat = Surya. 
Vivaswati — Surya. 
Viyad-ganga — Ganga. 
Vr^ddha — Dharma-sastra. 
Vre'ddha-Manu — Mann. 
Vriddlia-5arma — Danta-vaktra. 
Vr/had-garbha — >S'ivi. 
Vn'bad-ratha — Jara-sandba. 
Vreban-manas — Jayad-ratba. 
Vnbati — Angada. 

Vr/ban-Manu — Mann. 
Vr/jinivat, 69. 
Wika, 313. 
Yrisban-aswa — Mena. 
Vrisba-parvan — Drubyn. 
Vrtsba-parvan — Sarmisbdia. 
VWsb;timat, 70. 
Vri&hni — Andbaka, 69. 
VWtra — Dadbyancb, Indra. 
Vyadba — Dbarma-vyadba. 
Vyamas — Pitris. 
Vyoman, 69. 

Yadab-pati = Varu?2a. 

Yadavas, 161. 

Yajna — Aktiti. 

Yajna-senI = Dranpadi. 

Yajnawalkya — Yeda 34S. 

Yajnesa, ) ,^. , 

v • > = Visb;m. 

Yajneswara, ) 

Yaksba-raja = Kuvera. 

Yama — Nacbiketas. 

Yama-duta — Yama. 

Yamas — Akuti. 

Yamuna — Saj)ta-sindbava. 

Yoga-cbara = Hanumat. 
Yoga-siddba — Viswa-kamia. 
Yudba j it — Andbaka. 
Yudba-kanda — Ramayawa. 
Yudba-ranga — Karttikeya. 
Yudbi-sbdiira — Jayad-ratba. 
Yuvana^wa — Harita, Mandbatr/, 

Yuva-raja, 1S5. 


Aborigines — Dasyus. 

Adam's Bridge — Rama-setu, 

Adisadra — Ahi-chhatra. 
Adoption — Dattaka. 
Aerial car — Pushpaka, Karta- 

Aerial city — Saublia,Vismapana. 
Ages of the world — Yuga. 
Ahirs — Abliiras. 
Ahura — Asura. 
Alexander the Great — Chandra- 

Algebra — Arya-bha^a — Vija-ga- 

iiita, Bhaskaracharya. 
Akesines — Asikni, Sapta-sind- 

Andarse — Andhra. 
Andubarius — Arya-bha^a. 
Anhalwara — Pattana. 
Anna Perenna — Anna Purwa. 
Antiochus — Yavanas. 
Anwar-i Suhaili — Pancha-tantra. 
Aphrodite — Apsaras, Lakshnil^ 

Archery — Dhanur-veda. 
Architect — Viswa-karma. 
Architecture— Sthapatya-veda. 
Arithmetic — Bhaskaracharya. 
Ar j abahr — Ary a-bha^a. 
Arrah — Eka-chakra. 
Ars Erotica — Sankhayana. 
Assam — Kulika Pura^ia. 
Astronomy — Arya-bha^a, Jyoti 

sha, Bhaskaracharya. 

Atmosphere — Antarlksha. 
Atomic School — Darsana. 
Aurora — Aruwa, Ushas. 

Bacchus — Soma 302. 

Bactrian Greeks — Yavanas. 

Bactrians — Balhikas. 

Bairat — Matsya, Virata. 

Baital PachisI — Vetala Pancha- 

Balkh — Balhi, Balhika. 

Banas river, 62. 

Banda — Chitra-ku^a. 

Barbarians — Mlechchhas. 

Bears — Jamba vat, Rama, Ba- 

Beder — Vidarbha. 

Behat — Vitasta. 

Benares, 153, 162, 168. 

Bengal — Anga, Banga. 

Betwa river — Vetravatl. 

Bhils — Nishada. 

Bibasis — Vipasa. 

Bihar — Magadha, Videha. 

Birar — Kosala, Vidarbha. 

Boar — Avatara, Brahma. 

Boglekand — Chedi. 

Bow, wonderful — Ga7idlva, Ra- 

Buddhism, 26, 27. 

Byas — Sapta-sindhava, Vipasa. 

Bj^eturnee — Vaitarani. 

Calingre — Kalinga. 
Cannibal imps — Pisita^anas. 



Canogyza — Kanya-kub j a. 

Canopus — Agastya. 

Cape Comorin — Kanya-kiimari. 

Capricorniis — Makara, 

Carnatic — Karna^a. 

Castes — Var«a. 

Ceylon — Lanka, Ravawa. 

Chaudail — Cliedi. 

Chariot, aerial — Karta-virya, 

Charites — Harita. 

Cliinab — Sapta-sindliava. 

Churning of ocean — Amrita. 

Cirrhad?e — Kiratas. 

Cities, the sacred — Nagara. 

Comorin, Cape — Kumari. 

Conch — Panchajanya. 

Con j everam — Kanchl. 

Conscience — Sanjna. 

Continents — D^yIpa. 

Coromandel — Chola-Mawc?ala. 

Cow, the wonderful — Kama- 

Creation — Apava, Daksha, Brah- 
ma, Brihaspati, Manu. 

Creator — Brahma, Hira?iya-gar- 
bha, Prajapati, Vi^wa-karma. 

Cupid — Kama. 

Dawn — Aruna, Ushas. 

Dead, the — Yama. 

Death — Nirriti. 

Deities — Devatas, Ganas. 

Deluge — Avatara, INIanu. 

Demons — Asuras, Daityas, Da- 

navas, Darbas, Dadhyanch. 
Dictionary — Abhidhana, Amara- 

Differential calculus — Bhaskara- 

Dionysus — Soma 302. 
Dioskouroi = A^wins. 
Doal) — Antarvedi. 
Dogs of Indra and Yama — Sa- 

rama and Sarameyas. 
Drama, 47, 49. 
Dramatists — Bhava-bhuti. 
Drought, demon of — Vritra. 

Durds — Darada. 
Dryads — Vana-charis. 
D warf — Avatara. 

Earrings — Aditi. 

E a r t h — Avatara, Vri th i vi. 

Earth, milking of — P?Y'thi. 

Eclectic School — Darsana 82. 

Eclipses — Graha, Bahu. 

Egg of the world — Brahma. 

Elephant, aerial — Airavata — Dig- 

Eolus — Vajni. 
Eos — Ushas. 
Eras — /S'aka, Samvat. 
Erinnys — Sarameyas. 
Erranaboas ) Chandra-gupta, 

river ) Paiali-putra. 

Esoteric writings — Upanishads, 

Veda 345. 
Ethics — Niti-5astras. 
Etymology — Nirukta. 
Exoteric writings — Veda 345. 

Faith — Sraddha. 

Fauns — Yana-charas. 

Female principle, worship of — 

Fiends — Pisachas. 
Fiery weapon — Agneyastra. 
Fire — Agni. 

Fish — Avatara, Brahma. 
Fortune, goddess of — Lakshmi. 

Gambling — Maha-bharata, Nala. 

Gandarii — Gandhilra. 

Gandaritis — Gandhara. 

Ganges — Ganga. 

Ganymede — Medhfitithi. 

Gems — Nava-ratna. 

Ghosts — Bhiltas — Yetala, 

Giants — Daityas, Danavas, Dad- 

Glossary — Nighanfu, Nirukta. 

Goblins — Bhutas, Yetala. 

Gogra — Nidiigha. 

Grammar — Mahii-bhashya, Pa- 
cini, Yyakara;?a. 



Great Bear — i?^■shi. 

Greeks — Kala-yavana, Yavaiias. 

Guiiduck — Gandaki. 

Hapta-heando — Sapta-sindhava. 
Hardwar — Gaiiga- dwara, Hari- 

Heaven — Dyaus, Swarga, Vai- 

Hell — Naraka. 
Hephaistos — Twash^x 
Hermes — Sarameyas. 
H e sii dr us — >S'ata- dr u. 
Himalaya — Himavat. 
Hind — Sindhu. 
Hindoi — Sindhu. 
Horse sacrifice — Aswa-medlia, 

Horses — Galava. 
Human sacrifice — Suna/i-sephas, 
Huns — Hu??as. 
Hydaspes — Sapta-sindhava, Vi- 

Hydraotes — Iravati, Sapta-sind- 

Hyphasis — Sapta-sindhava, Vi- 

Imps — DakinT. 

I ncarnations — Avatara, 

Index of the Veda — Anukra- 

India — Bharata-varsha. 
India — Sindhu. 
Indoi — Sindhu. 
Indo-Scythians — /S'akas, Turush- 

kas, Kanishka. 
Indus — Sindhu, 
Infernal regions — Patala, 
Infinite space — Aditi, 
Inheritance — Daya, 
Innocents, Slaughter of — Kansa. 
Inspiration — Smr^ti. 
Islands — D-\vipa. 
lyar-i Danish — Pancha-tantra. 

Jewels — Nava-ratna, 
J hare j as — Surya-vausa. 

Jhilam — Sapta - sindhava, Vi- 


Jumna — Yamuna. 
Jupiter Pluvius, 
Jupiter Tonans, 
Justice — Dharma. 


Kanerki — Kanishka. 
Khasiyas — Khasas, 
Khirad-afroz — Pancha-tantra, 
Kirantis — Kiratas, 
Kosambi-nagar — Kausambi. 
Kundapur — Vidarhha, 




Law — Dharma-sastra, Manu- 

Light — Angirasas. 
Local deities — Sthali-devatas. 
Logic — Darsana. 
Love, god of — Kama, 
Luminous deities — Angirasas — 

As wins. 
Lunar mansions — Nakshatra, 77, 
Lunar race — Chandra-vausa. 
Lute — Narada, 

Macedonian Greeks — Yavanas, 

INIalabar — j\Ialay — Parasu-rama. 

JNIanes — Pitr^s. 

Mare — Bat/a va. 

INIars — Karttikeya — INIangala. 

INIaths — Sankaracharya. 

ISIatter — PrakWti. 

INIechanics — Artha-sastra, /Silpa- 

Medicine — Ayur-veda, Charaka, 

Dhanwantari, Susruta. 
Megasthenes — Chandra-gupta, 
Mendicant — Bhikshu, 
Mercury — Budha, 
Metre— Chh andas. 
INIilking of the earth — Pr^thi. 
]\Iilitary art — Dhanur-veda, 
Mind-born sons — Atri, Kumaras, 

jNlrmasa-putras, i^ishi, 
Minos — Yama. 



Mithra — INIitra. 

Monkeys — Hanuinat, Ravana, 

Months — Aditya. 
Moon — Alialya, Soma. 
]\Ioon, descendants of — Cliandra- 

Moon-stone — Cliandra-kauta. 
Morals — Niti-sastras. 
Mother of the gods — Aditi. 
jMountains — Kula-parvatas. 
ISIundane Q,%g — Brahma. 
Music— Raga. 
Musicians — Gandharvas. 
Mystic words — Vyahriti. 

Niisik — Panchavati. 
Necklace — >S'iva, Vaijayantl. 
Nerbudda — Narmada. 
Nihilists, 82. 
Node, the ascending — Rahu. 

the descending — Ketu. 

Nymphs of heaven — Apsarases. 

Ocean, churning — Amnta. 

drunk up — Agastya, 

Oerki — Huslika, Kanishka. 
Ophir — Abhira. 
Orissa — Orfra, Utkala. 
Orpheus — Narada. 
Ouranos — Varu?ia. 
Ozene — Ujjayini. 

Palibothra — Chandra-gupta, Pa- 

Pandion — Pa?ic/ya. 
Paradise — Swarga, Vaikun^ia. 
Parrot, tales of — /S'uka-saptati. 
Partridge — Tittiri. 
Pasargada — Kalanas. 
Patna — Arya-bha/a, Pa^ali-putra. 
Pcrsi ai i s — Pah 1 a vas, Parasikas, 
Peukelastis — Puslikaravati. 
I'hallus — Linga. 
Philosopher's stone — Chinta-ma- 

Ph ilosophy — Dar.sana. 
Phonetics — /S'iksha. 

Pigmies — Valakhilj-as. 

Pisuni river — Chitra-kufa, Man- 

Planetary sphere — /S'isumara. 
Pluto — Yama. 
Poems — iNIaha-kavyas. 
Pokhar, 57, 
Pole star — Dhruva. 
Polity — Kamandaki. 
Pousekielofati — Pushkaravatl. 
Prasii — Chandra-gupta. 
Prem-Sagar, 161. 
Prosody — Chhandas. 
Puri — Jagan-natha. 

Pain — Indra, Parjanya. 
Rajputs — Surya-vansa. 
Ramisseram — Linga, Rameswara. 
Ramnagar — Panchala. 
Ravi — IravatI, Sapta-sindhava. 
Recorder of the dead — Chitra- 

Revelation — /Sruti. 
Rohilkhand — Panchala. 

igala, \ ^'^k^l^- 

Saba'-sin — Sapta-sindhava. 

Sacse — /S'akas. 



Sakai — /Sakas. 

Sandracottus, ) =Chandra- 

Sandrocyptus, \ gupta. 

Saturn — >S'ani. 

Schools of the Vedas — /S'aklia. 

Sciences, 118. 

Scythians — Haihayas. 

Sea serpent — Timin. 

Seleucus Nicator — Chandra- 

Serpents — Nagas. 

Serpent, aerial — Alii. 

Seven rivers — Sapta-sindhava. 

Singhjlsan-battisi — Sinhasana- 

Sky — Dyaus, Varuna. 

Sleep — Nidra. 

Solar race — Sfnya-vansa, 

Sone — Pa^ali-i)utra. 



Sophagasenas — Yavanas. 

Soul — Brahma. 

Speech — SaraswatI, Vach. 

Storm-gods — Maruts. 

Submarine fire — Aurva, Bacfava. 

Sun — Surya. 

Sun, worship of — Brahma Pu- 

Sungroor — Srmga-vera. 
Supreme Soul — Brahma. 
Suraseui — >S'urasenas. 
Sutlej — »S'atadru. 

Tales — Hitopadesa, Pancha-tan- 
tra, /Suka-saptati, Sinhasana- 

Talmud — Brahma?2a. 

Tamil — Agastya, Dravi(/a. 

Tamlook — Tamra-lipta. 

Taprobane — Tamra-par « a. 

Tatars — Kanishka, /Sakas. 

Taxila — Taksha-^ila. 

Telingana — Andhra. 

Text — Pada, Pa^ha. 

Three steps — Avatara. 

Thunderbolt — Va j ra. 

Time — Kala. 

Tinnin — Timin. 

Tirhut— Videha, MithHa. 

Titans — Daityas, Danavas, Da- 

Tom Thumb — Valakhilyas. 

Tonse river — Tamasa. 

Tortoise — Avatara, Brahma. 

Tota-kahanI — *S'uka-saptati. 

Traigart — Trigartta, 

Trees, celestial — Pancha-vriksha, 

Triad — Tri-murti. 
Tripati — Venka^a. 
Tuluva — Tulunga. 
Tutl-namah — ^S'uka-saptati. 
Turks — Kanishka, >S'akas, Tu- 

Twilight — Sandhya. 

Udaypur — Surya-vansa. 
Uranos — Varuwa. 

Vehicles of the gods — Vahana. 
Venus — Rati, /S'ukra. 
Vijaya-nagara — Madhava. 
Vira Bukka Baya — Madhava. 
Vocabulary — Abhidhana, Ama- 

ra-kosha, Tri-ka?i(/a >S'esha. 
Vulcan — Twash^?'/. 

War, god of — Karttikeya. 

War, the great — Maha-bharata. 

Water of life — Am^-e'ta. 

Water — Varu?ia. 

Wealth, god of — Kuvera. 

White horse — Avatara, 38. 

Wind — Vayu. 

Wine — SunT, Varuwani. 

World— Loka. 

Worlds, the three — Tri-bhuvana, 

Xandrames — Chandra-gupta. 



Zaradrus — ^ata-dru. 




Messrs. TRUBNEH & CO. heg to call attention to tlieir 
ORIENTAL SERIEIS, in which will be collected, as far as 
possible, all extant information and research upon the History^ 
Religions^ Languages, Literature, d:c., of Ancient India, China, and 
the East in general. 

The Oriental Series will be on a comprehensive design, and 
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Second Edition, post 8vo, cloth, pp. xvi. — 427, price i6s. 


By martin HAUG, Ph.D., 

Late of the Universities of Tubingen, Gottingen, and Bonn ; Superintendent 
of Sanskrit Studies, and Professor of Sanskrit in the Poona College ; 
Honorary Member of the Bombay Branch Eoyal Asiatic Society, &c. 

Edited by Dr. E. W. WEST. 

I. History of the Researches into the Sacred "Writings and Religion of the 
Parsis, from the Earhest Times down to the Present. 
II. Languages of the Parsi Scriptures. 

III. The Zend-Avesta, or the Scripture of the Parsis. 

IV. The Zoroastrian Religion, as to its Origin and Development. 


The Author of these Essays intended, after his return from India, to 
expand them into a comprehensive work on the Zoroastrian religion ; but 
this design, postponed from time to time, was finally frustrated by his 
untimely death. Thnt he was not spared to publish all his varied know- 
ledge on this subject must remain for ever a matter of regret to the student 
of Iranian antiquities. In other hands, the changes that could be introduced 
into this Second Edition were obviously limited to such additions and 
alterations as the lapse of time and the progress of Zoroastrian stiidies have 
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In the First Essay, the history of the European researches has been 
extended to the jDresent time ; but for the sake of brevity several writings 
have been i^assed over unnoticed, among the more valuable of which those 
of Professor Hiibschmann may be specially mentioned. Some account has 
also been given of the progress of Zoroastrian studies among the Parsis 

In the Second Essay, additional information has been given about the 
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Grammar has been reserved for separate publication, being better adapted 
for students than for the general reader. 

Some additions have been made to the Tliird Essay, with the view of 
bringing together, from other sources, all the author's translations from the 
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First Edition, and which it would be hazardous for an Editor to revise. 
Further details have also been given regarding the contents of the Nasks. 

Several additional translations having been found among the author's 
pa])ers, too late for insertion in the Third Essay, liave been added in an 
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The Author's jmncipal object in pi;blishing these Essays originally, was 
to present in a readable form all the materials for judging impartially of the 
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view while preparing this Second Edition, giving a large quantity of such 
materials, collected from a variety of sources, which may now be left to the 
reader's impartial judgment. 

The value of this Second Edition is greatly enhanced by the addition of 
many i^osthumous papers, discovered by the Editor, Dr. E, AVest, at Munich. 
Tliey consist of further translations from the Zend and Pahlavi of tlie Zend- 
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Translated from the Chinese by S. BEAL, B.A., Professor of Cliinese, 

University College, London. 

Among the gx*eat body of books comiirising tlie Cliinese Buddhist C;inon, 
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Mr. Beal discovered a woi'k bearing the title of "Law Verses, or Scriptural 
Texts," wliich on examination was seen to resemble the Pali version of 
Dhammapada in many particulars. It was further discovered tliat the 
original recension of the Pali Text found its way into Cliina in the 'J'hird 
Century (a.d.), where the work of translation was finished, and afterwards 
thirteen additional sections added. Tlie Dhammapada, as hitherto known 
by the Pali Text Edition, as edited by Fausbijll, by Max Midler's English, 
and Albrecht AVeber's German translations, consists only of twenty-six 
chapters or sections, whilst the Chinese version, or rather recension, as now 
translated by Mr. Beal, consists of thirty-nine sections. The students of 
Pali who possess Fausboll's Text, or either of the above-named translations, 
will therefore needs want Mr. Beal's English rendering of the Chinese 
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Translated from the German by John jNLvnn, M.A., and Theodok 
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Dr. BuHLER, Inspector of Schools in India, writes: — "I am extremely 
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Professor Whitney, Yale College, Newhaven, Conn., U.S.A., writes :— 
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only to be obtained or looked for by consulting a specialist, and then hunting 
down the numbers of a serial or the chnpters of a volume not always to be 
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Thus the work has grown upon him. 

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THE BIRTH OF THE WAR GOD, and Other Poems. 


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Late Professor of Hindustani, Staff College. 

** By Mr. John Dowson, a sound and accurate scholar." — Athenceum. 

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Hon. Doctor of Literature, Leyden ; Correspondent of the Institute of France ; Hon. 
Member of the German Oriental Society, the Royal Asiatic Society, &c. ; 
Translator of " The Thousand and One Nights ; " Author of an " Arabic-English 
Lexicon," <fec. 

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged, with an Introduction by 

Stanley Lane Poole. 

Extract from Preface. 

There has always been a wish to know somethin