Skip to main content

Full text of "A Classical Dictionary Of Hindu Mythology And Religion Geography History And Literature Sixth edition"

See other formats
















IN this work an endeavour has been made to supply the 
long-felt want of a Hindu Classical Dictionary. The late 
Professor Wilson projected such a work, and forty yeara 
ago announced his intention of preparing one for the 
Oriental Translation Fund, but he never accomplished his 
design, This is not the first attempt to supply the void. 
Mr. Garrett, Director of Public Instruction in Mysore, 
published in India a few years ago a " Classical Dic- 
tionary of Iftdia/' but it is of a very miscellaneous char- 
acter, and embraces a good deal of matter relating to the 
manners and customs of the present time. It has not 
obtained favour in Europe, and it cannot be considered 
as any obstacle in the way of a more complete and 
systematic work. 

The main portion of this work consists of mythology, 
but religion is bound up with mythology, and in many 
points the two are quite inseparable. Of history, in the 
true sense, Sanskrit possesses nothing, or next to nothing, 
but what little has been discovered here finds its place. 
The chief geographical names of the old writers also have 
received notice, and their localities and identifications are 
described so far as present knowledge extends. Lastly, 
short descriptions have been given of the most frequently 
mentioned Sanskrit books, but only of such books as 



are likely to be found named in the works of European 

It must be understood from the first that this work 
is derived entirely from the publications of European 
scholars. I have not resorted to original Sanskrit autho- 
rities. My remaining span of life would at the best be 
quite insufficient for an investigation of their manifold 
and lengthy volumes. But I have gleaned from many 
European writers, and have sought to present a summary 
of the present condition of our knowledge of the religion 
and mythology of Ancient India. 

The work is no doubt very defective. The full harvest 
of Sanskrit learning has not yet been gathered in, but 
the knowledge which has been stored by former labourers 
ought to be made readily available for the service of their 
successors, to lighten their labours and strengthen them 
for onward progress. There is nothing in this book for 
which authority is not to be found in some one or more 
of the many works upon Hindu literature and religion, 
but the aim has been to condense and bring together in 
a compact form that information which lies scattered in 
many volumes. Hindu mythology is so extensive, and 
the authorities are often so at variance with each other, 
that I cannot but feel diffident of the success of my 
labours. I have worked diligently and carefully, I hope 
also intelligently, but mistakes have no doubt been made, 
and it may be that matters have been passed over which 
ought to have been recorded, and others have been printed 
which might well have been left unnoticed. But while 
I have no expectatiqn of any near approach to perfection, 
I do hope that a good beginning has been made, and 
that a basis has been laid on which a greater and more 
worthy structure may hereafter be fais'ed. If the work is 


received with anything like favour, I shall be constantly 
on the watch to improve it, and honest criticism will be 
welcomed and carefully considered, 

The book would be more valuable and interesting were 
it well illustrated with plates and cuts, but the work is a 
speculative one, and does not directly appeal to a large 
field of students and readers. The expense of befitting 
illustrations would be heavy, too great to be at once 
ventured upon. But if the work is approved, and illus- 
trations are desired, an attempt will be made to supply 
the want by a series of plates containing a selection of 
subjects from the stores of our museums and from other 

It is unnecessary to specify all the works that have 
been used in the compilation of this book, Some have 
been referred to occasionally, but the mainstays through- 
out have been the " Original Sanskrit Texts " of Dr. Muir 
and the works of the late Professor H. H. Wilson, includ- 
ing his translation of the .Zfo'g-veda, and more especially 
that of the Vishnu Puraua, republished with additional 
notes by Dr. FitzEdward Hall. I have also levied 
numerous contributions from the writings of Williams, 
Max Miiller, Eoth, Bohthlingk, Lassen, Weber, Whitney, 
Wollheim da Fonseca, and many others too numerous to 


THE Aryan settlers on the banks of the Indus and in the land 
of the Five Eivers were possessors of a large number of hymns 
addressed to the elements and powers of nature. Some of these 
hymns they no doubt brought from their earlier homes in the 
West, but others were composed after they had reached the 
land of their adoption. These ancient hymns cover a long 
period, the length and the era of which can only be conjectured, 
but fifteen hundred years before Christ is about the mean of 
the various ages assigned to them The hymns form what is 
called the .BKg-veda Sanhita, a collection which embraces all the 
extant compositions of the early Aryans. It is the J&g-veda 
which is of primary importance in Hindu religion and mytho- 
logy ; the other Vedas are later in date, and the second and 
third Vedas consist almost exclusively of hymns derived "from 
the Ri& but specially arranged for religious purposes. The 
fourth or Atharva-veda borrows less from the T&g-veda, but it 
is considerably later in date, and is of a different character. 

The Aryan hymns of the Veda embody the ideas of the 
Indian immigrants. These ideas were inherited from their 
forefathers* They were originally the property of the united 
progenitors of the Aryan races, and the offshoots of this great 
human stock have spread their primitive ideas over a large por- 
tion of the earth. In the Vedic hymns the ideas and myths 
appear in their simplest and freshest forms, directly connected 
with the sources from which they sprang by clear ties of lan- 
guage. Comparative philology and mythology go hand in hand; 
and as the language of the Vedas has proved the great critical 
instrument in the construction of the science of philology, so the 


simple myths of the Yedic hymns furnish many clues for un- 
ravelling the science of mythology. Tor where the etymology 
of a mythic name or term yields a distinct sense of its mean- 
ing, the origin of the myth is not far to seek. The language of 
the Vedas has in many instances supplied this clue, and led 
to a definite comprehension of what was previously hidden and 
obscure. The Yedic hyoms have preserved the myths in their 
primitive forms, and, says Max JVluller, " Nowhere is the wide 
distance which separates the ancient poems of India from the 
most ancient literature of Greece more clearly felt than when we 
compare the growing myths of the Yeda with the full-grown 
and decayed myths on which the poetry of Homer is founded. 
The Yeda is the real Theogony of the Aryan races, while that of 
Hesiod is a distorted caricature of the original image." 

The Aryan settlers were a pastoral and agricultural people, 
and they were keenly alive to those influences which affected 
their prosperity and comfort. They knew the effects of heat 
and cold, rain and drought, upon their crops and herds, and 
they marked the influence of warmth and cold, sunshine and 
rain, wind and storm, upon their own personal comfort. They 
invested these benign and evil influences with a personality; 
and behind the fire, the sun, the cloud, and the other powers of 
nature, they saw beings who directed them in their beneficent 
and evil operations. To these imaginary beings they addressed 
their praises, and to them they put up their prayers for temporal 
blessings. They observed also the movements of the sun and 
moon, the constant succession of day and night, the intervening 
periods of morn and eve, and to these also they gave personali- 
ties, which they invested with poetical clothing and attributes, 
Thus observant of nature in its various changes and operations, 
alive to its influences upon themselves, and perceptive of its 
beauties, they formed for themselves deities in whose glory and 
honour they exerted their poetic faculty. They had no one 
god in. particular, no superior deity guiding and controlling the 
rest, but they paid the tribute of their praise to the deity whose 
bounties they enjoyed, or whose favours they desired for bodily 
comfort. They lauded also in glowing language the personifica- 
tions of those beauties of nature which filled their minds with 


delight and kindled the poetic fire. So each of the deities in 
turn received his meed of praise, and each in his turn was the 
powerful god, ahle to accomplish the desires of his votary or to 
excite a feeling of awe or admiration. 

Thus there were many distinct deities, and each of them had 
some general distinctive powers and attributes ; but their attri- 
butes and characters were frequently confounded, and there was 
a constant tendency to elevate now this one now that one to the 
supremacy, and to look upon him as the Great Power. In 
course of time a pre-eminence was given to a triad of deities, 
foreshadowing the Tri-murti or Trinity of later days. In this 
triad Agni (Fire) and Surya (the Sun) held a place, and the 
third place was assigned either to Vayu (the Wind) or to India 
(god of the sky). Towards the end of the -Rs'g-veda Sanhita, in 
the hymns of the latest date, the idea of one Supreme Being 
assumed a more definite shape, and the Hindu mind was per- 
ceiving, even if it had not distinctly realised, the great con- 

As the Yedic hymns grew ancient, ritual developed and 
theological inquiry awoke. Then arose what is called the Brah- 
mawa portion of the Veda. This consists of a variety of com- 
positions, chiefly in prose, and attached to the different Mantras. 
Ritual and liturgy were the chief objects of these writings, but 
traditions were cited to enforce and illustrate, and speculation 
was set at work to explain, the allusions of the hymns. The 
simplicity of the Yedic myths gradually became obscured, the 
deities grew more personal, and speculations as to the origin 
of the world and of the human race invested them with new 
attributes. Later on, in the Arawyakas and Upanishads, which 
form part of the collective Brahmawa, a further development 
took place, but principally in a philosophical direction. 

Between the times of the Sanhita and of the Brahmana the 
conception of a Supreme Being had become established- The 
Brahmawas recognise one Great Being as the Soul of the Uni- 
verse, and abound with philosophical speculations as to the work 
of creation and the origin of man. A golden egg was produced 
in the universal waters, from which in course of time came 
forth Prajapati, the progenitor or, the quiescent Universal Soul, 


Brahma, took a creative form as Brahma the Prajapati From 
the Prajapati, or great progenitor, there was produced a daughter, 
and by her he was the father of the human race. The explana- 
tions and details of this connection vary, but there is a general 
accord that the Prajapati was the progenitor of all mankind by 
a female produced from himself. Before the times of the Brilh- 
mawas some of the old myths of the hymns had crystallised, the 
personifications had become more distinct, and the ideas from 
which they had been developed had grown hazy or were quite 
forgotten. Philosophy speculated as to the origin of the world, 
theories were founded upon etymologies, and legends were in- 
vented to illustrate them. These speculations and illustrations 
in course of time hardened into shape, and became realities 
when the ideas which gave them birth were no longer remem- 
bered and understood. The priestly order had advanced in 
power, and had taken a more prominent and important position, 
but the Ksliatriya or second class held a high place, and asserted 
something like an equality with the Brahmans even in matters 
of learning. 

Another interval elapsed between the days of the Brahmawa 
and of Manu. The theory of the golden egg is held by Manu, 
and he calls the active creator who was produced from it Brahma 
and Narayana, the latter name being one which was afterwards 
exclusively appropriated by Vishwu. But the most remarkable 
change observable in Manu is in the condition of the people, in 
the great advancement of the Brahmanical caste, the establish- 
ment of the four great castes, and the rise of a number of mixed 
castes from cross intercourse of these four. In a hymn called 
Purusha-siikta, one of the latest hymns of the jR%~veda, there 
is a distinct recognition of three classes, Brahmans, Kshatriyaa, 
and Vaisyas, and these appear more distinctly in the Brahmawa, 
but no mention of the Sudras and mixed castes has been found 
before the work of Manu. 

The Ramaya?za and Maha-bharata are poems of the heroic 
age, and though they are full of marvels, they deal more with 
the actions of mortal men and romantic creations than the might 
and majesty of the gods. The old deities of the Vedas have 
retired into the background, and some have disappeared alto- 


gether. India retains a place of some dignity; but Brahma, 
Siva, and Vishwu have, in the Epics, risen to the chief place. 
Even of these three, the first is comparatively insignificant. 
His work of creation was over, and if he was ever an object of 
great adoration, he had ceased to be so. Vishnu and $iva both 
appear in these poems; and although Vishmi is the god whc 
holds the most prominent place, still there are many passages in 
which $iva is elevated to the supreme dignity. The Vishwu 
who, in the Vedas, was the friend and companion of Indra and 
strode over the universe, has become the great deity of preserva- 
tion, and the terrible and howling Rudra is now $iva, the deity 
of destruction and renovation. Each of these two gods in his 
turn contends with and subdues the other ; now this, now that, 
receives the homage of his rival, and each in turn is lauded and 
honoured as the chief and greatest of gods. 

The Avataras or incarnations of Vishnu assume a prominent 
place in the poems, and still more so in the Purawas. The first 
three, the Fish, the Tortoise, and the Boar, have a cosmical cha- 
racter, and are foreshadowed in the hymns of the Vedas. The 
fourth, or Man-lion, seems to belong to a later age, when the 
worship of Vislwu had become established The fifth, or 
Dwarf, whose three strides deprived the Asuras of the dominion 
of heaven and earth, is in its character anterior to the fourth 
Avatara, and the three strides are attributed to Vishwu in 
the Veda. The fifth, sixth, and seventh, Parasu-rima, Eama- 
chandra, and Kn'shwa, are mortal heroes, whose exploits are 
celebrated in these poems so fervently as to raise the heroes to 
the rank of gods. The ninth Avatara, Buddha, is manifestly 
and avowedly the offspring of the preaching of Buddha ; and 
the tenth, Kalki, is yet to come. 

When we reach* the Puranas there is found a very different 
condition of things. The true meaning of the Vedic myths is 
entirely lost, their origin is forgotten, and the signification and 
composition of many of the mythic names are unknown. Ma* 
vellous legends have gathered round the favourite, divinities, and 
many more have been built upon fanciful etymologies of the old 
names. The simple primitive fancies suggested by the opera- 
tions of nature have disappeared, and have been supplanted by 


the wild imaginings of a more advanced civilisation, but of a 
more corrupt state of society and religion. The Tri-murti or 
triad of deities has assumed a distinct shape, and while Brahma 
has quite fallen into obscurity, Yishrai and /Siva have each 
become supreme in the belief of their respective followers. 
Yishmi, in his youthful form Kn'slma, is the object of a sensuous 
and joyous worship. The gloomy and disgusting worship of 
$iva, in his terrible forms, has grown side by side with it. The 
worship of his fierce consort, Devi, has become established, and 
the foundation has been laid of the obscene and bloody rites 
afterwards developed in the Tantras. 

The Yeda, in modern Hinduism, is a mere name, a name of 
high authority, often invoked and highly reverenced, but its 
language is unintelligible, and its gods and rites are things of 
the past. The modern system is quite at variance with the 
Yedic writings out of which it grew, and the descendant beara 
but few marks of resemblance to its remote ancestor. 

The Purawas and later writings are the great authorities of 
modern Hinduism ; their mythology and legends fill the popular 
mind and mould its thoughts. The wonderful tales of the great 
poems also exercise a great influence. The heroes of these 
poems are heroes still ; their exploits, with many embellishments 
and sectarial additions, are recounted in prose and verse, and the 
tales of Rama and the Pa^icZavas, of Hanumat and Ravana, are 
still read and listened to with wonder and delight. A host of 
legends has grown up around the hero Kn'shna ; they attend 
him from his cradle to his pyre ; but the stories of his infancy 
and Ms youth are those which are most popular, and interest all 
classes, especially women and young people. The mild and 
gentle Rama, " the husband of one wife," pure in thought and 
noble in action, is in many places held in the highest honour, and 
the worship paid to him and his faithful wife Sita is the purest 
and least degrading of the many forms of Hindu worship* 

This later mythology, with its wonders and marvels, and its 
equally marvellous explanations of them, is the key to modern 
Hinduism. It is curious to trace its descent, to contrast such 
legends as are traceable with their simple beginnings in the 
Yedic hymns, and so to follow the workings of the mind of a 


great people through many centuries. Such a survey supplies 
important and interesting matter for the history of religion, 
and gives a clear and complete view of the degradation of a 
mythology. But for the purposes of comparative mythology 
the Pauranik legends are of trifling importance. The stories of 
the Epic poems even are of no great value. It may be, as has 
been maintained, that they " are simply different versions of one 
and the same story, and that this story has its origin in the 
phenomena of the natural world and the course of the day and 
the year ; " but still they are of later date, and afford no direct 
clue for unravelling the mythology of the Aryan nations. 

The most ancient hymns of the jRig-veda are the basis upon 
which comparative mythology rests, and they have already sup- 
plied the means of unfolding the real source and signification 
of several Greek and Zoroastrian myths. The science is young, 
and has a wide field before it. Some of its results are beyond 
doubt, but there are other deductions which have not advanced 
as yet beyond conjecture and speculation. In the present work 
some of the more obvious identifications, or proposed identifica- 
tions, have been mentioned as occasion offered ; in a work of 
reference like this it would be out of place to have done more. 
The reader who wishes to pursue the study must consult the 
writings of Max Muller and the "Aryan Mythology' 5 of the 
Rev. Sir George Cox. In them and in the books to which they 
refer he will find ample information, and plenty of materials foi 
Investigation and comparison- 


I? this work answers the purpose for which it is intended, it 
will be used by students who are acquainted with the alphabet 
in which Sanskrit is written, and by readers to whom that 
alphabet is unknown. Its system of transliteration ought then 
to be such as to enable a student to restore any word to its 
original letters, but the ordinary reader ought not to be em- 
barrassed with unnecessary diacritical points and distinctiona 
The alphabet of the Sanskrit is represented on the following 
plan : 



a as in America. 
i pin. 
n put. 
ii tl rill. 


a as in last 
I police, 
ii rule, 
ri chagrin. 

The vowel In will not be met with, 


e as in ere or f 6te* 
ai aisle. 
o so. 
an as ou in house* 
































Semi-vowels y 



v, w 




Aspirate h 

Visarga k 



To the uninitiated Englishman the chief difficulty lies in the 
short 'a/ the primary inherent vowel of the Sanskrit, pro- 
nounced as in the word 'America.' The English alphabet has 
no distinct letter for this sound, hut uses every one of its vowels 
in turn, and some even of its double vowels to represent it ; so 
it is the f a ' and e ' in c servant,' the c i ' in i bird/ the ' o ' in 
'word/ the 'u' in 'curd/ the c y ' in 'myrtle/ and the 'ea ? in 
' heard. 3 The Sanskrit short 'a' has this sound invariably, and 
unaffected by any combination of consonants; so Sanskrit ' barn ' 
must be pronounced not as the English 'barn' but as 'burn.' 
The pronunciation of the other vowels is sufficiently obvious. 
The vowel ' ri ' is represented in italics to distinguish it from 
the consonants *r' and 'i.' 

Of the consonants, the cerebral letters */ 'tfA/ *d/ 'd&/ and 
'%/the palatal sibilant 's/and the visarga 'A/ are represented in 
italics. Practically these are the only distinctions necessary. 
The guttural nasal is used only in combination with a guttural 
letter ('nk' or 'ng'); the palatal nasal is used only with 
palatals ('nch 3 and c nj'), and no other nasal can be combined 
with these letters. The anuswara, and tiSe anuswara only, is 
used before the sibilants and 'h/ so in 'ns/ *nsh/ 'ns/ and 'rh/ 
the nasal is the anuswara. The letter m before a semi-vowel 
may be represented either by m or anuswara. In all these 
instances the combinations distinctly indicate the proper nasal, 
and no discriminative sign is necessary. 

Of the pronunciation of the nasals it is only necessary to 
notice the anuswara. This, with a sibilant, is a simple n, but 
before h it is like ng or the French n in bon; so the Sanskrit 
Sinha, in the modern derivative tongues, is written and pro- 
nounced Singh. 

The asp'iates are simple aspirations of their respective con- 
sonants, and make no other change of their sounds ; so * th ' is 
to be pronounced as in the words c at home/ and ' ph ' as in k up- 
hill/ never as in 'thine 'and in 'physic.' The letter 'g* is 
always hard as in 'gift.' The Dalatals are the simple English 


Bounds of * ch ' and j ' as in { church ' and just' The cerebrals 
and the dentals are similar letters, hut the former are drawn from 
the roof of the mouth and the latter from the tips of the teeth 
In train ' and 'drain' we have cerebrals; in 'tin 7 and 'due' 
we have dentals, or an approach to them. The ordinary English 
' t ' and ' d ' are more cerebral than dental, and the natives of 
India in transcribing English names use the cerebrals for our f t' 
and 'd.' The palatal sibilant V has a sound intermediate 
between V and c sh,' resembling the double ss ? in 'session.' 
The visarga, the final ' A,' has no distinct enunciation, but it 
is nevertheless a real letter, and changes in certain positions into 
' s j afld V Thus the name tfunafeephas is sometimes written 

[In French the palatal * ch ' is represented by tch ' and the 
* j ' by ' dj.' In German the ' ch ' is expressed by l tsch ' and 
the ( j' by 'dsdbu' These very awkward combinations have 
induced Max Miiller and others to use an italic &' and '#' 
instead of them,] 

Some words will be found with varying terminations, as 
' Hanumat ' and Hanuman,' ' Sikhanofin' and ' Sikhaw&' The 
explanation of this is that Sanskrit nouns have what is called 
a crude form or stem independent of case termination, and the 
nominative case very frequently differs from it. So ' Hanumat' 
and ' SikhamZin' are crude forms ; Hanuman' and f Sikhamft' 
are theii nominative cases, There are other such variations 
which need not be noticed 

The letters b and v are often interchanged, so words not 
found under the one letter should be sought for under the other. 


ABHASWARAS, A class of deities, sixty-four in number, 
of whose nature little is known. 

ABHIDHANA, A dictionary or vocabulary. There are 
many such works. One of the oldest of them is the Abhidhdna, 
raina-mala of Halayudha BhaSa (circa yth cent,), and one of 
the best is the Alhidhana Chintd-mani of Hema-chandra, a Jaina 
writer of celebrity (isth cent,). The former has been edited by 
Aufrecht; the latter by Colebrooke and by Bohtlingk and Rieu 

ABHIMANl Agni, the eldest son of Brahma, By his 
wife Swaha he had three sons, Pavaka, Pavamana, and Such! 
"They had forty-fire sons, who, with the original son of Brahma 
and his three descendants, constitute the forty-nine fires," See 

ABHIMANYU. Son of Arjuna by his wife Su-bhadra, and 
known by lihe metronymic Saubhadm He killed Lakshmana, 
the son of Dur-yodhana, on the second day of the great battle 
of the Maha-bharata, but on the thirteenth day he himself fell 
fighting heroically against fearful odds. He was very hand- 
some. His wife was Uttara, daughter of the Raja of Virata, 
His son, Pankshit, succeeded to the throne of Hastinapura, 

ABHIRA, ABHlRA. A cowherd ; according to Manu the 
offspring of a Brahman by a woman of the Ambashftia or 
medical tribe. A people located in the north of India along 
the Indus, There has been a good deal of misapprehension 
respecting this people. Hindu writers Lave described them as 
living in the north and in the west, the quarter varying accord- 
ing to the locality of the writer, and translators have mked 



them, up with a neighbouring people, the Sudras, sometimes called 
Suras, with whom they are generally associated, and have called 
them Surabhiras. Their modern representatives are the Ahirs, 
and perhaps there is something more than identity of locality 
in their association with the Madras. It has been suggested 
that the country or city of the Abhiras is the Qphir of the 

ABHIEAMA-MAjtf'L A drama in seven acts on the history 
of Kama, written by Sundara Misra in 1599 A.D. "The com- 
position possesses little dramatic interest, although it has some 
literary merit." Wilson. 

ACHAEA < Rule, custom, usage.' The rules of practice of 
castes, orders, or religion. There are many books of rules which 
have this word for the first member of their titles, as Achftra- 
chandrika, l moonlight of customs,' on the customs of the Sudras ; 
Achtiradarsa, ( looking-glass of customs;' Acharorcfcpa, 'lamp 
of customs,' &c., &c. 

ACHAEYA. A spiritual teacher or guide. A title of Drowa, 
the teacher of the Parcdavas. 

ACHYUTA 'Unfallen;' a name of Vishnu or Kristoia* 
It has been variously interpreted as signifying " he who does 
not perish with created things," in the Maha-bharata as "he 
who is not distinct from final emancipation," and in the Skanda 
Jt^urana as " he who never declines (or varies) from his proper 

ADBHUTA-BKAHMAftA. 'The Brahmawa of miracles. 
A BxahmaTia of the Sama-veda which treats of auguries and 
marvels. It has been published by Weber. 

ADHABMA Unrighteousness, vice; personified as a son 
of Brahma, and called " the destroyer of all beings." 

ADHIEATHA A charioteer. The foster-father of Karraa , 
according to some he was king of Anga, and according to others 
the charioteer of King Dhritarashfra ; perhaps he was both. 

ADHWAEYU. A priest whose business it is to recite the 
prayers of the Yajur-veda. 

ADEYATMAK The supreme spirit, the soul of the uni- 

ADHYATMA EAMAYA^A A very popular work, which 
is considered to be a part of the Brahmanda Purana. It has 
been printed in India. See Eamayawa. 


ADI-PURA^A. 'The firct Purana/ a title generally con- 
ceded to the Brahma Purawa. 

ADITL 'Free, unbounded.' Infinity ; the boundless heaven 
as compared with the finite earth ; or, according to M. Miiller, 
"the visible infinite, visible by the naked eye; the endless 
expanse beyond the earth, beyond the clouds, beyond the sky." 
In the J?ig-veda she is frequently implored " for blessings on 
children and cattle, for protection and for forgiveness." Aditi is 
called Deva-matn, c mother of the gods/ and is represented as 
being the mother of Daksha and the daughter of Daksha. On this 
statement Yaska remarks in the Nirukta : "How can this be 
possible ? They may have had the same origin ; or, according to 
the nature of the gods, they may have been born from each 
other, have derived their substance from one another," "Eight 
sons were born from the body of Aditi ; she approached the 
gods with seven but cast away the eighth, Marttantfa (the sun)." 
These seven were the Adityas. In the Yajur-veda Aditi is 
addressed as "Supporter of the sky, sustainer of the earth, 
sovereign of this world, wife of Yishnu \ " but in the Maha- 
bharata and Ramayawa, as well as in the Purawas, Yishmi is 
called the son of Aditi. In the Vishmi Purima she is said to be 
the daughter of Daksha and wife of Ku^yapa, by whom she was 
mother of Vishwu, in his dwarf incarnation (wherefore he is 
sometimes called Aditya), and also of Indra, and she is called 
"the mother of the gods" and "the mother of the world" 
Indra acknowledged her as mother, and Vishmi, after receiving 
the adoration of Aditi, addressed her in these words : " Mother, 
goddess, do thou show favour unto me and grant me thy bless- 
ing." According to the Matsya Purana a pair of ear-rings was 
produced at the churning of the ocean, which Indra gave to 
Aditi, and several of the Puranas tell a story of these ear-rings 
being stolen and carried off to the city of Prag-jyotisha by the 
Asura king Naraka, from whence they were brought back and 
restored to her by Krishna. Devaki, the mother of Krishna, is 
represented as being a new birth or manifestation of Aditi See 
Max Midler's Rig Veda, I 230; Muir's Texts, iv. n, v. 35, 

ADITYA. In the early Vedic times the Adityas were six, 
or more frequently seven, celestial deities, of whom Tarawa was 
chief, consequently he was the Aditya. They were sons of 
Aditi, who had eight sous, but she approached the goda with 


seven, having cast away the eighth, MarttawcZa (the sun). In 
after-times the number was increased to twelve, as representing 
the sun in the twelve months of the year. Aditya is one 
of the names of the sun. Dr. Muir quotes the following from 
Professor Eoth : " There (in the highest heaven) dwell and 
reign those gods who "bear in common the name of Adityas. 
We must, however, if we would discover their earliest character, 
abandon the conceptions which in a later age, and even in that 
of the heroic poems, were entertained regarding these deities. 
According to this conception they were twelve sun-gods, "bearing 
evident reference to the twelve months. But for the most 
ancient period we must hold fast the primary signification 
of their name. They are the inviolable, imperishable, eternal 
beings. Aditi, eternity, or the eternal, is the element which 
sustains or is sustained by them, . . . The eternal and inviol- 
able element in which the Adityas dwell, and which forms their 
essence, is the celestial light. The Adityas, the gods of this 
light, do not therefore by any means coincide with any of the 
forms in which light is manifested in the universe. They are 
neither sun, nor moon, nor stars, nor dawn, but the eternal 
sustainers of this luminous life, which exists, as it were, behind 
all these phenomena." 

The names of the six Adityas are Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, 
Varuwa, Daksha, and Ansa, Daksha is frequently excluded, 
and Indra, Savitri (the sun), and Dhatri are added. Those oi 
the twelve Adityas are variously given, but many of them are 
names of the sun. 

ADITYA PUKUVA. One of the eighteen Upa-purawas. 

AGASTI, AGASTYA. A Bistd, the reputed author of several 
hymns in the jfrig-veda, and a very celebrated personage in 
Hindu story. He and Vasi&Wha are said in the JKg-veda ho be 
the offspring of Mitra and Varum, whose seed fell from them at 
the sight of UrvasI ; and the commentator Saya^a adds that 
Agastya was born in a water-jar as "a fish of great lustre," 
whence he was called Kalasf-suta, Kumbha -sambhava, and 
Grhafodbhava. From his parentage he was called Maitrarvaruwi 
and Aurva,s'lya ; and as he was very small when he was born, 
not more than a span in length, he was called Mana. Though 
he is thus associated in his birth with Vasishtfha, he is evidently 
later in date, and he is not one of the Prajapatis. His 


Agastya, is derived by a forced etymology from a fable 
represents him as having commanded the Yindliya mountains to 
prostrate themselves before him, through which they lost their 
primeval altitude; or rather, perhaps, the fable has been invented 
to account for his name. This miracle has obtained for him the 
epithet Yindhya-kuYa ; and he acquired another name, Pitabdhi, 
or Samudra-chuluka., l Ocean drinker/ from another fable, 
according to which he drank up the ocean because it had 
offended him, and because he wished to help the gods in their 
wars with the Daityas when the latter had hidden themselves in 
the waters. He was afterwards made regent of the star Canopus, 
which bears his name. The Puriwias represent him as being the 
son of Pulastya, the sage from whom the Kakshasas sprang. He 
was one of the narrators of the Brahma Purana and also a writer 
on medicine. 

The Maha-bharata relates a legend respecting the creation of 
his wife. It says that Agastya saw his ancestors suspended by 
their heels in a pit, and was told by them that they could be 
rescued only by bis begetting a son. Thereupon he formed a 
girl out of the most graceful parts of different animals and 
passed her secretly into the palace of the king of Yidarbha. 
There the child grew up as a daughter of the king, and was 
demanded in marriage by Agastya. Much against his will the 
king was constrained to consent, and she became the wife of the 
sage. She was named Lopa-mudra, because the animals had 
been subjected to loss (lopa) by her engrossing their distinctive 
beaxities, as the eyes of the deer, &c. She was also called 
Kausitaki and Yara-prada. The same poem also tells a story 
exhibiting his superhuman power, by which he tinned King 
Nahusha into a serpent and afterwards restored him to his 
proper form. See Nahusha. 

It is in the Kamayana that Agastya makes the most distin- 
guished figure. He dwelt in a hermitage on Mount Kunjara, 
situated in a most beautiful country to the south of the Yindhya 
mountains, and was chief of the hermits of the south. He kept 
the Eakshasas who infested the south under control, so that the 
country was "only gazed upon and not possessed by them." 
His power over them is illustrated by a legend which represents 
him as eating up a Kakshasa named Yatapi who assumed the 
form' of a ram, and as destroying by a flash of his eye the 


Kinshasa's brother, Ilvala, who attempted to avenge him. (Set 
Yatapi) Rama in his exile wandered to the hermitage of 
Agastya with Slta and Lakshmarca. The sage received him with 
the greatest kindness, and became his friend, adviser, and pro- 
tector. He gave him the bow of Vishmi ; and when Rama was 
restored to his kingdom, the sage accompanied him to Ayodhya. 

The name of Agastya holds a great place also in Tamil litera- 
ture, and he is " venerated in the south as the first teacher of 
science and literature to the primitive Dravidian tribes;" so says 
Dr. Caldwell, who thinks " we shall not greatly err in placing 
the era of Agastya in the seventh, or at least in the sixth cen- 
tury B.C." "Wilson also had previously testified to the same 
effect: "The traditions of the south of India ascribe to Agastya 
a principal share in the formation of the Tamil language and 
literature, and the general tenor of the legends relating to him 
denotes his having been instrumental in the introduction of the 
Hindu religion and literature into the Peninsula." 

AGHASURA. (Agha the Asura.) An Asura who was Kama's 
general. He assumed the form of a vast serpent, and Knshwa's 
companions, the cowherds, entered its mouth, mistaking it for a 
mountain cavern : but Krishna rescued them. 

AGNAYI. Wife of Agni. She is seldom alluded to in the 
Yeda and is not of any importance. 

AGNEYA. Son of Agni, a name of Karttikeya or Mars ; 
also an appellation of the Muni Agastya and others. 

AGNEYASTRA. c The weapon of fire.' Given by Bharad- 
waja to Agnivesa, the son of Agni, and by him to Drorca. A 
similar weapon was, according to the Yishftu Purana, given by 
the sage Aurva to his pupil King Sagara, and with it "he 
conquered the tribes of barbarians who had invaded his patri- 
monial possessions." 

AGKEYA PTJRA^A. See Agni Purafla, 

AGNI. (Nona. Agnis = Ignis.) Fire, one of the most ancient 
and most sacred objects of Hindu worship. He appears in three 
phases in heaven as the sun, in mid-air as lightning, on earth 
as ordinary fire. Agni is one of the chief deities of the Yedas, 
and great numbers of the hymns are addressed to him, more 
indeed than to any other god. He is one of the three great deities 
Agni, Yayu (or India), and Surya "who respectively preside 
over earth, air, and sky, and are all equal in dignity. " He is 


considered as the mediator between men and gods, as protectoi 
of men ani their homes, and as witness of their actions ; hence 
his invocation at all solemn occasions, at the nuptial ceremony, 
&c. Fire has ceased to he an ohject of worship, but is held in 
honour for the part it performs in sacrifices." Agni is repre- 
sented as having seven tongues, each of which has a distinct 
name, for licking up the butter used in sacrifices. He is 
guardian of the south-east quarter, being one of the eight loka- 
palas (q.v.), and his region is called Pura-jyotis. 

In a celebrated hymn of the JSig-veda attributed to Vasishrfha, 
Indra and other gods are called upon to destroy the Kravyads 
' the flesh-eaters,' or Eakshas enemies of the gods. Agni himself 
is also a Kravyad, and as such he takes an entirely different 
character. He is represented under a form as hideous as the 
beings he is invoked to devour. He sharpens his two iron tusks, 
puts his enemies into his mouth and swallows them. He heats the 
edges of his shafts and sends them into the hearts of the Rakshas. 

"He appears in the progress of mythological personifica- 
tion as a son of Angiras, as a king of the Pitns or Manes, 
as a Marut, as a grandson of Sknrfila, as one of the seven 
sages or .ffishis, during the reign of Tamasa the fourth Manu," 
and as a star. In the Maha-bharata Agni is represented as hav- 
ing exhausted his vigour by devouring too many oblations, and 
desiring to consume the whole Kha/wZava forest as a means of 
recruiting his strength. He was prevented by Inclra, but having 
obtained the assistance of Kr/sh?ia and Arjuna, he baffled Indra 
and accomplished his object. In the Yishwu Purana he is 
called Abhimani, and the eldest son of Brahma. His wife was 
Swaha; by her he had three sons, Pavaka, Pavamana, and $uchi, 
and these had forty-five sons; altogether forty-nine persons, 
identical with the forty-nine fires, which forty-nine fires the 
Vayu Purana endeavours to discriminate. He is described in 
the Hari-vansa as clothed in black, having smoke for his stan- 
dard and head-piece, and carrying a flaming javelin. He has 
four hands, and is borne in a chariot drawn by red horses, and 
the seven winds are the wheels of his car. He is accompanied 
by a ram, and sometimes he is represented riding on that 
animal The representations of him vary. 

The names and epithets of Agni are many- Vahni, Anala, 
Pavaka. Taiswanara, son of Yiswanara, the sun; Abja-hasta, 


1 lotus in hand ; ' Dhuma-ketu, ' whose sign Is smoke ; ' Hutasa 
or Huta-bhuj, 'devourer of offerings ; J uchi or $ukra, 'the 
bright;* Bohitaswa, 'having red horses;' Chhaga-ratha, 'ram- 
rider;' Jatavedas (q.v.); Sapta-jihva, ' seven-tongued ; ' Tomara- 
dhara, 'javelin-bearer.' 

AGNI-DAGDHAS. Pitns, or Manes, who when alive kepb 
up the household flame and presented oblations with fire. Those 
who did not do so were called An-agni dagdhas. See Pitr/s. 

AGNI PURAJVA. This Purawa derives its name from its 
having been communicated originally by Agni, the deity of fire, 
to the Muni Vasish/ha, for the purpose of instructing him in the 
twofold knowledge of Brahma, Its contents are variously 
specified as "sixteen thousand, fifteen thousand, and fourteen 
thousand stanzas," This work is devoted to the glorification 
of $iva, but its contents are of a very varied and cyclopsedical 
character. It has portions on ritual and mystic worship, 
cosmical descriptions, chapters on the duties of kings and the 
art of war, which have the appearance of being extracted from 
some older work, a chapter on law from the text-book of 
Yajnawalkya, some chapters on medicine from the Susruta, and 
some treatises on rhetoric, prosody, and grammar according to the 
rules of Pingala and Panini. Its motley contents " exclude it 
from any legitimate claims to be regarded as a Parana, and prove 
that its origin cannot be very remote." The text of this Purana 
is now in course of publication in the Sibliotheca Indica, edited 
by Rajendra Lai Mitra 

AGNISHWATTA& Pitns or Manes of the gods, who 
when living upon earth did not maintain their domestic fires 
or offer burnt-sacrifices. According to some authorities they 
were descendants of Marlchi. They are also identified with the 
seasons. See Pitns. 

AGISTIVESA- A sage, the son of Agni, and an early writer 
on medicina 

AHALYA. Wife of the Rishi Gautama, and a very beautiful 
woman, In the Kamayafla it is stated that she was the first 
woman made by Brahma, and that he gave her to Gautama, 
She was seduced by Indra, who had to suffer for his adultery, 
One version of the Baniayawa represents her as knowing the 
god and being flattered by his condescension ; but another ver- 
sion states that the god assumed the form of her husband, and 


so deceived her. Another story is that India secured the help 
of the moon, who assumed the form of a cock and crowed at 
midnight. This roused Gautama to his morning's devotions, when 
Indra went in and took his place. Gautama expelled Ahalya 
from his hermitage, and deprived her of her prerogative of being 
the most beautiful woman in the world, or, according to another 
statement, he rendered her invisible. She was restored to her 
natural state by Rama and reconciled to her husband. This 
seduction is explained mythically by Kumarila Bha/fo as Indra 
(the sun's) carrying away the shades of night- the name Ahalya, 
by a strained etymology, being made to signify 'night.' 

AHL A serpent. A name of Vntra, the Veclic demon of 
drought : but AJii and Vr/tra. are sometimes " distinct, and mean, 
most probably, differently formed clouds." Wilson, 

AHI-CHHATRA, AHI-KSHETRA, A city mentioned in 
the Maha-bharata as lying north of the Ganges, and as being the 
capital of Northern Panchala. It is apparently the Adisadra of 
Ptolemy, and its remains are visible near Ram-nagar, 

AINDRI. 'Son of Indra.' An appellation of Arjuna. 

AIRAVATA. 'A fine elephant.' An elephant produced at 
the churning of the ocean, and appropriated by the god Indra, 
The derivation of this name is referred to the word Iravat, 
signifying * produced from water.' He is guardian of one of the 
points of the compass. See Loka-pala. 

AIT ARE YA. The name of a Brahma?? a, an Arawyaka, and 
an Upanishad of the .fi/ig-veda. The Brahman has been edited 
and translated by Dr. Haug ; the text of the Ara^yaka has been 
published in the Blbliotheca Indica by Rajendra Lala, and there 
is another edition. The Upanishad has been translated by Dr. 
Roer in the same series. " The Aitareya Arawyaka consists of five 
books, each of which is called Aranyaka. The second and third 
books form a separate "Upanishad, and a still further subdivision 
here takes place, inasmuch as the four last sections of the second 
book, which are particularly consonant with the doctrines of the 
Vedanta system, pass as the Aitareyopanishacl." Weber. 

AJA. 'Unborn.' An epithet applied to many of the gods. 
A prince of the Solar race, sometimes said to be the son of 
Raghu, at others the sou of Dilipa, son of Raghu. He was 
the husband chosen at her swayam-vara by Indumati, daughter 
of the. Raja of Yidarbba, and was the father of Dasaratha and 


grandfather of Rama, The Raghu-vansa relates how on his way 
to the swayam-vara he was annoyed by a wild elephant and 
ordered it to be shot. When the elephant was mortally wounded, 
a beautiful figure issued from it, which declared itself a gand- 
harva who had been transformed into a mad elephant for derid- 
ing a holy man, The gandharva was delivered, as it had been 
foretold to him, by Aja, and he gave the prince some arrows 
which enabled him to excel in the contest at the swayam-vara, 
When Dasaratha grew up, Aja ascended to Indra's heaven. 

AJAGAYA. The * primitive bow ' of $iva, which fell from 
heaven at the birth of Pn'thu. 

AJAMILA, A Brahman of Kanauj, who married a slave and 
had children, of whom he was very fond 

AJATA-SATRU. 'One whose enemy is unborn.' i. A 
king of Kasi, mentioned in the Upanishads, who was very 
learned, and, although a Kshatriya, instructed the Brahman 
Gargya-balaki, 2. A name of $iva. 3. Of Yudhi-shtfhira. 4. 
A king of Mathura who reigned in the time of Buddha. 

AJAYA-PALA. Author of a Sanskn't vocabulary of some 

AJlGARTTA. A Brahman Rishi who sold his son $una&- 
sephas to be a sacrifice. 

AJITA. ' UnconquereoV A title given to Vishnu, $iva, 
and many others. There were classes of gods bearing this name 
in several Manwantaras. 

AKRURA. A Yadava and uncle of Kralma. He was son 
of jfifwa-phalka and Gandini. It was he who took Kr/shna and 
Rama to Mathura when the former broke the great bow. He is 
chiefly noted as being the holder of the Syamantaka gem. 

AKSHA. The eldest son of Ravawa, slain by Hanuman. 
Also a name of Garutfo, 

AKSHAMALA. A name of Arundhati (q.v.). 

AKULT. An Asura priest. See Kilatakuli. 

AKtlPARA. A tortoise or turtle. The tortoise on which the 
earth rests. 

AKtfTI. A daughter of Manu Swayambhuva and $ata-rupa, 
whom he gave to the patriarch Ruchi. She bore twins, Yajna 
and Dakshiraa, who became husband and wife and had twelve 
sons, the deities called Yamas. 

ALAKA. The capital of Kuvera and the abode of the 


gandharvas on Mount Mem. It is also called Yasu-dhara/ 
Vasu-sthali, and Prabha. 

ALAKA-NANDA. One of the four branches of the river 
Ganga, -which flows south to the country of Bharata. This is 
said "by the Yaish^avas to be the terrestrial Ganga which Siva, 
received upon his head. 

ALAMBUSHA. A great Eakshasa worsted by Satyaki in 
the great war of the Maha-bharata, and finally killed by Ghafot- 
kacha. He is said to be a son of JSishyasnnga. 

ALAYUDHA. A Eakshasa killed after a fierce combat by 
Ghafotkacha in the war of the Maha-bharata (Fauche, ix. 278). 

AMAEA^KAJVTAKA. 'Peak of the immortals.' A place 
of pilgrimage in the table-land east of the Yindhyas. 

AMARA-KOSHA. This title may be read in two ways-- -'the 
immortal vocabulary/ or, more appropriately, ' the vocabulary of 
Aniara or Amara Sinha.' " The oldest vocabulary hitherto known, 
and one of the most celebrated vocabularies of the classical 
Sunsknk" It has been the subject of a great number of com- 
mentaries, The text has been often printed. There is an 
odition published in India with an English interpretation and 
annotations by Colebrooke, and the text with a French transla- 
tion has been printed by Deslongchamps. 

AMAEA SINHA. The author of the vocabulary called 
Amara-kosha. He was one of the nine gems of the court of 
Yikrama. (See Nava-ratna) Wilson inclines to place him in the 
first century B.C. Lassen places him about the middle of the 
third century A. a, and others incline to bring him down later. 

AMAEA V ATI. The capital of Indra's heaven, renowned for 
its greatness and splendour. It is situated somewhere in the 
vicinity of Meru. It is sometimes called Deva-pura, * city of the 
gods/ and Pusha-bhasa, ( sun-splendour.' 

AMAEESWAEA. 'Lord of the immortals/ A title of 
Vishwi, $iva, and Indra, Name of one of tlie twelve groat 
lingas. See Linga, 

AMAEU-$ATAKA. A poem consisting of a hundred stanzas 
written by a king named Amaru, but by some attributed to the 
philosopher Sankara, who assumed the dead form of that king 
for the purpose of conversing with his widow. The verses are 
of an erotic character, but, like many others of the same kind, a 
religious or philosophical interpretation has been found for them. 

i* _ _ MBAAMRITA. 

There is a translation in French by Apucly with the text, and 
a translation in German by Eiickeit 

AMBA, ' Mother/ i. A name of Durga. 2. The eldest 
Daughter of a king of Kasi. She and her sisters Ainbika and 
Ambalika were carried off by Bhishma to be the wives of Vichitra- 
virya. Amba had been previously betrothed to a Eaja of Salwa, 
and Bhishma sent her to him, but the Raja rejected her because 
she had been in another man's house. She retired to the forest 
and engaged in devotion to obtain revenge of Bhishma. Siva 
favoured her, and promised her the desired vengeance in another 
birth. Then she ascended the pile and was born again as $ik- 
hatf^in, who slew Bhlshma, 

AMBALIKA. The younger widow of Vichitra-virya and 
mother of Pawdu by Vyasa. See Maha-bharata. 

AMBAElSEA, i. A king of Ayodhya, twenty-eighth in 
descent from Ikshwaku, (See SunaAsephas.) 2. An appellation 
of Siva. 3. Name of one of the eighteen hells. 

AMBASHTHA. A military people inhabiting a country of 
the same name in the middle of the Panjab; probably the 
' A.fMf3d<irai of Ptolemy. 2. The medical tribe in Manu. 

AMBIKA. i. A sister of Kudia, but in later times identified 
with Uma. 2. Elder widow of Vichitra-virya and mother of 
Dhnta-rashfra by Vyasa. See Maha-bharata, 

AMBIKEYA, A metronymic applicable to Ganesa, Skanda, 
and Dhnta-rashfra. 

AMNAYA. Sacred tradition. The Yedas in the aggregate, 

AMBIT A. 'Immortal' A god. The water of life. The 
term was known to the Vedas, and seems to have been applied 
to various things offered in sacrifice, but more especially to the 
Soma juice. It is also called Nir-jara and Piyusha. In later 
times it was the water of life produced at the churning of the 
ocean by the gods and demons, the legend of which is told with 
some variations in the Eamayana, the Maha-bharata, and the 
Purimas. The gods, feeling their weakness, having been worsted 
by the demons, and being, according to one authority, under the 
ban of a holy sage, repaired to Yislwu, beseeching him for 
renewed vigour and the gift of immortality. He directed them to 
churn the ocean for the Amrita and other precious things which 
had been lost. The story as told in the Vishnu Pura?ia has been 
rendered into verse by Professor Williams thus : 

AMP IT A. 13 

Tlie gods addressed the mighty Vishnu thus 

* Conquered in "battle by the evil demons, 

"We fly to thee for succour, soul of all ; 

Pity, and by thy might deliver us ! ? 

Hari, the lord, creator of the world, 

Thus by the gods Implored, all graciously 

Beplied * Your strength shall be restored, ye gods ; 

Only accomplish what I now command. 

Unite yourselves in. peaceful combination 

With these your foes ; collect all plants and herbs 

Of diverse kinds from every quarter ; cast them 

Into the sea of milk ; take Mandara, 

The mountain, for a churning stick, and Vasuki, 

The serpent, for a rope ; together churn 

The ocean to produce the beverage 

Source of all strength and immortality 

Then reckon on my aid ; I will take care 

Your foes shall share your toil, but not partake 

In its reward, or drink th' immortal draught.' 

Thus by the god of gods advised, the host 

United in alliance with the demons. 

Straightway they gathered various herbs and cast them 

Into the waters, then they took the mountain 

To serve as churning-staff, and next the snake 

To serve as cord, and in the ocean's midst 

Hari himself, present in tortoise-form, 

Became a pivot for the churning-staff. 

Then did they churn the sea of milk ; and first 

Out of the waters rose the sacred Cow, 

God-worshipped Surabhi, eternal fountain 

Of milk and offerings of butter ; next, 

While holy Siddhas wondered at the sight, 

With eyes all rolling, Varum uprose, 

Goddess of wine. Tlien from the whirlpool sprang 

Fail' Ptlrijata, tree of Paradise, delight 

Of heavenly maidens, with its fragrant blossoms 

Perfuming the whole world. Th' Apsarasas, 

Troop of celestial nymphs, matchless in grace, 

Perfect in loveliness, were next produced. 

Then from the sea uprose the cool-rayed moon, 

Which MahS-deva seized ; terrific poison 

Next issued from the waters ; this the snake-godg 

Claimed as their own. Then, seated on a lotus, 

Beauty's bright goddess, peerless $ri, arose 

Out of the waves ; and with her, robed in 

Oame forth Dhanwantari, the gods' physician. 


High in his hand he bore the cup of nectar 
Life-giving draught longed for by gods and demons. 
Then had the demons forcibly borne off 
The cup, and drained the precious beverage,, 
Had not the mighty Vishnu interposed. 
Bewildering them, he gave it to the gods ; 
Whereat, incensed, the demon troops assailed 
The host of heaven, but they with strength renewed, 
Quaffing the draught, struck down their foes, who fell 
Headlong through space to lowest depths of hell ! " 
There is an elaborate article on the subject in Goldstiicker's 
Dictionary. In after-times, Vishnu's bird Garu^a is said to 
have stolen the Amnta, but it was xecovered by Indra. 

ANADH^/SHTT, A son of Ugrasena and general of the 

ANAKA-DTJNDTJBHI. ' Drums.' A name of Vasu-deva, who 
was so called because the drums of heaven resounded at his birth. 
ANANDA. c Joy, happiness.' An appellation of $iva, also 
of Bala-rama. 

ANAKDA GIRL A follower of $ankaracharya, and a 
teacher and expositor of his doctrines. He was the author of a 
Sankara-vijayci) and lived about the tenth century. 

AKANDA-LAHABI. l The wave of joy.' A poem attributed 
to Sankaracharya. It is a hymn of praise addressed to Parvati, 
consort of 5iva, mixed up with mystical doctrine. It has been 
translated into Trench by Troyer as L'Onde de Beatitude. 
AJSTANGA. * The bodiless.' A name of Kama, god of love. 
A3STANTA. ' The infinite.' A name of the serpent Sesha. 
The term is also applied to Vishmi and other deities. 

ANAEAj^YA. A descendant of Ikshwaku and king of 
Ayodhya. According to the Ramaya?za, many kings submitted 
to Rava?*a without fighting, but when Anaranya was summoned 
to fight or submit, he preferred to fight. His army was over- 
come and he was thrown from his chariot. Rava?ia triumphed 
over his prostrate foe, who retorted that he had been beaten by 
fate, not by Ravarca, and predicted the death of Ravana at the 
hands of Rama, a descendant of Anarawya. 

ANARGHA RAGHAVA. A drama in seven acts by Murari 
Misra, possibly written in the thirteenth or fourteenth century. 
Raghava or Rama is the hero of the piece. " It has no dramatic 
merit, being deficient in character, action, situation, and interest 


As a poem it presents occasionally poetic thoughts, but they are 
very few, and are lost amid pages of flat commonplace, quaint 
conceit, hyperbolical extravagance, and obscure mythology," 
Wilson. It is also called, after its author, Murari Nafoka. 

AN-ARYA. t Unworthy, vile.' People who were not Aryans, 
barbarians of other races and religion. 

ANAStJYA. ' Charity. 5 Wife of the JKshi Atri. In the 
Ramaya?ia she appears living with her husband in a hermitage 
in the forest south of Chitra-ku^a. She was very pious and 
given to austere devotion, through which she had obtained 
miraculous powers. When Sita visited her and her husband, 
she was very attentive and kind, and gave Sita an ointment 
which was to keep her beautiful for ever. She was mother of 
the irascible sage Durvasas. A friend of $akuntala. 

ANDHAKA. i. A demon, son of Kasyapa and Diti, with a 
thousand arms and heads, two thousand eyes and feet, and called 
Andhaka because he walked like a blind man, although he saw 
very well. He was slain by /Siva when he attempted to carry 
off the Parijata tree from Swarga. From this feat $iva obtained 
the appellation Andhaka-ripu, < foe of Andhaka.' 2. A grand- 
son of Kroshfoi and son of Yudhajit, of the Yadava race, 
who, together with his brother Vnshni, is the ancestor of the 
celebrated family of Andhaka-Vnshms. 3. The name was borne 
by many others of less note. 

ANDHRA, ANDHRA. Name of a country and people in 
the south of India, the country of Telingana. It was the seat 
of a powerful dynasty, and the people were known to Pliny as 
gens Andarce. 

ANDHRA-BH&TTYA, A dynasty of kings that reigned in 
Magadha somewhere about the beginning of the Christian era. 
The name seems to indicate that its founder was a native of 
Andhra, now Telingana. 

ANGAu i. The country of Bengal proper about Bhagalpur. 
Its capital was Champa, or Champa-purl (See Anu.) 2. A sup- 
plement to the Vedas, See Vedanga. 

ANGADA, i. Son of Lakshmaria and king of Angadi, 
capital of a country near the Himalaya. 2. Son of Gada (brother 
of Knshwa) by YrihatL 3. Son of Bali, the monkey king of Kisli- 
kindhya. He was protected by Rama and fought on his side 
against Ravana. 


ANGIRAS. A -Bishi to whom many hymns of the 
are attributed. He was one of the seven Maharshis or great 
Bishis, and also one of the ten Prajapatis or progenitors of man- 
kind. In later times Angiras was one of the inspired lawgivers, 
and also a writer on astronomy. As an astronomical personifica- 
tion he is BnTiaspati, the regent of the planet Jupiter, or the 
planet itself. He was also called " the priest of the gods," and 
"the lord of sacrifice." There is much ambiguity about the 
name. It comes from the same root as agni, ( fire/ and resembles 
that word in sound. This may be the reason why the name 
Angiras is used as an epithet or synonyme of Agni. The name 
is also employed as an epithet for the father of Agni, and it is 
found more especially connected with the hymns addressed to 
Agni, Indra, and the luminous deities. According to one state- 
ment, Angiras was the son of Uru by Agneyi, the daughter of 
Agni, although, as above stated, the name is sometimes given to 
the father of Agni. Another account represents that he was 
born from the mouth of Brahma. His wives were Smnti, 
* memory, J daughter of Daksha ; Sraddha , * faith,' daughter of 
Kardama ; and Swadha oblation,' and Sati, ' truth/ two other 
daughters of Daksha, His daughters were the jRichas or Vaidik 
hymns, and his sons were the Manes called Havishmats. But he 
had other sons and daughters, and among the former were 
Utathya, Bnhaspati, and Markawdeya. According to the Bhaga- 
vata Pura?ia f he begot sons possessing Brahmanical glory on the 
wife of Bathi-tara, a Kshatriya who was childless, and these 
persons were afterwards* called descendants of Angiras." 

ANGIKASAS, ANGIBASES. Descendants of Angiras. 
"They share in the nature of the legends attributed to Angiras. 
Angiras being the father of Agni, they are considered as 
descendants of Agni himself, who is also called the first of 
the Angirasas. Like Angiras, they occur in hymns addressed to 
the luminous deities, and, at a later period, they become for the 
most part personifications of light, of luminous bodies, of divi- 
sions of time, of celestial phenomena, and fires adapted to 
peculiar occasions, as the full and change of the moon, or to 
particular rites, as the Aswa-medha, Baja-suya, &c." Goldstuchr. 
In the Satapatha Brahmana they and the Adityas are said to 
have descended from Prajapati, and that " they strove together 
for the priority in ascending to heaven." 


Some descendants of Angiras by the Kshatriya wife of a 
childless king are mentioned in the Purimas as two tribes of 
Angirasas who were Brahmans as well as Kshatriyas. 

The hymns of the Atharva-veda are called Angirasas, and the 
descendants of Angiras were specially charged with the protec- 
tion of sacrifices performed in accordance with the Atharva-veda. 
From this cause, or from their being associated with the descen- 
dants of Atharvan, they were called distinctively Atharvangirasas, 

ANGIKASAS. A class of Pitns (q.v.). 

ANIL A. ' The wind' See Vayu. 

ANILAS. A gawa or class of deities, forty-nine in number, 
connected with Anila, the wind. 

ANIMISHA* ' Who does not wink. 7 A general epithet of 
all gods. 

ANIBUDDHA. 'Uncontrolled' Son of Pradyumna and 
grandson of Kn'shwa, He married his cousin, Su-bhadra. A 
Daitya princess named Usha, daughter of Bam, fell in love with 
him, and had him brought by magic influence to her apartments 
in her father's city of Sonita-pura. Barca sent some guards to 
seize him, but the valiant youth, taking an iron club, slew his 
assailants. Ba?&a then brought his magic powers to bear and 
secured him. On discovering whither Aniruddha had been 
carried, 'Krishna,, Bala-rama, and Pradyumna went to rescue 
him. A great battle was fought ; Ba?ia was aided by Siva, and 
by Skanda, god of war, the former of whom was overcome by 
Kn'shwa, and the latter was wounded by Garu& and Pradyumna. 
Bswa was defeated, but his life was spared at the intercession 
of $iva, and Aniruddha was carried home to Dwaraka with 
Usha as his wife. He is also called Jhashanka and Usha-pati 
He had a son named Vajra. 

AN JAN A. i. The elephant of the west or south-west quarter. 
2, A serpent with many heads descended from Kadru. 

ANJANA. Mother of Hanumat by Vayu, god of the wind. 

ANN A-P0E/VA. ' Full of food. J A form of Durga, worshipped 
for her power of giving food Of. the Eoman Anna Perenna* 

AN/SUMAT, AN/SUMAN. Son of Asamanjas and grandson 
of Sagara, He brought back to earth the horse which had been 
carried off from Sagara's Aswa-modha sacrifice, and he discovered 
the remains of that king's sixty thousand sons, who had been 
killed by the fire of the wrath of Kapila, 


ANTAKA ' The ender. ' A name of Yama, judge of the dead 

ANTAElKSHA The atmosphere or firmament between 
heaven and earth, the sphere of the Gandharvas, Apsarases, and 

ANTAEYEDt The Doab or country between the Ganges 
and the Jumna. 

ANIL Son of King Yayati by his wife Sarmish^ha, a Daitya 
princess. He refused to exchange his youthful vigour for the 
curse of decrepitude passed upon his father, and in consequence 
his father cursed him that his posterity should not possess 
dominion. Notwithstanding this, he had a long series of de- 
scendants, and among them were Anga, Banga, Kalinga, &c., 
who gave their names to the countries they dwelt in. 

ANUKEAMA^I, ANUIOtAMATVTKA. An index or table 
of contents, particularly of a Yeda. The Anukrama?as of the 
Yedas follow the order of each Sanhita, and assign a poet, a 
metre, and a deity to each hymn or prayer. There are several 

ANUMATL The moon on its fifteenth day, when just short 
of its full In this stage it is personified and worshipped as a 

ANILSABA A Eakshasa or other demon. 

ANUYINDA. A king of UjjayinL See Yinda. 

APAEANTA. ' On the western border.' A country which 
is named in the Yish?iu Pura?m in association with countries in 
the north; and the Yayu Purarca reads the name as Aparita, 
which Wilson says is a northern nation, The Hari-vansa, how- 
ever, mentions it as "a country conquered by Parasu-rama from 
the ocean," and upon this the translator Langlois observes : 
" Tradition records that Parasu-rama besought Yanwa, god of 
the sea, to grant him a land which he might bestow upon the 
Brahmans in expiation of the blood of the Kshatriyas. Yarmia 
withdrew his waves from the heights of Gokarwa (near 
Mangalore) down to Cape Comorin" (As. Researches, v. i). 
This agrees with the traditions concerning Parasu-rama and 
Malabar, but it is not at all clear how a gift of territory tc 
Brahmans could expiate the slaughter of the Kshatriyas by a 
Brahman and in behalf of Brahmans. 

APAR2VA. According to the Hari-vansa, the eldest datighter 
of Himavat and Mena, She and her two sisters, Eka-jmrwa and 


Eka-pa/ala, gave themselves up to austerity and practised 
extraordinary abstinence; but while her sisters lived, as their 
names denote, upon one leaf or on one paifala (Bignonia) re- 
spectively, Aparwa managed to subsist upon nothing, and even 
lived without a leaf (a-parna). This so distressed her mother 
that she cried out in deprecation, f IJ-ma/ ' Oh, don't.' Apar^a 
thus became the beautiful Uma, the wife of $iva. 

APASTAMBA. An ancient writer on ritual and law, 
author of Sutras connected with the Black Yajur-veda and of a 
Dharma-sastra, He is often quoted in law-books. Two recen- 
sions of the Taittiriya Sanhita are ascribed to him or his school 
The Sutras have been translated by Biihler, and are being re- 
printed in the Sacred Books of the East by Max Mliller. 

APAVA. 'Who sports in the waters.' A name of the 
same import as Naraya??a, and having a similar though not an 
identical application. According to the Brahma Pnrawa and the 
Hari-vansa, Apava performed the office of the creator Brahma, 
and divided himself into two parts, male and female, the former 
begetting offspring upon the latter. The result was the produc- 
tion of Vislwu, who created Viraj, who brought the first man 
into the world. According to the Maha-bharata, Apava is a name 
of the Prajapati Vasish/ha. The name of Apava is of late intro- 
duction and has been vaguely used. Wilson says : "According 
to the commentator, the first stage was the creation of Apava or 
Vasishflia or Viraj by Vishnu, through the agency of Brahma, 
and the next was that of the creation of Mann by Viraj." 

APSARAS. The Apsarases are the celebrated nymphs of 
Indra's heaven. The name, which signifies ' moving in the water/ 
has some analogy to that of Aphrodite. They are not prominent 
in the Yedas, but Urvasi and a few others are mentioned, In 
Manu they are said to be the creations of the seven Manus. In 
the epic poems they become prominent, and the Ramayana and 
the Pura?ias attribute their origin to the churning of the ocean. 
(See Ainn'ta.) It is said that when they came forth from the 
waters neither the gods nor the Asuras would have them for 
wives, so they became common to all They have the appella- 
tions of Suranganas, ' wives of the gods/ and Sumad-atmajas, 
'daughters of pleasure.' 

" Then from the agitated deep up sprung 
The legion of Apsarases, so named 


That to the watery element they owed 
Their "being. Myriads were they born, and all 
In vesture heavenly clad, and heavenly gems : 
Yet more divine their native semblance, rich 
With all the gifts of grace, of youth and beauty. 
A train innumerous followed ; yet thus lair, 
Nor god nor demon sought their wedded love : 
Thus Baghava ! they still remain their charms 
The common treasure of the host of heaven." 

(lidmayanct) WILSON. 

In the Puranas various gawas or classes of them are mentioned 
with distinctive names. The Vayu Parana enumerates fourteen, 
the Hari-vansa seven classes. They are again distinguished as 
being daimk^ * divine, ' oilaukika, 'worldly.' The former are said 
bo "be ten in number and the latter thirty-four, and these are the 
heavenly charmers who fascinated heroes, as Urvasi, and allured 
austere sages from their devotions and penances, as Menaka and 
Kambhav The Kast-khanda says " there are thirty-five millions 
of them, but only one thousand and sixty are the principal/' 
The Apsarases, then, are fairylike beings, beautiful and volup- 
tuous. They are the wives 01 the mistresses of the Gandharvas, 
and are not prudish in the dispensation of their favours. Theit 
amours on earth have been numerous, and they are the rewards 
in India's paradise held out to heroes who fall in battle. They 
have the power of changing their forms ; they are fond of dice, 
and give luck to whom they favour. In the Atharva-veda they 
are not so amiable ; they are supposed to produce madness (love's 
madness*?), and so there are charms and incantations for use 
against them. There is a long and exhaustive article on the 
Apsarases in Goldstiicker's Dictionary, from which much of 
the above has been adapted. As regards their origin he makes 
the following speculative observations: "Originally these 
divinities seem to have been personifications of the vapours 
which are attracted by the sun and form into mist or clouds ; 
their character may be thus interpreted in the few hymns of the 
jRtg-veda where mention is made of them. At a subsequent 
period . . . (their attributes expanding with those of their 
associates the Gandharvas), they became divinities which repre- 
sent phenomena or objects both of a physical and ethicd kind 
closely associated with that life " (the elementary life of heaven). 

ARAJ^YAKA. ' Belonging to the forest' Certain religions 


and philosophical writings which expound the mystical sense 
of the ceremonies, discuss the nature of God, &c. They are 
attached to the Brahman as, and intended for study in the 
forest by Brahmans who have retired from the distractions of the 
world. There are four of them extant : i. Bn'had ; 2. Taittirlya; 
3. Aitareya ; and 4. Kaushltaki Ara^yaka. The Aranyakas are 
closely connected with the Upanishads, and the names are 
occasionally used interchangeably: thus the Bn'had is called 
indifferently Brihad Aranyaka or Brihad Ara^yaka Upani- 
shad ; it is attached to the $atapatha Brahmawa, The Aitareya 
Upanishad is a part of the Aitareya Brahmawa, and the Kauslu- 
taki Aranyaka consists of three chapters, of which the third is the 
Kaushitaki Upanishad. "Traces of modern ideas (says Max 
Miiller) are not wanting in the Ara?iyakas 3 and the yery fact 
that they are destined for a class of men who had retired from 
the world in order to give themselves up to the contemplation of 
the highest problems, shows an advanced and already declining 
and decaying society, not unlike the monastic age of the 
Christian world." " In one sense the Arawyakas are old, for they 
reflect the very dawn of thought ; in another they are modern, 
for they speak of that dawn with all the experience of a past 
day. There are passages in these works unequalled in any 
language for grandeur, boldness, and simplicity. These passages 
are the relics of a better age. But the generation which became 
the chronicler of those Titanic wars of thought was a small race ; 
they were dwarfs, measuring the footsteps of departed giants." 

ARANYAiVZ In the JKg-veda, the goddess of woods and 

AEBUDA. Mount Abu. Name of the people living in the 
vicinity of that mountain. 

AEBUDA. * A serpent/ Name of an Asura slain by Indra 

ABDHA-NARI. * Half-woman.' A form in which /Siva is 
represented as half-male and half-female, typifying the male and 
female energies. There are several stones accounting for this 
form. It is called also Ardhanansa and Parangada. 

AKISHrA. A Daitya, and son of Bali, who attacked Knshtta 
in the form of a savage bull, and was slain by him* 

ARJUNA. ' White.' The name of the third Pandu prince. 
All the five brothers were of divine paternity, and Arjuna's 
father was Indra, hence he is called Aindri. A brave warrior, 


high-minded, generous, upright, and handsome, the most pro- 
minent and the most amiahle and interesting of the five "brothers. 
He was taught the use of arms by Dro^a, and was his favourite 
pupil By his skill in arms he won Draupadi at her Swayam- 
vara. For an involuntary transgression he imposed upon him- 
self twelve years' exile from his family, and during that time 
he visited Parasu-rama, who gave him instruction in the use of 
arms. He at this period formed a connection with Ulupi, a 
Naga princess, and "by her had a son named Iravat. He also 
married Chitrangada, the daughter of the king of Mawipura, by 
whom he had a son named Babhru-vahana. He visited Krishna 
at Dwaraka, and there he married Su-bhadra, the sister of 
Kn'shm (See Su-bhadra.) By her he had a son named 
Abhimanyu. Afterwards he obtained the bow Gaw^iva from 
the god Agni, with which to fight against Indra, and he assisted 
Agni in burning the Khan^ava forest. When Yudhi-shftnra 
lost the kingdom by gambling, and the five brothers went into 
exile for thirteen years, Arjuna proceeded on a pilgrimage to 
the Himalayas to propitiate the gods, and to obtain from them 
celestial weapons for use in the contemplated war against the 
Kauravas. There he fought with Siva, who appeared in the/ 
guise of a Kirata or mountaineer ; but Arjuna, having found 
out the true character of his adversary, worshipped him, and Siva 
gave him the pasupata, one of his most powerful weapons. 
Indra, Tarawa, Yarna, and Kuvera came to him, and also pre- 
sented him with their own peculiar weapons. Indra, his father, 
carried him in his car to his heaven and to his capital Amaravati, 
where Arjuna spent some years in the practice of arms. Indra 
sent him against the Daityas of the sea, whom he vanquished, 
and then returned victorious to Indra, who " presented him 
with a chain of gold and a diadem, and with a war-shell which 
sounded like thunder." In the thirteenth year of exile he 
entered the service of Raja Virata, disguised as a eunuch, and 
acted as music and dancing master, but in the end he took a 
leading part in defeating the king's enemies, the king of Trigarta 
and the Kaurava princes, many of whose leading warriors he 
vanquished in single combat. Preparations for the great struggle 
with the Kauravas now began. Arjuna obtained the personal 
assistance of Knshfta, who acted as his charioteer, and, before 
the great battle began, related to him the Bhagavad-gita. On 


the tenth day of the battle he mortally wounded Bhishma , on 
the twelfth he defeated Susarman and his four brothers, on 
the fourteenth he killed Jayadratha; on the seventeenth, he 
was so stung by some reproaches of his brother, Yudhi-shftiira, 
that he would have killed him had not, interposed, 
On the same day he fought with Kama, who had made a vow 
to slay him. He was near being vanquished when an accident 
to Kama's chariot gave Arjuna the opportunity of killing him. 
After the defeat of the Kauravas, Aswatthaman, son of Drona, 
and two others, who were the sole survivors, made a night attack 
on the camp of the Panc/avas, and murdered their children. 
Arjuna pursued Aswatthaman, and made him give up the 
precious jewel which he wore upon his head as an amulet 
When the horse intended for Yudhi-shz!hira j s Aswa-medha sac- 
rifice was let loose, Arjuna, with his army, followed it through 
many cities and countries, and fought with many Eajas. He 
entered the country of Trigarta, and had to fight his way through, 
He fought also against Vajradatta, who had a famous elephant, 
and against the Saindhavas. At the city of Manipura he fought 
with his own son, Babhru-vahana, and was killed ; but he was 
restored to life by a Naga charm supplied by his wife UlupL 
Afterwards he penetrated into the Dakshina or south country, and 
fought with the Nishadas and DravkZians : then went westwards 
to Gujarat, and finally conducted the horse back to Hastinapura, 
There the great sacrifice was performed. He was subsequently 
called to Dwaraka by Krishna amid the internecine struggles 
of the Yadavas, and there he performed the funeral ceremonies 
of Yasudeva and of Krishna. Soon after this he retired from 
the world to the Himalayas. (See Maha-bharata.) He had a 
son named Iravat by the serpent nymph Ulupl ; Babhru-vahana, 
by the daughter of the king of Manipura, became king of that 
country ; Abhimanyu, born of his wife Su-bhadra, was killed 
in the great battle, but the kingdom of Hastinupura descended 
to his son Parikshit. Arjuna has many appellations : Blbhatsn, 
Gucfc-kesa, Dhananjaya, Jislmu, Kiritfiu, Paka-sasani, Phalguna, 
Savya-sachin, Sweta-vahana, and Partha, 

AEJUJTA. Son of Krita-virya, king of the Haihayaa He 
is better known under his patronymic Karta-virya (q.v.). 

AKTHA-$ASTKA. The useful arts. Mechanical science. 

AKILYA, ' Bed, rosy/ The dawn, personified as the charioteer 


of the sun. This is of later origin than the Vedic Ushas (q.v.). 
He is said to "be the son of Kasyapa and Kadru. He is also 
called Kumra, * tawny/ and by two epithets of which the mean- 
ing is not obvious, An-uru, ' thighless,' and Asmana, ' stony.' 

AEUNDHATL The morning star, personified as the wife of 
the j&shi Yasish&a, and a model of conjugal excellence. 

AEUSHA, AEUSHl. <Eed.' * A red horse.' In the Elg- 
veda the red horses or mares of the sun or of fire. The rising sun. 

ARYAN, AEYA. 'A horse.' One of the horses of the 
moon. A fabulous animal, half -horse, half-bird, on which the 
Daityas are supposed to ride. 

AEYAYASTJ. See Eaibhya, 

AEYA, ARYAN". ' Loyal, faithful' The name of the im* 
migrant race from which all that is Hindu originated. The 
name by which the people of the T&g-veda " called men of theii 
own stock and religion, in contradistinction to the Dasyus (or 
Dasas), a term, by which we either understand hostile demons 
or the rude aboriginal tribes " of India, who were An-aryas. 

AEYA-EHATA The earliest known Hindu writer on alge- 
bra, and, according to Colebrooke, "if not the inventor, the 
improver of that analysis," which has made but little advance in 
India since. He was born, according to his own account, at 
Kusuma-pura (Patna), in A.D. 476, and composed his first astro- 
nomical work at the early age of twenty-three. His larger work, 
the Arya, Siddhftnta, was produced at a riper age. He is pro- 
bably the Andubarius (Ardubarius ?) of the Chronichon Paschale, 
and the Arjabahr of the Arabs. Two of his works, the Dasagtti- 
sutra and Aryashtasata, have been edited by Kern under the 
title of Aryabhaftya. See Whitney in Jour. Amer, Or. Society 
for 1860, I)r Bhau Daji in /. R. A. S. for 1865, and Earth in 
Eevue Critique for 1875. There is another and later astronomer 
of the same name, distinguished as Laghu Arya-bhafo, i.e., Arya- 
bhafo the Less. - 

AEYAMAK < A bosom friend' i. Chief of the Pitn's. 2. 
One of the Adityas. 3. One of the Yiswe-devas. 

AEYA SIDDHANTA. The system of astronomy founded 
by Arya-bhafe in his work bearing this name. 

AEYAYAETA 'The land of the Aryas.' The tract between 
the Himalaya and the Yindhya ranges, from the eastern to the 
western sea. Manu* 


ASAMANJAS. Son ot Sagara and Kesim, He was a wild 
and wicked young man, and was abandoned by his father, but 
he succeeded him as king, and, according to the Hari-vama, he 
was afterwards famous for valour under the name of Panchajana* 

ASANGA. Author of some verses in the J&g-veda. He was 
son of Playoga, but was changed into a woman by the curse of 
the gods. He recovered his male form by repentance and the 
favour of the Rishi Medhatithi, to whom he gave abundant 
wealth, and addressed the verses preserved in the Veda 

ASARA A Bakshasa or other demon. 

ASHTAVAKEA. A Brahman, the son of Kahoda, whose 
story is told in the Maha-bharata. Kahoda married a daughter 
of his preceptor, Uddalaka, but he was so devoted to study that 
he neglected his wife. When she was far advanced in her 
pregnancy, the unborn son was provoked at his father's neglect 
of her, and rebuked him for it. Kaho^a was angry at the 
child's impertinence, and condemned him to be born crooked ; so 
he came forth with his eight (ashia) limbs crooked (vakra) ; hence 
his name. Kahoda went to a great sacrifice at the court of 
Janaka, king of Mithila. There was present there a great 
Buddhist sage, who challenged disputations, upon the under- 
standing that whoever was overcome in argument should be 
thrown into the river. This was the fate of many, and among 
them of Kahoda, who was drowned. In his twelfth year Ash- 
tavakra learned the manner of his father's death, and set out to 
avenge him. The lad was possessed of great ability and wisdom. 
He got the better of the sage who had worsted his father, and 
insisted that the sage should be thrown into the water, The 
sage then declared himself to be a son of Varurca, god of the 
waters, who had sent him to obtain Brahmans for officiating at 
a sacrifice by overpowering them in argument and throwing 
them into the water. When all was explained and set right, 
Kaho^a directed his son to bathe in the Samanga river, on doing 
which the lad became perfectly straight. A story is told in the 
Vishnu Purawa that Ashtavakra was standing in water perform- 
ing penances when he was seen by some celestial nymphs and 
worshipped by them. He was pleased, and told them to ask a 
boon. They asked for the best of men as a husband. He camo 
out of the water and offered himself. When they saw him, 
ugly and crooked in eight places, they laughed in derision. He 


was angry, and as he could not recall his blessing, he said that, 
after obtaining it, they should fall into the hands of thieves. 

ASEOTl. The Yedic name of the Chinab, and probably the 
origin of the classic Akesines. 

A-/SIKAS. ' Headless/ Spirits or beings without heads. 

AMAKA. Son of Madayanti, the wife of Kalmasha-pada 
or Saudasa. See Kalmasha-pada, 

A/SQKA. A celebrated king of the Maurya dynasty of 
Magadha, and grandson of its founder, Chandra-gup ta. " This 
king is the most celebrated of any in the annals of the 
Buddhists. In the commencement of his reign he followed the 
Brahmanical faith, but became a convert to that of Buddha, and 
a zealous encourager of it. He is said to have maintained in 
his palace 64,000 Buddhist priests, and to have erected 84,000 
columns (or topes) throughout India. A great convocation of 
Buddhist priests was held in the eighteenth year of his reign, 
which was followed by missions to Ceylon and other places." 
He reigned thirty-six years, from about 234 to 198 B.C., and 
exercised authority more or less direct from Afghanistan to 
Ceylon. This fact is attested by a number of very curious Pali 
inscriptions found engraven upon rocks and pillars, all of them 
of the same purport, and some of them almost identical in words, 
the variations showing little more than dialectic differences. 
That found at Kapur-di-giri, in Afghanistan, is in the Bactrian 
Pali character, written from right to left ; all the others are in 
fche India Pali character, written from left to right. The latter 
is the oldest known form of the character now in use in India, 
but the modern letters have departed so far from their proto- 
types that it required all the acumen and diligence of James 
Prinsep to decipher the ancient forms. These inscriptions show 
a great tenderness for animal life, and are Buddhist in their 
character, but they do not enter upon the distinctive peculiarities 
of that religion. The name of Asoka never occurs in them ; the 
king who set them up is called Piyadasi (Sans. Priya-darsl), * the 
beautiful,' and he is entitled Devanam-piya, ' the beloved of the 
gods.' Buddhist writings identify this Piyadasi with Asoka, and 
little or no doubt is entertained of the two names represent- 
ing the same person. One of the most curious passages in 
these inscriptions refers to the Greek king Antiochus, calling 
him and three others " Tu-ramayo, Antakana, Mako, and Alika- 


sunari," which represent Ptolemy, Antigonus, Magas, and Alex- 
ander. " The date of Asoka is not exactly that of Antiochus 
the Great, but it is not very far different ; and the corrections 
required to make it correspond are no more than the inexact 
manner in which both Brahrnanical and Buddhist chronology 
is preserved may well be expected to render necessary." See 
Wilson's note in the Yishmi Puram, his article in the Journal 
of the Royal Asiatic Society, voL xii, Max Muller's Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature, and an article by Sir E. Perry in voL iii. of 
the Journal of the Bombay Asiatic Society. 

A$KAMA. There are four stages in the life of a Brahman 
which are called by this name. See Brahman. 

ASTIKA. An ancient sage, son of Jarat-karu by a sister of 
the great serpent Yasuki. He saved the life of the serpent 
Takshaka when Janamejaya made his great sacrifice of serpents, 
and induced that king to forego his persecution of the serpent race. 

ASUKA. * Spiritual, divine. 7 In the oldest parts of the Rig 
veda this term is used for the supreme spirit, and is the same as 
the Ahura of the Zoroastrians. In the sense of c god ' it was 
applied to several of the chief deities, as to Indra, Agni, and 
Yaru?ia. It afterwards acquired an entirely opposite meaning, 
and came to signify, as now, a demon or enemy of the gods. 
The word is found with this signification in the later parts of the 
.Z&g-veda, particularly in the last book, and also in the Atharva- 
veda. The Brahmawas attach the same meaning to it, and 
record many contests between the Asuras and the gods. Accord- 
ing to the Taittiriya Brahmana, the breath (asu) of Prajapati 
became alive, and "with that breath he created the Asuras." 
In another part of the same work it is said that Prajapati " be- 
came pregnant. He created Asuras from his abdomen." The 
Satapatha BrahmaTia accords with the former statement, and 
states that "he created Asuras from his lower breath." The 
Taittiriya Arawyaka represents that Prajapati created "gods, 
men, fathers, Gandharvas, and Apsaxases " from water, and that 
the Asuras, Eakshasas, and Pisachas sprang from the drops 
which were spilt. Manu's statement is that they were created 
by the Prajapatis, According to the Vislmu Purana, they were 
produced from the groin of Brahma (Prajapati). The account 
of the Yayu Purawa is : " Asuras were first produced as sons 
from his (Prajapati's) groin. Asu is declared by Brahmans to 


mean "breath. From it these beings were produced ; hence they 
are Asuras." The word has long been used as a general name 
for the enemies of the gods, including the Daityas and Danavas 
and other descendants of Kasyapa, but not including the 
Rakshasas descended from Pulastya, In this sense a different 
derivation has been found for it : the source is no longer asu, 
breath/ but the initial a is taken as the negative prefix, and 
ctrsura signifies ' not a god ; ' hence, according to some, arose the 
word sura, commonly used for 'a god.' See Sura. 

ASURL One of the earliest professors of the Sankhya 

A$WALAYAKA. A celebrated writer of antiquity. He 
was pupil of $aunaka, and was author of /Srauta-sutras, Gnhya- 
sutras, and other works upon ritual, as well as founder of a 
$akha of the j?ig-veda. The Sutras have been published by Dr. 
Stenzler, and also in the BiUwtheca Indica. 

ASWA-MEDHA. The sacrifice of a horse. 3 This is a sacri- 
fice which, in Yedic times, was performed by kings desirous of 
offspring. The horse was killed with certain ceremonies, and 
the wives of the king had to pass the night by its carcase. 
Upon the chief wife fell the duty of going through a revolting 
formality which can only be hinted at. Subsequently, as in the 
time of the Maharbharata, the sacrifice obtained a high import- 
ance and significance. It was performed only by kings, and 
implied that he who instituted it was a conqueror and king of 
kings. It was believed that the performance of one hundred 
such sacrifices would enable a mortal king to overthrow the 
throne of Indra, and to become the ruler of the universe and 
sovereign, of the gods. A horse of a particular colour was con- 
secrated by the performance of certain ceremonies, and was then 
turned loose to wander at will for a year. The king, or hia 
representative, followed the horse with an army, and when the 
animal entered a foreign country, the ruler of that country was 
bound either to fight or to submit. If the liberator of the 
horse succeeded in obtaining or enforcing the submission of all 
the countries over which it passed, he returned in triumph with 
the vanquished Rajas in his train ; but if he failed, he was dis- 
graced and his pretensions ridiculed. After the successful 
return a great festival was held, at which the horse was sacri 
ficed, either really or figuratively. 


ASW A-MUKH A. ' Horse faced. ' See Kinnara. 

ASWA-PATL l Lord of horses.' An appellation of many kings. 

ASWATTHAMAK Son of Drona and Kripa, and one of 
the generals of the Kauravas. Also called hy his patronymic 
Draiwayana. After the last great battle, in which Dur-yodhana 
was mortally wounded, Aswatthaman with two other warriors, 
Kripa and Knta-varman, were the sole survivors of the Kaurava 
host that were left effective. Aswatthaman was made the com- 
mander. He was fierce in his hostility to the Paw^avas, and 
craved for revenge upon Dhnshtfa-dyumna, who had slain his 
father, Dro^a, These three surviving Kauravas entered the 
Pawrfava camp at night. They found Dhnshtfa-dyumna asleep, 
and Aswa^haman stamped him to death as he lay. He then killed 
$ikhandin, the other son of Drupada, and he also killed the five 
young sons of the PaWavas and carried their heads to the dying 
Dur-yodhana. He killed Parikshit, while yet unborn in the 
womh of his mother, with his celestial weapon Brahmastra, by 
which he incurred the curse of Knslwa, who restored Parikshit 
to life. On the next morning he and his comrades fled, but 
Draupadi clamoured for revenge upon the murderer of her 
children. Yudhi-sh^hira represented that Aswatthaman was a 
Brahman, and pleaded for his life. She then consented to 
forego her demand for his blood if the precious and protective 
jewel which he wore on his head were brought to her. Bhlma, 
Arjuna, and Krishna then went in pursuit of him, Arjuna and 
Krishna overtook him, and compelled him to give up the jewel 
They carried it to Draupadi, and she gave it to Yudhi-sh&ira, 
who afterwards wore it on his head. 

* Horsemen.' Dioskouroi. Two Vedic deities, twin sons of the 
sun or the sky. They are ever young and handsome, bright, 
and of golden brilliancy, agile, swift as falcons, and possessed of 
many forms ; and they ride in a golden car drawn by horses or 
birds, as harbingers of Ushas, the dawn. " They are the earliest 
bringers of light in the morning sky, who in their chariot hasten 
onwards before the dawn and prepare the way for her.' 7 Both. 
As personifications of the morning twilight, they are said to be 
children of the sun by a nymph who concealed herself in the 
form of a mare; hence she was called Aswini and her sons 
Aswins, But inasmuch as they precede the rise of the sun, 

30 AS WINS. 

they are called his parents in his form Pushan, Mythically 
they are the parents of the ~Pmdu princes Nakula and Sahadeva. 
Their attrihutes are numerous, "but relate mostly to youth and 
beauty, light and speed, duality, the curative power, and active 
benevolence. The number of hymns addressed to them testify 
to the enthusiastic worship they received. They were the 
physicians of Swarga, and in this character are called Dasras 
and Nasatyas, G-adagadau and Swar-vaidyau ; or one was Basra 
and the other Nasatya, Other of their appellations are Abdhi- 
jau, ' ocean born ; ' Pushkara-srajau, ' wreathed with lotuses ;' 
BaoJaveyau, sons of the submarine fire, Badava. Many instances 
are recorded of their benevolence and their power of healing. 
They restored the sage Chyavana to youth, and prolonged his 
life when he had become old and decrepit, and through his 
instrumentality they were admitted to partake of the libations 
of soma, like the other gods, although Indra strongly opposed 
them. (See Chyavana.) The Aswins, says Muir, " have been 
a puzzle to the oldest commentators," who have differed widely 
in their explanations. According to different interpretations 
quoted in the Nirukta, they were " heaven and earth," " day 
and night," " two kings, performers of holy acts." The follow- 
ing is the view taken of them by the late Professor Goldstucker, 
as printed in Muir's Texts, vol. v, : 

" The myth of the As wins is, in my opinion, one* of, that 
class of myths in which two distinct elements, the cosmical and 
the human or historical, have gradually become blended into 
one. It seems necessary, therefore, to separate these two 
elements in order to arrive at an understanding of the myth. 
The historical or human element in it, I believe, is represented 
by those legends which refer to the wonderful cures effected by 
the Aswins, and to their performances of a kindred sort ; the cos- 
mical element is that relating to their luminous nature. The 
link which connects both seems to be the mysteriousness of the 
nature and effects of the phenomena of light and of the healing 
art at a remote antiquity. That there might have been some 
horsemen or warriors of great renown, who inspired their con- 
temporaries with awe by their wonderful deeds, and more 
especially by their medical skill, appears to have been also the 
opinion of some old commentators mentioned by Yaska [in the 
Nirukta], for some * legendary writers,' he says, took them for 


* two kings, performers of holy acts/ and this view seems like- 
wise borne out by the legend in which it is narrated that the 
gods refused the Aswins admittance to a sacrifice on the ground 
that they had been on too familiar terms with men. It would 
appear, then, that these Aswins, like the .ffibhus, were originally 
renowned mortals, who, in the course of time, were translated 
into the companionship of the gods. . . . 

" The luminous character of the Aswins can scarcely be matter 
of doubt, for the view of some commentators, recorded by Yaska, 
according to which they are identified with ' heaven and earth/ 
appears not to be countenanced by any of the passages known 
to us. Their very name, it would seem, settles this point, since 
Aswa, the horse, literally ' the pervader/ is always the symbol of 
the luminous deities, especially of the sun. . . . 

" It seems to be the opinion of Yaska that the Aswins repre- 
sent the transition from darkness to light, when the intermin- 
gling of both produces that inseparable duality expressed by the 
twin nature of these deities. And this interpretation, I hold, 
is the best that can be given of the character of the cosmical 
Aswins. It agrees with the epithets by which they are invoked, 
and with the relationship in which they are placed. They are 
young, yet also ancient, beautiful, bright, swift, &c. ; and theii 
negative character, the result of the alliance of light with dark- 
ness, is, I believe, expressed by dasra, the destroyer, and also by 
the two negatives in the compound nasatya (na 4- a-satya) ; 
though their positive character is again redeemed by the ellipsis 
of f enemies, or diseases ' to dasra, and by the sense of nasatya 3 
not untrue, i.e., truthful" 

ATHAEYA, ATEARVAK The fourth Veda, See Veda, 

ATHARVAK Name of a priest mentioned in the Hig- 
veda, where he is represented as having " drawn forth " fire and 
to have " offered sacrifice in early times." He is mythologically 
represented as the eldest son of Brahma, to whom that god 
revealed the Brahma-vidya (knowledge of God), as a Prajapati, 
and as the inspired author of the fourth Veda. At a later 
period he is identified with Angiras. His descendants are 
called Atharvanas, and are often associated with the Angirasaa 

ATHAKVANGIBASAS. This name belongs to the descen- 
dants of Atharvan and Angiras, or to the Angirasaa alone, 
who are especially connected witb the Atharva-veda^ and these 


names are probably given to the hymns of that Veda to confei 
on them greater authority and holiness. 

ATMA-BODHA ' Knowledge of the soul/ A short work 
attributed to $ankaracharya. It has been printed, and a 
translation of it was published in 1 8 1 2 by Taylor. There is a 
Trench version by Neve and an English translation by Kearns 
in the Indian Antiquary, voL v. 

ATMAN, ATMA. The soul The principle of life. The 
supreme souL 

ATEEYA. A patronymic from Atri. A son or descendant 
of Atri ; a people so called. 

AIEI. An eater.' A .Rishi, and author of many Vedic 
hymns. " A Maharshi or great saint, who in the Vedas occurs 
especially in hymns composed for the praise of Agni, Indra, the 
Aswins, and the Viswa-devas. In the epic period he is con- 
sidered as one of the ten Prajapatis or lords of creation engen- 
dered by Manu for the purpose of creating the universe ; at a 
later period he appears as a mind-born son of Brahma, and as 
one of the seven .Zfo'shis who preside over the reign of Swayam- 
bhuva, the first Manu, or, according to others, of Swarochisha, the 
second, or of Yaivaswata, the seventh, He married Anasuya, 
daughter of Daksha, and their son was Durvasas." Goldstucker". 
In the Eamayana an account is given of the visit paid by Eama 
and Sita to Atri and Anasuya in their hermitage south of Chitra- 
kutfa. In the Pura?ias he was also father of Soma, the moon, 
and the ascetic Dattatreya by his wife Anasuya. As a J&shi 
he is one of the stars of the Great Bear. 

ATJEYA. A J&hi, son of Urva and grandson of Bhrigu. 
He is described in the Mahirbharata as son of the sage Chyavana 
by his wife Arushl From his race he is called Bhargava. The 
Mahir-bharata relates that a king named Knta-virya was very 
liberal to his priests of the race of Bhrigu, and that they grew 
rich upon his munificenca After his death, his descendants, 
who had fallen into poverty, begged help from the Bhrigus, and 
met with no liberal response. Some of them buried their money, 
and when this was discovered the impoverished Kshatriyas were 
so exasperated that they slew all the Bhngus down, to the chil- 
dren in the womb. One woman concealed her unborn child in 
her thigh, and the Kshatriyas being informed of this, sought the 
child to kill it, but the child " issued forth from its mother's 


thigh with lustre and blinded the persecutors. From "being 
produced from the thigh (uru), the child received the name of 
Aurva. The sage's austerities alarmed both gods and men, 
and he for a long time refused to mitigate his wrath against the 
ELshatriyaSj but at the persuasion of the Pitns, he cast the fire 
of his anger into the sea, where it became a being with the face 
of a horse called Haya-siras. While he was living in the forest he 
prevented the wife of King Bahu from burning herself with, her 
husband's corpse. Thus he saved the life of her son, with whom 
she had been pregnant seven years. When the child was born 
he was called Sagara (ocean) ; Aurva was his preceptor, and 
bestowed on him the Agneyastra, or fiery weapon with which he 
conquered the barbarians who invaded his country. Aurva had 
a son named JSichlka, who was father of Jamadagni The 
Hari-vansa gives another version of the legend about the off- 
spring of Aurva. The sage was urged by his friends to beget 
children. He consented, but he foretold that his progeny would 
live by the destruction of others. Then he produced from his 
thigh a devouring fire, which cried out with a loud voice, " I 
am hungry ; let me consume the world." The various regions 
were soon in flames, when Brahma interfered to save his 
creation, and promised the son of Aurva a suitable abode and 
maintenance. The abode was to be at Badava-mukha, the mouth 
of the ocean ; for Brahma was born and rests in the ocean, and 
he and the newly produced fire were to consume the world 
together at the end of each age, and at the end of time to devour 
all things with the gods, Asuras, and Rakshasas. The name 
Aurva thus signifies, shortly, the submarine fire. It is also 
called Ba<#avanala and Samvarttaka. It is represented as a 
flame with a horse's head, and is also called Kaka-dhwaja, from 
carrying a banner on which there is a crow. 


ATJTTAML The third Manu. See Manu. 

AYANTI, AYANTIKA. A name of Ujjayim, one of the 
seven sacred cities. 

A VAT ABA. 'A descent' The incarnation of a deity, espe- 
cially of Vishwi. The first indication, not of an Avatara, but 
of what subsequently developed into an Avatara, is found in 
the J&g~veda in the "three steps" of "Vishnu, the unconquer- 
able preserver/' who "strode over this (universe)/' and "in 


three places planted Ms step." The early commentators under- 
stood the " three places " to "be the earth, the atmosphere, and the 
sky ; that in the earth Yishwu was fire, in the air lightning, 
and in the sky the solar light. One commentator, Aurwavabha, 
whose name deserves mention, took a more philosophical view 
of the matter, and interpreted " the three steps " as being " the 
different positions of the sun at his rising, culmination, and 
setting." Sayawa, the great commentator, who lived in days 
when the god Vishnu had obtained pre-eminence, understood 
"the three steps" to be "the three steps" taken by that 
god in his incarnation of Vamana the dwarf, to be presently 
noticed. Another reference to "three strides" and to a sort 
of Avatara is made in the Taittirlya Sanhita, where it is 
said, "Indra, assuming the form of a she-jackal, stepped 
all round the earth in three (strides). Thus the gods ob- 
tained it." 

Boar Incarnation. In the Taittirlya Sanhita and Brahnia?ia, 
and also in the $atapatha Brahman, the creator Prajapati, 
afterwards known as Brahma, took the form of a boar for the 
purpose of raising the earth out of the boundless waters. The 
Sanhita says, " This universe was formerly waters, fluid. On it 
Prajapati, becoming wind, moved He saw this (earth). Be- 
coming a boar, he took her up. Becoming Viswakarman, he 
wiped (the moisture from) her. She extended. She became 
the extended one (Pnthvi). From this the earth derives her 
designation as 'the extended one. 5 " The Brahmawa is in accord 
as to the illimitable waters, and adds, "Prajapati practised 
arduous devotion (saying), How shall this universe be (de- 
veloped)? He beheld a lotus leaf standing. He thought, 
There is somewhat on which this (lotus leaf) rests. He, as a 
boar having assumed that form plunged beneath towards it 
He found the earth down below. Breaking off (a portion of 
her), he rose to the surface. He then extended it on the lotus 
leaf. Inasmuch as he extended it, that is the extension of the 
extended one (the earth). This became (aVkuf). From tills 
the earth derives its name of BhumL" Further, in the Tait- 
tiriya Arawyaka it is said that the earth was " raised by a black 
boar with a hundred arms." The Satapatha Brahman states, 
" She (the earth) was only so large, of the size of a span. A 
boar called Emusha raised her up. Her lord, Prajapati, in 


consequence prospers him with this pair and makes him com- 
plete." In the Kamayafta also it is stated that Brahma "be- 
became a boar and raised up the earth." 

Kurma or Tortoise. In the $atapatha Bra"hma?za it is said 
that " Prajapati, having assumed the form of a tortoise (Jcurma), 
created offspring. That which he created he made (aJcarot) ; 
hence the word Kurma-" 

Fish Incarnation. The earliest mention of the fish Avatara 
occurs in the atapatha Bralnnana, in connection with the 
Hindu legend of the deluge. Manu found, in the water which 
was brought to him for his ablutions, a small fish, which spoke 
to him and said, " I will save thee " from a flood which shaU 
sweep away all creatures. This fish grew to a large size, and 
had to be consigned to the ocean, when he directed Manu to 
construct a ship and to resort to him when the flood should 
rise. The deluge came, and Manu embarked in the ship. The 
fish then swam to Manu, who fastened the vessel to the fisih's 
horn, and was conducted to safety. The Maharbharata repeats 
this story with some variations. 

The incarnations of the boar, the tortoise, and the fish are 
thus in the earlier writings represented as manifestations of 
Prajapati or Brahma. The " three steps " which form the germ 
of the dwarf incarnation are ascribed to VisliT&u, but even these 
appear to be of an astronomical or mythical character rather 
than glorifications of a particular deity. In the Maha-bharata 
Vislmu has become the most prominent of the gods, and some 
of his incarnations are more or less distinctly noticed ; but it is 
in the Pura?ias that they receive their full development Ac- 
cording to the generally received account, the incarnations of 
Vislwu are ten in number, each of them being assumed by 
Vishnu, the great preserving power, to save the world from 
some great danger or trouble. 

i. Matsya, 'The fish/ This is an appropriation toYishwu 
of the ancient legend of the fish and the deluge, as related in 
the $atapatha Brahmana, and quoted above. The details of this 
Avatara vary slightly in different Piiraraas. The object of the 
incarnation was to save Vaivaswata, the seventh Manu, and 
progenitor of the human race, from destruction by a deluge. 
A small fish came into the hands of Manu and besought his 
protection. Ho carefully guarded it, and it grew rapidly until 


nothing but the ocean could contain it. Manu then recognised 
its divinity, and worshipped the deity Vislmu thus incarnate. 
The god apprised Manu of the approaching cataclysm, and "bade 
him prepare for it. When it came, Manu embarked in a ship 
with the -Bishis, and with the seeds of all existing things. 
Vishnu then appeared as the fish, with a most stupendous horn. 
The ship was bound to this horn with the great serpent as with 
a rope, and was secured in safety until the waters had subsided. 
The Bhagavata Purawa introduces a new feature. In one of 
the nights of Brahma, and during his repose, the earth and the 
other worlds were submerged in the ocean. Then the demon 
Haya-grlva drew near, and carried off the Yeda which had 
issued from Brahma's mouth. To recover the Veda thus lost, 
Vishnu assumed the form of a fish, and saved Manu as above > 
related. But this PuraT&a adds, that the fish instructed Manu 
and the jRisltis in " the true doctrine of the soul of the eternal 
Brahma;" and, when Brahma awoke at the end of this dis- 
solution of the universe, Vishnu slew Haya-griva and restored 
the Yeda to Brahma, 

2. Kurma. 'The tortoise.' The germ of this Avatara is found 
in the Satapatha Brahma^a, as above noticed. In its later and 
developed form, Vishnu appeared in the form of a tortoise in 
the Satya-yuga, or first age, to recover some things of value 
which, had been lost in the deluge. In the form of a tortoise 
he placed himself at the bottom of the sea of -milk,, and made 
his back the base or pivot of the mountain Mandara. The gods 
and demons twisted the great serpent Vasuki round the moun- 
tain, and, dividing into two parties, each took an end of the 
snake as a rope, and thus churned the sea until they recovered 
the desired objects. These jvere (i.) Amn'ta, the water of 
life; (2.) Dhanwantari, the physician of the gods and bearer of 
the cup of Amn'ta ; (3.) Lakshml, goddess of fortune and 
beauty, and consort of Vislmu ; (4.) Sura, goddess of wine ; 
(5.) Chandra, the moon; (6.) Eambha, a nymph, and pattern 
of a lovely and amiable woman; (7.) UchchaiA-sravas, a won- 
derful and model horse ; (8.) Kaustubha, a celebrated jewel ; 
(9.) Parijata, a celestial tree; (10.) Surabhi, the cow of plenty; 
(n.) Airavata, a wonderful model elephant; (12.) Sankha, a 
shell, the conch of victory; (13.) Dhanus, a famous bow; and 
(14.) Visha, poison. 


3. Yaraha. * The boar.' The old legend of the Brahmawas 
concerning the boar which raised the earth from the waters has 
been appropriated to YishraL A demon named HiraTiyaksha 
had dragged the earth to the bottom of the sea. To recover it 
Yishmi assumed the form of a boar, and after a contest of a 
thousand years he slew the demon and raised up the earth. 

4. Nara-sinha, or N?i-sinha. ' The man-lion.' Vishnu assumed 
this form to deliver the world from the tyranny of HiraTiya- 
kasipu, a demon who, by the favour of Brahma, had become 
invulnerable, and was secure from gods, men, and animals. This 
demon's son, named Prahlada, worshipped Yishmi, which so 
incensed his father that he tried to kill him, but his efforts were 
all in vain. Contending with his son as to the omnipotence and 
omnipresence of Vishnu, Hiranya-kasipu demanded to know if 
Yishwu was present in a stone pillar of the hall, and struck 
it violently. To avenge Prahlada, and to vindicate his own 
offended majesty, Vishnu came forth from the pillar as the 
Fara-sinha, half-man and half-lion, and tore the arrogant Baity a 
king to pieces. 

These four incarnations are supposed to have appeared in the 
Satya-yuga, or first age of the world 

5. Yamana. ' The dwarf.' The origin of this incarnation is 
"the three strides of Yislmu," spoken of in the l&g-veda, as 
before explained. In the Treta-yuga, or second age, the Daitya 
king Bali had, by his devotions and austerities, acquired the domi- 
nion of the three worlds, and the gods were shorn of their power 
and dignity. To remedy this, Yislmu was born as a diminutive 
son of Kasyapa and AditL The dwarf appeared before Bali, 
and begged of him as much land as he could step over in throe 
paces. The generous monarch complied with the request. 
Yislwu took two strides over heaven and earth ; but respecting 
the virtues of Bali, he then stopped, leaving the dominion of 
Patala, or the infernal regions, to Bali. 

The first five incarnations are thus purely mythological ; in 
the next- three we have the heroic element, and iu the ninth 
the religious. 

6. Parasu-rama, * Kama with the axe.' Born in the Treta, 
or second age, as son of the Brahman Jamadagni, to deliver the 
Brahman s from the arrogant dominion of the Kshatriyas. See 


7. Kama or Rama-chandra, f The moon-like or gentle Kama, 
the hero of the Kaniayam. He was the son of Dasaratha, king 
of Ayodhya, of the Solar race, and was born in the Treta-yuga, 
or second age, for the purpose of destroying the demon Kavamu 

8. Kn'shwa, * The black or dark coloured' This is the most 
popular of all the later deities, and has obtained such pre- 
eminence, that his votaries look upon him not simply as an 
incarnation, but as a perfect manifestation of Yishrcu. When 
Krishna is thus exalted to the full godhead, his elder brother, , 
Bala-rama takes his place as the eighth Avatara. See Krishna 
and Bala-rama. 

9. Buddha, The great success of Buddha as a religious 
teacher seems to have induced the Brahmans to adopt him as 
their own, rather than to recognise him as an adversary. So 
Yishmi is said to have appeared as Buddha to encourage demons 
and wicked men to despise the Yedas, reject caste, and deny the 
existence of the gods, and thus to effect their own destruction. 

10. Kalki or Kalkin. ' The white horse. 5 This incarnation 
of Yislmu is to appear at the end of the Kali or Iron Ago, 
seated on a white horse, with a drawn sword blazing like a 
comet, for the final destruction of the wicked, the renovation of 
creation, and the restoration of purity. 

The above are the usually recognised Avataras, but the number 
is sometimes extended, and the Bhagavata Purawa, which is the 
most fervid of all the Puranas in its glorification of Yislmu, 
enumerates twenty-two incarnations: (r.) Purusha, the male, 
the progenitor; (2.) Yaraha, the boar; (3.) Narada, the great 
sage; (4.) Kara and Naxayawa (q.v.); (5.) Kapila, the great 
sage; (6.) Dattatreya, a sage; (7.) Yajna, sacrifice; (8.) JBishabha, 
a righteous king, father of Bharata; (9.) Pnthu, a king; (10.) 
Matsya, the fish; (n.) Kiirma, the tortoise; (12 and 13.) 
Dhanwantari, the physician of the gods ; (14.) Nara-sinha, the 
man-lion; (15.) Yamana, the dwarf; (16.) Parasu-rama; (17.) 
Yeda-Yyasa; (18.) Kama; (19.) Bala-rama; (20.) Knslma; (21.) 
Buddha; (22.) KalkL But after this it adds "The incarna- 
tions of Yislmu are innumerable, like the rivulets flowing from- 
an inexhaustible lake. JMshis, Manus, gods, sons of Maims, 
Prajapatis, are all portions of him." 

AYATAE4JVA. An abode of the Kakshasas. 

AYODHYA. The modern Oude, The capital of Ikshwaku, 


fche founder of the Solar race, and afterwards the capital of 
Rama. It is one of the seven sacred cities. The exact site has 
not been discovered. 

AYUR-VEDA. "The Veda of life. 1 A work on medicine, 
attributed to Dhanwantari, and sometimes regarded as a supple- 
ment to the Atharva-veda. 

AYUS. The first-born son of Pururavas and Urvasi, and the 
father of Fahusha, Kshattra-vnddha, Rambha, Eaji, and Anenas. 

BABHRU-VAHAKA. Son of Arjuna by his wife Chitran- 
gada. He was adopted as the son of his maternal grandfather, 
and reigned at Mawipura as his successor. He dwelt there in a 
palace of great splendour, surrounded with wealth and signs of 
power. When Arjuna went to Ma^ipura with the horse intended 
for the Aswa-medha, there was a quarrel between Arjuna and 
King Babhru-vahana, and the latter killed his father with an 
arrow. Repenting of his deed, he determined to kill himself, 
but he obtained from his step-mother, the Naga princess Ulupl, 
a gem which restored Arjuna to life. He returned with his 
father to Hastinapura, The description of this combat has been 
translated from the Maha-bharata by Troyer in his B&ja 
Tarangi/nfc, tome i. p. 578. 

BADARAYAJVA. A name of Veda Vyasa, especially used 
for him as the reputed author of the Vedanta philosophy. He 
was the author of the Brahma Sutras, published in the Bibliotheca 

BADARI, BADARIKA/SGBAMA. A place sacred to Vishnu, 
near the Ganges in the Himalayas, particularly in Vishnu's dual 
form of Nara-Narayana. Thus, in the Maha-bharata, $iva, 
addressing Arjuna, says, " Thou wast Kara in a former body, 
and, with ISTarayana for thy companion, didst perform dreadful 
austerity at Badari for many myriads of years." It is now 
known as Badari-natha, though this is properly a title of Vishnu 
as lord of BadarL 

BAD AY A. * A mare, the submarine fire. 7 In mythology it 
is a flame with the head of a horse, called also Haya-siras, 
'horse-head.' See Aurva, 

BAHIKAS. People of the Panjab, so called in Pamni and 
the Maharbharata They are spoken of as being impure and out 
of the law. 

BAHTJ, BAHTJKA- A king of the Solar race, who was van- 


quished and driven out of his country by the tribes of Haihayaa 
and Talajanghas. He was father of Sagara. 

BAHUKA. The name of Nala when he was transformed 
into a dwarf. 

BAHULiS. The Knttikas or Pleiades. 

BAHY^JCHA. A priest or theologian of the .Kg-veda. 

BALA-BHADBA. See Bala-rama. 

BALA-GOPALA. The boy Krishna. 

BALA-BAMA. (Bala-bhadra and Bala-deva are other forms 
of this name,) The elder brother of Krishna, "When Krishna 
is regarded as a full manifestation of Vishnu, Bala-rama is 
recognised as the seventh Avatara or incarnation in his place, 
According to this view, which is the favourite one of the 
Vaislmavas, Krishna is a full divinity and Bala-rama an incar- 
nation ; but the story of their birth, as told in the Maha-bharata, 
places them more upon an equality. It says that Vishnu took 
two hairs, a white and a black one, and that these became Bala- 
rama and Krishna, the children of DevakL Bala-rama was of 
fair complexion, Krishna was very dark. As soon as Bala-rama 
was born, he was carried away to Gokula to preserve his life 
from the tyrant Kansa, and he was there nurtured by Nanda as 
a child of EohinL He and Krishna grew up together, and he 
took part in many of Krishna's boyish freaks and adventures. 
His earliest exploit was the killing of the great Asura Dhenuka, 
who had the form of an ass. This demon attacked him, but 
Bala-rama seized his assailant, whirled him round by his legs 
till he was dead, and cast his carcase into a tree. Another Asura 
attempted to carry off Bala-rama on his shoulders, but the boy 
beat out the demon's brains with his fists. When Krishna went 
to Mathura, Bala-rama accompanied him, and manfully supported 
him till Kansa was killed. Once, when Bala-rama was intoxicated, 
he called upon the Yamuna river to come to him, that he might 
bathe; but his command not being heeded, he plunged his 
ploughshare into the river, and dragged the waters whithersoever 
he went, until they were obliged to assume a human form and 
beseech his forgiveness. This action gained for him the title 
Yamuna-bhid and Kalindi-karshafta, breaker or dragger of the 
Yamuna. He killed Rukmin in a gambling brawl When 
Samba, son of Krishna, was detained as a prisoner at Hastinapur 
by Dur-yodhana, Bala-rama demanded his release, and, being 


refused, lie thrust his ploughshare tinder the ramparts of the 
city, and drew them towards him, thus compelling the Kaura- 
vas to give up their prisoner. Lastly, he killed the great ape 
Dwivida, who had stolen his weapons and derided him. 

Such are some of the chief incidents of the life of Bala-rama, 
as related in the Puranas, and as popular among the votaries of 
ELnshwa. In the Maha-bharata he has more of a human cha- 
racter. He taught both Dur-yodhana and Bhima the use of the 
mace. Though inclining to the side of the Paft^avas, he refused 
to take an active part either with them or the Kauravas. He 
witnessed the combat between Dur-yodhana and Bhima, and 
beheld the foul blow struck by the latter, which made him so 
indignant that he seized his weapons, and was with difficulty 
restrained by Knslma from falling upon the Pandavas. He 
died just before Knslma, as ho sat under a banyan tree in the 
outskirts of Dwaraka. 

Another view is held as to the origin of Bala-rama. Accord- 
ing to this he was an incarnation of the great serpent $esha, and 
when he died the serpent is said to have issued from his mouth. 

The " wine-loving " Bala-rama (Madhu-priya or Priya-madhu) 
was as much addicted to wine as his brother ELnslwa was 
devoted to the fair sex. He was also irascible in temper, and 
sometimes quarrelled even with Knslma : the Puranas represent 
them as having a serious difference about the Syamantaka jewel 
He had but one wife, Revati, daughter of King Raivata, and 
was faithful to her. By her ho had two sons, Nisatfha and 
TJlmuka. He is represented as of fair complexion, and, as Mla- 
vastra, clad in a dark-blue vest/ His especial weapons are a club 
(klietaka or saunanda), the ploughshare (hala), and the pestle 
(musala), from which ho is called Phala and Hala, also Hala- 
yudha, e plough-armed ; J Hala-bhnt, ' plough-bearer ;' Langali 
and Sankarshawa, < ploughman ; ' and Musali, 'pestle-holder/ 
As he has a palm for a banner, he is called Tala-dhwaja. Other 
of his appellations are Gupta-chara, 'who goes secretly;* Kam- 
pala and Sarnvartaka. 

BALA-BAMAYAJVA, A drama by Kaja-sekhara, It has been 

BALEYA. A descendant of Bali, a Daitya. 

BALITT. A northern country, Balkh. Said in the Haha- 
bharata to bo famous for its horses, as Balkh is to the present time. 


BALHIKAS, BAHLIKAS. "Always associated with the 
people of tlie north, west, and ultra-Indian provinces, and usually 
considered to represent the Bactrians or people of Balkh." Wilson. 

BALL A good and virtuous Daitya king. He was son of 
Virochana, son of Prahlada, son of Hira^ya-kasipu. His wife 
was YindhyavalL Through Ms devotion and penance he defeated 
Indra, humbled the gods, and extended Ms authority over the three 
worlds. The gods appealed to Vishrai for protection, and he be- 
came manifest in Ms Dwarf Avatara for the purpose of restrain- 
ing Bali. TMs dwarf craved from Bali the boon of three steps 
of ground, and, having obtained it, he stepped over heaven and 
earth in two strides ; but then, out of respect to Bali's kindness 
and Ms grandson PraMada's virtues, he stopped short, and left to 
him Patala, the infernal regions. Bali is also called Maha-bali, and 
his capital was Maha-bali-pura. The germ of the legend of the 
three steps is found in the .ffig-veda, where Vishnu is represented 
as taking three steps over earth, heaven, and the lower regions, 
typifying perhaps the rising, culmination, and setting of the 

BALI, BALIN. The monkey king of Kishkindhya, who was 
slain by Rama, and whose kingdom was given to Ms brother 
Su-griva, the friend and ally of Rama. He was supposed to be 
the son of Indra, and to have been born from the hair (bdla) of 
his mother, whence his name. His wife's name was Tara, and 
his sons Angada and Tara. 

BAJVA. A Daitya, eldest son of Bali, who had a thousand 
arms. He was a friend of Siva and enemy of Vishwu. His 
daughter tTsha fell in love with Aniruddha, the grandson of 
KnshTia, and had Mm conveyed to her by magic art. Kn'slma, 
Bala-rama, and Pradyumna went to the rescue, and were resisted 
by Bam, who was assisted by $iva and Skanda, god of war. 
Siva was overpowered by Krishna ; Skanda was wounded ; and 
the many arms of Bma were cut off by the missile weapons of 
Krishna. $iva then interceded for the life of Bana, and Knshwa 
granted it. He is called also Yairochi. 

BANGrA. Bengal, but not in the modern application. In 
ancient times Banga meant the districts north of the Bhaglrathi 
Jessore, Knshmgar, &c. See Ann. 

BARBARAS. JSTame of a people. " The analogy to ' bar- 
barians ' is not in sound only, but in all the authorities these are 


classed with borderers and foreigners and nations not Hindu." 

BAEHISHADS. A class of Pitns, who, when alive, kept 
up the household flame, and presented offerings with fire. Some 
authorities identify them with the months. Their dwelling is 
Vaibhraja-loka. See Pit?^s. 

BAUDHAYANA. A writer on Dharma-sastra or law. He 
was also the author of a Sutra work. 

BHADBJL Wife of Utathya (q.v.). 

BHADRACHARU. A son of Kriskwa and RukminL 

BHADRA-KALI Name of a goddess. In modern times 
it applies to Durgil 

BHADRA/SWA. i. A region lying to the east of Mem. 2. 
A celebrated horse, son of UchehaiA-sravas. 

BHAGA. A deity mentioned in the Vedas, but of ver^ 
indistinct personality and powers. He is supposed to bestow 
wealth and to preside over marriage, and he is classed among 
the Adityas and Yiswedevas. 

BHAGA-NETRA-GHNA (or -HAN). < Destroyer of the eyes 
of Bhaga.' An appellation of Siva. 

BHAGAYAD-GITi 'The song of the Divine One/ A 
celebrated episode of the Maha-bharata, in the form of a metrical 
dialogue, in which the divine Krishm is the chief speaker, and 
expounds to Arjuna his philosophical doctrines. The author of 
the work is unknown, but he " was probably a Brahman, and 
nominally a Yaishftava, but really a philosopher and thinker, 
whose mind was cast in a broad mould" This poem has been 
interpolated in the Malia-bharata, for it is of much later date 
lhan the body of that epic ; it is later also than the six Darsawas 
or philosophical schools, for it has received inspiration from 
them all, especially from the Sankhya, Yoga, and Yedanta. The 
second or third century A.D. has been proposed as the probable 
time of its appearance. Krishna, as a god, is a manifestation of 
Yishwi; but in this song, and in other places, he is held to 
be the supreme being. As man, he was related to both the 
Paw^avas and the Kauravas, and in the great war between these 
two families he refused to take up arms on either side. But he 
consented to act as the Pa^ava Arjuna's charioteer. When 
the opposing hosts were drawn up in array against each other, 
Arjuna, touched with compunction for the approaching slaughter 


of kindred and friends, appeals to Kn'shna for guidance. Thia 
gives the occasion for the philosophical teaching. " The poem 
is divided into three sections, each containing six chapters, the 
philosophical teaching in each being somewhat distinct/ 7 but 
" undoubtedly the main design of the poem, the sentiments 
expressed in which have exerted a powerful influence throughout 
India for the last 1600 years, is to inculcate the doctrine of 
Bhakti (faith), and to exalt the duties of caste above all other 
obligations, including those of friendship and kindred." So 
Arjuna is told to do his duty as a soldier without heeding the 
slaughter of friends. " In the second division of the poem the 
Pantheistic doctrines of the Yedanta are more directly inculcated 
than in the other sections. Krishna here, in the plainest lan- 
guage, claims adoration as one with the great universal spirit 
pervading and constituting the universe." The language of this 
poem is exceedingly beautiful, and its tone and sentiment of a 
very lofty character, so that they have a striking effect even in 
the prose translation. It was one of the earliest Sanskrit works 
translated into English by Wilkins but a much more perfect 
translation, with an excellent introduction, has since been pub- 
lished by Mr. J. Cockburn Thompson, from which much of the 
above has been borrowed. There are several other translations 
in French, German, &c. 

BHAGAVATA PURAJVA The Pura^a "in which ample 
details of duty are described, and which opens with (an extract 
from) the Gayatri that in which the death of the Asura Vn'tra 
is told, and in which the mortals and immortals of the Saras wata 
Kalpa, with the events that then happened to them in the 
world, are related, that is celebrated as the Bhagavata, and 
consists of 18,000 verses." Such is the Hindu description of 
this work. " The Bhagavata," says "Wilson, " is a work of great 
celebrity in India, and exercises a more direct and powerful 
influence upon the opinions and feelings of the people than 
perhaps any other of the Puranas. It is placed lifth in all the 
lists, but the Padrna ranks it as the eighteenth, as the extracted 
substance of all the rest. According to the usual specification, 
it consists of 18,000 slokas, distributed amongst 332 chapters, 
divided into twelve skandhas or books. It is named Bhagavata 
from its being dedicated to the glorification of Bhagavata or 
Vishnu." The most popular and characteristic part of this 


Purawa is the tenth book, which narrates in detail the history 
of Krishna, and has "been translated into perhaps all the ver- 
nacular languages of India. Colebrooke concurs in the opinion 
of many learned Hindus that this PuraTia is the composition of 
the grammarian Vopadeva, who lived about six or seven cen- 
turies ago at the court of Hemadri, Eaja of Deva-giri (Deogurh 
or Daulatabad), and "Wilson sees no reason for calling in 
question the tradition which assigns the work to this writer. 
This Purana has been translated into French by Burnouf, and 
has been published with the text in three volumes folio, and 
in other forms. 

BHAGIEATEL The Ganges. The name is derived from 
Bhaglratha, a descendant of Sagara, whose austerities induced 
Siva to allow the sacred river to descend to the earth for the 
purpose of bathing the ashes of Sagara's sons, who had been 
consumed by the wrath of the sage Kapila. Bhaglratha named 
the river Sagara, and after leading it over the earth to the sea, 
he conducted it to Patala, where the ashes of his ancestors were 
laved with its waters and purified. 

BHAIEAVA (mas.), BHAIEAYl (fern.). 'The terrible/ 
Names of Siva and his wife Devi. The Bhairavas are eight in- 
ferior forms or manifestations of Siva, all of them of a terrible 
character: (r.) Asitanga, black limbed; (2.) Sanhara, destruc- 
tion; (3.) KUTU, a dog; (4.) Kala, black; (5.) Ivrodha, anger; 
(6.) Tamra-chu$i, red crested; (7.) Chandra-chu^a, moon crested ; 
(8.) Maha, great. Other names are met with as variants : Ka- 
pala, Rudra, Bhishawa, Un-matta, Ku-pati, &c. In these forms 
Siva often rides upon a dog, wherefore he is called Swaswa, 
'whose horse is a dog.' 

BHAMATL A gloss on Sankara's commentary upon the 
Brahma Sutras by Vacliaspati Mm'a. It is in course of publi- 
cation in the Biblioiheca Indica. 

BHANUMATI Daughter of Bhanu, a Yadava chief, who 
was abducted from her home in Dwaraka, during the absence of 
her father, by the demon JSfikumbha. 

BHAEAD WAJA. A J^shi to whom many Vedic hymns are 
attributed. He was the son of Bnhaspati and father of Drowa, 
the preceptor of the Paw^avas. The Taittiiiya Brahma^a says 
that "he lived through three lives" (probably meaning a life of 
great length), and that "he became immortal and ascended to 


the heavenly world, to union "with the sun." In. the Maha* 
bharata he is represented as living at Hardwar ; in the Eamayawa 
he received Eama and Sita in his hermitage at Prayaga, "which 
was then and afterwards much celebrated. According to some 
of the Pura?ms and the Hari-vansa, he became by gift or adop- 
tion the son of King Bharata, and an absurd story is told about 
his birth to account for his name : His mother, the wife of 
Utathya, was pregnant by her husband and by Bnhaspati. 
Dirgha-tamas, the son by her husband, kicked his half-brother 
out of the womb before his time, when Bnhaspati said to his 
mother, * Bhara-dwarjam/ ' Cherish this child of two fathers.' 

BHAEADWAJA. i. Drorca. 2. Ajay descendant of Bharad* 
waja or follower of his teaching. 3. Name of a grammarian and 
author of Sutras. 

BHAEATA. i. A hero and king from whom the warlike 
people called Bharatas, frequently mentioned in the .ffig-veda, 
were descended The name is mixed up with that of Yiswami- 
tra. Bharata's sons were called Viswamitras and Viswamitra's 
sons were called Bharatas. 

2. An ancient king of the first Manwantara. He was 
devoted to Yish?ra, and abdicated his throne that he might 
continue constant in meditation upon him. "While at his 
hermitage, he went to bathe in the river, and there saw a doe 
big with young frightened by a lion. Her fawn, which was 
brought forth suddenly, fell into the water, and the sage rescued 
it He brought the animal up, and becoming excessively fond 
of it, his abstraction was interrupted. " In the course of time 
he died, watched by the deer with tears in its eyes, like a son 
mourning for his father ; and he himself, as he expired, cast his 
eyes upon the deer and thought of nothing else, being wholly 
occupied with one idea." For this misapplied devotion he was 
born again as a deer with the faculty of recollecting his former 
life. In this form he lived an austere retired life, and having 
atoned for his former error, was born again as a Brahman, lint 
his person was ungainly, and he looked like a crazy idiot. He 
discharged servile offices, and was a palankin bearer; but he 
had true wisdom, and discoursed deeply upon philosophy and 
the power of Yishm Finally he obtained exemption from 
future birtL This legend is " a sectarial graft upon a Pauranik 


3. Son of Dasaratha by his wife Kaikeyi, and half-brother 
of Kama-chandxa. He was educated by his mother's father, 
Aswa-pati, king of Kekaya, and married Ma^avi, the cousin 
of Sita. His mother, through maternal fondness, brought 
about the exile of Rama, and endeavoured to secure her own 
son's succession to the throne, but Bharata refused to supplant 
his elder brother. On the death of his father Bharata per- 
formed the funeral rites, and went after Kama with a complete 
army to bring him back to Ayodhya and place him on the throne. 
He found Kama at Chitra-kufo, and there was a generous con- 
tention between them as to which should reign. Kama refused 
to return until the period of his exile was completed, and 
Bharata declined to be king; but he returned to Ayodhya 
as Kama's representative, and setting up a pair of Rama's 
shoes as a mark of his authority, Bharata ruled the country in. 
his brother's name. " He destroyed thirty millions of terrible 
gandharvas " and made himself master of their country. 

4. A prince of the Puru branch of the Lunar race. Bharata 
was son of Dushyanta and $akuntala. Ninth in descent from 
him came Kuru, and fourteenth from Kuru came $antanu. 
This king had a son named Yichitra-virya, who died child- 
less, leaving two widows. Kn'slma Dwaipayana was natural 
brother to Yichitra-vlrya. Under the law he raised up seed to 
his brother from the widows, whose sons were Dhnta-rashfra 
and Pa?wu, between whose descendants, the Kauravas and 
Pan^avas, the great war of the Maha-bharata was fought. 
Through their descent from Bharata, these princes, but more 
especially the Pa^avas, were called Bharatas. 

5. A sage who is the reputed inventor of dramatic entertain- 

6. A name borne by several others of less note than the 

BHAKATA. A descendant of Bharata, especially one of the 
P&ndu princes. 

BHAKATA- YAKSHA. India, as having been the kingdom 
of Bharata, It is divided into nine Klitmd&s or parts ; Indra- 
dwipa, Kaserumat, Tamra-vama, Gabhastimat, Itfaga-dwlpa, 
aumya, Gandharva, Yarafta. 

BHAKATL A name of SaraswatL 

BHAKGAYA* A descendant of Bhngu, aa Chyavana, $au 


naka, Jamad-agni, but more especially used for the latter and 

BHAETJ3/-HAEL A celebrated poet and grammarian, who 
is said to have been the brother of Yikramaditya. He wrote 
three $atakas or Centuries of verses, called (i.) jSnngara-sataka, 
on amatory matters; (2.) Niti-sataka, on polity and ethics; (3.) 
Yairagya-sataka, on religious austerity. These maxims are said to 
have been written when he had taken to a religious life after a 
licentious youth. He was also author of a grammatical work of 
high repute called Yakya-padiya, and the poem called Bha^i- 
kavya is by some attributed to him. The moral verses were 
translated into [French so long ago as 1670. A note at the end 
of that translation says, " Trad, par le Brahmine Padmanaba en 
namand et du flamand en franc, ais par Th. La Grue." The text 
with a Latin translation was printed by S chief ner and Weber. 
There is a translation in German by Bohlen and Schiitz, in 
.French by Fauche, and of the erotic verses by Eegnaud; in 
English by Professor Tawney in the Indian Antiquary. 

BHASHA-PAEICHCHHEDA. An exposition of the Nyaya 
philosophy. There are several editions. 

BHASKAEACHAEYA. (Bhaskara + Acharya.) A cele- 
brated mathematician and astronomer, who was born early in 
the eleventh century A.D. He was author of the Bija-gamta on 
arithmetic, the Lilavati on algebra, and the Siddhanta fiiromawi 
on astronomy. It has been claimed for Bhaskara that he " was 
fully acquainted with the principle of the Differential Calculus." 
This claim Dr. Spottiswoode considers to be overstated, but he 
observes of Bhaskara : " It must be admitted that the penetration 
shown by Bhaskara in his analysis is in the highest degree 
remarkable ; that the formula which he establishes, and his 
method of establishing it, bear more than a mere resemblance 
they bear a strong analogy to the corresponding process in 
modern astronomy ; and that the majority of scientific persons 
will learn with surprise the existence of such a method in the 
writings of so distant a period and so distant a region." Jour. 
R. A. 8., 1859. 

BHATTACHAEYA. See Kumarila Bhafta, 

BHAjPTI-KAYYA A poem on the actions of Eama by 
Bha^i It is of a very artificial character, and is designed to 
illustrate the laws of grammar and the figures of poetry and 


rhetoric. The text has been printed with a commentary, and 
part has been translated into German by Schiitz. 

BHAUMA. Son of Bhumi (the earth). A metronymic ol 
the Daitya Naraka. 

BEAUTYA. The fourteenth Mann. See Mann. 

BHAYA. i. A Yedic deity often mentioned in connection 
with Sarva the destroyer. 2. A name of Eudra or Siva, or of 
a manifestation of that god. See Eudra. 

BHAYA-BHUTL A celebrated dramatist, the author of 
three of the best extant Sansknt dramas, the Maha-vlra Charita, 
TJttara Eama Charita, and Malati Madhava. He was also 
known as Sri-kan/ha, or 'throat of eloquence.' He was a Bruh- 
man, and was a native either of Beder or Berar, but Ujjayini or 
its neighbourhood would seem, from his vivid descriptions of the 
scenery, to have been the place of his residence. The eighth 
century is the period at which he flourished. His three plays 
have been translated by Wilson in blank verse, who says of 
Malati Madhava, " The author is fond of an unreasonable display 
of learning, and occasionally substitutes the phraseology of 
logic or metaphysics for the language of poetry and nature. At 
the same time the beauties predominate over the defects, and 
the language of the drama is in general of extraordinary beauty 
and power." 

BHAYISHYA PUEA.ZVA. "This Purarca, as its name im- 
plies, should be a book of prophecies foretelling what will be." 
The copies discovered contain about 7000 stanzas. The work 
is far from agreeing with the declared character of a Puram, 
and is principally a manual of rites and ceremonies. Its deity 
is /Siva. There is another work, containing also about 7000 
verses, called the Bhavishyottara Puram, a name which would 
imply that " it was a continuation or supplement of the former," 
and its contents are of a similar character. Wilson. 


BHAWlNl One of the names of the wife of Siva. .See 

BHELA. An ancient sage who wrote upon medicine. 

BHIKSHU. A mendicant. The Brahman in the fourth 
and last stage of his religious life. See Brahman. 

Any mendicant, especially, in its Pali form, Bhikkhu, a Bud- 
dhist mendicant. 

50 BHIMA. 

BHIMA, BHIMA-SENA. 'The terrible,' The second of 
the five Paftrfu princes, and mythically son of Vayu, ' the god of 
the wind,' He was a man of vast size, and had great strength, 
He was wrathful in temper, and given to abuse, a brave warrior, 
but a fierce and cruel foe, coarse in taste and manners, and a 
great feeder, so that he was called Vrikodara, ' wolf's belly. 5 
Half of the food of the family was allotted to him, and the other 
half sufficed for his four brothers and their mother. The weapon 
he generally used was a club, which suited his gigantic strength, 
and he had been trained in the use of it by Drowa and Bala- 
rama. His great strength excited the envy of his cousin Dur- 
yodhana, who poisoned him and threw his body into the 
Ganges ; but it sank to the realm of the serpents, where it waa 
restored to health and vigour, and Bhima returned to Hastina- 
pura. At the passage of arms at Hastinapura, he and Dur- 
yodhana engaged each other with clubs ; but the mimic combat 
soon turned into a fierce personal conflict, which Drowa had to 
put an end to by force. It was at this same meeting that he 
reviled Karwa, and heaped contempt upon him, increasing and 
converting into bitter hatred the enmity which Kama had pre- 
viously entertained against the Paraiavas. When he and his 
brothers were in exile, and an attempt was made, at the instiga- 
tion of Dur-yodhana, to burn them in their house, it was he who 
barricaded the house of Purochana, the director of the plot, and 
burnt hi-m as he had intended to burn them. Soon after this 
ne met the Asura Hi(&mba, whom he killed, and then married 
his sister Hicftmba He also slew another Asura named Vaka, 
whom he seized by the legs and tore asunder ; afterwards he 
killed his brother, Kirmlra, and other Asuras. This brought the 
Asuras to submission, and they engaged to refrain from molest- 
ing mankind. After the Pan<$u princes were established at 
Indraprastha, Bhima fought in single combat with Jarasandha, 
king of Magadha, who had refused to recognise their supremacy. 
As ' son of the wind/ Bhima was brother of Hanuman, and was 
able to fly with great speed. By this pWer of flight, and with 
the help of Hanuman, he made his way to Kuvera's heaven, 
high up in the Himalayas. When Jayadratha failed in his 
attempt to carry off DraupadI, he was pursued by Arjuna and 
Bhima. The latter overtook him,, dragged hi-m by the hair from 
his chariot to the ground, and kicked him till he became sense 

BHIMA. 51 

less. At Arjuna's remonstrance Bhima refrained from killing 
him ; but lie cut off all his hair except five locks, and compelled 
him to acknowledge publicly that he was the slave of the 
Pa?wavas. BhTma refused to listen to his brother's plea for 
Jayadratha's release, but at Draupadi's intercession he let him 
go free. In the second exile of the Pawdtavas, they went to the 
Raja of Virata, whose service they entered Bhima, holding a 
ladle in one hand and a sword in the other, undertook the duties 
of cook ; but he soon exhibited his prowess by righting with and 
killing a famous wrestler named Jimuta. Draupadi had entered 
into the service of the queen as a waiting-maid, and attracted 
the admiration of the king's brother-in-law, Kichaka. When she 
rejected his advances, he insulted and brutally assaulted her. 
Her husbands did not seem disposed to avenge her, so she 
appealed to Bhima, as she was wont when she sought revenge. 
Draupadi made an assignation with Kichaka, which Bhima kept, 
and after a sharp struggle with the disappointed gallant, he 
broke his bones to atoms, and made his body into a large ball 
of flesh, so that no one could tell how he had been killed or 
who had killed him. Draupadi was judged to have had a share 
in his death, and was condemned to be burnt alive ; but Bhima 
drew his hair over his face, so that no one could recognise him, 
and, tearing up a large tree for a club, he rushed to the rescue. 
He was taken for a mighty Gandharva, the crowd fled, and 
Draupadi was released Kichaka had been the general of the 
forces of Tirana and the mainstay of the king. After his death, 
Su-sarman, king of Trigartta, aided and abetted by the Kauravas 
and others, determined to attack Tirana. The Raja of Virata 
was defeated and made prisoner, but Bhima pursued Su-sarman 
and overcame him, rescued the prisoner, and made the conqueror 
captive. In the great battle between the Kauravas and PawZa- 
vas, Bhima took a very prominent part. On the first day he 
fought against Bhishma ; on the second he slew the two sons of 
the Raja of Magadha, and after them their father, killing him 
and his elephant at a single blow. In the night between the 
fourteenth and fifteenth day of the battle, Bhima fought with 
Drofta until the rising of the sun ; but that redoubted warrior 
fell by the hand of Dhnshta-dyumna, who continued the combat 
till noonday. On the seventeenth day he killed Duh-sasana, 
and drank his blood, as he had long before vowed to do, in 

52 BHIMA. 

retaliation of the insults Duh-sasana had offered to Draupadl 
On the eighteenth and last day of the battle Dur-yodhana fled 
and hid himself in a lake. "When he was discovered, he would 
not come out until he had received a promise that he should not 
have to fight with more than one man at a time. Even then 
he delayed until he was irritated by the ahuse and the taunts 
of the PaTfcdavas. Bhima and Dur-yodhana fought as usual 
with clubs. The battle was long and furious ; the parties were 
equally matched, and Bhima was getting the worst of it, when 
he struck an unfair blow which smashed Dur-yodhana ? s thigh, 
and brought him to the ground. Thus he fulfilled his vow and 
avenged Draupadl. In his fury Bhima kicked his prostrate 
foe on the head, and acted so brutally that his brother Yudhi- 
sh^hira struck him in the face with his fist, and directed Arjuna 
to take him away. Bala-rama was greatly incensed at the foul 
play to which Bhima had resorted, and would have attacked 
the Paw^avas had he not been mollified by Krishna. He de- 
clared that Bhima should thenceforward be called Jihma-yodhin, 
* the unfair fighter.' After the conclusion of the war, the old 
king, Dhnta-rashfra, asked that Bhima might be brought to him. 
BLnshTia, who knew the blind old man's sorrow for his son, 
whom Bhima had killed, and suspecting his intention, placed 
before him an iron statue, which Dhnta-rashfaa crushed in his 
embrace. Dhrtta-rashfra never forgave Bhlina, and he returned 
the ill feeling with insults, which ended in the old king's retir- 
ing into the forest Bhima's last public feat was the slaughter 
of the horse in the sacrifice which followed Yudhi-sh^hira's 
accession to the throne. Apart from his mythological attributes, 
the character of Bhima is natural and distinct A man of burly 
form, prodigious strength, and great animal courage, with coarse 
tastes, a gluttonous appetite, and an irascible temper ; jovial and 
jocular when in good humour, but abusive, truculent, and brutal 
when his passions were rousecL His repartees were forcible though 
coarse, and he held his own even against Knshm when the 
latter made personal remarks upon hrm T See Maha-bharata. 

By his Asura wife Hi^imba he had a son named Ghafotkacha ; 
and by his wife Balandhara, princess of Kasi, he also had a son 
named Sarvatraga or Sarvaga. Other appellations of Bhima are 
Bhima-sena, Bahu-salin, ' the large armed/ Jarasandha-jit, * van- 
quisher of Jarasandha/ 


BHIMA. Name of the father of DamayantL A name of 
Rudra or of one of his personifications. See Rudra. 

the twelve great Lingas. See Linga. 

BHlMA-SENA. A name of Bhima. 

BHlSHMA. ' The terrible/ Son of King Santanu by the 
holy river goddess Ganga, and hence called $antanava, Gangeya, 
and Nadi-ja, 'the river-born.' When King $antanu was very 
old he desired to marry a young and beautiful wife. His son 
$antanava or Bhishma found a suitable damsel, but her parents 
objected to the marriage because Bhishma was heir to the throne, 
and if she bore sons they could not succeed To gratify his 
father's desires, he made a vow to the girl's parents that he 
would never accept the throne, nor marry a wife, nor become 
the father of children. $antanu then married the damsel, whose 
name was Satyavati, and she bore him two sons. At the death 
of his father, Bhishma placed the elder son upon the throne, but 
he was headstrong and was soon killed in battle. The other 
son, named Vichitra-viryya, then succeeded, and Bhishma acted 
as his protector and adviser. By force of arms Bhishma obtained 
two daughters of the king of Kasi and married them to Vichitra- 
viryya, and when that prince died young and childless, Bhishma 
acted as guardian of his widows. By Bhishma's arrangement, 
Krishna Dwaipayana, who was born of Satyavati before her 
marriage, raised up seed to his half-brother. The two children 
were Pawdu and Dhnta-rashfra, Bhishma brought them up and 
acted for them as regent of Hastina-pura. He also directed the 
training of their respective children, the Pandavas and Kauravas. 
On the rupture taking place between the rival families, Bhishma 
counselled moderation and peace. When the war began he 
took the side of the Kauravas, the sons of Dhnta-rashfra, and 
he was made commander-in-chief of their army. He laid down 
some rules for mitigating the horrors of war, and he stipulated 
that he should not be called upon to fight against Arjuna. 
Goaded by the reproaches of Dur-yodhana, he attacked Arjuna 
on the tenth day of the battle. He was unfairly wounded by 
$ikhandin, and was pierced with innumerable arrows from the 
hands of. Arjuna, so that there was not a space of two fingers' 
breadth left unwounded in his whole body, and when he fell 
from his chariot he was upheld from the ground by the 
arrows and lay as on a couch of darts. He was mortally 


wounded, but he had obtained the power of fixing the period 
of his death, so he survived fifty-eight days, and delivered 
several long didactic discourses. Bhishma exhibited through- 
out his life a self-denial, devotion, and fidelity which remained 
unsullied to the last. He is also known by the appellation 
Tarparaechchhu, and as Tala-ketu, ( palm banner.' See Maha- 

BHISHMAKA. i. An appellation of iva. 2. King of 
Vidarbha, father of Kukmin and of Kukmini, the chief wife of 

BHOGAVATL < The voluptuous.' The subterranean capital 
of the Nagas in the Naga-loka portion of Patala, Another name 
is Put-karL 

BHOJA. A name borne by many kings. Host conspicuous 
among them was Bhoja or Bhoja-deva, king of Dhar, who is said 
to have been a great patron of literature, and probably died 
before 1082 A.D. 2. A prince of the Yadava race who reigned 
at Mnttikavati on the Parwasa river in Malwa; he is called 
also Maha-bhoja. 3. A tribe living in the Vindhya mountains. 
4. A country ; the modern Bhojpur, Bhagalpur, &c. 

BHOJA-PBABANDHA. A collection of literary anecdotes 
relating to King Bhoja of Dhar, written by Ballala. The text 
has been lithographed by Pavie. 

BILK/GIL A Vedic sage. He is one of the Prajapatis and 
great .Z&shis, and is regarded as the founder of the race of the 
Bhrigus or Bhargavas, in which was born Jamad-agni and Parasu 
Kama. Manu calls him son, and says that he confides to him 
liis Institutes. According to the Maha-bharata he officiated afc 
Daksha's celebrated sacrifice, and had his beard pulled out by 
$iva. The same authority also tells the following story : It is 
related of Bhngu that he rescued the sage Agastya from the 
tyranny of King Nahusha, who had obtained superhuman 
power. Bhngu crept into Agastya's hair to avoid the potent 
glance of Nahusha, and when that tyrant attached Agastya to 
his chariot and kicked him on the head to make him move, 
Bhngu cursed Nahusha, and he was turned into a serpent. 
Bhngu, on Kahusha's supplication, limited the duration of his 

In the Padma Purana it is related that the jK^shis, assembled 
at a sacrifice, disputed as to which deity was best entitled to the 


homage of a Brahman, Being unable to agree, they resolved to 
send Bhrtgu to test the characters of the various gods, and he 
accordingly went. He could not obtain access to $iva because 
that deity was engaged with his wife ; " finding him, therefore, 
to consist of the property of darkness, Bhngu sentenced him to 
take the form of the Linga, and pronounced that he should have 
no offerings presented to him, nor receive the worship of the 
pious and respectable. His next visit was to Brahma, whom he 
beheld surrounded by sages, and so much inflated with his own 
importance as to treat Bhngu with great inattention, betraying 
his being made up of foulness. The Muni therefore excluded 
him from the worship of the Brahmans. Eepairing next to 
Vishnu, he found the deity asleep, and, indignant at his seeming 
sloth, Bhngu stamped upon his breast with his left foot and 
awoke him ; instead of being offended, Vishnu gently pressed 
the Brahman's foot and expressed himself honoured and made 
happy by its contact ; and Bhn'gu, highly pleased by his humi- 
lity, and satisfied of his being impersonated goodness, proclaimed 
Vislmu as the only being to be worshipped by men or gods, in 
which decision the Munis, upon Bhr/gu's report, concurred." 

BH.&/GUS. 'Roasters, consumers.' "A class of mythical 
beings who belonged to the middle or aerial class of gods." 
Both. They are connected with Agni, and are spoken of as 
producers and nourishers of fire, and as makers of chariots. 
They are associated with the Angirasas, the Atharvans, Bib- 
hus, &c. 

BHtJ, BHtJML The earth. See PnthivL 

BHlTR See Vyahnti. 

BHUKI-SRAVAS. A prince of the BaMkas and an ally of 
the Kauravas, who was killed in the great battle of the Maha- 

BHUR-LOKA. See Loka, 

BHtJTA A ghost, imp, goblin. Malignant spirits which 
haunt cemeteries, lurk in trees, animate dead bodies, and delude 
and devour human beings. According to the Vishnu Purana 
they are " fierce beings and eaters of flesh," who were created by 
the Creator when he was incensed. In the Vayu Purana theii 
mother is said to have been Krodha, 'anger.' The Bhutas aw 
attendants of Siva, and he is held to be their king. 


BHtJTESA, BHUTESWAEA. 'Lord of beings or of 
created things.' A name applied to Vishnu, Brahma, and 
Enshwa; as 'lord of the Bhutas or goblins/ it is applied to 

BEUVANESWAEA, A ruined city in Orissa, sacred to 
the worship of Siva, and containing the remains of several 
temples. It was formerly called Ekamra-kanana. 

BHUVAE. See Yyahriti. 


BlBHATSU. l Loathing.' An appellation of Arjuna, 

BIKDUSAEA, The son and successor of Chandra-gupta, 

BEAEIMA, BEAHMAN (neuter). The supreme soul of the 
universe, self-existent, absolute, and eternal, from which all things 
emanate, and to which all return. This divine essence is incor- 
poreal, immaterial, invisible, unborn, uncreated, without begin- 
ning and without end, illimitable, and inappreciable by the sense 
until the film of mortal blindness is removed It is all-pervading 
and infinite in its manifestations, in all nature, animate and in- 
animate, in the highest god and in the meanest creature. This 
supreme soul receives no worship, but it is the object of that 
abstract meditation which Hindu sages practise in order to 
obtain absorption into it, It is sometimes called Kala-hansa, 

There is a passage in the $atapatha Brahma?ia which repre- 
sents Brahma (neut.) as the active creator. See Brahma, 

The Veda is sometimes called Brahma. 

BEAEMA (masculine). The foist member of the Hindu 
triad; the supreme spirit manifested as the active creator of 
the universe, He sprang from the mundane egg deposited by 
the supreme first cause, and is the Prajapati, or lord and father 
of all creatures, and in the first place of the jRishis or Praja- 

When Brahma has created the world it remains unaltered for 
one of his days, a period of 2, 160,000,000 years, The world and 
all that is therein is then consumed by fire, but the sages, gods, 
and elements survive. When he awakes he again restores crea- 
tion, and this process is repeated until his existence of a hundred 
years is brought to a close, a period which it requires fifteen 
figures to express. When this period is ended he himself expires, 
and he and all the gods and sages, and the whole universe are 
resolved into their constituent elements. His name is invoked 


in religious services, but Pushkara (hodie Pokhar), near Ajmir, 
is the only place where he receives worship, though Professor 
Williams states that he has heard of homage being paid to him 
at Idar. 

Brahma is said to be of a red colour. He has four heads ; 
originally he had five, but one was burnt off by the fire of iva's 
central eye because he had spoken disrespectfully. Hence he is 
called Chatur-anana or Chatur-mukha, ' four-faced, 3 and Ash/a- 
karrca, c eight-eared. 3 He has four arms ; and in his hands he 
holds his sceptre, or a spoon, or a string of beads, or his bow 
Parivita, or a water jug, and the Veda. His consort is Saraswati, 
goddess of learning, also called Brahml His vehicle is a swan 
or goose, from which he is called Hansa-vahana. His residence 
is called Brahma-vraida. 

The name Brahma is not found in the Vedas and BrahmaTias, 
in which the active creator is known as Hira^ya-garbha, Praja- 
pati, &c. ; but there is a curious passage in the $atapatha Brah- 
mawa which says : " He (Brahma, neuter) created the gods. 
Having created the gods, he placed them in these worlds : in this 
world Agni, Vayu in the atmosphere, and Surya in the sky." 
Two points connected with Brahma are remarkabla As the 
father of men he performs the work of procreation by incestuous 
intercourse with his own daughter, variously named Vach or 
Saraswati (speech), Sandhya (twilight), jSata-rupa (the hundred- 
formed), &c. Secondly, that his powers as creator have been 
arrogated to the other gods Vishnu and $iva, while Brahma has 
been thrown into the shade. In the Aitareya Brahmawa it is said 
that Prajapati was in the form of a buck and his daughter was 
Kohit, a deer. According to the $atapatha Brahmana and Manu, 
the supreme soul, the self-existent lord, created the waters and 
deposited in them a seed, which seed became a golden egg, in 
which he himself was born as Brahma, the progenitor of all the 
worlds. As the waters ( were " the place of his movement, 
he (Brahma) was called NarayaTwu" Here the name Narayana is 
referred distinctly to Brahma, but it afterwards became the name 
of Vishmi. The account of the Kamaya^a is that " all was water 
only, in which tfte earth was formed. Thence arose Brahma, the 
self-existent, with the deities. He then, becoming a boar, raised 
up the earth and created the whole world with the saints, his 
sons. Brahma, eternal and perpetually undecaying, sprang from 


the ether ; from him -was descended MarichI ; the son of Marichi 
was Kasyapa. From Kasyapa sprang Vivas wat, and Mann is 
declared to have "been Vivaswat's son." A later recension of 
this poem alters this passage so as to make Brahma a mere 
manifestation of Vishnu. Instead of " Brahma, the self-exis- 
tent, with the deities," it substitutes for the last three words, 
"the imperishable Vishnu." The Vishnu Purana says that the 
" divine Brahma called Narayana created all beings," that Pra- 
japati "had formerly, at the commencement of the (previous) 
kalpas, taken the shape of a fish, a tortoise, &c., (so now), 
entering the body of a boar, the lord of creatures entered the 
water." But this "lord of creatures" is clearly shown to b'e 
Vishnu, and these three forms, the fish, the tortoise, and the boar, 
are now counted among the Avataras of Vishnu. (See Avatara.) 
This attribution of the form of a boar to Brahma (Prajapati) 
had been before made by the Satapatha Brahmana, which also 
says, " Having assumed the form of a tortoise, Prajapati created 
offspring." The Linga Purana is quite exceptional among the 
later works in ascribing the boar form to Brahma. The Maha- 
bharata represents Brahma as springing from the navel of 
Vishnu or from a lotus which grew thereout ; hence he is called 
ISTabhi-ja, c navel-born ;' Kanja, ' the lotus ;' Sarojin, 'having a 
lotus;' Abja-ja, Abja-yoni, and Kanja-ja, ( lotus-born.' This 
is, of course, the view taken by the Vaishnavas. The same 
statement appears in the Eamayana, although this poem gives 
Brahma a more prominent place than usual It represents 
Brahma as informing Rama of his divinity, and of his calling 
him to heaven in " the glory of Vishnu. 1 ' He bestowed boons 
on Kama while that hero was on earth, and he extended his 
favours also to Kavana and other Bakshasas who were descen- 
dants of his son Pulastya, In the Puranas also he appears as a 
patron of the enemies of the gods, and it was by his favour that 
the Daitya King Bali obtained that almost universal dominion 
which required the incarnation of Vishnu as the dwarf to repress. 
He is further represented in the Kamayana as the creator of the 
beautiful Ahalya, whom he gave as wife to the sage Gautama. 
Brahma, being thus inferior to Vishnu, is represented as giving 
homage and praise to Vishnu himself and to his form Krishna, 
but the Vaishnava authorities make him superior to Eudra, 
who, they say, sprang from his forehead. The Saiva authorities 


make Maha-deva or Rudra to be the creator of Brahma, and 
represent Brahma as worshipping the Linga and as acting as 
the charioteer of Rudra. 

Brahma was the father of Daksha, who is said to have sprung 
from his thumb, and he was present at the sacrifice of that 
patriarch, which was rudely disturbed by Rudra. Then he had 
to humbly submit and appease the offended god. The four 
Kumaras, the chief of whom was called Sanat-kumara or by the 
patronymic Yaidhatra, were later creations or sons of Brahma. 

Brahma is also called Yidhi, Yedhas, Druhina, and SrashW, 
'creator;' Dhatn and Yidhatn, 'sustainer;' Pitamaha, 'the 
great father ; ' Lokesa, * lord of the world ; ' Paramesh/a, 
* supreme in heaven ; * Sanat, i the ancient ; ' Adi-kavi, ' the 
first poet ; ; and DruL-ghawa, 'the axe or mallet.' 

BRAHMACHARI. The Brahman student. See Brahman. 

BRAHMADIKAS. The Prajapatis (q.v.). 

BRAHMA -GUPTA. An astronomer who composed the 
Brahma-gupta Siddhanta in A*D. 628. 


BRAHMAN. The first of the four castes ; the sacerdotal 
class, the members of which may be, but are not necessarily, 
priests. A Brahman is the chief of all created beings ; his per- 
son is inviolate; he is entitled to all honour, and enjoys many 
rights and privileges. The Satapatha Brahmana declares that 
" there are two kinds of gods ; first the gods, then those who 
are Brahmans, and have learnt the Yeda and repeat it : they are 
human gods." The chief duty of a Brahman is the study and 
teaching of the Yedas, and the performance of sacrifices and 
other religious ceremonies ; but in modern times many Brahmans 
entirely neglect these duties, and they engage in most of the 
occupations of secular life. Under the law of Manu, the life 
of a Brahman was divided into four asramas or stages : 

1. Brahmacharl. The student, whose duty was to pass his 
days in humble and obedient attendance upon his spiritual 
preceptor in the study of the Yedas. 

2. Onhastha. The householder ; the married man living 
with his wife as head of a family engaged in the ordinary duties 
of a Brahman, reading and teaching the Yedas, sacrificing and 
assisting to sacrifice, bestowing alms and receiving alms. 

3. V&naprastha, The anchorite, or " dweller in the woods,* 


who, having discharged his duties as a man of the world, has 
retired into the forest to devote himself to self-denial in food 
and raiment, to mortifications of various kinds, to religious 
meditation, and to the strict performance of all ceremonial 

4. Sannyasl. The religious mendicant, who, freed from all 
forms and observances, wanders about and subsists on alms, 
practising or striving for that condition of mind which, heedless 
of the joys and pains, cares and troubles of the flesh, is intent 
only upon the deity and final absorption. 

The divisions and subdivisions of the Brahman caste are almost 
innumerable. It must suffice here to notice the great divisions 
of north and south, the Pancha Gauda and the Pancha Dravi^a. 
The five divisions of Gauda, or Bengal, are the Brahmans of 
i. Kanyakubja, Kanauj ; 2. Saraswata, the north-west, about the 
Saraswatl or Sarsuti river; 3. GaucZa; 4. Mithila, ISTorth Bihar; 
5. Utkala, Orissa. The Pancha Dravirfa are the Brahmans of 
i. Maha-rashfca, the Mahratta country \ 2. Telinga, the Telugu 
country ; 3. Dravicfa, the Tamil country ; 4, Karnafa, the Cana- 
rese country ; 5. Gurjjara, Guzerat. 

BBAHMAJVA. i Belonging to Brahmans.' Works composed 
by and for Brahmans. That part of the Yeda which was intended 
for the use and guidance of Brahmans in the use of the hymns 
of the Mantra, and therefore of later production ; but the Brah- 
man, equally with the Mantra, is held to be $ruti or revealed 
word. Excepting its claim to revelation, it is a Hindu Talmud. 
The Brahmawa collectively is made up of the different Brahmans, 
which are ritualistic and liturgical writings in prose. They con- 
tain the details of the Yedic ceremonies, with long explanations 
of their origin and meaning ; they give instructions as to the use 
of particular verses and metres ; and they abound with curious 
legends, divine and human, in illustration. In them are found 
" the oldest rituals we have, the oldest linguistic explanations, 
the oldest traditional narratives, and the oldest philosophical 
speculations." As literary productions they are not of a high 
order, but some " striking thoughts, bold expressions, sound 
reasoning, and curious traditions are found among the mass of 
pedantry and grandiloquence." Each of the Sanhitas or collec- 
tion of hymns has its BrahmaTias, and these generally maintain 
the essential character of the Yeda to which they belong. Thus 


the BrahmaTias of the Rig are specially devoted to the duties of 
the Hotn, who recites the nchas or verses, those of the Yajur to 
the performance of the sacrifices by the Adhwaryu, and those of 
the Saman to the chaunting by the Udgatn. The Rig has the 
Aitareya Brahmana, which is perhaps the oldest, and may date 
as far back as the seventh century B.C. This is sometimes called 
Aswalayana. It has another called Kaushitaki or $ankhayana. 
The Taittinya Sanhita of the Yajnr-veda has the Taittiriya 
Brahmawa, and the Yajasaneyi Sanhita has the $atapatha Brah- 
mam, one of the most important of all the Brahmanas. The 
Sama-veda has eight BrahmaTias, of which the best known are 
the Praiuftia or Pancha-vinsa, the Taratfya, and the ShaeZ-vinsa. 
The Atharva has only one, the Gopatha Brahma^a, In their 
fullest extent the Brahmarcas embrace also the treatises called 
Arafiyakas and TJpanishads. 

BEAHMANASPATI. A Yedic equivalent of the name Bn- 

BEAHMAiVDA PTJEAJVA. " That which has declared, in 
12,200 verses, the magnificence of the egg of Brahma, and in 
which an account of the future kalpas is contained, is called 
the BrahmaTi^a PuraTia, and was revealed by Brahma." This 
PuraTia, like the Skanda, is " no longer procurable in a collective 
body," but is represented by a variety of Kha?i^as and Maha- 
tmyas professing to be derived from it. The Adhyatma Eama- 
yaTia, a very popular work, is considered to be a part of this 

BEAHMAJVI The female form, or the daughter of Brahma, 
also called ata-rupa (q.v.). 

BEAHMA-PUEA. The city of Brahma. The heaven of 
Brahma, on the stimmit of Mount Meru, and enclosed by the 
river Ganga. 

BEAHMA PUEAZVA. In all the lists of the Purawas the 
Brahma stands first, for which reason it is sometimes entitled 
the Adi or "First" Purami. It was repeated by Brahma to 
Marlchi, and is said to contain 10,000 stanzas, but the actual 
number is between 7000 and 8000. It is also called the Saura 
Purarai, because " it is, in great part, appropriated to the worship 
of Surya, the sun." " The early chapters give a description of 
the creation, an account of the Manwantaras, and the history 
of the Solar and Lunar dynasties to the time of Knshrza in a 


summary manner, and in words which are common to it and 
several other Puranas. A "brief description of the universe 
succeeds ; and then come a number of chapters relating to the 
holiness of Orissa, with its temples and sacred groves, dedicated 
to the sun, to #iva, and Jagan-natha, the latter especially. These 
chapters are characteristic of this Purana, and show its main 
object to be the promotion of the worship of Krishna as Jagan- 
natha. To these particulars succeeds a life of Kn'shna, which is 
word for word the same as that of the Vishnu Purana ] and the 
compilation terminates with a particular detail of the mode in 
which Yoga or contemplative devotion, the object of which is 
still Vishnu, is to be performed. There is little in this which 
corresponds with the definition of a Pancha-lakshana Purana, and 
the mention of the temples of Orissa, the date of the original 
construction of which is recorded, shows that it could not have 
been compiled earlier than the thirteenth or fourteenth century." 
This Purana has " a supplementary or concluding section called 
the Brahmottara Purana, which contains about 3000 stanzas. 
This bears still more entirely the character of a Mahatmya 01- 
local legend, being intended to celebrate the sanctity of the 
Balaja river, conjectured to be the same as the Banas in Marwar. 
There is no clue to its date, but it is clearly modern, grafting 
personages and fictions of its own invention on a few hints from 
older authorities." Wilson. 

BEAHMAESHI-DEA. " Kurukshetra, the Matsyas, true 
Panchalas, and the Surasenas. This land, which comes to 
Brahmavartta, is the land of Brahmarshis." Manu. 

BEAHMAESHIS. .Z&shis of the Brahman caste, wb.o were 
the founders of the gotras of Brahmans, and dwell in the sphere 
of Brahma. See JKshi. 

BEAHMA-SAVAEA 7 !. The tenth Manu. See Maiau, 

BEAHMA StJTEAS. Aphorisms on the Vedanta philosophy 
by Badarayana or Vyasa. They are also called Brahma Hunansa 
Sutras. They are in course of translation by the Eei . K. M. 
Banerjea in the JBibliotheca Indica. 

is related by Savarni to Narada, and contains the account of the 
greatness of Krishna, with the occurrences of the Eafhantara- 
kalpa, where also the story of Brahma-varaha is repeatedly told, 
is called the Brahma Vaivarta Purafla, and contains 18,000 


stanzas." The copies known rather exceed this number of 
stanzas, but the contents do not answer to this description, 
" The character of the work is so decidedly sectarial, and the 
sect to which it belongs so distinctly marked that of the wor- 
shippers of the juvenile Krislma and Radha, a form of belief of 
known modern origin " that it must be a production of a com- 
paratively late date. A specimen of the text and translation has 
been published by Stonzlor. 

BRAHMA YARTTA. "Between the two divine rivers, 
Saraswat! and Dnshadwati, lies the tract of land which the 
sages have named Brahmavartta, because it was frequented by 
the gods," Manu, ii. 17. 

BRAHMA- VED A. A name given to the Atharvan or fourth 
Veda, the Yeda of prayers and charms. 

BRAHMA-YUGA. * The age of Brahmans.' The first 01 
Krita-yuga. See Yuga. 


Brihad Ara^yaka Upanishad belongs to the Satapatha Brah- 
ma^a, and is ascribed to the sage Yajnawalkya. It "has been 
translated by Dr. Roer, and published in the Billiotheca Indica. 
See Ara?iyaka and Yajnawalkya. 

B^IHAD-DEVATA. An ancient work in slokas by the 
sage $aunaka, which enumerates and describes the deity or 
deities to which each hymn and verse of the J^ig-veda is 
addressed. It frequently recites legends in support of its attri- 

B5IHAD-RATHA. The tenth and last king of the Maurya 
dynasty, founded by Chandragupta. 


B5/HASPATI. In the jRig-veda the names Bnhaspati 
and Brahmanaspati alternate, and are equivalent to each other. 
They are names " of a deity in whom the action of the wor- 
shipper upon the gods is personified. He is the suppliant, the 
sacrificer, the priest, who intercedes with gods on behalf of men 
and protects mankind against the wicked. Hence he appears as 
the prototype of the priests and priestly order; and is also 
designated as the Purohita (family priest) of the divine com- 
munity. He is called in one place 'the father of the gods,' and 
a widely extended creative power is ascribed to him. He ia 


also designated as ' the shirting ' and ' the gold-coloured,* and aa 
'having the thunder for his voice. 7 " 

In later times he is a JRisbi. He is also regent of the planet 
Jupiter, and the name is commonly used for the planet itself. 
In this character his car is -called Mti-ghosha and is drawn by 
eight pale horses. He was son of the .Z&shi Angiras, and he bears 
the patronymic Angirasa. As preceptor of the gods he is called 
Animishacharya, Chakshas, Ijya, and Indrejya. His wife, Tara, 
was carried off by Soma, the moon, and this gave rise to a war 
called the Taraka-maya. Soma was aided by Usanas, Budra, and 
all the Daityas and Danavas, while Indra and the gods took the 
part of Bn'haspatL "Earth, shaken to her centre," appealed to 
Brahma, who interposed and restored Tara to her husband. She 
was delivered of a son which Bnhaspati and Soma both claimed, 
but Tara, at the command of Brahma to tell the truth, declared 
Soma to be the father, and the child was named Budha. There 
is an extraordinary story in the Matsya and Bhagavata Purarats 
of the Rishis having milked the earth through Bnhaspati. (See 
Vislmu Punma, i. pp. 188, 190.) Bnhaspati was father of 
Bharadwaja by Marnata, wife of Utathya. (See Bharadwaja.) 
An ancient code of law bears the name of Bnhaspati, and he is 
also represented as being the Yyasa of the "fourth, Dwapara 
age." There was a .Zfo'shi of the name in the second Manwan- 
tara, and one who was founder of an heretical sect. Other epi- 
thets of Bnhaspati are Jiva, ' the living/ Didivis, < the bright/ 
Dhishana, 'the intelligent/ and, for his eloquence, Gosh-pati, 
'lord of speech- 7 

B57HAT-KATHA. A large collection of tales, the original 
of the Katha-sarit-sagara (q.v*). 

B5/BAT-SANHITA A celebrated work on astronomy by 
Varaha Mihira, It has been printed by Kern in the Bibliotheca 
Indica, who has also published a translation in Jour. E. A. S. 
for 1870 and following years. 

BUDDHA- Gotama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. 
Vishwu's ninth incarnation. See Avatara. 

BUDHA. 'Wise, intelligent. 7 The planet Mercury, son of 
Soma, the moon, by Rohwi, or by Tara, wife of BnhaspatL (See 
Bnhaspati.) He married Ha, daughter of the Manu Yaivaswata, 
and by her had a son, Puriiravas. Budha was author of a hymn 
in the JJig-veda. (See Ha.) From his parents he is called 


Saumya and Eanliineya. He is also called Praharshafia, Eod- 
hana, Tunga, and $yamanga, 'black-bodied.' The intrigue of 
Soma with Tara was the cause of a great quarrel, in which the 
gods and the Asuras fought against each other. Brahma com- 
pelled Soma to give up Tara, and when she returned to her 
husband she was pregnant. A son was born, who was so "beau- 
tiful that Bn'haspati and Soma both claimed him, Tara for a 
long time refused to tell his paternity, and so excited the wrath 
and nearly incurred the curse of her son. At length, upon the 
command of Brahma, she declared Soma to be the father, and 
he gave the boy the name of Budha. This name is distinct 
from Buddha. 

CHAITANYA-CHANDEODAYA. < The rise of the moon 
of Chaitanya.' A drama in ten acts by Kavi-kama-pura. It is 
published in the Bibliotheca Indica. Chaitanya was a modern 
Vaishwava reformer, accounted an incarnation of Krishna. 

CHAITEA-EATHA The grove or forest of Kuvera on 
Mandara, one of the spurs of Meru; it is so called from its being 
cultivated by the gandharva Chitra-ratha. 

CHAKOEA. A kind of partridge. A fabulous bird, supposed 
to live upon the beams of the moon. 

CHAKEA-VAETL A universal emperor, described by the 
Vislmu Puiwa as one who is born with the mark of Yishmi's 
discus visible in his hand; but, Wilson observes, "the gram- 
matical etymology is, c He who abides in or rules over an exten- 
sive territory called a Chakra.' " 

CHAJISIIUSHA. The sixth Mauu. Hee Maim. 

CHAMPA. Son of Pntlm-laksha, a descendant of Yayati, 
through his fourth son, Ami, and founder of the city of 

PA-PUEI The capital city of the country of Anga. Traces of 
it still remain in the neighbourhood of Bhagalpur. It was also 
called Malini, from its being surrounded with champaka trees 
as with a garland (mala). It is said to have derived its name 
from Champa, its founder, but the abundant cliampaka trees 
may assert a claim to its designation. 

CHAMUJTOA. An emanation of the goddess Durga, sent 
forth from her forehead to encounter the demons ChawA and 
She is thus described in the Markawdcya Purana : 



" From the forehead of Ambika (Durga), contracted with wrathr 
fol frowns, sprang swiftly forth a goddess of black and formid- 
able aspect, armed with a scimitar and noose, bearing a ponde- 
rous mace, decorated with a garland of dead corses, robed in the 
hide of an elephant, dry and withered and hideons, with yawning 
mouth, and lolling tongue, and bloodshot eyes, and filling the 
regions with her shouts." When she had killed the two demons, 
she bore their heads to Durga, who told her that she should 
henceforth be known, by a contraction of their names, as Cha- 

CHAJVAKYA. A celebrated Brahman, who took a leading 
part in the destruction of the Nandas, and in the elevation of 
Chandxa-gupta to their throne. He was a great master of finesse 
and artifice, and has been called the Machiavelli of India. A 
work upon morals and polity called Chawakya Sutra is ascribed 
to him. He is the chief character in the drama called Mudra- 
rakshasa, and is known also by the names Vishnu-gupta and 
Kaufrlya. His maxims have been translated by Weber. 

CHAJ/Z>A, CHANDt The goddess Durga, especially in the 
form she assumed for the destruction of the Asura called 

same as the ChaT^ipatfha. 

CHAJVDIPAT, CHAJVDlPAmA. A poem of 700 verses, 
forming an episode of the Markam?eya Puram. It cele 1 
brates Durga's victories over the Asuras, and is read daily in 
the temples of that goddess. The work is also called Devi- 
mahatmya. It has been translated by Poley and by Burnouf. 

CHANDRA. The moon, either as a planet or a deity. See 

CHANDEA-GUPTA. This name was identified by Sir W. 
Jones with the Sandracottus or Sandrocyptus mentioned by 
Arrian and the other classical historians of Alexander's cam- 
paign ; and somewhat later on as having entered into a treaty 
with Seleucus Nicator through the ambassador Megasthenes, 
The identification has been contested, but the chief writers on 
Indian antiquities have admitted it as an established fact, and 
have added confirmatory evidence from various sources, so that 
the identity admits of no reasonable doubt. This identifica- 
tion is of the utmost importance to Indian chronology; it is the 


only link by which Indian history is connected with that of 
Greece, and everything in Indian chronology depends upon the 
date of Chandra-gupta as ascertained from that assigned to San- 
dracottus by the classical writers. His date, as thus discovered, 
shows that he began to reign in 315 B.C., and as he reigned 
twenty-four years, his reign ended in 291 B.C. Chandra-gupta is 
a prominent name in both Brahmanical and Buddhist writings, 
and his accession to the throne is the subject of the drama 

When Alexander was in India, he learned that a king named 
Xandrames reigned over the Prasii (Prachyas) at the city of 
Palibothra, situated at the confluence of the Ganges and another 
river called Erranaboas (the Sone). At this time, Sandracottus 
was young, but he waged war against Alexander's captains, and 
he raised bands of robbers, with whose help he succeeded in 
establishing freedom in India, 

Hindu and Buddhist writers are entirely silent as to Alex- 
ander's appearance in India, but they show that Chandra-gupta 
overthrew the dynasty of the Nandas, which reigned over 
Magadha, and "established freedom in India by the help of 
bands of robbers." He established himself at Pafoli-putra, 
the capital of the Nandas, which is identical with the Greek 
Palibothra, and this has been shown to be the modern Patna. 
That town does not now stand at the confluence of two rivers, 
but the rivers in the alluvial plains of Bengal frequently 
change their courses, and a change in the channel of the Sone 
has been established by direct geographical evidence. There is 
a difficulty about Xandrames. This is no doubt the Sanskrit 
Chandramas, which some consider to "be only a shorter form of 
the name Chandra-gupta, while others point out that the Greek 
references indicate that Xandrames was the predecessor of San- 
dracottus, rather than Sandracottus himself. 

The dynasty of the ISTandas that reigned over Magadha are 
frequently spoken of as the " nine Nandas," meaning apparently 
nine descents ; but according to some authorities the last Nanda, 
named Maha-padma, and his eight sons, are intended Maha- 
padma Nanda was the son of a Sudra, and so by law he was a 
$udra himself. He was powerful and ambitious, cruel and avari- 
cious. His people were disaffected; but his fall is represen- 
ted as having been brought about by the Brahman Chawakya. 


Chandra-gupta was then raised to the throne and founded the 
Mauryan dynasty, the third king of which was the great Asoka, 
grandson of Chandra-gupta. The Brahmans and Buddhists 
are widely at variance as to the origin of the Maurya family. 
The drama Mudra-rakshasa represents Chandra-gupta as being 
related to Maha-padma Nanda, and the commentator on the 
Yishwu Purawa says that he was a son of Nanda by a woman of 
low caste named Mura, wherefore he and his descendants were 
called Mauryas. This looks very like an etymological invention, 
and is inconsistent with the representation that the low caste of 
Nanda was one cause of his deposition ; for were it true, the 
low-caste king would have been supplanted by one of still lower 
degree. On the other hand, the Buddhists contend that the 
JVEauryas belonged to the same family as Buddha, who was of the 
royal family of the /Sakyas. The question of the identification 
of Sandracottus and Chandra-gupta has been discussed at length 
by Wilson in the preface to the Mudra-rakshasa in his Hindu 
Theatre, and in the Yislmu Purawa, voL iv. p. 185 ; also by 
Max Muller in his History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature. 

CHANDEA-HASA. A prince of the south, who lost hia 
parents soon after his birth, and fell into a state of destitution, 
but after going through a variety of adventures came to the 
throne. See Wheeler, voL i. p. 522. 

CHANDEA-KANTA, c The moon-stone.' A gem. or stone 
supposed to be formed by the congelation of the rays of the 
moon ; a crystal is perhaps meant It is supposed to exercise a 
cooling influence. So in the Megha-duta 

" The moon's white rays the smiling night illume, 
And on the moon-gem concentrated fall, 
That hangs in woven nets in every hall ; 
Whence cooling dews upon the fair descend, 
And life renewed to languid nature lend." 

It is also called Mafti-chaka. 

CHANDEA-KETU. i. A son of Lakshma^ 2. A king 
of the city of Chakora. 3. A country near the Himalayas. 

CHAKDEA-YAN^A. The Lunar race. The lineage or 

race which claims descent from the moon. It is divided into 

two great branches, the Yadavas and Pauravas, respectively 

, descended from Yadu and Puru. Krishna belonged to the line 

of Yadu, and Dusliyanta with the Kuru and P&ndo. princes to 



the line of Puru, The following is a list of the Lunar race as 
given in the Vishnu Purarca, but the authorities vary : 


Atri, the Ifo'shi. 
Soma, the Moon. 
Budha, Mercuiy. 
Ayu, Ayus. 


Nahusna (and 

3 others). 

Yayati (and 5 






Kings of KdsL 

Yadu, eldest. 

Pum, youngest (and 3 


Kroshtfu (and 3 others) 









Prithnsravas (one of a 



million sons). 









or > 

JRiteyu (and 9 others). 

Pratardana. i 

Ruchaka. ) 













or > adopted. 


Vitatha ) 



Bn"hatkshatra (and 



many others). 




Sannati J 


Has tin (of Hastinapxir). 
Ajamirfha (and 2 

or > 



San tat i 1 


Jfa'ksha (and others). 






Jahnu (and many 

















THE LUNAE RACE Continued. 

Yddavas. Pauravas. Kings 

Ansu. Ayutayus. Vaiiiahotra. 

Satwata. Akiodhana. Bliarea 

Andhaka (and 6 others ). Devatithi. 

Bhajamana. jfo'ksha. Bharga-bhumi. 

Viduratha. Dillpa. 

5ura. Pratlpa. 

amin. ^antanu (and 2 others). 

Pratikshattra. P&ndn* 

Swayambhoja. DhKtarashftra. 

HHdika. Yudhi-shihira. 

D e vam Id husha. Parikshit . 

ura. Janamejaya. 

Vasudeva (and 9 others), ^atanika. 
Krtsh^a and Bala- Aswamedhadatta. 
rama. Adhislmakrashwa. 

(Extinct.) UshTia. 



















A wrestler in the service of Kansa, who was 
killed "by Krishna. 

CHAEAKA. A writer on medicine who lived in Vedic 
times. According to Ms own statement, he received the 
materials of his work from Agnivesa, to whom they were de- 
livered by Atreya. A legend represents him as an incarnation 
of the serpent esha. The work was translated into Arabic 
before the end of the eighth, century. The text has heen 
printed in India 

* See Table under Maha-bharata, 


CHARAKA. One of the chief schools of the Yajur-veda. 

CHARAKA-BRAHMA^A. A Brahmana of the Black 

CHARAKA. A Yedic school or society. It is explained by 
a commentator as "a number of men who are pledged to the 
reading of a certain akha of the Yeda, and who have in this 
manner become one body." 

CHARA^VAS. Panegyrists. The panegyrists of the gods. 

CHARMAJVTATI The river Chambal 

GUPTA. Sons of Krishna and RukminL 

CHARU-DATTA. The Brahman hero of the drama Mrich- 

CHART! HASINt 'Sweet smiler. 1 This epithet is used for 
Rukmim and for Lakshmana, and perhaps for other wives of 

CHARU-MATL Daughter of Krishna and Rukmini. 

CHAR YAK A. i. A Eakshasa, and friend of Dur-yodhana, 
who disguised himself as a Brahman and reproached Yudhi- 
FJufoira for his crimes, when he entered Hastina-pura in triumph 
after the great battle. The Brahmans discovered the imposture 
and reduced Charvaka to ashes with the fire of their eyes. 2. 
A sceptical philosopher who advocated materialistic doctrines. 
He probably lived before the composition of the Ramayana, and 
is perhaps identical with the Charvaka of the Maha-bharata. 
His followers are called by his name. 

CHATUR-VAR2VA. The four castes. See Varna. 

CHEDL Name of a people and of their country, the modern 
Chandail and Boglekhand. The capital was Sukti-mati, and 
among the kings of this country were Dama-ghosha and Sisu-pala. 

CHEKITANA. A son of DhnshZa-ketu, Raja of the Kekayas, 
and an ally of the Paw<#avas. 

CHERA. A kingdom in the south of the peninsula, which 
was absorbed by its rival the Chola kingdom. 

CHHANDAS, CHHANDO. Metre. One of the Vedangas, 
The oldest known work on the subject is " the Chhanda^astra, 
ascribed to Pingala, which may be as old as the second century 
RC." It is published in the Billiotheca Indica. The subject is 
one to which great attention has been given by the Hindus from 
the earliest times. 


CHHANDOGA, A priest or chanter of the Sama-veda. 

CHHANDOGYA Name of a TJpanishad of the 
veda. (See Upanishad) It has "been printed by Dr. Roer, and 
it has been translated into English by Kajendra Lai, and pub- 
lished in the Bibliotheca Indica, There is also another printed 
edition of the text. The Chhandogya TJpanishad consists of 
eight out of ten chapters of the Chhandogya Brahmawa ; the first 
two chapters are yet wanting. This work is particularly dis- 
tinguished by its rich store of legends regarding the gradual 
development of Brahmanical theology. 

CHHAYA. 'Shade/ A handmaid of the sun. Sanjna, wife 
of the sun, being unable to bear the fervour of her lord, put her 
handmaid Chhaya in her place. The sun, believing Chhaya to 
be his wife, had three children by her : $ani, the planet Saturn ; 
the Manu Savarru. ; and a daughter, the Tapati river. As mother 
of Saturn, Chhaya is known as Sani-prasu. The partiality 
which she showed for these children provoked Yama, the son of 
Sanjna, and he lifted his foot to kick her. She cursed him to 
have his leg affected with sores and worms. This made it clear 
that she was not Sanjna and mother of Yama, so the sun went 
in search of Sanjna and brought her back. According to one 
Purawa, Chhaya was a daughter of "Viswakarma, and sister of 
Sanjna, the wife of the sun. 

CHINTA-MAM. 'The wish-gem.' A jewel which is sup- 
posed to have the power of granting all desires. The philo- 
sopher's stone. It is said to have belonged to Brahma, who is 
himself called by this name. It is also called Divya-ratna. 

CHIEA-JIYIK ' Long-lived. J Gods or deified mortals, who 
live for long periods. 

CHITRA-GUPTA. A scribe in the abodes of the dead, 
who records the virtues and vices of men. The recorder of 

CHITEA-KtTrA. < Bright-peak.' The seat of Valnnki's her- 
mitage, in which Rama and Sita both found refuge at diffe- 
rent times. It is the modern Chitrakote, on the river Pisuni, 
about fifty miles south-east of Banda in BundelkliancL It is a 
very holy place, and abounds with temples and shrines, to which 
thousands annually resort. " The whole neighbourhood is Rama'a 
country. Every headland has some legend, every cavern is con- 
nected with his name." Gust in " Calcutta Review" 


CHITKA-LEKHA A picture. Name of a nymph who 
was skilled in painting and in the magic art. She was the 
friend and confidante of Usha. See Usha. 

CHITRANGADA. The elder son of King Santanu, and 
brother of Bhishma. He was arrogant and proud, and was 
killed in early life in a conflict with a Gandharva of the same 

CHITKANGADA. Daughter of King Chritra-vaha?ia of 
Mani-pura, wife of Arjuna and mother of Babhru-vahana. 

CHITKA-RATHA. ' Having a fine car.' The king of the 
Gandharvas. There are many others known by this name. 

CHITKA-SENA, i. One of the hundred sons of Dhrita- 
rashfra. 2. A chief of the Yakshas. 

CHITEA-YAJNA. A modern drama in five acts upon the 
legend of Daksha. It is the work of a Fawrfit named Vaidya- 
natha Vachaspati. 

CHOLA. A country and kingdom of the south of India 
about Tanjore. The country was called Chola-maTwMa, whence 
comes the name Coromandel. 

CHYAVANA, CHYAVANA. A sage, son of the J&shi 
Bhngu, and author of some hymns. 

In the Jfo'g-veda it is said that when " Chyavana had grown 
old and had been forsaken, the Aswins divested him of his 
decrepit body, prolonged his life, and restored him to youth, 
making him acceptable to his wife, and the husband of 
maidens." This story is thus amplified in the /Satapatha Brah- 
mana : The sage Chyavana assumed a shrivelled form and 
lay as if abandoned. The sons of tfaryata, a descendant of 
Manu, found this body, and pelted it with clods. Chyavana 
was greatly incensed, and to appease him $aryjlta yoked his 
chariot, and taking with Mm his daughter Su-kanya, pre- 
sented her to Chyavana. The Aswins endeavoured to seduce 
her, but she remained faithful to her shrivelled husband, and 
under his direction she taunted them with being incomplete 
and imperfect, and consented to tell them in what respect they 
were deficient, if they would make her husband young again. 
They directed that he should bathe in a certain pond, and 
having done so, he came forth with the age that he desired. She 
then informed them that they were imperfect because they 
were excluded from a sacrifice the other gods were performing 


They departed and succeeded in getting admitted to join the 
other gods. 

According to the Maha-bharata, Chyavana besought Indra to 
allow the Aswins to partake of the libations of soma. Indra 
replied that the other gods might do as they pleased, but he 
would not consent. Chyavana then commenced a sacrifice to 
the Aswins ; the other gods were subdued, but Indra, in a rage, 
rushed with a mountain in one hand and his thunderbolt in 
another to crush Chyavana. The sage having sprinkled him 
with water and stopped him, " created a fearful open-mouthed 
monster called Mada, having teeth and grinders of portentous 
length, and jaws one of which enclosed the earth, the other the 
sky; and the gods, including Indra, are said to have been at the 
root of his tongue like fishes in the mouth of a sea monster." 
In this predicament " Indra granted the demand of Chyavana, 
who was thus the cause of the Aswins becoming drinkers of the 

In another part of the Maha-bharata he is represented as 
exacting many menial offices from King Kusika and his wife, 
but he afterwards rewarded them by " creating a magical golden 
palace," and predicted the birth of " a grandson of great beauty 
and heroism (Parasu-rama)." 

The Maha-bharata, interpreting his name as signifying 'the 
fallen/ accounts for it by a legend which represents his mother, 
Puloma, wife of Bhrigu, as having been carried off by the demon 
Puloman. She was pregnant, and in her fright the child fell 
from her womb. The demon was softened, and let the mother 
depart with her infant. 

The version of the story as told in the Maha-bharata and 
Pura^as is that Chyavana was so absorbed in penance on the 
banks of the Narmada that white ants constructed their nests 
round his body and left only his eyes visible. Su-kanya, daughter 
of King Saryata, seeing two bright eyes in what seemed to be 
an anthill, poked them with a stick The sage visited the 
offence on Saryata, and was appeased only by the promise of the 
king to give him Su-kanya in marriage. Subsequently the 
Aswins, coming to his hermitage, compassionated her union with 
so old and ugly a husband as Chyavana, and tried to induce her 
to take one of them in his place. When, their persuasions failed, 
they told her they were the physicians of the gods, and would 


restore her husband to youth and beauty, when she could make 
her choice between him and one of them. Accordingly the three 
bathed in a pond and came forth of like celestial beauty. Each 
one asked her to be his bride, and she recognised and chose her 
own husband. Chyavana, in gratitude, compelled Indra to admit 
the Aswins to a participation of the soma ceremonial India at 
first objected, because the Aswins wandered about among men 
as physicians and changed their forms at will But Chyavana 
was not to be refused ; he stayed the arm of Indra as he was 
about to launch a thunderbolt, and he created a terrific demon 
who was on the point of devouring the king of the gods when 
he submitted. 

According to the Maha-bharata, Chyavana was husband of 
Arush! or Su-kanya and father of Aurva. He is also considered 
to be the father of Harita. 

The name is Chyavana in the -ftig-veda, but Chyavana in 
the Bralimatta and later writings. 

DADEYANCH, DADHlCHA. (Dadhicha is a later form.) 
A Yedic jRishi, son of Atharvan, whose name frequently occurs. 
The legend about him, as it appears in the .Zfog-veda, is that 
Indra taught him certain sciences, but threatened to cut off hia 
head if he taught them to any one else. The Aswins prevailed 
upon Dadhyanch to communicate his knowledge to them, and, 
to preserve him from the wrath of Indra, they took off hia own 
head and replaced it with that of a horse. When Indra struck 
off the sage's equine head the Aswins restored his own to him, 
A verse of the -Big-veda says, " Indra, with the bones of Dadhy- 
anch, slew ninety times nine Yntras ;" and the story told by the 
scholiast in explanation is, that while Dadhyanch was living on 
earth the Asuras were controlled and tranquillised by his appear- 
ance ; but when he had gone to heaven, they overspread the 
whole earth. Indra inquired for Dadhyanch, or any relic of 
him. He was told of the horse's head, and when this was 
found in a lake near Kuru-kshetra, Indra used the bones aa 
weapons, and with them slew the Asuras, " or, as the words of 
the Yedic verse are explained, he " foiled the nine times ninety 
stratagems of the Asuras or Yntras." The story as afterwards 
told in the Maha-bharata and Pura?ias is that the sage devoted 
himself to death that Indra and the gods might be armed with 
bis bones as more effective weapons than thunderbolts for the 


destruction of Yn'tra and the Asuras. According to one account 
he was iastrumental in "bring about the destruction of "Daksha's 
sacrifice." See Daksha. 

DAITYAS. Titans. Descendants from Diti by Kasyapa. 
They are a race of demons and giants, who warred against the 
gods and interfered with sacrifices. They were in turn victorious 
and vanquished. They and the Danavas are generally associated, 
and are hardly distinguishable. As enemies of sacrifices they 
are called Kratu-dwishas. 

DAKTNX A kind of female imp or fiend attendant upon 
Kali and feeding on human flesh. The Dakinls are also called 
Asra-pas, blood drinkers.' 

DAKSHA. 'Able, competent, intelligent/ This name 
generally carries with it the idea of a creative power. Daksha 
is a son of Brahma; he is one of the Prajapatis, and is some- 
times regarded as their chief. There is a great deal of doubt 
and confusion about him, which of old the sage Parasara could 
only account for by saying that " in every age Daksha and 
the rest are born and are again destroyed." In the J&g-veda it 
is said that " Daksha sprang from Aditi, and Aditi from Dak- 
sha." Upon this marvellous mutual generation Yaska in the 
Nirukta remarks, " How can this be possible ? They may have 
had the same origin ; or, according to the nature of the gods, 
they may have been born from each other, and have derived 
their substance from each other." Eoth's view is that Aditi is 
eternity, and that Daksha (spiritual power) is the male energy 
which generates the gods in eternity. In the Satapatha Brah- 
mawa, Daksha is identified with Prajapati, the creator. As son 
of Aditi, he is one of the Adityas, and he is also reckoned 
among the Yiswadevas. 

According to the Maha-bharata, Daksha sprang from the right 
thumb of Brahma, and his wife from that deity's left thumb. 
The Pura?ias adopt this view of his origin, but state that he 
married Prasuti, daughter of Priya-vrata, and grand-daughter of 
Manu. By her he had, according to various statements, twenty- 
four, fifty, or sixty daughters. The Bamayam. and Maha- 
bharata agree in the larger number ; and according to Manu and 
the Maharbharata he gave ten of his daughters to Dharma and 
thirteen to Kasyapa, who became the mothers of gods and de- 
mons> men, birds, serpents, and all living things. Twenty-seven 


were given in marriage to Soma, the moon, and these became 
the twenty-seven Itfakshatras or lunar mansions. One of the 
daughters, named Sati, married $iva, and killed herself in con- 
sequence of a quarrel "between her husband and father. The 
Kasl Khaftda represents that she became a sati and burnt 

Another legend of the Maha-bharata and Purams represents 
Daksha as being born a second time, in another Manwantara, 
as son of the Prachetasas and Marisha, and that he had 
seven sons, "the allegorical persons Krodha, Tamas, Dania, 
Viknta, Angiras, Kardama, and Aswa," This second birth is 
said to have happened through his having been cursed to it by 
his son-in-law /Siva, Daksha was in a certain way, by his 
mother Marisha, an emanation of Soma, the moon j and as 
twenty-seven of his daughters were married to that luminary, 
Daksha is sometimes referred to as being both the father and 
the offspring of the moon, thus reiterating the duality of his 

In the Hari-vansa Daksha appears in another variety of his 
character. According to this authority, Vishrai himself became 
Daksha, and formed numerous creatures, or, in other words, he 
became the creator. Daksha, the first of males, by virtue of 
yoga, himself took the form, of a beautiful woman, by whom 
he had many fair daughters, whom he disposed of in marriage 
in the manner related by Maim and above stated. 

An important event in the life of Dakslia 3 and very fre- 
quently referred to, is " Daksha's sacrifice," which was violently 
interrupted and broken up by $iva. The germ of this story 
is found in the Taittiriya Sanhita, where it is related that the 
gods, having excluded Kudra from a sacrifice, he pierced the 
sacrifice with an arrow, and that Pushan, attempting to eat 
a portion of the oblation, broke his teeth. The story is found 
both in the Karnayami and Maha-bLarata, According to the 
latter, Daksha was engaged in sacrifice, when $iva in a rage, 
and shouting loudly, pierced the offering with an arrow. The 
gods and Asuras were alarmed and the whole universe quaked. 
The JSzshis endeavoured to appease the angry god, but in vain. 
" He ran up to the gods, and in his rage knocked out the eyes 
of Bhaga with a blow, and, incensed, assaulted Pushan with 
his foot and knocked out his teeth as he was eating the offer- 

7 8 DAKSHA. 

ing." The gods and Jfo'shis humbly propitiated him, and when 
he was appeased " they apportioned to him a distinguished share 
in the sacrifice, and through fear resorted to him as their refuge." 
In another part of the same work the story is again told with 
considerable variation. Daksha instituted a sacrifice and appor- 
tioned no share to Rudra (Siva). Instigated by the sage Dad- 
hichi, the god hurled his blazing trident, which destroyed the 
sacrifice of Daksha and fell with great violence on the breast 
of Naraya^a (Vishnu). It was hurled back with violence to 
its owner, and a furious battle ensued between the two gods, 
which was not intermitted till Brahma prevailed upon Eudra 
to propitiate Narayawa. That god was gratified, and said to 
Rudra, " He who knows thee knows me ; he who loves thee 
loves me." 

The story is reproduced in the Purawas with many embellish- 
ments. Daksha instituted a sacrifice to Vishnu, and many of 
the gods repaired to it, but Siva was not invited, because the 
gods had conspired to deprive him of sacrificial offerings. The 
wife of Siva, the mountain goddess Uma, perceived what was 
going on. Uma was a second birth of Satl, daughter of Daksha, 
who had deprived herself of life in consequence of her father's 
quarrel with herself and her husband, Siva. Uma urged her 
husband to display his power and assert his rights. So he 
created Yira-bhadra, " a being like the fire of fate," and of most 
terrific appearance and powers. He also sent with him hundreds 
and thousands of powerful demigods whom he called into exist- 
ence. A terrible catastrophe followed ; " the mountains tottered, 
the earth shook, the winds roared, and the depths of the sea 
were disturbed" The sacrifice is broken up, and, in the words 
of Wilson, "Indra is knocked down and trampled on, Yama has 
his staff broken, Saraswati and the Matn's have their noses cut 
off, Mitra or Bhaga has his eyes pulled out, Pushan has his 
teeth knocked down his throat, Chandra (the moon) is pummelled, 
Vahni's (fire's) hands are cut off, Bhngu loses his beard, the 
Brahmans are pelted with stones, the Prajapatis are beaten, and 
the gods and demigods are run through with swords or stuck 
with arrows." Daksha then, in great terror, propitiated the 
wrathful deity and acknowledged his supremacy. According to 
some versions, Daksha himself was decapitated and his head 
thrown into the fire. Siva subsequently restored him and the 


other dead to life, and as Daksha's head could not be found, it 
was replaced by that of a goat or ram. The Hari-vansa, in its 
glorification of Vishmi, gives a different finish to the story. The 
sacrifice was destroyed and the gods fled in dismay, till Vishnu 
intervened, and seizing iva by the throat, compelled him to 
desist and acknowledge his master. 

" This," says Wilson, " is a legend of some interest, as it is 
obviously intended to intimate a struggle between the worship- 
pers of $iva and Vishmi, in which at first the latter, but finally 
the former, acquired the ascendancy." 

Daksha was a lawgiver, and is reckoned among the eighteen 
writers of Dharma-sastras. 

The name Daksha was borne by several other persons. 

DAKSHA-SAVAKATA. The ninth Manu. See Manu. 

DAKSHAYA7VA. Connected with Daksha. A son or de- 
scendant of that sage. 

DAIvSHAYAM. A name of Aditi as daughter of Daksha 

DAKSHLZVA. A present made to Brahmans ; the honora- 
rium for the performance of a sacrifice. This is personified as a 
goddess, to whom various origins are assigned. 

DAKSHLZVACHARlS. Followers of the right-hand form of 
$akta worship. See Tantra. 

D AMA. A son, or, according to the Vishmi Purana, a grand- 
son of King Marutta of the Solar race. He rescued his bride 
Su-mana from his rivals, and one of them, named Vapushmat, 
subsequently killed Marutta, who had retired into the woods 
after relinquishing his crown to his son. Dama in retaliation 
killed Vapushmat and offered his blood in the funeral rites of 
Marutta, while he made an oblation of part of the flesh, and with 
the rest fed the Brahmans who were of Eakshasa descent 

DAMA-GHOSHA. King of Chedi and father of isu-pala. 

DAMAYANTI. Wife of Nala and heroine of the tale of 
Nala and DamayantL She is also known by her patronymic 
Bhaiml. See Nala. 

DAMBHODBHAVA. A king whose story is related in the 
Maha-bharata as an antidote to pride. He had an overweening 
conceit of his own prowess, and when told by his Brahmans that 
he was no match for Kara and Narayam, who were living as 
ascetics on the Gandha-madana mountain, he proceeded thither 
with his army and challenged them. They endeavoured to dis- 


suade Mm, but he insisted on fighting. Nara then took a hand- 
fill of straws, and using them as missiles, they whitened all the 
air, and penetrated the eyes, ears, and noses of the assailants, 
until DambhodMiava fell at Nara's feet and begged for peace. 

DAMODAEA. A name given to Knslma because his foster- 
mother tried to tie him up with a rope (dama) round his belly 

DAKAVAS. Descendants from Danu by the sage Kasyapa. 
They were giants who warred against the gods. See Daityas. 

D-AJV23A-DHAEA. 'The rod-bearer/ A title of Yama, the 
god of death. 

DAJVjPATCA. The aranya or forest of Dan^aka, lying between 
the Godavarl and Nfarrnada. It was of vast extent, and some 
passages of the Eamayana represent it as beginning immediately 
south of the Yamuna. This forest is the scene of many of Eama 
and Sita's adventures, and is described as "a wilderness over 
which separate hermitages are scattered, while wild beasts and 
Eakshasas everywhere abound." 

DANTA-VAKTEA, A Danava king of Karusha and son of 
Vnddha-sarma. He took a side against Knshna, and was even- 
tually killed by him. 

DAKU. A Diluava, Also the mother of the Duuavas. The 
demon Kabandha (q.v.). 

DAEADA. A country in the Hindu Kush, bordering on 
Kashmir. The people of that country, " the Durds, are still 
where they were at the date of the text (of the Vishmi Purawa) 
and in the days of Strabo and Ptolemy not exactly, indeed, at 
the sources of the Indus, but along its course above the Hima- 
laya, just before it descends to India." Wilson. 

DAEBAS. f Tearer. J Eakshasas and other destructive 

DAEDUEA. Name of a mountain in the south ; it is 
associated with the Malaya mountain in the Maha-bharata. 

DAEx^ANA. 'Demonstration.' The Shad-dar&mas or six 
demonstrations, Le., the six schools of Hindu philospphy. All 
Dhese schools have one starting-point, ex nihilo nihiljit; and all 
have one and the same final object, the emancipation of the soul 
from future birth and existence, and its absorption into the 
supreme soul of the universe. These schools are : 

i. Nyaya, founded by the sage Gotama. The word nyaya 


means propriety or fitness, the proper method of arriving at a 
conclusion by analysis. This school has been called the Logical 
School, but the term is applicable to its method rather than to 
its aims. It is also said to represent " the sensational aspect of 
Hindu philosophy," because it has " a more pointed regard to 
the fact of the five senses than the others have, and treats the 
external more frankly as a solid reality." It is the exoteric 
school, as the Yedanta is the esoteric. 

2. Yaiseshika, founded by a sage named Kawada, who lived 
about the same time as Gotama. It is supplementary to the 
Nyaya, and these two schools are classed together. It is called 
the Atomic School, because it teaches the existence of a transient 
world composed of aggregations of eternal atoms. 

Both the Nyaya and Yaiseshika recognise a Supreme Being. 

3. Sankhya. The Sankhya and Yoga are classed together 
because they have much in common, but the Sankhya is atheis- 
tical, while the Yoga is theistical The Sankhya was founded 
by the sage Kapila, and takes its name from its numeral or dis- 
criminative tendencies. The Sankhya-Karika, the text-book of 
this school, has been translated by Colebrooke and "Wilson, and 
part of the aphorisms of Kapila were translated for the BiUw- 
theca Indica by the late Dr. Ballantyne. 

4. Yoga. This school was founded by Patanjali, and from 
his name is also called Patanjala. It pursues the method of the 
Sankhya and holds with many of its dogmas, but it asserts the 
existence not only of individual souls, but of one all-pervading 
spirit, which is free from the influences which affect other souls. 

5. Purva-mlmansa. 6. Uttara-mimansa. The prior and later 
Mimansas. These are both included in the general term Yedanta, 
but the Purva-mlmansa is commonly known as the Mimansa and 
the TJttara-mimansa as the Yedanta, ' the end or object of the 
Yedas,' The Purva-mlmansa was founded by Jaimini, and the 
Uttara-mimansa is attributed to Yyasa, the arranger of the 
Yedas. " The object of both these schools is to teach the art of 
reasoning with the express purpose of aiding the interpretation 
of the Yedas, not only in the speculative but the practical por- 
tion." The principal doctrines of the Yedanta (Uttara) are that 
" God is the omniscient and omnipotent cause of the existence, 
continuance, and dissolution of the universe. Creation is an act 
of his will ; he is both the efficient and the material cause of the 



world" At the consummation of all things all are resolved into 
him. He is " the sole-existent and universal soul," and "besides 
him there is no second principle ; he is adwaita, ' without a 
second ' $ankaracharya was the great apostle of this school 

The period of the rise of these schools of philosophy is uncer- 
tain, and is entirely a matter of inference, but they are probahly 
later than the fifth century B.C. The Yedanta (Uttara-mlmansa) 
is apparently the latest, and is supposed to have been evoked by 
the teachings of the Buddhists. This would bring it to within 
three or four centuries B.O. The other schools are to all appear- 
ance older than the Yedanta, but it is considered by some that 
all the schools show traces of Buddhist influences, and if so, the 
dates of all must be later. It is a question whether Hindu 
philosophy is or is not indebted to Greek teaching, and the later 
the date of the origin of these schools the greater is the possi- 
bility of Greek influence. Mr, Colebrooke, the highest authority 
on the subject, is of opinion that "the Hindus were in this 
instance the teachers, not the learners." 

Besides the six schools, there is yet a later system known as 
the Paurawik and the Eclectic school The doctrines of this 
school are expounded in the Bhagavad-gita (q.v.). 

The merits of the various schools have been thus summed up ; 
" When we consider the six Darsanas, we shall find that one of 
them, the Uttara-mlmansa, bears no title to be ranked by the 
side of the others, and is really little more than a mystical 
explanation of the practical injunctions of the Vedas. We shall 
also admit that the earlier Yedanta, very different from the 
school of Nihilists now existing under that name, was chiefly a 
controversial essay, seeking to support the theology of sacred writ, 
but borrowing all its philosophical portions from the Yoga school, 
the most popular at the time of its composition. Lastly, the 
$Tyaya is little more than a treatise on logic, introducing the doc- 
trines of the theistic Sankhya; while the Yaiseshika is an essay on 
physics, with, it is true, the theory of atoms as its distinguishing 
mark, though even to this we feel inclined to refuse the imputa- 
tion of novelty, since we find some idea of it lurking obscurely 
in the theory of subtile elements which is brought forward in 
Kapila's Sankhya. In short, the basis of all Indian philosophy, 
if indeed we may not say the only system of philosophy really 
discovered in India, is the Sankhya^ and this forms the baais 


of the doctrines expounded in the Bhagavad-gita." CocJcburn 

Colebrooke's Essays are the great authorities on Hindu philo- 
sophy. Ballantyne has translated many of the original aphorisms, 
and he, Cockburn Thomson, Hall, Banerjea, and others have 
written on the subject. 

DARTJKA. Krishna's charioteer, and his attendant in his 
last days. 

DAtfA-KUMARA-CHARITA. 'Tales of the ten princes/ 
by Sil D&ndi. It is one of the few Sanskrit works written in 
prose, but its style is so studied and elaborate that it is classed 
as a Kavya or poem. The tales are stones of common life, and 
display a low condition of morals and a corrupt state of society. 
The text has been printed with a long analytical introduction 
by H. H. "Wilson, and again in Bombay by Buhler. There is an 
abridged translation by Jacobs, also a translation in French by 
Fauche, and a longer analysis in vol. iv. of Wilson's works. 

DA^AISrANA. < Ten faced. 7 A name of Bavarau 

DA&A-BATHA. A prince of the Solar race, son of Aja, a de- 
scendant of Ikshwaku, and king of Ayodhya. He had three wives, 
but being childless, he performed the sacrifice of a horse, and, 
according to the Bamayana, the chief queen, ELausalya, remained 
in close contact with the slaughtered horse for a night, and the 
other two queens beside her. Four sons were then born to him 
from his three wives. Kausalya bore Kama, Kaikeyi gave birth 
to Bharata, and Su-mitra bore Lakshmana and ^atru-ghna. Kama 
partook of half the nature of Vislmu, Bharata of a quarter, and 
the other two shared the remaining fourth. The Ramayafla, in 
explanation of this manifestation of Vishwu, says that he had 
promised the gods to become incarnate as man for the destruction 
of Ravawa. He chose Dasa-ratha for his human parent; and 
when that king was performing a second sacrifice to obtain pro- 
geny, he came to him out of the fire as a glorious being, and 
gave him a vessel full of nectar to administer to his wives. 
Dasa-ratha gave half of it to Kausalya, and a fourth each to 
Su-mitra and KaikeyL They all in consequence became preg- 
nant, and their offspring partook of the divine nature according 
to the portion of the nectar each had drunk. There were several 
others of the name. See Eama-chandra 

DA$AEHA, DltfABHA. Prince of the Dasarhas, a title of 
Krishna. The Dasarhas were a tribe of Yadavaa 


DASA-RtlPAKA An early treatise on dramatic com- 
position. It has been published by Hall in the Bibliotheca 

DAS AS. * Slaves.' Tribes and people of India who opposed 
the progress of the intrusive Aryans. 

DASRAS. ' Beautiful.' The elder of the two Aswins, or in 
the dual (Dasrau), the two Aswins. 

DASYUS. In the Vedas they are evil beings, enemies of the 
gods and men. They are represented as being of a dark colour, 
and probably were the natives of India who contended with the 
immigrant Aryans. It has, however, been maintained that they 
were hermits and ascetics of Aryan race. In later times they 
are barbarians, robbers, outcasts, who, according to some autho- 
rities, descended from Viswamitra. 

DATTAKA-CHANDRIKA. A treatise on the law of adop^ 
tion by Devana Bha^a. Translated by Sutherland, 

DATTAKA-MlMANSA. A treatise on the law of adoption 
by Nanda Paraftta, Translated by Sutherland. 

DATTAKA-SIEOMAJVX A digest of the principal treatises 
on the law of adoption. Printed at Calcutta. 

DATTATREYA. Son of Atri and Anasuya, A Brahman 
saint in whom a portion of Brahma, Vishnu, and $iva, or more 
particularly Vishnu, was incarnate. He had three sons, Soma, 
Datta, and Dur-vasas, to whom also a portion of the divine 
essence was transmitted. He was the patron of Karta-virya, and 
gave him a thousand arms. 

DAYA-BHAGA. 'Law of inheritanca' This title belongs 
especially to the treatise of Jlmuta Vahana, current in Bengal 
Translated by Colebrooke. 

DAYA-KRAMA-SANGRAHA, A treatise on the law of 
inheritance as current in Bengal, by Sri Krishna Tarkalankara. 
Translated by "Wynch. 

DAYA-TATWA, A treatise on the law of inheritance as 
current in Bengal, by Raghunandana Bha^acharya. 

DEVA (Nom. Devas=Deus, from the root D'vo, to shine.) 
God, A deity. The gods are spoken of as thirty-three in num- 
ber, eleven for each of the three worlds. 

DEVAKA, Father of Devaki and brother of Ugrasena. 

DEYAKl Wife of Yasu-deva, mother of Knshna and 
eousin of Kansa, She is sometimes called an incarnation of 


Aditi, and is said to have been born again as Pmrri, the wife of 
King Su-tapas. 

DEYALA. A Yedic J&slii, to whom some hymns are attri- 
buted. There are several men of this name ; one was author 
of a code of law, another was an astronomer, and one the grand- 
father of ParainL 

DEYALA. Music, personified as a female. 

DEYA-LOKA. The world of the gods, i&, Swarga, India's 

DEVA-MATJSZ ' Mother of the gods.' An appeUation of 
Aditi (q.v.). 

DEYA-KATA. i. A royal ^ishi of the Solar race, who dwelt 
among the Yidehas, and had charge of Diva's bow, which de- 
scended to Janaka and was broken by Kama. 2. A name given 
to $unaA-sephas. 

DEYAESHIS. (Deva-nshis.) JSishis or saints of the celes- 
tial class, who dwell in the regions of the gods, such as Narada. 
Sages who have attained perfection upon earth and have been 
exalted as demigods to heaven. 

DEYATA. A divine being or god. The name Devatas 
includes the gods in general, or, as most frequently used, the 
whole body of inferior gods. 

of the Sama-veda. The text has been edited by BurnelL 

DEVAYANL Daughter of /Sukra, priest of the Daityas. 
She fell in love with her father's pupil Kacha, son of Bnhaspati, 
but he rejected her advances. She cursed him, and in return 
he cursed her, that she, a Brahman's daughter, should marry a 
Kshatriya. Devayani was companion to SarmisMia, daughter 
of the king of the Daityas. One day they went to bathe, and 
the god Yayu changed their clothes. When they were dressed, 
they began to quarrel about the change, and Devayani spoke 
" with a scowl so bitter that Sarmish&a slapped her face, and 
pushed her into a dry well" She was rescued by King Yayati, 
who took her home to her father. $ukra, at his daughter's 
vehement persuasion, demanded satisfaction from Sarmish#ia j s 
father, the Daitya king. He conceded Devayani's demand, that 
upon her marriage Sarmish^ha should be given to her for a ser- 
vant. Devayani married King Yayati, a Kshatriya, and Sar- 
mish/ha became her servant Subsequently Yayati became 


enamoured of Sarmishflaa, and she bore him a son, the discovery 
of which so enraged Devayani that she parted from her husband, 
and went home to her father, having borne two sons, Yadu and 
Turvasa or Turvasu. Her father, $ukra, cursed Yayati with the 
infirmity of old age, but afterwards offered to transfer it to any 
one of Yayati's sons who would submit to receive it. Yadu, the 
eldest, and progenitor of the Yadavas, refused, and so did all the 
other sons, with the exception of Sarmishh.a's youngest son, 
Puru. Those who refused were cursed by their father, that their 
posterity should never possess dominion; but Puru, who bore 
his father's curse for a thousand years, succeeded his father as 
monarch, and was the ancestor of the Pam^avas and Kauravas. 

DEYA-YONL ( Of divine birth.' A general name for the 
inferior gods, the Adityas, Yasus, Yiswadevas, and others. 

DEYL 'The goddess, 7 or Maha-devi, 'the great goddess/ 
wife of the god iva, and daughter of Himavat, i.e. 9 the Hima- 
laya mountains She is mentioned in the Maha-bharata under 
a variety of names, and with several of her peculiar character- 
istics, but she owes her great distinction to the Purawas and 
later works. As the Sakti or female energy of $iva she has two 
characters, one mild, the other fierce; and it is under the latter that 
she is especially worshipped. She has a great variety of names, 
referable to her various forms, attributes, and actions, but these 
names are not always used accurately and distinctively. In her 
milder form she is Una a, * light/ and a type of beauty ; Gaurl, 
* the yellow or brilliant ; ' Parvati, * the mountaineer ; ' and 
Haimavati, from her parentage ; Jagan-mata, ' the mother of the 
world ; ' and Bhavani. In her terrible form she is Durga, ' the 
inaccessible ; ' Kali and $yama, c the black ; * Chanel and Chaw- 
cftka, 'the fierce;* and Bhairavi, 'the terrible/ It is in this 
character that bloody sacrifices are offered to her, that the bar- 
barities of the Durgarpuja and Charak-puja are perpetrated in 
her honour, and that the indecent orgies of the Tantrikas are 
held to propitiate her favours and celebrate her powers. She 
has ten arms, and in most of her hands there are weapons. As 
Durga she is a beautiful yellow woman, riding on a tiger in a 
fierce and menacing attitude. As Kali or Kalika, c the black/ 
" she is represented with a black skin, a hideous and terrible 
countenance, dripping with blood, encircled with snakes, hung 
round with skulls and human heads, and in all respects resem- 

DEVI. 87 

bling a fury rather than a goddess." As Yindhya-vasini, 'the 
dweller in the Yindhyas/ she is worshipped at a place of that 
name where the Yindhyas approach the Ganges, near Mirzapur, 
and it is said that there the blood before her image is never 
allowed to get dry. As Maha-maya she is the great illusion. 

The Charaft-mahatmya, which celebrates the victories of 
this goddess over the Asuras, speaks of her under the fol- 
lowing names : i. Durga, when she received the messengers 
of the Asuras. 2. Dasa-bhuja. * Ten-armed,' when she 
destroyed part of their army. 3. Sinha-vahinl ' Riding on a 
lion/ when she fought with the Asura general Rakta-vrja. 4. 
Mahisha-mardinL ' Destroyer of Mahisha, 7 an Asura in the 
form of a buffalo. 5. Jagad-dhatri ' Fosterer of the world, 7 
when she again defeated the Asura army. 6. Kail 'The 
black 7 She killed Eakta-vlja. 7. Mukta-kesL 'With dis- 
hevelled hair. 7 Again defeats the Asuras. 8. Tara. 'Star. 7 
She killed A$umbha* 9. Chhinna-mastaka. ' Decapitated/ 
the headless form in which she killed Msumbha. 10. Jagad- 
gauri. 'World's fair one, 7 as lauded by the gods for her 
triumphs. The names which Devi obtains from her husband 
are : Babhravi (Babhru), Bhagavati, Isani, Iswari, Kalanjari, 
Ivapalini, Kausiki, Kirati, Maheswari, Mn'da, MrWani, Rud- 
xmlj /Sarvawi, /Siva, Tryambaki From her origin she is called 
Adri-ja and Giri-ja, 'mountain-born; 7 Ku-ja, * earth-born ; 7 
Daksha-ja, ' sprung from Daksha. 1 She is Kanya, * the virgin ; 7 
Kanya-kumarl, 'the youthful virgin; 7 and Ambika, 'the 
mother ; 7 Avara, * the youngest ; 7 Ananta and ISTitya, * the ever- 
lasting; 7 Arya, 'the revered; 7 Yijaya, 'victorious; 7 jRiddhi, 
* the rich ; 7 SatI, ' virtuous ; 7 Dakshi?za, ' right-handed ; 7 Pinga, 
'tawny, dark; 7 ELarburi, ' {spotted; 7 Bhramari, 'the bee; 7 
Kofori, ' the naked ; 7 Kar/ia-moti, * pearl-eared ; ' Padma-lanch- 
hana, 'distinguished by a lotus; 7 Sarva - mangala, 'always 
auspicious ; 7 Sakam - bhari, ' nourisher of herbs ; ? /Siva - dutl, 
C $iva 7 s messenger; 7 Sinha-rathi, 'riding on a lion. 7 As addicted 
to austerities she is Aparwa and Katyayanl. As Bhuta-nayaki 
she is chief or leader of the goblins, and as Ga^a-nayaki, the 
leader of the Ganas, She is KamakshI, 'wanton-eyed; 7 and 
Kamakhya, 'called by the name of Kama, desire. 7 Other 
names, most of them applicable to her terrible forms, are Bhadra* 
kali, Bhima-devI, Chaniunda, Maha-kall, Mahamari, Mahasuri, 


Matangi, Eajasi, 'the fierce;' and Eakta-danti, 'red or bloody 

DEVI BHAGAVATA PUEA^A. A tfaiva Purarca, which 
is hy some placed among the eighteen Pura^as instead of the 
/Sri Bhagavata, which is devoted to Vishmi. This is devoted to 
the worship of the $aktis. 

DEVI MAHATMYA. 'The greatness of Devi/ A poem 
of 700 verses, which celebrates the triumphs of Devi over 
various Asuras. It is the text-book of the worshippers of 
Devi, and is read daily in her temples. It is an episode of the 
Marka?i$eya Puraraa, and is also called Chamftpa&a. 

DHANA-DA. ' Giver of wealth/ Kuvera, the god of riches. 

DHA^AN-JAYA. ' Conqueror of riches.' A title of Arjuna 
and of several others. 

DHANANJAYA VIJAYA. ' Victories of Dhananjaya 
(Arjuna). A drama in one act on the exploits of Arjuna when 
in the service of the Eaja Virata. 

DHANA-PATL < Lord of wealth.' Kuvera 

DHANESWAEA. < Lord of wealth/ ie., Kuvera. 

DHANUE-VEDA The science of archery, the military art 

DHANWANTAEL i. Name of a Yedic deity to whom offer- 
ings at twilight were made in the north-east quarter, 2. The 
physician of the gods, who was produced at the churning of the 
ocean. He was a teacher of medical science, and the Ayur-veda 
is attributed to him. In another birth he was son of Dirgha- 
tamas, and his " nature was 'exempt from human infirmities, and 
in every existence he had been master of universal knowledge/' 
He is called also Sudharpam, c carrying nectar in his hands/ and 
Amnta, the immortal/ Other physicians seem to have had 
the name applied to them, as Bhela, Divo-dasa, and Palakapya, 
3. A celebrated physician, who was one of " the nine gems " 
of the court of Yikrama. See !N"ava-ratna. 

DHABAtft The earth. The wife of Parasu-rama. 

DHAEMA, DHAEMA-EAJA. * Justice/ A name of 
Yama, the judge of the dead 

DHAEMA. An ancient sage, sometimes classed among the 
Prajapatis. He married thirteen (or ten) of the daughters of 
Daksha, and had a numerous progeny ; but all his children " are 
manifestly allegorical, being personifications of intelligences and 
virtues and religious rites, and being therefore appropriately 


wedded to the probable authors of the Hindu code of religion 
and morals, or the equally allegorical representation of that code, 
Dharma, moral and religious duty.' 7 Wilson. 

DHAEMA-PUTEA, < Son of Dharma.' A name of Yudhi- 

DHAEMAEA-ftTA. A sacred grove, i. A forest in Mad- 
hyadesa into which Dharma retired. 2. A city mentioned in 
the Bamayawa as founded by Amurta-rajas, son of Kusa, 

DHABMA-BAJA. i. Yama, king of the dead. 2. A title of 
Yudhi-shtfhira, who was mythically a son of Yama. 

DHARMA-A$ASTRA. A law-book or code of laws. This 
term includes the whole body of Hindu law, but it is more 
especially applicable to the laws of Manu, Yajnawalkya, and other 
inspired sages who first recorded the Smriti or " recollections " 
of what they had received from a divine source. These works 
are generally in three parts : (i.) Achara, rules of conduct 
and practice; (2.) Vyavahara, judicature; (3.) Prayaschitta, 

The inspired lawgivers are spoken of as being eighteen in 
number, but the names' of forty-two old authorities are men- 
tioned. Manu and Yajnawalkya stand apart by themselves at the 
head of these writers. After them the eighteen other inspired 
sages are recognised as the great authorities on law, and the 
works ascribed to them are still extant, either wholly or par- 
tially, or in an abridged form: (i.) Atri; (2.)Vishmi; (3.) 
Harita; (4.)Usanas; (5.) Angiras; (6.) Yama; (7.) Apastamba; 
(8. ) Samvarta ; (9. ) Katyayana ; ( i o. ) Bnhaspati ; ( 1 1. ) Parasara ; 
(12.) Yyasa; (13, 14.) $ankha and Likhita, whose joint trea- 
tise is frequently quoted; (15,) Daksha; (16.) Gotama; (17.) 
Satatapa; (18.) Vasishha. But there are others who are 
more frequently cited than many of these, as Narada, Bhngu, 
Marlchi, Rasyapa, Viswamitra, and Baudhayana. Other names 
that are met with are Pulastya, Gargya, Paiftnnasi, Sumantu, 
Lokakshi, Kuthumi, and Dhaumya. The writings of some 
of these lawgivers have appeared in different forms, and are 
referred to with the descriptive epithets of Vnddha, 'old;' 
Bnhat, c great ; ' and Laghu, c light or small' 

A general collection of the Smritis or Dharma-sastras has been 
printed in Calcutta under the title of Dharma-sastra-sangraha, by 


DHAEMA-SAYAE^H. The eleventh Marni. See Manu. 

DHAEMA-StJTEAS. The Samayacharika Sutras are so 
called because they had among them maxims of a legal nature. 

DHAEMA-YYADHA. 'The pious huntsman,' This man 
is represented in the Maha-bharata as living by selling the flesh 
of boars and buffaloes, and yet as being learned in the Yedas 
and in all the knowledge of a Brahman. This is accounted for 
by his having been a Brahman in a former birth, and cursed 
to this vile occupation for having wounded a Brahman when 

DHATJ?/. * Maker, creator/ In the later hymns of the 
fia'g-veda, Dhatn is a deity of no very defined powers and func- 
tions, but he is described as operating in the production of life 
and the preservation of health. He promotes generation, brings 
about matrimony, presides over domestic life, cures diseases, 
heals broken bones, &c. He is said to " have formed the sun, 
moon, sky, earth, air, and heaven as before." He appears also 
as one of the Adityas, and this character he still retains. In 
the later mythology he is identified with Prajapati or Brahma 
the creator ; and in this sense of " maker " the term is used as 
an epithet of Vishnu and Krishna. Sometimes he is a son of 

DHAUMYA. i. The younger brother of Devala and family 
priest of the Panrfavas, There are several others of the same 
name. 2. Author of a work on law. 

DHENUKA. A demon killed by Bala-rama. Krishna and 
Bala-rama, as boys, picked some fruit in a grove belonging to 
Dhenuka, when he took the form of an ass, and running to the 
spot "began to kick Bala-iama. The young hero seized him by 
the heels, whirled him round till he was dead, and cast his 
carcase on to the top of a palm-tree. Several of his companions 
who ran to his assistance were treated in the same way, so 
that " the trees were laden with dead asses," 

DHJJ/SHTA-DYUMNA. Brother of Draupadl, and com- 
mander-in-ehief of the Panc?ava armies. He killed, somewhat un- 
fairly in combat, Drona, who had beheaded his father, and he in 
his turn was killed by Drona's son, Aswatthaman, who stamped 
him to death with his feet as he lay asleep. 

DH72/SHTA-KETTJ. i. A son of Dhn'shta-dyumna, 2, 
A son of #isu-pala, king of Chedi, and an ally of the Panrfa- 


vas. 3. A king of the Kekayas, also an ally of the Pandavaa. 
4. Son of Satyadhriti. 5. Son of Nriga. 

DILSITA-KASHTRA i. The eldest son of Vichitra-vlrya 
or Yyasa, and brother of P&ndu. His mother was Ambika. He 
married Gandhari, and by her had a hundred sons, the eldest of 
whom was Dur-yodhana. Dhnta-rashfra was blind, and Pa>w2u 
was affected with a disease supposed, from his name, "the pale/' 
to be a leprous affection. The two brothers in turn renounced 
the throne, and the great war recorded in the Maha-bharata was 
fought between their sons, one party being called Kauravas, 
from an ancestor, Kuru, and the other PiMavas, from their 
father ParaZu. Dhnta-rashfra and his wife were burned in a 
forest fire. (See Maha-bharata.) 2. An enormous serpent of 
many heads and immense strength. 

DHRTJYA. The polar star. According to the Vishwi 
Purafta, the sons of Manu Swayam-bhuva were Priya-vrata and 
Uttanapada. The latter had two wives ; the favourite, Surachi, 
was proud and haughty; the second, Suniti or Sunnta, was 
humble and gentle. Suruchi had a son named Uttama, and 
Suniti gave birth to Dhruva. "While quite a child Dhruva was 
contemptuously treated by Suruchi, and she told him that her 
own son Uttama would alone succeed to the throne. Dhruva 
and his mother submitted, and he declared that he wished for 
no other honours than such as his own actions should acquire. 
He was a Kshatriya, but he joined a society of jfrishis, and 
becoming a Rishi himself, he went through a rigid course of 
austerities, notwithstanding the efforts of Indra to distract him, 
At the end he obtained the favour of Yislmu, who raised him 
to the skies as the pole-star. He has the patronymic Auttana- 
padi, and he is called Grahadhara, 'the stay or pivot of the 

DHUMA-YARJ/A. < Smoke coloured.' A king of the ser- 
pents. A legend in the Hari-vansa relates that Yadu, the 
founder of the Yadava family, went for a trip of pleasure 
on the sea, where he was carried off by Dhuma-vawa to the 
capital of the serpents. Dhuma-vania married his five daugh- 
ters to him, and from them sprang, seven distinct families of 

DHUNDHU. An Asura who harassed the sage ITttanka in 
his devotions. The demon hid himself beneath a sea of sand, 


but was dug out and killed by King Kuvalayaswa and his 
21,000 sons, who were undeterred by the flames which checked 
their progress, and were all killed but three. This legend pro- 
bably originated from a volcano or some similar phenomenon. 
From this exploit Kuvalayaswa got the name of Dhundhu- 
mara, ' slayer of Dhundhu. ; 

DHUNDHU-MARA. See Dhundhu and Kuvalayaswa. 

DHUR-JA2 7 !. * Having heavy matted locks.' A name of 
Rudra or Siva. 

DHURTA-NARTAKA. ' The rogue actors/ A farce in two 
parts by Sama Raja Dikshita, " The chief object of this piece 
is the ridicule of the Saiva ascetics." 

DSURTA-SAMAGAMA. 'Assemblage of rogues. 5 A 
comedy by Sekhara or Jyotir Iswara. "It is somewhat indeli- 
cate, but not devoid of humour." It has been translated into 
French by SchoebeL 

DIGr-AMBARA. i Clothed with space.' A naked mendi- 
cant. A title of Siva. 

DIGr-GAJAS. The elephants who protect the eight points 
of the compass: (i.) Airavata; (2.) Pundarika; (3.) Va- 
mana; (4.) Kumuda; (5.) Ajnjana; (6.) Pushpa-danta ; (7.) 
Sarva-bhauma ; (8.) Su-pratika. 

DIG-YIJAYA. 4 Conquest of the regions (of the world). 1 
i. A part of the Maha-bharata which commemorates the con- 
quests effected by the four younger Pa^ava princes, and in 
virtue of which Yudhi-shzJhira maintained his claim to uni- 
versal sovereignty. 2. A work by /Sankaracharya in support 
of the Yedanta philosophy, generally distinguished as /Sankara 

DIK-PALA, ' Supporters of the regions/ The supporters 
of the eight points of the compass. See Dig-gaja. 

DILlPA. Son of Ansumat and father of Bhagiratha. He 
was of the Solar race and ancestor of Rama. On one occasion 
he failed to pay due respect to Surabhi, the ' cow of fortune/ 
and she passed a curse upon him that he should have no 
offspring until he and his wife Su-dakshifta had carefully 
tended Surabhi's daughter NandinL They obediently waited 
on this calf Kandini, and Dilipa once offered his own life to 
save hers from the lion of /Siva, In due time the curse was 
removed, and a son, Raghu, was born to them. This story is 


told in the Kaghu-vansa. There was another prince of the 
name. See Khatfwanga. 

DIRGHA-KAVAS. Son of Dlrgha-tamas, and therefore a 
J&shi, but as in a time of famine he took to trade for a liveli- 
hood, the J?ig-veda calls him " the merchant." 

DlRGHA-TAMAS, DlKGHA-TAPAS. 'Long darkness/ 
A son of Kasi-raja, according to the Maha-bharata ; of Uchathya, 
according to the JBig-veda; and of Utathya and Mamata in 
the Puramis. His appellations of Auchathya and Mamateya 
favour the latter parentage. He was born blind, but is said to 
have obtained sight by worshipping Agni (JR. V. iii. 128). He 
was father of Kakshivat and Dhanwantari ; and he is said (in 
the V. P.] to have had five children by Su-deshrca, wife of 
Bali, viz,, the countries Anga, Banga, Kalinga, Purafra, and 

DITL A goddess or personification in the Yedas who is 
associated with Acliti, and seems to be intended as an antithesis 
or as a complement to her. 

In the Ramayawa and in the Purams she is daughter of 
Daksha, wife of Kasyapa, and mother of the Daityas. The 
Vishmi Pura^a relates that having lost her children, she begged 
of Kasyapa a son of irresistible prowess, who should destroy 
Indra. The boon was granted, but with this condition : " If, 
with thoughts wholly pious and person entirely pure, you care- 
fully carry the babe in your womb for a hundred years." She 
assiduously observed the condition ; but Indra knew what was 
preparing for him. So he went to Diti and attended upon her 
with the utmost humility, watching his opportunity. In the 
last year of the century, Diti retired one night to rest without 
washing her feet. Indra then with his thunderbolt divided the 
embryo in her womb into seven portions. Thus mutilated, the 
child cried bitterly, and Indra being unable to pacify it, became 
angry, and divided each of the seven portions into seven, thus 
forming the swift-moving deities called Maruts, from the words, 
'Ma-rodl/i,' c "Weep not/ which Indra used to quiet them. 

B1YO-DASA. i. A pious liberal king mentioned in the Big- 
veda, for whom it is said that Indra demolished a hundred stone 
cities, meaning perhaps the mythological aerial cities of the 
Asuras. 2. A Brahman who was the twin-brother of Ahalya. 
He is represented in the Veda as a "very liberal sacrifice!/' 


and as being delivered by the gods from the oppressoi 
Sambara. He is also called Atithi-gwa, 'he to whom guests 
should go.' 3. A king of Kasl, son of Bhlma-ratha and father of 
Pratardana. He was attacked by the sons of King Vita-havya 
and all his sons were slain. His son Pratardana (q.v.) was born 
to him through a sacrifice performed by Bharadwaja. He was 
celebrated as a physician and was called Dhanwantari. 

DKATJPADL Daughter of Drupada, king of Panchala, and 
wife of the five Pawdu princes. Draupadl was a damsel of dark 
complexion but of great beauty, " as radiant and graceful as if 
she had descended from the city of the gods." Her hand was 
sought by many princes, and so her father determined to hold a 
swayam-yara and allow her to exercise her own choice in the 
selection of a husband. The swayam-vara was proclaimed, and 
princes assembled from all parts to contend in the lists for the 
hand of the princess; for although in such contests the lady was 
entitled to exercise her swayam-vara or own choice, it generally 
followed that the champion of the arena became her husband 
Most astonishing feats of arms were performed, but Arjuna out- 
shone all by his marvellous use of the bow, and he became the 
selected bridegroom. When the five brothers returned to the 
house where their mother, Kunti, was staying, they told her that 
they had made a great acquisition, and she told them to share it 
among them. These words raised a great difficulty, for if they 
could not be adroitly evaded they must be obeyed The sage 
Yyasa settled the matter by saying, " The destiny of Draupadl 
has already been declared by the gods ; let her become the wife 
of all the brethren." So she became their common wife, and it 
was arranged that she should stay successively two days in the 
house of each, and that no one of them but the master of the 
house should enter it while she was thera Arjuna was 
her favourite, and she showed her jealousy when he mar- 
ried Su-bhadra. In the great gambling match which the 
eldest brother, Yudhi-shrfhira, played at Hastinirpura against 
his cousins, the Kauvaras, he lost his all his kingdom, his 
brothers, himself, and their wife Draupadi So she became 
a slave, and Dur-yodhana called her to come and sweep the 
room. She refused, and then Duh-sasana dragged her by 
the hair into the pavilion before all the chieftains, and taunt- 
ingly told her that she was a slave girl, and had no right to 


complain of being touched by men. He also abused hei 
and tore off her veil and dress, wMLe Dur-yodhana invited her 
to sit on his thigh., took compassion upon her, and 
restored her garments as fast as they were torn. She called 
vehemently upon her husbands to save her, but they were 
restrained by YudM-sh/Jhira. Bhima was in a rage of passion ; 
he was prevented from action; but he vowed in loud words 
that he would drink the blood of Duh-sasana and smash the 
thigh of Dur-yodhana in retaliation of these outrages, which 
vows he eventually fulfilled. Draupadi vowed that her hair 
should remain dishevelled until Bhima should tie it up with 
hands dripping with the blood of Duh-sasana. The result 
of the gambling match was that the Pan^avas, with Draupadi, 
went into exile for twelve years, and were to dwell quite 
incognito during another year. The period of thirteen years 
being successfully completed, they were at liberty to return. 
Twelve years of exile were passed in the jungle, and in the 
course of this period Jayad-ratha, king of Sindhu, came to the 
house of the Panrfavas while they were out hunting. He was 
courteously received by Draupadi, and was fascinated by her 
charms. He tried to induce her to elope with him, and when 
he was scornfully repulsed, he dragged her to his chariot and 
drove off with her. When the Pa?wfavas returned and heard 
of the rape, they pursued Jayad-ratha, and pressed him so close 
that he put down Draupadi, and endeavoured to escape alone. 
Bhima resolved to overtake and punish him; and although 
Yudhi-shhira pleaded that Jayad-ratha was a kinsman, and 
ought not to be killed, Draupadi called aloud for vengeance, 
so Bhima and Arjuna continued the pursuit. Bhima dragged 
Jayad-ratha from his car, kicked and beat him till he was sense- 
less, but spared his life. He cut off all Jayad-ratha's hair except 
five locks, and made him publicly acknowledge that he was a 
slave. Draupadi's revenge was then slaked, and Jayad-ratha was 
released at her intercession. In the thirteenth year, in which 
her husbands and she were to live undiscovered, they entered 
the service of the king of Virarfa, and she, without acknowledg- 
ing any connection with them, became a waiting-maid to the 
queen. She stipulated that she should not be required to wash 
feet or to eat food left by others, and she quieted the jealous 
feaxs which her beauty excited in the queen's mind by represent- 


ing that she was guarded by five Gandharvas, who would prevent 
any improper advances. She lived a quiet life for a while, hut 
her heauty excited the passions of Kichaka, the queen's "brother, 
who was commander-in-chief, and the leading man in the king- 
dom. His importunities and insults greatly annoyed her, hut 
she met with no protection from the queen, and was rebuked for 
her complaints and petulance by Yndhi-sh/hira. Her spirit of 
revenge was roused, and she appealed as usual to Bhima, whose 
fiery passions she well knew how to kindle. She complained of 
her menial position, of the insults she had received, of the in- 
difference of her husbands, and of the base offices they were 
content to occupy. Bhima promised revenge. An assignation 
was made with Kichaka which Bhima kept, and he so mangled 
the unfortunate gallant that all his flesh and bones were rolled 
into a ball, and no one could discover the manner of his death. 
The murder was attributed to Draupaclfs Gandharvas, and she 
was condemned to be burnt on Klchaka's funeral pile. Then 
Bhima disguised himself, and tearing up a tree for a club, went 
to her rescue. He was supposed to be the Gandharva, and 
every one fled before him. He released Draupadi, and they 
returned to the city by different ways. After the term of exile 
was over, and the Pawdavas and she were at liberty to return, 
she was more ambitious than her husbands, and complained to 
K?ishna of the humility and want of resolution shown by 
Yudhi-shtfhira. She had five sons, one by each husband 
Prati-vindhya, son of Yudhi-shtfhira ; Sruta-soma, son of Bhima ; 
Snita-kirtti, son of Arjuna; fiatanlka, son of Nakula; and 
$ruta-karman, son of Saha-deva. She with these five sons was 
present in camp on the eighteenth and last night of the great 
battle, while her victorious husbands were in the camp of the 
defeated enemy. Aswatthaman with two companions entered the 
camp of the PamZavas, cut down these five youths, and all whom 
they found Draupadi called for vengeance upon Aswatthaman, 
Yudhi-shfliira endeavoured to moderate her anger, but she appealed 
to Bhima, Arjuna pursued Aswatthaman, and overtook him, but 
he spared his life after taking from him a celebrated jewel which 
he wore as an amulet. Arjuna gave this jewel to Bhima for 
presentation to Draupadi On receiving it she was consoled, 
and presented the jewel to Yudhi-shftiira as the head of the 
family. When her husbands retired from the world and went 


on their journey towards tlie Himalayas and Indra's heaven, she 
accompanied them, and was the first to fall on the jonrney. See 

Draupadl's real name was Knsh?ia. She was called Draupadi 
and Yajna-seni, from her father ; Parshati, from her grand- 
father Pnshata; Panchall, from her country; Sairindhri, 'the 
maid-servant ' of the queen of Virata ; Panchaml, c having five 
husbands;' and Nita-yauvani, 'the ever-young.' 

DRAVIDA. The country in which the Tamil language is 
spoken, extending from Madras to Cape Comorin. According 
to Manu, the people of this country were originally Kshatriyas, 
but sank to the condition of $udras from the extinction of 
sacred rites and the absence of Brahmans. As applied to the 
classification of Brahmans it has a much wider application, em- 
bracing Gujarat, Mahar-rashfra, and all the south. 

D-RISHADWATL A common female name. i. The wife of 
King Divo-dasa. 2. A river forming one of the boundaries of Brah- 
mavarta, perhaps the Kagar before its junction with the Sarsuti. 

DBOJVA. ( A bucket.' A Brahman so named from his 
having been generated by his father, Bharadwaja, in a bucket. 
He married Knpa, half-sister of Bhishma, and by her was father 
of Aswatthaman. He was acharya, or teacher of the military 
art, both to the Kaurava and PafltZava princes, and so he 
was called Drowacharya. He had been slighted by Drupada, 
king of Panchala, and became his enemy. Through the in- 
strumentality of the Pa?itZavas he made Drupada prisoner, and 
took from him half of his kingdom ; but he spared his life 
and gave him back the other half of his country But the 
old animosity rankled, and ended in the death of both. In the 
great war Drowa sided with the Kauravas, and after the death 
of Bhishma he became their commander-in-chief. On the fourth 
day of his command he killed Drupada, and in his turn he was 
unfairly slain in combat by Dhnshfo-dyumna, who had sworn 
to avenge his father's death. In the midst of this combat 
Drorca was told that his son was dead, which so unnerved him 
that he laid down his arms and his opponent decapitated him. 
But Dro?ia was a Brahman and an Acharya, and the crime of 
killing him was enormous, so it is glossed over by the statement 
that Drona " transported himself to heaven in a glittering state 
like the sun, and Dhnshifa-dyumna decapitated merely his life- 


less body." Droraa was also called Kufo-ja. The common 
meaning of Kufa is c mountain-top/ but one of its many other 
meanings is 'water-jar.' His patronymic is Bharadwaja. 

DRUHYU. Son of Yayati, by Sarmishiftia, daughter of the 
Daitya king Ynsha-parvan. He refused to exchange his youth 
for the curse of decrepitude passed upon his father, and in conse- 
quence Yayati cursed him that his posterity should not possess 
dominion. His father gave him a part of his kingdom, but his de- 
scendants became "princes of the lawless barbarians of the north." 

DKUPADA. King of Panchala and son of Pnshata. Also 
called Yajna-sena. He was schoolfellow of Dro?&a, the preceptor of 
the Kaurava and Paw^ava princes, and he mortally offended his 
former friend by repudiating his acquaintance. Dro^a, in pay- 
ment of his services as preceptor, required his pupils to make 
Drupada prisoner. The Kauravas attacked him and failed, but 
the Pawdavas took Drupada captive and occupied his territory. 
DroTia spared his life and restored the southern half of his 
kingdom to him. Drupada returned home burning for revenge, 
and, to procure it, he prevailed upon two Brahmans to perform 
a sacrifice, by the efficacy of which he obtained two children, 
a son. and a daughter, who were called "the altar-born," be- 
cause they came forth from the sacrificial fire. These children 
were named Dlmshfo-dyumna and Krishna, but the latter 
is better known by her patronymic DraupadL After she had 
chosen Arjuna for her husband at her swayam-vara, and she had 
become, with Drupada's consent, the wife of the five PawcZavas, 
he naturally became the ally of his sons-in-law. He took an 
active part in the great battle, and on the fourteenth day he 
was killed and beheaded by Dro?ia, who on the following day 
was killed by Dh?ishfo-dyumna, the son whom Drupada had 
obtained for wreaking his vengeance on Drom. Besides the 
two children mentioned, Drupada had a younger son named 
$ikha?zdin and a daughter Sikha?i^inl 

DTJ.H"-$ALA. The only daughter of Dhnta-rashZra and wife 
of Jayad-ratha. 

DUF-tfASANA. < Hard to rule/ One of the hundred sons 
of Dhnta-rashfaa. When the Panda vas lost their wife Draupadi 
in gambling with Dur-yodhana, DuA-sasana dragged her forward 
by the hair and otherwise ill-used her. For this outrage Bhima 
vowed he would drink his blood, a vow which he afterwards 
performed on the sixteenth da^ of the great battla 


DUR-GA. A commentator on the Nirukta. 

DUR-GA ' Inaccessible.' The wife of iva. See DevL 

DUR-MUKHA. ' Bad face.' A name of one of Dhnta- 
rashfra's sons. Also of one of Kama's monkey allies, and of 
several others. 

DUR-VASAS. < Ill-clothed.' A sage, the son of Atri and 
Anasuya, "but, according to some authorities, he was a son or 
emanation of $iva. He was noted for his irascible temper, and 
many fell under his curse. It was he who cursed $akuntala 
for keeping him waiting at the door, and so caused the separa- 
tion between her and King Dushyanta. But it was he who 
blessed Kunti, so that she became a mother by the Sun. In 
the Vishnu Purawa he is represented as cursing Indra for treat- 
ing with disrespect a garland which the sage presented to him. 
The curse was that " his sovereignty over the three worlds 
should be subverted," and under it Indra and the gods grew 
weak and were overpowered by the Asuras. In their extremity 
they resorted to Vishmi, who directed them to churn the ocean 
of milk for the production of the Amnta (water of life) and 
other precious things. In the Maha-bLiirata it is stated that on 
one occasion ELnslma entertained him hospitably, but omitted 
to wipe the fragments of food from the foot of the sage. At 
this the latter grew angry and foretold how Knslma should be 
killed The Yislmu Purawa states that K?'ishna fell according 
to " the imprecation of Dur-vasas," and in the same work Dur- 
vasas is made to describe himself as one "whose nature is 
stranger to remorse." 

DURrVASASA PURAjVA. One of the eighteen Upa Pu- 
rawas. See Purana. 

DUR-YODHANA. 'Hard to conquer.' The eldest son of 
King Dhnta-rashfra, and leader of the Kaurava princes in tho 
great war of the Maharbharata. His birth was somewhat mar- 
vellous. (See Gandharl.) Upon the death of his brother PFifttfu, 
Dhnta-rashfra took his five sons, the PaWava princes, to his own 
court, and had them educated with his hundred sons. Bicker- 
ings and jealousies soon sprang up between the cousins, and 
Dur-yodhana took a special dislike to Bhlma on account of his 
skill in the use of the club. Dur-yodhana had learnt the use of 
this weapon under Bala-rama, and was jealous of any rival He 
poisoned Bhima and threw his body into the Ganges, but Bhlma 


sank to the regions of the Nagas, where he was restored to health 
and vigour. When Dhnta-rash/ra proposed to make Yudhi- 
shtfhira heir-apparent, Dur-yodhana strongly remonstrated, and 
the result was that the Pawdavas went into exile. Even then 
his animosity pursued them, and he laid a plot to burn them in 
their house, from which they escaped and retaliated upon his 
emissaries. After the return of the Parz^avas from exile, and 
their establishment at Indra-prastha, his anger was further 
excited by Yudhi-shftnra's performance of the Raja-suya sacrifice. 
He prevailed on his father to invite the Pawdavas to Hastina- 
pura to a gambling match, in which, with the help of his 
confederate $akuni, he won from Yudhi-shtfhira everything he 
possessed, even to the freedom of himself, his brothers, and his 
wife DraupadL Dur-yodhana exultingly sent for Draupadi to 
act as a slave and sweep the room. When she refused to come, 
his brother, DuA-sasana, dragged her in by the hair of her head, 
and Dur-yodhana insulted her by inviting her to sit upon his 
knee. This drew from Bhima a vow that he would one day 
smash. Dur-yodhana's thigh. Dhnta-rashte interfered, and the 
result of the gambling was that the Pa?w?avas again went into 
exile, and were to remain absent thirteen years. While the 
Pa?w?avas were living in the forest, Dur-yodhana went out for 
the purpose of gratifying his hatred with a sight of their poverty. 
He was attacked and made prisoner by the Gandharvas, probably 
hiU people, and was rescued by the Pan^avas. This incident 
greatly mortified him. The exile of the Pa^avas drew to a 
close. War was inevitable, and both parties prepared for the 
struggle. Dur-yodhana sought the aid of Knshwa, but made 
the great mistake of accepting Krishna's army in preference to 
his personal attendance. He accompanied his army to the field, 
and on the eighteenth day of the battle, after his party had been 
utterly defeated, he fled and hid himself in a lake, for he was 
said to possess the power of remaining under water. He was 
discovered, and with great difficulty, by taunts and sarcasms, was 
induced to come out. It was agreed that he and Bhima should 
fight it out with cluhe. The contest was long and furious, and 
Dur-yodhana was getting the best of it, when Bhima remembered 
his vow, and, although it was unfair to strike below the waist, 
he gave his antagonist such a violent blow on the thigh that the 
bone was smashed and Dur-yodhana fell Then Bhima kicked 


him on the head and triumphed over him. Left wounded and 
alone on the field, he was visited by Aswatthaman, son of 
Drowa, and two other warriors, the only survivors of his army. 
He thirsted for revenge, and directed them to slay all the Paw- 
davas, and especially to bring him the head of Bhlma. These 
men entered the camp of the enemy, and killed the five youthful 
sons of the Pawdavas. The version of the Maha-bharata used 
by Wheeler adds that these warriors brought the heads of the 
five youths to Dur-yodhana, representing them to be the heads 
of the five brothers. Dur-yodhana was unable in the twilight 
to distinguish the features, but he exulted greatly, and desired 
that Bhnna's head might be placed in his hands. With dying 
energy he pressed it with all his might, and when he found 
that it crushed, he know that it was not the head of Bhima. 
Having discovered the deception that had been played upor 
him, with a redeeming touch of humanity he reproached Aswat- 
thaman for his horrid duod in slaying the harmless youths, 
saying, with his last breath, " My enmity was against the 
Pa/tt<#avas, not against these innocents." Dur-yodhana was 
called also Su-yodhana, ' good fighter.' 

DUSHA-A^A A Eakshasa who fought as one of the generals 
of Eava7ia, and was killed by Kama. He was generally asso- 
ciated with Havana's brother, Khara. 

DUSHMANTA, DUSHYANTA A valiant king of the 
Lunar race, and descended from Puru. He was husband of 
$akuntala, by whom he had a son, Bharata. The loves of Dush- 
yanta and Sakuntala, her separation from him, and hor restora- 
tion through the discovery of his token-ring in the belly of a 
fish, form the plot of Kali-dtxsa's celebrated play $akuntalii 

DtTTANGADA. ' The ambassador Angada/ A short play 
founded on the mission of Angada to demand from Eavana the 
restoration of Sita. It is attributed to a poet named Subhaftv. 


DWAPAEA YTJG A, The third age of the world, extending 
to 864,000 years. See Yxiga. 

DWAEAKA, DWAEAVATI. < The city of gates.' Krishna's 
capital, in Gujarat, which is said to have been submerged "by 
the ocean seven days after his death. It is one of the seven 
sacred cities. Also called Abrthkmgart. 

D WIJARSHIS. (Dwija-rishis.) See Brahmarshis, 


DWtPA. An insular continent. The Dwipas stretch out 
from the mountain Meru as their common centre, t like the leaves 
of a lotus, and are separated from each other by distinct circum- 
ambient oceans. They are generally given as seven in number: 
i. Jambu, 2. Plaksha or Go-medaka, 3. almala, 4. Kusa, 5. 
Krauncha, 6. Saka, 7. Pushkara; and the seas which surround 
them are i. Lavawa, salt water; 2. Ikshu, sugar-cane juice; 
3. Sura, wine ; 4. Sarpis or Glmta, clarified butter; 5. Dadhi, 
curds; 6. Dugdha or Kshira, milk; 7. Jala, fresh water. In 
the Maha-bharata four Dwipas are named: i. Bhadraswa, 2. 
Ketu-mala, 3. Jambu-dwipa, 4. Uttara Kuru. Jambu-dwipa 
has nine varshas or subdivisions: i. Bharata, 2. Kim-purusha, 
Kin-nara, 3. Hari-varsha, 4, Ha-vnta, which contains Meru; 

5. Ramyaka, 6. HiraTZ-maya, 7. Uttara Kuru, 8. Bhadraswa, 9. 
Ketu-mala. According to the Vishnu Pura^a, Bharata-varsha 01 
India is divided into nine Dwipas or portions: i. Indra-dwipa, 
2. Kaserumat, 3. Tamra-varwa, 4. Gabhastimat, 5. Naga-dwipa, 

6. Saumya, 7. Gandharva, 8. Vanma; 9. is generally left without 
a name in the books, but Bhaskara Acharya calls it Kumaraka. 

DWIVIDA. i. An Asura in the form of a great ape, who 
was an implacable foe of the gods. He stole Bala-rama's plough- 
share weapon and derided him. This was the beginning of a 
terrific fight, in which Dwivida was felled to the earth, and 
" the crest of the mountain on which he fell was splintered into 
a hundred pieces by the weight of his body, as if the Thunderer 
had shivered it with his thunderbolt." 2. A monkey ally of Rama. 

D YATJS. The sky, heaven. In the Yedas he is a masculine 
deity, and is called occasionally Dyaus-pitn, ' heavenly father/ 
the earth being regarded as the mother. He is father of Ushas, 
the dawn. Of. Ztvg, Deus, Jovis, Ju-piter. Dyava-pnthivl, 
'heaven and earth/ are represented as the universal parents, 
not only of men but of gods; but in other places they are 
spoken of as having been themselves created; and then, again, 
there are speculations as to their origin and priority. In one 
hymn it is asked, "Which of these two was the first and 
which the last? How have they been produced? Who 
knows?" The /Satapatha Brahmana declares in favour of the 
earth, saying, " This earth is the first of created beings," 

EEA.-CHAKRA. A city in the country of the Kichakas, 
where, by advice of Yyasa, the Parafovas dwelt for a time during 


their exile. General Cunningham has identified it with the 
modern Ara or Arrah. 

EKA-DANSHmA, EKA-DAISTTA. < Having one tusk/ A 
name of Ga^esa. 

EKALAYYA. Grandson of Deva-sravas, the brother of Yasu- 
deva. He was brother of atru-ghna. He was exposed in 
infancy, and was brought up among the Nishadas, of whom he 
became king. He assisted in anight attack upon Dwaraka, and 
was eventually killed by Krishna, who hurled a rock at him. 

EKAMEA, EKAMRA KANAKA. A forest in Utkala or 
Orissa, which was the favourite haunt of Siva, and became a 
great seat of his worship as the city of Bhu vanes wara, where 
some very fine temples sacred to him still remain. They have 
been described by Babu Rajcndra Lala in his great work on 

EKA-PADA. * One-footed/ A fabulous race of men spoken 
of in the Purawas. 

EKA-PAE.M, EKA-PATALA. These, with their sister 
Apar?ia, were, according to the Hari-vansa, daughters of Himavat 
and Mena. They performed austerities surpassing the powers 
of gods and Danavas, and alarmed both worlds. Eka-pama 
took only one leaf for food, and Eka-paMa only one pa/ala 
(Bignonia). Apama took no sustenance at all and lived a-pama, 
( without a leaf. 7 Her mother being distressed at her abstinence, 
exclaimed in her anxiety, " U-ma " " don't." Through this 
she became manifest as the lovely goddess Uma, the wife of 

EKASHTAKA. A deity mentioned in the Atharva-veda 
as having practised austere devotion, and being the daughter of 
Prajapati and mother of Intlra and Sonia. 

EMtJSHA. In the Brahmawa, a boar which raised up the 
earth, represented as black and with a hundred arms. This 
is probably the germ of the Yaraha or boar incarnation. See 

GAD A. A younger brother of Krishna. 

GADHI, GATHIN. A king of the Kusika race, and father 
of Yiswamitra. He was son of Kusamba, or, according to the 
Yishwu Purawa, he was Indra, who took upon himself that form. 

GALAYA. A pupil of Yiswamitra. It is related in the 
Maha-bharata that at the conclusion of his studies he importuned 


his master to say what present lie should make him. Viswa 1 - 
mitra was annoyed, and told him to bring 800 white horses, each 
haying one black ear. In his perplexity Galava applied to 
Garuda, who took him to King Yayati at Pratish&ana. The 
king was unable to provide the horses, but he gave to Galava his 
daughter MadhavL Galava gave her in marriage successively 
to Haryaswa, king of Ayodhya, Divo-dasa, king of Kasi, and 
Usinara, king of Bhoja, receiving from each of them 200 of the 
horses he was in quest of, upon the birth of a son to each from 
MadhavL Notwithstanding her triple marriage and maternity, 
Madhavi, by a special boon, remained a virgin. Galava pre- 
sented her and the horses to Viswamitra. The sage accepted 
them, and had a son by Madhavi, who was named Ashrfaka. 
When Viswamitra retired to the woods, he resigned his her- 
mitage and his horses to Ashfaka, and Galava having taken 
Madhavi back to her father, himself retired to the forest as his 
preceptor had done. The horses were first obtained by the 
Brahman jfo'chlka from the god Vanma. They were originally 
1000 in number, but his descendants sold 600 of them, and 
gave the rest away to Brahmans. 

According to the Hari-van,s'a, Galava was son of Viswamitra, 
and that sage in a time of great distress tied a cord round his 
waist and offered him for sale. Prince Satyavrata (q.v.) gave 
him liberty and restored him to his father. Prom his having 
been bound with a cord (gala) he was called Galava. 

There was a teacher of the White Yajur-veda named Galava, 
and also an old grammarian named by Pawini. 

GAJVA-DEVATAS. c Troops of deities/ Deities who gene- 
rally appear, or are spoken of, in classes. Nine such classes aro 
mentioned: (i.) Adityas ; (2.) Viswas or Viswe-devas \ (3.) 
Vasus ; (4.) Tushitas ; (5.) Abhaswaras ; (6.) Anilas ; (7.) 
Maharajikas; (8.) Sadhyas; (9.) Eudras. These inferior deities 
are attendant upon $iva, and under the command of Ganesa, 
They dwell on Gana-parvata, i.e., Kailasa. 


GAJVAPATYA. A small sect who worship Ga^a-pati o? 
Ganesa as their chief deity. 

GAJVAS. See Ga^a-deratas. 

GA#Z>AEl The river Gandak (vulg. Gunduk), in Oude, 

GANDHA-MADANA 'Intoxicating with fragrance,' i. A 


mountain and forest in Havnta, the central region of the 
which contains the mountain Mem. The authorities are not" 
agreed as to its relative position with Menu 2. A general of the 
monkey allies of Kama. He was killed by Eavawa's son Indra-jit, 
but was restored to life by the medicinal herbs brought by Hanu- 
man from Mount Kailasa. 

GANDHAEA, GANDHAEA A country and city on the 
west bank of the Indus about Attock. Mahomedan geographers 
call it Kandahar, but it must not be confounded with the 
modern town of that name. It is the Gandaritis of the ancients, 
and its people are the Gandarii of Herodotus. The Yayu Pur- 
a?ia says it was famous for its breed of horses. 

GANDHAEI Princess of Gandhara. The daughter of Su- 
bala, king of Gandhara, wife of Dhrita-rashfra, and mother of 
his hundred sons. Her husband was blind, so she always wore 
a bandage over her eyes to be like him. Her husband and she, 
in their old age, both perished in a forest fire. She is also 
called by the patronymics Sauball and Saubaleyi. She is said 
to have owed her hundred sons to the blessing of Vyasa, who, 
In acknowledgment of her kind hospitality, offered her a boon. 
She asked for a hundred sons. Then she became pregnant, and 
continued so for two years, at the end of which time she was 
delivered of a lump of flesh. Vyasa took the shapeless mass 
and divided it into 101 pieces, which he placed in as many 
jars. In due time Dur-yodliana was produced, but with such 
accompanying fearful portents that Dhnta-rashfaa was besought, 
though in vain, to abandon him. A month afterwards ninety- 
nine other sons came forth, and an only daughter, Duft-sala. 

GANDHAEVA. The ' heavenly Gandhatva' of the Veda 
was a deity who know and revealed the secrets of heaven and 
divine truths in general He is thought by Goldstiicker to 
have been a personification of the fire of the sun. The Gand- 
harvas generally had their dwelling in the sky or atmosphere, 
and one of their offices was to prepare the heavenly soma juice 
for the gods. They had a great partiality for women, and had 
a mystic power over them. The Atharva-veda speaks of " the 
6333 Gandharvas." The Gandharvas of later times are similar 
in cbwicter* they have charge of the soma, are skilled in 
modicmo, regulate the astorisms, and are fond of women. Those 
of India's heaven arc generally intended by the term, and they 


are singers and musicians who attend the banquets of the gods. 
The Purar&as give contradictory accounts of the origin of the 
Gandharvas. The Yishwi Puraraa says, in one place, that they 
were horn from Brahma, " imbibing melody. Drinking of the 
goddess of speech (gam dhayantaK), they were born, and thence 
their appellation." Later on it says that they were the offspring 
of Kasyapa and his wife Arish^a. The Hari-vansa states that 
they sprang from Brahma's nose, and also that they were de- 
scended from Muni, another of Kasyapa's wives. Chitra-ratha 
was chief of the Gandharvas ; and the Apsarases were their 
wives or mistresses. The " cities of the Gandharvas " are often 
referred to as being very splendid. The Vishnu Purana has a 
legend of the Gandharvas righting with the JSTagas in the in- 
fernal regions, whose dominions they seized and whose treasures 
they plundered. The Mga chiefs appealed to Vishnu for relief, 
and he promised to appear in the person of Purukutsa to help them. 
Thereupon the Nagas sent their sister Narmada (the Nerbudda 
river) to this Purukutsa, and she conducted him to the regions 
below, where he destroyed the Gandharvas. They are sometimes 
called Gatus and Pulakas. In the Maha-bharata, apparently, a 
race of people dwelling in the hills and wilds is so called 


GANDELARVA-VEDA The science of music and song, 
which is considered to include the drama and dancing. It is 
an appendix of the Sama-veda, and its invention is ascribed to 
the Muni Bharata, 

GANDINX i. Daughter of Kasi-raja ; she had been twelve 
years in her mother's womb when her father desired her to 
come fortL The child told her father to present to the Brahmans 
a cow every day for three years, and at the end of that time she 
would be born. This was done, and the child, on being born, 
received the name of Gandini, 'cow daily.' She continued the 
gift as long as she lived. She was wife of Swa-phalka and 
mother of Akrura. 2. The Ganga or Ganges. 

GAA^DlVA. The bow of Arjuna, said to have been given by 
Soma to Varurca, by Varuna to Agni, and by Agni to Arjuna. 

GA^ESA (Gana + Xsa), GAtfA-PATL Lord of the GaTzas 
or troops of inferior deities, especially those attendant upon 
Siva. Son of $iva and Parvatl, or of Parvati only. One 
legend represents that he sprang from the scuif of Parvatl's 

GANESA. 107 

body. He is the god of wisdom and remover of obstacles ; 
hence he is invariably propitiated at the beginning of any im- 
portant undertaking, and is invoked at the commencement of 
books. He is said to have written down the Maha-bhilrata from 
the dictation of Vyasa. He is represented as a short fat man 
of a yellow colour, with a protuberant belly, four hands, and 
the head of an elephant, which has only one tusk. In one hand 
he holds a shell, in another a discus, in the third a club or 
goad, and in the fourth a water-lily. Sometimes he is do- 
picted riding upon a rat or attended by one ; hence his appel- 
lation Akhu ratha His temples are very numerous in the 
Daklrin. There is a variety of legends accounting for his 
elephant head. One is that his mother Parvati, proud of her 
offspring, asked Sani (Saturn) to look at him, forgetful of the 
effects of /Sam's glance. /Sani looked and the child's head was 
burnt to ashes. Brahma told Parvati in her distress to replace 
the head with the first she could find, and that was an elephant's. 
Another story is that Parvati went to her bath and told her son 
to keep the door. /Siva wished to enter and was opposed, so he 
cut off Ganesa's head To pacify Parvati he replaced it with an 
elephant's, the first that came to hand. Another version is that 
his mother formed him so to suit her own fancy, and a further 
explanation is that /Siva slew Aditya the sun, but restored 
him to life again. Por this violence Kasyapa doomed /Siva's 
son to lose his head ; and when he did lose it, the head of Indra's 
elephant was used to replace it. The loss of one tusk is ac- 
counted for by a legend which represents Parasu-rama as coming 
to Kailasa on a visit to /Siva. The god was asleep and Ganesa 
opposed the entrance of the visitor to the inner apartments, 
A wrangle ensued, which ended in a fight. " Ga^esa had at first 
the advantage, seizing Parasu-rama with his trunk and giving 
him a twirl that loft him sick and senseless. On recovering, 
Parasu-rama threw his axe at Gawesa, who, recognising it as his 
father's weapon (Siva having given it to Parasu-rama), received 
it with all humility on one of his tusks, which it immediately 
severed ; honce Gawesa has but one tusk, and is known by the 
name of Eka-danta or Eka-danshrfra (the single-tusked). These 
legends are narrated at length in the Brahma Vaivartta Purana. 
Ganesa is also called Gajanana, Gaja-vadana, and Kari-mukha, 
* elephant-faced;' Heramba;' 'boastful;' Lamba-kama, * long- 


eared;' Lambodara, ' pendant - bellied ;' Dwi-deha, 'double 
bodied;' Vighnesa, Yighna-hari, 'remover of obstacles.' A pecu- 
liar appellation is Dwai-matura, 'having two mothers/ in allusion, 
it is said, to his birth from the scurf of Parvatl's body. 

GAATESA-GITA. The Bhagavad-glta, but with the name 
of Gawesa substituted for that of Knstma It is used by the 
Ganapatyas or worshippers of Gawesa, 

GAJVE$A PURAJVA. AnIJpa Puram having especial refer- 
ence to the glory and greatness of Gawesa, 

GANGA. The sacred river Ganges. It is said to be mentioned 
only twice in the .Rig-veda, The Purmas represent the Viyad- 
ganga, or heavenly Ganges, to flow from the toe of Vishnu, and 
to have been brought down from heaven, by the prayers of the 
saint Bhaglratha, to purify the ashes of the sixty thousand sons 
of Kmg Sagara, who had been burnt by the angry glance of the 
sage Kapila. From this earthly parent the river is called 
BhagirathL Ganga was angry at being brought down from 
heaven, and $iva, to save the earth from the shock of her fall, 
caught the river on his brow, and checked its course with his 
matted locks. From this action he is called Gangardhara, 
* upholder of the 'Ganges.' The river descended from Siva's 
brow in several streams, four according to some, and ten accord- 
ing to others, but the number generally accepted is seven, being 
the Sapta-sindhava, the seven sindhus or rivers. The Ganges 
proper is one of the number. The descent of the Ganges dis- 
turbed the sage Jahnu as he was performing a sacrifice, and in 
his anger he drank up the waters, but he relented and allowed 
the river to flow from his ear, hence the Ganges has the name 
of JahnavL Personified as a goddess, Ganga is the oldest 
daughter of Himavat and Mena, and her sister was Uma. She 
became the wife of King $antanu and bore a son, Bhishma ; who is 
also known by the metronymic Gangeya, Being also, in a peculiar 
way, the mother of Kartikeya (q.v.), she is called Kumara-su. 
Gold, according to the Maha-bharata, was borne by the goddess 
Ganga to Agni, by whom she had been impregnated. Other 
names and titles of the Ganges are Bhadra-soma, Gandini, 
Kirata, Deva-bhuti, ' produced in heaven ;' Hara-sekhara, c crest of 
Siva;' Khapaga, 'flowing from heaven; 1 Mandakini, 'gently 
flowing ; ' Tri-patha-ga or Tri-srota/t, * triple flowing,' running m 
heaven, earth, and hell 


GANGA-DHAKA. A name of Siva. See Ganga* 

GANGA-DWAEA. The gate of the Ganges. The opening 
in the Himalaya mountains through which the river descends 
into the plains, now known as Hardwar. 

GANGA-SAGAEA, The mouth of the Ganges, a holy 
bathing-place sacred to Vishnu. 

GANGEYA. i. A name of Bhishrua, from his reputed mother, 
the river goddess Ganga. 2. Also of Karttikeya. 

GAEGA- An ancient sage, and one of the oldest writers on 
astronomy. He was a son of Yitatha. The Vishnu Pura?za 
says, " From Garga sprang Siria (or Sim) ; from them were de- 
scended the Gargyas and $ainyas, Brahmans of Kshatriya race." 
The statement of the Bhagavata is, " From Garga sprang $ina ; 
from them Gargya, who from a Kshatriya became a Brahman." 
There were many Gargas ; one was a priest of Krishna and 
the Yadavas. 

GAEGAS, GAEGYA S. Descendants of Garga, who, 
" although Kshatiiyas by birth, became Brahmans and great 

GAEGYA, GAEGYA BALAKL Son of Balaki. He was a 
Brahman, renowned as a teacher and as a grammarian, who dealt 
especially with etymology, and was well read in the Veda, but still 
submitted to receive instruction from the Kshatriya Ajata-.satru. 

GAEIJjDA. A mythical bird or vulture, half-man, half-bird, 
on which Vishnu rides. He is the king of birds, and descended 
from Kasyapa and Vinata, one of the daughters of Daksha. 
lie is the great enemy of serpents, having inherited his hatred 
from his mother, who had quarrelled with her co-wife and 
superior, Kadru, the mother of serpents. His lustre was so 
brilliant that soon after his birth the gods mistook him for Agni 
and worshipped him. He is represented as having the head, 
wings, talons, and beak of an eagle, and the body and 'limbs of 
a man. His face is white, his wings red, anil his body golden. 
He had a son named Sampati, and his wife was Unnati or 
Vinayaka. According to the Maha-bharata, his parents gave 
him liberty to devour bad men, but he was not to touch Brah- 
mans. Once, however, he swallowed a Brahuxan and his wife, 
but the Brahman so burnt his throat that he was glad to dis- 
gorge them both. 

Graurfa is said to Lave stolen the Amrita from the gods in 


order to purchase with it the freedom of his mother from Kadru* 
Indra discovered the theft and fought a fierce "battle with 
Garuda, The Amrita was recovered, hut Indra was worsted in 
the fight, and his thunderbolt was smashed, 

Garurfa has many names and epithets, From his parents he 
is called Kasyapi and Yainateya, He is the Supam and the 
Garutman, or chief of birds. He is also called Dakshaya, $al- 
malin, Tarkshya, and Yinayaka, and among his epithets are 
the following: Sitanana, i white faced ; 3 Rakta-paksha, 'red 
winged;' $weta~rohita, 'the white and red;' Suvam-kaya, 
( golden bodied;' Gaganeswara, 'lord of the sky; ' Khageswara, 
1 king of birds ; ' Nagantaka, and Pannaga-nasana, * destroyer 
of serpents ; ' Sarparati, c enemy of serpents ; ' Taraswin, ' the 
swift ; ' Kasayana, ( who moves like quicksilver ; ? Kama-charm, 
i who goes where he will ; ' Kamayus, * who lives at pleasure ; ' 
Chirad, ' eating long ; ' Vislmu-ratha, f vehicle, of Vishnu ; ' 
Amntaharana and Sudha-hara, ' stealer of the Amrita ; ' Suren- 
dra-jit, c vanquisher of Indra ; ' Yajra-jit, ' subduer of the thun- 
derbolt/ &c. 

GARILDA PUEA^A, The description given of this Purarca 
is, " That which Yish?iu recited in the Garurfa Kalpa, relating 
chiefly to the birth of Garu^a from Yinata, is called the Garu^a 
Purawa, and in it there are read 19,000 stanzas." The works 
bearing this name which were examined by Wilson did not cor- 
respond in any respect with this description, and he considered 
it doubtful if a genuine Garu^a Purawa is in existence. 

GATHA, A song, a verse. A religious verse, but one not 
taken from the Yedas. Yerses interspersed in the Sanskrit 
Buddhist work called Lalita-vistara, which are composed in a 
dialect between the Sanskrit and the Pralmt, and have given 
their name to this the Gatha dialect. The Zend hymns of the 
Zoroastrians are also called Gathas. 

GATU, A singer, a Gandharva. 

GAILPA, GAU5A. The ancient name of Central Bengal; 
also the name of the capital of the country, the ruins of which 
city are still visible. The great northern nation of Brahmans. 
See Brahman. 

G-ATJPAYANAS. Sons or descendants of Gopa. Four 
/Mils, who were the authors of four remarkable hymns in the 
jf&g-veda. One of them, named Su-bandhu, was killed and 


miraculously brought to life again. The hymns haye ben 
translated by Max Muller in the Journal E. A. , voL ii. 1866. 

GAUKL The : yellow ' or ' brilliant, 5 a name of the consort 
of $iva. (See Devi.) Varuna's wife also is called Gaun. 

GAUTAMA, i. A name of the sage $aradwat, as son of 
Gotama. He was husband of Ahalya, who was seduced by 
India. This seduction has been explained mythologically as 
signifying the carrying away of night by the morning sun, Indra 
being the sun, and Ahalya being explained as meaning night. 2. 
Author of a Dharma-sastra, which has been edited by Stenzler. 
3. A name common to many men, 

GAUTAME&A. ' Lord of Gautama.' Name of one of the 
twelve great Lingas. See Linga. 

GAUTAMI. i. An epithet of Durga. 2. Name of a fierce 
Rakshasi or female demon. 

GAY A, A city in Bihar. It is one of the seven sacred cities, 
and is still a place of pilgrimage, though its glory has departed 

GAYATRL A most sacred verse of the jRig-veda, which it 
is the duty of every Brahman to repeat mentally in his morning 
and evening devotions. It is addressed to the sun as Savitn, 
the generator, and so it is called also Savito'k Personified as a 
goddess, SavitrZ is the wife of Brahma, mother of the four Vedas, 
and also of the twice-born or three superior castes. Colebrooke's 
translation of the Gayatri is " Earth, sky, heaven. Let us medi- 
tate on (these, and on) the most excellent light and power of that 
generous, sportive, and resplendent sun, (praying that) it may 
guide our intellects." Wilson's version is, in his translation of 
the J?ig-Yeda, "We meditate on that desirable light of the 
divine Savitn who influences our pious rites." In the Yislmu 
Purawa he had before given a somewhat different version, " We 
meditate on that excellent light of the divine sun : may he 
illuminate our minds." A later version by Benfoy is, " May we 
receive the glorious brightness of this, the generator, of the god 
who shall prosper our works." 

Wilson observes of it : " The commentators admit some variety 
of interpretation ; but it probably meant, in its original use, a 
simple invocation of the sun to shed a benignant influence upon 
the customary offices of worship ; and it is still employed by the 
unphilosophical Hindus with merely that signification. Later 
notions, and especially those of the Vedanta, have operated to 


attach to the text an import it did not at first possess, and have 
converted it into a mystical propitiation of the spiritual origin 
and essence of existence, or Brahma." It is considered so holy 
that copyists often refrain from transcribing it. 

The name given to 5Wfca-rupa (q.v.), Brahma's female half, 
daughter, and consort, as " the declarer of sacred knowledge." 
It is also applied to the consort of /Siva in the Hari-vansa. 

GHATA-KARPAEA A poet, who was one of the " nine 
gems " of the court of Yikrarnaditya. There is a short artificial 
poem,. descriptive of the rainy season, bearing this name, which 
has been translated into German by Dursch. The words mean 
potsherds/ and form probably an assumed literary name. 

GHATOTKACHA. A son of Bhlma by the Rakshasi 
Hi^imba. He was killed in the great battle by Kama with the 
fatal lance that warrior had obtained from Indra. 

GHOSH A. It is said in the Veda that the Aswins " bestowed 
a husband upon Ghosha growing old," and the explanatory 
legend is that she was a daughter of Kakshivat, but being a 
leper, was incapable of marriage. When she was advanced in 
years the Aswins gave her health, youth, and beauty, so that she 
obtained a husband. 

GHJ?JTACHL An Apsaras or celestial nymph. She had 
many amours with great sages and mortal men. She was mother 
of ten sons by Raudraswa or BLusa-nabha, a descendant of Puru, 
and the Brahma Yaivartta Purawa attributes the origin of some 
of the mixed castes to her issue by the sage Yiswa-karman. The 
Hari-vansa asserts that she had ten daughters as well as ten sons 
by Raudraswa. Another legend represents her as mother by 
Kusa-nabha of a hundred daughters, whom Yayu wished to 
accompany him to the sky. They refused, and in his rage he 
cursed them to become deformed; but they recovered their 
natural shape and beauty, and were married to Brahma-datta, 
king of Kampila. 

GIRI-JA. ( Mountain born. 7 A name of Parvati or Devi. 
See Devi, 

GIRI-VRAJA. A royal city in Magadha, identified with 
Baja-gnha in Bihar. 

GlTA, The Bhagavad-gita (q.v.). 

GlTA-GOYINDA. A lyrical poem by Jaya-dava <m th^ 
sarly life of Krishna as Govinda the cowherd It is an erotic 


work, and sings the loves of Krishna with Radha, and other of 
the cowherd damsels, but a mystical interpretation has been put 
upon it. The poems are supposed to have been written about 
the twelfth or thirteenth century. There are some translations 
in the Asiatic Researches by Sir W. Jones, and a small volume 
of translations has been lately published by Mr. Edwin Arnold. 
There is also an edition of the text, with a Latin translation and 
notes, by Lassen, and there are some others. 

GOBHILA An ancient writer of the Sutra period Ho was 
author of some Gnhya Sutras, and of some Sutras on gram- 
mar. The Grihya Sutras have been published in the Mbliotheca 
India L 

GO-KAR/VA. ( Cow's ear.' A place of pilgrimage sacred to 
Siva, on the west coast, near Maugalore. 

GO-KULA A pastoral district on the Yamuna, about Ma- 
thura, where Krishna passed his boyhood with the cowherds. 

GO-LOKA. ' The place of cows.' K?*islwia j s heaven a 
modern addition to the original series of seven Lokas. 

GO-MANTA A great mountain in the Western Ghats. 
According to the Hari-vansa it was the scene of a defeat of 
Jara-sandha by Knshfta. 

GO-MAT! The Gumti river in Oude ; but there are others 
which bore the name. One foU into the Sindhu or Indus. 

GO-PAL A, GO-VINDA. l Cow-keeper.' A name of the 
youthful Krislwa, who lived among the cowherds in Yrtndar 

GOPALA-TAPANI An Upanishad in honour of Krishna 
Printed in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

GO-PATHA BEAIEM A. ML The Brahmawa of the Atharva 
or fourth Veda. It has boon published by Bajondra Lala in tlje 
Mbliotheca ludica. 

GOPATI-jBJSHABHA < Chief of herdsmen.' i, A title of 
$iva, 2. A demon mentioned in the Maha-bharata as slain by 

GO PlS. The cowherd damsels and wives with whom 
Krishna sported in his youth. 

GOTAMA. The founder of the Nyaya school of philosophy. 
He is called also $atananda, and is author of a Dharma-sastra 
or law-book, which has been edited by Stenzler. He is fre- 
quently called Gautama. 


GO-YAEDHANA A mountain in Yrindavana, which 
Knshwa induced the cowherds and eowherdesses to worship 
instead of Indra. This enraged the god, who sent a deluge 
of rain to wash away the mountain and all the people of the 
country, tut Knshna held up the mountain on his 'little finger 
for seTen days to shelter the people of Yn'ndavana. Indra 
retired baffled, and afterwards did homage to Knslma. 

GOYAEDHANA-DHAEA < Upholder of Govardhana,' A 
title of Knslma. 

GO-YIM)A < Cow-keeper/ A name of Krishna. 

GEAHA c Seizing.' i. The power that seizes and obscures 
the sun and moon, causing eclipses ; the ascending node, Eahu. 
2. Evil spirits with which people, especially children, are pos- 
sessed, and which cause sickness and death. They are supposed 
to be amenable to medicine and exorcism. 

GJLTEA-STHA, ' Householder.' A Brahman in the second 
stage of his religious life. See Brahman. 

Gj&ZHYA StJTEAS. Eules for the conduct of domestic 
rites and the personal sacraments, extending from the birth to 
the marriage of a man, (See Sutra.) The Gnhya Sfitras of 
Aswalayana have been printed in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

GjftJTSA-MADA The reputed .Z&shi of many hymns in the 
second Ma^ala of the JKg-veda. According to the Yishnu 
Purana he was a Kshatriya and son of Suna-hotra, being de- 
scended from Pururavas of the Lunar race. From him sprang 
Saunaka, the eminent sage versed in the jR^g-veda " who origi- 
nated the system of four castes." The Yayu Purana makes 
$unaka to be the son of Gntsa-mada, and Saunaka the son of 
$unaka : this seems probable. " It is related of him by Say ana 
that he was first a member of the family of Angiras, being the 
son of Suna-hotra. He was carried off by the Asuras whilst 
performing a sacrifice, but was rescued by Indra, under whose 
authority he was henceforth designated as Gntsa-mada, the son 
of jSunaka or $aunaka of the race of Bhn'gu. Thus the Anukra- 
maTiika says of him : He who was an Angirasa, the son of 
una-hotra, became /Saunaka of the race of Bhngu." According 
to the Maha-bharata, he was son of Ylta-havya, a king of the 
Haihayas, a Kshatriya, who became a Brahman. (See Vita- 
havya.) The Mahar-bharata alludes to a legend of his having 
assumed the semblance of Indra, and so enabled that deity to 


escape from the Asuras, who were lying in wait to destroy him. 
There are several versions of the story, but they aD agree that 
after Indra had escaped Gntsa-mada saved himself by reciting 
a hymn in which he showed that Indra was a different person, 

GUJ5A-KESA. * Whose hair is in tufts.' An epithet of 

GUHA. 'Secret' i. A name of the god 'of war. (See 
Karttikeya.) 2. A king of the Mshadas or Bhils, who was 
a friend of Kama. 3. A people near Kalinga, who possibly 
got their name from him. 

GUHYAKAS. 'Hidden beings.' Inferior divinities atten- 
dant upon Kuvera, and guardians of his hidden treasures. 

GUPTAS. A dynasty of kings who reigned in Magadha. 
The period of their ascendancy has been a subject of great con- 
tention, and cannot be said to be settled. 

GUEJJAEA. The country of Gujarat. 

HAIHAYA. This name is supposed to be derived from 
hay a, ' a horse.' i. A prince of the Lunar race, and great-grandson 
of Yadu. 2. A race or tribe of people to whom a Scythian origin 
has been ascribed The Vishnu Purana represents them as de- 
scendants of Haihaya of the Yadu race, but they are generally 
associated with borderers and outlying tribes. In the Vayu and 
other Pura?ms, five great divisions of the tribe are named : Tala- 
janghas, Vlti-hotras, Avantis, Tuwrfikeras, and Jatas, or rather 
Su-jatas. They conquered Balm or Bahuka, a descendant of 
King Haris-chandra, and were in their turn conquered, along with 
many other barbarian tribes, by King Sagara, son of Bahu. 
According to the Maha-bharata, they were descended from $ar- 
yati, a son of Maim. They made incursions into the Doab, and 
they took the city of Kasi (Benares), which had been fortified 
against them by King Divo-dasa ; but the grandson of this king 
Pratardana by name, destroyed the Haihayas, and re-established 
the kingdom of Katfu Arjuna-KcUtavirya, of a thousand arms, 
was king of the Haihayas, and he was defeated and had his 
arms cut off by Parasu-rama. 

The Vindhya mountains would seem to have been the home 
of these tribes ; and according to Colonel Todd, a tribe of Hai- 
hayas still exists "near the very top of the valley of Sohagpoor, 
in Ehagolkhand, aware of their ancient lineage, and, though 
few n number, still celebrated for their valour." 


HALA-BELRIT. ' Bearing a plough.' Bala-rama. 

HALAYUDHA. ( Wlio lias a ploughshare for his weapon,* 
i.e., Bala-rama. 

HANSA. i. This, according to the Bhagavata Puraraa, was 
the name of the " one caste/' when, in olden times, there was 
only " one Veda, one God, and one caste." 2. A name used 
in the Maha-bharata for Kn'shraa. 3. A mountain range north 
of Mem. 

HANSA Hansa and Dimbhaka were two great warrior- 
brothers mentioned in the Maha-bharata as friends of Jara-sandha. 
A certain king also named Hansa was killed by Bala-rama. 
Hearing that " Hansa was killed," Dimbhaka, unable to live 
withont him, committed suicide, and when Hansa heard of this 
he drowned himself in the Yamuna. 

monkey chief. He was son of Pavana, f the wind/ by Anjana, 
wife of a monkey named Kesari. He was able to fly, and is 
a conspicuous figure in the Ramaya^a. He and the other 
monkeys who assisted Kama in his war against Ravana were of 
divine origin, and their powers were superhuman. Hanuman 
jumped from India to Ceylon in one bound ; he tore up trees, 
carried away the Himalayas, seized the clouds, and performed 
many other wonderful exploits. (See Surasa.) His form is " as 
vast as a mountain and as tall as a gigantic tower. His com- 
plexion is yellow and glowing like molten gold. His face is as 
red as the brightest ruby ; while his enormous tail spreads out 
to an interminable length. He stands on a lofty rock and roars 
like thunder. He leaps into the air, and flies among the clouds 
with a rushing noise, whilst the ocean waves are roaring and 
splashing below." In one of his fights with Ravam and the 
Rakshasas, they greased his tail and set it on fire, but to their 
own great injury, for with it he burnt down their capital city, 
Lanka. This exploit obtained for him the name Lanka-dahi. 
His services to Rama were great and many. He acted as his 
spy, and fought most valiantly. He flew to the Himalayas, 
from whence he brought medicinal herbs with which he restored 
the wounded, and he killed the monster KaLa-nemi, and thou- 
sands of Gandharvas who assailed him. He accompanied Rama 
on his return to Ayodhya, and there he received from him the 
reward of perpetual life and youth. The exploits of Hanuman 


are favourite topics among Hindus from childhood to age, and 
paintings of them are common. He is called Marut-putra, and 
he has the patronymics Anili, Maruti, &c., and the metronymic 
Anjaneya. He is also Yoga-chara, from his power in magic or 
in the healing art, and Eajata-dyuti, * the brilliant/ Among his 
other accomplishments, Hanumat was a grammarian ; and the 
Eamayatta says, " Tho chief of monkeys is perfect ; no one 
equals him in the sastras, in learning, and in ascertaining the 
sense of the scriptures [or in moving at will]. In all sciences, 
in the rules of austerity, he rivals the preceptor of the gods. 

... It is well known that Hanumat was the ninth author 
of grammar." Muir, iv. 490. 

HANUMAN-NATAKA. A long drama by various hands 
upon the adventures of the monkey chief Hanuman. This 
drama is fabled to have been composed by Hanuman, and in 
scribed by him on rocks. Valmiki, the author of the Eamaya?za, 
saw it and feared that it would throw his own poem into the 
shade. He complained to the author, who told him to cast the 
verses into the sea. He did so, and they remained concealed 
there for ages. Portions were discovered and brought to King 
Bhoja, who directed Damodara Misra to arrange them and fill 
up the lacunae. He did so, and the result was this drama. 
" It is probable," says "Wilson, " that the fragments of an ancient 
drama were connected in the manner described. Some of the 
ideas are poetical, and the sentiments just and forcible ; the 
language is generally very harmonious, but the work itself is, 
after all, a most disjointed and nondescript composition, and the 
patchwork is very glaringly and clumsily put together." It is a 
work of the tenth or eleventh century. It has been printed in 

HAEA. A name of Siva. 

HAEL A name which commonly designates Yislmu, but it 
is exceptionally used for other gods. 

H AEI-D "WAEA. ' The gate of Hail ' The modem Hard war. 
The place where the Ganges finally breaks through the moun- 
tains into the plains of Hindustan. Jt is a great place of 

HAEI-HAEA. A combination of the names of Vishwi and 
Siva, and representing the union of the two deities IE one, a 
combination which is differently accounted for. 


HARIS-CHANDEA. Twenty-eighth king of the Solar race, 
and son of Tri-sanku. He was celebrated for his piety and 
justice. There are several legends about him. The Aitareya 
Brahmawa tells the story of his purchasing $unaA-sephas to be 
offered up as a -vicarious sacrifice for his own son. (See Sw&Sili- 
sephas.) The Maha-bharata relates that he was raised to the 
heaven of Indra for his performance of the Raja-saya sacrifice 
and for his unbounded liberality. The Marka?wfeya Purafia 
expands the story at considerable length. One day while Haris- 
chandra was hunting he heard female lamentations, which pro- 
ceeded " from the Sciences, who were being mastered by the 
austerely fervid sage Viswamitra, and were crying out in alarm 
at his superiority." Haris-chandra, as defender of the distressed, 
went to the rescue, but Viswamitra was so provoked by his 
interference that the Sciences instantly perished, and Haris- 
chandra was reduced to a state of abject helplessness. Viswa- 
mitra demanded the sacrificial gift due to him as -a Brahman, 
and the king offered him whatever he might choose to ask, 
" gold, his own son, wife, body, life, kingdom, good fortune," 
whatever was dearest. Viswamitra stripped him of wealth and 
kingdom, leaving him nothing but a garment of bark and his 
wife and son. In a state of destitution he' left his kingdom, 
and Viswamitra struck Saibya, the queen, with his staff to hasten 
her reluctant departure. To escape from his oppressor he pro- 
ceeded to the holy city of Benares, but the relentless sage was 
waiting for him and demanded the completion of the gift. 
With bitter grief wife and child were sold, and there remained 
only himself. Dharma, the god of justice, appeared in the 
form of a hideous and offensive Chamfclla, and offered to buy 
him. Notwithstanding the exile's repugnance and horror, 
Viswamitra insisted upon the sale, and Haris-chandra was 
carried off "bound, boaten, confused, and afflicted," to the 
abode of the Cha?wMa. He was sent by his master to steal 
grave-clothes from a cemetery. In this horrid place and de- 
grading work he spent twelve months. His wife then came 
to the cemetery to perform the obsequies of her son, who had 
died from the bite of a serpent. They recognised each other, 
and Haris-chandra and his wife resolved to die upon the funeral 
pyre of their son, though he hesitated to take away his own life 
without the consent of his master. After all was prepared, h* 


gave himself up to meditation on Vishrra. The gods then 
arrived, headed by Dharma and accompanied by Viswamitra. 
Dharma entreated him to refrain from his intention, and Indra 
informed him " that he, his wife, and son, had conquered heaven 
by their good works." Haris-chandra declared that he could not 
go to heaven without the permission of his master the Cha?i^ala. 
Dharma then revealed himself. When this difficulty was 
removed, Haris-chandra objected to go to heaven without his 
faithful subjects. "This request was granted by Indra, and 
after Viswamitra had inaugurated Eohitaswa, the king's son, to 
be his successor, Haris-chandra, his friends, and followers, all 
ascended in company to heaven." There he was induced by 
the sage Narada to boast of his merits, and this led to his 
expulsion from heaven. As he was falling he repented of his 
fault and was forgiven. His downward course was arrested, 
and he and his followers dwell in an aerial city, which, accord- 
ing to popular belief, is still visible occasionally in mid-air. 

HAEITA, HAElTA i. A son of Yuvanaswa of the Solar 
race, descended from Ikshwaku. Prom him descended the 
Harita Angirasas. In the Linga Purarai it is said, " The son of 
Yuvanaswa was Harita, of whom the Haritas were sons. They 
were, on the side of Angiras, twice-born men (Brahmans) of 
Kshatriya lineage ; " or according to the Vayu, " they were the 
sons of Angiras, twice-born men (Brahmans), of Kshatriya race," 
possibly meaning that they were sons raised up to Harita by 
Angiras. According to some he was a son of Chyavana. 2. 
Author of a Dharma-sastra or law-book. 

HABITS, HAEITAS. ' Green/ In the 5%-veda the horses, 
or rather mares, of the sun, seven or ten in number, and typical 
of his rays. " The prototype of the Grecian Charites." Max 

HAEI-VANSA, The genealogy of Hari or Vishnu, a long 
poem of 16,374 verses. It purports to be a part of the Mahir 
bharata, but it is of much later date, and " may more accurately 
be ranked with the Pauramk compilations of least authenticity 
and latest date." It is in three parts ; the first is introductory, 
and gives particulars of the creation and of the patriarchal and 
regal dynasties ; the second contains the life and adventures of 
"Krishna ; and the last and the third treats of the future of the 


world and the corruptions of the Kali age. It contains many 
indications of its having "been written in the south of India. 

H ARSH ANA. A deity who presides over the Staddha offerings. 

HARYASWA, A grandson of the Kuvalayaswa who killed 
the demon Dhundhu. The country of Panchala is said to have 
been named from his five (pamha) sons. There were several 
others of this name. 

EARYAS'WAS. Five thousand sons of the patriarch 
Daksha, begotten by him for the purpose of peopling the earth. 
The sage Farada dissuaded them from producing offspring, and 
they " dispersed themselves through the regions and have not 

HASTINA-PURA. The capital city of the Kauravas, for 
which the great war of the Maha-bharata was waged. It was 
founded by Hastin, son of the first Bharata, and hence, as some 
say, its name ; but the Maha-bharata and the Vishrwi Purawa 
call it the " elephant city," from hastin, an elephant. The ruins 
are traceable near an old bed of the Ganges, about 57 miles 
N.E. of Delhi, and local tradition has preserved the name. It 
is said to have been washed away by the Ganges. 

HASYARATAYA. ' Ocean of laughter/ A modern comic 
piece in two acts, by a Pawdit named Jagadlsa. "It is a severe 
but grossly indelicate satire upon the licentiousness of Brah- 
mans assuming the character of religious mendicants," Wilson. 

HAVIK-BEUJ, HAVISE-MATA. Pitns or Manes of the 
Kshatriyas, and inhabitants of the solar sphere. See Pitris. 

HAYA-GRIYA. c Horse-necked.' According to one legend, 
a Daitya who stole the Yeda as it slipped out of the mouth of 
Brahma while he was sleeping at the end of a kalpa, and was 
killed by Yislmu in the Pish Avatara. According to another, 
Yishftu himself, who assumed this form to recover the Yeda, 
which had been carried off by two Daityas. 

HAYA-SIRAS, HAYA-IRSHA. 'Horse-head.' In the 
Maha-bharata it is recorded that the sage Aurva (q.v.) "cast the 
fire of his anger into the sea," and that it there " became the 
great Haya-siras, known to those acquainted with the Yeda, 
which vomits forth that fire and drinks up the waters." A form 
of Yishwi. 

In the Bhagavata Purawa Brahma is represented as saying, 
w In my sacrifice Bhagavat himself was Haya-slrsha, the male of 


the sacrifice, whose colour is that of gold, of whom the Vedaa 
and the sacrifices are the substance and the gods the soul ; 
when he respired, charming words came forth from his nostrils." 

HEMA-CHANDBA. Author of a good Sanskrit vocabulary, 
printed under the superintendence of Colebrooke. 

HEMADBI. ' The golden mountain/ i.e., Meru. 

HEMA-KT3TA. c Golden peak.' A chain of mountains re- 
presented as lying north of the Himalayas, between them and 
Mount Meru. 

HLDIMBA (mas.), HLOIMBA (fern.). A powerful Asura, 
who had yellow eyes and a horrible aspect. He was a cannibal, 
and dwelt in the forest to which the Pan&vas retired after the 
burning of their house. He had a sister named Hi&nba, whom 
he sent to lure the PaTz^avas to him; but on meeting with Bhima, 
she fell in love with him, and offered to carry him away to 
safety on her back. Bhima refused, and while they were par- 
leying, HicKmba came up, and a terrible fight ensued, in which 
Bhima killed the monster. Hidiniba was at first much terrified 
and fled, but she returned and claimed Bhima for her husband 
By his mother's desire Bhima married her, and by her had a 
eon named Ghafotkacha, 

HIMACHALA, HIMADBI. The Himalaya mountains. 

HIMAYAT. The personification of the Himalaya mountains, 
husband of Mena or Menaka, and father of Uma and Ganga. 

HIBA.ZVTA-GABBHA, < Golden egg' or golden womb/ 
In the J?ig-veda Hiranya-garbha " is said to have arisen in the 
beginning, the one lord of all beings, who upholds heaven 
and earth, who gives life and breath, whose command even the 
gods obey, who is the god over all gods, and the one animating 
principle of their being." According to Mama, Hirawya-garbha 
was Brahma, the first male, formed by the undiscernible eternal 
First Cause in a golden egg resplendent as the sun. " Having 
continued a year in the egg, Brahma divided it into two parts 
by his mere thought, and with these two shells he formed the 
heavens and the earth \ and in the middle he placed the sky, 
the eight regions, and the eternal abode of the waters." See 

HIRA^TAKSHA. ' Golden eye/ A Daitya who dragged the 
earth to the depths of the ocean. He was twin-brother of Hira* 
, and was killed "by Yishnu in the Boar incarnation. 


HIKAATTA-KASIPTJ. ' Golden dress.' A Daitya who, ac- 
cording to the Maha-bharata and the Puranas, obtained from $iva 
the sovereignty of the three worlds for a million of years, and 
persecuted his son Prahlada for worshipping Vishnu. He was 
slain by Vishrra in the Nara-sinha, or man-lion incarnation. He 
and Hiranyaksha were twin-brothers and chiefs of the Daityas. 

HITOPAJDESA. ' Good advice.' The well-known collection 
of ethical tales and fables compiled from the larger and older 
work called Pancha-tantra. It has been often printed, and there 
are several translations; among them is an edition by Johnson 
of text, vocabulary, and translation. 

HOT-HI. A priest who recites the prayers from the Rig- 

H.RISHIKESA- A name of Krishna or Vishnu. 

HtJWAS. According to Wilson, " the White Huns or Indo- 
Scythians, who were established in the Panjab and along the 
Indus at the commencement of our era, as we know from Arrian, 
Strabo, and Ptolemy, confirmed by recent discoveries of their 
coins/' and since still further confirmed by inscriptions and 
additional coins. Dr. Fitzedward Hall says, "I am not pre- 
pared to deny that the ancient Hindus, when they spoke of 
the Hunas, intended the Huns. In the Middle Ages, however, 
it is certain that a race called Huwa was understood by the 
learned of India to form a division of the Kshatriyas." V. P. 
ii 134. 

HUN-DE5A. The country round Lake Manasarovara. 

HUSHKA HUVISHKA. A Tushkara or Turki king, whose 
name is mentioned in the Raja Tarangini as Hushka, which has 
been found in inscriptions as Huvishka, and upon the corrupt 
Greek coins as Oerki. He is supposed to have reigned just at 
the commencement of the Christian era. See Kanishka. 

IDA. In the J?ig-veda I^a is primarily food, refreshment, or 
a libation of milk ; thence a stream of praise, personified as the 
goddess of speech. She is called the instructress of Manu, and 
frequent passages ascribe to her the first institution of the rules 
of performing sacrifices. According to Sayawa, she is the goddess 
presiding over the earth. A legend in the Satapatha Brahmana 
represents her as springing from a sacrifice which Manu per- 
formed for the purpose of obtaining offspring. She was claimed 
by Mitra-Varuna, but remained faithful to him who had pro- 

IDA1NDRA. 123 

duced her. Manu lived with her, and praying and fasting to 
obtain otfspring, he begat upon her the race of Manu. In 
the Purawas she is daughter of the Manu Vaivaswata, wife of 
Budha (Mercury), and mother of Pururavas. The Manu Vaivas- 
wata, before he had sons, instituted a sacrifice to Mitra and 
Varuna for the purpose of obtaining one; but the officiating 
priest mismanaged the performance, and the result was the birth 
of a daughter, Ida or Ila. Through the favour of the two 
deities her sex was changed, and she became a man, Su-dyumna. 
Under the malediction of $iva, Su-dyumna was again turned into 
a woman, and, as Ila, married Budha or Mercury. After she had 
given birth to Pururavas, she, under the favour of Vislmu, once 
more became Su-dyumna, and was the father of three sons. 
According to another version of the legend, the Manu's eldest 
son was named Ila. He having trespassed on a grove sacred 
to Parvati, was changed into a female, Ila. Upon the supplica- 
tions and prayers of Ila's friends, $iva and his consort conceded 
that the offender should be a male one month and a female 
another. There are other variations in the story which is appa- 
rently ancient. 

IDA VIZ) A. Daughter of Trmabindu and the Apsaras Alam- 
busha. There are different statements in the Puranas as regards 
her. She is represented to be the wife of Visravas and mother 
of Kuvera, or the wife of Pulastya and mother of Visravas. 

IKSHWAKTI. Son of the Manu Vaivaswat, who was son 
of Vivaswat, the sun. " He was born from the nostril of the 
Manu as he happened to sneeze." Ikshwaku was founder of the 
Solar race of kings, and reigned in Ayodhya at the beginning of 
the second Yuga or age. He had a hundred sons, of whom the 
eldest was Vikukshi Another son, named Nimi, founded the 
Mithila dynasty. According to Max Mailer the name is men- 
tioned once, and only once, in the .ffig-veda. Respecting this 
he adds: " I take it, not as the name of a king, but as the name 
of a people, probably the people who inhabited Bhajeratha, the 
country washed by the northern Ganga or Bhaglrathi" Others 
place the Ikshwakus in the north-west 

ILA, ILA. See Ida, 

ILlVILA. See Idavida. 

ILVALA. flkYatapi. 

INDBA. The god of the firmament, the personified atmo- 

124 INDRA. 

sphere. In the Vedas lie stands in the first rank among the 
gods, but he is not uncreate, and is represented as having a 
father and mother : " a vigorous god begot him ; a heroic female 
brought him forth." He is described as being of a ruddy or 
golden colour, and as having arms of enormous length; "but 
his forms are endless, and he can assume any shape at will." 
He rides in a bright golden car, drawn by two tawny or ruddy 
horses with flowing manes and tails. His weapon is the thun- 
derbolt, which he carries in his right hand ; he also uses arrows, 
a great hook, and a net, in which he is said to entangle his foes, 
The soma juice is his especial delight; he takes enormous 
draughts of it, and, stimulated by its exhilarating qualities, he 
goes forth to war against his foes, and to perform his other 
duties. As deity of the atmosphere, he governs the weather 
and dispenses the rain; he sends forth his lightnings and 
thunder, and he is continually at war with V?itra or Ahi, the 
demon of drought and inclement weather, whom he overcomes 
with his thunderbolts, and compels to pour down the rain. 
Strabo describes the Indians as worshipping Jupiter Pluvius, no 
doubt meaning Indra, and he has also been compared to Jupiter 
Tonans. One myth is that of his discovering and rescuing the 
cows of the priests or of the gods, which had been stolen by an 
Asura named Pam or Vala, whom he killed, and he is hence 
called Yala-bhid. He is frequently represented as destroying the 
"stone-built cities" of the Asuras or atmospheric demons, and of 
the Dasyus or aborigines of India. In his warfare he is sometimes 
represented as escorted by troops of Maruts, and attended by his 
comrade Vishnu. More hymns are addressed to Indra than to any 
other deity in the Vedas, with the exception of Agni For he 
was reverenced in his beneficent character as the bestower of rain 
and the cause of fertility, and he was feared as the awful ruler 
of the storm and director of the lightning and thunder. In 
many places of the Jftg-veda the highest divine functions and 
attributes are ascribed to him. There was a triad of gods 
Agni, Vayu, and Surya which held a pre-eminence above the 
rest, and Indra frequently took the place of Vayu. In some 
parts of the Veda, as Dr. Muir remarks, the ideas expressed of 
Indra are grand and lofty ; at other times he is treated with 
familiarity, and his devotion to the soma juice is dilated upon, 
though, nothing debasing is perceived in his sensuality. Indra 

INDRA. 12$ 

is mentioned as having a wife, and the name of Indratti or 
Aindri is invoked among the goddesses. In the Satapatha 
Brahmafta she is called India's beloved wife. 

In the later mythology Indra has fallen into the second rank. 
He is inferior to the triad, but he is the chief of all the other 
gods. He is the regent of the atmosphere and of the east 
quarter of the compass, and he reigns over Swarga, the heaven 
of the gods and of beatified spirits, which is a region of great 
magnificence and splendour. He retains many of his Vedic 
characteristics, and some of them are intensified. He sends the 
lightning and hurls the thunderbolt, and the rainbow is his bow. 
He is frequently at war with the Asuras, of whom he lives in 
constant dread, and by whom he is often worsted. But he slew 
the demon Vritra, who, being regarded as a Brahman, Indra had 
to conceal himself and make sacrifice until his guilt was purged 
away. His continued love for the soma juice is shown by a 
legend in the MahJi-bhiirata, which represents him as being com- 
pelled by the sage Chyavana to allow the As wins to partake of 
the soma libations, and his sensuality has now developed into 
an extreme lasciviousness. Many instances are recorded of his 
incontinence and adultery, and his example is frequently referred 
to as an excuse in cases of gallantry, as by King ISTahusha when 
he tried to obtain India's wife while the latter was hiding in 
fear for having killed the Brahman in the person of the demon 
Wttra. According to the Maha-bharata he seduced, or endea- 
voured to seduce, Ahalya, the wife of the sage Gautama, and 
that sage's curse impressed upon him a thousand marks resem- 
bling the female organ, so he was called Sa-yoni; but these 
marks were afterwards changed to eyes, and he is hence called 
Netra-yoni, and Sahasraksha f the thousand-eyed.' In the 
Eamayana it is related that Ravana, the Rakshasa king of Lanka 
or Ceylon, warred against Indra in his own heaven, and that 
Indra was defeated and carried off to Lanka by Havana's son 
Megha-nilda, who for this exploit received the title of Indra-jit 
(q.v.), ' conqueror of Indra.' Brahma and the gods had to sue 
for the release of Indra, and to purchase it with the boon of 
immortality to the victor. Brahma then told the humiliated 
god that his defeat was a punishment for the seduction of 
Ahalya, The Taittirlya Brahmam states that he chose Indian! 
to be his wife in preference to other goddesses because of hei 

126 INDRA. 

voluptuous attractions, and later authorities say that he ravished 
her, and slew her father, the Daitya Puloman, to escape hig 
curse. Mythologically he was father of Arjuna (q.v.), and for 
b.i.Tn he cheated Karwa of his divine coat of mail, but gave 
Kama in recompense a javelin of deadly effect. His libertine 
character is also shown by his frequently sending celestial 
nymphs to excite the passions of holy men, and to beguile them 
from the potent penances which he dreaded. 

In the Purarcas many stories are told of him, and he appears 
especially in rivalry with Knshm He incurred the wrath of 
the choleric sage Dur-vasas by slighting a garland of flowers 
which that sage presented to him, and so brought upon himself 
the curse that his whole dominion should be whelmed in ruin. 
He was utterly defeated by the Daityas, or rather by their ally, 
Raja, son of Ayus, and grandson of Pururavas, and he was 
reduced to such a forlorn condition that he, " the god of a hun- 
dred sacrifices," was compelled to beg for a little sacrificial 
butter. Puffed up by their victory, his conquerors neglected 
their duties, and so they "became the easy prey of Indra, who 
recovered his dominion. The Bhagavata Purarza represents him 
as having killed a Brahman, and of being haunted by that crime, 
personified as a Cha?wZali 

Indra had been an object of worship among the pastoral 
people of Vraja, but Knshfia persuaded them to cease this 
worship. Indra was greatly enraged at this, and sent a deluge 
of rain to overwhelm them; but KnshTia lifted up the mountain 
Govardhana on his finger to shelter them, and so held it for 
seven days, till Indra was baffled and rendered homage to 
'Krishna. Again, when Krishna went to visit Swarga, and was 
about to carry off the Parijata tree, Indra resented its removal, 
and a fierce fight ensued, in which Indra was worsted, and the 
tree was carried off. Among the deeds of Indra recorded in 
the Puranas is that of the destruction of the offspring of Diti 
in her womb, and the production therefrom of the Maruts (see 
Diti) ; and there is a story of his cutting off the wings of the 
mountains with his thunderbolts, because they were refractory 
and troublesome. India is represented as a fair man riding on 
a white horse or an elephant, and bearing the vajra or thunder- 
bolt in his hand- His son is named Jayanta. Indra is not the 
object of direct worship, but he receives incidental adoration, 


and there is a festival kept in his honour called $akra-dhwajot- 
thana, ' the raising of the standard of Indra.' 

Indra's names are many, as Mahendra, /Sakra, Maghavan, 
j?ibhuksha, Yasava, Arha, Datteya, His epithets or titles also 
are numerous. He is Yn'tra-han, ' the destroyer of Yritra ; ' 
Yajra-pa%i, 'of the thunderbolt hand;' Megha-vahana, 'home 
upon the clouds ; ' Paka-isasana, the suhduer of Paka ; ' 
$ata-kratu, t of a hundred sacrifices ; ' Deva-pati and Sura- 
dhipa, chief of the gods ; ' Divas-pati, * ruler of the 
atmosphere ; ' Marutwan, * lord of the winds ; ' Swarga-pati, 
' lord of paradise ; ' Jishwu, ' leader of the celestial host ; ' 
Puran-dara, ' destroyer of cities;' Uluka, ( the owl;' Ugra- 
dhanwan, ' of the terrible bow/ and many others, The heaven 
of Indra is Swarga; its capital is AmaravatI; his palace, Yaija- 
yanta ; his garden, Nandana, Kandasara, or Parushya ; his 
elephant is Airavata; his horse, UchchaiKs'ravas ; his chariot, 
Yimana ; his charioteer, Matali ; his bow, the rainbow, Sakra- 
dhanus ; and his sword, Paran-ja, 

INDRA-DYUMNA. Son of Su-mati and grandson of 
Bharata. There were several of the name, among them a king 
of Avanti, by whom the temple of Yishwu was built, and the 
image of Jagan-natha was set up in Orissa, 

INDRA-JIT. Megha-nada, son of RavaTia. When Ravawa 
went against Indra's forces in Swarga, his son Megha-nada 
accompanied him, and fought most valiantly, Indra himself 
was obliged to interfere, when Megha-nada, availing himself of 
the magical power of becoming invisible, which he had obtained 
from Siva, bound Indra and carried him off to Lanka, The 
gods, headed by Brahma, went thither to obtain the release of 
Indra, and Brahma gave to Megha-nada the name India-jit, 
conqueror of Indra.' Still the victor refused to release his pri- 
soner for anything less than the boon of immortality. Brahma 
refused, but Indra-jit persisted in his demand and achieved his 
object One version of the Ramaya7&a states that Indra-jit was 
killed and had his head cut off by Lakshmami, who surprised 
him while he was engaged in a sacrifice. 
INDRA-KlLA. The mountain Mandara, 
INDRA-LOKA. Indra's heaven, Swarga, See Loka, 
INDRA^L Wife of Indra, and mother of Jayanta and 
Jayanti, She is also called Skchi and Aiudri She is men- 


tioned a few times in the jfttg-veda, and is said to be the most 
fortunate of females, " for her husband shall never die of old 
age." The Taittiriya BrahmaT&a states that Indra chose her for 
his wife from a number of competing goddesses, because she 
surpassed them all in voluptuous attractions. In the Ramayana 
and Puranas she appears as the daughter of the Daitya Puloman, 
from whom she has the patronymic Paulomi. She was ravished 
by Indra, who killed her father to escape his curse. According 
to the Maha-bharata, King Nahusha became enamoured of her, 
and she escaped from him with difficulty. Indram has never 
been held in very high esteem as a goddess. 

INDRA-PRAMATL An early teacher of the J^g-veda, who 
received one Sanhita direct from Paila. 

INDRA-PRASTHA. The capital city of the PaTwfa princes. 
The name is still known, and is used for a part of the city of 

INDRA-SENA (mas.), INDRA-SENA (fern,). Names of the 
son and daughter of Nala and DamayantL 

INDU. The moon. See Soma. 

INDU-MATL Sister of Bhoja, king of Yidarbha, who chose 
Prince Aja for her husband at her swayam-vara. She was 
killed by Narada's garland falling upon her while asleep in an 

INDU-MA.ZVL The moon gem. See Chandra-kanta* 

IRAYAT. A son of Arjuna by his Naga wife TJlupL 

IRAYATI The river Ravi or Hydraotes. 

ISA. 'Lord.' A title of Siva. Name of a TJpanishad 
(q.v.) which has been translated by Dr. Roer in the Siblwtheca 

ISANA. A name of Siva or Rudra, or of one of his manifes- 
tations. (See Rudra.) He is guardian of the north-east quarter. 

ISH7T-PASAS. 'Stealers of offerings/ Rakshasas and 
other enemies of the gods, who steal the oblations. 

IS WAR A. 4 Lord. 7 A title given to Siva, 
1 LSWARA KRISHNA Author of the philosophical treatise 
called Sankhya Karika. 

ITIHAS AS. Legendary poems. Heroic history. " Stories 
like those of UrvasI and Pururavas." The term is especially 
applied to the MahaXbharata. 

JABALI, JAYALL A Brahman who was priest of King 


Dasa-ratha, and held sceptical philosophical opinions. He is 
represented in the Ramayawa as enforcing his views upon Rama, 
who decidedly repudiated them. Thereupon he asserted that 
his atheistical arguments had been used only for a purpose, 
and that he was really imbued with sentiments of piety and 
religion. He is said to have been a logician, so probably he 
belonged to the Nyaya school 

, JAGAD-DHAT^/ (DHATA). < Sustainer of the world.' 
An epithet given to both Saraswat! and Durga. 

JAGAN-MAT5/ (MATA). ' Mother of the world. 7 One of 
the names of Diva's wife. See Devi. 

JAGAJST-NATHA. 'Lord of the world.' A particular form 
of Vishwu, or rather of Knshwa. He is worshipped in Bengal 
and other parts of India, but Puri, near the town of Cuttack, in 
Orissa, is the great seat of his worship, and multitudes of pil- 
grims resort thither from all parts, especially to the two great 
festivals of the Snana-yatra and Ratha-yatra, in the months of 
Jyaishha and Asha^ha. The first of these is when the image is 
bathed, and in the second, or car festival, the image is brought 
out upon a car with the images of his brother Bala-rama and 
sister Su-bhadra, and is drawn by the devotees, The legend of 
the origin of Jagan-natha is peculiar. Krishna was killed by 
a hunter, and his body was left to rot under a tree, but some 
pious persons found the bones and placed them in a box. A 
devout king named Indra-dyumna was directed by Vislmu to 
form an imago of Jagan-natha and to place the bones of Kn'shm 
inside it. Viswa-karma, the architect of the gods, undertook to 
make the image, on condition of being left quite undisturbed 
till the work was complete. After fifteen days the king was 
impatient and went to Viswa-karma, who was angry, and left off 
work before he had made either hands or feet, so that the image 
has only stumps. Indra-dyumna prayed to Brahma, who pro- 
mised to make the imago famous, and ho did so by giving to it 
eyes and a soul, and by acting as high priest at its consecration. 

JAHNAVI The Ganges. See Jahnu. 

JAHNU. A sage descended from Pururavas. He was dis- 
turbed in his devotions by the passage of the river Ganga, and 
consequently drank up its waters. IIo afterwards relented, and 
allowed the stream to issue from his ear, hence Ganga is called 
Jahnavi, daughter of Jahnu. See Ganga, 


JAIMIKL A celebrated sage, a disciple of Vyasa. He is 
said to have received the Sama-veda from his master, and to 
hare been its publisher or teacher. He was also the founder 
of the Purva-mimansa philosophy. The text of Jaimini is 
printed in the BiUiotheca Indica. 

philosophy by Madhava. It has been edited by Goldstiicker 
and Co well 

JAJALL A Brahman mentioned in the Maha-bharata as 
having by ascetism acquired a supernatural power of locomotion, 
of which he was so proud that he deemed himself perfect in 
virtue and superior to all men. A voice from the sky told him 
that he was inferior to Tuladhara, a Vaisya and a trader. He 
went to this Tuladhara and learnt wisdom from him. 

JALA-HUP A. The fish or the Makara on the banner of 

JALA-SA.YEN". * Sleeping on the waters.' An appellation 
of Vishnu, as he is supposed to sleep upon his serpent couch on 
fche waters during the rainy season, or during the submersion of 
the world. 

JAMAD-AGNI. A Brahman and a descendant of Bhngu. 
He was the son of jRichika and Satya-vati, and was the father 
of five sons, the youngest and most renowned of whom was 
Parasu-rama. Jamad-agni's mother, Satya-vati, was daughter of 
King Gadhi, a Kshatriya. The Vishnu Purana relates that 
when Satya-vati was pregnant, her Brahman husband, jF&chika, 
prepared a mess for her to eat for the purpose of securing that 
her son should be born with the qualities of a Brahman. He 
also gave another mess to her mother that she might bear a 
son with the character of a warrior. The women changed the 
messes, and so Jamad-agni, the son of J?^chika, was born as a 
warrior-Brahman, and Viswamitra, son of the Kshatriya Gadhi, 
was born as a priest. The Maha-bharata relates that Jamad- 
agni engaged deeply in study and " obtained entire possession 
of the Vedas." He went to King Reran or Prasena-jit of the 
Solar race and demanded of him his daughter Re.mika, The 
king gave her to him, and he retired with her to his hermitage, 
where the princess shared in his ascetic life. She bore him five 
sons, Rumawwat, Sushena, Vasu, Viswavasu, and Parasu-rama, 
and she was exact in the performance of all her duties. One 


day she went out to bathe and beheld a loving pair sporting and 
dallying in the water. Their pleasure made her feel envious, 
so she was " defiled by unworthy thoughts, and returned wetted 
but not purified by the stream." Her husband beheld her " fallei? 
from perfection and shorn of the lustre of her sanctity." So he 
reproved her and was exceeding wroth. His sons came into the 
hermitage in the order of their birth, and he commanded each 
of them in succession to kill his mother. Influenced "by natural 
affection, four of them held their peace and did nothing. Their 
father cursed them and they became idiots bereft of all under- 
standing. When Parasu-rama entered, he obeyed his father's 
order and struck off his mother's head with his axe. The 
deed assuaged the father's anger, and he desired his son to make 
i request Parasu-rama begged that his mother might be 
restored to life in purity, and that his brothers might regain 
their natural condition. All this the father granted. 

The mighty Karta-virya, king of the Haihayas, who had 
a thousand arms, paid a visit to the hermitage of Jamad-agni, 
The sage and his sons were out, but his wife treated her guest 
with all proper respect Unmindful of the hospitality he had 
received, Karta-virya threw down the trees round the hermi- 
tage, and carried of the calf of the sacred cow, Surabhi, which 
Jamad-agni had acquired by penance. Parasu-rama returned 
and discovered what had happened, he then pursued Karta- 
virya, cut off his thousand arms with arrows, and killed him. 
The sons of Karta-virya went in revenge to the hermitage of 
Jamad-agni, and in the absence of Parasu-rama slew the pious 
sage without pity. When Parasu-rama found the lifeless body 
of his father, he laid it on a funeral pile, and vowed that he 
would extirpate the whole Kshatriya race. He slew all the sons 
of Karta-virya, and " thrice seven times " he cleared the earth of 
the Kshatriya caste. 

JAMADAGNYA. The patronymic of Parasu-rama. 

JAMBAVAT. King of the bears. A celebrated gem called 
Syamantaka had been given by the Sun to Satra-jit He, fear- 
ing that Krishna would take it from him, gave it to his brother, 
Prasena. One property of this jewel was to protect its wearer 
when good, to ruin, him when bad. Prasena was wicked and 
was killed by a lion, which was carrying off the gem in its mouth, 
when he was encountered and slain by Jambavat After Pra- 


sena's disappearance, Krislma was suspected of having killed 
Mm for the sake of the jewel Kn'slma with a large party 
tracked the steps of Prasena, till it was ascertained that he had 
been killed "by a lion, and that the lion had "been killed by 
a bear. Krishna then tracked the bear, Jambavat, into his 
cavern, and a great fight ensued between them. After waiting 
outside seven or eight days, Krishna's followers went home and 
performed his funeral ceremonies. On the twenty-first day of 
the fight, Jambavat submitted to his adversary, gave up the 
gem, and presented to him his daughter, Jambavati, as an 
offering suitable to a guest. Jambavat with his army of bears 
aided Eama in Ms invasion of Lanka, and always acted the part 
of a sage counsellor. 

JAMBAYATL Daughter of Jambavat, king of the bears, 
wife of Krishna, and mother of /Samba. 

JAMBHA. Name of several demons. Of one who fought 
against the gods and was slain by Indra, who for this deed was 
called Jambha-bhedm, Also of one who fought against Arjuna 
and was killed by Krishna. 

JAMBU-DWIPA One of the seven islands or continents 
of wMch the world is made up. The great mountain, Meru, 
stands in its centre, and Bharata-varsha or India is its best part. 
Its varshas or divisions are nine in number : (i.) Bharata, south 
of the Himalayas and southernmost of all. (2.) Kim-purusha. 
(3.) Hari-varsha, (4.) Ha-vrita, containing Meru. (5.) Kamyaka. 
(6.) Hira?i-maya. (7.) Uttara-Kuru, each to the north of the pre- 
ceding one. (8.) Bhadraswa and (9.) Ketu-mala lie respectively 
to the east and west of Ha-vrita, the central region. 

J AMBIT-MALI. A Eakshasa general of Eavam. He was 
killed by Hanuman. 

JANAKA. i. King of Mithila, of the Solar race. When 
Mmi, his predecessor, died without leaving a successor, the 
sages subjected the body of Nimi to attrition, and produced 
from it a prince " who was called Janaka, from being born 
without a progenitor." He was the first Janaka, and twenty 
generations earlier than Janaka the father of Sita. 

2. King of Yideha and father of Sita, remarkable for his 
great knowledge and good works and sanctity. He is called 
/Sira-dhwaja, 'he of the plough banner/ because Ms daughter 
Sita sprang up ready formed from the furrow when he waa 


ploughing the ground and preparing for a sacrifice to obtain 
offspring. The sage Yajnawalkya was his priest and adviser. 
The Brahma^as relate that he "refused to submit to the hier- 
archical pretensions of the Brahmans, and asserted his right 
of performing sacrifices without the intervention of priests." 
He succeeded in his contention, for it is said that through 
his pure and righteous life he became a Brahman and one of 
the Eajarshis. He and his priest Yajnawalkya are thought to 
have prepared the way for Buddha. 

JANAKl. A patronymic of Sita (q.v.). 

JANA-LOKA. See Loka. 

JANAMEJAYA. A great king, who was son of Parikshit, 
and great-grandson of Arjuna. It was to this king ttat the 
Maha-bharata was recited by Yaisampayana, and the king lis- 
tened to it in expiation of the sin of killing a Brahman. His 
father, Parikshit, died from the bite of a serpent, and Janema- 
jay a is said to have performed a great sacrifice of serpents 
(Nagas) and to have conquered the Naga people of Taksha-sila. 
Hence he is called Sarpa-sattrin, 'sorpent-sacrificer.' There 
were several others of the same name. 

JANAEDDANA. 'The adored of mankind/ A name of 
"Krishna,, but other derivations are offered, as f extirpator of the 
wicked,' by Sankaracharya. 

JAISTA-STHANA. A place in the Da?zc/aka forest where 
Kama sojourned for a while in his exile. 

JAEAS. 'Old age/ The hunter who unwittingly killed 

JAEA-SANDHA. Son of Brihad-ratha, and king of Ma- 
gadha. B?ihad-ratha had two wives, who after being long barren 
brought forth two halves of a boy. These abortions wore re- 
garded with horror and thrown away. A female man-eating 
demon named Jara picked them up and put them together to 
carry them off. On their coming in contact a boy was formed, 
who cried out so lustily that he brought out the king and his 
two queens. The Eakshasi explained what had happened, re- 
signed the child, and retired. The father gave the boy the 
name of Jara-sandha, because he had been put together by Jara. 
Future greatness was prophesied for the boy, and he became an 
ardent worshipper of $iva. Through the favour of this god he 
prevailed over many kings, and he especially fought against 


Krishna, who had killed Kansa, the husband of two of Jara- 
sandha's daughters. He besieged Mathura, and attacked Krishna 
eighteen times, and was as often defeated ; but Krishna was so 
weakened that he retired to Dwaraka. Jara-sandha had many 
kings in captivity, and when Knshna returned from Dwaraka, 
he, with Bhlma and Arjuna, went to Jararsandha's capital for 
the purpose of slaying their enemy and liberating the kings. 
Jara-sandha refused to release the kings, and accepted the alter- 
native of a combat, in which he was killed by Bhima. 

JARAT-KABU. An ancient sage who married a sister of the 
great serpent Yasuki, and was father of the sage Astika. 

JARITA A certain female bird of the species called $arn- 
gika, whose story is told in the Maha-bharata. The saint 
Manda-pala, who returned from the shades because he had no 
son, assumed the form of a male bird, and by her had four sons, 
He then abandoned her. In the conflagration of the Kha,7?<fava 
forest she showed great devotion in the protection of her chil- 
dren, and they were eventually saved through the influence of 
Manda-pala over the god of fire. Their names were Jaritari, 
Sarisnkta, Stamba-mitra, and Drorau They were " interpreters 
of theYedas;" and there are hymns of the Jfo'g-veda bearing 
the names of the second and third 

JATASUBA. A Rakshasa who disguised himself as a Brah- 
man and carried off Yudhi-sh^hira, Saha-deva, Nakula, and 
Draupadi. He was overtaken and killed by Bhmia. 

JATA-YEDAS. A Yedic epithet for fire. " The meaning is 
explained in five ways : (i.) Knowing all created beings ; (2.) 
Possessing all creatures or everything existent ; (3.) Known by 
created beings ; (4,) Possessing vedas, riches; (5.) Possessing 
vedas, wisdom. Other derivations and explanations are found in 
the Brahmaftas, but the exact sense of the word seems to have been 
very early lost, and of the five explanations given, only the first 
two would seem to be admissible for the Yedic texts. In one 
passage a form, Jata-veda, seems to occur." Williams. This 
form of the term, and the statement of Manu that the Vodas 
were milked out from fire, air, and the sun, may perhaps justify 
the explanation, ' producer of the Yedas.' 

JATAYU, JAfAYUa According to the Ramayaraa, a bird 
who was son of Vishn-u's bird Ganirfa, and king of the vultures. 
Others say he was a son of Aram He became an ally of 


Kama's, and lie fought furiously against Havana to prevent the 
carrying away of Sita. Kava^a overpowered him and left him 
mortally wounded Kama found him in time to hear his dying 
words, and to learn what had "become of Sita. Kama and 
LakshmaTWi performed his funeral rites to "secure his soul 
in the enjoyments of heaven," whither he ascended in a 
chariot of fire. In the Puranas he is the friend of Dasa-ratha. 
When that king went to the ecliptic to recover Sita from $ani 
(Saturn), his carriage was consumed by a glance from the eye of 
the latter, hut Ja%u caught the falling king and saved him. 
The Padma Purana says Dasa-ratha assailed Saturn because of a 
dearth, and when he and his car were hurled from heaven, 
Ja^ayu caught him. 

JAriLA. A daughter of Gotama, who is mentioned in the 
Maha-bharata as a virtuous woman and the wife of seven hus- 

JAYA-DEVA. A poet 3 author of the Glta-govinda (q.v.). 

JAYAD-KATHA. A prince of the Lunar race, son of Bnhan- 
manas. He was king of Sindhu, and was " indifferently termed 
Raja of the Sindhus or Saindhavas, and Kaja of the Sauvlras, 
or sometimes in concert Sindhu-sauviras," the Saindhavas and 
Sauvlras both being tribes living along the Indus. Jay ad-rath a 
married DuA-.sala, daughter of Dhnta-rashta, and was an ally of 
the Kauravas. When the Pfw&ivas were in exile he called at 
their forest abode, while they were out hunting and Draupadi 
was at home alone. Ho had with him six brothers and a large 
retinue, but the resources of the Parcdavas were equal to the 
occasion, and Draupadi was able to supply five hundred deer 
with accompaniments for breakfast. This is explained by the 
statement that Yudhi-sh/hira, having worshipped the sun, ob- 
tained from that luminary an inexhaustible cauldron which was 
to supply all and every viand that might be required by the 
Pawdavas in their exile. Jayad-ratba was captivated by the charms 
of Draupadi, and tried to induce her to elope with him. When 
he was indignantly repulsed he carried her off by force. On 
the return of the PfiwZavas they pursued the ravisher, defeated 
his forces, and made him prisoner. Llis life was spared by 
command of Yudh>sMiira, but Blmna kicked and beat him 
terribly, cut off Ms liair, and made him go bef ore the assembled 
Pan&vas and acknowledge himself to be their slave. At the 


intercession of Draupadi lie was allowed to depart He was 
killed, after a desperate conflict, by Arjuna on the fourteenth 
day of the great battle. 

JAY ANT A Son of Indra, also called Jaya. 

JAYANTL Daughter of Indra. She is called also Jayani, 
Deva-sena, and TavishL 

JIMUTA A great wrestler, who was overcome and killed 
by Bhima at the court of Virata. 

JlMUTA-VAHANA 'Whose vehicle is the clouds.' A 
title of Indra. A name borne by several persons, and among 
them by the author of the Daya-bhaga, 

JISBLAfU. A name of Arjuna. 

JUSHKA A Turushka or Turki king, who ruled in Kash- 
mir and in Northern India. See Kanishka. 

JWALA-MUKHL 'Month of fire.' A volcano. A cele- 
brated place of pilgrimage in the Lower Himalayas, north of the 
Panjab, where fire issues from the ground. According to the 
legend, it is the fire which Sati, the wife of /Siva, created, and in 
which she burnt herself. 

JYAMAGHA. A king of the Lunar race, proverbial as 
"most eminent among husbands submissive to their wives." 
Saibya, his wife, was barren, but he was afraid to take another 
wife till, having overcome an enemy and driven him from his 
country, the daughter of the vanquished king became his cap- 
tive. She was beautiful, and Jyamagha desired to marry her. 
He took her in his chariot and carried her to his palace to ask 
the assent of his queen. When $aibya saw the maiden, she 
was filled with jealousy, and angrily demanded who the " light- 
hearted damsel " was. The king was disconcerted, and humbly 
replied, " She is the young bride of the future son whom thou 
shalt bring forth." It had ceased to be with Saibya after the 
manner of women, but still she bore a son who was named 
Vidarbha, and married the captive princess. 

JYOTISHA. Astronomy. One of the Yedangas. The object 
of this Vedanga is to fix the most auspicious days and seasons 
for the performance of sacrifices. There has been little dis- 
covered that is ancient on this subject ; only one short tract, 
consisting of thirty-six verses, in a comparatively modern style, to 
which scholars cannot assign an earlier date than 300 years B.O." 

KA The interrogative pronoun "who?" This word has 


been raised to the position of a deity. In the words of Max 
Muller, " The authors of the Brahmarais had so completely 
broken with the past, that, forgetful of the poetical character of 
the hymns (of the Veda) and the yearning of the poets after the 
unknown god, they exalted the interrogative pronoun itself into 
a deity, and acknowledged a god Ka or Who ? In the Taittiriya 
Brahmawa, in the Kaushltaki Brahmana, in the Tawdfya Brahmawa, 
and in the $atapatha Brahmarca, wherever interrogative verses 
occur, the author states that Ka is Prajapati, or the lord of 
creatures. Nor did they stop here. Some of the hymns in 
which the interrogative pronoun occurred were called Kadvat, 
ie., having had or quid. But soon a new adjective was formed, 
and not only the hymns but the sacrifice also offered to the god 
were called Kaya or Who-ish. ... At the time of Pamni, this 
word had acquhed such legitimacy as to call for a Separate rule 
explaining its formation. The commentator here explains Ka 
by Brahman. After this we can hardly wonder that in the later 
Sanskrit literature of the Purawas Ka appears as a recognised 
god, as a supreme god, with a genealogy of his own, perhaps 
even with a wife; and that in the laws of Manu one of the 
recognised forms of marriage, generally known by the name of 
the Prajapati marriage, occurs under the monstrous title of 
Kaya." The Maha-bharata identifies Ka witli Daksha, and the 
Bhagavata Purana applies the term to Kasyapa, no doubt in 
consequence of their great generative powers and similarity to 

KABANDHA. i. A disciple of Su-mantu, the earliest teacher 
of the Atharva-veda. 2. A monstrous Bakshasa slain by Rama. 
He is said to have been a son. of the goddess STL He is de- 
scribed as " covered with hair, vast as a mountain, without head 
or neck, having a mouth armed with immense teeth in the 
middle of his belly, arms a league long, and one enormous eye 
in his breast. 7 ' Ho was originally a Gandharva, and his hideous 
deformity arose, according to one account, from a quarrel with 
Indra, whom he challenged, and who struck him with his thun- 
derbolt, and drove his head and thighs into his body. According 
to another statement, his deformity arose from the curse of a 
sage. When mortally wounded, he requested Kama "to bum 
his body, and when that was done he came out of the fire in 
his real shape as a Gandharva, and counselled Banaa as to 


the conduct of the war against Bavana, He was also called 

KACHA. A son of Bnhaspati According to the Maha- 
bharata he became a disciple of Sukra or Usanas, the priest of 
the Asuras, with the object of obtaining from him the mystic 
power of restoring the dead to life, a charm which $ukra alone 
possessed. To prevent this the Asuras killed Kacha again and 
again, but on both occasions he was restored to life by the 
sage at the intercession of Devayani, his daughter, who had 
fallen in love with Kacha. They killed him a third time, burnt 
his body, and mixed his ashes with $ukra's wine, but Devayani 
again implored her father to bring back the young man. Unable 
to resist his daughter's importunity, $ukra once more performed 
the charm, and to his surprise heard the voice of Kacha come 
out from his own belly. To save his own life, Sukra taught hia 
pupil the great charm. He then allowed himself to be ripped 
open, and Kacha, upon coming out, performed the charm, and 
restored his master to life. This incident is said to have caused 
Sukra to prohibit the use of wine to Brahmans. Kacha resisted 
the proposals of Devayani, and refused to make her his wife. 
She then cursed him, that the charms he had learnt from her 
father should be powerless, and he in return condemned her to be 
sought by no Brahman, and to become the wife of a Kshatriya. 

KADAMBARI. A daughter of Chitra-ratha and Madiril 
Her name has been given to a well-known prose work, a kind of 
novel, written by Vawa or Bam-bhatf/a, in the seventh century. 
The work has been printed at Bombay. 

KADRtJ. A daughter of Daksha, and one of the thirteen 
that were married to Kasyapa. She was mother of "a thousand 
powerful many-headed serpents, the chief amongst whom were 
$esha, Vasuki, . . . and many other fierce and venomous ser- 
pents." The Vishnu Purawa, from which this is taken, names 
twelve, the Vayu Purirna forty. Her offspring bear the metro- 
nymic Kadraveya, 

KAHODA. A learned Brahman, father of Ash/avakra. He 
with many others was overcome in argument at the court of 
Janaka by a Buddhist sage, and as a penalty was thrown into 
the river. Some years afterwards he was recovered by his son, 
who overcame the supposed Buddhist sage, and thus brought 
about a restoration. See Ash/avakra. 


KAIKA.SL Daughter of the Eakshasa Su-mali and his wife 
Ketu-mati, wife of Visravas and mother of Kavana Muir, iv. 

487, 488. 

KAIKEYA. Name of a country and of its king. He was 
father-in-law of Krishna, and his five sons were allies of the 
Pandavas. His real name appears to have been Dlmshtfa- 

KAIKEYAS, KEKAYAS. The people of Kaikeya, one of 
the chief nations in the war of the Maha-bharata. The Bama- 
yana places them in the west, beyond the Saras watl and Byas. 

KAIKEYI. A princess of Kaikeya, wife of King Dasa-ratha, 
and mother of Bharata, his third son. She carefully tended 
Dasa-ratha when he was wounded in battle, and in gratitude he 
promised to grant any two requests she might make. Urged by 
the malignant counsels of Manthara, a female attendant, she 
made use of this promise to procure the exile of Kama, and to 
promote the advancement of her own son, Bharata, to his place. 
See Dasa-ratha, Kama. 

KAILASA. A mountain in the Himalayas, north of the 
Manasa lake. /Siva's paradise is said to be on Mount Kailasa, 
so also is Kuvera's abode. It is called also Gana-parvata and 
Kajatadri, c silver mountain/ 

KAITABHA. Kaitfabha and Madhu were two horrible 
demons, who, according to the Maha-bharata and the Puranas, 
sprang from the ear of Vishnu while he was asleep at the end of 
a kalpa, and were about to kill Brahma, who was lying on the 
lotus springing from Vislmu's navel. Vishnu killed them, and 
hence he obtained the names of Kaifabha-jit and Madhu-sudana. 
The Markamfeya Pura?ia attributes the death of Kai/abha to 
Uma, and she bears the title of*" Kaitabha. The Hari-vansa 
states that the earth received its name of Mediin from the 
marrow (medus) of these demons. In one passage it says that 
their bodies, being thrown into the sea, produced an immense 
quantity of marrow or fat, which Nirayana used in forming the 
earth. In another place it says that the tnedas quite covered 
the earth, and so gave it the name of Medini This is another 
of the many etymological inventions. 

KAKSHIVAT, KAKSHlVAK A Yedic sage, particularly 
connected with the worship of the Aswins. He was the son of 
Dirgha-tamas and Usij (q.v.), and is author of several hymns in 


the J&g-veda. He was also called Pajriya, because lie was of 
the race of Pajra. In one of his hymns he lauds the liberality 
of King Swanaya. The following legend, in explanation, is 
given by the commentator Sayana and the JSTiti-manjara : Kak- 
shiivat, having finished his course of study, took leave of his 
preceptor and departed homewards. As he journeyed night 
came on, and he fell asleep by the roadside. In the morning 
he was aroused by Raja Swanaya, who, being pleased with his 
appearance, treated him cordially and took him home. After 
ascertaining his worthiness, he married him to his ten daughters, 
presenting him at the same time with a hundred nishkas of gold, 
a hundred horses, a hundred bulls, a thousand and sixty cows, 
and eleven chariots, one for each of his ten wives, and one for 
himself, each drawn by four horses. "With these he returned 
home to his father, and recited the hymn in praise of the muni- 
ficence of Swanaya. 

KAKTJDMIN. A name of Eaivata (q.v.). 

KAKIJT-STHA. See Puranjaya. 

KALA. 'Time.' A name of Yama, the judge of the dead. 
In the Atharva-veda Time is addressed as the source and ruler 
of all things. u It is he who drew forth the worlds and encom- 
passed them. Being their father, he became their son. There 
is no other power superior to him." The Vishnu, Bhagavata, 
and Padma Purawas state that Brahma existed in the form of 
Time, "but the Purawas do not generally recognise Time as an 
element of the first cause." 

KALAKA. A wife of Kasyapa. According to the Eama- 
yawa and Maha-bharata she was a daughter of Daksha, but 
the Vishnu Purana states that she and her sister Puloma were 
daughters of the Danava Vaiswanara, "who were both married 
to Kasyapa, and bore him 60,000 distinguished Danavas, called 
Paulomas and Kalakanjas, who were powerful, ferocious, and 
cruel." The Maha-bharata states that she obtained from the 
deity, in reward for her severe devotion and penance, the 
privilege of bringing forth children without pain. The giants 
or Danavas were called after her Kalakeyas. 

KALAKANJAS, KALAKEYAS. Sons of Kasyapa by his 
wife Kalaka. There were many thousands of them, and they 
were "distinguished Danavas, who were powerful, ferocious, 
and cruel" 


KALA-MUKHAS. ' Black faces.' People who sprang from 
men and Kakshasa females. 

KALANAS. (Kalyawa.) A Brahman who yielded to the 
inducements of Alexander the Great and left his natiye country 
to accompany the court of the conqueror. He afterwards re- 
pented of what he had done and burnt himself at Pasargada. 

KALA-NEML i. In the Eamaya?za a Rakshasa, uncle of 
Kavawa. At the solicitation of Kavana, and with the promise 
of half his kingdom, he endeavoured to kill Hanuman. Assum- 
ing the form of a hermit-devotee, he went to the Gandha-madana 
mountain, and when Hanuman proceeded thither in search of 
medicinal herbs, the disguised Eakshasa invited him to his 
hermitage and offered him food. Hanuman refused, but went 
to bathe in a neighbouring pond. Upon his placing his foot 
in the water it was seized by a crocodile, but he dragged the 
creature out and killed it. From the dead body there arose a 
lovely Apsaras, who had been cursed by Daksha to live as a 
crocodile till she should be released by Hanuman. She told 
her deliverer to be beware of Kala-nemi; so Hanuman went 
back to that deceiver, told him that he knew him, and, taking 
him by the feet, sent him whirling through the air to Lanka, 
where he fell before the throne of Havana in the council-room. 
2. In the Purawas a great Asura, son of Virochana, the grandson 
of Hirawya-kasipu. He was killed by Vishmi, but was said to 
live again in Kansa and in Kaliya, 

KALA-YAVANA, (Lit. l JBlack Yavana/ Yavana meaning 
a Greek or foreigner.) A Yavana or foreign king who led an army 
of barbarians to Mathura against Krishna. That hero lured 
him into the cave of the mighty Muchukunda, who being dis- 
turbed from sleep by a kick from Kala-yavana, cast a fiery 
glance upon him and reduced him to ashes. This legend 
appears to indicate an invasion from the Himalayas. Accord- 
ing to the Yishwu Purima and Hari-vansa, Kala-yavana was the 
son of a Brahman named Garga, who had an especial spite 
against the Yadavas, and was begotten by him on the wife of 
a childless Yavana king. 

KALHANA PANDIT. Author of the Kaja Tarangwi, a his- 
tory of Kashmir. He is supposed to have lived about 1 148 A. a 

KALI. The Kali-yuga, personified as the spirit of evil. In 
playing dice Kali is the ace, and so is a personification of ill luck, 


KALt 'The "black. 1 In Yedic days this name was asso- 
ciated with Agni (fire), who had seven flickering tongues of 
flame for devouring oblations of butter. Of these seven, Kali 
was the black or terrific tongue. This meaning of the word is 
now lost, but it has developed into the goddess Kali, the fierce 
and bloody consort of $iva. See Devi. 

KALI-DASA. The greatest poet and dramatist of India. 
He was one of " the nine gems " that adorned the court of King 
Yikramaditya at UjjayinL Wilson inclines to the belief that 
this was the Yikramaditya whose era begins in 56 B.C., but Dr. 
Bhau Dajl argues in favour of Harsha Yikramaditya who lived 
in the middle of the sixth century, so the date of Kali-dasa is 
unsettled. Williams thinks that Kali-dasa wrote about the 
beginning of the third century. Lassen places him half a 
century earlier. Some believe that there was more than one 
poet who bore this name as an honorary title. Kali-dasa was 
author of the dramas $akuntala and Yikramorvasi, and a third 
drama Malavikagnimitra is attributed to him. $akuntala was 
translated by Sir W. Jones, and first brought Sanskrit literature 
to the notice of Europe. Wilson has translated Yikramorvasi, 
and given a sketch of Malavikagnimitra. The following poems 
are ascribed to Kali-dasa : Kaghu-vansa, Kumara-sambhava, 
Megha-duta, .ffitu-sanhara, Kalodaya, but his authorship of all 
these, especially of the last, may well be doubted. He was also 
author of the $ruta-bodha, a work on prosody. The merits of 
Kali-dasa as a poet are well attested by his great popularity 
in India, as well as by the great favour with which $akuntala 
was received in Europe, and the praise it elicited from Goethe : 

" WUlst du die Bluthe des friihen, die Eruchte dea spateren Jabres, 
Willst du, was reizt und entziickt, willst du, was sattigt und nahrt, 
Willst du den Himmel, die Erde, rait einem Namen begreifen, 
Nenn' ich akuntala clich, und so ist AUes gesagt." 

" Wouldst thou the young year's blossoms and the fruits of its decline, 
And all by which the soul is charmed, enraptured, feasted, fed 1 
Wonldst thou the earth and heaven itself in one sole name combine ? 
I name thee, >Sakuntala ! and all at once is said." 

Lassen in his Indische Alterthumshmde says, " Kali-dasa may 
be considered as the brightest star in the firmament of Hindu 
artificial poetry. He deserves this praise on account of the 


mastery with which he wields the language, and on account of 
the consummate tact with which he imparts to it a more simple 
or more artificial form, according to the requirements of the 
suhjects treated by him, without falling into the artificial dic- 
tion of later poets or over-stepping the limits of good taste ; 
on account of the variety of his creations, his ingenious con- 
ceptions, and his happy choice of suhjects; and not less on 
account of the complete manner in which he attains his poetical 
ends, the beauty of his narrative, the delicacy of his sentiment, 
and the fertility of his imagination." Many of his works have 
been translated, and there is a French translation of the whole 
by Fauche. 

KALIKA. The goddess Kali. 

KALIKA PUKAJVA. One of the eighteen Upa Purawas. 
"It contains about 9000 stanzas in 98 chapters, and is the 
only work of the series dedicated to recommend the worship of 
the bride of Siva, in one or other of her manifold forms as 
Giri-ja, Devi, Bhadra-kali, Kali, Maha-maya. It belongs, there- 
fore, to the Sakta modification of Hindu belief, or the worship 
of the female powers of the deities. The influence of this 
worship shows itself in the very first pages of the work, which 
relate the incestuous passion of Brahma for his daughter, San- 
dhya, in a strain that has nothing analogous to it in the Yayu, 
Linga, or Siva Purawas. The marriage of $iva and Parvati is a 
subject early described, with the sacrifice of Daksha and the 
death of SatL And this work is authority for /Siva's carrying 
the dead body about the world, and the origin of the Pi&a- 
sthanas, or places where the different members of it were scat- 
tered, and where Lingas were consequently erected. A legend 
follows of the births of Bhairava and Yetala, whose devotion to 
the different forms of Devi furnishes occasion to describe, in 
great detail, the rites and formulae of which her worship consists, 
including the chapters on sanguinary sacrifices translated in the 
Asiatic Researches (vol. v. ), Another peculiarity in this work is 
afforded by very prolix descriptions of a number of rivers and 
mountains at Kamarupa Tirtlia, in Assam, and rendered holy 
ground by the celebrated temple of Durga in that country, as 
Kamakshl or Kamakshya. It is a singular and yet uninvesti- 
gated circumstance, that Assam, or at least the north-east of 
Bengal, seems to have been, in a great degree, the source from 


which the Tantrika and $akta corruptions of the religion of the 
Vedas and Purawas proceeded." Wilson. 

KALINDI A name of the river Yamuna, as daughter of 
Kalinda (the sun). 

KALIISTGA. The country along the Coromandel coast, north 
of Madras. The Calingse proximi mari of Pliny. The Pura^as 
absurdly make it one of the sons of Bali. 

KALIYA. A serpent king who had five heads, and dwelt in 
a deep pool of the Yamuna, with numerous attendant serpents. 
His mouths vomited fire and smoke, and he laid waste all the 
country round Kn'shwa, while yet a child, jumped into his 
pool, when he was quickly laced and entwined in the coils of 
the snakes. His companions and friends were horrified, but 
Bala-rama called upon him to exercise his divine power. He 
did so, and the serpents were soon overcome. Placing his foot 
on the middle head of Kaliya, he compelled him and his 
followers to implore mercy. He spared them, but bade Kaliya 
and his followers to free the earth from their presence, and to 
remove to the ocean. The Asura Kala-nemi is said to have been 
animate in him. 

KALI YUGA. The fourth or present age of the world, which 
is to endure for 432,000 years. It commenced in 3102 B.O. 
See Yuga. 

KALKI, KALKIK "The white horse.' Yishnu's tenth 
incarnation, which is yet to come. See Avatara. 

KALMASHA-PADA. A king of the Solar race, son of 
Su-dasa (hence he is called Saudasa), and a descendant of 
Ikshwaku. His legend, as told in the Maha-bharata, relates 
that while hunting in the forest he encountered $aktri, the 
eldest son of Vasishtfha, and as this sage refused to get out of 
his way, he struck him with his whip. The incensed sage 
cursed him to become a cannibal This curse was heard by 
Viswamitra, the rival of Yasishha, and he so contrived that the 
body of the king became possessed by a man-eating Kakshasa. 
In this condition he caused human flesh to be served up to a 
Brahman named Mitrasaha, who discovered what it was, and 
intensified the curse of $aktri by a new imprecation. One of 
Kalmasha-pada's first victims was $aktri himself, and all the 
hundred sons of Vasishtfha fell a prey to his disordered appetite. 
After remaining twelve years in this state, he was restored to 


Ms natural condition by Yasishflia. The Vishnu Purana tells 
the story differently. The king went out to hunt and found 
two destructive tigers. He killed one of them, but as it expired 
it was changed into a Rakshasa. The other tiger disappeared 
threatening vengeance. Kalmasha-pada celebrated a sacrifice at 
which Vasish&a officiated. When it was over and Vasish&a 
went out, the Rakshasa assumed his appearance, and proposed 
that food should be served. Then the Rakshasa transformed 
himself into a cook, and, preparing human flesh, he served it to 
Vasish&a on his return. The indignant sage cursed the king 
that henceforth his appetite should be excited only by similar 
food. A wrangle ensued, and Vasish&a having found out the 
truth, limited the duration of his curse to twelve years. The 
angry king took water in his hands to pronounce, in his turn, a 
curse upon Vasishftia, but was dissuaded from his purpose by 
his wife, Madayanti. "Unwilling to cast the water on the 
ground, lest it should wither up the grain, and equally reluctant 
to throw it up into the air, lest it should blast the clouds and 
dry up their contents, he threw it upon his own feet," and they 
were so scalded by it that they became black and white, and 
so gained for him the name of Kalmasha-pada, l spotted feet.' 
Every day for twelve years, at the sixth watch of the day, he 
gave way to his cannibal appetite, " and devoured multitudes of 
men." On one occasion he devoured a Brahman in the midst 
of his connubial happiness, and the Brahman's wife passed upon 
him a curse that he should die whenever he associated with his 
wife. At the expiration of Yasishiiha's curse, the king returned 
home, but, mindful of the Brahmawfs imprecation, he abstained 
from conjugal intercourse. By the interposition of Vasishtfha, 
his wife, Madayanti, became pregnant, and bore a child in her 
womb for seven years, when she performed the Csesarean opera- 
tion with a sharp stone, and a child came forth who was called 
Asmaka (from Asman, ' a stone'). 

KALPA. A day and night of Brahma, 4,320,000,000 years, 
See Yuga. 

KALPA, KALPA StJTRAS. Ceremonial; one of the 
Yedangas. A ceremonial directory or rubric expressed in the 
form of Sutras, short technical rules. 

KAMA, KAMA-DEYA, The god of love. Eros, Cupid 
In the jRig-veda (x. 129) desire is said to have been the first 


146 KAMA. 

movement that arose in the One after it had come into life 
through the power of fervour or abstraction, " Desire first arose 
in It, which was the primal germ of mind ; (and which) sages, 
searching with their intellect, have discovered in their heart to 
he the bond which connects entity with non-entity." c It is 
we]l known," observes Dr. Muir, " that Greek mythology con- 
nected Eros, the god of love, with the creation of the universe 
somewhat in the same way." "This Kama or desire, not of 
sexual enjoyment, but of good in general, is celebrated in a curi- 
ous hymn of the Atharva-veda," which exalts Kama into a 
supreme God and Creator : " Kama was born the first. Him 
neither gods, nor fathers, nor men have equalled. Thou art 
superior to these and for ever great." In another part of the 
same Yeda Kama appears to be first desire, then the power 
which gratifies the desire. Kama is also in the same Yeda often 
identified with Agni, and when " distinguished from each other, 
Kama may be looked upon as a superior form of the other 
deity." According to the Taittirlya Brahmam, he is the son of 
Dharma, the god of justice, by $raddha, the goddess of faith; 
but according to the Hari-vansa he is son of LakshmL Anothei 
account represents him as springing from the heart of Brahma, 
A fourth view is that he was born from water, wherefore he is 
called Ira-ja, 'the water-born ;' a fifth is that he is Atma-bhu, 
6 self -existent/ and therefore he is called, like other of the gods, 
A-ja, ' unborn/ or An-anya-ja, * born of no other.' In the Purawas 
his wife is Eati or Beva, the goddess of desire He inspired 
$iva with amorous thoughts of Parvatl while he was engaged in 
penitential devotion, and for this offence the angry god reduced 
him, to ashes by fire from his central eye. $iva afterwards 
relented and allowed Kama to be born again as Pradyumna, son 
of Krishfia and Rukmim or Maya, 'delusion.' He has a son 
named Aniruddha, and a daughter, Trisha. He is lord of the 
Apsarases or heavenly nymphs. He is armed with a bow and 
arrows : the bow is of sugar-cane, the bowstring a line of bees, 
and each arrow is tipped with a distinct flower. He is usually 
represented as a handsome youth riding on a parrot and attended 
by nymphs, one of whom bears his banner displaying the Makara, 
or a fish on a red ground* 

The mysterious origin of Kama and the universal operation 
of the passion he inspires have accumulated upon him a great 


variety of names and epithets. Among his names are Ishma, 
Kanjana and Kinkira, Mada, Eama or Eamawa, and Smara. 
As produced in the mind or heart he is Bhava-ja and Mano-ja, 
As Pradyumna, son of Krishna, he is Karslwi, and as son of 
Lakshml he is May! or Maya-suta and $ri-nandana. As reduced 
to ashes by Siva he is An-anga, i the bodiless. 7 He is AbM-rupa, 
'the beautiful;' Darpaka and Dlpaka, 'the inflamer;' Gada- 
yitnu, Gn'dhu, and Gn'tsa, * lustful or sharp;' Kamana and 
Kharu, ' desirous ;' Kandarpa, ' the inflamer of Brahma;' Kantu, 
* the happy ;' Kalakeli, * the gay or wanton ;' Mara, ' destroyer;' 
Mayi, c deluder ;' Madhu-dipa, c the lamp of honey or of spring;' 
Muhira, 'the bewilderer;' Murmura, ' the crackling fire;' Eaga- 
vn'nta, ' the stalk of passion ;' Kupastra, f the weapon of beauty ;' 
Rata-naricha, ' the voluptuary;' iSamantaka, c destroyer of peace;' 
Sansara-guru, 'teacher of the world;' Smara, 'remembrance;' 
Srmgara-yoni, f source of love;' Titha, 'fire;' Yama, *the 
handsoma 7 From his bow and arrows he is called Kusuma- 
yudha, 'armed with flowers;' Pushpa-dhanus, 'whose bow is 
flowers ;' and Pushpa-sara, 'whose arrows are flowers.' From 
his banner he is known as Makara-ketu ; and from the flower 
he carries in his hand he is Pushpa-ketana. 

KAMA-DHENTJ. The cow which grants desires, belonging 
to the sage Vasishtfha. She was produced at the churning of 
the ocean. Among the examples of her supernatural powers 
was the creation of a host of warriors who aided Vasishftia 
against Karta-virya. She is called also Kama-duh, $avala, and 

KAMAKSHl A form of Devi worshipped at Kamarupa- 
tirtha in, Assam. See Kalika Purana. 

KAMANDAKL Author of a work known by his name on 
"The Elements of Polity." The text has been printed in the 
Eibliotheca Indica by Eajendra Lala Mittra. 

KAMAEtFPA. The north-eastern part of Bengal and the 
western portion of Assam. The name still survives as Kam- 

BlAMBOJAS. A race or tribe always associated with the 
tribes living to the north-west, and famous for their horsea 
They were among the races conquered by King Sagara, 

KiMPILYA. The city of King Drupada in the country 
of the Panchalas, where the swayam-vara of DraupadI was held 


It corresponds with the Kampila of modern times, situated 
in the Doab on the old Ganges, between Badaun and Farrukh- 

K AM YAK A. The forest in which the Paftdavas passed their 
exile on the banks of the Saraswatl. 

KAJVADA. The sage who founded the Vaiseshika school of 
philosophy. See Darsana. 

KANCHl. One of the seven sacred cities, hodie Conjeveram. 

KAKDAEPA. The Hindu Cupid. See Kama. 

ELLZVDAESHI. A Rishi who teaches one particular Kanda 
or part of the Yedas. 

EjUVDTJ. A sage who was beguiled from long and severe 
austerities by Pramlocha, a nymph sent from heaven by Indra 
for this purpose. He lived with her some hundreds of years, 
which seemed to him only as a day, but he at length repudiated 
her and " went to the region of Vishnu." Pramlocha gave birth, 
in an extraordinary manner, to his daughter Marisha (q.v.). 

KANISHKA. " Hushka, Jushka, Kanishka." These are the 
names recorded in the Baja Tarangim of three great Turushka, 
that is Turk or Tatar, kings, who were of the Buddhist religion, 
It may, perhaps, be taken for granted that Hushka and Jushka 
come in their natural succession, for the names might be trans- 
posed without detriment to the metre; but the short syllable 
of the name Kanishka is required where it stands by the rules 
of prosody, so that the position of the name in the verse is not 
decisive of his place in the succession of kings. Nothing is 
known of Jushka beyond the simple recital of his name as 
above quoted, but the names of Kanishka and Hushka (or 
Huvishka) have been found in inscriptions and upon coins, 
showing that their dominions were of considerable extent in 
Northern India, and that they were, as the Kaja Tarangira re- 
presents, great supporters of the Buddhist religion. The name 
of Kanishka has been found in inscriptions at Mathura, Manik- 
yala, Bhawalpur, and Zeda, while his name appears on the 
corrupt Greek coins as Kanerki, Huvishka's name has been 
found at Mathura and on a metal vase from Wardak in 
Afghanistan ; on the coins his name is represented as OerkL 
Kanishka preceded Huvishka, and it is certain that their reigns 
covered a period of fifty-one years, and probably more. The time 
at which they reigned seems to have been just before the Cbris 


fcian era. A Eoman coin of the date 33 B.O. was found in the 
tope of Manikyala, which was built by Kanishka. 

KAN$A. A tyrannical king of Matlmra, son of Ugra-sena 
and cousin of Devaki the mother of K?'slma ; so he was the 
cousin, not the uncle, of Krishna, as he is often called He 
married two daughters of Jara-sandha, king of Magadha. He 
deposed his father. It was foretold that a son born of Devaki 
should kill him, so he endeavoured to destroy all her children. 
But Bala-rama, her seventh son, was smuggled away to Gokula, 
and was brought up by Kohml. When Krishna the eighth was 
born his parents fled with him. The tyrant then gave orders 
for a general massacre of all vigorous male infants. Kanso 
became the great persecutor of K?ish?ia, but was eventually 
killed by him. Kansa is also called Kalankura, 'crane.' He is 
looked upon as an Asura, and is in some way identified with 
^he Asura Kala-nemi. 

KAF/SA-BADHA. A drama in seven acts upon the de- 
struction of Kansa by KHslma. The author is called Knshwa 
Kavi, and the play was probably written about two centuries 
ago. It is weak as a drama, but " the language is in general 
good, although highly elaborate." Wilson. 

KAA^WA. See $atapatha Brahmarca. 

KAA T WA, JSTame of a Ri&lii to whom some hymns of the 
j?%-veda are ascribed ; he is sometimes counted as one of the 
seven great j&shis. The sage who brought up /Sakuntala as his 
daughter. There are several others of the same name. 

KA^VWAS. The descendants or followers of Kanwa. 

KANYA-KTJBJA. The modem form of the name is Kananj 
or Kinnauj, spelt in a variety of ways. i. An ancient city 
of Hindustan on the Kali-nadi, an affluent of the Ganges, and 
lying a little to the west of the latter. It was once the capital 
of a powerful dynasty. It was known to classical geographers 
as " Canogyza." The name means " humpbacked damsel," and 
refers to a legend relating to the hundred daughters of King 
Kusa-nabha, who were all made crooked by Yayu for refusing 
to comply with his licentious desires. 2. A great national divi- 
sion of the Brahman caste. See Brahman. 

KAlvTYA-KUMAEl 'The virgin-damsel* A name of 
Durga. Her worship extended to the southernmost extremity 
of India in the days of Pliny, and Kumarl' still appears in the 
name Cape Comorin. 


KAPARDIK * Wearing the kaparda,' a peculiar "braid 01 
knot of hair. This epithet is applied to $iva, to one of the 
Rudras, and some others. 

KAPI-DHWAJA, An epithet of Arjuna, because he bore 
an ape (Jca/pi) on his standard (dhwaja). 

KAPILA. A celebrated sage, the founder of the Sankhya 
philosophy. The Hari-vansa makes him the son of Yitatha. 
He is sometimes identified with Vishma and sometimes with 
AgnL He is said to have destroyed the hundred thousand sons 
of King Sagara with a glance. See Sagara. 

KAPILA, KAPILA-VASTU. A town on the river RohM, 
an affluent of the Rapti, which was the capital of Suddhodana, 
the father of Gotama Buddha. 

KAPILA PURAiVA. See Purawa. 

KAPLSA. Mother of the Pisachas, who bear the metro- 
nymic Kapiseya. 

KARALL ' Dreadful, terrible/ In Yedic times one of the 
seven tongues of Agni (fire), but in later days a name of the 
terrible consort of $iva. See Devi 

KARDAMA. According to the Maha-bharata and Ramaya?ia, 
he is one of the Prajapatis who sprang from Brahma. Accord- 
ing to other authorities, he, or another sage of the same name, 
was a son of Daksha or a son of Pulaha. 

KARMA-MIMANSA. The Purva-mimansa. See Darsan&. 

KARMA -MlMANSA-SfJTRA. A work on the Yedanta 
philosophy, ascribed to Jaimini 

KAR.ZVA. Son of Pntha or Kunti by Surya, the sun, before 
her marriage to Pa?^u. Kama was thus half-brother of the 
PMavas, but this relationship was not known to them till 
after his death. Kunti, on one occasion, paid such attention 
to the sage Dur-vasas, that he gave her a charm by virtue of 
which she might have a child by any god she preferred to 
invoke. She chose the sun, and the result was Kar-ua, who 
was born equipped with arms and armour. Afraid of censure 
and disgrace, Kunti exposed the child on the banks of the 
Yamuna, where it was found by Nandana or Adhiratha, the 
sttta or charioteer of Dhnta-rashfra. The charioteer and his 
wife, Radha, brought him up as their own, and the child passed 
as such. When he grew up, Indra disguised himself as a Brah- 
man, and cajoled him out of his divine cuirass, He gave him 


in return great strength, and a javelin charged with certain death 
to whomsoever it was hurled against. Kama "became king of Anga 
or Bengal Some authorities represent his foster-father as having 
heen ruler of that country, hut others say that Kar^a was made 
king of Anga hy Dur-yodhana, in order to qualify him to fight 
in the passage of arms at the swayam-vara of DraupadL This 
princess haughtily rejected him, saying, cc I wed not with the 
base-horn," Kama knew that he was half-brother of the Pa72n 
davas, but he took the side of their cousins, the Kauravas, and 
he had especial rivalry and animosity against Arjuna, whom 
he vowed to kill In the great battle he killed Ghafotkacha, 
the son of Bhima, with Indra's javelin. Afterwards there was a 
terrific combat between him and Arjuna, in which the latter was 
nearly overpowered, but he killed Kama with a crescent-shaped 
arrow. After Karwa's death his relationship to the Pawdavas 
became known to them, and they showed their regret for his 
loss by great kindness to his widows, children, and dependants 
Erom his father, Yikarttana (the sun), Karraa was called Yaikart- 
tana ; from his foster-parents, Yasu-sena ; from his foster-father's 
profession, Adhirathi and Suta; and from his foster-mother, 
Eadheya. He was also called Anga-raja, i king of Anga ; 7 Cham- 
padhipa, 'king of Champa ; ' and Kanlna, c the bastard.' 

KAENA-PKAYAKANAS. Men whose ears served them 
for coverings. They are mentioned in the Maha-bharata, Ramar 
yawa, and other works. 

KAKMfA, KAEM.TAKA. The country where the 
Canarese language is spoken, in the central districts of the 
Peninsula, including Mysore. The name " Carnatic" is derived 
from this. 

KAETA-YIRYA. Son of Knta-vlrya, king of the Haihayas, 
This is his patronymic, by which he is best known ; his real 
name was Arjuna. " Having worshipped a portion of the divine 
being called Dattatreya, sprung from the race of Atri, he sought 
and obtained these boons, viz., a thousand arms and a golden 
chariot that went wheresoever he willed it to go ; the power of 
restraining wrong by justice j the conquest of the earth and the 
disposition to rule it righteously ; invincibility by enemies, and 
death at the hands of a man renowned over the whole world. 
By him this earth was perfectly governed," and of him it is 
said : " Fo other king shall ever equal Karta-vlrya in regard 


Lo sacrifices, liberality, austerities, courtesy, and self -restrain I," 
"Thus lie ruled for85,ooo years with unbroken health, prosperity, 
strength, and valour. " F. P, He visited the hermitage of Jarnad- 
agni, and was received by that sage's wife with all respect; but he 
made an ill return for her hospitality, and carried off by violence 
"the calf of the milch-cow of the sacred oblation." For this 
outrage Parasii-rania cut off his thousand arms and killed him. 
In another place a different character is given to him, and more 
in accordance with his behaviour at Jamad-agni's hut. "He 
oppressed both men and gods," so that the latter appealed to 
Vishnu for succour. That god then came down to the earth as 
Parasu-rama for the especial purpose of killing him. Karta- 
virya was the contemporary of Bava^a, and when that demon 
monarch came " in the course of his campaign of conquest to 
Mahishrnati (the capital of Karta-virya), he was captured with- 
out difficulty, and was confined like a wild beast in a corner of 
his city." The statement of the Yayu Purawa is that Karta- 
virya invaded Lanka, and there took Eavawa prisoner. 

KABTTIKEYA. The god of war and the planet Mars, also 
called Skanda He is said in the Maha-bharata and Kamayafta 
to be the son of /Siva or Kudra, and to have been produced 
without the intervention of a woman. $iva cast his seed into 
fire, and it was afterwards received by the Ganges : Kartti- 
keya was the result ; hence he is called Agni-bhu and Ganga-ja. 
He was fostered by the Pleiades (Knttika), and hence he has 
six heads and the name Karttikeya. His paternity is some- 
times assigned to Agni (fire) ; Ganga (the Ganges) and Parvati 
are variously represented to be his mother. He was born for 
the purpose of destroying Taraka, a Daitya whose austerities had 
made Mm formidable to the gods. He is represented riding on 
a peacock called Paravara, holding a bow in one hand and an 
arrow in the other. His wife is Kaumari or Sena. He has 
many titles : as a warrior he is called Maha-sena, Sena-pati ; 
Siddha-sena, * leader of the Siddhas ; ' and YucLha-ranga ; also 
Kumara, the boy; Guha, 'the mysterious one;' $akti-dhara, 
'spear-holder;' and in the south he is called Su-brahmawya, 
He is Ganga-putra, f son of the Ganges ; ' ara-bhu, ' born in 
the thicket ; ' Taraka-jit, * vanquisher of Taraka ; ' Dwadasa-kara 
and Dwadasaksha, c twelve-handed ' and * twelve-eyed ; ? 
kaya, * straight-bodied.' See Krauncha, 


KARUSHAS. A people of Malwa, inliabiting the "back of 
the Vindhya mountains. They are said to "be descended from 
Karusha, one of the sons of the Mann Vaivnswata. 

KAjSL Benares. 

KA/Sl KEAJV77A. A long poem, forming a part of the 
Skanda Purana. It gives a very minute description of the 
temples of Siva in and around Benares, and is presumably an- 
terior to the Mahomedan conquest. See Skanda Purana, 

KASYAPA, A Yedic sage to whom some hymns are attri- 
buted. All authorities agree in assigning to him a large part 
in the work of creation. According to the Maha-bharata, the 
Ramayana, and the Puranas, he was the son of Marlchi, the son 
of Brahma, and he was father of Yivaswat, the father of Manu, 
the progenitor of mankind The Satapatha Brahmana gives 
a different and not very intelligible account of his origin 
thus : " Having assumed the form of a tortoise, Prajapati 
created offspring. That which he created he made (oka/rot) ; 
hence the word Mrma (tortoise). Kasyapa means tortoise; 
hence men say, * All creatures are descendants of Kasyapa.' 
This tortoise is the same as Aditya." The Atharva-veda says, 
"The self -born Kasyapa sprang from Time," and Time is 
often identical with Vishnu. The Maha-bharata and later 
authorities agree in representing that Kasyapa married Aditi 
and twelve other daughters of Daksha. Upon Aditi he 
begat the Adityas, headed by Indra, and also Yivaswat, and 
"to Yivaswat was born the wise and mighty Manu," The 
Ramayana and Vishnu Parana also state that "Vishnu was 
born as a dwarf, the son of Aditi and Kasyapa," By his 
other twelve wives he had a numerous and very diversified 
offspring: demons, nagas, reptiles, birds, and all kinds of 
living things. He was thus the father of all, and as such is 
sometimes called Prajapati. He is one of the seven great .ffishis, 
and he appears as the priest of Parasu-rama and Rama-chandra, 

KA-TANTRA. A Sanskrit grammar by Sarva-varman. 
Edited by Eggeling for the Bibliotheca Indica. 

KAfA-PRtX f Worm/ A class of beings similar to or iden- 
tical with the Vidyardharas. 

KATHA. Name of a Upanishad (cj,.v.). It has Been 
translated by Dr. Roer in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

KA2 T HAILA. A school or recension of the Yajur-veda, 


occupying a position between the Black and the White. It is 
supposed to be lost. 

KATHAjRJVAYA. c Sea of stories/ A compilation of mis- 
cellaneous stories in four books ; the first two are the originals 
of the Hindi Baital PachisI and Singhasan Battlsi. 

KATHA-SARIT-SAGARA. 'The ocean of the rivers of 
stories.' A collection of popular stories by Soma-deva-bha^a of 
Kashmir, made about the beginning of the twelfth century A.D. 
It is drawn from a larger work called Bnhat-katha. Thet ext 
has been printed and in part translated by Brockhaus. 

EATYAYAEA. An ancient writer of great celebrity, who 
came after Pawini, whose grammar he completed and corrected 
in what he called Yarttikas, ' supplementary rules and annota- 
tions.' He is generally identified with Yararuchi, the author of 
the Prakrita Prakasa. Max Muller places him in the second 
half of the fourth century B.C. ; Goldstiicker in the first hali 
of the second century B.O. ; Weber about twenty-five years 
B.O. Besides his additions to Par&ini's Grammar, he was the 
author of the Srauta-sutras which bear his name, and of the 
Yajur-veda Pratisakhya His Sutras have been edited by Weber. 
A story in the Katha-sarit-sagara makes him the incarnation of 
a demigod named Pushpa-danta. A Katyayana was author also 
of a Dharma-sastra. 

KATYAYANL A name of Durga. See Devi. 

KATJMARA. The creation of the Kumaras (q.v.). 

KAUMODAKL The mace of Knsh?ia, presented to him by 
Agni when engaged with him in fighting against Indra and 
burning the Kha^ava forest. 

KAUltfDLftfYA. An ancient sage and grammarian. He 
offended Siva, but was saved from that god's wrath by Yishmi : 
he was hence called Yishnu-gupta, ' saved by Yishnu.' 

KAUNTEYA. Son of Kunti. A metronymic applicable to 
YudM-shftdra, Bhima, and Arjuna, but commonly applied to 

KAUEAYAS. Descendants of Kuru. A patronymic espe- 
cially applied to the sons of Dhnta-rashfra. See Maha-bharata. 

KATJSALYA (mas.), KAUSALYA (fern.). Belonging to 
the Kosala nation. There are several women known by this 
name. The wife of Puru and mother of Janamejaya. The 
wife of Dasa-ratha and mother of Rama. (See Dasa-ratha.) The 


mother of Dhnta-rashfra and the mother of Pandu both vrare 
known by this name, being daughters of a king of KasL 

KAILSAMBL The capital of Yatsa, near the junction of the 
Ganges and Jumna. An inscription found at Karra on the Ganges 
mentions that place as being situated in Kausambi-maftdala, the 
circle of Kausanibi; but General Cunningham identifies the 
place with the village of Kosam, said to be still called Kosambi- 
nagar on the Jumna, about thirty miles above Allahabad. It is 
the scene of the drama Eatnavali. 

KAUSHlTAKI. i. A sakha of the Etg-veda. 2. (Kaushb 
taki) the name of a Brahmawa, an Ara?iyaka, and a Upanishad. 
(See those terms.) The Brahmarat has been published with a 
translation by Professor Cowell in the Mbliotheca Indica. 

KAILSIKA. A devotee mentioned in the Maha-bharata as 
having gone to a hell of torment for having pointed out to 
robbers a road by which they pursued and killed some persons 
who fled from them. 

KAUSIKAS. Descendants of Kusika (q.v.). In one of the 
hymns of the Rig the epithet is given to Indra. 

KAILSIKI. The river Kosi in Bihar, but there were more 
rivers than one bearing this name. Satyavati, mother of Jamad- 
agni is said to have been changed into a river of this name. 

KAUSTTJBHA, A celebrated jewel obtained at the churn- 
ing of the ocean, and worn by Vishnu or Krzshrca on his bosom. 

KAUTILYA. Another name of Chanakya, the minister of 
Chandra-gupta. See Chanakya. 

KAUTSA. A rationalistic philosopher, who lived before the 
days of Yaska the author of the Mrukta. He regarded " the 
Veda as devoid of meaning, and the Brahmawas as false inter- 
pretations." Yaska replied to his objections. 

KAUTUKA-SAEYASWA, A modern farce, in two acts, 
by a Pancftt named Gopl-natha "It is a satire upon princes 
who addict themselves to idleness and sensuality, and fail to 
patronise the Brahmans." Wilson. 

KAVASHA, KAVASHA-AILtTSEA. Son of Ilusha by a 
slave girl He was author of several hymns in the tenth book 
of the JKg-veda. The Aitar^ya Brahmawa relates that the J&shis 
were performing a sacrifice on the banks of the Saraswati, and 
that Kavasha was with them ; but they drove him from among 
them because he was the son of a slave, and therefore unworthy 


to drink the water of the Saras watL When he was alone in the 
desert, a prayer was revealed to him by which he prevailed over 
the Saraswati, and its waters came and surrounded him. The 
^ishis saw this, and knowing that it was by the special favour 
of the gods, they admitted him to their society. 

KAYI-BAJA Author of a poem of studied ambiguity 
called Baghava-PaTW&Lviyam (q.v.). 

KAYYA-DAESA. ' Mirror of poetry. 5 A work on the 
Ars Poetica by Sn D&ndi. It has been printed in the Siblio- 
tkeca Indica. 

KAYYA-PBAKA/SA. A work on poetry and rhetoric by 
Mammata Bhaztfa of Kashmir. It has been printed at Calcutta, 

KAYYAS, KAYYAS. A class of Pitns ; according to some 
they are the Manes of men of the third caste. 

KAYAYYA. The son of a Kshatriya by a Nishada female, 
who is related in the Maha-bharata to have risen by virtue, 
knowledge, and devotion from the state of a Dasyu to perfection 

KEDAEESA, KEDAEA-NATHA. A name of iva, Name 
of one of the twelve great Lingas. It is a shapeless mass of 
stone at Kedara-natha in the Himalayas. See Linga. 

KEKAYA. See Kaikeya, 

KELI-KILA. A demigod attendant upon $iva. 

KENA, KENOPANISHAD. Name of a TJpanishad (q.v.) 
translated by Dr. Koer for the Bibliotheca Indica. 

KEBAKAS. One-footed men who live in forests, according 
to the Maha-bharata. 

KEBALA, The country of Malabar proper on the western coast 

KE&AYA. f Having much or fine hair.' A name of Yishwu 
or Kr ishwa. 

KE>SI, KE$IK In the Maha-bharata, a demon who fought 
with and was defeated by Indra. In the Purawas, a Daitya who 
took the form of a horse and attacked Knshrai, but was killed 
by that hero's thrusting his arm into his jaws and rending him 

KESENL Wife of Yisravas and mother of Bavawa; also 
called KaikasL 

KE/SI-DHWAJA. Son of Knta-dhwaja. Kea-dhwaja "was 
endowed with spiritual knowledge," and he had a cousin, Khan- 
rfikya, who " was diligent in the way of works and was renowned 
for religious rites." There was contention and hostilities be- 


fcween them, and Khawdikya was driven from his dominions. 
But they subsequently became useful to each other and friendly. 
Khawflftkya by his practical religion enabled Kesi-dhwaja to 
make atonement for the killing of a cow, and Kesi-dhwaja 
initiated Khandikya in the mysteries of spiritual meditation 

KETU. The descending node in astronomy, represented by 
a dragon's tail ; also a comet or meteor, and the ninth of the 
planets. He is said to be a Danava, and son of Yiprachitti and 
Sinhika. He is also called A-kacha, 'hairless ;' Aslesha-bhava, 
' cut off ; ' Munda, ' bald.' See Eahu. 

country on the banks of the Yamuna, which the Pawdavas 
received as their moiety when Dhnta-rashfra divided his king- 
dom. In it they built the city of Indra-prastha and made it 
their capital. The forest was consumed with fire by thei god 
Agni assisted by "Krishna, and Arjuna, 

KHAJV1DIKYA. See Kesi-dhwaja, 

KHAEA. A man-eating Eakshasa, the younger brother of 
Eavawa. He was killed by Eama-chandra. 

KHAEYA. A dwarf. See Yalakhilya. 

KHASA. A daughter of Daksha, wife of Kasyapa, and 
mother of the Yakshas and Eakshasas, called after her Khasat- 

border people classed with the $akas and other northern tribes. 
Professor Wilson thought that traces of them might be sought 
among the barbarous tribes on the north-east of Bengal, the 

KHA2 7 WANGA (also called Dillpa). i. A prince of the Solar 
race. In a battle between the gods and the demons he rendered 
great assistance to the former, who desired him to ask a boon. 
He begged that he might know the duration of his life, and the 
answer was, " Only an hour." Ho hastened to the world of 
mortals, and by earnest prayer he became united with the sup- 
reme being, Vislwii. " Liko unto Khatfwanga will there be no 
one upon earth, who, having come from heaven and dwelt an 
hour amongst men, became united with the three worlds by his 
liberality and knowledge of truth." V. f. 2. A club ; the cliib 
of Siva ; it is also called "KhinkMra and Pansula. 


KlCHAEA- Brother-in-law of the king of Tirana, who was 
commander of the forces and general director of the affairs of 
the kingdom. He made love to Draupadi, and was slain by 
Bhima, who rolled his bones and flesh into a ball, so that no one 
could tell how he was killed. 

ELlKATA. A country inhabited by people who were not 
Aryans ; it is identified with Magadha or South Bihar. 

KILATAKULL (Kilata + Akuli.) Two priests of the Asuras, 
who, according to the $atapatha BrahmaTia, exercised a special 
, influence between Manu and an " Asura-slaying voice." 

KIM-PUETJSHA. * What man V An indescribable man ; 
one of a low type, partaking of the nature and appearance of 
animals. In later times it is synonymous with Kin-nara. Name 
of a region between Himavat and Hema-kufo. (See Jambu-dwipa.) 
Also of a king of the latter region. 

KIN-NAB AS. 'What menf Mythical beings with the 
form of a man and the head of a horse. They are celestial 
choristers and musicians, dwelling in the paradise of Kuvera on 
Kailasa. They sprang from the toe of Brahma with the Yakshas, 
but according to others, they are sons of Kasyapa. They are 
also called Aswa-mukhas Turanga-vaktras, ' horse-faced/ and 

KIKATARJUNlYA. A poem descriptive of the combat 
between Siva in. the guise of a Kirata or mountaineer and the 
J?&ndu prince Arjuna. The story is first told in the Maha- 
bharata, and has been worked up in this artificial poem of 
eighteen cantos by Bharavi. Part of it has been translated into 
German by Schiitz. There are several editions of the text 
See Arjuna. 

KIRATAS. Foresters and mountaineers living in the moun 
tains east of Hindustan. (There is a tribe in the Central Hima 
layas called Kirantis.) They are described in the Ramayawa as 
" islanders, who eat raw fish, live in the waters, and are men- 
tigers " (men below and tigers above, according to the commenta- 
tor). Their females are described as " gold-coloured and plea- 
sant to behold," and as having " sharp-pointed hair-knots." 
They are perhaps the Cirrhadse placed on the Coromandel coast 
by classic writers. 

KIElTIN. ' Crowned with a diadem,' A title of India 
and also of Arjuna, 


KIRMlRA. A monster Rakshasa, brother of Vaka. He 
opposed the entrance of the Pa^avas into the Kamyaka forest, 
and threatened that he would eat Bhima. A furious combat 
ensued, in which Bhima and he hurled large trees at each other, 
but the demon was at length strangled and had all his bones 
broken by Bhima, 

KISHKINDHYA- A country in the peninsula, thought to 
be in the Mysore, which was taken by Kama from the monkey 
king Ball, and given back to his brother Su-griva, the friend 
and ally of Kama. The capital city was Kishkindhya. 

KOHALA. An ancient sage, to whom the invention of the 
drama is attributed j also a writer on music. 

ELOSALA. A country on the Sarayu river, having Ayodhya 
for its capital The name is variously applied to other 
countries in the east, and in the south, and in the Vindhya 
mountains. It probably widened with the dominions of its 
rulers, and part of Birar is called Dakshina-Kosala, the Southern 

KOfAVl, KOrAKl, KOrrAYL 'A naked woman.' A 
mystical goddess, the tutelary deity of the Daityas, and mother 
of Bana the demon. The name is sometimes applied to Durga. 

KRAMA-PAfHA. See Padia. 

KRATU. One of the Prajapatis, and sometimes reckoned 
among the great jRishis and mind-born sons of Brahma, (See 
EishL) The Yishttu Puram says that his wife Samnati brought 
forth the 60,000 Yalikhilyas, pigmy sages no bigger than a joint 
of the thumb. 

KRAUNCHA. i. A pass situated somewhere in the Himalayas, 
said to have been opened by Parasu-rama with his arrows to 
make a passage from Kailasa to the southwards. The Vayu 
Puram attributes the splitting of the mountain to Karttikeya. 
Indra and Karttikeya had a dispute about their respective 
powers, and agreed to decide it by running a race round the 
mountain, They disagreed as to the result, and therefore 
appealed to the mountain, who untruly decided in favour of 
Indra "Karttikeya hurled his lance at the mountain and 
pierced at once it and the demon Mahisha." 2. A confede- 
rate of the demon Taraka, against whom Karttikeya led the 
gods and tritunphed. 3, One of the seven Dwipaa Sea 


KRAYYAD. ' A flesh-eater. 5 A Rakshasa or any carnivo- 
rous animal In the Yeda, Agni is in one place called a Kravyad 
of terrible power. Fire is also a Kravyad in consuming "bodies 
on the funeral pile. See Agni. 

K.S/PA. Son of the sage $aradwat, and the adopted son of 
King $antanu. He "became one of the privy council at Hastina- 
pura, and was one of the three surviving Kuru warriors who 
made the murderous night attack upon the camp of the Pa^avas. 
He was also called Gautama and Saradwata. See Kripa and 

KRIPA, KftlPI Wife of DroTza and mother of Aswattha- 
man, The sage $aradwat or Gotama so alarmed Indra by his 
austerities that the god sent a nymph to tempt him. Though 
she was unsuccessful, two children were found born to the sage 
in a tuft of grass. King Santanu found them and brought them 
up out of compassion (kripa), whence their names, Knpa and 
Kripa. The children passed as $antanu's own. Drona was a 
Brahman and Santanu a Kshatriya : the myth makes Kripi a 
Brahmam, and so accounts for her being the wife of Drona, 
The Vishmi Purafta represents them as children of Satya-dhnti, 
grandson of tfaradwat by the nymph Urvasi, and as being exposed 
in a clump of long grass. 

KjRJSH^A. ' Black/ This name occurs in the jf&g-veda, 
but without any relation to the great deity of later times. The 
earliest mention of Krishna, the son of Devakl, is in the Chhan- 
dogya Upanishad, where he appears as a scholar. There was a 
Bishi of the name who was a son of Yiswaka. There was also 
a great Asura so named, who with 10,000 followers committed 
fearful devastation, until he was defeated and skinned by Indra. 
In another Yedic hymn, 50,000 Krishnas are said to have been 
slain, and it is added in another that his pregnant wives were slain 
with him that he might leave no posterity. This is supposed 
to have reference to the Bakshasas or to the dark- coloured 
aborigines of India, 

The modem deity Krishna is the most celebrated hero of 
Indian mythology, and the most popular of all the deities. 
He is said to be the eighth Avatara or incarnation of Vishnu, 
or rather a direct manifestation of Yislwu himself. This hero, 
iround whom a vast mass of legend and fable has been gathered, 
probably lived in the Epic age, when the Hindus had not ad 


ranced far beyond their early settlements in the north-west. He 
appears prominently in the Maha-bharata, where his character 
is invested with a certain degree of mysticism. Additions and 
interpolations have raised him to divinity, and it is in the 
character of the " Divine One " that he delivered the celebrated 
song, Bhagavad-gita, a production of comparatively late date, 
now held to be pare of the great epic. In this work he dis- 
tinctly declares himself to be the Supreme Being. He says : 
" All this universe has been created by me ; all things exist in 
me;" and Arjuna addresses him as " the supreme universal 
spirit, the supreme dwelling, the eternal person, divine, prior 
to the gods, unborn, omnipresent." The divine character of 
Krishna having thus been established, it was still further deve- 
loped in the Hari-vansa, a later addition to the Maha-bharata ; 
and in the Puranas, especially in the Bhagavata Puram, it 
attained full expansion. There the story of the life of Krishna, 
from his earliest days, is related with minute details, and it is 
upon this portion of his life that the popular mind delights 
to dwell. The mischievous pranks of the child, the follies of 
the boy, and the amours of the youth, are the subjects of 
boundless wonder and delight. All these stories, as told in the 
Bhagavata Purana, have been made accessible and popular by 
the Hindi translation known by the name Prem Sagar, ( ocean 
of love/ and by other versions. Much of the story of the early 
days of Knshfia is thus of comparatively modern invention, 
while the incidents of his relations with the Pam?ava princes are 
among the most ancient. 

Knahwa was of the Yadava race, being descended from Yadu, 
one of the sons of Yayati. The Yadavas of old were a pastoral 
race, and dwelt on the river Yamuna (Jumna), in Vnndavana, on 
the western side, and in Gokula on the other. In those days, 
Kansa, Eaja of the Bhojas, having deposed his father, Ugrasena, 
ruled in the city of Mathura, near Vnndavana. Ugrasena had a 
brother named Devaka, and Devaka had a daughter named Do- 
vaki, who married Yasu-deva, son of /Sura, also a descendant of Yadu. 
The history of Krishna's birth, as given in the Maha-bharata and 
followed by the Vishnu Purawa, is that Vishmi plucked out two of 
his own hairs, one white, the other black. These two hairs entered 
the wombs of RohM and Devaki ; the white hair became Bala- 
rama and the black (krishm) hair (kesa) became Krishna or Kesava, 


His reputed father, Yasu-deva, was brother of Kunti, the wife of 
P&ndu, and so Krishna was cousin of the three elder Parana va princes. 

The Maha-bharata gives two summaries of his exploits, of 
which the following are abridgments : " While Krishna was 
growing up as a high-souled boy in the tribe of cowherds, the 
force of his arms was rendered famous by him in the three 
worlds." He slew the king of the Hayas (horses), dwelling in the 
woods of the Yamuna. He slew the direful Danava, who bore 
the form of a bull He also slew Pralambha, ISTaraka, Jambha, 
and Pltha, the great Asura, and Muru. He overthrew and 
slew Kansa, who was supported by Jara-sandha. "With the help of 
Bala-rama he defeated and destroyed Su-naman, brother of Kansa 
and king of the $urasenas. He carried off the daughter of the 
king of the Gandharas at a swayam-vara, and princes were yoked 
to his car. He secured the death of Jara-sandha and slew Sisu- 
pala. He overthrew Saubha, the self-supporting or flying city 
of the Daityas, on the shore of the ocean. He conquered the 
Angas and Bangas, and numerous other tribes. Entering the 
ocean filled with marine monsters, he overcame Yaruna. In 
Patala he slew Panchajana, and obtained the divine shell Pan- 
chajanya. With Arjuna he propitiated Agni in the Khandava 
forest, and obtained the fiery weapon the discus. Mounted on 
Garudta, he alarmed Amaravatl, the city of Indra, and brought 
away the Parijata tree from thence, 

In another passage, Arjuna rehearses some of Krishna's ex 
ploits. He destroyed the Bhoja kings in battle, and carried 
off Kukmini for his bride. He destroyed the Gandharas, van- 
quished the sons of Nagnajit, and released King Su-darsana, 
whom they had bound. He slew Pan^ya with the fragment of 
a door, and crushed the Kalingas in Dantakura. Through him 
the burnt city of Benares was restored. He killed Ekalavya, 
king of the Nishadas, and the demon Jambha. With the aid of 
Bala-rama he killed Su-naman, the wicked son of Ugrasena, and 
restored the kingdom to the latter. He conquered the flying 
city of Saubha and the king of the $alwas, and there he 
obtained the fiery weapon $ata-ghni. Earaka, son of the earth, 
had carried off the beautiful jewelled earrings of Aditi to 
Prag-jyotisha, the impregnable castle of the Asuras. The gods, 
headed by Indra, were unable to prevail against Naraka, so 
they appointed Krishna to slay him. Accordingly he killed 


Muru and the Eakshasa Oglia ; and finally he slew Naraka and 
brought "back the earrings. 

It further appears in different parts of the Maha-bharata that 
Knshfta, prince of Dwaraka, was present at the swayam-vara of 
Draupadi, and gave his judgment that she had been fairly won 
by Arjuna. While the Pa^avas were reigning at Indra-prastha, 
he paid them a visit, and went out hunting with them in the 
Khawdava forest. There he and Arjuna allied themselves with 
Agni, who was desirous of burning the Khawdava forest, but 
was prevented by Indra. Agni having secured the help of 
Krishna and Arjuna, he gave the former the celebrated chakra 
(discus) Vajra-nabha, and the club Kaumodaki. Then Indra 
was defeated and Agni burnt the forest. Arjuna afterwards 
visited Knslma at Dwaraka, and was received with greai 
demonstrations of joy. Arjuna, with the connivance of Krishna, 
eloped with Su-bhadra, Knshna's sister, much to the annoyance 
of Bala-rama, her elder brother. When Yudhi-shftiira was 
desirous of performing the Eaja-suya sacrifice, Krishna told 
him that he must first conquer Jara-sandha, king of Magadha. 
Jara-sandha was attack'ed and slain, and Krishna was thus 
revenged upon the enemy who had forced him to leave Mathura 
and emigrate to Dwaraka. Knshm attended the Eaja-suya 
sacrifice performed by Yudhi-sMiira, and there he met /Sisu-pala, 
whose betrothed wife he had carried off. $isu-pala reviled him 
and acted very violently, so Krishna, cast his discus and cut off his 
enemy's head. He was present at the gambling match between 
Yudhi-sh/hira and the Kauravas. When Draupadi had been 
staked and lost, she was dragged into the public hall by Du/^- 
sasana, who tore off her clothes, but Krishna, pitied her, and 
renewed her clothes as fast as they were torn away. After the 
close of the exile of the ParaZavas, Knshna was present, and took 
part in the council which preceded the great war, and strongly 
advised a peaceful settlement. Then he returned to Dwaraka. 
Thither Arjuna and Dur-yodhana followed him with the object of 
enlisting his services in the coming war, but he refused to take 
any active part because he was related to both parties. He 
gave them the choice of his personal attendance or of the use 
of his army. Arjuna, who had arrived first, and therefore had 
the first choice, asked for Krishna himself, and Dur-yodhana 
joyfully accepted the army. E> ishm then became the charioteer 


of Arjuna. After this, at the request of the Panrfavas, he went 
in splendid state to Hastina-pura as a mediator, but his efforts 
were unavailing, and he returned. Preparations for action were 
then made and the forces drawn out. On the eve of the battle, 
while acting as Aijuna's charioteer, he is represented as relating 
to Arjuna the Bhagavad-gita or divine song. He rendered 
valuable services to Arjuna throughout the battle, but on two 
occasions he suggested unfair dealing. He prompted the lie by 
which Yudhi-shzfliira broke down the prowess of Drona, and he 
suggested the foul blow by which Bhima shattered the thigh of 
Dur-yodhana. He afterwards went to Hastina-pura with the 
conquerors, and he also attended their Aswa-medha sacrifice. 
On returning to Dwaraka he issued a proclamation forbidding 
the use of wine. Portents and fearful signs appeared, and a 
general feeling of alarm spread among all in Dwaraka. Krishna 
gave directions that the inhabitants should go out to Prabhasa 
on the sea-shore and endeavour to propitiate the deity. He 
gave permission also that wine might be drunk for one day. 
A drunken brawl followed, in which his son Pradyumna was 
killed in his presence, and nearly all the chiefs of the Yadavas 
were slain. Bala-rama went out from the fray and died peace- 
fully under a tree, and Krishna himself was killed unintention- 
ally by a hunter named Jaras, who shot him with an arrow, 
mistaking him at a distance for a deer. Arjuna proceeded to 
Dwaraka and performed the obsequies of Krishna. A few 
days afterwards the city was swallowed up by the sea. Five 
of Krishna's widows were subsequently burnt upon a funeral 
pile in the plain of Kuru-kshetra. 

"Among the texts of the Maha-bharata," says Dr. Muir, 
" there are some in which Krishna is distinctly subordinated to 
Maha-deva (Siva), of whom he is exhibited as a worshipper, and 
from whom, as well as from his wife TJma, he is stated to have 
received a variety of boons. Even in these passages, however, 
a superhuman character is ascribed to Krishna." 

The popular history of Krishna, especially of his childhood 
and youth, is given in the Puranas, and is the subject of many 
a story. The Bhagavata Purana is the great authority, and from 
that the following account is condensed : 

The sage Narada had foretold to Kansa that a son of Devaki, 
bis brother's daughter, should destroy him and overthrow his 


kingdom. To obviate this danger, Kansa kept his cousin. Devaki 
confined in his own palace, and six children that she bore he 
caused to be put to death. She conceived a seventh time, but 
the child was an incarnation of Vishnu, and was miraculously 
preserved by being transferred from the womb of Devaki to that 
of Rohim, who was Vasu-deva's second wife. This child was 
Bala-rama. Devaki again conceived, and her eighth child was 
born at midnight with a very dark skin, whence he was called 
Krishm He had a peculiar curl of hair, called sri-vatsa, upon 
his breast. The gods interposed to preserve the life of this 
divinely begotten child. The guards of the palace were oven 
powered with sleep, and bolts and barriers were removed. Yasu- 
deva took up the child and escaped with him from Mathura. 
He repaired to the bank of the Yamuna (Jumna), and, crossing 
the river, went to the house of Nanda, a cowherd, whose wife, 
Yasoda, had on that very night been delivered of a female child. 
Yasu-deva secretly changed the infants, and carried back the 
daughter of Yasoda to his wife Devaki Kansa discovered that 
he had been cheated, and in his wrath he ordered that every 
male infant that gave signs of vigour should be put to death. 
Yasu-deva and Devaki, being no longer dangerous, were set at 
liberty. Nanda, alarmed by the order for the massacre, took the 
young child and removed with Yasoda and with !Rohmi and 
Bala-rama to Gokula. Here Krishf&a was brought up, and wan- 
dered about in company of his elder brother Bala-rama. They 
played many pranks and passed many practical jokes ; but they 
exhibited such marvellous strength and such godlike powers 
that they soon became famous. Kansa was continually forming 
schemes for the death of 'Krishna* The female demon Putana 
assumed a lovely form, and tried to kill him Tby suckling him, 
but the child sucked away her life. Another demon tried to 
drive a cart over him, but he dashed the cart to pieces. A 
demon named Trinavartta took the form of a whirlwind and 
flew off with him, but the child brought the demon to the 
ground with such violence that he died One day Knslwa 
broke the vessels of milk and curds and ate the butter, which 
made Yasoda angry. She fastened a rope round his body, and 
tied him to a large bowl, but he dragged the bowl away till it 
caught between two trees and uprooted them. From this feat 
he got the name of Damodara (rope-belly). He had a terrible 


conflict with the great serpent Kaliya, who lived in the Yamuna, 
and he compelled him to go away. On one occasion, when the gopls 
or milkmaids were hathing, he took away all their clothes and 
climbed up a tree, and there he remained till the damsels came 
to him naked to recover them. He persuaded Nanda and the 
cowherds to give up the worship of Indra, and to worship the 
mountain Govardhana, which sheltered them and their cattle. 
Incensed at the loss of his offerings, Indra poured down a heavy 
rain, which would have deluged them, but Krishna lifted up the 
mountain Govardhana, and held it upon his ringer as a shelter 
for seven days and nights, till Indra felt that he was foiled, 
From this feat he obtained the name of Govardhana-dhara and 
Tungisa, As he had protected the kine, Indra expressed his 
satisfaction, and gave him the title of Upendra. He was now 
approaching manhood, and was very handsome. The gopls were 
all enamoured of him, and he dispensed his favours very freely. 
He married seven or eight of them, but his first and favourite 
wife was Eadha. At this period of his life he is represented 
with flowing hair and with a flute in his hand. One of his 
favourite pastimes was a round dance, called Mattrfala-n7*itya or 
Basa-mawrfala, in which he and Radha formed the centre whilst 
the gopls danced round them. But his happiness was inter- 
rupted by the machinations of Kansa, who sent formidable 
demons to destroy him Arishfo in the form of a bull, and 
Kesin in the form of a horse. These attempts having failed, 
Kansa sent his messenger, Akrura, to invite Krishna and Bala- 
rama to Mathura to attend some games, and he formed several 
plans for their destruction. They accepted the invitation, and 
went to Mathura. Near the city they found Kansa's washer- 
man engaged in his calling. They threw down some of his 
clothes, and he addressed them insolently, upon which they killed 
him, and took such clothes as they liked. In his progress he met 
Kubja, a crooked damsel, who gave him some unguent, and he 
repaid her gift by making her straight. In the games he killed 
Chawura, the king's boxer. Afterwards he killed Kama himself, 
and replaced Ugrasena on the throne. He remained in Mathura 
and studied the science of arms under Sandipani. He went 
down to the infernal regions and brought back his six brothers, 
whom Kansa had killed, and these, having tasted the milk of 
their mother, ascended to heaven. During this period he killed 


a demon named Panchajana, who had attacked the son of his 
teacher. This demon lived in the sea in the form of a conch- 
shell, and Krishna afterwards used this shell, called Pfincha- 
janya, as a trumpet Kansa's two wives were daughters of 
Jara-sandha, king of Magadha, This king assembled his forces 
and marched against Mathura to chastise Krishna, hut he was 
defeated He renewed his attacks eighteen times, and was as 
often defeated. A new enemy then threatened Krishna, a 
Yavana or foreigner named Kala-yavana, and, had "been 
so weakened that he knew he must succumb either to him or to 
his old enemy the king of Magadha, so he and all his people 
, migrated to the coast of Guzerat, where lie built and fortified 
the city of Dwaraka. [The Maha-bharata makes no mention 
of this foreign king, and says that K?*ishna retired before the 
eighteenth attack of Jara-sandha, The foreign king would, 
therefore, seem to be an invention of the Puranas for saving 
Krishna's reputation.] 

After his settlement at Dwaraka, Krishna carried off and 
married Kukmini, daughter of the Kaja of Vidarbha, and the 
betrothed of $isu-pala. An incident now occurred which brought 
him two more wives. A Yadava chief named Satrajit had a 
beautiful gem called Syamantaka, which Krishna wished to 
possess. Satrajit, for the sake of security, gave the gem into 
the charge of his brother Prasena, and Prasena was killed in the 
forest by a lion, who carried off the jewel in his mouth. Thia 
lion was killed by Jambavat, the king of the bears. Satrajit 
suspected "Krishna, of taking the jewel, and he, to clear himself, 
went out into the forest, ascertained the manner of Prasena's 
death, fought with Jambavat, and recovered the jewel. Krishna 
then married Jambavati, the daughter of Jambavat, and Satya- 
bhama, the daughter of Satrajit. But the number of his wives 
was practically unlimited, for he had 16,000 and a hundred or 
so besides, and he had 180,000 sons. By Rukmin! he had a son 
Pradyumna and a daughter Charumatl His son by Jambavati 
was $amba, and by Satya-bhama he had ten sons. Indra came 
to visit Krishna at Dwaraka, and implored him to suppress the 
evil deeds of the demon ISTaraka. Krishna accordingly went to 
the city of Naraka, killed the demon Muru, who guarded the 
city, and then destroyed Naraka himself. Krishna next went 
to pay a visit to Indra in Swarga, taking with him his wife 


Satya-bhama. At her request he requited tlie hospitality shown 
hfm "by carrying off the famed Parijata tree, which was produced 
at the churning of the ocean. The tree belonged to Sachi, wife 
of Indra, and she complained to her husband. Indra drew out 
his forces and tried to recover it, but was defeated by Kn'shna. 
Pradyumna, son of Krishna, had a son named Aniruddha, with 
whom a female Daitya, Usha, daughter of Bafta, fell in love. 
She induced a companion to carry off the young man, and 
Krishna, Bala-rama, and Pradyumna went to rescue him. Bana, 
with the whole Daitya host, and assisted by Siva, and Skanda, 
the god of war, encountered them. Krishna, " with the weapon 
of yawning, set Siva agape," and so overpowered him. Skanda 
was wounded. Bam maintained a fierce combat with Krishna, 
and was severely wounded, but Krishna spared his life at the 
intercession of Siva, and Aniruddha was released 

There was a man named Paun^raka, who was a Vasu-deva, or 
descendant of one Vasu-deva. Upon the strength of the identity 
of this name with that of Vasu-deva, the father of Krishna, this 
man Paurcdraka assumed the insignia and title of Krishna, and he 
had the king of KasI or Benares for an ally. Krishna slew Paun- 
dfcaka, and he hurled his flaming discus at Benares and destroyed 
that city. Such are the principal incidents of the life of Krislma 
as given in the Hari-vansa, the Puranas, and the Preia Sagar. 

Similarity in the sound of the name, and some incidents in 
the life of Krishna, have led some to believe that the legend of 
Krishna had its origin in the life of Christ, but this is not the 
general opinion. 

Krishna has many appellations derived from his family rela- 
Jions, his exploits, and personal characteristics ; and there are 
many which apply both to the full deity, Vishnu, and his incar 
nation, Krishna. 

KRISTINjL The personal name of DraupadL 


K^/TANTA. A name of Yama, the god of death. 

K^/TA-VAKMAN. A Kuril warrior, one of the last sur- 
viving three who made the murderous night attack upon the 
camp of the Pancfavas. (See Maha-bharata.) He was killed in 
a drunken brawl at Dwaraka. He was also called Bhoja. 

KEITA-VIEYA. Son of Dhanaka and father of the 
Arjima who is better know by his patronymic Karta-vlrya, 


Krita-vuya was a great patron of the Bhngus, and according 
to the Purarcas, "he ruled over the whole earth with might 
and justice, and offered 10,000 sacrifices. Of him this verse 
is still recited, c The kings of the earth will assuredly never 
pursue his steps in sacrifice, in munificence, in devotion, in 
courtesy, and in self-control' " 

K^ITA YUGA. The first age of the world, a period of 
1,728,000 years. See T uga. 

K^/TTIKAS. The Pleiades. The six nurses of Karttikeya, 
the god of war. They were daughters of a king according to 
one legend, wives of JMshis according to another. 

KRIYA- YOGA-SARA. A portion of the Padma Pura?ia 
treating of rites and ceremonies. See Padnia Purawa. 

KRODHA, KRODHA-VASA, One of the many daughters 
of Daksha and sister-wives of Kasyapa. She was the mother 
"of all sharp-toothed monsters, whether on the earth, amongst 
the birds, or in the waters, that were devourers of flesh." 

KSHAJVADA-CHAEA- 'Night walkers/ Ghosts of evil 
character, goblins, Rakshasas. 

KSHAPAJVAKA. An author who was one of " the nine 
gems " at the court of Yikramaditya. See Nava-ratna. 

KSHATRIYA- The second or regal and warrior caste, 
See Varna. 

KSHATTRL A name by which Yidura was familiarly 
called The term, as explained in Manu, means the son of a 
Sudra father and Brahman mother, but Yidura's father was a 
Brahman and his mother a slave girL 

KSHEMAKA. Son of Nira-mitra or Nimi, and the last 
prince of the Lunar race. There is a memorial verse quoted in 
the Vishnu Purawa which say, " The race which, gave origin 
to Brahmans arid Kshatriyas, and which was purified by rega) 
sages, terminated with Kshemaka in the Kali age." 

KSHEMA-VJm)DHI. A general of the Salwas who had 
a command in the army which attacked Dwaraka, and was 
defeated by Krishna's son, Samba. 

KULA-PARYATAS. 'Family mountains.' A series or sys 
tern of seven chains of mountains in Southern India They are 
Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, $uktimat, j&ksha (for which Gan- 
dha-madana is sometimes substituted), Yindhya and Paripatra 
Mahendra is the Orissa chain ; Malaya, the hills of Malabar 


proper, the south part of the Western Ghats ; Sahya, the 
northern parts of the "Western Ghats ; uktimat is doubtful ; 
Aksha, the mountains of Gondwana ; Yindhya is here applied 
to the eastern division of the Yindhya mountains ; and Paripatra, 
or Pariyatra as it is frequently written, applies to the northern 
and western portions of the same range. The classification seems 
to have been known to Ptolemy, for he specifies seven ranges of 
mountains, but his names are not in accord. 

KULIKA One of the eight serpent kings, described as 
of a dusky brown colour and having a half-moon on his head. 

KULIISTDAS. A people living in the north-west. 

KULLOKA-BEATTA. The famous commentator on 
Manu, whose gloss was used by Sir W. Jones in making the 
translation of Manu. 

KTJMARA. A name of Skanda, god of war. In the Brah- 
manas the term is applied to Agni 

KUMAEAS. Mind-born sons of Brahma, who, declining to 
create progeny, remained ever boys and ever pure and innocent. 
There were four of them, Sanat-kumara, Sananda, Sanaka, and 
Sanatana ; a fifth, -ftibhu, is sometimes added. See Yistmu 

KUMARA-S AMBHAYA. The birth of the war god (Ku- 
mara)/ A poem by Kali-dasa. The complete work consists of 
sixteen cantos, but only seven are usually given, and these have 
been translated into Latin by Stenzler. Parts have been ren- 
dered into English verse by Griffiths. There are several editions 
of the text. 

KUMAR! 'The damsel' An epithet of Sita, also of 
Durga. Cape Comorin. 

brated teacher of the Mimansa philosophy and opponent of the 
Buddhists, whom he is said to have extirpated by argument and 
by force. He was prior to Sankaracharya, in whose presence he 
is recorded to have burnt himself. 

KUMBHA-KARJVA. Son of Yisravas by his Rakshasa wife 
Kesinl, and full brother of RavaTia. A monster who, under the 
curse of Brahma (or, as otherwise represented, as a boon), slept 
for six months at a time and remained awake for only a single 
day. When RavaTia was hard pressed by Rama he sent to 
arouse Kumbha-karm This was effected with great difficulty, 


After drinking 2000 jars of liquor he went to consult with his 
brother, and then took the field against the monkey army. He 
beat down Su-griva, the monkey chief, with a large stone, and 
carried him a prisoner into the city of Lanka* When he 
returned to the battle he encountered Rama, and after a stout 
fight he was defeated, and Rama cut off his head. 

KUMUDA, t A lotus.' A Naga or serpent king whose 
sister, Kumudvati, married Kusa, son of Rama. 

KUMUDVATI. A Naga or serpent princess whose mai 
riage to Kusa, son of Rama, is described in the Raghu-vansa. 

KUtf jDINA-PITBA. The capital of Yidarbha. It survives 
as the modern Kundapur, situated about 40 miles east of Ama- 
ravati, in Birar. 

KUNTALA, A country in the Dakhin, about Adoni ; the 

KUNTI (also called Pritha and Parshwl). i. Daughter of the 
Yadava prince Sura, king of the Surasenas, whose capital was 
Matliura on the Yamuna. She was sister of Yasu-deva, and was 
given by her father to his childless cousin Kunti-bhoja, by whom 
she was brought up. In her maidenhood she showed such 
respectful devotion to the sage Dur-vasas, that he gave her a 
charm by means of which she might have a child by any god 
she pleased to invoke. She called upon the sun, and by him 
had a son named Kama, but without any detriment to her vir- 
ginity; still, to keep the affair secret, the child was exposed on 
the banks of the Yamuna Subsequently she married Pa?wZu, 
whom she chose at a swayam-vara, and bore three sons, Yudhi- 
shfliira, Bhima, and Arjuna, who were called Paw^avas although 
they were said to be the sons of the gods Dhanna, Yayu, and 
Indra respectively. This may have happened, as is stated, from 
the potency of the old charm, but if so, it is strange that Madri, 
the second wife of Parfu, should have enjoyed the same privilege, 
and have borne twin children to the Aswins. This difficulty, 
however, is got over by a statement that Kunti imparted to her 
the charm. Elunti was a discreet and devoted mother, and 
although rather jealous of Madri, she was a kind mother to her 
children after Madri was burnt on her husband's pyre. After 
the end of the great war she retired into the forest with Dhnta- 
rashfra and his wife Gandhan, and there they all perished in 
a forest fire. a. Name of a people and country in Upper India 


KUNTLBHO JA. King of the people called Kuntis. The 
adoptive father of Kunti, 

KURMA-AVATAR. The tortoise incarnation. See Avatara. 

KURMA PURAiVA. That in which Janardana (Vishnu), 
in the form of a tortoise, in the regions under the earth, ex- 
plained the objects of life duty, wealth, pleasure, and libera- 
tion, in communication with Indra-dyumna and the Bishis in 
the proximity of Sakra, which refers to the Lakshmi Kalpa, 
and contains 17,000 stanzas, is the Kurma Purana." The 
account which the Purana gives of itself and its actual con- 
tents do not agree with this description. " The name being 
that of an Avatara of Vishnu, might lead us to expect a Yaish- 
Tzava work; but it is always and correctly classed with the 
aiva Puranas, the greater portion of it inculcating the worship 
of Siva and Durga, The date of this Pura?za cannot be very 
remote. " Wilson. 

KURIL A prince of the Lunar race, son of Samvarana by 
Tapati, a daughter of the sun. He ruled in the north-west of 
India over the country about Delhi A people called Kurus, 
and dwelling about Kuru-kshetra in that part of India, are con- 
nected with Mm. He was ancestor both of Dhnta-rashfra and 
Pandu, but the patronymic Kaurava is generally applied to the 
sons of the former, 

KURU-JAISTGALA. A forest country in the upper part of 
the Doab. 

KURU-KSHETBA. 'The field of the Kurus/ A plain 
near Delhi where the great battle between the Kauravas and 
Pawdavas was fought. It lies south-east of Thanesar, not far 
from Panipat, the scene of many battles in later days. 

KTLSA. One of the twin sons of Rama and Sita. After the 
death of Rama, his two sons Kusa and Lava became kings of 
the Southern and Northern Kosalas, and Kusa built Kusa-sthali 
or Kusavati in the Vindhyas, and made it his capital See Rama. 

KILSA-DHWAJA A brother of Janaka, king of Mithila, 
and consequently uncle of Sita. His two daughters, Mant/avi 
and Srata-klrtti, were married to Eharata and Satru-ghna, the 
sons of Janaka. Some make him king of Sankasya, and others 
king of KasI, and there are differences also as to his genealogy. 

KUSAMBA. Son of Kusa and a descendant of Pururavas. 
He engaged in devout penance to obtain a son equal to Indra, 


and that god was so alaimed at his austerities, that he himself 
became incarnate as Gadhi, son of Kusamba. 

KU/SA-STHALl. i. A city identical with or standing on the 
same spot as Dwikaka. It was built by Eaivata, and was the 
capital of his kingdom called Anarta. When Eaivata went on 
a visit to the region of Brahma, his city was destroyed by 
Puwya-janas, i.e. 9 Yakshas or Eakshasas. 2. A city built by Kusa, 
son of Eama, on the brow of the Vindhyas. It was the capital 
of Southern Kosalii. Also called Kusa-vatL 

KILSA-VATI. The capital of Southern Kosala, built upon 
the Yindhyas by Kusa, son of Eama. 

KUSHMA^raAS. 'Gourds.' A class of demigods or de- 
mons in the service of $iva. 

KILSIKA. A king who, according to some, was the father 
of Viswamitra, or, according to others, the first of the race of 
Kusikas from whom Gadhi, the father of Viswamitra descended. 

KUSUMA-PUEA. 'The city of flowers.' Pafoli-putra or 

KUSUMAYUDHA. A name of Kama, or Cupid as the 
bearer of the bow (dyudha) of flowers (hisuma). 

KUTSA. A Vedic JSislri and author of hymns. He is re- 
presented as being persecuted by India, but -on one occasion he 
was defended by that god against the demon $ushwa. It is 
said that Indra took liim to his palace, and that they were so 
much alike that $achi or Pushpotka/a, India's wife, did not 
know which was her husband 

Solar race, who, according to the Vislrnu Purarca, had 21,000 
sons, but the Hari-vansa numbers them only as 100. Attended 
by his sons he attacked the great Asura, Dhundhu, who lived 
in a sea of sand, and harassed the devotions of the pious sage 
Uttanka. They unearthed the demon and slew him, from which 
exploit Kuvalaswa got the title of Dhundhu-mara, slayer of 
Dhundhu ; but all his sons except three perished by the fiery 
breath of the monster. 

KUYALAYAPIDA, An immense elephant, or a demon in 
elephantine form, belonging to Kan^a, and employed by him to 
trample the boys Knslma and Eala-rama to death. The attempt 
failed and the elephant was killed. 

KUYER A. In the Vedas, a chief of the evil beings or spirits 

174 KUVERA. 

living in the shades : a sort of Pluto, and called by his patronymic 
Yaisravana. Later he is Pluto in another sense, as god of wealth 
and chief of the Yakshas and Guhyakas. He was son of Yisravas 
by I^avi^a, but he is sometimes called son of Pulastya, who was 
father of Yisravas. This is explained by the Maha-bharata, accord- 
ing to which Kuvera was son of Pulastya, but that sage being 
offended with Kuvera for his adulation of Brahma, " reproduced 
the half of himself in the form of Yisravas," and had Eavana 
and other children. (See Yisravas.) Kuvera's city is Alaka 
(also called Prabha, Yasu-dhara, and Yasu-sthali) in the Hima 
layas, and his garden Chaitra-ratha on Mandara, one of the spurs 
of Mount Meru, where he is waited upon by the Kinnaras. 
Some authorities place his abode on Mount Kailasa in a palace 
built by Yiswa-karma. He was half-brother of Eava?m, and, 
according to the Eamayana and Maha-bharata, he once had 
possession of the city of Lanka in Ceylon, which was also built 
by Yiswa-karina, and from which he was expelled by Eavarca, 
The same authority states that he performed austerities for 
thousands of years, and obtained the boon from Brahma that he 
should be immortal, one of the guardian deities of the world, 
and the god of wealth. So he is regent of the north, and the 
keeper of gold and silver, jewels and pearls, and all the trea- 
sures of the earth, besides nine particular JSTidhis, or treasures, 
the nature of which is not well understood Brahma also gave 
him the great self-moving aerial car Pushpaka (q.v.). His wife 
is YakshI, Charvl, or Kauverl, daughter of the Danava Mnra. 
His sons are Mara-griva or Yarwa-kavi and Nala-kubara or 
Mayu-raja, and his daughter Minakshi (fish-eyed). He is repre- 
sented as a white man deformed in body, and having three legs 
and only eight teeth. His body is covered with ornaments. 
He receives no worship, The name Ku-vera, as also the variant 
Ku-tanu, signifies * vile body/ referring to his ugliness. He is 
also called Dhana-pati, 'lord of wealth; 7 Ichchha-vasu, e who 
has wealth at will / Yaksha-raja, ' chief of the Yakshas ; ' Mayu- 
raja, * king of the Kinnaras ; ' Eakshasendra, * chief of the Eak- 
shasas ;' Eatna-garbha, * belly of jewels ;' Eaja-raja, c king ot 
kings ' and Nara-raja, i king of men 7 (in allusion to the power 
of riches). Prom his parentage he is called Yaisravana, Paulas- 
tya, and Aidavirfa or Ailavila. As an especial friend of $iva he 
is called Isa-sakhi, &c. 


LAGrHU-KAUMUDL A modern and very much simplified 
edition of Pawini's Grammar by Yarada Eaja. It has "been edited 
and translated by Dr. Ballantyne. 

LAKSHMAZVA i. Son of King Dasa-ratha by his wife Su- 
mitra. He was the twin brother of $atru-ghna, and the half- 
brother and especial friend of Eama-chandra. Under the pecu- 
liar circumstances of his birth, one-eighth part of the divinity 
of Vishnu became manifest in "hrm. (See Dasa-ratha.) But 
according to the Adhyatma EamayaTia, he was an incarnation of 
Sesha. When Eama left his father's court to go to the hermi- 
tage of Viswamitra, Lakshmawa accompanied him, and after- 
wards attended him in his exile and in all his wanderings. He 
was also very attached to Eama's wife Sita, which gave rise to 
the reproach that the two brothers were husbands of one wife. 
On one occasion, indeed, Sita reproached Lakshmana that he 
did not hasten to rescue Eama from danger, because he wished 
to obtain herself. His own wife was tTrmila, the sister of Sita, 
and he had two sons, Angada and Chandra-ketu, While Eama 
and Lakshma?ia were living in the wilderness, a Eakshasi 
named $urpa-nakha, sister of Eavam, fell in love with Eama 
and made advances to him. He jestingly referred her to Laksh- 
mawa, who in like manner sent her back to Eama. When she 
tfas again repulsed she attacked Sita, whom Eama was obliged 
to defend Eama then called upon Lakshmana to disfigure the 
Eakshasi, and accordingly he cut off her nose and ears. The 
mutilated female called upon her brother to avenge her, and 
a fierce war ensued When Sita was carried off by Eavawa, 
Lakshmaraa accompanied Eama in his search, and he ably and 
bravely supported him in his war against Eavana. Rama's 
earthly career was drawing to a close, and Time was sent to 
inform him that he must elect whether to stay longer on earth, 
or to return to the place from whence he had come. While 
they were in conference, the irascible sage Dur-vasas came and 
demanded to see Eama instantly, threatening him with the 
most direful curses if any delay were allowed to occur. To save 
his brother Eama from the threatened curse, but aware of the 
consequences that would ensue to himself from breaking in upon 
Eama's interview with Time, he went in and brought Eama out 
Lakshmana knowing his fate, retired to the river $arayii and 
resigned himself. The gods then showered down flowers upon 


him and conveyed him bodily to heaven. 2. A son of Dur- 

yodhana, killed by Abhimanyu. 

LAKSHMl The word occurs in the jf&g-veda with the 
sense of good fortune, and in the Atharva-veda the idea has 
become personified in females both of a lucky and unlucky char- 
acter. The Taittiiiya Sanhita, as explained by the commenta- 
tor, makes Lakshml and Sri to be two wives of Aditya, and the 
Satapatha Briihmawa describes Sn as issuing forth from Pra- 

Lakshml or Sri in later times is the goddess of fortune, wife 
of Vislmu, and mother of Kama. The origin ascribed to her by 
the Ramaya^a is the one commonly received. According to this 
legend she sprang, like Aphrodite, from the froth of the ocean, in 
full beauty with a lotus in her hand, when it was churned by the 
gods and the Asuras. Another legend represents her as floating 
on the flower of a lotus at the creation. With reference to this 
origin, one of her names is Kshlrabdhi-tanaya, daughter of the 
sea of milk/ Erom her connection with the lotus she is called 
Padma. According to the Puranas, she was the daughter of 
Bhrigu and Khyati. The Vishvm Purima says, " Her first 
birth was the daughter of Bhngu by Khyati. It was at a sub- 
sequent period that she was produced from the sea at the churn- 
ing of the ocean. . . . When Hari was born as a dwarf, Lakshml 
appeared from a lotus (as Padma or Kamala). When he 
was born as Rama of the race of Blmgu (or Parasu-rama), she 
was Dharam. When he was Raghava (Rama-chandra), she was 
Slta. And when he was Krishna she became Rukmim. In 
the other descents of Yishnu she is his associate." One version 
of the Ramayafta also affirms that " Lakshml, the mistress of 
the worlds, was born by her own will, in a beautiful field 
opened up by the plough," and received from Janaka the name 
of Slta. 

Lakshml is said to have four arms, but she is the type of 
beauty, and is generally depicted as having only two. In one 
hand she holds a lotus. " She has no temples, but being god- 
dess of abundance and fortune, she continues to be assiduously 
courted, and is not likely to fall into neglect." Other names of 
Lakshml are Hira, Indira, Jalaclhi-ja, * ocean born j* Chanchala 
or Lola, * the fickle,' as goddess of fortune ; Loka-mata, t mother 
of the world.' 


LALITA-YISTABA. A work in Sanskrit verse on the 
life and doctrines of Buddha. It has been printed in the 
BiUiotheca Lidica. 

LANG ALL ' Anned with a ploughshare.' Bala-rama. 

LANKA, i. The island of Ceylon or its capital city. The 
city is described in the Bamayawa as of vast extent and of great 
magnificence, with seven broad moats and seven stupendous 
walls of stone and metal. It is said to have been built of gold 
by Yiswa-karma for the residence of Kuvera, from whom it was 
taken by Bavarca. The Bhagavata Purawa represents that the 
island was originally the summit of Mount Mem, which was 
broken off by the god of the wind and hurled into the sea. 2. 
Name of one of the Sakims or evil spirits attendant on Siva 
and Devi. 

LATA. A country comprising Kandesh and part of Guze- 
rat about the Mhye river. It is also called Lar, and is the 
Act/7t3j of Ptolemy. 

LirYAYANA. Author of a Sutra work. It has been 
printed in the Bibliotlieca Indica. 

LAVA. One of the twin sons of Bama and Sita. He 
reigned at Sravastl. See Rama. 

LAYAIVA. A Bakshasa, son of Madhu by Kumbhinasi, the 
sister of Bavafia and daughter of Yisravas. He inherited from 
his father an invincible trident which had been presented to 
him by /Siva. He was surprised without his weapon and killed 
by Satru-ghna. Lava?aa was king of Mathura and Satni-ghna 
succeeded him,. 

LIKHITA, Author of a Dharma-sastra or code of law. 

LlLAYATI. ' Charming.' The fanciful title of that chapter 
of Bhaskara's Siddhanta-siromafti which treats of arithmetic 
and geometry. It has been translated by Colebrooke and Dr. 
Taylor, and the text has been printed, 

LINGA, LINGAM. Tho male organ. The phallus. The 
symbol under which Siva is universally worshipped. It is of 
comparatively modern introduction and is unknown to the Yedas, 
but it receives distinct notice in the Maha-bharata. "The 
emblem a plain column of stone, or sometimes a cone of 
plastic mud suggests no offensive ideas. The people call it 
Siva or Maha-deva, and there's an end." In the Siva Puram, 
and in the Nandi TJpa-purawa, Siva is made to say, " I am 


omnipresent, but I am especially ID twelve forms and places. * 
These are the twelve great Lingas, which are as follow : 

1. Soma-natha. 'Lord of the moon.' At Somnath Pattan, a 
city which still remains in Guzerat. This was the celebrated 
" idol " destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni. 

2. Mallikarjuna or Sn-sa&. 'The mountain of Sri.' On a 
mountain near the river Krishna. 

3. Mahd-Mla, Maha-Jcahswara. At Ujjain. Upon the capture 
of Ujjain in the reign of Altamsh, 1231 A.D., this deity of stone 
was carried to Delhi and there broken up. 

4. Omkara. This is also said to have been at Ujjain, but it 
is probably the shrine of Mahcideva at Omkara Mandhatta, on 
the Narmada. 

5. Amareswara. ' God of gods.' This is also placed at Ujjain, 

6. Vaidya-natha. * Lord of physicians/ At Deogarh in Bengal. 
The temple is still in being, and is a celebrated place of pil- 

7. Ramesa or Rameswara. Lord of Rama.' On the island of 
Ramisseram, between the continent and Ceylon, This Lingam, 
whose name signifies l Kama's lord,' is fabled to have been sot 
up by Rama. The temple is still in tolerable repair, and is one 
of the most magnificent in India. 

8. Blilma Sankara. In Dakini. This is in all probability the 
same with Bhlmeswara, a Lingam worshipped at Dracharam, in 
the Rajamahendrl (Rajamundry) district, and there venerated as 
one of the twelve. 

9. Fisweswara. 'Lord of all' At Benares. It has been for 
many centuries the chief object of worship at Benares. Ako 
called Jyotir-lingana. 

10. Tryamlaka, Tryaksha. Tri-ocular.' On the banks of the 

11. Gautamesa. 'Lord of Gautama.' 

12. Ked&resa, Kedara-ndtha. In the Himalaya. The deity is 
represented as a shapeless mass of rock. 

Naga-natha or Naga-nathesa and Vameswara are other names, 
probably of No. 6 and No. n. 

LINGA PURiZVA. "Where Maheswara (Siva), present in 
the Agni Linga, explained (the objects of life), virtue, wealth, 
pleasure, and final liberation, at tlio end of the Agni Kalpa, that 
Puma, consisting of 11,000 stanzas, was called the Linga by 


Brahma himself." The work conforms accurately enough to 
this description. " Although the Linga holds a prominent place 
in this Purana, the spirit of the worship is as little influenced 
by the character of the type as can well be imagined. There is 
nothing like the phallic orgies of antiquity : it is all mystical 
and spiritual. The work has preserved, apparently, some $aiva 
legends of an early date, but the greater part is ritual and mysti- 
cism of comparatively recent introduction." Wilson. It is not 
likely that this Purawa is earlier than the eighth or ninth cen- 
tury. This Parana has been lithographed in Bombay. 

LOHA-MUKHAS. 'Iron-faced men' Described in the 
Maha-bharata as swift, one-footed, undecaying, strong men-eaters. 

LOKA. A world, a division of the universe. In general 
the tri-loka or three worlds are heaven, earth, and hell. Another 
classification enumerates seven, exclusive of the infernal regions, 
also seven in number which are classed under Patala. The 
upper worlds are : (i.) Bhur-loka, the earth. (2.) Bhuvar-loka, 
the space between the earth and the sun, the region of the 
Munis, Siddhas, &c. (3.) Swar-loka, the heaven of Indra, be- 
tween the sun and the polar star. (4.) Mahar-loka, the usua] 
abode of Bhngu and other saints, who are supposed to be co- 
existent with Brahma. During the conflagration of these lower 
worlds the saints ascend to the next, or (5.) Jana-loka, which 
is described as the abode of Brahma's sons, Sanaka, Sananda, 
and Sanat-kumara. Above this is the (6.) Tapar loka, where the 
deities called Yairagis reside. (7.) Satya-loka or Brahma- 
loka, is the abode of Brahma, and translation to this world 
exempts beings from further birth. The first three worlds are 
destroyed at the end of each kalpa, or day of Brahma; the 
last three at the end of his life, or of a hundred of his years ; 
the fourth loka is equally permanent, but is uninhabitable from 
heat at the time the first three are burning. Another enumeration 
calls the seven worlds earth, sky, heaven, middle region, place 
of birth, mansion of the blest, and abode of truth ; placing the 
sons of Brahma in the sixth division, and stating the fifth, or 
Jana-loka, to be that where animals destroyed in the general 
conflagration are born again. The Sankhya and Vedanta schools 
of philosophy recognise eight lokas or regions of material exist- 
ence : (i.) Brahma-loka, the world of the superior deities; 
(a.) PitrMoka, that of the Pitr/s, Tfrshis, and Prajapatis ; (3.) 


Soma-loka, of the moon and planets; (4.) Indra-loka, of the 
inferior deities; (5.) Gandharva-loka, of heavenly spirits; (6.) 
Bakshasa-loka, of the Rakshasas ; (7.) Yaksha-loka, of the 
Yakshas ; (8.) Pisacha-loka, of the Pisachas or imps and fiends. 

LOKALOKA. C A world and no world/ A fabulous belt 
of mountains bounding the outermost of the seven seas and 
dividing the visible world from the regions of darkness. It is 
" ten thousand yojanas in breadth, and as many in height, and 
beyond it perpetual darkness invests the mountains all around, 
which darkness is again encompassed by the shell of an egg." 
It is called also Chakra-va<#a or Chakra-vala. 

LOKA-PALAS. Supporters or guardians of the world. 
The guardian deities who preside over the eight points of the 
compass, ?'.&, the four cardinal and four intermediate points of 
the compass : (i.) Indra, east ; (2.) Agni, south-east ; (3.) Yama, 
south; (4.) Surya, south-west; (5.) Vairma, west; (6.) Yayu, 
north-west ; (7.) Kuvera, north ; (8.) Soma, north-east. Nimti 
is by some substituted for No. 4, and Pn'thivl or $iva, especially 
in his form Isana, for No. 8. Each of these guardian deities 
has an elephant who takes part in the defence and protection of 
the quarter, and these eight elephants are themselves called 
Loka-palas : (i.) Indra's elephant at the east is Airavata. He 
is also called Abhra-matanga, c elephant of the clouds ; * Arka- 
sodara, ' brother of the sun ; ' Naga-malla, ' the fighting ele- 
phant; 7 Sada-dana, ' always in rut;' Madambara, ' covered with 
ichor/ His wife's name is Abhramu. (2.) Agni's elephant at 
the south-east is Pu%$arlka and his female Kapila. (3.) Yama's 
at the south is Yamana and his female Pingala. (4.) Surya's at 
the south-west is Kumuda and his female is Anupama. (5.) 
Yarima's at the west is Anjana, whose female is Anjanavati. 
(6.) Yayu's at the north-west is Pushpa-danta, whose female is 
Subha-danti. (7.) Kuvera's at the north is Sarva-bhauma ; and 
(8.) Soma's elephant at the north-east is Su-pratika. The two 
other females are Anjana and Tamra-karwl, whoso spouses are 
doubtful. Anjanavati is sometimes assigned to Su-pratika. In 
the Eamaya?ia (r.) Indra's eastern elephant is called Yirupaksha; 
(2.) Yaruwa* s elephant at the west, Saumanasa; (3.) Yama's at 
the south is Maha-paclma, and (4.) Kixvera's at the north is 

LOMA-HARSHAiVA (or Roma-harshawa). A bard or pane- 
gyrist who first gave forth the Purawas. 


LOMA-PADA (or Roma-pada). A king of Anga, chiefly 
remarkable for his connection with T&shya-sr/nga (q.v.). 

LOPAMUDRA. A girl whom the sage Agastya formed 
from the most graceful parts of different animals and secretly 
introduced into the palace of the king of Yidarbha, where the 
child was "believed to be the daughter of the king. Agastya 
had made this girl with the object of having a wife after his 
own heart, and when she was marriageable he demanded her 
hand. The king was loath to consent, but was obliged to yield, 
and she became the wife of Agastya. Her name is explained 
as signifying that the animals suffered loss (lopa) by her engross- 
ing their distinctive beauties (mudrd), as the eyes of the deer, 
&c. She is also called Kaushitaki and Yara-prada. A hymn in 
the j&'g-veda is attributed to her. 

MAD A. * Intoxication/ Described in the Maha-bharata as 
" a fearful open-mouthed monster, created by the sage Chyavana, 
having teeth and grinders of portentous length, and jaws one 
of which enclosed the earth and the other the sky," who got 
Indra and the other gods into his jaws "like fishes in the 
mouth of a sea monster." 

MADAYANTL Wife of King Saudasa or Kalmasha-pada. 
She was allowed to consort with the sage Yasishftia. According 
to some this was a meritorious act on the king's part and a favour 
to Yasishtfha ; according to others it was for the sake of obtaining 
progeny. See Kalmasha-pada. 

MADHAYA A name of Knslwa or Yishwu. 

MADHAYA, MADHAYACHARYA A celebrated scholar 
and religious teacher. He was a native of Tuluva, and became 
prime minister of Yira Bukka Ray a, king of the great Hindu 
state of Yijaya-nagara, who lived in the fourteenth century. He 
was brother of Saya^a, the author o'f the great commentary on 
the Yeda, in which work Madhava himself is believed to have 
shared. Wilson observes, " Both the brothers are celebrated as 
scholars, and many important works are attributed to them; 
not only scholia on the Sanhitas and Bralimawas of the Yedas, 
but original works on grammar and law ; the fact no doubt 
being, that they availed themselves of those means which 
their situation and influence secured them, and employed the 
most learned Brahmans they could attract to Yijaya-nagara 
upqn the works which bear their names, and to which they 
contributed their Qwn labour and learning; their works were 


therefore compiled tinder peculiar advantages, and are deserved!? 
held in the highest estimation." Among the works of Mad 
hava are the Sarva-darsana-sangraha and the Sankshepa $ankara- 
vijaya. Madhava was a worshipper of Yishmi, and as a re- 
ligious philosopher he held the doctrine of dwaita or dualism, 
according to which the supreme soul of the universe and the 
human soul are distinct. Thus he was opposed to the teaching 
of /Sankaracharya, who was a follower of $iva, and upheld the 
Yedanta doctrine of a-dwaita, "no duality," according to which 
God and soul, spirit and matter, are all one. 

MADHA YL A name of LakshmT. 

MADHIL i. A demon slain by Knslma. (See Kai/abha) 
2. Another, or the same demon, said to have been killed by 

MADHU-CHHAJSTDAS. A son of Yiswamitra, who had 
fifty sons older and fifty younger than this one ; but they are 
spoken of as "a hundred sons." He is the reputed author of 
some hymns of the J?ig-veda. 

MADHU-KA$A. Described in the Atharva-veda as "the 
brilliant grand-daughter of the Maruts, the mother of the Adityas, 
the daughter of the Vasus, the life of creatures, and the centre 
of immortality." She " sprang from the sky, the earth, the air, 
the sea, fire, and wind ; " and it is added, " all creatures, worship- 
ping her who dwells in immortality, rejoice in their hearts," 

MADHUEANIKUDDHA. A drama in eight acts by $a- 
yani Chandra $ekhara, It is quite a modern work. " The sub- 
ject is the secret loves of Usha, daughter of the Asura Bana 
and Aniruddha, grandson of Knslma. The piece abounds too 
much with description to be a good play ; the style has con- 
siderable merit" Wilson. 

MADHU-StTDAKA. < Slayer of Madhu.' A name of Krishna 

MADHYA-DESA. The middle country, described by Manu 
as " the tract situated between the Himavat and the Yindhya 
ranges to the east of Yinasana and to the west of Prayiiga 
(Allahabad)." Another authority makes it the Doab. 

MADHYANDIl^A. A Yedic school, a subdivision of the 
Yajasaneyi school, and connected with the Datapath a Brah- 
mana, It had also its own system of astronomy, and obtained 
its name fron* making noon (mnd1< ya~dina) the starting-point of 
the planetary movement* 


MADIEA. A name of Yarum, wife of Yanma, and goddess 
of wine. 

MADEA. Name of a country and people to the north-west 
of Hindustan. Its capital was $akala, and the territory ex- 
tended from the Biyas to the Chinab, or, according to others, 
as far as the Jhilam. 

MADEL A sister of the king of the Madras, and second 
wife of Paft^u, to whom she bore twin-sons, Nalcula and Saha- 
deva ; but the Aswins are alleged to have been their real father. 
She became a satl on the funeral pile of her husband. 

MAGADHA The country of South Bihar, where the Pali 
language was spoken. 

MAGHA. A poet, son of Dattaka, and author of tine of the 
great artificial poems called, from its subject, $isupala-badha, or, 
from its author, Magha-kavya. 

MAGHAYAT, MAGHAYAR A name of Indra. 

MAHA-BALL A title of the dwarf Bali, whose city is 
called Maha-bali-pura, which name is applied to the Tamil 
" Mamallai-pura," or Seven Pagodas near Madras. See Bali. 

MAHA-BHAEATA. 'The great (war of the) Bharatas.' 
The great epic poom of the Hindus, probably the longest in the 
world. It is divided into eighteen jjarvas or books, and con- 
tains about 220,000 lines. The poem has been subjected to 
much modification and has received numerous comparatively 
modern additions, but many of its legends and stories are of 
Yedic character and of great antiquity. They seem to have long 
existed in a scattered state, and to have been brought together 
at different times. Upon them have been founded many of the 
poems and dramas of later days, and among them is the story 
of Eama, upon which the Eamaya^a itself may have been based 
According to Hindu authorities, they were finally arranged and 
reduced to writing by a Brahman or Brahmans. There is a 
good deal of mystery about this, for the poem is attributed to 
a divine source. The reputed author was Krishna Dwaipayana, 
the Yyasa, or arranger, of the Yedas. He is said to have taiight 
the poem to his pupil Yaisampfiyana, who afterwards recited it 
at a festival to King Janamcjaya. The leading subject of the 
poem is the great war bcttvcen the Kauravas and Panrfavas, who 
were descendants, through Bharata, from Puru, the great an- 
cestor of one branch of the Lunar race. The object of the 


great straggle was the kingdom whose capital was Hastina-pura 
(elephant city), the ruins of which are traceable fifty-seven miles 
north-east of Delhi, on an old bed of the Ganges. 

Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa is not only the author of the poem, 
but the source from whom the chief actors sprung. He was the 
son of the Jfoshi Parasara by a nymph named Satyavati, who, 
although she had given birth to a son, remained a virgin. There 
was a king, a descendant of Bharata, named $antanu, who had 
a son called $antavana, better known as Bhishma. In his old 
age $antanu wished to marry again, but the hereditary rights of 
Bhishma were an obstacle to his obtaining a desirable match. 
To gratify his father's desire, Bhishma divested himself of all 
rights of succession, and $antanu then married SatyavatL She 
bore him two sons, the elder of whom, Chitrangada, succeeded 
to the throne, but was soon killed in battle by a Gandharva 
king who bore the same name. Viehitra-virya, the younger, 
succeeded, but died childless, leaving two widows, named An> 
bika and Ambalika, daughters of a king of ELasi. Satyavati 
fchen called on Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa to fulfil the law, and 
raise up seed to his half-brother. Vyasa had lived the life ot 
an anchorite in the woods, and his severe austerities had made 
him terrible in appearance. The two widows were so frightened 
at him that the elder one closed her eyes, and so gave birth to 
a blind son, who received the name of Dhnta-rashfra ; and the 
younger turned so pale that her son was called Pamfa, ' the 
pale. 7 Satyavati wished for a child without blemish, but the 
elder widow shrank from a second association with Yyasa, and 
made a slave girl take her place. From this girl was born a 
son who was named Yidura. These children were brought up by 
their uncle Bhishma, who acted as regent. "When they became 
of age, Dhnta-rashfra was deemed incapable of reigning in con- 
sequence of his blindness, and Pan^u came to the throne. The 
name Pandu has suggested a suspicion of leprosy, and either 
through that, or in consequence of a curse, as the poem states, 
he retired to the forest, and Dhrita-rashfra then became king. 

Pan<fu had two wives, KuntI or Pntha, daughter of S'ura, king 
of the $ura~senas, and Madri, sister of the king of the Madras ; 
but either through disease or the curse passed upon him, he did 
not consort with his wives. He retired into solitude in the 
Himalaya mountains, and there he died ; his wives, who accom- 


panied him having borne him five sons. The paternity of these 
children is attributed to different gods, but Pamfoi acknowledged 
them, and they received the patronymic of PaT^ava. Kunti was 
the mother of the three elder sons, and Madri of the two younger. 
Yudhi-sh/hira (firm in fight), the eldest, was son of Dharma, the 
judge of the dead, and is considered a pattern of manly firmness, 
justice, and integrity. Bhima or Bhima-sena (the terrible), the 
second, was son of Vayu, the god of the wind. He was noted 
for his strength, daring, and brute courage ; but he was coarse, 
choleric, and given to vaunting. He was such a great eater that 
he was called Yn'kodara, c wolf's belly. 7 Arjuna (the bright or 
silvery), the third, was son of Indra, the god of the sky. He is 
the most prominent character, if not the hero, of the poem. He 
was brave as the bravest, high-minded, generous, tender-hearted, 
and chivalric in his notions of honour. Nakula and Saha-deva, 
the fourth and fifth sons, were the twin children of Madri by the 
Aswinl Kumaras, the twin sons of Surya, the sun. They were 
brave, spirited, and amiable, but they do not occupy such pro- 
minent positions as their elder brothers. 

Dhnta-rashfra, who reigned at Hastina-pura, was blind. By 
his wife Gandhari he had a hundred sons, and one daughter 
named DuA-sala. This numerous offspring was owing to a bless- 
ing from Vyasa, and was produced in a marvellous way. (See 
Gandhari) From their ancestor Kuru these princes were known 
as the Kauravas. The eldest of them, Dur-yodhana (hard to 
subdue), was their leader, and was a bold, crafty, malicious man, 
an embodiment of all that is bad in a prince. While the Pa?^u 
princes were yet children, they, on the death of their father, 
were brought to Dlmta-rashfra, and presented to him as his 
nephews. He took charge of them, showed them great kindness, 
and had them educated with his own sons. Differences and dis- 
likes soon arose, and the juvenile emulation and rivalry of the 
princes ripened into bitter hatred on the part of the Kauravas. 
This broke into an open flame when Dhnta-rashfra nominated 
Yudhi-shhira as Ms Yuva-raja or heir-apparent. The jealousy 
and the opposition of his sons to this act was so great that 
Dhnta-rashfra sent the PaTz^avas away to Viiraftavata, where 
they dwelt in retirement. While they were living there Dur- 
yodhana plotted to destroy his cousins by setting fire to their 
house, which he had caused to be made very combustible AH 


the five brothers were for a time supposed to have perished in 
the fire, but they had received timely warning from Yidura, and 
they escaped to the forest, where they dressed and lived in dis- 
guise as Brahmans upon alms. 

While the PancZavas were living in the forest they heard that 
Draupada, king of the Panchalas, had proclaimed a swayam-vara, 
at which his daughter DraupadI was to select her husband from 
among the princely and warlike suitors. They went there, still 
disguised as Brahmans. Arjuna bent the mighty bow which 
had defied the strength of the Kauravas and all other compe- 
titors, and the Piwwfeivas were victorious over every opponent. 
They threw off their disguise, and Draupadi was won by Arjuna. 
The brothers then conducted Draupadi to their home. On their 
arrival they told their mother ELunti that they had made a great 
acquisition, and she unwittingly directed them to share it among 
them. The mother's command could not be evaded, and Yyasa 
confirmed her direction ; so Draupadi became the wife in com- 
mon of the five brothers, and it was arranged that she should 
dwell for two days in the house of each of the five brothers in 
succession. This marriage has been justified by a piece of 
special pleading, which contends that the five princes were all 
portions of one deity, and therefore only one distinct person, to 
whom a woman might lawfully be married. 

This public appearance made known the existence of the 
Pa^avas. Their uncle Dhnta-rash/ra recalled them to his court 
and divided his kingdom between his own sons and them. His 
* sons received Hastina-pura, and the chief city given to his 
nephews was Indra-prastha on the river Yamuna, close to the 
modern Delhi, where the name still survives. The close proxi- 
mity of Hastina-pura and Indra-prastha shows that the territory 
of Dhrita-rashfra must have been of very moderate extent. The 
reign of Yudhi-shftdra was a pattern of justice and wisdom. 
Having conquered many countries, he announced his intention 
of performing the Baja-suya sacrifice, thus setting up a claim to 
universal dominion, or at least to be a king over kings. This 
excited still more the hatred and envy of the sons of Dhnta- 
rushfra, who induced thoir father to invite the Panda vas to 
Hastina-pura. The Kauravas had laid their plot, and insidiously 
prevailed upon Yudhi-shtfhira to gamble. His opponent was 
Saturn, uncle of the Kaurava princes, a great gambler and a 


eheat. Yudhi-shftiira lost his all : his wealth, his palace, his king- 
dom, his brothers, himself, and, last of all, their wife. Draupadi 
was brought into the assembly as a slave, and when she rushed 
out she was dragged back again by her hair by DuA-sasana, an 
insult for which Bhima vowed to drink his blood. Dur-yodhana 
also insulted her by seating her upon his thigh, and Bhima 
vowed that he would smash that thigh. Both these vows he 
afterwards performed. Through the interference and commands 
of Dhnta-rashfra the possessions of Yudhi-sh&ira were restored 
to him. But he was once more tempted to play, upon the con- 
dition that if he lost he and his brothers should pass twelve 
years in the forest, and should remain incognito during the 
thirteenth year. He was again the loser, and retired with his 
brothers and wife into exile. In the thirteenth year they en- 
tered the service of the king of Virata in disguise Yudhi-shhira 
as a Brahman skilful as a gamester ; Bhima as a cook ; Arjuna 
as a eunuch and teacher of music and dancing; Nakula as a 
horse-trainer ; and Saha-deva as a herdsman. Draupadi also took 
service as attendant and needlewoman of the queen, Su-deshna. 
The five princes each assumed two names, one for use among 
themselves and one for public use. Yudhi-shhira was Jaya in 
private, Kanka in public ; Bhima was Jayanta and Ballava ; 
Arjuna was "Vijaya and Bnhan-nala ; Nakula was Jaya-sena and 
Granthika; Saha-deva was Jayad-bala and Arishfa-nemi, aVaisya. 
The beauty of Draupadi attracted Kichaka, brother of the queen, 
and the chief man in the kingdom. He endeavoured to seduce 
her, and Bhima killed him. The relatives of Kichaka were about 
to burn Draupadi on his funeral pile, but Bhima appeared as a 
wild Gandharva and rescued her. The brothers grew in favour, 
and rendered great assistance to the king in repelling the attacks 
of the king of Trigartta and the Kauravas. The time of exile being 
expired, the princes made themselves known, and Abhimanyu, 
son of Arjuna, received Uttara, the king's daughter, in marriage. 
The ParaZavas now determined to attempt the recovery of 
their kingdom. The king of Viratfa became their firm ally, and 
preparations for the war began. Allies were sought on all sides. 
Krishna and Bala-rama, being relatives of both parties, were re- 
luctant to fight. Krishna conceded to Arjuna and Dur-yodhana 
the choice of himself unarmed or of a large army. Arjuna chose 
and Dur-yodhaua joyfully accepted the army. Krishna 


agreed to act as charioteer of his especial friend Arjuna. It was 
in this capacity that he is represented to have spoken the divine 
song Bhagavad-glta, when the rival armies were drawn up for 
battle at Kuru-kshetra, a plain north of Delhi. Many battles 
follow. The army of Dur-yodhana is commanded in. succession 
by his great-uncle Bhishma, Drowa his military preceptor, Kama, 
king of Anga, and $alya, king of Madra and brother of Madri. 
Bhishma was wounded by Arjuna, but survived for a time. All 
the others fell in succession, and at length only three of the 
Kuru warriors Kripa, Aswatthaman, and Knta-varma were 
left alive with Dur-yodhana. Bhlrna and Dur-yodhana fought in 
single combat with maces, and Dur-yodhana had his thigh broken 
and was mortally wounded. The three surviving Kauravas fell 
by night upon the camp of the Pamfovas and destroyed five 
children of the Pandavas, and all the army except the five bro- 
thers themselves. These five boys were sons of Draupadi, one 
by each of the five brothers. Yudhi-shtfhira's son was Prati- 
vindhya, Bhima's was $rata-soma, Arjuna's was /Sruta-kirtti, 
Nakula's was $atan!ka, and Saha-deva's was /Sruta-karman. 
Yudhi-shftiira and his brothers then went to Hastina-pura, and 
after a reconciliation with Dhn'ta-rashfra, Yudhi-sMiira was 
crowned there. But he was greatly depressed and troubled at 
the loss of kindred and friends. Soon after he was seated on 
the throne, the Aswa-medha sacrifice was performed with great 
ceremony, and the Pa^davas lived in peace and prosperity. 

The old blind king Dhrita-rashfra could not forget or forgive 
the loss of his sons, and mourned especially for Dur-yodhana. 
Bitter reproaches and taunts passed between him and Bhlma ; 
at length he, with his wife Gandharl, with Kunti, mother of 
the Pa?^avas, and with some of his ministers, retired to a 
hermitage in the woods, where, after two years' residence, they 
perished in a forest fire. Deep sorrow and remorse seized 
upon the Paraavas, and after a while Yudhi-shifhira abdicated 
his throne and departed with his brothers to the Himalayas, in 
order to reach the heaven of Indra on Mount Meru. A dog 
followed them from Hastina-pura. The story of this journey is 
full of grandeur and tenderness, and has been most effectively 
rendered into English by Professor Goldstucker. Sins and 
moral defects now prove fatal to the pilgrims. First fell Drau- 
padi : "too great was her love for Arjuna." Next Saha-deva: 
"he esteemed none equal to himself." Then Nakula : "ever 


was the thought in his heart, There is none equal in "beanty to 
me." Arjuna's turn came next : "In one day I could destroy all 
my enemies." " Such was Arjuna's boast, and he falls, for he 
fulfilled it not." When Blrima fell he inquired the reason of his 
fall, and he was told, " "When thou gazedst on thy foe, thou hast 
cursed him with thy breath; therefore thou fallest to-day." 
Yudhi-shrfhira went on alone with the dog until he reached the 
gate of heaven. He was invited by Indra to enter, but he 
refused unless his brothers and Draupadl were also received. 
* "Not even into thy heaven would I enter if they ww:e not 
there." He is assured that they are already there, and is again 
told to enter " wearing his body of flesh." He again refuses 
unless, in the words of Pope, " admitted to that equal sky, his 
faithful dog shall bear him company." Indra expostulates in 
vain. " Never, come weal or come woe, will I abandon yon 
faithful dog." He is at length admitted, but to his dismay he 
finds there Dur-yodhana and his enemies, but not his brothers or 
Draupadl. He refuses to remain in heaven without them, and 
is conducted to the jaws of hell, where he beholds terrific sights 
and hears waitings of grief and anguish. He recoils, but well- 
known voices implore him to remain and assuage their suffering*. 
He triumphs in this crowning trial, and resolves to share the 
fate of his friends in hell rather than abide with their foes in 
heaven. Having endured this supreme test, the whole scene is 
shown to be the effect of may a or illusion, and he and his brothers 
and friends dwell with Indra in full content of heart for ever. 

Such is the leading story of the Maha-bharata, which no 
doubt had a basis of fact in the old Hindu traditions. Different 
poets of different ages have added to it and embellished it by 
the powers of their imagination. Great additions have been 
made in later times. The Bhagavad-gita and the episode of 
Nala, with some others, are the productions of later writers ; the 
Hari-vansa, which affects to be a part of the Maha-bharata, is 
of still later date, and besides these, it cannot be doubted that 
numerous interpolations, from single verses to long passages, have 
been made to uphold and further the religious opinions of sects and 
individuals. To use the words of Max Miiller, "The epic character 
of the story has throughout been changed and almost obliterated 
by the didactic tendencies of the latest editors, who were clearly 
Brahmans brought up in the strict school of the laws of Manu," 

The date of the Maha-bharata is very uncertain, and is at best 


a matter of conjecture and deduction. As a compiled work ii is 
generally considered to be about a century later in date than the 
Ramaya^a, though there can be no doubt that the general thread 
of the story, and the incidents directly connected with it, belong 
to a period of time anterior to the story and scenes of that epic. 
The fact that the scene of the Maha-bharata is in Upper India, 
while that of the Ramayaraa is in the Dakhin and Ceylon, is of 
itself sufficient to raise a strong presumption in favour of the 
superior antiquity of the former. Weber shows that the Maha- 
bharata was known to Dion Chrysostoiu in the second half of the 
first century A. D. ; and as Megasthenes, who was in India about 
315 B.C., says nothing about the epic, Weber's hypothesis is that 
the date of the Maha-bharata is between the two. .Professor 
Williams believes that " the earliest or pre-brahmanical composi- 
tion of both epics took place at a period not later than the fifth 
century B.C.," but that "the first orderly completion of the two 
poems in their Brahmanised form may have taken place in the 
case of the Ramaya^a about the beginning of the third century 
B.O., and in the case of the Maha-bharata still later." Lassen 
thinks that three distinct arrangements of the Maha-bharata are 
distinctly traceable. The varied contents of the Maha-bharata 
and their disjointed arrangement afford some warrant for these 
opinions, and although the Ramayawa is a compact, continuous, 
and complete poem, the professed work of one author, there are 
several recensions extant which differ considerably from each 
other. Taking a wide interval, but none too wide for a matter of 
such great uncertainty, the two poems may be considered as having 
assumed a complete form at some period in the six centuries pre- 
ceding the Christian era, and that the Ramayawa had the priority. 
The complete text of the Maha-bharata has been twice printed in 
India, and a complete translation in French by Fauche has been 
interrupted by his death. But M. Fauche ; s translations are not 
in much repute. This particular one, says Weber, "can only 
pass for a translation in a very qualified sense." Many episodes 
and portions of the poem have been printed and translated. The 
following is a short epitome of the eighteen books of the Maha- 
bharata : 

/ i, Adi-pa/rva, ' Introductory book/ Describes the genealogy 
of the two families, the birth and nurture of Dhnta-rash/ra and 
Pandu, their marriages, the births of the hundred sons of the 
former and the five of the latter, tae enmity and rivalry between 


the young princes of the two branches, and the winning ol 
Draupadi at the swayam-vara. 

2. Sabharpwrva, ' Assembly book.' The assembly of the 
princes at Hastina-pura when Yudhi-shtfhira lost his kingdom 
and the PaT^avas had to retire into exile. 

3. yana-parva, i Forest chapter/ The life of the Pan^avas in 
the Kamyaka forest. This book is one of the longest and con- 
tains many episodes : among them the story of Nala, and an 
outline of the story of the Kamiiyawa. 

4. Viraia-paiva, 'Virata chapter. 7 Adventures of the Find- 
avas in the thirteenth year of their exile, while they were in the 
service of King Vira/a. 

5. Udyoga-parva, 'Effort book. 7 The preparations of both 
sides for war. 

6. JBhishmorparva, 'Book of Bhishma. 7 The battles fought 
while Bhishma commanded the Kaurava army. 

7. Drona-pa/roa, ' The Book of Drona. 7 Drona's command of 
the Kaurava army. 

8. Kama-parva, l Book of Kama.' Kama's command and his 
death at the hands of Arjuna. 

9. &alya : parva, ' Book of $alya. 7 $alya 7 s command, in which 
Dur-yodhana is mortally wounded and only three Kauravas are 
left alive. 

10. Sauptika-parva, 'Nocturnal book. 7 The night attack of 
the three surviving Kauravas on the PaT^ava camp. 

n. Strl-parva, 'Book of the women.' The lamentations of 
Queen Gandhari and the women over the slain. 

12. Santirparva, 'Book of consolation. 7 A long and diffuse 
didactic discourse by Bhishma on the morals and duties of kings, 
intended to assuage the grief of Yudhi-shhira. 

13. Anusasana-parva, 'Book of precepts. 7 A continuation of 
Bhishma's discourses and his death- 
ly d.swa-medhiJca-parvaj 'Book of theAswa-medha/ Yudhi- 

ehtfhira's performance of the horse sacrifice. 

15. j4srama-parva, 'Book of the hermitage. 7 The retirement 
of Dhnta-rash/ra, Gandhari, and Kunti to a hermitage in the 
woods, and their death in a forest fire. 

1 6. Mausala-parva, 'Book of the clubs.' The death of 
Krishna and Bala-rama, the submersion of Dwaraka by the sea, 
and the mutual destruction of the Yadavas in a fight with clubs 
(musala) of miraculous origin. 


17. Mahti-prasthtiniJca-parva, * Book of the great journey. 
Yudhi-sh^hira's abdication of the throne, and his departure with 
his brothers towards the Himalayas on their way to Indra's 
heaven on Mount Meru. 

1 8. Swargarohana-parva, 'Book of the ascent to heaven.' 
Entrance into heaven of Yudhi-shftiira and his brothers, and of 
their wife Draupadi. 

The Hari-vawsa (q.v.), detailing the genealogy, birth, and life 
of Krishna at great length, is a supplement of much later date. 


Atri, the .Zftshi. 

Soma (Chandra or Indu), the Moon, 


- I 

Devayam + Yayati + Sarmishiha. 


Yadu (and another son). 




Puru (and two other sons). 

| Pauravas. 
Dushyanta 4 ^Sakuntala. 





Ganga + Santanu + Satyavat!.- 

Krishna. Bala-rama. 

(Line extinct.) 


Bhishma. | | 

Ohitrangada. Yiohitra-vTrya. 

Vyasa { the two widows of 



- Kunti 


Dhnta-rash^ra + Gfmdharl. . 

i I i i 

Dur-yodhana and Karwa. I I I I I 

99 other eons. I I I I I 

Yudhi-shihira. Bhima. Arjuna. Nakula. Saha-dev*. 


(Aw Chandra- vanaa for toe intervening and following name*.) 


MAHA-BHASHYA. A commentary by Patanjali on the 
Grammar of Pamni, in answer to the criticisms of Katyayana. 
A fine photo -lithographed edition has been produced, under the 
superintendence of Professor Goldstucker, at the expense of the 
Indian Government. The work has received a long notice in 
Weber's Indische Studien, vol. xiii., and has been the subject of 
much discussion in the Indian Antiquary, Other editions have 
appeared in India. 

MAHA-BHOJA. See Bhoja. 

MAHA-DEYA. < The great god.' A name of Siva. One 
of the Eudras. 

MAHA-DEYI. * The great goddess.' A name of Devi, the 
wife of Siva. _ See Devi. 

MAHA-KALA. ( Great Time.' i. A name of Siva in his 
destructive character. (See Siva.) 2. One of the twelve great 
Lingas. (See Linga.) 3. In the caves of Elephanta this form of 
Siva is represented with eight arms. In one hand he holds a 
human figure j in another, a sword or sacrificial axe ; in a third, 
a basin of blood ; in a fourth, the sacrificial bell ; with two he 
is drawing behind him the veil which extinguishes the sun ; and 
two are broken off. 4. Chief of the Ga?ias or attendants on Siva. 

MAHA-KAYYAS. ' Great poems.' Six are classified under 
this title : (i.) Eaghu-vansa ; (2) Kumara-sambhava ; (3.) 
Megha-duta ; (4.) Kiratarjumya ; (5.) Sisupala-badha ; (6.) 

MAEi-MAYA. See Maya. 

MAHA-NATAKA. 'The great drama,' The Hanuman- 

MAHA-PADMA 1ST AND A. The last of the Nanda dynasty. 
See Chandra-gupta. 

MAHA-PEALAYA, A total dissolution of the universe at 
the end of a kalpa, when the seven lokas and their inhabitants, 
men, saints, gods, and Brahma himself, are annihilated. Called 
also Jahanaka, Kshiti, and Sanhara. 

MAHA-PUEA^VAS. 'The great Purarcas.' The Yislmu 
and the Bhagavata, the two great Puranas of the Yaishnavas. 

MAHA-PUEUSHA. * The great or supreme male ; ' the 
supreme spirit. A name of Vish?iu. 

MAHAEAJIKAS. A Gana or class of inferior deities, 236 
or 220 in number. 


MAHAE. _ See VyahntL 

MAHA-EASHTEA The land of the Mahrattas. 

MAHAE-LOKA. See Loka. 

MAHAESHIS (Maha-nshis). 'Great JZ&his.' The great 
jf&shis or Prajapatis. See Bi&hi. 

MAHA-SENA. ' The great captain. 7 A name of Kartikeya, 
god of war. 

MAHAT. The great intellect produced at the creation. 
See Vishmi Puriwa, i. 29. 

MAHATMYA. 'Magnanimity.' A legend of a shrine or 
other holy place. 

MAHA-VlEA CHAEITA < The exploits of the great hero 
(Eama).' A drama by Bhava-bhuti, translated into English by 
Pickford. There are several editions of the text. " The situa- 
tions and sentiments of this drama are of a stirring and martial 
description, and the language is adapted with singular felicity to 
the subject from which it springs." Wilson. 

MAHA-YOGI. l The great ascetic.' A name of Siva 

MAHA-YUGA. A great Yuga or ago, consisting of 
4,320,000 years. See Yuga. 

MAHENDEA A name of Indra. One of the seven moun- 
tain ranges of India ; the hills which run from Gomlwaiia to 
Orissa and the Northern Circars. See Kula-parvatas. 

MAHESWABA. A name of Siva. 


MAHISHA, MAHISHASTJEA. i. The great Asura or de- 
mon killed by Skanda in the Maha-bharata. (See Krauncha.) 
2. Also a demon killed by Chanrfa or Durga. 

MAHISHMATl, MAHISHMATI. The capital of Karta- 
virya, king of the Talajanghas, who had a thousand arms. It 
has been identified by Colonel Tod with the village of Chilli 
Maheswar, which, according to him, is still called " the village 
of the thousand-armed." 

MAHODAYA. A name of the city of Kanauj. 

MAHOEAGA (Maha + uraga). ' Great serpent/ The serpent 
Sesha, or any other great serpent. 

MAINAKA. A mountain stated in the Malia-bharata to be 
north of Kailasa ; so called as being the son of Himavat and Me- 
naka. Wlien, as the poets sing, Indra clipped the wings of the 
mountains, this is said to have been the only one which escaped. 


This mountain, according to some, stands in Central India, and, 
according to otliers, near the extremity of the Peninsula, 

MAITEEYA. A JMshi, son of Kusarava, and disciple of 
Parasara He is one of the interlocutors in the Vislmu and 
Bhagavata Puranas. 

MAITEEYl Wife of the Bishi Yajimwalkya, who was in- 
doctrinated by her husband in the mysteries of religion and 

MAITEI, MAITEAYAJVL An Upanishad of the Black 
Yajur-veda. It has been edited and translated by Professor 
Cowell for the JBibliotheca Indica. 

MAKAKDL A city on the Ganges, the capital of Southern 

MAKABA. A huge sea animal, which has been taken to be 
the crocodile, the shark, the dolphin, &c,, but is probably a 
fabulous animal. It represents the sign Capricornus in the 
Hindu zodiac, and is depicted with the head and forelegs of 
an antelope and the body and tail of a fish. It is the vehicle 
of Varuwa, the god of the ocean, and its figure is borne on the 
banner of Kama-deva, god of love. It is also called Kaw/aka, 
Asita-danshfra, l black teeth/ and Jala-rupa, c water form.' 

MAKAEAS. The five m's. See Tantra. 

MAKHAYAT. A name of Indra. 

MALATI-MADHAVA (MalatI and Madhava), A drama by 
Bhava-bhuti, translated by Wilson. "This drama," says the 
translator, " offers nothing to offend the most fastidious delicacy, 
and may be compared in this respect advantageously with many 
of the dramas of modern Europe which treat of the passion (of 
love) that constitutes its subject." 

MALAYA. The country of Malwa. 

MALAYIKAGNIMITEA (Malavika and Agnimitra). A 
drama ascribed to Kali-dasa, and although inferior to his other 
productions, it is probably his work. The text, with a translation, 
has been published by Tullberg. There is a German translation 
by Weber, an English one by Tawney, and a French one by 
Foucaux. The text has been printed at Bombay and Calcutta. 

MALAYA. The country of Malabar proper; the moun- 
tains bordering Malabar. See Kula-parvatas. 

MALINA-MUKHA. < Black faced. 7 Eakshasas and other 
demons, represented as having black facea 


MALINL ' Surrounded with, a garland (mala) J of Champa 
trees. A name of the city of Champa. 

MALLIKlKJIINA. A name of Siva. One of the twelve 
great Lingas. See Linga. 

MALLINATHA. A poet, and author of commentaries of 
great repute on several of the great poems, as the Kaghu-vansa, 
Megha-duta, Sisupala-badha, &c. 

MAN AS A ' The intellectual.' A name of the supreme being. 
Thus denned in the Maha^bhaxata : " The primeval god, with- 
out beginning or dissolution, indivisible, undecaying, and im- 
mortal, who is known and called by great J^shis Manasa." 

MAN ASA, MANASA-SAROYARA. The lake Manasa in 
the Himalayas. In the Yayu Purana it is stated that when the 
ocean fell from heaven upon Mount Meru, it ran four times 
round the mountain, then it divided into four rivers which ran 
down the mountain and formed four great lakes, Arunoda on the 
east, Sitoda on the west, Maha-bhadra on the north, and Manasa 
on the south. According to the mythological account, the river 
Ganges flows out of it, but in reality no river issues from this 
lake, though the river Satlej flows from another and larger lake 
called Ravawa-hrada, which lies close to the west of Manasa. 

MANASA, MANASA-DEYI. Sister of the serpent king 
$esha, and wife of the sage Jarat-karu. She is also called Jagad- 
gaurl, Mtya (eternal), and Padmavati. She had special power 
in counteracting the venom of serpents, and was hence called 

MANASA-PUTRAS. ' Mind (born) sons/ The seven or teu 
mind-born sons of Brahma. See Prajapati. 

MANAS-TALA. The lion on which Devi rides. 

MANAYA DHARMA-/SASTRA. The code of Mamu See 
Manu Sanhita. 

MANAYA KALPA-StJTRA. Manu's work on Yaidik rites, 
Part of it has been published in facsimile by Goldstiicker. 


MANAYI. The wife of Manu. Also called Manayl 

MAND A-KAKATL A sage who dwelt in the Da?w?aka forest, 
and is said in the Ramayam to have formed a lake which was 
known by his name. His austerities alarmed the gods, and 
India sent five Apsarases to beguile him from his penance of 
"standing in a pool and feeding on nothing but air for 10,000 


years." They succeeded, and became his wives, and inhabited a 
house concealed in the lake, which, from them, was called Pan- 

MANDARIN! The heavenly Ganges, The Ganges. An 
arm of the Ganges which flows through Kedara-natha. A river 
near the mountain Chitra-kufo (q.v.) in Bundelkhand. It was 
near the abode of Eama and Sita, and is mentioned both in the 
Eamayawa and Maha-bharata. It would seem to be the modern 

MA^VDALA. 'A circle, orb.' A circuit or territorial division, 
as Chola-marafala, i.e., CoromandeL According to one arrange- 
ment, the Sanhita of the J^g-veda is divided into ten Manilas. 
MAJTOALA-K^/TYA. A circular dance. The dance of 
the Gopls round Knshm and Eadha. 

HAND A-P ALA. A childless saint, who, according to the 
Maha-bharata, after long perseverance in devotion and asceticism, 
died and went to the abode of Yama. His desires being still 
unsatisfied, he inquired the cause, and was told that all his 
devotions had failed because he had no son, no putra (put, 
'hell/ tra, 'drawer'), to save him from hell He then assumed 
the form of a species of bird called $arngika, and by a female 
of that species, who was called Jarita, he had four sons. 

MANDAEA. The great mountain which the gods used for 
the churning of the ocean. It is supposed to be the mountain 
so named in Bhagalpur, which is held sacred. See Kurma- 
avatara, under Avatara. 

MAKDAVI. Daughter of Kusa-dhwaja, cousin of Sita, and 
wife of Eama's brother Bharata. 

MAKDEHAS. A class of terrific Eakshasas, who were hos- 
tile to the sun and endeavoured to devour him. 

MANDHAT.&Z A king, son of Yuvanaswa, of the race of 
Ikshwaku, and author of a hymn in the jffig-veda. The Hari- 
vansa and some of the Purawas make Mandhatn to have been 
born in a natural way from his mother Gauii, but the Yishmi 
and Bhagavata Puranas tell an extraordinary story about his 
birth, which is probably based upon a forced derivation of his 
name. Yuvanaswa had no son, which grieved him much. 
Some holy sages near whom he lived instituted a religious rite 
to procure progeny for him t One night they placed a conse- 
crated vessel of water upon an altar as part of their ceremony, 


and tlie water became endowed with prolific energy. Yuvan* 
aswa woke up in the night thirsty, and finding the water, he 
drank it. So he conceived, and in due time a child came forth 
from his right side. The sages then asked who would suckle 
the child, whereupon Indra appeared, gave his finger for the 
child to suck, and said, "He shall suck me," mam ay am dJias- 
yati. These words were contracted, and the hoy was named 
Mandhatn. "When he grew up he had three sons and fifty 
daughters. An old sage named Saubhari came to Mandhatn 
and asked that one might be given him to wife. Unwilling 
to give one to so old and emaciated a man, but yet afraid to 
refuse, the king temporised, but at length yielded to the sage's 
request that the matter might be left to the choice of the girls, 
Saubhari then assumed a handsome form, and there was such 
a contention for him that he had to marry the whole fifty, 
and he provided for them a row of crystal palaces in a most 
beautiful garden. 

MANDODAET. Havana's favourite wife and the mother of 

MA2VDTJKEYA. A teacher of the .Rig-veda, who derived 
his knowledge from his father, Indra-pramati 

MAATDTJKYA. Name of an Upanishad translated by Dr, 
Roer in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

MANGALA. The planet Mars, identified with Kartikeya, 
the god of war. He was son of Siva and the Earth, and as son 
of the Earth is called Angaraka, Bhauma, Bhumi-putra, Malu- 
suta. He is also called 6'iva-gharma-ja, ' born of the sweat of 
Siva ;' Gaganolmuka, ' the torcb of the sky ; ' Lohita, 'the red ; ' 
Navarchi, 'the nine-rayed;' Chara, 'the spy;' TZmantaka, 'ender 
of debts, patron of debtors.' See Kartikeya. 

MAJVI-BHADEA. The chief of the Yakshas and guardian 
of travellers. 

MAJVIMAT. A Eakshasa slain by Bliima. 

MAJVI-PTJEA. A city on the sea-coast of Kalinga, whore 
Babhru-vahana, the son of Arjuna, dwelt. Wheeler identifies it 
with the modern Munnipur or Muneepore, east of Bengal ; but 
this is very questionable. 

MANMATHA. A name of Kama, god of love. 

MANTHAEA. An ugly deformed slave, nurse of Queen 
Kaikeyi, who stirred up her mistress's jealousy against Earua 


chandra, and led her to persuade King Dasa-ratha to banish 
Rama from court. $atru-ghna beat her and threatened to kill 
her, but she was saved by his brother Bharata. 

MANTEA. That portion of the Yeda which consists of 
hymns, as distinct from the Brahmaftas. See Yeda. 

MANTT. (From the root man, to think.) ' The man.' This 
name belongs to fourteen mythological progenitors of mankind 
and rulers of the earth, each of whom holds sway for the period 
called a Manwantara (manurantara)) the age of a Manu, i.e., a 
period of no less than 4,320,000 years. The first of these Manus 
was Swayam-bhuva, who sprang from Swayam-bhu, the self- 
existent. The self-existentj as identified with Brahma the 
creator, divided himself into two persons, male and female. 
From this pair was produced the male Yiraj, and from him 
sprang the Manu Swayam-bhuva. As the acting creator, this 
Manu produced the ten Prajapatis or progenitors of mankind, 
called also Maharshis (maha-rishis). According to another ac- 
count, this Manu sprang from the incestuous intercourse of 
Brahma with his daughter and wife, $ata-rupa. Brahma created 
himself Manu, " born of and identical with his original self, ancl 
the female portion of himself he constituted $ata-rupa," whom 
Manu took to wife. The law-book commonly known as Manu is 
ascribed to this Manu, and so also is a Sutra work on ritual bear- 
ing the same name. The Manu of the present age is the seventh, 
named Yaivaswata, c sun-born, 7 who was the son of Yivaswat, the 
sun, and he is a Kshatriya by race. He is also called Satya-vrata. 
There are various legends about his having been saved from a 
great flood by Yishnu or Brahma. The names of the fourteen 
Manus are (i.) Swayam-bhuva, (2.) Swarochisha, (3.) Auttami, 
(4.) Tamasa, (5.) Eaivata, (6.) Chakshusha, (7.) Yaivaswata or 
Satya-vrata, (8.) Savarna, (9.) Daksha-savama, (10.) Brahma- 
savarTia, (n.) Dharma-savama, (12.) Savarna or Eudra-savama, 
(13.) Eauchya, (14.) Bhautya-. 

The sons of Manu Yaivaswata were Ikshwaku, Nabhaga or 
Nnga, Dhnshtfa, Saryati, Narishyanta,, Nabhaganedishfa 
or JSTabhanedish/a, Karusha, and Pn'shadhra. But there is some 
variety in the names. 

With the seventh Manu, Yaivaswata, is connected the very 
curious and interesting legend of the deluge. The first account 
of this is found in the $atapatha Brahrnafia, of which the f ol- 

200 MANU. 

lowing Is a summary : One morning, in the water which was 
brought to Mann for washing his hands, he caught a fish which 
spake, and said, "Take care of me and I will preserve thee." 
Manu asked, " Erom what wilt thou preserve me ? " The fish 
answered, " A flood will carry away all living beings ; I will save 
thee from that " The fish desired Manu to keep him ah' ve in 
an earthen vessel, to remove him to a dyke as he grew larger, 
and eventually to the ocean, " so that he might be beyond the 
risk of destruction." The fish grew rapidly, and again addressed 
Manu, saying, "After so many years the deluge will take place; 
then construct a ship and pay me homage, and when the waters 
rise, go into the ship and I will rescue tbee." Manu did as he 
was desired, he built the ship, conveyed the fish to the ocean, 
and did him homage. The flood rose, and Manu fastened the 
cable of the ship to the fish's horn. Thus he passed over the 
northern mountain (the Himalaya, as the commentator explains). 
The fish then desired Manu to fasten the ship to a tree, and ta 
go down with the subsiding waters. He did so, and found that 
the flood had swept away all living creatures. He alone was 
left. Desirous of offspring, he offered sacrifice and engaged in 
devotion, A woman was produced, who came to Manu and 
declared herself his daughter. " With her he lived, worshipping 
and toiling in arduous religious rites, desirous of offspring. "With 
her he begat the offspring which is the offspring of Manu." 

The story, as told in the Maha-bharata, represents Manu as 
engaged in devotion by the side of a river, and the fish craving 
his protection from the bigger fish. Manu placed the fish in a 
glass vase, but it grew larger and larger till the ocean alone could 
contain it. Then it warned Manu of, the coming flood, and 
directed him to build a ship and to embark with the seven 
JSishis. He did so, and fastened his ship to the horn of the fish. 
Then, according to the rendering of Professor Williams 

" Along the ocean in that stately ship was borne the lord of men, 

and through 
Its dancing, tumbling billows and its roaring waters ; and the 

Tossed to and fro by violent winds, reeled on the surface of the 

Staggering and trembling like a drunken woman : land was seen 

no more, 


Nor far horizon, nor the space between ; for everywhere around 

Spread the wild waste of waters, reeking atmosphere, and hound- 
less sky. 

And now, when all the world was deluged, nought appeared above 
the waves 

But Manu and the seven sages, and the fish that drew the bark. 

Unwearied thus for years on years that fish pulled on the ship 

The heaped-up waters, till at length it bore the vessel to the peak 

Of Hinaavan ; then, softly smiling, thus the fish addressed the 
sage : 

* Haste now to bind thy ship to this high crag. Know me, the lord 
of all, 

The great creator Brahma, mightier than all might, omnipotent. 

By me, in fish-like shape, have you been saved in dire emergency. 

From Manu all creation, gods, A suras, men, must be produced ; 

By him the world must be created, that which moves and moveth 

The commentators on this legend of the Maha-bhaiata give a 
metaphysical turn to the legend, and endeavour to illustrate it by 
philosophical and allegorical interpretations. The same story is 
reproduced with variations in the Matsya, Bhagavata, and Agni 
Puranas, and Muir has given translations of the passages in 
voL i. of his Sanskrit Texts. 

In the Bamayana mention is made of a female Manu, and 
it appears that the word is sometimes used for " the wife of 

MANU-SANHITA. The well-known law-book, the Code 
of Manu, or Institutes of Manu. It is attributed to the first 
Manu, Swayam-bhuva, who existed nearly thirty millions of years 
ago, but it bears the marks of being the production of more than 
one mind. This is the first and chief of the works classified as 
Smriti, and is a collection or digest of current laws and creeds 
rather than a planned systematic code. It is the foundation of 
Hindu law, and is held in the highest reverence. The work 
belongs to a period later than that of the Yedas, when the 
Brahmans had obtained the ascendancy, but its deities are 
those of the Vedic rather than the Epic or Puramc age. It is 
apparently anterior to the philosophical schools. The fifth cen- 
tury B.O. is supposed to bo about the time when it was composed, 
but the rules and precepte it contains had probably existed as 


traditions long before, It is commonly called the Code of Manu, 
and was current among the Manavas, a class or school of Brah- 
mans who were followers of the Black Yajur-veda; "but it deals 
with many subjects besides law, and is a most important record 
of old Hindu society. It is said to have consisted originally of 
100,000 verses, arranged in twenty-four chapters; that Narad a 
shortened the work to 12,000 verses; and that Sumati made a 
second abridgment, reducing it to 4000, but only 2685 are extant. 
It is evident that there was more than one redaction of the laws 
of the Manavas, for a Bnhan or Ynhan Manu, 'great Manu/ and 
Yr/ddha Manu, old Manu/ are often referred to. Sir W. Jones's 
translation, edited by Haughton, is excellent, and is the basis of ali 
others in French, German, &c. The text has often been printed. 

MANWANTARA (Manu-antara). The life or period of a 
Manu, 4,320,000 years. 

MARICHA. A Rakshasa, son of Taraka. According to the 
Ramayawa he interfered with a sacrifice which was being per- 
formed by Yiswamitra, but was encountered by Rama, who 
discharged a weapon at him, which drove him one hundred 
yojanas out to sea. He was afterwards the minister of Ravawa, 
and accompanied him to the hermitage where Rfima and Slta 
were dwelling. There, to inveigle Rama, he assumed the shape 
of a golden deer, which Rama pursued and killed. On receiv,- 
ing his death-wound he resumed a Rilkshasa form and spake, 
and Rama discovered whom he had killed. In the meanwhile 
Ravawa had carried off Slta. 

MARICHI. Chief of the Maruts. Name of one of the 
Prajapatis. (See Prajapati.) He is sometimes represented as 
springing direct from Brahma. He was father of Kai'yapa, and 
one of the seven great 7&shis. See JSislii. 

MARISITA. Daughter of the sage Kawrfu, and wife of the 
Prachetasas, but from the mode of her birth she is called 
" the nursling of the trees, and daughter of the wind and the 
moon." She was mother of Daksha. Her mother was a celestial 
nymph named Pramlocha, who beguiled the sage Kawrfu from 
his devotions and lived with him for a long time. When the 
sage awoke from his voluptuous delusion, he drove her from his 
presenca "She, passing through the air, wiped the perspira- 
tion from her with the leaves of the trees," and " the child she 
had conceived by the Ri&hi came forth from the pores of her skin 


in drops of perspiration. The trees received the living dews, 
and the winds collected them into one mass. Soma matured 
this by his rays, and gradually it increased in size till the ex- 
halations that had rested on the tree-tops became the lovely 
girl named Marisha." Vishnu Purdna. According to the same 
authority Marisha had been in a former birth the childless 
widow of a king. Her devotion to Vishmi gained his favour, 
and he desired her to ask a boon. She bewailed her childless 
state, and prayed that in succeeding births she might have 
" honourable husbands and a son equal to a patriarch. 3 ' She 
received the promise that she should be of marvellous birth, 
should be very beautiful, and should have ten husbands of 
mighty prowess, and a son whose posterity should fill the 
universe. This legend is no doubt an addition of later date, 
invented to account for the marvellous origin of Marisha. 

MARKAjY^DEYA. A sage, the son of Mnkarcia, and reputed 
author of the MarkaTidleya Purafta. He was remarkable for his 
austerities and great age, and is called Dirghayus, 'the long-lived.' 

MARKANDEYA PURANA. "That Purawa in which, 
commencing with the story of the birds that were acquainted 
with right and wrong, everything is narrated fully by Mar- 
karwfeya as it was explained by holy sages in reply to the 
question of the Muni, is called the Markanrfeya, containing 
9000 verses." This Puram is narrated in the first place by 
Markan^eya, and in the second by certain fabulous birds pro- 
foundly versed in the Yedas, who relate their knowledge in 
answer to the questions of the sage Jaimini. " It has a character 
different from all the other Purawas. It has nothing of a 
sectarial spirit, little of a religious tone ; rarely inserting prayers 
and invocations to any deity, and such as are inserted are 
brief and moderate. It deals little in precepts, ceremonial or 
moral. Its leading feature is narrative, 1 and it presents an un- 
interrupted succession of legends, most of which, when ancient, 
are embellished with new circumstances, and, when new, par- 
take so far of the spirit of the old, that they are disinterested 
creations of the imagination, having no particular motive, being 
designed to recommend no special doctrine or observance, 
Whether they are derived from any other source, or whether 
they are original inventions, it is not possible to ascertain. 
They are most probably, for the greater part at least, original ; 


and the whole has "been narrated in the compiler's own manner, 
a manner superior to that of the Purawas in general, with ex- 
ception of the Bhagavata." The popular Durga Mahatmya or 
Chandftpatfha is an episode of this Purana. In the absence of 
any guide to a positive conclusion as to the date, it may con- 
jecturally be placed in the ninth or tenth century. Professor 
Banerjea places it in the eighth century. This Pura^a has been 
published in the Biblwtheca Indica, and translated by the Eev. 
Professor K. M. Banerjea. 

MARTTANDA. In the Yedas the sun or sun god. 

MAKTYA-MTJKHA. c Human-faced.' Any being in which 
the figures of a man and animal are combined. 

MAEUTS. The storm gods, who hold a very prominent 
place in the Yedas, and are represented as friends and allies 
of Indra. Various origins are assigned to them. They are sons 
of Eudra, sons and brothers of Indra, sons of the ocean, sons of 
heaven, sons of earth. They are armed with lightnings and 
thunderbolts, and "ride on the whirlwind and direct the storm." 
The number of them is said in one place to be thrice sixty, and 
in another only twenty-seven. In the Bamayawa they are repre- 
sented to have their origin in an unborn son of Diti, whom 
Indra dashed into forty-nine pieces with his thunderbolt, and in 
compassion converted into Maruts. This is also the story 
told in the Puranas, and they are said to have obtained their 
name from the words m& rod$h, 'weep not,' which Indra ad- 
dressed to them. A scholiast on the Veda says, that after their 
birth from Diti, as above told, /Siva and Parvati beheld them in 
great affliction, and the latter asked Siva to transform the lumps 
of flesh into boys ; he accordingly made them boys of like form, 
like age, and similarly accoutred, and gave them to ParvatI aB 
her sons, whence they are called the sons of Eudra. Other 
legends are, that Parvati, hearing the lamentations of Diti, 
entreated Siva to give forms to the shapeless births, telling them 
not to weep (ma rodlJi] ; and another, that he actually begot 
them in the form of a bull on Prithivi, the earth, as a cow. 
(See Diti.) All these legends have manifestly been invented to 
explain those passages of the Vedas which make the Maruts 
the sons of Eudra. The world of the Maruts, called Maruta, is 
the appointed hea,ven of Vaisyas. 2. The god of the wind, and 
regent of the north-west quarter. 


MARTJTTA. i. A descendant of Mann Vaivaswata, He waa 
a Chakravartl, or nniversal monarch, and performed a celebrated 
sacrifice. "Never," says the Vislmu Purawa, "was beheld on 
earth a sacrifice equal to the sacrifice of Marutta. All the im- 
plements and utensils were made of gold. Indra was intoxicated 
with the libations of soma juice, and the Brahmans were en- 
raptured with the magnificent donations they received. The 
winds of heaven encompassed the rite as guards, and the assembled 
gods attended to behold it." According to the Vayu Purawa, 
Marutta was taken to heaven with his kindred and friends by 
Samvarta, the officiating priest at this sacrifice. But the Mar- 
karcrfeya Purawa says he was killed after he had laid down his 
crown and retired to the woods. 2. A king of the Solar race, 
who was killed by Vapushmat, and fearfully avenged by his son 
Dama (q.v,). 

MATALL Charioteer of Indra. 

MATANG-A. 'An elephant.' A man who was brought up 
as a Brahman but was the son of a Chaftrfala. His story, as 
told in the Maha-bharata, relates that he was mercilessly goading 
an ass's foal which he was driving. The mother ass, seeing this, 
tells her foal that she could expect no better, for her driver was 
no Brahman but a Cha^ala. Matanga, addressing the ass as 
" most intelligent," begged to know how this was, and was in- 
formed that his mother when intoxicated had received the 
embraces of a low-born barber, and that he, the offspring, was a 
Clia^ala and no Brahman. In order to obtain elevation to the 
position of a Brahman, he went through such a course of aus- 
terities as alarmed the gods. Indra refused to admit him He 
persevered again for a hundred years, but still Indra persistently 
refused such an impossible request, and advised him to seek 
some other boon. Nothing daunted, he went on a thousand 
years longer, with the same result. Though dejected he did not 
despair, but proceeded to balance himself on his great toe. He 
continued to do this for a hundred years, when he was reduced 
to mere skin and bone, and was on the point of falling. Indra 
went to support him, but inexorably refused his request, and, 
when further importuned, "gave him the power of moving 
about like a bird, and changing his shape at will, and of being 
honoured and renowned" In the Kamayawa, Kama and Sita 
visited the hermitage of Matanga near Jftshya-muka mountain, 


MATARI-$WAK An aerial being who is represented in the 
ffig-veda as bringing down or producing Agni (fire) for the 
Bhngus. By some supposed to be the wind. 

MATHUKA. An ancient and celebrated city on the right 
bank of the Yamuna, surviving in the modern Muttra. It was 
the birthplace of Krishna and one of the seven sacred cities. The 
Vishmi Pura?za states that it was originally called Madhu or 
Madhu-vana, from the demon Madhu, who reigned there, but 
that when Lavana, his son and successor, was killed by $atru- 
ghna, the conqueror set up his own rule there and built a city 
which he called Madhura or Mathura. 

MAT.BIS. ' Mothers ' The divine mothers. These appear 
to have been originally the female energies of the great gods, as 
Brahman! of Brahma, Maheswarl of /Siva, Yaishwavi of Vishmi, 
IndraTii or Aindrl of Indra, &c. The number of them was 
seven or eight or sixteen, but in the later mythology they have 
increased out of number. They are connected with the Tantra 
worship, and are represented as worshipping Siva and attending 
upon his son Kartikeya. 

MATSYA. c A fish. 3 i. The Fish Incarnation. (See Avatara.) 
2. Name of a country. Wilson says, "Dinajpoor, Rungpoor, 
and Cooch Behar ;" but there was more than one country of this 
name, and one would appear to have been situated in Northern 
India. Manu places Matsya in Brahmarshi. According to the 
Maha-bharata, King Virata's capital was called Matsya, his people 
also were called Matsyas, and he himself was styled Matsya. 
General Cunningham finds it in the neighbourhood of Jayptir, 
and says that the town of Yiratf or Bairatf, 105 miles south of 
Delhi, was its capital. 

MATSYA PURA^VA. This Purfwa is so called from its con- 
tents having been narrated to Manu by Yishwu in the form of a 
fish (matsya). It consists of between 14,000 and 15,000 stanzas. 
This work " is a miscellaneous compilation, but includes in its 
contents the elements of a genuine Purana. At the same time, 
it is of too mixed a character to be considered as a genuine work 
of the Pauranik class. Many of its chapters are the same as 
parts of the Vishnu and Padma Purawas. It has also drawn 
largely from the Maha-bharata. " Although a Saiva work, it is 
not exclusively so, and it has no such sectarial absurdities as the 
Kurma and Linga," 


MAUKEYAS. A class of Gandharvas, sons of Kasyap% 
who dwelt beneath the earth, and were sixty millions in num- 
ber. They overpowered the Nagas, and compelled them to flee 
to Yishwu for assistance, and he sent Purukutsa against them, 
who destroyed them, 

MAURYA. The dynasty founded by Chandra-gupta at 
Pafoli-putra (Patna) in Magadha, According to the Vishnu 
Purfma, the Maurya kings were ten in number and reigned 137 
years. Their names were (i.) Chandra-gupta, (2.) Bindu-sara, 
(3.) Asoka-vardhana, (4.) Su-yasas, (5.) Dasa-ratha, (6.) Sangata, 
(7.) $ali-suka, (8.) Soma-sarman, (9.) $asa-dharman, (10) Bn- 
had-ratha. The names vary in other Purarcas. See Chandra- 

MAYA. A Daitya who was the architect and artificer of the 
Asuras, as Yiswa-karma was the artificer of the Suras or gods. 
He was son of Yiprachitti and father of Yajra-kama and Mando- 
dari, wife of Etlva^a. He dwelt in the Deva-giri mountains not 
very far from Delhi, and his chief works were in the neighbour- 
hood of that city, where he worked for men as well as Daityas. 
The Maha-bharaia speaks of a palace lie built for the Paft^avas. 
In the Hari-vansa he appears frequently both as victor and van- 
quished in contests with the gods. 

MAYA. * Illusion, deception. 7 i. Illusion personified as a 
female form of celestial origin, created for the purpose of beguil- 
ing some individual Sometimes identified with DurgE as the 
source of spells, or as a personification of the unreality of worldly 
things. In this character she is called Maya-devl or Maha- 
rnaya. 2. A name of Gay a, one of the seven sacred cities. 

MAYA-DEYI, MAYA-YATI. Wife of the demon tfambara, 
She brought up Pradyunma, the son of Knshwa, and subse- 
quently married him. Praclyumna is represented as being a 
revived embodiment of Kama, the god of love ; and in accord- 
ance with this legend Maya-vati is identified with his wife Eati, 
the Hindu Yenus. See Maya. 

MAYU. ( Bleater, bellower. 3 The Kinnaras are called Mayus, 

MEDHATITHI Name of a Kawva who was a Yedic JSishi. 
There is a legend in one of the Upanishads that he was carried 
up to heaven by Indra in the form of a ram, because the god had 
been pleased with his austerities. Gf, Ganymede. 

MEDISTl The earth. See Kai&bha. 


MEDINI, MEDINI-KOSHA A well-known Sanskrit 
vocabulary. There are printed editions. 

MEGHA-DUTA. ' Cloud messenger.' A celebrated poem 
by Kali-dasa, in which a banished Yaksha implores a cloud to 
convey tidings of him to his wife. It has been translated into 
English verse by Wilson, and there are versions in Erench and 
German. The text has been printed with a vocabulary by 

MEGHA-NADA A son of Ravawa. See Indra-jit. 

MEKALA Name of a mountain from which the Narrnada 
river is said to rise, and from which it is called Mekala and 
Mekala-kanya, 'daughter of Mekala. 5 There was a people of 
this name, who probably lived in the vicinity of this mountain. 
Then 1 kings were also called Mekalas, and there appears to have 
been a city Mekala. 

MENA, MENAKA. i, ID the Sag-veda, a daughter of 
Ynshan-aswa. A Brahnma tells a strange story of Indra 
having assumed the form of Mena and then fallen in love with 
her. In the Purawas, wife of Himavat and mother of Uma and 
Ganga, and of a son named Mainaka. 2. An Apsaras sent to 
seduce the sage Yiswamitra from his devotions, and succeeding 
in this object, she became the mother of the nymph $akuntala. 

MEEU. A fabulous mountain in the navel or centre of the 
earth, on which is situated Swarga, the heaven of Indra, con- 
taining the cities of the gods and the habitations of celestial 
spirits. The Olympus of the Hindus. Regarded as a terrestrial 
object, it would seem to be some mountain north of the Hima- 
layas. It is also Su-meru, Hemadri, c golden mountain ; ' Ratna- 
sanu, 'jewel peak;' Kamkachala, 'lotus mountain; 1 and 
Amaradri and Deva-parvata, ' mountain of the gods,' 

MERU-SAYARJVAS. The ninth, tenth, eleventh, and 
twelfth* Manus, said to be the "mind-engendered sons of a 
daughter of Daksha by himself and the three gods Brahma, 
Dharma, and Rudra, to whom he presented her on Mount 
Meru." The signification of the appellation Meru is obvious ; 
that of Savarwa or Savarm signifies that they were all of one 
caste (varna). 

MlMANSA. A school of philosophy. See Darsana. 

MIMANSA-DARASANA A work on the Mimansa philo- 
sophy. Printed in the BiUiotheca 


MlMANSA-VARTTIKA. A work on the Munansa philo- 
sophy by Kumaiila Bha/fa. 

MINJIKA (mas.) and MINJIKA (fern.). Two beings who, 
according to the Maha-bharata, sprang from the seed of Eudra, 
wliich was spilt upon a mountain. They are to be worshipped 
by those who desire the welfare of children. 

MITAKSHAEA. A commentary by Yijnaneswara on the 
Smnti or text-book of Yajnawalkya. The authority of this 
book is admitted all over India, with the exception of Bengal 
proper. The portion on inheritance has been translated by 
Colebrooke, and into French by Orianne. The text has been 
printed in India. 

MITHILA. A city, the capital of Yideha or North Bihar, 
which corresponds to the modern Tirhut and Puraniya, between 
the Gandakl and Kosi rivers. It has given its name to one of 
the five northern nations of Brahmans (see Brahman), and to a 
school of law. It was the country of King Janaka, and the 
aame of his capital, Janaka-pura, still survives in " Janakpoor," 
on the northern frontier. 

MITEA. Probably connected with the Persian Mithra, A 
form of the sun. In the Vedas he is generally associated with 
Yarumt, he being the ruler of the day and Yaruna the ruler of 
the night They together uphold and rule the earth and sky, 
guard the world, encourage religion, and chastise sin. He is 
one of the Adityas or sons of Aditi. 

MITEA-SAHA. A king called also Kalmasha-pada (q.v.). 
MLECHHAS. Foreigners, barbarians, people not of Aryan 

MOHA-MUDGAEA, Hammers for ignorance. 3 A poem 
in explanation of the Yedanta philosophy. It has been printed 
and translated by Neve. 

MJS/CHCHHAKAIi ' The toy-cart.' A drama in ten acts 
by King $udraka, supposed to be the oldest Sanskrit drama 
extant, and to have been written in the first or second century 
A.D. The country over which /Sudraka reigned' is not known. 
This play, says Wilson, its translator, " is a curious and interest- 
ing picture of national manners . . . free from all exterior 
influence or adulteration. It is a portrait purely Indian. It 
represents a state of society sufficiently advanced in civilisation 
to be luxurious and corrupt,' and is certainly very far from 



offering a flattering similitude, although not without some 
attractive features." Williams observes, " The dexterity with 
which the plot is arranged, the ingenuity with which the inci- 
dents are connected, the skill with which the characters are 
delineated and contrasted, the holdness and felicity of the 
diction, are scarcely unworthy of our own great dramatists." 
There are translations in French and several editions of the 

IVLKJGAI^KA-LEKHA. A play in four acts, written by 
Viswa-natha at Benares. The piece takes its name from the 
heroine, a princess of Kamarupa. It is a comparatively modern 

MJJITYU. < Death.' A name of Yama, the god of the dead, 

MUCHUKTJJSTDA. In the Puranas, son of Mandhatri, and 
called 'king of men. 1 He rendered assistance to the gods in 
their wars with the Asuras or demons, and he asked and 
obtained as a reward the boon of a long uninterrupted sleep. 
Whosoever disturbed him was to be burnt to ashes by fire 
issuing from his body. Kala-yavana was lured into his cave 
by Knsh?za and woke the sleeper, who cast a fiery glance upon 
the intruder which destroyed him. Muchukunda then paid 
laud and honour to Knslma, who gave him power to go to 
whatever celestial region he wished, and to enjoy all heavenly 
pleasures. Muchukunda left his cave and went to Gandha- 
raadana to perform penance. The Maha-bharata says he was 
reproved by Kuvera for trusting to his priest more than to his 
own prowess for success in war, but he replied that the religious 
aid of Brahmans was as necessary as the warlike powers of 

MUD GAL A* A Yedic Bisbi from whom the Maudgalya 
Brahmans sprang. There were several other Brahmans named 
Mudgala. A sage of this name is recorded in the Maha-bharata 
to have " lived a life of poverty, piety, and self-restraint, offer- 
ing hospitality to thousands of Brahmans, according to his 
humble means, with the grain which he gleaned like a pigeon, 
and which (like the widow of Zarephath's oil) never underwent 
diminution, or rather increased again, when it was required," 
The choleric sage Dur-vasas went to test the patience of Mudgala, 
and six times devoured all the food which his host possessed 
without ruffling his temper. Dur-vasas in his admiration de* 


clared that Mudgala would go bodily to heaven, and the mes- 
senger of the gods arrived with his heavenly car. The sage, 
before accepting the invitation, desired to be informed of the 
joys and ills of heaven. After hearing a full explanation, he 
found that the enjoyments of heaven must come to a close, so 
he declared that he " had no desire for heaven, and would seek 
only that eternal abode where there is no sorrow, nor distress,* 
nor change." He dismissed the messenger of the gods, and 
began to practise ascetic virtues, becoming indifferent to praise 
and blame, regarding clods, gold, stones, and gold as alike. 
Pure knowledge led to fixed contemplation; and that again 
imparted strength and complete comprehension, whereby he 
obtained supreme eternal perfection in the nature of quietude 

MITDRA-BAKSHASA. 'The signet of the minister/ A 
drama by Yisakha-datta. This play has an historical interest, for 
Chandra-gupta, the Sandracottus of Greek writers, is a leading 
character in it. The date of its production is apparently the 
eleventh or twelfth century A.D. It is one of the dramas trans- 
lated by Wilson, who says, " The author was not a poet of the 
sphere of Bhava-bhuti or Kali-dasa. His imagination rises not to 
their level, and there is scarcely a brilliant or beautiful thought 
in the play. As some equivalent for the want of imagination, 
he has a vigorous perception of character and a manly strain of 
sentiment, that are inferior only to elevated conception and deli- 
cate feeling. He is the Massinger of the Hindus. The language 
of the original partakes of the general character of the play ; it is 
rarely beautiful or delicate, but always vigorous, and occasion- 
ally splendid-" 

MUGDHA-BODHA- A standard Grammar by Vopadeva, 
written towards the end of the thirteenth century. It has been 
edited by Bdhtlingk, and there are several Indian editions. 

MUKA. A Danava, son of Upasunda, He assumed the form 
of a wild boar in order to kill Arjuna, but was himself killed by 
/Siva in his form of the Kirata or. mountaineer. 

MUKHAGNL ' Fiery-faced.' Spirits or goblins with faces 
of fire, perhaps meteors, 

MTIZVPA. c Bald. 1 An appellation of Ketu. Name of a 
demon slain by Durga. 

MUJVDAKA. Name of a Upanishad (q.v.) translated by 


Dr. Koer in the BiblwtJieca Indica and by Rammohun Roy. 
There are several editions of the text. 

MUNI. " A holy sage, a pious and learned person, endowed 
with more or less of a divine nature, or having attained to it hy 
rigid abstraction and mortification. The title is applied to the 
.Zfe'shis, and to a great number of persons distinguished for their 
writings considered as inspired, as Pa7zini, Yyasa." Their super- 
human powers over gods and men have been often displayed in 
blessings, but more frequently in curses. 

MURA, MURU. A great demon who had seven thousand 
sons. He was an ally of the demon Naraka, who ruled over 
Prag-jyotisha, and assisted him in the defence of that city 
against Krishna. He placed in the environs of the city " nooses 
the edges of which were as sharp as razors/' but, cut 
them to pieces with his discus, slew Muru, " and burnt his seven 
thousand sons like moths with the flame of the edge of his discus." 

MURARL < The foe of Mura.' An appellation of Kr/shna. 

MURARI MI^RA. Author of the drama Murari Nafaka or 
Anargha Raghava (q.v.). 

MTJSALA The pestle-shaped club carried by Bala-rama. It 
was named Saunanda. 

i Armed with a pestle.' An appellation of Bala-rama. 

MUSH7TKA, A celebrated boxer in the service of Kansa, 
who directed him to kill Knslma or Bala-rama in a public en- 
counter, but Bala-rama overthrew him and killed him, 

NEDISHTHA. A son of Manu, who, while he was living as 
a Brahmachari, was deprived of his inheritance, by his father 
according to the Yajur-veda, by his brothers according to the 
Aitareya Brahman He subsequently acquired wealth by im- 
parting spiritual knowledge. 

JSTACHIKETAS. The story of Nachiketas is told in the 
Taittiriya Brahmana and Katha Upanishad. Vaja-sravasa or 
Aruwi, the father of Nachiketas, desirous of attaining heaven, 
performed great sacrifices, and was profuse in his gifts to the 
priests. The son told him thafr he had not given all, for that 
he, his son, was left, and said, " To whom shall I be given ? " 
On repeating the question, the father angrily replied, "To death." 
So the son departed to the abodes of death, and, after staying 


there three nights, Yama was constrained to offer him a boon. 
He prayed to see his father again and "be reconciled. This "boon 
was granted and another offered. All kinds of "blessings were 
proposed, but the youth refused to be contented with anything 
but a true knowledge of the soul Yama then proceeded to 
instruct hi. The story has been done into verse by Muir 
(Texts, voL v. p. 329). 

NAGA, A snake, especially the cobra-capella. A mythical 
semi-divine being, having a human face with the tail of a ser- 
pent, and the expanded neck of the cobra. The race of Nagas 
is said to be a thousand in number, and to have sprung from 
Kadru, the wife of Kasyapa, for the purpose of peopling Patala, 
or the regions below the earth, where they reign in great 
splendour. From the name of their mother they are called 
Kadraveyas. Their mother is sometimes called Su-rasa. This 
dominion was taken from them by the Gandharvas, but they 
recovered it through their sister, the Narmada river, who induced 
Vislwu, to send Pratardana to their assistance. Their females 
were handsome, and some of them intermarried with men, as 
Ulupl with Arjuna. 

The Nagas, or a people bearing the same name, are historical, 
and have left many traces behind them. There were mountains so 
called, and Naga-dwlpa was one of the seven divisions of Bharata- 
varsha. Kings of this race reigned at Mathura, Padmavata, &c., 
and the name survives in the modern Kagpur. There are various 
speculations as to who and what they were, but it seems clear 
they were a race distinct from the Hindus. The mythological 
accounts are probably based upon the historical, but they have 
been mixed up together and confused. The favourite theory is 
that they were a Scythic race, and probably obtained their name 
from worshipping serpents or holding them in awe and reverence* 

KAGA-LOKA. Patala, the residence of the Nagas. 

KiGA-NAKDANA. A Buddhist drama in five acts by n 
Harsha Deva. It has been translated by Boyd The text has 
been printed. 

JSTAGAEA. A city. There are seven sacred cities which 
confer eternal happiness (i.)Ayodhya, (2.) Mathura, (3.) Maya 
(Gaya), (4.) KasI (Benares), (5.) Kanchi (Conjeveram), (6.) 
Avanti or Avantika (TJjjayini), (7.) Dwaraka or Dwaravati. 

NAHUSHA, Son of lyus the eldest son of Pururavas, and 


father of Yayati. This king is mentioned by Mann as having 
come into conflict with the Brahmans, and his story is repeated 
several times with variations in different parts of the Maha- 
bharata as well as in the Puranas, the aim and object of it 
evidently being to exhibit the retribution awaiting any man who 
derogates from the power of Brahmans and the respect due to 
them. " By sacrifices, austere fervour, sacred study, self-restraint, 
and valour, Nahusha acquired the undisturbed sovereignty of 
the three worlds. . . . Through want of virtuous humility the 
great king Nahusha was utterly ruined." Manu. One version 
of the story says that he aspired to the possession of Indram, wife 
of Indra, when that god had concealed himself for having killed 
a Brahman. A thousand great .Z&shis bore the car of Nahusha 
through the air, and on one occasion he touched with his foot 
the great Agastya, who was carrying him. The sage in his anger 
cried out, " Pall, thou serpent," and Nahusha fell from his 
glorious car and became a serpent. Agastya, at the supplication 
of Nahusha, put a limit to the curse ; and according to one ver- 
sion, the doomed man was released from it by the instrumentality 
of Yudhi-shftrira, when he threw off "his huge reptile form, 
became clothed in a celestial body, and ascended to heaven." 

JSTATKA SHEYAS. Carnivorous imps descended from Ki- 
kasha, mother of Eavana. They are called also JSTikashatmajas. 

JSTAIMISHA, NAIMISHAEA^YA. A forest (aranya) near 
the Gomati (Gumti) river, in which the Maha-bharata was 
rehearsed by Sauti to the assembled .Z&shis. 

NAIEEITA. Belonging to the south-west quarter; the 
regent of that quarter. An imp, goblin, or Eakshasa. 

the life of ISTala, king of Mshadha, by Sri Harsha, a great scep- 
tical philosopher who lived in the eleventh or twelfth century 
A.D. It is one of the six Maha-kavyas. There are several 
printed editions. 

NAKSHATEAS. Mansions of the moon, lunar asterisms, 
At first they were twenty-seven in number, but they were 
increased to twenty-eight. They are said to be daughters of 
Daksha who were married to the moon. See Daksha. 

NAKTJLA. The fourth of the PaMu princes. He was the 
twin son of Madri, the second wife of Pawdu, but mythologically 
he was son of the Aswins, or more specifically of the Aswin 

NALA. 215 

Nasatya, He was taught the art of training and managing 
horses by Drcma, and when he entered the service of the king 
of Virata he was master of the horse. He had a son named 
Nir-amitra hy his wife Karewi-mati, a princess of Chedi. See 

NALA i. King of Nishadha and husband of Damayantl. 
The story of Nala and Damayantl is one of the episodes of the 
Maha-bharata, and is well known from having been translated 
into Latin by Bopp and into English verse by Dean Milman. 
Damayantl was the only daughter of Bhima, king of Yidarbha 
(Birar), and was very lovely and accomplished. Nala was brave 
and handsome, virtuous, and learned in the Yedas, skilled in 
arms and in the management of horses, but addicted to the vice 
of gambling. They loved each other upon the mere fame of their 
respective virtues and beauty, and Damayantl pined for the 
presence of her unknown lover. Bhima determined that his 
daughter should hold a swayam-vara. Kajas flocked to it in 
crowds, and among them Nala. Tour gods, Indra, Agni, 
Yaruwa, and Yama, also attended. Nala met them on the 
way, and reverently promised to do their will They bade him 
enter the palace and inform Damayantl that they would pre- 
sent themselves among the candidates, and that she must choose 
one of them. Nala reluctantly performed his task, but his 
presence perfected his conquest, and the maiden announced her 
resolve to pay due homage to the gods, but to choose him for 
her lord. Each of the four gods assumed the form of Nala, 
but the lover's eye distinguished the real one, and she made her 
choice. They married and lived for some time in great happi- 
ness, a son and a daughter, named Indrasena and Indrasena, 
being born to them. Kali, a personification of the Kali or iron 
age, arrived too late for the swayam-vara. He resolved to be 
revenged, and he employed his peculiar powers to ruin Nala 
through his love of gambling. At his instigation, Pushkara, 
Nala's younger brother, proposed a game of dice. Kali charmed 
the dice, and Nala went on losing ; but he was infatuated ; the 
entreaties of friends and ministers, wife and children, wete of 
no avail ; he went on till he had lost his all, even to his clothes. 
His rival Pushkara became king, and proclaimed that no one 
was to give food or shelter to Nala, so the ruined monarch 
wandered forth into the forest with his wife, and suffered great 

216 NALA. 

privations. Some birds flew away with his only garment. He 
resolved to abandon his wife in the hope that she would return 
to her father's court, so he divided her sole remaining garment 
while she slept and left her. Thus left alone, DamayantI 
wandered about in great distress. She did not go home, but 
she at length found service and protection with the princess of 
Chedi. Nala fell in with the king of serpents, who was under a 
curse from which ISTala was to deliver him. The serpent bit Nala, 
and told him that the poison should work upon him till the evil 
spirit was gone out of him, and that he should then be restored 
to all he loved. Through the effects of the bite he was transformed 
into a misshapen dwarf. In this form he entered the service of 
$'itupama, king of Ayodhya, as a trainer of horses and an 
accomplished cook, under the name of Bahuka. DamayantI 
was discovered and conducted to her father's home, where she 
found her children. Great search was made for Nala, but in 
vain, for no one knew him in his altered form. One Brahman, 
however, suspected him, and informed DamayantL She re- 
solved to test his feelings by announcing her intention of hold- 
ing a second swayam-vara. King jRttupama determined to 
attend, and took ISTala with him as driver of his chariot. fiitu- 
parwa was skilled in numbers and the rules of chances. On 
their journey he gave a wonderful proof of this, and he in- 
structed Nala in the science. When Nala had acquired this 
knowledge the evil spirit went out of him, but still he retained 
his deformity. DamayantI half penetrated his disguise, and 
was at length convinced that he was her husband by the flavour 
of a dish which he had cooked. They met, and, after some 
loving reproaches and the interference of the gods, they became 
reconciled, and Tala resumed his form. He again played with 
Pushkara, and staked his wife against the kingdom. Profiting 
by the knowledge he had obtained from jRitupaim, he won 
back all and again became king. Pushkara then humbled him- 
self, and Nala not only forgave him, but sent him home to his 
own city enriched with many gifts. The text of this poem 
has been often printed, and there are translations in various 

2. A monkey chief, said to be a son of Viswa-karma. Accord- 
ing tu the Kamaya^a, he had the power of making stones float 
in water. He was in Kama's army and built the bridge of 


stone called Bama-setu, or Nala-setu, from the continent to 
Ceylon, over which Kama passed with his army. 

JSTALA-KUYARA. A son of Kuvera. 

NALODAYA (Nala + udaya). ' The rise of ETala' A poem 
describing the restoration to power of King Nala after he had 
lost his all It is ascribed to a Kali-dasa, but the composition 
is very artificial, and the ascription to the great Kali-dasa may 
well be doubted. The text has been printed, and there is a 
metrical translation by Yates. 

NALOPAKHYANA. The story of Nala, an episode of the 
Maha-bharata. See Nak 

NAMUCHI. A demon slain by Indra with the foam of 
water. The legend of Namuchi first appears in the J&g-veda, 
where it is said that Indra ground "the head of the slave 
JSTamuchi like a sounding and rolling cloud," but it is amplified 
by the commentator and also in the Satapatha Brahma^a and 
Maha-bharata. When Indra conquered the Asuras there was one 
Namuchi who resisted so strongly that he overpowered Indra 
and held him. Namuchi offered to let Indra go on promise not 
to kill him by day or by night, with wet or with dry. Indra 
gave the promise and was released, but he cut off JSFamuchi's 
head at twilight, between day and night, and with foam of 
water, which was, according to the authorities, neither wet nor 
dry. The Maha-bharata adds that the dissevered head followed 
Indra calling out " wicked slayer of thy friend." 

NANDA. r. The cowherd by whom Krishna was brought 
up. 2. A king, or dynasty of kings, of Magadha, that reigned 
at Pafoli-putra, and was overthrown by Chandra-gupta the 
Maurya about 315 B.C. See Chandra-gupta. 

N AND AN A. The grove of Indra, lying to the north of Meru. 

NANDI. The bull of Siva. The Vayu Puriwa makes him 
the son of Kasyapa and Surabhi. His image, of a milky white 
colour, is always conspicuous before the temples of Siva. He is 
the chamberlain of $iva, chief of his personal attendants (ganas), 
and carries a staff of office. He is guardian of all quadrupeds. 
He is also called Salankayana, and he has the appellations of 
Nadi-deha and Ta^ava-talika, because he accompanies with 
music the tandava dance of his master. 

NANDI-MUKHAS. A class of Pitris or Manes, concerning 
whose character there is a good deal of uncertainty. 


NANDINl. The cow of plenty belonging to the sageVasish- 
tfha, said to have heen born of Surabhi, the cow of plenty that 
was produced at the churning of the ocean. 

NAKDI-PURA^A. See Puram. 

NAISTDISA, NANDISWARA. 'Lord of Nandi.' A title of 
Siva. It is related in the Ramayana that Ravam went to the 
Sara-vana, the birthplace of Karttikeya, and on his way through 
the mountains he beheld " a formidable, dark, tawny-coloured 
dwarf called NandL-wara, who was a follower of Maha-deva, or 
rather that deity himself in another body. This being desired 
Ravana to halt, as Siva was sporting in the mountain, and no 
one, not even a god, could pass. Ravawa asked derisively who 
Siva was, and laughed contemptuously at Nandiswara, who had 
the face of a monkey. Nandiswara retorted that monkeys hav- 
ing the same shape as himself and of similar energy should be 
produced to destroy Ravam's race. In reply to this menace, 
Rava?ia threatened to pull up the mountain by its roots and let 
Siva know his own danger. So he threw his arms round the 
mountain and lifted it up, which made the hosts of Siva tremble 
and Parvati quake and cling to her husband Siva then pressed 
down the mountain with his great toe, and crushed and held 
fast the arms of Ravawa, who uttered a loud cry which shook 
all creation. Ravar&a's friends counselled him to propitiate Siva, 
and he did so for a thousand years with hymns and weeping. 
Siva then released him, and said that his name should be Ravana 
from the cry (ram) which he had uttered. The origin of this 
story is sufficiently manifest, it has been built up on the name 
Ravafta 3 to the glory of Siva, by a zealous partisan of that deity. 

ISTARA. c Man.' The original eternal man. 

NARAD A. A .ffishi to whom some hymns of th6 .ffig-veda 
are ascribed. He is one of the Prajapatis, and also one of the 
seven great Jfeshis. The various notices of him are somewhat 
inconsistent. The ^tg-veda describes him as "of the Kanwa 
family." Another authority states that he sprang from the 
forehead of Brahma, and the Vishnu Purana makes him a son 
of Kasyapa and one of Daksha's daughters. The Maha-bharata 
and some PuraTias state that he frustrated the scheme "which 
Daksha had formed for peopling the earth, and consequently 
incurred that patriarch's curse to enter again the womb of a 
woman and be born. Daksha. however, relented at the solici- 


tation of Brahma, and consented that Narada should he horn 
again of Brahma and one of Daksha's daughters ; he was hence 
called Brahma and Deva-brahma. In some respects he hears a 
resemblance to Orpheus. He is the inventor of the viwa (lute), 
and was chief of the Gandharvas or heavenly musicians. He 
also went down to the infernal regions (Patala), and was de- 
lighted with what he saw there. In later times he is connected 
with the legend of Krishna. He warned Kansa of the imminent 
incarnation of Vislmu, and he afterwards "became the friend and 
associate of Krishna. 

The Narada-pancha-ratra relates that Brahma advised his 
son Narada to marry, hut ISFarada censured his father as a false 
teacher, because devotion to Kn'shwa was the only true means 
of felicity. Brahma then cursed Narada to lead a life of sen- 
suality, in subjection to women, and ISTarada retorted the curse, 
condemning Brahma to lust after his own daughter, and to 
he an object unworthy of adoration. JSTarada has the appella- 
tions, Kali-karaka, * strife-maker ; ' Kapi-vaktra, ' monkey-faced ; ' 
Pisuna, 'messenger or spy.' 

ISTarada was also one of the great writers upon law. His 
text-book, called " Naradrya Dharma-sastra/' has been translated 
into English by Dr. Jolly. 

NAKADA PANCHA-KATEA. A ritualistic work of the 
Yaishnavas. It has been printed in the Billiotheca Indicd. 

Narada has described the duties which were observed in the 
Brihat Kalpa, that is called the Naradlya, having 25,000 
stanzas." But the only copy that Wilson analysed contained 
not more than 3000 stanzas. There is another work called the 
Bnlian or Great Naradlya, but this extends only to 3500 verses. 
These Puranas, says Wilson, bear " no conformity to the defi- 
nition of a PuraTia ; both are sectarial and modern compilations, 
intended to support the doctrine of Bhakti or faith in Vishmi." 
They are modern compositions, possibly even of so late a date as 
the sixteenth or seventeenth century. One of them refers to 
the " killers of cows " and " contemners of the gods," meaning, 
no doubt, tho Mohaminadans, so that the passage would seem 
to have been written after India was in their hands. 

NABAKA. Hell a place of torture to which the souls of 
the wicked are sent. Manu enumerates twenty-one hells : 


Tamisra, Andha-tamisra, Mahirraurava, Eaurava, Karaka, Kala- 
sutra, Maha-naraka, Sanjivana, Maha-vichi, Tapana, Samprata- 
pana, Sanhata, Sakakola, Kucfonala, Puti-mnttika, Loha-sanku, 
jRrjisha, Panthana, /Salmali, Asi-patra-vana, and Loha-diiraka. 
Other authorities vary greatly as to the numbers and names of 
the hells, See Vishnu Purarca, ii. 214. 

NAEAKA. An Asura, son of the Earth. In the Maha- 
bharata and Vishnu Purima he is said to have carried off the 
ear-rings of Aditi to the impregnable castle of Prag-jyotisha, but 
Krishna, at the request of the gods, went there and killed bim 
and recovered the jewels. In the Hari-vansa the legend differs. 
According to this, Naraka, king of Prag-jyotisha, was an implac- 
able enemy of the gods. He assumed the form of an elephant, 
and having carried off the daughter of Viswa-karma, he subjected 
her to violation. He seized the daughters of the Gandharvas, and 
of gods and of men, as well as the Apsarasas themselves, and 
had more than 16,000 women, for whom he built a splendid 
residence. He also appropriated to himself jewels, garments, and 
valuables of all sorts, and no Asura before him had ever been 
so horrible in his actions. 

ISTAEA-lSfAEAYA.NA. Two ancient JZishis, sons of Dharma 
and Ahinsa. The names are sometimes applied to Krishna 
and to K?ishwa and Arjuna. The Vamana Purana has a 
legend about them which is alluded to in the drama of Vik- 
ramorvasi. Their penances and austerities alarmed the gods, 
so Indra sent nymphs to inspire them with passion and disturb 
their devotions. Narayawa took a flower and placed it on his 
thigh. Immediately there sprung from it a beautiful nymph 
whose charms fax excelled those of the celestial nymphs, and 
made them return to heaven, filled with shame and vexation. 
Narayawa sent this nymph to Indra with them, and from her 
having been produced from the thigh (uru) of the sage, she was 
called Urvasi. 



NAEA-VISHWANA. A man-devourer;' a Eakshasa or 
other malignant being. 

NAEAYA7VA. i. The son of Kara, the original man, and 
often identified or coupled with Kara. 2. The creator Brahma, 
who, according to Manu, was so called because the waters (nara) 


were his first ayana or place of motion. The name is found for 
the first time in the /S'atapatlia Brahma^a. The name as com- 
monly used applies to Vishnu, and is that Tinder which he was 
first worshipped. 

N ARMADA. The Nerbudda river, which is esteemed holy. 
The personified river is variously represented as being daughter 
of a _Z&shi named Mekala (from whom she is called Mekala and 
Mekala-kanya), as a daughter of the moon, as a ' mind-born 
daughter J of the Somapas, and as sister of the Nagas. It was 
she who brought Purukutsa to the aid of the Nagas against the 
Gandharvas, and the grateful snake-gods made her name a charm 
against the venom of snakes. According to the Vishnu Purima, 
she had a son by Purukutsa who was named Trasadasyu. The 
Matsya Pura^a gives Du^-saha as the name of her husband. 
The Hari-vansa is inconsistent with itself. In one place it 
makes her wife of Purukutsa and mother of Trasadasyu ; in 
another it makes her the wife of Trasadasyu. She is also called 
Reva and Purva-ganga, and, as a daughter of the moon, Indu-ja 
and Somodbhava, 

NASATYA. Name of one of the Aiwins. It is also used 
in the plural for both of them. 

NAVA-RATNA. The nine gerns : pearl, ruby, topaz, dia- 
mond, emerald, lapis lazuli, coral, sapphire, and one not identified 
called Go-meda. The nine gems of the court of Yikrama, pro- 
bably meaning Vikramaditya, whose era the Sanrvat begins in 
56 B.C. A verse gives their names as Dhanwantari, Kshapamka, 
Amara Sinlia, $anku, Vetala-bha^a, Gha/a-karpara, Kali-dasa, 
Varaha-mihira, Yararuchi. The date of Yikramaditya is by no 
means settled. Bhau Dajl endeavours to identify Yikrama with 
Harsha Yikramaditya, who lived in the middle of the sixth 

NIDAGHA. A Brahman, son of Pulastya, who dwelt " at. 
Yira-nagara, a large handsome city on the banks of the Devikii 
river " (the Gogra). He was a disciple of the sage J^ibhu, and 
when JKbhu went to visit his disciple, Nidagha entertained him 
reverentially. Bibhu instructed him in divine knowledge until 
he learned to " behold all things as the same with himself, and, 
perfect in holy knowledge, obtained final liberation." 

NIDANA-StfTRA. An old work upon the metres of the Veda? 

NIDHL * A treasura' Nine treasures belonging to the god 


Kuvera. Each of them is personified or has a guardian spirit, 
which is an object of worship among the Tantrikaa The nature 
of these Nidhis is not clearly "understood See a note by Wilson 
on verse 534 of the Megha-duta, Collected Works, iv. 379. 
Their names are Kachchhapa, Mukunda, Nanda (or Kunda), 
Kharba, Makara, Nila, tfankha, Padma, and Maha-padma. The 
Mdhis are called also Nidhana, Nikara, and Sevadhi, 

ISTIDKA. { Sleep.' Sometimes said to he a female form of 
Brahma, at others to have been produced at the churning of the 

JSriGHAJ^TU, MGHAJVTITKA. A glossary, especially of 
synonyms and obsolete and obscure Yedic terms. There was 
at least one work of this kind before the days of Yaska, See 

NIKASHA. A female demon, the mother of Kavarau The 
mother of the carnivorous imps called Pisitasanas, or by their 
metronymic Itfaikusheyas and Mkashatmajas. 

NIKTJMBHA, i. AKakshasa who fought against Kama. He 
was son of Kumbha-karna. 2. An Asura who, according to the 
Hari-vansa, received the boon from Brahma that he should die 
only by the hands of Vishnu. He was king of Sha-pura and 
had great magical powers, so that he could multiply himself into 
many forms, though he coin m only assumed only three. He car- 
ried off the daughters of Brahmardatta, the friend of Krishna, 
and that hero attacked him and killed him under different 
forms more than once, but he was eventually slain outright by 
Knsh?ia, and his city of Sha-pura was given to Brahma- 

NILA. Blue/ i. A mythic range of mountains north of 
Meru. 2. A mountain range in Orissa. 3. A monkey ally of 
Kama. 4, A Pa^f/ava warrior killed by Aswatthaman. 

NILA-KA^THA. 'Blue throat.' An epithet of Siva. See 

NIM1 Son of Ikshwaku, and founder of the dynasty of 
Mithila. He was cursed by the sage Vasishflia to lose his cor- 
poreal form, and he retorted the imprecation upon the sage. 
Both abandoned the bodily condition. YasisMia was born 
again as the issue of Mitra and Varutta, but " the corpse of 
Nimi was preserved from decay by being embalmed with fra- 
grant oils and resins, and it remained as entire as if it were 


immortal" The gods were willing to restore him to bodily life, 
but Nimi declined, declaring that the separation of soul and 
body was so distressing that he would never resume a corporeal 
shape and become liable to it again. " To this desire the gods 
assented, and Kimi was placed by them in the eyes of all 
living creatures, in consequence of which their eyelids are ever 
opening and shutting." Vishnu Pur ana. A wink of the eye 
is called nimisha, and the legend was probably built upon the 
resemblance of the two words. 

NIR./VAYA-SINDHU. A work on religious ceremonies and 
law by Kamalakara. It has been printed at Bombay and Benares. 

NIRJ2ITI. ' Death, decay. 3 Death personified as a god- 
dess ; sometimes regarded as the wife and sometimes as the 
daughter of A-dharma. One of the Rudras. 

NIRUKTA. < Etymology, glossary. ' One of the Vedangas. 
The IsTirukta is devoted to the explanation of difficult Vedic 
words. The only work of the kind now known to us is that of 
Yaska, who was a predecessor of Pamni ; but such works were 
no doubt numerous, and the names of seventeen writers of 
Niruktas are mentioned as having preceded Yaska. The 
Nirukta consists of three parts : (i.) Naighaftfrika, a collection of 
synonymous words ; (2.) RTaigama, a collection of words peculiar 
to the Yedas ; (3.) Daivata, words relating to deities and sacri- 
fices. These are mere lists of words, and are of themselves of 
little value. They may have been compiled by Yaska himself, 
or he may have found them ready to his hand. The real Mrukta, 
the valuable portion of the work, is Yaska's commentary which 
follows. In this he explains the meaning of words, enters into 
etymological investigations, and quotes passages of the Vedas 
in illustration. These are valuable from their acknowledged 
antiquity, and as being the oldest known examples of a Vedic 
gloss. They also throw a light upon the scientific and religious 
condition of their times, but the extreme brevity of their style 
makes them obscure and difficult to understand. The text of 
the Nirukta has been published by Roth. 

NISHADA, A mountain tribe dwelling in the Vindhya 
mountains, said to have been produced from the thigh of Ve?ia ; 
the Bhils or foresters, and barbarians in general (See Ye;ia.) 
Any outcast, especially the offspring of a Brahman father and 
fi^udra mother. 


NISHADHA. i . A mythic range of mountains lying south of 
Meru, "but sometimes described as on the east. It is north of the 
Himalaya. 2. The country of JSTala, probably the Bhil country. 

NISHnGEI. In the ^ig-veda, the mother of Iiidra. 

NLSUMBHA. An Asura killed by Durga. See Kumbha. 

NlTI-MANJAEl A work on ethics by Dya Dwiveda, 
exemplified by stories and legends with special reference to the 
Yedas. Some specimens are given in the Indian Antiquary, 
vol. v. 

1HTI-$ASTEAS. Works on morals and polity, consisting 
either of proverbs and wise maxims in verse, or of stories and 
fables inculcating some moral precept and illustrating its effects. 
These fables are generally in prose interspersed with pithy 
maxims in verse. 

NIYATA-KAYACHAS. < Clothed in impenetrable armour.' 
A class of Baityas descended from Prahlada, u whose spirits 
were purified by rigid austerity." According to the Maha- 
bharata they were 30,000,000 in number, and dwelt in the 
depths of the sea. They were destroyed by Arjuna, 

K-&/-SHSTHA. The Nara-sinha or man-lion incarnation. Set 


IST^I-SHSTHA TAPANI An Upanishad in which Vishwi is 
worshipped under his form Nri-sinha. Published with the com- 
mentary of /Sankaracharya in the BiUiotheca Indica. 

I^YAYA. The logical school of philosophy. See Darsana. 

of Gotama on the ITyaya philosophy. They have been printed. 

ODEA. The country of Orissa A man of that country. 

CM. A word of solemn invocation, affirmation, benediction, 
and consent, so sacred that when it is uttered no one must hear 
it. The word is used at the commencement of prayers and re- 
ligious ceremonies, and is generally placed at the beginning of 
books. It is a compound of the three letters a } u, m, which are 
typical of the three Yedas and it is declared in the Upanishads, 
where it first appears, to have a mystic power and to be worthy 
of the deepest meditation. In later times the monosyllable re- 
presents the Hindu triad or union of the three gods, a being 
Yish?m, u $iva, and m Brahma. This monosyllable is called 


OMKARA. The sacred monosyllable Om, Name of one of 
the twelve great lingas. See Linga. 

OSHADHI-PKASTEA. 'The place of medicinal herbs.' 
A city in the Himalaya mentioned in the Kumara-sambhava. 

OSHrHA-KAKTVAKAS. A people whose lips extended to 
their ears, mentioned in the Maha-bharata. 

PAD A- The Pada text of the Yedas, or of any other work, 
is one in which each word (pada) stands separate and distinct, 
not joined with the next according to the rules of sandhi (coali- 
tion). See Paftia, 

PADMA, PADMAYATI. A name of Lakshmi. 

PADMAYATI. Name of a city. It would seem, from the 
mention made of it in the drama Malaii Madhava, to lie in the 
Vindhya mountains. 

PADMA-KALPA. The last expired kalpa or year of Brahma. 

generally stands second in the list of Pura^as, and is thus de- 
scrihed : " That which contains an account of the period when 
the world was a golden lotos (padrna), and of all the occurrences 
of that time, is, therefore, called Padma "by the wise. It con- 
tains 55,000 stanzas." The work is divided into five Looks or 
IQiawcZas : " (i.) Sn'sM Kliawda, or section on creation; (2.) 
Bhumi Kliawrfa, on the earth ; (3.) Swarga Khawtfa, on heaven; 
(4.) Patala Kha??^a, on the regions below the earth ; (5.) Uttara 
Kha?wZa, last or supplementary chapter. There is also current 
a sixth division, the Kriya-yoga-sara, a treatise on the practice 
of devotion." These denominations of the various divisions 
convey but an imperfect and partial notion of their heterogene- 
ous contents, and it seems probable that the different sections 
are distinct works associated together under one title. There is no 
reason to consider any of them as older than the twelfth century. 
The tone of the whole Purawa is strongly Yaishnava ; that of the 
last section especially so. In it $rva is represented as explain- 
ing to Parvati the nature and attributes of Vishwu; and in the 
end the two join in adoration of that deity. A few chapters 
have been printed and translated into Latin by WoUheira. 

PAHLAYA. Name of a people. Mann places the Pahlavas 
among the northern nations, and perhaps the name is connected 
with the word Pahlavi, i.e. y Persian. They let their beards grow 
by command of King Sagara, According to Manu, they were 


Kshatriyas who had become outcasts, but the Maha-bharata says 
they were created from the tail of Vasishftia's cow of fortune 
and the Ramaya^a states that they sprang from her breath. 
They are also called Pahnavas. 

PAUAVANA. A name of the King Sudas, his patronymic 
as son of Prjavana. 

PAILA. A learned man who was appointed in ancient days 
to collect the hymns of the J&g-veda. He arranged it in two 
parts, and must have been a coadjutor of Yeda Yyasa. 

PAKA-SASANA. A name of Indra, and of Arjuna as de- 
scended from Indra. 

PALAKAPYA. An ancient sage who wrote upon medicine, 
and is supposed to have been an incarnation of Dhanwantari. 

PAilPJL A river which rises in the .ft/shyamuka mountain 
and falls into the Tungabhadra below Anagundi. Also a lake 
in the same locality. 

PANCHA-CHUDA. A name of Kambha, 

PAN CHAJANA. i. Name of a demon who lived in the sea 
in the form of a conch-shell. He seized the son of Sandipani, 
under whom "Krishna, learnt the use of arms. Kn'shm rescued 
the boy, killed the demon, and afterwards used the conch-shell 
for a horn. 2. A name of Asamanjas (q.v.). 

PANCHAJANYA. Krishna's conch, formed from the shell 
of the sea-demon Panchajana. 

PANCHALA. Name of a country. From the Maha- 
bharata it would seem to have occupied the Lower Doab Manu 
places it near Kanauj. It has sometimes been identified with 
the Panjab, and with " a little territory in the more immediate 
neighbourhood of Hastinapur." Wilson says, " A country ex- 
tending north and west from Delhi, from the foot of the Hima- 
layas to the ChambaL" It was divided into Northern and 
Southern Panchalas, and the Ganges separated them. Cunning- 
ham considers ISTorth Panchala to be Rohilkhand, and South 
Panchala the Gangetic Doab. The capital of the former was 
Ahi-chhatra, whose ruins are found near Kamnagar, and of the 
latter Kampilya, identical with the modern Kampila, on the old 
Ganges between Badaun and Famikhabad 

PANCHA-LAKSHAJVA. The five distinguishing character- 
istics of a Pura^a. See Pura^a, 

PANCHALl Draupadi as princess of Panchala, 


PANCHANANA. < Five-faced/ An epithet applied to 

PANCHAPSARAS. Name of a lake. See Manda-kami. 

PANCHA-STKHA. One of the earliest professors of the 
Sankhya philosophy. 

PANCHA-TANTRA A famous collection of tales and 
fables in five (panclia) books (tanfra). It was compiled by a 
Brahman named Vishwu-sarman, about the end of the fifth 
century A.D., for the edification of the sons of a king, and was 
the original of the better-known Hitopadesa. This work has 
reappeared in very many languages both of the East and West, 
and has been the source of many familiar and widely known 
stories. It was translated into Pahlavi or old Persian by order 
of Naushlrvan in the sixth century A.D. In the ninth century 
it appeared in Arabic as Kalila o Damna, then, or before, it was 
translated into Hebrew, Syriac, Turkish, and Greek ; and from 
these, versions were made into all the languages of Europe, and 
it became familiar in England as Pilpay's Fables (Fables of 
Bidpai). In modern Persia it is the basis of the Anwar-i 
Suhaill and lyar-i Danish. The latter has reappeared in Hin- 
dustani as the Khirad-afroz. The stories are popular through- 
out Hindustan, and have found their way into most of the lan- 
guages and dialects. There are various editions of the text and 
several translations. 

PANCHAYATL A place in the great southern forest near 
the sources of the Godavari, where Kama passed a long period 
of his banishment. It has been proposed to identify it with 
the modern Nasik, because Lakshmam cut off Surpa-nakha's 
nose (ndsika) at Panchavatl 

PANCEAVINSA. See PrauJha Brahmawa. 

PANCHA-Y^/KSHA. 'Five trees. 7 The five trees of 
Swarga, named Mandara, Parijataka, Santana, Kalpa-vnksha, 
and Hari-chandana. 

PANCHOPAKHYANA. The Pancha-tantra. 

PAJVDAVAS. The descendants of Paftdu. 

PJLZVPTL ' The pale.' Brother of Dhnta-rashfra, king of 
Hastina-pura and father of the Piwcfovas or Pa?i^u princes. See 

PlJVZ)YA- PaTwfya, Chola, and Chera were three kingdoms in 
the south of the Peninsula for some centuries before and after the 

228 PAN1NL 

Christian era. PamZya was well known to the Eomans as the 
kingdom of King Pandion, who is said to have sent ambassadors 
on two different occasions to Augustus Caesar. Its capital was 
Madura, the Southern Matlmra* Paw^ya seems to have fallen 
under the ascendancy of the Chola kings in the seventh or 
eighth century. 

^ PAJVINI. The celebrated grammarian, author of the work 
called Pamiriyam. This is the standard authority on Sansk?'ft 
grammar, and it is held in such respect and reverence that it is 
considered to have "been written by inspiration. So in old times 
Pamni was placed among the jRishis, and in more modern days 
he is represented to have received a large portion of his work by 
direct inspiration from the god Siva. It is also said that he 
was so dull a child that he was expelled from school, but the 
favour of $iva placed him. foremost in knowledge. He was not 
the first grammarian, for he refers to the works of several who 
preceded him. The grammars which have been written since 
his time are numberless, but although some of them are of great 
excellence and much in use, Pa/mni still reigns supreme, and 
his rules are incontestable. " His work/ 3 says Professor Wil- 
liams, " is perhaps the most original of all productions of the 
Hindu mind," The work is written in the form of Sutras or 
aphorisms, of which it contains 3996, arranged in eight (ashta) 
chapters (adhydya), from which the work is sometimes called 
Ash&dhyayl. These aphorisms are exceedingly terse and com- 
plicated. Special training and study are required to reach their 
meaning. Colebrooke remarks, that " the endless pursuit of 
exceptions and limitations so disjoins the general precepts, that 
the reader cannot keep in view their intended connection and 
mutual relations. He wanders in an intricate maze, and the key 
of the labyrinth is continually slipping from his hand." But it 
has been well observed that there is a great difference between 
the European and Hindu ideas of a grammar. In Europe, gram- 
mar has hitherto been looked upon as only a means to an end, 
the medium through which a knowledge of language and litera- 
ture is acquired. With the Pawcfit, grammar was a science ; it 
was studied for its own sake, and investigated with the most 
minnte criticism ; hence, as Goldstiicker says, " Panini's work is 
indeed a kind of natural history of the Sanskrit language/' 
Pamni was a native of fi'alatura, in the country of Gandhara, 


cf the Indus, and so is known as Salottarlya, He is 
described as a descendant of Paftin and grandson of Devala. 
His mother's name was Dakshi, who probably belonged to the 
race of Daksha, and he bears the metronymic Daksheya. He 
is also called Ahika. The time when he lived is uncertain, but it 
is supposed to have been about four centuries B.C. Goldstiicker 
carries him back to the sixth century, but Weber is inclined 
to place him considerably later. Panini's grammar has been 
printed by Bohtlingk, and also in India. See Goldstiicker's 
Pdninl, his Place in Literature. 3 ' 

PAJVTS. 'Niggards.' In the E^g-veda, " the senseless, false, 
evil-speaking, unbelieving, unpraising, un worshipping Panis were 
Dasyus or envious demons who used to steal cows and hide them 
in caverns." They are said to have stolen the cows recovered by 
$arama (q.v.). 

PANNAGA. A serpent, snake. See JSTaga. 

PAPA-PUEUSHA. < Man of sin.' A personification of all 
wickedness in a human form, of which all the members are great 
sins. The head is brahmanicide, the arm cow-killing, the nosa 
woman-murder, &c. 

PAEADAS. A barbarous people dwelling in the north-west. 
Manu says they were Kshatriyas degraded to be AS r udras. 

PAEAMAESHIS (Parama-rishis). The great S&his. See 

PAEAMATMAN. The supreme soul of the universe. 

PAEAMESHfHIK 'Who stands in the highest place/ 
A title applied to any superior god and to some distinguished 
mortals. A name used in the Yedas for a son or a creation of 

PAEA/SABA. A Yedic Eislii to whom some hymns of the 
J?ig-veda are attributed. He was a disciple of Kapila, and he 
received the Vishnu Purana from Pulastya and taught it to 
Maitreya. He was also a writer on Dharma-sastra, and texts of 
his are often cited in books on law. Speculations as to his era 
differ widely, from 575 B.C. to 1391 B.C., and cannot be trusted. 
Ey an amour with Satyavati he was father of Krishna Dwaipa- 
yana, the Vyasa or arranger of the Yedas. According to the 
Nirukta, he was son of Vasisb.ha, but the Maha-bharata and 
the Vishnu Purawa make him the son of 'Saktri and grandson of 
Yasishflxa. The legend of his birth, as given in the Maha-bharata, 


h tnat King Kalmasha-pada met with fiaktri in a narrow path, 
and desired him to get out of the way. The sage refused, and the 
Eaja struck him with his whip. Thereupon the sage cursed the 
Eaja so that he hecame a man-eating Eakshasa. In this state 
he ate up Saktri, whose wife, Admyanti, afterwards gave birth to 
Parasara. When this child grew up and heard the particulars 
of his father's death, he instituted a sacrifice for the destruction 
of all the Eakshasas, but was dissuaded from its completion by 
Yasishflia and other sages. As he desisted, he scattered the 
remaining sacrificial fire upon the northern face of the Himalaya, 
where it still blazes forth at the phases of the moon, consuming 
Eakshasas, forests, and mountains. 
PAEA$IKAS. Parsikas or Farsikas, i.e., Persians, 
PAEAU-EAMA < Rama with the axe/ The first Eama 
and the sixth Avatara of Vislinu. He was a Brahman, the fifth 
son of Jamad-agni and Eemika. By his father's side he descended 
from Bhrigu, and was, par excellence, the Bhargava; by his 
mother's side he belonged to the royal race of the Knsikas. He 
became manifest in the world at the beginning of the Treta- 
yuga, for the purpose of repressing the tyranny of the Kshatriya 
or regal caste. His story is told in the Maha-bharata and in the 
Puranas. He also appears in the Eamayawa, but chiefly as an 
opponent of Eama-chandra According to the Maha-bharata, he 
instructed Arjuna in the use of arms, and had a combat with 
Bhlshma, in which both suffered equally. He is also represented 
as being present at the great war council of the Kaurava princes. 
This Parasu-rama, the sixth Avatara of Vishnu, appeared in 
the world before Eama or Eama-chandra, the seventh Avatara, 
but they were both living at the same time, and the elder incar- 
nation showed some jealousy of the younger. The Maha-bharata 
represents Parasu-rama as being struck senseless by Eama- 
chandra, and the Eamayawa relates how Parasu-rama, who was 
a follower of Siva, felt aggrieved by Eama's breaking the bow 
of /Siva, and challenged him to a trial of strength. This ended 
in his defeat, and in some way led to his being " excluded from 
a seat in the celestial world." In early life Para-su-rama was 
under the protection of Siva, who instructed him in the use of 
arms, and gave him the parasu, or axe, from which he is named, 
The first act recorded of him by the Mahirbharata is that, bj 


command of his father, lie cut off the head of his mother, Kewuka. 
She had incensed her husband by entertaining impure thoughts, 
and he called upon each of his sons in succession to kill her. 
Parasu-rama alone obeyed, and his readiness so pleased his father 
that he told him to ask a boon. He begged that his mother 
might be restored pure to life, and, for himself, that he might be 
invincible in single combat and enjoy length of days. Parasu-^ 
rama's hostility to the Kshatriyas evidently indicates a severe 
struggle for the supremacy between them and the Brahmans. 
He is said to have cleared the earth of the Kshatriyas twenty- 
one times, and to have given the earth to the Brahmans. The 
origin of his hostility to the Kshatriyas is thus related : Karta- 
virya, a Kshatriya, and king of the Haihayas, had a thousand 
arms. This king paid a visit to the hermitage of Jamad-agni in 
the absence of that sage, and was hospitably entertained by his 
wife, but when he departed he carried off a sacrificial calf be- 
longing to their host. This act so enraged Parasu-rama that he 
pursued Karta-virya, cut off his thousand arms and killed him. 
In retaliation the sons of Karta-virya killed Jamad-agni, and for 
that murder Parasu-rama vowed vengeance against them and the 
whole Kshatriya race. " Thrice seven times did he clear the \ 
earth of the Kshatriya caste, and he filled with their blood the j 
five large lakes of Samanta-panchaka." He then gave the earth' 
to Kasyapa, and retired to the Mahendra mountains, where he 
was visited by Arjuna. Tradition ascribes the origin of the ' 
country of Malabar to Parasu-rama, According to one account 
he received it as a gift from Varuna, and according to another 
he drove back the ocean and cut fissures in the Ghats with blows 
of his axe. He is said to have brought Brahmans into this 
country from the north, and to have bestowed the land upon 
them in expiation of the slaughter of the Kshatriyas. He bears 
the appellations Khaw^a-parasu, ' who strikes with the axe,' and 
Nyakslia, ' inferior. 7 

PARAVASU. See Eaibhya and Yava-krita, 

PABIJATA. The tree produced at the churning of the 
ocean, " and the delight of the nymphs of heaven, perfuming the 
world with its blossoms." It was kept in Indra's heaven, and 
was the pride of his wife $achi, but when Krishna visited Iixdra 
in Swarga, his wite? Satya-bhama induced him to carry the tree 
away, which led to a great fight between the two gods and their 
adherents, in which Indra was defeated. The tree was taken to 


Dwaraka and planted there, "but after 'Krishna's death it returned 
to India's heaven. 

PARIKSHIT. Son of Abhimanyu by his wife Uttara, 
grandson of Arjuna, and father of Janamejaya. He was killed 
by Aswatthaman in the womb of his mother and was born dead, 
but he was brought to life by Krishna, who blessed him and 
cursed Aswattharnan. When Yudhi-sh&ira retired from the 
world, Parikshit succeeded him on the throne of Hastina-pura. 
He died from the bite of a serpent, and the Bhagavata Purawa 
is represented as having been rehearsed to him in the interval 
between the bite and his death. Also written Parikshit. 

PAEIPATRA. The northern part of the Vindhya range of 
mountains. According to the Hari-vansa, it was the scene of the 
combat between Krishna, and Indra, and its heights sank down 
under the pressure of Krishna's feet. Also called Pariyatra. 

PABISHAD. A college or community of Brahmans asso- 
ciated for the study of the Yedas. 

PAKLSISHTA. A supplement or appendix. A series of 
works called Parisish/as belong to the Yedic period, but they 
are the last of the series, and indicate a transition state. They 
" supply information on theological or ceremonial points which 
had been passed over in the Sutras, and they treat everything in 
a popular and superficial manner, as if the time was gone when 
students would spend ten or twenty years of their lives in 
fathoming the mysteries and mastering the intricacies ol the 
Brahmana literature." Max Muller, 

PAEIYEAJAKA A religious mendicant. A Brahman in 
the fourth stage of his religious life. See Brahman. 

PARJANYA. i. A Yedic deity, the rain-god or rain per- 
sonified. Three hymns in the J&g-veda are addressed to this 
deity, and one of them is very poetical and picturesque in de- 
scribing rain and its effects. The name is sometimes combined 
with the word vata (wind), parjanyctr-vata, referring probably to 
the combined powers and effects of rain and wind. In later 
times he is regarded as the guardian deity of clouds and rain, 
and the name is applied to Indra. 2. One of the Adityas, 

PARSHADA, Any treatise on the Yedas produced in a 
Parishad or Yedic college. 

PARTHA. A son of Pritha or KuntT. A title applicable to 
the three elder Pa?zdavas, but especially used for Arjuna. 


PAEVATl * The mountaineer.' A name of the wife of Siva 
See DeyL 

PA&TJ-PATI. l Lord of creatures/ A name of Eudra or of 
one of his manifestations. See Eudra. 

PATALA. The infernal regions, inhabited by Nagas (ser- 
pents), Daityas, Danavas, Yakshas, and others. They are seven 
in number, and their names, according to the Yishftu Pura?ia, are 
Atala, Yitala, Nitala, Gabhastimat, Mahatala, Sutala, and Patala, 
but these names vary in different authorities. The Padma 
Puram gives the names of the seven regions and their respective 
rulers as follow : (i.) Atala, subject to Maha-maya ; (2.) Yitala, 
ruled by a form of $iva called Hatakeswara ; (3. ) Sutala, ruled 
by Bali; (4.) Talatala, ruled by Maya; (5.) Mahatala, where 
reside the great serpents; (6.) Kasatala, where the Daityas and 
Danavas dwell; (7.) Patala, the lowermost, in which Yasuki 
reigns over the chief Nagas or snake-gods. In the Siva Purana 
there are eight : Patala, Tola, Atala, Yitala, Tala, Yidhi-patala, 
Sarkara-bhumi, and Yijaya. The sage JSTarada paid a visit to 
these regions, and on his return to the skies gave a glowing ac- 
count of them, declaring them to be far more delightful than 
Indra's heaven, and abounding with every kind of luxury and 
sensual gratification. 

PATALI-PUTEA. The Palibothra of the Greek writers, and 
described by them as being situated at the confluence of the 
Erranaboas (the Sone river) with the Ganges. It was the capita] 
of the Pandas, and of the Maurya dynasty, founded by Chandra- 
gupta, which succeeded them as rulers of Magadha, The city 
has been identified with the modern Patna ; for although the 
Sone does not now fall into the Ganges there, the modern 
town is smaller in extent than the ancient one, and there is 
good reason for believing that the rivers have changed their 

PATAKTALA. The Yoga philosophy. See Damna. 

PATABTJALI The founder of the Yoga philosophy. (See 
Darsana.) The author of the Maha-bhashya, a celebrated com- 
mentary on the Grammar of Pamni, and a defence of that work 
against the criticisms of Katyayana. He is supposed to have 
written about 200 B.O. Earn Krishna Gopal Bha?wfa,rkar, a late 
inquirer, says, " He probably wrote the third chapter of his 
Bhashya between 144 and 142 B.O." "Weber, however, makes 


his date to b^ 25 A. D. He is also called Gonardlya and Gowika- 
putra, A legend accounting for Ms name represents that he fell 
as a small snake from heaven into the palm of Pamni (pata, 
1 fallen ; ' anjali, l palm '). 

PATH A. ' Reading.' There are three forms, called Paflias, 
in which the Yedic text is read and written: (i.) Sanhita- 
paha, the ordinary form, in which the words coalesce according 
to the rules of Sandhi; (2.) Pada-paha, in which each word 
stands separate and independent; (3.) Krama-pa^ha, in which 
each word is given twice, first joined with the word preceding 
and then with the word following. 

PATTAN A < City.' Several great places have been known 
as Pattan or < the city. 7 Soma-natha was Pattan; Anhalwara 
is still known as Pattan, and there is also Patna. 

PAULOMAS. Kasyapa by his wife Puloma had manj> 
thousand " distinguished Danavas called Paulomas, who were 
powerful, ferocious, and cruel." They were killed by Arjuna. 

PATTJVZJRA., PAtWDRAKA. Belonging to the country of 
Pun^ra. The conch-shell of Bhishma. 

PAILZVDRAKA A pretender who, on the strength of being 
a Yasu-deva, or descendant of one named Yasu-deva, set himself 
up in opposition to Krislma, who was son of Yasu-deva, and 
assumed his style and insignia. He was supported by the king 
of Kasi (Benares), but he was defeated and killed by Knshwa, 
and Benares was burnt. 

PAUBAYAS. Descendants of Puru of the Lunar raca See 

PAYANA. ' Wind.' The god of the wind. See Yayu. 

PHALGUNA. i. A name of Arjuna. 2. Name of a month. 

PLM2ARAKA A watering-place on the coast of Gujarat, 
near Dwaraka, resorted to occasionally by Ivnslma. It still 
survives as a village, and is held in veneration. It is about 
twenty miles from the north-west extremity of the Peninsula, 

PINGALA. i. The great authority on the Chhandas or 
Prosody of the Yedas. He is supposed to have written about 
two centuries B.C. 2. Name of one of the serpent kings some- 
times identified with the foregoing. 

PIPPALADA. A school of the Atharva-veda, founded by a 
sage of that name. 

PLSACHAS (mas!), PLSACHI (fern.). Fiends, evil spirits, 


placed by the Yedas as lower titan Kakshasas. The vilest and 
most malignant order of malevolent beings. Accounts differ as 
to their origin. The Brahma^a and the Maha-bharata say that 
they were created by Brahma, together with the Asuras and 
Kakshasas, from the stray drops of water which fell apart from 
the drops out of which gods, men, gandharvas, &c., had been 
produced. According to Manu they sprang from the Prajapatis. 
In the Pura?ias they are represented as the offspring of Kasyapa 
by his wife Krodhavasa, or Pisacha, or Kapisa. 


PISITAtfANAS, FISTTA/SINS. Carnivorous and cannibal 
imps descended from Nikasha. 

PITA-MAEA. A paternal grandfather. A name of Brahma 
as the great father of all 

PITAMBABA. ' Clothed in yellow garments/ A name of 

PirHA-STHANA. < Seat, 7 or lit. place of a seat/ " Fifty- 
one places where, according to the Tantras, the limbs of Sati 
fell when scattered by her husband /Siva, as he bore her dead 
body about and tore it to pieces after she had put an end to her 
existence at Daksha's sacrifice. This part of the legend seems 
to be an addition to the original fable, made by the Tantras, as 
it is not in the Puramis. (See Daksha.) It bears some analogy 
to the Egyptian fable of Isis and Osiris. At the Pl/ha-sthanas, 
however, of Jwala - mukhi, Vindhya - vasini, Kali - gha, and 
others, temples are erected to the different forms of Devi or 
Sati, not to the phallic emblem of Mahardeva, which, if present, 
is there as an accessory, not as a principal ; and the chief object 
of worship is a figure of the goddess a circumstance in which 
there is an essential difference between the temples of Durga 
and the shrines of Osiris." Wilson. 

PITjR/S. Patres; the fathers; the Manes. This name is 
applied to three different classes of beings : i. The Manes of 
departed forefathers, to whom pindas (balls of rice and flour) 
and water are offered at stated periods. 2. The ten Prajapatis 
or mythical progenitors of the human race. 3. " According to 
a legend in the Hari-vansa and in the Yayu Purawa, the first 
Pitns were the sons of the gods. The gods having offended 
Brahma by neglecting to worship him, were cursed by him to 
become fools ; but, upon their repentance, he directed them to 


apply to their sons for instruction. Being taught accordingly 
the rites of expiation and penance by their sons, they addressed 
them as fathers ; whence the sons of the gods were the first 
Pitns." The account given of the Pitns is much the same in 
all the Puzarcas. " They agree in distinguishing them into seven 
classes, three of which are without form, or composed of intel- 
lectual, not elementary substance, and assuming what forms they 
please ; and four are corporeal When the Purawas come to the 
enumeration of the particular classes, they somewhat differ, and 
the accounts in all the works are singularly imperfect." The 
incorporeal Pitns, according to one enumeration, are the Vaira- 
jas, Agnisliwattas, and Barhishads. The first of these seem also 
to be called Subhaswaras, Somasads, and Saumyas. The cor- 
poreal are the Su-kalas or Su-kalins, Angirasas, Su-swadhas, and 
Somapas. The Sukalas are also called Manasas the Somapas 
are also called Ushmapas ; the Angirasas seem also to be called 
Havishmats, Havirbhujas, and Upahutas ; and the Su-swadhas 
are apparently the same as the Ajyapas and Kavyas or Kavyas. 
The Vairajas are the Manes of great ascetics and anchorites, 
the Agnishwattas are the Pitris of the gods, the Barhishads of 
demons, the Somapas of Brahmans, the Havishmats of Ksha- 
triyas, the Ajyapas of Vaisyas, and the Su-kalins of the $udras ; 
but one authority, the Hari-vansa, makes the Somapas belong 
to the $udras, and the Su-kalins to the Brahmans, and there 
appears to be good reason for this. Other names are given by 
Dr. F. Hall from various authorities (Yishwu Purarca, iii. 339) : 
Basmipas, Phenapas, Sudhavats, Garhapatyas, Ekasringas, Cha- 
turvedas, and Kalas. Besides these there are the Vyamas, 
1 fumes/ the Pitris of the barbarians. The J^g-veda and Manu 
make two independent classes, the Agni-dagdhas and the An- 
agni-dagdhas, those f who when alive kept up (or did not keep 
up) the household flame/ and presented (or did not present) 
oblations with fire. The Vishnu Purawa makes the Barhishads 
identical with the former, and the Agnishwattas with the latter. 
Yama, god of the dead, is king of the Pitns, and Swadha, 
' oblation/ is sometimes said to be their mother, at others their 
wife. Wilson, Fishnu Purdna, iiL 157, 339. See Manu, iii 192 


PIT^J-PATI ' The lord of the Manes.' Yama, judge of 
tire dead. 


PIYADASI See Asoka. 

PEABHASA A place of pilgrimage on the coast of Gujarat, 
near to Dwaraka, and also near to the temple of Soma-natha 

PEABHAVATL Wife of Pradyumna (q.v.). 

PEABODHA-CHAKDEODAYA. l The rise of the moon 
of knowledge. 7 A philosophical drama by Iv/'/sh??a Misra, who 
is supposed to have lived about the twelfth century. Jt has 
been translated into English by Dr. Taylor, and into German 
by Eosenkranz and by HirzeL 

PEACHAJVDA-PAJVDAVA. < The incensed Papayas.' A 
drama in two acts by Eaja $ekhara, the main incident in which 
is the outrage of Draupad! by the assembled Kaurava princes. 

PEACHETAS. i. One of the Prajapatis. 2. An ancient sage 
and lawgiver. 3. The ten Prachetasas were sons of Prachina- 
barhis and great-grandsons of Prithu, and, according to the 
Vishnu Purawa, they passed ten thousand years in the great 
ocean, deep in meditation upon Vishnu, and obtained from him 
the boon of becoming the progenitors of mankind. They took 
to wife Marisha, daughter of Kaw^u, and Daksha was their son. 
See Daksha. 

PEACHYAS. The people of the east; those east of the 
Ganges ; the Prasii of the Greeks. 

PEADHANA. Matter. Primary matter, or nature as opposed 
to spirit. 

PEADYUMNA. A son of Knshna by Eukmiwi. When a 
child only six days old, he was stolen by the demon Sambara 
and thrown into the ocean. There he was swallowed by a fish, 
which was afterwards caught and carried to the house of Sambara. 
When the fish was opened, a beautiful child was discovered, and 
Maya-devi or Maya-vati, the mistress of Sambara's household, 
took him under her care. The sage Narada informed her who 
the child was, and she reared him carefully. When he grew up 
she fell in love with him, and informed him who he was and 
how he had been carried off by $ambara. He defied the demon to 
battle, and after a long conflict slew him. Then he flew through 
the air with Mayavati, and alighted in the inner apartments of his 
father's palace. Krishna presented him to his mother EukmiwI 
" with the virtuous Mayavati his wife," declaring her really to 
be the goddess Eati. Pradyumna also married Kakudmati, the 
daughter of Eukmin, and had by her a son named Aniruddha 


Pradyumna was killed at Dwaraka in the presence of his father 
during a drunken "brawl Though Pradyumna passed as the 
son of Krishna, he was, according to the legend, a revival 01 
resuscitation of Kama, the god of love, who was reduced to ashes 
by the fiery glance of #iva, and so the name Pradyumna is used 
for Kama. (See Kama.) The Yishmi Puraraa puts the follow- 
ing words into the mouth of Narada when he presented Prad- 
yumna to Eukmim : " When Manmatha (the deity of love) had 
perished, the goddess of beauty (Eati), desirous to secure his 
revival, assumed a delusive form, and by her charms fascinated 
the demon $ambara, and exhibited herself to him in various 
illusory enjoyments. This thy son is the descended Kama; 
and this is (the goddess) Eati, his wife. There is no occasion 
for any uncertainty ; this is thy daughter-in-law." In the Hari- 
vansa he has a wife named Prabhavati, daughter of King Yajra- 
nabha, When he went to see her for the first time, he changed 
himself into a bee and lived in a garland of flowers which had 
been prepared for her. According to the Maha-bharata, he was 
Sanat-kumara, the son of Brahma. 

PEADYIIMNA-YIJAYA. 'Pradyumna victorious/ A 
drama in seven acts upon the victory of Pradyumna over the 
Daitya Yajra-nabha, written by $ankara Dlkshita about the 
middle of the last century. " The play is the work of a Pawrfit, 
not of a poet." Wilson. 

PEAG-JYOTISHA. A city situated in the east, in Kania- 
riipa on the borders of Assam. See JN"araka. 

PEAHLADA, PEAHEADA. A Daitya, son of Hira^ya- 
kasipu and father of Bali Hirarcya-kasipu, in his wars with the 
gods, had wrested the sovereignty of heaven from Indra and 
dwelt there in luxury. His son Prahlada, while yet a boy, 
became an ardent devotee of Yish^u, which so enraged his 
father that he ordered the boy to be killed \ but not the weapons 
of the Daityas, the fangs of the serpents, the tusks of the 
celestial elephants, nor the flames of fire took any effect, and his 
father was constrained to send him back to his preceptor, where 
he continued so earnest in performing and promoting the wor- 
ship of Yishmz that he eventually obtained final exemption 
from existence. According to some accounts, it was to avenge 
Prahlada, as well as to vindicate his own insulted majesty, that 
YisltfHi t>ecanie incarnate as the ]ara-sinha * roan-lion,' and slew 


fliranya-kasipu. After the death of his father, Prahlada be- 
came king of the Daityas and dwelt in Patala ; but, according 
to the Padraa Purana, he was raised to the rank of Indra for 
life, and finally united with Vishnu. The Padma Purana 
carries the story farther back to a previous birth. In this pre- 
vious existence Prahlada was a Brahman named Soma-sarman, 
fifth son of Siva-sarman. His four brothers died and ob- 
tained union with Vishnu, and he desired to follow them. 
To accomplish this he engaged in profound meditation, but he 
allowed himself to be disturbed by an alarm of the Daityas, and 
so was born again as one of them. He took the part of his 
race in the war between them and the gods, and was killed by 
the discus of Vishnu, after that he was again born as son of 

PRAJA-PATL 'Lord of creatures/ a progenitor, creator. 
In the Veda the term is applied to Indra, Savitri, Soma, Hir- 
anya-garbha, and other deities. In Mann the term is applied to 
Brahma as the active creator and supporter of the universe so 
Brahma is the Praja-pati. It is also given to Manu Swayam- 
bhuva himself, as the son of Brahma and as the secondary 
creator of the ten JS/shis, or "mind-born sons" of Brahma, from 
whom mankind has descended It is to these ten sages, as 
fathers of the human race, that the name Praja-pati most com- 
monly is given. They are Marlchi, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya^ 
Pulaha, Kratu, Vasishftia, Prachetas or Daksha, Bhrigu, and 
Narada, According to some authorities the Praja-patis are only 
seven in number, being identical with the seven great JZishis. 
(See jRishi.) The number and names of the Praja-patis vary in 
different authorities : the Maha-bharata makes twenty- one. 

PRAKA5AS. Messengers of Vish/m, also called Vish?iu- 

PRAELBITA. The Prakrits are provincial dialects of the 
Sanskrit, exhibiting more or less deterioration from the original 
language ; and they occupy an intermediate position between 
that language and the modern vernaculars of India, very similar 
to that of the Romance languages between the Latin and the 
modern languages of Europe. They resemble the European 
languages also in another respect : they have in them a small 
proportion of words which have not been affiliated on the original 
classical language, and are apparently remnants of a different 


tongue and an older race. The Prakrits are chiefly known from 
the dramas in which kings and Brahmans speak Sanskrit, while 
characters of inferior position speak in different Prakrits. 
Sometimes these Prakrit passages are so very debased that it 
hardly seems possible for them to be specimens of really spoken 
vernaculars. Such passages may perhaps be comic exaggerations 
of provincial peculiarities. The Prakrits have received careful 
study, and the Piulmta-prakasa, a Grammar by Vararuchi, 
translated by Professor Co well, was probably written about the 
beginning of the Christian era. See Katyayaua. 

PEAEJ2ITL Nature ; matter as opposed to spirit. The per- 
sonified will of the Supreme in the creation, and the prototype 
of the female sex, identified with Maya or illusion. The Sakti 
or female energy of any deity. 

PEALAMBA. An Asura killed by Kn'shna, according to 
the Maharbharata. His story as told in the Vishnu Purana is> 
that he was an Asura and a dependant of Kansa, With the 
object of devouring the boys Kn'shna and Bala-rama, he joined 
them and their playmates in jumping. Pralamba was beaten 
by his opponent Bala-rama, and by the rules of the game had 
to carry the victor back on his shoulders to the starting-place, 
He took up Bala-rama and then expanded his form, and was 
making off with his rider when Bala-rama called upon Krishna 
for assistance. Krishna made a long speech, and ended by tell- 
ing him to suspend awhile his mortal character and do what was 
right. Bala-rama laughed, squeezed Pralamba with his knees, 
and beat Mm on the head with his fists till his eyes were knocked 
out and his brain forced through his skull, so that he fell to the 
ground and expired. 

PR ALAYA A dissolution of the world at the end of a kalpa. 

PEAMATHAS, A class of demi-gods or fiends attendant 
upon $iva, 

PEAMLOCHA. A celestial nymph sent by Indra to beguile 
the sage Ka?wu from his devotion and austerities. She lived 
with him for some hundreds of years, which were but as a day to 
the sage. When he awoke from his delusion he drove the nymph 
from his presence. The child with which she was pregnant by 
him came forth from ner body in drops of perspiration, which 
she left upon the leaves of the trees. These drops congealed 
and became eventually the lovely nymph Marisha (q.v.). 


PBAJVA. 'Breath or life.' In the Atharva-yeda it is per- 
sonified and a hymn is addressed to it. 

PBASANNA-BAGHAYA. A drama hy Jaya-deva in seven 
acts. It has been printed at Benares. 

PBASENA. Son of Nighna and brother of Satra-jit or 
Sattrajita. He was killed by a lion. See Syamantaka. 

PBANA. Name of an Upanishad (q.v.). 

PBASUTL A daughter of Mann and wife of Daksha. 

PBATABDANA. Son of Divodasa, king of KasL The 
whole family of Divodasa was slain by a king named Yita-havya. 
The afflicted monarch through a sacrifice performed by Bhngu 
obtained a son, Pratardana, who became a mighty warrior, and 
avenged the family wrongs upon his father's foe. Yita-havya 
then flew to the sage Bhn'gu for protection, and was by him 
raised to the dignity of a Brahmarshi. 

PBATLSAKHYAS. Treatises on the phonetic laws of the 
language of the Yedas, dealing with the euphonic combination 
of letters and the peculiarities of their pronunciation as they 
prevailed in the different $akhas or Yedic schools. These 
treatises are very ancient, but they are considerably later than 
the hymns, for the idiom of the hymns must have become 
obscure and obsolete before these treatises were necessary. Pour 
such treatises are known : 

Rig-veda. One which is considered to belong to the Sakhala- 
saklia of this Yeda, and is ascribed to $aunaka. It has been 
edited and translated into German by Max Muller, and into 
Trench by M, Eegnier. 

Yajur-veda. Taittiriya-pralisakhya, belonging to the Black 
Yajur, printed in the BiUiotheca, Indica and also in the Journal 
of the American Oriental Society, with a translation by Professor 

Fdjasaneyt-pratisakhya. Belonging to the White Yajur. It 
is attributed to Katyayana, and has been edited and translated 
by Weber. 

Atharvarveda. The$aunaluyaChaturadhyayika, i.&, ^aunaka's 
treatise in four chapters. Edited and translated into English 
by WMtney. 

"No Pratisakhya of the Sama-veda has been discovered. 

PEATI-SHTHANA. An ancient city, the capital of 1ihe 
early kings of the Lunar race ; " it was situated on the eastern 



side of the confluence of the Ganges and Jumna," opposite to 
the modern Allahabad. The capital of Salivahana on the Goda- 
vari, supposed to "be the same as " Pattan " or " Pyetan." 

PEATJDHA-BElHMA^A. One of the eight Brahmanas of 
the Sama-veda. It contains twenty-five sections, and is there- 
fore also called Pancha-vinsa. 

PRAYAGA. The modern Allahabad. The place where the 
Ganges, Jumna, and the fabled subterranean SaraswatI unite, 
called also Tri-venl, 'the triple braid' It has always been a 
celebrated place of pilgrimage. 

PRETA. A ghost ; an evil spirit animating a dead carcase, 
and haunting cemeteries and other places. 

PjRISHAI)HRA. A son of Manu Yaivaswata, who, accord- 
ing to the Hari-vansa and the Puranas, became a $udra because 
he killed the cow of his religious preceptor. 

P.RZSHATA. Drupada's father. 

P jBJ/STSTL In the Vedas and Pura?zas, the earth, the mother 
of the Maruts. The name is used in the Yedas also for a cow. 
There were several females of this name, and one of them is 
said to have been a new birth of Devaki. 

PRITHA. A name of KuntL 

P^ITHI, P5/THU, P^/THI - YAIJVYA. Pnthl or 
Pn'thl-vamya, i.e., Prithi, son of Ye?ia, is mentioned in the 
JJig-veda, and he is the declared JJishi or author of one of the 
hymns. The Atharva-veda says, " She (Yiraj) ascended : she 
came to men. Men called her to them, saying, * Come, Iravati.' 
Manu Yaivaswata was her calf, and the earth her vessel. Pnthl- 
vairaya milked her; he milked from her agriculture and grain. 
Men subsist on agriculture and grain." The $atapatha Brahmiwa 
/efers to Pnthl as " first of men who was installed as a king." 
These early allusions receive a consistent form in the Purar^as, and 
we have the following legend : Pnthl was son of Yerca, son of 
Anga. He was called the first king, and from "him the earth 
received her name Pnthivl The Yislwu Purawa says that the 
jRishis "inaugurated Yena monarch of the earth," but he was 
wicked by nature and prohibited worship and sacrifice. Incensed 
at the decay of religion, pious sages beat Yerca to death with blades 
of holy grass. In the absence of a king robbery and anarchy arose, 
and the Munis, after consultation, proceeded to rub the thigh 
of the dead king in order to produce a son. There came forth 


" a man like a charred log, with flat face and extremely short." 
This man became a Nishada, and with him came out the sins of 
the departed king. The Brahmans then rubbed the right arm 
of the corpse, "and from it sprang the majestic Pnthu, Vena's 
son, resplendent in body, glowing like the manifested Agni . . . 
At his birth all creatures rejoiced, and through the birth of this 
virtuous son Vena, delivered from the hell called Put, ascended 
to heaven." Pnthu then became invested with universal 
dominion. His subjects, who had suffered from famine, be- 
sought him for the edible plants which the earth withheld. 
In anger he seized his bow to compel her to yield the usual 
supply. She assumed the form of a cow and fled before him. 
Unable to escape, she implored him to spare her, and promised 
to restore all the needed fruits if a calf were given to her, through 
which she might be able to secrete milk. " He therefore, hav- 
ing made Swayam-bhuva Manu the calf, milked the earth, and 
received the milk into his own hand for the benefit of mankind. 
Thence proceeded all kinds of corn and vegetables upon which 
people subsist now and perpetually. By granting life to the 
earth Prithu was as her father, and she thence derived the 
patronymic appellation PnthivL" This milking the earth has 
been made the subject of much allegory and symbolism. The 
Matsya Pura?ia specifies a variety of milkers, gods, men, Nagas, 
Asuras, &c., in the follow style : " The Rishis milked the 
earth through Brihaspati ; their calf was Soma, the Vedas were 
the vessel, and the milk was devotion." Other Purawas agree with 
only slight deviations. " These mystifications," says "Wilson, "are 
all, probably, subsequent modifications of the original simple alle- 
gory which typified the earth as a cow, who yielded to every class 
of beings the milk they desired, or the object of their wishes." 

PJSJTHIVL The broad/ The earth or wide world. In 
the Yedas the earth is personified as the mother of all beings, and 
is invoked together with the sky. According to the Yedas there 
are three earths corresponding to the three heavens, and our 
earth is called Bhumi Another name of the earth is TJryi, * wide.' 
In theYish?iu Purawa she is represented as receiving her name 
from a mythical person named Prithu, who granted her life, 
and so was to her as a father. See above, PnthI or Pnthu. 

PjRJTHTI A king of the Solar race, a descendant of Iksh* 
waku, There are many Pnthus. See Pnthi 



PEITAM-VADA. A Vidya-dhara, son of the king of the 

PBIYA-VBATA. One of the two sons of Brahma and 
$ata-rupa; or, according to other statements, a son of Manu 
Swayam-bhuva. " Priya-vrata being dissatisfied that only half 
the earth was illuminated at one time by the solar rays, followed 
the sun seven times round the earth in his own flaming car of 
equal velocity, like another celestial orb, resolved to turn night 
into day." He was stopped by Brahma. " The ruts which 
were formed by the motion of his chariot wheels were the seven 
oceans. In this way the seven continents of the earth were 
made." Bhagavata Pur ana. In the Vishmi Puram his wife is 
stated to be Kamya, daughter of Kardama, by whom he had 
ten sons and two daughters. Three of the sons adopted a re- 
ligious life, and Priya-vrata divided the seven continents 
among the others. 

PULAHA. Name of one of the Praja-patis and great JZishis. 
His wife was Ivshama, and he had three sons, Kardama, Arva- 
rivat, and Sahislmu, A Gandharva (q.v.). 

PULASTYA. One of the Praja-patis or mind-born sons of 
Brahma, and one of the great jf&shis. He was the medium 
through which some of the Pura^as were communicated to man. 
He received the Vislmu Purawa from Brahma and communi- 
cated it to Parasara, who made it known to mankind. He was 
father of Visravas, the father of Kuvera and Bavana, and all 
the Bakshasas are supposed to have sprung from him. 

PULIKDAS. Barbarians ; barbarous tribes living in woods 
and mountains, especially in Central India ; but there were 
some in the north and on the Indus. 

PULOMAN. A Danava and father of /Sachs, wife of Indra. 
He was killed by Indra when he wished to curse that deity for 
having ravished his daughter. 

PUJraABIKAKSHA. 'The lotus-eyed;' a name of ViahwtL 

PUJV7XRA. A country corresponding "to Bengal proper, 
with part of South Bihar and the Jungle Mahals." A fabulous 
city between the Hima-vat and Hema-kuita. 

PUNY A - SLOK A (mas. ), P WYA - #LOK A (fern. ). 
'Hymned in holy versa' An appellation applied to Knshrai, 
Yudhi-shiihira, and Nala, also to Draupadi and Sita, 

PURANA. 245 

PTJEAJVA. * Old/ hence an ancient legend or tale of olden 
times. The Puraftas succeed the Itihasas or epic poems, but 
at a considerable distance of time, and must be distinguished 
from them. The epics treat of the legendary actions of heroes 
as mortal men, the Puranas celebrate the powers and works of 
positive gods, and represent a later and more extravagant deve- 
lopment of Hinduism, of which they are in fact the Scriptures. 
The definition of a Puram by Amara Sinha, an ancient Sanskrit 
lexicographer, is a work " which has five distinguishing topics : 
(i.) The creation of the universe ; (2.) Its destruction and reno- 
vation; (3.) The genealogy of gods and patriarchs; (4.) The reigns 
of the Manns, forming the periods called Manwantaras. (5.) 
The history of the Solar and Lunar races of kings." These are 
the Pancha-lakshanas or distinguishing marks, but no one of the 
Puraraas answers exactly to the description ; some show a partia] 
conformity with it, others depart from it very widely. The 
Vishmi Purarca is the one which best accords with the title. 
Wilson says, " A very great portion of the contents of many is 
genuine and old. The seotarial interpolation or embellishment 
is always sufficiently palpable to be set aside without injury to 
the more authentic and primitive material; and the PuraT&as, 
although they belong especially to that stage of the Hindu reli- 
gion in which faith in some one divinity was the prevailing 
principle, are also a valuable record of the form of Hindu belief 
which came next in order to that of the Vedas, which grafted 
hero-worship upon the simpler ritual of the latter, and which had 
"been adopted, and was extensively, perhaps universally, estab- 
lished in India at the time of the Greek invasion." According 
to the same authority, Pantheism "is one of their invariable 
characteristics," and underlies their whole teaching, " although 
the particular divinity who is all things, from whom all things 
proceed, and to whom all things return, is diversified according 
to their individual sectarian bias." The Pura^as are all written 
in verse, and their invariable form is that of a dialogue between 
an exponent and an inquirer, interspersed with the dialogues and 
observations of other individuals. Thus Pulastya received the 
Vishrau Purawa from Brahma ; he made it known to Parasara, 
and Parasara narrated it to his disciple Maitreya. The Puriimas 
are eighteen in number, and in addition to these there are 
eighteen Upa Purawas or subordinate works. The Pwawas are 

246 PURANA. 

classified in three categories, according to the prevalence in them 
of the qualities of purity, gloom, and passion. Those in which 
the quality of Sattwa or purity prevail are (i.) Vislmu, (2.) 
Naradiya, (3.) Bhagavata, (4.) Garu^a, (5.) Padma, (6.) Varaha. 
These are Vaishnava Purarcas, in which the god Vishnu holds 
the pre-eminence. The Puranas in which Tamas, the quality of 
gloom or ignorance, predominates are (i.) Matsya, (2.) Kurma, 
(3.) Linga, (4.) Siva, (5.) Skanda, (6.) Agni. These are devoted 
to the god $iva. Those in which Rajas or passion prevails 
relate chiefly to the god Brahma. They are (i.) Brahma, (2.) 
Brahmanda, (3.) Brahma-vaivarta, (4.) MarkaraZeya, (5.) Bhavi- 
shya, (6.) Vamana. The works themselves do not fully justify 
this classification. None of them are devoted exclusively to one 
god, but Vishnu and his incarnations fill the largest space. One 
called the Yayu Purana is in some of the Puranas substituted 
for the Agni, and in others for the /Siva. This Vayu is appa- 
rently the oldest of them, and may date as far back as the sixth 
century, and it is considered that some of the others may be as 
late as the thirteenth or even the sixteenth century. One fact 
appears certain : they must all have received a supplementary 
revision, because each one of them enumerates the whole 
eighteen. The Markandeya is the least sectarian of the Pur- 
anas ; and the Bhagavata, which deals at length with the incar- 
nations of Vishnu, and particularly with his form Krishna, is the 
most popular. The most perfect and the best known is the 
Vishnu, which has been entirely translated into English by 
Professor Wilson, and a second edition, with many valuable 
notes, has been edited by Dr. F. E. Hall The text of the Agni 
and Markan&ya Puranas is in course of publication in the 
Billiotheca Indica. The Puranas vary greatly in length. Some 
of them specify the number of couplets that each of the eighteen 
contains. According to the Bhagavata, the sum total of couplets 
in the whole eighteen is 400,000 ; the Skanda is the longest, 
with 81,000, the Brahma and the Vamana the shortest, with 
10,000 couplets each. 

The Upa Puranas are named (i.) Sanat-kumara, (2.) Nara-sinha 
or Nn'-sinha, (3.) Naradiya or Vrzhan (old) Naradlya, (4.) $iva, 
(5. ) Dur-vasasa, (6. ) Kapila, ( 7. ) Manava, (8. ) Ausanasa, ( 9. ) Varuna, 
(10.) Kalika> (n.) /Samba, (12.) Nandi, (13.) Saura, (14.) Parir 
jara, (15.) Aditya, (16.) Maheswara, (17.) Bhagavata, (18.) 


Vasishtfha, These works are not common, Other modern 
works exist to which the term Parana has been applied. 

An account of each of the eighteen great Puranas is given 
under its own name. 

PUEAN-JAYA. ' City-conqueror.' A prince of the Solar 
race, son of Vikukshi, His story, as told in the Vishnu Puram, 
is that in the Treta age there was war between the gods and 
the Asuras, in which the former were worsted. They had re- 
course to Vishnu for assistance, and he directed them to obtain 
the aid of Puran-jaya, into whose person he promised to infuse 
a portion of himself. The prince complied with their wishes, 
and asked that their chief, Indra, would assume the form of a 
bull and carry him, the prince, upon his hump. This was done, 
and thus seated Puran-jaya destroyed all the enemies of the 
gods. As he rode on the hump he obtained the cognomen of 
Kakut-stha. In explanation of his title Puran-jaya, the Bha- 
gavata Purana says that he took the city of the Daityas situated 
in the west. 

PUEOCHANA- The emissary of Dur-yodhana who at- 
tempted to burn the Pan<avas in their house and was burnt in 
his own house by Bhlma. See Maha-bharata. 

PUEU. The sixth king of the Lunar race, youngest son 
of Yayati and SarmishftiiL He and his brother Yadu were 
founders of two great branches of the Lunar race. The descen- 
dants of Pum were called Pauravas, and of this race came the 
Kauravas and Panrfavas. Among the Yadavas or descendants of 
Yadu was Krishna. See Yayati. 

PTJETJKTJTSA. A son of Mandhatn, into whose person 
Vishnu entered for the purpose of destroying the subterranean 
Gandharvas, called Mauneyas. He reigned on the banks of the 
Narmada, and that river personified as one of the Kagas was his 
wife. By her he had a son, Trasadasyu. The Vishnu Purina 
is said to have been narrated to him by " Daksha and other 
venerable sages/' 

PUEtJ-EAVAS. In the Vedas, a mythical personage con- 
nected with the sun and the dawn, and existing in the middle 
region of the universe. According to the J?ig-veda he was son 
of Ha, and a beneficent pious prince; but thti Maha-bharata 
eays, "We have heard that Ha was boiih his mother and his 
father. The parentage usually assigned to him is that lie was 


son of Budha by Ha, daughter of Mann, and grandson of the 
moon." Through his mother he received the city of Pratish/hana. 
(See Ha.) He is the hero of the story and of the drama of 
Yikrama and Urvasi, or the " Hero and the Nymph." Puru-ravas 
is the Yikrama or hero, and Urvasl is an Apsaras who came 
down from Swarga through having incurred the imprecation of 
Mitra and Varuwa. On earth Puru-ravas and she became ena- 
moured of each other, and she agreed to live with him upon 
certain conditions. " I have two rams," said the nymph, 
" which I love as children. They must be kept near my bed- 
side, and never suffered to be carried away. You must also 
take care never to be seen by me undressed ; and clarified butter 
alone must be my food." The inhabitants of Swarga were 
anxious for the return of Urvasi, and knowing the compact 
made with Puru-ravas, the Gandharvas came by night and stole 
her rams. Puru-ravas was undressed, and so at first refrained 
from pursuing the robbers, but the cries of Urvasi impelled him 
to seize his sword and rush after them. The Gandharvas then 
brought a vivid flash of lightning to the chamber which dis- 
played the person of Puru-ravas. So the charm was broken and 
Urvasi disappeared Puru-ravas wandered about demented in 
search of her, and at length found her at Kuru-kshetra bathing 
with four other nymphs of heaven. She declared herself preg- 
nant, and told him to come there again at the end of a year, 
when she would deliver to him a son and remain with him for 
one night. Puru-ravas, thus comforted, returned to his capital 
At the end of the year he went to the trysting-place and received 
from Urvasl his eldest son, Ayus. The annual interviews were 
repeated until she had borne him five more sons. (Some autho- 
rities increase the number to eight, and there is considerable 
variety in their names.) She then told him that the Gandharvas 
had determined to grant him any boon he might desire. His 
desire was to pass his life with UrvasL The Gandharvas then 
brought him a vessel with fire and said, " Take this fire, and, 
according to the precepts of the Yedas, divide it into three fires ; 
then, fixing your mind upon the idea of living with Urvasi, offer 
oblations, and you shall assuredly obtain your wishes." He did 
not immediately obey this command, but eventually he fulfilled 
it in an emblematic way, and " obtained a seat in the sphere of 
the Gandharvas, and was no more separated from his love." As 


a son of Ha, his metronymic is Aila. There is a hymn in the 
jRzg-veda which contains an obscure conversation between Puru- 
ravas and UrvasL The above story is first told in the $atapatha 
Brahmana, and afterwards reappears in the Puranas. The 
Bhagavata Purafta says, "From Puru-ravas came the triple 
Yeda in the beginning of the Treta (age)." 

The story is supposed to have a mythic origin. Mas Muller 
considers it " one of the myths of the Yedas which expresses 
the correlation of the dawn and the sun. The love between the 
mortal and the immortal, and the identity of the morning dawn 
and the evening twilight, is the story of Urvasi and Puru-ravas." 
The word Urvasi, according to the same writer, " was originally 
an appellation, and meant dawn." Dr. Goldstticker's explanation 
differs, but seems more apposite. According to this, Puru-ravas 
is the sun and Urvasi is the morning mist ; when Puru-ravas is 
visible Urvasi vanishes, as the mist is absorbed when the sun 
shines forth. Urvasi in the story is an Apsaras, and the Apsa- 
rases are " personifications of the vapours which are attracted 
by the sun and form into mists or clouds." 

PUEUSHA. ' Man.' i. The original eternal man, the Sup- 
reme Being, and soul of the universe. 2. A name of Brahma. 

PUEUSHA-NARAYAJVA. The original male. The divine 
creator Brahma, 

PUEUSHA-SUKTA. A hymn of the J&g-veda in which 
the four castes are first mentioned. It is considered to be one 
of the latest in date. See Muir's Texts, i. p. 7. 

PUEUSHOTTAMA, Literally ' best of men ;' but the word 
Purusha is here used in its mythic sense of soul of the universe, 
and so the compound means the " supreme soul" It is a title 
of Vishnu, and asserts his right to be considered the Supreme 
God. So the Hari-vansa says, " Purushottama is whatever is 
declared to be the highest, Purusha the sacrifice, and everything 
else which is known by the name of Purusha." 

PUEUSHOTTAMA -KSHETEA. The sacred territory 
round about the temple of Jagannatha in Orissa. 

PtJEVA-MIMANSA. A school of philosophy. See Dar&ma. 

PUSHAK A deity frequently mentioned in the Yedas, but 
he is not of a distinctly defined character. Many hymns are 
addressed to him. The word comes from the root push, and 
the primary idea is that of " nourisher " or Providence, So the 


Taittiriya Brahmana says, "When Prajapati formed living 
creatures Pushan nourished them/' The account given in Bb'h- 
tlingk and Eoth's Dictionary, and adopted by Dr. Muir, is as 
follows : " Piishan is a protector and multiplier of cattle and 
of human possessions in general As a cowherd he carries an 
ox-goad, and he is drawn by goats. In the character of a Solar 
deity, he beholds the entire universe, and is a guide on roads 
and journeys and to the other world He is called the lover of 
his sister SuryjL He aids in the revolution of day and night, 
and shares with Soma the guardianship of living creatures. He 
is invoked along with the most various deities, but most fre- 
quently with Indra and Bhaga" He is a patron of conjurors, 
especially of those who discover stolen goods, and he is connected 
with the marriage ceremonial, being besought to take the bride's 
hand and bless her. (See Muir^s Texts, v. 171.) In the 
JNIrukta, and in works of later date, Pushan is identified 
with the sun. He is also called the brother of Indra, and is 
enumerated among the twelve Adityas. Pushan is toothless, 
and feeds upon a kind of gruel, and the cooked oblations offered 
to him are of ground materials, hence he is called Karambhad 
The cause of his being toothless is variously explained Accord- 
ing to the Taittiriya Sanhita, the deity Eudra, being excluded 
from a certain sacrifice, shot an arrow at the offering and pierced 
it. A portion of this sacrifice was presented to Pushan, and it 
broke his teeth. In the Maha-bharata and in the Puranas the 
legend takes a more definite shape. "Eudra ($iva), of dreadful 
power, ran up to the gods present at Daksha's sacrifice, and in 
his rage knocked out the eyes of Bhaga with a blow, and, in- 
censed, assaulted Pushan with his foot, and knocked out his 
teeth as he was eating the purofea offering." In the Puramis 
it is not 5iva himself, but his manifestation the Eudras, who 
disturbed the sacrifice of the gods and knocked Pushan's teeth 
down his throat. Pushan is called Aghnm, splendid ; ' Basra, 
Dasma, and Dasma-varchas, ' of wonderful appearance or power/ 
and Kapardin (q.v.)- 

PUSHKAEA. A blue lotus A celebrated tank about five 
miles from Ajmir. One of the seven Dwipas, (See Dwipa.) 
The name of several persons. Of the brother of Nala to whom 
JSTala lost his kingdom and all that he possessed in gambling. 
Of a son of Bharata and nephew of Eama-chandra, who reigned 
over the GandBaras. 


PUSHKARAYATL A city of the Gandharas not far from 
the Indus. It is the ny**Xawr/ of Ptolemy, and the Pouse- 
kielofati of Hiouen Thsang. 

PUSHPA-DANTA. ' Flower-teeth/ i. One of the chief 
attendants of Siva. He incurred his master's displeasure by 
listening to his private conversation with Parvati and talking of 
it afterwards. For this he was condemned to become a man, 
and so appeared in the form of the great grammarian Katyayana. 
2. One of the guardian elephants. See Loka-pala. 

PUS HP AK A. A self-moving aerial car of large dimensions, 
which contained within it a palace or city. Kuvera obtained it 
by gift from Brahma, but it was carried off by Ravawa, his 
half-brother, and constantly used by him. After Rama-chandra 
had slain Rava^a, he made use of this capacious car to convey 
himself and Sita, with Lakshmaraa and all his allies, back to 
Ayodhya ; after that he returned it to its owner, Tvuvera. It is 
also called Ratna-varshuka, "that rains jewels." 

PUSHPA-KARANZ)mL A name of UjjayinL 

PUSHPA-MITRA. The first of the Sunga kings, who suc- 
ceeded the Mauryas, and reigned at Patfali-putra. In his time 
the grammarian Patanjali is supposed to have lived. 

PUSHPOTKATA. A Rakshasi, the wife of Yisravas and 
mother of Ravarai and Kumbha-karna, 

PUT. A hell to which childless men are said to be condemned. 
" A name invented to explain the word puttra, son (hell-saver)/ 

PUTANA. A female demon, daughter of Bali. She attempted 
to kill the infant Knshwa by suckling him, but was herself 
sucked to death by the child. 

, RADHA. i. Wife of Adhiratha and foster-mother of Kama. 
2. The favourite mistress and consort of Krishna while ho lived 
as Go-pala among the cowherds in Vnnda-vana. She was wife 
of Ayana-ghosha, a cowherd. Considered by some to be an in- 
carnation of Lakshmi, and worshipped accordingly. Some have 
discovered a mystical character in Radha, and consider her as 
the type of the human soul drawn to the ineffable god, Knshtta, 
or as that pure divine love to which the fickle lover returns. 

RADHEYA- A metronymic of Kama. 

RADHIKJL A diminutive and endearing form of the name 

RAGA (mas.), RAGINl (fern.). The Ragas are the musical 


modes or melodies personified, six or more in number, and the 
Raginis are their consorta 

RAG-HAY A. Descendant of Raghu, a name of Rama. 

RAGHAYA-PAJVDAYIYA. A modern poem by Kavi 
Raja, which is in high repute. It is an artificial work, which 
exhibits extraordinary ingenuity in the employment of words. 
As its name implies, the poem celebrates the actions of Raghava, 
i.e., Rama, the descendant of Raghu, and also those of the PaTwZ- 
ava princes. It thus recounts at once in the same words the story 
of the Ramayarca and that of the Maha-bharata ; and the com- 
position is so managed that the words may be understood as 
applying either to Rama or the Parccfavas. It has been printed, 

RAGHAYA-YILASA. A poem on the life of Rama by 
Yiswa-natha, the author of the Sahitya-darpaTia. 

RAGHU. A king of the Solar race. According to the 
Raghu-Yansa, he was the son of Dilipa and great-grandfather of 
Rama, who from Raghu got the patronymic Raghava and the 
title Raghu-pati, chief of the race of Raghu. The authorities 
disagree as to the genealogy of Raghu, but all admit him to be 
an ancestor of Rama, 

RAGHU-PATI See Raghu. 

RAGHU-YANSA. c The race of Raghu/ The name of a 
-celebrated poem in nineteen cantos by Kali-dasa on the ancestry 
and life of Rama, It has been translated into Latin by Stenzler, 
and into English by Griffiths. There are other translations and 
many editions of the text. 

RAHU. Rahu and Ketu are in astronomy the ascending and 
descending nodes. Rahu is the cause of eclipses, and the term 
is used to designate the eclipse itself. He is also considered 
as one of the planets, as king of meteors, and as guardian of the 
south-west quarter. Mythologially Rahu is a Daitya who is 
supposed to seize the sun and moon and swallow them, thus 
obscuring their rays and causing eclipses. He was son of Yipra- 
chitti and Sinhika, and is called by his metronymic Sainhikeya. 
He had four arms, and his lower part ended in a tail He was 
a great mischief-maker, and when the gods had produced the 
Anmta by churning the ocean, he assumed a disguise, and in- 
sinuating himself amongst them, drank some of it The sun 
and moon detected him and informed Yishttu, who cut off his 
head and two of his arms, but, as he had secured immortality, 


his body was placed in the stellar sphere, the upper parts, re- 
presented "by a dragon's head, being the ascending node, and the 
lower parts, represented by a dragon's tail, being Ketn the de- 
scending node. Rahu wreaks his vengeance on the sun and 
moon by occasionally swallowing them. The Yishnu Purafra 
says, " Eight black horses draw the dusky chariot of Rahu, and 
once harnessed are attached to it for ever. On the Par vans 
(nodes, or lunar and solar eclipses) Rahu directs his course from 
the sun to the moon, and back again from the moon to the sun, 
The eight horses of the chariot of Ketu, swift as the wind, are 
of the dusky red colour of lac, or of the smoke of burning 
straw." Rahu is called Abhra-pisacha, l the demon of the sky ; ' 
Bhara?ii-bhu, 'born from the asterism Bharam;' Graha, 'the 
seizer;' Kabandha, 'the headless.' 

RAIBHYA, A sage who was the friend of Bharadwaja. 
He had two sons, Arvavasu and Paravasu. The latter, under 
the curse of Bharadwaja, killed his father, mistaking him for an 
antelope, as he was walking about at night covered with an 
antelope's skin, Arvavasu retired into the forest to obtain by 
devotion a remission of his brother's guilt "When he returned, 
Paravasu charged him with the crime, and he again retired to 
his devotions. These so pleased the gods that they drove away 
Paravasu and restored Raibhya to life. See Yava-krlta, 

RAIYATA. i. Son of Reva or Revata, Also called Kakud- 
min. He had a very lovely daughter named Revati, and not deem- 
ing any mortal worthy of her, he went to Brahma to consult 
him. At the command of that god he bestowed her upon Bala- 
rama. He was king of Anarta, and built the city of Kusasthall 
or Dwaraka in Gujarat, which he made his capital 2. One of 
the Manus (the fifth). 

RAJYATA, RAIYATAKA, The range that branches off 
from the western portion of the Yindhya towards the north, 
extending nearly to the Jumna, 

RAJA-GJSjfHA. The capital of Magadha, Its site is stall 
traceable in the hills between Patna and Gaya. 

RAJ ANY A. A Yedic designation of the Kshatriya caste. 

RAJARSHI (Raja-nshi). A JMshi or saint of the regal 
caste ; a Eshatriya who, through pure and holy life on earth, 
has been raised as a saint or demigod to India's heaven, aa 
Yiswa-mitra, Puru-ravas, &<x 


EAJA SEKHAEA. A dramatist who was the author of the 
dramas Yiddha-Salabhanjika and Prachanda-Pa^ava. He was 
also the writer of Karpura-Manjari, a drama entirely in Prakrit. 
Another play, Bala-Eamayafta, is attributed to him. He appears 
to have been the minister of some Rajput, and to have lived 
about the beginning of the twelfth century. 

EAJA-SUYA 'A royal sacrifice/ A great sacrifice per- 
formed at the installation of a king, religious in its nature but 
political in its operation, because it implied that he who in- 
stituted the sacrifice was a supreme lord, a king over kings, and 
hivS tributary princes were required to be present at the rite. 

EAJA-TAEANGLZVL A Sanskrit metrical history of Kash- 
mir by Kalhana Pawiit. It commences with the days of fable 
and comes down to the year 1027 A.D. The author probably 
lived about 1148 A.D. This is the only known work in Sans- 
krit which deserves the name of a history. The text has been 
printed in Calcutta. Troyer published the text with a French 
translation. Wilson and Lassen have analysed it, and Dr. 
Blihler has lately reviewed the work in the Indian Antiquary. 

EAJL A son of Ayus and father of 500 sons of great 
valour. In one of the chronic wars between the gods and the 
Asuras it was declared by Brahma that the victory should be 
gained by that side which Eaji joined. The Asuras first sought 
Mm, and he undertook to aid them if they promised to make 
him their king on their victory being secured They declined. 
The heavenly hosts repaired to him and undertook to make 
him their Indra, After the Asuras were defeated he became 
king of the gods, and Indra paid him homage. When he re- 
turned to his own city, he left Indra as his deputy in heaven. 
On Kaji's death Indra refused to acknowledge the succession of 
his sons, and by the help of Brihaspati, who led them astray 
and effected their ruin, Indra recovered his sovereignty. 

EAKA. A Eakshasi, wife of Visravas and mother of Khara 
and Surpa-nakha. 

EAKSHASAS. Goblins or evil spirits. They are not all 
equally bad, but have been classified as of three sorts one as a set 
of beings like the Yakshas, another as a sort of Titans or enemies 
of the gods, and lastly, in the common acceptation of the term, 
demons and fiends who haunt cemeteries, disturb sacrifices, 
harass devout men, animate dead bodies, devour human beings, 


and vex and afflict mankind in all sorts of ways. These last 
are the Eakshasas of whom Eavana was chief, and according to 
some authorities, they are descended, like Eava^a himself, from 
the sage Pulastya. According to other authorities, they sprang 
from Brahma's foot. The Vislmu Purawa also makes them de- 
scendants of Kasyapa and Kha6a, a daughter of Daksha, through 
their son Eakshas ; and the Eamaya?fca states that when Brahma 
created the waters, he formed certain beings to guard them who 
were called Eakshasas (from the root raksh, to guard, but the 
derivation from this root may have suggested the explanation), 
and the Vishfiu Purawa gives a somewhat similar derivation. 
It is thought that the Eakshasas of the epic poems were the 
rude barbarian races of India who were subdued by the Aryans. 

When Hanuman entered the city of Lanka to reconnoitre 
in the form of a cat, he saw that " the Eakshasas sleeping in 
the houses were of every shape and form. Some of them dis- 
gusted the eye, while some were beautiful to look upon. Some 
had long arms and frightful shapes ; some were very fat and 
some were very lean : some were mere dwarfs and some were 
prodigiously tall Some had only one eye and others only one 
ear. Some had monstrous bellies, hanging breasts, long pro- 
jecting teeth, and crooked thighs ; whilst others were exceedingly 
beautiful to behold and clothed in great splendour. Some had 
two legs, some three legs, and some four legs. Some had the 
heads of serpents, some the heads of donkeys, some the heads of 
horses, and some the heads of elephants," (Bdmdyana.) 

The Eakshasas have a great many epithets descriptive of their 
characters and actions. They are called Anusaras, Asaras, and 
Hanushas, i killers or hurters ;' Ishft-pachas, * stealers of offer- 
ings ;' Sandhya-balas, c strong in twilight ; J Kshapatas, Naktan- 
charas, Eatri-charas, and Samani-shadas, ( night-walkers ;' Nn- 
jagdhas or Nri-chakshas, cannibals;' Palalas, Paladas, Palan- 
kashas, Kravyads, ' carnivorous;' Asra-pas, Asnk-pas, Kauna- 
pas, Kilala-pas, and Eakta-pas, i blood-drinkers ;' Dandasukas, 
'biters;' Praghasas, 'gluttons;' Malina-mukhas, 'black-faced;' 
Karburas, &c. But many of these epithets are not reserved 
exclusively for Eakshasas. 


EAKTA-YIJA. An Asura whose combat with the goddess 
(Devi) is celebrated in the Devi-maliatrnya. EacL 

256 RAMA. 

drop of Ms "blood as it fell on the ground produced a new Asura, 
but Chamuwda put an end to this by drinking his blood and 
devouring his flesh. 

RAMA. There are three Ramas : Parasu-rama, Rama-chan- 
dra, and Bala-rama ; but it is to the second of these that the 
name is specially applied. 

RAMA, RAMA-CHANDRA. Eldest son of Dasa-ratha, a 
king of the Solar race, reigning at Ayodhya. This Rama is the 
seventh incarnation of the god Vishnu, and made his appearance 
in the world at the end of the Treta or second age. His story 
is briefly told in the Yana Parva of the Maha-bharata, but it is 
given in full length as the grand subject of the Ramayawa. 
King Dasa-ratha was childless, and performed the aswa-medha 
sacrifice with scrupulous care, in the hope of obtaining offspring, 
His devotion was accepted by the gods, and he received the pro- 
mise of four sons. At this time the gods were in great terror 
and alarm at the deeds and menaces of Rava?ia, the Rakshasa 
king of Lanka, who had obtained extraordinary power, in virtue 
of severe penances and austere devotion to Brahma. In their 
terror the gods appealed to Vishmi for deliverance, and he 
resolved to become manifest in the world with Dasa-ratha as 
his human father , Dasa-ratha was performing a sacrifice when 
Yishmi appeared to him as a glorious being from out of the 
sacrificial fire, and gave to him a pot of nectar for his wives to 
drink. Da-sa-ratha gave half of the nectar to Kausalya, who 
brought forth Rama with a half of the divine essence, a quarter 
to Kaikeyl, whose son Bharata was endowed with a quarter of 
the deity, and the fourth part to Su-mitra, who brought forth 
two sons, Lakshmana and $atru-ghna, each having an eighth 
part of the divine essence. The brothers were all attached to 
each other, but Lakshma??a was more especially devoted to 
Rama and A$atru-ghna to Bharata 

[The two sons of Su-mitra and the pairing off of the brothers 
have not passed without notice. The version of the Ramayana 
given by Mr. Wheeler endeavours to account for these circum- 
stances. It says that Dasa-ratha divided the divine nectar be- 
tween his senior wives, Kausalya and Kaikeyl, and that when 
the younger, Su-mitra, asked for some, Dasa-ratha desired them 
to share their portions with her. Each gave her half, so Sumitra 
received two quarters and gave birth to two sons: "from the 

RAMA. 257 

quarter which she received from Kausalya she gave birth to 
Lakshmana, who "became the ever-faithful friend of Rama, and 
from the quarter she received from Kaikeyi she gave birth to 
$atru-ghna, who became the ever-faithful friend of Bharata." 
This account is silent as to the superior divinity of Rama, and 
according to it all four brothers must have been equals as mani- 
festations of the deity.] 

The four brothers grew up together at Ayodhya, but while 
they were yet striplings, the sage Viswamitra sought the aid of 
Rama to protect him from the Rakshasas. Dasa-ratha, though 
very unwilling, was constrained to consent to the sage's request. 
Rama and Lakshmarca then went to the hermitage of Viswa- 
mitra, and there Rama killed the female demon Taraka, but it 
required a good deal of persuasion from the sage before he was 
induced to kill a female. Yiswamitra supplied Rama with 
celestial arms, and exercised a considerable influence over his 
actions. Viswamitra afterwards took Rama and his brothers to 
Mithila to the court of Janaka king of Yideha. This king had 
a lovely daughter named Slta, whom he offered in marriage to 
any one who could bend the wonderful bow which had once 
belonged to Siva. Rama not only bent the bow but broke it, 
and thus vr<m the hand of the princess, who became a most 
virtuous and devoted wife. Rama's three brothers also were 
married to a sister and two cousins of Slta. 

This breaking of the bow of $iva brought about a very curious 
incident, which is probably an interpolation of a later date, in- 
troduced for a sectarian purpose. Parasu-rama, the sixth incar- 
nation of Vishnu, the Brahman exterminator of the Kshatriyas, 
was still living upon earth. He was a follower of $iva, and was 
offended at the breaking of that deity's bow. Notwithstanding 
that he and Rama were both incarnations of Vishnu, he chal- 
lenged Rama to a trial of strength and was discomfited, but 
Rama spared his life because he was a Brahman. 

Preparations were made at Ayodhya for the inauguration of 
Rama as successor to the throne. Kaikeyi, the second wife of 
Dasa-ratha, and mother of Bharata, was her husband's favourite. 
She was kind to Rama in childhood and youth, but she had 
a spiteful humpbacked female slave named Manthara. This 
woman, worked upon the maternal affection of her mistress until 
she aroused a strong feeling of jealousy against Rama. Kaikeyi 

258 RAMA. 

had a quarrel and a long struggle with her husband, but he at 
length consented $o install Ehaiata and to send Rama into exile 
for fourteen years. Rama departed with his wife Sita and his 
brother Lakshmawa, and travelling southwards, he took up his 
abode at Chitra-kute, in the Da7i<iaka forest, between the Yamuna 
and GodavarL Soon after the departure of Rama, his father 
Dasa-ratha died, and Bharata was called upon to ascend the 
throne. He declined, and set out for the forest with an army 
to bring Rama back. When the brothers met there was a long 
contention, Rama refused to return until the term of his 
father's sentence was completed, and Bharata declined to ascend 
the throne. At length it was arranged that Bharata should 
return and act as his brother's vicegerent. As a sign of Rama's 
supremacy Bharata carried back with him a pair of Rama's 
shoes, and these were always brought out ceremoniously when 
business had to be transacted, Rama passed ten years of his 
banishment moving from one hermitage to another, and went at 
length to the hermitage of the sage Agastya, near the Yindhya 
mountains. This holy man recommended Rama to take up his 
abode at Panchavati, on the river Godavari, and the party 
accordingly proceeded thither. This district was infested with 
Rakshasas, and one of them named Surpa-nakha, a sister of 
Rava?m, saw Rama and fell in love with him. He repelled her 
advances, and in her jealousy she attacked Sita. This so en- 
raged Lakshmana that he cut off her ears and nose. She brought 
her brothers Khara and Dushana with an army of Rakshasas to 
avenge her wrongs, but they were all destroyed. Smarting under 
her mutilation and with spretce injuria form, she repaired to 
her brother Ravana in Lanka, and inspired him by her descrip- 
tion with a fierce passion for Sita. Ravawa proceeded to Rama's 
residence in an aerial car, and his accomplice Marlclia having 
lured Rama from home, Rava^a assumed the form of a religious 
mendicant and lulled Sita's apprehensions until he found an op- 
portunity to declare himself and carry her off by force to Lanka. 
Rama's despair and rage at the loss of his faithful wife were 
terrible. He and Lakshma?za went in pursuit and tracked the 
ravisher. On their way they killed Kabandha, a headless 
monster, whose disembodied spirit counselled Rama to seek the 
aid of Su-griva, king of the monkeys. The two brothers accord- 
ingly went on their way to Su-griva, and after overcoming some 

RAMA. 259 

obstacles and assisting Su-griva to recover Kishkindhya, his 
capital, from his usurping brother Balin, they entered into a firm 
alliance with him. Through this connection Kama got the 
appellations of Kapi-prabhu and Kapi-ratha. He received not 
only the support of all the forces of Su-gnva and his allies, but 
the active aid of Hanuman, son of the wind, minister and 
general of Su-griva. Hanuman' s extraordinary powers of leap- 
ing and flying enabled him to do all the work of reconnoit- 
ring. By superhuman efforts their armies were transported to 
Ceylon by " Kama's bridge," and after many fiercely contested 
battles the city of Lanka was taken, Ravana was killed and 
Sita rescued. The recovery of his wife filled Kama with joy, 
but he was jealous of her honour, received her coldly, and 
refused to take her back. She asserted her purity in touching 
and dignified language, and determined to prove her innocence 
by the ordeal of fire. She entered the flames in the presence of 
men and gods, and Agni, god of fire, led her forth and placed her 
in Kama's arms unhurt. Kama then returned, taking with him 
his chief allies to Ayodhya Ke-united with his three brothers, 
he was solemnly crowned and began a glorious reign, Lakshmawa 
being associated with him in the government. The sixth section 
of the Ramayafia here concludes ; the remainder of the story is 
told in the Uttara-kawrfa, a subsequent addition. The treatment 
which Sita received in captivity was better than might have 
been expected at the hands of a Rakshasa, She had asserted and 
proved her purity, and Rama believed her ; but jealous thoughts 
would cross his sensitive mind, and when his subjects blamed 
"him for taking back his wife, he resolved, although she was 
pregnant, to send her to spend the rest of her life at the hermi- - 
tage of Yalmiki There she was delivered of her twin sons 
Kusa and Lava, who bore upon their persons the marks of their 
high paternity. When they were about fifteen years old they 
wandered accidentally to Ayodhya and were recognised by their 
father, who acknowledged them, and recalled Sita to attest her 
innocence. She returned, and in a public assembly declared her 
purity, and called upon the earth to verify her words. It did so. 
The ground opened and received " the daughter of the furrow," 
and Kama lost his beloved and only wife. Unable to endure life 
without her, he resolved to follow, and the gods favoured his 
determination. Time appeared to him in the form of an ascetic 

260 RAMA. 

and told him that he must stay on earth or ascend to heaven and 
rule over the gods. Lakshmawa with devoted fraternal affection 
endeavoured to save his brother from what he deemed the 
baleful visit of Time. He incurred a sentence of death for his 
interference, and was conveyed bodily to Indra's heaven. Rama 
with great state and ceremony went to the river Sarayu, and 
walking into the water was hailed by Brahma's voice of wel- 
come from heaven, and entered "into the glory of Vishnu." 

The conclusion of the story as told in the version of the 
Ramayana used by Mr. Wheeler differs materially. It repre- 
sents that Sita remained in exile until her sons were fifteen or 
sixteen years of age. Rama had resolved upon performing the 
Aswa-medha sacrifice ; the horse was turned loose, and Satru- 
ghna followed it with an army. Kusa and Lava took the 
horse and defeated and wounded Satru-ghna. Rama then sent 
Lakshmawa to recover the horse, but he was defeated and left 
for dead. Next Bharata was sent with Hanuman, but they 
were also defeated Rama then set out himself to repair his 
reverses. When the father and sons came into each other's 
presence, nature spoke out, and Rama acknowledged his sons, 
Sita also, after receiving an admonition from Yalmiki, agreed to 
forgive her husband. They returned to Ayodhya. Rama per- 
formed the Aswa-medha, and they passed the remainder of theii 
lives in peace and joy. 

The incidents of the first six kawrfas of the Ramayawa supply 
the plot of Bhava-bhuti's drama Maha-vira-charita. The Uttara- 
ka^a is the basis of his Uttara-rama-charita. This describes 
Rama's jealousy, the banishment of Sita, and the birth of her 
sons ; but the subsequent action is more human and affecting 
than in the poem. Rama repents of his unjust treatment of his 
wife, and goes forth to seek her. The course of his wanderings 
is depicted with great poetic beauty, and his meeting with his 
sons and his reconciliation with Sita are described with exquisite 
pathos and tenderness. The drama closes when 

" All conspires to make their happiness complete. 3 ' 

The worship of Rama still holds its ground, particularly in 
Oude and Bihar, and he has numerous worshippers. "It is 
noteworthy," says Professor Williams, " that the Rama legends 
have always retained their purity, and, unlike those of Brahma, 


a, $iva, and Durga, have never been mixed up with inde- 
cencies and licentiousness. In fact, the worship of Eama has 
never degenerated to the same extent as that of some of these 
other deities." This is true ; but it maybe observed that Eama 
and his wife were pure; there was nothing in their characters sug- 
gestive of license ; and if " the husband of one wife" and the 
devoted and affectionate wife had come to be associated with 
impure ideas, they must have lost all that gave them a title to 
veneration. The name of Kama, as ' Earn ! Earn ! ' is a common 
form of salutation. 

EAMAYAJVA. < The Adventures of Eama/ The oldest of 
the Sanskrit epic poems, written by the sage Valmlki. It is sup- 
posed to have been composed about five centuries B.C., and to have 
received its present form a century or two later. The MSS. of 
the Eamayawa vary greatly. There are two well-known distinct 
recensions, the Northern and the Bengal The Northern is the 
older and the purer ; the additions and alterations in that of 
Bengal are so numerous that it is not trustworthy, and has even 
been called " spurious." Later researches have shown that the 
variations in MSS. found in different parts of India are so 
diverse that the versions can hardly be classed in a certain 
number of different recensions. Unfortunately the inferior 
edition is the one best known to Europeans. Carey and Marsh- 
man translated two books of it, and Signer Gorresio has given 
an Italian translation of the whole. Schlegel published a Latin 
translation of the first book of the Northern recension. The 
full texts of both these recensions have been printed, and Mr, 
Wheeler has given an epitome of the whole work after the Ben- 
gal recension. There is also a poetical version by Griffiths. 

Besides the ancient Eamayawa, there is another popular work of 
comparative modern times called the Adhyatma Eamayawa. The 
authorship of it is ascribed to Yyasa, but it is generally con- 
sidered to be a part of the Brahmaftda Puraraa, It is a sort of 
spiritualised version of the poem, in which Kama is depicted as 
a saviour and deliverer, as a god rather than a man. It is divided 
into seven books, which bear the same names as those of the 
original poem, but it is not so long. 

The Eamayana celebrates the life and exploits of Eama 
(Eama-chandra), the loves of Eama and his wife Slta, the rape 
of the latter by Kavawa, the demon king of Ceylon, the war 


carried on by Rama and his monkey allies against Ravana, end- 
ing in the destruction of the demon and the rescue of Slta, the 
restoration of Raina to the throne of Ayodhya, his jealousy and 
"banishment of Slta, her residence at the hermitage of Valmiki, 
the birth of her twin sons Kusa and Lava, the father's discovery 
and recognition of his children, the recall of Slta, the attesta- 
tion of her innocence, her death, Rama's resolution to follow 
her, and his translation to heaven. 

The Ramayafia is divided into seven ka%?as or sections, and 
contains about 50,000 lines. The last of the seven sections is 
probably of later date than the rest of the work. 

1. Bala-kiMa. The boyhood of Rama. 

2. Ayodhya-karcda. The scenes at Ayodhya, and the banish- 
ment of Rama by his father, King Dasa-ratha. 

3. Araftya-kanda. f Forest section.' Rama's life in the forest, 
and the rape of Slta by Ravawa. 

4. Kishkindhya-ka?z^a. Rama's residence at Kishkindhya, 
the capital of his monkey ally, King Su-griva. 

5. Sundara-kafida. Beautiful section.' The marvellous passage 
of the straits by Rama and his allies and their arrival in Ceylon. 

6. Yuddha-kar^a. 'War section,' The war with Ravaraa, 
his defeat and death, the recovery of Slta, the return to Ayod- 
hya and the coronation of Rama. This is sometimes called the 
Lanka or Ceylon Kar^a. 

7. Uttara-kaT^a. c Later section.' Rama's life in Ayodhya, 
his banishment of Slta, the birth of Ms two sons, his recognition 
of them and of the innocence of his wife, their reunion, her 
death, and his translation to heaven. 

The writer or the compilers of the Ramayam had a high esti- 
mate of its value, and it is still held in very great veneration. 
A verse in the introduction says, " He who reads and repeats 
this holy life-giving RamayaTia is liberated from all his sins and 
exalted with all his posterity to the highest heaven;" and in 
the second chapter Brahma is made to say, "As long as the 
mountains and rivers shall continue on the surface of the earth, 
so long shall the story of the Ramayawa be current in the world." 
(For the age of the Ramayana, see p. 190.) 

RAMA-GIRL 'The hill of Rama.' It stands a short dis- 
tance north of Nagpur. 

RAMA-SETIL ' Rama's bridge,' constructed for him by his 


general, JSFala, son of Viswa-karma, at the time of his invasion 
of Ceylon. This name is given to the line of rocks in the 
channel between the continent and Ceylon, called in maps 
"Adam's bridge. "_ 

Atharva-veda, in which Kama is worshipped as the supreme god 
and the sage Yajnawalkya is his glorifier. It has heen printed 
and translated by Weber in his Indische Studien, vol. ix. 

EAMBHA. An Apsaras or nymph produced at the churn- 
ing of the ocean, and popularly the type of female beauty. She 
was sent by Indra to seduce Viswamitra, but was cursed by that 
sage to become a stone, and remain so for a thousand years. 
According to the Eamayawa, she was seen by Eava^a when he 
went to Kailasa, and he was so smitten by her charms that he 
ravished her, although she told him that she was the wife of 
Nala-kuvara, son of his brother Kuvera. 

EAME^WAEA. 'Lord of Kama.' Name of one of the 
twelve great Lingas set up, as is said, by Eama at Eameswaram 
or Kamisseram, which is a celebrated place of pilgrimage, and 
contains a most magnificent temple. 

EAMOPAKHYANA. * The story of Eama, 7 as told in the 
Vana-parva of the Maha-bharata. It relates many, but far from 
all, of the incidents celebrated in the Eamayana ; it makes no 
mention of Vfilmlki, the author of that poem, and it represents 
Eama as a human being and a great hero, but not a deity. 

EAISTTIDEYA. A pious and benevolent king of the Lunar 
race, sixth in descent from Bharata. He is mentioned in the 
Maha-bharata and Purawas as being enormously rich, very reli- 
gious, and charitable and profuse in his sacrifices. The former 
authority says that he had 200,000 cooks, that he had 2000 
head of cattle and as many other animals slaughtered daily 
for use in his kitchen, and that he fed innumerable beggars daily 
with beef. 

EATJ. ' Love, desire/ The Venus of the Hindus, the god- 
dess of sexual pleasures, wife of Kama the god of love, and 
daughter of Daksha. She is also called Eeva, Kami, Priti, 
Kama-patni, 'wife of Kama $' Katna-kala, ' part of Kama;' Kama- 
priya, c beloved of Kama ; ' Eiiga-la/a, * vine of love ; ' MayavatI, 
' deceiver ; ' Kelikila, wanton ; } $ubhangi, ' fair-limbed.' 

KATNAVALI 'The necklace. 7 A drama ascribed to a 


king of Kashmir named Sri Harsha Deva. The subject of the 
play is the loves of Udayana or Yatsa, prince of Kausambi, and 
Yasava-datta, princess of UjjayinL It was written "between 
1113 and 1125 A.D., and has been translated by "Wilson. There 
are several editions of the text. 

EAUCHYA. The thirteenth Mann. See Mann. 

EATJDEA. A descendant of Eudra. A name of Karttikeya, 
the god of war. 

EAYAJVA. The demon king of Lanka or Ceylon, from 
which he expelled his half-brother Kuvera. He was son of 
Yisravas by his wife Nikasha, daughter of the Eakshasa Su-maLi. 
He was half-brother of Kuvera, and grandson of the Rishi Pula- 
stya ; and as Kuvera is king of the Yakshas, Eavawa is king of 
the demons called Eakshasas. Pulastya is said to be the pro- 
genitor, not only of Eavarca, but of the whole race of Eakshasas. 
By penance and devotion to Brahma, Eavawa was made invul- 
nerable against gods and demons, but he was doomed to die 
through a woman. He was also enabled to assume any form he 
pleased. AH Eakshasas are malignant and terrible, but Eavawa 
as their chief attained the utmost degree of wickedness, and was 
a very incarnation of evil He is described in the Eamayawa as 
having "ten heads (hence his names Dasanana, Da$akanha, 
and Pankti-griva), twenty arms, and copper-coloured eyes, and 
bright teeth like the young moon. His form was as a thick 
cloud or a mountain, or the god of death with open mouth. He 
had all the marks of royalty, but his body bore the impress of 
wounds inflicted by all the divine arms in his warfare with the 
gods. It was scarred by the thunderbolt of Indra, by the tusks 
of Indra's elephant Airavata, and by the discus of Yiahfwi. His 
strength was so great that he could agitate the seas and split the 
tops of mountains. He was a breaker of all laws and a ravisher 
of other men's wives. . . . Tall as a mountain peak, he stopped 
with his arms the sun and moon in their course, and prevented 
their rising." The terror he inspires is such that where he is 
" the sun does not give out its heat, the winds do not blow, and 
the ocean becomes motionless." His evil deeds cried aloud for 
vengeance, and the cry reached heaven. Yishnu declared that, 
as Bavami had been too proud to seek protection against men 
and beasts, he should fall under their attacks, so Yislmu became 
incarnate as Eama-chandra for the express purpose of destroying 

HAVANA. 265 

Ravaraa, and vast numbers of monkeys and "bears were created 
to aid in the enterprise. Kama's wars against the Rakshasas 
inflicted such losses upon them as greatly to incense Ravawa. 
Burning with rage, and excited hy a passion for Sita, the wife 
of Rama, he left his island abode, repaired to Rama's dwelling, 
assumed the appearance of a religious mendicant, and carried off 
Sita to Lanka. Ravawa urged Sita to become his wife, and 
threatened to kill and eat her if she refused. Sita persistently 
resisted, and was saved from death by the interposition of one of 
Ravam's wives. Rama called to his assistance his allies Su-griva 
and Hanuman, with their hosts of monkeys and bears. They 
built Rama's bridge, by which they passed over into Lanka, and 
after many battles and wholesale slaughter Ravana was brought 
to bay at the city of Lanka, Rama and Rava^a fought together 
on equal terms for a long while, victory sometimes inclining to 
one sometimes to the other. Rama with a sharp arrow cut off 
one of Ravawa's heads, " but no sooner did the head fall on the 
ground than another sprang up in its room." Rama then took 
an arrow which had been made by Brahma, and discharged it at 
his foe. It entered his breast, came out of his back, went to the 
ocean, and then returned clean to the quiver of Rama. " Ravaraa 
fell to the ground and expired, and the gods sounded celestial 
music in the heavens, and assembled in the sky and praised 
Rama as Vislwu, in that he had slain that Ravam who would 
otherwise have caused their destruction." Ravatta, though he 
was chief among Rakshasas, was a Brahman on his father's side; 
lie was well versed in Sanskrit, used the Yedic ritual, and his 
body was burnt with Brahmanical rites. There is a story that 
Ravana made each of the gods perform some menial office in his 
household: thus Agni was his cook, Yarufta supplied water, 
Kuvera furnished money, Yayu swept the house, &c. The 
Vishnu Purawa relates that Rava^a, " elevated with wine, came 
on his tour of triumph to the city of Mahishmati, but there he 
was taken prisoner by King Karta-virya, and confined like a beast 
in a corner of his capital." The same authority states that, in 
another birth, Ravawa was Sisu-pala. Kavawa/s chief wife was 
Mandodari, but he had many others, and they were burnt at his 
obsequies. His sons were Megha-nada, also called Indra-jit, 
Ravawi, andAksha; Tri-sikha or Tri-siras, Devantaka, Nararitaka, 
and Atikaya, See Nandisa. 


EAYL The sun. See Surya* 

EE.WUKA. Daughter of King Prasenajit or Eerau, wife of 
Jamad-agni, and mother of Parasu-rama. A sight of the connubial 
endearments of King Chitra-ratha and his wife inspired her with 
impure thoughts, and her husband, perceiving that she had 
"fallen from perfection," desired her sons to kill her. Eu- 
mawwat, Su-shena, and Yasu, the three seniors, declined, and 
their father cursed them so that they became idiots. Parasu- 
rama, the fourth son, cut off her head, which act so gratified his 
father that Jamad-agni promised him whatever hlessings he de- 
sired. Among other things, Parasu-rama asked that his mother 
might be brought back to life in ignorance of her death and in 
perfect purity. He also desired that his brothers might be 
restored to their senses. All this Jamad-agni bestowed. She 
was also called Konkana. 

EEYA. The JSTarmada river. 

EEYA. i. Wife of Kar/za. 2. A name of EatL 

EEYAJNTA. A son of Surya and Sanjna. He is chief of 
the Guhyakas, and is also called Haya-vahana. 

EEYATL Daughter of King Eaivata and wife of Bala-rama 
She was so beautiful that her father, thinking no one upon earth 
worthy of her, repaired to the god Brahma to consult him about 
a husband. Brahma delivered a long discourse on the glories of 
Yishrai, and directed Eaivata to proceed to Dwaraka, where a 
portion of Yislmu was incarnate in the person of Bala-rama, 
Ages had elapsed while Eaivata was in heaven without his 
knowledge. When he returned to earth, " he found the race of 
men dwindled in stature, reduced in vigour, and enfeebled in 
intellect." He went to Bala-rama and gave him Eevati, but 
that hero, " beholding the damsel of excessively lofty height, he 
shortened her with the end of his ploughshare, and she became 
hi? wife," She had two sons, Eevati is said tp. have taken 
part with her husband in his drinking bouts. 

JSIBHAYAS. See /fcblms. 

$/BHU. Clever, skilful/ An epithet used for Indra, 
Agni, and the Adityas. In the Puramc mythology, JKbhu is a 
" son of the supreme Brahma, who, from his innate disposition, 
was of a holy character and acquainted with true wisdom." 
His pupil was Nidagha, a son of Pulastya, and he took especial 
interest in his instruction, returning to him after two intervals 


of a thousand years "to instruct him further in true wisdom." 
The Vishnu Purana, " originally composed hy the Bishi (Narir 
yawa), was communicated by Brahma to j^bhu." He was one 
of the four Kumaras (q.v.). 

5IBHTJS. Three sons of Su-dhanwan, a descendant of An- 
giras, severally named -ftibhu, Vibhu, and Vaja. Through their 
assiduous performance of good works they obtained divinity, 
exercised superhuman powers, and became entitled to receive 
praise and adoration. They are supposed to dwell in the solar 
sphere, and there is an indistinct identification of them with 
the rays of the sun ; but, whether typical or not, they prove the 
admission, at an early date, of the doctrine that men might 
become divinities. Wilson. They are celebrated in the jRtg-veda 
as skilful workmen, who fashioned Indra's chariot and horses, 
and made their parents young again* By command of the gods, 
and with a promise of exaltation to divine honours, they made 
a single new sacrificial cup into four. They are also spoken of 
as supporters of the sky. 

.SIBHUKSHAN. The first of the three .Btbhus. In the 
plural, the three .Sibhus. 

E7CHIKA. A JMshi descended from Bhngu and husband 
of Satyavati, son of "Orva and father of Jamad-agni. (See 
Viswamitra.) In the Maha-bharata and Vishnu Purafta it is 
related that jR/'chika was an old man when he demanded in 
marriage Satyavati, the daughter of Gadhi, king of Kanya-kubja* 
Unwilling to give her to so old a man, Gadhi demanded of him 
1000 white horses, each of them having one black ear. jf&chika 
obtained these from the god Varuwa, and so gained his wife. 
According to the Ramayawa, he sold his son fiuna/fc-sephas to be 
a sacrifice. 

RIDDEL * Prosperity.' The wife of Kuvera, god of wealth, 
The name is also used for Parvati, the wife of $iva, 

ZJIG-VEDA. See Veda. 

.BIG-VIDHANA. Writings which treat of the mystic and 
magic efficacy of the recitation of hymns of the JMg-veda, or 
even of single verses. Some of them are attributed to Saunaka, 
but probably belong only to the time of the Puranas. Weber. 

.RISHABHA. Son of Nabhi and Meru, and father of a 
hundred sons, the eldest of whom was Bharata. He gave his 
kingdom to his son and retired to a hermitage, where he led a 


life of such severe austerity and abstinence, that he became a 
mere " collection of skin and fibres, and went the way of all 
flesh/' The Bhagavata Pura/za speaks of his wanderings in the 
western part of the Peninsula, and connects him with the estab- 
lishment of the Jain religion in those parts. The name of the 
first Jain Tirthakara or saint was .Z&shabha. 

-R/SHL An inspired poet or sage. The inspired persons to 
whom the hymns of the Yedas were revealed, and under whose 
names they stand. "The seven Jfo'shis" (saptarshi), or the 
Praja-patis, " the mind-born sons " of Brahma, are often referred 
to. In the $atapatha Brahmana their names are given as Go- 
tama, Bharadwaja, Yiswamitra, Jamad-agni, Yasishflia, Kasyapa, 
and Atri. The Maha-bharata gives them as Marichi, Atri, 
Angiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, and Yasishtfha, The Yayu 
Puriwxa adds Bhngu to this list, making eight, although it 
still calls them " seven. " The Yishmi Purana, more consistently, 
adds Bhrz'gu and Daksha, and calls them the nine Brahmarshis 
(Brahma-rishis). The names of Gautama, Karcwa, Yalmiki, 
Yyasa, Manu, and Yibhaw&ka are also enumerated among the 
great jSfehis by different authorities. Besides these great 7izshis 
there are many other .fiishis. The seven -Zftshis are represented 
in the sky by the seven stars of the Great Bear, and as such are 
called J^iksha and Chitra-sikhanrfinas, ' having bright crests.' 

^/SHI-BBAHMAJVA. An old Anukramaw, or Index of the 

jS/SHYA-MtJKA. A mountain in the Dakhin, near the 
source of the Pampa river and the lake Pampa. Eama abode 
there for a time with the monkeys. 

5/SHYA-55INGA. ' The deer-horned/ A hermit, the son 
of YibhanrZaka, descended from Kasyapa. According to the 
Eamayana and Maha-bharata he was born of a doe and had a 
small horn on his forehead. He was brought up in the forest by 
his father, and saw no other human being till he was verging upon 
manhood. There was great drought in the country of Anga, and 
the king, Lomapada, was advised by his Brahmans to send for 
the youth JSishya-sringa, who should marry his daughter $anta, 
and be the means of obtaining rain. A number of fair damsels 
were sent to bring him. He accompanied them back to their 
city, the desired rain fell, and he married $anta, This $anta 
was the adopted daughter of Lomapada ; her real father was 


Dasa-ratha, and it was J&shya-sringa who performed that sacri- 
fice for Dasa-ratha which brought about the birth of Kama. 

JS/TU-PAENA. A king of Ayodhya, and son of Sarva- 
kama, into whose service Nala entered after he had lost his 
kingdom. He was "skilled profoundly in dice." 

.B/TU-SAimAEA. ' The round of the seasons.' A poem 
attributed to Kali-dasa. This poem was published by Sir "W. 
Jones, and was the first Sanskrit work ever printed. There are 
other editions. It has been translated into Latin by Bohlen. 

BOHLZVL i. Daughter of Kasyapa and Surabhi, and mother 
of horned cattle, including Kama-dhenu, the cow which grants 
desires. 2. Daughter of Daksha and fourth of the lunar as- 
terisms, the favourite wife of the moon. 3. One of the wives 
of Yasu-deva, the father of Krishna and mother of Bala-rama. 
She was burned with her husband's corpse at Dwaraka. 4. 
Krishna himself also had a wife so called, and the name is 

EOHITA, ' Bed.' A red horse ; a horse of the sun or 
of fire. i. A deity celebrated in the Atharva-veda, probably 
a form of fire or the sun. 2. Son of King Haris-chandra. He 
is also called Kohitaswa. The fort of Bohtas is said to derive 
its name from him. See Haris-chandra. 

KOMA-HAESHAIVA. See Loma-harshawa, 

EUDBA* 'A howler or roarer; terrible.' In the Yedas 
Eudra has many attributes and many names. He is the howl- 
ing terrible god, the god of storms, the father of the Eudras 
or Maruts, and is sometimes identified with the god of fire. 
On the one hand he is a destructive deity who brings diseases 
upon men and cattle, and upon the other he is a beneficent 
deity supposed to have a healing influence. These are the germs 
which afterwards developed into the god $iva. It is worthy of 
note that Eudra is first called Mahirdeva in the "White Yajur- 
veda. As applied to the god $iva, the name of Eudra generally 
designates him in his destructive character. In the Bfihad- 
aranyaka Upanishad the Eudras are " ten vital breaths (pr ana) 
with the heart (manas) as eleventh." In the Yishnu Purana 
the god Eudra is said to have sprung from the forehead of 
Brahma, and at the command of that god to have separated his 
nature into male and female, then to have multiplied each of 
these into eleven persons, some of which were white and gentle, 


others "black and furious. Elsewhere it is said that the eleven 
Eudras were sons of Kasyapa and Surabhi, and in another 
chapter of the same Purana it is represented that Brahma 
desired to create a son, and that Eudra came into existence as a 
youth, He wept and asked for a name. Brahma gave him the 
name of Eudra ; but he wept seven times more, and so he 
obtained seven other names : Bhava, $arva, Isana, Pajrupati, 
Bhima, Ugra, and Maha-deva. Other of the Pura?ias agree in 
this nomenclature. These names are sometimes used for Eudra 
or /Siva himself, and at others for the seven manifestations of 
him, sometimes called his sons. The names of the eleven 
Eudras vary considerably in different books. 

BUDEA-SAVAEJVA, The twelfth Manu. See Manu. 

EUKMIK A son of King Bhishmaka and king of Yidarbha, 
who offered his services to the PamZavas and Kauravas in turn, 
but was rejected by both on account of his extravagant boast- 
ings and pretensions. He was brother of Eukmim, with whom 
Knslma eloped Eukmin pursued the fugitives and overtook 
them, but his army was defeated by Knsh?za 5 and he owed his 
life to the entreaties of his sister. He founded the city of 
Bhoja-kafe, and was eventually killed by Bala-rama. 

ETJKMIJVI Daughter of Bhishmaka, king of Vidarbha. 
According to the Hari-vansa she was sought in marriage by 
Krislma, with whom she fell in love. But her brother Eukmin 
was a friend of Kansa, whom Krishna had killed. He therefore 
opposed him and thwarted the match. Eukmiwi was then 
betrothed to Sisu-pala, king of Chedi, but on her wedding day, 
as she was going to the temple, " Krishna saw her, took her by 
the hand, and carried her away in his chariot." They were 
pursued by her intended husband and by her brother Eukmin, 
but Krishna defeated them both, and took her safe to Dwaraka, 
where he married her, She was his principal wife and bore him 
a son, Pradyumna (q.v.). By him also she had nine other sons 
and one daughter. "These other sons were Charu-deshna, 
Su-deshwa, Charu-deha, Su-shena, Charu-gupta, Bhadra-charu, 
Charu-vinda, Su-charu, and the very mighty Charu ; also one 
daughter, Charu-matL" At Krishna's death she and seven other 
of his wives immolated themselves on his funeral pila 

EtfMA. Wife of the monkey king Su-grlva, 

$ABALAWAS. Sons of Daksha, one thousand in number, 


brought forth after the loss of the Haryaswas. Like their pre- 
decessors, they were dissuaded by Narada from begetting off- 
spring, and " scattered themselves through the regions " never 
to return. 

tfACHL Wife of Indra. See IndrawL 

SADHYAS. A Ga?ia or class of inferior deities ; the per- 
sonified rites and prayers of the Vedas who dwell with the 
gods or in the intermediate region between heaven and earth. 
Their number is twelve according to one authority, and seven- 
teen according to another, and the Purawas make them sons 
of Dharma and Sadhya, daughter of Daksha. 

SAG ABA. A king of Ayodhya, of the Solar race, and son 
of King Bahu, who was driven out of his dominions by the 
Haihayas. Bahu took refuge in the forest with his wives. 
Sagara's mother was then pregnant, and a rival wife, being 
jealous, gave her a drug to prevent her delivery. This poison 
confined the child in the womb for seven years, and in the 
interim Bahu died. The pregnant wife wished to ascend his 
pyre, but the sage Aurva forbad her, predicting that she would 
give birth to a valiant universal monarch. When the child was 
born, Aurva gave him the name of Sagara (sa, ' with,' and gara, 
* poison '). The child grew up, and having heard his father's 
history, he vowed that he would exterminate the Haihayas and 
the other barbarians, and recover his ancestral kingdom. He 
obtained from Aurva the Agneyastra or fire weapon, and, armed 
with this, he put nearly the whole of the Haihayas to death 
and regained his throne. He would also u have destroyed the 
$akas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Paradas, and Pahlavas," but they 
applied to Vasish/ha, Sagara's family priest, and he induced 
Sagara to spare them, but "he made the Yavanas shave their 
heads entirely ; the $akas he compelled to shave (the upper) 
half of their heads ; the Paradas wore their hair long ; and the 
Pahlavas let their beards grow in obedience to his commands." 
Sagara married two wives, Su-mati, the daughter of Kasyapa, and 
KesinI, the daughter of Eaja Yidarbha, but having no children, 
he besought the sage Aurva for this boon. Aurva promised 
that one wife should have one son ; the other, sixty thousand. 
Kesinl chose the one, and her son was Asamanjas, through 
whom the royal line was continued Su-mati had sixty thou* 
sand sons. , Asamanjas was a wild immoral youth, and his 


father abandoned him. The other sixty thousand sons followed 
the courses of their brother, and their impiety was such that 
the gods complained of them to the sage Kapila and the god 
Vishnu. Sagara engaged in the performance of an Aswa-medha 
or sacrifice of a horse, but although the animal was guarded by 
his sixty thousand sons, it was carried off to Patala. Sagara 
directed his sons to recover it. They dug their way to the 
infernal regions, and there they found the horse grazing and the 
sage Kapila seated close by engaged in meditation. Conceiving 
him to be the thief, they menaced him with their weapons. 
Disturbed from his devotions, " he looked upon them for an 
instant, and they were reduced to ashes by the (sacred) flame 
that darted from his person." Their remains were discovered 
by Ansumat, the son of Asamanjas, who prayed Kapila that the 
victims of his wrath might be raised through his favour to 
heaven. Kapila promised that the grandson of Ansumat should 
be the means of accomplishing this by bringing down the river 
of heaven. Ansximat then returned to Sagara, who completed 
his sacrifice, and he gave the name of Sagara to the chasm 
which his sons had dug, and Sagara means c ocean/ The son of 
Ansumat was Dilipa, and his son was Bhaglratha. The devo- 
tion of Bhagiratha brought down from heaven the holy Ganges, 
which flows from the toe of Vishnu, and its waters having laved 
the ashes of the sons of Sagara, cleansed them from all impurity. 
Their Manes were thus made fit for the exequial ceremonies and 
for admission into Swarga. The Ganges received the name of 
Sagara in honour of Sagara, and Bhaglrathi from the name of 
the devout king whose prayers brought her down to earth. (See 
Bhagirathi.) The Hari-vansa adds another marvel to the story. 
Sagara's wife Su-mati was delivered of a gourd containing sixty 
thousand seeds, which became embryos and grew. Sagara at 
first placed them in vessels of milk, but afterwards each one had 
a separate nurse, and at ten months they all ran about. The 
name of Sagara is frequently cited in deeds conveying grants of 
land in honour of his generosity in respect of such gifts. 

SAHA-DEVA. The youngest of the five Parc^u princes, 
twin son of Madri, the second wife of PaWu, and mythologically 
son of the Aswins, or more specifically of the Aswin Basra. 
He was learned in the science of astronomy, which he had 
studied under Dro?ia, and he was also well acquainted with the 


management of cattle. (See Mahirbharata.) He had a son 
named Su-hotra by his wife Yijaya. 

SAEASKAKSHA < Thousand - eyed.' An epithet of 

SAEITYA-DAKPAJVA. 'The mirror of composition.' A 
celebrated work on poetry and rhetoric by Yiswanatha Kavi 
Raja, written about the fifteenth century. It has been trans- 
lated into English for the JBibliotheca Indica. There are several 
editions of the text. 

&AIBYA. Wife of Haris-chandra (q.v.) ; wife of Jyamagha 
(q.v.) ; wife of $ata-dhauu (q.v.). 

SAINDHAYAS. The people of Sindhu or Sindh, of the 
country between the Indus and the Jhilam. 

SAIVA PURINA. Same as Siva Purana. 

SAKA, An era commencing 78 A.D., and called the era of 
Salivahana. Cunningham supposes its epoch to be connected 
with a defeat of the Sakas by Salivahana. 

SAKALA, The city of the Bahlkas or Madias, in the Pan- 
jab. It has been identified with the Sagala of Ptolemy on the 
Hyphasis (Byas), south-west of Lahore. Cunningham says it is 
the Sangala of Alexander. 

SAKALYA. An old grammarian and expositor of the Vedas 
who lived before the time of Yaska. He is said to have divided 
a Sanhita of the Yeda into five, and to have taught these por- 
tions to as many disciples. He was also called Yeda-mitra and 

SAKAPUJV1, AKAPQR#1. An author who arranged a 
part of the /i^g-veda and appended a glossary. He lived before 
the time of Yaska. 

$AKAS. A northern people, usually associated with the 
Yavanas; Wilson says, "These people, the Sakai and Saeee of 
classical writers, the Indo-Scythians of Ptolemy, extended, about 
the commencement of our era, along the West of India, from the 
Hindu Koh. to the mouths of the Indus." They were probably 
Turk or Tatar tribes, and were among those recorded as con- 
quered by King Sagara, who compelled them to shave the upper 
half of their heads. They seem to have been encountered and 
kept back by King Yikramaditya of Ujjayim, who was called 
Sakari, ' foe of the $akas.' 

An ancient grammarian anterior to Yaska 



and Pamni Part of Ms work is said to have been lately dis- 
covered by Dr. Biihler. 

MKHA. ' Branch, sect/ The tfakhas of the Yedas are the 
different recensions of the same text as taught and handed 
down traditionally by different schools and teachers, show- 
ing some slight variations, the effect of long-continued oral 
tradition. See Yeda. 

SAKINlS. Female demons attendant on Durglu 

SAKRA. A name of Indra. 

SAKRKNl Wife of India. See Indraft! 

SAKRA-PRASTHA. Same as Indra-prastha. 

SAKTA. A worshipper of the "aktis. 

&AKTL The wife or the female energy of a deity, but 
especially of $iva. See Devi and Tantra. 

SAKTL> SAKTRL A priest- and eldest son of VasisMuu 
King Kalmasha-pada struck him with a whip, and he cursed 
the king to become possessed by a man-eating Rakshasa. He 
himself became the first victim of the monster he had evoked. 

A$AKTJ]SrL Brother of Queen Gandhari, and so uncle of the 
Kaurava princes. He was a skilful gambler and a cheat, so he 
was selected to be the opponent of Yudhi-shtfhira in the match 
in which that prince was induced to stake and lose his all He 
also was known by the patronymic Saubala, from Su-bala, his 

jSAKUNTALA. A nymph who was the daughter of Yiswa- 
mitra by the nymph Menaka. She was born and left in a 
forest, where she was nourished by birds until found by the 
sage Kanwa. She was brought up by this sage in his her 
mitage as his daughter, and is often called his daughter. 
The loves, marriage, separation, and re-union of $akuntala and 
King Dushyanta are the subject of the celebrated drama $akun- 
tala. She was mother of Bharata, the head of a long race of 
kings, who has given his name to India (Bharata-varsha), and 
the wars of whose descendants are sung in the MahS-blxarata. 
The story of the loves of Dushyanta and #akuntala is, that 
while she was living in the hermitage of Kanwa she was 
seen in the forest by King Dushyanta, who fell in love with 
her. He induced her to contract with him a Gandharva mar- 
riage, that is, a simple declaration of mutual acceptance. On 
leaving her to return to his city, he gave her a ring as a pledge 


of his love. When the nymph when back to the hermitage, she 
was so engrossed with thoughts of her husband that she heeded 
not the approach of the sage Dur-vasas, who had come to visit 
Kanwa, so that choleric saint cursed her to be forgotten by her 
beloved. He afterwards relented, and promised that the curse 
should be removed as soon as Dushyanta should see the ring, 
tfakuntala, finding herself with child, set off to her husband ; 
but on her way she bathed in a sacred pool, and there lost the 
ring. On reaching the palace, the king did not recognise her 
and would not own her, so she was taken by her mother to the 
forest, where she gave birth to Bharata. Then it happened that 
a fisherman caught a large fish and in it found a ring which he 
carried to Dushyanta. The king recognised his own ring, and 
he soon afterwards accepted $akuntala and her son Bharata. 
Kali-dasa's drama of /Sakuntala was the first translation made 
from Sanskrit into English. It excited great curiosity and 
gained much admiration when it appeared. There are several 
recensions of the text extant. The text has been often printed, 
and there are many translations into the languages of Europe. 
Professor Williams has published a beautifully illustrated trans- 

SALAGKAMA. A stone held sacred and worshipped by the 
Vaislwavas, because its spirals are supposed to contain or to be 
typical of Vishnu. It is an ammonite found in the river Gan- 
dak, and is valued more or less highly according to the number 
of its spirals and perforations. 

SALIYAHANA. A celebrated king of the south of India, 
who was the enemy of Vikramaditya, and whose era, the Saka, 
dates from A,D. 78. His capital was Prati-shftiana on the 
Godavan. He was killed in battle at Karur. 

5ALWA, Name of a country in the west of India, or Kaja- 
sthan ; also the name of its king, 

SALYA. King of the Madras, and brother of Madrl, second 
wife of Pawdu. In the great war he left the side of the PMa- 
vas and went over to the Kauravas. He acted as charioteer of 
Kama in the great battle. At the death of Kama he suc- 
ceeded him as general, and commanded the army on tho last day 
of the battle, when he was slain by Yudhi-sh&ira. 

SAMA-VEDA, The third Veda, feVeda, 

SAMA-VIDHANA BEAHMA^Vll The third Brlimawa 


of the Sama-veda. It lias been edited and translated by Bur- 

SAMAYACHAKIKA StfTKAS. Eules for the usages and 
practices of everyday life. See Sutras. 

SAMBA, A son of Krishna by Jambavatl, but the Linga 
Purawa names Rukmitti as his mother. At the swayam-vara of 
Draupadi he carried off that princess, but he was pursued by 
Dur-yodhana and his friends and made prisoner. Bala-rama 
undertook to obtain his release, and when that hero thrust his 
ploughshare under the ramparts of Hastina-pura and threatened 
it with ruin, the Kauravas gave up their prisoner, and Bala- 
rama took him to Dwaraka, There he lived a dissolute life and 
scoffed at sacred things. The devotions of the three great sages, 
Viswamitra, Dur-vasas, and Narada, excited the ridicule of Samba 
and his boon companions. They dressed Samba up to represent 
a woman with child and took him to the sages, inquiring 
whether he would give birth to a boy or a girl The sages 
answered, " This is not a woman, but the son of Knslma, and 
he shall bring forth an iron club which shall destroy the whole 
race of Yadu, . . . and you and all your people shall perish by 
that club." Samba accordingly brought forth an iron club, 
which TJgrasena caused to be pounded and cast into the se*t 
These ashes produced rushes, and the rushes when gathered 
turned into clubs, or into reeds which were used as swords. 
One piece could not be crushed This was subsequently found 
in the belly of a fish, and was used to tip an arrow, which 
arrow was used by the hunter Jaras, who with it unintentionally 
killed Knsh?za. Under the curse of Dur-yasas, Samba became a 
leper and retired to the Panjab, where by fasting, penance, and 
prayer he obtained the favour of Surya (the sun), and was cured 
of his leprosy. He built a temple to the sun on the banks of 
the Chandra-bhaga (Chinab), and introduced the worship of that 

/SAMBA-PUM^A. See Purana. 

SAMBAKA. In the Vedas, a demon, also called a Dasyu, 
who fought against King Divodasa, but was defeated and had 
his many castles destroyed by Indra. He appears to be a 
mythical personification of drought, of a kindred character to 
Vntra, or identical with him. In the Purattas a Daitya who 
carried off Pradyumna and threw him into the sea, but was 


subsequently slain by him. (See Pradyamna.) He was also 
- employed by Hirawya-kasipu to destroy Prahlada. 

SAMBHU. A name of Siva ; also one of the Eudras. 

SAMBtJKA. A /Shdra, mentioned in the Baghu-vansa, who 
performed religions austerities and penances improper for a man 
of his caste, and was consequently killed by Bama-chandra. 

SAMl. The Acacia suma, the wood of which is used for 
obtaining fire by friction. So Agni, or fire, is called Sami- 
garbha, 'having the Sami for its womb.' It is sometimes per- 
sonified and worshipped as a goddess, Sami-devi. 

SAMPATL A mythical bird who appears in the Bamayafta 
as son of Vislmu's bird Garurfa, and brother of Jatfayus. Ac- 
cording to another account he was son of Aru?ia and Syeni. 
He was the ally of Bama. 

SAMVABAiVA. Son of JKksha, fourth in descent from 
Ikshwaku, and father of Kuru. According to the Maha-bharata 
he was driven from Hastina-pura by the Panchalas, and forced 
to take refuge among the thickets of the Indus. When the 
sage Vasishflia joined his people and became the Baja's family 
priest, they recovered their country under Kuru. 

SAMVABTA. Writer of a Dharma-siistra or code of law 
bearing his name. 

SAMVAT, SAMYATSAEA < Year/ The era of Vikrama- 
ditya, dating from 57 B.O. 

SA.'N AI5-CH AE A. ' Slow-moving. ' A name of $ani or Satunx 

The four Kumaras or mind-born sons of Brahma, Some specify 
seven. Sanat-kurnara (or Sanat-sujata) was the most prominent 
of them. They are also called by the patronymic Yaidhatra. 
See Kumara. 


SANDHYA. ' Twilight.' It is personified as the daughter 
of Brahma and wife of Siva. In the Siva Purana it is related 
that Brahma having attempted to do violence to his daughter, 
she changed herself into a deer. Brahma then assumed the form 
of a stag and pursued her through the sky. Siva saw this, and 
shot an arrow which cut off the head of the stag, Brahma then 
reassigned his own form and paid homage to Siva, The arrow 
remains in the sky in the sixth lunar mansion, called Ardra, 
and the stag's head remains in the fifth mansion, 


SAETDHYA-BALA 'Strong in twilight.' Eakshasas ani 
other demons, supposed to be most powerful at twilight. 

SANDJLYA. A descendant of /Saflffla. A particular sage 
who was connected with the Chhandogya Upanishad ; one who 
wrote a "book of Sutras, one who wrote upon law, and one who 
was the author of the Bhagavata heresy : two or more of these 
may he one and the same person. The Sutras or aphorisms 
have been published in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

SAKDIPANL A master-at-arms who gave instruction to 
Bala-rama and Krishwa. 

SAKDEACOTTUS. See Chandra-gupta. 

SAJSTGITA-EATFAKAEA. A work on singing, dancing, 
and pantomime, written by Sarngi Deva. 

SANHITA. That portion of a Veda which comprises the 
hymns. See Veda. 

SANHITOPANISHAD. The eighth Brahmana of the Sama- 
veda. The text with a commentary has been published by 

$AN"L The planet Saturn. The regent of that planet, re- 
presented as a black man in black garments. Sani was a son oi 
the sun and Chhaya, but another statement is that he was the 
offspring of Bala-rama and EevatL He is also known as Ara, 
Kowa, and Kroda (cf. Kg6vo$), and by the patronymic $aura. His 
influence is evil, hence he is called Krura-dns and Krura-lochana, 
c the evil-eyed one. ; He is also Manda, c the slow / Pangu, c the 
lame ;' Sanais-chara, c slow-moving ; 7 Saptarchi, ' seven-rayed ;' 
and Asita, ' the dark' 

SANJAYA i. The charioteer of Dhnta-rashfra. He was 
minister also, and went as ambassador to the Paw^avas before 
the great war broke out. He is represented as reciting to Dlmta- 
rashfra the Bhagavad-gita. His patronymic is Gavalgam, son of 
Gavalgana, 2. A king of Ujjayini and father of Vasava-datta. 

SAKJNA. l Conscience.' According to the Puraftas, she 
was daughter of Viswa-karma and wife of the sun. She 
had three children by him, the Manu Vaivaswata, Yama, and 
Yami (goddess of the Yamuna river). " Unable to endure tho 
fervours of her lord, Sanjna gave him Chhaya (shade) as his 
handmaid, and repaired to the forests to practise devout exer- 
cises." The sun beheld her engaged in austerities in the form 
of a mare, and he approached her as a horse. Hence sprang the 


two Aswins and Bevanta. Surya tlien took Sanjna back to his 
own dwelling, but his effulgence was still so overpowering, that 
her father, Viswa-karma, placed the sun upon his lathe, and cut 
away an eighth part of his brilliancy. She is also call Dyu- 
mayi, ' the brilliant,' and Maha-virya, ' the very powerful/ 

$ANKARA. 'Auspicious.' A name of $iva in his creative 
character or as chief of the Rudras. 

tfANKARACHARYA (Sankara + acharya). The great reli- 
gious reformer and teacher of the Vedanta philosophy, who lived 
in the eighth or ninth century. He was a native of Kerala or 
Malabar, and lived a very erratic life, disputing with heretics and 
popularising the Vedanta philosophy by his preaching and writ- 
ings wherever he went. His travels extended as far as Kashmir, 
and he died at Kedaranath in the Himalayas ab the early age of 
thirty-two. His learning and sanctity were held in such high 
estimation and reverence, that he was looked upon as an incarna- 
tion of $iva, and was believed to have the power of working 
miracles. The god $iva was the special object of his worship, and 
he was the founder of the great sect of Smartava Brahmans, who 
are very numerous and powerful in the south. He established 
several maths or monasteries for the teaching and preservation 
of his doctrines. Some of these still remain. The chief one is 
at Sn'nga-giri or Snngiri, on the edge of the Western Ghauts 
in the Mysore, and it has the supreme control of the Smartava 
sect. The writings attributed to him are very numerous ; chief 
among them are his Bhashyas or commentaries on the Sutras or 
aphorisms of Vyasa, a commentary on the Bhagavad-gita, some 
commentaries on the Upanishads, and the Ananda-laharl, a 
hymn in praise of Parvatl, the consort of Siva, 

SAKKABA-VIJAYA. < The triumph of Sankam' A bio- 
graphy of Sankaracharya relating his controversies with here- 
tical sects and his refutation of their doctrines and superstitions. 
There is more than one work bearing this name ; one by Ananda 
Giri, which is published in the BMiotheca Indica; another by 
Madhavacharya ; the latter is distinguished as the Sankshepa 
Sankara-vijaya. The work of A&aixda Giri has been critically 
examined by Kashinath Trimbak Telang in the Indian Antir 
gyMry, voL v. 

SANKAKSHAjVA. A name of Bala-rama, 

&ANKHA. Writer of a Dharma-sastra or law-book bearing 


his name. He is often coupled with Likhita, and the two seem 
to have worked together. 

SANKHAYANA. r. Name of a writer who was the author 
of the Sankhayana Brahma^a of the Ji%-veda, and of certain 
$rauta-sutras also called by his name. 2. He is the oldest 
known writer on the ATS Erotica, and is author of the work 
called Sankhayana Kama-sutra. 

SANKHYA. A school of philosophy. See Darsana. 

SANKHYA-DAB&AZVA. Kapila's aphorisms on the San- 
khya philosophy. They have "been printed. 

SANKHYA-KABIKA. A work on the Sankhya philo- 
sophy, written by Iswara Kn'slma ; translated by Colebrooke 
and Wilson. 

SANKHYA-PKAVACHANA. A text-book of the Sankhya 
philosophy, said to have been written by Kapila himself. 
Printed in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

SANKHYA-SAEA, A work on the Sankhya philosophy by 
Yijnana Bhikshu. Edited by Hall in the Bibliotheca Indica. 

SANNYASL A Brahman in the fourth and last stage of his 
religious life. (See Brahman.) In the present day the term has 
a wider meaning, and is applied to various kinds of religious 
mendicants who wander about and subsist upon alms, most of 
them in a filthy condition and with very scanty clothing. They 
are generally devotees of Siva. 

SANTA. Daughter of Dasa-ratha, son of Aja, but adopted 
by Loma-pada or Eoma-pada, king of Anga. She was married 
to .Rz'shya-snnga. 

$ANTANIJ. A king of the Lunar race, son of Pratipa, 
father of Bhishma, and in a way the grandfather of Dhnta- 
rashfra and Pa?^u. Eegarding him it is said, " Every decrepit 
man whom he touches with his hands becomes young." (See 
Maha-bharata.) He was called Satya-vach, ' truth-speaker/ and 
was remarkable for his "devotion and charity, modesty, con- 
stancy, and resolution." 

^SlNTL/SATAKA. A century of verses on peace of mini 
A poem of repute writen by $ri /Shlana. 

SAPTAESHI (Sapta-nshi). The seven great .ffishis. See 

SAPTA-ATL A poem of 700 verses on the triumphs of 
Durga. It is also called Devl-mabatmya. 


SAPTA-SINDHAVA. 'The seven rivers/ The term fre- 
quently occurs in the Vedas, and has been widely known and 
somewhat differently applied. It was apparently known to the 
Romans in the days of Augustus, for Yirgil says 

' i Ceu septem surgens sedatis amnibus altus 
Per taciturn Ganges." JSneid, ix. 30. 

They appear in Zend as the Hapta-heando, and the early Mu- 
hammadan travellers have translated the term. But their Saba' 
Sin, f seven rivers/ according to Blruni, applies to the rivers which 
flow northwards from the mountains of the Hindu ELoh, and 
"uniting near Turmuz, form the river of Balkh (the Oxus)." 
The hymn in which the names of the rivers have been given 
has the following description : " Each set of seven (streams) 
has followed a threefold course. The Sindhu surpasses the 
other rivers in impetuosity. . . . Receive favourably this my 
hymn, Ganga, Yamuna, SaraswatT, $utudri, Paruslwi ; hear, 
Marud-vridha, with the Asiknl and Vitasta, and thou, Arjikiya, 
with the Sushomft. Unite first in thy course with the Trishtfama, 
the Susartu, the Rasa, and the Sweti ; thou meetest with the 
Goraati, and the Krumu with the Kubha and the Mehatnu." 
According to this, the " seven rivers " are (i.) Ganga (Ganges) ; 
(2.) Yamuna (Jumna); (3.) Saras wati (Sarsuti); (4.) Sutudri 
(Satlej) m , (5.) Paruslwi ; (6.) Marud-vridha ; (7.) Arjikiya (the 
Vipasa, Hyphasis By as). Wilson says " the Parushm is iden- 
tified with the Iravati " (Hydraotes, Ravi), but in this hymn it 
is the Marud-vndha which would seem to be the Iravati, because 
it is said to unite with the Asiknl (Akesines, Chandrabhaga, Chi- 
nab) and the Vitasta (Hydaspes or Jhilam). This would leave 
the Paruslwi unsettled. The other names, with the exception of 
the Gomati (Gumti), arc not identified. Sushoma has been 
said to be the Sindhu, but in this hymn the Sindhu is clearly 
distinct. In the Maliirbharata the seven rivers are named in 
one place Yaswokasara, Kalini, Pavani, Ganga, Sita, Sindhu, 
and Jambu-nadi ; and in another, Ganga, Yamuna, Plakshaga, 
Rathastha, Saryu (Sarju), Gomati, and Gantlakl (Gandak), In 
the Ramayawa and the Pura?ias the seven rivers are the seven 
streams into which the Ganges divided after falling from the 
brow of Siva, the Nalini, Hladixa, and Pavani going east, the 
Chakshu, Sita, and Sindliu to the west, while the Ganges proper, 


the Bhagirathi, flowed to the south. The term is also used 
for the seven great oceans of the world, and for the country of 
the seven rivers. 

SAPTA-VADHKL A Vedic .fifehi. In a hymn he says, 
" As wins, by your devices sunder the wicker work for the libera- 
tion of the terrified, imploring Eishi Sapta-vadhri." Concerning 
this the following old story is told. Sapta-vadhri had seven 
brothers who determined to prevent his having intercourse with 
his wife, So they shut him up every night in a large basket, 
which they locked and sealed, and in the morning they let him 
out. He prayed to the Aswins, who enabled him to get out of 
his cage during the night and to return to it at daybreak. 

&ARABHA. i. A fabulous animal represented as having 
eight legs and as dwelling in the Himalayas. It is called also 
Utpadaka and Kunjararati 2. One of Kama's monkey allies, 

tfARA-BHAJSTGA. A hermit visited by Rama and Slta in 
the Daracfaka forest. When he had seen Rama he declared that 
his desire had been granted, and that he would depart to the 
highest heaven. He prepared a fire and entered it. His body 
was consumed, but there came forth from the fire a beautiful 
youth, and in this form. Sara-bhanga departed to heaven. 

$ABADA-TILAKA. i. A mystic poem by Lakshmana. 2. 
A dramatic monologue by ankara, not earlier than the twelfth 
century. 3. ISTame of a Tantra. 

SARAD WAT. A Rishi said to be the father of Kripa. He 
is also called Gautama. See Knpa. 

SARAMA. i. In the &'g-veda the dog of Indra and mother 
of the two dogs called, after their mother, Sarameyas, who each 
had four eyes, and were the watchdogs of Yama. Sarama is 
said to have pursued and recovered the cows stolen by the Panis, 
a myth which has been supposed to mean that Sarama is the 
same as Ushas, the dawn, and that the cows represent the rays 
of the sun carried away by night. 2. The wife of Yibhishana, 
who attended upon Slta, and showed her great kindness when 
she was in captivity with Ravawa. 3. In the Bhagavata Purana, 
Sarama is one of the daughters of Daksha, and the mother of 
\vild animals. 

SARAMEYAS. The two children of Sarama, Indra's watch- 
dog ; they were the watchdogs of Yama, and each had four eyea 
They have been compared with the Greek Hermes. 


SAKA^Ytf. * The fleet runner. 7 A daughter of TwasWri. 
She has been identified with the Greek Erinnys. The "begin- 
ning of this myth is in a hymn of the J?g-veda, which says 
" i . Twashtfri makes a wedding for his daughter. (Hearing) this, 
the whole world assembles. The mother of Yama, the wedded 
wife of the great Yivaswat (the sun), disappeared. 2. They 
concealed the immortal (bride) from, mortals. Making (another) 
of like appearance, they gave her to Vivaswat. Saranyu bore 
the two Aswins, and when she had done so she deserted the two 
twins." In the Nirukta the story is expanded as follows : 
" Sarawyu, the daughter of Twashfri, bore twins to Vivaswat, 
the son of Aditi. She then substituted for herself another 
female of similar appearance, and fied in the form of a mare. 
Vivaswat in like manner assumed the shape of a horse and 
followed her. From their intercourse sprang two Aswins, while 
Manu was the offspring of Savarwa (or the female of like appear- 
ance)." The Erihad-devata has another version of the same 
story: "Twashfoi had twin children, (a daughter) Sara?zyu and 
(a son) Tri-siras. He gave Sarawyu in marriage to Vivaswat, to 
whom she bore Yama and Yami, who also were twins. Creat- 
ing a female like herself without her husband's knowledge, and 
making the twins over in charge to her, Sarawyu took the form 
of a mare and departed Vivaswat, in ignorance, begot on the 
female who was left Manu, a royal J?ishi, who resembled his f athei 
in glory ; but discovering that the real Sara%yu, TwashWs 
daughter, had gone away, Vivaswat followed her quickly, taking 
the shape of a horse of the same species as she. Recognising 
him in that form, she approached him with the desire of sexual 
connection, which he gratified In their haste his seed fell on 
the ground, and she, being desirous of offspring, smelled it. 
From this act sprang the two Kumaras (youths), Nasatya and 
Dasra, who were lauded as Aswins (sprung from a horse)." 
Muir*$ Texts, v. 227. See the Pnranic version under " Sanjna." 

SABAS WATA. i. In the Maha-bharata the J&shi Saraswata 
is represented as being the son of the personified river SaraswatL 
In a time of great drought he was fed with fish by his mother, 
and so was enabled to keep up his knowledge of the Vedas, 
while other Brahmans were reduced to such straits for the means 
of subsistence that study was neglected and the Vedas were 
lost. "WTien the drought was over, the Brahmans flockod to 


him for instruction, and 60,000 acquired a knowledge of the 
Vedas from him. "This legend," says Wilson, "appears to 
indicate the revival, or, more probahly, the introduction of the 
Hindu ritual by the race of Brahmans, or the people called 
Saraswata," who dwelt near the Saraswati river. Saraswata 
Brahmans still dwell in the Panjab, and are met with in many 
other parts, 2. The country about the Saraswati river. 3. A 
great national division of the Brahman caste. 

SAKASWATL < Watery, elegant/ In the Yedas, Saras- 
wati is primarily a river, but is celebrated in the hymns both as 
a river and a deity. The Saraswati river was one boundary of 
Brahmavartta, the home of the early Aryans, and was to them, 
in all likelihood, a sacred river, as the Ganges has long been to 
their descendants. As a river goddess, Saraswati is lauded for 
the fertilising and purifying powers of her waters, and as the 
bestower of fertility, fatness, and wealth. Her position as Yach, 
the goddess of speech, finds no mention in the JSig-veda, but is 
recognised by the Brahmans and the Maha-bharata. Dr. Muir 
endeavours to account for her acquisition of this character. He 
say, "When once the river had acquired a divine character, it 
was quite natural that she should be regarded as the patroness 
of the ceremonies which were celebrated on the margin of her 
holy waters, and that her direction and blessing should be in- 
voked as essential to their proper performance and success. 
The connection into which she was thus brought with sacred 
rites may have led to the further step of imagining her to have 
an influence on the composition of the hymns which formed so 
important a part of the proceedings, and of identifying her with 
Yach, the goddess of speech." In later times Saraswati is the 
wife of Brahma, the goddess of speech and learning, inventress 
of the Sanskrit language and Deva-nagari letters, and patroness 
of the arts and sciences. " She is represented as of a white 
colour, without any superfluity of limbs, and not unfrequently 
of a graceful figure, wearing a slender crescent on her brow and 
sitting on a lotus. " Wilson. The same authority states that " the 
Vaislwavas of Bengal have a popular legend that she was the wife 
of Vishnu, as were also Lakshml and Ganga. The ladies dis- 
agreed ; Saraswati, like the other prototype of learned ladies, 
Minerva, being something of a termagant, and Yishnu finding 
that one wife was as much as he could manage, transferred 


Saraswati to Brahma and Ganga to $iva, and contented himself 
with Lakshmi alone. (See Yach.) Other names of Saraswati 
are Bharati, Brahmi, Put-kari, $arada, Yaglswarl. The river is 
now called Sarsuti. It falls from the Himalayas and is lost in 
the sands of the desert. In ancient times it flowed on to the sea. 
A passage in the .Z&g-veda says of it, " She who goes on pure 
from the mountains as far as the sea," Max Muller^ Veda, 45. 
According to the Maha-bharata it was dried up by the curse of 
the sage Utathya (q.v.). See Sapta-sindhava. 

cal and rhetorical composition generally ascribed to Bhoja Raja. 

SARAYU. The Sarju. river or Gogra. 

SARMISHfHA. Daughter of Ynshaparvan the Danava, 
second wife of Yayati and mother of Puru. See Devayani. 

&ARNGA. The bow of Knshrca. 

S ARYA, /SARYA, A Yedic deity ; the destroyer. After- 

wards a name of Siva and of one of the Rudras. See Rudra, 

, SARVA-DABi'AJVA SANGRAHA. A work by Madhava- 

chary a which gives an account of the Darsanas or schools of 

philosophy, whether orthodox or heretical. It has been printed. 

$ARYARL A woman of low caste, who was very devout 
and looked for the coming of Rama until she had grown old. 
In reward of her piety a sage raised her from her low caste, and 
when she had seen Rama she burnt herself on a funeral pile. 
She ascended from the pile in a chariot to the heaven of 

S ARYA-SARA. Name of an Upanishad. 

$ASADA. * Hare-eater.' A name given to Yikukshi (q.T.). 
' $A$1, SA.SIN, The moon, so called from the marks on the 
moon being considered to resemble a hare (sasa). 

/SASTRA. c A rule, book, treatise.' Any book of divine or 
recognised authority, but mose especially the law-books. 

SATA-DHANIJ. A king who had a virtuous and discreet 
wife named $aibya, They were both worshippers of Yislmu. 
One day they met a heretic, with whom ata-dh.ami conversed ; 
but the wife " turned away from him and cast her eyes up to 
the sun," After a time $ata-dhanu died and his wife ascended 
Ms funeral pile. The wife was born again as a princess with a 
knowledge of her previous existence, but the husband received 
the form of a dog. She recognised him in this form and placed 


the bridal garland on Ms neck. Then she reminded him of his 
previous existence and of the fault which had caused his degra- 
dation. He was greatly humiliated and died from a broken 
spirit. After that, he was horn successively as a jackal, a wolf, 
a crow, and a peacock. In each form his wife recognised him, 
reminded him of his sin, and urged him to make efforts for 
restoration to his former dignity. At length " he was born as 
the son of a person of distinction," and Saibya then elected him 
as her bridegroom ; and having " again invested him with the 
character of her husband, they lived happily together." When 
he died she again followed him in death, and both " ascended 
beyond the sphere of Indra to the regions where all desires are 
for ever gratified." "This legend," says Wilson, "is peculiar 
to the Yishrai Purawa, although the doctrine it inculcates is to 
be found elsewhere. 

SATA-DHAJSTWAN, 5ATA-DHANUS. < Having a hundred 
bows.' A Yadava and son of Hn'dika. He killed Satrajit, 
father of Satya-bhama, the wife of Knshwa, in his sleep, and 
was himself killed in revenge by Krishna, who struck off his 
head with his discus. 

SATA-DRU. 'Flowing in a hundred (channels)/ The 
name of the river Sutlej, the Zaradrus of Ptolemy, the Hesudrus 
of Pliny. 

SATA-GHNL * Slaying hundreds.' A missile weapon used 
by Krishna. It is described in the Maha-bharata as a stone 
set round with iron spikes, but many have supposed it to be 
a rocket or other fiery weapon. 

SATA-KKATU. < The god of a hundred rites ; ' Indra. 

SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. A celebrated Brahmawu at- 
tached to the White Yajur-veda, and ascribed to the JRishi 
Yajnawalkya. It is found in two Sakhas, the Madhyandina 
t and the KaTiwa. This is the most complete and systematic as 
well as the most important of aH the Brahmarcas. It has been 
edited by Weber. 

SATA-RUPA. 'The hundred-formed.* The first woman. 
According to one account she was the daughter of Brahma^ and 
from their incestuous intercourse the first Manu, named Swayam- 
bhuva, was born. Another account makes her the wife, not 
the mother, of Manu. The account given by Manu is that 
Brahma divided himself into two parts, male and female, and 


from them sprang Mann. She is also called SavitrL See Viraj 
and Brahma. 

SATATAPA. An old writer on law. 

SATA-VAHANA. A name by which $ali-vahana is some* 
times called. 

SATl. A daughter of Daksha and wife of Eudra, i&, $iva. 
The Vishnu Pura?^a states that she " abandoned her body in 
consequence of the anger of Daksha, She then became the 
daughter of Himavat and Mena; and the divine Bhava again 
married Uma, who was identical with his ($iva's) former 
spouse." The authorities generally agree that she died or killed 
herself in consequence of the quarrel between her husband and 
father ; and the Kasi Khan^a, a modern work, represents that 
she entered the fire and became a Sati. See Pitfha-sthana. 

SATKAJIT, SATKAJITA. Son of Nighna. In return for 
praise rendered to the sun he beheld the luminary in his proper 
form, and received from him the wonderful Syamantaka gem. 
He lost the gem, but it was recovered and restored to him 
by Krishna. In return he presented Krishna, with his daughter 
Satya-bhama to wife. There had been many suitors for this 
lady's hand, and one of them, named $ata-dhanwan, in revenge 
for her loss, killed Satrajit and carried off the gem, but he was 
afterwards killed by Krishna. 

SATKU-GHKA. c Foe destroyer.' Twin-brother of Laksh- 
mana and half-brother of Kama, in whom an eighth part of 
the divinity of Vishnu was incarnate. His wife was Sruta-klrti, 
cousin of Sita. He fought on the side of Kama and killed the 
Rakshasa chief Lavana, See Dasa-ratha and Kama. 

SATYA-BHAMA. Daughter of Satrajita and one of the 
four chief wives of Krishna. 'She had ten sons, Bhanu, Su- 
bhanu, Swar-bhanu, Prabhanu, Bhanumat, Chandrabhanu, Bn- 
hadbhanu, Atibhanu, $ribhanu, and Pratibhanu. Knshna took 
her with him to Indra's heaven, and she induced Mm to bring 
away the Parijata tree. 

SATYA-DHjR/TL Son of $aradwat and grandson of the 
sage Gautama According to the Vishnu Purana he was father 
by the nymph Urvasi of Kripa and Kn'pL 

SATYAKI A kinsman of Krishna's, who fought on the 
side of the Pancfavas, and was Krishna's charioteer. He assassi- 
nated Krtta-varma in a drinking bout at Dwaraka^ and was him- 


self cut down by the friends of his victim. He is also called 
Daruka and Yuyudhana ; and Saineya from his father, $ini. 

SATYA-LOKA. See Loka, 

SATYAVAN. See SavitrL 

SATYA-YATI i. Daughter of Uparichara, king of Chedi, by 
an Apsaras named Adrika, who was condemned to live on earth 
in the form of a fisk She was mother of Yyasa by the jRishi 
Parasara, and she was also wife of King $antanu, mother of 
Yichitra-vlrya and Chitrangada, and grandmother of the Kaur- 
avas and Pa^avas, the rivals in the great war. The sage 
Parasara met her as she was crossing the river Yamuna when 
she was quite a girl, and the offspring of their illicit intercourse 
was brought forth on an island (dwlpd} in that river, and was 
hence called Dwaipayana. (See Yyasa.) She was also called 
Gandha-kall, Gandha-vati, and Kalangani; and as her mother 
lived in the form of a fish, she is called Dasa-nandini, Daseyi, 
Jhajhodari, and Matsyodarl, 'fish-born.' 2. A daughter of King 
Gadhi, wife of the Brahman jRichika, mother of Jamad-agni and 
grandmother of Parasu-rama. She was of the Kusika race, and 
is said to have been transformed into the Kausilu river. See 
JKchika and Yiswaruitra. 

SATYA-YRATA r. Name of the seventh Mann. See 

2. A king of the Solar race, descended from Ikshwaku. He 
was father of Haris-chandra, and is also named Yedhas and Tri- 
sanku. According to the Eamayawa he was a pious king, and 
was desirous of performing a sacrifice in virtue of which he 
might ascend bodily to heaven. Yasishtfha, his priest, declined 
to perform it, declaring it impossible. He then applied to 
Yasish&a's sons, and they condemned him to become a Cha?ic?ala 
for his presumption. In his distress and degradation he applied 
to Yiswamitra, who promised to raise him in that form to 
heaven. Yiswamitra's intended sacrifice was strongly resisted 
by the sons of Yasishftia, but he reduced them to ashes, and 
condemned them to be born again as outcasts for seven hundred 
births. The wrathful sage bore down all other opposition, and 
Tri-sanku ascended to heaven. Here his entry was opposed by 
Indra and the gods, but Yiswamitra in a fury declared that he 
would create " another Indra, or the world should have no Indra 
at all" The gods were obliged to yield, and it was agreed that 


Tri-sanku, an immortal, sliould hang with, his head downwards, 
and shine among some stars newly called into being by Yiswa- 

The Yishmi Purawa gives a more simple version. While 
Satya-vrata was a Chaw^ala, and the famine was raging, he sup- 
ported Viswamitra's family by hanging deer's flesh on a tree on 
the bank of the Ganges, so that they might obtain food without 
the degradation of receiving it from a ChawMa : for this charity 
Yiswamitra raised him to heaven. 

The story is differently told in the Hari-vansa. Satya-vrata 
or Tri-sanku, when a prince, attempted to carry off the wife of a 
citizen, in consequence of which his father drove him from home, 
nor did Yasish/ha, the family priest, endeavour to soften the 
father's decision. The period of his exile was a time of famine, 
and he greatly succoured the wife and family of Yiswamitra, 
who were in deep distress while the sage was absent far away. 
He completed his twelve years' exile and penance, and being 
hungry one day, and having no flesh to eat, he killed Yasish&a's 
wondrous cow, the Kama-dhenu, and ate thereof himself, and 
gave some to the sons of Yiswamitra. In his rage Yasish/ha 
gave him the name Tri-sanku, as being guilty of three great 
sins. Yiswamitra was gratified by the assistance which Satya- 
vrata had rendered to his family; "he installed him in his 
father's kingdom, . . . and, in spite of the resistance of the 
gods and of Yasishha, exalted the king alive to heaven." 

SATYAYANA. Name of a Brahma?ia. 

SATYA-YAUYANA. A certain Yidya-dham 

SATJBHA. A magical city, apparently first mentioned m 
the Yajur-veda. An aerial city belonging to Haris-chandra, and 
according to popular belief still visible occasionally. It is 
called also Kha-pura, Prati-rrxargaka, and Tranga. In the 
Maha-bharata an aerial or self-supporting city belonging to the 
Daityas, on the shore of the ocean, protected by the Salwa 

SAUBHABI. A devout sage, who, when he was old and 
emaciated, was inspired with a desire of offspring. He went 
to King Mandhatn, and demanded one of his fifty daughters. 
Afraid to refuse, and yet unwilling to bestow a daughter upon 
such a suitor, the king temporised, and endeavoured to evade 
the request It was at length settled that, if any one of the 



daughters should accept Mm as a bridegroom, the king would 
consent to the marriage. Saubhari was conducted to the pre- 
sence of the girls ; but on his way he assumed a fair and hand- 
some form, so that all the girls were captivated, and contended 
with each other as to who should become his wife. It ended 
by his marrying them all and taking them home. He caused 
Yiswa-karma to build for each a separate palace, furnished in the 
most luxurious manner, and surrounded with exquisite gardens, 
where they lived a most happy life, each oue of them having her 
husband always present with her, and believing that he was 
devoted to her and her only. By his wives he had a hundred 
and fifty sons ; but as he found his hopes and desires for them 
to daily increase and expand, he resolved to devote himself 
wholly and solely to penance and the worship of Yislmu. 
Accordingly, he abandoned his children and retired with his 
wives to the forest. See Yislmu Purawa. 

SAUDASA. Son of King Sudas. Their descendants are 
all Saudasas. See Kalmiisha-pada, 

SATJNANDA, A club shaped like a pestle, which was one 
of the weapons of Eala-rama. 

$AUTAKA. A sage, the son of $unaka and grandson of 
Gritsa-mada. He was the author of the Bnhad-devata, an Anu- 
kramafti, and other works, and he was a teacher of the Atharva- 
veda. His pupil was Aswalayana. There was a family of the 
name, and the works attributed to $aunaka are probably the 
productions of more than one person. 


SAURASHTRAS. The people of Surashfra. 

SAUTL Name of the sage who repeated the Maha-bharata 
to the JMshis in the Naimisha forest. 

SAUVIRAS. A people connected with the Saindhavas or 
people of Sindh, and probably inhabitants of the western and 
southern parts of the Panjab. Cunningham says that Sauvlra 
was the plain country. 

SAYARJVA, SAYARATL The eighth Manu. The name is 
used either alone or in combination for all the succeeding Manus 
to the fourteenth and kst. See Manu. 

SAVAK2VA, Wife of the sun, " The female of like appear- 
ance," whom Sarawyu, wife of Yivaswat, substituted for herself 
when she fled. (See SaranyiL) Manu was the offspring of 


Savaim This is the version given in the Nirukta. In the 
Yislmu Parana, Savarna is daughter of the ocean, wife of 
Prachlnabarhis, and mother of the ten Prachetasas. 

SAYITJtJ. * Generator/ i. A name used in the Yedas for 
the sun. Many hymns are addressed to him, and he is some- 
times distinguished from that deity. 2. One of the Adityas. 

SAYITBl. i. The holy verse of the Yeda, commonly called 
Gayatri. 2, A name of $ata-rupa, the daughter and wife of 
Brahma, who is sometimes regarded as a personification of the 
holy verse. 3. Daughter of King Aswa-pati, and lover of Sat- 
yavan, whom she insisted on marrying, although she was warned 
by a seer that he had only one year to live. When the fatal 
day arrived, Satyavan went out to cut wood, and she followed 
him. There he fell, dying, to the earth, and she, as she sup- 
ported him, saw a figure, who told her that he was Yama, king 
of the dead, and that he had come for her husband's spirit. 
Yama carried off the spirit towards the shades, but Savitri 
followed him. Her devotion pleased Yama, and lie offered her 
any boon except the life of her husband. She extorted three 
such boons from Yama, but still she followed him, a,nd he was 
finally constrained to restore her husband to life. 

SAYYA-SACHIK 'Who pulls a bow with either hand.' 
A title of Arjuna. 

SAYAJVA, Sayawacharya, the celebrated commentator on 
the jRtg-veda. " He was brother of Madhavacharya, the prime 
minister of Yira Bukka Eaya, Eaja of Yijaya-nagara, in the 
fourteenth century, a munificent patron of Hindu literature. 
Both the brothers are celebrated as scholars, and many important 
works are attributed to them ; not only scholia on the Sanhitas 
and Brahmanas of the Yedas, but original works on grammar 
and law ; the fact, no doubt, being that they availed themselves 
of those means which their situation and influence secured them, 
and employed the most learned Brahmans they could attract to 
Yijaya-nagara upon the works which bear their name, and to 
which they also contributed their own labour and learning; 
their works were, therefore, compiled under peculiar advantages, 
and are deservedly held in the highest estimation." Wilson. 

SESHA, SESHA-NlGA. King of the serpent race or Nagas, 
and of the infernal regions called Patala, A serpent with a 
thousand heads which is the couch and canopy of Yishwu whilst 


sleeping during the intervals of creation. Sometimes 5esha ia 
represented as supporting the world, and sometimes as upholding 
the seven Patalas or hells. Whenever he yawns he causes earth- 
quakes. At the end of each kalpa he vomits venomous fire 
which destroys all creation. When the gods churned the ocean 
they made use of Sesha as a great rope, which they twisted round 
the mountain Mandara, and so used it as a churn. He is repre- 
sented clothed in purple and wearing a white necklace, holding 
in one hand a plough and in the other a pestle. He is also 
called Ananta, 'the endless/ as the symbol of eternity. His 
wife was named Ananta-sirsha. He is sometimes distinct from 
Vasuki but generally identified with him. In the Pura^as he 
is said to be the son of Kasyapa and Kadru, and according to 
some authorities he was incarnate in Bala-rama. His hood is 
called Mawi-dwipa, 'the island of jewels/ and his palace Mam- 
bhitti, f jewel-walled/ or Mawi-mawrfapa, l jewel palace/ 

SETU-BANDHA. f Kama's bridge.' The line of rocks be- 
tween the continent and Ceylon called in maps "Adam's bridge. >r 
It is also know as Samudraru, There is a poem called Setu- 
bandha or Setu-kavya on the subject of the building of the 
bridge by Eama's allies, 

SHAD-DAKSANA. See Darsana. 

SHAJ9-YINSA. < Twenty-sixth.' One of the Brahmanas of 
the Sama-veda. It is called " the twenty-sixth " because it 
was added to the Praucflia Brahmawa, which has twenty-five 

SHA^-PURA. 'The sixfold city/ or < the six cities ' granted 
by Brahma to the Asuras, and of which Nikumbha was king. 
It was taken by Krishna and given to Brahma-datta, a Brahman. 

SIDDHAS. A class of semi-divine beings of great purity 
and holiness, who dwell in the regions of the sky between the 
earth and the sun. They are said to be 88,000 in number. 

SIDDHANTA, Any scientific work on astronomy or mathe- 

S1DDHANTA KAUMTIDl A modern and simplified form 
of Pawinf s Grammar by Bha^ojl Dikshita. It is in print 

SrDDHA^TA-SIEOMA^VL A work on astronomy by 
Bhaskaracharya, It has been printed, and has been translated 
for the Bibliotheca Indica. 


', STKRANDINl Sik'hmdml is said to have 
been the daughter of Raja Drapada, but according to another state- 
ment she was one of the two wives whom Bhishma obtained for 
his brother Vichitra-vlrya. " She (the widow) perished in the jun- 
gle, but before her death she had been assured by Parasu-rama that 
she should become a man in a future birth, and cause the death of 
Bhishma, who had been the author of her misfortunes." Accord- 
ingly she was born again as SikhaTwKn, son of Drupada. Bhishma 
fell in battle pierced all over by the arrows of Arjuna, but ac- 
cording to this story the fatal shaft came from the hands of 
$ikha?i^in. See Amba. 

/STKSHA. Phonetics ; one of the Vedangas. The science 
which teaches the proper pronunciation and manner of reciting 
the Vedas. There are many treatises on this subject. 

/SILPA-^ARTKA, The science of mechanics; it includes 
architecture. Any book or treatise on this science, 

SLNDHU. i. The river Indus ; also the country along that 
river and the people dwelling in it. From Sindhu came the 
Hind of the Arabs, the Hiudoi or Indoi of the Greeks, and 
our India. 2. A river in Malwa. There are others of the 
name. See Sapta-sindhava. 


SINHASANA DWATRINSAT. The thirty-two stories 
told by the images which supported the throne of King Vikra- 
maditya. It is the Singhasan Battlsl in Hindustani, and is 
current in most of the languages of India. 

SINII1KA. i. A daughter of Daksha and wife of Kasyapa; 
also a daughter of Kasyapa and wife of Viprachittl 2. A Rak- 
shasi who tried to swallow Hanumtin and make a meal of him. 
Ho allowed her to do so and then rent her body to pieces and 
departed. Her habit was to seize the shadow of the object she 
wished to devour and so drag the prey into her jaws. 

/S1PRA. The river on which the city of ITjjayini stands. 

SlRA-DHWAJA. t He of the plough-banner.' An epithet 
for Janalca. 

SLSUMARA. A porpoise. 7 The planetary sphere, which, as 
explained by the Vislmu Purana, has the shape of a porpoise, 
Vishnu being seated in its heart, and Dhruva or the pole star in 
its tail. " AH Dhruva revolves, it causes the sun, moon, and 
other planets to turn round also \ and the lunar asterisms follow 


in its circular path, for all the celestial luminaries are, in fact, 
bound to the polar star by aerial cords." 

SLSTJ-PALA Son of Dama-ghosha, king of Chedi, by ruta- 
deva, sister of Vasu-deva ; he was therefore cousin of Krishna, 
but he was Krishna's implacable foe, because K?'ishna had car- 
ried off Rukmini, his intended wife. He was slain by Krishna 
at the great sacrifice of Yudhi-sh&ira in punishment of oppro- 
brious abuse. The Maha-bharata states that isu-pala was born 
with three eyes and four arms. His parents were inclined to 
cast him out, but were warned by a voice not to do so, as his 
time was not come. It also foretold that his superfluous mem- 
bers should disappear when a certain person took the child into 
his lap, and that he would eventually die by the hands of that 
same person. Krishna placed the child on his knees and the 
extra eye and arms disappeared ; Krishna also killed him. The 
Vislmu Purana contributes an additional legend about him. 
" $isu-pala was in a former existence the unrighteous but valiant 
monarch of the Daityas, Hiranya-kasipu, who was killed by the 
divine guardian of creation (in the man-lion Avatara). He was 
next the ten-headed (sovereign Ravana), whose unequalled 
prowess, strength, and power were overcome by the lord of the 
three worlds (Rama). Having been killed by the deity in the 
form of Raghava, he had long enjoyed the reward of his virtues 
in exemption from an embodied state, but had now received 
birth once more as $isu-pala, the son of Dama-ghosha, king of 
Chedi. In this character he renewed with greater inveteracy 
than ever his hostile hatred towards PuT^arikaksha (Vishnu), 
. . . and was in consequence slain by him. But from the cir- 
cumstance of his thoughts being constantly engrossed by the 
supreme being, $isu-pala was united with him after death, . . . 
for the lord bestows a heavenly and exalted station even upon 
those whom he slays in his displeasure." He was called Su- 
nitha, l virtuous.' 

I# UPALA-B ADH A. < The death of Slsu-pala ; ' an epic poem 
by Magha, in twenty cantos. It has been often printed, and has 
been translated into French by Fauche, 

SlTA 'A furrow/ In the Veda, Sita is the furrow, or hus- 
bandry personified, and worshipped as a deity presiding over 
agriculture and fruits. In the Ramayana and later works she is 
daughter of Janaka king of Videha, and wife of Rama. The 

S7TA. 295 

old Yedic idea still adhered to her, for she sprang from a furrow. 
In the Ramayana her father Janaka says, " As I was ploughing 
my field, there sprang from the plough a girl, obtained by me 
wnile cleansing my field, and known by name as Sita (the fur- 
row). This girl sprung from the earth grew up as my daughter." 
Hence she is styled Ayonija, c not born from the womb.' She 
is said to have lived before in the Knta age as Vedavati, and to 
be in reality the goddess Lakshmi in human form, born in the 
world for bringing about the destruction of Ravawa, the Rak- 
shasa king of Lanka, who was invulnerable to ordinary means, 
but doomed to die on account of a woman, Sita became the 
wife of Rama, who won her by bending the great bow of iva, 
She was his only wife, and was the embodiment of purity, ten- 
derness, and conjugal affection. She accompanied her husband 
in his exile, but was carried off from him by Ravana and kept 
in his palace at Lanka. There he made many efforts to win her 
to his will, but she continued firm against all persuasions, threats, 
and terrors, and maintained a dignified serenity throughout. 
When Rama had slain the ravisher and recovered his wife, he 
received her coldly, and refused to take her back, for it was hard 
to believe it possible that she had retained her honour. She 
asserted her purity in touching language, and resolved to estab- 
lish it by the ordeal of fire. The pile was raised and she entered 
the flames in the presence of gods and men, but she remained 
unhurt, and the god of fire brought her forth and placed her in 
her husband's arms. Notwithstanding this proof of her inno- 
cence, jealous thoughts passed through the mind of Rama, and 
after he had ascended his ancestral throne at Ayodhya, his people 
blamed him for taking back a wife who had been in the power 
of a licentious ravisher. So, although she was pregnant, he 
banished her and sent her to the hermitage of Yalmiki, where 
she gave birth to twin sons, Kusa and Lava, There she lived 
till the boys wore about fifteen years old. One day they strayed 
to their father's capital He recognised and acknowledged them 
and then recalled Sita. She returned and publicly declared her 
innocence, But Iwr heart was deeply wounded. She called 
upon her mother earth to attest her purity, and it did so. The 
ground opened, and she was taken back into the source from 
which she had sprung. Rama was now disconsokte and resolved 
to quit this mortal life. (See Rama,) Sita had the appellations 

296 SIVA. 

of Bhumi-ja, Dharara-suta, and Parthivi, all meaning * daughter 
of the earth,' 

SIVA. The name /Siva is unknown to the Vedas, "but 
Rudra, another name of this deity, and almost equally common, 
occurs in the Veda both in the singular and plural, and from 
these the great deity Siva, and his manifestations, the Kudras, 
have "been developed. In the JWg-veda the word Rudra is used 
for Agni, and the Maruts are called his sons. In other passages 
he is distinct from Agni, He is lauded as " the lord of songs, 
the lord of sacrifices, who heals remedies, is brilliant as the sun, 
the best and most bountiful of gods, who grants prosperity and 
welfare to horses and sheep, men, women, and cows ; the lord 
of nourishment, who drives away diseases, dispenses remedies, 
and removes sin ; but, on the other hand he is the wielder of 
the thunderbolt, the bearer of bow and arrows, and mounted on 
bis chariot is terrible as a wild beast, destructive and fierce." 
In the Yajur-veda there is a long prayer called atarudriya which 
is addressed to him and appeals to him under a great variety of 
epithets. He is " auspicious, not terrible ; " " the deliverer, the 
first divine physician ; " he is " blue-necked and red-coloured, 
who has a thousand eyes and bears a thousand quivers ;" and in 
another hymn he is called " Tryambaka, the sweet-scented in- 
creaser of prosperity ; " " a medicine for kino and horses, a medi- 
cine for men, and a (source of) ease to rams and ewes." In the 
Atharva-veda he is still the protector of cattle, but his character 
is fiercer. He is " dark, black, destroying, terrible." He is the 
" fierce god," who is besought to betake himself elsewhere, " and 
not to assail mankind with consumption, poison, or celestial fire." 
The Brahmams tell that when Eudra was born he wept, and his 
father, Prajapati, asked the reason, and on being told that he 
wept because he had not received a name, his father gave him 
the name of Rudra (from the root rud, f weep'). They also relate 
that at the request of the gods he pierced Prajapati because of his 
incestuous intercourse with his daughter, In another place he is 
said to have applied to his father eight successive times fora name, 
and that he received in succession the names Bhava, Sarva, Pasu- 
pati, Ugradeva, Mahandeva, Rudra, Isana, and Asani. In the 
Upanishads his character is further developed. He declares to the 
inquiring gods, " I alone was before (all things), and I exist and 
I shall be. No other transcends ma I am eternal and not 

SIVA. 297 

eternal, discernible and undiscernible, I am Brahma and I am 
not Brahma." Again it is said, "He is the only Eudra, he is 
L'ana, he is divine, he is Maheswara, he is Mahadeva." " There 
is only one Eudra, there is no place for a second. He rules 
this fourth world, controlling and productive ; living beings 
abide with him, united with him. At the time of the end he 
annihilates all worlds, the protector." " He is without begin- 
ning, middle, or end ; the one, the pervading, the spiritual and 
blessed, the wonderful, the consort of TJmFi, the supreme lord, 
the three-eyed, the blue-throated, the tranquil. ... He is 
Brahma, he is /Siva, he is Indra; he is undecaying, supreme, self- 
resplendent ; he is Vislwu, he is breath, he is the spirit, the 
supreme lord ; he is all that hath been or that shall be, eternal. 
Knowing him, a man overpasses death, There is no other way 
to liberation." In the Eamayana $iva is a great god, but the 
references to him have more of the idea of a personal god than 
of a supreme divinity. He is represented as fighting with 
Vislwu, and as receiving worship with Brahma, Vishnu, and 
Indra, but he acknowledges the divinity of Kama, and holds a 
less exalted position than Vishnu. The Maha-bharata also gives 
Vislwu or Krishna the highest honour upon the whole. But it 
has many passages in which /Siva occupies the supreme place, 
and receives the homage and worship of Vishnu and Krishna. 
" Maha-deva," it says, " is an all-pervading god yet is nowhere 
seen ; he is the creator and the lord of Brahma, Vishnu, and 
Indra, whom the gods, from Brahma to the Pisachas, worship." 
The rival claims of /Siva and Vishnu to supremacy are clearly 
displayed in this poem ; and many of those powers and attributes 
are ascribed to them which were afterwards so widely developed 
in the Puranas. Attempts also are made to reconcile their con- 
flicting claims by representing /Siva and Vishnu, Siva and 
Krishna, to be one, or, as it is expressed at a later time in the 
Hari-vansa, there is " no difference between /Siva who exists in 
the form of Vishnu, and Vishnu who exists in the form of /Siva.* 

The Puranas distinctly assert the supremacy of their particular 
divinity, whether it be /Siva or whether it be Vishnu, and they 
have developed aixd amplified the myths and allusions of the 
older writings into numberless legends and stories for the glori- 
fication and honour of their favourite god. 

The Eudra of the Vedas has developed in the course of ages 

2gS SIVA. 

into the great and powerful god Siva, the third deity of the 
Hindu triad, and the supreme god of his votaries. He is shortly 
described as the destroying principle, but his powers and attri- 
butes are more numerous and much wider. Under the name of 
Eudra or Maha-kala, he is the great destroying and dissolving 
power. But destruction in Hindu belief implies reproduction ; 
so as Siva or $ankara, c the auspicious,' he is the reproductive 
power which is perpetually restoring that which has been dis- 
solved, and hence he is regarded as Iswara, the supreme lord, and 
Mahardeva, the great god. Under this character of restorer he 
is represented by his symbol the Linga or phallus, typical of re- 
production ; and it is under this form alone, or combined with 
the Yoni, or female organ, the representative of his Sakti, or 
female energy, that he is everywhere worshipped. Thirdly, he 
is the Maha-yogl, the great ascetic, in whom is centred the 
highest perfection of austere penance and abstract meditation, by 
which the most unlimited powers are attained, marvels and 
miracles are worked, the highest spiritual knowledge is acquired, 
and union with the great spirit of the universe is eventually 
gained. In this character he is the naked ascetic Dig-ambara, 
' clothed with the elements/ or Dhur-jaft, ' loaded with matted 
hair/ and his body smeared with ashes. His first or destructive 
character is sometimes intensified, and he becomes Bhairava, f the 
terrible destroyer/ who takes a pleasure in destruction. He is 
also Bhuteswara, the lord of ghosts and goblins. In these char- 
acters he haunts cemeteries and places of cremation, wearing 
serpents round his head and skulls for a necklace, attended by 
troops of imps and trampling on rebellious demons. He some- 
times indulges in revelry, and, heated with drink, dances furiously 
with his wife Devi the dance called Taft^ava, while troops of 
drunken imps caper around them. Possessed of so many powers 
and attributes, he has a great number of names, and is represented 
under a variety of forms. One authority enumerates a thousand 
and eight names, but most of these are descriptive epithets } as 
Tri-lochana, * the three-eyed/ Nila-kantha, the blue-throated/ 
and Panch-anana, 'the five-faced.' $iva is a fair man with five 
faces and four arms. He is commonly represented seated in 
profound thought, with a third eye in the middle of his fore- 
head, contained in or surmounted by the moon's crescent ; his 
matted locks are gathered up into a coil like a horn, which bears 

SIVA, 299 

upon it a symbol of the river Ganges, which he caught as it fell 
from heaven ; a necklace of skulls (muTida-mala), hangs round his 
neck, and serpents twine about his neck as a collar (naga-kuraMa); 
his neck is blue from drinking the deadly poison which would 
have destroyed the world, and in his hand he holds a tmula 01 
trident called Pinaka. His garment is the skin of a tiger, a deer, 
or an elephant, hence he is called Kntti-vasas ; sometimes he is 
clothed in a skin and seated upon a tiger-skin, and he holds a deer 
in his hand. He is generally accompanied hy his bull Nandi. He 
also carries the bow Ajagava, a drum (ckmaru) in the shape of 
an hour-glass, the Kha^wanga or club with a skull at the end, or 

- a cord (pa-sa) for binding refractory offenders. His Pramathas 
or attendants are numerous, and are imps and demons of various 
kinds. His third eye has been very destructive. With it he 
reduced to ashes Kama, the god of love, for daring to inspire 
amorous thoughts of his consort Parvati while he was engaged 
in penance ; and the gods and all created beings were destroyed 
by its glance at one of the periodical destructions of the universe. 
He is represented to have cut off one of the heads of Brahma 
for speaking disrespectfully, so that Brahma has only four heads 
instead of five. $iva is the great object of worship at Benares 
under the name of Yisweswara, His heaven is on Mount 

There are various legends respecting Siva's garments and 
weapons. It is said that " he once visited a forest in the form 
of a religious mendicant, and the wives of the JSfehis residing 
there fell in love with his great beauty, which the JS/shis, per- 
ceiving, resented ; in order, therefore, to overpower him, they 
first dug a pit, and by magical arts caused a tiger to rush out of 
it, which he slew, and taking his skin wore it as a garment ; 
they next caused a deer to spring out upon him, which he took 
up in his left hand and ever after retained there. They then 
produced a red-hot iron, but this too he took up and kept in 
his hand as a weapon, . . . The elephant's skin belonged to an 
Asura named Gaya, who acquired such power that he would 
have conquered the gods, and would have destroyed the Mums 
had they not fled to Benares and taken refuge in a temple of 
/Siva, who then destroyed the Asura, and, ripping up his body, 
stripped off the (elephant) hide, which he cast over his shoulders 
for a doak." Williams. 


Otber names or epithets of Siva are Aghora, ' horrible;, Bhaga vat, 'divine;' Chandra-sekhara, ' moon-crested ; J 
Ganga-dhara, ' "bearer of the Ganges;' Girisa, 'mountain lord ;' 
Hara, 'seizer.' Isana, 'ruler;' Ja/a-dhara, 'wearing matted 
hair;' Jala-murtti, 'whose form is water;' Kala, 'time;' Kalan- 
jara ; Kapala-malin, 'wearing a garland of skulls;' Maha-kala, 
'great time;' Mahesa, 'great lord;' Mntyunjaya, 'vanquisher 
of death ;' Pasu-pati, c lord of animals ; ' $ankara, $arva, 
Sadasiva or Sambhu, 'the auspicious;' Sthanu, 'the firm;' 
Tryambaka, 'three-eyed;' Ugra, 'fierce;' Virupaksha, 'of mis- 
formed eyes ;' Yiswanatha, 'lord of all' 

SIVA PURANA. See Purana. 

A$TVL Son of Uslnara, and king of the country also called 
TJsmara, near Gandhara. The great charity and devotion of 
Sivi are extolled in the Maha-bharata by the sage Markan^eya. 
Agni having assumed the form of a pigeon, was pursued by Indra 
in the shape of a falcon. The pigeon took refuge in the bosom 
of Sivi, and the falcon would accept nothing from $ivi instead 
of the pigeon but an equal weight of the king's own flesh. $ivi 
cut a piece of flesh from his right thigh and placed it in the 
balance, but the bird was the heavier. He cut again and again, 
and still the pigeon drew the scale, until the king placed his 
whole body in the balance. This outweighed the pigeon and 
the falcon flew away. On another occasion Vishmi went to 
$ivi in the form of a Brahman and demanded food, but would 
accept no food but $ivi's own son Vnhad-garbha, whom he 
required ivi to kill and cook. The king did so, and placed 
the food before the Brahman, who then told him to eat it him- 
self. $ivi took up the head and prepared to eat. The Brahman 
then stayed his hand, commended his devotion, and restoring 
the son to life, vanished from sight. 

SKAMBHA. ' The supporter.' A name sometimes used in 
the Jf&g-veda to designate the Supreme Deity. There is con- 
siderable doubt and mystery about both this name and deity. 
"The meaning of the term," says Goldstucker, "is 'the fulcrum,' 
and it seems to mean the fulcrum of the whole world in all its 
physical, religious, and other aspects," Muir's Texts , v. 378. 

SKAJSTDA. God of war. See Karttikeya. 

SKAKDA PURAJVA. " The Skanda Pura?ia is that in which 
the src-faced deity (Skanda) has related the events of the 


Tatpurusha Kalpa, enlarged with many tales, and subservient to 
the duties taught by Maheiwara. It is said to contain 81,800 
stanzas : so it is asserted amongst mankind." " It is uniformly 
agreed," says Wilson, " that the Skanda Purafta, in a collective 
form, has no existence; and the fragments, in the shape of 
Sanhitas, KhaftJas, and Mahatmyas, which are affirmed in 
various parts of India to be portions of the Purawa, present a 
much more formidable mass of stanzas than even the immense 
number of which it is said to consist. The most celebrated of 
these portions in Hindusthan is the Kasi Kliawrfa, a very minute 
description of the temples of iva in or adjacent to Benares, 
mixed with directions for worshipping Maheswara, and a great 
variety of legends explanatory of its merits and of the holiness 
of KasL Many of them are puerile and uninteresting, but 
some of them are of a higher character. There is every reason 
to believe the greater part of the contents of the Kail KhamZa 
anterior to the first attack upon Benares by Mahmud of Ghazni. 
The TCasI Khanda alone contains 15,000 stanzas. Another con- 
siderable work is the Utkala Kliawda, giving an account of the 
holiness of Orissa." A part of this Puram has been printed at 

SMART A. Appertaining to the Smn'ti The Smiirta-siitras. 
See Sutras. 

SMJi/TL ''What was remembered/ Inspiration, as dis- 
tinguished from Stuti, or direct revelation. What has been 
remembered and handed down by tradition. In its widest 
application, the term includes the Vedangas, the Sutras, the 
Bamayafia, the Maha-'bharata, the Puranas, the Dharma-sastras, 
especially the works of Manu, Yajnawalkya, and other inspired 
lawgivers, and the 3STiti-sastras or ethics, but its ordinary applica- 
tion is to the Dharma-sastras; as Manu says, " By Sruti is meant 
the Veda, and by Smnti the institutes of law," ii. 10. 

SMjK/TI-CHANDRrKA. A treatise on law, according to 
the Dravidian or Southern school, by Dovana Bha^a. 

SOMA. The juice of a milky climbing plant (Asdepias acida), 
extracted and fermented, forming a beverage offered in libations 
to the deities, and drunk by the Brahmans. Its exhilarating 
qualities were grateful to the priests, and the gods were repre- 
sented as being equally fond of it. This soma juice occupies 
a large space in the jJig-veda ; one Mandala is almost wholly 

302 SOMA. 

devoted to its praise and uses. It was raised to the position of a 
deity, and represented to "be primeval, all-powerful, healing all 
diseases, "bestower of riches, lord of other gods, and even iden- 
tified with the Supreme Being. As a personification, Soma was 
the god who represented and animated the soma juice, an Indian 
Dionysus or Bacchus. 

" The simple* minded Arian people, whose whole religion was 
a worship of the wonderful powers and phenomena of nature, 
had no sooner perceived that this liquid had power to elevate 
the spirits and produce a temporary frenzy, under the influence 
of which the individual was prompted to, and capable of, deeds 
beyond his natural powers, than they found in it something 
divine : it was to their apprehension a god, endowing those into 
whom it entered with godlike powers ; the plant which afforded 
it became to them the king of plants ; the process of preparing 
it was a holy sacrifice; the instruments used therefor were 
sacred The high antiquity of this cultus is attested by the 
references to it found occurring in the Persian Avesta ; it seems, 
however, to have received a new impulse on Indian territory." 

In later times, the name was appropriated to the moon, and 
some of the qualities of the soma juice have been transferred to 
the luminary, who is Oshadhi-pati, or lord of herbs. So Soma 
is considered the guardian of sacrifices and penance, asterisms 
and healing herbs. 

In the Puramc mythology Soma, as the moon, is commonly 
said to be the son of the J&shi Atri by his wife Anasuya, 
but the authorities are not agreed. One makes him son of 
Dharma ; another gives his paternity to Prabhakara, of the race 
of Atri; and he is also said to have been produced from the 
churning of the ocean in another Manwantara. In the Vishnu 
Purawa h'e is called "the monarch of Brahmans;" but the 
BHhad Ara^yaka, an older work, makes him a Kshatriya. He 
married twenty-seven daughters of the JRishi Daksha, who are 
really personifications of the twenty-seven lunar asterisms ; but 
keeping up the personality, he paid such attention to KoMwi, the 
fourth of them, that the rest became jealous, and appealed to 
their father. Daksha's interference was fruitless, and he cursed 
his son-in-law, so that he remained childless, and became affected 
with consumption, This moved the pity of his wives, and they 


interceded with their father for him. He could not recall his 
curse, but he modified it so that the decay should he periodical, 
not permanent. Hence the wane and increase of the moon. 
He performed the Kaja-suya sacrifice, and became in consequence 
so arrogant and licentious that he carried off Tara, the wife of 
Brihaspati, and refused to give her up either on the entreaties 
of her husband or at the command of Brahma. This gave rise 
to a wide-spread quarrel. The sage Usanas, out of enmity to 
Bnhaspati, sided with Soma, and he was supported by the 
Danavas, the Daityas, and other foes of the gods. Indra and 
the gods in general sided with Bnhaspati. There ensued a 
fierce contest, and " the earth was shaken to her centre." Soma 
had his body cut in two by $iva ? s trident, and hence he is called 
Bhagnatma. At length Brahma interposed and stopped the 
fight, compelling Soma to restore Tara to her husband The 
result of this intrigue was the birth of a child, whom Tara, 
after great persuasion, declared to be the son of Soma, and to 
whom the name of End ha was given : from him the Lunar race 

According to the Furiums, the chariot, of Soma has three 
wheels, and is drawn by ten horses of the whiteness of the jas- 
mine, five on the right half of the yoke, and five on the left. 

The moon has many names and descriptive epithets, as 
Chandra, Indu, Sasi, 'marked like a hare;' Nisakara, 'maker 
of night;' Nakshatra-natha, 'lord of the constellations;' Sita- 
marlchi, ' having cool rays ;' Sitansu, ' having white rays ;' Mn- 
ganka, 'marked like a deer;' Siva-sekhara, 'the crest of $iva; } 
Kumuda-pati, ' lord of the lotus ; ' $weta-vajl, ' drawn by white 

SOMADEYA BHA2TA, The writer or compiler of the 
collection of stories called Katharsarit-sagara. 

SOMAKA. Grandfather of Drupada, who transmitted his 
name to his descendants, 

SOMA-LOKA, See Loka. 

SOMA-EATHA, SOMESWAKA. 'Lord of the moon/ The 
name of a celebrated Lingam or emblem of $iva at the city of 
Somnath-pattan in Gujarat. It was destroyed by Mahmiid of 

SOMAPAS. ' Soma-drinkers.' A class of Pitris or Manea 
who drink the soma juice, See Pitna 


SOMA-VANSA. See Chandra-vansa 

SKADDHA. i. Faith, personified in the Vedas and landed 
in a few hymns. 2. Daughter of the sage Daksha, wife of the 
god Dharma, and reputed mother of Kama-deva ; the god of 

by the former name in the Brahmanas, and "by the latter in the 
Maha-bharata. The latter is commonly applied to Yama. 

SEAUTA. Belonging to the SrutL See Sruti and Sutra. 

SEAUTA-SUTEA See Sutra and Vedangas. 

SEAVASTl. An ancient city which seems to have stood 
near Faizabad in Oude. 

$EI. 'Fortune, prosperity/ i. The wife of Vishnu. (See 
Lakshmi.) 2 An honorific prefix to the names of gods, kings, 
heroes, and men and books of high estimation. 

STSl BHAGAVATA. See Bhagavata Puiuna. 

SEl DAMA CHAEITEA. A modern drama in five acts by 
Sarna Eaja Dlkshita, on the sudden elevation to affluence of Sri 
Daman, a friend of Kr/shwa. It is not a good play, " but there 
is some vivacity in the thoughts and much, melody in the style." 

SBl-DHABA SWAMl. Author of several commentaries of 
repute on the Bhagavad-glta, Yishwu Pura/ia, &c. 

SEI HARSHA, A great sceptical philosopher, and author 
*f the poem called Naishadha or Naishadhiya. There were 
several kings of the name. 

STSl HAESHA DEVA. A king who was author of the 
drama Eatniivali, 

&nSTGA-GIBI. A hill on the edge of the "Western Ghats 
in Mysore, where there is a math or monastic establishment of 
Brahmans, said to have been founded by Sankaracharya. 

SJSJNGAEA TILAKA. 'The mark of love.' A work by 
Eudra Bha^a on the sentiments and emotions of lovers as exhi- 
bited in poetry and the drama. 

^/ISTGA-VEEA. The modern Sungroor, a town on the 
left bank of the Ganges and on the frontier of Kosala and the 
Bhil country. The country around was inhabited by Nishadas 
or wild tribes, and Guha, the friend of Eama, was their chief. 

SEl-SAILA. The mountain of Sri, the goddess of fortune, 
It is a holy place in the Dakhin, near the Krishna, and was 


formerly a place of great splendour. It retains its sanctity ' 
has lost its grandeur. Also called Sri-parvata. 

/SGR1-YATSA. A particular mark, said to be a curl of hair 
on the breast of Yishwu or Krishna, and represented by *j& 

$RUTA-BODHA. A work on metres attributed to Kali-dasa, 
It has been edited and translated into French by Lancereau. 
SRUTA-KIRTTI. Cousin of Sita and wife of tfatru-ghna. 
$RUTARSHI. A JKshi who did not receive the ruti 
(revelation) direct, but obtained it at second-hand from the 
Yedic .Rishis. 

SRT7TI. 'What was heard.' The revealed word. The 
Mantras and Brahmawas of the Yedas are always included in 
the term, and the Upanishads are generally classed with them. 

STEAL! -,DEYATAS, DEYATAS. Gods or goddesses of 
the soil, local deities. 

STHANTT. A name of iva, 

STHAPATYA-YEDA- The science of architecture, one of 
the Upa-vedas. 

STIltWA, STHWA-KAR.YA. A Yaksha who is repre- 
sented in the Maha-bharata to have changed sexes for a while 
with SikhancZim, daughter of Drupada. 

SU-BAHU. 'Five-armed/ r. A son of Dhnta-rfishfra and 
King of Chedi 2. A son of Satru-ghna and king of Mathura. 

SU-BALA. i. A king of Gandhara, father of Gandhari, wife 
of Dhnta-rashzlra. 2. A mountain in Lanka on which Hanuman 
alighted after leaping over the channel 

SU-BHADRA. Daughter of Yasu-deva, sister of Knshwa, 
and wife of Arjuna, Bala-rama, her elder brother, wished to 
give her to Dur-yodhana,but Arjuna carried her off fromDwaraka 
at Krishna's suggestion, and Bala-rama subsequently acquiesced 
in their union. She was mother of Abhimanyu. She appears 
especially as sister of Knshna in his form Jagan-natha, and 
according to tradition there was an incestuous intimacy between 
them. When the car of Jagan-natha is brought out the images 
of Su-bhadra and 33ala-rama accompany the idol, and the inti- 
macy of Jagan-natha and Su-bhadra is said to provoke taunts and 

$UBHANGl * Fair-limbed. 7 An epithet of Rati, wife of 
Kama, and of YakshI, wife of Kavera. 

Son of Krishna and Satya-bhama, 



STT-BODHINt A commentary by Yisweswara Bha#a on the 
law-book called Mitakshara. 

SU-BBAHMAJVYA. A name of Kaittikeya> god of war, 
used especially in the South. See Karttikeya. 

SU-CHAETJ. A son of, and BukmmL 

SU-D AS/SANA. A name of Kn'shm's chakra or discus 
weapon, See Yajra-nabha. 

StJDAS. A king who frequently appears in the Ji%-veda, 
and at whose court the rival J&shis Yasish&a and Yiswamitra 
are represented as living. He was famous for his sacrifices. 

SU-DESHKA. Son of Krishwa and Bukmira. 

OTXDESHNA, 'Good-looking.' i. Wife of the Baja of 
Yirafa, the patron of the disguised Paw^avas, and mistress of 
DraupadL 2. Also the wife of Balin. 

SU-DHAEMA, SU-DHAEMAK The haU of Indra, the 
unrivalled gem of princely courts," which Kn'shwa commanded 
Indra to resign to Ugrasena, for the assemblage of the race of 
Yadu. After the death of Knshm it returned to Ladra's 

"ODBA. The fourth or servile caste. See Yarm. 

/SODEAKA. A king who wrote the play called Mnchchha- 
kaft, ' the toy-cart/ in ten acts. 

SU-DYUMNA. Son of the Manu Yaivaswata At his birth 
he was a female, Ha, but was afterwards changed into a male and 
called Su-dyumna. Under the curse of /Siva he again became 
Ha, who married Budha or Mercury, and was mother of Puru- 
ravas. By favour of Yishfiu the male form was again recovered, 
and Su-dyumna became the father of three sons, This legend 
evidently has reference to the origin of the Lunar race of kings. 

SU-GBlYA. * Handsome neck.' A monkey king who was 
dethroned by his brother Balin, but after the latter had been 
killed, Su-griva was re-installed by Eama as king at Kishkin- 
dhya. He, with his adviser Hanuman and their army of 
monkeys, were the allies of Eania in his war against Bavaria, in 
which he was wounded. He is said to have been son of the sun, 
and from his paternity he is called Eavi-nandana and by other 
similar names. He is described as being grateful, active in aiding 
his friends, and able to change his form at will. His wife's 
name was Buma. 

SUHMA. A country said to be east of Bengal 


SUKA-SAPTATI. 'The seventy (tales) of a parrot.' This 
is the original of the Tutl-namah of the Persian, from which 
the Hindustani Tota-kaham was translated 

/STJKRA. The planet Venus and its regent. $ukra was son 
of Bhngu and priest of Bali and the Daityas (Daitya-guru). He 
is also called the son of Kavi. His wife's name was $usuma or 
$ata-parwa. His daughter Devayanl married Yayati of the 
Lunar race, and her husband's infidelity induced Sukra to curse 
him. $ukra is identified with Usanas, and is author of a code 
of law. The Hari-vansa relates that he went to $iva and asked 
for means of protecting the Asuras against the gods, and for 
obtaining his object he performed " a painful rite, imbibing the 
smoke of chaff with his head downwards for a thousand years." 
In his absence the gods attacked the Asuras and Vishnu killed 
his mother, for which deed $ukra cursed him "to be born seven 
times in the world of men." $ukra restored his mother to life, 
and the gods being alarmed lest $ukra's penance should be 
accomplished, Indra sent his daughter Jayanti to lure him from 
it. She waited upon him and soothed him, but he accomplished 
his penance and afterwards married her. Sukra is known by 
his patronymic Bhargava, and also as Bhngu. He is also Kavi 
or Kavya, ( the poet.' The planet is called Asphujit, ' Ap^od/Vaj ; 
Magha-bhava, son of Magha; Shodasansu, 'having sixteen 
rays ; ' and $weta, ' the white/ 

StJKTA. AYedichymn. 

STJ-MANTRA. The chief counsellor of Raja Dasa-ratha and 
friend of Rama. 

STJ-MANTU. The collector of the hymns of the Atharva- 
veda ; he is said to have been a pupil of Veda Vyasa, and to 
have acted tinder his guidance, 

>STJMBHA and NISHUMBHA. Two Asuras, brothers, 
who were killed by Durga. These brothers, as related in the 
Markaw^eya Puram, were votaries of $iva, and performed severe 
penance for 5000 years in order to obtain immortality. $iva 
refused the boon, and they continued their devotions with such 
increased intensity for 800 years more, that the gods trembled 
for their power. By advice of Indra, the god of love, Kama, 
went to them with two celestial nymphs, Rambha and Tilottama, 
and they succeeded in seducing the two Asuras and holding them 
in the toils of sensuality for 5 ooo years. On recovering from theii 


voluptuous aberration they drove the nymphs hack to paradise 
and recommenced their penance. At the end of 1000 years 
Siva hlessed them "that in riches and strength they should 
excel the gods." In their exaltation they warred against the 
gods, who, in despair, appealed in succession to Brahma, Vislmu, 
and Siva, hut in vain. The latter advised them to apply to 
Durga, and they did so. She contrived to engage the Asuras in 
war, defeated their forces, slew their commanders, Cha?^a and 
Mu?ida 3 and finally killed them. See Sunda. 

SU-MEEU. The mountain Meru, actual or personified. 

SU-MJTRA. Wife of Dasa-ratha and mother of Lakshma?ia 
and /Satru-ghna. See Dasa-ratha. 

SU-MUKHA. < Handsome face.' This epithet is used for 
Garucfa and for the son of Garuda, 

#OTAJT-/S r EPHAS. The legend of SunaA-sephas, as told in 
the Aitareya Brahmawa, is as follows : King Haris-chandra, of 
the race of Ikshwaku, being childless, made a vow that if he 
obtained a son he would sacrifice him to Vanma. A son was 
born who received the name of Eohita, but the father post- 
poned, under various pretexts, the fulfilment of his vow. When 
at length he resolved to perform the sacrifice, Rohita refused 
to be the victim, and went out into the forest, where he lived 
for six years. He then met a poor Brahman Jfoshi called 
Ajigartta, who had three sons, and Rohita purchased from 
Ajigartta foi a hundred cows, the second son, named SunaA- 
sephas, to be the substitute for himself in the sacrifice. Varuwa 
approved of the substitute, and the sacrifice was about to be per- 
formed, the father receiving another hundred cows for binding 
his son to the sacrificial post, and a third hundred for agreeing 
to slaughter him. /SunaA-sephas saved himself by reciting verses 
in honour of different deities, and was received into the family of 
Yiswamitra, who was one of the officiating priests. The Rama- 
ya?za gives a different version of the legend. Ambarisha, king 
of Ayodhya, was performing a sacrifice when Indra carried off the 
victim, The officiating priest represented that this loss could be 
atoned for only by the sacrifice of a human victim. The king, 
after a long search, found a Brahman J?ishi named jftichlka, who 
had two sons, and the younger, SunaA-sephas, was then sold by 
his own consent for a hundred thousand cows, ten millions of gold 
pieces, and heaps of jewels. Sunaftr-sephas met with his mater- 


nal uncle, Viswamitra, wlio taught him two divine verses which. 
he was to repeat when about to be sacrificed As he was bound 
at the stake to be immolated, he celebrated the two gods Indra 
and Yishwi with the excellent verses, and Indra, being pleased, 
bestowed upon him long life. He was afterwards called Deva- 
rata, and is said to have become son of Viswamitra. The Maha- 
bharata and the Purawas show some few variations. A series of 
seven hymns in the JJig-veda is attributed to SunaA-sephas. See 
Muir's Texts, i. 355, 407, 413 ; Vishnu Piirana, iv. 25 ; Miiller's 
Sanskrit Literature, 408 ; Wilson's Rig-veda, i. 60. 

SU-NAMAN. Son of Ugrasena and brother of Kansa. He 
was king of the $urasenas. When Kansa was overpowered in 
battle by Knshna, Su-naman went to succour him, but was en- 
countered and slain by Bala-rama. 

SU-NANDA. A princess of Chedi who befriended Dama- 
yanti when she was deserted by her husband 

STJNDA Sunda and Upasunda, of the Mahar-bharata, were 
two Daityas, sons of Nisunda, for whose destruction the Apsaras 
Tilottama was sent down from heaven. They quarrelled for her, 
and killed each other. See Kumbha. 

SU-P AEjYAS. ' Pine-winged ' " Beings of superhuman char- 
acter, as Garuda, and other birds of equally fanciful description ; 
one of those classes first created by the Brahmadikas, and in- 
cluded in the daily presentation of water to deceased ancestors, 

SU-PAK$WA- A fabulous bird in the Eaniayana, He was 
son of Sampati and nephew of Jarfayus, 

SU-PEIYA. ' Very dear/ Chief of the Gandharvas. 

/SUEA. A Yadava king who ruled over the Surasenas at 
Mathura ; he was father of Vasudeva and Kunti, and grand- 
father of Krishna. 

SUEA. Wine or spirituous liquor, personified as Sura-devj, 
a goddess or nymph produced at the churning of the ocean. 

SUEABHT. The ' cow of plenty/ produced at the churning 
of the ocean, who granted every desire, and is reverenced as ** the 
fountain of milk and curds." See Kama-dhenu and NandinL 

SUEAS. In the Vedas, a class of beings connected with 

Siirya, the sun. The inferior deities who inhabit Swarga ; a 

god in general According to some, the word is allied to swar, 

heaven ;' others think it to have sprung from the deriva 


fcion assigned to asura, and as a~sura is said to signify * not a 
god/ sura has come to mean c god. J 

STJ-BASA. A Bakshasi, mother of the Nagas, When Hanu- 
man was on his flight to Lanka against Bavarca, she tried to save 
her relative "by swallowing Hanuman bodily. To avoid this 
Kanuman distended his "body and continued to do so, while she 
stretched her mouth till it was a hundred leagues wide. Then 
he suddenly shrank up to the size of a thumb, darted through 
her, and came out at her right ear. 

$UBASENAS. Name of a people, the Suraseni of Arrian. 
Their capital was Mathura on the Yamuna, which Manu calls 

/SfCJBPA - NAKEA. c Having nails like winnowing-fans.' 
Sister of Bavafwu This Bakshasi admired the beauty of Bama 
and fell in love with him. When she made advances to Bama 
he referred her to Lakshmawa, and Lakshmam in like manner 
sent her back to Bama. Enraged at this double rejection, she 
fell upon Slta, and Bama was obliged to interfere forcibly for the 
protection of his wife. He called out to Lakshmawa to disfigure 
the violent Bakshasi, and Lakshmawa cut off her nose and ears. 
She flew to her brothers for revenge, and this brought on the war 
between Bama and Bavana. She descanted to Bavawa oh the 
beauty of Sita, and instigated his carrying her off, and finally 
she cursed him just before the engagement in which he was 

StlBYA. The sun or its deity. He is one of the three chief 
deities in the Yedas, as the great source of light and warmth, 
but the references to him are more poetical than precise. Some- 
times he is identical with Savitri and Aditya, sometimes he is 
distinct. " Sometimes he is called son of Dyaus, sometimes of 
Aditi. la one passage, Ushas, the dawn, is his wife, in another 
he is called the child of the dawns ; he moves through the sky 
in a chariot drawn by seven ruddy horses or mares." Siirya has 
several wives, but, according to later legends, his twin sons the 
Aswins, who are ever young and handsome and ride in a golden 
car as precursors of Ushas, the dawn, were born of a nymph 
called Aswinl, from her having concealed herself in the form of 
a mare. In the Bamayarca and Purafias, Surya is said the 
son of Kasyapa and Aditi, but in the Bamayarca he is otherwise 
referred to as a son of Brahma. His wife was Sanjna, daughter 


of Yiswa-karraa, and by her lie liad three children, the Mann 
Yaivaswata, Yama, and the goddess Yaml, or the Yamuna 
river. His effulgence was so overpowering that his wife gave 
him Chhaya (shade) for a handmaid, and retired into the forest 
to devote herself to religion. Wliile thus engaged, and in the 
form of a mare, the sun saw her and approached her in the form 
of a horse. Hence sprang the two Aswins and Eevanta. Surya 
brought back his wife Sanjna to his home, and her father, the 
sage Yiswa-karma, placed the luminary on his lathe and cut 
away an eighth of his effulgence, trimming him in every part 
except the feet. The fragments that were cut off fell blazing to 
the earth, and from them Yiswa-karma formed the discus of 
Yishftu, the trident of $iva, the weapon of Kuvera, the lance of 
Karttikeya, and the weapons of the other gods. According to 
the Maha-bharata, Kama was his illegitimate son by Kuntt He 
is also fabled to be the father of Sani and the monkey chief Su- 
griva. The Manu Yaivaswata was father of Ikshwaku, and from 
him, the grandson of the sun, the Surya-vansa, or Solar race of 
kings, draws its origin. In the form of a horse Surya commu- 
nicated the White Yajur-veda to Yajnawalkya, and it was he 
who bestowed on Satrajit the Syamantaka gem. A set of terrific 
Eakshasas called Mandehas made an attack upon him and sought 
to devour him, but were dispersed by his light. According to 
the Yislwu Purafta he was seen by Sattrajita in "his proper 
form," " of dwarfish stature, with a body like burnished copper, 
and with slightly reddish eyes." Surya is represented in a chariot 
drawn by seven horses, or a horse with seven heads, surrounded 
with rays. His charioteer is Anwa or Yivaswat, and his city 
Yivaswati or BhaswatL There are temples of the sun, and he 
receives worship. The names and epithets of the sun are number- 
less. He is Savitn, ' the nourisher ; ' Yivaswat, c the brilliant ; ' 
Bhaskara, * light-maker ; J Dina-kara, * day-maker ; * Arha-pati, 
'lord of day;' Loka-chakshuh, 'eye of the world;' Karma- 
sakshi, ' witness of the deeds (of men) ; ' Graha-raja, ' king of 
the constellations ; ' Gabhastiman, ' possessed of rays ; ' Sahasra- 
kirana, * having a thousand rays ; ' Yikarttana, * shorn, of Ms 
beams' (byYiswa-karma); MartaTz^a, * descended from Mritanda,' 
&c. Surya's wives are called Savarna, Swati, and MahirVirya, 

StJBYA-KAFTA. 'The sun-gem' A crystal supposed to 
be formed of condensed rays of the sun, and though cool to the 


touch, to give out lieat in the sun's rays. There is a similar 
moon-stone. It is also called Dahanopala. See Chandra-kanta. 

StJRYA SIDDHANTA. A celebrated work on astronomy, 
said to have been revealed by the sun (Surya). It has been 
edited in the Bibliotheca Indica by Hall, and there are other 
editions. It has been translated by "Whitney and Burgess. 

StJRYA-VAN&L The Solar race. A race or lineage of 
Kshatriyas which sprank from Ikshwaku, grandson of the sun. 
Kama was of this race, and so were many other great kings and 
heroes. Many Rajputs claim descent from this and the other 
great lineage, the Lunar race. The Rana of Udaypur claims to 
be of the Surya-vansa, and the Jharejas of Cutch and Sindh 
assert a descent from the Chandra-vansa. There were two 
dynasties of the Solar race. The elder branch, which reigned at 
Ayodhya, descended from Ikshwaku through his eldest son, 
Yikukshi. The other dynasty, reigning at Mithila, descended 
from another of Ikshwaku's sons, named Nimi. The lists of 
these two dynasties on the opposite page are taken from the 
Vishnu Purima. The lists given by other authorities show some 
discrepancies, but they agree in general as to the chief names. 

STJ-SARMAN. A king of Tri-gartta, who attacked the Raja 
of Virafo, and defeated him and made him prisoner, but Bhima 
rescued the Raja and made Su-sarman prisoner. 

SUSHEKA i. A son of Krishna, and Rukmim. 2. A phy- 
sician in the army of Rama, who brought the dead to life and 
performed other miraculous cures. 

SUSELWA. An Asura mentioned in the JSzg-veda as killed 
by Indra. 

SURUTA. A medical writer whose date is uncertain, but 
his work was translated into Arabic before the end of the eighth 
century. The book has been printed at Calcutta. There is a 
Latin translation by Hepler and one in German by Yullers. 

StJTA. ' Charioteer.' A title given to Kama. 

SU-TlKSHJVA. A hermit sage who dwelt in the Dawdaka 
forest, and was visited by Rama and Sita. 

StlTRA. c A thread or string/ A rule or aphorism. A verse 
expressed in brief and technical language, a very favourite 
form among the Hindus of embodying and transmitting rules. 
There are Sutras upon almost every subject, but " the Sutras " 
generally signify those which are connected with the Yedas, viz., 




i-d -j 

, ^_g dig _s 5 ; 3 

jgg* -^-s^ ! g*1 s-Mi 

-Sg-dT3'3-e-3.2d-g^ r ii3gt3ee^<3s=3 

is^Plz; wQK Sccfi WSfx; WM>MS 



08 -*a t? r 

^^3 .t jg CO i 


1 1.1^11 i ll llgjll g il ill 






?! c^^^^ c^ 

2*S s !e 

^g pg'g.S 
'* c'C 25 

ce 4S' 




c5 'C 


Htd3l>tf >fqoH-3ftt ' 



"e? d j d S 4i ^ 'J* e5 ^ ej 




the Kalpa Sutras, relating to ritual; the Gnhya Sutras, to 
domestic rites ; and the Samayadiarika Sutras, to conventional 
usages. The Kalpa Sutras, having especial reference to the Yeda 
or /Stuti, are called /Siauta; the others are classed as Smarta, being 
derived from the Smnti. The Sutras generally are anterior to 
Mann, and are probably as old as the sixth century B.C. Several 
have been published in the JBibliotheca Indica. 

tfUTUDRt The river Satlej. See #ata-dru. 

SU-YAHU. A Kakshasa, son of Taraka. He was killed by 

SU-YELA. One of the three peaks of the mountain Tri- 
kufa, on the midmost of which the city of Lanka was built. 

SU-YODHAJSTA. ' Fair fighter/ A name of Dur-yodhana, 

SWADHA < Oblation.' Daughter of Daksha and Prasuti 
according to one statement, and of Agni according to another. 
She is connected with the Pitris or Manes, and is represented 
as wife of Kavi or of one class of Pitris, and as mother of 

SWAHA, 'Offering/ Daughter of Daksha and Prasuti. 
She was wife of Yahni or Fire, or of Abhimam, one of the 

SWA-PHALKA. Husband of Gandini and father of Akrura. 
He was a man of great sanctity of character, and where " he 
dwelt famine, plague, death, and other visitations were un- 
known." His presence once brought rain to the kingdom of 
Kaa-raja, where it was much wanted. 

SWAB. See Yyahnti. 

SWABGA. The heaven of Indra, the abode of the inferior 
gods and of beatified mortals, supposed to be situated on Mount 
Meru. It is called also Sainbha, Misraka-vana, Tavisha, Tri- 
divam, Tri-pish^apam, and "Ordhwa-loka. Names of heaven or 
paradise in general are also used for it. 

SWAR-LOKA See Loka. 

SWAEOCHISHA. Name of the second Manu. See Manu. 

SWASTIKA. A mystical religious mark placed upon per- 
sons or things. It is in the form of a Greek cross with the ends 

bent round 

SWAYAM-BHtT. ' The self-existent/ A name of Brahma, 
the creator. 


SWAYAM-BHUVA. A name of the first Mann (q.v.). 

SWETA-DWlPA. * The white island or continent.' Colonel 
Wilford attempted to identify it with Britain. 

8 WETA-KETU. A sage who, according to the Maha-bharata, 
put a stop to the practice of married women consorting with 
other men, especially with Brahmans. His indignation was 
aroused at seeing a Brahman take his mother "by the hand and 
invite her to go away with him. The husband saw this, and 
told his son that there was no ground of offence, for the practice 
had prevailed from, time immemorial. Sweta-ketu would not 
tolerate it, and introduced the rule by which a wife is forbidden 
to have intercourse with another man unless specially appointed 
by her husband to raise up seed to him. 

SWETASWATABA. An Upanishad attached to the Yajur* 
veda. It is one of the most modern. Translated by Dr. Roei 
for the Billiotlieca Indica. 

SYALA. ' A brother-in-law/ A Yadava prince who in- 
sulted the sage Gargya, and was the cause of his becoming the 
father of Kala-yavana, a great foe of KrishTwi and the Yadava 

$YAMA. 'The black.' A name of Siva's consort. Sec 

SYAMANTAKA. A celebrated gem given by the sun to 
Satrajita. " It yielded daily eight loads of gold, and dispelled 
all fear of portents, wild beasts, fire, robbers, and famine." But 
though it was an inexhaustible source of good to the virtuous 
wearer, it was deadly to a wicked one. Satrajita being afraid 
that KnsliTwt would take it from him, gave it to his own brother, 
Prasena, but he, being a bad man, was killed by a lion, Jam- 
bavat, king of the bears, killed the lion and carried off the gem, 
but Knslma, after a long conflict, took it from him, and restored 
it to Satrajita. Afterwards Satrajita was killed in his sleep 
by Sata-dhanwan, who carried off the gem. Being pursued by 
Krishna and Bala-rama, ho gave the gem to Akrura and con- 
tinued his flight, but he was overtaken and killed by Krishna 
alone. As Knslwa did not bring back the jewel, Bala-rama 
suspected that he had secreted it, and consequently he upbraided 
him and parted from him, declaring that he would not be im- 
posed upon by perjuries. Akrura subsequently produced the 
gem, and it was claimed by Knshfia, Bala-rama, and Satya- 


bhama. After some contention it was decided that Akrura 
should keep it, and so " lie moved about like the sun wearing a 
garland of light." 

STAYAjSWA. Son of Archananas. Both were Yedic JKshis. 
In a hymn he says, " Sasiyasi has given me cattle, comprising 
horses and cows and hundreds of sheep." The story told in 
explanation is that Archananas, having seen the daughter of 
Eaja Eathaviti, asked her in marriage for his son /Syavaswa. The 
king was inclined to consent, but the queen objected that no 
daughter of their house had ever been given to any one less 
saintly than a JSishi. To qualify himself Syavaswa engaged in 
austerities and begged alms. Among others, he begged of Sa- 
yasij wife of Eaja Taranta. She took him to her husband, with 
whose permission she gave him a herd of cattle and costly orna- 
ments. The Eaja also gave him whatever he asked for, and 
sent "him on to his younger brother, Punimilha. On his way he 
met the Maruts, and lauded them in a hymn, for which they 
made him a J?ishi. He then returned to Eathaviti, and received 
his daughter to wife. 

TADAKA. See Taraka. 

TAITTIEIYA. This term is applied to the Sanhita of the 
Black Yajur-veda. (See Yeda.) It is also applied to a Brah- 
ma?ia, to an Ararcyaka, to an Upanishad, and a Pratisakhya of 
the same Yeda. All these are printed, or are in course of print- 
ing, in the BiUiothecd Indica, and of the last there is a transla- 
tion in that serial 

TAKSHA, TAKSHAKA. Son of Bharata, and nephew of 
Eama-chandra. The sovereign of Gandhara, who resided at and 
probably founded Taksha-slla or Taxila, in the Panjab. 

TAKSH.AKA, One who cuts off; a carpenter.' A name of 
Yiswa-karma. A serpent, son of Kadru, and chief of snakes. 

TAKSHA-SILA. A city of the Gandharas, situated in the 
Panjab. It was the residence of Taksha, son of Bharata and 
nephew of Eama-chandra, and perhaps took its name from him. 
It is the Taxila of Ptolemy and other classical writers. Arrian 
describes it as "a large and wealthy city, and the most populous 
between the Indus and Hydaspes." It was three days' journey 
east of the Indus, and General Cunningham has found its 
remains at Sahh-dharl, one mile north-east of Kala-kisaral 

TALAJANGHA. Son of Jaya-dhwaja, king of Avanti, of 


the Haihaya race, and founder of the Tala-jangha tribe of Hai- 
hayas. See Haihaya. 

TALA-KETU. ( Palm-banner.' An appellation of Bhishma \ 
also of an enemy killed by Krishna. Bala-rama had the synonym- 
ous appellation Tala-dhwaja. 

TALAM. The throne of Durga. 

TALAVAKAEA. A name of the Kena Upanishad. 

TAMASA. The fourth Manu, See Manu. 

TAMASA. The river " Tonse," rising in the JJiksha moun- 
tains, and falling into the Ganges. 

TAMEA-LIPTA. The country immediately west of the Bha- 
girathi Tamlook, Hijjali, and Midnapore. Its inhabitants are 
called Tamra-liptakas. 

TAMEA-PAENA, TlMEA-PAEM Ceylon, the ancient 
Taprobane. There was a town in the island called Tamra-parm, 
from which the whole island has been called by that name. 

TAJVjDTT. One of Siva's attendants. He was skilled in music, 
and invented the dance called TaTZ^ava. See Siva, 

TAN.DYA, TUVDAKA The most important of the eight 
Brahmarcas of the Sama-veda. It has been published in the 
BiUiotheca Indica, 

TANTEA. ' Eule, ritual.' The title of a numerous class of 
religious and magical works, generally of later date than the 
Puraftas, and representing a later development of religion, 
although the worship of the female energy had its origin at an 
earlier period. The chief peculiarity of the Tantras is the pro- 
minence they give to the female energy of the deity, his active 
nature being personified in the person of his /Sakti, or wife. 
There are a few Tantras which make Vishnu's wife or Eadha 
the object of devotion, but the great majority of them are 
devoted to one of the manifold forms of Devi, the Sakti of Siva, 
and they are commonly written in the form of a dialogue between 
these two deities. Devi, as the Sakti of Siva, is the especial 
energy concerned with sexual intercourse and magical powers, 
and these are the leading topics of the Tantras. There are five 
requisites for Tantra worship, the five Makaras or five m's (i.) 
Madya, wine; (2.) Mausa, flesh; (3.) Matsya, fish; (4,)Mudra, 
parched grain and mystic gesticulations ; (5.) Maithuna, sexual 
intercourse. Each Sakti has a twofold nature, white and black, 
gentle and ferocious. Thus TJma and Gauri are gentle forms of 


the $akti of Siva, while Durga and Kali are fierce forms. The 
Saktas or worshippers of the 5aktis are divided into two classes, 
Dakshinacharis and Yamacharis, the right-handed and the left- 
handed. The worship of the right-hand $aktas is comparatively 
decent, but that of the left hand is addressed to the fierce forms 
of the Saktis, and is most licentious. The female principle is 
worshipped, not only symbolically, but .in the actual woman, 
and promiscuous intercourse forms part of the orgies. Tantra 
worship prevails chiefly in Bengal and the Eastern provinces. 


TAP ATI The river Tapti personified as a daughter of the 
Sun by Chhaya. She was mother of Kuru by Samvarana. 

TAEA. Wife of the monkey king Balin, and mother of 
Angada. After the death of Balin in battle she was taken to 
wife by his brother, Su-griva. 

TAEA, TAEAKA. Wife of BnhaspatL According to the 
Purimas, Soma, the moon, carried her off, which led to a great 
war between the gods and the Asuras. Brahma put an end to 
the war and restored Tara, but she was delivered of a child 
which she declared to be the son of Soma, and it was named 
Budha. See Bnhaspati 

TAEAKA. Son of Yajranaka. A Daitya whose austerities 
made him formidable to the gods, and for whose destruction 
Skanda, the god of war, was miraculously born. 

TAEAKA. A female Daitya, daughter of the Yaksha Su-ketu 
or of the demon Sunda, and mother of Mancha. She was 
changed into a Eakshasi by Agastya, and lived in a forest called 
by her name on the Ganges, opposite the confluence of the Sarju, 
and she ravaged all the country round Yiswamitra desired 
Eama-chandra to kill her, but he was reluctant to kill a woman. 
He resolved to deprive her of the power of doing harm, and cut 
off her two arms. Lakshmana cut off her nose and ears. She, 
by the power of sorcery, assailed Eama and Lakshmawa with a 
fearful shower of stones, and at the earnest command of Yiswa- 
mitra, the former killed her with an arrow. Ramayana. 

TAEAKA-MAYA The war which arose in consequence of 
Soma, the moon, having carried off Tara, the wife of Brihaspati. 

TAEKSHYA. An ancient mythological personification of 
the sun in the form of a horse or bird. In later times the name 
is applied to Garu<fa. 


TATWA SAMASA. A text-book of the Sankhya philo- 
sophy, attributed to Kapila himself. 

TELIISTGA. The Telugu country, stretching along the coast 
from Orissa to Madras. 

TILOTTAMA. Name of an Apsaras. She was originally a 
Brahman female, but for the offence of bathing at an improper 
season she was condemned to be born as an Apsaras, for the 
purpose of bringing about the mutual destruction of the two 
demons Sunda and TJpasunda. 

TIMIN, TIMIN-GILA. The Timin is a large fabulous fish. 
The Timin-gila, c swallower of the Timin/ is a still larger one ; 
and there is one yet larger, the Timin-gila-gila or Timi-timin-gila, 
c swallower of the Timin-gila.' Of. the Arabic Tinnln, sea-serpent. 
It is also called Samudraru. 

TISHYA The Kali Yuga or fourth age. 

TITTIEI. c A partridge.' An ancient sage who was the pupil 
of Yaska, and is an authority referred to by Parani. Some attri- 
bute the Taittirlya Sanhita of the Yajur-veda to Mrn. See Veda. 

TOSALAKA. An athelete and boxer who was killed by 
Krishna in the public arena in the presence of Kansa. 

TEAIGAETTAS. The people of Tri-gartta (q.v.). 

TEASADASYU. A royal sage and author of hymns. Ac- 
cording to Saya/ia, he was son of Purukutsa. When Purukutsa 
was a prisoner, "his queen propitiated the seven jf&shis to obtain 
a son who might take his father's place. They advised her to 
worship Indra and Yaruwa, in consequence of which Trasadasyu 
was born." He was renowned for his generosity. According to 
the Bhagavata Puriiwa he was father of Purukutsa. 

TEETA YUGA. The second age of the world, a period of 
1,296,000 years. See Yuga. 

TEI-BHUVANA, TEI-LOKA, The three worlds, Swarga, 
Bhumi, Patala heaven, earth, and hell 

TEI-DASA. ' Three times ten, thirty.' In round numbers, 
the thirty-three deities twelve Adityas, eight Vasus, eleven 
Eudras, and two Aswins. 

TEI-GAETTA. 'The country of the three strongholds/ 
lately identified with the northern hi]l state of Kotoch, which is 
still called by the people " the country of Traigart" Wilson. 
General Cunningham, however, clearly identifies it with tb 
Jiilandhar Doab and Kangrsu 


TEI-JATA. An amiable Rakshasl who befriended Slta 
when she was the captive of Ravana in Ceylon. She is also 
called Dhanna-jna. 

TRI-KAJVDA SESHA A Sanskrit vocabulary in three 
chapters, composed as a supplement to the Amara-kosha. It 
has been printed in India. 

TRI-KtTZA. < Three peaks/ i. The mountain on which 
the city of Lanka was built. 2. A mountain range running 
south from Meru, 

TRI-LOCHAKA r Three-eyed,' ie., Siva, The Maha-bharata 
relates that the third eye burst from Siva's forehead with a great 
flame when his wife playfully placed her hands over his eyes 
after he had been engaged in austerities in the Himalaya. This 
eye has been very destructive. It reduced Kama, the god of 
love, to ashes. 

TRI-MURTL < Triple form/ The Hindu triad. This was 
foreshadowed in the Yedic association of the three gods Agni, 
Vayn, and Surya. The triad consists of the gods Brahma, Siva, 
and Vishnu, the representatives of the creative, destructive, 
and preservative principles. Brahma is the embodiment '"of 
the Rajo-gu^a, the quality of passion or desire, by which the 
world was called into being ; Siva is the embodied Tamo-guna, 
the attribute of darkness or wrath, and the destructive fire by 
which the earth is annihilated ; and Vishnu is the embodied 
Satwa-guna, or property of mercy and goodness by which the 
world is preserved. The three exist in one and one in three, as 
the Veda is divided into three and is yet but one ; and they 
, are all Asrita, or comprehended within that one being who is 
Parama or ' supreme, 1 Guhya or c secret/ and Sarvatma, ' the soul 
of all things.' " Wilson. 

The Padma Purana, which is a Vaislmava work and gives the 
supremacy to Vishnu, says, "In the beginning of creation, the 
great Vishnu, desirous of creating the whole world, became three- 
fold : creator, preserver, and destroyer. In order to create this 
world, the supreme spirit produced from the right side of his 
body himself as Brahma ; then in order to preserve the world he 
produced from the left side of his body Vishnu \ and in order to 
destroy the world he produced from the middle of his body the 
eternal Siva. Some worship Brahma, others Vishnu, others Siva; 
but Vishnu, one yet threefold, creates, preserves, and destroys, 


therefore let the pious make no difference between the three." 
The representation of the Tri-murti is one body with three 
heads : in the middle Brahma, on the right Vishnu, and on the 
left Siva. The worship of Brahma is almost extinct, "but Vishnu 
and Siva receive unbounded adoration from their respective 
followers, and each is elevated to the dignity of the supreme 

T^IJVAVAETTA. A demon who assumed the form of a 
whirlwind and carried off the infant Kn'shna, but was over- 
powered and killed by the child. 

TEI-PADA. c Three-footed,' Fever personified as having 
three feet, symbolising the three stages of fever heat, cold, and 

TEI-PTJEA. 'Triple city. 7 i. According to the Hari-vansa 
it was aerial, and was burnt in a war with the gods. 2. A name 
of the demon Bana, because he received in gift three cities from 
Siva, Brahma, and Vishnu. He was killed by Siva, His name 
at full length is Tripurasura. The name is also applied to Siva. 
TEI-PUEL The capital city of the Chedis, now traceable 
a the insignificant village of Tewar, on the banks of the Nar- 

TEI-SANKU. See Satya-vrata. 

TELSIEAS. ' Three-headed.' r. In the Vedas, a son of 
Twashrfri; also called Viswa-rupa. 2, Fever personified as a 
demon with three heads, typical of the three stages of heat, cold, 
and sweating. 3. Kuvera, god of wealth. 4. An Asura killed 
by Vishnu. 5. A son or a friend of Eavana killed by Eama. 
TEI-SUL A. ' A trident. ' The trident of Siva. 
TEITA, TEITA APTYA. A minor deity mentioned occa- 
sionally in the j?ig-veda, and generally in some relation to Indra. 
Thus " Indra broke through the defences of Vala, as did Trita 
through the coverings (of the well)." In explanation of this and 
similar allusions, a legend is told by the commentator to the 
effect, that Ekata, Dwita, and Trita (first, second, and third), 
were three men produced in water by Agni, for the purpose of 
rubbing off the remains of an oblation of clarified "butter. Agni 
threw the cinders of the offerings into water, and from them 
sprang the three brothers, who, from their origin in water (dp) t 
were called Aptyas. Trita went one day to draw water from a 
well and fell into it The Asuras then heaped coverings over 


the mouth of it to prevent Ms getting out, but lie broke through 
them -with ease. The Nitl-manjari tells the story differently. 
Ekata, Dwita, and Trita were travelling in a desert and suffered 
from thirst. They came to a well from which Trita drew water 
and gave it to his "brothers. In order to appropriate his pro- 
perty the two brothers threw him into the well, placed a cart* 
wheel over it, and there left him. Trita prayed earnestly to the 
gods, and with their help he escaped. 

TBJTSUS. A people frequently mentioned in the Veda. 
Sayarca says they were " priests who were Vasishtfha's disciples/* 
Vasishtfha himself is said to have belonged to the tribe. 

TRI-VEJVX ' The triple braid. 7 A name of Prayaga. It is 
so called because the Ganges and Jumna here unite, and the 
Saraswati is supposed to join them by an underground channel 

TRI-VIKRAMA A name of Vishnu used in the j^g-veda, 
and referring to three steps or paces which he is represented as 
taking. These steps, according to the opinion of a commentator, 
are "the three periods of the sun's course, his rising, culminating, 
and setting. JJ An old commentator says, * ' Vishnu stepped by sepa- 
rate strides over the whole universe. In three places he planted 
his step, one step on the earth, a second in the atmosphere, and 
a third in the sky, in the successive forms of Agni, Vayu, and 
Surya." The great commentator Sayana, a comparatively modern 
writer, understands these steps as being the three steps of Vishnu 
in the Vamana or dwarf incarnation, and no doubt they were 
the origin of this fiction. 

TRYAMBAKA, ' Three-eyed,' or ' Having three wives or 
sisters.' i. A name of Siva. 2. One of the Rudras. 3. Name 
of one of the twelve great Lingas. See Linga, 

TRYARWA. A king, son of Trivnshan, of the race of 
Ikshwaku. He was riding in a chariot which Vrisa, his puro- 
hita or family priest, was driving. The vehicle passed over and 
killed a Brahman boy, and a question arose as to who was 
responsible for the death. The question was referred to an 
assembly of the Ikshwakus, and they decided it against Vrisa. 
The purohit by his prayers then restored the boy to life, and 
being very angry with them for what he deemed partiality, " fire 
henceforth ceased to perform its functions in their dwellings, 
and the cooking of their food and other offices ceased." The 
Ikshwakus appeased him, and upon his prayers the use of 


fire was restored to them. This story is told by Sayawa in 
elucidation of a Yedic allusion, and he quotes the $atyayana 
Brahmam as the authority. 

TUKHARAS. A northern tribe from whom Tukharistan 
obtained its name. They are probably the tribe of $akas, by 
whom Bactria was taken from the Greeks. They are also called 

TULADHARA A trading Yaisya mentioned in the Maha- 
bharata as very virtuous and learned, to whom Jajali, an 
arrogant Brahman, was sent by a voice from the sky to learn 

TITLUNGA. Tuluva, or the country where the Tulu lan- 
guage is spoken, on the western coast below Goa. 

TUMBTJKU. Name of a Gandharva. See Yiradha, 

TUJVDA A demon slain by Nahusha, the son of Ayus. 
He had a son named YituTwfa, who was killed by Bhagavati 

TURANGA-YAKTRA. Horse-faced people. 7 See Kinnaras. 

TURUSHKAS Turks; the people of Turkistan. The 
Indo-Scythians, who, under Kanishka and other kings of the 
race, held Northern India. 

TURYASA, TURYA/SOJ. Son of Yayati by DevayanL He 
refused to bear the curse of premature decrepitude passed upon 
his father, and so his father cursed him that his posterity should 
" not possess dominion." His father gave him a part of his 
kingdom, but after some generations, his line merged into that 
of his brother Puru, who bore for a time the curse passed upon 
his father. 

TUSHARA. See Tukhara, 

TUSHITAS. A gawa or class of subordinate deities, thirty- 
six in number, but sometimes reduced to twelve, and identified 
with the Adityas. 

TWASH21BI In the JKg-veda this deity is the ideal artist, 
the divine artisan, the most skilful of workmen, who is versed 
in all wonderful and admirable contrivances, ancL corresponds in 
many respects with Hephaistos and Yulcan. He sharpens and 
carries the great iron axe, and he forges the thunderbolts of 
Indra. He is the beautiful, skilful worker, the omniform, the 
archetype of all forms, the vivifier and the bestower of long life. 
He imparts generative power and bestows offspring. He forma 


husband and wife for each other, even from the womb. He 
develops the seminal germ in the womb, and is the shaper of 
all forms, human and animal. He has generated a strong man, 
a lover of the gods, a swift horse, and has created the whole 
world. As the $atapatha Brahmana expresses it, " He has pro- 
duced and nourishes a great variety of creatures ; all worlds (or 
beings) are his, and are known to him ; he has given to heaven 
and earth and to all things their forms. " He created Brahmanas- 
pati above all creatures, and generated Agni along with heaven 
and earth, the waters and the Bhngus. He is master of the 
universe, the first-born protector and leader, and knows the 
region of the gods. He is supplicated to nourish the worshipper 
and protect his sacrifice. He is the bestower of blessings, and 
is possessed of abundant wealth, and grants prosperity. He is 
asked, like other gods, to take pleasure in the hymns of his 
worshippers and to grant them riches. He is associated with 
the JSibhus, and is represented as sometimes envying and some- 
times admiring their skill He is represented as being occa- 
sionally in a state of hostility with Indra, and he had a son 
named Viswa-rupa (omnif orm) or Tri-siras, who had three heads, 
six eyes, and three mouths, who was especially obnoxious to 
Indra, and was slain by him. He had a daughter, Saranyu, 
whom he married to Vivas wat, and she was the mother of the 
Aswins, In the Puranas Twash/n is identified with Viswa- 
karman, the artisan of the gods, and sometimes also with Praja- 
pati One of the Adityas and one of the Eudras bear this name, 
as also did a prince descended from Bharata. 

UCHCHALff-SKAVAS. The model horse. The white 
horse of Indra, produced at the churning of the ocean. It is 
fed on ambrosia, and is held to be the king of horses. 

UCHCHHISHrA. The remains of a sacrifice, to which 
divine powers are ascribed by the .ffig-veda. 

UDAYA-GIRI PAKVATA. The eastern mountain from 
behind which the sun rises. 

UDAYANA. i. A prince of the Lunar race, and son of Sahas- 
ranlka, who is the hero of a popular story. He was king of 
Vatsa, and is commonly called Vatsaraja. His capital was 
KausambL Yasava-datta, princess of Ujjayinl, saw him in a 
dream and fell in love with him. He was decoyed to that city, 
and there kept in captivity by the king, ChawZasena ; but when 


he was set at liberty by the minister, he carried off Vasava-datta 
from her father and a rival suitor, 2. A name of Agastya. 

TJDDHAVA. The friend and counsellor of Knshfta. Ac- 
cording to some he was Krishna's cousin, being son of Deva- 
bhaga, the brother of Vasu-deva. He was also called Pavana- 

UDGALBI. A priest whose duty it is to chaunt the prayers 
or hymns from the Sama-veda. 

UDBANKA. Ham-chandra's aerial city. See Saubha. 

UGRA. A name of Eudra, or of one of his manifestations. 
See Eudra. 

UGRASENA. A king of Mathura, husband of Kami, and 
father of Kansa and Devaka. He was deposed by Kansa, but 
Kn'shwa, after killing the latter, restored Ugrasena to the throne. 
See Kansa. 

UJJAYANl. The Greek O^v?? and the modern Oujein or 
Ujjein, It was the capital of Vikrauiaditya and one of the 
seven sacred cities. Hindu geographers calculate their longitude 
from it, making it their first meridian. 

TJLtJKA. 'An owl' Son of Kitava, He was king of a 
country and people of the same name. He was an ally of the 
Kauravas, and acted as their envoy to the Pjwwfavas. 

ULtJPl. A daughter of Kauravya, Eaja of the Nagas, 
with whom Arjuna contracted a kind of marriage. She was 
nurse to her step-son, Babhru-vahana, and had great influence 
over him. According to the Vishnu Purima she had a son 
named Iravat 

UMA, 'Light' A name of the consort of $iva. The 
earliest known mention of the name is in the Kena Upanishad, 
where she appears as a mediatrix between Brahma and the other 
gods, and seems to be identified with VacL See Devi. 

UMA-PATI 'Husband of Urna/ that is to say, Siva, 

UPANISHADS. 'Esoteric doctrine.' The third division 
of the Yedas attached to the Brahmana portion, and forming 
part of the $ruti or revealed word. The Upanishads are generally 
written in prose with interspersed verses, but some are wholly in 
verse. There are about 150 of these works, probably even more. 
They are of later date than the Bmhmattas, but it is thought that 
the oldest may date as far back as the sixth century B.O. The 
object of these treatises is to ascertain the mystic sense of the 


text of the Veda, and so they enter into such abstruse questions 
as the orgin of the universe, the nature of the deity, the nature 
of soul, and the connection of mind and matter. Thus they con- 
tain the beginnings of that metaphysical inquiry which ended 
in the full development of Hindu philosophy. The Upanishads 
have " one remarkable peculiarity, the total absence of any 
Brahmanical exclusiveness in their doctrine. They are evidently 
later than the older Sanhitas and Brahmaftas, but they breathe 
an entirely different spirit, a freedom of thought unknown in 
any earlier work except the .Rig-veda hymns themselves. The 
great teachers of the higher knowledge and Brahmans are con- 
tinually represented as going to Kshatriya kings to become their 
pupils." Professor Cowell. The .Rig-veda has the Upanishad 
called Aitareya attached to the Aitareya Brahmana. The 
Taittiriya Sanhita of the Yajur has an Upanishad of the same 
name. The Yajasaneyi Sanhita has the Isa, and attached to 
the Satapatha Brahmana it has the Bnhad Ara?iyaka, which is 
the most important of them. The Sama-veda has the Kena and 
Chhandogya. All these have been translated into English. The 
Atharva-veda has the Ka&a, Prasna, Murzdaka, Mandukya, and 
others, altogether fifty-two in number. These are the most im- 
portant of the Upanishads. Many of the Upanishads have been 
printed, and several of them translated in the Bibliotkeca Indica, 
and by Poley. There is a catalogue by Muller in the Zeitschrift 
des D. M. &. , voL xix 

UPAPLAVYA. Matsya, the capital of the king of Virafo. 

UPA-PURAJVAS. Secondary or subordinate Puranas. See 

UPAKICHABA A Vasu or demigod, who, according to the 
Maha-bharata, became king of Chedi by command of Indra, He 
had five sons by his wife ; and by an Apsaras, named Adrika, 
condemned to live on earth in the form of a fish, he had a son 
named Matsya (fish), and a daughter, Satya-vati, who was the 
mother of Yyasa. 

UPA$RUTL A supernatural voice which is heard at night 
revealing the secrets of the future. 

UPASUNDA. A Daitya, son of Nisunda, brother of Sunda, 
and father of Muka. See Sunda. 

UPA-VEDAS, Subordinate or inferior Yedas. These are 
sciences which have no connection whatever with the Srati 01 


revealed Veda. They are four in number (i.) Ayur-veda, 
medicine; (2.) Gandharva-veda, music and dancing; (3.) Dha- 
nur-veda, archery, military science; (4.) Sthapatya-veda, archi- 

TJPEJSTDEA. A title given to Kridwia by Indra. 

TJEAGAS. The Nagas or serpents inhabiting Patala. 

UEMILA. Daughter of Janaka, sister of Sita, wife of Laksh- 
mana, and mother of Gandharvl Somada. 

UEVA. Father of .Zfoehika and grandfather of Jamad-agni. 

TJEVA$I. A celestial nymph, mentioned first in the JfJig- 
veda. The sight of her beauty is said to have caused the gene- 
ration, in a peculiar way, of the sages Agastya and Yasish&a by 
Mitra and Yaruna. A verse says, " And thou, Vasishrfha, art 
a son of Mitra and Varima." She roused the anger of these two 
deities and incurred their curse, through which she came to 
live upon the earth, and became the wife or mistress of Purii- 
ravas. The story of her amour with Puru-ravas is first told in 
the Satapatha Brahmarau The loves of Puru-ravas, theVikrama 
or hero, and of Urvasi, the nymph, are the subject of Kali 
dasa's drama called Yikramorvasl. See Puru-ravas. 

USANAS. i. The planet Yenus or its regent, also called 
$ukra (q.v.). 2. Author of a Dharma-sastra or law-book. 

tJSHJL A Daitya princess, daughter of Bana and grand- 
daughter of Ball She is called also Priti-jusha. She fell in 
love with a prince whom she saw in a dream, and was anxious 
to know if there were such a person. Her favourite companion, 
Chitra-lekha, drew the portraits of many gods and men, but 
tlsha's choice fell upon Aniruddha, son of Pradyumna and 
grandson of Knslma. Chitra-lekha, by her magic power, brought 
Aniruddha to tfsha. Her father, on hearing of the youth's 
being in the palace, endeavoured to kill him, but he defended 
himself successfully. Bana, however, kept Aniruddha, " binding 
Mm in serpent bonds." Krishna, Pradyumna, and Bala-rama 
went to the rescue ; and although Bawa was supported by Siva 
and by Skanda, god of war, his party was defeated, and Aniruddha 
was carried back to Dwaraka with his wife tJsha. 

USHAS. The dawn, the yw of the Greeks and Aurora of 
the Latins. She is the daughter of heaven and sister of the 
Adityas. This is one of the most beautiful myths of the Yedas, 
and is enveloped in poetry. Ushas is the friend of men, she smiles 


like a young wife, she is the daughter of the sky, she goes to 
every house, she thinks of the dwellings of men, she does not 
despise the small or the great, she brings wealth ; she is always 
the same, immortal, divine, age cannot touch her; she is the 
young goddess, but she makes men grow old. " All this," adds 
Max Miiller, "may he simply allegorical language. But the 
transition from Devi, t the bright,' to Devi, the goddess, is so 
easy ; the daughter of the sky assumes so readily the same per- 
sonality which is given to the sky, Dyaus, her father, that we can 
only guess whether, in every passage, the poet is speaking of a 
bright apparition or of a bright goddess, of a natural vision or a 
visible deity." She is called Ahana and Dyotanii, 'the illumer.' 

USHMAPAS. The Pitn's or a class of Pitris (q.v,). 

ILSIJ. Mentioned in the jRig-veda as the mother of Kak- 
shivat. A female servant of the queen of the Kalinga Eaja. 
The king desired his queen to submit to the embraces of the 
sage Dirgha-tamas, in order that he might beget a son. The 
queen substituted her bondmaid U&ij. The sage, cognisant of 
the deception, sanctified Usij, and begat upon her a son, TCak- 
shivat, who, through liis affiliation by the king, was a Kshatriya, 
but, as the son of Dlrgha-tamas, was a Brahman. This story is 
told in the Maha-bharata and some of the Puranas. 

TTTATHYA. A Brahman of the race of Angiras, who 
married Bhadra, daughter of Soma, a woman of great beauty. 
The god Varawa, who had formerly been enamoured of her, car- 
ried her off from Utathya's hermitage, and would not give her 
up to Narada, who was sent to bring her back. Utathya, greatly 
enraged, drank up all the sea, still Yaruna would not let her go, 
At the desire of Utathya, the lake of Vanma was then dried up 
and the ocean swept away. The saint then addressed himself to 
the countries and to the river : " Saraswati, disappear into the 
deserts, and let this land, deserted by thee, become impure." 
"After the country had become dried up, Varuwa submitted 
himself to Utathya and brought back Bhadra. The sage was 
pleased to get back his wife, and released both the world and 
YaruTia from their sufferings," 

UTKALA. The modern Orissa. It gives its name to one of 
the five northern nations of Brahmans. See Brahman. 

UTTAMAUJAS. A warrior of great strength, and an ally 
of the Piw 


UTTAKA-PAD. ' Outstretched, supine/ In the Yedas, a 
peculiar creative source from which the earth sprang. Sup- 
posed to refer to the posture of a woman in parturition. 

UTTANA-PADA. A son of Manu and Sata-rupa. By his 
wife Su-nnta he had four sons, Dhruva, Kirtiman, Ayushman, 
and Yasu. Some of th Purajias gave him another wife, Su-ruchi, 
and a son, Uttama. See Dhruva. 

UTTAKA (mas.), TJTTAEA (fern.). A son and daughter of 
the Eivja of Yira/a. ITttara was killed in "battle by$alya. The 
daughter married Abhimanyu, son of Arjuna. 

UTTAEA-KUEU. A region lying far to the north, (See 
Jambu-dwipa.) (Plural) The inhabitants of this region. 

UTTAEA MlMANSA. A school of philosophy. fiteDamna. 

UTTAKA-NAISHADA-CHAEITA. A poem on the life 
of ISTala, king of Nishada, written about the year 1000 A.D. by 
Sn Harsh a, a celebrated sceptical philosopher. It has been 
printed in the Bibliotheca, Iwdica. 

TJTTAEA-EAMA-CHAEITA. ' The later chronicle of Eama. 
A drama by Bhava-bhuti on the latter part of Eama's life. The 
second part of King Eama, as the Maha-vlra-charita is the first. 
The drama is based on the TJttara KaT^a of the EamayaTia, 
and quotes two or three verses from that poem. It was pro- 
bably written about the beginning of the eighth century. It has 
been translated in blank verse by Wilson, and more literally by 
Professor C. H. Tawney. There are several editions of the text. 

YA, A name of Yaru?m ; also name of his dwelling. 

YACH. l Speech.' In the jRig-veda, Yach appears to be the 
personification of speech by whom knowledge was communicated 
to man. Thus she is said to have " entered into the j&shis," 
and to make whom she loves terrible and intelligent, a priest 
and a jRishi. She was " generated by the gods," and is called 
" the divine Yach," " queen of the gods," and she is described 
as " the melodious cow who milked forth sustenance and water," 
" who yields us nourishment and sustenance." The Brahma?ias 
associate her with Prajapati in the work of creation. In the 
Taittiriya Brahmana she is called " the mother of the Vedas," 
and " the wife of Indra, who contains within, herself all worlds." 
In the Satapatha BrahmaTia she is represented as entering into 
a sexual connection with Prajapati, who, " being desirous of 
creating, connected himself with various spouses," and among 


them, " through his mind, with Yach," from whom "he created 
the waters ; " or, as this last sentence is differently translated, 
u He created the waters from the world [in the form] of speech 
(Yach)." In the Kathaka Upanishad this idea is more distinctly 
formulated : " Prajapati was this universe. Yach was a second 
to him. He associated sexually with her ; she became pregnant ; 
she departed from him ; she produced these creatures ; she again 
entered into Prajapati." 

The Aitareya Brahmawa and the /Satapatha Brahmana have a 
story of the Gandharvas having stolen the soma juice, or, as one 
calls it, " King Soma," and that as the Gandharvas were fond of 
women, Yach was, at her own suggestion, "turned into a female" 
by the gods and .ffishis, and went to recover it from them. 

In the Atharva-veda she is identified with Yiraj, and is the 
daughter of Kama (desire), " That daughter of thine, Kama, 
is called the cow, she whom sages denominate Yach- Yiraj." 

The Maha-bharata also calls her " the mother of the Yedas," 
and says, "A voice derived from Brahma entered into the ears 
of them all ; the celestial Saraswatl was then produced from the 
heavens." Here and "in the later mythology, Saraswatl was 
identified with Yach, and became under different names the 
spouse of Brahma and the goddess of wisdom and eloquence, and 
is invoked as a muse," generally under the name of Saraswatl, 
but sometimes as Yach. 

The Bhagavata Purawa recognises her as "the slender and 
enchanting daughter " of Brahma, for whom he had a passion, 
and from whom mankind was produced, that is the female Yiraj. 
(See Yiraj and $ata-rupa.) Saraswatl, as wife of Brahma and 
goddess of wisdom, represents perhaps the union of power and 
intelligence which was supposed to operate in the work of crea- 
tion. According to the Padma Purawa, Yach was daughter of 
Daksha, wife of Kasyapa, and mother of the Gandharvas and 

YADAYA, YAJ9AVANALA. The submarine fire which 
" devours the water of the ocean," causing it to throw off the 
vapours which are condensed into rain and snow. The word is 
also written YacZava and BacZava. See Aurva. 

YAH AN A. t A vehicle.' Most of the gods are represented as 
having animals as their vahanas. Brahma has the Hansa, swan 
or goose ; Yishnu has Garuda, half eagle, half man ; Siva, the 


bull Nandi ; Indra, an elephant ; Yama, a "buffalo ; Karttikeya, 
a peacock ; Kama-deva, the marine monster Makara, or a parrot ; 
Agni, a ram; Yarurca, a fish; Ganesa, a rat; Yayu, an antelope; 
$ani, or Saturn, a vulture ; Durga, a tiger. 

YAHNL Fire. See Agni 

YAHUKA. 'Charioteer.' A name and office assumed by 
Nala in his time of disguise, 

YAIBHOJAS. The Maha-bharata says, " The descendants of 
Druhyu are the Yaibhojas." " A people unacquainted with the 
use of cars or beasts of burthen, and who travel on rafts ; they 
have no kings." Wilson 

YAIBHRAJA. A celestial grove ; the grove of the gods on 
Mount Suparswa, west of Meru. 

YAIDAKBHA. Belonging to the country of Yidarbha or 
Birar. The people of that country. 

YAIDEHA. Belonging to the country of Yideha or Tirhoot, 
&c. The king or the people of the country. Janaka was called 
Yaideha and Sita was Yaidehi. 

YAIDYA-NATHA. < Lord of physicians/ A title of Siva. 
Name of one of the twelve great Lingas. See Linga. 

YAIJAYANTA. The palace or the banner of Indra. 

YAIJAYANTI. i. The necklace of Yishmi, composed of five 
precious gems, pearl, ruby, emerald, sapphire, and diamond; it "is 
the aggregate of the five elemental rudiments." 2. A law-book 
current in the south. Tt is a commentary by Nanda Paw^ita on 
the Vislmu Smnti 

VAIKAETTANA. A name of Karwa from his putative 
father, Yikarttana, the sun, 

YAIKUNTHA. The paradise of Yishwu, sometimes de- 
scribed as on Mount Meru, and at others as in the Northern 
Ocean. It is also called Yaibhra, Yishmi himself is sometimes 
designated by this term. 

YAINATEYA. A name of Yishnu's bird Garurfa. 

YAIRAJ. Manu the son of Yiraj. 

YAIRAJAS. Semi-divine "beings or Manes unconsuraable by 
fire, who dwell in Tapo-loka, but are capable of translation to 
Satya-loka, The Kasi-kha?wZa explains this term as the Manes 
of "ascetics, mendicants, anchorets, and penitents, who have 
completed a course of rigorous austerities." See Pitns. 

YAIROCHANA. A name of Bali , 


YALSALl A city founded by Yisala, son of Tmabindu. 
This is " a city of considerable renown in Indian tradition, but 
its site is a subject of some uncertainty." It was a celebrated 
place among tbe Buddhists, and would seem to have been situated 
on the left bank of the Ganges. General Cunningham places 
it about 27 miles north of Patna. It is frequently confounded 
with Yisala, i.e., Ujjayinl. 

YALSAMPAYAKA. A celebrated sage who was the original 
teacher of the Black Yajur-veda. He was a pupil of the great 
Yyasa, from whom he learned the Maha-bharata, which he after- 
wards recited to King Janamejaya at a festival. The Hari-vansa 
is also represented as having been communicated by him. 

YALSCESHIKA. The Atomic school of philosophy. See 

VALSKAYANA. Patronymic of Kuvora. 

YALSWANABA. A name by which Agni is occasionally 
"nown in the jR/g-veda,. 

YALSYA. The third or trading and agricultural caste. See 

YAITANA StJTKA. The ritual of the Atharva-veda. The 
text has been published by Dr. Garbe. 

YAITABAJVX < (The river) to be crossed/ that is, the river 
of hell, which must be crossed before the infernal regions can 
be entered. This river is described as being filled with blood, 
ordure, and all sorts of filth, and to run with great impetuosity. 
A second river stated by the Maha-bharata to be in the country 
of the Kalingas ; it must be the river of the same name (vulg. 
"Byeturnee") somewhat higher up in Cuttack. 

YAIYAS WATA. Name of the seventh Manu ; he was son 
of Surya and father of Ikshwaku, the founder of the Solar race 
of kings. 

YAJASAISTEYl-SANHITA. The body of hymns forming 
the White Yajur-veda. See Yeda. 

YAJIN. A priest of the White Yajur-veda. 

YAJKA. * i. The thunderbolt of Indra, said to have been 
made of the bones of the jS-ishi DadhlchL It is a circular 
weapon, with a hole in the centre, according to some, but others 
represent it as consisting of two transverse bars. It has many 
names: Asani, Abhrottha, 'sky-born;' Bahu-dara, 'much cleav- 
ing ;' Bhidira or Chhidaka, 'the splitter; 7 Dambholi and Jasuri, 


'destructive;' Hradin, 'roaring;' Kulisa, 'axe; ' Pavi, ' pointed; 1 
Phena-vahin, 'foam-bearing; Shatf-kona, 'hexagon;' ambhaand 
Swam. 2. Son of Aniruddha. His mother is sometimes said 
to he Aniruddha's wife Su-bhadra, and at others the Daitya 
princess Usha. 'Krishna just before his death made him king 
over the Yadavas at Indra-prastha. See the next. 

YA JR A-NABHA. The celebrated chakra (discus) of Krishna. 
According to the Maha-bharata it was given to him by Agni for 
his assistance in defeating Indra and burning the Khanrfava forest. 

YAK A, ' A crane. 3 A great Asura who lived near the city 
of Eka- chakra, and forced the Raja of the place to send him 
daily a large quantity of provisions, which he devoured, and 
not only the provisions, but the men who carried them. Under 
the directions of Kunti, her son Bhima took the provisions, and 
when the demon struck him, a terrific combat followed ; each 
one tore up trees by the roots and belaboured the other, till 
Bluma seized the demon by the legs and tore him asunder. 
Kuvera is sometimes called by this name. 

YALA-KHILYAS. i. Eleven hymns of an apocryphal or 
peculiar character interpolated in the jRig-veda, 2. " Pigmy 
sages no bigger than a joint of the thumb, chaste, pious, resplen- 
dent as the rays of the sun." So described by the Yislmu 
Purawa, which says that they were brought forth by Samnati 
(humility), wife of Kratu, and were 60,000 in number. They are 
able to fly swifter than birds. The .Rig-veda says that they sprang 
from the hairs of Prajapati (Brahma). They are the guards of 
the chariot of the sun. They are also called Kharwas. Wilson 
says " they are not improbably connected with the character of 
Daumling, Thaumlin, Tamlane, Tom-a-lyn, or Tom Thumb." 

YALMIK3. The author of the Ramayana, which he in Yedic 
phrase is said to have "seen." He himself is represented as 
taking part in some of the scenes he describes. He received 
the banished Slta into his hermitage at Chitra-ku/a, and edu- 
cated her twin sons Kusa and Lava. " Tradition has marked a 
hill in the district of Banda in Bundlekand as his abode." The 
invention of the sloka is attributed to him, but it cannot be his, 
because the metre is found in the Yedas. 

YAMACHARIS, Followers of the left-hand sect. &eTantra. 

YAMA-J2EYA. i. A Yedic jK'ishi, author of many hymns. 
In one of his hymns he represents himself as speaking before his 


birth, saying, " Let me not come forth by this path, for it is 
difficult (of issue) : let me come forth obliquely from the side." 
Sayar&a, the commentator, says in explanation, "The j^shi 
Yama-deva, whilst yet in the womb, was reluctant to be born in 
the usual manner, and resolved to come into the world through 
his mother's side. Aware of his purpose, the mother prayed to 
Aditi, who thereupon came with her son Indra to expostulate 
with the Bishi." [This story accords with that told by the 
Buddhists of the birth of Buddha.] In the same hymn Yama- 
deva says, " In extreme destitution I have cooked the entrails of 
a dog," and Manu cites this to show that a man is not rendered 
impure even by eating the flesh of dogs for the preservation of 
his life. In another hymn he says, " As a hawk I came forth 
with speed ; " and a commentator explains, " Having assumed 
the form of a hawk, he came forth from the womb by the power 
of Yoga, for he is considered to have been endowed with divine 
knowlege from the period of his conception." 2. A Yedic sage 
mentioned in the Maha-bharata as possessor of two horses of 
marvellous speed called Yamyas. 3. A name of Siva ; also of 
one of the Rudras. 

YAMAHA. The dwarf incarnation of Yishnu See Ava- 

YAMAHA PURAJVA. "That in which the four-faced 
Brahma taught the three objects of existence, as subservient to 
the greatness of Tri-vikrama (Yishmi), which treats also of the 
Siva kalpa, and which consists of 10,000 stanzas, is called the 
Yamana Puram." It contains an account of the dwarf incarna- 
tion of Yishnu, and "extends to about 7000 stanzas, but its 
contents scarcely establish its claim to the character of a Purawa." 
" It is of a more tolerant character than the (other) PurHwias, and 
divides its homage impartially between $iva and Yishrai with 
tolerable impartiality. It has not the air of any antiquity, and 
its compilation may have amused the leisure of some Brahman 
of Benares three or four centuries ago." Wilson. 

YANA-PRASTHA. < A dweller in the worlds/ A Brahman 
in the third stage of his religious life, passing his time as an 
anchorite in the wood? See Brahman. 

YANA-CHARAS (maa), YANE-CHARlS (fern,). Wan- 
derers of the woods. Fauns, Dryads, or sylvan guardians. 

YAN5A. A race or family. Lists of the JMshis or successive 


teachers of the Yedas which are found attached to some of the 
Brtxhmanas are called Yansas. 

YAN&A-BRAHMA.ZVA. The eighth Brahmawa of the Sama- 
veda It has been edited by BurnelL 

VAPTISHMAT. A man who killed King Marutta of the 
Solar race. Dama, son or grandson of Marutta, in retaliation 
killed Yapushmat. With his blood he made the funeral offer- 
ings to the Manes of Marutta, and with the flesh he fed the 
Brahmans who were of Rakshasa descent. 

YARA-DA. i Eestower of boons.' A name of Devi, also of 

YARAHA. The boar incarnation of Yishmi. See Avatara. 

YARAHA-KALPA. The present kalpa or year of Brahma. 
See Kalpa. 

YARAHA MIHIRA. An astronomer who was one of " the 
nine gems" of the court of Yikramaditya. (See Nava-ratna.) 
He was author of Bnhat-sanhita and B/ihaj-jataka. His death 
is placed in $aka 509 (A.D. 587). 

YARAHA PURAJVA. "That in which the glory of the 
great Yaraha is predominant, as it was revealed to Earth by 
Yishnu, in connexion, wise Munis, with the Manava kalpa, and 
which contains 24,000 verses, is called the Yaraha Purawa ; " 
but this description differs so from the Purana which bears the 
name in the present day, that Wilson doubts its applying to it. 
The known work " is narrated by Yishmi as Yaraha, or in the 
boar incarnation, to the personified Earth. Its extent, how- 
ever, is not half that specified, little exceeding 10,000 stanzas. 
It furnishes also itself evidence of the prior currency of some 
other work similarly denominated." " It may perhaps be 
referred to the early part of the twelfth century." 

YARA-ZVASI. The sacred city of Benares ; also called Kasi. 

YARAJVAYATA- The city in which the Pa^avas dwelt in 

YARARUCHI A grammarian who is generally supposed to 
be one with Katyayana (q.v.). There was another Yararuchi who 
was one of " the nine gems " at the court of Yikramaditya. 

VARDDHA-KSHATRt A patronymic of Jayad-ratha 

YARKSHl Daughter of a sage, who is instanced in the 
Maha-bharata as being a virtuous woman, and wife of ten 


VARZVA. ' Class or caste.' The Chatur-vaim, or four castes, 
as found established in the code of Manu, are 

1. Brahman The sacerdotal and learned class, the members 
of which may be, but are not necessarily priests. 

2. Kshatriya. The 'regal and warrior caste. 

3. Yaisya. Trading and agricultural caste. 

4. $udra. Servile caste, whose duty is to serve the other 

The first three castes were called dwi-ja, "twice born or rege- 
nerate/' from their being entitled to investiture with the sacred 
thread which effects a second birth. The Brahmans maintain 
that their caste alone remains, that the other three have been 
lost or degraded, and it is generally believed that there are no 
pure Kshatriyas or Yaisyas now existing. The numerous castes 
which, have sprung up from the intercourse of people of different 
castes or from other causes are called Varwa-sankara, * mixed 


YAKSHA A region. Nine varshas are enumerated as 
situated between the great mountain ranges of the earth : (i.) 
Bharata-varsha, India ; (2.) Kim-purusha or Kin-nara ; (3.) 
Hari; (4.) Ramyaka; (5.) Eiran-maya; (6.) TJttara-kuru ; 
(7.) Havnta; (8.) Bhadraswa ; (9.) Ketu-mala, 

YAESILZVEYA. A name of Krishna as a descendant of 
Ynshrai. Name of King Nala's charioteer. 

YABTTIKAS. Supplementary rules or notes to the gram- 
mar of Panini by later grammarians, as Katyayana, Patanjali, 
&e. Katyayana is the chief of these annotators, and is called 
Varttika-kaxa, 'the annotator.' 

YARILYA Similar to Ougavo'c. 'The universal encom- 
passer, the all-embracer.' One of the oldest of the Yedic deities, 
a personification of the all-investing sky, the maker and up- 
holder of heaven and earth. As such he is king of the universe, 
king of gods and men, possessor of illimitable knowledge, the 
supreme deity to whom especial honour is due, He is often 
associated with Mitra, he being the ruler of the night and Mitra 
of the day ; but his name frequently occurs alone, that of Mitra 
only seldom. In later times he was chief among the lower 
celestial deities called Adityas, and later still he became a sort of 
Neptune, a god of the seas and rivers, who rides upon the 
Makara This character he still retains. His sign is a tislx 

VARUNA. 337 

He is regent of tlie west quarter and of one of the Nakshatras 
or lunar mansions. According to the Maha-bharata he was son 
of Kardama and father of Pushkara. The Maha-bharata relates 
that he carried off Bhadra, the wife of Utathya (q.v.), a Brah- 
man, but Utathya obliged him to submit and restore her. He 
was in a way the father of the sage Vasishftia (q.v.). In the 
Vedas, Varuvia is not specially connected with water, but there 
are passages in which he is associated with the element of water 
both in the atmosphere and on the earth, in such a way as may 
account for the character and functions ascribed to him in the 
later mythology. 

Dr. Muir thus sums up in the words of the hymns the func- 
tions and attributes of Yaruwa : " The grandest cosmical func- 
tions are ascribed to "Varuwa. Possessed of illimitable resources 
(or knowledge), this divine being has meted out (or fashioned) 
and upholds heaven and earth, he dwells in all worlds as sov& 
reign ruler ; indeed the three worlds are embraced within him. 
He made the golden and revolving sun to shine in the firma- 
ment. The wind which resounds through the atmosphere is his 
breath. He has opened out boundless paths for the sun, and 
has hollowed out channels for the rivers, which flow by Ms com- 
mand. By his wonderful contrivance the rivers pour out their 
waters into the one ocean but never fill it. His ordinances are 
fixed and unassailable. They rest on him unshaken as on a 
mountain. Through the operation (of his laws) the moon walks 
in brightness, and the stars which appear in the nightly sky 
mysteriously vanish in daylight, Neither the birds flying in 
the air, nor the rivers in their ceaseless flow can attain a know- 
ledge of his power or his wrath. Has messengers behold both 
worlds. He knows the flight of birds in the sky, the paths of 
ships on the ocean, the course of the far-travelling wind, and be- 
holds all the things that have been or shall be done. No creature 
can even wink without him. He witnesses men's truth and false- 
hood. He instructs the Eishi Vasishftia in mysteries ; but his 
secrets and those of Mitra are not to be revealed to the foolish." 
" He has unlimited control over the destinies of mankind He 
has a hundred thousand remedies, and is supplicated to show his 
wide and deep benevolence and drive away evil and sin, to untie 
sin like a rope and remove it He is entreated not to steal away, 
but to prolong life, and to spare the suppliant who daily trans 


gresses his laws. In many places mention is made of the bonds 
or nooses with which he seizes and punishes transgressors. 
Mitra and Yaruwa conjointly are spoken of in one passage as 
being barriers against falsehood, furnished with many nooses, 
which the hostile mortal cannot surmount ; and, in another 
place, Indra and Yaruwa are described as binding with bonds 
not formed of rope. On the other hand, Yaruwa is said to be 
gracious even to him who has committed sin. He is the wise 
guardian of immortality, and a hope is held out that ho and 
Yama, reigning in blessedness, shall be beheld in the next world 
by the righteous. " 

" The attributes and functions ascribed to Yaruwa impart to 
his character a moral elevation and sanctity far surpassing that 
attributed to any other Yedic deity." 

The correspondence of Yaruwa with Ouranos has been already 
noted, but " the parallel will not hold in all points. There is 
not in the Yedic mythology any special relation between 
Yaruwa and Pnthivi (the earth) as husband and wife, as there 
is between Ouranos and Gaia in the theogony of Hesiod ; nor is 
Yaruwa represented in the Yeda, as Ouranos is by the Greek 
poet, as the progenitor of Dyaus (Zeus), except in the general 
way in which he is said to have formed and to preserve heaven 
and earth" (Muir's Texts, v. 58). Manu also refers to Yaruwa 
as "binding the guilty in fatal cords." 

In the Puranas, Yaruwa is sovereign of the waters, and one 
of his accompaniments is a noose, which the Yedic deity also 
carried for binding offenders : this is called Naga-pasa, Pula- 
kanga, or Yiswa-jit. His favourite resort is Pushpa-giri, ' flower 
mountain/ and his city Yasudha-nagara or Sukha. He also 
possesses an umbrella impermeable to water, formed of the hood 
of a cobra, and called Abhoga. The Yishwu Purawa mentions 
an incident which shows a curious coincidence between Yaruwa 
and Neptune. At the marriage of the sage jRichika, Yaruwa 
supplied him with the thousand fleet white horses which the 
bride's father had demanded of him. Yaruwa is also called 
Prachetas, Ambu-raja, Jala-pati, Kesa, 'lord of the waters;' 
Ud-dama, ' the surrounder ; ' Pasa-bhnt, ' the noose-carrier ; ' 
Yiloma, Yari-loma, ' watery hair ; ' Yada/i-pati, ( king of aquatic 
animals. His son is named Agasti 

VAETTJVAN1, YAKlLtVI Wife of Yaruwa and goddess ol 


wine. She is said to have sprung from the churning of the 
ocean. The goddess of wine is also called Mada and Sura. 

YASANTA. Spring and its deified personification. 

YASANTA-SENA. The heroine of the drama called Mnch- 
chhakaft, 'the toy cart.' 

YASAYA-DATTA. A princess of UjjayinI, who is the heroine 
of a popular story by Subandhu. The work has been printed 
by Dr. F. Hall in the Bibliotheca Indica. He considers it to have 
been written early in the seventh century. See Udayana, 

YASISHrHA. < Most wealthy. 7 A celebrated Yedic sage 
to whom many hymns are ascribed. According to Manu he 
was one of the seven great JRishis and of the ten Prajapatis, 
There was a special rivalry between him and the sage Yiswa- 
mitra, who raised himself from the Kshatriya to the Brahman 
caste. Yasishftia was the possessor of a " cow of plenty," called 
Nandini, who had the power of granting him all things (vasu) 
he desired, hence his name. A law-book is attributed to him, 
or to another of the same name. Though Yasish/ha is classed 
among the Prajapatis who sprang from Brahma, a hymn in the 
.Rig-veda and the commentaries thereon assign him a different 
origin, or rather a second birth, and represent him and the sage 
Agastya to have sprung from Mitra and Yaruwa. The hymn says, 
" Thou, YasisMia, art a son of Mitra and Yanma, born a Brah- 
man from the soul of Urvasi. All the gods placed in the vessel 
thee the drop which had fallen through divine contemplation." 
The comment on this hymn says, "When these two Adityas 
(Mitra and Yaruwa) beheld the Apsaras Urvasi at a sacrifice their 
seed fell from them. ... It fell on many places, into a jar, into 
water, and on the ground. The Muni Yasishflia was produced 
on the ground, while Agastya was born in the jar." 

There is a peculiar hymn attributed to YasisMha in the JSig- 
veda ("Wilson, iv. 121), beginning "Protector of the dwelling," 
which the commentators explain as having been addressed by 
him to a house-dog which barked as he entered the house of 
Vanwa by night to obtain food after a three days' fast. By it 
the dog was appeased and put to sleep, " wherefore these verses 
are to be recited on similar occasions by thieves and bxirglars." 

In tho same Yeda and in the Aitareya Brahmawa, Yasishrfha 
appears as the family priest of King Sudas, a position to which 
his rival Yiswamitra aspired. This is amplified in the Maha- 


bharata, where he is not the priest of Sudas hut of his son 
"Kalmasha-pada, who hore the patronymic Saudasa. It is said 
that his rival Yiswamitra was jealous, and wished to have this 
office for himself, but the king preferred Yasishiflia, Yasishftia 
had a hundred sons, the eldest of whom was named #aktri. 
He, meeting the king in the road, was ordered to get out of the 
way ; hut he civilly replied that the path was his, for by the 
law a king must cede the way to a Brahman. The king struck 
him with a whip, and he retorted by cursing the king to be- 
come a man-eater. Yiswamitra was present, but invisible, and 
he maliciously commanded a man-devouring Eakshasa to enter 
the king. So the king became a man-eater, and his first victim 
was Saktri. The same fate befell all the hundred sons, and 
Vasishflia's grief was boundlesa He endeavoured to destroy 
himself in various ways. He cast himself from the top of 
Mount Meru, but the rocks he fell upon were like cotton. He 
passed through a burning forest without harm. He throw 
himself into the sea with a heavy stone tied to his neck, but the 
waves cast him on dry land. He plunged into a river swollen 
by rain, but although he had bound his arms with cords, the 
stream loosened his bonds and landed him unbound (vvpft&a) on 
its banks. Erom this the river received the name of Yipfisa 
(Byas). He threw himself into another river full of alligators, 
but the river rushed away in a hundred directions, and was con- 
sequently called $ata-dru (Sutlej). Finding that he could not 
kill himself, he returned to his hermitage, and was met in the 
wood by King Kalmasha-pada, who was about to devour him, 
but Yasish&ia exorcised him and delivered him from the curse 
he had borne for twelve years, The sage then directed the king 
to return to his kingdom and pay due respect to TJrahmans. 
Kalmasha-pada begged Yasishftia to give him offspring. He 
promised to do so, and "being solicited by the king to beget 
an heir to the throne, the queen became pregnant by him and 
brought forth a son at the end of twelve years." 

Another legend in the Maha-bharata represents Viswarnitra 
as commanding the river Saraswati to bring Yasisiirfha, so that 
he might kill him. By direction of Yasishtfha the river obeyed 
the command, but on approaching Yiswamitra, who stood ready 
armed, it promptly carried away Yasish/ha in another direction, 

The enmity of Yasish/ha and Yiswamitra conies out very 


strongly in the Bamayana. Viswamitra ruled the earth for 
many thousand years as king, hut he coveted the wondrous cow 
of plenty which he had seen at Yasishtfha's hermitage, and 
attempted to take her away "by force. A great battle followed 
between the hosts of King Viswamitra and the warriors pro- 
duced by the cow to support her master. A hundred of Viswa- 
mitra's sons were reduced to ashes by the blast of Vasishftia's 
mouth, and Viswamitra being utterly defeated, he abdicated and 
retired to the Himalaya. The two met again after an interval 
and fought in single combat. Viswamitra was again worsted by 
the Brahmanical power, and " resolved to work out his own ele- 
vation to the Brahmanical order," so as to be upon an equality 
with his rival He accomplished his object and became a priest, 
and Vasishtfha suffered from his power. The hundred sons of 
Vasishflia denounced Viswamitra for presuming, though a 
Kshatriya, to act as a priest. This so incensed Viswamitra that 
he " by a curse doomed the sons of Vasishflia to be reduced to 
ashes and reborn as degraded outcasts for seven hundred births." 
Eventually, " Vasish&a, being propitiated by the gods, became 
reconciled to Viswamitra, and recognised his claim to all the 
prerogatives of a Brahman J2ishi, and Viswamitra paid all hon- 
our to Vasishtfha. 

A legend in the Vishrcu Puriiwa represents Vasishflia as being 
requested by Nimi, a son of Ikshwaku, to officiate at a sacrifice 
which was to last for a thousand years. The sage pleaded a 
prior engagement to Indra for five hundred years, but offered to 
come at the end of that period. The king made no remark, 
and Vasishtfha, taking silence as assent, returned as he had 
proposed. He then found that Mmi had engaged the Jfe'shi 
Gautama to perform the sacrifice, and this so angered him that 
he cursed the king to lose his corporeal form. Mmi retorted 
the curse, and in consequence " the vigour of Vasishtfha entered 
into the vigour of Mitra and Varuwa. Vasishflia, however, 
received from them another body when their seed had fallen 
from them at the sight of UrvasI" 

In the Markan^eya Pura7&a he appears as the family priest of 
Haris-chandra. He was so Incensed at the treatment shown to 
that monarch by Viswamitra, that he cursed that sage to be 
transformed into a crane. His adversary retorted by dooming 
him to "become another bird, and in the forms of two monstrous 


birds they fouglit so furiously that the course of the universe 
was disturbed, and many creatures perished. Brahma at length 
put an end to the conflict by restoring them to their natural 
forms and compelling them to be reconciled. 

According to the Yishwu Purawa, Yasish&a had for wife 
Urja, one of the daughters of Daksha, and by her he had seven 
sons. The Bhagavata Purawa gives him Arundhati for wife. 
The Vishnu Purarca also makes him the family priest " of the 
house of Ikshwaku ; " and he was not only contemporary with 
Ikshwaku himself, but with his descendants down to the sixty- 
first generation. "YasisMia, according to all accounts (says 
Dr. Muir), must have been possessed of a vitality altogether 
superhuman," for it appears that the name Yasishftia is " used 
not to denote merely a person belonging to a family so called, 
but to represent the founder of the family himself as taking 
part in the transactions of many successive ages." 

"It is clear that Vasishflia, although he is frequently designated 
in post-vedic writings as a Brahman, was, according to some 
authorities, not really such in any proper sense of the word, as 
in the accounts which are given of his birth he is declared to 
have been either a mind-born son of Brahma, or the son of 
Mitra and Varurca and the Apsaras TJrvasi, or to have had some 
other supernatural origin" (Muir, i, 337). Vasish/ha's descen- 
dants are called Vasishihas and Yashkalas. 

YASTOSH-PATI, < House protector.' One of the later gods 
of the Yeda, represented as springing from Brahma's dalliance 
with his daughter. He was the protector of sacred rites and 
guardian of houses. 

YASU. The Yasus are a class of deities, eight in number, 
chiefly known as attendants upon India. They seam to have 
been in Yedic times personifications of natural phenomena, 
They are Apa (water), Dhruva (pole-star), Soma (moon), Dhara 
(earth), Anila (wind), Anala (fire), Prablifisa (dawn), and Pra- 
tyusha (light). According to the Kamayana they were children 
of Aditi. 

YASU-DEYA, Son of Sura, of the Yfulava branch of the 
Lunar race. He was father of Kn'shwa, and Kunti, tho mother 
of the PMava princes, was his sister. He married seven 
daughters of Ahuka, and the youngest of them, Devaki, was the 
mother of Krishna. After the death of Kn'shna and Bala- 


rama he also died, and four of his wives burnt themselves with 
his corpse. So says the Maha-bharata, but according to the 
Vishnu Purawa he and Devaki and Kohim burnt themselves at 
Dwaraka. He received the additional name of Anaka-dundubhi, 
because the gods, conscious that he was to be the putative 
father of the divine Knshwa, sounded the drums of heaven at 
his birth. He was also called Bhu-kasyapa and Dundu, f drum.' 

VASU-DEVA. A name of Knslma, derived from that of his 
father, Vasu-deva ; but as that is incompatible with his claims 
to divinity, the Maha-bharata explains that he is so called "from 
his dwelling (vasanftt) in all beings, from his issuing as a Yasu 
from a divine womb." The name was assumed by an impostor 
named Paim^raka, who was killed by Kn'slma. See Pauw^raka. 

VASUKL King of the ISTagas or serpents who live in Patala. 
He was used by the gods and Asuras for a coil round the moun- 
tain Mandara at the churning of the ocean. See $esha. 

YASU-SEJSTA. A name of Kanza. 

VAT A. 'Wind.' Generally the same as Vayu, but the 
name is sometimes combined in the Veda with that of Parjanya, 
and Parjanya-vata and Vayu are then mentioned distinctively. 

VATAPL Vatapi and Hwala, two Rakshasas, sons either of 
Hrada or Viprachitti. They are mentioned in the Kamayafta 
as dwelling in the Da?i<aka forest. Yatapi assumed the form 
of a ram which was offered in sacrifice and afterwards eaten by 
Brahmans, Hwala then called upon him to come forth, and 
accordingly he tore his way out of the stomachs of the Brah- 
mans. He tried the same trick upon Agastya, but that austere 
sage ate and digested him. Ilwala, as before, called his brother 
to come forth, and assaulted the sage, who told him that his 
brother would never return. Then Hwala was burnt up by fire 
from the eyes of Agastya. The Mahirbharata's story varies 
% slightly. 

VATA-VASIN. ' Dwelling in fig-trees ' (wta). Yakshas. 

YATSA, VATSA-BAJA. King of Vatsa, the capital of 
which was KausambL A title of the prince TJdayana. There 
are many persons named Vatsa. 

VATSTAYANA, A sage who wrote upon erotic subjects, 
and was author of the Kama-sutras and Nyaya-bhasha. He is 
also called Malla-naga. 
VAYU. * Air, wind/ The god of the wind, Eolus. In the 


Vedas he is often associated with Indra, and rides in the same 
car with him, Indra being the charioteer. The chariot has a 
framework of gold which touches the sky, and is drawn by a 
thousand horses. There are not many hymns addressed to him. 
According to the ITirukta there are three gods specially con- 
nected with each other. "Agni, whose place is on earth; 
Ycayu or Indra, whose place is in the air ; and Surya, whose 
place is in the heaven." In the hymn Purusha-sukta Yayu is 
said to have sprung from the breath of Purusha, and in another 
hymn he is called the son-in-law of Twashn. He is regent of 
the north-west quarter, where he dwells. 

According to the Yish?m Pura^a he is king of the Gandhar- 
vas. The Bhagavata Purawa relates that the sage Narada in- 
cited the wind to break down the summit of Mount Mem. He 
raised a terrible storm which lasted for a year, but Yishwi's bird, 
Garurfa, shielded the mountain with his wings, and all the 
blasts of the wind god were in vain. Narada then told him 
to attack the mountain in Garu^a's absence. He did so, and 
breaking off the summit of the mountain, he hurled it into the 
Bea, where it became the island of Lanka (Ceylon). 

Yayu is the reputed father of Bhrrna and of Hanumat, and he 
is said to have made the hundred daughters of King Kusanabha 
crooked because they would not comply with his licentious 
desires, and this gave the name Kanya-kubja, * hump-backed 
damsel,' to their city. 

Other names of Yayu (wind) are Anila, Marut, Pavana Vata, 
Gandha-vaha, bearer of perfumes ; ' Jala-kiln tara, whose gar- 
den is water ; ' Sada-gata, Satata-ga, ' ever moving/ &c. 

YAYU PTJKAJVA. " The Purarca in which Yayu has de- 
clared the laws of duty, in connection with the Sweta kalpa, 
and which comprises the Mahatmya of Eudra, is the Yayu 
Purawa ; it contains twenty-four thousand verses." No MS. con- 
taining this number of verses has yet been discovered, but there 
are indications of the work being imperfect. The Purfwa is 
divided into four sections, the first beginning with the creation, 
and the last treating of the ages to come. It is devoted to the 
praise of $iva, and is connected with the Siva PuraTza, for when 
one of them is given in a list of Purawis the other is omitted 

YEDA, Eoot, rid, f know.' ' Divine knowledge/ The Yedas 
are the holy books which are the foundation of the Hindu reli- 

VEDA. 34$ 

gion. They consist of hymns written in an old form of Sanskrit, 
and according to the most generally received opinion they were 
composed "between 1500 and 1000 B.C. But there is no direct 
evidence as to their age, and opinions about it vary considerably. 
Some scholars have thought that the oldest of the hymns may 
"be carried back a thousand years farther. It seems likely that 
some of the hymns were composed before the arrival of the 
Aryan immigrants in India, and there is no doubt that the hymns 
vary greatly in age and spread over a very considerable period 

There are various statements as to the origin of the Vedas. 
One is that the hymns emanated like breath from Brahma, the 
soul of the universe. It is agreed that they were revealed orally 
to the JJishis or sages whose names they bear ; and hence the 
whole body of the Yeda is known as Sruti, ' what was heard.' 

The Vedas are now four in number: (i.) Rig, (2.) Yajur, 
(3.) Sama, (4.) Atharva; but the Atharva is of comparatively 
modern origin. The other three are spoken of by Manu as the 
" throe Vedas," and are said by him. to have been " milked out, 
as it were," from fire, air, and the sun. In reality the .Z&g-veda 
is the Veda, the original work ; for the Yajur and the Sama are 
merely different arrangements of its hymns for special purposes. 

Each Veda is divided into two parts, Mantra and BralimaTia. 
The Mantra, or ' instrument of conveying thought/ consists of 
prayer and praise embodied in the metrical hymns. The Brah- 
mawa, a collective term for the treatises called Brahmawas, is of 
later date tlxan the Mantra. It is written in prose, and contains 
liturgical and ritualistic glosses, explanations, and applications of 
the hymns illustrated by numerous legends. To the Brahmawas 
are added the Arawyakas and Upanishads, mystical treatises in 
prose and verse, which speculate upon the nature of spirit and 
of God, and exhibit a freedom of thought and speculation which 
was the beginning of Hindu philosophy. All the Vedic writings 
are classified in two great divisions, exoteric and esoteric: the 
Karma-kan^a, t department of works/ the ceremonial and the 
Jnana-kamZa, * department of knowledge. ' The hymns and prayers 
of the Mantra come tinder the first, the philosophical specula- 
tions of the Brahmanas, aixd especially of the Upanishads, under 
the second division. All are alike /Sruti or revelation. See 
Brahmana, Upanishad, &c. 

The Mantra or metrical portion is the most ancient, and the 

346 VEDA. 

book or "books in which the hymns are collected are called San- 
hitas. The ^g-veda and the Sama-veda have each one Sanhita \ 
the Tajur-veda has two Sanhitas. 

As before stated, the jR/-g-veda is the original Veda from 
which the Yajur and Saman are almost exclusively derived. It 
consists of 1017 Suktas or hymns, or with eleven additional 
hymns called Yalakhilyas of an apocryphal character, 1028. 
These are arranged in eight Ashfcikas, * octaves/ or Khawdas, 
* sections, 3 which are again subdivided into as many Adhyayas, 
1 chapters/ 2006 Yargas or 'classes/ 10,417 Elks or 'verses/ 
and 153,826 Padas or 'words.' There is another division, which 
runs on concurrently with this division, in ten Manillas, 
' circles' or ' classes/ and 85 Anuvakas or ' sections/ The total 
number of hymns is the same in both arrangements. It is a 
generally received opinion that the hymns of the tenth Mamfala 
are later in date than the others. 

A few hymns of the J?%-veda, more especially some of the 
later hymns in the tenth Ma?wfola, appear to contain some 
vague, hazy conception of one Supreme Being ; but as a whole 
they are addressed directly to certain personifications of the 
powers of nature, which personifications were worshipped as 
deities having those physical powers under their control. From 
these powers the Yedic poets invoked prosperity on themselves 
and their nocks ; they extolled the prowess of these elemental 
powers in the struggles between light and darkness, warmth and 
cold, and they offered up joyous praise and thanksgiving for the 
fruits of the earth and personal protection. Chief among the 
deities so praised and worshipped were Agni, Indra, and Surya. 
More hymns are addressed to Agni (Ignis), 'fire/ than to any other 
deity, and chiefly in its sacrificial character, though it receives 
honour also for its domestic uses. Indra was honoured as the 
god of the atmosphere, who controlled the rains and the dew, 
so all-important to an agricultural people. Surya, 'the sun/ 
was ' the source of heat/ but he shared this honour with 
Agni, the sun being considered a celestial fire. Among the 
most ancient of the myths was that of Dyaus-pitar, ' heavenly 
father/ the regent of the sky. Others were Aditi, l the infinite 
expanse;' Vanwa (Ou^avos), 'the investing sky/ afterwards 
god of the waters; Ushas (fag), 'the dawn/ daughter of the 
sky ; the two Aswins, ' twin sons of the sun/ ever young and 

VEDA. 347 

handsome, and riding in a golden car as precursors of the 
dawn. Pnthivi, ' the broad one/ as the earth was called, re- 
ceived honour as the mother of all beings. There were also the 
Maruts or storm-gods, personifications of the wind, the especial 
foes of Yntra, the spirit of drought and ungenial weather, who 
was in constant conflict with Indra ; Eudra, the howling, furious 
god, who ruled the tempest and the storm ; Yama, the god of 
the dead and judge of departed spirits, also received his meed of 
reverence ; last, though apparently not least in the estimation of 
the Aryan worshippers, was Soma, the personification of the fer- 
mented juice of the plant so named. This exhilarating liquid 
was alike acceptable to the gods and their worshippers, and many 
hymns are addressed to it as a deity. 

To each hymn of the jRig-veda there is prefixed the name of 
the JMshi to whom it was revealed, as Yasishha, Yiswamitra, 
Bharadwaja, and many others ; and these sages are frequently 
spoken of as authors of the hymns bearing their names. It is 
quite unknown when the hymns were first committed to writing. 
They were transmitted orally from generation to generation, and 
continued to be so handed down even after they had been 
collected and arranged by Krishna Dwaipayana, ' the arranger.' 
The oral teaching of the Vedas produced what are called the 
$akhas or ' schools ' of the Yedas. Different learned men, or 
bodies of men, became famous for their particular versions of 
the text, and taught these versions to their respective pupils. 
These different versions constitute the Sakhas ; they present, as 
might be expected, many verbal variations, but no very material 

"The poetry of the jRig-veda," says Professor Cowell, " is 
remarkably deficient in that simplicity and natural pathos or 
sublimity which we naturally look for in the songs of an early 
period of civilisation. The language and style of most of the 
hymns is singularly artificial. . . . Occasionally we meet with 
fine outbursts of poetry, especially in the hymns addressed to 
tho dawn, but these are never long sustained ; and as a rule we 
find few grand similes or metaphors." A similar opinion is 
expressed by Professor Williams, who finds them " to abound 
more in puerile ideas than in striking thoughts and lofty 

The Yajur or second Yeda ie composed almost exclusively of 

348 VEDA. 

hymns taken from the Eig, hut it contains some prose passages 
which are new. Many of the hymns show considerable devia- 
tions from the original text of the Rig. These differences may 
perhaps be attributable either to an original difference of the 
traditional text or to modifications required by the ritualistic 
uses of the Yajur. The Yajur-veda is the priests' office-book, 
arranged in a liturgical form for the performance of sacrifices. 
As the manual of the priesthood, it became the great subject of 
study, and it has a great number of different Sakhas or schools. 
It has two Sanhitas, one called the Taittiriya Sanhita, the other 
Yajasaneyi Sanhita, commonly known as the Black and White 
Yajur. Of these, the former is the more ancient, and seems to 
have been known in the third century B.C. These Sanhitas 
contain upon the whole the same matter, but the arrangement 
is different. The White Yajur is the more orderly and sys- 
tematic, and it contains some texts which are not in the Black. 

The Sanhita of the Taittiriya or Black Yajur is arranged in 
7 Kawrfas or books, 44 Prasnas or chapters, 651 Anuvakas or 
sections, and 2198 Karaftkas or pieces, "fifty words as a rule 
forming a Ka?wftka.' } The Sanhita of the Yajasaneyi or White 
Yajur is in 40 Adhyayas or chapters, 303 Anuvakas, and 1975 

How the separation into two Sanhitas arose has not been 
ascertained. It probably originated in a schism led by the sage 
Yajnawalkya; but if it did not, it produced one, and the 
adherents of the two divisions were hostile to each other and 
quarrelled like men of different creeds. In later days a legend 
was invented to account for the division, which is thus given by 
the Yishwi and Yayu Purawas : The Yajur-veda, in twenty-seven 
branches ($akhas), was taught by Yaisampayana to his disciple 
Yajnawalkya. Yaisampayana had the misfortune to kill his 
sister's child by an accidental kick, and he then called upon his 
disciples to perform the appropriate expiatory penance. Yajna- 
walkya refused to join the " miserable inefficient Brahmans," 
and a quarrel ensued. The teacher called upon the disciple to 
give up all that he had ]earnt from him ; and the disciple, with 
the same quick temper, vomited forth the Yajur texts which he 
had acquired, and they fell upon the ground stained with blood. 
The other pupils wore turned into partridges (Tittiri), and they 
picked up the disgorged texts; hence the part of the Yeda 

VEDA. 349 

which, was thus acquired was called Taittiriya and Black, 
Yajnawalkya sorrowfully departed, and by the performance ol 
severe penances induced the Sun to impart to him those Yajur 
texts which his master had not possessed. The Sun then 
assumed the form of a horse (Yajin), and communicated to him 
the desired texts. The priests of this portion of the Yeda were 
called Yajins, while the Sanhita itself was called Yajasaneyi, 
and also White (or "bright), because it was revealed by the sun. 
The statement that Yajnawalkya received this Yeda from the 
sun is, however, earlier than the Puranas, for it is mentioned by 
the grammarian Katyayana. A more reasonable and intelligible 
explanation is, that Yajasaneyl is a patronymic of Yajnawalkya, 
the offspring of Vajasani, and that Taittiriya is derived from 
Tittiri, the name of a pupil of Yaska's. "Weber, the man best 
acquainted with this Yeda, says, " However absurd this legend 
(of the Purawas) may be, a certain amount of sense lurks beneath 
its surface. The Black Yajur is, in fact, a motley undigested 
jumble of different pieces ; and I am myself more inclined to 
derive the name Taittiriya from the variegated partridge (Tittiri) 
than from the jR^shi Tittiri." Goldstucker's view is, that the 
" motley character of the Black Yajur- veda arises from the cir- 
cumstance that the distinction between the Mantra and Brah- 
jnawa portions is not so clearly established in it as in the other 
Yedas, hymns and matter properly belonging to the Brahmawas 
being there intermixed. This defect is remedied in the White 
Yajur-veda, and it points, therefore, to a period when the mate- 
rial of the old Yajur was brought into a system consonant with 
prevalent theories, literary and ritualistic," 

The Sama-veda Sanhita is wholly metrical It contains 1549 
verses, only seventy-eight of which have not been traced to the 
$tg-veda. The readings of the text in this Yeda frequently 
differ, like those of the Yajur, from the text as found in the 
Mgj and Weber considers that the verses "occurring in the Sama 
Sanhita generally stamp themselves as older and more original 
by the greater antiquity of their grammatical forms." But 
this opinion is disputed. The verses of the Sama have been 
selected and arranged for the purpose of being chaunted at the 
sacrifices or offerings of the Soraa. Many of the invocations are 
addressed to Soma, some to Agni, and some to Indra, The 
Mantra or metrical pait of the Sama is poor in literary and 

350 VEDA. 

historical interest, but its Brahmaftas and the other literature 
belonging to it are full and important. 

There were different sets of priests for each of the thiee 
Yedas. Those whose duty it was to recite the jftig-veda were 
called Hotns or Bahvnchas, and they were required to know the 
whole Yeda. The priests of the Yajur, who muttered its formu- 
las in a peculiar manner at sacrifices, were called Adhwaryus, and 
the chaunters of the verses of the Sam an were called Udgatn's. 

The Atharva-veda, the fourth Yeda, is of later origin than the 
others. This is acknowledged by the Brahmans, and is proved 
by the internal evidence of the book itself. It is supposed to 
date from about the same period as the tenth Mamfala of the 
jf&g-veda, and as Manu speaks of only " the three Yedas," the 
Atharva could hardly have been acknowledged in his time. 
Professor Whitney thinks its contents may be later than even 
the tenth Marzc?ala of the Rig, although these two " stand nearly 
connected in import and origin." There are reasons for suppos- 
ing it to have had its origin among the Raindhavas on the banks 
of the Indus. One-sixth, of the whole work is not metrical, 
" and about one-sixth (of the hymns) is also found among the 
hymns of the jfrig-veda, and mostly in the tenth book of the 
latter ; the rest is peculiar to the Atharva." The number of the 
hymns is about 760, and of the verses about 6000. Professor 
Whitney, the editor of the Atharva, speaks of it thus : "As to 
the internal character of the Atharva hymns, it may be said 
of them, as of the tenth book of the jR'ig, that they are pro- 
ductions of another and a later period, and the expressions of a 
different spirit from that of the earlier hymns in the other 
Yedas. In the latter, the gods are approached with reverential 
awe indeed, but with love and confidence also; a worship is 
paid them that exalts the offerer of it ; the demons embraced 
under the general name Eakshasa are objects of horror whom 
the gods ward off and destroy ; the divinities of the Atharva are 
regarded rather with a kind of cringing fear, as powers whose 
wrath is to be deprecated and whose favour curried, for it knows 
a whole host of imps and hobgoblins, in ranks and classes, and 
addresses itself to them directly, offering them homage to induce 
them to abstain from doing harm. The Mantra prayer, which 
in the older Yeda is the instrument of devotion, is here rather 
the tool of superstition ; it wrings from the unwilling hands 

VEDA, 351 

of the gods the favours which of old their good-will to men in 
duced them to grant, or by simple magical power obtains the 
fulfilment of the utterer's wishes. The most prominent charac- 
teristic feature of the Atharva is the multitude of incantations 
which it contains ; these are pronounced either by the person 
who is himself to be benefited, or more often by the sorcerer 
for him, and are directed to the procuring of the greatest variety 
of desirable ends ; most frequently perhaps long life or recovery 
from grievous sickness is the object sought ; then a talisman, 
such as a necklace, is sometimes given, or in very numerous 
cases some plant endowed with marvellous virtues is to be the 
immediate external means of the cure ; farther, the attainment 
of wealth or power is aimed at, the downfall of enemies, success 
in love or in play, the removal of petty pests, and so on, even 
down to the growth of hair on a bald pate. There are hymns, 
too, in which a single rite or ceremony is taken up and exalted, 
somewhat in the same strain as the Soma in the Pavamanya 
hymns of the Eig. Others of a speculative mystical character 
are not wanting; yet their number is not so great as might 
naturally be expected, considering the development which the 
Hindu religion received in the periods following after that of 
the primitive Yeda. It seems in the main that the Atharva is 
of popular rather than of priestly origin ; that in making the 
transition from the Vedic to modern times, it forms an inter- 
mediate step rather to the gross idolatries and superstitions of 
the ignorant mass than to the sublimated Pantheism of the 
Brahmans." Such is the general character of the fourth Yeda, 
but Max Muller has translated a hymn in his Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature, of which Professor Wilson said in the Edinburgh 
Review, "We know of no passage in Yedic literature which 
approaches its simple sublimity." This hymn is addressed to 
Yanwa, cc the great one who rules over these worlds, and be- 
holds all as if he were close by ; who sees all that is within and 
beyond heaven and earth," &c. 

This Yeda is also called the Brahman Yeda, "because it 
claims to be the Yeda for the chief sacrificial priest, the Brah- 
man," It has a Brahma?ia called Goparfha and many Upanishads. 
An entirely new recension of this Yeda has lately been found 
in Kashmir. It is in the hands of Professor Both, and is 
believed to show many important variations. 


The whole of the jRig-veda, with the commentary of Rayana, 
has been magnificently printed in six large quarto vols. under the 
editorship of Max Midler, at the expense of the Government of 
India. Editions of the text separately in the Sanhita and in the 
Pada forms have been published by him ; also another edition 
with the Sanhita and Pada texts on opposite pages. There is also 
a complete edition of the text in Eoman characters by Aufrecht, 
and a portion of the text was published by Roer in the Sibliotheca 
Indica. Dr. Eosen published the first Ash/aka of the text, with 
a Latin translation, in 1838. Four volumes of Wilson's incom- 
plete translation have appeared. There is a French translation 
by Langlois, and Max Miiller has printed a critical translation 
of twelve hymns to the Manits. There are other translations of 
portions. Translations by Ludwig and by Grassmann have also 
lately appeared. The text, with an English and Maraftil trans- 
lation, is appearing in monthly parts at Bombay. 

The Sanhita of the Black Yajur-veda has been published by 
Roer and Cowell in the Bibliotheca Indica. The White has been 
printed by Weber, and another edition has been published in 

Of the Sanaa Sanhita, the text and a translation have been 
published by Dr. Stevenson. Benfey has also published the 
text with a German translation and a glossary ; and an edition 
frith the commentary of Sayana is now coming out in the Siblio- 
theca Indica (vol. 1). 

The text of the Atharva-veda Sanhita has been printed by 
Both and Whitney, and a part of it also by Aufrecht. 

VEDA-MlTJZZ ' Mother of the Yedas.' The GayatrL 

VEDANGAS. (Yeda + angas.) ' Members of the Yeda,' The 
Shad-angas or six subjects necessary to be studied for the reading, 
understanding, and proper sacrificial employment of the Vedas : 

1. Sifoha. Phonetics or pronunciation, embracing accents, 
quantity, and euphony in general 

2. Chhandas. Metre. 

3. PyaJccvrana. Grammar. Said to be represented by Paniai, 
but rather by older grammars culminating in his great work 

4. NiruJcta. Etymology or glossary, represented by the glos- 
sary of Yaska, 

5. Jyotisha. Astronomy. Such knowledge of the heavenly 
bodies as was necessary for compiling a calendar fixing the days 


and hours suitable for the performance of Yedic sacrifices and 

6. Kalpa. Ceremonial. Eules for applying the Yedas to the 
performance of sacrifices. These rules are generally written in 
the form of Sutras or short aphorisms, and so they are known as 
the Kalpa-sutras or $rauta-sutras. 

VEDANTA. The orthodox school of philosophy. See Banana. 

VEBANTA-PAEIBHASHA. A modern text-hook on the 
Vedanta philosophy. 

VEBANTA-SAEA. < Essence of the Vedanta/ A short 
popular work on the Vedanta philosophy. It has heen trans, 
lated by Ballantyne, and also "by Bbhtlingk, Eoer, and Frank. 

VEBANTA-StJTEA. The aphorisms of Badarayawa on the 
Vedanta philosophy. They are commonly called Brahma-sutras, 
and a translation under that name by the Eev. K. M. Banerje? 
is progressing in the Bibliotheea Indica. There is a French 
translation by Poley. 

VEBAETHA-PEAKA&L c Elucidation of the meaning oi 
the Veda. 1 This is the name of Sayawa's great commentary on 
the jRtg-veda. Also of a commentary on the Taittiriya Sanhita 
by Madhavacharya. 

VEBAVATI. The 'vocal daughter' of the Mshi Kusa-dhwaja, 
son of Brihaspati, When Eavana was passing through a forest 
in the Himalaya he met with VedavatI, a damsel of great beauty 
dressed in ascetic garb. He fell in love and tried to win her. 
She told him that gods and Gandharvas had sought to woo her, 
but her father would give her to no one but Vishnu, whom he 
clesired for his son-in-law. Provoked at this resolution, $am- 
bhu, king of the Baity as, slew her father; but she remained 
firm to her father's wish, and practised austerities to gain Vish?m 
for her spouse. Nothing daunted, Eavarca urgently pressed his 
suit, and boasted that he was superior to Vishnu. He then 
touched her hair with the tip of his finger. This greatly 
incensed her, and she forthwith cut off her hair, and said she 
would enter into the fire before his eyes, adding, " Since I have 
been insulted in the forest by thee who art wicked-hearted, I shall 
be born again for thy destruction. " So she entered the blazing fire, 
and celestial flowers fell all around. It was she who was born 
again as Slta, and was tie moving cause of Eavawa's death, 
though Eama was the agent Muir's Texts, ii. 498, iv. 458, 



VEDA-VYASA ' The arranger of the Vedas.' See Vyasa, 

YEDODAYA. ' Source of the Veda.' An epithet of the 
sun as the source of the Sama-veda. 

YEGAYAT. ' Swift' i. A son of Krishna. 2. A Danava 
who fought on the side of the Salwas against Krishna, and was 
killed hy Samba. 

YE^VA. Son of Anga, and a descendant of Manu Swayam- 
bhuva. When he became king he issued this proclamation : 
" Men must not sacrifice or give gifts or present oblations. Who 
else but myself is the enjoy er of sacrifices ? I am for ever the 
lord of offerings." The sages remonstrated respectfully with 
him, but in vain ; they admonished him in stronger terms ; but 
when nothing availed, they slew him with blades of consecrated 
grass. After his death the sages beheld clouds of dust, and on 
inquiry found that they arose from bands of men who had taken 
to plundering because the country was left without a king. As 
Vena was childless, the sages, after consultation, rubbed the 
thigh (or, according to the Hari-vansa, the right arm) of the dead 
king to produce a son. From it there came forth " a man like 
a charred log, with flat face, and extremely short." The sages 
told him to sit down (Nishlda). He did so, and thus became 
a Nishada, from whom " sprang the Nishadas dwelling in the 
VincLhya mountains, distinguished by their wicked deeds." The 
Brahmans then rubbed the right hand of Vena, and from it 
" sprang the majestic Priihu, Vena's son, resplendent in body, 
glowing like the manifested Agni" The above is the story as 
told, with little variation, in the Maha-bharata, the Yish?m and 
Bhagavata Puranas, and the Hari-vansa. The Padma Pura^a 
says that Vem began his reign well, but fell into the Jaina 
heresy. For this the sages pummelled him until the first of the 
Nishadas came forth from his thigh and Prithu from his right 
arm. Being freed from sin by the birth of the Nishada, he 
retired to a hermitage on the Narmada, where he engaged in 
penance. Vishmt was thus conciliated, and granted him the 
boon of becoming one with hdmseli See Prithi. 

VEM-SANHAKA. < The binding of the braid.' A drama 
by Bhafta Narayana. The plot is taken from the Maha-bharata 
Draupadi, the wife of the Pa?w#u princes, was dragged by the 
hair of her head into the hall of the Kauravas by Dua-aasana, 
and she vowed that it should remain dishevelled until the insult 


was avenged. After the death of the Kauravas she again braided 
her hair. Wilson has given an analysis of the drama. There are 
several editions of the text. 

VENKAJA, VENKATADEI. A hill which was a seat of 
the worship of Vishnu. It is the modern Tripati. 

VET ALA. A ghost or goblin; a sprite who haunts cemeteries 
and animates dead bodies. 

VETALA-PANCHAVINSATI. The twenty-five stories of 
the Vetala. It is the Baital Pachlsl of Hindustani, and has been 
translated into all the languages of India. The work is ascribed 
to an author named Jambhala-datta. 

VETEAVATL The river Betwa, which rises in the Vind- 
hyas and falls into the Jumna below Kalpi. 

VIBHAJVDAKA. Son of Kasyapa. An ascetic who retired 
from the world and lived in the forest with his infant son 
Jfo'shya-sringa (q.v.). A sage of this name is sometimes classed 
among the great jfo'shis. 

VIBHlSHANA. ' Terrible/ A younger brother of Eavana. 
He, like his brother, propitiated Brahma, and obtained a boon. 
His was that he should never commit an unworthy action even 
in the greatest extremity. He was virtuous, and opposed to the 
practices of the Eakshasas. This led to a quarrel between him 
and Eavawa, who kicked him from his seat. He flew off to 
Kailasa, and under the advice of $iva he went and allied himself 
with Eama-chandra, who received and embraced him as a friend. 
After the defeat and death of Eavawa he was raised by Eama to 
the throne of Lanka. 

VICHITEA-VIEYA, Name of a king. See Maha-bharata. 

VIDAGDHA-MADHAVA- A drama in seven acts by Eupa 
on the loves of Krishna and Eadha, written in 1533 A. ix " It 
is weak as a drama, and its literary merits are small" 

VJDAEBHA. Birar, and probably including with it the 
adjoining district of Beder, which name is apparently a corrup- 
tion of Vidarbha. The capital was Kundona-pura, the modern 
" Kundapur," about forty miles east of Amaravati 

VIDDHA-SALABHANJIKA- ' The statue.' A comedy of 
domestic intrigue by Eaja Sekhara. It was probably written 
earlier than the tenth century. 

VIDEHA. An ancient country, of which the capital was Mi 
thila. It corresponds with the modern Tirhut or North Bihar. 


VrDHlT-SI 'Creator.' A name of Brahma, of Vishnu, 
and of Yiswa-kaima* 

VIDTJRA. A son of Vyasa by a Stidra slave girl, who took 
the place of his consort, Vidura was called Kshattri, a term 
ordinarily applied to the child of a Sudra father and Brahman 
mother. He enjoyed the character of the " wisest of the wise," 
and gave good advice to "both Kauravas and Pafldavas, hut in 
the war he sided with the latter. See Maha-bharata. 

VTDtJRA. A mountain in Ceylon, probably Adam's Peak. 

YIDYAX-MODA-TARAjSTGI/VI. < Fountain of pleasure to 
the learned' A philosophical work by Rama-deva, translated 
into English by Raja Kali Krishna, 

YIDYA-DHARA (mas.), YIDYA-DHABI (fern.). ' Pos- 
sessors of knowledge/ A class of inferior deities inhabiting the 
regions between the earth and sky, and generally of benevolent 
disposition. They are attendants upon Indra, but they have 
chiefs and kings of their own, and are represented as inter- 
marrying and having much intercourse with men. They are 
also called Kama-rupin, ' taking shapes at will;' Khechara and 
Nabhas-chara, 'moving in the air;' Priyam-vada, 'sweet-spoken.' 

learning.' A title of Madhavacharya, as patron of the city of 
Yidya-nagara, afterwards altered to Yijaya-nagara, the capital of 
the last great Hindu dynasty of the Dakhin. 

YlJA-GANHA. A work on algebra, translated by Cole- 
brooke and by Strachey. It is a chapter of the work called 
Siddhanta-siromam, written by Bhaskaracharya. There are 
several editions of the text. 

VIJAYA-NAGARA, The capital of the last great Hindu 
dynasty of the south. It was originally called Vidya-nagara, 
' city of learning, 5 after the great scholar and minister Madha- 
vacharya, entitled Yidyaraftya, * forest of learning,' But in the 
days of its glory the Yidya was altered to Yijaya, l victory/ 

YIJNANESWARA Author of the law-book called Mitak- 

YIKARNA. A son of Dhnta-rashfra. 

YIKRAMADITYA. A celebrated Hindu king who reigned 
at Ujjayim. He is said to have been the son of a king named 
Gardabhila, His name has been given to the Samvat era, com- 
mencing 57 B.C. He was & great patron of learning, and his 


eourt was made illustrious by the ISTava-ratna, or nine gems of 
literature, who flourished there. He is a great hero of romance, 
and many improbable stories are told of him. His real position 
is uncertain. He appears to have driven out the $akas, and to 
have established his authority over Northern India, He is said 
to have fallen in battle with his rival >$alivahana, king of the 
Dakhin, who also has an era called 5aka dating from 78 A,D. 

YIKRAMOKYASL < The hero and the nymph.' A cele- 
brated drama by Kalidasa, translated in Wilson's Hindu Theatre. 
There are many editions and translations. See Puru-ravas. 

YIKUKSHL A king of the Solar race, who succeeded his 
father, Ikshwaku. He received the name of #asada, ' hare-eater/ 
He was sent by his father to hunt and obtain flesh suitable for 
offerings. Being weary and hungry he ate a hare, and Yasish&a, 
the priest, declared that this act had defiled all the food, for what 
remained was but his leavings. 

YIMADA. In the J?/g-veda it is said the As wins gave 
a bride to the youthful Yimada, and the commentator explains 
that Yimada had won his bride at a swayam-vara, but was stopped 
on the way home by his unsuccessful competitors. The Aswins 
came to his succour, repulsed the assailants, placed the bride in 
their chariot, and carried her to the home of the prince. 

VINATA. A daughter of Daksha, one of the wives of 
Kasyapa, and mother of Garuda. According to the Bhagavata 
Puram she was the wife of Tarkshya or Garuc?a. 

YINDA, Yinda and Anuvinda were joint kings of Avanti^ 
and fought in the great war. 

YINDHYA. The mountains which stretch across India, and 
divide what Manu calls the Madliya-desa or 'middle land/ the 
land of the Hindus, from the south, that is, they divide Hindustan 
from the Dakhin. The mountain is personified, and according to a 
legend he was jealous of the Himalaya, and called upon the sun to 
revolve round him as he did round Meru. When the sun refused 
the mountain began to raise its head to obstruct that luminary, 
and to tower above Himalaya and Meru. The gods invoked the 
aid of Agastya, the spiritual guide of Yindhya, That sage called 
upon the mountain to bow down before him, and afford him an 
easy passage to and from the south. It obeyed, and Agastya 
passed over. But lie never returned, and so the mountain remains 
in its humbled condition, far inferior to the Himalaya. 


VHTDHYAYALL JWife of Bali the Asura. 

YINDHYA-YASENl < The dweller in the Yindhyas.' The 
wife of /Siva. See Devi 

YIPAS, YIP ASA The river Eyas, the Hyphasis or Bibasis 
of the classical writers. A legend relates that it obtained its 
name through the sage Yasishtfha, who, wishing to commit 
suicide, bound his limbs with cords and threw himself into the 
water. The river, declining to drown him, cast him unbound 
(vipdsa) on its bank. 

YIPEACHITTL Son of Kasyapa and Danu. He is chief 
of the Danavas. 

YlRA-BHADRA A son or emanation of Siva, created from 
his mouth, and having, according to the Yayu Purana, " a thou- 
sand heads, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet, wielding a thou- 
sand clubs, a thousand shafts ; holding the shell, the discus, the 
mace, and bearing a blazing bow and battle-axe; fierce and 
terrific, shining with dreadful splendour, and decorated with the 
crescent moon ; clothed in a tiger's skin, dripping with blood, 
having a capacious stomach and a vast mouth armed with for- 
midable tusks," &c., &c. The object of his creation was to stop 
Daksha's sacrifice, and harry away the gods and others who were 
attending. He is an especial object of worship in the Mahratta 
country, and there are sculptures of him in the caves of Ele- 
phanta and Ellora, where he is represented with eight hands. 

YIRA-CHARITA. A book of tales by Ananta, which de- 
scribes the feuds between the descendants of Yikramaditya and 

YIRADHA. A horrible man-eating Rakshasa, son of Kala 
and Satahrada. By penance he had obtained from Brahma the 
boon of invulnerability. He is described as "being like a 
mountain peak, a man-eater, loud-voiced, hollow-eyed, large- 
mouthed, huge, huge-bellied, horrible, rude, long, deformed, of 
dreadful aspect, wearing a tiger's skin, dripping with fat, wetted 
with blood, terrific to all creatures, like death with open mouth, 
bearing tlxree lions, four tigers, two wolves, ten deer, and the 
great head of an elephant with the tusks, and smeared with fat, 
on the point of an iron pike, shouting with a loud voice." Rama, 
with Lakshmawa and Sita, encountered him in the Daw^aka 
forest, when he foully abused and taunted the brothers, and 
seized upon Sita. The brothers proved with their arrows that 


he was not invulnerable, "but he caught them, threw them over 
his shoulders, and ran off with them as if they had been chil- 
dren. They broke both his arms, threw him down, beat him 
with their fists, and dashed him to the earth, but they could not 
kill him, so they dug a deep hole and buried him alive. After 
his burial there arose from the earth a beautiful person, who 
said that he was a Gandharva who had been condemned by 
Kuvera to assume the shape of a Eakshasa, from which Uama 
had enabled him to escape. He was also called Tumburu, 

VIEAJ. Manu thus describes Viraj : " Having divided hi? 
body into two parts, the lord (Brahma) became with the half a 
male, and with the (other) half a female ; and in her he created 
Viraj. Know that I (Manu), whom that male Viraj himself 
created, am the creator of all this world." (See Manu.) One 
passage in the Ji%-veda says, "From him (Purusha) sprang 
Yiraj, and from Yiraj (sprang) Purusha " (Muir's Texts, v. 50, 
369), like as Aditi is said to have sprung from Daksha, and 
Daksha from AditL Yiraj, the male half of Brahma, is sup- 
posed to typify all male creatures ; and Sata-rupa, the female 
half, all female forms. 

VIEA-MITEODAYA. A law-book by Mitra-misra, of autho- 
rity in the Benares School. It is in the form of a commentary 
on the Mitakshara. The text is in print. 

YIEATA. A country in the vicinity of the modern Jaypur, 
The present town of Baira/ is 105 miles south of Delhi. Its king 
was called Eaja of Virata or Kaja Virata It was at his court 
that the Pandava princes and Draupadi lived in disguise. They 
rendered him great services against his enemies, and he fought 
on their side in the great war and was killed by Dro7?a. See 

YIEOCHANA. A Danava, son of Prahlada, and father of 
Bali He is also called Drisana. When the earth was milked, 
Virochana acted as the calf of the Asuras. See Pnthi. 

VIEtJPAKSHA. 'Deformed as to the eyes.' A name of 
Siva, who has three eyes. Also one of the Eudras. Also a 
Danava, son of Kasyapa. 

VISAKHA-DATTA. Author of the drama. "Mudra-rak- 
shasa," He is said to be of royal descent, but his family has 
not been identified. 

VLSALA. A name of the city TJjjayinl 

3 6o VISHNU, 

VISEJVU Boot, visk, 'to pervade.' The second god of the 
Hindu triad. In the T&g-veda Vishnu is not in the first rank of 
gods. He is a manifestation of the solar energy, and is described as 
striding through the seven regions of the universe in three steps, 
and enveloping all things with the dust (of his beams). These 
three steps are explained by commentators as denoting the three 
manifestations of light fire, lightning, and the sun ; or the three 
places of the sun its rising, culmination, and setting. In the 
Veda he is occasionally associated with Indra. He has very 
little in common with the Yishnu of later times, but he is called 
" the unconquerable preserver," and this distinctly indicates the 
great preserving power which he afterwards became. 

In the Brahmarcas Vishnu acquires new attributes, and is in- 
vested with legends unknown to the Vedas, but still very far dis- 
tant from those of the Puiawas. In Manu, the name is men- 
tioned, but not as that of a great deity. In the Maha-bharata 
and in the Puranas he is the second member of the triad, the 
embodiment of the Satwa-guna, the quality of mercy and good- 
ness, which displays itself as the preserving power, the self- 
existent, all-pervading spirit. As such, his votaries associate 
him with the watery element which spread everywhere before 
the creation of the world. In this character he is called Kara- 
yaa, ' moving in the waters/ and is represented pictorially in 
human form slumbering on the serpent Sesha and floating on 
the waters. This, too, is the position he assumes during the 
periods of temporary annihilation of the universe. 

The worshippers of Vishnu recognise in him the supreme 
being from whom all things emanate. In the Maha-bharata and 
in the Puranas he is the Prajapati (creator) and supreme god, 
As such, he has three Avasthas or conditions : i. That of 
Brahma, the active creator, who is represented as springing from 
a lotus which grew from Vishnu's navel while he was sleeping 
afloat upon the waters. 2. Vishnu himself, the preserver, in an 
Avatara or incarnate form, as in 'Krishna. 3. Siva or Eudra, 
the destructive power, who, according to a statement of the 
Maha-bharata., sprang from his forehead. But though the Maha- 
bharata generally allows Vishnu the supremacy, it does not do 
so invariably and exclusively. There are passages which uphold 
Siva as the greatest of the gods, and represent Vishnu as paying 
him homage. The Saiva Purawas of course make Siva supreme. 

VISHNU. 361 

Vishnu's preserving and restoring power has "been manifested 
to the world in a variety of forms called Avataras, literally * de- 
scents/ "but more intelligibly ' incarnations/ in which a portion 
of his divine essence was embodied in a human or supernatural 
form possessed of superhuman powers. All these Avataras 
became manifest for correcting some great evil or effecting some 
great good in the world. The Avataras are ten in number, but 
the Bhagavata Purana increases them to twenty-two, and adds 
that in reality they are innumerable. All the ten Avataras are 
honoured, but the seventh and eighth, Kama and Krishna, are 
honoured as great mortal heroes and receive worship as great gods. 
Krishna, is more especially looked upon as a full manifestation 
of Vishnu, and as one with Vishnu himself, and he is the object 
of a widely extended and very popular worship. See Avatara 

The holy river Ganges is said to spring from the feet of 

As preserver and restorer, Vishnu is a very popular deity, 
and the worship paid to him is of a joyous character. He has 
a thousand names (Sahasra-nama), the repetition of which is a 
meritorious act of devotion. His wife is Lakshnu or /Sri, the 
goddess of fortune, his heaven is Vaikun/ha, and his vehicle 
is the bird Garuda. He is represented as a comely youth of a 
dark-blue colour, and dressed like an ancient king. He has four 
hands. One holds the Panchajanya (q.v.), a $ankha or conch- 
shell ; another the Su-darsana or Vajra-nabha, a chakra or quoit 
weapon ; the third, a Gada or club called Kaumodaki ; and the 
fourth, a Padma or lotus. He has a bow called $arnga, and a 
sword called Nandaka, On his breast are the peculiar mark or 
curl called Sri-vatsa and the jewel Kaustubha, and on his wrist 
is the jewel Syamantaka. He is sometimes represented seated 
on a lotus with Lakshmi beside him, or reclining on a leaf of 
that plant. Sometimes he is portrayed reclining on the serpent 
/Sesha, and at others as riding on his gigantic bird Garuda. 

Of the thousand names of Vishnu the following are some of 
the most common : Achyuta, *unf alien, imperishable; 3 Ananta, 
' the endless ; ' Ananta-tfayana, * who sleeps on the serpent 
Ananta ;' Chatur-bhuja, * four-armed;' Damodara, 'bound round 
the belly with a rope/ as Krishna ; Gjovinda or Gopala, * the 
cowkeeper* (Krishna) ', Harij Hrishikesa, 'lord of the organs 
of sense ; ' Jala-sayin, ' who sleeps on the waters ; ' JanMdana, 


' whom men worship ; ' Kesava, ' the hairy, the radiant ; J "Kir!- 
tin, ' wearing a tiara ;' Lakshmipati, 'lord of Lakshml ;' Madhu- 
siidana, ' destroyer of Madhu ;' Madhava, * descendant of Madhu; 1 
Mukunda, 'deliverer;' Murari, 'the foe of Mura;' Nara, 'the 
man ; ' Narayawa, ' who moves in the waters ; ' Panehayudha, 
' armed with five weapons;' Padma-nabha, 'lotus-navel ;' Pitam- 
bara, 'clothed in yellow garments;' Purusha, 'the man, the 
spirit;' Pumshottama, 'the highest of men, the supreme spirit;' 
/Sarngin or Sarngi-pawi, ' carrying the bow arnga ; ' Yasudeva, 
Krishna, son of Yasudeva ; Yarshrceya, 'descendant of Yn'shni;' 
Yaikun/ha-natha, c lord of Yaikun^ha (paradise) ; ' Yajnesa, 
Yajneswara, ' lord of sacrifice. 7 

YISEL^U. Author of a Dharma-sastra or law-book. 

YISH-YU PUEA^A. This Purarca generally stands third 
in the lists, and is described as " that in which Parasara, begin- 
ning with the events of the Yaraha Kalpa, expounds all duties, 
is called the Yaishnava, and the learned know its extent to be 
23,000 stanzas." The actual number of stanzas does not amount 
to 7000, and there is no appearance of any part being wanting. 
The text is in print. 

"Wilson, the translator of this Purana, says, "Of the whole 
series of Purawas the Yishwu most closely corresponds to the 
definition of a Pancha-lakshana Purewa, or one which treats of 
five specified topics (Primary Creation, Secondary Creation, 
Genealogies of Gods and Patriarchs, Eeigns of the Manus, His- 
tory). It comprehends them all ; and although it has infused 
a portion of extraneous and sectarial matter, it has done so with 
sobriety and judgment, and has not suffered the fervour of its 
religious zeal to transport it to very wide deviations from the 
prescribed path. The legendary tales which it has inserted are 
few, and are conveniently arranged, so that they do not distract 
the attention of the compiler from objects of more permanent 
interest and importance." The whole work has been translated 
with numerous elucidatory notes by Wilson, and a second edi- 
tion has been published with additional valuable notes by Dr, 
P. Hall 

YISMAPANA. ' Astounding.' The aerial city of the Gand- 
liarvas, which appears and disappears at intervals. 

YISRAYAS. Son of the Prajapati Pulastya, or, according 
to a statement of the Mahirbharata, a reproduction of half 


Pulastya himself. By a Brahmanl wife, daughter of the sage 
Bharadwaja, named Idavi^a or Ilavic?a, he had a son, Kuvera, the 
god of wealth. By a Rakshasi named Nikasha or KaikasI, 
daughter of Sumali, he had three sons, Havana, Kumbha-kar^a, 
and Yibhishana and a daughter named Surpa-nakha. The 
Yishttu Purawa substitutes Kesinl for Nikasha. The account 
given by the Maha-bharata is that Pulastya, being offended with 
Kuvera for his adulation of Brahma, reproduced half of himself 
as Yisravas, and Kuvera to recover his favour gave him three 
Rakshasi handmaids : Pushpotkatfa, the mother of Eavana and 
KumbhakarTia ; Malim, the mother of Yibhishana; and Eaka, 
the mother of Khara and Surpa-nakha. 

YISWA-DEYAS, YLSWE-DEYAS. 'All the gods.' In 
the Yedas they form a class nine in number. All the deities of 
inferior order. They are addressed in the Yeda as " preservers 
of men, bestowers of rewards." In later times, a class of deities 
particularly interested in exequial offerings. The accounts of 
them are rather vague. They are generally said to be ten in 
number, but the lists vary, both as to the number and the names. 
The following is one list: (i.) Yasu, (2.) Satya, (3.) Kratu, 
(4.) Daksha, (5.) Kala, (6.) Kama, (7.) Dhriti, (8.) Kuru, (9.) 
Puru-ravas, (10.) Madravas. Two others are sometimes added, 
Rochaka or Lochana and Dhuri or DhwanL See Yislwu Purawa, 
Hall's edition, vol. iii. pp. 178, rS8, 189. 

name seems to have been originally an epithet of any powerful 
god, as of Indra and Surya, but in course of time it came to 
designate a personification of the creative power. In this cha- 
racter Yiswa-karma was the great architect of the universe, and 
is described in two hymns of the 7$g-veda as the one " all-seeing 
god, who has on every side eyes, faces, arms, and feet, who, 
when producing heaven and earth, blows them forth (or shapes 
them) with his anus and wings ; the father, generator, disposer, 
who knows all worlds, gives the gods their names, and is beyond 
the comprehension of mortals." In these hymns also he is said 
to sacrifice himself or to himself, and the Kirukta explains this 
by a legend which represents that " Yiswa-karma, son of Bhu- 
vana, first of all offered up all worlds in a Sarva-medha (general 
sacrifice), and ended by sacrificing himself," 

In the Epic and Puranic periods Yiswa-karma is invested 


with the powers and offices of the Yedic Twash^n, and is some* 
times so called. He is not only the great architect, but the 
general artificer of the gods and maker of their weapons. It was 
he who made the Agneyastra or " fiery weapon," and it was he 
who revealed the StMpatya-veda, or science of architecture and 
mechanics. The Maha-bharata describes him as "the lord of 
the arts, executor of a thousand handicrafts, the carpenter of the 
gods, the fashioner of all ornaments, the most eminent of artisans, 
who formed the celestial chariots of the deities, on whose craft 
men subsist, and whom, a great and immortal god, they continu- 
ally worship." 

In the BarnayaTia, Viswa-karma is represented as having built 
the city of Lanka for the Rakshasas, and as having generated 
the ape Nala, who constructed Kama's bridge from the continent 
to Ceylon. 

The Puranas make Viswa-karma the son of Prabhasa, the 
eighth Vasu, by his wife "the lovely and virtuous Toga-siddha." 
His daughter Sanjna was married to Surya, the sun ; but as she 
was unable to endure his effulgence, "Vis wa- karma placed the sun 
upon his lathe and cut away an eighth part of his brightness. 
The fragments fell to the earth, and from these Viswa-karma 
formed " the discus of Vishnu, the trident of Siva, the weapon 
of Kuvera the god of wealth, the lance of Karttikeya god 
of war, and the weapons of the other gods." Viswa-karma 
is also represented as having made the great image of Jagan- 

In his creative capacity he is sometimes designated Prajapati 
He also has the appellations Karu, * workman ; y Takshaka, 
( woodcutter ; ' Deva-vardhika, ' the builder of the gods ; ' Su- 
dhanwan, * having a good bow.' 

VLSWAMITEA. A celebrated sage, who was born a Ksha- 
triya, but by intense austerities raised himself to the Brahman 
caste, and became one of the seven great .Z&shis. According to 
the J?tg-veda he was son of a king named Kusika, a descendant 
of Kusa, but later authorities make him the son of Gathin or 
Gadhi, king of Kanya-kubja, and a descendant of Puru; so 
Viswamitra is declared in the Hari-vansa to be " at once a Pau- 
rava and a Kausika" by lineage. According to some, Gadhi was 
of the Kusika race, descended from Kusika Yiswamitra is 
called Gadhi-ja and Gadhi-nandana, ' son of Gadhi.' The story 


of Viswamitra's birth, as told in the Vislwu Purawa, is that 
Gadhi had a daughter named Satyavafi, whom he gave in mar- 
riage to an old Brahman of the race of Bhrigu named Jftchlka. 
The wife being a Kshatriya, her husband was desirous that she 
might bear a son having the qualities of a Brahman, and he gave 
her a dish of food which he had prepared to effect this object. 
He also gave her mother a dish intended to make her conceive a 
son with the character of a warrior. At the instigation of the 
mother the dishes were exchanged, so the mother gave birth to 
Viswamitra, the son of a Kshatriya with the qualities of a 
Brahman ; and Satyavati bore Jamad-agni, the father of Parasu- 
rama, the warrior Brahman and destroyer of the Kshatriyas. 

The most noteworthy and important feature in the legends of 
Viswamitra is the active and enduring struggle between him 
and the Brahman Eishi Vasishftia, a fact which is frequently 
alluded to in the Jitg-veda, and is supposed to typify the con- 
tentions between the Brahmans and the Kshatriyas for the 
superiority. Both these JB/shis occupy a prominent position in 
the Jftg-veda, Viswamitra being the Rishi of the hymns in the 
third Mawdala, which contains the celebrated verse Gayatri, and 
Vasishflia of those of the seventh. Each of them was at differ- 
ent times the Purohita or family priest of King Su-das, a position 
of considerable importance and power, the possession of which 
stimulated if it did not cause their rivalry. The two sages 
cursed each other, and carried their enmity into deeds of vio- 
lence. Viswamitra's hundred sons are represented as having 
been eaten or burnt up by the breath of Vasishflia, On the 
other hand, the hundred sons of Vasishflia were, according to 
one legend, eaten up by King Kalmasha-pada, into whom a 
man-eating Kakshasa had entered under the influence of Viswa- 
mitra, or, according to another legend, they were reduced to 
ashes by Viswamitia's curse " and reborn as degraded outcasts 
for seven hundred births." The Aitareya Brahmana states that 
Viswamitra had a hundred sons, but that when he adopted his 
nephew Suna/wephas he proposed to make him the eldest of his 
sons. Fifty of them assented, and them Viswamitra blessed 
that they should " abound in cattle and sons ; " the other and 
elder fifty dissented, and them he cursed "that their progeny 
should possess the furthest ends (of the country)," and from 
them have descended many of the border tribes and most of tie 

3 66 WSWAM1TRA. 

Dasyus. The Maha-bharata has a legend of Yiswamitra having 
commanded the river Saraswati to bring his rival Yasish&a that 
lie might kill him, and of having turned it into blood "when it 
flowed in another direction and carried Yasish/ha out of his 

Yiswamitra's relationship to Jamad-agni naturally places him 
in a prominent position in the Kamayafta. Here the old animo- 
sity between him and Yasishftta again appears. He as a king 
paid a visit to Yasishtfha's hermitage, and was most hospitably 
entertained ; but he wished to obtain Yasish&a's wondrous cow, 
the Kama-dhenu, which had furnished all the dainties of the 
feast. His offers were immense, but were all declined The 
cow resisted and broke away when he attempted to take her by 
force, and when he battled for her, his armies were defeated by 
the hosts summoned up by the cow, and his " hundred sons were 
reduced to ashes in a moment by the blast of Yasishtfha's mouth." 
A long and fierce combat followed between Yasishh.a and 
Yiswamitra, in which the latter was defeated; the Kshatriya 
had to submit to the humiliation of acknowledging his infe- 
riority to the Brahman, and he therefore resolved to work out his 
own elevation to the Brahmanical order. 

While he was engaged in austerities for accomplishing his 
object of becoming a Brahman he became connected with King 
Tri-sanku. This monarch was a descendant of King Ikshwaku, 
and desired to perform a sacrifice in virtue of which he might 
ascend bodily to heaven. His priest, Yasishtfha, declared it to 
be impossible, and that priest's hundred sons, on being applied 
to, refused to undertake what their father had declined. When 
the king told them that he would seek some other means of 
accomplishing his object, they condemned him to become a 
Chawdala, In this condition he had resort to Yiswamitra, and 
he, taking pity on him, raised him to heaven in his bodily form, 
notwithstanding the opposition of the sons of Yasishtfha. The 
Hari-vansa version of this story is different. Tri-sanku, also 
called Satya-vrata, had attempted the abduction of the young 
wife of a citizen. For this his father banished him, and con- 
demned him to " the performance of a silent penance for twelve 
years." During his exile there was a famine, and Tri-sanku 
succoured and supported the wife and family of Yiswamitra, 
who were reduced to the direst extremity in that sage's absenca 


Vasish/ha, the family priest, had done nothing to assuage the 
wrath of the aggrieved father, and this offended Tri-sanku. At 
the end of his penance, being in want of meat, he killed Yasish- 
/ha's wonder-working cow and partook of her flesh; for this 
act Yasishrfha gave him the name of Tri-sanku, * guilty of three 
sins.* Yiswamitra was grateful for the assistance rendered by 
Tri-sanku, and gave him the choice of a boon. He begged that 
he might ascend bodily to heaven. Yiswamitra then installed 
Tri-sanku in his father's kingdom, " and in spite of the resist- 
ance of the gods and of Yasish&a he exalted the king alive to 

The Maha-bharata and the Kamayawa tell the story of Yiswa- 
mitra's amour with Menaka, His austerities had so alarmed the 
gods that Indra sent this Apsaras to seduce Yiswamitra " by the 
display of her charms and the exercise of all her allurements," 
She succeeded, and the result was the birth of tfakuntala 
Yiswamitra at length became ashamed of his passion, and " dis- 
missing the nymph with gentle accents, he retired to the northern 
mountains, where he practised severe austerities for a thousand 
years." He is said also to have had an amour with the nymph 

The result of the struggle between Yasish&a and Yiswamitra 
is thus told in the Ramayawa : " Yasishflia, being propitiated 
by the gods, became reconciled to Yiswamitra, and recognised 
his claim to all the prerogatives of a Brahman J?tshi. . . . Yiswa- 
mitra, too, having attained the Brahmanical rank, paid all honour 
to Vasishfluu" 

The Ramayafia gives many particulars of Yiswaroitra's con- 
nection with Kama. It was Yiswamitra who prevailed upon 
Kong Dasa-ratha to send his son Rama for the protection of the 
Brahmans against the attacks of Ravawa and his Rakshasaa He 
acted as his guru, and returned with Rama to Ayodhya, where 
the prince obtained the hand of Sita, 

In the Markawdfeya and other Purawas the story is told of 
Yiswamitra's implacable persecution of King Haris-chandra (see 
Haris-chandra), one result of which was that Yasishtfha and 
Yiswamitra cursed each other so that they were turned into 
birds, and fought together most furiously till Brahma put an 
end to the conflict, restored them to their natural forms., and 
compelled them to be reconciled* 


YISWA-BtFP A * Wearing all forms, omnipresent, universal : ' 
a title of YishTiu. 

YLSWAYASTJ. A chief of the Gandharvas in Indra'a 

YISWESWARA. 'Lord of all' A name of iva. The 
celebrated Linga or emblem of $iva at Benares. See Linga. 

YTTA-HAYYA. A king of the Haihayas. His sons attacked 
and slew all the family of Divodasa, king of Kasi. A son, 
named Pratardana (q.v.), was subsequently born to Divodasa, 
and he attacked the Haihayas and compelled Yita-havya to fly 
to the sage Bhrigu for protection. Pratardana pursued him, and 
demanded that he should be given up. Then " Yita-havya, by 
the mere word of Bhrigu, became a Brahman Rishi and an 
utterer of the Yeda" (Maha-bharata). His son, Gritsa-mada, 
was a highly honoured .Rishi, and author of several hymns in 
the .Z&g-veda. He was the founder of the tribe of Haihayas 
called Yita-havyas. 

YITASTA, The classic Hydaspes, the Behat of later days, 
and the modern Jhelam. 

YIYADA-BHAJSTGAK.ZVAYA. A code of Hindu law ac- 
cording to the Bengal school, composed by Jagan-natha Tarka- 
lankara at the end of the last century. It has been translated 
by Colebrooke, and is commonly known as Colebrooke's Digest. 

YIYADA-CEANDRA A law-book of the Benares school 
by Lakhima Devi, a learned lady. 

YIYADA-CHINTAMA.Ari. A law-book of the Mithila 
school by Yachaspati Misra. The text is in print. 

YIYADA-BATMKABA. A law-book of the Benares school 
by Chandeswara, who lived about 1314 A. D. 

YTVADA-TAMMYA. A law-book of the Benares school 
by Eatnakara. 

YIYASWAT, "The bright one.' The sun. (See Surya) 
Used sometimes perhaps for the firmament. 

YTYINDHAYA A Danava killed in battle by Charu- 
deshna, son of Knshm See Maha-bharata, 

YOPA-DEYA A grammarian of great repute, who lived 
about the thirteenth century AD. at Deva-giri, and wrote the 

YKAJA. A pastoral district about Agra and Mathura, w her* 
Krishna, passed his boyhood with the cowherds. 


YEATYA. " Persons whom the twice-born beget on women 
of their own classes, bat who omit the prescribed rites and 
have abandoned the Gayatri, are to be designated as Yratyas." 

YJS/DDHA. l OloV An epithet frequently found prefixed 
to the books of ancient writers, and evidently implying that 
there are one or more versions or recensions as Ynddha 
Manu, Ynddha Harita. See Dharma-sastra. 

Y^/HAT-KATHA. ' Great story/ A large collection of tales 
from which the Kathfr-sarit-sagara was drawn. There is a 
critical examination of this work by Dr. Buhler in the Indian 
Antiguary, voL i 

Y-ft/EAT-SANHITA. The astronomical work of Yaraha 

Y&THAN NAEADlYA PUEAJVA. An Upa-purawa, See 

Y^JHASPATL See Bnhaspati 

Y^/KODAEA. < Wolf belly.' An epithet of Bhima. 

YJiOTDA-YANA A wood in the district of Mathura where 
KrishTia passed his youth, under the name of Gopala, among the 

YJB/SKZVI, A descendant of Yadu, and the ancestor from 
whom Knsh?ia got the name Yarshweysu 

Y-B/SBL^IS, Y^/SHJVAYAS. The descendants of Vrishwi, 
son of Madhu, whose ancestor was the eldest son of Yadu. 
Krishna belonged to this branch of the Lunar race. 

Y.R.ZTEA- In the Yedas he is the demon of drought and 
tmgenial weather, with whom Indra, the god of the firmament, 
is constantly at war, and whom he is constantly overpowering, 
and releasing the rain. Sometimes called Vntrasura, 

YB/TKA-HAK The slayer of Yntra. A title of Indra. 

YYAJ3L An old grammarian and lexicographer, somewhat 
later in time than PaninL A story ia the Y/ihat-katha repre- 
sents him as contemporary with Yararuchi 

YYAHLK7TIS. Three mystical words said by Manu to 
have been milked from the Yedas by Prajapati the word Vhttr, 
from the JXtg-veda ; the word bhuvah, from the Yajur-veda; and 
the word swar, from the Sama-veda (Manu, ii 76). The /Sata- 
patha Brahmawa defines them as " three luminous essences " 
which Prajapati produced from the Yedas by heating them, 


t( He uttered the word bhur, which became this earth. ; 
which became this firmament; and swar, which became that 
sky." A fourth word, mahar, is sometimes added, and is pro- 
bably intended to represent the Atharva-veda. See Loka. 

YYAKAKAJVA. ' Grammar.' One of the Vedangas. The 
science of grammar has been carefully studied among the Hindus 
from very ancient times, and studied for its own sake as a science 
rather than as a means of acquiring or regulating language. The 
grammar of Pamni is the oldest of those known to survive, but 
Parani refers to several grammarians who preceded himself. One 
of them was named $akatfayana, a portion of whose work is 
said to have been discovered lately. 

YYASA * An arranger/ This title is common to many old 
authors and compilers, but it is especially applied to Veda-vyasa 
the arranger of the Yedas, who, from the imperishable nature of 
his work, is also called $aswatas, ( the immortal,' The name is 
given also to the compiler of the Maha-bharata, the founder of 
the Vedanta philosophy, and the arranger of the Purarcas ; all 
these persons being held to be identical with Veda-vyasa, But 
this is impossible, and the attribution of all these works to one 
person has arisen either from a desire to heighten their antiquity 
and authority, or from the assumed identity of several different 
" arrangers." Veda-vyasa was the illegitimate son of the Eishi 
Parasara and Satyavati, and the child, who was of a dark colour, 
was brought forth on an island (dwipa) in the Yamuna, Being 
illegitimate he was called Kanlna, the e bastard , ' from his com- 
plexion he received the name Krishrai, and from his birthplace 
he was called Dwaipayana. His mother afterwards married King 
$antanu, by whom she had two sons. The elder was killed in 
battle, and the younger, named Yichitra-virya, died childless, 
K?ishwa Dwaipayana preferred a life of religious retirement, 
but in accordance with law and at his mother's request, he took 
the two childless widows of her son, Yichitra-virya. By them 
he had two sons, Dhrita-rashfra and Pawrfu, between whose 
descendants the great war of the Maha-bharata was fought. 

The Purawas mention no less than twenty-eight Vyasas, 
incarnations of Vishnu or Brahma, who descended to the earth 
in different ages to arrange and promulgate the Yedas. 

YYAYAHAEA-CHINTAMAJV1 A law-book of the Benarea 
school by Yachaspati Misra 


VYAVAHARA-MAYtlKHA. A law-book of the Mahratta 
echool by Nilakanflia Bha#a. Translated by Borrodaile. 

YYAVAHARA-TATWA. A modern work on law accord- 
ing to the Bengal school by Raghunandana, who is also called 

YADAYA. A descendant of Yadu. The Yadavas were the 
celebrated race in which Kr/shwa was born. At the time of his 
birth they led a pastoral life, but under him they established a 
kingdom at Dwaraka in Gujarat. All the Yadavas who were 
present in that city after the death of Krfshna perished in it 
when it was submerged by the ocean. Some few were absent, 
and perpetuated the race, from which many princes and chiefs 
still claim their descent The great Rajas of Yijaya-nagara 
asserted themselves as its representatives. The Vishnu Purana 
says of this race, " Who shall enumerate the whole of the mighty 
men of the Yadava race, who were tens of ten thousands and 
hundreds of hundred thousands in number?" 

YADU. Son of King Yayati of the Lunar race, and founder 
of the line of the Yadavas in which Krishna was born. He 
refused to bear the curse of decrepitude passed upon his father 
by the sage $ukra, and in consequence he incurred the paternal 
curse, "Your posterity shall not possess dominion." Still he 
received from his father the southern districts of his kingdom, 
and his posterity prospered 

YAJA. A Brahman of great sanctity, who, at the earnest 
solicitation of King Drupada, and for the offer of ten millions of 
kine, performed the sacrifice through which his "altar-born" 
children, Dhn'shtfa-dyumna and DraupadI, came forth from the 
sacrificial fire. 

YAJJSTA. c Sacrifice.' Sacrifice personified in the Pura/ias 
as son of Ruchi and husband of Dakshiwa. He had the head 
of a deer, and was killed by Yira-bhadra at Daksha's sacrifice. 
According to the Hari-vansa he was raised to the planetary 
sphere by Brahma, and made into the constellation Mnga-siraa 

YAJNA-DATTA-BADHA. ' The death of Yajna-datta,' An 
episode of the Ramayana. It has been translated into French 
by Che'zy. 

YAJNA-PARIBHASHA. A Sutra work by Apastambha. 

YAJNA-SENA- A name of Drupada. 


YAJNAWALKYA A celebrated sage, to whom is attri 
buted tbe Wliite Yajur-veda, tlie atapatha Brahma?ia, the 
Bnhad Aranyaka, and the code of law called Yajnawalkya- 
smn'ti. He lived before the grammarian Katyayana, and was 
probably later than Mann ; at any rate, the code bearing his 
name is posterior to that of Mann. He was a disciple of Bash- 
kali, and more particularly of Yaiiampayana. The Maha-bharata 
makes him present at the Raja-suya sacrifice performed by 
Yudhi-shtfhira ; and according to the $atapatha Brahmami he 
flourished at the court of Janaka, king of Yideha and father of 
Sita. Janaka had long contentions with the Brahmans, in which 
he was supported, and probably prompted, by Yajnawalkya, 
This sage was a dissenter from the religious teaching and prac- 
tices of his time, and is represented as contending with and 
silencing Brahmans at the court of his patron. A Brahman 
named Yidagdha akalya was his especial adversary, but he 
vanquished him and cursed him, so that " his head dropped off, 
and his bones were stolen by robbers." Yajnawalkya also is 
represented as inculcating the duty and necessity of religious 
retirement and meditation, so he is considered as having been 
the originator of the Yoga doctrine, and to have helped in pre- 
paring the world for the preaching of Buddha. He had two 
wives, Maitreyi and Katyayani, and he instructed the former in 
his philosophical doctrine. Max Muller quotes a dialogue be- 
tween them from the $atapatha Brahmafta (Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature, p. 22), in which the sage sets forth his views. 

The White Yajur-veda originated in a schism, of which 
Yajnawalkya was a leader, if not the author. He was the ori- 
ginator and compiler of this Yeda, and according to some it was 
called Yajasaneyl Sanhita, from his surname Yajasaneya. See 

"What share Yajnawalkya had in the production of the $ata- 
patha Brahma?ia and Bnhad Arawyaka is very doubtful. Some 
part of them may, perhaps, have sprung directly from him, and 
they were probably compiled under his superintendence ; but it 
may be, as some think, that they are so called because they treat 
of him and embody his teaching. One portion of the Bnhad 
iranyaka, called the Yajnawalklya Kaflda, cannot have been his 
composition, for it is devoted to his glorification and honour, and 
was probably written after his death. 


The Smnti, or code of law which bears the name of Yajna. 
tfalkya, is posterior to that of Mann, and is more precise and 
stringent in its provisions. Its authority is inferior only to that 
of Manu, and as explained and developed by the celebrated 
commentary Mitakshara, it is in force all over India except in 
Bengal proper, but even there the original text-book is received. 
The second century A,D. has been named as the earliest date of 
this work Like Manu, it has two recensions, the Bnhad and 
Vnddha, perhaps more. The text has been printed in Calcutta, 
and has been translated into German by Stenzler and into Eng- 
lish by Roer and Montriou. 

YAJUE or YAJUSH. The second Veda. See Veda. 

YAKSHAS. A class of supernatural beings attendant on 
Kuvera, the god of wealth. Authorities differ as to their origin. 
They have no very special attributes, but they are generally 
considered as inoffensive, and so are called Puwya-janas, * good 
people/ but they occasionally appear as imps of evil It is a 
Yaksha in whose mouth Kali-dasa placed his poem Megha-diLta 
(cloud messenger). 


YAKSHl, YAKSHItft i, A female Yaksha. 2. Wife of 
ELuvera. 3. A female demon or imp attendant on Durga. 

YAM A. ' Restrainer, ' Pluto, Minos. In the Vedas Yama 
is god of the dead, with whom the spirits of the departed dwell. 
He was the son of Vivaswat (the Sun), and had a twin-sister 
named YamI or YanmnlL These are by some looked upon as 
the first human pair, the originators of the race \ and there is a 
remarkable hymn, in the form of a dialogue, in which the female 
urges their cohabitation for the purpose of perpetuating the 
species. Another hymn says that Yama " was the first of men 
that died, and the first that departed to the (celestial) world." He 
it was who found out the way to the home which cannot be taken 
away : " Those who are now "born (follow) by their own paths 
to the place whither our ancient fathers have departed." "But," 
eays Dr. Muir, " Yama is nowhere represented in the JSig-veda 
as having anything to do with the punishment of the wicked." 
So far as is yet known, "the hyrhns of that Veda contain no 
prominent mention of any such penal retribution, -. . Yama is 
still to some extent an object of terror. He is represented as 
having two insatiable dogs with four eyes and wide nostrils, 

374 YAMA. 

which guard the road to his abode, and which, the departed are 
advised to hurry past with all possible speed. These dogs are 
said to wander about among men as his messengers, no doubt 
for the purpose of summoning them to their master, who is in 
another place identified with death, and is described as sending 
a bird as the herald of doom." 

In the epic poems Yama is the son of the Sun by Sanjna 
(conscience), and brother of Vaivaswata (Manu). Mythologically 
he was the father of Yudhi-sh&ira. He is the god of departed 
spirits and judge of the dead A soul when it quits its mortal 
form repairs to his abode in the lower regions ; there the re- 
corder, Chitra-gupta, reads out his account from the great 
register called Agra-sandhanl, and a just sentence follows, when 
the soul either ascends to the abodes of the Pitns (Manes), or 
is sent to one of the twenty-one hells according to its guilt, or 
it is born again on earth in another form. Yama is regent of 
the south quarter, and as such is called Dakshinasa-pati. He 
is represented as of a green colour and clothed with red. He 
rides upon a buffalo, and is armed with a ponderous mace and a 
noose to secure his victims. 

In the Puraas a legend is told of Yama having lifted his 
foot to kick Chhaya, the handmaid of his father. She cursed 
him to have his leg affected with sores and worms, but his 
father gave him a cock which picked off the worms and cured 
the discharge. Through this incident he is called Sirna-pada, 
'shrivelled foot.' 

Yama had several wives, as Hemamala, Su-sila, and Vijaya. 
He dwells in the lower world, in his city Yama-pura. There, in 
his palace called Kallchi, he sits upon his throne of judgment, 
Vichara-bhu. He is assisted by his recorder and councillor, 
Chitra-gupta, and waited upon by his two chief attendants and 
custodians, Chanda or Maha-chanda, and Kala-pursusha. His 
messengers, Yama-dutas, bring in the souls of the dead, and the 
door of his judgment-hall is kept by his porter, Yaidhyata. 

Yama has many names descriptive of Ms office. He is Mntyu, 
Kala, and Antaka, t death ; ' Kntanta, the finisher ; ' Samana, 
' the settler ; J D&ndl or Da?zda-dhara, c the rod-bearer ; ' Bhlma- 
sasana, of terrible decrees ; ' Pasi, * the noose-carrier ; ' Pitri. 
pati, c lord of the manes ; ' Preta-raja, * king of the ghosts ; ' 
Sraddha-deva, 'god of the exequial offerings;' and especially 


Dharma-raja, 'king of justice.' He is Audumbara, from Udum- 
bara, ' the fig-tree/ and from his parentage he is Yaivaswata. 
There is a Dharma-sastra which bears the name of Yama. 

YAMA-YAIYASWATA. Yama as son of Yivaswat. 

YAMI The goddess of the Yamuna river. Sister of Yama 

YAMUNA The river Jumna, which rises in a mountain 
called Kalinda (Sun). The river Yamuna is personified as the 
daughter of the Sun by his wife Sanjna. So she was sister of 
Yama. Bala-rama, in a state of inebriety, called upon her to 
come to him that he might bathe, and as she did not heed, he, 
in a great rage, seized his ploughshare-weapon, dragged her to 
Vn'rn and compelled her to follow him whithersoever he wandered 
through the wood. The river then assumed a human form and 
besought his forgiveness, but it was some time before she could 
appease him. Wilson thinks that " the legend probably alludes 
to the construction of canals from the Jumna for the purposes oi 
irrigation." The river is also called Kalindi, from the place of 
its source, Surya-ja, from her father, and Tri-yama. 

YASKA. The author of the Nirukta, the oldest known gloss 
upon the text of the Yedic hymns. Yaska lived before the 
time of Pewini, who refers to his work, but he was not the first 
author who wrote a Nlrukta, as he himself refers to several 
predecessors. See Nirukta. 

YASODA. Wife of the cowherd Nanda, and foster-mother 
of Krishna. 

YAT US, YATU-DH ANAS. Demons or evil spirits of various 
forms, as dogs, vultures, hoofed-animals, &c. In ancient times 
the Yatus or Yatu-dhanas were distinct from the Rakshasas 
though associated with them, but in the epic poems and 
Pura7?.as they are identified. Twelve Yatu-dhanas are named 
in the Yayu Parana, and they are said to have sprung from 
Kasyapa and Su-rasa. They are associated with the Dasyus, and 
are thought to be one of the native races which opposed the 
progress of the immigrant Aryans. 

YAYA-KBl, YAVA-KEITA. * Bought with barley/ Son 
of the sage Bharadwaja. He performed great penances in order 
to obtain a knowledge of the Yedas without study, and having 
obtained this and other boons from Indra, he became arrogant 
and treated other sages with disrespect. He made love to the 


wife of Paravasu, son of his father's friend, Kaibhya. That sage 
in his anger performed a sacrifice which "brought into being a 
fearful Kakshasa who killed Yava-krita at his father's chapel 
Bharadwaja, in grief for his son, burnt himself upon the funeral 
pile. Before his death he cursed Paravasu to be the death of 
his father, Raibhya, and the son killed Ins father in mistake 
for an antelope. All three were restored to life by the gods in 
recompense of the great devotions of Arvavasu, the other son of 
Raibhya (q.v.). Mahor-bharata. 

YAVANAS. Greeks, 'lame, the Yavans of the Hebrew. 
The term is found in Pimini, who speaks of the writing of the 
Yavanas. The Puranas represent them to be descendants of 
Turvasu, but they are always associated with the tribes of 
the north-west frontier, and there can be no doubt that the 
Macedonian or Bactrian Greeks are the people most usually in- 
tended by the term. In the Bactrian Pali inscriptions of King 
Priyadarsi the word is contracted to Yona, and the term Yona- 
raja " is associated with the name of Antiochus, probably Antio- 
chus the Great, the ally of the Indian prince Sophagasenas, 
about B.O. 210." The Puranas characterise them as "wise and 
eminently brave. " They were among the races conquered by 
King Sagara, and < he made them share their heads entirely." 
In a later age they were encountered on the Indus by Pushpa- 
mitra, a Mauryan general, who dethroned his master and took 
the throne. In modern times the term has been applied to 
the Muhamniadans. 

YAYATI The fifth king of the Lunar race, and son of 
Hahusha. He had two wives, Devayani and Sarrnishrfha, from 
the former of whom was born Yadu, and from the latter Puru, 
the respective founders of the two great lines of Yadavas and 
Pauravas. In all he had five sons, the other three being 
Druhyu, Turvasu, and Ami. He was a man of amorous dis- 
position, and his infidelity to Devayani brought upon him the 
curse of old age and infirmity from her father, $ukra. This 
curse 5ukra consented to transfer to any one of his sons who 
would consent to bear it. All refused except Puru, who under- 
took to resign his youth in his father's favour. Yayati, after a 
thousand years spent in sensual pleasures, renounced sensuality, 
restored his vigour to Puru, and made Mm his successor. This 
story of Puru's assuming Yayatf s decrepitude is first told in the 


Maha bharata. The above is the version of the Vishnu Purarca 
In the Padma it is told in a different manner, Yayati was in- 
vited to heaven by Indra, who sent Matali, his charioteer, to 
fetch his guest. On their way they held a philosophical dis- 
cussion, which made such an impression on Yayati that, when 
he returned to earth, he, by his virtuous administration, rendered 
all his subjects exempt from passion and decay. Yama com- 
plained that men no longer died, and so Indra sent Kama-deva, 
god of love, and his daughter, Asruvindumati, to excite a pas- 
sion in the breast of Yayati He became enamoured, and in 
order to become a fit husband for his youthful charmer he made 
application to his sons for an exchange of their youth and his 
decrepitude. All refused but Puru, whose manly vigour his 
father assumed. After awhile the youthful bride, at the insti- 
gation of Indra, persuaded her husband to return to heaven, and 
he then restored to Puru his youth. The Bhagavata Purana and 
the Hari-vansa tell the story, but with variations. According to 
the latter, Yayati received from Indra a celestial car, by means 
of which he in six nights conquered the earth and subdued the 
gods themselves. This car descended to his successors, but was 
lost by Jamamejaya through the curse of the sage Gargya 
Yayati, after restoring Ms youth to Puru, retired to the forest 
with his wife and gave himself up to mortification. Abstaining 
from food, he died and ascended to heaven. He and his five 
sons are all called Eajarshis. 

YAYATI-CEAKITRA. A drama in seven acts on the life 
of Yayati. It is attributed to Kudra-deva. The subject is 
Yayati's intrigue with Sarmishtfha. 

YOGA, A school of philosophy. See Damna &ad Yajm- 

YOGA-NIDKA, 'The sleep of meditation/ Personified 
delusion, The great illusory energy of Vislwu and the illusory 
power manifested in Devi as Maha-maya, the great illusion. 

YOG-INl A sorceress. The Yoginis are eight female demons 
attendant on Durga. Their names are Marjanl, Karpura-tilaka, 
Malaya-gandhinI Kaumudika, Bherurcda, Matali, Nayaki, and 
Jaya or $ubhachara ; Su-lakshani, Su-nanda. 

YONL The female organ. Alone, or in combination with 
the Linga, it is an object of worship by the followers of the 


YTJDHI-SHTHrRA. The eldest of the five Parcel princes, 
mythologicaUy the son of Dharma, the god of justice. With 
the Hindus he is the favourite one of the five brothers, and 
is represented as a man of calm, passionless judgment, strict 
veracity, unswerving rectitude, and rigid justice. He was re- 
nowned as a ruler and director, but not as a warrior. Educated 
at the court of his uncle, Dhnta-rash^ra, he received from the 
family preceptor, Drona, a military training, and was taught the 
use of the spear. When the time came for naming the Yuva-raja 
or heir-apparent to the realm of Hastina-pura, the Maha-raja 
Dhrita-rashfra selected Yudhi-shtfhira in preference to his own 
eldest son, Dur-yodhana. A long-standing jealousy between 
the PaTi^ava and Kaurava princes then broke forth openly. 
Dur-yodhana expostulated with his father, and the end was that 
the PaTniavas went in honourable banishment to the city of 
Varanavata, The jealousy of Dur-yodhana pursued them, and his 
emissaries laid a plot for burning the brothers in their dwelling- 
house. Yudhi-shbdra ? s sagacity discovered the plot and Bhima 
frustrated it. The bodies of a Bhil woman and her five sons 
were found in the ruins of the burnt house, and it was believed 
for a time that the Parana vas and their mother had perished. 
When Draxipadl had been won at the swayam-vara, Yudhi- 
shtfhira, the eldest of the five brothers, was requested by his 
juniors to make her his wife, but he desired that she should 
become the wife of Arjuna, by whose prowess she had been won. 
Through the words of their mother, Kunti, and the decision of 
the sage Vyasa, the princess became the common wife of the five 
brothers. An arrangement was made that Draupadi should 
dwell in turn with the five brothers, passing two days in the 
separate house of each, and that under pain of exile for twelve 
years no one of the brothers but the master of the house should 
enter while Draupadi was staying in it. The arms of the 
family were kept in the house of Yudhi-shfliira, and an alarm 
of robbery being raised, Arjuna rushed there to procure hia 
weapons while Draupadi was present. He thus incurred the 
pain of exile, and departed, though Yudhi-shtfhira endeavoured 
to dissuade him by arguing that the elder brother of a fatherless 
family stood towards his juniors in the position of a father. 
After the return of the Pawdavas from exile and their establish- 
uient at Indra-prastha, the rule of Yudhi-ahfliira is described as 


having been most excellent and prosperous. The Raja " ruled 
his country with great justice, protecting his subjects as his own 
sons, and subduing all his enemies round about, so that every 
man was without fear of war or disturbance, and gave his whole 
mind to the performance of every religious duty. And the Raj a had 
plenty of rain at the proper season, and all his subjects became 
rich ; and the virtues of the Raja were to be seen in the great 
increase of trade and merchandise, in the abundant harvests and 
the prolific cattle. Every subject of the Raja was pious ; there 
were no liars, no thieves, and no swindlers ; and there were no 
droughts, no floods, no locusts, no conflagrations, no foreign 
invasions, and no parrots to eat the grain. The neighbouring 
Rajas, despairing of conquering Raja Yudhi-sh^hira, were very 
desirous of securing his friendship. Meanwhile Yudhi-sh^hira, 
though he would never acquire wealth by unfair means, yet 
prospered so exceedingly that had he lavished his riches for a 
thousand years no diminution would ever have been perceived. " 
After the return of his brother Arjuna from exile, Yudhi-sh/hira 
determined to assert his supremacy by performing the Raja-suya 
sacrifice, and this led to a war with Jarasandha, Raja of Maga- 
dha, who declined to take part in it, and was in consequence 
defeated and killed. The dignity which Yudhi-sh/hira had 
gained by the performance of the sacrifice rekindled the jealousy 
of Dur-yodhana and the other Kauravas. They resolved to 
invite their cousins to a gambling match, and to cheat Yudhi- 
shtfhira of his kingdom. Yudhi-shtfhira was very unwilling to 
go, but could not refuse his uncle's invitation, Sakuni, maternal 
uncle of Dur-yodhana, was not only a skilful player but also a 
dexterous cheat. He challenged Yudhi-sh^hira to throw dice 
with him, and Yudhi-sh/!hira, after stipulating for fair-play, 
began the game. He lost his all, his kingdom, his brothers, 
himself, and his wife, all of whom became slaves. When 
DraupadI was sent for as a slave and refused to come, Duh- 
sasana dragged her into the hall by the hair, and both he and 
Dur-yodhana grossly insulted her. Bhlma was half mad with 
rage, but Yudhi-shfliira's sense of right acknowledged that 
DraupadI was a slave, and he forbade IJhima and his brothers to 
interfere. When the old Maha-raja Dhnta-rash/ra was informed 
of what had passed, he came into the assembly, and declaring that 
his sons had acted wrongfully, he sent DraupadI and hex hus- 


bands away, imploring them to forget what had passed. Dur 
yodhana was very wroth, and induced the Maha-raja to allow 
another game to avoid war, the condition being that the losers 
should go into exile for thirteen years, and should remain con- 
cealed and undiscovered during the whole of the thirteenth year. 
The game was played, and loaded dice gave Sakuni the victory, 
so the PaTkZavas went again into exile. During that time they 
rendered a service to Dur-yodhana by rescuing him and his com- 
panions from a band of marauders who had made them prisoners. 
When Jayad-ratha, king of Sindhu, was foiled in his attempt 
to carry off Draupadi, the clemency of Yudhi-sh&ira led him 
to implore his brothers to spare their captive's life. As the 
thirteenth year of exile approached, in order to keep themselves 
concealed, the five brothers and Draupadi went to the country 
of Virata and entered into the service of the Kaja. Yudhi- 
shtfhira's office was that of private companion and teacher of 
dice-playing to the king. Here Yudhi-shtfhira suffered his wife 
Draupadi to be insulted, and dissuaded his brothers from inter- 
fering, lest by so doing they should discover themselves, When 
the term of exile was concluded, Yudhi-shtfhira sent an envoy to 
Hastina-pura asking for a peaceful restoration to the Pan?avas 
of their former position. The negotiations failed, and Yudhi- 
sh&ira invited Krishna to go as his representative to Hastina- 
pura, Notwithstanding Yudhi-sh/Jhira's longing for peace the 
war began, but even then Yudhi-sh&nra desired to withdraw, 
but was overruled by Krishna. 

Yudhi-sh&ira fought in the great battle, but did not distin- 
guish himself as a soldier. The version, of the Mahirbharata 
given in Mr. Wheeler's work makes him guilty of downright 
cowardice. At the instigation of Krishna he compassed the 
death of Drona by conveying to that warrior false intelligence of 
the death of his son Aswatthaman, and his character for veracity 
was used to warrant the truth of the representation. His con- 
science would not allow him to tell a downright lie, but it was 
reconciled to telling a lying truth in killing an elephant named 
Aswatthaman, and informing the fond father that Aswatthaman 
was dead. He retreated from a fight with Kama, and after- 
wards reproached Arjuna for not having supported him and 
Bhima. This so irritated Arjuna that he would have killed him 
on the spot had not Krishna interposed. After the great battle 

YUGA. 381 

was over K>islma saluted him king, but he showed great disin- 
clination to accept the dignity. His sorrow for those who had 
fallen was deep, especially for Karrca, and he did what he could to 
console the hereaved Dhnta-rashfra and Gandhari, as well as the 
many other sufferers. He was made king, and was raised to the 
throne with great pomp, he acting as ruler under the nominal 
supremacy of the old King Dhnta-rashfaa. There, after an inter- 
val, he asserted his universal supremacy by performing the great 
Aswa-medha sacrifice. The death of Krishna at Dwaraka and 
regrets for the past embittered the lives of the Pawdavas, and 
they resolved to withdraw from the world. Yudhi-shtfhira 
appointed Parikshit, grandson of Arjuna, to be his successor, 
and the five brothers departed with Draupadi to the Himalayas 
on their way to Swarga. The story of this journey is told with 
great feeling in the closing verses of the Maha-bharata. See 

Yudhi~shhira had a son named Yaudheya by his wife Devika; 
but the Vishmi Purawa makes the son's name Devaka and the 
mother's Yaudheyi. 

YUGA. An age of the woilcL Each of these ages is preceded 
by a period called its Sandhya or twilight, and is followed by 
another period of equal length called Sandhyansa, * portion of 
twilight,' each being equal to one-tenth of the Yuga. The 
Yugas are four in number, and their duration is first computed 
by years of the gods : 

I. KntaYuga, . 

. 4000 



Sandhyansa, . 



a. Treta Yuga, . 

, * 3000 



Sandhyanaa, . 



3. Dwapara Yuga, 

, 2000 







4. Kali Yuga, 

, . 1000 

Sandhya, * * 

* * * 100 

Samlliyanm, . 

4 * 100 




382 YUGA. 

But a year of the gods is equal to 360 years of men, &> 

4800 x 360 1,728,000 

3600 x 360 = 1,296,000 

2400 x 360 = 864,000 

1 200 x 360 = 432,000 

Total, . 4,320,000 

years, forming the period called a Maha-yuga or Manwantara, 
Two thousand Maha-yugas or 8,640,000,000 years make a Kalpa 
or night and a day of Brahma. 

This elaborate and practically boundless system of chronology 
was invented between the age of the JfMg-veda and that of the 
Maha-bharata. No traces of it are to be found in the hymns of 
the Rig, but it was fully established in the days of the great 
epic. In this work the four ages are described at length by 
Hanumat, the learned monkey chief, and from that description 
the following account has been abridged : 

The Krita is the age in which righteousness is eternal, when 
duties did not languish nor people decline. ISTo efforts were 
made by men, the fruit of the earth was obtained by their mere 
wish. There was no malice, weeping, pride, or deceit ; no con- 
tention, no hatred, cruelty, fear, affliction, jealousy, or envy. 
The castes alike in their functions fulfilled their duties, were 
unceasingly devoted to one deity, and used one formula, one rule, 
and one rite. Though they had separate duties, they had but 
one Veda and practised one duty. 

In the Treta Yuga sacrifice commenced, righteousness decreased 
by one-fourth; men adhered to truth, and were devoted to a 
righteousness dependent on ceremonies. Sacrifices prevailed 
with holy acts and a variety of rites. Men acted with an object 
in view, seeking after reward for their rites and their gifts, and 
were no longer disposed to austerities and to liberality from a 
simple feeling of duty. 

In the Dwapara Yuga righteousness was diminished by a half. 
The Veda became fourfold. Some men studied four Vedas, 
others three, others two, others one, and some none at all 
Ceremonies were celebrated in a great variety of ways. Prom 
the decline of goodness only few men adhered to truth. When 
men had fallen away from goodness, many diseases, desires, and 
calamities, caused by destiny, assailed them, by which they wort 


severely afflicted and driven to practise austerities. Others 
desiring heavenly bliss offered sacrifices. Thus men declined 
through unrighteousness. 

In the Kali Yuga righteousness remained to the extent of 
one-fourth only. Practices enjoined by the Vedas, works of 
righteousness, and rites of sacrifice ceased. Calamities, diseases, 
fatigue, faults, such as anger, &c., distresses, hunger, and fear 
prevailed. As the ages revolve righteousness declines, and the 
people also decline. When they decay their motives grow 
weak, and the general decline frustrates their aims. Muir, I 

In the Krita Yuga the duration of life was four thousand 
years, in the Treta three thousand, in the Dwapara two thou- 
sand In the Kali Yuga there is no fixed measure. Other pas- 
sages of the Maha-bharata indicate " that the Krita Yuga was 
regarded as an age in which Brahmans alone existed, and that 
Kshatriyas only began to be born in the Treta." 

YTJGANJDHABA. A city in the Panjab. A people dwell- 
ing there and in the vicinity. 

YWAKiLSWA. A king of the Solar race, father of Man- 
dhatri A legend represents this son as being conceived by and 
born of his father. 

YUVA-EAJA. 'Young king.' The heir-apparent to a 

YUYUDHANA. A name of Satyaki 

YUYUTSU. A son of Dhnta-rashtfra by a Vaisya handmaid. 
On the eve of the great battle he left the side of the Kauravas 
and joined the PaT^avas. When Yudhi-sh&ira retired from 
the world he established Yuyutsu in the kingdom of Indra- 


Abdhi-jau= Aswius. 
Abhayada, 69. 
Abhimam SwahiL 
AbM-riipa = Kama. 
Abhoga Varuna. 
Abhra*matanga Loka-pfila. 
Abhramu Loka-pala. 
Abhra-pwScha = Kahu. 
Abhrottha = Vajra- 
Abja= Brahma, 58. 
Abja-hasta= Agni. 
Abja-yoni= Brahma, 58. 
A-dharma Nirn'ti 
Adhiratha Kama. 
Adhirathi = Kama. 
Adhisima Knshwa, /a 
Adhwaryu Veda 350. 
Adhy^ya Veda 346. 
Adi-Kavi= Brahma. 
Adi-parva, 190, 
Adityas Daksha. 

Adrika SatyavatI, Uparichara* 
Admyanti Parasara. 
Adwaita Madhava, 
Adwaita, 82. 
Agasti Varana. 
Agastya Bhn'git 

Agneyastra Viswa-karmft. 
Agneyi Angiras. 
Agni Ajagiras, Twash^ri 

Agni van? a, 313. 
Agnive^a Agneyastra. 
Agra-sandhani Yama. 
Ahamyati, 69. 
AM India. 
Ahinagu, 313. 
Ahmara, 70. 
Ahinsa = Nara - NarSy ana. 

Ailavila = 
Aila Purti-ravas. 
Aindri=Indrani, Main's 
Ajamirfha, 69. 
Ajyapas Pitns, 
Akhu-ratha = Ganc^a, 
Akrodhana, 70. 
Aksha= Havana, 
Alambusha Wavi& 
Alarka, 69. 
Amarsha, 313, 
Amaru Amaru Sataka. 
Ambika Chamuwrfa. 
Ambu-raja=Varuna 338. 
Amntilharana - Garuc?a. 
AmGrta-rajas Dharaiaranya 
Artala=Agni, Vasu, 
An-anga = Kama. 

Ananta-^ayana = Vishntu 
Auaata = jlrsha esha. 
2 B 



An-anya- ja = Kama. 
Anaranya, 313. 
Anarta Ku-sa-sthalL 
Anavaratha, 69. 
Ajidhaka-ripu Andhaka. 
^ndhaka-vn'shm Andhaka. 
A.ndha-tamisra Naraka. 
4.nenas Ayus. 
Anenas (two), 313. 
Anga Ami, Champa, Dirgha- 

tamas, Kama, Pn'thi 
Angadi Angada, 
Aaga-raja= Kama. 
Angaraka = Mangala. 
A.ngirasa = Bn'haspati. 
Ajtila, 69. 

Ajiila Vasu, Vayu. 
Animishacharya Bnhaspati. 
Anjana, 313, 
Anjana Loka-pala. 
Anjaneya= Hanumat 
An^a Aditya. 
Ansu, 70. 

Anupama Loka-pala. 
Anuratha, 69. 
Anusaras = Rakshasas. 
Anusasana-parva, 190. 
Anuvaka Veda 346, 348. 
Apa Vasu. 
Aparita Aparanta. 
Aptyas Trita. 

Aravin, 69. 

ArdraSandhya, 31 3* 
Arha= India. 
Arish^a Gandharva 106. 
Arish#a-neini=Saha-deva, 187, 

- 313. 

Arjikiya" Sapta-sindhava, 
Arka-sodara Loka-pala. 
Aruna Ja^ayu, Sampati, Surya, 
Anwi Nachiketas. 
Arunoda Manasa. 

Arushi Aurva, Chyavana, 75, 
Arvarivat Pulaha. 
Aryaman- Aditya. 
A^ani 5iva, 296, Vajra. 
A^aras = Rakshasas. 
Astoadhyayi = Pawini. 
Ash^aka Galava, Veda 346, 
Asha-karaa= Brahma 57. 
Asikni Sapta-sindhava. 
Asi-patra-vana Naraka. 

Asita-dansh^ra= Makara. 
Asitanga Bhairava. 
Aslesha-bhava ~ Ketu. 
Asmaka, 313. 
Asphujit = 5ukra. 
A^rama-parva, 190. 
Asra-pas = Z?akinis, 
Asra-pas = Rakshakas. 
Asnk-pas = Rakshakas. 
Asrita Tri-mHrti. 
Asruvindumati Yayati. 
Asuras Dadhyanch. 
Aswa, 77. 
Aswalayana Brahmana Brah 


A^wamedhadatta, 70. 
A^wa-medhika-parva, igo, 
Aswa- pati Savitii. 
A^winl As wins. 
Aswius 73, 75, 
Atithi, 313. 

Atithigwa= Divo-dasa. 
Atma-bhii = Kama. 
Auchathya = Dirgha-tamas. 
Audumbara = Yama. 
Aurwavabha Avatara 34, 
Aurvasiya Agastya, 
Auttanapadi = Dhruva. 
Avantis Haihaya. 
Avastha Vishwu 360. 
Ayana-ghosha Radha. 
Ayana Narayawa* 



Ayushman Uttana- pada. 
Ayutayus 70, 313. 

Babliravi = Devi. 
Babhru = $iva. 
Bactfava-miikha Aurva. 
Bacfevanala Aurva. 
Bahlkas Sakala. 
Bahu Aurva. 
Bahu-dara = Vajra. 
Bahugava, 69. 
Bahuka, 313. 
Bahulaswa, 313. 
Bahu-salin = Bhlma. 
Bah vrechas Veda 350. 
Balaja river, 62. 
Bala-kanefa Kamayawa. 
Balaki Gargya. 
Balandhara Bliima. 
Ballala Bhoja-prabandha. 
Ballava=BMma 3 187. 
Bana-bhaWa KaclambarL 
Bawa Tripura. 
Banga Dirgha-tamas. 
Bashkali Ya j nawalky a. 
Bhadra Utathya. 
Bhadra-soma = GangS. 
BhadraswaDwipa, Jambu-d. 
Bhaga Aditya, Dakslia, 77, 


Bhagavad-glt&, 82. 
Bhagavat = 5iva. 
Bhagnatma = Son la. 
Bhaiml = Damay antl. 
Bhajamana, 70. 
Bhajeratha Jkshwaku. 
Bhakti Narada Pura^a. 
Bhanu Satya-bhama. 
Bhantunat Satya-bharaS, 313. 
Bharadwaja, 69, 
BharanI - 


Bharata, 69. 

Bharati = SaraswatL 

Bharga, 70. 

Bharga-bhiiiai, 70. 

Bhargava = fulcra. 

Bhaskara = Surya. 

Bhaswati Surya. 

Bha^a Narayana Venl Sanhara. 

Bha^oji Dikshita Siddhanta- 


Bhauma = Maugala. 
Bbava-ja= Kama. 
Bbavani = Devi 
Bhavanmauyu, 69. 
Bliela Dhanwantari. 
Bherunc?a YoginL 

Bhimaratha (two), 69. 
Bhima-sasana Yama. 
Bhishawa Bhairava. 
Bbishma-parva, 191. 
Bhoj a Kn'ta- varman. 
Bhoja-ka^a Rukmin. 
Bhramaii = Devi. 
Bbrigu Aurva, Twashtfn', 

ati, Pn'thivi, Piatardana, S\L- 


Blingus Krita-vlrya. 
Bliuini, 34. 
Bhumi-putra = Mangala. 
Bhuta-nayaki = Devi. 
Bhuvana Vi^wa-kanna. 
Bindu-sara Maurya. 
Brahma Bhn'gu. 
Brahma Narada. 
Brahma-datta Ghn'tachl, Ni 


Brahmadikas Su-parw-aa. 
Brahmanaspati Twaish^n. 
Brah man! Mains. 
Brahman- veda Veda 351. 
Brahmastra AswatthUman. 
Brahma-varaha Brahma-vai- 


Brahma- vidya Atharvan. 
Brahma-vnnda, 57. 
Brahma 57, Saraswatl. 
Bn'hadaswa, 313. 



Brihadbala, 313. 
Bnhad-bhanu Satya-bha"m. 
Bn'hadratha 70, Jara-sandha, 


B7*&haduktha, 313. 
Brahaj-jataka Varaha Miliira. 
Bnhan-Mauu Mauu. 
Brihan.*nala=Arjuna 3 187. 
Bnhan Naradiya Parana Na- 

rada Parana. 
Bn'haspati Pn'thl. 
Bn'hat Dharma-sastra. 
Brihatkshatra, 69. 
Buddha, 26, 38, 68. 


Chakora Chandra-ketu. 
Chakra Chakra-varti. 
Chakra- vada, ' 
Chakshas Bn'haspati. 
Chakshu Sapta- sindhava. 
Champadliipa= Karwa. 
Chanchala = Laksl imT. 

Chanda Yama. 
Chande^wara Vivada Ratna- 

Chandra-bliaga /Samba, Sapta- 


Chandrabhanu Satya-bhamS, 
Chandra-ch"uc?a = Bhairava. 
Chandramas Chandra-gupta. 

Chara = Mangala. 
Charak-puj a Devi 
Charvi, 174. 

Chatur-anana = Brahma, 5 7. 
Chatur-bhuja = Vishnu. 
Chatur-mukha= Brahma, 57. 
Chatur-vama Varwa. 
Chhaga-ratha Agai. 
Chhala^ 313. 
Chhidaka = Vajra. 
Chhinna- mastaka = De vL 

Chitra-ratha, 65, 69, 70, 138. 

Chitra- wkhawdinas JRtshis. 
Chitra-vahana Chitrangada. 
Chola Pandya. 
Chunchu, 313. 
Chyavana Mada. 

Dadhi Dwipa. 
Dahanopala= Surya-kanta. 
Daitya Asura. 
Daitya-guru - >S^uki a. 
Daivata Nirukta. 
Daksha Aditya, Vwwa-devas, 
Dakshaya= Gani?a. 
Daksheya= Pawini. 
Dakshi Pawini. 
Dakshi?ia Akuti, Arjuna 23. 
Dakshma =Devi Yaj na. 
Dala, 313. 
Dama, 77. 
Damaru ^iva. 
Dambholi = Vajra. 
Damodara Mwra Hanuraan- 

Danava Asura. 
Dawc?a-dhara = Yama. 
Dandasukas = Rakshakas. 

Dantakura, 162. 
Daruka = atyaki 
Dasa Arya. 
Da5a-bhuja= Devi 
Da$a-kanha= Ravawa. 
Dasa-nandini = Satya-vati 
Dasa-ratha Jaiaya, Maurya 

Dasarha, 69. 
Daseyl = Satya-vatt 

Basra =Pusharu 
Dasyu Arya. 
Dattaka MSgha, 
Deva-bhtiti= Gangfi. 
Beva-brahma = Narada. 



Deva-giri Bhagavata 45, Maya, 


Bevaka Yudhi-shtfhira. 
Beva-kshattra, 69. 
Bevamidhusha, 70. 
Deva-mitra = $akalya. 
Devana Bha^a Dattaka Chan- 

drika, Smrzti Chandrika. 
Beva-nagarl Saraswatl. 
Bevanam-piya = Asoka, 
Bevanika, 313. 
B evantaka Ra va w a. 
Beva-parvata = Mcru. 
Beva-pati = Indra. 
Beva-rata 69, 313. 
Deva-sena= Jayantt 
Deva-5ravas Ekalavya. 
Devatithi 70. 

Deva-vardhaka Vi^wa-kai inS- 
Devlka Mdagha } Yudhi-sh^iira. 
D hanaka Kr ita- virya. 
Dhanus 36. 
Dhanwaixtari 69. 
Dhara Vasu. 
Dharawi Lakshml. 
Dhara?u-siita = Sits . 
Dharma Nara Nariiyawa, Harij- 


Dharma-jna = Tri-ja^a. 
Dhaumya Dharma-^astra. 
DMsha?ia Bn'haspati. 
Dhmhifa-ketu 69, 313. 
Dhnshtfa Manu. 
Bhrtti 313, Vwwa-devaa. 
Dhruva Vasu. 
Dhruvasandhi, 313. 
Dhtima-ketu = Agni. 
Dhuri Viswa-dcvas. 
Dhwani Vi^wa-de vas. 
Dhyushitaswa 3 1 3 ; 
Didivis = Br^haspati* 
Dillpa, 70. 
D imbhaka Hansa. 
Dina-kara = Surya. 

Dlrgha-bahu, 313. 
Birgha-tamas Bharadwaja,U*ij, 

DTrgb ayus = Marka?? c?eya. 
Divodasa, 69, 104. 
Divya-ratna Cbinta-mani. 
Draunayana = Aswatthaman. 
Dn'dhaswa, 313. 
Dmana = Virochana. 
Dri'shadwati river Brahmii- 


Dro;ia-parva, 191. 
Dru-gha/?a = Biahm;I, 59. 
Druhina= Brahma, 59. 
Druhyu Vaibho j as. 
Bugdha Dwlpa. 
. DuA-saha^ Naimada. 
Duudu = Vasu -deva . 

Burgfi-pu j a Bevi. 

Bur-vasas Mudgala. 

Bushyanta, 69. 


Dwadasaksha = 

Bwai-matuia = 

Bwaita Madhava. 

B\vfiraka= Ivu 


Bwi-ja Varaa. 

Bwita Trita. 

Bwivida Bala-rama 41. 

Bya Bwiveda Niti-niaiijarl 

Byaus = Ushas. 

Byava-prithivi Byaus. 

Byotana= Ushaa. 

Byumat, 69. 

Byumayl = SanjnS. 

^as Pitrts. 
Ekata Trita. 

Gabhastiman = Surya. 
Gabhastimat Bharata- varsha, 

Bwlpa, Patfila. 
Gada Angada. 
Gads, Vislmu 361. 
Gadagadau = Aswins. 
Gada-yitmi = Kama. 




Gaganolmuka = Mangala. 
Gajanana > __ 
Gaja-vadana \ ~ 
Gana-nayaki = Devi. 
Gana-parvata = Kaililsa. 
Ganda- vaha = Vayu. 
Gandha-kali ) n 
Gandha-vati \ -Satya-vatt 
Gandha - madana Kula - parva- 

Gandharva Bharata - varsha, 


Gandharvas, 99. 
Gandharvi Somada Urmila* 
Ganga-ja= Karttikeya. 
Ganga-putra = Karttikeya, 
Ganga Sapta- sindhava. 
Gardhabila Yikramaditya. 
Garga Kala-yavana. 
Gargya-balaki A j 5,ta-5atr u. 
Gargya Dharma-.sastra, >Syala, 


Gai*hapaty as Pitr/s. 
Garutman= Garuc^a. 
Gatu= Gandharva. 
Gauri WEandhatyj. 
Gautama Kripa. 
Gaya iva 299. 
Gha^odbhava = Agastya. 
Ghafotkacha Alambusha, 
Ghnta Dwipa. 

Gish-pati = Bn'haspati, 
Go-karna Aparaiita. 
Gomati Sapta-sindhava. 
Go-meda Nava-ratna, 
Go-medaka Dwipa Dwipa. 
Gonardvya = Patanjali. 
Gonikaputra = Patanj all. 
Gopa Gaupayanas. 
Gopi-natha Kautuka-sarvaswa. 
Gotama Knpa. 
Grahadkara = Dhniva. 
Gralia-raja = Surya, 
Grantkika=Nakula, 187. 

Guhya Tri-murti. 
Gupta-chara = Bala-rama. 

Haihayas Bahu. 

Haimavati = Devi. 

Hal a, 41. 

Hala= Bala-rama. 

Halayudha Bhaa Abhidhana, 

Hansa-vabana = Bralima 57. 

Hanushas = Rakshasas. 

Hara-$ekhara= Ganga. 

Hari-chandana Pancha-vriksha 

Harita, 313. 

Harita Chyavana, 75. 

Hari-varsha Dwipa, Jambu-d. 

Haryaswa Galava, (three; 313. 

Harsha Vikramaditya Kali- 

dasa, Nava-ratna. 
Hastina-pura Bala-rama, Stiw 


Hatake^wara Patala. 
Havishmats Angiras. 
Haya-griva, 36. 
Hayas, 162. 
Haya-^iras Aurva. 
Hay a- vabana Re vanta. 
Hema Chandra Abhidhana. 
Eemadri Bhagavata Parana, 


Hema-mala Yama. 
Heramba= Gawesa. 
Htma-pawc?ara Loka-palas. 
Hira^-maya Dwipa, Jambu-d 
Hira^ya-ka^ipu, 37, $isu-pala. 
Hiraw-yaksha, 37. 
HiraTiyanabba, 313. 
Hladim Sapta-sindhava. 
Hraswaroma, 313. 
Hn'dilca, 70, /S'ata-dhanvan. 
Huta-bhu j = Agni. 

Iddumati Aja. 



= Bnhaspati. 
Ikshu Dwipa. 
Ikshwakus Tryanwa. 
II a Su-dyumna. 
Ilavila, 313. 
Ila-vnta Dwipa, Gandha-ma- 

dana, Jambu-dwipa. 
Ilusha Kavasha. 
Indira = LakshmL 
Indra 64, 74, 75, Dur-vasas, 

Twashtfn, Krauncha. 
Indra- dwipa Bharata - varsha. 
Indra-pramati Maweftikeya, 
Indra-prastha, 186. 
Indrawi Matns. 
Indrasena ( sena) Nala. 
Indre j y a = Brihaspati. 
Indu- j a = NarmadS. 
Ira- j a = Kama, 

Iravat Airavata, Arjuna, Ul-upl. 
Iravati Pn'thi, Sap ta- siiul ha va. 

= Kuvera. 
Ish^ipachas= Rakshasaa. 
Is wara Krishna Sankhy a-kari- 


Jagad-dhat7*t = Devi, 
Jagad-gami = De vi. 
Jagad- garni = Manasa. 
Jagad-isa Hasyarwava. 
Jagan-mata = BevL 
Jagan-natha, 62, 
Jagan-nStha Tarkiilankara Vi- 

vada Bhangamava. 
Jahanaka = Maha-pralaya. 
Jahnu, 69. 
Jala Dwipa. 
Jaladhi-ja= LakshmL 
Jala-kantara = Vay u. 
Jala-mxlrtti = ^iva. 
Jala-pa tiVaruna, 338. 
Jala-rtipa = Makara. 
Jambha-bhcdin Jambha, 
Jambhala-datta Vetala Pancha- 


Jamb-u-nadi Sapta-sindhava. 
Janaka Taj nawalkya. 
Janaka-pura = Mithila. 
Jara Jara-saudha. 
Jaras amba. 
Jarasandha-jit = Bhima. 
Jarat-karu Astika. 
Jaritari Jarita. 
Jata Haihaya. 
Ja^a- dhara = Si va. 
Jata-vedas = Agni. 
Jaya, 313. 

Jaya-deva Prasanna-Raghava, 
Jaya-dhwaja Talajangha. 
Jaya Yogim. 
Jaya=Yudhi-sli^hira, 187. 
Jayad-bala = Saha-deva, 1 87. 
Jay am = Jayanti. 
Jay anta= Bhima, 187. 
Jayanti ^Sukra, 
Jayasena, 69. 
Jaya-sena=Nakula, 187, 
Jhaj hodari = Satya- vati. 
Jhashanka = Aniruddha. 
Jihma-yodhin = Bhima. 
Jinitita, 69. 
Jishwu= Indra, 
Jiva Bn'haspati. 
Jnana-kanc?a Veda 345. 
Jwala-mukhi Pi^ha-sthana, 
Jyamagha, 69. 
Jyotir-lingam Lingam, 
Jyotir tswara Dhiirta-samaga 

Kabandha Rahu. 
Kachchhapa Nidhi 
Kadraveya Kadru. 
Kadvat Ka. 
Kaka-dhwaja = Aurva. 
Kakudmati Pradyumna 
Kala=>Siva, Bhairava, Viradha 

Vwwa-devas, Yama. 
Kalangani = Satya^vatL 
Kalanjara = 5iva. 



Kalanknra = Kan ja. 
Kalas Pitn's. 
Kalasi-suta = Agastya. 
Kala-sutra Naraka. 
Kala-yavana -167, Syala. 
Kali Nala. 
Kallchi Yama. 
Kali-ghai PiZha-sthana. 
Kali- karaka Narada. 
Kalinda Kalindi, Yamuna. 
Kalmdl-karshana = Bala-rama. 
Kalinga Anu, Dirgha- tamas. 
Kalpa-vriksha Pancha-vn'ksha. 
Kalyiwa Kalanas. 
Kama Vach, Viswa-devas. 
Kama-charm = Gam<a. 
Kama-dull = Kama-dhenu, 
Kama-kala ) 
Kama-patni \ =EatL 
Kama-priya ' 
Kamakhya = Devi, Kalika Pu- 

Kamala = LakshmL 
Kamalakara Nirnaya - sindhu. 
Kamala-y oni = Brahma. 
Kamana = Kama. 
Kamarupa Tirtha Kalika Pu- 

Kama-rupin VidyS/- dhara. 
Kama-sutras Vatsyayana. 
Kamayus = Garucfa. 
Kam-pala = Bala-rama. 
Kamy Priya-vrata 
. Kawrfa Veda 348. 
Kandasara Indra. 

Kanlna = Kam-a, al so = Vy asa. 

Kan j ana = Kama. 

Kanka = Yudhi* sh^hira, 187. 

Ka^taka = Makara. 

tfatapatha - brah- 

Kapala Bhairava. 
Kapala-malin = iva. 
Kapalini = Devt 
Kapila Loka-palas. 
Kapi-prabhu ) 
Kapi-ratha J = 
Kapweya Kapila. 
Kapi-vaktra = Narada. 
Karambhad = Pushan. 
Karambhi, 69. 

Karburas =Eakshasas. 
Kardama Angiras, Daksha 77. 
Karenu-mati Nakula. 
Kari-mukha= Ganesa. 
Karma-kawc?a ^Veda 345. 
Karma-sakshi = Siirya. 
Karna-moti = Devi. 
Karwa-parva, 191. 
KarniUgrasen a, 
Karnikachala - Meru. 
Karpura-manjari Raja ^ekhara 
Karptira-tilaka Yogiiii. 
Karsh/ii = Kama. 
Karttikeya Kraun cha. 
Karu = Vi^wa-karma. 
Kartir alivahana. 
Kanisha Danta-vakra, Manu, 
Kasa, 69. 
Ka^erumat Bharata - varsha, 

l Amba. 

Kasyapa Gandharva. 
Katyayani=Devi, Yajnawalkya, 
Kaumari Karttikeya. 
Kanmudika Yogini. 
Kaunapas = Rakshakas. 
Kausalya Dasaratha. 
Kaushitaki ) Agastya, LopSmud- 
Kausltaki J ra. 
KausiklrrDevi, Satya-vatl. 
Kauftlya Chanakya. 
Kauveri, 174. 
Kavi - karwa - pura Chaitanya, 

Kavi=5ukra, Swadha. 








Ke^a-Varuna 338. 

Kesai I Hanumat. 

Kesini Sagara, Asamanjas. 

Ketu-malaDwipa, Jambu-dwi- 


Ketu-mati Kaikasi. 
Ketumat, 69. 
Khage$wara= Garucfcu 
Khanc?a Veda 346. 
Khaiidapani, 70. 
Kha?iofa-para5U = Fara^u i ama, 
KhaWava Agni. 
Kha-pura = Saubha. 
Kharwaa = Valakhilyas. 
Kh asatma j as Khasas. 
Khechara Vidya-dhara. 
Khetaka Bala-rama 41. 
Khinkira Kha^wanga. 
Khyati Ijakshml 
Kilala-pas = Riikshasas. 
Kim-puruaha-dwipa Dwipa, 

Kinkira = Kama. 
Kin-nara-dwlpa Dwipa. 
Kirati = De vi = Gaiiga. 
Kirltin = Viah?tu. 
Kirtirrian Uttana-pS.da. 
Kitava Ultlka. 

KonkanS. Renuka. 
Kratha, 69. 
Kratu Viswa-devas. 
Kratu-dwishas = Daityas, 
Kraunclxa-dwlpa Bwipa. 
Kravyad Agni, Rakshasas. 
Knmwa, 313. 
Krishna s= D raupadl. 
Kn'sliTia-kavi Kan^a-badha. 
Kri'shna-misra Prabodha Chan- 

Kn'ta, 313. 
Krtta-dhwaja Ke*i -dh waja. 

Krttanta = Yam a, 
Kn'taratha, 313. 
Kriti, 313. 
Kn'tirata, 313. 
Kntti-vasas = 

Krodha Bhairava, Daksha 77 

Krosh^ri Angada. 

Krosh^u, 69. 

Krumu Sapta-sindhava. 



Kshama Pulaha. 

Kshapa^as = Rakshasas. 

Kshattra-vn'ddhi Ay us, 69. 

Kshema-dhanwan, 313. 

Kshemaka, 70. 

Kshemaii, 313. 

Kshlra Dwipa. 


Kshiti = Maha-pralaya. 

Kubh a Sapta-sindhava. 

Kubja, 1 66. 

Kurfmala Naraka. 

Ku-ja = I)evT. 


Kumara =: Karttikeya. 

Kumaraka D wlpa, 

Kumara-su = Ganga. 

Kumbha-sambhava= Agastya, 

Kumbhinaj?i Lava?? a. 

Kumuda Dig-gaja, Loka-pala, 

Kumuda-pati= Soma. 

Kunda NidhL 

Kum, 313. 

Kunjara = Agastya. 

Kun j ar&rati 5arabha. 

Kunti, 69. 

Ku-pati Bhairava. 

Kum Viswa- dc vas, 

Kuru-vatsa, 69, 

Ku^a-dhwaja Vedavatt. 

Ku^amba GadhL 
Ku^a-nabha Ghn'tachl, Kanya- 

kubja, Vaym 
Kua-rava Maitreya. 



Kusika, 74 


Ku-tanu = Kuvera, 
Kuthumi Dharma-sastras. 
Kuvalayaswa, 69. 

Lagmi Dharma-sastra. 
Lakhima-devi Vivada Chandra. 
Lakshmawa (author) arada- 


Lakshmi-pati = Vislmu. 
Lalita-vistara Gathas. 
Lamba-ka ma = Ga^esa. 
Lambodara = Gawesa, 
Lanka-dahl= Hanumat. 
Lavana Dwipa. 
Likhita Dharma-sastra, 5an- 


Linga -Bhrigu, 
Lochana Viswa-devas. 
Lohita =* Mart gala. 
Loka-chakshuh = Stirya. 
Lokakshi Dharma-sastra, 
Loka-mata Lakshmi. 
Lola= Lakshmi. 
Lopa-mtidra Agastya. 

Madambara Loka-palas. 
Madhava Jaiminiya. 
Madhavacharya Sarva-dawana- 

Madhavl Galava. 
^ladhu Lavawa. 
Madhu Mathura, 69. 
Madh"a-dipa= Kama. 
Madhu-priya = Bala-rama. 
Madhu-sudana Kaitfabha. 
Madhu-vana Matliui-a. 
Madhyan.dina-5ak h a ^atapatha- 


Madira KadambarL 
Madravas Vwwa-devas. 
Magha-bhava = Sukra. 
Maha-bhadra Mauasa. 
Maha Bhairava. 

Maha-chanda Yama, 
Mahadhnti, 313. 
Mahamari = Devi. 
Maha-maya = Devi. 
M aha- may a Patala. 
Maha-naraka Naraka. 
Mahandeva $iva 296. 
Maha-padma Loka-palas, Nid- 

Maha-padma Nanda Chandra* 


Maha-prasthanika Parva, 192. 
Maharajika Ga^ a. 
Maha-raurava Naraku. 
Maharoman, 313. 
Mahasuii = Devi. 
Mahaswat, 313. 
Mahatala Patala. 
Mah a-vichi Naraka. 
Maha-virya= Sanjna. 
Maha- vlrya = Sury a 3 1 3. 

= Devi. 

Maheswarl- Matn's. 
Mahisha-mardini = Devi, 
Mahishmati Rava?ia. 
Mahi-suta = Mangala. 
Maitra -varu%i = Agastya. 
Makara Nidhi. 
Makara-ketu = Kama. 
Malaya-gandhini Yogini. 
Malini Visravas. 
Malla-naga= Vatsyayana. 
Mamata Br^haspati. 
Mamata Dlrgha-tamas. 
Mamateya = Dirgha-tamas. 
Mamma^a Bhatta Kavya Pra- 


Mana = Agastya. 
Manasas Pitns. 
Manasyu, 69. 
Manavas Manu-sannita. 

Mandakinl Ganga. 
Manda-pala Jarita. 
Mandara, 36. 
Mandara Pancha-rnksLa, 



MawcfevI, 47. 
Mam-bhltti tfesha. 
Mani-chaka Chandra-kanta. 
Mani-dwipa $esha. 
Mam-griva = Kuvera. 
Mam-man dapa $esha. 
Mam-pura Arjuna 23, Babhru- 


Mano-ja= Kfima. 
Manu Savarrci Chhaya. 
Mara = Kama. 
Marichi Agnishwattas. 
Mar j anl Yogim. 
MarkancZeya Arigiras. 
Marttancfet Aditi. 
Maru (two), 313. 
Marud-vrwlhii Sapta-sindhava. 
Maruta Maruts, 
Maruti Han u mat. 
Marut-putra Hanumat. 
Maruts Diti. 
Marutwan Indra. 
Matali Yayati. 
MS tali Yogim. 
Matsya Uparichara, 
Matsy odari = Satya-vati. 

Maudgalya Mudgala* 
Mauryas Asoka, Chandra-gup- 


Mausala-parva, 191. 
Maya Patala. 
Maya, 189. 
Miiya-suta = Kfima, 
May! = Kama. 
May u-raj a K u vera. 
Mayus= Kin-naras. 
Medas Kaitfabha. 
M edh iltithi Asanga, 
Medhavin, 70. a = Indra. 
Mebatim - Sapta-sindhava. 
Mekala, ) ., . , 

Mekala-kanya, | Mekala ' 
Mena Aparna. 
Mem jKishabha. 
MInakshJ Kuvera. 
Mlnaratha, 313* 

Misraka-vana *- Swarga. 

Mitakshara Su-bodhinL 

Mitra Aditya, Daksha 78, Va- 


Mitra-miffra Vira Mitrodaya. 
Mithila Nimi. 
Mitrasaha Kalinasha-pada, 

Mn'du, 70. 
Mnganka = Soma. 
Mr^ga- l siras SandhyS, Yajna. 
Mnka^dfa Maikawrfeya. 
Mn'ttikavat! Bhoja. 
Mrityun jaya = <Siva. 
Muhira = Kama. 
Mukimd a Vishnu Nidhi. 
Mulakn, 313. 


tlS, 299. 
Muni, 1 06. 

Mura Chandra-gupta. 
Murari Mi^ra, ) Anargha Rag* 
Murari Nazfaka, j hava. 
Murmura -= Kama. 
Muru, 163, 167, 174. 
Musala, 41. 
Musali = Bala-rama. 

NabhSga, 313. 

Nabhaga Manu. 

Nabhas, 3x3. 

Nabhas-chara = VidyS-dliara, 

Nabhi jReshabha. 

Nabhi-ja = Brahma, 58. 

Nadi-deha Nandi. 

Nadi-j a - Bhishma. 

Naga-dwipa BhSrata-varsha^ 


Naga-ku?i^ala, 299. 
Nftga-malla I.oka-pala. 
N&gantaka Garurfa. 
Naga-p^sa Varuna. 
Nagas Gandhai-vas, Janame- 




Nagnajit, 162. 

Naigama Nirukta 

Naighanuka Niru k ta. 

Nakshatra-nStha = Soma. 

Nakshatras Daksha 77, 

Naktancharas = Rakshasas. 

Nala, 313. 

Nalini Sapta-sindhava. 

Nanda Nidhi. 

Nanda Pancftta Dattaka Ml- 
mansa, Vaijayanti. 

Nandaka Vishnu, 361. 

Nandana Indra 127, Kar/za. 

Nandini Dillpa, Vasishtfha. 

Nandivardhana, 313. 

Narada Utathya. 

Naradiya Dharma-^astra Na- 

Nara-Narayawa Badari, T)am- 

N arantaka Ravana. 

Nara-raj a Kuvera. 

Nava-ratha, 69. 

NarSyarwi, 78. 

Nari-kavacha, 313. 

Narishyanta Manu 

Nasaty as - Aswins. 

Navarclii = Mangala. 

Nayaki Yogini. 

Netra-yoni = Indra. 

Nichakrn, 70. 

Nidhana Nidhi. 

Nidhi, 174. 

Nighna Prasena. 

Mkara Nidhi. 

Nikasha Pi^itasan as. 


Nikumbha -Bhanumati, 313. 

Nilakan^ha Bhatta Vyavahara 


Nila-vastra= Bala-rama. 

Nimi Janaka, Ksheniaka. 

Nimisha Nimi. 

Niramitra, 70, Kshemaka, Na- 

Nir-jara Amn'ta. 

Nir-nti Loka-pala. 

Nir-vrtti, 69. 
NiakaraSoina. * 
Nisa^ha Bala-rania, 41 
Nishada Prithl. 
Nishadha (King) 313. 
Nwumbha Devi. 
Nitala Patala. 
Nlti-ghosha Brihaspati. 
Niti-sataka Bhartri-harl 
Nitya = Manasa. 
Nitya-yauvani DraupadL 
Nr* -chakshas Rakshakas. 
N^'zchakshush, 70. 
Nriga Dhrtshta-ketu, Maim 
Nrz-jagdhas - Rakshakas. 
Nnpanjaya, 70 
Nyaksha Parasu-rama . 
NySya-bhasha Vatsyayana. 

Ogha, 163. 
Oshadhi-pati = Soma. 

Padma Nidhi. 
Padma-lanchhana= Devi 
Padma-nabha = Vish?iu. 
Padma" vati = Manasa. 
Pahnava^ Pahlava. 
Paila Indra-pramati. 
Pai^hlnasi Dharma-^astra. 
Pa j ra Kak shivat. 
Pa j riy a Kakshivat. 
Paladas = Rakshakas. 
Palalas= Rakshakas. 
Palankash as = Rale shak as. 
Piinchali = DraupadL 
Panchami T) raupadi 
Pancha-vin^a Pranrfha Brah- 


Panc^ya, 162. 
Pankti-gr!va = 
Pannaga-nasaiia= Garurfa. 
Pansula Kha^vanga. 
Panthana Naraka. 
Parama Tri-mtirti. 
Paraxoesh^a = Brahma. 


Parangada Ardha-narl. 

Paran-ja Indra 127. 

Pai avam Karttikey a. 

Paravrit, 69. 

Parij ataka Pancha-vnksha. 

Paripatra Kula-parvatas, 3 1 3. 

Pariplava, 70. 

Paiivlta, 57. 

Pariy at ra Kul a- parvatas. 

Paraasa Bho j a. 

Parshati = 1 )raupadi. 


Paruslwi Sapta-sindhava. 

Parushya Indra 127. 

Parvan Rahu. 

Pasa $iva 299. 

PiLja-bhrit = Varuraa, 


Pasupata Arjuna 22. 

Patala, 37. 
Paulasty a = Kuvera. 
Pauloma Kalaka. 
Pauloml ~ Indrani 
Pau7ic?raka, 168. 
Pavaka Agni. 
Pavamaua Agni. 
Pavamanya Veda 351, 
Pavana-vyadhi Uddhava. 
Pavam Sapta-sindhava. 
Phala = Bala-rama. 
Phenapas Pitn's. 
Phena- vahin = Vtij ra. 
Pij a vana Paij av ana. 
Pinaka iva. 
Pingala Loka-]>ala. 
Pisuna = Narada, 
Pltabdhi = Agastya. 
Pltha 162. 

Pi^ha-sthanaKaHka Purana. 
Pitn'-pati = Yama. 
Ply iisha as Amn'ta. 
Piyadasi = Asoka, 
Plakslia-dwlpa Dwlpa. 
Plakshaga Sapta-sindhava, 
Playoga Asanga. 


Prabha = Alaka. 
Prabhakara Soma 302. 
Prabhanu Satya-bhama. 
Prabhasa Vasu. 
Prachetas Vanma. 
Prachinabarhis Prachetas, Sa- 


Piachinvat- 69. 
Prachyas Chaudra-gupta. 
Praghasas = Rakshakas. 
Prag-jy otisha A diti. 
Praharshawa=: Budha. 
Prahlada Nivata-kavacha. 
Pran^u Manu. 
Prasena Jamba vat. 
Prasenajit Jamad-agni, 313. 
Prasna Veda 348. 
Prasusruta, 313. 
Prasuti Swadha, Swaha. 
Pratibandhaka, 313. 
Pratibhc^nu Satya-bhama. 
Pratikshattra, 70. 
Prati-margaka = Saubha, 
Pratipa ^antanu. 
Prati-shihana Puru-ravas. 
Prati-vindhya, 96, 188. 
Pratytisha Vasu, Viswa-karma, 
Pravira, 69. 
Preta-raja = Yama 
Prishadaswa, 313. 
P^'thu- laksha Champa. 
Pnthu-^ravas, 69. 
Priti-jusha= Usha. 
Priya-madhu = Bala-rama, 
Priyam-vada = Vidya-dhara, 
Priya-vrata Daksha 76, Dhru- 


Pulaha Kardama. 
Pulaka= Gandharva. 
Palakauga Varuwa 338. 
Pulastya Dhannaa-sastra, 
Puloma 74, Kalaka. 
Puloman74, Indra 126. 
PundJarika Dig-gaja, 

las, 313. 

Puwcfra Dirgha-tamas. 
Puwya- j anas Ivusa-sthalt 



Punya- janas = Yakshas. 
Pura-jyotis AgnL 
Purandara Indra. 
Puruliotra, 69. 
Pumkutsa, 106, 313. 
Purumilha Syavaswa. 
Puru-ravas Yiswa-devas 
Purva-ganga = Narmada. 
Pushan Aswins. 
Pushan, 77. 
Pushkara, 57. 
Pushkara- dwipa D wipa. 
Pushkara-srajau = Aswins. 
Pushkara- Yartwa, 337. 
Pushpa- danta Dig-gaj a, Katy- 

ayana, Loka-pala. 
Pushpa-dhanus = Kama. 
Pushpa-giri Vanma, 338. 
Pushpa-ketana = Kama. 
Pushpa-mitra Yavanas. 
Pushpa-^ara = Kama. 
Pushpotka^a Kutsa, Vwravas. 
Pushya, 313. 

Put Manda-pala, Pn'thi. 
Pflti-mrtttika Naraka. 
Put-kari Bhogavatl. 
Put-karl Saraswatt 

Kaga-vrinta = Kama. 
Raghunandana Bha^acharya. 

Daya Tatwa, Yyavahara Tat- 


Raghu-pati Raghu. 
Raivata Kusa-sthalL 
Raja Indra 126. 
Raj a-ra j a = Kurera, 
Raj arshis Yay ati. 
Rajas Purawa 246. 
Raja-^ekhara- Bala Ramayawa 

Prachanda Pa/ic?ava. 
Raja-stlya, 186. 
Raj atadri = Kailasa. 
Rajata-dyuti = Haimmat. 
Raji Ayus. 
Raj o -guna Tri -mtirti. 
Raka Ybravas. 

= Kama, 

Rakshaka Asura. 

Rakshasendra = Kuvera. 


Rakta-paksha = Ganufa 

Rakta-pas = Rakshasas. 

Rakta-'vlja Devi 87. 



Rama-deva Yidvan-Moda. 

Rambha Ayus. 

Ramy aka D wipa, Jambu- cl wi- 


Rantinara, 69. 
Rasa Sapta-sindhava. 
Rasatala Patala. 
Rasayana = Garu^a. 
Rasraipas PitHs. 
Rata-naricha = Kama. 
Rathautara-kalpa Brahma Vai- 


Rathastha Sapta-sindhava. 
Rathaviti ^yava^wa. 
Ratha-yatra Jagan-natha. 
Rathl-tara Angi ras. 
Ratnakara Vivada Ta?ic?ava. 
Ratna-sanu= Meru. 
Ratna-varslmka Pushpaka. 
Ratri-charas = Rakshasas. 
Raudraswa 69, Ghn'tachi, 
Rauhineya = Budha. 
Raurava Naraka. 
Ravawa VedavatL 
Ravawa-hrada Manasa, 
Ravani Rava^a. 
Ravi-nandana = Su-gilva. 
Keva, ) _ . . 
Revata, ( Ralvata " 
Revii Kama, Rati, Narraadfi. 

= Indra. 
R&'bhus A^wins, Twash^n". 
JSzcha, 70, 
jRichas Angiraa, Viddha->Sa 




Hi ju-kaya = Karttikeya. 
Ei} isha Naraka. 
JBtks Veda 346, 
J&nantaka= Mangala. 
jfo'ksha 69, 70, Kula-parvatas, 

Samvarawa, jSk'shi. 
jfota, 313. 
Jfo'tadhwaja, 69. 
Jftteyu 69. 
jffitujit, 313. 
Rochana- Viswa-devas. 
Rodhana = Budha. 
Rohifti Budha. 
Rohit, 57. 
Rohitaswa Agni, Hari$-chan- 

dra, 313. 
Ruchaka, 69, 
Ruchi Akuti, Yajna. 
Rudra Bhairava, Daksha. 
Rudra Bha^a Srtngara Tilaka. 
Rudra-deva Yayati-charitra. 

Rula-parvatas, Samvarana, Bi&bi. 

Rukmakavacha, 69. 

RukmiTii Lakshml. 

Rmmwvat Jamad-agni,Renuka. 



Rupa Vidagdha Madhava. 


Ruruka, 313. 

Rushadgu, 69. 

Sabha-parva, 191. 
5achi Kutsa. 
Sada-dana Loka-pala. 
Sadhya Siidhyas. 
Sahasra-kira?ia = Siirya, 
Sahasraksha Indra. 
Sahasra-nama Vishnu 361. 
Saliasranlka Udayana. 
Sahishwu Pulaha. 
Saindhavas Jayad-ratha, 
a = Saty aki 

ainyas Garga. 
Sairibha = Swarga. 
Sairindhri = Draupadi. 
5aka-d wipa D wipa, 
>^akala Madra. 
/Sakam-bhari = Devi. 
S'akari = /Salivahana. 
5akhala-5akha Pratuakhya 
>Sakini Lanka. 
akra-dhanus Indra 127. 
akra-dhwajotthana Indra 127 
^akta Kalika Purawa. 
^akti-dhara = Karttikeya. 
aktri Parasara. 
iSakuni Dur-yodhana, 69, i8& 
^akyas Chandra-gupta. 
alankayana = Nandi. 
Salatura PawinL 
jSali-,suka Maurya. 
jSalmala-dwipa Dwipa. 
$almali Naraka. 
^almalin = Garucfa. 
5alya-paTva, 191. 
amani-shadas Rakshasas. 
Samang Ashiavakra, 
^amantaka = Kama. 
Samanta-panchaka Parasu- 

Sama Raja Dlkshita Dhurta- 

nartaka, *?rl Dama Charita. 
5ambha Vajra. 
Sambhiita, 313. 
^ambhu Vedavatl 
/Sami-garbha S&im. 
Samin, 70. 
Samnati Kratu. 
Sampratapana Naraka, 
Samudra-chuluka = Agastva. 
Samudraru= Setu-bandha. 
Samudraru= Timin, 
Samvara^a, 69. 
Samvarawa Kuru. 
Samyarta Dharma-sastra, Ma- 
rutta, Avatara, 36. 



Samvarttaka Aurva, Bala-ra- 


Samyati, 69. 
Sanaka Loka. 
Sananda Loka. 
Sanat Brahma. 
Sanat-kumara Loka. 
Sandhy a-balas = Rakshasaa. 
Sandhya Kalika Purana. 
Sandhya, ) 
Sandhyansa, ] Yuga ' 
Sandipani, 166 Panchajana. 
San gata Maurya. 
Sauliara Bhairava. 
Sanhara = Maha-pi alaya. 
Sanhata Naraka. 
Sanhataswa, 313. 
ani Ganesa, Jatfayu. 
ani-prasu = Chhaya. 
Sanjaya, 313. 
Sanjivana Naraka. 
/Sankara Dikshita Pradyumna- 


Sankasy a Ku^a- dhwa j a. 
( Dharma-^astra. 
a ' ( Vishnu, 361, Nidhi. 
Sankhanabha, 313. 
Sankhayana Brahmawa Brah- 

Sankshepa ^ankara-vijaya 

/S'ankara V. 
Sanku Nava-ratna. 
Sannati, 69, 
Sansara-guru = Kama. 
jSanta JRt'ghy a -sn'nga. 
Santana Pancha-vnksha. 
iSantanava = Bhishma. 
Santati, 69. 
>Santi-parva, 191, 
Sapta- jihva Agni 
Saptarchi =ani. 
jS'ara-bhu = Karttikeya, 
<Sarada = Saras wati 
5aradwata = Kri'pa. 
Saras wati Kavasha. 
Saras wati (river) Braliraavartta. 
-S'ara-vana Nandi^a . 
Sarayu, Saryu Sapta-sindhava, 


Sarisnk t a Jari ta. 
arkarti-bhumi Patala. 
5arngi-deva Sanglta-ratnakara 
arngika Jarita. 
Sarngin, ) 

Saragi-pam, \ = v "**- 
Sarojin rr Brahma. 
Sarparati = Garuc?a. 
Sarpa-sattrin= Janame jaya. 
Sarpis Dwipa. 
Sarvabhauma, 69. 
Sarva-bhauma Dig-gaja, Loka 


Sarvaga Bhima. 
Sarvakama, 313. 
Sarva-kama Jffttu-paroa. 
Sarva-mangala = Devi. 
Sarva-medha Vi^wa-karma 
^arva^ii = Devi. 
Sarvatma Tri-miirti. 
Sarvatraga Bhima. 
Sarva-varman Ka-tantra. 
$aryata Chyavaiia. 
/S'aryati Haihaya. 

, 69. 

Sasa-dharman Maurya. 
Sasartu Sapta-sindhava. 
i Syava^wa. 


= Vy asa. 

/Satahrada Viradha. 
^ata-kratu = Indra. 
5atanaixda Gotama. 
^atanika, 96. 
^atanzka (two), 70, 188. 
^ata-parwa ^ukra. 
^atarudriya Siva,. 
Satata-ga = Vaya. 

Sati Angiras, Daksha* 


Satra-jit, ) Jambavat, Pra- 

SattrSjita, J sena, 167. 

5atru-ghna Madhu. 

^atmjit, 69. 

Sattwa Purana 



Satwa-giwa Tri -nrfirti . 
Satwa-Purana Tri-murti. 
Satwata, 70. 

Satya-dhn'ti Kn'pa, 313. 
Satyadhn'ti Dhnshta-ketu. 
Satyadhwaja, 313. 
Satyaketu, 69. 
Satya Viswa devaa. 
Satyaratha, 313. 
Satyarathi, 313. 
Saubala /Sakuni 
Saublia, 162. 

Saubhadra = Abhimanyn. 
Saudasa = Kalmasha-pada. 
aunaka Aswalayana, Bn'had- 

devata, Gr&tsa-mada, Prati- 


Saumanasa Loka-pala. 
Saumya Bharata-varsha, Bud- 

ha, Dvvipa. 
Saumyas Pita's. 
<Saunakiya Chaturadhyayika 

Saunanda Bala-rama, 41, Mu- 


Sauptika-parva, 191. 
Saura-Pura?ia Brahma Ptirawa. 
Sauti Naimisha. 
Sauviras Jayad-i atha, 
jSavala - ICama-dhenu. 
Savarna Meru. 
Savaraa Saranyu. 
<S'ayani Chandra ekhara, Ma- 


Bokhara D hurta- sam a,gama. 
Sena pati=Karttikeya. 
Setu-kavya Setu-baiidha, 
^cvadhi Nidhi. 
ShacJ-angas = Vedangaa. 
Shai-pura Nikximbha. 
Shodasan^u = iS'xikra. 
Siddhas Amn'ta. 
Siddha-^ena = Kar ttikeya. 

Sighra, 313. 

/Sikha/i^ini Sthutia. 

^iua Garga. 

Sindhu-dwlpa, 313. 

Sindhu Sapta-smdhavu, 

Sindhu sauvlras Jayad-ratha. 


Siuha-valnm = Devi. 

Sinhika Ketu, Ralm. 

>9lma-pada Yaina. 

Sita=Lakshmi, VedavatL 

*9ita-marichi~ Soma. 

Sita (river) Sapta-sindhava, 

Sitanana Garuc^a. 

Sitansu = Soma. 

Sifeyus, 69. 

Sitoda Manasa. 

Siva Ardha-nari, Arjuiia, BLr- 

5iva-gharma-ja = Mangala. 

^iva-^arman Prahlada, 

^iva-5ekhara = Soma. 


Smarta Bhatf ^acharya Vyava- 

hara Tatwa. 

Smartava ^Sankaracharya. 
Smr^'ti Angiras, Dharma-^astra, 
Snana-yatra Jagan-natha. 
Soma B?'zhaspati, Vach, Vasu, 

Veda 347. 
Soma-deva Bha^a Katha-sarit- 


Somapas Pitns , N armada. 
Soma-sarmaa Manrya, Prah- 


Somodbhava = Narmada. 
Sonita-pura Aniruddha. 
5raddha An gir as. 
^raddha-deva = Yama. 
Srashiri-Urahma, 59. 
<Srfivasti Lava. 
^ravasta, 313. 

u- -Satya-bhama. 

/ Basa Kumara Cha- 

Sn Harsha Deva aga-nandaua, 




Sn Harsha Naishadha Charita. 

Srl-kantha = Bhava-blm ti. 

Sri KnshnaTarkalankara Day a 

Krama Sangraha. 
ri-nandana Kama. 
rmgara-yoni = Kama. 
Sn Parvata=ri aila. 
Sri Sihlanatfanti-sataka. 
ruta (two), 313. 
$ruta-deva Sfoupala. 
ruta-karman, 96, 188. 
tfruta-kirtti, 96, 188 Kusa-dhwa- 


ruta-soma, 96, 188* 
Srutayus, 313. 
Stamba-mitra Jarita. 

Sthapatya-veda Viswa-karmiL 
Stri Parva, 191. 
Su-bala Gaadhari, akuni. 
Su-bandhu Gaupayana. 
ubhachara Yogini. 
^ubha-danti Loka-palas. 
Su-bhadra Aairuddha. 
^ubliangi= Rati. 
Subh anu Satya-bhama. 
Subhasa, 313. 
Subhaawaras Pitns. 
Su-bhatfa Dutangada. 

Su-dakshina Dilipa. 
Su-darsana, 162, 313. 
Sudasa, 313. 
Suddhodana Kapila. 
Su-deslma Dirgha-tamas. 
Sudha-hara= Garuc?a. 
Su-dhanwanJKibhus, 313. 
Sudha-pa^ti = DhaiiwantarL 
Sudhavats Pitrts. 
udras Abhlra. 
Sudyujocma, 69. 
Suhma Dirgha-tamas. 
Suhotra (two), 69. 
Su-liotra Saha-deva. 
Su-jata Haihaya., 

Sti-kalas Pitris. 
Su-kanya Chyavana, 
Su-kalins Pitn's. 
Sukha Varuna 338. 
Suketu, 69, 313. 

5ukra Kaclia. 

Sukta Veda 346. 

ukti-mati, 71. 

5uktimat ^Kula-parvatas. 

Sukumara, 69. 

Su-lakshana Yogini. 

Sumad-atmaja = Apsaras. 

^unaka Gritsa-mada. 

Su-mali ^Kaikast 

Su- mana Dama. 

Sumanas, 313. 

Su-mantu Dharma-sastra. 

Su-mantu ^Kabandha. 

Su-mati Indra-dy umna. 

Su-mati Sagara. 

/Sumbha Devi, 87. 

Su-mitra ^Da^a-ratha. 

/Suua-hotra Gn'tsa-mada. 


Su-nanda Yogim. 

Sunaya, 313. 

Sundara-ka?w?a Ramayana. 

Sundara Mi^ra Abhirama-man-i 

Sunitha, 69. 

Su-nitha = Sis u-pala. 

Sunlti Dliruva. 

^unga Pushpa-mitra. 

Sunnta ^Dhruva. 

Su-parna = Garurfa. 

Supawwa, 313. 

Suparswa Vaihhraja. 

Su-pratika Digdgaja, Loka- 

^ura, 70. 
ura Kuntl. 
Sura ^Dwipa. 

Surabhi Kama-dhenu. 
Surablriras AbMra. 
Suradhipa = Indra. 
Suran gaiia = Apsaraa, 
-Suras Abblra. 



Su-rasa Naga, Yatus. 
urasenas- 162, KuntL 
Suratha, 69. 
Surendra-jit = Garuda. 
Suruchi -Dhruva. 
Surya Pushan. 
Surya- j a - Yamuna. 
Susandhi, 313. 
Susarman Arjuna 23. 
Sushena Jamad-agui, Re?m- 


uslwa Kutsa. 
Su-slla Yama. 
Sushoma Sapta-sindhava 
Susruta, 313. 

Su-swadhas -Pitns. 
Sutala Patala. 
Su-tapas Devakl. 
jSutuclri Sap ta-sindhava 
Suvamaroma, 313. 
Suvarna-kaya = Garuda. 
Suvibhu, 69. 
Su-ya^as Maurya. 
Su-yodhana Dur-yodhana. 
Swadha Angiras, Pitris. 
Swaha Agni. 
Swahi, 69. 

Swanaya Kakshivat 
^Swa-phalka Akrura, Gan- 


S war-bhanu Saty a-t&ama. 
Swarga Indra. 
S warga-pati = ludra. 
Swargarohana-parva, 192. 
S\var-vaidyau = As wins. 
jSSvaswa Bhairava. 
Swati Surya. 
Swayamblioja, 70. 
Sweta-rohita = Garurfa. 
^weta-vfihana = Arjuna, 
$weta-vaji:= Soma. 
Sweti Sapta-siudhava, 

^yamanga = Budha. 

Syamantaka Vishnu 361. 
yeni Sampati. 

Taittiriya Pratwakhya. 

Takshaka Astika. 

Takshaka = Viswa-karma. 

Taksha-5ila Janamejaya. 

Tala Patala. 

Tala Patala. 

Tala-dhwaj a = Bala-rama. 

Tala j anghas Baku. 

Talatala Patala. 

Tarn as, 69, 77, 246. 

Tamas-Pura?ia Tri-murtL 

Tamisra Naraka. 

Tamo-guwa Ti i-inurti. 

Tamr a- clmd a Bhairava. 

Tamra-karni Loka-palas 

Tamra-varwa Bharata-varsha, 

Tandava--iva, Nandi. 

Tan<fava-talika Nandi. 

Tansu, 69. 

Tapana Naraka. 

Tapati Chhaya, Kuru. 

Tara Bali. 

Tara Bali, Bnhaspati, Budha 


Taraka- jit Karttikeya, 

Taraka-maya Bnhaspati. 

Taranta yavaswa. 

Taraswin= Garuc^a. 

Tarkshya= Garu<^a, 

Tarpanechchhu = Bhishma. 

Tavisha = Swarga. 

Tavishi = Jayauti 

Tigina, 70. 


Tomara-dhara = Agni. 

Tran ga = Saubha. 

Trasadasyu Purukutsa, N ar- 
mada, 313. 

Trayaruwa, 313. 

Tri-dhanwan, 313. 

Tri divam = Swarga. 
Trigartta, 187. 



Tri-patha-ga= Ganga, 
Tri-pishtfapam = Swarga. 
Tri-sanku Ham-chandra, Satya- 


THsha Aniruddha. 
Trishtama Sapta-sindhava. 
Tri-sikha =Ravana. 
Tri-siras = Ka vawa. 
Tri-srotah Ganga. 
Tri-sula, 299. 
Tri-y ama = Yamuna. 
Tuladhara Jaj'ali. 
Tundikeras Haihaya. 
Tungisa, 166. 
Twashtn' Saranyu. 

Uchathya Dirgha-tauias. 
Udavasu, 313. 
Udayana, 70. 
Uddalaka AshjJavakra, 
Uddama = Var ana. 
Udgatr^ Veda 350. 
Udyoga-parva, 191. 
Ugra-dhanwaii= ladra. 
Uktha, 313. 
Ulmuka Bala-rama. 
Uma Aparna, Daksha, 78. 
Un-mai ta Bhairava. 
Unnati Garuc?a. 
Upagu, 313. 
Upahutas Pitri's. 
Uparichara Satyavata, 
Upendra, 166. 
tJrdhwa-loka = Swarga. 
tfrjaVasislirtia, 342. 
Urjavaha, 313. 
tjrmils, Lakshmana, 
Uru Angiras, 
Urva Aurva. 
Urvi PnthivL 
Usanas Bnhaspati, 69. 

Usha-pati Aniruddha. 

Uslonapas ^Pitns. 

Uslwa, 70. 

U^Inara Galava, Sin. 

Utathya Angiras, Bharadwaja 

Utpadaka = ^arablia. 
Uttama Dhruva. 
Uttanka Dhundhu. 
Uttara Abbimanyu. 
Uttara-kawofa Ramayana. 
Uttara Kuru Dwlpa, Janibu-d. 

Vachaspati Mi^ra Bhamati, Vi- 

vada Mitrodaya, Vyavahara- 

Vach- viraj V ach. 
Vadaveyau = Aswins. 
Vagwwari = Saraswatl. 
Vaibhra = Vaikun^ha. 
Vaibhraja-loka Barhishads. 
Vaidehi Vaideha. 
Vaidhatra= Sanat-kumara, 
Vaidhyata Yama. 
Vaidya-natha Vachaspati> 


Vaijayanta Iiidra, 127. 
Vaikun^ha-natha = Vishwu. 
Vaikarttana = Kama. 
Vainahotra, 70. 
Vainateya= Garucfa, 
Vairagl Loka. 

Vairajas Pitn's. 
Vawanipayana Yaj nawalky a. 
Vaishwavl Matn's. 
Vauravaua = Kuvera. 
Vai^wanara Agni, Kalaka. 
Vaivaswata = Yama. 
Vaja JSibhus. 
Vajasaneyi-pratisakhya Prati- 


Vajasani Veda 349. 
Vajin Veda 349. 
Va j rar- Aniruddha. 
Vajra-datta Arjuna 33. 


Vajra-jit = Garuc?a. 
Vajra-kama Maya. 

. _ ( Pradyumna- 
Vajra-nabha,} ^^ 3,3. 

Vajra-pani = Indra, 

Vakya-padiya Bhartr^-hari. 

Vala Indra, Trita. 

Vala-bhid = Indra. 

Valmiki Hanuman-nataka. 

Varna = Kama. 

Vamana Dig-gaja, Loka-pala. 

Varaeswara Linga. 

Vana-parva, 191. 

Varada Raja Laghu Kaunmdi. 

Varamivata, 185. 

Vara-prada Agastya, Lopa- 


Vararuchi Katyayana. 
Varga Veda, 346. 
Vari-loma = Vanma. 
Varna-kavi Kuvera. 
Viirttika Katyayana. 
Varuwa Aditya. 
Varuna Bharata-varsha. 
Varuna Utathya. 
Varuna-dwipa D wipa. 
Vasava-datta Ratnavali. 
Vasava= Indra. 
Vashkalas Vasishilia. 
Vasi shtfhas Vasish^ha. 
Vasu Jamad-agni, Remika, Ut- 

tana-pfida, Vi^wa-devas. 
Vasudfma, 70. 
Vasudlia-nagara Varmza. 
Vasu-dhara = Alaka. 
Vaauki Kadru, >Sesha. 
Vasu-sena = Kama. 
Vasu-sthall Alaka. 
Vatsa, 69. 

VaswokasarE Sapta-sindhava. 
Vatsa RatnavalL 
Veda, 36. 

Veda-mi tra = /Sfakalya. 
Vedas Jata-vedas. 
Vedhas= Brahma 59, Satya-vrata. 
Vena PnthL 
Vetala-bhaWa N ava-ratn a. 
Vibhn, 69, 

Vibudha, 313. 
Vichara-bhii Yama. 
Vidagdha ^Skalya Yajnawal- 


Vidarbha 69, Jyamagha. 
Vidhi=Biahma, 59. 
Vidhi-patala PataLa. 
Viduratha, 69, 70. 
Vidya-nagara V idy arawya. 
Vighna-hari, ) _ 
Vighne^a, ) "" 
Vijaya = Arjuna 187. 
Vijaya=Devi, Saha-deva, Yama. 
Vijaya (kings), 313. 
Vijaya (patala) Patala. 
Vijnana Bhikshu Sankhya-sara 
Vikarttana Kama. 
Vikarttana = Surya. 
Viknta, 77. 
Vikriti, 69. 
Vikukshi, 313. 
Viloma= Varuna 338. 
Vimana Indra 127. 
Vina Narada. 
Vinasana Madliya-deya. 
Vinata Ganiefa, Garu^a Pu- 



Vindhya Kula-iarvatas. 
Vindhya-knia- A gasty a. 
Vindhya-vasini = Devi, 


Vipasa Sapta-sindhava. 
Viprachitti Ketu, Ralm. 
Vira-bhadra, 78. 
Viriij Pnthi, Vach. 
Vlra-nagara Nidagha. 
Vira^a-parva, 191. 
Virftpaksha Loka-palas. 
Visakha-datta Mudra-Rfik- 


Vi^ala Vai^ala, 
Vislia, 36. i 
Visha-hara = Manasa. 
Vishnu Bhn'gxi, Daksha, 79* 
Visanu-dtita = 




Vishrau-gupta = Chfinakya. 
Vishnu-gupta Kaundrnya, 
Vishnu-ratha= Garuc?a. 
Vishnu-barman Pancha- tan tra. 
Visratavat, 313, 
Viswagaswa, 313. 
Viswa-jit Varuwa 338. 
Viswaka Krishna. 
Viswa-karman 34, Surya. 
Vmvamitra Hari^-chandra. 
Vi swa-natha Raghava- vilasa, 

Vi^wa-natha (dramatist) Mrt- 

Vkwasaha, 313. 
Viswavasu Jamad-agni. 
Vis we -de vas Daksha. 
Vwwe^wara Bha^a Subod- 


Vitahavya, 313, 
Vitala Patala. 
Vitasta Sapta-sindhava. 
Vitatha 69, Garga, Kapila. 
Viti-hotra Haihaya. 

Vivaswat = Sflrya. 
Vivaswatl Sftrya. 
Viyad-ganga Ganga. 
Vnddha Dliarma-sastra. 
Vnddha-Mann Mariu. 
Vrtddha-sarma Danta-vaktra. 
Vnhad-garl)lia ^ivi. 
Vnhad-ratha Jara-sandha. 
Vrihan-manas Jayad-ratha, 
Vnhatl Angada. 

Vrihan-Manu Manu, 
Wijinivat, 69. 
Vrika, 313. 
Vrt'shan-aswa MenS. 
Vrisha-parvan Druhyu. 
Vrtsha-parvan Sarmish^ha 
Vreshwimat, 70. 
Vrishni Andhaka, 69. 
Vr^traDadhyanch, Inclra. 
Vyadha Dharma-vyadha. 
Vyamas Pitris. 
Vyoman, 69, 

Yadah-pati ~ Varuwa 
Yadavas, 161. 
Yajna AkHti. 
Yajna-sen! = Draupadi. 
Yajnawalkya Veda 348. 
Yajnesa, ) 
Yajne^wara, \ = Vl sh^n. 
Taksha-raja = Kuvera. 
Yama-duta Yama. 
Yamas Aktiti. 
YamunaSap ta-si 1 1 dha va. 
Yaudheya, ) _ r 
Yaudheyi, \ Y ^<^i-slii5liira, 381, 

Yoga-chara = Hanumat. 
Yoga-siddha Viswa-karnia. 
Yudha j it Andhaka. 
Yudha-kanda R&mayaroa. 
Yudha-ranga Karttikeya. 
Yudhi-sh^hira Jayad-ratha. 
Yuvana^wa Harita, 

Yuva-raja, 185. 


Aborigines Dasyus. 

Adam's Bridge JRama-setu, 

Adisadra Ahi-chhatra, 
Adoption Dattaka. 
Aerial car Pushpaka, K&rta- 


Aerial city Saubha,Vismapana. 
Ages of the world Yuga. 
Ahirs Abhlras. 
Ahura Asura. 
Alexander the Great Chandra- 

Algebra Arya-bhate Vija-ga- 

nita, Bhaskarucharya. 
Akesines Asiknl, Sapta-siiid- 


Andarse Andhra. 
Andubarius Arya-bhaifa. 
Anhalwara Pattana. 
Anna Perenna Anna Pur?ta. 
Antiochus Yavanas. 
An\var-i Suhaill Pancha-tantra. 
Aphrodite Apsaras, Lakshml, 


Archery Dhanur-veda. 
Architect Vwwa-karma. 
Architecture Sthapatya-veda. 
Arithmetic- Bhaskaracharya. 
Arj'abahr Arya-bha^a. 
Ars Erotica Sankhftyana. 
AssamKillika Purtoi. 
Astronomy Arya-bhaia, Jyoti 

sha, Bhaskarachfl/rya* 

Atmosphere Antariksh a 
Atomic School -Dai sau a. 
Aurora Aruna, Ushas. 

Bacchus- Soma 302. 
Bactrian Greeks Yavanas. 
Bactrians Balhikas. 
Bairat Matsya, Virata, 
Baital PachisiVetala Pancha 


Balkh Balhi, Bfilhika, 
Bamis river, 62. 
Banda Chitra-ku^a. 
Barbarians Mlechchhas. 
Bears Jambavat, Biima, Ea- 

Beder Vidarbha. 
Behat Vitasta. 
Benares, 153, 162, 168, 
Bengal Anga, Banga, 
Betwa river Vetravatl 
Bhils Nishada, 
Bibasis VipM. 
Bihar Magadha, Videha. 
Birar Kosala, Vidarbha. 
Boar Avatilra, Brahma. 
Boglekand Chedi. 
Bow, wonderful Gawrflva, Ka- 


Buddhism, 26, 27, 
Byas Sapta-sindhava, VipM. 
Byeturnee VaitaranL 

Calingce Kalinga, 
Cannibal imps PSsiti 


Canogyza Kanya-kubja. 

Canopus Agastya. 

Cape Comorin Kanya-kumari. 

Capricornus Makara. 

Carnatic Karnatfa. 

Castes Vania. 

Ceylon Lanka, Kavawa. 

Chandail Chedi. 

Chariot, aerial Karta-vlrya, 

Charites Harita. 

Chinab Sapta-sindhava. 

Churning of ocean Amnfta. 

Cirrhadse Kiratas. 

Cities, the sacred Nagara. 

Comorin, Cape KumarL 

Conch Panchaj any a. 

Con j everam Kancht 

Conscience San j na. 

Continents Dwlpa. 

Coromandel Chola-Manc?ala. 

Cow, the wonderful Kama- 

Creation Apava, Daksha, Brah- 
ma, Brihaspati, Mann. 

Creator Brahma, Hiranya-gar- 
bha, Prajapati, Viswa-karma. 

Cupid Kama. 

Dawn Aruwa, Ushas. 

Dead, the Yama. 

Death Nimti. 

Deities Devatas, Ganas. 

Deluge Avatara, Manu. 

Demons Asuras, Daityas, Da- 

navas, Darbas, Dadhyanch. 
Dictionary Abhidhana, Amara- 

Differential calculus Bhaskara- 


Dionysus Soma 302, 
Dioskouroi = A^wins. 
D oab Antarvedl. 
Dogs of Indra and Yama Sa- 

ramS, and Sarameyas. 
Drama, 47, 49. 
Dramatists Bhava-bhtLti. 
Drought, demon of Vn'tra, 

Durds Darada. 
Diyads Vana-charis. 
Dwarf Avat&ra. 

Earrings Aditi. 

Eartli Avatara, Prithivi. 

Earth, milking of Pn'thl. 

Eclectic School Darmna 82. 

Eclipses Graha, Rahu. 

Egg of the world Brahma. 

Elephant, aerial Airavata Dig- 


Eolus Vayu. 
Eos Ushaa. 
Eras ^aka, Samvat. 
Erinnys Sarameyas. 
Erranaboas ) Chandra-gupta, 

river \ Pa^ali-putra. 
Esoteric writings Upanishads, 

Veda 345. 

Ethics Niti-sastras. 
Etymology Nirukta. 
Exoteric writings Veda 345. 

Faith Sraddha. 

Fauns Vana-charas. 

Female principle, worship of 


Fiends Pisach as. 
Fiery weapon Agneyastra, 
Fire Agiii. 

Fish Avatara, Brahma. 
Fortune, goddess of Lakshml 

Gambling Maha-bharata, Nala, 
Gandarii Gandhara. 
Gandaritis Gandhara. 
Ganges Ganga. 
Ganymede Medhatithi. 
Gems Nava-ratna. 
Ghosts Bhutas Vetala. 
Giants Daityas, Danavas, Dad 


Glossary Nighan^u, Nirukta. 
Goblins Bhatas, Vetala. 
Gogra Nidagha. 
Grammar Maha-bhashya, Pa- 

nini, Vyakarawa. 



Great Bear 1 

Greeks Kala-yavana, Yavanas. 

Gundu ck Gandaki. 

Hapta-heando Sapta-sindhava. 
Hardwar Ganga- dwara, Hari- 

Heaven Dyaus, Swarga, Vai- 

Hell Naraka. 
Hephaistos Twashi?-*. 
Hermes Sarameyas. 
Hesudrus $ata-dru. 
Himalaya Himavat. 
Hind- Sindhu. 
Hindoi Sindhu. 
Horse sacrifice Aswa-medha, 


Horses Galava. 

Human sacrifice Suna^-sephas, 
Huns Hunas. 
Hydaspes Sapta-sindhava, Vi- 

Hydraotes Iravati, Sapta-siad- 

Hyphasis Sapta-sindhava, Vi- 


Imps jDakini. 

Incarnations Avatara. 

Index of the Veda Anukra- 


India Bharata-varsha. 
India Sindhu. 
Indoi Sindhu. 
Indo-Scythians akas, Turush- 

kas, Kanishka. 
Indus Sindhu. 
Infernal regions Patala. 
Infinite space Aditi. 
Inheritance Daya. 
Innocents, Slaughter of Kausa. 
Inspiration Srcmti. 
Islands Dwlpa. 
lyar-i Danish Pancba-tantra. 

Jewels Nava-ratna. 
Jharejas Suryavvanaa. 

Jhilam Sapta-sindhava, Vi- 


Jumna Yamuna. 
Jupiter Pluvius, ( 
Jupiter Tonans, \ 
Justice Dharma. 

Kanerki Kanishka. 
Khasiyas Khasas. 
Khirad-afi'oz Pancha-tautra. 
Kirantis Kiratas. 
Ko^ambi-nagar Kausambi. 
Kundapur Vidarbha, 




Law Dharma-sastra, Manu- 


Light Angirasas. 
Local deities Sthall-deyatas. 
Logic Darsan a. 
Love, god of Kama. 
Luminous deities Angirasas 


Lunar mansions Nakshatra, 77. 
Lunar race Chandra-vansa. 
Lute Narada. 

Macedonian Greeks Yavanas. 
Malabar Malay Parasu-ram a 
Man es Pita's. 
Mare Batfava. 
Mars Karttikeya Maugala, 
Maths Sankaracharya. 
Matter Prakro'ti, 
Mechanics Artha-^astra, $ilpa 

Medicine Ayur-veda, Charaka, 

Dhanwantari, Su^ruta. 
Megasthen es Chandra-gupta, 
Mendicant Bhikshu, 
Mercury Budha. 
Metre Chhandas. 
Milking of the earth Pra'thi. 
Military art Dhanur-veda. 
Mind-born sons Atri, Kumaras 

Minos Yama. 



Mithra Mitra. 

Monkeys Hanumat, Ravana, 


Months Aditya. 
Moon Ahalya, Soma. 
Moon, descendants of Chandra- 


Moon-stone Chandra-kanta. 
Moi als Nlti-sastras. 
Mother of the gods Aditi. 
Mountains Kula-parvatas. 
Mundane egg Brahma. 
Music Raga. 
Musicians Gandharvas. 
Mystic words VyahntL 

Nasik Panchavati. 
Necklace iva, Vaijayanti 
Nerbudda Narmada, 
Nihilists, 82. 
Node, the ascending Rahu. 

- the descending Ketu. 
Nymphs of heaven Apsarases, 

Ocean, churning Amnta, 

- drunk up Agastya. 
Oerki Hushka, Kanishka. 
Ophir Abhlra. 

Orissa Ocfra, Utkala. 
Orpheus Narad a, 
Ouranos Yaruna, 
Ozene Ujjayinl. 

Palihothra Chandra-gupta, Pa- 

Pandion Pa?wya. 

Paradise Swarga, Vaikun^ha. 

Parrot, tales of uka-saptati. 

Partridge Tittiri. 

Pasargada Kalanas. 

Patna Arya-bha^a, Pa^ali-putra. 

Persians Pahlavas, Para^ikas. 

Peukelastis Pushkaravati. 

Phallus Linga. 

Philosopher's stone Chinta-ma- 


Philosophy D arsana. 
Phonetics $iksh&. 

Pigmies ^Valakhilyas. 

Pisuni river Chitra-kuia, Man 


Planetary sphere j&wuiuara. 
Pluto Yam a. 
Poems Maha-kcavyas. 
Pokhar, 57. 
Pole star Dhruva. 
Polity Kamandaki. 
Pousekielofati Pushkaravati. 
Prasii Chandra-gupta. 
Prem-Sagar, 161. 
Prosody Chhandas. 
Puri Jagaii-natha. 

Rain Indra, Parjanya. 
Rajputs Surya-vansa. 
Ramisseram Linga, Rame^wara 
Ramnagar Panchala. 
Ravi Iravati, Sapta-sindhava. 
Recorder of the dead Chitra* 


Revelation >Sruti. 
Rohilkhand Pancha la., 

Saba'-sin Sapta-sindliava, 
Sacse /Sakas. 

Sagala, > 
Sangala, > 


Sakai 5akas. 

Sandracottus, ) =Chandra- 
Sandrocyptus, j gupta. 
Saturn $ani 

Schools of the Vedas akha. 
Sciences, n8. 
Scythians Haihayas. 
Sea serpent Timin. 
Seleucus Nicator Chandra- 


Serpents Nugas, 
Serpent, aerial AM. 
Seven rivers Sapta-sindhava, 
Singhasan-battisi Sinhasana- 

Sky Dyaus, Varuna. 
Sleep Nidra. 
Solar race Surya-vansa. 
Sone Pa^ali-putra. 



Sophagasenas Yavanas. 
Speech SaraswatI, Vach. 
Storm-gods Maruts. 
Submarine fire Aurva, Bac/ava. 
Sun Surya. 

Sun, worship of Brahma Pa- 

Sungroor Snnga-vera, 
Supreme SoulBrahma* 
Sutlej Satadru. 

Tales Hitopadesa, Pancha-tan- 
tra, Suka-saptati, Sinhasana- 

Talmud Brahmawa. 

Tamil Agastya, Bravicfa. 

Tamlook Tamra-lipta, 

Taprobane Tamra-par/ia, 

Tatars Kanishka, >Saka& 

Taxila Taksha-slla, 

Telingana Andhra. 

Text Pada, Pa^ha. 

Thi*ee steps Avatara. 

Thunderbolt Vajra. 

Time Kala. 

Tinnin Tirnin. 

Tirhut-Videha, Mithila. 

Titans Daityas, Danavas, Da- 

Tom Thumb Valakhilyas. 

Tonse riverTamasa. 

Tortoise Avatara, Brahma. 

Tota-kahanI ^uka-saptati. 

Traigai-t Trigartta. 

Trees, celestial Pancha-vnksha, 


Triad Tri-murti. 
Tripati Venkafo. 
Tuluva Tulunga. 
Tuti-namah $uka-saptatl 
Turks Kanishka, ^akas, Tu- 

Twilight Sandhya. 

Udaypur Surya-vai^a* 
Uranos Varuwa. 

Vehicles of the gods Vahnna. 
Venus Rati, ^ukra. 
Vijaya-nagara Madhava. 
Vira Bukka Eaya M<adhava. 
Vocabulary Abhidhana, Ama* 

ra-kosha, Tri-kan^a >Sesha. 
Vulcan Twashtfri 

War, god of Karttikeya. 

War, the great Maha-bharata. 

Water of life Amnta. 

Water Vanwa. 

Wealth, god of Kuvera. 

White horse Avatara, 38. 

Wind VayiL 

Wine Sura, Vanmanl. 


Worlds, the three Tri-bhuvanat 

Xandrames Chandra-gupta. 

Yona, | 
Yona-raja, [ 

Zaradrus ^ata-dru.