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Press A : Shelf 3 

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FOR MARCH and JUNE, 1816. 


*/l $i'Xo$, f i <ro$o£ el, Xa0s ft' ig xh ^ ■** ^* 7* 'rafwra* 
Nqig 6$v$ Mooarswv, ptyov a [jltj voeug. 

£nc. Incxrt. 

Lonnon : 





Direction to the Binder. 

The Index to Vols. XL and XII. which is 
sewn at the end of this No. XXV. is to be bound 
up at the end of Vol. XII. 



A Translation, from the Original Greek, of Lycophron's 
Cassandra, illustrated with Notes, by Lord Viscount 

Royston. No. i. • 1 

De Carminibus Aristophanis Commentarius •••••••••••• S3 

Criticism on a Passage in the Poetics of Aristotle ••••...• 47 

On a Greek Epigram by Tweddell : Quid Novi ? • • • 49 

Hebrew Criticism ••••••••.••♦• .•.•••••••••.••• ib. 

Notice of Fragmenta Basmurico-Coptica Vet, et Nov. Test 
quae in Museo Borgiano Velitris asservantur, cum reliquis 
Versionibus JEgyptiis contulit, Latine vertit, nee non Cri- 
ticis et Philologicis adnotationibus illustravit, W. F. En* 

gelbreth, 4to • 61 

Loci quidam Luciaui emendati atque explanati, & Joanne 

Seager, No, in .•»••.... 71 

Classical Criticism •••••...... ....... 74 

M omi Miscellanea Subseciva, No. iv. • ••••••••••••-••• 80 

Essay on Triposes •• • 85 

Bishop Pearson's Minor Tracts chronologically arranged, 
No. v. gr 

Collatio Codicis Harleiani 5674. cum Odyssea Editionis Er- 
nestine 1760 ........ 107 

On die Elean Inscription : with an Engraving • ••••••-••• lit 

Prologus in Phormionem, Fabulam ab Alumnis Reg. Schol. 
Westm. actam. A. D. 1815 .-••••- 1 19 \ 

^pilOgUS, DO. IMMIMIIMMMHM«MI»««%M«%«^« \%ft 




Observations on the 24th Book of the Odyssey •••••♦♦••• 1 22 

On the Greek and Latin Accents, No. iv. • Ifci 

On the Monument of Comosarya • • • • • ......... 1 29 

Bentleii Emendationes Ineditae in Aristophanem, No. v. In 

Vespas, in Paqem •••••••••••••••• • 1 32 

Corrections in the Common Translation of the New Testament 145 
Lettres sur quelques Inscriptions remarquables adressees k M. 

le Prof. P. Prevost, par M. le Col. Leake, de la Soc. 

Roy. de Loud., de la Soc. Afric, et de celle des Dilet- 

tanti de la meme ville • ••••• • • • \5Q 

Mots ou Omis par H. Etienne, ou inexactement expliques, 


parJ. B.Gail, No. hi • •♦• 161 

Parallel Passages in Authors Ancient and Modern, No. i. 165 
De Fragmentis Poetarum Minoruni Gr. d Th. Gaisfordio 
editis. E. H. Barken Epistola ad Th. Gaisfordium, Gr. 

Ling. Profess. Reg. Oxon ••• • • ••••♦••• \G9 

Lathi Poem : Guarreno Hastings •• ••••••••• 177 

Notice of Shiitz's Edition of ETPiniAOT <P0INI22AI • • • • ib. 
Description of the present State of Tempe, by Dr. Halland 179 
AUOAOUA THS TflN ArrAflN EKKAH2IA2, sive Apo- 
logia Ecclesiae Anglicanae, Auctore J. Juello • 185 

Biblical Criticism 189 

Notice of M. T. Ciceronis de Officiis Libri in. juxta Edi- 
tionem J. M. et J. Fr. Heusingerorum. Accedunt, in gra- 
tiamjuventutis, Notae quaedam Anglice scriptae. 1815. 12mo. 1§1 

Adversaria Literaria, No. vtn. • 196 

literary Intelligence 202 

Notes to Correspondents .•••• • • 219 

Index to Vols. xi. and xii. •• ••• 


i % 


i • » ■ 

9 ' * ■ ■ I 



tiiFE of Dr. Vincent, No. I •••• 221 

Mr. Bellam^% Answer to the Bishop of St. David's •••••• 226 

It. Bentleii Emendatt. Sophoclem, Tlieocr^ Bionem, 
Moschum, Nicandrum, et Callimachum •<• • ••-•••••••• .' 244 

Classical Criticism ..»• • •• • 252 

An Inquiry into the Nature and Efficacy of Imitative Versifi- 
cation, Ancient and Modern, No. in. *••••• 273 

On the Anelent Zabii 284 


C A. Klotzii Libelfus de Felici Audacia Horatii, No. i, ••291 
Inquiry into the Causes of the Diversity of Human Character 
wr'various ages, nations, and individuals. By the late Pro- 

lessor Scott, No. vm. • • • •- .•••...••-••• 30& 

Analyse du Premier Volume du Pausanias de M. Clavier ; 

* • * 

Par A. Letronne • • • 316 

* • 

Inscription at Skripu • • • •-• • • 391 


Bentleii Emendationes Ineditae ib Aristophanem, No. vi. •• 336 
bn Epitaphs A'..... ..../..... 351 


Observations on some Idioms of the Greek Language. By 

W. Neilson -.».,... .... 355 

Catalogue of Joshua Barnes's Works • • • • 9 *•**•• 562 

Biblical Criticism • • •••».•«* • • < . 365 

Notice of Julii Phaedri Fabute Novae et Vetere*. Parisiis, 

1812 •••»••«#-••••♦*.....*.•.. 367 

De Carminibus Aristophanis Commentarius. Auctore G. B. 

No.n -*.*.*.<<<•*•.. **.Vs6sf 

De Fragmentis Poetarum Minorum Gr. a Th. Gaisfordio editis 58i 
JLatin Poem «....««••••.*.♦........ ^•^••••* 394 

Notice of OuvarorT on the Eleusinian Mysteries • • • • •-• • • * 890 
Mots ou omis par H. Etieune, ou inexactement expliqu£s. 

ParJ. B.Gail. No- iv *...♦........-.♦.♦.... 406 

Remarks on the Similarity of Worship, that prevailed in dif- 
ferent parts of the Pagan World. No- j. •« .^ ••*•••«••-•• • 410 
Professor Lennep's Conjecture on a Passage in Propertius 415 
biblical and Classical Criticism • • • • •••••«•-••• •-• • •••■• • • 417 

G wawd Lludd y Mawr • ..«••••••••*•#*«••*« «••• 420 

Answer to Dr. Crombie's Remarks on the Notice of his 
Gymnasium, sive Symbola Critica •••••••••••*•••••••• 422 

Hebrew Criticism ••••*•••••• • *••• 435 

Adversaria Literaria, No. ix. • ♦ •• 438 

JEmendationes in JElianum de Historia Animalium •••••♦•• 445 

Literary Intelligence ...... ••••.••• 449 

Notes to Correspondents ••••••••••••••• «••••••••« 4($f 



2S To . XXV. 

MARCH, 1816, 

r - *»- 



Translated from the original Greek of Lycophron, and 
illustrated with Notes, by Viscount Roystqn, 

<PlXWV. 'lot) SxUfJLOLVdpQV TTflCTglOV W0T(fyv 

Tore fih aj&$) ca$ aiovug rdkctw 

*HvvTO(Aav rgofcti§' 

Nov 8* dfjL$) Kxxvtm Tf xx%6(>ov<rtov$ 

JUSCHYL. A6AM. V. 1158/ 


JLiYCO*Mto*f, to whom this Poem has generally been ascribed, 

was the son of Socleus the grammarian, and born at Chalcis in 

Euboea. He was the aathor of many tragedies, of which nothing 

bas reached us bat the names ; and of several satirical and critical 

compositions, of which a few fragments are quoted by Athenatus. 

These productions caused him to be held in such estimation at the 

court of Ptolemy Philadelphus, that he was one of the Seven Poets 

who were honored with the title of The Pleiades ; though for 

this distinction he was probably not a little indebted to the flatter-' 

ing anagrams which he composed on the names of his royal patron 

and the queen Arsinoe, deriving the one diri (teMros, " from honey/ 
NO. XXV. CLJl. VOL. XIII. " ' 

2 Lord Royston's Translation 

and saying of the otter, that she was"Ioj> "H$z$, lt a violet of Juno/' 
These are almost the only particulars of his life which are related 
by Suidas ; and we are left to collect from two verse* of Ovid that 
his death was occasioned by an arrow : 

Utque cothurnatum periisse Lycophrona narrant, 
Iltereat in fibris fixa sagitta tuis. 

Ovid. Ibis. 

There is, however, internal evidence in the Poem (see verse 1226) 
which seems to prove that the Prophecies of Cassandra are not 
indebted for their origin to Lycophron of Chalcis; x for, till Greece 
became a Roman province, it is by no means probable that the 
national vanity of a Greek would have allowed him to mention any 
nation but his own as above all others celebrated in war: 

Al^alg to tfgwroteiQv oLga,vre$ <rrefo§ m 
and afterwards, 

Tr f v nr'Ae1<rrov vfAvrjQeto'av ev xji^cus tfdrgaV 
itill less can we suppose that one whose recorded flatteries have 
been noticed above would have thus insisted on their pre-eminence 
in the court of a powerful sovereign, a successor of Alexander the 
Great. But the question does not rest solely on hypothesis ; for the 
passage, in which universal empire is attributed to the aescendants 
of Romulus and Remus, seems to be completely decisive : * 

- " ■ ' kXzqs 
Mg'y/oYov av%y)<rov<riv oiwxpoi itors 

AtLf3'6rre$ 9 <wT Spvyoroy, &Q\ix tfxrfe, 

Toiovs S* spot rig <rvyyovog tetyei $trf\ov$ 

2k6[jlvqv$ \iovras, t^oyfiv 'PoJp^ yevtg. Ver. 1226\ 

It was not however in the time of Ptolemy Philadclphus that the 
Romans could be said to have obtained the sole power and dominion 

1 It is evident, from the manner ip which the passage alluded to is 
connected with the subsequent lines, that it cannot be an interpolation'; 
nor is it probable that the author would have omitted so important a part 
of his subject as the wanderings and destinies of iEneas. 

* These lines did not escape the notice of the commentators before 
Tzetzes; who records the opinion of a scholiast, and, taking advantage of an 
incorrect expression, treats it with unmerited contempt, t* &i xot*» tjf 

vy^Kiov yiluita, 9 «<rt, yap Auxfygoyo; irfyov theu «ri voif jt&a, oS tow ypo^avro; t^v Tgpap* 9 

bf LycophrorCs CasfandrQ. 

over the earth and sea* On the contrary, that prince had already 
sat upon the throne of Egypt for five and twenty years, when 
buillius engaged the Carthaginians in the four hundred and ninety 
fourth year of the city, and,j£r«£ of all the Roman commanders, was 
honored with a naval triumph. Nor was it till after the succession 
of Euergetes that Hamilcar caused his son Hannibal to swear upon 
ihe altar eternal enmity to Rome ; at which period so far waj» the 
empire from being consolidated, that it was still destined to set 
* victorious army lay waste its territories, and to contend not 
for glory, but for existence. These considerations induce us to 
refuse to this Poem that antiquity which it claims ; x and as wt 
learn from the eighth book of the Chiliads of Tzetees, that there 
were several grammarians of the name of Lycophron, it is possible 
that a similarity in that particular may have caused the author of 
44 Cassandra" to be confounded with the poet of Chalcis. 4 

This supposition allows us to search into, times more modern 
Hian those of Ptolemy for the interpretation of an obscure prophecy 
near the close of the monodram : and if that interpretation be 
correct, the passage in question must have been written subsequently 
to the hundred and fifty-second Olympiad. The passage is a$ 

follows : 

^ XaAafya7o£ Xsaav 

, # * . * * * * * 
*Sl Srj y,s$ exrtqv yivvav avQcdpujv epo$ 
E& rig Vot,Xou<rri}g, cv^fiaXuiy aXx^v £of o£ . 

Tlivtw fs na) yrj$ £i$ foaKKayois l*>o\wy 

SxiJawv dkaQX&s rag SofVKrrjrovs AajScJv. Vers. 1441. 

Thesprotian, Chaladraan, forth shall rush 
The Lion for m - ■ > — ■ 

• M i r n i f.n i i i , 1 1 i ■ ' i J i i i — — tmmmtmm^mm 

1 These considerations are strengthened by the Ionisms which occur in the 
Poem, which were scattered with a sparing hand by the tragic poets m 
their Iambic verse, and which would probably not have been introduced so 
frequently by Lycophron of Chalcis. We find tfowtrtfi/, which is an Ionisni 
for Mon'rou. Minrog 'IwvixS; (xtta, toC u «po?cp» 6 Avx%#v # fittfitath. It cannot 

however be denied that the Tragedians used |iTvof , f^mc, yofra?a, xoDpor (Vide 
Porson. Praefat. Eurip. Hecub.) we find the augment tot unfrequently 
rejected, a licence which Professor Porson declares to be contrary to thf 
ruks of the Attic dialect, and the practice of the Tragedians. 

Chiliaj), lib. vm. hist. J04» 

4 . Lord Royston's Translation 

But when athwart the empty-vaulted heaven 
Six times of years have rolled, War shall repose 
His lance, obedient to my kinsman's voice, 
Who rich in spoils of inonarchs shall return 
With friendly looks, and carollmgs of love, 
While Peace sits brooding upon seas and land. 
These tines have exercised the ingenuity of commentators ; but, 
lettered by the supposed antiquity of the Poem, they do not seem 
to have adopted the most natural and obvious solution. The 
Scholiast affirms, that by the expression avioct^wv ipof, " my kinsman,** 
Cas3andfa alludes to Tarpinius a Roman ; others have chosen 
Taxiles or Porus: Wolfius conjectures Ptolemy Lagus: Potter, 
Meursius, and Canter, are silent : Ricard conceives the passage to 
foretel a treaty which took place between the Roman senate and 
Ptolemy Philadelphus ; and computing the " six generations" from 
the rape of Helen, (which time, according to his own opinion, em- 
braces a period of nearly nine hundred years,) gives about a bun- 
tired and fifty to each generation. Nothing, he tells us, can be 
so probable as that Lycopbron should mention a treaty recently con- 
cluded, and by that mention flatter his sovereign, and the Romans 
his allies. To this it may perhaps be answered with some reason, 
that if, as is apparent, the Poem is a later production, the treaty 
was not very recent, and was scarcely of sufficient importance to 
have been noticed by a more modern author; and even granting 
that the Work was' composed in the reign of Ptolemy, it were 
assuredly a most extraordinary mode of flattering a prince to allude 
to the spoils of which he had been plundered, and commemorate 
the defeats which he had sustained. Besides, it may be doubted 
whether Canter is accurate m his statement of the time which inter- 
vened between Cassandra and Ptolemy; Potter and several other 
Authors are of a different opinion; and even if we allow his comput- 
ation to be correct, still it is by no means probable that Lycopbron 
would have styled a portion of time, bounded by such indistinct 
aad arbitrary limits, by the name ofyevva, by which term he perhaps 
njight b»*t4|eant a, juration of men calculated at about thirty 
years; or mare prpta$ty> if we consider its etymology, a descent in 
the direct line by blood; When we cast our eyes upon the passage, 
we perceive immediately that the relative T & can refer to no name 
but that of Alexander the Great, who is evidently and allowedly 
pointed out by the term X&K&$gouo$ Aicuv, or " Macedonian Lion :" 
tmt Cassandra flwetels tbit Wr kinsman shall prove victorious ra 

of Lycapkron's Cassandra. 5 

the contest, and bring back trntiXwy ditao^S Joj uxfjjrwy, " the first- 
fruits of the spoils of war." Now as Alexauder the Great was never 
conquered in his otcn person, it must necessarily follow that lie was 
conquered in the person of one of his successors, or perhaps he may 
lie considered as the representative of the whole Macedonian natggp : 
in the same manner, by " my kinsman" Cassandra may allude to 
some" Roman commander, or generally to the Roman people descend- 
ed from her kinsman JEneaa. This victory is said to happen jug 6' 
Sfxnjv yewotv, " after a sixth generation :" and thoqgh more than six 
sovereigns intervened between Alexander and the subjugation of 
Macedon, during that period there were only six lineal descents of the 
family of Antigonus, the contemporary and companion of Alexander, 
who after the death of his master caused himself to be proclaimed 
King of Asia, and whose/ son Demetrius Poliorcetes seized the 
Macedonian government. This is apparent from the subjoined 

Alexander III. Magnus, 

Philip Aridjeus, 


Philip IV. 


Alexander IV. 

DEMETRIUS, Son of ANTIGONUS King of Asia, 




Ptolemieus Ceraunus.* 

ANTIGONUS GONATAS, Son of Demetrius. 

1 Ptolemy Ceraunus, after having reigned little more than a year, was 
slain in battle with the Gauls, who (although Meleager the brother of 
Ptolemy, and Antipater the brother of Cassandcr, enjoyed the empty title of 
Sovereign, the one for two months, the other for forty-five days) remained 
in complete possession of the kiqgdom. At length Sosthenes expelled 
the invaders, and restored liberty to his country, which he governed for a 
short time with the title of General, constantly refusing to call himself 
4 King. Goltzius indeed pretends to have found a. medal with the inscrip- 
tion bahaeux znseENOT; but the fallacies ofGolfcyus are well known. 
Sosthenes was destroyed by a second incursion pf Gauls, and Antigonus 
Gonatas obtained possession of the government. From the shortness of 
their reigns, from the enemy being in possession of their country, and from 
no mention being made of them but by Eusebius, these pcrsuns are not 
included in the table. 

$ Lord Roystbn's Translation 

DEMETRIUS II. Son of Antigonus Gqnatas. 
Antigonus Doson. 
PHILIP V. Son of Demetrius IL 
PERSEUS, Son of Philip V. 
From this statement it appears highly probable that the passage 
alludes to the victory obtained over Perseus, by Paulus JEmilius at 
the latter end of the hundred and fifty-second Olympiad, and the 
spoils which were in consequence brought to Rome ; and the predie? 
Son of friendship between the kinsman of Cassandra (the Roman 
people) and Alexander the Great (the Macedonian nation) will point 
out the cessation of hostilities between the rival states, and the in- 
corporation of Macedon with the Roman Empire. 

The prophecy of which a solution has just been attempted is tbe 
last which is uttered by Cassandra; she suddenly checks herself 
with the discouraging idea that it is useless to foretel where no One 
will believe : and the remainder, as well as the exordium of tbe com T 
position, consists of a few lines spoken in his own character, by the 
person appointed to watch over her conduct. The Poem thus divides 
itself into Three Parts ; the First is the Speech of the Guard to 
Priam, who is supposed to have previously demanded an account of 
her predictions ; the Second consists in the relation of those predic- 
tions, given in her own words ; and the Third and last is merely a 
resumption of the address of the Guard, and a wish that the mis- 
fortunes which have been foretold may still be averted from his 
country. The time of the Second Part (which is by far the most 
considerable in size and consequence, and of which a Synoptical 
Analysis is subjoined to the Preface) is immediately subsequent to 
the break of day, just as the ships of Paris are about to set sail for. 
Sparta. Cassandra is represented as standing upon a mountain near 
Troy, gazing upon the scene before her. It is remarkable that Ovid 
{las also chosen this instant of time : 

Imposita est factae postquam manus ultima classi, 

Protinus jEgeis ire jubehar aquis. 
Et pater et genetrix inhibent mea vela rogando, 

Propositumque pia voce morantur iter. 
Et soror efrusis, ut erat, Cassandra capillis, 
Cum vellent nostrae jam dare vela rates, 
Quo ruis, exclamat, referes incendia tecum. 
Quanta per has, nescis, flamma petatur aquas ! 

Ep.Heaoh). xvi. 115. 
Jn the execution of this plan, though we meet with instances of false 
tastt, and a mixture of metaphor which could scarcely be borne in 

of Lycophroris Cassandra* 7 

a translation, we must allow that the author possessed great energy 
of language, a facility in calling to our view the most sublime images, 
and a copious fund of mythological and historical information. He 
seems to have been particularly conversant in the works of the 
Tragedians ; and we find that he has parodied their verses, imitated 
their phraseology, and adopted their traditions, in preference to the 
more simple narrative of Homer. Above all, the harsh combinations 
fund unusual expressions of iEschylus seem to have been most con? 
genial to his plan ; and it is probable that some of the more sublime 
parts of the " Agamemnon" were the exciting cause and prototype 
of his "Cassandra." Having said thus much of the reputed author, 
date, and plan of this Poem, it remains to give a brief account of the 
Greek Scholia by which it is illustrated. These, though tedious 
from their excessive prolixity, and disgraced by the most puerile 
vanity and egotism, contain a mass of information which has been 
found highly useful to succeeding commentators. They are ascribed 
to Isaac Tzetzes: 1 but Potter has produced a passage which proves 
them to be the work of John Tzetzes, his brother, upon whose volu- 
minous writings Milton has passed a severe censure in his preface to 
The Defence of the People of England against Salmasius. " Nihil 
elaborate, nihil distincte, nihil quod sapiat in lucem emit te re, aut 
soles, aut potes, sed veluti Crispinus alter, aut Tzetzes ille Graeculus, 
modo ut multum scribas, quam recte non laboras ." * These Scholia 
Sure undoubtedly claimed by the author of the Chiliads, in that barba- 
*. ' ' ■ ■ ■ ' 

1 Btj$Xo; ju.iv Tf\iQov<ra Auxo^poyoj aVfAaroxofxTOir 
H> aXaog v^ama,poi9tv t ahp%ia iigyfjutr* /^oi/<ra, 
Kuv $i (*t JopxaXjny ipfxttn Ttyjtj 
Zifa 'l<ra»x*of, ltiqrrpo$a •xtia-fxara, Xvra;. 
* Scholia on Verse 84. *<*X<*iw fatym iarU rtug Xvx Vta| f JwMr«*V« wv » $ x*l 
*rz/pav(r<ro6/xof0f, xa\ ^Xty 5Wt ^ 4»«pe» xaXeirai, Xtyerai $2 faXatva ir*ga to tig ?w£ SXXw- 
$ar - - • • • . xal nttp\ fxh rng 9aXat'y»jf, toD y^t^tmlov fa'vqiov 8 %n\ xay&j*o** 
fyiatpiai lltuiTimg ^aylv, tXitopvf, lcri\ xal $aXa*y<t xt|Tw£>i; *X^* CompaT* t+lll 

iritfa the ninth book of the Chiliads, Hist. 296. 

fttXatva *r)g iyQvs lavi Qctkao-aiog xnTw&ij' 

Hapm to #XXf©"0«i tig 9<3f faXaiva xaXpvjbuwj* 

• • • * # # * 

9 E<rr\ xcu t\ fuvKkioy ^aXatva xctkav (xhn 
O rats >.v\yiaig IVrarai, tw nvpl it 9vn<rxti f 
Tlapti rh a\"kt<r9*i tTg ^5; ^aXaiy* xa\ov [Atv>i f 
'Ey it roTg tig At/xfypov* 'EMOI x ff»iy»i0«e"t, 
Kal ittgl roOrov typa^tt' tot* toD ^wt/XXiou* 
'EjftI xcd ££oy fTcpoy (paXatya xfxX*}ju.ivoy, 
$aXaiya, ^X n > 4'^g aT, > *»i 'ffvpaverTovfxopig <Jf, 
*pi»p, a*?} xotyor'f' y r*v«; xayo^s-jSarrpav 


8 Lord Royston's Translation 

roust series of unconnected chronicles, which, with the melodic* pf 
Homer still sounding in his ears, he has clothed in the politic or 
accentual metre, exactly resembling .the songs of the modern Greeks, 
excepting in the absence of the double rhyme. Notwithstanding all 
its defects, the commentary was held in great estimation when it first 
made its appearance, during the twelfth century, and was considered 
as removing much of that obscurity which bad till then rendered the 
poet of Cassandra nearly unintelligible, and which is still objected to 
him by those who do not reflect bow necessary it was, and essential to 
his plan. 

Darkness is placed by Burke among the Sources of the Sublime ; 
and though he may be mistaken as to the cause of that sublimity, we 
shall scarcely deny the effect, when we find him supported by the 
high authority and sanction of Virgil. The sensations which are 
produced upon our minds by the absence of light, are perhaps analo- 
gous to those which we feel when that mode of writing, metaphorically 
termed obscure, prevents the formation of distinct ideas, and sets no 
limits to our conceptions of power. Even Johnson, who was so 
fond of subjecting poetry to the test of a severe analysis, allows that 
an image may be undefined without being incorrect, and that it is 
sometimes allowable to a poet, " to hover over the abyss of un-ideal 
vacancy/' Let us then, before we condemn that obscurity which 
pervades the oracles of the Daughter of Priam, examine whether a 
stronger light might not destroy the grandeur consequent to super- 
natural impulse, and, by leaving nothing to the imagination, be calcu- 
lated for but a weak impression upon the memory. The priests who 
presided at the shrines of Delphi and Dpdona \yere obliged to conceal 
their impostures from the multitude, by mysterious phrases, and 
studied ambiguity : this necessity gave rise to the idea that obscurity 
and prophecy were of necessity connected, nor are poets ever among 
the first to discard a reigning superstition. Hence the names of animals 
are appropriated by those persons who are supposed to resemble them 
in disposition ; for simile would be too tranquil, and even metaphor 
too cold for the dictates of inspiration. The Hero is not compared 
to the Lion, but is himself represented as falling upon the herds ; the 
Love-sick Maid becomes a Dove ; the Ravisher is invested with the 
talons of an Eagle; and the selfish and sanguinary Monarch is invari- 
ably personated by a Boar, This is the constant practice of all writers 
of prophecy, real or fictitious ; we meet with it at every step, whether 
we listen to the ravings of Cassandra, sympathise with the patriotism of 

the Cambrian bard, or meditate on the sublime visions of Isaiah. Nor 

• «... . 

if it by these arts of composition alone that the author of this mono,- 

of Lycophrori's Cassandra. 9 

dram has labored to escape from the trammels of common speech, 
but, taught by Homer that the Gods use not the language of men, 
he has selected words from the storehouse of antiquity, and raised 
his diction by whatever phrase, invented or antiquated, deserved to 
be adopted or revived. If, not to lose entirely this characteristic of 
the Poem, expressions bearing the stamp of time have occasionally 
heen introduced into the following lines, it is hoped that none have 
become so obsolete as not easily to be intelligible ; for there cannot 
be a greater absurdity than that a translation should stand in need of 
a glossary, or, in other wprds, should itself require to be translated. 

Nor do the compound epithets, which may occur in this volume, 
bear any proportion in number to those which are scattered through 
the original with more than dithyrambic profusion. The genius of 
our language admits very sparingly of this ornament, nor should we 
find it easy to express by one word the complicated ideas involved in 

*\&xra,yoorA\o$, teifoiroLt;, nywitfyo^s, and a long list of others, 

Eurip. Phoeniss. v. 138. 
These, if literally translated, would sound harsh and unmusical to a 
modern ear, though doubtless they appeared far otherwise to the 
Greeks : 

quibus est nihil negatura, 

Et quels *Age$ "Age$ licet sonare, 
Nobis non beet esse tarn disertis, 
Qui Musas colimus severiores. Martial, 


Mark then my words, for I will speak, O King, 
Though long the task, and tedious be the toil; 
For not with sweet and soothing blandishment 
Flowed from the Maiden's lips the gentle stream 
Of oracles benign, but sounds of woe 
Burst dreadful, as she chewed the laurel leaf, 


Ver. 1. The first twenty-nine lines of the Poem are spoken by the 
Guard, appointed by Priam to watch over Cassandra, in his own person. 

0. Before the priests delivered their oracles, they were accustomed to 
chew. the leaves pf the laurel; which tree, from being sacred to Apollo, 
was supposed to communicate inspiration : 

-*- -Sic usque sacros innoxia lauros, 
Vescar. -^ Tibui*. 

10 Lord Royston's Translation 

And ever and anon, like the black Sphinx, 

Poured the full tide of enigmatic song. 

All shalt thou hear, which Memory can retain, 

And through th' obscure of prophecies explore ' 10 

Thine uncouth way ; for now the barriers yield, 

And o'er th' enchanted ground mine eager sou} 

Starts like a steed, and wings her rapid flight. 

The Morn had left thy Brother's bed, the couch 
Of aged Tithon, near to Cerne'sisle, 1$ 

And o'er the misty mountain- tops had flown 
Jocund, upborne on Pegasean wing ; 
The busy crew their moorings had unloosed, 
And heaved their heavy anchors from the sand : 
And now th* Idean Daughters of the grove 20 

Spread their white wings athwart the Hellespont, 
Walking with insect feet upon the waves 
Beyond Calydna's isle ; their swelling sails, 
White as the plumage of the crane, were filled 
With breezes issuing from the stormy North : 2$ 

When, phrensied as a moon-struck Bacchanal, 
Cassandra wandered upon Ate's hills, 
Hills crowned with thousand herds, and poured aloud 
Presaging . sounds, and prophecies of woe. 


7. The Sphinx is called black probably from the darkness anji obscurity 
of her enigmas. 

14. Tithonuswas son of Laomedon by Rhgeo orStrymo, and consequently 
half-brother to Priam. 

15. The situation of Cerne is variously laid down by different authors : 
some, with Nonnus, place it f in the east; Dionysius, in his Geographical 
Poem, speaks of it as lying towards the south; and Eqstathijus, in his 
Commentary, tells us, that by some it was supposed to be far to the west : 
Lycophron speaks of it as near to the residence of Aurora, and, consequently, 
must have imagined it to lie east of Ph r ysia. 

17. Homer, in the twenty- third book of the Odyssey, gives to Aurora 
two horses for her car ; and calls them Lampus and Phaethon: 

-<pao£ avQfW'KQio'i ty't^rretf 

Aapnov %a\ Wtfovra. OdYSS. ¥\ 324. 

but subsequent poets give her the epithet of Movfcrctf*o;,and mount her upon, 
Pegasus alone. 

20. Cassandra is represented as standing upon the hills of Ate, near Troy, 
and gazing upon the ships in which Paris was about to set sail from. 
Phrygia. These galleys are called " Daughters of Ida," from being built 
of wood felled upon that mountain. This expression is similar to that 
of Horace: 

Quamvis Pontica pinus, 

Sylvae film nobilis. Hon. Gd. L 14- * 

From the number of their banks of oars they are compared to Centipedes; 

23; The Calydnae are two smal} islands near Teredos, accowing t% 

of Lycophron's Cassandra. 11 

Ah ! luckless Nurse I enwrapped in ruddy flame 50 

Then when the Lion, sprung from triple Night, 
Steered his dark pine across th' ^gean wave, 

' And hid a host within her hollow womb : 

Who fearless leaped into the caverned jaws 
Of the sea-monster, through the black abyss 33 

Cleaving his bloody way ; whose shadowy locks, 
.Singed in the flameless furnace, wave no more : 
Who dyed his hands in infant blood, the pest 
And fell pollution of my native towers: 
Who 'gainst his stepdame's deathless bosom winged 40 

The iron shaft ; and, wrestling with his sire, 
(Fast by the rocks of Cronus, where the tomb 

' Of Earth-born Ischenus, gigantic birth, 

Rears its cold marble, whence the courser starts) 

Twined round his limbs the sinewy strength of arm : 45 

Who slew the fiend, that, frowning on the wave, 

'30. Cassandra breaks forth into a lamentation on the miseries of Troy: 
for, previous to the rape of Helen, Hercules had invaded Phrygia, and burnt 
the metropolis. He is said to have sprung from « triple Ni»ht, ,f because 
Jupiter retarded the rising of the Sun for three nights, whur, under the 
form of Amphitryo, he slept with his mother -Alcraena. Iu the poem 
ascribed to Theocritus or Simmias the Rhodian, Philoctetes is styled rgiw- 
■zipioxuvra;, in allusion to the funeral rites of IJercules. 

34. After Neptune, with the assistance of Apollo, had erected the walls 
of Troy, Laomedon refused to pay them the stipulated reward ; which so in- 
censed the former, that he sent among the Phrygians a monster of the sea, 
whose wrath was only to be appeased by the daily sacrifice of a virgin. When 
the lot fell upon one of the three daughters of Phaenodamas, he persuaded 
the people to substitute Hesione, the daughter of the king ; but Hercules 
leaped down the throat of the monster, ana destroyed him. In performing 
this exploit he lost his hair, which was burnt by the violence of the inter* 
nal heat. 

38. When Hercules, after dragging up Cerberus to light, returned to 
the city of Thebes, in a paroxysm of madness brought upon him by Juno, 
he murdered his wife Megara, and his own children, conceiving them to 
be those of Lycus. 

40. Hercules, as we are told by Homer, wounded his stepmother Juno 
in the breast, ficrru> Tg*yXwx w » u with an arrow of three barbs." 

41. Hercules established the Olympic Games near Elis, and there wrestled, 
with his father Jupiter, who was thence called n«x»«rrnf, or The Wrestler. 
The mountain near which the Games were celebrated was formerly called 
the Hill of Cronus or Saturn. 

43. Ischenus was son of an Earth-born giant, and devoted himself to 
death, that his country might be relieved from famine. His tomb was in 
the race-course; where a deity called Taraxippus, or *' the Terror of Horses,*' 
was supposed to reside ; whom, before starting, it was thought necessary to 
propitiate by sacrifice. See the Scholia on the Electra of Sophocles. 

46. Hercules slew Scylla, the daughter of Phorcys: but her father 
placed her on the funeral pile, and, when the Barnes had purified her limbs 
from all mortal admixture, restored her to life and immortality. She was 
afterwards changed into a rock, between Italy and Sicily, whjch island was 
palled Trinacris, from its three promontories. 

12 Lord Royston s Translation 

Guards all the narrow pass where billowy roll 

Between Ausonian regions and the shores 

Of Trinacris, where, from the sea-beat rocks, 

She feasts upon the scaly shoals, and laughs 50 

At Death, and Hades' impotent domain : 

For on the vivifying pile her sire 

Heaped high her limbs, and waved the burning torch* 

Kindling the bright resuscitating flame : 

Whom nor with sword, nor shield, nor massive mail, 5* 

The Dead subdued, and gave again to view 

The dark pavilions and the glooms of Hell. 

Ah ! luckless nurse ! again I see thee burnt 
By stern Pelides' son ; while from the bones 
Of Pelops, rescued from the flames, inurned 6Q 

Beside Letrina, springs the smouldering fire ; 
And swift from Teutarus' elastic how 
Fly winged shafts, and clangs the Scythian steel ! 

This shall the jealous Nymph reveal, and send, 
Savaged by woes, her love-begotten child ; C$ 

Shall think upon ber widowed couch, and loathe 
The traitorous bridegroom and the foreign bride I 
But looking, loving, when she sees her lord 
Groan with no med'cinable wound, and lie 
Pierced by those shafts, which to the plume were dyed 70 
In Giants' blood, down from the battlements, 
Down shall she leap, and, frantic with remorse, 

£6. Hercules is said to have been subdued by " the Dead/' because the 
poisoned robs he received from Deianira was dipped in the blood of the, 
dead Nessus ; and to have descended a second time to the shades below, 
because during his life he had gone thither to drag up Cerberus, 

58. It was declared by an oracle, that Troy should not be taken till there 
were brought against it, 1st, The son of Achilles; 2dly,The bones of Pelops : 
and Sdly, The arrows of Hercules. These last are cabled the shafts of 
Teutarus the Scythian, because he was the instructor of Hercules in archery. 

61. Letrina is a town of Elis, in which the bones of Pelops were buried. 

64. (Enone, with whom Paris lived before he deserted her for Helen, 
was so incensed at his conduct, that she sent her son Corythus to give 
assistance to the Grecian armies : hut when she saw her perfidious husband} 
transfixed by the arrows of Philoctetes, which inflicted incurable wounds, 
and found that her skill in medicine (of which she boasts in the Epistles of 
Ovid) was of no avail, she threw herself headlong from a tower, or, according 
to some authors, strangled herself. 

71. When the Giants waged war against Heaven, the Gods found" it 
necessary to call in the assistance of Hercules, who slew some by his, 
arrows, while Jupiter destroyed others by his lightning. To these weapons 
Philoctetes succeeded. Ovid, in his Epistle from Paris to Helen, makes 
the former assert, that Cassandra prophesied, before he left Troy, that he 
should be transfixed by celestial arrows. This prediction he imagined to. 
relate solely to the darts of Love : 

Hoc mihi, nam repeto, fore ut a coeleste sagitta 
Figar, erat vera* vaticinata soror. Ep. xvi. 277, 

of Lytophrons Cassandra* 13 

Breathe out her soul upon" his heaving limbs. 

Again I mourn thee, and again : for, lo ! 
As swells the conquering flame before the wind, f .5 

Soon shalt thou see the lance's lurid gleam, 
And blazing palaces, and dying men ! x 

Again I mourn thee ! Fire shall wrap the tomb 
Of him, the son of the Atlantic nymph, 
. Who round his limbs involved the leathern spoil, 90 

JBorne on his sutile bark, and rode the waves 
Of shoreless seas, alone, as when the boar, 
The tusky king, in solitary pride 
Fares by the Danaw ; thence from Sails' heights 
Swam like the bird, who round Rithymna's steep 85 

Dips her white wings in the salt ooze, and steered 
From the Zerynthian cave of Hecate, 
What time Jove spread the sluices of the skies 
In wild uproar: Earth heard the billows break 
About her, and above; high palaces §0 

Came crashing down ; and the pale sons of men 
Swam, and saw death in every swelling wave : 
On fruits, and acorns, and the growth of grapes* 
Sea-monsters battened : e'en upon that couch 
Where Luxury had languished, cumbrous forms, 95 

Dolphins, and ores, wallowed unwieldily. 

I see the Gryphon spread his leathern wings, 

I ' . . ■ ■ ■ ■ n ■ 

78. Cassandra prophesies that fire shall destroy the tombs of her ances- 
tors, and, amongst others, that of Dardanus the son of Electra, who was a 
daughter of Atlas ; which Dardanus, during the deluge of Deucalion, saved 
iumself in a boat composed of the hides of beasts, and passed into Fhrygia 
from Samothrace, leaving the cave of Zerynthus, which was sacred to 
-Hecate, and Saus, which some call a promontory of Thrace, others an island, 
but which the Commentator on Nicander, cited by Potter, affirms to hate 
been a mountain of Samothrace, which was also sometimes called Saus. 
This tradition is mentioned by Virgil : 

Atque equidem memini (faroa est obscurior annis) 
Auruncos ita ferre senes, his ortus ut agris 
Dardanus Idaeas Phrygian penetravit ad urbes, 
Threiciamque Samum, quae nunc Samothracia fertur. 

/En. VIL 20S. 
85. Rithymna was a town in Crete. The shores on which it was built 
abounded with sea-gulls, and other marine birds. 

97. Doubts are entertained whether the word yp«Dvof, translated H a gry- 

fhon/* may not be synonymous with y?wls 9 " a firebrand," by which name 
.ycophron, in a subsequent passage, has designated Paris : 

u The firebrand gleams, and kindles Discord's torch :" 

thus alluding to the story, which relates, that Hecuba, when pregnant 
with Paris, dreamed that she was delivered of a firebrand. J>oSv©; certainly 
bears the latter signification ; as for example : 

Tpvm pit Woyro, ju/ya; ? "Hfatrrof mfim^ 

14 Lord lioysibtfs TrhnslattoH * 

And mount upon the sharp winds of the North, 

To pounce the Dove, whom erst the snowy Swan 

Engendered, walking on the wave, what time 10Q 

Around the sacred sec undines of gold 

Gleamed the pure whiteness of the circling shell. 

Down the steep pass and Acherusian Way 
I see thee fare, no more on rural cares 

Intent, or rural joys; no more on heights 105 

Of wood-crowned Ida shalt thou stand the judge 
Of rival Beauty, hut by Laas' towers . 
Steer on, and shoot by the M alean rock ; 
For fields, and fleecy flocks, and herded kine> 
And fragrant herbage, and terrestrial oar, 110 

A bark shall bear thee to the double pass 
And Gythian plains, where to the yielding sand 
The crooked teeth shall bind thine hollow pine, 
And winds no longer vex thy folded sail. i 

On the soft heifer wolf-like shalt thou spring 115 

With eager joy : she reckless shall desert 
Her orphan doves ; and e'en Maternal Love 
With waving hand, shall beckon back in vain 

But Hesychius explains it by ypu+> " a gryphon;" and the word Iffripw^MV*, 
u winged/' seems to warrant the adoption of that meaning in the transla- 

99. By the Swan is meant Jupiter, who assumed that form in order to 
deceive Leda, and thus became the lather of Helen, who was produced from 
an egg. She is called a Dove, from her resembling, in amorous propensities, 
that bird, which was consecrated to Venus. This fable, according to Athe- 
ftaeus, proceeds from the resemblance, the term *?<*, " eggs,* bears to $», by 
which name the more ancient Greeks called the apartments set apart for 
the women. 

103. The Acherusian Way was near the promontory of Tsenarus, leading 
to Lacedaemon. Near to it was situated a cave, by which Hercfdes is saw 
to have returned from the infernal regions. 

108. Malea is a promontory, and Las, or Laas, a city of Laconia. 

110. By the " terrestrial oar" iemeant a corn-van. Tiresias,in the Odyssey, 
commands Ulysses to carry upon his shoulders an oar, till a traveller wb* 
never beheld the sea shall call it a corn-van. 

Oovss. A'. 126. 

ill. These ZaAapjSaij called also evptff f , or the Gates, were two passes in 
the mountains of Laconia. Gythium was a town and harbour in the same 
country, according to Strabo and Polybius. 

115. Helen is alluded to by the terra rt heifer." By this name Cassandr* 
\p represented as calling her in Ovid's Epistles : 

Graia juvenca venit, quae te, patriamque, domumque 
Perdet. Io, prohibe ! Graia juvenca venit. 

v <Enobt, Pari©. 


' 117. Hertnione and Iphigenia: but most authors agree in giving to 
Helen only one daughter; Hermione, who was married to Neoptolcmus. * 

of fcycophron's Cassandrd* 15 

The flying prey, who to the net shall rush, 

Scared by the flutterings of the scarlet plume: 1520 

And on the beachy verge of the salt sea 

Shall burn the fatlings of the flock to those 

Of Ocean Nymphs who bid soft airs of heaven 

Pant on the joyous ocean. Thou shalt run 

Beyond Scandea and the jutting crags 125 

Of iEgilus, and, gazing on thy prey, 

Laugh loud, and joy in thy successful toils ; 

Bathing thy soul in love, where, in his isle, 

The Dragon monarch reared his blended form; 

But, ah ! no more thy baffled arms shall press 150 

The bright-haired nymph, but clasp unto thy breast 

The cold embrace, the visionary joy, 

Ghost of departed love, shade of a dream. 

For he (who wedded the Phlegrean maid, 

On whose dark brow ne'er sits the smile of joy, 135 

Down whose stern cheek ne'er rolls the tear of woe, 

• i i • ii i i i i i i* » 

120. It was customary among the ancients to catch deer by gradually 
enclosing them with ropes, on which were tied scarlet feathers; by this 
contrivance they were so much terrified, as to be prevented from breaking 

Cervum puniceae septum formidine pennae. 

Virg. Mn. XIL 750. 

122. Helen, terrified by a dream, sacrificed to Leucothea and the Sea 
Nymphs, then fled with Paris to Egypt, (or was driven thither by a storm, 
according to Herodotus,) passing TEgilus, a promontory of Peloponnesus* 
and Scaudea, a port of Cythera. 

129. Ericthonius, king of Attica, had the feet of a dragon : from him the 
Athenians were styled Ericthonii. 

ISO. Lycophron attributes to Proteus this substitution of a phantom itt 

eace of Helen : Euripides ascribes it to Juno. The tragedian makes Helen 
roent that her reputation should be lost, though her person remains in- 
violate : Lycophron, on the contrary, tells us that Pans was not deprived 
of his prize till he had effected his purpose in the island of Salanfis : but 
both agree in asserting that the son of Priam brought with him to Troy, 
not Helen, but a visionary resemblance. 

„ Ai^bwt oux $' I^t*, &W* Qjj.onu<racr > Ifxol 

E^o/Xay cfAttvoi/v. H&LEH. EuRIPID. 

Homer affirms Paris to have borne Helen to Cranae, which some understand 
to mean Attica, some Cythera, others merely an epithet, but Pausanias an 
island off Gythium : 

• Nnow $* Iv Kpavo^* Ifxiynv 4>(XoT>jTi xal tfarj. 

134. Proteus, the son of Neptune, came from Egypt into Thrace, and 

tbere married Torone, an inhabitant of Phlegra. By fier he had two sons, 

Polygonus and Telegonus, who gave such offence to their father by theit 

cruelty to strangers, that he asked and obtained of Neptune that the Earth 

might afford him a passage through her bowels from Pallene to Egypt. 

When his sons were afterwards slain by Hercules, he displayed neither joy, 

because he was their father, nor grief, because he execrated their wicked*- 
ntss. •* 

16 Lord Hoy stem's Tramlaiidn 

Who fled from stormy Thrace, unto the shores 

Where "Nile redundant with expanded wings 

Broods on the bedded foison, not with steeds, 

Nor painted ships careering o'er the main, lid 

But through th' obscure and caverned gloom of Earth 

Wound as a mole his uncouth way, and beard 

The waves of Ocean roar above bis head ; 

What time he cursed his murderous progeny, 

And pourtfd unto his sire the prayer, that then 145 

Those plains he might regain, from whence be came 

Far as'- the nurse of the gigantic brood, ' 

Far as Pallene's desolated shore,) 

He j just as Gimeus, whom the sons of men 

Justest extol, by sacred Themis led, ISO 

Icbnaean maid, high arbitress of right, 

Shall seize thy wanton bride, and drive thee far 

From the soft cooings of thy billing dove : 

For not the loves of Antheus, nor the guests 

Who poured on Lycus* and Chimsereus' tomb l£5 

Their dark libations, nor the hallowed salt 

Of earth-ericif cling Neptune, nor the rites 

Of hospitable Jove, could move thy sou!, 

Stern as the bear which nursed in Ida's woody 

Thine infancy, fit nurture for fit child : ' i60 


148. Eustathius, in his Commentary on IJionysius, says that Pallene is *• 
town of Thrace, and also a triangular peninsula, formerly inhabited by 

149. It is for his justice that Proteus is compared to Gimeus. who was 
renowned for that virtue throughout Arabia: and who, according to thfe 
Scholiast, was sent by Semiramis to assist the Babylonians against banditti. 

151. We learn from Strabo that Themis was styled Ichnaean^ from Ichna* 
a city of Thessaly : xai'vfcai, oirov n eifxtg 'ixva/a rifxarm. She is also called 
Ichnaean by Diodoros and Homer. The Scholiast is evidently wrong in 
deriving the epithet from **%w. 

1$4. Antheus, the son of An tenor, was much* beloved by Paris, by'whom 
he was accidentally slain while Menelaus was at Troy. Paris, dreading the 
anger of An ten or, fled to Sparta, and became in his turn the guest of the 
husband of Helen, but violated the rites of hospitality, and disregarded the 
obligations contracted by partaking of his salt, which among the ancients 
was considered sacred, ana without which no sacrifice was ever undertaken; 
whence Lycophron gives it the epithet of ayiims, or "hallowed." Among 
the Arabians salt is the symbol of hospitality; and when they would express 
the greatest abhorrence and detestation, they say of a main that he is "a 
bread and salt traitor." 

155. Lycus and Chimaereus were sons of Prometheus, and buried at Troy ? 
-when afterwards a famine oppressed the Spartans, an oracle commanded 
them to send a deputation to Phrygia for the purpose of sacrificing at their 
tombs : in consequence, Menelaus came to Troy, and returned with Paris to 

159. Paris, while an infant, was exposed in the forests of Ida, where some 
authors assert him to have been nursed by a she-bear. 

of Lycophron' s Cassandra. 17 

Wherefore all joyless ghalt thou strike the lyre, 

Trilling vain chords and bootless melodies. 

And pour the fruitless tear, when thou shalt mark 

Thy native towers, which erst the son of Jove 

Mantled in ruddy flame, and in thine arms 165 

Embrace the fleeting shade of her who hears 

Pleuronian Maenad, for whose beauteous form 

Five times the bridal torch shall shed around 

Its saffron light of love ; for so the Fates, 

Ancient of days, dread daughters of the main, . 170 

Have stamped their web, and ratified her doom. 

Two Eagles, stooping from the clouds, % shall seize 

The trembling Bird, and swoop upon their prey. 

161. Nequicquam Veneris presidio ferox, 
Pectes c<esariem, grataque foeminis 
Im belli cithara carmina divides. 

Hor. Od. 1. 15. 

167. Pleuron is a town of Peloponnesus, whence Helen is called Pleuro- . 
nian; but Pausanias tells us that Pleuron was the grandfather of Leda, and 
(hat his descendants bore his name as a p.itronymic. Helen is styled a 
Maenad, or priestess of Bacchus, from her frantic conduct. 

168. Lycophron, in the following verses, particularises the five husbands 
of Helen ; in which enumeration he confounds the shadow with the sub- 
stance : for if her image went to Troy, she cannot with propriety be said 
to have espoused Dei'phobus. This passage is not repugnant to another, in 
which she is called Tpiaywp ico^n, or " the Bride of Three Husbands :" for 
Theseus carried her off when only seven years of age, and restored her 
inviolate: and Achilles is merely said to have wedded her in a dream, or 
after death, in the Elysfan Fields. 

169. The Fates are said by Orpheus and Hesiod to be Daughters of 
Night, because their decrees are hidden from mortals. By Lycophron 
they are called Children of the Ocean, either because to water was ascribed 
the genesis or production of every thin*, or perhaps from their cruelty and 
inexorability. In the Orphic Hymns, all fore-knowledge of events is limited 
to them and Jupiter. Lucian has a Dialogue in which a philosopher is intro- 
duced laboring to prove to Jove that he possesses no power of altering 
their decrees, and, consequently, that it is useless to pay any adoration to 
him. But whatever were the sentiments of the ancients upon this head, 
they mostly seem to have imagined that mankind were subject to a blind 
and unalterable destiny : though indeed Homer tells us, that the companions 
of Ulysses perished aprt^ny kr%n%a>X^y^ " by their own proper folly;" and 
Cleanthes inculcates the absolute free-will of man : 

O6J1 Tt yiyyiTeu /jpyw \%\ X^ *', Sou &X*» A*»i/uoy, 
Oi& xar* alQipw 6t7ov IIoXov, o£S' hi twtw, 
IIXjjy btoo-a pifovo-i Kaxol vtytrifycrw t»yoi«<£* 

which lines may be translated by these two of Pope : 
And binding Nature fast in Fate, 
Left free the human will. Univ. Prayer. 

174. Theseus and Paris, who are called eagles from having each carried 
off Helen. 


18 Lord Roy stones Translation 

A scyon next, who blossoms from the roots 
Which sprout by Caricus' immortal stream, 17^ 

Or Afric Plyrtos, sprung from Cretan seed, 
Shall twine his branching honors round ber limbs ; 
« Whose kindred blood in dreadful banquet quaffed 
Erinnys, mistress of the mystic sword, 
Queen of the fields of Enna, and entombed ISO 

The shoulder, soon with ivory white to gleam : 
But youth again illumed bis cheek, again 
He rose to light and life ; strong passion seized 
Erectheus, monarch of the main, he snatched 
His prize, and bore to Let rinse an plains, 185 

(Where Molpis rears on high his marble form, 
Molpis, whose blood to Jove Ethereal flowed,) 
There on the course the guilty lover slew 
The guilty father of the fair ; such wiles, 
Such impious arts, such subtleties of death, 190 

Th' unhallowed son of Cadmilus disclosed, 

174. Menelaus is said to spring from branches florishing by Caricus, 
a river of Laconia, and Plynos, a city of Africa, because Hippodamia, the 
mother of his father Atreus by Pelops the Laconian, was descended from 
Atlas the African. Atreus married Aerope, the grand- daughter of Minos 
king of Crete; for which reason Menelaus is calledfyux^f, " half a Cretan*" 
and f&ffapos, " a barbarian," because Tantalus, the father of Pelops, came 
into Greece from Lydia, according to Pindar ; according to others, from 
Phrygia or Paphlagonia. 

178. Pelops was slain by his father Tantalus, and served up at a banquet 
of the Gods, but was afterwards restored to life ; and a shoulder of ivory, 
given to him by Jupiter, replaced that which had been eaten by Ceres. 

179. Ceres is called Erinnys by Callimachus. Enna is that plain of 
Sicily where, 

Proserpine, gathering flowers. 
Herself a fairer flower, by gloomy Dis 
Was gathered. 

Milt. Par. Lost. 

184. Pelops, after his resuscitation, was carried off by Neptune Erectheus 
to the plains of Letrina in El is, there to contend with (Enomaus, who had 
promised his daughter Hippodamia to whoever could conquer him in the 
chariot-race, but annexed to his challenge an express condition, that his 
competitor, if vanquished, should be put to death. 

186. Molpis was a noble youth of Elis, who devoted himself to death, 
in obedience to an oracle, that his country might be relieved from excessive 
drought. The gratitude of his fellow-citizens erected a temple to zify "o>t6jpft6;, 
or " Jupiter the God of Rain,* and placed in it a statue of their benefactor. 

188. Pelops conquered by the treachery of Mvrtilus the charioteer, who 
removed the iron linch-pins from the naves of his master's chariot-wheels, 
and substituted wax in their room. 

191. Myrtilus was the son of Mercury, who was adored by the Boeotians 
under the name of Cadmilus. Meursius grounds his alteration to Casmilus 
upon a passage in the Scholia on Apollonius, where Casmilus, adored bv 
the Samothracians as one of the Cabiri, is asserted to be the same with 
Mercury. We read in Varro, that in th*. Samothraciao mysteries the 

of Lycophroris Cassandra 19 

Disclosed to his own ruin ; for he drank 

The wave Myrtoan, and the bitter stream, 

Whelmed in his watery sepulchre. What now 

Avails that flying o'er the dusty plain, igs 

Swift Psylla whirled the rattling cbariotry, 

Or fleet Harpinna, borne on harpy wings? 

The fourth, the Brother of the ravening Hawk, 
Shall wed the shining Mischief ; loud acclaim 
In supple wrestlings and hi sinewy force 200 

Shall hail him conqueror of the second prize. 
Round her the fifth, in dream -created joys, 

minister of the great Gods was named Camillus: '« Camillus nomina'ur in 
Samothraces mysteriis, deus quidam administer Deis magnis." This em- 
ployment agrees with that ascribed to Mercury by the Greeks and Romans, 
though the latter consider him as himself forming one of the Dii majorutn 
Gentium. We learn from Servius, in his notes upon Virgil, that the 
children who officiated at the altars were anciently called Camilli and 
Camillas; for which reason Mercury is styled Camillus in the old Etruscan. 
This name is formed by syncope from Casmilus. In the same manner, 
in the iEneid, Camilla bears the name of her mother, omitting the letter i : 

Matrisque vocavit 

Nomine Casmillae, mutata parte, Camillam. 
Joseph Scaliger translates the passage 

— qui trucidavit procos 

Justis nefandis, quae Camilli filius 


197. Myrtilus had stipulated with Pelops, that, in reward for his treachery, 
he should pass a night with Hippodamia, of whom he was enamoured; bur, 
when he claimed performance of this promise, Pelops threw him into the 
tea, which was called from his name " Mare Myrtoum." This act of 
cruelty is constantly referred to by the Greek tragedians, who date from 
it all the calamities which afterwards befell the unhappy house of Atreus. 

198. Deiphobus became the husband of Helen after the death of Paris, 
having gained the victory in the games instituted by Priam on that occasion. 
We learn from an old Scholiast on Homer, that Priam had promised her 
hand to the successful competitor : ity'*^; t?jc *Exly»i; ykpn *Wxw ifou r£ 

ifta-rtvo-avn xura rhf ^Aayjif, AijfyojSo; $i ytnaTog AymKrafMfog tynpn «dr^». Dei- 

pbobus was considered as inferior only to Hector, whence he is said to bear 
•f the second prise of strength. Paris is called a hawk in allusion to the 
rape of Helen. 

909. Achilles dreamed that he was married to Helen ; and Cassandra 
wophecies that in process of time he shall marry Medea, who fled with 
Jason from Cytaea, a city of Colchis. Her words are, in the original, 

U Scaiiger's translation, 

Sponsum futurum Angitias Cytafcae 

Ardentis hospitem; 
tm& which it is clear that he conceived the passage to allude to Medea, 
Htursuis gives no opinion ; but Canter and Potter agree with Scaliger, as 
does also the scholiast Tzetzes. Medea is called Cytaeis by Propertius; 
jtaphocaaA jtvea her the aame of Kwwfc *#•*•, " the Cytsean Medea*" 

90 Ltird Roystdn's Translation 

Shall clasp his visionary arms, whose bride, 

Cytaean Maenad, on the stranger forms 

Snail gaze with frantic eves ; son of the sire 205 

Who, flying from (Enone, poured the prayer, 

Nor poured in vain ; strait, from the genial earth 

Blackening with insect swarms innumerable, 

Rose the tall troops of marshalled Myrmidons 

In serried files, or goodly front of war ! 210 

Son of the sire who snatched him from the flames 

Where six had left their infant lives in fire. 

The perfumed youth, retracing all his way, 
Shall rouse the Wasps, thick clustering in their cells, 
E'en as a boy who wraps in smoky steams 1 5 

The winged swarms, sons of the peopled air. 

Whence is that Heifer 1 whence upon her brow 

in a quotation produced by Eustathius, who alludes to these verses of Lyco- 
phron. But we are informed by Stephanus that there is another town of 
the same name in Scythia, " «Vti ii <*xx>? Zx'Mag :" — so that perhaps may be 
meant Iphigenia the daughter of Agamemnon, to whom Achilles was be- 
trothed at Aulis, and who sacrificed, on the shores of Scythia, all strangers 
who fell into her hands. In this case, for " hospites depereuntis," in Canter's 
version, should be substituted " hospitts mactantis ut Maenas." The trans- 
lator has permitted the passage to remain as ambiguous as Lycophron baa 
left the original. 

206. Peleus, having accidentally killed his brother Phocus, and being 
consequently compelled to fly from the island (Enone or CEnopia, which 
afterwards took the name of TEgina the daughter of Asopus, entreated of 
Jupiter to raise him up an army, with which to supply the place of those 
attendants whom he had lost : the Deity granted his prayer, and caused a 
swarm of ants to assume the human form. The men so produced were 
called Myrmidons, from pOfv-ni , u an ant." 

211. The Scholiast avows his ignorance of the source from which Lyeo-. 
phron drew this story, but quotes Agamestor to prove that Achilles was 
formerly called nvptVo-oof, " saved from the fire." But Meursius has produced 
a passage from the Scholia on Homer, which tells us, that Thetis, 
incensed at having been compelled to marry a mortal, destroyed six of her 
children, by throwing them into the flames as soon as born; but that the 
seventh was saved by Peleus, who named him Achilles, from a, and x" Xo ?> 
because he lost a lip in the fire. But this is contrary to Homer himself, 
who makes Achilles say that Thetis had no other child : " 'axx' ha iraTi» 
ve'xiv." The poem, ascribed to Simmias or Theocritus, which bears the name 
of £ttfjtx&c, " an Altar," given to it from the subject, or the shape which it 
assumes owing to the various length of the lines, alludes to this story of. 
Achilles in the word oW«vv«?, derived from o-woJo;, " ashes," and ifov, " a bed;" 
if indeed the Commentary in the edition of the Poetae Graeci by Stephanus, 
said to be taken from some old Scholia, is correct in the explanation which 
it gives ; for the beginning of the poem is very different in the various 
editions, and is supposed by some to relate to Troilus. 

213. Paris is intended by the " perfumed youth," who, returning to Troy 
with Helen, roused the Greeks who are styled " wasps," to follow and re- 
gain her. 

217. Iphigenia, whom the Greeks would have sacrificed at Aulis, in order 
to appease Diana and procure a favorable wind ; but the goddess substituted 

of Lycophroiis Cassandra. 21 

Pour they those floods of libatory wine 1 \* 

Red to th e winds shall flow her fated blood ! 

What ! though enwombed within the sacred shrine 220 

Of her chaste body pant the Dragon boy, 

Whom stern arbitrament of war shall style ! 

Long 'mid the Salmydesian waves shall seek 
Her hapless bridegroom, and shall waste the hours, 
The tedious hours, within the whitening isle, 225 

Where feebly through the marish Celtus flows ; 
And ages of revolving years revere 
" The Bridegroom's Course" upon the sounding shore, 
There where he wept his fruitless search, and sighed, 
Reft of his regal spousals ; but the nymph, 230 

'Mong lustral urns and sacrificial steams, 
Shall blow the flames which round the caldron blaze 
Of Hades, boiling from th' abyss, and still 
With frequent corpses glut its sable jaws. 

Thus shall he wander on the Scythian shore, 235 

For five long years shall wander wearily, 

a bind. The boy, with whom Lycophron tells us she was pregnant, 
was Neoptolemus, whose name is derived from v?o;, " young," and wtox*^*, 
" war." Other authors, however, assert him to have been the son of Achilles 
by Deidamia. 

333. Achilles, after the disappearance of Iphigenia, sought for her in 
Scythia, and, not succeeding, dwelt long in the island Leuce, or White Isle, 
which was afterwards called the Insula Achillea, and appears to be the 
same with that of which Calaber introduces Neptune making mention to 
Thetis : 

Kal o! iwpov tytoyt 9tov$ttt yricrov oita<raw 
Ev£«yov xara ttovtov, x. t. *• 

And Pindar, 

'Ev &' Euf /vp vfXaya 


Sal my dessus is a river of Thrace, which falls into an inlet oftheEuxine, 
and gives to it the name of the Salmydesian Sea. 

326. Celtus is the name of a lake connected with the northern parts of 
the Euxine. 

238. The Scholiast on Dionysius tells us, that on the shores of Scythia 
was a broad strand, called Apo/uoc 'Ax,'**"** , or " the Course of Achilles :" it 
is a peninsula near the mouth of the Borysthenes, the shape of which is 
compared by Pliny to a sword. Pomponius Mela says, that Achilles entered 
those seas with a hostile armament, and celebrated his victory by games 
and races : " Cum ab armis quies erat, se et suos cursu exercitavisse 
memoratur, ideo dicta est ^pag Ax*xxiiOf. w Lib. II. cap. 1. 
• 230. Iphigenia was priestess of Diana in Scythia, and compelled to 
sacrifice to the goddess all strangers who were cast upon the shores : See 
the Iphigenia in Tauris, by Euripides. But all these stories are contrary to 
Homer, who makes Agamemnon, during the siege of Troy, propose to 
Achillea to marry his daughter Iphigenia, or, as she is there called, Iphia- 

22 Lord Roy ston's Translation / 

While thick round Saturn's marble altar swarm 
The thronging hosts, and view devoured in death 
The fluttering mother and the callow young. 

An oath ! an oath ! they have an oath in heaven! 240 
Soon shall their sail be spread, and in their hands 
The strong oar quivering cleave (he refluent wave ; 
While songs, and hymns, and carols jubilant 
Shall charm the rosy God, to whom shall rise. 
Rife from Apollo's Delphic shrine, the smoke 245 

Of numerous holocausts : Well pleased shall hear 
Enorches, where the high-hung taper's light 
Gleams on his dread carousals, and when forth 
The Savage rushes on the corny field 

Mad to destroy, shall bid his vines entwist 250 

His sinewy strength, and hurl him to the ground. 

I see the long and linked chain of woes 
Rippling the deep, and drawing on my Troy 
Wide-wasting storms, and deluges of flame ! 

Oh ! ne'er had Cadmus on the beachy verge 255 

Of Issa thee engendered ; thee, the fourth 

238. While the Greeks were sacrificing, a serpent was seen to steal to a 
nest, and devour nine birds, and lastly their mother. This prodigy was 
interpreted to mean, that Troy should resist for nine years, and be take* 
fn the tenth. 

340. The suitors of Helen bound themselves by an oath to maintain in 
the possession of her whomsoever she should chuse to be her husband. 
They afterwards renewed their engagement, while the fleet lay wind-bound 
at Aulis: 

Quam multo repetet Graecia milite, 
Conjurata tuas rumpere nuptias. Hon. Od. I. 15. 

345. Agamemnon, according to the Scholiast, sacrificed to Bacchus in 
the temple of Apollo at Delphi, where those Deities were jointly wor- 
shipped : 

Cui numine misto * 

Delphica Thebame referunt Trieterica Bacchic. * 

Lucan. lib. V. 
947. Enorches is a name, of Bacchus, who, in return for the sacrifices of 
Agamemnon, overthrew his enemy Telephus, king of My si a, by entangling 
his feet in a vine. By the " corny field" is meant the Grecian army. In 
the second of those books, which bear the name of Dictys of Crete, Tele- 
phus is said to have stumbled against the trunk of a vine, while pursuing 
Ulysses through a vineyard; at this juncture he was wounded by Achillea 
in the left thigh. 

253. By the " chain of woes rippling the deep*' is meant the line of 
Grecian ships proceeding against Troy, or perhaps simply that misfortune 
on misfortune would follow the rape of Helen. Martial has an expreamn 
similar to Lycophron's o-vupa %ax£v : 

Expectant curaeque, catenatique labores. 

lib. I. Ep. 13. 
356. Lesbos was anciently called Issa : Tfc AiV/Seu wtkwpim wprtfn *W*f. 
Strabo, lib. I. 

. * 

of Lycophron's Cassandra. 23 

From giant Atlas ; thee, who to the Greeks 

Shalt prophesy of wars and victories, 

Prylis, and teach thy kindred blood to flow ! 

Oh ! that my sire had wrapped in Lemnian flame 26*0 

The fated pair, nor scorned the voice divine, 

And Terrors walking round the couch of sleep 

In moody march ! then not upon our shores 

Had burst such billows of overwhelming woe. 

And now Palemon, to whom infant shrieks 265 

Rise from red furnaces of sacred flame, 
Shall see the plains, where rules the regal spouse 
Of old Oceanus, Titanian queen, 
Rippling with sea-birds, as they wave their wings 
Of corded plumes, and on the waters fly. 270 

And now the dark and damp embrace of Death 
Entwines the children and the sire ; from high 
The missile marble rushes on their heads 
Thundering from stern Pelides' hand : ah ! now, 
Now what avails that, when the fabling bard 275 

Poured bis rank venom in their father's ears, 
Safely they rode upon the surging wave 
In crazy bark, as erst had roamed their sire, 

359. Mercury was called Cadmus, or Cadmilus, by the Boeotians. (See 
tiote on verse 191.) Prylis, his son, is said to be the' fourth from Atlas, 
because Maia, the mother of Mercury, was daughter to that cod. The 
Trojans are called his " kindred blood," because Dardanus was the son of 
Electra, who was also the daughter of Atlas. 

261. Hecuba and Paris. When the former dreamed that she was 
delivered of a fire-brand, iEsacus, the son of Priam and Arisba, advised that, 
in order to avert the impending calamities, both mother and son should 
be destroyed ; but with this advice Priam neglected to comply. 

265. Palemon, or Melicerta, was the son of Ino, who, flying from the 
rage of Atharnas, leaped with him, while he was vet an infant, into the 
sea, where he was received into the rank of marine Deities. He was 
worshipped at Tenedos, and children were sacrificed at his altars in memo* 
rial of his having been himself a child. 

267. Tethys, the wife of Oceanus, was one of the Titans, the children of 
Earth and Uranus. By the sea-birds are understood the Grecian vessels. 

271. Cycnus, the son of Apollo or Neptune, being shut up in a chest as 
soon as born, and cast into the sea, was found and educated dv some fisher- 
men. He afterwards married Proclea, by whom he had two children, Tenus 
and Hemithea. After the death of his wife, he married Phylonome, or 
Polybea, who, according to Plutarch, becoming enamoured of Tenus, and 
enraged at his not returning her passion, suborned Molpus, a musician, to 
swear that Tenus had offered violence to his step-mother. Cycnus con* 
fned his children in the chest, and set them adrift; but they floated 
to the island of Leucophrys, of which Tenus became king, and called it, 
from his own name, Tenedos. Cycnus, having discovered the truth, slew 
Phylonome, and came to dwell at Tenedos, but was killed by Achilles, 
together with his son. Hemithea, while flying from the conqueror, was 
swallowed up by the earth. 

24 Lord Royston's Translation 

Consorting long with dolphins of the deep, 

And forms marine, till tangled in the nets 280 

Of laboring mariners 1 And with them lies 

Mnemon, whose mind the Nereid Mother stored 

With precepts sage ; but Memory to his eyes 

Ne'er shall unroll her truth-recording page, 

Till biting falchions feast upon bis gore. 285 

Hark, how Myrinna groans ! the shores resound 
With snorting steeds, and furious chivalry : 
Down leaps the Wolf, to lap the blood of kings, 
Down on our strand ; within her wounded breast 
Earth feels the stroke, and pours the fateful stream 290 

On high, the fountains of the deep disclosed. 

Now Mars showers down a fiery sleet, and winds 
His trumpet-shell, distilling blood, and now, 
Knit with the Furies and the Fates in dance, 
Leads on the dreadful revelry ; the fields 295 

With iron harvests of embattled spears 
Gleam; from the towers I hear a voice of woe 
Rise to the stedfast Empyrean ; crowds 
Of zoneless matrons rend their flowing robes, 
And sobs and shrieks cry loud unto the night, 300 

€82. Mnemon was placed near Achilles by Thetis, in order to remind him 
that death would be the consequence of his slaying a son of Apollo ; 
but he forgot the admonition, and was killed by Achilles for his negligence, 
as soon as that hero perceived that in putting Cycnus to death he had 
unwarily fulfilled the prediction. Meursius says, that Mnemon is not a 
proper name, but signifies " a monitor," and understands it to allude to 
Phonix : but Lycophron, in a subsequent passage, tells us, that Phoenix 
survived Achilles. 

286. Myrinna was a town not far from Troy, so called from the \tomb of 
Myrinna the Amazon. Homer says that it was called Batiea by mortals, 
but Myrinna by the gods : 

T»jv rjT0i av&ptg Bariitav xinXwrxoi/env, 
'A0ttyaroi ii rt anfxa noXvaxdpQpoio Mvpivvw. 

It was at this place that the Trojans collected an army to oppose the 

288. Achilles, who is said to have leaped down from his ship with such 
force that a fountain sprung up from under his heel. This story is mentioned 
by Euripides. 

293. Shells were used by the ancients instead of trumpets : hence Theo- 

— — *6y\oi /Xft)v (Jt,vxn<raro xoiXov. 

He sounded an hollow shell. 
It is difficult to prove a writer of prophecy guilty of an anachronism, more 
especially when speaking of a Deity ; but it does not appear from Homer 
that trumpets were used at the time of the Trojan war, since he only 
mentions them in a simile. Virgil has either overlooked or disregarded 
this, when he gives Misenus to iEneas as a trumpeter : 

Quo non praestantior alter 

2£re ciere viros, Martemque accendere cantu. . j3Ln*VL. 164. 

of Lycophron's Cassandra. 25 

One woe is past! — another woe succeeds! 

This, this shall gnaw my heart ! then shall I feel 
The venomed pang, the rankling of the soul, 
Then when the Eagle, bony, gaunt and grim, 
Shall wave his shadowy wings, and plough the winds 305 
On clanging penus, and o'er the subject plain 
Wheel his wide-circling flight in many a gyre, 
Pounce on his prey, scream loud with savage joy, 
And plunge his talons in my Brother's breast, 
(My best beloved, my Father's dear delight, 310 

Our hope, our stay !) then, soaring to the clouds, 
Shower down his blood upon his native woods, 
And bathe the terrors of his beak in gore. 

I see the Murderer trim with reeking hands 
The golden balance nicely poised ; . but soon, 315 

In mortal mart, and dread exchange of war, 
For him the beam shall vibrate, and for him 
With shining ingots, and with precious sands 
Gleaned from Pactoliau shores the scale shall gleam, 
Ere in that urn, which erst the rosy God 320 

Gave to the Daughter of the Waves, be laid 
His funeral ashes mouldering ; him the Nymphs 
Shall mourn, who love the streams of Bephyrus, 
Or waters welling from Pirapiean founts 
Beside Libethrus, and shall heave the sigh 32$ 


302. The following passage alludes to the death of Hector, and to the 
circumstance of his being dragged at the chariot-wheels of Achilles, who 
is called an eagle. 

314. Achilles restored the body of Hector to Priam upon condition that 
he should receive a great weight of gold: when therefore he was himself 
slain by Paris in the temple or Apollo Thymbraeus, the Trojans refused to 
give up his body unless the ransom was refunded. 

Si 6. *0 yjjyo-afJUMf&s &'*Apvs <rw(xarwv f 

JEschtl. Agam. 447. 
which lines are thus translated by Potter : 

Thus in the dire exchange of war 

Does Mars the balance hold, 
Helms are the scales; the beam a spear, 
And blood is weighed for gold. 
320. The urn which contained the ashes of Achilles was given to Thetis 
by Bacchus. 

323. Bephyrus is a river of Macedonia ; but Pausanias tells us that 
Helicon is so called when it rises again after having lost itself in the earth. 
Libethrus is a mountain of Macedonia, according to Tzetzes; but Pausa- 
nias gives the name of Libethra to a city near Mount Olympus, Boot. cap. 
xxx. Pliny calls Libethra a fountain near Magnesia: "Thessaliae adnexm 
Magnesia, cujus fons Libethra." lib. IV. cap. 9. Pimpla is a fountain, or 
a hul according to Catullus and others. By the Nymphs, Lycophron may 
mean the Muses, who are called Libethrides; though Pausanias tells us, 

26 Lord Roystoa's Translation 

For him, who, not for pity, but for gold, 

Gave the sad remnants of the mighty dead ; 

Who, fearing death, shall round his sturdy limbs 

Throw the soft foldings of the female robe 

Effeminate, and tease the housewife's wool ; 330 

Who last shall print upon our sand his steps, 

His tardy steps, and oft from troubled sleep, 

As Hector's image walks around the bed, 

Start at the lance's visionary gleam. 

Oh God ! what column of our house, what stay, 335 ' 

What massy bulwark fit to bear the weight 
Of mightiest monarchies, hast thou overthrown ! 
But not without sharp pangs the Dorian host 
Shall scoff our tears, and mock our miseries, 
And, as the corpse in sad procession roils, 340 

Shall laugh the loud and bitter laugh of scorn, 
When through the blazing helms and blazing prows 
Pale erowds shall rush, and with uplifted hands 
And earnest prayer invoke protector Jove 
Vainly ; for then nor foss, nor earthy mound, 345 

Nor bars, nor bolts, nor massy walls, though flanked 
With beetling towers, and rough with palisades, 
Aught shall avail ; but (thick as clustering bees, 
When sulphurous steams ascend, and sudden flames 
Invade, their populous cells) down from the barks, 350 

Heaps upon heaps, the dying swarms shall roll, 

And temper foreign furrows with their gore ! 

Then thrones, and kingdoms, potentates whose veins 
Swell high with noble blood, whose falchions mow 
" The ranks, and squadrons, and right forms of war/' 355 

that at the distance of forty stadia from Coronea was the mountain Libe- 
thrius, where were the statues of the Muses and the Libethrian Nymphs. 
Paus. cap. xxxiv. 

Mwaai &' Ivvia %a<ra,i afxtt^ofxtvcn oTtl xaXjj 
BfrftM*. Hoat. Odyss. 

328. Thetis, when the oracle declared that Achilles would die before 
Troy, sent him to the island of Scyros, where he remained some time in 
the court of Lycomedes, disguised as a virgin. See the Achillei'd of Statius, 
and the Fragment of Moschus on the Loves of Achilles and Deidamia, 
335. Cassandra calls Hector the column and support of the house of 

With Atlantean shoulders fit to bear 
The weight of mightiest monarchies. 

MrLTON, Par. Lost. 
S48. Hector, in the Iliad, pursues the Grecians to their entrenchments, 
faprsta the gate, and sets their vessels on fire. Homer informs us that 
fortifications consisted of a wall and foss, defended by palisadt s : 

II. *. 440. 

of Lycophron $ Cassandra. 27 

Down e en to earth thy dreaded hands thai] crush* 

Loaded with death, and maddeniug for the fray. 

But I shall bear the weight of woe, but I 

Shall shed the ceaseless tear ; for sad the dawn. 

And sad the day shall rise when thou art slain ! 360 

Saddest, while Time athwart the deep serene 

Rolls on the silver circle of the moon. 

Thee too I weep, no more thy youthful form 
Shall blossom with new beauties, now no more 
Thy brother's arms shall twine about thy neck 365 

In strict embrace, but to the Dragon's heart 
Swift shalt thou send thy shafts entipped with flame, 
And round his bosom weave the limed nets . 
Of love; but loalhing shall possess thy soul, 
Thy blood shall flow upon thy father's hearth, 370 

And low the glories of thine head shall lie* 

Ah me ! thy sorrows, and thine altered form) 
And you, ye sad harmonious nightingales ! 
For one the riven earth shall wide disclose 
A horrid chasm, and hell shall gape beneath, 575 

E'en in that grove, where oft the Heifer strayed 
Awaiting secret love, there where my Sire 

363. Troilus, whom Achilles passionately loved; but meeting with no 
return of affection, slew him in tne temple of Apollo Thymbrsus. whoso 
son he was reported to be by Hecuba, though Priam was his^reputoi 

367. ra yty irwpl itanm £f j&urrai. 

Moschds, "ffMf Ofor* 

For all the shafts of Love are dipped in flame. 

379. The first line of this section refers to Hecuba, who was changes* 
into a dog; and the second to the sisters of Cassandra, Laodice and 

374. Laodice, lamenting the miseries of her situation, and the misfortunes 
of her country, asked and obtained that the earth might open and swallow 
her up, before she was dragged into captivity : 

Kefti rort kov TIpia[A*io ffoXvxrnroio 06y«9pi 
Aao&Mqv ivbnvo-tr I; al&ifa yj*ft «gt|;»# 
Mdjofjuvrt (AMxnptao-iv &Tupi«riv t Styct t ymk 
'A/upiXani, irpiv x"g« jSaXwv im\ Uv\ia. fry** 
Trig ii 0e»v ng axov <rt, xai tturixa /ot«v titfQn 

Calab. lib* xii. 
376. Lycophron tells us that Laodice was swallowed up by the earth in 
the grove where Cilia and her son were put to death by order of 
Priam, who chose to understand the prediction of JEsacus as applying to 
them. (See Note on verse 261.) The name of the son of Cilia is no 
where mentioned in this poem ; but the Scholiast calls him Munippus, and 
accuses his author of confounding him with Muaippus the son of Laodice, 
ot whom mention is made in a subsequent passage: but as Canter has 
truly observed, Lycophron has no whore named Munippue, and calls the 
•on of Laodice " Munitus." The supposed inconsistency results theiefat 


28 Lord Royston's Translation 

Sent forth the dread behest, and in one fate 

Involved the mother and her child, ere vet 

With lustral dews and purifying streams 380 

The hapless nymph had purged Lucina's stain. 

Thee shall die Lion son of Ipbis drag 
To bloody rites, and nuptial sacrifice, 
Like his dark mother on the Taurid shore, 
Who, crowned with chaplets of infernal bloom, 385 

Shall stand, and pour her life into the bowl, 
What time her side shall feel Candaon's blade, 
Raised by the priestly Dragon, who from oaths 
Shall free the wolves which howl about her tomb. 

Thee, venting curses on the Thracian shore, 390 

The stony shower shall crush, and high shall rise 
The rocky mount upon thy mangled limbs, 
Changed to a dog, thy fierce eyes glaring fire ! 

Stretched at the altar of Hercean Jove, 
His grizzled locks shall sweep the marble floor, 395 

Clotted with blood, whom for his sister's veil 
Ransomed, again the conqueror sent to view 
His ruined. city lushing from her seat ; 
Whene'er the wily Serpent shall display 

* from the mistake of the Scholiast, who should have been more sure of hit 
ground before he ventured to call his author & fiapfafo; xal airfatxros Avxfy p«* f 
i>e. "th^Tbarbarous and intolerable Lycophrun." 

382. Polyxena was betrothed to Achilles, whose phantom appeared after 
his death, and commanded the Greeks to sacrifice her at his tomb, fiy 
"th* Lion son oflphis" is meant Neoptolemus the son of Achilles and 
Iphieenia ; (other authors make him the son of Deidamia ;) for Iphis is 
merely a contraction, and not, as Meursius erroneously imagines, a daughter 
of Helen and Theseus, of whom mention is made by Festus. 

9v(jMrog £' inurrarng 
'itgtdj intern rov$t iteug 'A^XXtwg. HeCUB. Eurip. 

' 385. Doubts have been entertained whether, in the original, by " the 
Heifer crowned with flowers" is meant Polyxena or Iphigenia. The circum- 
' stance of the Greeks having been bound by an oath seems to restrict the 
meaning of the passage to the latter ; in which case, as it was the second 
time they had sworn to assist the husband of Helen, by the words wgwro- 
enpaxTDv ogxiov Lycophron must mean the first oath consecrated by sacrifice. 

390. Hecuba was carried away captive into Thrace after the destruction 
of Troy. She was there stoned by the Greeks, who were incensed by the 
bitterness of her reproaches, and was afterwards said to have been changed 
into a dog. 

393. Literally, "stretched at the altar of Agamemnon." Jupiter was 
called Agamemnon, and vice versa. (See Note on verse 1596.) Virgil tells 
us that Priam was killed at the altar of Hercean Jove. 

396. After the conflagration of Troy by Hercules, Priam was ransomed 
with the veil of his sister Hesione, on which occasion he assumed the name 
of Priam, from *}ia(Aai t " to buy," because his sister Ufitvto %jBoSm*t^g y wauxifof. 
Eustath. — Till then he had been called Podarces. 

399. The Serpent is Antenor, who is said to have betrayed Troy to the 

of Lycophron's Cassandra. 29 

The torch on high, whose meteor flame shall gleam 400 

With baleful glories and fell floods of light, 

Then loose the bars, and free the prisoned host 

Who pant for blood within the piny womb ; 

And he*, the subtle son of Sisyphus, 

Shall teach his perjured kinsman to unveil 405 

The guiding star, the cresset of the night, 

To those who, steering by Leucophrys* rock, 

Shall pass those isles where sleep the venomed coil, 

Who round the sons, and round the sire, shall twine 

Their folds, and tie the snaky knot of death. 410 

But I, who fled the bridal yoke, who count 
The tedious moments, closed in dungeon walls 
Dark and o'er-canopied with massy stone ; 
E'en I, who drove the genial God of Day 
Far from my couch, nor heeded that he rules 415 

The Hours, Eternal beam ! essence divine ! 
Who vainly hoped to live pure as the maid, 
The Laphrian virgin, till decrepid age 
Should starve my cheeks, and wither all my prime ; 

Greeks, seduced by their promises to make him king, and to have released 
them from their confinement in the wooden horse. 

404. Ulysses is perpetually called the son of Sisyphus by the tragedians; 
Laertes, his reputed father, having married Anticlea while pregnant. > 

405. Sinon was first-cousin to Ulysses, for &symus his father was brother 
to Anticlea. Sinon deceived Priam by representing himself as a deserter 
from the Grecian army. See the iEneid. 

40?. Leucophrys was the ancient name of Tenedos, whither the Greeks 
retired to induce a belief that they had abandoned their designs against 
Troy. From this island came the serpents which destroyed Laocobn and 
his two sons. 

411. Apollo conferred upon Cassandra the gift of prophecy, on condition 
that she should yield to his desires ; but when he discovered her deceit, 
and found himself unable to resume his gift, he decreed that her prophecies 
should never be believed : 

Dei jussu non unquam credita Teucris. 

Of this incredulity she is represented as complaining towards the end of 
this poem: 

IIio-Ttv Xoytwv yao At^uiig hoary icrs 
^ivinoiotc ynixai<riv lyyjicrag ittii, 

A«cTgu>v <TT*p>i0us, wv Ixa'hyatw tv/uv. Verse 1454* 

Such woes has Lepsieus heaped upon my head, 

Steeping my words in incredulity ; 

The jealous God ! for from my virgin couch 

I drove him amorous, nor returned nis love. 
She was consequently considered as mad, and inclosed by Priam m a vault- 
ed dungeon. 

418. The epithet " Laphrian/' given to Minerva, is by some grammarians 
derived from Awpt/pa, " spoils," and considered as synonymous with Ageleia 
+*b toC iyui xifar. This conjecture derives support from the name being also 

$0 Lord Roys! orVs Translation 

Vainly shall call on the Budean queen, 420 

Dragged like a dove unto the vulture's bed ! 

But she, who from the lofty throne of Jove 

Shot like a star, and shed her looks benign 

On I] us, such as in his soul infused 

Sovereign delight, upon the sculptured roof 425 

Furious shall glance her ardent eyes ; then Greece 

For this one crime, aye for this one, shall weep 

Myriads of sons ; no funeral urn, but rocks 

Shall hearse their bones ; no friends upon their dust 

Shall pour the dark libations of the dead; 430 

A name, a breath, an empty sound remains, 

A fruitless marble warm with bitter tears 

Of sires, and orphan babes, and widowed wives ! 

Ye cliffs of Zarax, and ye waves which wash 
Opheltes' crags, and melancholy shore, 435 

Ye rocks of Trychas, Nedon's dangerous heights, 
Dirphossian ridges, and .Diacrian caves, 
Ye plains where Phorcys broods upon the deep, 
And founds his floating palaces, what sobs 
Of dying men shall ye not hear 1 what groans 440 

Of masts and wrecks, all crashing in the wind ? 


ascribed to Mercury, among 1 whose attributes skill in stealing holds a very 
conspicuous place : 

Rod vte* lytVmto ireuia Wkurfoitoi, ulixv^ofArirw, 

Hom. Hymn, in Mercur. 
But Pausanias says, that she was worshipped under that name by tbc 
Caiydoniaos, and Messenians, because her statue was erected by Laphrius, 
a Phocian. 

480. Budean is an epithet of Minerva, given to her in Thessaly : " Bovfotav 
Uyvan *A0nnii h &t<rtr*\if." Eustath. 

422. The palladium or statue of the Goddess is said to have fallen from 
heaven, and to have rendered by its presence the city impregnable. 
When the temple in which it was enshrined was on fire, Ilus rushed in, and 
rescued it from the flames: he lost his sight, but it was restored by the 
favor of Minerva. 

425. Cassandra was violated by Ajax Oileus in the temple of Minerva, 
whose statue averted her eyes, and fixed them upon the roof, that she might 
not behold that abomination. 

427. The crime of Ajax is said by Juno in the JEneid to have been the 
sole cause why Pallas dispersed the Grecian fleet : 

PaUasae exurere classem 

Argivom, atque ipsos potuit submergere ponto, 
Unius ob noxam et films Ajacis Oilei ? 

Virg. Mn. I. 43. 
4*4. Cassandra proceeds to enumerate the promontories on which the 
Grecian vessels shall suffer shipwreck. Opheltes, Zarax, (Jedon, Dirphos- 
sus «r Dirpfayst and the Diacrian Heights, are mountains or headlands of 
Eftibm. Trychas is said to be a city, by Stephanus. By the palace of 
Ph a i cjtta— ttfcejeay in irfcidi lie rarided as * marroe deity. 

of Lycophrons Cassandra. 81 

What mighty waters, whose receding waves 

Bursting shall rend the continents of earth ? 

What shoals shall writhe upon the sea-beat rocks ? 

While through the mantling majesty of clouds 445 

Descending thunderbolts shall blast their limbs, 

Who erst came heedless on, nor knew their course, 

Giddy with wine, and mad with jollity, 

While on the cliffs the nightly felon sat 

In baleful guidance, waving in his hand 450 

The luring flame far streaming o'er the main. 

One, like a sea-bird floating on the foam, 
The rush of waves shall dash between the rocks, 
Ou Gyre's height spreading his dripping wings 
To catch the drying gales, and sun his plumes ; 455 

But rising in his might the King of Floods 
Shall dash the boaster with his forky mace 
Sheer from the marble battlements, to roam 
With ores, and screaming gulls, and forms marine ; 
And on the shore his mangled corpse shall lie, 460 

E'en as a dolphin, withering in the beams • 

j. Of Sol, 'mid weedy refuse of the surge 
And bedded heaps of putrefying ooze ; 
These sad remains the Nereid shall inurn, 
1 he silver-footed dame beloved of Jove, 465 

■ " ■ 

444. Literally, " How many thunny-fishes?" The metaphor is borrowed 
from the Persae of iEschylus, in which tragedy he compares to thunny- 
fishes the subjects of the Great King, after having sustained a defeat in a 
decisive naval engagement: 

To! $' werrt (Mmovg, n ti>' l%0vwit )SoXov 

In the translation, for Q<mw is substituted a word' of more general signify 
cation, but which preserves the metaphor. 

449. Nauplius, who was enraged at the death of his son Palamedes 
destroyed by Ulysses and Diomeue, (see the books which pass under the 
same of Dictys of Crete) went round to every Grecian court, and excited 
the wives of the several princes to rebel against their absent husbands. 
In furtherance of his plan of revenge, he hung out false lights on the 
Capharean promontory, by which means the Grecian fleet was decoyed 
upon the coasts of Euhcea. Helen. Eurip. 

453. Ajax O'ileus saved himself upon the rocks called GyraB, or Gyrades, 
which rise out of the TEgean Sea : 

Tvprjtri fxh wpaJra Xlotrsiidiuv tvihacrat 

Tlirflo-t fxcyaXqo-i, xa\ s^s<raweri 0aXa0'ff>f; a On. &'• 

456. Ajax boasted that he had escaped against the will of the Gods, oa 
which Neptune dashed him into the sea with a stroke of his trident : 

ToD & Uocuieiwv /ucyaX' IxXwv o&w-avro? 
Afafc' sKiiva TpSatmv «Xwv vip ar\ an&apjfrii,. 
"HXaa-i Tufalnv TriVpv, Ako o kr^iaiv aflrrjr. 

Vers* Mft. 

32 Lord Royston's Translation 

And by th' Ortygiau Isle shall rise the tomb, 

O'er which the white foam of the billowy wave 

Shall dash, and shake the marble sepulchre 

Rocked by the broad iEgean ; to the shades 

His sprite shall flit, and sternly chide the Queen 470 

Of soft desires, the Melinean dame, 

Who round him shall entwine the subtle net, 

And breathe upon his soul the blast of love, 

If love it may be called, — a sudden gust, , 

A transient flame, a self-consuming Are, 475 

A meteor lighted by the Furies' torch. 

Woe ! woe ! inextricable woe, and sounds 
Of sullen sobs shall echo round the shore 
From where Antfhus rolls to where on high 
Libethrian Dotium rears his massy gates ! 480 

What groans shall peal on Acherusian banks 
To hymn my spousals ! how upon the soul, 
Voice, other than the voice of joy, shall swell, 
When many a hero floating on the wave 
Sea-monsters shall devour with bloody jaws ! 485 

When many a warrior stretched upon the strand 
Shall feel the thoughts of home rush on his heart, 
" By strangers honored, and by strangers mourned !" 

One, where Bisaltian Eon by the shores 
Of freezing Strymon rises high, shall sleep 490 

The sleep of death, where Winter on the plains 
Of chill Bistonia broods with icy wing ; 

corpse of Ajax was buried by Thetis on the shores of Delos, 
J was called Ortygia, from oprvg, ortyx, because Asteria, the 

464. The 
which island 

sister of Latona, was changecTinto a quail, and "afterwards, by a farther 
metamorphosis, into the island Delos. We are told by Callimachus that 
Asteria was the more ancient name. The tomb was afterwards covered 
with water by an irruption of the sea. 

471. The Scholiast derives the epithet " Melinaean" from juix*, " honey ;•* 
but Stephanus, with whom Potter appears to coincide in opinion, 
says that the name was given to Venus from Melina, a town of Argos. 

lAcXiva, flroXi; "ApyoDf, atf r\$ 'A^go&rff MiXivaia rifxiirai. 

479. Araethus is a river of Epiras, and Dotium a promontory of Olympus, 
near Iibethra. The space included between these places comprehends the 
whole of Greece, of which they are the extreme points. 

489. Cassandra proceeds to enumerate the places whither the Greeks 
shall retire, and the countries which shall give them burial. She begins 
her list with Phoenix, who was excited by his mother Cleobule to seduce 
Clytia the concubine of his father Amy ntor: Phcenix obeyed ; but Amyntor 
discovering the pollution of his bed, put out the eyes of his son, who fled to 
Chiron the centaur, by whom he was restored to sight, and entrusted with 
the education of AchiHes. Eon is a city of Thrace, situated upon the river 
Strymon, on whose right inhabit the tribe of the Bisaltae. The Bistones lie 
between Mount Bhodope and the /Egean Sea, bounded on the east by the 
river Nessus or Nestus. 





An n i fere novem sunt exacti, cum V iros Eruditores certiores 
feci, me non levem operam Aristophani insumsisse ad carmina 
■ejus Monostrophica in forma m Antisjtrophicorum redigenda. Nu- 
per quoque fassus sum me plurimum neque infeliciter elaborasse 
in eo, ut cantibus, quod dicitur, lege solutis suus cuique Hume- 
rus restitui posset. Nunc vero mihi libet satis validis argumentis 
demonstrare neque olim falsam neque hodie* mihi jactationem esse 
vanam. Verum, nescio an magis Jaetus quam iratus, nunc tempo* 
ris video, in iis, quae ad Antistrophica pertinent, Bentleium et 
Hotibium mihi mea, modo non omnia, pra?ripuisse. Quoniam 
tameo ab illis Duumviris non ad liquidum res perducitur, satius 
duxi cuncta ab ovo repetere, et cantus omnes tractando, singilla- 
tim recensere, qui sint pro Autistrophicis habendi, qui non, et edi- 
cere quomodo uterque ad meam aliorumve mentem probe consti- 
tui debeat. 

Io Classico Diario N. xxiv. p. 352. conjecturam feci, Aris- 
tophanem in cantibus componendis legem servavisse eandem atque 
iEschylus et Euripides, quo melius ipse Tragicos illos lusus 
facere videretur. Hanc meam sententiam unice confirmat accu- 
ratum examen carminum plurimorum, quae exstant in Ranis : cu- 
jus fabulae non aliud fere argumentum est, quam ut turgida nimis 
^Eschjli magniloquentia, et Euripidis ilia rerum et verborum hu- 
nujitas per parodias ludibrio habeantur. Jure igitur hunc commen- 
tarium ex illo dramate ordiar, quod nexum aliquem facit inter res 
olim dictas et hodie comprobandas. Poteram equidem ex aliis 
fabulis iuitium hujus metrici tentaminis facere ; sed timui ne quis 
me fraudis insimularet, utpote suffuratum Bentleio emendationes 
hactenus ineditas, quas ipse e libro ejus descripsi, et mecum re- 
servo. Verum omni suspicione fieri non potest, quin immunis sim, 
modo comoedias illas attingam, qua rum emendationes Bentleianae 
?el a me vel aliis dudum fuerint evulgatae. 

His propositis, ad meum opus accedo, Aristophanis carminibus 
verum et veterem ordinem restituturus. Sic lege in Ran. 209. et 
sqq. juxta edit. Brunck. 

XQ. Bgffxexexe£ xoa£ xorif ^Jgyfo/tsfl' *5- 5 

(Igexexixlt; xoaf XQo£- yijpuv epolv, 

Xipvctia xqw&v TiKva, §y */&$} Nucryiov 

£uyauAov vpmp fioet¥ Aio$ Jiivurov h 

NO. XXV. CI. Jl. VOL. xra. c 


De Carminibus 

aK^Yjaa^sv, 10 

rjy/x* 6 xpomra\6xa>fLog 
rotlg leg jjo"i XUTgijcri 
Xaigel xotTa rifiMOs 

AI. eyoo 8e y' aXyelv agxpficu 15 

tov oggoy XO. »• xoaf xoaf* 
J J. ufuv ? Tktcoj — XO. xoaj? xoaf • 
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.4 J. ouSgy yag lor' aXX* ij — XO. 

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xggoj3aVa$ re ntcLv mauXjm ) 
xaXotfjLO^toyyec, $ 

TTgoceniTepiFeTOLi, y& $op- 
/xiyxTa^ 'iiwo'AAwy, 


.JL tovt) wag' ^jtuy X&pfioiv ouv 
Jf O. 8e«ya japa weKrofiecict — 
^1. SeiyoTega ^ eyooy IXuuvm 

e\ liuppoLyr\<roibai. 50 

XO* xot) rovTcot G-iyvjarofisv 

PpexexexeZ xoa% ; 

evexot lovotxog, 27 

Of UKO}jjpiOV 

evi&gov fa hipvotig rgstyo. 
AI. eyw te ^\vxralvag %/ar 

%w TrpooxTog Miei itoKvg, 

xar eig a* v7rexx,uyotrr fgfj 

7ra7ra7ra7raf 7ra7ra£. 
XO. /3gexfXffXg£ xoajjf' 
J/, a AX* eS ^iXipSoy ytyo$ 36 

flrau<ra<rje' XO. ftaAXoy pfr 




yieyZopeo-i') el xai wot , 

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j)\oilt.e<riot hot xwrelpov 

xai QXeoo, ^alpovreg coticag 40 


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xai J io j pgwyoyrg$ ogpov 

ayuSgov, ev /3u9a yipt\oa 

irQp$o\vyo7ra<p\a<T[juHnv 45 

atoXay ay^ajctey. 


.J J. oIj^w5eT > * ov yip pal [jLekei. 

XO. aXXa jttijv xsxpafo/juecrSa, 

otzwov ^ Qapvy% ay ^jtuoy 55 
XotvtioLVr) fo' YifjLegag' 

A I. iravroog yaq ov vixyrer*, £ 
Ppexexexet; xoaj;. 

XO. ov8s jxijy fyta$ <ru ye* 

Ah ouSs ttots y* fyteT? g/xe* 60 

XO. xexpufcofAai yoip xuvsfyv xooL% xoaj; 9 

AI. 600$ OLV U[MOV htiXpCLT^JUi tov xoot^. 

Inter haec fere nihil mutandum fuit : neque quidquam mutavi, 
nki id met rum et lingua jusserint. V. 3. Haec est ^Ischyli paro- 
dia. Vid. Pers. 624. *Av&yj — 7rctn<p6pov yalag rexva. V. 4. Vulgo 
ZfjLvcov. Dedi vpva) quod tuetur Euripid. Electr. 879* %wctv\os fioa 
XOLpy** V. 5. Vulgo ^fleyJcttj^so-J' gwyijguy — aoiSay. At dotioiv est e 
gl. vocis $oay. V.- 14. o<rog addidi. Saspe exstat S^\o$ o<rog : Cf^ 
Plut. 750. Lysistr. 200. ex emendatione Toupii (ad Suid. v: 'Hr* 
deivi) qui citat Theocr. Idyll, xv. 44. oWo$ o^\o$. V. 19. Vulgo 
If 6\oA* olvtw xo&fc : quod Schol. comparat cum Homerico AMlg 
Ttttokt/v re xoti avlgucri. Sed longe venustius est illud Chori dictum 
interrumpentis orationem Bacchi. V. 21, Ita MS. Rav. V. 21. 
Vulgo frgarroov : quod intelligere nequeo. Reposui y&oTgwv : quo 
nomine Charon Bacchum compellat in v. 200. Ovxovv xateiel Sijr 

Aristophanis Comment arius. 35 

MaS) yutrrgcw. V. 31. vice ttolKou dedi iro\v$. V. 32. vulgo kut 
uMx eyxv^otg eg ft. In qui bus nulla vis comica inest. Reposui, 
quae Aristophanes non dedignatus esset. Etenini Bacchus minatur 
quod 7rpQ0XTQ$, o$ Idiei 7r6kv$, epsl slg Ranarum aliquam, ex undis se 
tollentem, wxirotitoi^ 7ra7raJ, qui sonus est tw wpcoxrou, ut patet e 
Nub. v. 389- sic legendo 'Argils mpvnov ira£ xara Tca-ndfe iraroiyei 
xawfirot irctirot7nri% XSoruv y}&» xojlu&>j, fipovTa. itancL%ai'Kira£. . Verum 
dissimulate non debebam quod voces 7ragr«7ra7rajjf *«*•«£ a me hie 
esse insertas : quas Rana* derident per suum BpsKsasxi^ xo&%. V, 
S7. vulgo s\ ${}iroT : at in ilia formula est xa/. V. 40. vulgo «$5j$ 
iro\vxok6[i,fioi$ piAs<ri. At p,e\o$ hie sonat membrum; nee jungi 
potest cum co8i?£. Ipse dedi w$ou$ fjJ\s<ri re : ut facetiae suo Comico 
restituefentur : qui, mentione facta de cantibus et choreis ranarum, 
scripsit non iroAvxuA*v&gToi$ |xeA?(n, quod de hominibus dici po- 
test, verum ?toAvxoAujx/3oi£ p=As(n. i. e. membris sccpe natantibus ; 
qui mos est ranarum. V. 43. vulgo Aib$ Qsvyovreg opfipov ewtipw, 
Haec sunt aperte mendosa. Certe ranae non fugiunt iinbres, ve- 
rum loca aquosa petunt. Qui meminerint verba Strepsiadis in 
Nub. 371. qui putabat imbres nihil aliud esse quam liquorem 
Jovis hot xotrxivov ovgovvros, illi bene intelligent per conjecturam 
meam Ato$ oppov avvlpov sign ifi car i tempus anni siticulosum, 
cum Jupiter aquam facere nequiverit. De voce ogoov vid. Schol. 
ad 224. Aliis fortasse placebit Ails [$iAo5vts$ vel] o-repyovres opfipov 
in&gov. V. 45. yogexaiv — lpfley£a/x,ecrfla nemo dicere potuit. Reposui 
wrjtyotfirs ob illud x°P 0V ^v^w m iEschyl. Eum. 307* necnoa 
W^jttotT — <rvvityi$ in Soph. Aj. 700. ut perite Botheus reposuit e 
Schol. V. 51. verba el <nyy<roi*.ev MS. teste Brunckio exhibet post 
Te*<ro'fjis<rQot : quae de sede turbavi, addito tovtco, quod vulgo exstat in 
v. 57. verum rovToot <nyYi<ro[jt,ev plane convenit cum nostri dicto 
infr. 1 134. 'Eyco <nawra> twS ; et in Lys. 529. S6t y\ w xar&poiTs, 
rivxw'ycA ; V. 57- MS. Jt&v.rouTw yotq ov vin^o-ere ovtis prjv faus <rv ye 
t&vtoos ouSe fjLtjv Opels y s/w ovlinore. Inter haec tovtco reduxi ad v. 5 1 . 
etxayra?£ ad v. 57. ttovlenoTe y ad v. 60. Sic enim membra senten- 
tial unice cohaerent. V. 61. vulgo xav jxff §ljj 8*' r^kqcis* At h* jj/xi- 
$a$ nascitur e v. 56. neque ista xav jus Sej; hie satis intelligo. Re^ 
posui ove&jy, libere, adjectis xoa£ xoaj*. Suid. '^vaffyv, atgocof 
*po8gc5$. Corrigitur ' Avefyv. 

v. 323. et sqq. 

I*x% 9 oo ToAim'jxoi^ « sre^avov [ivpronv, Sgawel 8* 

*&pm$ eviatf ivourarutv, eyxuTOMpouoov <rvv ttqI\ ] 

t*x% eXff • T«y avotxAao-r- 

Joxpc'ce wv tykottcdyp*- 
rivb" olvoL XtifJubvcL ypqti- 6 ov ajxo*/3^v, yetpWtnv tfAfjor- 

vw 6<rlov$ i$ iiewdiT- ov eypvcroiv fieqo$, dyvyv 

*$ TOkuXCtpWOV TIVCHTV- ItQCLV i* foioidV 

m wep) xpari trap jSguovr- p.uvTmv\ yppelav. 16 

36 De Car minibus 

Haec pro stropha habent Bentleius, Brunckius et Hermannus de 
Metris p. 352. verum omnes falluntur. Antistrophus etenim nullo 
modo cum stropha conciliari potest. Bene tamen Herm. Ttokvrlfxo^ 
Vid. Lobeck ad Ajac. 175. V. 2. vulgo Me&t vaiwv, quo servata, 
abesse nequit Iv: quod metrum nou admittit et MSS. oniittunt. 
Dedi lgitur avatrowv, quod Dativo jungitur. Vide Lexica. V. 8. 
vspl MS. Rav. probante Herm anno. V. 11. vulgo axoXourn* 
Qi\<yrroilyfju>vot T*ftav. At quid velit istud t*/kx* nescio : cujus vice 
conjecit Bentl. t" ifioiv: neque Schol. satis inteUigere potuit &x&- 
AaoTov, ab eo expo si turn per 6<ri*v. Cum melica haecce sint lonica 
a Minore, cujus metri est versus avaxXuipevos, ecquis oon reponet 
StvaxXaoToov : quod formatur ab oivotxXaco, ut avrKrwaforof ab «m<r- 
vim et elvcmal<rros ab avanaiw : et bene intelligi potest per Hesycb. 
gl. 'AvaxX&osis, emarrpoQag. Fuit igitur 'Avax\a<TT0$ ilia saltatio, 
quam voluit Horatius per motus — Ionicos : verbum cognatum in 
Thesm. 170. restituit Toup. ad Suid. V* 'EfUTpaxraro legendo 
SicxAeuvr 'Iu>wxao$. Quae fuerit avuxKa<rro)¥ apoiffy patebit confe- 
renti A then. xiii. ab H. Stephano citatum xarafyXtiv avrhv avax- 
A&ravra. xa) roov Qtartov t*i$covij<raVTav jttsra xporov, xaXtv dvaxki- 
<rag e$/Aij<rev. Co] la to quoque Polluc. ii. 176. cum Eccl. 918. 
patet quis sit ille am 'Icovletf Tpfaof. vid. et Plutarch. II. p. 539. C. 

v. 340. et sqq. 
"Eyeipe QXoyeag Xot[vrrcfi)oi$ ^govlovg ermv icaikxiw 10 

iv ytpcw jjxeif yap nv&crar- afxia\Tog y lepa$ 

w "Ioixx loo oltcq ti\iJ5l$ % cv irirrp 

Bax%s vvxripou 8«8a $Aey»v wgo|Sa8i}v 

T6\gr^ faxr- 5 ?£ or/ W avtifMV 'JJA- 

4>opo$ carrfip' v<nov 15 

$Aoy» yiyyeroti 8e AtJj&eJy, ISmlov 

ytvv vaAArrai yepovroov, %ppoiroiov 9 

WKOVtirrax 8e \6ttol$ fiixotg, rjfictv. 

V. 4. Rav. "laxyt &"laxyz. Alii semel. Ipse ex altero *Iax%e 
erui Bixye. V. 7, 8, 9, 10. Hi sunt quatuor versus aratxAwpwoi. 
1 V. 10. lta Rav. et Borg. vulgo xpovov$. Ibid. iraKm&v. Ita Rav. 
V. 11. Ex moLUTovs erui a/x/arroj. Etenim non nisi puris licuit 
senectutis onus exuere et repuerascere. V. 12. vulgo AafMre8i : at 
Schol. Rav. oltfo Tr y AafwraS*. Inde erui wrfnjv 858a. Exstat ximp — 
Xi^yov in Nub. 57. Et sane commode dicitur Bacchus gerere 
bibulam facetn. Quod ad lab*, ea vox restitui debet iEschvlo apud 
Schol. ad CEd. C. 1049* Aap,7Fpouwv (lege Anraf*irw) Surrpavour* 
'$ct>v aievet : lege xou 8«8«>v ativet. Et cf. Horn. II. Z. 182. 
*vpo$ pivo$. Et ipsum iEschvl. in A gam. 295. "/o%u$ — Aofurofto? 
fecit V. 14. Istud eXuov SoVeSov apud inferos ignoro : scio qiridem 
y H\vciov weSiov ex Od. J. 563. Ad h. v. refer xafAfov quae intulit 
Bruuckius in proxiinam stropham, metro repugnante, neque exhi- 
bente Rav. 

Aristophanis Commentarivs. 37 

• v. 372. et sqq. orp. u. &m<rrp. a. 

X*?** *» **i avtyeiag . aAA* l/t/3* %«$ xa£etlgois 

ft j toJ$ ivoLvtei; xokwovf rvjv Sdorupow yevvotlwg 

XttfAatvwVf eyxpovow TJj $wvjj fiokiroLtyw, 

mi <rxco7rra)v xoi -ra/JJaJV ij t^v xdopoiv crwtyw 

xei xXiu&fav. f{)<r slg 3>pag y 

tyltrvriTou S" i^otpxovvrcos. 5 xuv Bwpvxloov py /SouArjrai. 10 

V. 1. 8jj vuv. Bentl. delevit 8ij : neque Schol. agnoscit, x®? et 
vw.] V. 3. Male Rav. xflMr*<rx<&rr»y : nisi quis retinere velit in 
antistropho ra$ : quod bene delevit Bentl. vid. Lys. 1036. V. 6. 
vylgo^flS?ra^ afr?*. MS. alpug. Sed praestat «£$ xa^alpoig ob stro- 
phicum. vid. Append, ad Tro. p. 149* D. necnon ob ea loca qua? 
citat H. Stephanus v. *E$a(geiv. Saepe quoque iroi$ cum imperativo 
sic conjungitur : cf. Ran. 1125. <ri6wra ?raj av^. et Av. 1 186, 7. 

V. 384. et sqq. rr,. p. j m j^, fir 

V. 389. et sqq. oumtrrp. p . ) 

V. 394,5. (TTp. y . avTHFTp. y\ 

*AkX slot yOv xai roy oupiov aSa7<n fleov tJv Zwspiropov 

votgaxotkehe fevgo Tr}<rfo r^g %ogeioL$. 

Vulgo vuv ye — copaTov dfo'y. At Rav. omittit ye : mox copaTo^ an 
dici possit dfo$, dubito : reposui ovpiov secundum : et 6eh ad v. 3. 

V. 398. et sqq. "Icuxye iroXwr//t>)Ts, piAo? fogTifc 

irpog tijv tsbv, 
xu) 8e7£ov, cog 
avev irivou fuvr clvty\$ 

V. 5. Voces par avryg hue retrahuntur e v. 414. ubi tain sensunt 
quam metrum corrumpunt : etenim versus ibi sunt Iambici Trime- 
tn sic legendi. 

'Eyco 8* kel ira>§ QiXaxfaoviog gfyu, xal 
UW&ov yppeom jSouAo/tai. H4. xaywye *np&g. 

Saepe apud Comicum versum claudit xst) : vid. Ach. 143. Av. 
1290. Plut. 752. necnon Philemon, in Ephebo apud Stob. p. 530. 
Sic de una fidelia, ut aiunt, duo parietes dealbantur. 

*nn t ^ Haec quivis bene disponere poterit, modo 

.aa' . ^** , ^ * > legat rrfy re. pro t&Ss Toy, cum Bentleio 
408. et sqq. mn*r f . J et 8 HotibiQ / F 

416. et sqq. 439- Hie exstant octo systemata, utroque tribus 
versibus constante. Lege igitur in 427. Sifiivov <xrn$ IotIv 

2" apxio-Tiog cum Bentleio et Porsono ad Orest. 1645. necnon in 
17. cugof iv avti$ S>it&i, deletis ri OTgcSjxar*, cum Hotibio. 

38 De Carminibus 

Hasc bene inter se conveniunt legendo 

xvxkov 6eZ$ et Xaopeir* 
eyoo Oe <n)y xogoug. 

>>/% A , ")Haec bene inter se 

440. e sqq. «rr ? . «. J ^ , , ^ ^ 

444. et sqq. uvthtto. a. I , \ ^ 5 \ / 

448. et sqq. <rrg. |3'. ) Ha?c antistrophica suo nomine distill* 
454. et sqq. dvrurrp. /3\ J guuntur in Kuster. ed. 

~\ Hasc quatuor systemata antlstrophicorum sunt 
^ ,,e S( W # / composita ad Comici morera. Vid. Elmsl. ad 

500 t q i L y sislr - m Mus8eo Crit - N - a - p- 177 - ne 3 ue 

*o~ e f S( ^' 1 correctione opus est, ut amussitn conveniant 
59/. et sqq. J excepto v . 541. Ubi av pro 8q recte exhibet 

MS. Rav. Vid. Porson. MiscelL Crit p. 182. 

■JL?" j. £ Haec sunt antistrophica in Kust. ed. 
706. et sqq. J * 

814 — 829- Inter hasc exstant quatuor systemata quatuor versuum. 
875. et sqq. 

r fl Aio$ bwi* irapdevoi dyva) 

Hfoucrai, XsirroXoyovg %vvera\ Qpevcig 

at xaiopoiTe, yvcofAorviroov otolv elg eptv 6£v fiegCfivoov 

ih&wcri (TT^6j8Ao7<ri 7ru\ut<T(xa<nv iveps$ aVnXoyouyT^, 

ixier brotyopevcu hvvocfj.iv &. 


iFa,goL7rpl<rfLciT hrwv 

vvv yotg a- 

yaov <ro$l- 10 

a$ wgb$ spyov 1J81J. 

V. 3. Vulgo aviocov yvcofjuyrvvoov. Quod non satis intelligo. Bene 
dici potest, ut dicitur in Nub. 952. yvooporviroi pkpxpvxw unde 
mutavi ££u pspiftvois in o£u jxeg/jxvwy : et vocem metro et sensui 
noxiam in avegeg id u tat am transposui post ?raAa/<rjfca<riy. V. 3> 4. 
De Dactylicis Heptametris vid. Burneium in Tentamine de Metr. 
jSEschyl. Praef. p. 64. 

895* et sqq. xai yoip Y}^el§ hutvfiou^iv 

napa ao<poiv ivtigciiv axovcrau 
rivaL Xoyoav efx^shelccv t fcr/ 
8a*av t hivrrevovTQW 68oy. 

V* 3. Vulgo efjsfteKeiocv Iwi re Souolv 6Soy. His addidi ffurfO'lyra? 
erutum ex IjxjwoW quod nunc exstat in v. 903. verum ibi metrtim 
id rejicit : quia tria systemata, utroque e tfibus yersibus constant^ 
ibi legi debeht, ad hunc modum ; 

V. 898. et sqq, rkuxraa /tev yoip yyglcjorcu, 

Aristophanis Comment ariw. 39 

ou8* dxlwjToi fives' 
wgocrSoxay ovv elxo'g Icrn 
tov jxev acrreTrfy n Ae£«y 
xa) xctTepgiwifievov, 
rov 8' otvourwcovT uvTowpefAVotg 
roi$ \6yoKri (rucrxe8ay ttoAA- 
ag aAjy8qdp*£ lit&v, 

Hotibius quoque vidit ipvevovr* suum locum non habere. 

971. et sqq. usque ad 991. Hi sunt dimetri Iamb. Acat. pra- 
ter ultimum, qui est Catalect. : male ; etenim monometer versui 
finali praefigi debet. Lege igitur 

Maftpaxvioi xa) MsAm'- \ quod distichon est Trochaic. Dim, 
o*i xffp^ijvdTf g xaQvjvro 5 Acatal. 

V. 99 1 • et sqq. 
T&te fiev Xevcrasig $a»'8ift *A^Wsv; oAAa ov<rreiKa$ axgotvt 

t/ <rv 8ij, $&§€ j^o* irgb$ rah Ag- xpoopevog roi$ l(rrlonnv 9 

%ug ; shot pAXkov jxaAAoy ?£«$, 10 

lit) <r 9 5 Qvfxb;, dgwacrag vowv, el $vAa£ei 

Ixrig oT<rei Tcoy eAacoy* ^y/x' ay ye 

8«y<4 yog xuTtiyopyx* 5 to AsTov wyfu/xa xa) 

aAA' oVcof, co yeyya8a$, xaflscrTi)xoj Aa/3ij£. 
jttij ?rpo$ ogyjv ayrjAefg^, 

V. 2. Vulgo (ru ti 8jj — tolvtol Ae£ei$ fto'yoy ottco^. At eru nun- 
quam versum inchoat, nisi 8e vel ts sequatur : mox T*Ora et rah 
saepe permutantur : dein e jxoyov crui fto* vow et eruta trans posui. 
V. 10. Vulgo ageig xa) $v\a£ei$. At mecum facit Euripides in 
Orest. 687. hlc emendandus : lege r/ Oray yoig ij/3a 8*j/xo£, e\$ oW^v 
Tecrcoy, Ovfiolr av, d$ irvevfjf axartov afiivou Aa/3goy. El 8' Jjcu^cof 
auTco A/ay rehovrt ti$ KaXeov wrelxoi, xaigbv evXafiovpevog *I<roo$ av 
ixvtvcef' orav 8* avp wool, Tv%pis av auTOu pofiioog oirov detys. Inepte 
¥ulgo*Ofto*ov c3<tt« wDg xaTaa-/3g<rai Aa/3pov. Etenim ignis non re- 
stinguendi cupidus dichur, verum comumendi. Collato igitur Orest. 
335. io$ x\$ axarov — xaTsxAucrev — ttovtou Aa/3po«criv — xujxatnv 
reposui d$ wvsujx' axanov 0"j3eVai. Et sane illud axonoy hlc legebat 
Hesychius, bine expediendus. ' \4xor*ov, to Iv axarlw 7<ttiov $ 8iow- 
T£u«y Tijv *o'A*v apywt <j 6 hxaurritf — $ vav$. Etenim in Euripidis 
loco, populus cum vento et magistrates cum navigio com para tur. 
Mox vulgo auT» t*$ IvTsivovrt ftgv %aXobv vtts/xoi : quod iuteiligere 
nequeo. Ipse voces transposui et e ju,gv hrBivovri ertii A/av Tg/vovn : 
cui simile est illud relveiv ayav in Antig. 711. ubi verba Sophoclis 
conferri merentur Avtqq$ 8e vao$ o<tti$ lyxgar^, %$boi Tslvag, vmilxu 
fwfiiv : sed ad conjee tu ram rdvovrt x&Xmv magis apposite citari po- 
test Platon. Protagor. i. p. 338. A. Travrec xi\oov ixre/yayra citatus 
a Valckenaero in Diatrib. c. xxi. p. 233. qui advocat et Equit. 
753. xaAcoy Ifyivxi ntxvrct ; ubi Kuster allegat Med. 278. i£<oVi sravroi 


40 De Car minibus 

8jj x&Kant et Here. F. 837* e£/« xikaav. Dem ixmnvrtu dici nequit 
de nave : lege igitur exvevo~ei : quod ex s tat in Hipp. 82$. viXay*f 
UQ-ogco Tovovtov cLvre jx^wot kxvevaroti kolXiy et in 471. efc 8e tijv Tt/p£i|* 
n*<rou<r khjv, irw £ ay arv y Ixveucrai 8oxf*$. Deriique collato Philoct. 
639- irvsOjxa — avjj reposui wvo£, vice irvoa^. Verum haec sunt 
nimis aliena, prater t6%oi$ <xv Euripideum, quod bene convenit cum 
Aristophaneo egeis, et xouqbv evXa^ovp^evog quod cum <pv\<x%ei (non 
<pu\a%eis : vid. Kuster de Verb. Med.) necnon Xelov meupd xeti xa- 
isarvjxb$, quae cum mvev\C avjj quadrant ad amussim. V. 12. ye 
deest. At saepe Ss vel ye sequitur yvix £v: vid. Plut. 107- EccL 
273. Pac. 1178. Eurip. El. 1136. CEd. T. 1484. Nub. 112«. 

1099- et sqq. <rr£. ) Haec suo nomine Antistrophica sunt in 

1 109. et sqq. avu<rrp. ) Kuster. ed. 

1251. et sqq. Bene disposuit fientl. in systemata; rectius in An- 
tistrophica cum Epodo sic legisset. 

ri vote TTqcLypoL yevvia-iTut ; «v8p) rm iroXv irheloTU $vj 

9povr/?6iv yoip eyoo *vx fya), xct) xolKKujtol fceXij itoiif 

rlv ugx jxgjx\j/*v enoio'et S <tolvti rwv en vvvL 6 

ioLVfjLtxty yoip eyar/ ottyj exepdig. 

peptyercd tune rovrov) 

tov Bxx%elov otvaxTct, 

xa) SeSo^' virep avrou. 10 

V. 2. ItaBentl. pro eyooy. V. 3. y omittitMS. Barocc. teste 
Bentl. V. 6. Ita Bentl. et Gaisford. ad Hephaest. p. 303. pro 
wv. V. 8. Ita Bentl. pro rovrov. 

1264. et sqq. Plane ineptos se produnt Commentatores, qui pu- 
tent adeo illepidum fuisse Aristophanem, ut risus populares captare 
studeret centones e versibus Euripidis JEschylique concinnando, 
undo nullus sententiae nexus explicari posset, lmmo si Comicus 
id fecisset, se non Tragicos ludibrio dedisset. Ipse nullus equident 
dubito, quin ille optimus Poeta, qui unus artes irridendi probe 
calluit, in versibus seligendis id imprimis curaret, ut verba Tragi- 
corum sensus aliquid, sed ridiculum . quoddam habererit, utpote 
aliud apud Tragicum, aliud apud Comicum indicantia. Qua re 
perspecta per tenebras Centonum pede inoffenso incedere licebit. 
Sic enim Aristophanes, ni fallow scripsit. 

ET. <Pfoi»yr '^iXfU ti 7tot uvlpct Itttxrov Stxovoov, 
1^ *xo%ov 06 ireXuQsig W OLpcayav ; 
'Epiuoi vpoyov, ov Tlopev y£vo$ ol ireqi \Ipvetv, 
It) xo'wov 06 veXitetg err 9 otpooy&v. 

Ah 8u0 (T04 XOTTQO) Al^vXe, TOVTCO. 5 

ET» xvfoo~r 'Ayouobv ttoXvxoip- 
ctv Argeoog fiMWuve nai, 
ly xoxw ov *ekoi$ii$ fcr Stpwy&v* 

Aristophahis Comment arius. 41 

ET. eu^ajxs Ire j&wAicnrovoj&or Opdvov 'Aorifufog irikag olxoov 
Iy] xottov ou nsXaQei ti$ ocgcayu. 1 1 

xipiig eijxi Qpoelv \oymv o<nrotir xpirog cu<riov StvSpow 
i1j x&irou od weKitsty la-' ocgcoyav. 
Inter haec versus iste ivj xoVov x.t.A. quod ad metrum, est pro nihilo 
habendus. Eceteris 1 et S; 5. et 9 ; 6 et 7 ; 10 et 12 ; alter alteri re- 
sponded v. 2. Utrobique xoirov : dedi xoirov Syntaxis est ov reKatstg 
W agwyoiv xfaov. v. 3. Vulgo 'Eppa* irgiyovov. At sensus postu- 
lat* Egpoi irpoyov ov, sic voces sejuuetas: quomodo feci in v. 1 et2, 
pro iutipodaixTov et iy xoirov. Dicitur 'Eofta itg6yon ut wgoyivou j3oo$ 
et wpoyovow ywouxig in iEschyl. Suppl. 542. v. 10. Vulgo Sopor. 
MS. teste Br. fyipov unde erui tgtvov. cf. iEschyl. Suppl. mox vice 
afyeiv dedi oixoJv : quod ad x et y permutata vid. ad Tro. 520. quod 
ad sensum verborum olxeov irihag dgdvov 'Apri^ilog 9 confer IEschyl. 
Suppl. 218. 6sXoi/t* oiv >Jo\j <rov. (i. e. Aiog) ireXag dpivovg ?£f*v* v. 12. 
Vulgo Sgoilv ocrioy. MS. B. Xryuv : Inde erui Bpofiv Xoyioov o<r<rav. 
Redde proferre vocern oraculorum: cf. Xoytoov odot in Eq. 1015. 
Hactenus de vocibus et literis permutatis ; restat totum locum 
expouamus. Euripides, iEschyl um xoVrsiv futurus, queritur nemi- 
nem ex iis, quas in scenam intulerat iEschyl us, inter xoicoug ejus 
auxiliaturum esse auctori : neque id mirum : quia silentium diu ser- 
vare personas saepe voluit iEschylus, ut ipse Aristophanes testatur in 
Ran. 910. sic legendus npayrurrot p,h yoig rjjffc [hie, i. e. in scena] 
y' avtov hx&tur* av xotXtyctg 'A%i\\e if Nrffav nv &v, ypvtpvrag ouSJ 
iwrl* Hoiir/r^a, jttsv rpuyooiiotg y ra irp6<rcj07rot 8* ofyfi, faxvug: ubi 
redde Sveot mutum. Hesych.*4vfQi, rj<ro^oi } aQoovoi. Quod ad no- 
mina fabularum unde versus citavit Comicus ; bene monet Schol. 
v. 1. ex Mvppt,fi6<nv esse decerptum : cujus argumentum fuit mors 
Patrocli ; ad quern uvlpa SafxTov pertinet : monet quoque Schol. V. 3* 
esse ix ^t^otyxyoov : in qua jure poterat Mercurius partes habere, 
utpote ductor animarum. Verum unde fuerit excerpti 6 et 7, 
veteres Commentatores se nescire fatentur. Mihi videtur esse 
fragmentum Ix &pvyobv $ "Exropog Xvrpoov, verba scilicet Priami ad 
Agamemnona dicta. Teleclides quidem ea Iphigenise tribuit : 
verum ex ea fabula desumptus est v. 10. ut patet ex Euripid. 
Iph. T. 123. ubi Chorum sic alloquitur Iphigenia EtyotfiilT £ it*. 
tou x.t.A. unde liquet fie\i<r<rov£fju>us esse non modo Cereris, ut vo- 
luit Hesych. v. Mi\i<r<rai, verum etiam Diaftae Sacerdotes. At 
superstes Agamemnon com probat, quod Scholia ,vere monentv. 12. 
esse ex fabula, hinc, ni fall or, emendanda. Conjecturam feceram hi 
Diario Classico N. xxiv. p. 246. Kefoog Si frrpoiTi^oivrig IScov 8i«- 
%[lol<ti 8/<r<rou$ \ ^Arpeldug : sed video nunc legi debere K &vhg 8t <rrptt- 
riftamg iSeov SiWco SiaS^x*!** h 6V<roi$ I 'ATpstSag 9 ut respondeat 
strophae Kuqiog efyti tpoftv Xoyitov Sar<rotv xpirog alviov k&pw \ : etertirh 
alibi corrumpitur SiWco : vid. Eccl. 3. ubi pro JTovaf tt y&Q <iris 

42 De Carminibus 

MSS. dant re 8/<r<ra$: saepe quoque depravatur phrasis »8«)y w S<r<roi$: 

quae tamen est proba : vid. Porson. ad Orest. 1018. 

1284 et sqq. org. avrurrp. 

&r«$ *Ay(ciiS)V xup<rtiv frupaa^oi, 

ilipovov xparo$ 'EXAaSoj rj^u irraftivous xv<r)v aepo<poiTOi$ 

oruv hop) xcti yspi irpuxrogi dovgiog Stylyya, Su<ra/x5£*av Trgvroiviv xxr»OL 

QQVl$ 7TE[X,7reV 

ra fXctTToigotTToQXotT 4 to ^XaTroiparri^KoLT. 8- 

Ut ipse paulo ante supplevi iEscliylum et Aristophanem utrum- 
que inter se conferendo, sic et Schutzius Tragicum ope Comici 
emendavit; et Comico fortasse poterat lucem vicissim dare eTra- 
gico, legendo in Pac. 357. o~vv re hop\ xcti <rbv %ep\ ad exemplar 
formulas in Agam. 112. £wv fop) xa) x s $ '• ^ cet ™ v ^P et xai <™ y 
iurir% ex Aristophane allege t Etymol. v. Aopu. Verum haec sunt 
nimis incerta, neque valde aperta Comici mens hap.c verba e Tragico 
excerpentis. Suspicor tamen Aristoplianem respexisse ad sui tern- 
poris res civiles : quarum historiolam e Plutarcho contexere libet. 
Post Brasidae et Cleonis mortem, Spartani et Athenienses inducias 
fecerunt. Has Alcibiades popularibus auctor fuit, ut rumperentur : 
quia Boeoti, qui partibus Lacedaeuioniorum favebant et Atheniensi- 
bus idcirco erant suspecti, pacis condition es servare et Panactum 
{radere noluerunt. luduciis igitur interrupts, idem non multo post 
vojuit Sicilian bellum inferri, et quo melius populo Atheniensium 
persuaderet, 6 'AXxifiiotirig fj^ivreig €^oov, ex by rivoov Xoylcov wpovfige 
ntxXouwv fxiyct xkeog reov 'Atyivuicov onto 2ixe\lu$ iarsaiar xa\ Qeoicpfaoi 
Ttng olvtcq 'nap Apfuowg a$!xovTO xgrio-pbv xopltyvTSf oog Kyfyovroa Svga- 
xov<riou$ awavrcts 'Abrpctiou Quae Plutarchi verba in Vit. Niciae p. 
531. E. ea mente allegavi, ut legerentur in posterum emendata. 
Omnibus quidem notum est Ammonis oraculum. Verum ipse sus- 
picor sub vocibus ttol§ 'Afipoovog latere hominem, a Comico exagi- 
tatum in Avibus ; cujus nomen fuit interpolated bus minus coguitum, 
at mentio cujus in illo loco fuisset apprime commoda. Is fuit 
LampOy teste Schol. ad Av. 521. yjpt[V[LoKoyos xcti \uwrig cS xou tvjv 
b\$ IlufZeipiv rw 'Atvpalaw Gtwoixioa max wegiairrova-iv, avrov yyi\<rcurbcu 
>Jsyovrtg — evv *X\oi$ 6' : at quibus artibus id fecerit patet e Schol. 
ad Nub. 331. ubi vox 6ovpiofxa,vrei$ exponitur per ov tov$ ocxo Oovplw 
juxvreis aXXct rovg e\g Bovpiov Tre^isvrctg sir) to xt'ivou olvty}V eirifif Sij<r«y 
8g Sexa eivlpsg w xou 6 Aapirwv yv 6 fiAvris' ov xcti eftjyijT^y IxaAouy— 
koyovg 8e avve^aog iWayetv kQotlvero wsp) Tt\g e\g Bovpiov onroixiag. unde 
colligi potest, collato Amipsiae fragmento apud Schol. ad Av. 521. 
illos vates non oracula exponere tantutn solere, sed et facere et for- 
tasse vendere. Etenim Comici verba sunt, aut esse debent, Vf2ore 
iroioOrats XPWl* ^ cturovg uwoUv&ou titlv dioweliei Tw ftaiyojxsya). Ne- 
que mirandum est Lampona talem artem ad suum sibi commodum 
exercere; qui fuit, teste Schol. ad Nub. 331. unus ra>v 7roA*Teuo/te- 
v»y voto&Kis : et fortasse suam operam collocavit Alcibiadi in bello 

4ristophani$ Comment arius. 43 

Siculo instruendo. Hinc patet Plutarchum scripsisse ml Aip^ 
weovog ductu Lamponis, qui bene dici potest iouptog opvig ; avis a 
Thureo : nominatus quidem avis, quia noverat prapeti* omina 
penna, vel quia, teste Aristoph. et Schol. in A v. 521. cfyu-u xccrot 
tou %»jvdf, j&aynxod opveou : et Bovptog appellatus e loco ad quetn ipse 
coloniam deduxit. Hinc quoque mtelligi potest, quod vereor ut 
alii satis intelligant, cur in Av. 987- post Ka) $d$ou p,rfi$v fuj& aieroS 
tv ve<f>gATjcnv subjiciatur Myjt \v AapMrnv y pjtp yv 6 p>iya$ dioireMhfc. 
Etenim Lampo fuit dictus Boipiog ogvi$ y i. e. teste iEschylo, aisrog. 
Satis, ut opinor, explicui istud Bovpiog ogvig' restat ut cetera exponatn; 
per 'A^aion hltpovov xparog intellige duo reges Spartae — qua: fuit 
civitas Achaeorum priuceps : per *E\\£fog rjfia,. accipe civitates ex- 
tra Peloponnesum positas (olim 'EWyvixoLg, teste Thucydide, 
dictas,) praeter Boeotiam, quam Comicus designatam esse voluit 
nomine 2<t>lyyoi, xvvu wguruviv IwoLpepioLv : i. e. Sphinga, more ca- 
ms, rapacem et principem earum, quibus fuit vita tnstis propter 
athera densiorem : Athena? quoque significantur per illud nTapivaig 
xtxrlv otepofohcug : quia plebs Attica, si quis alia, fuit vol a lit is et 
res super hominem ad captandum apta; quam vivide deptngit 
Plutarchus in Alcibiade p. J 99. dum loquitur de* ilia ad Siciliam 
profectione, cujus Alcibiades tov epoorcc vaLvronrctrw uvuQkegotg — rox 
ti Sij/xov p*iy*\u %tl<ra.g h\iri$eiv avrog rs peitymv opeyipjevog — Kug%ii- 
twu xot) AifZvriv oveipOtfoAaiv-— rou$ p,h viovg avrotw elx*v >jfo} roug 
ekirlcriv hr^pfievovg roov 8s 7rps<rfiuTepoov fagoobro noXXci iotvfL&tnx irep] •!% 
crparictg nepawovrwv wore 7roX\ov$ ev rotlg natoio'Tpoug xol\ rotg rjjuwxux- 
kloig xade^eciai, tyj$ ts vt)<rov to (r^p^ct xa) 9e<nv Aifivrtf xoX KaLp%vfiivog 
\nroyp<x<povTag. Totum igitur locum sic construe Boupiog opvig, Zi:mg 
wctpsurxoi 'Axaiwv 8/flpovov xparog xupceiv 'Ekkifog rjfia. <rvv Sop) xoii 
ytqi xp&xTOpi, exeptrw 2<plyyoL, xvvet Trgvraviv b s v<rap.eptoivy xvtrh irTap,i- 
vcug [xa*] itsgofolroig. Inter quae dedi 7ruga<r^oi f ?/3a et 7TTa/xevai$ 
vice hotp.a~ig. £t sane irra,p.&voug aliquatenus tuetur ffnjvof xvoov 
jEschylus ipse in Prom. 1057. et Agam. 139* mrawoiin xihtL 
Post v. 7. exstat to wyxXmg *V Alum : qui versus teste Timachida 
apod Schol. in quibusdam libris deesse. 

1309. et sqq. 

. Avot to 8«8«xa- irregov pavht %po'a rt 

^ogSov opyavov Spoaitypevai, ou i* (nc* 

Kvprivyg wgdtyioi xecTot yooviotg hk- 

fuiki 7rtvov *WeTe SaxTuX/wy fuXayysg 

'AXxuo'veg 5 Wtqtov bTtip<i\g pJna, xaX 15 

eu iroLpoi v>jv- xepxihg aoifov fxshsTag, 

ifUHg tuXoLG-<r- 7v 6 $i\av\og IvaAAe SeAp- 

i)f xvfMLcriv )g irp&paig xvoivep,f}o\otg 

rrcofLvktere, reyy- $ V vwr* y nKax oLXtip.ecrov 

9weu vorioug • 10 ow&vixg yivog apKttov, 20 


De Carminibus 



fMrpvog, tktxoL irotuarhrovw 
inglflctk' cuXivuiirt rixvoir 
ip£g tov mda. rivtf ; Ah 6p&. 
Ah Tovtii Tovroy opag ; Ah 6peo. 
Ah roioLVTet fiivr o3t©$ iroiwv 25 

riX^st fuekfi rk\b&. tyiyeiV 
Ah To\ ftsv fwXij y ia rather 

jSovXojttai 8* hi Si rov /xoya>8*«y 

faegskitiv rpovov 
Ah Nvxro$ 

JteXaiy- 30 

6$a,v}$ opfvoiy rhx /xoi St/oTay- 
fy* Svsigov, ejjf &$ctvov$ *&(Mrus 
''Ata. irpoVoXoy, tyv%oiv 

*4^X 0V *X 0VTA > fteXa/v- 

o; Nvxros vofi&ai 

«&}, fciyoy otyiy 


ova fdwa ^d/y- 

i* Sepxo'fteyoy 

fjAyot\ov$ Sw%ol$ ^xpmr ; 

aXXa fw* a/tp/iroXdi kv%VQV tktyaxs, 

x&kxtol r he flwajxavJgoVov apart, 

ttppatvm 8* 3$a>g, 

e£f 0g7oy ay oysig- 

oy ro'yo* a*oxXt;£a>, 

m irovrie Saif/w 

rttura xa/y', 

(S £u*oix- 

oi, rigor* jxoi raSe dg- 

acdr tov aXsxrptSova 


* # 




Nvfjtyot Ipovrlyow 

MivioL <ruXXa/3« v/y. 54 

syco y a TaXaiyairpocr^oucr' Irej^ov 

Ijaavrifc ttgyoi$ 9 X/von fiioTov *- 

rpotxro* efx/tro"- 

ouo~a xsipoiv, 

xXcoorripa woiouo"', 

el$ ayopuv fep- 

ovtr a7ro8o/jttaV 

6 ^ kykrctr* iverrar' be aW- 

gpa xovQoTOLTctis irrepvyoov 64 

ctxfxoug' l/Aol o* a^a'apceaxaTeXwre*, 

aT opfxaroov 2j3aXov 8e oaxpt/a Saxgu* 

?/3aXoy eo r&Xeuv 

ejttajv aXX ico 

If gijTe$ * J8a$ 

rlxya t£ T^jja 70 

Aaj3ft'yTi£ eTra/xuvarg, 

tcI xa>Xa t ayaffoAAgTe 

xvxXovfxsvoi rr}V oix/ay* 

af/ta ?8 xaXa>, Alxrvwet iruig 

rc\$ xvvlcxovs $xpwf *75 

ix6sTa> $*£ lifjLtm 

iFotvraxy, <ru t' 

a) Aiig &*- 

irvpovg xvixpv<r- 

a AafwraSa^ ^f- 8d 

oraVaiy xepolv 'Exeiret, to w5p 

ava^»jvov, i^ rXvxyg oiroog 

clv sure 


<ra foopocca). 

r\vxy '<rr\ ypovfy 

V. 1-4. Hi quatuor locum habebant post 4ftyg*y in v. 28. ita 
scripti ¥ ^4va to ScoSexaft^avoy KvpfjWis /xeAo^roiaiy. Licet Suidas 
ScoSexaft^ayoy, et in voce ilia Hesychius necnon in Kvpf^vvj una cum 
Eustathio IX. Z. v. 647—507. vulgatum agnoscant; nullus dubitavi 
quin emendarem SfloSsxo^opSoy ; addito ogyuvov ; hue enim respexit, 
opinor, Etymol. qui ex incerto scriptore ticohxiyogbw ogyuvov citat 
in V. Xopfo). Etenim ilia fuit parodia carminis Euripidei in Hyp- 
sipyla? : cujus initium fuit teste Schol. ^ya to ScoSexaju^ayov ivrpw: 
Sed nescio quid sitillud Sa^exa/t^ayoy avrpov, velaVrgoy ut exhibet 
Suidas. lntellexissera^va to ta)hxa^povov aurTpov, i.e. Erige te 9 
stella duodecim tempora habens, utpote periphrasin pro Erige te, 6 
Sol. Mox pro |XfXoiroi»y xcposui pixi *'mv. Etenim suspicor Euripi- 

Aristophanis Comment arius. 45 

jdem scripsisseZ7figjjvi}£jKiA.f *7vov; dictum de Apolline, qui,ut fingebtt 
Tragicus, Pirenis met, i. e. dulces aquas bibit, ut apud Horatium, 
rore puro Castalia lavit Crines solutos, vel apud Persium in Pro- 
logo vates dieiturf onte labra, prolui Caballino : Non inepte igitur 
Euripidea "Av* to So&x — a%povov £<rrpov | rieigrjvr^ | jtteXi xtvov 
Comiciis ridet per "Ava to Jkobexot — %pp$ov opyavov \ Kvgfaf pi\t 
*nW. Inter quae vix opus est quod exponam ^exa^o^ov Zpyotvw 
instrumentum longum et rigid um. Sic dicitur vir rpurxoufax*- 
*nxy$ a Theocrito Idyll, xv. 15. ubi citat Valck. Nostri Vesp. 504. 
et Ran. 1041. rerpamixtis, et fiva Tgfon^u* ex Anthol. Epigr. In- 
cert. 91* quibus adde ex Hesychio exaTovTi^uv in V. 'ExerTo'y^eijov 
et * EvvectirrixY}eg, quorum ad normam depingit Comicus rem du&txa- 
XogSov i. e. cithara tensiorem ut est in Priapeis. Et sane opus 
erat re istiusmodi, si quis vellet frui KupyvYig i% Scofcxare^vw : de 
quibus duodecim modis Venereis Paxamus scripsit librum nomine 
batisxatrexvov, teste Suida. Quid sit istud jkJXi, non exponam. 

Hactenus de vocum permutatione ; restat ut causas aperiam, cur 

versus transposuerim. Vitio quidem Euripidi verterat ^Eschylus, quod 

ille «to trivraov sfafcoti xogv&lw [lege iropva&iw quia vo^vrSicw metre 

nocet] Sxoklwv McXitou Ketqixabv oLvXripaToov. At verum esse crimen 

negat Bacchus. AMf voi* r\ Mowr' ovx cAfo-jSfa&y. At accusationem 

JEschylus comprobat, carmina quaedam citando, quorum senaus 

potuit et in bonam et roalam partem accipi, verbis leviter mutatis. 

Hinc intelligitur qua de causa transposuerim "A** x<r.A. quod fuit 

apud Euripidem et debuit esse apud Aristophanem Cantus initram 

V. 5. c A\xv6ve$ — Hoc fuit nomen avium, unde dictse sunt dhxvov&ef 

fyiqou teste Schol. Iv c&g Iotiv ftsy/trnj lov^la. avifwov xa) xv\utxw : 

unde vice wag* asvtzotg reposui [moL^a vrpk\wng cui Suidas fa vet, al & 

r^vejxoi xa) ycLkyprp t^ovcou Yjfxegai xolXovvtou a\xvovli$g, Verum et 

'Akxvdv teste Hesychio, fuit Sij/xoV rt$, ni fallor, prope Theatrum ; 

qua habitabant scorta, ideoque dicta 'AXxvovtg eo meliori jure, quod 

mulieres tarn casta? quam irapudica? spectabant ludos e summis 

gubselliis (ut patet ex Ovid. Amor. n. vii.) theatri ; cujus cavea, 

teste Pausania, apud Eustath. ad 08. T. 1472= 1S3. cum Hesychio 

et Photio, fiiit dicta 0aAa<r<ra, xol\t\ : super qua, veluti Halcyon 

super mari, sedebant illae mulieres Halcyones : quarum opera 

quivis cognoscere poterit, si meminerit <TT»f«/AAm esse deductua 

e <rr4[Mt et iXAsjy : quod iu ipso opere foeminam facere monet Ovidius 

in Art. Am. in. 795. V. 10. Ita MS. Rav. et sic fortasse Schol. 

pro vorepvjg v. 1 1. Sic Reiskius pro irrepow. Quid sit wripw foemkue, 

exponi potest ab illo iEschyleo apud Hesych. VSQcrpaxw, dc 

puella dicto agri yv[jt,vov otrrgoixov 'Airryv artrtov : sic enim lege pro 

'ArTyvot, tMov: et redde awrijva unfledged. V. 12. 8go<n#/«iw4 

in sensu nequam ut hgfoov in Eq. 1285. V. 13. Iliud yawla* bcae 

dicitur de puella cujus risus ab angulo ab Horatio commemorate*. 

V; 14. Qua scripsit Euripides de araneis, ea cepit Comkut dt 

46 De Carminibus, fyc. 

fceminis : quas fingit Aristophanes esse operosas lanam carpendi 
hominis non ovis. Reposui oaxn/Aicov vice SaxruAwv : sic enim ex- 
hibet ed. Med. Suidae V. 0aAay£, non 8axTvAo*$. Etenim Qoi\otyye$ 
sunt aranea apud Euripidem : apud Aristophauem axga taw 
iaxTvtov : duplex quoque sensus inest voci IcuiruXim : quam Tragi- 
cus voluit significare rttia (vid. Polluc. v. 30.) at Comicus podicem. 
Vid. H. Steph. in V. et Pollue. n. .174. Mox scripsit Tragicus 
ioTOT0va-9njv/(TjxaTa et Coinicus \mv\vt[$ [iatol i. e. Jihc ctinium: qui 
sunt sub mentulis, veluti colis erectis : dein xipx&o$ intellige, quasi 
a xegxos ductum : cui facete additur epitheton cto&ov. Inter reliqua 
nemo non intelliget §eX<p)$: quod fuitnomen piscis et instrument cu- 
jusdam acuti navibus praetixi — hinc et virilisinembri. Similiter contus- 
pedalis usurpatur in Priapeis. Quo jure fa\$)$ dicatur <p/AavXo; 
patetex Homerica voce avXog quam Schol. ad 0$. X. 18. exponunt 
-per l£axoVri(rjxa xa) xqovvo$ tov ottpotTOs, et cur irpwpou sint xuavejttjSoAoi 
patet e Priapeis ruber hortorum custos. V. 19- Vulgo . /xavriia 
xa) OTa8/oo$. Inde erui ij V vwt Jj V n-Aax' axujttaTov quas voces 
scribere potuitTragicus, depingens navem quae transit mai is xopwr- 
cifuvov vwrov yj ttXclx axvpotTov. Certe dixit iEschylus in Agam. 
563. uxufMov novrog necnon Euripides ipse axvfMov &£\ot<r(roL teste 
Phrynicho in Ilpozup. SoQktt. p. 6. qui tamen non bene exposuit 
wtvfjwov per &yovo$, neque satis intellexit verba Comici, seu potius 
,Tragici, 9 Axv(iotT0$ Ze iro'pQpog ev $g/xjj yeXa. Id sensit Valck. ad 
Phosn. 216. qui citat Andr. 158 Nr$v$ ocxv[uji)v magis ad Phrynichi 
sententiam accommodatum, et mihi perquam opportune confert 
Iph. T. 1444. axufMVu IIoytov ri6^<ri vwra. In malam igitur partem 
JEuripidis verba vwtov Sj tcKolx axujxarov detorsit Comicus : cujus 
mentem satis aperient Sosipatri Epigr. i. p. 504 =255. et Scaligeri 
Notae in Priap. p. 472. V. 20. Quid sit yavog e praemissis intel- 
Jigi potest; necnon ad fioTpvg (cujus tIxvov dicitur £Ai£ 7rctv<rlirovo$) 
testes non advocabo explicandi causa. Diu uimis fortasse inter has 
spurcitias sum immoratus : sed qui Comica intellige re velit, is ne- 
cesse est pudorem aliquantisper deponat. V. 23. Dum woSa rwfa 
(vulgo toutov) et touS) (vulgo rl Sal;) toutov eloquitur, ressuaset 
Euripidis ostendit. Hinc elucet jocus in irotiot et jxeAij membra 
.vel Carmina. V. 25. Vulgo /xsvtoi <rh ToA/*a$ contra metrum et 
mox ftsA>} <ro5 ToutTcc contra sensum. V. 39* l)eest iambus. V. 43. 
Vulgo 6gpft6T6 — xAutrett. Utraque vox metro nocet. V. 47. Cur repo- 
jsuerim xotiv pro xew nemo requiret. V. 49. fle«(rao-0i bic legebatur, 
ut olira feoL<rour6au in Thesm. 234. ubi Qeu<rQca emendavit Porsonus : 
cxstat quoque t*<rti in Ach. 770. V. 52^ A best Vtj id tuetur 
Eccl. 311. rj yvvvj <Ppov$Y) Vt/ /to*. 341. 4>po6%Yj Vt e^ovcroi ioiftatriov* 
950. <P§o6$riyoip Sctt/v. V. 53. Vulgo NupQcti 6gs<r<riyovoi : quod fhu|- 
mentum, ait Schol. fuit e HaVTg/cov Euqinilov. Verum satis coarguit 
Valcken. ad Eurip. Diatrib. p. 11. errores Scholiast*; qui tamen 
bene monuit ou&e votf 'Aiaj(v\ov tcwtck. fyfMfy A«jutr/3«ywJai— neque, 

On a Passage, §c. 47 

quodaddere poterat, nctpaL 2oQox\hv$; cui fragmentumillud Platonic 
testimonio vindicator. Ipse quidem reposui sgeuriydvej quod for- 
matur ab Sgav et yovrj (semen) ad exemplum vocis igaffwjjjugTo; 
. apud Hesych. et lga<nflAoxaju,o$ apud Pi nd arum : cur vero Nympha 
(teste Photio to avoi^frov tcov yvvaiKelow otlbotcov) tali nomine ap- 
pelletur, patet ex Eccl. 227. Bwovfjuvai yixlpovtrw : et e Lysistr. 
896. 'OXtyov juiAei eroi t% xgoxijf $ogoujuivi)c c 2Vo twv aXtxTgvifvcuv in- 
telligi potest, cur Mavlag y epouriyovog jubeatur gallum gallinaceum 
comprehendere. V. 60. lnepte xvefouog. Dedi veQihag retia: 
quo sensu exstat in A v. 194. Ma yijv ju,a way/Bas juwe ve<pi\a$ pot S/xtva 
et ibid. 528. wctyllag- — ve^eXaj WxTua mjxras. V. 67. E rXufxwv 
erui t&Xouv sfjuZv. V. 74. Vulgo 8s J/xTt>vva icaug *AgTBfti$ xat) i. 
At Brunckius vidit gl. esse "Agrees : mox ips*e dedi <re xaAai cf. 
Lys. 346. xaf <re xaXoo — Tpiroyevsioi. Similiter emendavi iEschyl. 
Again, legendo "Ifi, avaxothw re, 27afav. V. 78. Vulgo <ru ^ »: 
quod sententia non sinit. V. 81. Ex 'Exira Trapacfijvov erui 'Exar* 
tbirvp otvoiffivov. 

1370. et sqq. 

HM. en) mvov V « $ &s'£«or "\ V. I . Vulgo brhovol y % oi. V. 2. 

to tie y otv eregov au Tfgaj J y&p : mox wAewv oti$ av: et dein 
veo^jxJv, ajturlug nkitog av I «Jojxijv : Mutantur tarn ob sen- 
wrig hrevivi<rev aKXog. \ tentiam quam metrum. Phry- 

HM.(^A'T0V 9 lyob fiev ou8* *v, sing f nich. Ilpvitaq. H^Qhtt. p. 21. 
eAeye ftoi twv STriTup^o'vTcoy, I habet 9 Atwciol$ 7r\eo»g avipooirog* 
eTrMpW) **X cSftijy 1 %gc». Cf. Thesm. 709. 'fig 

avT ctv auTOV AijpsTv. •' wAsaVd' atffltVTa ToXpyg e#ya xav- 

ou<rYvvri*$. At Suid. ATQiriot§ 
7r\eov irpaypa. 

1482. et sqq. <rrp. 1 Ut hsec inter se conveniant lege IIuXiv 
1491. et sqq. avrurrp. J Amur* avco 9 xhie)g vice ilaAiy imiviv iixottf 

mox ${Aoi<ri. 

Efo/i. dabam Kalend. Mart. A. C. mdcccxvi. 



The following passage of the Poetic of Aristotle has considerable 
intricacy. By an insertion of it into your Journal it may attract 
the attention of some of your learned correspondents. 

"flinrep yap xa) ^owftacn xai c^yji^okti ^roXXa fufiovvral riveg oumxA- 
tyvreg (oJ fwv Sia re;£W)$, of Se Sia (ruv»)Se/a$,) grtpo* &e $iar^ $a)V^ # 
ourco x*v rfti* tlgniiumts, &c. &c. Monsieur Dacier has translated 

48 Criticism, §c. 

it thus : " Ou par le secours de Tart, ou par Habitude seule, ou en 
joignant les deux ensemble" He has this note iipoo the pass^y c 
" Lfii mani&re don ton avoit lu ce passage, l'avoit rendu si obscurcft 
si difficile qu'il ne faut pas s'6tonner si tant de sgavans hommes ont 
travail! e inutilement k 1' expliquer. Voici conime ils avpient lu. 
of ftif ho\ rixyris, oi piv hi <rvvri9eta$, ertgoi ii hoi 1% fa»ri$. -Ceux-Ci 
pai* le secours de l'art, ceux-la par l'habitude seule, et les autres 
par la voix. Je sais bien oue la voix est un instrument dont on 
se'sert pour quelque imitation, mais elle n'entre nullement dans la 
peinture et n' y peut avoir aucun lieu. Aristote avoit ecrit comme 
il y a dans quelques exemplaires hepoi 8e h' afjupolv, et les autres par* 
tous les deux ; c'est-i-dire et par Tart et par l'habitude. Expliquons 
presentement la pensee de ce Philosophe. II y a des peintres qui 
invtent par les seules regies de 1'art, et ce sont ceux qui ne joignant 
pas le naturel k la connoissance de regies sont k la v6rit& reguliers 
et justes dans leurs ouvrages, mais ils sont maigres et dechamez, il 
n' y a ni liberty ni noblesse. 11 y en a d' autres, qui imitent par 
l'habitude seule, c'est-&- dire sans aucune connoissance de regies, et 
conduits par leur seule genie, se sont accoutumez k tracer des 
images de tout ce qu'ils ont vu. Enfin il y en a qui joignent 
l'habitude k Tart, et ce sont ceux qui n' ayant pas moins de genie que 
de science se sont acquis par leur travail uue si grande facility 
qu'ils deviennentenfin originaux et travailler sur la verity 
au lieu que les autres ne travaillent que sur les copies. Voili k mon 
avis tout ce qu' on peut dire pour exlaircir la pensee d' Aristote 
ou je trouve encore une tres grande difficult^. Car j' avoue 
que je ne comprens pas pourquoi ce philosophe, qui n'6cnt pas un 
seul mot inutilement, se jette ici dausle detail de ces trois differences 
qui regnent parmi les peintres. Je croirois que cette premiere 
partie of ftev 8ia tsyvijs, ceux-ci par Fart 9 seroit corrompue, et 
qu' Aristote auroit 6cnto! ftsv hot viy^^ 'ceux-ci par hazard.' De cette 
maniere il expliqueroit la naissance, le progr&s, et l'entier £tablisse- 
ment de la peinture qui est nee comme la poesie et comme l'61o- 
quence ; le hasard l'a produite, l'habitude 1' a entretenue et for- 
tified, et les hommes venant ensuite d joindre les deux ensemble, et 
& comparer leurs effets, en ont decouvert la cause et ont etabli sur 
cela des regies qui constituent l'art." Monsieur Dacier has produced 
no authority for changing the reading eregoi he hoi t^s 4>a>vijs and 
placing in its stead Trego* 11 h' apQoiv. 

Edinb. Jan. 1816. W. L. C. 



ur TweddelFs Greek Epigram on Quid novi ? there is something so 
difficult and obscure, that I have never once been able to find a per- 
son who could comprehend the meaning of it. The two last lines, 
which constitute the sum, if I may so say, and the winding-up of the 
Epigram, are, 1 must confess, to me wholly unintelligible. The 
author himself seems to have felt a difficulty, as he has appended to 
&em an explanatory note. It were useless to hazard a conjecture 
on the subject ; as this would be but fighting in the dark. However, 
I strongly suspect that the obscurity of the allusion originates in 
the circumstance of its having reference to something of more 
general interest at the time when the Epigram was written, than it-is 
at the present day. Any person possessed of the means of discover- 
ing the drift of it, and who will give intimation of this through the 
channel of the Classical Journal, shall, amongst those of others, be 
entitled to the thanks of 


For the benefit of those, who may not have an opportunity of 
referring to Tweddell's Prolusiones, i will transcribe -the Epigram, 
as it stands in that work. 


El ffaAJv opfyoio <pAfj3s$ oupavfow Atioivro, 
T)J r' omto TtXvtypEvujv ita<r dirnXoiro pv%<j5v t 

Oin ovy' aSff, (olpou) nvpfa, K&TQ'Kitrb' iv g/3aXAg^, 
Asvxd\iiv r\ dvSpwv Xa'iveov^ yovicLs' 

Ufh a\oyo$, K?y§oi$ ' EIkw, oVAoicn Aayuj$. 


With your permission, I would offer a few observations on Mr. 
Collins remarks upon the controversy between Mr. Bellamy and 
me. I shaU make them as briefly as I am able 5 since even the 
length of the articles, which you have received from me, furnishes 

1 Automaton. 


50 Hebrew Criticism. 

matter to, this gentleman for contemptuous allusions. (See No. 
xxn.-p. 275.) 

After having professed his sorrow for being obliged to differ 
from my opinion, &c. Mr. Collit informs your readers that he 
means not only to question the fairness of some of my statements* 
in my contest with Mr. B. ; but, convinced with the latter, and 
with Sir W. Drummond, that DwN is a noun singular, to oppose, 

Generally, my arguments. (Class. Journ. No. xxi. p. 110.) He 
len expresses his surprise that I am uninformed of the bold at- 
tempts of Dr. Kennicott, and asks if I have yet to learn that many 
of the alterations proposed by him, betrayed « ignorance" of the 
structure and idioms of the language, in those points on which he ? 
committed himself. 

I confess myself to be as uninformed of Dr. Kenmcotifs 
ignorance of Hebrew, as Mr. C. can suppose ; neither have I had 
an opportunity of reading any but a small part of his works, in 
which I have seen much to admire, but must acknowledge that 
there, are also some points, in which I do not agree with him.. 
Where a person has done so much as Dr. K., it would be wonder- 
ful if he had made no mistakes. I never vouched for his correct- 
ness in every point ; Mr. C. himself allows him to have been « a 
learned Hebraist" and if he was such, why should not a self- : 
taught scholar think it an honor to be ranked with him ? The 
aberrations of Dr. K. produced by Mr. C. (No. xxi. p. 21 1.) hardly 
warrant him to exclaim, " So much for the infallibility of this 
improver of the Hebrew text." Infallibility does not belong to 
man — I never heard that Dr. K. made any pretensions to it, and I 
certainly never asserted any thing of the kind. I spoke of the 
labors of Kennicott, and De Rossi, in general — that they would 
always be highly prized by scholars ; I have neither said nor ima- 
gined, that their decisions were infallible or conclusive, in all cases ; 
nor can I see any dishonor it would be, even to Mr. C, to have his 
name associated with theirs, although Mr. B., in the warmth of 
disputation, has declared^ that « they were altogether unqualified" 
for the work, «« and but mere pretenders to a critical knowledge of 
the language j" (No. in. p. 681.) But as I am pot implicated with 
Dr. K. as a " Hebrew mender^" it would be irrelevant to the 
subject under discussion, to say more. 

Mr. Collit next observes, that, on some occasions, I employ -a 
kind of tactics, of which he can see neither the forte nor the 
beauty — that niy opponent has objected to the translation of cer- 
tain passages in the modern versions, because they are made from 
the Vulgate; to the Vulgate he objects, because it is frequently 
made from the LXX. j and to the LX2L, as not giving the -seas* 
of the Hebrew in those places. He denies the correctness of these 

Hebrew Criticum. 51 

ramus* This is the point at issue. He then adds, that I, never- 
theless, quote these very versions as authorities, &c. together with 
Tremellius, and Junius, Castellio, and the Geneva French— -and 
says, that he « thought this method of conducting a controversy 
had been long exploded. In critical disquisitions, names are of ft* 
weight, though they may increase the bulk of an article/' &c. 
(No. xxn. p. 275.) 

To this I reply, that how much soever we may imagine modem 
translators to have been influenced by their previous acquaintance 
with the Vulgate, it is hardly conceivable that any person would 
attempt to make a version, professedly from the originals, 
without having a knowledge of those tongues. Now, Sir, the 
Vulgate is allowed to be of vast importance in the criticism 
of the Bible, by a host of the greatest scholars that have been en- 
gaged in Biblical researches ; and if it, in general, gives the genuine 
sense of the original, modern versions ought, in general, to agree 
with it. The veneration in which the Scriptures of % the Old and 
New Testaments have been held by pious men, in all ages of the 
Church, has induced the translators of them to abide as much as 
possible by the letter : hence it is, that we perceive such a striking 
resemblance ki all the principal features of the various translations 
that have been made. And hence the injustice of concluding, aS 
Mr. C. does for Mr. Bellamy, « That he objects to modern ver- 
sions, because they are made from the Vulgate,'' &c. Nor is his 
Statement correct— Mr. B. objected to the Vulgate and EngHsh 
translation ; and though I included the Vulgate in my authorities, 
I adduced others, against which he had not made any formal ob- 
jection, and passages from the original, with reasons for the re- 
ceived version, which neither Mr. B. nor Mr. C. have answered, 
nor can answer. These Mr. C, with great candor and forbear- 
ance! has passed by in silence. 

In some kinds of knowledge, a man of genius may make consi- 
derable proficiency, without much aid from those who have pre- 
ceded him ; and, where demonstration ban be applied, there is no 
occasion to refer to names, to give weight to his conclusions ; but 
die case is very different in philology. If we learn a language, 
k must be from those who know it, and to them we must refer, 
as our authorities for the signification of words. Did the gentle- 
man, with whom I contended, refuse to admit, as authorities, 
,f Jonathan and Onkelos, the Johnsons of the age in which they 
lived i» — Mr. C. must allow me to remind him, that my oppoiient 
considered these Johnsonian Targumists as adding weight to his 
arguments ; and therefore, this method of conducting a contro- 
versy cannot have been very long exploded. Perhaps names have 
<ntfy become of no weight, since he has taken up the gauntlet 
If Mr. C. has not acquired his knowledge of Hebrew by intuition! 

52 Hebrew Criticism. 

I suppose be must know it upon the authority of Buxtorff, Bytbnef) 
Schickard, Masclef, or some other— On the authority of the He- 
brew grammarians and lexicographers, and by his examination of 
those versions which furnished the materials from which their 
grammars and lexicons were compiled — names of no weight in cri- 
tical discussions ! Why, Sir, even mathematicians quote Euclid* 
Has Mr. C, no respect for those who introduced him to the know- 
ledge of Hebrew ? No — submission to the authority of teachers 
has been long exploded. 

Mr. C. knows that I do not quibble respecting the 300 change* 
to be rung upon "OT, and cannot be serious in saying that I con- 
cede the point in dispute entirely. The original question was, not 
what could be done ; but what really was done : the word is not 
pointed in 300 different ways, when prefixes and affixes are added 
to it, nor has it either 300 or 100 significations. "OT, however^ 
would not have been mentioned, had Mr. C.'s client only avoided 
€( irrelevant matter," when forced to take a desperate leap fro** 
Twtfn ;. it is true, dabar was as much to his purpose as any thing 
else he could have found, unless he had for once condescended to 
say, « / am wrong" If Mr. C. " states so many objections to 
Mr. H.'s mode of reasoning, with real reluctance" I do not know 
why he should charge me with quibbling, for detecting an erro- 
neous statement on mathematical principles : if there be any quib- 
bling, the merit of it is all his own. Why should I have quibbled I 
Will Mr. C. risk his reputation as a Hebraist, by saying that I 
have not given the true meaning of TwtXn DH3TT3, in my contest 
with Mr. Bellamy ? If I have, then Mr. B.'s attempt to prove 
TO\Xn to signify « after this manner," certainly failed : and £F so* 
it remains for Mr. C. to show that all those authorities which I 
produced for the received version of 1 Sam. iv. 8. are insufficient 
to establish the point ; to show that TfTtXn DHHNil DVT!?Nn, in 
the language of those ancient polytheists, does not signify " these 
mighty Gods ;" and that DnXD-HK VXin tfrhxn DT7 H^K does 
not properly signify, « these are they, the (very) Gods that smote 
the Egyptians" But I must admonish him, that Hebrew scholars 
will expect the controversy to be carried on, by a reference to 
higher authority than his own, or that of the gentleman whose 
cause he advocates. 

I am now come to that part of Mr. C.'s paper respecting Jona- 
than and Kimchi — here he seems, with great exultation, to enjoy 
his conscious superiority over me. Lofty flights are dangerous, 
and it may be that Mr. C. has yet to learn some things as well as 
his antagonist. Does he know any passage of Scripture in which 
€( a great man,' 9 and « angel of Jehovah" are to be understood 
as synonymous terms ? Can he defend his position, that Jonathan's 

Hebrew Criticism. t 53 

*"? K3IWD, and Kimchi's Vn DTN, signify one and the same thing ? 
Mr, C. ought to know, that it is usual with the Targumists to ren- 
der both Dv6n and TT\7V, by "7 ND*6d and *H X1p\ and that 
they never understand by it « a great man " for, how great 
soever a man may be u ex officio," there is still an infinite distance 
between him and his Creator. A messenger for God is some- 
times called N*2J and DVT^NrMCPN, but none of them is called 
" angel of Jehovah/' in Jonathan's acceptation of the term in this 
place. The title was peculiarly his " who bare and carried his 
people all the days of old." Isa. lxiii. 9. 

And now, Sir, « though Samuel was a pf ophet, a messenger of 
God, a great man indeed !" yet « both Jonathan and Kimchi 
are c not* right in their exposition," nor have I either said or 
thought, " that she saw gods ascending ! in opposition to the words 
of Scripture, which declare expressly that she saw Samuel" 
(But I shall send you a papei^ respecting the Woman of En-dor, 
immediately after the publication of this.) 

All the Hebrew grammarians are agreed, that CP is the increment 
which all nouns and participles masculine take, in the formation of 
the plural absolute. I am therefore authorised, by all the masters 
of the language, to consider D^J7 as a plural participle ; and as it 
is in construction with Dv6tf, to consider the latter as a plural 
noun. Mr. C. must allow me to question the correctness of his 
assertion, that Elohim is " here used absolutely as the official title 
erf Samuel." I am frequently troubled with " inadvertency \" but 
in this case I could not have adverted to Elohim as a title of the 
Judges in the Hebrew Scriptures, with any regard to accuracy ; 
because I am persuaded that, in the language of this Pythonissa, 
the word was not intended to convey any such meaning 5 and be- 
cause the grammatical construction clearly requires its plural ap- 
plication. I have no party interest to serve, when I contend for 
the plurality of Elohim ; it is a critical question with me, and 
nothing can be more certainly clear, both from its form and appli- 
cation, than its plural signification in many parts of Scripture. 

I had not forgotten my first, when I put my second question to 
Mr. B. He had rendered ^N in the beginning of the verse " unto 
me" and, according to his canon, V*?N ought to have been translated 
u unto him," not " before him" in the latter part of it. Whatever 
Mr. B. might intend by his introduction of K15) J ?N" , D^9, it will not 
serve Mr. C.'s purpose. The expression (I believe) occurs four 
times in Scripture, respecting the divine colloquies to which Moses 
was admitted 5 and as we cannot suppose that he who fills immen- 
sity, has parts and features like man, we must conclude, that the 
expression relates, principally, to the familiar and direct method of 
communication, rather than to any particular sensible appearance* 

54 Hebrew Criticism. 

DMB is as undoubtedly a plural noun in Hebrew, as superficies* ft* 
signification, is in English. No doubt reasons might be offered* 
to show the fitness of thus applying Jthe name to the anterior part 
pf the Cranum ; I, however, am more satisfied with knowing 
what is meant by an expression, than I could be with censuring the 
peculiarities of an ancient language ; and can see no more impro- 
priety in the Hebrews using D'2E), to designate one, or many faces % 
than there is in Englishmen using superficies, to denote one, or 
many surfaces. (Except in Gen. xxxii. 31. and Ezech. xx. 35. 
I do not recollect the occurrence of this phrase, but as above.) 

If Mr. C. had not perceived the manifest impropriety, not to 
$ay absurdity, of translating HT7N in the manner proposed by Mr. 
Q., I would not have noticed his observation on Deut. vi. 14. 
He has, however, cast no additional light upon the subject, unless 
his positive assertion is to be supposed of greater weight than the 
authority of an ho$t of critics. After discarding my opinion* he 
says, " The fact is, that when a singular substantive, in its absolute 
form, takes the termination 0% the adjective, with which it is in 
construction, frequently assumes the same form. The passage 
may be truly rendered thus, without any supplement, < Ye shall 
not go after another god, even a god of the people which are round 
about you.' " (No. xxn. p. 878.) 

I am surprised, Sir, that these gentlemen never meet with any" 
difficulties ; and I am not always willing to admit it as a proof of 
their acquaintance with the subject. Mr. C. says, cc When a^ut>- 
stantive singular takes the termination Q 1 ;" — but when is that the 
case ? If he had known any such substantives, he would have ad- 
duced them, and not have satisfied himself with ringing upon a 
solitary word D% the sea. What he says respecting the adjective 

assuming the same form, is only saying that when a plural noun is 
in construction with a plural adjective, they are both to be consi- 
dered as singular, upon the ipse dixit of Mr. C. Besides which, 
he has followed the example set him by Dr. Kennicott, and left 
out the mem, prefixed to Elohei, in the second clause of the verse ! 
The very crime with which Mr. B. charged me. And lastly, his 
great respect for my knowledge of Hebrew, has induced him to 
spare me the pain which I must unavoidably have felt, if he had 
<c truly rendered" Jerem. xiii. 10. And walk after another god to 
serve them J 

I have had nothing to do with Mr B/s calves ; but if they will 
force me to give my opinion, I must just observe that Mr. C/s 
translation violates the first concord in grammar ; the verb does 
not agree with its nominative case, unless he can show TT2W7 to 
be the third pers. sing. pret. of Hiphel, with *] affixed : if he can 
do this, I shall have nothing whatever to object to his translation 

Hebrew Criticism. 55 

(tf- £xed. xxxii. 4. His ingenuous confession of the difficulty 
Occasioned by the stop being placed before the pronoun is amusing. 
Ancient manuscripts were sot encumbered with stops— this pause, 
however, shows the Masorets to have understood the passage in 
the Same way as modern translators. His observations on D\ y&m % 

the sea, are trifling ; for the Hebrew grammarians have not said 
that p* is a plural noun, but that a masc. noun singular, increased 
ib the end by D\ becomes the plural absolute j in the instance pro- 
duced by Mr. C. it is not a termination, but a. word : besides, 
those who contend so strenuously for the vowel points, should at 
least know that the word for sea, is "yam" and the plural termi- 
hation is « hn." As well might Mr. C. tell us, that s added to 
sea, or En to ox, does not make them plural, because they have no 
plural signification when they are detached from the end of a 
word — and this is Hebrew criticism ! Will Mr. C. permit me to 
mention rhetorical figures ? He must have heard, of such a figure 
as Metoriomy 5 and, as D*"!¥D is undeniably used, in the Hebrew, 
Scriptures, for the Egyptians, what canon of sound criticism will 
be violated, if we consider ")XD (the singular) to have been the 
name of Ham's son, and that the children are put, by Metononiy, 
for the father ? Metzr is a name by which Egypt has always been 
known, both in the east and the west ; and in the fragment of San- 
choniatho's Phccn. Hist, the first king of Egypt is called Misors 
and Menes m in Eratosthenes' table of the Egyptian kings. That 
MTU DVO stand for peoples, and not individuals, may be safely 
believed ; indeed the words of the historian, fairly interpreted, can- 
hot be said to assert more than the rise of these peoples from Javan. 
Mr. C. has not proved what he attempted, and has no proper 
ground for his concluding sentence, " But if none of these be 
plural, what becomes of the assertion that D 1 in Elohim, proves 
that noun to be plural?" Mr. C. knows that T do not rest its 
plural signification on its termination alone, but on that, in con- 
junction with other circumstances, which no man can overturn. 

Whatever may be the precise meaning of D^l/l, in the few 
places of Scripture in which it occurs, I fear that Mr. C.'s passion 
for unities will prevent him from discovering it : that the Teraphim 
were used for purposes of idolatry, is, however, pretty evident ', 
and had Mr. C. only glanced at Maurice's Indian Antiquities, or 
at Mr. Barker's Letters to him (on Pagan Trinities), published in 
your Journal, he might, perhaps, have discovered some of the no- 
tions entertained by the heathen nations, respecting a plurality in 
the divine essence. In all probability, the Teraphim had some- 
thing about it which rendered it proper to be designated by a plural 
name. Mr. C. may try to excite the risibility of your readers, by 
translating the word " a manikin I" But a critic ought to recollect 

56 Hebrew Criticism. 

that Mose% informs us of Laban calling them his gods, Gen* xxxL 
$0. That Jacob allowed them to be Laban's gods, ver. 31 • and 
that verse 34?. runs thus, " For Rachtl had taken the Teraphim, 
and had put them (QOtWD), into the camel's furniture, DH^y 2OTT? 
and sat upon them." See also Zechar. x. 2. where Teraphim is 
the nominative case to 1121 the third pers. plur. preter. of Pihel. 

Mr. C. will not think me singular, in assuming it as granted, that 
the Hebrew language was lost during the Babylonish Captivity. 
He must surely know this to be a generally received opinion in the 
learned world. The very learned Bochart allows it to be somewhat 
surprising, that the Israelites should have preserved their language 
unadulterated, during their long abode in Egypt, and have lost it in 
the course of 70 years, in a country where a cognate dialect was 
in use ; but he gives a very sufficient reason, viz. that in the former 
country they lived together, and in the latter were dispersed among 
their masters, whose language they were forced to use. See Pha- 
Ieg. lib. 1. cap. 15. Whether Mr. C's assertion, that the Jews 
could not lose their language in the course of seventy years, will be 
thought of greater weight than the general opinion of the learned, 
I leave to your readers to determine. Mr. C. next informs your 
readers whence we have drawn our « notion of Hebrew ceasing to 
be spoken after the Captivity." He says, it " has been taken up 
from what is stated in the 8th chap. Nenem. respecting the reading 
of the book of the law of Moses — the Elders who were with Ezra 
gave the sense, and caused the people to understand the law,— they 
translated it into Chaldee, say those who suppose the Hebrew . to 
have been lost." He adds, u We might with precisely the same 
accuracy, say, when. a clergyman is expounding a passage to his 
hearers, that he is translating the English Bible into English !" — Is 
this mark of admiration indicative of Mr. Collit's surprise, at the 
cleverness of his critical observation, or at the folly of those who 
are so unhappy as " to dissent from the dicta of so great a master i" 
Let the Targums, which were used in after times, to supply the 
place of those living interpreters, those ancient men, who were 
acquainted with both languages, be the answer to such Hebrew 
criticism. And now, since the "pluralists" have seen one half 
of their high places trampled upon by this champion of singularity, 
they must doubtless perceive the necessity of taking up new posi- 
tions; for Mr. C. "thinks it manifest that Mr. B. is right in 
affirming that the termination D 1 is not always a sign of the plural. 
The argument for the plurality of E/okim, as established by its 
termination, therefore, falls to the ground." If names are to be 
taken for authorities, " what falsehood is there either in physics or 
morals, which Mr. Collit might not prove to be true ?" His 
authorities are Mr. B. and himself. 

Hebrew Criticism. 57 

Mr. C. says, " The other great argument of the pluralist* is, 
that in some passages it is found joined with adjectives, pronouns, 
and verbs plural. About thirty passages have been referred to by 
Parkhurst, to prove the assertion, and Dr. Adam Clarke has quoted 
this statement of Parkhurst ! ! Mr. B. has truly stated, that in a 
number of the passages, the word Elohim does not occur — Mr. B*'s 
opponents have disingenuously, as I think, avoided admitting the 
fact— they must be told again, that in the following passages, that 
word is no* to be found \ Deut. v. 23. Isa. vi. 8. &c. Sec." 

We shall now try to discover whether Mr. C. has not taken 
ground a little too high — whether he does not breathe an atmo- 
sphere to which he is not accustomed. I affirm that he either has 
fallen into an error of the same kind, as that which he censures 
with such marked contempt in Dr. A. Clarke j or he has laid him- 
self under the suspicion of incapacity to examine a Hebrew Bible, 
in which the Pesukim may be numbered differently from those of 
the versions. Did Mr. C. assert " that the word Elohim was not 
to be found in Deut. v. 23." on the statement of some other per- 
son, or because he did not find " God " in ver. 23. of the version ? 
I hope he will pardon me, if without farther ceremony, I inform 
him, that the version of ver. 23. of the printed Hebrew, is to be 
found in ver. 26. of the version, « For who is there of all flesh 
that hath heard the voice of the living God (D^TJ DVf?N) speaking 
out of the midst of the fire i" &c. Mr. C. may complain of the 
disingenuous conduct of Mr. Bellamy's opponents, in not admitting 
his statement ; but he must be certain that he is mistaken in the 
very first passage stated, whether on his own authority, or on that 
of some anti-pluralist, himself must determine — I think his notes 
of admiration after Dr. Clarke's quotation should have prevented 
him from committing himself as he has done. 

It is true that Elohim is not to be found in Dan. v. 20. according 
to the printed copies which I have examined; but if Mr. Coliit 
had read on a little farther (and Chaldee could present no formidable 
difficulty to him) he would have found the word in ver. 23. " The 
gods of silver and gold, of brass, iron, wood and stone." 

As there is reason to suspect that some of Mr. B.'s opponents 
have copied the statements of others, whose references may have 
been erroneously printed, I may perhaps be allowed to mention a 
few places in Daniel, which I have myself examined ; I will not 
give the statements of others, without examination : vide Dan. ii. 
1 T. rr6*t li"6 « except the gods ;"— ii. 47. Tr6tf H^» « a god of 
gods ;" — also ch. 4, 5, 6. according to the Hebrew, (8, 9. Eng.) 
fWHp pr6N, Elahin kadishin, « the holy gods ;" — and again in 
ver. 15. (Heb.) we find the same "p. FtPHp pn^iim H di ruach 
Elahin Icadishin bach, " for the spirit of the holy gods is in thee." 

58 Hebrew Criticism. 

ft is true that the word is not found in Dan. vii. 18. and 55. bat it 
U equally true that the adjective 1W7J7, used in its stead, is a 
plural one, and I think grammarians in general will allow, that 
the substantive understood to be in agreement with it is pnfrtt ; 
indeed I have not yet learnt that any besides the Elohim can lay 
claim to such a title. Observe also that JW^P is used in verses 
25. and 27. of this chapter, in the same sense. This substitution 
pf plurals for Elohim> is, in my opinion, decidedly in favor of the 
« pluralists" That Elohim is not to be found in any other of the 
passages mentioned by Mr. C. I readily acknowledge, (so far as the 
Hebrew Bibles in my possession allow me to speak) ; but DVJp in 
Prov. ix, 10. and xxx. 3. (especially the former) are decidedly in 
favor of the "pluralists" as Mr. C. pleases to call us ; so much 
so, that had the authorised version of Prov. ix. 10. been, "The 
beginning of wisdom is the fear of the self-existent Being, and the 
knowledge of the Holy Trinity is understanding, 9 ' I should feel 
mi inclination to contend for it « unguibus et pedibus" Nor can 
there be any doubt that Elohim is meant by D'ttnp in Prov. xxx. 3. 
again, *|WVQ is assuredly to be found in some copies ; but whether 
it be the true reading, Eccles. xii. 1. I take not upon me to deter- 
mine. 'DWTTp in Hosea, xi. 12. is considered by Munster and 
other learned Hebraists, to be written for Elohim. DWTN in Ma- 
lachi, i. 6. is without controversy plural, so that notwithstanding 
the mistakes of Parkhurst, and of those who have taken for granted 
the correctness of his statement, there is nothing gained by Mr. C. 
for if the sacred writers thought it necessary to write a plural noun, 
or adjective, when they described the Divine Being, but not by his 
essential name, it is reasonable to conclude that his essential name 
had a plural signification. 

Mr. C. next observes, c< It is not more true that a noun found 
joined with adjectives, pronouns, and verbs plural, must be plural 5 
than it is that a noun found joined with adjectives, pronouns, and 
verbs singular, must be singular." True — but if in the former 
case the noun should not be plural, or, if in the latter it should not 
be singular, there would be a grammatical anomaly. Now the 
" pluralist s " do not consider Elohim to be a plural noun merely 
from the circumstance of being found joined with adjectives, &c. 
plural ; but because its form is regularly plural ; because Eloah, 
in Hebrew, and Ellah, in Chaldee, are the respective singulars of 
Elohim) and Elahin ; and because there are various parts of Scrip- 
ture, in which it is impossible to understand Elohim in any other 
than a plural sense. But Mr. C. adds, "It is not admitted that* 
in the other passages in which Elohim occurs, it is found joined 
with such plurals as have been alleged, but let it be admitted for the 
sake of the argument, and for every one of them, were it necessary, 

Hebrew Criticism. 5g 

one hundred may be given in which Elohim is joined with verbs, 
&c singular. The weight, therefore, of this argument of the 
pluralists, is as a hundred to one against themselves." (No. xxu. 
p- S84.) 

If Mr. C.does not admit Elohim to be joined with plurals, at 
toted above, must his pertinacity be attributed to his knowledge 
tf the subject ? If so, let him give a translation of Dan. v. 25. 
Dtn. ii. 47. Jer. xiii. 10. and 1 Sam. iv. 8. m which "cowman 
sense, that is older than any of them" will not laugh at him* 
Equally correct as his other assertions, is that respecting the weight 
of argument from numbers — he must be very dull indeed who 
cannot perceive, that a witness attesting the same thing a hundred 
times, is only one witness—- the weight of the argument is not, 
therefore, as a hundred to one against the " pluralists." If Elohim 
occurs so oiten joined with verbs, &c. singular, it is because the 
true God is so often signified by it ; and this is the grammatical 
anomaly. If it occurs so seldom with plurals, it is because false 
gods are so seldom mentioned, or the name attributed to angels or 
judges. Had we, therefore, no other means of determining die 
question but the mode of construction, the weight of argument 
would be on the side of the "pluralist* ;" for Elohim has the c6n« 
atruction of a plural, in general ; 1 . When applied to false gods. 
2. When applied to judges and angels : and the construction of a* 
singular (in general) when applied to the true God. ] shall add 
only one testimony more, for the plural signification of Elohim, 
drawn from a quarter which might detach even Sir W. Drummond 
from Mr. Collit's party, if indeed he ever thought seriously that 
Elohim is a singular noun ; I mean the fragment of Sanchoniatho's 
Phoenician History, preserved in Eusebius, as quoted by Bishop 
Cumberland, " But the auxiliaries of Ilus, who is Cronus, were 
called ELQIM, i. e. Ilus's men, or those that were for Cronus. 
But Cronus having a son called Sadid, dispatched him with his own 
sword, having a suspicion of him, and deprived his. own son of 
life, with his own hand. So also he cut off the head of his own 
daughter, so as all the gods, the eloim , were amazed at the mind 
of Cronus." Cumberl. Notes on Sanction. 

I am not ignorant of the fact, from which Mr. C would erro- 
neously conclude the weight of the argument to be as a hundred 
to one against the <* pluralist*," and yet L insist that Elohim is a 
plural noun; in which I shall have the support of every Hebrew 
scholar, who is not warped by undue attachment to some favorite 
opinion. Mr. C's directions to English readers of the Bible, are 
extremely ingenious ; and nothing but obstinate prejudice can bear 
me out in my defence of modern translators of Elohim, since Mr. 
Q. informs me, that they have no right to translate the word with 

60 Hebrew Criticism* 

reference to the divine unity. I would just observe upon 
point, that Mr. C. has finished his paper with a quotation that St 
sufficient authority for the modern translators ; for if " Jehovah 
our Elohim be one Jehovah," when we venture upon translating 
the name, we must do it with reference to his unity. The man 
who quotes Deut. vi. 4. to prove that God is one in person, as welt 
as essence, is misled by the sound of words. What force is there 
in this passage, so pointedly marked in the Hebrew Bibles, if we 
consider Elohim to be a singular noun ? None— it is a tautology 
for which no reason can be assigned — who ever doubted that one 
person was one person ? This, Sir, is a truism which one can hardly 
think, would have been so distinguished as the Pasuk is known to 
be in the Hebrew. Admit the plural form of Elohim, and the 
propriety of the passage bursts with conviction upon the reader; 
deny it, and the passage means nothing. Permit me to put a case ; 
let us suppose an Israelite in an idolatrous country — he becomes a 
polytheist, and DV6tf JT2 w he has a house of gods — new gods 
of the country in which he dwells, and the manners of which he 
has adopted — a travelling countryman visits him, and is introduced 
into his pantheon ; the traveller enquires of him H^N^O, Who 
are these ? Pray how shall he tell him in Hebrew, " these are out 
gods i n Can Mr. C. find any other way for the idolatrous Jew to 
answer the question than Wrfrtt r6tf eleh Eloheynu P He know* 
he cannot ; and yet he says, " It is not admitted that, in the other 
passages in which Elohim occurs, it is found joined with such 
plurals as have been alleged," &c. hereby insinuating that it never 
has a plural signification. Let me once more remark, that some 
of the most learned of the Jewish writers have noticed the plural 
form of this divine name ; the Cabalistic writers allow a mystery 
in the plural name of God ; the Talmudical writers (as quoted by 
Parkhurst) Megilla, c. 1. fol. 11. say, that the LXX. purposely 
changed the notion of plurality couched in the Hebrew plural, into 
a Greek singular, 6so; for 6soi, lest Ptolemy should think the Jews 
to be polytheists, as well as himself — There are many passages in 
Philo, which clearly show that the Jews of his time believed a plu- 
rality in the Godhead — Rab. Simeon Ben Jochai, as quoted by 
Dr. A. Clarke, says, " Come and see the mystery of die word 
Elohim : there are three degrees, and each degree by itself alone, 
and yet notwithstanding, they are all one, and joined together in 
one, and are not divided from each other :" Comment, on 6 Sec. * 
Lev. — Rab. Bechai, on Numbers, vi. 24, 25, 26. makes a similar 
observation, I believe, (for I mention it memoriter.) From all 
these circumstances, I conceive that the right of the translators, to 
have regard to the unity of God, in translating Elohim, cannot be 
doubted, notwithstanding Mr. C.'s sweeping assertion. Having 

Notice of Fragmenta Basmurico-Coptica. 6l 

noticed the most material points of Mr. Cpllit's paper, .which relate 
to the controversy between Mr. B. and me, I shall finally take my 
leave of this subject, and leave to the decision of Hebrew scholars, 
«* how I have managed the argument." » , 

Newcastle upon Tyne, W. A. HAILS. 

Sept. SO, 1815. 


Fragmenta Basmurico-Coptica Veteris et Novi Tes- 
tflmenti, qua in Museo Borgiano Velitris asservantur, 
cum reliquis Vers'wnibus JEgyptiis contulit y Latine 
vertit, nee non Criticis et Philologicis adnotationibus 
illustravit, W. F. Engelbreth, Ecclesiarum Lydees- 
lovia et Frdstaoia in Sicelandid V. D. M. et Pro- 
positus Honor arius. 4to. Havniae 1811. pp. xxvi. 
+ 200 = 226. London ; J. H. Bohte. 

The Egyptian dialects have lately much engaged the attention of 
Oriental scholars : and considering the difficulties attendant on 
such a subject, a very competent knowledge has been obtained of 
them. The exertions of the late learned Woide l have contributed 
?ery much to advance this species of knowledge ; as, before his 
time, neither a good Grammar nor a good Lexicon z of the Coptic 
language existed. It had, indeed, always been cultivated in Italy, 
and was taught by natives of Egypt, in the college of the society 
De Propaganda Fide ; but as it was intended only as a qualification 
of those missionaries who were to be sent to Egypt to propagate 
the Gospel, it was never applied, till very lately, to any critical 

About the year 1783, it became a very fashionable study in Den- 
mark ; and it may not be too much to say, that they, as a nation, 
have contributed more than any other people to its advancement : 
some of the most valuable critical works which we possess, on the 
subject of the Coptic and Sahidic versions of the Bible, having 

1 See a brief history of his literary life, p. i — iii. of Dr. Ford's Preface to 
the " Appendix ad N. T. in qua continentur Fragmenta Versionis Sahidic a 
N. T. ;" rol. Oxon. 1799. It was begun by Woide, and finished after his 
death, (May, 1790) by Dr. Ford. 

z His Grammar was printed in 4to. Oxon. 1778, and his Lexicon, 4 to. 
Oxon. 1775. They are the best ever published. 

62 * ' Notice of 

been *ritteri by the Danes, and also by the Germans. In tfce yuar 
17BS, Professor J. G. C. Adler, now Bishop of Holstein, published 
at Altona a very ingenious work, entitled u Biblisch-Critisehe 
tiReise nach Rom *" in which he has afforded some very valuable 
information rehtive to the Egyptian versions : in, 1786, Professor 
F. Miinter, now Bishop of Zealand, printed at Rome his " Speci- 
men Versionum Danielis Copticarum :" and on his return to Co- 
penhagen, he printed his " Commentatio de Indole N. T. versionis 
Sahidicse," 4to. 1789, in which he edited, from MSS. in the library 
of Cardinal Borgia, some fragments of the Sahidic version of the 
Epistles to Timothy ; and also a few verses of the Basmuric ver- 
sion of 1 Corinthians, but which he termed the Ammoniac ver- 
sion ; * in 1790, he published in 4to. at Copenhagen, a " Dissertatio 
de state versionum N. T. Copticarum." He also touched upon 
this subject in a German work, printed in 1798, "Vermischte 
Beitrage zur Kirchengeschichte :" and he has since published, 
« Odx Gnosticae Salomoni Tribute," 4to. but we do not know 
in what year : it is in the library of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society ,* and we shall send an order for it to Hamburg, and pro- 
bably give a notice of it in some of our future numbers. Zoega, 
a learned Dane, published at Rome in 1784, 4to. a treatise "De 
nummis Imperatorum JEgypti ;" and at the same place in folio, 
1797,' " De origine et usu Obeliscorum :" though these works are 
not on subjects of Biblical literature, they display a consummate 
acquaintance with the literature and antiquities of Egypt. 

In Italy, besides two editions of the Coptic version of the Psalms, 
and the " Liturgia Ecclesiae Alexand. Copto^Arab." 8vo. Romse; 
1750, 1 and several other curious liturgies add euchologies, some 

* • 

. • .. _ , 
1 For a very full account of the question respecting the proper name and 

-country of this version, see Engelbreth's Prolegomena, p. xi — xviii. or toe 

Augustan Rev. voL i. No. iii. p. 221—223. 

* Report of the Bible Society for 1813. Appendix, p. 97/ < 

3 The Coptic and Arabic titles of this book, (it has no Latin in it,) are as 

follows : , • 

OYXinu htg higyxh uiii^aooY: 
neu mexiiipa. 

.«*Jl X*U% X-^J ot^UJl <JX 

cyh eem icxypui ihhiuj* *:&pxh- 

Fragmenta Basmtirico-Coptica. ; * 63 

important works in Biblical literature have been published : ia 
1778, Tukr,an Egyptian Bishop, printed at Rome a Coptic Gram-, 
mar in Arabic and Latin, in usum Collegti S. Congreg. de Propa- 
ganda Fide $ filled with long passages from the Coptic and Sahidic* 
versions of the Old and New Testaments. In 1 785, Mingarelli 
printed at Bononia, 4to. " JEgyptiorum Codicum reliquiae Na- 
niame ; w and Georgi, General of the order of Augustinian Friars, 
the most learned linguist of the time, published at Rome in 4?to. 
1789, " Fragmentum Evangelii S. Johannis Graeco '-Copto-The* 
baicum sxculi iv. ;" 'to which he added several considerable frag* 
ments of an ancient Thebaidic liturgy. 

In our own country, however, the most important works have 
been printed, though the editors were Germans. In 1716, David 
Wijkins, a native of Memel in Prussia, committed to the press at 
Oxford the Coptic version of the New Testament ; which was 
followed in 1731, by an impression of the Pentateuch, executed at 
London by Bowyer, the learned printer : these publications have 
by many, especially La Croze and Jablonski, been condemned with 
great severity ; and certainly they are not so perfect in their kind, 
as not to require further emendation : but any one who has read 
what Michaelis has said, 2 will admit that the judgment of these 
celebrated critics was too severe. In 1775, and 1778, Woide 
published his edition of La Croze's Coptic Lexicon, and his 
abridgment of Scholtz's Coptic Grammar ■: and in 1799, his edition 
of the Fragments of the Sahidic version of the N. T. were pub- 
lished under the care of the learned Dr. Ford. In this work, be- 
sides the Sahidic Fragments, were also printed some Apocryphal 
Visions of Daniel in Coptic, and five Gnostic Odes attributed to 
Solomon $ perhaps the same with those edited by Miinter. 

In France, a very learned work on the subject of Egyptian litera- 
ture, was published lately : c< Recherches critiques et historiques sur 
la Langue et Litterature de VEgypte^ par M. Quatremere ;" 3 
Paris, 1808. 8vo. 

We have thus endeavoured, as far as lay. in. our power, to give a 
sketch of the literary history of the Egyptian dialects : and in our 
Journal, No, xxi. p. 197. we communicated to our readers a very 

It is ornamented, (or rather disgraced) by wood cuts, intended to represent 
David playing on the harp, and the crucifixion of Christ.- It is filled, like all 
the Coptic liturgies, with chapters from the N. T. and with Psalms. 

1 The Greek text of this MS. was collated by Professor Birch, and the va- 
rious readings published in his " Quatuor Evangelia," Havniae, 1788, fol. in 
which work it is denoted by the title " Codex Borgianus L* It is a most 
valuable specimen of the Alexandrian edition. See Marsh's Michaelis, vol. 
ii. p. 227. It was also collated by Hwiid, and the collation printed in Mi* 
chaetis' .'* Orientalitche umf Exegetitcke Bibliothek," vol xvii. No. 2flf . 

* Introduction to N. T. edit Marsh, vol. ii. p. 78. 

3 See an account of it in the Class. Journ. No. i. p. 101. 

6<±0 Notice of 

interesting discovery made by M. Kinker. Of the peculiar dialect 
in which the Basmuric version is written, an ample account has 
been given by Engelbreth himself, 1 and by the Augustan Re- 
jriewer ; * and it therefore will not be necessary to enter further 
' into the subject. The various readings, and classification of this 
version, are a topic of much greater importance ; and an extract of 
some of the most important may be useful to many, to whom a 
disquisition on Egyptian philology would be neither gratifying nor 

We shall proceed, therefore, to give such a collation, noting at 
the same time, the consent or dissent of the most ancient and im- 
portant MSS. and versions : the text with which we collate, is that 
of Griesbach, given in his N. T. 2 vols. 8vo. Habe, Sax. 1796, 

In citing the MSS. we use the same letters and numbers which 
have been employed by Griesbach : 3 the mark + denotes the 
addition of a word or sentence, and =: the omission : readings 
which relate to different words, are separated by the mark || : and 
where the Egyptian versions are not mentioned, they are supposed 
to agree with the Greek text. B. denotes the Basmuric version ; 
M. the Coptic ; and T. the Sahidic : B. the Vatican MS. is 
marked B. 1209 : and the MSS. are separated from the versions 
by a stroke — : 

TextusGriesbackii, v Bam ^ 

1 Corinth, ix. I — 16. ^ 

ovx etui hXedeooc : ovx s\uu f v » t / * » t. 

, / 9 » ' *~ 1 OVX 6JII. flWOCTT. ; OVX £11*. fiX. 

curo<rro\o$ ; C 

, =T. Syr. p. c. ast. Tol. Harl. 

Xptariv < Vulg. Or AB. 1209. 46. 

I 74. 

» *v 

ijjXCOV €f*0V B. 

2 *Xk*ys dXXoi B. M. T. || eyw + B. T. * 

r=D.* 46. — Syr. Erp. clar. 
bv xvploo • • • • < germ. Chrys. et in Mt. 2. 7. 

( Habet Or: 

3^t).... =B.* 

6 ftovof hyd •• tyeorzB. eyco fxovog M. T. 

'7 tiloi$ tycoviois ••• •• avrov -f- B. T. 

r> =M.T. 

1 Prolegom. p. vii — x. * A. R. vol. i. No. iii. p. 216—220. 

3 See these explained in his Prolegom. torn. i. p. pi. sqq. and p. 
xi. sqq. 

* In Woide's Appendix ad N. T. in verse 4. the words HO I UIU 


Fragmenta Bamurico Coptica. & 65 

xco oux IHlti * f x tou xaficov av- 

TOli ; B. M. OUX lo-fllfl TOV Xfltg- 

, _ , 1 viv uvtov ; T. Toy xagrov A. B. 
7cji U Tow xa^aD «utou oux F 12Q9 q d*fg. 17. 46.— 

■MM"* -v« 1 Codd.Varr-Latt.Vulg- MS.' 

Beda. || + xa) ?r/v«, D.E.F.G. 

=T. Arm. Vulg. It— DEFG, 

^ 31. 73. Mt. i. Chrys. Theo- 

doret. Theoph. Aug. 
+*po|3aTwv B. M. et sic forta** 

Syrus, jjv^ enim grex avium 

^Jix^v * \ sonat : videsi6 CI. Michaelis 

Grammat. Syr. p. 40. Halx, 
• * x*t) owe iciiti ex rot) yaXaxrog t% 

st . > s m , i enimmutilatus est textus Ba«- 

**> be TOU ^XTO* Ttf TTP^ 1 ^^ ^ V ttlg. Codd. 

iW*o*«^m \ Mq Latt _ D # G . S. 35. 

Chrys. Theoph. oux ta8/« tJ 
y&Xa, auTifc. T. 

$ • ♦ • • • - mutilatus est textus Basnu 

yiygoarroii yuQ Iv r« vo^t. Afau- 
rt»$ * B. M. T. || yiyp yfy. 
Si Iv yoig rt* Maxrsotie vq[xw ye- 1 t).E.F.G. — It.Or.semel.iyTw 
-ypuTrrou • ♦ .■•••••••••••^ t4f*.yiyp. Or. semel. || nop.? 

Minus 72. al. 4. Nyss. Chrys* 

... J +*«>) B. M. T.— DEFG. 3h 

™P°» V •••} al! S.Syr. Vulg. Il 

10 varrcog • =B. T. Arm. 

Aeyw ••••• AeAe^fB^M. 

Ol ClIJ are incorrectly translated "edendi et bibendi," H being the 
preformant of the infinitive : " tdere €t bibere" would be much better : 
the tame remark applies to Engelbreth's translation of (he Basmuric text. 

1 The preterite is lined instead of the present tense through the whole 
▼erse, in all the three versions : but this is common in the Egyptian ver- 
sions, and probably did not arise from a various reading in the Greek MSS. 
from which they translated-: no extant MS. has the preterite; and 
Woide lias not noticed it in his collation of the Sahidic version. 

* The Egyptian versions uniformly have Mwi!**; for Mum? ; which may be 
accounted lor, by considering the derivation of the name : see Marsh's Mh 
ehaefis vol. i. pt. ii. p. 419. and Simonis Lexicon Heb. Chald. ed. Eichhorn. 
ilalsB. 1793 tub voce TW& • or Josephus, Antiq. 1. ii. c. 9. §. 6. 

NO. xxv. a. Jl. VOL. Xlii. ^ 

66 Notice of 

Srt ....... -B.M. 

•'•» » % * . , s * , , \ irifo B. m. T. sed adeas notam 

" « V* ~ -°- T-TX CL Griesbachii : (obiter mo- 

ag Tp*a i nemus, lectionem versionis M« 

L ilium omisisse.) 

*<nrei§a[L& - - | /uumxa B. M. T, 

fwy« +6ctt} B. M. T. 

si YifMslg dspla-OfLtv upoov ra cagxnt& 

M. T. el f;ju,s7; fl*p/cra>/xev 

6i ty&et£ fy&wv ja crtxgxixa. 6egi- 1 fyxa)v ra cragxixa. \\ is§i<rco(JL& 

a-o^y .-...-----^ CDEFG. 23. al. 13. Mt, a. 

7. al. 4. Ed. Vulg. It, Theo« 


„~ , ¥%% ..,..„., >6iaAAoi u,eT*yov<riv -njs ma>v * If- 

12 •* *AAoj t«j tut«w itovtnag iu- \ f i p^ , v. . ##- r^,,,,, 

/» r— «• » r- » oucriac Jt>. ei aAAOi agTeYOUtn* 

fftolWov 8s rjfieli' B. w o'au /taAAot 
o5 jxSaaov ijftsi$ - • ■»----,) fytel'f. M, ov olv yfifis fiaAXof. 

■*XAa <rreyo[A?v irotvra. B. 1\ 
aAAa Icr/xsv fc 
wa<ri. M. si liceat ita vertere 

*'AAi **vr* (rrtyo^ { TGHUIO Y H&HT 


ita Witkinsius. Sed non con> 
stat, in MS. suo Graco ita, 
lcgisse interpretem Copticum, 

1 The present reading of the Basmuric text is fyw* (GTGHGg*- 

O YCI3X) which is also found in ii. 52. Mt. 7. semel. (Matthais7. is a 
MS. of the tenth century, containing Chrysostcm's Homilies on John, 
41. — 88.): but Engelbreth thinks this an error, and proposes to read 

GTGTGH, fy*»». In verse 11. the Basm. has instead of «Viriifafiii 

u/uuV, loiuip tfxty fyuv, (M H Hj j but the context requires us to read 

HHTH fyu». 

* Engelbreth translates vestrms facilitates, as if the Greek were w fyu* 

!|oi/<ri5r, but the Basmuric may be translated, vestram facultatem. v7 
the mark of the objective case being used in the Basm. original, 

6^0 I CI UX, must be translated by facultatem or facilitates ; but it 
does not imply that the Basm. translator had ™ If •wiav in his Greek copy. 

Fragment a Basmurico Coptica. 67 

rrnva B. T.' Arm. Of* M /&$ 

hZftsv tivcl syxon.{)v. . M. (Simi- 

ha py kywjrrp two. Swjxsv - -«^ lero fere verborumjordinem re- 

. tinent B. T.)— AB. 1209. C. 

13 tA Upx — - - — ----- gnT» UeZ.-D. iv to7? IjooTji M. . 

, . , - C +ri B. M. T. Vulg.— DFG. 

. w T0U "S " } 46. Barb. i. boern. Aug. alii. 

. - » , < + xai M. Syr. utr. Vulg. Arm. 

• of r-f floorwomj/y - { _ ?4# Mt ( Qt 6 , 

14 TOif to wxyy&Xw KGLT&yiK- { roi$ 7txToiyy£Wov<n to evotyyihiQv. 

Kou<nv ----------( B. M. T. 

ix tow evxyyiXiov ------ |x tou flu(na<rnjg/ou B. x 

15 ouSsvl - - "- tivJ B. M. T. 

fiaWov izofavtiv ------ diroiavelv jtwtXXov B. 

Here the fragment ends. We have extracted all the readings 
which the Egyptian versions present, and in the list given above, 
the reader will find several not mentioned by Griesbach. It should, 
however, be remarked, that not all of them are actually various 
readings : the differences in arrangement, for instance, are rarely 
to be classed among the number, unless when we find a similar 
variation in Greek MSS. : but it seemed right to us to mention all 
that were to be found, from among which the reader may take his 
choice : and which may, perhaps, in soma measure, assist him in 
forming a judgment respecting the general character of the Egyp- 
tian versions. It must also be remembered, that this circumstance 
affords no ground for a charge against Griesbach, whose object was 
merely to give a choice collection of readings.* 

It will be seen that the Egyptian, version* have a considerable 
degree of agreement among themselves : and Engelbreth has re- 
marked 3 that they agree in a great degree with the same MSS. 
The Memphitic version in St. Paul's Epistles, most frequently 
agrees with A.B. 1209 C. 17. 46. 47. less frequently with DE^G: 
the Basmuric and Sahidic versions follow AB 1209 CDEFG 17. 
46. 47. or DEFG of some one of them. Haying before given a 
very minute collation of a part of the Basmuric version, we will 
pursue the collation somewhat farther, noticing only the more 
remarkable deviations. 4 



1 " Memlum ob fyxoiodxiuTov, ut videtur," . Engelbreth. p. 178. 
* Griesbafch. Prol. ad N. T. torn. i. p. 49. 

3 Prolegom. p. ?i. See also Mooter Commentatio de Indole N. T. Sahid. 
p. 5*— 7. for the affinities ©i* the Sahidic version. 

4 The Sahid. version, is defective from i. Cor. xiv; 28. to the end of the 
Epistle: that is to say in Woide's edition ; for in Engelbreth's work, the 
Sahidic version begins again at xv. 5. and breaks off at xv. 33. The reading! 
of M. marked with an obelus (f) are omitted by Grieatafclu 

68 Notice of 

Textus Gtjesbachii. 1 Corinth. Vers. Bastn. $e. 

xiv. 83. 

^ .....v.... + for) B. M.f CEc. 

rarai? •••••# «••• *=B. 

C habet Basm. in hoc loco : In 

34.35 ••>..-? DEFG. It. Ambrst. Sedul. 

t ponuntur post v. 40. 

=*B. M. Syr. p. c. ast. JEth* 
Arm. Vulg.— A. B. 1209. 5. 

34.6(mov • ^ 17. 31. 73. 80. Mt. d. Mar- 

cion ap. Epiph. Nyss. Damasc* - 
tj hKxXyr'i* B. M.f Syr. Eip* 
.* , . , , ' iEth. — MM.tol. Marcionapw 

1 r.pipn. am. *ourcti$ rut$ txxXij- 

<r/a4^, Arm* 
C vKvrfVKfTM B. M.f Syr. Vulg. It* . 
\ — AB. 1209. DEFG. 5. et • 
iwntrpotwTM ••••••••••••.< 10. ap. Steph. 26. 31 . 39. 71* . 

f 73* 89. Mt. m. Marcion. ajk 
^ Epiph. Damasc. alii. 
i V7roT*o'<ri<rtao<ruv. B. M.f — A. !$• 
vK&rwra'urixt «* 1209. 17. al. 6. Damasc? *J* 

v. 1I+to<£ avtyourw A* 
S5.jtf**«7v +AoyovB, 

«W oixo** afircoy B, 

r*v$i$lov$ ••• •♦•• -=-M.f 

aifydfl • •• ivJpcowov M.f 

Cyuv*»xi B. M. f Arm. JEth. 
ywwP* < Slav. Vulg.— AB. 1209. i7« 

v al. 9. Chrys. al. 

t XaKTiv sv xp IxxAi)cr/a B. M. Vulg. 
, # % , % ^ ) — AB/1209. 17. al. 4. h hx~ 

tv i*xAW? X«Xi,v ^ xXW«*f FGI. 49. 69. U* 

(, Thcodoret. 
37 . tl ri$ foxii •••••••••..••• * Soxov. B. 

1 HOYC&IUI Copt "Wilkinsius vertit: mulieribus % se$ minus 

accurate; H enim est nota regitnims, et OY art. indeterminattis sing. 
Si in suo exemplar! Graco yvwuf l» legitset interpres Metnphiticus, opiflfi^ 

scripsitstt H&3XHC& I U I* . fugclbreth. p. 179. 

Fragmenta Basmurico Coptica. 69 

+toD JB. M.f » — tow ADEFGI. 

17. 46. 47. multi alii Mt. a. 

al. Ik Patres Or. Sed nonr 

. / constat Interpretes JSgyptia- 

^P" w * • • * \ cos legisse toO : nam articulu* 

defin. II passim prxfigitur in 
omnibus versionibus JEgypt. 

rols ^'fr, et OC- 

lorlv kvrokrj M. -/Eth. — A. B. 

absque feroA$» 
xuplov tlffiv lyroXal , ....... <{ D*FG. || sicrly Ivto\«) xvolqv* 

verba legit 

ayvoeiTou M.f A.* (vicL Woidii 
Notitia Cod. Alexand. p. 

f ^ 1788.) D*FG.— clar. genru 

Orig. ayvoi)M)CT9TM B. Vulg. 
f . . boern. Patres LatinL 

• * 

y\axr<rcu; ••• + iv B. M.f yXawm B. 

St *.... =B.(Adeasnot.CLGriesbachii.) 

^ # •••*•••• f =? B. et legit : ywMm x&vt* 

I f&ryty/,, x. t. X. 

xalauro) == xai B. T. xal %«* M.f . 

1 5. xa) primum . * =B. M.f T. — 87. ap. Birch. 

, , , ^ octoxt. xwp. B. M.f T.— 87. ap* 

xvpiov otirexreutavrm ••.... < Birch 

xvf iov •••••••••••••••••• + fywov. T. et + Iijo-ouv B. M.f T. 

x*Unte9i« **••* =»B. T. 

* * HT6IIOC Copt Wiikini has wroagly translated this word by 
Xki: see Woidii Grammat, £gyptiaca, p. 13. or Xa Crozii Lexicon JEgyptia- 
cum, ed. Woide. p. 174.— This should warn collectors of Y&rious readings 
tgainst trusting to the Latin translations of the Orieotal yersions : a critic 
unacquainted witja Coptic would of course, from Wilkins's translation, sup- 
pose the Coptic translator had 0"3 in his Gr* ek MS. 

70 Notice of Fragmenta Basmurico Coptica. 

IB. x*l *nte «*#. ...••• =B. M.f T. .iEth.— 46. 

yjjui$ ••••••• • • • • !ju,g B. 

J9. y ^...... %••••••• H-Io-riB. M.fT. 

*a) po^terius ...» = B. M.f T. JEth. 

XOt) huKQVOV M.+ M\h. Vlllg 

€. iii. 2. xou (ruvepyov * ..'••••• <J A. 67. xx. 71. 73. || 3i«x 

tow fleou 
= B. M. T. Arm. Slav. Vulg, 

u/tta^ posterius 

•"— 4-f» ATA. 1 JL . U 1 it.Il. 

2 A. 67. xx. 71. 

f . = xou B. T. || = 
( =B. M. T. Arm. Slav. Vulg, 
1 — AB. 1209. D*FG. 17. 
) 9. Mt- f. k. Chrys. (et in 1 
V. a)aL 


. l) 

5. rdvfuis ••••••♦••••••••• =B. 

4. ?rc 9rpJ^ fyta$ tytev ♦ • ••«•*• =08. 

fywuv ••»•••-••••... u^aJv B. M.f 

In the preceding collation, we have given nearjy .ajl the readi 
observable in tho9e chapters ; having only omitted such as wen 
rlo importance. We have extracted them from Engelbreth's - 
notations i comparing them at the same time with the orig 

The passages contained in this volume, are the followi 
Isaiah, i. 1—16. v. 8 — 25. John, iv. 28— S4. 36—39. 43** 
48—53. 1 Corinth. vi. 19. ix. 16. xiv. 33. XV. 35. Eph. vL 
Philip, ii. 2. 1 Thess. i. 1. iii. 5. Hek v. 5. x. 22. 

The translation of Isaiah was clearly made from the Septuagi 
and has those readings which are found in the Vatican M& 
rarely those found in the Alexandrian/ We hope .to. see an ai 
rate collation of it in Mr. Parsons'* continuation of Dr. Hohr 
edit, of the LXX. 

Engelbreth,- for reasons mentioned in his Prolegomena, 1 
which we have not room to insert, thinks the Basmuric ver 
was made at the end of the third or beginning of the fourth \ 
tury. — The MSS. from which these fragments- have been edi 
were probably written a short time before the year S39 ? bed 
in that year the Basmurites were destroyed by Almamon i nc 
this age, by any means, incredibly great* 

The Basmuric text of 1 Cor. ix. 10 — 16. was printed by MS: 
in his Commentatio de Indole versionisSahidictt p. 78 — 80.; ui 
Che title Textus Ammoniacus : there are some differences bet* 
this and Engelbreth's edition of the same words i but not of si 
Client consequence to warrant a collation. 

1 Engelbreth. Proleg. ^20. 

* P. 19. See also the ffcgintan Review, vol. i. No. iii. p. 222 —294. 

Loci Quidam Luciani, §c. 71 

On the whole we think that the Egyptian philologist will find 
much in this book to interest him ; and that the collector of various 
readings will discover abundance to repay him fpr his labor. 
Under these circumstances we strongly recommend it to the notice 
of our Oriental readers. 





No. III. [Vide No, XVII. p. 161.] 

PRO LAPS. INT. SALUT. p. 737. ed. Reitzii. 1743. 
[526. C Salmur.] Toluol $ iv two. gWAijjjgig t»v year opiiv Xoyicrfxh 
(toyia-fjiwv Codex Wittianus) xal (rrpariooriv ir\yfio$. mv o* /*gv ^r§#- 
atovfres, 0} 8g h t>} To£g* Tr t $ ngo(rayops6<rtoog prj p,evovre$. Delendum 
videtur «iv. 

HERMOTIMUS p. 739. [530. A. Salmur.] *0<rov, &' Ep^T^, 

Tap /3*/3Xjo>, xol) tjj tou /3«8iV/taTOj cnrouSij Tgx/*i5gao~9a*, TtcLpaL tov Si^atr- 
fcoAov t7T6iyofjLsva> eoixoL$. Ivsvosis yovv ri 'jxsTa£u npoiwv, aoii toL yg/Xij 
oWaAsuffj, ypepct vnoTovOoputyov, xot) rijy X 6i S x ^ s x ****°~ f ^Te^epeg^ 
•OTrep t*v« pri<ny en\ (tsolvtov hxrM^vog* \pim\\i.0L 8g \ t\ toov ayxvXoov 
awTi6e\$, $) (TKSfjLfjLx (TO^itrrixoy «va<ppovri%wv, a>$ [xyfie 68« fio&l%oov <r^oA^y 
iyoi$ — x. t. A. — Fstorum loco, IgcoDjfta. $s, ij t# twv ayxvXoov, a-uvr*- 
k\g t ponendum gpa>Ti)u.a AI{' (nimirum) t< twv ayxuXcov <ruvri(lttg, 

HttRMOTlM. p. 743. [532. £. Salmur.] my a\X« tJv* <roi 
gXx/^a Ovofotlvsi, wc S^Trorg av«/3i)<roju.gya> ; g£ vgWa gTxa^ev ^ T ^ « x goy 
hs<r&ai <rs, olov (jwa t« fiuo-Typist tol £\\a, 5) I7aya9)jv*ia ; Dividendum 
&Jtot«. w$ Sij fl*o'rg avaj3i}o*o/xgva> ; 

HERMOTIM. p. 744. [534. A. Salmur.] "Ocroi 8' av •!; Tg'Ao* 
haxagreprio'corw, ovtqi irpo; to axpov a<pixvouvrai, xal io aw' Ixg/vov 
twSflujttovoucn, Jaufta<riov Tjva |S/oy tov Aoitfiv /3*ouvTg$, oLv ju,up/x>)Xfli$ awr* 
tow 54/ou$ fano-xon-ouvTg$ T*vaj Touj Z\\ou$. Minus Lscc mtellexissc 
videntur Solanus et Reitzius. Ordo sic instituendus two tou 3\|/ovf 
fV*o-xo7rouvT€£ touj iWovg (uvQpay7rov$ scil.) olov jttvppjxa; twol$. 

HERMOTLM. p. 747. Vid. Toup. ad Longiu. §. ix. p. 33. 

8vo. [xoi axTjpaTcv $gpwv to 0eiov.] 

HERMOTIM. p. 747. [536. E. Salmur.] 'JygXfloVres far) to 
ixpoVy toiaipovowi, 7t\ovtou, xa) 8o'£i]f , xa) ^dovtov «XA' ouSg jxi|u,y>]ju,fvcl 
m, KaT*ysKa>vTt$ 84 TaJy olofuvrnv toivt tlyai. F. iuserendum t), — - 
xxrxys\'j6\Tc$ $z tSjv oloplmv TOUT* Tl cTvAi* Plato Apol. Socrat. 

72 Loci Qtiidam Luciani 

p. 14. ed. Valderi 1534.— noKKixig k&pax* rw*;, trait xfimwrtt 
SoxoDrro? fjsiv TI EINAl, 8avpue<ria de epyatypevous, co$ lemv t* olofiivoof 
w$kww$du 9 el wrodavoOvracj. 

HERMOTIM. p. 756. [546. A. Salmur.] Mxx' olu Metfyttf 
ha\syzv6*l Tivr ci$ mrrmfoai on * Emories, kvfy <ruvrr^, U% rir$ 
yeyovig TKrcragaxovra, isegi $i\oo-<i$ictg xa) $iXoo*o'$«>v uvdpant rolg 
thwroug f jriVrcwt, xa\ xara ra ww exeimv Xsyo'/xwa broieiro tijv «7p*riv 
%a\ tcov xgfirro'vtty agicbv. ov yap nuTTsvjaifAi <roi roietura. Xeyoyri. 
.Forte &t;i xv, astimationem, pretium. Guietus — Immo ^5/ OT2V. 
Ordo, ajr afwSv viarftia'ai oVt 'Egv>itiiLO§+—x. t. X. a;$ pro «wys 
Aenoph. A nab. 3. $* 5. *oroLpo$ tovoutos to (Zaioz, a,; firfii rot iiparm 
forepix*iv Ksigiopivoif rot) fiaQovg. Xeuoph. Cyropaed. lib. viii. h r<Z 
atFQaXil iJSi) {voi&ott, t&g pyfiiv *v *n xuxov iradslv. 

HERMOTIM. p. 764. [554. A. Salmur.] 'Eirii 8e, wc %& 
fart, av rs xa) K Hcrio%Q$ • patyofibs, ir&vv voppoo cck<Lxwt%i % avayxif 
tiJTiht $& tc r^y ayowav W *vrr\v } xa) yyifMva rov ipwrov. $ ovx 
oie* <rv ovra> %prpou woieiv; Hermot. : xa) vcog av aXXa>$ ?X$oi rt$\ 
JjUC. : ovxovv <ro) p.h hn) to vmrxvelciai, xctl $&<rxsw eftivoti, «-t&X$ 
icQ&ovIa tow yyii<rop,ivav* Qutini in Cardin. Foli MSS. collation* 
repertum sit <rov loco rov col, vera lectio manifesta est; nempe, 
Ovxovv "020N fJ>h en) to utio^vwA**, xa) $oto-xsiv ellivou, toXX^ 
a$doviet r. ^. 

HERMOTIM. p. 765. [554. E. Salmur.] Melius: ogi^N* 


HERMOTIM. p. 765. [555. A. Salmur.] Forsitan T0TT9 
TCTofvuv, to TtXrftog Tttiv oibwv, xa) to avo'fJLOiov avTcoVy ov fierplcof Tapartm 

J*ff, XoA OBOgSLV T045U 

H ERM OHM. p. 785- [575. D. Salmur.] Delendura t3 rAP, 
quod in codice MS. Marciano non apparct. 

HERMOTIM. p. 788. [578. B. Salmur.] Tl ft} o5v wpifriuv, 
(2 ^Egfiortfie ; ovx otv airayopsvTSQv, olpou, fere) pLVjhvoc Yjysfxovog toiovtov 
e; ye to irctpov evnogovpev. Legendum puto 03? TAP dnayopevTeov— 

X. T. X. 

HERMOTIM. p. 797. [587. E. Salmur.] Forsitan xa) oW 
excurrov KATANOHXAL 

HERMOTIM. p. 797. [588. B. Salmur.] 5 El » /Sou'Xsi, x*\ 
&KkS ti iwpayfJLOVBOTepoy xrko^o^cd o~of, c&s ftr\ Upfiot xarMys tuvt), 
Xm) W<af>) too, fujo" UpeoL twol toov fLeyctkoftla-iw 7Fotpotxa\iji$. Cum 
xapotxatijit ex conjecture cujusdam sit, in margine codicis Marciani 
prolata > cum in edit. Salmur. legatur xccToc6vei$ et vetpaxotXih, 
cum articulus t« ferri non possit, et cum exemplum tov Svo-idfafa* 
active sumti nondntn repererim, locus, quantum ego perspicio, sic 
refingendus est : ff^ $1 jSouXci, xa) aXXo n anpxypoveaTepov virodtia-ofial 
roi,»* jx$ Upela KATABTEINtout), xa) STZIAZEINtco (encliticunt) 
yjjf Itfia nti, rm /xcy«Xoa/o^a>v IIAPAKAAEIN. — d$, ut sappe alibi, 
pro &9t% iiaurpatttm est. 

Emendati Atque Ewplanati. 73 

• HERMOTIM. p. 799. [589. E. Salmur.} Scribi debuit, tig 
Ixirdypig, £ 'Ep^orifxs, xa) ho&fyacxetg ex rwi ytipim. itXty aAA* 
&npkg ys OTJEN. rio'fisvog yap Ixwe^wylvai, Ig tov aurov xvprov 

t HERMOTIM. p. 802. [592. C. Salmur.] Olvov ph y<*g $*vAo* 
vgteurdeU) ev Suoiv ©jSoAoiv 6 xivSvvog" athov 8e tivx tv too avpQsrm ir&pa,- 
woteloSzi, tig xa) avjbg Iv ag%jj e^<r0a, ov fjuxphv elvai xaxoV Scrip- 
.8erat Lucianus, ut existimo, o£ fuxpbv EIH AN xxxiv. 

HERMOTIM. p. 811. [601. E. Salmur.] K*\ rfv ovdiwm 
X a f lv & v l xoi &'8«ftj$ elxorcmg. oo&ev yap <roi e^evpjxdg ?§s*£a» tag eyyvripo* 
<ri wtHipuv *% ffitorfitoc. to* $s," woAu itopporrigoo •yeyo'vaju.ev $ wpoVsgov qf&ffn 
Assumendum evavrlov. to §' 'ENANTION, mX.ii wo^ayrega) — x. t. A, 
' HERMOTIM. p. 812. [602. A. Salmur.] n&g rovro fyg; 
volw ya% Xvmjgiy ri xa) W<reA7n egerv iotxxg. Quandoquidem in 
plurimis libris, et manu scriptis et aliis, extat icslvu yiq n XvTnjpSv 
ri xa)$6<re\vi e. e. rescribendum puto wotvv yip ri Awnjpov TE xei 
.Sw*Afln if Up Soixotg. 

. HERMOTIM. p. 815. [606. C. Salmur.] *Hx*ko<Au rolg rm 
TPoa&tvxoTcov *xve<ri) xoAitreq rdi irgtfiaTct itpog tov cujtwV ryyovftevov. 
Fortasse yxoXov^i roig tc5v irpoa&evxorcoy *yvwi, xaiamg ra. irpifiarx 
TOIS (*yv«n »cilt.) TOT autuv 'HrOTMENOT. 

H ERMOT1 M. p. 818. [608. E. Salmur.] 01 ft, xuv aSrSewrai 
ttpprotTripBVOi o\|/c ntorn } yipovrsg ij&\) y*vofj.evoi t 6xvov<riv avavrgiQew,- 
«i8bu/&svoj ei Sg>jo"e* TijAixot/Toy^ avrovg ovrag k^ofjLoXoyYjfructat art irpay- 
fMtT* Ttctfccov e%Qvreg ov <ruvieo-«v. Mallem legi, l£ofioAoyij(ra<rfl«4 on 
UA1VMATA itedbm fypvTeg ou avvlso-av. 

HERMOTIM. p. 821. [61 1 . C. Salmur.] K*\ eltravitg w^ng* 
dg $ij£, iKK% elxoo-w erij TOt5Aa;£io-rov, V oyZor\xovroirry\g yewfi.evog. ^ t($ 
eyyurjfr^g hcri <roi Sri fiidxrr, tqo~ol$tx ; ofiwg yjs Iv rolg pj&ltfco sv^cupp* 
vwcWj el per) fiovog oTf* revHevfat tovtqv, xct) alpii<rsiv hdoxoov, o itqo coO 
(laXotTTOXXo), xa) clyaio), xx) o>x6t?poi naqanroXv > fawxovreg ov xarsAa/3oy. 
u Mira sunt luzc. Bets. 2. ei. inhilo melius M. $. quid scripserit 
Lucianus nescio; certe nihil hoi urn" 80LANUS. — Mirum est 
^olanum^ cum ob oculos bonam lectiouem Bas. 2. haberet, non 
'vidisse sic scripsisse Lucianum, — hem, xa) el&oiv8ig irovfpsis, dig $yg 9 
&Kkx elxorn ?nj TOvAa^icrov, 7y oySorixovrovrYig yevo'pevog, (gi ti^ 
syytnjr^ lor/crw 0V1 (itatgrri too-«vt«) Spoog r\c Iv rolg /tyjSsVco suo N «<ju.ovouo~iV« 
it Mpovog olet revijedlai x. t. A. Quid hie est cur quisquam aegtuet? 

HERODOTUS vel Aetio p. 835. [623. B. Salmur.] Forte 
mtfoxpg-U.jui wp4*y<i>yog ' H<P*htt(oov ZTMIIAPEZTL 

HERO DOT. p. 8^7. (625. B. Salmur.] Upog Ipxvrto «rxo- 
toifMiv^O T//404 '/jptpTiov rcS irgiypan. 

HERODOT: p. 838. [626. A. Salmur.] Lucianus Macedo- 
flibus paene omnibus in unum locum congregatis eirifoiZcu,&o§, hoc se 
auctoritate et exemplo Herodoti facturum esse ait, qui celebritat* 
ludorum Qlympicoruui historias.. recitavit. Demde couv«ntunt 

74 Classical Criticism. 

ilium delimit, Macedonum extollit : aural rs ovv ijfSi) <rvvt>&i\uS*T0, 
!, n mp o<peko$ If \xavn\g viteoog, avro $y) to xe$a\aiw Max&Awu* 
iwarrw, xai vwQ$8%eTou voXig y aglcTy, ov<ra ov xara Ti hat, \xA At*, 
outt tjjv Ixe70i (TTVJoy(viqiav xa* <rxr\vag xa) xakvfiag xa) itvlyog' of t* 
6L\) vavriyvgi<TTCii ov cvpQera&iig oiyKog^ oAx^Tonf hi paWov <pi\o$iapAv*$, 
H wagipyw 01 noMoi tov 'Hpohorov rMfiivoi, aXXa faropctt re xctt 
fvyyqafyiw xa) crofiOTwt 01 Soxf/utfTaroi, ocrov ov fjuxpbv ijf&ij, jtttj roififo 
irapairoXv b$ei<rT*gov Qatvrpai rwv ©Avpnajv. " H<zc nemo, credo r 
intelhgat. corrupt a itaque verba pronuntio ; neque tamen, quomodo 
restitui possint, adhuc liquet' 9 SOLANUS. Mihi quidcm liquet 
restituenduin esse, hxifjjyraroi. A EOS OTN ov jxixgov ?&Nj, /uu? 

TOVflQV rtCLpUTToXV Bvfoi&TiQOV ^atv^TCH T&V 6\VfAirto>V. 

ZEUXIS p. 849- [687. A. Salmur.] "flga rolwv ft* cxovslv, pvj 
xa) rovf&ov ojtoiov jj rw 'Avrwxop, rot fih JtAXa ovx a&a jua%i}£, *Ae$avr*£ 
ti rtve$ xai %iva tMpp^oXvxaa itpog rovg bgaovrag, xa) tavfiaromita. A)Osx»g 
fateiva yovv examvcri iravreg, olg $ iyco hretroiieiVj ov itaw raura h Xoy* 
map avTxTig Iot*v. Interpungendum puto— xai tavftaroirorta A\Xatg. 
ixslta yovv «ra*vo5<n x. t. X. — sic Lucianus, Prometh. es in verb, 
p. 15* Sahn. ripitig aXhwg xa) icailiaL to vgaypm* nil nisi oblectatio 
et ludus, mera oblectatio et jocus. Demosth. wtg) vaganrgtrfi. 
p. 348. eds. Reiskii, oi V amhsyovreg, 0^X05 aXXng, xa) fiaaxwtk 
xarefaivero. Id. in Lacrit. p. 931. fjyouvro Hvai r^y o-uyyga$ty aXkx$ 
30Xov xa) Qkvaglav. Vid. Toup. ad Longin. §. 7- 

HARMONIDES p. 853. [642. B. Salmur.] El 81 croi oW£«ij*t 
rafts, xa) trb svaiveo-eiuc aura, (s«j yap oZrta Qawi<re<r9ai) xa) fy eir)*ipag 
ijxeiv pe rrig IXtt/Soj, iv pa \|/^cp rag avi&ag Kafiovra. — Scripsejrat 
auctor forte ctij yag ovm <PANTAZE$BAI, Liceat enim sic 

QUOM. CONSCR. SIT HIST. torn. II. p. 7. [661. C. 

Salmur.] . Et Ss pv) y airo) ftev xa) "ore rep avrcu vf,x*i 9 iomteq xa) wv, 
jxrrgouvTcey to npaypa. Maiiem tw uvtcL fl^e* r flIIIEP xai wv. 


Having had occasion, in the course of some enquiries, to investi- 
gate with considerable care the manner in which several of the 
Greek particles and other words in that language have been formed, 
I thought I might render no unacceptable service to .your readers 
by making a few observations on some words, whose ^origin and 
precise meaning seemed to me to be somewhat misunderstood. The 
formation of a number of adverbs from nouns, verbs, adjectives, and 
participles has never been questioned, as they bear such striking 
marks of their origin ; but, as far as regards some of those that are 

Classical Criticism. 75 

derived from adjectives, it does not appear that grammarians and 
critics are agreed from what particular case they are formed. I 
have long been of opinion that all those adverbs which end in «$. 
were formed from the genitive plural in a>v. Of late, however, this 
doctrine has been questioned by Mr. Blomfield, in a note of 
considerable length on v. 21 6 or the Prometheus V. of iEschylus. 
I shall first give an extract from that note, and then make a few ob- 
servations on it : " r Apox(l), sine labore* Hnjusmodi adverbm 
modo per diphthongum, modo per simplicem * sine certa regula 
efferuntur. Ego, quare a/xo;£6i et non afLoyiii scripserim, paulo 
fusius explicare decrevi* Adverbia cujuscunque formae non a 
secundo casu nominum, quod somniarunt grammatici, sed a tertio 
nata esse, satis osteudit uni versa lingua rum ratio. Horuni autem 
pars maxima, a dativo numeri plural is orta, in cog desinebat (scilicet 
oig) ; nonnulla a dativo singularis in ** vel i. etc." With regard to the 
formation of that class of adverbs which end, or should end, in 
j, as being formed from the dative singular of nouns or adjective* 
ending in ec, 1 perfectly agree with him, and think that he has done 
some service in clearly pointing out their origin. But I am not 
equally disposed to coincide with him in opinion respecting those 
that end in cog t till I perceive better reasons assigned for their forma* 
tion from the dative plural in oig, than any that he has given. Every 
one knows that there are several adverbs formed from the genitive 
singular of certain words, as ojxou simul from fytos, ovfaftov nuWbi 
from otf&«jxof, kvtov hie from civrog, WTtrog noctu from vi»J nox, &c. 
This affords a presumption, at least, that other adverbs may also be 
formed from the genitive plural, and we shall see, I think, imme- 
diately that there is a considerable number ending in cog that could 
be formed from no other case, is it at all likely that hafegovrcog 
could be formed from the dative plural of the participle tiiafigoov, 
when that case in the common dialect of the Greeks ends in oven, 
and probably at one period ended in ovr<n i or vpeworrcog from irgL- 
invert, the dative plural of the participle irgevcov? or Svrcog from 
oufl-j ? Were there ever any doubt about the formation of these and 
others of a similar kind, a great many more, formed from adjectives, 
must, 1 apprehend, be decisive of the question % . w&vrcog, for in- 
stance, could never be formed from a-aos or ir&vrcrt or w&vTecri ; uor 
*<r$*\aog from a<r$«Al<r* ; nor &\y\tcog 9 or aXviticog, from aXijJso** ; 
nor svQ-efioog, or cvo-efisooi, from «5<re/3e'<n, unless it be asserted that 
there were such words in the nominative as x&rrog, «<r<£aAo$, ctXyiog, 
or akrflng, evrejiog, or eucefisog, from whose dative plurals in m; 
these adverbs *were formed. In some of these adjectives we even 
find adverbial expressions by the use of a preposition with the 
genitive ; as hcunctvrig ha.TeKovg y &c. But we may proceed even 
farther than this, and show that a considerable number of adverbs > 
bearing the appearance of a very early formation, w ere the original 

76 Classical Criticism. 

genitives of adjectives which became obsolete at an early period of 
the language. If I am not mistaken, all those that end in 00 were 
formed from the old genitive in before the long vowels came into 
use. Thus in the Sigaean inscription we Hud Qavohxo elfti (to) 
'HifpcxpuTo;, to IlgoiLovE<no, &c. When the long vowels came to bt 
general])- adopted, those adverbs, formed from the genitive of ad- 
jectives, assumed, instead of 0, the long vowel 00, the better to dis- 
tinguish them from the more modern terminations of the genitive 
of nouns and adjectives. Thus avo> supra, was in all probability 
the genitive of an obsolete adjective avo$. Igai extra, of a£o$. xarw 
injra r of xaro;. oirfoui retro, of 3*&o$. Tg&rui ante, of *f£vQ$. wpm 
mature, which, according to Brunck's suggestion, ought to be xgaS, 
from Tfos : *fftv, priusquam, is either the dative of this adjective for 
TTpoi with the addition of the v, or the accusative singular from an 
obsolete nominative in /?. But perhaps it may be said, though all 
this were unquestionable, how does it prove that adverbs in m$ 
were formed from the genitive plural of adjectives in oov, since there 
is a change of the v into a $ ; a change which could not have been 
wholly arbitrary, but must have depended upon certain principles, 
in the language ? 1 answer that, in the tirst place, the evidence o£ 
adverbs having been formed from the genitive singular of certain 
adjectives affords a presumption that some might also have been 
formed from the genitive plural ; and in the next place, that there 
is a strong probability that the genitive plural of all nouns, adjec- 
tives, and participles, originally ended in cog or o$ ; but that the 
sigma was either dropped, as was not unusual, in pronunciation,, or 
was afterwards changed to a v, that all or most of the cases in the 
plural might not terminate in that sibilant letter. Mr. Blomfield 
has shown very clearly that those adverbs which end in e were all 
formed from the old dative singular in 01, a termination which some 
of them still retain, as 01x01, tts&oi, &c; and that in others the 
was omitted that they might not be confounded with the nomiuative 
plural. As these adverbs, therefore, retain the original form of 
the dative, which was afterwards changed to m 9 may not such also * 
as terminate in cog indicate the original termination of the genitive 

fduraly. as it appears evident that they were all formed when the 
anguage was in a very ancient state ? It is not, however, from 
analogy alone that the termination in cog appears to have originally 
belonged to the genitive plural. Other arguments from the struc- 
ture of the cases might be adduced to render it highly probable ; 
but as these are connected with other investigations which 1 may 
afterwards communicate, 1 shall omit them for the present. 
Enough, I imagine, has been stated to show that Mr. filomfield's 
doctrine respecting adverbs in cog is erroneous, as it appears evident 
that a considerable number with this termination could not, con- 


Classical Criticism. 72 

mtent with grammatical rules, and the nature of the language, hare 
been formed from the dative plural. 

It appears to me that several modern critics have either mis- 
understood the original formation of a number of adverbs, or have, 
ventured upoi innovations which the genius of the language con- 
demns. Mr. Elmsley, in a note on v. 19 of the Heracl. of Euripides, 
says, jrjj yr\$ et ony yy$ ex Atticorum scriptis prorsus ejicienda esse 
censeo. A pud /Esch. Prom. 566 ubi vulgo legitur SWij y>fc, otto* 
y^g prsebet cod. Mediceus. Nostro loco ottoi accipicndurn quasi 
tsset heir* oxov, ut verbis utar Porsoni ad Hec. 1062. qui exempla 
allegat Iph. T. 113. 119- et Soph. Phil. 482. To determine a 
questiou of this kind, two things, 1 apprehend, ought to be con- 
sidered: 1st. the nature of the expression; and, 2nd. the common 
usage. As to the nature of such expressions, as irj y?j$ and ory %%, 
or the adverbs taken by themselves, they appear to me to be ellip- 
tical ; *$ and ony are evidently the dative singular feminine of the 
obsolete interrogative adjectives irbg, vy, *b, and wrij, otty), ino, its 
responsive ; vov, no), *jj, or the Doric ira formed from the former, 
and 6m> v, 6*o7, and owy from the latter, each having some noun 
understood to make the sense complete. Thus irov will require 
rbtw, *ro), rfacp, and wjj, ?$« or x®?? understood. The responsive! 
require the same nouns and the same cases. Whatever be the 
noun understood, it is plain that the adverb ought to be marked in 
such a way as to show from what case it was originally formed, 
/law and oirov must, 1 imagine, be considered as the genitive singu- 
lar;**©) and fcroi the dative, the latter coinciding with those original 
forms, as eixoi, *t$oi, &c. pointed out by Mr. Blomfield. But to 
what clans of adverbs, or to what formation are we to ascribe ?r>J 
or *£, without the iota in the following expressions, ir& <rrw, irx 
xopj/co, *£ |3o0 in v. 1062 of the Hecuba of Euripides as edited by 
Porsoo, or *« tots Tt»v8s tfwow in v. 190, and o^fMjvov oanj yij$ in 
j£0, of the Prometh. Vinct. of iEschyl. as edited by Blomfield ? 
in these editions va andftn] could never be considered as the dative 
singular feminine of obsolete adjectives, without the iota either 
adscribed or subscribed. But if the iota is to be omitted in these, 
why not in such adverbial expressions as foipodx, iltet, noivrj, aAAjj, 
and a multitude of others. The former are as much datives as the 
latter, and ought to be marked with the same signs. With regard 
to the second point, perhaps Mr. £. will say, that instead of wjj or 
*? ?%> **) YW ought to be used. In what manner, 1 would ask, 
is he to ascertain that ? It cannot be by the verse, for the quantities 
of the syllables are the same. It is not from the best editions and 
MSS. of the works of the Attic writers, for the one form occurs 
as often as the other ; and, if I am not mistaken, %«ga is more 
commonly used by the Attic writers than rvrrog, or any word of a 
wmilar import. " $a?pissime in bis et similibus tenninationibus,'' says 

78 Classical Criticism. 

yy^g in the passage alluded to is by no means equivaj 
lxeT<T8 oWoy. The former expression denotes /;/ whatever place, 
altogether indeterniinate, and therefore requiring the optative after 
it : the latter a certain, fixed, and determinate spot, naturally de- 
manding the indicative : vfipurp \g r^ug ygiuxrsv vjiplcou, %&p.9w 
ftroi (vel ottyj) yyg iruviuvoif? llpvpivovc. 

There is another adverb, the formation and import of which 
seem to me to be equally misunderstood. This is the particle to#, 
which I imagine is totally out of place, in v. C45 of Blomfield's 
ed. of the Promeih. Vinct. of iEschylus : rcu roi T0ia7<rS« iryipovoun 
x<xfjk,7nopou. Besides the objections which I have to the grammatical 
construction of the passage, I cannot persuade myself that iEscby- 
lus would have used such a jingle of sounds as tw toi roiouot*, 
which probably in his time were pronounced to/ to* rotctivfo. The 
two words TM and to* are identically the same, the latter retaining 
its original form and serving the purpose of an abbreviated expres- 
sion. So careful were the Greeks to separate the articles when 
they happened to be in the same case, that tbey departed from the 
usual collocation of them in certain expressions. Thus, while they 
paid to tou . Zooxgarov; vgay^, they never said rov tov JScoxgorow 
filov, but too /3/ou tov ZooKparous ; and the reason is obvious. But 
I suspect it is not generally known that the adverb toi is in 
reality the old dative of the article or pronoun, and must in this, as 
well as in similar instances, be governed by the preposition nri, 
understood, signifying on this account, therefore, because. A few 
examples will, I should hope, put this in a clear point of view ; 

t/ tov 6eo~ig e%$t<TT0v 06 (rrvysig Jsov 

Sang to gov flvijToTcn tt^oSoWsv yipctg ; 
says KgaTog to Vulcan. Prom. Vinct. The answer is, to cvyytrif 
roi feivbv, rfi byuXla. I compassionate him, is the reply, «r) toi, oh 
this account, because the bond of relationship is strong. Xv tw, 
says Orestes to Tyndaris, $tfT8uo-*$ buying, £ yigov, xotxyv, qitwXwaf 
fts. Crest. Euripid. 578. You, old man, having begot a wicked 
daughter, have, on this account, ruined me. 

M roi X^V 8ox«Tf furjT ociiov&tqt 

rtyfo jeas* Prometh. Vinct. 445. 
Do not on this account think that I am silent, on account of pride 
or haughtiness. 

to gov yag av$og , ir*VTs%yov 71/00; vi\ag 
QvYjTolcri xtetyag wxaver TOidoSe toi 
dfiapTtccg ©~$e 8ei teolg hvvcu oYxijv. Id. v. 7. 
For this offence, therefore, he owes compensation to the gods. 
Fiom these examples and a great many more which could be pro- 

Classical Criticism. 79 

duced, it seems evident that too and to*, in the line qu6ted above, 
must have both the same signification, as too must be governed by 
the preposition l?ri, understood, and must be translated on this ac- 
count. The reading therefore of the Codex Mediceus, rSo Taj? 
roKxiffo, appears to be the true one, and should, if these observa- 
tions be correct, be adopted by every future editor of this play. 

To these miscellaneous observations I shall add the following 
upon a point, somewhat doubtful I confess, but which, I think, may 
be better accounted for than has been done by a 'writer in the 
Museum Criticum, No. IV, p. 531. The following canons, as 
established by Dawes and Porson, he has quoted and pointed out 
an exception which seems to have stumbled . Porson himself; but 
which that distinguished critic would never, I imagine, have en* 
deavoured to account for in the manner that this writer has at- 
tempted. " Si mulicr, de se loquens, pluralem adhibet numeruni, 
genus etiam adhibet masculinum :" 

" Si masculinum adhibet genus, numerum etiam adhibet plu- 
ralem." R. P. ad Hecub. 515. 

The exception is in the Hippolytus of Euripid. (Ed* Monk* 

AffiVoju-a*, h re tv%oh$ flvaTwy x«» *v ?/?yftawi 

In tliis passage the Coryphaea twice uses the singular number and 
the masculine gender : upon which we have the following observa- 
tion in a note by Professor Monk. " Notandum est quod Chorus 
mulierum de se loquens, masculina participia xsvfrsov et Asut<t»* 
usurpat: et hoc equidem credo prorsus insolenter factum esse. 
Vulgo quidem editum est in Androm. 422. "flixrup axo6<ra? x. t. A. 
Sed ibi recte Lascaris aHouVac'. Scholiasta, ut poetam quodam- 
modo excuset, monet eum ex sua persona haec locutum esse." 
This opinion seems to have been taken up by the writer of the 
article above alluded to. — " Whoever will take the trouble of 
turning to the passage itself and the note upon it in Mr. Monk's 
edition, will fiud that it is all a mere inadvertence of the poet, who 
either mistook himself at the moment for the Choryphaea, or hastily 
transferred from his loci communes a tine train of reflection, with- 
out considering in whose character it must be uttered." This is 
surely a strange way of getting over the difficulty, and not much to 
the credit of (he poet, who could either at the moment mistake 
himself for the Coryphaea, or so far forget himself in inserting from 
his loci communes a fine train of reflection, as to lose sight of the 
gender of the speaker. If he had through inadvertence committed 
these blunders, is it at all likely that the audience, before whom the 
play was represented, would have overlooked them ? And if they 
\yould not, which it presumable, that the poet woukLnot have cor-. 

80 Momi Miscellanea Subseciva. 

rected them ? But I apprehend the whole mistake respecting this 
passage proceeds from want of attention to a construction not tin- 
frequent in the chorusscs of the tragic and comic poets. Th* 
Choryphaeus, or Chorypha?.a, was always considered as the repre- 
sentative of others, and sometimes used the singular, sometimes the 
plural number. Aristoph. Piut. 280. Qgao'cii $ wwm rerAijxaf W&> 
otw yjxpiv fjJ 6 fcarvoTYis b aog k€k\yjks Stvgo. In the Hippo)) tus we 
find the Choryphaea using both the singular and plural number. 
XO. *Egao$, *Eptti$ t 6 x. t. A, /&>} j&oi wot* <rwt xaxcu p «ve /»)£, ▼• 5SQ* 
"EptDTA hi tov Tupetwov «v8gan>,— w eefiltyfjuv, 540. &AL aiyrpax , 
to yvvoux&s* — XO. <nyS> — similar to this is the following construc- 
tion, where the noun is*in the vocative singular, but the verb is iu 
the plural : one only being personally addressed as the chief person, 
while all present are comprehended in the person of the verb : thus, 
Xwpelrs Toivvv, oS Aiivvv, scra>. Aristopb. Ran. 1479* 
irgo<re>J}eT , w noil, itctrql. Soph. CEdip. Col- 1 104. 
It would be easy to multiply examples*, but tliese may be suffi- 
cient to warrant us in drawing the following inference : That as 
the Choryphasa, when using the singular number, spoke not only 
for herself but for all those who composed the chorus ; the sin- 
gular number therefore, in instances of this kind, might be con- 
sidered as equivalent to the plural, and might be employed with the 
same gender as when a woman speaks of herself in the plural. 
This is the only solution of this singular passage that appears to 
me to bear the appearance of probability. Had there been several 
other instances of a similar construction, I should have had litthr 
doubt of its being correct. As it is, 1 offer it to the consideration, 
of your readers. 

College, Edinburgh, G. DUNBA& 

28/A Dec. 1815, 

m 'I ■ u ■■ ■ ■ rr sE 


No. IK— [Continued from No. XXW. p. 262.] 

7. Maitta ire's editions of the Latin poets,, whatever else they may 
have to recommend them, are certainly very deficient in the Indices* 
Take, for example, this Epigram, and look out for the words in tbe 
Index to his edition of Martial. 

Nubere vis Prisco : non miror, Paulla ; saptsti. 
Ducere te non vult Priscus ; et ille sapit. 

$. In the second Scene of the second Act of Romeo and Julkt, 
Juliet is made to remark that Jove laughs at lovers' perjuries. That 

Momi Miscellanea Subseciva. 81 

TSbutlus, iii. 7. 17. Peijuria ridet -amantum JuppH<r. As there 
was no English version of Tibullus in the time of Shakspeare, those 
who we inclined to believe that he knew Latin, will not fail, perhaps, 
<to adduce this in part of proof. On second thoughts, it appears to 
■le that he had the idea from Ovid, Ars Amot. i. 633. Jvpker ex 
*tto perjwria ridet amant&m. This, I should think, lie could come at 
jn English* I know not whether the learned Dr. Fanner has touched 
upon this. 

9* Non illam nutrix orienti luce revisens, Hesterno coll urn potent 
circumdare fiJo. Catull. lxii. 377- This passage has been variously 
explained. The following quotation will throw sufficient light upon it. 
" Ethnici deflorate virginitatis argumentum a collodesumebant ; dum 
•enim prim& nocte virgo jam nupta erat cum conjuge concaJtHtura, 
*ntequam tbalamura iugrederetur, colli ejus circumferentiam ducto £h> 
metiebantur ; mane a litem si latius collum, quam ut eodem filo com- 
prebendi posset, inveniebant, defloratam jam inde concipiebant." 
Bened.. Sinibalif. p. 557* This method of putting chastity to the 
test reminds one of certain of the canine species mentioned . in the 
£79th No. of the Spectator. There is, I dare say, as much truth in 
.the one case as in the other. 

10. The cacocthes versificandi must have been raging in all its fury, 
when the annexed poem was written, or rather tagged together, w 
praise oi Bacchus. See Anthol. Graec i. p. 58. edit. H. Stepb. 

E<* Ba/^ey. 
MiXrw/jiev jiamXfja tjuKetiviov, etpa<f>iwrr)y, 

A fipOKdfjLTjv, aypoiicov, doi&^uor, &yXa6/nop<j>oy > 

B oiwroy, flpojjuov, fiaicxe&TQpa, fioTpvo^airrfy, 

r rfioovvov, yovdevra, ytyavTo\&rriv, yeXd&yra, 

A toyevfi, hiyovov, Sidvpa+ifioyeyT}, bi6vvcov 9 

E $tov, eir^aiTTiv, €i&\ov, iypetrUutfiov, 

Z ifXatov, c!&xoXov, £qX^/iova, ZrjXo&OTijpa, 

H irtov 9 ybvTr&niv, ijbtidpoov, jjirepoicfja, ' 

9 vpaocpopoy, QpqiKa, diatntimv* OvftoXiovra, 

1 vhoXirqv, l/bitproy, Io7tX6kov, IpafuHrnjy^ 

K utfia<rT))v, K€pa*v 9 Kiaaoark^ayov 9 ^K€Xah€tviv % 

A v&ov, Xrjvcuoy, XaOkfCJf&a, Xvatfiiptpvov, 

M voTTjy, /jLaiyoXioy, fieQvb&Triv, fu>pt6fiopfoy, 

N VKTiXiov, v6/mov 9 yefipw&ea, yefipiboKeTrXoy^ 

z »aroj3oXov, fyyoy, fcvoSwrjjv, ^ayBoKdprjyoy^ 

O pyCXov, vfipifrifutOov, optwioy, ovpeGi<f>oiT7jy, 

II ovXvwdrriy, wXayKTqpa, iroXuartyavov, iroXticwfioy, 

P rjfclvooy, pabivoy, piKv&hea, jj^yoypptfa., 

2 KtprrirrjVf a&rupov, aefieXqyeviTTiy, tre/ueX^a, 
T epnyoy, ravpunrbv, TVppiiyoX£rriv t rayupuviVi 

Y 7rvo<p6l3rfy f vypoy, fyte ytfioy, vXiJcvra, 

♦ Tjpofiavi}, QpikToy, QiXofJteihta, </>otraXubTrir, 

X pvaotcepuy, ^apteyra, ^aXtypoya, ^pvoeopirp^ 

Y vxo-nXayfj, yfetierijv, ypcxpoprjhem, yfv^picuKriiv, 
ft piov $ d> priori) y, opeolrpofov, u>p€u[XoiirQy. 

so. xxv. a ji. vol. xiu. ^ 

82 Momi Miscellanea Subsecita. 

Immediately after tins follows another, upon the same plan, in praise 
of Apollo. The reader may peruse that in the Anthologia. 

11. University intended to have been founded at 
Durham* " On the 15th of May, 1657, a writ of privy seal, for 
founding an University at Durham, was signed by Oliver Cromwell, 
Lord Protector. This University, rather intended to be founded 
than actually settled, was soon suppressed. It is a singular fact* 
that George Fox, the founder of the Quakers, who visited Newcastle 
a second time 1 this year, has assumed to himself the consequence, 
fland what he thought the merit, of having heeif the means of sup- 
pressing this laudable institution." 1 Brand's Newcastle, VoL VL 

Fox's account of ihe matter is so singular, that I shall transcribe 
it. " We came to Durham, where was a man came down from 
J/mdon to set up a college there, to make ministers of Christ, as they 
said ; I went with some others to reason with the man, and to let 
him see that to teach men Hebrew, Greek, -and Latin, and the seven 
arts, which was all but the teaching of the natural man, was* not the 
way to make them ministers of Christ, for the languages began at 
Babel ; and to the Greeks, that spake Greek as their mother tonga*, - 
the cross of Christ was foolishness ; and to the Jews, that spake 
Hebrew as their mother tongue, Christ was a stumbling-block ; mid 
as for the Romans, who had the Latin and Italian, they persecuted 
the Christians ; and Pilate, one of the Roman governors, set Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin atop of Christ, when he crucified him ; so he might 
see the many languages began at Babel, and they set them atop of 
Christ the word, when they crucified him. And John the divine, 
who preached the word that was in the beginning, said that the beast 
and the whore had power over tongues and languages, and they are. 
as waters. Thus I told him he might see the whore and beast have 
power over tongues and the many languages, which are in mystery 
Babylon. Now said I to the man ; dost thou think to make ministers 
of Christ by these natural confused languages, which sprang from 
Babel, are admired in Babel, and set atop of Christ by a persecutor ? 
Oh! no. — So the man confessed to many of these things. — When 
we bad thus discoursed with the man, %e became very loving and 
tender, and after he had considered further of it, he never set up 
his College." — ' Oke! jam satis est 9 Ohef If your spleen be not 
ready to crack/ &c. See the Preface to Walker's Idiomatologia 
AngUhLatina. — Ridcte quidquid est domi cachinnorum. 


1 George Fox's Journal, p. 28 i. 

a The original writ is preserved in the archives of the Dean and Chapter 
of Durham ; it appears to have been suppressed on account of petitipns 
against it from the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. It had been ob- 
tained by a petition of the city and county,of Durham, county of Northum- 
berland, and town and county of Newcastle upon Tyue, .. . 



This annual exercise should seem to derive its origin from a zeal* 
ous and earnest endeavour of the University, to send down to pos- 
terity the praises of industrious young men, who have applied 
themselves strenuously to its favorite studies ; but probably this 
subject being at length exhausted, our Poet-laureat found it neces- 
sary to hate recourse to the contingencies of the times, in order to 
furnish them with matter for these compositions. 1 The name of 
the Tripos, as it emphatically styles itself, was doubtless at first 
gpren to this performance in consequence of the three brackets 
originally printed on the back of the voucher* We do not find in 
the Archives of the University any mention made of the separation, 
which has taken place between the senior and junior optimes : but 
if we are at liberty to suggest a reason, we do not hesitate to con- 
clude, that it arose from the evident absurdity of bestowing die 
same panegyric on those who bad made some proficiency in natu- 
ral philosophy, and on those who were still hovering over the 
elements of Euclid. From this period, therefore, we may date all 
the revolutions, which this exercise has undergone, and we think 
we may safely assert,, 

Constitit in nuM, qui fiut ante, color. 
The next change which took place in it, and which we may he 
allowed, according to the ancient division of comedy, to call the 
middle state, was that, in which the local foibles of the academic 
world were attacked ; and the Tripos came forth the champion of 
virtue and morals, expressed by a saucy but harmless satire upon 
those petty vices, which, beneath the notice of morality, and too 
insignificant to engage the attention of the law and statutes of the 
University, form in their aggregate a no insignificant part of the mis- 
chief daily and nightly achieved. 

It was formerly not an unusual sight to find gownsmen amusing 
themselves with the innocent diversions of school boys, and after 
lectures turning 

To chase the rolling circle's speed, 

Or urge the flying ball. Gray. 

By a statute provided for that purpose, Masters of Arts were 
interdicted from playing at marbles and trundling hoops.. But 
still the Undergraduate and Bachelor were left at liberty to choose 
their amusements, tiU a severe satire, in form of a Tripos, so lashed 

1 This conjecture is confhmed by a custom, which still exists, of present- 
ing yb&ng noblemen to thek degrees with a long detail of patronymicul 

84 Essay on Triposes. 

the prevailing taste of this golden age, that, on. a sudden, blindman's- 
buff, hot-cockles, whirligigs, and paper windmills, were entirely 
laid aside, and in their place were substituted the more ma'nly and 
rational diversions of cricket, tennis, billiards, and archery. . About 
tliis time too the savage and unacademic sport of cockfighting was 
abolished by a humane flagellation of the wordy and sententious 
Mr. Wakefield : though we cannot say much for this juvenile con> 
position, it does great credit to his feelings, and the exertion was 
not without good effect. Another topic at this day was the hu- 
mors and vanities of Sturbitch-fair, where, with no small satisfac- 
tion, we meet in one poetic picture 

Expositas late Canu prope fluraina merces 
Divitiasque loci vicosque hominumejue labores 
Sparsaque per virides passim magaha campos. 

But farther than this the Tripos has been sometimes allowed to 
take a wider range, provided it preserved its ancient form and tem- 
per : among others we need only iustance a very ingenious de- 
scription of the high heads, which then prevailed to the terror of all 
the sylphs and gnomes, who were obliged by their office to keep 
watch on these dizzy pinnacles : the humorous description we find 
in this of a mouse's nest being destroyed by fire, and the lava of po- 
matum, which rushed in torrents down the stupendous edifice, re- 
cals to our minds the attempts of those aspiring mortals, who to 
frighten the inhabitants of Heaven, endeavoured 

imponere Pelio Ossaro ! 

* These, and such as these, while humor held its court here, were 
the sallies of the Muses from their poetic haunts, till at length the 
taste became degenerate, and instead of these compositions were 
substituted a cold and cautious display of poetical talent in a hun- 
dred unmeaning Virgil ian lines, or, which is worse, an attempt to 
copy the eccentric style of Lucretius, by accumulating in the 
course of one Tripos all his wayward and uncouth expressions, 
with none of his spirit and poetic fire. Some few indeed have 
dared to emancipate the Tripos from this arrest of dulness, among 
these we cannot omit one, which celebrates the scramble for Tri- 
poses, but is more remarkable for the elegant address to some blue- 
eyed treasure, with which it concludes. All attempts have hitherto 
proved ineffectual, and we still have reason to regret, that this 
once humorous essay of the laughter loving Muse has been obliged 
to give place to the" pompous description of the Newtonian system, 
or the no less vapid and labored one of some fever, intended, we 
understand, for the Philadelphia pestilence. — Thus far with re- 
spect to Triposes in general — at present we are about to consider 
one, which has appeared in this University. 

Essay on Triposes. 85 

*0£ &€<nrnp$ei TpliroBog Ik xpvoyX&TOv, 

Aristoph. Plut. p. 1. 
Auctor cum Tripode colloquiiur. 

A, Cum scelus effigies digito Pasquina notabat, *i 

Crede, Tripos, non Papa ferox, non Virginia ira, 2 

Vcl oova Libertas saevam bacchata per Alpein, 3 

Italiae populos tantum tremefecit inermes, 

T. Grande sonas tragicum, et versus, nisi verba fatiscant, 5 
Quatuor hi current facili pede ; quid taraen istinc i 
Res Italas scribis ? A. Mutat cornicula plumas, 7 

Nee tamen evadit Pavo — num fallit origo. 
Te tua, formidanda x Tripos, quae prima solebas 
Versu indignari, si quis delator iniquus 10 

Lidserat alteriusfamam ? merainisse molestum esj£ 
Quo prasente Deo Iaurus npvere sacratae 
Demisisse caput? triplici se Pythia nisu 13 

Surripuisse sibi fertur, vocesque baratbro 
Ter sonuere cavo,. '*. liceat tibi scire futurum, 15 

Praeteritum, et prasens :" Tripod em que agnovit Apollo. 
Hioc tibi, Parnassi Numen, Musisque propino, 
fiinc mea lanx satura est. hinc duxit conscia noraen. J 8 

Musarum quaecunque mihi se deferat hospes, 19 

Tu,* felina Tripos, (sioiul ac contraxeris ungues) 
Parce novo vati submissa voce roganti, 
Blanditiis pueros quae jam Venus 3 altera captet. 
Quis novus Endymion, ocujis dormitor apertis, 
Virginibus Grants focalia detrahat audax, 24 

Aut zonam ad proprias jubeat demittere sedes. 
Quid melius canerem ?— Pacem ? — Pax alma moratur 
Exul in Utopia? campis — an Pnelia? Litem 27 

Gomposuere gravem UotaXilpiog rfie Mov/am » 28 

Carpere majores vellem, sed Apoilinis iram 
Marsya formido ; tegat hos augusta senectus 
JEgide ; nam vitiis juvenilis decolor aetas 
Pullulat, et decies truncata resaeviit Hydra. 

Alter equis gaudet, tortosve auriga meatus 33 

Pervolitare rotis : quoties repetita caballis 
Curia lassatis fremuit ! dum pendulus ha?ret 
Curriculo, vidi totam trepidare Suburram ! 

1 Pace Prisciani hoc verbum jure Academico foemininum usurpavimus. 
* Huic enini cognomento respondet ea pars supellectilis, quae quoxnedo- 
cunmie in versa Tripos evadit, anglice a Cat. 
3 Nuda olim et imraunda Venus in nundinit Sturfyf . prosubat. 

86 Essay on Triposes. 

Jnsignes ocreis alii ; quae turba pedestris 
Saepe diem fallit, limoque aspersa Cloacae 
Cnira domum trahit, aut effundit anhela Diana? 
Vota, ut credideris vix posse Acteona tantum. 
At simul extremuui campana molesta soporem 
Ruperit, ad lucos fugit hie predator opiraos, 
Non leve finrtimis damnum, cui noverit omnis 
Sylva pedem, pulli laeves, trepidaeque columnar* 
Nee careat pal ma, uumeris qui numina Cami 
Placat arundiueis, lunaeque iuipransu* ad ortum 
Sat speciem praedae pisei lutulentior emto. 
ille diem perdit somnis ; operosior ille 
In cute curanda, ventoa licet borreat udos : 
Hie etiam, radiis ut Sol dimiserit imbrem, 
Papilio crines prodibh amabilis unctot, 
Quo non splendidior se spectat in Isidis undis. 
Ceruis ut incedant graviter, fixisque fetoees 
Luminibus, ponant pannos fractosque galeros, 
Ultima quae variam possit complere corouam, 
Dawsom ilia cobors ! hie, Musa, severior esto > 
Ne movers Umbrae risum, cui dura Mathesis 
Exagitans ternum etausit feliciter annum. — 

T. Euge tuum et belte ! sed quid respondit Amicus? 59b 
Scilicet aegrotat medicus ; malus abstulit error 
Te quoque delirum, qui nunc, ut pallidus Ajas, 
Affectas famam Tripodis : quancfo occupat omnes 
Scribendi rabies, cave sint tibi fata Perilti. 
Kngit ut argklam figulus manibusque rotaque, C4 

Torquet opus sudane, et sesquipedalia verba 
Ampt*lli» eumulat gravibus ; tunc spernere habenam, 
Et Phaeton teum verber dare, donee anheli 
Carminis impediant suspensa mokria cursum* 
Hinc illae lacrymae ! satis hinc musamque modosque 08 

Exerccnt odiis. Qu& Hbertate Decern bri 
Usa pudicitiae nocuit ! qu& freta leporis 
Colluvie, turbae censor prodibat honestae 
* Praetextata Tripos ! — at qu& pallescere culpa*, 
*" Filia tu Pbcebi ? " quam circumsedit opuca 74 

Majestas ter&brarum, atqut alti vesperis horror" 
Nota mathematicis genesis tua ; contrahe pennas, 
Ne dominum proda* furto famosa secundo, 
•Stape Grades errant, etei£m lex unica jussit 78- 

Parcere Germanis ; sed quid * tibi. Curia fecit, 

1 tevarra tnnnuG-H- 

Essay on Triposes. 87 

Ut brevior fiat qudm cum Romana fuisset ? 

CWia vix iteruui bullati Caesaris iram 81 

Ferre potest, at nos audaci vivimus a?vo. 

Audit Aristarchus ? fatepr — nisi riserit idem, 

Cum pede prtecipiti nimium puer improbus olim 84 

Corripuit tiuvium, et spectavimus Euphratis undas. 

Nee scelus est vufeo ievius, cum flumina currant 86 

Garrula, vel linguas lapides sermone loquaci x 87 

Cum foliis, miscent sylvai frondosaL 

Quia teneat risuin, cum, ne nodosior aequo 

Vindicibus careat sensus, dispersa tabellam 

Numina per pictam volitant, quot Graecia mendax 

Fingeret, aut sereret riguis iEgyptus in hortis ? 

I beet accedunt membris iunixa solutis 

Genua ; labant versus, et agunt longo ordine pompam 9^ 

Non, lamen, usque, adeo, forsatt, violenter, ubique, 
- Cum stcterunt, (ulerunt, et si quid durius istis 

Sparserit antiquus per carmina millia vates. 

Feroere nunc melius totum foret ? accinit auri 

Vox Jevior Zephyris ; nunc'ardua fulminis instar 

Flebiie murmur aquis miscet liquidamque querelam. 
Yirgilium legit puer hie ? mult&que cadens vi 

Cernere erit verbum, vel pars semesa legeutis 

Decipit obtutum ! ne non legisse putetur. 

Pascua, rura, duces — : — : 104 

. Qui sapiunt Offas, sapiunt maid : credite, miror 
Grande Maronis opus : tamen hie, ceu mitior Ursa, 
Carmina lingendo finxit, genitumque polivit 
Una dies unum. Calamos divelle, tabellam 
Ut rodant ungues, ut pugni scrinia tundant, 
: Quaere peregrinum, fraus est quam novimus omnes, 
. Non faciunt aulas Reges, non Granta Poetas. 

A. Ergone tu monitis'fugies, mea charta, receptis i 
Ambitiosa nimis, nescis fastidia, nescis 
Purgatos lectorum aures, nasumque sagacem ! 
Pone supercilium, tie barbis apta, resectis, 
Vel renovare facem, cum ser& nocte cubile 
Incola desertuih repetit bene potus, ibidem , 
Uraris Tineo non impunitior ipso. 
Pone supercilium, ne, cum ferat Argiktnm 
. Venalisque obolo trutin& ponaris iniquiL 
Serpere te Momi dicant, vitiumque vicissim 
Imberbes digito monstrent tenuemque Min^rvam, 
Ergone ride bunt fatuae poppy smata Musae ? 
Ridebit fraterna> tripos, sociumque repellet, 
Cum tuemsmbratuo jactu dispersa faccta 

&B Essay on TriposeL 

Frustula calcabit belle soleata juventus ? 

Tu quoque risisti ; liceat ridere ; togatos 

I pete risores ; miserae venere Calendar. 

I fuge, ne nostri valeant retinere timores, 

Neu dominum incuses, si, cuin mea liqueri* ultro 

Lamina, natalis tibi sit carboue notandus. , 

//. St. J. B. Coll. S. S. Trin. Schol- 
ia Cemitiis Prhribus, Feb, 19, 179a. 

Throughout the whole of {his piece the Author seems to have* 
lakeu pains to put the meaning as far out of the reach as possible, so 
t(iat few probably have taken the trouble necessary to explain the 
enigmatical allusions, many are incapable of doing it from want of suffi- 
cient local knowledge : we purpose therefore to take it piecemeal, and 
give such annotations as may suffice as well for foreigners as for those 
who, though upon tbe spot, are not very conversant with the matters 
which relate to the University to which they belong.--- First then, having 
taken the word Tripos in the unlimited sense of any threelegged piece 
of furniture, he set out with the idea of restoring the middle state, of 
Tripos-writing, for which purpose he has taken, a poetical liberty of' 
deriving its name, origin, and nature* from circumstances relative and 
subservient to this design* 

Line 1. We meet with aa allusion which at once informs the Tripos 
of its commission, and answers the purpose of furnishing four Virgjlian 
lines, by way of ridiculing this sort of writing* The statue of Pas- 
quina, alluded to here, was set up at Rome, in order that all might 
prefer their complaints without discovering their names, in the same 
manner aa the lion's mouth' at Venice. 

Line 2. If here any particular Pope is intended, we should rather 
suppose Pope Joan is the irascible character in question. 

Line 3* At this crisis so eventful and serious to the cause of govern? 
nients, any opportunity of declaring an opinion is eagerly laid hold of; 
or - we are at-a loss to know what the present newfangled liberty has 
to do in company with a Roman Pontiff, and the Virgin Mary. 

Line 5. Here the Tripos in a spirited manner interrupts the writer, 
and calls him to account for the choice of his style, not aware of the 
de te fabula, so artfully introduced. 

Line 7. The courteous retort* given to the Tripos on this line, sug- 
gests to us an idea, that here the notion- of throwing it into the form 
of a dialogue first occurred to the author. We do not think this any 
ornament, but de gustibus non est disputandum. 

Line 10. The character here introduced stands probably for a 
general idea, if not, we do not think ourselves at liberty to pry into 
the secrets* of private injuries. 

Line 13. For an explanation of this mythological fact, vid. tbe 
Hymn to Apollo in Callimachus, v. l. 

Line 15. The reader is here prepared by all the mysterious pre- 
ktrfe^ which used to usher in an. ancient oracle, to learn that the Tripos 

Essay on Tripose*. 89 

derives its name frpm the ,three attributes of knowing " the present, 
past, and future ;" and concludes, with what right we presume not to 
say, tha{ the academic ballad is a protege of Apollo. — Vid. Potter's 

Line 18. tor an explanation of lanx satura, vid. Adam's Antiq* 

Line 1.9* Contrary to the custom of poets, our author seems very 
indifferent about the assistance of the Muses, and rather seems to wish 
the Tripos would take the part of inspiration. Though we think a 
pun the lowest species of wit, yet, as the questions are purely domes- 
tic, perhaps it may be allowed to consult so domestic an animal as a 
toast and butter cat. . ; 

Line 24, Of this sort of petits maitres there are but too many in 
the l/niversiry ; but why the author wishes to correct the present ele- 
gant taste o5f the female world, we canuot guess. 

Line 27- Where this delightful spot, called No Man's Land, is 
situate, we have not been able to find in any modern map of the world, 
Perhaps the author is in possession of some anti-ministerial chart, but 
however this be, we wish the fair loiterer would revisit this country 
once again ; for by this time, we should think it is self-evident, that 
bldbdktting is not good for the English constitution. 

Line 28. We are introduced here to two physicians, well known 
Xo 6th form boys ; but among the tacenda of this piece we do not 
chuse to offer a suggestion on the subject : but thus far we can say, 
we do not believe, that Drs. Darwin and Lawrence are hinted at. [One. 
of the parties is supposed to have been the late Sir Busick Harwood. 
A.D. 1815.] 

Line S3. The several descriptions of the University buck who emu- 
lates the virtues of a mail-coachman ; of the walking jockey, who seems 
to envy the buck his qualifications ; of the academic poacher, who is a 
constant terror to . the neighbouring dove-houses ; of the phlegmatic 
fisherman, who establishes his reputation for angling by purcliasing 
■the fish already caught ; of the powdered beau, who, with all the anx- 
iety of the young members of our sister University, takes his morning 
walk; and lastly of that tribe, who, after three years' intense applica- 
tion, have contrived at the expense of their constitution, to make great 
proficiency in intellective abstraction s ; form a motley group, which 
cannot fail of giving some satisfaction to the humorous reader. 

Line 5£. Here the Tripos takes up the dialogue with a good-natured 
hint, that the writer himself is not without his appropriate foibles, who 
aspires to the dangerous reputation of writing a Tripos, and in this point 
we agree with him, and might add, we wonder no brazen bull has been 
fabricated to roast him in, bv some of those, whom he has indiscrimi- 
nately attacked. 

Line 64. The first Tripos we recognise among those which he has 
delected, is to be found, perhaps, at no great distance from the present 
period. We could have wished chronology had been more attended to. 

Line 69. The ribalclrouB Tripos here alluded to is, prior to the 
former by many years, and lias made so much noise in this academic 

90 Essay on Triposes. 

world, that it is needless to say, who it is that is dealt with— qui ca- 
pit, Hie fecit. 

Line 74. We cannot but say, we think the writer seems here to 
exult too much at having happily discovered a theft, which, for many 
years, had eluded the inquisitive eye of justice — the verses now put 
between inverted commas are to be found in Do d son's Translation of 
Milton ; all we can say to this unwarranted piece of literary sharping 
h, that we think the Tripos might as well have blushed on this occa- 
sion as have turned pale. 

Line 78. But what have we here ? the Gradus ad Parnassum brought 
Jn «as witness against a poor criminal, who has been guilty of making 
a false quantity ! well, let the verdict be, incur ia fud if. 

Line 91. As we know of no action of Cx&ar, which warrants this 
accusation, we are inclined to construe it, Oliver Cromwell, famous for 
having dissolved tlie long parliament. 

Line 84. The epigram here meant, we have been able to obtain, and 
it is at the service of the reader. 

Venit ad Euphratem — rapidis perterritus undis, 
Ut cito transiret, corripuit fluvium. 
Line 86. The mob of Tripos writers are justly chargeable with 
these faults: it puts us in mind of modern travellers, who bring a 
trinket from every foreign mart, in order to tell you they have gone 
the grand tour. Volgus is used by Latin poets, and the machinery .of 
Gods is often happily introduced by them : but until our authorlingc 
eta write like them, we would recommend them to avoid their faultv 
and study their beauties ; for, as the judicious Horace says, 

Decipit exemplar vitiis imitabile. 
. Line 87* We do not think that a mean or unphilosophic mind 

Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in every thing, 
from which the author doubtless took the idea of this line* 

Line 94. We are here again disgusted by the common practice of 
introducing a cloud of expletives ; we understand the picture is tahfii 
from life. The two queer preterperfects, which follow, constitute a 
man of great reading, when introduced into any poem. 

Line 10 1. Vid. Dcnham's Cooper's Hill, line 5, from which this 
thought is evidently derived. 

Line 104. It is a generous custom among pugilists not to striken 
fallen antagonist, or this blow is a fair one : we suppose the attribute 
of knowing the future was of some assistance to the Tripos here. 
And as courts make not kings, but kings the court ; 
So where the muses and their train resort, 
Parnassus stands > if I can be to thee 
A poet, thou Parnassus art te me. 

The finale of this performance is eminently happy ; and will bring 
to the mind of the classical many remembrances of the keen sarcasm, 
en passant of Juvenal and of the delicate irony of Horace. •. . 
Of the whole we are at liberty to say, 

Relegat qui semel percurrit : 
Qui nunquam legit, nunc legat. 




No. v. —Continued from No. xxih. p. 5* 

no. xiir. 










, Cum ADNOTATIONIBUS tjusdem. 1 

Qui bus accesserunt 


Cum uberrimis 


£»]tti»sis Octaviani Pulkyn, ad Insigne Rosse in Ccemilerib Paulino ; 
Typis Tko. Ratcliffe, MDCLXIV. [Folio] 

1 Prodi it Rotna* forma, quam in folio vocant minori, apud Aloysium Sn~ 
netiwm 1594. Hanc editionem Petrus Aldobrandinius cardinalis, Cleraentis 
TfIL pont. max. fratris filins, curavit, et Philippo, Hispaniarum principi, 
dodkavit," Lagoraarsin. ad PogianiEpist. v. ii. pp. 204,5. Editionem luculen- 
tain Londini denuo procuravit Vir eruditi*Hnms Joannes pearson, "in quo 
fllustrando Mgidius Menagius, ingens Ecclesiae Gallicanae ornamenunn, 
Obaanrationes suas in hanc insulam nostram iraprimendas edendasquc 
iusit.*' Hasce reliqnrts dicavit 

" Augustissimo Potentissimoq. Monarch* 
Magttae Britannia?, Franciae et Hiberniai Jbgt 
Fidei Defcnsori." 
♦ * * * * 

tf m Sacrii 

Joanne* P$4npn" 
Haac dedicsttonem excipit 

" Reverendissifno doctissimoque Viro, 

Joanne* Pearson/' 

9& Bp. Pearson's Minor Tracts, 

Jan. <23. l6fi4. Sec Dr. Bentley's letter to the Bishop of Ely, p. 50. 

No. xiv. 

GRiECUM *x Versionc 
SEPTUAGINTA Interpretum, 
Juxta Exemplar VATIC AN V3f 
Roniic editum. . 
Excusum per Joannem Field, Typographum 
Academicum. M. DC. LXV. p Voll. 12°.] 


Cum tnulta sint quae de Versioue LXX virali, tvpis Academicis fa*- 
pressa, dici possent, ea tantum hoc loco tradenqa duxi, quae animum 
rheologiae studio addictum ad earn assidue pervolvendam et ac- 
curate perpendendam maxime impellant. Neque verb de ejus Anti- 
quitate Dignitateque quicquam impraesentiarum dicemus, de quibu* 
Viri docti multa, hoc prsesertini saeculo, scripsere; qui cum maxime 
inter se disseutiant, nihil adhuc satis certi et explorati videntur tradi* 

Primd itaque Versionem hanc frequentius consulendam diligentiusq ; 
excutiendam arbitror, quo melius Veteris Testament! mens intelligatur, 
et Mosis Prophetarumq ; sensus liquidior appareat. Cum enim 
Tcxtus Hebraicus, que mad mod urn apud nos hodie extat, et vel Ju- 
dacorum vel Chrislianorum Commentariis enarratur, saspe obscurus 
Mt ; bi Interpretes facilem aliquando sen&um, apertum, et concinnum 
praebcnt. Fateor equidem hunc explicandi modum, a Senioribus illis 
haustum, non in eo pretio apud plerosqne esse quo oportuit, et 
opinione nimis pervulgata, Lxx viralem scilicet Versionem esse ab 
Hebraic! Veritate maxime alienam : eandemq; interpretandi rationem 
video multo invidiosiorem ab iis hominibus lactam esse, qui cum sint 
Textui Masoretico maxime infensi, AuthoritatL LXX plurimum tribu- 
ere videri volunt ; quales hoc saeculo fuere Morinus et Capellus, viri 
sane docti, sed hypothesibus suis nimis addieti, et ingenio suo nimium 
plerumque tribu entes. Quskm autem feliciter Seniores illi S. Scrip- 
turam sint interpretati, vel inde luculeuter apparebit, si consideremus 
quam iufeliciter fuerint mala? inter pre tationis accusati. S. quidem 
Hieronymus passim hanc Versionem vituperat, ejusque autoritatem 
iabefactare couatur ; sed saepenumero sine ratione. Legimus Gen. 
xxv. 8. DiTDtt Pity) W) quae verba Seniores in hunc modum 
transtulerunt, rat eicXe/uw iuriOavev 'Afipa&fi. S. autem Hieronymus 
breviterhunc lociim ita repraesentat, Et mortuus est Abraham, statim- 
que subjungit, Malt in LXX. Interpretibtis addition est, Et deficiens 
Abraham mortuus est, quia nan convenit Abrahce deficere it imminui. 

Chronologically arranged. &£ 

At neque maU additum, neque quidem additum est. Quls eriim 
irescit et JTIJ*l in Hebneo legi, et ifiH recte reddi per to «tfXe/irecr, 
quod vocabulum non imminutionem Abrahai, sed Euphemism um con- 
tinet, et placidam ac quietam mortem denotat. Ita certe Onkelos et 
Jonathan reddidere TO TMJTNli et V. Interpres h!c S, Hierony- 
mum deseruit (ranstulitque, Et defidens mortuus est. Est igitur to 
iicXc/ireiy Gracis Interpretibus expirare, mori. Quod non erat exagi- 
tandum, sed observandum potius, idq; ad intelligendum S. Lueam, 
apud quem e. xvi. 9. Christus ita loquitur. Tloo/trare eai/ro<« fiXovs 
« rod pafitava Tfjs abadas, iva, Srav iKXiwrjre, befytvrcu v/xds *U ras 
altavlovs trKTjv&s* Licet enim et Alexandrinus et Cantabrigieusis MSS. 
«ut Itkelirri aut ckXIttj legant, quam lectionem etiam Syr us est secutus 
fcum JEthiopico, non dubito tamen quin &r\«n/rc, ut reliqui omnes 
legant, primd scriptum fuerit, et mutatum in teXefwri ab iis qui hunc 
roS £icXe/irety sensum non observassent : est enim orav IatXi myre Vulg. 
V. cum defeceritis, loquendi modo LXX prasertitn familiari, cum 
moriemini, sive ut recte Thebphylactus, iva (fray exXlwutfiev Kal aya- 
Xvp&pev Ijc tov 0iov. 

Ita Gen. xxvi. 17. Veteres ex Graco Latini, Et abiit inde> Isaac, et 
venit in valkm Gerarum et habitavit ibi. t Ad haec S. HieronymuB, 
Pro valle torrentem habet in Hebrao : scilicet Ttt""^^ At ^TTJ 
tain valkm significat quam torrentem ; locum nempe depressum, sive 
aquis co-opertas sive nudus sit. Nulla igitur causa a voce Hebnea* 
ob quam non tani vallis quam torrens verteretur. At rationem afTert 
Doctissimus Pater ex contextu, miram sane. Neqve enim Isaac, port- 
quam magnificatus est, in valle habit are poter at. Neque hac impor- 
tant objectione contentus, ad vers. 19. Et foderunt pueri Isaac in 
valle Gerarum, et invenerunt ibi putenm aqua viva, h«c annotat, Et 
Mc pro valle torrens scriptus est. Nunquam enim in valle invenitier 
puteus aqua viva. Mira quidem haee philosophia; minim hacc k 
S. Hieronymo profecta, cujus Psalmoruin versio juxta Hebraicam 
veritatem habet, Qui emittis fontes e convallibus. Frustra igitur htc 
sugillantur LXX, nee bene Vulgatus Interpres cos reliquit ut S. 
Hieronymum sequeretur, unde Commentatorum pueriles errores'pul- 

Legimus Genes, xxviii. 19. TOMtiTO "WT BV TO D7M LXX 
Kal 0$Xap\ov£ fy ovojxa rj} rroXei to irporepov. Ad quem locum ha»c 
habet S. Hier. in Traditiouibus Hebraicis. RidicuU quidam verbttm 
Hebraicum ulam nomen esse urbis . put ant, cum ulam interprttetur 
prius. Ordo itaque iste est lectionis, Et vovavit nomen loci iilius 
Bethel, et prius Luza vocabulum erat civitatis. Antiqua om?ies 
Scriptura verbo ulam, sire elem plena sunt, quod nihil aliud signat 
nisi ante, aut prills, vel vestibulum, sive superliminare, vel postea.' Al 
ovXaji hie non est nomen urbis, sed pars nomiuis : ut cum apud Stra- 
bonem legimus, fieraty S£ TVdKlyyns ical TlaXataKif^ios >/ ^eaK&firjs 
iraXai non est nomen urbis, sed I/o^et additum urbtm sfcnimat, quae 
Lx stadiis superius steterat quam postea $ via So/'J**, ut Strabo 
loquitur. Neque ulla ex diversis significationibus tov U7)ik huic loco 
con venit; non vestibulum, sive superliminare, non postea, iin6 nee 

94 Bp. Pearson's Minor Trad*, 

anti, aut prius; illud enim hie rBWWfr. Relinquitur igitur ut per-, 
tineat ad nomen urbis, quod LXX potuit esse notissimum, qui DC 
annis ante S. Hieronymum vixere. De hac Urhe ovXapXovel Eusebius 
in locis Hebraicis. avrrj ecrriv ?/ kcli icXtjdeitra ZaftovXa, nat fjuera ravrti 
BaidijX. Ita Codex Bonfrerii, sed corruptus, ut ipse suspicatus est. 
At codex meus MS. KXrjfkiara AoySa, quod sequent ia firmaut, befyXw- 
tat aywripw. Nempe in voce Bcuflr/X, fj be to vporepop c&raXetro j?ai 
A<w£a, et in voce Aov£a, ravrijy inttyvv^aaev 'laKuifi Bat0>;X. 

Pariter LXX malae fidei frustra et sine ratione accusant ur, Genes* 
xiii. 13. Etviri Sodomorum mali, et- peccatores in conspectu Dei rehe- 
punter. Superfluv, inquit S. Hieronymus, hie in LXX interpretibue 
addition est, In conspectu Dei : Siquidem Sodomorum coloni apui 
homines mali et peccatores erant. I lie auiem dicitur in conspectu Dei 
peccator, qui potest apud homines Justus viderh At certe iila verba, 
in conspectu Dei, non suut superfiuh additq, sed ad ioterpretanduin' 
JTUTv in Hebreo. Neque inala est interpretation si accipiamus 
WBlv pro nVP % 3Ef?, itaCh&ld..* Bip, ita Vulg. peccatores coram) 
Domino nimis. 

Quip* quod Doctissimus Pater Aquilam proselytum contentiosum, 
Symmachura et Tbeodotionem Judaizantes hazreticos ssepe scquitur, 
et LXX Interpretibns pnefert, ubi nulla ouinino prafereudi ratio com- 
pared Ut Psal. xlix. 7. Pro eo quod nos diximus turbati sumut, 
Symmachus et Aquila transtulerunt acceleravimus : *t paulo post; 
Pulchre autem, non ut in LXX habetur, turbati sumus, sed juxta 
Hebraicum acceleravimus dicitur. I mo ver6 juxta Hebraicum era-" 
pajfiifuev turbati sumus dicitur, id enim omuino WTQJ sonat. Licet 
enim tTO in Piel aut Hipi:il festinare, aut cccderare. signiticet, iu 
Niphal tamen subito terrore percrlli, ct conturbari denotat. Ut PsaL 

▼i. s. "wd rbniz TBy\ *Dsy ^rrnj q mv *»an w™ ^ Kvpic, 

ort erapd^Orj ra oara fiov, xai i) \jw\i) fiov kraptiydri tr<j)6bpa t Quem 
locum ipse S. Hieronymus juxta Hebraicam veritatem ita transtulit, 
Sana me, Domine, ouoniam conturbata sunt ossa mea, et anima mea 
conturbata est valde. Et Psal. xlviii. 6. 1T9Ttt l/iljb krapA-^aav^ 
kimkevdrjaa*', Hier. conturhati sunt, adnurati sunt. hud quod ulte- 
rius observandum est, ipse Doctissimus Pater, qui in Epistola, ad Cj- 
prianum ita Versionem LXX vituperat, in Versione sua .juxta Hebrai- 
cam veritatem Seniores scquitur. Cousumti sumus in furore iuo, ei 
in indignatione tua contarbaii sumus. 

Gen. xxxviii. 5. Vetus Latina Versio ex LXX facta Hac autem 
erat in Chazbi auando peperit earn. Ad quae verba S. Hier. Tradi- 
tionibus Hebraicis in Genesin, Verbum Hebraum hie pro loci vecabulo 
positum est, quod Aquila pro re traustulit dicens, Et factum est ut 
imentiretur in partu, poatffuani genuit emu. Postquam enim genuit 
Sehm,*tetit partus ejus. *QQ Chazbi ergo ncn nomen loci, sea men- 
daqum dicitur. At nee *2\D in Hebraeo legitur ; nee tnendacium, si 
ita legeretur, significant, quod est 3C neque 2*03 HTO exponi 
possunt, Et factum est in mentiendo, sive ut mentiretur, cum 3^3 
infinitivi formam non habtat. Focabulum igitur loci aguoscit Onkje- 
Jos,«t cum eo R. Solomon et Aben-Ezfra. Eusebius diserte f. de tecjs 

Chronologically arranged. 95 

Hebraicfs, Xaff/3e<, 2vOa €Tri)yQi)oav, ita Ens. a Bonfrerio editua, sad 
recfius MS. noster, Xa<r/3<, cK0a eriyQ^trav t<j> 'lovbx. iccubes, huevvra* 
vdv %v opioa 'EXej/depoiroXews iprjpos irXqffiov 'O&oWd/x. Frustm IgitUT 
hie Aquila Senioribus prafertur, et vulgata Versio immerito S. Hierony* 
xaum estsecuta, quo nato parere -ultra cessavit. 

Geo. ii. 8. DIpD HW J3 D\*f?» mJT J«D*I LXX Kai tytrewmr 
KvpiOf 6 0eos irapd6«- ttrov kv 'E&tyz Kara araroXdr. Omnia propria, 
atque perspicue. Ad hacc S. Hieronymus, Pro paradiso sji Hebrao hor- 
tum habet, id est jjan. At erat hortus ille arbor urn omni genere con- 
situs, qui certe est irapabetcros. Quod vocabulum et locum hunc sine 
dabio recte expressit, et ad superioreui sensuin in N. Test, ideo est 
accommodatum. Porrb, inquit, Eden fty dclioiac interpretantur f 
ftfccte : Ita Ilesyc. 'E&/i, r/w^/. Et Suidas v. IIcipd&ec*os. E&/* &$ 
rpo^j) tppifveverat, lege rpvfy. Ita Patres. Pro quo Summachux trans- 
tulit, paradisum florentem. At hoc minus recte ; licet enim JTJf 
delicto* denotet, hie tamen nonien loci est, quod ex adjuncta prtepo* 
sitione patet : ITJQ P non est paradisus fiorens, neque TW2 ad p 
proximo spectat, sed ad ittD* refer* i debet. Et nnmen loci esse per- 
spicuum est ex iis quae dicuntur de Caino Gen. iv. l6. *al fa/aeviy 
yy NaiS Karivavrt ESe/i. Recte Eusebius de locis Hebraic is, 'E&p, 
o xov Oelov irapabcifTov towos els avaroXas' ep/nfrei/erat ie Tpv<pi). Sed 
progreditur Doctissimus Pater, Necnon quod sequitur, contra orientem, 
tit Hebrteo mikedem Dlp!3 scribitur, quod aquila posnit clto apx$q, 
et nos ab exordio possnmus dicere ; Symmachus verb etc irputTjp, of 
Jleodotion kv wp&rots, quod et ipsum non orientem, sed prinripitun 
significant. Ex quo manifest issimv comprobatur, quod priusquam 
calum et terram Dens faceret, paradisum ante* condidtrat, sicut et 
icgitur in Hebrao, Plantaverat autem Deus Paradisum in Eden h 
principio. Ita Doctissimus Pater in senteutiam iucidit, Judaicorum 
Interpret urn gratis ductus, cuinec Judsei ipsi favent. 

Ex eodem tbnte fluxerunt alive ad versus Seniorum Interpretationem 
exceptiones. LXX Gen. xxxiii. 2. Kai bielXev (vel eiribieTXev) 'I<u£/3 
ri va&la kir\ Aeiav, Kai iirl Ta;(//A, icat [iirt] ras Suo irai&itrKas. Fjt 
divisit pueros super Liam, et super Rachel, et super duas anciHa*. 
Ad hscc verba S. Hieronymus iu Traditionibus Hebraicis, Non, ut 
plerique existimant, tres turmas fecit, sed duas. Denique ubi nas 
habemus, divisit, Aquila posuit hfiicevaey, id est, dimidiavit ; ut nnum 
cuneum faceret ancillarum cum parculis suis, et a Hum Lite et Rachel, 
qucv libera erant, cum filiis earum. At melius LXX Hebrscum \TV) 
transtulerunt divisit, quam Aquila dimidiavit ; est enim H^H siiu- 
pliciter dhidere, in quntcunque partes divisio tiat, ut Jud. ix. 43. 
JWMn TViHtih Wm pjn"i1^ ftp'*) Et tuUt ercrcitum suum f et divisit 
in ires turmas. Et. Dan. xi. 4. TWD 221X7 YTTJII WD7» ^4^/1 
ffiyffn Conteretur regnum ejus, et dhidetur in quatuor ventos coUi. 
Et quod hoc ipso loco Jacobus diviserit rilios suos in tres turruas, ex 
i|>so textu patet; divisit enim super Liam, d super Rachel, et super 
duas ancillas, v. 1. Et posnit utramque ancHlam, et liber os earum 
in principio, Liam verb et filios ejus in secundo loco, (Heb. tfJTOt 
i. primis pofteriores) Rachel autem et Joseph novusimos (Heb. Q^nTTK 

96 Bp. Pearson's Minor Tracts, 

j. adhuc posteriores) v. 2. Et appropinquantes ancillce et filH earum 
incurvati sunt, v. 6. Accessit quoque Lia cum pueris suis, et cum 
similiter ador assent, extremi (Hcb. "WW) Chald. P" 1 /!^ LXX eai 
"/zero ravra) appropinquantes Joseph et Rachel adoravvrunt, v. 7. 

Quid qudd S, Hieronymus Interprefationem LXX tanquam impro- 
'priam sacpe rejicit, vcl quod male ante ipsmu fuerit Latine explicata, 
vel qu6d earn ipse minus recte inteilexerit. Cum enim ha?c Grarca 
Versio prioribns Ecclesirc sscculis fuerit ssepius translate, idque ab lis 
factum sit, qui linguae Hebraicie ignari, earn cum Textu Authentico 
conferre noil potuerunt ; fieri non potuit quin multa alitor Latine 
exprimerchtur, quam Gracca verba, qua: Hebrews semper responde- 
b&Ot, sonarent. Ut Psal. exxvii. 2. roirs ttovovs riav KnpwGtv ocv <f>aye- 
eui, Vetercs transtulerunt, Lahores fruetuum tuorum manducabis ; 
Sensu pullo* cum in hoc loco non LXX interpntes, sed Latini de 
Gr€tci verbi ambignitate decepti, icapirovs fructus magis quam nianus 
interpret ati sint, cum Kapwol nianus quoque dkantur, quod Hebrcco 
jponitur cap bee a "fS)3, ut recte dissent S. IRermiyrmis Eptst. 141. 
>P enim proprie rota, qua; est Kapwvs. Plena locutio, 1 Sam. v. 4. 
1*T J1193 ol Kapnrol rutv x €l P^ v avrov. Recte Theodoretus, 'O hi 
iLvfifiaxps, koitov y^etpCJv trov i.aftitop' ws etvai frijXoi' art Jcai ol 'Efiboftilj- 
Kovra Kapiroits ov r^yimKcipiriay tKuXetrav, aKXh to poptov rdv yetp&v. 
Quod ideo fuit notanjdum, quia hie Latini Interprets error pro cor- 
iectione fcedam Senioribu* covruptionem intulit. Citni enim putareqt 
melifts dici fructus laborum aliquem manducare, quam lahores frue- 
tuum, etiain Graeco Textui vim intuleruut et pro rovs ttovovs T&y 
Kopwivv aov scripserunt row Kap~ovs rwv irovuv oov, ut iu Vctustissimo 
Alexandrino MS. legitur, 

Male igitur aliquando LXX in Latinum Sennonem sunt translate 
et S. Hieronymus uialam r IVdnslationem secutus, non Latino Inter- 
pret!, sed SenioribuS ipsis imputat. Ut Gea^xxxiv. 25. Et intrc- 
gressi sunt civitatem diligenter, et interfecerunt ontnem masculvvu 
Ad quae verba Doctissimus Pater, Pro eo quod in Greeds legitur 
iuHjxtXws, id est, diligenter, in Hchrteo scriptum est 11103 beta, id 
mt, audacter et confideuter. At atr^aXws non recte vertituf diligenter ; 
multo minus eo sensu hie capiendi 6unt Seniores, qui Hebraicuni nM- 
op'time exprimunt, sive ad Sichcmitas, cum Paraphraste Chaldaico, 
sire ad Jacobi Alios referatur. Est enim niDS proprie iuppdXeta, id est, 
non diligent ia, sed securitas, et ntD2/ sive per ellipsin, rWOZl atr(pa- 
X'Zs, secure; ut Levit. xxvi. 5. DDS*)K3 fTM? Dil^W koI Karot- ^ 
r^ere pera aarfuXeias e?ri rffs -yijs vpwv. Habitabaut Siche?nit«e flCKl * 
secure, nihil mail metuentes ; et ingressi sunt Jacqbi filii, nD3 secure", 
id est, sine periculo. 

Legimus Gen. xlix. 21. ^Se^OaXi trrlXeyps hvetpivov cirihihovs kv tu 
yevvijpan k&XXos. Qua: verba sic Latine exhibet S.- Hieronymus, 
jNephthatim virgultum resolutttm dans in generatione pulchritudinem. 
Atneque trriXe^os rirgvltum, neque kvetpivov resolutum, neque yiv- 
vnpa generationcm signincat. Ita Gra?cis Latina minime respondent. 
Melius multo Latine versa extant apud Ruftinum 1. 2. de Benedicti- 
onibus. Arbor rcmissa, al. emissa, {vel ut nostra cxemplaria habent} 

Chronologically arranged. 97 

tHis diffusa, prof evens in fructibus decorem : et rursus, vel arbor 
diffusa, velvitis. Apud S. Ambrosium, Nephtdlim vitis remissa por» 
rigens in germine decorem. SreXc^os certfc non est virgultum, quod 
propria est a virgula, ut a salice salictum : Gloss. Virgulta, fikatrrir- 
ftara, d&pvoi, et Graeco-Lat. pK6.arripa, germen y virgultum. Hie 
aotem trrikexps aut arbor ipsa, aut ejus truncus, ex quo ra flkatrrf- 
fmra seu virgulta : HTK enim arbor. 'Avapevov etiam non resolu- 
tion est, aut remissum, sed ab aviryit quod emittere et prqferre deno- 
nrt, et ad plan tas cum spec tat germ inationem signihcat,etHebraeo tlfwW 
tytime respondet : ut Psal. Ixxx. 12. D^Ttf iTTSp nbvn ; et Ezek. 
ffii« 6. t JTlM9 fT/WH ef emtV/f propagines, et Jerem. xvii. 8. 
VWFW TwW 73V 7JTI Vulg. ad humotem mittit radices suas. Ita 
Dioscorides de Xiphio: /. 4. C. 2. KctvXoj' £e avir\(ri Tn^vcuor, Kaowov 
M *7poyyi/Xov, ^6/^as /3. Est igitur oreXe^os aveipevov TTwti) iT7*N 
wftor vel truncus emissus, diffusus, germinans, propagines emittens : 
cui optime respondet y&wripa, illud scilicet quod emittitur, sive 
fructus, ut Rufrmus, sive germen potius, ut Ambrosius: ramum enim 
yrelfrondem significare videtur, ut respondeat TDK. Atque ita haec 
plana sunt, ut designet historia Nephtalim rura possedisse arboribus 
nemorosa, ut loquitur Ruftinus. Cum si TTbw nTN cum S. Hiero-? 
trymo sive agrum irriguum, sive cervum emissum interpreteris, pos- 
teriorem partem vatic inii cum priori vix unquam conciliaveris. 

Rebeccam ita alloquitur Jacobus, Gen. xxvii. 12. Mfaore ^rjka- 
ffitrr) pe 6 irarrip pov, ical cffopai kvavriov avrov ws Karatypoviav. Vers. 
Lat. Rom. We forte attrectet me pater, et ero in conspectu ejus quasi 
spernens. Ubi primum piiifore non est ne forte, sed forte, idem 
(juod Hebraeum vlN, ita enim Graeci cum duhitant loqui solent. At 
Ver6 quare Jacobus vereatur, ne appareat Patri quasi spernens, non 
video; non hanc expositionem vox Hebraea, non res ipsa admittit, 
sed alium omnino sensum postulat. Melius fortasse dices Jtfiy/IDD 
ab Aquila versum, ws KaraputKwpevos, ut irridens, aut a Syramacho, 
m icarawalgwv, ut illudens, quern secutus est Vulgatus Interpres, quam 
a LXX ws KaTa<ppov&v, ut spernens. Et recte quidem, si Kar'atppovStv 
tam frigide interpretemur. Est sane ea vocis Graecae usitata significa- 
tio, sed non sola, nee huic loco accommoda. LXX alibi vocem banc 
Hebream per puxaffBai et cfnraicleiv transtulere, undesuam interpreta- 
tionem Aquila et Symmachus hauserunt : hie autem Karcubpovwy potius 
usurparunt, ut huic loco magis accommodum. Hesy. Kara^povetav, 
KarafiovXevdpevos, ad versus a] i quern consilium capiens, insidias struens, 
dolose affectans, ut de Pisistrato loquitur Herodoius, tcarcKftpovhaas 
Hlvrvpavviha ijyetpe rpirnv vraaiv, dolose affectans tyrannidem, ter- 
tiam seditionem excitavit. Est itaque Kara^povwy idem quod eirifiov- 
Xos, insidiator, deceptor, impostor, preevaricator. Ut Prov. xxii. 1.5. 
Y.vvecris &ya6if bthaxri \aptv' obol h& KaTatyporouiTW (Heb. D^TM, 
subdolorum, impostorum, collide et perfide agentinm, non autem con- 
temnentium, ut vulgd redditur) kv aTrwXe/p. Et Soph. 3. 4. ol Tcpoffi- 
rai airtils Tvevpartyopoi, tivbpes Kara^porifrat, Prophette ejus (non 

portantes spirit urn, ut vulgd, tn^vparo^opoi, sed D^TTPS) irvevparo- 

• ■•..■• ■ ■ . • ■ 


98 Bp. Pearson's Minor Tracts, 

fopot, quasi vento lati, demit or ii, ac) leves ; viri (non contemptorti, ltd 
JTPEQ ^IWN id est) prtevarica tores. 

Neque tantum LXX viralis versio ad intelligeudum Textum H#- 
tjrreum jitilis est inprimis et perquam necessaria, sed etiain ad ipsum 
Textum confirniandum, etiam eum aliquando, quern nunc babemas, 
Masoretharum diligent ia conservatum, saltern quod ad litems spectat. 
Ut Gen. xiv. 5. habemus scriptum DfO, at ret ate S. Hieronymilege- 
batur, (ab ipso saltern) DTQ. Ita ipse testatur in Tradition! bus He- 
braicis. Porrb OTO pro quo dixerunt (LXX) a/xa ain-dls, Iwc 6tJ) 
cum eis, putaverunt scribi per »1 be, ducti elementi similitudine, cum • 
per n scriptum sit. Bebam enim cum per trea lit eras scribitur f m 
mediam »1 habet, interpret atur, in eis ; si autem Jl heth, ut in pr<&* 
senti, locum significat, id est, in Ham. A liter igitur legebat S. 
Jrlieronyhius, quam nos nunc legimus: ille D!"Q, nos DH2; sed 
lectiont hodiernae patrocinaiitur LXX Interpretes, qui iisdem Uteris 
quibus et nos Di~0 legerunt, ut et codex Hebraeoruni Samaritanus ; 
Deque de loco qui diceretur Ham, puto, uspiam legitur. 

Si igitur LXX Seniorum fa ma sine ratione non laxleretur, si Judai- 
zantes Haeretici sine causa iis baud prseponerentur, si ipsi ex Gracss 
linguae copia et collatione cum Hebraeo cod ice recte intelligerentur, si 
denique uon solum quoties ab bodierno Textu discrepare videntur, 
sed etiam quoties cum eo consentiunt, ejusdeinque lectionem litera- 
riam stabiliunt, perpenderemus, eorum Versionem ad Mosen et Pro* 
phetas probe intelligendos plurimum valere nemo unquam dubitaret* 

Secundd, Versio LXX viralis magni semper aestimanda, el in promtii 
Theologis habenda, qu6 testimonia ab Apostolis reliquisque Not; 
Fcederis Scriptoribus ad probandum Jesum esse Christum, et veritatem 
Christiana? lteligionis illustrandam, ex Veteri Testaniento depromta 
confirm en tur et ab omui exceptione liberentur. Hoc enim generals* 
ter observandum, quod ubicunque Sancti Apostoli f out Apostolici viri 
loquuntur ad populos, its plerumque testimonies abutuntur (id est, 
utuntur) qua jam fuerant in gentibus divulgata (sc. ex Interpreta- 
tion LXX) ut loquitur S. Hieronymus. Et recte- quidem observatum 
est Apostolos et Apostolicos viros, testimonia ex Graeco usurpasse, 
cum hquerentur ad populos ? non tamen boc cum restrictione acci* 
piendum: ad quoscunque euim loquuntur, aut quocunque modo sci> 
bunt, saepe testimonia ex Seniorum Versione depromunt. S. Irenseus 
]. 3. c. 25. Etenim Apostoli, cum sint his omnibus vetustivres, con^ 
sonant praedktm Interpretation^ et lnterpretatio consonat ApostoJo- 
rum Traditioni. Etenim Petrus 9 et Johannes, et Matthaus, et 
Paulus, et reliqui deinceps, et horum sectatores prophet tea omnia ita 
euunciaverunt quemadmodum Seniorum lnterpretatio continet. Quav 
verba licet, quod ad loca spectat, nimis universaliter dicta videan- 
tur, quod tamen ad Authores attinet, sunt verissima. Oranes enim 
plerumque, ubi Vetus Instrumentum advocant, Senionun verbis lo-, 
quuntur ; neque an recte id fecerint, dubitare nos sinit Spiritus quo 
seripsere. Hoc autem consilium Dei, qui per Scriptores N. Testa- 
menti loquitur, summa cum veneratione recipiendum est : testuno- 
Wttque ab its producta omni modo defender* nos potiiU decet, quam 

Chronologically arranged. 99 

Apostolos, reliquosque Scriptores sacros, ut aliqui loquuntur, «r- 

Legimus Heb. viii. 9. (ubi Apostolus Hon loquitur ad populos, 
neque gentes quibus sola Graeca Scriptura erat divulgata, sed He- 
braeos affatur, et Christum Mosi, et Novum Veteri Foederi praeferen* 
dum probat.) Nam si illud prius culpa vacasset, non utique seeundi 
locus inquireretwr*. Fiiuperans autem eos dicit, &c. "Or* airrol ofa 
Mfjfctvav kv njf biadfjKrj pov, Kayh jjpiKnva afo&v, Xf yet Kvpios. Quae 
sunt ipsissima LXX verba, ad argumentum Apostoli accommodata, 
ex Jer. xxxi. 32. quae rem ipsam opt i me explicant, et discrimen 
inter duo fcedera ostendunt, et Judaeos Legi Mosaicae adhaerentes a 
Deo rejectos docent. Ubi non est excusandus Apostolus, sed defen- 
denda LXX viral is versio; quae authoritate Apostoli corroboratur. 
Neque hie admittendus est Vulgatus Interpres, licet S. Hieronymum 
sequutus, qui hunc locum ita repraesentat, pactum, quod irritum fece- 
runt, et ego dominatus sum eorum, dicit Dominus: aut Paraphrastes 
Chalda&us, qui reddit, pH2 VTJTV1N MJN1 et ego comptecui mihi 
f* eis : bac enira interpretatione non tantum Judaeorum rejectio ob- 
scuratur, sed etiam Veteris et Novi Foederis discrepantia tollitur, ut 
ipsi etiam Interpreted Judaici fatentur. Est igifur oranino Graeca 
Versio defendenda ; idque faciendum sine praejudicio Textus He- 
•braid : Neque enim legend um, cum Capello D3 V)7M (quod nus* 

3 nam legitur, sed potius DVvJft) neque cum Hugone Grotio dicen- 
um LXX legisse VVTQ, quae vox semel quidem reperitur, cum 2 
conjuncta, Zach. xi. 8. ^ r6fQ DtPM D2H, quern locum ita intei- 
pretati sunt LXX, Kal yap al \pv\al avruiv kwtoptiovto kit Ipk, siquidem 
et anhna eorum rugiebant super me, ut Theodoretus accepit, qui ita 
fensum expressit, bret&av roiwv drfpmbws pot irpotrfjKBov olopel j3pvj(6- 
peroi, Kal rrjv kp^v bt\pwyres tryayt)v, vel ut in aliquibus libris legitur, 
bropevovro, uti forte legebat S. Hieronymusi qui Latine in hunc modum 
exhibet, Siquidem et annate eorum it rwbont super me. Quocunque 
modo legas, verisimile non est LXX Iriterpretes, qui locum Zacharist 
ita sunt interpretati, apud Jeremiam legisse VvTQ. Et Seniore* 
proculdubio *J17JQ ifpiXtffra tran*tulernnt, cum et Judaeis asserenti- 
bus, et Arabica lingua testante, Tjft aspernari, fastidire, repudiare 
•ignificet, et con textus ipse banc sign ifi cat ionem postulet. 

Insignis locus est Heb. x. 38. o be hiicaws ck irlarem ^rftrerai* Kal 
iar vwotrreiXrirai, ovk evbotcel % \lvyfi pov kv aftry, quibus verbis tan- 
quam fundamento utitur, dum Hebraeos ad perse vera ntiam coborta- 
tur. Sumpta autem sunt ex Hab. ii. 4. ordine tantum in verso, qu6 
melius eos a lapsu deterreat; idque secundum Versionem LXX. 
Quod ideo fuit notandum, ut perspicere possimus, qualis sit ilia ob- 
servatio S. Hier. quam ad hunc Frophetae locum protulit. Porrb 
qubd Apostolus LXX magi* testimonio abusus est ad Romanos sen* 
bens, Justus autem ex fide mea vivet, et non eo qubd habetur in 
Hebraico, causa perspicua est. Scribebat enim Romanis, qui Scrip-' 
turas Hebraieas nesciebant ; nee erat ei cur a de verbis, cum sensuo 
esset in into, et damnum ex eo prasens disputatio non haberet. Alio- 
qui ubeewtquc diversus est sensus, et aliter scriptus est in Hebraico, 

100 Bp. Pearson's Minor Tracts, 

aliter in LXX, nota eum his uti testimoniis qutt a Gameliele Doctor* 
iegis didicerat. Ubi observandum prim6 legisse S. Hieronymum 
c. 1. v. 17. ad Rom. ex fide med, cum nee in Graeci3 nee in Latinis 
codieibus ita nunc legatur, sed ex fide tantum. Id autem mirum 
alicui videatur, qu&d Doctissimus Pater, qui alibi solum S. Lucam 
testimoniis ex LXX deductis, ubi ab Hebraeo discrepant, abuti con- 
tendit, id nunc de S. Paulo concedat, et rationem reddal, quod Ro- 
manis scriberet, qui Scripturas Hebraicas nesciebant ; ac si Corinthii, 
Galatae, Ephesii reliquique magis Hebraicam Hnguaro callerent, quam 
Roman i. Mirum adhuc magis, quod asserat S. Pauium alibi semper 
ex Hebraico testimonia petere, cum ipse testetur Pauli idcirco ad 
ffebraos Epistolee contradictum esse, qubd ad Hebraos scribens 
utatur testimoniis, quce in Hebrceis voluminibus non habentur. Mirum 
denique quod solum locum ad Romanos citet, cum hie ad Hebraeos 
multo plura ex LXX habeat, eaque ab Hebraico, uti a S. Hieronymo 
intelligitur, multum diversa. Ita enim LXX. 'Eav vnoareiXriTai, ofa 
e&hotcei if \pv\fi pov kv avriji' o" bk fyicaios eic Trlcrreiits pov Srftrercti, vel ut 
MS. Alex, 6 be bUaws pov ck Triareias, Zttoerau At aliter sonabant 
Hebraiea, vertente S. Hieronymo, Ecce qui incredulus est, non erit 
recta anima ejus in semetipso : Justus autem in fide sua vivet, Neque 
hie excusandus Apostolus, sed potius LXX vi^alis Versio approbanda 
ac defendenda est. S. quidem Hieronymus TwSP TOil Ecce qui 
incredulus est transtulit, sensum magis. quam verba respiciens ; at 
cum 12 vertit in semetipso, alienam plane, a mente Apostoli seatentiam 
est amplexus: cum vero idem 13 in Commentario referat ad visionem 
praecedentem, multo adhuc magis cum a LXX turn ab Apostoio re- 
cedit. . Verba ejus sunt, LXX dicentes ypfaf/oy opaariv, id est, scribe 
visionem, et postea, si defecerit, sustine eum, quia veniens veniet et 
non tardabit; si subtraxerit se, non placebit animae meae in eo, 
primum interpretati sunt visionem genere fceminino, quce apud He- 
brteos, generis masculini est, Deinde secundum Hebraicum genua ubi 
declinatur masculine, sustine eum, et non placebit animae meae in eo, 
ipsi quoque masculino genere declinaverunt : , cum utique debuerint 
juxta id quod primum interpretati sunt, visionem, etiam in reliquii 
Jozmininum genus ponere visionis, ut dicer en t, expecta earn, quia 
veniens veniet, quod si se subtraxerit, non placebit animae meae in ea, 
id est, in visione. Mira baec quidem explicatio Prophetae, mira in- 
crepatio Seniorum. Neque vero moderna literalis expositio. melior 
est, Ecce elata est, non recta anima ejus in eo : quae quo referenda 
sint, aut ad quern finem dicta, quis divinare potest ? Nos quidem 
textum Hebraeum non solicitamus ; sed secundum menteni Seniorum 
explicandum contendimus : 75Q? enim non tantum elatum esse, sed 
etiam, subducere se, et occuUare significat, et cum nominis naturam 
induit, non tantum locum excelsum et munitum sed etiam ooscurum, 
absconditumque denotat, ut 2 Reg. v. 24. bw b\% K3ft, koX %\dev els 
no aicoreivov, vel ut Paraphrastes ChaldaicuS, *DD ^TWb bpi, ut 
% Paralip. xxxiii. 14. et to abvrov et to 6we\ habemus : et Mich. iv. 7. 
turns vSiy LXX dicitur av^pwbrjs, S. Hieronymo nebulosa. Est 
igitur, 7BV sc.subtrahereinx metu et occuUare. quod est fatwr&r 

Chronologically arranged. 101 

\effdat. Hesychius, et Suidas, v7ro<rreiXd/zevos, viroKpvty&fievos, 0o/3»/- 
dels. Recte igitur H/S^ tlffi reddi potest, Ecce subducitur, vel 
accipiendo TOil ut ]H Chajdaice sumitur, si subduct io, vel v7to(tto\i) 
fiat, id est, si quis se subducat, khv vrotn-eikqcrai. IVfr autem saepissime 
apttrKetv denotat, ut Num. xxiii. 27- D*rf?Kn *J3Q HP" ^K et dp*- 
crpcrf Gey. Chald. Paraph rast. * DTp p Win TT Dtf. Et Deut. 
VI. 18. It^TT JTtRJft *ai woiiqfreis to apeoTov, Et fac quod placitum 
est. Sive igitur ^33 sive W*fo legamus,. facto k ^persona ad per- 
sonam transitu, qui Interpretibus frequens est, recte haec verba, 
11 WSft TTW K^ rnSJy nXl ita transferentur, si quis se subtraxerit, 
iUe animo meo gratus non erit. Ilia autem verba, cum Graece, in- 
verso ordine, ab Apostolo usurpantur, a Theodoro Beza haud bona 
fide sunt translata, Justus autem ex fide vivet ; at si quis se subduxerit, 
non est gratum animo meo. Cum enim pars posterior versiculi ad 
justum pertineat, ut recte Theophylactus, eav he vwotrreiXriTai 6 bUaws, 
Beza eum duplici ratione excludere conatus est, primum interserendo 
pronomen, quis, secundo ev avr$ a persona, cui competit, ad factum 
transferendo. Ex quo loco quam suspecta esse debeat ejus Transla- 
tio, nemo nescit, qui quibus opinionibus in Theologia adhaeserit novit. 
Utcunque sit, Scriptores Novi Testament], Spiritu S. actos, cum 
ubique fere testimonia ex Veteri Foedere ipsis LXX verbis depromant, 
non tarn excusandos esse sentio, quod nimis est dilutum : quin potius 
▼idendum annon textus Hebraicus eorom Inter pre tationem ferre 
possit, quo et Veteris Testamenti sensus rectius intelligatur, et Noyi 
autoritas magis confirmetur. 

Tertid LXX viralis Versio non tan turn ad authoritatem Apostolo- 
' rum conservandam pluriraum valet, verum etiam ad Novum Jnstru- 
mentum recte intelligendum et accurate explicandum perquam neces- 
saria est. Scriptores enim Sacri Novi Foederis non tantum ex Veteri 
frequenter testimonia producunt, sed etiam Mosen et Prophetas ubi- 
que Doctrinae Christianas accommodant, resque Hebraico sermoue 
ante descriptas Graecis verbis tradunt ; quod fieri haud aliter ferje J 
potuit, quam ut modi forraulaeque loquendi Hebraeis familiares, Graecis 
incognitas aut saltern inusitatae, redderent eorum scripta iis qui Graece 
tantum scirent obscuriora. Haec autem obscuritas tolli aut illustrari 
nullo alio modo potuit, quam ex scientia idiomatum linguae Hebraicae 
quA conscripti Codices Prophetici, quos Apostoli utiique fere respi- 
ciunt, et qua locuti sunt Christi tempore Judaei, ab antiquiori puriori- 
que aliquantum deflexa, ad quorum mores modosque loquendi dis- 
•erendique saepe sermonem accommodant. Hinc autem e venire nec- 
esse fuit, ut Graeca Veteris Instrument Versio ad Scripta Apostolica 
intelligenda plurimum conferret. In illam enim omnes Idiotismi 
Veteris linguae Hebraicae erant transfusi, in ill& Prophetarum sensus 
Graece explicit! ; illi homines Graeci, quibuscum praecipue Apostolis 
negotium fuit, diu fuerant assueti ; eamque primd Divina providentia 
lactam par est credere, ut qui passim et ubique earn legissent, ad per- 
cipienda Apostolorum dogmata, sermonesque intelfigendos fierent 

Multa itaque Graeca sunt in Novo Fcedere vocabula, quae ex usu 

]02 Bp. Pearson's Minor Tracts, 

Graecae linguae intelligi non possunt, ex collatione aufem cum Hebraea, 
et ex usu LXX Interpret urn facile intelliguntur. Quid trapZ, quid 
wvev/j.a t apud Graecos Scriptores denote t, nemo nescit ; at si omncs 
in universum sensus, quibus bis vocabulis Graeci usi sunt recenseantur, 
nullus oritaino invenietur, quimentem Apostolorum attinget. Cum 
eniin "K£Q carnem proprie signified, eadem taraen vox ab Hebraeis 
nonnunquam pro homine ipso, aliquando pro humand naturd, saepe 
•pro ejusdem naturae imbeciliitate, aut etiam vitiositate usurpektr, et 
in hac sensuum varietate unica voce napKos a LXX reddatur ; hinc 
e venire necesse est ut quoties Apostoli eo sensu usurpent, quern 
Graeci Veteres hand aguoverunt, ex Hebraeo idiomate et Versiooe LXX 
explicetur. Ut celebratissimo loco legitur, ical 6 Aoyos trap!; cyerero, 
quod-sine ulla veterum Graecorum auctoritate, et tamen recte red* 
ditur, Et rerkum, sive sermo, homo /actus est, sive liumanani naturam 
indliit. Et e£ cpyuv vofiov oit hiKaui&r\(r€Tai iratra (rapt, i. homo ftMf* 
quam, ut Psal. cxliv. 22. evkoyefrup ira&a (rapt, to ovo/ia to &ytor. 
Hinc phrases modique loquendi Graecis incogniti, tffdvrffm rfjs trapicot, 
kv trapKt et Kara tropica elvai, Kara tropica wepnrarelv, similesque plures. 
Ita cum TVT) satis proprie irvev/ua, qualiter a Veteribus Graecis usur- 
patur, denotet, et praeterea etiam apud Hebraeos multa alia significata 
contineat, quae apud Graecos haud comparent, cum Apostoli eo sensu 
usurparunt, quern Graeci Veteres baud agnoverunt, ex Hebraeo 
idiomate, et Versione LXX explicaridi sunt : ut Job. iii. 6. to yeyer-> 
vrjfjtivov €K rfjs trapKos tropH etrrt • teal to yeyevvrjfiivov eic tov irrcvfiaros 
Kvevfia kern. Unde sciemus quid sit prjpa Luc. i. 37 . ovk aiwarijm, 
vrnpa r<p 0e£ fray fifffza, nisi meniinerinius scriptutn Gen. xviit^}4. 
*OT ITIiTD K^BVT, quod LXX transtulerunt, jiri aSvyarrjtrei wapo, 
Tf 0e£f prjpa ; cum H31 non tan turn verbum, sed rem seu negotium 
denotet? Unde cognosceremus quam vim apud Apostolum habeant 
to hiKatovv, et to hucaiovtrBoi, nisi j71¥ ea significatione usurpassent 
Hebraei, et iis verbis LXX reddidissent. Frustra apud Veteres Graecos 
quaeres quid sit irttrreveiv rtp Gep, vel eh tov ©eoy, qujd sit els tov 
Kvptov, vel irpos tov 0eov Worts, quae toties in Novo Foedere iuculcantur, 
et ex lectione Seniorum facile intelliguntur. Quid esset atrrelos t$ Oey, 
Act. vii. 20. unde conjiceremus, nisi LXX Hebraea 2U9 *D VU* N'Vfi 
ita reddidissent, lh6vres & avro aoreiov. Quis tov Kvpwv .poo Do- 
mino Deo accipiendum putaret, nisi ita Seniores locuti essent, quibus 
Kvpia est 6 &v. Verum baec leviter tangere quam latius prosequi 
potius esse duximus ; sunt etiim pene infinita. 

Neque ver Sacra Scriptura tantum futuro Theologo pernoscemdft, 
sed et Ecclesiae, tot ubique Sacrarum Literarum testimoniis ubique 
suffultae, status cognoscendus, et SS. Pat rum in nunc potissimum 
finem evolvenda voluniina. Qu6d si Graecos Patres consuluerimus, 
quis eos de rebus Divinis disserentes intelliget, qui normam, quam 
semper in animo, dum scriberent, habuere, non ante cognitam atque 
perspectam habeat ? aut quae illis Scriptura Veteris Testament! inno- 
tuit, praeter earn quae a LXX Senioribus edita est ? Iiiam sane, ilhun 
ubique respiciunt; illius autboritate nituntur, illius verba recitant, 
sententiam relerunt, ut in Patrum operibus legendis ctecus plane sit 




Chronologically arranged. 103 

qui eandem non noverit. Quis illas Clementis Romani, Apostolorum 

Discipuli intelliget, Ovk ear opft&s wpotrev&yicris, opd&s be /i;/ bteXrjs, 
Ijpapres; rjav^aaor; quis ilia quav sequuntur ut ex sacris Oraculis 
deprompta agnoscet, ical » elirev Kcfiv Tpos "Afie\ tov abeXtyov avrov, 
ItiXOwpev els icebiov, nisi lacuuarn Hcbraoruui Codicum observet, et 
LXX versionem consulat, cui et Samaritanus, et Syrus suftragantur? 
Patricius Junius, licet Graece doctissimus, haac S. Clemcntis verba, 
TO kvtos Ttjs aneipov daXaffvrjs Kara Tqv bqpiovpyiav avrov vvtrradev els 
ras vvvafvyas ov irapeK^aivei ra TrepireOeifieva avrrj icXeldpa, minus 
bene transtulit, Immensi maris profunditas in cumulos coacervata 
claustra et repagula qvibus valtatur non transgredttur, quod haud 
perspiceret Patrum antiquissimum Creationem respexisse, et LXX 
Interpretum verba usurpasse, quae in Hebraeo non babentur, Gen. i. 9. 
nal trvvrf\drj to v&(*>p to v7tok6\tu> tov ovpavov els ras avrayuyas avr&v. 
Licet enim S. Basilius observet haec verba fuisse obelo notata, nee in 
Hebraeo Codice reperiantur, patet tamen ea ad Interpretationem LXX 
pertinere, et ad ipsa S. Clemeutem respexisse ; et objectio ab Origene 
facta a Joanne Philopono jamdudum est diluta. In huuc igitur 
moduni sententia S. dementis fuit potius conformanda, Moles immensi 
maris in ipsa sui creationein congregationes suas collecta, repagula sibi 
dreumpostta non transgredttur. Clementis Alexandrini Irpwfxarels 
cum ex variis Auctorum Veterum sententiis, turn vero prcecipue ex 
sacris Scripturis sunt context! : nee ullibi magis obscuri redduntur, 
quam ubi Seniorum verba haud notantur, et a reliquis distinguuntur. 
Lib. 1, Tlaibeia be ave^eXeytcros irXavarai, interprete Herveto, £H&- 
cipljna vagatur inconfutabilis ; quae verba et per se nihil significant, 
et ab Authoris instituto plane sunt aliena. Scripta autem sunt, quod 
Interp^s haud observaverat, Pr. x. 17. est autem eo loco aveJeXeyc- 
roe £VJ£ftn 2ty increpationem deserens, aut ut Vulg. relinquens, i. 
haud jxttens redarguere, convincere, refellere. Ita saltern Clemens 
Solomonem intellexit, ut ex ipsius verbis patet, Ilaibeta be aretf- 
XeyKros irXavarai, <pr}<r\v, tcai ^p^ fierelvai to eXeytcriicov eibos event tov 
tos bo£as tcls anaTrjXas biaicpoveadai twv ootyior&v. 

Sed et ad Latinos Patres non minus quam Graecos recte intelligen- 
ces LXX viralis Versio perquam utilis est, im6 necessaria. Quo ties 
enim aliquid ex Veteri Fcedere citant* aut ad locum aliquem quocun- 
que modo respiciunt, aut ' ipsi Seqiores illos interpretantur, aut 
£*tinam Interpretationem ex LXX Versione facta ni referunt. Quam- 
▼is enim fuerint quamplurimae inter Latinos Patres Veteris Instru- 
ment Versiones, tameu ante S. Hieronymum nulla ex Hebraeo Codica 
met* est, sed ex Greco omnes. Qui enim Scripturas ex Hebrctd 
lingua in Gracam verterunt numerari possunt, Latini autem Inter- 
pretes nullo modo. Ut enim cuique primis jidei temporibus in manus 
tenit Codex Gr&cus, et aliquantulumfacultatis sibi utriusque lingua* 
habere videbatur, ausus est intei*pretari, ut loquitur S. Augustinus de 
Doct. Christ. 1. 2. c. 2. Et de Civ. Dei, 1. 18. c. 43. Cum fuerint 
et alii Interpret**, qui ex Hebrad lingua in Grcecam sacra ilia eloquia 
transtulerunt, hanc tamen qua LXX est, tanquam tola esset, sic 
reosfit Ecelesia, eaque utuntur Graci populi Christians, quorum 


104 Bp. Pearson's Minor JTracts, 

plerique utrum alia sit aliqua ignorant. Ex hac LXX Interpreta* 
tione etiam in Latinam lingua m interpretatum est, quod Ecclesuz 
JLatina tenent. -Omnes itaque Latinae Veteris Instrument! Versiones 
ante S. Hieronymum ex LXX Interpretibus sunt expressae ; atque 
ided Latini Patres ubi locum aliquem inde proferunt, aut ad Mosen 
et Prophetas quoquo modo respiciunt, non aliter quam ex H14 Inter- 
preta tione sunt intelligently Libros duos adversus Judaeos scripsit ad 
Quirinum S. Cyprianus, ex utroque Fcedere, Veteri praecipue, excerpUs 
capitulis et annexis : hsec autem, qua ten us Vetus Instrumeutum spec- 
tant, non aliter quam ex LXX Versione intelligi possunt. Quis 
men tern S. Ambrosii assequetur, qui in Oratione de obitu Theodosiide 
Helena in hunc modum loquitur, Adoravit ilium qui pependit in 
ligno, ilium, inquam, qui sicut scarabctus clamavit, ut persecutoribus suis 
peccata condonaret, nisi qui sciat eum ad ilia Hab. ii. 11. respexisse, 
Xidos eK roi^ov fiofiaerai, ical Kavdapos €K £6Xov <j>0iy^erai atVa ; Unde 
et S. Ambrosio, et S. Augustino Christ us appellatur Scarabaus bonus. 

Denique Seniorum Lectio vel ided urgenda, quod in ea veteri* 
Graecae literature plurima supersint vestigia, et nonnulli ex Criticis 
Graecis aliter intelligi recte non possint, nisi quando ad LXX respex* 
erint observemus. Unus pro reliquis nobis erit Hesychius, quern 
nemo nisi in Senioribus versatissimus unquam intelliget. Apud eum 
legimus, "loop, rvpds. Unde, quia vocibus Laconicis scatet, e litera 
postreraA. colligere quis posset Laconum Dialectum esse ; et ita Isaacus 
Casaubomis ad Athenaeum scripsit loop, vel lopop, pro rvpos casern* 
At mi hi dubium non est non loop scripsisse Hesychium sed lop* idque 
vocabulorum series postulat, unde Casaubonus, vel lop op y addidit : 
neque rvpos scripsisse eum autumo, aut caseum in animo habuisse ; sed 
rvpos, atque aded urbem Tyrum intellexisse. Ita enim legimus Ezech'. 
xx vi. 2. avtf ov eJire lop enl 'Iepov(raXt)p, et v. 3. Ibov eyw iirt c£ lop : 
utrobique autem Hebraice legitur 1%, quae alibi a LXX rvpos reddi- 
tur. Recte igitur apud Hesychium, lop, rvpos* Eusebius de locis 
Hebraicis, lop, rvpos, tyoiviKTis prirpoteoXis, xXijpov Ne^>0a\e//u. S. Hier. 
Sor, Tj/rus, metropolis Phoenices, in tribu Nephthalim, Et Theor 
doretus 1. 13. in Ezechielem, ^ yap rvpos lop rij kiri^topi^ wpotrayo' 
peverai <f>iovrj. Legimus apud eundem, ftapaKivijcnv, ait&vdais, aKoXoxpt, 
et observat H. Stephanus legendum RapaKrjvtcnv, quia apud Suidam 
BapaKTjviSy ri aicavda. Verum an vox ipsa sit bene Graeca, aut unde 
talem significationem sit sortita, non docet. Stephanus autem Glosso- 
graphus antiquus MS. in expositioue cvbiaderwv ypa<j>u>v, eadem in 
hunc modum scripsit, Rapaicivriatv, cucavdats, aK&Xrjypi, (1. ex Hesychio 
o-KoXoxpi) unde statim colligimus vocem esse Script urariam. Et quidem 
Jud. viii. 7 ; legimus, ttJjrQTT /1K1 "QTOH *flp fitf 03W2 fiK VWTfc 

LXX ical kytt) aXoTjcru) ras adptcas vjjlujv kv reus aicavdais rov eprjfiov icai 
kv rats fiapicrivifi, ita Codex Ronianus: Alexand. Boptcoppelv, Aid. 
fiopKoweip. Quod autem aic&vOas sive <ric6Xo7ras earn vocem Veteres 
significare putarinl, patet vel ex eo, quod Complut. et Oxon. habeant 
kv rots rpifioXois. Et Eusebius lib. de locis Hebraicis. BopKov t v€tpr 
AkvXos rpiwei els aic&vdas, Ivfifta-^os els rpifioXovs, Ita Editio Bori-r 
frerii, et S. Hieron. Borconni, quod vertit Aquila in spinas, et Sytn- 

Chronologically arranged. 105 

macJius in tribulos. Sed suspecta mihi vox ilia rpiwet apud Bonfire- 
Hum ; in meo enim Codice scribitur, BopKovvelfi a TpayaKav&as kclI 
rpifioXovs : ubi pro Kal legendum a, i. Symmachus, ut ex S. Hieronymi 
Versione constat. hapicaveifi igitur, vel ut Codex Alexandrinus ad 
Versura 19- BapaKrivetfi Graeco casu reddito flapaKr)vl<riv. 

Apud eundem legimus, Mfj arroaKopaKltrritrfie, fir) aTrohi&fyiafie, urf 
aroboKifitunjtrfxc, ubi omnia leviter sunt corrupta. Paul5 correctius 
eadem pene apud Suidam, Mrj airoaKopaKitrqs fie, firj etch i&fyo fie y fir) 
es icdpaicas eicfi&Xris. Haec ad Scripturam Veterem pertinere docet 
nos Lexicon Vetus Scripturarium a Reverendo Archiepiscopo Arma- 
chano mihi concreditum, ubi inter vocabula ad Psalmorum explica- 
tionem pertinentia legimus, Mr) atroffKopaKitrrfs fie, fir) airohoKifia&ns 
fie, fir) ktroppi-^s fie. At nee in Editione Romana, nee in MS. Alex- 
andria tale quippiam invenitur. In Editionibus quidem Aid. et 
Complut. Psal. xxvi.9. habentur, fiorfios fiov yevov, fir) atrotrKopaKiays 
fie, Kal fir) eyKaraXlwris fie, quibus sufrragatur B. Theodoretus. At 
Vulgatus Interpres lectionem Rom. et Alexand. fir) eyKaTaXlirrjs fie, 
Kal fir) {nrepibrjs fie sequutus est, vertit enim, ne deidinquas me, neque 
despicias me. Aded vetus est inter Codices LXX discrepantia. Certe 
Seniores ^t^lDn ?N transtulerunt fir) airotTKopaKi(rr\s fie, caeteri autem 
Interpr. fir) enroppixpys fie, quae verba Author Lex. Arm. pro explica- 
tion posuerunt. Testis est B. Theod. to fir) awoGKopaKitrrjs' fie, fill 
aTopplifos fie elirov 01 aXKoi epfirjvevral, additque ex eruditione Genti- 
lium Seniores hoc vocabulum hausisse, euro rfjs ^todev be iraiheias ot 
eObofir^Kovra tovto to ovofia irenoiriKatrc to yap, is KOpatcas, vfipts rts 
i\v wapa Toils flr&Xcu airo twos fivdov yevevqfievr). Vult igitur a tritO pro- 
verbio es icopaicas, e fabula quadam nato (ut etiam Zenobius et Suidas 
testantur) dictum fuisse oKopariZeiv, (quae vox bene Graeca est, ab 
ipso Demosthene usurpata) et airoeKopaKikeiv. Cui observationi Gram- 
matici Veteres astipulantur. Zenobius, ^.KopaKlSieiv, avrl tov, els 
icdpaKas wifiiretv, eK$av\i£eiv. Hesychius, ^.KOpaKiiei, els eprifiov irkfi- 
iret, Kal aparat, airo tov els KOpaKas rrefnreiv, to €K(f>av\(£etv. Suidas, 
JxopaKlSeiv, olov ks Kopaicas awoTrefiiretv, airo tovtov yap eiprfrat. 2<co- 
paKlgeiv igitur ex proverbio factum est ; non a LXX, ut innuere vide- 
tur B. Theodoretus, sed a Graecis Vetustioribus, a quibus acceperunt 
Seniores. Et frustra H. Stephanus airoaKopa£u>, detraho, novum in 
Lingua Graeca verbum ex depravato Hesychii loco, ut solet, excogi- 
tavit, airevKopaZev, aireovparo. Legendum enim awcerKopaKitrev, ut 
apud Etymologum legimus, aireaKopaKiaev, avrl tov, aireKpofaaro, Kal 
fiera filaovs e^epaXev. Diffiteri tamen non possumus Seniores all- 
quando voces nonnullas effingere atque forma re, ad exprimenda verba 
Hebraea, quae erant Graecis auribus inauditae : Ut cum apud Hesy- 
chium legimus, 'Ev fiaKptfiatrtv, ev airotrraalats, quis Veterum Grae- 
corum haec intelligeret? quis quid velit sciret, nisi Seniores consu- 
leret, qui ita in Esdrae Interpretatione loquuntur, ix. 1. ovk £x<t>p/ar0i} 6 
Xaot 'l(Tpar)\ Kal 01 tepels Kal 01 Aei/Irai airo \ativ riov yaiiov ev fia- 
Kp'ufifiafriv avT&v. Hebr. DiT/QWQ, cum ipsi soleant XXSjfT) aut 
in avofiiav, aut frequentius in pbtXvyjia vertere. Ideo autem in hoc 

106 Bishop Pearson's Minor Tracts. 

eapite per pdxpvppa reddidisse videntur, qudd vers. 1 1 . cum rni 

sit conjuticta. Drrmjru-n jronwi *qy rrm wn ma p»* 

yij peraKivovpivrj early kv peraKtvijtrei Xawv rwv kdv&v kv /jtaKpyppatriy 
avrtiv. Ut enim 7l23f]l rrj PTT3 acconnuodarent, per /idKpvppa 
expresserunt, id est, remotionem, separationem, elongationem, quae 
immunditiam et abominationem sequitur, fTO enim reuwtio, seu qiric- 
quid propter immunditiem removetur. Hinc JTTJ Seuioribus ctyefyo* 
Hesy. 'A^e&py, cucadapariq.. ut Lev. XV. 19* ewra tjf.t€pas %<rrat kv ry 
iupebpy avrfjs. Nonnunquam eadem aicoKaOrifie'vr) redditur. Hesy. 
hiroKaQrifieyriy al/xofipoovtra, ut Ezech. xxii. 10. kv aicadapo-lais atrora- 
Brf/jLkvrfv krcLTccivovv* A fiaKpvvia igitur ut fiefiaKpvjufikvov Psal. lv. I» 
ita et fifacpvfifia deduxerunt : quam vocetn, opiitor, certe expositionetu 
/ejus, frustra apud Veteres Gracae linguae Scriptores quaeras. 

Cum igitur LXX viralis Versio ad Hehraicam Veritatem probe per- 
cipiendam, ad Authoritatem testimoniorum Apostolicorum conflrman- 
dam, ad nativum Novi Foederis stylum recte intelligendum, ad Graecos 
Latinosque Pat res rite tractandos, ad scientiam deuique linguae Graecae 
ipsamque Critieen adornandani tarn sit utilis atque necessaria, quis 
earn doctis omnibus, pracscrtim Theologis, uoti videt debere esse cotn- 
mendatissimam ? 

Quoniam autem hase Senior um Versio, etiam S. Hieronymi tempore, 
corrnpta fuit atque viofata, danda e&t opera, ut ei pristina puritas 
restitui et redintegrari possit. Cert urn est exemplaria quae babemus, 
Complutense, Aldinum, Romanum plurirauro inter se et ab Aiexan- 
drino discrepare, alios etiam Codices aliquarum S. Scripture partium 
satis antiquos, nunc cum eorum aliquo, nunc cum nuilo convenire. 
Optime igitur fecerit, qui Codices omnes MSS. cum editis diligenter 
contulerit, qui varias Lectiones non tantum ad Hebraicam Veritatem 
examinaverit, sed cum antiquissimorum Judaeorum Philonis et Josepki, 
ft Vetustissimorum Patrum Scriptis com para verit, ac denique Exposi- 
tions eas, quae apod Lexicogiaphos Scripturarios etiamnum extant, vel 
potjus delitescuut, inspexerit, atque ita nobis Editionem LXX maxime 
puram adornaverit. Quale opus utinam aliquandoVir doctissimut 
Uaacus Vossius, qui optime potest/ perficeret ederetque. 

J. P. 

March 4, 1666. See Mr. Miller's remarks upon Dr. Bbmtley'i 
letter to the Bishop of Ely, pp. 103, 116—1 7, 

w«p»^ *m*~**—+**m+m 

1 [Aliterdehac re fuit R. Porsoni sententia, qui Js. Vomum MSS. impe- 
ritum coiiatorem judicavit, et filiura esse tarn parent! dissimilem aegre tuJit. 
*' Notum est, quid de Alexandria Foederis antiqui conversione censuerit, 
censuisse saltern videri voluerit, eruditissimus ille Is. Vossius. {Joe suniui 
ingenio homuncuH." Valck. adAdunia*. p. 310. C] 





No, vi. — (Continued from No. XXIII. p. 10.) 

848. tU{ pi* in textu et supra 
Uteris pene fugientibus, y$. Kihcts. 

.350* yiiwrtu et mox KgKHtim. 
SchoL yiywrreti et xpptivtp 

351, •uTiyfu ^wodvrts* 

95% i*£*\i. 

35S, xm9u* et supra yg. «**-&*«. 

362* r« pe? 6vp*L(£t$, *rpiri{i<r7r*tii- 
9*f. r« X 6vf/ut^Ui o£vtov6>Sp yg. y*{ 

37a omittit. 

376. »g«rfgdi> et supra yg« «rv- 

377* *y%*5 y tmrapirn. Fuerat 
«^<rr^f»i), sed emehdavit eadem 
manus. In marg. um )' *vx* w*~ 

380. mH§tI ci xc*« 

331. X£ecTt£0V. 

3oo. *f^t( *<pn'» y$. *$ i$*pw» 
3891 «nw|i et supra y{. aiwyff. 
393. a£i<rr*<p*tn$ T4tt y fie fter* 

Mox fyvn et 0- supra additum, 

394* rifffif. 

395* m%irr*tX& «^ fyfiwfft. 

400. «-m*# «/gKq. et supra ??« 

404. «Wp*r ; » canfow et 424. 
SchoL ad hunc locum « r*r* y$. 

KI^MCT* % rmllTTU KUi XTnfCBTCt if 

410. wiem text, et marg. ut ci- 
tant ApoUoaius v. «yg«t>A«, et 
diserte SchoL Veneta ad II. P» 

416. ifwruPXH ***** *vri* 

417. <p* T*T$*0ir. yj. <* tr^t^or. 

425. luo) in f«d« correctum, et 

430. primo omissus ; additur 
in macg. ab eadem quidem manu, 
quae plerosque addidit, sed olim 
omissum esse docet scholion, Am- 

440. Nullum in Harleiano ves* 
ttgium est lectionis ex Eustathio 
memoratae. Sed «;rorA«{«f di- 
serte citant Scholia Veneta et Co* 
dicis Townleiani ad II. ir* 12a 
Adde quod in II. A. 146. idem 
Codex Townleianus supra vocem 
relets scriptum habet *-A*£*$ *l 
*-Ai/«vf . Quod ad verborum pro- 
prietatem attinet, idem fere dis- 
crimen videtur quod apud Lati* 
nos abscido a ccedo, et abscindo a 

449. x/(*ik ex emendatione, sed 
m. antique. 

451. eu\otr tf 

452. 2«Mvpt;y«u? V &$* rwq yu 
yg. iettwftmuf J* *S *****$ ip*ipp$u 

453. & cixx» y{. QpUrmrrli* irs 
afro. : 

456. omittit. 

457* #«Affoi>. SchoL «/i#T»^<«- 

WK» rrvyf^ir yfo* «*; #v* «#*£<$ i 

464. «ii/. 
47a omittit. 
474, luvrtfMov et supra yg. v^t 

475-479. Hi versus in margtne 
repositi solita manu, ut rrixpt, sed 
Hon numerati. 

479. & toti Kupqrurr* atti ft* r. 
500. W p«i> fmbm ijruc irn^U *• 

509. «***% 


Collatio Codicis Harkiani 

509. uteri t' b«*%t i* m. pr. quam 
lectionem memorat scholiastes, 
sed rejicit. Deinde q>s£rtq>onnK et 
w supra p prius, ut et 534. sed per 
v tantum scribitur 564. A. 47. 

527. ft£ut a m. pr. £ in | mu- 
tatum a recenti. 

528. rfipctg. 

533. hi'^xms et *$ super «*, si 
non eadem manu, certe antiqua. 
Idem factum A. 46. 

534. 6' aftn ex emend. 
549. Ivpit. 


555. •ha^ct^iim. 


7. Schol. lypitot "tytXvg %T6i 

14. *%L<rr*%xfis Kt£fii£wv: [Lege 
xtt&t£uit 9 quam lectionem memo- 
rant Scholiastes Aristophanis ad 
Ran. 187, et Etymologus p. 513, 
45. Hie etiam alias lectiones no- 
tat, %Ufli£tOV$ et Xlp(4i£l0V$.~] 

16. cii>i<rT*£%oq Kdl ufturrotpctfw kx- 
retii^Kircti : Schol. i7riX*f*7ru pit o 

21. ?r«g* ££60¥ (sic). 

24.. fcr^o. 


25. o£v%cc crot Ti. 

26. £o«i> #gof*f » a. m. pr. sed ex 
emend. #«^* w (sic). In marg. 
^qvdSoTo? %tdpnt : in alia parte mar- 
ginis, Km i%vfiw. 

37. fg#3«t/$ manus antiqua, ov 
pro i v recens. 

38-41. vvpQeti t' jjftso/ rf ; «4 jmm 
«*«£« £»jro^T* *#/ *(>i<rT6<p*m nhrovi- 
t# «$ kavpfymu irfe ra igifc. 

42. gyfc »« ' it6et yg. «AA«0f> teAA#$. 

48. «£ro$ 3* &'$*$• 

52-54. afcrfi x«AAj«rr{«r«{. 

54. 72. uxXtcvrot a m. pr. 

58. *£ro <«> yg. Textus etiam 

i«y, sed schol. niQ>$ mt iQfaou$. Ill 
alio schol. wt erat, sed i ex i fecit 
eadem manus. 

65. (Zifinxu, yg. xtcrnXBu 

83. Zyopvtt wis tiKXMTtpr *y*+ 

84. 204. xccTccTtfonvtrx et sic schoL 

92. £nto$orc$ rivr etvr*g, 


97. 9C6vM* tyxMTtMl' sed vi- 
detur fuisse tyxecriOnx. 
103. (tit ku 


105. 09nror& xfv ^ 9r#j#r#y (sic). 

114. In ex emend, sed antiqua* 
118. «w. 

134. xf<p*«. 

140. KctTXTtttnvtw et * super t 

141. ovtf Ut, 

143. xs* jtti qvttytobt rlt fdWtf* 
145. 'If* <pp<rt ft™* sed 4rf ec 

148. iTntpdovioig. 
156-158. uforovvTUi T£l?$. 

157. v^uret. rot et super «• t*> 
scriptum oo- *v. $$ " ' 

loo. sopt »jv jKif tjs syn* 

160. 161. u^irrc^feitng *0ff¥T: 

168. iwxvXof. 

171. wV«$ $. 

' 172. ciyccvo7o-i fltXurrth 

173. ay xctrixun'tp kyurrofymnii •£* 



177. 178. numerantur «.>**. 
In margine adduntur, £ tcrnrtf iftbt 

twit r utitfiitn vroo-w iiffti ti <pnp*t: 

184. Tf^snr ; <ri<m{tu0Tdi r# &«fMi 

• «^at^eT<»? typnyjkt : £g/rr*g;g«ff, r>» 

190. irrcti, sed spiritus in lenem 
mutatus. In marg. wr»s £nt&*rH» 

kflvrWXfit 9)<TT0. ti i- 

Ibid, kou in xoti mutarit m. re- 

cum Odyssea Editionis Emestincz. 109 


193. /3«/3A„W 

195. m %#pi<m£*t yf>ct<pett \%6vrtt 
Uf foVror fr«0(«si> : [o"o»]. 

197* wnpky \f p» sed primum 
i lenem habuisse videtur. 

198* ayemictf fitter <riy. 

205. ciwyit (sic ab eadem manu). 

206. YxtXov yg. tKlXn yi ^v%4. 

208. Quod ex vett. edd. notat 
Ernestus, *-{o<mt£* habet Harleia- 
nus, sed suprascripto m et circum- 
flexo in acutum mutato, cum in 
hoc loco, turn K. 482. 500. Quae 
sane mirifica varietas videtur. 


211. *p$6Ttt», (sic eadem m.) 

Gloss. Iy«r Tf xctl <rv. 
• 220. ietfini ag xt^tot' ol di pvecrctt. 
&$ xtt iFQBTU te'lrn at; xgecms. 2e 
UTKtiXminft avn^cc/tctx Sj rov ictjtfctreu 
oWoftoJni t%odot dt itctytwrxuv iri£i?<jF6>- 
(U9«C *vo rev ieifitSfcett »s mt£upteti. 
irttga* 9fu7c y«g**S xxt IxQenovfttvcv rov 

u mq to ivfxi ir*£ kmxois : [Diffi- 
cile et corruptum scholion, for- 
tasse etia»mutilum ; in quo ce- 
tera non expedio. Prope initium 
lege, ol ii )oipfdr*t 9 its x% t^utx a/toj, 
in *$*tik. Triplex igitur fuisse 
videtur lectio ; vulgata ita scripta, 
NATEITEI, pro MpvetTcct i*i/, quae 
plenis Uteris exarata occasionem 
dedit Crateti corrigendi AAMNA- 
TAIQS. Illud receptee lectioni 
obstat, quod 2*ft,ru» }*(tm nus-' 
quam apud Poetam occurrit, sed 
aut S«^y^«.aut ieipyxpcctf hoc ac- 
tivo sensu usurpatum infra 2. 488. 
In Iliad. 2. 199. 2«jtu* rite adhi- 
betur, utpote contractum e ictpvx- 
«cf,-quod ipsum numeros meliores 

222. Q**f H ex em. ejusdem 
manus. Fuerat, opinor, <po'<vf H 

225. <pn<rt<p6m*, sed w supra <p 

prms. o* 

228. !**W (sic). . 

231. mntf a m. pr. sed nunc ex 


correctione irtmv. 

232. WiVwv. « h. Schol. marg. 

to ©*S Hi ci(>toTet(>%6s ^/iXo7 xcti ol oiWoil 

233. l|egeemv, sed suprascr. yg. 

234. ?r^Toi> text. ^«nj» schol. 

235. T<»S5 *T#o*0«Aov yg. sr&Tj oy* 

244. £jj»ooWos «yyos7 rlt rrt%or : 
248. ot>TA>? «gfW«g%*$ a ^rooVro? 
3e xctxa>s r%\u wif $1 unputXtoi tvfott 

yg. owe sv : [Credo Zenodotum 
voluisse «!«#*]. 

255. tv£v%a£» ex emend, hie et - 
264. Deinde IxoXxS ita scriptum, 
ut o an 4i sit, nescias, sed supra- 
script. IccoXko^. 


263. cv fctt (sic). In marg. 

U(>K7T0<pCLVn<; STti OV [AW I 

287. *n<rr6(pccYiis 0V(f Ct£X. 

291. fccT^ hninnf. 

298. Tw2ccpa> ex em. et sic quiii- 
quies habet Scholiastes, qui tamen 
ait ku^vtow;, sed voluit fortasse 
T£09rct£o%vTot#s. Citat etiam CI. 
198. Ov% m rvfhd^w xcv^n xetxec 

300. xctTi%u Qv<rifyt6s. 

301. *•*£* et suprascr. yg. x^oV 

303. AsAo^««n 

304. *f*q>tp3utci ex em. ejusdem 
manus. Sed tQipihw defendit 
locus Pindari Pyth. iv. 159. a 
Scholiaste mox ad vocem tyidxrw 



307. citatus. £<« 3g rov * 
ovopM—ir m%» ftett (pctfti Qctnh i<pi{U- 
iu'ecs Trmtius *; t« xtt\ o*i ToA^<n^ 
ftrueAr* : (sic). 

318. ;»AAtf?. 

319. yirwf (sic). Schol. *Mfoi+ 
<po^f*rr : 

TiXlf^ **Tf0TfXJ!f «f T4 C» M fiXVf &fxWl 



Coll at io Codicis Harhiani 

323. Pro iyi fiw citat ynp** 
Khol. ad AppU. Rhod. iiL 996. 
Mox yr fiif apm* 'Ut*, sed schol. 
*£/<rro^>«wK y*. ugripuf i<r%tv : Hue 
quoque pertinet,. ut puto, aliud 
scholion marginale, ruff iritecni yg. 
(pro «7jomit0 sc#). 

327. iy*yi. 

329. Qttr in marg. 00/Vo. 

335. o'3«. 

336* [Myitis rt 9 $L 

342. omittit. 

347* w," et supra yg. wro* . 

356* Vg* K^TTlf y OTgWOITO. 

358. «g terrain)? ic\noTtp<ri *£«£07»: 

366. *••/ 3' sV< et suprascr. <*»*- 

«T£f5TTgOF TJJ* g'flT* JJ T>)» f»« I 


378. w ptyct£M (sic eadem ma- 
ntis)* 0-«/ 

380. uyo^ivuv (sic). 

384. tfg/orag^o? 3s 6ur$t$. «% to 
fyxfrWiof & 3joWs** ZkkvZis *AAjj. 

M^taT&^utm it *hM* (fart: 

390. *•«$ ,tt>j wi*p to «<f«* yivao-- 

jtii. [Qui hanc notam scribebat, 
prsecedentem versum in exemplar! 
suo non habuisse videtur.] 

394. 2axpv<rcc *$*)>• 

397* t«v t^oyro? Ttr*pir*t rni »Xv- 
yy Jto* ri» »vxr*. [Interpretatio 
▼arise lectionis To*wjAt>yfo$.] 

398* 0# iif (i. e. versus ab «t in- 
cipientes, et qui ab iis pendent, 
scilicet 398-402.) «4sro5rr«* va-o 
*Q*rr*q>*v6vs in vw$ [1. asro] roVii- 
pcryctof piTin%6ivTa» : [potius pi- 

399. upicrrttpanis XtvyuXiw. 

402. Hunc versum mirifice dis- 
tortum et depravatum citat Sui- 

das V. *Hs» H«. fiuftvritatf 3joc£ftfltr<- 

«0? OVfitcrptdf' Jf8 )tXT[*ni*i KOfAot )o£0. 

(Od. ©• 507*) myvmi(Ai*s X omto- 

£ «** •*** Sic edd. Med. Aid. 
Ad xt^urxSLnn notat Portus : " Vi- 
deOir superfluum. Ideo pr«teriL" 

Postea Kusterus hanc voc€ffi,noi* 
monito lectore, ejecit, et rosuper 
petxicvpiftt in ^M»^M^s>*f mutavit. 
Scias atitem veliiftr, h«c omnia 
Snidam bona fide descripsisse e 
Photii codice jam corruptee cuju$ 
simile exemplum penes Collegium 
SS. Trinitatis servatum habet oW" 
£st/T**o? — imrftt%ett — incupfumxif 
9rfgi*T*#ii ffet^totptfiw «f x*# «y^i : 

Hunc locum ita transcrtpsit bonus 
S u id as, cc7T*tnpMTtx.*s. stgi *• rmt *, 
aut cum ita dtstractum fortasse 
invenisset, myriFXTHt i pro inge* 
nii sui modulo emendandum pu- 
tavit. Sed nunc nihil planhi$ 
quam primo scripsisse Photium, 

ptiw, Hi Kcti cvxi : Qux et ipsa v#* 
rietas > est, quanquam mendosa, 
tamen notabilis. Porro obiter 
observo, Hesychium ▼. *Hi ckare 
in Od, A. 372. <•***/•*, quod et Fla^ 
tonis Scholiastes habet. 

415. f«w «i>2{«7» scriptum pri* 
mo, sed 6 additum supra (p. 

422. ivf g^Q croAXii y«#«» ****00fg* 

>fi>jr ^^Wf «A«i'« (sic). [Saltern iu* 
cramurvariam lectionem Iliad. I* 
564.] a 

427. favtinrm (sic) text. $Mkrrm 
citat Schol. Sed aliud schoL de 
toto versu, b «-oAAoJV «v $i{*r*i. Et 
profecto, ut semel criticum agam, 
omnium fere, qui pro spuriis no* 
tantur, dignissimus hie, qui et* 

432. ol n videtur fuisse a pf. 
m. Schol. x*< Morif «I(r^o$ kr%8«Ai. 

434-439. «*rofrr«f m^ o^i«w 

441. rlvv; piiff ji %***$• 

442. ^»rt v<r#*r to 3f x4X£vpiff» 

443. ec yf. 

446. yi Mew et suprascr. yg. y* 
hi»». [Merus error, sed observiiri 
noninutilis. Vide infra ad E. 206.] 

457. f>iio. Sed Scholiastes ait, 
kfaurai 9m to tvnhf ** 7^i fVfcrtSrw 

cum Odyssea Bditionis Ernestbue. Ill 

T» jf **dV iTl fyoVTOf CtKOViTi, m 

460* «V ytf£ TT9V Mt «g*0T&g;g»0. 

477. nnx**?. 

489. fiUrci et suprasc. yg. £/*$. 

491. «<Wf post rasuram. 

497. £ij»o5ot«s, it ycc^ iytiu Ali ud 

scholion : tut i\h* wvrt *o6ts 

mw v+v OH 06V. 

501. rw f sed «*» ex em. ejusd. 

RianilS. a *£itrrx{%os xut fyxAiH* t# 


509. rg*rt>AA«£«$ to rpofijr «* *** 
'm£Jrr*{X6t Quo-! : 

511. r om?ttit, deinde habet 
vi*'unc4p.ii et suprascr. Utxtvpn. In 
marg. utrumque nx*V*a/t«¥ et kxeo-- 

512. rg0?i>y 9 sed duo puncta ni- 
griore atramento. 

513. tvZiirtr ex emend, et sine 
variatione bl TrA«0w. 

5 14. «u)' fv/. 

tovs fttyeiXcvg uxovrTicv x**«i to jcijro; . 
«$ x«» «(/<rr«{;g6{. teAAoj 0g Sfoo; ,o*v- 
•*«**• tov* n/» eAw't^ «4A«tytii>ov$. 
fp Mi Jt yg*povc< Kwuti [opinor *»- 
otm/] «f OHfyysn?*. 0/ & #i|Tm< yv- 
Mt#9. «Tey i0*Tt#4«cev«f yunttxttM )*>- 

{#» tHKit tlyi MMi f*T#£ ^J)a*i T* 0£O- 

»£w 3«{o<o** xccrar^vy^et xx\ tbu$A 

A*#^. (IL P. 22.5.) ^fiiov 3t t« 
fyoT*£%* xuho-$*t : Pluralem nu- 
merum retinet etiam Apollonius. 
S& singularem dat Hesjrchius, 
cujus locus ita legendus e MS, 
TvietUv. yvMUxf/ov. TvvttUv unx* 

l*g*v. etc. Non longe ab hoc 
loco, sed versus numerum notare 
oblitus sum, Scholiastes utitur 
voce $t{rif>ivnf et w supra <p prio- 
rem posuit scriba. 

522. M*Tifi*!nptL 

524t. wigiygoiirTio* *? oM^g^1^|• 6v- 
{*>£•£ y*{ fgyov : et mox, «g/o<r«(;go$ 
mm, oTJt to rr/gov. In m) r»» vT^tm- 

p#r*». {Lege i«* $• Ceterum 

icipiy^ui et }uty£*<pu9 utrumqu* 
deter e per consequentiam sonant, 
modo tamen significandi discre- 
pant. niPiyz<t<puv est lineis vocem 
vel voces includere, et sic delendas 
monere. oWygos'^f** est transversa 
linea per literas ducta damnare.] 

525. «g'<rr«g;g«$ tif mAAoj *r*rrtf 
x*r£ dovgsor iirxof u%ecioi : 

526. Tgzpof f. 


529. * 21 (au Deinde wrsTiAAsy, 
sed suprascr. yg. ixmvfy. 

530. i|i* tvut et u erasum. 

530. ££f A&Tf iptpotfTixdntof 3f t« 
IfyfjCivetl : 

536. y/ȣT. [Scilicet in quibus- 
dam M8S. erat, yi»ir* M trr«A^A».] 

538. vifrt; sed suprascr. yg. 
<perT*. [Non opus es^e duxi accen- 
tuum errores anxie corrigere. 
Alioqui monuissem scribendum 
paullo ante t^^', hie ^ o/r«.] 

538. Schol. ^dJsAoy pro v. 1. 
memorat et **•&>><*. 2ta riv r**v- 
}ii* [lege tnre^of vel 07r*iteiv\ r«?f 

539. ^*^'? t«w i yufoovwi *m rtv 

%ec(govcet. q 

540. 563. 565. x*-n*T*4v!«wT*». 
546. ^erf< «^/(tt«^«<. if ^t »rr»- 

g/« f« tw» xvxAiKuiv : Idem fere 
scholion, quod legitur in editis, 
habet Harl. Sed pauca diverse 
exhibet. Pro jigwrnc-s* v*o oncrn^tv 

tcov T(>a)M fta>.Mv i\v7ibh<reti Sllbsti- 

tuit Barnesius, non repugnante 
Clarkio, *. vvo ocrm^ov *\nuf oi 
t^Sk ft. u nimis quidem audacter, 
sed non nimis eleganter. Harl. 
pro tJp r^dm dat t»v m%*i£i 9 quod 
facinus est correctoris, qui vul- 
gatac lectionis vitium vidit,veram 
corrigendi viam non vidit. Rec- 
tissime Bentleius, r£i n^tm y ut 
liquet ex Eustathio. Deinde ^rA«V 
*t*, non wmTot** Schol. ed. et MS* 
Omittit etiam M^tmmt MS* et 
legit tiaxuv. 



^^^^a^ LAfe* 



Httc lamina area, modulo ac forma qua supra delineata, in aero 
Etiaco effossa, at que inde « <fc Gell J. S. MDCCCXIIL 
reportata, fadus inter duas ejus regionis gentes circa Olymp* 
XL, initum exhibet, quod dialect o communi Htllenica et litteris 
Constantinopolitanis sic reddendum mihi videtur : 

' i) pWp* T0'£ Hhsiot$ xott T0i$ EvotQioig. a-ufxfjucc^ix etv ettj Ixarov er$* 9 
a PX e ? $* K9tro P* ei $* Ti $ e0i > eirt s *°$ en " s epyov, <rv\uzv otv a\kY}\oig 9 
rot re uXKol xai vapot irokeuAv. et Se py <rvvuev, tolKolvtov ctv apyvpov 
wroThfoisv rop Jit OA»jju,7tiw oi av ls$v}\iip.svoi XotTpevopsvcov. et $e n; 
ret ypoL<p§$y\ tj) otv $riK*oiT<r f §ire fays sire TeAwnjj «Tf $*jfto$, ev r» 
€$uepci(v civ evej£0iT0 rep evTotvQa ysypotpLfievcp. 

Judicent tamen doctiores, et siquid probabi/ius habuerint, pro- 


This Inscription is so entire and well preserved, that there can 
be no doubt concerning any one of the letters ; and as it is evident, 
by the alteration of an,0 into an £ in the second line, and by the 
insertion of an 2 in die ninth, that it was revised and corrected 
after it had been engraved, there can be no suspicion of any errors 
committed by the engraver, as in the Greek of the Kosetta stone, 
and consequently no grounds for conjectural emendation. The 
straight lines are deeply indented with a chisel, and the circles and 
dots stampt incuse with two solid blunt points of different sizes. 
TTTe letters are of forms found in other very antieut inscriptions ; 
and, fliough some of them are unusual, they have all been explained 
in works on Palaeography.. In more common characters, and di- 
vided into words^they seem to be as follows : 












114 The Elean Inscription. 

The first and principal difficulty of construction, which these 
lines present, is in the words «p%w hxarco ; and to make sense of 
them, we must suppose an ellipsis of the governing preposition M 
or hci, so as to denote the commencement of the hundred years' 
alliance to be under the tenth monthly archon ; that is, under the 
la^t of the then current year, which probably consisted, as among 
the early Romans, of ten months with intercalations ; the primitive 
usages, as well as language, of the Latins having been mostly 
iEolic. It seems much more probable that the expression should 
denote the commencement of the treaty under the tenth monthly, 
than its termination under the tenth decennial archon, which would 
have been more properly expressed by eg oi§x ov Sexflwov ; and as 
for the reading which has been proposed by Mr. J. M. in No. 
XXIL of this Journal, AE KA TO/ for Se xoltu tgo, it is sufficient 
to observe that xoltol never governed a third case in any dialect or 
mode of speech known to the Greeks. 

The sense of what follows in the inscription is sufficiently ob- 
vious, and may be thus rendered in English : " But Af any thing 
be wanted or required, either in speech oY action, let them assist 
each other in all other matters, and also fr6m fir against war : 
but if they do not so assist, let those who by failing may have 
violated the treaty, pay a talent of silver to Jupiter Ulympius for . 
sacred services : and if any individual, be he a citizen, a free 
inhabitant paying public contributions, or merely a free inha- 
bitant, do violate what may be herein written, let him also be held 
in the fine of expiation herein written" 

The verb cruveifu is frequently used in the seuse here supposed; 
which is, indeed, absolutely necessary to make the treaty signify 
any thing : for what sort of an alliance or <ruftfw*;£ia would it be, 
which merely required the contracting parties, when any matters of 
difference should arise, to meet and discuss them without war? 
which by the bye %apx voXe^ou cannot mean : it would be £vw 

Toi is not only the legitimate form of the article or pronoun in 
the nominative plural of the Doric and iEolic, but the only form 
used in the genuine remains of those dialects ; as in the treaties 
between the Lacedaemonians and Argives in the fifth book of Thu- 
cydides. The above cited critic, however, joins his favorite con- 
traction of koltol to the participle taken in a passive sense, .and 
applies the compound to Jupiter, rco Aft 'OKvpnlcp too x«Ta8«&ijXi)- 
[livoo, not giving himself the trouble to ascertain that the verb 
luXsof&cti only occurs in a passive or middle form with an active 
sense ; and that it never was, nor ever could be, subjoined to the 
preposition xardi, for the same reason that, though in English we 
say, " throw down," " beat down" a hunt down? &c. we never 
of, " injure down," " wrong down" " hurt down/' &c. 

The Elean Inscription. 1 15 

The ellipsis of the causal preposition, as before XaTpsiofxivoov, is 
common : but 1 can find no other instance of this participle, or 
the verb to which it belongs, in a passive form ; probably for no 
other reason than because there is no other passage extant in which 
it is required in a passive sense. 

JFETA2 or Itijj may possibly mean one of an iraigsia or associa- 
tion, sanctioned by law, of persons liable or qualified to serve the 
higher offices of the state, and therefore constituting the first order. 

TEAESTA, a person of the second order, I derive from tsX*w, 
to pay public contributions ; that is, in the language of modern 
polity, paying scot, or of the class which the French call contri- 
buables* Those at the head of the state were in many places 
called the teAij, or ol ev reAe* : but the priesthood never formed a 
distinct order in any of the Greek states, as they did in -Egypt and 
Persia ; and still less the mvstagogues or initiators, which TsAeWai, 
in a religious sense, can only mean. Here it evidently signifies a 
rack or order between FETAS the highest, and JAMOX the lowest 
of persons responsible to the state ; that is, of free persons ; slaves 
being amenable to those whose property they were. 

In the Dorian treaty, however, preserved in the fifth book of 
Thucydides, eras signifies a citizen generally ; wherefore it pro- 
bably does so here, as rgAeora does a free inhabitant paying, and , 
iafiog one not paying contributions; neither having the right of 
suffrage, which was almost every where hereditary. 

The construction of the latter part of the eighth and beginning 
of the ninth line, here admitted, is certainly somewhat harsh ; and 
the late learned Dr. Vincent endeavoured to soften it by inge- 
niously suggesting, that ypatpea might be the plural of yg<x<po$, an 
obsolete form of ypctQvj ; as fj.6\xo; and aXxog are found on an an- 
cient earthen vase for {xoXtty) and aXxrj. But if we admit such a 
form to have existed, it could only have signified the writing itself, 
not that which it commemorated; whereas the fine is evidently for 
violating the treaty, not for defacing the letters which recorded it. 
As for Mo J. M.'s present optative active in tjg, formed like the 
aofist optative in eta, only substituting an v\ for an et, as in (Zauri- 
tyos for ficuriXiiog, &c. ; which he produces in conformity with 
a cauon of Dawes, that s is never put for si, it needs no remark ; 
he having in the same page translated his present optative by a past 
subjunctive " scriberet ;" and not recollecting that jSao-iAeo? 
aud ficurlksctis are the regular Doric and Attic genitives, in the 
example which he cites ; aud that so far from the e and «i not 
being commutable in different dialects, they are commutable in the 
same; the coins of Agathocles having ArABOKAEOS or ATA- 
B0KAEI02, accordingly as the space was less or greater ; and 
no one will suspect that in Sicily, after die Macedonian conquest, 
the i stood for an >?, or had any power but its own. 

11(3 The Elean Inscription. 

The square letter, the third in the eighth line, is not employed 
as a f any where else that I know j but is used as a 6 on the very 
ancient coins of Thebes, and may possibly be such here ; these 
two aspirates having been commutable in the variations of dialect ; 
as in <p\ion and 6Xolod, which are only different forms of the same 

Hesycbius interprets hfngelot to be rot Ul to»? Upclois itrotvofjwm, 
which affords a meaning sufficiently near to that here required for 
the «n*£Ov before written, namely, the talent of silver to be paid 
as an expiatory fine to Jupiter, evsxoc row AarpeiOj&eiwv ; nor is the 
form more different than difference of dialect may reasonably 
account for. Mr. J. M., indeed, divides and renders the last words 
in the plate, hhoL hci Upcp x ivixoiro rep evrtvii ysypa^pJifw ; which 
an ordinary maker of Latin versions, preserving, even when guess- 
ing at the unintelligible, some regard to tense, sense, and syntax, 
might perhaps translate, "hie sacro obstringatur hinc scripio" or 
<l quod hinc scriptum est : n . but Mr. J. M., with more justice, 
treats his own Greek as it deserves, and scarcely retains a trace of 
it in his own equally original Latin, " hie ad templum inkiberetur 
€0 quod ibi scriptum est." Surely it might have occurred to him, 
•that if Up& signified either the temple, or the fine, it would require * 
the article r» Ugw ; and that, since m can neither stand alone, nor 
be joined with ivep^oiTo to Upcp, some word, such as ovpfjuxxiots, is ' 
wanted to make a sentence — eiii Ty; av^a^ixg rep lepw otv hs^oiro. 

After having found him taking so much pains to turn an aorist „ 
into a present, for the purpose of translating it by a past tense, we 
^cannot much wonder at his translating a present by a past, when 
he finds it ready made, though with a prospective meaning. The 
same consistency in confusion prevails through his whole version ; ' 
which, from beginning to end, provides in past tenses, and not only 
supplies the editors of Stephens's Lexicon with a new example of 
syntax in apyoi koto, t£>, hut with an equally new mode of translat- 
ing such choice morsels by rendering it " inciperet dehinc." 

In the Attic dialect an optative is always potential+vith the du- 
bitative or potential particle uv, and always desiderative without it ; 
but no such distinction is observed in the Homeric Greek ; and in 
this inscription the usage appears to be completely reversed, 
though in the above cited Dorian treaties of Thucydides, the Attic 
idiom appears to have prevailed, for the sense requires us to read 
Svnva, instead of amva, at the end of the second treaty. 1 The 
Dorians and iEolians, indeed, do not seem to have ever adopted 
this Attic form of the particle ; which is, however, only their own 
old form xav, with the initial aniputed after the Ionic fashion. We 
find, it is true, avnva in the later editions of the first treaty, but 

1 Lib. v. s. lxxix. 

The Elean Inscription. 117 

«i riva is the reading of tbe early ones, which succeeding editors 
should have retained, and altered the verb following from fywri to 
f%tvri, both written with the same letters in the original document, 
and probably in the autograph of Thucydides.* 

These two Dorian treaties were concluded in the third year of 
the ninetieth Olympiad, and by comparing them with this now 
under consideration, there will appear a difference in language, 
style, form, manners, and every thing else, which will render the 
allowance of two hundred years' priority to the latter by no means 
too much ; though I admit that the dates of all these very early 
monuments, anterior to authentic history, or beneath its notice, are 
extremely uncertain. We may nevertheless rest assured that, 
though archaisms of expression were retained in heroic poetry, and 
archaisms of form in the initials of names on coins, down to a very 
late period, none but the customary modes of speech and writing 
in use among the parties would be employed in a treaty of alliance, 
interesting to all, and therefore required to be intelligible to all. 
Such ever has been, and ever must be tbe language of diplomacy, 
while guided by common sense: but in the few words of this 
treaty, we fifed three employed in a sense in which they appear to 
have become obsolete before the age of any prose writer now 
extant, namely, ftrpc* as a compact or convention, ag%o$ as an 
archon or governor, and Vt\po$ as an individual person ; all which 
are to employed in the Homeric poems, and perhaps in some later 
compositions of the same kind, but no where else that I recollect. 

The smallness of the fine, too, or penalty for infraction of the 
treaty, is another proof of its high antiquity ; a single talent of 
silver, admitting it to be the largest talent ever in use among the 
Greeks, being a very minute sum in the scale of public wealth, 
even of the most paltry of their states, after the abortive invasion 
of Xerxes had opened the treasures of Asia to them. 

As for the tradition attributing the invention of the aspirated 
consonants and % to Epicharmus or Simonides, after the sixtieth 
Olympiad, it deserves no more credit than that which attributes it 
to Palamedes at the siege of Troy. These poets may possibly have 
introduced them into their respective countries, under forms not in 
use there before ; but the latter, as it appears in this inscription, is 
found in the most ancient semi-barbarous alphabets of Italy ; and 
die former, as above described, and also as represented by a cross 
in a circle, is on the most rude and early coins of Thebes, struck 
near the commencement of the art, in which we may observe at 
least seven stages of progressive improvement or variation, prior to 

1 lb. lxxvii. 

118 The Elean Inscription. 

the subversion of the city by Alexander the Great. 1 The num- 
ber of coins, too, still extant of each, proves that none of them 
could have been very rapid in progress, or short in duration. 
Those struck after the rebuilding of the city by Cassander, are 
totally different in device as well as fabric, and, except in brass, are 
extremely rare. 

The language, however, of this treaty, though more archaic than 
that of any other prose extant, is far less so than the Homeric 
tongue, not only in the abbreviations and contractions of the 
words, but in the application of the article to the proper names, 
both of the parties and the god ; the general omission of which, 
according to the Latin, rather than the subsequent Greek idiom, is 
among the most curious as well as most indisputable proofs of the 
very remote antiquity of the Iliad and Odyssey, between which and 
every other Greek composition now extant, there seems to have 
intervened a chasm of darkness sufficient to change the idiom of 
speech, though the words generally continued. 

The two instances of laconism in the substitution of the P for 
the 2, in the first and seventh lines of this inscription, seem to be 
quite accidental and irregular, the dialects having probably been 
intermixt in the customary and rarely-written speech of these little 
obscure states. 

El is, indeed, became afterwards a considerable city, and the 
Eleans, or FAAEIOI, a wealthy and powerful people ; but not till 


1 Those of the first, have the Bseotian shield on one side, with a square 
incuse in several divisions of different depths on the other. 

Those of the second, the same with the initial letter either square or 
round, in the centre of the incuse, divided into four equal parts of equal 

Those of the third, which alone are very rare, have the same shield, and 
on the reverse a bearded figure of Hercules naked, marching with the club 
in his right and the bow in his left hand, in a. square incuse, inscribed ©EB. 

Those of the fourth, have the same shield, and on the reverse a young 
Hercules kneeling and stringing his bow, naked, with the club lying by him, 
in a square incuse, inscribed eEBAios, that is apyupo; 0*$a<o?. 

Those of the fifth are the same, except that Hercules is an infant, without 
the bow and club, strangling two serpents; of which there are various com- 

Those of the sixth have the same shield, and on the reverse a bearded 
head of Bacchus crowned with ivy, in a square incuse, inscribed 8E. 

Those of the seventh have the same shield, and on the reverse a vase with 
some symbol, and the letters ©e or SEbh, and often the initials of a magis- 
trate's name. This coining appears to have lasted a long time r as upon 
some of them the h is an aspirate ; as in hike, the initials of hiketas ; and 
in others a long vowel, as in ©ebh. 

4 Of those struck after the restoration of the city, the brass have a bearded 
head of Hercules on one side, with the club on the other; and the silver, a 
veiled head of Ceres on one side, with an armed figure of Cadmus stepping 
from his ship, on the other; and all equally inscribed ©HBAiftN. 

Prologus in Phormionem. 319 

tie union of all the little states of the district into one ; which was 
not completed till the second year of the seventy-seventh Olym- 
piad ; * from which commences the series of those beautiful coins, 
which have lately been found in such variety and abundance in the 
country, and which were formerly attributed to the Falisci, a semi- 
barbarous people of Italy. 

The ETFAOIOI, the other contracting party, were probably one 
of these little constituent states, and perhaps this treaty was the 
commencement of their union ; for they cannot be the people of 
ETA in Arcadia, which does not appear to have been within the 
circle of the alliance, and which could not possibly have supplied 
them with so long a name, by a syllable, according to any principle 
of derivation ever acknowledged by any dialect. 

jR. JP. A. 



XI AC nocte nostros qui revisistis lares, 
Notique notis interestis Lusibus, 
Salvete : Vobis, quas habemus max i mas, 
Agimus lubenter, quasque oportet, gratias. 

Neque hoc profecto vos salutandos modo 
Esse arbitramur nomine, quod comoediae 
Terentianae semper strenuissimos, 
Schokeque nostra noverimus vindices ; 
Sed quod sciamus discipline publics, 
Et discipline vindices Bri tannics. 

Hoc adeo ex hac re nobis in mentem venit : 
Audimus hodie terras hinc quamplurimos 
Studium incessisse commigrandi in exteras : 
Atque hoc presertim facere id velle gratia, 
Quasi alibi melms educentur liberi. 

At, o beats carum nomen Patriae ! 
Quisnam iste tandem morbus i Idcirco est opum 
Tantumque fusum sanguinis fortissimi ? 
Tantosque idcirco Gallicos exercitus, 
Suoque pestem profligavit in solo 
Totius orbis pariter et terras suae, 
Arthurius idem Pacis et Belli arbiter, 
Ut jam Penates fastidirent patrios, 
Patriosque cultus Britones dediscerent ; 


1 Diodor, Sic. 1. xi. 

120 Epilogus ad Phormionem, 

Suisque Patres inviderent liberis 

Moresque habitusque et indolem Britannicam i 

Tantine sermo Gallic us videbitur, 
Italique cantus, et pares Ionicis 
Motus choreae (proh pudor) Germanic*, 
Ut prisca virtus nostra, pietasque et fides, 
Levitate tandem et impietate Gallic^ 
Sophi&que permutanda sint Germanic^ i 

Sed nunc ad rem quod nostram pertinet magis— 
Vos O Patroni, queis, opinor, Patria, 
Et qua fuistis ipsi enutriti prius, 
Honesta nondum sordet Institution 
Vestrae, precamur, ut memores Puertiae, 
Hie nocte saltern plaudere haud gravemini, 
Vel discipline nostrae vel comcediae. 



D. Mansurusne, Crito? Pauperque, Hospesque, Senexque ? 

Qua spe ? quo quaestu fretus et arte ? C. Rogas i 
Scilicet ignojtum est, Peregrinus et Advena victum • 

Quam facile e vestr& creduiitate paret ? 
Non tarn praesentes alibi cognoscere stultos 

Contigit : absurdum, futile, ridiculum 
Hoc vobis volupe est, Hoc est mirabile visum ; 

Quodque impossible est, hoc mage credibile. 
D. Quin tu igitur fieri Stadio-dromus ? aut Salamandra ? 

Aut invisibilis, quaeso, Puella potes ? 
Aut pragnans anus ? aut orientalis Jugulator 

Ipse suo sibi se qui jugulat gladio ? 
C.- Garris : Men' isthaec levia et ludicra ? Gravem Rem 

Tracto, artem ingenuam scilicet atque novam, 
Encephaloscopiam ; Princeps ego Cranologorum. 

D. Quiduam illud Monstri est ? C. Scire cupis ? D. cupio. 

C. Principio, JNaturam Hominis fateare necesse est 
Cujuscunque Humeris imposuisse Caput, 

D. Audivi, et credo : fateor. C. Capitique cerebrum 
Cuique esse innatum. D. Non fateor. C. Taceas. 

Conglomeratarum quae Congeries Fibrarum 

Constat Triginta e Partibus atque tribus : 
Ergo animal trigintitriplex Homo. D. Proh magni Di ! 

C. Fingit enim voces ars nova quaeque novas. 
D. Trigintitriplicem tu me quoque ? Magnificum me! 

Qui simplex, rebar, nil nisi Davus, eram. 

Westm. SchoL Act. A. D. 1815. 121 

C. Sic est. Has partes dico Organa, et haec quoque sensus 

AfFectusque notant singula quaeque suos. 
Et prout grande suum magis Organon est, dominatur 

Sensus item in Capite hoc ille vel ille magis. 
Mysterizativus enim est, Individuali — 
. Tativus, Philopro — vel genitivus homo. 
Cetera quaeque tamen non memorare necesse est. 

D. Gaudeo. C. Tot, quot sunt Organa, sunt Animi. 
Utque superficies externaque prodit Imago, 

Quae crusto subter condita pruna latent, 
Sic cerebrum tegit os ; qualisque interna cerebri est, 

Externo formam cemis in osse parem. 
Primo adeo intuitu qualis sit quisque videbis : 

Unum de multis sit satis. D. atque super. 

C. Si cui supra aurem sit prominulum Cerebellum, 
Hunc fuge. Destructivum indicat ille Tumor. 

Hie caedit, fraugit, tundit, lacerat, pessundat, 

Ferro, fuste : palam, clam : pede, dente, manu. 
Porro, ubi quid ficti aut siraulati est, " hem, bone, n mecum 

" Falle alios," inquam ; non ita fallor ego. 
Ambrosiis imitare comis strepituque Tonantem, 

Causidice ? auriculas detege, null us eris. 
Quique reos agitas misera formidine, Judex, 

Judice me, capitis mox eris ipse reus. 
Vertice nudato Lupus es, fortasse, Sacerdos, 

Hactenus indue to vellere visus ovis. 
Sed, quo praecipue super omnia, Dave, reperto 

Glorior, invenio Bruta Hominesque pares. 
Certat magnanimo cum Caesare magnanimus Mus, 

Si caput inspicias, ardua uterque petit. 
Bello fulminat ille, viamque affectat Olympo, 

In cameram scandit Mus, ubi grana jacent. 

D. Ah scio, jam lnfantem nuper mirabar herilem 
Tarn placidum in medio posse jacere luto. 

Nimirum Organon ille Voluti-luto-tativum 
Quale proculdubio Sus ^a/taisuv^; habet. 

C. Irrides ? Operamne in Te sic, improbe, ludo ? 
Indignus Sophia, Scurra, videre mei 

D. Credo. Quin tu discipulos adsciscere dignos 
Vis tibi ? ne Davos quaere sed CEdipodas. 

C. Kecte hortare, Hebetesque rudesque valere jubebo, 
Si mihi vos, Dpcti, plauditis. D. atque mihi. 





In the course of a long acquaintance with Homer, an observa- 
tion has struck me on the twenty-fourth Odyssey, which I have 
not seen elsewhere. It is well known that Aristarchus rejected 
this book for various reasons, such as the epithet Kv\\r)vio$ applied 
to Mercury, the office of guide of the departed assigned to him, 
the mention of the Aeuxa$ nirqa, the mention of the KsQ&Kkipm 
toAs^, and others ; and that his Odyssey concluded with the line, 

' A<nroL<ria>$ XsKTpoio %olKolIou Sscfxh ftcoyro, 
in the twenty-third. Similar doubts have been started with regard 
to the last book of the Iliad ; some even condemning the episode 
of the Shield of Achilles in the eighteenth, and all subsequent, as 
supposititious. My conjecture, however, relates solely to the 

It appears to me, then, that the scene in the shades, at the be- 
ginning of this book, may have been an interpolation, but that the 
rest bears marks of the hand of Homer. In the course of perusal, 
passing from the preceding part of the Odyssey to this fiction, and 
returning again to the main subject, I was struck with an infe- 
riority of spirit, and a want of Homeric invention, in the passage 
in question. It seemed to me to contain little which might not 
have been put together, by a tolerable imitator, from other parts 
of Homer. The story of Penelope's web, in particular, in the 
speech of Amphimedon, is repeated from two former pas- 
sages of the Odyssey. And I may observe, with regard to the 
latter instance, that Homer's repetitions seldom occur, except 
where they are either in themselves not unpleasing, or serve 
to carry on the action. The passage just mentioned appears first 
in the second book ; it occurs again in the nineteenth ; but there 
it is at a sufficient distance, from the former, and is besides condu- 
cive to the poet's purpose. In this third repetition, on the con- 
trary, it becomes tiresome, and answers no end. The want of 
animation, perceptible in the episode of the dead, appears in con- 
trast to the general tone of the Odyssey. Again, though Homer 
sometimes introduces circumstances but remotely connected with 
the action of the poem, yet I think it is not according to his genius 
to pass abruptly to an affair totally extraneous, like the dialogue 
between Achilles and Agamemnon. Ariosto, indeed, after relating 
an exploit of Astolpho, stops the action of die poem to send him 

On the Twenty-Fourth Book of the Odyssey. 123 

on a journey to hell, and the Pseudo-Ossian, after describing the 
death of Feoldath, before he returns to the battle, cannot forbear 
telling; us that his soul went to his native vale, and mingled with 
the dreams of the young lady his daughter, who was asleep. But 
Homer lived too early to be addicted to these artificial abrupt- 
nesses. It is also observable, that most of the articles objected to 
by A r is t arch us occur in this part of the book. This cannot in- 
deed apply to the expression KiQaWyvoov ttoAiWo-j ; and incompe- 
tent as 1 am to decide concerning that part of the argument, I 
shall only observe, that the Cephallenians are mentioned in the » 
second Iliad, and mentioned as the subjects of Ulysses: 

AvToip *0§v<r<rev$ yye K&puWY}v*$ '[Aeyuiufioug. 

It may be also remarked, that when Homer uses the word^ *in 
such a situation that the preceding words easily explain its meaning, 
he uses it without any qualification ; as in the eleventh Iliad, 

X H 9 xol) IIei<ravBp(» fiiv a$* Imroov axrs %&fMt%e, 
Aqvq) /3aXo)v irqbs <rTr\to$' 6 8* vsrrio? exflrwf hifgov. 

But when, after treating one part of his subject, he returns to 
another which he had quitted, and uses the article abovementioned, 
he adds, I am inclined to think, pretty uniformly a designation of 
the person. Thus, in the fourteenth book of the present poem, 
when, after having related the conversation of Eumaeus and Ulysses 
in the cottage, he returns to the voyage of Telemachus, with which 
he had been before engaged, he begins, 

oh o eni %ep<ra> 


Now, in the present passage, when, after the dialogues of Achil- 
les with Agamemnon, and of Agamemnon with Amphimedon, the 
author turns to his former subject, the adventures of Ulysses and 
his companions in arms, he simply says, 

01 8* enei ex 7ro\icD$ vpocefiav, veStov 8* *$/xovto, x. t. A. 
Whereas, if we expunge the intermediate .passage, the sense will 
proceed naturally and without any obscurity : 

*fH%cLV tie iupag ex 8* ?Vov* ypx* 8* *Ohv<r<reu$. 

v H8ij jfcgv $&o$ jJ«/ avoL yP&voL' touj 8* dq 'Aiyvri x 

Nuxt) xaraxgtnj/flwa ioco$ efaye iroXqo?. 

02 8' hire) ex. woteaog ngovefiav, ireliov $ a$ixovro, &c. 

The latter part of the book, however, would seem to be genuine. 
The discovery of Ulysses to Laertes resembles the former passages 
of the sort in pathos, nature, and spirit ; and it is diversified from 
the rest in a manner truly Homeric. It appears also to be required 
by the general structure of. the poem ; for, after having seen Ulys- 
ses reveal himself successively to Telemachus, Eumaeus and Phi- 
lajtius, and Penelope, besides the unintentional discovery to En- 

124 On the Greek 

ryclea, we naturally expect that he will disclose himself to hi» 
father. And if this passage be genuine, the sequel, which is con* 
nected with it, seems to follow of course. Indeed, if the hostili- 
ties there recorded be omitted, we must also omit a passage in die 
twenty-third book, previous to the conclusion proposed by Aris- 
tarchus, which anticipates them as approaching. The present 
hook, I own, if the episode of the shades be omitted, will be a 
very short one ; but there are two others to support it. 

These hints, however, are advanced with hesitation ; and I must 
own that, setting objections aside, the conclusion proposed by 

'A<r7F*tr$m$ XsxTpow irahouov fle<r/xov fttovro, 

is a very natural and proper winding up ; and other circumstances^ 
no doubt, might be urged in favor of his hypothesis. 

The reader will observe, that, in this argument, 1 have all along 
proceeded on the supposition, that the Odyssey was the work of 
a single writer. 



No. IV.— (Continued Jrom No. XXIV. p. 304. J 

Whenever grammarians find two modes of expression for 
the same thing, they are very apt, sometimes from ignorance, 
more often from an' affectation of mystery or skill, to make a 
distinction, where none exists. This is a common source of er- 
ror in all languages. Thus in Hebrew some feminine nouns hav- 
ing two plural terminations, grammarians have dubbed one a dual, 
and the other a plural, with no more reason than if they were to 
make out of eyen and eyes, a dual, and a plural. In Greek, some 
words have a double form in the future, such as rvtyn or twoo, <pp&- 
<roo or Qgotiw, and these futures have been divided into first and se- 
cond futures very innocently, and perhaps conveniently. But 
some grammarians are not content with this, but will have it that 
there is a nice difference in the meaning of the two futures, and I 
wonder only that they have suffered some other double forms to re- 
main quiet, such as irgi<r<roo or vgar™, and have not yet discovered a 

and Latin Accents. 125 

distinction between these also. The Latin grammarians* in a 
similar rage for something recondite, considered scrips&re ami 
legtre as duals, according to Quintiliah, 1. 1. c. 5. But both be* 
and Servius in a note on die first line of the second book of the 
JEneid, reprobate this doctrine ; and those, who know with what 
ease the French drop the final nt in many words, will not be at a 
loss to conceive, how scripserunt became scripsere. This much I 
do believe, that the Latins had as much a dual, and a middle voice, 
as Homer and the old Greeks had, or rather that both knew no- 
thing of either. Our own language, as might be expected, has 
afforded scope to the ingenuity of Philologists. In particular some 

Cersons would make us believe (and Dr. Johnson is of the numb- 
er) that enow is the plural of enough. Such a notion can proceed 
only from want of acquaintance with the northern languages, in 
which the final g has a guttural sound, which in English pronun- 
ciation has been sometimes hardened into anyj as in enough from 
genugy and sometimes has been suffered to become evanescent, as 
in plough from pjlugy and in eye from aug. In some words the 
pronunciation to this day is not quite settled, as in draught* some- 
times pronounced drcait* sometimes drafft* and in trough* some* 
times pronounced trow* and sometimes traffl Precisely in this pre* 
dicament stood formerly the word enough, and though the modem 
pronunciation makes it terminate in a consonant, yet of the vowel 
termination also we have a clear vestige in the form enow. It 
mu$t be confessed that Dr. Johnson's Dictionary, which is justly 
a national boast, and a noble monument of one man's industry, is 
most defective in etymology. I will notice at some length one in- 
stance among many, as a proof, not so much of his incompetency 
in this respect, as that etymology is not always a contemptible and 
barren study, and at least as liberal as many other pursuits, that 
are more favoured. This instance is taken from the word sham* 
which Dr. Johnson derives from the Welsh schommi* to cheat. 
Now, except the names of places, I believe there are very few 
words in our language of Welsh or Celtic origin, so completely 
were the Britons either extirpated by the Saxon invaders and con- 
querors, or driven by them, beyond the reach of all intercourse, 
into the corners and fastnesses of Cumberland, Cornwall and Wales. 
The English language therefore may be said to be radically Teu- 
tonic, but to have received at the Norman invasion a graft of Old 
French, and since the revival of letters a much larger graft of 
Latin. Under these circumstances the*Celtic origin of any word 
in present use is to be distrusted. Accordingly, Sham will be 
found not to be Celtic, Welsh, or British, but a pure English 
word. Sham is something that shines, and seems fair, a false ap- 

126 On the Greek 

pearance. Its meaning will be best illustrated by a reference to 
its use in kindred dialects. By this process we shall perceive 
clearly | that Sun, Shine, Sham, Shin, and Skin are all of one fa- 
mily. The great luminary, which is the apparent cause of light, 
and seems the eye of the universe, may be considered as the parent 
of this family, so that when we say that the sun shines, we say in 
effect, that the sun suns. The Latins in a similar manner derive 
Sol from a-iXa$ splendor, and Luna from Lucina, analogous to the 
Greek <r«A^v>j. Milton indeed hints at another source, and seems 
to consider Sol as an abbreviation of Solus, never forgetting his 
learning even in his sublimest flights. To this Satan is made to 
allude in his address to the sun, 

O thou, that, with surpassing gl6ry crown'd, 
Look'st from thy sole dominion, like the God 
Of this new world. 

But let any one that observes « the full blazing sun in his meri- 
dian tower," answer, which consideration he is most smitten with, 
its lustre, or its unity? To descend at once from the most shining 
quality in nature to another that is dull in comparison, but which 
nevertheless is distinguished by its glossy surface, and is connected 
in idea with what shines, we arrive at the meaning of the word 
Skin. This peculiar property of skin can escape no observer, and 
has been exquisitely dilated upon by Shakespeare, '. 

Yet I'll not shed her blood, 
Nor scar that whiter skin of hers than maw y 
And smooth as monumental alabaster. 

Shin, properly shin-bone, is the skin- bone, so called for a reason 
sufficiently obvious. This is in Danish Skinne-been, and in Ger- 
man Schienbein. 

In a secondary and figurative sense, what shines suggests the 
idea of fair and beautiful. Hence the German Schon, the Dutch 
Schoon, and the Danish Skibn, all having the sense of Beautiful. 
We have not preserved this word in common parlance, but meta- 
morphosed into Sheeny it was familiar to Chaucer, Spencer, and 
Milton, that admirer and imitator of our old poets, and we have 
it still in the names of places and families as Sheen, now called 
Richmond, Shinfield, Schomberg, Shin Lock in Sutherlandshire, 
and the famous Scoone in Perthshire. 

In another figurative sense, that which shines sometimes shines 
only, and according to the old saw, " All that glistens is not gold." 
It is this point of view, vfhich suggests the idea of a fair outside, 
'a cloak, a pretext, a false appearance. It is in this sense of shin- 
ing that Sham is used, and pervades to this day all the Teutonic 
dialects, in the different forms of Sham, Schein, Schyn, and Skin, 
Thus hypocrisy, or Sham-virtue, is called by the Germans Schein- 

and Latin Accents. 127 

togend, by the Dutch Schyn-deud, and by the Danes Skin-dyd. 
Tiie relatives whom we call father-in-law, brother-in-law, &c. the 
Dutch call Schoon-vader, Schoon-broeder, &c. that is Sham-fa* 
ther, or Fair-father. This may give us an insight into the force 
of the French names for the same relations, Beau-pere and Beau- 
fr£re. To understand this, we must recollect that the French, 
like ourselves, are sprung of German ancestors, and that, though 
the words of their language are borrowed from the Romance, or 
corrupt Latin, that prevailed in Gaul at the time of the incursion 
of the Franks, their whole grammar, that is the accidence, syntax, 
and structure of their language, and the turn of their phrases, 
and modes of speech, all show an affinity to the German. The 
material is for the most part Latin, but the workmanship Teu- 
tonic. The Franks less savage than their Saxon neighbours, when 
they had over-run and subdued the country, then a Roman pro- 
vince, acknowledged the superiority of the conquered in* point of 
civilization, and adopted, as well as they could, their language. 
In this, as in many former and subsequent instances, with which 
the history of mankind abounds, fortunately for the vanquished, 
Gracia capta ferum victorem cepit. 
It is in this way only that the French idioms can be explained. 
When the French say, Je m'etonne, it cannot be supposed, that 
the Romans in the most corrupt era of then* language ever used 
the circumlocution, Ego vie attorn, instead of the simple word, 
miror y but this expression, like many thousand others, must be 
considered as a literal translation into Latin of the German original, 
Ich mich wundere. In like manner Capitain (Capitanus) is a 
faithful representative of Hauptman, and chose (causa) of Sache. 
Thus too, without regard to classical authority, they turned the 
Teutonic compounds, Schoon-vader and Schoon-broeder, the 
closest way they could to the original, into bellus-pater, and bellus- 
frater, or, as they have clipped the words in pronunciation, Beau- 
pere and Beau-frere. Formerly Beau in the sense of Sham was 
employed on other occasions. In particular we meet with the 
term Beau Pleader in the Stat, of Marlborough, c. 11, and mother 
old statutes. These statutes direct, that the sheriffs shall not im- 
pose on the suitors in their courts discretionary fines pro pulchre 
placitando ; Lord Coke and other commentators take care to in- 
form us, that these fines were imposed not only for fair pleading 
by way of amendment, but also for vicious pleading. It would 
indeed be most extraordinary, that sheriffs, however arbitrary, 
should have fined persons for pleading fairly > nor is any thing so 
absurd alledged against them. Pulchre here means the reverse 
of fairly, and has the force of the French Beau. Beau Pleader 
therefore in old French means nothing but vicious, dilatory, sham 

128 On the Greek and Latin Accents. 

pltidrng. The sheriffs considered such pleas as a contempt of 
court* and were in the habit of imposing discretionary, and some- 
times perhaps unreasonable fines on the persons offending, till 
restrained by the several successive statutes of Beau Pleader. A 

To return to the point from which I have so long digressed, it 
has just fared with the two accentual characters, as it has with 
the many other parts of speech in Greek and other languages, 
where two forms of the same import happen to exist. Grammar* 
ians have laboured hard to distinguish one from the other, and have 
drawn from the source of their own imagination a difference in the 
power of these two accentual characters, for which there is not the 
slightest support either in reason, or in ancient authority. The grave 
and the acute signs import equally an acute accent, but the grave 
is not only an index to the acute accent, but an index also to the fi- 
nal syllable. It is become therefore the characteristic of Oxytons. 

It is now time to bring this essay to a conclusion. Ter limen 
tetigi, ter sum revocatus. I have endeavoured to. throw some 
light upon the subject, but am very sensible, that I have still left it 
imperfect, although, I hope, a little more intelligible, than I found 
it. I have something more to offer on the doctrine of accents in 
general, and on that of enclitics in particular, and another time I 
hope to be able to resume the discussion. The observation of 
Bentley towards the close of his Epistola ad Millium, "Accentuum 
omnium hodie ratio prepostera est atque perversa," although par- 
tially true, is perhaps too sweeping and general a condemnation. 
However this may be, one thing seems certain, that there is no pros-* 
pect of any practical improvement of accentual notation, until the 
theory and true principles of it are better explained and understood. 

J. M. 

a Some French words are voces hybridae, half Latin, half German. For- 
faire, Forclorre, Pardoner retain the Teutonic preposition For, in German 
. Ver, in Anglo-Saxon and Danish For, whence our Fordo, Forclose, Forgive, 
all of them abbreviations of Ueber, over, which like the Latin Per, in pcrire, 
perdere, pervertere f percipere, perfidus, pertinox, has various and almost oppo- 
site senses. This preposition has been a great stumbling-block to all etymo- 
logists, Borel, Menage, Junius Wachter, Home Tooke, &c. and a knowledge 
ot its primitive sense may be useful to the readers of old English, and of 
the Latin Chartularies and Records of the middle ages. 

Some French words are still perfectly German, disfigured however by 
negligent pronunciation, as Lansquenet, Bivouac, Auberge, Fauxbourg, from 
Landsknecht, Bewachen, Herberg, For burgh. The place which the Italians 
call limbo, the Germans not inaptly name Die For burgh der Hollen, the 
suburbs of hell. Forburgh, or rather Forgebirge, signifies ^also a promon- 
tory, or Foreland, and it is probably in this sense of the word that the For- 
bury, a bold commanding hill, close to Reading, and the site of a royal ab- 
fcey, has its origin. What w§ call the Cape, the Germans call the Forbury, 
of Good Hope. 



ft. KomiER, as a prelude to the account of various ^H^uittfai 
j discovered by htm in the lesser Scythia, the Tauric Chersonese* 
in Asiatic Sarmatia, describes, in the very handsome volume 
te «s» (entitled « Dissertation sui le Monument de la Reine Cq- 
arye"— and printed at St. Petersburgh, 1815, in octavo,) th* 
lb of Comosarya. This interesting monument stands on. tbe 
e of Lake Temrouk, on a little tongue of land called Andri-Atamy 
>site a bay of the Black Sea— and the ashes of Comosarya, the 
ghter of Gorgippus, have reposed during two thousand years on 
ommit of a mountain, washed at its base by the waters of the 
*. This Tomb consists of two statues and a large pedestal exhi- 
g an inscription— one of those statues had fallen into the Lake- 
wanted the heads — probably broken off, as our author conjee- 
t (page 3) by Tartar barbarians, the last possessors of this country. 
ikewise believes that Queen Comosarya had* in the vicinity of the 
ntain where her sepulchral monument now stands, a villa in winch 
>assed the summer season— this spot not being above eighteen 
3 distant from the ancient city of Phanagoria. That a Greek 
rment once existed near the mountain appears from various medals 
& on the borders of Lake Temrouk. 

om the inscription on this monument, Mr. Koehler infers that 
oaarya erected those statues in honor of her Tutelary divinities, 
ag them on a lofty mountain, conformably with a religious usage 
e most remote antiquity — (p. &). Four long lines of Greek capital 
•s, without any stop, or interval between the words, are thus 
ed in the narrow page of this Dissertation — 





riven in the common running hand, with Mr. Koehler's correc- 
aad divisions, thus — 

vigv*, TflgyiWav diiy«T4£» H**gM?&0Vf yvnq, wfytpm &i&«fCI i*%H** 
, *AMgyfi xcu 'Arrant atfprrof Ilcc^tnt^evf EterogAtf *w Otviwux *su 
jvtrro; JMtbm kcc) Mcctruv iramn x*i £*reg* *— signifying, " Comosarya 
ippi JUia et Parisadis conjux, ex voto posuit potentissimis Xnis 
gt et Astara* cum Pcerisades Bosporo prceesset et Tkeudosuz, 
pK Bex Sindorum, omnium Maotarum, altorumque populorum." 


130 Monument of Comosarya. 

The very name of Comosarya, daughter of Gorgippus, has been 
hitherto unknown — but Paerisades, her husband, is, according to our 
author, the Sovereign entitled first of that name, to distinguish him 
from another, who was also Chief of the Bosporus. Paensades the 
first was son of Leucon, and succeeded his brother Spartacus the third 
in the fourth year of the CVII. Olympiad, or about the year 849 
before Christ. Respecting the name of this Prince, Mr. Koehler t+ 
marks, (pp. 14, 15, Sec.) that on a medal described by M. Boze (in the 
Sixth volume of Mem. de V Acad, des Inscript. p. 530) it is spelt a* on 
the monument of Comosarya riAlPiSAAHS ; although we find Die- 
dorus Siculus, 1 Polyaenus,* Demosthenes, 3 and Dmarchus, 4 write 
n«gvndj)*, ITagira)*; and Bneuniht, variations proceeding, as may be 
supposed^ from the errors of ancient copyists. 

Our ingenious author illustrates his observations by quoting other 
inscriptions discovered by him in the garden of a church at Toman, 
on the pedestal which supported an image of Venus ; situated where 
Strabo notices a Temple dedicated to the Goddess— called, according 
to this monument 'Acp^tT* 'A**rov£tctg. But the Temple is styled Ti 
'AowTdtfgdy by Strabo, when he informs us, that those who enter the 
bay of Corocondoma find on the left bank the Temple of Venus, 
called Apatouron, from a circumstance which occurred in the vicinity 

of it. " Ei<rirtev<retrrt it %U W Kd{6K6*}ccpiJTV)v 9 &C. (Lib. xi. p. 757«) 

Strabo also mentions the n^h rfc 'Afyoiirns rns ' Airarwpv at Phanagoria, 
(Lib. xi.) Mr. Koehler proposes to correct the common reading of 
Strabo in this passage, from the Inscription in the church garden), and 

for TJjj 9 A*ecT6V£ov to substitute t« 'ATrccrMfitetidf. (p. 31.) 

But we return to the Monument of Comosarya ; her father Gor- 
gippus was, according to our author, (p. 41) that personage whose 
statue the Athenians placed near those of Paerisades and of Satyrus. 
The ancients have not informed us what states composed the dominion 
of Gorgippus, but we know that they were not far from the kingdom 
of Bosporus ; and it is probable that he was king of the Sindians, that 
Gorgippia was his place of residence, and that he gave his name to 
this city, as being its founder. It is true that Polyaenus styles the 
father of Gorgippus " King of Bosporus ;" and Mr. Koehler observes 
in a note, that the name of this monarch was very common through- 
out that region ; he adds, that of the proper names most in use among 
the Greeks, considerable numbers exhibit the word Hippos (horse) 
in composition ; and may be traced to the heroic age, or that of the 
primitive history of Greece ; above seventy are enumerated, (pp# 42, 
43.) such as Hippias, Hippocrates, Hippodamus, Hipparchus, Hip- 
postratus, Hippolytus, Leucippus, Xanthippus, Glaucippus, Chry- 
sippus, Melanippus, Philippus, Hermippus, Aristippus, &c. &c. 

The divinities to whom Comosarya consecrated her monument 
must be sought, says our author, among the Chaldeans, Persians,, or 

1 Lib. xvi. c. Hi. p. 123. * Strateg. Lib. vii. c. xvi. s. 1. p. 639. (Ed, 

Maasvic.) 3 Adv. Leocrat. p. 430. B. 4 Ctra. Demosth. p. N 34. 

Monument of Comosarya. 131 

Phoenicians ; for they do not belong to the Grecian mythology. He 
believes that Anergis may be derived from 7!ftt Nergel* or Nergal, 
of whom the worship is noticed in the sacred Scriptures — " And the 
men of Babylon made Succoth Benoth, and the men of Culh made 
Nergal, and the men of Hamath made Ashima."— (Kings II. Ch. xvii. 
Y. SO.) This Nerval seems formed of ~fi} nir and b% gal, or " the 
source of fire and light." It is the " Sun," " the King of Heaven," 
named Moloch and Melchom by the Ammonites, and Remphah among 
the Egyptians. The adoration of the Sun, transmitted by the Chal- 
deans to the Persians, continued under the symbol of fire, worshipped 
on high mountains. It was adopted by the Sindi, a nation dwelling 
southward of the Bosporus, and the name of Nergel was changed 
into Anerges, (p. 49.) 

Astara, the companion of the God Anerges, is in Mr. Koehler's 
opinion the Chaldean and Phoenician divinity Ashtaroth — JW)Kjy. 
The Alitath of the Arabians, J sis among the Egyptians, the Syrian 

Goddess — Atergatis, Astarte, Selene, or the Moon, among the Greeks 

so that the monument of Queen Comosarya was dedicated to the 
great objects of Eastern adoration, the Sun and the Moon> represented 
under the forms of Grecian Divinities, (p. 54.) 

THhe Sindians mentioned in the inscription must have been, says 
Mr. Koehler, a considerable nation — their country was situated east- 
ward of the Lake'Maeotis, and extended towards the south beyond the 
river Atticites, now called the Couban — but as subjects to the kings 
of Bosporus, they were comprehended under the general denomina- 
tion of Bosporani. (p. 78.) This inscription also notices the Mseotes, 
among whom the Sindi are reckoned by some ancient writers ; but 
Scylax more justly regards them as a nation totally distinct ; the 
Msotes being properly those tribes established on the borders of Lake 
Macotis, or in its neighbourhood ; such as the Psessii, Dosci, Thoeme*- 
otes, Tyrambes, Tarpetes, Obidiaceni, Aspurgitani, Arichi, Zinchi, 
and the Dandarii, (p. 80.) 

In the inscription on Comosarya's tomb, and on a monument of 
Mestorippus, (described by our author,) we find MAITAI for MAIQTAI, 
and from these two instances Mr. Koehler is induced to think the 
name purposely written, so as to express the vulgar pronunciation of 
it among the Bosporians. From the inscription of Mestorippus he 
has supplied the last four letters of nANTttN — and in the concluding 
title of P«risades he supposes the sculptor of Comosarya's monument 
to have omitted the letter P, and would read KAI ©A TEPHN, although 
he acknowledges the difficulty of ascertaining what tribes of people 
may have been comprehended under the vague expression " of several 
other nations." 

An engraved frontispiece represents three medals, of which hitherto 
no delineations have been published. They were found by our ingeni- 
ous author during his researches in the Bosporus — one (in brass) is of 
the City of Theodosia — the second (in silver), and the third (brass), 
are of the City Gorgippia. 




No. V.— [Continued from No. XXIV. p. 366.] 


In Vespas. 

II. Dele ti$: [ita Elmsl. ad Ach. 127- in Auct.] 

21. lege BA. irw$ fy; 2122. vpoa-igei x.t.A. 

25. lege roiour [ita Elmsl. ad Ach. 178. in Auct.] 

27. dele BA. £8. lege BA. 

57. Inter Schol. " forte /xayeipixo'y." 

70. Aid. xutevieiv: [sed] xaflsipfaj [tuetur] 113. leg. x&vio* xal- 
ttpyeiv vel xaTspuxeiy : ut 599. fiwroxAs/ei$ xal xargpuxei?. 

92. Etymol/^yij — \wvov lege u?ryou. — 97- av : leg. ijv [ita BrunckJ 

98. tov nvpi\i[jurov$] lege tov toD ilup. [paulo menus Rav.yfov Hup .] 

Ibid, inter Schol. " De Demo Pyrilam pis vide Lysiatn p. 154, 

[105. fxiAirra |3ojx/3uXioj Tyrwhitt.] 

106. Inter Schol. adscribitur ad verba " JoVe y*oi ijl$o$ Tagump 
vid. 166. Sot* " poi Zl<t>o$" [ubi vulgo omittitur juoi. quod exstat in 
MSS. A. et Rav. Vid. Porson Advers. p. 297. et cf. Veup. 520i 
£ i$o$ yi jttoi Sore] 

135. Forte o$payjxo(rs/&yo/3ucrrjxov£ : ut vou/3y<rnx»£ [infr. 1285. 
et Eccl. 441.] sed Suid. <fyuayft,oo-s/xvaxou£ nvaj: ut Fl. Chr. 

140. Frob. Kcti fjtuoTroAei t*s o<tti$ xaraSfSuxw^. Aid. x. j&wnr»Agi 
y oVn$. Sc. [i. e. Scaliger] y oSg ti$ : lege [*v<nro\fi ys xargSf 
SuxoG? : vel tj$ [et sic MS.] 

145. Inter Schol. ad vpofixfaouri scribitur K. IK, [quid velit B. 
tncertum est.] 

156, 7« iMOLQanctToi dutourovri jx ; Fl. Chr, [et sic MSS.] 
158. 4>JT. o yoig 6eo$ [sic Br.] 

161. BJE.) r • T? i 

162. *IA.\ f SlcBr ^ 

168. lege tyourelsi [ita Dawes aliique, et sic Rav.] 

1 84. ovfl^awr'] fo. ocvdgoov [ob Homericum t/$, vtiev, el$ avtigwv] 

185. legeouVi* <rv ; [sic MSS. 3.] 

207. Hie pro BA. et inter sequentes versus pro OIK. reposuU 
Bentl. BAE. [sic Brunck. in versione.] 

220. Suid. 'Apxaiops\i<rtia)vo<t>pvvixrip*T(ju in Mivvplty [et 9 Ap%cuQf} 

228. eav] Aid. lavTrep.— 232. lege xgenrow [sic MSS.] 

234. Aid. Xagw. [silet Br. hie et alibi, praesei tim in Pace, de Aid.] 

an A ristophanem. — Vespai* 153 

235. St omittit Aid. lege IotiV & nociru) [Br. fcriv* cunruirali) 

244. dele y*p [sic Br.] 

247. leg. tywro&ccv ^^ [sic Tyrwhitt. et MS. Rav.] 

248-9, et 252. Bentl. delet <ru cum PI. Chr. 

249* 250. irpfavljov et wgojtttWeiv Seal. 

263. lege or j [et sic H. Chr. qui tamen melius arm rovr $ et 
aic Elmsleius in Edinburgh Rev. N. 37. p. 89.] 

264. lege itpfa* [cum Scaligero.] 

269. avoteftoov Suid. in 'E<po\xo$. — 271. lege IxxaAely [sic Dawes.] 

272. w$' jj&ovij* efe^ru<rij] Bentl. olim voluit delendum vel f>$ 
vel •£: sed postea retinendum " ob clausulam." [et sane Fl. Chr. 
ipt&rj) necnou Br.] 

273. lege ou^l [causam non video.] 

274. anoAfloAe.] lege coroAwAexe [sic Kuster in textu.] 

275. lege irpo<rekoty h [ita Hermann, de Metris p. 326.] % 

276. lege iv aoToO" vel forte eha pAeypjyei' £y aurov. 
279. &roT > ] lege o^orav. — 281. 3$i)fjwt$] lege 8$ y faoL$. 

Ibid. SigSueT e£ flMraTwv ijv] lege 8i6§u 'jfflMraruAAav ti$ ^v. 

283. tout] lege tout ouv [sic Hotibius Lect. Aristoph. p. 99] 
£86. fraurov] lege tnctvrov y. 

288. Jhroo$] lege 6flreo<rouv et mox xuyxvTpifi$. 

I90 'JS/ } tsic Tyrwhitt - et MS - Rav 

9S96. lege xiont. — 300. Seal. autoD y*: lege eturov y\ 

301. vt/y : lege m/.— 310. Aid. oflev yi.— 315. fo. «J otl 

318. fo. Ttigovpai y wro rouyo° Itfsi | Bo6\(>p,ctt ye ttoAiv jx«8'w|jx«i» 

iX&mv M rovg xa$/(Tx|-ou£ x*xlv n woiSjo-ai [sic dividit Porsofius 

ad Hec. 1 169. et sic fere Rav.] 
Ibid. rwV hnX] Aid. rmh x&l. 
322-3. Forte duo sunt Aristophanei Anapsestici. 

MAA* c3 Zev piya fipovTU *a) 8^ xowrvov igedQvris fte iroiVov 
*Jf J7po£eyi'8i)V $ rov JfsAAou toOtov tov \l/su§apxjK,a£uv. 

llpo^evtSfiv [habet] Schol. [et sic Tyrwhitt.] 
329. ft'] Fl. Chr. x*; Suid. in * Am$v<ry\<ra$, ut editum. 

337. fo. &Qi£m i. e. affoxaAwroy. 

338. H. v. uncis circumdedit Bentl. quia Fl. Chr. pro glosse* 
mate habuit. — 342. Fl. Chr. Aeyoij: mox fo. vicmv [pro ysaiv.] 

&46. roo8J Fl. Chr.— 347. way.] lege iraiv av [ita Dawes.] 

348. xiTTcbfjuu Suid. in Xoipiwj et xiTTWjxa* 8^ in KiTTtom§. 

349. ife] lege «ijj [ita Br. et Rav.] postea Bentl. " immo oux 
•vfiy" [vulgo abest oox.] 

4 364. lege rix*** % [et sic Fl. Chr. et Br.] 
365. /xcAiTioy. Longum est Ac [Br. peA/mov.] 
383. eigyeiy] lege efpyeiy early vel irreu [hoc Tyrwhitt. et Br.] 
S84. jxavSaysr ] fo. /u,s/xv>)<rfl\ 
385. xa) xAavo-ftyTt;] lege xal x*c*xAa&raVTif [ita Br.] 

1 34 Bentleii Emendationes Inedita 

399. Seal. 6*00-010*1. — 401. Frob. el jlujv. Aid. el vvv. Seal, slfdj-yoV, 
414. rovfo y ov {xs^a-ofxsv Fl. Chr. [vid. Porson ad Med. 734.], 
415-6. Bentl. delet BAE. et XO. [sic Tykwhitt.] 
416. lege Oeoio-e^flp/a : Cretiei, ut infr. 426-7. [ita Br. in Sup- 

plemento.] — 419. tjj vel rov Fl.Ch. 
422. AW. l/uwrAijo>evo£ : vid. Eccl. 56. 

4S0. Fl. Chr. 01 §s Tco$9aA/JM»v xuxXeo xevTsrre xai tov$ [ita Br.] 
431. lege /So^si.— 432. toutov) Fl. Chr. 
452. oJo$. Suid. in r/ Jv* si8r}$. — 453. fo. Sixowtwv : vid. 548. 
456. leg. oux&reoT*.— 459. Pro XO. Bentl. Zf2. [ita Br.] 
460. fo. toov ti j&eAecov velraJy /xeAsoiiv twv [ita Br. e MS.] . 
475. Suid. in Mhto$yi[jl6 citat xpournetia x? u0 "* <TT€fA[JMTm in*Axov$o$ 

ut editum. — 478. Fl. Chr. wcu Vtiv. — 482. lege S*aAAa;£SiJT«. 
485. fo. TVQOLW&) fos<rr&Xfi$ ' Cretici, ut supr. 416-7. 

500. In Sehol. pro 'AokftoQ&vovs " lege *AgtoTOTi\ovs" 

501. Frob. rfieae] icon vvv. Aid. ye xa/. Suid. J$ xa) vuv ey». • 

502. Aid. et Suid. [in 1. c] 0V1 [et sic Br. e conjectura] at 6Yig 
Suid. in 'OpioQoi — ubi Kusterus corrigit otiij teXoa: male. 

503. Suid. [in 1. c. habet] 6pQo$ — Seal. opigoQ — 

505. Suid. [in I. c.] Tupavvixa. [et sic citat Porsonus ad Hec* 

508. eyx&vnv Suid. in Odhe xalpto. Athen. vn. p. 299- B. 

522. Forte El 8e vixouijv, 6 falva, tjj hairy /xij Vftevi}^ vel <rO 8* elr« 
[vice 6 8e7va] vel £1 Si jx$ v*x>j V4', 6 SeTva! Scaliger 6 SeTva. [Illud 
vixq tuetur] infr. 725. [at vulgatum retinere voluit Bentl. propter] 
Pac. 879. Lys. 920, 925, 11 70. 

524. etsq.orp. — 629. et sqq. avrurrp. [ita Porsonus apud G A IS- 
FORD ad Hephsest. p. 292.] — 525. lege hi ti Ae'ysiv. 

526. Frob. ^avs/o-ij.] Seal. <pavfi<ni e Sehol. ad 530. lege Qavrpu 
Attice [sic Br.]— 531. lege tov&7. 

532. lege ctyoov vvv [ita Porson 1. c.] 

534. dele vvv et lege yevoifl' o3r — 0$ y idiXa [ita Porson 1. c. 
praeter y in <r ab eo mutatum.] 

551. nr^otniv rig Fh Chr. [cujus conjecturam Brunckius, istefur 
impudentissinuis, pro sua venditat.] 

556. lege axo<p6uf iv, ut infr. 560. et 643. [sic Br. qui addit Nub. 
873.] — 56S. lege xaxoi wpo; to!$ ovtriv, ut Sehol. 

564. Ad Sehol. " Inepte. vid. 1251. Hesych. A\twkw ye^olov. 
et Dio Chrysist.p. 631." — 565. Seal, xaTatm^ou. 

[570. Inter Sehol. omUtco legit Tyrwhittus.] 

571. Aid. afrois : lege al roig [ita Fl. Chr.] 

574. Aid. ygiyl/ : Seal. ypafya>. lege JgtJrepov «5 rovr) yfm^/ca 
/xoi. [lllud pot tuetur] supr. 557. to pvYipoavvov fjtoi. 

581. lege xaTaAeiW [ita Fl. Chr. et MS.] 

586. fo. (rsfivbv mtolvtcdv, 

594. Seal, fiovoy — ov [modo non i ita quoque Br.] 

600. lege xou wrep— [vid. Porson ad Hec. Praef. p. 46.] 

w Aristophanem.—r-Vespas. 135 

604. -Frob. xaT«9* ei<ri}xov0\ Aid. omittit f }$. 

605. Seal. a<nra?a>VTai [ita Br.] 

607. iraerrKltyv<r Suid. in 'ExkaKuf&arou. 
O08. e7riiomF6V<rcLV — flrpocreveyxoi Suid. iu <Pv<tty}, 
6 10. lege towtoictiv [ita Br.] 
614. lege jtwj 'x;^ [sic Kuster] mox Aid. T<f8\ 
632. Cf. Eccl. 880, v /Jow 8* hgriiiots — rpvyvjosiv. 

640. owx lv auToD] Fl. Ch. otuToi lege lauTou vel ovxei' aur$v, 

641. lege <rxvnj /SAereiv vid. Schol. [et sic. Br. in Supplem.] 
656. Citat Suid. in /ZguraveTa. — 659. Dele tow [ita Br.] 
661. Frob. fywv. fo. upTv [ita Kuster.] 

666. Frob. e&pu : leg. aipe* : i. e. oipjj, *Attiko>$ et sic Aid. et 
Suid. in Ilspixe<pQsl$. 

671. p<rflijVTai Suid. in */fi<r9i)VTai et viayagi£o]uevoy [quibus additur 
$1. in TpayaXityvra. a Porsono Hec. Praef. p. 50.] 

676. Forte JSo) 8J y , 0$ a FX ^- 

682. Aid. ?v rl s ye % [et iMSS.] 
* 692. lege irploov participium. [ita MSS.] 

696. xou toktiv : forte aya0oi<nv. 

697* &nj Suid. in 'Ax*ps$ at oWw? in 'EyxsxuxAqo-tfi. 

699. Suid. '^xa^. sed vid. 539- 

700. aXevgovJ] lAeov Suid. in 'Axage$ : forte eAatov. 

701. lege 014. Ttotirovi* oov rfvexa dguxriv; BdE."lvx yiymarxys. 
vM. Pac. 209. TouS* eivsx faZs rain eSgewov et Lys\ 492. rot»' 
cvvsxa SgoGwwv et Vesp. 718. wv e1vsx\ 

708. xa) Trugai xat tripling Suid. in Ilvgtvoo. Vide Kuster. Aid. 
iruagfTj. — 709. lege tou MapaA&vi [ita Elmsleius ad Ach. 343/J 

710. 'EAooAp/ov Suid. in'EAeaAoyoi : vid. supr. [fortasse respexit 
Beotl. ad v. 700.] 

71 1. Suid. in Nagxv} [habet] r\ nimviu ; wrirep v&pxvi, unde Kus- 
terus recte legit oTjxoj, ti wOTovfl*; oofv&pxvi ftou. 

716-7. lege conjunctim. — 726. <rxiproova$ Suid. in ^x^rcov. 

743. Fl. Chr. fyvV.— 758. lege xsiVopxi [ob 760.] 

769* uAij Suid. in 'E£t%e*v. Distinguit Bentl. ijv e£ev>j EtAij x*t 
'tyjgov S7 Sol mane affulgeat : ut Ife^' ce $/A* ijAie [Verba Aristo- 
phanis in Nr)<roi$ et Strattidis in Phoenissis.] 

769. ^Aiao-e* vid. Schol. [ubi adscripsit Bentl. ad vocera 4"A£;.] 
" recte. vid. Av. 1 10." [ita Br.] 

777* Seal. avaftao-cojKfyo?. et mox tovtoL 

780. Suid. ' AvctfAouro'wpevoi. 

785. tiexegpirfyv Iv legisse videtur Suid. in Jiexegparurt [et sic 
B>ri e Toupii praecepto.] — 786. Seal. A«r/8a£. 

[791. yeXobv pro Aey»v Tyrwhittus. ingeniose.] 

803. ©fytjiweis Suid. in *A\vnjtl : sed ovpyTifop in 'ApUtict. 

821. legexaAwnfe. [ita Br. e MS.] 

[824. OIK. adscripsit Tyrwhittus.] 

136 Bentleii Emendationea Ineditct 

[853. Vid. Betitl. ad Plut. 816. inter Addend, ex EpisU Prior.] 

834. lege JSuceAixqy repugnante Suida [in Tgopa\i$.] Sed metium 
postulat vid. 892. [lta D'Orvill. ad Chariton, p. 348=411. Pierson 
ad Mcer. 221.] 

843. Tipav J3Aewo> : Vet. to nriv 6e\a>. [quaere de ilia veteri edi- 
tione.] — 84*6. fo. ri xtyov. — 853. lege Mpd* [ita M S.] 

870. Fl. Ch. opt xuAaoev. lege vgonvkouc [ita Br. in notis*] 

883. lege jpttfuvi* [ita MS. et Seal.] 

885. 2xo\. [JNempe ex illis erui potest vel vwiToori&ov Vel yw- 
vaiOT&gwv ut ex hi bent MS. Rav. verum illud Scholion in Kust. deest.] 

889. dele y$ [ita Dawes.] — 895. Seal. w$ p,iet§o{. 

897. lege ouxStwxoov [i. e. 6 exhwxoov et sic Fl. Chr.] 

909- Seal. BE. 6 fifcXvgos oZto$ ? KT. xov. 

910. Fl. Oh. &jv fawn.— 920. rov Suid. in Sxlpfw. 

934. 01. toutov 8* [sic Tyrwhitt.] 

953. In Schol. legit Bentl. Iletf jk&ttyo collato Schol. ad Av. 

96 1 . lege IolI^ov eXeti robs [et $ic R» v - quoad tcv$ vulgo omiMMn.] 

971. Aid. xvu2$*eva: lege xvu&oftswi [sic citat H. Thej. 
L. Gr. V. xvu<*«>.>-974. Quartum xotT*/3* addit Fl. Chr. 

1010. lege %q6<rxsTe [Vid. ad Nub. 575.] 

1020. lege **pwv : [vid. Pac. 711.] 

102 J. Inter Schol. Bentl. pro »0v legit vovv et wpus [ut Kusterus 
in lndice] pro 6pa$ et «n$»}jxovvTO$ pro awo&jjxouiTO£. 

1022. lege ^o-' eTnSscrflai. 

1026. «uto5] fo. wjootov vid. Pac. 755. 

1027. Pro xuvv>k lege cum Era tos then e xvvo$ w; : nam ri «? 
Syntaxi necessarium : et Homer. IX. ^. 225. xovo$ opficLt' 2%»v et 
ipse in Equit. [414.] xvvoxiQaXov se vocat. At illud xvvviw est in- 
eptum. Qualis enim meretrix tarn trucibus oculis i Suid. Kvvo$Qah- 
(ti^ercu, ava&a>$ /3Xswsi. — 1028. Forte yX&Trai xoXaxcw. 

1032. lege fywv [sic Br.] mox /xst* uMv post Cleonem. 
1035. Aid. >hk»v.— 1046. lege woXXoT* [ita MSS.] 
1043. lege ir&pax$ \\lol. — 1048. lege xamv [ita M SS J 
1057* lege p>vov tout' oivlpu aXxi^&rraroi [ita Porson Prsef, Het. 
p. 45.] vel avlpixanctrroi. — 1059» lege oT^era* x6xvov ri ye. 
Ibid. ToAiouTfigo* 8)j oi 8' — Tgl^a$. Suid. in Kvxvov, 
1060. rqlyas AJd. in Schol. 
1062. Suid. 1. c. xa) rovSe yvco/tijv v«avix»jv s^fiv cu$ lyco : recte 

yvcu^v et.g^eiy. lege 8ei rwv^g yvci/xjjv veavixtjv ^eiv f-'y^ *^ [^^ f 
producitur ob yv.] 

1064. Aid. xoxxUovg. Suid. Kix/wouj in Kvxvov et Klxm$ [ubiet] 
«S lycG. Pollux it. 28. fioGTpvxovg xou xixlwov$ 'ApurTO$ivr}$*—xu\ei. 

1067. Vid. Hesych. Ji5o-<fijxa>/tevov. Aid. Ir^xwftfVov. 

1068. dele fa™ [ita Br.] vel «m'v.— 1073. lege fa*' [ita MSS.J 
1076. Fl. Chr. Sot/gl xuli sed lege £Jv 805/ : vid. Pac. 856. et 

t* Ari$tophanem.~Ve*p&$+ 137 

«c Suid. w Oofiov. — 1077. Fl. Chr. <rr<4$ e SufcL fti Xikivn. 

1 102. lege &>k\tyim$ [ita Br.] 

1107. forte *p4>ys<rT*TW ut supr. [1098.] 

1 122. Seal. fcr*v$£«x/$a>v. 

1127. et 1 130. Seal. ava/3aXow ut infr. 1147. */^<rym, 

1 154 et 1 163. fero&i)$- Seal.— 1 156. lege x*r« jSafv* [ita Br.] 

1164. 8*auraAaxwvi(rov. vid. Hesych. bis et Etymol. 

Ibid. Inter Schol. pro aMv in fragmeuto Hermippt legit 
Bentl. «5.— 1 174. lege eo* © [ita Br. e MSS*] 

1205. Seal. xaToxAivai.— 1209. Alhen. V. p. 179. B. 

1216. fo. 'Ax6<rropQ$ cas. gen. [ita Br.] 

Ibid. Inter Schol. " vid. Schol. Av. SI." 

1218. dele ye etlege ii^ereu. 

1319. Bentl. olim scripsit qhrofuu. mox delevit. 

1221. lege eyevr 'Afyveus.— 1222. lege efc <rhxhbm&. 

1227. dele XO. [ita Br.] 

Ibid. Inter Schol. Aid. aSwjtrsv o$ro$ xa) (juiiop*¥o$ %&{x,ty* *jaVo/: 
undo Bentl. in textum reposuit fixiifievos et d£ 'irijg vice £vf gwp'. verutn 
in folio quodam ad finem libri haec scripsit u Sic legendum esse 
credo. $£olium est. 

lmU3. WvQpootf Q\)TO$ 6 XOM fJLOLlV0fJLSV0$ TO TfautyOL XgttTOf. 

2dus. avrp«\(/ei tb^* xa) rctir tf&Kir dt 6° kvrij(ttoLi powoifr 
Alcaici sunt. Haec confirmare facile est e Schol. Immo certis- 
sima emendatio est haec, quae sequitur. 

*AvQpw<p' ovto$ 6 ftaivojLcgvoj to p,iy& xparo? 
'AvTpityei TaytL t&v ni\ir a 8* fjffTai p9Ka$." 
1229- lege BAE. t# S — t§o* *»Uv: vid. 1216. [ita Br. e MS.] 
1231. Inter Schol. " lege yvovv" [vice woiouo-'] 
[1237. forte jSiot: Tyrwhittus.]— 1242. dele +/. [ita Br.] 
, 1244. lege <PL pj8ajxo>$ [ita Br.] 
1251. Inter Schol. citat Bentl. Suid. in '4y«j3tdfeaj et AltrVms. 
1264. Sic versum dividit BentL— inf<<rrt-di(ri [ita Br.] 
Ibid. £uvcov roi$ BeTTot\oi$ Suid* 

1272. cfytfrs Suid. in Sv^o-of ix^rerro^. fo. »fwxrrt. 

1273. lege <puVfoj vid. 1449. et Plut» 1045. [ita Br.] 

1277. Fl. Chr. xoxfeif. 

1278. Seal. o\kt§6$. sed Aid, recte o\*#cof. 

Ibid. Aid. xutgayora fclj&tfoi. lege be&pem [ita Br. et Fl. Chr.] 

1280. lege lx/3a\o> [ita Fl. Chr.] ut Suid. in Mi\*f. ftiox loa 
Fl. Chr. 

1284. Suid. in 7» [habet]rour) et delet ijxaif. Fl. Ch. **lg. 
Forte tout) tx~i$ wAsugaTj reyov$ et c2<tts to7$ opfigwg drtyflv [etenim 
iftfipoig melius convenit cum <rra$rfj*fro£ qudd pro van ledt. agtioscit 
Schol.] Suid. r£; *Kev(>*$ triyw in Jpreyw. [Vide an ArretJJr. dura 
Suidae tribuit rot$ wA>jya;.] 

1290. anjpov Suid. in \4rqgoraTov. 

1S8 Bentleii Emendationes Ineditct 

1293. lege"IffwuXAo* [et sic Tyrwhittus, et Blomfield. ad 
Prom. 214. in Gloss.] Suid. 'ImtoXvTO^ in netgornxwretrof. 

Ibid. OeoippourTos Suid. in 1. c. [sed vide ad Eq. 1265.] 

1294. «*raTtt>v Suid. in Motxpco, at oVovtcov in llapoivixdyrctros. 

1295. wrwrXijoro Suid. in Uagoiv — . 

1296. M)>mt' Suid. in 27apoiv— et 'Ev^Xaro [ita Br.] 

Ibid. TOreg&e* Suid. in 'EwjA — TJa^oiv— et Kot%p6cov. fo. xferogSe. 
[vtd. Br. ad Fac. 547. in Suppletnento.] 

1303. y« delet Suid. in ilopvo^ [ita Br. e MS.] 

1312. Seal. u\u&z<rTOLTQ\)$ ov$ sIxotol;. 

1320. lege 'ftfalt [ita Br.]— 1321. lege ravry [ita Br.] 

1337. Inter Schol. legit Bentl. h\vhtxo$ pro hrbixo$ et &rrrr«* 
pro TaTTrrai. 

1339- lege cum Eustathio OS. 4. p. 1403=36. ouV i^dkiig ab 
l$ioAXa>. vid. ad Pac. 431. {sic Br.] 

1355. lege oirog o3to$ [sic Fl. Chr.] Semel ovto$ Suid. in Zof>h$, 
XtuQ&*vo$, Tvfetiavl, et XoipobXvty. — 1356. iroisi$ Suid. in 2opo$s 

1357. tovto tycbv Suid. in *&$ rfiecog : et tocvto in 'E£ Srw et 
roura in KotTonrpotijerat, 

1362. lege wou '<rri roJij y' ij : (ut Suid. in Tat/rot hyp fig) ut respon- 
deat t<5 woiav in 1360. 

1396. lege Soxoig ut Suid. in Al<rcono$ : idem Soxjjs' in MeMory. 

[1403. Tykwhittus 4P. vel KAH. akvfib$, oJro*. 4>/.xa) [ita Br.] 

1404. 3ojxco£ [ita Kuster. Br. eoixctg] Suid. in 6a\J//y>). fo. icotm$. 

1411. Seal . 7Fpo<rei<ro[iai . 

1414. lege 8eug) troregov vid. ad Plut. 66. 

1423. Seal, et Fl. Cbr. rov : vid. Ach. 1031. 

1425. lege a ^' aV-. — 1430. lege Saw'. 

1443. jSiayrifc Frob. |8iOTJj$ Aid. et Suid. in Oh 

1445. i).] Seal. J: mox lege furaTreareir . # 

1466. Seal. eI<nt«cu*A>jxev [e Schol.] 

1472. tov vovv Suid. in Kpmxansgct : lege tou$ yvv [ita Br J 

1475. Dele 01. et 1477. adde 0/. 

[1481. Notabile est, quod Bentl. nihil hie adscripserit adtfrrpo-H ; 
cujus vice reposuerat ipse vXfotru in Dissertat. de Phalarid. Epist. * 
p. 299. ed. Lips.] — 1489- Seal. xa\6$. 

1494. Aid. av to*. Seal, et Fl. Chr. owtw. 

1502. Seal. TfuywWav:— 1505. lege BAE. arkg. 

1506. <PIA. $v Fl*. Chr. 

1518. lege \Mvre$ [ita Br. e MS.e Beutl. de Phalar. p. 300.] 

1519. lege wtyxnv ab <8?e*v : vid. Hesych. et sic Aid. [ita Br.] 

1524. lege vjxa$. 

1525. Sic distingue 'Opxovpevov, orris afl^XAofcv, x P° v Tgay(p8»*. 
Nemo, qui hoc jecit choro tragico, evasit t. e. impune habuit* 
Aid. rgayfSwv. 

In A ristopkanem—Pdcem. 130 

In Pacem. 

2. Lege ET. 01. \fov. OIK. iog mnrp. 

6. lege ET. ij KUTe^otyev ; 01. (xtx. 

7* lege *epxv?d<roig. vid. Thesm. 658. et 774. [ita Br. e MS.] 

8. dele 01. — 17. iregiave^eiv Suid. in 'AvrXla. 

25. Chat Suid. in <Pav\obg : mox Fl. Ch. oirrog. 

40. dele 01. mox lege 01. tow yip i<rr. ET. oux [ita Br. e MSS.] 

42. fo. oux lor* to* Tspa$ toD Jicfc : vid. Thesm. 411. oux 1x9* oV«s 
♦5 et 854. oux ecrS' oWw^ Ou. 

43. Frob. si&V Aid. ?Sij.— 48. avcttiwg : lege av&ijv, 
58. Fl. Chr. ^ *xx6gei et Suid. in Kogrif^oL. 

62. lege o-sauTov [ita Br. e MSS.] ut Suid. in Arpeig: at.<rfa«jr£ 
in 'ExxqxxI<tol$. 

69- Citant Etymol. in y AvctppiyvfLwi et Suid. in ' Avocpg^aoricu 
[qui babet xai /wexpa.] — 82. Citat Suid, in 'J8fy$. 

97. Frob. <roig. fo. rolg et sic Aid. 

1Q6. lege coj [quod abest in Frob. et Aid. at in Kuster. exstat.J 

113. Bentl. olini voluit ervpog y ag h*\ sed " melius Fl. Chr* 
ip hvfuog ye" 

118. axflofiou v/xTv. Fl. Ch. Vfxelg. Suid. oux tym eWsiv in Jo£aow* 

120. Seal. tyexag : mox lege y [ita Suid. in ^aixa&i.] 

136. lege /tsAsa: vid. 1 12. et postea pluralis semper. 

142. lege to 8e a-Aoiov 2ot«i [ita Br.] 

152. Inter Schol. "ExBabrio: deleToi$." 

154. Fl. Chr. ygu0-op£aAiva>v. 

162* An cxancov a <rxwp 9 trxotrog, o~xarioy i 

165. Fl. Chr. kvoXeig bis [ita Kuster.] 

167. lege ?g*-uAAov [ita Kuster.] 

184. dele ctoj et 186, 7. lege SoV ; et e<r$(t [si bene memini.] 

191. 0-01 omittit Aid. [vid. Elmsl. ad Ach. 1049.] 

210. lege *ri)j [vid. ad Plut. 949-] 

22a EP.\ [sic et Tyrwhitt.] 

219. Aid. yaiq et 226. Trapcurxivafy™- 

238. dele alterum xal' [et sic MS.] at Seal, et Fl, Chr. x&xh 
froXsfjLov re xou tov /3X. 

245. lege c5 Meyapa Meyap' <bg burpififoeeif [vid. Elms, in 
Edinburgh liev. No. xxxvn. p. 68.] 

246. Frob. xaTajxejxuTTa>/uiva. Aid. — jxef/MTT — lege — /xfjttUTTaj- 
Tst/ftsva [ita Kuster.] — 255. Frob. co) yag. dele y&% [et sic Rav.] 

256. KT. cog SgifiuV oT/xoi. 
270. lege to irorvtct SeWoiva [ita Br. e MS.] 
276. 6fj,wv Aid. Suid. in Xafiotpixri. et Schol. in Apoll. Rbod. 
1- 917. fj/ttoiv Suid. in 'A\\' el ng.— 279. xir : Fl. Chr. x%*;\ 
281. lege Aaxe8ou[Mvloig [ita Rav.] 

140 Bentlm Emendationes Ineditcz 

« 286; Fl . Chr. jurfptp [ita MS.] 
SI 2. Fl. Ch. IxsTvo xa\ tov Keg(5epov h^lrrere : lege Ixsivovi tm 
Kigflepov xaicWcVre. — 317- Aid. 0oXfc et322. hafaiprp*. 
839. Fl. Ch. jj5ij If— fo. v} Al* If— 340. vid* 867. 
345. lege zlQi (toi ymif IScTv t^v fjftigav rtt£njy wort, [ita fere 
Porsonus, teste Kiddio in Pors. Miscell. Crit. Praef. p. xcii.] 
362. KxWKpcuv Suid. in /7oyijgoi$. aliter in KiMtxwv. 
367* wtydy Suid. in '.EjuwroXij. 

379* lege j***' 3*0 **ow JioV [ita Rav. et Porson. Append, ad 
Toup. p. 497. e Suid. in Trropjcw.] vel uno dio$ y. 

380. Seal, ropfja-ca : Sed Etymol. p. 268. rerogrj<roo. [ita quoqn* 
Suid. in Terop{i<rw.] — 383. lege Xaxijcerai [ita Br.] 

387* Fl. Ch. voft/^eav £y ys r<pfo : lege VffyuJf iy r<jJ8« t» ytiy; 
389* ayrijSoXoucny fyuuy ye. Olim voluit Bentl. af/xjtw ys : mot 
49rijfoA$ <r' 'Eflxij pfXs collatis 415. et 717. at postea monuit Suid. 
in I7aX/yxoTC£ delere ye. — 390. Aid. To'&e. 

394. ti delet Aid. exhibet Suid. in neur&vtipov. 
395* Suid. in *.4yyjXai sic ha bet xa) ere Qvtricucriv Up-eii<n TrpocrefSoic 
t» ffctyiX — cti$ Mia, wavves w — totvi* StyxXovftev fj/xg7$ &f /. Rectissime* 
fywif agnoscit Schol. 6ucr/ai? publice, wpoa-olois privatim i$fot..Nota. 
Bingulari riumero utitur wag l/xou ye in 386. [Usee Bentl. At vide 
Lex. Sanger. p> 328.] 

Ibid. ayekotjfiiV Etytnologus [V. '^yfjXai] p. 9. qui haec citat ex 
Nephelis [ibi vsyikou$ edition. Aid. erratum indicavit Porson. ad 
Toup. Append, p. 496. et comprobavit fyxe7$.] 

406. lege ewijSouXet/oyrs [ita Porson. ad Hec. 1 169. e Rav. fcri- 
fiovXsuovres : vulgo s7n(3ov\evQU<n.] 

408. lege 1m 8ij ti [MS. uiiiis Wn &ij.] 

412. lege r)(*ol$: vid. Schol. [cujus verba sunt tjfxwv AroXXu/iiyay : 
ipois quoque TyrwhitTUs.] 

414. waperpayw Suid. in ipsa Voce et ' AgpUTooXloi. 
Ibid, lego v<p' djutprooXtag, Hesych. 'AfxagrooXov, frccvovgyov jtw%- 
Orjpov aijttuXdy. sic Thesm. 1122. 

431. Suid. 4na\oufjLev: tamen cum Eustathio 08. A. p» 1403s 
36- lege %pyo> 9 <piaXovp,ev ab fyiaXXco [sic Br.] 

436. Aid. %c3ti$. — 446. Suidas Jogt/£ob$-: vid. 548. immo Sopu- 
£ov$ : vid. 1212. [sed] ityufs in 1259- 
456. lege^pei fe jm}; TP. pf). 
457 > roi$ xoc\cps Suid. in 'OyxuXXserflaj. 
464. oil delet Aid. et mox [habet] 6yxt/X£<r9\ 
474. Frob. oily Aid. «5 [ita Kuster]— 480. lege EP. ixxorxriv. 
481. Citat Suid. in rxt^xpov .— 4Q0. Fo. xiyouftey y* [ita Br.] 
495. lege xaxoW a xax6vov$ : vid. Schol. [«%fyo) xal xaxbv vov* 
f^om*] et v. 670. agnoscit et Suid. Kctxovoi, §x6pol. 'ApimoQ&wtf 
[ita Br.] mox Aid. fytiv. 

in Aristophantms-^Pooip*- 141 

496. lege ftiv y oh [pq/ t Herman?*, de M*tr- p« €90.} tt 

497. *v$ptl*$ [ita Br.] 
507. lege Aa/3»jxe4 % [ita Br. e MS.]— 508. AW. y# 8$. 
510. Aid. of : lege jxo'voi.— 512, Quidam ?S« yij$ [teste Seal.] 
#28. Inter Schol. pro *orev Suid. xtXepov in Xfoppu-i- 

531. lege TP. x<x x ^ v 'ftruAAfay, JEw'gi*^ J£P. xA,*^. 

532. lege TP. oti yoig—534. EP.—535. TP.—il*. 
548. lege 8ogti£ow: vid. 12 12.— 551. lege ifc. 
563. Citat Suid. '£1$ xaX6v. — 565, lege <r$vjf* r 

567* *oag xaXoog airov aaraAXajfeisv Suid. in y ATsaKKkfyw : to tgfijf, 
t© fUroWiov x«X. d»r. at/T&v casu recto. ' 

573. lege vaXarioov : vid. Hesych. [ita MSS. 2.] 

Ibid. Inter Schol. irakatoov: lege vaKaiioov sic Suid. inlfaAafau. 

581. Fo. piXTanj : vid. 660. [ita Br.] — 582. lege t)fiiv. 

585. Fl, Ch. aygou$ et delet to in 586. 

594. lege aygofxounv et 598. o<ra y* [ita Br.] vel twwr [ita Pois- 
son ad Hec. 1 149.] 

599 • Fl. Chr. wpoayekacni toi. Aid. wgorysX&<r*rrett. 
^ 6Q2. Vet. ed. *h «-sviJTf$ x«l ywegypi. Lege ergo T X1 Aift-fpvqrf; 
rid. Schol. Hesych. Suid. 

604. lege )}g£*v gurijf . 

605. Aid. 8/x)j$ [vid. Elmsl. ad Heracl, 46l.] 

606. ifw>v Aid. et Frob. ty*a>v Suid. [in 4vro8«|av.] 
609. lege xajjf g$tKnj<rev. — 626. «v8g£y y« : lege yttogy&v. 

628. lege vel 'E£g'xp\J/av ijv lycJ QvTs6<ra$ *%i9pety fy», vel quod 
verius 'fvrevo-a xa£s$g — [ita Dawes.] 

629. lege co ^fA' evMxoo$ ye Sijt Its) [ita Tyrwhutus et Por- 
son ad Hec. 1 169.] 

637. Fo. avnjv [vid. ad Av. 391.] 

642. lege*^TT* ais'/SoA* av Tij vel *^tt av ourp 8i*j3aAoi ti$. Fl. 
Ch. *Avra 8*a/3aAoi [ita Br. tacite, ut solet.] 

644. Suid. in 'Efivvow [et sic Rav.] Etymol. [in 'Exaropfa citat 
PJpt. 379.] Tb CTOf* hnfi6<ra$ xigp.*<riv r&v faroqwv [vid. et Schol* 
Eq. 523.] 

646. lege sXaie. — 648. o&wg ear : Aid. oi *£§e<rT. 

Q49. Aid. n$ Ictt . [Rav. if gov, vid. Kidd. ad Porson. Mis- 
cell. Crit. p. 370.] 

670. Aid. xauTjj. — 675. Fo. oofl-fp [ita Br. e MS. ftrfp.] 

681. »o#. Aid. erou. — 688. lege yewj<ro/tsfla [ita MS.] 

[688. EP. Tgonoo r/vi ; TP. on : sic Rav. Confirmat coajecturam 
Tyrwhitti : qui legit in Schol. v*f«j<rfi$ pro vepioru$.'] 

698. t% delet Suid. in 'Puro; [et in XotnqQs advocante Br.] 

699. lege 8«1 [ita Br. e MS.] 

709. |8Xaj9Jjvai futuri temporis [non intelligo quid Bentl.velit.] 
713. Aid. away§ <rv>— 714. lege jSovAq <rv [ita Br.} 
720. TP. woi yap ; £P. ol^trai. Seal. 

142 Bentfaii Etnendationes Ineditce 

721. Vid. Hesych. 'Avrpocxy It ig^arogx sed hie malim atorpa- 

728. Fl. Chr. ^l s . 

732. Seal, \6yov : mox an dvooyei [vice ?£«.] 

733. Inter Schpl. " Sic digere versus El ftsv ^ Xlu9 ww ~ at- 
Zgeg ijvayxa?<ffttjv .Sr^t^/a* SfOg' ot/x £y ir&pifav el^Xefiv roiuvR Ivobv ex 
Parabasi. Vide Nub. 518." 

741. lege <Pguvw§oig: vid. Hesych. flarpocrat. Suid. 

744. lege e£ dvspciTo vel fir dvipoiTo [ita Dawes.] vid. ad Thesm. 

751. lege ewg^e/pei : vid. Vesp. 1025.— 752. ofyta* Schol. 

Ibid. fo. (ZagP*po66p.oug : vid. Schol. [to fioLgfiuga&sg tie tow 
Khivwog SijAoT.] 

755. lege lAi^/tAaJvTO ut Suid. in A'uvva : at Hesych. 'EXiyvaw 
touto w«ro/ijTai omto toO Aip^vgusiv rapa 'AgHTToQavii Iv Eigjjvrj : lege 
'JEXi^vflpvTo [ita fere Albertus.] 

757. lege Aajxias 5': vid. Vesp. 1030. 

760. omittit (Mt Aid. fo. avTCLirobwvoa tijv ^. 

761. iregivooTwv omittit Aid. lege irsptQoir&v votXotl<rrgotg sic veptkof 
in Vesp. 1020 [ubi tamen Bentl. a-agicov] vel nephew hof&xg neigwv: 
etenim ibi Schol. [ex Pace citat] wepipfi roig waKotloTpctg. 

778. lege feeov r hrctbovg. 

785, 6. lege Mjj0* wraxoue pjT* eAfle £uvegjflo$. 

79S. Suid. Hesych. Aafwofxara. 

800. lege fy>iv£ [ita MSS.] Fl. Ch. /u^-coXy. 

808. lege a 'SsXcfxfc.— 819- Seoiy. Aid. vg<2v. 

820. lege tcJ 0-xeXi) [ita Br.] : vid. tc© <rxgXi) in 825. et too *Tkpwp 
in Av. 1229. 

822. lege $a/ve<rfls. 

831. Suid. in Jidvpajx/3 — habet 'Evfoasptai eptvy^hovg : [aliter] is 
'Evfoaipia@egivYi%hovg : forte IvSia^spivrj^ — vel euSiaoregi — [at is 
folio ad calcem libri scripsit Bentl. " roig hhetirepivr^BTOvg : lege 
€vh» — Plutarch, p. 1410: H. Steph. evtilag 8s xa) evotpeglag ytyt* 

847. lege rotvrag <rv : TP. -jroflev; ex Toupavou. [Rav. Taura] 

855. Frob. xal xavfla&g. Aid. xa) xava. Forte xarco vel tol xareo : 
vid. Thesm. 223. vel au-nj xav0a&/ : recte " Ergo hie quoque pa- 
randus est cibus, quern lingat." Zxeua^eiv est conficere, condire 

856. <rrp. — 909. uvrurrp. 

865. XO. mox Qaveig : lege pave*. [itaTyRWHiTTUS et Br. tacite] 
867. Frob. /Bivelv Aid. xivelv: vid. 340. 
874. Leopard, et Seal. viroweiraoxoTsg. 
877. tfy*»v ad Spectatores. — 881. cruad mulierem. 
89 l.« lege ©g«T tnrimw vel opaTc TOvVraveTov, c3f x«Xo'y. Sed 
Attici orroeyioy dicebant : vid. Phrynich. Etymol. 

m Aristophanem: — Pacem. 44S 

900. Aid. y\vixa 8e xikw : lege rjx/va x*Xij$ : sed cd. Vet. [foittssc 
Junt. 1525.] ?va 8q. recte. 

904. Frob. xajuwraier' : Aid. xajuurai?. 

916. Aid. 4>ij<rgi$ t/ 8>jt' wrfi&av cxwij? oTvow vsou Xwraorijv. lege vel 
wow sine oTvou : [sic] t/ SSjt* in 863. vel omitte [cum Biseto] fyrug 
ut in 859- 

918. Addit Bentl. Tgvyouog ob v. 189- [ita MSS.] 

930. lege 7v* ei riixxXijer/ee.— 942. Aid. oiTrelyeTe. 

944. Suid. in Sofiugot habet eo l<rco ieoiev <roftotpoL xamroXifiti /*«•«- 

948—1010. desunt in Aid.— 948. lege friparf [ita Rav.] 
. 950. lege a'jxiXXijcrecrii y' (log \ b Xalptg vjv. 

959. Quaere 8aXfov: vid. Suid. in JaXiov [et Br. in notis prota* 
lit 8aX/ov e Suid.] 

972. lege rtxthb [ita Br. tacite.]— 973. TP. ti^iiuvta 8ij. 

998. lege Trpotonpeog : at n-paorega Suid. in /76gix^p|/ou?. 

1013. ccKoyygvAiig Suid. in Mova>8f7v. 

1016. lege woAyTi|*i)Ti} 8%o/*-: ut in 978. [ubi tamen citatur Thesm, 
293. xoAuT^re : unde patet nihil hie esse mutandum.] 

1QJ8. Aid. oiv : vid. 928. et 1022. 

1033. et sqq. De metro hoc vid. Eq. 1108. et sqq. 

1037. Aid. irorauo-si tot* av lege *exawm wot «8v. 

1060. TP. /Agjxvij.aefla- '^XX* ourfl* 8pa<rov IE. V fpacritf [ita Br, 
in notis.] 

1066. lege A\fi *!(Soi.— 1067. fo. vhoKrte. 

1084. fri tou Xootov y* : dele vel m [ita Br.] vel toD vel lege 2ti 
rtil Xofarou'v *p. [ita fortasse Rav.] 

1096. <Ald..fe£i0V. 

1112. lege xev : vid. 1076. [sic MS. teste Br. in Supplemento] 

1119. lege vel wai wale [ita Br. post Dawes.] vel v fl nous. 
[ita Rav. vid. Elmsl. ad Eurip. Here. F. 1410. in Diario Classico 
(Classical Journal) No. xv. p. 218.] 

1 120. Bentl. supplet <ru quod deestin Aid. et Frob. 
1125. IE. delet Aid.— 1126. BE. delet Aid. 
1132. lege hralgmv [ita MSS.] 

1 138. [kivm Kust. e Junt.] Frob. jSivouv. Aid. xuvgov. 

1140. lege M [ita MS.] 

1142. lege Tijvixa&Va : vid. 1 176. [ita Br.] 

1144. Suid. *A$eve in V. [id mouuit Porson. in Append, ad 
Toup. 480.] 

1 146. lege Pco<rTpr,<r&Tco 'x tou [ita Rav.] 

1158. -Aid. t otpofioiTx : vid. Suid. in* Apop.01 ei*Apwpct. 

1165. lege ofi&vovr [ita Porson. ad Phoen. 1398. et Hermann, 
de Metr. p. 361.] 

146 Bentieii Ene&dationc$> $c. 

. 1176* An legenduro $tt$aKqvtxov a $u<rax*vo$, fakif. Alludk ad 
Kvtyxrjvixtv : sic Imrspov, pro Ixrepov, ao-JojTixov, pro wrxirixoy, atque 
alia alibi. 
. 1184. lege efeAoKoxei (Ix&ncw* 

1)97' leg® or : vid. Eq. 97. [ubi plura. sic quoque Br.} 

1203. Fl. Ch. xeiSaov r .— 1 204. lege airsM^ct. 

1223. lege xurei [sic Kuster.] 

1229- Fl. Ch. «5 &£j<2>;. Fo. j*w : vulgo o&. 

1247- lege xour* [ita Br.] Fl. Ch. xau'Ao? vel xlra. 

1256. Frob. oris. Aid. on tij : lege xpavgo-' Ati tij [putabat igi- 
tur Bentl. xpavos esse Trochaeuna, quod nusquam fit, et elidi posse 
i Dativi pluralis, lingua aon voiente, ut monuit Porson. ad Toup. 
App. p. 450.] 

1257. Aid. T3i«uTa<r/. — 1263. lege u/3pi%xe<r0a [ita MS.] 
1270. Aid. tBo*. lege &cw [ita Kuster. e Fl. Ch.] 
1280. Aid. wpvrt&ero : lege wporifevro [sic edd. alias.] 

1283. lege xSr ftrfliov [ita Bergler. et Dawes, et MS.] 

1284. lege nun) $£• imoio raur 9 SSe [ita iibri ante Dawes.] 

1285. Fl. Ch. irevourfxivoi [quam comprobavit et Dawes.]-; — - 
9vra)$ vel ovre$ [ol/tai Seal, e Schol.] 

1290. lege $rd« [ita Br. e MS.] 
1298. Aid. DAL Bentl. TP. [ita Kuster.] 
1299- Aid. TP. BentL UAL [ita Kuster.] 
1300. Frob. elfrlcofMU. lege el<rlcofx,ev [ita Kuster.] 

1302. Vett. edd. av : lege wv [ita Kuster.] 

1303. <rrg. 1311. aVT«rrp.— 1306. Aid Sj&j3aAX*rov., 

1307. cfjuoxer ouSev Suid. in '^ySguuifc et Spwaxuv. mox lege 

loV [ita Br.] 

1SI6. XO. svf.— 1320. Seal. «!£ aft.— 1326. Aid. oV. 

1329. TP.— 1332. lege &: vid. Catullum.— 1333. HM1X. 

1337. 'JAX. •///*.— 1339. '//M.— 1341. 'AKK.'Hp. 

1342. lege fl-porgTayjxevoi [ita Dawes.] 

Ibid, dele ot ^opfurai avaKafMvres [ita Dawes.] 

1346. 'HM.— 1349. M^. 'H/x. 

1 35 1 . *HM. ffaus y Stuv [ita Dawes.] 






I h e Common Translation of the Scriptures has been treated by 
ome with the severity of invective, and by others with supercilious 
contempt. But to a pious reader and a candid critic it will appear 
lurprisiug that there should be so few mistakes in the sense, and 
10 few antiquated expressions in the style. 

Two new translations principally deserving of notice have ap- 
peared in our days ; of the Gospels by Dr. Campbell* and of the 
New Testament by Gilbert Wakefield. While we acknowledge that 
they have corrected some passages, we must assert that they have 
rften destroyed the beautiful simplicity and the noble sublimity of 
the common translation. To Blessed art the pure in heart, the 
former has substituted Happy are the clean in heart. Instead 
rf Drink you all of this, he has introduced a low and antiquated 
sxpression, Drink hereof all of you. He is sometimes deficient 
tn grammatical accuracy. In the following passage, Being come 
town from the mountain, followed by a great multitude, a leper 
zetme, who would not suppose that the participles referred to a 

Wakefield has displayed a great depth of classical knowledge, 
and much collateral learning, but he has often exceeded the com- 
mon translation in low and familiar expressions. And his particu- 
lar tenets give a complexion to the whole of his work, which has 
rendered it liable to suspicion. 

it is my intention, if you will permit me to rank myself among 
your Biblical correspondents, to give you some passages and ex- 
pressions in the New Testament, in which I find inaccuracies in 
the sense, or inelegancies in the style. It would encroach too 
much on your limits, to trouble you with the reasons of my cor- 
rections. If any of your correspondents should dispute the pro- 
priety of my substitutions, I shall endeavour to defend them ; or, 
with greater pleasure, acknowledge the accuracy of the common 

C. P. 


Chap. I. v. 1. — The Book of the generation, the genealogy, 
v. 11. — About the time they were carried away, at the time of the 

NO. XXV. CI. Jl. VOL. X\YV. v^ 

146 Corrections in thi common Translation 

v. 18. — On this wise, in this manner — When as his mother Mary 
was espoused, his mother Mary having been betrothed, contracted — 
of the Holy Ghost, by the Holy Ghost (et passim). 

v. 19. — To make her a public example, to disgrace her — was minded, 
intended, was disposed — privily, privately. 

v. 20. — While he thought on these things, when he had determined 

v. 22. — Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which, 
thus was fulfilled what (et passim). 

t. 23. — A virgin, the virgin. 

Chap. II. v. 2. — Where is he that is born King of the Jemt 
Where is the new born King of the Jews ? 

v. 3. — Where Christ should be born, where the Christ was to be 

v. 5. — In Bethlehem of Judea, at Bethlehem in Judea. 
* v. 6\ — The princes, the chief places. 

v. 8. — Bring me word again, that I may come and worship him 
also, bring me word, that I also may come and worship him. 

v. 9. — They saw, they had seen — over where, over the place where. 

v. 10. — Exceeding, exceedingly (et passim). \ 

v. 12. — Warned of God, warned from heaven. 

v. 13. — The Angel, an Angel (et passim). 

▼. 14.— When, Then. 

v. 16. — All the children, all the male children — the coasts, the 

v. 18. — In Rama was there a voice heard, a cry was heard in Rama 
— and would not be comforted, and refusing to be comforted* 

v. 20. — Which, who (et passim). 

v. 21. — Into the land, towards the land. 

v. 22. — Did reign, feigned. 

v. 23. — And he came and dwelt, and he dwelt. 

Chap. III. v. 1. — The kingdom, the reign (et passim). 

v. 2. — Repent you, reform. 

v. 9. — Think not, pretend not — to our father, for our father. 

v. 15. — All righteousness, every religious rite. 

v. 16. — Straightway, immediately (et passim). 

v. 17. My beloved son, my son, the beloved. 

Chap. IV. v. 1. — Led up of the spirit, carried by the spirit. 

v. 2. — An hungered, hungry (et passim). 

v. 5<--A pinnacle, the pinnacle. 

v. 6\ — The son, a son — lest at any time, lest. 

v. 7* — It is written again, it is also written. 

v. 15. — Beyond Jordan, near the Jordan. 

v. 21. — Other two, two other (et passim). — i» a ship, in the boat 

v. 23. — The Gospel, the good tidings. 

v. 24. — Those which were possessed with Devils, demoniacs. 

Chap. V. v. 1. — Into a mountain, to the mountain — when he was 
set, when he bad sat. 

of the New- Testament*. 147 

t. 3.— the poor, the humble. 
▼. 9* — the children, children. 

v. 13. — Aw, its — wherewith shall it be salted, how shall it be re- 

v. 15. — a candle, a lamp — a candlestick, a stand. 

▼. 19«— one of these least, one of the least of these — he shall, shall — 
the same shall, shall. 

v. 20.— except, unless (et passim) — you shall in no case, you shall 

v. 21. — said by them, enjoined to them. 
-- . v., 22. — raca, fool— fool, wretch. 

t. 23. — rememberest, remember. 

v. 28. — to lust after her, with impure desire. 

v. 29> — offend thee, entice thee to sin — to is profitable, it is better 

— and not, than. 

t. 32. — saving for the cause, unless on account. 

▼. 39. — that you resist not evil, not to return evil. 

▼. 40. — will sue thee at the law, and take away, wishes to sue thee, 
to take away. 

v. 41.— twain, two (et passim). 

v. 45.— on the evil and on the good, on evil and good — on the just 
and on the unjust, on just and unjust. 

v. 46. — love them, love them only. 

Chap. VI. v. 1. — that you do not your alms, that you do not per- 
form any religious act — to be seen of them, to be beheld by themV 
▼. 19- — doth corrupt, consume, 
v. 22. — single, sound— evil, disordered. 
v. 25.— take no thought, be not anxious. 

Chap. VII. v. 9. — whom if his son ask bread, will he give him a 
ftont, who, if his son ask bread, will give him a stone ? 
▼.10. — will he give, will give. 

v. 16. — of thorns, from thorus — of thistles, from thistles. 
▼• 19, 20. — Transpose these verses. 
y. 28.— at his doctrine, at the mode of his doctrine. 

Chap. VIIL v. 6. — tormented, afflicted, 
v. 14.— laid, and sick, lying sick. 

▼. 27* — what manner of man is this, how great is this man ! 
▼. 29* — what have we to do with thee, what hast thou to do with us? 
v» 30. — a good way off, at some distance. 

v. 33. — went their way into, went into — and what teas bef ailed to 
the possessed of the devils, and what had befallen the demoniacs. 

Chap. IX. v. 5. — whether, which — thy sins be, thy sins are. 
v. 9. — at the receipt, at the office. 

▼. 19. — and followed him, and so did his disciples, and his disci- 
ples, and followed him. 
v. 20. — was, had been, 
v. 22. — turned him about, turned, 
v. 24* — they laughed him to scorn, they laughed at him. 
v. 25.— forth, out (et passim). 

148 Corrections in the common Translation 

v. 32. — they brought, the people brought, 
v. 38. — that he will send, to send. 

Chap. X. v. 1. — against, over. 

v. 4. — who also, he who. 

v. 11. — thence, from that place. 

v. 17. — of men, of these men. 

v. 25. — them of his household, them so, who are of his household. 

v. 26. — fear not them therefore, yet fear them not. 

v. 29. — and one, and yet one — without your father, without the 
will of your father. 

v. 31. — you are of more value than many sparrows, you are of 
much more value than sparrows. 

v. 42. — he shall, shall. 

Chap. XI. v. 1. — in their cities, in the cities. 
v. 2. — in the prison, in prison. 

v. 3. — he that should come, he who is coming — do we look for, are 
we to expect. 

v. 4. — show John again, show John. 

v. 5. — receive, recover. 

v. 7. — began to say, said. 

v. 8.— for to see, to see (et passim). 

v. J 9. — of her children, by her children. 

▼. 22. — at the day, in a day. 

v. 25. — answered and said, said (et passim) —prudent, learned. 

v. 26. — for so, that so. 

v.' 28. — heavy, heavily. 

Chap. XII. v. 5. — profane the sabbath, break the rest. 

v. 6. — one greater, something greater. 

v. 10. — which had his hand withered, who had a withered hand — 
they asked him, they asked Jesus. 

v. 12. — well, good. 

v. 14. — against him, against Jesus. 

v. 15. — when Jesus knew it, he, Jesus knowing it. 

v. 24. — this fellow, this man (et passim). 

v. 25. — and Jesus knew their thoughts and said, Jesus, knowing 
their thoughts, said. 

v. 32. — neither in the, nor in the. 

v. 36*.- idte, evil. 

v. 41. — empty, swept and garnished, vacant, cleaned and furnished. 

Chap. XIII. v. 12. — hath, hath much — have more abundance, 
abound— hath not, hath little. 
v. 21. — durethy endureth. 
v. 41. — them which, those who (et passim), 
v. 45. — merchant-man, merchant, 
v. 46*. — he ivent, went, 
v. 54. — them, the people, 
v. 57» — tw him, at him. . 

tf the New Testament 149 

Chap. XIV. v. 4. — said, had said. 

v. 9»—for the oath's sake and them that sat with him at meat, for 
the sake of the oath, and of those that sat with him. 
v. 13.— on foot, by land. 

Chap. XV. v. 4. — curseth, revileth. 

v. 5. — it is a gift, by whatsoever thou mightst be profited by me, 
that is devoted to God, which might have been employed to thy use. 

v. 6. — he shall, shall. 

t. 32. — they continued, they have continued. 

▼. 36. — of the broken meat that was left, of the fragments that 
were left. 

Chap. XVI. v. 1. — The Pharisees also with the Sadducees, then 
the Pharisees and the Sadducees — tempting, in order to try him. 
v. 5. — they had, they found that they had. 
v. 13. — whom, who. 
v. 15. — whom, who. 

▼. 24. — will come after me, is willing to come with me. 
v. 26. — soul, life* 
v. 28. — of death, death. 

Chap. XVII. v. 1. — an high, a high (et passim, as an hand, a 
hand — an heart, a heart, &c.) 

v. 12. — knew, acknowledged — likewise shall also the son of man 
suffer of them, thus shall the son of man suffer also from them. 

v. 23. — and they shall, who will. 

v. 27. — notwithstanding, yet. 

Chap. XVIII. v. 6. — offend one of these little ones, induce one of 
these little ones to offend. 
v. 12. — goeth into the mountains, on the mountains, and goeth. 
v. 13. — if so be that he find, if he find, 
v. 17. — a heathen man, a heathen. 

v. 23. — likened unto, like — take account of, settle accounts with, 
v. 26.— fell down and worshipped him, fell at his feet — of, for. 
v. 28. — that, what (et passim). 
v. 34. — tormentors, jailors. 
v. 35. — his brother their trespasses, the trespasses of his brother. 

Chap. XIX. v. 4. — male and female, a male and a female. 
v. 12. — to receive it, let him receive it, to bear this, let him bear it. 
v. 13. — them, those who brought them. 

▼. 28. — in the regeneration, shall, in the regeneration — tit the 
throne, on the throne — ye also shall, shall also. 

Chap. XX. v. 1. — a man that is an householder, which, a house- 
holder, who. 
v, 1 1. — the good man, the master (et passim). 
v. 23. — to give, but it shall be given to them, to give but to those, 
v. 26. — will be, desires to be — minister, attendant. 
v. 31. — rebuked them because they should, charged them to. 

150 Corrections in the common Translation 

Chap. XXI. v. 7« — and they set, and set. 

v. 11. — of Nazareth, who is of Nazareth. 

v. 17. — and he lodged, and lodged. 

v. 24. — in likewise, likewise. 

v. 25. — The baptism of John, whence was it, whence was the "bap- 
tism of John 1 

v. 31. — whether of them twain, which of the two 1 

v. 33. — afar country, a foreign country. 

v. 35. — stoned another, threw stones at another. 

v. 41. — miserably destroy those wicked men, wretchedly destroy 
those wretches. 

v. 42. — the stone, the same, the very stone. 

v. 43. — to a nation, to Gentiles. 

v. 46. — because they, who. 

Chap. XXII. v. 6*. — remnant, rest — entreated, treated. 
v. 20. — superscription, inscription, 
v. 25. — deceased, died. 


Chap. XXIII. v. 5.— for to, to (et passim). 

v. 13. — neither suffer ye, nor suffer. 

v. 14. — prayer, prayers, 

v. 16. — a debtor, bound by his oath. 

v. 23. — have omitted, omit— -judgment % justice — to have done, to do. 

v. 24. — strain at, strain off. 

v. 27« — uncleanness, corruption. 

v. 34. — shall, will — persecute them, persecute. 

v. 37. — stonest, peltest with stones. 

Chap. XXIV. v. 2. — see you not, do you sec 

v. 5. — tit, assuming. 

v. 13. — the same shall, shall (et passim). 

v. 15. — in the, in a. 

▼. 20. — neither, nor. 

v. 25. — told you before, forewarned you. 

v. 33. — it, he. 

v. 39.— and knew not, and were thoughtless. 

v. 42. — what hour your Lord doth come, at what hour your Lord 
will come. 

v. 43. — know this, you know— in what watch, at what hour of the 
night — broken up, broken into. 

v. 46.—- doing, employed.- 

v. 48. — but and if, but if. 

Chap. XXV. v. 9.— Not so ; lest there be not enough for us amd 
for you ; but go ye rather to them that sell, rather, lest there be not 
enough for us and for you, go to those who sell. 

v. 14. — For the kingdom of heaven is as a man travelling into afar 
country, who called, Thus a man, travelling into a foreign country, 


v. 16.— and made them other five talents, and made five talents 


of the New Testament. 151 

v. 34.— I knew thee that, I knew that. 

v. 26. — thou knewest, didst thou know. 

v. 27- — with usury, with interest. 

v. 36.— visited, attended. 

v. 41. — ffcn shall he say also, then will he say. 

v. 44.— on hungered or at hint, hungry or thirsty. 

Chap. XXVI. v. 2.— and when, when— is, will be— is betrayed, 
vnft be betrayed. 

▼. 5. — the feast day, in the time of the feast. 

v. 10.— when Jesus understood it, he, Jesus, understanding it. 

▼. 23. — dippeth, dipped. 

v. 24. — goeth, is going to die. 

v. 41. — watch and pray, that, watch, and pray that. 

v. 55. — laid no hold on me, did not seize me. 

t. 57. — to Caiaphas, to the palace of Caiaphas. 

▼• 58. — house, hall. 

t. 60. — yea, though many false witnesses came, yet found they none, 
though many false witnesses came. 

v. 62. — what is it which, to what. 

v. 64. — thou, it is as thou. 
. r. 66. — guilty, deserving. 

T. 67. — ouffeted, buffet. 

▼. 68. — prophesy, divine. 

▼. 73. — bewrayeth, betraycth. 

Chap. XXVII. v. 5. — hanged, destroyed. 

▼• 11. — art thou, thou art. 

v. 14. — to never, not. 

▼. 16. — notable, notorious. 

v. 18.— -for envy they had delivered him, through envy they had 
delivered him up. 

v. 20. — that they should ask Barabbas, to demand the release of 

v. 39. — wagging, shaking. 

v. 43. — if he wul have him, if he loves him. 

v. 44. — the thieves, one of the thieves — cast the same in his teeth, 
reproached him in the same manner. 

v. 49. — let be, leave him. 

v. 50. — he yielded up the ghost, he expired. 

v. 51. — rocks rent, rocks were cleft. 

v. 63. — after, within. 

Chap. XXVIII. v. 4— did shake, trembled. 
▼. II. — going, gone. 
▼. 19.— teach, instruct. 



Sur Quelques Inscriptions Remarquables Mressees H Mr. 
le Prof. P. Prevost, par Mr. le Colonel Leake, de 
la Societe Roy ale de Londres, de la Society Afrkaine, et 
de celle des Dilettanti de la mime ville. 

Mr. Geneve, 1 Dec. 1815. 

l^A grande colonne d'Alexandrie, dite commuuement la colonne de 
Pouipee, porte une inscription grecque a sa base, jugee indechiffrable 
par tous les voyageurs des siecles passes qui l'ont visitee, et par les 
savans nieine, qui, de not re temps, out accompagne 1'armee franchise 
eu Egypte. Vous voudriez connoitre les circon stances qui ont con- 
duit au dechiffreinent de cette inscription. Je m'enipresse de vous 

Avaut mou voyage dans la Haute Egyple, 1 j'avois deja acquis 
quelque facilite a dechiffrer les inscriptions defigurees par le temps, 
en ayant copie un nombre considerable dansl'Asie niineure, l'Archipel 
et une petite portion de la Qrece. 

Je fais cette remarque, parce que je crois que, dans ces operations, 
Phabitude est souvent plus favorable au succes, qu'uu profond savoir 
de la langue, auquel je n'avois aucuue pretention. C'est a cette 
habitude, que j'attribue en grande partie la facilite que nous avons eue, 
Mr. Hamilton et moi, de transcrire certaines inscriptions tres-iutefes- 
santes de la Haute Egypte,* qui avoient echappe a lobservation des 
savans francois ou a leurs efforts pour les lire. 

Le lendeinain de mon arrivee a Alexandrie, a mon retour du voyage 
de la Haute Egypte, j'allai visiter la colonne. Deja avant mon depart 
pour la Haute Egypte, j'avois observe, d'apres rinformation de 
Pococke, une inscription eu quatre ou cinq lignes sur le c6t6 occi- 
dental de la base ; mais dans ce temps-la, j'avois peu d'espoir de la 
dechiffrer, et les circonstances ne me permettoient pas de taire les 
inspections continues et repetees, sans lesquelles on ne pouvoit pas 
se flatter d'obtenir le succes desire. 

Comme il etoit pres de midi quaud j 'arrival a la colonne, le soleil 
commencoit a jeter quelques rayons obliques sur le cote occidental 

1 Mr. Leake a fait le voyage de la Haute-Egypte avec Mr. Hamilton, qui 
en a publie la relation sous le titre ftMgyptiaca. 

* La plus interessante peut-etre, et celle qui nous a donne le plus de peine 
a copier, est celle qui fut inscritc par Pempereur Tibere sur la facade du 
grand temple de Dendera. Cette inscription prouve que la deesse adorea 
dans ce temple etoit la Venus des Grecs ; elle vient ainsi a 1'appui de la 
description de Tentyris par Strabon, et pcut lui scrvir de commentaire. 

Lettres sur quelqucs Inscriptions, fyc. 153 

de la base. C est k direction de la lumiere la plus favorable poor 
eclairer les lettres de rinscription et les rendre facuement visible*, 
ainsi que je Y&\ constamment eprouve depuis. 

A peine avois-je arrete mon cheval au pied de la colonne, que je 
distinguai, a la quatrieme ligne de 1'inscription, ces deux mots 
EnAPXOC AinrriTOr. Je ne tardai pas a voir aussi le nom de 
la ville d'Alexandrie, dans la seconde ligne, aussi bien que quelqucs 
lettres eparses. Jusqu'a mon depart d'Alexandrie, qui eut lieu une 
quinzaine de jours apres, je retournai presque journellement a la 
colonne a la me me neure, en compagnie de Mr. Hamilton ou de fen 
le colonel Squire, ou de tous les deux, et occasion tielle men t de quei- 
ques autres personnes, dont la curiosite avoit ete excitee par not 

Nous times un echafaud pour mooter jusqu'a 1'inscription, qui est 

elevee a-peu-pres de vingt pieds au-dessus du sol : nous mouil lames 

l'iascription, ce qui eut l'effet de jeter une lumiere plus vive sur 

les parties sail I antes, et par consequent de faire distinguer plus claire- 

meat les lettres. 1 

Enfin, nous reussimes a nous convaincre pleinement de I'exactitude 
des lettres suivantes. Ces /lettres sont ecrites sur une tablette d'nne 
forme tres-commune dans les inscriptions du temps des empereurs 




no oc eiiapxoc AinmroY 

D* apres ces lettres, il n'est pas douteux que cette magnifique 
cokwoe n'ait ete erigee a I'honneur de Tempereur Diocletien, et que 
le nom vulgaire de colonne de Pompee, qui derive d'un souvenir des 
ooms et d une ignorance des faits, dont il y a tant d'exemples dans 
le Levant, 1 ne doive faire place a celui de colonne de Diocletien. 
• U est bien probable cependant que le fut de cette colonne est 
beaucoup plus ancien que Diocletien, et qu'il date des temps les plus 
florissans de la dynastie Ptolemeenne. II est d'un seul morceau du 
saperbe granit rouge de Sgdne, 2 et a quatre-vingt-dix pieds de long 

1 Nous primes aussi 1* impression en soufre d'une partie de l'inscription, 
avec l'intention de l'envoyer en Angleterre ; mais trouvant que les lettres,. 
dans i'impression, etoknt a peine reconnoissables, nous abandon names c« 

2 Comme la colonne de Pompee sur une des Symplegades a 1'entree de la 
Mcr noire, la tour de Leandre dans le detroit de Constantinople, la lanterne 
de Demosthpne a Athcnes, etc. 

3 Les carrieres de Sytne sont a renorme distance de 250 licues d'Alex- 
andrie, mais tout le transport se faisoit par le Nil et ses canaux. Les car- 
rieres de Syene fournirent ia matiere de, tous les obelisqties de i'Egypte et de 
taut d'autres monumens gigantesques. Nous y trouvames entr'autres ves- 
tiges des anciens travaux, jusqu'a des coloanes et des obelisques, qui awient 
£tc tallies, cbauches, et laisses sur les lieux. 

154 Lettres adressies d 

sur neuf de diametre. II conserve presque partout son bean poll 
primitif. La base, au contraire, est etroite'en proportion de sa hau- 
teur ; elle est surcharge de moulures dans le gout deja, declinant da 
sidcle de Diocletien, et n'est pas d'un travail fini. Les feuilles da 
chapiteau ne sont pareillement qu'ebauchees, et ni le chapiteaa ni la 
base n'ont aucun vernis. Les lettres, au lieu d'etre soigneusement 
gravees, comme le sont en general les inscriptions grecques, sur-tout 
sur les grands monumens, sont tres-rndement incises. 1 11 paroit done, 
que le fat appartenoit jadis a quelqu'un des monumens les plus 
magnifiques d'Alexandrie, dans le temps de sa splendeur ; et qu'ayant 
ecbappe entier a la destruction des autres parties de l'edifice, fl fut 
erige k l'honneur de Diocletien et adapts a un chapiteau et k one 
base du gout degrade de ce siecle. II est probable aussi, qu'une 
statue de TEmpereur occupoit le centre de la plate-forme au haut du 
chapiteau, et que les mots de la derniere ligne etoient Kai ^ irrfXit 
&vtfh)Kav ou quelque chose de semblable.* II est a observer, que 
cette cinquieme ligne occupoit seulement le centre de l'espace des 
autres ; qu'elle etoit d'un caractere plus petit ; et que, comme quel- 
qoes autres parties de l'inscription, elle a ete effacee k dessein. Le 
mot imparfait de la premiere ligne doit avoir ete OCIflTATON ou 
UMIOTATON. Celui de la fin de la troisieme ligne a ete determine 
par Mr. Salt, a sa visite k Alexandrie, quelques annees apres mon d6« 
part ; il y a vu avliap-op. Le sens done de l'ensemble, traduit en 
francois, sera ce qui suit : 

« Po ♦••♦*. us, 5 Prefet de l'Egvpte [et la ville ont erige] le trks- 
Empereur, le [dieu] tutelaire d'Alexandrie, Diocletien rinvin- 
oble/' 4 ... 

La reconnoissance des Alexandrins envers Diocletien, dont le sou- 
venir est conserve par ce superbe monument, me paroit parfaitement 
d'accord avec ce qui nous est parvenu de l'bistoire de l'Egypte au 
temps de cet Empereur. 5 Une grande partie de l'Afrique romaine 
etant en etat de revoke, Diocletien se rendit en Egypte, tandis qua 
sou collegue Max i mien s'occupoit k tranquilliser la Mauritania 

1 H est a observer que e'est le seul exemple que je connoisse d'une in- 
scription grecque, gravee sur une matiere aussi dure que le granit rouse de 
Sybie. Les Egyptiens ne trouvoient aucune difficult^ a donner it lew* 
hieroglyphes, sur la meme pierre, le travail le plus fini. 

* Si la colonne actuelleest lamgme, dontparle le sophiste Aphthonius, 
comme existante au quatrieme siecle dans racropole d'Alexandrie, il n'y 
avoit point de statue au dessus du chapiteau, mais bien quelque autre chose, 
que l'auteur designe par les mots *px tt ' T »* •***». Voyez les Rheteurs Greca 
cTAlde Manuce et Zoega de orig. et usu obeliscorum. p. 24, 607. 

3 Probablement Post humus. 

4 Je traduis litteralement. Le sens est que Ton avoit erige la statue de 
Diocletien, qui, ensuite de ses bienfaits, avoit ete* declare dieu tutelaire de 
la ville. Le mot dieu ne sty trouve pas, mais ™\ievxH n'est guere usite que 
comme epithete d'un Dieu. 

: s Eutropius, L. ix. chap. 15. Orosius, Liv. vm. chap. 25. Eusebius in 

Prof. P. Prevost par Mr- le Col. Leake. 155 

Alexandrie, sous le Prefet rebelle Achilleus, soutint un siege de huit 
mois; apres quoi, 1'Empereur ayant pris la ville, la livra k l'incendie 
etau massacre. 1 II entra a cheval a la tete de ses troupes, et leur 
prescrivit de n'epargner les habitans que quand leur sai g arriveroit 
aux genoux de son cheval. Mais a peine entre, son cheval glissa sur 
un cadavre et teignit ses genoux de sang. Aussit6t Diocletien 
donna ordre de faire cesser le massacre. Achilleus fut pris et mis k 
mort. Jean Malala, qui raconte cette histoire, ajoute que les Alex- 
andras erigerent une colonne de bronze au cheval de 1'Empereur, et 
que l'endroit ou l'accident arriva, porta jusqu'a son temps % le nom 
de Cheval de Diocletien. Le meme auteur ajoute, que la prise 
d'Alexandrie par Diocletien devint le commencement d'une periode 
ou ere chronologique, et il est remarquable que cette periode est 
encore en usage chez les Coptes modernes. D'apres les faits m£mes 
racontes par Malala (qui, comme chretien, ne devoit pas etre porte 
a extenuer les cruautes d'un des plus cruels persecute urs de l'eglise), 
il parott probable que, malgre la colere de Diocletien, provoquee par 
la rebellion de l'Egypte et par Fobstination d'Alexandrie, il pensoit 
plus a s'attacher cette ville par sa clemence, qu'a y exercer des ven- 
geances. En effet, Eumenius nous appreud que l'Egypte fut pacifiee 
par la clemence de Diocletien ; et nous savons que cet Empereur 
decreta une distribution gratuite de ble aux pauvres d'Alexandrie, qui 
continua 250 ans, jusqu'au temps ou Hephaestus, agent de Tem- 
pereur Justinien, la detourna au profit du tresor imperial. 3 Diocte* 
tien fit en meme temps quelques autres etablissemens utiles, qui 
existoient encore dans le temps de l'historien qui nous en a conserve^ 
la memoire. 4 Comme il n'y a rien qui s'empare plus puissammeat de 
1'esprit bumain que la clemence et les bienfaits apres un chatknent 
merite, il seroit difficile d'imaginer une occasion plus faite poor 
J'erection d'un monument de reconnoissance, que celle qui se presen- 
toit aux Alexandrins apres la prise de leur ville par Diocletien. 

Comme la notice que j'ai eu l'honneur de vous envoyer sur la 
colonne de Diocletien a paru vous interesser, j'ajouterai quelquet 
mots sur deux autres inscriptions assez interessantes, que j'ai decou- 
vertes avec beaucoup d'autres dans le nord de la Grece. 

1 Job. Malaise Chronographia, L. xn. 

2 Jean Malala vecut dans le huitieme ou neuvieme siecle. La prise d'Alex- 
andrie par Diocletien eut lieu dans l'annee dc J. C. 296. 

3 Procopius hist, arcan. cap. 26. 

4 Eutropiut in loco cit. " Diocletianut obsessum Alexandria Acliilleum octavo 
/ere mensc tuperavit eumque interfecit, Victoria acerbe usus est, Totam 

JEgvptum gravibus proscriptionibus cadibusque fadavit. Ea tamen occasione 
m-dmavit provide multa et disposuit qua ad nostram a tat em tnanent." Orose et 
- Eusebe ont presque copie les paroles d'Eutrope. lis se taisent cependant 
sur ce que Diocletien avoit fait de bon. 

3 56 Lettres adressSes & 

La premiere dont je parlerai est gravee sur la roche a Tempi tn 
Thumlie. Ce que les poetes de l'antiquite ont chants de cette fa- 
meuse vallee est trop connu pour qu'il soit necessaire que j'en park. 
H suffit d'observer, que parmi toutes les descriptions que les anciens 
dous en ont laissees, la prose grecque d'Elien l est peut-etre la plus 
belle, certainement la plus exacted 

En longeant le Penee, dans ce dechirement, qui, sur une distance 
de deux lieues, 3 separe les moots Ossa et Olympe, ceux qui conoois- 
sent la Suisse et les pays environnans, ne peuvent manquer de se 
rappeler la vallee de PEnfer dans la Foret noire, ou l'entree du Simen- 
thal dans le Canton de Berne, ou plus vivement encore, ces ouver- 
tures k travers les chaines paralleles du mont Jura dans le ci-devant 
eveche de Bale, ou le Byrs se fraye un passage entre des precipices et 
des forets. La difference la plus remarquable, et qui, independam- 
ment des souvenirs classiques, donne a Tempt une superiority d'in- 
ter&t, est que le Pence, aussi grand que le Rh6ne a Lyon avant qu'il 
s'unisse a la Sa6necoule a travers ce defile d'un cours parfaitement paisi- 
ble. Les petits morceaux de terrain, qui, de distance en distance, 
se trouvent entre le pied des rochers et les bords du fleuve, sont 
couverts de bosquets de platanes majcstueux. Plus pres de la 
riviere, on voit ca et \k de petites prairies naturelles du plus doux 
gazoo, et tout autour, des arbres fieuris et odorans. Ces beaux ar- 
bustes, que nous cultivons dans nos jardins avec taut de soin, crois- 
sent ici spontanement, et leurs rameaux se montrent decores de 
festons de plantes rampantes de toute espece, auxquelies ils servent 

Elien n'avoit pas manque d'observer l'abondance d'ifs et de smilajc, 
qui en quelques eudroits couvrent entierenient les rocbers. II n'omet 
pas non plus de nous parler de ces fraiches retraites a l'oinbre des ro- 
chers, qui se presentent au voyageur presque a chaque pas ; des sources 
abondantes, qui, sortant du fond des memes rochers, traversent le 
chemin et se perdent inimediatement dans le fleuve ; de la tranquillity 
du Penie, qui, couvert par le feuillage epais des arbres, fournit un 
ombrage agreable a ceux qui naviguent sur ce fleuve. Cette derniere 
circonstance est la seulepartie de la description d'Elien, qui ne couvient 
pas au Tempi d'aujourd'hui. Le Penee ne connoit plus d'embarca- 
tions, que les bacs, qui en quelques endroits servent de communication 
entre les deux rives. 

A Tempi, de quelque c6t6 que Ton tourne ses regards, on decouvre 
des objets de la plus grande beaute, et du plus grand interet. En 
allant de la rive droite du Pence sur le mont Ossa, on arrive, apres une 
heurc de montee tres-rapide, a la ville d'Atnbelakia, fameuse par sa 

1 Mian. Var. hist. L. in. cap. 1. 

2 On en donnera encore une description par un voyageur moderne dans 
le No. prochain. — Ed. 

3 Elien dit quarante stades de long et un plethre de large. Tite-Iive et 
Pline, cinq milles de long. 

Prof. P, Prevost par Mr. le Col. Leake, 157 

feinture rouge de coton file, qui lui vaut un commerce tres-avantageux 
iveeJ'Allemagne. De cette situation pittoresque, on a une des pins 
belles vues du divin sommet de l'Olympe, qui s'eleve majestueuse- 
ment de Tautre c6te de Tempi. A une petite distance de la ville 
cTAmbelakia, Thorizon s'etend sur une grand partie du golfe Tktrmm- 
fue, des presqu'iles de la Macidoine , et meme jusqu'a la ville moderne 
de Salonique, dont une partie, avec son chateau, se distingue au fond 
du golfe, a la distance de vingt lieues vers le nord. Si Ton monte de 
la rive gauche du Penee sur l'Olympe, on trouve dans une situation 
tres-elevee la ville de Rapsani, qui fait avec succes le m&me commerce 
qu'Ambelakia. De ce lieu la vue n'est gueres moins magnifique que 
de l'autre c6te de Tempi. La cime conique du mont Ossa couronne 
les fore t s, qui couvrent ses flancs. Une pente douce et reguliere 
conduit d'un c6te a la mer Egie ; de l'autre, aux vastes plaines de la 
Thessalit. Si Ton sort de Tempt par 16 cdte de Touest, on passe 
par le village de Baba, qui donne son nom au defile, et apres avoir 
laiss6 a Tissue du defile, sur la rive gauche du fleuve, les ruines de 
Gonnus, 1 situees a Tentree d'unecharmante plaineau pied de l'Olympe, 
on entre bient6t dans la grande plaine de Larisse,* une des regions 
les plus fertiles de T Europe. Ed sortant de Tempi vers Torient, on 
entre dans une longue lisiere de terrain plat, bornee au midi par la 
pente du mont Ossa, et au nord par celle de l'Olympe. C'est de ce 
c6t6-ci, non loin de Tissue du defile, que se trouvent, dans un endroit 
oik le rocher a et6 coupe pour former une route, les mots suivans, 
tallies dans la roche meme. 


Au commencement de la premiere ligne de cette inscription, il y a 
une lettre si defiguree, qu'on ne peut pas savoir au juste quel etoit le 
prenom du Cassius Longinus qui y est mentionne. II me paroissoit 
cependant, apres un mur examen, que e'etoit une L. En ce cas, 
Tinscription a du etre gravee pour conserver le souvenir d'un ouvrage 
fait par Lucius Cassius Longinus, qui commanda une legion de nou- 
velles levees sous Jules-Cesar, dans sa campagne en Grece contre 
Pompee, 3 et qui fut detache de Tarmee principale en Illyricum, pour 
occuper la Thessalie, tandis que deux autres corps entroient en Mace- 
doine et en Etolie. Cet evenement eutlieu Tande Rome, 702; avant 
Jesus-Christ, 48 : Longinus resta peu de temps en Thessalie, mais 
trouvant cette contree tres-partagee dans ses sentimens envers les deux 
partis, il se vit bient6t dans la necessity de se retire r vers Ambracie 
devant les forces superieures de Scipion. 

II reste a savoir de quelle nature etoit Touvrage fait par Longinus. 
Au premier coup-d'eeii on croiroit qu'ii avoit fortifie le defile de 
Tempi; mais comme ii n'est gueres douteux, que Tinscription n'ait 

1 Tite-Live dit de Gonnus, u Oppidum Gonni viginti millia ab Larissa 
distat, in ipsis faucibus saltus, qua Tempe appellantur, situm. L. xxxvi. cap. 

* Larissa campus opima. Horat. 3 Cacs. de bell. civ. L. in. cap. 35. 

158 Lettres adressies & 

rapport k la route couple dans le rocher, a c6te de laquelle les lettres 
•e trouvent inscrites, il est plus probable que l'ouvrage principal de 
JLonginus 6toit la construction ou la reparation d'un chemin. On saift 
bien que munire viam est I'expression ordinaire pour signifier la cons- 
truction d'une route. On la trouve precisement en ce sens dans une 
inscription suruu rocher a Gradista en Albanie sur les bordsdu fleuve 
Aous uon loin d'Apollonie d'Epire. 1 On la trouve employee deux 
fois* par Tite-Live, dans sa narration des guerres des Roraains en 
Grece, pour exprimer la nienie operation. Dans un de ces passages, 
il s'agit des operations militaires de Q. Marcius Philippus, consul et 
commandant des armees romaines en Grece. Ce general pen6tra en 
Macidoine par les defiles du niont Olympe, et etabtit ses quartiers 
d'hiver a Heraclce, sur les bords du golfe Thermaique. De la il donna 
prdre d'etabJir les routes et les magasius necessaires pour son appro- 
visionnement et sa communication avec la Thessalie. Or, Tempi 
6tant le chemin direct entre la Thessalie et la Maetdoine, et la seule 
communication qui existoit entre les parties les plus riches et les plus 
peuplees de ces deux provinces, sans traverser plusieurs hautes mon* 
tagnes, il est certain que l'objet du Consul romain etoit de retablir la 
route par la vallee de Tempt. Ce qui est plus remarquable k regard 
de ce meme passage de Tite-Live, e'est que l'annee. precedente, A* 
Hostilius etant consul et commandant en Grece, un nomine Calus 
Cassius Longinus, qui avoit 6te son predecesseur dans le consulat, 
xemplissoit la charge de tribun militaire dans son armee. On pourroit 
done conjecturer, que l'inscription de Tempi a rapport au fait men- 
tioniae par Tite-Live ; mais comme nous n'avons aucune preuve que 
Cams Longinus ait conserve son tribunat militaire l'annee du consulat 
de Philippe, et comme d'ailleurs la lettre mutilee de l'inscription res* 
semble beaucoup plus a une L qu'a un C, on est presque oblig£ de 
revenir a la premiere supposition que nous avons taite; savoir, que 
la route 6toit l'ouvrage de l'officier de Jules-Cesar. 


La troisieme inscription, que je crois pouvoir vous interesser k 
cause de sa liaison avec Phistoire, a rapport comme la pre*cedente aux 
guerres des Romains en Grece. Elle est gravee sur un bloc de marbre 
blanc, en lettres majuscules, de la forme usitee dans les plus beaut 
siecles de la Grece, et (comme faisoient constamment les anciens) sans 
intervalle entre les mots ou les phrases. Elle vient a 1'appui de quel- 
ques autres fragmens descriptions et de plusieurs vestiges d'edifices 
antiques pour determiner la position de Cyritia. Cette ville qui 
appartenoit k la province de Perrhcebic, etoit situee a six lieues au 
N. Ouest de Larisse, capitale de la Thessalie, dans une allee arrosee 
par le Titartsius, petite branche du Penie, k laquelle Homere a 
donne a juste titre Fepithete d'agreable. 3 

1 Voyage de Holland en Albanie. 

x L. xxx vi. cap. 28. L. xnv. cap. 9. 3 "wro$. 

Prof. P. Prevost par Mr. le Col. Leake. 159 

I/inscription est un decret ou plut6t une epitre publique, de la forme 
de celles que l'on rencontre dans Demosthene. Ce decret est rendu 
par T. Quinctius Flamininus, general en chef de l'armee romaine en 
Grece, en faveur des habitans de Cyritiie. Ce qui suit en est la tra- 
duction litterale. 

" Titus Quinctius, Commandant supreme des Romains, aux magis- 
trats et & la ville des Cyritiens, salut. Ay ant dejsk manifesto mes pro- 
pres bonnes intentions, aussi bien que celles du peuple romain enveis 
▼ous, nous desirons absolument de montrer dans toutes les autre* 
occasions, que nous donnons la pr6ference a ce qui est honorable, aim 
que ceux qui sont accoutumes a ne pas donner aux actions une inter- 
pretation favorable n'aient pas a nous calomnier. Toutes les posses- 
sions done en terres on en maisons restantes d'entre celles, qui etoient 
echues au tresor public des Romains, nous les donnons a votre ville, 
afin qu'en ceci vous connoissiez notre boute et que nous ne voulons 
en aucune maniere montrer un amour pour le gain, preferant de beau- 
coup la bienveillance et l'bonneur. En cas done, que ceux qui ne 
sont pas pourvus de ce qui leur appartenoit, vous en donnent des 
preuves et paroissent dire des choses raisonnables, et que vous le trou- 
viez bon d'apres mes jugemens ecrits ; Je Juge que ces proprietes 
peuvent leur fctre restitutes." 

On sait f que Titus Quinctius Flamininus commanda l'armee ro- 
maine en Grece depuis l'annee de son consular, Tan de Rome 556 
avaut J. C. 198, jusqu'a la fin de Tan 194 avant J. C, epoque a la- 
qnelle il reconduisit son armee en Italie et eut les honneurs du triomphe 
a Rome. On sait de nigme que l'objet declare de ses campagnes en 
Grece, etoit la liberation des republiques Grecques de la dependance 
ou elles etoient de la Macedoine. Mais on sait aussi que les suites de 
cette politique, et probablement le but secret du Senat Romain et de 
son general, Etoient de se donner le droit de s'immiscer dans toutes les 
affaires de la Grece, et de s'y procurer a la fin un pouvoir illimite. 

Dans la premiere annee de son commandement, Quinctius dent le 
Roi Philippe de Macedoine aux bouches d'Antigonie (Fauces Ante- 

SonensesJ en Epire. Avancant de Ik en Thessalie, il se rendit niaftre 
e la plus grande partie de cette province, tandis que son frere Lucius, 
avec la flotte romaine, s'empara de quelques positions tres-importantes 
sur les eAtes de la Grece. Dans la seconde annee, il defit Philippe a 
la bataille des Cynoctphales en Thessalie, et le forca a une paix hon- 
teuse. Dans la troisieme, il publia aux jeux Isthmiques une declara- 
tion de la liberte de tous les peuples de la Grece, qui avoient 6te* 
assujettis aux Macedonieus. La quatrieme annee de son commande- 
ment fut employee a comprimer la tyrannie exercee par Nabis sur une 
grande partie du Pelvponntse. 

Dans route l'histoire de campagnes de Quinctius, qui se lit dans Tite* 
Live ou ailleurs, je netrouve aucune mention d'operation militaire dans 
la Pcrrhcebie. II paroit cependant, d'apres l'auteur * que je viens dc 

1 Iiv. hist. L. xxxrr, xxxin, xxxxv. * Liv. L. xxxi. cap. 41. 

162 Mots oa omis 

{comme II. 17. 338) qu'on pourroit m'opposer ; mais des exceptions, 
surtout chez uo poete, genl par mi He entraves, ne detruisent pas un. 
principe avoue par le gout. 

25. 'AfiQiOerbs (f>i6Xn. 'Apftderbs epithete dont le sens embarrasse, 
Hesychius en propose 5 interpretations, tant il est sur de la veritable. 
Apres avoir lu ces 5 interpretations, et celles que donnent soit H. Et. 
soit Parthenius disciple du grammairien Denys, l'Athenien Apollodore, 
Aristarque et Asclepiade de Myrlee, tous quatre cites par Athenee 1. 
xi. p. 501, je serois tente de dire que la phiale afupideros et cLirtipvros, 
£toit celle qu'on avoit battue a froid et qui n'alloit pas au feu ; une 
phiale dont le contour avoit une forme circulaire et qu'on pouvoit 
poser sur le fond, sur la bouche, enfin de tout cote. Voy. Athen. 1. 1. 

26. 'Afi(j>i^op€vs, fjos, 6. H. borne a dire d'apres Athenee, 
liv. xi. ce qu' indique son Etymologie, que Taraphore etoit un va$e i 
deux anses. II falloit ajouter que c'etoit le nom dun vaisseau d'une 
grande capacity. Cette addition me paroitroit exacte d'apres ce vers 
■d'Horace (Art. poet.) Amphora ccepit Institui ; currente rota, cur 
urceus exit 1 En effet, dans ce vers latin, en partie scholie de 1' bfjupufro- 
peirs, je vois Y amphora et 1* urceus (petit pot a Teau qui n'avoit qu' 
une anse, tandisque 1'amphore en avoit deux) compares entre eux 
comme une chose grande comparee avec une petite. L'amphore etoit 
done un vaisseau d'une grande capacite. Aussi Hesychius l'explique 
t-il par aopos (et non trwpos) faute corrigee par H. Et. Pheretrum quo 
tfftruntur defunct i. Ce mot amphore est done a conserve^ et ne 
peut etre, je crois, remplace par urne. II y avoit en effet de grandes 
ej: de petites urnes ; tandisqu'il n'y avoit pas de petites amphoref. 
Mad. Dacier et Bitaube ont done, je crois, cede a une fausse delica- 
tesse en preferant urne a amphore. 


•27. 'E/u/3arei/w. 

Examen tant d'une lecon de Xenophon, a tort abandonnte par 
tout lea comment at eurs y que d'une explication inexacte d*H. Et. 
et d'Htsychius. H. Et. et Hesychius combattus par leurs propres 
amies. Sophocle expliquc. Son Scholiaste et autres commentateurt 

Dans le banquet de Xenophon (4, 27; t. I, de mon Xenophon 
grec-latin, fr. avec notes et Variautes de MSS.) Charmide dit a So- 
crate, ethov ore Trctpa t£ ypapfiamorrj kv rj> atfrp flifiXly afiforepoi e/n/3a- 
rcuere. Cette lecon a tourmente tous les commeutateurs et tous les 
kxicogfaphes, sans en excepter H. Et. et Hesychius. 

Ce dernier donne Snretj comme glose de epfiarevw, glose suivie par 
Leunclave et H. Et. dans leur Xenophon. Pour arriver a sa glose, 
Hesychius ayant probable men t en vue notre passage, et y voyant cv 
tf aM fitfiXiy a c6t6 de e/i/3aret/o>, se sera dit " dans un livre, on fait 
des recherches, done fyt/3arei/w est synonyme de Snrita chercher." En 
raisonnant ainsi, Hesychius s'est ecarte de l'analogie : nous, consultant 
la. Elle neus apprend dans Lennep (ouvrage trpp deprecie par un 

par H. Etienne, $c. 163 

savant illustre) que /3<4&j ex prime l'id6e d'appuyer sur une chose dont 
on est maitre et possesseur. Vis propria stir pis /3dw sit a est in motu 
qui Jit nitendo in aliquid. Si cela est vrai du simple /3&w, il le sera 
a plus forte raison de kfifiareiw. Ce compose a sans doute exprime 
taction d'entrer en maitre dans une possession : et pour appuyer cette 
acception, nous proposercns l'autorite' d'H. Et. " possessions alicujus 
aditionem out invasionem declarat vocal), illud." 2° d'Hesychius : e/i- 
fiarevaai, dit-il, ro Karkyeiv, kol KapwovoQai ycjploy rj oliciav, ?i o\ov rbv 
Kkypov. D'apres H. Et. et surtout d'apres ces mots Kar^x €Ly 9 Keynrof/a- 
Acu tfwptov, je vois que efifiarevetv a sifrnirie d'abord, marcher en maitre 
dans un champ, par ex. ; ensuite V exploiter. Du sens propre, passant 
au figure, on aura dit, kv t$ fiifi\i<j> epfiaTevew, se promener dans un 
litre,' comme dans sa propriety, en exploiter les idees, les verites quel- 
conques : et tei est le sens qu'y attache Xenophon, sens que j'ai ap- 
percu trop tard ; et si cette discussion est f on dee, k^areveiv doit 
etra respect^ et euricbir nos lexiques avec l'acception que je pro- 

Avoir cit6 pour mon acception ies autorites d'H. Et. et d'H6sych. 
c'est les avoir combattus par leurs propres amies, c'est avoir refute^ 
celui-ci en expliquant kfiftarevetr par cfyretv, et H. Et. par pedem 
ponere. 'E/z/3. bien plus energique signifie non mettre le pied, mais 
marcher fcrme etjlerement comme dans sa possession : sens que je lui 
dennerois dans Sophocle ((Ed. T. 844.) CEdipe deplorant ses infortu- 
nes dit, (ne suis-je pas bien malheureux) puisque le destin me condamne 
(XP*f) * m'exiler, a ne plus voir les miens, d ne plus marcher dans ma 
patrie (ferme, et en citoyen possesseur du droit de ciU). Tel est le 
sens de P e/xflar. de Sophocle. Celui de mettre le pied, in patriam 
pedem ferre, version de Brunck et de M. Botbe, me semble contraire 
a l'aiialogie, au genie de la langue : je dirai presque aux loix du gout. 
En effet a ne consulter que le gout, qui a sou vent preside a la for- 
mation des langues, e/xfiareveiy, mot dune intonation forte, doit dire 
plus que knfialveiv, prive de la forte r, et d'ailleurs moins sonore puisque 
at se prononce comme ae des Latins ; mais cette derniere observa- 
tion n'est que conjecturale. ■ 

28. 2fyia. H. Et. le trad u it par sepulchrum, version quil donneaussi 
pour rcuf>os. Peut-etre a-t-il quelquefois ce sens ; mais le plus sou*- 
vent il signifiera, monument en Vhonneur dun homme mort, mais ne 
renfermant pas sa cendre. Ce sens resulte du contexte d'Homere 
(II. 23, 255, 257). Le poete qualitie de <rifyia le monument erig6 a 
Patrocle. Pourquoi 1 C'est qu'il ne renfermoit pas les ossemens de 
Patrocle. On les avoit deposes dans la tente (ib. 254.) parcequ'bn 
devoit les rapporter dans la patrie d'Achille. Homer e le dit implici- 
ternent, car apres avoir annonce qu'on avoit depose les ossemens dans 
la tente, il n'ajoute pas qu'ils en ayent et6 retires pour les placer 
dans le tnjfia. Us ne devoient pas y fctre deposes. Cela eut ete con- 
traire a r usage atteste par Homere (II. 7> 335.) et auquel Theocrite 
fait allusion dans sa 8 me epigr. on un mort gerait de se sentir couvert 
d'une terre etrangere. Voy. Ta<pot. 

l$4 Mots ou omk par H* Eticnne, $c. 

29. Ta<fwsy 1° sepulchrum, monument qui ren/erme ks ossemens $m 
ires d'un trwrt. Quant a tumulus que donne ensuite H. Et. comme 
ce mot Latin se dit proprement dune terre amoncelee, je le croirob 
version inexacte, et plus conveuable a trfifia qu' a ra<pos. 2° stpuh- 
tnra, junus. A I'appui de ce sens, H. Et. cile le v. 618 du cb* 2& 
de l'lltade ; mais la racbov fivijfm, en pari ant de la pliiale offerte a 
Nestor, siguifiera aussi men, pliiale offerte a Nestor en memoire eW 
jeux funebres. 3 Q Ritus funebres, funebre tpulum. Les certmonke 
foneraires, les lionneurs qui precedent, accompagnent et suivent les 
funerailles : douc ceremonies funebres, jeux funebres, repas funtbrt. 
Dans le dernier sens, Homere a dit (11. US, 67.9, 6\S0.) il vint a Thebes 
fmcr les jeux funibres; ou peut-etre, plus lilt, il vint pour les jeux 
funebres, qui devoient sc celebrer, pres de, ou en presence de sa tombe, 
h T&fov. 4° Locus ubi situs est t&(/>os. Voy. Sophocl. Elect. 899» 
edk. Vauvil. 

Si d'apres les deux articles crijfia et rtyos, je dirois que le vljpa pon- 
voit quelquefois (mais rarement) avoir le sens de ra(j>os; mais que 
presque jamais et peut-etre jamais, ratyos ne fut que par abus, syno- 
nyme de (rijfia. Le afifxa rappelloit la memoire d'un mort ; le rtyos 
faisoit plus, il renfermoit la cendre. Un mort pouvoit avoir sou rijfui 
ou son fivTijta en divers pays, (Herodole 7, 16'7) mais il u'avoit ofift- 
nairement son r&fos que dans sa terre natale. Le r&fos est donne* 
par Pausanias (J, 18.) comme prcuve qu'on avoit habite un pays. 
Les braves morts a Marathon eurent un rb<j>os liors du pays natal, 
mais cela par unc honorable exception. 

Le (Tryja, ainsi que le T&<f>os, se placoit quelquefois dans l'enceinte 
nine du bucher, (voy. mon article cyifl) et avoit quelquefois roe 
forme pyramidal e qui rappelloit et representoit le bucher ou le corps 
avoit ete consume. C'est ce qui me semble resuker de la scene uni- 
que de l'El. de Soph. v. 897. sq. dont plusieurs vers me sembfett 
anal interprete* par de savans critiques. 


30. 4>t<&Aq. On Iraduit ordinairement ce mot par poculum, adymi 
mais d'apres Athenee (1. xi. cli. 6. edit. Commel. an. 1593, p; 479. 
et 500.) je douterois fort que la <j>ia\rj fut une coupe. Dq moins Ho- 
mere semble-t'-il autoriser mon doute; car II. 23, 270, il la dit Atv- 
pvrov ; mais une coupe qui u'a pas encore ete sur le feu peut done se 
mettre sur le feu ; or on n'y pre sen te pas les coupes. 

Ce que je dis par induction, Athenee (1. XI. p. 500) le prononce 
formellement. Par phiak, dit le Deipnosophiste, Homere n'entead 
foint parler dun vase a boire, oh to voriipiov \£yet» mais d'un tttse 
d'airain tres large, a\\a j(6Xk€ov re k<u *Kn£rakov,ayant lafonmd*mn 
chaudron {Xejjrjrwbes) et peut-Hre d 2 anses. Avoit»il toujoacs ts- 
dusivemetrt cette acception I C'est ce qu'on ne peut decider que per 
1'examen de tous les passages ou se trouveroit le mot fi&Xif* Quil 
me suffise ici d'avrnr averti dune lege* e nteprise. 



NO. I. 

1 have extracted from several authors, ancient and modern, a 
few passages which resemble one another in a remarkable manner. 
To judge, in which the similarity is assignable to imitation, and 
in which to casual coincidence of thought, may perhaps afford 
some amusement to your readers. 

Welsh Bicknor, Dec. 1815. 

I. — ALEXIS. — El rov ft,e66crxs<r8ou itqirepov to xpctmuXuv 

IIotpey{vei' ri[jt,lv, ovb* av ef$ olvo'v ttote 
JJ^oc/sto %\eiov rov fLerpiow vvv §e tyj* 
Tifxooglocv ov irpo<r§oxu>VTe$ -njj [^b6yjc 
HfctVy itqoyeiqmg rovg axparovg irlvofjitv. 
ClEABCHUS. — El rol$ fi.s9uarxo(t£voig exa<mj£ rjf^epag 

*AKyelv o-vvsfiotive rty xs$ol\yjv ngo rov vlmv, 
Toy axgarov rjfxcov ow§s el$ twivev ctv. 
Nuv 8e irpoTspov ye rov ir4vov rrjv vfiovyv 
IIgo\a,ft,paLVOVTe$ f waregoy/xev TayaSou. 
Locke. — Were the pleasure of drinking accompanied, the very 
moment a man takes off his glass, with that sick stomach and 
aking head, which, in some men, , are sure to follow not many 
hours after, I think nobody, whatever pleasure he had \u his cups, 
would, on these conditions, even let wine touch his lips ; which 
yet he daily swallows, and the evil side comes to be chosen only 
by the fallacy of a little difference in time. — Essay on Hum. Und. 
b. ii. ch. xxi. §. 63. 

II. — iEsCHlNES. — i*,yj ipwafy tyjv ptA0Tif4av, ft>j8s e%alpou tgov &*- 
x*rrm rag \Jnj$wj ex rfo %6»paiy, firfi 9 'EMIIPOSeEN TflN NO- 
MflN 'AAA' 'TXTEP02 nOAITETOT.—In Ctesiphont. p. 415. 
ed. lieiskii. 

EUBIPIDES.— Ka) riuv vopcov ye fiy vporepov thai Qi\§iv. 

Orest. v. 481. ed. Portoni. 

Camden says that Queen Elizabeth, in a speech to the 
University of Oxford, counselled them " not to go before the laws, 
but to follow them." 

HI. — Pl^TO. — % ov xal 'HpotxXeiTOs t«wtJv touto Xeyei, 3v <rb 
troyi) ; 3r< Mp&ncan 6 <ro^oorotros 9 *po$ iebv 7r$7]XQ$ (pavsTraU.— Hippias 
Major, p. 289. ed. H. Steph. 

Pope.— Superior beings, when of late they saw 
A mortal man unfold all nature's law, 

166 Parallel P assages from 

Admir'd such wisdom iu a human shape, 
And show'd a Newton, as we show an ape. 

Essay on Man. 

IV. — Plutarch- — o yaq ogxop irapaxgovopevog, tov jxsv «%fyoir 
hjjLokoyei Ss&evou, tov $1 6eov xaToQpoveiv. — In Lysandro. 

Bacon. — To say that a man lieth, 19 as much as to say that be 
is a brave towards God and a coward towards men. — Essay 1. , 

The following verses of Young might be used to express the 
same sentiment : 

They heaven defy, to earth's vile dregs a slave ; 
Through cowardice most execrably brave. 

Love of Fame, vi. 425. 

V. — Long IN us. — ou&ev v7rap%ei peya, ov to xaraQpovuv tori* 
jttlya. — §. 7. 

Young. — Nothing is great, of which more great, 

More glorious, is the scorn. — Resignation, P. 11. 

V 1 . — D 1 o G E N E s Laertius . Tovg a(rdiT0vg elve irapairkYiclovg tfoau 
cvxalg 67r) xprj/xvw ireQvxvtaig* cov tov xagirov fiiv avtpwxo$ oux 
airoyeuo'STCLiy xogaxeg $g xa\ yvweg e<r6/ou<r*. — In vita Diogenis, 
p. 220. ed. H. Steph. in 12mo. 

Dry den. — His generous mind the fair ideas drew 

Of fame and honour which in dangers lay ; 
Where wealth, like fruit on precipices grew, 
Not to be gathered out by birds of prey. 

Annus Mirabilis, Stanza xi. 

VII. — PLUTARCH. — Twv 8s iraiaiv vavTairaciv avoupe&ivToov, tl 
xa) IvvctTOv lor iv, Iv woMolg apyorspog 6 Koyog (reason) xa) a/t/SAvrf- 
pog, axTTcsp xvfiepvr}Tvi$ inrevparog iirihiwovTog. — De virtute morali. 
Pope. — On life's vast ocean diversely we sail, 

Reason the card, but passion is the gale. 

Essay on Man, P. it. 108. 

VIII. — Diogenes Laertius. Tovg toov ryxvx\iu>v irafieuiuerm 
fjLSTOLO'YOVTOLS, $i\oo-o$iag 8e awoAsi^flevrof, bpoiovg eksysv elvai Tolg Tijj 
J7»jveAo7njs jxwj<rrijp<n. Kcii yap exeivovg Me\iv6co jxsv xa) J7oAuS«£«v 
xa) Tag aKkag tegavalvag i/&iv, irao~ag Is pciWw 5j avryv tijv Uovrowav 
8uva<r0a* yripai. — In Vita Aristippi. 

Scriverius. " Quern Polybium cum mearum virium non esset 
emendare aut illustrare, et tamen publico prodesse vellem, ac 
bene de re bellica mereri, ■ Vegetium arripui. Sic proci Pe- 
nelopes, cum ad ipsam dominam accessus non pateret, cum an- 
cillis illius miscebantur." — In his Preface to the Scriptores de re 
Militari, dated 1632. 

Pofe. — Then Criticism the Muse's handmaid prov'd, 

To dress her charms, and make her more belov'd : 

Authors Ancient and Modern. 167 

But following wits from that intention stray'd ; 
Who could not win the mistress, woo'd the maid. 

Essay on Crit. v. 105. 

IX. — DlODOBUS Siculus. — exeivoi jxev yoip rov o$s*X<J)x8V0V tjJ 
$»Vsi QoLVarov etg itolt(ji$o$ (raorripluv ocvuKwa-avres, aiuvarov eavrwv Wfav 
xaTaX«AoiVa<r*y. — xiii. p. 341. ed. H. Steph. 

Cicero. — Non est viri, minimeque Romani, dubitare eum 
spiritual, quern naturae quis debeat, patriae reddere. — Philipp. x. 
c. 10. 

Pope. — The life which others pay, let us bestow ; 

And give to fame what we to nature owe. — Iliad 12. 

X. — Seneca. — Nihil illis faucibus obscurius ; quae nobis prae- 
•tant, non ut per tenebras videamus, sed UT IPS AS. — Ep. 57 • 
Milton. — Darkness visible. 

XI. — Seneca. — Non est formosa, cujus crus laudator, aut 
brachium, sed ilia, cujus universa faciei admirationem singulis 
partibus abstulit. — Epist. 33. 

Pope. — 'Tis not a lip or eye, we beauty call ; 

But the joint force, and full result of all. 

Essay on Crit. v. 247* 

XII. — Juvenal. spectaut subeuntem fata mariti 

Alcestim ; et similis si permutatio detur, 
Morte viri cupiant animam servare catellae. 

Sat. vi. 653. 
Pope.— Not louder shrieks to pitying heaven are cast, 

When husbands or when lapdogs breathe their last. 

Rape of the Lock. iii. 157* 

XIII. — Cicero. — Gratiam autem et qui refert, habet: et 
qui habet, in eo ipso quod habet, refert. — Pro Cn. Plancio. c. 28. 
Milton.— And understood not, that a grateful mind 
By owing owes not. 

XIV. — Lo N G I N V s . — Tm yotq Iyt*v9 b prpwp aqixpvtyi to o^tyia; 
JrjXov otj rco Qoor) uvrm. — Sect. 17» 

Ovid. — Suntque oculis tenebrae per tantum lumen obortae.— 
Me tarn. ii. 181. [which Addison thinks a flat antithesis.] 

Milton. 1 — Dark with excessive light thy skirts appear. 

XV. — " In the verses to Fletcher we have an image that has 
since been often adopted : 

But whither am I stray'd ? I need not raise 
Trophies to thee from other men's dispraise ; 

1 " Philo Jud. de Opif. Muud. p. 2. b., taig fMt^vfayaTs faiemafnv, eximio 
splendore obombrare, i. e. pnestringere : at Matth. xvii. 5. N«f ix* f writy* dicttor 
ituTxtafur. In quibua umbra tribuitur luci. Quomodo Vopisc. Numerian. sub 
init p. 791. T. ii., VeluH radio solis obtexit." Albertius ad Hesycb. vv. 'Ef «r. 
Tf*W*. — Ed. 

1<>8 Parallel Passage*. 


Nor is thy fame on lesser ruins built 4 
'•• Nor needs thy juster title the foul guilt 
Of eastern kings, who, to secure their reign, 
Must have their brothers, sons, and kindred slain. 
After Denham, Orrery, in one of his Prologues, 
Poets are sultans, if they had their will ; 
For every author would his brother kill. 
And Pope, 

Should such a man, too fond to rule alone, 
Bear, like the Turk, no brother near the throne." 

Johnson's Life of Denham. 
I have traced this image higher than Denham, — to 
Bacon. — Aristotle, as though he had been of the race of the 
Ottomans, thought he could not reign, except the first thing he 
did he killed all his brethren. — Advancement of Learning, b. ii. 
p. 53. fol. Lond. 1753. 

XVI. — Cowley. — Round the whole earth his dreaded name 

shall sound ; 
And reach to worlds that must not yet be found. 

Davideis. ii. 834. 
Pope. — Nations unborn your mighty names shall sound, 
And worlds applaud that must not yet be found. 

Essay on Crit. 196. 

XV1L— Butler. — Love in your -heart as idly burns 

As fire in antique Roman urns, 
To warm the dead, and vainly light 
Those only that see nothing by't. 

Hudibras, Part 11. Canto i. 311. 
Pope. — Ah hopeless, lasting flames ! like those that burn 
To light die dead, and warm th' unfruitful urn. 

Eloisa to A belaid. £61. 

XV III. — Wollaston. — If a good man be passing by an in- 
firm building, just in the article of falling, can it be expected that 
God should suspend the force of gravitation till he is gone by, in 
order to his deliverance ? or can we dunk it would be increased, 
and the fall hastened, if a bad man was there, only that he might 
be caught, crushed and made an example ? — Religion of Nature 
del. sect. v. prop. 18. 

Pope. — When the loose mountain trembles from on high, 
Shall gravitation cease, if you go by ? 
Or some old temple nodding to its fall, 
For Cbartres' head reserve its destin'd wall ? 

Essay on Man. 

XIX. — Cowley. — So sweet 9 s revenge to me, that I 

Upon my foe would gladly die. 

The Monopoly. 

E, H. Barfccri Epistold, $c. 169 

Pope. — Sec fierce Belinda on the baron flies, 

With more than usual lightning in her eyes ; 
Nor fear'd the chief uV unequal fight to try, 
Who sought no more than on his foe to die. 

Rape of the Lock., 

I shall conclude with citing some verses of Cowley, which seem 
applicable to the ill-deserved but short-lived esteem in which bis 
poems were once held, and the neglect,, succeeded by applause, 
of Milton's: 

No art so far can upon nature win, 

As e'er to put out stars, or long keep meteors in. 

On his Majesty's Restoration* 



E. H. Barkeri Epistola adTn. Gaisfobdium, Gr. ling. 

Profess. Reg. Oxon. 


Ad Simonidis versum 43. mp\ yvtauxwv num. ccxxx. : 

rrjv 8' ix €rm&y$ re xal wa\iyrgtfieo§ Svov : 

haec notavit Brunck. : " Svohls notat cinericeum colorem, s. gil- 
vuniy quern in equis damnat Virgilius : vide Salmastum in Solin. 
p. 181." Hesycb. T&ppov otto&ov, $»iov, *oXwV. Giofsse Lab- 
bean se ; Gilvus. cnohalog. Voc. <rv<£ieiiog omisit H. Steph, The*. 
G. L., ut et voc. refga; ap. iElian. H. A. x. 44. pro nomine 
cicada?, £x t^ Xfou$. 

In Solonis Fragmentis a Gaisfordio editis frustra qtiaesivi se- 
quentem Suida* locum : Kiyyoumr to fare$levai ol *ep\ SiXmvet. 

In Notitia de Sol one, quam Gaisfordius e Fabricii Biblioth. 
Gr. exscripsit, frustra quaisivi hunc insignem Suidae locum : Koppl^ 
tri$' 6 SoKcov IxsxXtjro iraTpaow[juxw$. Kusterus : " Altum hac dere 
ap. reliquos scrip tores silentium ; quare vellem Suidas auctorem 
suum prodidisset.* 

Quod ad Rhiani Fragmenta attinet, sunt qtnedam loca, quae 
doctimmus Gaisfordius non adduxit. 

Scbol. Apollon. R. iii. 1. : 'Ptavbs U fy<n i*yfii* h*$ipw $ toktcl$ 
ttnxaAe70*$ai rots Movactg, Keyatv o5ro>£* 

n*crM V iltratowrt, \l\3l$ 3ts rotrwftg Xffe;j. 

Paulo aliter ap. Schol. MSS. a Schaefero edita : 'Pwos ii Qrph 

170 E. H. Barkeri Epistola 

pj&ev factQ&peiVy el [tlav rig kirixctrXfiTcti twv Mov<robv, xoLvag yig hoi rijf 
picig fmfMthit' Xsysi 8s ovrcog' 

TISlcch V eicrfltfoucn, [Mag !re rovvofta \i£tig. 

(Ad Rhiani versus, quos Gaisfordius e Schol. Apollon. R. iii. 1089* 
adduxit, bene scribit Schaeferus in notis ad Schol. MSS. : 

Al[Mvlv\v 8* e£a.vTig atf £l\uovog> fo pot JltXaayog — 

" Sunt qui vertant coutinuo, statim ; male illi confundentes cum 
Hjfaurifc, a quo plurimum discrepat. Est enim ubique rursus, de» 
nuo. Archilochus i. v. 9. e^ourng 8' krepovg knapefyerou. iii. v. 4< 
h%oLv&t$ (1. e£ouJTig) xTrjo-opai ou xclxio)." In altero Archilbchi loco 
Gaisfordius edidit l^mrrig, at Jacobsius in nota, quam affert Gaisf., 
e Plutarcho T. ii. p. 23y. B. profert efaufag, et de vera lectione 
nihil monuisse videtur.) 

Steph. Byz. v\ 'AyvMot : '^yuAAo, noXig Tvpfavtag — 6 woX/nj^ 
*Ayv\houog' 'Piavoj 8s 'AyvWiov elve xaXxov. L. Hobstenius : 
u Agyllinus Latinis auctoribus (Virg. Mn. vii. 8.) dicitur Agylls 
civis, unde in verbis sequentibus, 'Pixvbg 8s 'AyvMaov eItts ^aXxiy, 
legit yiyuAXIyov Salmasius in Solin. p. 60." 

Quod ad Panyasidis Fragmenta attinet, non omnia occupavit 
diligentissimus Gaisfordius. 

Schol. Ven. ad II. A. 591. : E?jp»jTai 8s fa\og oltto tou /3aiv«ri*i, 
tig xou ohog, oltto tow 68suecr0ar xoii Iloi\voL<rig 8s tol xs8iAa, /SijAa Aeysi. 
Etym. M. p. 196. 32. : ByXog oltto tou /3a/vscr0ai, »$ xa) 68o$ awi tow 
ffieveriou' xal 6 Iloivvao-ig 8s t<£ *rs8/a j3a/oAa Asysi. 

Versum, quem ex Athenaeo Epit. ii. p. 37. adduxit, sic legit 
Gaisfordius, ut et Schweighaeuserus : 

Ilivofievog xoltoL fuirpov, wrep fiirpov 8s ^ege'iow. 

Uterque silet de Mureti Var. Lectt. vii. 12., ubi : "Immodico 
vinomaxime debilitari corporis vires, quod et Lucilius dixerat his 
versibus lib. 30. Sat. 

Scito etenim bene longinquum mortalibu' morbum 
In vino esse, ubi qui invitavit dapsilius se. 

Et Theognis v. 509. 

. Olvog wivofMVog nrouXug xaxog* y\v 8s rig ourJv 
Jl/yjj evKrTCLfjLivctig, ou xetxog, aAA' ayadig. 
Et Panyasis : 

'fig olvog JvijToicn fis»v Traga 8»gov ipHrrov, 
Ilwopevog xar<x pirgov, wre^ergog 8g y*pt\m? 

Pro virsp perpov, quod edideruut Gaisf. et Sch weigh., uirkp^upog 
legit Muretus. Voc. wripptrpog omisit H. Steph. Thes., sine ullo 
exemplo affert Schneiderus in Lex. 

Simonidis Fragm. clxxxvii. : " Aurij 8s $o£lyiikog 'Apyttri xuAj£, 
Etym. M. p. 798. 20. Apollon. Lex. v. $ogo$. Schol. Yen. 11. 

ad Th. Gaisfordium. 171 

B* 219. Simonidi Atnorgino tribirit Athen. xi. p. 480. cf. Eustatb. 
II. B. 207= 156. 5 1 ." Gaisfordius. 

In Etym. M., ut et ap. Athen., legitur $o£ *%eiAo$, in Apollon. Lex. 
vitiose pofij Y«gds, ap. Eustath. corrupte po£t*£fita£. $o£/p£5iA»f est 
vox nihili : lege $ofo^«Ao;. Minim est accuratissim urn Gaisfordium 
veram lectionem non animadvertisse, prsesertim cum in Schol. Yen. 
non <^of/^6»Xo^ sed Qo&xeiXos legatur. Alex. Politus ad Eustath. : 
" &o£6xei\o$: ex Athen. et Etym. lege QofyxjtiXog, nisi malis pojo^ti- 
kog." &o£oxei\o$ Schneiderus in Lexicon suum recepit. Hac voce ca- 
ret H. Steph. Thes. #o£/;£e»Ao£ derivandum esset non e $o%o$ et 
%fiAo£, sed e <po£tg et %s7Ao$, ut f u£/p)A.a ap. iEschylum (Hesych. 
v.) compositum est e voce. $u£i£ et jxijAov. Quod ad Simonidem 
Amorginum attinet, in Athenaei loco est S^my'^g 6 'Apopyiog. De 
hac re bene monuit idem Alex. Politus ad Eustath. : " Simonidcs 
hie Athenaeo 6 'Apopyiog, sicuti etiam Photio n. 2S9« e Proclo : 
*Ietftft&ov tie iroiYiTot), * ApyiMyig re 6 Jla^og apurrog, xu) 2ifj,w!$n$ 6 
'Afiopytog, ij, u>$ hioi, Z&fJLiog. Sed alhs vocatur *ApLOpyivog, nempe 
ex Ainorgo, una ex insulis Sporadibus, vel Cycladibus. Sic enim 
Stephanus : 'Apopyog, vy<rog pi* rmv Kvxk&Swv, e^ptxrot xiXug rpelg, 
'Agxea-'ivviv, Mivooav, Alyi&fapr kxakeiTo de xx) JTayxaAi), xcti ¥vpg/a* 
a7ro TTis Mwaootg yi> Sipoovititig o ia/jt/3o7roio^, 'AfMgyhog Keyofxevog, tig 
'Epvxlvog. Et Suidas, Sipoovttivig (6) Kpiveoo, 'Apogylvog, letfifioypx- 
$0f." Fallitur Berkelius : " Vide Strabonein x. circa finem, Pro- 
di Chrestom. p. 342., (ubi Sylburgius pro 'Apipytog, optime 
'Apopyivog) et Eustath. in Dionys. p. 76." Berkelium, ut et Syl- 
burgium, falli, patet e Photio n. 239* 1. c, qui ad Procli locum 
respexit, et habet non 'Au,ogyivog, sed 'ApApyiog. Gaisfordius in 
sua Procli editione p. 380. retinet 'Aptpyiog, sed de proposita lec- 
tione 'AfjLopyivog altum egit silentium. Sylburgii verba sunt hsec : 
" SifM/ovitivjc 6 "ApopKog, vitiosum id. 'Ajiipyiog scripserat Proclus, 
aut 'Apwpyivog, ut e Steph. (Byz.) didici.' Ap. Athen. 'A(Mpyiog 
legitur, ibiquenullam lectionis varietatem in MSS. notavit Schweig- 
(haeuserus. Archiepiscopus Thess. in suis notis ad Dionys. 5Q,5. f 
teste Berkelio : 'H 'Ai^ogyog, e% §g Sipoovttirig 6 * Iufi. fio%oiog f 'Afiog- 
yivog evrevdev \ty6pevog 7rpo7repHr7raifj,iv*g 9 rvircp itvixep to tie 'Apwgyt- 
vog, irpo7rapo£vTOva)g, %iTcovog evlderov, coco xp&fiarog Icoog i\ouo^g6ou 
nvog. 1 Athen. xi. p. 460. UoTijpia tie wgoorov oltia ovopaaraVTat rov 
'Aiuopyw iroir\Ttiv Jjfyxav/Sqy. Bene Schweighaeuserus : " A patria 
Amorgo, una ex Cycladibus, nomen invenisse docet Steph. Byz., 



vias 32, oZ to 'Arrtxiy Xi £uciy, «XXo Tt ifAfatvc i , "Kt ywv« v \fxofyog ofxoioy fbOvay %ct\ p« 
i/^opyij xt» giw; h "KivonaXufxrif l£ n{ htvfjwr* afxo^yiita Xfyouiyet, w( h Kaffxinbg h Av<ri<r* 

Tpanf ink*. Failitnr eiuditissimiu Archiepiscopus, confundero ifMpyn (A toS ixaUv 
vKQvradf**) et &p9fyl; (n ^*yox«x*^ii) ; de quo errore foie dixi in tputola MS. ad 

172 E. H. Barkeri Epistcda 

cujus ex praescripto % Afu>oyivo$ adpellari debuit, quemadmoduni 
etiam ap. Suidam scribitur, T. iii. p. 317. ed. Kust.,. sed nihil 
iropedit, quo minus credainus, 'Afj.6gyio$ perinde justam nomipis 
gentilis formam fuisse." Paulo audacius scripsisset Sch weigh., 
si in loca laudata e Proclo et Photio, ubi Simonides dicitur % A\tif- 
yio$, non 'Apopyivog, incidisset. De forma gen til is no minis Amor- 
gius nihil monuit Fabricius Biblioth. Gr., nee ejus editor Harles. 
Notanda est Tzetzae opinio, qui Cliil. xii. 52. dicit, Simonidem 
fuisse inventorem literarum q et o>, dubitat vero, utrum rov 'Au.op- 
yov (Aroorgi filiuro vocat etiam Chil. i. 6 If).) rov Zocjaiov IxaTvov, 
an Ceum. Sed Amorginum> a patriu, non a parents adpelkin- 
dum esse, Steph. Byz. et alii perspicue testantur, notante Har- 

Sequena Simonidis fragmentuni ap. Schol. Apollon. It. iii. 26. 
Gaisfordius (num. cxvi.) intactum reliquit : 'AttoMmio; ph 'AQpo- 
Sinjf tov "Epcarroi ysvsakoyel' ZctxQcJo 8s, 1% xa) Ovpeww* 2ifjuo»L&i$ H 9 4 
'A$p&iryi$ xoh* Ageog' 1 

X^erKis nou §o\ifx,v$e$ 'AtypofiiTois, rov *Aoei loXofJitj^uvto tsxsv. 

*I0vxqs xat t if<r*o5of ix yiiwg Agysi Tov^Epayrx' ev $£ to7; el$ *0&$iei 
KpQVW ywsotXoyiiTou* 

Avraig* EtywTa K§6vog xai vvevfAara. volyt zTex.voo<re. 
. Pro fa\o(tY$a; in Schol. MSS. est SoAo'pjTffc. ibi Schaeferus ; 
u Schol. ed. rectius SoAofwjSe?, wotpu to SoXo^Sijj. Sed 8oAojk,^tij$ 
babet vocativum SoAopjTa. Hoc Simonidis Fragm. F. Ursiaus in 
Carminibu8 Lyricis, p. 172. sic scriptum edidit : 

'A^poViTOi tov "Apii 
JoXdfJiot^dvcp T6XSV. 

Cupidinem iaXapiyavov* Epov dixit is, cujus IIou&koc AloXixu fuertint 
penes Dorvillium. V. Aniuiadv. in Charit. p. 392. Ac! sane hoc 
epitheton ilium aliquanto magis decet, quam Martem, qui vi et 
impetu, non dolo et fraudibus grassatur. Scribendumne SoXo/bc*^ 

XftVQS TfXfV ?" 

Ad hunc Simonidis locum respexisse videtur Servius ad JEn. u 
66S., a G, Cupero laudatus Obss. ii. 1. : " Aut secundum Simo- 
nidem, qui dicit Cupidinem e Venere tan turn esse progenitum." 
Addit Cuperus : "Quern tamen alii e Venere et Marte, alii c 
Venere et Vulcano, et alii aliter procreatum volunt. Cic. de N. 
D. iii. : ' Cupido primus Mercurio et Diana prima natus dicitur : 
secundus Mercurio et Venere sec undo : tertius quidem est Ante- 
ros, Marte et Venere tertia/ Nee tamen aliae auctoritates desunt 
Simonidi ; ab eo quippe stat Apollon. R,. iii. 26. : Scholia, 'AvoK- 
Aavio$ fisv 'Aypodlrvis rov spoora. yeveoiKoyfu Quod autem Simonidi 


1 De Cnpidinis natali et de gerainis Cnpidinibus plene et accurate dUU Q< 
Cuperus Obss. ii. 1. 

ad Tk. Gaisfordiurn. 178 

tribuit Servius, id eripit ei paulo post Scbol., 2ip.a»tfofi M 'AQpo- 
dirris xa)*Ap*o$, adducens ha^c ejus verba, J^ItAjs x. r. X." Sed 
notutu dignum est Simonidem ap. Schol. Apollow. R. fecisse Cu- 
pidiiiem e Vcnere et Marte progenitum, cum, secundum Servii 
locum, Simonides Cupidmeni fecisset e Venere tantum progenitum* 
Simonidis Fragm. <\\xxi. " Schol. Aristoph. Acbarn. 740. Q& 
pjvov 'AqKTToQ&vris in) tc3v ^o^mv toi$ <nr\a$ e7pi)x*y, aXXoi xa) JftjMW*- 
$ij£ 6fuoloo$ sir) xplqow 

'0?rXa^ sx/ysi tcov wruriloov iroicov. 9 

Suidas, cujus locus Gaisfordiurn praeteriit, hunc prefer t versum 
v. 'OxAjj, et pro twv habet 8)j. 

Simonidis Fragm. exxxix. " Plato Protag. p. 339. A. Asyn 

yap ttou ^i/tcoviSr^ upog Xxiirav tov Kgsovrog ulov row O^TTaAou, iVfc, • 
y4v$£* uyo&hv jxh otXaizwg yeviviou ^oXsttov, yefvi Tf xai votr), xai 

toco TSTpstycovov avev \J/o'ycu Tervypsvov, 
Et paulo post, 

OuSi /XOi 6{J.{JL=\SW$ TO UlTTOLxiioV V6{A€TSU 9 XCCi TO* <T0$01J 7T0lgU $UXrl$ 

slptjfjiivov, 2£oAs7roy $6lto £<r6kbv eleven." 

Suidas locus Gai&fordium pr&teriisse videtur : JLrraxsiov* fUTiu- 
<ri£OTixo'y. To tov IIittolxgu. Ka) Stfiaovltiiif $>j<tj- 'Av$p' ayatw otkx- 
tiot (ol\olQs6Q$, Kust.) ysvio-Qxt ^aAswov, to IJtTraxsw sipyxe y&o 6 
UiTToixog' XoXbtfov so-flAov efi(jL*vou. Cf. Suid. v. XoLkexu. 

Ciaisfordius uullam fecit meutioiieiu seouentis loci ap. Phot. 
Lex. MS.: Kufiyfiov KqctTivo$ 6f*rrai$, tov Bsofyag-rov *Ium$ & 
tov fxtiTguyipTyv, xot) yaAAov vuv xaXovfisvov ovroog Stfjuovfevfi. JNi 
vehemeiuer erro, verba g5to>$ XijACMvibys nou ad voc. Kufafikv reier 
renda sunt, sed ad voc. yaAAov, quod Simonides usurpavit fragm. 

Ad Phocylidis Pseudonymi vers. 82. sic scribit Brunckius: — 
" Inter buoc et pra?cedeuteui versum insertus est i*te in uno co- 
dice : Afy&e 8/x>jv lixxfyg, vgiv ap$a> pwtov axvifty. Scriptum opor- 
tuit vqiv <xv au.$olv. Sed longe aatiquior est versus ilie auctore 
bujus carmiuis. Ad eum adJudit Ari&topb. Vesp. 725. : % Hrw 
<ro$o$ ^v, ©<rn$ ifourxsv, nph av afL^oip pviw mxoj<rvi$ t ovx &» hx*b- 
vauf. Laudatur etiaui a i^iutarcho de Stoic. Repugu. p. 1034. £," 
De eodem versu idem ad v. J 90. scribk : " Vers. 82. suspicor 
in aliqua hujus cannuiis editione ex stare ; citatur eniin tanquam e 
Phocylide a Florente Christiano ad CouHcum. ,, Non sequitur 
hunc versum <c in aliqua Pbocylidis carmiuis editione exstare/' 
quod Flor. Christianus Unquaiu e Phocylide ckarit; nam Flor. 
Chr. fortasse Luciani locum T. iii. p. 136. in auimo habuit : — 
JIoojTr/V pun §qxw tov ipttTTQV hcstycLyw Tti kiyopi «5 pnxXot xefi twpw 
jarofyvifievov, /xaXXoy $} vo^^T^ounw <p^Q-\ $s 9 Myjts d/x^y hxietfi, 
irgly *p$olv (w6qv kxowry$. Ibi M. du S. : — u £ quo poeta Lucta- 
nus habeat, iucertum esset,, nisi Scboliastes PhocyUdeum ease 

174 E. H. Barkeri Epistola 

doceret : nam quod in Phocylide hodierno non reperitur ; cum 
getiuinus non sit, movere nos non debet." Sed procul dubio 
bic versus Phocylidi antiquiori tribuendus est. Secundum So- 
lanum, versus exstat ap. Flatonem quoque in Demodoco aus- 

Cjcto, 737* C. Id quod nee Brunckius, nee Gaisfordius notavit. 
trumque praeteriit Ciceronis locus. Muretus Var. Lectt. vii. 18.: 
u Sciturft est illud, sive 'HcioSeiov est, sive, ut creditur, vpfu&jc**- 
fetov: Mirfie 8/xijv foxa<ryi$ 9 wgh ctpQolv /xuflov axoucYig" Respicit 
Muretus ad Pseudo-Ciceronis locum : " Etsi illud \t/guo\}<no8giov 
(ita enim putatur) observo, Mrfie Mxyjv, pra?sertim in te, a quo nihil 
umquam vidi temere fieri." £pist. ad Attic, vii. 18., ubi silet 

Adfragmenta Phocylidis Milesii Gaisfordius p. 444. citat haec : 
11 Plato Rep. vii. p. 407. A., 4>u)xv\(b s ov yotg ovx <xxo6ei$ 7rw$ ^jjo*!, 
&iv, oVav rep yf&u /3/o$ J, otgsTrjv ourxelv" Eadem fere verba Schier 
p. 64. adduxit e Platonis Rep. iii. 623. ed. M. Ficini : Ovx cutouts; 
Trcog <PooxvXi$t)V ; SeTv, otuv too ?jj8>) /3/o$ r\, aperrjv ountelv, " i. e. non 
audis Phocylidem dicentem ? oportei e virtutem exercere, cum jam 
homini ad vitam necessaria comparata sint; ita enim ego intelligo, 
lit to per ellipsin pro tcS uv6p&7ra> ponatur." Fallitur Schier : non 
est legendum r£ i.e. rep avQpdowco, sed rw i. q. twi, 

Diligentissimus Gaisfordius librum non videtur vidisse, qui sub 
hoc titulo editus est Lipsiae, 1751. 12mo. pp. 106.: — 

€t Phocylidis, philosophi et poetae ap. Milesios quondam cele- 
berrimi, Carmina, cum selectis Adnotationibus aliquot doctorum 
▼irorum Gr. et Latine. Nunc denuo ad Editt. praestantissimas 
recensuit, lnterpretationem Lat. emendavit, Notasque suas adjecit 
M. Jo. Adam Schier, Freibergensis." 

Gaisfordius, ut et Brunckius, Phocylidem M ilesium distinguit 
a Phocylide Pseudonyino, cui tribuitur ttoI^ol vouierixhv, quod, 
Brunckio judrce, " Christiani est alicujus, qui sub finem quarti 
saeculi vixisse videtur." Sed Schier Phocylidem Milesium et Pho- 
cylidem pseudonymum unum eundemque esse putat. Sequens 
notitia de Phocylide Gaisfordium praeteriit : " Phocylidis versus 
recentioris esse originis, vel saltern serioribus temporibus, inpri- 
mis a Christianis hominibus, valde mutatos et interpolates, inter 
viros eruditos constat: Cf. Ludov. Wachleri Pseudo-Pho- 
cylide, Rintel. 1788. 4." F. Guil. Sturzius de Dial. Maced. et 
Alex. p. 207. 

Sequentia Hesychii loca Gaisfordium praeterierunt : Fvywir 
MWTTodrjrov, $ oLvearxvdurphov, co$ 'Apxl\o%p$, 

Item : 'Avfio'vo? veo<r<rof xa) to rr$ yuvctixhg ouloiov, irapoL *Apyi- 
A*%«. H. 1. nullam lectionis in Codice Marciano varietatem no- 
tavit Schowius. Valkenaerius ad Theocr. Adoniaz. p. 402. veram 
reposuit lectionem : " Corrigunt cly$qv)$, vel vso<r<rov : imp vox 
excidit restituenda, otrfiovtitv? av$6vo$ veooW?: lusciuiarum pulli 

' ad Th. Gaisfordium. 175 

(ap. Theocr. Adoniaz. 121.) propria sua adpellatione dicuntur 

1 De terminationibns nominum in Stvg, vel $«c, docte et accurate ibi egit cri- 
ticni summits. £ Philemonis Lex. Teclmolog. MS. Valck. profert haec : — AayiZtir 
fforpcwvfuxflV Ix rot/ XayeuoD* wg 6 tou Tte'ha^yov yovof, wtXapyi&if toD Xuxov, Xwu'cNj;" 
AXfxrop»d»jf • x*» y '^* irio&iHiQvri;. Addit Valck. " Ptolemaeus, hujus nomims primm 
JEgypti rex, non quidem erat, ceusebatnr tamcn (Pausan. p. 15. 1.) filing Aayow. 
is erat Aayiirig, et ejus posteri Anyitui : par ratio est in aliis : Lepusculus Greece, 
a Xayif, Xnyihbg, leporis filioli \ayih"ig dicebantur: si sic ista scripsit Philemon, 
erravit procul dubio : hujus quidquid fuerit, ista saltern omnia, ut Graca sint, 
et aotiquiorum observatis congruant, in &v; sunt terminanda: ittphxidy-ng mutan- 
dom in vtplixiStvg." Editio Pbilemonis, e Burneiana Bibliotheca publicata Lon- 
dini 1812., habet non m^hxioyng, sed ntchxiirig, et sic occurrit in Eustatb. p. 
1821.35. ed. Rom.: TlarMvyvfjuxoy, ©Xay;d>jf wg xaX itt'hapyilng h *w irtXapyov yfaog 9 
x«t Xi/xt£tff 6 toD Xvxow ovtw ^ xa» AXexTopioSi; 9*fft* x«l xi v *^*?* xe ^ wtp^xi^f' x«i 
£xx«, De hoc Philemonis loco non male scripsit Husclike >4fia/. crit. in Anthol. 
Gr. p. 102. {Class, Journ. xvi. p. 286.). " Paululum conturbari ista Valckenaerii 
ratio videbatur animadversione aliqua, quam e Philemonis Lexico (1. c.) deliba- 
tam cnm araico communicaverat D. R. Hnic etiam glossse adstipulatur Suid. r. 
Aayt'Sn? £ tow x»ywoD. Sed, nt a Philemone de gradu se dejici non passns Valck., 
ista omnia in Jify terminanda esse recte statu it, ita et Suid. aut errasse arbitror, 
ant scripsisae AaytJivf o toS XaycyoU." Ego quid em puto in Suidae loco non Xayi'JSif 
in Xaythty esse matandam, nt error typographies emendetur, sed veteres Gram* 
maticos ipsos errasse scribendo corrupte ~h*yih<; h tow x*ywoD, pro XayM;, quae 
est legitima forma. In gratiam lexicographorum sequentia loca notavimus. 

/ElianuS N. A. vii. 47. : — Afovrwv crxu^vo*, xal AiOVTi$«f ovofxa^ovrect, <ag *Api(rro$uins & 
Bt/faVTio? fxuprvptX — itiBr\wuy — axovo/xty <rx6(jt.yovg cj, xal TLi9fixiiiig rovg adroOg.—^ 
AxmthTg xaXot/vrnt oi twv Xvxwy (oxu'kxxtg) — Twy Xayiav 9 Any t& tig, 'AXwTrc'xuy r» ixyoya, 
'Akumixi&ug xixXijvTai* r» it irpooyara, orifice yeorrovg xaX hpTaklyovg aXiXTgwvwy ti, suit 
*A\i%rofite7s (sic pro &\ixropfiag recte corrigit L. C. V. ad Theocr. Adoniaz. p. 401.) 
Xiyoi/ov— xal XniiiiTg, xal XqvaXcuTrtx* J«V, xal Ta Tovrot; ojutout xara t» adra ffyyifxeuti- 
{•wn. Voces, quas hie insignia locus suppeditat, 7r*0>pao«V, y^yet\wvsxi^t7g 9 «Xm- 
Top«J«iV, omisit H. Steph. TAes. G. £.. ; omisit quoque Schneideri Lex. Gr. Germ, 
Vocem aXa/ircxi^rf, qnam H. Stepb. omisit, Schneiderus habet, sed nullum attulit 
exemplum. Enstath. p. 655. 2. : "Uracg Xnvi&f7< xiywreti, xai n^^txt^i^, xa) Kopt«. 
T4^«f, xaX 'lijyaxiStig, xoi Ilf^o-T^i^irf, of x* 1 ^* xa ^ vc^txevy, x«l raly /£itf yovot, oStw 
seal XcXi^oyi^, oi rm ^'Xi^oywy. Voc. ((paxt^r; H. Steph. omisit; Schneiderus 
habet sine ullo exemplo. " Suid. v. XaipihTg : — 'Two toD Xatpt^oj Ttsitaihv^tyoi y 4 
p.iXiTwyTtf* X*7pig $i avXnrhg ^ifiaTog af^ova-og' ovrw &i \iyov<ny ^ATTtxol nyb rov Xatptiff 
XtuptSug, xbu uvi rris «ig'<TTif«? Iltfi<Trtpi$ug. Exscripsit Snidas Schol. A lis top h. 
Ackarn. 364. II«i/' lg xopaxa;. oi crfrjxi f odx «,7ro Tuiv di/pu/y j 

n60cr irpoci'rrTctv of xaxaJ; aTroXou/ixcvof 

'Enl Trjy dupav /woi Xaipt2»; fbopfiavkioi. 

Dic«opolis, qui tibicines fstos Thebanos appellaverat vtfwttg, ut sibi conitet, 
eosdem deinceps vocat XaipiStTg a. d. pullos Charidis, qui a Charide, tanquam 
▼espae a parentibus, didicissent to popfiuy. Similis locus est in Ambus. 860. Eo- 
dem respexit Suid. V. nipurrtpifoTg : "CLtTmig aito roZ Xaiptfog Xttipt JttV, ovtw xal amo riy 

vtpHrrtfig ntpierrrpi&ii;" Husclike 1. c. Voc. Xaiptfo'ig omiserunt H. Stepb. Thee. 
et Schneid. Lex. Antiatticistes ap. Bekkeri Anecd. Gr. p. 88. : TaXic^* o t% 
ym\ng <rxu(xvog' Kparkyog^ilpaig. Eundem Cratini locum respexit Uesych. (notante 
L. C. V. ad Theocr. Adoniaz. 1. c), quern ita corrigendum putat D. Ruhnk. : 

r«Xii«a* KpaTtvo;' "kiytt il ovzwg tov tU7t}Jn xal wg yaXwy neuiu. Ante Ruhnkenium 

tie correxerat H. Stepb. Ind. Thes.: — " Hesych. yuXi&a a Cratino dici innuit 

rU ivtiXti ouf y«Aiuy ira^a : dicitur lit &Xu>7rcxi£w>?, Xuxt^ev;, TiXapyt^uj, et blljus- 

modialia. Sed ap. Uesych. scriptum ya\n$tvg per n in penultima, at contra 
seriem alphabeticam, (|uae * requirit." Uaec conjectura Codice Uesychii Mar- 
-eiaao, a N. Schow edito, connrraatur, obi, pro Musuri yax^^a, est y*kihwe. 
Voc. y*\iltvg omisit Schneideri l*x. Addit Haschke 1. c— u Hinc intelligitur 

176 E. H. Barkeri Epistola, $c. 

De altera HesychianaB glossje parte, 'AifivnMf ar$ivo$ nwrvif 
xou to ty£ yuvaixb$ a&olov, Tupx 'Ap^tXoyca, silet Valckcnaerius. 
H&ccine verba Ua tftutf iutelhgettfla, ut Hesych. dkmt, Arcbiio- 
chum vac. arfiwv, vel aqSovi;, pro mulicbri pudeudo usurpasse? 
£go quidem sic tntelligo. Procul dubio tale quid alvimrat Aris- 
toph. Av. fjfJO., not ante et Pergero, et Albertio : Boccatius in 
Fab. de Virili dixit luscignuolo, uotanie G. ad Hesych. 

Archilodti Fragm. Iviii.: " Schol. Nicaudri Ther. p. 4Q. ed. 
Colon., *Ap%(Xoxps rbv xvthtov $vt6y $>jo-<v cofeAi/x-ov slmi Tolg QpepfLa- 
aw qti nhxfijs yo&axTQs sroiel. Uuhukenius ad Velleium p. 20. recte 
teposuisse videtur 'Afjuplto%o$ : cf. fr. ex Schol. r l'heocriti ii. 48. 
Aeysi yoip xai ^ Apyi\o^6g to $5//, a $uro'w 'EcrflX^v ykp aXXqy oISo. 
TOiouTou Qutqu "Iqlvw (ex emend. Toupii)." Gaisfoidius. 

Recte Ruhnkeimis reposuit 'A^iXoyng. Sed quid faciemus de 
nom. *Apxi\oxo$ ap. Schol. Ven. ad Hotn. II. I. 378. ? t*w 8s /iuy 
lv Kct^og ctlvYf 'Avb twv Kupaov, ot$ as* Xo*So£S4 6 17olt)frt}$• olov, fa 
p*lfu Kotpbg, oiove) Sot/Xw. To Kagbg *A\xoTto$ b tiriypxpfxctroiroibf 
iyxepaXov yxouosv, otto too h too xapct slvar ro\ yoip iroL\SLia. TcSv yopfi- 
Hwv uvOffiTTei rbif eyxe<tyx\ov. Asyei our to, t/g* U piv tv Kapbf «*o°p, 
WTinj, TipfcjK.** atJTo*, lv J jw,o/ga ai yuv«7x«£ tov iyx?$aXov. *-^g%{- 
Jioyps 8g, Tty&ajjxa* avrbv fv luxrQotyopov xou tow tu^ovto^ orp'aricorw 

Heaven.. Muo^ijr eugoe, «$ J A^lhoyog : ubi Albertius : " Am- 
phHochus Athetnensis turte iiitelligitur, a Varrone, Columella, 
Pliiiio, etc. laudatus, Bed no« alibi ap. Hesych. Unde suspicabar 
«cribendum *Agxi\o%p$, cwjus sajpe nveminit, quanivis desk in 
Pricaii Ind. Auel." Ampliilochus Aihcuicnsis a Varrone de R. 
H. i. J . scripsisse de agi icultuia dicitur. lie hoc Amphilocho, 
lit videtur, Schol. Nicaudri I.e. scripsit. 

De perinutatioue norainmn propriorum ' Aplo-Totpyos et '^gioTO- 
TiX»j^ in nostra priori Epistola ad Gais£>rdnitn (Clans. Jo urn. xxiv. 
p. 327-) «KWi«imus. In Archilochi Fragm. C, pro vuigato no»- 
mine 'ApioTagxps, e Cod. Leid. MS. rectissitne 'ApxiXoyos repo- 
suit Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 1 169- 

Ad Archtfochi Fragtri. C. sic Gai«ff>rdius : a Etymologus p. 
115, 44. "ZxoufcaXvfiQW to irarocvgov rm r/rctyifioov, anb tow cxotXfiy^av 

^iro spectet breyis ilia, sed docta WyttenbacJrii anifnadveraio ad Plot, de Edue. 

ptw» » , t^TW7roVT«f , w'f w jSaff'tXea;, t*KXa fi&ariXi'axovs Tcapcwyiiy afoot; otavootVo. AdfBO- 

dtrm hie variant libri in Tore ^aooU<nto'jg 9 exhibentes pc«mXn9t» y J6ao-ix«/8oc 9 ^cmti* 
x*4fTg. Wy ttenbachiuB ; ( Forte, fiartXi&tTg, licet a nnllo Codice confirmatum, 
▼eram est/ Bac-tXtlrxo^ tamen hos Archidami regnlos futoros Tocat Adten. xiii. 
p. 566. A., ^rix«*tw Theophrastns T. i. p# S9T. A., oO yap /5t»<nXirf a/x^if, £xx» 
fimrthnfon yevv<w■«. , • Voc. jiao-iXtitr; noti agiioscit H. Stepfa. Th«., nee SebxeMeri 
Irfx. V«c. fariktftu* in H. 8tepa. TA». non reperittir. 

Notice of Shiitzfs Ph&nissce. 177 

rwniv xcA xgoiTsiir to (jXTteroV &rn 8J to <*v tjj netyfa xajtwruAov 
*, (3 ege/Serai (Ips/Ssi MS. Dorv.) *Agx^°X S 8s frinrpw ?$ij, olor 

t Piirrqm epe&OfMVov." 
.d Arcbilochi locum respexit Suid. v. 'PoVrpoy : 'Pfarpor five* 
$ irayl$. 


O Guahrene, redux longinquis Praetor ab Indis, 
Quern velut ac Patrem populi coluere volentes, 
. Cujusque auspiciis, belli flagrante procella, 
Res stetit Angligenum, fracti cessere M arattae. 
Intima M ysoreus repetens sua regna Tyrannua 
Delituit, versis doluitque inglorius arniis. 
Nee valuere minae, nee vitae prodigus ardor 
Gallorum, insidiaeque Indos ad bella cientes. 

Faustus, et imperii perfunctus munere tanto 
Vivis adhuc, venerande Senex — rurisque re cess u 
Contemplare tuo quae gesseris omine, quosque 
Ducendos aliis promoveris antfe triumpbos. 

Nam que per ocean urn, qui Si nam fluctibus ambit, 
Et patet ad fines tellus ubi prominet Afra m 

(Post acies terra, post classes aequore victas) 
Vexillum imperii jam sola Britannia pandit. 

His fruere — at meritis si Patria parca favorem 
Abneget, et just re suspendat praemia laud is, 
Esto-— sed egregias coustanti in pectore vires, 
Justitiam, purasque manus, mentemque capacem, 
His saltern accumulem donis — nee munera Musae 
Respue,*Pierias nam tu colis ipse sorores. 

*anry t Westminster. TV. VINCENT. 


PiniJOT &OINIXXAL Euripidis Tragttdia Pha* 
issa cum Scholiis Gratis e Recensione Valkenaeri 
iidit Varktatem Lectionis Indicemque Verborum cor 
iosUsimum adjecit Christian. Godofr. Shutz, 
L M. In Academia Fridericiana Seminarii Regii 

ro. xxv. a. ji. vol. xni. m 

178 Notice of Shiit^'s Phanisut. 

Theol. Inspector. Halae, apud Jo. Chr. Hendel, 1772. 
Pp. 447. 

X his edition is dedicated to More, — the learned editor of Longinas, 
and professor of Greek and Latin at Leipsig. It appears from the 
preface that More, before the publication of his Critical Essay on the 
Phcent88€e y had communicated to the editor some emendations of 
different passages in that play. These, however, are extremely scanty ; 
and do not, it must be confessed, add much to the value of the edition. 

Of this work the only original part is the index. It is well towards 
one hundred pages in length ; and is certainly one of the best of the 
kind that we have seen. It is a dictionary both of words and of 
phrases ; and includes even the proper names. 

The text and Greek scholia are taken, as they profess to be, from 
Valckenaer. The latter, however, instead of being arranged under 
the respective heads of paraph rastical, explanatory, and metrical, as in 
Valckenaer's edition, are here, it is to be observed, incorporated into 
one mass ; by which step we are of opinion that more was lost than 
gained. The reason given by the editor for the adoption of this mea- 
sure, at least so far as relates to the union of the paraphrastic with 
the explanatory scholia, is by no means satisfactory. " Rationes 
typographical prohibuere :" this is, at the best, but an unfair and ill* 
judged attempt to remove the existing awkwardness from his own to 
the printer's shoulders. If there was no other way of keeping the 
paraphrase clear of the main body of the Greek notes, the former of 
these might, at the very worst, have been appended to the edition per 
se ; precisely as is the case in Valckenaer with the latter, and with 
the metrical scholia as well. Where then was the difficulty 1 

The conjectures and various readings, which are subjoined in the 
way of foot-notes both to the text and to the scholia, are likewise taken 
from Valckenaer's edition, if we except the alterations of Reiske, and 
the few tentamiua contributed by Professor More. Those of Reiske 
are at times ingenious, but seldom successful. In the passage Ofy&w 
kclWkttov oveihos (835. Porson.) he shows nothing short of direct and 
gross ignorance when he would propose O. k. oyeiap. Had he read 
Valckenaer's note, he could not have committed the blunder. He 
was evidently ignorant of the fact that ovet&os (in Attic Greek at least) 
like " facious " in the Latin, was capable of being used either in a 
good or bad sense. In v. 663. (Porson.) More is for reading kvyiciaev 
in the place of evwriatv, — with little or no meaning, and certainly with 
no success. There was some excuse, however, for the attempt here, 
as the passage had confounded the sagacity and research even of 
Valckenaer himself. Musgrave's quotation from the Here. Fur. on 
the signification of the word was masterly ; and Porson's note has 
literally put doubt and uncertainty to flight. Cowley has somewhere 
used the verb "to body" precisely in this sense. 

Since the publication of Porson's edition, this of Shutz's has, as 
might be expected* lost much of its value. Even the edition of 

Description of Ttmpe. 179 

Valckenaer, of which it is the offspring, will uow be little c6nsulted 
unless fyr the purposes of Greek criticism. It must, however, not he 
forgotten that the scholia in Valckenaer, and consequently in Shiitz, 
are more perfectly edited than in any other place, having been revised 
by Valckenaer himself, and comprising, moreover, more than two 
hundred supplementary ones. A new edition, therefore, upon the 
same or a similar plan, with Porson's text, and Shiitz's index refitted 
and made to square with that text, might meet with purchasers. 
Where men explain at all now-a-days, they are content to explain 
words rather than sentences. Shiitz, with the help of the scholia, 
endeavoured to do both. 




.F EOjft the heights of Amphilochia we descended slowly into the 
valley, reaching the banks of the river, where it enters the deep 
ravine, which conducts it towards the sea. Looking generally at 
the narrowness and abruptness of this mountain-channel, and con* 
trasting it with the course of the Peneus, through the plains of 
Thessaly, the imagination instantly recurs to the tradition, that 
these plains were once covered with water, for which some con- 
vulsions of nature had subsequently opened this narrow passage. 
The term vale, in our language, is usually employed to describe 
scenery, in which the predominant features are breadth, beauty, 
and repose. The reader has already perceived that the term is 
wholly inapplicable to the scenery at this spot ; and that the phrase 
of Vale of rempe is one that depends on poetic fiction, ignorantly 
selecting the materials of descriptive allusion, and conveying an 
innocent error to the imagination of the modern reader. The real 
character of Tempe, though it perhaps be less beautiful, yet pos- 
sesses more of magnificence than is implied in the epithet given to 
it. The features of Nature are often best described by compari- 
son ; and to those who have visited St. Vincent's Rocks below 
Bristol, I cannot convey a more sufficient idea of Tempe, than by 
saying that its scenery resembles, though on a larger scale, that of 
the former place. The Peneus indeed, as it flows through the 
valley, is not greatly wider than the Avon ; and the channel be- 
tween the cliffs is equally contracted iu its dimensions ; but these 
cliflfs themselves are much loftier atid more precipitous ; and pro- 
ject their vast masses of rock with still more extraordinary abrupt- 

180 Description of the present 

ness over the hollow beneath. The length 'of this remarkablt 
gulph K from west to east is nearly five miles : its direction in this 
distance varying but little from a straight line. Its breadth is va- 
ried by the projection or recession of the cliffs ; but there are 
places in which the bed of the river occupies the whole space be- 
tween the rocks ; and where the interval from the base of one cliff 
to that on the other side cannot exceed £00 feet, and possibly may 
be still less/ In these places, and indeed throughout a great part 
of the extent of Tempe, the road is carried over and along the 
ledges of the cliffs; sometimes seeming to overhang the river; 
then receding to seek a a passage across the ravines which descend 
from the mountain. Livy well describes this singular route: 
" Rupes utrinque ita abscissae sunt, ut despici vix sine vertigine 
quadam simul oculorum animique possit. Terret et sonitus eft 
altitudo per mediam vallem fluentis Penei amnis." 

Of the height of the cliffs of Tempe, I cannot speak otherwise 
than from surmise. Those on the north side, about the middle 
of the pass, are undoubtedly the highest ; and here they appear to 
rise from six to eight hundred feet above the level of the river ; 
passirig more gradually afterwards into the mountain heights to the 
south of Olympus, of which they may be considered to folm 
-the base. Towards the lower part of Tempe, these cliffs are 
peaked in a very singular manner, and form projecting angles 
on the vast perpendicular faces of rock, which they present to- 
wards the chasm. Where the surface renders it possible, the 
summits and ledges of the rocks are for the most part covered 
with small wood, chiefly oak, with the arbutus and other shrubs.. 
On the banks of the river, wherever there is a small interval be- 
tween the water and the cliffs, it is covered by the rich and widely- 
spreading foliage of the plane, the oak, and other forest trees, which, 
in these situations, have attained a remarkable size, and in various 
places extend their shade far over the channel of the stream. The 
ivy winding round many of them may bring to the mind of the tra- 
veller the beautiful and accurate description of iElian, who has 
done more justice to the scenery of Tempe than any other writer 
of antiquity. 

The Peneus, thus secluded alike by the vast cliffs which over- 
hang the valley, and by the trees bordering on its waters, pursues 
its course through Tempe, a full and rapid stream, little inter- 
rupted in its progress, though flowing between rocks so rude and 

1 iElian speaks of the gulph of Tempe, as being 40 stadia; livy and 
Quintus Curtius both state it to be about 5 miles. 

* JElian states the breadth in some places not to exceed a plethrum, Of 
about 100 feet.— Var. Hist. lib. Hi. 1. 

State of Tempe. 181 

iirecipitous in their forms. Ovid's description of it, in his story of 
o, is well known : 

" Spumosis volvitur undis, 
Dejectuque gravi tenues agitantia fumos 
Nubila cond ucit, summasque aspergine sylvas 
Impluit, et sonitu plusquam vicina fatigat." x 

At the time I was in Tempe, though the river had been some- 
what swelled by rains, there was little of this impetuous violence, 
but a deep and steady current, capable (as was the case also in 
former times,) of being safely navigated throughout the whole extent 
of the defile. At this period of the wintry floods, the water of the 
river did not show that clearness for which the Peneus was cele- 
brated by the ancients,* but the streams descending to it from the 
ravines of the mountains, or breaking out suddenly from natural 
basins in the rock, had a purity which might well suggest the me- 
taphor of nymphs presiding over their waters. 

About the middle of the pass on its southern side, and to the 
right of the road, are some high ruined walls, composed in part 
of Roman bricks ; and on a cliff which impends over this spot, 
stand the remains of an ancient castle, one of those fortresses by 
which art assisted nature in defending this important passage. 3 Just 
below these ruins a stream enters the Peneus from the heights of 
Ossa, the scenery near the juncture of which is very extraordinary; 
a vast semicircular basin being formed by the cliffs around it, which 
are every where perpendicular as walls, and of great height. Look- 
ing upwards among the mountain precipices on this side, it is 
difficult to conceive the possibility of that march, by which Alex- 
ander conveyed his army from Macedonia into Thessaly, skirting 
along the acclivities of Ossa to avoid the impediments which the 
Thessalians opposed to his march through Tempe. 4 At the time 
of the Persian invasion the Greeks sent a body of 10,000 men, 
under Evaenetes and Themistocles, to defend this entrance into 
Thessaly ; but on the suggestion that another route was open to 
Xerxes, across the mountains adjoining Olympus, these generals 


1 Ovid. Met. lib. i. 578. See also the story of Daphne and Apollo ; the 
scene of which is laid in Tempe. Homer gives the epithet &fyufoiAn to the 
Peneus, as it flows through Tempe. Iliad. Tib. ii. 753. 

* Pliny, (lib. iv. cap. 8.) in speaking of the rivers of Thessaly, says " ante 
cunctos claritate Peneus." 

"Err* xa\ itoTafxo7g Wjxn, n xar' utytXuay, wWig xlyv%ridi( itfog tov NiIW, n haw 
x£xxo;, &<nrtp eirraXot; nfhg Un/tioy, Max. Tyr. Dissert, viii. p. 81. This, how- 
ever, perhaps relates to the scenery on the banks of the river. 

3 It is probably this castle which Livy describes, as " viae ipsi, qua et me- 
dia et an<mstissima vallis est, impositum, quam vel decern armatis tuev 
facile est/' 

4 See Q. Curtius, lib. i. 

183 Description of Tempe. 

quitted their post, and retired southwards. Had they remaned 
here, it is not impossible that Tempe might have been another 
Thermopylae in the page of history. 

The rocks on each side the Vale of Tempe are evidently the 
same ; what may be called a coarse bluish grey marble, with veins 
and portions of the rock, in which the marble is of finer quality. 
The front of the cliffs has a general aspect, to which the term shat- 
tered might be best applied : long fissures, both horizontal and 
perpendicular, traversing the rock, so as to give it frequently the 
appearance of being broken into detached masses. In many places 
large hollows and caves have been formed : and here the surface is 
much tinged with oxide of iron. Though it would be too much 
to affirm from the character of the cliffs of Tempe, that there is 
proof of this defile having been formed by a sudden and violent 
natural convulsion, yet their general appearances might certainly 
warrant some belief in the traditionary record of this event, which 
we have from so many ancient writers. Herodotus, in relating 
the excursion of Xerxes to survey the pass of Tempe, notices the 
belief common among the Thessalians, that Neptune had opened 
this passage to carry off the waters from their country, and states 
his own opinion that the separation of the mountains had been 
effected by an earthquake. 1 . It is certainly not impossible that the 
latter surmise may be well founded. The nature of the tradition 
points at the event as occurring suddenly ; and though we can 
scarcely suppose that the whole depth of the defile was thus opened, 
it may be conceived not unlikely that the convulsion of an earth- 
quake had the effect of deepening the channel, and of carrying the 
waters from off the plain. 

The memory of the event, however accomplished, was preserved 
by an annual festival of the ancient towns and villages at the west- 
ern entrance of Tempe, of which we have an interesting descrip- 
tion by iEIiau. The fine allusion of Lucan to this subject is well 
known to the classical reader. 

Flumina dum campi retinent, uec pervia Tempe 
Dant aditus pelago, staguumque implentibus undis, 
Crescere cursus erat ; postquam discessit Olympo 
' Herculea gravis Ossa manu, subitaeque ruinam 
Sensit aquae Nireus— 

1 Lib. yii. cap. 129. In the same spirit of splendid folly which led to the 
undertaking at Athos, it occurred to Xerxes, standing at the mouth of 
Tempe, that if the Thessalians opposed his progress, their country might 
be again flooded by an artificial mound thrown across the defile, to stop the 
course of the Peneus. The submission of the Thessalians happily prevented 
this royal outrage on humanity. 

Eustathius, in his commentary on the 17th Iliad, mentions the clearance 
of the waters by the opening of Tempe. 





No. II.— {Continued from No. XXIV. p. 463,^ 

1 HE considerations first arising from the perusal of Smith's vei 
won of Jewel belong to the merits of the work itself separately 
taken. And we had intended to select specimens of the execution, 
in particular reference to such canons of Attic diction and syntax, 
as he has either happily observed or unavoidably neglected. For 
though he says of himself, vereor ne qua minus Attica, dum nu 
miumfestino, passim irrepserint ; he could hardly be aware, that 
there were other sources of error in such a task, besides the haste 
merely in which it was performed. 

Is it too much to doubt, whether in the year 1613 there was one 
edition of any Attic writer free from gross improprieties, such as 
nicer research has since exposed and corrected ? And now, after 
the lapse of two centuries, have we yet got even a portion of any 
Attic prose writer, edited with finished exactness on principles 
clearly established and generally admitted as legitimate ? 

The work of Smith therefore, at that period, though with all 
its imperfections singularly honorable to his talents and to the state 
of learning in Magdalen College, Oxford, might doubtless have 
been executed with greater success and felicity ; if he had given 
more of his days and nights to the volumes of Xenophon and Plato. 
But even then, a multitude of minor errors must have blemished 
the style, if eyed with the jealous acuteness of a Dawes or a Por- 
son. To these blemishes, therefore, as having been unavoidable 
in that age, pardon is justly due : for other faults, the candor of 
his own apology will plead with all candid judges : and the merits 
of Smith may now be fairly left to the sentence of any true scholar 
who loves in common with us these " Curiosities of Literature/' 

But to dismiss, for the present, considerations purely belonging 
to the work itself : it may be viewed with much importance in 
another point of light. 

Whoever finds an interest and pleasure in the history of Greek 
criticism from the revival of learning to the present . period, will 
make it his first object to trace the successive efforts of eminent 
scholars in ascertaining and illustrating the true text of their au- 
thors. But there is a line of reading, in many respects running 
parallel, and capable of being made subsidiary to the same end ; 

184 Smith's Greek Version of JeweVs 

of which also it may be, with no less propriety, asserted, in die 
words of the great critic : € H rwv Xoyoov Kgiri$ woXXys Ioti mlpaf 
Tefavraiov hnyivvvHAot* 

We mean, a critical history of such respectable exercises in 
Greek composition, whether " in prose or rhyme," from the 
" gemmea? Budaei Epistola?," (Classical Journal, No. xxiv. p. 
459.) to the Prolusiones of Athenian Tweddell ; as might show 
the practical advances of Greek learning, through progressive but 
varied stages of cultivation, for three centuries past. 

Several materials for such a history are incidentally suggested by 
Smith, (u. s. pp. 459, 60.) The Peplus of Daniel Heinsius, 
contained in his Poemata Latina et Graca so often reprinted, is 
or may be in every one's hands. The letters of the Jesuit Cotton 
ad Camierum we suspect, are but little known. Of those Letters 
indeed, aud of the Essays, whatever they were, of Fulvia Olym- 
pia Morata, we should be glad to receive some account from our 
learned correspondents. Nor would a few specimens from the 
Greek Catechisms of Stephanus, Whitakerus^ Sylburgius, be 
otherwise than acceptable to the curious reader! 

In defending himself against the charge of pernicious and idle 
novelty from the cavillers of that day, Smith makes this spirited 
appeal : " Nae isti uondurn vidisse videantur Erasmum a Caver- 
sino, a Gaza (not Gara as in CL J I. xxiv. p. 462.) Ciceronem f n 
Scaligero Cat one m, Ccesarem ab Anonymo quodam, ab aliis alios 
jamdudum Grace versos : Alioqui puderet eos, vel novum dicere, 
quod tarn multi, vel supervacuum, quod tarn egregii viri factit&> 

To all these may be added a few smaller Essays from the pen of 
Josephus Justus Scaliger, given in his Opuscula, Paris, 1610. 
Scatiger's Greek versions of Catullus, 4, 6S, 64, and of Proper* 
tius f L. ii. E. £7- and L. iii. E. 17. along with other pieces si- 
milis argumenti, under the names of Q. Sept. Florent, Christian, 
Bonavent. Vulcan, Feder. Morell, and Henr. Stephan. were col- 
lected by Maittaire in his edition, 1715, of Catullus, Tibullty, 
and Propertius. 

The Sapphic Ode of Isaac Casaubon to the memory of the 
younger Scaliger, was, in 1 797, republished by the learned and 
excellent Dr. Sam. Butler of Shrewsbury, appendant to his edi- 
tion of Marci Musuri Carmen in Platonem ; which poem, by the 
way, must not be considered as having any thing to do with our 
present hasty sketch, for reasons sufficiently obvious in the person 
of the u learned Greek " himself. 

a Casaubons Ode," says Dr. Charles Burney, (Month. Rec. 
Jan. 1798. p«2.) "when viewed with a critical eye, will not be 
found faultless. It is a composition which will scarcely add one 

Apobgia EcclesuB Anglicarue. 185 

sprig of laurel to the wreath, with which the Commentary on 
Jtheruzus decked his brow." 

To return to our own country : amongst the vast masses of bad 
verses poured out by the two Universities, from time to time, 
Genethliaca, Epithalamia, Epicedia, Rex redux, and Rex rele- 
gatus, &c. &c. whatever else be forgiven, it may be fair enough to 
visit severely the contributions of our Greek Professors as they 
severally occur, from Andrew Dowries to Joshua Barnes; quo- 
rum opera extant. The talents of Downes may be appreciated 
from his sets of Greek verses on the death of Sir Philip Sidney, 
of Prince Henry, and of Queen Anne, in the years 158617, 1612, 
and 1619, respectively. The judgment of Barnes lives in memory: 
nor yet may his real services to Greek literature without ingrati- 
tude be forgotten. 

But the Professor, whose powers, as well as their productive- 
ness, surprise u» the most, was James Duport. His Poetica 
Stromal a which we have not seen, are censured by Birch in his Life 
of Tillotson, as " wanting a true classical purity :" while his ver- 
sion of the Psalms is by the same author reported to have been 
" much admired in the last age, as being indeed a very good imi- 
tation of Homer's style." 

The Book of Job, in Homeric verse, was published by him in 
1635 ; the three Books of Solomon, in 1646; and the Psalms of 
David, with an Epistola Dedicatoria to his prototype (so flat- 
tered) Charles II. in 1666 : amounting, all together, on a rough 
calculation, to an Iliad of Heroics. 

The fluency of Duport, aided by his enthusiasm in the task, 
and generally speaking, his extraordinary skill and success also, 
must be allowed and admired. The exactness of his taste, ancT 
the correctness of his composition, with Homer taken as the model 
of both, may be justly questioned, and profitably examined by 
those who have leisure and liking for such an office. 

His intelligence and erudition, in every thing connected with 
his favorite pursuit, (for he lived on heroic verse,) in biblical criti- 
cism particularly that of the Psalms, and in knowledge of those 
writers who in the same or ia similar attempts had gone before 
him, Duport has not left us to surmise from the performance 
itself. The Preface to his AABIAHS EMMETPOS is on all 
those accounts deserving of the Greek scholar's attention. The 
second edition, in 1674, though in an humbler form, besides an 
additional paragraph at the close of the Preface, is improved by a 
Latin prose interpretation opposite to the Greek ; and what is no 
small honor surely, it comes recommended by Latin verses of high 
compliment from the pen of Dr. Isaac Barrow. 

The limits to which this number confines us, will barely allow 

186 Smith's Greek Version of Jewel'* 

to mention at present, that the Book of Common Prayer of the 
Church of England appeared in a Greek version, from the press- 
or* our University, Cambridge, John Field, 1665; with a page of 
dedication to the Archbishop of Canterbury, in such Greek as ha* 
served, at a non-plus, one dedicator since, if not more. 

The translator's initials are L J. : his rank, rrjs IferpoiroXswf 'Ao- 
yMrg£<rj3uTegO£. Who was he ? and what else is known of him ? 
Was he the everlasting. Grecian, James Duport? — The Ex- Pro- 
fessor of Greek was certainly Dean of Peterburgh, Feb. 20, 1666; 
and held that dignity till his death in the year 1679, when Dr. 
Simon Patrick succeeded him there. 

In our last Number, p. 458, we quoted one happy specimen 
of the superiority in point of precision which the Greek language 
enjoys above all others. Any language, to be sure, may be made 
precise by guarded circumlocution : the Greek gains the same end 
in the briefest at once and neatest manner possible. 

Compare the original sentence with the translation of it below* 

" I mean an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual 
grace, given unto us, ordained by Christ himself, as a means 
whereby we receive the same, and a pledge to assure us thereof." 
-*-Church of England Catechism. 

*Ewow to exTOf xa* oparov Trig etrco xoti irveVft&TMYis X*Q iT0 $ W~ IV ^ f ^ 

0T)£ (TrifJLsloVj TO WF* OLVTOV TOU XplJTOU ^OLTCt^iikv, 00$ OqyOLVW Si' o5 «3TI- 

ruyx&vopiV ourij;, xa) he^vgov t)(mv aur^v /3ej3a*«<rai. /. A* Greek 


Without warranting, at all points, the Prose Greek of I. J* 
whose forte lay perhaps another way, it may be very safely asserted 
that the English labors under something ambiguous, at least to the 
Catechumen, which in the Greek entirely disappears. 

To illustrate the advantage of the Greek article, take an in- 
stance from Livy — in Tullo Hostilio— where the meaning, indeed, 
could not be long dubious, nor would the error be important. 

" Ut tamen, quoniam N uma ra: in pace religiones instituisset, a. 
se bellies caerimoniae proderentur, &c. &c." 

i. e. not merely, " in pace instituisset religiones." 

Another proof may be taken from Horace, Epp. I. vii. 27, 8; 
where the comparative ambiguity of the Latin language has led 
certain commentators to a very strange and mistaken conceit. 

Apologia Ecclesia Anglican*?,. 187 

" redde8 ridere decorum, et 

Inter vina fugam Cinarae mcerere protervae." 

i. e. not, " tijv inter vina fugam," &c. 
Francis , in sense correctly, thus : . 

" Give me — — 

And o'er the flowing bowl, in sighing strain, 
To talk of wanton Cinara's disdain." 

But what say those " learned Thebans," Baxter and Zeuniust 
" Fugbm; quia se subduxerat ebrio. B." 
" Fortassis haec res apud Maecenatem ipsum acciderat, ipsius 
Maecenatis consilio. Z." 

By way of Colophon to this article, and while the controversy 
about the Relicks of John Tweddell yet rages hotly around, we 
shall be more than excused for preserving the Scholium (1798) 
to his Greek Ode (1738) on Batavia Rediviva: a republican 
burst, to be sure, but why therefore, now, after th« lapse of two 
and twenty years, should it be suppressed by his brother, Robert 
Tweddell, in his Edition of the Remains lately published ? 

Even at that angry and troubled period, recentibus delict is, mmf 
blvtoc tol cSixtjfjLUTct, a Heyne could without offence acknowledge 
to a Burgess the fine scholarship at once and the generous lo*e 
of liberty shown in the Prolusiones. 

But besides all this, if John Tweddell's whig principles did 
carry him at one time of his life a little too far towards the dange- 
rous extreme ; on the evidence of his own Letters published by 
his brother, his excuse may be written, or very nearly so, in the 
language of Tacitus speaking of Agricola. 

" Scilicet, sublime et erectum ingenium, pulchritudinem ac 
speciem excels® magnaeque gloriae vehementius quam caute ap~ 
petebat ; mox mitigavit ratio et setas et tewgia : retinuitque, quod 
est difticillimum, ex amore libertatis modum." 

We feel no scruple therefore iu reprinting, correctly ', the only spe- 
cimen left, we believe, of Tweddell's skill, seldom perhaps ex- 
erted, in the writing of prose Greek. 

" Habcat secum servetque sepulcro." 

N* N** N*** 

188 Tweddell's Greek Prose preserved. 

ypwtyai, % yeypa^hoLS auras <w* ot ayaQj) tu^j l|faXe*- 
lj/a£ toj&jw efwroiijorai Tij|£ irporgQov lju,7fc yvd>(JLr}g. El $e ftij 
jrp&$ Tjfjtct^ «<tt) ra yevo'jtsva avaX3<rai Xoittov, aXXa 70 
airoXoyijTgov €(tti /aoi uTrgp to3 BPOTNXOTXON svXch 
yijtrai Xiav, xa) Se/xreov Scroti, si ev 77J wapavrixa 8/avo/a 
tuvoixdog 7rpog airov, 7} 5uo~xoXa>£ ftiaxsiftat. JJpwTov /&}y 
gtouS^v, oVov stt' 6/ao), *r^o£ to [jLs7iirrj[xa toSto xarsrid* ju^y, 
©u&v, a* eoixs, Ssivov *ra0<ov, to3 BPOTNXOrXOr y$ h 
r& tots Xpovio eu axovopTog, xa! 9ravTa>v ra 7re7rpay[jLeva uv 
aurov ey rfj '(IXKavhia o/*o0uju,a8ov iyxcofJuatyvTwv. Ou ttoXu 
& tJorsgov, i/xo) ahatrrayp ixeTvog, xa) aXkoig jaaXa 7roXXo7$ 
raJv raura /xoi to 7raXa/ lyvcoxorcov, aS/xiav xal co/AOTrjTa 
xa) 9raVTa to\ ccltryitrTa o<phicrxavwv eQaivsro. Ka) 8?j xa) 
iratrav tiJv a^sTigv xa) <pfcavQpw7rlav aurog av i^sTisy^olfxr^ 
aTsyvayxwg, si [xtj &)0-[xevcSg av e%oi[xi sycoys irpbg irovrjpbv 
rov CT^aTTjyow tomtov*. *-4^' oi 873X0$ eo"T/ to7$ TravougyoTa- 
roj$ Tvpawoig <rvmya)Vi%6[jt,svog ; U7rep$vaig /xev o5i>. £a/ 
toi xa) 7T(*oypa[JL[Jt,a sv t?J JbcXX/a irpvpnv avex7}q6^aro ovrmg 
&roirov xa) TotytTj^ov, oJotts airiov 9ravT6$ ayaflo) xpivowri 
jxa?uo~ra gfoa* auToy, 7roAXa>V xa) [xsyahcov rwv ev ixslytj tjj 
%a>pa rapaxjuiv, xa) rijg to3 hotrdaifxcvog j3ao~iX«D£ (r%8T7u(D- 
rarTjg [toi pas, xa) xaxcov 'IX/aSo? Tafo v3v ovtojv sv ^ao->] tjj 
JEufcoTn], xa) 8siVOTaT7j£, aS y*j xai fleo), xai^ yAp 6u; 
rq^ iravcoteSplag avS^cov yswalcov xa) ra'kanraDpwv uwsp tou 
itevQepovg xa) avrovo[Aovg stvai 7rapfoxtog [xa^r}(ra[xiva)V. 'fig 
pvv toutcov co8e wa)^ iy&vraiv, [xerafxeTiSi jttoi, to«o3tov avdpco* 
iroVy xawreQ Xa&q ju,s TraKui xaxovpyog eov, for ayvolag iirai- 
vi<ravTi. "Httov xivtivvevovtrw at *f28a) aSrai ai 6jttai xa- 
XetcrSai, <tf aymntr^ara rwa is to i^aqayjp^a axovsiv." 


JL herb are few passages which have given more trouble to the 
Commentators than Matth. viii. 22. and the parallel place Luke 
ix. 60 ; otfysg rov$ vsxgovg dafyai rovg socvtoov vsx.po6$ : but it is capa- 
ble of an easy solution, if we adopt an ingenious conjecture of 
Bolten, in conjunction with Professor Marsh's hypothesis respect* 
ing the origin of the three first Gospels. — In the Peshito or old 
Syriac the words are in both Evangelists rendered by wdqoj 
^puZ^o f^r^o lA£o * sine mortuos sepelientes mortuos suos ;' that 
is c sine mortuos sepelire mortuos suos :* for in Syriac the participle 
is often used instead of the infinitive. 1 Bolten conjectures x that 
these were the words of Christ, as committed to writing in Syriac 
or Chaldee : but that his real meaning was somewhat different 
from that usually assigned to it : he thinks that - >^r> should 
be translated, not sepelientes but sepelientibus like . >^o\ y 
since W the sign of the dative is often understood. The 
sense will then be, ( Relinque mortuos sepelientibus mortuos 
suos:' this, as Dr. Marsh observes, is a very ingenious con- 
jecture, as it is much more intelligible when we say, ( leave the 
dead to those whose office it is to bury the dead/ than when we 
say, leave the dead to bury their dead. 

Dr. Marsh has remarked 3 that " if the passage occurred either 
in St. Matthew alone, or in St. Luke alone, one might conjecture 
that the Greek text was originally &<pe$ roi/g vexpovg datyoun rovg 
ioujTM vexpobg, and that through an oversight of transcribers the er 
in da\(/ao-i was omitted, and the participle thus converted into the 
infinitive i&tyou. But that the same oversight should have happened 
in both places is not probable." 

The chief objection, however, to this explanation is, that if we 
adopt it, we must introduce a conjectural emendation into the 
text, a mode of proceeding deservedly reprobated by the best 
critics. 4 — There is, notwithstanding, an easy way of arriving at 
the same result without disturbing the received text* 

1 Michaelis Gram mat. Syr. p. 236. 4to. Hals. 1784. 

1 In a note to his German translation of St. Matthew (Bericht des 
Matthaus. 8vo. Alton a 1792.) p. 138. — The same conjecture has beeu 
adopted by Eichhorn in his Universal library of Biblical Literature, 
(Allgemeine Bibliothek der Biblischen Literatur. Vol. v. p. 970.) See 
Marsh's Dissertation on the Origin of the Gospels, p. 129. from which I 
have derived this information. 

3 Dissertation on the Origin of the three first Gospels, p. 129. 

4 Griesbach, Prolee. ad Nov. Test. torn. I. p. lxxxiii. (edit. 1796.) 
Michaelis, Introd. to the N. T. vol. ii. pt. i. p. 391. note a. Marsh, Notes 

190 Biblical Criticism. 

According to Dr. Marsh's hypothesis respecting the origin of 
the Gospels, the sections in Matthew and Luke, in which the 
words which we are considering occur, compose a part of the 
class of materials which he has denominated r : ' consequently 
they compose a part of the enriched copies of the original Hebrew 
document N— Further, he conceives that St. Matthew's Gofpel 
was originally written in Hebrew ; and that St. Matthew retained 
die materials which he adopted in the words in which he foui)4 
them: but that St. Luke translated them into Greek: and also 
•that the person who translated St. Matthew's Hebrew Gospel 
into Greek, used St. Luke's words, where they agreed with the 
•ense of his own original. 

The document K» was not written in pure Hebrew, bu£ in tb? 
Syriac dialect then used in Palestine, and which was of course 
spoken by Christ : it consisted of a-Tro/xy^ovsw/xaTa, and we may 
therefore suppose that it contained in many, if not in most places, 
the exact words of Christ. 

St. Luke appears, upon the whole, to have possessed a greater 
knowledge of Greek than of Hebrew ; and it is not therefore un- 
likely that he might have given an imperfect translation of th? 
Syriac phrase : if this be once granted, upon Dr. Marsh's hypo- 
thesis we see at once how i&tyeu might find its way into St. 
Matthew: and that an error of this nature might have been 
adopted by the Greek translator of St. Matthew, will not appear 
very improbable to those who will peruse attentively what Micha- 
elis has written upon the subject. x 

Dr. Middleton 3 has objected to this conjecture, that the Syriac 
word has the affix .ocn, mortuos $uos : the word may however 
then be understood tcr signify the dead committed to their charge 
for burial : and the same meaning may be assigned to ectvr&v in 
the Greek text. 

I am aware that considerable objections may be raised to this 
explanation of the phrase, on account of the remoteness an4 
complexity of the conjectures on which it is founded : at the same 
dime, I confess, I have never seen any satisfactory explanation of 
this crux criticorum. With regard to the premises on which the 
conclusion is grounded, it must be remarked, that the conjecture 
of Bolten is by no means improbable or violent, since it requires 
US to suppose nothing contrary to the genius of the Syriac Ian- 

to Michaelis vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 849. (edit. 1802.) Lectures in Divinity, pt. i. p. 
*T. (8vo Cambridge 1810). 

1 Dissertation on the Origin of the Gospels pp. 149. 200. 

* Introd. to the N. T. vol. iii. pt. i. p. 154. 

4 Doctrine of the Greek Article, p. 322. 8vo. 1808. 

Notice of M. T. Ciceronis, fyc. 191 

ige, or which is not justified by numerous examples. Dr. 

irsh's hypothesis respecting the origin of the Gospels, has 
been so thoroughly established that we may regard it as a very 
sure datum on which to proceed. — At any rate it is better even 
to embrace a much more complex explanation of the passage, 
than either to give it up as unintelligible, or to obtrude a critical 
conjecture upon the Greek text, in opposition to all known author- 
ity- If. 


M. T. Ciceronis de Officiis Libri in., juxta Edition em 
J. M. et J. Fr. Heusingerorum. Accedunt, in gratiam 
juventutis, Nota qucedam Anglict script a, Londini, 18 lo. 
12mo. Pr. 6s. boards. 

Xhb modest, but satisfactory Preface of the Editor, who has not 
thought proper to annex his name, will best explain his views in 
publishing this most useful little work. 


" Among the valuable remains of antiquity, the following treatise 
of Cicero appears one of the first selected for the press, in 1465 ; 
and since that period, no classical prose-work has probably been so 
frequently edited, or has received the benefit of such diligent annota- 
tion. In our own country, the learned labors of Cockman and of 
Bishop Pearce, have been duly appreciated, and in numerous instan- 
ces incorporated into their work, by the editors the most recent in 
point of time, and the highest in estimation, the Heusingers. The 
elder of these, John Michael, had announced, so early as the year 
1749, his intention of editing the Offices. On his death, within 
two or thrte years afterwards, his materials fell into the hands of his 
nephew, John Frederick, who proceeded on his uncle's design, and 
directed his attention for a number of years principally to this work : 
it was found nearly ready for the press on his death, in 1778, and 
was published by Conrad Heusinger, his nephew, at Brunswick, in 

In preparing this little edition, the text of the Heusinger* ht* 
n followed : if, in some instances, the editor has ventured to ques- 
tion the grounds on which his leaders have given the preference tP the 
reading of one MS. to that of another, or the interpretation which 
they have adopted, he has consigned to the notes his reasons for that 
doubt ; but in no one instance has he presumed to disturb the text, 
which had been settled on a careful comparison of several valuable 


192 Notice of M. T. Ciceronis 

MSS. with every preceding critical edition. For the selection of notes, 
which he has added, he is also principally indebted to the judgment 
and diligence of the Heusingers. * 

" In the century before the last, it would seem that this work was 
more constantly in use in England as a school-book, than it is at pre- 
sent. Sir Roger L'Estrange, in his preface to an English translation 
of it, (5th edition, London, 1699,) observes, that c this treatise of the 
Offices is one of the commonest school-books we have; and as it is 
the best of books, so it is applied to the best of purposes — the train- 
ing of youth to the study and exercise of virtue/ What may be the 
reason that it is not at present so frequently put into the hands of 
youth, can only be a matter of conjecture. In some degree, perhaps, 
this may be attributed to the exaggerated praises of some of its pane- 
gyrists, who have represented this short work as containing a com- 
plete body of ethics. — This is doing it injustice. Notwithstanding 
its comprehensive title, Cicero's view seems rather to have been to 
prepare for his son, and others in the same circumstances, a manual 
adapted to the youth of the higher classes in a free state. For the 
conscientious discharge of their duties in the various stations, to which 
successively the service of their country conducted the ingenuous 
youth of Rome, much study, much information, was doubtless re- 
quisite. By turns, soldier, financier, statesman, and magistrate, 
each young man of family ought to possess considerable attainments, 
as the functions he might have to execute, were diversified and im- 
portant. But it is apprehended that Cicero's design did not extend 
beyond the instruction of persons within that circle ; or ty give rules, 
systematically, for the moral conduct of all his countrymen. 

'< Difficulties, it must be admitted, exist in the text : in some few 
instances, notwithstanding the industrious researches of so many emi- 
nent scholars in its elucidation, we may fear, irremediable. In the 
writings of the ancients, from our defective information as to their 
laws and customs, of the incidents to which allusions are made, and 
occasionally of their language, some obscurities must ever be expect- 
ed to remain : but in this work they are not greater than in others, by 
which its use in schools appears in some degree to have been super- 
seded. If, after the careful revision of the text given by the last edi- 
tors, and the light thrown on difficult or corrupt passages by scholars 
of different countries and ages, of whose united labors the present 
editor has endeavoured to avail himself, he should have had the good 
fortune to render this work, in any degree, more fit for the instruction 
of youth, he will have attained his object. No other merit does he 
claim; and should not indeed have undertaken the task, but for the re* 
gret expressed by the typographer, from whose press it issues, of Us 
want of time for preparing such an edition, which he conceived might 
be useful, and had he undertaken it, could have executed more per- 
fectly. Occasionally a few words are placed withiu brackets : in all 
instances, these are found in some MS. or valuable edition, but not 
In all. Merely to avoid repetition in the notes* this mode had bee* 

deOfficiis Lib. III. 19s 

mdoptedf and is continued, to point out that these words are perhaps 
interpolated, and may be omitted." 

We shall produce two or three of the notes, to show the manner, 
in which our editor has executed his task. 

Page 5. — " The noun offidum is derived from the verb obfitio, used 
in a sense long antiquated. The preposition has had, in this instance, 
the same influence on the verb, as in the composition of oblecto, o£- 
Mequar, obtempero, obedio ; that of accommodating or making appli- 
cable. Hence another secondary application of officium and officiosut 
in the sense of obligation or favor/' 

This etymology is approved by G. J. Vossius, who- in his 
Etym. L. L, thus speaks : " Plane est ab officio, quod fcx ob et 
facio : verum olim officer e idem fuit quod efficere, nunc tantum 
samitur pro obesse" Gesner (Thcs. L. L.} adopts the same ety- 
mology, but explains it in a different way : " Quod versus alios, 
oh alios faciendum est, ut offerre est ad alios ferre, ut objicere, etc." 

Page 11. — " Informatus. This term is taken, not from preceptors, 
but from the statuary or other artist. Informare appears to have the 
same sense as the original verb, formare. Columella, lib. ii. ' Sar- 
mentis connexus veluti funis informabitur in earn crassitudinem, quam 
solum fossae possit angustae, quasi accommodatam coartatamque ca~ 
pere. Ut laus est Cerae, mollis cedensque sequatur 

Si doctos digitos, jussaque fiat opus, 
Et nunc informet Martem, castamque Minervam, 
Nunc Venerem emngat, nunc Veneris Pnerum/" 

We quite agree with the editor in the propriety of the above 
remark, and to the instances, which he has adduced of the primary 
meaning of informare, we add the following : 

His informatum manibus jam parte polita 

Fulmen erat. Virg. JErt. viii. 426. 

Effigiem informat Latiam. ML xvii. 59,5. 

Ingentem clypeum informant. Virg. viii. 447. 

Page 29. — " Granting the fact that the original meaning of the 
word hostis was a stranger, its gradual adaptation to another meaning 
might proceed from a cause, differing widely from that on which 
Cicero is so much disposed to compliment the fine feelings and po- 
liteness of his countrymen. This euphemism, on the contrary, ill 
accords with the words or actions of a people so rude and pugnacious 
as their own history evinces ; who, whilst their own masters, shut the 
temple of Janus but once. It would seem more probable that, from 
their incessant wars with all their neighbours, every person not a fel- 
low-citizen was assimilated to an enemy. The man who, in tbe an- 
cient sense of the word, was hostis, would be generally, or at least at 
some time, also hostis in the present sense. When any person un- 
known, and a stranger, was seen, the probability, the first suspicion 
would be that his couutry was at war with Rome. Since this note 


194 Notice of M. T. Ciceronis 

was penned, Mr. Hume's authority has been found to confirm tW» 
interpretation : — * 

u * From the manners of the times, it is much more .probable that 
the ferocity of those people was so great as to make them regard all 
strangers as enemies, and call them by the same name. It is not 
besides consistent with the most common maxims of policy or nature, 
that any state should regard its public enemies with a friendly eye, 
or preserve any such sentiments for them as the Roman orator would 
ascribe to his ancestors. Not to mention that the early Romans really 
exercised piracy, as we learn from their first treaties with Carthage, 
(Polyb. 1. iii.) and consequently, like the Sallee and Algerine rovew, 
were actually at war with most nations ; and a stranger and an enemy 
were with them almost synonymous/ — Hume's Essay on Commerce. 

; Page 32.—" Accipite. When the Latin was a spoken language, 
the sound of s was probably never given, as it is at present, to the 
fetter c before some vowels. The participle of doceo is dectus : desar 
becomes in Greek Kalaap : our author's name, KtKtpuv. By deviating 
from this pronunciation, much inconvenience has arisen: Sctna and 
ccena ; cygni and signi ; celeri and sceleri ; cera and sera, with seve- 
ral other words, are undistinguishable. The word in the text was 
probably sounded ackipite, and was here contracted, as the measure 
proves, to ec'pite: thus Hor. Sat. ik 3, 283. sur'pxte. Mu. viii. 274. 

Page 90.—" Meditetur. The original meaning of this verb appears 
to have been to rehearse, or practise beforehand recitation or singing. 
Its derivation may be from Melos : in Greek, the same resemblance 
appears between peboftat, or )ur)So/*cu, and jik\o&m Speaking of De- 
mosthenes, our author has said, De Orat. c. 6l. 'perfecit nieditando 
ut nemo planius eo locutus putaretur.' and Quintilian, iv. c. 2. calls 
' Declamationem, forensium actionum ineditationem.' " 

Though we agree with our editor as to the original meaning of 
the word meditari, yet we cannot assent to his derivation of it 
from mefos> and thitik that " the same resemblance in Greek be- 
tween pifopai, or 'jxqSojxoi, and ffiXo;," is purely accidental. Me- 
ditari is without doubt derived from fjLeXrrav, which bears exactly 
the same sense. " Venit a Gr. psksrciv, A in 8 abeunte, quomodo 
ab 'Olwaeus est Ulysses : quomodo item, pro as, cadami- . 
tat scripsere Nftvius et Livius Andronicus, ut scribit Marius Vic- 
torinus, L. i. I lane ejus verbi originem etiam docuit Servius, in 
cujus veteri codice (in illo Petri Danielis frustra quaeras) ita scrip- 
turn invenitur : — ' Meditaris, cantas, quasi melitaris r D pro L 
fosita. Quod Graeci ^eXsrsiv dicunt, per antistrophen dixerunt 
jatini. Etenitn L et D interdum sibi invicem cedunt. Sic solium 
vel seHa quasi sedda dicitur a sedendo.' MeherSv vero, quia piAs*> 
h. e. cura est.' 1 G. J. Vossius, Ltym. L. L. This etymology is 
also sanctioned by the authority of Forcellinus, and of Gesner, 
who says i " Plane respqiidet verbo yuskerav, a quo etiam deducil 

de Officiis Lib. III. 195 

Serv. ad Eel. i. 2., permutatis D et L, ut in Medicus, Melicus, 
'OBuovsu;, U/ysses." The resemblance between meditari and ]*•- 
Array consists not merely in the circumstance that both these words 
denote curare a liquid vel sola cogitatione animi, vel exercitatione 
adhibit a, but that both are employed to express singing : 

Sylvestrem tenui musam meaitaris avena. — Virg. Eel. i, 2. 

.Agrestem tenui meditabor arundine musam, — Id. ib. vi. 8. 

Et commutata meditatur arundine carmen. — A'usoniw in Epigr. 

" Me\€T*v etiam tibicinuin est : unde eos meletari Fulgentius 
dixit, ac similiter commeletare eos ait~Hyginus: ' Quas tibias 
Marsyas, Eagri films, pastor, unus ex Satyris invenit, quibus as- 
sidue commeletando solium suaviorem in dies faciebat, adeo ut 
Apollinem ad citharae cantum provocaret." G. J. Vossius, Etym. 
Jj. L. The distinction therefore, which Diomede, i. p. 373., ha* 
laid down, is not altogether correct : " Meditor et melito (diffe- 
runt), ut putat Plinius : Meditantem esse secum cogitantera ; me- 
li lantern voce, dicentem." 

Cicero in the 27th chap. bk. i. says : " Qualis differentia sit 
hones ti et decori, facilius intelligi, quam explanari potest." On 
this passage our editor says : " It is always to be suspected, when 
a man avows his inability to communicate his ideas, that his own 
comprehension" (apprehension) t€ of them is not the most distinct. 
In what the difference consists between the honest urn, and the de- 
corum, may indeed be a little difficult to define." But we beg 
leave to observe that Cicero did not mean to speak of " his ina- 
bility to communicate his ideas" ^bout the difference between the 
two, (for he has given his ideas without any scruple) but his words 
merely imply that there is no occasion for much to be said about 
the matter, as this difference can be better understood by the 
reader's own feelings, than explained by any pen however elo- 
quent. When we say that the situation of a father, in consequence 
of the son's disaster, can be better felt than expressed, we do not 
intend to say that we are quite unable to describe the father's grief, 
but that a description of it is unnecessary, because every man's 
own feelings will tell him what the father's grief must have been 
better than any description can* do. We would refer the editor to 
some excellent observations on the ho nest urn and the decorum in 
Dr. Paley's " Moral Philosophy." 

In p. C.5. the editor tells us € that the particle sed has not always 
an adversative sense, but is employed as the Greek a\ka, in the 
sense of immo veto, et quidem.' Plaut. Cas. iii. 5. 50. : ' Etiamne 
babet gladium ? habet, sed duos.' Ep. ad Att. iii. 15. ' Hie mihi 
primum meum consilium defuit, sed etiam obfuit.' In both the 
passages the expression is elliptical. * Has he a sword ? Yes, he has, 
(and not only one), but two.' * Consilium (non modo) defuit, sed 
etiam obfuit.' Sed, sed et, or sed etiam so used, are equivalent to 

196 i Adversaria Literaria. 

the phrases 'nay even, 9 'not merely so, but. 9 Tacitus in Ger- 
mania, c. 17.: " Partemque vestitus superioris in manicas non ex- 
tendunt, nudae brachia, ac lacertos : sed et proxima pars pec- 
toris patet." Idem, cap. 8. : " Vidimus, sub divo Vespasiano, 
Veledam, diu apud plerosque num-inis loco habitam. Sed et olim 
Auriniam, et complures alias venerati sunt, non adulatione, nee 
tanquam facerent deas." No lexicographer, or critic, so far as 
we know, has sufficiently explained the import of sed et in passages 
like the two just adduced. 


No. vin. 

The Bishop of Lincoln, in his Refutation of Calvinism 9 , in his article 
concerning Regeneration says, that regenerati signifies " having been 

The writer of this is not inclined to object to the learned Prelate's 
opinions and doctrines in that elaborate work, but he differs from 
him in his translation of regenerati. He believes that the meaning 
of that participle is relative, and that it is equally applicable to past, 
present, or future time, according to the tenses with which it is con- 
nected. Thus in the following passage from Ovid : 

O utinam turn, cum Lacedaemona classe petebat, 
Obrutus iusanis esset adulter aquis, 
obrutus is doubtless expressive of the past. But where Virgil says, 

Infert se septus nebula, 
septus is clearly present. And Terence, in 

Tibi erunt parata verba, 
uses parata in a future sense. 

Hence the word regenerati, in the admirable collect to which the 
Bishop alludes^is not necessarily taken in a past sense. But after all, 
the compilers of the excellent Liturgy did not write in Latin ; the ar- 
gument, therefore, as far as this expression goes, is not conclusive* 
But the ingenious author rests his cause on much stronger grounds, 
on which it is not the business of a grammatical observer to dwell. 

Illustrations of Passages in Horace. 

Si figit adamantinos 
Summis verticibus dira Necessitas 

Clavos. Od. iii. 24, 5. 

It appears from Livy (vii. 3.) that the simple ceremony of driving 
a nail in a particular spot of the capitol, which in rude times was 
regularly performed once a year by the praetor, to serve as an almanac, 

Adversaria Literaria. 197 

became afterwards, through the known superstition of the Romans, one 
of the most solemu of their piacular rites, to be committed to the hands 
of a dictator only. On two. occasions at least (vii. 3. viii. 18.) a dic- 
tator and master of the horse were elected for no other purpose than 
to drive the sacred nail : ^nd though in one of these cases a breach of 
faith' is complained of, in the second the magistracy was laid down 
with the hammer. The historian remarks, that this rite was thought 
to possess a specific efficacy in restoring the minds of men to reason 
on the subsiding of dangerous popular tumults. Horace therefore 
used a very just and most strikiug metaphor to indicate the complete 
termination of the civil wars, wheii he represented, not a dictator* but 
stern Necessity in person,' driving the piacular nail up to the head. 
This construction gives perfect consistency to the whole tenor of the 
ode, of which this is the epitome : " You possess, and are proud to 
display, immense wealth — The government is firmly established, yon 
have no more to dread from the rapacity of an armed faction — Yet 
you feel your life to be insecure : such are the corruption of the age 
and the atrocities it encourages, and avarice in many forms pervades 
every class of society." 

Te semper anteit sseva Necessitas, 
Clavos trabales et cuneos manu 
Gestans ahena ; nee severus 
Uncus abest, liquidumque plumbum. 
In this passage the clavus occurs again in the hand of Necessity, 
and is to be applied to a similar use. Some commentators have un- 
accountably discovered instruments of torture here; whereas their 
connexion with stantem colunmam proves them to be instruments of 
establishment and overthrow : the iron rods and molten lead z to fix 
the column on its pedestal, the wedge and the book to disjoin and 
drag it away, amid the insulting shouts of the populace, (v. 14.) See 
Cic. in Yerr. v. 21. and Erasm. CjiU. to prove the association of 
Roman ideas with the mention of clavos trabaks. 

Notwithstanding the assertion of Euripides, Ale. 976. 9 

Moras £' ovt' hrl /Swyuotf* 
'%\0eiv, ovre fipiras Seas 
9 Eorlv, 
t cannot but conjecture that some representation of this Goddess, sur- 
rounded with Yulcanian attributes, was popularly, at least traditionally, 
known. 1 think the idea of Horace, and that of Euripides himself in 
the subsequent lines, v. 983., 

1 A beautiful allusion to this well-known use of lead, occurs in Eur. 
Andr. 265 ; where the unfortunate widow, seated on the altar of Thetis, 
" like Patience on a monument," is thus addressed by her insulting rival : 

Kadtfcr* iiaaia" xxtl yap ti ictfiij <r* tyji 
Two; fioXi/W©;, fgavaffrnrv a lyw. 

198 Adversaria Liter aria, 

Kcti tov kv KaXvfietrtTi 
ActfiaZei (tov ev /3/p erihapov, 
can hardly be referred to any other origin. 

uncle vitam sumeret inscius. Od. iii. 5. 37. 

— dubius unde rumperet silentium. Epod. 5. 85. 
I do not recollect a third instance of the occurrence of this idiom. 
But the two here cited refiVct much light on each other, and on the 
idea of the poet. In both passages, we have the portrait of a person 
conscious of imminent danger; his reason perturbed, in one example, 
by fear, in the other by rage, which has been well defined, "tear 
frightened out," he does or says, in the moment of indecision, what he 
could not deliberately have done or said. The second quotation is 
sufficiently plain, and may properly be rendered " unable to repress 
his indignation" — " constrained to give it vent on any terms." The 
first has been generally misunderstood, and made the subject of un- 
necessary alterations ; on the principle we have stated, it naturally 
means, "willing to purchase life on any conditions." 

Vel nos in Capitolium, 
Quo clamor vocat, et turba faventium ; 

Vel nos in mare proximum 
Gem mas et lapides, aurum et inutile, 

■ Mittamus, scelerum si bene pcenitet. 

Od. iii. 24. 45. 
There is somewhat of extravagance in the notion, that Horace ad- 
vises his opulent countrymen to throw their wealth into the sea. Per- 
haps he exhorts them to employ it in celebrating, on a profuse scale, 
a piacular festival; such as Tacitus (Ann. 15. 44.) describes as 
having taken place after the burning of Rome under Nero : " Petit a 
Diis piacula — ac propitiata Juno per matronas, primum in Capitolio, 
deinde apud proximum mare, fyc. 

See Brotier in loc. on the words sellisternia and lectisternia. The 
magnificence with which these rites were conducted, may be inferred 
from the authorities there cited, and still more distinctly from Liv, 
xxii. 1., and Latin historians passim. It is easy to see, that the 
" clamor ac turba faventium" would call "in Capitolium," for the 
sake of enjoying the shows and festivity of the occasion near home. 
Bath, 12 Jan. 1816. W. G. H. 


TI 7r<i\ai, apiraadelaa, tto\v<ttovov utpaev &ywva 9 

Tp&Gl re b6o<j>rifios, kcu Aavaotff, 'EXevjj* 
ILol &' 'EXeV?;, kXcos Iotcu, 'AXfyavbpov frare^oitep, 
• AeivoTeprjv iravcrai <j>v\omv 'Wiabos* 

Adversaria Liter aria. 199 

Axiamata Historico-Critica de Raritate Librorum. 

1. Rari et rariores libri sunt illi, qui minus frequenter occurrunt, a 
paucissimis manibus teruntur, inventu quoque et paratu sunt difficiles. 

2. Raritas Librorum non una est eademque ; dantur ejus gradus ; 
hie liber est rams, ille rarior, iste rarissimus. 

3. Distinctio inter tunc et nunc ; inter hie et illic ; inter mihi et 
tibi non est negligenda. Olim libri quidam fuerunt rari, qui nunc re- 
cusi ; nunc rarissimi, qui quondam satis obvii. Sic etiam codices uno 
loco rariores sunt, quam altero ; qui rari in his oris videntur, adhuc 
aliis regionibus suppetere possunt : et liber, qui uni rams est, alteri non 
aeque rarus videtur. Quilibet et hie suo sensu abundat, 

4. Rari et rarissimi, omnium recte sentientium judicio, sunt: 
libri ab artis Typographies primordiis ad annum usque 1500. 

typis exscripti. Non falluntur, qui vel ipsis manuscriptis rariores 
babent hujus generis libros. Caussa raritatis, turn hominum incuria 
est et neglectus, turn pracipue exigu us impressorum exemplarium 

Libri Autorum veterum, editi studio praestantiorum Seculi xvi. 
Typographorum Manuliorum, Juntarum, Stephanorum, &c. Quanta 
aviditate, quantoque interdum pretio a Belgis, pnecipue vero ab 
Anglis, conquiri soleant hujusmodi autorum prise o rum editiones, docet 
perillustris Zach. Conr. ab Uffenbach in praefat. Tom. 2. Bibli- 
othecae suae. 

Libri Lutheri et coaetaneorum, Reformationis tempore luci pnblicae 
commissi, iuterque bos praeprimis editiones Biblioruui Lutheri ante 
annum 1545. excusae. 

Libri in terris peregrinis et dissitis locis impressi nobisque vix saltern 
titulo tenus noti ; inter quos raros libros nos rarissimos saltern sele- 

Libri scriptorura corruptorum truncatorum ac depravatorum incer- 
ruptas, non castratas et intemeratas editiones exhibentes. 

Libri Magistratuum cura, vel fisco addicti, vel aeternis mancipati 

tenebris, vel flammis etiam ultricibus tradiri, quia vel religionem offend- 

unt et bonos mores, vel reipublicag etiam rationes ac commoda turbant. 

Libri quos vel adversa fata Vulcani, aut Neptuni, vel privatorum 

nonnullorum industria, infeliciter ac studiose suppresserunt. 

Libri in controversiis Print ipum ac magnatum imo et privatorum, 
editi quos Deductiones Historicas appellamus. Moris enim est, hu- 
juscemodi scripta genere et dignitatibus in aula eminentibus distribuere, 
non autem Bibliopolis committere. 

Libri, quorum pauca saltern exempla typis sunt expressa; cujus 
rei caussa interdum ambitio esse potest ; interdum sumtuum molestia, 
quando nimirum propriis autor sumtibus librum exscribit. 

Libri maxim i ac voluminosi, qui a' paucis ob molis magnitudinem 

comparari, et ob praegraude pretium, vix alio quam publico asre redimi 

possunt. Cujusmodi sunt ; Corpus Historian Byzantinae, Acta Sane* 

torum, Thesaurus Litterarius Italia*, et centum alii. 

Libri minimi paucarum plagularum, qui ob pretii molisque exilitatem, 

200 Adversaria Liter aria. 

ubi aliquot annorum aetas intercesserit, oculis se nostris subducunt 
elabuntur manibus, adeo, ut difficillime, ac saepe nullo parari pretio 
possint. j 

Libri rari non semper sunt optimi, aut digni qui legantur ; quintal <* 
nonnunquam sunt pessimi. Saepissime liber malus inutilis, ob soli 
raritatem in pretio est. 

Impromptu to the Singers at Cor sham Church, on their giving an 
unusually long psalm on the 2d January. 

Si, dum friget hyems, ita decantatis, Amici, 
Prod uc turn nobis Naenia carmen erit. 

In Rubellionem conglaciatum. 

Pisciculus ! proprio peris immaturus in amne 

Frigore cbnstricta frigore fixus aqua : 
Donee aqua; labi, pariter tibi nare licebat, 

Ilia riget, rigid us tu simul ipse jaces* 
Sed neque fata premunt consortia : quae modo torpet 

Mox iterum assueta mobilitate fluet ; 
Vere soluta fluet ; te jam torpedine Lethes 

Mortis hyems nunquatn <Hssoliienda gelat. 

Thesea crudelem surdas clamabat ad auras. 

Ovid. Ar. Am. I. 531. 

Scribe Uteris majusculis : 

Thesea crudelem ! 
ut ipsa sint Ariadnes verba. Confirniat sententiatn ipse Ovid. Her. 
Ep. X. 21. . 

Interea toto chmanti littore Thesea ! 
Reddebant nomen concava saxa tuum. J. H. H. 

Die mihi de nostra, quae sentis vera, puella. 

Propert. HI. iv. 1. 
Alterutrum, qua sentis aut vera, abundare videtur ; neque difficul- 
tati satis subvenit Marklandi distinctio 

Die mibi de nostra, quae sentis vera, puella. 
nam non ea scire cupit, quae Lygdamus vera sentiret, sed quae vera 
esse certo certius aflirmare poterat, utpote quorum ipse fuerat testis. 
Legendum opinor : 

Die mihi de nostra, quaerenti vera, puella. 
Si ponamus nempe Lygdamum ante a Propertio retulisse ea, quae ab 
eo accepisse dicit, v. 3 et 4. sed quae Lygdamum finxisse suspicatur, 
ut ipsi blandiretur, et jam nunc rogare Propertium, ut rem ita narret, 
uti re vera se habcat. J. H. H. 

In the Monastery of Meteora in Greece are some MSS. of the New 

Adversaria Literaria. 201 

Testament, in which, according to the report of Biornstahl, a Swedish 
traveller in 1779, the passage of the three witnesses is wanting. 

Dr. Holland's Travels. 

The Poet Christopulo, so celebrated for his Lyrics, is the author of 
a Modern Greek, or Romaic Grammar. He asserts that the language 
is derived from the vEolic and Doric Dialects ; hence he intitles his 
Grammar " rpafifiaTucn AloXobopacn." 

Permit me, through the medium of the ClassicalJournal, to correct 
an error in my Essay on the Greek Article, of which I am really in- 
nocent. The Essay to which I allude, was lately published by Dr. 
Adam Clarke in his Commentary on Ephesians. Three disgraceful 
blunders I discovered before the Commentary was published; and 
these are noticed in a list of errata. The fourth, however, I did not 
detect until it was too late. In the last column of the Essay, I have 
given an example from the Ion of Euripides. Creiisa, invoking Apollo 
and speaking of her lost child, says, 

6 €fj.6s yev&ras ical <tos. 
I accordingly affixed the following translation : My son and thine. 
You may judge of my surprise and indignation, when I afterwards 
discovered that my version had been thus altered : Mine and thy 
father. I need not observe to you, Mr. Editor, that the word is some- 
times used to denote a son. You will remember that in the 2d Chorus 
of CEdipus Tyrannus, Sophocles calls Apollo, • Atos yeviras. 

H. S. B. 


v Ev0€o$ el ir&VTios, <5 'XpvaeopocTTpvxe, Kotiprj, 
evdpovos, aflpa yeXys, KXeivwv fiiya Kvbos *AQnv&v $ 
eVXd/XTret b* oacrtav eirl irop(pvpkr}(n irapeicus 
fjiapfiapvy)) ISiovtrCJv, afffietrrov r aBavarwv (puts' 
rj b& rplas Xap/rwv yX&oanv iraibevrrev kpavvnv p 
tivdetri b* ovpaviois irkoKapLOvs ecrrexf/e (paeivovs. 

fJL0V(7LK}) €1 4nj-)(T}S, fJLVTlfJLTJS KaOaptorarov &<f>vos 9 

ofificiTOs 7] bairn, ical Xa/mpa irav{]yvpis &tu)v' 

ku( n Xvpwv, Ze&vpw re 7TVOMS yXvlceodtrepov abets. 

H. S. B. 


3Uterarp 3)ntelitgence* 



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As the Advertisement to No. I. has been altered in two or three 
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Inter viros eruditos jamdiu fueruut, quibus persuasum esset, eos, 
qui causa linguam exteram discendi Lexica versare solcant, facile id, 
quod petunt, assequi non posse, nisi vocabula Alphabcti, ut dicitur, 
ex online componanlur. Hanc sententiam esse aliquatenus veram 
Thesauri Stephaniani Editores ipsi confitentur. In eo quoque cum 
H. Stephano consentiunt, jucundum quid dam perinde ac perutile 
esse, ut rivorum, sic quoque verborum foutes adire, cursumque 
eorum et flexus indagare. Credunt porro virum ilium doctissimum 
rationibus baud facile impugnandis evicisse ilium ordiuem esse unice 
probum, quo, ad verba constituenda, respectus tantummodo habeatur 
ad literas, e quibus voces primitivae conflentur, compositae, suam 
quaeque primitivam, sequantur, et vocum origines juxta ordinem 
Alphabeti altera alteram excipiant: hiuc euim fore (id quod ipse Ste- 
phanus praevidit,) ut iis, quibus in ammo fuerit vocum significationes 
et significationis causas rimari penitus et investigare, non levia pr*c- 
stentur ad jumenta, neque vocibus ipsis exigua lux praebeatur. Verum 
enimvero in tali re non argumenta tantummodo sunt ponderanda, 
sed et sententiae Virorum Doctorum proferendae, quorum auctoritas 
plurimum valeat oportet inter judices non iniquos. 

Literary Intelligence. 203 

Ex illorum numero defcnsorem non infimi nominis H. Stephanus 
sibi nactus est, Ludovicum Casparem Valckenaerium, ' qui ealculo 
comprobavit suo ordinema Stephano itistitutum, utpole ad Linguae 
Graecae naturam maxitne accommodatum, ideoque ad ejus cognitionem 
utilissimum. Neque silentio id praetercunduni est, quod cum Parrius 
ille Nostras, cujus ad judicium in omni re dubia Editores confugere, 
et cujus auxilium in omni re difficili magis sponte datura accipere 
quani petere exoratum solent, turn Boissonadius, Professor ille Pari- 
jiensis, ex acumine ingenii et multiplici doctrina clarissimus, nihil esse 
in hac re mutanduin voluerunt. 

Sunt tamen fortasse, qui Editores fraud is insimnlent, tan quam fidem 
suis Fautoribus datam fefellerint. At vero Editores ut in se recepe-. 
rint novum condere Lexicon tan turn abest, ut verbis poene disertis 
id solum prestiterint, Thesaurum Ling. Gr. ab H. Stephano con- 
gestum, paulo melius dispositum et multo magis locupletem, denuo 
se typis esse mandaturos. Hisce igitur conveutis suis ut stent quam 
optime, in animo ha bent ne unum quidem vefbum mutare, plurima 
autem addere, et voces, in suo quamque loco, inserere, quas, in 
*erie omissas, ipse Stephanus et Scottus in Appendicibus, aliique 
in Lcxicis et Kbris, cujuscunque fuerint generis, suppleverint. His 
quoque subjicientur notae e libris et scriniis Virorum Doctorunt 
undique decerptae, quo verbum quodlibet, fusius aut accuratius ex- 
positum, melius a Thesauri Stephaniani lectori bus intelligi possit. 

Novam Thesauri editionem excipient opuscula, quae Stephanus 
edidit vel ad initium quinti tomi Thesauri, vel ad libri, qui Glossaria 
con ti net, finera. Alium vero ordinem, quam Stephanus secum 
constituit, Editores sibi servandum esse judicabant. Etenim quod ad 
libellos attinet Gregorii de Dialectis generaliter, et Strphani ipsius dc 
Attica Dialecto speciatim, hi duo, alter alterum, subsequentur : quo- 
rum hie adornabitur scriptis ineditis Godofredi Hermanui, tov naw, 
ille notis G. H. Schaeferi, cujus opera Gregorius nuper est evulgatus, 
etiam post Koenii curas emendatior, et novis Grammaticis, quasi 
satellitibus, stipatus. 

Adjicietur opusculum Apollonii D^scoli ; quod primus edidit 
Reitzius ad calcem libri Maittairiani de Dialectis ; iste autem liber 
saepe in partes suas ab Edi tori bus vocabitur, una cum ejusdem generis 
operibus, quorum alia inter Gennanos diu innotuerint, alia, ut spenuv 
dum est, in lucem brevi ventura sint. 

Quod ad libellos Trvphonis wept iradwv XQewv, et irepl rpoirwv, 
attinet, uterque impriraetur ad fidem exemplaris in Musaco Critico 
Cantabrigiensi No. I. p. 32. et seqq. editi opera Blomfieldii, qui notas 
viro KpwuevraTp baud indignas de suo apposuit. 

In Ammonio denuo imprimendo ab editione, quam L. C. Valcken- 
aerius, juvenis ille quidem, sed " ante anuos" doctrinam et ingenium 

1 Vide " Obss. quibus via mimitur ad origines Graccas investigandaa," apnd 
Leiincp. de Analog. Ling. Grace, p. 28— 35. »* t. i. p. 278. L. C. V. Opusc. 
Phil. Crit. ct Orat. Lipsiae, 1808. 8vo. 

204 Literary Inttlligtiict. 

" virile" ' prae se ferens, procuravit, religioni est Editoribus discedere, 
ita tamen, ut, ubicunque res postulaverit, de penu suo aliquantulum 
addant. Huic de Differentia Vocum libello subjicietur sylloge satis 
ampla vocum synonymarum e Scholiis et Lexicis Graecis hausta, et in 
prdinem Alphabeticum digesta. 

Quicquid contulerint Montfauconius * et Kusterus 3 ad emeudan- 
dum opusculura . Orbicii, aut cujuscunque id fuerit scriptoris, de 
Ordinibus Militaribus, id omne deprometur, adjectis Kusteri notis. 

Tractatus Herod iani wepl aptdfxwv, Galeni item alior unique vcpl 
ftArpiov Kai (rradfiwr, scriptis eorum, qui res istiusmodi attigerint^ 
illustrabuntur. Atqui hortim esse numerum admodum parvum Edi- 
tores non possunt non dolere, siquidem probe sciunt, quantum valeat 
«d Historicos recte intelligendos cognitio ilia rum rerum plena et ac- 
curata. Sibi tamen Editores Eruditisque gratulantur, quod StephanI 
Commentarius de Mensibus et Partibus eorundem augeri atque illus- 
trari possit con fe rend is inter se et describendis scriptis auctorum, 
quos commemoravit Sturzius de Dial. Maced. et Alex. p. 48=;clxv. 

Vice Glossa riorum, quae Stephanus evulgavit, sutficieutur ilia 
quse.annis centum post edidit Labbaeus: "qui/' Du-Cangio judice, 
"ita in opere condendo versa tus est, ut non modo ab H. Stb- 
PHANO edita Glossaria eimul contulerit, sed et vocabula, quae in 
Onomastico Lat. Gr. et in Sylloge, a Vulcanio publicatis, in 
eadem vocabulorum serie admiscuerit." 4 Hanc Du-Caugii 5 sen- 
tentiam Editores labore suo confirmare malunt, quam pro confir- 
niata habere ; ideoque iis curae erit ut utriusque editionis compa- 
ratio fiat, et quicquid a Labbaeo fuerit omissum, suppleatur. Quo 
autem Lectoris commoditalibus consulatur, Castigationes in utrum- 
que Glossarium 6 ad calcem paginae, non, ut in editione veteri, ad iinem 
libri, exstabunt : interque eas locum babebunt aliae ctiam cinendationes, 
vol a Labbaeo omissae, vel post Labbaeuin a M. Martinio/ J. F. Fischero, 
J. Albertio, ceterisque Hesychii interpretibus factae. Quoniam duo 
ilia Glossaria, ut Meursio 8 visum est, dici possunt Thesaurus mag- 
nus antiquitatis, magnus mendarum, Editores vere et ex ammo gratias 
immortales acturi sunt viris eruditis, quorum studio lucis aliquid istis 
operibus sit accessurum. 

Glossario Latino adjicietur illud quod Isidorum auctorem habet, 
cum Graevii et Almelovenii notis. 

Cum Ant. Scbultens satis accurate ediderit Veteres Glossas Verborum 
Juris, una cum suis aliorumque notis, nihil aliud restat quam ut repe- 
titae editioni adjiciantur notae Albertii, et Lexicon Theophilinum x0 a 
Reitzio evulgatum. 

1 Virg. JEn. 9. 311. 4 In Bibliotheca Coisliniana p. 505—14. 

3 Ad calcem Strides. 

4 Praefat. ad Gloss. 5 Vid. Menag. in Anti-Bailie 1 1. ii. c. 106. 

6 Quas Albertius ad Hesych. v. atros Du-Cangio tribuit. 

7 In Lexico phiiologico hie illic sparsae. * Exercitt. Crit. p. ii. 1. iv. c. 15. 

9 Vide Glossarium Gr. in sacr. N. F. Libros p. tt7~66. 

10 Vid. Grteca Institut. Cssar. Paraphrenia. 

Literary Intelligence. 805 

His omnibus Glossariis praefigetur ootitia literaria e Bibliotheca 
Graeca Fabricii. Ita deraum patebit cur Labbaei opus, cum sit uberius 
quam Stephanianum, recudi debeat. 

Haec supplementa ad calcem Thesauri reperientur. Sunt autem 
alia adjumeuta, quae non ad finem libri, ut solet, reservanda esse, 
sed in ipso limine congerenda, Editores statuerunt ; de quibus, sive 
ad legend um jucundis, sive ad Gracam linguam intelligendam tantum 
non uecessarik, minime abs re alienum fuerit verbo uno atque altero 
praefari. Varia igitur opuscula, quae in hac parte libri collocata 
sunt, recensere, itemque exponere cur singula inserantur, qui tot 
additamentorum sint fontes, quis usus, muneris esse sui duxerunt 
Edi tores. 
I. II. Qqtravpds r»7? 'EiWrjviKrjs TXwtrtrris, Thesaurus Graecae Linguae, . 

ab Henrico Stephano constructus. 

III. Henrici Stephani Admonitio de Thesauri sui Epitome, quae 
titulum Lexici Graecol. novi praefert. 

IV. Epistola Dedicatoria et Epigrammata duo de Thesauro Gr. 

V. Catalogus Auctorum Graecorum, in quorum scriptis vocabula et 
loquendi genera, eorum item unde expositiones vocabulorum aut 
loquendi generum petitae sunt in hoc Thesauro Graecae Linguae. 

VI. Scipionis Carteromachi Pistoriensis Oratio de Laudibus Litera- 
rum Graecarum. 

VII. M. Antonii Antimachi de Literarum Graecarum Laudibus Oratio. 

VIII. Ex Conrad i Heresbachii Oratione in Commendationem Graeca- 
rum 'Literarum Excerpta. 

IX. Henrici Stephani ad Lectorem Epistola, seu Praefatio in ipsius 
Thesaurum Linguae Gr. 

X. Excerpta ex H. Stephani Epistola, a. 1569. edita, qua ad 
mult as multorum amicorum respondet, de suae Typographic Statu, 
nominatimque de suo Thesauro Linguae Graecae. 

XI. Excerpta ex J. A. Fabricii Bibliotheca Graeca, Vol. vi. p. 651 
— 68. ed. Harles. 

XII. Excerpta ex Vita H. Stephani secundi, a Mic. Maittairio 

XIII. De Verbis Graecorum Mediis L. Kusteri, J. Clerici, S. Clarkii, 
et E. Schmidii, Commentationes a Woliio, qui suam adjecit, recen- 
sitae, una cum Dresigii et Bowyeri notis. 

XIV. Ogerius " de Linguae Graecae Aifinitate cum Hebraica." 

XV. J. A. Ernestius " de Vestigiis Linguae Hebraicaein Lingua Gr. v 

XVI. Lexicon Vocum Peregrinarum in Scriptoribus Graecis- obviarum 
— in quo comprehend untur : 

1. Excerpta e Chr. D. Beckii " Dissertatione de Lexicis Gr. et Lat. 
omnino, et recentissimis singulatim." 

2. P. E. Jablonskii Disquisitio de Lingua Lycaonica ad locum Actor, 
xiv. II. 1 'E,Tcij(jav t^v (jxovriv avriov AvkclovkftI Xcyovres.-— §. i. Status 
controversiae proponitur. — §. ii. Singulorum argumentis expensis, 
concluditur, ling. Lycaonicam non esse Gr. — §. iii. Ad objectiones 

1 Vide fientleii Serm. VI. de Atheiamo. 

206 Literary Intelligence. 

quasdam generaliores respondetur. — §. iv. De Unguis gentium Asia? 
minoris generaliter probatur, eas Gr. sermone usas ood fuisse, quia 
Barbara vocantur. — §. v. Idem aliis argument is confirmatur. — §. vi. 
De ortu et progressu linguaruin apud gentes Asiae minoris. — §. vii. 
De Lingua Phr'ygia. Earn non fuisse Gr. dia lee turn, contra Th. 
Ryckium ostenditur. — *. viii. Pauculaj voces Phrygian, post Bochar* 
turn, afteruntur et explicantur. — §. ix. De Lingua Lydorum. — 
§. x. De Lingua Caruin. — §. xi. De Lingua Lycica. — §. xii. De 
Lingua Pamphylia. — §. xiii. De Lingua Pisidarum.' — §. xiv. De 
Lingua Bitbynorum. — §. xv. De Lingua Mariandynorum. — §. xvi. 
De Lingua Paphlagonica. — §. xvii. De Lingua Gala tar um. — §. xviii. 
De Lingua Lycaonica. Lycaones eandem cum Cappadocibus ha- 
buisse linguam adstruitur. — §. xix. De Lingua Cappadocum, quam 
fuisse vetustam Assyriacam existimatur. — §. xx. Conclusio hujus 
3. Fr. Guil. Sturzii De Dialecto Macedonica et Alexandrina Liber. — 
§. i. De tempore et occasione versionis V. T. Gr. — §. ii. De dialecto 
versionis Alex. — §. iii. De dialecti natura. universe. — §. iv. De notj- 
onibus nomiuis htuXeicros. — §. v. De discrimine dialecti, linguae, et 
styli. — §. vi. De iEgvptiorum studio linguae Gr. — §. vii. De dialecto 
Macedonico- Alexandrina. — §. viii. De dialecti Maced. natura.— §. ix. 
De dialecti Alex, ingenio. — §. x. De dialecto iEgyptia. — §. xi. De 
structura verborum Alex. — §. xii. Devocabulis pro babiliter Alexan- 

Scrip torum profecto, quorum mentio facta est in pracedenti Cata- 
logo, non nisi umim atque alteram orationc indiget prolixiori : reliqua 
sunt, sua quaeefne in serie, breviter tractauda. 

I. II. Haec duo sunt, titi aiunt, Frontispicia, sive tituli, quorum alter- 
utrum exhibere soiet exemplar Thesauri : de cujus editione, utrom 
ttnica, an duplex merit, litem diumotam tandem composuit KrohnitLV 
et cita'idis testimoniis, et argumentis conferendis, quorum omnia inter 
Excerpta ex Fabrieii Bibliotheca Graeca [N. xi.] reperiet lector ad 
inve&Jgandum hujusmodi res miuutas attcntior. 

III. IV. V. IX. Cum haec quatuor exstent in Thesauro, itemque 
tria ilia VI. VII. VI1L, Editoribus visum est ea septem denuo impri- 
mere, ne quod deesset operum istorum, quae in Lexico suo, honoris 
causa, ipse H. Stf.phanus typis mandare dignatus fuit. 

X. Excerpta ex H. Stephani Epistola hac de causa ab Editoribos 
inserta sunt, ut Praefationis pars ea, in qua hujus epistolae mentio 
facta est, melius intelligi possit. 

XL In gratia in eorum, qui notitiam literariam cujuslibet scriptoris 
sibi presto esse cupiimt, posita sunt quaedam Excerpta ex Bibliotb. 
Gr. Fabricii : qui cum Itichcio statuit unam tantummodo fuisse The- 
sauri editionera. Porsono autem rw fxatcaplTrj idem placuisse, testis est 
Kiddius in Porsoni Miscell. Crit. p. 403. in Indicesub voce Scapula. 
Richcius profecto quibus argumentis sententiam suam statbilire conatus 
ait, Editorcs fatentur se nescire ; etenim librum ejus, diu multumque 
a se quaesituni, riondum sibi com para re potuerunt. Ex eo tamen, si 
forte a se repertus esset, lubenter exscripsissent, quicquid objici po- 
tuisset in Maittairium, cujus sententiam, a Krohnio approbatam et 

Literary Intelligence.* 207 

cjuidem dcfensam, continent Excerpta ex Vita Stephani a Mait- 
-ta'rio oJini conscripta. [N. xn.] 

XIII. Cum Stephanus Thesaurum suum conficeret, Lexicographtt 
ne suspicio quid em ulla fuit, nedum cognitio, rerum plurimarum, quas 
ad linguam Or. condiscendani etiam tironibus hodie nefas est ignorare. 
Haruin'profecto rerum, qua; neque inter nugas magistellorum, neque 
inter aitis grammatics arcana, ditfi cilia ilia quid em ad explicaudum, 
sed perscrutandi labore vix, aut ne vix quidem digna, recenseri solent, 
nou potest alia repcriri vel usu uberior, vel specie ornatior, quam 
sententia ilia OpvXkovjjitvq Kusteri, qui primus animadvertit luculenter- 
que exposuit vim peculiar em " Verborum Mediorum apud Graecos, 
eor unique differentiam a Verbis Activis et Passivis." Hanc reciprocam, 
ut aiunt, potestatcm cum Stephanus ignoraret, non est cur quis e 
recentioribus viris, licet Stephano minus sit doctus, mirari debeat, 
si errores ejus in verbis istiusmodi cxponendis identidem ipse depre- 
liendere et corrigere possit. Sperant autem Editores neminem, qui 
vel mediocriter vel plene perfecteque a doctrina instructus sit, aegre 
laturum esse, quod Comnieutationes de Verbis Mediis, una cum ob- 
servation! bus scriptorum tarn oppugnantium Kustero, quam opitu- 
lantium, denuo imprimendas esse duxerint. Ea scilicet mente hoc a 
se factum esse Editores coufitentur, ut quicquid de hac quaestione 
gravissima accurate erudi toque scriptuin esset, id omne irpoyeipov ml 
ehpvvoTTTov lectoribus proponeretur. 

XIV. XV. Hisce duobus opusculis de Affinitate Linguae Gr. cum 
Hebraica idcirco datus est locus, ut ii, quibus cordi fuerit literas 
aacras cum liter is profunis conjuugere et conferre, segetem ac mate- 
riem doctrina; paulo uberiorem habere possint. Editoribus quidem 
minime latuit, cognationem, quae inter disquisitiones hujusmodi, et 
Lexicon verborum intercedat, aut nullam esse, aut pertenuen. Quo- 
niam vero Excerpta ilia paucis sunt cognita, neque longa, baud 
fortasse deeruiit, qui ea non oninino praetermissa esse patiantur. 

XVI. De ceteris, praeter Coninientationes de Verbis Mediis, multa 
ut dicerentur, vix necessariuin fuit. Atqui nefas esset ea silentio 
praeterire, quae et possunt dici et quidem debent de additamento 
illo, quod titulum prae se ferr, Lexicon Vocum Peregrinarum 


Stephanum * nemo est nescius consulto retulisse in Indicem 
voces illas, quae, licet nou bene Graecae sint, a Graecis tamen Scrip- 
toribus aliquoties usurpantur tanquam ex ore Barbarorum editae„ vel 
de Barbaris dictae. Quod hasce omnes collegerint, et in suo quam- 
que loco disposueriut Editores, de* Gr. Uteris se non male raeruisse 
opinantur. In hoc igitur Lexico reperientur vocabula bene multa, 
quorum nulla ratio fuit habita ab iis, qui Graecam linguam in quatuor 
Dialectos* divisam esse voluerunt; multa porro nou modo usitata apud 
civitates intra Peloponnesum et extra peninsulam usque ad Thessaliae, 

1 Vide Stephani Praef. ad Indicem Thesauri. 

* Islas quataor dialectos generale* gentiles que, ceteras locales et speciaUs vocal 
flscheru*, in Animadvers. ad Gram. Graecam Veileri. p. 45. vol. 1. Nomina porro 
populomm atqtie civitatum, quarttm linguas ab antiquis grauunaticis et scriptori- 
mis laudari videinus, recenset. f». 45 ad p. 57. 

208 • Literary Intelligence. 

£piri 9 et Macedonian eras ultimas, verum etiam apud insulas Gracb 
subditas, coloniasque inde deductas, et per TEgaeum atque Ionium 
mare longe lateque dispersas ; inulta deniqne, quae purura putum 
barbarismum redolent, qualia sunt Persica, Agyptiaca,. Lydia, 
Scythica, Celtica, alia. Sylloge haruni vocum peregrinarum duplex 
erit ; altera vocum ipsarum una cum expositionibus, in ordinem alpba- 
beticum digesta ; altera ad noniina gentium, quibus illae attribui 
eolent, ita accommodata, ut, verbi causa, Laconica a Creticis, Persica 
ab .flEgvptiacis, distinguantur. Quoniam vero in vocibus peregrinis 
colligendis operam suam paulo negligentius coliocavit Stephanus, 
eo diligeutius Ed it ores ad banc partem officii sui incubuerunt, ut quae 
a Stephano praetermissa essent, accurate cumulateque in usum 
tuoram lectorum proterrent. 

E larga segete, quani unus Hesychius praebere potuit, quantulum 
C9t Stf.phani spicilegium? Paulo quidem plenius est id quod 
Schneider us Jconfecit. 1 Qui autem Lexicon illud manu diurna noc- 
turnaque versaverit, idem ille exquisitius quiddam et multo uberius 
desideret necesse est. Editores, ne quid vitio sibi verti possit ob 
libros, quos perscrutari debuissent, neglectos, sedulo curabunt, ut 

Seregrina vocabula, quae Meursius, 1 Valckenaerius, 3 Maittairius/ 
[azochius, 5 atque alii collegerunt, editioni huic novae Thesauri 
Stephaniani praefigantur. 

Quod ad materiem attinet, e qua Lexicon illud Vocum Peregri- 
narum confectum fuerit, praemonendus est lector, futurum esse, ut, 
prater Jablonskii Diss, de Ling. Lycaonica, et Sturzii Librum de 
Ling. Maced. et Alex., alia etiam opuscula integra vel excerpta ex iis 
denuo typis mandentur, e. g. 

P. E. Jablonskii Voces ^gyptiacae. 

L. C. Valckenaerii Dissertatio de vocabulo Wipes. 

Hadr. Relandi Dissertatio de Veteri Lingua Indica. 

— de llelliquiis Veteris Linguae Persicae. 

Lexicon Tarentinum a Jo. Juvene conscript urn. 

His opusculis addi poterant fortasse et plura ; verum Ed i tori bus 
sedulo et anxie quacrentibus deftieriint libri J. G. Hauptmanni, 6 Gabr. 
Lancelloti Castelli, 7 Ign. Rossii, 8 Bern. Aldretii, 9 et aliorum. Horum 

1 In prsestantissimo Lexico Gnrco-Germamco. 

* In libris suis editis nomine Creta, Cyprus, Rhodns, ct Miscelt. Lacon. 

1 In Annotationibns in Theocrit. Adoniaz., et Epist. ad Rovernm p. 58. ct 
iqq. = t. i. p. 574. et sqq. 

* In libello de Gracae Lingua; Dialectic, quern edidit et anxit Stnradus. 

5 A quo Tabulae Heracleenses sunt editae et expositae. 

6 Programma de Laconica Dialecto. Auctore J. G. Hauptmanr*o, Gent, 
1776. 4to. 

7 In Prolegom. ad Nov. Collect. Inscript. Siciliae per Gabr. Lancell. Casteltam, 
Principem de Torremuzza. Pauormi. 1784. fbl. 

8 Etymologic iEgyptiacap per Ignat. Rossium. Roma*. 1811. 8vo. 

9 Vide Bern. Aldrete, lib. ii. c. 2. Del Origen y Principio de la Lengua 
Castellana n Romance qne oy se usa en Kspana, Madriti. 1682. foL Anctor, 
notante Reinesio de Ling. Punica p. 36. (Grsevii Syntagma), u vocabula lingo* 

Literary Intelligence. 209 

omnium Deque idem esse apud viros doctos desiderium, neque eumlem 
ab iis fructuni esse reportandum ecquis ignorat ? Dolendum est tamen 
Gorii* Lexicon Pelasgicum, et Hemsterbusii* Schediasraa de Ver- 
borutn Formis Doneis, Laconicis, &c. aut ad umbilicura non per- 
ducta esse, aut certe in lucem nondum prolata. 

Huic Vocum Peregrinarum Lexico, quod libellus alter explebit, 
Index locupletissimus adjicietur. 

Satis jam superque dictum est de add ita mentis. Editores autem. 
finem imponere praefationi suae prius nequeunt, quam de rebus non? 
nullis, quas sibi objici posse non ignorant, pro virili responderint. 
Si quis igitur roget, cur bic libellus non Thesauri ipsius Stephaniani 
partem aliquam exhibeat, sed aliorum scriptorum opuscula, quae in 
tempus magis opportunum reservari, aut prorsus omitti potuissent, 
satis sibi responsum habebit, cum intellexerit rationes esse non leves, 
quae Editores ad id agendum impuleriiit. 

Neminem hoc quidem fugere debebit, editoribus esse opus longo 
tempore iraprobo, utaiunt, labore, et impensis nonexiguis adSpartatn 
banc suam recte ac prospere ornandam. Mud porro omnes fatebuntur 
optandum fuisse, utincommoda, quae hujusmodiincoeplumnonpossunt 
non coinitari, ratione quavis honesta diminuerentur. At vero aliter 
id fieri non potuit, quam opuscula ista, sive praefationis loco sive 
supplement habenda siut, nunc temporis imprimendo. Larga quidem 
verborim sylva ad Thesaurum connciendum ab Editoribus dudum 
est comparata. Res tamen permultae perque diffieiles impediunt, quo 
minus ad Thesaurum ipsum imprimendum Editores, nulla mora inter* 
posita, se conferant. Desunt enim libri nonnulli, quorum usus est 
necessarius, diu licet quaesiti nondum tamen reperti. Supplemen- 
torum porro, quae a se con fe eta Viri Docti suppeditare promiserunt, 
pars, vix dimidio major, hue usque ad manus Editorum pervenit. 
Nee vero satis fuit iis temporis ad Thesauri errata corrigenda, ad 
exempla, quae citaverat Stephanus, perpendeuda, ad verba scriptori, 
quaeque suo, tribuenda, ad editiones, quibus Stephanus ipse aliique 
uti solebant, conferendas, ad vocabula, quae fuerant a Stephano 
omissa, colligenda, et ad unum quod que suo loco inserendum. 

-His argumentis eausam suam Editores, uti sperant, satis tueri pote- 
runt, apud judices aequos et bene cordatos : quorum sane n inner urn 
non exiguum esse probe sciunt, cum nomina Fautorum suorum re- 
censent. Quotquot inter illos ob doctrinam clari sint, una cum aliis, 
ubicunque fuerint, viris eruditis, eos omnes vebementissime orant atque 
rogant Editores, spoute et cito symholam, quemque suam, conferre, 
quo denuo impress um Stephani hoc opus magis plenum perfec- 
tumque exhibeatur, sitque non minus insigne hujus aevi decus, quam 
munus omni posteritati gratum atque utile. 

Phceniciae veteris ct Punica* apud scrip tores antiquos occurrentia, diligenter xari 
croiyuov coll e git, et ad Syriacam Ebraicamque reduxit." 

1 Ant. Franc. Goriom edere voluisse lexicon Pelasgicum Stnrzins twjtatur, 
et dolet opus esse imperfectum, ad p. \°Z = 157. not. 10. libri de Dialect. 
Maced. et Alex.. 

* Schediasma MS. de Verborum Formis Doricis, Laconicis, &c. commemora- 
ttun est ab Albertio ad Uesych. v. 2t//ujSop&dct. 

NO. XXV. tl.JL VOL.XU\. ^ 

210 Literary Intelligence. 

No. II. is in the press, and will contain the remainder of the Left* 
aon Vocum Peregrinarum, and the first portion of the letter A. 

In January 1810. was published at Stuttgard, the first part 6f an 
Astronomical and Mathematical Journal, intended to promote the 
study of the higher branches of science. It will bear the title of 
" Commentarii in quibus de rebus ad Astronomiam et cognatas cum 
ea litems spectantibus exponitur ;" and seeks to compensate for the 
discontinuance of a former work on the same plan, designated " Mutua? 
liters ad accuratiorem terrae et coeli cognitionem evulgatse, &c* 

It will receive the contributions of many distinguished students, in 
the different countries of Europe, who have pledged their support to 
the work. 

Euripidis Alcestis ; ad fidem manuscriptorum ac veterum editionum 
emendavit et annotationibus instruxit J. H. Monk, A. M. Coll. Trio, 
Soc. et Gr. Lit. apud Cantab. Prof. Reg. Accedit Georgii Buchanani 
Versio Metrica. 8vo. 6s. 6d. in boards. 

Clavis Virgiliana ; or, a Vocabulary of all the Words in Virgil's 
Bucolics, Georgics, and iEneid ; in which, 1 . Each word is marked 
with an accent, to direct the pronunciation; and its part of speech, 
declension, conjugation, &c. are distinguished according to grammar. 
2. TJie several significations of each word are ascertained, as near as 
the nature of the English language will admit. 3. These various sig- 
nifications are reduced into proper classes, in a different and better 
manner than in any dictionary extaut. Compiled out of the best au- 
thors on Virgil, by several hands, in a method entirely new ; for the 
use of schools/ and the improvement of those who have made but a 
small progress in the knowledge of the Latin tongue. 8vo. 7*. 64. 

In our Literary Intelligence subjoined to the last No. of the Class. 
Jonrn., we had the satisfaction of announcing to our readers the pub- 
lication of M. Gail'9 excellent editions of Xenophon and Thucydides 
in Greek, Latin, and French. We hope that some of the learned 
contributors to our Journal will in the next No. favor us with some 
observations on the manner, in which M. Gail has executed his task 
as an editor, and a translator. To this diligent and ingenious French- 
man the literary world is indebted for another valuable work, which 
bears the following title, and which is in fact supplementary to the 
above mentioned publications. 

Recherches Historiques, Milit aires, Gtographiques, et Pkilologiqnes ; 
specialement d'apres Herodote, Thucydide, et Xenophon; avec 
Cartes geographiques, par M. Barbie du Bocage, et autres ; Plans 
de Sieges et de Batailles ; et Index des Matieres ; Pour servir k 1'etude 
approfondie de l'Histoire ancienne. Tome premier. Paris, 1814. 8vo. 

The volume of Maps, which are beautifully executed, is in 4to., 
with the following title : 

Atlas pour servir a 1'etude de l'Histoire Ancienne et a {'intelligence 
des Auteurs Grecs et Latins, contenant, 1. Les Tableaux chronolo- 
giques des priucipaux Faits de l'Histoire ancienne; 2. Des Cartes 

Literary Intelligence. 311 

Geographiques, Plans de Villes et de Batailtes, etc. dessinls pour la 
Partie G6ographique, par Mm. Barbie-Du-Bocage, Letronne etc. ; et 
pour la -partie militaire, par les plus celebres Tacticiens. De llmpri- 
merie Royale. 1815. 

On several of these Plans M. Gail consulted the Generals Mathieu, 
Dumas, Dupont, Carnot (de l'lnstitut), Marescot, Solemy, and other 

The Atlas costs to subscribers to the Xenophon 25 fr., to non-sub- 
scribers 36 fr., for the common paper, and 72 fr. pap. velin. The 
8° Vol. is sold for 10 fr. Either of the two Volumes may be bought 

To give our readers a just idea of the novel and interesting matter 
contained in the Adas, it will for the present be sufficient to enume- 
rate the following articles : 15. Carte de l'Empire des Odryses. 16. 
L'Epithrace, la haute et basse Macedoine, la Thessalie, et lillvrie* 
18. Carte de la presqu'tle la Pallene et d'une partie de l'Epithrace* 
22. Le detroit de l'Euripe et ses environs. 24. Essai sur la Topo- 
grnphie de Platee. 33. Plan du Piree. 37. Topographic de Colon*, 
Hieron et Deme de PAttique, d'apres Sophocle, habitant de ce Deme 
on Bourg. Voyes Obs. hist, milit. geogr. t. i. p. 22. sq. 39. Batailk 
de Nemee. Le premier volume des Obs. hist, milit. geogr. donne 
1'explication du plan de cette bataille. 43. L'Olympie et ses environs. 
Ce nouveau plan n'est rien en comparison de celui que doit publier 
notre confrere l'illustre M. de Choiseul-Gouffie. En attendant quil 
paroisse, il ne sera pas inutile d'avertir les amis de la venerable anti- 

?uit£ qu'on les a trompls sur cette ville d'Olympie ; qu'il n'a manque* 
cette vilie, si bien decrite par tant de geographes et si bien repre- 
sentee par de savans burins, que d 'avoir existe. La locution grecque 
jk 'OAv/jir/a se rencontre en mille passages. Comme en mille passage! 
on tfest trompe en traduisant par. la ville d'Olympie ce qui signifie le 
Urritotre de V Olympic, ces observations ne peuvent etre oiseuses. 46. 
Plan de la premiere bataille de Mantinee. 

Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century; comprising Bio- 
graphical Memoirs of Wm. Bowyer, Printer, F. S. A. and many of 
his learned friends ; an Incidental View of the Progress and Advance- 
ment of Literature in this Kingdom during the last Century ; and 
Biographical Anecdotes of a considerable number of emjpent Writers 
and ingenious Artists ; with a very copious Index. By John Nichols, 
F. S. A. Vol. ix. 

At length the learned, ingenious, and excellent Editor has finished 

his work ; and, when we recollect the labor, the difficulties, and the 

accidents, which have retarded its completion, we do not hesitate to 

say /or him, what his modesty will not permit him to say for himself: 

Jamque opus exegi, quod nee Jovis ira, nee ignie, 

Nee poterit ferrum, nee edax abolere vetustas. 

It is indeed a work, which will be in the hands of the Antiquary, 
the Historian, and the Scholar, as long as the literature of England 
shall exist. It is a store-house, from which the writer on every sub- 

212 Literary Intelligence. 

ject connected with the Eighteenth Century will draw a great part of 
his materials. 

The editor has quoted a pretty couplet, Vol. ix. p. .537. 
Inspicis hunc nostrum, Lector quicunque, libcllum ; 
Sis placidus : mea nee carpe, sed ede tua. 
But we will predict that, with respect to this work, few will attend 
to this injunction; many will transplant the information it contains 
into their own publications ; and we shall probably be among the 
number. So indefatigable have been the endeavours of our veteran 
author to investigate the truth in every particular, that this work will 
be considered as a sufficient authority for the accuracy of every fact, 
mid the date of every event. 

- Antient Literature Discovered. — Heidelberg, Dec. 4.— 
The University of Heidelberg possessed, until 1622, a collection of 
books and MSS. the most considerable in Germany, and which, in Jo- 
seph Scaliger's opinion, was at that time richer than even the Vatican 
library ; this celebrated library, whose MSS. alone were valued at 
30,000 crowns, was, in the above yedr, in consequence of the capture 
and plundering of the city by the ariny of General Tilly, sent as a 
present by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria to Pope Gregory XV". and 
conveyed from Heidelberg to Rome, by the famous scholar Leo Alla- 
tius. As much of it as actually reached Rome, (for many of the ma- 
nuscripts were torn, or dispersed among private hands, by. the sacking 
of the city) formed since that time, under the name of " Bibliotheca 
Palatina," a division of the Vatican Library; and in most of the ma- 
nuscripts, as a memorial, is a leaf with the Bavarian, arms, and the 
following inscription : — <c Sum de Bibliotheca quam, Heidelberga a, spolium fecit, et Papee Gregorio XV, tropceum misit, Maxi- 
mianw utriusque Bavaria? Dux, et S. R. /. Elector, 1623." Thirty- 
eight of these MSS. forming part of the 500 MSS. of the Vatican, 
whieh the Papal Government ceded to the French Republic in 1797 \ 
by the treaty of Tolentino, were deposited in the National Library at 
Paris. The general restoration of works of art, of which the French 
bad robbed other countries, offered the prospect of recovering not 
only the thirty-eight Heidelberg MSS. but the whole of the " Biblio- 
theca Palatum " carried to Rome. Professor Wilken, Prorector of 
our University, was commissioned on the 2d of September, to pro- 
ceed to Pans; to prosecute the claims. To the uncommonly active 
assistance of the Austrian Minister, Count Wessenberg, and the Prus- 
sian, Baron Humboldt, we have it to ascribe, that the Papal Commis- 
sioners, the brothers Caoova and the A b bate Marini, agreed without 
any difficulty, to give up the thirty-eight MSS. to. the University of 
Heidelberg; the Pope's approbation being first obtained. 

A letter has been received from Prince Hardenberg, acquainting the 
University that the Pope has given his consent to the restoration of the 
thirty-eight MSS. Thus a part of our once celebrated literary treasures 
returns to us, among which is the famous Codex Palatinus of the 
Greek Anthology, the MS. of small geographical works, the Antoni- 
nus Liberalise which Bast, in his critical letters to M. Boissonnade* 

Literary Intelligence. 213 

describes, and uses in so masterly a manner ; four ancient and valua- 
ble MSS. of Plutarch's works, &c. We are also entitled to cherish 
the hope that the future steps taken for the recovery of those remain- 
ing in the Vatican, will be equally successful. 

Grecian Antiquities. — Several artists and -amateurs of diffe- 
rent nations, united by a love of the Arts, succeeded in obtaining per- 
mission to search in the Temple of Pbegalia, dedicated to Apollo, on 
Mount Cotvlus, in Arcadia. They had the extraordinary good for- 
tune to find the complete frieze of the interior of the Temple. It is of 
marble, 96 feet in length, and upwards of two feet in height, of high 
relief, contains a hundred figures, and is but little damaged, except 
from the fall at the destruction of the Temple. — 

There are two subjects, one suite of fifty-three figures represents 
the combat of the Amazons with the Hellenians ; the other, of 
forty-seven figures, the combats of the Centaurs and Lapithse, 
at the marriage of Pirithous. Pausanias says, (Arcadia, book viii. 
chap. 45,) that the architect Ichinus, who, under Pericles, in conjunc- 
tion, with Callicrates, built the Parthenon at Athens, also built this 
Doric Temple, which was considered next to that at Tegea, as the 
most finished in the Peloponnesus. Pericles lived in the fifth century 
before Christ : it must therefore be about 2300 years since the erec- 
tion of this Temple. The style which reigns in the work, and its 
execution, manifest better than history, the^age of perfection of the 
Art of Sculpture. Nothing can be more noble and commanding than 
these Amazons. The air of the heads is at once imposing and grace- 
ful ; —nothing can be more happy or more highly finished than the 
draperies. The figure of Theseus cannot be mistaken ; it is most 
beautiful. — A Virgin and a Youth form, with the two Centaurs who are 
bearing them away, a separate and distinct group. Other Centaurs 
are bearing away other females :— some with their children in their 
arms are flying from the brutality of the Centaurs. This subject seems 
to finish with a group of females, one of whom is embracing the knees 
of a statue of Cybele, while the other, her arms extended to heaven, 
implores protection. One of the Centaurs, tearing the drapery from 
the kneeling female, is at the same time attacked by one of the heroes, 
while two divinities, guiding a car drawn by stags, arrive te their 

The other composition describing the combat of the Amazons, offers 
groups equally varied : some on horseback, some on foot ; the dying 
supported by their companions ; others bearing away the wounded or 
slain. One, who appears to be the Queen, is in the act of raising her 
arm to destroy a youth already subdued, before her, while another 
implores his life. Some of the horses are in the most spirited action, 
and others are overcome. Among the heroes is Theseus, with his club 
and lion's skin ; the Amazons are combating the heroes, who are pro- 
tected by large circular shields, <&c. &c. 

The parts of the frieze, consisting of twenty-three pieces, were 
found indiscriminately mixed on the pavement ot the Temple. Most 
of the fragments have been found. The relief of the figures 

214 Literary Intelligence. 

is in general very high. The heads, arras, and legs of several 
of the figures are entirely detached from the back ground. In 
addition to these principal objects, there have been found within 
the Temple and about it several points of iron lances, some 
ornaments of bronze and of silver, a little vase of brouze, . a small 
statue of Apollo, clumsily executed in the Egyptian style, and in ad- 
dition to these, a small armour for the leg, of copper, exactly the 
form which we see represented on Etruscan vases. This was without 
doubt an Ex-voto, for the God bore here the name of Apollo Epccn- 
reus ; the Temple having been erected to him on this solitary moun* 
tain, by the Phegalians, for having succoured them in a plague, which, 
as it appears, ravaged Arcadia at the same time as Athens at the 
epocha of the Peloponnesian war. 

The ruins of the city of Phegalia (still considerable) are at four 
miles' distance from the temple, to the west, on the right of the bor- 
ders of the Neda. The village of Paolizza occupies but a small part 
of the site of Phegalia : at four hours' journey from thence the Neda 
falls into the sea; The temple is built north and south, and com* 
mands a splendid view, if ere are remaining thirty-six of the thirty- 
eight columns of the temple, which formed the peristyle, they are 
Doric, 19 j high ; six in the front, and fifteen on each side, of a beau* 
tiful grey stone of the country, as is the rest of the edifice, except a 
part of the cieling and the capitals, which are of marble. One of the 
singularities of tins temple is, that it had triglyphs, and six sculptured 
metopes on each side over the antes, and the two columns of the pro- 
naos, and of the opistbodomus. The fragments which have been 
found of these metopes are of finished workmanship, but much in- 
jured by time. The subjects consist of dancing figures, in very rich 
and beautiful flowing draperies, a Silenus, &c. ; among those who 
are playing on the lyre, is a figure supposed to be an Apollo Musage- 
tes. The pediment at each extremity was surmounted by a beautiful 
fleuron, in a , quarter of a circle, in marble ; and, corresponding 
therewith, along the sides of the roof over the fifteen lateral columns, 
the ends of tiles were enriched in like manner with neurons;-— 
answering to these were others of the ridge of the roof, which were 
all of marble, as well as the tiles themselves- ;. the latter are two feet 
broad, and the first or lower range not lesb than three feet nine inches 
long. The particularities, and other curious details of this building, 
will give additioual information ou the architecture of the ancients. 

Reliquije Sacrje ; site, Auctorum fere jam perditorum Secundi 
TettHque Steculi Fragmenta, qtue super sunt. Ad Codices MSS* re- 
censuit, notisque illustravit, Martinus Josephits Routh, S. T. P. 
Collegii S. Magd. Oxon. Praises. Vol. III. 

We have noticed the appearance of the two first volumes ; and we 
congratulate our Classical and Biblical readers on the continuation of 
this treasure of the venerable remains of some of the fathers of the 
Christian Church. The Editor, who is no less distinguished for patri- 
archal simplicity and piety, than for deep learning and accurate judg- 
ment, thus begins the introduction to this volume : 

Literary Intelligence. 215 

" Cum vita hominum tarn caduca et brevis sit, lit omnia humana 
jute habeanturincerta, hoc Tertium Vol u men ante Quartum et ultimum 
edere mihi visum est, ne forte orba denium pars opens prodiret, qua* 
ceteras e naufragio isto, ut ita dicam, tabulas, exceptis Latinis quibus- 
dam Concilib et Tractatibus, suo ainbitu contineret." 

fne subjects of this volume are : S. Cornelius, Concilia Carthagini- 
ensia, Dionysius Romanus, Pierius, Theognostus, S. Victorinus, S. Pam- 
pfailus Martyr, S. Lucianus Martyr, Hymuus Vespertinus, Theonas, 
S. Petrus Alexandrinus, S. Phileas, Concilii Ancyrani Canones, Concilii 
Neocsesariensis Canones. 

We are always pleased when we see men eminent for profound learn- 
ing and intellectual endowments bestowing on each other a commen- 
dation, which is mutually honorable and beneficial. We are therefore 
delighted with these expressions at the conclusion of the Notes, 
" Magni ingenii vir, et ex eleganti doctrina splendidaque oratione 
clams, meus fautor atque amicus/' applied to Dr. Parr, whom to 
know as a man and as a scholar, is to admire. 

A Letter to the tionorable and Right Reverend the Lord Bishop 
cf Durham, on the Origin of the Pelasgi, and on the original Name 
and Pronunciation of the Molic Digamma : in Answer to Professor 
Marsh's Hone Pelasgicte. By the Bishop of St. David's. Car- 
marthen, 1815. 8yo. pp. 42. pr. 2s. 

In our last Number we inserted a Notice of Professor Marsh's 
Home Pelasgicce, and in our next Number we shall lay before ouf 
readers some extracts from the revered Bishop of St. David's Publication. 
In the mean time it may not be without its use to cite the opinion of 
Mr. Jones, who in his Latin Grammar ', p. 86. writes thus : 

" In the oriental languages, gutturals abounded, which, like other 
consonants, contained in themselves the vowel necessary to their pro* 
nunciation. But it is the tendency of every guttural, when become 
habitual, to soften down in the rapidity of utterance into a mere aspi- 
rate, till it at length vanishes. Thus cornu has degenerated into horn, 
and xwjlos into humvs, earth ; and into homo, a creature of earth, 
man. So iu the Greek, the oriental khaan, a king, became ava<r<r<t>, 
to reign, which Homer pronounced (pavaaaoj. 

"This leads me to remark, that the aspirate, instead of vanishing, was 
changed into a labial letter, w, v, b,f, or <f> ; and this substitution of a 
labial for the guttural or an aspirate, is the origin of the much disputed 
digamma. This digamma prevailed in the age of Homer, when the 
language was chiefly oral. But his poems, as being written, preserved 
the guttural or aspirate, the true original character; which, being 
studied, caused the aspirate to prevail in time over the digamma ; and 
thus it restored the language to its primitive purity. But the Latin 
having flowed from the Greek at an early age, when the caprice of 
oral sounds spread uncontrolled by written letters, and having no 
monument of genius like the Iliad and Odyssey to correct that caprice 
as was the case in Greece, adopted the digamma, and thus separated 
by a broad line of distinction from the parent tongue. 

" It is necessary to illustrate this position by a few examples* The di- 
gamma, for the aspirate, takes place in the beginning of words ; u 

216 Literary Intelligence. 

icnrepa, vespera, evening ; oikos, a house, vicus, a village,/?***, a hearth; 
and foveo, to nourish ; oivos, vinum, vine; priyta, or payu, frango; 
yXutpos, green, fioreo ; kcrrta, Vesta ; is, vis> force ; Ives, vetue, veins ) 
€tb<i), video, or viso ; voco, voveo. 

"It also takes place in the middle of words; toop, an egg, ovum; 
auav, avum, an age ; ots, a sheep, ovis ; apovpa, arvum ; /fyw*, 
ferveo ; wokevw, volvo ; wow, bibo ; ft tow, vivo. Latin words on 
this principle may be traced beyond the Greek to the . Asiatic 
tongues. Thus in Arabic, hareeph, from the triliteral *pTJ, kurph, 
means lettered, skilful, crafty, and gave birth to the Latin verbum, vafer, 
faber. The same Arabic word also means the extremity, or any pro- 
minent part of the body, as the middle finger, or naturaviri; and 
hence verpa and verpus. The Hebrew rDtl, huco, to strike, cut, pro- 
duced ico, icere, to strike ; vinco, to conquer ; and acuo, to sharpen, 
t. e. to make a thing fit for cutting ; hence also acus, a needle, from its 
sharp point ; o£vs, keen ; acetum, vinegar, as being sharp to the taste. 

"For the digamma or labial, the Latin tongue has adopted the letter 
8 in many of 'those words which have an aspirate in the Greek ; as, 
virep, super ; vwo, sub ; virepfiios, superbus, proud ; vs, sus, a sow ; 
et/xt, sum ; h\s, sal, salt ; aXKojxat, salio ; eprnj, serpo ; e$to, sedeo : 
oleo, soleo ; v\ri, sylva ; afirj, a hook, sumo ; uv, sui ; eknos, sulcus, a 

"This analogy led to prefix sto a consonant : ypa<j>at, scribo ; Ttrepyti, 
a heel, sperno ; yXwfuo, scalpo, or sculpo." 

We hope that some of our readers will shortly favor us with their 
ideas on this interesting, but perplexing subject of the JEolic Digamma. 

The following classical works have lately been imported into this 
country : 

jEschinis Opera Gr. cura Schaefcr, 18mo. sewed, 3s. Lips. 1813. 

TEschinis et Demosthenis Oratoris Opera ad optim. libr. fidem ac- 
curate edita, 18mo. sewed. 3s. Lips. 1814. 

Ciceronis Opera ad optim. libr. fidemaccur. edit. vol. 1 — 3. ISnio. 
sewed. 8*. Lips. 1815. 

Ciceronis Oratioues onines e recens. J. A. Ernest i, 3 vols. 8vo. 
sewed, lQs. Hake, 181^. 

Demosthenis Opera, cura Schaefer, 5 vols. 18mo. sewed, 1 5s. 
Lips. 1812. 

Eutropii Breviarium Historian Romana?, cura Tzschucke, 8vo. 
sewed, 14s. Lips. 1814. 

Ovidii Nasonis qua? supersunt, ad opt. libror. fidem accurate edit. 
1 vol. 18mo. sewed, 4s. Lips. 1815. 

Ovidii Fastorum Libri sex ; curavit et variautes Lectiones adjecit 
Matthiae, 8vo. sewed, 6s. Franck. 1813. 

Index Rerum et Verb, in Ovidii Fastis occurrentium ad Edit. Gierigii 
accommod. 8vo. sewed, 13s. 6d. Lips. 1814. 

Pbaedri Fabulae cum Notis Bentleii, edit. Bothe, 8vo. sewed, 3s* 
Lips. 1803. 

Pindari Carmina et Fragmenta, Gr. cura Bcckii, 2 vols, $vo, sewed, 
18*. Lips* 1795—1810. 

Literary Intelligence. 217 

Platonift Opera, e recens. H. Stephani, adjectis Scholiis et Not. 
iriticis, edidit C. D. Beck, Vol 1 — 2. 18mo. sewed, 8*. Lips. 1815. 

Plutarchi Vitae Parallels, Gr. cura Schaefer, 12 vol. ISmo. sewed, 
ll \6s. Lips. 1812—16, 

Plutarchi Vitae Timoleontis, Gracchorum et Bruti, cura Fabricif, 
8vo. sewed, 4*. Lips. 1812. 

Socratis et Socraticorum, Pythagorae et Pythagoraeorum quae ferua- 
tur Epistolfe, Gr. edidit J. C. Orellius, 8vo. sewed, 14*. 6d. Lips. 1815. 

Zosimi Paoopolitani de Zythorum Confectione Fragra. &c. eurft 
Griiner. 8vo. sewed, 3*. Solisb. 1814. 

Benedicti Commentarii Critici in octo Thucvdidis Libros, 8vo. fine 
paper, sewed, 7s. 6d. Lips. 1815. 

Collectio Epistolarum Gnecarum, Gr. et Lat. recensuit Not. prior, 
idterp. suisque illust. J. C. Orellius, 8vo. vol. 1, fine paper, sewed, 
18*. Lips. 1815. 

Fried richii Symbolae philologico-criticse et Lectionis varietatem con- 
tinentes ad Interpretationem Psalmi Centesimi decimi, 4to. sewed, 4t. 
Lips. 1814. 

Hoffmanni Genera Plantarum umbelliferarum earumque Cbaracteres 
naturales seu num. fig. &c. &c. 8vo. plates, sewed, 15*. Lips. 

Selectae e' profanis Scriptoribus Historian, cura Schaefer, 8vo. 
sewed, 4*. Lips. 1813. 

Thorlacii Prolusiones et Opuscula Academica Argumenti maxirae 
pbilologici, 3 vols. 8vo. sewed, ll. Is. Havniae, 1800— -1815. 


The first volume of a work intitled, The Doctrines of the Trinity 
and Incarnation considered and maintained on the Principles of 
Judaism, by the Rev. J. Ox lee of Stonegrave, is on the point of 
being published. This volume, which contains the whole of what re- 
fers to the Trinity, is confidently asserted by the author to afford, in 
favor of that most important article of the Christian Faith, more au- 
thentic arguments, together with a greater variety of Targumic, Tal- 
mudic, Cabbalistic, and Rabbinical testimony, in the original, and at 
the first hand, than is any where to be met with, eveii in the learned 

The Connexion between the Sacred Writings and the Literature of 
Jewish and Heathen Authors, particularly that of the Classical Ages, 
illustrated. By Robert Gray, D.D. Prebendary of Durham and of 
Chichester, Rector of Bishop Wearmouth, and Author of the Key to 
the Old Testament, &c. 

Curious and Unique Ancient Manuscript. — The Literati are likely 
to be highly interested with an original, ancient, and complete manu- 
script of the Pentateuch, now in the possession of Mr. Joseph Sams, of 
Durlington, Durham. — This original copy is of leather; it is in two 


218 Literary Intelligence. 

rolumes, about two feet wide, and measures 6p feet long f it is sup- 
posed of ^oat-skin leather, and is roost excellently dressed, so as t* 
have an exquisite softness to the. touch. Each sheet of skin is divided 
into pages, five inches and a half in width. The letters are very large, 
and not only most excellently written, but ornamented with a number 
of Tag'm or Coronae, which is a tiling peculiar to the most ancient 
manuscripts. Each sheet of leather is stitched very neatly to the others 
with a kind of substance, in appearance not unlike cat-gut. — The an- 
tiquity of this manuscript may be inferied by its beiug written on 
leather, a circumstance which would hardly have taken place after the 
invention of vellum was made. It was recently procured from the 
Continent under the most interesting circumstances. It is believed to 
be from 14* to 1500 years old; and in any case is the oldest copy of 
the law extant. There is reason to believe it has been above 800 
years in one Jewish family, on the Continent. It is well known to 
what degree the Jews venerate their sacred books, and with what care 
tljey preserve them; it will, therefore, be easily believed, .that nothing 
but the most afflicting and imperious circumstances could induce a 
family, loving their law, to pari with a treasure so precious. — During 
the calamities which followed the train of Bonaparte's wars, a Jewish 
family of opulence was reduced to ntter ruin, and compelled to emi- 
grate. They came to Holland in their exile, and were there so re- 
duced as to te obliged to pledge, as their last remaining resource, 
this manuscript of their law, under a limitation of a considerable time 
for its redemption. The time expired, the pledge was not redeemed, 
and the property was sold in Holland by the persou who lent his money 
on it. This valuable and antique performance is now likely to become 
a public benefit. — It has been preserved with the greatest care, in a 
lick cover, fringed with a fine silk and lined. The rollers on which 
the manuscript runs, are beautiful mahogany or iron-wood. It has 
been seen by a number of Hebrew scholars and Jews ; the former 
always expressing a literary enthusiasm, and the latter treating it with 
the most solemn reverence. It has been collated by a very learned 
man, and its readings preferred to the most ancient copies we have, 
so that this may justly be thought to be an unique, as well as the . 
most ancient copy of the five books of Moses in existence. 

The Veracity of the Evangelists Demonstrated, by a comparative 
view of their histories. Dedicated, by permission, to the Bishop of 
Durham. By the Rev. Robert Nares, A.M. F.R.S. &c. In 1 2 wo. 
Price 8s. 

Mr. Sumner's Treatise on the Being and Attributes of God, -to 
which the premium of four hundred pounds was lately adjudged at 
Aberdeen, in two octavo volumes. 

The Origin of Pagan Idolatry, ascertained from Historical 
Testimony and Circumstantial Evidence. By George Stanley 
Faber, B.I). Rector of Long Newton. Vols. 4to. With three Plates 
and a Map. Price £6. 1 o. 

Note* to Correspondents. 219 

We do not know whether to class Mr. Faher's work among CTra- 
mcalf Biblical, or Oriental publications, as it comprehends each of 
those distinctions. We shall however take a future opportunity of 
calling the attention of our Readers to so important a work. 

Germany. Editions of the Bible.— From the year 1455 to 1487, 
there were printed twenty-two different editions of the Bible in Latin ; 
and from 1462 to 1490, thirteen editions in the German Language. 
Soon after these dates, the sacred volume was freely and abundantly 
dispersed among most nations of Europe. 

Baron Charles Hildebrand of Canstein, caused to be cast in 1712, 
such a number of types, that all the pages of the Bible might be kept 
set up, in composition, at the same time, for a permanency. Hit 
Biblical Establishment, formed in the Orphan-house, at Halle, in 
Saxony, produced in the space of ten years, one hundred and twenty" 
five thousand copies of the Bible ; an<! one hundred and thirty-thou- 
sand copies of the % New Testament. According to an exact calculation 
made at Halle, published in 1812, there had been vended in the space 
of one hundred years, one million nine hundred and forty -three thou- 
sand and sixty-two complete copies of the Bible ; also a proportionate 
number of copies of the New Testament, some wilh, others without, 
the Psalter. This establishment was the first of the kind, and to this 
the Baron devoted his whole fortune. His forms of letter kept con 
ttantly standing could not properly be called stereotype; but they 
certainly answered the purpose of this later invention, and were de- 
rived from the same idea. 


The Answer to Dr. Crombie's Remarks on the Notice of his Gym- 
nasium will appear in our next. 

E. H. Barkeri Epistola Sec. ad G. II. Schaeferum, came too late for 
insertion ; it will be given in No. xxvi. 

H. E. on English Sapphics, in our next. 

The article on Epitaphs has been received* 

We thank M. D. D. for the loan of Libellus De Gnecis N. T. Ac- 
centibus a G. Pasore, which we shall not neglect. 

Having inserted Tittmann's Charges against Wytteubach, we shall 
take an early opportunity of laying before our readers some extracts 
from the Defence of Wytteubach, prefixed to Creuzer's Edition of 
Plotinus de Pulckritudine. 

We shall record in an early No. the Fables, lately discovered by 
Angclus Mains, at Milan, and supposed to be written by Phwdrus. 

$20 Notes to Cortespondcnti. 

Our correspondent, D. G. W., shall be early noticed* 

The translation of the Odes of Casimir possesses spirit and elegance, 
bat is not admissible into our plan. 

We thank our anonymous correspondent for his Observation on the 
name of Etienne. We must follow the usual mode of Anglicising it.— 
To his objection to the word vestro, we can only oppose the passage 
in Ovid. Epist. Her. Leand. v. 62. in which the sense clearly demands 
vestra as applied to Leander. — His play upon Latin words is carried 
rather too far. 

Anxious as we are to show our regard and our gratitude to those 
who by their contributions enable us to gratify the public, we are not 
forgetful of their kindness and of their merit when they are no more. 
With these feelings, we wish to show our respect for the memory of 
the late learned and excellent Dean of Westminster. We shall there- 
fore in our next No. endeavour, as far as we are able, to do justice to 
bis character by an account of his life, of his writings, of his public 
services, and of his private virtues. t 

We shall insert W. de B.'s observations on an article in our last No. 
If he will look at a note of ours, he may form some judgment of our 
opinion on the subject. 

The Skripu Inscriptions will have an early insertion. 

Several articles have been received, but came too late for insertion. 

ENI> of no, xxv. 




N°. XXVI. s; ^ -•,..,«•,. 

JULY, 1816. 






To the Editor of the Classical Journal. 

We are fully agreed in the opinion, that some account of the htm 
excellent Dean of Westminster will justly be expected in the Clas- 
sical Journal, for which his pen was so often and so ably employed. 
Nor could any one be more willing to supply it than I am, who so 
long enjoyed the happiness of his friendship, did I not anxiously 
feel the difficulty of satisfying myself in the account. Were I to 
indulge my feelings, I might seem to deviate into panegyric, a style 
entirely repugnant to his character, who was of all men the least 
ostentatious. Yet to deny him his due praise -would be the part nei- 
ther of a true friend nor of a just biographer. My endeavour then 
shall be to draw up such a narrative as he could not in reason dis- 
approve ; aspiring above all otter merits, to that of giving a lively 
and faithful delineation of the man. His plain and simple honesty, 
in all things that regarded himself, will be the safest guide for the 
historian of his life. 

William Vincent, who died Dean of Westminster, and Rector of 
Islip, Oxon, was born in London, Nov. 3. 1739- His father was 
a citizen of London, in a respectable mercantile line, first as a 
packer, and afterwards as a Portugal merchant : in which line lie 
was prosperous and opulent, till he was ruined by the failures con* 
sequent upon the great earthquake at Lisbon, in 1 755. He lost also k 
his second son in that terrible catastrophe. He was for twenty-seven 


222 Life of Dr. Vincent. ' 

years Deputy of Lime Street Ward, London. His eldest son, Oik*, 
continued the business of a packer, and prospered in it ; and by 
him William was assisted in his expenses at college^ Of die 
family, and -its connexions with the Gresieys in Leicestershire, an 
authentic account may be found in Nichols's valuable History of 
that County, * ft nd in his Literary Anecdotes-, vol. ix. p. 126. 1 shall 
confine myself to the personal history of the Dean. 

His fccAiool education, excepting a mere infantine initiation at 
/Cavendish in Suffolk, was received entirely at Westminster : and 
so true a Westminster was he ; that from seven years old, or little 
more, to the day of his death, he was never unconnected with that 
seminary, nor long personally absent from its precincts, except for 
the five years in which he was pursuing his academical studies. 
Passing through every gradation in the school, and collegiate foun- 
dation, he was thence elected Scholar of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1757* At the regular period, he took his first degree 
in arts, and was chosen a fellow of his college ; soon after which 
(1762) he returned to Westminster, as usher, or assistant in the 
School. In *bat capacity, he proceeded from the lowest to the 
highest situation, so justly approved, in all respects, by the patrons 
of the school, that, on the resignation of Dr. Lloyd, the veteran 
second master, he was appointed to that office. In the same year, 
he was nominated one of the chaplains in ordinary to his Majesty. 

The place of second master, at Westminster School, is a situation 
of much labor and responsibility. Besides the daily business of the 
school, which, if not arduous, is at least fatiguing, the person who 
holds that office has the whole care and superintendence of the 
scholars on the foundation, when out of school ; that is, of forty 
boys, rapidly growing up into men, and yearly drafted off, by elec- 
tions of from eight to ten, to the two Universities. Yet in this 
much occupied situation it was, that Vincent was prosecuting those 
studies, which gradually established his reputation at home, as a 
scholar, and a man of research ; and finally extended his celebrity 
over the whole continent of Europe. So little are impediments 
regarded by a mind intent upon improvement. 

Yet Vincent studied under a natural disadvantage, which to a 
less ardent and persevering spirit would have served as an excuse 
for idleness. From an early period of life, he was subject to a 
weakness of the 'eyes, attended with pain and inflammation, which 
never suffered him to read or write with impunity by artificial 
light. These attacks were so severe, that, to avoid yet more for- 
midable consequences, he found himself compelled altogether to 
relinquish evening studies. But zeal can always find resources. 
A» he could not read at night, he formed the habit of rising very 
early. Before the hours of school, in the intervals between morning 
and evening attendance, and after both, when the length of the days 

Life of Dr. Vincent. 223 

? Emitted, he was generally to be found employed in bis study, 
or exercise he made no allowance ; and generally had no more 
than could be gained in walking to and from the school ; or before 
the form, which he attended, like a captain on his quarter-deck. 
That he suffered occasionally in his health from this system, and 
probably owed to it the attacks of the gout, which otherwise he 
never deserved, can scarcely be a matter of doubt. But his con- 
stitution was robust ; and of a man who completed seventy-six years, 
we can hardly say that his days were shortened by his habits of life, 
of whatever kind they might be. 

He had three principal objects of pursuit : theology, classical 
learning, and history in all its branches. To the two first he was 
indeed drawn by duty ; but he was no less impelled by inclination, 
supported by a persevering determination to excel in whatever he 
undertook. Historical research was his peculiar delight, his chief 
and most cherished recreation. Geography, navigation, commerce,- 
and even the military art of different ages, as illustrating the history 
of men, and connecting the memorials of remote periods, were the 
favored objects of his enquiry. Every thing, in a word, which 
could tend to form and to complete a rational and profound know- 
ledge of human nature, under all varieties of place and time, was 
ture to stimulate his active but well-regulated curiosity. To these 
dispositions, perseveringly indulged, at all opportunities, favorable 
or unfavorable, we owe his various works ; particularly those on 
tancient commerce and navigation, on which his reputation chiefly 
rests. Nor was his ardor ever abated. Even to the latest hours 
of life, the travels and researches of our countrymen in the East, 
successful beyond those of all other periods, engaged his eager 
attention ; by confirming or extending the knowledge he had gained 
Mrith scantier means. 

Yet Vincent seems to have had no thought of fame, till it 
came to him, as the natural reward of his exertions. That flutter- 
ing desire of early reputation, which torments many less capable 
minds, and stimulates them to premature efforts, had no place in 
his disposition. His desire was to do, and to deserve well, in those 
pursuits and occupations, which are worthy of the good and wise ; 
and to gratify at the same time his own ardent thirst for knowledge, 
on all important subjects. From such studies, and such labors, 
if fame resulted as a consequence, he welcomed it, like other men ; 
but it never was his primary object. 

Hence it was, that, during the whole period of his being under- 
master, which was no less than seventeen years, he published 
nothing that was at all considerable. One small publication was 
a Letter to Dr. Watson, then Professor of Divinity, Cambridge, 
on the subject of a sermon preached by him, in 1780 ; a produc- 
tion neither then nor afterwards publicly avowed ; though far from 

&24 Life of Dr. Vincent. 

being unworthy of his principles or talents/ being a very clear and 
able argument against such theories as tend to overturn govern* 
ments, and against the spirit of opposition in those times. The 
other tract was entitled "Considerations on Parochial Music;* 
(1787) not written as pretending to any knowledge of the science, 
Or talent for it, which he had not ; but by way of improving its ra- 
tional and devotional effects in parish churches. He had then 
become a parish priest, and it was natural for him to attend to 
every thing relating to that office. 

. It was apparently on becoming second master of Westminster, 
that he thought himself authorised to marry ; and obtained the hand 
of Miss Hannah Wyatt of that city. This union proved uniformly 
happy ; and was productive of two sons ; the Rev. W. St. Andrew 
Vincent, now rector of All-hallows ; and George Giles Vincent, 
Esq. Chapter Clerk of Westminster ; who became his effectual com- 
forters, when their mother was at length taken from him, in 1807- 
But from his appointment in 1771, he remained without clerical 
preferment till 1778, when he obtained the vicarage of Longdon, 
in Worcestershire, by the gift of the Dean and Chapter of West- 
minster. This living he resigned in about six months,* on being 
collated, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, to the rectory of All- 
hallows the Great and Less, in Thames Street, London. 

No man could be better qualified than V. to enjoy and to pro- 
mote domestic happiness. Easy of access, friendly, social, without 
any of the reserve of a student, or any of the pride of wisdom, real- 
or assumed, he was always ready to take an active part in the inno- 
cent gratifications of society. With the learned, equally ready to en- 
quire and to communicate, but never ostentatious of knowledge; with 
the ignorant and even the weak, so very indulgent that they hardly 
suspected their inferiority ; certainly were never made to feel ft 
painfuHy. Never ashamed to ask for information, when he found 
he wanted it ; and most frankly ready to confess ignorance, if con- 
sulted upon any subject to which his mind had not been particu- 
larly applied. Never, perhaps, was " I know nothing of it,** so 
often said by one who knew so much. His entire contempt for 
every species of affectation produced these sometimes too sweeping 
declarations, in which he was hardly just to himself. 

1 The sermon was preached before the University, on a public fast. For a 
discourse delivered to the Archdeaconry of Ely in the same year, the Professor 
was more severely attacked in an Heroic Epistle, an Heroic Address in Prose, 
and an Epistolary Treatise, by the same author or authors who afterwards 
produced The Pursuits of Literature. The tracts are now curious and very 

* Yet in his tetter to Watson, printed in 1780, he speaks of himself as 
being settled in an obscure vicarage. This seems to imply spine error in 
the dates, which X am unable to detect. \- 

Life of Dr. Vincents 225 

It was perhaps eventually fortunate for him, as well as for his 
friends, that his hours of study were of necessity limited to the 
extent of day-light. Relaxation was thus forced upon him, but 
when it became necessary he never repined at it. He welcomed 
the hours of amusement, and made them welcome to his family 
and friends. His habits, therefore, continued social, to the very 
end of life ; and all that could be rationally and innocently enjoyed 
in society, he was always prepared to relish and promote. But 
neither his amusements nor his studies were ever suffered to inter* 


fere with his public or professional duties. In the church, in the 
school ; among his parishioners, or among his boys, he was always 
active and assiduous : fully prepared for the task of the day, whe-> 
ther to preach or teach ; to illustrate the classics, or expound 
the Scriptures. His mode of instructing the boys on the founda- 
tion at Westminster, is so admirably described by a well-informed 
writer, (Gent. Magaz. 1815. Suppl. p. 633.) that I cannot in this 
place do better than adopt his words. They are evidently the 
words of one who feels the importance as well as the truth of what 
he states. 

" The undeMnaster," he says, "has the care of the college ; and 
in his hands are the preservation of its discipline, the guardianship 
of its morals, and the charge of its religious instruction. With a 
steadiness and fidelity rarely equalled, Dr. V. discharged these diffi* 
cult functions ; but perhaps there never existed a man who rivalled 
Km in the art of attracting from boys attention to his lectures. Four 
times a year, each week* preparatory to receiving the sacrament, 
Dr. V. explained the nature of that religious rite ; its institution, 
its importance, and its benefits. And we believe, such was his 
happy mode of imparting instruction, that there never was known 
an instance of any boy treating the disquisition with levity, or not 
showing an eagerness to be present at, and to profit by, the lesson. 
A clear sonorous voice, a fluent, easy, yet correct delivery, an ex- 
pression at once familiar and impressive, rendered him a delightful 
speaker. These advantages he possessed in common conversation, 
but he displayed them more especially on public occasions, and 
never to greater advantage than in the pulpit.'' 

Never was an eulogium more just. Nor did these serious and 
habitual occupations of his mind preclude its more lively excur- 
sions. In all those instances, at Westminster of periodical occur- 
rence, when the talent of the masters are called forth, to give exam- 
pi^ and encouragement to the scholars,* the compositions of Vincent 
were sure to be distinguished. He had not indeed, nor did he 
flatter himself that he had, that strong and original determination 
• i .I ■ i ■ ■ —————■——■ ^^ 

1 And throughout the whole of the week. 

* In prologues and epilogues at the plays. Exercises and epigrams at the 
elections, &c. 

226 Mr. Bellamy's Answer 

to poetry, which is denominated genius ; but he possessed 
lively relish for its genuine beauties, which, assisted by a familia^^Mr 
and exact knowledge of the best models, will always qualify a stroi 
and versatile mind to think poetically, and to express its thoughts 
always with propriety, often with felicity. In many different- ^| 
styles Dr. V. proved his talent for Latin composition in verse 
prose ; and what he produced of any kind, it was not easy to snr- 

£ss. On these multifarious objects was his assiduity employe 
oughout the seventeen years in which he coutinued under-master. 




" Reasons why a New Translation of the Bible should not 
be published without a previous statement and examina- 
tion of all the material passages wldch may be supposed 
to be misinterpreted? 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of St. David's having circulated 
— " Reasons, why a new translation of the Bible should not be pub* 
lisbed without a previous statement and examination of all the mate- 
rial passages which may be supposed to be misinterpreted," — and this 
circular being intended to induce a delay of the publication of my 
new translation from the original Hebrew only, I wish to communi- 
cate to the public, through the medium of your Journal, a few obser- 
vations in reply. 

Every one, who has a sincere regard for the credit of the Bible, 
must see with regret the successful attempts which have been made in 
Europe, to propagate the principles of infidelity. This induced me, 
seventeen years since, to apply the knowledge I had obtained of the 
Hebrew to obviate, as fer as lay in my power, the objections of infi- 
dels* who have indeed but too much ground, from the erroneous pas- 
sages in the authorized versions, for advancing such objections : and 
I have ever since devoted the whole of my time to this important un- 

In the prospectus of the new translation! I have given fourteen pas* 

to the Bishhp of St. Davitfs. 


sages, which I have contrasted with the same passages in the vulgar , 
version, and among this number, his Lordship has only found one, 
which he attempts to show is not truly translated. As he has been 
silent respecting these thirteen important passages, it is an acknow- 
ledgment that they are correct. And if it be true that the Hebrew' 
does not hold forth God, as being the author of evil, Amo£. iii.6 — or 
that he deceived the prophet, Jer. xx. 7« or that he greatly deceived 
the people, and Jerusalem in saying, ye shall have peace, ch. 4. 10.— 
when it is expressly said, that it was the people who deceived themselves ! 
by declaring, in opposition to the divine communication by the prophet, 
that they should have peace ; — if it be, on the contrary, directly obvious, 
in the original Hebrew, that the moral character of the Divine Being can- 
not be called'in question ; as Infidels have shown, and continue to show,' 
must necessarily be, agreeably to the authorized version;— surely his 
Lordship should have done me the justice to acknowledge that I 
have so far succeeded in silencing every past or future objection to these 
passages, by a translation which clears the moral character of God 
from those imputations which wouM be disgraceful to man ; by a 
•translation, which will, it is hoped, be acknowledged to he true, by 
every Hebrew scholar, and be favorably received by every lover of the 
Bible. Before 1 enter on the grammatical construction of the Hebrew, 
I will state our views respecting the subject before us. 

The passage, which his Lordship defends, is 2 Kings, v. 18. / where, 
in the vulgar version, the verbs have been translated in the future tense. 
Naaman is understood to attempt to purchase an indulgence of the 
prophet, ver. 16. as was the custom among the idolaters in his coun- 
try ; and in the 1 8th verse, he is made to ask whether the Lord will 
pardon him, when he returns to the temple of Rimmon, and bows be- 
fore .4he idol with his master : to which the prophet is made to assent. 
Iumy translation of this passage, I have shown, that the verbs are in 
the preter tense, and that the Syrian general, being conscious that the 
Lord only was the true God, was determined to worship no other, 
ver. 15. and consequently, that the pardon, for which he was solici- 
tous, was the pardon for what he had done, not an indulgence, not a 
pardon for a crime before it was committed. 

For the satisfaction of the reader, I here subjoin the fourteen eon* 
trasted passages, as they stand in my prospectus : 

New Translation. 

In this thing, will Jehovah pardon- 
thy servant? When my lord came to 
the house of Kjmmon to worship there, 
then he leaned on my hand, and I my* 
self worshipped in the house of Rim- 
mon; since I myself worshipped in. 
the house of Rimmon. will Jehovah, 
I pray thee, pardon thy servant in this 
tiling? 1 

Present Translation. 

t Kings 18. In this thing the Lord 
pardon thy servant, that when my 
master cometh into the house of Rim- 
moo to worship there, and he Lear.eth 
on my hand, and I bow myself in the 
boose of Rimmon ; when I bow down 
myself in the house of Rimmon, the 
Lord pardon thy servant in this thing. 

1 This verse in the authorised version is so 
rendered as to convey an idea that Naainaa 
wished to compromise matters with the pro- 
phet—He would worship Jehovah, but solicits 

to be allowed afao to worship Rimmon with 
his master; and what is, if possible, more con- 
demuable, the prophet is made to assent-~f o sn 
peace. Can it eicite surprise that Deists, sej> 


Mr. Bellamy's Answer 


Amos. iii. 6. Shall a trumpet be 
blown in the city, and the people not 
be afraid? shall evil be in the city and 
the Lord hath not done it? 

Isaiah ix. S. Tnou hast multiplied 
the nation and not encreased the joy : 
they joy before thee according to the 
joy in harvest, and as men rejoice 
when they divide the spoil. 

- Prov. xvi. 4. The Lord hath made 
all things for himself, yea even the 
wicked for the day of evil. 

1 Sam. xix. 9. And the evil spirit 
from the Lord was upon Saul. 

• Isaiah vi. 10. Make the heart of 
this people fat, and make their ears, 
heavy, and shut their eyes : lest they see 
with their eyes, and hear with their 
ears, and understand with their hearts, 
and convert, and be healed. 

Gen. vi. 3. And the Lord said, my 
spirit shall not always strive with man, 
for that he also is flesh. 

Ver. 4. There were giants in the 
earth in those days, and also after that, 
when .the sons of God came in unto the 
daughters of men. 

Ver. 6. And it repented the Lord 
that he had made man on the earth, 
and it grieved him at his heart. 

1 Sam. xix. 24. And he stript off 
his clothes also, and prophesied before 
Samuel in like manner, and lay down 
naked all that day, and all that night. 

1 Sam. ii. 25. Notwithstanding they 
hearkened, aot unto the voice of their 
father, because the Lord would slay 

Gen. xx. 16. Behold he is to thee 
a covering of the eyes to all that are* 
with thee, and with all other; thus she 
was reproved. 

* Jer. iv. io. Then said I, ah Lord 
God, surely thou hast greatly deceived 
this people, and Jerusalem, saying, ye 
shall have peace ; whereas the sword 
reacheth unto the soul. 

' Ch. xx. 7. O Lord, thou hast de- 
ceived me, and I was deceived : thou 
art stronger than I, and hast prevailed. 

Shall a trumpet be blown in the city, 
and the people not be afraid? shall 
evil be in the city and Jehovah hath 
not requited it ? 

Thou hast multiplied the nation, hast 
thou not encreased the joy 2 they jo; 
before thee according to the joy\ in 
harvest, and as men rejoice when they 
divide the spoil. 

Jehovah hath ordained all to answer, 
him ; thus also the wicked for the day 
of wickedness* 

Now the spirit of Jehovah was dis- 
pleased with San I. 

Hie heart of this people became. 
gross, also his ears became heavy, be- 
cause his eyes turned aside ; lest be 
should see with his eyes, and hear with 
his ears, or his heart should understand" 
and return, and be healed. 

Then Jehovah said, my spirit shall 
not always strive with man, because oT* 
the transgressions of his flesh. 

The apostates were oh the earth in' 
those days, and also afterwards,' when 
the sons* of the great came unto, the 
daughters of men. 

Yet Jehovah was satisfied that he 
had made man ou the earth ; though he 
idolized himself at his heart. 

Then he took off his garment, and 
prophesied also the same, before the 
face of Samuel, but he supplicated art- 
fully, all that day and all that night. 

Notwithstanding they hearkened not 
unto the voice of their father, there- 
fore it pleased Jehovah to cause them 
to die. 

Behold he is to thee a covering of 
the eyes to all that are with thee, and 
with all ; thus she was justified. 

Then I said, ah ! Lord Jehovah, 
truly to desolation thou hast desolated 
this people, even to Jerusalem, for 
saying, peace shall be. among yon: 
but the sword reacheth to the soul. 

Thou hast persuaded me, O Jehovah, 
thus I was persuaded ; strengthen 
thou me, for thou hast prevailed. 

ing ou such translations, should turn their ar- 
tillery against the divine inspiration of the sa- 
cred Scriptures? But the original is very diffe- 
rent. In the authorised version, we have three 
verbs translated in the future tense, but which 
in the Hebrew are in the past tense — viz. K13 
boa, goeth, instead of came; which should have 
been rendered as in 2 Chron. zzvi. 8. — 1 Sam. 
xxv. 26, 27- where it is connected with the past 
time. U/itO Nishaan, is rendered Uaneth, in* 
stead of he leaned; and VPlrtrwm ve- 
hishtachaveeti, I boa myself, instead of J 
bowed, or I worshipped myself* The word 

K3 na, I pray thee, the most expressive in the 
verse, is omitted. The passage in the original 
is simple and highly interesting. The Syrian 
general, convinced that Jehovah only is God, 
says, he will henceforth worship no other; but 
his conscience charging him with his former 
wicked idolatry, he confesses his sin, and asks 
the prophet— WiU Jehovah, I PRAY THE*, 
pardon such wickedness as I have committed? 
Yea, says the prophet, go in peace- Intimating 
that God can and will pardon repenting sin- 

*■ to the Bhhop of St. David's. 3«9 

. . His Lordship says, p. 8. of bis circular, " As to the first instance, 
there is no example in the Bible of 2?Q (in the simple form as it is re- 
presented in the note) in the sense of camt." 

. A reference to the following passages will show that the word SfQ, 
in its simple form, occurs " in the sense of came." See Gen. xxxix. l6L 
$he laid up his garment until his Lord J02 came. — ch. xliii. 25. And 
they made ready the present against Joseph jtf^Q cams. — 1 Sam. ix» 15« 
Now the Lord had told Samuel in his ear, a day before Saul tf)2 CAME. 
— Ezek. xxxiii. 22. Now the hand of the Lord was upon me in the even- 
ing* afore he that was escaped tf)2 came. 

Thus we find, that his Lordship is not strictly accurate in saying " there 
is no example in the Bible of ^3 (i" the simple form as it is repre- 
sented iu the note) in the sense of came." Whilst I yield to no man 
in a deep sense of respect for his Lordship's learning, genius and pub- 
lic and private merit, I am bound to be thus explicit, because he has 
said, without qualifying his assertion, " The new translator is mistaken 
in the grounds of his objection to the authorized version of this verse/' 
It will perhaps appear to every learned and intelligent man, as well as 
to himself on further consideration, that, the new translator is not 
mistaken/' but that he is supported by some of the first Hebrew 
scholars, that ever Europe produced, the learned Bochart, Lightfoot, 
Calmet, Dr. Roberts, Provost of Eton College, and others, who trans- 
late these verbs in the preter tense. 

I will now, for the sake of giving his Lordship every advantage, take 
this word N122> agreeably to his admission, Gen. xv. 12. when the 
sun was M"Q/ going down — Jud. v. 28. why is his chariot so long 
K*D^ ttt coming — 1 Sam. xxiii. 7. ffl^b by entering — MaL iv. 5. fcfli 
the coming — Now according to his admission, the compound word 
M22 mav ^fer to the past sense. But taking it in that sense, the 
passage will even then read agreeably to the translation 1 have given, 
viz. With my Lord coming to the house of Rimmon, to worship 
there, then he leaned on my hand. 

If his Lordship thinks that the translators had any authority (taking 
into consideration, the idioms of the Hebrew and English languages) 
for thus translating ^sh in the future tense, I refer him to the fol- 
lowing passages, where he will find, that they have been impelled to 
translate it in the preter, I Sam. vii. 3. So the Philistines were sub* 
dued, and W& they came nomore—2 Sam. xv. 2. And when any 
man that had a controversy tf)2b came to the king, ch. xix. 3. And 
the people, N*Q^ G * T Ihem by stealth into the city — I Sam. iv. 5. And 
when the ark of the covenant of the Lord, Np^> came into the camp, 
ch. v. 10. And it came to pass as the ark of God came to Ekron. 

Now his Lordship may take which side of the question he pleases ; 
he says* it is " applicable both to the future and the past." Very well ; 
if the word be " applicable to the future and the past," it was cer- 
tainly incumbent on his lordship, to have stated, by what rule of gram-* 
mar we are to apply it to both tenses. But it makes no difference 
here whether we translate the word fcft^S by the preter, or the infini- 
tive, as to the sense of the following verbs in the verse. 

His Lordship observes, " The future tense, which is here objected to, 
js expressed, not only in the vulgar Version, but in the Serjtua^int* 

230 Mr. Bellamy's Answer 

Vulgate, Syriac, and Arabic/' He might have said that it is also ex- 
pressed in all the European translations : but certainly not any one of* 
these translations is to be preferred to the Hebrew. 

His Lordship takes it for granted, that the Greek Bible, which goes 
under the name of the Septuagint, to which he alludes, is the original 
Septuagint, which was translated in the time of Ptolemy Philadel- 
phus ; this is an error. It is a compilation from the translations of 
Aquila, Theodotion, and Symmachus, put together in the early ages 
of the first christian church, in which no one can distinguish the 
translation made in the time of Ptolemy, in consequence of the confu- 
sion introduced into it, after the time of Origen ; where we find read- 
ings altogether inconsistent with the Hebrew, as I have shown in the 
Classical Journal, No. 16. p. 374. and No. 18. p. 395. on the inte- 
grity of the Hebrew text. 

We know that the translations have been forced into the libraries 
and houses of all christian nations, by the terror of the inquisition, 
and the power of the sword : when no man dared to look at the beau- 
tiful form of truth, contained in the sacred Hebrew pages. The He* 
brew is the unpolluted fountain — the pure record of the will of God 
to man, who never deceived the people and Jerusalem, Jer. iv. 10. Who 
never deceived the prophet, ch. xx. 7- Who is not the author of svil, 
Amos. iii. 6. Who did not repent that he had made man on the earth, 
Gen. iii. 6. Who does not make the hearts of the people fat, their car* 
heavy, nor shut their eyes lest they should be converted, Isa. vi. 10 f 
And if the early translators were not critically acquainted with the 
Hebrew, as is very evident, and translated from the modern Septua- 
gint, all have erred by following this imperfect translation ; which has 
been shown by Bishop Usher, and other learned men, to be a modern 
translation, abounding with errors. 

His Lordship allows that, "The three verbs are indeed in the preter 
form !" but adds, " every reader of the Hebrew text knows, that the fu- 
ture time is commonly expressed by the preterite, (sometimes without 
the 1 conversive, but oftener with it) perhaps more commonly than 
by its own proper form. The last of the three preterites has the ) 
conversive prefixed to it, the second has it prefixed to its pronoun." 

The future tense expressed by the preterite ! " Without the *\ con- 
versive." Does then his Lordship suppose that the *) with shevah is 
conversive ? there is no such power in the vowel shevah, as to convert 
the preter to the future : nor does any person of competent skill in the 
language contend for it. If the future time be expressed by the pre- 
ter with 1 conversive ; why is the preter of verbs with this 1 conver- 
sive, as it is erroneously called, found in every page of the Bible, 
and yet they still are ia the preter tense? See Gen. xxx. 41. 
HVn 0W«? # came to pass— ch. xlvii. 22.— Exod.xxxiii. 7, 8,9,10- — Neb, 
xii, 39. — 1 Sam.ii. 15. — 2 Kings xiv. 14. — 1 Sam. xvi. 23. — Eccles. iv. 
4 — ch. viii. 17. — Ezek. xxxvii. 8.—- Dan. xii. 5. &c. &c. And on the con* 
trary : if 1 with Shevah had this converting power, where was the ne- 
cessity for the verb to be written in the future tense, when this same 
1 is prefixed? Gen. ix. 27. {JttH> and he shall dwell, — Jer. xiv. 10 — 
Hos. viii. 13. — 1 Kings xxii. 20.-— Eccles. xii. 4. Thus it evidently ap- 

to the Bishop of St. David's. 231 

pears that the 1 with Shevah prefixed to a verb, either in the preter, 
or the future form, has nothing to do with the tense ; and consequently 
1 with Shevah prefixed to the verb Ml^H/lt^m, the last of the three 
preterites, is not eonversive. 

His Lordship allows that the verbs are in the " preter form,'^ and 
«s such 1 translate them, after the example of the first Hebrew scholars. 
But if *' the future tense be often expressed by the preterite/' it re- 
mains for his Lordship to show, by what rule in the language the 1 
with, shevah acquires at one time a power to convert the preter sense 
to the future ; at another, why the preter sense remains ; and why 
there was a necessity for the verb to retain the future form, when the 
^ prefixed occurs with shevah; And lastly, to avoid a worse difficulty, 
as this would be inconsistent with all idioms, and the philology of all 
languages ; what dependence could be placed on a language, which, 
with the same construction, might be twisted to any meaning the trans- 
lator might choose to adopt, preter, present, or future. 

The last remark his Lordship makes on the verbs, is, " The second 
has it," (viz. the 1 with shevah) " prefixed to its pronoun ;" which he 
supposes to be eonversive. His Lordship is not content with supposing 
that \ with shevah, prefixed to a verb, converts it from the preter to 
the future tense ; but finding that ]$&}> '• e -he leaned, is removed from 
the % by the intermediate pronoun fcflpj, he rejects the obvious sense, 
die preter, and carries the supposed effect of this supposed convert- 
ing *), over the pronoun, to the verb, so that whether this \ he prefixed 
to a verb, or to a remote word in the clause, he concludes, that it 
converts the preter to the future sense ! 

For another proof that his Lordship is inaccurate in his conclusion 
that the 1 prefixed to a pronoun has any effect on the following verb, 
I refer to Gen. 3. Ifj. where the *) with shevah, prefixed to the pronoun, 
has no effect on the following verb ; for in that case, the sacred wri- 
ter would not have written the verb in the future form ^#Q> NVT1 
*^2 and he shall rule over thee. 

But the 1 with shevah, prefixed to a pronoun, cannot, even under 
the notion of that 1 being eonversive, convert the following verb in the 
preter, to the future tense ; as his Lordship supposes, by its being pre- 
fixed to the pronoun jtflH. See where the same word, tflil* and the 
1 with shevah prefixed, introduces the ver,b, and yet it is not converted 
into the future time, Gen. xxxviii. 14. ■£> ittfU K^ NTT)- an ^ s ^ 
was not given to him — ch. xxxiii. 3. ^ Nim> an d J* c lodged — ch. 
xxxiii. 3. •QJJ JOrn. a% d h* V *^* These are conclusive. But his 
Lordship may examine the following passages, so rendered in all the 
translations, and they will be found in agreement with my translation. 
Gen. xviii. 1. jvp WTTU an d he sat — ver. 8. TD^ NTH ond he stood, 
eh. xxxii. 32. y}% N)TX) 9 an d he halted — ph. xxv. 9fy KVT)> and he 
was Jaint—ch. xxiv. 6\ for he dwelt. 

The doctrine of ^ van with shevah depends on a branch of Hebrew 
learning, to which it does not appear that his Lordship has turned the 
attention of his sagacious mind. Thus we find that in many instances, 
the translators have been impelled to do justice to the original'; 
# If then, (says he) the subject of Naaman's petition require a 

932 Mr. Bellamy's Answer 

future rather than a past sense, if the idiom of the language admit it, 
and the interpretations of the most ancient versions, and even of the 
Jewish comments confirm it, it follows that the passage, as translated 
in our public version, expresses the true sense of the original/' If these 
hypotheses could be admitted, it might admit of controversy) but 
even the preter tense of the verbs would not be converted to the fu- 
ture. But the subject of Naaman's petition does not " require 
a future rather than a past sense." — Neither will " the idiom of the 
language admit of it/' And as to the " interpretation of the most an- 
cient versions, and even Jewish comments/' confirming that which is 
inconsistent with the grammar of the Hebrew language, that >Wl 
VTTN being rendered in the septuagint by, Iv tco elairopeveeOai rbv 
Kvpipv fjiov, and the Vulgate, quando ingredietur Dominus meus: it 
only shows, as I have stated in the Classical Journal, that the trans- 
lators have been guided by the Septuagint, and the Vulgate, 'with- 
out attending to the grammatical construction of the Hebrew ; which 
at once accounts for the same error in our authorised version* 
No interpretation of the most ancient versions, or Jewish com- 
ments, can confirm the translation in the authorized version 4 , such 
materials will never be admitted by critical Hebrew scholars, by way 
of confirmation. 

In page 9. his Lordship says, " The last objection which is made 
to the authorized version, is, ' that the word RD na, I pray thee, the 
most expressive in the verse, is omitted/ If JO (continues his Lord- 
ship,) be the most expressive word in the verse, the authors ef the 
public version must have been either very ignorant or very careless. 
But the new translator is certainly mistaken. The only word, which 
the Septuagint has to correspond with >0, is &), which cannot foe the 
most expressive word in the verse. It is altogether omitted in the 
Vulgate/' I do not wish to blame the translators, I believe they 
translated faithfully ; but it should be remembered that they trans- 
lated from the Septuagint, and the Vulgate ; for it is well known that 
there was not a critical Hebrew scholar among the whole forty-seven 
translators. Therefore, as far as the word " ignorant" will apply te- 
their deficiency in this primary branch of theological learning, it may 
be admitted. 

It appears, however, that the Septuagint have been more faithful 
than the compilers of the Vulgate ; the word by is a very proper word 
for N3, and which indeed, taken in connexion, makes it one of the 
most expressive words in the verse. Naaman had experienced the 
goodness of the God of Israel in his cure, and the Septuagint have 
very properly translated the word JO by £?), which has been omitted 
by the translators of the Vulgate : Naaman therefore wished to know 
whether the God of Israel would add one thing more, whether be 
would pardon his past idolatry : and with this conjunction, it reads, 
will Jehovah also .pardon thy servant in this thing. The rejection 
of N3 by the English translators shows that they attended more to 
the Vulgate than to the Septuagint. 

What ! " NJ redundant and without meaning," how then came the 
Septuagint to translate it by by ? Again, " in the text/' his Loidship 
observes, " it is distinguished by the Masoretic circle, and is accom- 

to the Bishop of St. D&ditfs. 233 

fmnied with this note in the margin, *Hp V&) 1\HD K3, that is, &2 is 
written, but not read.' So then 500 or 1000 years after the disper- 
sion of the Jews, we are to be told by a few Jews who knew no better, 
that u JO is written, but not read ;" why then did the sacred writer 
insert it ? and the Septuagint translate it ? 

But his Lordship says, "it is absent from two and forty of 
Dr. Kennicotf s MSS." Allowed — he ought to know that many 
of these MSS. were faulty copies, made by necessitous Jews for 
Christians, in the early ages, and were never countenanced by the 
synagogue copies. Dr. Kennicott, who wished to alter the Hebrew 
Bible where he could not translate it, might have easily encreased his 
stock of such MSS. 

Would it not have been fair if his Lordship had stated, that 
143 codices were collated throughout, and consequently that 101 pre- 
sent JO : 1^7 were partially collated, and of these none are marked 
as excluding l-O. Besides, is it surprising that common transcribers 
of modern copies should have used the freedom to exclude the 
word, when they found the Keri telling them that " K} is written, 
but not read V From this we also learn an important fact, that the 
translator of the Vulgate followed the Keki. But if the Kbri had 
been critical Hebraists, they would not have dared to reject any 
word written by the sacred penman. 

But, %t He [Naaman] entreats/' (says Jiis Lordship,) " that his 
apparent idolatry in his attendance on his master in the temple at' 
Khnmon might be pardoned." " Apparent idolatry" — what ! ask 
to be allowed to commit an act which should be apparently idol- 
atrous ! and the prophet grant him permission 1 Where is the diffe- 
rence between idolatry, and apparent idolatry ? No other construction 
can be put upon such conduct, but that of playing the hypocrite in 
the presence of his sovereigu to avoid giving offence : surely his 
Lord* hip would not have his readers to consider this as " no small 
sign of grace in Naaman/ 1 And how does tie propose to reconcile 
his wish to perform, " apparent idolatry," with his being " afraid even 
of the appearance of it in his future attendance on his master V' But in 
truth, there is not one word in the original to countenance that sense. 

Again p. 11. " He could at once renounce the service of Rinimon* 
but not so easily the service of an absolute sovereign." 
. ft is reasonable to conclude, that Naaman could more easily with- 
draw himself from the service of his master, than from the worship of 
Rimmon, in the land where this was the established worship. It ap- 
pears, however, that the state did not interfere, and that every one 
was permitted without molestation, toworship in his own way, any 
God ; and was even protected in his worship; as every sect is pro- 
tected and allowed to worship God in England. This appears from 
the narrative ; for the Syrian general solicits permission to take two 
mules' burden of earth from the land of Israel, to build an altar to 
Jehovah in -his own land. 

That he was at perfect liberty to withdraw himself from the service 
of bis master, appears also from another consideration. Had it not 
even Men in his power to relinquish the service of his master, 

234 Mr. Bellamy's Answer 

in his own land, yet he could have remained in the land of Israel, 
where the king of Syria had no authority. He was a man possessing 
great riches, he brought ten talents of silver, and six thousand pieces 
of gold with him, as a present to the prophet ; and therefore the 
emoluments arising from his office could have been no inducement 
for him to act the hypocrite. But when we consider that this- core 
was performed by the immediate power of God, to break in piece* 
the idols, and the idqlatry of Syria; that it had this effect on the 
general, and that if Naaman had returned to his land, making the 
same profession of idol worship, although he had experienced tins 
great cure by the power of God — iostead of the desirable effect of 
abolishing idolatry, such a proceeding on the part of Naaman, coon-* 
tenanced by the prophet, would more firmly have established the 
nation in the worship of the idol. 

But says his Lordship, " He by no means solicits to be allowed to 
worship Rimmon, even if the common punctuation of the passage be 
followed. But if the passage be expressed interrogatively, as in the 
Syriac and Arabic versions, instead of a petition for indulgence, it 
becomes an anxious enquiry for direction in duty." Is it possible to 
suppose that the prophet could direct a worshipper of the God of 
Israel, as a mark of his duty, to bow before the idol Rimmon? Ac- 
cording to the authorized version, it is an indulgence that Naaman is 
made to ask — an indulgence to commit sin— an 1 indulgence to break 
the command of God— an indulgence to do that, which the Hebrews 
were brought out of Egypt to destroy — an indulgence to render the 
intention of his miraculous cure of no effect, which was to break in 
pieces the idolatry of Syria — in short, an indulgence to insult the God 
of Israel, by showing that his prophet directed Naaman to bow be- 
fore the idol Rimmon ; and thus to favor the enemies of God. 

By the words go in peace no such excuse can be allowed, as Ins 
Lordship has put into the mouth of the prophet, viz. If in your atten- 
dance on your master at the house of Rimmon, you neither partake of 
the sacrifice, nor bow down to the idol, you will do welL But be 
should have recollected, that Naaman, according to the authorised 
version which he defends, solicits to bow down in the house of Rimmon 
with his master, and therefore his excuse for Naaman is foreign to the 
text. There is. a command, however, which none of us can forget, a 
command which was most strenuously preached and acted on by the 
prophet. This divine command did not allow the Hebrews even to 
appear before an idol, by way of countenancing idol worship, and thus 
to serve them. Exod. 20. thou shalt not bow down thyself 
To them, nor serve them* From which it is evident that the prophet 
could not even sanction his request to bow down before the idol at his 
return, without breaking the divine command. 

Such passages in the sacred pages are deserving of particular atten- 
tion, not merely on account of the use which has been made of them 
by open enemies of revelation, but also of the abuse of them by its 
professed friends. This verse has been quoted by casuists to prove, 
that persons acting under the controul of others are allowed to com- 
mit acts in themselves contrary to the express laws of God; which* 

to the Bishop of St. David's. 235 

to say in otbcr words, tbat we are bound to obey men rather than 
God ! In the time of Luther, a protestant prince of Saxony, who car- 
ried the sword before the Emperor at mass, was held guiltless, because 
it was supposed from the erroneous version, that the prophet allowed 
Naaraan to bow with his master in the temple of Rimmon, And Dr. 
Schmidt, to please the King of France, when he took Strasburgh, 
' argued from a corrupt translation of this passage, that a worshipper 
of the true God may be present at, and join in, idolatrous worship, 
when circumstances either of a civil or religious nature call for the 
unanimous voice of the nation. , 

" Reasons," says his Lordship, " why a new translation of the 
Bible should not be published without a previous statement and exa- 
mination of all the material passages supposed to be misinterpreted." 
Reasons are already published ; they have so often been given by 
learned and intelligent men, that there is no necessity for any thing 
•of this nature. 

I shall refer his Lordship to some of our learned writers, who were 
decidedly of opinion that a revision of the present translation was ab- 
solutely necessary ; not only on account of the great improvement in 
our language, which is now certainly the most expressive of all the 
European languages ; but because the translators have erred respect- 
ing things most essential. Those eminent men, who have left their 
testimony concerning the necessity of a new translation, have given a 
general opinion ; and I have produced proofs wliich will carry con-' 
vicrion to every man learned, impartial, or intelligent/ that they were 
correct in giving such an opinion* 

" Innumerable instances might be given of faulty translations of 
the Divine original." — " An accurate translation, proved and sup- 
ported by sacred criticism, would quash and silence most of the ob- 
jections of pert and prophane cavillers/' BlackwalVs Sac. Class, 
Pre/. 17 SI. — "Our last English version is undoubtedly capable of 
very great improvements." Waterlands Scripture Vindicated, part 
ill. p. 64. — " Nothing would more effectually conduce to this end, 
than the exhibiting of the Holy Scriptures themselves in a more ad- 
vantageous and just light, by an accurate revisal of our vulgar trans- 
lation/' Dr. LowWs Visitation Sermon at Durham, 1758.—" It 
.would still be acceptable to endeavour to give a more exact transla- 
tion of the Bible, than any that has hitherto appeared." An Essay 
for a New Translation of the Bible, 1727. — " It [the common version] 
has many considerable faults, and very much needs another review/' 
Biblioth. Lit. p. 72. 1723.—'* Tlie Old Testament has suffered much 
jnore than the New, in our translation." Doddridge's Pref to Family 
Expositor* — " Many of the inconsistencies, improprieties, and obscu- 
jrities, are occasioned by the translator's misunderstanding the true 
import of several Hebrew words and phrases, showing the benefit and 
"expediency of a more correct and intelligible translation of the Bible." 
Pilkington's Remarks, 1759- p. 77. — "The version now in use, in 
many places does not exhibit the sense of the text, so exactly as the 
version of 1759, and mistakes it besides, in an infinite number of iu- 
fttancer. Frequently it expresses not the proper subject of the scn- 



236 Mr. Bellamy's Answer 

tence. It arbitrarily gives new senses to words ; omits, or supplies 
them without necessity." Durtll's Crit. on Job, fyc. 1772. Pref.~ 
4€ That necessary work— a New Translation of the Holy Scriptures." 
Lowth's Prelim. Dissert, to Isaiah, p. lxix. — " Whoever examines 
our version in present use, with the least degree of attention, will find 
that it is ambiguous and incorrect, even in matters of the highest im- 
portance " Professor Symonds's Observations on the Expediency of 
revising the present Version, 1789. — " At this time a New Transla- 
tion is much wanted, and universally called for." Green's Preface to 
Poetical Parts of the Old Testament. — " Great improvements might 
now be made in translating the whole Bible, because the Hebrew and 
Oreek languages have been much cultivated, and far better under- 
stood, since the year l600. v Dr. Kennicotfs Remarks, fyc. 1787- 
p. 6. — " It [the present version] has mistaken the true sense of the 
Hebrew in not a few places. Is it nothing to deprive the people of 
that edification which they might have received, had a fair and just 
exposition been substituted for a false one I Do we not know the ad- 
vantages commonly taken by the enemies of revelation, of triumphing 
in objections plausibly raised against the Divine Word, upon the basis 
of an unsound text or wrong translation." Blayney's Prelim. Disc, to 
Jeremiah, 1784. 

Your limits will not allow me to quote more of those learned 
writers, who have had but one opinion on this subject : there are 
some among these, however, whose knowledge of the language his 
Lordship will not attempt to call in question. 

But he has himself given abundant " reasons" in the following, 
added as a note, p. 8. " In the nine verses preceding ver. 18. 2 Kings, 
the future tense is used two and twenty times for the past, and seven 
times in the sense of its own proper form. In the same verses the 
preterite is used * seven times for the future, twice for the present, and 
twice only in its own preterite sense, being much oftener used for the 
future than for the past.'* That is, his Lordship finds this number of 
differences between the Hebrew and our vulgar version ; and yet the 
English version is not to be improved, for fear of doing a disservice to 
religion ! 

There is another publication to which I will refer his Lordship, 
where he may find sufficient reasons for concluding that no other 
4( statement, or examination" is necessary, of all the passages which 
are misinterpreted ; I mean the present vulgar version, where he wiH 
find that the translators have erred in mood, tense, person, gender, in- 
finitive, imperative, participles, particles, &c. and verses in a bur. dance 
where nearly one half is comment and yet made a part of the text, of 
which I will give such proofs in my translation, as cannot be over- 
turned. And with regard to the propositions, there is not a single 
chapter, where there are! not abundant proofs of the first running into 
the second, the second into the third, <fcc. by which the meaning of 
the sacred writer, in many instances, cannot be known. A considera- 
tion of this nature, applicable to the writings of any admired profane 
author, would soon produce a new translation of his works ; but how 
much more important, when applied to that sacred volume which is 

io the Bishop of Si. David's. 237 

the common tight of every Christian — that sacred volume to which 
we are referred by him who spake as never man spake, who said, Search 
the scriptures, for in them ye think ye have eternal life, and they are 
they which testify of me — that sacred volume, containing in the ori- 
ginal the unadulterated record of the will of God, in which we all 
have the hope of eternal life ? Surely we ought to hear it speak agree- 
ably to its original dignity* elegant diction, correctness, and divine 
truth.' Surely, Sir, a consideration of this important nature will shoit 
"the absolute necessity of a new translation, more than if I were to 
write volumes on the subject. 

ft is true, as his Lordship observes, that a number of persons the 
most learned were chosen in the time of Elizabeth and James, to 
Correct the authorized version ; and it is also known that they were 
not Hebrew scholars ; but that they translated from the Septuagint 
and the Vulgate. It is also well known that we have at this day far 
more aMe scholars than were to be found in the time of James, and 
that the English language is greatly improved in the last 200 years. 

I agree with his Lordship, " that hardly any passage should be al- 
tered, that is not either contradictory to the original, or unintelligibly 
expressed in the translation." This is all I wish — this has been my 
arduous and daily labor for seventeen years. But these contradic- 
tions, interpolations, or unintelligible expressions, are to be found hi 
almost every page of the Bible. Hence that arch and ignorant infidel 
Voltaire took occasion to say, " it required twelve men to build up 
the Christian religion, but it only required one, (himself) to pull it 
down." His Lordship allows that there are passages in the author 
rized version, which appettr to contradict the meaning of the original, 
to obscure the sense by ambiguous, obsolete, or incongruous expres- 
sions. The very circumstance of these contradictory and unintelligible 
passages in the authorized version is a sufficient reason why the new 
translation should be published, without a previous communication. 

I beg, however, to differ from his Lordship, where he says, " The 
good proposed by Mr. Bellamy in his prospectus lately submitted to 
file public, viz. the refutations of the objections of Deists* would be 
more effectually answered by the notes to the Bible now printing by 
the Society fot promoting Christian Knowledge, than by a splendid, 
expensive, and voluminous translation of the Bible." I do not mean 
k to be more splendid than the Bible now printing, which his Lord- 
ship here recommends ; and, I trust no one will be alarmed at the 
word " expensive :" 1 hope its merits wiH recommend it to the public 
notice, as 1 do not mean to embellish it with engravings. I believe — 
taking into consideration the time employed in the new translation, 
and the notes, containing reasons, agreeably to the grammar of the 
language, for any alteration — that it will be cheaper than any Bible 
published in this century. 

His Lordship may be satisfied with Mr. D'Oyly's and Dr. Manfs col- 
lection of notes, sanctioned by the " Society for promoting Christian 
Knowledge ;" but it is impossible for him at present to know, as his Lord- 
ship says, that " the good proposed by Mr. Bellamy would be more effec- 


238 Mr. Bellamys Answer 

tually answered" by these notes, than by my translation — for the plainest 
reason : his Lordship has seen neither my translation, nor the notes 
with which' it will be accompanied. And notwithstanding the defe- 
rence due to his Lordship, when speaking of productions he has had 
an opportunity of comparing, it will not be conceded that he can 
form a judgment of that which he has not seen. The public in due 
time, however, will have an opportunity of deciding, as they may then 
compare. I must also add, that, in every direction where I nave 
had an opportunity of gaining information, the opinion of the un- 
biassed learned and the unlearned is, that the Bible now printing by 
the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, however ably and 
judiciously executed, is not eminently calculated to obviate " Deisti- 
cal objections ;" for the principal part of these notes were written 
before the writings of Voltaire, Volney, Bolingbroke, Paine, and othei 
moderns, were published ; and had they furnished such a refutation, 
these writers would not have been able to disturb the peace of every 
Christian community as they have done, by laying before the public 
the errors in the translation, as the genuine words of Scripture. 

His Lordship says, " much more good may be done by the notes .to 
the Bible now printing by the Society for promoting Christian Know- 
ledge/' But how is this to be reconciled with the following remark in 
the same page, " a new translation of the Bible is a work of no ordi* 
nary consequence, inasmuch as it may be productive of great service 
to religion, or great disservice." If much more good may be done by 
the circulation of the Bible which his Lordship so strenuously recom- 
mends, no " great service to religion" could possibly be expected 
. from a new translation : as the " much more good," which his Lord* 
ship says may be done by these comments, in such case, would com- 
prehend the " great service to religion ;" which yet he allows may be 
done by a judicious translation. 

His Loidship says, p. 13. " The preceding remarks are confined Jto 
the passage which Mr. Bellamy has chosen, as his pahnarian proof 
of the incorrectness of the authorized version." I am sorry that his 
Lordship has confined himself to this solitary passage ; offering only 
objections which have been made before by writers who were not 
critical Hebrew scholars, who have been guided by the modern Greek 
version and by the translations in the European languages. If his 
Lordship supports the authorized version, why has he not taken 
notice of the other passages in the prospectus? Why has he not 
shown in opposition to my translation of those passages ; that, if evil 
be in the city, the Lord hath done it, Amos, iii. 6. That he has mutti* 
plied the nation, and not encr eased the joy — when the next clause 
positively says, they joy before thee according to the joy, in harvest, 
and as men rejoice when they divide the spoil, Isa. ix. 3. That, the 
Lord hath made all things for himself, yea even the wicked for the day 
of evil, Prov. xvi. 4. That, he commanded the prophet to make (A* 
heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their 
eyes ; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and un- 
derstand with their hearts, and convert, and be healed, Isa. vi, 1<X 

t o the Bishop of St. David's. 239 

That, it repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth, and it 
grieved him at his heart, ver. 6. That, Saul prophesied naked all 
that day, and all that night, in like manner before Samuel, 1 Sam. 
six. 24. That, God polluted them in their own gifts, that he might 
make them desolate, to the end that they might know that he was the 
Lord, Ezek. xx. 26. And, that the prophet charged the God of all 
holiness with deception, saying, as it is said in the vulgar version, Ah 
Lard God, surely thou hast greatly deceived this people, and Jerusa- 
lem, saying, ye shall have peace ; whereas the sword reacheth unto the 
soul, Jer. iv. 10. And ch. xx. 7« O Lord, thou hast deceived me, 
and I was deceived. And many others, as inconsistent with the 
original Hebrew, as they are with the holiness, justice, and 
mercy of God. This is what his Lordship should have attempted, 
had he opposed the remaining translations in my prospectus. His 
silence respecting these important passages is an acknowledgment 
that in the vulgar version they are incorrect ; and for the cause of 
truth, the credit of the Bible, the honor of the Divine Giver of the 
sacred volume, and the prosperity of true and undefiled religion, it 
would have been just if he had acknowledged that I have been so 
far happy in silencing every objection to these passages in future. 
Should his Lordship, by finding fault with one passage, which I hope 
I may say without presumption that I have translated right, have cast 
his disapprobation over the whole ? 

I do not know what to understand by his Lordship's observation, 
where he says, " The preceding remarks are confined to the passage 
which Mr. Bellamy has chosen as his palmarian proof of the incor- 
rectness of the authorized* version/' If, by giving a short note on 
this passage, his Lordship can suppose that 1 consider it as my pal- 
marian proof of the incorrectness of the vulgar version, he has most 
certainly mistaken me : I hope it is WTpTl VW/> the h°ty tongue, 
sneaking in the English language. It is not possible to give a sum- 
mary of the reasons for varying from the authorized version, in a 

His Lordship is altogether indefinite, where he says, concerning the 
plan, p. 13. " It cannot answer the end proposed : the end proposed 
(the refutation of Deism) is wholly inapplicable to the undertaking." 
If his Lordship with me understands by the term Deism a denial of 
divine revelation, most assuredly the new translation is calculated to 
answer the end proposed, by refuting the objections of those men, 
who have been made Deists by the inconsistencies and contradictions 
exhibited in all the vulgar versions. 

Let any man contemplate the early ages of Christianity, when the 
Gospel was planted. Where are the churches of Asia and Africa 
now ? and whence that pagan darkness which covers those once en- 
lightened countries 1 Need we seek for any more causes for the pro- 
duction of apo.stacy, than those we have seen- to be sufficient for the 
alarming extension of infidelity in modern times, namely, the erroneous 
translations put into the hands of the people ? 1 am of the same 

240 Mr. Bellamy's Answer 

opinion as Bishop Usher, and other learned and impartial men, that 
the present Greek Bible contains accounts of many circumstances; 
altogether contradictory to the Hebrew verity. But in many places, 
where the Greek agrees with the Hebrew, the vulgar version is m 
direct opposition to both : 

ftm* vov2 ?ro* mbyte! rm* im rrbsmn ^tji» ywt *m 
.iTiT *tef» iyfwea ririwti mf tra^n awn jtwd its 

'I8oi> eyfo orpei//w rfty ffKiav rwv avafiaOfiwv ovs KaTefirj rovs bixa &Vd- 
fia&fiovs rov o'Lkov rov warpos gov 6 ijXios, aTOorpe^w rov IfXiov rods bfac* 
i^yafiadfxovs, ical &v&flf) o tf\i09 robs biica avafiaQfxOvs, ovs Kartfirj ^ wcdu 

See Isa. xxxviii. 8. • 

While both the Hebrew and Greek so pointedly contradict the 
authorized version, what dependance can there be on the Vulgate? 
or how should " the end proposed/' which is to remove the objec- 
tion, be " wholly inapplicable to the undertaking V I should be glad 
if his Lordship, or any other eminent scholar, would attempt to give 
us the application of this passage. 

If we take a view of the state of the Christian religion in Europe, it 
is lamentable to see, that, on the continent, the Bible is too generally 
thrown aside ; because, say the people, the contradictions, which are 
recorded in our vulgar versions, are sufficient evidence that the Bible 
cannot be what it is said to be by the clergy. This was a primary 
cause of the French revolution, during which the very appearance of 
the Christian religion was banished, the floodgates of infidelity were 
set wide open, and the temples converted into " temples of reason !" 

The old objections have lost nothing of their energy in the pages of 
Voltaire, Hobbs, Morgan, Tindal, Boliugbroke, Volney, and Paine. 
Let his Lordship, examine the New Testament as it at present stands, 
and he will perhaps find some necessity for a new translation. Can 
any one for a moment suppose that the translation concerning the 
unjust steward is a correct translation ? is it not surprising that the 
following passage should be put into the mouth of Christ himself, 
wheu no such meaning is in the original? viz. And I say unto you, 
make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness, that, 
when ye fail, tliey may receive you into everlasting habitations. I 
never met with a satisfactory translation of this passage, indeed 
the true translation of it depends on a Hebrew phrase, which I hope* 
to have an opportunity of laying before your learned readers, as well as 
other passages in the New Testament, which depend on Hebrew phrase- 
ology. Acts tx. 7* And the men which were with him stood speechless, 
hearing A voice : but in the relation of the same- circumstance it 
is said, ch. xxii. 9. And they that were- with me saw indeed the light, 
but they heard not the voice. Matt. x. 9, 10. Provide neither 
gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses, nor scrip for your journey , 
neither two coats, neither shoes, nor yet staves : but in Mark vi. 8* 

to the Bishop of St. David's. 241 

jAn4 commanded them that they should take nothing for their journey % 
me a staff only. Mark xi. 13. And seeing a fig-tree afar off having 
bates, he came if haply he might find any thing thereon, and when 
■ he tame to it ht found nothing out leaves ; for the time of figs was not 
yet. John i. 33. And I knew him not : but it is said, when the same 
transaction is recorded by Matt. iii. 14. But John forbad him, say- 
ing, I have need to be baptized of thee, and comest thou to me ? 

His Lordship continues, " But in what is said of the notes, we 
ba*r only of exemplifying the peculiar phraseology of the original 
languages from the writings of the Rabbies, and the Talmuds, which, 
whatever light they may throw on the Old Testament, are not autho- 
rities for the phraseology of the New." Well, Sir, and if any light be 
thrown on the Old Testament, will it not be worth the attention of 
Christians ? Nay, I assert without the fear of being controverted, that, 
as the Old is the foundation of the New Testament, whatever light 
may be thrown pn the one, must necessarily illustrate the other : and 
Unless the customs, usages, and manners of the ancient Hebrews be 
understood, as well as the peculiar phraseology of the language, what 
information can we gain from such passages as the following, Matt. 
v. 39* But whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him 
the other also— If any man take thy coat, let him have thy ctoke also — 
Whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain. 

I am confident that those, who have any feeling for the credit of 
the Bible and of religion, will be shocked to rind that many pas* 
sages are suffered to remain in the pages of the sacred volume, 
under a wrong, impression that an attempt to correct them might 
prove a " disservice" » to religion. "Disservice!" what! to give 
passages, which might be named, the delicate and modest sense 
they have in the original, but which in the authorised version 
make the virtuous matron blush, would be a disservice to religion ! 
The greatest disservice, that can possibly be done in religion, is to 
suffer them to remain, held up to public view, and blazoned on the 
standard of Deism, as proofs of " the disordered state of the Bible." 
This language may be suitable in those countries where the semblance 
only of religion is kept up by terror, and the sword. It might pass unno- 1 
ticed in the days of ignorance, in theHime of James, when the state of 
the English language was an apology for the barbarous and indecent 
expressions, which to the pain of many a father and mother are 
crowded into the authorized version. But things are changed — the 
language is changed — the minds of men are changed —the love of 
modest expression is predominant in every circle ; and the public 
who are well aware, that the translation is in a wretched state, [they 
are told so from the pulpits,] wish to see the sacred volume in a 
state worthy of Us Divine Giver. And" the imperious call of en- 
lightened intellect, like the deluge, which swept falsehood from the 
earth, and left nothing but the unadulterated truth in the Ark of 
God, wiH sweep away the mighty mass of error exhibited in the 
translations of the sacred volume, Not a vestige will remain to point 

242 Mr. Bellamy's Answer 

out to posterity the ignorance of eighteen ages. It is truth only which 
can make a nation invulnerable, and raise it to the highest degree of 
excellence — the blaze of divine truth, which is contained in the' real 
Ark of God, the hallowed oracles, will break forth over the dark 
mountains of error, bigotry and superstition ; and men will be enabled 
to drink of the pure waters as they flow from the fountain of eternal 

The New Testament abounds with Hebraisms, nor could it be other* 
wise. The personages of the gospel history were Jews, their language 
Hebrew, or a dialect of that language; the manners, customs, ceremo- 
nies, and religious usages, referred to the descendants of the people, of 
whom the prophets were the preceding historians ; nor could these 
peculiar phraseologies be transferred into another language, without 
exhibiting the features and idioms of the language of the country* 

In the fifth chapter of Matthew, Christ says, that every part of 'the 
law shall be fulfilled, even the least ; and he illustrates this by refer- 
ring to \ the least letter in the Hebrew, or in any alphabet; for it can- 
not apply to the Greek Iota, nor to the Samaritan, in which it is one 
of the largest characters in the alphabet. The application is proper, 
for the * is only a point, and it must be obvious that our Saviour 
would not refer native Hebrews, by way of illustrating his discourse, 
to a foreign language, of which they were ignorant. 

His Lordship complains, that " nothing is said in the prospectus of 
those valuable sources of illustration — the Septuagint, the writings of 
Philo, Josephus, &c." His lordship will find that enough will be said 
of the Septuagint, to show that it is not to be depended on, as having 
any authority ; and as to the writings of Philo and Josephus, he will 
also find I do not neglect them. 

I have said in the prospectus, " The original Hebrew is intended to 
be given to such subscribers as wish to have it. It is not intended to . 
make any additional charge on the numbers with the Hebrew, except 
the bare expence of composing and paper/' His Lordship replies to 
this, by saying, " But the bare expence of composing and paper is the 
bulk of the expence. And the subscriber who expects to find this 
bare expence to be inconsiderable, as the term usually implies, must of 
course be disappointed." Am I then already charged with an inten- 
tion of disappointing the public, when I have said, I expect no profit 
on the Hebrew I But can his lordship point out a cheaper way of fur- 
nishing a Hebrew Bible than at the bare cost of paper and print! 

" As to the meaning of the passage which is brought as a proof of 
incorrectness in the vulgar version," says his Lordship, "it must be 
shown in contradiction to Greek, Latin, and Hebrew authorities, that 
>0 is the most expressive word in the verse." No, itis not incumbent 
on me to show any thing inconsistent with the Hebrew, however I 
may labor to prove that the sense put upon any passage by the Greek, 
Latin, or any version, is in contradiction to the Hebrew. His lordship 
has not ventured to exclude M from the Hebrew text, though he has 
told us that in the text it is accompanied by the Masoretic cirok or 
asterisk, with the note in the margin, *Hp Vt/\ 3VO KX u written, but 

to the Bishop of St. David's. 243 

hot read/' But this marginal reading in some copies -written by a 
few Jews, who did not know what to do with the word, is of no more 
authority, than if written by the Jews of the present day ; and of as 
much consequence as the Rabbinical whim of writing some letters 
larger than others. Will his Lordship say it ought not to be expressed 
in a translation, because the compiler of the Vulgate has omitted it ? 

Now if I were to admit that it was not the most expressive 
word in the verse, this objection would be of no weight. The 
question is, whether my version will be the better or the worse, for 
giving a translation of a word, omitted in the vulgar version 1 and not 
whether it be the most expressive word in the verse. I think I have 
satisfactorily shown, 'that it is the most expressive word in the verse, 
as it proves the sincerity of Naaman, — viz. I pray thee ; for without a 
heartfelt conviction, all pretension would have been mockery in the 
sight of God. 

His Lordship concludes his remarks by saying, " It will not be suffi- 
cient to show, that a preterite form may have a preterite sense, which 
is given in the new translation, but it must be proved that a preterite 
form cannot have a future sense, that is, cannot have a meaning which 
it has in almost every page of the Old Testament,, and in the Greek, 
Vulgate, Syriac, and Arabic versions, as well as in the vulgar transla- 
tion of this passage." 

The preterite form a future sense in almost every page of the Old 
Testament I There is not a single instance in the whole Old Testa- 
ment, in the original, where the simple preterite has a future sense ; 
nor does die compound preterite ever change its radical meaning. It 
remains however for his lordship to show, by what rule in the language 
he thinks transformation is produced ; for in such case it must be re- 
gular ; it cannot be the preter in one place, the present in another, 
and the future in a third. 

I have now, Sir, examined the objection made by his. Lordship to 
my translation of this passage, and 1 have shown that in the original 
the verbs are in the preter tense, (and he has acknowledged the 
fact) and have been so translated by the best Hebrew scholars, 
and that the future time is inconsistent with the grammatical construc- 
tion of the passage, that they cannot be translated in the future tense, 
without implicating the prophet as acting in direct opposition to the 
express command of God. And after his Lordshiphas, in the most posi- 
tive manner, said, " The new translator then is mistaken in the grounds 
of his objection to the authorized version of this verse :" .and again, p. 
2. where speaking of my note on this verse, he says, " If the reflection 
on such translations be meant to affect the general character of the 
public version, (which the proposals for a new versiou imply) it is most 
unjust; if it extend only to the particular passage, it is erroneous:" 
I say, notwithstanding his Lordship's positive conclusions, that I am 
not mistaken, and that " the reflection on the particular passage" is 
not what his lordship has declared it to be, either " unjust " or " erro- 
neous/' No, Sir, I have given that proof concerning the 1 with 
Shevah noj being conversive, which cannot be subverted. 

44 H. Bentleii Emeudatt. 

Thus by Confining myself to the grammar of the Hebrew language, 1 
have given a translation which is consistent with the commands of God. 
But the translation which his Lordship endeavours to confirm, becaate, 
it stands thus in the Vulgate, English, and in all the vulgar translation, 
can never aid the cause of the Bible ; for it has long been a formidable 
argument with the Deists, who, on this view of the subject, have said, 
the prophet could accommodate himself to please a party: while, at 
other times, he could declare, that bowing before an idol was punish- 
able with death. 

la conclusion, I trust that I have said nothing inconsistent with the 
respect which I sincerely entertain for every part of the private and 
public character of the Bishop of St. David's ; but I must declare dial 
I see no reason for altering my plan, which is to give the work, to the 
public, as soon as a sufficient number of subscribers shall enable 
me to meet the expense. 


90, North Place, Gray's Inn Lane. 


In Sophoclem, Theocritum, Bionem, Maschum, 

Nicandrum, et CalUmachum. 

The following emendations of J)r. Bent ley are appended Jq 
the improved edition of MorelVs Thesaurus by Dr. Maltby, 
We have no doubt that they will be very acceptable to such of our 
readers as have not the opportunity of consulting that excellent 
work. We suppose, that to the emendations on Sophocles, the 
very learned and excellent Mr. Kidd refers, when, in his preface 
to the Tracts and Miscellaneous Criticisms of the late 28. Porto*, 
p. lxxxvii., he thus writes : " I beg leave to tender my grateful 
acknowledgments to the Rev t Dr. S. Parr, the champion of 
ancient literature and humanity, who honored me with a €€^>y of 
emendations, for which I had languished more than J 8 years, 

otarep yoLQ fewqf euy«%, xav j yipoty, 
kv toWl foivolf duftrov oux eexikeaep, 
.a\k* optbv 08 j Ivrrpur ooruvra>$ Si <ru 
yp&s t otpuvus, xuM$ h vpwrois v&pu" 

In Sophoclem, Tfuocr., $c. &$3 

Morellus : €t K««y<wra8>]£, insperatns t " 

Sophocles Tra<rl|. ad fin." 
a Ad versus* supplendum," says Dr. Maltby, " inserit Heathius 
?Ǥ*, quod titcunque Qtiosum magis probo quam Rrunckii xou in 
versus Anapaestici fine, ante vocalem in initio sequentis. Ex ex- 
emplari Sophoclis, olim Bentifeii, nunc vero Parrii, legfsge virum 
ilium celeberrimuni reperio ; 

Notavit olim Bentleku varias quasdam lectiones et conjectures iti 
Sophoclem ad oram editionis H. Stepbani, mdlxviii. Ceteras 
Viri Magni conjectures, Parrii benevolentia mecum communicatas, 
libet hie subjuogere ; uojinullas etiam, quas ad Theocriti, Bionis, 
et Moschi duo exemplaria Vir idem alleverat ; unum in Museo 
Britannico conservatum, akerum apud quendam e Kiddii amicis. 
Horum enim notitiam atqae usum Kiddio me debere gratus 

Lectiones Stephanianas adhibui : numeros vero Brunckii. 


Ed. Steph. Bentl. 

y. 60. Brunck. sWefixMoi elg r g/3. 

205. c0fMXpa,Tii$ w* jxoxg. 

210. TeXevruvus TeAA. 

21 6. tjfuv yfjCiv 

235. o-$*(f. V<p«r 

305. «rori£a$ VKoifc. 

308. fl»u£gv 'daiifa 

331. $6 w a. faivoi$ 

443. xxgrog Kpirog 

524. yevoiTo wot? oStoj yivoii' o8to$ vor 

535. $6\ctf>ct *<p6\. 

579* xa) $a>ft flferaxrou xa) 8«ijxa ttuxtqu 

679. 2t lyiqog ijpjv o, r \y$fa fyuv vid. Suid. v. 

725. xivflsv xacrn? xfabr x. 

1008. faov TfiAajxcov, yirov ye T. 

1028. TU^IJV t^v tvxqv 

1085. *v$a>[Le6x avifi. 

1296* $uTev<ra£ Qitu. 

1337. xpanjcflt 'xp&. 

13Q2. Toy cLi&qot> towS* «L 

H16> nm\ eiilmtl x, A, notim damnatotiam udf. B. 


It. Bentleii Emendatt. 

v. 45. <Pctix§v$ 
93. ohccov 
232. avipt$[i,o$ 

/ 852. '^a/coy 
1272. S.cre*. 
1492. aycJy 

V. 17, 18. yypot (Z*Qei$ 

hpel$, Syo5 jxtv Zyvo$' 
18* ^Vdficov 

258. &nxupa> 

332. lycur 

333. 7t66qio pou 
375. jSAstyai 
380. Tvpxvvoi 
442. tuvij 

1375. hfvjfiepos 

V. 2. olatf 

4. arris ireg 
33. H c^oVi 
128. «i<n$«y 

158. nvoL 
196. ctfyotvlrai 
287, 9^ 
457. ^avq 
524. vuv 
539* xoiyaxra/xijy 

545. f iyvta-ou 

546. fl/y** 
645. $tm!fj 
648. <ppim$ vtf 

966. KiTp&V 

1217. to Affwvo; 
1352. ivorla-otvTig 


oTxrcov (dubium an Bentleii sit) 

Schol. notat variam lectionem 

ctv&vo[ju)f quae gk>ssa optima 

est: vo/wj v. est numeruSy 


6 adposuit BentL 


leg. y V£ 0*f •«*, 

notam qs. dubitationis aut dam* 

nationis adposuit B. 
leg. briarxvQw 

ey» Vr 

ir/Joid' /xoi 




notam, uti supra, adp. B. 

OVK 1 18. 

notam adp, JB. 
t/v« . 

aQotyvta'ai, vid. p. 236. 
notam adp. B. 


notam adp* J?. 

notam adp. B. 

mXayim * 

roy .4. 

versum efficit ap. B. nempe Ba- 
sin Anapasticam. 

1 So Dr. M. has printed, but Bentley's emendation was, we presume, 
lyA ovt', as Mr. Elmsley has edited the words. 

In Sophoclem, Theocr., #c. 



V. 312. itrcrov ^ftwv yfj&v iarov 

454. a jxoi 
731. pjiroT' oxveire 
735. njX/xoy 
769. aut pot. 438. xal 

1119* ceijfglve, x. X. 

fwjr oxv. 

notam adp. B. 

notam adp. B* 
dele hunc versum 

&$ Ti8. 

aaposuit B. 

notam adp. B. 
- s» * • 


notam adp. B. 

ItXij t*$ 

9nJ/xara xal xouv. 
35. $auXougyou leg. QXavgovpyov ut ap. Suid. 

forte, U«X. vel /x aXcbprnv 
notam adp. B. 

7* oxvov 

85. $ TTixrOjXfv, x.X. 

160. dfc ti$ ipiccov 

395. Tga%«/«^ 

513, 4. ctoWsi$ footv 

59,6. *yt£ 8i p<*Tr\p, x. X 

549* TaBV 

562. Of XftjUS, T6QV x. X. 

738. pjrega <r, $ 

900. erXij 
1098. faelpoxw 
1279* irtifJwa. xanonotiri 

228. xaXou/xevoy 

381. ixirXgwa - ^ 

547* wXswy ya£ 6 vauxXij- 

po$, x. X. 
582. SiajSaXXij; 
691. sqq. 

830. ojurjxaa-f 8' am^ot^ 

916. tooy ' Arpeidwv 
1028, 9* an^wy ?x|3aXov, x. 

1128. wTojjfovp/W 
1333. '^o-xXipnaSoev 


7v* auroj j}y wpo<rovpo$ 9 ovx *X mt 

ouW riv' ffweopcoy xetxoytlrovot, 
Trap* iarivov oLvrtrwov 
fiapvfipoor a*ox\a6<rutv 
alparripiv. 1 Schol. xap' o3 «- 

jxotjSaioy Xoyov oTfva^cw axop* 

notam adp. B. 
Toy *i4rg. 
notam adp. B. 

£ r. $(Xoy 
notam adp. B. 

1 H« lectt. Brunckianis ad amussim respondent. Stephanus ad hx*!* 7 
interpungit, ct versus, sicuti in edd.vulgatt. ordinat. 

248 R. Bentleii Emendatt. 

1415. tol dib$ <ppa<rot)v,x. A. notant adp. B % 
1443. r\ yoip evrefieiot idem 

Theocr. x ed. Valck. L. Bat. 1781. 

Id. 1. 10. (toktItolv ed. 12. H ? St. 1579* Leg& <raxh*r. Sic Epigr, 
iv. 17. Zpva. tov foxcp Saxfrciif. Hesych: Zqxoi* cuyJair 
8pai, oil hrcLvXfig. 
86. Bovtu$ irph IXeyeir non ju,sy 
II. 95. Lucret. iv. 1115. Nee reperire, malum id possunt qua 
machina vincctt. Incaute doctissimus Pahnerius Obss. 
p. 795. substitutt rip &*og — quod lex carminrs non pa- 
titur, etquod illud poi — jx\ An viro ingeniosissimo soin-» 
nus obrepsit? Eur. Hipp. 478. Nutria ad Phsedram ; 
El<rh 8* lirmhai xott Xoyot flsAxTJjpjo* . <Pec9ti<F€Tcti ri TijtrSe fcip* 
fjiuxov vfaov. r Hr* ipec y o\J/e y oVfop&s e$8u.gQiev Jtv ? E\ fuj yv- 
valxe$ ywxcLVoL$ svpYjo-ofiev. Idem in Alcestide (2£I.) Ifeuje 

1 The mention of Theocritus ha* brought to our mind the following con- 
jecture of Eichstaedt. " Ad Theocr. Eid. iL 88. 

Knt ptv X¥*>£ f** v <>f/MOS tyforo iroXXaxi fla-^w. 

Schol. haec . adnotavit: 'opou? 0&tp, % Xw fa> (*v9is — »f ?*t** *»\ $**$><£, J. 
Chr. Wolfius, quum sedem vocabuli in superstitjbus poetriae carminibus baud 
Teperisset, locum ei mon vakfc honestum concessit in' fF^gmeotorum farra- 
gine p. 98. Quid' vero, si in eo poem ate, quod Locnginus nebit servavit, 
glossema lateat? Expel le illud ope istius scholii; exquisitanx agnoace$ ac 
genuinam poetriae scripturam. Cecinerat Sappho : 

7ar«v ayptTy y\wporip» $t Qci-^w 
ifAfxt' Ti0vax*jv i' oXl>y» 'lll$tV<Ttt 

In nostris libris male legitur, yiwpripa ii -nu'u^ Languidum hoc interpret 
tamentum quis diutius ferat?" H. Car. Abr. Eichstaedtii Quaostt. philolog. 
Spec. Lips, !?$& p, 61. The fragments of Sappho have been diligently col- 
lected and aBy illustrated by Mr: Blomfield in the Mus. Crit. I, p. 1— 32. 
II. p. 250— 52., and published in a separate volume by H. F. M* Volger 
(" Sapphus Carolina et Fragmenta recensuit, Commentario jllustravit, 
Schemata nrusrea adjecit, et Indices confecit, Lips. 1810. 12°.) Mr. Blora- 
fkld's'Opmfen of VoJger'a performance is thus expressed — "Vol^eri sub 
auspiciis nuperrime prodiit Sappho, commentariis inslructa, seu potius one-, 
rata, rerum vulgariura plenis, slyloque longe putidissimo conscriptis : in- 
utilis fere sartago." Be this as it may, Volger is certainly correct in the 
following remark, which occurs in p. 24. " Eichstadhis pro *<>?as emenda* 
vit 9a.^ ex Theocr. Schol. ad Id. II. 88. Ipsum hoc prime- mihi ita arrisit 
ut 9d4,w in textum recipiendum statuerem. Exactius vero Scholion inspi- 
ciens, mox in aliam rursus mentem inclinavi ; seilsi enim r 5chel. verbis 
&s <pi<^* seal Icxr9«i nihil aliud dicere voluisse, quam Sapphura quondam thap- 
sum ixvdixlv |»Xov nominasse, illumque ideo locum poetriae a nostro prorsus 
ciivcFMmi Hmtiere. T^tia oe* eatwa* ffw'tsy xibenter mtaetuflEi 'Vdiquh * *flc 
words of the Scholiast are— e«4*( fori |vXov rt, S xoXuVa» <nv9jfwi, Zymn exvQi- 

In Sophoclem, Theoct. $c. «49 

WXwwt tvf 'Alp^rto kxxwv. Idem m Andronu (537.) «> 
pot jxor t/ 8* lyoJ Kaxwv fwjxo* I? avtfo-oufw. (sic> calami 
lapsu, ni animi fallor) av ; 

VIII. 48. 24S«r 

X* 33. eAauvr 

pigr. III. 6* xoLTiygopevog. 

Bion. id. I. 55 * 

Id* Edit. EI* ere xei' f Afn f tibi et Marti. Recte. Interpretan- 
tur, Owwe pukrum ad te devolvitur. At Vulcanius m- 
geniose corrigit, «$ a-e xa) ^oV* Nob tamen usque adeo 
vere ; nam certe legendum, elg &s xa) "Agy. *Agi) dixit 
Homerus in Batrachom. 263. (sic) alias "Apy*., later- 
dum y ^i}v. Sententiam facile probo ex Sophoclis Phi- 
loctete(436> 7) mkeftog ov8&? av&y excov Alpet TTdrrjgbv, iXXa 
T$v$ xpijorovs * s ' lm l^ em Phrygibus, Tobg ivyeveig y*g x«-» 
yaQobg, 3i troti, f i\*i *Apyg cvyctlgew ; [evoug. Br. a Grotii 
rlor. Stob. p. 50.] ol Se ry yAcuccn) bpourelg <f>euyorrtg «t«? # 
hxrog s \<r% row KotKoiv. "Affjg ycig wtii* rwv xeatoov Aoy/£*rai. 
iEschylus Caribus, Stob. 51. uKK "Agyg $iAe# 'A& ret 
\ip<rT<x vxvtol t *v0pa>7rc4>v arpotrou. Ita citat Grotius Ft. 
Stob. 199, sed vide Stobamm. 
XV. 7. Casaub* MSS. ad Marg. ap. R. B. tyeva-aTo, noa t- 
yeuV. Hanc emendationem non semel laudavit R, B. 
9. cL<nraq , TOV 9 vel Suottjvw. 
14. yipew tiVw 'ATpeicwt, vel Sdtfnjvw'^^a. 
£4. To ctto/juz xaXov oteife Casaub. ap. K. B. — enlvet. 
4h Lego, donee aliquid certius habeam, "Hy? ol vlig iJifiap 1« 
(sic), vel ijye ol hvvog hxr vvbg quid sit vide Eustath. p. 
511. et deswvog vide Pollucem (III. 32.) Itno ol vel 
hv, ut illud ctlparog tUg dyxQoio, flhov rixog, Od* J. 6 11. 
aut H o\ cLtfxtfi. ut Apoll. [iv. 1389-] Casaub. ap. R. B* 
79* Kptifc iebv leg. Kputyct' ?ov# Casaub. ap. R. 

86. W9ro yXouKia-xz lege tnro yAav'<r«rx« — Callim. et 

Apoll. utuntur, hie p. 62. (I. 
1281.) illep. 15. (H. ad Di- 
an. 54.) Casaub. ap. R. B. 

Ill* 91. Quid si TyiIov £<rru ; ut poeta sit Anacreon. 

116. Corrigo eikeg. 
IV. 66, 67- dg*9[i>{}<retev respondeat, condoleat, ovv6pr}vy}<r€it. 

V. 2. Rectissime Sim. Bossius, poi y%. 

5« /xaxpa in margine exemplaris penes Rev. Edvardum 

VI. 3. ^uysv. 

250 R. Bentleii Emendatt. 

Mr.KidcTp. lxxxix — xcv. of his amusing publication. Tract* and 
Miscell. Crit. of Prof. Porson, has given what he calls a tl Synap- 
sis of emendatory criticism," submitted to R. P/s inspection in 
April, 1808, and which is reported to have drawn tears of joy from 
the Professor's eyes. It appears from this synopsis that Porson, in 
his conjectures on Aristophanes, has more than seventy times 
been anticipated by Dr. Bentley, of whose MS. notes on Aristo- 
phanes a great part has already been published in this Journal. It 
is gratifying to our best feelings, as Mr. Kidd observes, to see mind 
_ conspiring thus with mind in the great work of emendatory criti- 
cism. In p. 189, it is stated that Tyrwhitt had anticipated five re- 
storations, which occur in R. P.'s Appendix to " the Critic of 
Cornwall." Mr. Kidd adduces several instances of coincidence in 
the conjectures of Tyrwhitt and Schrader, and mentions that twenty 
of Tyrwhitt's conjectures on Pseud. -Orpheus de Lapidibus were 
completely confirmed by Musgrave, (who bequeathed to Mr. Tyr- 
whitt his copy of Gesner's edition) five corroborated in part, and 
one anticipated by Koen. 

Bent ley's MS. notes on Nicander's Theriaca have been published 
in Mus. Crit. I IT. and IV. In the notice prefixed to them occur 
these words : " Lautissima copia librorum Bentleii notas com- 
plectentium in potestatem ejus nepotis R. Cumberland v. cl. deve- 
nerat. Is vero totum illud xei/ujAioy, jam senex, suadente, ut 
videtur, rei inopia, bibliopolae cuidam Londinensi vendidit. Quod 
ubi compertum erat nobilissimis et ornatissimis viris,qui cum summo 
patriae suae imore, Scientia Literisque plaudeutibus, Museo Bri- 
tannico propositi sunt, banc ilia omnem librorum supellectilem 
statim aere redimendam, et in aedibus suis deponendam curavere." 
While we cordially unite with the author of this notice in praising 
the Trustees of the British Museum for making so valuable an 
addition to its treasures, let us not forget to bestow our tribute of 
thanks upon Mr. Kidd, who, with a holy " zeal in the good old 
cause/' represented to those Trustees the inestimable worth of the 
MSS. They were purchased from the House of Lackington and Co. 
and it seems from Mr. Kidd's statement in p. Ixxxviii. of the 
Tracts and Miscell. Crit. of Prof. Porson, that this House " be- 
haved most handsomely on the two occasions/' when part of 
Bentley's Library fell into their hands, in allowing themselves to be 
prevailed upon to make the first offer of them to the Trustees of the 
British Museum, and that they knowingly disposed of the volumes 
for less than a moiety of the sum, which they could have gained for 
them from other quarters." 

Schneider, in the year 179$, published at Halle, Nicandri Alex- 
ipharmaca, " cum Scholiis Gr. et Eutecnii Sophistae Paraphrasi 
Gr. e Iibris Scriptis emendata, Animadversionibusque et Para- 

In Sophockm, Theocr., #c. 251 

phrasi Lilt* ill ust rata." In the preface p. xvii. Schneider writes 
thus: — " Latere suspicor alicubi in Belgii Bibliothecis collectio- 
nem variarum lectionum ex scriptis Codicibus excerptarum a T. 
Hemsterhusio, quam commemoratam ab eo legi in notis D. 
Ruhnkenii ad Timaei Glossarium p. 71. ed. sec. Has viri in re cri- 
tica summi copias utinam precibus his meis permoti viri docti, qui 
latentes indagare iisque potiri potuerint, subsidiis meis adjungere 
conatusque rneos adjuvare dignentur. Simili desiderio jam diu 
exquirebam Nicandrum, a R. Bentleio notis marginaiibus multis 
distinctum, quern ex Bibliotheca Askewiana Museo Britannico 
illatum fuisse narrat liber periodic us, The Gentleman's Magazine * 
Ann. 1785. Aprili, p. 285." But there certainly appears to be 
some mistake. Hie Magazine says that Bentley's Nicander passed 
from Askew's Library into the British Museum in the year 1785, 
while the author of the notice prefixed to Bentley's MS. Emenda- 
tions on Nicander asserts that it passed into the British Museum 
from the Library of R. Cumberland, who sold it with Bentley's 
other books to the house of Lackington, Allen, and Co. The 
catalogue of Askew's books, which were sold by Baker and Leigh 
in the year 1775, is now lying before us K and in it we find two 
copies of Nicander mentioned— the one Col. ap. Soter. 1530. ; the 
other Venet. ap Aid. 1525: but nothing is there said about any 
MSS. notes by Dr. Bentley. We shall be glad to have this question 
settled by some of our correspondents, better informed on these 
subjects than ourselves. Mr. Kidd states that the House of Lack- 
ington and Co. on two occasions made the first offer of a part of 
Bentley's books, which had fallen into their hands, to the Trustees 
of the British Museum. But we know not the date of either offer. 
We should be glad to know through what source Valckenaer ob- 
tained a copy of Bentley's Emendations on Nicander. " To Tpta-- 
Qvtew (Nic. Ther. 520.), sic rpiiQvMov corrigit, cujus penes me 
sunt emendationes, Bentleius*" Valck. ad Theocr. Adoniaz. p. 
220. But Bentley has been anticipated by Salmasius. " Leg. ap. 

Not) jtojv xcu TplcrQvWov ottol&o. 
Versus gratia TgtcQvXkov pro Tg/$t/AAov, ut fwXi<r<f v\\ov pro fteX/- 
4>uAAoy Virgilio: Trita melisphylla." Salmasius in Solin. p. 172. 
In the Catalogue of Dr. Gosset's books, No. 1054. occurs 
« Callimachus, MSS. notes by Dr. Bentley, Planting 1584." At 
the sale of those books the Callimachus passed through our hands, 
and we observed that it contained the autograph of Dr. Farmer. 
We know not the name of the purchaser : it was sold for 14s. Mr. 
Blomfield, in the preface to his edition of Callimachus, makes 
no mention of Bentley's copy with MS. notes. Perhaps this 
notice may lead him to make some inquiry about the fate of that 

£52 Classical Criticism. 

' We shall conclude this article with a pleasant anecdote related 
by Mr. Kidd in p. lxxxviiii of Porson's Tracts and Miscellaneoui 
Criticisms, when speaking of Bentley's books being deposited in 
the British Museum : , 

u I had almost forgot to mention that in conversing with a North 
Briton concerning this national acquisition, R* P. pourtrayed the 
prominent features of Bentley's literary character with a justness 
and familiarity, which so warmed the plain, honest hyperborean; 
that, before they parted, he ventured to inquire if Dr. Bentley 
were not a Scotchman." 

I»l t ■ ll I 4M^—fat>»i 


I observe that Mr< Jones, in his Greek Grammar, endeavour*; 
in opposition to the opinion of Professor Monk ad HippoL 
1. to prove that xlxAijj&ai is not taken in the sense of sum but 
rather has the force of celebror. The observation of Mr. J. : is 
ingenious, and seems in general to hold good ; but, Sir, there is 
one passage, in which it does not appear to hold good,— I mean the 
923d line of iEsch. Sept. Theb. oroa-ai rexvoyovof xixtaprai . Pro- 
fessor Monk ad Hippol. 1107. has the followin gannotation, l€ No-' 
tandum est quod chorus mulierum de se loquens, masculina parti- 
cipia xsudwv et \ev<rcrcov usurpat ; et hoce quidem credo'prorsus into* 
tenter factum esse." * Now, Sir, it appears to me that there is ano- 
ther instance of this violent construction, which the professor has' 
not noticed. It is in the Sept. Theb. 560. Where we read Tpiyfa 
Sp$to g 7rXoKOL[jLO$ 1<ttoltch J MeyctXa (XEyctXYiyiptov xhucov | ' Avoir low avipwv 
How harsh and violent is the prosopopeia, if the participle be ap^ 
plied to ir\6xa(jLog. Such a figure quite " out-herods Herod," nor 
would iEschylus, however bold, and desirous of surpassing the 
common bounds of imagery, have thought of attributing the sense of 
hearing to the inanimate lock of hair. What then should hinder it 
from being applied to the chorus in the same manner as in the 
above mentioned passage of the Hippoly tus ? 

April, 1816. A. N, 


1 We are somewhat surprised that our Correspondent has taken no 
notice of Professor Dunbar s excellent observations on thtsvery passage of 
the Hippolytus, inserted in Class. Journ. xxv. p. 79. Ei>. ' 


1U Iro^^t^J^^ ^/^ r>c 



Into the Nature and Efficacy of Imitative Versification, 

Ancient and Modern. 

u The best in this kind are but shadows, and the bad are no worse if ima- 
gination amend them." — Midsum. Night's Dream. 


No. III.— (Continued from No.XKlV. p. S39.) 

F Dionysius be in fact the earliest writer on this subject, it will 
seem less strange that they, who think the versification of Virgil 
equal in imitative harmony to that of Homer, have not referred to 
classical authority as the foundation, or at least as the support, of 
their opinion. 

Had a period of eight hundred years been allotted in this as in 
the former case, a second Dionysius might probably have illustra- 
ted the beauties of the Roman Homer; but the duration of the 
Latin language did not afford so extensive a scope ; and in the sixth 
century from the death of Virgil, the arms and language of the 
barbarians were alike* predominant in Italy. 

Modern times however have furnished what antiquity could 
not supply, and among the various authors of repute, who have ad- 
mired and descanted upon the imitative powers of Virgil, the elder 
Vossius, Scaliger, Vida, Rollin, and Clarke deserve to be parti- 
cularly mentioned. 

I have thought myself justified in selecting the observations 
of the last critic, because Scaliger is far too diffuse for my con- 
tracted Kmits: Vida is naturally less circumstantial and accu- 
rate than a prose writer. Vossius confines himself to the power 
of particular letters, and on a careful perusal of the 2, 3, 
and 4? Sections of the 2 chapter of the 4th lib. Instit. Oratoria., 
his - remarks will appear more curious than decisive. x And 


1 Bartholomaeus Maranta (with whose " Lucullianae Quaestiones " I have 
not been able to meet) is praised very highly by him, and referred to as the 
most original and copious writer on this topic. I will mention one instance, 
however, in which Vossius dissents from his favorite author. " Itaque Vir- 
gilius quoque hac usus est littera, [E] — cum inducit Sinonem miserum aut 
sane miseriam simuiantem: Heu qua nunc tellus, qua me aquora possunt ac- 
ciptref Neque enim adsentiri possum Bartholomaeo Maranta, qui id a 
poeta factum scribit ad exnrimendum Sinonis metum: nisi forte dixeris, 
timorem quoque miseriae suojici posse, quia sit dolor ratione mali futuri.'' 
It appears also that some ' vir clarissimus ' differed from Vossius himself. 
" Porro iis, quae de S supra diximus, litem inteadit yir quidam clarissimus, 

NO. XXVI. C{. J I. VOL. Xlli. S 

274 An Inquiry into Imitative 

Rollin 1 has so "craftily qualified" his observations, that the' 
difficulty of combating what is originally inconclusive, is height- 
ened by our imperfect knowledge of his real sentiments. 

Clarke is well known a$ the editor and translator of Homer, 
whose imitative versification he frequently extols; and as he was 
well acquainted with the criticisms of Dionysius and Eustathius, 
I see no reason for supposing that he was more liable to error than 
the others* 

The observations themselves are sufficiently explicit) and occur in 
his note upon the 363 v. of r Iliad. 

In Virgil the swiftness of the passing time is very beautifully re- 
presented by dactyls : 

< S$d fugit inicrea, fugit irreparabile tempus.' $ GfQjr* £$*• 
But time is lost, which never will return. 44$» 

Also the running of a horse ; 

< Quadrupedante putrem spnitu quatit unguja campum.' 

8 Jin. 696. 

And shakes with horny hoofs the solid ground 79<K 

The dignity of Juno by spondees: 

•i—Qua Divum incedo regina/ 1 &n. 50. 

But I) who walk in awful state above > 

The majesty of heaven. 
The majesty of the gods by a sppndaic verse ; 

« — Penatibus et magnis Diis.* 8 Mn. 679; 

Magnum Jovis incrementum- 4 £$}. 4& 

Q foster^son of Jove. 
In like manner wariness apd circumspection ; 

€ — Oculis Phrygia agmina circumspexit.* * 2 J$tu 69* 

JUft stared, and rolled his haggard eye* around. 
A&4 ti 1 * distance of one following far behind : 

i fcongo sed proximus inteTvallp.' 5 /En. %$Q. 

But, tho' the next, yet far dUjpined. 
The motion, rather slow at the beginnings and then accelerated* of 
a failing Hone : 

qui S suavissimam esse literam censet ; ut quae in suavissirais guajuinqu* 
return vorabujis insit ? atque adeo ipsum suavitatis nomsn et ordiaturet ter- 
minet;. Nos nee artoquos hac in parte reprehendere audemijs, nee viri' 
pratstantissinu judicium plane damnanuis. Siquidem turn sonum ejus ag- 
noscimus in axnantiurn, fluvtorum, et asborum susurris; turn in serpentuok 
s&ilis, atque hostili exsibilatione." 

■ De la cadence des vers* 

Le vers spondaic a quelqueftm beaucoup de gravite. 

I4SS vers terminer par un monosyllable ont touvent beaucoup de force. 

L'Elision est une des choses, qui contribuent le plus a la beautfe de* ws. 
Ellc sert egalement pour rendre le nombre doux, coulant, rude> majestucux^ 
ft Apr/* difference des objets, qu'on veut ©xpriraer. 

Versification, Ancient and Modern. 275 

« Jamjam Iapsura, cadentique 
Imntfnet assimilis. , 6 Ma. 602. 

That promises a fall, and shakes at every blast. 
The tottering of old age : 

) * Sed tarda trementi 

GenuA labank' 5 JEn. 432. 

He staggers to and fro. 
Heavy and regular hammering : 

< Illi inter sese multa vi brachia tollunt 
Innumerum.' 8 JSn.452. 

By turns their arms advance in equal time, 

By turns their hahdsdescend and hammers chime. 
An unintermittsed and lengthened sound by the hiatus of long 
vowels : 

« Gemituque, et fcemineo ululatu.' 4 JEn. 667. 

With shrieks, laments, and cries 

Of mixing women. 

* Et longum formose vale, vale, inquit, Iola,' 3 £cl. 79. 

Adieu ! she said, my dear, a long adieu ! 
Also, very great exertion : 

<Ter sunt conati imponere Pelio Ossam.' 1 Geor. 281. 

With mountains piled on mountains, thrice they strove. 
A sudden fall, by a verse ending in a monosyllable : 

<— Insequitur cumulo preruptus aquae mons.' 1 2En. 109. 

«— Procumbit humi bos.' 5 iEn. 481. 

Down drops the beast, nor needs a second wound, 

But sprawls in pangs of death, and spurns the ground* 
Or any thing very diminutive and despicable : 

< — Ssepe exiguus mus.' 1 Geor. 181. 
And sometimes on the contrary, what is particularly eminent : 

€ — Diviim pater atque hominum rex.* 1 ^Sn. "69. 
The magnifying of a portent by the harshness of the words : 

< Monstrum horrendum informe ingens.' 3 JEn. 658. 
A monstrous bulk, deformed, deprived of sight. 

The horror of civil war by studied cacophony : 

c Neu patriae validas in viscera vertite vires/ 6 JEn. 833. 

Nor stain your country with her children's gore. 
Sudden terror, by the unusual prosody of a word : 

* — Steteruntque comae et vox faucibus hsesit.' 2 j£n. 774. 

Like bristled rose my stiffened hair. 
Loss of life, by an unaccustomed placing of the cfesufa : 

< Et cum frigida mors animi seduxerit artus.' 4 JEn. 385. 
When death has once dissolved her mortal frame. 

The softness of a prop, by the fifth foot beginning with a short 
syllable : 

276 An Inquiry into Imitative 


€ — Molli fultus hyacintho/ 6 Eel. 53. 
While on a flowery bank. 

The boiling over of a lfquid, by a redundant syllable at th« end 
of the verse : 

c Aut dulcis musti Vulcano decoquit humorem.' 1 G. 295. 
v Or boils in kettles must of wine. 

As most of the preceding passages are generally quoted and ad- 
mired, we may without injustice consider Clarke's opinion as that 
of many others, and conclude that, both in Homer and Virgil, we 
not only possess the materials of their success, but have also a 
critical knowledge of the imitation itself. The importance of this 
knowledge is obvious, for if the accuracy of the imitation is such 
as we are told, and if it is capable of so various and powerful an 
application, misconception must be dangerous, and may be fatal. '• 

But Dionysius has so clearly distinguished the several grada- 
tions; and the whole of the theory, from the elementary sounds to 
the matchless poetry of which they are the medium, is So fully de- 
tailed, that his meaning cannot be mistaken ; and as the verses 
which he selected, and the beauties which he admired, remain un- 
altered, no confusion can arise, as long as the validity of his rea- 
soning is acknowledged. 

The wild reveries indeed and fantastic hypotheses of some, who 
rank high among the Grecian philosophers, might authorise us to 
suspect the judgment of our critic : but he has usually been ac-- 
counted " the sinew and the forehand " of all who maintain the 
efficacy of this adaptation, and the theory itself might be endan- 
gered by disavowing or discrediting its ablest and earliest 
advocate. On the other hand, if it be allowed, that duration of 
time, bulk of body, stillness of position, &c. can be represented by 
the arrangement of syllables, the assignment of such effects to 
such a cause may be allowed to excite our suspicion, if it does not 
justify our incredulity. Much importance therefore must be at- 
tached to our possession of the very verses which are so "highly 
extolled, and the opportunity, of ascertaining by comparison the 
superior degree of. art and labor, with which they were composed, 
will not be the least of our advantages. 

To collect from the 48 books of Homer all the verses which 
are similar in sound or cadence to those which are quoted by Dio- 
nysius, is a task, which I have declined, not because it is laborious, 
but because the largeness of the collection would defeat the object 
of making it, and fatigue the most patient reader. The collection 
which I have made from Virgil will hardly be thought deficient 
in copiousness, though much has intentionally been omitted, and 
the Bucolics, Georgics, and JEneid are far inferior in quantity to 
the Iliad and Odyssey. 

Versification, Ancient and Modern. 277 

The versification of Virgil is not unusually thought more skil- 
ful than that of Homer. The opinion of Johnson on this subject 
has been already quoted, and the following are the words of Cow- 
ley. — " The disposition of words and numbers should be such, as 
that, out of the order and sound of them, the things themselves 
may be represented. This the .Greeks were not so accurate as to 
bind themselves to j neither have our English poets observed it, 
for aught I can find. The Latins, (qui Musas cclunt severiores) 
sometimes did it, and their prince, Virgil, always : in whom the 
examples are innumerable, and taken notice of by all judicious 
men, so that it is superfluous to collect them." 

Since then the preference is thus given to Virgil, I have not 
acted unfairly in confining myself for the present to him, and de- 
ferring my remarks upon the peculiar excellences of Homer to the 
conclusion of this inquiry. 

Sed fugit interea, fugit irreparabile tempus. 

Quadrupedante putrem sonitu quatit ungula campum. 
are said to be instances of the imitative use of dactyls. 

If Clarke means that the concurrence of five dactyls is rare, or 
only used to denote swiftness, he is contradicted by Terentianus 
Maurus, who tells us, 

Hoc sat erit monuisse, locis quod quinque frequenter 

Jugem videmus inveniri dactylum. 
. And by Virgil himself, as is proved by numerous single lines and 
by the following passages : 

Nam frigore mella 

Cogit hiems, eademque calor liquefacta remittit ; 

Utraque vis apibus pariter metuenda, neque illae 

Nequicquam, &c. 4 G. 35. 

Ne tenues pluvisej rapidive potentia solis 

Acrior, aut Boreae penetrabile frigus adurat ; 1 G. 92. 

Scilicet is superis labor est, ea cura quietos 

Solicitat. Neque te teneo, neque dicta refello. 

4 JEn. 380. 
If one dactylic line is so characteristic of rapidity, these pas- 
sages, in which two are found in immediate succession, should 
consequently be most powerfully descriptive of it, unless we 
suppose that Virgil purposely obstructed his own endeavours. 

The Edinburgh Reviewer says, that " when Virgil wished to 
produce a rapid dactylic verse, he used three accents on short syl- 

, Quadrupedante putrem sonitu quatit ungula campum. 
But under favor, (for it is hazardous to meddle with Reviewers) 
this frequently, happens where no such adaptation is intended, a& 
will appear from the Bucolics alone. 

2?8 Ah Inquiry into Imttatke 

Nescio quis teneros bculus mlhi fascinat agnos. 

3 EcL 103. 
Me tamen urit ampr, qufe enim modus adsit amori. 2. 68.. 
Ulla dblum meditantur, amat bonus otia Daphnis. 5. 61. 
Aret ager, vitio muriens sitit aeris herba. 7. 57. 
It may also be observed that the first syllable of putrem is com- 
mon, and consequently longer than the generality of short syl- 
lables. In another place, Virgil substitutes a spondee for sonkik 
Quadrupedumque putrem cursu quatit ungula campunv 

11 Mn. 875. 
The usage of spondees is liable to the same remarks, for w# 

Tunc agni pingues, et tunc mollissima viiuu 
Tunc somni dulces, densaeque in montibus umbrae. 1G.341. 
iEneas celsa in puppi jam certus eundi 
Carpebat somnos rebus jam rite paratis. 4 JExt. 554. 

Irim de coelo misit Saturnia Juno 
Audacem ad Turnum, luco turn forte parentis 
Pilumni Turnus sacfata in valle sedebat. 
The last instance is very remarkable, and ought to possess p#* 
culiar dignity, for it comprises fifteen spondees, and only thret 

The majesty of the Gods, wariness and cbcumapection, and 
the distance of one following far behind, are imaged by spondaicf; 
and the distinguishing feature has, of course, a peculiar propriety 
in each instance. The sense however is very dissimilar, although 
the termination is the same, and it may easily be shown, that the 
mere occurrence of a spondaic line proves little o» nothing. 
Pro molli viola, pro purpureo narcisso, 5 Eel. 38. 

Ante tibi Eoae Atlantides abscondantur. 1 G. 221, 
Saxa per et scopulos et depressas convalles. 3. 276. 
Cecropiumque thymum, et graveolentia eentaurea. 4. 270, 
Atque Getae atque Hebrus et Actias Orithyia. 4. 463. 
Pilumno. quos ipsa decus dedit Orithyia. 12 JEn. 83. 
Armatumque auro circumspicit Oriona. 3. 517'. 
Cornua velatarum obvertimus antennarunu 3v 549, 
Et lucus late sacer additur Anchiseio. 5. 761. 
Aut leves ocreas lento ducunt argento. 7. 634. 
— Chlamydemque auro deditintertextanw 8. 167. 
Nee -non et sacri monstrat nemus Argileti. 8. 345. 
Quod fieri ferro liquidove potest electro. 8. 402. 
Quae quondam in bustis aut culminibus desertis. 12. 863. 
Pallantis proavi de nomine Pallanteum. 8. 54. 
-dEneadas magnos et nobile Pallanteum. 8. 341. 

—Ad muros et mcenia Pallantea. 9. 19& 

Versification, Ancient and Modern. 279 

JEaei!! ad mamia Pallantez. S. S4)« 
In Catullus we find three spondaic lines together, 
Eleetos juvenes* snrnil et dseus mmiptarum. 
Cecropiam lolitarrt dsse dapemdare Minotatfro. 
Quefe angusta malis cam moenia vesarrgntur. 

Nupt. Pal. et Th*t. 78. 
AH these verses are spondaic, and the wader ntey determine, 
what relation they can have to majesty, wariness, or distance. 
In — jamjam ftapttufe, cadenticjufer 
' Irrtminet assimilis* 

— -Sed tarda trehlenti 
Genua labant, 
the cause of the .assumed effete U noi specified. The first 
instance is remarkable for a hypercatalectic syllable, and the se- 
cond for a synaeresis. ' 

h seems not unlikely that Clarke alludes to these, but 4» I have 
bo authority for supposing so, I shall at present only observe, that 

— Sed tarda trernenti 
Genua labant, 
is applied ro Turtus as well zi to Entdlus, and cannot therefore 
have particular reference to age. 

I1K infer sese muka vi braohta ftoUunt 
In nuttierdm, 
whkh occurs next, is similar to 

Mi inter sese rnuki vi vuinera miaoent. 12 J&n. 720. 
lilt alternantes multa vi praelia miscent 
Vulneribw erebris. 3 Gv 220. 


IHi inter sese dim certamina belli 
Confulerant. 10 Ma. 145. 
The two first examples' describe an engagement between twp 
bulls, rhe last relates to the assauk of the Rutuliy and defence of 

The instances of a single hiatus are* numerous, and occttr prin- 
cipally before proper names : 

Amtef tib Boss Atlan tides abscomlantur. 1 G. 221. 
Et succus pecori et lac smbducitur agnfc $ Eel. 6. 

~*+Lauri et suavd rubehs hyacinthus; S Eel. 63. 
Amphion Dircseus in Actwo Aracyntho. 2 EcL 24. 


1 Valerius Probqs,lib. f. De positionibus syllabanwn, Putchsius, P. 1432, 
says, " Hie sane modus posinouis apud VirgHtan noli silptfriofi set* B)pio 
untuni, scd in litokisiwtaftuft inveninir.'' 

280 An Inquiry into Imitative 

— Ut littus Hyla, Hyla, omne sonaret. 6 Eel. 44. 
Credimus ? an qui amant ipsi sibi somnia fingunt ? 8 E. 108* 

— Neque Aoniae Aganippe. 10 Eel. 12. 
Aut Atho aut Rhodopen. 1 G. 33 1 . 
Glauco et Panopeae et Inoo Melicertae. 1 G. 4S7. 
Orchites et radii et amara pausia bacca. 2 G. 86, 
JEtzs Lucinam, justosque pari Hymenseos. S G. 60. 

— Flerunt Rhodopeix arces. 4 G. 461. 
Atque Getae atque Hebrus. 4 G. 468. 
Posthabita coluisse Samo, hie illius arma. 1 JEn. 20. 

Et vera incessu patuit Dea, ille ubimatrem. 1. 409. 
— Dardanio Anchisae. 1. 621. 
Ibid. 9. 647. 

— Sub Ilio alto. 5.261. 
Te, amice, nequivi 
Conspicere. 6. 507. 

Antiqua e cedro, Italusque paterque Sabinus. 6. 178. 
Ardea Crustumerique et turrigerae Antemnx. 7. 681. - 
Hanc sine me spem ferre tui, audentior ibo. 9. 291. 
Inclusum buxo aut Oricia terebintho. 10. 186. 

— Parrhasio Evandro. 11.81. 
Those of a double hiatus are rare : 

Stant et juniperi et castaneae hirsutae. 7 Eel. SS. 

Nereidum matri et Neptuno JEgaeo. 8 JEn. 74. 
As the monosyllabic termination is said to have a threefold cha- 
racter the number of my examples will not be thought unneces- 

Phcebo sua semper apud me 
Munera sunt. 3 Eel. 62. 

— Per ego haslacrymas dextramque tuam te. 4 JEn. 314. 
— Pugnaeque parent se. 10 JEn. 259. 
— Furit iEneas tectusque tenet se. 10. 280. 
Sponte sua, dum ferre moror, cinis ipse, bonum sit. 

8. EcL 106. : 
Illic utperhibent, aut intempesta silet nox. 1 G. 247. 
Vertitur interea ccelum, et ruit Oceano Nox. 2 JEn . 250. 
— Vel cum ruit irabrif erum ver. 1 G. 313. 
— Cum rapidus sol. 2 G. 821. 
Ipse ruit, dentesque Sabellicus exacuit sus. 3 G. 255. 

Ltttpreis ingens inventa sub ilicibus sus. 8 JEru.43. 

— Viridique in littore conspicitur sus. . 8. 8& 
Turn pietate gravem si forte virum quem 
Conspexere. '■ 1 JEn. 155. 

— Avers a deae mens. v . 2 JEn. 170. 
Agnovit longe gemitum praesaga mali mens. 10 JEn. 843. 

Versification, Ancient and Modern. 281 

— Inde lupi ceu. 2. 855. 
— Deumrex. 3. 375. 
Jbid. 12.851. 

Massylique ruunt equites, et odora canum vis. 4. 132. 
— Furit intus aqux vis. 7. 464. 
— SummaqUe evertere opum vi 
Certabant. 9.532. 

— Nituntur opum vi. 12. 552. 
— Aperit si nulla viam vis. 10. 864. 
— Etiam tu, siqua tibi vis. 11. 873. 
—Nunc tempus agi res. 5. 638, 
Unus, qui nobis cunctando restituis rem. 6. 846. 
— Saevse nutu Junonis eunt res. 7. 592. 
— Nunc ipsa vocat res. 9. 320. 
— Qui casus agat res. 9. 723. 
— En haec promissa fides est ! 6. 846. 
— Quam quisque secat spem. 10. 107. 
— Vigilasne, Deum Gens. 10. 228. 

— Densusque viro vir. 10. 361. 
— Seque viro vir. 10. 734. 
— Legitque virum vir. 11. 682. 
— Mole su4 stat. 10. 771. 
Examples x of alliteration are very frequent, as 

Et sola in sicca secum spatiatur arena. 1 G. 389. 
AscenSu supero atque arrectis auribus adsto. 1 JExi* SOS; 
Maeonia mentum mitra crinemque madentem. 4.216. 
Hinc exaudiri voces et verba vocantis 
Visa viri. 4. 460. » 

Se causam clamat crimenque caputque malorum. 12. 600. 
Aut vocem mutare viros aut vertere vestes.* 12. 825. 
I have here given a specimen instead of a collection, but lest 
this should be imputed to a want of materials, I shall add a few 
instances, not of single, but of double, and even triple alliteration. 
Collapsos artus atque arma cruenta cerebro. 9 iEn. 753* 

* I have met with no line similar in the number of elisions to 

Monstrum horrendum informe ingens, 
but if the * Verbomm asperitas' relates only to harshness, 

Sylvestris raris sparsit labrusca racemis, 5 E. 7. 

will perhaps be thought equally grating. 
Catullus uses more elisions in fewer feet; 

Quam modo qui me unum atque unicum habuit 71st Epig. 

not to mention the well known distich, 

Troja nefas, commune sepulchrum Asiae Europaeque, 
Troja virum et virtutum omnium acerba cims. Ad Manti. 91* v. . 

* See C/fl«. Journ. Vol. ix. p. 588. > 

282 An Inquiry info Imitative 

Pan primus calamos cerl conjungere plures. 2 Eel. 32. 

Pastorem , Tky re, pingues 
Pascere oportet oves, deductum dicere carmen. 5. 5. 

Quo maxima motu 
Terra tremit, fagere ferae. 1 G. 330. 

Signa sequantur 
Atque animos aptent armis, pugnaeque parent se. 

10 JEn. i39. 
1 JDiomedes, the elder Vossius and the authors ei the Portroyal 
Grammar maintain that the penultimate syllable of steterunt, tu- 
lerunt, &c. is common. Numerous instances may be produced, 
but as the slight difference in point of spelling between tule* 
runt, tulerint, and tulerant, has frequently been thought to justify 
the substitution of the one for the other, * I shall confine myself 
to one passage, in which all must allow that any change of tense 
or mood would destroy the force and beauty of the expression. 
Magni satpe duces, magni cecidere tyranni, 
Et Thebec steterunt, altaque Troja furt. 

Propert. L. 2. E. 8.V. 10. 
Clarke tells us, that in- 

Et cum frigida mors aniraa sedtrxerit artus, 
loss of life is imaged by an « inusiiata cmttrdt dispositione." A 
cassura may be omitted* but I am not aware that its- situation may 
be changed. If, however, he only alludes to the break alter frigida, 
tbtte is a similar disposition in the following and several other 

Addam cerea pruna, et hoses erit huic quoqut porno. 

2 Eel. 53. 
Sed tu desine plwa, puer : successimus antra. 5. 19. 
Daphnis me raaius urit, ego banc in Daphmd* laurum. 

8. &4. 

Arcades, O ifcihi, turn quam niQlUter em quieacant. 10. 33. 

Scilicet aftimbufregt labor ka^ndertdua, etctennes. 2 G. 61. 

Sed tu desine velle, Deum pr&cepta sec*ti. 4. 448.. 

Per connubia nostra, per inceptos hymenaeos. 4 JEn. 316. 

Spargens humida mella, sopor iferumque papaver. 4. 486. 

Talis se sat a nocte tulit,terrasque petivit* 12. 860. 
There are numerous passages in which a tribrach or Iambic i* 
used, but as Clarke expressly mentions the fifth foot, I shall con- 
fine myself to the following : 


1 De arte Grammatical. 2. c.Sl. p. 314—315. English Edition. 

* The old Hermit of Prague is reported to have said w that, that is, is," 
but then ir is expressly nvermoned by the historian, that the good man had 
never seen pen and ink. ^ Vide Twelfth Nigftt. 

Versification, Ancient and Modern. 283 

Tibi pampineo gravidas autumno 
Floret ager. 2G.5. 

— Ac natx Turnique canit hymenaeos. 7 Mn. S9S. 
Grains homo infectos linquens prof ugus hymenftotf. 

Seu mollis violae, seu languentis hyacinthi. 1 3 . 69. 
As the lines ending in. alveo, aoxeo, baltei, &c. seem referable to 
» synseresis, they have been omitted in the subjoined list of hyper* 

Nee tantum Rhiklape miratur, etIsmaruaO*ph«a. 

Q E«l. SO, 
Inseritur vero ex fcetu nucis arbutus horrid*. % G. 69. 
Si non tanta quies iret ftigusque caloreraque 
Inter. 2 G. 344. 
- Navigiis pinos, domibus cedrosque cupressoaqut. 2 f 413*. 
Otia agunt terra, congestaque robora* tQtasque 
Adrolverc focis ufonos. 3. 377. 
Et spumas nxiscent arcpnUt vivaque sulfura. S. 449. 

Ignari hommuxvque loqonmaque. 1 JEn. 336« 
JErea cui gradibns stugehant limiua, neaaeque 
j£xe trabes. 1. 452. 

-Quern nonincusavi amenshominiwique D«ori|inq|ue. 2,745. 
Qouua Mercurio similis vownqu* caloremqu*. 4. W8, 

Magna ossa* la$eflto$qus 
Exult 5*422* 
Navigiis aptant remosque rudeo^sque. 5. 753. 

-^Quinprotinua omnia 
Berlegerent oculi*. 6 33. 
laxnque iter emensitaunres et tecta Latinorun* 
Ardua cernebaat. 7. ISO: 

Brseferimus manibmr vtttas at verba preoantbi. 7. 257. 
Se satis ambobm Teucriaq&e venire Lattauscg*** 7. 470* 

Aden* Tirynthsus omnemqua 
Accessumiustrans. &. 223. 
Sternitur infelix alieno vulnere, coelumque 
Aspicit. 10.781. 
Clamore mcendunt ecektm Troesque Latinique. 1 K). $£3. 

— Subitcerumpunt cfemore*, frementesqt|<? 
Exhortantur equos. 1K0D9. 

1 Is not this u refbrriftle to a Syndesis T~ Ed. 

■i. ■■ a 



The Zabii, or Zabians, were a sect of Idolaters who florished in 
the early ages of the world, considerable in their numbers and ex- 
tensive in their influence. Maimonides, whom Scaliger designates 
as, " omnium Judaeorum doctissimus et acutissimus," assures us, 
in his celebrated Moreh Nebochtm y or " Instructor of those who are 
perplexed/' that a very principal object, in the Ceremonial Institu- 
tions of Moses, was, the eradication of their idolatrous principles 
and practices ; .and has supported his position by " an excellent 
exposition of the grounds and reasons of the Mosaic Laws." 
Spencer in his work De Legibus Hebrceorum has adopted a similar 
principle ; and has also most learnedly defended the opinion, that 
many of the rites and ceremonies enjoined by the Jewish legislator, 
were derived from the rites practised by the Egyptians and other 
Heathen nations. This conjecture first noticed by Maimonictes 
has been maintained, not only by Spencer, but by Sir John Mar- 
sham, in his Chronica^, and Bishop Warburton in his Divine 
Legation ; it has however been powerfully combated by* Witsius 
in his JEgyptiaca> and by Dr. Woodward in his Discourse on the 
Wisdom of the Antient Egyptians. 

When, therefore, these Zabian Idolaters are regarded as con- 
nected with the Mosaic Institutions, they become a serious and 
interesting subject of enquiry ; and every attempt to collect the 
scattered rays of information concerning them, and to converge 
them to a point, will probably be received with candor. I shall 
therefore offer some remarks on their name, —their origin, and 
the country they inhabited, — their opinions, — their idolatrous and 
superstitious practices, — and their present descendants. ' 

I. Name. The denomination of Zabii, given to these idolaters, 
appears to havet been derived from the Hebrew KM Tzaba>2 
Host; with reference to the 0*DtWTN22i. or Host of Heaven, 
which they worshipped ; though others have derived it from the 

Arabic L*> Tsaba, to apostatise, to turn from one religion to ano- 
ther ; or from 0*22* or Arab. (£<&*> Tsabin, Chaldxans, or In- 
habitants of the East. Vide Focockii Specimen. Hist* Arab. p. 
139. Spencer, De Legibus Heb. Lib. 2. cap. 1. sect. 1. Hyde, 
Vet. Pers. Hist. cap. 3. p. 84. Castelli Lex. Hept. sub voc. 
H3X and TO2L 

II. Origin and Country. Lactantius, in his book De Ori- 
gine Errorist considers Ham, the son of Noah, as the first sece- 
der from the true religion, after the flood ; and supposes Egypt, 
which was peopled by his descendants, to have been the country in 
which Zabaism, or the worship of the stars, first prevailed : " At 

X)n the Ancient Zabii. 285 

Hie (sc. Cham) profugus, in ejus terra j^arte consedit, quae nunc 
Arabia nominator: eaque terra de nomine suo Chanaan dicta est; 
«t posteri ejus Chananaei. ^ Haec fuit prima gens, quae Deum 
ignoravit ; quoniam princeps ejus et conditor cultum Dei a patre 
non accepit, maledictus ab eo : itaque ignorantiam divinitatis mino- 
ribus snis reliquit. Ab hac gente proximi quique populi, multitu- 

dine increscente, fluxerunt. ; - Sed omnium primi, qui 

^Egyptum occupaverunt, coelestia suspicere, atque adorare ccepe- 
runt. Lactantii Opera, Lib. II. p. 103. edit. Cantab. 1685. It 
is worthy of remark, that one of the grandsons of Ham was named 
Seba, from whom it is probable Arabia Felix was formerly called 
Sabaea. The predatory excursions of the Sabeans are also noticed 
by the Author of the book of Job. ch. 1. v. 15. 

That the worship of the Heavenly Bodies prevailed in the East, 
at a very early period, is certain from the words of Job, wha thus 
exculpates himself from the charge of idolatry : " If I beheld the 
sun when it shined, or the moon walking in brightness : and my 
hedrt hath been secretly enticed, or my mouth hath kissed my hand : 
this also were an iniquity to be punished by the judge : for I should 
have denied the God that is above." Job, ch. 31. v. 26, 27, 28. 
Maimonides in Moreh Nebochim, Pars 3. cap. 29. expressly affirms 
that Abraham was educated in the faith of the Zabii, " Abraham 
Patrem nostrum educatum esse in fide Zabaeorum ; " he maintains 
the same opinion also in his book De Idololatria \ 6. « In Ur 
Chaldaeorum submersus erat inter fatuos idololatras. Pater autem, 
ac mater ejus, omnisque populus, idola colebant, et ille una cum iis." 
It would appear therefore, that the idolatrous opinions of the Za- 
bii originated with the posterity of Ham, at a very early period after 
the flood, in Egypt or Chaldea, but spread so rapidly and exten- 
sively, that in a very short time nearly the whole of the descend* 
ants of Noah were infected with their pestiferous sentiments and 
practices : « Quae Gens (sc. Zabaistce) totum Terrarum orbem 
impleverat. ,> Maimon. Mor. Neb. 

III. Opinions. 

1. Their first and principal adoration was directed to the Host 

of Heaven or the Stars. « Statuerunt, Nullum esse Deum 

prater Stellas 5" are the words of Maimonides, who adds, --- 
« expressedicunt Stellas esse Divinas, (vel, Deos minorum Gentium) 
et Solem esse Deum magnum. Ita dicunt quoque, reliquos quin- 
que Planetas esse Deos, sed duo Luminaria esse Majores. Invenies 
quoque, illos clare dicere, Solem regere Mundum superiorem et 
inferiorem :" Maimon. Mor. Neb. P. 3. c. 29. 

2. They were also Ignicolce, or Worshippers of Fire. The city 
of Ur in Chaldea seems to have had its name from its inhabi- 
tants being devoted to the worship of fire. Vide Vossii Not. in 

£86 t)n the Ancient Zabil. 

Maimon* De Jdololat. ^ 8 ; and Menasseh Ben Israel in Genet. 
Qtuztf. XL. Maimonide6 also in Mor. Neb. P. 3. cap. 37. calk 
them— « Cultores Ignis."— Vide P. 3. c. SO. & Selden Be Dm 
Sprit, Syntag. II. c. 8. p. 321. 

3. They dedicated Images to the Sun, and the other celestial 
crbd» supposing that by a formal consecration of them to ibose 
luminaries, a divine virtue was infused into them, by which they 
acquired the faculty of understanding, and the power of conferring 
Prophecy and other gifts upon their worshippers. These images 
were formed of various metals, according to the particular star, to 
which any of them was dedicated. They also regarded certain 
frees as appropriated to particular stars, and when idolatrously 
dedicated, as possessing very singular virtues. " Porro, secundum 
sententias illas Zabiorum erexerunt Stellis Imagines, et Soli qui- 
tlem Imagines aureaa, Lunae ver5 argenteas, atque ita Metalla et 
Ciimata Terras inter Stellas partiti sunt. -- - Deinde Sacella aedifica* 
vevunt* Jbaagiitesque in illis collocarunt, arbitrantes vires Stellarum 
influere in ilia;* Imagines, casque Intelligendi virtutem habere* 
Hominibus Prophetiae donum largiri, ac denique, quae ipsis utilia 
ac salutaria sunt, indicare. Ita dicunt de Arboribus quae sunt ex 
portione Stellarum illarum : cum Arbor quaedam Stellae alicoi 
dedicator, nomini ejus plantatur, et hoc vel illo pacto colitur, quod 
virtutes spirituales Stellae in Arborem illam infundantur, ita ut 
secundum modum Prophetiae cum Hominibus, ut propbetent, loqua- 
tur, et in Somnis etiam illos alloquatur." Maimonides Moreh Ne6o~ 
chim. Pars 3* cap. 29. 

4. From these opinions sprang the adoption, by them, of As* 
frology in all its varied forms. " Qu6d si perlegeris omnes illos 
Libros, quorum mentionem apud te feci, patebit, quod Astrologia 
vel Magia fuerit opus Zabiorum, Casdxorum et Chaldasorum ; n*» 
quentior tamen i:«ter iEgyptios et Cananaeos." Maimon. Mar. Neb. 
P* 3. cap. 37. — Selden De Diis Syris, Syntag. I. cap. 2. p. 103, 
edit. Lugd. Bat. 1629. 

5. They maintained the doctrine of the Eternity of the World : 
" Ideo omnes Zabaistce crediderunt Antiquitatem Mundi, quia Cceli 
jttxta illos sunt Dgus." Maimon. Mor* Neb. P. 3. c. 29. The 
•Zabian authors also relate that Abraham was banished out of Chal- 
rfea, for opposing their sentiments, and in particular for asserting 
that there was another Creator beside the Sun. Vide Maimon. 
Mot. Neb. P. 3. c. 29. and De Idololat. cap. 1. § 6, 7, 8. Hyde. 
Vet. Pers. Relig. Hist. cap. 2. pp. 68 — 72. edit. Oxon. 1760. — 
Menasseh Ben-Israel. Conciliator, in Genes. Quaest. XL. and 
Stanley's Hist, of Philosophy, Part 18. p. 797. 

6. Holding the Eternity of the World, they easily became Prt- 
adamites, affirming that Adam was not the first man. .They also 

On the Ancient Zed) it. 387 

fabled concerning him, that he was the Apostle o{ the Moon, and 
the author of several works on Husbandry. Of Noah, they taught* 
that he was an Husbandman, and was imprisoned for dissenting 
from their opinions ; they also speak of Seth, who, they say, was 
another of those who forsook the worship of the Moon* " Insuper 
existimarunt, Adamum primunt fuisse virum ex viroet ioemin*, 
sicut reiiqui homines, progenitum. Sed tameu magnis laudibus 
ipsum *vexerunt : dixerunt ilium fuisse Apostolum Lunse, vocasse 
Homines ad cultum Lunx, et Libros composuisse de Cultura 
Terrar. Sic de Noah dicunt Zabaistic, quod fuerit Agricola, neque 
ipsi cultus Imaginum placuerit. Inde invenies, omnes Zabio* 
vituperare Noam, et dicere, quod nullas coluerit Imagines. Item, 
quod in judicium vocatus, carcerique inclusus fuerit, eo qu&d 
Deum Opt. Max. coluerit : et alia. Schethum existimant disces*- 
sisse & sententia patris sui Adami in cultu Lunx»" Maimon. Mor. 
Neb. P. 3. c. 29. p. 422. 

7. They held Agriculture, also, in the highest estimation, re- 
garding it as intimately connected with their worship of the Hea- 
venly Bodies. On this account, it was deemed criminal, by the 
major part of them, to slay or feed upon Cattle. w Causa, propter 
quam Idololatrze magnifaciunt Boves et Armenta, est, quod mag** 
nam utilitatem prabent in Agricultura : ita ut dixerint, Nori~esse 
permissum ilia mactare, quia magna?' virtutes et commoda ex illis 
ad Homines redeant ab A9tris propter Agriculturam." Maimon. 
Mor. Neb. P. S. c. 30. p. 428. 

Goats too were reputed sacred animals, because the demons 
whom they worshipped were said to appear in the woods and de- 
serts in the form of goats or satyrs : " Ad hunc modum ex Zabiis 
quidam fuerunt, qui dsemones colebant, et existimabant, quod 
fovmam Hircortm habeant ; unde etiam dsemonea Seirim, h. e. 

Hircos appellabant." " Ex erroribus enim illis antiquis fuit 

et hoc, quod daemones in desertis habitent, loquantur et appareant, 
ia urbibus vero et locis habitatis nequaquam conspiciantur." — 
Maimon. ut sup. P. 3. c. 46. p. 480, 485. — Vide ct Selden, de Diis 
Syris, Proleg, cap. 3. p. 38. edit. Lugd» Bat. 1629. 

IV. Ipolatrous and Superstitious Practices. 

1. Some were dangerous, as the sacrifices of lions, tygers, and 
other wild beasts : " Offerebant leone$, ursos, tygros, aliasque fe- 
rts besti'as/' — Maimon. ut sup. P. 3. c. 46. p. 48 1. 

2. Certain of their rites were eruel % as the passing of their chil- 
dren through the fire ; — branding themselves also with fire ; — and, 
if credit may be attached to the relation of Mahumed Ben Isaac, 
slaying and eating a new born infant annually in the 5th month. 
" Ita notum est in genere ex natura hominum, quod nihil xque 
timeant et horrcaat, ac ^acukatum et liberorum suorum amissic- 

£88 On the Ancient Zabii. 

hem. Ideo publicirunt et sparserunt cultores ignis, omnes li- 
beros morituros, qui filium aut filiam suam per ignem non tra- 
duxerit. Proinde nullum dubium est, quin unusquisque magna 
diligentia properarit ad faciendum illud, turn ob magna m erga li- 
beros suos clementiam, et timorem de illis amittendis, &C." Mai- 
mon. ut sup. P. 3.. c. 37. p. 448. Stanley (in Hist, of Philosophy, 
Fart 19 ch. 1.) quoting a MS. of Mahumed Ben Isaac, cited by 
Hottinger, says, " In the fifth month, which, as the Syrians, they 
(the Zabii) call Ab, they press new wine to their gods, and give it 
several names : this they do the eight first days. They likewise 
kill a new born infant to their gods, which they beat all to pieces ; 
then they take the flesh, and mix it with rye meal, saffron, ears of 
corn, mace, and little cakes like figs ; they bake this in a new oven, 
and give it to the people of the congregation of Sammael, all the 
year long ; no woman eats of this, nor servant, nor son of a bond- 
woman, nor man that is possessed, or mad. 

$» Some of their practices were loathsome and disgustful : such 
for instance, as, eating blood, believing it to be the food of de- 
mons : " Hi mactantes bestiam aliquam, sanguinem ejus accipie- 
bant, et in vase vel fassula aliqua colligebant, carnem vero macta- 
tani circa ilium sanguinem in circulo sedentes comedebant j ima- 
ginantes sibi, in hoc opere, ipsis carnem comedentibus, daemones 
ilium sanguinem comedere, et hunc ipsorum esse cibum, hocque 
medio amicitiam, fraternitatem et familiar i tat em inter ipsos con- 
trahi, quia omnes in una mensa edunt, et uno consessu accum-. 
bunt : praeterea opinabantur, daemones in somnio sibi compa- 
rere, futura indicare, plurimumque prodesse." Maimon. ut sup. 
P. 3. c. 46. , 

4. Others werejrivolous and tedious ; as, offering bats and mice 
to the sun; various and frequent ablutions, lustrations, Scc.&c. "Sou 
(Deo suo majori) obtulerint septem vespertiliones, septem mures, et 
septem reptilia alia, cum certi's quibusdam rebus." "Labores 
magna's habuerunt Zabaei circa pollutiones. >f Maimon. ut sup. P. 
3. c. 29. et P. 3. c. 47. p. 492. et P. 3. c. 37. p. 451. 

5. Some of them were obscene, as the mode of engrafting a tree ; 
the rites practised to obtain rain, &c. Vide Maimon. ut sup. P. 3. 
c. 37. pp. 445,447, 451. 

6. Many of their rites were magical. Maimonides divides these 
into three classes : " Prima species est illorum, quae versatur circa 
plantas, animalia, et metalla. Secunda consistit in circumscrip- 
tione et determinatione temporis, quo opera ilia sunt facienda. 
Tertia consistit in gestibus et actionibus humanis, ut saltatione, 
manuum complosione, clamore, risu, cubatione vel prona expan- 
sione super terram, rei alicujus combustione, fumi accensione, • 
quorundam verborum denique, sive intelligibilium, sive non intel- 

ligibilium prolatione. Sunt autem quaedam, quae non nisi his uni- 

rersis perficiuntur." Mor. Neb. P. 3. c. 27. p. 444. 


On the Ancient Zabii. 389 

V.* Present Descendants. 
• It is generally acknowledged that some traces of Zabianism are 
.still to be found both amongst the Hindoos and Chinese in the 
-east, and the Mexicans and other nations in the south* See. the 
elegant dissertations on « Indian Antiquities," by Rev. T. Mau- 
rice, Vol. 2 and 3 j and the learned work of Dr. Leland on " The 
Advantage and Necessity of the Christian Revelation," Vol. 1. 
Part 1. ch, 3. But those who may be considered as the most di- 
rect descendants from these ancient idolaters, are the Guebres, or 
Parsees bf Persia, and the Sa^ians df Arabia. 

, The Guebres or Parsees, who inhabit Persia, and are scat- 
tered through various parts of Hindostan, are- the acknowledged 
worshippers of fire, or the Supreme Deity under that symbol. 
* ( Quod * Persac olim fuerint Sabaitix, seu Sabii, fidem facit Ibn 
Phacreddin Angjou Persa in libro Pharhangh Gjihdnghiri de Per- 
sis Shemi proneptibus loquens in Procemio suo, " Illorum religio 
tunc fudt Sabaismus : at tandem facti sunt magi, et cedificarunt 
cedes ignium." " Et in eundem sensum auctor libri Mu'gjizdt 
Phdrsi, p. 224, de Persarum serfs nepotibus refert, Persce antiquo 
tempore erant de religione Sabaitarum Stellas colentes, usque ad 
tempus Gushtdsp Jilii Lohrdsp. Tunc enim eorum religionem 
reformavit Zoroastres" Hyde, Vet. Pers. Relig. Hist. cap. 3. 
pp. 4, 85. 

The modern Sabians, who inhabit the country round about 
Mount Libanus, believe the unity of God, but « pay an adoration 
to the stars, or the angels and intelligences which they suppose 
reside in them, and govern the world under the Supreme Deity.'* 
They are obliged to pray three times a day : and the'y fast three 
times a year. They offer many sacrifices, but eat no part of them ; 
and abstain from beans, garlick, and SQme other pulse and veget- 
ables. " They greatly respect the Temple of Mecca, and the Py- 
ramids of Egypt ; fancying these last to be the sepulchres of Seth, 
and of Enoch and Sabi his two sons, whom they look on as the first 
propagators of their religion. At these structures they sacrifice a 
cock, and a black calf, and offer up incense." Their principal pil- 
grimage, however, is to Haran, the supposed birth-place of Abra- 
ham. Vide Sale's Koran, Prelim. Disc. Sect. 1. D^Herbelot, 
BibHotheque Orientate, p. 714. edit. Maestricht, 1776. and Hyde, 
Vet, Pers. Relig. Hist. cap. 5. 

The Mendai Jehai, or Christians of St. John, have generally 
been associated with the latter, and considered as forming a part of 
the same sect ; but I am inclined to think, that they ought rather 
to be considered as a distinct people, who have been confounded 

with the Sabians, from the equivocal use of the Arabic term U^ 

T$aba, sometimes applied to those who adored the Host of Hea- 



On tht Ancient Zabii. 

ven ; and sometimes used as a general term for all those who dis 

sent from the doctrines of Mohammed. The most probable opin 

ion is, that they are the remains of a Jewish sect, since they 
ceive the Psalms of David, as a sacred book ; and profess to 
the followers of John the Baptist. They also use frequent abh 
tions. But, future intelligent and observant travellers only, ca~ 
decide the point. See Fabricius, Lux Ewngelii, cap. 5. p. Ill 
and cap. 87. p. 636. and the authors to whom he refers. 

Macclesfield, June 23rd, 1815. J. T. 








NO, I. 

AVe are happy to give a place in our Journal to the following work, 
written by C. A; Klotzius, and inserted in " C. A. Klotzii Opuscula 
▼arii Argument!, 1766, 8vo." In our XXth No. p. 30©. we gave a 
i>rief notice of this book, and announced our intention to adorn our 
miscellany with two or three of the articles, which it contains. We 
shall redeem our pledge. With respect to the " Libellus de felici au- 
dacia Horatii," we beg leave strongly to recommend it to the perirsal 
.of our readers as a performance of great merit. Indeed every thing, 
which bears the signature of this very learned and enlightened scholar, 
deserves to be read. 


v^um mihi nunc more institutoque majorum specimen aliquod ingenii 
et doctrinae edendum sit : ueque iiiutilem rem neque a studiis meis 
alieuam factum* mihi esse videor, si poetices atque humanitatis studio- 
8o« ad poetarum artes carminumque elegantias intelligendas examinan- 
dasque acuere studeam. Sunt enim duae artis criticae partes. Altera, 

[Ars critica duplex.] 
«ubtilior ilia et quae plus laboris, quam ostentationis, habet, in verbis 
constituendis atque vera locorum lectione confirmanda versatur : al- 
tera, nescio an nobilior ilia, certe jucundior, ipsam poetarum artem ex- 
aminat, de ingenio scrip tons judicat, venustatem et elegantiam car- 
minis explicat, sententias, figuras et verba ad leges veri et recti judicii 
exi«it. Haec est ilia ars, quae magis a natura donatur, quam doctrina 
et diligentia acquiritur, sed quae polienda tamen est et conformanda 
doctrina et praeceptis, quam in multis, etsi hi altera ilia, bene instructi 
sint, desideramus, quae sensum pulchri et venusti acuit, et quae meritp 
laudatur commendaturque a Daniele Heinsio in Aristarcho p. 6*85. 
Etsi vero plurimi poetae ante oculos versentur, animumque meum al- 
liciant : nullius tamen in car minibus examinandis mearum virium pe- 
riculum facere malo, quam in Horatii. Nam et ab ineunte aetate me 
hujus inprimis poctee suavitas mirifice cepit et delectavit, et si viris 
quibusdam doctis (nisi fortasse illi nimis amanter de me jud leaver int) 
fides habenda, non iufeliciter ilium imitatus sum. Certe me secutum 
hunc poetam, quantum diversitas ingeniorum, maximi et minimi; 
passa sit, atque aemulatum esse, novi et tateor. 
„ Jam cogitanti mihi varia criticorum de Horatio judicia, et perpen*. 
denti egregias laudes, qui bus certatim viri docti ilium extulerint, pro- 
batur inprimis judicium optimi dicendi magistri, Quintiliani. Hie 

292 C. A. Klotzii Libelkts 

enim in recensendis Graecis et Latinis scriptoribus : At Lyricorum, 

[Quintiliatii judicium de Horatio.] 
elicit, idem Horatius fere solus legi dignus. Nam et insurgit aU- 
quando et plenus est jucunditatis et gratia, et variis figuris et verbis 
telicissime audax. Inst, Orat. X. 1. Elegans vero judicium et pra> 
claro Quintiliaoi ingenio dignum ! Scd videamus primuni de verbis, 
deinde ipsam sententiam copiosius explicemus. 

[Barthii emendatio.] 
Displicuit vehementer in hoc loco Barthio verbuni aliquando, nam 
in comment ario ad Statii Theb. X. v. 700. indecoram et inscitam Horatii 
laudem esse putat, si aliquando insurgat: Quintilianum Horatium 
omnibus reliquis proferentem, insigni aliquo encomio eum vulgo et 
jomnibus eximere debuisse : sibi quidem Quintilianum scripsisse vi- 
deri : nam et assurgit aquila modp et plenus fyc. Equidem, ut libere 
meam de bac Barthii conjecture, sententiam dicam, nihil malim, quam 
lit ea codicis alicujus auctoritate confirmetur. Est enim ingeniosis- 
sima, et pulchrum sensum efficit. Burmannus in animadversionibus 
ad Quintilianum, ut locum nulla emendatione egere ostendat, siq ilium 
explicat : et insurgere aliquando Horatium, si deos, Augustum, heroas 
et alios illustres viros canat, et aliquando tenuem esse, cum convivia - 
rirginum aliaque amoeniora memoret. Videtur vero mihi nescio quo- 
modo coacta, difficilis et intricata haec interpretatio. Quod ipsom 
Burmannum non ignorasse, inde apparet, quoniam in altero membro 
ro aliquando repetit, quod tantummodo semel a Quintiliano positmti 
fuit. Miror etiam, quomodo to aquilce modo tanquam a nemtiie 
dictum Burmannum ofFendere potuerit. Nam sic ipse Horatius, IV, 
2. ego apis Matinee more modoque, et Tacitus An. IV, 25. pecorum * 
modo trahi, occidi, capi, atque HisL IF, 15. vagos et pads modo ef- 
fusos lixas ; et sic saepius. Ipse Horatius, dum in optima ilia atque 
ad verbum ediscenda epistola ad Pisones, quam vulgo Artem poeticam 
dicunt, poetse lyrici partes commemorat, sicut Quintilianus hoc loco*, 
duplicem *ei materiam subjectam esse docet. 

Musa dedit fidibus divos puerosque deorum, 

Et pugilem victorem, et equum certamine prim urn, 

Et juvenum curas, et libera vina referre. 

Haec sunt jucunditatis et gratiae, ilia sublimitatis. 

[Audacia etfelicitas saepe scriptoribus tributa.] 
Potto audaciam et felicitatem saepe poetis et oratoribus a scriptoribus 
bonis tribui meminimus. Sic optat Lyricorum princeps, 01. IX. efyv 
evprjcrieirris avayeicrdai irpocnpopos ev M.oicrav htypy roXpa ik Kal afjufuXa- 
<pys bvvafjLis ^arroiro' atque 01. XIII. e^w KaXii re (ppacrai, rSXpa rkpoi 
cvQela yX&traav opvvei Xcyeiv et Longinus de Euripide aliquoties : S. 1 5. 
Gfiijjs eavrav 6 JLipiTibqs Kaiceivois viro (piXoripias toIs Kivhvvois trpoo* 
jlifi&ciec — ov prjv a\Xa kclitcus ttXXais eTrtTiOecrOai </>avraer(ais ovk #r©A- 
pos, et de ^Eschylo, rov & AlcrxyXov (pavracriats eiriroXp&yros 4p«^ 
tKiordrais, atqiie S. 28. legimus roXprfy pera^opwy et el bel icapaKi*- 
foyevrtKtorepov Ae^'cu. Notante etiam Dacierio ad IV 9 2. Horat. apud 

de felici Audacia Horatii. 293 

Eustatliium hSvpapfiiKov Op 6. (70s occunit. Atque ipse Horatius nos- 
ter de Romanis suis Graecos imitantibus, Epist. II. 1, 166'. 

Nam spirat tragicum satis et felici ter audet, 
et IV, 2. 

Seu per audaces nova Dithyrambos 
Verba devolvit. 

Statius vero Capanei pugnam cum Jove cantaturus, sie incipit : X. 


Nod mihi jam soli to vatum de more cancndum, 
Major ab Aoniis sumenda audacia lucis. 
Mecum omnes audet e Deae. 

et idem L. IV. Silv. c. J. ad Maximum : 

— Nostra 

Thebais multa cruciata lima 
Tentat audaci fide Mantuanae 

gaudia famae. 

Sic etiam Cicero de Orat. Ill, 9. Isocratem ait Theopompum e»- 
sultantem verborum audacia repressisse, et in Orat. Go. Nam et trait** 
firunt verba cum crebrius, turn etiam audacius. Denique Quint, de 
iEschine, XII, 10. nonne his Icetior et audentior et excelsior? et X, 
5. nam et sublimis spiritus attollere orationem potest et verba poetica 
liber tat e audaciora. IX, 2. Ilia adhuc audaciora, et majorum Cut 
Cicero existimat) laterum, fictiones personarum. X, 1 . Sed elatum 
abunde spiritum et audaces sententias deprehendas etiam in Us ete. 
XI, 1. Tnjuvenibus etiam uberiora paullo et pene periclitautia/erufi- 
tur: et ibid. Ipsum etiam eloquent i<e genus alios aliud decet: Nam 
neque tarn plenum et erectum, et audax, et pracultum senibus convent* 
rit, quam pressum, et mite, et limatum, add. Eumenii Pancg. in Con- 
-stantium c. 8. quanquam ilia regio — (ut cum verbi periculo loquar) terra 
non est. vide praeclare de his agentem beatum Gesnerum ad Quinti- 
Uan. II. 11, 3. Hanc audaciam Pindaro plerumque tribuunt Critici. 
Ita enim prater Tanaqu. Fabrum in vitis poet. Graec. p. 64. judicat 
Borrichius : figure ejus, ut magnificat, ita aliquando dithyrambica et 
pracipites. Hac audacia nostris moribus inter vitia cense tur, Pin-' 
darico cevo et succtdentibus illis seculis haud dubie inter virtutes nu~ 
meratafuit. v. diss, de poet is Gracis II. §. 60. Felicitatem vero 
Quintilianus non semel in scriptoribus laudat. Sic /, 5. feliciores J&t- 
gendis nominibus Graci : IX, 4. Felicissimus tamen sermo est, cut 
et rectus ordo, et apta junctura - - contingit : X, 1 . de Cicerone : 
oratio pro* sefert felicissimam facilitatem. 

Simili fere ratione extollit Horatium Petronius c. 118. et in eo 
euriosam felicitatem observat : quo loco addit ; cateri enim aut non 
viderunt viam, qua iretur ad carmen, aut visam timuerunt calcare. 
Nonne bis docet, Horatium eminere audacia ingenii, reliquos autem 
nimio timore repressos, non potuisse eandem carminum vim et prtc- 
stantiam assequi t 

2fj4 C. A. Klotzii Libellus 

Duo igitur in Horatii carminibus Quintilianus laudat, jocunditatem 
et dulcedinem, at que nobilem quandam et audacem sublimitatem. 
Atque etiam his duobus virtutibus ingenium nostri poetae omnium 

[Horatii ingenium.'] 
sibi admirationem et laudem concUiavit. Nam quod III, 29» de 
flumine dicit : 

Caetera fluminis 

Ritu feruntur, nunc medio alveo 
Cum pace delabentis Etruscum 
In mare, nunc lapides adesos, 
Stirpesque raptas, et pecus, et domos 
Volventis una, 

idem de ipso dici potest. Modo enim lento et molli gressu incedit ; 
modo incalescit subito et ore profundo ruit. Vides eum nunc tanquam 
apem circa rivos et flores volitare, nunc ut aquilam magnis alis iu tub- 
lime ferri. Modo dulcibus numeris et mollibus Leuconoen, Maecena- 
tem, Telephum ad laetitiam excitat : modo amores suos et praelia virgi- 
num cantat : modo severiori carmine optima virtutis praecepta tradit: 
modo abreptus, sacro quodam ardore coelum petit, posteritatemspectat, 
deos animo contemplatur, aeternitatem intuetur. Quae turn spiritus 
magnificentia ! quae sententiarum nobilitas ! quae verba ! quae figure I 
Turn vero plenus ille magnarum rerum contemplatione animus, omnia 
humana contemnit, divitias spernit, honorum titulos ridet, ipsius for- 
tuua? iram minasque negligit, atque cuncta infra se posita esse existi* 
mat. Turn proveniunt illae magnae, illae admirabiles sententiae, qua* 
cum legimus, ipsi incendiraur amore virtutis, ipsi res humanas et fra- 
giles spernimus, quidquid evenerit securi, pectus constantia muoi- 
mus, divitias et opes oculo irretorto adspicimus, atque earn laurum 
et coronam, quam sapientia imponit, adhamamus. Hinc verissime et 
elegantissime Lipsius noster de Horatio judicat : Horatio in lyricit 
merito illud Homericum dabimns : eh Koipavos i<m>. nemo illi proxi* 
mwt, nemo secundus, Qtuesit. EpUt. II, 20. Quas in singulis Grae- 
Corum poetarum admiramur, in nostro conjunctas atque conso-- 
ciatas videmus virtutes. r>st in illius carminibus dulcedo Anacreon- 
tis, nobilitas Stesichori et Alcaei, sublimitas et magnificentia Pindari, 
et vigor Sapphus. Neque tamen ut Sappho et Anacreon solum vinum 
et amorem, neque ut Pindarus solos victores, neque praelia tantum- 
modo, ut Alcaeus, canit. Nam et magnorum virorum laudes, et 
amorem, et virtutis decus carminibus suis itmnortalitati consecravit. 
Praeterea in nostro est profunditas sine obscuritatc, simplicitas shier 
nrgligentia, elegantia sine affectatione, jucunditas sine arte, copia sine 
redundantia, sublimitas sine tumore. In sententiis est nobilis et mag- 
nus : in figuris jucundus modo, modo audax : in verbis aptis, magnis 
et valde moventibus dcligcudis, felicissimus. Haec quidem imago 
Horatii, haec indoles carminum illius esse videtur, quam in parva ta- : 
bula depingere conati sumus. Nam immensas etiam regioues, immo 
totius orbis ambitum exigua charta saepe exhiberi videmus. Nuuc 
dicamus de felici audacia poetarum in universum. 

de fclici Audacia Horatii. 295 

[Audacia poetis neccssaria, et quid sit ?] 
Poetas lyricos a 'reliquis sublimitate sententiarum verborumque 
splendore maxime differre, atque quo sublimior quisque sit, eo majo* 
rem ad miration em mereri, non opus est multis docere. Quod de alia re 
Terentius ait: non fit sine periculo f acinus magnum et memorabUe, 
idem etiam de illis dici potest. Non potest grande aliquid et supra, 
c&teros loqui, nisi mota mens. Cum vulgaria et solita contemsit, in- 
stinctuque sacro surrexit excelsior, tunc demum aliquid cecinit grandius 
ore mortali. — Desciscat oportet a solito et effieratur et mordeat franos* 
et rector em rapiat suum, eoqueferat, quo per se ipsum timuisset escen- 
dere: optime dicit Seneca de Tranquill. c. 7- Non proferet ille ad- 
mirabile aliquid, non componet aeternitate dignum carmen, qui yel na- 
ture timidiusculus sit, vel sibi ipse vim faciat, ardoremque restinguat. 
Humiles aliquos scribet versiculos, tenues, omni vigore destitutes. 

Serpit humi tutus nimium timidusque procellse. 

Cui vero major vigor est, cui mens divinior, cui illud os magna sona- 
turum, quod cui fit, eum demum Hor alius poetae nomen mereri dicit, 
S. I, 4, 44. ille se altius tollit, relinquit humum, praecipitia adit, 

Viamque affectat olympo. 

Recordatur ille nobilissimam Seneca? sententiam : HumiUs et inertis 
est tuta sectari, per alta virtus it, de Prov. c. 5. Inde etiam Boilavius 
malle se ait Pindari audaciam imitatum, quasi I c arum aliquem, labi, 
quam cum Perralto humi serpere. Versus notissimi sunt. 

Jam si animus poetse contemplatione alicujus rei vehementer mo- 
vetur, si vel laetitia excitatur, yel dolore percellitur, vel ira exacerba- 
tur, vel admiratione impletur, turn vero verba non diu et anxie quaerit 
et sententias, quibus sensum animi exprimat. Vulgaria verba illi non 
sufticiunt, ad res magnas exhauriendas, inde non tarn ex legibus lin- 
guae loquitur, quam potius, sicut animus ardens et vivid urn ingenium 
dicere jubet. Eleganter Seneca, ubi se animus, dicit, cogitationi* 
magnitudine beavit, ambitiosus in verba es%, altiusque ut spirare t ita 
eloqui gestit, et ad dignitatem rerum exit oratio : oblitus turn legis 
pressiorisquejudicii, sublimis feror et ore jam non meo ; de Tranquill. 
c. 1. Haec ultima verba pingunt nobis quasi poetam, qui sibi ipse 
amplius imperare nequeat, qui jam non suus sit, sed quodcunque 
ingenium dictet, eloquatur aut scribat. Majorem se turn putat, quam 
qui legibus Grammaticorum aut Pbilosophorum adstringi possit : 

Jura negat sibi nata, nihil non arrogat : 

audacter progreditur, nova verba fingit, communia et vulgaria trans* 
fert, rebus sensu carentibus actum et animos dat, a recepto verba col- 
Iocandi ordine recedit, dat vela ir«, dat indignationi, dat dolori : turn 

totum spirant pnecordia P hoe bum. 

Ipse sentiens ardorem, et conscius sibi coelestis hujus vigoris, sibi 
^emperare nequit : exclamat cum optimo poeta : 

296 * C. A. Klotzii Libeltus 

Dicam insigne, recens, ad hue 

Indictura ore alio 

Nil parvum aut bumili niodo, 
Nil mot tale loquur : 

nos audaces figuras, nobiles eomparationes, abruptas sententias, 
verba gravia, plena, sonantia, translata, grand ia, quae ex inflammato 
tantum pectore .proveuire possint, videmus conjuncta. Turn vero 
jure acclamari debet : Deus ccce Deus ! turn existit carmen, in quo 
exhorrescimus, quod stupefacti legimus aut audimus, in quo excla- 
mamus, cujus auctorem deum, ut ita dieam, inter liomines putamus. 
Quod Caussinus in Eloquent, sacr. et humana I. I, c. 22. de Platone 
dick, optime ad talem poetam transferetur : Aquilam diceres, qua 
ittpra nives, pluvias et grandines, supra nubes et tonitrua, et supra ii 
omne, quod mortale est, pennarum remigiis erect a, in illo puriori tethert 
$uspensa conqniescit, et nunc solem dejixis intuetur oculis, nunc ad 
Jo vis alludit fulmina. Haec nobilis audacia poetis et oratoribus com- 
meudatur a Plinio L. IX, ep. 26. quae epistola bonae frugis plenissima 
est et e qua praecipua excerpamus: nihil peccat, nisi quod nihil pec- 
cat : debet enim orator erigi, attolli, interdum etiam effervescere, ef- 
ferri ac sape accedere ad prteceps. N*m pltrumque nltis et excelsis 
adjacent abrupta: tutius per plana, scd humilius et depress ius iter : 
Nam ut quasdam artes, it a eloquent iam nihil magis, quam ancipitia 
commendant. Sunt enim maxime mirabilia, qua tnaxime insperata, 
maxime periculosa utqne Grceci magis exprimunt irupbftoXa. His 
Plinii verbis nos tram de hac^re disputationem egregie illustrari ar- 

Verum est haec audacia maxime periculosa. Nam scriptor aut ob 
pusiilum animum sublimitatem assequi nequit, aut altius progreditur, 
quam par est. Nihil est dithcilius, quam vere sublimem esse. Non 
semel hoc monuit Longinus, quern audiamus. (quis enim eo melius 
jectiusque de sublimitate judicat ?) Hie vero S. 3. dicit oXws b % eoitcer 
eivai to oibelv, kv rols /idXcora, bvatyvXciKTOTarov, et S. 29* monet, ra 
pey&Xa emff^aXfi hi avro ylveaOai to peyeQos. Sunt vitia, in quae scrip* 
tor audax et sublimitatem affectans facillime potest incidere. Vicinum 
est sublimitati to peipaKiw&es, vicina fj yf/v^porrfs, vicinus 6 Tapivdvptros; 
de quibus, quoniam jam Longinus in S. 2. doctissime disputavit, non 
opus est quidquam addere. Nam qui accuratius haec orationis viba 
cognoscere cupiant, petant banc doctrinam ex uberrimo illo et limpi- 
dissimo fonte. Poeta igitur primum naturam in tribuendis animi do- 
tibus fautriceni nactus sit, atque ab ilia motus illos ingenii et ad ex- 
cogitandum celeres et ad explicandum uberes acceperit, oportet. 
Haec illi donaverit, necesse est, quasi alas, quibus se hunio tollere, 
atque alta petere valeat ; haec ei dederit animum nobilem et magna- 
rum cogitationum capacem. Ad eximiam hanc et il lust rem naturam 
accedat ratio quae dam conformatioque doctrinae. Verissime enim Lou* 
sinus in S. 2. docet : on >/ <pu&is, i'tanrep tcl iroXXa kv rots TraOrfruco'is icai 
birjppivois avTOVOfiov, - oUtws ovk eUcuov tliJCcik ttclvtos apedo&ov elvaA 
fiXel, quae sententiadoctissimorum virorum auctoritatibus confirmatur* 
vid. Langbaine ad Long. p. 29* Nora stint aurea verba nostri: 


de fclicv Audacia Horatii. 297 

— Ego nee studium sine divite vena, 

Nee rude quid possit video ingeuium : alterius sic 

AUera poscit opem res et cou jurat amice. 

Natura dat animura, qui attenta alicujus rei contemplatione facile mo- 
veatur, inardescat et deinde grandia ei: sublimia cogitet, eaque audacter 
cloquatur. Doctrina vero fines praescribit, quos si egrediamur, pecca- 
mus, ostendit vitia, a quibus nobis caveamus, viain docet, quam inire 
debeamus. Est igitur attentioue opus, ne nirnium indulgeamus in- 
genio, ut temperenms calori, quantum iiceat, ut, quanivis poetice, hu- 
mane tameu etiatn loquamur. Sed quidni, totam rem Longini verbis 
explicemus? Non pcenitet certe memorabilem locum ex S. 2. ad- , 
scribere, e quo, quam audaciam felicem dicere debeamus, opttme ap- 
parebit. Est vero locus bic : ws ewiKivSworepa aura l<f> eavrwv bt^a 
extort) firjs aartjpccTa Kal aveppaTitna eafleira, ofirw ra fieydXa evl fjdvrj 
rjj <f>op(i Kal ajxaQel ToXpy Xetwofieva. Set yap airols, its K&vrpov 
ToXXaKis, ovno bi) Kal xaXivov. "Owep yap 6 ^rjfioadiyrjs eirl rov icoivov rStv 
avOpuTTuv cnrotyaiverat fllov, pkyiorov pev elvai rwv ayadwv to cirv- 
\€lv f bevrepov bk Kal ovk eXarrov, re ev fiovXeveoQat, owep ds av prj iraprj, 
(rvvavatpel irdvruis xal darepov, tovt av Kal ewl r&v X6ytav einoipev k. X. 
Quern igitur feliciter audacem dicemus 1 nempe eum, qui cum a na- 
tura optimo in^enio instructus, turn doctrina conformatus, in magnis 
et sublimibus sententiis proferendis, in figuris audacibus excogitandis, 
iu verbis fiugendis audacter et ordinandis, ita versetur, ut vitia his vir- 
tutibus opposita feliciter evitet. 

Qua? jam de felici audacia poctarum in universum diximus, nunc ad 
Horatium transferamus. Etsi vero Quint ilianus, nostrum tan turn ra- 
nt* figuris et verbis felicissime audacem esse, dicat, nobis tanien haec 
audacia multo latius extenderida, atque in tota Horatii poesi quaerenda 
esse videtur. Dicemus igitur primum de ipso carminum genere, au- 

[Instituti ratio,] 
dacter a nfotro e Graecia in Latium translato, atque audaci, qua in 
scribendis multis versatus est, ratione : deinde audaces sententias ex- 
cerpemus et explicabimus : ubi etiam de imaginibus, quas vocaut, 
agemus : denique quae in ipsa elocutione sit audacia, exponemus. 
[Horatius et Lyricorum Latinorum primus, et in Lyricis carminibus 

scribendis audacter versatus est.] 

Atque primum quidem in ipso carminum genere, quod elegit Hora- 
tius, nobilis audacia apparet. Magnum est aliquid, magnorutnque et 
nobilium ingeniorum proprium, non aliorum vestigia premere, non 
trita via incedere, non leges accipere, sed dare aliis. His iilud poetae 
perpetuo ante oculos versa tur: 

Juvat ire jugis, qua nulla priorum 
Castaliura niolli devertitur orbita clivo. 

Jam nullum divinae poetices genus neglectum magis est a Romanis, ex 
quo se ad imitalionem Grascorum Sederunt, quam lyricum. Inde 
usque a primo hello Punico (nam hoc erat illud tempus, quo se Ut- 
eris dederunt: post Punica bella quietus quarere capit, quid Sopho- 
cles et Thespis et Mschylus utile ferrent, aut ut Porcius Licinius apud 

898 C. A. Klotzii Libellus 

tSettium N. A. XVII. cap. extr. dicit : Punico hello secundo, Musa 
pinnato gradu intuUt sese beUicosam in Romuli gentem feram.) usque 
ad Augusti seculum nullum probabilem habuerunt poetam lyricum, 
nisi fortasse Salios velis poetas lyricos appellare, qui canentes carmina, 
ut Livius ait, 1, 20. cum tripudiis solemnique saltatu per urbem ibant, 
et de quibus Quintilianus Inst. Orat. I, 10. Versus quoque saliorum 
habent carmen, aut hue ea carmina referre, quae de virtutibus clarorum 
virorum ad tibicinis modos in epulis cantabant. Nam sic Varro apud 
Non. II, 70. v. Assa. In conviviis pueri modesti ut cantarent carmina 
antiqua, in quibus laudes erant majorum, et assa voce et cum tibicine. 
add. Cicer. Tusc. Qwest. I, 2. et IV, 2. atque Valer. Max. //, i. Ca- 
tulli enim nullam prope in hoc carminum genere rationem habendam 
esse, arbitror. Primum pauca scripsit carmina lyrica, et deinde* quern- 
adiuodum unum totum e Graeco Sapphus in Latinum sermonem 
transtulit, ita etiam tria reliqua aut Sapphjci sunt generis, aut non ejus- 
dem cum Horatianis indolis. Tandem vero aureo illo Augusti seculo 
exstitit is, qui felicissimo ingenio instructus Gracoruraque poetarum 
kctione nutritus et excitatus, vulgarem viam deseruit v 

Pindarici fontis qui non expalluit haustum. 

flic Alcaei carminibus delectatus, hoc carminum genus Roinam trans* 
tulit, princeps lyricorura Latinorura et primus. Hunc 

Juvat integros accedere fontes 
Atque haurire : juvatque novos decerpere flores, 
Insignemque suo capiti petere inde coronaui. 

Karo accidit, ut, qui primus aliquid incipiat, ei haec res feliciter suo* 
cedat : rarius vero eandem et incipere et perficere rem videmus. Nos~ 
ter autem incepit atque perfecit etiam. Quare non semel gloriatur, 
se primum Graecorum modos Romanos docuisse, Latioque intulisse : 
Sic ait ///, 30. Dicar — princeps JEolium carmen ad Italos deduxisse 
modos : IV , 9. Non ante vu/gatas per artes verba loquor, socianda 
chordis : VI, 6. Spiritum Phoebus miki, Phoebus artem carminis no- 
menqne dedit poetce ; et docilis modorum vatis Horati : IV, 4. Quod 
monstror digito preetereuntium Romance fidieen lyrce; II, \6. Spiri- 
tum Grate tenuem camcenee Parca non mendax dedit. Neque mirari 
aut indignari quisquam debet, saepius gloriatum esse de hac re poetam. 
Nam et cuivis novarum rerum inventori hoc iicere arbitror, et noster 
nx>n ignorare poterat, non solum quantam rem suscepisset, sed quara 
feliciter etiam eandem perfecisset. 

[Cur Latini paucos habuerint poetas lyricos.'] 
Hie vero saepius miratus sum, cum Horatius Romanis suis praecla- 
lissimum, quod imitarentur, proposuerit exemplum, paucissimos tamen 
fuisse poetas lyricos. Pervenerunt ad nos vix nomina, nedum carmina 
eorum (si pauca Statii exceperis) atque si attente varia loca Quintiliani 
consideramus, vix plures quatuor lyricis Latium habuisse videtur. 
Nonne vero miretur aliquis, tanto temporis spatio, populum et magno 
nobilique animo praeditum et ea lingua usum, cui neque magnificentia, 
neque dulcedo deesset, tarn paucos ostentare posse poetas lyricos f 

de felici Audacia Horatii. 299 

Mihi vero in banc causam saepe inquirenti videtur ilia, si a perpetua 
in omnibus et maligna fati lege discesserim, at ad summum perducta 
rarsus ad infimum relabantur, praesertim ab exstincta libertate repe* 
tenda esse. Libertas profecto sumina semper ingenia protulit, servi* 

[Servitns ingenia vpprimit.] 
tus depressit. Ilia nobis Demosthenem, ilia Ciceronem dedit : haec 
multa fortasse ingenia > quae ad illorum laudem penrenissent, exstinxk* 
Liber animus et ingenuus nescio quomodo attollitur semper: no* 
biliores sententias parit, atque ejusmodi opera edit, quae non 
imitari, sed admirari possis. Servitus sensim homines ad adula* 
tiouem et timorera adducit, quae ubi vitia semel animum occupaverunt, 
ram ille jacet, turn nihil magnum et admirabile profcrt. Praeclara 
est de hac re Philosophi cujusdam sententia apud Longinum in cap. 
extr. ws 7} brjfiOKparia rwv fjieydXwv ayaOrf Tidrjvos, jj /Mtvy (r^ebov ical 
ffvrfjK/jKurav ol trepl Xoyovs hetvol teal (rvvairtikivov. &p£\f;ai re yap* 
favh' 9 iKav% ret (bpovfifxara tCjv fieyaXofpdvwv ^ tXevQepia Kal etf>eXicvcrai 
k. X. Atque ettam ipse Pliuius, uon recordatus turn, se quoque non 
liberum esse, se quoque magis egregium adulatorem, quam vernm 
orator em et praeconem laudum Trajani sui esse, L. Fill, ep. 14. inge- 
nia hebetata, fracta, et contusa esse ait, sublata e medio dicendi liber- 
tate. Nam quanquam natura nunquam sterilis est, sed semper se 
munificam, semper liberalem in dotibus tribuendis atque in formandis 
ingeniis beniguam praebet: tamen si quando egregium ingenium existit, 
primum non libere, quae sentiat, loquitur, mox ad adulationem, blan* 
ditias, asseotationem delabitur. Hac labe infect us animus nihil egre- 
gium parit. Non extinguuntur quidem indita a natura semina, sed 
corrumpuntur tamen ; ideoque homines pot i us peydXotyveis KoXeucer, 
ut Longinus dicit, quam nobiles poetae et magnifici oratores fiunt, 
Cogita scriptores illos, qui sub Caesaribus vixerunt, et me vera dixisae 
invenies. At, inquies, ipse tuus Horatius, quern principem poetarum 
existimas, cni magnum et generosum animum tribuis, nonne sub Au- 
gusto vixit ? Noti ignoro, verum idem etiam scio, eum fuisse Augus- 

[Augustus dicendi libertatem non sustulit.] 
turn principem, cujus de duritie aut fera natura non queri debebant 
viri docti et poetae, quorum consuetudine et amicitia delectabatur. 
Nonne Noster in eodem carmine, quo Augustum laudat, /, 12. Tar- 
quini superbos fasces et Catonis nobik lethum memorat ? (Nam Bent- 
leianum anne Curti nobile lethum auctori suo relinquemus) nonne 
potius debebat sedulo effugere nomen viri, qui libertatem Romanam 
usque ad vitae finem defenderat, et liber vixerat, mortuus erat liber, 
▼id. Gesnerus, heu ! non noster, in Addend, ad Herat, p. 637. Ea- 
dem libertate poeta 72, 13. exactos tyrannos nominat. Sed in viam 
rcdeamus. Neque enim solum primus Uomanoram lyrica carmina 
scripsit, sed ad imitationem Alcaei aliorumque Graecorum adhibuit 
etiam in iis magna cum audacia licentiam omnem, lyricis pree aliis 
poetis concessam. Nam et abrupta am at initia, et longius evagatur* 

[In ipsis carminibus lyricis inest audacia,'] 
et summa celeritate-tf proposita re ad aliam transit, et a comniuni et 
recepto collocandorura verborum ordinc recedit. Videamus de «ik 

500 C. A. Klotzii Libeltus 

[/. Abrupt a carminum initio.] 
Lyricum poetam non eo, quo orator aut Philosophus, ordiue pro* 
cedere, nee sensiin praeparare animum lectoris, sive auditoris, ad et, 
quae dicturus est, nemini mirum videri debet. Poeta aut gaudio ela- 
tus, aut dolore, aut ira, aut a more excitatus, diutius ilium igueum vi- 
gorem compescere nequit. Arripit lyram, nee quaerens verba, quibus 
ordiatur carmen, non sollicitus, quam form ul am primo loco ponat, 
quodcunque ii, quibus excitatur, motus verbum suggerunt, eloquitur. 
Quo vebementiores igitur illi sunt, eo vebementius erit carminis ini- 
tium : quo illi leniores et molliores, eo dulcius leniusque hoc. Possis 
ilium vehementiori animi motu accensum com para re cum flnvio, qui 
graviter intumescens summa vi aggerem disrumpit. Non aliter enim 
ille incensus ardentia verba effundit : non aliter vis, non jam amplrus 
comprimenda, e pectore erumpit. Sic poeta ad mi rat us egregia facta 
Augusti, atque plenus hac cogitatione, Augustique magnitudine exci- 
tatus sibi a Baccho abripi videtur. Ill, 25. Hoc oestro percitus ex- 
clamat: Quo me, Bacche, rapis tui plenum? Atque etiam alio tem- 
pore, quasi plenus numine, eundem deum, quern etiam musices deum 
antiquitas esse voluit, sibi videtur in remotis rupibus vidisse. Obstu- 
pefactus hac re animus et recens ab augusto spectaculo tranquillitateih 
omnem abjicit, statimque erumpit : Bacchum in remotis carmina ru- 
pibus Vidi docentem : II, 19. mox rem tarn magnam elocutus atque 
rara bominis felicitate commemorata, ad ipsani posteritatem converti- 
tur, eamque alloquitur: credite posteri ; statitn ad Bacchum redir, 
cujus numen sentit : Evoe, recenti mens trepidat metn : sed nondum 
quietus, nondum ilium furorem pectore demittens vehementem, dicit; 
Evoe ! parte, Liber, parce. Incidunt saepe tempora et felicissima 
quaedam momenta, quibus facillime animus poetae inflammatur, qui- 
bus videre credit, quae nullus alius, immo quae ipse alio tempore quie- 
tus videre nequit. Hac si temporis opportunitate poeta utitur, non 
potest non magnificum aliquid et nobile provenire. Conferat lector 
cum duobus bis Horatii carmiuibus hymnum Callimachi in lavacrum 
Palladia et in Apollinem, ubi eodeni calore incensus esse videtur, 
Qualia enim videntur haec ? 

Cfiov 6 t 9 air6XX(t)vos cce/caro ba<pvios opirrfe, 
Ola 8' o\ov to fi£\aOpov. eicas, exits, ocrris aXirpos. 
Kal by ttov ra Ouperpa Ka\<j> nobi Qfolfios apdaaet. 
Ovft opdas ;— 6 yap Qeos ovtziri fxaKpyv. 

Transeamus ad alia. Quintilius mortuus erat. Horatius, audita 
morte, considerat, quantam jacturam fecerit ; reputat, quantum amicum 
amiserit. Videt sibi virum justum, veritatis studiosum et fidum obi- 
isse. Hac cogitatione plenus incipit : Quis desiderio sit pudor aut 
modus Tarn chari capitis. I, 24, Si brevitatem vitae considerat, et 
cuivis moriendum esse videt, grave et queribundum ponit verbum: 
Ekeufugaces, Postkume, Posthume, Labuntur anni, II, 14. Ubi 
etiam repetitioni verbi, Posthume, magna vis inest, sed quae sentiri 
magis, quam explicari potest. At ubi post Actiacam Augusti Victo- 
ria© plenus gaudu atque laetitix quasi exsultat, alloquitur aodales: 

de felici Audacia Horatii. $01 


Nunc est bibendum, nunc etc. I, 37. Similiter A Icaeus p. 14. (edit. 
Stephan. a. 1 600. qua editione lyricorum poetarum in hoc libello scri- 
beodo usi sumus.) Tlivwuev. ri rvv Xvy^yov afifikvopev ; et ibidem : 
Nfly xp% f*c(M<TK€iv Kal Tiva wpo* fiiay irlytiv, atque Anacreon, p. 174* 
'iXapot ir(u>/A€v ohoy, \Ayapihfwpey & B&irxpy. Ubi porro Augusti rei 
gestae atque de Romano populo merita intuetur, tanta baec esse videt, 
ut nulli honores, uulla eis digna praemia decerni atque excogitari pos- 
iint. Ad mi ra bund us igitur quaerit : Qua cur a Patrum, quave Qui- 
ritium Plenis honorum muneribus etc. IV, 14. Quando se jam per- 
taesum amorum, jam ea aetate virum, quae lusus renuat, tamen amore 
tentari sentit, quasi et miretur et timeat, canit : Inter missa diu, Venus, 
Rursus bella moves ? parce, precor, precor, etc. IV, 1 . quod eleganter 
imitatus est mollissimus poet a, MarulFus, p. 56. 


Quo me, saeve, rapis, puer ? 
lutermissa diu bella iterum moves, 
Et truces renovas minas ? etc. 

Unde vero animus laetus et simul inimicissimus magis apparet, quara 
e carmine, quo Lycen, vetulam meretricem, irridet? IV, 13. Audi' 
vere, Lyce % Di mea vota, Di Audivere, Lyce, Jis anus et tamen Vis 
formosa videri etc. Haec profecto ipsius laetitiae verba sunt. Videt 
Horatius earn Lycen, a qua olim spretus erat, et cui vindictam et po> 
nam imprecatus erat, vetulam. Abiit venustas et pulchritudo pristina, 
ct, quod pejus est, ea deform is et vetula Lyce more tamen puellarum 
lascivit. Laetatur poeta, deos preces suas audivisse : hoc illi primum 
in mentem venit, hoc primum eloquitur : ucque semel dicit, sed, quod, 
quando nimium laetamur, facimus, eadem verba repetit : et denique 
duobus verbis omnem lsetitiae suae causam exprimit : Jis anus. Magna 
est hujus loci pulchritudo. Denique cum omnia bello civili et intes- 
liao arderent, cum Cleopatra et Antonius omnia miscerent, indigna- 
bundus et i rat us pocta in populum Romanuin vehementer invehitur. 
Epod. 7. Videtur -sibi to rum Romanum populum pnesentem, gladios 
vagina extrahentem atque ruentem in bella, in praelia, videre. Quid 
igitur poeta? nam moll ire conatur civium furorem leni oratione? num 
placido dicendi genere utitur? immo vero vehementissimo. Quo, quo, 
scelesti, ruitis? out cur dexteris aptantur enses conditi? etc. Hie 
primum magna est vis interrogation is, et major etiam repetiti Quo, 
quo? maxima vero verbi, scelesti. Nihil praecesserat, nulla "incre- 
patio, nulla accusatio : repente e pectore poetac erumpit verissima 
tox scelesti : in mediam rem lectorem adducit : nos ipsi populum 
fur i bund u in et tumultuantem cernimus et acclamamus : Quo quo see- 
hsti 1 Admirabile profecto totum est carmen et summo ardore con- 
scriptum. Sic ubi multum populum interrogavit, tandem non tarn 
verba fuudit, sed fulmina vibrat. Totus populus poetam audire vi- 
detur: hie quaerit: Furorne cetcus, an rapit vis acriar? An culpa? 
responsum date. Attende repetit ion em verbi an, quae orarionis vehe- 
mentiam auget : attende imperatoriam et nobilem brevitatem : respon- 
sum date. Quid populus? quid respondet? Tacent: et or* pallor 
albns inficit, mentesque percnfsa stupent. Hie primum audaciani 

302 C. A. Klotzii Libellus 

poetae note, qui populum Romanum circumstantem at que illam ajcat* 
sationem audientera fingit. Deinde hoc silentium, hie pallor et stupor* 
quam admirabilem vim hahent ! Conscientia scelrris percellit ac per- 
turbat auimos : ne verbum quidem proferre valent : non audent se 
defendere : immo pallent, quemadruodum seelesti solent, et stupcat : 
hoc sileniio, pallore, et stupore scelus suum fatentur. Silentium vero 
quavis elpquentia saepe superius esse uon ignorabunt, qui e Longini 
doctrina de virtutibus scriptorum judirare didicerunt (vid. Sect. IX.) 
Addamus etiam hoc. Vix facta hac territi populi description?, poeU 
eum relinquit : non cum eo loqui pergit : sed inciso quasi filo orationi* 
brevibus addit, Remum mortem suam ulcisci. Sic est, acerba fit* 
Romanes agunt etc. Longius in hoc loco morati sum us, quam nobis 
initio erat propositum. Sed retinuit nos summa hujus car minis pra> 
stantia, quam sicut nos primes observasse laetamur, ita aliis explicate 
voluimus. Praeterea non opus judicamus, reliqua exempla copiosius 
exponere. Digito tantum praecipua ostendere lubet. Evolyant igitur 
poetices studiosi J, 8. 32. II, 13. 17. ///, 20. 28. Epod. 5. 8. 9. 17. 
Haec vero inexspectata et abrupta orationis initia proveniunt, ut Lotf 
ginus ait : rfjs eicfiohijs rov baifiovlov irvev/Miros bpfirj, fjv vvb vojwv rdfeu 

[II. Longa digressiones.] 
Altera pars audaciae in scribendo carmine lyrico est, quod poeta 
saepe propositam rem relinquere videtur ; de rebus, quae ad argumen- 
tum non pertinent, multa verba facit : longius evagatur, descriptionea 
et imagines conjunctas quidem aliquo modo cum materia, sed non 
necessitudine propiori, intexit. Exemplis rem illustrabimus. Hora* 
tins I, 9. Thaliarchum aliquem ad laetitiam adhortatur, additque 
Permitte divis cceiera. Hie desincre poterat poeta. Ad sensum 
nihil requirebatur amplius. Poetae vero vividum ingenium, dum 
deos cogitat, statim descriptionem aliquam imniensae potestatis de- 
orum praebet: qui simul stravere ventos <zqnore fervido depraliantts, 
sue cupressi nee veteres agitantur orni. . M alumus enim hunc locum 
sic interpretari, quam cum Dacierio mysteria ncscio quae quaerere. 
Nam quod hie dicit, irridere Flaccum doctrinam Stoicorum, qui deos 
vel minutissimarum rerum curam agere putarent, mihi non probatur. 
In sermonibus et epistolis, non in carmine eoque laetioris argument, 
in Stoicos satyram quaero. Et quid, ubi omnia facillima sunt, ipsas 
difficultates excogitem ? Sed multi, qui poetae nostri interpretationem 
aggressi sunt, saepe nodum quaerunt in scirpo, et allegorias, Philoso- 
phiam Stoicam et Epicuream somniant, ubi nihil opus est, similes il- 
lius, qui in Homeri carminibus Chyiniam latere sibi aliisque persua- 
dere voluit. Nobis sententia hujus loci videtur esse haec : Dei raari 
et vento imperant: si jubent, turn omnia tranquilla et quieta sunt, ut 
Virgitius de Neptuno dicit : Hac ait, et dicto citrus tumida aquora 
jllacat. Idem peccatum commisisse nobis videtur Dacierius ad I, 34. 
ubi magnificos versus : Quo bruta telhut — concutitur ; ad Stoicorum 
sententias irridendas a poeta positos esse dicit. Sed illuc redeamu^, 
unde digressi sumus, /, 2. ubi diluvii Deucalionis mentioneni facit, per 
quinque versus illud describit : Piscium et summa genus hasit uhrio etc* 

defelici Audacia H or at it. 303 

ubi vetus Scholiastes notat : Leviter in re .tarn atroci et pitehm et pa- 
lumborum meminit 9 nisi quod hi excessus lyricis concessi Hut. Sic 
I, 34. ubi currum Jovis memorat ; I, 22. ubi lupum, qui ipsi peper- 
^ierat, nominat : IV, 2. ubi se recepto Csesare vitulum immolaturum 
es$e dicit, omnia haec per tres pluresve versus describit. Porro IV, 4. 
comparat Drusum cum aquila, et cum satis fuisset, ilia tantum po- 
suisse: ndnistrum fulminis alitem: vagatur tameu latius,. additque : 
Cm rex deorum regnum in aves vagus Permisit, etc. De aquila simi- 
liter, ut Horatius, Callimachus hymn, in Jov. v. 68. dqicao 8 olwvvv pey 
vrilpOYOv ayyeAu&np' XcDv repauty, e% Mschylus in Prometh* 1020, Ator 
ii TOiIlriivos kvu>v, ba<f>oivos alerds : et Pindarus Pyth. T. ap%bs olutv&v.' 
HI, 17. postquam Lamiam allocutus est : JEli vetusto nobilis ah Lamo : 
per octo versus e vagatur, majoresque Lamias commemorat : Quando et 
prioresetc. quos versus non resecare debebant nimis delicati homines.; 
non profecto magis, quam IV, 4. 1 8. ubi cum Vindeiicos nominat, addit 
se uescire, uude dextra securim gestent: Quibus mos unde deductus etc* 
Hue etiam referatur : III, 4. 60. descriptio Apollinis : I, 7. oratioTeucri 
III, 4. descriptio victoriae, quam Dei a gigantibus reportaverunt : I, 
16. commemoratio ina'.orum, quseab ira oriantur, atque orationes III, 
5. Reguli, et III, 11. Hypermnestrae ad Lynceum suum : talis etiam 
est II I, 27. historia Europae et I, 3. exsecratio primae navis invea- 
toris. Est vero haec nostra observatio necessaria et perutilis ad ali- 
quot loca Horatii a Criticorum quorundam importunitate defendeiida. 
[III. Saitus in carmine ab alia re ad aliam.] 
Porro quando animus poetae inflamiuatus est, incredibile est, quot 
res simul in mentem veniant. Jam prae festinatione nequit omnia, 
quae in ammo versantur, exprimere, atque, omissis multis, praecipua 
tantum eioquitur, reliqua tacet. Sunt quidem sententiae illae inter se 
conjunctae, sed vincula, ut ita dicam, quibus connectantur, non ap- 
parent. Facile tameu lector, qui poetico ingenio instructus est, ea, 
quae poeta omisit, assequitur. Ita etiam Horatius (noluit enim me* 
thodo mathematica, aut, quod pulchrius, scientifica, scribere hk pki- 
losophus et magnus quidem, licet eheu ! nullum compendiolum scrip- 
serit, philosophus) ille igitur saepe ab aliqua re ad aliam tarn, celeriter 
transit, nulla ut inter seutentias conjunctio esse videatur. Quam ta- 
men, si recte attend im us, facile inveuimus. Videtur poeta propositam 
rem relinquere velle, et novum carmen ordiri. At si accuratius rem 
tecum consideres, optimus ordo, nempe talis ordo, qui in intiammati 
potest poetae animum cad ere, adest. Sic. I, 7- postquam varias urbes 
memoraverat, easque dixerat aliis, non sibi placere, addit tandem, 
nullum sibi locum magis arridere, quam villain Tiburtinam : Quam 
domus Albunece resonantis. Et pr&ceps Anio et Tiburni htcua et uda 
MobiUbus pomaria rivis. Nunc vero vide saltum poetae ! Albus ut 
obscuro deterget nubila coslo Scepe natus : Sic tu sapiens jink* me- 
mento Tristitiam vitaque labores Molli, P lance, mero. Nulla videtur 
esse hujus sententiae cum precedent! conjunctio, atque etiam novum 
hie carmen quidam incipiunt. Verum omnia bene cohaerent. Tu, mi 
Plance, ait poeta, in exilium abire vis, teque in Graeciam conferre f 
Crede, neque Rhodos, neque Mitylene, neque aliae urbes tantas sua* 

SQ4 C. A. Klotzii Libellus 

States habent, quantas Tibuitina tua villa. Hie igitur maneas, velinl, 
atque curas et aegritudines vino pellas. Nam qUemadmodum norui 
non semper pluviusest, scd coelura etiam serenat, sic quoque etc. Uic 
quidem ordo est sententiarum, quern secutus fuisset Horatius, si epis- 
tolam scripsisset aut oration em. Veruni lyricus poetahas leges rejicit 
liberiusque exsultat. Lougum foret, pluribus exemplis hoc illustrate, 
presertim cum, nisi totum carmen perlegamus, res recte intelligi ne- 
queat. Notabimus igitur loca. //, 16". inter v. 16. et 17. et v. 27* 2y. 
Illy 1. 17. HI, 3. Ill, 5. 5. et 27. Til, 29 29. 49. HI, 4. 35. fir. 
Hue etiam refer III, 5. ubi Regulus (nam an tea poeta locutus est,) 
praeter opinionem, ipse nobilem orationem pronunciat, ad quern locum 
vide Dacierium. add. Ill, 2. ilium ex mosnibus hosticis Matrona ett. 
Transeamus ad reliqua. 

[IF. Turbatus verborum ordo.} 
Meminimus enim, nos supra in iis, quae felicem Horatii in contexen- 
dis carminibu* lyricis audaciam indicent, etiam ponere turbatum ver- 
borum' ordinera, de quo praeclara sunt, quae monet Longinus in S. 2°. 
Turbatus animus cogita Hones suas frustra eo ordine proferre laboraf, 
quern leges Grammatical postulaut. Quotidie in iis, qui aut irati, ant 
heti aut tristes sunt, animadvertimus, eos verborum ordinem saepe 
negligere atque invertere. Ita etiam Lyrici poetae. Illustre exemplum 
est apud nostrum IV, 15. Phoebus volentem pralia me loqui Victas et 
urbes increpuit lyra. Nam verborum ordo est : Phoebus me, volentem 
lyra loqui praelia et victas urbes, increpuit. Interpretatio atque expli- 
catio Dacierii valde jucunda est. In versione posuit: Apollon vie 
donna un coup de sa lire, atque suavius etiam in notis : Apollon /iff 
donna un coup avec sa lire, et ce coup etoit pour le rendre attentif a ce 
qu'il lui disoit. Nempe Apollo, tanquam morosus aliquis ludimagister 
aut saevus Orbilius, lyram manu tenens Horatio adstitit. Poeta incipit 
praelia, pugnas et victorias dicere. Turn Apollo iratus bono poeta? 
lyram capiti impingit, ut minim sit, ni, ut isti apud comicum, colapho 
tuber sit totum caput. Elegantem vero Apollinem, clegantiorem Ho- 
ratium, qui tarn bell am historiolam excogitaverit, elegantissimum vero 
Dacierium ! Ejusdem prope argumenti carmen est apud Propert. Ill, 
2* ubi, posteaquam narravit, se heroici carminis fonles attigisse, addit. 
v. 13. 

Cum me Castalia speculans ex arbore Phoebus, 

Sic ait aurata nixus ad antra lyra : 
Quid tibi cum tali, demens, est flu mine I quis te 

Carminis heroi tangere jussit opus ? 

Addamus alia exempla: 1, 15. Pastor cum traheret etc. Ill, 3. 
Justum et tenacem etc. I,\7- Sic tibi copia etc. I, 24. Cui pudor 
etc. Ill, 24. Intactis opulentior etc. Ill, QQ. Tyrrhena regutn etc. 
IV, 4. Qualem ministrum etc. ubi in tota cotnparatione Drusi cum 
aquila verborum ordo a communi consuetudine recedit. De his no* 
tanda sunt verba Longini, S. 17. w rri£e« to iiptfiovv, kv ara^iq. hk ro 
ic&dos, eirel (f>opa \bv\fjs kclI ovyKivr\ovs koTiv. et Demetrii Phalerei de 
eloc. S. 266. Kal vi\ roifs Beovs rr^edoy av icat tj atr&tyeia iroXXa^pv beivvrri* 

The Diversity of Human Character. 305 

IotJ, atque S. 257. Tloiei $& rivet Ka\ $ flla Kara rfjv trvvDioiv Sety&rrjraf 
hetvov yap woXXaj^ov ical to h&trtydoyyotf, wtrirep al av&fxaXot 6$o(. Atque 
hanc observationem aut ignorasse aiit potius noii mertfihisse videtur 
Heineccius, qui in Fundam. Stiti p. m. 152. ilium Horatii locum'; 
quern contra Dacierium vindicavimus modo, noil recte cepisse videtuf. 
Ubi, et erro fortasse, sed dicam tameri, licet timidiuscule dicam, ubi 
mihi in addita nota summus Gesnerus nort satisfacit. Meliora docere 
videtur preclarus vir, Dorvillus ad Chariton, p. 271. 

\V. Serisus per plures strophas extensus.] 
Addamusne his aliud prae'terea audacise genus, quod in carminibus 
Horatii observamus? Si poetae animus tranquil 1 us est, quietus, nullis- 
que vehementioribiis mof ibus excitatus ; turn singula? strophae perfec- 
tuni sensum continent. Certe Grammaticorum filii banc legem tule- 
runt, qualibet stropha sensum esse absolvendutn. Poeta vero similis 
est fluvio monte decurrenti. Hunc nihil re tine t, nihil moratur ; sum- 
ma vi pracipitat. Sic etiam poeta per duas tresve strophas sensum 
extendit: atque tunrr demunl subsistit et quasi quiescit. Audax 
noster Horatius, IV, 4. per quinque strophas abripitur, atque demum 
in v. IS. subsistit, mox iteruin abreptus in r. 28. moratur. Pari modo 
J, 14. /, 35. duas strophas connectit, et, IV, 15. a v. 4. usque ad l6\ 
excurrit. Quid denique dicas de IV, 14. ubi prope omnes strophae 
aliis sunt intextae, sensusque per multos versus continuatus 1 Sed 
horum exemplorum magna est copia. Facile talia, quibus volupe est) 
invenient. Omnia quasi conjuncta sunt, quae adhuc de audaciae hujus 
genere diximus in IV, 3. Quakm ministrum etc. de quo carmine vere 
Scahger, pater, judicavit : Quart a nee Pindaro cedit, et, ut Dacierius 
adnotat : Tota vero cantione hoc et Be ipsum ct omnem Grteciam supe- 
ravit. Haec nobb de ipso carminum habitu et compositione dicta sunto. 





Bjr the late Professor Scott, King's College, Aberdeen. 

No. VIIL-Continued from No. XXIV. p. 272. 

Sect. iv. 

Of the Opinions of various Writers concerning the Effects 

of Climate. 

Another remarkable example of the effects of climate beimj coun- 
teracted by adventitious circumstances, is furnished in the history of 


806 Inquiry into the Causes of 

the Mexicans and Peruvians. At the time of the Spanish invasion 
these people had made considerable advances towards a polished statt 
of society, while their Northern neighbours were mere hunters and 
fishers. Thus in the New World it was in the torrid zone only that 
much progress had been made in the arts of life ; and if we may cre- 
dit the accounts of the first visitors of these regions, the state of man- 
ners, government, and civilization, were such as would not have dis- 
graced even the polished nations of the older continent. 

When the Spaniards invaded America, the Mexicans were well 
skilled in agriculture, and by the effects of cultivation were able to 
produce plenty of maize even in the mountainous country of Tlascala. 
They also understood gardening, and even botany ; for a physic gar- 
den belonging to the Emperor was open to every one for the purpose 
of furnishing medicinal plants. The Mexican women were dexterous 
spinners ; and manufactures of cotton and hair abounded every where. 
The public edifices and houses of the nobility in the , city of Mexico 
were of stone, and well built. The royal palace had thirty gates 
opening to as many streets. The principal front was of jasper, black, 
red, and white, well polished. Three squares, built and adorned like 
the front, led to Montezuma's apartment, which consisted of spacious 
chambers, the floors covered with mats of different kinds, and the 
walls hung with a mixture of cotton-cloth and furs: the innermost 
room was adorned with hangings of feathers, beautified with various 
figures in lively colors. The cielings of this building were so arti- 
ficially formed, that large planks sustained each other without the help 
of nails. 

The great causeway which traversed the lake, in the midst of which 
the city of Mexico was built, connecting it with the neighbouring 
shore, was a striking proof of the industry and mechanical skill of this 
people. They had likewise, we are told, brought water into the city 
from a mountain at a league's distance. They possessed artificers of 
great skill in various branches of manufacture. Their drinking cups 
were of the finest earth, exquisitely made, of different colors,- and 
likewise distinguished by the smell. Their goldsmiths were skilful in 
moulding gold into various forms, particularly into the shapes of dif* 
ferent animals. Their painters constructed landscapes and other imi- 
tations by means of featners, so artfully mixed as to rival the life and 
coloring of nature. It was by means of such representations that 
the Mexicans communicated intelligence to a distance, and in some 
measure supplied the want of written characters. They were not ig- 
norant either of music or poetry ; and one of their favorite amuse- 
ments consisted in the rehearsal of songs celebrating the achievements 
of their ancestors. 

In respect of government, policy, and laws, the Mexicans had made 
very considerable advances. Their monarchy was elective; but the 
right of election, as well as the privilege of being elected, was confined 
to the princes of the royal blood. The Emperor elect, before his co- 
ronation, was obliged to perform some warlike exploit ; by which in- 
stitution the military spirit of the empire was supported. A revenue 
was appointed for the support of the crown, which consisted in mines 

the Diversity of Human Character. 307 

t>f "gold and silver, a duty upon salt and other manufactures, and a 
third part of the rent of all lands, except the estates of the nobles. 
This privileged order were subjected to no tribute, except the obliga- 
tion to serve in the army with a number Of their vassals, and to guard 
the person of the Emperor* 

Various councils were appointed, among which were distributed the 
different departments of government. The management of the royal 
patrimony was allotted to one council ; appeals from inferior tribunals 
to another ; the levying of troops and the providing of magazines to 
a third ; while affairs of supreme importance were reserved for a coun- 
cil of state. All these boards were composed of men experienced in 
the arts of war and peace ; and the council of state consisted of those 
who elected the Emperor, 

Police and education were matters of attentive concern in the Mex- 
ican government. During the fairs, which were frequent and very nu~ 
merously attended, judges were appointed, who decided all mercantile 
differences on the spot ; and peace and good order were preserved by 
inferior officers, who made regular circuits for that purpose. The 
Spaniards were much amazed at the abundance and variety of the 
commodities brought to market, and the good conduct observed by 
such multitudes. There were schools in Mexico allotted for plebeian 
children, and well endowed academies for the sons of the nobility. 
The masters of these last were considered as officers of state, as it was 
their business to qualify young men for serving their king and coun- 
try. The most honorable of all employments was that of a soldier, 
but it was judiciously enacted, that when a young nobleman made 
choice of this profession, he was sent to the army, and made to suffer 
great hardships before he could be enrolled. Young women of quality 
were educated with no less care by proper matrons, chosen with the 
utmost circumspection. So strictly, indeed, was the distinction of 
ranks observed in Mexico, that the city was divided into two parts, 
one of which was appropriated to the emperor and nobility, and the ^ 
Other left to the plebeians. 

The Mexicans were a warlike people, as was sufficiently evinced by 
the brave defence which they made against their Spanish invaders. 
They had a variety of weapons, both offensive and defensive, and were 
not entirely ignorant of the art of fortification. Military orders were 
instituted among them with peculiar habits, as marks of distinction 
and honor; and each cavalier bore the device of his order painted 
upon his robe, or affixed to it. Montezuma founded a new order of 
knighthood, into which princes only were admitted, or nobles de- 
scended from the royal blood ; and the king himself was numbered 
among its members. The knights of this order had part of their hair 
bound with a red ribbon, to which a tassel was fixed hanging down to 
the shoulder. Every new exploit was honored with an additional 
tassel ; a contrivance well adapted to render the knights eager to em- 
brace every new opportunity of signalising themselves. 

That the Mexicans had even made some proficiency in science is ap- 
parent from the ingenious method which they had adopted of regu- 
lating the calendar. The Mexican year consisted of 365£ days. It 

S08 Inquiry into the Causes of 


was divided into 18 months, of 20 days each, which in all made 99ft 
days ; the remaining five intercalary days were added at the end of the 
year, and were employed in diversions ; and the fourth part of a day 
was allowed for, by adding 13 days at the end of 52 years, which is 
equivalent to adding 1 every fourth year. But in the religious system 
of this singular people, we discover too genuine tokens of the remains 
of barbarism* They not only practised human sacrifices, but they; 
dressed and ate the flesh of those that were sacrificed. Their great temple 
was contrived to excite horror, being crowded with figures of venomous* 
serpents, and even with the heads of the unfortunate victims of their 
faith. It affords a striking proof of the grossness of their superstition, 
that every emperor, at his coronation, was- obliged to swear that there- 
should be no unseasonable rains, no overflowing of rivers, no fields af* 
fected with sterility, nor any one injured by the noxious influence of the 
sun. ^ 

The kingdom of Peru, when visited by the Spaniards, was possessed 
by a people less active and enterprising, indeed, than the Mexicans; 
and among whom government, and the various arts and improvements 
of life, had made less considerable progress; but who were, neverthe- 
less, entitled to a respectable rank among civilized nations. The prac- 
tice of agriculture was far advanced in Peru, as well as- in Mexico; 
and the Peruvians not only understood the use of the plough, but they- 
had constructed numerous aqueducts for the purpose of watering their 
land. It is singular, that a kind of Agrarian law existed among this* 
people. A large portion of land was allotted to the sovereign, in order- 
to defray the expenses of government ; and the remainder was divided^ 
among his subjects, in proportion to the numbers of each family. A* 
in the feudal system of Europe, the sovereign was held proprietor rf? 
the whole soil ; and from time to time the distribution of lands watv 
varied according to the circumstances of families. 

In Peru there was no division of labor, nor any artist or manufac- 
turer by profession ; every one, therefore, was obliged to do all kinds 
of work for himself. Bias Valera mentions a law, called the latv qf* 
hrotherhoody which obliged the people, without fee or reward, to be 
mutually aiding each other in sowing and reaping, in building their 
houses, and in every sort of occupation. It is not, therefore, to. be* 
supposed that the arts were far advanced in Peru ; but the stupendous 
fortress of Cusco, in which were stones thirty feet in length, and 1 
of a proportionable breadth and thickness, sufficiently evinced the- per* 
severing ingenuity of the ancient inhabitants of that country* The 
Peruvians were fond of music and singing, and even composed and 
acted a kind of tragedies and comedies. The art of writing was un» 
known among them, but was supplied by certain silken threads of di- 
vers colors, called -quipos, with knots cast upon them; by which 
means they were 'enabled to record certain transactions, and to per- 
form numerical calculations. 

The government of Peru was an absolute and hereditary monarchy; 
and the royal family, or Incas, were reputed sacred, being esteemed 
the lineal descendants of the great Peruvian deity, the sun. The Pc+ 

the Diversity of Human Character. 309 

ruvkn monarch* thus united in tfreir persons the highest civil and it* 
ligious Stififiority ; but they exercised their power with great modem* 
tion, and neither oppressed their subjects, nor disturbed their neigh*, 
fcours. The religious rites of the Peruvians seem to have partaken of 
the mild and gentle character of the people. One of their most re* 
tnarkable characteristics was the -dedication of virgins to the Sun, who, 
lite the vestal virgins of Rome, were under a vow of perpetual chas- 
tity. The Peruvians seem to have made no progress in die sciences* 
And they were less skilful in war than the Mexicans ; but they were 
jtn eminently gentle, humane, and friendly people. 

Such was the remarkable situation in which these nations of the 
New World were found by the Spaniards. Without any channel of 
intercourse with the civilized nations of the ancient continent, and situ- 
ated in a climate which is not naturally favorable to the energy of die 
human character, they displayed a considerable advancement in the 
science of government, in military skill, and in many of the useful and 
ornamental arts of life. 

It may be thought that' I have now adduced abundance of examples 
to prove, that the influence of climate, in determining the human cha- 
racter, may be counteracted by various adventitious circumstances; 
that in regions which are naturally unfavorable to the progress of 
cultivation and the advancement of the arts of life, nations have been 
ibund who are entitled to a high rank in the scale of civilization ; 
while in the most favorable situations, no effectual barrier has been 
interposed to mental degeneracy, and a relapse from the most ad* 
vanced state of improvement and energetic exertion to inactivity and 

There is yet an example of the influence of moral, as well as phy- 
sical, causes in determining the human character, which I cannot re- 
frain from adducing, as it establishes the reality of this influence in a 
manner peculiarly satisfactory. It is an example of two nations, of 
whose history we possess the most authentic records, and which, though 
they florished at the same period of time, and in regions which were 
almost contiguous to each other, and in no respect different in their 
physical influence, were yet remarkably distinguished in their manners, 
their pursuits, and their progress in the arts and improvements of life. 
The nations to which I allude, are the ancient Athenians and Lace- 

In many important particulars these celebrated nations closely re- 
sembled each other. The same military ardor, the same love of 
glory, and the same enthusiastic patriotism, were conspicuous alike in 
both. Both, too, were ardent lovers of liberty, and zealous defenders 
of the laws and constitution of their country. But the particulars in 
which they differed, and were even directly opposite to each other, 
were still more remarkable than those in which they agreed ; and il- 
lustrate, in a very striking manner, the powerful influence of positive 
institutions in regulating the character, manners, and pursuits of a 

The Lacedemonian republic, as governed by the laws and institu* 

$10 Inquiry into the Causes of 

ttons of Lycurgus, affords one of the most singular political phenomena 
that the page of history contains. It exhibits a people patiently sub- 
mitting to the most painful restrictions, and suffering the greatest pri- 
vations, with a view to fit themselves for military enterprize, and the 
advancement of the glory of their country. It furnishes an example 
of a nation in a constant state of discipline fitted to qualify them for 
enduring hardship, danger, and fatigue, and sacrificing to this object 
some of the strongest propensities and most engaging feelings of the 
heart. And it proves to what an extent the natural dispositions of 
man may be checked, and how greatly his desires may be modified by 
adventitious motives, and the steady application of a system of positive 

- It seems to have been the sole object of Lycurgus, in the laws 
which he framed for the republic of Sparta, to render his countrymen 
formidable in war and steady lovers of their country ; and he appears 
to have been little solicitous about the sacrifices which the attainment 
of this object might require. The Lacedemonians were to be rendered 
temperate, robust, and invincible in the field ; and if this was accom- 
plished, it was of no importance whether they were at the same time 
amiable and humane, and under the guidance of just and virtuous 

The most rigid temperance in the indulgences of the table was prac- 
tised at Sparta. Every inhabitant of that city, even the kings them- 
selves, were obliged to take their repast in the public halls, and to con- 
tent themselves with what was set before them. 1 The fare was of the 
most frugal kind, neither choice in its nature, nor nicely dressed. To 
appear too well fed was considered as a crime, and subjected the of* 
fender to chastisement. — (^lian. Var. Hist. 1. 14, c 7.) It was equally 
against the laws to wear sumptuous apparel, or to bathe and perfume 
but on stated days ; although it was ordained that no one should be 
seen in tattered clothes. — (iElian. ut supra. Xenoph.) 

The same frugality was prescribed to the Lacedemonians in their 
houses and furniture ; and even their pleasures and amusements were 
restricted by the same rigid spirit. It was enacted by an ordinance 
of Lycurgus, that the cielings of houses should be made with an axe 
only, and the doors by a saw, without the aid of any other tool. Into 
such houses as these, says Plutarch, no man was so foolish as to carry 
either stately beds, costly tapestry, vessels of gold and silver, or any 
other kind of magnificence. — (In Lycurg.) In fact, by ordaining 
that no other money should be current in Sparta but heavy pieces of 
iron, Lycurgus effectually provided against the love of wealth, and the 
luxury which naturally attends it. 

The diversions of the Spartans were of the most serious kind. They 
admitted, indeed, of music and dancing ; but this amusement was so 

1 Agis, one of the kings of Sparta, having returned from gaining a victory 
over the Athenians, thought he might sup at home with his wife. He sent, 
in consequence, for his allowance; but the Polemarchs refused to give it, anj 
lie was obliged to go and eat it at the public tabje.-— {iElun. Var. Hist. £ 3 % 
c, S4<) 

the Diversity of Human Character. 311 

contrived, as to become a sort of military exercise. Theatrical repre- 
sentations, which were the delight of all the other cities of Greece 
were positively prohibited at Sparta. The exercises of the gymna- 
sium "and hunting were the only relaxations permitted to the Lacede- 
monians ; the rest of their time was occupied in conversations in the 
public halls, where they assembled daily for that purpose ; but even 
the subject of their discourse was limited and regulated by the laws. 
At the same time they were prohibited from exercising any mechanic 
art, or cultivating the ground, which employments were entirely en- 
trusted to slaves ; and they held the sciences and belles lettres in utter 
contempt ; so that the time of the Lacedemonians, unless when they 
were employed in the field, must have hung very heavy upon their 
hands. Hence die celebrated bon-mot of Alcibiades, who, when he 
heard it boasted that the Lacedemonians showed an utter contempt for 
death, " I do not wonder at it," said he, " it is the only means they 
have to free themselves from the miseries of their dull and constrained 
way of life."— (^Elian. Var. Hist. 1. 13, c. 38.} 

The intention of Lycurgus in imposing sucn restraints upon the La- 
cedemonians, seems to have been to render warfare a state of enjoy- 
ment to them. The austerities of his discipline commenced from tne 
earliest period of life, and even at the very instant of their birth. The 
children were immediately torn from their parents, and placed under 
the care of certain persons appointed to bring them up. Their educa- 
tion was of the severest kind ; they were ill lodged, poorly fed, and 
slightly clothed; they were restricted from the usual diversions of 
youth ; and obliged in their schools to answer with alacrity the most 
grave and serious questions, or submit to be punished without mercy. 
The annual festival of Diana affords a curious instance of the severity 
of the Spartan discipline. It was the practice, in honor of that god- 
dess, once a year to whip all the children upon all her altars till the 
blood flowed copiously ; and some have been known to expire during 
the ceremony.( — Plut. in Lycurg. Paus. 1. 3, c. 1 6.) 

On certain days of the year, also, it was the practice of the Lacede- 
4 monian youth to divide themselves into bands, which repaired by dif* 
ferent roads to a place previously appointed. Upon a given signal 
the opposing parties fell upon each other with the utmost animosity, 
kicking, biting, and bruising with all their force, and even tearing out 
each others' eyes. " They might be seen," says Pausania6, " fighting 
desperately, sometimes opposed one to one, sometimes by little bands, 
sometimes all together, each troop making the utmost efforts to drive 
back the other, and to overthrow it in the water which surrounded 
the field of battle."— (L. 3, c. 14.) 

The necessary effects of such institutions evidently were to give to 
the people a severe, ferocious, and gloomy character. The Lacede- 
monians were indeed patient of hardships, and valiant in war ; but 
their valor was not tempered by humanity, and their victories were 
not adorned by acts of magnanimity and generosity. They cared not 
by what means they achieved their purpose, and thought it not less 
honorable to subvert an enemy by cunning and breach of faith, thaa 

312 Inquiry into the Causes of 

by open and avowed hostility. Of their cruelty and perfidy their con* 
4uct to their wretched slaves, the Helots, affords but too many exam- 
ples. Not content with loading these unhappy victims with the se- 
verest tasks, and punishing them unmercifully for the slightest offence, 
they were accustomed frequently to put many of them to death, on no 
other pretence but the fear that their numbers might render them dan- 
gerous to the state. From time to time the stoutest of their youth 
were armed with poniards, and provided with food for a certain num- 
ber of days ; they were then commissioned to lie in ambuscade, and 
take the best opportunity of dispatching all the Helots that fell in their 
way. — (Plut. in Lycurg. Athen. 1. 14.) 

History also informs us, that on a certain occasion the Lacedemo- 
nians, apprehensive that the Helots had become too numerous, and 
not daring to attack them openly, pretended to give freedom to a cer- 
tain number of them, and to enrol them among their troops. De? 
ceived by these promises, the most robust and valiant of the Helots 
presented themselves ; from whom two thousand were selected, who 
were instantly crowned with flowers, and conducted in great pomp 
into the temples, as if preparatory to their new honor. These men, 
however, soon after disappeared ; nor was it ever known what had be- 
come of them. — (Thucyd. 1. 4, n. 80, Diod. 1. J 2.) 

The treachery and cruelty of the Lacedemonians were equally 
evinced in their conduct to the Athenians, over whom they obtained a 
temporary superiority during the Peloponnesian war. It was by trea- 
chery that they, at that time, procured the death of Alcibiades, the 
Athenian general, then an exile in Persia. When they had rendered 
themselves masters of Athens, they gave an unbounded scope to their 
revenge and ferocity. They put to death, says Xenophon, more per- 
sons in eight months of peace than the enemy had killed in thirty years 
of war. — (Hellen. 1. 2.) Those of the Athenians, who had it in their 
power, fled for an asylum to foreign lands; but the Lacedemonians 
had the inhumanity to endeavour to deprive them of this last refuge* 
They forbade, by a public edict, the cities of Greece to afford them 
shelter, and commanded them, under the penalty of a fine, to deliver . 
up the fugitives to the thirty tyrants who then ravaged Athens^— 
(Diod. 1. 14. Plut. in Lysand.) 

If we contemplate the Spartans in their private and domestic rela- 
tions, we shall not find them more worthy of esteem, than in their 
public conduct. The absurd practice of separating children from their 
parents, immediately after their birth, tended effectually to counteract 
the principles of parental and filial affection, and at the Same time to 
weaken all the ties of domestic union. In fact, conjugal fidelity was 
in no repute at Sparta, and was violated even with the sanction of the 
laws. It was customary for an old man, who had a young and hand- 
some wife, to allow of her having intercourse with a robust and well- 
made youth, and to bring up the offspring of this adultery as his own* 
Nor was this all ; a stout and handsome young man might at any time 
demand admission to the wife of another, under pretence of supplying 
the state with able-bodied citizens. In short, under this pretencet the 

the Diversity of Human Character. 3 IS 

Lacedemonians mutually lent their wives without any breach of .de* 
coram, and thought all was well if the strength of the commonwealth 
was supported.— (Xenoph. de rep, Lac. Plut. in Lye.) 

This relaxation of morals was perfectly agreeable to the institutions 
of Lycurgus, by which it was enjoined, that the public baths should 
be common both to men and women, and that on certain solemnities 
the young persons of both sexes should dance and fight naked promis- 
cuously with each other. — (Plut. in Lye.} The consequences of suck 
practices were what might naturally be expected; and all ancient 
writers agree, that the Lacedemonian women were immodest and dis-? 
solute in excess; they dressed in a very indelicate manner, so that the 
form of their limbs was discovered at every step. They made no scruple 
of satisfying their appetites whenever they thought fit, insomuch, that 
Euripides calls them ' Aflptuuut* virorumcupidissimce, (Androm. v. 595) 
and. Aristotle complains that all the disorders at Sparta sprung from 
the irregular conduct of the women.— (De rep. 1. 1, c. 9). Yet these 
women possessed a great ascendancy over their husbands, for which 
they were probably indebted to their personal charms, which, accord- 
ing to Athenams, were very remarkable, (1. 13) ancf to their resolution 
and undaunted fortitude in encountering danger. 

To sum up at once the character of the Lacedemonians, they were 
a martial, brave, and enterprising people, steady and politic in their 
designs, and patiently submitting to the greatest hardships in order to 
accomplish them. But at the same time they were crafty^ deceitful* 
haughty, cruel, and perfidious ; capable of sacrificing every thing to 
their interest and ambition, and holding in contempt the liberal and 
elegant arts, and even the common decencies and moralities of life* 
After the victories of Lysander, they degenerated from the austere and 
rigid discipline of Lycurgus, and lost even that semblance of virtue 
which they derived from their temperate diet and hardy manner of 
life. The use of gold and silver was then introduced into Sparta, and 
brought along with it all the excesses of luxury and sensuality. 

Let us contrast with this ferocious and dissolute people the refined, 
the accomplished, the amiable and generous Athenians. The most 
distant states can hardly exhibit more opposite dispositions and pur- 
suits than were discernible in these two neighbouring commonwealths ; 
nor can the force of positive institutions be in any manner more plain- 
ly evinced than as exhibited in the effects of the different systems of 
regulations adopted by ihe two most eminent legislators of antiquity, 
Lycurgus and Solon. 

In the system of Lycurgus every thing is rigid and constrained, un- 
less where constraint was peculiarly requisite, the article of morality. 
In the system of Solon all was left free, unless the power of injuring 
others. An Athenian might feed, clothe, and lodge himself as he 
thought proper. He was at liberty to cultivate any art or science for 
which he had a taste, and to make choice of that profession for which 
he felt a preference. Lycurgus enjoined idleness to the citizens of 
Sparta ; but Solon, on the contrary, ordained punishments for such a* 
had no manner of employment; and it was the business of the Areo- 

314 Inquiry into the Causes of 

pagus to guard against the prevalence of sloth, and to take cognizance 
of the means which individuals employed for their subsistence. — (Pint, 
in Sol.) 

The effects of this wise policy were, that at Athens all the arts and 
sciences greatly florished ; it was there that commerce, navigation, 
manufactures, architecture, sculpture, painting, literature, philosophy, 
eloquence, and, in fact, every kind of knowledge that can exalt or dis* 
ttngaish a nation arose to the most remarkable eminence. There were 
found the most ingenious artists, the profoundest philosophers, the most 
pleasing poets, and the most persuasive orators of all antiquity. Nor 
did these elegant pursuits at all impair the military ardor or patriotic 
enthusiasm of the citizens of Athens. The Lacedemonians themselves 
were not more distinguished for martial achievements ; and if they 
had to boast of the contest at Thermopylae, and their victories during 
the Peloponnesian war, the Athenians derived no less honor from the 
hard won battles of Marathon, Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale. Ac- 
cording to a remark of Athenaeus, the Athenians were perhaps the 
only nation of the universe who, clothed in purple, and decked in all 
the ornaments of dress, have dispersed and vanquished formidable ar* 
mies. — (Lib. 12.) 

It must be confessed that the love of splendor and the taste for plea* 
sure were carried to a blameable excess in Athens. The tables of the 
rich were served with exquisite luxury. The extensive commerce of 
the Athenians enabled them, as Xenophon remarks, to live voluptu* 
ously, and to procure all the delicacies which foreign countries could 
then supply. — (De rep. Ath.) The youth delighted in expensive equi*" 
pages, in rare dogs, in fine and numerous horses, and in keeping female 
dancers and courtezans. Their houses were fitted for all the purposes 
of luxurious enjoyment ; they contained spacious banqueting rooms,; 
furnished with the finest pictures, statues, and vases ; they had bathing 
apartments, supplied with every thing necessary for refining upon that 
pleasure; and spacious gardens within their walls, disposed in the most 
commodious manner for every kind of amusement. — (Xenoph* de rep, 


But the luxury of the Athenians was always tempered by decorum 
and good taste. Although their women were remarkably studious of 
their dress and external appearance, they never were reproached with 
indecency, or that depravity of manners so prevalent at Sparta. They 
were remarkable for their attention to domestic affairs, and seldom ap- 
peared in public, or mingled in the society of the men. Even the 
courtezans preserved a considerable degree of external decorum, and 
were no less studious to please by the charms of their conversation 
than the attractions of their persons. At the banquets of the Athe- 
nians, one of the principal gratifications consisted in a flow of sprightly, 
learned, and polite conversation ; of which we have very pleasing spe- 
cimens in the banquets of Plato and Xenophon. To this they added 
the charms of music, poetry, and dancing. Drunkenness, at least if 
publicly exposed, was considered as a very heavy reproach. A citi- 
zen, who had been seen to enter a tavern to eat and drink, was dtsbo* 

the Diversity of Human Character. 315 

nored for ever . No more than this was necessary to cause a senator 
to be banished from the Areopagus* — (Athen. 1. 12.) An archon 
convicted of being drunk, was, for the first time, condemned to a 
heavy fine; and, in case of a relapse, was punished with death— 
(Diog. Laert. in Sol. 1.1.) 

Thus the Athenians were refined and elegant even in their pleasures ; 
they took great delight in conversation, even when not at table, and 
were generally allowed to be the most polite and polished people of all 
antiquity. The Atticism distinguished them as remarkably as the Ur- 
banity afterwards characterized the inhabitants of Rome. Yet, if we 
were to judge of their politeness by a modern standard, we should not 
be disposed to estimate it highly. In the comedies of Aristophanes, 
which were highly applauded at Athens, we meet with the grossest 
obscenities; and we find the accomplished orators, Demosthenes and 
-fischines, heaping upon one another the foulest abuse. But it ought 
to be remembered, that modest women were not admitted to the pub- 
lic spectacles, and that the unlimited freedom of the Athenian govern- 
ment was thought to require and warrant an uncontrolled license of 

In no respect was there a greater contrast between the Athenians 
and Lacedemonians than in the usage of their slaves. At Athens 
these unfortunate beings were treated with an uncommon degree of 
humanity. They might prosecute their masters for any act of out- 
rage or oppression. If the fact was proved, the master was obliged 
to sell his slave, who, while the process depended, might retire into an 
asylum destined to secure him from all violence.— (Plut. de superst* & 
in Thes.) It was not uncommon for a master to reward a faithful 
slave with his liberty; and if the slave had amassed a certain sum, the 
law allowed him at any time to purchase his freedom. The humanity 
of the Athenians was extended even to brutes, of which Plutarch has 
furnished us with a remarkable example. When the temple called 
Hecatonpedon was completed, the Athenians ordained, that all the 
beasts of burden which had been employed in that work should be set 
at liberty, and suffered, for the rest of their lives, to feed at large in 
the best pastures. Sometime after, a mule, which was among the 
number of these franchised animals, presented itself of its own accord 
to work, and headed those which drew the carriages to the citadel. 
The people, charmed with this action, made a decree that this mule 
should be particularly attended, and plentifully fed at the public ex- 
pense. — (De solert, anim.) 

It appears, then, that the Athenians were as remarkably charac- 
terised by humane generosity and refinement of manners, as the Lace- 
demonians were by harshness, cruelty, and rusticity. They were at 
the same time a valiant and a courteous people, proficient in science, 
and adepts in the elegant accomplishments of life. The most unfa- 
vorable part of their character was their extreme fickleness and ca- 
price, by which they were often led into actions of the greatest injus- 
tice and ingratitude. Their conduct to many of their most successful 
generals, as Miltiades, Themistocles, and Alcibiades, and abore all, 

316 Analyze du premier volume 

their sentencing to death the virtuous and inoffensive Socrates, prove 
too fully the justice of this reproach ; and cast a veil over the splen- 
dor of their most illustrious actions. 

I shall now assume it as fully proved, that great as the influence of 
physical causes doubtless is in determining the characters of men, 
there are other circumstances, besides mere climate and geographical 
situation, upon which much of this important effect depends. It will 
Wthe object of the remaining part of this work to point out what the 
most remarkable of these circumstances, or moral causes which influ- 
ence human character are, to illustrate their operation by the details of 
history, and to deduce the practical inferences to which such illustra- 
tions may naturally give rise. 





Oi tons les prosateurs grecs qui ont echappe au ravage des temps, 
devaient etre aneantis pour jamais, a l'exception d'un seul qu'il rat 

fermis de choisir, le philosophe hesiterait entre Aristote et Platon ; 
historien cntre Herodote et Thucydide ; l'homme d'etat s'emparerait 
de Poly be ; 1'orateur, de Demosthenes ; le geographe, de j§trabon ; 
mais l'artiste et, peut-etre, l'antiquaire ne balanceraient pas a choisir 

Pausanias est, en effet, la source principale ou les modernes ont 
puise leurs idees sur 1'art chez les anciens. Les renseignemens quit 
renferme, eclaircis par 1 etude approfoudie des monumens, images 
encore vivantes du genie des Grecs, ont servi de base pour fixer l'^tat 
des beaux arts chez le peuple le mieux organise qui ait paru sur la sur- 
face du globe. 

Pausanias voyageait en Grece, sous l'empire d' Adtten* a F£poqufe 
bu eette belle contree, qui n'existait plus depuis long-temps comme 
£tat politique, etait encore la plus interessante du monde connu, par 
les monumens de tous genres dont elle 6tait coUverte. On juge de 
quel interet doit etre la description de ce pays, par un bomme pro- 
fondement instrutt de la langue et des usages des Grecs, de leurs tra- 
ditions et de leur mythologie, et qui joignait a ces connaisances ctlk 
de 1'histoire de Tart depuis sou origiue. 

Aussi I'ouvrage qu'il nous a lais&e ne contient pas seulement le 
catalogue raisonne et la description de tous les objets qu'il a vus 

1 See a short notice of this work in Cks$. Journ. No. XX. p. 353. 

dtt Pausanias de M. Clavier. SVf 

4ms sou voyage ; mats, corame il a su entremeler ce recit de digress 
fioos sur l'histoire, on y trnuve une mine abondante de traditions pr£- 
4ueuses qu'on chercherait vainement ailleurs. 

La maniere de Pausanias est simple et sans art, il raconte ce qu'il 
voit : observateur soigneux, rien d'un peu important ne lui echappe ; 
homme instruit, il rattache a l'indication dune statue ou d'un tableau,. 
une foule de souvenirs i uteres sans pour nous; ses digressions* soflt 
longues, souvent etrangeres au sujet ; mais nous aurions roauvaisef 
grace de nous en plaindre ; un peu plus de soin de sa part, pour W 
public, nous eut ravi plusieurs de ces digressions- dont la perte serai? 
irreparable. Quoique Pausanias- mette parfbis- assez d'ordre dans ses' 
recits, il lui arrive souvent de vous transporter, sans vous en pre>enir, 
bien loin du lieu ou il vous avait laisse. II entfe dans les villes et 
dans les temples, il en sort, et ne prend pas toujours la peine de vous" 
en avertir ; le lecteur, desoriente, a besoin d'un peu de temps et'd'at- 
ttntion pour pouvoir se reconnaitre. 

En general, un mod erne aurait mieux arrange sa narration ; il y eut* 
mis plus de nettete, de precision et d ensemble ; il aurait tachl que* 
les objets se succedassent dans l'ordre convenable. C'est a quoi Pau- 
sanias songe rarement; et, quand'on a voyage soi-metne, on recon- 
naitla le voyageur, qui, presse de satisfaire son active curiosity va* 
vient, court dun lieu a l'autre, sans ordre et quelquefois sans but'; 
attire par mille objets divers, il examine tout ce qui VinteVesse, et ne 
s'inquiete gueres si ce qu'il voit au jourd'hui ne serait pas- un peu loinr 
de ce qu'il a vu la veille. Ainsi Pausanias s'ecarte souvent de*sa 
route ; il se livre au plaisir de decrire tout ce qu'il trouve, et de rap* 
porter tout ce qu'il entend dire : plus occnpe de ses souvenirs quede' 
son lecteur, il a l'air de raconter pour lui-m£me plut6t que pour les 

On s'apercoit bien cependant qu'il songe quelquefois au public ; 
mais Ton voudrait qu'il Teat toujours oublie : nous possederions main- 
tenant des notions etemellement regrcttables ; car, sil s'attache k 
decrire longucment les lieux peu frequented des voyageurs et par con- 
sequent p-'U connus ; par la meme raison, il tie dit rien de tout ce 
qu'il suppose bien connu des Grecs; c'est cette attention pousseetrop 
loin, qui nous a prives de la description du temple de Delphes ; de 
oelui de Tnesee a Athenes ; du Parthenon, et de tant d'autres monu- 
mens qui faisaient l'ornenient de la Grece. 

Qimut au style de Pausanias, on ne doit y chercher ni la simplicity ' 
elegante de Xenophon, ni la naivete gracieuse d'Herodote: il est 
simple, sans doute, mais non elegant ; tant6t precis, tant6t diffus, 
rarement tres clair, souvent incorrect. Pausanias ne trouve pas ton- 
lours l'expression propre ; il recherche les anciennes tournures. 1 Ses ' 
phrases, courtes et seelies, deviennent embarrassees et chargees de 
parentheses, quand il veut les rendre plus longues. 

On ne cherchera pas non plus dans sa narration le genre d'interet 
qu'offrirait l'ouvragc d'un moderne, qui aurait vu les m ernes objets, et 


1 Hems tern, ad Lucian. Somn., t. i, p. 4. 

518 Analyse du premier whtint* 

dont le goftt serait eclair^ ou par la pratique des arts, ou par quelque4 
meditations sur la theorie du beau. Supposez, a la place de Pausa- 
nias, un Winckelman, un Visconti ou ud Lessing, un Reynolds, un 
Mengs ou un Quatremere de Quincy, alors que de rapprochemens 
, curieux, que de jugemens de Heats sur les beautes et les d£fauts des 
tableaux ou des statues, que de details interessans sur les proced^s de 
Tart ! Mais, il faut en convenir aussi, leur critique severe n'aurait pas 
fait grace a beaucoup de traditions qui leur auraient para pueriles ; 
leur gout eclaire aurait rejete bien des petites discussions dont il 6tait 
difficile de deviner l'importance pour l'avenir ; nous aurions gagn£ des 
apercus, des reflexions judicieuses ; mais nous aurions perdu desfaits^ 
Ainsi, nous devons peut-£tre nous feliciter encore de ce que Pausanias 
aimait a dire tout ce qu'il savait, de ce qu'il etait plut6t un voyageur 
curieux qu'un critique fin et habile, et de ce qu'il possedait plus d 'eru- 
dition que de lumieres. 

On doit s'etonner qu'un ouvrage historique aussi important ait k\k 
en general assez neglige par les hellenistes. II est a regretter que les 
philologues aient prefere de deployer toute leur erudition sur des 
auteurs du second ordre, tels qu'Elien, par exemple, dont la rap sod ie 
mal dig£ree n'a pas menie le merite d'etre passablement ecrite, plut6t 
que de chercher a repandre la lumiere sur le texte et la narration de 

L'edition de Sylburge (Francfort, 1583) est la premiere edition cri- 
tique de cet auteur. Elle fut reimprimee, en l6l3, a Hanau, mais 
sails aucune augmentation. L'editiou de Leipsick, 1696, n'en est 
qu'une reimpression dont fut charge le savant Kuhnius, et a laquelle 
il ajouta de fort bonnes notes, mais sans y travail ler ex professo, et 
sans avoir consulte aucun manuscrit. Enfin la derniere edition (Leip- 
sick, 1796, 4 vol. in 8vo.) n'est encore qu'une entreprise de librairie. 
L'editeur, M. Facius, presse par le temps, n'a pu faire tout ce qu'on 
devait attendre de lui : il a cependant eu la collation de deux raanu- 
scrits : mais cette collation ne parait pas avoir ete bien faite. En sorte 
que, sur trots editions critiques, il n'y en a vrai merit qu'une seule, 
celle de Sylburge, a laquelle un philologue ait voulu consacrer des 
soins particuliers. 

La traduction francaise de G6doyn doit etre com p tee pour rien 
sous le rapport de la critique. Gedoyn, homme d'esprit, et ecrivant 
assez bien sa langue, savait tres peu le grec et n'entendait absolu- 
ment rien aux antiquites. II s'est done bien garde de jeter les yeux 
sur le texte original; il a traduit le latin d'Amasee ; et s'il s'ecarte 
quelquefois de son guide, e'est, de sa part, oubli, distraction ou negli- 
gence, mais point du tout esprit de revoke. Aussi, dans tous les en- 
droits difticiles, sa traduction est-clle un peu plus obscure que la ver- 
sion latine, qui Test elle-memc un peu plus que le texte grec. 

Le monde savant niauquait done encore d'un texte correct de Pau- 
sanias, et notre litterature en particulier avait besoin d'une bonne tra- 
duction de cet auteur, faite avec ie meoie soin, le inkie scrupule et 
dans le me me esprit que celle d'Herodote, par le respectable Larcher. 
Mais ce double travail exigeait la reunion de bieu des cormaissances ; 

du Pausanias dc M. Clavier. 3i§ 

S fellait un homme a la fois profond dans la langue et vers6 dans 
presque toutes les branches de l'antiquite, un homme qui possedat 
egalement bien la science des mots et celle des choses. 

On dut s'applaudir de voir que M. Clavier se chargeait de remplir 
les voeux des litterateurs. Peu de savans etaient en etat de parcourir 
avec autant de succes cette carriere longue et penible, mais glorieuse. 
Sa traduction d'Apollodore et les notes qui l'accompagnent I'avaient 
deja fait connaitre comme un habile helleniste et comme Tun des. 
hommes de l'Europe qui avaient le plus approfondi les mythes et 
les traditions anciennes des Grecs ; son histoire des premiers temps 
de la Grece, qu'il publia ensuite, ne fit qu'augmenter le desir de voir 
enfin paraitre sa traduction et son commentaire de Pausanias. 

L'impression de cet important ouvrage, retardee par les circon- 
stances, est commencee et se continue sans relache. Le premier 
volume vient de paraitre ; il renferme le texte et la traduction de$ 
deux premiers livres, intitules les Attiques et les Corinthiaques. Le 
second volume est sous presse et contiendra, outre les deux livres 
suivans (les Laconiques et les Messtniques), les notes critiques sur 
les quatre premiers livres. L'ouvrage entier aura six volumes dont 
un de Tables. 

On trouvera peut-etre qu'avant de parler en detail de cet ouvrage, 
il aurait fallu attendre la publication du second volume, ou se 
trouveront les notes critiques ; mais il nous a semble qu'il n'etait 
pas necessaire de voir le second volume pour juger du system* 
suivi et du plan adopts par M. Clavier, relativement a la critique 
du texte et a la traduction. II vaut mieux, d'ailleurs, donner des 
a present au public une idee de la maniere dont tout l'ouvrage sera 

Un travail, du genre de celui-ci, doit se recommander par deux , 
litres priucipaux : la correction du texte et la fidelity de la version. 
Ce sont ces deux genres de merite qui distinguent eminemment 
l'ouvrage de M. Clavier. Nous parlerons d'abord de tout ce qu'il 
a fait pour parvenir a nous donner un texte moins altere que dans 
les editions precedentes. 

Pour arriver a donner au texte d'un auteur toute la correction dont 
il est susceptible, d'apres le nombre ou la bonte des manuscrits qu'on 
possede, il faut collationner attentivement les manuscrits et noter les 
variantes. Mais ce n est pas tout ; si Ton se bornait a mettre au bas 
des pages les nouvelles lemons recueillies, on aurait ebauche plut6t 
qu'acheve une edition ; on doit encore discutcr chacune de ces vari- 
antes, examiner si elle convieut davantage au sens, a l'idee de l'auteur, 
a sa maniere habit uelle, au genie de la langue, et decider ensuite si 
elle merite de passer daus le texte. Or, cette tache penible, qui sem- 
ble ne demanrier qu'un merite secondaire, n'eu est pts moins trfcs 
ditiit-ile et tres delicate ; car elle suppose une gran e sun-te de cri- 
tique, la cniiuaissance pi if aire de la matiere, uu sentiment pi < .fond de 
la langue en general et du aiylr de I'auteur e;. pariiculu i 

Sous ce rapport, le texte doime par M. Clavier rs* . u,ie perfection 
tres reinai quable. Lea excellentes lemons qu'il y a iu^etees sont tres 

320 Analyse du premier volume 

nombreuses: j'en ai compt6 plus de cent cinquante pour le llrfe 
premier. II a mis a contribution les variantes des deux mann*- 
scrits de Facius, celles des manuscrits de la Bibliotb6que royale, 
et jusques aux corrections de Sylburge, de Kuhnius, qu'il a fait passer 
dans le texte, quand elles lui ont semble certairies. En cela il n'a 
fait que suivre l'exemple des autres editeurs ; mais il y a mis beaii- 
coup de reserve et un diseeruement qu'on appreciera bien mieuk, 
lorsque ses notes critiques nous auront appris les motifs de son choix. 

Des a present, on peut s'en faire une id6e : en voici deux exemples 
pris au hasard : Pausanias, parlant de la descente des Perses, dans 
l'Attique, <Lcm hk awiaripf vavs EvicXeias, av&drifja Kal tovto curb Mfibw, 
cl rfls x&pas MapaO&va etrxpv (i, c. 14, p. 97). * Le mot MapaBvPa 
semblait faire d'autant moins dirrieulte qu'on le retrouve encore dans' un 
passage du ni&me auteur 6 jikv hi) (dyaews trriKos 'AOrjvaiois kytvero ifortf- 
pov fj Mijhot Mapadwv a Zaxoy (i, c. 17, p. 113). D'ailleurs, on 
•alt que le verbe <rx €iV se construit \% plus sou vent avec es* ou Kara 3 
qui gouvernent Paccusatif, et qu'on sous-entend quelquefbis. 4 Cefpen- 
dant, comme les deux manuscrits de Facius donnent Mapadwvi, M'. 
Clavier a cru devoir recevoir cette derniere lecon appuyee par l'usage 
des classiques 5 et par celui de Pausanias lui-meme ; ratfrg rfjs 'Ay- 
ftKfjs eaxpv ol Bapfiapoi (i, 32, p. 230.). 

C'est'avec le m&me esprit de critique qu'il parait avoir discute* toutes 
Ids variantes. II en est une cependant sur la quelle je serais assez 
dispose a avoir une opinion differente de la sienne. C est lorsque 
Pausanias, apres avoir dit que les Tr6zeniens sacrlfient, sur le nifrne* 
autel, aux muses et au sommeil, ajoute : Xtyovres rbv favov Oe&p 
paXicrr a etvai QfXov ra7s Movcrais (ii, c. 3, p. 546) ; c'est-k-dire, "ii$ 
disent que le sommeil est la divinite la plus cherie des muses." An 
lieu de dewy, les manuscrits de M. Facius donnent debv, et M. Clavier 
a" recti cette lecon. Mais il semble que deOtv est preferable : il con\ 
▼lent parfaitement a l'usage des Grecs, qui construiserit fidXiara avec 
le g£nitif. Ex. : o ^ fjL&Xicr t a r 5>v aXXw v Oavfj.d$eiv tffiov, 6 
phtase entierement semblable a celle-ci de Pausanias, ical t&v ipytov 
r&y <j>etbiov 0eas paXicrra a'^tov (i, 28, p. 194). Elle est d s dilleuTS 
tout-u-ftit dans la maniere de Pausanias : Ex : 'AQr)valot hk fiaXtara 
ftkv twv 'EWiJvwv a.T€tpriK€(rav ( i, 4, p. 29) • TYroXefLalov hk XAyovaiV 
©* t&v kraipwv apvvai (i, 6, p. 37). &c. &c. Les exemples suivans 
d6cirient en faveur de OeCJy .... kal hia tovto de&v /* aX t ara 
*AxpWwra Tifxu/ori (ii, c. 9> p. 398) : Kal iXtov flu fibs $ paX itrra 
€ b> v is avQp&invov j3iov Kal fierafioXas irpayfiaTW ore &<f)6XifiO* 

1 DanS les citations de Pausanias, je rapporte les chapitres, afin que eeuat" 
qui ne possederaient pas l'edition dc M. Clavier puissent rctrouver, dans le* 
editions de Kuhnius ou de Facius, les passage? indiques. 

* Thucyd. iii, 34. iv, 3, et 29. v, 2. vi, 92, 109. 
3 Id. i, 110. 

* Herodot. ap. Kuhn. ad Paus. p. 39. Cf. Thucyd. i, 104. 
s Thucyd. vii, 1. 

6 Dionys. Halicarn. de Compos, verbor. $. SO. p. 982. ed. Schaefor. 

du Pausamas de M. Clavier* S21 

(f. fori 6ft\tyc*>), fi6vt>i Ttftas 'EAX^wv vtfwvtnv 'Atypatoc, (i. 17. p.' : 
H)9): fUKpdv ci itwo OaXinnrrfs &v*>, Ne/aieeu)S iirriv iepov, fj 6 € &y 
/i^^tcrra iuSp&wois vfipHrralt k&riv hnrapalrffros. (i. 33. p. 237.) 

Eufhi, qaand tous ces secours lui ont manqu£, M. Clavier a propose 
ltu-meme des corrections. J'ose dire qu'on reconnaitra encore ici 
1'faabile critique. Les corrections oot tou jours €t€ 1'ecueil des hefts** 
nistes ; car elles supposent, outre les quaktes necessaires pour k choix 
des variantes, un grand degrg de sagacity et un sentiment plus intfme 
de la laogue. Qu'un passage altera se presente dans un auteur, le 
draw savant, loin de soupconner qu'il peut y avoir une faute, se con,- 
sume en de vains efforts pour donner a la phrase an sens faisonoable ; 
tandis que l'nomme plus habile, apereevant promptement l'alttration, 
trouve, dans la connaissance de la langue et de l'histoire, les moyens 
de ta faire disparaitre. C'est done avec raison qu'un savant critique 
anglais a dit quit est bien plus facile de donner un sens quelconque a 
un passage altere, que de decouvrir, a travers l'alteration elle-m&me, 
la lecon primitive/ Aussi est-ce par le nombre, mais surtout par la 
justrsse de leurs conjectures que se sont distinguls les grands helte- 
utstes, les Casaubon, les H. Etienne, les Valckenaer, les Hemsterhuis, 
les Toup, les Bentley, les Brunck, les Porson, &c. ; et quoique beau- 
coup de savans aient abuse et abusent encore, pour tourraenter les 
testes, de leurs grandes connaissances, on ne peut nier que le genre 
de sagacite qui fait demeler a l'instant un passage corrompu, et trou- 
ver le moyen de lui rendre sa purete premiere, ne soit celui qui ait 
rendu les plus grands services aux textes des auteurs anciens. 

Pausanias est, sans contredit, le plus alt£r6 de tous les prosateurs 
grecs, et celui qui, par consequent, exigeait, au plus haut degre", cbez 
sou 6diteur, le talent des corrections. Sylburge et Kuhnius en 6taient 
eminemment dou6s ; mais quoique ce qu'ils ont fait soit etonnant, i! 
restait encore bien davantage a faire. Le nouvel 6diteur a, sous ce 
rapport, infiniment ajoute a leur travail. 

Les corrections de M. Clavier sont de deux especes : 1°. Quand la 
phrase ne presentait absolumenjt aucun sens, oblige qull e'tait d'eh 
donner un raisonnable a sa version, il a tcaduit d'apres la correction, 
et, pour que le lectenr put suivre sur le texte, il y a insert le mot 
qui servait a completer le sens, en ayant le soin de mettre le mot 
entre des crochets ; 2°. Lorsque la phrase, offrant un sens probable, 
semblait ne pecher que par un defaut de syntaxe on par quelqu'autre 
qui ne suffisait pas pour demUurer le sens, il s'est contente de ren- 
voyer ses corrections et celles de ses pred^cesseurs au bas des pages, 
ou elles sont distinguees des variantes par le mot "ttrws (peut^tre) qui 
les precede. 

Ces corrections sont toutes fort ingenieuses ; il en est un grand 
nombre d'incontestables ; telles sont : 

Pour le livre premier. 

y E£Uvai bk tifiws wpfirfrro els ras Qtpfwirtikas trvv rots 1X0*9*1 t&v 
'EWijywr (c. 4. p. 29.) M. Clavier lit kdiXovei, excelleute correction 

' M. Payne Knight, in the Edinburgh Review, No. xlviii. p. 435. 

NO. XXVI. CI. Jl. \01*.*\VY. ^ 

322 Analyse du premier volume 

appuyee par des phrases paralleles, Ex. Keorpivos per <rvv rois Uikmh 
my 'HwetpvT&v (i. c. 11. p. 70) ; Kopivdlwv teal rStv AXX**? ffvpfAtymr 
toIs eB&Xovtriv ihvicav oiKffffai (i. c. 39. p. 278.) II est vrai qu'on ponr- 
roit lire aussi BiXoveri, comme au liv. ii. c. 13. p. 413; enadmettant 
un changement pared a celui que propose un habile critique qui fit 
dans Xenophon aZQis $\dy, au lieu de aZdis diXy ; ' et alors, il nV 
auroit a faire qu'une transposition de deux lettres, semblable k edit 
qu'on remarque dans oirklrris, ottXitikos pour iroXfrrjs ; trokiruak,* et*. 
Au reste, cette maniere de parler se retrouve dans les boos auteurt;. 
car la phrase de Pausanias revient exactementa celle-ci deThucydide: 
&mra be Kal ol 'AOqpcuoi, kretri bvo Kal rpiaKOvra vorepor, bcoUovt f£9~ 
piovs 9 aty&v re avTwv ical t&v aXXwv top fiovX6 pevov, *-£/ui^ams 

k. r. X. 3 

Aeyovtri be Kal u>s Avaipayps < eJyai bk oviev fa-g ol tX&ov 

ripTifiery tyCXov es to eoyarov (c. 10. p. 66) ; M . Clavier propose iiptipm- 
jUvy <p(Xwv. II corrige encore Uvppov Zpyvv, pour epyuiv (c. 12. p. 78); 
ev oXlyois pour ev Xayots. (c. 19. p. 125); ayaXfiara pour ayaXfMa 
(c. 23. p. 154); aXXos uev pour aXXo pkv (c. 25. p. 169) ; es 'ABipml* 
ov* pour kit* A0. (c. ia. p. 173) ; irapixovra P * 1 * veptiypvra (c.35. 
p. 253.) ; fi bi) pour Ijbrt (c. 39. p. 277.) ; ^aXafuyos pour laXajilMa, 
(c. 40. p. 285) ; 'EXiov ov Mipyova pour 'HXeeov M. (c 42. p. 298), 

Pour le livre second : 

Mera & avro kwl ry pevpart ry £ia r^s OaX&trarjs Uotretb&vos yaXxovv 
(c. 2. p. 337) ; il corrige ZevypaTi ; cette correction est encore ap- 
puyee par cette phrase de Thucydide : Kal irapfjXde irapa Tyy x^*** 
bta rfjs daXdfftrrjs fiaXX6fiev6s re Kal yaXartas* 

Tov Oearpov bi earn Tovbe iroppu) yvpvaoiov (c. 4. p. 354); M. Clavier 
ajoute ov devant woppw. Peut fctre en effet faudrait-il lire tov dearpo* 
hi earnv ov troppw yvfivaoiov. 

Kcu ctti; Tovrf freirolrfKey "A<rios 6 * Xp^iwroXifiov (c. 6. p. 369).; & 
ajoute encore eirl f et lit hn\ knl Tofoy. Cette correction est preferable 
k celle que Valckenaer avait proposes sur le m&me passage. 5 

Karayaiov oitcoboprifia, sir avro be 7]v 6 \aXicovs ddXafWS (c. 23. 
p. 489) • on doit lire selbn M. Clavier ev avry. 

Si mon opinion pouvait compter pour quelque chose, je ne crain- 
drais pas d'affirmer que plusieurs de ces corrections sont tellement 
certaines, que les editeurs futurs ne manqueront pas de les recevoir 
dans le texte avec une entiere confianee. 

D'autres corrections, sans etre aussi certaines, sont aussi ingenieuses, 
ainsi xawvpovs pour Kal irvppovs (lib. i. c. 23. p. 157); bxoKreiyam* 
aKoverltas pour dx. &s (c. 28. p. 201) ; et Ttves pour otTtves (c. 23. p. 164); 
peut*etre celle-ci n'est-elle pas absolument n^cessaire ; dans cette 

1 Courrier, sur Tequitation de Xenophon. p. 101. 

* Scbaefer a<l Gregor. Corinth, p. 241. 

3 Thucyd. iv. 102.. * Thucydid. i. 63. 

5 Valck. diatr, in Eurip. Dram, deperdit. p. 59. 

du Pausanias de M. Clavier. 323 

phrase dUwt>opa-b^ ojuos earl Kal ravra, kts'Iefxttvvpos 6 Kapbtavos lypa^e 
(i... 13. p. 93) il propose <5v Sypavf*. Cette correction, sans etre de 
toute certitude, est fort bonne, en ce qu'elle est tout k fait conforme 
& la maniere de Pausanias. Les copistes confondent souvent &v et 
£s. Ainsi, dans Strabon — r&v avrtbo^ovvrtav, <bs avros 6 "lmrapyps ica- 
rayofidSei, 1 Casaubon lit Jv et les traducteurs francais veulent ods 
4c*rovofi&gei. z On lit de m&me dans Fl. Jos&phe &v tyafiev ; un seul 
ownuscrit donne uv £^. 3 Voici une autre bonne correction : au lieu 
de rtpevos r^v kniK\r\<nv 'OXvfjLwias (c. 18. p. 1 18), M. Clavier lit rffs 
yft rr\v hriKXijtnr ; l'addition du mot yfjs est indispensable ; mais il 
■fiittt retrancher n}v et lire rifxevos yfjs eiciicX. 'OXvpwlas ; car jamais 
Pausanias ne met l'article devant emicXrioiv construit de cette maniere. 4 " 
Si par hasard on trouvait l'article, ce serait peut-etre une finite. 

J'ai remarque plusieurs corrections qui ne m'ont pas semble d'une 
n&cessite* absolue. Quoiqu'il soit tres -probable que je me trompe, je 
prendrai la liberty de soumettre au savant editeur mes doutes sur deux 

1°. Pausanias dit que Oassandre donna pour tyran, aux Atb6niens, 
Dem&rius, fils de Phanostrate, qui 6tait celebre par sa sagesse, &VM- 
rptov rov Qavoorparov, r a irpbs b6 %av el\ri<p6ra eirl crcxpiq. (i. c. 25. 
p^l74). M. Clavier propose r a irpo trSev bofav ; mais il me semble 
que ra wpbs b6^av est une periphrase Gquivalente a rfjv bo%av, et que 
irpos a ici la meme signification que es, dans les exemples suivans du 
mime auteur, ra is b6%av kykvero ovk ctyav)}* (i. c. 28. p. 194): 
ra es bofav bevrepos (i. c. 43. p. 305), etc. etc. Pausanias affectionne 
beaucoup cette maniere de parler ; et il n'y a rien de si commun dans 
la langue grecque ; ainsi dans Diodore ra irpos rrjv trrparelav est pour 
TJjv trrparelav, 5 et dans Strabon ra irpos rov fiiov pour ra rov piov, 6 
en vertu de l'ellipse du verbe irpotriiKovra ou de tout autre. 

2°. 'Io^wv be KvuxTcrios r&v liftyi/rwv k. r. X. (i. c. 34. p. 246), c'est-a- 
dire : " Iophon de Gnosse, Vun des Extgties." M. Clavier propose de 
lire *ls r&v fifty., ainsi que dans un autre endroit (i. c. 35. p. 253) ; 
rinsertion de els est inutile : l'ellipse de els, si commune en grec, est 
tres-frequente dans Pausanias (Cf. ii. c. 6. p. 369). t 

Malgr6 tant de soins pour donner au texte de Pausanias la plus 
grande puret€ possible, on doit penser que M. Clavier n'a pu faire 
disparaftre toutes les fautes qui s'y trouvent. Ceux qui ont quelque 
teinture de la critique savent que cela ne se peut guere. Quel les que 
soient la sagaciti et la science d'un 6diteur, la quantite des fautes qui 
' iui echappent dans un texte est toujours en raison directe du nombre de 
oelles qu'il y avait a corriger. Sylburge et Kuhnius ont restitu£ beau- 
coup de passages, M. Facius en a corrigS un grand nombre d'autres, 

« Strab. ii. p.. ISO. B. a Trad, Strab., t. i. p. 179. 

3 Joseph, in vita sua. $44. p. 115. ed. Hencke. 

4 Paus. i. c. 19, init. 26, 38, 40, 44. (bis) ii. c. 2, 4, 10, 11, 21, 22, 24, 27, 
30, 31, 34, (bis) 35. Hi. 22, 23. ix. c. 8, etc. 

5 Diod. Sicul. xiv. p. 405. ed. Grac. H. Steph. 

6 Strab. xl p. 765. c. 

324 Analyse du premier volume x 

M. Clavier a fait plus que son predecesseur ; et cependaat lea ^ditean 
raturs trouveront encore a gtaner apres tous. Ausst M. Clavier evoue- 
t-il franchemeitt, dans sa preface, " qu'il y a dans Pausantas beaucfctn) 
de passages qui ne peuvent s'expliquer ou se corriger que par In to** 
naissance des lieux et des monumeas qu'il decrit." Quoi qu'il en salty 
le texte qu'il nous donne n'en est pas moins destine a fa ire kn, jtw- 
qu'fc ce qu'on decouvre d'autres manuscritsde Pausanias; encore ne 
taurait-on esperer que le texte de cet auteur par vienrte jamais 4 Petat 
de purete ou sont maintenant ceux de la plupart des prosateurs grecs. 

Parmi les passages ou une lecture attentive du texte de M. Clavier 
m'a fait soupconner encore quelques traces d'alteration, j'en ctfeisfimi 
quelques-uns, sur lesquels je me permettrai de hasarder une opinion, 
quoique je n'aie pas Thonneur d'etre helleniste ; mais, comme le dfit 
ttegamment Hemsterhuis, " medicinam tentare jurat, nam Mmandijtdu- 
cid, $ed feliciorum aliorum operam prolidendi spe." K 


Ch. 4. p. 29* & t avr ij v Ta.X6.Tas kXarivovaiv'airb dak&ecip* Jas 
mots es T*inr\v n'ont point de sens ; Usez es tt}v yfjv 9 comme au chap. 
8. p. 50. 

remarque uu ingenieux et savant critique. 

Ch. 14. p. 98. brjfjLos b* ecmv 'Adrjvalois 'Adfiovimr #t 
a:, r. X. D'apres l'usage des Grecs de faire dependre le nom sped- 
fique du nom generique, je pense qu'il faut changer ici les cas 9 et lire 
'Adrjvaiwv 'Adpovevcrtv ; construction qui se retrouve deux fois dans 
cette meme page, etailleurs erepos Ukaratevtn. fhiuruw (c. 32. p. 2?0); 
ou bien on lira les deux mots au datif, comme au c. 26. p. J 81. Je 
sais bien qu'on pour rait a la rigueur faire dependre 'AOftovtur de &}pff ; 
mais il faudrait alors, si je ne me trompe, que ce dernier mot ful pre- 
cede de Particle 6. 

Ch. 17. p. 109. 'Ey he t$ yvppa<riy 9 Tfjs ayopas a*e\ovTt oi ttoXv, 
Tlrdke/jLCuoy 8e axo rov KaTetTKevatrpevov KaXov/jiivy k. r. X. Je lirais 
TlroXefialov &£. C'est ainsi que s'exprirue ordinairement Pausanias. 
Ex. evei he yvpvatnov 'Eppov KaXovfievov (i. 2. p. 14); teal on pev 
-eVadiy Xlavhiiav ev AW v las AQqvas KaXovfjiivy trKoriXf (i. 41. p. 293). 

Ch. 18. p. 121. dans cette phrase, KaTwceirat be es air 6 fitflXtmr 
jcat yv/jtvatrwv etrriv eic&vvfjLov 'Abpiavoy, M. Facius a tres-bien vu que 
es avrb n'avait point de sens, il lit evravdcu Cette correction ne audit 
peut-etre pas pour expliquer completement le passage ; je serais dis- 
pose a croire qu'il n'y a ici qu'une de ces transpositions si fre- 
quentes dans le texte de Pausanias, et qu'on doit lire rat yvjxva<n6v 
ktmv eirwvw/xov *Abpiavov\ icardfretrae he es a it to fiipXla, en rap- 


* Hem&terh. ad Xenoph. Ephes. p. *19. *&. liocfeWa.. 
* Courrier, sur le commanaemtnt de We^^eu^^^^feWi^^Av, 

du Pausanias de M. Clcmer. 325 

pertant v&ro a yvfiv6i9tov y et Ton sent qu'il est tout nature! qu'on eut 
rassemble des livres dans un gymnase, lieu frequente par lies philo- 
sophes, les sophistes et les rheteurs, et destine 1 a Veducation de lajeu* 
Hesse. " Ceux qui connaissent les manuscrits savent comment cat 
transpositions ont eu lieu. Les mots omis par erreur s'ecrivaient en 
Marge, et le copiste suivant les remettait dans le teste, mais heirs de 
four place." 1 Je ne crois pas meme qu'il soit necessaire de riea 
changer a es aM. On sait que l'emploi de es pour ev, en vertu d'une 
ellipse, est fort ancien dans la langue grecque.* Reitzius le retrouve 
dans Demosthenes, 3 MM. Wyttenbach 4 et Heindorf 5 dans Platon; 
mais il devint surtout fort commun chez les ecrivains de I'empire. 
Avx exemples rapportes par les auteurs cites, on ajoutera ceux-ci de 
Fausanias lui-meme, ohelv els wo,W (liv. ii. c. 38. p. 598), qui se trouve 
dans saint Matthieu ; ° es peeSyaiav pour ev fieaoyaiy (iv. c. 9. p. 301. 
Kaon.) \ oiks r%v iroXiv (x. c. 33. p. 883. Kuhn.) ; et cet autre de Xe- 
nophon d'Ephese, Keltrdai els rrjv yfjv. 1 On trouve encore es avec 
/ae/pccp, 8 et avec yiveetiai, 9 etc. 

Ch. 28. p. 197* ooov viro ra irponvXaia, irrfyii re Hbar6s etrci. II 
manque encore ici un mot : car a-t-on jamais dit, dans aucune langue, 
un* source d'eau, a moins de vouloir specifier si cette eau est ckaude, 
froide, douce, satie, saumitre, etc. ou d'avoir l'intention de comparer 
cette source avec une autre d'une nature differente, ainsi que Fa fait 
Lncien, qui dit infy$ vharos, par opposition avec irqyrl uvpov, miy) 
fUXttos,, etc. : *° il iaut done necessairement un adjectif quelconque 
avec le rniyrj Hbaros de Pausanias, comme on le trouve partout ailleurs, 
Metros irqyrf yjwxpov (i. c. 38. p. 273)> et yXvKeos vbaros *r\yi\. (iii. c. 23. 
p. 269. Kuhn.), etc. Or, il est certain que la source dont park Pa*. 
sanias, est celle qui existe encore au pied de PAcropole d'Athenes, du 
cAte de Fouest; et, comme cette source est amereetsaumatre," ilest 
evident que Pausanias n*a pu passer sous silence une circonstance aussi 
singuliere, et que e'est precisement le mot qui indiquait cette particu- 
larity renarquable que les copistes ont passe : on doit done lire fnjyrj 
re *t*p9$ tibaros, e'est ainsi qu'il s'exprime ailleurs (iv. 36. p. 371. 

Ch. 23. p. 153. Tatrtf* icavafihs Ik QaXboorts clXc. Je prefererais 
twavafias, qu'on trouve ailleurs (i. c. 18. p. 115). Thucydide se sert 
aussi de ce mot en parlant du meme evenement. 1 * 

I Courrier, sur le Traits de PEquit. p. 110. 
% Coray, sur Heliodore, p. 41. 

3 Reitz. ad Lucian. Asin. §i. t. ii. p. 568. 

4 Wyttenb. Bibliotb. Critic, i. 49. 

5 Heind. ad Plat. Gorgiam. p. 278. 

* Matth. ii. 23. Ce passage est moins forraeL 
7 Xen. Epbes. p. 18. 1. 6. ed. Locella. 

s Procop. Bell. Gotthic. iv. 34. p. 660 D. 

* Appian. Bell. civ. i. $ 120. Xenoph. Epbes. p. 104. 1. 9. etc. 
10 Lucian. Ver. Hist. ii. 13. t. ii. p. 112. 

II Chandler, Voyage en Grece, t. ii. p. 416. trad. fr. 
12 Thucyd. vii. 29. 

326 Analyse du premier volume' 

Ch. 31. p. 222. Xeyovtri $ olv Kal (fapbr Yloaeib&yos, M. Facial 
a bicn vu que ce passage est alter 6 ; M. Clavier corrige \eyovvi b* &p»$ 
Kal ixovert fiiofjLov ft. Cette correction explique tout, il est mi, 
mais elle est trop loin de la lecon des manuscrits. II n'y a que den 
manieres de corriger ce passage, ou Ton changera Xiyovei en fyo**** 
changement d'autant plus admissible, que les variantes de Pausanias en 
fournissent un exemple au livre ii. c. 35. p. 577> et de lire^xoiwi b 9 obr 
k. /3. 11. ; ou bien, et ceci me paratt la vraie le9on, on lira Xeyovei 
b' elvai Kal /3w/x. II., car Pausanias dit ailleurs Xiyovert bk el rat 
xal 'tyiyevelas iipfov (i. c. 43. init.). Le changement deja si simple 
de ovv en elvai ne paraitra pas meme une correction a ceux qui cob* 
naissent la paleographie : c'est tout simplement un mot mal lu ; car 
on sait que les copistes n'ecrivent du mot el vac que la premiere syllabe. 
el, avec un signe qu'il leur arrive souvent d'oublier ; et nous ap- 
prenons, du savant et judhcieux Bast, que el a ete souvent confondu 
avec oZv? 

Ch. 33. init. MapaBwvos be aire^ec nj ftev Bpavpvv, ivda 'Ityiyereia* 
rrfy 9 Ayafiifivovos ck Tavpwv <p€vy*vo-av. k. r. X« airo/3#v<u \6yovaav. 
Comme la suite de la phrase n'oflxe point rjj be, pour repondre a 
Ttj fjikv, je pense que la vraie lecon est citi^x 64 tl /xe> Bpavpwy, ca,<L 
Brauron est it quelque distance de Marathon. 

Ch. 33. p. 238. to yap npos rf "ArXavri Hbtap, rpurl irapex6ptvw 
apyas pevjxaaiv, ohbev rwv pevfiartav iroiel irora/jLov, aXXa wav 6uolm$ . 
avriKa e\ei cruXXafiovcra tj xpan/jios. Je lis to yap trpos tou "AtXuvtos 
tibwp, c. a. d. Les eaux qui descendent de V At las: wpos doit etre id 
synonyme de e/c qui se trouve plus bas, to be tibtop to ck row "ArXoyror 
dokepov ri eon. 

Ch. 35. p. 253. to b' efjLol davfia Trapaaypv Avbias rfjs aVa> w6\u 
earlv oh fieyaXtj, Trjpeyov Ovpai. Evraitfa 7r€ptppayevTos X<tyov btk 
yeip&va, oara etyavr) to oyfifia TrepitypVTa is trloTiv £>s earty aydp&xov, 
c. a. d. " Voici encore ce que j'ai vu d'etonnant dans une petite vilk . 
de la Lydie Superieure, nominee les Portes de Temenus ; une colline 
du voisinage s'6tant fendue par la rigueur dufroid, on y appercut des 
ossemens d'une grandeur si demesuree, etc." Mais il parait assez sin- 
gulier qu'une colline sefende par la rigueur dufroid. J'avais d'abord 
cru qu'il . fallait lire rtyov au lieu de Xcxpov : cette correction me 
semble inutile, puisque \6<f>os tout seul peut signifier un tumulus, ou 
grand amas de terre qui servait de tombeau dans l'origine. Toutefois 
comme il est difficile de croire que le froid fasse fendre un tumulus, je 
pense qu'il est convenable de donner a x eL ^ v * e sens » 9° ^ * **& 
souvent, de grandes pluies d'hiver ou d'ete ; des lors la circonstance 
rapportee par Pausanias devient toute naturelle, en ce qu'elle n'est plus 
qu'un eboulement des terres du tumulus cause par l'abondance des 
pluies. Cette m&me cause produit tous les jours dans les pays de mon- 
tagnes de bien plus terribles effets. C'est ainsi que la chute du mont 
Conto, qui, le 4 Septembre 1618, detruisit le bourgde Pleurs, dans la 
vallee de Chiavenna, fut causee par les pluies qui tomberent du 25 

1 Bast, Commentatio Palaeographica, p. 760. 776. 

du Pausanias de M. Clavier. 327 

ao&t au 3 septembre ; f et quede nos jours (le 2 septembre 1806), a 
1* suite des pluies du mob d'aout, une partie de la couche superieure 
de la montagne de Rouffiberg ronla dans la vallee d'Art, situee entre 
ks lacs de Zug et de Lowertz, et ensevelit les beaux villages de 
Lowertz et de Goldau. 


Ch. 1. p. 329* &t2 Keyxpelas. Je crois que em Keyxpeiats serait 

Ch. 18. p. 442. Le commencement de ce chapitre me semble al- 
tktk. Le moyen d'y entendre quel que chose serait peut-etre de con- 
•kterer comme en parenthese le membre fyei — rkfievos, de reunir Kal 
Ahcrvos avec ffpyov, et de lire, en admettant une lege re correction : *Eic 
Mwcffrdv — koriv fyxjiov (fyei fikv hi} Kal kvrav&a reacts irapa t&v irpoB- 
yppiw fi€y iaras hk $v re %epl<j>*> Kal trap* 'Adrjvalois kv ileperktos r € p k v e i), 
xal Aiktvos Kal KXvfiivrfs (iwfios K.T.X. 

Ch. 31. p. 550. <f>afflv an? avriov avatydvat ba^vrfv fj bk ks fyuas kirn v 
4 *P<> rfjs tTKtivfjs ravrtis ; il ne semble pas d'abord qu'il y ait quel que 
chose a dire ici ; mais ce n'est pas ainsi que parle ordinairement Pau- 
sanias ; je suis presque certain qu'on doit lire fj bk (forte fj b$) ks fffxds 
iriijy irpo rffs (rtcr)vi}s ravrri$ t (c'est-a-dire, qui mbsistait encore de man 
temps); car Pausanias joint le plus souvent Ire a If fids (Cf. i. 40. Fin. 
44. ii. 3, 12, 20, 29, etc.); la correction est d'autant plus naturelle, 
que la confusion de h-i et ccrrt est fort commune dans les manuscrits,* 
et surtout dans ceux de Pausanias, 3 et que cet auteur dit tres-souvent 
is iffMs fbri Jjv, comme dans ce passage : ra bk oucobofxrjfiara Kal k s 
llfias $rt 1\v. (i.c. 29. Fin. p. 217.) 

Ch. 32. p. 558. kvl Bakatrtrav bk rqp ipujtalav (lege \p7)<paiav Carrier ar.) 
wopevo/jttvois k. t. X. Voila encore un passage suspect. Qui a jamais 
entendu parler de la mer Pstphcea ? II serait done possible que \^i<paia t 
ftu lieu de se rapporter a daXaeoa, fftt le nom de quelque lieu 
obscur, et qu'il manquat ici une preposition: en sorte queje ne serais 
pas 6Ioign& de lire kirl daXaatrav bk ir p 6 s rqv \f/i(palav iropevopkvois, 
c'est-a-dire, " en approchant de la mer, vers le canton Psiptuea, on 
trouve un olivier sauvage, etc/' Pausanias aime a mettre ainsi deux 
propositions a c6t£ l'une de I'autre ; ex. : bbbs — wpbs 'ApKablas kwl 
Tiyeav (lib. ii. c. 24. p. 494). 

Tels sont les passages qui m'out paru plus ou moins al teres. D'a- 

pres ce qui a ete dit plus haut du style de Pausanias, on se doute bien 

qu'il doit s'exprimer quelquefois de mairiere a desesp^rer son traduc- 

teur : l'obscurite qui couvre un grand nombre de passages, tient moins 

'a la recherche des tours £Iegans ou des expressions rares, comme dans 

. * Ebel, Manuel du Voyageur en Suisse, art. Chiavenna, t. ii. p. 390.— 
Edit. Franc. Zurich, 1811. 

2 Boissonad. Bast et Schaefer ad Greg. Qorinth. p. 95. 

3 Cf. Paus. i. 14. p. 97. Sylburg. ad Paus. x. 19. p. 844. M. Clavier pro* 
pose de changer fori en en au ch. 20 du liv. i. p. 120. 

328 Analyse du premier volume > 

les Remains du m&ne temps, qu'a un certain embarrasdeoonstraetMi 
qui laisse l'esprit indecis entre deux explications egalement probables: 
on en trouve, un exemple dans Fendroit ou Pausanias parle de la statue 
de Jupiter Olympien. Uplv bk is to Itpbv iivai rov bios tov ^OXv/tar/«», 
'Abptavos 6 'Pw/icuW fiavtXevs tov re vabv avlOijce, ko\ to AynXpa ttos 
a£tov oh fjieyedei [ikv (on fx^ 'Pwfialois kcli 'Yoblois eitrlv ol KoXoatrol rk 
Xoura ayaX/jtara bfioiws inro&eiKvvraC) we^ro/iyrai bk eie re cX&Qavros *al 
'Xfivtrov, ical e^ei rk\vris el irpos to ptyeBos opuHTiv, (i. 18. p. 119) » W ce 
passage n'est pas altered on doit convenir que e'est la une de ces phrases 
Thucydideennes sur lesquelles il est Dermis d-avoir trois ou quatre opi- 
nions difterentes. Voici la version latine : Olympii vero Juris temphm 
Adrianus imperator dedicavit, et in eo signum quod magnitudine am 
Romania et Rhodiensibus colossi* conferri possit. Videos ibidem it 
alia signa ex ebore et auro, in quibus ague artem ac magnitudinm 
admirere : ce qui n'a aucun rapport avec le grec. Toute la difficult 
consiste dans la parenthese are /x// aTrobeUwrat ; et le traducteur i*y 
a rien compris. Voici la version de M. Clavier : " C'est rempereur 
Adrieu qui a fait eriger la nef du temple de* Jupiter Olympien, et une 
statue de ce dieu, admirable, moins par sa dimension (car, a l'excep- 
tion des colosses qu'on voit a Rhodes et a Rome, les autres statues 
colossales sont a peu pres de la m£me taille), que parcequ'elle est 
entieremeot d'or et d'ivoire, et que malgre sa grandeur, elle est trip 
vaillee avec beaucoup d'art." II me semble qu'il 6tait difficile de don- 
ner a cette parenthese un sens plus probable que celui qu'a adopts 
M. Clavier, en sous-entendant KoXocrmala ou KoXovcwca apres aydX/tara* 
On pourrait aussi sous-en tend re tov Aids tov 'QXvfiirLov, ainsi que le vest 
un celeb re antiquaire : mais la premiere explication me parait prffe* 

11 y a encore d'autres passages dont le sens est sinon obscur, du 
moins assez incertain, pour qu'on desire de le voir d^finitivement arrets 
dans les notes du savant 6diteur. Par exemple : 

Livre I. c. 2. p. 14. irpotriairov eartv ol fidvov ev^Kobofirffiivov rotyf. 
M. Clavier mais ce nest qu'une tete enchasste dans le mur : wpfowwov 
est litteralement ce que les artistes appelleut le masque de la tete ; ce 
n'est que la partie dun tout. Le mot tete ue convient point ici. 

Cb. 4. p. 31. 'A via ff koltu) ne signine pas VAsie mineure ; mais 
VAsie inferieure : les premiers mots d6signent toute la peninsule appelee 
main tenant Anatolic : mais 'A<7i'a fy ko\tw le borae a la partie occiden- 
tale de cette peninsule et comprend la Mysie, les trois colonies grecques, 
et la Lydie. 

Ch. 7« p. 46. avriyaye trtyas ks vi\fjov ^prffiov bia wot a pov est 
tres-bien traduit par Amasee, eos in desertam insulam per Nitum de- 
duxit. Car bia irorafiov depend de avfiyaye (Paus. i. c. 29. p. 209) ; 
b, nor. avayefrdai sigui fie remonter unjleuve ; x au reste, comme b. tot, 
tout seul veut dire par le Jleuve, soit en mantant, soit en descendant, 

1 Zozim. iii. 5, 3. ed. Cellar, Ce que cet historien exprime ailleurs par 

iiavKuv (v. 29. 3). 

du Pau&anias de M. Clavier. 339 

c'est le verbe qui determine le sens. 1 Cette locution se rencontre 
pluz particulierement chez les 6crivains de l'empire. 

Ch. 14. p. 98. to be 6yaA/*a bp&v rfc 'A6g*cU y\avKov$ fypv tovs 
tyOaXpovs, Atfivuty tov pvOov ovra etipttKov : M. CI. " et en voyant 
la eoukur bleuefoncSe des yeux de la dfasse, fat reconnu que Jet ait une 
tradition Libyenne" yXavKos ne signifie pas bleufoncS, mais bkutirant 
sur lejaune; ou verditre : c est a proprement parkr la eoukur des eaux 
die la mer. 

Ch. 28. p. 197. init. Je ne sais si les mots . ImkXovs to e£af>x% 
ovtos nesignifignt pas itant Sicules d'origine ; les Siciliens se disaient 
SureAufrcu. Voyez la-dessus Mazzocbi. 2 

Cb. 28. p. 203. "Eari be tov Ueipai&s wp6s dakatrmp fyearrtfe. M. 
CI. '" le Phreattys est dans le Piree." Le sens est plutot " le Phreat- 
tys depend du Pirde" 

Ch. 29* P* 217* fKoS6fiT}oe — ical to trpos ry Avicly KaXovpivy 
TvfLvdaiov (il bdtit — le Gymnase qui est aupres du Lycee, M. Clavier). 
Ceci me laisse encore des doutes. Car on sait que le Gyipnase £tait 
dans le lieu appele Lyc6e, et non auprls. Ainsi le faux Plutarque, 
en rapportant le meme fait, dit presque dans les memes termes ral r£ 
€ v AvKely yvfiv&oiov hroirfee.* C'est ce qui me fait croire que woos 
est ici pour er, comme \ dans beaucoup de passages des auteurs grecs 
de l'empire ; telles sont ces phiases : 'AXcZavbpeuL irpos Alyv*r» 
qu on trouve dans Marinus 4 et ailleurs ; s Kopivdos irpos rrj 'EW&bt ; ■ 
"AyKvpa 7T p o s rrj fwepi} raXar/9, dans Socrate le scholastique ; 7 ce 
que le meme auteur exprime ailleurs par "A. ey t$ jxncpf. rakarly* 
fX par "A. rffs fwcpds TaXarias; 9 'Ap&oeta $ *p6s lUvry, 10 de So- 
«omene, ne veut pas dire Amasee prts du Pant-Euxin, mais Amaske 
dans le Pont. 

En voici d'ailleurs un exemple pris de Pausanias lui-m&me ; il parte 
des Taures ol e* rj} ItcvQuy (i. c. 43. p. 302) ; d'autres manuscritt 
donnent *pbs r. lie., M. Clavier a re9U cette proposition ; et avec rai- 
son, ce me semble, car c'est sans doute la lecon primitive. La syno- 
nymie de irpbs et de kv a cause la difference des lemons. Un copiste 
aura ecrit en marge h comme glose de np6s ; un autre, moins instruit, 
prenant la glose pour une variante, 1'aura introduite dans le texte, 
comme preferable a l'autre lecon." Mais il n'en resulte pas moins que 

I Cf. Zozim. iii. 10, 2-13, 2-18, 10-19, 5. iv. 34, 2. Xenoph. Ephes. p. 91. 
]. ii. etc. 

* Mazzoch. ad Tabul. Heracl. p. 15. not. 16. 

3 Pseud. Plut. de X. Orat t. ii. p. 841. A. 

4 Marin, in Vita Prodi, c. 8. p. 6. ed. Boissonad. 

5 Strab. ii. 196. Auctor Geoponic. xiv. 7, 30. D. Eustath. ad Dion. P. 
920, etc. 

6 Simeon, in Vita S. Cyriac. p. 101. t. iv. Mon. Eccles. Graecae. 

i Socrat. Hist. Eccl. ii. 20. p. 105. 1. 10. 8 Id. i. 36. p. 72. in. 

9 Id. ii. 15. in. p. 92. vi. 18. p. 335. 1. 34. 

10 Sozom. Hist. Eccl. vii. 2. p. 280. 1. 44. 

II II y en a im autre exemple dans cette phrase de Xenophon : hnv9n i£iXo£- 
vn ....... itf Kfpajuwy Ayofcfo, irfai* oixw/uiviiv, Wypmt h rn Mt/Wa ywqec 

330 Analyse du premier volume 

Ta0pot ol trpos ry 'LcvdtKjj signifie, les Taures, peuple de Scytkie, et hod 
pas voisin de la Scythie. 

Est locus in Scythia (Tauros dixere priores), etc. 1 C'est dans k 
meme sens que Pausanias, en parlant de l'affaire de Sphacterie, a dit, 
t6 — fyyov irpos rp Jfyatcrriply (i. 13. p. 89), c'esi-a-dire, kv rjjf — 
S^am^/?, comme s'exprime Platon.* 

Liv. II. c. 13. p. 538. — Tpotcfyvtoi arepvvvovres, eiicep ical AXKot rir4t, 
to. €yyu>pia y ne signifie-t-il pas : " Les Tremens sont phtsfiers que let 
autre* peuples 9 de leurs traditions nationales f " 

C. 7* p« 370. avrol Sk Iticvibviot tcl voWa koiK&ri rp6wf d&trrovtri, 
pourrait signifier aussi : " Cest a pen prks ainsi que les Sicyoniens en* 
terrent leplus souvent les morts." Pausanias emploie tres-frequemment 
ioiKbts, et presque toujours en cesens. (Cf. c. ii. p. 402-17, 441, etc.) 

Jusqu'a^ present, j'ai considere l'ouvrage de M. Clavier sous le rap- 
port de la critique du texte, U me resterait a donner une idee de la 
traduction ; mais cela n'est pas facile ; je pourrais bien, selon la me- 
thode dcs journalistes, en transcrire des pages entieres ; mais, outre 
que pour en apprecier tout le merite, il faudrait avoir le texte sous les 
yeux, il m'a toujours semble que ces longues citations ne servent a 
rien autre chose qu'a grossir un article de journal, parce que le critique, 
tout en protestant qu'il prend au hasard, manque rarement de choisir 
les morceaux les meilleurs ou les plus mauvais, selon sa disposition h 
1'egard de l'auteur. 

II vaut done mieux renvoyer le lecteur a l'ouvrage meme ; qu'il Ike 
la traduction avec soin, qu'il la compare au texte, et il sera convaincn 
que dans notre langue ii existe peu de traductions aussi scrupuleuse- 
ment fideles. M. Clavier s'est profondement penetre de Pausanias, et 
a embrasse le seul systeme qui convint a cet auteur. Un ecrivain 
comme Pausanias, rempli de details techniques et minutieux, exige le 
plus souvent, dans son interpret*, la meme precision scrupuleuse que 
•II s'agissait de traduire Ptolemee et Euclide ; tout en cherchant k 
atteindre cette simplicity elegante qui ne nuit point a la clarte, il faut 
que le traducteur s'attache surtout a debarrasser la pensee de Pausa- 
nias de tous les nuages qui la deguisent ou la cachent tout k fait; et, 
quand il l'a bien saisie, il doit tacher que sa traduction, semblable a 
une glace fidele, la reflechisse sans la moindre alteration sur l'espiit du 
lecteur. Car une bonne traduction de Pausanias n'est pas precisement 
celle qu'un homme du moude lira d'un bout a l'autre avec plaisir : c'est 
celle qu'un artiste ou un historien pourront consulter toujours avec 
confiance, et qui leur presentera, sur le point dont ils s'occupent, une 
idee aussi claire, aussi nette, aussi precise, que celle qu'ils trouveraient 
dans le grec, s'ils entendaient la langue. 

La lecture de ce premier volume rait naitre le plus vif desir de voir 
promptement parattre les autres volumes, avec les notes critiques qui 

(Anabas. i. 2. 10). Les MSS. 1640. 1641. et celui d'Eaton, donnent 

1 Ovid. L Pont. IL 80. 

£ Plat, in Menexen. % § 13. p. 44. ed. Gottleb. (h tJ ty*yi*.) 

Inscriptions at Skripfa SSI 

doivent les accompagner ; mais on se coosolerait difficilement si Yon 
devait 6tre priv£ du commentaire historique, dans lequel M. Clavier a 
du r£pandre instruction profonde qu'il a acquisc sur toutes les branches 
de l'histoire des Grecs. Si la publication de ce commentaire depend 
du succes de la traduction, nou3 devons concevoir la plusgrande espe- 
rance de jouir bient6t de ce precieux travail ; car l'ouvrage qu'il nous 
donne en ce moment interesse plus d'une cfasse de lecteurs ; rhell£- 
niste y trouvera le texte le plus pur d'un 6crivain important de l'anti- 
quit£; lhistorien, l'antiquaire, l'artiste, possGderont la traduction la 
phis exacte d'un auteur qu'ils ont besom de consulter sans cesse. 



The following Inscriptions, which I transcribed at Skripu, the an- 
cient Orchomenos, in Baotia, will probably be acceptable to many 
of your readers. Some others from the same place have recently 
been given to the public by Dr. Clarke, in the last volume of 
his travels. These, and the former, together with two or three 
more, in a very mutilated state, make up, I believe, the entire col- 
lection of Inscriptions, which existed at Orchomenus at the 
time I visited that place in the years 1802 and 1806. The spelling of 
EPXOMENOS for 0PX0MEN02, which occurs in some of these 
Inscriptions, explains a silver coin in Hunter's collection, which 
on one side has the Diota with the legend EPX0 9 and on the other 
the Boeotian shield, with an ear of corn upon it. It illustrates also 
another silver coin of smaller size, in the Imperial collection at 
Vienna; 1 upon one side of which is the Shield, and on the ob-* 
verse the letters EPX, within a garland formed by two ears of 
corn. These coins, which undoubtedly belong to Orchomenus, 
had been assigned to the province of Baotia, the letters EPXO 
having been taken for a magistrate's name/ 

1 Catal. Musei Caesarei, Pars I. p. 110.— I have seen two others with the 
same legend and types ;— one of them is now in my possession. 

332 Inscriptions at Skripti. 

No. 1. : 

On a Stone in the outer Wall of the Monastery at Skripu. 


Mvgi^og UoAuxganof, IapwwfMg Awynovog, 
cu/8ps<r<n xogayeuravreg vixatravreg Auwwroi 
avsteixav, Tifuovog ap%ovTO$, avXtovrog KXemao, 
a&ovrog AXxurQeviog. 

Mvpixpg IJo\uxgareog f * ItpwwpQg AwyiiTWog, 
av$oa<n xpgqyi)<rctVTt$ vixrj<ravTe$ Jiovwra 
avs&jxay, Tipoovog apxovrog, afaiorrog KXwtov, 
aSovrog 'AXxi<r6iveo$. 

No. 2. 
On a Stone in the Wall of the Monastery of Skripu. 

e i os 














Bw$ TiOv%otv ayatav. A\euap*x 0VT0 $9 € &o£i TW $*fw Eqxppwim 
Ayeftutov AaQirao Hotel*, cms AXe^avlgsuts *go%cviov tifisv xq evipyt* 
rav rag iroXiog Epx M vlu)V X1 i oanov xy soyovwg xq ekptv uvrv yog x% 
Fvxiag vkoufw xq a<r$a\iav xij aTcAjav xij aaovhiav xij xara yea x% 
xara taXarrav xij jroAsfuo. xjj xara 0*40*05 xtj t« aXAa oxott* tv$ *Mv$ 
%po£iWg xr\ syegygTijj. 

6f5$ Tt^i}v ayaflijv. 'AXeva oLpy^ovrog KSofe rep ftj/tup 'Ogxofuvtet* 
'AyeSixov JaQirou AloXsa a* ' Ate£otvdptiag npofavov thai xa) Minpyi- 
njv Trig voXecag 'Ogxaftevicov xal airbv xa) ixyovoug xa) thou our op yj$ 
xa) olxlag 2ftj3«a"*v xa) atrfakuav xa) areXf iav xa) aavXlav xa) xctra 
y5jv xa) xara ta\a<r<rav xa) iroXeftov xa) xaraff\wri\& xa) ri fiXXa 
too'ca Tolg aXXoig VQO$iv<H$ xa) evegyiraig. 

Inscriptions at Skripti. ~ 333 

No. 3. 
In the Church of the Monastery of Skripu: . 


nOT0ftNO2KAAAinONO211PIinift \ 

rPAMMATEYON , n)2 -. . 




1 - - x ^XOMENia 


-~- — -^EPXOMENin • 

Boioorot rov rpitrofa ave&sixuv ft)£ Xapiiwo-i.. narrow pLayreiiav to 
AiroWcovo$* *pxpvro$ Soifjuao fofteivt .*. veto Be^ci^ — a$e$piaTfuov- 
Tcoy Me\avvio$ NwoxXsiog Epxpfi&KD, Hvxgri»o$ Bspcaitipiao JKopeo- 
w<oj, Avioxfaio$ Avio^dao AvbxSovicoy Aftorwios M$m$o& Bsiroifio? 
IIpa{;iTe\io$ ApurroKX&ao 6e»/3ijw, &tOfMiu<rrto Eppcuxc* Tavaygrjo), 
IIov9cdvo$ Kol\Khto¥0$ J2gawna/— ygaja^fltTtuofTOf' *Jtox\e|0$ Jio<puvTUi 
nXarai'hg — - ■ ■■ •■■■ ~ — — ■ 

Boicoro) tov rphola ivl^xav rat? £uglrs<r<n xdtu t^v -fwevTeiav tou 
9 A7toK\(ovog m ipywros Sotjtlov 'I<T(MYp4 . .tov fhifiuiov — a^Spixrevovrcov 
MeXavveoog Nixox\so$ 'Opxpftevlw, A\<r%q{ooV6; &€p<rotv$pnv Kogcoveoo$, 
€ Hvi4x\eo$ '//wo^i&ou '^v&jSov/ou, '^ItrTiJbof jlfevvfcou 0£<ririea)$, Tlpa- 
ZireXeog 'Agi<rrox\[fov Bvjfialw, Biop,vfytTOu 'Epfcaixov Tout ay pa tov, 
Ilvioovog KaWetircovog 'ftpo^iov—yp^fMfJLdrethvTO'g Jio'xA.s*$ diofavrw 
IlKotTOLieoos — ■ ■ ' — • 


To the foregoing Inscriptions, curious , for. their peculiarity of 
dialect, your readers may not be displeased at my subjoining an 
epitaph in common Hellenic, which I transcribed at, Vodhena in 

1 These lines are inscribed upon a semicircular pedestal about four feet in 
diameter, exactly corresponding to another in the same cjmrch. There 
are the vestiges of two separate Inscriptions upon each. Th$ fclone can be 
deciphered, and with difficulty. 


Inscriptions at Skripi. 



I K I 

J--l^4s ••f-j 


Inscriptions at Skripti. 335 

Vodhenb (Bofava)y a town consisting of about 1500 Turkish 
and 500 Greek families, stands uporf the site of the ancient JEgm 
or JEdessa, celebrated as the burying-place of the kings of Mace- 
donia, and their residence before the time of Philip the Great, 
who transferred the seat of government to Pella. The modern 
town is built upon the crest of a precipitous rock, over which 
fall several cascades, formed by the separated waters of a river, 
which three miles above the town, near the village of Vl&dova, falls 
in a single body over the rocks in a woody gorge of the moun- 

Vodhend stands at the head of a small valley, branching from 
the N. W. angle of the great Macedonian plain, and seems to 
occupy the site of the Acropolis only of iEgae, remnants of the 
ancient walls being found as well on the edge of the rocks, as 
in many parts of the vale below, which is now occupied by vine- 
yards and gardens. From its elevated situation, the town com- 
mands a noble prospect over the great plains of Bottiaa and 
Amphaxitis, extending for fifty miles as far as Salonika, and includ- 
ing a view of the Jake of Pella and the head of the Thermaic 
gulf. On the north rise a ridge of snow-capt mountains, separated 
only by the vales of Vladova and, Vodhena from the range, which, 
bounding the great plains to the westward, runs southward to meet 
Olympus. The beauty of the nearer objects around Vodhena is 
not less striking than the sublimity of the more distant. The 
groves and gardens, both above and below the town, particularly 
on the latter side, form, together with its cataracts and its pre- 
cipices, crowned by the picturesque buildings of the town, a great 
variety of enchanting scenery. There are perhaps few situations 
in Greece, that exceed Mg& in beauty ; and the traveller's taste 
might not be very blameable, who should apply to it the verses 
of Horace in praise of Tibur, and prefer it to Mitylene, Athens, 
or the Thessalian Tempe. 

Me nee tarn patiens Lacedaemon, 
Nee tarn Larissae percussit campus opimse, 

Quam domus albunca? resonantis 
JEt praceps et lucus et uda 

Mobilibus pomaria rivis. 




No. VI.— [Continued from No. XXV., p. 10.] 

In Aves. 

In Argument* 3. KaXklov: lege KaXkiaTtjotrov : vid. Argum. 2. 
[v. Brunckium post Kusterum.] 

v. 5. et 7. lege niMfxevov. 

I!. In Schol. Aid. y^: lege xoig [ita Kuster.] 

31. In Schol. Benti. legit 'AxecTopa yoip ojjioog Xolxolv elxbg \etfifif 
irXi7y«tf &v jem) trvarrpifr} rot irpiyftotToL. 

35. vvmrStudt Suid. in 'ApQow : lege awnk\i&vV . 

40. lege adov<r [ita quoque Bentl. ad Philemon. Fragtn. 1Q1. 
p. 159.] 

41. Soxoov Suid. in xpa&j. — 47. Seal, Stojuiyoiv. 

48* Aid. jreTirarai. — 55. lege 6 4^0$ [ita MSS.]— 59. t/: Fo. 89. 
63. Ovtoo 'trri faivbv 06U : in Schol. Aid. ovrwj ti : lege 17EF. 
•$rt;, t/ &i vw toO&«, xaXAioy Xsysiv. Ileus tu, melius est ut dicat 
quid nos eum velimus. [Br. et Hotibius o5to;.] 

90. lege loV' [vid. Elmsl. ad Ach. 178. in Auct.] 

92. Fo. wt/Aijv [male : vid. Porson. ad Orest. 1081.] 

110. Ergo rjKiaa-Toi non qXiaora. — 132. Xovvapevog Suid. in I7pco. 

134. Aid. T^re y* : at tot Suid. in Mij j&oi tot* : et mox xaXaog — 
bountov yoig ij wapotpiot — xaxebg. At MSS. Kusteri contra illic 
xaxobg, hie xaXoos : et sic Schol. hie [necnon ed. Med. Suid.] 

140. Aid. <s«ridVr\— 147. Vet. ed. i6sv [certe Aid.] 

160. Frob. /xijxcova. — 164. Aid. 7n0a>/xe0\ y 

170. ou&ev: fo. ou^v, wow diw; sed vide Nub. 538. At ouSgy 
Suid. in TeXeag. 

177. Aid. Wy: 179. Aid. &V e<rriv [Frob. S^rov Wv.] 

180. lege 'Ear. woXo$ ; tiW rgoVov ; Z7EJ. oWsp [It&Kust.] 

392. 1% quod deest in Frob. addit Suid. in '11$ IlutooSe et JlCaoj. 
[vid. et 1228. ubi versus idem.] 

204. Inter Schol. xaXouftsv avrovg Aid. recte xaKovpev pro xa- 
AtVo/tey : sequitur enim 01 8e y«Jv [ita Rav.] 

210. 40<rov Suid. in 4u<roy i. e. Aio~ov [ab aSco.] 

214. lege ^copgi [ita Reisk.]— 215. Aid. et Schol. plXaxog. 

228. Suid. in 'Evoko) habet *Emo%o\ vo\ iroiroi woirol : unde legen- 
dum 'Evoko) *owt>)> 8cc. nt senarius sit idem nt sequens. 

'243. Torofip)}; et xixxa/3av in 262. Suid. in 'EttottoI. 

246. x&pwret' : lege xaxrefl* [ita Kust.] Suid. in 'Bowels habet 

Bentkii Emendationes, §c. 337 

wajBMrreTe : sed Portus xaWrre emendavit. 

255. Fo. SauAr^oWpcov. Anapaesti sunt. 

£66. elg abest a Suid* in *2&ra>a{f jv. 

269. lege ovx aAX* : vulgo deest owe. [P. i. e. ni fallor, Porsonus 
voluit aAA* i. e. &\\og pro a\\' teste Tyrwhitto.] 

276. lege iregog 8^Ta^o3xo^ [ita MSS.] vid. 282. %o3ro^ grsjoj. 

277. lege Tig vir Icrfl* [vid. Schol.] — opvig ogofiaTVjg : ut ogirvirog, 
«go$oiTe5v apud Hesych. [Vulgo o§ng, ofei^uTrig: at] v Op*£ uitimam 
producit : vid. 70. £ita Rav. et Br. excepto op*/3an^.] 

282. lege eregog av. Ell. cvrog [at ah hiatum facit : prope tamen 
accedit ad aXK' Rav.] — 288. dele wg. 

292. Aid. non habet hart* : lege stt) vel potius ^ iw ogvs'av 
[ita MSS.] 

293. AoQov hie collem significat non cristam: et jocus est ex 
apftfiokletg. Ergo r\ eiti rbv VioojXov rjKiov an collem ceperunt, ut 
diaulon melius spectarent? Non : sed ut Cares in montibus 

298,9. Epopi tribuit Bentl.— 300. lege TIEI. rig yoLq—EIi. 

302. EH. x*<W — 303. En. 

Si 9. Aid. ActttcJ Xoyjora. — 327. Aid. ufuvelp. 

328. <rrp. S43 *VTi<TTf>. [e Schol.] — 335. dele ye. 

338. lege avouKo^ea-ff [ita Br.] 

349- &g£rrai Suid. in UoPuoy. An legendum Several [at 8s£s£- 
era* est passivum.] t 

356. Aid. jXfvTe : lege ftevovre : vid. Schol. [ita Kust.] 

359. lege wpo <ravTou. [Ita Seager in C/am. Journ. N.iv. p. 709] 

363. Suid. in E\e\ev et 'Puy;^ habet fteveiv [ita Rav.] 

367. lege cruyyevJj Attice. [ita Br.] — 370. Fo. Ei ye. 

376. Aid. fiaioig oiv ovtiev avrog efavxyx.ct<rev. lege av tovP 

e Suid* [in At: e^ipwv] et mox ami V '. 

384. Aid. evavTicofiAia. lege Ivijvricijxsfla [ita Person. Mi seel I. 
Crit. p. 35.]— 386. lege fyJv. 

391. lege avnjv opwvrag : ut Homer. JA. T. 15. amjv «icn&e«v. 

394. lege KUT0QvyYi<r6ft,e(ria. [ita Dawes.] 

419. Fo. rav lx*P» v [ ita M8S - 2 - et Reisk.] 

446. Citat Suid. in Tavrayl. 

451. org. 5S9. avrnrrp. [e Schol.] 

454. Fo. TrctpopoLT : i. e. Trapoparou. 

457. op&g: lege c5 'ray: vid. Antistr. [546. ubi ?xsi$] vel £»£*£ 
vid. Nub. 325. [ubi Bentl. eigwv] et Av. 1572. ewpaxa. 

456. fpevig h run 06 xsWtxi teste Schol. vid. Antistr. 545. [ubi 
Kara inseruit Br. e. conjectura.] 

460. Simplicius etrotundius legas : 'AM' 1$' orco irep wp&yfJuiT av 
ijxsi* tijv (rijv yvcipjv ctvairela-oig vel wgoy/xovri y* jjxs*£ vel '^AA* s $' 
Sra> -rag tjjv ^jxeTepijv : at r^v crijv [tuetur] 628. 


S38 Bentleii Emendatioms Ineditte 

463. lege xaT*xe«<rds.— 464. lege £17. (ita MS.] 
476. lege ET. [ita Br.]— 477. lege HE. [ita Tyrwhitfaw.] 
480. dele £17. etlege w;[ita Aid.] — 481. lege \f%v* r&* kkqmwm. 
486. lege ET. — 491. lege <rxu\oU4>sti [ita Br. post Kustef. ad 


492. lege TopvevroXuguTirtioxriyol. et ita Suid. [vid. Person. Praef. 

Hec. p. 52.] 

495. lege K&pr* IxoflroSov. 

496. Aid. x&n : lege xqirot i. e. xal slra. — 499* lege */ ifo—w^rt. 
505. lege tot* y 01 [ita Kuster. in Not.] 

507. lege ET. ibid. In Scbol. cXoi. Fo. o^Ao* [vocem omittit Suid; 
in ¥oo\o$.'] 

515. Fo. ewexcov [opvw «(rn)xev tym Tyrwhittcs et Rav.] 
ibid. xs$aArJ£. Fo. x €i 9°S* 

517. Aid. oSv evexa: lege ouvex* [vid. Porson. ad Horn. OS. h 

520. lege cSjxvue toV ou&6*$ : vel Ttfre y 9 : vel wjxvu [ita Br.] 

52 1 . dele rig [ut Br.] Suid. in Aapiraw habet tgawartjji nui. 
531. Fo. xou8* av, &renrep. — 534. lege ovvrpfyavref : vid. Schol. 
538. lege xevefipelmv [ita Br.] 

Ibid. Inter Schol. " Locum ex Aristophane [inter Supplem, 
Fragm. Brunck. 143. Vol.111, p. 170.] Erotianus [citat] Km- 
fipsioc, toL vexpifAoia xpia ovrco xakouvTcti, cog ' A(>i<rTO$xvt)$' Oix ttrf 
6 Ksvefigfiov. otolv flujjs ti, xolXsi fxe : lege Oax ?<rflo> non edo. Emen^ 
dandus et castigandus Suidas in JVejSge/ijv et Nefipb$, heec Babrii 
titans, TlEivaxra. Keghco xagSfyv $g vejSggfyv Autttei wbo-oucuv apTC&vcura 
\otipoiloi)$. Quid sibi vult istud SI? lege sine dubio xevs/Sgffyv. 
Kusterus non vidit." [Neque Tyrwhittus in Dissertat. de Babrio 
p. 42.] 

543. lege v*po&6vTe$. — 545. Bentl. addit tw&: vid. Antistr. 456. ' 

548. lege oix/crw [ob metrum.]--^558. Canterus l<rrt>xl<ri. 

559. eirloow fi&Wsiv : le^e STrlaxr hcifiaXKw [ita MS.] 

565. : lege 0$ [ita MSS.] 

566. Fo. y /lpv' (vel olv,) 'AQqoUtj 66oov — twru vel tvov. 

567. Aid. vuttyi. — 570. lvo/?^>jv Suid. in SipQog. [ita MS.] 

576. Fo. *Hpp it y : vid. Schol. [Rav. U /.] 

577. Si vjfuv, turn loquitur ET. [et MSS. %*'».] 

582. lege ET.— 590. ET. *M* «J* [et MS. tJ*.] ut pU 

in 592. 

594. forte np&tu ftcv auToTj. 

596. lege "Ihrr ovx amXfirai vavxkyjp&v. Aid. oIot «&c. 

601. oJrot : lege ol$e. 

602. lege $«,[at] oKs Suid. in'Ogvi* [ita MSh.] 

604. lege ddxrofjisv : ut in 593. — Ibid, lege vanity frr* [ita Kust] 
610. lege icivr av&g&n ym*$ [ita Br.] 

in Aristophanem.—Aves. 389 

6 U. lege velxoXu [cf. Plut. 1150.] vel mtew y« xpffrw*: el? 
*I/3a7 erit extra versum, ut alibi. Iinmo aTj3' ca$. 
612. lege wp&Tov jwiv y*. 
644. lege /7E7. *AX£ ^*ov *£fto) [ita MSS.] 

646. ET. mox fyiijfev: at. Kgiwtev Schol. [ubi] lege 8giij4fv 
vid. Steph. Byz. 

647. lege S^sia [ita Br.] 

649. Suid. in ' Eiravotxpwo'ou habet fofy' hfravuxpovroti iraXiv. leg*\ 
Arap y to SfTva, Stup iiravxxqova-on *aAiv <Ptp' TSoo. $p£<rov voov ir&s 
«y« re xourocr/ [ita MSS.] ct. [quod ad rJ SeWJ Vesp. 522. et Pac. 
267. [quod ad ${g' l8co] Av. 1 153. Immo et *«* Suid. in Ilfy iyw. 

656. 8i*T£»yovTf$ Jirrov Suid. in II£>$ iyai. 

659. Aid. ayco* ■ <rawot». Suid. rovrw$ ft§v 5y«v ftrra erou $*a 
touti 'AploTKTov ev. recte. [modo expellantur <r« Aeyw.] 

66K ireroopev Suid. in 9 Exfitfia<raL$. 

686. lege .4i/J. [i. e. ^Wv] Clemens Alex. p. 211=492. 
Citat *Aym Qvirw—— irXiirp,aT& x*ipov- ■ apivrivoL 

688. lege wgArpcer* [ita Porson. ad Toup. p. 436.] 

699. jfc%^ et 702 eylvrr Suid. in X*o S . 

705. lege cvfJurerS^ot yap vel iriTopetri' Stil : vid. Suid. in 'As) 
Tfi* ifokn [ita quoque Poreonus Append. Toup. p. 436.] 

Ibid. In Scol. " lege, 'Eyco ph eo Aevximrt &ff£ii) <t/tti), Scazon." 

715. Aid. irixtiv. lege ntKnlv [ita Kust.] mox t4hov [$i bene 

718. If tyn$— ipy* rpainarte Suid. in "^/m/Awy. 

720. Suid. in *0vov ogviv habet oVtft ?reg} potrntias, in *Opv%$> 
it* f*aVTfla$. 

735. tntoiriSLv Suid. in Ilkovtvyteiav : et xov&v in r<*Aa. 

738. lege Moucr' cS. 

743,4. Sic colloca £'. a . quin et Suid. in flowifc sic habet 
A* *(tri$ IlavL 

744. kfy'pt,evog Suid. in Af«X/*.— 747. lege re/tro rt . 

764. lege Gpuykos : vid. 874. [ita Kust. et MSS.] 

770. roiifa et o-t/jxpiytj et KTpfov, Suid. in Kgixova-a. 

778. dele ti : et lege $v\» roL [MSS. f 5A* «.] 

788. lege Tpuya&wv [et sic alii, teste Seal.] 

789. dele «v et lege jgfcrnjr 5v. 

791. IJpoxXelfys Suid. in •Ef/fyo-e, *tff et X*1frt&¥. 

Ibid. Inter Schol. " Aid. vpoxXelfy$ : sed in textu I7«rg©xAtffi)}s 
at Pollux, v. c. 14. § 191. x*V«s narpoxXtlbis : lege x^o*" [ut inter- 
pretes ibi.] — 797. Aid. xaflejero. 

799. lege is 6Jnps$r)$: vid. 1442. At Suid. in Thmrm* Hon 
habet. [vide tamen Porson. Hec. Praef. p. 50=56.] 

Jbid. Inter Schol. " Iambic. — xcu %ivov Tov /mairrfftfyov." 

805. Frob. oft* : Aid. dM et Suid. in Ilrlxov. 

Ibid, w : Suid. in Jfipro? et ffr/Ao* habet cJj. 

340 Bentleii Emendationes Inedita 

807. <rit 8e Suid. in [Krpro$ ubi et Koptylm et] Kotyvx*$ [flection et 
Sx&Qtov ubi tamen xo\J//p£o>.] 

808. elxao-fteOa Suid. in tuvtI. 

810. lege £r. [et sic per totam scenam Bentl.] 

SIS. lege roSvoju/ [ita Br.] 

817. xa/teuvij n-ayu ys xtiglav y e%QOV Suid. in xeipioe et Xotpevwis. 
male Kusterus. lege sic : id est, two* av xotftsvvr, (riraprrp dslpYp iv ci 
«c«ip/av s^o^. Sic et Eustath. /A. ^. p. 191=: 145. [Meutem 
Bentlei non satis intelligo. Certa est Kusteri eraendatio.] 

819* Citat Suid. in Xavvov. 

8*22. lege ar^yoos «"u [Br. o~u y aTf^vco^.] 

824. dele ra. — Ibid, lege X&ov i. e. ovopa [ita Reisk.] 

826. Aid. xM wrepjxoVno-av lege xaJwreg — [ita Kuster. Suid . 

833. dele I7EJ. et lege rl$ Sal : vid. 827. [ita MS. et Elm»l. ad 
Acb. 105. in Auct.] 

834. lege IlEL— 835. Fo. 5we$ deivorarov. 

836. Pro TIEI. lege ET.— 837. Schol. wr$' 6 [id monuit et Beck.] 

852. <rrp. 896. avTj<rr§. [ita Hotibius.] 

857. lege irpofiinov. — 858. dele rf [ita Hotib.] — 863. dele JEI7. 

871. AvitoI ofrruyopYiTpa.. Paronomasia ab 'Oprvylti : vide Com* 
mentar. ad Calliuiach. [H. in Apoll. 58.] Deinde illud quod sequi- 
tur [praecedit] parodiae est versus T /2 SounipoiTe x**P* ***% 

[873. Inter Schol. nihil hie adnotavit Bentl. cujus tamen con* 
jecturam in Callimach. Fragm. 77. Tyrwhittus adscripsit.] 

874. Inter Schol. " Post b.Sebs addit 6 'Ap&teos Holsten: e* 
Harpocrat. [V. ZufZw.]" 

887. Schol. etiwXlcv [vid- Bent, ad Callim. Ilep) 'Ogvf'cov.] 

893. Aid. twto •/.— 895. Ald.TouToyi'.— 896. lege<?pa. 

900. In Schol. pro soivtov " lege hixov." 

903. yei/eia *al Suid. in OifiMru: et Schol. omittit r . 

904. lege wregivoi$ [ita MSS.] — [907. viott$ Tyrwhittus.] 
92 1* lege a-oVou. — 926. (ficmep Suid. in ' ApagvyY}. 

934. Inter Schol. " Aid. xal jStW*. lege A/jSwtra [ita Kust e 
Suid. in iWoAaf.]" 

954. Fo. -njAeflpoov vel t ?Ayflov aXaXal: vid. 1761. [ita Beck.] 

958. lege nciQwycis [ita MSS.] 

964. lege hie et in 1024. robg NeteXoxxvyisig* 

969. Inter Schol. " lege El to /xarov xr^<raio [ita voluit Kuster; 
e Suid. in E« to /xltrov et Athen. v. p. 219.]" 

989* la Schol. " lege Kbvm? [itaJFIor. Chr. ad Vesp. 379.] 

994. lege t# lai ait [ita Elmsl. ad Ach. 105.] 

998. In. Schol. Asuxcoweuj : "lege KoXtovievs" [Suid. Avxovi6vg } ] 

[Ibid. Ywp/ou, qu : ^a/3piou : vid. Argument. Tybwhittus.] 

1008. Aid. oaregsf. lege ourrepog [ita Kuster.] 

1 « 

In Arisfophanem.—Aves. 341 

1012. lege TiSojxsvo*: [contra Da weaii regulam de ictu vocis 

1040. lege Ne$6Koxoxxvyift$ roloitrfo et 1057* to7^. 

1060. lege efyctls [ita Br.] 

1062. Seal. euietXelg [ita Kust.] lege $6*\fo~t$. 

1065. lege yevwriv Aid- «u£avojuiva. 

1066. lege e^o/xevov, et 1068. <ptilgov<rtv. 

1072. lege avyyopiver* vel fcravayogst/rrai : et sic plane Suid. in 

1073i In Schol. Mevavtyag : "lege M«Aa*flios : vid. A then. [vii. 
325. C] et Schol. Plut. 846/' 

1078. lege ayayrj rig [fortasse e Schol.] 
1 08 1 . Suid . Eyx'h &&***-— 

,^ 1085. Ald.fytav. 

1095. Bentl. olim deleverat h : postea scripsit " vel t* h xoAtoij 
vain" [et sic MSS. exceptor.} 

1096. Frob. 6tf ^Xw/xaviJ^ Bentl. delet xrif et citat Suid. in 
* HXiopavris. [ita BrJ 

1 103. lege oP [Dawes iV.]— 1 105. lege *pSn* [ita Kuster.] 

1115. Proavp) legeou. 

1121. Citat Suid. in 'A\$ei6v. [et in'AxX ovrooT] 

1131. kxarovropyuiov Suid. in dovgeio; : at ^aromopyviov in 

1138. Citat Suid. in Tuxo*. 

1147. etv : lege avepyeuraiuTo [sed vide Bentl. 
Eq. 659.] 

1163. lege&ga. [e Schol.] Suid. JgS. 
1157. lege w*Af xcovtwv [ita Dawes, et MS.] 

1164. Fo. varxw [ 8e< * c ^0 ^ ac * 681. [® r - quo*!" 6 voluit 
vouryiis collato 1044.} 

1 185. Pro XO. legit Bentl. IIEL et delet Arr. in 1186. [ita Br.] 

1 18?. (rrp. 1262. avrtorrp. [ita Hotibius.] 

1196. 8/wjs Suid. in n§lap<m$. 

1208. lege touto [ita Kust. et MSS.]— 1217. Aid. ourw*. 

1229* o~u abest ab Aid. lege <pp<x<rov he $ij ftoi. 

1239- 8«Aa$ Suid. in MaxsXXa : at fciva; in JWw^a. 

1241. Habet irep\ irruyjx^ et mox delet <row Suid. in ^iiyyvV. 

1242. lege x«raiSaXtt)<ri} [male : vid. Dawes.] 

1243. Inter Schol. ava^Tij^arcov : lege avaff/xarav [sic Kust.] 
1253. lege cow 8\ 

Ibid, haxigov- et t« o~xe\vj Suid. in dispripHrav. 

1256. lege o-rijoputi : ut Suid. in Tpil/xjSoXov [ita Kust. in Notis.] 

1258. In Schol. "lege M «r«Taf« M [cf. Aristoph. Eq. 1 127.} 

1259. lege ij /xijv <re sraucrei [recte vid. Nub. 863. *H fMJv w 
et 1244. *H /xijv <m tovtwv rco yjpivn iaxrtts Sixqy.] 

1264. ys delet Suid. in '^xoxf xXijxa/xiv [ita MSS.] 
1281. Aid. ram* : legeairam? [ita Kuster.] 

342 Bentleii Emendationes lmditcr 

1933. Suid. SxvTakitpcpigovv una voce, recte. 

Ibid. Inter Schol. ad exT8*Wai adscripsit Bentl. " Falsum : vkfe 
Lys. 990." 

1285. lege 0*AoxAe's# [ita MSS.] 1287. lege 6fu?$. 

1297* lege Hvgoixotricp [ita Porson. Miscell. Cnt. p. 35.] 

Ibid. In Schol. sic legit Bent. Zupxxofios ? toncev ipht 4v Aryp 
Toi$ xtm&iW* Touriv exl twv tm^wov 9 Avafi§L$ yaf twl to ffy£ fojtxrfl 
xtpir^cov [ita fere Porsouus 1. c] 

1298. xateirai Suid. in *i/xei. 

Ibid, lege JIEI. Kdu ya$ ijxfv ab eTxw [ita Schol.] Suid.MJxu. 

1299- '^ro <rTu^oxo/ut7rou. Ex corrupta hac lectione nunc heb&> 
mug ZtvQoxop'xos apud Hesych. Polluc. Etyraol. et Suid. Nota. 
Nullum alium auctorem laudant. Etymol. vero non prior iHe et 
vetustus sed in 2d a. edit, interpolates, lege vm oprvyoxowo* in Schol. 
e Suid. et Polluc. pro 'Oprvyoxofj^tou. [et sane Dionysius & Zwm~ 
$o; legebat C ZV oproyoxtpvov, teste Schol. Etenim Midias fuit 
ogrvyox6iro$ : vid. Plato Alcibiad. p. 221. 28. Ban. 2. emendatun 
ope Athenaei xi. p. 506. D. a Schweigh&usero post Kusternm ad 
Sttid. in 'OgTuyoxoTrO^.] 

Ibid. Inter Schol. ad Afmiyfvq£ scripsit Bentl. " fo. 6ff*yeyij$: 
vid. Schol. ad 823 ." mox pro eruxo$avT/a legit avxofctyrUu$. 

1313. errp. 1325. amorg. [ita Porson. Hec. 1 169. et Hotibnis.] 

1314. lege xct\oi [ita MSS. vid. Porson. I.e.] 

1326. Seal, igopp*. 1328. lege «rr/ tij [ita Porson. h c.} 

1335. Seal, owroi [ita MSS.] — 1340. lege tyevfayyeXfam. 

1372. In Schol. ad 'Avaxpeovrog adscripsit Bentl. " Hephsst. 
p. 30." 

1377. lege ts vwv [ita MSS.]— 1378. Vid. Atben. xii. p. 551. 

1384. lege avaTrrapsVoj [ita MS.] 

1387- lege KL xglfutrat fyuw ex AW. [ita Kuster.] 

1392. Inter Schol. adscripsit Bentl. " Suid. Jifopxpfimv now." 

1403. In Schol. A^^apy^^' " lege Jtxdctgx ^ &* Kust.] 

1407- Fo. xmrayetibv. 

1410. Inter Schol. " Lege y ap mm mipxratv" [quae conjecture 
prastat Blomfieldiana* in Musaeo Critico, N. iv. p. 430.] 

1426. v»«>: cf. Ach. 969- 

1432. Suid. in 'EkIgto) habet crxewrray: quod male prefert 
Kusterus : sed in Owe hutara^otk habet rxontrw : ubi Kusterus tacet. 

Ibid. Schol. corrigit Bentl. e Schol. ad Vesp. 953. 

1442. lege yi pou Suid. re ptu in Aurpipig : et ri /it in Ilwttmia, 

[1455. Pro 2yxjxAijxa£ voluit, ut opraor, Bentl. lyxtxuxAjpcwV : 
vid. Vesp. 1466. ubi Seal, e Schol. enaeudavit slrxsxuxAipiey pro 


1463. Inter Schol. pro 'ApwriQc&rK legit Bentl. *ApHrrvri\y$ 
[ex Hesych. V. Ktpnvpcu*.] 

in Aristophanem.—Avts. 343 

1467. a7T0\Qv(ju>o$ SukL in 06x &m\tfi&l;$i$ : at olv to x&lxivt 
aroKovfJwe in 'AiroXifiafag. v 

' 1470. «-rp. 1482. arrurrp. [ita Aid.] 

1471. lege tot6[*-aarei y ixeropAvbt* vel-— jpuurr Mwrr0ftt<r$a. 

1477* temv Suid. in "JExroiro*. 

1478. touto /*8V ©w Suid. in 1. c. : lege rouro rot? ftev [ita Porson, 
Miscell. Crit. p. 29. diu ante Fiorill. ad Herod. Attic, p. 38.] 

1480,1. Uno versu : vide Schol. et alibi. 

1484. Xvyvonr bpytt*. Parodia e 2*v$wv b^ipl* [e Schol.] 

1490. bni%ot et rjpcoi Suid. in 'Ogi<rrri$ : lege jjfgep. [Pierson. ad 
M*r. p. 177- fy».] 

1495. lege loV [at tx est monoayllabon.] 

1497. dele rov [sic MSS.] vel J/ : vid. Ran. 1421. 

14Q8. &p* Suid. in J7>jv/xa. 

1500. Frob. fioi\ipro$ MS. fio6\vro$ [quis ah ille MS. nescio.] 

1503. Is Schol. a*xaAu\frofwti. MS. fffttftxaAt/^ap*! [ita legitur in 
Schol. $yi<j)y ixxexaAt/\{/ofiau.] 

1504. MS. cS <p/Xff [ita Kust.] 

1506, 6ke<rei$. MS. 6\i<ru lege ©"Ato-fi /x [ita Beck.] 

1508. o-xioSiov Suid. in '2W&/0J. 

1520. Inter Schol. anmpov MS. — 1528. lege t<rrh ; TptfiaXXoL 

1548. Suid. Tipmvyv & xutapis. alludit ad h. L Male Kusterus 
mutavit in xaT&paro$. 

1551. Froben. 8/pgov Qopei. lege hltppov yt hfptQopu. : et sic Schol. 
Aid* Km) rov Sfygw yt Si$pofopf7] «rei$q. 

1552* orp. 1693. ovriffTj. 

Ibid, lege Jxiowroo-iv : Suid. toTj in ¥vxayooyei [ita Hermann, de 
Metr. p. 1 12.] 

1556. Frob. 5] : lege $ ut Suid. in /leio-av^ou. 

1560. lege 0£oW©-fu$ et inox awjAi* [ita Hotibius.] 

1562,3. Uno versu. 

1562. An legendum nplg to ktuyi**. Hesych. AalyfMtra, ifi^ 
para lepa, avagyputra. Photius in Lex. A&ypMXu, fop* iarctpypm*. 
sic in sua serie. 

1568. Inter Schol. " Cas. [ad A then. vii. p. 327- E.] <J>*AuAAtt>*— 
*kvrrplcti$ — cuxtct$ et Srpofrn^. ft [ u Casaub. othl&$ vel aixlug : 
recte nam aWiot est morbus. Athen. xiii. p. 584/' £ folio ad calcem 
libii.] 7 

1589. lege opAiia >J**p dvm [ita Eimsl. ad Ach. 93.] 

1613. Aid. omittit cru. lege jwrray) : vid. 171.446. 

1614. Suid. BotflctxoLTptv. 

1615. Fo. <ruv*>m: [ax>x. legit Bend.] TIEL htpw [sed in mar- 
gine] lege HP. ut infra. 

1619. lege aTO§toa> /x«n}T/a. Suid. pjwvfirmi$ in Menrel. 
Ibid. Inter Schol. " lege **p\ t$vpo> deleto *«*" pita Kust] 
1626. lege tyaoye et dele y [ita fere MSS.] 

344 Bentleii Emendationcs Inedita 

1(329- legeciroi: vid. Lys. 167. [ita Dawes.] 

1648. Aid. etxoqvi ut alibi [Vesp. 699.] . 

1647. Inter SchoL " lege sv^pAvvi" [ita Porson. Advert, p. 283.] 

1660. Citat Suid. in '^y^are/a. 

1670. Aid. ahiuv. fo. autlav. vid. Schol. [itaKust. et MSS.] sic 
xvppiyriv jSXeaw 1 169. et alibi otcvttj jSXmfV [Vesp. 641.] 

1072. Fo. 6pvida>v rs. 

1678. lege Ae'y« ut bis [soil, in 1 679 et 1682.] 

1680. lege frofiifyw vel /3o0a&* y [Reisk. pufaxifa / et confert 
Bafiatyw Hesych.] 

1687. lege ipu [ita Br.]— 1 692. oAA£ yafuxijy : lege yotfujAio*. 

1693. Inter Schol. Kk*\ri$pot xpyvn b*Agyu. lege J<rrt». 

1712. o<rpj : ita quidem Suid. in 'Oo-jxij. Sed quomodo cbw£» 
(lol<tto$ ianumerabilis ? quomodo o<r/xij est flea/xa ? Lege sine dubio 
nofiKY) [at confer JEsch. Prom. 1 15. dfywt *p<xrhn* p tyeyyyf.] 

ibid. Seal. xuxAco. at xvxXov Suid. et 8* .dupo* 8«wrvfou<n. sed vide 
in AtoityoilgouGi, 

1715. Frob. fcaTj. Aid. tea; [ita Kust.] 

1727. lege ufMvaioig wpQitiloia-i Se^to-P. 

1730. lege "Hpa — 'OXu/xw/a [ita Reisk. aliique.] 

1733. lege £uvsxo/jx«rav [ita Dawes, aliique.] 

1738. Citat Suid. in llapo^os* — 1743. Citat Suid. \nX8ov(<x$. 

3761. Fo. ILxjjjmv: vid. Lys. 1293. 

In folio ad calcem libri scripsit Bentl. 

" Erotianus in Lexico Bkouuvew—— o3 ^ifj.vr\ron 'AgHrrofarrtt h 
*Opvi<rt : quaere locum." [Immo respexit Lexicographus ad v. 1313. 




2. Faber wo-xorourtv. Seal. Ifijcxijjuivov : lege fwrx^rourir [ut 
vulgo] Ifijgnjjwrgvov [ita Palmer.] 

10. Seal. Xopfovpivoov ut Suid. in Aopfovpevow. 

13. Fab. aQ&ioov : recte : vid. Thesm. 223. 

14. Seal. Ba*xiou. at fiax^elou Suid. in JSVoa. 
17* Lege <nW<m [ita Bisetus.] 

23. Seal. eyxaflifo/xiv** [ita Br.] vid. 98. lege xayxol — vel Self — 
xaya6ity[i,im$ : vid. Hesych. et Etymol. 'ifyafitfrfcivij. 

26. Aid. fl(«fwma, vid. 75. et 275. 

31 • lege wgo<riov<r(bv [ita Faber.] 

34. lege dguyavwera ex Hesych. Suid. Tpuyovaxr*. 

36. Suid. Kvvn* : vid. Thesm. 488. [ita MSS.] xvOfut Gry. [De 
ilia edifione vid. ad Thesm. 2.] 

45. ripwv Aid. Gry. et Suid. in Xt*. — 46. lege AXX. ri. [ita Br.] 

In Aristophanem. — Concionanies. S45 

51. Aid. $ix*o»gforou. — 53. Aid. vrapivr. 

56. Suid. ' EfMrktiftivog : at TrewX^Cftivos in Tp%ifo$ : et sic Schoh 
adEquit.659- Atvid. Vesp.422. [etll22.] 

67. Faber. ngo<rfepe$ : recte. — 70. lege xaAov y* [ila Rav.] 

79* IflrHjSsios scil. 6 Aeifuo$ : male Faber. ad (txwtoAov refert. 

95. Frob. fti%]j. Aid. Gry. Tup^o* {ita Kuster.] 

97. Aid. et Edd. Vet. r£. lege rov ut Suid. in 4>op(t,lcrio$. 

102. tov narpovifMV Suid. in 'Ayvfaog : at recte I7govo/*o» in 

104. irpavrei: latet forte obscaenum. Theocrit. Id. 11. 143. \E~ 
^«^8ij ra piyicrTOt xoc) eg woiov. 

105. lege tout/ ye [sed vid. Elmsl. ad Ach. 108. in Auct.] 

106. Gry. toowtA y: et sic Schol. recte: male Faber. 
109. Inter Schol. " lege ox' agyvgiov J." 

129* Faber. ir&pd' : [cf. Ach. 44.] mox kqgwv Suid. in 'Ap\$p*foi$. 

139. Faber. ^uovrcov. [ita Br. tacite] et sic Suid. in ITapa- 

141. Gry. Too-aur Aid. to*out\ 

144. Frob. x^* : Aid. xaWi?' : [sed] vid. I69. xadvp 9 . 

I6l. lege ixxAqo-taa-owr' [ita Kust. in Not.] mox o3S*«v wgo/SfciV 

Toy sreaov a^oa raur' Suid. in '^xgij3a>0ij<reTai : ubi Kusterus •£ 

wpofioaviv av : sed nos rectius dub" [cum Suida.] 

167* yd At ovx 'Ehrlyovfo y exfivov ivlpx voy.i<rriov itXK* ywouxot 
ex sententia est. Male Faber. [quocum tamen facit Br.] 

Ibid. Aid. ei n fib&bourot [unde firmatur aliquatenus conjectura 
Elmsleiad Ach. 178. in Auct.] 

173. Citat Suid. inMrra. — 178. Aid. et Gry. ytywreu. 

180. Aid. $uTotpircD$ [Suid. ut editum in JwagsaToljt&fi'o;.] 

1 90. lege uufivu<ra$. 

195. lege S3 F [ita Br. e. MSS.]: vid. 315. et 822. [et Elmsl. 
ad Ach. 10.] [ 

202. lege «W?rra* vel <£6%iT*t : vid. 300.— 204. lege *i'vr)g. 

215. ngwrcL fjurapia Suid. in Bimoixn. 

234. Faber enih^a-owrnf [et sic Rav.] : at Seal, inserit jx£x' 
[et sic Br.] 

239. lege y &v.— 240. Aid. Sis/grrf. Gry. 8*o£ «ts. 

243. lege ZIvux/. [ita MSS.] 

244. lege vel oxovrour' vel axouowr' at Gry. 

246. Bentl. olim voluit mrpcvfrytf : at postea nihil mutandum 
vidit ob 489- 496. et 722. 

255. lege jxev otv iJto* Suid. in Tovrcp habet ftgv sTtw. 
276. lege !**vaj3fltA0«r6f [sic Toup. ad Suid. 1. p. 186.] 

281. lege Hwx et 283. *wx* ut Suid. in '2Va7orpj%gjv. 

282. lege <rx$v<r*V [ita MS.] 

283. ipiploig Suid. in TsrowroTji^iiv [et sic Porson. ad Hec. 

346 Bentleii Emendationcs Inedita 

284. Seal. *u<rira\ov: sed potius mraatagv [ita Faber et Br. 
collato Vesp. 91. at editum babet] Suid. io *«rroAo$. 

287. 6 yotg xlvfovog Suid. in '.EgoA/o-fy. 

288. Faber evW^ivoi : vid. 032. 
289- o-t^. 300. ianunq. [ita Dawes.] 

290. Faber 0; : ut Suid. in jfoxoyiapevof [et MSS.] 
Ibid. o$$ Suid. in Hpa>. 

291. ?*« Suid. in Kg*ov*«p.evc£. 

292. Pro fnripyoov quod agnoscit Suid. in 'TnoTpifipct legeritaf 
jflAfTow iniftfiY^joi xa^wywv rxofoSaAffrqv : sic alit)i xp^pLvo^vpry/tdo^ 

293. lege JSTfXpmjuu/tn [ita Br.] 

294. ' lege <rctvTcp * $oc«%a>v voov cum Fabro et <r&vr& Said, in 
Ilapaxoptiiiif. (sic) recte. 

299. Aid. Gry. ^v p'.r-a01. IaWvt': lege bufrr. 

307. ou : lege sv — a xai 

SI 5. Faber. ^ *xs7vo. lege ore xfj^* ffxe«rs: immo Sif £: vid^ 
822. [ita MSS.] 

324. Aid. ywaV.— 329. Citat Suid. in Ti rwho. 

332. Aid. xgoxanrwv : lege xpoxoorm y : mox Fab. ouneftim 
id. 341. 

344. Faber lyooys [et Br. tacite.] — 345. Aid. bvx&, Gry. hv^m. 

552. delerij* [ita Br. e MSS.] 

354. lege vo* [ita Kust. in Not. et MS.]— 363. Aid. *v oSv. 

364. lege rm xxtA nprnxiov [ita MS.] ut Plato hbiarx*Xo$ tm 


366. 'iivTi?4ffttt Suid. in IJmxtc^ [et JC*£irma»v : et sic MSS. vid. 
Elmsl. in Quarterly Rev. N. xi v. p. 453. ad Suppl. 928.] 
368. Aid. jSoyXfiTrco, Suid. [bis] fiovherai. 
374. AW. rpifiww [etsic MSS. at %it»vjov Junt] 
377. dele tov [ita MSS. mox] lege BA. o^Jgiov et XP. /£*) S$« 

381. Aid. wv. Gry. w) Jf . 

382. lege BA. — ijXfle$. XP. «wr [si bene meminu] 

384. Aid. Gry. odtareuror : mox lege faff [ita MS.] 

385. lege ut Suid. 2xvroropoi$> [et sic Faber.] vel <rxvrofAtV : mox 
Aid. rjxdZofjuv. 

387. Aid. XsvxoTkvjii; [Xeuxwrkiifys Suid. in Ov ymp] 

398. Citat Suid. in natpilgtrvm ei 411. in At^/ktixm [ubi exttat] 
(ramiplcLf Stof&evoy at St— «•« — in TYrj flurramj^oy. 

402. Faber. 0; [ita MSS.]: et in 41 6. rgavfi ut Suid. in 

417* av tyupy ouSsv* £>u*\J/o* Suid. in Km^wf. ut editum in 

420. " 'Eg ra>v vxvXoietycBV. Ita Aldi editio et Siiid. ia 2x5**. 
Legitur x#l fxtfov? *p$Mpov in 'Aftflhnfov % Ayoit%t\ Ayafo) : qtiod 


In Aristophanem. — Concionantes. 347 

tu tamen ex integro Epigrammate recte dedisti in Stourog [ubi] 
dixeram To <rxv\o$ aipei)$: sed postea incidi in Suida locum 
'Ayqila- To <rxvro$ Styptics elvexa tij£ vkonoutov" Haec sunt ex 
Addend. Epist. Prior. 

Ibid. Faber. amxteiy. Suid. in 'AXQirupoifiovs, habet &rwcX/y£ 
tijv Wgav. 

426« Inter Schol. ad NoLixnxifovs — aApiT*f*oi|3&tfc. adscripsit 
Bentl. " Xenophon, 'AnQpvfa. lib. 2." [p. 440. H. Steph.] 

428. lege ^vwrij&jr [vid. El in si . ad Ach. 178. in Auct.] 

438. Frob. xkeirruv [ideoque mox cuxo^am** voluit Bentl. at 
Aid. x>J*rip.]— .440. *XA»£ Aid. et Gry. 

441. Aid. ywctixa 8* ?$») tcqayfu tlvai Suid. in Novfiu<rrtx4v, 
ut editum. 

442. Faber. x«5ri xfartyfa? : et sic Gry. 
447* xpwlov, Suid. in Supfiahtiv : an xpw&. 
453. dele t« [ita MS.] 

464. Citat Suid. in '^orevaxr/.— 468. Aid. et Gry. xtvtiy. 
468. Post h. v. inseruit Bentl. e Gry. 

iLi. *Ap<TTOV ou Swrow*. JKP. or J 80 y« »i) Ji* | Apa ravl? 1v 
if i<rr a$ re xeH xivrjg apa. j 

472. Faber /x£g« ts : sed lege \ (x&p*: Suid. in r$f*ireg9s et 
Moopot habet y' ij fiwpcc. 

473. Vid. Nub. 5{>4.— ^82. Aid. V<» * : lege « y> vd r <8p\ 
485. A'a): lege «5: et cum Fabro <raxs*rt xa) t£ 'xfegla;. [ita 

Rav.}— 488. Seal. e!p». 

403. sic dividit Bentl. *%t£v md) | 'A\\ 9 <txj£; | '£*£-»: 

^*w I Ua|a— — pf I J7*k o-avr — $*— - — qffA*. [et sic Rav.) 

494. Citat Suid. m J7apot0AtT«/cn», et 507. in nmftpnfoa&ct. 

509. Frob. Stewrap: dele *tp. [ita Kust] mox Aid. & 'gwiyxafttv. 

510. lege xffr«t * ^n vel S^ *« [Br. ^ xww.] 
512. Aid. £ujxfu£*<r' [ita Suid. in voce ipsa.} 

5 14. lege xpjjo-oyuu £ita Br. tacite}-~54& lege p*v [ita Rav .} 

532. an fcnj3<xXou<ra [ita Kust. in Not. et MSSJ 

533,4. Citat Suid. in "A^ov. 

'536. Frob. Iva Aj«uwij« : lege V AfottWj&i £. [fortasse ed. B. 
Junta: sed vid. ad 919-] ▼id. Suid. 'AkmhrnjAii qui ita legit [et 
sic Kuster. in textu.] 

539. dele xo) [et sic Rav.} : Aid. *** xorfay' 7 Gry. xo<rv} vn 
[utMSS.] * ' 

546. Aid. tyv symy <£Wpip : lege t$' fy hyi xfa* [ ita R*»-] 
B. et Gry. if' $v [De isto B. vid. ad 536.] 

550. Frob. xafliero. Seal. xoJijero [ita Kuat] 

577* lege £XXA*mrfei vid. Lyt. 55. [et 331. wrrw sed Jwwfei 
stare potest ; nam} Faber. tw h<xm*$- recte. 

'593. Gry. r&8* otf [ita B. Ju«t. et. MS.) 

591. lege pov [ita Faber. et MS.] 

348 Bentleii Emeiidationts Intditcz 

SQ2. [til est Kusteri.] lege yty vel o5v. 

599* lege BA. xav prj xaraJjJ. IIP. \J/suSopx^rej. 

601. lege ou&ev [ita Faber. et Br.] 

607 • lege fiovkriTui <ntot\atvpou omisso tovtov et sic Suid. in 

608. Aid. et Gry. a$eXcov : ab o^fXfc. — 615. lege cruvcfytev. 

617. H. v. post egefcew ins emit Bent I. et ad oram libri scripsit, 
u Ilium ordinem versuum serva et lege, oup^l [^x^otJrrut ; IIP. xept 
tou; BA. weg) o*oD. IIP. xoc) cot to towutov vwipfa. ubi mpt <fw* 
intellige sexum muliebrem : ut <ro) in \9&" 

6 19. lege vpertgov [ita B. Junt.] Aid. [enim] delet HP. etBA. 
in 620.— 621. lege eVl rovg & 

626. Frob. Ava-urTparovg. Aid. Avcutg&rovg : recte [ita Said, iit 
Avcncparvig. — 627. lege y' ^ [ita Br. et Suid. in Kcnr*xfa.'} 

629- Forte propria nomina sub illis latent, "Qrav 'jE/A/SoMp y 
iwrjj Ilp&repog. 

632. lege yctp imacmg [ita Faber.] 

639* Faber. py tov lauroO : male. 

644. lege t «1 — 646. lege ap iirsno'viw. vel — 1%. Attice [vid. 
Porson. ad Med. 863.] 

648. lege Kiwapm [Rav. et MS. Anrap&v] %«p€7v : ut ^^ E 8 ^ 
Plut. 6l6.] Xntapog %o>pe7v ex /3oXavsfou. 

Ibid. Inter Schol. " Casaub. ad Athen. vi. c. 10. [emendat ;] 
licet Suidas [in Aexanovs] ut in Tulgatis. 

651. lege 8/x>jv rep. — 653. 8J abest ab Aid. lege vel yt vel y* 

654. lege 4AT. [voluit fortasse. XO. cui Rav* tribuit N% rijr 
Jjjfuirp' §5 y« Siooo-xei; : ubi Bentl. adscripsit AN. sed vid. 720.] 

Ibid. Aid. et Gry. UP. toO.— 657. J&i. delent Aid. Gry. 

659- Aid. Gry. xXeWoyr*? : alii xfarwng : lege XyQtimg. 

662. lege ovfa\g ovroog [ita Br.] 

663. v&g ydtp xXe\|/a* juwtov avn» Suid. m Merit. 

664. lege AN. owc>.— 665. IIP. oft fy. 

676. Gry. ye. Aid. rs [male. vid. Porson. Advers. p. 33."] 

680. (rroflfcy Suid. in Kkqp&cra. [sed vid. Elmsl. ad Ach. 548.} 

683. lege A4. ?va xotwroo<nv; IIP. pA At foX 1v exel fewy&rir. 
BA. oVw [ita Br.] 

Ibid. Aid. et Suid. JtajEMrrcwi : Gry. xatfrawi. mox Suid. ow#- — 
efeXw(r<v otwoirreg. 

685. Aid. Gry. et Suid. ear/.— -689- Citat Suid. in Ugwnrftrrowu. 

697. lege toi$ suirgetfgenv 8* [ita Porson. Miscell. Crit. p. 38.] - • 

704. lege 7T£o$u£Oj(ri [ita MSS.] 

706. lege vw vel y &p\ [Br. t* £p sed 0o$i*riov v <?g' in Ran. 
669*] — 714. lege fouToy) [ita Koen. ad Gregor. p. 56.] 

719- lege xAreovax^ tov : citat Suid. in Karmax^g. 

* In Aristophanem.—Concionantes* 349 

720. lege AN. i. e. uiaritus Praxagorae : vid. 516. [ubi Frob. 
AN. sed KusterE^.] ' 

730. lege ovBafMog : vel ov y*q % vel ov yap ovv. 

732. Faber. It y [ita MS.] Suid. in "l<rra> ut editum. . 

736. Citat Suid. aoop) twv vvxtoqv in 'Acopla. 

738. lege Jtfpigf, xou tuMov$ xafl/cro) [ita Seal.]— 741. Aid. AN. 

742. Seal, yq Ji" ecro^oi. Gry. ayijp i<ro(juti [ita MS. £ nota 
Bruockii patet edit. Gry. aut ignotam illi fuisse aut neglectam.] 

742. y' IxnjjXfvof B. [vid. ad 536.] — 743. fo. oy&errw 'AXa. 

746. Ill Frob. ovtw$ abest. Supplet Bentl. e Suid. in Otfth nrpls 
eirog [ita olim Bisetus.] — 75 1 . Gry. et Seal. qvto)$. 

752. Inter Schol. " lege %iiCQa<rxii&va.'\ 

771. In Frob. deest <r : id reposuit Bentl. ex Aid. Gry. quae 
mox MnrpAJ/oucri yap. 

775. Gry. rayaK^ara : deest in Aid. — 784. Aid. rl 8pa$ ; 

787. Aid. Siugtiey : lege ha^etev [ita Kust. in not.] 

789. Frob. jx ^oi/x' : lege f«j v x 0l l* vel ftij cryoijx. 

805. Faber: slo-o/o-cr: AN.rl; 4>E. irKs'ico : Gry. ttXeIov. 

806. dele 4iV. — 807. adscribe AN. et lege 0EJ. t# [ita omnia 
in Kust.] 

813. Aid. yXloAov.— 818. Aid. /*2V. lege 0E. [ita Kust.] mox 
i}p.el$ deest in Frob. non Gry. 
820. Seal, farlgio-' [ita MSS.] 

822. lege 8} 8* : vid. 195 et S15. fita Br.] 

823. Seal, rjgetrtv.— 825. lege /<iV. [ita K»»st.]— 826. Gry. 4>EL 
a$ [ita Kust.] 

828. Seal. <ru [ita Br. e MS. et Suid. in 'AvaQopov.] 

837- Seal. &rra<r [ita Rav.] et (fpvysrai in 844. [ita Br.] 

841. Citat Suid. in 2poio$. — 844. lege Ka^Ka^oov vel xa^vafcoy. 

846. 6 deest in Aid. supplet Bentl. 

850. Pro KH. legit Bentl. AN. hie et in sequentibus. 

852. lege mqlv y a\ [ita MS.] Aid. airevsixvis et TqyiW; 

855. Aid. oiro*$ : lege opoog [ita Kust.] 

864. Vice : O. M. legit Bentl. 0E. 

871. Aid. fteXvpiov: lege ftsXXijTgoy [ita Kust.] 

881. Distingue post Tpvyy)(reiv, [vid. Vesp. 632.] 

885. Faber. x.ouroxd>pv\<rov [ita Br.] 

888. 900. Hos dimetros facit Bentl., exceptis 893,4. /xaAAov 

ij 'y«> I T ^ v pk° v 9 ? yvg 'V '• ct mox in 898. ubi legit k-ijyflijx J'fv • 

\s£ctt | xayrrrp«^/ai | rep — j&a. 

899* Faber deducit a toQaXixpiLai : non wupot\lyofjuci. 

901. Seal. TpfjXjxa. — 909. Aid. aAAij. lege <2aAjj [ita Kust.] 

911. Seal, ogigayopav Faber. ovtod$ — 91 6. Seal. upagsraowf. 

919. nap&xvQt Faber. vapawmt B. [non Bern. Junt. si fides 
sit Brunckio.] 

S50 Bentleii Emendations* Inedita, $c. 

921. Totum versum NE. tribuit Bentl. et legit xa) wy y [et 
sic Tyrwhitt.] 

923,4,5. lege akXet rt; *H*yxov<ra rP. rt pot NE. ch U 

[ita Br.] mox Suid. "Ay^ovtra. 

933. pirpa toov (TxoXtav [vid. Hermann, de Metr. p. 416.] 

934. aveunrohrjtrou Suid. in 'Av&tnfiov.— -946. dele NE. [sic Br.] 

947-, <rrp. 954. itrnrwTg. Jevoo. 
949. lege ttygtvriv [ita MS.] 



957. Fo.<p\im: [sed] vid. 947. — 958. dele t%. 
960. Aid. et Gry. -Hjy&' [immo Aid. r^w, ryetJyjjy, sic.] Frob. 
rovV [at Kust. tijv&\] 

964. /*g Suid. in 'iienra^ov [ita MS.] 

965. Aid. xgvo-oSaftaAj&oy : alii — iaXov Suid. — SotXrof in JaiSoAl- 
^eip et 0p6i\H$. Julianus Epist. i8. 7va o"c to peAijpa roup*?, #f 
^ijcrtv XeCKQxB, iregtirTv£co[tct. 

966. Suid. in 0pvtyt$ et Xetgtrm habet 6p6fipa» recte, etsi neget 
Kusterus. [atqui probat Kust. in Not.] 

972. erg fitvovvt ; lege HefZivov : ilium Sebinum, qui t» ft^ta 
Mv«4>Xy(rr4orerat. Vid. Ran. 430. HefKvov o<rrtg wrJy My*$Awri9$. 

980. lege ou^ I8ffcrye<$. 

981. lege olF oJT [cf. 990. ubi oW bis Aid.] 

985. Aid. *goV ys.— 986. lege jxe'A* oftM [ita Br.] 

995. ypo&oy Suid. in '££ov et Kpeaygot [sic semper Bentl.] 

997. lege c5 Vav. — 101 6. Frob. eXtovrs; : lege IxJwy t*$ ut Gry. 

1019. Faber. aXA<2 xXSx cru.— 1025. Alii xxdagov. 

1027. Faber. ijwep 8e7 yg : lege yviregi y ut vyy/xsv5 [in Pac. 6l6.] 
mox Gry. xvjgivm [quam suam vocat conjee turam Brunckius] 
lege xupioov. 

1035. Faber. X^ov.— 1047. Frob. t%. Seal, t^* [ita Kust] 

1048. Gry. eAx« <r [ita MS. et B. Junt] 

1049- Aid. ^ft^ifcr^vijv. — 1055. lege wA*ov y : liney Aid. £non 
Kust.]— 1059- Aid. «T ti$. 

1065. Aid. yexpeov : lege vXeiSvw. vid. Suid. TlXsUvm [ita Canter.] 

1071* Aid. v}[u»v: lege u/x»v [ita Kust.] 

1079- fas Suid. in nogdfxsi$. 

1081. Aid. xaxovov: Quidam xovvwvov, Hesych. Kaw&vw. 

1084. Citat Suid. in Bo\fii$. 

1088. Aid. 2v. Gry. ivT. — 1089- Aid. jSowAjj. lege jSovAy </ [ita 
Kust. vid. 973. ubi Bentl. fhvXu y .] 

1096. Aid. <7uvg/foft«* Gry. o-uvs/gfo/Ao*. — 1097. Seal, fcy tohvto. 

1 106. Aid. et Gry. v^ei* *&p*rf.— 1 107. Aid. y*. 

1111. Frob. foepaiirgxay. Aid. ■ tfcuxxv. lege raixey et sic 

Gry. Seal, wn-gpweflwxffy. 

1113. SaratvdrpowTa war? axfararo Suid. in MTgyftfffwi'ra et JJf*- 
pvpoofActi. Seal. ayeTrraro. 

11 16. Seal, et Faber f xtey6fMv&$. 

On Epitaph*. 351 

1 136. XO. [Br. id adscripsit adv. 1 HI. tyeS to] 

1 145. ptkofomixov Suid. in AffAoj : lege j*tAAo — [ita Kust.] 

1147. Seal, cn^oi*.— 1153. dele y$. 

1157. ouv omittit Suid. in KpYjTtxog et in Mi\og habet xpipnxcp. 

1 161. Faber. A«r — at Suid. A<wr — in Me\o$. 

116$. Aid. — woTirpiftft. — 1164. Fab. — xi^X — • 

1 165. Aid. $*AA<oxjyxA — . 


On the subject of Epitaphs, as on almost all other subjects of 
literature, we must look to the Grecian writers for the best models. 
The Grecian Epitaphs are distinguished by brevity and a dignified 
simplicity. Brevity I think ought to be a principal feature in 
compositions of this sort. Even a brief account of the lives of 
Statesmen, Warriors, Poets, and illustrious men whose abilities or 
actions will be recorded in history, ought by no means to make 
part of an Epitaph. Some striking feature in a man's character, 
some brilliant saying, some one particularly splendid action, which 
may at once recal to our recollection the merits of the deceased, 
appear to be the proper subjects for Epitaphs. When obscure 
men insist on having monuments, with flattering inscriptions, 
erected to their memories, some kind of history must be given of 
them, otherwise they will in a moment sink into oblivion. But I 
premise here that my observations only apply to Epitaphs on 
illustrious men. As to brevity in this kind of writing, I find in a 
common-place book in my possession the following insertion, but 
without any notice from whence taken. " Plato vetabat majores 
lapides sepulchfo extrui quam ut possertt laudes defuncti quatuor 
heroicis versibus comprehendere." 1 add another requisite to the* 
Epitaphs on illustrious men, that they be written in the Latin * 
language, and this on account of its universality. It is understood 
in all the civilized countries of the world, even in those where one 
would least expect to find it. Honest Bell in his Travels from 
Russia to China (he is called honest from his well-known veracity) 
mentions having heard a Chinese on some public occasion pro- 
nounce an eloquent Latin oration. I may further add that public 
inscriptions of this sort ought to be more adapted to the intelli- 
gence of strangers, and foreigners, than of natives, and therefore 
should be in a language intelligible to them. 

1 The reader is referred to a Letter to Dr. Beattie on this subject, and on 
Epitaphs in general. See an account. of his Life and Writings*, by Sir W. 
Forbes, II. « 1—23. Ed. 

33£ On Epitaphs. 

Perhaps the propriety of this requisite of Latin, which I main- 
tain, may in some slight measure appear to be discountenanced by 
the Round-Robin presented not many years ago by some ingenious 
and literary men to Doctor Johnson, after -he had produced his 
Latin Epitaph on Goldsmith, in which Round-Robin these friends 
requested that the Epitaph might be in English. But any man the' 
least conversant in the Latin language, who reads this Epitaph, will 
not for a moment entertain a doubt of the real origin of the requi- 
sition. The inscription, besides being totally void of all those 
elegances, and graceful turns of which that language is capable, is 
really not Latin, is in itself crude and meagre. His friends clearly 
saw that he could not write Latin, and they knew he could write 
good English. Tn reply to the request, Johnson insisted that the 
Latin language was the proper language, and in this I esteem him 
right ; but he added that he would make any alteration in the Epitaph 
that might be required. This answer could not satisfy his friends, 
whose object it was to have the whole composition remanded to 
the anvil, and forged over agjain. Upon this, fearing to speak the 
truth, and to encounter the pride, and boisterous temper of the 
man, they were under the necessity of letting it pass, and of suffer- 
ing Johnson to expose himself in Westminster Abbey, where he will 
remain exposed whilst the Abbey remains. Johnson was educated 
at a petty country school, probably under very insufficient teachers. 
Those who have not had the advantage of studying for a length of 
time under able masters, and who are self-taught scholars, rarely 
excel in composition in the learned languages. This is very 
evident in all Johnson's Latin productions, as a Correspondent, in 
your Twenty-third Number, in a comment on one of Johnson's 
epitaphs, properly remarks. An inspection of the Epitaph witt 
clearly establish my statement. The Epitaph thus begins: 
" Olivari Goldsmith Poetae, Physici, Historici." These words 
sufficiently show that Goldsmith was conversant in various branches 
of literature ; but this sentence follows : " Qui nullum fere scri- 
bendi genus non tetigit, nullum quod tetigit non ornavit." The 
word " tetigit " seldom occurs ; it is sometimes used by the comic 
poets in a ludicrous sense. Quo pacto Rhodium tetigerim in 
convivio nunquid tibi dixi ? Ter. Si neminem alium potero, tuum 
tangam patrem. Plaut. Tetigit te triginta minis. Plaut. The 
word attingo is very frequently made use of by Cicero, in the sense 
of touching on a subject slightly or superficially. Levi ter per- 
strinxi, et attigi. Cicer. de Or* 1. 2. Catullus uses the word in 
this sense. 

■ Inficatior rure 

Simul poemata attigit. 
Tetigi can have no other meaning in this place than that of attigi, 
so that the literal translation of the paragraph is : There is scarce 
any kind of writing which he did not superficially touch upon, and 

On Epitaphs* 353 

what he superficially touched upon, he adorned. But this could 
not be the meaning which Johnson intended to express, who 
certainly did not wish to speak disrespectfully of his friend. 
Then follows, Sive risus essent movendi, sjve lacrymae, affectuum 
potens, et lenis dominator. How a man can be a very powerful, 
and a very gentle mover of the passions, I do not well compre- 
hend : nor in what part of his writings Goldsmith elicits tears, I 
cannot guess. Then succeed these words; Ingenio sublimis, vividu9, 
versatilis, oratione grandis, nitidus, veuustus. Here appears a 
strange jumble of inconsistent words which attribute to Goldsmith 
incompatible excellencies. Now come the unfortunate words, 
Hoc monumentum, which refer to the beginning of the Epitaph, 
and create strange confusion here. Some word seems omitted. 
Now observe the conclusion : Memoriam coluit Sodalium amor, 
amicorum fides, Lectorum vene ratio. I cannot well construe this, 
but fortunately for me, the writer of Goldsmith's life, from whom I 
transcribe the Epitaph, translates the whole. The translation of 
this la«t paragraph is as follows : His memory will last as long as 
Society retains affection, Friendship *is not void of honor, and 
Reading wants not her admirers. The translator, we perceive, 
here personifies reading, and bestows honors upon her, to which 
1 fear she is not iutitled. But he adds new beauties to the 

It is high time to resume my subject. I can produce to your 
readers an epitaph which I deem complete, omnibus numeris 
absolutum ; and as it is 1 belieVe but little known cannot fail of 
being acceptable to many of your readers. It is the Epitaph of 
Sir Christopher Wren in St. Paul's Church : the inscription being 
placed in the under part of that fine building has occasioned its 
concealment. I quote from memory, and of course omit dates. 
But I give the material and striking part. 

Subtus jacet 
x Hujus Templi Conditor 

Christophorus Wren. 

Lector, si rnonumentum requiris, 


It is short, appropriate, and I think sublime. The author of it 
is, I believe, unknown. For my own part 1 had rather have been 
the author of it than of some Epic poems in high repute. The 
excellence of this Epitaph did not escape the notice of that 
eloquent Latin poet, Vincent Bourne. He has stolen it nearly 
totidem verbis. It may be found at the latter end of his poems 
among other monumental inscriptions. 


354 On Epitaphs* 

In Portia* Septenrrionalt 

Fani Westmonasteriensis 

II. S. E. 

Gulielmus Dickenson, 


Qualis! Suspice. 

There are other Epitaphs in the collection, all distinguished 
by brevity, and elegant Latin ity. 

,1 have been led into this subject of Epitaphs, by reading an 
inscription intended for a statue of the late Mr. Pitt> erected by 
the Corporation of London, and written at their request by Mr. 
Canning, a most ingenious man, and classical scholar, .and a great 
friend of Mr. Pitt. I do not know that it was possible to have 
selected in all appearance a person so capable of doing justice to 
the subject. I must confess, however, that in my mind be has 
failed on the present occasion. A man cannot at all times :be 
equal to himself. But his talents here are not called in question 
by me, but his judgment. The inscription I think too long, too 
elaborate, too historical. If any one should be disposed to think 
me presumptuous, and that I take unwarrantable liberty in cen- 
suring the compositions of men of established literary reputation, 
and cry out periisse pudorem ; I reply that I merely attempt to 
give my own opinion. But to any one who may be offended at 
my freedom, I give ample scope for retaliation in the sequel of 
this essay. I confess that I should prefer to this long, and welt* 
expressed inscription, before mentioned, a pithy sentence to the 
following purpose : Hie Vir est qui ad debellandam Galliam, 
Eoropae minitautem vincula, stravit viaui. Quid debeatis huic 
viro, Britanni, ex animis nunquam deponite. I give this merely 
to show -my sentiments on the subject, and not to exhibit a correct 
performance. It is written currente calamo, without proper at- 
tention or consideration. I am fully sensible that a more appro- 
priate, and happily expressed inscription might readily be pro- 
duced, but this is sufficient to explain my meaning. 



On some Idioms of the Greek Language. l 


87. 1 HE Greek language admits the use of several verbs, ac- 
companied by the participles, or infinitives of other verbs, to ex- 
press, most minutely, the time, and manner, of action, or exist- 
ence. In which respect, it differs, entirely, from the genius of the 
Latin, but has been followed, in many instances, by the English. 

88. To express a purpose of doing, or the proximity of an exent, 
pjtXhn, with the infinitive, is used ; as, 

•O ti /&fXAe(£ Atyeiv. Whatever you are about to say. 

89* The various modes of action, or existence, are expressed as 
follows, by auxiliaries and participles ; viz. 

Commencement, by yivofLou : 
Eyn>ETQ avQpw7ro$ ant<rT<x\ptvo$. There was a man sent. 

Simple existence, by sift* : 
Hv $j$a<rxo>y a\nou$. lie was teaching them, 

Ovx fta>$a>£ »v. Not being accustomed* 

Priority, by wrap^a) : 
*T*ript;a. tv ttoiw* o-s. I first served you. 

■ We have adhered tor the learned author's plan of omitting accents; 
-a plan, however, which we deprecate.— Ed. 

356 Observations on some 

Energy, by e^oo : 
Tov Xoyov crou tuv^aca; typ. x I have admired your discourse* 

A$e\$Yiv ti)v e/xijv yri[Lot$ *X*i$- . You have married my sister. 

Accident, by xupeo, or rvy^aveo : 
Meve ob$ xupu$ sywv (jtsolvtov). Remain as you are* 

Tvyxavei irepi7raToov. He is walking. 

*0<rri$ odv rvyyctvei. Whoever he is, 

90. To express the completion of an event, etpt is used, with a 
past participle. The present of eifju, in such an expression, is 
equivalent to the pluperfect tense, but it is much more emphatical ; 
while e<ro[jLM expresses the future perfect, in the indicative ; as the 
subjunctives of the aorists do, in that mood ; as, 

Tov$ <rvKo$aLVTGt.$ t^$ iro\ec»$ ijv He was after driving the inform* 
faoogag. ers from the city. 

Knjfta xa* sgpouov scry avarsQei- You will have offered an acqui- 
xoog. sition, and lucky gain. 

9 1 . Anticipated performance is expressed by $0av«>, or rgofdctm ; 
with a participle. This expression is so energetic, that it cannot 
be literally rendered into any other language ; as, 

.5uvn0£VT«i <pQa<rou t< dgcttravreg y They conspire to do something 

iroidiiv. to avoid suffering. 

Ovx ay $Qoiv<h$ foyiyovpsvos. You cannot too quickly tell: 

'Oarig av <pQctVYi $i\ov evsgysrcov. Whoever has first conferred 4 

kindness on his friend. 

Q2. Secrecy, so as to escape not only the knowledge of another 
person, but even a person's own consciousness, is expressed by 
Aavflavw, with a participle. As the Latin and English have no 
word corresponding to kotvfavio, in this sense ; the phrases, in which 
it occurs, are rendered adverbially ; as, 
£X«0ov rm$ %svKrctrre$ otyye\ov$. Some persons entertained angels 

, ^ijcrouo-* Xsyovrsg d fiY) dst. They will be ignorantly saying 

what they ought not. 

93; A variety of other circumstances are expressed, by joining 
appropriate adjectives with ei/u,*, and participles ; as, 
4>otvspo'$ yjv dpoigTavoov. He sinned openly. 

A$yj\oi gcrojxeJa woiouvrs^. We will do it secretly. 

Ov woi&ot e!;otgvo$ eyevo[utiv [totticov I never denied that I had learn- 

t*. ed any thing. 

1 The past participle, in English, appears to be transitive, in such eV. 
pressions as this. The Latins say, habebat persuasum sibi — habuistc su*- 
pectas — and the like. But they cannot combine two participles; as* 
•X«" r»fMt£a;, having disturbed; which they render, quum turbcssem 
— et, fa 

Idioms of the Greek Language. 357 

• 94, Sometimes the indicative, or infinitive, is used, instead of 

the participle ; as, 

AyXoi oopev, on ovx axovrsg jxox 0- L^ us snow * nat we fig nt wu ~ , 

ftfda. lingly. 

Ei ira$s%ev, aB^Xog ecri . It is not certain, if he furnished. 

Ovk *v efagvog yevoio jxij ovx ffco$ You cannot deny that you are 

v\o% €iimi. my son. 

95. Strong and earnest desire, is expressed by the imperfect, or 
second aorist of o$u\co, agreeing, in number, and person, with ite 
subject ; and, commonly, followed by the infinitive. The particle 
tiT6 is usually expressed, or understood, with o$giAa> ; as, 

fify oQsXov vutetv. I wish that I had not overcome. 

** A%V eQeXov fistvoti* Would to God 1 had staid. 

0<pe\s$ oAe<r0ai. I wish you had perished. 

96. Imperious duty, or necessity, is expressed by verbal adjec- 
tives in reog ; either agreeing with their substantives, or, which is 
more usual, having their agents in the dative, and governing their 
objects, as the verbs do, from which they are derived ; as, 

*0 otyttiog ftovoj u^reos. The good man alone must be 

Tm Tipyupiv ttrreoy; To whom is the favor to be 

acknowledged ? 
0tvxrsov rep <rooQ gdvouvn to irpo$ The wise man must avoid mak^ 
fo$av £jv. ing glory his object in life, 


97* There is nothing more difficult, nor yet more necessary, 
in acquiring a knowledge of the Greek language, than to have a 
clear idea of the manner in which the various relations are ex- 
pressed, by means of the prepositions. 

Two methods have been adopted, by philolpgists, to ascer- 
tain the meaning of the prepositions ; but both very unsatisfactory. 
The first is by deriving each preposition from some word, either in 
Greek, or Hebrew, or Arabic, that seems to have a resemblance, 
in sound, and sense, to the meaning which they have already at- 
tached to the preposition. But it will be evident to any person, 
who thinks seriously upon the subject, that this derivation, a pos- 
teriori, will afford little instruction ; when the deriver can know 
nothing, and may guess any thing. 

The second method is more unphilological still. That is, by 
supposing the meaning of the preposition to change, according to 
the case to which it is prefixed. Nothing can be more certain^ 
than that every word has only one original meaning ; and although 
it may be very difficult to analyse a phrase, so as to a^cettaixv tksa, 
meaning of each coustituent part, Yihftft ^ta^j fcifc *m^suNtita& v^&. 

358 Observations on some 

we are not rashly to pronounce that it is impossible, or to charge 
the noblest, and most accurate language with a violation of die firtt 
principles of philology* 

A more philosophical and natural manner of acquiring a true un- 
derstanding of the prepositions is, to follow the course of nature, 
in the formation of language ; and, from considering what the pri- 
mary relations are, to ascertain how they have been expressed. 

98* The first manner, therefore, in which it is probable that re- 
lations were denoted, was by variety of termination, or ^different 
cases. Thus the genitive was used to denote that by which any 
thing was possessed, or from which it proceeded; the dative that to 
which any thing was acquired, from which it was taken, or by which 
it was done, and hence, interchange in general ; while the accu-" 
sative denoted tfte general object of action. But, as these cases 
express relations only in a general manner, it became necessary to 
specify them with more precision ; hence praposita were used to 
denote the various modes of relation, each having its own distinct 
and unalterable meaning but blending with the meaning already ex- 
pressed by the case, to complete the idea intended to be expressed. 

99. Every person knows, that the idea of one word governing 
another is merely an arbitrary invention of philology, and can have 
no foundation in nature. Hence the same preposition would be 
prefixed to different cases, without either changing its own meaning, 
or having any influence in requiring those particular cases. The use 
of the case must depend upon the nature of the subject, while the 
preposition is merely prefixed to give precision to the expression. 

100. As the relations of place are the most obvious, it is proba- 
ble that they were the first denoted by prepositions ; and an atten- 
ton to them, in their simplest form, will enable us to ascertain the 
primary meaning of the prepositions themselves. 

A very simple and easy manner of understanding them is, to con- 
ceive one body, in a state of rest ; and then to consider, in how 
-many different positions another body may be placed, with respect 
to it. 

These may be reduced to the following twelve categories ; viz. 

1. In conjunction. 5. Below. 9* Around. 

2. In opposition. 6. Before. 10. To. 

3. In. 7. Behind. 11. Through. 

4. Above. 8. Beside. 12. From. 

101. These, with their several modifications, are expressed by the 
prepositions; thus, 

In conjunction. Svv, with. 

In opposition. Avrt, against : and, as the part opposed must" be 
considered the front, am, before. 

In. Et$, into and in : ev, withinj and, where several objects are 
placed together, iuru, in among. 

Idioms qf the Greek Language. 359 

tt Above. 'Twsp, completely over: avoc, risen to top: &n, come to, 
and upon : xaru, descended upon. 

Below. 'IVo, completely under: xara, descended to bottom. 

Before, npo, before in place, or order : xm, in opposition ; See 

Behind. Meroc, after, in order. 1 
* Beside. Mbtol, following beside : koto,, descending, or set down 
beside: *qo$, merely, or nearly in contact : napa, in complete juxta- 

Around. Ap,$i, on each side: iregi, completely around. % 
, To. Msret, following after, or coming over to : irgo$, towards, 
fo contingently: m 9 to and on : tt$, to, into : vclqol, unto, coming 
along side : olvu, up to : tloltol, down to. 

Through. Avot, th ough, from bottom to top : xara, through, 
from top to bottom: ha 9 through, as dividing, pervading, or moving 
in any direction, except directly up or down. 

From. IIgo$,from slight adhesion : *<*.§*, from strong adhesion : 
euro, from surface, or resting on : ex, out of: koltcl, from bottom 

102. From this theory, the true meaning of the prepositions may 
he easily ascertained ; and it will appear that those which seem to 
have the most opposite meanings, as netpx, and npo$, retain, in every 
instance, one signification ; viz. that of moving in a direct line from 
(me body to another, arriving and remaining at it, or passing by it* 
1 • AfjiQi, on each side. 

2. Avot, up to, up through, upon. 3 

3. Am, opposite, before. 

4. Aico 9 from surface, or resting on. 

5. Aict, through. 

1 When the relations to be expressed were more complex, including those 
of three or more objects; such as, behind , beyond, fa. ; or when the idea of 
distance, or the like, was to be added to the primary relation, adverbs of place 
were introduced. 

* A^up* and *•£« are sometimes used together; as, *p? i *»p» &o>imv, round 
about an altar ; sometimes they are used indifferently for each other, and, in 
some books, as the septuagint, «/x«p* is hardly ever used. 

3 Contrary to every principle of philology <w» is said to mean, sometimes, 
up and down, and the assertion is illustrated by such examples as, 
Efa ava <TTgaTov. He went up and down the army. 

But what occasion is there to suppose that the person mentioned returned 
upon his steps at all ? Would any critic say that <**» ?Tparov yyjv *tt\a 
fait, should be rendered, The arrows of the god went up and down the army ; 
as if an arrow sent from a bow could change its direction ? 

Even when ava and xnr* are applied to motion on a plain, they retain their 
original meaning ; and are used according as the speaker conceives the ob- 
ject, to which he moves, above or below the level on which he stands : and a 
very little observation will convince any person, that we regard almost every 
object in one or other of these relations. 

360 Observations on some 

6. Ei;, into, in. 

7. Ex, out of. 

8. Ev, in, within. 
9- ' E*t, unto, on. 

10. Kara, down to, down through, or beside, at bottom, 
down from. 

1 1. JV/rra, following over to, with, among. 

12. Ilaga, unto, beside, from adhesion. 

13. Iligi, around. 

14. Ilgo, before. 

15. Ilgog, towards, to, at, from contingency. 

16. 2w, together with. 

17. 'TwegfOver. 

18. c 2Vo, under. 

103. From the relations of place, the transition is easy to those of 
time, and the modes of thought. And the primary meaning of the 
prepositions is, in general, easily discernible, in these various appli- 
cations of them. Yet it is not strange that, in the use of a language 
which Horished for many centuries, extended to various countries, 
and was spoken in several dialects, local circumstances and habit 
should have introduced a considerable variety in the use of the pre- 
positions. That this was the case will be evident to a person who 
compares the ancient Ionic with the modern Attic writers. 1 * Hence 
the propriety of following nature in the progress of language, when 
endeavouring to ascertain the true meaning of the prepositions; 
rather than endeavouring to deduce their sense from the various use 
of them by so many different authors. 

104. It would very far exceed the limits of these observations to 
exhibit a general list of the peculiar and idiomatical use of the pre- 
positions. The following examples may serve as a specimen of it: 

EXacrag rov Ithfov ava xparog. Driving the horse at full speed. 

Kareo-xytyav, ava^govov, us ttoXs- In progress of time, they were 

[tov$. engaged in war. 

JEXa/3ov ava Sijvapiov. They received one penny each, 

Avf cov foxata ro-omrs. Because you did just things, 

Awo y\co<rovi$ &evfir\<rav. They made a verbal request, 

01 airo .Tys Sroasi awo tyi$ Axa- The Stoics, the Academics, &c. 

Srjfuag, x. r. A. 


"Let the reader compare the language of Chaucer, or any other of our 
ancient poets, with that of the present day, and he will readily conceive the 
changes to which a living language is subject. 

Multa renascentur, quae jam cecidere ; cadentque 
Quae nunc sunt in honore vocabula, si volet usus, 
Quern penes arbitrium est, et jus, et uotma. Vx^ufo . 

Idioms of the Greek Language. 36 1 

0* airo trig /3ouX>jj. 
Ata Tqrtv\$ Yifxegotg. 
Tot xfmpMT* ctvrtM &* ooQsXsias 

' edsvro. 
Aia %govov koogaxsw avrov. 

Havra$ jjxeiv Aiyvafy, tt$ •njv <re- 

Atkt^ovt8$ ei$ otrov fVfSs^ero. 

'Opxov itapampai — mktoov svovrooy. 

Ti)V ev mew (x^P^) ocei weiparai 

Toti$ vctoltovs enrovroLs sv opyvj 

*0 «ri toov (iaciXtxcov vQpay&wv. 
Eirei «$' eavroov iyevero tol orpoiTO- 

Ban #fX?vro$ AtvpaKii$ Nixoorpa- 


Tot pey eoriv t<f fjftiv, ra fa oux 
Efie en ayotioig hairg&rsoTegav 

fiaci\ei$ oi «r* faaZoypig Traiuiv 

*H xarot irolci$ fyi-gga. 
Oi AQyvaioi, Kara [uav vauv ts- 

TayfJ,evQi,ve$iev\£OV avroug xu- 

Flap* tocovtov ov x*T6\Y\<piri, *ap 

i<rov oi hm^avreg tt)£ tufata? «£f- 

ilurw [xsv 6 fypos, wpo$ noWov rvig 

mXseo? ovti, umjVTa. 
Ifyoj A io$ } fov\yvi<rai fytiv. 

IIgo$ evicrroAai; fiva*. 

The senators. 

Every third day. 

Their property they made their 
own, put to their own benefit. 

It was long since I had seen 

That all should come to Athens, 
at the new moon. 

Having resisted as long as they 

Avoid an oath, as much as pos- 

He endeavours always to take 
the country to which he comes. 

You are angry at those who 
spoke last. 

The keeper of the king's seals. 

When the armies were in their 

When Nicostratus was Archon 
of Athens. 

Some things are in our power, 
other things not in bur power. 

That I shall appear much more 

Kings who died, leaving chil- 
dren to succeed them. 

The following day. 

The Athenians, having their fleet 
drawn up in a single line, sail- 
ed round them in a circle. 

By this means only he escaped 

* being taken, that the pursuers 
turned out of the way. 

The people met him, a consider- 
able way before the city. 

For the sake of Jove, relate to 

To be writing letters. 
105. There are, likewise, many adverbial phrases, made by the 
combination of prepositions with nouns, or adjectives ; such as, 
A*o ottouSijs, diligently. .fan tu^jj, accidentally. 

Aifq tow Qaveqov, openly. Kara ptya, greatly. 

Aito too 6ixoto$, unlikely. Hap oXtyov, nearly. 

At axgi@8ix$, correctly. Dqo$ xofiv, agr^eabl^. 

Es$ vfigw, contumeliously. naga icoXu, ivo\ \\rax\v 

w. Traitiara^ 



In an article entitled Momi Miscellanea Subseciva, (Clou. Journ, 
xxiv. p. 262.) the writer has treated Joshua Barnes somewhat too 
roughly ; and in justice to the memory of so meritorious and so dili- 
gent a scholar, I shall present to your readers a list of his Works, 
published and unpublished, and at some future period shall perhaps 
enter on some further vindication of his literary character from the 
aspersions thrown on it by this writer, by Brunck, and by some re- 
spectable critics of our own country. Though the author of Mom 
Miscellanea Subseciva has never seen Barnes's Esther, yet he may be 
assured that it is a work of much merit, in the opinion of several un- 
prejudiced and real scholars. 


" A Catalogue of Books written by Joshua Barnes, B. D. The 
Queen's Majesty's Professor of the Greek Language, in Cambridge. 

Those marked thus * are printed. 

1. Divine Poems, English, in five books. 1. Koo/ioirotfa, or the 
Creation of the World. 2. A double Poem, viz. of Man's Fall, and 
Christ's Redemption. 3. An Hymn to the Holy Trinity, with other 
divine Poems, Fancies, and Epigrams. 4. A Pastoral Eclogue on the 
return of King Charles II. with an Heroic Essay on the Royal Ex- 
change. 5. Epigrams, Ms. 16*69. 

2. The Life and Death of the Usurper, Oliver Cromwel, presented 
to Dr. Mew, Master of St. John Baptist's College, Oxon. now Bishop 
of Winchester, Anno 1670. 

3. The Tragedy of Xerxes, of Pythias and Damon, of Holofernes, 
and several other Tragedies, English, and some Latin, wholly, or prin- 
cipally composed by him, with several of Seneca's Tragedies translated. 
All these, while at School in Christ's Hospital. 

He went to the university, 1 67 1, where he wrote these books following. 

4. The Warlike Lover, or the Generous Rival, a Tragedy, English, 
relating to the Dutch War, and the death of the thrice Noble, Loyal, 
and Valiant Edward Montague, Earl of Sandwich, Ms. 

5. * Greek Poems in seven books. 1.* A Poetical Paraphrase on 
the book of Esther, with Scholia, printed Anno 1678. 2. An He- 
roic Essay on the Patriarch Joseph. 3. Christ's Sermon on the Mount, 
the Creed, Commandments, Pater Noster, and other Scriptural Hymns, 
Paraphrased, in Greek and Latin Verse. 5. An Heroic Fancy on 
Homer, with Epigrams. 6. An Heroic Poem on the Death of the 
aforesaid Earl of Saudwich, called 'AfyKo^eX^^y.^ Greek, En- 

Josbrua Barnes's Works. 305 

glish, and Latin. 7. ^Akdcrpvofia^ia, or tf Cock-fighting, Greek, and 
Latin Verse. 

6. * Gerania, or news from the Pygmies, printed A. 1675. 

7. Solomon's Song Paraphrased, English Heroick, Ms. 

8. Lexicon Poeticum, Latino-Grecum, cui additur aliud propriorimr 
Nominum, etc. for the use of great Schools, a singular help for those 
who are not perfect masters of the Poetical Greek, to make good 
Greek verse by ; large folio, Ms. 

9. An accurate Treatise about Greek Accents, of their use, varia- 
tion, Rules, Antiquity, etc. 

10. The Cambridge Duns, a Comedy, Ms. 

11. * A Mock Poem on the Ninth of the Iliads, and on the Ninth 
of the Odysses, printed 1681. 

12. Franciados, a Latin Heroic Poem on the Black Prince, designed 
in 12 books, 8 long since finished. 

13. The Art of War, in 4 books, English Prose, Ms. 

14. Hengist, or the English Valour, an Heroic Poem, in 4 books, 
English, Ms. 

15. Landgartha, or the Amazon Queen of Denmark aud Norway, 
a Tragedy, formerly designed as an entertainment for their Royal 
Highnesses the Prince of Denmark, and the Princess, now Queen 

16.* King Edward Hi. English History, Folio, in 4 books, printed 
A. 1688. 

17. Ecclesiastical History, from the beginning of the World to the 
Ascension, etc. Latin Folio, Ms. 

18. Miscellanies, being select Poems on several occasions, English. 

19. A Dissertation on Columns, of their Antiquity, Use, Signifi- 
cation, etc. Lat., Ms. 

20. A Discourse on the Sibylls, in 3 books, Latin, Ms. 

21. * Philosophical and Theological. Poems, Latin, printed on seve- 
ral occasions at Cambridge. 

22. Divine Poems and Meditations for five years, Ms. 

23. * Euripides, with Scholia and notes, his Life. Treatises of 
Theater and Tragedy, 3 Indexes, etc. printed A. 1694. 

24. Pindar's Life, Latin, in 4 parts, Ms. 

25. Calendarium Academicum, or a Methodical Direction for young 
Students at the University, for the first four years : With General 
Rules of morality, etc. A Form of Prayer, etc. ready for the Press. 

26. Honieri Odyssea, cum varus Lectionibus, Notis in Textum, et 
Scholia, necnon accurata Emendatione ipsius Graci Textus, Scholio- 
rum, Versionis Latinae, Copioso lndice, etc. 

27. Thirty two Lectures on the first Book of Homer's Odysses, 
read in the Public Schools at Cambridge, Ms. 

28. Thirty two Lectures on the first ode of Pindar, read ut prius, Ms. 

29. Lectures on Theocritus, with his Life, ut prius, Ms. 

30. Lectures on Sophocles, read ut prius, Ms. 

31. Anacreon, enlarged with above 300 genuine verses and frag- 
menti, collected and amended from a Ma. m \\&\%&kk& nftta^ \wxSx- 

S64 Catalogue, fyc. 

cular Account of all his Measures, an accurate Version, Notes, his 
life ; an alphabetical Index of all his Words ; a critical and philologi- 
cal Index on his Life, and the Notes ; in a for more exact maimer 
than ever before : ready for the press. 

32. * The Happy Island,* or the Mirrour of Government, being the 
Inauguration of Queen Gratiana, with * England's Interest, or a sate 
way to Victory : Item, The case of the Church of England, printed 

33. * A Sermon preached on St. Matthew's Day, before the Lord 
Mayor, etc. With an Apology for the Orphans of Christ's Hospital, 
printed 1703. 

34. A Sermon preached at St. Paul's Cathedral, before the Lord 
Mayor, on All Saints' Day. 

35. A Discourse of Natural Physick, or a Direction for Health, by 
way of Novel, Ms. 

36. Sermons, Speeches, Problems, Declamations, Translations, 
Epistles, and other Exercises, Greek, Latin, English, and Lectures in 
Logic, Ethicks, etc. 

37. Occasional Interpretations, Illustrations, Emendations, or Cor- 
rections of Places, falsi y translated, Collations, and other Explica- 
tions of sundry Places of Scripture, from Genesis, to the Revelations. 

38. Communes Loci poetici, philologici, theologici, critici, etc. 
He has made considerable Preparations for these Works following. 

39. The Life and Death of George Castriot, alias Scanderbeg, tke 
valiant King of Epirus. 

40. The Life and Death of Tamer lain the Great, Emperour of 

41. The Life and Death of the Royal Prophet and Psalmist David, 
King of Israel, one of the first nine Worthies, the Type of Christ and 
his Ancestor, according to the Flesh : With all his undoubted Psalms, 
in curious Meter, refer'd to their proper places, as they were occa- 
sionally indited : All carefully collected and methodized from Scrip- 
ture, and in an elaborate Style, etc. 

- ■ ■ ■ ■ — ■■* 

This Catalogue is taken from that which is subjoined to the Ser- 
mon mentioned above in Article S3. 

The Sermon itself is written not only with great learning, but 
with considerable eloquence. As a specimen of the style, I will 
lay before your readers the exordium :— 

" Well hath the Church of God all along endeavoured to preserve 
the memories of Patriarchs, Apostles, Prophets, and other Holy * 
Men, and also Women, Servants of God, and in their several Ages, 
burning and shining Lights of the World, by embalming their names 
with Anniversary Honours; by appointing Festivals, and other 
Memorials of them in the Church, and by recording them in the 
unalterable Diptych of their minds : not so much to pay unto 
them the just respects due unto their exemplary piety, ardent zeal, 
and fruitful doctrine, as thereby indeed to\*»ftat w&Yra&fcQtti 

Biblical Criticism. 365 

Almighty, the fountain of all good and grace, in and for these his 
Saints and Servants, departed this Life in his Faith and Fear : 
and also to stir up in the Living, by such honorable and public re- 
membrances of the Dead, a desire to imitate such illustrious 
predecessors, who, by constantly treading the rugged path of vertue 
and piety in their days, have now attained unto that Glory, and that 
Repose, that Crown, and that Kingdom, after which we ought all 
most earnestly to aspire." 


Every attempt to facilitate the understanding, to amend the style, or 
to correct the inaccuracies, of our translation of the sacred writings, 
deserves the thanks of the public at large, as an undertaking fraught 
with general utility. But in making our conjectural emendations the 
greatest care is requisite lest w r e suffer pedantry to mar,' or bigotry 
to destroy, the majestic simplicity of the language. 

The chief excellence of a translation, which is intended for th* 
perusal of all classes of society, is, in my opinion, to combine the 
utmost artlessness of style with the closest adherence to the sense 
of the original: though at the same time when a slight paraphrase 
would render the meaning of a passage more obvious, such para- 
phrase I deem perfectly allowable. 

With these sentiments I should w r ish to make a few observations 
on C. P.'s corrections in the common Translation of the New Tes- 
tament inserted in your last. Many of them I consider answer the 
purpose for which they were intended ; some I think unnecessary; 
and to a few I object. Of these last only I shall take notice, and 
state my grounds of objection in as cursory a manner as possible. 

In chap. 1. v. 20. C. P. alters, " while he thought on these 
things ;" to " when he had determined this." Can C. P. adduce 
any satisfactory authority why lv0ujuioju,ai which is, mente agito, 
considero, should take so diametrically opposite a meaning as " to 

Chap. 2. v. 2. Though C. P. can have Coverdale for a precedent 
in his alteration of this verse, I am far from agreeing with him ; 
and not being aware of any particular benefit resulting from the 
insertion of " new," 1 am inclined to consider it an innovation, 
every useless species of which I think reprehensible. 

366 Biblical Criticism. 

In v. 23d of the same ch. C. P. would leave out hktdv altogether 
in his Translation. I should feel gratified by a sufficient reason for 
so doing. 

Ch. i v. 24. Though C. P.'s alteration is perfectly just as to the 
meaning of the original, I object to it as rendering the passage 
unintelligible to the lower orders of society. 

Ch. 5. v. 28. The addition of " impure desire," I consider re- 
dundant ; can C. P. adduce an instance of lust signifying pure 
desire? I think not. 

Ch, 9. v. 24. Here C. P., following Whiston, would render it 
as if written eysXoov; for what reason I am unaware. And though I 
am conscious that octroi does not always increase the signification, 
why dispute the authority of Hederic who renders xctTayck&a), ir- 
rideo. Besides I should think the laughing of the people was not 
die mere smile of contempt, but the loud jeer of contumely. 

Ch. 12. v. 5. As C. P. alters " sabbath," to " rest" in this 
verse, I suppose no particular reason can be assigned for this verse 
alone ; let it be altered throughout the chapter, and not only the 
sense is marred, but the very purport of our Saviour's discoure des- 
troyed. Lector J udicet. 

In the sixth verse C. P. alters u one," to " something :" will he 
have the goodness to inform us what that something is ? 

Chap. )6. v. 13. Does C. P. recollect a rule in grammar which 
says, " When a nominative comes between the relative and die 
verb, the relative must be in the objective case?" If he do, upon 
what authority does he defend his reading ? 

V. 28. I take* the sense of yevopou here to be rather to have 
a perception of, than to taste in a literal sense, so am an advocate 
for retaining " of." 

Chap. 23. v. 24. The change here appears to me improper. 
To strain off, I understand applicable only to the sense of purifying 
by filtration or squeezing through something ; whereas here the 
word strain signifies to make violent efforts. 

Chap. 27« v- 39* Why shaking instead of wagging? The latter 
surely conveys the idea of derision better than the former* 



Julii Phctdri Fabulce Nova et Veteres : Novce, Juxta 
Collatas Cassitti et Janntlii Editiones Neapoli Nuper 
Emissa^; cum selectis ex utriusque Commentario Notis ; 
Veteres, Juxta accuratissimam editionem Bipontinam, 
cum st led is doctissimi viri Schxvabe ex commentario 
notis. Parisiis, 1812. 

An one of our early Nos. we gave an account of the manner, in 
which these new Fables of Phaedrus were discovered. We now 
present our readers with a more ample explanation, from the 
Preface to this edition. 

Novae istae Fabulae quomodo emerserint, et an Phaedro jure tribuafitur, 
nemo erit fortasse qui non requirat. Primus fuisse Cassittus videtur, cui 
Perottinum codicem Neapoli in regia bibliotheca evolventi, praestd fuerint 
tt obtulerint se, contra spem, Fabulae Phaedri inedita?, quae doctissimum 
Dorvillum fugerant, nuraero triginta et duae, ceteris jam diu vulgatis im- 
mixtas, necaon Elegis Avieni, et quibusdam Perotti poematibus. 

Primus quoque idem Cassittus fortasse fuit, qui istas Fabulas exscripsit, 
emendavit, et ubi characteres defecerant, eti&m supplevit. (Vide editionem 
Neapoli confectam anno 1811, ex officina Monitoris utriusque Siciliae.) 

Post Cassittum, Cataldus Jannelius aliam eammdem Neapoli, eodem 
anno 1811, typis Dominici Sangiacomo, Fabularum editionem condidit. 
Sed in Cassittum invehitur, quod is istarum Fabellarum lectiones molesta 
cura et improbo labore ex codice Perottiho a se erutas, inepto plagio sur- 
ripuerit, negatque Cassittum unquam Perottinum Codicem legisse, unquam 
cxscripsisse, seque unum contendit, qui codicem per triennium versaverit, 
exscripserit, imerprctatus fuerit, et diligenter custodierit. Lectorem deni- 
que invitat, ut lectiones, quae a suis discrepant, ut a Cassitto inventas et 
obtrusas habeat. 

Nos litem hanc dirimere parum curavimus ; sed in eo insumsimus opc- 
raoi, ut quod in Cassitto et in Jannelio, sive repertoribus, sive interpretibus, 
Fabularum repertaium optimum esset, seligeremus. 

Nunc si requirit a nobis lector: Utrum jure ac meritd novae Fabulae 
Phaedro tribuantur ? hoc addemus. 

1°. Virorum judicio doctrina praecellentium qui Perotti tempore vixerunt, 
defuisse archiepiscopo Sipontino tanto operi condendo par ingenium, atque 
aded nullo modo adscribi Perotto opus posse. 

3°. Ipsum Perottum in Praefatione aid Pyrrhum praefixa opuiculo Fabu- 
larum aixisse : 

Non sunt hi mei quos putas versiculi, 
Sed iEsopi sunt et Avieni, et Phaedri. 

Quod manifeste indicat nunquam Perotto in mentera venisse, sibi eas pro 
suis vindicare. 

3°. In his nos Phaedri ingenium, venustatem, acumen invenisse. 

Pratered. posse doctorum testimonia, proferri a quibus illae et stylo, et 
elegantia, et latini sermonis nitore caeteris Phaedrinis prorsus similes judi- 
cata tint; ctneminem esse, vel mediocriter in Phaedri lectione versatum, 

S6S Notice of Pkadri Fabuta^ ^c. 

qui genuinum illius textum in unaquaque Fabula non clare distinct&que 
perspiciat. Aded ut quod de vetetibus Fabulis quidam regius interpres 
papyrorum Herculanensium dixcrat, de his novis apprime d'tci queat? 

Hunc Phaedri ignotum per pluritna secla libellum 

Sunt qui Augustaeo non tribu€re stylo. 
Audiit has Pytho voces, irrisit, et inquit: 

O utinam non vos falleret invidia ! 
Aurea namque mei rediissent saecula regni, 

Si quis nunc tanta conderet arte librum. * 

On a former occasion we mentioned the general conviction, 
that these new Fables were genuine. We have since that time 
examined them ; and we shall enable our readers to do the same, 
by printing them among our Adversaria, as we shall find room. 

We shall at present venture to suggest a few doubts of their 
authenticity, arising from internal evidence. Those, who have 
seen Mr. Robertson's interesting account of Literary Forgeries* 
which we hope to take an early opportunity of republishing, will 
not be surprised if some scepticism is exercised on the subject of 
these Fables. 

" Jucunditatis causam non repulit Venus/' Fable xt. «. 2. . 

As we believe a cretic to be very unusual in the real works of 
Phaedrus, we conclude that repulit is here meant for an anapest* 
But we recollect no authority to make the first syllable short. In 
reperit and retulit the first syllable is uniformly long in Phaedra*, 
who would not have contradicted the universal use and analogy of 
repulit, by making re short in it. 

" Hie e conspectu patris cum recesserat." Fab, xn. v. 2. 

Phaedrus, with the best Latin writers, never uses the indicative 
in the imperfect and pluperfect tenses after cum. We need only 
refer the critical reader to his Fables. 

" Male cessit, ait, artis quia sum nescius." Fab. xiv. *?. 4. 

According to our ideas of the versification of Phaedrus, it is not 
easy to scan this verse. It is true that the difficulty will be re- 
moved by reading inquit instead of ait. 

" Sensim impudica et uritur cupidine." Fab, xv. v. 19. 

Et should have been placed either the first or the second word in 
this clause. It will be difficult to find an instance of its position 
as the third word in Phaedrus, or in any good author. 

Perhaps a more minute examination would enable us to enlarge 
this list ; but we will leave the Fables to the judgment of our 
readers ; observing at the same time, that they contain many beau- 
ties of sentiment and of style, which are frequently not unworthy of 
•Phaedrus; and which, to use an expression employed on another 
occasion, si dies ne sontpas delta, meriteraient bun de Vetre. 




No. ii. [Vid. No. XXV. p. 33.] 

JUTSi probe scio nonnullos esse futuros, quibus minime sim per- 
suasurus conjecturas meas esse numeris omnibus absolutas ; nemi- 
nem tame'n spero adeo fore iniquum, qui neget meum inventum 
esse feliciter excogitatura et stabilitum firmiter. Ipse quideoi 
oullus dubito, quin Bentleio, si superstes esset, haec metrica ratio 
placuisset unice. Ille enim non amplius haesisset de vera lectione 
id Nub. 705. quam metri lux nunc tandem manifestam reddit. 
Verum enimvero non illi tantum loco, sed et aliis multo magis tene- 
brosis, $»$ avetonorov affulsit e metro, quod ipse primus restituisse 
dicar carminibus Poetae inter optimos Coinicos babendi, et eo 
nomine curis hominum dbctiorum non indigni, Pergam igitur in 
opere, quod suscepi, perficiendo, et duas fabulas percurram ; quas 
Viris metri peritissimis molestias diu multas fecerunt, Nubes 
nempe et Aves. In ilia tamen, utpote saepius tractata et ab Her* 
manno ipso edita, leviores maculae inesse videbantur. Sed et 
graves quaedam restant, metri solius ope eluendas. In hac vera 
plurima sunt loca foede habita, quae nemo hue usque satiare potuit, 
et nemo in posterum tractare volet, nisi actum ut agat. Lege 
igitur in Av. 230. et sqq. 

"Orx r bu<rir6gov$ rib no rib x 

oryporoov yvotg Scot 6* vjjuov 

Ufxe<rfe $5A- xotol Krprov$ 20 

a pvpiot en) xi<r<rou xXoSokt- 

xgtiorgiyoov, 5 i vofiov xax%e*i, 

(r*eg[Jio\6yoov t& re holt opv| 9 

Tt yivea T«p£- rot. re xorivirg- 

v *er6p.evoi, *y*» Ta re xofiotpifay 25 

ft,x\&<xxr)V J- olvuo'otre ireTopeva. 

ivret yripvv, 1 xpbg epolv ao/Sav, 

Scot T €V a- TglOTol TOjSplf, 

Xoxi &<x(j,a. Scot r* e\eiov$ wag av- 

/SooAoy a/u,$) tittv- Xobvotg ofycr of^ovg r 30 

fil^etf cJSs \etrrbv e^xl^otg xaiFTeQ*, Zcot r 

ifivfxeXfi 1 5 etftpocovg yi}£ rorovg 

rot $»va, *%srg Xsifuova. re Xipioevr- 

tio rib rib ot Motgoti6wo$) irreponoixiXoq r 

NO. XXVI. a. Jl. VOI.. 3SQ.. •*• ^ 

370 De Carminibus 

a.Trayag f $5 tjxei yap rig tyifivg rrgicrfivg 

arrayag, xaivbg yvui^v, xaivwv 8* 

e»v t sw) irovriov oTfyta 6a\aor<TYig epycov ^f/eipt^g* 

$v\u peP d\xvove<r<n irorarai, aXX* W eg Xoyovg anavroi 45 

fovp' Ire 7revo~6[i.evoi ra veeorega f tieupo tievgo tievpo ievpo 

iravra yap hiafa $u\* digoltypev ropororlyf; xixxafiau 

o\wwv rwv SouAi^oSe/pcov 41 rogoroXiyf xixxajSati. 

V. 1. MS. Rav. otroi r : at o» est prava emendatio super kypwi 
scripta : voluit Hbrarius or : ut corrigeret aypabv in aygoraw : simi- 
liter apud Hesych. pro 'Aygorou legitur 'Aygouou. In voce ctyporw 
spectat Aristophanes ad illam populi Atheniensis partem, qua? no- 
minatur rewfiopoi plerumque et nonnunquam *Aygorat vel ^ygoiw- 
Toti, ut ex Hesychio patet. 'AygoiooTat, aypolxox xa) yens 'Atypprn? 
yv tie reov yeeogycov ol aVTi&isoTeAAovro wgbc tovg ewrargfoag xal rglrov rJ 
reov Sijfuougyaiv. V. 15. Vulgo rftopeva. (poova. At vfifaevog est • 
upeo-xo^evog : at sententia postulat 6 aperxoov, i. e. ^uftsX^. Cf. in£ 
659. vfivpLeXYi — avfiovu. Error ortus est e compendio : et to. latet in 
vol. V. 21. Ex h. 1. citat H. Stephanus xAa$ecn. At xXaboig tuetur 
satis Euripid. in Phoen. 1527- et sane for mas insolentes Comicus 
minime sectatur, nisi iudendi causa : bine scripsit in Lys. 633. 
Ka) <popYj(roo to £/$o$* to Xoiirov ev fivpTov xXai), dum in animo habuit 
Scolion illud apud A then. xv. p. 095. *Ev avgVou xXaSt to £/$o$ 
fopipa). V. 22. Pro %ye\ reposui xaxyset, 1. e. xarayeei : quod 
verbum est in hac re solenne. Vid. Sapphus Fragm. lv. quod 
longe aliter quam edidit Blomfieldus in M usaeo Critico, T. 1. p. 
24. sic legi debet IlTegvycov vito xaxyeei Xlyup 9 ayerag aoitev 'Chrirehf 
Qkoyequv xaiyT eifi wuTraKpv xar aiyXav* 1 bi vulgatur e Demetrio 
de Elocut.s. 142. p. 6l. nrepvyoov $ fatoxaxyeti Xiyvpav aoitiavfn 
icot av <f>\6yiov xotdeTctv htntTapevov xaravtielri. AtJDemetrii codex, 
teste Galeo, en) kuttclXqv pro eiuitTapevov : quod parum distat a 
conjectura (mo neraXoig, quam fecit Jacobs, ad Meleagri Epigr. cxi. 
qui tamen melius reposuisset TreraAcov vwo vice wrepvycev xmo, oppor- 
tune advocatis verbis Clementis Alex. Cohort, p. 2. Spa. xavpucrog, 
oiryvlxa o\ Terriyeg wro roig neTakoig y$ov ava ra Spy 6eg6[uevoi r^kieo ; licet 
irreguycov aliquatenus tueatur Hesiodus in *Eqy. 581. ayera rimfe 
Jdevtyicp eQetyfisvog Xiyvgyv xareyevev aoiSijv UuXVov wrb irregvytov tiptof 
xapLOTQihos wpYj : ab eodem tamen hausi a^erag, quod nomen fuit 
cicadae, de qua - Demetrius loquitur : necnon Aristophanes in Av. 
1095. 'Hvlx' av 6 decneo-iog o£u peXog ay^erag iakrmn fieoyi(i{}p$vol$ 
ijXiofxocvrjg floa : et weTaXaov vno confirm ari possunt ab Homeridfe 
Hymn, xvi — xix. ed. Hermann. *Ogvig rp eaqog iroXvavieog ev vera- 
Xokti Bprpov efl-JTTgo^eoucr aye\ fieXiyrjpvv aofiav, et, citante RuhnkeniO 
in Epist. Crit. p. 67. Pamphilus Epigr. i. p. 258=190. 'x* *? 01 * 1 * 
eQeZofAevog TteTakowiv -= — ayhra TeTTi% : cui simile est illud Aristo- 
phan'is in Kan. 695. **\ fiapfiapov ffoftsv^ViraXov — xttepufa. Haud 

Aristophanis Comment arius. 

37 i 

scio tamen annon praestet, tarn in Hesiodeo loco quam Sapphico 
mregvywv ano propter Phaeni Epigr.'i. p. 258=190. XiyvgoLv Zx* 
fjLova-av Iviijv 'Axpig uiro wregiywv. Verum utcunque de ilia conjec- 
ture statuas, noli dubitare de en) irarraXov. Etenim w&TTctkog fuit 
clavus iigneus, de quo quid vis pendebatur : hie dicitur pertica, cui 
avis insidebat. Neque minus veram esse scripturam xaflyJTai — xaT 
oLiyKcvf patet e locis similibus jam allegatis, quibus non habeo quod 
addam praeter verba Meleagri "Axgct 8* kQetypevog irsT&kwv et, a 
Jacobsio citata, Schol. ad Theocrit. Idyll, vii. 138. aW<x\iwveg Ter- 
nyeg XotXayevvreg. V. 29. 'Ekelctg exponitur per palu dosas : ipse 
reposui e\eioug : etenim teste Hesychio 'EXetbg fuit animal <rxcoAi)- 
xoefieg ti. V. 33. Vulgo rov spozyroL. At rectius dicitur campus 
\ipong quam egoug : etenim Xigiov teste Hesychio fuit ttoHov uvQog. 
V. 41. Vice ruvaohlgwv bene reposuit Bentleius Souhiyofaigwv ex 

305, 6. Distichon Iamb. Dim. Acat. 


311,2. <TTp. 315,6. OLVTKTTf. 

ri$ Ag sfjJ o§ ex&\eo~6 ; rivot Koyov ipa wore 

rivet ronov apot wots viper oh ; irpbg spe ye $i\ov tywv itupu ; 

Inter haec vulgantur wov fjJ ap og et mox ago. ve^trai : at irore 
agnoscunt Membr. et Rav. dein itpig y t^s <p(\ov tywv, at notpei addit 
Kav. quocum consentit Suidas in IIag*i, ubi tamen exstat $i\ y et y 



» N » \ 

%w iW 


vpotedofteir , avivioL r hrafiou,sr 

og yap $*Aaj wv 

ififopotf opoia. r * 

ivefJLero irehot irap' yj(uv 9 5 

xapiflri fih ievpoug kpy^aloug, 

xotpifivi ©* ogxovg SpviOwv. 

1$ 8e SoXov sxaAgcre wapefiuXiv r 
iitff KapoL yevog olvo<tiov, onep 9 e£- 
ir kyivtj) W spot 1 


etfety eyn6* lirifege woXefuov 

opfxoiv Qovtocv 

wrepvyi re irug rig 15 

iirifiotX* irepi re xvxXwarou 

%ug' be i rwo oifxoo^siv otfiq>w 

xu) Sovvai f>vy%u <popfixv. 

ovre yoip opog rxiegbv ovre viQog 
ouQeoiov ovre irofabv irikuyig 20 
6CTTIV, o, ri Celeron 
rwo* ocirofvyovre y Ipe, 

Hos omnes versus antistrophicos esse voluerunt Bentleius et 
Brunckius ad mentem Scholiasts? : verum ad illam normam redigi 
nequeunt, quos ipse nominibus ftf<ro>8o0 et ewafiou insignivi : ubi y , 
quod exstat ante IrpiQvj, posui ante epe final em : inter cetera dedi 
in V. 2. wv pro qy et mox opoia vice vjfuv, quod repetitum plane 
abundat, et in 15. nag ng et iterum mag vice fl-avra et wc. De *ra$ 
cum imperativo, cf. infr. 1166, 8. Ran. 372. 1125. Pac. 300. 457. 


De Varminibus 

400 et sqq. 

XO. "Avuy \g rafyv waXiv Ig 


xot) rbv ivjjiov x&riiov xvtyag 
TrotpoL r^v opyyv, axrireg ottAi'ttjs. 
x&voLTrjiifjiiict touot&s, rtveg irore 
irodev fjttoAov 5 

liii rlv ewl- 

voiav t' "Enotyy <ri to* xaXou* 
Eil. xaKelg &e too xXu«v SsAcov ; 
XO. ring wofl' o78e x<x) wo'flev ; 
£17. £sva> coffig k$ c £AA*8of 10 
«X"0. TtJppj 5s fl-o/a xoj&»£- <rrp> 
e* ttot' auTaS irpo£ opv- 
Atxg sXisiv ; £17. 2pa>£ 
filou $iot(TY)g re xa) 
tow crwvoixeTv ye <roi 


xa) irweivau to Trav. 

« eTTW&o'f. 

.XO. t/ 9>j j ; Keyov<riv oT&e Sij T*va$ 

\6youg; £17. £irnrrct xu) tig* 

XO. epei rl xe'p&o* M£? ££iov 

jXOVlfc, ^ J9 

trrcp ireTTQiQ' Iftol £ uiwv xparelv otv $ 
rov fytpov r\ (plXounv c6<f>e\eiv t\ 
?^6iv ; £17. peyav tiv* SX0OV d5t' 

ov oSts ttkttSv cog 
<ra rcturu TravroL, xot) 
to T»j&ff, xa) to xeice, xai 25 

to Sevgo, wgo<r|3i/3« \eycov. 
XO. trorega puivofievog ; 
£17. a<parov cog ^p6vi\M^ 
XO. evi cropo'v ti $flev/ ; 
£17. TTuxvoVaTov x/va$o$ 30 

croQurpa. rg/jx/xa fratraXmu 
oXor XO. Xeyetv xetevi viv Aoyor 
xAJcov yap, coy Aeytij jtoi, 
Xoyoov uve7TTegcDfj,ou. 

. V. 4. Vulgo xal iroiev. At in formulas ejusmodi xai omitti po- 
test. Cf. Horn. Od. y4. 160. Tfc, iroSsv elg cctipmv ; tto'Si toi *oAi$; 
Est tamen ubi copula servatur. Cf. Philoct. 56. rig re xot) xittv 
irigei. Unde corrigas Sophoclis fragmentum in 'AXyrri legendo 
Hfoouve rig r el xai woiev : e contra Euripidi eximenda est copula 
quam Valckenaer ad Phcen. 175. intulit tfelen. 86. *AroLg rig il; 
» 9ro4fv ; tivo$ t ; au&av <re xgy, ubi vulgatur rlvog eZpLvtiav : at scrjpsit 
Tragicus 'Arag, o<rrig el, Tro'flev, rlv IfauSav ^X^* ^* ^. Ita Rat. 
pro opvig* V. 14. Vulgo xot) <rov %vvoixetv re trot. At nemini pla- 
cere poteruntVow et <ro) sic repetita, neque articulus omissus. V. 
17. Vulgo Xeyovrt $e ty contra metrum et canona Elmsleii ad 
Ach. 178. in Auctario. V. 18. "Altera, xou itepoi, i. e. uvKFrorur*. 
Hinc intelligas Eurip. El. 1185. aXacrra xaHvega et Sophocl. Epi- 
gon. Fragm. 2. T /2 itoiv <ru ro>yJtpwTOL xoti ireooi : Quod ad atujt* 
xXvuv cf. iEschyl. Suppl. 285. V. 19- Vice bpoL reposui ipil: 
quod melius convenit cum wpo(r|8i(3a Aeycov, quarum vocum gl. est 
Keyei : quod vulgatur in v. 22. ante piyoiv. V. 22. Pro outs A**tov, 
quod vix stare potest una cum \eyow, dedi ovr owe xto'v : similis 
van lect. in Hipp. 875'. ubi monuit Valckenaer. phrasin ouVe Aixtov 
esse paulo rariorem. V. 24. Vulgo ravra yoip Sij wavTa. At Rav. 
omittit yoip 8i}« V. S2. E /xo» Asyeiv erui viv Aoyov. Redde wv 
t//o«; mox delevi cu post wv. 

Aristophanis Comment arius. 373 

451. et sqq. crrp, f „ . A ,. . ,. . , c , v 

figft . *** , r V H»c antistrophica mdicantur a bcnohis. 

039. et sqq. avrwp. y r 

628. et sqq. 

hcoLvyfooLS 8s to7<t* <ro7$ Aoyo*$' 6<r(ov$, 

hrQwel\ri<rct xou xaroopo<T\ ijy nr! fcou$ Tijj, £- 

(T(l VO.Q s fie (to) Qqovwy %vvcp$oi, 10 

Tiiifjuvog fjiYj roXvv 

QfJLoQpovotg \6y- 5 rov vpovov 

ov$ foxotioug isovg It* erxipr- 

£8<fA0O$ TpOt TupA Tg/\|/f*V. 

V. 4. Vulgo 9g/*gv^ et in 12 deest tov. 

676. et sqq. 

eo <pjAa>§s faQeg* cS<fSv\g 

£ou0f Qlkroef i$vv fybiyyw f/*oi fepotxr 9 * 7 

igyioov w&vtm, %uvvai*,e ockX 1 a> xaAA*/3oav xpixwv 

r&v Ijxwv 5/^wttv, jj-uvTgo^' a- pjuAov, <pflsypx<nv ijpivolg 

1)801 ijAfc$ 5 otp%ov to5v avflMraurnjcaTv. 

V. 1. Ex <S <f>fXij w £<w0>j c5 erui c3 p»A«>8e £ovda. Exstat 0jA^&o£ 
in Ran. 240. Vesp. 270. V. 10. Vulgo av**ai<rTm. 

iRn ~* J?« » l' c I ta exstant in Kust. 
709* et sqq. avnoTp. 3 

851. et sqq. <rrf. 895. et sqq. avrurrp. 

hfioppoiob avviekoD' eorcti ivog <roi y uvr otpetg* 

cvp7rotp*ive(Tctg fycx) hi /xe, favrepov fieXog, 

irpw<$ioL \tXyaLkaL xepvlfii rt teo- 

tFS[wa 7rgo<nhxi fleo7o~»y, osjZeg Jhrog fioav, xaXsiv is 

&[ta 11 Kpicrm %apiTO$ ovvexa poLxaqas- hot nva povov- elwep 4- 

irpifictTov t« dueiv 6 xavov tfyr Styor 6 

, Ira) Tto» ti Ilvttdis fioi 6eco' ret yog naqivrot. tvpw' puSey aAAo, 


rwaSeVco Se Xctlpig aSSav. ysvewv lor* xat xipaTct. 

H?ec antistrophica detexerunt Bentleius et Hotibius, quorum 
uteroue delet rep ante fley et j post ysytwy : hie quoque voluit sfvexp 
pro eyex# : ipsereposui Atticum ouwxa : et mox rtinserui post ^ep- 
y/)3i et delevi Snoy gl. vocis flgocrejSgj : et ftro$ /3oav erui ex «rt |3o^y. 
Verum haec sunt levia : raajoris est momenti emendatio versus 
Antistrophici eh' owii$ afirf apt* fro* : ubi quoad nietrum, ipet satis 
bene scripserunt Bentl. et Hotib. verum ipse sensum nullum 
video : dedi igitur forai buog <roi y olvt 1 tySi$. Etenim diras effude- 
rat Peisthetaerus paulo ante Ilotv- kg xipaxag ; (sic enim distingue, 
necnon in Ach. 864.) et sane illud ivog bene convenit cum prajce- 
denti Tovroy) iv<roo. 

374 De Carminibus 

864. et sqq. Ilaec omnia sunt a(j.erpoi, utpote scripta ad imi- 
tandam dictionem prosaicam Sacerdotis vota fundentis. Aliud 
similis rei exemplum exstat in Thesm. 297. et sqq. 

904. et sqq. 

NeQeXoxoxx- *\ Hi centones ex ore Poet® 

vyiotv tuv N f sunt e Lyricis com posit i ; quo- 

svdotlfLovot xAjJtrov oo Mow- C rum fragmenta tempore alio 

a rsocig vpvoov ev wlaig* J probe constituam. 

908. et sqq. <nrp. 912. kwurtf. 

170. "Hxoo fjt,s\iyXm<r<raov eirioov 1 270. ovx* ctWoi ir&mg io-juev oi 

ie)g ctoi- } 8i8a<rxaAo* 

8av ispawoov Mov&ioov QegairovTeg MovcaaDV 

OT r Ipo$ } xoLToLTbv r, OiJLYipov. .. OTgypo) xoltol rov "Opypov. 

Vulgo hie oTgypbg et mox oTgygoi. At nullus inest jocus voei sic 
iterate. Reposui igitur 3 r *Ipo$ ' etenim Irus apud Homerum 
fuit paupertate insignis, sicut Poeta apud Comicum : cf. 934* 
et 955. 

924 ; 

ctWoi ti$ rjxei Mov&uoov $an$, c3v o~v y tiriiW^t 

olaiTBp Ithtcov apapvyot tzwiv, bog efi)v 9 

m irareg o, t* trep 

xtI<ttop A*tv- rea xe$i\qt Ajjjf 

ag> faflecov leg- 5 xgoQpoov bopev Jxtjj. 10 

V. 1. Vulgo toxeioty at postulatur verbum : dedi %xe$ : saepe re- 
peritur rjxei QotTtg vel simile quid. Cf. Pac. 114. farig — yjxu. 
Soph. Aj. 998. $&&g~ 8*)jA0s. Prom. 684. $&£ig fabe. Helen. 
%9Q. eqx ST0Li fi*fa- Vid. et Classical Journal, No. xv. p. 146. 
V. 9. E iityg, quod fuit gl., erui Doricum \yg.' V. 10. E 8o/x» 
l/xiv ts)v effeci lopev Txtij. Hesych. "Ixririg — mao^og — of 8e **Tijf — 
Certe hfuv abundat repefitum neque Txnj^ male convenit cum mea 
conjectura 6 *Ipog. 

936. et sqq. 

riV e[Moi y ovx aexow- -s V. 1. Vulgo ride p,lv : contra 

a $l\ct Mov<rct to Imp- J metrum : et mox tu 8t reef, $g»l 

ov 8e£eT«r f [lids' 77iv8 — hr. Ipse dedi 8* b 

tv b* ev rea /ts£ — r/fct. collato Soph, in Trip- 

fgev) 77*v8ag«- \tolemo Big b" ev Qpevbg SfArfturi 

ov hrog t/J«. J Tohg epobg Xoyovg, 

941. et sqq. 

, Nofj,txfo(r<Ti yotp ev Sxvioug uXarcu XTpariwy, 
og vQavroSovYiTov ovbev e<r6og iriitoiTou ; 
axksYjS 8' e/3a nroXabog avev 

Aristophanis Comment arius. 375 

V. 1 . Vulgo Srpiroov. At in voce StpztIcqv allusio fit ad Xrga- 
Tiova, sicut in Vesp. 6 18. V. 2. Vulgo e<riog ou et in V. 3. <nto\oig 
avev. At syntaxin expedite nequeo ; quae nunc ita se habet avtu 
<riroXa$og yiT&vig re : saepe enim praepositio simplex cum duplici 
nomine jungitur, copula interposita. Vid. Blomfield. ad S. C. 
Th. 1034. Mox pro £uve$ o, r* dedi of (sibi) £uvi$ o. 

950. et sqq. 

xA)j<rov c3 viQifioXa 

Xpwttgove nth* woX- 

yav Tpopsgoiv 6<rmpa r 

xot) xpvegdv rjhvQov. 

V. 4. Vulgo deest xotl. 

1058. et sqq. <rrp. J j notantur . Kugt 
1088. et sqq. avriOTjp. ) 

1 188. et sqq. 

xftefLog alperon ov •/ *Egefiog faexno, 

voks^o; ou Qurhg p.i\ ere fiscov tij Aafl- 

irgl$ t' 6fA8 xai ieoug" $ wegoov Totvrrf 8 

aAA& $uAarr* waj 4 aS^eT 8e waj 

aega wepmfsKov, xvxhw axonwv, 

V. 3. Vulgo abest r : id reposui, nee male ; si fides sit locis 
Elmsleo citatis ad Heracl. 622. 

1262. et sqq. 

oc7roxsxXr}xa.fxsv Aioywug 6eou$ pjx/n r^v sfxty 
Biewregav m\w, furfie riv Ugotvrov y* avoi yaireiov 

$Tl TY," 

8f jSporov 

9ffOia*i we/xw- 

g*y av xa9rvov. 
V. 1 . Seovg est monosyllabon : et in antithetico syllable Upoiv — 
resolvuntur. Mox vulgo ye tyjv : at y in v. 2. trajeci : ubi et 
y&v&ov dedi pro 8a7rs&>v : vid. Blomfield. ad Prom. 854. Hos duo 
cantus pro antistropbicis habuerunt Bentleius et Hotibius, sed in* 

1313. et sqq. <rrp. > Hos versus disposuerunt Bentleius etPor- 
1325. et sqq. avno-rp. J sonus ad Hec. H69. 

1337. et sqq. 

yevoipoiv oterog v^mera? "J V. 1. Vulgata cog £v displicuit Elmsleio 
woTotielYjV wrep irgvyerov fad Soph. Aj. 1217. in Musaeo Criticd, 
olSjxa A/j(ivi}£, f T. ii. p. 484. et sane tag uv fuit prava 

x<x) 7r\ax auotg. J lectio superscripta voci yXavxag : unde 

erui xai ttXox' ouag. De ig et xal vide Schaefer. Meletem. Crit. p. 
73. et Markl. ad Iph. A. 173. de irAaY aiag. vid. Beck. Index 
Euripid. v. wAa£. 

376 JDe Carminibus 

1372. et sqq. 

kvarer a\La\ 'yd xpb$ *OAu|xirov impvyervi xotyatg 
WT&(utvo$ 9 IShv 8* ciKX&t W aKXav enicov eXawoav. 
II EI. rl touto icpaypa Qoprixov itireu irre gw ; 

rl Ssupo irfoa <rv xvWov ocva xoiXov xvxXelf ; 
KI. opvi$ aQoficQ <ppev) (roofxu re yewav r 

evwriai Xoj Xiyv$oovo$ av$ov$. 
Ita totum locum legere malini : vulgatur in v. 1 . avawrrrojuuu tij 
— 7T8T0jxai 8* : et sic legisse videtur Hephaestion p. 30 — 53. at c 
Scholiis patet Tribachyn fuisse in prima sede versus hujus Ana- 
creontei : etenim ibi scriptum fuit, ut opinor, Aia tov egeor'' ou yotq 
spot xaX\o<Tvvfi<r avyfiav : collate* Lysistr. 668. Nvv hlvvv avyfirp** 
itakw xavairre paxrou iroiv to (r&fiet : mutavi igitur jrsrojxai in irrap,evo$ : 
dein ne abundaret TreTO/xa*, reposui rerapai. Similiter aliquis di- 
citur relveiv wpo $ nva rowov : vid. Lexica. V. 2, Vulgo hie fj^eXeccv : 
et mox o-cfytar* yeveav tyenM : ubi Schol. pro var. lect. prsebet 
eneoov. recte : igitur e jxeXewv erui eXauvcov : etenim olov IXduveiv est 
proba locutio, necnon odov hireoov comparari potest cum 6lov Xoy'uav 
in Eq. 1015. et ofytov Ittsojv in Pindar. Ol. viii. 92. V. 3. Vulgata 
Tout) to 7rpay^a fopriov vix intelligere uequeo. Reposui Tl tooto 
irg&ypoi foortxov : etenim quaerit Peisthetaerus, quis haee res ludicra 
vel portanda (nam Qogrixbg est vox sensu duplici), cui opus sit alia : 
mox Cinesiam visum ipse primus salutat (ao-7ra?o'jxe<rfla) — et scisci- 
tatur cur per coelum tendat iter : sic enim lego xoiXov vice xuxkov. 
Mox in v. 6. pro <rwft*Ti yeveav, sive, quod exhibent MSS. 2. re 
veav dedi o-cofta re yevvav et e ysvecioti erui 0' evvv<r6ou : etenim (raofJM 
evvva-iou dicitur quis, ut yr\v vel ydo'va e7rie<r(roL<r6ai topud Xenophon- 
tem. vid. Hemsterhus. ad Hesych. v. 'ETnecnracrfiai yijv. et quae dic- 
turus sum ad Tro. 1149- denique Xa> hie ut in 930. dedi pro gl. 

1392. et sqq. 

avavra yap -\ Hsec sunt mire turbata et interpolata : 

SleifAi <ro\ I etenim aepa est e var. lect. pro al&epa — : 

eiSsoXa irereivwv let oiowwy gl. e ntereww necnon ravaoMp**, 

raiiv SouXi^oSe/peov, 1 ut in v. supr. 254. pro owX^oSsipa*' : 

9ro'o" ulSeg-aXi-tigofiov 5 /mox aXotipopov Scholia intelligere ne- 

aXwfxsvog a\C avepL- I queunt : neque ipse video, quid hie faciat 

wv wvoiou<r- JcooV. unde erui mo$ : xde phrasi /SJjvai 

iy /So/ijv. J n&la vid. Porson. ad Orest. 1427. 

1393. et sqq. 

Tort jxev vor/iay vrtlytnv *\ 

vpo$ 68iv, rore 8* av flops* f V. 3. IltXafy* et mox ripwo 

(Ttof^a veKwv aXl(t,tvw ( contra metrum. 

alSepos auAaxa rt\uh. J 

Aristophanis Commentarius. 377 

1410, 1. 

$pvite$ tm$ eft wrepo7$ 7 Vulgo oTS* ouSey Scorns WTfgOTroixiAov, 
ouSev e%ovTfj sTxeAov 3 quod nequeo intelligere. 


Tuvvchrrspt iroixiAa ^sAifoi 
TOMxrlTrrepe iroixiAa fweA' a50i$, 

ljf o ' «. s ^' T 1 "^" J Ita exstant in Kust. 
1482. et sqq. avriarg. ) 

1553. et sqq. <rrp. 1694. et sqq. avTiorp. Id monuit Bentl. et 
Hermann, de Metris p. 112. 

l66l. et sqq. Hi versus sunt Iambi, sic legendi, 
Noioo $s jx^ oy^iorivSov, ovtojv yyij<r/av 
I7at§a>y, lav 8s jx^ cotri irai$S£ yvfj<rtot 
To~i$ eyyvraro) yevovg ftereivai ^prjjxaTcey. 

Vulgo slvai ay^icrreiav. qua? gl. est manifesta. Veram scripturam 
servavit Hesych. emendatus a Valck. ad Ammon. p. 9* sic 'Ayy^a- 

tivSov — irotpa, Sokam. 'Ayyi eoriijv opvucav, lyyi>$ toov /3a>jxa>y. 

1720. et sqq. <rrp. avrwrq. 

avaye 8/s^s xapotye %ige^e t% aSgaj tou xaAAouj 

vepHriTsvfai y&fMV %yv[\ut<; 

rov fxixot^a. pAxapi <ruv tu%« rpl$ (L&Kapet rjjfc Tjf iroAfit 

Ita debui emendare ad Troad. 318. Pessime «v8pa infersit 

iio-r" a ^" J Ito distinguuntur in Kust. 

1737. dt sqq. avTiorp. y 6 

1748. et sqq. 

co J»o$ ajxjSgoToy ey%0£ wjpQopWj 

£ Y&WUU fictpV- 

ot ff ifMt ppov6\ 5 

cd$ 'Evoor lyb- 

eov ha roi o*ff Tcfc wivrot xgarij- 

<rccg TTxqzbpM ficuriteiav i%8i 

dio$ 9 'TfAr^y 

'Tiiivou' a>. 10 

V. 5. jSgovf i. e. fipovrou, eliso dipbtbongo. V. 6. 'EvoW^fay 
dedi ; cujus expositio est 6 ^Jo'va <re7e*. V. 7* Inserui to* : quod 
ssepe sic locum tenet inter pnepositionem et nomen. Cf. Vesp* 
781. 'Ava toi p,l mlteif et Eccl. 975. hot. roi <r\ *4vou( tyco, Hinc 
corrige Nub. 913. legendo Jt£ roi 0-' ouSil; ISeAe* poir£y. 

378 De Carminibus 

1755. et sqq. jrp. ) j ^^ B k 
) 759. et sqq. avnorg. ) 

1763. et sqq. 
aKotXaka) \rj ^ 

iij aiav ijv- \ jj av ^ £xaA**W : mox reduplicavi m. 

Diu me tenuit disputatio de Cantibus fabulas inter Comici reli- 
quias maxime prolixae : at brevi potest confici quicquid ad Nubes 
pertinet : etenim Antistrophica modo noo omnia ab aliis ante me 
'Sunt detecta. 

275. et sqq. arp. 7 j ^^ • Kugt 
298. et sqq. avriorp.} 

457. et sqq. 

toXjxov aXX* groijxov 1<rti $ dg <rv 

Taura jxaflcov wag' I- . 

[j,ov x\iog ovpav6~ 

firjxeg Iv fipo- 5 

TOICTIV g£ S*£ : 

211. tov navTx %poW jx«t Iftov — J£T. rl 7re«Vo/uwti y«g ; 

JSA. ?i)Ao>T0TaT0V /3/ov oLvtgdbrcov fo&geig. 

ST. old a ye towto tot otyo \C ; Xf2. ceorg <roD ttoXA- 

ov$ g7r* ra7<n Oupoug kti xuQri<r(l*i 10 

flov\ofj.evov$ ctyxxoivoovc/A koyovg xx) 

TtQuyiLOLT eg avriypa$dig 9 noteoov raXoLvroov 

afyot, <rjj Qpev) <rujx/3ovA- 

ev<ropevov$ erg pereXfav. 

V. 2. Vulgo abest <ru. V. 7. Vulgo t/ «f/. y. tJv *ra. ^g. ft* ip. 
voces transposui. V. 9. Vulgo toOV ag lyci, et mox awTs yg. At 
voces iniitiles metrum commonstrat. V. 11. Vulgo avaxowovotial 
rg xal 1$ Koyovg e\6elv TrpiypLurot xkvriyp — per& <rou. At vocem 
activam postulat lingua. Cf. I^ys. 1179* avaxoivaxrare. Med. 
685.811. Iph. A.-44. sed vide Pierson ad Mcer. p. 20. Mox 
hxdeiv trajecto, erui <re peTsXtieiv e jxrra <rov fxJgjv. Etenim omnis 
jocus inest verbo jxeTeAflgTv, ad te venturos esse vel te persectituros : 
quod sane faciunt Strepsiadis creditores ad fahulae finem. 

510. et sqq. <nrg. amorg. 

«AX' lii, xjxiQbptm\ reptf, eg jSaSu rolg veayrepoig 

owtKst TavTyg avtyiag, * yktxlag rijv ^ 6<riv otv- 

turv%ia..yevoiT iv Swig- too wp&yfiounv xpottemu, 

wkco, $rig npof}xu3V 4 xa) coQiolv hraunui. 8 

V* J. Vulgo yaJipm rijj avip — owV— taw — voces transposui et 

Aristophanis Commentarius. 379 

dedi futurum legitimum ^aip^croyn : quod exstat in Vesp. 186. 
Plut. 64. Eq. 235. Aliquatenus se tueri poterat % yu\om e Pac. 
153. x®? 81 X<*lpoM ib. 720. xctipcov fat&i ib. 730. Ifli ^a/gwv. Ran. 
1537. x«»g»v — xaipei. Ach. 1142. *Ire ivj ^otlpovreg et Vesp. 1009. 
7re x*lpovT6$ quae, magis ad rem apposita, citare debuit Monkius ad 
Hipp. 1438. qui tamen melius rem gessit ad Alcest. 282. collatis. 
Ale. 333. xjxlpovrts evQpalvourie et ibid. 447. %a/gou<ra oIxst«/oi$. 
Unde patet me temere Monkkim reprehendisse in Classical Journ. 
T. ix. p. 35. neque in Alcestide neque in Nubibus quidquam 
esse mutandum, nisi metro jubente. V. 3. Vulgo excidit av. V. 
7. Pro ^gwr/fera* reposui ^pofferai. Hesych. Xpoi^ofMVov, Aajt- 


c ' 4 ^** T T ^ # ? Ita exstant in Kust. 
595. et sqq. avriorg. ) 

700. et sqq. 

XO. Qgovrity ty xeii 

foa&pei, t(jottqv$ r$ 

ir&vrag, (reavrov 

(TTgofiei) irvMaxrcts' 

Tctybs $ Stolv i$ anogov TeVitf, far aAAo 5 

irrfiu v6v)jjia, (ppevog y' v*vo$ $ cariaTW 

y\vyt6ie<r[t,o$ ofj^arm* 
ST. araru) iolttoitolI 
2fl* t/ 9ra<rp£ei£ ; 

rt xafxvstg ; 10 

V. 2. Bene Prunckius Tginovg collato Plut. 306. sed male ex- 
pulit T6. Vulgo TTuvra rpfaov re cotvrov. At MSS, 2. (reavrov. 
V. 6. Abest y . V. 7. rAuxu9u/xo$ S^rvoj est res nulla : contra vero 
y\vxv$s<T(ji,o$ est qui dulci vinculo palpebras conjungit* 

804. et sqq. 

Slqu y aurSavei trKelarra if jjoac ayiff etvrly e£- 

»v jxdya^ 0ea>v a$ oo eroiftos ret ye navrct opotv, 

oo* ay xeA«/ij£' 

<ru ^ cev$po£ sx tou 

wsjrAijyjuivov xai $avege5$ 5 

emipfievou yvovg ctiro\cv\f- 

ei$, Zj t* irAgToTov Suvacrar $iAe*yag 

arooj Tap^a h^AA' efc gTggow^ TpwrccrJai. 

V. 6. Hunc locum a nemine intellectum, egregie possum emen- 
dare legendo yzvr oaro\ityei$. Priorem vocem exponit Hesych. per 
roi$ eoa$ toov IvSu/xaraw. Verum ibi exstat yel<rx$. At ye7<ra corri- 
gitur ex Etymol. v. rewfaoie$ qui Aristophaneni glossae auctorem 
appellat. Hie yei<rot vestem omnem significant. Etenim e Nub. 

380 De Carminibus, §c. 

856. patet Strepsiadem amictum amisisse. Neque id minim, 
Collato enim v. 179* conjici potest Socratem hie quoque suani 
furandi peritiam ostentasse ; dum Strepsiades e scena exibat. 
Redde igitur yfur ol^qX^si; vestem surripies. Nee bene owroA**p«£ 
e MSS. edidisse Brunckium nunc satis liquet. V, 8. Vulgo tot 

3ia)$ QiXsi yoLQ nag rot toj&D$' kregw$. At Suidas, indicates a Ben* 
eio, habet in $iAe7 yig iroog fiXel yip rot woXxk hip w$ : denique 

erui rkyoL el$ e rov/icus, metro et sensu jubentibus. 
940. et 8 qq. or». ? j ^ j R 
1024. et sqq. anm<rrp. J 
1154. et sqq. 

jSoacrojitai Taga rotv wripTOvov Aaprcov wpojSoAo^ oroAof 

fioav, lea xAaer' w ' fio\o<TTaToti o-coryp 8o'jxo*£, 

avrol re xol) ictpycMi xa\ toxqi t&- e^ipo7$ j3Xa|3ij, 10 

xcjqv Xuaravfag warpto- 

ouSsV yotg &v fie $Aaugoy sgya- a>v fieyocXoov xctxwv-, 

<rou<r$ err ov xa\e<rov rpiycav 

roiog I/xo) Tgl^erai 5 Iv&odtv cog $f£ f Z 

two* ev) itofMun neiig f rixvov, IfsAi' olxwv. 15 

afxtprjxei rij yAaSrnj aie <rou irarpog. 

V. 4. tta MSS. et Suid. ed. Med. male Br. ipy&reeir. V. 7. 
Abest tjj. V. 8. Pro h^bg reposui <rri/Ao$ collato lph, T. 57. Sr&> 
Ao* yag olxoov nottie$ eltrtv <xppeve$. Etenim hie Cowicus deridet 
Euripidea— cujus sunt w rUvov ?£eA0' oixcov iU jMtrepog in Hec. 169- 
lit monuit Schol. in MS. Cant, teste Porsono ad Hec. 1, c. ed. 
tertiae. V. 10. Rav. optime j3Xa/3ij. Vulgo omapig. 
1206. et sqq. 

c5 fu&xap SipetytaSss fyXwvrsg <r, / 

aprh$ ci$ o~o$bg %$v$, tjvtx 9 av vixcZg Aeycpy 

}£ olov tov vlbv rpeQeig, roig $(xag* aAA' eWiycov 

4>y}<tov<ti §yj pf ol (plXoi, 0*6 /SovAoftai wgar- 

% ol dfjiLOv 5 ov eamourou. 10 

V. 5. Vulgo fyfj^rcu : quae gl. est. Sic apud Homer. IX. B. 
198. dfoov avSga exponitur per Srjjtuynjv— caeterae mutationes sunt 
levissimae et fultae egregio Codice Rav. qui legit rpty ei$ et ilcayoov. 

1303. et sqq. orp. avrnrrp. 

clov rb trgaypMTcov hpMf ifXavgwv' 6 olftsi yag avrfo wrltf wpiptw, 

yoip &rf § 

ysgoDv iY «uptjfo)j t«A«i wot IfijTffi, ' 1 1 

otno<mQfi<rou, fiovXsrou etvou tov uliv Se/vov 01 

T«t yg^ftaJ' « 8ayf /(raro' yvifiu$ ivavriag ?Jyew 

xovft h(ri' ovoog 06 5 roi<nv faxalok? 

Tyftspov \r)if£Tcu Sxm v/xav to Tav, 

*poiy[jL, ToOroy woi^- ol<nr§p av fcuyytvy- 16 

^w r£v cotyvrriv, »v iravovpy- rou, xay Aeyij *ovrjp'' ur»$ 

E. H. Barken Epistoh, $c. $81 

Hotibius quoqiie haec antistropHica esse vidit : qui tatnen noti bene 

expulit hpa<rh); et in antithetico n&Kai : rectius otnisisset altefutn 

tiroog in v. 17. et mutasset kpoi<rtiei$ in evpriteif. 

, a . _ . ) Ita distinxit SchoU igitur vice 

1345. et sqq. <rrg. f x ~ . I(rrfriv j ' otl lege ^ . * e(n > 

1391. et sqq. «m<rrp. f ^^ ^.^ 

ocx&vipconov. Exstat eadem vox in Choeph. 599* et similis locutio 
*pud Hesych. 'Apstyctrov Xfya ex .SSschyli NioivKrxoig. In antistro 
phico lege tarn ob metrum quam sensum owe* aXA* hpefihtov. 

Etona dabam Kalend. Jan. A. S. MDCCCXVI. 

i I ■ 'hi hifattiTYi ,1 hi li i InTilil liil l ? 


E. H. Barkeri Epistola ad Th. Gaisfordium Gr. king. 

Profess. Reg. Oxon. 


Panyasis. Etym. M. p. 266, 15: Xpivovyoig SeTrai )J fiovXrf 
ivioc xx) V&O'i 

dripfo /3ouAsveiv, 7v' i%t x*\ toXAov aj&ejyov. 
€t TIxvi, si vitio caret, extrinsecus postulat rfgijTai, aut simile quid, 
aut fxci legendum : nisi forte aliquis existimet pro auctoris nomine 
•urrepsisse : ut legendum sit Ilavuowis* Sed lubricae istae conjec- 
ture. In e£i) quod sequitur, subaudiemus to wgicyf/we, s. to ixjSi)- 
W/ww, aut legemus tx&" Sylburgius. Gaisfordius p. 111. 
" menda, quae e scribendi compendiis male intellectis ortum 
habent, egregii codicis Dorvilliani, Etymologo M. detergens," 

" Litteris ev," inquit, " quibus supra h Ssoyovla significari manifes- 
tum est, saepissime utebantur librarii, siquando vel hix vel (vfcv 
exprimere volebant. Proinde istarum vocum constans in veterum 

scriptis confusio. Etyra. M. p. 266. 15* hi* xx) ntxvi. Ms. h 

xx\ *r*. Praeclare igitur Sylburgius, Ivtey xx) Ilxvvaung" Fallitur 

«bO» f»t, jl IH.VIMV iguiM *<^J »»#**■ KiuiJ| erncr #vt*t MMrvMvt^i a annul 

Gaisfordius, quod ad Ivix attinet ; nam Sylburgius nihil monuit de 
mutando to Ma in fvisv. Mirum est Gaisfordium inter Panya- 
sidis Fragmenta p. 469 — 72. vers urn ab Etym. M. 1. c. servatum 
non posuisse. Versus extat^p. Eustath. ad II. A. p. 127. 

" Stixrros rov Bfaov. Thoantem ilJum appellat ap. Apollod. 

388 E. H. Barkeri Epistola 

I* III. Panyasis, ex quo male ffowaurvw in CI. Alex. Admonkiooe 
ad Gentes fecerunt librarii." Munckerus ad Aatooioi Lib. Fab. 
nxiv. p. 222. ed. Verheyk. 

Sequens Panyasidis Fragraentum, a Gaisfordio pnetermissom, 
quod jam laudavi in Class. Journ. xxv. p. 170, tarn accurate legitur 
in Schol. ad Homer, ined. ap. Valcken., ut nunc demum video, quam 
corrupte in Etym. M. et Schol. Ven., quorum verba citavi. Etym. 
M. p. 196, 32. : £*Ao$ or» to5 /SojWfei, m$ xau 6ft; cart no 
•fevso^su, xm t IIa*6sun$ Se ra t&Icl /SduaAa Xsyst. Schol. Ven. 
ad 11. A. 59.1 : K*i 6 ffoaWi? $s ts xsSiA* /3ijAa Xpyei. HeSlat in 
Etym. M. corrupte legitur pro xSiXau Sed et /So/oX* et 0*Aa falsa* 
sunt lectiones. " Pars ultima Schelii ad II. A. 591. egregio sup- 
plemento ditari potest e Ms. El^rsi 0ijA*s are rtv fiaxt&Aaur «$ 
xju oSo$ *ro T9V Sis&svso^ar xoj 6 HaarjatTu 8s ra tsSiAa BUXa. Xey&. 
Ad oram libri Suidam citat Is. Vossius, qui passim rariora signis 
adjectis in codicis margine designavit. Legitur ap. Suidam, BioXtr 
v&Ajt, vKv&$uaTSL. necdum pceniteat Scholion legisse." Vakke- 
naerii Diss, de Sckoliis ad Homrmm ined. p. 122. Pro * &#- 
Sevsriau lege otei&hu, ut in Schol. Ven. et Etym. M. Zonaras p. 
589- BliXor tsSiAs, vmrifaamt : Tittmannus in Addendis p. 
cnxiii. * Sic etiam Suidas, Lex. Ms. Colbert. Cod. 2199- /&&« : 
Tide Cangium h. v." Voc. filaXsL, quod, ut videtur, usurpaverat 
Panyasis, pnetermittere non debuerant lexkographi H. Steph. et 
Schneiderus. Minim est Etymologi locum efiugisse Vakkenaehi 

Simomdis Fragm. Lxvii. p. 380. 

loot 8* w *Mfu7y twwtSbl h xV^&au 
tt Dedi vsrre&x*, pro xsm*mSe*\ postubnte metro. Sic Crato- 
Ms pro 4xxa2s*a babet o&x*. Xspmlf Vat. 9 Gaisfardws: " Nol- 
lem Lexkographi plane neglexisseiit alteram formam, AAm. 
Ammonius p. 121. Valck. Ifeferv ftfAa*»? «** ^mmm^ • -rim*{. 
Simoaides Ixt. (baa.) v. 3. sq. 

ut Teffsus scribendi videutur." SchaHterus ad Schol. Apolloo. R. 
iv.p. 314. 

Simomdis Fragui. wik p. 365. 


Wbn Neiu. 1L IT. Tzetze in 

E\. Schol. PuKfcui Neiu. 1L IT. TVetze in Lycophr. 219. Mi- 

1 Sumte oatd iu Fbi>tti lexico cceurrit ; Karris^.- Tncn^ t* -:*no As?«*u. 
CvdL IX hum £*>&****». % K^vtu. M . p. 493* -17. i****r3W : ven tectkft, qwr 
4uctbs*nMU* ( v tMuv<tuvretti ^cerucl e* ^fr^^^^uccorna^c Aifcotiiisad 
M^rch. v. v»r*vvr*^ *« S.hJ<u«wtv* iu Ciwi* ,\«wm m P&L p. lit., 
ttttttiu* ant* $e AtWtttmu^K cvintvis^. U-v Rb^our. in Bekkeri Auev-d. 

ad Th. Gaisfordium. 383 

ram est quantum in hoc fragmento erraverunt (erraverint) Brunck- 
ius et Jacobsius." Gaisfordius. M. Chr, Got. Mullerus ad Scho- 
lia Tzetzse. p. 490. vol. I. sic edidit: — 

" Mcui$o$ *Opelr)$ lA*xo/3Ae$apoio yevsflAov, 
Avtyi yoip KuAAijvi|$ ev oge<n iobv ri% 'JSp/xijv. 
u Pro his duobus verss./' addit Mullerus, " legunt Vitt. 3. Mm- 
mtof oQtlys kXMofiXsQagov xarot&oyov, ratf 'Eppjv. Thryllit. sic con* 

Mou6$o$ 'Opsins k\ixofi\e$aLpov xoltol Ae^«J, 
*H 8' Iv opecn KuAAijvijj Seov re% 'Egfteot, 
ut sint senarii iambici. Nee tamen hanc conjecturam sibi facere 
satis fatetur. ' Luxati sunt/ inquit Potterus, ' hi Simonidis ver- 
sus, et misere defprmati, tarn in Mss. quam impressis Codd., nee, 
ut verum fatear, placet mihi mea emendatio : 

MoLio&og 'Egfislrjs lA*xo/3Ae$ago*o yevtflAov, 
'H yoiq KvXkwy\$ ev opea<rt $obv rexev 'EpfMjV. ' 
Quam tamen aequum est, ut boni consulat candidus Lector, aut 
ipse meliorem et adcommodatiorem excogitet, quod faciendi ut 
aliquam ansam prabeam, aliorum Codd. lectiones apponam: 
Mcuabog ogeltjg kxixov j3\e<f>6(>ov x*raAAi)Aoy. Aunt) yaq xuAAqvi)? ev 
QQtai teov re % eppyv, Seld. Mou£tio$ dpeiys iA*xoj9As$agov xara\oyo$ 
T *X *$M v y impressi : Bar. et Graev. pro xaraXoyog habent xoltol- 
Aoyov. Mea quidem sententia, probabiliter sic hos versus correx- 
erunt Brunckius et Jacobsius : 

Mcu&tiog opeias eXixofiXefoigov 

xoltol Xoyoy awry yoip KuWyvris ev 

opeenn temv xrjguxa rexeV 

" Potterus hoc fragmentum in hexametros digessit, quod ut facere 
posset, plura mutare necesse habuit. Sed e Simonidis Canticis 
desumtum esse, non latuit F. Ursinum p. J 74. V. 2. xaTaAoyovet 
KvXqvris. V. 3. ri%, quod Br., metro postulante, in rixed' mutavit. 
Versus est dimeter iambicus acatalectus, qui anapaestum habet in 
secunda sede et tribrachyn in quarta, quales ap. Pindarum niulti." 
Jacobsius. Ad Simonidem, Lyrici nepotem, hie locus pertinet, etsi 
voc. yevea\oyo$ sit omissum, notante Mullero Ind. S crip tor um in 
Schohis ad Lycophr. 

Simonidis Fragm. cexxvi. p. 409« : a Schol. Venet. II. B. ft. 

vifiufjiog. ol di juifl' "Of/wjpov, xa) yjnpig rov v XeyoiMFtr xa) 'AvripM- 

%o$, 'Evetpa ol jj&u/xoj eXioov xa) ^ijxcoy/Si^* 

oxno; §i roi vrjBvpog Zmov i/mv, 
Exemplo caret Eustathius p. 163=123, 17." Gaisfordius. Auc- 
tor Diatribes de Antimacho, l (Class. Journ. vii. p. 235.) " For- 
tasse Efyev, ut versus initium sit." 

1 Doctissimum hujusce Diatribes auctorem preteriit insignia locus aq» 

584 E. H. Barken Epistola 


Simonides. Antiatticistes in Bekkeri Anecd. 6r. p. 105: 
KogSuAi)' rb tmtgfioi. S^oovl^g fovripw. Nusquam alibi chatnr 
Simonides 8euTgga>, nee vox xofivhq reperitur in ejus Fragments a 
Gaisfordio editis. Pro Stpoovifyg repone XtXipig. Xiyjavlh^g pro 
Sityvbg alibi occurrit. " Ursinus p. 185." ut scribit J. A. Fa- 
bricius in Notitia de Simonide (p. 355. Gaisf.), " ex Lucillo 
Tarrhaeo in 2&gkivtog yi\o»g etTheocriti Scholiaste in Idyll. I. 65. 
producit loca, in quibus citatur Simonides Libro secundo de Sieir 
lia, et Libro II. de Syracusis, sed is alius Simonides Platone 
junior fuit, ut probe notatum Vossio de Hist. Gr. I. 8." At recte 
subjungit Harlesius : — " Enimvero ego lubentius adoptarem emen- 
dationem Dorvillii in Siculis c. xiv. p. 246. sq. Is quidem in 
Theocriti Schol., pro Simonides substituendum putat 2i\y)*6g. 
Nam is, ait, ap. Suidam (unde igitur Lucillus quoque Tarrhaens 
mihi corrigendus videtur) in 2etp$avio$ yeXoo g (ex emend. Kusteri 
fide codd. Paris, et Photii in Lex. MS.) Iv t» fojrsgco tg5v irep\ 
2vpaxov<rag et in Photii Lex. iv reS A robv irep\ 2vpaxo6a , ag [Her- 
xnannus edidit, S&favog 8s iv ft rmv irep) 2ox6<r<rag.] et iv t» rplra 
ZixsXixuiv ap. Athen. xii. 1 1. p. 542. laudatur Silenus Calactmus, 
et ap« Stephanum iv UaAix^, 3*ai)V9£ iv too tievregop. Voc. Silenus 
ap. Suidam quoque in SifMovfoys abiit. Hactenus Dorvillius, in cujus 
sententiam transiit Burmanhus n. in Comment, ad Numism. Sic. 
p. 473." Sileni Res Romanes, a Dionysio Hal. et Livio xxvi. 
49-, Graca Historian Cicerone, et Historiarum primus a Diog. 
Laert. memorantur, notante Harlesio, ibid. Strabo in. p. £36. ed. 
Falc. de Gadibus loquens : 'Apreptioopog he amenrw toutco, xeti 
oLfjut nag' avrov wot telg outIolv, fivjyrSeig Ss xcu ri)g Stkotvou lofag rov 
<rvyypu<peoos, ov jutoi doxel ju.vtyii}£ afro. sih-sTv, co$ £v Ihdrvig wspi ravrot, 
xa) avrog xcti 2i\*v&$. Harlesio 1. c. reponendum videtur Jgifajvou, 
sed nil mutandum, contra codicum auctoritatem. Notandus est 
Harlesii error, a Gaisfordio silentio preterm issus : " Pars hujus 
operis {de Rebus Siculis) fuisse videtur opus de JEtna, cujus 
secundum librum commemorat Steph. Byz. in IfoAixij." Ste- 
phani verba sunt haec : n\r}<rlov le aui% Upbv /7aX<xduv, ot euri 8af- 
/xoveV TiV6£> ov$ A'urxyXog iv Alrvctig yevsaAoygi, Aibg xeti GaXtittg ry$ 
'HQulo-rou.Sttolvbg 8e iv ievrlgcn, Alrwig, ri)g '/IxsavoO xa) 'HQairrov, 
xAijdijva* le ctvrov; TlctKixovg, hoi rb onrotiuvovrag iraAiy ug av&pobirwf 
ixea-fai. Sed ante verba, 2i\Y}vog &g, comma pro periodo substi- 

Eusebium Praep. Evang. x. p. 467. ed. Paris. c o ft 'Am'/ucax*? T ^ , <V**g*' 

xXmttwt, <jrapa£tog0or°'Oju,*pv y<*£ niravro^* 

'Av*t(u*x°ff **y f «* 

"iJiw $', oS xaprto-rog Ivty^OoyiM nv avtyait. 
Kal Awtfypwv titaivti irp [Atra9t<riy, wj &S avrnc ItrrnptyfAtrn rov mlyy. 

Obiter moneo voce *»f»tffhvt augeri posse H. Steph. Thes. et Schneideri 
Lex. Habet tamen Schneiderus voce, ira^iito^wfxa, e Porphyrio Quaest. Horn. 
et irag«3i6p9u>o-ig e PJut. vii. p. 118., qu» notHL^ao«aXYL.^.TV«». 

ad Th. Gaisfordium. 385 

tuendum est. Recte L. Holstenius : — " Labuntur vv. dd., 
qui, indue ti prava loci hujus distinctione, Silenum duos plu- 
resque Jibros de iEtna scripsisse putant; sunt enim hi Sicu- 
larum Rerum libri quorum, meminit Athenaeus xii. p. 542., 
Xi\r}vb$ 8* 6 KaXotTictvog (KaXaxrlvog) iv Tflrw XixsXtxcov, x. t. A.'! 
Notandus est quoque Miilieri error, qui, in Indice Scriptorum a 
Tzetza ad Lycophr. citatorum Vol. in. p. 159, sic scribit : — - 
" XeiXyvbg (1. ^iXijvoj,) o Xlog, iv'lsurigiv jxuJixwv l<rropi6ov (8uo ii 
ysygape jSijSA'/a) Anticleam esse matrem Ulyssis tradit, 786, 16. 
et 2 C 2. Photius, Lex. MS., qui eum nominal -SeAivov, laudat ad 
Xotpdoivng [XapZiviog] yeXcog p. 371. iv ft tm irep) Xvgooii<r<rag.* 9 
Xskivog in Photio, hbrarii error est, pro X^vog y ut patet e Suida, 
fibi de eadem re ad voce. Xaploiviog ysXcog legitur, Xityvbg 8e iv tco 
ievrepep rwv frsqi XvpaxQvcroig. Suspicor, in Photio, pro sv tf tcov 
7reg) 2vgaxo6<rotc, e Suidae loco, legendum esse iv too hvrsgoo rm 
%zp\ 2. Mendum e compendio senbendi ortum habuit. Ceterum 
cpnfundit Muilerus* Silenum Chium (de quo Tzetzes, Eudocia p, 
812, 394. et Eustath. ad. Od. p. 1871. loquuntur, et qui, notante 
Harlesio, ad poetas Cyclicos pertinuisse videtur,) cum Sileno Ca- 
lactino s. Siculo Historico, quern laudant Suidas et Photius. 
In nota ad Tzetza? locum, idem vir doctus Silenum grammaticum, 
de quo Athenaeus Lib. xi. p. 783. b. loquitur, cum eodem Sileno 
Chio confundit. Sed-num Gtossa, quas citat Athenaeus, xi. et xiv. 
Schol. Apollon. R, i. 1299. et Eustath. ad Od. 1571,5., atque 
Historic Fabu/osa ap. Tzetzam 1. c. Silenum historicum habuerint 
auctorem, dubitat Vossius de Hist. Gr. m. 413., idque optimo 
jure, ut retur Harlesius. 

Ut voc. Xttyvbg ap. Theocr. Schol. i. 65., Lucillum Tarrhaeum, 
et Suidam v. Xaplaviog ysXoog, in voc. Xtiwovifyg abiit, sic ap. Suid^ 
v. 2ap$. yeA., pro Xityvbg &g iv too tevrepep roov *ep) XvqoLxovvMg, 
omnes editt. ante Kusterum, qui e Codd. Paris, recte X^vbg 
reposuit, ha bent XtpavtSvig. 

Scribitur ap. Tzetzam Xe^vbg 6 Xiog, ut et ap. Schol. MS. 
ApoJlon. R. i. 1299- nuper a Schaefero edit., XeiXyvbg iv yAwcro-ouf, 
ubi Scrolia edita habent Xityvog. t 

Nunc vero paucis ostendemus, (id quod nemini adhuc observar 
turn est) nom. XtfMovtSr^g pro nom. Xetevxog in Scholia Apollon. 
R. et MS. et edita irrepsisse. " Quod Scholiastes Apollonii R. 
I. 763. Tyjv yotg'Ico\xov Mivvau cpxovv, cog <$vi<ri Xipoovlfyg iv XvppU- 
roig, aut subiiuelligeudum fuerit juiAecn, aut alius fuerit Simonides 
illorum orujXft/xTwv scriptor, siquidem ejusmodi exstiterunt, qualia 
cvfjLf/.ixra Philemonis, Callistrati, etc., de quibus Woweramifl 
Polymath, c. 13." J. A. Fabricius in Notitia de Simonide a 
Gaisfordio citata. Nusquam alibi laudatur Simonides iv Xvpplxrois, 
id quqd corruptelam in hoc loco satis indicat. Dubio procul 
legendum est, Xttevxbg iv XvpplxToig. Hujus testimonium. &dh*» 
betur in ipsis Scholiis Apollon. R. 11. A054.-. J-w^S^^ 
Aeyoyrai ir$g) aurijv fyvi$t$, a; xAa>f8a$ elutv ' AiroXKivv^ <&t*>Gi am** 


$86 E. H. Barker i Epistola 

ivofjuxfyi xot) XiXtuxo; iv Ib/x^/xT©^. Hsec SvfAfiixra a Suida memo* 
rantur, qui tradit Seleucutn, Alexandrinum, Gramruaticum, Ho- 
mericum cognorainatum, Roiuse docuisse. Hujus fueriot glossse 
yi« 38epiu8 ab Adienaeo citatae. 

" Strabonift locus 1. xv. p. 728. ed. Morelli, in vitio forte cubat, 
Meet aliud videatur Allatio p. 21 1 ., nam pro verbis, <A$ ufqxt 
SifJuovfais tv Mrifjwovi (Mepv.) hiupapfZa) row Jot\u>txmv> Casaubonus e 
Suida legit Sri^og 6 f H\eio$ s. 6 dfatog" J. A. Fabricius in Kotitia 
de Simonide. P. Ern. Jablonskius in Syntagmate de Memnone. 
Grfccorum et ^gyptiorum Franc, ad Viadr. 1753,4. p. 23., ut et 
GyfaWus t. ii. p. 4()3. ed. 1696. haec vertit; " Simonides, poetsi 
Lyricus antiquissimus, in Dithyrambo, 'quern inscripserat MtnMh 
nem" Jfij&wvfojj quidem et fowgapfios bene cooveniunt ; sed quid 
negotii est Semo Delio in opere historico, cui titulus JijXmxafc, turn 
Aitvg&fifZtp i Si igitur vox 2ifum$w vitiose in hoc loco legator, ut 
putat Casaubonus, certe vox diivgapficp, de qua silet Casaubonus, 
non stare potest. Pro Mlpvon foivpipfiw, Cod. Mosc. hafaef 
MsfJLvovfti dvgafificf. Casauboni verba sunt haec : — " Legebcun> j§V 
tTpijxe Zypos 6 'HXfiog, auctore Suida, qui ita scribit, 2ijftof '/TXribft 
fgapiMTixof fypafa A^XtaxoL fiifixla y. Verum notandum est, quern 
Suidas Eleum esse ait, eundem dykm appellari ab aliis, ut ab 
Athenaeo iv. c. 23. p. 173. et Stephano, quern vide, id est Tewp&. 
Quare, si hos sequimur auctores, non b 'HX*io$ 9 sed 6 JqAiof ruerit 
legendum." Eleus per errorem, ut putat Schweigh. ad^Athen. 
vol. xiv. p. 188., perhibetur ap. Suidam. Semi Delii JqAio£, s. 
Rerum Deliacarum liber, ab Athenaeo saepe laudatur. Judice 
Berkelio ad Steph. Byz. v. Teyvpot, Strabonis locus emendatione 
ilia non eget. " Ap. Etym. M. Zfipog hie appellatur 27fto?, et ejus 
libri rifc 'I\iafo$ inscribuntur : utrumque perperam pro Svytog et 
ttj/ JijXia&oj, uti recte monuit Sylburgius." L* Holstenius ad 
Steph. Byz. v. Bi/3x/vij. Hypos 6 JijAio; citatur a Photio in Lexko 
T. npafjuveiog. 

' " Pro Simmia, Simonidis nomen male posit urn a Suida in 
Sippta; : vide Jonsium p. 23." Fabricius in Notitia de Simonide. 
Fallitur vir doctus ; Suidas enim v. Sippi*; non Simonidis nomen 
pro Simmia posuit, sed tantum ea de Simmia Rhodio, Grammatica* 
dixit, quae ad Simonidem pertinere videntur : *Eypaty* xctra Tt*a$ 
*p£ro$ *I&ft,(iovg. 

Simonidis Fragm.ccxx. p. 408. : " Etjm. p. 270,45. Xaukir 

riv rpvQepw xot) yotvpov 2ipovi$))$ if 'Iotftfiois, 

Ktxi <rciv\a fiotfooov Imrog oog xopcovirrjs" 
Gaisfordius. Eadem glossa exstat ap. Zonara Lex. p. 539*. ubi, 
pro ao$ xopwvlrris, est xot) xog»v/nj$. Mendo laborat versus, judice 
Tittmanno, qui bene conjecit, 

Ka) <twjKol fiotlvoov, 1fnro$ £$ xopa>vo$ t$$. 

Etym. M. : Kogwfc tol/a^v, yaujwav. Vide Archilochi Fragtn. XL. 

ad Th. Gaisfordium. 887 

StMONiDis Fragm. cxcvi. p. 405*: "Apostolus Prov. xv. 97. 

UsgictyMigopsvog Q