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BiblicarCriticism. By KiMCHi ••••*••••• i 

Itinerary from Tripoli of Barbary^ to the city of Cashenah 
in Sudan. By the Sheikh L'Hage Kassem. Translated 
and illustrated with notes^ by Jambs Grey Jackson 4 
Observationes in Pbrynichum Lobeckianum. By E. H. B. 8 
Observations on the Zodiac of Dendera. No. III. •-••• I9 
Carmina Samaritanorum Anecdota ; e duobus Musei Bri- 
tannici codicibus edidit, Textuno emendavit, Latiue ver- 
tity et Commentario instruxit, 6. Ges.enius •••• 35 
Notae Criticse in Q. Horatii Flacci Opera manu Joannis 
Clbkici marginibus exeniplaris editionis Torrentii ad- 

scriptae. Ed. SaloMonsen •- ••• 45 

Notice of '* L'Art de Plaire d'Ovide, Po^me en trois 

chants, suivi du Remade d'AmouiV Po^me en un chant, 

nouvelle traduction en vers Frangais, avec le texte La- 

^ tin en regard, et De la Fid61it6, Po^me 6rotique en trois 

chants" ••• '••• 53 

Theocriti qusedam vulg. lectt. defend untur et explicantur • 55 
Index of the Passages of Menander and Apollodorus, 
which Terence has imitated in his six Comedies that , 

have been preserved to us ..••• ••••• 57 

On a new Edition of the Polyglott Bible •••••••••••• 59 

Notice of '^ Histoire de la Musique, par Mad. de Bawr. — 

Essai sur la Danse antique et moderne, par M. E. Voiart'^ 60 
On the Various Readings of the Hebrew Bible.. Lett. III. 65 
De Versibus quibusdam Horatianis. Disputatio H. C. A. 
EiCHSTAEDTii, Indici Lectt. in Univ. Litt. Jenensi 
^ per aestatem an. 1 820. habendarum ' praeq;iissa •••••• 71 

Itinerary from Tripoli to Housa, and from the latter to 
Sudah ; together with a summary of an Itinerary from 
Tripoli to Timbuctou. By Muhamed ben Aly 
BBN Foul. Translated from the Arabic into French 
by M. S.. DE Sacy, and from the French into English, 
and illustrated with notes, by J. G. Jackson •••••• 75 

Notice of Mr. Barker's ** Germany and Agricola of 
Tacitus, with critical and philological notes, partly ori- 
ginal and partly collected" • 84 



On (he P^framids of Egypt. Part III. ..k 87 

Sophoclis vulg. qusedam lectt. defenduntur et explicantur • 93 

*AsnASior sxoAinN eis ta 'hoika tot apis- 

TOTEAOrS 'EniTOMH. E codd. MSS. Grace pri- 
mus edidit H. Hase, statuarum antiquaruni Dresdas 
publicus custos. No. II. -••••••#•••••••••• .^ • • 104 

Notice of '' Peiiitures Antiques et In^dites de Vases Grecs, 
tiroes de diverses collections^ avec des explications, par 

J. V. Millingen" 1J8 

Nug«. No. Vlll. 126 

A Letter on a Greek Inscription engraved on an Ancient 
Helmet of Brass^ discovered in the ruins of Olympia in 
the Peloponnesus ; also some observations on the Island 

of Ithaca, by the Chev, D, Bronsted 133 

Parallel Passages • • ••• •••••• •• 146 

Mors Nehoni: Latin Prize Poem. By R. Trevelyan 156 
Notice of /' Cambridge Classical Examinations '^ •••••• 1 67 

The Scholia of Hermeas on the Phaedrus of Plato, pub 

lished by Fred. AsTius. Part III. 169 

Some Observations caused by the recent introduction by 
Mr. Bullock into England of various rare and curi- 
ous specimens of Mexican Antiquity ; intended shortly 
to be submitted by him to the inspection of the public. • 174 
Notice of " Robertson's Latin Phrase Book " ••••.... 194 
Examinations for the Classical Triposes. First instituted 

at Cambridge, Jan; 1824. 196 

Adversaria Literaria, No. xxxvi. — Epigramma- 
ta, Epitaphia Variorum, No. vii.— Biblical Criticism. 
— Psalm cxxxvii, Latine Graeceque redd. — Eurip. 

Heracl.,1014. 209 

Notice of " The Characters of Theophrastus ; translated 
from the Greek, and illustrated by Physiognomical 
Sketches : to which are subjoined the Greek Text with 
notes, and Hints on the individual Varieties of Human 

Nature" 214 

Literary Intelligence •. • 216 

Notes to Correspondents f 222 


On the striking Coincidences between the Allegories^ Si- 
ini]es> and Descriptions, in Tasso's Gierusalemme Libe-< 
rata, and those of Homer and some other ancfent writers €23 

Notice of *' The Odes of Anacreon of Teos, translated 
into English measure by £. H. Thublow, Lord 
Thuklow" .•• • ••• £29 

On the Genius and Writings of Claudian. Part iii. ••«• £S1 

Remarks on the English Translation of the Bible; with 
some suggestions for an improved form of the Text in a 
revision of its numerous Italic interpolations ; and of its 
pointing, and marginal additions •••••••••*••••••»••• 239 

The Arithmetic of the Holy Scriptures. No. v. ...••• 249 

Is the Nightingale the Herald of Day. as well as the Mes* 
senger of Spring f No. in. E. H» Bakkbr •••••• 255 

Nugae. No. IX. .•*....• *•••#•••••#• 238 

On the Pyramids of Egypt. Part i v. ••••»••• • 266 

The Scholia of Herme^s on the Phaedrus of Plato, pub- 
lished by Fred. Astius. Part IV 273 

Biblical Criticism on the 1st and 2d chapters of Si. Mat- 
thew ; comprising a view of the leading arguments in 
favor of their authenticity, and of the principal objection's 
which have been urged on the sul^ect. By Latham 
Wainewright, M. A ••••... 279 

In Sophoclis CEdip. Colon. Emendationes r • • • i 4 • 286 

Biblical Criticism — on some mistranslated passages of 
Scripture. J.Bellamy •• ••••• 298 

Notice of '* A Grammar of the Thr^e Principal Oriental 
Languages, Hindoostanee, Persian, and Arabic, on a 
Plan entirely new and perfectly easy ; to which is added 
a set of Persian Dialogues, composed for the Author by 
MiRZA MuHAM^D Salih, of Shiraz, accompanied 
with an English Translation. By William Price, 
Esq. J. G.' Jackson • 307 

Remarks on some passages in the New Testament, inac- 
curately Tendered in the present version •••••••••••• 312 

Muhamedan Invocation: verses composed by Soli man 
BEN MuHAMED, late Emperor of Marocco, which are 
chanted every morning at the break of day by the Mft- 
den, at the top of the minarets. Translated by J. G. 
Jackson ••••^•••••»« ••••••••••••••••• 316 


Notice of " Observations on the History and Doctrine of 
Christianity, and^ as historically connected, on the Pri- 
meval Religion, on the Judaic, and on the Heathen, 
public, mystical) and philosophical ; the latter proposed 
as an Appendix to the political and military History of 
Greece. By William Mitford, Esq.** •^ •••••••• 317 

Introduction to the second edition of the translation of the 
Mystical Hymns of Orpheos, by Thomas Taylor 322 

Museum' in Greece, and Abb£ Fourmont •••• •• 331 

Cambridge Examination for Junior Sophs : i. e. Exami- 
nation of Students at the end of their First Year's resi- 
dence. First instituted in Lent Term, 1824. —•••••• 335 

Techpical Memory. No. ii •••••••• 340 

Classical Criticism. On the Origin of the adverbs *£i/io, 
aliquo, eo, eadem, illo, quo, quocunque, quolibet, quo- 
nam, quopiam, quoquo, quoquam, utro,utroque 344 

De quantitate syllabarum ancipitum in Fortuitus, Gratui- 
tU8, Pituita. E. H. Barker •••• — •••••••••••• 350 

On the Origin of Milton's Lycidas. N. Oolr •^ • • • • • • 356 

In Demosthenem Commentarii Joannis Seager. No* 
VI i^ 362 

On the Error relative to the time of the departure of the 
Israelites from Egypt. J. E. N. Molbsworth •••• 370 

De verbo axralvm vel axronvooo, scr. E. H. Barker •^•* 379 

Litteras auaedam ineditae ex autographis inter schedas 
J)'Oryi[iianas, in Bibl. Bodl. adservatas descriptse • • • • 383 

Adversaria Literaria, No. xxxvii. — Tn honorem 
Gul. Browne, £q. (Greek verses.) — Artis medicae Laus 
(Latin verses.) — Uovog AfrroTo-iy 6ihfiei. — In Ventriloquum. 
— Latin Epitaph.— Illustrations of Herodotus. — Epi* 
grammata, Epitaphia, Variorum, No. viii. 386 

Oxford Latin Prize Poem: — In mortem Jacobi Cook. 
Wellesley •••••• ••••^••••« •••••••• •»•• 396 

American Prize Poem : — Narcissus. E. S. Dixwell* • 400 

Notice of '^ Journal of a Tour in Asia Minor; with com- 
parative Remarks on the Ancient and Modern Geogra- 
phy of that country. By W. Martin Leake" •••• 401 

literary Intelligence •• 407 

Notes to Correspondents • 409 




MARCH, 1824. 


If I may Judge from internal evidence, I can have no hesitation 
in attributing the Biblical Criticism on Gen. iv. 9,6., inserted in 
the Classical Journal for September, to the author of the New 
Translation of the Bible; the errors and inaccuracies of which 
have been so ably exposed by Mr* Whittaker, Professor Lee, 
the Editor of the Quarterly Review, &c. I find in the Biblical 
Criticism the same groundless censures of the authorised 
version, the same palpable errors in Hebrew criticism, the 
same new and fiinciful interpretations of Scripture, as have 
already been noticed and condemned in the writings of Mr* 
BeUamy. The author of the Criticism in question proposes 
to alter the English authorised version of five passages in the 
Hebrew Bible, chiefly by giving a different translation of the 
vtrb bnn* ** There is no doubt,'* says our critic, ** that /TRTf, 

being derived from the Pihel ^m, tp make common, to mak^ 

profaae, ioiplies unholy, ia.pu«; 'unclean, profane." 

It is weU known that Hebrew verbs have often a different 
sense in the different conjugations. This is the case with the 
verb /}n\ which is stated by our best lexicographers to 
signify ^' to profane" in the conjugations Niphal and Pihel, and 
'^ to begin" in the conjugations Hiphil and HophaK It is true 
that Tnn in the conjugation Hophal only occurs in this passage 
(Gen. iv. 26.), but as the verb frequently occurs in the conjuga- 
fipn Hiphil, in the sense of '^ to begin," it is natural to suppose 
VOL. XXIX. a. Jt. NO* LVII. A . 

2 Biblical Criticism. 


that its paasive Hopbal has a similar sense ; that if the one 
signifies ^' to begin/' the other would signify ^' to be begun." ' 
This distinction of senses in the different conjugations may be 
obsenred in all the passages quoted by our author to show that the 
▼erb signifies ** to profane/' T^^Vrr Gen. xlix. 4., and 'iW'nHl 

Ezek. xxviii. 16., are of the conjugation Pihel ; and tTT/) Levit. 

zxi. 9«y ^fftVlh Levit. zxi» 4., ^T!M*I E^^ek. xxii. 26., ^nH Ezek. 

XX. 9; are of the conjugation Niphal. These passages there*- 
fore give him no support in affixing the sense of *' to profane" 
to the conjugations Hiphtl and Hophal. Let us now inquire 
whether the passages which our author has quoted stand in 
need of the new translation which he proposes to substitute for 
the authorised version. The first passage is Gen. iv. 26., which 
is thus rendered in the English version : *^ And to Seth, to him 
alio there was bom a son ; and he called hk name Enos : then 
began men to call upon the name of the Lord." ** If we render 
/riin began," says our author, " it would imply that no person 
bad, before that time, called upon the name of the Lord : but wt 
find that Adam, and Eve, and Cain, spoke with the Almighty ; 
that Cain and Abel offered to the Almighty," See. The words 
*Uo call upon the name of the Lord/' or, *\^ Jehovah," admit of 
two interpretations. It may be meant that at that time men 
Ibagan to address the Deity by his peculiar name Jehovah : 
or secondly, that they began to assemble in a more public ana 
regular manner for the purposes of religious worship. The 
words also might perhaps be translated, ** to call themselves htf 
the name of Jehovah" i. e. the descendants of Setb began to 
distinguish themselves from the profane offspring of Cain by 
openly professing themselves the worshippers of Jehovah* See 
Isaiah xliv. 5. npjr^OtC^l K^p^ HH, <' und another shall call Aim- 
9e(f^y the name of Jacob" It appears then that no akeration 
IS at all required in the common translation of bnvi in this 
passage. But there are materml objections to our author's ivew 
translation : '* Then the callir^ m^ the name of the Eternal 
Beintt began to be profa/ned*' 1 observe then that K*lp!> 
signifies to call^ and not the calling : ,TVSV is a prosper name^ 
and cannot with any propriety, be rendered ^Uhe Eternal 
Beim/* still less can ^nVT be rendered ** began to be pro- 
fanecL" The verb in its different conjugations signifies either 

* the words 7mrT TK» translated in the authorised version with 
Sufl^tfeni exactness *Hh4nhtganmenf may be tendered ttiOYS )iteita))y 
•' tunc coeptofti ^st, ihtn U was begun*^ 

Biblical Criticism. S 

iQ profauf, or to begin: but surely the sense of the two 
conjugations cannot at the same time be given to the same 
word* 71ie Larin word fernim aometimes signifies the metal 
iron, and sf^motimos. a sword, but no one acquainted with the 
first principles of translation would combine the two senses^ 
and translate ferrum, an iron sword. Mr. Bellamy has fallen 
into the same unaccountable error, and, if 1 recollect right, has 
^ven th^ same translation, began to profane^ to the same word 
TTtn : and this circumstance strongly corroborates my conjecture 
that Mr. Bellamy and the author of the Biblical Criticism are 
the Same person. 

Let US proceed to the second passage. Gen. vi. 1. '* Jnd it 
came to pass when men began to multiply on the face of the 
earth.^ " If we now consider," says our author, '* first, that 
mankind began^ to multiply immediately after the Creation, 
that the Lord blessed the man, and said, « Be fruitful, and 
multiply,' the question naturally presents itself. Why is it said, 
they began now to multiply?" &c. It is not said simply 
that they began to multiply, but that they began to multi- 
ply or to be numerous (as the word signifies) on the face of 
ihfi earth. They were so much increased in number that they 
began to occupy a considerable portion of the earth. I will 
now give the New Translation and the comment, the latter of 
which is so fanciful and extravagant that it would be absurd to 
attempt its confutation. '' It was when men began to profane 
in multiplying upon the surface of the ground ; — that is," says 
our author in exf^anation, '' mankind did not distinguish between* 
a natural and allowed manner of multiplying, and an unnatural 
manner^ forbidden by nature itself i ! '' 

The third pass^e h Gen. ix. 2Q. *^ Jnd 'Noah began to ba 
W h$$bandman, and be planted a vineyard." Our aMthor 
observes, as well^assl can understand him, that die literal mean- 
log of the words is, " And Noah began «/i husbandman." Had 
the writer consulted Waltheri Ellipses Linguae Hebraeaj he 
would have found that in this concise language, verbs, nouns, 
tnd particles are frequently omitted ; and would have been con- 
vmced, or at least would have had reason to be convinced, that 
wr translators were perfectly right in supplying the words to 
fte, oorrespondiog to the verib imh understood. The foUowing 
IS the improved translation, in which, by the way, he inserts the 
word as, and omits to translate 1 in bm : " Jnd Noah as an 
husbandman began to prof ane : he planted a vineyard iT-he- 
C^Msp,'' aaya our author, "he ought not to have fa^un his 
buaipess by planting a vineyard V." I bad written remarks oa 

4 Itinerary from Tripoli 

the other two passages which your correspondent proposes to 
amend ; but after the passages already produced I think it use*^ 
less to trespass any longer on the patienee of your readers : I 
will thel^fore only observe that he renders ffiH yi ^3 ** because 

he persuaded ;** thus liot only giving to 1^ the sense of ;»er- 
suading, which it never has^ but mistaking a noun for a verb in 
kal; though it is distinguished by vowel points (• "), which no 
verb in kal ever has. Our authorised version of the Holy 
Scriptures, though not without its faults, bears ample testimony 
to the skill, the labors, and the judgment of the translators, but 
has had the misfortune to be many times assailed by persons 
equally deficient in a critical knowledge of the Hebrew language, 
and in the principles of translation. 

Nov. 1823. KIMCHI. 

ITINERARY from TRIPOLI of Barbary to the 
City of CASHENAH in Sudan. By the Sheikh 
L'Hage Kassem. 

translated, and illustrated with notes, 
by james grey jackson. 

The first 13 da^s or Joumies. — The 13th day after departing 
from Tripoli of Barbary, we reached G^dames. (For the journey 
to Gadaroes, and for the description of that town, vide the Itinera* 
ry from Tripoli to Timbuctou, in €/. Jl. No. 56, page 193.) 

I4th — l6th Joumies. — After departing from Gadames,' they 

* Tiie caravans v^hich proceed from Tripoli to Cashenah go first in a 
south-westerly direction to Gadames, after which they change their course 
or direction, and proceed south to Fezzan or Mourzouk, where, having 
changed with the Fezzanees the merchandise which they carry from Tri- 
poli, they cross the desert directly to Cashenah in a southerly direction. 

It is easy to perceive that the Janet of this Itinerary is the Jenet of 
Major Rennell, that Teghereui is the Tai-gari or Tegbery of Rennell, 
and we think these three last plates are one and the same. It is a com* 
mon error in maps of Africa to lay down two places or more for one, 
which proceeds from the various ways of spelling the names; thus in the 
niap aj^ne^ied to WalcJl^eAaer's ** Recherches suf VAfrique- Septen^ 

to Cashenah^ 3 

proceed southwards during titree days/ when they reach a well call- 
ed Tent Melloulen, which possibly signiiies in the language of that 
country, the welt of the palm-tree, because there is only one palm 
or date-tree at this well. When the caravan is in a hurry it per- 
forms this journey in two days, and sometimes even in one from 
Gadames to Tent Melloulen. 

\7ih — 19th JoumieSf — From Tent Melloulen, after three days* 
travelling, they reach Zourftnit. 

^Oth — Z6th Jaumies. — From Zour^nit they travel six days, and 
then reach the torrent ofAzawdn. 

Z7th Journey, — From the torrent of Azaw&n they proceed one 
day's journey, and then stop at the torrent of TtthanuMy the envi- 
rons of which are shaded by an abundance of trees. 

28<A— 30M Joumies. — From Tahamalt to Tanout^-Mellen^ 
which, in the language of the country, signifies the white well, they 
reckon three days' journey. 

S\8t — 33rrf Joumies. — From Tanout-Mellen, or the white wells, 
they proceed during three days, after which they arrive at Ten* 
gacem, or the sheep's well. 

34th — S6th Joumies. — From Ten-gacem they proceed three 
days successively, and arrive at Gatz. It is here that they gather 
the leaves and capsul^e seminalis of the senna, which is taken to 
Tripoli and Tunis, and is distributed from those ports, among all 
the apothecaries of Europe^ 

S7th—'39th Joumies. — After proceeding three days from Gatz, 
they go and rest at a place called Egguagant ; this is the name of 
a river which washes the base of a mountain, which the Africans 
call Agroi^h. 

AOth — ^9,nd Joumies. — From Egguagant they proceed other 

trionale," there is a Housa and a Haoussa; but there is but one Housa or 
Haoussa in Africa, and it is spelt jUm^. Tedment, in this Itinerary, is 

^nnell's Tadent. Tadent is the name of the mountain at the foot of 
which is bituated Tedment, A910U is Assieu, Togh&git js 'I agazi or Tar 
gassa, A9oudi is Asouda, Auuderas is the Ouatanis of Reonell. Mr. 
Walckenaer justly remarks in his dissertation on this Itinerary, in his 
^' Rtfcherches G^ographiques sur I'Afrique Septentrionale," that the dis- 
tances, compared with Major RennelTs, differ, but this must necessarily 
be the case in ail African itineraries, where the journios are performed aS 
. the combination of circumstances suggest. 

A90udi, the capital of the territory of Ahir (which is the desert of 
Hair, situated south-west of Tuat) carries on a direct trade with Cashe^ 

nah. The term Hair j^ signifies difficult, hard, harsh : from which we 

may presume that the district of Hair is rocky, stony, or difficult of pas- 

6 Itinerary frrnn I^poli 

thttt <kiy9^ and then halt at Iha rifcr Matu, wUch has giTta ita 
name to this place* 

>drif— -471A J!nrriiie#.— Proceediag doriog four dajiT joomey 
fron MaisB, they reaoh the town called Janet, which is built at the 
foot of a moantaia bearing that name. 

48M — Bind Jimntte^.— From the town of JanM thej go in fine 
days to refresh themseWes at the wells of Tegherdn. 

5^nd — 5^th Jimmies. — From Tegherein to Tedment three days* 
Tedment is at the foot of a mountain called Tadeni,* where quanti- 
ties of senna are collected. 

55th — 6Sind Journiee. — From Tedment after eight days' travel- 
lings dnnng which, neither water nor tegetatidn is found, Chey 
reach and repose at a place called AeteH, where there are many' 

6srd^6^h Jourmee. — After quitting the wells of AsioA, Ibey 
proceed five days among mountains^ beyond which is a place ealled 

ogtk^JSrd Joumiei. — From Toghaget they journey five more 
days to reach Tedek: the road is invarmbly among mountains^ 
where no water is to be had. 

74ftk — 75ik Joumiee. — After prdceeding two days more fttrai 
Tedek, they arrive at Akif. Ahir is a country whose capital is 
AiML The habitations are constructed with mats, made of a 
reed or grass called in the empire of Marocco BotdL It is a kind 
of papyrus or soft reed, which the Arabs of Syria and of Marocco 
use to manufacture mats, whicii they spread on the floors of their 
houses and tents, and with which they cover their roofs. 

The inhabitants of Ahir live on Cassaves,^ which they bring 
frotn Caehenah, Tlie territory of Ahir is shaded by forests of those 
palm-trees which the Egyptians and Marokeens call daumah, the 
people of Gadames palme of Pharoah, and the Spaniards Pa!Mia, 
They grind the fruit of this kind of palm, and mix the flour with 
that of the Cassave, and with cheese, and this mixture is their or- 
dinary food. 

Goats abound in Ahir, as alto lions and monkies, which inhabit 
the woods; the population may amoutit to 12,000 souls, who are 

76th — 7Sth Journiee. — After leaving Ahir and travelling three 
days further, they stop at a river called Aau^as, which they 
oross, it being knee-deep. 

79th — 80(A JotimtVs.— From Aouderas they travel on two days, 
and then stop at a mountain called Megzem. 

' See note in the preceding page. 

^ 'Cas8d> it ^oula be, £ot there is no tr in the Arabic language, and 
the Cassab js the sugar-cane. 

te Cdshenak. 7 

dt4l"«*42»ii jNimi«t.-^Froni McHiBt Meg zem tbejr proceed two 
^•ysy and arrm «t a riyer which nms through a wood of dttlch 
trees ; the nanie of <h» river w hin^Ouaiiem* 

S3rd — S4ih J^Mirmet.*— -From Imv-Oualieao tfiey march on two 
day» fttoeessiTely, and then reach Aguadh or Agddes. Ag&des is 
% town, larger than that of Tripoli ^ Barbary, situated in a pkin. 
A market is held there; the TWreks carry on a trade with It in 
cattle and eheep. The inhabitants of Ag4des procure their cloth- 
ing from Casheaab, Gouher^ and Zeoferanah. They give in ex- 
change, aalt, which they procure from Bomou, frmn the territory 
of Faeiy and of BUmat the prince who reigns at Ag^des is called 
Biguir; he has succeeded Wadelab. The extensive commerce 
earned on by this town renders it rich and florisbing. 

85fA — goth JoMmies, — Departing from Ag^des, they are seven 
days croesiag imraeDse forests, w^iere no water is found but what 
the rains have left. They then arrive at Tediof, a irery deep weH, 
fmn which they raise water by means of camels, which are hrought 
thither expressly for the caravans. 

91^^ — 97th Jmirniee. — After having refreshed themselves at the 
welb m£ Tedlaq, they perform eight more days' journey, when 
they reach a place called Kerfechu 

9Sth Journey.-^ After another day's march they reach a place 
called Tsdouah or Tsdwah. 

99th Jowrnty* — From Tsawab to Madaauah or Madawah one 

lOOth J4mmejf4 — Fvom Madawah they travel a whole day, and 
repose at Takmalkfmmah. 

\OUt day^a Journey, — From Takmakounah, after another day^s 
journey, they at length arrive at Cashenah or Kasnah. 


Ca&berah is a considerable town : it has seven gates or entrances ; 
an interval of two miles separates each gate* The king who go- 
verned Casbeiiah is just dead;' his name was Kalinghiwah. 

The Sheikh El HageKassem Guarem, who commuuicated to 
me the above intelligence, and who dictated to me the Itinerary 
from Tripoli in Barbary to Timbuctou, transacted with the king 
Kalinghiwah a commerce in cloth and horses. He reported to-me 
that Uie ciuzent jniuiey sd Caabenabis a Jund of sihfiU wbicb ib« 

^ That is to say, at the close of A. D. 1806, or the beginnilig of ISOf. 

8 Observationes in 

Arabs call oudoa.' He asauicd me that many of the inhabitantf 
were of the Christian religion, and that the greatfcer part of them 
carried, suspended from their neck, large wooden crosses. Tb^ 
natives are called Heznah. They powder their hair. 

The territory of Cashenah swarms with worms, with which one 
is quickly covered if one lies on the ground naked. To avoid this 
inconvenience it is the custom to spread a mat on the ground ; 
with this precaution one sleeps tolerably well, without danger of 
being tormented by these importunate and even dangerous reptiles. 

After having dictated this Itinerary, the Sheikh £1 Hage Kassem 
finished by assuring me, that to travel to Cashenah from Tripoli of 
Barbary, one has the sun in the morning on the left temple, and 
ill the evening on the right temple, that is to say, that the journey 
is performed by proceeding invariably southward. 

N. B. This Itinerary and that from Tripoli to Timbuctou* were 
given to me in 1 807, during the summer of that year, that is to 
say, during the three months that the caravan sojourns at Tripoli 
of Barbary. 

Copied at Tangier, 26th of June, 1808. 
(Signed) Delaporte, Chancellor of the French Consulate. 




JciA, quas in Parergis continentur, primum in libellis acade- 
micis proposita sunt, jam inde ab initio anni 1815. per occasio- 
nem statorum solemnium evulgatis. Undo quae viri praestantis- 
simi mihique benevolentissimi, Barker, et Schneider, in Lexx» 
sua, me non nolente, transtulerunt, ea, si sine detrimento fieri 
posset, recidi/' Praef. p. Ixxx. 

''His et talibus auctoritatibus Blomf. sese tueatur^ si propter 
r^igov inter communia ambigui argumenti exeropla relatum in 
judicium vocetur/' P. 141. 

Longe pra^stat Nunnesii ratio, a Blomf. ad JEsch. S. c. 


' Oudoa [ A^^ Ouda] is the Arabic word for cowries, which pass as 
monej^ in many parts of Sudan. 
* Vide CL JL No. 56, page 193. 

ThrynichumLoheckianum. 9 

Th. p. £01. tacijte adoptata, qiiam si sequimur, hon diflScile eat 
repertu^ cur Attici xotxoSaiftovav potius quam xoxoSaiftoveiv dixeridt. 
Verba eoim in ay et iav derivata proprie in animi corporisve 
affectionibus usurpantur/' P. 79- 

*' IliUxo(FTqi^om nuper Blomf, Mschylo Pers, 773* de suo 
gratificatus est." P. 153. 

'' Jti^ogs Atticos actiya signif. dixisse, magno consensu tra- 
dunt Amnion. 41. Phrynich. X 17. 3.5. Lucian. Psendos. 3. 
Mceris 127. Zonar. et Moschopulus, quorum testimonia con- 
scripsit doctissimus Barkerus in Critico Diario {Classical 
Journal) T. 23. p. 93." P. l60. 

''Locos Demosth. et Antiphontis, in quibus Nunnesius 
euayyBXlfyo'dou cum accus. rei construi ostendit, non l^homas 
citat, (ne quis erret cum Britannis Editoribus 4, 370.) sed 
Steph* Thes.y a quo quas sumsit ille^ nolui recudere." P. 268. 
But Lobeck is himself mistaken. The words of Nunnesius, 
which are cited by the editors of the Thes.: — "Non Chari- 
clide, ut in libro vulgato Parisiis Thomae editum est: loci 
autem, qui ab eo (nempe Thoma) citantur Demosth. et An- 
tiph. :" will not admit any other interpretation than that, which 
the editors have given^ vi^. that Nunn. had read those passages 
in his Ms. copy of Thomas Magister. Because that author as 
now edited does not contain those passages, it does not necessa- 
rily follow that the Ms. of Nunn. was not possessed of them ; 
neither does it necessarily follow that Nunn. intended to cite 
Steph, Thes.f because they are found there. For, if, in opposi- 
tion to the express words of Nunn., Lobeck has a right to 
assume that Steph. Thes, was the book intended to be quoted, 
the editors bare an equal right to assume that Steph. himself 
took them from a Ms. copy of Thomas. Lobeck has neglected 
to notice that the passage, which Steph. assigns to Antipho, in 
truth belongs to Lycurgus c. Leocr. 149*> as the editors have 
remarked in the Thes, 

** Sic nuper Porson. Adv. 156. Atticum vXsufuov Soph. 
Track. 791* e Cod. Harl. emit, quod ap. Plat constanter nveu- 
jEtflov scribitur ; sed et hujus manum a librariis corruptam esse, 
ostendit locus a Longino citatus 32, 110. At enim fallimur; 
nam Blomf. avias illas nobis evellit, ostenditque Helladium, 
Moeridem, et iSregorium praecepta sua ex j£liano, Libanio, 
ceterisque Sophistis, (quos novae Atthidis auctores esse docet,) 
derivata habuisse, idque, quo majorem nobis, hoc neque antea 
suspicatis, neque porro credituris, pudorcm incutiat, etiam con- 
Btare inter omnes afSrmat ad jdEsch. <S. c. Th. 6l.'' P. 305. 
. ''"^(Tp^f*®^ -Diog- -L- 2, 88. *evgj(ri[ji.o$ Is. Porphyr. Char. Her. 

10 O^ervatiants in 

511. in Cod. Par. Hdiod. 2. p. 68. •fifyttX^o^pfiifto; Theoplin 
C. PL 6, 12. qutt pleraqae a Lexicogrr. ant omissa, aut in sua- 
picionem addncta, neque in docta digremone Stipham Briton^ 
nici 4, 347. comprebensa sunt." P. 583. 

*' Porsono ad Or, p. 26. contradicit etiam Blomf. ad JEsch* 

5. c. Th. 42. Phrynichi silentium invidiose interpretans :— - 
' Nempe is putasse videtar, formam quadrisyllabicain Tragicos 
nunquam adhibuisse.* Hsec suspicio tum per se leviasima, turn 
etiam supervacua est^ quam neque Porson., neque quisquam 
alius Phrjnichi pra;cepto in euni finem abusus fuerit, ut Tr»* 
gicos xuvaysTi)^ scripsisse probaret." P. 430. 

'' Sed si addidero^ id quod ex ante dictis intelligi fiidllime 
potest^ neque Sturz. recte haiic terminationeni nonmram propr. 
veteri Grseciae ignotum statuisse^ Lex. Xen. 4, 16.; neque me 
JBhmfieldio, Mapxus^ Maputavrei, Hon paribus sjllabis, McmxSo^, 
declinarijubentiad Pers. 65." [see Aristarck. Anti-Blomf. 98.] 
^'subscriptorem praestare posse, retro ad Phrjnich. revertar, eum- 
que srb Abreschii suspicionibus vindicabo.'' P. 436. See too 
Ijobeckii Diss, de Substanti9ris in a$ exeuntibus, in W<rf6i AnaL 
Liter. C, 59. 

^ ^tni«/x»; frKrr^Xijxa/oo^y Demostfa. Phil. \, 45. de quibua 
fitiper exposuit Edm. Barker, in Diario Chssico 3, 590.** P. 
559. See too the said E. H. B. ad Etym. M. 857. Stura. 

'^De Jungermanno, ejusdem landis consorte, eommode not 
admonent docti Editores Stephani p. 347.** P. 564. 

^ Valck. sMitentiae Schseferus et docti Lericograpki ad SUph. 
Thes. 346. subscripsemnt." P. 570. 

*^ Rursus alii a perf. secundo *^^opxo;, cvi testis, non ratio 
ileeat, hinc t^^pxslv deriyarunt : Comicus ap. Plat, de Tranq. 
Anim. 8, li. de quo ▼. Blontf. ad JEsch. S. ^. Th. 34.* 
P. 576. _ . 

*' Scaligero si quis opitulari cupiat, is cjusmodi exempla pro- 
ferre debet, quale est illud in Epigr. adesp. 511. p, M7. ^«/3pi.. 
voSw^ fifjjiaTa, quod Jacobs, ex eleganti poetaruni usa pro ufipav 
«o8i&y dictum esse putabat; sed recte Schneider. Lex. s^oeL 
^o8i»y scribi jubet. Nibilo melius est •axpoirouj, pno Jkp>s mw^ 
quod Sclm. citat e Paus. €, 4. f% iyaKpM foWv Icrr irpoirtaww 
is, xaJ xeipgj, xai &xgoiro6e$ eitri \eoxw XiJw, ubi ixpoi ««8f ^ leg, 
e^e Barker, in Diario Ctassico N. 32. p. 376. et Scbn. m 
Nov. Ed. mihi assenserunt. Sic enim Paus. aliis onnnbtts 11. s 

6, lij. Upirannv, xa) ixpoug woiug,Tta) rit$ ^sipagl 8, 31. Xa% 
pis tliri Xl9o9 xo) itfo<rtmciv rs, 9tad &cpot 9r<(6e$ : ef. 2, 1 1 . 7, '^» 
8, 25. % 4. *AfiqoiicttTa dim vulgatmn *lian. V. U. l«, «4. 
Corajus non ii^aste barbamiB et ineptum «o»iiiat. 'O iufhou^ 

Phrynichum Lobeckianum. 1 1 

ap. Pallad. Comm. in Hippocr. de Fruct. U p. 285. T. 7. 
Chart, p. 210. s. 6. Foes, atque alios artis medicas auctores n(m 
magis quam iatfo^^etf, 6giSxookof, atque similium rerum vocafoiila, 
suspicionem recipit. Meque Barkero adjiciatn^ iufofttv^, 'si 
uoqaam in Gr. lingua extiterit/ poetis solis concedendum esse 
affirmantii qui quo magis poetse sunt^ eo longius ab his pfBcinap 
rum ioventis lefugiunt^ suis et propriis uti non detrectantes/' 
P. 603. 

'' Cui repugnat oi ^iXoroXfi;^ jdSscb. S. c. TA. 178.^ ex alieno 
petitum, neque cum axpvicihai^y quod Blon^^ in subsidium vo* 
cat, ulla ex parte comparandum/' P. 607* 

*' AlteriuB curationem praestat Blomf. ad Pers* l60. :— ^'liCX* 
SGerm. Bagi^* ^o^oxXij; fiaplfioiv Xiyei rov VAvn^y. Brunck. cor* 
rigit fiapllav. Schaefero ad Greg. C. 522. unice Terum videtur 
fimpifieof. Mirum, cum ipse meminerit vulgaris voMfianis, Cer» 
tissime corrigo fictgifiirav. Lepidus est Bast», qui ^plfiow per 
metaplasmum dictum esse putat pro ^aplfiairreu' Si quid est in 
hac re lepidum, id totum, quantum est, in Blomfieldio resideti 
qui si argumehta proferre adigeretur, neque Bastii sententiam 
r^llere^ nequ# suam probare posset. *Bugl^ suspicioniB 
absolvit simillimum *vt;f4f o/3a^, cui fMvofiot^t i. e. ixovofi&nis, et 
fortasse etiam fMvicYigi^ et H»xofi»s ex Hesjchio adjungi poe-^ 
sunt. Nam ^lovofias plane in testatum est" P. 6l0> The 
editors of the Gr» Thes. p. cccxxv. have quoted Dr. Blomf/a 
note with an approbation, which, convinced as thej are by the 
reasoning of Lobeck, and of the Jena-Reviewer of the Persm, 
(see Aristarchus Anti-Blotnf. 98.,) they must now retract. 

"A ipifkm Abrescfa. Jmm. ad JBscA. 187* igapkviiMt Pen. 
M7« ; a $0Oftffa», S^MMjjDM Eur. Med, 1180. derivat. Morosior 
judex, Blomf. ad Pen. 252. et Add. p. 199% ^papa^ analogias 
repugnare affirmat, et turn b. 1., tum ap. Herod. ^fipi^yipM repo* 
nit." P. 619. See Arhtarchm Anti-Blomf. 99- 

** Schaef., qui ad Dion. p. 201 . istius suspicionis adhut im- 
muiiis, V. VoAuxpiSoy JLexicographorum memorise commendave^ 
rat, nuper sequuti sunt docti Britanni ad Steph. p. 352. : — 
* •^vo'teaMtrim aut *J:lwriafetrioi>y' quia e lbs ^t iavaram s. tetf nftom 
compositum, contra Scaligeri regulam peccat. Vefba emm 
cum eS et ivg composita descendunt ab adjectivis, qun cum 

iisdem partkuHs componuntur, semperque in ew desinunt.' Hie 
tot taliumque virorum consensus propemodum a spe pppugna-- 
tionis me deterreret, nisi copia et bonitate causae coafisus in 
certamen prodirem atque habC mea oppugnatio tion oppugnatio 
potius, quam defensio esset futura.'' P. 626. 2liv&tavotr&a>, Bast. 

12 Observatioms in 

Spec. Nat. Ed. Amten. 31. Agatliias ex offic. Plantia. p^ 
12, Siiid. 1,277. 

. '^£odeiii anno 1817. haec (de vv. *Afgtti}g, *Aff iflijpijj, ^X«f#- 
^oim, *trjpoXM^is9 hp^^S^Sp) primum edita sunt, quo Thesauri 
Britannici Pars iii. in lucem prodiit, qua altero anno post ad 
nos delata^ cognovi eund. locum a doctissimis conditoribus trac- 
tatuoi esse p. 1^5. partini eod. modo^ partim, ut fert natura^ 
paulo aliter." P. 629. 

''Inter ea vero, quas o in a vertunt, usitntissimum est ar/ysXi- 
tt^oposf Ion. ayyeXii]^ogo^. Hujus formse duodecim exempla 
produxeram, quse d^cti Britanni in Thes. suum retulerunt p. 
365., additis totidem aliis, quibus ego novum, si liberet, cumu- 
lum adjicere possem. Manet sententia, ab iis^ quibus sermo 
curas fiiit, nunquam aliter dictum fuisse, neque me roovet 
Zonar., ab illis productus, homo sine censu et existimatione, 
qui si ayyeXio^^pog scripsit, (quod in tanta utriusque literse simi- 
litudine ambiguum est,) Grammaticorum morem servavic, saepe 
proprias et legitimas, sed ex usu aniissas, vocabulorum formaa 
resuscitantium." P. 645. The editors quite agree withLobeck 
in thinking that all correct Gr. writers used the form ayyi)\iy^i- 
poSf and they never meant to produce the authority of Zonaras 
to show the contrary. Their object was simply to notice that, 
as Zonaras has the other form, Lobeck was not quite correct in 
saying, ^< Nunquam aliter dictum fuisse.'^ 

'^ Ut jXEAiijyevij;, Zupifjyev^^ in poesi, sic 'ilo'iaysy^; Dio Chrys. 
Or. ii. 86. in soluta oratione dici solet, Asiagenes Latine^ ut 
^Batigenes^ Valck, et Wessel. ad Herod. 567., pro quo ApoUi- 
narem metro inservientem Asiagennes dixisse tanto equidem 
tninus admiror, quod Soph. ead. necessitate coactus ^deoyewjig 
dixit. *'Aciv^iYeini$, quod Blomf. JEschylo Pers. 12* tribuit, 
analogiae norma revincitur." P. 646. See the New Thes. 
2353. b. 

** £x hac disputationis meae parte nonnulla delibarunt Ste- 
phani restitutores : — * Nee Lobeck. uec Bast, illud *bpxnfifopovs, 
voc. Lexicis ignotum, in aeternumque ignorandum, suspectum 
habuisse miramur : scribe, sensu sic flagitante, HpKirjTSfMg,' Ob 
eam ipsam causam 6pxiifiT6fMvs uncis inclusum apposueram^ ut 
6pKnif6povg mihi suspectum videri significarem." P. 656. Dr. 
Blomf. Gloss, ad JEsch, S. c. 7%. 415. cites opxiij^^j^ou^ without 
any intimation of doubt. 

'^ *AKpaxp>iog in Epinici versibus, Athen. x. 40. 82. reduceiir 
dum esse dixi Nqtt. ad Aj. p. 284. quam correctionem posteg 
et Jacobs, adhibuit Antra, in Athen. 236. et Hermann, in 

Thrynichum Lobecklanum* IS 

Wolfii Anal. P. 3. p. 73, contra Barkeri disputans^ meoruili 
forte immemorem/' P. 664. 

*' *ofi^«Aoj, quod Barker, in Diario Classico N. 9,5. p. 
171. ex tota Graecia exterminate' P, 666. See Barker, ad 
Eiym. M. 1062. 

** Quum enim in plerisque vv.^ quae cum sKkm^ ^pyto, et ^w 
componuntur, itf confinio utriusque vocabuli o et t concurrant 

in ov confluxurae^ *raXayToiJXPS, iroXiovxps, *xuyo3Xxoj, d(jt»a^ovp» 
yos, (instabili ilia et erratico accentu^) a consuetudine impetratum 
est^ ut ea quoque^ quas aliter se haberent^ hunc flexum sequeren- 
tur, irokKTcovxps, T€\s(riovgyiiif, Ivrgcnowpyoj, fruvovpyog, raXacrioup- 
yo^y quibus veluti ex insitu alieni surculi novus color tractus 
est." P. 667. Read xvvovKkos, a[ic^ovgyog, raXounovpylg^ and 
consult Aristarchus Anti^Blomf. 111. 

" Barker, in Diario Classico N. 28. p. 289., rejecta Porsoni 
(Prof, ad Hec. p. ix.) sententia Tupo^T/^g ex xBparo^'nig, ut 
xv[Ji,oieyii,a)v ex xviAUTo^ey[M)V, contractum esse statiiit. Nos ab 
utroque discedimus, neque nominativum componendis vv. aptunii 

neque genitivum nominum in o^ contractioni obnoxium esse ex- 
istimantes." P. 693. But I hold with the editors that xepo is a 
mere contraction of the genitive for xspetro* The simplest mode 
of determining the question will be this : — Does Lobeck admit 
that xiparo in xf^aro/Sari}^ is the genitive without contraction i 
If so^ he will not deny that xtpo in xipo^amig is, on the same 
principle of composition, the gen. with or without contrac- 
tion; and that admission will be quite sufficient. Does 
Lobeck deny that the contr. of xequro into xepo is repugnant 
to the genius of the Gr. language i If so^ let him read the 
New Gr. Thes. p. 116. n. 2., and be satisfiecT. The editors 
may appeal to Lobeck's own words p. 669. : — '^ Sic *<mj- 
[Mppayelv, (pro o-njjurovijrix^ J. Poll, 'onjftoyovijrix^ a nomina- 
tivo (TT^iJuov repetitum annotavit,) XMftodv^;, ^cnj/xoflen};, *alfto- 
ftopog Hesych. *<riripfMipayog Id. s. ia^oriicog, atque alia dicun- 
tur, quae, si longa requiritur syllaba, o in ^ mutant, aI/xijtJ^ 
nj^, quod Apollonius lonibus tribuit; et vero eliam nonnunquani 
incorrupta forma repetitur, apyiMrvrpoyla Philo de Agric. 198. 
<riregiMtTo\6yog, Albert* ad Gloss, rf. T. 79* Itaque £ustatbio 
assentiendum est haec et talia a genitivis imminutis repetenti 
p. 189^^33. Manifesta hujus abscissionis vestigia apparent turn 
in Lat. Lapicidina, Limitrophus, Homiddium, Camelasium^ 
tum maxime in Gr. antiquitatis reliquiis, xcXaivif ^;, ywfai[Minjg, 
'ArXayeviig Hesiodo, quod *'AT>Miyerig,(ui *K§riTouyw^g,) scribi- 
tur ap. Athen.y et quas jam latins diffluxere, *<rrXsyy<nrotog ab J. 
Poll, relatum^ a\€XTp\j(mik}^, axfiiiirov, Eust. 1150^60. *xi^- 

14 Observationes in 

npatpw, qaod Anti^Atticista Bekk. 105. ex Pkt. Comieo refert, 
et in verbis, ;(f gv/rrw, ^ipxvrrco, quse specie diversa, genere paria 
sunt/' He, who, like Lobeck, is prepared to admit that afjtto- 
^opog is a contr. for piifMiropiopof, should have no difficulty in 
considering xfpo/3an}; to be a contr. of xtgotrofiaTVig. In p. 672* 
he says : — *^ Fuit haec certe Porsoni sententia Praf* ad Hec. p. 
iz., in HtpanrfiiXog et xtpaa-popos integrum servarl^ic^a^i in *K§po^ 
fipos autem ultimam literam veteris nominativi xtpof abjectam 
esse ; ouorum neutrum concedi debet. Persistam in hoc no- 
mine Kepas, cujus quot sunt genitivi format, tot reperiuntur etiam 
compositorum schemata. (1.^ KEPAOS, xspoto^oog, xtpeufix^g: 
(2.) KEPEOSf ^xiOioXxriij xepof/pfo;, xtgo^opos, lupipyyii in Opusc* 
de Voce, Milit, Suidae 3, 71d. et Stepb. Thes. Append. 76. 
(S.) KEPATOS, xeparo^igog: (4.) KEPflS, ^xiowTUvtiv. Unde 
igitur xepour^ipos emergit ? £x xioaof inquam. Nam^" etc. etc. 
As xegofioTTis 13 used for xtpatrofiarriSp so >^irri(reo(Ms is used by 
£ust. for XiirrovoofiMrog. The editors would think it quite as 
objectionable to derive with Lobeck xupo^ipos from the gen. 
KEPEOSf as to hold with Person that it comes from a supposed 
obsolete nominative KEPOS> For, even if xspsA^xrjg, xs^ag;^^, 
and XBpov^os were derived from the former^ which they cannot 
admit^ the principles of composition might receive xig for xegio 
before a vowel, but would not receive xepo for xspeo before a 

" Verbi, unde hsc descendunt, totum veluti stemina in Novo 
TAes. adumbratum, omnesque ejus ortus, meatus, et cum aliis 
congressus notati sunt, sic ut mihi non necesse sit pluribus de«- 
monstrare, Grascos nunquam inayogASf tnrcty^pas, erniyogas, vn-ig- 
yipoL^y aut simile quidquam dixisse, non magis quam vpoa-iyogos, 
xariyo^os, quorum quae sit inter se relatio, facile, si quis semel 
hue aciem intenderit, perspiciet. Neque nunc mihi operas est 
Schweigh. refellere, cujus nota ad Herod, i, QO. a doctis The-- 
saurariis delibata, cumulum continet errorum ajiorum super 
aliis acervatorum, quum modo ^emiyogeueiv cum xanjXoyeiy com- 
ponit, modo argumenti loco xwniyogslv pro xarayopiiv usurpari 
contendit." P. 703, 

'' Imminent hinc iterque praecludunt duo desperatissima verba^ 
8. potius verborum monstra, quibus ne Scaliger quidem et Sdiaef. 
manum conserere ausi sunt: Suo-fiy^erxetv et VraStorpip^siv, ab 
£urip., invita Prosa et Postvorta, in lucem edita. Horum 
prius duplici, quo saevius nos afHieat, praesidio firmatum et plane 
irremediabile est. Affert tamen hoc aliquid solatii^ quod utro<» 
que loco participium obtiuet, Su0-9y^(rxoy et $u0-9v^(rxoyro;, quod 
genus Tocabulorum ad nomina inclinat, eoque liberiorero habeC 

Phrynichum Lobeckianum. 15 

articiilatiaiieiii, Neque facile erat, aliud ejusdiem seatentis et 
quensurs verbum producere. Quod si antiquitus insitum, usus- 
que diuturnitate consecratum esset, noo jam barbarutn iliud 
diceremiiSy sedabnorme; qualia multa^ a primo veluti satu in 
pravum detorta^ una cum seculis aetatibusque hominum invetera- 
runt. Nuncj quia jam perfecto et concluso opere sese per vinx 
intrusit^ vitiosum et est^ et habetur." P. 6l6. J^ Jva6ify^(rKioo, 
Difficulter morior^ Eur. EL 842. vav ii awfu avm xaro), "Hvi^m^ 
piv, ijXikoil^B Suo'Sviio'xouy f6v(^. Sic leg. : non Suo'dy^o'xoy." Blomf. 
ad JElsch. Ag. 1264. p. 310. Here Dr. Blomf. assumes the 
existence of the verb 8u(rtv)](rxeco, as a thing perfectly well ascer- 
tained^ when his only authority for it is a passage^ into, which he 
has himself introduced it contra Codd, et Edd. omnium auctori" 
totem, when the rejected verb exists in the Rhesus 791* BoXXei 
[j^t Iwriyf^tntovTos alfMTog ^ofco, and when, if we can rely on the 
testimony of H. Steph. {New Gr. Ines. 340. d.) ivg-iaydv is 
also found in Eur. And here I may be permitted to ask why 
Dr. Blomf. has corrected the passage in the Electra ? why doear 
he object to the vulgar reading Sao-tv^o-xov ? Was it not from 
having perused in the New Gr. Thes. the canon of Scaliger 
condemning all verbs so formed as contrary to analogy ? 

'' In hoc genere magnopere providendum, ne testibus levibus 
aut corruptis fidem habeamus. Quod enim in A then. Codd. 5, 
23. 253. legitur *hna'To?<a^ofOs, item v^afopos J» Poll. 3, 55. 
•cfvpaxTwrftv Schol. Apoll. Rh, 2, 84. YewttSirnpoL Schneider. 
Lex., meri sunt descriptorum errores, ambiguos literarum S et 
a ductus confundentium.'' P. 641. It is indeed surprising that 
Schneider should have received into his Lex. not only the ge- 
puine form ytm^orupot, but the two corrupt forms y&nfiSoTupot 
and ywifo&irupoi : see Aristarch, Anti-Blomf. 9. 

'' ^rpeifuiJMTiMs brevi alpha in Democharidis Epigr. 2. non 
dubitOy quin depravatum sit pro yf7tffkjutoT^xo;i Xineam pariens, 
ac fortasse etiam in Athen. pro ygu[iiJiMMu(niu?JSt^s substitui de- 
b&t id, quod in Diog. L. legitw y^ufifioMoio-KaJjiyis" P. 669- 
See Mr. Bu-ker in Wolfii Anal. Liter. 2, 543. 

** Sed Pausanise 2^ 11. 219* debetur tempus perfectum, 
Blonifieildio ignotum, qui ad Pers.5ll. dubitare se profitetur, 
an V. ^NM alia habeat tempora praster praesens et fut.^' P. 744. 

" (Cratini) versus isti ex Hermanni sentenlia, quem de h. I. 
percontatus sum, sic distingui debent : 

^UTQfbari) 8e 4^ipn TiiufMtXXay xftl o'^axov irpos air^ 
'Aa-fijwyw, ^lutwqv re [voxttio'iy] av6ipiX9g *sinfi^, 
Ka] ^Aoioy d^ovM^ ioTB TrugiipM m<Ti roig aypomv. 
^kipLOf mftoHs voGSL opinione ^doptandum est ex fimilliiiio £u- 

16 Observationes in 

polidis loco ap. Plut. Symp^ 4, I. p. 662. quern Meineckiuar 
ineus Cur. Crii. 58. dextre .tractavit ; aed praeterierunt etim 
emeodd. Bodasi Stap. ad Theaphr. 409« propositae, quibus res 
fere ad liquidum perducta erat. In eo pariter xuricro^, (ooo xv- 
Tt<rig, ut in £d. Pauw. scribitur,) a-^ixos, Mipixog, fkifMs, Ca« 
prarum pabula, commemorantur." P. 1 10. The acholar, who 
is interested in determining the sense and the reading of these 
two Fragments^ will not perhaps repent of consulting the ISIew 
Gr. Thes. p. 1422. e— 23. a. 

Here [ am reminded of two other FragmehtSi which are also 
handled^ rightly or wrongly, in the Thes, The ingenious and 
acute Mr. G. Burges in his Comicorum Gr. Fragmm. Spec. 
Edit. {Classical Journal 44, 282.) cites the following verses of 
PherecrateSy as corrected and arranged by himself:— 
**E^otpfMv(otis y wrepfioXals 8«Tsrv' ^O"* olrai^, 

KoTrrcov re, *xaTe[ji,ia-Tco<re rm *Tfp6Tio"|xaTflov. 
See the Nets' Gr. Thes. p. cccxxxix. a. et n. 1. and Barker's 
Amanitales Cr, et PhitoL in Classical Journal 31, 112. * In 
the notes on those lines of Pherecrates Mr. Burges p. 285^. 
cites from an unknown comic writer the verses preserved by 
Hesj'chius v. ^Pa^avilw^vM, which he thus corrects and ar- 
ranges : 

rig yotf iv 
Tot Tris pa^uvi^s oi^vSujxi* sleropoov 

and he then quotes Harpocr. v. *0^ui6[uix. On these passages 
he will find some things to his purpose in the New Gr, Thes. 
p. 199. a. et u. 1.; 204. n. 2. ; see also Barker's Anuznitt. Cr. 
et Philol. in Cla^ss. Jaurn. 32, 375. 

^^ ' Atque hinc est, quod rectius legeretur ap. Athen. 9> 9* 
(39- 432.) *-46XTeov 8g x«l arraya* (Eust. Arraya*,) koA oxty\ ir- 
Tayivrsg. Id enim louge convenientius, quam quod vulgo edi- 
tur, Koti oif^h aTTay^vej. Vident omnes.' Pauw. Hoc Pauwia- 
num array oLVTBs non verbum est, sed portentum." P. 117. In 
his Dm. de Substantivis in a$ exeuntibus, (Wolfii Anal. Liter. 
2, 60.) Lobeck writes thus: — ** Pauwii emend, ad Phryn. 44. 
xai ou;^) arrayavreg, a Schweigh. praetermissam, Stephani Bri" 
tannici Editores (p. cccxxix. a. ccccxcviii. a.) ut mihi V. D. 
Edmundus Barkerus per Literas significavit, in memoriam re- 
vocarunt, baud scio an nimio inepti commenti honore. Idem 
addebat, Sturz. de Dial. Alex. 88., cur attagenes Mgyptia vo- 
centur, ex £liano H. A. 15, 27. potuisse intelligere.'' But 
the editors wiUjbe still prepared to maintain that Pauw's con ; 

Ptirynicbum Lobeckianum. 17 

jecture is entitled to notice, and tbey<annot conceive why irre^ 
yavT^s, (as to the accent, see Lobeck Diss, I. c. p. 59-) should 
be considered a portentum, or ineptum commentum, vihen aX«» 
?Jsmg is admitted to be correct: see Lobeck. Diss. I.e. Athen, 
himself merely says that the plural &rruyiirr9$ is not to be used. 
The words of Atheu. are th#se : 'i4rray«; (read with the Ms. 
^Arrayag, or rather arrdyag,) irfpicrirwo-iy ol '^IttixoJ iratpflt rov ogW» 

kfyov rovvofjLotr ri yip ffl; o^ Xf^yovrm, exrrraft jvov xncif lio cvWafidsp 
JTff 2^81 TO d irapaXTiYOv, fiapirovd imv, oTov axifjLag, *A9d[JLa$, aid* 
fuas* Xexreov di xa) ^rrayai (£ust. less rightly arretyeA,) xai ou^ 
aTTuyvives, ** Mirus vero Canon, quo confunditur primae decti- 
nationis nomen cum noniinibus teniae ; nam oLrraydg primae de« 
clinationis est : itaque in accus. plur. etiam arraya; formatur in 
Comici Acharn.: a quo raultum differunt 6 itiiiia^ rou aiafj^avrogf 
et 6 iLxifLas roS axifuavrog" Schweigh. But there is no such 
confusion, if you read with the editors irrayeif — ^rray«i. The 
meaning of Athenaeus is this: the word arriyai; is changed, 
7rap» rov 6p6h xiyov, by the Attic writers into &TTayu$, and be 
then proves the truth of his remark by producing a grammatical 
canon. The words, Xfxrcov ii xeA ^rrayai, xa) ovp^l arrayrives, 
are intended to show that in the plural the said Attic writers 
have deviated alike from the canon and from themselves ; for 
they say orTayM, and if they preserved consistency, they would 
say arraydvreg, because arrdyag makes UTTuydvres^ arraydf ar- 
retydvTtg, as a>XSig aWdmg. The opposition meant by Athen. 
is quite destroyed by the vulgar reading, xoii ov^t array^vf^, and 
the word itself is quite foreign to the purpose of Athen.; if Asx* 
Tffoy is not to be considered as applicable only to the Attic wri- 
ters, Athen. is made to say what it is scarcely possible to sup^ 
pose that he could mean to say, that ^rray^ve; is a barbarism. 
For he himself p. 652. quotes Pho&nicides : Iv Mi<rouj(x.6yij, xouSsv 
jjy roureoy oXw; Upig arroLy^va (tviji^^olXuv tcux /S^cvjxarctfy, and adds, 
'£y T^MToif TijpijTcoy xoA rrjv toD etrrayvivos fji,v{ipi^r^v. Well then 
might H. Steph. Thes. exclaim: — '' Sed mirum quod Athen, 
I. c. subjungit, Xfxrioy Se xa) 'iirrayai, xdi ov^ arrayvivis- Nam 
illud arrayif non solum ap. Aristot. legitur id. A. 9f ^6* (1^90 
sed a Latinis etiam usurpatur, ac inter alios a Plin. 10, 48. 
Quinetiam Eust. 854(::=795, 38.) 7*e vnXaioy array ax (read arr 
riyai) iiiv *Amxmq^ arrayiivtf li xoimg : indicans in communi 
Gr. ceterorum dialecto fuisse usitatum. £t paulo ante^ i7fg«* 
tnrwrtv ol '^mxoi to arraydcy o$ arrayiv xomnpov Xtyirai, xXxvi" 
IMVog oLrrayy^vQi. Item SchoK Aristoph. (2*. 257.) 'O irraya^ 


13 Obsenfathnts in^ ^. 

. In p. )£4. .observations on the words avacroX^, tviroX^, ^«rl\« 
Xtfy MffreXXopy 9re introduced. The reader will find much on this 
su^iect in Barker's NoM on the Etym. M. p. 1081-2. and 
in. the .C/a«»ca/ Recreations, p. 156-62. '' In Prom. p. 176. 
line 99? 100. we approve of the separation between «ij and virt', 
and think it e(|uall7 just and ingenious ; but appareo or orior 
hppears to be in this passage a more natural translation of hurtilr 
kaif than injungere, if it can be supported." Edinburgh Monthly 
Aeview ofDunbarh Additions to DalzeTs Collectanea Majora, 
for March 1821. That the word will bear this sense had beeo 
abundantly shown by Mr, B. in the Class. Recr. 1. c. 

In p. 187. Lobeck shows that Xlfiavog is used ^* pariter dear* 
hore quam de lacrymq, XtfioLvooros de thure et de arborCy^ and adds ; 
7--'' De singulis locis nemo praestet, quum saepe Codd. inter se 
dissentiant, Herod. 4, 73. Joseph. A. «/• 3, 6, 136.; sed libe- 
fiorero fuisse hums vocis usum vel ex eo colligi licet, quod simir 
liter ;^eXcGyii de Supellectile testudinea, r^ixXivft yfiXcovi]^ Philo de 
Vita ContempL 896. et fr»gii pro sar£2b//i^c^ Pbilostr. Jmag. 
], 6. 770. et iLiXi^fTA pro mell^ iisurpatur Soph. (Ed* C. 
481. ut notiora prseteream." Henc^ Barker in Woljii Anal'. 
Liter. 2, 63-7. (Classical Journal T. 18. p.. 347. New Gti 
T/ies. p. 49. n. 1. 100. n. 3. 223, n.) has been rather unguarded 
in what he has said about the phrase Icrfbo; fftsXiVoij;, used by 
f!pinicus ap. Athen. 432. 

** Credo equidem Comicum (ap. Eust. 518.) */S;oroAaixoy, 
Fellatorem, ut intelligi voluisse, ita scripsisse. Ab bac commas 
ni terminatione non videtur ^sch. recessisse, neque aijttar^ei;^o; 
scripsisse, quod Burneius ex £d. Stanl. receptum malit in Dia- 
tio Classico T. 24. p. 348., quodque cum xa)jX€pSoX»;^f7i» ap« 
Aristoph. nullam societatem habet.'^ P. 573. Here we have^ 
afjxaToXf<;^o; for oei|xaroXei;(o;, an accentual error, into whict\ />r. 
iBlomf. has fallen: see Aristarch. Anti-Bhmf. 111. 


Thetfori, Oct. 1823. 

^. t / %f\' ■ \ . : » 

Id - } 

y*^. . ■ • -X*^^ - ^ J » •» 



No. U\.—\Contitmed from No. LFL] 

40 explain how foreign . divinities and foreign rites and cere- 
monies became common in. Egypt, it will be necessary to advert 
for a nlom^nt to the history of the Egypto-Greeks. 

In the 8th century before the Christian aera, the adventurous 
colonies of Ionia and Caria had, amidst other commercial,, or 
r^ither piratical expeditions, undertaken a voyage to Egypt. Their 
brazen armour, < their courage, and activity were beheld with 
amazement by the Egyptians. At that time Psammetichus (son 
of Ecus, who was put to death by Sabbson the Ethiopian) was 
one of the twelve lords, who, upon the death of king Sethon, had 
assumed the government of the country and divided it among 
them. Possessing chiefly the sea-coast, it appears that he had 
acquired considerable wealth by commerce, which excited the 
jealousy of the other petty potentates. In the disputes which 
ensued, Psammetichus secured the assistance of these wandering 
Greeks, by whose valor and discipline he ultimately became sole 
monarch of Egypt, about the year 67O B, C. In consideration 
of such important services he rewarded his allies with lands upon 
the Nile, which induced many of them to settle in that country. 
From this sera a Grecian colony subsisted in Egypt, which main- 
tained an intercourse with their countrymen, and rendered the 
transactions of that kingdom a part of genuine history. — ^The 
Greeks upheld the throne of his successors until Apries, the 
fourth in descent from Psammetichus, having undertaken an ex- 
pedition against the Greek colony of Cyrene, was dethroned by 
Amasis, the cotemporary and ally of Croesus. Amasis rivalled 
the Lydian prince in his partiality for the language and manners 
of the Greeks. He raised a Cyrenian woman to the honors of 
liis bed. ' The Greeks who had served his predecessors^ and 
who, in consequence of the Egyptian law, obliging the son to 
follow the profession of his father, now amounted to near 
30^000^ he removed to Memphis, his capital, and employedthem 


* Herodotus, lib. ii. 

20 Observations on the 

as bis body-guari). He encouraged the correspondence of this 
colony with the mother-couotrj ; invited new inhabitants fronpi 
Greece into Egypt ; promoted the commercial intercourse b^ 
t ween the two nations ; and assigned to the Greek merchants, 
for their residence the town and district of Naucratis on the 
Mile^ where they enjoyed the free exercise of their religions 
processions and solemnities, and where the industry of the little 
island of .^!gina in Europe, and the opulence of several Greek 
cities in i^sia, erected temples after the fashion of their respec- 
tive countries. 

Herodotus visited Egypt about the year 450 B. C. ; there 
was therefore an interval of more than 200 years for the expor- 
tation of the Gods and religious ceremonies of the Egyptians, 
and for the importation of foreign deities and rites of worship 
among the Egypto-G reeks and others whom commerce had in- 
duced to settle in that country. 

This shows how the 'borderers of the Nile, according to He- 
rodotus, were familiar witb the Gods, and many civil institutions 
of Greece,. during the most Aorishing period of the Egyptian 
hierarchy^ and how the two systems subsisted and descended 
together to the ^Macedonian conguest, and, through the tolerant 
disposition of the Ptolemies, to the time when the sceptre of 
Egypt passed from their hands to those of the Romans without 
ev^r amalgamating. It was not the natives but the descendants 
of the Greek colony from Lesser Asia^ who had acquired not 
only a permanent settlement but the exclusive commerce of the 
country, by whom the Egyptian symbols were mingled with 
those peculiar to the mythology of their mother-country. Un- 
like the Egyptians, the Greeks had no scruples respecting ob- 
jects of adoration.: they welcomed those of every nation; and 
when they could not borrow^ they invented. 

From these observations it is easy to reconcile tlie appear- 
ance of Egyptian symbols in. ibe Zodiac, in conjunction with 
those of Greece. As, therefore, the Zodiac consists of an as- 
semblage of mythological figures peculiar to Greece ' and 
Egypt, and as the Egyptians never adopted foreign deities, it fol- 
lows that the whole Zodiac was the work of the Greeks ; because 
the mixture of the mythological symbols of .different countries 
was compatible wUh their religious customs, and incompatible 

' As Lihra is decidedly foreign to Egypt, andtherefore not against the 
argument, I have not thought it necessary to notice in the text its ex- 
ception to the classification there suted. 

Zodiac of Dendera. 31 

with those of the Egyptians. And as some of the fi^ures^ as has 
been proved, were not invented until the time of Pmdar, it fol- 
lows that the construction of the Zodiac could not be earlier 
than the age in which he florished. 

In the fourth place, the antiquity of the Zodiac is contradict- 
ed by the style and condition of the Egyptian temples. 

The Ptolemies and Roman emperors successively adorned 
E^ypt with numerous and magnificent edifices, which recent re- 
searches have identified with those which subsist at present.. 
Granger, in speaking of the ruins of two pakice» which made 
part of the ruins of ancient Thebes, says of the one, that the 
columns which supported the roof were of the Corinthian order ;. 
and that the chapiters of the columns of the othes were of the 

Of Tentyra Denon says,' ''After having seen all the other 
Egyptian monuments, diis still appeared the most perfect in its 
execution, and constructed at the happiest period of the arts and 

Belzoni mentions that in the ancient temple of Gyrshe in 
Nubia may be seen how the sculpture of primitive ages differs 
from that of the mere modem school. The colossi in it, indi- 
cate that the artist meant to represent men, but this is all; 
their legs are mere shapeless columns^ and. their bodies out of 
all proportion ; their faces are as bad as the artist could make 
them from the model of an Ethiopian*^ 

He farther observes that, *' from the good state of preservation^ and 
superiority of the workmanship^ the temple of Tentyra is probably of 
the time of the Ptolemies.'' *< The circular form of the Zodiac in the in* 
ner apartment,'' he adds, ** led me to suppose in some measure, that this 
temple was biiilt at a later period than the rest, as nothing like it is seen 
any where else. The eastern wall of the great temple, is richly adorned 
with figures in intaglio relevato, which are perfectly finished,^ ** The 
temple of Edfu," he continues,. *< may be compared to Tentyra in ppint 
of preservation, and is superior in magnitude. The propylaeon is the 
largest and most perfect o^ any in Egypt, covered on all sides with colos- 
sal figures in intaglio relevato. At £1 Kalabsbe are the ruins 6f a tem^ 
pie evidently of a later date than any other in Nubia; for it appeared 
to be thrown down by violence, as there was not that decay in its mate- 
rials, which I have observed in other edifices. There are two columns, 
and one -pedestal, on each of the doors into the pronaos. They are 
joinei by a wall raised nearly half their height; which proves the late 
period when this temple was erected, as such a wall is clearly seen in all 
other temples of later date ; and I would not hesitate to say, that Ten- 
tyra, Philoe, £dfu, and this temple, were erected by the Ptolemies; for 

• Vol. ii. ch. n. 

22! Ob^HrvieloM an. the 

^i|gh there itf« great similitude in tfll the Egyptinn t^inplea» ydl Affct 
is a certain elegance in the forms of the more recent, that diatinguis^ea 
them from the older massy works, whence they appear to me to hava 
been executed by Egyptians under the direction of ibe Greeks/' 

Oo a MS.- map of the course of the Nile^ from Essouan to 
the confines of Dongola, constructed by Colonel Leake, chiefly; 
from the journal of Mr, Burckhardt, we have read, say^ the re- 
viewer of Light's Travels ia Egypt and Nubia, the following 

note : ' 


'< The ancient temples. abov^ Philoe^are. of .two very d^eyent kinds ) 
those excavated in the rock of Oyrshe.and Ebsainbul, rival .som^ of ^he 
grandest w6rks of tbe £gyptia6s^ and may be supposed at least coeval 
with the ancient monarchy of Thebes; The, temples Constructed in ma- 
sonry, on the other hand, ate not to be compared with those 'oF Egypt, 
either in size or in the costly decorations of sculpture and painting } they 
are prol^alily tbe works of a much later age.** 

Mr# Davison found the colors in Teatyn} Thebes and Dios* 
polis ^iil fresh and vivid. 

In another part of Belzoni's work he says, ** I observed the figure of 
Harpocrates which is described by Mr. Hamilton, seated on a fuli4)lown 
lotus, with his finger on hisiips, on the side UraU of tbe piuBaos of the tera* 
pie of E^lfu, as in the minor tiemple.of Tentyra* Qn . the ;prc|pyl|epfi of 
the Itemple of Dakke, are several Egyptian, Coptic, ana Greek inscrip- 
tions. In the granite quarries 2i hours south-east of Assouan, I found 
a Column lying on the ground with a Latin inscription. Capuin Cbilia, 
in uneovering the ground in front of the great Sphinx near thepyraipidsi 
found at the Bottom of a staic-case of SS. stepSy an altar, wit^a Greek in? 
scription, of the time of the Ptolemies* Forty-five feet from this he 
found another, with an inscription alluding to the Emperor Septimius 
Sevenis ; and near to the first step was a stone, with another Greek in* 
scription alluding to Antoninus.'^ 

** We thus find,*' says Mr. Burckhardt, ^ in Nubia specimens of all 
the different seras of Egyptian architecture, the history of which ind^ 
can only be traced in Nubia; fur all the remaining temples in Egypt 
(that of Gome, perhaps, excepted) appear to have been erected in an age 
when the science of architecture had nearly attained to perfection. If 
I were to class the Nubian temples according to the probable order of 
their erection, it would be as follows. 1st. Ebsainbul ; 3nd. Gyrshe ; 
5(1. Derr ; 4th. Samne, &c.'' (Mr. Burckhardt enumerating downwards 
to Tafa, the 14th in his order of succession.) 

• * • 

. Socb is the information afforded upon this subjeclby. 900^eof 
the most recent and respectable travellers in that Country, lirom 
an attentive consideration of which there appears strong evidence 
against the high antiquity pf those magnificent fabrics. The jGrst 
part of the evidence worthy of {particular uqtice^ is the ^xiat^iKe 

mmtmmmm n i t \ n... i, i , ' , ,i ' ,-^ t ' . n i u » 

' Quarterly Hqyi^vr, Vol. 19. 

Zodiac ofDendcrai 3S 

pf two of the orders of architecture amoiig the ruihs of Thebes^ 
ihe Corinthian and the Composite. ^ ' 

The orders of architecture were unknown in ancient Egyptj, 
Assyria^ Babylonia, Persia, India, and China, Their invention ig 
ascribed to the Asiatic Greeks who florished in the vicinity of 
Phrygia and Lydia. The silence of Homer respecting them in* 
his architectural descriptions, particularly of the palaces of A1-- 
cinous and Ulysses, is the argument upon which the opinion ia. 
founded that they were not known in his time. Perhaps their 
earliest appearance was in the temples of Jupiter at Olympia, 
and of Diana at Ephesus, raised respectively about the years 
630 and 560 B. C. Scopas, of Ephesus, who florii^hed about 
the year 450 B. C, employed the three Grecian orders in the 
second temple of Minerva at Tegea in Arcadia. The art of 
ciitting marble, which afterwards furnished Grecian ingenuity' 
with the materials of those inimitable productions which are 
still the wonder of the world, was unknown at the sera of the 
Trojan war ; for in the description of the palace of Alcinous, 
which is represented as shining with gold, silver, brass, and am- * 
ber, there is no mention of that s.ubstance. 

The Doric, or, as it is emphatically called, the Grecian order 
was the first-born of architecture, and in its composition seemS' 
to bear authentic marks of its legitimate origin in wooden con*' 
struction transferred to stone. It is probable that the earliest 
Greek temples were of wood, since so many of them were con- 
sumed during the invasion of Xerxes. The temple of Jerusalem 
was surrounded with columns of cedar; and Vitruvius ihforoia 
us, that the ancient Tuscan temples were constructed with wooden 
architraves. Four centuries from the Homeric times we find the 
Greeks arrived at the highest excellence in the polite arts. The 
progress and improvement in architeetiife-app^r^ to^have oc- 
cupied a period of 300 years, beginning from the time uben Ihef 
temple of Jupiter at Qlympia, and those of Samoa, Priene,* 
Epbesusi and Ma^esia, were begun, until thei time of Periolet/ 
when the ornamental style of the Greeks attained its ^tgioff 
beauty and perfection in the Parthenon of Athens. AU the vane«! 
ties and ornaHi^nts in architecture, together with the lonie Mit' 
Coritttbiaii orders, were invented, within this tspace of time ;*^' 
whether all this was their own invention, and by what ste|w they: 
made such progress, is not mentioned; but the following obser- 
vations may help us considerably in this difficulty. 

. !f While jUipi.eQt Greece was.hacasaed hy intestineuliasensions,.aBd its- 
northern frontier exposed to the hostility of neighboring barbarians, the 
eastern colonies, tspjoy^^ V'^f<oi^nd ' peace, and flariabed 'in the vicinity 

34 Observations on the 

«f Phrygia and Lydia, the best cultivated and mo^t wealthy provkic^tf 
of Lower Asia, and perhaps of the ancient world. History and Poetrv 
a{ike extol the golden treasures of the Phrygian and Lydian kines. Their 
subjects wrought mines of gold, melted the ore, moulded figures in 
bronze, dyed wool, cultivated music, enjoyed the amusements of leisure 
and indulged the demands of luxury, when the neighboring countries of 
Cappadocia and Armenia remained equally ignorant of laws and arts^ 
and when the Medes and Persians lived in scattered villagesi subsisted 
by hunting, pasturage or robbery, and were clothed with the skins of 
wild beasts. Through the supine neglect of their neighbors respecting 
maritime afiairs, the Asiatic Greeks acquired without contest and en- 
joyed without molestation, besides several valuable islands, the whole 
western coast of the continent to the extent of 600 miles. The lonians 
possessine the mouths of ereat rivers, having convenient and copious 
harbors before them, and oehind, the wealthy and populous nations of 
Asia, whose commerce they enjoyed and engrossed, attained such early 
and rapid proficiency in the arts of navigation and traffic as raised the 
cities of Miletus, Colophon, and Phocaea to an extraordinary pitch of 
wealth and grandeur, and who, as their population and prosperity in- 
creased, diffused new colonies everv where around them. Such multi- 
plied advantages could not languish in the hands of men who had ge- 
nius to conceive, and courage to execute, the most arduous designs. 
With the utmostlndustry and perseverance, they improved and ennobled 
the useful or eleeant arts, which they found already practised among the 
Phrygians and Lydiansi They incorporated the music of those nations 
with their own. Their poetry far excelled whatever Pagan antiquity 
could boast most precious. They rivalled the skill of their neighbors in 
moulding clay and casting brass. They appear to have been the first 
people who made statues of marble. The Doric and Ionic orders per- 
petuate in their names, the honor of their inventors. Painting was first 
reduced to rule, and practised with success among the Greeks; and we 
may be assured that during the seventh century before. Christj the 
lonians surpassed all their nei^hborfl, and even the Phenicians, in the 
arts of design, since the magnificent presents which the Oracle of Del- 
phi received from the .Lydiau kings, were chiefly the productions of Io- 
nian artists.^' ' 

Thus we find thai when the Asiatic Greeks 6r8t sent a colony 
to Egypt, they had made greater progress in the arts, particularly 
architecture, than the Egyptians appear to have made in any 
period of their history. A proof of their high civilization at this 
time, is, that in the very next century Ionia gave birth to philoso- 
phy* At a very early period also, we find not only that the leading 
states of Greece, such as Athens, and Corinth^ but little ob- 
scure republics of JSlagna Graecia whose names alone can be 
gleaned from history by the careful antiquary, such as Pffistum, 
Segesta, and Selinus, erected works which would be a considera- 
ble enterprise for die greatest nations of modern times. The 

Gillies' History of Greecci vol. i. ch« 7. 

Zodiae of Dendera. 25 

portico of the great temple of Selinus in Sicily, which is one 
of the six still remaining, though prostrate and in ruins, on the 
site of that city, consisted of a double peristyle of^ eight columns 
in front and seventeen in depth, each of which was 10 feet dia- 
meter and 50 high. 

Let us now look at the state of Egypt about the same time. 

** At the invasion of Sabbaeon,'* says Mr. Bryant, " the Egyptians 
were divided by factiuns and under many petty princes; and when the 
£tiiiopic government ceased, they again lapsed into a state of misrule. 
Of these commotions the prophet Isaiah speaks* ch. 19. v. S. where he 
predicts tlie destruction of Egypt. 'From Sabbaeon to A pries there is 
great uncertainty and confusion, owing to the feuds and commotions, and 
to the final dispersion of the people, which was attended with the ruin 
of their temples and colleges.' In the time of Pharaoh-Necho, Nebu- 
chadnezzar visited this country with such severity as almost to extirpate the 
nation. What Egypt then suAiered may be learned from what was pre- 
dicted by Jeremiah, ch. 46. and Ezekiet, ch. 29. According to the last 
prophecy, the desolation of the country and dispersion of the people was 
to continue 40 years.'' ''The accounts in the Egyptian histories con- 
ceruing these times are very dark and inconsistent. So much- we learn, 
that there were great commotions and migrations of people when Pha- 
raoh-Necho and Psammetichus are supposed to have reigned. And 
both these and the subsequent kings are represented as admitting the 
Carians and other nations into Egypt, and hiring mercenaries for the de«* 
fence of the country. Most writers mention an interval about this time 
of eleven years which is styled Chronos Abatileuihos^ which Sir J. Mar- 
sham thinks relates to the anarchy brought on by Nebuchadnezzar." 
** In the 27th year of the captivity, Egypt was again desolated by the 
Babylonian monarch, according to the predictions of Jeremiah, chapters 
30, 43, 44. ; and of Ezekiel, ch. S9. This is supposed to have happened 
in the time of Apries, the Pbaraoh-Uophra of the Septuagint, and was 
also to continue 40 yei^rs/'^ 

This shows the great obscurky in which the transactions of 
the Egyptians are enveloped, in times subsequent to that assigned 
by Herodotus for the commencement of the authentic history 
4o( that people, which he informs us dates from the accession 
of Psammetichus. What he related, upon the authority of the 
priests, respecting events prior to this aera are palpable fictions, 
and all that we know of them is derived from glimpses afforded 
by the sacred writings. * 

> Analysis, vol. vi. pp. d9e et seq. 

* '* The ancient Egyptians," says Mr. P. Knight, ''would never reveal 
any thing concerning their sacred symbols, unless under the usual ties of 
secrecy; wherefore Herodotus, who was initiated and consequently under- 
stood them, declines entering into the subject. In the time of Diodorus 
the priests pretended to have some secret concerning them ; but they 
probably pretended to more science tlian they really possessed, in trbis. 

SO Clft^erf^iinom Ml Me 

Coimiiieticing, lliiereforo^ with the aalb^atic Ukory 4>f iImi 
EgypU^ns^ th« qtaettion Msp^cting ibe Aracdoii of these templet 
in timea anterior to the Ptolemies may be argued thu8.-^Psafn^ 
netiehiHB oscended the- throne in Jthe^ar 670 B. C, and reigned 
54 years. From the convulsed state of Egypt before his time 
it is reasonable to sjbppose that during the greater part of his 
reign he was chiefly occupied in consolidating his power. 
That he had not much leisure for the cultivation of the arts, ap* 
pears from his being engaged for 99 years in the siege of Azotus 
or Ashdod ill Syria. He was succeeded by his son Necho 11., 
who reigned 17 years. No monarch of Egypt exceeded his 
^eal for the e^^tension and improvement of his country ; his ex- 
ploits are well known, as also the effects of his military umbition, 
which proved fatal to Egypt. He was succeeded by his soil 
Psammis, who reigned 6 years. Apries then ascended the 
throne, and, after ruling Egypt for 25 years^ was deposed by the 
rebel Amasis^ who governed for 44 years. Under this prince^ 
Egypt appears to have been singularly prosperous. He was 
extremely libera], as mentioned above, to the Greeks ; and in his 
own country, it is said, he erected several magnificent buildings, 
and enriched at a considerable expense the principal temples 
with gifts and ornaments. This bnngs uadown t«> the year 524 
B. C, the sera of the Persian invasion. Mow, allowing that 
Nebuchadnezzar invaded Egypt only once, and that there is only 
one period of 40 years in which the country continued desolate, 
there will remain, after the deduction of tl]^8e,and the 54 years 
in which Psammetichus reigned, a period of only 52 years for 
the accumulation, by the Egyptians, of wealth and taste suffici- 
ent for the enfibellishment of their cburitry^ by the erection of 
most i>f these magnificent temples,«^-a;space perhaps too short 
even of continuous prosperity; but as a calamitous interval •of 
40 years happened between Necho IL' and Amasif, their erec<^ 
tioti by the native 'princes of Egypt must be coi»ide:red impossi-^ 

as well as in other instances ; for Strabo, who was eotemporary witH 
Diodorus, and much superior to him in learning and judgment, says that 
they were- mere s ac r i fi tes without any knowledge of their ancient philo^ 
sophy and religion. The hieroglyphics continued to be esteemed more 
hoi}' and ven.erable than the copveotional.signs for sonnds ; but though 
th^y pretended to read and even to write them, the different explana- 
tions Which they gave to different travellers, induce us to siispett that4t 
was ^\\ imposture ; and that the knowledge of the ancient hieroglyphics, 
and conseduently of the syrobdlical meaning of the sacred animals, 
ikrished with their Hierarchy nnder the Persian and Macedonian kingK, 
iie.^-^I^i^rjfintQihe LangiOigeiSfe, ; Ctof. Jmirualp Vol. 94. ' ^ 

Zidiac oflhndtraj 

lHe.-«- Whatever tfaerafofe may iitiTe b^en effedt^d • baTorei tbn 
Persian invasion, l^am inclined to ascnbe tp the EgyptGb-Gi'Mlw'f 
for, as^tbese, according to H^rt>dotiiS| kept up a constant inters 
course with their countryifien from the period of their first Nt-* 
tling in the country, l^gyp^ i^ ^ be. considered as all this timcf 
growing into a Greek kingdom. ' 

• Much is said about Egypt's :being the cradle of the arts and 
sciences. Many of them may have been- b^m tberoi bqt 1 havc^ 
nol met with any satisfattory evidence that in th^t eoumiy they 
ever ad^noed 6eyond a state of infancy previous to thei arrival of 
^ Greeks^ That the Greeks ^ere indebted ta the Egyptians 
for the principles t>f architecture, or that the temples of tlie for-> 
mer were improvements upon those of the latter, 1 see no 
reason to believe ; for, when the Asiatic Greeks sent a colony to^ 
Egypt^ they were a more polished people than the Egyptians, 
and certainly much their superiors in the art of war, since a hand-^ 
ful of them enabled Psammeticbus to sobdue the whole country.; 
Whence then did the Asiatic Greeks derive the elements of ci-' 
vili2ation and the rudiments of the artSy particularly of ak-ebitec-^ 
ture^ in which at this early peribd tiiey had made sucb profici«^ 
ency ? was it from. Egypt, of which almost nothing certain is fte-> 
lated by heathen writers previous to the year 670 B. G<, and with 
which they seem to have had no previous intercourae ; or was iH 
from their highly civilized neighbors.the Lydians andPhry^ans,* 
with whom they maintained the strictest, friendship; and wboni 
even the Egyptians themselves acknowledged to be an oldei^ 
people i 

Of those who may be disposed to answer this question in hi'* 
vor of Egypt, i would ask*^in what ancient historian is there a 
description of an Egyptian teiftple before the time of- Psamme-' 
ticbus; or whQ> iimong modern travellers, will poini tooe^ of all 
those which yet exisi even in ruins^ as belonging* to that distant 
age i Nay more> I doubt whether there was iv temple at' all in^ 
Egypt, in masonry at least, before this tililiQi The sacred re^ 
cords are silent on this subject, and the-Hiiebrews had nottf 
temple until monarchy was established among them. ' Whiter 
midera theocracy^ a tabernacle it would seem wasneeesifary;: 
but its form was not a copy from an ancient building, for the' 
Deity condescended to give, himself^ the plan to Mosed, as he' 
bad dene that of the ark to Noah, and those who" worked the 
ornaments were supematurally endow^.-^But I proceed : 
~ The Persians daring their sovereignty never 'relaxed in the 
persecution of thia unhappy people ;-^persecutioti excited rebel- 
lion^ rebelUon> was punished- widi e^ravated trueKy, and in -tbia 

28 Observations on the 

manner Egypt for the space of two centuries was the perpetual 
scene of crimes and punishments. As no one therefore will 
look for the embellishment of Egypt under the Persian dynas* 
ty, the sra of these buildings must be reduced to the times of 
the Ptolemies. The steady patronage and liberal eneouragement 
which the two first of these princes extended to the prcfessora 
of the polite arts is well known ; and the state of the times im- 
mediately succeeding the Macedonian conquest^ seems to have 
been peculiarly favorable to their views. The unceasing war» 
in Lesser Asia, and miserable disorders which afflicted the 
political world, suspended as it were the labors of man, and 
threatened the extinction of the arts and belles-lettres in Greece. 
To fugitives of every description, but especially to proficients iu 
elegant and useful studies E^ypt afforded a secure asylum. How 
fanciful soever might be their tenets, from whatever quarter they 
came, and whatever causes had driven them from their countries, 
all literary strangers were welcome to Ptolemy Soter, In this 
he imitated his former general and sovereign Alexander, whose 
zeal in the furtherance of science may be estimated by the fact 
of his having sent at one time into Greece 10,000 talents to be 
expended on works of art. 

A proof tliat they possessed the power of fully gratifying their 
inclination, appears in the account of the national establishment 
and revenues under Ptolemy Philadelphus. According to Ap- 
pion, the army of this prince consisted of 200,000 foot, 40/)00 
horse, 2000 armed chariots, and 30Oelephants. His arsenals were 
copiously stored with all sorts of military engines, and with spare 
armour for 300,000 men. His navy consisted of 1 12 ships having 
from 5 to 35 tier of oars, with 3500 smaller vessels. 4000 mer- 
chantmen navigated the Mediterranean, and 800 splendid barges 
plied upon the Nile. The sum in the treasury at his death 
amounted to IQO millions sterling. — From these observations 
there t:an be no doubt that the Ptolemies were, in point both of 
taste and wealth, quite adequate to the erection of these splendid 
monuments of art ; and beyond the sera of their dynasty we need- 
ed not to proceed in our inquiries respecting them, if the style 
and architectural costume, as it were^ of several did not indi- 
cate the workmanship of another people. Prior to the Mace- 
donian conquest, all the temples of Greece and its colonies, in 
Sicily and Italy, appear to have been of one order, the Doric, 
and one general form, though slightly varied in parUcular parts, 
as occasional convenience or local fashion might chance to re-^ 
quire. Their general form was an oblong square of 6 columns 
by 13, or 8 by 17; enclosing a walled cell, small in proportion. 

Zodiac of Dendera. 29 

in soine instances left open to the sky, in others covered by the 
roof which protected the whole building ; but in Egypt many 
appear in the costume of the happiest period not only of Gre<* 
cian but of Roman architecture. 

Until their comiexion with Gteeee^ the Romans made no 
prioress in architecture. But 200 years B. C. we find Cossu- 
tiuB, a Roman architect, conducting ^e building of the temple of 
Jupiter Olympus^ the principal edifice in Athens^ which had 
been begun by Pisistratus. 

The conquest of Greece first gave them a taste for the fine 
arts, and that of Asia furnished them with the means of indul- 
gence. The return of Sylla from the Mithridatic war, was the 
aera which was marked for the first excess in architecture in 
Rome ; and marble first came into common use in the time of 
Jiditts Caroar. Under the emperors, the extent, the materials, 
and the ornaments of the Roman dwellings almost exceed be- 

Augustus distinguished himself .by his love for building. In- 
stigated by his example, and by a desire to pay him court, his 
relations, his wealthy subjects, the governors of his provinces, 
princes tributary or allied, all engaged in some architectural en- 
terprise ; and the general tranquillity of his reign was favorable 
to their operations ; so that not only in Rome and Italy, but also 
in the provinces, grand and sumptuous edifices were erected. But 
of^II who courted the favor of Augustus by the cultivation of this 
art, none equalled Herod the Great. He raised so many struc- 
tures of great splendor and utility, that the rebuilding of the 
temple of Jerusalem, though it occupied for eight years the 
labors of 10,000 men, was but a small part of what he performed. 

Under Adrian architecture florished ; he was himself a hard 
student in this science, and antiquity does not record any person 
whose buildings are so numerous and widely spread. Much of 
bis time was spent in visiting the provinces, and throughout the 
vast extent of his empire he raised monuments of architecture 
beyond the scale of ordinary edifices. Italy, Greece, Egypt, 
Germany and Britain were indebted to bis munificence ; and 
from the liircumstance of his name having been engraved upon 
the walls in so many places, he is said to have obtained the name 
of ' the wall-flower.' 

These observations account sufficiently for the appearance of 
Roman architecture in Egypt. 

As, therefore, the history of Egypt before the time of Psam- 
metichus is fabulous, and as from his time to the Persian inva-* 
sion the Egyptians were unable, firom their poverty, civil dis- 

80 .Obitrvatiommistbi 

mtuiikkkf Mid, 'I tnay- add| vanft •§ tkiU^ to.noMetheie^wkptA 
edifices;; and as .they were leist of ail able to • do ao duiSagi ike 
gaveraaoctit of the' Persjati^ i^ follow^ that Ibnr coutraolioQ ia 
to be ascribed to the Ptolemies .and Roman emperors^ the only 
poteiitalies^ ki point both' of mmMti and taste,* faJly: equal to the 
aceompliahmeBt.oJr Aich inagttiftceni wofka. ) 
'. > The other point of evidence to be noticed is, dial even ia the 
t^kbst of th^^ teolples, .>there are images or figuraa whose in<* 
vention or adoption into ancient systems of mythology most be 
KAmd to a eoidparativ'ely recent date. For instance, in class- 
iaf^tlKsb' temples according to their probable ages, Mr. Burek** 
hat dft plaoet fibsambul .as the apparently oldest ; but in his 
desenption of:tbat temple* be informs us, that ^^The capitals 
of the coltimns vvepresent heads of Isis, similar to those of Tea* 
^m)'* and thajtr <*the ornament represented on these heads is 
in XbA^faun of a temple/'. . Now. Mr. P.. KiR|fbt, as mentioned 
above, assures us that the figure of Cybele with a mural crown 
wsh not hndwii tmtily:«ir ^ery litflo before,' the; Macedonian con- 
^ufe^t.' This temple therefore! canikot'date much, if any higher, 
than ibisd^ra.t i > 

Again, Belaoni'mys, that he observed the figure of Harpo« 
orator, von ihe^side wall of the temple of Edfu, such as it is dc'^ 
sonbedibyi Mri* Haocnlton, seated on a fall'4)lown lotus, with hia 
finger, tin htS/ lips, as in the minor temple of Tentyra. But as 
Mii.'IIsaniltoo hms' given good reasons for believing tbet such a 
repiesentation of Harpocrates wiis peculiar to the Romans, is 
follows thi^ thiff teia pie must hnve been erected* by them; an 
opinion corroborated by other features of this buildings 
. Wkhoat entering into n disquisition ^concerning the origin of 
iddatry, and its varieties, it is sufficient to know that the em- 
pfaiyment of tlie human form by the beatbcn^ was perhapa later 
iban.that of any other, in any given country; and that by the 
Egpptiom^ropir it never' was enq>loyed at all. Alltbe tem*^ 
pleii,idiesefor<lyitt whichithey sire found mnst have been frequented 
only by (hose^ to the genius of wboserelq^ion thu spede^ of ido-^ 
li^:vraa.et9mpatible«( « They could not' be the sanctuaries in 
wh^eh * were, offered! up the ' adorations of the iitftive ^Egyptians, 
torwhom faehogUa wereian abomini^^n ; 'and a perusal- of ' the 
second book of Herodotus will convince uS,. that the £gyptiai» 
ilymbola to be seen ithere^ were aiicb iw had ^been adopted' i^ the 
£gy pto-Greeks. The distinction, however, betweentlie' Egyp-^ 
^jras-proper and EgyptoiGreekfe, does not seem' to be attended 
to b7 the- father ^f histoid r himself. Hence that confusion and 
frequent GOtitndiptkni'M'bewheitreats of. the gods^the religiooe 

Zodiac ^ of Dptdera. 3 1 

ritea and m&miicirfl of the 'lEfjp^nmf arinog evideh|ly: fix>ih not 
dUcriinioaUiig between. wb«t was peculiar, lo jtbenatinre Egfj^mo^ 
and what to the natul-alized Orecddi* . U, however, we keep'tkis 
distinction in view^ when reading this book, these discrepancieii 
wil) disappear. 

These observationa on the JEgyptiao temples show, that in so 
far a< they are concerned no argument can be drawn from theni 
in favor either of the high antiquity or Egyptian origin of the 

. It is, I presume^tionecessary to pursue this subject any factfa^, 
or to enter into a formal refutation of the common opinion that 
the object under discussion is an astronomical figure, or Zodiac, 
constructed upon the principle of the precession, and indicative 
of the position of the calures at a giveu time, since in a formec 
part of this paper it was shown that the precession of the equi^ 
noxes was not known until the time of Uipparchus. Here, 
however, I cannot forbear adducing two respectable ancient 
authorities to prove, that even if the. precession bad been known 
from time.ip^meniQrial, it is impossible that the Zodiac in ques-i 
tion qould have been framed in reference to it, and have been^it 
the same time the work, of natim Egyptians. 

Herodotus says, ''The mode of cidculation of the EgypttsAs is more' 
qagacious tban that of the Greeks, who, for the sake of i^[Ustiag> the sea-^ 
sons accurately^ added every third year an intercalary month. They di>^- 
▼ide their year into twelve months, giving to each SO da^rs ; by addine 
five days to every year, they h&ve an uniform revolution ot time/' ' ' And 
Oeminus, a Greek writer of note, said by Petanius to have lived Ih the 
time of Sylla, informs, us that ^ the £ffy|)tiaiis did not take the quarter 
ofadayioto account, that their sacred festivals might go forward, a» 
they would do by this omission, one day in four years, ten days in forty,, 
a month in a huudred and twenty, so as to eo through all the seasons of 
the year in 1460 years; whereas the Gre^lcs by their laws and by an' 
oracle were directed to keep their sacred solemnities in the same months* 
in the year, and on the same days of the months ; for which purpose 
they made use of intercalations, to bring the accounts of the motions 
of the Sun and Moon as near together as possible.''^ 

These passages clearly prove that the Zodiacs of Egypt (sup- 
posing them to be such) were not constructed in reference to 
the motion in antecedeniia of the solstitial and equinoctial 
points ; because^ even when the error of a fraction of a day be- 
came known to the Hierogrammatai^ they intentionally neglected 

> £uterpe, ch. 4« 

^ Geminus, ch. 6. de Mensibus, cited by Dr. Long, Astron. vol. ii. 
p. 513. 

32 Observations on the 

it. Indeed, it does not^appcari that the priests or Egyptians in 
general ever used a more accurate year/ not even after the cor- 
rection of the sokr year by the Greeks. The year first used 
by the Egyptians, so far as we can learn, was tte solar year of 
360 days ; the redundant five days not being in very early timers 
conridered as belonging to the year, and therefore devoted to 
festivity ; though afterwards they were received into the year by 
being added to the end of it. . This year of 865 days^ which 
their kings took an oath in the temple of isis not to alter by 
intercalation, is that used by Ptolemy in his Almagest, and to 
which astrpnemers in general refer when they compute by Egyp- 
tian years ; and this year, wf find also^ continued to be used by the 
Egyptians for civil, sacerdotal, and astronomical purposes, down 
to the lowest period of their history, since even after the battle of 
Actium, when Augustus ordered the Julian year to be substituted 
for that formerly in use, the Egyptians refused to comply with the 
mandate, and continued to reckon by their ancient months with 
the five additional days, with the difference only of intercalating 
a day every fourth year between the ^8th and 29th of August of 
the Julian year. If therefore these Zodiacs, as they are termed, 
were the work of Egyptians and referred at all to the division of 
time, they could be intended to mark only the revolutions of 
the civil year ; a circumstance which disproves the opinion of 
their high antiquity. 

An argument against their being Zodiacs is furnished by the 
curious fact discovered by Mr. Call, that in several pagodas in 
India these self-same figures are arranged, in the form of a 
square. I have added a sketch of one of - these Indian Zodiacs, 
copied by the above gentleman from the ceiling of a Pagoda at 
Verdapettah near Cape Comorin. His drawing and account 
of it are inserted in the ISth Vol. of the Phil. Trans, abridged. 

Zodiac of Pendera. 




»>li— t^fii^^y— >*»■ I ' III I ■ r ■« 










O^oa jaqiyjVl 





This arrangement of tlie figures is suiBcient proof that no as- 
tronomical idea was attached to them by those who introduced 
them into India ; and it is equally difficult to conceive that any 
siich ^as entertained by those who placed them in the tombs of 

Tnat any thing can be drawn from the division into two bands 
of the Zodiac in the porch^ or from the double appearance of its 
Scarabaeus, as M. De la Lande has supposed, is not the case; 
the former being plainly incidental from the nature of the place^ 
and the other being as decidedly a sacred allegory. 

Upon the whole, 1 conclude that the term Zodiac, as applied 
to these assemblages of mythological figures in the temple of 
Dendera, and elsewhere in Egypt, is a misnomer, and that they 
are strictly pantHea, or exhibitions of the divinities who presided 
over the several mouths of the year ; attributes of Bacchus, in 
whose honor were held the Isiac festivals, so universal in the 
ancient world. The divinities who presided over the months, 
were the principal deities of the Greeks and Romans, as we 


Ceres August. 

Vulcan September. 

Mars October. 

Diana November. 

Vesta December. 

34 Observations on the Zodiac of Dendera. 

tearn from two linea of Ennius Cranalated from an ancient Greek 

''Juno, VesU, MinerTa, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars, 
Mercurius, Jovi', Neptonus, Vulcanus, Apollo." 

Now, in an old Roman calendar inserted at the end of Mo- 
rell's Latin Thesaurus, these are represented as presiding over 
the months in the following order : 

Juno presides over January. | Jupiter presides over July. 

Neptune February. 

Minerva March. 

Venua - April. 

Apollo May. 

Mercury June. 

It is evident that these are merely Roman names for the gods 
represented by the figures of the Zodiac. 

I conclude this subject by recapitulating the principal points, 
which I consider as established by the preceding reasoning. 

1st. I consider it proved that the figures of the Zodiac were 
mystic symbols peculiar to the mythology of the Egyptians and 
Greeks, by whom they were considered as so many personified 
attributes of the sun, or Bacchus the god of the year. 

Snd. That they were not signs, or indices to the seasons. 

Srd. That some of these symbols are not older than the Ma- 
cedonian conquest, and that Libra, in all probability, belongs 
to the age of Augustus. 

4th. That as the ancient astronomers were in the habit of al- 
tering the figures of the constellations, it is impossible to speak 
with certainty as to the forms of the most ancient. 

5th. That many of these figures were invented posterior to 
the latest species of idolatry, viz. the deification of mankind, on 
which account they cannot belong to a very remote period of an- 

6th, That none of the present temples in Egypt can be 
ascribed to the ancient inhabitant9, natives of the country ; and 
that most, if not all those in Masonry, are plainly referable to 
the Ptolemies, and Roman emperors, and consequently that no 
argument can be drawn from them in/avorof the high antiquity 
of any of their inscribed figures. If these corollaries shall be found 
the result of sound reasoning, the conclusion U legitimate and 
inevitable, that the Zodiac of Dendera, as it is termed, is not a 
record of the Ultra-Mosaic antiquity of the human race ; a con- 
clusion of importance to the more sober thinking part of the 
Christian world. Another, perhaps of some value to the anti- 
quary, ia, that all the temples, tombs, and other monuments. 

Canrt. Sam. Ante, t duoh. Mus. Brit «, ^c. 35 

upon wbich 0uch figures ure delineated; caanot possibly date 
higher than the Macedonian cooquest, and probably not be- 
yond Ibe age of Aiigualiis. 

J. M. 
Newcastk on Tyne. 

duobtcs MtAsei Britannici codicibus cdidit^ Textum 
emendamU Latine vertitf et Ccmmentario imtrtkvit, 
GiriLiELMUS Gesenius, Theologia D. et in Aca^ 
demia Fridericiana Haknsi Professor Regius. 

Pab8 L 

' § 1. — QujE nunc primum in lucem prodeunt Samaritanorum 
carmina, viros doctos prioris sevi non omnino latuerunt. Duo 
enim^ quibus usi suaius, codices penes Edm. CasteUum olini 
fuerunti qui turn in lexico Heptaglotto, turn in annotationibus 
Samariticis in Pentateuchum complura eorum loca excerpta de- 
dit.' Quam vero foliorum in his codicibus ordo mirum in mo- 

' ' In cod. Harlei. 5481. limine, manu Edm. Castelli scriptum exstat: 
** Ex dono reverendissimi viri amicique mei maxime honorandi magistri 
Wheelock, Arabic! in Cantabrigia Professoris, Oct. 1. ^16)53.'' Ita vero 
idem iile in prsefatione ad anootatt. Samariticas TBibl. Polypi. Lond. 

•T. yi.) : *^ Exhibemusitem varias lectiones, collectaspartim ex nu- 

peris annotationibus doctiss. Morini partim ex viri reverendiss. 

Jacobi Usserii Armacbani, Hibernias Primatis, manuscriptts codicibus 
Samaritanis, quos nobiscum communicayit^ et quorum unum pro solita 
ejus munificentia in me contulit (liturgiam sc. Samaritanam, cum foliis 
quibusdam valde imperfectis et sine ordine compactis commentarii Ara- 
bici in partem tan turn sectionis unius vel altenus Genes. Exod. atq^ue 
Levit.) partim etiam ex Liturgia Msta Samaritana, (quam dono mihi 
legavit amicus mens singularis, 6 puutapirtis D. Abrahamus Wheelgcus, 
Arabics linguae apud Cantabrigienses nostros professor primus, cel»y' 
Et in prsBfatione ad Lex. Heptagl. ^ Nee doctrinalia tantum, sed ritua- 
lia, juridica, medicinalia .... notavimus . . . • • e. g. Samaritanorum dog<- 

mauide Dei vito absoluta (▼. ^jtSHTVP et l^V^Z* ^' nay)>P«rf€c- 

36 Carm. Sam. Anec. e duob. Mus. Brit. 

duiD turbatus sit et disiectuSy at vix unum et altenim recte BftBt 
excipiaoti vera horum carmhium ratio Castelli aciem proraus 
effugit, et neque rhytbmum ille neque alphabeticum eoram ordi- 
nem assecutus ease videtur. Quo factum est, ut coDtextum 
carminum minime perspiciens, in siugulisy quft passim exhibuit, 
commatibus vel dispescendis vel legendis atque interpretandis 
non posset non saepissime a vero aberrare.' Neque magis 
pristiuum horum codicum ordinem carminumque veram indolent 
deprehenderunt et Thomas Mareschallus, qui magnam utriusque 
jCodicis partem Hebraico charactere transcripsit^* et alius vir 
doctus anonymusi qui in plagulis quibusdaqi cum cod. Harlej. 
5481. compactis singularum fere paginamm descriptionem La* 
tiaam dedit. Nos autem forte foitutia in hos codices dekti, 
simulatque alphabetica esse carmminteUes^erapus, el li^teratum 
ordine et phirographo ducibiis octq novemve carmina e disjectis 
poetse membris restituere facili negotio potuimus. Uorumque 
e numero sex, quae quidem publiea luce digniora visa sunt, 
postea otio dato emendata, perpolita, versione Latina, notisque 
criticis, philologicis et dogntiaticis iiistructa prelo paravimus. 

Duplicem autem h^sc carmjna apud doctos homines commen- 
dationem habitura esse speramus, philologicam alteram^ alteram 
dogmaticam. Ac primum quidem patriae Sainaritaiiclrum poe- 
a^s uQieum specimen continent u^que Arabica ipagn^m partem 

tltJne (v. !aZ***)» lnco«prchen?ibiUta,te (^iai/W)f providemia (K/f*^}, 
<fonstanii<i (Fd***)i misericordia univenali (5BTj;*i €l HDlZlF), de i^acra 
scriptuTR, tTadittotnbttt i^^tS feeni* eperibw (FiVX sabba^o (iVd^ 
et Va^nt), HebrfiBis («^^V)> sacerdotum iapsoram restitntione («v A/IT)* 
et, ob quod omni saeculo male audieniDt, sed Injuria, de itoaginibus 

^ Vide qiia ootavimas ad Carm. I, «, 7, 8. 12. 81. II, 5. HI, 14, IB. 

* Exstat hie faiciculus, octo folttft i»osiaBS in BiWidtheca Bodteiana 
Qxonien^i, Mime inter codd. BoJdleianos est No. 503. Vid« S. Ven. Aiop. 
mcoll BibHbthcca BodleiansB codd. raanustertJMiorum orientalmm catd©- 
gum. P. il. tol. 1. pag. 4. CffiWnim qua? potissimum cadicum Harieian* 
orum folia et quam recte tran«crrps6rit Mareschallus> exploratiim bou 
habco. PratereaBrKtMkttincommentatkincuU: aberdieSamanter,(qua 
inserta est pro'mptuario, quod inscribiHir: Bcitfage wir PbiU»»phi» «nd 
Gefechichte der Religion und Sittenlehre von C. T. Stawdlfo T. I. p. sa) 
se cjusraodi fragmenta olim Oxoaii e cod. Maresehall. 60., (qui idem est 
ac Bodfei. 503.) descripsisse refertj sed neque unqoatti usus est his frag, 
memis, n«<t«e hoc apograpbton in sch^is ejus manuscrlpii^, quorum cura 
mihi f ost mortem ejus demandata fuit, exstitit. 

Codicib. edidit G. Ge^iraius. 3? 

veraioiie iniAructaqSi qjm i^um lo<}uepdi interdun •ubobseumqi 
illustrat: deinde eadem ad dogmata Satnaritanorum penitius 
perspicietida iDaximopere iuserviuot^ et multo magis, quam ea, 
%tt» a recentioribas S9iimritai\is^ indoctis plerufuqae hominibus 
per Htteras impetrarunt Jos. Scaliger, Huntington, Jobus Lu- 
dolphus^ et recentiori memoria 111. Silvester de Sacy. (Cf. % 6.) 

§ 2. — Uterque, quo usi sumus, codex bodie in Musei Britaq- 
nici libris Harleianis asservatur, uterque bombycinus est et for- 
linse quadrate. £t alter qnidem (No. 5481.) isque pauio ma- 
joris formae, nonagiota quatuof p^giois constans, oliin liturgiciia 
et sacerdotum s. synagogarcharum Damascenorum ' usui destina- 
tus fuisse videtur. Foliis ejus admodum turbatis interjecta suni 
alia, quse con^mentariiArabico-Samaritani in Pentateucfaum 
fragmenta continent.* Ad marginem singuloruio carminum, vel 
ab eorundem initio et fine leguntur inscriptiones vel Samaritanae 
vel Arabicse ad rem Kturgicam plerumque spectantes, ut p« 14. 

i^l^t QM^( iIa^ sabbathuM nuptiarum benedictum ; p. 4fi» 
AtM^% %^t A ritus adoratiofmm : pag. 62. Sl^YiSS AXZSA 
8S^ Jt^' (^^ VjJ^ precatio saeerdotis magni; rariua 
auctorem indicantes, ut pag. 51.^1irZl SA^ SKS%^ AtZ^ffl 
Kl*SS'\ 1^» tl yiliJtt ^^F>a %OraV S9 precatio semoris. 
jib GalugtBfK^Ui Tobi^^Jilii KahalayOiipropitiussit Dominus 

omnium, pag. 77. J^U^I ^ SS^^a 2f^4^ senior is Zadaka^ 
Jiiii Isn^aelis. . 

Alter code^:^ minoris fprinae, numerp 5495. notatuA, pagipa^l 
quadraginta novem continens, calamouue paulo nitidiore exara- 
tus, privatis usibii^s destinatus fuisse videtur, eamque fqrsan ob 
fcaussam ssepius versionem Arabicam babet singulis carminibus 

■ De muneribus Synagogs Samaritanae apud Damascenos vid. Hottin- 
geri Brbl. Orient, pag. 309. 1 10. 
* Vide supra Castelli veroa, not 1. p. 35. 

' Ab OahtgOf i. e. pater eJevationis s. magnificationis (a tl^'X ma^nifi- 
cavit). Nomina propria, quorum pars prior est ^ff, Samaritanis frequeiv- 

tantur, cf. mTD ^3», ^mp 3«, rwnHt 3M. p^ a» rmwD a« 

in subscriptiunibus codd. biblicorum. Vide Hutt. I. c. dc Rossi Spec. 

Variarum Lect. p. 176. Kennicotti Dissert. Gen. ed. Bruns. p. 361. 

Cseteruro Brunsius, Castellum s. voce fl^D ^^^^ inteUigens, Ab Galugam 
omnium hortim caruiitium auctorem esse voluit. (St'audlins Beiixiige 
I. c. p. 87.) 

38 Carm. Sam. Anec. e duob. Mm. Brit. 

«d]ecteiD. Sicut in priori codice tranluiiqttain nomim poeterimi 
notantur, u^ pag. 15. ^jd^ ^ p. 23. iSs^ (^ ^j^IiXiuir 

Saadeddin hen Zadaka, J»-' exf *-«-->'. Josephm ben Isaak 
al. Magis autem notatu digQum, in eodem codice conspicnas 
esse quatuor tabulas, ad anni computadonem pertinentes, quales 
fere a Russavio Halebensi se petiisse scribit 6 vani Silv. de Sacy.' 
Et prima quidem tabula (pag. 2| 3.) ad annum pertinet 973, ut 

ibidem legitur characteris Arabicis male pictis (^>Aa«m3 ct'SIm^ 

SkmJ^. In cellulis ejus notantur nomina mensium Arabum et 

Syro-Macedonumi itemque nomina dierum et numerus horarum 
diei et noctis. Tabula secunda (p. 6, 70 ad annum pertinet in- 
termissionisy tertia (p. \2, 13.) ad annum 977, quarta pag. 28, 
£9. ad annum 971. quod ubique notae in margine exstantes com- 

monstrant. In altera vero tabula post nomen mensis ^«^l 
legitar:» ^ j^\ \y^ %Juai *U jJUl iJws-^' *WI fi^\ 

jms. jt CpULm jutS Scito, Deo jubente, lunam medio hoc 

mense dj^icere horas octo novemoe» \ Quum pro certo haberi 
possit, ad sram Mubammedicam pertinere bos annos/ ex his 
tabulis simul, quo tempore scripti sint codices nostri, luculenter 
apparet, i. e. post medium sa^culum sr» Cbristianse decimum 
seiLtum (vel accuratius annis 1663, 1565, 1569*) wo eodem fere 
tempore plerosque codices Samaritanorum biblicos exaratos 
esse aliunde constat.^ 

Litterarum figurae ad eas proximo accedunt, quae in epistoSs 
hodiemorum Samaritanorum ad Job. Ludolfum conspiciuntur ; 

hoc tamen est peculiare, quod litterfe ^, X et ttty ita sibi similes 
sunt, ut sgre dignoscantur, quae res et Castellum in his codd, 
legendis et me ipsiim ab initio saspe fefellit. Versio Arabica, 

' ' M^moire sur Tetat actuel des Samaritains, vers. germ, qus exstat in 
Staudlins und Tzschirners Archio fiir alte uod neue Kircbeogeschichte 
T. L p. 83, 83. 

^ Ita legitur pro iJouQI ^ mense undecimo, de quo vide Golium ad 
Alfergan. pag. 8. 

^ Haud 8cio an legendum sit %Jimat^* 

^ Hanc eaim isram constanter sequuntur in subscriptionibus codicum ; 
neque audiendiis est Hottiogenis, qui (Bibl. Orient, p. 310.) nonnunquam 
eos epocham Cbristianam ooservasse nionuit, nee tamen probavit. 

' Cf. de Rossi Spec. Variarum Lect. p. 171. Kennicott Diss. Gen. ed. 
Bruns. p. 361. Hotting, j. c. p, 309. 

CodicUf. tdidii G. GeMoici^. ZQ 

quam nos charactere vulgwi Cranscriptam dedvnuSi cttttactterac 
Samaiitico, adhibitis autem sigtiis diacriticis (ex. gr. ^ prd ^) 

exarata e8t> quemadmodum Abusaidae Pentateuchus in cod. 
Barberiniano. Passim tanden^ ubi liDese spatium litteris Sama- 
ritanis paulo obesioribus non suffecturum videbatur, medio 
contextui voces qtisedam Arabice scriptae intnisie smit, ut : - 

I, 14. . IPX^I \^^'^ ^^2./f 

§ d.—- Externa horum carminum forma s. rhythmm^ in aliis 
alius, turn Hebrasorum, turn Syrorum Araburoque leges rhyth- 
micas sequitur. Rbjthmicas dixi non metricas, quandoquidem 
HebrsBorum more a numerandis ponderaodisque ayllabis' absti^ 
nentes, in versibus metiendis et secundum normam quandam 
dispescendis acquieverunt. Ac pleraque carmina, ut supra mo- 
nuimus^ ad liiterarum ordinem digesta sunt^ ea lege, ut unum-^ 
quodque comma binis constet distichis, ab ea, quam Ittterarum 
ordo postulat, littera auspicantibus. (vide Caroi. i. v.) Ipsa 
tamen diaticha versuum Arabicorum instar ciesura quadam, qus& 
in medio est, in diias partes aequalesdissecantur, ita ut eodem 
jure, quod fecit Castellua, letrasticha vocare possis commata. 
Unius carmiois, quod apud nos sextum est, alia est ratio, quippe 
Gujus singula commata terms disticbis constant. Eodem arttfi^ 
cio, vel si mavis lusu poetico, praeter Hebneos delectari eliam 
Sjros Persasque, res i)ota est,' iisque addendi, quorum Ubri 
nuper innotuerunt, Nazorfci vel Gaiilaei,^ linguae morumque cog* 
natione cum Samaritanis nostris juncti. Insunt tamen his cddi- 
cibus alia etiam carmina, eaque simul < oftoiori Actn'a, iis similia, 

qua? Arabibus lamica (C!fU«^ mimica (<!^U«.^4)cet.nominantur; 

quorumque ea lex est, ut omnes totius carminis versus in eandem 
litteram exeant. Et lamicis quidem carniinibus annumerandum 
est illud, cujus fragmenta longiora cxstant cod. 5481. p. £9* 
mimicis id qiiod exstat ibidem p. 35, 6, 7.' quodque simul ad 
prius alphabeticorum carminum genus pertinet, siquidem littera 
stropharum initialis alphabeti normam ubique sequitur. Aliud 

■ I ' I " I M I 

' Assemani Bibl. Orient. Vol. HI. T. i. p. 63.' 328. Eichhorn in prs^f. 
ad Jones de Poesi A Mat. p. 22. 

^ Codex Nasorieus ed. Norberg. Tom. II. p. 186. sq. 

3 Ex eodero carminum genere est subscHptio rhyttiraica codicis Bar- 
beriniani, quam dedit de Eeai in Spec. Var. Lect. p. 171. 

40 Carrrn Sam, Ante, e dwpb. Mus. Brit. 

fe«riioylos habet in He desinente^ (iUd. pag. 63. 66. 69.). Sin«- 
galari aiUem v^jruficatores nottri is rereibus necuitduoi aiphabeli 
ordinejn struendis usi yuot liceotia, quam eandeoi Umap in Naxo* 
raeorum ejusdeni generis carminibua reperiea. Etenim pro ea^ 
quam litteraruni ordo poatulabat, littera, avpe .alia uai aiint cog^ 
nata : eamque licentiara perpatuo admiseriint ia litleris gtUtura- 
libus, s. c. pro M promiscue ponentes vel H vel H vel Vf raritia 
in aliis HUerisy ut Cafm. vi. 17. lin. 3. Waw pro Pbe, ibid, 
comma to Lamed bis^ pro Beach.. Pendet vero ea, quam dixi- 
mus licentia maximam partem a singular! ilia Samaritanorum in 
omnibus gutturalibus eodem §ono pronuntiandis negligentia.' 

■ « ■ • 

. ^ 4«-— Cuncta, qu» in utroque oodice leguntar, carmiiia 
i^iiiBoa psabnosque continent ui usum cultus pubiici Samarita- 
norum compositosy et eundem fere apod eoa, qneoi psalnii apud 
Judaeps, Icfeenm sustinuisse videntur. Poeseos genus, sicvl 
Syriacum, plerumque teoue est, omnesque anctores in eodem 
forme conaistunt et. sententiarum et imaginum orbe : neque 
deaunt tamen ingeniose et per faiaum verborum dicta (i. 8^ 1^ 
22. ii. 99 n 9 IB, 2A. vi. 15.). Raro ad aItiol«m spiritum 
assiirgit oratio. Lingnse idioma proximo accedit ad illud, ^uo 
Peataleuchi interpres Samaritanus usus est : attamcn babet iliud 
quaadam sibi propria, 'qwtt in versione modo laudato fru8i;ra 
qusi^aiveris (v. iA i, 4,), et ecmnanqnam tbI ad dialecti Hieroeoly-^ 
mitanae sinulitudinem accedit (iii. Id. v^ fi.) vel vooabuia bahet 
•X puriore Hebraiwno Arabismoque deprompta (vid. ad iv, 14. 
V, 10.). 

^ .5.-— Quae tribus quatuorre carminibus apposita est, Persia 
Arabica, et ad lectionem et ad sensum constituendum mafpi 
ilia quidem pretii, longiore forsan telnporis spatio post ipsa 
carmina et quidem eorum in usum confecta esse videtur, qui 
post linguam Samaritanam emortuam Arabico sermone tanquam 
patrio utentes tali ad intelligendum adminiculo'opus haberept. 
Qui eaili conscripsit, interpretum biblicorum instar^ id ssepissi- 
nie egit^ ut meta{rfioras audaciores interpretaretur et extenuaret 
(i^ 12. 15. 20. 22. iii| 4. 10.), qua in re cum Abusaida Penta- 
teuchi iiiterprete Samaritano- Arabico atiquoties ad verbum paene 

ct7itTt5tTfc, 1, iTDa Jxo afiiiirijuvuiiii piii8UJi8 puiiu, ex aiiiui wpv* 

pathismis, quos vocant, iden^ nagis >etiam^ quam. ipsi poetae, 

* De aliiy quibusdam aBoipaliis infra noUvimus ad lU 15. 
^ Vide Winer fie v^is* P^n^tt^ Sam^brit. p*^. et que^ uionuiaius iafia 
ad p. 43. n. 

Codibib. edidit O* Gesmiius, 41 

abhorret (t^ 17* iii^ 30.)* BisdeetM^ ^oa atiiiir, Affabks, iMhi 
omnino pura. ett, «t vtrhst kabel ircrixmmque foniias, qiue ¥«1 
Habraismum japiunt (i, l.ii, 170 cujuaqua genarii iim1ta<K> 
cummt in JvAieoniin lihria Anbice acribentiuniy' tcI Annate 
ianvm €t SanaritaiiisiiiuiB (ii^ 15.). Atiqiioties etiaiDy in ortfa<h> 
gvapbia certa^ aecuralioria gnmiinaitica^ regulas migraaae vidctttr 
(i, 17. iii> 1 !•)• . 

^ €.«^Longe utilisaima «a9e pluriHttimque valeae base carmiim 
ad «k^inata SanaritaBonnn iHustranda, dudum viifit, quamquam 
miiskiterpretaiidisiDterdDniciecutieiiB^inagnva Castellus,* maU 
foqoe 1^118 cotnmacli ad rem dogmaticani hqaa gentis accuratiiis 
perspiciendam inde reduodat, quam ex pkirimu alBs, que adiuic 
edita fumt, antiquis Samaiiiainoruiii menBinefitisy^ ne dicam de iia, 
quae veoetiliores Saaaanteniy antiqnitati» doneaticfe saepe parum 
gnari, ad philologos quosdam Europtma, harom rcrum cupadoa^ 
perscripseFUiit.4 SulMlstont eniin ea plemmque in ritifona eiternta 
deroonstrandiB, Deque interiora atlwgimt.&leipeiieftmlta, qmft 
in carniinibus nosUis panduMtar. Alque bb qvidani con^rmatur^ 
quae nos ipsi, Pentateuch^um Samaritanum cum Alexandrino 
c<Hifei«nte9 alibi obaarvyviaDos,' in re critiea, bermeneutica et 
dogmatioacognatieiieiiiqittndam Samarkairaa inter et Judaeoa 
Alexandrinos interoetsiaae^ Utiaque'eDim aeriorum JudaMurvm 
familia^ab ea, qoa; Jitda&ia Hieroaoljoutania placebat theologia, 
qosequetum m verbia S. S. amae faaerefaaJtet<8uperotiliosfiy turn 
iiminii^H^ pr«terea fiden dabot taaditoiiifouay itaide abhoriicar, 
aliam pilriarem magisque spiritalem doctniiae fiNrmulara aequiy 

■ Vide de lilm> tri^. Bavbar. Adler io Muaeo Caioo Borgiaiio p^^. 44, 

^ Vide l9cum, quern not. 1* p. 35. adBcripsimus. 

' PraBter^'utranique Pentateuchi versionem hue pertinet commentarius 
Arabicus in Pentateuchum in Bibl. Bodleiana exstans, (Hunt. 301. vide 
Nicolli cataloguRi p. 3. et specimen, quod inde escerptum dedit Sehnujw 
rerua^Ilepert. fiir bib). Lattetatur t. avi.), lAer Jama Lugdunensia, unde 
multa excerpsit Hottu^erus io Saiegmate OrientaU et in Enneade disser* 
tationum ; AMphatachi Chronicon (vid. Nicoll. I. c. pag. 40 cujus speci- 
mina dederunt Schnurrerus et de Sacy ; prae caeteris autem AbiManam 
Tyrfiopns dogmaticum, Oxonii asservaturo, cujus pracipua csapita nota- 
Yit NiealL ]. c. p. 3. 

^ Historiam literariam hanim epistolarutn ad Jos. Scaligerum, ad Oxo- 
uiense&Xmediante Hiuitingtoao)^ ad Jobum Luclolfunou ad Gregorium et 
de Sacyum Parisienses datarum vide apud 111. de Sacy 1. c. (Mtooire, 
cet. ab initio). 

' Comment, de Pcntateudii Samaritdui origiiie> indole et auctoritate, 
h 3. 14. 16. 

M Carm. 8am^ Ante, e duob. Mus^ Brit. 

mibliinioreai nofimiDqoam Sacne Scriptuna sentum tribuere, 
metaphysicis etiam meditatiooibiif iodulgere ecspit. ' NotissiOMi 
aunt PbilcMiis, et libri sapientiae auctoris Iheologumena : bis vera 
fthniliasuDti quae poetoe nostri de l^e Mosaica pbilosophantury 
quam Jam in hezaeinero e Deaprodiissedocent (iv, 18.), crea^ 
tttfarnm pracipuam (iii, 4.), mundi invisibilis nMoani et tpeciem 
esse volunt (iii, 17.)i qu» tamen omnibus sasculis diviita sapientia 
imbuendis sufficiat, cet. quamque ita fere exornant, ut de X^tp 
Pbilonis vel de coplft^v Osov agi videatur. Monotheismi prae- 
terea tenacissimi Dei unitatem et creationem ex nihilo eamque 
sine socio effectam magnopere celebrant atque inculcant^ et, ut 
nonnisi spiritualem ease Dei naturam tueantur, quicquid more 
bumano de eo dictum f ideretur^ magnopere extimescunt, idque 
atudiosi agunt, ut omne bumanae imbecillitatis opprobrium a 
aummo numine amoveant. Neque .tamen a traditionibus my* 
thiaque omnino alieni sunt^ easque tunc certe sequuntur, ubi- 
cunque ad legem magnificandam et augustiore specie induendaro 
iiaeere viderentur* (cf. Carm. iv, vi.). De Christologia . unua 
certe isque lamen eximius locus exstat, iii^ ^2. 

^ 7— ^uperest omnium difficillimadeietolchorum carminum 
disputatio. £t maximi quidem in hac quaestione momenti est 
carmen quintum (cf. iv, 4.), quod Samaritanos poetarum nos- 
trorum tempore ab hostibus exagitatos et oppresaos fuiase 
arguit. Jam vero in historia Samaritanorum ejusmodi conditio- 
nem circumspicientes, copia magis quam inopia laboramus^ 
Ifulia enim non aetata tcI cladium acceptarum disertafitmentio, 
vel talis reipublicae erat status, ut conditionem eorum tenuem 
fuisse et oppressam non possis non suspicari. Jam ante natum 
Servatorem Joannes Hyrcanus Samariam, urbem munitissimam, 
solo aequavit et templum in monte Garizim exstructum funditus 
evertit;' quo facto Samaritani Judaeis aliquamdiu servierunt, 
donee una cum iis in Romanorum potestatem pervenireut^ 
De injuria, quam ab Herode perpessi sunt, non quidem Jose- 
phus sed domestici scriptores memoriae prodiderunt.* Judaico 
bello idem fatum, quod universam Palaestinam etiam Samarita- 
nos pressit, cujus rei si non alia vestigia exstarent, vel hoc 
sufficere posset, quod Vespasianus cum exercitu per Samarita- 
nam regionem descendit, ibique castra posuit.' Maguam iis 

* Job. Archasol. xiii, 17. 18. 

^ Abulphatachus NeuesRepert. T. i. p. tdtfti 

' Bcllo Jud, v, a» 

Codicib. edidit 6. Gesenius, 4S 

postea cum Cbristianis inimicitiam intercessisse Procopit locus 

frodity' quo regnante Zenone eos Neapoli iu Christianos die 
^entacostes sacra facientes imiisse, Zenonem vero in eos atii*' 
madvertisse, eosqae de monte Garizim deturbasse narratur. Et 
major etiatn sub Justiniano tumultus erat. Samaritae enitn et 
Judsei, PalaBstinam incolentes^ ad Julianum quendam regio im- 
perio delate, motisque in Christianos armis, rapinas, casdes, 
incendia adversus eos excitarunt: Justinianus vero, eis devictis,' 
plerosque eorom vi ad sacra Christiana traduxit, eosque qui 
professionem Christianam recusarent, bonoribus, quos majoribus 
eorum superiores imperatores concesserant, privavit omnibus.* 
Saracenis denique in onente invalescentibus eos succubuisse, 
quamvis nemo, quod sciam, diserte narret, pro certo haberi 
potest, et duram miseramque fuisse eorum conditionem, vel 
mde apparet, quod vel nulla vel rarissima eorum apud hujus sevi 
scriptores mentio est. Plurimos eosque doctissimos et locu- 
pletissimos Damasci vixisse, multosque eorum non invito 
iEsculapio artem medicam exercuisse et aliunde patet,' et sub* 
scriptionescodicum Samaritanorum, qui fere omnes inbac urbe 
exarati sunt lucuienter ostendunt> 

His vero ita expositis, ut dicam, quod sentio, vel ilia sub 
Justiniano persecutio, vel recentior qusedam sub Saracenarum 
imperio, vel in universum tenuis duraque illorum sub Muham- 
medanis conditio carmine illo quinto innui videtur. £t, posterior 
quidem sententia aliquam commendationem habere videtur a 
nominibus auctorum, quae maximam partem Arabicae originis 
sunt, ut Abulphatach ben Jusuf, Saphi al Merhani, cet. Sunt 
tamen alia quaedam momenta, quae antiquiorem eorum originem 
prodere videntur. Ac primum quidem ipsa dialectus Samari- 
tana jam ante sasculum septimum emortua esse et Arabicas 
cessisse videtur. Pentateuchi enim iiiterpretatio Chaldaeo-Sama- 
ritana, non amplius usui idonea fuisse videtur, ut primum 
Graeca, deinde Arabica opus esset.' Occurrunt quidem recen- 

' Procop. de JEdis. v, 7. 

^ Vide Procop. ]. c. Theophanes ed. Paris, f. 152. Rutychii Annales 
T. ii. p. 156. Photii Nomocanon tit, x. c. 8. Cf. Jacob. Gotbofredi ad 
legg. xvi et xxiv. Cod. Theod. de Jiidsis et Samaritis. 

3 Abulphat. Hist. Dyn. p. 343. Ibo Oseibea ap. Nicollium )• c. p. 133. 

^ Vide, quae citavimus not. 5» p. 38. Plurimi etiam, qui in scriniis 
Europaeis exstaot, codices in urbe Damascena coemti sunt. 

' Versionem CbaldaBo-Samaritanam ante Origenis tempora confectam 
esse, et ex eadem fluxisse versionem Samaritano-Grscam, ab Origene 
THi infutfuriwv nomine excitatam, perfecte demonstravit Winerut Prof. 
Lipsiensis (de veraione Samarit. pag. 9.}. Carmina nostra post hancy 

44 CarniM Sam» Anec e duob. Mm. Brit. 

tioribus quoqve tempoiibus codcL subscriptionea/ hac dialectu 
QQn9ign9ta^f ae4 pauciaaigais illas pbrasibus usc^ne per^uam trltis 
^onstaptea. Deiodis ipsornm Tbeologumenorum ratio colorqua 
tnm poelicua^ turn ad r hilonis philonopbtunena prope accedens, 
mMem antiquiofsm referre videtur^ iVpii4 recentiorea ^nim 
periisae bapc qualemcunque |heologi«p indolem et poeticapi el 
|)hilo8opbicain, et Abulhaasaiii opus dogmaticuiu, qui iu legibua 
ritibusque demoostraodia piaene totum vefsatur, et loca qu^am 
in Abulpbatacbi cbronico dogmatica osteodunt Prppius ad 
dogmaticam carminum ooslrorum indolem accodunt ea, qiise in 
libro Josjuae^ opere quippe antiquiore, ad tbealqgiam pertineotia 


SujDta aut^m hac antiqiiiore (rariuiniun origine^ auctores illi^ 
Boniinibus Arabicis ioa^ui, miiame auctorea^ aed collectores 
et interpreles borum carmiuum babendi erunt. Cseterum dojol 
pjr^acte repugnar^m^ si quis post Muhammedis demuoi tem- 
poira baE;c carmina composita esse contenderit : siquidem Sama* 
ritaQorum bseresis pne aliia antiquiqria doctrinn^ teospi; erat, et 
medium <etiam asvum, floi:e^itibus Syroruip Arabumque litterisj^ 
iogeniis poeticis abuudabat. . 

§ 8. — Dupljcem in bis carmiAihus interpretapdis .ratioiiiem 
secutus suaij alteram pttiloIpgipQi-criticaoi* alteri^m dqgmati<;aiQ« 
In verbis explicandis jcum jpacum sufficereut Morini, Cflstelli ff^ 
Cellarii openii ubiqMe cae^teris dialectis Aramseis, Chaldaica^ 
inprimis Cbaldaici^Hierp^idyoiitana^ Sjriaca atque Nasora^a usi 
I aumus, eaqjue^ quae oominakvimas^ op^rapbilologica e carminibMs 

opstps et emefida^da et a^ppleoda putavinms/ {n re dogmatiqa 
inprimia Pbilooem, Ubrqs q^osd^tn ApQcrypbos^aliaque SfWa- 
ritauorum opent adbibuiiQUSi ali^ue .mnita nobis obtu|issent 
Judseorum libri dogmaticii a quibua tamen, ne justo ^eremua 
longiores^ tabsUnendMrn ease duximus, tunc de Samaritanorum 
theologia locum alibi seorsim tractaturi. 

qaam diximiis, versionem Chaldaeo-Samaritanain edita esse, locus iv, 9. 
areuere videtur. 

° Vid. not. ^y p. 43. 

^ Vide Castelli Lex. emendatum in notis ad i, 21. iii, 21. iv, 14. cf. vv, 
nSvpi nM9pf '**33t »upplctum vero in indice, quem in fine adjecionis. 


NOTJE CRITICS in Q, Horatii Flacci Opera 
f^tf/if/ JoANNis Clerici margimbus exemplaris edki' 
onia ToRREmni adacf^O!^ iJ^. Sai«omdnsbn[. 

[MiMelL Ctitifia V^. t. P. iiij 


Satirarum Liber 1. Sat. i. v. &8. Torrentium hie sequiliir 
Bmihiu$, et legit ^n^ addita iriterrogatioiie post frenu^- Mdior 
migatti lectio. Aiioqui contorta est oratio. 

V. 1£0. Etnfendat Bentleius lippum, qaad Horathtt ipse 1^>« 
pus e»9et; sed quid Hppitado ad oompiialiaDcfii ? Forte tui^i* 
Vide Sat. Uf. ISQ. : /. 

Sat. II. V. 38. Haec senso caretit^ Pro nott^ lego rem^ ufc est 
10 versu Ennii, ad quem adludit Horatius. Vide Acronem. Beui* 

V. 68. Rectius^ videntis, netnpe, mntonis^ eui cum Terba tr»« 
btmntur, oculo!> tribui nibil mirum. VidenH relahim adi mala 
patieptem frigidum est. Befithitis bic nibil vidit.^ 
^ V. 90. , Ne. Est eoHeciio e superioribusy Ne ergo conttm- 
pUre. Abeurde argutatnr hie Bent/e/«5. 

Vi \9Q. F. (iftt !) pallida, Ht ib^t&n«i» setv^tur, iiob m^, De 
fkB vide I. Od. Xru. 3. 

V. 131. Bentleius legit doti httcdepr, Sed ri hoc et aftiiK 
daty et frigel. 

Sat. III. V. 7 • Citare est f^equentalinBai' ts5 dere, et siepiiis 
€klra voce ciere sigtvif. Vide Cicfepanem de Or. L. i. 59- Po- 
tuit in Musicis adhiberi. Non est mutandam in ittrani otm 

V. 14. SealigiBr ^ MunetHg ■: jmra et toga. 

V. 15. Seal. rasa. £ marg. E^ Seneeas C3cx. £d» Jugaet. 

V. 20. F. atj nam et est absurdum* 

V. fi5. F. nee, id est, ne qtndem. Pnsvidem est absordum 
et inusitatum. 

V. S9. uictptis. R^cte, nam opponitur smplicitati, cbid qmi 
conjuncta saep'e est iracundia. Vide Senecam. 

V. -58. Tarditatem ificessus pioguedine exciftsamus ; sed hie 
pinguis est convicium deterius tarda. 

V. 11 7. Bintleius v«tt i>it;A9n sacra, cadere, vukiflrareque 
aures sua asperit&t^, repoDenduoique e Godd* locra Divum^ 
quaelenior molliorque est lectio. O aures Britanmoi! 

Sat. IV. v. 14. Mvfiiaio ; ne>ii«pe| pignore a me deq)aaitp; eui 

46 Joannis Clerici 

ipsa magnum opponat. Minimo tmere, mimmo tramigere di* 

V. £0. Scribit Bentleius emolliat, ob duritiem versus. O 
delicias ! 

V. 34. Nil opus estmutari Poeioi in Pdeiam propter se- 
q^uentia. Supplendum enim, nam Pdeta fxnum, etc. Mim^ 
SIS est de uno quodam poeta dicentium. 

V. 73. Ne muta cuiquam in quidquam^ nam periode est. 
Quis damnet dicentem : nemini reciio, mu mmeUf Nemo, nisi 
putidus Grammaticus. 

Sat. V. ▼. 92. Nolim ddere fannc versum, ^uasi superfluum, 
nam non ita parci ▼erbonim Poetse ; nee quasi barbarum, nam 
condereloeomum bene dicitur quam candere urbem, aut/>ro- 
vinciam ant timifam, etc. Sic Thuiydides x»P^ xri^^fAsvey. 

Sat. VI. V. 4. F. multis.'^v. 83. JP. conspectos, id est, compi^ 
Ofoi, gloriosos ; cum constricti dicantur captivi. Vide Georg. 
III. 17. 

V. 94. F. exactis annis, hoc est, exacto vitae tempore. In 
lectione vulgata, vix sensum invenias. 

Sat. vii« V. 3. F. lixis, nam auod lixsB et calones sciunt om* 
nibus est notum. lAppit hie nuilus est locus. 

V. 11^ 12. Inter et titter bene Latinum. Ineptithic BenU 
leius. Vide Bibl. Sel. T. xxv. p. 171. et Parad. i. Ciceronis 
4, unde frustra inter eliminare voluit Gruterue, contra fidem 
Codd. quern locum non inspectum fastidiose rejidt Bentleius. 
Adde Gicer. de Amicit. c. £5. 
V. £7. F. rapta, a frondatore forte relicta ad ripam. 
Sat. IX .v. 1. Bentleius: Ibamut. Nihil opus. 
- V. 36. Fadato, quod omnes Libri habent, frustra mutat 
Bentleius in vadatm. 

Sat. X. v. £7. Latine, id est, cum summam operam dent 
Pedius et Corvinus ut mere Latine loquantur, malisne verba 
minus Latina adfaiberif Nuilus alioqui sen^us, quidquid garriat 

V. 32. E cod. emendat me tali. Vide eumdem ad v. 40. 
V. 37. Alii depingit, melius ; hoc est, lutulentum Rheni fon- 
tem describit. In^tit hie B^tleius, quasi a figulo desumta 
esset metaphora. 

V«57« iMfractos, hoc est, in quibus caesune leges melius 
observentur. Nihil tamen muto. 

Sat. Lib. I]. Sat. i. v. 10. Male emendat Bentleius capit, 
prius enim est efficacius, aptiusque ad vehementem adfectum 
y^ 5U Melius umquam, neque enim mentio est de versibus, 

Nota in Horatium. 47 

Bed do eoTumeTentOy qui male ei cedebat^ quod viria honorulU 

V. 79. L. refingere, hoc est tnutare, emendare. v. i. Od. 

XXXV. 59. 
V. 84. Bene est laudatur^ nee mutaiiduin. 
V. 85. Latraverit. Recte, nee mutandum. Vide Bpod* 

VI. I. 8. sqq. 

Sat. II. V. 2. Quern pracqfit ; hoc est, quem prior dixit^ vel 
habuit. Qui scripserunt qua^ hoc non aniniadverterant. 

V. 29. Ordo est : quamvis ilia . (caro, nempe gallinse) nihil 
distat hac (pavonis, scilicet), tamen patet te deceptum foroiis 
imparibus. Distat ilia est differt ab ilia, non excellit : quod cum 
recta Latinitate ac sententia Poetae pugnat. In utroque peccat 
Bentleius. Vide V. 53. . 

Sat. III. V. t)7. Vitiose Bentleius* Turn imanus, in £d. 

V. 112. Nihil opus hie legi prqjectus cum Bentleio, nam por- 
rectus est qui cuba*. 

V. 172. Nil opus estlegere hie perdere, Vultenim Horatius : 
postquam te vidi tales et nuces donare et ludere negUgentius, 
intellexi te satis ad cem adtentum non fore. Non opus est, ut 
in re tantilla, tarn adcurate loquatur Poeta. 

V. 189. Si legas gudsre, ut Bentleius, nil opus est ut mutes 
ac in at. Sensus est ; si mode fiat quod volo, patiar in factum 
hoc meum inquiri, justum ne sit, an secus. Si quid mutandum 
esset, legerem, v. 178. at aquam, hoc est, attamen nihil ini- 
quum jubeo, rationemque facti reddere possim. Quae est v. 


V. 208. Greece dixeris a^Xoxoroti; liictg fTifiKe/«; xa) ftop^Af- 
glus topvfiotSws li^tfityfji^ivou xco^ijo'ei. 

V. 259« Recte,' ut antea recusat, negat ; non optet, ut vult 

y. 316. Nihil muta, nam non opus est in fabellis adcurate 
loqui, praesertim ranas. Valeat ergo Bentleius, cum suo perni* 
mio, pro dimidio. 

Sat. IV. V. 13. F. ampla^ quia marem continent. Alma est 
absurdum et inauditum, ubi de ovis. Simili argumento utitur 
ad v. 48. Bentleiui. 

V. 19< Bene mista, quisL non solent mergi gallinae nisi aqua. 
Ineptit hie Bentkitu, nam miscere vinum passim occurrit, sine 
additione vocis aqua, quia per se subauditur. Vid. Od. iii. J9« 
12 et Sat. II. IV. 65. 

V. 37. Si legas averrere, > sensus idem est ; hoc est, opipara 


48 Joannift Clerici 

inieim wemre quid^kl eat pretioMfuin pifciupi e fmo pi8<t«^ 
rio. Ineptit Bentleius, nee se extricat. 

V. 49^ FeemuU oratctui 'mfKuruUh ipiod rem ila postuhure 
putayit librarius. 

V. 60. Flagitat immomu, nempe, potor, cui perna «t billie 
rmgaam saltugine mordcttt, bibeuclique «itpidiaem exdtmit. 
Nugatur hie BetUkius. 

V. 65. Quod Pf^uK Nempe, jus aknplea^ quod fit eo aiodo 
composkiMiK Nibu multa. 

V^* 66. Quant gum Byzantia. Sic bene alit« Hoc est, quam 
Bysanlia RMuria qua in orca potuit, boc est, diu setvata est. 
FotttiMet Bycaatia orca ptafva osuriaputere. 

Sat. ¥. V. d9« Lego : fmtdet imgmU» $laiuai» Hyperbole^ 
est, quae intoleraudum aestum significat, ore vuigi, ut videlar^ 
jaetata. htfautes stmiua pro ligneis recens factis sunt Gonnnen- 
titi«e Don minus enim infatUes dici queant asneae receiitee ; et 
raetaphoradorior est, quam at concoqui possit. 

V. 79- L. venit enim (magnum!) danandif etc* Hoe eat, 
an magnaad rem pota8> a jisfentaie parca, et ventripotiut quam 
Venerr, dedita imilicrem no» oormmpi. Nibii ergo miiia. Vid. 

Bp. V, 87. 

V. 104, Sensusest: (icet fietia lacrioMs fiiltam,albqui:gauH 
diiim prodentem, cehre. Nibil mutandooi. 

Sat. VI. V. 64. Cove Kferas 8aii9 ad pinguiy €um. Bentkio; 
referendum ad uncta. 

V. 89^ Nee Uliy aec ille pbwent. Lege ; ne^ue iibim. 
Diebet enim bie esse.aeenBativua rei, qmira non inyidit rusticvs 
nune urbano. Sic semper loquitur Horatius, more Latino, jUhi 
Gneco. Qaed pNesernm » ejvsHiodi MbeHa fscili^ Vid. lad. 

'V. n4. St decorum spectes, melias tegas: mokstis Esliius 
insonuit, cum de muribus sermo sit : sed decorum in iabcHis 
non ita servatar. V. i. Bp. vii. 99. . 

Sat. VII, V. U F.exspeciOj nfminim, cenmodbm teB4>us to 

V. 64. Malim superhe, ant, mperbe, ¥oc., sed forte mapis 
alius bic latel. 

V. 82. Lignum recte, nam vivpSa-vaaTa sunt ligaea. Ne ergo- 
legas sigmim, cum BentUio, 

Epistolarum Libw i. Ep. t. v. 19- Melius: nee mihiresysed 
me; Hsbc enim fiiit Arisiippt senteatta; 

Vid. £p. XVII. £3, et 24. et Lvoium L. xxm. 38, U. 

V, 105. Nolimutarer€s/ntfiefi^f8insiapirieii(««,iiamillttdqiio- 

NotiB in Horutiufn. 49 

que de inferiore erga superiorem dicitur, ut respicete DeoSf re* 
spectus Imp. Rom. Vide el Ps. cxxiii, 2* 

£p. IK v« 10. Cogi posse iiegat belli praecidere causas^ reddita 
Helena ; 4it cum ilia regnet etc. Ne mutes quid in quad, cum 

V. 31 . L. cessantum d. c. hoc est, educere ex animo otiosorum 
curam. Vid. Plant. Prol. Casins v. 24. in ant. Ed. 

V.' 34. Si nolis sanus, curves kydropicusy videtur proverbium 
medicum, quod . metaphorice signiiicat nisi antevertas vitium^ 
adhibitis remediis ; cum nocuerit^ adhibenda erunt, majore multo 

V. 60. L* amens, ut ira describatur. Mens olvti rou vov; su- 
mitur, qui adfectibus adversatur. Amem dolore frequens lo* 
quutio. Vide Curtium L. iv. c. x, 29. 

V. 67* Pet, Colvius in Apul. p. 211. citat: nunc pectore 
puro Perbibe v. p. an ex memoria, an ex codice nescio. Sic 
loquutus Seneca £p. xxxvi. 

£p. III. V. 4. Turres, hoc est, urbes, nam sine turribus non 
sunt. Noli mutare in terras, cum Bentleio. Hinc simulacra 
Urbium turrita corona cincta. 

V. SO. Si tibi. Torrentium exscripsit Bentleius, ut sa;pe, 
licet idem exprobret Dacerio ad ii, Ep. i, 142. 

Ep. IV. V. 11. Mundus victus rectum est^ nihil muta. Nihil 
opus domum memorari> quae satis intelligitur. 

V. 16. Parcum legit M. Meibom, in Diogenem L. x^ 131; 

£p. V. V. 1. Exscripsit Torrentium ad hunc locum Benileius. 

Ep. VI. V. 32* L. et lusu digna, hoc est^ digna quas jocis et 
risu excipiantur. Nihil frigidius lectione recepta. Sic Amo* 
bius Lib. ii. p. lii. ut ea, qua offeruntur a Christo ludum 
atque ineptias nomines. 

V. 59. L. plateasque, nerope^ difFertas. Male Bentleius 
campum, quod nimis distat a scriptura Codd. 

Ep. V 1 1 . V. 22. F. cuivis ; nempe dono accipienrto, quod co- 
miter oiFertur, nee tamen ignorat quid distent, etc. To tameti 
ejusmodi sententiam postulat. 

V. 25. F. reddas hie et in duobus sequentibus. 

V* 29* Vulpeculaest sciurus, animalculum e vulpium genere, 
quod tritico etiam vescitur, prapsertim urgente fame. Nihil ergo 
mutandum contra omnes Codd. v. ad 2. S. vii, 1 14. v. 33. F. 

V. 36. Somnus, aut securitas, ut interpretantur, non sat apte 
opponitur lautis cibis. Forte legendum scombrum,. qui piscis 
sale conditus vilis.erat pretii. 



50 Joatmis CUrici 

V. 6S« F. rem spon^et ; hoc est, ctienam : nimirum Phiiippi 
puer, quam tamen dod accipit Mena. 

Ep. X. V. 19* Non loqiatur de somno, ne ergo muta lapillis, 
in tapetis, cum Bentkio. ^ 

V. 37. L. victo vitulans. Vide Festum in vitulans, Den- 
vatur a vitulus, non a vita. 

£p. XI. V. 1. Note, frigidum epitheton, forte lata. 

Ep. XV. V. 6. Dicta non satia ooorniodum, nam vicus noii 
did tantum, sed apta esse sulfiira putabat expellere morbuni. 
Vide ergo annon Apta melius sit. 

V. 13. Eqvi non est jungendum cum est, sed cum ore. Agl* 
tur de uilo eqtko, nee quidquam oiutandum, Verum pro sed, 
aut set, ut scribebanty legendum et, nulla enim est opposition 
Multo minus sententia est, sed pars narrationis, ut sigoificet 
Horatius equum ad Iievum flexisse iter, trahente iliac frenum 

V. 16. Dulcis aqua. Recte, nam prope mare aaepe putei 
aalsugioem sapiunt. !Ne ergo scribe jugi^, quod satis antece- 
dente voce e^primitur. 

Ep. XVI. V. 15. Etiam, si credit. Recte, crescit enim orar 
tio ; nam plus est amoenus, quam dulcis. Cave ergo legaa et 
(jam si credis) anuena^ cum Bentleio. 

V. 4a Defendit vulg. lectionem Torrentius et Bentleianam 
rejicit; ac sane medicandum huic loco noncouvenit. V. vv,.3) 

V. 53. L. admittis. Sententia est : boni quidem oderunt 
flagitia solo amofe virtutis, tu vero nihil mali admittis sola poenas 

i Ep. XVII. v. 49. h.Jindatur,u^m petit muous, ut bene Lan^ 

Ep. xviii, V. 8J. Cave scribas^£?e«/er cum Bentleio. 
Ep. XIX. V. 4. Post Poetas debet esse comma, ad superiora 
-enim refertur oluerunt. Ut est postquam, quidquid contra dicat 

Epist. Lib. 11. Ep. i. v. 2. Res Italas moribus omare rec- 
tum, manibus absurdum. Vide Ger. Noodt Prob. L. I. c, ii. 
V. 2, 3. Vide Ovidium Met. xv, 833 et seq. et Carm. L. 
111. Od» XXIV, 35. Piccarti Observ. Dec^ xvi. c. 1. 
. y. 6, Post. ing. facta. Bene interpretantur ppst mortem, 
quia non nisi morientes ab ingentibus factis destiterunt. Nugatur 
Jient., cum ingentiafata scribit. 

V. 13. Nota hie varietatem metaphorarum* Pragravare 
est majoris ponderis baberi, pluris fieri. i>sepe eo seibo utitur 
Val, Max. Vide Lib. iii. c. yui, 5. 

V. 31. Nihil Qijil^a^ adverlHo extra usiis proper versi^pi^ 
Qlea est durMin. 

V. 41. Pctitas, bene : n^im et v. 34* pclifnata dixit, nep opuf 
fi^t taim adpur^U ppppsitione, quam vult Benileius. 

V. 75. J^ucit et vendiff bepe^ n^m duo activa verlba requi- 
P'untur^ npn venit. * 

V. 1 15, Cave scribas melicorum, et melici. Sic enim dicun* 
tur Po^tae lyrici, non citharoedi. 

y, 188. Iiicerti oculi ab varjetate spectaculorimi. $i quid 
muUinduoi esset, sciiberem potius mdoctos quam ingraios, ut 
.Peptjeiiis, quo() est procul accersitum. 

V. 240. Si displicet ducere ara, scribe ora. Sed nihil opus, 
ni^in et n^etalla duci et ductilia dicuntur. 

]Ep. II. V. p^s Fprte emendari queat : expugnare, secure, hoc 
est, adducere, ut malim versus facere, quam sepiire dormire^ 
Tacet hie Befitleim* Sed hoc sapere e$t; qua neque emendare 
potes nee ^Uo exemplo dejendere, transilire tamquam sana neque 
in suspicionem vocanda, ut loquitur ipse ad v. 87. 

V. .87. Fr^tres dicuntur];i in re similes, ut gemflli. 
1 Ep. X, 3. Ergofrater est hie similis, ita ut alter alterum laude 
xq/^p in^num pariter laud^t, 

V. 90. Yexat* Recte ; nihil ^luta. 

V.9?.* JSoU putare calatun^ m sacratum, cuni Bentleio. 
Vpf ba SMnt duorum vatum, qporum ^ter de alterius opere : mi- 
rabile visu et a Musis novem calatum, hoc est, orpatum opus. 
Ijfilj^l h^ s^tum. 

V. 171 • Recte re^i/gtY; agitur «9im de re p;'aeterita. Tum 
4emva^ suft populus vocajt, q^ certi^ limitibus japi clausit, quia 
refugit, seu vitavit jmgia. ^efrigpre jur^a, qqjis ferat, praster 
Bentleium ? 

De arte pdetica Liber, v. 2. Nihil mutandum. Si^ns^us est: si 
pictor j^ngere velit buinano capiti ceryicem equinam, eique cer- 
vici varias plumas inducere, adjunctis prseterea ei me^^bris updi- 
qiie collatis, ut etc. 

V. 23. Q^ovis lenius est quam quidvis, quod Bentleianum. ^ 

V. 26. Levioj rj^ctej quia aspenta^ siaepe vim addit orationi. 
Ne ergo tenia scribas, cum Bentleio. 

v. 32. Faber quidam certus sigpificalpr ex lis, qui circa ^- 
milium ludum tabemas habebant ; quern, a situ omcinae, imuiQ 
vocat. Nihil ^luta. Verba ipsa ungues exprimet etc. satis pe- 
ritiam ejus exprjmuDt, ne<; opus eat unum dici^ ut jipc intelliga- 

V. 4<3. Ut qpae pro loco et tempore debent dici, diciat. Seiv* 
.w|s 9^^op(i|iius. Itaque post diet pope comma. PWaque vero 

bO^ Joannis Clerici ^ota in Horatium. 

omittat, ut id Herbicis Poematibus solet, in quibus a media Ta- 
bula initium sit. Hoc amet etc. delectuni rerumetcircutnstan- 
liarum significant^ aeque ac verboruni. 

y . 52. Ficta minime casdit aures ingrata repetitione, quia pras- 
cessit fingere, non ficta. Vide ad v. 154. 

V» 59* Procudere habent alii libri, et quidem recte, sed nuIH 
nummum pro nomine. Noli mutare, propter repetitionem, cum 
mutatus sit numerus. Collectio ex antecedentibus, non mf comj^Mc. 

V. 60. Silva mutahtur foliis eleganter dictum^ nee pronos 
itautandum in privoSf quod non significat sin^los, ut vult Bent*- 
leius, Cicero civitate mutari similiter dixit pro Corn. Balbo 
c. 13 et 18. 

v. 95. Huic versui proxime subjungendus 98. aut duo inter- 
positi sunt Parenthesi claudendi. 1 ragicus est Poeta, qui dolere 
dicitur, cum dolentes inducit. 

V. 1 1 3. Sat rectum est pedites. Nihil mutandum. 

V. 120. T//xioy, ut Ulyssem vocat Homerus Odys. K, SB. 
Vide et A, 483. 

V. 129. Rectius esset, deducas carmen, hoc est^ deducere 

V. 154. Nolimutare plausoris in fautoris^ propter Terbuni 

plaudite. Repetitio ejusmodi aures non offendit. Vide ad vss. 

/52, 59' Vide Vavass. p. 110 et 119. iEque commode pro si 

plausoris legere queas spectatoris, et interrogationis nota seq. vet- 

sum claudere. 

V* 16 1. Imberbi. Guietus e Nonio. Menagian. T. i. p. 
301. Sic Cruquius e Codd. 

' V. 196. Consilietury id est consilium det, Consiliare active 
idem apud Statium v. Silv. 11, 59* et in Glossis, 

V. 206. Parvus. Tan. Faber emendabat, parens. 

V. 256. F. alterna. 

V. 259. Mobilibus e Ms. C. emendat et tuetur P. Victorius 
"m Cic. Kp. Fam. L. v. Ep. 2. Sed ex iis, quae habet, legendum 
potius esset : Acci im-mobilibus quia scatebant spondaeis, mini- 
meque erant xn^rixoi. 

V. 260* iMmisstis, i. versus spondeis plenus; nempe/iam- 

V. 318. Ducere pro deducere. Non est e statuaria desum- 
^um, ut vult Bentleius. 

V. 441. Omnia qus sunt ^orno facta, non sunt aeque^eife 
'iomata. Ideoque tam male, quam bene tomata dici queant. 
Hinc >JrfiVog evropvevTog, in Ep. Incerti Poetse Anthol. ineditsb 
'Cm. Ep. 44. Prorsus ineptit hie Bentleius. Isocratis et 
Platonis Xoyot dicuntur a Dionysio HaL T. 2. p. cccxvi, 13. 

Notice of VArt de Pldire d'Ovide. 53 

ffKvm^i^xtiiTofitml^ eommg. Sie Sidonius Ep. ]3. Lib. fx. 
habet Horatiana incudeformatos AsclepiadeaSf ut videatur hue 


rART DE PLAIRE UOVIDE, Fame en troh 
chants^ suivi du Remede d' Amours Pohme en un 
chanty nouvelle traduction en vers Frangais^ avec le 
texte Latin en regard^ et De la Fidelite^ Pohme ero- 
tique en trois chants. Par P. D. C. Qvo. Paris, 
pp. 273. 

Of authors who, as Hobbes archly expresses it/ have been^fra* 
duced into English, Ovid is the most unfortunate. Sandys has 
ably translated and explained the Metamorphoses, but his work 
is daily becoming obsolete ; while . the medleys which bear the 
names of Garth and Sewell have by no means superseded it : 
indeed, with (he exception of Dryden's Virgil and Pope's Iliad, 
the worst versions extant are iho^e oi omt Augustan age; and 
the principal reason is, that they were done by * a society of gen- 
tlemen,' not by an individual whose taste or genius prompted 
Buch an undertaking. Dryden, it is true, devoted his time 
to this portion of Ovid, but without much success; for its 
merit consists in beauties which cannot easily be conveyed 
into another language. A French translation by M. de 
Saint- Ange already existed, and that this is of a speculative na- 
ture seems evident from the theory of the poet. Following M. 
Dumergue,^ he has altered the title, and gives the following rea- 
sons for so doing. 

Les scholiastes et les anciens n^ont jamais doting St cet ouvrage 
d'autre titre que celai de VArt de la Galanterie (Ars Amaioria), C*est 
ainsi que la proposition de ce Po^me est indiqu^e dans Tarjcienne Edi- 
tion de Ja Biblipth^que du Roi. Francois Jnretus, Joseph Scaliger, Claude 
Puteanus, S^neqae dans ses CorUraverses^ Aurelius Victor dans la Vie 
d'Avguste, Frecuiphus, livre viii. de ses ChroniqueSf Entycbus et les 

' Preface to translation of Tbueydides. 
^ Solutions Grammaticales, p. 494^ 

54 Noiiee of L'Art de Piaire d'Ovide^ 

Sckoliastes tiir leg maniiBc^its* ne ^nalifient pas ee V6kah aairemeliti 
C'eat done mal k propds qae los tradoctenrs Font nomm€ VArt dimmer. 
II yalait mieax lai conserver pour Hire VArt de la ChUanterie (An Ama' 
toriajf parce an*en effet la galanterie pent receyoir les secours de Part, 
plntdt qae de le qaalifier Art dimmer, puisqu'il est vrai que 

Sans art on salt aimer, sans art an ccenr sonplT^. 

Grammaticalementy ce titre est nne traduction fautive de celui Art 
amandif qu*Ovide semble avoir donn4 a son Po^oie. > 

Les g^rondifs ne sont que des cas du participe passif en -dut, ainsi qne 
r^tablit le savant commentateur de la Minerve de Sanctitte, Tout ^^- 
rondif a do^o nne signification passive. Alors, are amandi, ou il faat 
sous-entendre eui^ signifie littiralement Tart de soi devant ^tre aim 6, 
Tart de se faire aimer, Part de piaire, ou Tart d'inspirer de I'amour. 

Accordinglj^ the new translator (M . Piraulx des Chaumes) 
renders the firlBt couplet thus : 

Jgnorez-Yous, amans, Tart de vons faire aimer ? 
Yenez k mes lepons, et vous saurez charmer. ' 

Nothing affords so great a proof of Ovid's talent^ as the re- 
currence of images and descriptions without a sameness : the 
storj of Cephalus and Procris occurs in the Metamorphoses, 
ias well as here, and both details are admired. We shall extract 
ipart of the translation from the latter, as enabling our readers to 
judge more decisively of the translator's merit : 

Le soleil avait mis une ^gale distance 
Entre I'ombre qui fuit et Tombre qui s'avance : 
Le noble fils d*£ole, ^pnis6 de cbaleur, 
Tient de Tonde Kmpide iknplorer la fraicheur; 
Procris respire k peine, et T^poux qu*elle adore, 
Senl et couch^ sur Therbe, invoqne le nom d'Aure. 
Procris, hcureuse enfin, a connu son erreur, 
La joie a de son teint ranim^ la coulenr, 
£lle se l^ve, et court, ^cartant le feuiUage, 
An sein de son ^poux expier son outrage. 
C^phale croit entendre un h6te des for^ts, 
£t sur son arc tendu balance un de ses traits. 
Imprudent ! ab retiens ta fl^he criminelle ! 
B^las ! il a frapp6 son Spouse fiddle ! 
* C^phale k moi. Ce trait perce mon sein jalonx : 
Mon tendre coeur toujours fut le but de tes coups. 
Je meurs avant le temps, mais ne suis point trabie ! 
La terre en devra moins peser sur ton amie. 
Ame que j'acciisai, porte mon ame aux cieux, 
J'expire, cber epoux, daigne fermer mes yeux.' 
Il presse sur son sein son Spouse mourahte ; 
Il monille de ses pleurs sa blessure satiglaiite ; 

' Si quis in boc artem poptflo noti nbvit amandi, 
Me legat, et hbeto t^aritaflti^ doetns am^t 

Theocriti Vulgdta JLtctionesu $5 

P«r degres 1e irepAS sur die vient peser $ 

Et son dernier soupir eat an dernier baiaer.— p. 167-9. 

The last line is rather an emendation, but none of the transla- 
tion is very close, and the whole has the air of an original coqa- 
position. The notes display some aquteness, and illustrate se- 
veral points of literature ; we extract a few specimens : 

Qui Martem terra, Neptanam cffagit in undis^ 
Gonjngis Atrides vietima dira fait.— Y. 19. p. 34. 
II existe deux ^pitaphes greeqaes de ce roi des rois, qu'on croil avoir 
vkcvL I'an da roonde 3026, et avoir regne 18 ana. EUes sont rapportees 
dans i*edition Fartorum d'Ausbnias. 

Lapremr^re est ainsi concue, * Etranger, vous voyez le tombeau d A- 
^ameninon,fiU d'Alr^e, qui rut tu6 par Jsgiste ^t par sa funeste» epouse.' 
Lia seconde : ' Ce monument est celui d'Agamemnon, fils d'Atridea, au- 
qael la divine Ciytemnestre, fille de Tyndare, donna injuatement la 

Ces deax ^pitaphea avaient ete recueiliiea par lea deux frerea Cante- 
rua, aavana iliuatrea da seizi^me si^cle. 

Yisite laurigero sacrata palatia Phoebo ; 
Ille Paraetonias mersit in alta rates.— v. 7. p. 144. 
Ccux dea Romains qui avaient une foi robuste, croyaient qu'Apollon 
avait combattu pour Augaste contre Antoine, tt la bataille d'Actiam. 

Qui Puteal Janumque timet, celeresque Kalendas.— v. 11. p. 216. 

Le mot Kalendes ^tait deriv6 da grec KoXew j'appelle, parce que le 

premier do cbaqae moia le Pontife convoquait le peuple aa Capitole 

pour lui annoncer Ja division de ce moia en kalendes, en idea, et en 


^We have only to wish that in his remarks on Ovid, and criti- 
cisms on St. Ange, as Jerry Sullivan says in the Heroine^ he 
would be so modest as not to show his modesty. 



Quadam vulgata lectiones defenduntur atqiie explicantur. 

Neque Theocritus B— ano eget auxilio, et 

oic;^' d XevKtvTfOg avuTg^ei I; Jio$ oLoog—ld. xiii, 11.^ 

omnibus satisfacit praeter illos qui Graece scribendi, quam ipsi 


' This word mast be taken in the secondary sense of unlucky in 

56 Tbeocriti Vulgala Lectianes. 

Graecii 88 magis poUere piitant.— -Vulgata lectio^ quam supra 
videmus, et vera et pulcherriona est. 

Hoc modo Angliceioterpretari velim: — '' When Aurora with 
her splendid steed mounts up the sphere of Jove/'*— Post kg Ail^^' 
constructione notissima, ovpavov subintelligendum est.— Pro ie^m^ 
Tfi^ti Ig^ihs iuis — fingit G. B.iAa rpopi^v ttiwg amg, quae lectio aca-% 
tet ineptiis. Namque aig et §iSwg sibi ipsis sunt infestissima : 
quandoquidem cuog est prima Diei lux effulgens ; eiSto; autem^auc- 
tore Hesychio et ipso G, B—- adstipulante, xetvy^a, vim caloris 
meridiani^AgmiiC'^t. Quaeres quam pulcherrime cum matutino 
tempore Aurorave convenit ! 

Adde quod IXay rpop^oy est trochum agere, utve nostrates ver- 
terent^ " to trundle the hoop." Vide Bulengerum '^de ludis pri* 
vatis ac domesticis veterum.'' De hoc Tpo;(ov lusu Euripidem^ 
quoque testem habemus, Med. v. 46. — 

OTal^own, X. t. X. 
Indeque B — ana emendatio priscorum auribus Graecorum ad- 
ipodum ridicula sonaret : eXa rpoxov ^Ads, Aurora trochum suum 
agit^ ** trundles her hoop ! !" — ^Atque testibus prasdictis etStos itdg, 
Aurora meridiei, vel Aurora meridianaest ! ! quo nil potest con- 
cipi ineptius. 

Nunc autem de altero Tbeocriti loco pauca aunt dicenda»^^ • 
«oXXo) xtvvi(rov(riV fri too^ov upfAaros iTnroi 
vulgata est lectio. — Mutat G. B. communem ouo-jv in euvri Do- 
ricam terminationem. Sed hoc niinime necessariiim est, quum 
ipse Theocritus, in eodem Idyllio^ communem ot^ri usurpet. — 
iPlurima dari possunt exempla phrasis hujus ipfuiTOg Ifntoi; sed 
rpoyov afji,aTOs, *' rota Diei/' vel afJMTOs Imrot, nullibi nisi apud 
G. B. rata fient, utque ego opinor, longe distant a vulgatae lec- 
tionis claritate et praestantia. Contextus totus nostro idiomate 
redditus perfacile intelligi potest.-7~ 

ouTTOo ft^iiyas aycov ixafj! Ovget»o$ ouS* ivMUTous' 
voXXoi xiyi}(rou<riy fri rgo^pv apfictTos 79nror 
*' Still the heavenly sphere fails not in bringing round its months. 
Its years, and often yet shall Phoebus' chariot^steeds move their 
orbit."— IToXXo) illud adverbialiter pro voXXaxig accipiendum esse 
videtur : et api^^ot roD 0olfiov vel *Hxlov intelligere debemus.-*- 
His versibus autem perspicere datur^ Theocritum Magni Pto- 
lemaei systematis fuisse discipulum. Cujus systema non docet, 
prout hodierna est fides, ut Terra solem circumvolvendo, sed ut 
tota ccelorum Sphaera, i. e. OvpaiAs, revolutione sua nobis efficiat 
et '' menses et crnnos."— -Mini quidem pro certo videtur r^ 

Imitations in Terence. 57 

'' xivfftv rwxpv^ poetam Solb per Zodiacuih innuere oiotiint.'— » 
Dum eniiDy systemate supra dicto^ Stellas inerrantes per grandem 
Sphene coelestis revolutionem semper in Una eodemque orbe 
feruntur, e contrario Sol movere suam circulum, i. e. xiyiiv 
Tfox^v, rectissime dici possit; quandoquidem circulus ejus a 
niagno Stellarum circuitu indies se amovere vel abire^ aut sep- 
tentrionem aut meridiem versus declinans videtur. 

J. W. 
Dabam LiverpooUi, Septemb. 1823. 

INDEX of the Passages of Menander and Apol- 
LODORUS, which T£R£NC£ has imitated in his six 
Comedies that have been preserved to us. 

An BR I A. Act iii. Sc. 3. v. l\. ne me obsecra. 

Menander. too ektuviCftrON MH XiTANEK (/x^ Xir«yKif) 


Ibid. iii. 4. 13. guidnam audio? 
Menander. rf S^or axoJcrco ; 

Ibid. iii. 5. 5. posthac incolumem sat sciofore me. 

" Menander sic: AvSeps ^ETFEI OTKAN AUOATMnUE. 
— Et est sensus : tarn difficile est bine evadere, ut qui hinc eva- 
serit, immortalis videatur futurus.'' Donatus. 

Ibid. iv. 3. 11. ex ara hinc sume verbenas tibi. 



EuNUCHUS i. 1. 1. quid igiturfaciam? 
Menander. eira ri ic^iv^a ; 

Ibid, ih 2. 22. quastus, ^c. 

POliOKAPnC hie inducens. 

Adelphi i« 1. 18, 19* et quodfortunam istiputant, Sfc, 


Menander. n f-euofiiv fM ! yuifaixtt ov Xaju^ay«* ^ 

Ibid. i. 1. 47. JUe quern beneficio adjungas. 
KAKenr^xh AN. 

5ft Imitatiom in Terence* 

Ibid* ii. 1. 46. hamini muro. 

Secundum illad Memmdri : 

Hecy^r A i. 1 . 1 . perpolquampavcos reperie$ meretricibusfiieleB 
evenire amatores, Syra ! 

On these words L>onatus remarks : '* Quidam tion paucos, 
sed pauds legunt. Sic enim Apollodorus: — aXva ICHPAC 

Bentley has with great uigeuuit; restored this passage by 
reading — 

Madame DacioTi in b^ note on it^ telh Us that her father. 
Tan. Faber^ had corrected this most corrupt fragment jfort 
heureusemenif thus : — 

Ibid. iii. 1. 6. nam nos omnes, quibus est alicunde aliquu pi- 
JectuM labos. 

Donatus — ** totum ApoUodori est, qui sic ait— 

Phormio i. 2, 37* noi otiosi operam dabamm Ph^dria* 
Apollodor. NAXKEIS Se<ruy^aXi [jlEOA^ 

Ibid. iv. 1. 9* Senedus ipsa est morbus. 

Apollodorus. to ynpi$ hriv aM v^(ji)/t«. 
This sentiment is also expressed by Euripides (SuppUces, v. 

*/! SuenraXaioTov ytipotSf o^S [M<rSi (t* i)(wv ! 
Again in a fragment of the Phoenix: 

cJ yripus, oloy rols a* Jj^ouo'iv tl naKiv ; 

(See Porsoni Adversaria^ p^ 1145.) 

Ibid. iv. 1. 21. solus sum meus. 

Apollodorus* iyw yip il[M t&¥ ifuiv ipis fioyo^. 

^ Xaneor. 

: 59 


A. N E W Polyglott Bible having been some time since projected^ 
inay I inquire if any probability of its execution remains i From 
the imperfect condition of many of the versions in Walton, such 
a work becomes absolutely necessary to the biblical student :^-*- 
the Cophtic, Sahidic, Armenian, Gothic, and Anglo-Saxon ver« 
fiions are entirely omitted, and many of those already printed 
may be much improved by a more accurate collation of Msft. 
Townley asserts in his biblical illustrations, that the whole of 
the Cophtic Scriptures may be found in a French librak-y ; and 
bo better editors of that version can be procured,* than Quatre- 
m^re and Champollion. On the same authority it is asserted^ 
that Bruce's Ms. of the Ethiopic Scriptures exists in the pos*' 
session of the Kinnaird family, to which the book of PsaloM 
alone is wanting, which may be supplied from th^ present 
Polyglott. Many better Arabic versions may be foutid^ than 
that selected by Walton, of which the Pentateuch is the only 
tolerable part, and various Persian Gospels, superior to that of 
Tawnsi, are m the collection of our two universities, three of 
which Spelman edited at Cambridge about the year 1630. 

Should this work ever be undertaken, a large and clear type 
should be cast expressly for it, and much room as well as con- 
fusion would be saved, if the interlitieary Latin translation were 
placed over each language, as in the Hebrew of the old edition. 
The Vulgate might be placed over the Septuagint. In the sup- 
plementary volume or volumes the readings of Kennicott, of De 
Rossi, and of Yeates on the Buchanan Ms. should be inserted ; 
the Syriac should be compared with the copies recently brought 
from the East, and the various readings carefully recorded. No 
modern translation should be admissible : for not one of them 
can possess any authority ; and many are defective in the mi- 
nuter elegance of &e languages, whUst words have been select- 
ed, which the natives regard as barbarisms. Burckhaidt's 
account of the wretched medley of words in the recent Arabic 
translation should be a caution, that the undertaking be not 
ruined by the tnaertion of any version ttjat is not feiQottitaenAcd 
by its antiquity. 

At the same time, Castell's HeptagJbtt Lexicon should be 
extended. Bar Bafaldl, add other native Lestiea should be con- 
suited to compiele the Sjriac, Damir on Natural History, .|iM» 

60 On Ancient Music 

K&in(i8 and Sihbah to complete the Arabic department; the 
Farhang-i Jebangiri and Berban-I Kattea to supply all tbe defi- 
ciencies of the Persian, Tbe Cophtic and Armenian, the 
Maeso-Gothic and Anglo-Saxon dictionaries already published 
should be added to tbe collection, that every version might have 
its corresponding Lexicon. Many new words would be discp- 
^ered from the perusal of tbe Etbiopic Scriptures, to enrich that 
part of the series : and the Arabic would be found a great assist- 
ance in determining the sense of those which have no place in 
Ludolf, and as yet remain unknown, from our imperfect ac- 
quaintance with that tongue. 

£ach individual language should be entrusted to not less than 
three collators ; and proper compositors, previously exercised in 
the use of the respective characters and orthographical marks, 
should be provided to execute the printing. 

If the work were considered as a national undertaking, and 
edited under tbe auspices of Government, there could be no 
doubt of its success : — subscriptions might, then, be solicited, 
and preparations made for its appearance, without further delay. 

It is hoped that these hasty remarks may have a tendency to 
revive the subject, and cause some plan to be suggested for its 

P. S. The Grammars should be published separately, and be 
more diffuse than those in Castell ; they should also be arranged 
in a more masterly manner. 


HISTOIRE dc la MUSIQUE, par Madamb de 
Bawb— i;5&l/ mr la DANSE Antique et M(h 
demCf par Madame Elise Yoiart. PaKis, 1823. 

Dissertations on tbe Arts and Sciences are of two kinds, 
each designed for a separate class of readers. The first, com- 
piled from actual research, embraces all tbe facta relating to its 
•subject, and reasons on tbem with accuracy ; but is calculated 
only for tbe libraries of s.cbolars, and such persons as are not 

ijnd Dancing. 61 

frightened at the dead languages* The second is not quite fair 
in its origin ; it appropriates the labors of industrious writers^ 
moulds them into an essay^ enlivening them with occasionat 
touches of esprit f and sends them forth in an elegant form for 
the amusement of general readers. Of this description are the 
volumes before us : they form part of an extensive work^ enti* 
tied U Ertcyctopedie des DameSf which professes to contain a 
complete course of instruction d Vusdge des femmeSj in eighty- 
four volumes. 

The materials for the Histoire de la Musique appear to have 
been collected by the late M. Pujoulx, at whose death the task 
devolved on Mme. de Bawr: she also acknowledges her obltga-* 
tions to Bumey, Choron/ and Cas til- Blaze,* after whose re- 
searches she had only to compile an agreeable memoir, in which 
she has succeeded. That the learning introduced into the first 
chapters' should have been strained or filtered through other 
works, is not unreasonable ; and that is evident from the ab- 
sence of references, for which we must make allowance to a 
lady, and be thankful for her condescension : this complaisance 
to her predecessors is, however, attended with its evils, for she 
makes no distinction of authorities, but speaks of Moses fron^ 
Clemens, and of Timotheus from Boetius. 

Among the specimens of Greek music which have come down 
to us, are three hymns, addressed severally to Calliope, Apolloy 
and Nemesis,' attributed to Dionysius: they were published 
from a Ms. in the library of Cardinal St. Angelo at Rome, by 
Vincent Galileo (father to the celebrated astronomer) in his Dis-^ 
course on Ancient and Modern Music, printed at Florence in 
1581. Burette reprinted theifl in 1720,'^ with modern notes, 
from a Greek Ms. (which contained also the treatises of Aris-* 
tides and Bacchius), in the Royal Library at Paris.' A fourth 
fragment was discovered by Kircher, in the monastery of St. 
Saviour in Sicily ; it contained eight lines of the first Pythian 
ode of Pindar, written in the characters which Alypius considers 

' Author of the Dictionary of Musicians. 

^ Author of VOpiraj and a Dictionary of Music, preferred by some 
to that of Rousseau. 

^ 1. De la Musique chez les Egyptiens et chez les Hebreux. 2. 
chez les Grecs. 3. Des iastrumens Grecs. 4. Des jenx Grecs. 5. Do 
la Musique dramatique chez les Grecs. 6. Des chansons et de la Mu- 
sique militaire chez les anciens. 7. De la Musique chez les Remains. 
^ Dn plein-chant. 

^ In the Memoires de rAcadeoiie des Inscriptions. 

^ No. 3221. 

6s On Amiffit Mnsic 

Ml^rdiMi: tbe mutiQ ia aimple, and runs over six 9ouoda only,— » 
9 proof, iays Madame de Bawr^ of itp antiquityi and that it was 
composed before the invention of tbe bepti-cbordal lyre. This 
Iragment is engraved at p^;e 41 » and^ as abe observes^ we know 
AOl how to ascribe to such a fioniposition the entbnsiasm with 
which Pindar sang bis verses ; we may add, with which they 
were received by bis auditors; but as they made little distinction 
between the simple and th^ sublime, they probably preferred 
energy to sweetness/ with the same taste as our ancestors for- 
merly listened to minstrels, pr opr cpmmooalty at present to 
itinerant Waits. We shall now extract a passage on the profess 
sors of the art : 

Les Joneors de flAte c^I^bres faisaient des fortanes immenses. Pin- 
tarqne parle des grandes riobesaes de Tb^odnraa, maitre de flftte re* 
BOfnniig, qui fut p^re d'Jsoerate Toratear. Lacien rapporte qu'im cer- 
tain Ism^Diaa de Th^bea acbeta one flC^te, k Coriotbe, trois talens, cp 
qui fait 16,600 francs de notre monnaie : beaacoup d*autres gagnaient 
et d^pensaient des tr^sors. II fallait, an reste, que les jonenrs de flClte 
fhssent en bien grand nombre dans la Grboe ; ear, non-senlement ila 
toieat D^eessaires dans les temples oii ila jouateat pendant lea saori* 
fioes, dans rorcbestre des th^lttres, et dans toutes les c^r^monies pub^ 
liques, mais on les voU encore appel^s aux nocesy aux fMes^ et aux fes- 
tins, comme des personnages obliges. P. 48* 

The Romans, our authoress remarkjs, were too busy with the 
conquest of the world, to equal Greece in the fine arts.^ What 
they karnt she considers as due to the Etruscans, and to the 
Gopquest of Sicily, where pastoral poetry and wind iustrumenta 
are aupposed to have had their origin. The more lyrical ode^ 
of Horace have the air and metre of Greek music ^ and, as the 
dramatiata profeasedly borrowed their plots from Greece, it is 
probable that their embellishments were derived from the same 
quarter, Roman music seiems to have attained its meridian 
moder Nero, and forms the only interesting feature in bis reign » 
Fl-om this period Madame de Bawr makes a rapid transition to 
mediaeval an^ modern qausic, and loses the historian in the con- 

The theories of Madame Yoiart upon the origin of Dancing 


^ Rowe says : ** And Strength and Nature made amends for Arf 
' A better instance need not be sought to show how much truth is 
injured by brilliant periods, or what the French term esprit: the con- 
quest of the world, one would imagine from her words, was the primary 
object of the Romans ; " tout occup6s du soin de conqu^rir le mopdcu 
les Remains n'ont H6 dans lea arts qi^e lea falbles imitatenrs des Grecsr 
P. 63. 

and Daticing. 63 

may be. St Ally pasted over.; for it teems mott naiiiral to ««ppo9o 
that meetingt occasioned hilarity , hilarity produced the chorut^ 
and the chorus quickened the step*' We will now observe iia 

Les Egyptiens fa rent les premiers qiii donn^ent k la danse ce carac- 
t^re de sublimits qui Vbl renda digne det ^loges d«s poistes et des sages* 
InTCDteurs da langage mysti^rieax dont lea images d^corent eneoro 
lears v^n^rabtea monuraens, ila avaient f^it de leiurs danses dea hidro^ 
glyphes d*actions ; sar ab mode grave et solennel ils composaient dea 
danses s^v^res, qal peignaient par des moavemens r^l^s les revolutions 
des aatres, Tordre inmiuable et I'faarmonie de Panivers. Ila avaient in-' 
atitu^ en Tbonneur du dieu Apis, symbole aoaa leqael ila adoraient le 
soleil, des danses par lesquelles ils exprimaient sacceasivemant et la 
douleur de Tavoir perda, et la joie de Tavoir retrouv^. Chez ce peuple 
la danse fat toajours li€e aax c^r^moniea religieases; les lois fonda- 
ftientaies da calte en avaient r^gl^ Tosage et ditermin^ le caract^re. 

Orphee parmi lea Grees fot I'inveafeur des danses sacr^es, on plaint 
il fat le premier qai, rapportant dans sa pa^rie un oalte et dea notioiui 
religieases recueillies dans ses longs voyages, osaconsacrer Texpression 
du plalsir an cnlte de la Divinity. Anx danaea naturelles et famili^es 
k 4a Jeanesse il ajonta des ^volntions emprunt^ea anx prMres de S«ii^ 
on de Oolchide. Lea aubllme^ aceens de aa lyre leur imprira^rent 
les baatea v^rit^a que son g^nie r^v^lait aux penplea. P. 15^ 1:6. 

It must be observed that from the want of references every 
statement here has an air of romance ; the dance of the Greeks 
follows : 

Par la snite, les Grees, eharro^s de Tordre et de I'hapmonie ^fue les 
danaea apportafent dans lenra c^r^monies religieases, lea intvodnirent 
4aDa lea divertissemens les mokia ansGeptibles de les recevoir. Les 
choenrs, qui servaient d'lntermbdes dans les repr^sentatiMia th^&tralesy 
r^etaient aur la sc^ne les r6les qu'ils avaient dejk jou^s autoar dea an- 
lets. lis dans^rent d'abord en rond^ileilrdite ft.gaaohe,.pour exprimer 
le mouvement du ciel, qni se fait du levant an coucbant; ils appelaienl 
cette danse strophes ou tours, lis retonrnaient ensuite de gauch^ k 
^roite poor repr^senter le coars des plan^tes, et nonrni^rentceameuve' 
mens antistropkes on retours. Apr^ ees denx dansea ils a'arr^taient 
panr chanter. Ce repoa, accompagn^ d'harmonie, petgnait, selbn enx, 
rimmobilit^ de la terre, qu^la croyaient 0xe et ImmnaMe. P. 17. 

This is very ingenious ; but we question whether half the 
assembly considered the impottauce of their amnsenients^ or 
that children were taught astronomy by a dancing-master. A 

" Nothing can be mere abanrd than ibe researches of antiquarians an 
this pointy and the opinion of a fiddler would be preferable to that of a 
dilettante. That mui^e was firat invented, we venture to affirm, because 
the faculty of danoiog is not apontaneona, but excited by melody; ie^ 
the inr tbiiaoriat ipajk^e. the ^xperimeat. 

64 On Ancient Music and- Dancing. 

Mulor would compare it to the flux and reflux of the tea ; lo 
short every thing vacillative might be represented in this ** change 
$tdeM and back again" The chapter on '' La Danse chez lea 
anciens'' is rather a collection of passages relating to it^ which 
are thrown together without reserve : but surely Dinah, Jeph- 
thah's daughter, the maidens of Shiloh, David, and Michal^ 
might have been mentioned without extracts, as the references 
are generally known. This diarrhaa of quotations (for it de- 
serves no other name) is not so violent with regard to the clas- 
sics, though a few notices from Homer and Hesiod are given 
in die words of their translators: indeed,. as the work is de^ 
signed for ladies, to have cited the original Greek would have 
been cruel. 

For the collected knowledge on this subject, we must refer 
our readers to tlie '^ F&tes et Courtisanes de la Gr^ce:" let us 
now turn to the Romans. 

L'introdaction de la daose cbea les Romaios n'eut pas le m^me r^- 
soltat que cbez les Grecs. La danse Romaine, sacr^e dans son origine, 
^tait noble et s^v^re comme les objets qu'elle ^tait destin^e il represen- 
tor. Les Etrusqaes, en faisant connottre ^ Rome les danses passionn^es 
de la molle lonie, porterent un coup funeste ik raotique anst^rite des 
moBurs des fils de Mars. Ce n'^tait que par degi^s que les Grecs avaient 
passe des danses all6gor]ques aux danses ^voluptueuses : chez eux lea 
fi&tes de Baccbus et de C^r^s, symboles des plus saints myst^res, liees 
au calte du soleil et de la reproduction, ^taient devenues successive- 
nent oelle de Tamour, du plaisir et de la Ucence, dont elles offraient le 
tableau le plus 6nergique et le plus seduisant. Les Romaius, moins 
d€licat8 et peut-^tre plus ardens pour le plaisir, commenc^rent par oii 
les Grecs avaient fini. P. 70. 

The next paragraph is equitable, though written with partial 
feelings : 

La danse ne conserva pas son veritable caract^re que chez les peuples 
oii les feinme!| furent admises au partage des amusemens de la vie so- 
dale ; ce qui en fait la cliarme, c'est Tassemblage des deux sexes s'unis- 
sant pour partager les plaisirs qui succ^ent aux travaux des champs, 
Jes joies de la victoire, ou pour c^lebrer les douceurs de la paix des 
foyers. A Rome, on appela sur la sc^ne des jeunes hommes pour rempla- 
eer les femmes. Mais les voiles et les baudelettes vifgioales ne donnent 
|K>int la pudeur; le masque m6me ne pent Timiter. Prives de cette 
sainte gardienne des moeurs, les acteurs d^pass^rent la mesure que les 
femmes seules savent conserver. Le goQt des spectateurs se blasa, et 
les uns et les autres s'adoun^rent aux plus deplorables exc^. Do-lii 
i'origine da m^pris attache 4 la profession de dansenr. P« 71. 

Those who wish for ocular information on the Roman dance, 
may consult D'Hancarville*s Antiquites d^Herculaneum, Pom* 
peii, et Stabia, with representations from the antique, by David : 

Oft tht Vaiiaus ReadmgSf ^c. 65 

dbD ^ Sdnen Dancers'* are wdl knbwo ; a id^criptibn of tbete is 
^eti at p.79— Bi. 

La danse, chea les Grecs, occupaif la premiere place dans lesnnstita- 
fions civiles, morales et religieases. Les Romains ayaient une mani^e 
4b penser biea difflSrente ; its regardrient la daase ** coaime une esp^ca 
4a cbasse inseas^e, tadigae de la gravity d'un hoaime^ et 4a 
restime d'une femme hoon^te.'' * Ciceron^r^ndaat que personne ne 
daosalt k jeun k moins qu'il ne (dt attaqne de folie. Horace met la 
danse an nombre des infamies qu'il reproche aux Romains.* Cetait 
parmi les esclaves qa'mi prenait les daosenrs de profession; Texerciee 
4e Tart des Pylade 'et des Bathille, eomme de tontes les profesrions qui 
lie servant qu'il ramosement des hommesy privalt le chevalier de sa 
noblesse, et ne lui laissait pour dedommagement que les louanges effre- 
li6es de la multitudey un pea d'or, et qnelquefois une pierre sepulchrale. 

P. as. 

The dances of the northern nations form the intermediate link 
between the ancient and modem times ; when we meet with ana- 
themas and penances^ amounting to a proof'of their prevalence* 
It remains to say, that these volumes are elegantly written and 
printed, and will probably adorn many a boudoir, while theif 
ponderous brethren '^ cram the groaning shelves/' 



Letter III. — IContinuedfrom No. LF.^ 

The only attempts which have been made in England to form 
a standard Hebrew text of the entire Old Testament, by the aid 
of Kennicott's and De Rossi's collations^ and of the ancient 
Versions, are Boqthroyd's Biblia Hebraica,and Hamilton's Co- 
dex Criticus of the Hebrew Bible. Both of these works were 
mentioned in my last letter, and I now proceed to give a more 
particular account of them. The text adopted by Bootfaroyd is 

^ In another place she compares it to ^ une belle et ravlssante conr« 
tisane que ISm adore, qa*on coavre de bijoax, mais que Pon «*e8tima 

* ** SaUnste, dans le portrait qn'il fait de Sempronia, complice da 
CstiBna, dil qa'dEa excellait dans la omsiqne et dans la danse, plus 
qaV Be coiment & one femme hoDn^te.^ Sole by Mme* Toiart 

f^. XXIX. a. Jl. NO. LVIL E 

66 On the Various .Readings 

that of Vander Hooght, which may be considered as the estab- 
lished Hebrew text^ having been taken as the groundwork both 
of Kennicott's and De Rossi's collations, and having been ge- 
nerally referred to as the common text by Hebrew critics for 
the last IW years. The readings of the collated Mss,, the Sa- 
maritan text ^ and the ancient versions, which are considered by 
the author as preferable to the common readings, are inserted im- 
mediately below the text, and referred to by small letters. The 
critical and explanatory notes, which are placed at the bottom of 
the page, either support and illustrate the reading proposed for 
adoption, or explain the sense of the passage. I have observed 
in a former letter, that this work contains many valuable notes, 
and that the readings of the Mss. and versions are generally well 
selected. But many more might easily be added, which are 
preferable to the common readings, and some readings in Booth- 
royd's margin are supported by very slender evidence. It is to 
be regfetted, however, that a work so usefnl is so negligently ex- 
ecuted. It is necessary to bring some proofs of this assertion, 
both to prevent an implicit reliance on the correctness of the 
work, and to induce the author, in case of a second edition, to 
take particular care in correcting the errors which disfigure the 
first. I1ie table of errata prefixed to the second volume con- 
tains 153 errors of the press. In addition to these, I have no- 
ticed the following errors in the 24th chapter of Genesis* 

Errors in the Hebrew fext. 

Terse 46. : for n^JDIin read ybb^- Ibid, for D^Di read D^DJUT 

V.65.: for rnitO^ read IWy. 

Errors in the Notes. 

Mr. Boothroyd has in general made no distinction between 
the Mss. and the Editions. Thus in the note on V. 22. lYiTStlh 
S. 64. Mss. instead of S. 57. Mss. 7 Ed(J. Note on V. 47. Sl 
16. Mss. instead of S. 12. Mss. 4 Edd., &c. This, however^ is 
not an error of much consequence, and seems naturally to have 
arisen from Dr. Kennicott's Mss. and Editions being classed 
together in the various readings subjoined to the text, and only to 
be distinguished by referring to his catalogue of Mss. and 
Editions. It would have been better to have included both Mss; 
and Editions under the general head '^ Codices,'' or " Codd. ;'' 
apprising the reader of it in the preface. I now proceed to notice 
errors of more importance. 

v. 3. for ^11 read >J1^ v. 16; for mSfSl read rrOOni 

of the. Hebrew^ Bible. ) 67 

V. 19* ^^ ^f ^,'p- e. Septuagint, Vulgate:] they seem to iiaye 
read ilVltf^ 70^ instead of VypiffDb b2iy\: as iwaia-aTO'irhwv, 
Septuagint : cuinque Hit bibisset^ Vulg. 

V. 38. after vb read S. instead of v. 46. for T^TWHk read rtDlMtl 

1 Ms. V.47. — CrafM S. 16. Mss.. read 

▼.40. for So. read 40. DHE^Ml 1^ AAss. 4 £dd. 

V. 44. -rr rP3>n S. 31 Mss. read v. 63. for JITTXID read JllTTJDl. 

rPDin S. 21 Mss. V. 60. — 90 read 60^ and dele S. 

I have already observed that none of these errors are noticed 
in the table of errata. 1 have not examined any other chapter 
so minutely; but in the course of reading the 2d book of 
Samuel, I have noticed the following errors, which are not in- 
serted in the table of errata. 

Errors in the Hebrew text. 
« Sam. iii. 89. for ^ read b^. xix; 41. for taV read *13y. 

Errors in the Notes. 

9 Sam. i. 6. for impaiH read — v. 25. for yj) read Tjru 

ynp^^T!?. ■"■ ^'' 2- ^' P- «• '^anting] Q^tf 9 

— ii. 2. Jv7G^3t^ ro. Mss. — only Mss. v. y. — only 1 Ms. omits 
5 Mss. suDport this reading. . XSH^* 

— iii. 16. W9 and jmS m. Mss. -r vii. 23. DWi^ l^n parAll. loc. 
—only 1 Ms. reads UD7S)« 1 Chron. xvii. 21.— Df*n7j^n is 

— iv. 7. imS^ and irtl/ID^ m. the reading 1 Chron. xvii. 21. 
Mss.— only 1 reads irtO^* and — xiii. 12. DH^^D— read DIKD- 
none rcadirTUIO^I 8 codd. read — xv. 31. TiliT— read "PIirT. 

— V. 2. KWDm-read ^WnOiT. . 

Much allowance perhaps should be made for errors not 
easUy avoided in so laborious a work ; yet it must be admitted, 
that, in endeavoring to restore the sacred text to a higher de- 
gree of accuracy, scrupulous correctness is one of the most im- 
portant requisites. 

It is now time to direct our attention to Hamilton's Codex 
Criticus. In a dedication to the Bishop of Raphoe, liow Arch- 
bishop of EKiblin — the learned author of ihe discourses on the 
scriptural doctrines of Atonement and Sacrifice, Mr. Hamiltotk 
calls his Codex Criticus, " a preparatory specimen^* It forms 
a thin octavo volume : from its size, therefore, it can only com- 
prise a selection of the most important various readings ; and 
many very worthy of note are necessarily omitted. The w6Hc is 
preceded by a sensible preliminary essay on the nature and ne- 
cessity of the undertaking. The text is that of Vander Hooght ; in 
which the various readings which Mr. H. considers as decidedly 
preferable to the common reading are inserted in hollow letters ; 
and the word or words, as they stand in Vander Hooght, are ex- 

68 On tht Various Bladings 

liibited m the margin^ to that the entire of his text id priated. 
The inferior margin contains such various readings as were 
deemed worthy of notice, though not entitled to a place in the 
text ; these are divided into f, probably truei and %^ possibly 
true. The notes state the authorities which support the read- 
ings. An appendix is subjoinedi containing remarks on suck 
rardings as require longer notes to justify them than cootd have 
been admitted into the text. Nothing can be more judicious 
than this plan : and so far as I have examined the work, great 
care seems to have been taken by the author to admit no new 
readings into the text, but on strong grounds of sound criticistn, 
and on the authority of Hebrew Mas. As a preparatory speci- 
men it could not be expected to contain all, or nearly all the vari- 
ous readings which may jiistly be considered as preferable to the 
text of our common Hebrew Bibles : but, as far as the author 
has gone, he has shown judgment in his plan, and, I believe, cor- 
rectness in the execution of it. I trust, therefore^ that he will 
receive such encouragement in the prosecution of his great work^ 
as will persuade and enable him to supply so imporSant a desi- 
deratum to the British public. After having saio so inuch in 
commendation, I wish to make a few observations on the refer-> 
encesand abbreviations which Mr. Hamilton has used^ and which 
are rather perplexing to the reader, bat easily admit of improve- 
ment. It would have been better if, instead of introducing new 
arbitrary signs, Mr. H. had, as much as possible, adopted those 
which have already been used by Biblical critics, and ^ome of 
which may be considered as established by common consent. 
Besides these objections to the kind of signs used in the Codex 
Criticus, the text is also embarrassed by Uieir number. There 
are 18 letters, referring to different authorities, nine of which 
I believe are new, and contain no natural connexion with the 
authority to which they refer; 1 mean that they are neither ini- 
tial letters, nor knpwn signs of the authority. I subjoin a list 
of references in three columns. The first contains the principal 
yiotes of reference in Boothro^d's Hebrew Bible ; the second, 
the principal notes of reference iathe Codex Criticus ; the third 
contains notes of reference, most of which have been already 
used by Biblical critics, and which appear to me preferable to 
those of Bootbroyd and Hamilton. I have f etained what ap- 
peared the best notes in both the works referred to. 

of the Hebrew Bible. 




p. Mss. 



I 3 



















par. loc. 





A lew Hebrew Codices - 

Many ditto 

Majority, or a great many ditto 

Omissioo in the text 

InttrpolatioD in the text 

A word in the text wanting in 

aome Codices 
A word added in some Codices 
A various reading worthy of notice 
Defective words 
Erroneous words 
Samaritan text • . - 
Septuagint version 
Syriac vexsioti 
Vulgate . - 
Arabic version 
All the ancient versions - 
The readinss of an ancient version 

differing from the London Poly* 

Aquila ... 
Parallel passages 
Keri readings 

Quotations from the Hebrew text ^ 
Quotations from the New Test. 
The exigence of the place 

I cannot conclude these remarks without acknowledging (he 
important assistance wfaich the works of Boothroyd and Hamil- 
ton afford to every Hebrew acfaolar, who is without either the 
meana or the inclination to consult the larger and more expensive 
works of Kennicott and De Rossi. If Boothrojd's . Hebrew 
Bible is enriched by the remarks and conjectures of eminent 
Biblical Critics, and contains a more copious selection of vari- 

Marks pro- 
posed for 


[ ] 









■ The letter V would serve to refer to all the various readingSi of all 
kinds^ except additions, omissionsy and transpositions. 

* This and the two following notes are quite superfluous. The ouo* 
tations from the New Testament should be referrea to specifically. The 
other two are not of sufficiently frequent occurrence to require distinct 

70 On the Various Readings^ ^. 

oils readings ; the Codex Criticjis is executed with more care^ 
judgment and accuracy^ and few readings are proposed by the 
author to be substituted for those of our common Hebrew Bibles 
to which the most cautious critic could object. In short, what 
Mr. Hamilton has done, he has well done. Perhaps the time 
is not yet arrived when the text of the Old Testament can be 
restored to the highest attainable degree of correctness. The 
Mssr. of one of the most valuable of the ancient versions, the 
old Syriac, have never yet been accurately collated/ and th^ 
Latin translation of that version is confessedly inaccurate in 
many passages in the London and Paris Polyglotts. Nor in- 
deed is the collation of those Syriac Mss. which were consulted 
for the London Polyglott by any means free from material de- 
fects.* Neither the Mss. of the Targuro, nor of the Vulgate^ 
have yet been collated ; though not a few important reading$ 
have been noticed by Dr. Kennicott, as found in the Mss. of both 
these versions. Some additions may yet be made to the read- 
ings of the Hebrew Mss., if some ancient Mss. of the Karaites 
could be procured for this purpose : and the increasing inter- 
course of the Bible society and the London society for convert- 
ing the Jews, may open new sources for this branch of sacred 
criticiism. To bring the autl^orised version of the scriptures tq 
the highest attainable perfection, is an object which ought to 
unite the hands and hearts of eyery Christian. But before this 
interesting work can h^ undertaken with advantage, a standard 
Hebrew text should first be formed, 'f We are still studying a 
text/' as Mr. Hamilton jnstly observes, ff drawn frpm compa- 
ratively modern Mss., still obliged to correct for ourselves what 
is confessedly incorrect, and still destitute of that standaid He- 
brew text Which Kennicott and De Rossi looked for as the le- 
fitimate result of all their labors.''' That such a revision of the 
lebrew text' may be accomplished with safety as well as with 
benefit, no one can doubt who has been accustomed to consult 
the various readings. The great result would be, that the 

' Perhaps a collation of the Mss. of this truly valuable version is not 
iar distant. Professor Lee hiss long been empto^ed on a new edition of 
the Syriac Old Testaroeht. In the progress of this work he has collated 
some valuable M!^8. ; and surely so favorable an opportunity for institut- 
ing a collation, at least of the Syriac Mss. preserved in £ngland, will no( 
i^scapetheattention'of our -learned universities. * 

* See Class. Joum. No. xlvi. p. 845. 
? Codex Crilicus, p. 11. • - 

De Verdbm quibusdam Horatianis. 71 

Bible, with all its distinguishing characters and excellences 
would remain substantially the same as at present: not the 
slightest chabge would be found in its doctrines and its precepts, 
nor in the great outlines and main features of its histofy. 
Many apparent inconsistencies would be reconciled ; many ob- 
scurities removed, and much new beauty and force would be 
restored to passages which long ba£9ed the skill of our ablest 
commentators. " It is true," says Archbishop Newcome, a 
aealous and able advocate for the improvement of our autho- 
rised version, '' that nothing of this kind can be undertaken 
without temporary offence to the prejudiced and ignorant. 
But the opinion of these' will soon be outweighed by the 
judgment of the reasonable and well-informed. The real ques- 
tion amounts to this ; whedier we shall supply Christian readers 
and Christian congregations with new means of instruction and 
pleasure, by enabling them to understand their Bible better ? 
And let all who can promote a work of such moment, consider 
Ithis question with due seriousness and attention/'' 

Oct. 1823, ^IMCHl 

De wrribus quibusdam HORATIANIS. Disputatio 
* Henr. Gab. Abr; Eichstaedtii, Iitdici I^t. in 

Univ. Liu. Jex^nsi par cestatem ^w, 1820. haben* 

darum pramissaf 

[Miscell. Critica, Vol. i. P. iv.] 

Jn lyricb Horatii carminibus admodum pauca sunt, quse vim 
quamdam procreatricem ingenii et fAUflas voiijrix^; prbdant : 
pleraque ille de Gracis fontibus non parce detorsit, sed tam 
cumulate ac paene dixerim immoderate derivavit,^ ut, si quia 

' Archbishop Newcpme's preface to improved version of Minor Pro- 
phets. <. i. J- 

* Aliter judicavit Bentleiiis in notis ad hoc ipsum, ^uod praBtandi 
^ateriem dedit, carmen v. 9. p. 187 : " Navinm Horaiium non tnuUum 

72 De VMrribus quUnuiam H(Mratianis 

inter aos hodie ad eiim aodiiiB poeuuta pepigerity et ^rel sm 
BritaoMs luisfque, vel ex antiquis etiam poetis boa Molum urg/u^ 
menta et colore^ operia, aed ipsa quoque verba^ patrio sermons 
reddita, verborum^ue et aeolentiaruai ordinem ac aerieaA tfm-» 
duzerit, is vix videattir plausum et approbationeiD peritonun 
laturus. De iis carminibuB Horatii dico, quae eomparare licet 
cum superstitibus GrsBcorum fragmentis : uade qui coojeduimm 
faciat de caeteris, quorum imitatiooem, deperditis Cnacis^ mente 
magis quam oculia cernimus, non vereodum ei est^ ne audacult 
et in Horatium injurii conjectoris notam subeat. Sed in bac 
ipsa vel imitandi vel verteudi aedulitate ubivis tamen admirabilis 
elucet digmisque Augusteo aevo sensus pulcri ac venusti, in de* 
lectu verborum^ in sententiariim per strophas Ijrricas decurrentium 
junctura^ in componeodi sive potius compoaita accommodandi 
artificio. Cui quidem elegantiae senaui, reputate Vobiscuai« 
Cives, quo pacto conveuiant ea^ qu» in praeclaro iilo ad Lydeo^ 
cui expugnandae poeta Mercurii opem implorat, odario (iii^ 11. 
V. 17-20) bodie legimus : 

Tu potes tigris comitesque silvas 
Ducere, et rivos celeris raorari : 
Cessit immanis tibi blandienti 

Janitor aula> 
Cerberus; quamvisfuriaie centum ' 
Muniant angues caput ejus, atque 
Spiritus teter saniesque mauet 
oOre truiogui. 

Posterioris stropbae ceusoram nemo acutius severiusque magno 
fientleio egit. Is recte post Dacierium mouuiti carmen deho- 
nestari vocula £ipi8, qua neque h. 1. opus sit ad int;ell]gendi per* 
spicuitatem, neque omnino epici aut lyrici poetae uti soleant. 
** immo, ait, magno sane cum judicio, Tocabulum boc perpetuo 
multarunt exilio^ ne carosinis majestatem hiimi serpere cogeret^ 
utpote singulis fere periodis recursurum, ni stilo poetico subin- 
teiligeretur extrinsecus, ne^ue prasseiitia sua versus ipquinaret. 
Ittde est, qiibd in toto Virgilio ne. semel quidem occurrit Eju^J* 
Quod cum Bentleius egregie animadyerti^set, miraqdum proi- 
fee to est, post eum exsiiti^e JH^ratii imerpretes, qMi vocabulo 
dignitatem nescio quam vindicare conarentur Propertii^ Gratii^ 

amareJido& illos itUerpreies et tervUes muUUoreSy qtu verbum Derho exprimcnr 
dum €Mf^ni.** Sed vix ita scrip»it ex aoimi septeutia: novimus nos 
quidem eximii Tui captiosam ac pipae sopbisticam dissimulatiooeuiy ubi 
id agebat, ut conjecturas vel aliorum refelleret, vel suas firmaret* Qiia 
de re etiam God. Hermannus praeclare nuper disputavit. 

C<mm€ntatia Fnchstaedtn. 73 

Ovidii auctoritatitMis : qtiasi illi I jricis seqaiparandi siDt vatibus, 
aut Naso potissimom elegos suos supra prosas orationis humili- 
tatem evexerit. Sed quod idem Beotleius pronuntiavit^ in 
verbis seqaentibus excusari fortasse, probari certe ei laudari non 
posse, quod legatur: Spiritus teter ianiesque manet, siquidem 
spiritum she faalituoi manure nemo umquam dixerit : in eo 
exifflius irir cupidius quam verius judicavit, nihil respiciens ad 
illttd satis usitatum poetis ^ttfyfta, sed, quemadmodum solebatin 
fervore critico, id unice agens, ut locum una parte affectum ex 
omnibos oranino partibus damnaret, quo magis persuaderetur 
lectoribus de emendandi necessitate. £mendari autem jussit 
exeatque : quod dum exemplis quibusdam Ovidianis commen- 
idat, ipse sentit candideque more suo fatetur emendationis pro>- 
babilitati id obstare, quod in locis illis Spiritus exit de iis 
duntaxat dicatur, qui moribundi animum exspirant. Ita tandem 
eo delabitur disputando, ut optet Nostrum scripsisse potius, 
exeatque halUut teter. Intra eosdem rerum optabiiium termi- 
uos consistunt, etiam conjecture?, quas alii protulerunt, effluat^ 
que, €Mtuetque, alias : quarum plenum recensum dare vix opene 
pretium est.' Neque attinet notare usum particulae quamvis, 
qui solum Cuningamium, sed jure^ offendit. Altius enmi inhse- 
ret loco vitium, quam quod uno alterove verbo permutando 
exstirpetur, Ac duo imprimis sunt, quae ilium in magnam aut 
vituperationem aut suspicionem adducant : alterum, quod, in- 
serta stropha, versu 17-20 vehementer turbatur Ijrica sententi- 
arum progressio et concinnitas ; alterum, quod in ea non*habe-* 
mus nisi pannulos quosdam, ex genuinis Flacci carminibus 
miaerabili arte contextos. De utroque vix opus est, ut singu* 
latim exponam. Nam quid, obstcro, causae putamus fuisse, ut, 
quum poeta tigres ac silvas, quas Orphea testudo duxisset, 
rivosy quorum cursum morata esset, Ixiooiaque ac Tityi iavita 


! Sat honestus plerisque conceditur in ima pagina locus. Cuningamius^ 
mutata interpuDCtione, ^idit quamquatn — munmnt angues capid^ eftu 
atque — manat. Nam tolerabiUus ipsi videbatur vocabulum ^*ta, ad se- 
quentia tractum. Turn idem, suomet ipse judicio diffisus, conjecit oftu' 
atgnCf vel efflal atque; piius illud recepenmt Sapadouiis et Sivrius. 
JEstuetque^ servatls caeteris, reposuit Wakefieldus^ laudaos Lucret. iii, 
loss, et Sil. Ital. vi, 919: efiuUque maluit Gesnerus, allato Seneca^ 
Troad. S94; emice^^ae lani, qui etiam alia conjecit, quce obliviooe^ spe- 
ramus, nunc obruta, inhumanum est in memoriam et censuram revocare. 
Fea, quod mirum, nihil notavjt, Vanderbourgianse editionis secundo 
▼olumioe aegre careo, qui acutis^imi viri hoc de loco senlentiam impri* 
mis aveam scire. 

74 De Versibus quibusdam Horatianis. 

TuUu risum velbci^ sed graviy stilo attigerit^ in uoo Cerbero 
describendo per unam et dimidiatam stropbam immoraretur i 
Nam de Oaoaidum scelere ac supplicio quod plura proferret, 

^'ustissima sane causa in eo erat, quod illarum exemplo docere 
[^yden volebat, fastidia et superbiam puellarum a diis plecti. 
Jam toUite ^uatuor illos versua, qui posteriorem strophatn 
efficiunt ; lyncie exposition! cum partium aequalttate etiam vim 
et nervOs restitutos sentietis. Sublatis autem versibus ne quia 
Horatio quicquam detractum doleat, nihil detraximus, nisi quod 
iqeptus interpolator ex aliiset genuinis locis- suffuratus* easet* 
Vix dubium enira est^ quin ex ii. Od. IS, 33-6. 

Quid rnirum, ubi illiscarmiDibus stupens 
Demittit atras beliua centiceps 
Aures, et intorti capillis 

Euineniduna recreantur angues ; 

et ii. Odar. 19> 31, 3$, ubi Cerberu9 

recedentis triliogui 
Ore pedes tetigitque crura, 

nostra ilia conflata sint. . Accedit, quod Cerberus ipulto graviua 
h* 1. et lyricae dictioni convenientius significatur descriptione ; 
immqn^jafiitor aula,^ V^^^ adjecto nomine, qui intelligendu^ 
^t janitor, tamquam aliquo interpretamei^to declaratur. Quid f 
quod ea nominis acUectio tantp est frigidior,-quum novam 
stropham ordiatur, cujus haec omniuo ratio est, ut vim superioris 
infringat. Nullum equidem in Horatii carminibus exemplum 
ipveni, in quo eadem h. e. apque putida et inepta sit junctura 
stropbaruni, neque cadere earn pqto in artem poetse, Etenim 
Horatius aut integras sententias singulis stropbis cpncludit, quas 
frequentissjma ejus et a Grascorum libertate discrepans ratio 
est, aut sententi^m priore stfopha inqhqatafn sic persequituf 

* ^ Dtttntant commentatores, utn vocabulum jungendum sit epitheton, 
Non dubiuibant interpretes Germanici, poetico sensu edocti. Ramleru^ 
enim vertit : 

Ddnen Zauberivnen wich selbst der HoUe 

Heuknder Huter. 

JOf es wichf Uehkotendef dvr det Orhu 

Grausiger Pfortner, 
Nunc, expuncta stropha, coucidit etiam iua dabitatib,quamcximere jan^ 
pibterat elegans oppositio, hlandientiM et Virgilii similis locus, a Doeringio 
docte allatus, J£d. vi, 418. 

CerhervM hoc ingem latraiu regna trifaud 
^ Pertmatf adeem recuhom irimanii in antro. 

Itinemry from Trippti to Sudah. 75 

deducitque in posterioreni^ tit et attentio lectoris maxime sus- 
pcDsa teneatur. Deque carere sequentibus possit, qui velit sen- 
sum poetae perspicere. Qualia ^unt i. Od. '2, 47-9* 

'Neve te nostris vitiis iniquum 
Ocior aura ' 


i. Odar. 12^ 27-9 de pueris Ledse: 

' — p» quorum siroul alba nautis 
Stella refulsit, 

pefluit 8axis agitatus humor. 
et aliis locis. In nostro non tautum nulla est attentionis su&r 
pensioy sed summa etiam importunitas dicentis ea et glossatorif 
more adjicientis, quae dici sibi et adjungi nemo sanus postulabat : 
ut turpem profecto caudam stropha, quae praecedit^ trahere 
yideatur. Quamobrem collectis rationibus omnibus, ad quaa 
paullo uberius explicandas ipsum me nomen ac dignitas poetae 
impulerant, quid tandem reliqui est^ nisi ut stropham, tot vitiis 
inquinatam, ' sensui pulcritudinis repugnantem, arti prorsus 
contrariam, interpolatori reddamus^ ab Horatio abjudicemus ? 
Quae sententja si probata fuerit idbneis Judtcibus, mox pergam 
quo coepi, similemqoe in duodecimo librrprimi carmine fraudeni 
demonstrabo ; sin di^plicuerit, unum certe nunc habeb, sed 
^cerrimi judicii maximseque subtilitatis adstipulatorem, cujus me 
consensu consoler, Frid. GuiL Joseph. Schellingium, quem ex 
dumetis bos Musarum amoenissimos recessus 
tandem rediis^e laetamif r. 

' from the latter to SUDAH; together with a sum- 
. man/ of an ITINERARY from TRIPOLI to 

TIMBUCTOU. By Muhamed ben Alt ben 


translated from the ARABIC INTO FRENCH ITY M. LE 


From Tripoli, taking an easterly direction by the road of the 
tiamamitff, to the station called Ras-Annakhl^^ (the promontory, 
cli^, or cape, of date trees) is 3 niiles* 

] This is Alnakhl in the French translation, but as the letter n m is a 

I • . *^ ■ 

76 Iun€rary from Tripoli 

Fron Uie gate of the towoi tbe caravan pxoeecds and cncaoifM 
at JD^enMOwr^ the distance being 1ft mifei, or 3 hours. 

The wells which are found in thb interval are from the Hama- 
midj to Ras^Annakhl 3 miles, from the latter to Querkaresch 4 
miles, from Querkaresch to Djeosour 12 miles, in all 18 miles* 

From Djenzour they proceed and stop at Eisawiah' of the 
West for the night, distant p houra, or 50 miles. 

The wells are, 1st. Sayyad, at the distance of 6 miles. 2nd. £7 
M&yehi 12 miles, or 2 boan. 3rd. Etiambiyek* 15 miles, or 2 
hours and a half; (between £1 Mayeh and Ettouibiyeh there are 2 
wells, besides those above mentioned, of which one is on the 
and the other on the West.) From Ettonibiyeh to Eazawiah, 23 
miles, or 4 hours. 

To return : fhom Tripoli to Eszawiah of the West thevt is 1 day *s 
journ^, proceeding without intermission from the rising to the 
setting sun* 

From Ezsawiah to Eawagah (Zewaga)> which is as far from Ea« 
aawiabi as Tripoli is from Menchieh of Ezzawiah. From Esaawiab 
to Ezwagab, 70 miles. Wells, Ist. the well of Dcndanah, near 
Ezzawiah. 2ad. 12 miles from Dendanah the well of Zaraw, to 
tbe east of Ezwagah. 3rd. the well called. Beer Alkarbih i^JBtr 

From Ezwagah the caravan proceeds and encamps at Kaur^t' 
Allakahf distant from Tripoli 2 days' travelling, or 170 miles, or 
27 hours. 

From Kassr-el*Allakah they proceed and encamp at Zewarahm 
Thus the distances between Tripoli and Ezzawiah, between Eza»* 
wiah and Ezwagah, and between Ezwagah and Zowarah, are each 
exactly 1 day, in all 3 days' march, or 200 miles, or 32 hours. 

From this place they go on and encamp at Sheikh' Seedi^Bt^ 
u^eilek (Bouojeileh), distance 1 journey, agreeably to the before- 
mentioned rate of travelling, from tbe nsiog to the setting sun, or 
• 12 hours. 

From Btt*udjeileh they go and encamp at El Rhattabah, distance 
1 day's, journey. Wells, 1st the wdl of Dikdacah, at the eitre- 
mity of the territory of Bu-udjeileh, and at the distance of 12 miles. 
ox 2 hours. 2nd* the well of Wakhoum, distant from the pre<^mg 
well 20 mBes. 

From this town (Bu-u^ieileh) they perform a day^s journey, 
which brings the oaravaa to a narrow neck of land, between two 

solar letter, the I in the artide becomes Uquld or assumes the following 
letter, making it Jnnakhl, 

* Ezsamahf not M-Zawiahf by the same grammatical rule as above 

* Vide note « (abovc> 

to Sudah^ by Htnua. 77 

MOttfitaios, which it full of numing streanfly which continue fo 
refresh the couDtry, until they reach the ralley <of Zenthan. 

RcAumed. AU this road from Tripdi to Foasato is hut sand and 
flint-stones. After passing Fossato the road is altogether stony, 
haying on the right as well as on the left a mountain ; and this 
continues a day and a night, that is to say, ^4 hours, till they enter 
Zenthan* From the sate of Tripoli to Zenthan, the direction of 
Uie road is always to the West. The inhabitants of this Talley are 
called ZhustUt they are the posterity of Helal, but the valley itsdf 
is called Zenthan.* 

The caraTan sleeps at the: entrance of the valley ; it then departs, 
and proceeds through the middle of the valleir duiiag 12 hours; 
then it passes the night in the valley, and at the dawn of day it 
proceeds for 6 hours more, through the middle of the vaHey ; it has 
then passed through the valley, and sleeps opposite to Errodjeban. 

From the gate of Menchieh of Tripoli they iavauiaUy proceed 
to the West, leaving Tripoli on the East; but from hence, that is, 
after passing the valley, the road separates, and the caravan pro* 
eeeds to the south. 

From Errodjeban they proceed to the valley of Eman ; the dis- 
tance between these two places is the same with tlmi which sepa«- 
rates the other* wells. Ist. the well of Nakoua at 5 hours' dbtanoc 
fir«>m Errodjeban. Snd. the well of Schakamnah^ opposite to the 
valley of Easian, distaot from Nakoua 5 hours and one third. 

Departing the following day from this valley and proceeding on 
the journey 13 hours, brings them to the valley of Lathman^ where 
they sleep. 

Pursuing their journey at the dawn of day, they travel 12 hours 
complete ; they encamp near a water, caUed the well of Sammam : 
vrhl^ver way the caravan might direct its course, it would find 
fio water but at Sammam. 

After passing the night there, they depart at the foUowing 
morning, after having filled the skins with water sufficient ibr 4 
days' journey. The whole of this journey is a stony road, and tlKre 
is not found earth any where. 

After 4 entire days' journey they arrive at a well called Beir 
Qaercabah, and pass the night there. 

In the morning they leave this place, and march on during 12 
hours complete. At the ond of hours' march they reach a well 
at noon, called Beer Rahnumeh, They dine near this well, and 

' The note in the French translation of this itinerary says, this is am** 
biguous in the text; but we do not perceive any ambiguity : the inhabi- 
lanu of Bnsland are called English, as those of Zenthan are cajl^ 
Zenata, or of France, French. 

^ Without doubt a journey of 19 hours. 


78 Itinerary from Tripoli 

then emitimie their journey other 6 -hours ; they sleq) .nt a- plner 
called Sedrat-Helftl. 

The following morning they resumetheir joUmey^ and travel on 
2 days without water. After 12' hours' march they sleep at GmUh^ 
Erra^ranah ; ' here there is only sand and gravel. The extent of 
this gouth is 3 days and 3 nights. There is no water nor pasturage 
there* hut ostriches and wild beasts. . The 4th day^ in the morning, 
an hour after the rising of the sun, they find thrfee wells, whose wa- 
ter is sweeter than the fountain of Mawrah, in the town of Tripoli. 

The caravan halts at thesewells till noon; they water the camels, 
dine, and bathe there, and march on through sands till night; they 
sleep at a place called Beer Assidr, the well of thorny bushes, of 
which there is a row on each side, that is to say, on the right and 
on the left. 

After passing the night at this place, they proceed, and travel aH 
day till^,sun-«et, when they arrive at a well, named Beer Eddjel- 
laondab, which is situated in the tnidst of the remains of a ruined 
town, where they pass the .night: from, this place no water is 
found during 9 joumies ; they allow then here a sufficient pro- 
vision of it, and march on during 24 hours, without the. camels or 
the men taking any repose, till they arrive at El-Keliat, where they 
pass the night and repose half the next day ; they then proceed on 
a day and a night without the • men or ifae camels taking any rest, 
when they reach Kadjoum, a place where there are trees, and a 
river which runs during the rainy season only. 

They pass the night at this place ; they then march on again, a 
day and a night as before, and then encamp in a low plain, called 
Gouih de Canoudf, 

After another march of 24 hours they encamp in the valley of 
Kanad, they there pass the night ; the next morning they proceed, 
and march 2 days and 1 night, after which they encamp at the 
extremity of a territory, called Albesat (that is to, say, the plain) of 
the sons of Hammaro, and there pass the night, when after 12 full 
hours' march they encamp near the well called Beer ben Dertt^* 

Here they pass the night, and in the morning they^ take a provi-^ 
sion of water for 2 days, water the camels, drink, and bathe, if they 
choose, before they proceed. 

After journeyiugfor a day and a night they encamp: in the ter- 
ritory of Gaifame#, to the south. Between ■ Gradames and. the 
lower plain, where the caravan was encamped, and which is called 
Gouth de Barkadjt there are 3 full days' journey. 

To return to the march of the caravan. After having passed 
the night at the encampment just. mentioned^ it departs the next 

' GmUk signifies a low plain. 

to Sudahi . by Housa. 79 

tnorniAg and traveb 24 liours, when it encamps at a pMmce named 
Gauih de Cardollah, and there passes the night. 

In the morning the caravan proceeds and travels for 24 hoars, 
and encamps, at a place called Gouth de Saddaz, where there is a 
well, called Beer Schafannah ; here they take 8 jouroies' provision 
of water. 

They depart in the morning, from- this well, and .in 1 24 hours' 
march they reach Zenz^n» and there. encamp.. • . 

After having passed the night. t^iere, and travelled on 24 hours 
they arrive at Gouth Barakhn^b, and pass the night there. 

They proceed in the morning, and after travelling 24 hours they 
encamp at £1-Kakaa in the West,, where they remain, till the next 

At £1-Kakaa the. road separates, they proceed southward, walk* 
ing in the midst of water and wells ; after travelling 24 hours they 
encamp near the well JSeer^El-jSafzafyVihaae^ water never fails, 
but bubbles up with strength : here they make provision of water 
for 12 joumies. « 

Departing from this place they /arrive,, after proceeding a day 
and a night, at Karkoufa/ where tliey. pass the night. . 

From thence, after a march of 24 hours, they encamp in . the 
Gouth d'Ezzarahnah, and after another journey of 24 hours, they 
encamp in tlie.Gouth d'Elafiah;'. they depart from hence in. the 
morning, and in 24 hours they arrive at the Gouth d.*Adjrineh, 
there pass- the night, and in 24 hours more they, reach a gouth, 
where there is a spring, called Ain. Ah(four, (the fountain of pearlsy) 
because the water is clear and excellent, and the. sand does not 
spoil it; they rest here 24 < hours. From hence is seen Feszan, 
between the South and the East. There are 2 full days' journey 
between this fountain and Fezzan. 

From Am Aldjour they travel from morning .till sun-set, and 
then sleep and pass the. night in the territory of X^'tnn: proceeding 
from hence, in the morning, after 12 hours' travelling, they, arrive 
and sleep in a country called Sahha. 

From thence in 24 hours' march they arrive at Maragnah; they 
proceed in the morning, and after travelling 24 hours, that is to 
say, a day and a night, they come to GatUh-Ennadgena^y where 
there is no water, and where they pass the night. 

Proceeding in the morning they travel a day and a night, and 
sleep at Gouth d'AdhimUch. 

At the dawn of day they provide water for 6 days, and enter the 
territory of the Tuarecks ; here the road divides. 

They march a day and a night, and then sleep in the Gouth de 

' I. e. the valley of profit or gain. 

80 Itinawryfrom Tripoli 

Smrt^ih.' De | »fti ii g next morniag, after other M hours, they go 
and sleep at the Gimth de Sdi&nehmun. The next morning diey 
jmeecd and march till sun-set, when they enter the town of 
juureknah, in the Tnareck coontiy . At Tareumh ^ the road dividca 
and takes a westerly difection. 

They travel 2 days and 2 nights after leaving Tareknah withomt 
the camels or the men taking any repose ; and after a further pro* 
gress of 12 bomrs, they enter the temtory of £d-daom, wfaseh 
belongs to the Negro-coontiy, and there pasa the night, near the 
wells of Findi. 

Departing from £d-daum, after a fall daj's march, they reach, 
eit sun-set, a valley called, in the Negro language, StmindL It k 
a delightful spot, abounding in fruits and all kinds of good tUngB. 
The extent of this valley is 24 honra' march, from morning till 
morning. After these 24 hours' march they discover 7 resenrohns 
each 100 feet long, and full of water during the whole year. No- 
thing, after the Nile, is more wonderful than this valley. 

They here make provision of water for 4 days, and then pursoel 
their journey in the morning ; and at the expiration of a day and a 
night they encamp in a Ooulh, called by the Negroes Bmuvukip 
aira by the Tuarecks, Saddjanah. 

They pass the night here, and after 24 hours* march they encamp 
in a Gouth, called by the Negroes Kanindi, and in the Arabic 
idiom of the Tuarecks, BuikomniA. 

Departing in the morning, they arrive after 24 hours' march at 
a Gouth, odled by the Negroes Catmdfi, and by the Tuarecks^ 
Bpk^am, or Fokaham: they rest here till the next day at nocm; 
they then provide water for a day, water the camels, and bathe 

From hence they march a day and a night incessantly, without 
repose to men or camels, and without suffering the mounted camels 
to browse, after wbieh tbev neach a gouth, called by the Negroes 
€Miciy and by the Tuarecks, Sekakatah. 

They sleep there, when, in 12 hours' march, they reach the city 
of Hotisa, a town in the Negro-country. There is a market here, 
and sales and purchases of provisions are made, and the men and 
camels repose; also the meKfaandise brought by the caravan may 
be sold, if the propiietors choose. 

' FrobaUy Gaidh de SUrrtfih^ q. d. the valley of princes. 

^ I doubt if Tarekn&b is & proper name; the word implies that there 
were two roads, one of which wa« the road of the cartfvtfn/that is to sav, 
tarekna, q. d. our road — tarekekume, your road; tarekhume, their read : 
there is ihe more reason for putting this construction on the sentence, be- 
cause immediately afterwaros the text says the road divides and takes a 
westerly direction. 

to Sudah, hj M6utm, 51 

* • 

Housa to Sudahy 


On quitting this to^n, they travel a day and a niglit, and then 
^eep ill a Negro village, called, in their idiofti, Bakoiikiioki/ pnd in 
Ihat of the Tuarecks, Bakermi (Bagermi). Thrs is not an indc- 
l^endent tdwn or chief place, but only like Ezwarrah (which depends 
on Tripoli) and other similar towns. 

W«er is taken here for two journies, and departing early in the 
morning they travel oh till between sun-set and dark; they sleep at 
Sarreifeh, as they do at Djenzour.' This place is called in the 
Negro language, Schakniri, and inthatof theTuarecks, WanaHan. 
Tbey pass the night near these pits,' and repose there 24 hours. 

After a furthejr journey of a day and a night, they stop at a town 
which the Negroes call Keekee^ and the Tuarecks, Caouaz. It is 
not a chief place, byt is like* the mountain of Djebdlis. They 
leave this plaice in the morning and traveltill son-set, an'd go to 
sleep at a town of Negroes, called by them, Canindi, and by the 
Toarecks, Con tVff A. 

' There, after passing the night, they depart in the morning, and 
at suti-set they reach a town, called by the Negroes, Wanonki, 
and by the Tuarecks, Caoucaou. There is no town greater than 
this: the inhabitants swarm like locusts, thev believe in God and 
in hid prophet Muhamed: alt kinds of goods and merchandise 
are found here; there is not to be found in Tripoli the fourth 
part of what is found here : here they sell for a hundred what is 
worth ten/" They pass the night at the entrance of the town ; in 
the morning, when the troops appear with their arrows, they open 
the bolts of the gates, and deliver an order of their prince for the 
caravan. No one can enter the town^ without an* order from the 
El' Mai, that is to say, in Arabic, the Sultan. 
. After leaving this place they go and sleep at a town, called by 
the Negroes, Counssi, and by the Tuarecks, El-Birkak. The order 
of the £1-Mai is read; the reader sits down with his legs under 
hiin, extends his two hands, and shakes them, to testify his obe- 
dience to this letter of their El-Mai. 

This night is passed amidst an abundance of every thing, and' 
tliey depart in the morning, and after having travelled from the 
^arly morning till the middle of the afternoon, they enter a town, 
called by the Negroes, Birzizzi, inxd by the Tuarecks, Afnou. The 
caravan is received at this place by the people of the Viceroy, who 


' This is very ambiguous; perhaps the author means td say that B^ 
kouknoki is as' far from Sarreifeh as Djenzour js from Tripoli. 
. * That is to say, what cost ten dollars in Tripoli fcel^^ here for a iiuji* 
dred dollars. 

' Tttese words are guessed at; the text is said to be unintelligible. 


at Itmrnrj/fron Tripoli 

is obedient to the El-Mai. The order o£ the El-Mai is presented 
to the chief, who falls on his knees, extends both his hands, and 
agitates then* 

The caravan again passes the night in abiiojdance: tJbej giYe* 
them for supper, sugar-canes and dates; they reduce the dateat 
into powder, so that they no longer form a body whose particla» 
adhere to one another, they then bruise the cane till it baa lost alL 
ita asperityt they then mix the whole with firesh milk : they are 
ifery expert in making this mixture with Uip band. During th9< 
whole year they use no other food but svgar-c^uus, datei^ aa4 freak, 

After having passed the night in abundance they leave tfaia town 
ip the momin& and about the middle of the afternoon they amve 
a^ a town, cdled by the Negroes, Sarki, and by the Tuaree4a^ 
Sor^n. The Cropps of thia town^ come before the tcavellaif ,. taha 
the order of the supreqi^e (;hief, and do like tboae of wboni we knn 
already apokea. , 

The caravan passes the night in abundance ; next morning di^yi 
supply it with, water for 3i daysi, because this town is tjie last of the 
towns of the prince of whon% we have sipokeQ. The oaiavaA de< 
parts early the next morning, and proceeding till sun^set, it sleepa. 
if) the forest of EhDegarfih* The whole of the following d^^a 
journey is through the forest, and at sun-set they eooaaip ait itii< 
extremity. The soil pf this forest ia i^ black clay. 

They strike their tents at morning, and at sun-set they reach a. 
town, called Tabaau, where there is water. This town and itMc 
population exceed those of Cairo. 

The following morning they quit this town, and they coaie and 
lodge in a town, called by the Negroes, Zaniau, and by tbeTua- 
recks, 2!ancoulah, where they pass the night. 

The next morning provision of water for 4 days ia made, when, 
^fter travelling during 94 hours, they stop at a town, called by th* 
N^roes, iirri, and by the Tuarecka, Itm'n. 

They pass the night there; the following morning, after a jooroey 
of 24 hours, they arrive at a town, called by the Negroes, Schohki^^ 
and by the Tuarecks, Soudah* 

[Note* — Soodah divides the Saharairom Sudan, and ia about ISO 
miles eastward from Timbuctou, and about one third of the di&taQ«a« 
from Timbuctou to Housa. In Mr. Walckenaer'a map there ia in* 
Lat. N. 19. Lon^. W. 4.aQ< Humusa^ and ift Lat. N. 1:& Long, E., 
1.0. Housa, it IS perhaps necessary to inform the African travel- 
ler as weH as the AfHcan geographer, that these two places are one 
and tbe sane. This oobw»oo or ambiguity baa ccept into nodeirn 
maps of Africa, from the situation of pkices in the interior, as given' 
by. one traveller, differing from that given by another ; the same 
may be said of the orthograpliy, each traveller spelling the name' 
according to his own oral intelligence of the woid ; these are then 

• • • 

io' Bichh^ hy Housa. ^t5 

]^«it 4owfi h othef maps, as In this map of Mr. Walckeiia«r, variously 
spelt and varionsty situated; a cireumstaDce which^ it must be' 
admitted, \s eafecrlated to conflise and bewilder African traveller^ 
and whicb on that account alone we think ought to be. disconti- 


Summary of a Journey from Wpeli io limiucUm. 

From the gate of Tripoli called Menschiihs they travel westward' 
till they arrive in the Tuareck country ; tbere the road divides, 
and they then proceed southward ; afterwards it divides a second 
tSme^ and goes due west to Zantoa, which ia one of the districts in 
the territory of the SuUan of Bornou. 

'[Not«. — AH this is vcvy ambiguoM^ since Tareckna iw the 
Tuareck ooantty is sontli, not west, of Tripoli. Again, if the road 
went due wes^ after trsnnellii^ many jcnrales south 'Of the Tuarecks, 
it would not go to the Bornou territory, which is unquestionably 
to the east. This circumstance alone would have prompted us to 
omit this part of the ittnerary, giving that oiffy which finishes at 
Sudahf and which bears the marks of authenticity; but as this sum- 
mary forms a part of the itinerary entitled ** Itinerary from Tripoli 
to Timbuctou, by Muhamed bea Foul, translated from the Arabic 
bv M« U Baron Silvestre de Sacy^^ we thought oursdvei b^und ta 
give it entire, and here tberefbre foUows the remainder of this 

After having enteted the territory of the SotM/kn^^ they take» 
Before quitting tbe town of Sudah^ water aad provisions fat 4 
days; they then march on an entire day, and encamp in the terri- 
loiy oi'Sudan* <It ia a desert country, ami is called Asmdhn, but 
not so called t>ecause its soil is black and like charcoaU Tbait is 
here a forest, which is abandoned and desert. 

The following day they proK^ed from the dawn of day till sun- 
8et» when they eacamp in a place, caUed Gwih cl Carmm^ti where 
the soil is gravell 

They sleep there, and departing in the morning* after having, 
travelled till sun-set, they encamp in a place, called Gauth d Wa* 
nikdS.\ which hiis the same name in the Tuareck dialect. 

Departing from hence" in the morning they travel till' sun-set, 
awd sleep in a town, called, in" the language of the Timbu'ctou 
liitgroes, Camki9eki\ 

Ifaia tetwiH Ibq^arriae^itnoon at CaonAtiBK 


' Sowaden is the plural of Sudan; Sudcok cootains ma^y ]qnf<iomSr 
Sotpdden therefore desir;nates the kingdoms of S^ian, as the kingdoms gf 
Castile, Arragon, Mexico, &c. are designated by the Sp'alns. 

84 Notice of Barker's Germany 

After sleeping there they depart jo the mornings and about noon 
enter a town like ours (Tripoli) ; it is called Zanonzouki. 

Here they rest and pass the night; the, next morning they pafs 
through many inhabited places, and about the middle of the after* 
noon (4 o'clock) they reach another town, called Coichikliku 

After having slept there they resume their journey next morning* 
and passing through a continuation of inhabited places they arrive 
at noon at the town of TanBOU'Anki, the town of Alkatatb 

They then depart, and passing through inhabited places, whieh 
resemble (iuakares, Djenzour, ^I'Menschieht &c. they arrive, at 
the end of 24 hours, about half an hour after sun-rise, at the town 
df Timbuctou, the greatest of towns that Allah has created, where 
strangers find all kinds of things ; a town full of merchants. 

Coniposed by me, Mubamed, the s<mi of Aly, the son of Foul. 
My father wa^ a free citiaen* my mother a black slave, my 
country is Terables (q. d. Tripoli) and Timbuctou. 


The GERMANY of C. CoR^ficLius Tacitus, 
Passow's Tej7t ; and the AGRICOLAy Brotier's 
Tea^t : with Critical and Philological RemarkSj partly 
originaly and partly collected^ by E. H, Barker, 
Trin. Colt. Cambridge. Third Edition revised^ for 
Schools and College-lecture^. 12mo. Price 5s. 6(L 

Xhb Germany and Agricola of 'Tacitus, if not among the 
most valuable remains of antiquity, are certainly, with very few 
exceptions, the most precious legacy which has descended to us 
from the later ages of Rome. Independently of their moral 
beauty and their literary merit (that of the Agricola especially), 
the interesting information which they communicate respecting 
the early manners of the two most illustrious nations of modem 
times, and the policy, opinions, and internal condition of Rome 
itself during the times they treat of ; these, together with the 
beautiful portrait of individual virtue in the latter work, have ren- 
dered these two treatises the favorites of the modern reader ; and 
these, combined With the important merit of brevity, have made 


and Agricola of Tacitu^^ B5 

them a popular book for students. It is not therefore wonder- 
ful that numerous editions of them should have been undertakeii 
with ibis particular object^ more especially of late years, since 
the antiquities both of Germany and Britain have attracted 
more than former attention, and have received much valuable 
illustration from the labors of native scholars. Of these Mri 
Barker's appears, from the number of impressions through 
which it has passed, to be among the most popular. We col- 
lect from the preface that it is only the beginning of a series of 
editions of the Roman classics, on the same plan. 

"The Editor's attention will next be csdled to an Edition of Cicero^s 
CatiUnarian OrationSy which he will publish in the same form. He ven- 
tures tr^ hope that the classical instructors of British youth will encou- 
rage his efforts to reform the present system of our classical School- 
books, of which a great part, (though there are some splendid exceptions,) 
is founded on old Editions, which are susceptible of infinite improve- 
ments from the labors of numerous Scholars, who have appeared in' 
these latter tiroes. A little industry, a little learning, and a little re- 
search alone are required to present the rising generation with the 
golden fruit of these labors ; and if classical literature be an object of 
prime importance in the education of our youth, it is of the greatest con- 
sequence that every facility should be afforded for communicating si 
perfect acquaintance with the languages of Greece and Rome, becausift 
their utility to the student chiefly depends on the perfection with which 
they are taught by the instructor.'^ 

This observation may be trite, but it is just ; and they who 
are aware of the importance of an accurate acquaintance with 
languages, and* who have experienced in their own case, or wit- 
nessed in others, the bad effects in various ways of a superficial 
knowledge of them, will feel the cogency of its application. 
Mr. Barker's notes (with the exception of the quotations from 
former annotators, which we think should have been translated 
for conformity's sake) are in English ; a mode of commenting 
to which Owen's Juvenal first gave us a partiality, and which^ 
though with some hesitation, we are inclined to prefer to the 
more received fashion, which rests principally on prescription. 
The Germany is printed from the text of an edition- pub- 
lished by Fr. Passow, in 1817 (several of whose notes are 
also inserted), and the Agricola from that of Brotier. We 
have not had leisure to peruse the whole, and therefore can 
only characterise it in general, as containing a great deal of 
useful as well as entertaining illustration, and a» wdl adapted 
to the purpose for which it was undertaken. Some of 
the notes are however too long ; a fault of which the £ditor 
biowelf seems to be in some degree aware.. It would havo*. 
been more for the convenieuce of the reader if these had bee»* 

86 Nptiw of Barkierts Ta(»im. 

rel€g;ite4 io ib^ appeo4tf« Mr. Baffcer'# ^Mf^ei of UUi^trali^itt 
ure sufficiently v^rioiui; Metrj^ history, philosophy, divioiiy^ 
travels, aotiquittes, are all made lo bear oo the passage under 
consideration. He remiods us of Bentley's character of Johq 
T2set2es, '' a mtm iof ratnblinf learning/' Some of his notes, oo 
the otb^ hand» niigbt be extended with advantage, by the addi- 
tion of further iIlustratioQ&. We think too, that many points are 
passed over in silence, which to the learner require a comment* 
On the whole, however, he is fuUy entitled to the praise to 
which he lays claim in the Preface. 

" He trustSi that in the selection" (of notes from preceding com- 
inentators) *' he has always kept utility in view, and that, if he baa 
not on every occasion successfully, with the aid of his learned pcedecea* 
sors, removed the corxuptions and the obscurities of the text, he has at 
legist furnished his readers with some means of forming clear ideas on 
the points in dispute. The 3rd Editiou of Dr, John Aijcin's Tro^laiion 
of these Tracts, published in 1815^ has been advantageously consulted 
in some instauces/' 

We have not the two preceding editions before ns, so that we 
are unable to form any nidgiiient as to the comparative merits 
of the^ present, Mr. B/s observations on the welKknowa 
words in the description of Germany, ch. 2. ^Mnforroem terris^ 
asperam coelo, tristeai cultu aspectlique," may serve as a speci*^ 
men of his style of annotation. 

*^ Inform&n terrU, What Tacitus means by this expression, will be 

felt by those, who comjMare with it what h« says in ch. 5. Terra^ efsi 

ahguanU) $pecie diffkri^ in vnivenum ttmtn €ut tilvit horridOf aaUpaiudihu 

fasda^ and who recollect that in Arm, 2, 2^. he says, 'Ikmddis Uetnutnia 

term, ^ d)e mountainous countries of Germany/ Lon^oiius is mistaken 

in supposing that Tac. intended to speak of the sterile appearance of 

Germany? — * Sic quoque Seneca de Prov. 4. Germanos maiigne soinm 

itetile natentut, Bnimvero noodum extra ofnnem dubiiatiooem positmn 

est, Germaniam omnem adeo iaformem &iisse« Nam si veimaKiine 

concedamus, eas region^s, in quibos Homani incvrsiopes fecerunt, sivo 

Steriles fuisse^ S. potius, ob rationes politicas, incullas jacuisse, anexind^ 

tuto Co)ligere licet, Germaniam omnem si non desertam, certe incultam 

fiiisse f Deiode probe notandum est, vett* Gkraianos non amavisse 

hikjiMn : eorum igutur terras inoultas esse, llomanos luxui deditos exinde 

falso eollegisse mirnm non est' The culture and aspect of the soil is 

mentioned by Tae. in what immediately follows, irUtem euUu aspecttufue^ 

. and besides in ch. 5. he represents Germany as * tatufetaxJ Dr. Aikin's 

version iis therefore faulty : — * A Itmd rude in ih mrface, rigorotrs in its 

elimate, cheerless to every beholder and cultivator except a native/ 

Horat. Stit 1, 8, M. Nunc Uoct EtquiUis kabitare ifduiribm,otqueAg%$re 

in aprico $putiari^ quo modo tristes Albi$ informem spectabunt ossibus agrun,^ 

** Asperam calo, Seneca 1. c, Germanos trlste calumprendt,^ 

** iHsttm cuUu aspectuque, Seneca L c«, Germanos maiigne sohan tterOe 

nufsMfoS. Tae. Oerm, c. 5. X^n asiatiquurOo spetie diffM, in un^)ermm 

'<«aoi ani sUm Imrida, mU pdudtitusfmkf^uiik fiw^ pmgjftrwmm §rh^ 

|eflr% qiuuti tilsi ofitiaie eoU«» tt 0tii4wshsiiBe areB» taMon Idhil |)i«m 
ferety e quo laetitiam capere possis, Cic. de N. D. 8, 40. Idem f^e dc 
Thracia Mela 2, 2, 4. dicit, Regio nee calo lata, nee toh' Longol.'* 

The flignification of instis in the above passage, is remarkablj 
Well preserved ia the French triste» The aspect of modern 
Germany made the same impression on Madame de Stael as its 
ancient syipearance seems to bave done on the countrymen ot 

We shall only now mention a curious^ and, we believe, origi- 
nal conjecture of F. Schlegel in faiis Lectures on the History of 
Literature, which recurred to our recollection^ on perusing the 
passage ia ch« 3, " Ceterum et Ulixem quidam opinantur — 
adisae Germanise terras/' Sdc. that this fancy originated in a 
confusion of the oame of Odin with that of the Greek 'OWerfi^^ 
ihrougb the well-known propensity of the ancients to identify 
the fabulous heroes of all other countries with their own ; ' for 
which see, among others, Mr. tl. P. Knight in his very learned 
^'Inquiry into the Symbolical Language of ancient Art and 
Mythology,*^ Part ix. ^209-211, Classical Journal LIIL 
p. 68. ; a passage wbi^h Mr. Barker would undoubtedly have 
quoted, had it occurred to him at the time. Ulysses and Odin 
were both wanderers. 

We observe an error in p. 90,' note, col. 1. (at least if tTie 
word is meant for Latin) pyrata for pirata. This corruption 
iflnotnnfre^uent, and seems, like some others of the same kind, 
to have onginated in those early times of classical printing, 
when i and y were to a great extent confounded with each 



Pabt til — [Continuedfrom No. LVL] 

jjlii. B&YANT thinks that these mysteries originated in ih6 
deluge ; which is Dot improbable as far as concerns some of the 
details, particularly where the ark or scyphus was introduced, 
I am however persnaded that die leading object of the mysteries, 
both Egyptian and Greek, was the '^ loss of Man's first perfect 
State,'' his fall, and anticipated restoratiim. The rites of the 
funereal Osiris seem rather to have typified the sentence of 


' I This propensity, or somethitig like it, prevails among most nations* 
A copious and amusing article might be written on the suoj^ct. 

88 0» tht Pyra^mds of Egypii 

death op the first vmb, and.bia .reiloratioB:bythe pronuaed 
seed. A greater than Noah was implied, though the second 
jflLdam was evidently a type of the third. To this great secret, 
it is probable that the earliest initiation offered access and par- 
ticipation. The name of Proserpine, and the story of Eurydice, 
combined with that of Hercules, seem to confirm this view. 
But I hasten from this digression to concentrate the scattered 
rays of the Egyptian fable, in order that they may fall in one 
powerful focus on the pyramid of which we treat. 

The funeral rites of Osiris were sometimes called those of 
Pluto or Serapis, which means the tomb of Apis.' We hare 
before seen what reason there i^^for believing that the pyramids 
were dedicated to the triple deities of the infernal regions* In 
the three heads of the Egyptian Cerberus, the triple image of 
Hecate, the triple image at Eleusis, the triple image at Ele- 
phanta,^ the numen triplex of Japanese and Chinese pyramidal 
fanes, there appears a strong and satisfactory connexion witli* 
the pyramid seated over the Egyptian hell or Necropolis^ and 
in the neighborhood of Elysium. I come to a part of the sub- 
ject which is in reality the strongest part of the argument, 
though hitherto considered as the most hostile to any such 
Induction ; I mean the coffer in the central room. 

* This is Bryant's interpretation : but I should rather derive Sar from 
a Hebrew word signifying cohimn, than from the Greek lofo:. It har- 
monises also with the word Apis or measurement, signifying mystic years 
(Sari), counted by tens. 

Tbe most direct derivation is from Serap, to burn, whence Seraph ; 
since Serisipis was so represented; and since it is evident that Moses cab' 
balized in translating names, he may have done so here ; and if thts, 
meaning a column of measured time, evince connexion witl) the pyramid^ 
the name Boore-Muth, cavern or well of Pluto, is a no less weighty than 
curious derivation. 

Even now the word Cain/ram Arabic (in Jlebrew, a pU with the sign 
of classification affixed)^ signifies fire-worship, and thus the most ancient 
mysteries of the three Cabiri, the gods of fire and sons of Vulcan, to whom 
triangles were devoted, may be referred with great safety to funereal rites 
enacted in the pyramids. 

So the name Osiris may be derived ad libitum frbm three words ^ first, 
meaning Measurer (Apis) ; second. Riches (Dis, or Pluto) ; and third/ 
Ten, the pyramidal number (OihiriJ. 

The Cabiri are called the sons of king Sadek (Shem) by Sanchontattio ; 
but Shem was more probably one of them. Human victims were offered 
to them. They hs^ a temple near Memphis, which none but priests 
could enter. 'One of the Pyramids is attributed by the Copts to Shem, and 
another to Ham«' ■ 

^ The whole island is dedicated to the Indian Pluto, the trident-bearing,, 
three-eved ^trilochos) Mahadeva. who, as Iswara, is identified by narpe 
with Adonisiri, or Lord Isiris, (Misra) and who according to Sanchoniatho 
was brother of Cna (CanaHn). 

On the Pi/rdmid$ of Egypt: ^^ 

' Similar stories of the murder and mangling of a body^ its 
deposition in a coffin, and resurrection, were related of many gods 
besides Osiris, and entered into the rites of many institutions. 
Thus one of the Cabiri was murdered and commemorated with 
similar dreadful rites. Adonis was torn by a boar, the Egyptian 
image of Typhon, sought, mourned, and restored to immortality 
by Venus. One of the Cabiri was to live half a year in heaven 
aud half in hell ; so was Persephone, and so was Adonis. A 
similar condition seems to have been iuvposed upon Osiris. * 

Bacchus .was cut in pieces by tlie Titans, committed by 
Cadmus with his mother Semele to an ark, and restored to 
life by Minerva: it was also said that he was sewn into Jove's 
thigh ; and the same account is given of Erechthonius and Miner*^ 
va. Bryant argues that the thigh was a symbol of the ark, which 
is possible ; but I rather incline to think, for reasons to be stated 
hereafter, that it was the type of a lost golden age. ' Certainly, the 
thigh of Apis seems to have been consecrated to Osiris. It is 
offered to him amidst the Hieroglyphics, and forms the central 
figure of the Tentyrian Planisphere, it was evidently an im« 
portant feature of the mysteries. Perseus and his mother 
Daoae were also committed to an ark. To this god, as Sagitta-^ 
rius or Apollo, the thigh was consecrated, and this perhaps 
explains the mystery of the golden thigh of Pythagoras, and 
the reason why Abaris on that account pronounced him to be 
wApollo. Of the 14 worlds, the tenth, oi agriculturists^ is seated 
by the Brahmins in the thigh of Brahma. It appears from Ho- 
mer and Pausanias.that the thigh was devoted to the gods at sacri- 
fices. Among the Jews it was sworn by, and one of its sinews 
held sacred. The solar tripods were sometimes supported by 
three animal, and the great deity is often represented on Basilidian 
talismans by three human, thighs. Among the dismembered 
deities, Jupiter is reported to have been cut in pieces by the 
giants, and subsequently revived, as Jason's father was cut in 
pieces and restored to existence by Medea. 

The Manicheans and Rosicrucians perpetuated these mysteries. 
Manes is clearly the funereal Maneros of the Egyptians.> He also 
was deposited in a coffin, his bloody murder wept, and his resur- 
rection affirmed; nor is it unlikely that the Persian heretics derived 
the Manichean story from the Magian mysteries of fire. The fune- 
real rites of Hossein in Persia are apparently a relic of Magianism. 

The mysteries of Freemasonry- are derived from the -same 
source — the murder of Hiram — the conspirators— the coffin, 
and the initiatory secret. Nor can it escape reflection where to 
look for the fouutain*head, — in the earliest and m6st audacious, 
MASONIC structures of the world, where theology was certainly 

90 On tkt Pj/rmmd$ of Egypt k 

typified by the masonic •ithmt of «be tiiatf k and Hie 
•quart. The Grmt Pyramid wu p«ilia|it the fint i^eat Lodges 
Eireo mw tlie aim rising behind a pyranid ii a symbol of Free* 
masonry : and the wotlo <^ Let there be light, and theve itaa 
light/' derifved from Mose^ was that of the ilosicradeBa awl 
Hertaetic philosophers, and evidemly applied to the secrets of 
the old iire«^or8hip« A similar society lo these, the tribunal of 
the Putrafai is still in existence in AAica, and evidently a remnsnt 
of -Egyptiuii freemasonry. 

' My opinion, therefore, is that the stone coffer in the central 
room was not the coffin of a really buried personage^ as Stmbe 
and Diodorus, Pauw, and others imagine, but an ark or mbcr^ 
nadcy used (like the coffin of Hiram and '' Sarcopbagos of 
Hossein'') in the mysteries of the Egyptian PhiSo^ ^enee 
called Serapis and Busiris {houH o^ Osircs). Nor is it unliktely 
that tradition has reported truly of the last, and that the myete* 
rioits chest has. streamed with tbe blood of hnoian sacrifices, 
and tbe gloomy chamber where it stands resounded with abe 
tfarilliftg shriek of dying agony. 

But let us proeeed to the proofs. I have before inferred 
from many corroborating circumstances that the stone chest was 
not tbe sarcophagus of any deceased monarch, Tbe alternative 
isy that it was an ark or eista employed in tbe initiatory rites. Soeli 
chests, in short, appertained to almost all the ancient mysteries. 

The form of this chest is itself niyst^ious ; it is composed 
of two cubes, whkh symbolised tbe Gemini or Dioscuri,' those 
confiiding principles of light and darkness which sprung irom 
tbe ^g of Chaos. Cubic stones were dedicated to Baal and 
Astarte, and Pinto and Proserpine, and, according to Pr<ioluB, to 
the mundane gods. Tbe shrine of Butis was a cube of 60 feet : 
the temple of Mecca is'a hollow cube, and, as Bryant affirms, 
the Arabians of Petrsea worshipped a Mack cubic ^sltoiie. At all 
events tbe cube is adored by the Javanese and Chinese, and 
generally devoted to tricipital deities. Nor is it mnlikely that 
the phrase used ki the Sibylline oracles (libi 5. ad &*) ^* Kal av, 
Sigam, Xtfoc^ mrixWfMyf/' referred to some similar representa- 
tion : moreover, the chest is placed in a mystic manneir, that is, if 
the ooetaining chamber were divided by three lines, it occupies the 
farthest line east and west, which is precisely that of the ancient 
tabernacles and Holy of Holies ; so, another line drawn from tbe 
lateral holes in tbe chamber completes the tripaftite division* We 

1 i^;feeiDg with the Urim and Thummiia (perhaps from Horas sad 
Thummuz) in the Mosaic ark. 

On the Pjfrnmids of Eg^. 0^1 

ar« infiMmied (hat llbe M^taic tebernacle wms of dimensiont wot 
yidikej vmi thape exactly similar :^ and was luppofed to 
coiUain the Sepbyrotb or tpheric UghtSp aod the two stonee of 
tliekw. Now we learn froin Phitarcb that a cbest containing 
a golden ark^ was used in the njHeiies of Osiris. Synesias 
liiforsas us tbat iheae arka^ according to tbe prieats, contained 
tJie iiemisphereSy which agree both with tbe Sepbyroth and 
PioscurL The two cfaerttbim placed over tbe Jewish taber- 
nacle bad perliaps a not disstoiilar inierpratation. At all events 
those of j&sekiei coincide closely with the aCtendaoft fnmques of 
Serapis, the ca^akme Imog substituted for the dog^, 

la the Bacchanalian mysteries a coffer was used, containing 
the secret symbols of tbe 4feity. These are of Egyptian extrac- 
tion, (perhaps deposited with Osiris), consisted of the phaU 
Af#, grains of sesame^ heads of poppies, pomegranates, dry 
Sterns^ cakes, salt, carded wool, rolls of hooey and cheese ; a chUd, 
^serpent, aod a fan. In the mysteries of Ceres there was a siasiiar 
C(^er called tf^^mundue Cereris,^ which contained phaUiy grains 
of triesE/ and bariejf, a cocnb, a mirror, and a serpent. We are 
lold, fltoreover, by Suidas and Eusebius, that earks were devoted 
to the fliyateries of^re and the three Cabiri, and more particularly 
to the great triple deity of Eleiists, Baechtis, Proserpine, and 
Ceres« But that no link of affinity may be wanting in order to 
identify such arks with the pyramids aad die sarcophagus, Pause* 
Kias informs us tbat the image of Bacchus or Osiris was found in 
an ark^ which was said to be the work of Vttlcafi*^tbat Vulcan of 
whom the pyramid is a symbol. He adds that tbe king who 
opened the coffer went oiad on seeing him ; and a similar story is 
told of Maoerosin flgypt: tfoesaane author also iafbrms us thatlhe 
tri(4e4ieaded palladium <tf Troy was deposited in a sacred chest. 
To a aimilar source may be atlrilMifted the fable of tbe chest in 
which Minerva deposited Brechtbonius, consigniDg him to the 
care of three virgins. I'he curiosity of one, it seems, got the bet- 
ter of her obedience ; and her fright at seeing his serpent ^ limbs, 
amdber subsequent puoisbment, are drcumstances wfaiofa clearly 

^ Exodus zxxvii, ver. 1. Two exact cubes. So is tbe incense-altar. 
Ibid. ver. 35.; bul it is worthy remark In this place, that as the coffers 
agree, so do the tabernacle and its enclosing chamber ; there is scarcely 
any diiSereoce on this latter point, and the internal arrangement must 
have been as like as wooden and marble layers could be. 

^ Clem. Alex. Cohort, ad Gent, pw 19, 

3 Pausanias. It was made of the hones of Pelops, in which sense it 
agrees with the talismanic figures of Osiris made by Isis, and Sesostris. 

99 On the Pyramids of Egypt. 

harmonise with the prohibition to Adami and perhaps are coif-^ 
nected with the fabled coffers of Psyche and Pandora. Lastly^ 
to sum up the evidence, we learn that the image < of Osiris was 
consigned to a sepulchre for three days; and that, on the fourth, 
the priests opened it and bronght forth a heifer to the people, 
as the deity restored to life. Other authority proves that it was 
in the immediate vicinity of the Pyramids, and near a temple of 
Vulcan* who made the coffer of Osiris, that this apparition took 
place. Now it is not a little singular that Arabians, ' most likely 
ignorant of these rites, should assert the finding of a statue, in the 
coffer of the great Pyramid. But, lest historical testimony should 
appear insufficient, there are ocular and pictorial evidences now 
extant of the great leading fact here assumed. 

We have, as I hinted, no regular detail from history of the 
Epoptic mysteries connected with the death of Osiris or 
Apis ; but the gap is well supplied by sculpture and painting. 
Thus on Alexander's Sarcophagus are portrayed the magnifi^ 
cent water spectacles of the lower mysteries, the search of Isis, 
and the boats that accompanied her, and the great torch trans- 
ferred afterwards to Eleusis. It is a remarkable confirmation 
of Bryant's hypothesis that the ship Baris, represented thereon, 
contains eight persons,^ the number in the ark. Among other 
appendages, are tumblers on their heads to represent perhaps 
the bouleversemeni of nature ; and the plough-share and sickle 
are very conspicuous, as well as the crocodile Typhon. But 
our main business lies with the sculptured tomb of Osiris. He 
lies horizontally surrounded by the folds of a four-headed serpent^ 
implying the four days of his sepulture, or the four great years 
during which the body was fated to attend its resurrection. At 
his head is a beetle, the type of the lower hemisphere, darknesa 
and death ; and that no doubt may remain that it was intended 
for his tomb, the same peculiar symbol decorates the entrances^ 
to the tombs of the kings. 

I have before me similar records arranged to accompany 
every stage of the same fabulous drama and every grade of initia* 
tion : but as my purpose chiefly lies with the funereal rites of 
Osiris and their application to the Pyramid, i shall not bur- 

> Plutarch de Iside et Osir. Bacchus slept three nights with Proser- 
pine. The word Orgies is derived from Argpx, a chest or ark. 

* To the north and south of this temple, were personifications of Can-^ 
cer and Capricorn, the two gates of the Sun. 

3 Ebd Ibn Alhokm. 

^ The Sarcophagus of the Persian Hosseln is canled by eight men^ 

On the Pyramids of Egypt. 93 

den .the attention \i'ith too much unnecessary, detail, however 
interesting. Let us proceed to a second representation of these 
rites, which is to be found in the Zodiac of E^ne. On that re* 
markable monument we liave not only the tomb of Osiris, but 
portions of his dismembered body. We have not only the triple. 
symbols of the infernal deity oti the coiBn, but the pyramidal 
temple of solar fire to which it is conducted. The coffin is like 
that described by Plutarch in a scyphus, and resembles in shape 
the double cubic form of the chest in the great pyramid. The 
next historic picture in the series is from the subterranean crypt 
in the temple of Tentyra, and represents the four days' sepulture 
of Osiris. The first seems to signify his .death and subterra- 
neous place of sepulture. The second his tomb, the back of a 
lion, with the lamentations of the ancient Almehs. The scene' 
in the third represents the same tomb, and an offering of that 
thigh of Apis, to which Horus as Bacchus Bugenes^ owed his. 
birth. The sphinx-like position of the god perhaps implied the 
day of his incarnation or new birth, ih the figure of Apis, when 
the voice was heard proclaiming '' the mighty Lord of all things 
is born." In the fourth picture, representing the fourth day, the 
figure is resurgant, and the presentation of the Tau evidently 
means resurrection. That the above leonine couch meant a 
tomb has been sufficiently argued. Bochart says, that Orph. 
means neck, and Aridaca a tame lion ; thence the story of 
Orpheus, and the eastern banner of Sol in dorsa Leonis. There 
is a similar figure between two serpents, appositely placed on 
a mummy in the British Museum, with Anubis the barker,^ 
waking the deceased from death. 

Lastly, Denon furnishes a representation of a tomb with tlie 
image of the funereal Osiris, mentioned by Plutarch, reclined 
below^ and the Ox Apis above, for such I conceive it to be, at 
the moment of apparition. The triple image of the globe, wing, 
and serpent, apparently dedicated to him, (see the Bembine 
table) is a circumstance deserving of remark. The re-appear- 
ance of Osiris in the form of Apis, was sometimes designated 
by a Sphinx with a hawk's head, and a bull's body. 

The meaning of all this seems to be a typical representation 

' The ' two first verses of Hosea,- ch. vi. express the same initiatory 

^ He also was cut in pieces, and slept three nights with Proserpine: 
Tauriformis was one of his titles. 

< 3 Perhaps the barking of dogs and hissing of snakes at Eleusis may 
be referred to pictures like this. 

94 On t1%€ Pt/ramid$ of Mgtfpi. 

of the sentence of death on Ae fifM tMiv, lOcF to coiriprise ^omef 
Ireitilion of thai ppofkHsed redeoiptioii'to wbidh initiation offered 
to direct the way. It appears m>ni th« Zendmesm tfafat the 
ftrst man waa represented sfs a ibindlattt*|' like Bacdius Tanri^ 
/ormis;* and it wouM seen> ibat Joseph and bis promised 
aeed were repveaented under the same figore. Tbere was no 
blame attaebtng to tboee, wbo tirlbe dearth of tangoage ei^pressed 
a dittne tradition by a hieroglypbic of astronomy ; nor any im^ 
propriety io Jacob'e advefrting to the t3^pica{ vebicfe in wtiicb a 
true and glorious ptopbeey wee innocently conveyed; though 
pevbapa pervcvtod, as it was by the J^w» themselves shortly- 
after. Huet tbinka^ that Apia was Joseph ; this is not easily 
proved ; but if the above premises be weli based, tbe^propbety of 
Jacob, respecting Joeepb^ eontd not well aroid some reference 
to the rites of Apis, or the funereal Osiris ; and it presentar the 
features of a« obvious- eonnexion. 

** Joseph is a- fruitfttl bnUhy a welt', yihose ekildren rnn -over' 
the neck ; the arehert have sorely grieved htm ; and shot at^ atid 
botedhim ; but his bow abode ia strength.'^ 

Of all (hi»| tbere are before me pictorial illustrations :* the 
betfer by^aneyeor welt^the pleiadaorchiekena upon hi^netki'tlie 
archars> shooting at him ; his scypHus, bow, &e. T have before 
said^ that Apis was dismembered like Osiris. In the rites^ of 
Bacchus a beifer, substituted for a* man, was torn to pieces by 
the teeth c»f the priests The thigh and* bead seem to be the most* 
raysterioiis portions. S^ulBoieat has been said of the &rst; the 
last appears^ frequently under a sacred aspeet. It formed the 
ornament of friezes and doorways; it ornamented the angles* of 
akars^ and fbrntshed< the boms^ Afn Egyptian ahar exhibit? it 
either as it» upper part or in sacrifice upon it. It ir seen fre^ 
qnei^ on Mithraic mohumenCs^ One sculpture portraya it on 
a pilbr^ and near it three stepa, %i4th a figure of Mithra or Eros, 
seated' on a- rambov: another represents it hung apofi a tree; 
with a quiver of* ammd. On tbe Zodiac of £!ine, a figure com- 
bined of the head and tbigh of A(hs^ is held by Typfaon^ chained, 
while another figure pierces it wiplh a dart. The derivation of 
Gcntaur' hero is- sufficiently obvioua, as weii as the reason why 
Sagittarius is represented under the form of a Centaur h hose 
arrow is directed towards the Zodiacal bull. 

I have Qompressod a variety ofintesesting subjects here^ the 

^ Sometimes crowned with apples ; ste Mofntfaticcm ; soasetimes hta 
head with hprois was ftumg 6b a tree to proasotc rovntficatiao. A bali^s 
■ head hung upon an apple tree, was devoted te Mithra* 

* Porphyry de Abstinentia. 

0^> th^ PyramdM of ^ 05 

difiquisttum of whiob' tnigbt fill many chaptem^ in order to keep 
the main argument in view. For any alNruptness wbtck tfc^ 
compression may^have imparteel to^ my style, i beg to apolo- 
gisQ ; but i ba?e always thought that trudi i» better dian 'fine 

The main infevence is, that die coffer io the Pyramid resem^ 
bled, in purpose, the cista and petromm of Ceres, the tabernacle' 
of the Jews, and the coffer in which Bacchus was deposited ; 
that in the mysteries, it was used for the deposition of a similar 
linage of Oairb, during his four day»' sepulture, and perhaps, 
foe the members and relics of Apis. Ut is, moreover, protm- 
ble that it was the great dinouement of the mysteries ; thaf a 
resurgent inuige of Osins Tauriformis was made to rise there-^ 
from, or at least a miinic Sun, to which the animal was' 
devoted, whiohi bore the same name, that of Phra, and- 
was an emblem of the great mediator and liberator, Orus' 
or Mithra. And I found this latter supposition, appareiitly 
gmtuitoua^ on several ctreumataRces. If the Pyramid' was 
a type of the universe, where could there be a better* 
sanctuary for the tabernacle of the sun, than the centre of that 
stoucture i Analogy supports the inference ; for the lower room* 
still bears the name of the Queen's chamber (the Queen of 
Heaven, Hecate of the three ways.) The supposition accounts 
for the £astern type of Sol in dorso tauri ; and if the propriety 
of placing a sun in the realnas of Serapis or Pluto be questioned, 
it must be recollected, that there was a sun of the inferior world, 
pr Sol Jnferus,^ which typified the mild calm of renewed Ufe^ 
that to produce light from darkness^ a masonic emblem, illus- 
trative of the creation, and the moral effect of a new birth, was 
an object of the mysteries, and as we know a leading feature. 
The final ^^ beatific vision" has been already referred to, aiidc 
some da;;zling radiance seems to have been connected with it.. 
'' A miraculous light discloses itself," says Stobae^is, describing. 

* All the Pagan nations had a JfyetiUcMor S0I Infrrttf^ who a-t once pre-* 
sided over funeral rites and Eiysiuia, and to whom potsof fruits and> 
flowers in both capacities were olfered. Among the Syrians these ware calU 
ed the gardens of Adonis, and among the Greeks dedicated, to Pluto aS. 
Lord and founder of Elysium, and deposited with the dead. They were 
occasionally gilt, by which was implied either the lost goMen age, or the 
lost golden friiit of Hesperus to be recovered by Hercules EngQwai^ (see 
the celestial sphere) the trampleron the Dragan^s head. The hierogly- 
phic of the sun in the lower hemisphere is thus represented^^rryrr::^^ 

according to Jablonski ; but Serapis was the Sol Inferus of Egypt, as 
Pluto wa» thc> Jupiter Inftnu of the Greeks^ Phi to is the sun under 
the earth, says Porphyry (apud Euseb. pra?p« Evan. lib. iii. cap. S). 


96 SophocUs Vulgata Leciiones. 

the mysteries. But the words of. A pulsus in referring to the 
last stage of initiation are remarkably in point. ** I rushed for- 
ward/' says that writer, ^^ amidst surrounding elements" (typify- 
ing the wreck of nature), and beheld a Sun shining With 
THBSPLENDOR ofday amidst the depths of midnight" ''. They 
(the candidates) saw celestial beauty/' says Plato, *' in all the 
dazzling radiance of perfection/' These descriptionsi compared 
with another by Timarchus in Plutarch, would lead us to ima- 
gine that a grand orrery or solar system was displayed, accooi-- 
panied with a profusion of radiance, and the most resplendent 
machinery ; for the latter speaks of starry globes revolving to the 
spund of celestial symphonies and supernatural accents. [ 
have before said, that the Rabbis affirm, that their tabernacle 
contained the Urim and Thummim, and the Sephyroth. The 
first are supposed to represent the zodiacal signs divided into 
two hemispheres ; the last a mystic astronomical system or orrery, 
of which Mhe kingdom' is the centre. The word Sephyroth 
ifieans lights ; the Urim aad Thummim, something burning and 

Thus considered, my inference as to the Central room seems 
nearly completed, perhaps as nearly as any analogy can be trusted. 


VtUgata quadam Lectiones defendunttcr atque expli^ 



Quoad versus MTetsfeqq. SophocHs Electrse, ego quidem 
penitus improbo G. fi— ii nimis audaciter fictas lectiones^ 
tueorque communem lectionefn his quas sequuntur argumentis. 
Plura depromere ex hae scene neeesse erit, quibas depromtis 
vel leviter inspicienti erit manifestum, quoad haec loca et sibi 
consentaneum nee difficilem intellectu esse Sophoclem. Scena 
nobis inducit Chorum ex Argivis Virginibus constitutum quae 
cum Electra colloquuntur. Vid. Class, Journ. No, i.iv. 539. 

Chorus. Chorus. 

aXX' oS roi Toy y' l^ Alia At patrem a Tartari flumine, 

irayxolvov xtfji,vas ^rarlp' mv- omnibus co m muni, nee. ploratu 

cria-ets, ovre yioig oure AiTaTj, nee precibus inter vivos resli- 

a\X'&zoTmv[U8TploovlviLfji,il^ayov tues. Porro a mediocri ad 

SophoclU Vitlgatts^ Lectio^e^, 


S\yos on) <rrevaxovo-» Si^AAvo-eei. vehementem evadis tristitiam 

h gIs ivaXv(rt$ loriv oih- ^etnperque ingemUlceQS .teip- 

T Se/tiix xdx&v, sand pessumdas. Cur mihi iii«- 

rf /xoi Tfipy ivfr^^poaififtu ; tbieranda projicis mala e qtiibus 

. ^ nulla est liberatio ? 


oi^ojxevfloy yovioov mXateTM " ' 

a ^Irvv fle&v 'Ituv iXb^ugerai, 

Iflo irayr A^jxeoy Nii^oLy ai S* iP^coye 
ye/t60 00 y^ 
^r' ly ra^ virpalof 

oSroi <ro) [uovvfg rixvov, . 

wpos ?Ti (Tu Tooy SfySoy eT TreptO'tri, 
ois SfLiiev €l, xoti yovS, ^Cvmjuos, 
ola Xpva-odtin^ 

xpwrra, r ayitm h 0f, 

ixfiiog %y u xXfiya 

ya ^0T5 Afuxijyttffitfy 
Sc£rrai ff&rarg/Say Jio; ev^poVi 
fiil^ri [MXiivTa ravSe yav *OpW' 


Infantula ! quftcunque, paren- 
tibus misere perenfptis eorum 
obliviscitui- ! — ^At Avis illage- 
mebunda mentem mihi abri- 
puity quae Itun^ semper Ituh 
lamentatur — Avis territa Nun- 
da certe Jovis ! Ego quideni 
te, O Niobe miserrima^ Deam 
teneo quas marmoreo in sepul* 
chro semper ploras I 

Hand tibi soli mortalium eve^ 
nit calamitas ; qua sorte num 
tu prae iis qiii sunt in sdibus, 
abundas quibuscum versaris^ 
esque sanguine consors; tali fa* 
to vivit Chrysothemis et Iphi- 
anassa^ atque felix ille qui te- 
nera in astate tutus ab his la- 
tebat molestiis^-— quern clara 
Mycenarum terra aliquando re- 
cipiet^ ilium qui divino lastoque 
gressu hos ad fines advenit^ no- 
bili natuih Patre Orestam ! 

Fingit conjectative 6« B— itf > ut infra videre eat^ 

opvi§ St 0e6»jxffy, f TStfo; oEyyiA^-*- 

Horum admirabitium versionem ad literam factam dabimus 
'' Sed Parca mihi gemitu (suo) sensus I'apit, quae Itun mise 
nun Itui lamentatur, avis veluti lugemus, veris nuncia ! !'' 

Praebent nobis Msti onunesi quos autem G. B., ut aliquando 
nd^atur, pro nibilo estimate 

«XX' iiM y' i cirWiVor* Apotpi ^qivag 

ClJl. NO.LVn 



9S SopkocUs VulgtkB Ltctixmti. 

u "Irujf alh "Irw ^Ao^upfrai, 

InprimU, ait G. B. ^' upagi in linguam et metrum peccat'' — 

En versum qui Stropbicus est ei ad <|ueni'adbaeflit 6« B. Lo* 
quitur Electra. 

oI8« Tt Ka\ imif^y^i toS' oil! rl m^ v. 131. 

cui suum subjicimus Antistrophicum 
aXX* l/xf a OTOvieirtr* apaoi foivag* — 

Hie nil nisi quod aptum et suave sit vidimus. Notemus 
quod et Strophae et AntistrophaB versus 4^ 5, 10, 11^ 12^ IS. 
purisunt dactylici.*— Ego quidem non. audio in rep '^Spapt,'* cum 
G. B. Amphibrachuv^ sed re vera, prout metrum postulate 
anapsstum. lilud ps ante ^gi, procul dubio^ commune est : 
f litera vel sola vel cum muta conjunctaeadem in syllaba coiens 
communem reddit antecedentem votialem ; teste Homero, qui 
Sopbocli quasi deus est, Primo, quoad quantitatis communi- 
tatem rou p literae, habemus hoccine notissimum. — Iliad. E. 
^Ag9s, "Apt^y fipoToXoiyi, jftiai^ovf, x/ r. X* Deinde de litera p 
cum muta conjuncta, 

ew$ ravf igjiaiw xari fpiva xa) xctroi ivfiip^ • 
aXX' oys f^vpftiipA^c x&Ta ^piva xa) xcktol iupMv. 
Inde plena auctoritate communique regula vocalis natura brevis 
ante ^p consonantes producitur.— Hoc autem canone fit apape 
anapsstum. — Ergo recte ae babet vulgata loci hujus lectio. — 
** Apagn, ait G. B., non alibi extat in sensu tou placuit." — Ne- 
que in hoc loco ; at salvum nihilo mitiuB esse potest vocabulum. 
Attamen, ponamus insincerum esse illud apage. Ezulet igitur, 
ejusque vice fungatur vctga. ^phag.. At quid de illis a}X lpi,eY 
a (TrovoWo-* ? — N uUus extat accusator, nee ipse G. B.^i— i^ptum*- 
ne epitheton est o-rovoWo-a Philomelas? Nemo recusat — Quid 
autem de manuscriptis? Adclamant omnes, atque huic vulgatae 
lectioni favent. — Socientur deinde voces oAX* i/xe y a crroyoWo-' 
cum conjectura B^-^na ^^^aga ^pivai' . 

kX}i e/i8 y oL irtovivF^u KcipoL ^piva$. 
At cum sequentibus conjuncta haec lectio sensu proraus laborat. 
Nibilominus voces illas ifu y a oToy^eo-ora per se ipsas innocuae, 
imo et optin^ae quoad sensum esse videntur, fautoresque ha- 
bent eruditos codicesque omnes^; sed male concordant cum riw 
'' vctgoL f pivots" — Nempe quia posteriora hsec non sutit a So- 
phocle, at potius merum G. B— i figmeatum. — ^'Delit^is 
Inutatis nihil est quod dicam/' ait G. B. ; et aibi eonsen- 
taneus adjicere poterat, *^ neque est quod curem de tiiaiiu* 
scriptis." Pereant, ait ille, aXX* hp^i y d crtoviecrir\ et nova apten- 

.Sopboclis Vulguta Lectiones. 99 

tur vocabula ad illud ^^irapi ^pWus" — Nimiruin vir doctus' 
postquam hanc meliorem, ut sibi videbatur^ iDvenerat lectio nem' 
aibi conscius erat, rm '' igapa* avulso, sensum a se, (juoad cae- 
tera, esse foedatum, inde in Sophocleani versus effigiem refin- 
gere conatur haec *^ disjecta membra Poetae :" 

&}i)Ji jEA* eiyti (TTOVcp 0Ll(ra vapot fpivas. 
Sed quid de rm '^ aKK& fji,\ " anne aiffert de rw &k)C e/nl i Prorsus 
nihil — responderet vel infimo ordine puerulus. Qua porro de 
causa banc veram vulgatamque lectionem de loco deturbat 
B — ^us i Nempe ad sensum refarciendum quem nianu audacis- 
siroa corruperat. Nunc de ofysi quid dicendum ? Habentne 
roanuscripti f ne unus quidem. Deerat autem nescio quid ad 
barathrum implendum, ingeritque illud miserum ayu, Eodein 
modo JA^ &/yffXov ezpellit, et illico corruit^ quoad sensum^ et 
metrum fortasse, totius versus compages ! Sciverat hoc catus 
homo, versus namque debetur dactylicus : et dactylicum re vera 
prestant manuscripti omnes. At miratur G. B. '* quid stbi 
velit *J^igSyYi\ogV nemo hominuni satis bene definire potest." 
Atque ita mehercule quia G. B. et alii^ ut opinor, admodum 
pauci, phrasis cujuspiam minus intelligunt sententiam^ more bo* 
dierno decretum est ut exidfiat et ipse Ze6$ ! Ad rem redeamus. 
Elidere visum est B — o vocem Aio^j et substituere slBsos. — Hoc 
autem factOi et copia data aliis vulgate lectionis vocibus ut sua 
sede fruantur, tale quid nobis exoritur MiXo^^ 

Sqni arvltOfji.iva, ttSeog "Ayy^^S — ! 1 
Sane mihi videtur idem accidere iis qui improba manu antiquo- 
rum scripta deturbanti atque iliis qui veritatem minus colunt; 
bis enim qui unum duntaxat mendacium edixerint^ necesse est 
ut amplius mille acciantur in clientelam ! ! 

Simili modo, qui nullojure, nulla manuscriptorum auctoritate 
fretiy vel tantillum rodunt ex Antiquorum s^riptis^ adeo sensum 
metrumve lacerant^ ut omnibus pateat injuria. Hancque iterum 
atque iterum fieri injuriam videmus, usque dum ipseaucior totus 
evanuerit; deinde in vicem ejus Imagiunculam quandam in 
pompa ducunt. Haec omnia evenire cernimus in G. B — ii alio- 
rumque ipsi similium irafAfmv(p*EpYA<rr'ifipicp, Scilicet tra- 
hitur ad supplicium i opvt^ arvljiiUva, extunditur autem in opvig 
Slt St^ofMVf iiteris et sono (contiteor) alteri quam simillimum! 
sed Sophoclis sententiae alienissimum. £go quidem tueor com*> 
munem lectionem, primo quod optime manuscripti earn exhi- 
bent, deinde quod omnes, justo titulo viri eruditissimi hue us- 
que earn adprobaverunt. — Mihi slat lectio communis, Namque 
inesse loco, de quo agitur, videmus stylum bene Grsecuiti, et 
Sophocle dignum ; videmus quoque orationem personis aptaos, 
contextui consentanearo, intellectuque faeilem. B — ns autem 

100 Sophoclii VulgatiB Lectiones. 

lectioni desunt tituli quibus ullo modo hie vir eruditus earn ad^ 
probare possit.* — Commiinem lectionem Apcipe nihil in metrui* 
offendistte demonstravimus, neqiie opus esti prout G. B. opina* 
tuT, ut agapt pro ** placuit'' intelligamus ; sed ab alpos aufero, 
arripio, sustoUo :-^ergo apupt ^pivaf est, abstultt vel arripiiit 
men tern. 

Graecia lusciniis est regio notissima, quibus de avibus apud 
poetas frequentissimam invenimus mentionem. Mihique res 
certa videtur luscinise aliarumque avium cantus in pritna hujua 
dramatis scena fuisse imitatos. Repnesentabatur quoque £leG- 
tra, quasi exierit sedibus patemis; pro foribus autem et sub di6 
bos questus efFundebat : 

aXX' ou jxffv til Xi^^co M^^^^ 
crvyepaov re yoooy t$ r* iv 
AeuO'Co) 7Pa(i^eyyel$ ua-rpoiy 

^iiroiS, XriJctro) 8ff to8* rjfioip* 
fj^rj ou'* — TixvoXcTfip' ws infioov, 
hnxco)t6<ra), rcof hi irarpe^tov 
frpo ivp&v )j^6o iroia'i irpof cuyeiy. 
Siquis animum intendat veros ad affectus sententiasque quibus 
induere personam, hancce £lectram, voluit Poeta, ne vocabulum 
quidem e communi lectione amovebit. Insanit ilia quodam 
modo lugendo. Quam pulchre autem depingit Tragoedus nos^ 
ter hunc animi illius affectum, evocatque sibi in auxilium am^ 
plissimas orationis Graecae imagines ! Versibus in choricis, de 
quibus nunc agitur, atque in mentione de luscinia et de Niobe 
facta, respicit Electra et in suas fortunas et pristinam gentis 
mythologiam. — Ut diximus supra, (rrovoWo-a est epitheton iusci- 
niae notissimum ; hocque dato, veteres respiciebant ad cantunt 
hujus avis, modulationemque subinde murmurantem, ut quas 
memor esset, revocaretque Philomete lugubre fatum. Quo 
teste igitur, quove jure, adimere velit G. B. hoc epitheton, et 
refingere novam suam ineptissimamque lectionem <rrov(f atfra t 
Pro ** aliv "Itw,'* nobis largitur *' aivJv " Jrvy,'* balbutitque ne- 
acioquid de ahiyai^og, amkifMnjSf aivopt^pog, oAvi^Uctpi^, Horum 
autem illustrium claudat agmen et ipse alvi-B-^os • 

Quid enim fecit illud innocuum aley ? annon verissime dici 
potest de ave ilia de qua et ipse Aristoteles scribit, *H ie in^dnf 
28ffi ftey cDVBy^&s hl^pots xa) vvxrotg hxoarivrt i Detur nihilomi- 
nus B^>io ut alvov "Jruv diei possit de miserulo cujus membra 

■ < <■ ■■ I I < ■ I W J I 

* Post voces fxn ed, ellipsis est x^fw B^nnaf : Tixvoxirii^ respicit ad Philo- 
melam priusquam in lusciniam transfbrmata erat; namque, sorore socia, 
Itun fmruhtmjugulaoit.^Vi^: Ovid. Met. lib. vi, 648. 

Sophoeliu Vulgata Lectiones. JtOl 

• f 

d'dstnata igne coquit et ipsa fnater, Tereoque suo apponit tna^ 

Optimo jure nosquoque dicere possimus ahi JSof oxXe; f ! Tua 
namque membra, simili modo lahiata, nabis apponit hodierna 
tfrodelita? ! At rem seriam agamus.-^Maluit Poeta a\hf scriberej^ 
nee venit ilB in mentem iliud admirabile alviv ! Deinde ex &rv- 
fyfAevoi Jtisf vera et manuscriptorum lectione, extundit G^ B. Jr* 
ai^oftfy iTSffo^ ; aitque ^ Perpetuo in veluti sic usurpatur.'' 
Quid velit vir doctus per hoc suum " Perpetuo/' ego quidem 
pfordus ignoro ; sed hoc scio, et omnes, Sophocle lecto, scient, 
flQfc poetae solemneai et perpetuum esse usum, baud equidem' 
in, at aag, pro velutiy utpote, quasi, et similia. Quumque 6. 
B. mihi e Sophocle monstraverit unuHi duntaxat exemplum tov' 
'•^ a Tfy" ego illi alterins, scilicet tov •' »^," facile proferam bis 
miHe ! — Nunc an tern, si mihi quoque venia daretur vocabula 
fingendiy faberqtie fierem ad incudem B-«-anam, certe dicerem^ 
ithrd £te ieiv&g h(rr)v olo-o^oxXmIov : est igitur merito rejiciendum. — 
Dimrsso afuteni Stre vocabulo, divulsoque a comite suo '* mofjLiif/^ 
metrum B — io laborat. Hoc fieri potest ; sed de bac re ne 
simus nimium soliciti. Reddatur '' suum cuique/^ reddatur 
et suum Sophociiy et Graecas pulchritudini proprium. Sit 
nostrum ut colligamus ''^ Poetae disjecta membra." — E B — anis 
3t* a^ofifv it&ios redeanty solit »ut vice fungatur, arrti^o/xvyoc 
J 10^ ayyffXof. Vox (rn/^ojttrya est loco, et antiquis fortunb 
Philomela, et Electra^ afFectibns, imo et avi luscinia apprime 
idoneus. Haec, atvt^oiAhoi namque, i. e. terrore concitata avis 
fogit bominis coetum et frequentiam, seque abdit in sylvarum 
solitudinem, Duce Honiero quoque, est avium terrore avolan- 
tium epitheton, 

*AiA^) li jxiv xKayyvi vnxvmv ^v olaovm oo$, 
fZavTOO-* arr)tfliuiv(av, x. t. X. — Odjs. xi. 604. 
Jam tandem grandiimpingimus oifendiculo Jid^ AyysKog. Aspi^ 
ciamus bunc qui sequitur contextum. 


led iroLvrXuitMiv Nio^otj tri 8* P/urfi viftat 6eiv 
iif \t ri^cf werpaitp 
ale) iaKgveig. 
Aitque paulo infra 

Chorus — (ad Eledtram,) 
oX/3io; 0¥ et K\si¥a 
ySi irori Mvxyivaloov 
U^iToii twtarglSav, A tog to^povt 
jSiffiari jKoXoytoe ravBe yrtv 'OgBtf-rav. 
Hie nonne videre est concatenatam quasi sententiam de numinc^ 

102 SaphocU$ Vuigata Lectidnei. 

aliquo fortunarum Electrae provido? Ponamus autem, casa ali* 
quo, excidisse e textu has voces Jio^ «yyiAo; : tanta tameo em- 
pbasi in proximo versu eflfert Electra, 

ut cuipiam suspectum foret, his verbis auditis, aliquam ntgl 
^' Jtog/* mentionem nuperrime esse factam. At ''ai|S«y est 
^Hgos dyyiXos/' dicunt eruditi quibus displicet comoiuois lectio. 
Hoc autem haud impedit quia avis eadem, casu quodam, et au- 
gurio esset et Aiig iyytkof. Mitto G. B — ium adXenopfa. 
Memor. lib. i. cap. 1. — 'O ii ouSev xMVOTtpov tWi^epi rmv aX- 
Acoy^ 00-01 fi^amxiiv vo/ulKovrtf^ oicovoi; re ;^a>yTai xa) ^fMUs xai 
crujxj3^Xoi$ xa) dv9'iM§* o3ro/ re yeio uvoXdCjbbjSayouo'i rou^ firouf hoL 
rouTflPV ret cu/t^e^ovra roTf ftotyreuoftfyoi^ o*i)jxa/ye«y. 

Uorum sacrorum habita ratione, poterat Electra, vel Lusci- 
niam, vel aliam quampiam avem utpote augurium habere, et^ 
justissima appellatione, banc invocare Jio; aT^sXoy. 

Ad hseCi erat Electrae cum ave ilia maxima fortunarum com^ 
munitas. A sororis marito vi stuprata, horrendi hujus adulterii 
una cum sorore vindex fuit Philomela. A matre -adultera, et 
scelere ^gistbi, patrem amisit Electra, etipso temporis articulo 
quo cum Cboro colloquebatur, scelerum horuui brevi se vindi- 
cem esse futuram, fratre adjutante, sperabat: Quamobrem, lu- 
gubri cantu audito, omne ut faustum accepit Electra, divinam^ 
que quasi nuociam invocat Lusciniam, prisca formsL et fortuna 
sibi sociam, — Porro quidnam nunciare Electrae possumus effinn 
gere Luscioiam ? Scilicet^ omine accepto, et revocata Philomelas 
fortuua^ iila animo eflingere poterat, quasi modulo suo talia ver- 
ba obmurmurarel avis : '^ Ego tibi a Jove nuncia sum. Quem- 
admodum olim ego, dum humana forma vivebam, mihi ipsi 
sororique carissimae injuriam mariti ejus adulterio factam, par* 
ticipe ilia sorore, ulta sum, ita tu, fratre tuo adjuvante, meoque 
proposito exemplo, patris delectissimi necem, impia matre alla- 
tam, ulciscaris." 

Exiude nobis liquida fit Cbori sententia dicentis 

'. 0^ _— 

$i$erai suiraTplBav, Aho$ ivfgovi 

^y^iucn fioXovra riv is ySiv 'Oploray. 
Scriptorum antiquorum plerique sibi ipsi saepissime sunt inter- 
pretes. AAs ev^povi /S^jxari x. r. X. gemina est rco ^* Jiog ay- 
yeXog/* et altera alteram tuetur explicatque lectionem. Nam 
si iJio; euifpovi fiyjfjtMTi appropiuquabat Orestes, sorori comes 
futurus in paternae necis uitionem ; pari ratione Aiog SyyiKo$ 
vel augurio, vel alio quovis modo, haec annunciare poterat. Fit 
autem plenissima liarum lectionum concinnitas adjecta ad Nio- 
ben apostrophe : 

Sophoclis Vulgaia Lectiones. 103 

-0*1 8* ty^^ ^^F^ i^v. 

DtvtV'0 neo^ie. avis ^l«t qua? pietati suae consalere, Electrae 
videbatur : divino quoque gressu venturus ecat Orestes : Dea 
denique Niobe erat.— Quam bb causam I Ob tcnerum procul- 
dubio, ut E^ectra opinabatur, in filips amorem ; quibus emissis, 
inater ilia piissi^na. . 

■■' ■ -■■■ ' ly r&^(f viTpatcp 

aU) ieiKp6iU 
At deme illud Jtig eiyyeXo$, et, ego non dubito affirmare^ statim 
corruperis lectionis integritatem. 

Ut emendat 6. B.— Hie nolare eogor sermonis ambigui* 
tatetn. " Parca me gemitu rapit.*' Anne gemit Parca ? a 
"Itvv aivov "Ituv iXofuperen, — ^praeeunte et^ca vocabulo^ articulus 
ille a (si quidem antiquum Grammatices veras habemus lectiones) 
ad alcot jure referendum est; indeque nobis alius exoritur so- 
loecismus. Parca (i. e. aJtra) luget Itun, miserum Itun! "Art, 

{>ro veluti, otiatur et redundat^ nam re vera audiebat Electra 
usciniam : sed hsec vox are pro ^ veluti'' Sophocli est alienis- 
isiroa.-— '^^^ojctey ! '•''^fwv, to <rTiveiv/' ait G. B, ** auctore Bekke- 
ro :** — quod ego (pace tanti nominis) multum dubito : at rem 
ita se habere coucedamus ; al^ofuev, etiam pro ariveiv, omnino 
otiatur et ravroXoysl cum precedenti <rTiv(p. '' Postremo 
(ait G. B.) eTSeo^ iyy%ko$ amice convenit cum dicto Pub. Syri 
"^ avis exul hyemis trtulus tepidi temporis,' etenim eTSo^ vel ISo^ 
est tempus aestivum/' Sed '^ tempus tepidum" est verni tem- 
poris epitbeton. Quam aniice convenit, ut ait G. B., ver- 
num tempus cum tempore aBStivo ! ! ore %poa Selpto^ a^ei!! 
Sed nusquam Luscinia, ut aestivi teni poris, ut el^so;, id 
est Kauiiaro$ |X8(riif4/3piyoD ayys^o^^ (quae res cum bis mille 
avibus communis est) at verni temporis a^vis celebratur. Prae-* 
terea, infelix hoc ^' siieos" ayyeXog prava positione adeo detor- 
quetur, ut Electra se ipsam ethog ayyeXov nuncupasse videatur ; 
hoc modo namque currit B— ana sententia : 
Spvig ir a^ojttfv, ei^io^ iyyi\o$' 
Avis veluti lugemus caloris meridiani nuncia ! 

J. W. 
Dabam Liverpooliif Septemb. 1823. 

106 'Hpitame SchoUarum 

hiyv* ^* ^* ^'" 7^ *^^ «^of (T^oSpoy ovrt xoy u«rfvarr/oy t<|^ 
}Jy«f, itXXoi rha* oIxmH loriy iyaicp.l 

'jpfxrixoy ftopioy r^f ^t^X^^^ f£f^f»y jutty TMrreXcDf ^^X^'^'^'' '*^^ 
VVX^(> xoo'fft^ortfi 80 ooo'Tffp. .xa) to >^Say 2yov Svi'^Toi'* enj 8* cfi^ 
](fXQ<r/ti}|xeyoy f» rp rmv iraiatf avmiitrptetm on it ear/ ti SpvLT^idv ttoLY 
^iOt0)fTixoy T^$ 4^X^^' (TxevTfoy ty oXXoiV* Tm Si fx rod ils^i^'Mrou^ 
To>y tr«^0((a»y v«p' ouSsy) wplcKOfuv^ roy^ o^io-ftiy toD grfttfovj^* rooy Si 
utrrepov *y|ySpovixo^.fMy iigo]xr Tofio^ fly^ r^f 4^<^( xiVqo'fv ct/ioyw- 
81' ^ viroAi}4^iy xoexov xai ayoAou* aXAo yd^p 9 Kotii^fooVy ou rd ursyav* 
T*oy '^ T& Mf kiytf mveg 01 ex rtig arois, aXkoL to rou aXoyotf- r^f 
^^^^ fMptou x/yi)fta. /3oii0o^ ** 8f to vofio; t^; ^'VX^^ xln^p-^v oXoyoy, 
IFp^ouo'ay ti /xeyedo;. oXoyoy ftey Xa^i^vow xa) aurof r^y rou oAoyot; '^ 
7% 4^1^^ [Mptau x/yiio'iy. to 8e {liyiios irpom6tif, imiHj ylvortai 
rives '^^i aAXai xiy^<rffi; to5 oX^ou t^; ^v^^^ [loplov.iirr olntma-w^ '^ 
rij; vpoV Tiya( xal aMoTp<6o<rf oo^ fipavtlag* ras ovv (itrci fipax^^ '^ 
fux a^iQy i^yeiTO ovoptAfytv mfli}/^ odx ol8a Se Stad; raura '^ elvff. sroow 
y«^ xiyi)o:i; to5 iradifrtxov r^^ ^^vp^; ftop/bu icy fMi XaaAecinf waiog^^ 
«y £11} rev o-floftaro^. ov /xoyoy Si ^o-uy jxeyedei. to 8i'^ xar &AAo/fi0<r(y'' 
(So-Tfp xa) ff'ao'fle x/yijo-i^ o-co/ftoero^ ov xor' aAKo/Isoa'iy'^.fty ftij KoLyiarf^^^ 
xi^^ ifidos ay TOu (re&ftaTOf x'^otrxfirai. ori ravra eoixiy ^ xarci ri 
t49n fi^eT(»|3oA^ T^; 4^t(X^$' ^ 8f 'iiy8g&ixo; fSv«y 81* uiroXifipiy aytAA* 
\ xoLXoov ylve<rtM to vaios, Trpaorov [uiv Itroog ijyim^c-ey^^ in yinreu 
Tiya TO^i} e^ auT^;^ t^; ^avreurloLg xeop)^ (rvyKetTa$i<nais xa\ uiro* 
kiifstos. Koti yoip xara rijy oSffi^(rw aurijy^' Zrt 48& ^ Aun^oy ^v^y 

' yiyixi^TaToy VR. a. 
^ aXkk rtfa desunt a Cod. Far. b« mutilissimo hoc loco. 

3 »ya0wv Par. b. oTxii lam ttyetSa Fl. b. VR. a. o(xni& lo-riv «y»9(BC* 2<ntf( o&t otxii^ 
XAi ayaBa, 

^ Fl. b. f. 368. yerso. ' VR. a. in textu iripl vdBu. 

^ Codd. Far. tCfianofjihoy, 7 ^^iy om. VR. a. V. b. Florent 

. ' ^ti CSodd. Far. 9 ^xxo y»p Codd. unxTeisi ; legas autem &k»foy, 

'^ i^iripavTiiv VR. a. 
*^ Par. b. Rom. et Flor. fioiBn. VR. a. in marg. few; /Soq^or ^ it aXX«i /StjSx. 
iBi^i^e;. >« Xiyoy Fl. b. 

•3 Paris, omnes — x«i«;. 
14 T(i( oSv ^ra' |S^, abest a P. b. VR. a. in marg. Uue ets odx, aXX* 11 fiifiug 
reie 1^ fAiT^ /Sp* <' V. b, et Fl. b. «a0iu 

'6 VR. a. V. b. Fl. b. wDt* Jiri. 7^ Fl. a. ir»tfi|. 

»« P. P. T«* ii. »» Addit P. b. Jirl ToD. *° VR. a. AxX««<ri«»f. 

^* FL a. Xavdi^vft. »^ Fl. a. ttf. FL b. car. aiticulo. 

^' VR. a. ei Fl. b. ^yvonxur ; in niarg» ^yrontf'iT n fiifikH* 
*^ Fl. a. a^roS. FL b. l( tOrnt f wr. *» FL a. ndre. 

in Aristotelis Ethica. 107 

a}Jiet xa) vpi tw9 u^roA^^ecov ta^ ira$rfyhoifrou. 

VR. a. 76. 

V.b. 116 b. 
fbi^vJouo*! 8f rouTo /ub^i0T« ai Mritfu/ftfai. iSeoy yaj ri; iroXKaxis ir 
mSvfjJqL eyhfrro xoXoD ^ xaAov ovSevorff y^g* uvoXi^^tto; irponpoit 
yev6[jJyri$, hf vo^jJims^ yfyovrai ou vavra); uiroXij4'^flo; yivofteyt)^ 
ffi Ti^ ayoAh xapiOTiv ; oTov hrnieiv dro eur^aireXou ' Xoyou xiy^rat 
T)i( 4^X^$ '^0 oXoyoy* (A yeig vno\aif>fi&¥0(MV rore ayatov ri ^ftiir 
TrapilvM,^ oXX' 0X00^ u$' IS«a^ xiyoujXf9«y eari 8* ore xui tmok^^u 
Tou oyafioD oxoXoufifi^ to ^eo'Soi. r^ Ss uvoXi^ti toD xoxoD. axo* 
AouSfi TO^ Xun-eurSai^ xivou/xevij^ 8)}Xovori r^; ^t^^9 C0^ tou f(iSy^ 
ayatoS ifiiog ovroSf tou Se xaxou, Xu^nj^ov. (j^t^of oSv ^ to foAog^ 
xlviicns TOU akiyov t^j 4^^^^^ wo ^SeQ^9 ^ Xwwijpou," ka» re yif 
[AeToi ^scvraciav axoXouiijOj to iriSoSf loaf Tff /m9' uir^Xij^'^y trovrflo^ eo^ 
l^r}'' ^$ei ^ XuTij^oi ylvsTM, xa) /xijyuei, ysvixcoraTa '* srafii} ovTa^ 
r^v Se ^$ov^y xa) ti^v Xumgy. yevix^ Se voAi} oi jxev Ix t^; (rroflt^ 
i^atrav ehcu rjiov^v xa) X^TnjVi ^ofiov, mdtjfji,tav* ylve<r6»i jxev yc^^ t^ 
vail} ifao'av Si* u^oXt^^^/y ayadou xal xoexou. oXX' Sretv ftev so^ hrl 
^ra^ouo-i ro7; ayaiolg xiv^om fj 'ifv^^ '' ^oi^y '^ ehai, irav Ss eJ^ M 
irapowrt rolg xaxoig, kimiv* Ilouroi " ie hirt roig /uteXXouo*! 9r^0(r8oxeo* 
fM,iv(HS ayaiolg siritujXfa Ojp«i?<^ oSca c^^ ^aeiyofteyoii '^ ayttSou. xaxabr 
$e %pov^X(aijJveov to (ruii,^alvov wiog Itrooi xu) '7 Aumjy ^ojSoy thayov. 
a^ioy Sf.a9ro0^o'0ti Ti SijTroTC roy ftey'^ ^ofiov irupetkii^oiiMV tig viSog 
ygvtxov, xatireg e7$o; Xu^$ oyTa. Ioti ya^ ^ojSo; Xu^ij mvpoffio^ 
xflofteyi}'^ xai ou;^ dg oleoSijTOTe*^^ ou ya^ ^tfjxey ^o^Miai Toy ^r^oo-So* 

* Fl. a. fJpoc * VIL a. t& y»> 0^ c'x'* ^ iStiSxof. 

3 Sic V. b. ei FI. b. In textu VR. a. et Fl. a. iroXiTixn;. 

4 VR. a. tawg ;t(, aXX* ^ /3{;3x. xaXwf tiri (sic Fl. a.) q ii aWn, ?Ti. 

' Fl. b. lOr^tUag. 

6 Sic Fl. a. et Fl. b. VR. a. lerwt irapitVai, oTpsi* «i !• /3('i6v ^oxir iSJi «x"V' «^9 
cfXX' oXw;. «4 Ji Xeiva lirwcil^f ««;, aXV cXw; 6^* nii9( tutoCfxtBa» 

7 Fl. b. cMoXe V. B Desunt base VR. a. 

9 VR. a. in marg. 69' ^^lo;. 
*^ In niargine V. b. ApoUinaris : pathos raotio irrationalis partu in animaab ju- 
cnndo vel molesto. ^* VR. a. If' rid. Fl. Ivl. 

»» yoiX^Tarw VR. a. 'J V. b. Fl. a. et Fl. b. n +vx?- 

»♦ V. b. Fl. b. riiw^ 
*^ Fl. a. ma<rai, Sic textus VR. a. sed in niargine : Umf voow* Axx' 4 jS^iSA. 
««X4y et sic V. b. 

*^ V. b. et Fl. b. ^?i9uiwv, sic. 
>7 VR. a. tirwe Tud X^vtfv. •> ^.N solus Fl. b. addit 

*' Fl. a. ftf'Ti Tpotf-^oNwpini iMii^y VR. a. Krw; wfoviowufxitft nuxu, et sic V. b. et 
^® VR. a. in marg. : xni e^x^ otmhuort, h ^< fiifiy* 'X" ®^^ ^nvoTi. V. b. t7» inn* 

108 Mpitome SchoUarum 

^owffeL xwAcK^* ik)ii (iSXirra Sbxrif ^ifio$ ilvak ucii xupiafg, trap tSf 
ir^o<rx(vSuyovr£y ' mo) ^ (rwni^lav ^ioArrot¥ xcaimv ijf ^gotrfoxta ^, rSV 
aKTixfi/xcvoy aurf vuiog vagyjicmfJ Xrfm Se ri iq&aros ^ xarot, irpoo'So-' 
xlav yiy^/xsvoy roS jj^rfiiv io-ea'$ui xetxif ij xa¥ yivy^TM xgecT^cav ourov. 
varo yitf T0^ot6rfis two; incok^iois ytimrat ri iiga-os ov% atrni$ rijf 
«po<rS»xM^ oyro^ wddos, iX)^ rod hifet7U>?wuio^og XBVtipcaro^ h rm 
hiyot* njy tv ipyiv Tiiim§f TragrfKcup^ Xiyown f&ev ye^g aAriif m- 
AofKMcy elyctf* fori dr otfx hfttvfxSa, a?JC diA ri ftvr^ ' yivog* ogi^ei^ 
y^ o^flo. ^1^' ^ fAev hrtiviklu roS ^Slof ^^iXo)^, jjf Se rot/ &vrtKvity^(ra», 
urws & ouSi iit), rou o^yriXtnr^tf'fltr »i yoSy vch'sp^g opyi^o/u^tf/ r^/ir 
tflfiny o&c 6ftyoyra$ ro9 ayriA(m'eTy« ^ifiwf o5y xoii^ 00^} 9e0e} ^^yif 
xfrifonf T^f ^u;^ dffi rftv ^Sixi)x^yai ^oxourro^* xo) OLKKm, reTrXelto Syrtf 
K^ ml to6tw0 Kiy$tv» i Sc n>Jcrw» ra /btey iroAAd^ ^afiftrai ^kSef 
ra awraxoL^ iMni, ifiotviv xa) Xim^v, tv re aXKoig xot) hrei^eiv Xiy^* 
fte$i^r«i ^8M» 7 8v9 yd^^ afr») njyflt^ jUrfi^* kripot^ «l; erapov feu vef\ 
4^719; Xry'wy xiil X^f * aJ; ieoif tovroif rf>l§ irMetn yevncols oS<ri rSf 
a>JSM9 wdieof^ dxarrmy, Hori t* ore XetfapApLeltai iri6fi ?£• i^yij^y 
Aiimftf^ ^ojBoy xal idfo-o^^ hv^it^taVf ix^if. rJt yiftogipMTotei ds ifMlyf 
Zaxel xotrapiifMVfjtMOS*^ foix^ ^h ^^^ ^ aAoyOv ye)Hx4yrotrof jxe9 (pdlfoi 
^Soy^v xai Adonjy^ rfi^v^ jbiey bipyefuv tw xe^ot, f ucriy «ycjuMroS/(rroci/^ 
Ao9n]v ** 8e, Itotif hpLir6^}^fi[Taf to xctri ^wrtv hepym. el$ ydplrsMra 
n|y Twy vraiSan^ avxytoyrjf** voteliriai, eJvock hi roirow eleij^. njr K 
iy /utfpii X«yofteyi)y i2^oyi}y> xci^ njy h p^ipen Xum^Vf oiaAvv/mv roif 
fhmrv riyy f*ir «Sy' Siaj^wo'W liti to*j *«^o5d-i ijSiiri^ njy Ze '' Xwnip^ 
06 o'tf^v^iy inii rolg, votpcSo'tf kw/rvipoig. wi\iv le Sipa-og pAik ij^ov^ 
ny^ ^ $»^ TT^Sox/ioiy^ rod fn^^ ta^^oLi ^yov^ 1^ x^v yevfirati, xpotri* 
<reiv TOtj Zeivov, fo^ov le XuTnjy iioi 9rpo(rSox/ay SsivoDv. 'jroog de rovTOii 
api^iuiiv elaiSaa-i ra voUri, n^y ^tXfay xa) to pi^KTOs, ^iXiay Xotfifiavov^ 
res 06 T^y -jw avnTreiFtufSoreor hvoiowJ^ aSrv^ yoig ^812 &afl«(rfe tij. 
aXKoi Tijy xarc^ to ^lAfTy yfvoftlyijv' x/yi](rfy tijj ^"X^^r^ kunxiirm i} 
xarc^ to jXKrely x/yijcri^. aviyercu II to /xgy piXsIy ei^ t^v ^Sov^y, 
o\xel(o<ng. yap ri( SSmc yherou vpo^ to ^(Aouftevoy. rouyayr/oy Sf fy 
rep jxiceTy, aXXorplaiS'iJS xou Xuffi]. ly rw d^ xoii axoietv roS po'oi^ 
pi^ivoVf ij oXo)^ OTTCtfcoOy Iruyp^aveiy r^ jxteroufteycp. cvvapiifiourcu Se ey 
ro7f ^afleo-i xai'^ipis xa\ opyr^ m ^ fiey X^^^ s^^ ^Soyi]V' &v&y8Tou, 

* VR. a. ft 5xxn iB/^Sx. wapi. ^ V. b. et FI. b. — nxan 

* V. ak 1<ms'&df<n^^ * VR. a; m* texta adrir, 
^ VR. a* in texta kytntrarv ; in marg. Atf&ra'ra n ^3. 

7 V. b. fM&trfr,^p, addtt ; dbsunt VR. a. 

® Sic V. b. VR.- a. in maiig. laws narttptOfAoOf^rm xai Sh ^ filfik* 

* Car. oAc V. b, »<> VR. a. in textu, V. b; Fi. a. Fh b.. avtjx'it^htrrtf. 

'» V. b. et Fl. b. \C7tn. ' * V. b. &v«ywy»r». ' 3 ii ora. V. b. 

*♦ V. b. Fl. b. T«y«5. Fl. a. rt/iS. »* V. b. et Fl. b. Svwtf. 


in AristoteU^ Ethica. 109 

ctfkxyxij 8e i[JM rep ^^eyso-dai r^; rofat^Tif; ^Sovifv r<ya( iTvoi* 4 ^^ ^Pyh 
Xtfsn}; elSo;, ^fp 60t) Xom} Si' UToXi}4'iy roS ^$iKi}a^«f voft/^fiv. cvpM 
^ ofy ri; xttf r^ ofXXde vofii) ffl^ raura, cofayofUVA, olw viiAS<ri¥ fih xa) 
^ww xcA tksov els Xv^n^y. ?ri Ss ir^^ rovroi^ ^^^ot^y Toy X0er«l ^t^XoriM 
«/ay ritftfteyoy* ^ijAortiir/oe yap ri^ xa) xaroi ro ^ijXouy x«i (MfMlaiau 
Aelxwa-t a aM eiri irapoiSelyiiaros* ov yip ei ri iixa (t,vai voki 

X. T. A,— 

p. a. foL 46 b. 

P. b. fol. 39 a. 

VR. a. fol. 91 a. 

V, b. fol. im b. 

Fl. a. fol. 49 b. 
TocwTwt Se ySy e9ri(rxffrrJoy«--vfio; mp) ipyiiv fisa-OTvjTBf ' xei 
thng^X^v xoi 2\Affi4ffy. avcovu^g ilvai trpirtqov Xeyet* xuItqi^ ^ 
wpain^S ^ irgaog xa) d^'i n^Jtroovos xa) wth rm aKKajv^ rm rir§ 
f$Mir6^oa» tivofiittTO, xal ^ opyikirvis Si xa) i 6py(kos xarei r^y 
usrfp/3oAi)y rerayfiiifos, ttmXmov ovofui. lira^ Si xa) ^ aopyy^la vap^ 
mrw dvopMCTM. xa/roi oopyijro/ riy?^ ae) cXevoyro vtto too¥ *£AA^ 
.vow. ei jx^ &0t 4 jEtey frgain/is ixeho hr) rov iifru^oo if aopytirov, M Si 
roii pLivoos ep^oyro; vpas ipyag xa\ ore ftcy Sii ^pvi^o/msyot/ xal «e^ S» 
xa) xarot robg aWovs Siogio-fto^^, ^aXiy^ Si jxy] ^pyi?ofi.iyoti ?rs p^^ 
7Fgo(nixei, aMg eSero Se rou irpdw Svopuit xa) 'Kpairy^ra m6piM(re rifv 
TOfaur)]y aprr^y. ^roAiy 8ff 6gylXo$ ftsy dvopMfyro xara r^y ^vtnx^v 
nriSsi^TijTa xa) S^o/xiy. a^rog Si Ifvayxe roivapM M roy iyovra rijy 
^ly^ n}y 8i IXXei^iy aopyifi<rlaif oovoputxre, xa) yctp ouS* jy wpoipi^ev hr) 
ro0y aXAcoy xaxicoy vapcovoptM<rpi,ivag avri$ ^ ieiri rmv vaim. Sia ri 
T«^f 8t;ya/x€i; 7cap(ttvopLa(r6ou oToy ^2 rijif avigetag, 6 piiv iWeiiroov hlkog 
xakeirar i Si vnsp^aXkoov ipaxrog, dirog Si SoxbI piiv iiro roir ^gi" 
irovg^ QoyofMeo-Aai. oo pi^yj/v ix^h oSrcu^' |xrraj3l/3Xi|Xf ytip roffyofta xoi 

Textus P. b. fol. 39 b. 

VR. a. fol. 93 a. 

V. b. fol. \2^ a. 
KoXfT Sff ri^ fisy aperijy oX^tfMxy^ pL&rer^og'' olcav xa\ riy xai4^ 
ovr^y oXi^t^ ' Tiya. xa oropp^oyra aur» h rjf ft-pi^ rod^ ^rsAa^ opitXSa 
xm kaycp. xal ipyep lyStixyuftfyoy hroia rvyxaHi Sno^ om iff) t^ 

» V-b.--T<T*. * ««£vtt( V. h. VR. a. « P. a. ^' YK. a. dirf. 

^ VR. a. et Fl. a. mS, ^ Addont P. Ik VR. a. et V. b. a^ft»rr. 

^ Felician. Oa^(» Ita quoque in teztu contia Cpdd. anctontatem eat omnino 
* |4i90fiif» V; b. « P. b. «t VR. a* Ax»i«- 

110 . Epitome SchoUofum 

wTiiw i{0ti{oytA>' «Srf M TO SXuTTW^i^i ri^iXfiy koA letqi vroAAoo 
froiflata^ T^y aXigSfiav. Tcvy Si ^ xocxicov t)}v ftiv v^re^ /SoXi^V,' vpoffrot* 
i}0-iv M T^ fM^^ov xft) Xoya xai ipym ola-av.^ SvofAat^i Sf aM;^ 
iXafynlaf Kei riy ^oyr« a\at2^ov«. wpvrigov Jyoft^^o/xeyflDV a^flt2^Vttv 
7£y mo(nroioufMy«oy fieafntav ^ o'O^/av,^. eSo^eg ol a^o^iOTeii wpocatoh 
oSvro^ xa} 2X<»f reoy yoijretfir rouro f;^((yraw to oyojtta. oSro; 8ff mira^ 
rovf far) TO ftftijov.xa] etvTW Xtyoyra;' a^avra;^ oAaCoW^ cSvojxao's 
xa) r^y xaxlav &Xal^ovelav» tov; S" M to fXaTToy ret aArcov xari' 
yorra; r^ Xoyco xal vpoo^oioujxlyoti; ixirrco S^fiv rdov uttu^ovtow 
-MSroig fbo^^pou; fbty x^l oAtous. UatreL yoip M * to ^eviog (nroDlrj,^ 
fJMxJhi^ioi, elgeafag dvipMxrn xa» Tijy xetxlctit tipawnlav, $ox8i ii run ft^ 
fflyai xax/« ^ tlgcovila, roy y^tg Soxgikrjv elpmi ^i}o-i yeyovhui, jxf 
TOTC Se oux'° yi¥ elpm i ScoxpuTii^. nxfivipiov Si ri" pLyjifva toov 
ir^tptov adTOU ourrBOJr «5rdy ^yofta^ffiy, oXX^i tou^ toXXou; Sioejxoeprayoy- 
ta; adrovi'^ oloy BpauripMytiv % Mhona, aXX' ? Xfyfv^ eof eoixfy aurof 
fujSey fflyai (1. cISeyai) srapa/SdUXcoy Ti}y avt^co^f/yjiy troffcaf irph$ rrji 
roD 8roD. TauTft yap xo) ey Tjf IIXaT»vog 'Airokoyioi eipvirat, 1<niis ^s 
"Tt^A ri ^opTiXQv ^tf^^TTOfteyo; xai eirai^dig ou Sia ngv ^po^ to t{fal* 
&^ fi\toi¥, hr cXonroy eAr/s «f g) ^^eurov, m^ oux nrriv tlpoovtUr j| 
Suo rpiwoi ilpcovelag, 6 [uh es'i^oyo^^ irpocnrff^royflOT'o; tivo^ xa) dxetoffiil- 
yoti T^ \t^et;Sc>' 6 Se ^apierFKri^f HiMwg, f vXarroftfyou Tiyo^ ro Ivop^te^ 
M Tols Xoyois» 

VR. a. foL 99. 

V. b. 1£4 a. 
EU TO T^irov T»y 'Htixaoif *Api(rrmXx>vg, 
Tiig tt^CT^^ Ss inp\ ^atfij, ew; riiefMU axowna. y^ ^pH&rig irr^( 
» axouclotf xcd exoutrtov stvelv x. t. A. 

V. b. 125 b. 
^^ oloy 81 vigawog xgoarirm aitrxg^ ti 'jrpS^M, aicshXi^ag yo- 
ylcoy xai rixvav ieafarcv, xoi vpe^avrog yiv o-co^orroi /xi^ wpi^avrog Se 
airody^<rxoify^ 6 Se toDto uvoftffyoi M rw xaXm, apL^ia-^rsirai yif 
^epl rou TOiovTOU xmpov exaav ^ axtov toisi {nrofielvei toL aiiTYpoi k\ 
ctoryigia Twy fiXTarwy^ iavrtS vapufuk^O'ug rov xaXov, O ovx 
hrolii(r€V 6 Scoxp&nigf aAA^ Tcoy rpiaxovra xeXitKrayreoy ayeTy hrl Or 
vetriv TWU rwv voXiroav, Xiovra SvopLa, ha S^ xoiycoy^o^, avrolgrai* 
^ptt^toov xarappwif^ag xm ly^g loniToS xreoTYiptotg xa) rooy Texycoy lua 
Trig yuyoixo; oup^ v«i]ptTi}(rou ro irga^hita to xaXoy xa) to ihtaiov* 

* VR. a. V. b. i(alonwi. ^ V. b. om. iL 3 Qmitt. ^ujSoXny VR. a. et V. b. 

♦ Om. V. b. ^ 9 P. a. VR. a. et V.^. «dr^. . « V. b. n^»h 
7 VR. a. r» odriiry V. b. ta adrSv Xcyeytw. 

» V. b. 'y^ yrfp < iripl P. b.-mpf. » V. b. <riroi/«i. • 

><> V. b. habet lacunam. *! Addit P. b. (a^. '* o^r^f K «. 

in ArisidteUs Eihica. Ill 

Cod. P. a. fol. 53 b. >'?,.. 

VA.b. 127 b. 

VR. a. 109. ;; ; 

(Ad 1. HI. c. V.) ;; ^ 

^A S* i^rii Xiyn Suy^trov ft>6V cos iKokwSai }ieiii^iv8iv rois irpoei^fte^ 
vois, Suvarov Se auro xai* uM, ^ijo-J yig 'KoenU rh fto^Jijpov 5y- 
vosTv « S» TTparTsty, xa) wv a^sxrlov Koii hoL rijy roiaurigv' ayvoidty 
o^Sixou^ xai xaxou^ ylvsa^ai, Asysi Se ly Trgooupea-a iyvoiav, otolv rii 
irqoalfzo'iv 6^ f^oviyipoi9 8i* ayvoiay tou (rn/xf epoyro^. x^y 8* «ut^v 
xai xotioXov TtuXsi ayvoiav, Su (i^ VBfi evrt itmv, (Mfil VBpt fi^luvTrpaz 
^ly ^ TOiauTi] oiyvoiOLf olKKSl xaioXov, roy ovreo; oiyyooDyra^ A6Ai}$c ra 
cviA^epovTU avavra, ou Sij Sia rigy ayvoiOLV axoucria Xiyeroti nvci 
ufJi,a§Ti[jiMTei. rex/A^pioy $6 a'vyyvifji,^^ 7vy)(ivw(riv ol axovcia 'iri^ 
W0HJX0T6J xaJ TTcpl ' Tfiuy yo/Awy xol ff«^H ^wy Sixajoyr^'^'* ij S* ly tco 
^Sei Syvoioi (iKTsirai xa\elKQTcio$. ourm yap auro) aurols oS uvigoo^oi 
T^^ roiavTVis ayvota^ (i^ eyriiieXovfisyoi ^ rou S/ayiywcrxeiy r^ eS^ 4^!3* 
fico; cvpi^epovTu Tim Ivriv. koA on ^ xax/a xal i^ aSix/« Tayrcpy ;^^if}- 
yi^iTiiav fiXoL^epooTaTOV rm Ip^oyr^. raDra Ss co; ^^^i'* SvyarAi ftgy xa« 
s7f6<rion rol$ vposigr^iAivoig, 6 yip (Jl^x^^S^S ^eyoir ay ayyoiiv /tey a 
vofcT. oJ ftsyroi Si' ayvototv Tparreiy r^y ly roT; ^rpaf ecty. a>jj eTrs^ 
ayvoiav, r^v xaioXou ^ r^y ly r^ vpoaipeirei, ^ug hcrr) ^ roD aviu^i'^ 
povrog, ivvuTui Ss xai xaS' auro ri elvut Sewpr^fjtM irpog rou^ Xeyovras 
Ixouo'ia ra uiiagrrniaTei. bkugtov yoig ayvoovvri ri^ auro) <rujx^l^oy 
etiJt0Ctproiv8iv, wpog yap rovg oureo oLVo^onvofievovs X/ysrai on ayyoou(ri 
ftgy eo^ ^Xi]9a>^ ol /xo;^9i]goi ro (rvpi^^ipov auToig* ou /xi^y Si^^ r^y roiaJ- 
Tijt' ayyoiay to uKOva'iov Xiyerai, uKKol hoL r^y ly rp xadexoeo'Ta^ xoT 

Aurr^ yap Icri ruyp^^youo"^ IXsou xai ortiyyyeo/t))^. xal Sia rigy roi- 
aunjy ayyoiay TrpartifMva, hopl^u Ss xa) r/va lo'riy ly o7^ ayvoia, 
iOTi OS auTij ^Tij &rrl f^^ iczpi t», ij ey Tjy>,9 ij T»yi"° Trgarrgj ^ eyexa 
Tiyoj xa) woo J. tnipMlvu ie ro r)g, tIj'* « vgarroiVj oirep oux ay ayyo^- 
0*611,'^ fir^ liampLSVog' (ovieig yap av iaurov ayvoy^<r€i8^^ ft^ /taiyo'jxpyo;.) 
TO SI t/ 60'ti to 9rpaTT(!)xevoy m^ ixTmrrcoxs xai aJrou; eo^ 6 AlayuXog 
rat [lucrTixa* SXtye ftly yap ou;^ co^ jAUOTMoif eXate SI eiweoy |xv(rTixay 
xb) SeT^ai ti; ^vXofitvog rov xaravEXnjvT^p ^/A^ xa) tovtd irpu^oaSm^' 
Kopt^evog a^sig iiruTo^iV airov. oAAo oZv Trparrcov a>JiO evpa^ev, ^yy^ei 
oSy ejrga^B. To 81 ?rKp2 t/ xa) Iv r'm 1^' Sy Ibixe ^ipiiv* Sio xai ou- 


' ' Toto^niv addit V. b. * F. a. et V. b* • \ veoDyr«. ^ V. b. xa^a. 

♦ V..b. woftt. 5 — XoyjiA^ V. b. « t» V. b. 

r v.. b. x*^* ixwrrev. » Deest ^.P. *• 

^ VR. a. 11 T*'; l(rT» n iripl t( n T»vt, ft ^{fik, 
' T(Vq V. b. " 'Alteram. ri( ombsum in Paris. 

** V. b* iywiicTfi. . > J Addupt tc^ittm VR. a* V. b. J. a. 

112 Epitome 

TC0f* Ire} If mp) t/ xa) Iv r/yi olov ti ivvofffi' irt^) r/fdt irpirm* tl yip 
riy uToy oMt); iroXl/tiioy flyoi iiroxriitfoi* m^} Sv ^ vpS^ig^ ifffw^n, 
S^aroy o8y Xjti ^yoti ri ly r/yi riitm Sfjr^of ly ayvian/^^ olov ly lep^. 
ovx loixff Sf M rouro fipav^ fuvtpiv 8* Imti iXlyof varegop^-' ro5ro 
S) rfyi, jray ^ojf ri; ri lpyavw» iyfOil yiif eS fwget^iVf m^^ 
fluffy. lf/3«Xf ^ |ub}y y^p ri^ ri iogo M rh 7rX^<rioy, dc t<r^pemhov^ 
IkaSe V airhif XfXo7%c0]x<yoy. xa) tfiukt ftev ri^ if x[<rayifif, p %' 
X/So;. ri 8f lyfxa t/vo; fl JTAXot; jxiy 7yixa 7rpoi^§t$, aXXo a aifofiah,^ 
o7oy co^ t} ^apfuixov iobg M a-amipta Ayvoijireis 7ri Oavcca-ifAOV^ fpf. 
3tei M a^uyniglet piy Jhreutrt riv I^eor^xora iaorou, Iva oLvaviy^^^ 
iKaii V iiiroKuhas oux M rovrcf frafffai. ri 8e 9rai^ «I a^o^ c^ rJ 
i^pcjxa 9r0(/ffiy* If^dtio't 8« er^oSp^^i obnri^ ol yUfty«^^jxeyoi. 

I7#^l vaytfl^ Si) raur^ ^ciy" r^^ roiadrrig iyfotag ova^g b ra!; 

xaliixa<rTa** itpiiitiFi [itfyra fiffy ^vig tviitg iv ayvo^are^M, rotireVriv 
ov crujEt/S^trera/ ^rori &yyop '< aSroy* xa) r/ iFparrei xa\ h rln ^goT" 
Til x«} vfioj^ xa) r jXXa. eri Se latn-oy ei p,^ irou e7i) ftouyofteyo^. Iv Se 


n ^^o^<rai dMv ouSey xonviv. xoi]'^ 6 roircov n ayvo^trasj a%av 
toxel ^rsvoiiixlvai xa) p»iXi<rra, ffi<rlv,*^ iv rolg xuguerarotg. xvpuaror 
ta ¥ thou iaket iy w 4 i^poii^g ^^ rh oS &ex«. Xri 8s to oS Syexa xu- 
pwrariv Icrtiy ly'^- tj uyifola, $^Xoy. xu^i(»rtfr6y yip Iv r<» oyyofiv 
o'7 jxaXi(rra^^a/i9 ri; efyai 8i' ^yyoioey. rourd 8e'' ro o3 2yfxtt. oray 
^ip ^Ivvftal T%g ihXw p^h hixtV jrga^ag oToy ayaSou xa) d^fXipOff 
Tou roiourou, 8io xei ol &iroXQyo6p.$voi '9 lir} roSro p,aXi(rret etwtAiriv 
TUtroiftvytiv T^y irgoalpea-iv^ amm a^iovvreg h^eril^uv. xcit rivog 6V«- 
xly iirgb^eif, ifir^pa (r&o'ai, fiov\ip,tvOi ij iatoxrmai. tr^t^v y&p xa) 
tSXXot iravTU, toL 8i* ayvoioof ilg tout© iivayrrai (xa) yip 6 to t/ 
ixpa^ev iyvoria-eig, e\g touto afiye$,^^) olov hi e^hncev avrov >Jeyonii 
rtvog Ivncfy JfXeyiy^ ir^rsjoy Ty* i^otyy^Xi) t& pAxrrixoL % o5. oXX* 
dfXXo Ti X jycoy f AaJfy Ifoyyi/Aa^.— 

P. a. P.b. 

VR. a. 16 1 a. 

V. b. 143 b. 

Fl. a. et b. 367 b. 


* • 

3 P. a. addunt lo-mv, VR. a. iti fexto qaoqtie. « V. b. et VR. a. ayyoirfc 

^ iP. a. wff. ^ P. a. Ji^aXXf. f i\ omiss. in Par. 

* F. a. &9roxft/uc/yff V. b. et TH. a. in marg. &mofieiin* ^ OajocifMif F. a. 

■^ V. bk ^ay(4.7 VK. a. teXii^^. in marg. teWi^? 4 filfiKlcut ^ ^ M{k wx4 
" 9iKrl?, soli V. b. et F. a. ** V. b. %a9ixMrrof. 

" VR. a. in marg. dyvniriu n ^jSx. ^4> Uncis inclusa om. V. b. 

>' f nerlvaoli VR. a. et V. b. *6 h om. a VR. a. >7 P..a. ii 

» Sic VR. a. in marg. V.tutdvoU f6. 
'0 Sic VR. 9^ V. b., F. a. P. a. A^iKr^fA. 
«>, »i V.b..^k^ . 

in Arutatelis Ethica. 113 

*il<rir«riou ^iXoo-^^oti 'TirofiffifiiOt bU to UXtol too¥ '/7(ik. *Ap. 
Incipit : Aiya^ Si f0% vs^) sAffvAfpioniTo; Swf xa» rai( Suo-co'iii 
Mrip|3aAAciir x; r. X. 

P. b. 97 a. 

Fl. b. 370 a. 
Ad verba textus, Oxtn h rj ivfafMi ii ttlvai r^v aA«(oW, ftXX' •# 
Tjf wfOdifi&u* ihtyi H xeti h rolg Toirixoi^' x«} »y ^AAoi; Aoyo«fy m 
«vx elo'iy ai $uy«fiitfi; tl^fxra), &?J^ al irpoaipc^'ei;*^ 

P. b, 97 b. 
KaXouvrai Se ol ivpttifMi ivrpavsKoi, wetlfyvni oaf0^ourfM¥ot$. 

Ibid. 98 a. 

De ^fiOjxoXo;^o»$ loquens : 
"^Eyffxsv Ss Tou yiXarrog xivilv, ouSfVO$ ^eiSsrai • oSrs ^IKov dSr l;^« 
Apod. fWoTff Se ou8s Twv deaiy KOfAiacnp ol r^; wetkoiUs xoofMfSlag, wi 
yeip ^[MfiO^lois ovSe rwv deooy aurtlx^rr^ 

Ibid. 81 a. 
Ahiwnp not *Ap, fiavawrlav xetXei r^v v^paxciftei^v xaxlav rji /xaya- 
h^punlcz — — — Tflp 8g iicopilv T^ xuplcos KaKoviMvy^s nrirrij/cti];. 
«a; ye^ AecD^rixfl^; xupuoi hnarvuMug ivafiAfyav. ^ snijr^fMva xiyu 
Tov Tffp^v(n}v* iravTog yap rep^/rou to icpiww ^o^ipi^au iaaoTov igyoit* 
olov (TXtn'OT^/xoUy TO irfluS) ipii^ov inri^v^iMt, xm) ypafitog f ISevai oTov 
Ssi TOV ^pcoot ynyqa^iai. ^ tov iSwonjy ^ tJv ^So/tevoy ^ tov Xuvot/fti- 
ifoy X. T. X. 

Ibid. 81 b. 
*H ya^ iiMptfiokdyta fuxpoTpnn^y aro Se r^; loi}^ ^ij^*} Sftvavi]^ roy 
ftsyfleXoTpnr^ pi^iya Trot^veiy to jpyov. o7oy 01 Siof x«Ta(rxft;0t0'a0'ta/ n 
a^TOv Tp frarplh raXavrooy exotToy— ow;^l ffoi^o^ai. ftixpoy ftey, woXw-* 
^^ii0-oy 8s ^ ff-oAuTffXfioy X/9cov Tivooy^ oux eori yap TOiXiXco; iroiricuvra 
O'opBlois ij cfAupiyiois ij i?J\ois Tio'l toioutoi; xMoi; ^qax!^ ^' ccsroSfIr 
j^ou IJpyoy. 

P. c. 123 a» 

VR. b. 77. 
V. b. 176 a/ 
Fl. a. 369 a. 

Kai yip 6 hrieiXYig ha yvfuvaa-rcav xu) novooy ' nupacirai jcaqa^ 
tf'Xeua^ety^ auroo y^ia xou ra /Speo/xaTa xotl ri tfira, liv ii hnka^ii^ 
(jLf^amvTai rag trapaa-xevag favXoi xa) M^oyoif olov cog ol irsvXriqay 
jxeyoi^ xa) OfMog rfiovrig evsxa (lyi^avaofji^evoi, VKwg %aKiv ^rtWiv' \ ^otr 

' Post Tvniwn^ P; b. lacunam habet. Verba yuti h «xxo(f yjiy. solus Ft. b. 
^ P. b, vf oatp • . .« 3 Addunt m«1 iroywy V. b. et Fl. a. 

♦ mapma^ivu^ttai .\ , b. ' tvifiXa V. b. 

^ VU.'b. 8icuifc6x«ii;|uuyoi, V. b. et Fl« a. ircvXitpw/ixrilou ^ irinovrc; P. c. 

VOL. XXIX. C7. J/. NO. LVir. H 

11% Epitome BcMiorum 

irtM i^ifn kuwilvioUf woXXol^ kvm^fiv Kei to SoxiJv.^ Mporrmiy^'a^ 
fTvM ' KOTaaTafftf. iit ft^) woKKciis £\y4iy)y flyoti rouro Sia^ r^y 
^tforiv yoig &i\ %ovii^ ri t^jSaov, aicwiff^ «a)'o{if)vo'ioXoyoi Xtyovo-iy. [o 
^dp'Avciwftfas iXay^'eu) wnh ri l^oy7 giA Tmv]* mMffiwit, 
TWtm ^'^^ tf^-9vyiMtritt^[90^' '^^^9 <^' ^l^r^pmw* ^mA ^jx^iSi^ 
itfi'° odroi;]" offi ty vAkbb tboiro tJoDoy. >iwel'«r>y *i i »fligoBy^!g«y*ail[t^ 
r«» '* 6 OiofpetffTOs'] '^ ly 'Hdixdi^, XiywfSti ffiXauvti ^Soyi) Xvinjy^ ^' 
Syayr/oy, eIoy^|;i^]'^ dkiii rw irii«iy''>i^^&9ro T»CMBi^|aey. ixsV^^ni^ou- 
<ra rovTffOTi i}ri^ oSy «fy fTi] Itrx^P^ Arri*^ 'htxyn icuvav h^tXaiuvw xai 
axofj^ ^ov^i oray ao'fiftO'iy'^'deXAsi^Yibly ««o97|Mrao'iy iia^Bgovrcos x^^' 

Codex VR. «. d€sinit in 1. iv. pei^it ^ro levins iu God. 
VR. b. titulum ferenti, 'Annt^Uv rou ^^Xto^ou ^§1$ va 'ififMM> 

(00) ie triy -fttyaX^ftir^ i«tfp) Tttvroc fuSiXXoy Idnrttyety-ftr^ -utAa^tna 
vAy ip7M^«I«y WMtf^, tHuf,^wi r^yfl0y-^f«wraifl;'N«}idfAA«P7«i^ja»- 

IS a. 
'V R. b. '(locus Biiitiius 7) 

— *roy 8s ftsyaXo^pv^C^y xa) tig itXv^tus f iXotro^oy XeA^fif mm 
«oX& ffraXXoy^ so; 6 IlXareoy ^<r}y ^y t^ ^^ittiTlgTep ^ 01 fy rj[ 6oL)iaTVf 

i^f^fSai '^1 "X^i ifTf iK^ ' ki^fimm ttl^ (nc) X^^ >oox^ Scrrtv .; 

<lAtl I. 'VII. 
Pariss. 'Romani (V. b. p. 657 b. etY^R. b. tp. so b. oxii^* 
^•0'^^ FlorentiDi>(Fi.tb. 397 b#) omiies. 

*i4<nra0*io; f ; TO ifra rm 'Apurror, 'Htix&Vf Nixofiaxov, ounar'ifr 
Xotff ^XX' itiri [/^(Tou, eari rou pvjfnv, to5 sSroM'i Sif^ioVro^. ori /u)' 

' avnt Koi ffTvoi. )i»t«i0t. P. c. aZm §hm x. FI* a. 

* AXyiAt 4Mft •(«»; l!i^»r. -t^ ^ VR. 1>. AXyavSr alv<»» irtvu -V. b., PI. «• 
' iJ«yf?fic P. V. ^ iec'd% P. c. lie solom V. b. 

7 ^l itfovitV o^'fi&tu V. b. * Uncis inclasa desiint* Cod. P. c. 

" C«ret uncis inclusis P. c. 

*3 [ 1 Ucunam Cod. P. indicant. *^ [ ] Lacuna P. c. •! Jl. a. et V. b. 

•5 Textns cisi todd. FI. a. ct V. b. iifvhnf ctt P. c— VR. b. Mh itCitHti » 
marg. &xi.iuu k &>lfi\% 

*• WTl'P. C. ''''.)(,«^0^IVP. C. . 

znArivtoUJis Etkica. 115 

P. a. liSO a. 
P. b. ]04 b. 
VR. b. 37. V.b. 361. 
06 Y^p «T TK (nttpfiuKKiwmf mkyifiwwif ^irruTCu ^ \vwoo¥ tdtufii^ 

f^AoKT^n}^* vvo rij; ^i»f vsT9ipii»i¥0§ Mpvrrciv fiwkoixwog rob^ TreA 
^¥ NwifTokBfMf, j^XP^ fMV VS99S ai«;(fi^ SoTepcv Si ou^ dvojw.8- 
VOBV rd jK^yiSo; rmr aAy)}S^floy ^iv$po^ > yiVrrAi. Toy avroy Sff 
rpMray ii^'ijya'yfy odrov xa) X'ofoxX^; xa) Ala^iXos' eoixe $e xa) & 
Kafxivos •la-ayeiv rov KMpxoovct ^rrJjxeyov u)ro fAsyaXoiy ^^ovom^. o3->> 
TOi ftfiv «8y oux 8i<r} /ctaXoxo/* aXX' ei ri^ v'^f «; oi ^oXXo) ov dwfoiytcU 
Tc^ koiraf wfriveiVf tKK* ^frrmrcu, ofji^fos ii^ iyet x«) i^'^ ^Soyi}jr 
A . • . [w ytip JiTVf]^ »f Oi(!ppoi&T9g xlyfi [yev(rj^a/»fvo^ -ni^ Sifji^fipo^ 
9rlag^ MwidDikA euhiigf fi^ifx^MO^iat i^io¥. [^XX* eT ri; ^r^c^pSi^ ^rrarot 
fwy ^^5bM»y 00; oI voXXo/.]^ mixs Ss 6 *Af. ri Bvfo^&vtw '^ ^vi^^otv ico^ 

fct^ A^lwfm ff^evfi fMV yd^ ^roXXoS xecrwr^fciv tov ytXuna rfKeirrmt 
Vitxayj^unVf owtg xei aXXoi^ cviLfieilvei, 

P. a. 125 b. 
V. b. 365 a. 
VR, b. 47. 
(Comm. Aid. f. 1 19 b. 50. Fcl. 1^3 b. in fine.) 
{JKov (Of h rm ^iXoxrijTt) rm JSo^xXfou^. «i«9r«/<rli} '^' juifv yob^ 
wro rod 'OWo'Cfio^ t^ it^uSiJXeyMV v^o^ roy ^lAoxr^ijy, ovx ii^pAm 
hi, ;^a/pfloy xa) ^Softsyo^ rw jxi} \p6u8ff(r$ai. 

VB. b. 367. 
. •^>Oixf «« rep iroXiTixw ^ frsp) ^^oyij^ xa) Xtisn}^ if comV hloi^ yAv otSy 
fexf I lurfiefiloL 4S^4 «Tyai &ya9^y* ^$ Soi^^^ ^ao*) xa) ilrna'Sey^ ycyo- 

P. a. 138 a. 
V. b. 372. 
*i2( yif f vttMriTsro; Ixtys, ou (rujxjSaiyf 1 ^ f u(r»$« i^tm -Sf Xi^iy Xiyti 
T^y Sfi^iy^ ^ TOO oVri Ixuf roy X^yoy rooy fu^xivreov i^ij elvM otyativr^v 
^Soy^y. ou /uiey yap a&rdfxm^ iXus Xtycoy, t2 hoLVTiov xoxo) ayoAiv. 

» P. a. ct P. b. ^. * VR. a., FI. a. et P. a. ct P. b. *«Xoxti;t«;, 

3 ^Avrpwc FI. b. ^ Vi solus V. b. ' 

' Ivi «^oy. P. a. ^ Uiids inclusa om. P. a. et P. b. 

7 Lacuna in textu Par. * ^Lufi^lns Par. ' Lac. in Par. 

*^ Bffyofttvrov FI. b, f wv^faVTw FI. a. VR. b. rf f uvo^vtw VR. a« 

" mitmitrOm P. a. 

116 .Epitome Scholiotum. 

botrrlov St' if AMrp, kaxcS Svrt, ^Sov^. iyeitiv Spu^ 9teat^ yiLp o4 
liovov TO ayaiov hvarrlov, aWA xa) ri xaxoV. »$ rp ifcbjiv^Ti w- ftovov 
4 avipila [IvavrioVf ayctSov o5<ra]y* aAAil xa} xaxov, ^ SffiX/a. ^lowgp 
ci; wetvrla rou Xuo'avTo; aura fivoi j^teo; ftl^i fb^ ftoVov ayaSov flvou 
rtp KotJUb havrtoVf oXAa xa) xaxov, ftra ^poo-s^a/Sf rijv ^Sov^y fti^ flvou 
xoxoy. 1^ cuy iiXoyoog cruAXoyiCrrai rijy ^ov^v ayaSoy clyai. 6 Ss ex-l 
Tao-iy t7pi}Xfy. ou yo^p ay f a/i} rig ilvai rrjV vfiov^v t£ Xiycp avngv 
cvvuiTTiov^ h Jp ffTX))Trai. oux Ifori Se xaxiy ^ ^^oyi;* roDro yap 4rt^* 
v^i$^ . • • • ay • • f a/i]. ro ftj kuxov flyai ^^ovijy. '^ 6 Si fura .rav-* 
ra A^o^ " loixs kiyeaiai vpo$ rou; fti] ^ao-xoyra^ tsAo^ flvaj r^ir 
yfio^v f^rfii ri ctpKTTOv. hiri elcrl riye^ ij^ovai ^aOXai, oloy al Tcpy 

^xoXao'Tcoy. oiroy yap M rotrrcp rip Kiytp ' 10*7/ Tiya i}Soyi]y ^ 

^yfirai • • • . ^ to ^ apio-roy xa) rouroy rp f u^aiftov/a. aXXa wpi; tou; 
cureo SsjxyJyra; iyiVrayrar' ri y^^ XdoXufi'^ f auAwy ijSoyooy otKreoy, 
fflya/ riya ijSoyijy to ugtarov rwv av$poo7rhaov aya6a». w(nrtp xal" 
^vKTT^fivi r!$ ho'Ti yf kpltrry^ riov o»Tcoy, oloy ij tro^la, xalroi iroXAoov 
rip^ywy " ^etvXwv ouo'ooy, oloy Teoy fiaofowrmv, ^aihaw Se ou^ oof xaxcov 
axou<rT6oyy aAA' «o; aTsAioy '3 xa»'^ luihfLlag airovSris a^imv, a ii ^tff 
m^epei'' avrep^^ io^asv iv aKi/^6ii avo^euvofuiva to fieyKrroy xeii*^ 
apiarov ri^v ijSovijy. Xeysi yap 'icmg $f '^ xa2 avayxeueog^^ alptrireiTQf 
alvat, SijXoyoTi*® njy ijSov^y. to ie aJgfTcoTaTo'y ti Iw* reXei*' foTi 
Tou XoyoVf xai cruyijyogsiTai** t<^ -^^y^? aravrwy aJprrcoTaToy^^ flyai 
Tijy** j$oy)]y Xty^yTcov*' fl ya|^ kxioTifji ?f«co; bW! rives lyepygiai*® 
ave/XTToSiOTOi, oToy ai Toiy apioTcov orav ev Trportyovfiivoig xai alpirol^ 
ylvwvrai, (jLyfievos l/xvoS/^oyrai. xai So-riy ^ ivSaiftovia { wcureov rwv 
S^iooVf TOU-ioTi Tfloy aptrm, hs§y€ta ^ nvog uvtwv avtfMroBiarog, iloif 

* V. b. sine it, vifl X^ xaxwy hri, sic. ' * Uncis incluaa toli V. b. et Fl. b. 
^ In Cod. Fl. a. et in P. a. per compendium sic scriptum nM 

^ YR. b. in marg. n it fit fix. inui oddcv^ lx»y iXXft^'y* Nulla desunt in Fl. b. 
' voOro>;>Jyw Fl.* a. ^ Lacuna in omn. Codd. ^ Lacuna iteram. 

* TO sine accentu Fl. a. ^ IWorrarai P. a. et P. b. 
«o tI xai xoX^M V. b. X^«, fl fiifiK in raarg. " Addunt ^ PP. 

'^ P. a. — xjf^ ^ prima sjllaba deficiente. Fl. a. et VK. b. aitrxfSif in. texta, 
notante altero in margine, nx^ui ti filfix, 
^^ P. a., VR. b. et Fl. b. t^toSn. «♦ xai om. PP. 

'' Addunt raxo post i«(f«f it VR. b., V. b., Fl. a. 
'^ PP. . . Twy VR. b. ^vTw sine accentu; V. b. &y tc? jo^k h (IXtidir. 
»7 Ora. »«rPP. «8 Om. « P. a. et VR. b. 

'5 ^vayxarov P. a. *o Om. inXovoT* P. a. et lextus VR. b. 

^' Sic VR. b. in marg. Textus omn. libroruro lir«7fXa. 
^* o-vynyepu t1 Fl. a. et VR. b. P. a. t«, 


*s Fl. b. sic ciIgiTw *4 OiD. Tiiii p. a. et textus VR. b. 

*5 Xi'yoy addunt V. b. et Fl. a. et Fl. b, *« iVpyiw Fl. a. 

in Aristofelis Ethica. lit 

9^^ ^o^/flt^. TdtVTOV t\ roxrrto xai i} ' ijSov^. Ivipyeix yoip avoSsSorai * 
r^^ XATfl^ ^U(ny t^eoost aveiuvoharog, ^uvepov (6$ a v elvj u$ ij^ov)] ro 
ipurtov xai reXeioVarov rcov ayaiooy, ei oureo; ^rup^e ^auXoov oS- 
(Tcov ^Soyeov.' lioTi $e eo; ^ijori roi kpig jy^g ^paceoog ^(roDS^ ctvay" 
xaiov ul^erayriTTfiv bIvou t^V ri^ovviv, elveQ Ixao'Tij; s^scos xoA * 
roi^ ef^^. hoi jxsv oSv tovtoov doxel tomtov avofoimaion raya- 
$ov xa) Triv ifiovfiv, 06 ftijy ovrcog ^s<* aXXa rrpog tou; Aeyov- 
ra^ yiveo'iv ehai ^ ^auAa^ riva; roov ayaiooVf ei; xu) Si* auro to 
|xij flvai TO ayaJov^ eiriylveToti xa) siri^up€l Mo^oos, cos ivov^ auTiJv 
TO SptOTOV kiyuv, Bve) h ye Tolg JVixo/xa;^8/oij ?yflev' hslkexTut^xoi) 
vep) ii^ovotg *Apt(rTOTi\rig cra^co^ cTpijicey^ auTiJy'*^ /x^ elyai Tauroy*' Tp 
tvBMfiovlct, aXXoi vapoLxoXovhlv aicrTreg rolg axpLoiloig rrjv oopav, cijjXffico- 
reoy hi too /xij slyai tout*'* ^AptaroriXovSy aXA* £u$^/XrOU^ 0** ey tw 

'* Aey«'y irep) ^8oy?j'^ co^ owSssrco -weg) T^f *^ awT^; 5ifiX«X«- 

yfwvou.'* irAijy eiTt EvS^pLOtj roLvri loriy, wf 'ApiaroriXovs hho^oo^ 

VR. b. desinit in Comm. L vii.^ oniisso octavi libri Com- 
mentario, fol. 79. (V. b. 377 a.) 

*/f' 9 rjjSorli ftaXAoy ly lijpe/x/a . . • • oofBpla, hrrh ^ ?y x/yijo'si. ^ yap 
ijonJ*° xa) aXijfctrTaTij ^SoviJ tab eocawTco^ fp^oyTi xat aUl wepi Tijy 
TflSy xaAXicTTcoy*' iecoplav evepyovm, Ss \iyou(rl uveg, ftSTaPoXijy ** 
trayTcoy^ yXyxu, irfel t?^ woyijo/a^ xal evuLiTafioXrig^^ p6(ru^^ Xgyouo^f. 
roiavnj os ij fO^pTi]. 

Cod. Fl.a. habet *Acr7ru(rlov §lg ro d rooy 'ApKrr, * Hiixmv Nixofi^" 
X«»v(FI. b. 3519 b.) 

Incipit: Meroi*^ H ravra H vep) ^iX/a^* iwg tou >Mv6&vwreig eo; 
•^owcriy aoTOij,** 

Desinit : to hretpxiiv xou ou o'TrouSao'Tiy xai iregt /xsy rot/rcoy^ raSff 
^01 iipyfrai : f. 401 a. 

• Car. ^ V. b. et Fl. b. * Airo^/Jirax PP. 

3 Qa«nquam pravs sant voluptates Felici 
♦ Addunt ii VR. b., V. b. et Florentini. 

» Om. xol Fl. a. 6 Trtf VR. b. ^ ^J T4y»dov PP. 

*P. b.l». 9 p.b. rrtfctV.I). £^ 

«° P. a.. Fl. a. et VR. b. afrrSf. " fx^ rwzh VR. b., Fl. a. 

»* wt' pp. "3 Ti P. b., V. b.. Fl. a. et Fl. b. 

■♦ Indicant lacunam soli P. b. et Fl. b. ** xi'yw VR. b., V. b. et Fl. b. 

*6 iiioiat h ^Ifix. in marg. VR. b. >7 Addit solus Fl. a. 

•* iM\iyi4,mv P. b., V. b. et Florr. •' Addit V. b. iih %al ^ ^1. 

^° Omissom in Cod. VR. b., nnllo spatio relicto ; in marg. Vfi* 
^' tm\l4<rrnf VR. b. in marg. xaXXi j 
** VR. b. fAtvafioJi^, V. b. et P. a. furafioXn. 
^3 Teitus VR. b. iv/uut»/S6Xsv. V. b. tiixtrafioU^ag. 
*^ VR. b. p6 ft filfiDi, Mai tawg yiyfavrat fO<rws» ^XXa |M»i» f^^ii* 
*^ Fl. a. fAtrty^u, *^ Fl, b. iav7o7s» 

1 18 Notice of Milliogen's 

Sequitur in Fl. b. f/ 370 -0., post ComoienlarHim L ru 
Aspasio tributum — qui desinit verbis : §1 /xfv o8y r^Srto fminrm 
ri cxif^ia ftfo-oy ri. Deiode Michaelis Ephesit Scbelia legtuMiir; 
in B Etbicor. 


DE VASES GRECS, iiries de diverses coUections, 
avec des explications^ par J. V. Millingen. Folk^ 
Rome* Pr. 71. 7s. 

JlcGORDiNO to our intention declared in the account of Mr. 
Millingen's English work^ (see Classical Journal, No. lv. p. 
144.), we shall here describe that splendid French volume M'hicb 
the same learned author published at Rome under the title above 
mentioned; a folio of considerable size, beautifully printed, and 
illustrated with sixty-three plates. Sixty of these exhibit tii^ 
paintings found on various Greek, or, as they are often improperly 
calledi Etruscjin, vases ; arid three plates represent the different 
forms of those vases. All the paintings have hitherto been Uttedi^ 
ed, with the exception of two ; which were so inaccurately copied 
in former engravings, that their subjects could not be a8ce^ 
tained. Notwithstanding the great variety of designs compre- 
hended in so many plates, and the impossibility of remarkingi 
within our limits, the very minute details, we shall endeavor to 
gratify antiquarian and classical readers by iiidicating, thoiigb 
briefly, the principal subject of each painting. 

But we must previously notice the Introduction (occupying 
thirteen pages), in which Mr. Millingen most ingeniously traces 
the history of earthen vases. He observes that they were in 
general use among the Greeks until Alexander's time, when, 
luxury having been introduced^ silver, gold, and even more pre- 
cious materials superseded clay in the formation of vases. He 
descjibes the various purposes, civil and religious, to which. the 
ancients applied their earthen vases : these, originally, were not 
colored ; they were painted black, and subsequently, as the arts 
improved, were ornamented with figures. That monuments of 
brass or »(;i! marble should have disappeared, whilci vasetofso frail 

m.suJb«tenkc9as.ola>:Skoii]<il bQ foujid ar \h» pn»9eiit dity; ip cpn^ 

violiiUoo by a . fading of neligioii^ cespect • H^ . divides: the vas^s 
into BeiieD>grai|d-cla8se»i according. to, the.subject ofi their paiatR 
ipgsi: i» Tbo9a reUtiQg to, the. diiviniues<; their w^ra with tbo 
giaota^ their amoura^ the sacrifices offered to tbeaiy. 8cq» 8^ 
ThoftB relativei to th^ heroic agea ;. the most niiinerQus as well a^ 
ths> niaal iatecesUiig^ fori they «pix»prebeiid all' the mytholpgical 
fnctB-£rain. the. anrival of. Cadjmu^.till the. return of Ulypses to 
Ithaca ;: the HjeracUi'd^ the. These'id,. the two wara of Thebe^^ 
tbtt MMics o£ tbe. AioaiiooA^.tbe Argoiiautic expedition, aad the wav 
of Troy. 3«. Diouyaiaic subject : Bacohus, Satyrs, Silequ^i 
Niymii^y daofiea,. fe^v^als, propeasiops, &c* 4,. Subjeots of 
oiial life.:, «iai:nagea, ainprous. sceoe^f feasts^; huntingrpartiea) 
Mif fvnioi^. tbeatri<)alr reprje3ea.taUoii3| S(r€, d. Those rdaung;tQ 
ftineraLoeramonie^. a very iiMinerQi«» olaa^., Q,. Those relaMeVe 
to gyowaatie e&erd^es*; a^ 7. 'Those alluding tp: tbe. oiy^teiiea 
and prefiaratarvt eereinonies of ioitiatipn^ Most vas!$^, si^ya 
Mr. Wuy eabibit; pictures on botli si^es, though one haa sejidpni 
fQ|i rdfllioo» |p^ the otber ; . th^t whiph i^ painljed with, tbpi Q9pft| 
earn, may. be ooaaidered as the.principalface.; on the revieraeis 
geaerAlIji f^und. spate gymna^tip o.r^ jpipnysiac subject. Ya^ea 
abound ioi moat partsof Qroece, iu,tbe iMugdoui pf Naples, and 
in Sicily; the finest have b^en dispoverc^d at Nolfi^.I^fj^ and 
Agrigentum. iVls tKe pott^r*i^ ^'bee^ ^be: art of; i^pdelling in 
^y, and ev«n. pa}nting> are said to ba?e. been invented at Oo^ 
nntb^we may supposf^ this place the fir^tin which. paiQitedvaMA 
wore, made ; proltobiy abput se^/ien^ hundred years biefore t^ 
commenoemenlt of our era^ Qut wq myx^i pass piier. without 
notice a multiplicity of.curipus. and. intere^tuig ren)ark^ in tbf^ 
iRtrodupticMii and proceed tp om autboc's. explananipo. of tha 

(Plate: u) represents that meu^orable puoi3hi|i.ent ii^flictctd bjn 
Bacchus. oa Ly«urgus» king of Thrace; a subjecinot yet disr 
Qovenedi op any ojthier mojument of anpient art» thpugb the story) 
has been related by Hon^ery Hyginus^ ApoUodorusy ^p.: in? 
apicad with madness by tbe offended deity, Lycur^iis ia ^eeiK 
kilUog hia own. wife and son, whilst he fanpiea that be is de-. 
siroying: the vinea of Bacchus. The vase which ei(hibits tbis> 
painting once belonged to Mr. Millingen, and is. now in the Royal ' 
Museum degH Studj at NapJies : the subject wais. probablya 
copied^ says our i^thor, from aome ancient and celebraxed pic-, 
ture : according to JPausanias (Attic, c. xx.)> the punishpeot. of 

120 Notice of MilUngea's 

Lycurgus was represented in the temple of Bacchus at AtfaenSif-A 
<Plate ii.) shows the reverse or opposite side of this vase^ with a 
figure of Bacchus caressing a young panther that sits upon bis 
kn^es ; a person standing before the god pours out a libalion, 
and behind him are a Menade and two Satyr8.-^(Plate iii.) In 
this we see Perseus holding up the formidable head of Medusa^ 
whicb turns into stone two Satyrs preparing to attack him.-^ 
(PI. iv.) illustrates the story of Peleus, who» having pursued the 
beautiful Nereid Thetis through various transformations, sur«» 
prises her ^t last, and she consents to become his wife, — ^The 
same vase exhibits another composition, (PL v.) presenting two 
different subjects ; one consists of seven figures, a warrior at« 
tacked by Menades or Bacchants ; the other, a combat in which 
five warriors are engaged, and this, Mr. Millingen thinks, may 
represent some circumstances of the Trojan war, or perhaps a 
military dance, such as Xenophon denominates orXovorfa (Cyrop. 
vi, vii.) — In (PI. vi.) Medea appears sitting at the foot of a tree 
round which is twined a dragon or serpent ; to this she offers a 
soporific potion, while Jason approaching with a sword, pre>» 
pares to kill the monster, that he may seize the golden fleece 
preserved under its guardianship. Venus is seen on one side, 
encouraging the lovers in their enterprise ; and on the other.side 
is a winged youth, whom Mr. M. regards as Alastor, 'AXeurrmp^ 
the evil genius of Medea, often mentioned by the tragic au-* 
thors: thus Euripides (in Medea, v. ISSS.) 

(PI. vii.) represents JEetes, king of Colchos, to whom Phryxus 
brings the golden fleece. Most of the circumstances in this com* 
position might be supposed to indicate Jason; but Mr. M. 
considers the presence of Mercury as a decisive proof that 
Phryxus was the hero intended.*^ PI. viii.) This subject, from 
a vase in the author's collection, alludes to the story of Ca&neus, 
whom two centaurs attack, and overwhelm with branches of 
trees. — In (Pis. ix. and x.) we discover Theseus preparing to de* 
i»troy Procrustes by means of the bed whereon this famous robber 
had tortured so many travellers. — (Pi. xi.) Hercules, or rather 
Theseus, as Mr. M. Conjectures, overcomes the Marathonian 
bull, in presence of Minerva. — (PI. xii.) represents Theseua 
offering a sacrifice to Neptune, and soliciting from this god the 
destruction of his son Hippolytus, whom Pbaedra had unjustly 
accused. — (PI. xiii.) exhibits the unfortunate youth,Vith his step« 
mother Phaedra, and the nurse^ who appears from other monu* 
ments to have acted a conspicuous part in this tragical adventure. 
— Tbe^tory of Orestes furnishes an interesting subject for (Pis* 

Peiniuptt de Vas€& Grccs. 1 S 1 

w^ and sV.) : we l>ehold bim standing near the tomb of hU father 
Agamemnon, at the foot of which sits Blectra, his sister, with 
whom he proceeds to concert measures for the punishment of Clj* 
teouMstra and'iBgisthus, who had usurped the throne ; — and (PI. 
XV.) represents probably the marriage of this usurper with the 
wicked mother of Orestes ; for a male figure bearing the name of 
AinSTOS holds by the hand a female entitled KATTEMNES'^ 
TPA, who wears a radiated crown, whilst another female seems 
to offer such a box or casket as usually contained the nuptial 
presents.^(Pl.xvi.) from a vase in the Royal Museum at Naples, 
relates to the same subject : Electra appears sitting on the step 
of a sepulchral monument, in an attitude expressing grief ; her 
brother Orestes is near to her on one side, and on the other his 
friend Pylades. — The subject of (PI. xvii.), Mr. M. thinks, 
may have been taken from the Tragedy of Troiius, composed by 
Sophocles, but now lost. In this painting we see some Trojan 
women making libations and offerings at the tomb of Troiius, 
whose name is written on a column. He was the son of Priam, 
and, although mentioned but once by Homer, (II. xxiv. 267.) 
is celebrated in the work of Dares Phrygius as a most valiant 
hero, who, on the death of Hector, commanded the Trojan army 
and killed many Greeks with his own hand ; he was slain at last 
by Achilles. The vase exhibiting this picture is the only monu* 
ment hitherto known that celebrates the memory of IVoilns. — 
(PI. xviii.) Here, on a cippus, we perceive the name 4>0INISi 
by the side of this monument sits a young man seemingly en- 
gaged in conversation with a woman, who holds a casket of offer-* 
ings to be placed on the cippus. Many personages in the heroic 
ages bore the name of Phoenix ; Mr. M. thinks it most pfbba- 
ble that he to whom this painting refers, was the son of king 
Amyntor, and, together with Chiron, tlie preceptor of Achilles. 
In (PI. xix.) is represented a sepulchral monument resem« 
bling a small temple, containing the figure of a warrior, the de- 
ceased, whose buckler and xnipklits are suspended from the wall ; 
a woman and a young man bring offerings to the tomb. — On 
a vase painted at least four hundred years before the Christian 
era, are two subjects, (Pis. xx. and xxi.) The first relates to a 
circumstance in the famous war of the seven chiefs, against Thebes. 
We see Ampbiaraiis with his shield, helmet and two lances, and 
his Squire Baton, in a chariot drawn by four horses : a female 
figure precedes them, which appears to be Eriphyle, the wife 
of AmphiaraUs. The second picture represents also a ouadriga 
with tW4> warriors, whom we may suppose Amphilochus and 
Akmaeon, the sons of Ampbiaraiis : a woman likewise .precedes 


182 Nc^Gt 0fMilhxtgax*s: 

tbd ctr, and an ioMriptiou EPMfshB diowA ker Ift betiieir 
nooiher Eripfayls. Mn M. obaewea diat there' is.wawm wu:pi^ 
taiiicj resp«Bting-tbe two mab figures^ vMchnamf- he; Artwwtm 
aiui Po]jFBice8.-^PL xJuL)ialkide8 probably«H 
ed^oalybytiie tcholiaBton £iiripide8,(Ph€Bniti^.ii^.^j8*)(^Qf 
iome celebrity ae it has afibi!ded:a>aiiMeot for piotures ob many 
vaaea: Tjndfeus. appears* ready ta kill Isasene^ Bearr tlte. ibyotaia 
which afterwards, bore ber na«e«^Pl. xxiii.) ia faom a vase ia 
the Vatioan Muaeiim ; h w«s> published: by iPasseri, (Pidk inYassi 
Tom. lUL PL ccUxz.) who proiKMinced its subject tO" be the 
ApotheoNs of Hercules, and Hebe* The iogeiiioiie.Abbi Lanef> 
not satisfied with thistexplanatieo^ proposed another;: ragardiBg 
il as a> scene from.the.Hjsraclidesof EunipidesA. BiU'Our learosd 
mrthov with much diffidence states hi» reasons- fop auppoaim! it 
19 lepresenl CEdipua at Golonos, with his^ daughter AiitigOBS> 
Theseus, a iufyy and other- £igiises.*^On. the- reaeree of'tbia.saae 
we fiad a very different subject, (PL zsiv«) JBaocbua bolding a 
vessel catted: canthmfus, into which a young Satyr pouss wine',' 
(here are also Menadesior Bacchantes, 8&c*-rr^PL xxv;) Jupitec 
nnd^the fonn of a bull carries off Europe, wLiiat Nepkins 
seems to favor hn brother's: enterprise, by cakning the.waives«-T^ 
(Pi. ixvi.y/repiesenl^ young persona who^ undier the influence ol 
at wiflged Lowe' audi of Venus, seen, disposed > to. indulge in 
amorous dalliance^ From employing theii peaoile on. acenes: of 
this kind^ some ancient attistsi celebrated byiA^hmieius. acquired 
the tideof Pomographs, on painters of oourtesans. — (PI. aavii*) 
exhibits the combot betweeu Hercules andGeryon^ wha does aol 
appear with three bodies, as generally described, but with.thfiM 
beads^ such as Hesiod meiijtions (Theogon. v. ,287^) Miservar ep« 
courageaHeroules^andMerojirj attends, holdii^'anoliHe-tbrenobi 
—In (PI. a»viii,) BusiBis^ king of Egypt, having madet psepaiUT 
tioos for kiUing Hencules, according to hifi. annual custcxqp of 
sacrificing » straAger^ is here seen on the point of peaisiuogtby 
the band'of that hero, who, esoapiogfronuthe.slaiKes who had- led 
him- u> the altar, attadis the: tyrant with bis. ponderous dub. 
Two womeoy of whomv one plays oa a double, flutey lbs 
other holds a vase and a. basket, appeal) as assislanis at thctn^* 
temfaad 8aerifi0e.*--*(P4B. xxaa. and xxx.) relate to Apollo^ who in 
A» formen is seen: richly Imbited, and phiyiag oa the> lyre; nesf 
hioa i» a female engaged itt divination by meao6<of some small 
objects^ sbellSj, flints, or pieces of. clay thrown on the ground; 
she may be supposed -a priestess ; and a young man on the other 
side of ApoUo has perhaps come to consult tho divinity at 
I>slphes. On the reverse of this vase Hercules appears; cany* 

iog oiilbe Bmei txipod of the Delpbte Oracle, and A|»oll0, 
holding » biraack of laareU emheannMirs ta fegainit^mrliilt the 
P^hien prieatesv Xenodea^ttfiified at the dispute, iwaks'to smi 
tiie result A«a[i a window of li&r dweUingwr^(Pl« KXxhX * ^^e^ 
considerable antiquity in the Rojal Museuai' at Naptes^ repre- 
sents tbeconte^ between Herevles and: EiryK ; as on mostoo* 
easions Minerva and Merenry^ attend' the Greoian hero. This 
sufcgiecft has not hitherto been discovered on any other moRunienl; 
•^(Pl. 3»«ii.) al»o;exhibits a subject for die fif st tinie**^Hercttles 
stni^ing with Nereus, who had assumed: the fomitof haJ& 
Aiaa, kal^sh.*^In (Pl.xxxin.) Hevcules appears wieUlinghia 
elnb^against the Centaur Dexamenus, whose name is written' in 
the boustrefhedon manner : Dejanira and' QSneue also<are seen | 
and the difficulties: of this subject ape happily removed by a 
passage which our ingenious, aimor has discovered in»the Sdio^ 
hast of Callimaebus^ on the following line: 
Boupob T$, A^HfAmoh fio^Mng X)i¥tihto» Hymn^ inDek v. 108; 
-^I'he same vase^ on its reverse, (PI. xxxiv.) offem a scene< from 
civil life ; a man o^-middle age seems listening- to tiieeRimated 
oonversalion of two* women : the name UTAAAES is inscribed 
over his bead^ and refers, in Mr. M'.'s>opinton> to the person 
for whom this vase was deatined;*<*-<PK xxxv^) shows Herculee 
awaking from hie slumbers, and four Satyrs or €ercof>ians who 
duringthe hero's^ sleep had> stolen bis bow, his quiver, and club^ 
and are now seen running off much .ahmnedr.— *-(Pta« xsxvi^ 
xxxivii, and xaxviii.) are from a most beaufifttl>and' valuablo vase 
in the* collection of Prince Torrella at Naples* itsprioctpat 
Isce represento the Apotheosis of Hercules, who is iatvoduoed 
nmong the gods. by Minerva; this goddess brings him in her car 
dhiwn by four magnificent horsea. The reverse of tfais^ painting 
exhibitB a combat; of Amazons, witbsome warriors; and the 
vase, nmnd its neck, is ornamented with Dionysiac fiigor^ss^ of 
young men dancing to the sounds of a double flute, on whieh^ a 
woman phiya. We see also a woman offering wine to two war-» 
riors, and a young man who brings a- vessel containing probably 
oil or perfumes used on coming.from the bath.-— In (Pi. xxxix.) a 
female elegantly, attired is seated on the steps of a sepulchral 
monument, attended by an old woman, such as we* may suppose 
the nurses who generally accompanied young princessea on the 
ancient Greek stage ; another woman brings a perfume^vessely 
a garland, and a basket.— ^The reverse- (PI. xl.) exbibita a man 
nrowned with myrde, who presents a cup or patera to a female 
richly dressed. These paintings do- not offer any cnrcumafeance 
aufficiently marked to authorise conjectural exfJanation^-^In 

1S4 NoHct cfMillingttkS: 

(PI. ilk) we behold Venus beautifully clothed with gartV t eu tt 
which she had feceived from the Hours, and resplendent whh 
golden omaroenls, whence Homer (Hymn, in Vener.) styles her 

^Apfoiln^ ^roAvp^puxo;, XP^^^* ^°^ ;(f ti<ro<nrf ^avof. Love crowned 
with myrtle^ and winged, stands near his mother ; and a yoonj 
woman propitiates the goddess by offering incense ott a Uttie 
altar. — Paris and Helen are easily recognised ia (Pi* xlii.) : the 
scene is Menelaus's palace ; Helen caresses a winged child. 
Love or Desire, whom she, sitting, holds upon her knees ; while 
Paris, splendidly dressed, stands before her.— The subject of (PI. 
xliii.) has been already published, but incorrectly, by-O'Han-* 
cavviile, and previously by Passeri. But Mr. M. gives an ac- 
curate delineation and a new explanation of it* Instead of an 
allusion Jo the story of Telephus, as supposed by D*Hancar- 
ville, he discovers a scene on Mount Ida, where Paris appears^ 
with Venus leaning on a column ; the god Pan, a Satyr, a 
winged JLpve, and a woman (either OBnone or Helen,) fill up 
this interesting composition. — (PI. xliv.), from a vase found ut 
Athens, represents seven figures, forming a nuptial procesaiion, 
in which Apollo is seen with a branch of laurel, and Diana with 
her bow and quiver. — (PL xlv.) shows a young man seated, vrho . 
holds in one hand the triangular harp called sambuca, and with 
the other a little bird fastened by a string : near him is a woman 
fringing a vase, a half-open box, and a diadem or ornament for 
fhe head; a winged Hermaphrodite genius places over the 
woman a crown or gaiiand ; and the vase was probably des- 
tined, like others that present similar subjects, as a gift from a 
lover, or on occasion of marriage.^— (PI. xlvi.) represents a scene 
from one of the ancient burlesque comedies, such as Aristopha* 
nes censured iu his play called The Clouds : four men, ridiculously 
dressed and masked> seem acting, in a theatre dedicated to Bac- 
chus, what Mr. M. thinks may have probably been a parody of 
some tragedy of Procrustes. — in (PI. xlvii.) a winged female, re- 
presenting Victory, receives an offering from a young warrior ;-^ 
and on the reverse, (PI. xlviii.) we see an altar or cippus inscribed 
with the word NIKA, Victory ; near which stand two young 
men, who, before their gymnastic exercises, .seek to conciliate the 
goddess's favor.— Of a large and highly intei;esting picture on 
a vase in the author's collection (PI. xlix.), the principal figure 
is Achilles, as an inscription indicates ; this hero is engaged in 
combat with a warrior, whom we may believe Memuon ; two 
goddesses, Minerva and Victory, attend Achilles; Memnon 
fallen on the ground supports himself on one hand, whilst with 
tl^e other he seems to implore mercy. An armed hero, probably 

Pdntures de Vases Greds. l25 

jfineaS) appesra coming to the assistance of Memnon^ and an* 
other, tfnperfect from some injuries which the vase has received; 
endeavours to prevent him from interfering in the com bat. «— Oil 
the reverse, still more injured than the principal face, this vase 
exhibits (PI. 1.) the altar of Minerva at Chrys6, with the Paila^ 
dium or image of that goddess : a serpent is .seen inflicting on 
the leg of Philoctetes that wound which induced the Greeks to 
leave hrai at Lemiios, when they proceeded against Troy; three 
^ther figures appear iu this ancient composition, perhaps Ulys^ 
ses, Chalcas, and a priest of the temple. — (PI. li.) represents 
«also the altar of Minerva and Palladium, over which the word 
-Chrys^ {XPTSH) is written ; near this stands Hercules {HPA^ 
KAHS\ and beyond him Jason (IHSflN), by whose side is an ot 
•destined for a sacrifice to the goddess ; a winged Victory {NIKFf} 
makes an offering at the altar in favor of the two heroes, and a 
^'oung mviti prepares some objects neceslsary for the sacrificial 
rites. — (PI. hi.) offers a subject that admits of two interpreta* 
tions : an altar is seen with a statue which may represent either 
Minerva or Diana, from different circumstances. If we suppose 
it Minerva, the three female figures sitting at the altar may be 
Ino, Autonoe and Agav6, the daughters of Cadmus, soliciting 
expiation for the murder of Pentheus. If the statue represent 
Diana, we may regard those females as the daughters of Proetua 
king of Argos, who was cured of madness in the temple of 
Diana at Lyssa in Arcadia : our learned author's remarks in* 
duce us to consider this as the more satisfactory interpretation.-— 
(Pis. liii. and liv.) show two paintings on one vase: A young war- 
rior seems to have alighted from his horse that he may receive 
from a female of high rank, the vessel containing wine or water 
which one of her maids presents to him; another young warrior, 
sitting on a horse, leads or hoids tbiTf from which his companion 
had alighted. On the reverse are two warriors, (perhaps the same) 
who bring before some prince or great chief, a female.; qhe ap- 
pears in a state of dejection. — (PI. Iv.) exhibits the fine figure of 
a young warrior who seems to take leave of 'his aged father; 
whilst a woman brings a vessel, probably with wine : and on the 
reverse, (PI. Ivi.) are two warriors or hunters engaged in conver- 
sation with a woman holding a vase and a cup. — The subject of 
(PI. Ivii.), from a charming fragment in the Queen of Naples' 
collection, Mr. M. refers to a marriage : one man, five females, 
an imperfect human figure, aud part of a horse, form this com- 
position.— In (Pi. Iviii.) a young man, on his return from the 
chase, diags a boar towards an altar ; and a woman brings a box 

IH Nuga. 

with p«ifwii^bdtd68»— <PI. lim.) QSer% ia two-comp^HmeBta^fSIt^ 
wbioMical design of •« man iMiug from an ast^and another maa 
mnniiig towards bias. — (P. lx.)» from -a vase in the Rojal Mu* 
aaiim at Niqptoa, represeats three fine female figuaes; one 
hoMsa box, containing probably some oferings for a divinity ; 
another caresses a little winged genius or Love ; near the third 
is a swan, the emblem of domestic virluea. Although thia 
picture does not present any determined object^ it is Ughljr 
interesting from its details, die el^anoe ^f its composition^ 
and fine execution* 

We tru^ that our slight indication of the principal sul^jecls^ 
exhibited in each Plate of Mr. Millingen^s splendid voluma, 
may prove acceptable to many readers ; but they must consalt 
die work itself if desirous of examining his learned illastratiooa^ 
which Ailly evince an intimate acquaintance with classical antir^ 
quity, and consummate skill in :a «nost intereating branch of 


No. yitl.~{;Continuedfrom No. iF.] 

coUectiog tojfs 

And trifles for choice matters, worth a sponge } 
As children gath*ring pebbles on the shore. 

Paradise Regained^ \v. S^,' 

In 'No. ly. of this Journal^ p. liQ, 1. 10, read^ 

Impigra ptarcipiti Oialerabat Lima meatu, 
Atraquidem, o^Tadiis ciroum illostnita supemis. 

The verses *'Ad Chrysidem/' p. \72, du^ht to have con- 
cluded as follows : 

<roi.ftey irapisvuiii v£<r eu^erM if/xari rcaii, 
xexXvSi i^ xa) ifXilo, xipjn 'H aif iufMV l^^vj^g^ 


Nuga\ in 

Hom.OdyM. iv. IdQy Sp^eech of Mcnelaus 14^ Triemaebiu^ 

TxeS*, 0^ tTyex' ifteio ^roXt 1$ ffftoyijcrsy a<0Xou$* 

*A§Y§l(ov, si vwiy v^rei; £Xo( y^trroy ^eoxf / 

tOftMr) Aoji^iri ytyeirlai 'OAufiirio; evpt^a Zsuj^* 

mI m(r«y . Xpfom, iula¥ WXiy t|]^0(A«««(j^«(; 

.^x«i "Pic 4«f»»' iyApcS* l^m; < fMoyoj^f 0* . ociSt lew ^jX80(; 
aAXo Sicx^iyev ^lAioyre re repiro|xeyco re^ 
v^iy y' m ^ij'fayKroio fiiXttv ygl^og ^n t^ tx aAtntwy^ 
Such a proposal <c«rries with it aa Appearance of absurdity to 
modern ideas ; jet a similar one is made hg the Stiltiln to the 
Ptiilee :of the Black Islands in the Asahian Nighta, j^nd 
cepted. ^Night xxvii.) 

Grecisms and Latitnsmsin ^BngHsh writers. 

[Continued from N08. XLVni. and XTII.] 

•Oiffoffd?s Massinger, tol, i^ p. IDOL (Uonaturul Combat, 'Act 
!¥, sc. 1.) 

^Orttwine mine afms about her softer neck-^ 
L<e.'her s^t neck: oiir'old poets frequently adopt, ^and indeed 
with singidar-good taJBtei'Jth^ comparative for the positive, rlie 
i^otes ihe folloiving as instances : 

W^hen i shall: sit' circled within your arms, 
(How dhall 1 cait-a^blemtsh on your hauor. 
And app0ar only like. some falser stone^a ring of gold) which grows a jewel 
But fkomtheiseat which holds it ! 

Old Poem» 
' ■ ■ " 1 beseech you 

To tell me what the nature- Of nty fault is 
That hath incensed you ; ^sure 'tis one* of weakness 
And not of (malice, whidi your gentleor temper. 
On my submission^ 1 hope, will pardon. 

Unnatural \Comhat^ as abov€* 
.Jjidge not my readier will»by tine event. 

Virgin Mariyn 
This Osage (which Mr.'Gifford.bas not exactly ^dolined) corro- 

12S Nug<e. 

sponds with that of the Greeks (Mattbiae § 457. d.)and the 
Uoiiians ; especially in some particular words, as viingof, odor, 

The double negative likewise occurs frequently in our elder 
writers : 

And he hoped they did not think the Silent Woman, 
The Fox, and the Alchyinist, outdone by no man. 

Sir J. Suckling's Seuion of the Poets, 
He had not a word to say for himself, nor knew not in tbe 
world what to allege in his own excuse. 

Old Translation of Gusman d^Alfarache. 
So Massinger : 

■ - in the blossom of my youth, 

When my first fire knew no adulterate incense. 
Nor 1 no way to flatter but my fondness. 
The same idiom occurs in our established translation of the 

The late accomplished translator of Ariosto has copied tbis 
ancient idiom : 

J Death, 

Nor yet discomfort, never enter here. 

Rose's Orlando, Canto v. 
It appears to be one of those modes of expression, which 
having been originally in common use, have now become vul- 
garisms ; such is the usage of ^* as " for the pronoun '^ that,'^ 
which is to be found in Locke and other writers, (Essay on 
Human Understanding, Vol. i. p. 94, ed. 1817, note; *^ These 
words of your Lordship's contain nothing as I see in theoi 
against me/' So Osborne : ^* Under that general term were 
comprehended not only those brain*sick fools as did oppose the 
discipline and ceremonies of the church,'^ &c.), and many otber 
phrases, as well as modes of spelling and pronunciation, in- 
flections, &c. which are now confined to the common people, 
or to particular districts. 

Extract from " Luther's Table Talk/' in the Tenth Number 
of the Retrospective, p. 298. " He shed the -blood of many 
innocent Christians that confessed the Gospel, those he plagued 
and tormented with strange instruments ;" i. e. others, robs ti, 
in Latin, illos. 

In the dedication to Bishop Taylor's Ductor Dubitantium, 
a remarkable number of Grecisms and Latinisms occur. '' It 
was impossible to live — but as slaves live, that is, such who are 
civilly df ad, and persons condemn'd to metals (mines)." ^' But 

Nugd. 129 

tu,4r ^ joys are mere and unrnht.*' '< I was wilUiig to mgo^ 
tiate (negotiari) and to labour/' *' You will best govern h$ 
the arguments and compulsory of conscience, and this alone is 
the greatest (ty rotiro fiiyKTrov) firmament of obedience." 

Vol. iv. of Gifford's Massinger, p. S04, note, Mr. Gifford 
observes on Shakespeare's expression, 

fc- my vay of life 

Is fall'n into the sere, th^ yellow leaf — 
" The feet is, that these ingenious writers" (Mr. Gifford's 
stipiteSffungi, &c.) ** have mistaken the phrase, which is neither 
more nor less than a simple periphrasis for Kfe/' He cites 
examples of this periphrasis from the old dramatists : 

— — So much nobler 

Shall be your way of justice. 

Massingef^s Thierry and Theodoret. 

Thus ready for the way of death or life, 

I wait the sharpest blow. 

So the Greek tragedians : 

likMf Tou; cod; ft^ itugw<ra(r6ui 0lvou;. 

Eurip. Heraclid. 237- 
oSrof ff-e^uxa /xavti;, oS<rrr, jx^ nKwov^ 

Id. Hecub. 743. 
lb. p. 318. 

1 pray you, take me with you; 
i, e. '^ let me understand you.'' Tlius troiji^egifipnv in the latter 
Greek writers. Polyb. iii. 10. eSv x^P^^ ^^X ^^^ ^^ ^^ (ruftvip- 
iffyffp^S^vai StoVreo; ovrc roig yuv Xfyo/ilvoi;, o5t8 toi; jxera rathrfl^ 
^0^0-ofifyoi; v^' ^jxfioy : '' absque quibus non licet intelligere," 8cc. 

In a late poet we have : 

No voice from some sublimer world hath ever 
To sage or poet tliese responses given : 
i. e. hac responsa, a response on this subject — a solution of 
certain difficulties which had been previously spoken of. An- 
other modern poet has not scrupled to imitate the classical 
anacoluthon : 

Has Hope, like the bird in the story. 

That flitted from tree to tree 
With the talisman's glittering glory. 

Has Hope been that bird to thee i 

The following lines, by Joannes Charga, an Italian poet, 

ISO Nuga. 

appear to us singularly expressive of the fediogs oatunJ tQ M 
person in the situation of the writer* 

Senex raipisciL 

Hei mihi misero, hei mihi ! 
Tempus quam cito praeterit! 
Homo quam cito deficit ! 
£t mors quam cito criminum 

Pcenas exigit omnes ! 

Magnam qui bene fecerint 

Mercedem referunt : ego 

. Annis jam gravis, et gravis 

Culpa, en distrahor omnium 

Per tormenta malorum* 
Nox csecis tenebris preroit 
Morbo languida lumina : 
Menti et sensibus incubat 
Quidquid est miserum et grave : 

Vivum es, Charga, cadaver. 
Vivum : nam patulae vigent 
Aures ; sed tuba, in ultimum 
Quae te judicium vocat, 
Quali, proh pietas, sono 

Metus duplicat omnes ! 
Ergo tam miser et nocens 
Ad quem confugiam, nisi 
Ad te. Rex mens, et Pater i 
O Rex, O Pater, O Deus, 

Tn mei miserere, 
O et perfugium et saju9 
Humani generis, pie 
O Jesu, precor, ah precor 
lUa luce novissima 
Tu mei miserere. 
Tu quem sanguine, quem cruce 
^temis redimis malis. 
Pro tua pietate me 
JEtemis recrea bonis, 
£t mei miserere/ 


■ These lines have much of the pathos of Herrick's beautiful 

When I lie upon* my bed, 
Sick at heart, and sick at head, 
And with doubts discomforted, 
Sweet Spirit, comfort me ! 

Nuga. ISl 

Errors in the Orthography of Classical Jiames, S^c. 

(CMHumedfimn No. XLVttI, ami L//.) 

1¥b have strung together some additional instances^ arranged 
under their proper heads. 

1. Change of termnation»^A5TAtr this head maybe speci- 
fied Akestes {Alcesti was mentioned before), Colchos, Tralle 
for Traelles, Eleusina, otherwise Eleusyna, Leontium for Leon- 
tini, Leticadia for the rock of Leucas (Class* Joum. No. liv. 
p. 258«), JEolia for ^olis^ Bactria for Bactra, Camea for 
Capreae, Mycene for Mycenae, Clazomene (Classical Journal 
No. Liv. p. 288.), also Clazomenia (xlviii. p. 338.), for Cla- 
zomenaB. The termination ia, signifying the territory of a town, 
has in many cases superseded the proper termination of the 
town itaelf» In the same manner^ common terminations have 

2. Change of vowels. — M for £, JEmaihia^ JR^eria, Cherof 
naa, Tegaa, rlemad and the Nemaan games (originating in the 
frequency of the termination aa), Pagasaan, Metion: also for 
GB, as (Enone, (Enotria, &c« and vice versa. 

E for JE may be considered as legitimate in most cases. 

Y for /, Ilyssus^ Thyatyra, phyllvrea, for philyra, Stagy 
f^^> PhygaUoy Cyrrha, Tysiphone, Fygrisy Syren. 

1 for X, Cariatides, Lestrigon^ Troglodite, Phillis. 

When these two vowels occur in contiguous syllables, they 
are not unfrequentiy interchanged ; as in Typhis^ Amphyctions^ 
Amphytrion^ Tyrinthitis, Orytkia for Oritnyia^ Sybil, Sybilli" 
ne, Sysigambis^ Bythinia^ Lybia. 
. A for J, Cataltne ; and vice versa, Alexipharmic. 

3. Dissolution of vowels, ifc-^Coos for Cos ; Hygeia, 
Cassiopeia, TeXan, and many other forms of the same kind ; 
Aljpheus, Peneus^ 8cc. as dissyllables (Pope has Sperchius, II. 
zziii.) On the other hand, Briar^iis, otherwise Bri&reus. Mil- 
ton adheres to the Homeric form, only changing it to a quadri- 
sylUble : '' Briareos or Typhon.'' We have a)so Typhaus for 

Sometimes a vowel is interpolated, as Dioftysius for Diony* 
sus, Dionysiodorus. 

Charge of Consonants, 4r^.>^The most common corruption of 
this kind consists in the insertion and omission of h after a conso- 
nant, as in Anthony, Chalcas (originating in the frequent occur- 
rence of compounds with x^^^O- On the other hand, Calche- 
don : Chor^bus, Choryphaus (of which the origin is obvious)^ 

13g Nug^. 

On the other band, Ereciheum or Eryctheum, and Ericthonius, 
Erktho^ Napthof Riphaan for Rhipaan, We have also Pyren- 
neeSf and manjr (in^ijiar reduplicationa* 

The English poets (with the exception of those who were 
ihemaelvef scholars, and wrote on the classical model, as Mif- 
ton, Akenside, Glover, Gray, &c.) are not very acropiiloas 
with regard to the orthography or prosody of ancient naaiea. 

We might take this opportunity of touching on a number of 
prevailing inaccuracies in words of classical origin, as apothegm, 
-dii^Uable, tuppoutious, descendant, dependant, resistance (on 
the other hand, existence, independence, Sfc), dissentioh, re- 
flection, extacy, apostacy, corruscation, vaccillatian, extrimical, 
phUanthrophy, ineontestible, Sfc. Sfc. Sfc. We might also say 
something on the numberless portents in the shape of Greek and 
Latin compounds which the daily newspapers offer to our view^ 
as Eidouranion, Kaleidoscope, Dioastrodoxon, Peristrepiie, 
Panorama, Sinumbra, Kalydor, Therapolegia (a curious com- 
plication of barbarisms, signifying an office for servants). . Bat 
we leave this, and other matters of the same descriptiop, to 
more experienced word-mongers than ourselves. 

Parallel Passages, l^c. (Continued^) 

.1; OTovrai yap ol fiiv, if etvowrtct av ri xroi<r6M, ufislg Si T«p 
m\ielv Kou roL hoi^ML iv ^Ko^ou. Thucyd* l* 70. 
■ ' ■ ■ dumque agmina longe, 

Dum licet, Hdsperiis pneceps elabere terns, 
Ne nov^ praedari cupiens, et parta reponas. 

Clauaian. de BeUo Get. 6O0, 

xal ifipifiov avrcp, rp v6Xm 9 k^[Q(faw. 

Eurip. ap. Aristoph. Nub. 1404. 
• — .—.,—_: cetera segnis. 
Ad facinus velox. — r— 

Claudian. in Rsifin. i. 239- 

— preferring such 

To offices and honors, as ne'er read 
The elements of saving policy. 
But deeply skill'd in all the principles 
That usher to destruction. 

Maasinget^s Bondman, Act !• Sc. S» 



engraved on an Ancient Helmet of Brass, discovered 
in the ruins of Olympia in the Peloponnesus ; which 
Helmet has been most graciously accepted by His 
Majesty, from Maj. Gen. Sir Patrick Ros8, 
K. M • K. J. and placed in the British Museum : 
also some Observations on the Island of Ithaca, by the 
Ch£ya)[.I£R D. Bronsted, of the University of 
Copenhagen, Agent of the Court of Denmark, d^c. 

Ithaca, April 3d, 1B20. 

1 havs the pleasure of sending to your Excellency some in« 
formation from these classical rocks^ where I have passed the 
last days of a brilliant and truly Greek spring with my patron 
and friend Lord Guilford. 

Among us the pre-eminence will be always given to our ve- 
nerable master, Greek Antiquity, to whom we owe so much. 

First, then, I will speak of an ancient and interesting Greek 
monument, which I had lately the pleasure of examining in the 
island of Zante. 

SUS. It is now in the possession of Colonel Ross, the English 
resident in the island of Zante ; a soldier of a cultivated mind, in 
whose house I was received with the sincerest hospitality. 

Mr. Cartwright, the Englbh Consul-general at Constantino- 
ple, who travelled in the Alorea in 1817 with Signor Pouque- 
ville, found, near the site of the ancient Olympia, three antique 
helmets of brass, one of which was the helmet 1 have xnentioned; 
the two others were more ornamented, but without inscriptions: 
he afterwards gave that with au inscription to Colonel Ross, 
who now possesses it. It is of a common oval form, in good 
preserviitio»| and ha» on the front, nearer to the upper extremity 
than to the lower, the following inscription perfectly legible : 



134 A Greek Inscription 

W31 your Excellency permit me to request the assistance of 
your penetration in the explanation of these curious lines; and 
to give your opinion in writing ^before you continue to read my 
letter) on the singular word fOIAtTVPAN, which has not a little 
embarrassed me. 

For my own part, I have no doubi that this helmet is a frag- 
ment of some work of (he celebrated On at as, a sculptor of 
£gina^ who in the fifth century before the Christian era was the 
glory of his country, as Albert Thorvaldsen forms that of ours 
in the present time ; and of the same Onatas of whom Pansa- 
irias speaks so frequently in Eis itinerary of Greece.' If I was 
the fortunate possessor of the incomparable statQes discovered 
among the ruins of the temple of Egina in 181 1, by my friends 
Messrs. Haller and Linekh, Cockerell and Foster,* I would 
give mnch to add this heln^et to those admirable relics of the 
ancient Eginiaa school of art^ as the fragment of a ^reat work 
of the same family. 

I find myself, although in an island extremely classical^ desti- 
tute of Greek books, except three or four faithful companions 
which never abandon me; Homer, Strabo, and Pausanias. 

Perhaps the aid lent me by these my masters, will be sufficient 
to support the opinion which I have advanced' on the origin of 
this helmet;, furnishing at the same time the necessary historical 
illustrations on the great engraved works of which the helmet 
appears to me to be a fragment. 

Two passages in Pausatiias are particularly interesting, a3 
containing the history of the noble Olympic monument, to 
which, in my opinion, this helmet belongs. 

The first passage is found in the sixth book of his Itinerary, 
chap. 12. 

'^ Near this (the statue of Theagenes, a Thasian hero, io 
Olympia), is a car of brass with a man in it; near the car are 
two horses runniikg, one on each side^ with boys on their backs. 
They are monuments of the Olympic victories of Hiero, son 
of Dinomenes, niowm king of Syracuse after Gelo his brotJier* 
These offerings were not sent by Hiero, but they were present- 

' Pausan. lib. v. cap. 35. ; cap. 37.; lib. vi. cap. 13.; lib. viii. cap. 43.; 
lib. z. cap. 13, &c. 

* I presume that it is known to the true lovers of the fine arts, that 
these precious marbles are in the possession of His Serene Highness the 
hereditary Prince of Bavaria, ana that it is two years since the Chev. 
Thorvaldsen terminated the successful restoration of these statues, 
which arc still at Rome. 

on a Brazen HetmeL 155 

csd to Jupiter by Dinomenes. The ear is the work of Onaias 
of Egina. The horses and the boys by Cdamb/'* 

The second important passage in Pausanias^ is in b. viii» 
chap. 42« where the new statue of the black Demeter (Ceres) is 
mentioned, which was made of brass by Onatas the son of 
Micon, and a celebrated sculptor of Egina^ for the Figalesi^ a 
people of Arcadia. 1 explain elsewhere my opinion of this 
mystical object of the worship of the Figalesi ; it is sufficient 
at present to observe, that Pausanias wishes to prove by chro- 
nological combinations, that the brazen statue of the black 
Ceres was made by Onatas in such a century (yweal)^ at least 
half a century after the invasion of Greece by Xerxes. This 
he shows in the following observations, which are singularly 
applicable to our present object : 

*^ Because at the time of the European expedition by Xerxes^ 
Gelo, son of Dinomenes^ was king of Syracuse and other parts 
of Sicily. After the death of Gelo the kingdom came to Hier o 
bis brother: he died before he could send the offerings to 
Jupiter Olympius, which he had vowed to make for the victory 
of horsea ; Dinomenes, his son^ offered them instead ofhi$Jhther» 
These are likewise the works of Onatas, and may be found iu 
Qlympia with the following inscriptions. 

^* This on the gift : 

^^ For having in thy sacred contests^ 

Jupiter Olympius, gained many victories^ 

Once with four swift horses. 

And twice with a noble horse, invincible in the course, 

Hiero dedicates these gifts to thee ; 

But Dinomenes the son offers them to thee, 

A monument of his Syracusan father/' 

'' The other inscription says : 

^' Onatas the son of Mico made these. 
Who dwells in the island of Egina.^ 


After these clear indications from Pausanias, and the discus- 
rions of the celebrated Schelling,} it appears to me useless to 

' Of the edition of FacitUf (Lipsiae, 1795* 8vo.) vol. ii. page 167. 
^ Edition of Foam, vol. ii. pajge 483. 

' la the book published b;^ him with Sig. Wagner on the statues dis- 
covered in Egina : (^ Uber die ^ginatischen Bildwerke.'') 

196 A Qteek In$eripHan 

apeak of what has been already estebHahed by others^ namelyi 
the age and great nerit of Onatas^ I infer from* the eompa- 
nson of the paMaees^ quoted from Pausaniaa, widi our inecrip- 
tioB^ that the first linei which in the common Attic dialect nms 

*' 'if! pas JSlNOMEfNOTS/' 
'' Hiero son of Dinomenes''-*- 
can only designate that Hieroy of whose vows for his Olyaipic 
vietoriea, and of whose momiment erected after Ma death in 
Olympia Pavsanias speaks in the passaj^es I have quoted, in 
ahort, of the brother of Gelonus, that Htero who was the first 
hing of. Syracuse of thai name, yvhoreigtiedaboiat twelTe years 
(according to the conoputatioii of die Olympiads^ 47B*4^» 
before J. C.) and whose valor and victories Pindar baa a«ng in 
fooc immortal hymns, the first in the Olympic odea, and the 
oAer three among the Pythian odes, in our collection.* 

^ Greater praise cannot easily be given to a prince, thsfi that which 
Piodar bestows upon this Hiero, Fyth. Od. 11. v. 108. 

Similar incense is bestowed on him by the poet, perhaps with too li- 
beral a handy in the third Pythic, v. 1^4. and elsewhere. His actions are 
sufficiently known from Diodorus Siculuf (b. xi.) and other authors. 
(Visconti Iconoeraphie, vol. ii. p. 17.) 

Many beautinil medals referring to Hiero the first still remain, (see 
p. c. Torremugza SiciHe. Vet. N. Tab. 98 and 99. Mitmnet Description 
de M. A. vol. i. p. SSO. and supplement p. 458.) Most of these are of 
copper, with the paHraUqfthis prince, generally well done, on one side, 
and on the other a cavalier armed^ with hit lanct in the rett^ and under him 
this legend, iBPsmox. The symbol on the reverse perhaps commemorates 
some victory gained by that running horse whose name, (^iptytinc) is pre- 
served by Pindar in two places, Olymp, i. 24. and T^h. iik ISS. 

At present I dare not decide on the difficult question, at what time 
these medaliwere coined^ and the others resembling them, which are attri- 
buted to the first Hiero. 

The fact that the diadem (an ornament used by the Oriental despots) 
was not adopted by the Grecian princes until after the invasion of Per- 
sia by Alexander the Great, first induced Spanheim to pretend (De 
Praest. & U. N. vol. i, p. 545.) that all the money which bears the effi- 
gies of Gelon and Hiero I. decorated with that symbol of despotic power, 
(either unknown or detested by the Greeks in the fourth and fifth cen- 
turies,) must have been coined in memory of those princes after thar 
death, and at a time when the diadem was not unknown in Greece. 

Eekhel (a name venerable in history and in the numismatic science) 
embraced the same opinion of the fumrsynchroniim of the medals which 
exhibit the names and portraits of the Syracusan kin^s, and establishes 
bis opinion in that singular treatise, introduced into his immortal works, 
(D. N. V. vol. i. p. 851.) by powerful arguments derived from the history 
of the art, Greek paleography, and from the numismatic science: he 
affirms that the style of the designs on these medals, the form of the 

on a Brazen Helmet. 137 

But there are other circunistaiices comoiemoraled ki our in- 
scriptioo which Pausanias doe» not mentioiij aamelj : 

letters upon them, and the custom of the age of which we speak, of neyer 
portraying living princes upon the medals which they coined, absolutely 
prove that Gelo and Hiero did not exist in the Jifth century before the 
Christian sera. 

From the force of this reasoning the roost skilful antiquaries have 
been induced either to adopt his opinion in every respect^ or to remain 
doubtful of the exact perioa of the coinage of the money commonly at* 
tributed to the two first Syracusan kings of the Dinomenean family. 
See, for ex., Sig. Langif in the third dissertation on the antique painted 
vases, p. 150; Sig. AvelUnOj in his Numismatic Journal, No. iii. p. S7; 
yMconti, (conographie Grecque, Tom. ii. p. 16. In consultins my learned 
friend Sig, Cardlif I find that his opinion does not differ from that of 

I do not pretend entirely to solve this enigma, as Sig. Avellino justly 
terms it ; on the contrary, I shall perhaps contribute to render it stilf 
more inexplicable by publishing a silver medal (that in the fcoBtispieee) 
from my collection, which appears to me curious, and has not been en- 
graved. A Horseman with a helmet, on the right. Reverse : A Victory 
m a swift car ; on the left, iepongs ; in the space above the horses, a star ; 
behind the Victory, H — . I obtained this medal in Sicily, in the city of 
Ce&lie. It is in perfect preservation ; and I consider it a little treasore 
on account of its coarseness, which in my opinion shows the true state of 
the art of coining in that part of Sicily, in the remote time of Hiero I. 
Here we see the portraits of that prince and his courser, very different 
from the beautiful representations of him on the common medals. One 
would suppose it to be the tall, lean, and aged, but renowned Don 
Quixote de la Mancha, mounted on Rozinante, rather than the youthful 
king, the Olympic victor, on his noble palfrey, Ferenicoi, 

I do not expect that any abjection will be made to the Omega (a), or 
to the form of the characters on this medaL It is true, that they are 
different from those inscribed on the helmet, which were undoubtedly 
cuty if not in the time of Hiero I., at least not many yeara after his death. 
But what connoisseur in Grecian antiquities will affirm that the innova- 
tion of Simonides in the Greek alphabet was immediMtefy adopted 
throughout Greece } Such an opinion would be contradicted by the his- 
tory of every human invention, and would be confuted by the evident 
5 roofs which we possess from Grecian art. There are still many preju- 
ices on this subject, even among the most respectable literati, who look 
upon a statue, a basso-relievo, a coin, &c. as of remote origin, because 
they are executed in the antique style. Even Windcelmann was not 
free from this error. But let us consider the great differenoe between 
Greece in a state of freedom, and any country in Europe in the present 
time. In those great political bodies which now form the different states 
of Europe, almost every thin^ proceeds from the CapUai, In the Capital 
the^Atfoii is formed, wbich is often influenced by the Court, where, 
from many causes, true and good taste is bcldom found. Fashion, from 
being confined and capricious in its nature^ selects one thing from many, 
and rejects all the rast ; conseqiiently it is an enemy to good iatttf which, 
being universally generous and liberal, excludes nothing, and prefers every 

138 A Greek Imcription 

That thb Syracusans who came frobp^' Cuma, 


MONUMENT, (of wbicb our helmet is part) of their 
PRINCE. For it is thus that I explain the two last lines of 
our inscription, which are thus sounded in common Attic dia- 
lect — 

supposing that some verb or participle, as, for example, aptxcrro, 
{xflov, a^ix^tevoi, was omitted in the engravings on stone* 

The form of an apostrophe given to the preposition, ^I in- 
stead of A lAf although before a consonant, is not extraordinary, 
particularly in engravings, which are seldom spelt correctl;^. 
As to the circumstance of ''the Syracusans coming 
FROM CuMA, PASSING BY TuuRiUM," it will be Sufficiently 
explained in remembering that seven or eight decenni after the 
unfortunate catastrophe ' of the great and rich city of StfhariSf 
the rising Sybaris (Thurium) tlorished anew in the fourth and 

thing that is good or beautiful in its kind. It is the greatest misfortuns 
of modern art, that it is too much inftueaced by fashion. 

It was very different in Greece. Greece in a free state had no Capital, 
was never subjected to fashion. A custum, a mode of execution, a style 
of art, was continued in one country, while it was abandoned in another, 
perhaps very near it. While things were executed in one manner in 
i^thens, they were very differently performed in £gina ; while one style 
of writing was adopted at Ncapolis, another was long after in use at 
Crotona, or Metapontus. Let us look, for instance, at the two curious 
medals of Hyrium and Metapontus in the Museum of Sig. Jorio, lately 
published by Sig. Avellino, in the first division of the Unj^luhed Mtmur 
menij, (Naples, 1820) in 4to. p. 8-10. These interesting coins have the 
legends on both, reversed, one of them indented by being beaten on 
two medals of NeapoHs and Agrigentum, in a style apparently recent ; 
that of Neapolis still shows, by the side of the second type of Hyrium 
with the retrograde inscription, the letters onoAi of tbMrst coin with 
the common legend NEonoAiTXlN. 

It does not therefore surprise me, that I have at last found what Eckkel 
desired to see,(Doctr. N. V. i. p. S52.) a coin of Hiero I. the great friend 
and patron of Simonides (see Xenoph. de Regno, Cicero de Nat. Deor. 
B. 1.) which should bear the impression of the Omega of Shnonides, while 
the name of the same Hiero was written differently in other countries, 
where the Simonidean innovation had not been introduced, both at that 
period and for some time after ; fori imaeine that Onatoi did not execute 
tbegroup in brass, of which our helmet formed a part, in Syracuse, but 
in £gina bis native country, or perhaps in Ol^mpia. 

' Well and clearly explamed by I)iodorus Siculus in the twelfth Book 
of his Historical Library, and remarked by Strabo,(Geogr. b. vi.) by EliaOy 
(Hist. Anim. b. xvi.) and by other ancient authors* 


on a Brazen Helmet. 139 

fifth centuries before the Christian cera^ and precisely by the 
same means which^ before the exterminating war with Crotona, 
had rendered the ancient Sybaris great and powerful by the 
great fertility of the soil^ by navigation and commerce.' 

It appears also, that at the time of which we speak, as well 
as afterwards, the passage from Thurium to the Peloponnesus, 
and nominally to Cyllene, a famous port in Elis, was common, 
and established in a regular manner ; and I suppose that the 
Syracusans, mentioned in our inscription, coming from Cuma 
and wishing to pass into Elis, perhaps to be present at the 
celebration of the Olympic games, preferred a journey of a few 
days through Greek Italy (Magna Graecia was thus named), 
through friendly and partly allied countries, to a long and 
uncertain voyage from Cuma to Cyllene ; and that they em- 
barked at Thurium for Cyllene, where Aldbiades embarked 
with other fugitives (after leaving the Athenian expedition in 
Sicily), to go to Cyllene, and from thence to Lacedemonia. ^ 

We may rather be surprised at the manner of writing fhe 
name of the city, Tvran instead of Tvrian, which is the same 
as BovplavJ That the omission of the iota in the name of 
the city is surprising, I confess before I say more : that circum* 
stance alone has made me doubtful of the explanation, which 
1 have presumed to submit to the examination of your Excel- 
lency and our learned friends. But lam somewhat encouraged 
by observing the extraordinary differences, in the ancient authors, 
in the manner of writing the Greek names of places. Those, 
for example, who have read Strabo, Ptolemy, and Stephanus 
Byzantinus, must have perceived the strange dissimilitudes in the 
local denominations. There are many varieties entirely pro- 
vincial, of which we are ignorant, as we only know the Greek 
language from the authors (who are not silent). We sometimes- 
find these provincial varieties inscribed on marbles. Deprived 
as I am of books^ I shall only cite one example, which will at 


> Let us remember, for example, the memorable words of Diodorus on 
the rising colony of Thurium (Bib. Istor. lib. xii. p. 485. ed. Wesseling 
in fol.^ 

* Thucyd. b. vi. p. 287. (ed. of Eur. Stefano 1564 in fol.) 

This handsome and ingenious but wicked man had bis own reasons 
for not going to Athens to give an account of his conduct. 

' I say only '* the same as Sovpiay/* because it appears useless to de- 
monstrate the ancient value of the T for e, and of the sign y instead of 
the diphthong or ; as the Greek paleography, which is known to every 
one, is not here spoken of. 

140 4 Gretk Inscription 

least he new. Sot it is taken from an inscribed marble, lately 
brought from Arcadia^ which I shall perhaps soon publiah. 

. Pausanias, in fi. viii. ch. 53. (ed. Facim vol. ii. p. 514.) re- 
marks the names of the four tribes, ^vXcu, of the city of Tegea, 
in Arcadia,— 7inro9o/rif,'i4iroA\a}y£Krif, *A6avtaTtg,taii KXnfuort^i 
but on a fine and rather antique marble, a long inscription, 
which treats precisely of the four tribes of Tegea, mentions the 
names of the citizens of the last, as KpapMrou iroX/r«».' 

; iQut if we merely consider the name of the city before men- 
tioned, we shall find a great variety in its denominations in the 
different authors*. The plural form Oovpioi is doubtless (he 
most common among the ancient writers. Thnciifdides writes 
the pame Oovp(a ; Ptolemy and Diodorm Siculus write Sovptov. 
In consequence of these diversities, Stephanus Byzantinus gives 
all the three forms^ 6ou^Mf, 6oup/a, and 6oupiov. Titus Livitis 
declines the name Thuria, iarum, and one of the two ancient 
tabuls itinerar. writes Turn and Turis, a form not far from 
thai of our inscription TVR A. 

The question which now remains to be considered is the 
iMst important, as it relates to the historical part of the in- 
scription; it is this» Why were the Syracusans in 

tion on the helmet, which without doubt covered the bead of 
'' the man in the car'' as he is called by Pausanias,* that is, of 
t)ie statue of the same Olympic victor, Hiero king ojf Syracuse, — 
t|ie inscription, I say, sculptured in such a place, in a country 
so celebrated for brilliant actions, and the gift of a king, roust 
indicate some remarkable event, some great and signal action 
nf.the Syracusans in Cuma. If thb is not proved, our inscrip- 
tion will not be fully illustrated* 


* This interesting marble was found in Pakoepiscom^ the site of the 
ancient city of Tegea in Arcadia; it was obtained by Colonel Roas, and 
taken by him to Zante, where I lately copied the inscription. The caco- 
graphy of the word JOMptSrai in the marble, is the same prodncialism 
which is so often heard in Greece in the present time. In Epirus, in 
Attica, and in many parts of the Peloponnesus, the common people almost 
always pronounce n^Ot, 'Apfiayims, &c. instead of qx9f» 'AKfiavlms, occ. ; a vice 
exacUy contrary to that called by the ancients vfauhia^g^ See the 
curious verses of Aristophanes, Vespe 42-46, wher^ Alcibiades is ridi- 
culed for his bad pronunciation : 

instead of op«f — e/wgo; — xogaxof . 

* See note 1. p. 135. 

on a Brazen Helmet. 14il 

I have no dopbt that it rehtes to the assifftance generously 
given /by Hiero to Ae Cumeaos, when they were attacked i, 
aecpnd time by the Tyrrheneans^ who possessed some naval 
force, and were jealous of the florishiag state of Cuma and of its 
increasing power. The most circumstantial account of thes6 
facts widi which I an) acquainted, may be found in Diodorus, 
in the eleventh book of his Historical Library : '^ When Acesto- 
rides was archon in Athena, he sent to Hiero a considerable 
number of gallies, to succour the Cumeans of Italy, who had 
implored him to assist them against the Tyrrheneans, who were 
powerful at sea. The commanders of this navy went to Cuma, 
united with the Cumeans, gave battle to the Tyrrheneans, and 
gained a great victory, which relieving the Cumeans from their 
anxiety, they returned to Syracuse." ' The anonymous author 
of the chronological list of the Olympiads ^ only remarks two 
hostile enterprises undertaken by the Tyrrheneans against Cuma, 
and that both ended unfavorably to the aggressors, llie first 
occurred in the first year of the 64th 'Olympiad, which corre 
sponds with the year 524 before our era ; and the second^ about 
half a century after, in the third year of the 76th Olympiad, or 
the year 474 before J. C I understand from chronological 
arguments, which any one may easily combine, that the as- 
sistance of Hiero, to which we suppose that the author of our 
inscription alludes, must have been granted to the Cumeans in 
the second defensive war which they supported against their 

Pindar has not passed over this generous action of Hiero. 
The verses in which he celebrates two of the most brilliant 
victories of the Syracusan princes of the Dinomenean family, 
that over the Tyrrheneans near Cuma^ and that other, renowned 
in Grecian history, over the Carthaginians near Imera in Sicily^ 
are of the greatest beauty.^ 

> Diodorus Hist. Lib. vol. i, p. 449, ed. Wesseling. in fol. 

* Intitled ivmywyn firrogtSy, and published by Joseph Scaliger as the 
Chronicon Eusebii. 

3 Here are his own words : *^^f/m&ioe (^ irii « «{ xar« ^ 'irax^v Kvfituoi. 
KtXxHf Tvffnfm Nttl *Oirt«fily fAwtai^rhUnavt" And aAer wards : '< *0\vi4,viaiof 

The diligent and learned Cbiveno has not forsottep these places in bis 
singular itmeranr compilation, Italia Antiqua,Uh, iy. p. 1106. ed.Lugd. 
Batav. 1694. in K>]. 

^ See note 1. p. 1S6. 

^ Pyth. i. 137. I cannot help transcribing these traosc endant verses, 

142 '*' A Greek Imcription 

Frpm thci0 combiMtioiis I do not think it pftsumpluous to 
conclude, that the commanders of die SyraciMan navy, after 
having gained so brilliant a victory, eagerly repaired to OlyrapHiy 
to join dieir Sovereign, who, to mark his satisfaction, comnuund- 
ed that their valor should be recorded on the great monument 
which he had dedicated to Jupiter Olympius, and that his orders 
were executed by Dinomenes, his son, 

that my reader 9 tXiXXviv may at least find something beautiful io this 
little treatise: 

AS^c»fuu, uvtrofj K^c»r, SifM^ 

OI0 ^vpmiu!nm if* 

Ofo/iti^ Ikitl wSif 
^Of a^tf ly frorrw /S&K«0* AXiiclMy 
'£M^ IflMcMT /S^^t^K 
AevX«M»c. Ai^9fuu 
Uofuh laxifMoc *khmim jfifif 
MtvMf* h tm&pn ¥ Iffm 

ToSn M^M /xb w^tM dyxyXoTO^of* 

'ifjjpety ntttiiHrtnv v/xvov 

Tiy tif(arr* AfAjf* ifwS^ 

Then grant, O son of Saturn, grant my pray'r ! 

The bbld Phoenician on his shore detain ; 

And may the hardy Tuscan never dare 

To vex with clamorous war Sicilia's main ; 

RememVring Hiero, how on Curoa*s coast 

Wreck*d by bis stormy arms their groaning; fleets were lost. 

What terrors ! what destruction them assaii'd ! 

Hurrd from their riven decks what numbers died ! 

When o*er their might Sicilians chief prevailed, 

Their youth o*erwhelming in the foamy tide, 

Greece from impending servitude to save. 

Thy favor, glorious Athens, to acquire, 

Would I record the Salaminian wave. 

Famed in thy triumphs ; and my tuneful Ivre 

To Sparta*s sons with sweetest praise should tell, 

Beneath Citbleron's shade what Medish archers fell. 

But on fair Himera's wide-water'd shores 

Thy sons, Dinomenes, my lyre demand. 

To grace their virtues with the various stores 

Of sacred verse, and sing th' illustrious band 

Of valiant brothers, who from Carthaee won 

The glorious meed of conquest, deathless praise, 

on a Brazen Hdmet. 143 

If I. have discovered tb6 trae meaning of the iii9Cription« 
livhich i cannot absolutelj affirm, the sense of it will be aa 
follows : 

. Hiero the son of DmomeneSf and the SyracusanB who were 
victorious at Cuma^ coming by Thuriumj erected this monu^ 

" Si (|uid novisti rectius istis, 

Candidus imperti ; si non, his utere mecum." 

Ithaca is really a beautiful rock. I have been almost all 
round it, for the second time, during the last three days. 

I had only two books with me in my knapsack, the Odyssey^ 
and the admirable work of my learned friend Sir William 

Your Excellencv knows that I have no inclination to what is 
called sentimentality.* 

But I can aver, that, with you, I only pretend to simple and 
natural sentiment: I behold with the greatest pleasure the beau- 
tiful and classic height, called by the inhabitants the Mount of 
the Eagle, curog, arro-jSouvov,' clothed in the brilliant verdure of 
April, or red with the glowing colors of sun-set; I can affirm 
that every one, even those with the least degree of enthusiasm, 
if they understand Greek, will read the 14th canto of the Odys- 
sey with singular and almost domestic pleasure, at the unchanged 

' On the Geography and Antiquities of Ithaca, in 4to. 

* The Italians, who rarely suffer from this uUramaiaane malady, will 
pardon me this word, which, fortunately for them, does not belong to 
their fine language. I wish to express by it, an extraordinary delicacy 
of sentiment, an extreme sensibility, a disposition of the nerves and 
fibres to feel in an excessive manner, {mper-sentire, ^tfata9oan(r9ai) any 
thing fine or great in nature or art, &c. which we of colder dispositions 
only feel. Besides the momentary transports, and a great number of 
local exclamations (which are of no consequence, since no one pays 
any attention to them) arising from this disposition, it leads some of 
our authors, and almost all our mUhareuei of Travels, to repaint amply 
in print the beauty and grandeur of nature. These delightful descrip- 
tions are of some consequence, as they might at least spoil the taste of 
those who read them. Certainly it is a bofd and arduous undertaking 
to describe the extraordinary beauties of Nature, on which the Almighty 
has lavished all the colors of the universe, in a thousand various tints. 

' Which unites the two parts of the island, the Neios and the Neritos 
of the Odyssey. 

The summit of the mountain Aird; is covered with ancient polygonal 
walls, which have been perfecdy described by Sir W. GelL I consider 
it as the site of the dwellings of the heroes of the Odyssey. 

144 A Greek Inscription 

fooBlaia of Areihma^ under tbe majeatic rock of K^pm^ (which 
still bears the name of Kictxu)^ and near the house of the faithfiil 

The work of the learned and diligent Sir W. Oell is certunly 
▼doable. It would be a great advantage to science if we had 
many such monographs on Greek locality. But that part 
which contains the combinations and results of ancient literaturci 
is weaker than that which is purely topographical. In this last 
respect almost every one is satisfied with him. Two only of 
these localities seem to me to want further elucidation : Ist, a 
part of the island towards the North-west^ and principally that 
height near the place called Porto PolU {ZliXi^-XiiLoivi) where 
there are still some remains of polygonal walls^ extremely 
ancient : 2d, to discover and establish, by ermeneutic arguments 
taken from the Odyssey, another locality for the Grotto of the 
Nymphs (Odyss. Canto viii% vs. 96.), and the discovery of the 
vokttTrkayxTos Ulysses, and that the little bay now called J«$ia' 
could not be the port of Phorkys with the Grotto of the 

If I am interested so much by ancient Ithaca, I certainly 
have not felt an inferior pleasure in the modem island. The 
principal object of Lord Guilford in this journey, in which I 
have accompanied hioi since our parting in Rome, is to arrange 
in a better and more definite manner the public instruction in 
the Ionian isles, and to establish a university, an institution 
extremely necessary and of good augury to the interesting 
Greek nation. In order to promote the execution of his bene- 
volent designs, tbe Earl of Guilford was lately made President 
of the university and of the department of public instruction in 
these islands, by His Majesty the King of England, and con- 
firmed in his title by the Ionian senate resident at Corfu. I 
have every reason to believe that this true and generous friend 
of the Greeks is satisfied with his reception in the principal 

' See Oell on the Greography and Antiquities of Ithaca, p. 40. seq. 

^ It cannot be the port of Phorkys, for various reasons, which perhaps 
I shall explain elsewhere. Dezia being in the great port, and thus, as 
one may say, under tbe eyes of the pretenden (ir^i) of the Odyssey, 
would not be a proper place for the discovery of Ulysses. As sul the 
localities of this fine rock perfectly accord with the events in the O&p* 
sey, and with the prudence and circumspection for which its bctoes are 
remarkable, I am persuaded that the localities of the Grotto of the 
Nynipbs and of the discovery of Ulysses may be found in some other 
bay, corresponding to the port of Phorkys of Homer, in the off<mte Md 
more southerly part of the island. 

on a BrtMien Helmet. 14t$ 

tdands of Corfu, Cephalonia^ and Zante, whicfai we have lately 
viaited — but in no place have we met with so sincere a zeal for 
this important object, with so active and truly patriotic an en* 
thusiasm, as in the small and poor island of Ithaca. I have 
felt great pleasure in witnessing the universal joy which wa^ 
produced by the account of Lord Guilford's plans for the 
improvement of public instruction, and tiie foundation of a uni- 
versity. The brave Itbacans, animated by the example of their 
chiefs, the Regent Count Bretds and Signojr Zavo, (Lords of 
the country, who have often hospitably conferred favors on us 
foreigners,) and the zeal of their English resident Captain 
Dumas, have voluntarily offered more considerable subsidies, i^ 
land, materials for building, Su;» than could have been expected 
from so small a place. 

But this is not the' only reason which has induced Lord 
iGuilford to* prefer Ithaca for the establishment of the university* 
The decision on the choice of the place of erection belongs to 
Ihe Ionian senate, and as 1 am persuaded from the wisdom of 
that illustrious body that it* will consider the opinions of the 
respective authorities with the greatest care and attention, I 
cherish the hope that the beautiful and ancient Ithaca, and not 
S. Giorgio in Cephalonia (which was mentioned in some £n- 
ghah newspapers,) will possess the rising institution, and thus 
become the nurse, or, as one may say, the faithful Euryclea^ of 
a youth which forms the hope of Greece. Perhaps some 
schools maybe opened in the Ionian University, in the approach-* 
ing year, whose young professors, who will be all Greeks, have 
been for some years preparing themselves to fulfil their impor- 
tant destiny, in English, German and Italian colleges. 

To those who are acquainted with the poetical and historical 
interest of lthaca« which has been rendered famous by *' ITiat 
master of the lofty sang, who soars like an eagle above all 
others," it is gratifying to think that on this cmssic rock, a 
light will be kindled that will one day disperse the darkness 
which yet covers this degraded and unfortunate, but still beauti- 
ful and celebrated country .-r-May God accept th^ augury ! The 
light which he kindles in the human mind, is not only a light, 
but a flame, not only beautiful but powerful, not only splendid 
and illustrious, but sparkling and ardent, — that lieht is sufficient, 
not only to dissolve the lead of ignorance^ but also the iron of 




1. Eurip. Ilippol. flQl-^ 

Sbakspeare. K. John, 
I wiH not Mrear this form upon my heftd. 
When there is sttch disorder in my mrit. ' 

S. Horat. ad Pison. SQ* 

— versate diu, quid ferre recusent^ 
Quid vaieant humeri • 

£pictet« £nchirid. V- 

3. Eurtp. Qrest. 15:1]. 

Sbakspeare. Merchatil of Venice. Act v. So* |« 
An oath, an oath — I have an oath in Ueav'n ; 
Shall I hy perjury upon my soul ?— 
No, not for Venice 

4. J. Hales. (Golden Remains^ 8cc p. 174.) 

— in this chorus and quire of these *aiigeli4; ^ibii|^> 4w 
Devit finds a place to rest himself in* 

ShaJ(fpeare. Othello. Act iii. Sc. 3. 
Utter my tboughti ? why, say they're vite ani} AAm/— 
As wbere's the pdaoe wkereinio foul Ihiaga 
Sometimes intrude not ?-^ivbo hath a breast to piMre^ 
But aom^ nnckaaly apprefaensioAis 
Keep leeta and law^^d^ys, and in aes^on ait 
With meditations faiwfol?-*^ 

6. AnthoL Epig. Meleag[. Kn« 7« 

^— fJ If rfXof etMxa %(A Z^df 

Sbakspeare. Othello, A^^^^'* Sc. 1. 
— - — -— Great Jove^ Qtbelio guard. 
And fill his sail with thine own powerful breath I 
That he may bless this bay with his tall ship. 

(5. Hom. II. N'. 474. 

Partdtel Pn&ages. 147 

Dan. X. 6. 
— - his face was as (ht appearance of lightning, and bis eyes 
as lamps of fire. 

7. Alcaras. Nanfrag. 

174/9 jUv yotp eivrXog larox^av ^ff«, 
Acu^fig Si vav ^oSifXoy l$Si}, 
Kti) kcixlieg f^&Km xar* oAri* 

Isaiab. xxxiii. 23. 
Thy tackliogs are loosed — they could not well strengthen 
their mast^ they could not spread the sail. 

8. Dante. Purgat. iv. 80. 
questa montagna k tale, 

Che sempre al conyinciar di sotto i grave, 
E quant' uom piii va su, e men fa male. 
'Perb ^and' eHa ti parra soave, 
Taiito, thel sii andar ti sia leggiero. 
Goto' a ^econda ^\h *\ lipdar per nave ; 
Aflbr sarai al fin d' e^to sentiero. 

Hesiod, 'E^. xA *Hi^. 289. 
T9ig 8* apervis iipoora ho) TTfOVoipoiiev iii^KWf 
'AtiyoTOi' ii0oatpog ii xol) opiiQs olfJ^g W auT^v, 
kdArpny^g TV n^tdv* h^ S* tUg ixp6V Ifcf^&t, 
*J*i>l8R} 8* ^tiitot dfXffi; X*^**^ '^P htJfO-A. 

Id. ^ Pindar. Pyth. vi. 10.^ ^ , 

To)f oSrf x^fjctegio; opt^^pog iiro^rog fXficoV, 
'EfFiP^opJiv v'i^ixoig argotrog api^^tXi^ogp 
OSr* &ifepL/6g ig fi^v^obg dXog 
"Ai&f vctfu^opep ^epSiu Vu^oj^iyoy. 

Lucret. iii. 18. 
App^ent nuihen DivAm, sedesque beatae ^ 
Quas ne<|ue concutiunt venti> neque nubtla nimt^is 
Adspergunl, neque mx, acri concreta pruina, 
Cana cadens violat — semperque innubilis aether 
Integit, et large dittiso Ininine ridet. 

Compare also Dante. Purgat. ^i. 4B. 

Perefai non pioggia^ non grando/ non neve, 
Non rugiada, non brina piii si| csaLde,- — ^*'— - 
Nuvole spesse non paion, tii^ rade, 

nf \ \ 1 n n i f f wm^mmmmmmmimmmmmmi 

I This is a cuHoos imttatace of the Latin wdtd pr0served in Italian; 
the modern form is granaMm, 

148 FaralM Pa$sag€f. 

N2 coruscar, n^ figlia di Taumante^ 
Cbe di la cangia sovente contrade. 

10. Q. Mary's Adieu to France. 
(See Seward's Anecdotiea. iv. £93.) 

La nef aui d6joint oos amours, 
M'a eu de moi que 1^ moiti6. 
Une part te reste^ elle est tienue. 
Je la fie d ton amiti^. 
Pour que de Tautre il te souvieone* . 

Horat, Od. i. 3. 5. 

Navis quae tibi creditum 
Debes Virgilium^ finibus Atticis 

Reddas ipcolunienii, precor, 
£t serves animse dimidium meas. 

11. Shiikspeare. Hamlet. Act ii. Sp. I. 

■ the Spirit that I have seen 

May be tl^e Deyil — and the Efev'l bath ppwV 
T'assume a p)easing ^hape-*yea| and perhapa 
Out of my weakness and my melancbolyj 

As be is very potent wiUi such spirits^^ 
Abuses me to damn me. 

Bur^oq. , Anat. of M^Ian. p. 50. (4to ed.) 
■ of all other^ melancholy persons are most subject to 

diabolical temptations and illusions, and most apt to entertain 
them — and the pevi| best able tp work upon theni. 

12. Dante. Purgatprio. vi. 102. 
Giusto giudicip dalle stellecaggia 
Sovra '1 tuo sangue^ e sia nuovo e ap^rto, 
Tal che '1 tuo successor temenza n'i^;ia. 

Pope. Elegy on an Unfortunate Lady, 35, seg* 
Thus, if eternal jusUce rules the ball^ 
Thus shall your wives and thus your children fall-— 
Oh all the line a sudden vengeance waits. 

Id. Eurip. Orest. 1037. 

^4X^S TO ftijr^^ aTft' j^ao* ere S* ou xreyw* 

. Sh^k^peare. Macbeth., Act v. Sc. ult. 
But get th^^ back-r-my soul is too mucb c(u|ige^ 
With blood of diine already- ■ 

14. Eurip. HippoL v. 247* (Ed. Barnes.) 

Ti yip ifioMou yyifMv, Siw£' 
Toii fMivo/xeyoy, kukoiT &}<Xct x^aTf^ 

Parallel Piasiagts. 14^ 

Gray. Eton College, ad fio. 
Vet ah ! why should they know their fate i 
Since sorrow never comes too bte. 

And happiness too swiftly flies — 
Thought would destroy their paradise : 
No more— where ignorance is bliss, 

Tis folly to be wise. 

15* Plautus. Amphit. Act v. Sc. 1. 40. 

Invocat Deos immortales, ut sibi auxilium ferant, 
Manibus puris, capite operto — ibi continuo contonat 
Sonitu maximo— aedes primo ruere rebamur tuas. 
lEdea totie copfulgebant tusey quasi essent aureae. 

Horn. Od. r'. 37.^ 
ElXarival n 80x0}, xai xlovig tn^wr* txi^vng, 

16. Theoc. Id. kS:. 39. 

n&ms aptf^iis ;— — — 

Hor. Od.iii. 16.£|. 
concidit auguris 

Argivi domus, ob lucrum 
Demersa excidio i - 

Soph. Antig. 295. (ed. Br.) 

17. Sbakspeare. Macbeth. Act v. Sc. 6. 
Upon the next tree shalt thou hang alive, 
TiU famine cling thee. 

Soph. Antig. 308. 
CM% xfi/i¥''Ahis jxoOyo; ipxi(rn, wfHv Av 
Zmms xpsjuMOToi r^wSt itiXm^t 8/3f iv* 

18. iEsch. Choeph. SO. 

T9fos yip tptttpii fifios-^ 

Pers. Sat. iii. 115. 
Alges, cum exeussit membris timor atbus aristas. 

Soph. (Ed. Col. 1460. 
■■ if V caipciv 

Id. V. 16«5. 
■ Arri wivTctg j^i«( 

Sriircu^ifim httrmncts ^mi^nis T^^«f* 

130. BaraUei P%$Mg€s. 

StNikapeare. Macbeth* Act v. 

■ I -y ■ and my« fell of liair 

Would at a dismaL treatise rouse and stir 

As life wenBiia. it ^ 

19. Eupolisi of Pericles. (Plin. Ep. i. 20. p. 25. SJz.) 

■ »poj 81 y a5 rourep t^ ^ 

llfitei rig firfxa0i]ro Tot<n ;^6/Xi(riy 

Ti xivrpov iyxetriXiin roTj; ixgoeo|u^ol^ 

Sfaakspeare. Henry V. Act i. Sc. ?. 50. 

When he speaks^ 

The air, a chartered libertine^ is still. 

And the mute wonder lurketh in men's ears. 

To steal his sweet and hon&yed:seoten<;e6; 

20. Cowper. Alt^::^. Selkirk*. * 

Ye winds that have madf^ me jaai^ spfut« 

Convey to this desolate shore 
Some cordial endearing report 
Of a land t must visit no more ! 

Soph. Philoct. 254. (ed. Br.) 

2). Lucan. Pbarsal. vk 511* 

desertaque- busta 

Incolit, et tumulofr expuhis obtinet^ ambris. 

Isaiah. Ixv. 3, 4. 

A people • which remain amoi^ the fpntves, and 

lodge in the monuments. 

22. Id»^ibid. 

Which eat swin^e'a flesh, aod the b^otjh of abown^ble things 
is in their vessels. 

Shakspeare. Macbeth. Act |v. 
Lizard's leg and ^owlet's wiog, . 
Jp'cff; a ^^m of powerful tremble. 
Like a hell^brpth bpil aa^ bubble. 

23. Soph. Antig. 8&1. 

CO TOfji^f, eo wp^Jov, & M0rot&'kc64^^ 

Faralkl Passages^. 151 

Shakspeare. Rom. nai JuK Act iv. Sc. 3. 
As in a vault, an ancient receptacle^ 
Wberd for tbe^e^ many hfiuidred' years, the bones 
Of M my buried aneedtors lie pack'd. 

24. ^ Id. So. 5. 

All t&ings that we ordained festival, 
Turn from their officii to black funeral. 
Our instruments to melancholy beHs — 
Our wedding cbeea to a sad bunal feast — 
Our sotems hymtts: to sidlen dii^ea cbange^-^ 
Our bridal flowers serve for a buried coiise, 
And all things change them to the contrary. 

Epig. Meleag. iii» I. 

ie(aro, iraptivlKig, e^iuotrx kuofiJypt' 

At S* auToA xal fdiyyos eSoSouyouv iraaa, itaarej^ 
IlmixM, Koi ^iifji^eyf. fegiiv i<penvov dSov* 

25. Shakspeare. Twelfth Ni^t. Act iv. Sc. 5. 

This is the air — that is the glorious sun. 


Eurip* Hippol. V. 179* 

26. Cowley. « The Muse.'* 
Go^ the rick ohariot instantly pr^are. 

The Queen, my Muse, wouhi take the air. 

The wheels of thy bold coadi pass quick and free. 
And all's m opeit road lb thee — 

Whatever G o H' did> say, 
Is all thy plain, and smooth, uninterrupted way. 

PkiA 01. vi. 3?. 

-Si} jxoi (rievog riiimoov, 
i Toyo^, S^oa Mkeuieo r Iv xaSapa, 

27. Dante. PUrgator. i. 96. 
Che gli lavi M viso, 

Si ch' ogni sucidume quindi stinga ; 
Che non si converria, I'occbio sorpriso 
D'alcuna nebbia andar davanti al primo 
Ministro, ch' i di quei di Paradiso. 

A5^ ^^ralkl Passages. 

Milton. P. L. xl 410* 
bat to oobler sigbts 

Michael from Adam's ejes the film remov'd^ 
— — : — th«o pwrgfd with euphrasy and rue 
The visual nerve, for he had much to see. 
And from the well of life three drops distill'd. 

28. Gray. Elegy. 

Each in his narrow cell for ever laid. 

Horat. Sat. i. viii. 8, 
Hue prtus angustis ejecta cadavera cellis, 

29. Shakspeare. Merchant of Venice. Act iv. Sc. J^ 
And yet, thy wealth being forfeit to the state. 
Thou hast not left the value of a cord. 

Hor. Sat. ii. ii. 95^ 

te, tibi iniquum, 

£t frustra mortis cupidum, cum deerit egenti . 
As, laquei pretium. 

SO- Anthol. Epig. TTMNEIl. 

itTTi yiio 7<nj 

Virg. ^n. vi. 126. 
— ' — — facilis descensus Averni, 
Noctes atque dies patet atri janaa Dttis. « 
Watts. World to come. P. 118. 
Trap-doors are always under us, and a thousand unseen ave- 
nues to the regions of the dead. 

31. Eurip. Med. 369. (ed. Pors.) 
8oxf7j y&p &f fM riiHn 6anm<ral wot* rfy, 

Shakspeare. Othello. Act i. Sc. 3.. 
For I mine own gain'd knowledge should profane, 
If I would time expend with such a snipe. 
But for my sport or profit. 

32. HenrylV.P. If. Actf. Sc. I. 
The times are wild — contention, like a horse. 
Full of high feeding, madly hath broke loosed 
And bears down all before him. 

Hom. 11. Z'. 506. 
fc<r/toy uno^p^i^a^ 6tle$ TffSioio xpoctipwv, 

Parallel Passagm* 1^ 

fiattis Xoue<r9«i iS^pAf irorflt/xoid^ / 

xvSiofioVy v^foti a xipi^ l^ei^ ufi^) ti^MAt 

Compare also Virg^ ^d. xi. 49^^ 

33. Luc. i. 79. 

IPind. Ol.i. 131. 

— — Sotviiv 8* oTciv oatarfKetf 

ti xs ri; av&imiMV y^qa^ Iv trxirm 

So Sir W. Jones, in his Ode in imitation of AtCseus. (ad fin.) 

Since all must life resign, 
Those sweet rewards which decorate the brave 

'Tis folly to resign. 
And creep inglorious to the silent grave. 

34. Le Baiser d'adieux. 

(See Dibdin's Tour. Vol. ii. p. 49.) 
Puisse alors Tamant qui f adore, 

Te revoyant aux memes lieux, 
Sur tes Ihores tnerges encore 

Retrottvdr son baiser d'adieux ! 

Shakspeare. Coriolanus. Act v. 249. 
Now, by the jealous Queen of Heav'n, that kiss 
I carried from thee, dear, and my trtie^lip 
Hath virguCd it e'er since. 

35. Find. Ol. ix. 50. 

— — — <AV 'iliSa; oKi- 

xo/Xav Tpo^ oyvi^y 
Bfoff-xoitrtov* ■ ' 


Horat. Od. i. x. 17. 
Tu pias gratis animas reponis 
Sedibus, virgaque levem coerces 
Aurea turbam ^-— 

36. 1 Sam. vii. 10. 

— but the Lord thundered with a great thunder that day upon 
the Philistines, and discomfited them. 

Hom. 11. 6'. 75. 

154 P^atkl Fa9Bages. 

^xf o'iXof fAtri X«i^ ^AxotiSr' 6l 9f ffints 

Again. U. JP^. 595* 
'ATrp&pcis Iffy jxaXa ii^tya}! fxrurff* r^y S* ttfvof #* 

37. Ovid. Met. xiii. 262. 

■' ' " ■ Sust et mibi vulhenr, ctves, 
Ipso pulchra loM ^ , ■ 

Shakspeare. Coriohinus. 

I have wbundr to shoir yotr, 

Which shall be yours ur pritbte. 

S& Campbell*. Loctiiers Warning. 

Tls the sun-set of Itfc gives me mystical lore. 

Aristot. Poet. p. 75-6. (ed. Tyrwhjtt.) 

— yiip«(f hnri^f /3/otf* % Avictg *ip|X«!ffSoxX9|^y 

S9« Col. R. Lovelace, (to Amaraiila,) 

■ like t&e Sun, in's early ray> 
Shake your head, and' scatter .day ! 

Perhaps borrowed fcom Danlieu Pi^. ii. SfiK 
Da tutte parti saetti^a: 'li ^cnao 

Lo Sol < 

40. Horat. Gpod.xvi..4A. 

■■ " ■ ■» ■ arva beata 

Petamus arva, divites at iasiftkfa. 
Reddit ubi Cererem tellus inarata quotannis, 
£t imputata floret usque viiiea, &c« 

JEsch. Frag, e Prom. Soluto^ ^E^ ed»: Bud. Vol ii. p. 44.) 
fy' 0^* Afy^9v «5rff 'fflmim^ 

yuai ^ff^ouo*! |9/oroy of^doyov ^wois: 
41. Shakspeare. Hamlet. Act iii. Sc. 3. 
a sea of troubles. 

Soph. CEiTypi/1526. 
elg Sroy KkuSeova Ssiyii^ truiJL^opis lA^Xtitiy.; 

So-flEsck P.V. 771. 

' P<rf/u«^^ Fear. -^Gray^ 

Parallel Passag§$. 155 

42. Pind. Nem. vii. 104. 

PsaliD IxvL 3. 
Who whet their tonguea Uke 9 swond^ 9nd) tbdol out th^ir 
arrows, even bitter words. 

43. 1 Tim. ii. 8. 

I will therefore that men pray everj-where^ lifting up holy 

Glover. Medea. Act 11 1. Sc. 1. 

You shall lift . 

Your blameless hands, sweet supplicants! 
The dove-like voice of your untainted age 
Shall win their guardian mercy, when the pray'rs 
Of man, false man, grown reprobate by time, 
With all the pomp of hecatombs, would fail. 

So Hor^t. Od. MI. xxiii. 17. 
Immunis aram si tetigit manus^ 
Non sumtuosa blandioi hosUa, 
Mollivit aversos Penates 
Farre pio et salieute nii^^a.. 

Com^iare als» Isaiah i. 15. 

44. Shakspeare. Troilns and Cressida. Act i. Sc. 1. 
Call here my varlet, Ftl unarm again, — 

Why should I war without the walls of Troy, 
That find so cruel battle here within i 

Anacreon. xiv. 17* 

r/ yeig fiak&ik^ l^co, 
I^X^S 11x01 ffc' Ix®^^ 5 



Poema dignatum priore Aureo Nwnismatum quod ex 
judicio dedit GuL Turton, M. D. Swansece^ Valliaf 
sub auspiciuf Georg. Augustiss. Val. Princ. 1806. 
Auctore Raleigh Trevelyan. 

>quae, Tibeiine^ videbis 

FuDera, com tamuluni pneterlabere recentem ? 


OEONius insigni venalem' funere laurum 
Prosequar inferiis, tauto sed debita fato^ 
At non pr«cipiti ^ celebremus funeris horam 
Carmine supremam — vetuit^ nam Cambria Musis 
Pnemia proponens^ et novit Cambria Musas 
Montanumque melos — novit melioribus annis ! 
Quippe ortus sacra referens ab origine Virtus 
Explicat infanti ingenuas conamine vires, 
Pnmus ubi vitae calor, et florentis honores 
Prima juventutis matuiiat gratia, in ausis 
Emicat exultans melioribus ; ilia Penates 
Nativosque focos circum indigoata morari. 
Donee ioassuetos nisus docuere perida, 
Inqoe reluctantem demisit vividus hostem, , 
Impetus — bostilique juvat rapuisse lacerto 
Tela suae fabricata neci ; seu fama superstes . 
Exhilarate seu nobilitat Victoria mortem. 
Haud aliter (patriis sur^unt ubi amata Camoenis 
Ardua Snodeni, seu Plinlimmonia rupes 
Nativis nimbis^quam circumsidit opaca 
Majestas scopulorum, atque atri verticis horror) 
Haud aliter conjuncta Jovi^ flammae arbitra diae, 
Ales ibi primo finquit conamine nidum, 
Montanumque Larem — vim vis nativa ministrat ; 
Infantemque juvat volucris libramina pennae 
Prima novis mandare Notis, sociaeque procellfle, 
Vere suo ; luditque cavis emissa juventus. 

^ ^ Morte venalem petiisse laurum/' Hor. 

* Nebmd vitam a primis annis repeti voluit, qui hascce praemia pro- 
posuity neque pauciores quam vers. SOO componi jussit. 

Laiin Prize Poem. 157 

Quid memorem nulla imbutani formidine mentem^ 
Cum vel adhuc teneris heros pubesceret tam» i 
Quid memorem Syrtes/ turbaodbus aequora vMtis^ 
Funerea caligantemtformidiQe pontum i 
Quid memorefn fluctus montana mole ruentes i 
Vel ^ua spumifera gurges sibi tortilis unda 
Insidias servat ; vel qua latet abdita arenis 
Rupes, letiferumque caput, vix toUit ad auras i 
Seu pluvii rores, demissa aut uubila noctc^ 
Incertam obscurare viam^ lucemque diemque 
Eripuisse volunt ; nocos tamen indice cursus 
Fida comes * monstrat, dubius nee fluctuat error^ 
Respectatque suas alio sub sole latebras.> 
Quid memorem Z^mblen, spectataque frigora Cauri ?^ 
Nonne vides, qua perpetuum succincta procellis 
Bruma Larem jejuna tenet^ glacialiaque arva i 
Oceani quippe in medio exitialia monstra ^ 
Cemere erit, (neque enim diras Symplegadas olim 
Cantatas toties^ aut concurrentia saxa 
Deprensis urgere legaa tot funera nautis) 
Tantam ubi dissolvant hyemem resoluta caloris 
Vi subita insoliti glacialia flamina venti. 
His porro in regnis exacto tempore blandse 
.^tatis (neque enim mutata mitigat annum 
Temperie autumnus) longis obducta tenebris 
More gemunt reduci infelicia saecula noctem. 

En ubi nativia circumdata Bastia ^ nimbis 
Candescit longe, et victas dominatur in undas.—- 
Immatura illic succisde fata juventae 
Peplorare datum est ; quos funere fiidit acerbo 
Insanam et pompam fremitumque minacis Iberi, 
Qui toties victus pallebat inorte futunii 
Qui toties terram, toties qui labra momordit 
Dedecori assuetus, patriaque labante superstes ! 

Nobiliora manentj et adhuc solennia pandit 
Gaudia Libertas ; licet arva revisere care 


' Ndtoni solertia in superandis maris periculis mira fuit. Vid. White, 
p. S^ et seq. 

* MmusI, intell. 

3 PhiHMophi opinantur flecti magnetem ad Norvtjgianoi montes; ibi 
(Buim istius materis magna latet oopia. 

^ P. 25, WkUe, et 26, et seq. ^ Glaciaiss moles. 

<» ApudAHCMiiet CoAkw res gestti3.' IFAile, p. 43. > < ' 

158 M^rsNitsQfd: 

Natalesque Iket liirmi patrittinqtie trop^ir 
Imtaurare Joveii | fuso qui Yiblor «b noBte, 
Corde videt m— iori note dukediiie valliBJi. 
Sed graviora manent ; totiet celebrata, per undas 
Ardua qua Hesperiduai fujgent apectaciila nautb, 
Saxea qua candent T^aeriffi ' culmina ; Solen 
Qua juvat occiduum demiasa Imce momri ;^ 
Hie Nature potent ana pnopuguacmla in «q«w 
Objice secreto finnat ; dum Terberat tinda 
Littus agens turritum : at non agkatk periclis 
Pectora Nelsoni — quid posait vivida virtus 
Experiare licet, 4mu vpectata juvenile. 
Andin jam victrix* seatenlia pendet ab ore i 
** Aut petHHe juvat laurum, patriasve aepulcruoi''-^ 
Nee more, et ultores decorat Victoria nisus. 
' O fortunati ! reduces quos patria novit 
Materno mulcere sinu { seu munere functos 
Victrici lacrymti aacraDt mosrentis amiet 
Languentes iato ; fati sive bore superstea 
Conspectu ponit dulcique in luce suoruin. 
At non te, Nelsoooi grevi sub vulnere fttsvim 
Exitio strevere, et acerbo funere Paitcaej 
Servatum in meliora; aegli' dum volneris ictu 
Palleres, dubio et fluerent sub flumine ven« ! 

At non ilia vigil palSria est oblita suoru*) 
Aut custos patriae H«galis cura-^virilem 
Nam siraul ac vidit languentem valnere formam, 
Atque ora HercHs mtitam testata pr^ellan 
Vidit et obstupiiit, — multi monumenta dolorii.^ 
Atque inter lacrjmlas genJerosi lumen ocelli 
Emicat ut pluvinfli ridenti luce serenat 
^thereus color, et genialifl tseda diet I 
Majora aggredior — major patet alrea votis ! 
Jam patriis latet.insidiis et marte fugaca 
Gallia secreto servansaub tc^inine portus 
Exitii foetosi vasts et molimina classis,-^ 
Hos tecum tacitos casus sub corde volutansj 
Grande Decus, servasti ; baud segnior alite cursu 


^ ** Wettmntter Abbey, or glorious ykteiy !'' IW. p. tfa. 

^ Geo. III. Nelionum ad meliora ppomovit Ibid. p»7dy eC 7f« 

Latin Priise P^m. 1 j^ 

Arboreosque lares latetmsaque ^ginina wdi 
At^piter linquit. cauita el cirouiovqlat Arte 
bmma perlustnii^s late Joci^„/dPiiep io ayris 
Versat pneda vias, et m^ sua QammtmUiU 
Gallia sic naves fatis coiumisk iniauis. 
Nee mora ; longinq4i t^dum m^ras mqwf wraodim 
Teotandaeque vise^ ipi^isque ambajibtis ullro 
Seu vigili cura ciFCuqivoUtare carjnis 
Hostiles latebras^ puppi aut cuslode m^rj, 
iDterea Italiae' raduntur lit(ora» e% alte 
NigrescuDt ponto horreadi c^ita ^a Veaevi^ 
Culmine nimboso— classisqMe ^K^sa TyraDOis 
JLattora nota petunt iNfeletes/ qua vividos findor 
Heroum innatae servabat seiniaa mentis* 
Hand locus hic^ dulc^is strepitus versante cMMSitt, 
Insignire animos Wtes qMi v^Inene lauram 
S?crftr|int^ dulci pro Ubf rtate lab^iiteSj 
Cum fuso cinxit Soljmamis marte ValetUm. 
Con^pectu interea multae telluris in altfun 
An^ia vela dabant, longe candebat in updis 
Conceliebrata suis olim Trinacrin' ffionstris ; 
Hie in secfsssu tuto locus ; insula pgrtum. 
Eflic^t effiifa mole; hip molioiine ru^j^ 
In cffilum, et pooto incunnbens i^inea minalur 
Qbjectii laterum^ longinqiia^qiie incubat u^fe, 
pbducjtp terrore, quietiafw# imaunet oris^ 
Fontapi hie latices, vivo et libamiod poda 
Duicia pniebebant aseris medjcamina nautis; 
Scilicet incesta^ valipas languedine viras 
Salsugo, fessosque salo gootaminat artus : 
Jamque ubi dia salus morbo redivini remoto 
Languenti laetum revopabal lumen P€ellx)> 
Volyisti tecum inter^a^ du« indyt«^ casus^ 
Pendentemque tuis terranm ^iiibtift orbekn. 

£n mare velivolum ! fm fwm nova serta Britatms ! ^ 
Quid memorem iif dubio gefMnrosum fluctnat sMtu 
Pectus^ ut ancipM fi^enl^m prwpicil bosCem 
Oceano^ et multa vitantem Anabaga Britam»a ! 

En ubi nunc pelago nov abstnut atra colorera^ 

» White^ p. 8K * Ibid. p. 8«. 

* Ibid, f* 9Bf f i^iM iiavaiis 9ii JEgypti oras. 

Ibid. p. 83. 

' lift) Mor$ Nelsani : 

Undabat classis per amica silcntia.Liioas 
£x8pijran8 tacite exibum ; monet aura qmetem : 
Sed brevis ilia quies ; toiiitralia murmnra belli 
Ezcidii pnesaga sommt : mors soh Britatinos 
Impavidos terrere nequit ; apesacrior igiies 
Accendit ; stimuloaqQe imo Mib pectore Tersat. 
Quid juvat Aooio midantes Carthaginis arces* 
Expediam versu i bbI iterum velut Actia beUa^ 
Miliacas oras instructa daase videres. 
Hie, ope navali, Europs spoliator opimo 
Ibat ovans luzu, el dira in cdigine Noctis 
Latior immeriti ezpliciul irexilm Triomphi — 
14 on impune tamen t €eu tenpestate columbas 
Actas praecipiti notos mutare meatus 
Cogit hyems, denaaque iocumbens grandine turbo. 

At vos antiquum (et tangunt mortalia Mu8«) 
Imperium Rom», et navali oinle superboa 
Carmine sacrastis dominos renitnque polentes; 
Nectite (et urget opus) capiti nova serta Britamio. 
Et fortes Fortunajuvat: Clementia' lauros • 
Vindicat ipsa novas : ecce, ut deferbuit omiBe 
Murmur et obductas tristissima mortis imago ! 
Per fluctus, interque natan^a fragmina dassis, 
Cemere erat miseros » iterum quoa nostra remisit 
Gratia in alterius vital et luminis auras, 
En ubi navifragis^ per aquas jam flammea molea 
Jncepit longis apenre vaporibus ignem ! 
Exitium fpvere Notj^ percussaque flamma 
Xurbine, quseque lateus summi fastigia -mali 
Ascepsii superat tardo, exitioque sequaci 
Navigium involvens^ inter tabulata volutaosque 
Ad coelum undabat — subter formidinis ora 
Inclusorum intus, ventura et morte pavenlom 
Insanus pallor — casus lic^ obruat hostem ^ 
Cognato 'tanget dementia peclora luctu* 
Sed nee adhuc, tandem posito ceitamioe, cessat 
Dirum opus ; ultricesque ciet Jus ultima mebtea ! 
Et jam sublimi perfudit lumine classes, 
Funerea et varias^omavitluce tenebras, • 
Luna ; et spectabant tacito terrore cobortes 

' WhUe, p. 103. . . ^; rOrimf. Wtiih, p.l<^. 

Latin Frizt Foetn. 101 


Mortis opus ; subitum disrupto turbkie fdliuiBB 
Intonuit — surdasque tremor diverberat aures I 
Atque odia oblita? stupuere alterna vicissim 
Attonitas classes^— quaotos heu stragis acervos 
Attulit uua dies ! qiiantos mdtora merentes 
Funera, letali cita<mors tmmersit in unda ! 
Nee grave cessat opus : reduces sed marte furores 
Ingeminant caBco^-raune audis resonantia longe 
Fulmina misceri, et miserum increbrescere murmur ? 
Et fors Nelsoni quse sint jam fata requires, 
Quisquis eris^ fid» testans couamina Musse : 
Vuluere languentemi et Britonum fortissima frustra 
Funera plorantem exhilarat Victoria signo 
Nuucia sublato. Haud epulae ciangonque tubarum^ 
Non canor insultans hosti, non laeta triaoipbum 
Praecinuit vox : sed jam religione serenat 
Summa Ducis meutem pietas, quern la^ta decorat 
Ante alios^ fortes mulcens dulcedine sensus. 
Postera lux casdes, et vasta silentia belli 
Pandebat, veterique ibat jam IsBtior unda 
Nilus — ** Caesareas venisti victor ad oras, 
Nobilior, miseris prasbens solamina rebus ! 
Omnia et iBgyptus celebret vexiUa salutis, 
Omnis Arabs.'— Oliro Italiae spoliator ad oras^ 
Julius, et pavidisfidens Antonius armis. 
At non Marte suo : jam libertate labante 
Et patria amissa, dominis parere superbis 
Sub juga misit opes assuetumy (inhonesta merentum !) 
At tibiy Dux Britonum, victricique ojdine Glassi 
Gratulor ! baec norunt olim penetralia Musae/ 
Quaeque tuum vel adhuc sacrant modulamine nomen." 
Haec dedit antiquo se attoUens gurgite JNilus 
Grandsvus pater, argenteamque recondidit undis 
Canitiem, et glauca nituere aspergtne vultus. 
En^ Nekone, tuo pacatos Marte Calabros, 
Sicelicosque sinus, quosque in jua regna remisit 
Italiae reges tua vindex G)6ria> reddunt 
Arva tua reparata manu, atque insignia sumunt 
Rura nova^ et luxu segetuin qui floret opima 
Dives ager Brontes,* veteri non degener aevo ; ' ' ' 

* White, p. 110. Arabes plunmi venerunt ad littora, &c. 

* Ibid. p. 149. 

VOL. XXIX. a. Ji. Na Lvft. 

16i Mors Nehmi : 


Brontaeumque tenet doetaai de falmme ncmien ; 
Fulmine in ^tneis olim nascente latebris. 
Quid memorem^ Galli puisis nltricibas iris, 
Sceptra tua donata manu : monte undique curvo 
Parthenopes," conspersit ubi Natnra racemis 
Textilibus colles^ nectantque umbracnla syhm 
Nativa — antiqnam et retinentia moenia pompam 
Horrescunt — viridi faic dives conswigere dorao 
Campus amaty glaucas ve\ in umbras seena recedit— 
Sive ruinarum nigra succincta corona 
Obnita procumbunt veterum palatia regnm, 
Non inhonesta situ-^-desiderioqne reposcit 
Fiebile vectigal (defuncto) pristina virtus ! 
Quid vel opes memorem* Eoas, victricia regum 
Dona, aut gemmarum pretioso flora comantes 
Artifices formas, partae monumenta salntis i 
Quid memorem absent! saerat queis patria nomen 
Accumulans donis ?— patriae te munera gratasi 
Prassentem majora manent-^iacundia ocelli 
Eloquitur tacita — et solvit tibi lacryma grates ! 
Sed nee clara diu, positis felidbu^ armis,' 
Deperiit virtus, patriaeve amplexibus hassit : 
Scilicet insidiis secretum accendere bellum 
Teutones,} et Boreas linquentes frigora gentes 
Incipiunt, pavidum et junxenmt faedere martetn. 
Non tulit hoc Britonum, quae fulmine fodera sancit, 
Majestas male laesa — at amantes otia pacis 
Advolat ipsa stias ales Victoria Glasses* 

Est locus aggeribus^ qua se protrUdit in 
Pondere fixa suo, vastae et molimine Turris, 
Obvia bellantum furiis — fulgentia longo 
Fulmina, et ultrices emiserat irrita flamtnas 
Funeream expirans noctem navalis Enyo. 

Quid memorare ' artes veterique ignota Camcena^ 
Arma Jovis nostri valet indignantia Romam i 
Sappe etiam ut cahipos instructo marte viderem 
Erigitur nigrans bellum — tonitnique tremiscunt 
Ardua terrarum a^ifici^ glomeratttqiie Sub aura 


' Descriptio Sinus Neapolitani. * WhUe, p. 134, 185, 136. 

5 ^Northern Confederacy.*' TTAilPc, p. 1155. 
^ CronbergisB ^rx. Ibid. p. 167. 
? RtcentioresbellandiinventioDes* 

L(tfin Frizc Poem. JfiJ 

Fumiferam nocten^ comnuxtis igae -te^bris : 
Fulmineique * orbes cceli in reglone serenn 
Per sudura rutilant : qua maximus iatonat aer — 
Parte alia, co^U labi noctisque per umbram 
Flammaniin longos videas albescere tractus* 
Scilicet interoffi r^b^a, clausaeque lateo^unt 
Casdes, exitio fcetSj u}tf icemque sub imo 
Occultant animam claustro ; mox tempore certp 
(Ut jubet ars belli, et caau sol^rtja inajor !) 
ErumpuDt cavea^^ atque effusa miaerrima clades. 
Saepe etiam cum incauU^ petit muniinina.clasaia 
Volvuntur vivis ^ammantea ignibua prbes : 
Qualia nee Siculis unqus^m Cyclopes in antris 
Fulmina, nee rapidis videre Ceraunia telis. 
Nee non id casdea ^icuen^ mprtalia cprda 
Per varias artes miseros extuadere casus 
Sors belli docet— -jfi mare* propugnacula ducit 
Et placido fluitarc^ fi^^tOf niolemqiie profundam 
Oceani lassare docf tr— firroataque transtris 
Bella vomi, caecum nmrorum imitantia martero. 

Nee te/ qui resides animos irasque tuorum 
Irritus ardebas g^nefoso accendere sensu, 
Praeteream indecorem : faa est et in hoste Canumae 
Insignes mirari 9E|iiQ93 ; ii|signia Muaae 
Semper amant — ^vidit quoqu^ te Nejsqnia virtus, 
JEmula tunc licet; et meritas praeconii^ laudis 
Ingenio insignita ^uo donavit; et.annis 
Pubescens prima lanugioe vestiit aetas. 
Nee mora, el hpslil^s d^corant insigpia Muros 
Ai^lica — nigrantes illip qplei^dere Jj^one^'^ 
Hostilemque ' aqjuilam pi^itaptfim van^ videres. 
Quo, Nelsone,^ ruis viilgi dum pectore seosus 
Vertuntur V9rii i aec fas t^ credere muiis^ 
Cum nee adhuc cecidl( fragor, a^^que exci^t iraf 
Confusae sonu^ urbis, et illaBtabile murmuf. 
Cum nee adhuc sopiti aniii^i-^H^omitatur epntem 
Majestas ezcelsa Ducem, et formidine cingit 
JMnncaB victorem ont i trepidantai corda 

■ ^ Bombs.'' * « Floating batteries/^ 

> Willmoei. f . t05, Hf^kiie. ♦ MiglUa. 

' Hostica vexillorum insignia. 
Incaute Neltoim victs gentis populo se iosmiscuit. WhU€p p, 9or. 

164 Mars NeUoni : 

Tanta trop»a ducts tabeunt — labentis imager 
CroDbergn indecores animi ! sublimior exf at 
Nobilis insigni veniens in corpore virtus-— 

Singula sed memorare piget : memorare juvabit 
Labentes animos Galli, Nelsone^ sub ictu 
Saepe tuo^ et rapido prostratum fulmine Iberum. 

Grande opus aggredior, carmen vocat ultima cura— • 
Cycueum melos eztrenia dulccdine fundit ' 

M usa libens/ invita ; ipso de fonte decoris 
Surgit amari aliquid — grandes testata Triumphos 
Ardua Traductse cemo — concedite luctus, 
Pierides^ rursum/ Abranise quas culmine sacro 
Fors vel adhuc lusisse juvat^ Volfique favillam 
Quae vel adhuc colitis, cineri solatia inani ! 
Quid loquor i — ecce pfocul naves dum caeca volutanf 
Murmura, praesagjque nitent jam funeris ignes ! 
Quid memorem Galli pavidos in praelia sensus, 
Frendentemque animis^ et vana minantis Iberi 
Eztructam pompam ? quique ut solet aestuat imo 
Corde pudor victo, miztoque insania luctu;^ 
Et timet incursus^ indignaturque timere. 
Hostium adhuc vultus faciesque simiUima fato 
Advenisse diem, lengum qui tradet in aevUm 
Anglica facta, monet ; nee nostrum pectora labi, 
^temanive metu sensit corrumpere Aimam 
Ista dies, fastis semper servanda Britannis ! 
Nonne vides vel adhuc belli cum fluctuat drdo, 
Ut tacito^ fulget victrix sententia signo i 
<' Quemque^ suo expectat functurum patria Marte.*^ 
£t jam prospicitur nitidis incautior armis 
Stans celsa in puppi virtus Nelsonia ; Vested^ 
Laetior ars lautani multo discreverat auro, 
Gemroantesque orbes^ multi monumenta TriiimphL 
At non ille virum (monuit praesagia mortis 
Dira Comes M) curat repetita hortamina ; in ipsi» 
Vicit ! jucundumque mori succurrit in armis ! 

*' Alrams in culmmibus victofiam gratulatus cacidit Voffiuu 
s Varii hostilun sansus in pf8»lia auntiunu 

^ **Engkmd eipads every one to do his duty!'' per TiUgraph ex- 
f Come»--'i8(60<<9 qui cum AiB^fonoprocubuiU 

Latin Prize Poem. l65 


Non me longa dies, nee inutilis auferet fetas^ 
Nee patrias victus reroeabo inglorius oras/' 
Talis in occulto sedit sententia sensu. 
Et jam procubuiflse suorum funera vidit, 
(Consortes laudis ! sed quos mox ipse secutus) 
Demessam et primo ploravit flore juventam^ 
Plurima quae patrios urgebat flebilis ignes^ 
Nec^memor invisi' venientis ab sethere teli 
Ingreditur— reducem at fatum patria alta videret 
Non dedit! extremam subito perlata* papillam 
Hasta volat, sacrumque haerens bibit acta cruorem, 
Dum vis fetalis sibi sufficit ; abditaque intus* 
Spiramenta animse funebri vulnere rumpit. 
Et jam venturo labuntur frigida leto 
Membra : diu dubia vitae nunc fluctuat argrae 
Lux rediviva mora ; qualis flamma ultima lanibit 
Fessam abitura facem ; nigrescunt omnia circum ; 
Nee tamen indecorem tua te Victoria liquit 
Extrema jam in mprte, suumque heroa abiturum 
Voce ciet ! sed vitam exhalat victor anhelam 
Spiritus, insignique juvat succumbere fato \ 
Sic vetuit patrias vincentem cernere sedesj^ 
Sic finem fortona dedit! breyis occidit aetas,— - 
Multorum est infleta, auras ut transit arundo, 
Ignotamque viam radit : Te insignior bora 
Abripuity neque enim canis aspersa senectus 
Te manety aut quasso languebant corpore vires ! 
Nee fuit in fatis luctu tibi condere soles ! 
Te non Oceani magna illaetabilis unda 
Gurgite sub vasto pulsat : (sed plurima functura 
£xul ibi jacet umbra Ducum)^actare favills 
Haec juvat insigni, tristis solatia casus ! 

Et jam' vernus honor, visit qui serior agros, 
Purpureum sf^argit redivivis floribus annum — 
Pectore sed mcesto languescunt gaudia, honore 
Indclibato ; et sordent mibi munere inani. 
Quid si per vacuas moduletur carmina sylyasi .... 
Et reducis paeana levem suspire! amoris 

' Quod ob velocitatem non sentitur* 
^ ^ i£tsi hsc a Ftrgi/io adumbrarim, mediconim narrationibiis connea* 
tiunt qiiam accuratissiroe. 

' Hpsce versus a Grayo adumbravi : 

** In vain to me the smiling mornings shine/' &c 

166 Mors J^ehoni : 

Turba querens avium ? — non illis floreus anni 
Arridebit honos, illis qui nocte sepulcri 
Lethseum ducuot per ssecula longa Boporem 
Torpentes animae ! nunquam nos dulce juveiftae 
Flonferum ver et.vitae revolubtlis prdo, 
Nativum in solem, aut vitales reddet in auras. 
Cum semel occidimus leto, iumenque perenni 
Nocte cadit, longa obductum caligme fati ! 

Audin sacra gravi resonat qua Naenia pulsu^ 
Funereumque melos ?-— dum sistra jubentia luctus 
Percurrunt Thamesin ;* ibat qui tristior undis, 
Segnior undantem dum volvit funere fluctum, 
Ipsa ut grassatur majestas nigra sepulcri, et 
Tarda trahit longinquam. et honesta sub ordine^* pompam. 
At te sacra manent regali splendida luxu 
Atria defiinctum ; grandesque piacula manes 
Pkcarunt vel adhuc : signamiis funera saxo 
Tanta piO| et lauto jam surgit pondere mdles. 
Quid SI Pyramidum veneranda mole quiescimt 
Funera in indigno recnbantia mausoleo^ 
Regifici cineres i veniet felicior aeta^ 
Qua sit nulla fides tumulum monstrantibus illiitn, 
Cum memor Historise saeclis mansura futuris 
Vb tradet nomen, nuper quod palluit orbis^ 
Et fama in fidi vivet dulcedine sensus 
Laude recens, memoresque iterum revirescet in annos. 
Haud aliam ob causam media inter fulmina belli 
Projecere animam pro libertate libentem 
Dura cobors' Boreae, manserunt quam pia Odini 
Atria; fusi epulis dum libant vina deorum, 
Quae functorum umbris veneranda Geifa^'ministrat^ 
Ambrosio heroum instaurans convivia Idxu ! 

Quid si felici exponens imitamine vitam 
Pictura argutos diicat^ post Amera vultus i 
Te casu nullo, nullo delebile sasclo 
(Dum morietur opus nostri post tempus ApelKs) 
Te manet Aonio montimehtum munere; in'afinos 
iBtemos comitem trahet : ant in corde Britannum . 

' Ihrocessio in Thamennp flumine. * Multorum sc. Nobiliorum. 

3 Gothorum religio ; quae docuit heroas reclpiendos esse in Odini para-. 
^isOy &c« 

^ Ministra Odinianeis epulis. Vid. Gray. Poem* <' Fatal. Sisters;'' 
Gondula & Geira Spe€df &c 

Cambridge Clamcal Eipaminatiom. 167 

Nobifitts eondetur opus ; oeqae fema peribi^ 
MiBata licet, mcestive abolescet gratia iacti. 
Qualia ubi ^olio tangens modulamioe cbordas, 
£t varia eliciens queruli suspiria venti 
SaspenMini moi^et aura cbelyn— tractim ilia susurron 
Temperat argutos Dttmero, liquidosque tumescena 
Labitur in cantus, atque aethera carmine mulcef : 
Sic pia mens aninii, longoque exercita juctu 
Consensus ciet, arcana dulcedine, tristes, , 

Conimittens citharis moestas discrimina vocis. 
Sat vero in luctum resoluta est naenia : tardum 
Haeret opus— tamen insigni fudisse juvabit 
Haecxineri^-«-cinerem fido cumulamus honore ! 




Xhe present Pean of Peterborough^ late Professor of Greek 
at Cambridge^ has conferred an obligation on .scholars by the 
publication of this elegant little volume. It consists of *^ Exr 
(racts from Greek, Latin^ and English authors, given as sub- 
jects for translation, and of Miscellaneous Questions proposed 
to tbe candidates for different classical honors" during the 
fime of the Dr.'s professorship ; and is intended for the use of 
academical students, and of those who may be desirous of 
forming an idea of the nature of Cambridge classical examina* 
tions. To such it will be highly interesting, and more especi* 
ally since the late important change in the system of examination 
for degrees* Independent of its utility in this respect, it is 
valuable as a selection of beautiful and interesting passages 
from the best ancient authors. It contains Dr. Monk's exami- 
nations only, there being five or six Examiners to every tJnir 
versity honor : as, however, all the various departpaents have at 
9om,e time been allotted to the Professor, this volume, taken 
altogether, exhibits a fair specimen of a Cambridge classical 
examination, as conducted since the year 1810 (Preface); with 
the addition of a Latin theme, and one or more copies of Latin 
verses on a given subject. It should be added, that the can- 

, l68 Cambridge Clamcal 

didates (Prefiice) are assembled in a room, with the vte ol pen^ 
inkj and paper alone, two or three hours, or toore (genesally^ 
we believe, from three to five) being allotted, in proportion. to 
the length and diiEculty of the task. 

We give the examinations for the years 18 17- 19* regretting, 
only that our limits forbid us to insert the MiseeUaneoua Ques« 
tions, which embrace a vast variety of subjects. 

University Scholarship, 1817. To be transited into £nglish, 
the whole of Thuc3fd. ii. 7C^nto English, Demosth. in An- 
drot. KoH jx^y xoxfiro yt Sii ftaSfiy ifMf, x. t. X. Aristot. de 
Rhet ii. 11. 

Chancellor's Medals, 1817. To be translated into English, 
Soph. Antig. 1 192, to the end of the narration. — To be trans- 
lated literally into English, — also into Latin Lyric verse, Pind. 
Ol. vii. first strophe, antistrophe, and epode. — ^To be translated 
into English, Juv. Sat. xiv. £56-304^ — ^To be translated into 
Latin, a passage on Homer, from some English author. 

Chancellor's Medals, 1818. To be translated into English, 
Ap6ll. Rhod. iv. 350-393; parallel passages to be quq^ 
from Homer, Euripides, and Virgil.— Into Englidi prose^ and 
into Latin verse, ^sch. Agam. 226, strophe, antistrophe, and 
epode; Lucretius's imitation to be quoted. — Into English 

firose, Aristoph. Ran. v. 895, strophe — v. 992, antistrophe.—- ^ 
nto English verse, Id. Thesm, 1136-1155; the metres to be 
marked. — ^To be turned into Attic Greek, Id. Lysistr. 1297- 
1328 (chorus of Laconians); passages of the Tragedians here 
imitated to be given.-r-lnto English, Cic. Epist. lib. vi. 18, to 

Tfis Vofrris tSpaka .— Pers.Sat. v. 161-191. — Into Greek, 

Drydeii on the Grounds of Criticism in Tragedy, *^ To instruct 
delightfully,'^ to ''degrees of moral goodness in them." — Into 
Greek Tragic Iambics, Milton's 23d Sonnet-^Into Greek 
Traeic Anapaests, Comus, 892*90 i. 

Univ. Schol. 1819. To be translated into English, Thucyd. 
* ill. 45. — Lysias contra Agorat. iluvf avofMct ff aMv xcA vsp) r£y 
ogxm, to Itrxvpiregos iytycro.—- Plato, Phsedon. 29* Tl o5v; tov^ 
T»v oSrco^ i^ovrcoy, to i^i^ 6 Ki^g. 

ChanceliorV Medals, 1819. Soph. Aj. 550-583.— Pind. 
Ol. ix. 1-62. — Into Greek, Sir W. Temple's Essay on Poetry, 
" The more true and natural source of poetry,'' to '' the very 
first conception.'' — Into Latin, Gray's Letters, xxxii. ** I am 
equally sensible of your affliction," to '' aggravated our sorrow." 
— Into Greek Iambics, Lycidss, 64-84. 

This work is the first printed in the new Cambridge type, a 
modification of the Porsonian, and which^ though it does not 

Observations on ih^ Scholia^^c. I69 

possess the unHvallecl brilliancy of its' predecessor, is superioc 
to it in real elegance. Some of the letters are new, and har- 
monise well with the former, with the exception of the >p^ 
which we wish to see altered.' The size is a medium between 
the large one, in which Blomfield*s .Slschylus is printed^ and 
thai used in the English Matthise. 


The Scholia of Hermeas on the Phadrus ob 
Plato, published by Fredericus Astius, Profes^ 
sor Landishutanus^ Lipsia. 8vo. 

Part III.— [Conrimierf/rofn No. LVI.} 

In p. 136, 1. 8. Hermeas explaining what Plato Says about 
the horses and chariot of the gods observes, ApfMC h xeu imrov; 
rwf ttfw rag immpag atrffiov xeu rpnag ZwafMig axouoreoy, «f a% 
wffovai xaxtvtwowif Si* coy o Znic xeu taurov uvetyti xai iraa-af nut^ 
vwofiifikflium^ eurrtf ^rpariav rcw flsfiov xat 8aiftov«y, km wavrct 
§ar>Mg ra ^npyipMW. aurou. In this passage for s^pii/tsva^ in the 
last line, it is necessary to rea4 e^iffnijxfya, suspended from. For 
Hermeas says, ** that Jupiter elevates not only hin^self [to the 
survey of the supercelestial place], but likewise all the army of 
gods and daemons, that are in subjection to him, and in short, all 
Sie natures that are suspended from him.'' No error is more 
common in Platonic manu^ripts, through the carelessness of 
transcribers, than the substitution of •^jipnii.tva for t^gpn^fMva^ 
In the same page 1. 17* Hermeas explaining the words efof^^ 
ployed by Plato respecting Jupiter, viz. nfoarog it Topsuerou, 
observes, ori iffjxfvo^ fm ro voi^rov eurros xeu vfiSpvanf teurrwt reug 
otxMieuf opyM^ awetfyn ret eiXXx wetvret. But here for Meuurcov it is 
necessary to read i atirov. And then what Hermeas says, will be 
in English, ^'Jupiter himself proceeding to the intelligible, 
and establishing himself in his proper principles, leads on high 
together with himself all the rest [I. e. all the other powejrs that 
follow him]." It is requisite also to observe, that the oixuei^ 

* The •same may be said of the new ^ lately introduced into the 
ClareDdon press, and which, though handsome in itself, mars the unir 
formity of that type, perhaps the most beautiful existing. 

172 Observations, on the Scholia of 

On these liiiei the Pfofeasor observes^ ** Inter fragmeott. 
Orphica leguutur hi versiu^ 8^ pluribus. io lo^is corrupti, 
Posteriorem versum Beotleius £put. ad Jo. Millium p. 455. 
.Opuflc. philol. e Procloaieexhibet: 

.Thia latt line is in Proclus in Tim. lib. ii. p. 132. as follows : , 

To w snrfOTiAlSf Xf oof tt(aiMcro«o ^OMfro^; 
In vAatSoL line To w is evidentij enooeous, aqd therefore . JBentr 
kj has substituted for it Tomv. But the true reading for 2^ eif 
is> I conceive, that of Eschenbacb in his Epigeqes De Poeai 
Orphica p. 78., which he derived from 9 manuscript of the ^bov« 
Work of Procliuf, not having as he informs us, the printej^ 
copy of it to c<msult ; and this reading is, 7^ ftM* In p* 14 J, 
h S9. Hermeas speakhig of the order of . the Cyclopa saysj sv 
yog wpwrois roursi; ro frxupM nk^mntrtai. i| AfoXoyia (^i,. smu 
irftnoi «{%«( JMi flurio; ra)y mccnai)(0^ c^futrwv rourou^ ciyai to¥£ 
Mov; JKuxXvmf* Bm xcu Ttxrsi^ei^a^ ovrov^ 1) 0eoXoyi^ ^^ir 
4air9 ysflcp vf la^ tori r«Xf^ioup/iiei| row <r;^i)|x«er«9v*— — k«i fv Ha^ 
juwri^ Sc, f«y Ajyiy UkBircw tvtv xai irt^ i^spt;, raunsy ngy rot^y 
«MyirTtr«r. According to the Grecian theology, the Qrder of 
the Cyclops consists of Brontes^ Steropes, and Arges, and is 
4iumSof6f as Hermeas: says, trkidic. And this order is occultly 
indicated by Plato in his Parmenides by the terms euiu,wifir 
^9gts^ neu fbinroy ; i. e. by the straight, the circular, and that 
4irhich is mixed from bodi. Hence in the above passage, immer 
4i«tely after the words futv xm Tngi^tpog, it is necessary to add 
Mm fftncToy. in the last line of the same page Hermeas ob- 
.serves, h JlKaaren, emg fuy wpo xara^arixms tnro rou 0<oXoyoif 
•^sy, TOUTS wms caro^arnims 9pe«}yeyxaT0* yog sxfiyo^ yuxra 
•carey, outs; tsuto axf»fi>ceroir e h fxiiyo; avo^ftTixw; «ti|^«vSca 

.t'suTO otiro; xetTafctT^Hm^ tiwr npi i|y to tij; aktiiwg antrrmii/^ ytj 
-ss(, owta onmi owa" rpiet onro^MTixot v^fyiyxajxtyo; rpm xarci^a-^ 
rixa %a)a¥ nrotyti, onro tou ovto; rpia wgotnyxonf* Hermeas 
is here speaking of that divine order which is called by the 
Chaldean theologists yoijTo; xcu fotpos, intelligible and at the 
same time intellectual, as being mingled from both, and which 
Js unfolded by Plato in the Phtedrus. Hermeas, therefore, in 
the above passage observes, that the part of this order 
which is celebrated by the theologist Orpheus affirmatively, is 
unfolded by Plato negative^; and that what the theologist 
speaks of negatively, is enunciated by Plato affirmatively. 
Hence, immediately after the words 0^ Se tlhttrm (mtp /xiy wpo 



Hermeas on the Phadrus of Plato. 173 

iMerafarixflo; uto tou AeoXoyou pi/i9e¥, rovro atnog ajro^ctuxtog wgoi^ 
veyx«ro» it appears to me requisite to add, awep Se iugi airof ftri- 

P. 143» 1. 4. TO yap ev nfji 4^u%)) toi; «x^; yoijToi; mntotKriou 
Svvarai. Here for t« ^^xV^ ^^ ^^ necessary to read rq; 4^tip^iif* 
For the meaning of Hermeas is, that the one of the soul which 
is a participation of the ro h the one itself ^ is capable of being 
united to the highest inteUigibles. This is evident from what im- 
mediately follows : f I yap xai o ewpysia yoo; o mrtpiSpUfif yo^ avTij^ 
a€i 4««rai rot ovra, aXX' ouSffvrouro vpof ti)v i^fuov '^inyfipf* iifuoy yap. 
ffflrri, oray fr^Of avrov oT^o^fitfty* i) Ss weoig^^ n); 4^vp^$» ^^ «rTA ra 
h^ ooTi};, xvpMs rors syAou^-ia, oray ro n}; oAsjtfia; »$p orsSioy. The 
plain of Truth belongs to the highest order of^nteliigibles ; and 
this is only to be seen according to Plato by thehyp^rxis, which 
is the summit, flower, and the one of the soul, energizing enthu** 
siastically, or with a divinely-inspired energy. P. 143, 4. 15» 
§xaaros 81} rourcoy roi^ UTrwp oanov ^cof eXXafMrti, roursori, aXi}fl<iay«. 
Here for roi; tnrtp avroy, it is necessary to read roi^ wro atiToy,.as. 
will be immediately evident from a perusal of the whole paa*. 
sage. And in the same page, 1. 19* in the words 1) Se xaimig^ 
apxtl xai tou; yoijrouf ieov; xeu vayra jou eof awrcov 6uw irKiMot, 
^erro^f for mf avraav it is necessary to read aw ovrou. For 
what Hermeas says is this, ** that the principle of all things filb 
the intelligible gods, and all the natures that proceed from hiniy 
with divine light.*' P. 144, 1. 17* 19 /mv yap tv rai; iSsoi^ Sixoio^ 
trvv^ navrci voeg»$ ir«jif;^», ti it mf roi^ Ifoi^, 0««;. In this paa-^ 
sage, for ei 8s it is requisitie to read 13 ie. P. 145, 1. 9* AXkxm 
Atyojxeyoy roiovroy forriy* leXgUiv; exfiwri iuvctfiet; ai tuou ifW(au,rms 
fitv wnprepug, rag it HdraMttrrBpas. Here, immediately after rag 
fufy wnprsfas, it is necessary to add rag it fito'MTtpagm This is 
evident from the remaining part of the sentence^ viz. roi; /tten 
0V9 wgonnrrais rooy 8uyafMcoy-a« roig Tpflorioroi^ reoy yoiirow tvifiak-^ 
Xouo'i xai Ttp wnpovpavicp ronto, rcug it fuva^g roig tvrog ougavou, roi^ 
it wyaxaig Kara ro 4^;((Xoy futXurra liu^ui* Here Hermeas 
clearly says, that divine souls have middle, as well as first and 
last powers. 




Caused by the recent introduction by Mr. Bmttoek into 
' England qf various rare and curious specimens of 
' Mejncan Antiquity ; intended shortly to be submitt&d 
by him to the inspection of the public. 

It nay truly be said of scientific iiKjniry^ as of the politics of 
atktrettt periods, that to each particular age some prevailing 
taste may be allotted. The man of science feels that to him the 
eonsideration of what during past ages it has been the aim 6f 
bmniin intelligence to know, is an inquiry no less interesting, 
than to the historian fs the investigation of what the political 
temper of any given time has been : he, like the latter, can cast 
hiar e^es over distant ages, and can mark the different roads 
vrtiieh hninatt wit has variously pursued, sometimes proceeding 
along the stTMght road of investigation terminating at the temple 
of knowlege, at other times deviating into the by-palhs of 
delusion leading to error; he will however have the satisfaction 
^f perceiving that every sncceeding century has become liiore 
enlightened than the foregoing, till time in its progress arriving 
st the present age, the sun of science with continually increasing 
Ujght seems to beam on us ; in fact at the present time, through* 
out ISxkt&pe, with the exception of one or two* countries, eveiy 
branch of science seems to be particularly cultivated. Niv^r 
did the stream of knowlege burst forth in a purer and moi^ 
aparkling tide^— 6ne study does not now atone engross, as here^ 
tofore, its' undue share of attention, but all may boast ftat pop* 
tbn of esteem to which their respective merits and utilify sev^ 
rallv in&de the^m. It was the custom, at some former periods 
of time, to be very indifferent to investigations into the monu* 
mentA ik antiquity still existing of celebrated ancient iiations : to 
this indifference may be imputed tiie loss of many such precioiia 
remains, the erroneous accounts in books respecting others^ 
and the confused and wrong ideas formerly entertaitied gene^ 
rally xMi the subject of the antiquities of nations. Against the 
present time, however, this complaint cannot be urged. What 
limits seem to be set to learned research i The pyramids them- 
selves, whose dusky shadows the Nile has so long beheld re* 
fleeted on her waves, an individual now compels reluctantly to 
disclose the awful tombs in which the Pharaohs vainly expected 
to find repose ! But lest Thebes should exult over Memphis^ 

On Mr. BullocUs Specimena^ Sf^c. 175 

her rcffA sepolcresr have been equally violated ; and ove# tbe 
rniim of ibat oitj, — the greatest and fairest which the sun dbone 
ok in its wie career^ whose hundred brazen gates^ from each 
bi ^hich could issue ten thousand chariots of war, slernly and 
gloriously dictated peace to nations, — over these splendid ruins 
the footstep of the traveller now wanders ! Her {Mrostrate 
porphyry pillars afford a seat to the weary pilgrim. From the 
banks cf the Nile^ which sadly contemplates the loss of former 
pride, still exhale the fresh breezes which once spread delicious 
fragrance through her artilicial terraces ; but those who breathed 
them, vital air nourishes no more. — But though her mortal 
population Thebes can no longer boast, her gods still have 
been faithful to her ruins; there in numbers they yet dweH, 
4fad imdonbtedly oh the stone tablets covered with hieroglyphies 
the religious rites sacred to them are yet recorded. Of aU 
places of antiquarian research the ruins of Thebes seem moat 
worthy to be explored ; they deserve, and they have obtained 
the tnost curious attention. The antiquities of Egypt it must 
be admitted, if for a long space of time they have been ui»- 
beeded, have of late years created their hW share of interest: 
if any complaint on the subject of them can be alleged, it is 
that JBigyptsan antiquities seism too exclusively to have been the 
subjects of collection and research, whilst the antiquitiea of 
dome other nations, as of China, of Assyria, and India^ were no 
less worthy of attention, but have been tnuch less successful 
in obtaining it* As for the antiquities of Egypt, what can ex4> 
deed the respect with which, when discovered, the bust or 
statue of any Egyptian god is treated; The Ibis and the Cro^ 
eiddile^ though lesser deities, are conducted from their mouldering 
i^tti^ts, Mrhetie^er inquiry ib blessed with sudi a discovery, with 
infinite veneration to national galleries and the museums of the 
learned* Isis propitiously smiles on her votaries, when she 
perceives her mutilated bust an object of regard ; and Osiiis 
might fain imagine his old worship about to be renewed! 

The liomplaint^ however, that might fairly have been allege<t> 
Ihiit the antiquities of Egypt were too exclusively the objects of 
attention) seems likdly soon to lose all feimdation ; for bein^ 
iitrilli judtic^ advan(red; already % certain direction has been 
given to the public taste towards the antiquities of otho* parts 
of the earth. The attention of cdebrated men of learning in 
Puris has b^eA iX late much employed on the antiquities of 
Asia g^^rally^ Ttebe enlightened individuals are an honor to 
tfaetr vtmkttj \ and to mtoi like them France owes, though envy 
tud Mtioniil jealousy fnay vainly deny it, and igaorantly dispute 

176 On Mr. BttUock's Specimens 

it, the obligation of standing pre-eminent in acienoe.* it 
woidd not, however^ amongst other nations, be an ut^enefotts 
competition, if they, bj revising some institutions, and establidi- 
ii^ others on improyed principles for tfie encouragement of 
aaences and the improvement of arts, would take as a model 
the generous example of France. To foreigners and to stran- 
gers, as to Frenchmen, all her precious collections are equally 
dirown open ; they are to all alike accessible. France then 
has a right to receive, even from foreigners, the tribute of 
praise. It may be an empty, but it is a flattering gift ; and 
nations diat take gold have no 'right to feel envy. Some, per- 
sons have felt regret that defeat imposed on France the neces- 
sity of restoring those works of art, of which the Vatican and 
other public collections had been despoiled by her arma. It 
was argued, that though in Paris, from the attention with which 
strangers who visited the rich collection of the national gaUeiy 
were received, where every thing worthy of admiration was par- 
ticularly pointed out to their view, these precious objects of art 
were less the property of France dian of the world, and that the 
arts and sciences derived an additional advantage from the 
mutual comparisons which the concentration of those objects 
oflered the opportunity of making. This advantage was certainly 
inappreciable ; but the daims of justice were much more sacred, 
and the restitution which was made by France conferred glory 
on her .conquerors. With the conviction that this resignation on 
her part was a debt due to justice, France ought to be con- 
tent; she will feel flattered, however, by hearing the voice of 
Europe whisper, that if any nation could have a right to enjoy 
that precious collection, that nation would be no other than 
France, who showed herself worthy to possess it by the noble 
use she made of it whilst in her hands. 

Intending to say something of a curious collection of antiqui^ 
ties lately brought to this country from America, I have said 
more than I had purposed on that which is not immediatelj 
relative to my subject ; it is however so connected with it, that 
if it was an error, it was one likely to be incurred. I diall noW/ 
however, make some remarks on monuments, of which the 
curiosity, not the beauty, the novelty, not the art, eminently 
intide them to learned attention. 

For a series of years it had been the custom to state, in con* 
tradiction to the evidence of older writers, that the contineitt 
of America possessed no monumental antiquities ; that nothing 
existed there characterising the manners of the populous and . 
civilised Indian nations which once inhabited, and whoai^ 


of Mexican Antiquities] ^c* 177 

descendants still inhabit those extensive regions. This assertion 
was so often and so positively repeated, that general opinion 
was almost inclined to lean towards it, especially as none of 
the antiquities of the Mexicans or Peruvians seem hitherto to 
have found their way to Europe. We were informed that 
those nations were unacquainted with iron, and we came to the 
hasty inference that of monumental remains they could have 
none; as experience informs us that the monumental remains 
of nations are chiefly buildings of stone, or sculptured images 
of art. We gratuitously assumed that the Indians, not being 
acquainted with iron, had no mode of supplying its place ; 
though perhaps the efficiency of their tools of coppor was the very 
reason that they had not discovered the use of iron, in which 
the mines of those countries are abundant. However this may 
be, specimens now jn England of Mexican antiquities prove^ 
not only that monumental records of stone preserve still the an- 
tiquities and manners of the Indians, but inspection of them 
will convince us that in the art of sculpture they had made 
great proficiency, if not arrived at some excellence ; but we 
cannot suppose, when we contemplate these existing monuments, 
that in other congenial arts, especially painting, they could have 
been less advanced. And here I may ren^ark, that from the few 
Mexican paintings now extant, preserved from the fury of 
religious persecution and other accidents, it would by no means 
be fair to Judge of the proficiency which the Mexicans had 
made in this art. We should rather form our opinion of the 
degree of merit which they had attained in it, from the contem- 
plation of their best sculptured remains, more of which, it may 
now be expected, will be brought to Europe. 

At the time of the conquest of Mexico by the Spaniardsj^ 
historical, and other paintings were of infinite number, and threw 
great light on history, being of the utmost utility in preserving 
uncorrupted the traditions of ancient times, it is certainly a 
painful reflection to think that almost all of these have been 
destroyed, together with many other monuments of Mexican 
antiquity : we only know that they once existed, it is notj 
however, so much owing to the neglect of individuals to the 
antiquities of their nation, that so few of the monuments of 
earlier ages have come down to us^ as to the suspicious eyes 
with which the Spanish Government ever looked on those who 
seemed too curious in their investigations into her possessions 
in the New World, or any thing connected with them. 

Amongst the native Indians, as well as the Spaniards, several 

178 On Mr. Bullock's Specimens 

intelligent individuals gave deep attentioni and befltowed greai- 
research on the antiquities of New Spain. This their learned 
works, still existing, amply testify ; but a name which deserves 
particular mention was that of Doctor Siguenza, Professor of 
Mathematics in the College of Mexico : he made an ample col* 
lection of Mexican manuscripts, and wrote works of profound 
learning on Mexican antiquity, which have unfortunately ail 
been lost. Some few other names might be metttioned ; but the 
collections which these individuals made have been dissipated and 
destroyed^ or doubtless at the present day it would have been 
an interesting object to have had these remains secured against 
accident, by having pictures and fac-similes made of them, 
>i'hich would in a manner have multiplied the original, and 
through its copies have preserved it from destruction and obli-> 
vion. With regard to Mexican antiquities and paintings, it may 
truly be said, that piety and ignorance, zeal and apathy-^in short, 
the most contrary causes — have conspired for their destruction. 
Even science herself may be arraigned as an accomplice in this evil 
work ; for, led by an eager desire to advance her interests, tnoTe 
than one European has crossed the Atlantic to explore the na* 
tural productions and antiquities of New Spain — from which 
country when about to return to their own, to enrich it by com- 
munication of the fruits of their laudable zeal, at once their 
hopes are ruined, and the labors of years defeated, by the jea- 
lous policy of the Spanish Government, which, aft^r having 
robbed them of the valuable collections they had made, (which 
collections are dispersed never to be recovered), thinks it a boon 
that the dungeons of the Inquisition are not decreed to them for 
their habitation during the remainder of their days. Such (ex- 
cept the Inquisition) was the fate of the unfortunate Italian, 
Boturini, who visited Mexico in 1736: with great expense, and 
incredible zeal, he had made a vast acquisition of Mexican an- 
tiquities, with which he was about to leave New Spain, when by 
order of th€ Government he was arrested, his whole collection 
seized in tl|e most ^^ijmtifiable manner, and he himself sent to 
Spain ; where, after some short period of time had elapsed, he pub- 
fished in 1746, at Madrid, an account of the loss he and science 
had sustained, (in a detailed catalogue in one vol.) of the precious 
qoUection which his long residence in Mexico had enabled him 
to procure, and his knowledge of the Mexican language, which 
be had learned on purpose the more easily to make inquiries 
amongst the Native Indians respecting their curiosities. Thus 
even the scientific zeal of an individual was in a measure the cause 
of many records of antiquity being lost. For had they not been 

: of Mexican Ahtiquities^ ^c. 179 

collected together bj him, they would have stood the chance at 
least of rich merchandise, the safety of which is not entrusted to 
one but to various vessels, some of which must reach the des* 
tined port, it is pleasing however to think that much more 
enlightened views actuate the present government of Mexico, on 
whose talents and patriotism already seems to dawn the auspi- 
cious morning that precedes a brilliant day, now about to gild 
that newly-emancipated and magnificent land. Perfectly op- 
posite and contrasted as their policy in public matters is to the 
selfish and narrow lice of conduct so long persisted in by the 
mother-country towards her colonies. History and Science seem 
likely to incur a separate debt from the generous consideration 
shown by a Minister in Mexico to their interests. Don L. 
D'Allemagne, wisely judging that several original Mexican ma- 
nuscripts of the most rare antiquity, preserved in various archives 
in Mexico, ought to be published, as the means of preserv- 
ing these precious remains from the accidents to which the 
Revolution or other causes might expose them, displayed 
excellent judgment in committing them to the hands of Mr. 
Bullock ; whose zeal and interest in the pursuit of discovery 
during his residence in Mexico, as well as perfect experi- 
ence in such inquiries, were at once a full pledge that the 
greatest care would, be taken by him df the valuable deposits 
committed to him, and which he was under promise to return 
safe and complete to the Mexican Government from this coun* 
try, in which they have sought a temporary retreat and refuge. 
If however that interest which they so fully merit, should create 
a desire to have fac-similes and copies of them, it is proposed 
to publish a work on Mexican Antiquities and Hieroglyphics, 
which would comprise what indeed it would be to be regretted 
should not see the light, when so fair an opportunity seems to 
present itself. Certain painted Mexican annals, which for 300 
years have been buried far from the busy examination of men in 
the archives of Mexico, the keys of which were always preserved 
in the Palace of the Viceroy, are now in the possession of Mr. 
Bullock ; in short the most ample materials for a work of this 
nature exist. With respect to Mexican antiquities it is difficult 
to judge what the public feeling may be; it cannot be said that 
any scarcely have been seen, much less published, in Europe : 
this ought to be a reason why they should be received with 
avidity; it may be a reason that they may be treated with 
In France^ from the direction that the literary inquiries of the 

180 On Mr. Bullock's Specimens 

present day have there taken, and the zeal with which an-^ 
tiquarian research is encouraged^ and success rewarded, it 
could not be doubted that this undertaking would meet with 
a highly favorable reception ; the beneficial results which France 
has derived from her generous and enlightened system, have dis- 
played themselves in the brilliant discoveries in Egyptian Hie- 
roglyphics by Monsieur Champollion, who is now employed in 
publishing another work of the most varied learning relative to 
Egyptian antiquities, entitled the Egyptian Pantheon. Turning 
our eyes however to England, it must be owned that the intrin- 
sic merit of a wojk is but a poor pledge to the undertakers of 
it^ that it will meet with public favor. Men of science do not, 
as in France, ([ allude here particularly to the members of the 
Institute) direct the public mind. Neither learned bodies, nor 
societies, if the name of the author is neither eminent nor fashion- 
able, and especially if the work would be expensive, think of con- 
ferring patronage or even notice on it'. It is certainly to be 
lamented that the Universities must equally share in this charge 
of indifference : their neglect to the interests of Oriental Litera- 
ture could not be more strongly instanced than in their deeming 
it unnecessary to patronise in the least degree Dr. Morrison, 
who, engaged in the task of composing his Chinese Dictionary, 
(a work wanting to the literature of Europe, aiKi necessarily one 
of great cost,) would have been highly flattered and encouraged 
if the Universities of his own country had taken an interest in the 
work which he was carrying on in China. 

I may be excused for here making some digression respecting 
the intended translation of the Imperial Dictionary of China, 
which, had it been completed in the manner in which it was com- 
menced, would have laid the extreme regions of Eastern Asia com- 
pletely open hot only to the Historian, but to the Philosopher ; for 
the arts and sciences would probably have reaped as rich a har- 
vest, in this magnificent depository of the learnings the customs, 
the religious opinions, the history, and the revolutions, which, 
during the space of 3(XX) years, have taken place in the furthest 
east. That this great work was begun was highly creditable to the 
India Company ; and if England has not, Europe has, sufficiently 
extolled their munificence. Perhaps content with this prema- 
ture praise, the patronage which shone on the undertaking has 
run its full course ; but the work,it is to be feared, in the end will, 
prove incomplete and abortive. Had Sir William Jones been, 
alive, he certainly would! have regretted that an undertaking had. 
been abandoned, of the importance of which to knowlege he 
was B judge qualified to decide; but the spirits which seem to 

t)f Mexican A ntiquitieSf ^c. 18 1 

liave presided over the commencement of the. work themselves 
liave departed, and their enlightened intelligence others cannot 
boast. There is indeed, in the preface affixed to the third part 
of the Dictionary, rather a tone of regret : Dr. Morrison con- 
cludes it by saying, '^ this Dictionary has unavoidably been pro- 
tracted till most of those who were immediately interested in 
the author and his work have sunk into the grave. I have hur- 
ried this part to a close, and I must do the same with, what 
remains unwritten of the first." I shall in a subsequent page 
extract from the last Number of the Journal des Savons, Mon- 
sieur Abel-R6niusat's criticism of this third part of Dr. Morri- 
son's Dictionary : the work has been indeed so hurried, and the 
original plan so altered, that unless Dr. Morrison meets with 
renewed encouragement to pursue his original plan — and it 
is not too late — the work had better be discontinued altogether. 
It is a fact worth observing, that of the vast Continent which is 
divided into Europe and Asia, the extreme east and the extreme 
west have preserved and committed to durable record the early 
history and traditions of the human race. The great portion of 
the earth intervening has been so subject to revolution, that in 
those parts where monuments have existed sacred to history and 
science, they have, in the convulsions of kingdoms and the de- 
structions of dynasties, been destroyed. The erratic tribes of 
Tartary, who spread over the remaining wide extent of Northern 
Asia, have generally been illiterate ; and it is in vain to search 
amongst them for historical records of distant ages. To have amal- 
gamated then, in a manner, the literature of Europe and of Chinai 
which may stand relatively to each other as silver tp gold, both 
precious, but the one more so, would indeed have been an object 
worthy of the cost. Europe excels in science, she is adorned 
with arts, but of the early history of Asia she is ignorant — of 
Asia, glorying in being ' the mother of the human race. But 
China preserves the most ancient records; with her august 
emperors, in antiquity, the Pharaohs of Egypt cannot compete ; 
her antique annals mount upwards towards the flood ; and ques- 
tions of vast interest, touching the history of Asia, and con- 
sequently of mankind, said to be derived from thence, her im- 
mensely voluminous writings, there is every reason to suppose, 
would resolve. How much then it is to be regretted that this 
fair prospect shone, brightly indeed, but momentarily, causing^he 
gloom which succeeded it to be more disappointing. Had Dr. 
Morrison's Dictionary and Encyclopedia of China, (for his 
work comprehended the provinces of both these, and was a 
translation with considerable additions of a Chinese work of the 

182 On Mr. Bullock's Specimens 

tame nature^ very extensiTe, composed by order of the Em- 
peror Cauihi nearly two centuries ago,) been completed, it 
would have amalgamated together European and Asiatic learn- 
ing. To the completion of this great work, the India Company 
had, it is said, resolved to give the munificent donation of 10,000/. 
I have here made rather a longer digression than 1 had intended ; 
but when I was speaking of hoped-for encouragement to ona 
literary undertaking, it was not unnatiural to mention disappointed 
expectation respecting another ; but that my expression of regret 
on this subject may not appear undue or out of measure, I 
shall quote from the last No. of the ^^ Journal des Savans,^ 
which is of the date of February, 1824, and but just published, 
an extract verbatim from the conclusion of the article by Mon- 
9ieur AbeL-R6musat, in which he reviews the last part diat has 
come out of Dr. Morrison's Dictionary — his words are these : 

' M. Morrison ne s'explique pas positivement sur les motifs qui 
Tobligent k pr^cipiter ainsi la fin de son travail : '' He has hurried 
this part to a close, and he must do the same with what yet re- 
mains unwritten of the first;'' c'est ainsi qui'il s'exprimoit en 1821, 
.^n domiaut son Dictionnaire Anglais-Chinois. Si des malbeurs 
priv6s ont 6puis6 sa Constance, ou si des d^penses trop prolon- 
g^es ont lasse la munificence dela Compagnie des Indes, M. Mor- 
rison doit deplorer, comme nous, les circonstances independa^tes 
de sa volonte qui le contraignent k laisser imparfait le magnifique 
monument qu'il avoit entrepris d'^lever k la litterature de la 
Chine ; et, de quelque mani^re que ce soit, les amis de cette litte- 
rature auront k regretter de voir ainsi manquer une occasion qui 
pent ne se repr^senter jamais. 

This is the manner in which M. Abel-R6musat, who is Pro- 
fessor in the Royal College of France of the Chinese and Tar- 
tar lianguages, a member of the Institute^ and lately chosen as 
secretary to the French Asiatic society established now nearly 
two y^ars in Paris, expresses himself. The profound learning of 
M. Abet-R^musat causes much more lustre to be added by him 
to the situations which he holds, than those/however honorable, 
can reflect on him. With M. Abel-R6musat I fully concur, 
that injudicious indeed were the counsels that could revoke thq 
execution of what seemed to have been fully resolved on, and 
which was even in part completed ; but the work, it seems, is to 
be brought to some kind of a conclusion^ and the last No. is a 
specimen of the new plan on which it is to be conducted. Let 
us hear what M. Abel-R6musat thinks of this new plan : he 
says, (I again quote his exact words) — 

II a fallu renoncer k suivre, dans les explications, le diction- 

of Mexican Antiquities^ S^. 183 

naire de Khan^-hi, supprimer toute d^finitiotiy toute citation tex- 
tuelle, tout developpement. Non-seulement on ne trouve p)u8 ici 
ces digressions interessantes, quoiqu*un peu diplacees» ces excur^ 
sions dans le champ de la litt^rature ou de la po^sie, trop multi- 
ph^es dans les clefs pr^c^dentes ; maia on y cherche en vain \% 
strict n6ces»aipe en ce genre; nulie explication d'usages, d'allusi* 
ons, nul renseignement Ittt^raire, scientifique, philosophique. Un 
mot ou deux, quelquefons une ligne, rarem^nt quatre ou cinq d'expli- 
cation Anglaiseyvoil^ce qu*on lit k c6te de latr^s-grande majoriti 
des caracti^res. Sur douze ou quinze mille qui sont accumules 
dans ce yo}ume, il n'en est peut-6tre pas deux cents dout les ex- 
plications approchent.un peu, par leur ^tendue, des articles du 
m^me genre contenus dans le premier volume; et il faut remarquer 
que le second contient plusieurs clefs des plus importantes,comme 
oes plus riches en d6riv6s, celle du cceurf pour les affections dd 
Tame et les operations de Tesprit ; celle de la main^ pour les acti-* 
ons Aiaiiuelles et la plupart des moUvemens materiels ; celles du 
soleil>, de la /une, de VeaU^ du/«», de Varhre^ des quadrup^des^ des 
iHaiadieSf de I'ceil et de ses facultes, des pierres, des cir^alesy &c. 

Tous les d6riv6s de ces diff^rens radicaux sont done rSduits k 
une s^che 6t sterile nomenclature, privee de tout inter^t et presqoe 
enti^rement d^pourvue d'utilit^ : car il ne faut pas oublier que 
la difficult^ de la langue Chinoise consiste beaucoup moins dans 
ces milliers de caractSres, la plupart synonymes les uns des autres, 
ou &-peu-pr^s inusites, dont le moindre 6colier pent trouver le 
sens isol6 en s*aidant d'un dictionnaire tout Chinois, que dans ces 
deceptions modifi^es et ces sens de composition qu'un petit nom- 
bre de caracteres peuvent prendre en s'unissant les uns avec le^ 
kutres, et dont bien souvent on ne sauroit devinef la valeur 
d'apr^s celle des monosyllabes qui les constituent. C'est done 
dans la multiplicity des expressions de cette nature qui y sont 
interpr^tees, que resident en r6alit6 la richesse et la bonte d'un 
dictionnaire Chinois, et non pas dans le nombre plus ou moins 
considerable des caracteres qu'on y a rassembl6s ; de telle sorte 
qu'un recueil de deux mille termes usuels bien choisis et expliqu^s 
dans toutes les acceptions qu'ils peuvent prendre et dans toutes 
les combinaisons polysyllabiques oil ils peuvent entrer, seroit 
infiniment plus utile k ceux qui veulent entendre les auteurs, que 
ne le seroit un vocabulaire de quarante, soixante, ou m^me cent 
mille caracteres, si Texplication qu'on y joindroit devoit fetre 
tfeduite k une interpretation de quelques mots. C'est pourtant \k 
tout ce que M. Morrison parott avoir I'intention de donner dans la 
suite de son ouvrage; c'est de cette mani^re, je le repute, que sont 
expliques douze ou quinze milliers de caracteres, sur quarante que 
cet ouvrage doit contenir. Ce n'est pas li, k proprement parler, 
achever le dictionnaire qu'il avoit commence ; c*est en donner un 
autre, d'apr^s un plan infiniment moins judicieux, Le Dictionnaire 

184 On Mr. Bullocks Specimens 

4u P. Basile de Glemona se trouTera, en totality, un lirre beauconp 
plus utile pour les i^tudians, parce que, 8*il contient moins de mots 
simples, if renfenne bien plus d'ezpressions compos^es : car on 
peut appliquer au petit nombre de ces derni^res qui a trouv6 place 
dans les vastes colonnes da dictionnaire Chinois* Anglais, ce que 
disoit M. Montucci dans nne occasion semblabie, en parlant des 
explications du Lexique du P. Diaz : 

Apparent rari ntmtes in gurgite vasto. 

It is impossible to read this criticism of M. Abel-R£- 
musat without agreing with him in every part of it ; and 
I think it is impossible not to share in bis regret also, that 
the magnificent monument erected to Chinese and oriental 
learning should be left imperfect, and an opportunity, as he 
observes, lost, which .may never recur; though I feel still 
inclined to hope that learned apathy to the interests of learning 
win never reach such excess in this country, as to suffer a work 
of this kind unheeded to die. Amongst the £ast India Direc- 
tors there are many highly enlightened men, and they must well 
know that the East India Company could not confer a greater 
obligation on the learned generally in Europe, than by causing 
this munificent undertaking to be carried through in the most 
complete manner; appointing, if necessary, coadjutors to Dr. 
Morrison,— that if the work is accelerated, which might be ju- 
dicious, the-perfection of its execution might not be impaired. 
The India Company owe it to science, they owe it to Europe, 
they owe it to themselves, as they did commence the work, to 
complete it in a manner worthy of them : the expense to so 
opulent a body of conducting it on the most liberal scale, 
could be opposed by no one who has once turned his eyes on 
the map of Asia, and knows the portion of the east subject 
to their sway. — It is difiicult to imagine that this work would 
not prove highly useful to this country in its commercial 
relations with the Chinese. That cautious government, it is 
true, will not admit foreigners into the interior of the Em- 
pire; — but the interior of the Empire would, by the perfect 
knowlege which Europeans might henceforward attain of 
their language, in which they might study the genius and 
manners of this Asiatic race, be perfectly thrown open to them ; 
and they would then be able to avail themselves of that know- 
lege in their commercial dealings with a nation, between which, 
country and this, from the nature of the importations, perpetual 
trad^ must exist, the temporary interruptions to which are pro- 
ductive of serious inconveniences, and which a thorough acquain- 
tance with th^ir language and manners would teach us to avoids 
or at least in the alternative to remedy. But besides the advan- 

af Mexican Antiquities^ SfC. 1 35 

tages of such knovi'lege of their language and manners with 
reference to Cbina^ it must not be forgot that the written lan- 
guage of Japan is perfectl}? the same. In manners also, in the 
punctilious etiquettes of diplomacy, the Chinese and Japanese 
are perfectly similar. It is true Japan has for near two handred 
years forbidden all foreign trade, but that policy migbf not al* 
ways last; — revolution, which caused it, or other causes, might 
lay it aside, and then the East India Company might find its ac- 
count in understanding the language of Japan, and creating a 
competition between that £mpire and China for the European 
trade, which doubtless would benefit the East India Com- 
pany, fiut howsoever this may be, M. Abel-Remusat's 
apprehensions seem justly founded. It must be confessed that 
the bright prospect lately held out to oriental literature appears 
completely changed and overcast. If this is the result, it cer- 
tainly must be lamented ; but some person, to put a counter-, 
balance in the scale, may say, 

** That an Asiatic Society has been established in London.*' The friends to the 
literature of the East wiil hear this intelligence with pleasure ; and every thing may 
be eipected from a society digniOed by the sanction of an august name, and reck- 
oning amongst its members men the most distinguished for their rank, talents, and 
fortune : bnt frequently much moie depends on the direction that is given to the 
motion, than the force which is employed in the impulse. The benefits of public 
institutions, according to the judgment which is shown in the application of their 
energies, either soon shoot up into giadt growth and vigor, or must await the slow 
progress and the uncertainties of time. The Asiatic Society, however, muit feel'deo 
sinma of conferring solid advantages on Asiatic learning ; it must command those 
great woika to be undertaken, and it must exercise particular discretion in the selec* 
tion of the persons employed in the execution of the task, as it is not the number of 
the persons, but the persons of the numbed, which is the object to be aimed at in 
the selectioflf: by the execution of such works it will at once anticipate three centu- 
ries of frivolous memoir-writing, each of which, it is true, of life might boast, but 
oifly *' to have lived its littie span, then 6uttering died." Those who are inclined to 
indulge in hopes that the langubhing work of Dr. Morrison mAy derive fresh youth 
from the establishment of the London Asiatic Society, will not find that those hopes 
derive diminution from the consideration that several enlightened, distinguished, 
and influential members of the Asiatic Society are immediately connected with 
India and the India Company. 

But to return to the subject of which I was before speak- 
ing, the Antiquities of Mexico. To Mr. Bullock, the 
highest praise is due. He has done not only what no English* 
man, but what no European has done before him ; and the 
complete success which has attended his exertions, entitles 
him to the congratulations of those who feel an interest in 
the objects of his inquiries. It must be remembered too, 
that the great difficulties and expense, with which he has 
had to contend, intitle him to a considerable share of pub- 
lic piatroBage ; for besides the manuscripts which he possesses, 
entrusted to him by the Mexican government, an infinitely more 
extensive collection, perfectly as curious, (which is saying a great 

1Q6 On Mr. BuUotks Spccimem 

dealy) has come into his poesession. He was the first foreigner 
who for purposes of research visited Mexico since the Revolu- 
tioo^ which alone made it a country accessible to foreigners* 
The Revolution; besides giving ingress to foreigners, had, a9 
always is the case in times of suih general commotion, un- 
barred and thrown open many offices of records and other 
places of security ; and those things which had perhaps been 
stored up for ages^ during which space of time they never might 
have seen the light, on a sudden were found in the possession 
pf the multitude, from whose destroying bauds each work that 
was obtained might attribute to the person so fortunate as to 
recover it, its preservation. At a time precisely like this, Mr» 
Bullock arrived in Mexico ; and from hands like these, many 
most valuable antiquities were by him rescued, which are now 
safely brought over by him to England. Besides a collection of 
paintings, in every respect most curious, he has also brousht 
over with him a collection of Mexican sculptures of most sui-» 
gular fashion, and exhibiting a proficiency in that art, which 
from the accounts of Dr. Robertson and others we had no rea- 
son to expect. In looking over some of the Nuoibersof a work 
of M. Cbampollion's on Egyptian Antiquities, I was extremely 
surprised to perceive a singular conformity between the Egyp- 
tians and Mexicans iu their sculptured monuments. These 
nations, ao far removed from each other, in many respects so 
contrasted, the former famed for its early wisdom and science, 
the latter supposed to have understood nothing of science, and 
of arts to have had but few ; the one boasting an august anti- 
quity, to whose Pharaohs mankind first learned to kneels 
themselves the earliest Kings and Legislators of the human 
race, — the other confessedly but a recent nation, and lately 
formed to habits of civil life : yet between these two nations, as 
far as the consideration of their sculptured monuments extends, 
a striking correspondence of taste seems likewise to have pre- 
vailed. Both the Egyptians and the Mexicans seem to have 
considered the just proportions and size of objects, according to 
nature, as too small, and participating in the inclination to re- 
present in stone, animals as objects of Idolatry, they also figured 
them of colossal size ; but as the animal productions of Egypt 
were very distinct from those of Mexico, we cannot look for 
idols of exactly the same type. 

Whilst Egypt adored her gods under the forms of the 
ox and the crocodile, and every monstrous shape, the Mexicans 
paid religious worship to that species of serpent which natura- 
lists term the rattle-snake. Perhaps^ in their long migrations 

of Mexican Antiquities^ ^c. 187 

through the lonely forests of America^ where gloom and soli* 
tude ever reign, they first imbibed this superstitious custom. 
The scenery and the awful grandeur of nature around, wher^ 
thick volcanoes imceasingly pour forth their fiery eruptions, 
and lightnings and hurricanes continually agitate the atmos- 
phere, were calculated to create in the wild and ignorant Indian 
superstitious feelings ; but all superstition is connected with a 
vague reli^ous sentiment, and causes an inclination to pay to 
some object, whether natural or supematural,.religious reverence. 
Though infinitely various as well as exquisitely beautiful 
in the lesser tribes of animal life, and producing vegetable na- 
ture of as full growth as elsewhere, America seems not to have 
possessed many species of large animals : the rattle-snake waa 
certainly the most dreadful tenant of her forests, and to it, as 
the type of the destructive or evil principle, the Indians seem 
to have offered up their vows, I have observed in all the rard 
antiquities of sculpture, either actually brought from Mexico 
to £ngland by Mr. Bullock, or the models of which, still ex- 
isting in Mexico, he has taken in the most ingenious and labo-*" 
rious manner in plaster of Paris, that this frightful serpent i» 
every where conspicuous. A small Idol in stone, of exceedingly 
good workmanship, is overwrought with this serpent, its scales 
exhibiting the appearance of ornamental foliage — its eyes and 
mouth w^re doubtless once adorned with jewels. But besides 
tbis small image, there is another of colossal size, on which 
interlaced snakes form a kind of ornamental tissue. This image 
was highly worth the pains which were taken to niodel it, as 
it was out of the question to bring over so great a weight ; 
but it is much too ^' bizarre '' for my pen to attempt to de- 
scribe ; and I should strongly recommend persons who feel an 
interest in Mexican antiquities, to judge with their own eyes of 
this curious object : they will even, perhaps, learn somewhat 
of human nature from it, for they will see into what de- 
lusions it is possible for mankind to run. There is also another 
rattle-snake in a rearing and upright attitude, of colossal size, 
amongst the collection, like the other images, no doubt once 
an object of worship. It is a singular fact that the serpent, in 
antiquity, amongst nations very remote from each other, seems to 
have been an object of mysterious veneration and early tradi* 
tion : the book of Genesis, the most ancient as well as sacred 
record, makes particular mention of that animal, ascribing to it 
originally a superiority of instinct over the rest of the ani- 
mal creation : the relation of the fall of man has an im- 
mediate connexion with this reptile. Could it have been 

188 ' On Mr. Bullock's Specimens 

possible that tradition might have preserved some faint recol- 
lection of this original history, and thence ascribed to it a 
participation in certain religious mysteries. If we examine 
the most ancient monuments of Egypt, we shall find it very 
singularly represented in connexion with Egyptian superstition, 
as with Mexican it undoubtedly was : but what could have 
procured for this dangerous but despicable reptile such re- 
spect i in the Egyptian temples, it is painted on the walls in 
every crawling attitude : but in Egypt the serpent was not the 
formidable animal that it was in the rattle-snake of America, and 
the Egyptians were a nation infinitely more enlightened than the 
Mexicans. However this question may be decided,, it is quite 
evident that great analogy existed in some respects between the 
Mexicans and the Egyptians. 1 do not mean, however, xo say 
that there was a probability of the one nation being derived from 
the other: their languages soem to have been very different, and 
language and physiognomy alone can prove community of descent 
in nations ; without these, other similarities in national customs 
can only be arguments of the probability of early intercourse : — 
but I think this a most interesting inquiry, as elucidating in some 
measure the history of the origin and descent of nations. The 
Bible Society, from' the number of languages into which it 
is translating the Bible, is furnishing tlie means of vi'bat 
would once have been thought an Herculean task, of insti- 
tuting a comparison between all the languages in the 
world ; the results of which comparison, when attained, 
woqld be like the unfolding of some precious volume, containing 
a faithful history of some of the most important events which 
have happened amongst mankind, and of the knowledge of 
which man was as yet ignorant. After the task of referring the 
derivative to the elementary and primitive languages, we may 
then refer these languages to the regions of the earth to which 
they primitively belonged ; it would be an after question, and 
one depending on the former, to resolve what might be the 
causes of languages being found in the particular parts of the 
earth in which they now exist, so widely separate from the coun- 
tries in which they were first spoken. The ambition of kings, 
mustering amongst their troops foreign and distant nations, 
might be the cause of those strangers afterwards settling in new 
habitations, and carrying with them tlieir language. The lead- 
ing of a conquered nation into captivity, Hbich was an early 
custom, to people another country, would have been a second 
cause of the migrations of languages; the common wants of 
life would have induced some tribes of men to change their 
habitations, in search of others gifted with a more fertile soil ; 

of Mexican Antiquititi^ ^c. 189 

finally, storms and tempests at sea would frequently have driven 
out of their due course to other lands^ trading and other vessels. 
In this manner I conceive the Otaheite and Sqciety islands, si- 
tuated in the bosom of the vast Pacific Ocean, to have been pe<v 
pled; in this manner the Japanese historians say that their 
islands were first inhabited ; in this manner. North and South 
America may postsibly have been peopled. 

Between tlie Mexicans and certain Asiatic people consi^ 
derable analogy seems to have existed in the mode of comput- 
ing time. From their own accounts, the Mexicans had, afte^ 
long travelling, arrived in that portion of America in which they 
fixed the seat of their Empire. Their singular and just method 
of computing time, strictly regulated according to the period of 
the* natural year, would certainly add weight to the argument^ 
that they probably derived their origin from some more civi- 
lised nation, I might here make some digression on the sub- 
ject of the Mexican cycle of time, but I shall spare myself th^ 
trouble by referring to a colossal sphere, which Mr. Bullock 
has brought from Mexico — an exact model of the original, 
built into the wall of the Cathedral of Mexico ; under which 
reposes in pacific sleep many a blood-sprinkled Idol^ curious 
froni their antiquity, curious from the ideas associated with 
them. The same gentleman has also brought over a model of 
the famous Sacrifical stone, belonging to the great Temple, the 
sides of which are most curiously eloquent respecting Mexican 
antiquity. The stone being very large, the compartments on 
the sides are numerous ; and, represented almost to the life, 
are seen the sacrifical rites> the sacrificers and the victims. 
This stone, which is spherical and situated in the church-yard of 
the Cathedra], had only the upper surface exposed, till Mr. 
Bullock dug round the sides and brought to light their myste- 
rious sculpture. The native Indians of Mexico know well the 
purpose which this stone answered^ and whenever they pass by 
it, it is now an Indian custom to stamp on it, to express the dis- 
gust with which the recollections of the inhuman sacrifices of 
their ancestors still inspire them. It is computed that at least 
5,000 victims were annually immolated on this memorable stone, 
the upper surface of which, having a basin excavated in the centre 
to catch the blood as it fell from the unhappy victims, with a 
channel to convey it thence to the ground, both of most capa-;* 
cious size, silently, }>iit significantly declares how numerous were 
the wretches immolated at the bloody shrine of the Idol ! I was 
led, from mention of the model of the sphere, to mention thisalso.^ 
At tlie end of this article is an engraving of the Mexicans sphere, 
which is of colossal size. The copy from which this engraving' 

190 On Mr. Bulkcki Specimens 

IVit Acatf was tnade in Mexico from tbe ortgirial tpliere, 
but 18 not extfemelj correct, as will be evident on com- 
paring it with the plaster of Paris model of it executed 
m Mexico bj Mr. Bullook, and to be seen amongst tb^ 
other curiosities of his collection. It is^ I imagine, a sphere 
of da^s of the Mexican month, of which the proper sym- 
bols are carved circularly round the stone. What all the other mya-^ 
terious emblems mean, wilh which the rest of the stone is covered^ 
I know not: two rattle-snakes are twined round the extreme cir- 
cle of the wheel, diverging from each other al the tails ; they 
curve in opposite directions rouqd the stone, and meet together 
with their heads facing each other, the jaws of each distended in 
the act of devouring a human being; between tbe fangs of each, 
the head of the victim is visible. 1 hope that the drcumstance of 
this curious stone, or at least its model, having been brought (o 
England, will awaken interest and create research. I do not 
doubt that all the other mysterious emblems which cover 
the stone are capable of elucidation ; but that elucidation must 
be subsequent to, and the result of, profound meditation, 
and research kito the genius, and customs, and science of the 
ancient Mexicans. But if any one is inclined to think that 
the solutions of the questions which may arise in the mind from 
indulging in this train of thought, require but slight exercise of 
the reason, and depend on obvious and easy considerations, let 
faim be aware of hid mistake : the mind when witling to arrive at 
probability, in judging of facts belonging to tho history of 
nations which have passed away, as the breeze of evening 
sweeps over the dust of the plain, never to return, fane 
something more to do than merely to adopt* the plausible opi'- 
nion of the moment ; at least, if its object is, not to persuade 
others, but itself to feel conviction on the subject. In this case it 
must, in its intellectual flight, wander over the history of many' 
ages ; it must visit nations and tribes of men the most remote 
from each other ; it must compare manners and usages the most 
different; and finally, its own nature, as far. as its piercing vision 
can irradiate the obscurity, it must scrutinixe and explore. Af- 
terwards, as the fruits of its exertions, enriched with multiplied 
and various knowlege, it may perhaps venture to judge, and to 
judge with confidence, on questions which others might not be 
equally qualified to decide. But to resolve certain questions, re- 
specting the manners, and customs, and genius of nations, where' 
the motives of human conduct require distinct analysis, and se- 
parate inquiry, in order to determine the reason of national man- 
ners and laws, deep knowlege of human nature is necessary. 
This knowlege is necessary to clear up and elucidate the 

* of Mexican Antiquities^ ^c* 191 

ititiqnities of nations ; and wOuld alone be equtil to the task of 
investigating and explaining the antiquities of Mexico and Peru, 
and the vast continent of America. And most worthy these regions 
areof all that genius could accomplish in discovery^ all that science 
could lend in light, though her torch were robbed of its divinest 
rajs, and all that munificence could expend in cost, in order that 
nothing either on the surface of the soil or beneath it^ 
whether physical objects, as vegetable, or mineral, or geological 
substances, or artificial, as ancient buildings, records of painting 
and history, and other monuments of the various arts indigenous 
and underived, peculiar and proper to the original Indians and 
natives of America, might pass unnoticed or unexplored. In- 
tending now to draw to a conclusion, I may be excused for 
having offered these few observations. I must, however; first 
say something of the second engraving, which represents another 
Mexican cycle of time, consisting of 52 years, which was af 
period of time which thefy used in their historical computations, 
as we do our century, it miglit then, the slight impropriety of 
the expression being excused, be called the Mexican century : 
the various years each had their proper symbols, by which they 
were distinctly particularised on the stone. I might here say 
something of the Mexican mode of reckoning, employed dn the 
wheel, but 1 have no itlf^liriation to enter into any difficult 
digressions. I shall observe, with respect to the engraving of this 
second cycle, that it is not a copy of a stone, but of a painting, 
of which Mr. Bullock has the original, which once belonged tb 
the celebrated Boturini, together with some other pictures no^^ 
in Mr. Bullock's possession ; not remai-kable, it is true, from 
the manner, but very remarkable from the subjects of the paint- 
ings, and from having formed part of the Mexican museum 
of the learned, but unfortunate Boturini. But it is not only 
the antiquarian that will derive gratification from seeing Mr, 
Bullock^s collection ; to the naturalist will be presented a mudh 
more ample field for contemplation. The western hemisphere, 
if we can believe description, seems in some parts to be the 
paradise of the earth. In the formation of some of the vegetable, 
and insect tribes, and in the plumage of the birds of those 
countries, nature seems to have luxuriated in beauty ; the na- 
turalist would only feel hesitation where he should begin his 
inquiries, so various are the riches that present themselves to 
his view. Of the gigantic range of the Andes, whose summits 
are covered with eternal snows, who has examined what are 
the natural productions i The soil of Mexico teems with 
the most beautiful and extraordinary vegetable productions. 

192 On Mr. Bullock's Specimens 

Mr. Bullock, who spent a year in Mexico, aiid has juarf 
returned^ did not forget to bring with bini to this country^ 
a most varied collection of specimens of fruits and flowers, andL 
trees of Mexico, modelled in wax and other ingenious ways, 
perfectly representing the natural object. The Horticultural 
Society are indebted to him for many species of flowers, 
never hitherto introduced into this country. Hie beauty of 
the humming, and other Mexican^ birds, of which he has a 
great variety, as it would be difficult to imagine, it would be 
vain to attempt to describe : it is said, however, perhaps by those 
who would envy America the beauty of her feathered race, that 
the birds of those countries do not sing — how true this may be 
I know not : it seems to be mere assertion, witliout any proof. 
The two other engravings, which follow those of the cycles of 
time, are from original pictures drawn in Mexico. Of the parti- 
cular places represented, the first is a distant view of a moun- 
tain, not far from the once famed city of Tezcuco, so cele- 
brated among the Spanish writers ; the last King of which, as 
well as the last Sovereign of Mexico, was most ignominiously, 
after a long captivity, put to death by Cortes, on some slight 
and unfounded, aiuspicion of plots against the Spaniards. The 
city of Tezcuco is still full of ancient monuments, tliough 
Robertson declares, in the most unqualified manner,, that there 
were no remains, of ancient monuments in all New Spain, or if 
there were any, some rude, shapeless and unintelligible mounds 
of earth only. This great and unbecoming mis-statement in Dr.. 
Robertson should be a caution to those who are inclined to 
imagine, that truth must flow in the channel of polished periods,, 
not implicitly to believe all that they find in the ptig^iriof cele- 
brated writers, whose reputation depends much more on the 
style of their language, than the justice and truth of their obser-^ 
vations respecting facts. Dr. Robertson writes at a distance 
from the facts and scenes which he describes, — he is but too 
frequently, in what he says, as distant from truth ; in fact, even 
now, the ruins of the palace of Tezcuco bespeak its former 
grandeur, though many of the stones, which once embellished 
this edifice of Kings, have found tb^ir way into the humble 
dwellings of the Indians, of which they now compose a part. 
The mountain, of which a representation is given, is, as I have 
said, not very distant from Tezcuco : this mountain is covered 
with the ruins of ancient Indian buildings ; at about two-thirds 
up the mountain is a curious bath hewn out of solid porphyry ;, 
the floor has been rent by an earthquake ; two stone seats 
cut equally in the rock remain associates of the solitude of the. 

i N- 






•• » 


« • • t> 

' « "w' 

of Mexican Antiquities^ ^c. 193 

place, a road on the left presents an abrupt approach. Of the 
period when this bath was made — so singularly situated, almost 
on the summit of a mountain, where one would have imagined 
there would have been Utile temptation to bathe, except, indeed^ 
the fatigue of the ascent might have rendered the coldness of the 
water refreshing — who can now tell ? The conveyance of the wa- 
ter to the bath must have been a work of considerable labour ; 
and one would have thought that the wings of '' the Zephyrs 
so high up the mountain themselves would have been sufficiently 
refrigerating. That, however, which is most surprising, and ren- 
ders this place an object of curious attention^ is the immense 
labor which must have been exhausted in cutting the solid 
porphyry. Our wonder is excited by the Egyptian art and labor 
bestowed in working porphyry; and knowing that of all stbnie this 
species of granite is the hardest, and perceiving how very slowly 
modern art proceeds in the labor of cutting it, what must we, 
think of this work of ancient Ameriean art ! Canvre believe 
that the ancient Indians, who were very superior to their pre^* 
sent descendants, were as unacquainted with every species of n^e-' 
tal inaftrument as some authors pretend i Ii is impossible. The- 
fact is, they had copper either naturally so hard, or they had the 
art of rendering it so hard, that it answered all the purposes of 
iron to them ; with copper tools, perhaps, thiscuiJous work might' 
have been accomplished. There is something very picturesque ^ 
in the appearance of this bath : the luxuriant green of the Nopal 
tree, the vegetation of which shoots all around, singularly con- 
trasts with the purple of the granite^ over which it seems as faii»> 
to spread its leafy protection. Having mentioned the name of 
Egypt, with reference to the cutting of granite, I cannot re- , 
frain from remarking one more analogy between the Mexicans 
and the Egyptians; it is this, — many and vast Pyramids exist at , 
the present day not very far frota Mexico. I know that some - 
authors have denied this, and put a veto on the world's belief ' 
of it — however this may be, these Pyramids exist, and are , 
likely to do so. Baron Humboldt, who has been in Mexico, . 
particularly describes them, and gives a drawing of one of the 
small ones extremely curious ; it has a staircase ascending to 
the top, itself being made of cut stone, and very high, on a . 
basis very small proportioned to its height. It must be granted, , 
then, that ancient Pyramids exist in some of the Mexican pro- 
vinces, and that the most interesting antiquities are to be diii- 
covered in the New World. 

VOL. XXIX. a.Ji. NO. Lvir. n 



prehending a Methodical Digest of the various 
Phrases from the best Authors^ which have been col- 
lectedin all Phraseological Works hitherto published^ 
for the more speedy progress of Students in Latin 
Composition. By rf. Kobertsok, A. M. of 
Cambridge. A new Edition with considerable Ad- 
ditionSf Alterations, and Corrections* London : Bald- 
win. 1824.&00. 15s. Pp. 1023. 

XhIs 18 a very bulky octavoi sold at a reasooabk price^ and in 
retpect to paper and print got up m that plain and unambitious 
wayi which is best suited to Sehool«books, and reflects credit on 
thosBj who have projected and executed the Work. The valua-- 
ble assistance, which it will afford to the Student and School- 
boy in Latin Composition, can scarcely fail to obtain for it a 
distinguished place in the list of School-books. Its pretensions 
to notice are so modestly, and, so far as w^can in the absence 
of the old Edition judge, so correctly, and so concisely set forth 
in the j/dvertisemeni prefixed, that it would be injustice to the 
Work and to our readers to state them in any other words : — 

Robertson's Latin PbrasbBook having been long out of print and be* 
come scarce, many eminent teachers of the classics have expressed a desire 
to see a new and improved edition. That there was ample room for im- 
provement is obvious i>n the slightest inspection of the old work. The 
£nglish is obsolete^ Ifie arrangemeal confused, the orderof printing sueb 
as to render it difiicult for consukatioo or reference, the requndancies so 
numerous as to increase most unnecessarily and seriously the bulk of the 
volume, and much of the Latin drawn from barbarous sources. It has 
been the aim of the present editor to remedy these evils, and to render 
the work better adapted to the use of the JBfiddA^aDd l^iper classes io our 

It is a peculiarity in this Phra$e Book that it comprehends all previous 
piiblications on the subject t but the present edition has this advantage 
over its predecessors, that it is enriched with many hiipdred phrases 
which have hitherto been unrecorded, and these have been drasrn from 
the purest fountains, by actual perusal; from Cicero,' TqcUum, Terence, 
Piautui, &CC, 

Thus, while the size of the volume had been usefully diminished, its 
capacity fur reference has been increased, and its value for purity consi- 
derably enhanced. 

Notice of Robertson's Diotionary^ ^c. 1^5 

. ' But while' the editor is caUiog public attentioti to imppavenients al- 
, reader made^ he wpuld not be thought insensible to the necessity of future 
improvements, and will thankfully receive such animadversions as may 
remler another edition still more useful. 

The fMj^astn^ attentum paid to Latin CompdtUion refaders works of this 
description more important; and by.tlM LMkxm Oiceronioni/im of Nhto- 
/titf, and this improved edition of Rohertfon, tbe aixess to Latin ueculiar 
rities is made more easy and sure ; for if correct Latinity were only to be 
acquired by an extensive and deep acquaintance with the various works 
of classic authors^ it would be absolutely unattainable by any one in 
UatupupiUarif and could scarcely be taught in our schools.* 

We coii|;iratuIate tbe classical public on the nmltiplied facili- 
ties for writing elegant and correct Latin, which are afforded by 
this and similar Works. We would strongly urge on the at- 
tention of School-masters the propriety of giving every possible 
encouragement to so desirable, an accomplishment, which has 
been often unattainedeven by Scholars, whose fame has extended 
pver civilised Europe, and whose works will be read with in- 
struction aad amusement to the remotest period of time. To 
wrk* Jjatia with facility may be a matter of easy acquirement to 
most scholars of extensive reading ; to write it elegantly may be 
an ofcgect of no difficult attainment to a student of good taste 
and memory^ intimately conversant with the language of the pu- 
rast authors; but to unite rhetorical elegance and grammatical 
accuracy, Ate ktbor, hoc opus est, and yet the student need not 
despair of uniting both, if he will depend on his own right hand, 
cheer bis heart with contemplating the bright example of the 
venerable Dr. Parr, and pursue his career of improvement witb 
that ** soul of fire,*' which '' no labors fright, and no dangers 
tire,*^ and which takes for its device the animating words of the 
Latin poet : Possunt, quia posse videntur. 

We sball cite from the Work under consideration two speci- 
mens of the manner, in which the Editor has executed the task 
assigned to him ; and these specimens will convey to our readers 
a pretty good idea of the plan and utility of the book for assist- 
ing the^ student in Latin composition :--r 

** Zb akmdonf renuntiare, amovere, amandare, remittere etc. ; af, Ih 
abandon onis firiendikipy amicitiam alicui renuntiare, Cic. : He hag aban* 
doned virtue^ uuntium virtuti remisit, Cic. : He has abandoned or renounced 
ail ewU offices or empioymerUSf Civilibus officiis renuntiavit : I abandon mjr 
province f provinciam rem it to : To abandon one, whote reputation ii attacked^ 
dimicanti de fama deesse, Cic.'' 

** Lean, macer, macilentus, gracilis, tenuis, exilis, strigosus. As kan as 
a ra^, ossa atque peiiisy misera macritudine ; nihil ahud quam Syphar 
horoinis ; nudior licberide. Iia proverhialiter dicicur de vehenienter te- 
ntiibus; Leberis enim serpentis exuvium siguificat. Night watchinj^s 
make bodies kan^ vigiliae attenuant corpora.^' 

196 Es^afmnatiom for the Classical Triposes^ 

From the kst instance our readers will perceive that dee at- 
tention is paid to proverbs, which contain the condensed forcb 
of the languages, as well as the collected wisdom of the people. 
The proverbs of the one tongue are translated by the corre- 
spondmg proverbs of the other. 



^rst inttituted at CambrU^e, January ^ 1824.- 

To he translated into Greek Prose. 

D/Ly son, you are yet young: time will make an alteration in 
your opinions ; and of many, which you now strongly maintain^ 
you will hereafter advocate the very reverse : wait, therefore^ 
till time has made you a judge of matters, so deep and so ioH 
portent in their nature. For that, which you now regard ae 
nothing, is, in fact, the concern of the very highest moment; 
I mean, the direction of life to good or bad purposes, by corn 
responding investigations into the nature of the Gods. One 
thing, and that not trivial, I can at least venture, in all the. con- 
fidence of truth, to assure you respecting them ; the sentiments, 
which you now entertain, are not solitary, first originated by you 
or your friends ; they are such as, at all times, have found ad* 
vocates, more or less in number; but I speak the language of 
experience when I say, that not one of thbse, who in their 
youth had been led to think that there were no Gods, has found 
his old age consistent in opinion with that of his more juvenile 

To be translated into English. 

Rem populi tractas i (Barbatum hsec crede Magistrum 

Dicere, sorbitio toUit quern dira cicuta?.) 

Quo fretus ? die hoc, magni pupille Pericli. 

Scilicet ingenium, et renim prudentia velox 

Ante pilos venit ? diceuda, tacendaque calles ! 

Ergo, ubi commota fervet plebecula bile, 

Fert animus ealidse fecisse silentia turbae 

Majestate menus ; quid deinde loquere i Quirites, 

Hoc, puto, non justum est ; illud male ; rectius illnd, 

Sds etenim justum gemina suspendere lance 10 

• ( 

Instituted at Cambridge^ Jan. 1824. 197 

Ancipitis librae ; rectum discernis, ubi inter 

Cilrva subity vel cum fallit pede reguia varo : 

Et potis es nigrum vitio praefigere Tbeta. 

Quin tu igitur, summa nequicquam pelle decorus. 

Ante diem blando caudam jactare popello 

Desinisy Anticjras melior sorbere meracas ? 

Quae tibi summa boni est ? Uncta vixisse patella 

Semper^ et assiduo curata cuticula sole. 

Expecta : baud aliud respondeat base anus. I nunc. 

Dinomacbes ego siim ; suffla : ^um candidus. Esto, 20 

Dum ne deterius sapiat pannucea Baucis, 

Cilm bene discincto cantaverit ocyma vemae. 

Ut nemo in sese tentat descendere ! nemo ! 

Sed praecedenti spectatur mantica tergo. 

Quaesieris : Nostin^ Vectidi praedia i cujus f 

Dives arat Curibus, quantum non milvus oberret. 

Hiinc ! ait F faunc, Diis iratis, Genioque sinistro ! 

Qui, quandoque jugum pertusa ad compita figit, 

Seriolae veterem metueos deradere limum, 

Ingemity Hoc bene sit ! tunicatum cum sale mordens 50 

Coepe ; et, farrata pueris plaudentibus olla, 

Pannosam isecem morientis sorbet aceti. 

I. Ver. 1. Mdgittrum,'] What remuneration did the Sophists usually 
receive for their instructions? Did Socrates require any from his disci- 
ples? What was the accusation brought against him? Before what 
court was he tried ? What time intervened between the- representation 
of the Clouds and his death ? 

II. 3. PupiUe.'] Give an account of the life of the person here ad- 
dressed, with the dates of the events you mention. 

III. Tketa^ 12. JhUkyrai, 16. Mantka^^^,] Explain these allusions, 
and confirm your assertions by quotations. 

IV. State the arguments used in the dialogue of Plato, of which this 
Satire is an imitation. 

To be translated into English. 

Altera jam teritur bellis civilibus aetas; 

Suis et ipsa Roma viribus ruit. 
Quam neque finitimi vduerunt perdere Marsi, 

Minacis aut Etrusca Porsenae manus, 
i9Smula nee virtus Capuae, nee Spartacus acer, 

Novisve rebus infidelis Allobrox; 
Nee fera cserulea domuit Germania pube, 

Parentibusve abominatus Hannibal ; 

198 Exdfriin a Horn J or the Classical Tripma^ 

Impia perdemus devoti sanguinis setas ; 

Ferisque rursus occupabitur solum. IQ 

Barbarusy heu ! cineres insistet victor^ et Urbem 

Eques sonante Terberabit unguia : 
Quaeque parent ventis et solibus ossa Quirini 

(Nefas videre) dissipabit insoleus. 
Forte, quid expediat, communiter^aut melior pars, 15 

Malis carere quaeritis laboribus ? 
Nulla sit bac potior sententia: PhocttoruiD 

Velut profugit exsecrata ciVitas 
^gros atque Lares patrios, habitandaque fana 

Apris reliquit et rapacibus lupis : fiO 

Ire, pedes quocunque ferent, quoGuhqne per undas 

Notus vocabit, aut protervus Africus. 
Sic placet ? an melius quis habet suadere ? secunda 

Ratem occupare quid moramtir alite i 
Sed juremus in haec : simnl imis saxa renarint 25 

Vadis levata, ne redire sit nefas : 
Neu conversa domum pigeat dare lintea^ quando 

Padus Matina la^erit cacumina. 

I. Ver. 5. Spartacm.'] Give the date and circumstances of the insur- 
rection of Spartacus. Upon what occasion were gladiators first exhibited 
at Rome ? Describe their weapons, and their manner of fighting. 

II. 17. P/bc«orttm.] What circumstances induced the Pbocamns to 
leave their country > At what places did they stop in their flight? Where 
did they finally settle ? Give your authority for what you re&te. 

III. Give the names and laws of the different lyric metres used by 

Trotndate into English Prose. 
(From Theocr. IdyJ. xxv. 221 — 261.) 

OT [lav vph voSas Sjxov, Sgos ravv^vKKov egivvwv, 
Hfiv iSeeiv, akKr\^ re fFetpoLvfUa viipffiT^vM, 
«Toi 6 jxev (T^gciyYa wpoSefeAoj ia-nx^v eJj V, 
BefipcoKcis xgeimv re xa) alpiMTog' otfi^) ^g ;^a/rft; 
Av^firipai frewaXuKTO ^Svw, ^aXeiciy re irpoo'coiroy, £25 

Srrfi^oL re' yX«l(r(rj 8e 9rgpiXi;^aTo yivetov, 
^urao hyci 6api,vot(nv ap^ec <nn&gf)i<rtv hxpv^iiiv 
*Eif flcp vXijtvTt, SeSsyjxIvoj iinr^f Ixorro* 
KetXfiaKfiv i<r(rov iorros apKrrepov tig xeve&va 
Tviwrloos* ov yap ti fii\o$ ha trapxis oXKrfcv 230 

'Oxpoosv, x^PV ^^ fFaXWavrov€(re voltj. 
AuToq xpara laUfQtvh ccTfo x^^^ ^ heietpiv ' 

' Instituted at Cambridge^ Jan. 1824. 19^' 

StcsTripi^iVOg, Xaftugo^^ Of ;^aycoy xnriiei^ev Sioirras. 

Tef S" eyd aAXov diVrov iiwo Vivprig vpofaXXov, ^^5 

*A(ry(jxki<av Zri fuot vph ^reotno; ex^uye x^i^o;. 

*A\K' ov^ &g wco fiipa-ctv eSu woXvcoSuvo; lo^^ 

'ilXX' hatri frpoiragoiSe volcov avfftfloXjov amcog. 

To rplrov ai iiiKksa-xof, aoroofi^ivog h pge(r)v ahtog, 240 

Avipvuv* 6 Se fir' eISs Tcnpiykt^myLe\tog oo'O'otg 

Oijp ecftoro^* [MLxpriv $ff irap* i7vvi}<riy 2Xf $e 

Kipxov i^ctp $6 l^X'^g ejiitria'aTo* irSig $1 oi aup^v 

JS'xu^Ojxgy^* xti^ $s pot^ig yavtr rfira roj^ov, .245 

IIcLVTohv iiKv<riivTog urai Kayomg rs xa) i^t/v. 
*i2^ $* Jray iqfutrwnj^og otv^p, iroXiMv lipig ipy(AV^ 
**0p7niKag Kiff,7rni(nv kpiveotj euxearoio, 
Oik^ag Iv irvp) irpwroVf faroe^ov/ep xuxXa Sf^fcpy 
Tou /xsv uv' ffx %sipflov iftry§¥ rawfT^tog hpinog 250 

KotiMFTOfji^og, njXoO Si fti^ ff^Si](rsy u^* ^PM^^' 
^/2^ IT* e/xo) XT^ aivog atroTTpoiiv atgoog ikro, 
MaifMixov XP^^S i^oLi* lyto V hipri^i ^iXff/xya 
Xtip) vposiTX^ofAi/iv, xeA &7r* £[uoov ilir?Mxa htuin^f* 
T^ 8* h'i^ pSjraXof xip^g wno a3oy culoagf 
"HKcktol xotxxs^aX^^* hi, V avoiya TpfQ(pv tet^oL 
Airotj M Xoo-ioio xap^otrog ayMKouov 
Bvfpog afutiiMtxtroio* Tti^av S* fytj 7tp)v.y' l/x Ixia-ieu, 
^T^Htv hv yocfy xoti «r) tpopi^apolg woriy limj, 
NsfJOTut^cw Kefoik^' Tregl yko (rxirog Strai o! SfJLfeo 260 


I. V. S23. vfU iiui¥. Explain the degree of latitude with which the 
Greek writers use the different tenses of the infinitive mood. Is there 
any diflerence between the tisage of vplv with a subjunctive and with an 
infinitive i 

II. 246. How is the quantity of the second syllable in iripixty^To 
accounted for? Show from a comparison with words at all similar iu 
their composition, whether there is any method of remedying the appa- 
rent defect. 

III. 936. ^oxotuv. What other form of this word exists ? Which is 
the more ancient? How is the present form explained ? Produce a few 
similar forms from Homer. 

IV. 241. a^p^fty. I Which of these is the preferable reading? Establish 

av t^Cttf, i your opinion by autliority. 

V. Derive v^hU\oc, MS. Awfi<6x««», 239, inp*yXif»«fAiv«ff, 841. afwr»c, 34 J. 
idM»<n»e, 348. <ravv(pxoioc, 350. hJncn, 354. Give the different derWatioDs 
and accentuations assigned to «0$mc according to its significations. 

SOO Eraminatians for the Classical Triposes^ 

VI. To what dialect, and what stage of that dialect, does the language 
of Tbeocritut belong? Specify in a few instances the difference between 
that dialect and others to which it approximates. 

Translate the following into Enolish PaasB. 

tuiMOV Tff ^onav xa) Siwv* 
0afjh yip raaV if aUKKaey* 
xrou ff'OTff yaii *Ewafoio Kopav 

*Avt) iik^haav 8* iXei^uirregvYoov 
"iwTTOvs afAil^avrts 6ootg, 30 

*Avla T ten eprrjxcoy 

iCsIyo; opvi; cxrcXfura- 

vti^ [jLtyiKoLV voX/coy fiarph^ 
S^pav ywMm^ riv itotb 
TpiToovtSos ffv froo^oeiis 
AlfJLVUs dsM ctvtgt fiSoftfvep 
raiuv imvTi (tlvM 
IJpipaifV Etipafiog xurotfiig 
jdt^ar' aTriov 8* M ol Kpovteov 
Zivs vetT^p ixXay^e fipovTMr 41 

*Avix* iyxugw wort x^^^^Y^^^ 
NeA xpififiyaVToov mroa-a-e, 9oa$ 
^ApyoS$x^Ki^6v» JcuSexa 8f wgo- 

^AyApoL^ ff ouxfavou fipopLiv 
Nitoov VTTio yaSa; ipi^fMOv 
EivaKiOV hopv, /u.^- 

Twrcan'V oiowoXof 

AalfMtV 8«^X0SV, ^iilfiMY 50 

Av^pog al8o/ou irpo(ro^ty 
Oijxajxsvo;. 4n>Jtw S* Mew 

''Apx^Oi ^ilvots it* fX- 
^JovtsciTiv tutpyiroit 

Aiiwv ivatyyiPs^oyTi rporroy. 

'AXKoi yeip virrov ^fifwrtg yXw- 


r«ia^%oti waT^ of l/rou 'Eyyoo-/Sff 
"Epi.fUivat, r/yvowxf S" nrtiyo/xi- 

^i^y S" fudu; apwo^eus. apo6p»s 60 
Ji^mpa w^OTUj^oy 
Htyioy jxao'rfuo's Souyai. 
OuS* &ir/ii}<rs yiy, oX* 

X' 9^00^, fw' axraio-iy Aopwy, 
X«4p/ ol ;^«i^* iyriptl^aig 
Ji^aro ^Kaxa leufiovlav. 
Of^oftai 8* aurciy xora- 

xXtM-Sfficoy ix Sovpotro^ 
'EvaXlf fiip^w vifv oXijm, 

*Enifag, vypjp wiXaytio-softe- 
yoey* 70 

^H '/xay yiy jrpoyoy Socfu^ 
Aufrnrovois tipawiih 

TtiTciv ^uXofai* To>y 8* IXa- 
Soyro ^pivis* 
Kctl vvv h r^9 if6noy vol" 

(Tfip xixyfcu Aifiuas eugu^opoo 
SvipfMtf %gh &pa$. E\ yap oU 

xoi viv fiiks iFotp xl^oviov 
*Atia (TTOiia, Tahugov iis Upoiv 
Etjf»iMS cX$eoy, utos (w- 

ifi^ov i7o(r»8aa}yof , Aa^, 80 
Toy WOT Eupwta Tiroou tfuyanip 
TiXTs HCoc^io'ou woep* Sxfims' 

Twrparȴ iraC&oov x twiysiyofu* 

i^Ifia 01 xf /y«y X«/3f (ruy Aavaolg 


Uaituted at Cambridge, Jan., 1894 901 

Eiqtlaf iwufw. Tm yip \^ir 

y§{ov T9 xi?iinv xa\ MoxJivav. 

I. ▼. 35 — 28. Where was Thera, and from what state cqloni^ed ? Who 
was the daughter of Epaphus? What the colony here predicted? When, 
and by whom, established? Explain the change foretold in 39 — 33. 

II. 36. T^ifwllos, Describe its- situation ; and give a brief sketch of 
the supposed course of the Argonauts to account for its introduction. 
Explain in connexion v^ith this the fact mentioned in vv. 44—48. 

III. Explain the sense of fl^o/txryw, how derived, v. 37. the quantity of 
the penult of <ly»(/^y, v.43. with exceptions either real or apparent; the 
formation ofMrwvt^ v. 43. Ix0ovr«0viv, 54. /SSfuvyOO. 0ir«juiliMiy, 70. 

IV. Explain the construction of M wKiBr^i nv, and produce examples 
of the different uses of vtv in different dialects. 

V. Who are the AakioI mentioned in v. 84. ? With what propriety is 
the term used? What is the event referred to in the last three lines? 
Give the date usually assigned to the Argonautic expedition, and calcu* 
late the distance of time between the two events. 

To be translated into English Prosb. 

(Aristoph. Acharn. 593-617. 6(J6.675.) 


AL lyoS y&f €\^imwx,is\ A A, oKKoL rl^ yof sT; 
aXA*, 10 Srot; inp o irokef/i^os, (rrgotrooviiris' 

A A. s;^sif OTOvijo'av yig fM. AL Tget§ ye xexxuyfl^. 

Toevr o8y eyd /3Se^(r^roftevo^, lo^gia-a/xt^y, 

6gmv ToXiov; jxey avipeig iv reilg ri^ea-i, 600 

viavlag S*, olovg crh, iia^sigetKorcig, 

robs fjiiv hi Opaxrig, p^itrio^opwrrag rpug IpayjMgf 

Tia'apLmfofeuyhnrovg, iravovpyimraf^lhag, 

iripovg $s vapei Xagv^ri, rahg 8* iv Xa^ci, 

FipriToiMcSmgovg, Aiopi,eia\oL^6voig, 605 

Tobg S' Iv KoLpMqljji xav riXoi, xav xarttyiksf. 
AA. ix^ipyrovifiyiirav yap, AL aTriov Si t/ 

TfluySi Ss iM^W STsov ; cS MapiKxtt^, 

^Si} irewpi<rfiwxag a-i 7ro>itog wv ; htj* 610 

avivtucB* xa) rowrrh ya a-oofpmv xagyirrig, 

Ti Sal Apdxv>J<og, ^ EufopHiig, ij Upivtiiig ; 

olSev Ti; ufUDV raxfiirav* ^ rou; Xaovag'j 

ou fewh* itXX 6 Koivvgeig xal AijMyog* 

(Hg Mr' ipeofou n xei) yjpam ir^eoijy irort, 615 

90K lEaanmations far the Classical Triposes^ 

Amp AiiorMrrp9V li^loyri f indpASf 

. ♦ ^ ♦ . ♦ * # 

oToy ii Mpeauov wpwhow 

ipflx &V hravipaxlitg dS<ri iretpa)ul[MVMf 

ol ti Botcioof avaxuxwcri AiTapafMroxaf 

01 Se jxarTOKriy' oSra» (ro/So^ov eAfle juiXo^y 

fSrovov^ oypoixirMpov, dg hfMp Xa^wu, rov Si^ftoniy* 675 

I. V. 593^. Give an account of the original institution of the pv^rvyd, 
nad the modification which the office subsequently underwent. Account 
for the use of the article before crforwyoK 

II. 6M. What. is the third foot in this verse? Explain the general 
principle of the combination of letters lengthening a preceding short 
vowel; and show from it what will be the effect produced by the con- 
currence of fxr. 

III. 698. Is there any ettot in this line, as it now standi? If so, cor- 
rect it. 

IV. 609. At what period of the war, and by what circumstances, 
were military operations transferred to Thrace ? Mention the principal 
events which occurred there, with dates. State the metrical canon 
bearing upon the quantity of VXi^^y give apparent exceptions to it, and 
account for them. Giv^.the value of the di^hma, obolus, and mina; 
and mention from Aristophanes the daily pay of other services among 
the Athenians. 

V. 603 — 6. Explain the allusions in these lines. 

VL 608. Mark the breathing, accent, &c. of afAtryevn, ahd explain its 
formation. In 611, explain the corapositioo of ro&rriv, and compare it 
with similar usages : in 617t explain the formation and sense ofi^tarw, 

VIL 614. i Kotff^As, Who is the person here intended ? Trace the 
relation, and point out aliy other circumstances which confirm or inva^ 
lidate the consistency of Aristophanes*s description. Where did Lama- 
chus die, and when ? 

VIII. 615. Common reading, tirSf, On what grounds is it objection- 
able ? How may the corruption ))e accounted for ? Explain l^avey. 

IX. 667. 'Ax»eytK^* Where was Acharnae ? and to what tribe did it 
belong ? What account does Thucydides give of their strength and im- 
portance at this time ? and what was the ground of their dissatisfaction. 

X. 678. Seu-lkf, Where was the place referred to, and for what 
famous ? Explain the allusion .of the passage^ and account for (he use of 

XI. Give the metrical names of vv. 667. 673. 

Translate into Latin IjYRicSf and affix the metrical names 

to the lines of the first Strophe : 

"Opvis, a Traga. Tois Trerplvxs • « • • • 

EuKiP. Iphik. in Taur. 1089—1152. 
Ako, the Antistrophe io be translated into English Prose, 

. InsiittUed M Condnidgt^Jtm. 18M. SOS 


To be turned into Greek Iambic Trimeters. 
BfiAirus ille, qui procul negotiis. • • • 

To be translated into Latin Prosb. 

The best way to represent to life the manifold use of friend- 
ship, is to cast and see how many things there are which a man 
cannot do himself; and then it will appear that it was a sparing 
speech of the ancients, to say, ''that a friend is another him- 
self;*' for that a friend is far more than himself. Men have, 
their time, and die many times in desire of some things which 
they principally take to heart; the bestowing of a child, the 
finishing of a work, or the like. If a man have a true friend, 
he may rest almost secure that the care of those things will con- 
tinue after him ; so that a man bath, as it were, two lives in his 
desires. A man hath a body, and that body is confined to a 
place; but where friendship is, all offices of life are, as it were, 
granted to him and his deputy ; for he may exercise them by his 
friend. How many things are there which a man cannot, with 
any face, or comeliness, say or do himself? A man can scarce 
ailedge his own merits with modesty, much less extol them ; a 
man cannot sometimes brook to supplicate, or beg, and a num- 
ber of the like : but all these things are graceful in a friend's . 
mouth, which are blushing in a man's own. So again, a man's 
person hath many proper relations which he cannot put^ off. 
A man cannot speak to his son but as a father; to his wife but 
as a husband ; to his enemy but upon terms : whereas a friend 
may speak as the case requires, and not as it sorteth with the 
person : but to enumerate these things were endless ; I have 
given the rule, where a man cannot fitly play his own part ; if 
he have not a friend he may quit the stage. 

To be translated into English Pkose. 

At Marius, 'cupientissuma plebe Consul factus, postquam 
ei ^provinciam Numidiam populus jussit, antea jam infestus no- 
bilitati, tum vero multus, atque ferox instare : singuios modo, 
modo universos laedere : dictitare, sese Consulatum ex victis il- 
lis spolia cepisse ; alia praeterea magnifica pro se, et illis dolen- 
tia: interim, quae hello opus erant, prima habere: 'postulare 
legionibus supplementum : auxilia a populis, et regibus, sociis- 
que arcessere : prasterea ex Latio fortissimum quemque, pleros- 
que militia, paucos fama cognitos accire, et ambiendo cogere 

f 04 Emlmnations for the Clamcal Trift^s^ 

^homines etneritis stipendiis secatn proficiaci. Neque illi Se- 
natus, quamquam adversus erat, de ullo negotio abnuere aude- 
bat: ceterum supplementum etiam lastus d^creverat: quia, 
^oeque plebi militia' volenti putabatur, et Marius aut belli 
usuno, aut studium vulgi amissurus. Sed ea res frustra sperata. 
Tanta lubido cum Mario eundi plerosqae invaserat. 

' ' LuDi forte, ex instauratione, Magni Romte parabantur: 
instaurandi baec caussa fuerat Ludis mane servum quidam pa- 
terfamilise,^ nondum commisso spectaculo, sub furca csesum 
medio egerat circo : ccepti inde ludi, velut ea res nihil ad religi- 
onern pertinuisset. Haiid ita multo post, Tib. Antinio, de 
plebe homini, somnium fuit. Visus Jupiter dicere, '' Sibi ludis 
praesultatoreni displicuisse : nisi magnifice instaurarentur hi lu- 
di, periculum urbi fore : iret, ea consulibus nunciaret." Quan* 
quam baud sane liber erat religione animus ; verecuhdia tamen 
majestatis magistratuum timoremvicit, ne in ora hominum pro 
ludibrio abiret. Magno illi ea cunctatio stetit : filium namque 
intra paucos dies amisit : cujus repentinse cladis ne' causa dubia 
esset, cegro animi eadem ilia in somnis obversata species; visa 
est rogitare, ** Satin' magnam spreti numinis bieiberet mercedem i 
majorem instare, ni eat propere ac nunciet consulibus/' Jam 
praesentior res erat : cunctantem tamen, ac prolatantem, ingens 
vis morbi adorta est, debilitate subita. Tum enimvero Deorum 
ira admonuit : fessus igitar malis praeteritis, instantibusque, 
consilio propinquorum adhibito, quum visa atque audita, et ob- 
versatum toties somno Jovem, minas, irasque coelestes reprae- 
sentatas casibus suis exposuisset; consensu inde baud dubio 
omnium qui aderant, in forum ad consules lectica defertur : inde 
in curiam jussu consulum delatus, eadem ilia quum Patribus in- 
genti omnmni admiratione enarrasset ; ecce aliud miraculum ; 
qui captus omnibus membris delatus in curiam esset, eum func- 
tum officio pedibus suis domum rediisse, traditum memoriae est. 


' UTRUMQDifi ex ttto coBsilio: nam et ^oratip fuit ea nostra, 
ut bene pottiis ille (Caesar) de nobis exisfimar^t, quam gratias 
ageret: et in eo mansimus, ne ad urbem. Ilia fefelleruot, faci- 
lem quod putaramus. Nihil vidi minus. Damnari se nostro 
judicio, tardiores fore reliquos, si in his non venerimus, dicere. 
£g:o, dissimilem illorum esse causam. : Cum multa; venl igi- 
tur, et age de pace. Meone, inquam, arbitratu ? An tibi, in- 
quit, ego praeftCribam f * SijC, inquam, agam : Senatui noii pla- 

Imtiiuted at Cambridge j Jan. 1 &84. 205 

cere in HispaniftB iriy nee exercitus in Gneeciam tmnspoHari ; 
multaque^ inquam^ de Cnaeo deplorabo. Turn ille^ £go verb 
ista dici nolo. Ita putabam, inquam : sed ego eo nolo adess?, 
quod aut sic mibi dicendum est, multaque quae nullo modo poa- 
aem silere^ si adessem; aut non veniendum. Summa fuit, ut 
ilie quasi exitum quserens, ut deliberarem. Non fuit negandum. 
Ita decessimus. Credo igitur bunc me non 9 amare : at ego me 
amavi ; quod mibi jam pridem usu non veuit. . Reliqua> p dii, 
'^qui comitatusi quse, ut tu soles dicere, vcxu/a ! O rem per- 
ditam ! O copias desperatas ! quid, quod Servii filius i quod 
Titiuii ? quot in his castris fuerunt, quibus Pompeius circumsi* 
deretur ? sex legiones. Multum vigilat, audet. Nullum video 
finem mali. Nunc certe promenda tibi sunt consilia. Hoc 
fuerat extremum. Ilia tamen nutxaxkA^ illius est odiosa, quam 
psene praeterii ; *^ si sibi consiliis nostris uti non liceret^ usurum, 
quorum posset, ad omniaque esse descensurum/' Vidisti igi- 
tur virum f Ut scripseras. Ingemuisti i certe. Cedo reliqua. 
Quid ? Continuo ipse in Pedanum, ego Arpinum : idde ex- 
specto quidem Kahayt^Av illam tuam. Tu (malum) inquie3> 
''actum ne agas: etiam ilium ipsum, quem sequimur, multa fe- 
fellerunt. Sed ego tuas litteras exspecto : nihil est enim jamy 
ut antea, '' videamus hoc quorsum evadat." . Extremum fuit de 
congressu nostro : quo quidem non dubita quid istum '^ offen- 
derim. £o maturius agendum est. Amabo le epistolam, e]t 
voA^rixijy : Valde tuas litteras nunc exspecto. 


1 Relate the circumstances which immediately preceded this'firist 
election of Marius to the Consuhhip^ and state what causes contributed 
at this time to render him a favorite with the people. 

Mention also in what manner, and from what orders of Citizens at this 
period, the Consuls were elected. 

S Postquam ei ^(mndam Numidiam jX(pK/t» jussit. Was this in con- 
formity with the usual practice ? 

On what occasion did the Romans first interfere in the affairs of Nu- 
midia? and when was the country reduced to a Roman jwovtnce 9 

3 Explain the expressions '' postulare legionibus supplementum," 
'^ auxilia a populis arcessere,'' and '* homines emeritis stipendiis." 

4 *^ Neque plebi militia volenti putabatur/' Explain the construction 
of these words, and quote instances of the same construction. 

5 State what these " Ludi magni '' were ; mention when and by 
whom they were instituted, and wluit were the ** spectacula'' exhibited 
at them. Explain also the meaning of tbephrase *' ex instauratione.'' ^ 

6 From a review of the contenti of this letter state your opinion as to 
the tipe when it was written. Mention also how far, and. m what way 
Cicero and Atticus took a part, both thenand stibBequttrtly, in the con- 
test between Cssar and Pompey. 

806 Etandnaiiims foir the Cianical TrifaseSf 

7 Quo^ iQttMoet vx wiMjpb ^ ONitfto /* i» usedtio the stme, sense a» io 
this passagje, 

8 Explain, bv reference to the history of that period, what is nieaot 
by the words ^ Ego, inquam/' ^ sic agam ;*' '* Senatui' non placere ia 
Hkpumm in, oec estrcitus ia Gracimn traAsporteri.'' 

Q PqiiiMout the difference ia sigoificationof the words oaioffe and ililt- 

feres and translate ** Te semper amaTi dilexique." Cic. £p» ad Faai. 
10 ^QuicomitatusI^ Name some of the principal persons bereal- 
Inded to as the adherents of Cssar. 

• 11 Explain the phrase '^ actum ne agae:^ also the words ^ Bxtre- 
mum fuit de coogressu nostro^*^ and illustsate by quotations this use of 
the preposition ** de/' 

13 Gri^e the true meaning of the word '^ ofTeodere.'' Translate the 
two expressions^ " Non dubito quin hunc offendam :" and ** Non dubito 
an kune ofiendam." 

THUCYDIDIS. Lib. II. Cap. 43. 

To be translated into English. 

' KAI oIBs iM¥ irgoaifpiifT(»s vy eroXti roio/St Mforre* toh^ 8) Aoi* 
erei; Xfh ia<Pakirripet» (liif tSn^tirku, orroX/t^ore^y ii fitifiiif ^leChr 
rijpf hf Toi^ voXffJou; iUmtaif <^uff axewoOrra; fti^ A/yai it^peo r^y 

Xiytav tffa iy t» rou^ ikuXm^Iw^ &fuS9»r$ei/^^ ityatd ivsartr itXKA 
fMiXXoy T^ rijf iroXi»; Soyotfuy xaf fifiipm ifytf ifeojMVOV^^ xo) hpew^ 
Tet9 yiyyojaeffov; «4riif . »«) Sraf i^fiTtv fuyikii ti^ eheu, hhfiovfAt' 
vots ou ToXfMoyTf^i 9uA yiyy«G<rxoiTff; rd Ssorrdi^ x«) £y rsi^ '^yo'( 
alo^p^y/jxffvoi flCySot; aurdl cxtSjo'ccvto* x^i oir^f xm) vf /pa rou <rfo^('' 
^(ra¥, Otfxouy xai r^y voXiy yt r^( O'^vrigas Aprrij; of louyrs; mptcr^ 
Xfiy, xaXXiOToy St Spovav aurjf vpoMftfyoi. xoiyp y^ rc^ a-mfiaret 8i* 
S^yrs ;, 1$/^ Toy iyiiptw nroiyoy lyJtfk^mw^ xo^ rw t«^ hrioi}fA^«» 
roy, odx ly cp xslyrai ftalXXoy^ &XX' ly ^ ^ Sol^a afocoy srapi rtf lyru- 
yoyri is) xa} KSyw xal 2jpyou xaip(f ctsfjxvijoTo; xaroXe/Trrau 
(^) aySpooy y^^p iiri^ayfloy wa<ret yj ri^og, xeA ou emjXeoy jxoyoy ty rj 
eixi/d( (nffiroe/yei hriy^f ii> ^tAAd^ xa] ly tj^ ^i^ irpo<nixo6(ry iypa^og 
[iLvillMi Tiotf htiirtti} Ti[i yvfifMlS liMkKw ^ rou &you hiiouT&Tou. o8$ 
wv dfiif i; ij^Kia'avTeSf xa) (0 ri fSSoeijutoy^ to IXsuSspoy* to H kkevtegov^ 
ri finl^oy Xflvarregf jtt^ wspiopacAcTou^ nroXefuxou^ xiySuvou;. ou y^^ 
ol xaxofffQiyouvTt; SixM^ripoy a^siSoiiy atif tou |3/ou^ oT; i\w\$ oux 
so-t' oyfltOou* oXX* ol^ ^ hfOLvrlet, [ura^K^ h Top ^^y lh-i xivSuyeurroi^ 
Ktii h J( fMcAiOTot fi,8yaXa ret iut^gwra, ^y ri vraiVfloo'iy. aXyciyo-* 
T JM y^if &ySj/ (d) ys fpif^fut ^ovri i^ f y tw jUifToe tou /EioXama'A^ydtt 
x«xeo<ri$| ^ 6 ftsrcl ^fiOfM}^ xai xoiyi}^ lAvfSo^ m^ yiyvojxsvo; ayoio-ti)- 
TOf tay«TO$. 

. , ^i^l^ X«} tou; TC^vSs yuy TCXMC^i StQI V<»p60T«| oux (^) ^Aof upofMd 

fboiXXoy i^ ^«fajE4rutij0'O|Ukai. ly TroXurpoTQif y^p $u]»^og«i; (/) fanVrccy" 

Instituted at Cambridge^ Jm. IS^. 307 

irsp oUe (uh w¥, rtXeurii;, ifuis Se Xvffi};* xa) ols ey«t;S«eij;toV^o'a/ je i 
ptos 6[uol(os xa) IvreXsuT^a'ai $t;ys/^^0i]* ;^aXnroy yiv oSv otSa fr§t<^ 

flpotff xa) ouroi ^yaAAsirls' xal kimi ou% wy av ri$ ft^ migourufuvos 
iyaA&9 arepb'Hyj^M, aXX' o3 £y Id^l^ ymf6iJt»evo$ ec^^ipelefi}. xugnpih 
ii ^^ xai aXXeov vatSeov IX?r/Siy oTf efri ^Xix/a Texveociy iroifio'dar 
iS/fit re yfl^p Vooy oux oyTcoy X^$)) o! myiyy^f/teyor rio-iy lo-oyrar xai rji 
x'oXfi hxjiiiV, fx T8 Tov /X19 ipviiMwrdeu, xm a<r^»}istet ^uvol<rBiv» oi 
yetp tHiv re Wy ri ^ 3/xai9y /SovXeuetr Jai o1 ^^y |x^ xai irftTSa^ Ix roS 
ojxoiou (flr) irapaj3aXXo/u(.eyoi xiySuveufloo'iy. oiiroi S* ai Trapi^Y^xare, rif 
re irXe/oya^ xepSo; oy, evrvp^eire jSioy, vj^fKrie xa) rovh ^pouxpv tcrtv*- 
to*, xoiL r^ r«oySe euxXe/^ xou^/^eo^e. ri yap ^iXoriitoy flcy^f^^ f/Jvwt 
xoi oix ey rep oiXP^^V ^^ ^Xixm; ri xepSo/yeiy^ eocnrep riye^ 4^aa'}| 
jxaXXoy ripireiy ofxx^ ri riftao'Sai. 

Haio'} 0(8 00*01 rSy^e ^a^eors^ ^ iSeX^oT;, o^co iclyay roy aywvei» 
riv yap oux ovret iitag eiootey hretimr xa) ftoXi^ ay xaf u^ep/SoX^y 
apenis oSp^ ?pMiOft &XX' ^X/ycp xe/pou; xpide/ijre* W ^'yo( y^ip roi; 
{So'i ir^o; riy &yr/ir«Xoy* ro Se fXr^ efMrolm Mfotwccyooflcrtp euyo/^ re- 
rffiriirai. e! Se ftt Sei xa) yvvuixBtets r) apsrrig, wreu wv h X^J^efd^ 
iirovTMf i/.rii(r6vivou, fipa^^^^ irapcuvia-ei aiFW oyipMVtS. (0 rris re yetp 
vma&x?^^^ ^^^ois (^) puj xef|^<ri yevMat, uf&iy (ji^ikti ^ Sdf a, xal 
^; ay nr* eXa;(iaToy aper^; ^repi ^ \{foyou ey roT; i&rwi x?Jog ^. 

(0 lUffifreu xei epto) Xo'yep xarcl roy vJjxoy Sra elp^oy itpio'fopcr xai 
Ipyepy 01 da^nro/teyoii r^l pi.eyy ifSi] xex^<rj(M}yratr r^l Se, ouroiy rou^^ vaSas 
TO avo rouSe SijfMO-Za 4 v^Xi^ P^p^S ^0^^ fipe^iei, cof eXif^y (rrc^ayon 
Ttfhii re xa) roT; Xeiiropigyoif rwy roiwySe aymwt ncptnihwra* IA^jol 
yet^ olg xeiroti apmig fuiyKrra, roio-Se xai avhqeg aptrrof groXire^vtrs, 
yuy 8e avoXo^upa/xeyoi Sy ^rpoo'ijxei Ixao'rep, ox-ire. 


To be translated into English. 

AIA roDro Iltpixkia x«) rov^ roiovrouf^ ^poy/jctou; olo/xeda slvat, 
\ reL auToig aya$a, xai ri roig avi^moig iwaVTM iecopslr clym $s 
roiovrou^ ^youpt^la rou$ olxoyofitixou^y xa) ff'oXirixou^* "Evtiv xai r^y 
vm^oawpf T9VTcp «>poflrayopeuoftey rep ^yojxan, £o^ o^^ouo'ay r^y 
^p^yi]o^»y* 2w^ei Se rijy roiaimjy MroXij^'iy* ou yap vao'av wr6\vii^i9 
Sia^de/peiy ouSe Siaorpef ei ro ^Su, xoi ro Xuvijpoy' oloy^ oti ro rqiym- 
yoy Suo-iy ^pflaT; Tras ^x^ii ^ ovx l%er aXxk rc^^ «ep» ro T^axrA* 
Al ftsy ycl^ ap^^al rwy vpaxrwv, ro o3 eyexa rd^ irpaxra* r^p $e Sia« 
fiagfMV€p Si' ^foy^y^ ^ Xu^y^ evSu^ o6 ^ayeirai ^ ^PX^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ '''^^'' 
rou fygxa^ ouSe 8taro9$' aS^ffTo-Sai ^avra xa) Trgarreiv* JhrsyAgi^ xa- 
x/a ^ft»pr»x^ apx^^* *'«^^'r' ayayxn rijy ^poyijo-iy SFj^iy elfm ^psrei 
Xoyov akf^iii, vepi ri aviqdiviva aya6a v^axrix^y. 


208 ExaminatioMfor the Ciaukal Triposes^ 

. 1. jQSoft t&e dates of the oommenceraent and conclutipo of t)>e Fthfi- 
ponnesian War in ^ears B«C. and iii Olympii^d^. • 

9, State the causes, principal events, and consequences of this war. 
What part did Persia take in it? What was the greatest military and 
naval force employed in it, at one time, by the Athenian State ? 

3. Where and what was the »ixxi^To» •piaff-wof mentioned in the be^ 
ginning of this oration n» a place of public burial ? Whas septilohres of 
eminent persons did it contain? In what inj»lance was the custom ot 
burying the slain in this place departed from, and why ? 

4. What is the character of the style of Thucydidea? What is said 
of it by ancient authors ? What Latin historian most resembles him in 
style ? What expression has Thucydides made use of regarding the 
importance of his own work, and w.ilh what justice? Enumerate. the 
principal Greek historians who preceded Uini. .- .• • il-j 

6. What is the character of Pericles's eloquence? How is it described 
by Aristophanes ? What line of policy was pursued by Pencles ? What 
Statesman in the English history most resembles him ? 

6. (a) 2»iroi/»T«<f*iixoywf46v9»T*»i^«x«<»». Bekker in his edit^op reaos 
«> ixfoy. How are these two different forms of the word denominated by 
grammarians ? Which is likely to be the true reading, and why ? ._ 

(b) 'AfifSv yaf Im^aimy vciffd yn rafoc How has this Sentiment been imi- 
tated by a Latin poet? .1 . » 

7.{c) ^ iviai/Mv, r& luvhfv. What force has the neuter article with 
an adjective? . . 

(d) Mfi yi 9p6»nfx* «\wti. What force has yi in this passage ? ^ 

8. (e) ixo^^pojuwti fxSxxo» n •Kafttu.yB^trofjMt, Do you perceive any smgula- 
rity in this expression? In wnat species of writers may the same par- 
ticularly be observed ? 

9. (/) iViVrttvrai rftt^ims. Quote a similar mode of construction 

from Virgil. 
(g) iraf«i8aXXo/xlyo«— irapnjS^xaTi, What are the different significations of 

the preposition in these two compounds? 
10* (A) 9^^ 7^ '"*( f"^'* ^ ^' ^ Illustrate this passage from Horace/ 
11. (t) vn; ri y4g CvafxjaiOirnsy x. t. X. ' Uow has Euripides flattered the 
Athenians in their pride of ancestry ? 

(jfe) |xq x'k^^ yntirOau Why is the dative case here used ? What was 
the general condition of the female sex in ancient Qreece ? How did it 
difter in the more civilized ages from that in the heroic times? ' What 
effect had this condition upon the manners, morals, and literature of the 

12. (I) Efp>iT»« ic«2 l^o) Xoyw &vtru 

x»rei tIv r6fMt. To what kiw does this refer ? By whom was it intro- 
duced into the Athenian State ?' 

wfAti^vakii. What is the p^uliar signification of thes^ particlea 
thus used ? 

ri &'7ih rouh ^njutoafa. Supply the ellipses in this expression. 

j^ v6\ie iMxi^i rns i^i Ogc^"* What was the mode of education here al- 
luded to ? aiul what privileges did the objects of it enjoy ? What age is 
implied by vns rfit^ ? 

flrve^aToy vport^uatt. From what is the allusion here taken ? 

7070-^1 Ti. Why does the former of these words receive a double ac- 

j^XAMirtftl^iTnc. Illustrate ' thu expression by a similar one from 

A'dversdria LiUrarid^ 209* 

i&«oxof vgc^^xmi. What is th^ dej^^tjoti of thU word ? What were thi6 
principal funeral eeremoaies observed by the Greeks? 

1. Where was the bivth-place of Aristotle? What remarkable bene^ 
fit did he confer upon it? Where was he educated? Who was his 
principal instructor? Who his most celebrated pupil ? Where did he 
teach ? What was the nstme of hisgyinnasmmy and the appellation of 
his sect?. What was the distinction between his aeroatic and exoteric 
philosophy ? In what light did Aristotle seem to regard those works of 
the former kind which he published? Where did he die? and wliich of 
his pupils succeeded him in his school ? - 

2. What was Uie fate of Aristotle's works ? By whom were they 
brought to Rome, and who first performed the office of a skilful editor 
towards them ? What influence Imve they had upon Philosophy in suc- 
ceeding ages. •* 

To be tramhted into En g Li s H Pr d s e . 
*/2^ oSy ffr^ jxoyoir xplvovregf aXXi xou flecopovftsyoi, oSrco rigv 4^f ov 

a^u ^ ToXi^ Hvaij oKoldf ri$ av ^ 6 xij^utto/mvo;. Ioti U Svniog, /tig 
Toig wpoyofotf vfiMs, a}SA r^ rou Ai^is^ocrdivovg eofavipla. v^oo'Sixaa'dij- 
veu. U&g oSv i^ ns t^jv rotaiirnv oiXo'^ir/^if sx^vyoi; '£ay rou; 
wpoxaraXajx/Soyovta^ r^ xotvi, x^) f iXceytpoMret rwy Ivoiuotxwf^ ioti" 
crovs Swag roi$ iid^i, ^t^xi^nfrdg, ^ yoip eivoiet, xal ri r^$ SijfM* 
Xfarlag oyojxa, xsirai /tey Iv fieo-ep* ^$avou0-i S' cgr* aur^i xara^s^ov* 
Tff^ rep X^o), »^ hr) ro voXu> el roi; tpyoig TrXuarov iiFixpms* 
"Orav owf AajSijrt ^opa j^wixm oraf avoiv xa) xriptr/pLarcov if Toig 
"EXXr^iv l^iSujxouvrai htavotynv «drov xsXsuftf xai reov Xiytov, icnrsp 
rig fitfiaiwrug r&v xijpuyfirorcoy 6 vifMg xeXttSfi Toisio-jai, ug filov 
eiiij(f§oav, xcii rpOKW vax^povx* Zrot l\ tavra /tij fLx^fiire^, fti] 




No. vij. 

In Homerum. 
Mortales, me etiam mortali semioe cretum, 

Et paria ausi estia credere fata mihi ? 
Ac ooD nature superatas carmine leges t 
Versaque in humanas jura superna vices ? 
* Non h^mines^ non me Musae peperere ; sed a nie 

PriAcipium Musas patre tulere suum. 

SIO. Adifersavta LUeraridt^ 

D^ O. M. S. 

LacT. LuCATIUB. Ca1J8I01CU8« 

Sfiritum. De6. 

Prqlbm. Naturje* 

Laborem. Sorti. 

Probitatbm, Famjc. 

Nefas. Erebo. 

OssA. Sbpulcro. 




In Voluptatem. 
Socii voluptas qus dolora est comes. 
Nqr est voluptas cum dolore, sed dolor. 

Jit Forivnam. 
NonnuUis Fortuna panim dedit^ et nimis ullis ; 
Visa tainen nuliis tHa dedisse satis. 

Qtiod Yitare Re^nisi taman evitare laboraa, 
Orbisjiim.|in6ci, smnqua catemi tiovi. 

mn <» >ii 

M.S. _ . 

Pulvis et umbra sumiis : pulvis nihil est nisi fiimiis» 
At nil est Aamu^i nos nihil ergo sumus^ 


Quando jus sammum summa est injuria, si^nmus 
Juris-^consultus quis^ precor, esse ^elit ? 

In Medicum senenu 
In mecp^a !rn)t. jf ini sex^eaarius arte . 

Ut sibi sit lusus^ non medicina^labor. 
Sic tamen ut ludat, he segroti dicere possint : 

^' Mors erit id nobisj quod tibi lusus erit V\ 

Amam et amens. 
Dicite, cur longa est amentis sylbtba prima^ 

losano contra cur in amante brevia ?, 
Hoc, credb f furor est umenti par et amanti ; 

Sed furor ^st illi lon^us, huic brevis.est. 

In Medicum. 
Res misera piedicus est, cu'i nunqiiam bene est, 
Nisi nmle sit quam jplurimis*. 

In (^eoAim* 
CaetAodQ «9kiieni male cauta cicada' pensgi ; 

Uyberno patior aulere miita ftuneoi* 


Causidici ciirru felicea quatuor uno 

Quoque die repelunt limina nota fori. 
Quanta sodalitium prasstabit commoda ! cui noii 

ContigeritU socii^ cogitur ire pede^* , 

Orbis dimidium : totos cum conjuge ; totum 

Cam solo deiiiceps sola datura fui. 
At vires auxere Dei. Namque omnia pontus 

Abstulerat. Sic nunc omnia terra dabit« 

Medela malts. 
* ^ Eja agite^ o cives !" medicastri exclamat agyrta ^ 
" Eja agite! £n^ vestris certa medela maiis! 
Sive dolor mentes^ aeu morbus torserit artus, 

Hanc sequitur pbialam non dubitanda quies/' 
Plebs ridet scurram ; sed serial vera loqueutem :-— ' 
Mors sequitur ; mortem non dubitanda quies. 


Biblical Criiicism* 

Ha VI NO lately read in the Classical Journal various discus-* 
sions respecting an expreision of St. Pi^ul in bis Epistles to 
the Corinthiansy eb« xi. v. 10, I beg to ^^i* the following as 
not an improbable explanation. A frietid tnentibned it to me, 
and some one aicquainted with Oriental matiners may afford it 
additional light 

Eastern kings, despots, and princes u^d to send tnessengers 
into distant provinces, cities, and towAs, in order to select the 
most beautiful women for the gratification of their own inordi- 
nate passions : and I believe a similar practice prevails at the 
present day in some parts of Alia and European Turkey. Can 
any thing be more probable than that these messengers did not 
hesitate, in furtherance of ^heir miiision, to enter the churches 
and meetings of the pefeecuted Christians, and that therefore 
the apostle warned the woman to hav6 power on her head, (or 
a covering, in sign that she was under the power of her hus- 
band), hi Tov§ ayyeXavs^ because of the messengers. I believe 
the marriage vo\y has been respected during.the worst ages of 
Eastern despotism, at least to a certain extent } and that it has 

5tlS Adoersaria Liieraria 

■Iwtys been oioitt or lets the onsloni of modest and particularly 
of married womea m the East ta cover the head^ and conceal 
the face from obaenmtion. Amongst the Itomanawe knoUr 
that the very act .of marriage implied to cover the head, ' caput 
velare flammeo/ and that the veil was of a yellow color, to 
conceal the blushes of die bride. 

The apostle may therefore have said, in compliance with the 
feelings and prejudices of the age: every woman praying or 
prophesying, with her head uncovered dishonoreth her head; 
nay more, exposes herself to the risk of becoming an object 
of profane research or admiration; to obviate these di^isera 
in a great degree, if she be not covered * let her be shorn ; aa 
operation which would deprive her of the natural attraction of 
her hair. Nothiog can more strongly mark bis disapprobation 
of a M'oman being uncovered, than this e^cpression, * for that is 
all one as if she were shaven,' which we are afterwards informed 
M*as'shaaieful. G, C^F* 

PSALM CXXXVII. Latine redd. 

Ad moestam Euphratis moesti consedimus oram } 

£t patriae memores strinxit imago sinus* 
Quaeque dabant coeleste melos, dum fata dinebant, 

Cessantes rami sustinuere lyras- 
^ Captivos versate modos, vestramque Camcenam/^ 

Dixit Iduma^is turba ministra malis. 
Quomodo felices conjungam voce canores. 

Cum procul a Solymis dissita .prata colam i 
Nee mea (natives capiant si oblivia' curse) 

Percurrat solitum dextera fausta melos ; 
Nee carmen facili labatur duke palato. 

Si cadat e memori corde Sionis amor. 
'^ Diruite hostili Solymspos ariete muros l^ 

Sic jubet e moestis laeta redire malis* 
O Babylon ! Babylon ! fusis volventibus, aetas 
- Ducet ad aequatas funera certa vices. 
Pelix qui mentis pensabit mutua ; qui to 

Prpstemet saxis, progeniemque tuam. 

K* Tri£v£lyak# 

Idem Grace redd. 

AdfoeriunQ jAU^raiia. S13 

fvraflfr wv t^Xf^y oBiSaxToi-Tf ««rpj8os flhjr 
'' $c(/p' ptyn " etvwrts ** fukmrh Sioufiov eiir}ut*- 

fujirors rair fboXTrov fMkmf 7roXfi%9^8oy tyttpotr 
^tpa xXueiy flSoxi^dror ccgixioy ESmwov ao-jxa, 

raxoftevi}* ff^uuip$9ros 6g o^i* ^nroiy' <eiro8aKr» 

riv %mf6»y' h^fit rt ^iX' o; ra trtt rtacv* ava irerpa;. 



Eur. HeracL 1014. 

Ilpoa-UTCAg, itVT^xoucras' ivreudev Si ^g)i 

Toy vpoiTTpoTraiov, rov re yfyyalov xoXsiy. 

Ourco ye pi^iv roi rajEx*' ^si* flayeiy jxsv ou 

Xpi^^ot), XiTTcoy S* ay ouSey a)(dolfMiv ^/oy. 
'^ Sensum borum verborum minime asi^ecuti sunt interpretes. 
Quorum conjecturis omissis^ meam interpretationem proponam. 
Plerumque solent bomines, qui aliquid ab a&tate, sexu aut coadi* 
tione sua alienuni faciunt^ ipsi sui accusatores fieri^ ne in avc^- 
Or^a-lag suspicionem incurrant, et ex ignorantia peccare videtur 
[videantur.] Ita Macaria y. 475. Alcmena v. 97B. et boc loco 
Eurystheus. Verte, Nunc autem licet supplicem et timidum 
me vocare. Cicero pro Milone c 34. Tiniidos et supplices, 
et, ut vivere liceat, obsecrantes. Scilicet non diffitetur se ab- 
jectum et timidum vocari posse, qui ssevitiam suam in Herculem 
ejusque liberos ezcusando mortem detrectare conatus sit. Hue 
enim spectavit tola ejus oratio. Nulla (lifficultas est in voce 
vpocrrpiTTUiov, qua? ix^njy significat ap« Soph, Aj. 1173. Phil. 
930. Major in altero vocabulo yewoTm, Fortem, Animosum, 
quod cum mea iuterpretatione conciliari uequit, nisi per iro- 

The above note, which is taken from ISlmsley's edition, does 
not remove the obscurity of the passage. It will scarcely be 
disputed that in the same sentence both adjectives must be 
ironically or literally linderstood. In this instance the latter 

ftl» Notice of V 

must evidently be ibe eaie. - tftt wfrnnpfliwihy tJy' t# yiwaiov is 
the Mine as rdv irftrr^ % m y. Jlie words of Enrystheus by 
no means imply an ackiMMvtMgoBent of ptnilianiinity^ but ra- 
ther indiffevenoe as to the. impression produced on his auditors. 
The meaning of the passage is this. ^'' Yon have brooght your 
accusation, and yon have heard my defience« From this you 
may form your jodgnenC; yolt may call me a crouching sup- 
pliant, or the reverses. However, tbos the matter stands : I 
neither desire death, nor shall I be wanting in courage to meet 
it/' Had Eurysthens inteaded to anticipate the charge of 
cowardice, a» Macaria and Alcmena (alluded to in the note) 
those of forwardness and cruelty, these deprecatory expressions 
would have prefaced and not concluded his speech. On the 
contrary, be commences in a fearless manner : 

The inconsistency of uiis c owm e n c eui ent and the termination, 
if interpreted as in the note, is obvious. Had his address been 
supplicatory as well. as exculpatory, the argument (a strong one 
in those times) that he acted at the instigation of Juno, bIt 
hcSVK'^9 iH-e fti), trottid have been more vehemently insisted on. 
In fact, the language and conduct of ^urystlieus, when in the 
power of his enemies, is manly and courageous, and not per- 
fectly consistent with the character attributed to him hi v. SOCK 
sqq. where he is represented as declining the combat with HyU 



translated from the Greeks and illustrated by Physi'- 
ognomical Sketches. By Francis Howell. Lon- 
dorif Taylor : royal octavo^ price !/• 1^. imperial 
U. ns.6d. . 

Wb are glad to see Theophrastus before us once more, in a 
new coat retaining much of the original cut, yet free and flow- 
ing enough to' admit of the old Grecian moving himself with 
grace in its easy atnplitude. We have also in this translation 
the original text appended, which is, to say the least of' it, '$ 

the CharwUn of Theopbnastus. 3 IJ 

very candid- mode of iQ^iting cdmpviaoD midefhickw; and, in 
;iddition to ,the te^t^ we bave an deganllj vriucoi preface, wherein 
the Science of Mi^^as atmlied in modem tisnes, is ooncnelj al- 
luded tO| and a series of not^a at the ead of the Toluoie^ in which 
it is more attentively coosideredy and treated with a cloaeoew of 
reasoning and. seriousness of seoiiflient^ a <fegreeiof ksowlege 
of the world, and oUaervatioo of individnai-charaietea, which 
diows the writer to bave brought to bia task of. translation a 
mind congenial with tbat.of the .celebrated person,, whose most 
celebrated work lie has translated,. in a. manner which will make 
the Needhams and Newtons of days gone by '' hide their dimi- 
nished heads/' 

As one qf the most forcibly delineated characters of Theo- 
phrastus, one which we may contemplate any day from the 
life, in the hundreds of Esses, the fens of Lfincplnshire, or the 
Wolds of Yorkshire, we would quote The Rustic, p. 16. to 18« 
As a specimen of the original vein of thought, and soHdity of 
reflection, which distinguish the translator of, and commentator 
on, these Characters, we will give his remarks on The Fear-t 
rcL, not as the best, but as the shortest, and therefore the most 
suitable to our comments in this place. 

'- The FsARruc— Reason is an unfit remedy fbr alarms that spring 
from the poverty of the animal system. The more the Coward reasons, 
the more be quakes : when danger must be met, the best course he can 


But it is'the body that is chiefly in fault ; and it should he corroberated 
by ample and generous diet, and a full measure .of exercise in the open 
air. In the early cure of physical timidity, the different constitution 
and circumstances of the sexes must be observed: the fears of a girl 
Inay, with propriety, be allayed by reasoning ; because it is not desira- 
ble, nor indeea possible, if it were desirable, to give hardy insensibility to 
the body ; and also because the perils, to which women are ordinarily ex- 
posedi more often allow of some recurrence to reason ; and demand calm 
recollection, rather than force, or enterprise : but the fears of a boy ought 
never to receive so much attention Imd respect. Every motive of shame, 
every prudent familiarising with danger, and every physical corroborar 
tion, should be employed to conquer a defect which, so far as it prevails^ 
renders a man miserable, contemptible, and useless. 

It only remains for us to say, that this volume is illustratet} 
with fift^ engravings on wood — one from the antique, the rest 
from original designs, very forcible and characteristic in ex« 
pression. The engravings themselves are exquisitely doncj and 
if we particularise those of Williams above the rest, it is only 
because his name being less known to fame than his ^nerit de^ 
^rves, it becomes a duty to promulgate it^. in those who have 

ei6 Littrary Intelligence. ^ ^ 

seeii various speeimens of his abtliTf, all equally excdlent ; a^ 
in his designs for Wiffen's Garcilasso do Vega, and Tassa, 
Dr^den's Fables in Whittingbam's edition, and many other 
works of a similar description* Our readers will easily imagine 
that with the. concentration of so much talent as this book ex- 
bibitSy both in its text and ornaments, it must form a most de* 
sirable adjunct to the library of the gentleman and the scholar ; 
and altogether we may venture to pronounce, that Theophrastua 
was never introduced, even in his own Attic age, with so many 
advantages into polite society. 



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M! JuLiEN is preparing for publication the works of Men- 
cius, the celebrated follower of Confucius, who florished about 
dOO years after him. He will give the Chinese text lithogra- 
phised, with a literal translation into Latin of the text as well 
as of the most necessary commentaries for understanding it. 
It is the first attempt of the kind that has been made in Europe, 
and will probably attract considerable attention, which in 
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publication, and is to be dedicated to Sir William Drummondf. 

Present State of Ikiteh Literature. While our magazines and 
reviews are filled with dissertations on Fieocb^ German, Italiao» 
and Spanish literature, tliat of qiir industrious neighbours, the 
Dutch, seems neglected and forgotten ; and yet their literary la- 
bors, within a recent period, ; have been numerous, and in many 
instances, to say the least of them, very respectable. We hope, 
therefore, that a short sketch of their most celebrated livlsg au- 
thors may not be unacceptable. Beginning with the poets, we 
may observe en passant, that the Dutch language is highly poeti- 
cal» or at least not less so than the German. It allows of the 
boldest combiuatioBs, adapts itself to every kind of metre and 

Lkerary InttUigenct. 219 

verse, and tn fheonoutfa of a MrelUbred Datcbman, and espe<^ll;y 
-of a DutcfawomaD, its sounds are -far from being harsh or sta- 

Tbetf first tpoet h unquestionably BiUerdyk, a man of a most 
comprehensi«re mind. His earliest wcirk appeared in 1776, and his 
productioDS have sinoe increased to fifty volumes. BiM; altbou^ 
his greatest merit is that of aipoet, yet. many of his works are on 
philology^ jurisprudence, physic^ geology^ and genei^l iiterature. 
He is an enemy to German Ihecature ; and occasionally very se- 
vere against those of his countrymen who eondesoend to imitate 
■it : nevertheless^ a mental affinity with the great poets of th^t na- 
tion may be traced 'in ins writings. Croeihe h the only author who 
is sometimes honored with his praise. One of his most recent 
productions: is «he beginning of a great epic poem, ^n tilled the 
DestPvclKm 'of the World (De Ondergaog dar eensite Waereld). 
BUekrdpk's l»e9t pupil m ipoetry is J^acosta, a you£b of the Jew- 
ish religion, full of fire and energy* He wasjuot eighteen when he 
published a -metrical translation of the PerM of ^sohyUs ; and 
fwo years afitei', the 'Promethens^of the same author.; and l^tiberiyja 
volume of miscellaneous poems. It is remarkable that JDaco9t0, 
though «ueh a warm admirer of the Dut<;h language and poetry, is 
a Portuguese. 

'Feith,ofZwolle, in Overyssel, a contempcMrary and formerly m 
intimate friend of Bilderdyk, is the third in rank. He, together 
with the latter, enjoys the honor of having, in the latter part of 
the last century, revived Dutch poetry from its lethargy. Though 
he is greatly inferior to Bilderdyk in leaffoing, he is superior to him 
in the gentler feelings of humanity, in aaweet religious melancholy, 
and perhaps even ia the havmony of his numbers. He has wiat- 
-ten 'Some •excellent hymns, odes, romances, and didactic poems. 
Of the latlter, The Grave, and Old Ag^ and Solitude, and The 
World, are the best. His poem on De Ruyte is considered as 'a 
masterpiece. Reithberg^ the poet of the Happiness of Lqve, may 
be considn'ed as his pupil ; and De Ktruy ff{hte\y deceased), the 
author <yf the Hope of Return, most resembles him in genius. 

Tollens, 'of Rotterdam, is the favorite of the nation. He is a 
'merchant, without a regular literary education, but well read in 
modern languages, and the history of his country ; of which be 
takes frequent opportunities of reprinting traits of Dutch heroism, 
little known by the generality of readers. He handles every :$u]^- 
ject with the happiest facility. With equal energy and warmth of 
feeling he describes a battle, or the individual deed of an ancient 
Dutch hero ; the humiliation and exaltation of his country, tlie sor- 
sows and the happiness of love, domestic felicity, and the great- 
ness and destination- of the poet. ToUens' writings are univecsaliy 
read; which may appear from the fact of 10,000 subscriptions 

S30 Literary Intelligence. 

having beeo obtained to a recent cheap editioo of bis works: a 
circumatance unparalleled in a nation not exceeding two millions 
of people. His latest, and at the same time one of his best worM» 
is the Wintering of the Dutch on Nova-Zembia in 1596-97. He, 
as well as Feith^ is an admirer of German literature ; and the for- 
mer has published a very pretty volume of imitations from the 
German and French. His school is the most numerous in Hol- 
land. Some of his best pupils are Mientrau^^vfho has sung the 
Redeemer* and latterly the merits of Rubens ; Meucheri, who se« 
leeted the new colony of paupers at Frederiksoord as a subject for 
an excellent poem ; who, with several others, are all natives of 
Rotterdam. Tollens has declined the honor of a bust, which his 
admiring fellow citizens offered to raise to him. 

Kilmers^ of Amsterdam, is another poet of renown. In I8O6, 
when the republic was threatened with a French invasion, he pub- 
lished a fragment of a MS. tragedy, in which he makes a Greek 
weep over the ruins of Corinth for the fate of his country under the 
Roman yoke. This poem made a very vivid impression on his 
countrymen, and stimulated them to a powerful resistance; and 
the allusions to France were so striking, that the paper in which 
the poem was published was prohibited there. The muse of this 
poet is bold, fiery, and sublime. God, virtue, the arts, and his 
•country, are his themes. One of his larger, poems, the Dutch 
Nation (D« Hollandscbe Natio), has already gone through fiv:e 
editions. The only fault attributed to him is his selection of ima- 
ges, which are taken from a great distance, whilst the olyects near 
him are neglected. He died in 1813, and by his death escaped 
-the imprisonment which was already decreed against him in Paris. 
His spirit has passed, in a great measure, to his friend and rela- 
tion, Cornelius Lootstn^ a poet of talent, but of less literary know- 
ledge than Kilmers. He is distinguished by a high flight of ima- 
gination, strong ardent language, and an abundance of poetical 
images. His theme is, for the most part, his "father-land.** His 
best poems are The Batavians at the period of Caesar, and The 
Victory of the Netherlanders at Cliatham. Van Hell, one of the 
most learned lawyers of Amsterdam, is also considered as a distin- 
guished poet. He has furnished very good translations of some 

Henri/ Hermann, and Barnhard Klyn, also natives of Amster- 
dam, may be mentioned as young men of great promise. 

LmIoJ, and Spandau, of Groeningen, are two other respectable 
poets. The productions of the former are few in number ; he trans- 
lates with facility from foreign languages, and even has composed 
' some verses in German and French. Spandau has written more : 
domestic happiness, love, and patriotism are the favorite topics 
of his muse. He is inferior to Kilmers, Lootsen, or jToilens in 
energy, ardor, and imagery; and he wants the power of language 

Literartf Intelligence. 231 

80 emtnentlj possessed by the latter; nevertheless his writiogs are 
distinguished by an unassuming warmth, a beautiful, dignified 
simplicity, loveliness, and clearness of diction ; and above all, a 
purity of ta»te, in which he surpasses many of his contemporaries. 
In one of his poems, entitled The Netherlands, he first ventured to 
strip oflT the! fetters of rhyme, and sing the heroic and literary 
greatness of his small country with a truly Ossianic enthusiasm. 
Simons is particularly known for his bold poem, Vergaet un 
afkomft, 6 Btitaven, which he wrote during the Firench usurpation, 
and which wais translated for his present Majesty while Prince 
Regent, as a proof of the spirit which then aOiimated the Dutch 

Borger, who died in 1820, in his 36th year,, left but few 
poems : but tliey prove that he might have become the first poet 
of his country . His works, De Historia Praf^matica, De Historia 
Providentise EKvinse, &c., deserve to be moTe universally known. 

The scarcit;y of theatrical productions at the present time seems 
to be felt in lilolland as much as elsewheire. There are some good 
pieces of Bilderdyk and his wife, such a.s Cormac, William of Hol- 
land, Floris v., and a translation of Cirina, by the former ; and 
Elfride, by the latter : but they all present great difficulties in the 
performance. A Prize ofiered by the Natianal Institution in 18 IS 
produced some original tragedies : amonj:;^ which Dacosta's AU 
phans of f*ortugai, and Mrs. Bilderdyk's L^tnrgo, were mentioned 
as the besit; yet the prize was adjudged to no one. A second 
competition was not more successful, althoctgh it called forth two 
other productions of the same author and authoress, of which 
Montignyaiid Diatrice, by Dacosta, is now frequently performed 
at Amsterda m and the Hague, with conside rable applause. 

Among the prose writers J. H. van dar Palm (Prof, of the 
Orient. Lang, and Preacher at the Universit y of Leyden) holds the 
first rank. • Hlis numerous sermons are grace d by a simple, yet ini- 
mitable eloquence, grounded on the most ex tensive biblical study. 
His memoir on the Liberation of the Nether! lands is well worthy of 
being translated, although it would be di6 icult to transfer to a 
translation the ^various beauties of style, am J the harmony of the 
periods which grace the original. The otlu ^r pulpit orators of re- 
nown are Clarisie, at Leyden ; Broes^ Roll, and Stuart, at Amster-' 
dam ; Dermont, at the Hague ; Van der B foeven, at Rotterdam ; 
and ^hrant (a Roman Catholic) at Ghent. Their best historians 
are Stuart and Scheltema. The style of the former is harmonious, 
and full of the finest illustrations : but it is not sufficiently com- 
pressed. That of the latter is too close an ii mitation of the diction 
of old Hoost. In fiict, the Dutch prose ( with the exception of 
that of Van der Palm) has not yet risen t d that height to which 
their poetry has raised itself. (lAttrary ( gazette.) 



lo our next we shall giv«— 
Coinddeneei hetvfeen Tauo and Homer. — in SophocUi (Edip, Colon, 
Smend. — Notice o^ ihi Odes of Anaereon qf Teoi. — BibUad Criticitm on the 
fint and second dtqaers qfSt. Matthew. 

^ E. R. G/s vereMare conrect in metre^ but deficient in et<yle tnd^xfvn- 
sioD. ^ 

Arithmetic of the Hofy Scriptures came too late ibr -our present Nt). 

We shall continut^ S/s Conunents on Demosthenes in our iaenU 

Notices of Wiftted^^e, Tancoigney &c. in our next. 

TJs Remnrks on the .Etigiish Translatim of the Bible Willi abo appear in 
the next No. 

J. £.*« Biblkal Critiewm cttme too lat«. 

W. T. P. S.'s short articl()s will appear in our next. 

We ka¥e«eceivfed J. J .--(N. O.— G.F. C— 

The notice which wi5 pTomised to give of Professof Boissonade^s 
Aristanetus, has heen tle;rerred frotn a wish lo make rt as interesting as 
poesible, by subjoining c o iit a rapid view of the other V/ork««f the 
PffoibMf*— all of whiena re now before us withitheearceptiociof iHdteeMi 

No. L¥. Page ltd. line IS. Lege nti, pro luufjMtre. 

i^VL Si«. 3. Sedredeamm 

8. i^icproAt. 

Bl. Dehetur jvryurundo. 


Insert the fi mr Plates opposite page 102, 

e; nd of n»o. lvh. 



JUNE, 1824. 

On the striking Coincidences between, the Allegories^ 
Similes^ and Descriptions, in Tasso's Gierusalemme 
Liberata, arid those o/* Homer and some other An- 
cient Writers. 

n OMEB has been in all ages deservedly admired as the first poet 
of any eminence, whose works were preserved by the care of lite- 
rary characters, influenced by t)ie principle of a sacred species of 
veneration, which owed its origin to the superior character of 
his two immortal works, distinguished for sublimity of subject 
and for the elegance displayed not only in the ideas, but likewise 
in the force and purity of diction ; far superior to the conceptions 
of those who were the ordinary geniuses of the period in which 
he lived, whose compositions were no doubt consigned to obli- 
vion, when eclipsed by the brilliancy of so great a master^ or, as 
Val. Maximus styles him, such an '^ ingenii coelestis vates,'' from 
whose deep draughts of the Castalian spring succeeding poets 
have in all ages been inspired. There appears a superiority in 
his poems, which can only be compared to the expression of the 
countenance of one of the noblest statues of antiquity. He 
hardly seems a ** denizen of earth,'' but appears to stand like the 
'' heavenly archer'' in serene majesty, above the other compo- 
sitions of mortals — possessed of a description of sublimity which 
disdains the common career of sublunary objects. Whether he 
actually wrote the Iliad and Odyssey from his own conceptions 
alone, aided by the tradition of preceding times, appears to have 

324 Coincidences between 

been doubted by soqne of the learned. He has been accused of 
deducing his plan from the poems of Orpheus and those of one 
Corinnus^ said to have been contemporary with the heroes of the 
Trojan war. I have read a disquisition, — certainly, it must be 
confessed, an idle one,— which tends to prove that the works im- 
puted to him were actually the composition of Thales the A^ile- 
sian ;-— but, whosoever the author was, we have abundant reason 
for considering him a most extraordinary, unrivalled genius* 
Among other works of estimation which have been formed on 
the model of this great '^ high priest of all the Nine" in after ages^ 
appears that chef-d'oeuvre of Italian Epic poetry immortalised 
under the name of the Gierusalemme laberata. A critic of the 
first eminence in the literary world considers Tasso as havmg 
far surpassed the Iliad in the chief circumstances connected 
wit^ the characteristic features of the heroes Vbo figured io the 
days of the Crusades ; as well as in the manner in which their 
characters are respectively sustained^ and in the fire and variety 
of action contained in his descriptions of warlike manoeuvres. 
He has certainly painted with a masterly hand those fine con- 
ceptions traced out by Homer ; and it will be easily perceived 
in th6 course of the following observations, that he has pursued 
in no small degree the minutest touches of originality displayed 
in the subliinest parts of the Iliad and Odyssey. 

The character of Rinaldo, the hero of the first offspring of 
Tasso's genius, is generally considered as more interesting than 
that of his great prototype Achillas. The poem is written in all 
the spirit of ancient chivalry^ and contains many g^ntic and 
other fabulous adventures. 

The hero of the piece is indeed represented as possessing 
great miuscular strength ; but he is oeverdieless remarkable for 
courtesy and magnanimity, and all other heroic (jualities conspi- 
cuous in the character of a knight errant. Like the heroes of the 
Ihad, be exerts his bodily powers in a supernatural manner, and 
bears down all opposing knights, whether single or united^ 

These adventures are occasionally diversified by episodes and 
other entertaining digressions ; and enohantnieBt, feiry ecenes, 
and romantic occurrences^ are am^ag the other beauties of dia 

Tasso has closely imitated Homer in the following pasaages of 
the Gier. Lib. In Canto i. S. 37* the catalogue of the ^uniies 
and nations etfiployed is given before the comoietioenBent of any 
warlike achievements -or hostile conflict, in the sa8>e snamer 
as Homer describes tne heroes of Giieecein bu catalogue of the 
Ships, Iliad, lib. fi\ 495. ; though it oiay be faerCiObserved, that 

Tasso and Homer. S&5 

th«re «ppeai^ a greater ^tversitj in the enumeratioti of the forces 
of the Crusaders^ and that the Italian poet has improved upon 
his model, as his descriptions contain more variety of sentiment, 
and are divested of the tautology of that part of the Iliad. In 
Canto III. Herminia points out and describes the Christian war^ 
riors to Aladin from the top of a tower, in the same manner as 
Helena does diose ef Greece to old Prian), II. </. IT"!* 

It is worthy of remark that the Gods occurring in the poems 
cf Horner^ are brought forward by Tasso in the shape of good 
and evil angels, by whose ministry many actions of note are 
performed, and warriors excited on several memorable occasions. 
j« Canto VII. S. 66. Godfrey of Bouillon speaks to an aged 
warrior in the same style and manner as Agamemnon to Nestor. 
The coincidence is striking, particularly as Godfrey is formed in 
many respects on the model of the son of Atreus : 

Oh pur avessi fra V etade acerba < 
' Diece altri di valor al !uo simile. 
Come ardirei vincer Babel sujxerba, 
£ la Croce spiegar da Battro a Nile. 
Compare II. /3'. S7 1 . — 

Ai yctg, Zev re virep, 

roiQVTOi isxoi ftoi a'Ufu^padfMve$ elev ^A^aleoV 
rep xs r^epc* 4f^<^<^^<9 wokig n^iofioio Svoiktos, 8cc. 
In Canto vii. S. 105. tbe descriptipn ;Qf the warriors ^hmg^ 
ing ,in battle bears a very lively resemblance to that of Hoo^qr^ 
n. 8'. 446. The same occurs in Canto ix« $. 51. 
S' afiVonta iusieme orribilmente urtando 
Scudo ^ scudoy elmo ad el^io, e braodo ja brando* 
S4if4* e/SoApv ^i¥ws, <rhy 8* ^yx^f ^» 

''E7f?itirtT oikKi:^ji<n, &c. 

(Clorittda £g^s like an Amaaon, and bears it marked resem- 
blance to PepChesilea, Dictys Oet. and to the Camilla of VirgiFiy 
.£neid«) Alecto inflames Ai^iUano;in a vision, being incited by 
some evil angel to kindle commotion against the Crusaders, in 
the same manner as she is represented, instigated by Jtfno, MaI 
7. stirrmg up ihe fury of Tumus against the Trojans. 

Cflinto ix^.S. 38. An old warrior falling on the field of battltt 
is ^comparad to an ancient tree, blown down by a atorm. A 
aimile of this sort is very common in Homer, who compares the! 
fall of Simoisius to that of a poplar, and ihat of Orsilochns and 
Oethon to -that of two tall ijr-trees. — Canto i x. S. 46. Godfrey 
is (Depresented as similar to the Po overflowing its banks and 
ijiahiag wiA tremendous force to the Adriatic ; and in the Iliad , 

296 Coincidences between 

Hector is represented io the same manner under the imi^e of tt 
torrent from the mountains. — Canto ix« S« 47* The same war- 
rior attacks the enemy precisely as Agamemnon is described, IK 

Con la spada e con gli urti apre e dissolve 
Le vie piii chiuse e gli ordini piil forti. 
Airctp 6 T&¥ iKKan fgrffv«9Xf7ro rr/p^a; ayS^y 
"EyX^^ r\ iopl t§, iJi^a?M^<rl rn ;^fpfMtS/ois'iy. 
S« 74. I'be simile of the horse is very like that of Virgil, Geor. 
^11. when he describes that animal as leavipg his stable and 
galloping over the plains. — S. 79. llie scene between Argiliano 
and Ariadino is the same as that betwlsen Hector and Patroclus,'. 852. 

Pari destin t* aspetta, e da piii forte 
Destra a giacer mi sarai stesso accanta 

Xtp(rl Sajxevr* '^i^iX^o^. 

/The expression '^ or tu qui mori intanto, d* ausei pasto e di 
cani*'— is the same as the imprecation of Achilles, when he 
threatens to resign the corpse of Hector to be torn by dogs and 
birds of prey ; and the latter part of the stanza-^'' indi lui preme 
col piede"-^is nearly a version of the 862d verse, where Hector is 
described as drawing his spear out of the body of Patroclus, 
after pressing it with his foot. — S. 92. Here we have a version 
off the 48gth v. of the 2d book of the Iliad, almost verbatim — 
Non io, se cento bocche e lingue cento 
Avessiy &c. 

Canto X. S. 2. The Soldan is compared to a wolf driven 
from a sheep-fold, and obliged to retire, persecuted by the 
shepherds' darts, as in the Iliad. — S. 14. The chariot-hories are 
described in the same manner as We find them by Homer. 
. Canto xi I. The first stanza " Era la notte'' is strictly Home* 
ric The story of Cloriuda, from stanza 23 to 35, is similar to 
that of Camilla and Metabus in Virgil;— S. 42 and 43. Cio- 
rinda and another warrior go by night to set fire to the enemy's 
machines, in the same manner as Diomed and Ulysses in. die 
Iliad, and Nisus and £uryalus in the ^neid, leave their in- 
treiichments in the night for warlike purposes. — S. 70. Tancredi 
leaving mortally wounded Cloriiida, he, recognising her, breaks 
^qt into lamentations, as Achilles is said to have done, at the 
de#th of Penthesilea, Dictys Cret. 

Canto XIV. S. 2. The Divine Spirit watches over the. fates 
of Godfrey of Bouillon, like Jupiter over those of Achilles ; and 
both send dreams to the respective chiefs Agamemnon i^d 

Tasso and Homer. 2$? 

. -Godfrey. The sentences of this 'stanza remind the reader yery 
forcibly of the beginning of the second Iliad-^^AXo' (^ ^ 
Swl re xeii «yfpef...E88ov nemixj^i — "essi ogni pensier che T di 
conduce, Tuflato aveano in dolce obblio profondo." — Warriors 
are * represented goin^ to the Infernal regions^ that is, into the 
subterraneous parts of the earthy led by an enchanter or magi- 
cian, as Ulysses at the. instigation of Circe, or JEneas conducted 
by the Cumasan SibyK 

Canto XY. Carlo and Ubaldo take a voyage in the enchanted 
bark/ and view the shores of many renowned places, as Uiyssei 
is described in t^ie Odyssey. As Tiresias, in the Infernal shades, . 
foretels what is to happen to Ulysses ; and £neas in the £neid is 
informed of the conduct and fate of his posterity in like manner ; 
so also Tasso represents a nymph foretelling what progress 
Europeans should make in the western world — after a native of 
Liguria should have dared to sail beyond the columns of Her- 
cules. In Seneca there is some prophecy of the same kind, 
and it is foretold that Thule shall not be the ^* ne plus ultra'* of 
navigators. Conjectures of this sort appear to have b^en com- 
mon Amongst the ancients, if we may judge from what Plato 
sayJB in his Timaeus about the isle Atalantis, probably Hispa- 
niola, beyond which was a vast continent, extending to the 
ocean ; and which appears to be confirmed by Diodorus, who 
speaks concerning an island beyond the pillars of Hercules; 
which had. been discovered by some mariners, probably driven 
there by a tempest ; for Aristotle himself says, that a Carthagi- 
nian vessel, which bad been apparently blown out of its course 
by a strong westerly wind, had discovered shores hitherto un- 
known. In Amm. Marcellinus, we have an account of a vast 
island, probably the same as that which Plato mentions, which 
the historian says had disappeared under an inundation of the 
ocean ; but it is easy to perceive that this was a ready method of 
cloaking his' ignorance of a country then nearly unknown, and 
which few persons dared to visit, from the dread of exposing 
themselves to the perils of the vast Atlantic. 

Canto XVI. Armida is an enchantress like Circe in Homer's 
Odyssey ; and the knights behold emblematical figures in her 

. portico, as ^neas does in that of Dido. Her gardens resemble 
those of Alcinous, in the island of Phaeacia, by whom it is'ge- 
nerally supposed Homer .intended to personify Solomon. Her 
parrot is taught to sing verses on the shortness of human life, 
comparing men to leaves of trees, as we find them described, II. 
('. Oh^tftf ^KKxav ysveij, x.r.X. Rinaldo is represented inveigled 

8t8 Coincidences between Ta$$b and Homer. 

in late bj Armidai as Ulysses bj Calypso ; and two warrtovs re-» 
cover him from encbantmeDt, as that hero in the Odyssey di»* 
enchants his companions, when he lequires of Circe to resto^ 
them to their primitive forms* 

Canto XVII. A catalogue is given of the In<fian warriors. So 
whom are given the epithets of *' espugnator delle dtta" {itrokl^ 
wofios) and '^ domator de' cavalb" {hnr^iuof), with othets of the 
same import as those applied by Homer to his heroes. A youth 
is represented voyaging and watching the polar star, and other 
constellations, ds Ulysses does when he sails from Calypso's 
island ; though it must be allowed he appears in a less perilous 
state than that of the hero. Rinaldo receives a shield on wbicb 
are displayed the valorous deeds of his ancestors-— in which re* 
spect the poet evidently appears to have imitated Homer, He- 
siod, and Virgil. 

Canto XVIII. Rinsddo is warned to beware of the dangers 
of the enchanted grove ; and desired to shun the sweet voices 
or songs of any persons that should accost him, as Ulysies is 
by Circe to beware of the Sirens. 

He draws his sword to destroy t)ie enchantress, as Ulyssee 
does to prevent being transformed by the spells of Circe^ The 
scalade of Jerusalem resembles in many respects the assaiplt of 
pie Greeks on Trpy, in the Mmid. The effects of the batter-- 
ing ram are compared to a rock djescending from a nuraotain and 
overwhelming every thing in its progress ; and a simile of tbe 
same description is found in the Iliad. St. Michael appears to 
Godfrey, as Venus to jSlneaB,.when Troy was taken. Like Nep^ 
tune, Ugone undermines the walls, and Dudone, like Joiko, ad-^ 
ministers arms to the combatants. Rinaido breaks open did 
door of the temple (with a beam), as Hector does the gale of 
the Grecian camp. 

The simile of the shepherd driving his flock' to shelter ie 
nearly the same as that of Homer, when he describes him fore- 
seeing the coming of a storm and committing his fleeey charge 
to the covert of a rock. 

The magician ismeno in the £d Canto of the poem' certainly 
partakes of the qualities of Maris, in the 6th Eclogue of Vir- 

Che trar di sotto ai chiusi marnii 
Puo corpo estinto*— 
Ssepe animas imis excire sepulcris. 
I cannot help considering the flight of Emiinia, in die begin- 
ning of the 7th Canto, as bearing a vivid resennbllince to the 

jyfoAice a^ Lord Ttiurlow's Anacrtxm. %%% 

iiglit <i Pompey tN Qreftt, after tlie battle of PhafsaKa^ asi 
described b^ the masterlj pen of Lucan. 

It is perbaps to be iamented that both Tasso and' Dante 
should Imve selected subjects of so bizarre a nature^ for the dis- 
play of so much grandeur of invention ; but their choice must 
W excused tvhen it is considered, that they wer^ in perfect 
character with the age of comparative barbarism in which they 



translated into EngHsh neasure by £. H. THUfttew, 
LoBD TiauRLow, 

We cannot say ranch in praise of this perforn^ance ; but thii 
example of a man of rank engaging in literary pursuits is in it-^ 
self so aatirfactory^ that we ought not to criticise too severely. 
The attempt is sufficiently creditable, and therefore we are n^ 
more disposed to quarrel with Lord Tburlow for having given* 
us ap indifferent translation of Anacreon^ than with the Hon. 
George Lamb for having given us an indifferent translation of 
CatulluSi or with Lord Leveson Gower for having made an 
unsuccessful attempt to render the most untranslatable of 
all poems. One merit, indeed, this version possesses^ nnknewtl 
to former ones ; a freedom /rom meretricious adcfitions. Th^ 
error of interpolating thoughts and images of the translator'^ 
own, and of making a writer speak as if he belonged to a differ'- 
eht age, is one in which the translators of the Elizabethan age, 
and those of the school of Dryden and Pope, however widely 
diffisring in other respects, e<|tially agree. Our style of transla- 
tion is infinitely improved since the downfall of the Frefiich 
school ; we are, however^ in some danger of falling into an op* 
posite error, that of marring the beauty and ease of our .versions 
by a too rigid adherence to the words of the original. Of the 
first-mentioned extreme, Cowley and T. Moorej in their trans- 
lations of Aqacreon, are flagrant instances ; of the kitler we 
know no example more striking than Lord Thurlow 

330 Notice of Lord Thurlow's Anacrton. 

It is impossible to give the meaning of a poet without giving a 
little more than his words ; Lord Thurlow, however, has not 
only not done this, but has retained in a great measure the Greek 
idioms ; thus purchasing conciseness and partial fidelity at the 
expense of frequent obscurity and almost uniform harshness. 
For instance^ in Ode xix., of which he has given two different 

versions : 

The dark Earth drinks, and then the trees 
Drink her, and then the flowing^ seas 
Drjfik the wide air, and then the sun 
Drinks up the sea^ and, that being done, 
The thirsty moon doth drink the sea. 
What harm then, O companions, think, 
That I myself delight to drink. _ 
His study of obsolete words sometimes betrays him into un- 

couthness; as in Ode xxxix. 

■ with odorous oil 

Myself I bathe, the Syrian spoil; 

Withhold a girl, too, in my arms. — 
The two best rcindered are the twenty-eighth and the fifty* 
first ode ; we shall extract the former, adding, however, that we 
had rather meet his Lordship as an original writer dian as a 
translator, in spite of the unmerciful treatment which his^ politics 
procured. for his poetry in the Edinbui^h Review. 

Best of Painters, hear my prayer, At once like arro'd Minerva's grey. 

Best of Painters, now prepare. Shedding feminine dismay. 

Master of the Rhodian art, And wet, like beaut^r's queen above. 

To paint the mistress of my heart: And trembling with inconstant 
Tho' she be absent, yet attend, love. 

And paint from me my lovely Paint me the cheeks and arched 

friend. nose. 

Paint me the hair in tender state. Let milk be mingled with the rose; 

The hair both black and delicate; Paint me the lip, persuasion's 
And, if art so far can dare, throne. 

Breathing odours thro' the air; And pouting to be kiss'd anon. 

And paint me from the perfect Paint me the delicate chin below, 

brow And let the neck like marble glow. 

The pure and ivory fo/ehead now, Stately, and fair as nascent day, ' 

Only more holy, chaste, and fair. And every charm around it play. 

O'ershaded by the violet hair. And, painter, what may yet re- 
For me the eyebrow neither part, main, 

Nor wholly mingle by thy art ; Stole her in robe of purple grain. 

But like herself the brows design, Through which some part of her 
Uujdiscernibly to join; may shine 

The circling eyelids black as night Of all, that's lovely and divine! 

Make for my divine delight; Enough — her very self I see; * 

And make the eye of living fire'. Picture, perhaps, thou'lt speak to 
The soul and fountain of desire, • me I 

■■ I M l I ■ ■ ■■1 ■■ 

' Sic eorrige, nostro pericuio: libri impress! ^ her see," pessundat 




Pabt Ill.'^Continuedfrom No. LIV.'] 

Est talis, ut si in recentioruni numerum ponas, sit haud dubie primus, 
et veterum ultimus. 

M. Ant. Sabellkut HUi, 

Ea fuit Claudian 
teret, summus et 

iani virtus, is qpirituSy ut in quamcunque partem se ytt* 

.^.«., it elegans existeret poeta: ita est aliquando festiyus, ita 

concinnus, ita elegans, nihil ut fieri possit argutius ; ita vero aliciuando 
insur^it, et artificiosa verborum conclusione carmen explicat, nihil ut sit 

Franc. Andahu Pngf, Ed» Clattdkmi Aidin. 

Est suavis, luculentus, et inofTensi stili, sententiis acutus, in narraodo 
sttbtilis et enucleatug, rerum quoque prope omnium peritia, nullius quod 
quidem prseclarum sciidumque poetam absolvat, inscius. 

Joach, Vadianus Lib. dg Poetica.^ 

In the two former parts of this article we have given our view 
of the poetical character of Claudian, as a whole, and of the 
merits and defects of his matter, bis style, and his arrangement. 
We shall conclude with an abstract of the poet's life, and a brief 
sketch of his several poems. 

Claudius Claudianus, a native of Alexandria, (not, as some 
have supposed, a Spaniard or Florentine,) appears to have been 
born about the year 365 or 370, and to have florished as a poet 
principally during the last ten years of the fourth, and the first 
ten of the fifth, century. Whether he was the son of a cele- 
brated professor of the name is disputed ; it is certain, how- 
ever, that he received a very superior education, from the extent 
and variety of knowledge which his works contain ; that he was 
of a good family, and that he was early introduced to the notice 
of distinguished men; being admitted about A. D. 39^ into the 
train of Stilieho, whose movements he accompanied during the 
five years preceding the latter's first consulship, and under whom 


' We have extracted the above from the 281 testiTnonia which the ex^ 
emplary diligence of Barthius has collected in the preface to bis edition, 
as specimens of the estimation in which Claudian was formerly held by 
scholars. Among his authorities are some names which associate oddly 
with the men in tt5, as Petrarch, Boccaccio, and Lope de Vega. 

232 On the Genius and Writings 

he acquired those political predilections aud antipathiea which 
afterwards diitingui^ed bin*. Through the good offices of his 
patron, he rose high in the favor of the brother Emperors, 
Arcadius and Honorius, by whom he was honored with the 
military tribuneship (at that time a mere title of honor, bestowed, 
like modern knighthood, iudiscrimindtieLy on all kinds of merit) 
as well as with many other distinctions. To the kindness of the 
JPrinpcMSS Serena, the wife of Stilicho, he was likewise indebted 
for the hand of a rich and noble lady, whom he married on his 
return to his native city. Of the succeeding portion of his life, 
uaUI the disgrace and death of Stiticho, we can only gather in 
general that it was passed in literary pursuits, in the society and 
correspondence of the noble and learned of his timey among 
whom may be numbered (besides the Princess Serena, wbo 
appears to .have been a patroness of the polite arts) Olybrius, 
Gennadius, both orators and writers, the prastorian p^fcct 
Hs^drian^ atid the philosophic consul Mallius ; and in the coa»« 
position and recitation of those historical poems whidi raisedl 
him to the head of the poets of his time, and procured him the 
honor of a statue in the forum of Trajan. On the fall of Stili- 
cho his fortune probably changed. Whether we are to refer, te 
tbispcricii the persecution which (in retaliation for some re- 
ported sarcasms) he experienced from his former patron, the 
praefect Hadrian, and which, by his own account, involved hini 
in poverty and danger,' is uncertain ; as indeed the whole of his 
latter history. Some suppose that he sought a retreat at the 
court of the East, which he had so often treated with ridicule ) 
that he florislied there as a Greek poet, tuider Theodosius II., 
and there ended his days. On the question of his Christianity 
we have spoken in a fonner Number, though with more hesita- 
tion than was necessary ; the designation of him by Orosius as 
K paganus pervicacissimus " is sufficient testimony in the nega- 
tive; and the epigram on James the Master of Horse (Carm, 
Izxvii.) is a proof that the assailant of Eutropius, whose powers 
were peculiarly adapted to grave satire, wanted as little the will 
as the ability, could the attempt have been safely, made^ to paint 
in lively colors the superstition, the absurd dissensions, and th^ 
grossly corrupt morals of the Christians of his age.* 

" It would appear however from the poet's epistle to Hadrian (Carmt 

xixu. X4.) ** carls spoliamur amicis : Hunc tormenta n^cant ; hie 

undique truditur exul :" that the main cause of the prefect's resentmeot 
tras tne poet's connexion with some adverse party. 

* We need scarcely say that the above notice is compiled almost 

v/Claudiqn* £99 

The poem on the joint Consulship of the brother;B O^ybrioB 
and ProbinuSy which stands first in the editions of fiarthius, 
tieinsius, and Gesner^ is appropriately placed at the thrpsbold, 
whether by way of dissuasion or encouragement to the reader^ 
being of a moderate lengthy and contaning on the whole a fajc 
average specimen of Claudian's characteristic merits and cjefects; 
excepting that its subject is less interesting than that of aiiany 
others,, and that it contains none of his finer pasaagjea of descripT 
tion or sentiment. The mixed style of Claudian^'s dictios is 
exemplified In the very outset. 

Sd^ (jui fiammigeris niuodum eomplexus habeni^ 
Volvisinexhausto redeuDtia ssBcula cursu, 
Sparge diem meliore coma, crinemque repexi 
Blandius elato surgant teiDone jugales, 
Efflaiites roseiim frenis spumanlibus ignem. 

The two first lines, though too high-strained for an exordium^ 
are in themselves good, and the second even majestic ; but iit 
the third h6 gives way to his love of conceits, and the fourth fuui 
fifth are mere bombast. After a magnificent eiidogy on the an-' 
cestry of the consuls, the poet proceeds to the main subject of 
his poem, their elevation to the supreme magistracy, which he 
accounts for by one of those awkward and uncalled-for pieces of 
machinery so frequent in his poents. The goddess Rome^ desi- 
rous of doing honor to the representatives of a family by which 
she had so long been illustrated, descends for the purpose of 
supplicating the Emperor Theodosius to this effect. The de- 
scription of the goddess is copied, not very successfully, from 
the common representations of Minerva; one of the- circum- 
stances, however, is poetical, and worthy of Claudian. 

Dextrum nuda latus, niveos exserta lacertos, 
Audacem retegii maiDinam ■ 

■ noduft, qui 'Bublcvat ensero, 
Album punieeo pectus diicrminat o$tro. - 

In theisame passage we have an instance of the ftitility of at- 
tempting to improve what is unimprovable. Homer had 'said^ 
in describing the descent of Neptune, 

Claudian was not satisfied with tbia* - . 

Nee traxere moras, [equi sc] sed lapsu protinus uno 
Quern poscunt tetigere locum. 

wholly from the Prolegomena of Oesnar and others, and from the poet's 
own works. 

234 On the Genius and Writings 

Now the very beauty of Homer^s conception consists in the 
comparison it suggests. Neptune passes from one place to 
another by steps^ as a man would do, but with swiftness im- 
mensely greater ; and it is in this image of human po wer, in- 
creased to a preternatural degree, that the sublimity of the pas- 
sage consists. But in Claucjian there is no comparison ; his 
coursers do not clear the aerial space by successive bounds, 
though fleeter than the rush of a storm, or the leap of a cata- 
ract; they are in heaven and on earth in the same moment, and 
by this utter want of proportion disturb the unity of the scene, 
the magnificence of which is merely earthly munificence, exalt- 
ed so as to suit a celestial subject. It is true that this concep- 
tion of Deity is not the sublimest imaginable ; but if a writer 
will represent his gods as magnified men, he ought at least to be 
consistent in his representations. He must not confound two 
opposite systems. — The goddess presents her request to the 
hero in the moment of his victory over the rebel Eugenius. The 
picture of the field of battle is another example of a beginning 
of faultless beauty and elegance, marred in its effect by a turgid 

tetigere locum, qua fine sub imo 

Angustant aditum curvis anfractibus Alpes, 
Claustraque conjectis scopiilis durissima tendunt — 
Seroirutse turres, aviilsaque mcenia fumant. 
CresGunt in cumuhim strages, vaUemque profundam 
^quavere iixRis : ' stagnant immersa cruore 
Corpora : turbantur permisto funere manes. 

The goddess prefers her desire in good set terms of panegyric 
on the conqueror and on the subjects of her petition : the mo- 
narch graciously consents : the joy of Rome, and the prepara- 
tions for the solemnity, are described. And here we have one 
of those pleasing touches by*which Claudian sometimes relieves 
the glaring monotony of his pictures. The mother of the con- 
suls elect is introduced as embroidering with her own hands, the 
robes of office which her sons are to wear on the day of their 
inauguration. The piece concludes with a congratulatory oration 
from Father Tiber, and a meeting of the rivers, from which 

^ Cowley, whose vast poetical superiority, and extraordinary rugged- 
ness of versification, equally combine to place him in a strong antithesis 
with Claodian, whom^he rebembles onl^ in his love for conceits, improves 
upon this : 

Slaughter the wearied Riphaim*s bosom fills ; 

Dead corps imboss the vale with little hills. Duvideii, 

of Claudidn. 335 

Pope borrowed the parallel description in his Windsor Forest. 
The different rivers are happily characterised. 

Indigenas fluvios, Italia quicunque suberratit 
Montibus, Alpinasque biount de more pniinas : 
Vulturnusque rapax, et Nar vitiatus odoro 
Sulphure, tardatusqu'e suis erroribus Uft^ns: 
£t PhaethoDteae perpessus damna ruins 
Eridanus, flavaeque terens querceta Maricse 
Lirl8» et (Ebaliae qui temperat arva Galesus. 

We have been the more particular in our notice of this poioimi 
as we wished to afford such of our readers as may be unac- 
quainted with Ciaudian a clearer notion of his manner^ both of 
plan and execution, than could be collected from a mere general 
description. The succeeding ones will not detain us at much 

The next in order is the Rufinus, the most vigorous of all 
Claudian's writings, and, with the exception of the Rape of 
Proserpine, the most chaste and elegant in point of diction. It 
appears to have been written at two seyeral times^ like Dryden's 
Absalom and Achitophel ; and the two parts may be considered 
as two separate poems, each embracing a separate series of 
action. The boldness of Rufinus's atrocities, the entire and 
perfect blackness of his character, as delineated by the poet, un- 
qualified, as in the case of Gildo or Eutropius, by any ludicrous 
or contemptible attributes ; the strikingly contrasted figure of 
Stilicho, and the heroic cast of the story (at least in the latter 
parts), give an imposing brilliancy to this poem, which is gene- 
rally wanting in our author's narrative poems. It opens with 
the celebrated passage, 

Saepe mihi dubiam traxit sententia mentem, &c« 


which we could never regard otherwise than as a poetical hyper- 
bole, intended to aggrandise his subject, and as much a fiction, 
id a different way, as the machinations of Alecto which imme- 
diately follow, or the 

jam respirantibus astris, 

Infernos gravat umbra lacus 
and the 

Tollite de mediis animarum dedecus umbris, 
£t Oitis purgate domes _ 

at the enjd of the second book. The other remarkable passages 
in this poem are the description of the infernal senate, imitated 



880 On the Gitnius and Huntings 

horn Tirgff ; tbe beaiHiM, Ibeugh nsMpIaced, eulogy on a coun- 
try life (i. 196.); the animated picCtire of Stilicho's preparations 
for battle, and of bb and bis army's indignation at tbeir recall 
(ii. 171 sqq.); Riifinua's dream, and tbe well-told story of bis 
assassination (ib. M4 sqq,); and tbe concluding scene, wbicb^ 
in spite of tbe unfortunate simile of tbe bees, is superior to any 
of tbe Tartarean descriptions in tbe Rape of Proserpine. 

Tbe sbort poeqn in honor of tbe Third Consulship of Hono- 
rius is remarkable for nothing but the celebrated lines '' O ni- 
mium dilecte Deo, 8cc/' debased as usual (and indeed more tbaa. 
usual) by a lame and impotent sequel. That on tbe Fourth 
Consulship of the same emperor is worthy of much more notice ; 
the introductory aud concluding portions of tbe poem are a mere 
farrago of monotonous and extravagant adulation, relieved onlj 
by the poet's unfailing copiousness of allusion and illustra^on, 
and by the lusciousness of his versification. We ai>e repaid^ 
however, in the body of the poem, by an address of Tbeodosiu* 
to bis son, containing an exhortation to the public and private 
virtues, founded on the dictates of philosophy and the example 
of the old Roman worthies; a passage, for sustained moral 
beauty, superior to *any thing in Claiidian, and not often paral- 
leled m any of the later Roman poets. (V* $14-352, and again, 
d96-^I8.) This, and such passages as this, serve to account 
for, and in a great measure excuse, the exaggerated opinion 
which Claudian s contemporaries (to say notbinjg; of many later 
critics) entertained oiF bis 'merits. Claudian's style naturally 
with his subject, and it is here more than usuallv good. 

In the INuptials of Honorius arid Maria, wnicl? have been 
made the model of innumerable epithalamia by tbe modem Latin 
poets, Ciaudian has attempted a new style, and we think unsuc- 
cessfully. With tbe exception of tbe inimilable Catulliis^ w) 
perhaj^s one or two othens, the Roman poets have upiforfujy 
failed in attempting the lighter graces. Tbisir lapgMage ¥^s 911 
little susceptible of the subtler beauties of diction, ajs they tMl>lr* 
selves were of the minute refinements of sentiment. Its very 
stateliness and ponderousness makes it unwieldy and pnfit for 
the purpose. This' defect may be traced in almost all their 
love-poetry. Venus is an inferior copy of Aphrodite. Clau- 
dian's general habils of styje M'ere also i^gainst bim. What 
pomp and circun^staoce .could 4a, he bas done ; but of graceful 
levity he was utterly iucapable; the recondite delicacies An4 
lesser shades of thought arie lost in his cqarse and glaring deli- 
neations. There is however much splendor and much play of 

cfClaudian. 33? 

taxncf in lib descriptions j and bis Paloce of Venus deservedly 
holds not, the lowest place among the many similar pictures in 
ancient and modem poets. We cannot refuse ourselves the 
pleasure of quoting the description of Maria and her mother. 

Cunctatur stupefacta Venus. Nunc ora puellae, ' 
Nunc flaTO niveam miracur vertice matrem, 
Haec modo crescenti, pleoae pars altera Lunae. 
Assur^it ceu forte minor sub mktre virenti 
Laurus, et ingentes ramos, olimque futuras 
Promittit jam parva comas: vel flore sub uno 
Ceu gemins Psstana ross per jugera regnant; 
Haec largo matura die, saturataque verms 
Roribusy indulget spatio ; latet altera node, 
Nee teneris audet foliis admittere soles. 

The poem concludes with a welUwrought panegyric on Stifi^ 
cho. The ** Fescennina/' which follow^ ai*e rather ingenioti^ 
than playful. Claudiau's writings are in general unexceptional 
foly pure, but '' the custom of the country'' has here betrayed 
him into occasional licentiousness, and accordingly into groflti^- 
Bess ; for the Romans had not the art of being indecent with k 

The poem on the Gildonic war is a fragment. It is almost 
entirely occupied with inartificial machinery and long speedies, 
which bring us to the beginning of the action ; like a splendid 
archway we could name, which leads to nothing. It poesessei 
however considemble historical interest. 

The next is on the Consulship of Mallius Theodorus; the most 
uniformly beautiful, and, with the excepti<Hi perhaps of the Epi- 
thalamium, the most pleasing of all Claiidian's occasional poems. 
This is owing to the nature of the subject. The pursuits of lus 
^end were in a great measure congenial to his own, and his 
peaceftil rirtues and love of science are the subject of die pane- 
gyric. Claudian evidently felt more at home than usual, and his 
praises of philosophy, though accompanied perhaps with a little 
human ostentation of knowledge, contrast very agreeably with 
the uninteresting bustle and cumbrous pomp of his state poems. 
Its fault is a want of variety. The description of the consular 
games, at the end, would have been better omitted ; they are 
however curious in an antiquarian view. Some of the illustrative 
similes are highly majestic. The line. 

laceris morientes crinibus hydri 

Lambunt invaUdo Furiarum vincla veneno 

and the expression, *^ crebrisque micatttem Urbibus Italiam,*' 

SS8 On the Geniw and Writings of Claudian. 


•re among the instances (few, it is true,) in Claudian, of the happy 
effect of a single well-chosen word. 

This is followed by the two books against Eutropius, which 
some critics have considered as Claudian's chef-d'oeuvre. It is 
bertainly written with unusual energy, and the ingenuity with 
which he varies the topics of abuse displays his invention in a 
higher point of view than even his panegyrics. His blows fall 
" thick and threefold/' All his wealth of language and imagery, 
all the varieties of grave invective and cutting irony, all that art, 
fancy, or historical recollection can suggest to him, are expended 
in aggravating vileness, and making contempt itself more con- 
temptible. Claudian had a strong propensity to the sarcastic ; 
and his Roman predilections, as well as his party spirit, are 
called into full play on the present occasion. The unheard-of 
enormity of an eunuch-consul is the burden of his song, upon 
which he rings all imaginable changes. His object was to make 
Eutropius supremely hateful and ridiculous, and he has certainly 
succeeded beyond his intentions. 1 he picture of unmixed de- 
formity, after a tim^ becomes wearisome. This attempt to 
impart an abiding interest to a subject purely disgusting, is one 
which has baffled greater powers than Claudian's. We need 
only refer to the tenth satire of Juvenal, Churchill's '' Times," 
and GiiTord's << Epistle to Peter Pindar." There is also in 
aome parts of the poem a mixture of the pure heroic, which does 
not harmonize with its general character. The latter part.of the 
second book is interesting as the earliest remaining instance (with 
die exception of Juvenal's third satire, which however is inferior 
to Clafidian's in burlesque pomp and sustained gravity) of that 
apecies of composition which has been cultivated with such sig- 
nal success in modern times under the title of mock-heroic. 
For this Claiudian was peculiarly well fitted by his ordinary 
habits of style, which, even on serious subjects, sometimes be- 
tray him. to the veige of burlesque. 



The English Translation of the Bible; with some sug* 
gestions for an improved form of the Text in a revi- 
'. sion of its numerous Italic interpolations ; and of its 
« pointings and marginal additions. 

Xhb English Translatioii of the Bible, published in the reign of 
King James the First, is deservedly acknowledged a lasting mo- 
nument of the learning of that age. The various attempts and 
essays of individuals towards any new and improved Translation 
of the whole or parts of the Sacred Volume, in English^ since 
that period, have only proved the general integrity and fidelity of 
the former translators, and added lustre to the (charactef* of their 

Subsequent editions of the Bible have improved the orthogr^ 
phy of the language in proportion to the improvement of the 
English tongue, and this is the only change the Translation ha» 
undergone for the long period of two centuries^ including the 
exchange of the old Black letter for the Roman. 
' 'With respect to the punctuation, it may be difficult to pro- 
nounce on any considerable improvement : the elements of thi» 
part of the work are few, but important, and in some cases dif- 
ficult: the division of chapters into paragraphs, the right placing 
of capital letters and distinguishing words^ and the reading points^ 
constitute these elements. 

The most material and glaring defect in our English Transla^ 
tion is the introduction of Italic words in the body of the text, 
in almost every verse ; as if all those words so marked and dis- 
tinguished were interpolated and surreptitious, or additions of 
the translator to supply the defect of the Sacred OriginaL This 
consideration leads to an inquiry into their description and use. 

All the words printed in Italics are reducible to two classes : 
1. Grammatical; 2. Explanatory. To the first class belong 
all the auxiliaries of verbs and pronouns^ which are by far the 
more numerous : and to the second class belong all words de^ 
signedly introduced by the translator to explain the sense and 
lAeaning of the original, and to prevent ambiguity. 

The editions of the Latin Vulgate Bible do not afford the 
least example or precedent for the numerous Italic interpolations 
objected to in the English editions, and in the Versions which 


S40 Remarks an the EngKsh 

have emanated from tben in the Webfa^ Iriab, Gaelic^ 
Manks dialects : tbiif, as our translators seem to have Mlawed 
the rule of Theodore Beza in his Latin Version, so the i^iodema 
have followed them m foisting into the text these numerous Italic 

It would be important to know what has been the rule of 
foreign translators in this respect, particularly the German, 
French, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, and other continental nations, 
in their Versions of the Bible ; and whether they have followed 
the like practice, and to what extent : and also how far the same 
has been adopted in modem Translations into the languages of 
the £ast and other parts of the world. 

It is certain, that the example of antiquity is avowedly against 
the practice^ and that all the ancient Versions make no such dis- 
tinctions, but do fully and absolutely express the text as text 
without reserve: an examination into the languages and Versions 
published in the several Polyglott Bibles will amply explain the 
practice of the ancient interpreters as to this matter. 

The Greek Translation of the Old Testament, and the Latin 
Versions of that text, declare against the practice of such inter* 
polation, as unmeaning and unknown ; and certainly, so high a 
precedent as the Greek Version is an authority not to be de- 
spised ; from whence not only the Latin Vulgate has obtained 
its rule, but has set the example for all succeeding Translations 
in all languages. 

The Psalter Psalms published with the English Common 
Pniyer, as also the Epistles and Gospels, are all, and altogether 
uniformly printed without interpolation; there are no Italic 
words introduced to fill up and make good the supposed want of 
sense and meaning, and the reading has everywhere the advan- 
tage of a complete and perfect text, without the appearance 
of human intrusion or addition. 

The numerous interpolated words in the Bible Psalms and 
other poetical books are highly derogatory to the majesty, bre- 
vity, and simplicity of the original Hebrew, which, if it be 
allowed an absolute and perfect text, should likewise be allowed 
an absolute and complete Translation ; and if that Translation is 
not made, nor can be effected, without the supposed auxiliaries 
and interpolations here objected to, then it follows, that either 
the original text is defective and imperfect, or the translator is 
incompetent to the work, or that the blameable scrupuloMty 
of the translators, in attempting an absolute accordancy in 
words and phrases, has ^riven them to the opposite extreme 
^f introducing into the text words which have no foundation 

Translation of the Bible. 841 

in the origifiali but are necessary to givd the sense and roeaning 
of it: thus inavoicfing one error they have falUn into another^ 
and whilst on the one hand they maintain the integrity of the 
Hebrew text^ they on the other impeach it as deficient and want- 

The text of the Church Bibles is the authentic text : from 
this text the Word of God is read in all churches, and the word 
of man is not admitted in it ; but if the reader should be tena- 
ciousy and equally scrupulous with the translators who have 
devised these interpolations, how shall such a reader consult 
with his conscience, should he pass over those Italic insertions 
^216 silentio, as not being the Word of God, or read them in the 
audience of the people as the Word of God, knowing them to 
be devised by menf Certainly he cannot but read the whole 
text as he there finds it written or printed, and no such reserves 
and distinctions can in this case be admitted. 

That alone is denied to the Bible, which is allowed to all the 
learned books of the ancients in the translations of their works, 
if such interpolations are to be persisted in ; and that which is 
allowed in the translation of common Hebrew books is denied 
to the Bible. 

Having remarked, that all the interpolary words may be re- 
solved into two classes. Grammatical and Explanatory, I shall 
now offer some pertinent examples j and first of the former 
of these two : 

1. Joseph says tq^is brethren, ** I am Joseph your brother," 
Gen. xlv. 4. The interpolated word is here marked in Italics, 
as if it had no warrant in the original ; but here a manifest vio- 
lence is done to the original in excluding the avowed sense in 
all similar cases, granted according to the rule of the Hebrew 
tongue; and therefore, when Joseph thus addresses his brethren, 
he positively and without reserve says, *' I am Joseph your bro- 
ther.'' The rule of the original language has no other form of 
expression for the present tense in this construction of speech, 
and that translation is not justified in the interpolation which 
excludes the affirmation contained in it. But of how much 
greater consequence are those repeated affirmations of the 
Almighty in sealing his word to his precepts in the most solemn 
form, '' 1 am the Lord !" Surely the testimony of the whole 
Hebrew tongue can never justify any translator for interpolating 
in forms of speech hke these, and rendering them imperfect. In 
like manner the Almighty affirms himself to be the Saviour and 
Deliverer of the Israelites, in that form of words so often repeat- 
ed in the Pentateuch, '^ I am the Lori> your God." <' 1 am 

S4f2 Remarks an the Engliih 

A^ Lord thy God/' Exod.xx. Prayer Book Version, ''I 
am the Lorb thy God/' &c^ By the same rule as the Prayer 
Book Version translates, ought the Bible Version to be revised^ 
and these objections would cease. 

The Prayer Book Version of Joel, ii* 12 — 17* Isa. Ixiii. 
1.5 — II. Jer. xxiii. 5—8. Mai. iii. 1 — 5. Isa. vii. 10 — 15. 
xL 1 — 11. affords no example of interpolated words by Italics, 
but renders the original text and Bible Translation complete 
and entire, after the ancient manner. 

Now the reason why the translators have introduced the Italic 
among the Roman letter of the text, is the Hebrew ellipsis of 
the verb to be, and hence they have so commonly and perpetually 
supplied the text in the words am, are, art, is, was, were, 8cc. 
whereas the construction of the language in the Hebrew always 
directs to the words called elliptical by the noun or pronoun, 
and by the verb or participle with which it is found ; and unless 
this rule be made a principle in a Translation, as it is in the ori- 
ginal, the Translation cannot but be defective. These remarks 
extend to the grammatical construction only, and to such inter- 
polated words as come under this head. 

All the Italic words in the* first chapter of Genesis in the 
English Translation should be revised and printed in the text- 
letter, excepting those which come under the second class, or 
are Explanatory: viz. he made, ver. 16. I have given, ver. SO* 
land, ver. 9, 10. 

The words '' dry land " in some editions, and in others with 
Italics, " dry land," ver. 9, 10, show a want of uniformity in 
the printing, and we shall see that the earlier editions have 
the advantage. 

Barker's Bible, Basket's Bible^ Oxford Bible^ 
8vo. 1639. 8vo. 1754. 4to. 1800. 

Gen. i. 9* dry land dry land dry land 

ibid. 10. dry land dry land dry land 

£xod. iv. 9. dry land dry land dry land 

ibid. xiv. 29. dry land * dry land dry land 

ibid. XV. 19* dry land dry land dry land 

Jos. iv. 22. dry land dry land dry land 

Neh. ix. 11. dry land * dry land diy land 

Psa. Ixvi. 6. dry land dry land dry land 

Jonah ]. 9. dry laud dry land dry land 

ibid. ii. 10. dry land dry land ' dry land 

Hence the words '' dry land " ought to be restored in these 
verses of Genesis, and the present Italics exchanged. 

The' Italics in verse l6th expose a defect, not in the original; 

Tramlatkn of the Bible, 243 

but in the Translation^ for '' the stars" are here mentioned in 
apposition with ** the great lights" which God made to rule 
the day and the night ; and should be rendered thus^ 

'^ And God made two great lights: the greater light to 
rule the day : and the lesser light, and the stars, to rule 
the night." 

The Italics in verse 30th are explanatory, and find their au- 
thority from the words going before, *^ And God said, Beholdi 
I have given you every herb, &c. — And to every beast of the 
earth, &c. I have given every green herb for meat : and it was 
so :" — but the sense is complete without this interpolation. 

The Hebrew verb which signifies to bring forth children, 
should be accordingly rendered, ch. vi. ver. 4. ^^ and they bare 
children to them :" there is no propriety in mutilating this text 
with Italics. See ch. x. 21. Nor is there the least occasion for 
Italics in ch. vi. ver. 1.5.; the passage may be rendered as fol- 

'^ And this is it which thou shalt make : the length 
of the ark three hundred cubits : the breadth of it fifty 
cubits : and the height of it thirty cubits." 

From these remarks which have been made, and innumerable 
are the examples which might be produced, it appears, that the 
Translation of the Bible, as it is now received, is capable of 
great and extensive improvement in the restoration of all those 
numerous Italic words which are essential to strict grammatical 
sense, and in a careful revisal of many words, thought necessary 
^o clear the reading from obscurity and ambiguity. 

There is, moreover, wanting an adjustment of the paragraphs, 
by which the argument of the Sacred Text may be more cor- 
rectly pointed out, and in which there is found no small differ- 
etice in comparing together:4he same in different editions of the 
Bible ; there are also many instances of these paragraphs being 
wrongly placed in all editions, of which an instance may be 
found in the 6th chapter of Genesis. The command of God to 
Noah for building the ark,, and the decreed destruction of the 
earth, begins with the ISth verse: ^^ And God said. unto Noah." 
Here begins the paragVaph, which ends with the chapter. 

With regard to the reading points, the later editions afford 
some examples of alteration not for the better : in the second 
verse of the first chapter of Genesis, the Oxford 4to. edition of 
1800 has made a dillRon, which the Hebrew critics call averse 
within a verse, marked with a capital after a full point, thus, 
*^ And the earth was without form and void; and darkness 


Remarks on the English 

was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God 
. mo?ed upon the face of the waters." 

Edition by Barker, l6sg. 
*' And the earth was without foroi^ and void, and 
darkness was upon the face of the deep : and the Spirit 
of God moved upon the face of the waters/' 
This verse in the old editions conforms with the Hebrew 
more correctly than in the edition above-mentioned; but the 
pointing in both examples is incorrect. The verse divides itself 
into three parts, and requires the colon points thus—. 

*^ And the earth was without form and void: and 
darkness was upon the face of the deep : and the Spirit 
of God moved upon the face of the waters/' 
Edition 1639. Exam. ^. 

Ver. 5. '' And God called the light Day, and the 

darkness he called. Night : and the evening and 
the morning were the first day." 

** And God called the light Day, and the 
darkness he. called Night. And the evening 
and the morning were the first day." 
Exam. 3. 
'' And God called the firmament. Heaven : 
and the evening and the morning were the se- 
cond day.'* 

'' And God called the firmament Heaven. 
And the evening and the morning were the se- 
cond day.'' ( 
Exam. 4. 

*^ And God saw every thing that he had 

made: and behold, it zms very good. And the 

evening and the idoming were the sixth day/' 

In neither of these editions is the pointing correct, and the di* 

viding of one verse into two gives the appearance of an interpo* 


Exam. 5.- 
^* But unto Cain, and to his offering he had 
not respect: and Cain was very wroth, and bis 
countenance fell." 

** But unto Cain and to his offering be had 
not respect. And Cain, was very wroth, and 
his countenance fell." Vil * 
Exam. 6. 
'* If thou do well^ shalt thou not be ac- 

Edition 1800. 

Edition 1639. 
Ver. 8. 

Edition 1800. 

Edition 1639. 

Edition 1639. 
Gen. iv. 5. 

Edition 1800. 
Ibid. « 

^ition 1639. 
Ver. 7. 

Transktian of the Bible. S45 

cepted i and if thou doest not vrdXf sin lieth 
at the door : And unto thee shall be his desire, 
and thou shalt rule over him/' 
Edition 1800. '^ if thou doest well, shalt thou not be ac- 

Ibid. . cepted ? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at 

the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, 
and thou shalt rule over him.'' 
In these examples, the old edition of 1639 has the preference 
to the new : and for this reason ; the pre-eminence of Cain, on 
account of his transgression, depended on his repentance, but 
the condition is made absolute in the present pointing of the 
verse:. the translation of the verse is ol^scure, and should be 
revised thus : 

'^ If thou doest well, shalt thou not be ac- 
cepted? and unto thee shall be his desire, 
and thou shalt rule over him: and if thou doest 
not well, sin lieth at the door/' . 

Examples of the Paragraphs. 

Gen. i 1. In the beginning Edition 1639. 1800. 

3. P. And God sbid 1800. * 
6. P. And God said 1639. 1800. 
9* P. And God said 1639. 1800. 

14. P. And God said 1^39. 1800. 
fiO. P. And God said 1800. 
94. P. And God said 1639. IBOO. 
26. P. And God said 1639. 1800. 
29. And God said l639. 1800. 

Ch. ii. 1. Thus the heavens 

4. P. These are the generations 1639* 1800. 

8. P. And the Lord God 1639. 1800. 
10. P. And a river went out 1800. 

15. And the Lord God took 1639. 

P. And the Lord' took 1800. 

18. P. And the Lord God said 1639* 1800. 

21. P. And the Lord God caused 1800. 

Ch. iii. 1. Mow the serpent was 

6. P. And when the woman 1800. 

9. P. And the Lord God called 1800. 
14. P. And the Lord God said 1800. 

16. P. Unto the woman 1800. 

I Here is an error in the printed text. 

246 Remarki on the EngUsk^ 

Unto Adam also 

And the Lord God said 

And Adam knew 

And Cain talked 

And the Lord said 

And Cain went out 

And Cain knew 

And Lantech took 

And Adam knew 

This is the book 

And Adam lived 

And Seth lived 

An4 Enos lived 

And Cainan 

And Mahalaleel 

And Jared 

And Enoch 

And Methuselah 

And Lamech 

And Noah was 

And it came to pass 

And God saw 16S9* 

But Noah found 1800. 

These are the generations 1639. 

Make thee an ark 1639. 1800. 

From these examples it appears that the pointing of the para- 
graphs requires revision : and that some rule sho.u)d be adopted 
to direct the printers^ who follow different copies^ and conse- 
quently these variations are increased or diminished according to 
the copies and the rule of the old and new editions. 

The contents of chapters ought to be so indexed as to corre- 
spond with their divisions into paragraphs: this is not uniformly 
the case ; and there are editions which afford considerable ex- 
ceptions. Neither do the old and modem editions agree in the 
form and manner of enunciating the subject matter; particularly 
in the New Testament, where the contents in the later editions 
considerably amplify beyond the limits of the former : compare 
the chapters in the Epistle to tbe Romans in the different editions 
published by authority. 

As an improvement in this article^ it is recommended to insert 
the index of the paragraphs in the contents, together with the 
numerical figure of the verses^ after the following manner : 

Ch. iii. SI. 




Cb. iv. 1 . 













Ch.v. 1. 





















Ch. vi. 1. 





















1800. ' 




1800. • 














Translation of the Bible. 


Edition 1639^ 

Gen, cb* i. 

1. Tte creation of heaven 
and earth : 3 of the lights 
€ of the firmament^ 9 of 
the earth separated from the 
waters, 1 1 and made fruit* 
ful^ 14 of the sun, moon, 
and stars, !20 of fish and 
fowl, 24 of beasts and cat- 
tle, 26 of man in the image 
of Godi 29 Also the appoint- 
ment of food. 

Cfaap. ii. 

1. The first sabbath. 4 
The manner of the creation. 

8 The planting of the garden 
of Eden, 10 and the river 
thereof. 17 The tree of 
knowledge only forbidden. 
19 f 20 the naming of the 
creatures. 21 The making 
of woman, and institution of 

Chap. iii. 
1. The serpent deceiveth 
Eve. 6 Man's shameful fall. 

9 God arraigneth them. 14 
The serpent is cursed. 15 
The promised seed. 16 The 
punishment of mankind. 21 
Their first clothing. ^2 Their 
casting out of Paradise. 

Chap. iv. 
1. The birth, trade, and re- 
ligion^ of Cain and Abel. 8 
The murder of Abel. 9^ The 
curse of Cain. 17 Enoch 
the first city. 19 Lamech 

Edition 1800. 

Gen. ch. i. 

1. The creation of heaven 
and earth, 3 i[ of the light, 
6 f of the firmament. 9 IT The 
earth separated from the wa- 
ters, and made fruitful. 14 % 
The creation of the sun, moon, 
and stars, 20 ^ of fish and 
fowl, 24 il of beasts and cat- 
tle, 26 5r pf °^^" ^" the image 
of God ; and his blessing. 29 
% The appointment of food. 
Chap. ii. 

1. The first sabbath. 4 % 
The manner of the creation. 
8 ^ The planting of the garden 
of Eden. 10 ^ The river, dnd 
its four heads. 15 IF Man is 
placed in Eden, and the tre^ 
of knowledge only forbidden. 
18 ^ The naming of the crea- 
tures. 21 ^ The making of 
woman, and institution of mar- 

Chap. iii. 

1. The serpent deceiveth 
Eve. 61[ Man's fall. 9 IF God 
arraigneth them. 14 IF The 
serpent is cursed, and his over« 
throw by the seed of the wo*> 
man foretold. 16 IF The pu- 
nishment of mankind. 21 ^ 
Their first clothing. 22 f 
Their expulsion out of Para«> 

Chap. iv. 

1. The birth, occupation, 
and religious behaviour of Cain 
and Abel. 8 ^ The murder of 
Abel, and the arraignment and 
curse of Cain for it. 17 IF E- 

248 Remarks ah the English Bible. 

and his two wives. fl5 The noch bom; the first citj bpilt ; 
birth of Seth, 26 and Enos. the generations of Cain. 19 

% Lamech and his two wives. 

£5 f The birth of Seth and 


It is not any part of my design to enter upon a minute exa* 
mination of the preceding examples, bi^t to show the necessity 
of adopting some regular method for indexing and establish- 
ing a Canon for the more certain direction of all persons, 
who, in reading, are willing to cqnsult the contents of each chap- 
ter, and also of commentators, who may derive great advantage 
from seeing the limits and bearings of the ai^uments in the 
sacred text : and that the introduction of the % into the contents 
of each chapter, together with the number of the verse, is the 
more conspicuous and certain method to effect it. 

With respect to the marginal readings, they require many ad- 
ditions for the further understanding of the text; and that they 
may not be confounded with the old readings, a suitable distinc- 
tion may be devised. 

And with respect to references, those of sacred and aposto* 
lical authority should be specially, distinguished: and next to 
them the parallel passages ; and as to all others, care should be 
taken in the selection ; for it is not their number, but their use^ 
that is important. 

Having finished my remarks, such as they are, I pro- 
pose with all due respect my opinion, that there is wanting 
a revised edition of the English Bible of the present au- 
thorised translation, on the plan of the editions of the 
Latin Vulgate, and a restoration of all the Ualic words to the 
letter of the text or Roman character ; that an upiform text 
may be given, ^consistent with the nature and description of a 
complete and perfect translation — and the more simple the form 
of it is, the better. Such an edition would remove many objeo- 
tioBs arising from the crude and unfinished appearance of the 
present text, disgraced and injured as it is by unmeaning and 
unwarrantable interpolations, as they now stand in a character 
different from the text : all such objections would ' immediately 
vanish, and the Bible appear in its native beauty and splendor. 





^fo. V.-^lCmtinuedfrom No. LVL} 

II. Measures of Capacity. 

These mentioned in Scripture, as in other writings, are neces- 
sarily of two kinds, or are employed for measuring substances 
in the two different conditions of liquid and dry. They would . 
appear to have been more uniform, in their contents, among 
the Hebrews than ours are ; for their ^9^^ or bushel, and their 
TQ (for liquids), were equally large. 

It is very certain that there was a standard of these measures 
in ^' the mosi holy place ;" and that it stood before the ark of the 
covenant. Moses was ordered to place -^^ the Omer of manna 
before the presence of Jehovah :'* TDiV ^35^— TD loyn (the "lOy 
was the tenth part of the DSK or Hebrew bushel) : and it s^ems 
that the vessel was not of wood, but of gold : Exod. xvi. 33, 
36. Heb. ix. 4. That there were various other measures in 
use is not improbable ; although Moses has not inserted in his . 
writings any account of their contents. At this no one needs 
to be offended; for in fact measures of this description coUld 
not properly be specified in the book of the law, because the 
standard vessel, which was of gold, could not, without risk of 
being injured or stolen, be put into the view of every Israelite.' 

To notice, however, some probable .examples of standard 
measures of capacity, by which the sacred utensils were deliver- 
ed to the priests and Levites : Numb.i. iv. : it may be remarked, 
that belonging to the table of shew-bread, there were not only 
golden tankards (PlfpSO) in which wine stood, and from which it 
was to be poured out, but also small drinking vessels, shaped like 
our cups, likewise of gold. Now, considering Moses as merely 
versed ^ in the learning of the Egyptians/' we must think it 
probable, that all these vessels had their contents very accurately 
determined. The very same, probably, was the case with regard 
to the basons belonging to the altar of burnt'-offerings ; and for 
regulating the baking of the shew-bread, the flour for which the 
law fixed by bushels, there may have been a standard n92t 

— *^^i— i— — — — f— WM^I— .^1— i— ■^— — iW I 1 i|l»l II III M 

' Michaelis' Comment ott Laws of Moses, iii. pp. 390^392. 


The Arithmetic of 

witfain the Sanctuary. Before the tabernacle stood the brazen 
laver. In the more particular description of the vessels deliVered 
to the priests it was perhaps specified, how. much water this laver 
contained, both when quite fully and when filled only to a certain 
mark ; and accordingly we find, that the contents of this brazen 
sea, as it was called, are mentioned in both respects, in the his- 
torical books of ] Kings (vii. 26.) and 2 Chronicles (iv. 5.) 

The Scripture Measures of Capacity. 

Id Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and English. 


yOp or VQ ^^ or AftvyiM. 
Sf? or 37 KarvXn, 

r^^ -o^^ Xoiytf • 

BmtB or MtTftms 


(Noticed only by Home.) 








Gift or llf^^xtt. lEpoa. 
HfAMLOfog, JDimid. Cori. 




A Log. 
A Cab. 

An Omer. 
A Htn. 
An Epbah'. 

|A Chomer. 

Liquid: or 

0.625 of a Pint. 
About 2 Gills. 
ll Quart. 

li Gall, 
di Galls. 

rl ditto. 

175 Galls. 5 Pints. 

»ry : or 


0,1416 of a Fi 

2| Pints. 
1} Pint. 
3 Quarts. 


A Bushel. 
2 Strikes. 
A Quarter. 

Sect. 1. Liquid; or^ according to Wine-measure. 

. ^ a hollow^ or palm of the hand :— denoting, therefore, that 
quantity of a liquid which may be contained in the hollow of the 
hand. In Num. vii. 14, 20. it is a Censer^ Ouio-^ei^. 

Xy> in Lev, xiv. 10, signifies that measure of oil, which lepers 
were to offer at the temple after their cure ; and, by Jewish 
writers,' is said to have contained the quantity of six eggs. Its 
ideal meaning is uncertain ; but have we not traces of this word 
in the Greek X>}ya), I cease, in the Swedish lagg, extremity, 
and the English' iffi^ ? May it therefore denote, the small or lak 
measure ? 

3p the sixth part of a ilMD, or the eighteenth of an ilSM ; 
and therefore containing three pints and one third English. The 
least measure noticed in Scripture is IpTT^Jl*!; 2 Kings vi. 25* 

rrr was used for measuring oil : Exod. xxx. Ezek« xlv. 46 ; 
and wine : Exod. iLxix. Levit. xxiii. It was probably thus de- 

' Eimchi and others interestingly noticed by the learned Leusden, m 
Dissert, xxxi. Pbiloh Hebr., &c. pp. 203-^309. 

the Holy Scriptures. S51 

^Qininatecl^'because etnployod in presenting (ih)m niTt to pre- 
sent) the liquids for the service of God. The Scriptitre fuiv 
nishes no sufficient data for determining its capacity. 

ilHD was exactly double the size of a IpH, or £| gallons. Ac-* 
cording to Dr. Bernard^'— *' Urna Romanai sive sesquimodiuB 
Romanus : i. e. 24 sextarii Romani." 

rCL rendered ficui; but also [Mrpims* ^ Chron. iv. 5.: and 
xepufnos : Is. v. 10. It was the tenth part of the Omer in liquids^ 
as the Ephah was in dry things : Ezek. xlv. 11. In John ii*. 6. 
fuerp^Tus should be translated^ not by the modem word ^' fir- 
kins/' but by measures or baths. ^ So large a quantity (about 
40 gallons) was probably designed not only to supply the nevT 
married couple with wine during the seven days of their nuptial 
feast (Jud. xiv. 12. with Gen. xxix. 97, 88. Tobit xi. 19-) and 
to provide for dieir future occasion ; but also to prove most 
specially the reality of the miracle. ^ 

. ion the same as the 1\^, ^opos, was the largest of these mea^ 
sures: Ezek. xlv. 14. 

Sect. 2. Dry; or, according to Corn-measure* 

/fU is represented by Mr. Home^ as the smallest: but 
whence has he taken it— for it has not been noticed by Godwyn^ 
Stocke, Buxtorf, Lamy, Calmet, or Parkburst i 

T(ie 3p is explained by Josephus^ by fconjv, the Roman 
Sextarius : — a little more than our pint. It does not appear in 
sacred history^ till the reign of Jtehoram^ king of Israel ; 2 King9 
vi, 25. ; 

103f, being the 10th part of an ephah, and equal to about six 
jpints English, is said to have been diua applied from its primary 
meaning to press, as being the mpst contracted of these mea- 
sures : Exod. xvi. 36, 

Xom^, a Grecian measure for com : Rev. vi. 6. : by some 
reckoned equal to about a pint and a half English. It should 
be read a Chanix, ^ instead of our indefinite and unmeaning 
translation, '^a measure." 

' In his elaborate ^ Mensurse Concav. Antiq.*' appended to Dr. Po- 
eocke's CommeDt. on Hosea. 

' ^ Dr. Campbeirs Four Gospels translated, &c. ; see particularly Vol. 
\\\. pp. 295, 996. Edinburgh ed. 1821. 

3 Dr. Pearce's Miracle$ of Jesus vindicated, &c. ; Part Hi., cited iiK 
parkhurst's Greek Lex. p. 432. 

^ Introduction to the H. Script. &c. Vol. iii. p. 60. 

' Part I. of a most judicious Prelim. Dissert., No, viii. of Dr. Camp- 
bell, Vol. i. pp. 316— 328* 

S5a Th€ ArUkmeiic of 

' HMD filertilly denotes a measure ; and therefore with proprietj 
applied to a specific purpose. In the reduplicate form : Is. 
xxvii. 8 : HMDHDy it signifies a repeated or exact measuring. 

nSM or, more freiquently TtSfiH, which may be literally called 
the baking measure: for this quantity was usually baked at one 
time ; as well as the radical intimation of the word.. The Sep- 
tuagint have, often translated it by Jlip^fui, a baking. Equal to 7^ 
gallons ; or near an English bushel. ' 

^rh containing half an Omer or Cor. So several of the 
Hexaplar versions Hfuxopoy, and Vulg. diroidio coro : Hos. iii. 
2. Sixteen pecks, or four bushels, or two strikes. 

USn derives its appellation, according to Godwyn,^ from IKHXl 
an ass, because it contained the quantity of grain which 
an ass could conveniently bear. But, says Parkhurst, ^'the 
largest measure ; in which many things were often jumbled (from 
*1Qn to disturb) together." It held to the amount of 32 pecks 
«nd upwards, or about 1 quarter :3— and consequently equal to 
eight cubic feet of water. 

Chap. hi. Weights. 

As the ancient Hebrews were chiefly an agricultural ^ people, 
they were not much addicted to commercial pursuits — and con- 
sequently a primitive simplicity would characterise their weights 
and all their mercantile transactions. Indeed, all their weights 
irefer to money ; and might properly be arranged under our Troy 
or Jewellers' weight. 

Among the Biblical terms usually applied to this subject, the 
following deserve notice : 

Tpp to weigh, is the word most generally employed to express 
this idea : Gen. xxiii. 16. ^p/l, in Dan. v. 25, 27, is only the 
Chaldaic form of the same word. 

n^i literally a stone, signifies also a weight ; which was, as 
frequently with us, of stone: Deut. ^xv. 13. and Prov. xvi. 
11.^ are beautiful allusions to the stony weights of the Hebrews. 

' Gusset, &c. quoted by Parkhurst, in his Heh. Lex. p. 34. 

^ Moses and Aaron, Civil and Eccles. Rites, &c. p. 26S. 
*^ A Quarter of wheat ivas so called, on the supposition that it weighed 
500lh., or a quarter of a Ton, — A cubic foot of water weighs lOuO ounces; 
6f course 32 cubic feet weigh 20001b., which were formerly a ton. The 
bushel, or one eighth of a quarter, is equal to 1000 ounces, or a cubic 
foot of water. — Joyce's Pract. Arithm. pp. 48, 49. 

■^ Fleury's Manners of the Ancient Israelites, &c. p. 63. 

^ The Hebrew weights were not made of metal, lest the rust should 

the Holy. Sef^aiures. 


Xhs^ to W.eigb> bakmee, make eveii ^^-<ind of aimilal' import is 
the term. 

ttM :--!diottgb it does npt occur as a verb, yet '' in Arabic 

the cognate verbs ^^y and ^^. signify to weigh^ balance ;**' and 
lyOtHD A pair of scales : Lev. xix. 36. Jer. xxxii. 10. £2ek. v. 1. 
• n^ a particular weight ; from its radical signification of dis- 
tributing or computing by weight, as well as number. 

Rev. xvi. 21. seems the only example, in the New Testa- 
ment^ of the occurrence of this term ; where raXavtiftia, the 
weight of a talent, is read by the Syriac ]jj;;x>o, obviously 
from "133 a talent. 

A standard was provided for the Hebrew weights in a variety 
of ways :*• — by the golden candlestick in the sanctuary : Exod. 
XXV. 31-^ 39m ^^^ tbe silver sockets on which rested the vails 
of the taberhaqle: Exod. xxxviii. 27. — besides the particular 
speci^cations of Exod. xxx. 13. Lev. xxvii. 25. 

The superintendents of weights and measures among the 
Israelites were much in the Egyptian style, the priests and Le- 
vites. To them the standards were delivered; and indeed, 
article by article, to particular persons ; that so, if of gold or of 
silver, they might re-deliver it by weight ; besides, the whole 
tribe of Levi were maintained by the public, in return for their 
devoting themselves to the sciences.' See likewise David's ap- 
pointment : 1 Chron. xxiii. 9,9. 

The Weights mentioned in Scripture. | 

lbs. oz. pen. grs. 




A Gerah. 





Half Shekel. 




A Shekel. 





A Pound. 






2 6 


1 '. ' 

Statera. A Talent. 


7T\3i, the smallest weight, seems to be thus denominated as 
resembling in smallness the dust which a saw makes from wood. 
Thus the smallest coin among the Greeks was called Xsffroy, 

eat theoiy and they should become lighter. They were all made of 
stone : — and hence the Vulg. reading of Prov. xvi. 11. — Lamy's Introduc- 
tion, &c. p. 254. note. 

> Dr. Castell, referred to in Parkhurst's Hebrew Lexicon, p. 10. 

* For additional illustration, the reader may consult pages 392 — 894. 
of Vol. iii. of Michaelis' Comment., &c. 

^ Michaelis' Comment., &c. Articles lii. and ccxxvii. in Vols, L and iii. 

354 The Arithmetic of the Scriptures. 

little ; and onr ancestora also had their mite* Tbe variatione or 
its weight, by different writers, are from five to twelve oancea. * 

3fD2f to separate or cleave asunder, is a shekel broken in two ; 
a talf shekel. Gen, xziv, 22. 

Tptff the standard weight, to which all others were conformed ; 
as thev are in £nsland to our pound, significantly derived frota 
pendoj I weigh. It is^ generally reckoned at about half an En- 
glish ounce. The weight of Absalom's hair, mentioned 2- Sam. 
xiv. 26., was 6| pounds of our Avoirdupois or grocers' weight* 
A comparison of Ezod. sxx. IS. with £zek. xlv. 9« 12. provea 
that the common shekel and that of tbe sanctuary were really the 
same. The reason of the appellation ttHpn 7pV was because the 
standard of this, as of all other weights and measures, was kept 
tfi t^ Sanctuary, according to 1 Chron« xxiii. 29 } as with us in 
the Exchequer.' 

TMiQ usually estimated from Ezek. xlv. 12. at 60 sbekela 
or 2| pounds : but by Josephus and Parkhurst at ICX) shekels, 
tbe latter directing to compare 1 Kings x. 17. with 2 Chron. ix^ 
l6. It is observable, that this word is to be found^ only in the 
books of Kings, Chronicles, Ezra, and Ezekiel. 

^33 a talent, appears from Ebiod. icxxviii. 25, 26. to have 
been equal to SOOO shekels; and consequently about 125 Iba. 
Dr. Cumberland, however, estimates it at 93| pounds; and 
Michaelis, at little more than 32^ English Avoirdupois.' 

AiTgOf in John xii. d. and xix. 39- a pound ; and is supposed 
to have been somewhat less than 12 ounces, as it is well known 
the Roman libra^ was. Thi^ word, says Scapula, is used by the 
old Greek writers; and by the Sicilians' for the obolus, or 
weight of 12 ounces. ' 

January f 1824. . J. W. 

(Money in our next) 

' Thus remarks Parkhurst, who has given a judicious discussion of the 
subject, in his Hebrew Lexicon, p. 767. 
: * Calmet's Bib. Eocyclop. on Mina, Vol. iL last edition. 

3 These distinguished writers are noticed by Parkhurst— Hebrew Lenh- 
con^ pp. SIS, 314. 

-^ Dr. Adam's Roman Antiquities— Weights and Coins, p. 490» fifth 
edition, leoi. 

. s Encyclop. Britan», on M^als, No. 45^ 


Is the Nightingale the Herald of Day, as well as the 

Messenger of Spring ? 

No, lll.~\CQnclu€kd from No. LF.] 

Que bien cantan los Ruisenores 

' Las maaanitas con zelod 

Y COD tristezas las noches. 

Principe d'Esquikcba. 

1 UI8 18^ as Mr. Bowring remarks in a letter addressed to me, 
^' a curious fiction of the Spanish- poets, that the Nightingale 
sings of jealousy in the mornings and of sorrow at night/' 

The same enlightened gentleman has referred me to Sbak- 
seare's Song in the Passionate Pi/grim, beginning ; 

As it fell upon a day. 

In the merry month of May, 

Sitting in a pleasant shade. 

Which a erove of myrtles made. 

Beasts dia leap, and birds did sin^, 

Trees did grow, and plants did spring : 
, Every thing did banish moan, 
. Save the niffhHngale alone : 

She, poor bird, as all forlorn. 

Lean d her breast up-till a thorn, 

And there sung the dolefulFst ditty. 

That to bear it was great pity : 

Fie, fie, fie, nov would she cry, 
t Teru, Teru, by and by. 

^' This/' says Mr. B., '^ evidently supposes the nightingale to 
sing in broad day-light." 

Strada's verses have been already referred to ; but I must re- 
fresh the mind of the reader with an excellent translation of 
them : — 

'' Ed. Br. If your Ladyship will allow me, I will repeat some 
lines^ which I met with the other day in an old neglected Poet, 
Crashaw. They seemed to me wonderfully beautiful, though 
somewhat of the quaintest. 

'* Lady M. But are they to the purpose i 

'' Ed. Br. You shall hear. They are taken from a piece 
called Musters Duel. The contest is between ' a sweet lute's 
master* and * the harmless syren of the woods.'' 

He lightly skirmishes on every string, 

Charged with a flying touch ; and streightway she 


256 Is the Nightingak the Herald of Day^ 

Canres out her dainty notes as readily- 
Into a thoutandy sweety distinguiahea lonaSy 
And reckon t up, iq soft divisions. 

Quick volumes of wild notes 

Now negligently rash, 
He thcQws his arm, and with a long-drawn dash, 
Blends all together ; then distinctly trips 
From this to that ; then quick-returning skips. 
And snatches this again, and pauses there. 
She measures every measure, everywhere 
Meets art with art ; sometimes, as if in doubt, 
Not perfect yet, and fearing to be out. 
Trails her plain ditty in one long-spun note. 
Through the sleek passage of her open throat. 

I _. He, amazed ' 

That from so small a channel should be raised 

The torrent of avoioe, whose melody 

Could melt into sqch sweet variety. 

Strains higher yet ; as when the trumpets call 

Hot Mars to the harvest of Death's field, and woo 

Men's hearts into their hands ; — ^This lesson too 

She gives him back. Her supple breast thrills out 

Sharp airs, and st^iggers in a warbling doubt 

Of dallying sweetness ; hovers o'er her skill, 

And folds, in waved notes, with a trembling bill. 

The plyant series of her slippery song ; 

Then starts she suddenly into a. throng 

Of panting murn^urs, atill'd out of her breasl^ 

That ever-bubbling spring; the sugar*d.nest 

Of her delicious squI, xh^X there doth lye 

Bathing in streams of liquid melodie. 

Her voice now kindling seems a holy auire. 

Founded to th' name of great Apollo'& lyre. 

Of sweet-Iipp'd Angels, ever murmuring 

That men can sleep, while they their matins sing, 

(Most divine service,) whose early lay 

Prevents the eyelids of the blushing day. 

Shi^me now and anger mix't a double stain 
In the Musician's face ; yet once again. 
From this to that> from that tothia he flies, 
Feels music's pulse in all her arteries. 
Caught in a net, which there Apollo 9|>reads, 
His fingers struggle with the vocal threads, 
AVith flash of high-born fancies, and anon 
tCreep on the sofi touch of a tender 'tone. 
Whose trembling murmurs, melting in wild airs, 
Buns to and fro, complainiQg his sweet oares. 
Because thosie precious mysteries, that dwell 
In music's ravish'd soul he dares not tell. 
But whisper to the world. 

Sweet, soul, she tries 
To measure all those wild diversities 
Of chattering strings, by; the. 8B>all si^eof one 
Po^r ^i|npie vpjiee, raised in a na^tural tone. 

as well as the M^fs^ger of Spring P 3(57 

A)A6| in vain f f^r wliito h^tftitid^^ thrbati 
Yet sumiiiQQ9 flill itt 8W9et povi^rs for a.ndta, . 
She fairs,-~and failing grievies^ and gricidn^ dif 8. 
She dies^ and leaves her life tne'victor'd Pf^^ 
Falfing ti^ii his lute. Oh, fit to have, 
(That lived so sw^etfy,) dead, so srweet a gnlve ! 

"Lady M. There id ceitahil^ tf fihe oltf spirit of genuine 
poetry in these Yersft9»'' 

Knights Quarteriy Mag, 2> $64^ 

The writer of this aurtide ought to hate knemn^ or at least 
might as well have noticed^ that the idea of tbese lines wad Utken 
from Strada; and the same remark may be applied tO'die'V6i^efli' 
of Chaucer, which are quoted by AtUiqwMrms in Classical Jour- 
nal 56, 365. 

It may be remarked too, that in citing Crashaw's lines, certaif» 
liberties are taken in Knight's Mag. The entire passage is ^oted 
in the Retrospective Review, No. ii. p. £46^ ^nd introduced 
with the following remarks : — '^ Our quotations from this neg- 
lected Poet have been so copious, that we have no space left 
for observing upon any of the other pieces of translation except 
one; and that is so eminently beautiful in itself, and is translated 
with such a wonderful power over the resources of out language, 
that we hope to find fiivor in the eyes of our readers by extract- 
ing the whole Poem. The original is in the Latin of Strada ; 
the subject, the v^elUknown contest of the musiciafi and night*' 
ingale. Crashaw entities it. Music's DueL'* 

But before I dismiss Knight's Mag^y it will bo right to criti- 
cise what is said in p. £59- : — ^* We might have b^en reading 
Tom and Jerry, or the Scottish Chiefs, or the Article on Night^ 
ingales in the Classical Journal, or a great many other things, 
all and each worse than reading Sir John Suckling's Plays J^ 
But be it known to Edward Haselfoot that those, who admire 
the notes of Nature's sweetest songster, pay be excused for in- 
quiring into its habits^ and that a question, which has'fiot been 
satisfactorily determined by any modern ornithologist, is not un- 
worthyeven of a philosopher's attention. 

J.VT. in Class. Joum, 56, 343. refers to the Electra of 
Sophocles for a proof that^ the Nightingale may be a morning- 
songstress." I thank him for his reference. But has he ascer- 
tained the fact from any modern ornithologist, that it is the fe- 
male, which sings i 

**Biix best, the dear good angel of the spdngi- 
The Nightingale* 

B. Jonson's Sad Shepherd. 

258 Nuga. 

This is a translation from a verse of Sappho found in the 
SchoK on Soph. £!• 147. It is given by Brunck, 
'^Hgog (EvysXo^i IfMpi^wvos iyfiwv* 
Bentleji in his Ms. Notes on Hephestion^ preserved in the 
Library of Trin. Coll. Cam.^ has altered it to 
^Hpos ayysX', IfMfifmv* infiol/* 

R. Walpole's Specimens of Scarce Tramlations of the 17 th: 
Century from the Latin Poets, to which are added Miscella^ 
neous Translations from the Greek, Spanish, Italian, etc. 
Liondon, 1805. p. 86. 

Ovid. Fast. 2. 

an verts prtnmniia venit hirundo f 

" Ezpressit Sapphonis sententiam^ ^Hpos iyy^Xmu c^^*" H* 
Ciofanii Ob$s. p. 28. 

In the Royal Poem entitled the King^s Quair James repre- 
sents himself as ** rising at day-break, according to custom, to 
escape from the dreary meditations of a sleepless pillow i-^ 

And on the small grene twistis set 

The lytel swete Nightingales, and sung 
So loud and clear the nymnis consecrate 

Of lovis use, now soft, now loud among. 
That all the garden and the wallis rung 
Right of their song/' 

Geoffrey Crayon's Sketch Book I, 142. Ed. l%\ 

Thetford, March 1824. 


collecting toys 

And trifles for choice matters, worth a sponge -, 
As children gathering pebbles on the shore. 

PdJradise Begained^ iv. 325. 

No. lX.—\Continuedfrom No. LVII.'] 

Parallel Passages. (Continued.) 

3. I never saw a fool lean ; the chub-faced fop 
Shines sleek with full-cramm'dfat of happiness^ 
Whilst studious contemplation sucks the juice 

Nuga. 359 

From wizards' cheeks, who making curious search 
For Nature's secrets, the First innating Cause 
Laughs them to scorn, as man doth busy apes, 
When they will zany men. 

MarstOH ap. Retrosp, xi. 131. 

Go, wondrous creature ! mount where science guides, 
Go, measure earth, weigh air, and state the tides ; 
Instruct the planets in what orbs to run, 

Correct old Time, and regulate the Sun :— « 

« , # « « # ' 

Go, teach Eternal Wisdom- bow to rule — 
Then drop into thyself, and be a fool ! 
Superior beings, when of late they saw 
A mortat man unfold all Nature's law. 
Admired such wisdom in an earthly shape, 
And show'd a Newton as we show an ape. 

Pope's Essay on Man, £p. ii. 19. 

4. ' Scared at thy frown terrific, fly 

Self-pleasing Folly's idle brood. 

Wild iaugtiter, noise, and thoughtless joy. 

And leave us leisure to be good. 

Gray, Ode to Adversity. 
The expression in the last line appears to be borrowed from 

Let fumbling age be grave and wise^ 

And Virtue's poor contemn'd idea prize. 
Who never knew, or now are past the sweets of vice ; 

While we whose active pulses beat 
* With lusty youth and vigorous ^heat. 
Can all their bards and morals too despise. 
While my plump veins are fiU'd with lust and Mood, 

Let not one thought of her intrude, 
Or dare approach my breast, — 
But know I have not yet the leisure to be good. 

Satire against Virtue. 

5. > *' quot in aequore verso 

Tritones, quot monstra natent, quot littus arenas, 

Quot freta pisciculos immensi gurgitis unda 
Abscondant, quot sylva regat volucresque ferasque, 
Quot fumi vomat ^Btna globos, quantasque favillas;* 
Haec mihi nota panim, fateor ; nee notius illud, 
Qui status est coelo, qua sidera lege moventur. 

W Nuga. 

Invoiiei aliqiios 9stroruin arcana profesgos 
Metiriqtie ausos coelaiD, torrasque, fretumque^ 
Ignaros quo qoatfa Uoien corpuscula limo 
Subsistant^ seu quid clauiis ait spiritiu umbrU, 
Heu furofi heu fijinesta lues, heu flebilis horror. 
Omnia malle bomineni^ quain se, discemere !' sicne 
Ultima cura sui est, quam par fuit esse priorem i 
Petrarch. Eput. PoeL Lit. li. Ep. iii. p. 1S44. coL 2. 

Similar are the coipplaiots of a kindred thinker in later times : 

■ ■■ And thus they spend 

The little nvicl^ of life'is poor shallow lamp 
In playing tricks with nature, giving laws 
To distant worldSf and trifling in their own. 
Ah ! what is life thus spent i and what are they 
But fraptici who thus spend it?— - 
True ; ( am no proficient, I confess, 
, In arts like yours. I eannot call the swift 
And perilous lightniqgs from the angry clouds, 
And make them hide themselves in earth beneath ; 
I cannot analyse the air, nor catch 
The parallax of yonder luminous point, 
That seems hi|If quenchM in the inotmense abyss. 
Such powers I boast not,, neither can I rest 
A silent ^tness of the headlong rage, 
Or heedless folly, by which thousands die, ' 

Bone of ufy bpiiej n^d kindred souls to i^inet 

Cotvp^f^s Task, iii. 

6» The ritet that runs slox¥ and. cceqis by. the banks, and 
begs leave of every .-turf to let it pass, is drawn inlo little hollo w- 
nesses, and spendsJtself in smaUerporioons, and. dies with diver- 
sion ; but when ic runs mth vigorousness and a fuU sirelim, and 
breaks down every obstacle, nuakiBg it ev«n as its own .brow, it 
stays not to be tempted by little avooalaons, and to creep into 
holes, but runs into the sea through full and useful channels : so 
is a man's prayer; if it moves upon the feet of an abated appe- 
tite, it wandeis into t!he society of every trifling accident, and 
stays at the corners of the fwcy« and talks with every object it 
meets, and cannot arrive at Heaven, &c. 

Jeremy Taylor, Sermon qf Lukewarmness and Zeal, 

p. 125. Ed, 1668. 

Aji Italian poet, P, Salandri, in a sonnet translated hj Mont* 

} Cf. Thomas h Kempis de Imit. Christi, Lib. i. cap. 2. 



gomery, uses a ^U^^mngft to. illustrate the danger of giving 
way to eveiy umati te)tt|>tktio|i« 

Fresh from the bosoltn oK ati Alpine hill 

When a coy rivulet sparkles into day^ 
And sunbeams bathe and brighten in its rill> ^ 

If here a sfairub dnd there a dower ih play 
Bendidg to sip^ the little channel iSll, 

ttebba^ and languishes, knd dies away. 

7* He that is no fool, but can consider wisely, if he is in 
love with this Wbrld^ we need not despair but that a witty man 
might reeoncilfe him with tortures, and ihale him Ihink charita- 
bly of the rack, and be brought to dwell with vipers aiid dragons; 
or to admire tbie barn\ohy that is made by a herd of evening 
wolves when they miss their draught of blood in their midnight 
revels. The grotms of a man in a fit of the stone are worse 
than all these ; and the distractions of a troubled conscience are 
worse than those groans ; aiid yet a careless merry sinner is 
worse than all that. But if we could from one of the battle- 
ments of HeaVett espy, how many men and women at this time 
lie fainting and dying for want of bhead, how many young men 
are hewn down by the swOrd of war^ how many poor orphans 
are now weepihg 6ver the graves of their father, by whose life 
they were enabled to eat ; if we could but hear how many ma- 
riners and passengers are at this present in a storm, and shriek 
out because ilteit keel dashes agamst a rock, or bulges under 
theui ; h6W Itatty people there are that weep with want, and 
are mad with opprtesion, cfr are desperate by too quick a sense 
of a constant infelicity; in all reitoon we shoiild be gMd to be 
out of the noise and pairii^pafeion of so many evils. This is a 
place of sorrows and teara, of great evils and a constant calami- 
ty ; let us remove hence, at leaist in ikfiebtions md preparation 
of mind. 

Tn^lor^s H&ly Dyings Chap. i. Seci^ 3. Jin. 

The first of the extracts, Xi'hich we shall quote aK a|>{5osite to 
the abote tioble passage, is a striking instance of the manner in 
which a great pcfetical mind gives back the conception^ of others 
modified to its own character; the second, of the difference be- 
tween the same thoughts as illustrated by agreatef or less power- 
ful genius : a difierence whrch will be further illustrated by a 
comparison of the simile of the Rock (Sermon on the Miracles x>f 
the Divine Mercy, p. 261. ed. 1668.) and that of the Rainbow 
(Sermon on the Faith and Patience of the Saints, p. 83. and 
again oh the Opening of Parliament, p. 92.) with the rifacia^ 
mentos of the same images by later writers. 

86» Nug^ 

oTt^ 2x«^oy xfpoiy fttyieey ovjio-i ^e&o-ayrf ( 
tMrrouo'iy* mo'iv l\ vctf^hv oK^ri ^tifA* 
xal t' «yfXi}8iy Wiy, airi xj^jyij; /tiAayiSSpou . 
Xa4^oyrf; yXcoo-o^jo-fty ipaijforiy liAXav Si»g 
ixfWf Ipiuy^fMyo* ^^y m/mito^* iy Bt ri Ujxif * 

roioi, X. r. X. II. xvi. 156, 

Ah ! little think the gay licentious crowd. 

Whom pleasure, power, and affluence surround, 8cg* 

Ah ! little think they, as they dance along, 

How many feel, this very moment, death. 

And all the sad variety of pain ! 

How many sink in the devouring flood. 

Or more devouring flame : how many bleed 

By shameful variance betwixt man and man ! 

How many pine in want and dungeon glooms. 

Shut from the common air, and common use 

Of their own limbs : how many drink the cup 

Of baleful grief, or eat the bitter bread 

Of misery : sore pierced by wintry winds. 

How many sink into the cheerless hut 

Of cheerless poverty : how many shake 

With all tlie fiercer tortures of the mind, &c. 

Thomson's Winter* 


Ask the crowd 

Which flies impatient from Uie i^iaee-walk 

To climb the neighbouring cliffs, \nien far below 

The cruel winds have hurl'd upon the coast 

Some helpless bark — — 

While ev*ry mother closer to her breast 
Catches her child, and pointing where the waves 
Poam through the shattered vessel, shrieks aloud. 
As one poor wretch that spreads bis piteous arms 
7or succour, swallow'd by the roaring surge. 
As now another, dash'd against the rock. 

Drops lifeless down *. 

Akenside*s Pleasures of Imagination, Book ii. 

^« Ben veggio avvinta al lido omata nave, 

E il nocchier, che m' alletta, e il mar, che giace 
Senza onda, e il freddo Borea, ed Austrp tace. 

Nuga. e6S 

£8oldolceriacrespftaim«oMFer _ ~ 

Ma U vento e Amore e il mar fede bon wre^ 8ce« 

Tasso, Canzon* 

Fair laughs the morn^ and soft the zephyr blows. 

While proudly riding o'er the azure realm 

In gallant trim the gilded vessel goes. 

Youth at the prow, and pleasure at the helm, &c. 

Gray's Bard* 

9, ■ PrA quanta est gloria genti 

Injecisse manum fatis, vitaque repletos 
Quod superest donasse Deis ! — lAican. iii. 242. 

Oldham uses the same turn of expression in speaking of the 

death of Rochester. 

He — gave the devil's leavings to his God« 

It has been a matter of do '.bt, whether the second syllable in 
Maria is to be pronounced long or short. The ancient Chris* 
tian poets, with the exception of a few of the later ones, who 
lived when accent was beginning to be confounded with quantity, 
invariably make it short ; custom, however, and association, are 
on the side of the received pronunciation. We have selected 
the following examples, arranged as nearly as possible in chrono- 
logical order. 

Praedixit Mariam, de qua flos exit m. orbem. 

Tertull. Lib. iv* adv. Marcion. 181. 

Detulit ad Marise demissus virginis aures. 

Juveneus de Hist. Evang. u 52t. 

Angeltts affatur Mariam, qute parca loquendf. 

B. Amhrosii Disticha, 5. 

Ante pedes Marise, puerique crepundia parvi. 

Prudent, contra Homuncioniias, 92. 

Conspexit Mariam, celeri procul incita gressu. 

B. Paulinus de S. Joanne Baptist a, 149. 

Sic Evae de stirpe sacra veniente Maria. 

Sedulii Carm. Lib. ii. 50. 

In this writer it is uniformly long, with one exception : 
Quis fuit ille nitor Marise quum Christus ab alvo. 

lb. 49. 

Tu Mariam sequeris, dono cui contigit alto. 

Aldmi Lib. vi. 20 1« 

Porta Maria Dei genitrix intacta creantis. 

Aratoris Hist. Apostolic. i« 57. 

S64 iiugd. 

■McCiM te fipirkoty inquit. 

Uaplskii, Mtria, Obruluni paiiei sacra virgo. 

Amani Enchirid. Novi Testamenti, 3. 

Nomen^honopratttin benedkta Maria per se^vum^ 

^ Vtmni. Fort mutt, de P^rtu Vir^. i. 229* 

Claudian makes, it short. Vid. de Nupt. Hon. et Mar. ll, S7j 
1 19, 173, 251, &c. de Bello Gildoti. 328» and in lyric poetry^ 
Fescenniri. ir. ult. So in the Apocryphal compositions printed 
nvith the works of Claudian^ and ascribed by some to St. £)a- 
masuSy by others with more probability tp Ciaudianus Mamer- 
cus : Carmen Pasifihale, 1. Miracuia Christi, 7> In the Greek 
Cbristiaa poets the fiMito seldotti occurs : the only authorities we 
have been able to discover are the following. 

Kai MoLflnj ifiiiffa'tf iit(xX«ro ToSro rfXltro-tti. 

Nontii P - a r aph tk Ewmgi ^« Joann. Cap. ii. 23. 

And ^o throughout: se6 especially the £tt!c6unt of the raising 
of Lazarus from the dead, in the 11 th chapter. 

S, Greg. Naz. Catm. kxxviii* 

In oar review of Mn Landor*s '' Quaestiuncula,^ No. &i v. p% 
329/ we announced an intention of noticing, in a future number 
of the Nuga, such of die critkbms interspersed throughout that 
work, as appeared to us worthy of remark, 

P. 195. '^ FsBsiila ji^/' for ^^.Faesuiana,'' in a fragment of 
Gra^, to which Mr. L. objects,, is sanctioned by the practice of 
the best writers. So Hor« Cam; Saec< 47> '^ KomuUe genti" 
for ^' Romaleae.'^ 

Mr. L. has not quite done justice to the Latin poems of Gray, 
which^ unequal as they are, and notwithstanding occasional faults 
of diction and rhythm,^ are in many parts charac^emed by a 
chastised splendor, and an exquisite Latinity, which are almost 
perfect in their kind. Ih p. 223, Mr. L. cites.iEn. ii.53. ''In- 
sonuere cavas gemitumque dedere cavernse,'^ as an instance of 

» • : 

' Our censures of Mr. L/s << menda" (ibid.) Hid some of thole on Mr. 
L/s u»e of the tenses (lii. 2S9. sqq.) have since appeared to us without 

* Such asy '^Quamdiu sudam explieuit Favofit ;'' *^ Claudis laborantem 

^numeris; loca^" "Per invias rupes, fera per juga;" "Nare captan- 

tem— Mane quicquid de vjiolis eundo Surripit aura ;" which last we notice 

as a singular instance of an jexquisite beauty cheaply purchased by a 

^ifiing irregulartty* 

Nuga, 06$ 

tautology, tbrot^ the iM>mitioB €rror of coiisidaing cavie as a 
substantive. P. £27» iu the line of Statius (aot Ckudian as Mr. 
L. quotes) '^ Et simulant fessos curvata cacunuoa sonuios/' Jes^ 
SOS somnos implies, by a common figure, sleep superinduced by 
weariness. In the ne^^t page, on ^n. vi. 467, 

Talibus iGneas ardentem et torva tuentem 


Leitiibaf dictis animura^ lacrymasque ciebat«^ 
Mr. L. observes, '' Non lenibat animum, neque, etc. tU09, H 
si dixerit poeta, dicto contradicit, qui adjicit '^ nee magis rnove-^ 
tur quam cautes." But lenibat has here the force of '' atlempf^^ 
to soothe." So Horn. II. xix. 310. 

In this part our author proposes several new readings and in-* 
genious explanations of Virgil : we shall only quote one : Georg.. 

Quique novas alitis non uUo semine fruges. 
Mr. L. reads non una. The want of metre in the lines quoted 

Mutare dominum domus haec neseit suum. — ^Politian. 

Aut vidisse urbes ipsum aut narrantibus illa.-^Vida. 
may be removed by transposition. In the latter pagQ a cu* 
rious remark occurs : ^ Hie observandum est eum (Virgilium) 
ante omnes poetas sive Graeeos sive Romanos parcum esse ad- 
verbiorum/' The lines quoted in page 1245 from Joannes 
Campellus's poem on the battle of Lepanto, 

X)onec Naiipacti faciet victoria famam, 

Servent Octobres Venetorum annalia nonas— > 
bav^ a paraUel in the conclusion of Milton's juvenile epic on the 
G uopo wd^r Plot : 

• — quintoque Novembris 

Nulla dies toto occurrit celebratior anno. 
We resist the temptation of extracting^several of our author^s^ 
remarks on passages in the ancient writers, and shall conclude 
with quoting two or three of the striking sentences scattered 
through his work. 

^ Videre ut poer, sentire ut vir, bonum oportet omnem poe- 
tam." p. 236. 

** Italorum est, in re poetica ut in familiari, magn^entia 
qusedam parsimoniae/' p. 244* ^. 

^' Cur delectet aliquid multo gratius est quaerere, quam illud 
quod proposituin nostrum exigit, cur desinat delectare.'^ p. 250. 


^66 On the Pfframids of Egypt. 

From Southey'8 Madoc, Canto ill. * 
rn« pleasant, by the cheerful hearth, to hear, &c.] 
Suave focum juxta 'at narratam audire procellam, 
Ventonimquc iras, vastique pcricula ponti ; 
JJummodo oos media liceat rcvocare loquela, 
JNoaquc malia ipsos, qus audimus, cemere tutoa: 
1 um nirsus narraoti mhiare, haurireque casus 
^emficos, ipsoaue frui sic posse timore. 
At quum vera Noti vis ingruit, et nigcr uno \ 
Veititur agmine nimbus, et immensus ruit cether; 
Wuum VIS cassa, artesque virftm adgnoscuntur inaoes; 
Wum nihilum, quacunque ocuios versere, videndum 'st 
^alsa nisi spatia, aut qua mons praeruptus aquai 
buspensam in puppim jam jam lapsura, cadentique 
immmet adsimilis— terrores faostibus illos, 
^ buperil neque enim, cui talia contigitolim 
^xantlasse, feros si circum tecta procella 
Audit forte sonos, memori non pectore totus 
tlorreati^ ct casus nautse miseratur iniquos. 



Part IV .—[Continued from No. LFIL} 

Let us examine if any facts can be gleaned from the story of 
Apis still farther to corroborate the main induction. 
^ It appears then, first, that the Ox Apis was dedicated to 
Usiris or the sun, and the Cow Mnevis to the moon.> ADia 
was |enerated by celestial jffre.* 

After his recognition he was placed in a vessel, mamificently 
adorfted and richly carpeted,' and carried to Nilopolis, where he 
viras kept 40 days, a sacred number connected with the mystc- 
nes of fire, and sanctified afterwards by the Jews. He waff 
thence conducted to Memphis, where be had a aumptxioua 
palace, and the place where he lay was mystically called the 
^ndal chamber.4 This palace was close to the temple of 
V ulcan, and the cow, his dam, was kept on one of its sides. 

I aTIT? ^"^^"- "^.- ""• * PonjP- Mela, 

A pictorial representation of thh now exists. * Thalamus. 

On th^ Fyramdi of Egypt. 9fff 

His birth was annually cdebrated for the space of 7 days, during 
which oxen were immolated. His natural death was not waited 
for ; . but when a certain stated period was come, he was drowned 
in HtkQ fountain of the priests : he was then embalmed in certain 
secret caverns, which no stranger ever approached, which the 
priests theodselves never entered but on that occasion, and which 
belonged to B.n AifciEVT temple of Serafis at Memphis.' 
To this temple there were two gates, called Lethe, death, anil 
CocytuSf mourning,^ which being opened on this occasion 
yielded a harsh and jarring sound, similar to what the sublime 
Milton ascribes to the ^' gates of hell."^ 

I shall not go over my former reasonings ; I leave their com- 
bination to my readers. I merely pause to observe that the 
facts I have recited standing solitary and naked, point with great 
precision to a Necropolis ^ther beneath or attached to the Great 

Let us proceed to the last strong circumstance of the story— > 
the five-and-twenty years period of his life. Before Aseth, . 
says Syncellus, the solar year contained only ^60 days, who 
added five to make it complete : in his reign one calf was raised 
to the rank of the gods, and named Apis ^ (the measurer). The 
kings initiated . in his mysteries were compelled to bear his 
yoke, and swear to the maintenance of the new Period. 

Every scholar knows the tradition of these. days being won 
with dice in hell. The story extended to Scandinavia; and 
among the Egyptians they were consecrated to the birth of the 
five great gods. The number five was particularly sacred. It was 
a symbol of Hecate and a second life ; it was a powerful talis* 
man in the mysteries of magic^ and has descended to us in the 
sacred Pentalpha ; it composed the famous period of silence. 
The number five, multiplied by itself, is equal to the number 
of letters and the cycle of Apis. 

Now it is a remarkable fact recorded by travellers, that the 
only Hieroglyphic within the pyramid is over the entrance to 
the central chamber, and is a symbol of Apis, a figure of Jiv^ 
lineSf or Pentagli/ph. The same achitectural ornament on the 
cornice of the temple of Dendera, with the arabesque metopes 
between, seem to have suggested the Doria triglyphs. As these 

> Pausanias. ^ Plutarch. 

) '<* 1 have built my church upon a rock, add the gates of hell shall 
not prevail against it.** St. John. 
• ^ Api, measure; thence perhaps Afiktr^ bounds. 

' Fabricius Bibliothec. apud Savary. 


.On iBe Pi^Ptmudsof-Sgi^j^. 

last Were iMkated to Hecate and perhaps Neith, se may w^ 
tafely presume that tke Pentaglypbs were dedicated to Afns-; 
nor is it imwordiy ot notice that the metope 19 the figtire of u 
l^be in » rectangle; light rising from the r&eepiiseulum tril 
nature. It ia not unhkely that the above Pentaglyph impBed 
*.*SiUnce;' , 

* 1 have stated the snm of what is known respecting the itor'' 
ship ; of his mystenes as Serapis we hate no detailted account, 
and therefore can only infer them from the gleanbgv of ancient 
writmra^ the testigea of cognate theologies, and their combina- 
tion with monumental documents that remain. From these it 
appears that they were the oldest in the world, and entered into 
the reli^QHS dogmaa of meat, if not all of the primttvat nations. 
Tbe ancient Persians pictured the first man with a buH's head/ 
The Hindoos anciently and still Tenerate the same character* 
One of the avatars pictures the bull-man perishing in the flood: 
AbuU4ieaded human form is frequent among Javanese menu* 
luentB, and agrees precisely with similar figures on those of 
£gypt. The monuments preserved by Hyde leave nothing 
tkudone on the same subject as far as concerns the Mythraic 
viies. Tbe Osins of £gypt was sometimes pourtrajed with a 
bull s head^ sometimes with bull's horns. Among the Syrians 
Astarte was a human figure with a bulPs- bead, for* she* was 
«ia)e and female. Among the Phoenicians, Moloch bore the 
head of an ox on the shoulders of a man; The Greek Osiris, 
Bacchus Bugenes or Tauriformis, wore the same form-; so SA 
the Minotaur. The golden fleece and golden apples vi'ere bulk. Even the Druids devoted two* milk-whiter 
steeds to die myateiious misletoe^ The same- traditional hien>< 
gi^phiQ api^eara repeatedly among Jewish antiquities. They 
bad scaroeLy left Egypt when they recurred: to the* worship c^ 
the Calf Apis ; and as it was theirfirst oflfence, it adhered to thenf 
till their puniahment and dispermon. ^Thy called, oh Sama- 
ria! has caat thee oS** Their chimerical bulls or cherubim are 
, evident Egyptian figures. The twelve bulls of SblomonV bra- 
aen aea^ armnged in threes towards each cardinal point, may ber 
eompared with, the twelve bulls surrounding the pyramidal apex 

' ** See Gibbon^ account of tbe Zendavista and Persian tenets. An 
apple formed rudely into the shape of a bull was offered to Hercules. A 
bulrs head hung u^n an apple-tree was sacred to Mithra Victor, see 
tlyde. It is not a little singular tbat the root of tbe word malum, apple, 
may be traced in twQ other words, maium and mtlwrj implying good and 

Gn the Pyramids of Egypi^ 369 

%if tte Kaliopottttm pillar, arranged alaa in thveaa to each car- 
dinal poinU The Beheniotb. and Leviathan of the Rabbins are 
the Qsii>i9> Apis^ and river dragon Typhon of the Egyptians^ 
To the first were given the Elysios coUos of Hesiod, the tbouaand 
luUs promised to Joaeph the patriarch, synibolified as an ox, 
fs >Kere hia sons Manasseh and Ephraim ; to the last was con- 
signed the Ocean. His final wound I need not inaiift upon ; but 
ikk division of Behemoth^ the fiaradisiac land, ^mong the elect, 
ifl of great importance to my case. It agrees with the division 
of Apis; it. most particularly coincides with die. appropciation 
of his thigh, the chosen part of the gods, the region sacred to 
oaths ; the Meros of the Greeks,' the Paradisiac Meix>s of the 
Hindoos, the tenth world of Horticulturists, seated in the thigh 
of Brahma^ 

It is worthy here of remark, that pots, of flowers, similar to 
what were called the gardens of Adonis, (see Coptic Manuscript 
in Denon,) were offered to the ox ; neither will it be unimf- 
portant to add, that i^>plea and apple^treea were connected with 
the myateries of Apis. 

What is human reason to infer from all this singular analogy 
of facts, and images aa singular f My inference is short : Tl^ 
the whole is a hieroglyphicaL portraiture, (of what Moses 
described in words,) viz,, oC the fail and .expected restoration 
of man, with some dark shadowing of the means through the 
death of a second Adam, leader or teacher, (ox in Hebnew.) 

There is nothing in the least illogical in our. supposition, 
Aat Ham, whose name Egypt bears to this* day, and who lived 
with the antediluvians, should have handed down the creed and 
traditions of the first men to his children, in the only language 
they possessed; nor is it wonderful, from the metaphorical nai- 
ture of that language, that these traditions should become dii^ 
torted, and vary from tlie true and simple statement of Moses, 
himself an Egyptian scribe. Neither the general coherency^ 
nor peculiar variations, of these traditions, ought therefore to 
excite the least surprise. But it is incumbent on me to proceed 
to a more elaborate proof of my hypothesis. My first position 
is, that Apis was a symbol of antediluvian man ; when con* 
nected with apples, his paradisiacal state was implied ; when 
pimnected with water, scyphi, crescents, 8Cc., his partial de- 
struction by a deluge. 


' Connected perhaps with merum, wiqe. 

370 On the Pt/ramid$ of Egjfpi. 

It 18 scarcely necessary to argue that all the pagan fiiMes of 
apples are referable to the forbidden fruit — those, for instance, 
of Atalanta, of Hercules, of Discord and the rival goddesses. 
Let the reader examine these fables, and judge for himself. 

It is calculated that the vtfrnal equinox, at the creation, was 
in the first degree of Taurus. Two thousand years after, Aries, 
by the precession of ^e equinoxes, occupied its place, and 
Aries is, accordingly, the first sign on the most ancient of the 
zodiacs. Taurus was, therefore, an apt and legitimate symbol 
of antediluvian man, and we may presume that the mysteries of 
Apis related to that state. 

The mythological account of the fall di£fers little from that 
of Moses. According to Plato and his disciples, man fell when 
he descended from his intellectual to a sensual state, and multi* 
plied himself. This was apparently Milton's idea. It was the 
version of a large portion of the early Christians, and tfaence 
the celibacy of the monastic orders. Moses, therefore, maj^ 
have employed a delicate metaphor to express what Plato phi- 
losophically inferred, and the double interpretation of fruit and 
fruition at this day warrants the inference. The Mahometans 
aay, that iucontinency was the cause of the £all. 

Another pagan fable bears a remarkable coincidence to' the 
narrative of Moses. The pagan Eve, Persephoneh, (which 
name signifies lost fruity) is condemned to Hades, or death, for 
eating a portion of the forbidden pomegranate. 

Numerous pictorial and symbolical representations of the 
same event may be referred to. I apprehend that, according 
to the laws of hieroglyphical writing, the narrative of Moses 
could not have been more closely adhered to. 1 will endeavour 
to refer to these pictorial descriptions in the order of the Mo- 
saic account. ^ 

Montfaucon exhibits several instances of the Bull-man, or 
first parent, crowned with apples. 

Osiris was represented as enclosed in the thigh of Apis, an 
emblem of Paradise. 

Protogonus and Eon, the first man and woman, were de- 
scribed as sailing through space in an egg-shaped vehicle. 
There are similar representations among the hieroglyphics. 

On one of the Egyptian planisphc^res, exhibited by Kircber, 
instead of Astrea, who represented the paradisiacal state, there 
appears a fruit-tree, with two dogs in the branches looking 
different ways. Now, two cynocephali were symbols of light 
and darkness, of good and evil. 

On a mythraic sculpture, preserved by Hyde, there are two 

On tU Pyramids of Egypt. 3Yl 

fimit-treesi The first has a scorpion urinding round ii, and near' 
it a ladder, which was the mystic symbol of descent or fall. 
Scorpio^ on some Egyptian zodiacs, is a serpent— ^in others 
Typhon, depictured as the devil now u, with a serpent's tail 
and breathing flames. 

i In Montfaucon there are many representations of the Hespe- 
rian tree, with a serpent twibed round it, and a male and female 
<ni the opposite sides. 

So much for illustration of the Mosaic theory of the fall.< 
The Hesperian gardens, in fact, were the pagan Paradise—- the 
golden apples the fruit of the tree of life— and the- dragon, or 
seraph, the angel who guarded the way of it. Sometimes, 
indeed, a chimera, resembling the Jewi^ cherubim, was sub* 
stituted for the seraph or fiery serpent. At others, the goldmi 
apples were converted into a golden fleece, and the bulls' (the' 
cherubim of the Hebrews) m^Jiery breath, we^e the guardians. 
Griffins (a mixed monster, also resembling the cherub,) are, in 
a difiierent hieroglyphical version of the same story, guarding- 
the*'*. treasures of the everlasting hills" promised to Joseph. 
Throughout it is the same Mosaic story, oiuly differently colored 
by the picturing vehicle. 

I conceive, then, that dramas, not unlike the sacred mysteries- 
copied from them by the Romish Church, were exhibited during 
the preparatory stages of initiation, and subsequently explained ; 
that in the sacred chest called the Sarcophagus, a figure of 
Osiris in inferis was deposited with a serpent and a phallus, ft 
dry branch, as at the mysteries of the Greek Osiris; that 
portions of the dismembered Apis were most probably deposited 
with them, and particularly the thigh, from which Bacchus aiid 
Eiechthon were .born. And indeed it is not unlikely that* all the 
remaining symbols, placed in the Mundus Cereris, and de- 
cidedly Egyptian, were during initiation produced and explainedt 
These consisted of a phallus, sesame, pomegranates, a dry 
^tem, baked cakes, salt;, carded wool, honey and cheese, a child, 
a serpent, and a fan. The meaning of these symbols will be 
easily caught at by those who are conversant with the subject of 
hieroglyphical inquiry, but would require a separate treatise, 
and in short composed the subject uf a set lecture at Eleusis. 
1 shall only remark at present the assertion of the Rabbikis, that 
the Mosaic tabernacle contained the dead staff of Aaron which 
sprouted into life, and the Urim and Thummim ' supposed to 

' Perhaps derived from Orus, ligh^ and Thammuz, mourning. 

VOL. XXIX. CL Jl. NO. LVin, T 

37S Oh the TyrdAadt tf Egypt. 

repreMnl the six siglls <tf the uppers iuid six of the lovrar 

Bnt whether these circuniBtMioea were as I ht^e suppeeed 
or Qot» there oan be little douht that the Sd Inferaa^ ideM&dl 
with Bacchus, Adonis, Osiris, and Serapia, that midbight tint 
which was the type of an after state, waa the great olject of 
the mysteries and goal of hutiatioB.' 

I assume as proved that Mizra and Mkhra bodi aieaniag 
die sun and agreeing in name^ the rites of the cavern tenqries 
dedicated to each were similar ; that both had their Uen-maskedl 
prie^ ; * that the same baptism of fire and water took place> 
the same sidereal passage^ the same sacrament of bread, Ae 
same mark' (see Apoicalypee) on the forehead^ and tfie same 
final apparition of the renewed sua bursting from his parem 
roeh. And here I cannot help renmrking, by way of extaot 
iUttStralion, that the Hindoos paint Veeshaiitt, the same pemm 
as the lion-beaded Mythra, bursting firom a stony oohimnio 
the form of a lion. 

In sum, it is my induction from the foregoing premiaeff that 
fhe ancient gloomy ritual of an assaaonatioa, a disniemh«red 
body, a coffin, and a resurrection, were acted widnn the gloomy 
recess of the Great Pytanud ; and that the slaughtered Adonis, 
tfie slain and lamented Apottoy the third person ef theDioarari 
murdered by Ihs brediera, the disBKmbered Baoohn^ the aa* 
auMnated Osiris, the Maneroe of the Egyptians, the Balder of 
the Sicandinavians, the Manes of the Magians and RosyceuoiaoB^ 
the Hiram of the Freemasons, were the ssine person.; and that 
these pafentdi features of one theology, these diverging atreama 
of cognate mystery, may be traeed from the ends of the earth 
to the pyramid^ ci6ta> as their fountaia-head, and to the cenlnl 
chantber «|6 the first great lodge. 

' See note on Plato and filysiunu 

^ See Denon, and Tertullian adver. Marc. p. 55. '^ Lions of Miihra." 
^ The modern Hindoos mark their foreheads with a Y; but the 
Egyptians marked the int imte's forehead with a T, aad ta that no doubt 
jblMt Apocalypse alluded, because it Was a symbol appertaining te-tba 
Sol iniems or Serapi^ and bis Ifour-headed chimera of a maB,.lieQ,.e^|^ 
and dog. 



The ScnoiiiA of Heumeas on the Pn^Dttud op 
Plato, published by Fredericus Astius, Profes- 
sor Landishutanm^ Lipsia. Qvo. 


Part lY.—lCottcluded from No. LVil.} 

P. 145. 1.- 30. (OTjrep ow i^* fjpiMif ro Sofflfdrixov iwro8e;f start irotpa. 
799 Xoyot) xui n); havoiag ^oci ret i^ffrpa, 7ua cvrm wero^i^axn rm 
opsKTnuf rep re du/toi xat ri) nriSvjxia^ iv* otyroo ratrtu lutr&ffiivrx irpo- 
V^ raw T« 5«dy xeti wayrcov rwv xara rov /3rov, Jc. t. X. In this pas- 
«age, affter rijs havoias something is evidently v^anting to connect 
"ivith ra [ifrgu, and tSiis sometking I conceive to be rov o'pov. For 
the doxastic part of the soul, according to the Platonic philoso- 
phy, i^ fhe hist of the rational parts, and receives from dianoia 
o* the dkeursive energy of reason, (Sre^oSixij tov Aoyoy evepysiot) a 
Imeniaty and tneasures^. In p. 146. 1. 24. Hermeas observes 
Ibitt PhifO> indicating the difference between dtWne and human 
9oa(s, says of our soul, on ftoyi^, dogi/j^ouftevi) thro rm ^fhreovj i}8w- 
^y^ jxovijv n}v rtv^otKnv vmqapoa eig rov e^ta rev ovgctvov, xon tSeiv ri 
Vcov ovrojv, xai ourco oracrai siri ra> rou otigr^vot; vorcp, tsoopoucoiv oixr' 
iftgp tin cx^Ai}^, vtn^ fttfv ro8«, vov Ss ro^t. In this passage for nri 
<ryoXi)j if is tet|ttisiteto re^de^i (rxcitirf;. For the meaning of 
'Hermeas is, that otrr soul standing on the* back of Heaven, and 
•i<afsing i%)e head of the diarioteer to the snpefcelestiat place, 
•wRt 8«ii*v^, as- from a wateh-iower, at one time this objecH;, and 
at anoliheir' thai. And this simile of a ti^atch-tower is very fi'e- 
^qoenlly tised by ProduaP dnd other Platonic writers;^ but for 
crxoriij they sometimes substitute icmwri^j which has the same 
meaning. Thus Proclus in Plat. TheoL p. 7* Opiwg yap xu$ 
ev i4Axi|3»ttSp SooxgotTfig eXeysv, eig eaunjv eto'fouo'av ti]v ^v^^v, ra 
re aXkot itavrot xarotpeo'Sstf^ xoli Osov. cuinrnvtrci yag eig rvfif euur^g 
evMO'iv, xai ro xevrgov crviMraayig Koovig, xon ro irKrfios avoo'xeua^o/xsvi), 
-xon ri}v TToixiXioev rcov ev aurjj fromrrodutoav dvvoLfieoDV, tic utJTVjV aveifrt 
njv oMpoLv rcov ovrcov TtepMmr^v, i. e. ^ For Socrates in the [First] 
Alcibiades rightly observes, that the soul entering into herself 
will behold all odier things, and deity itself. For verging to her 
own tmion, and to the centre of all life, laying aside multitude, 
and (he variety of the aH-m^anifold powers which* she contains, 
she ascends to the highest watch-tower of beii^s." In p. 147. 
1. 22, Hermeas, in explaining the \VordB of Flato, vnofigv^iou 
fwjXTTffgi^epovTai observes, twro^gup^ioj* ovv ymneu, wg rou yevecri- 

274 Observations on the Scholia of 

CQpyov avTW Xoivoy fifitorro^ xci^ jSotiXdftfyov fve^crai, ig xut rov 
op^ijftaTo; 'Xomov * * ^ ytvtfuvoi). In this passage the asterisks 
deuote that somethiDg is waoUDg, and the learned Professor ac- 
cordingly says in his Notes, '' Desunt uonnulla in Cod.'' This 
something I conceive to be the word fiaSu, For it appears to 
me that Hermeas in the last part of this sentence alludes to the 
Chaldaic Oracle, which says, jtti) Tnftufiu /toXut^;, (i>yfi§ fiotiw^s ro 
fTriTfSoVi i. e. '' You should not defile the spirit, nor give depth 
to a superficies f the Oracle by the spirit indicating the aerial 
vehicle, and by the superficies, the etherial and luciforra vehicle 
of the soul. Hence the meaning of the passage thus completed 
will be in English, '^ Souls therefore become submerged, in 
consequence of that part of them which is effective of generation 
[or a descent into the regions of sense] becoming heavy, and 
wishing to energize, or in consequence of the [etherial]. vehicle 
possessing depth" 

P. 147. !• 5. from the bottom, outo) it ouv xai aurcu m t[/u;(0M 

xai ajxjSAuregat ei<r* narct ra^ voi^jeis xai our^^^iioviSf xai xivBuvfuou- 

(TfV aei eig yev8<nv uvevip^$)]vai* ri} ouv /SaSiO'ei rcov y^paXsvovroov avu^ 

xaanv uvtoov rag vor^areig' eveiSi] 13 /SaSicri^ oixeioy t|] firrajSariXY) eanoov 

aic6ri(ru. Here for at(r9i}o'£i, the last word of this passage, it is 

obviously necessary to read yoyi<ru : for the transitive intellection 

of souls is assimilated by Plato to walking* This is evident 

from the words themselves of Hermeas in the present passage. 

P. 149* }• IB* Op» 8e TTcog axpi^oos xai Gfrauia, 00$ xeu sv 701; etvoortr 

poi), Tijy ha^opay nfjuv roov re fistcuv xai avipatmiXioay ^'i^cov vaf i(rTi}<riy* 

ov yap avXoos eiirev, mv kuti^ t<, toutso-ti, /^sgixov xoi ato/xov. 

Here, immediately after etTrev, it is necessary to add eav xariS^y, 

aXA*. For the words of Plato are 6e(r(L0$ re AipcL(rruag oSs' ijrt; 

av ^vx'^if 6ecp yeyoftgyi], xariSi} ri Tcoy aXr^iwv, pkixp^re T/jg erefa^ 

^vyovot^og veptohv etvat a^ftoya x. r. K P. 150. 1. £0. ey lIoXiTeif 

xon aXiTUS Tag ru^^ug aioek9^6eu ^ijo-i^ xat WKohioo-ias ainaig. In 

this passage for aXnag 1 read aXXoia^: for Hermeas here alludes 

to the 10th book of the Republic of Plato, in which it is said 

that various fortunes are imparted to, and chosen by, souls. 

P. 153. 1. 28. TTpomoy ^L&f /3toy Asyei, oy yscuo'Ti xATsXhua-a airo tou 

vor^TOv 13 ^v^ri Si^^p evTuviet' .^^siSi] Se x^ig-i^ cng ey vAaTsi Sitt)] eoT», 

wegi T1J5 iAffcnjj Xeyei evraofla. Here for SiT-nj it is manifestly 

necessary to read rgiTD], as there can be xko middle in two things 

only ; and from what follows it is indisputably evident that this 

emendation is requisite. P. 155. 1. 6. km xaiokou Svo Tanaw 

aya/xi|xv)j(rx6Tai )] ^v^^ Tcoy yoijreov. In this passage for Suo it is 

necessary to read Sia : for what Hermeas says is this, " that 

the soul through, or by means of, all things obtains a recoUec* 

tion of intelligible natures." P. 156. 1. 24. Hermeas, in ex- 

Hermeas on the Phadrus of Plato. 275 

plaining what Fkto says about the ascent of souls, observes, 
** that at first they are unable to soar on high, and to proceed^ 
from sensibles to dianoetic objects [i. e. the objects of the rea- 
eoBing power] ; for the conceptions of the soul are called dia- 
noetic; and afterwards from conceptions to intelligibles/' This 
16 the true meaning of Hermeas in the following passage, as I 
have corrected it; a&uvarowiv sti to uvu) avotim^vMf xai airo reov 
ai<rti}rfloy ejri ra vor^roi^ (lege Siavoiira) yevetrion (ja yeip rrig ^|/u;^^ 
voijjXflnra &ayoi}ra Xeyovrou), fi0' ovtcos utto reov vorircov* (lege voi}* 
(UUTeov) ffTi ra vov^roi. P. 159. 1* 10. A}<Xa Xiyofisv, on vuy oo iF6p$ 
reov ^iXotro^fOV roov rfir^ avu^6iyreo¥ avo rwv eiScov %xi rot, vor^ra \ryit, 
uKXa Tept tou sgoor^xov rov Siarou xetWoog sttbxhvx. Here, for the 
last word, eTrexeivaf it is requisite to read eir exBivu, i. e. etti ra 
voi}T«. For Hermeas says that Plato is speaking of the amatory 
character, who through beauty ascends to the vision of intelligi* 
bles. P. 162. 1. 2. xai ev oareo iO'fAev 7rpo$ roi$ vorj^oig, xui ri} isoo- 
pi^ fxcivp ^aipofjLsv, KM ytyrfiBV )j ^ui^^y orav Ss x^P^^ yevijTai. 
[urafopiKoog vavra Xeyei, x. r. X. In this passage^ after yevijrai, 
something is evidently wanting, and this I conceive to be the 
words ol^varai xai a^i^ovu. And my conjecture is confirmed 
by what Hermeas says in 1. 29* yryriiev, enei^av ^s x^8^^ avrou 
yeyyjrai, oSvvarai run a&vjjioyu, . What Hermeas also shortly after 
adds respecting the meanii^ of the word aStj/tovsiv, well deserves 
to be noticed by lexicographers, viz. ro a^i^fuovetv pi,ea-ov Xvth^s soti 
vai rfiow^Sf oiov rn /tsy fiy^jftf} Xaip^ij rep Se fti] irapuvai ro ftvijftovsu- 
Toy, XuvffiTai. P. l63« 1. 5. avairvov^v ds ag aico ti}^ Trviyfuow^s sin's 
xai ieofi^evooy. The Professor rightly conjectures that after $so/ts- 
ufiw a word is wanting, denoting respiration : for he says, '* Ex- 
cidisse mihi videtur verbum, vi respirandi praeditum.'' But he 
has not favored us with the word that is lost, and which I con- 
jecture to be fpvorif. 

P. 165. !• 16. Hermeas having observed, that as here we ho- 
nor a statue, not on account of the subject matter of which it is 
composed, but on account of the divinity [which it represents], 
adds, Toy avrov rpoiroy xai Bvravia oiOV aya\fi,a tavrca rov €poopi.evov 
mm, fiXsiroov yap vpog fturo, xai aycejxijctyijo'xo/tsyo^ tou xaWoug, 
TOUTS0TI T}} Siavoia fiXiipeoy xai avaTTSf/LTreov rouro ro TtaXXog sig ra 
vov^ra niri xat yvjtvefiv yewrifAara iua x. t. X. In this passage, for 
yvihoov, in the last Ime, I read yyijo-ico;. For the meaning of 

* The Professor also for wnT» here reads ^iayonr*. 

* The Professor reads iun^nrvn; but it appears to me to be more pro* 
bable thfit Hermeas wrote lonfJMfwf, 

276 Observations on the Scholia of 

Henneas is^ that ifae lover looking (o the object of his loTe, and 
throagh thk ofbtainiog a recolieettoo of tnie beeotjr, i. e. looking 
with his reasoniog power, and referring this beauty to intelligible 
forms, and progeny which are geniuneiy divine, becomes prolific, 
and generates virtues, and all such things as are afterwards men- 
tion^ by Plato, yoniug ywtrai, xm ywvf upnot^ kcu vetrrei, oca 
sy TOis i^y^s Afyei. For nothing can foe more absurd than to 
suppose Hermeas, after bje had s«d that the lover refers beauty 
to intelligible forms, woidd add, ^* and to the divine progeny of 
earthly natures.** I^ p. 167. 1. 20. Hermeas having observed 
that man is a microeosm, and that according to Plato the parts 
of him are analogous to the parts of the universe, and to tl>ie 
^rts of which a city consists, adds, ftvoXoyov ovy rtf oufOLVco mrot- 
ijo-f Tov iyxe^aXor atura nrfftSij o toftoj iuytvtmpos wri njj nridi/- 
fiittf xoLi avoKoyu roi; vpo^roXx/tovcri xm avamXX.ova'i irav to vXi^/x- 
fiiXms xai aroxTWf xwwfuvov ev ry voXffi, o Xsyet nrixoupixov xoct 
aT§ari(iomxw, xou riiiris opsytrai xm fmirAijirei r» avoeXoy^ x. r. X. 
In this passage, for the last word, ayaXoyep, I read aXoycp, la 
p. l66. 1. 4. from the bottom, Hermeas explaining what Rate 
says about the amatory eye, to epooTixoy o/x/xa, and having observ- 
ed that a man then becomes properly amatory when he is con- 
verted to himself, adds, touto ie torai ha rtov sfifiareov, otov, 
xaSmg ffivey sp rcf iiXxi/SiaSp fiovKo[JLevo$ eavTOV iS»y ns, et$ trepaif 
^^t^;^ flnriSi}. xat yap nri Twr aKrirtreov Bavrovg fiouXofj^evbt idetv, 
ouBffv oXXo Tovrou vapaSeiyiia mgto'XOfjLgy, co$ o^taAjctoy, f^siSi} eig 
atnov cwrps^u to ogeov xai to oparixov, ev yap roif xaTOxrgoi; aAAo 
coTiy TO opfiov, xai aXXo fftrTi to opaTixov. In the latter part of this 
passage, for to opwv in two places, it is obviously necessary to 
read to ogco/tffrov. For, as JPlato says in the First Alcibiades, 
** If the eye would see itself, it must look in an eye, and in that 
place of it, where the virtue of the eye is naturally seated ; and 
the virtue of the eye is sight." Hence, as Olympiodorus ob- 
serves in this case, that which is seen and that which sees concur 
in one and the same ; for it is eye perceiving itself in eye. But 
in mirrors that which is seen is one thing, and that uriiich sees, 
another. The cause of this mistake originated, I have no doubt, 
from TO Oj^oojxsyov being in both places written originally in the 

Ms. TO opm\ just as it is common in Greek manuscripts to 

write for avipooTPOs, olvs; for (roam^qia^j a-ps; and for ovpavos, ouvs, 
P. 17s. I. 24. V7F0 Toov TToXXoov ts avsv, on 1] roiainri ^iXoo*of la ovx 
so'Ti ^iXoo'o^coy* 1] yotp ovrpDg ^<Aca 1] tou you etrri XQivania* Here, 
for ^iXoo-o^ia, I should conceive it is immediately obvious that 
we should read f iXia. P. 174. 1. 15. from the bottom : wot>s S$ 

Hermeas on the Fhadrus qf Plato. 977 

Mil TOVTO JuByti, on 9CI fup rot wag 19/MDir. rtxy^^^ (iw^iyjiMtra ximy^ 
010* ovTcog t^mpovniiif ira^et ram 6§m $^Xotfi,''^i¥ dixi^^f ca; xm «rl 
T^g nXirsxiy^ fief ro tv 3}|ft»y wptrixof xou voiifrixoy xifiiy^ tit* ourw^ 
fxSc^^fo-dai Ti}y vetqa row Seoiy sXX^^^iir yetg xemijff^s yiyoftfyoj^ 
fWf( MowFMs, teiof 9roii|Ti|; yiviroi. Here, for nri ri}; voXirixi^ it 
is necessary to read mri Ti)f vonfnK^s, as is evideni iixiiii the laUer 
part of the passage. P. 175. k 4. fiw^tvM yap n\uuAai wap^ 
TOW viao9 w h f fiturov* xai- yotp x«e» rov; (sov^ mi h emrovs Bsi ni/Mff 
«XAft 8f cumiig. ill this passage, instead of 8t avrov; at the end 
of it, it is requisite to read Si iaurws. For the meaning of Her- 
meas is, ** that it is not proper to honor the gods for their sake, 
but for the sake of oursdves ;" and this assertion is both Py tha^ 
goric and Platonic' P. 178. 1. 31. oretv owf ^Ti, iiwrfifOfM^ 
TOf Snpniteis rag sv r» cuaitifrto xo<r|xcp irapctf/rXetMrM, a^ am citoi^ 
SoBijuoyat; Two^ xan-flp^orra; ra^ ^r^ag wept n^v Yevi<riv, tots 01 tstti- 
y«$, TOtiTSTTiv M $8iou in^M xMi Oi isfii oqwttig 1)fMe^ TUfxourroftfTU^ 
TVis yMmrtcog xcu AsosiSflo; ^fiarctiyraSf to fMyMrrw avipwiroig y^p»S iotw, 
rouTson, ^^panfreu t^fuv o«a$oi^ Here for xoireun avtos t read xa- 
Tonaravrus ; and then what Hermeas says will be, in English, 
'^ When, therefore, (says Plato,) we are able^to sail beyond the 
Stress in the sensible world, which may be co^idered as certain 
daemons who detain souls in the realms of generation [or the re- 
gion of sense,] then the grasshoppers [by which Plato occultly 
signifies divine souls,] and the Gods, perceiving os opposing ge- 
neration, and living in a deiform qianner, will confer on us the 
greatest reward which can be conferred on men, i. e. they wilt 
use us as their attendants and associates.** In order, however, 
to understand completely what is here said by Hermeas, and also 
in a former part of this paragraph about the rwmytg or grass^ 
hoppers, it is requisite to observe that, as, according to I^lato, 
there are three kinds of Sirens; the cekstial, which is under 
Jupiter; the genesiurgic, or pertaining to the realms of genera* 
tion ; and the cathartic, which is under the dominion of Pluto; 
these rsmys; or divine souls have a similar division. Hence, 
when Hermeas at the beginning of this pan^raph says, toffing, 
fifariir, vro Ssip^anf HoisKKOfuvot xou xaraxn^XovfMVOi smKoiiorro nj; 
oixoidi; varptios, ocmo xai jf^futs '^v xf^Xmfi^a uwo rwrm roty f oivofM- 

* Hence the excellent Sallusty in his treatise De Diis et Mundo, ob- 
serves in Cap. XV. «ivt» fjut yap re Bun af ir JkfC* m If vifMu vns Hfttfriptt^ «f tXiMic 

wx» Tfavmu, ** For divinity itself indeed is unindigent; but the honors 
which we pay turn are for the sake of our advantage.'^ 

878 Ob'servatums on ihe> Scholia^ ^. . 

Mif KAi jm mrvymi x«i. ^s tmfw iunaif§f»^o^jnn>jaicmiu^a Tt)^ 
i*9Uii varpiiof xm nff ii^.ro yoi|Toy afo/yoyfilff by the rcDV rirriyonry 
ike middle, kind, or genedurgicrirriytg are indicated; but in 
the former passage which we have cited, Hermeaa alludeffto 
the first, or celestial kind. 

P* ]79*1* II from the bottom : uiwcuhiu, ori to ftiy $ao9 
aiMirotf %€iff% woftffTif igfMif h fty^ww^ rep 0fMp o'vyflt^Ajyai oti 8w«tfwtf«y 
fii) 8ia ftfo-eu rjyo^, oioy rou iaiyiAViov, (Ofnng tin rou ^ro^ SsofccSa 
Tov ofpof rou fiiaxiyouvTD^ i}fibiy ro fA);* Here, for heauvowfrog, it is 
necessary to read haxovounof : and then the passage will be, in 
English : ^ It is requisite to know that Divinity is present with 
all things without a medium, but it is impossible for us to be 
conjoined with him without the intervening agency of a certain 
nature, such as that of demons ; just as with respect to the light 
(of the sun) we are in want of the intervention of air, to ad- 
minister to .us the light." P. 180. 1. 3 from the bottom : eovireg 
$t r^ xtfyoyi to haarpofov xgiverm, xai rij o^jij to iraget n^v ogirfv. 
Toy «(rroy rponov (wnrif €ixoya cahfi\6eif o ^iXotro^o; Tijy aXt^isMV, ^ 
XM TO, Ojui^oia xcu ra irotpiKKaypi^et xpmiuv, outco; ofttXBi o puireop 
^Meyoy«( i%f ly to aX))0c^. In this passage, for cixoya, it appears 
to me to be obviously necessary to read xoyova. P. 199* !• 20. 
wavT^w ymp ly Ty Ti/taicp Sc ivinoKei TOvgAtywrriovs eog ap^Mws. 
Here for tyteia^ci it is requisite to read tyxco/tia^Ei, as will be 
manifest, from a perusal of the beginning of die Timseus. 
P. 202* L 29* o?rfp ouy toi^ itois o xoo'jxo;, TOtn-o xai tco <nrovSai€p jj 
99gi retinas eytpytta. In this passage, for ra^etogf it is necessary 
to read vpfi^iwg ; for what Hermeas says is this, '' that what the 
^orld is to the Gods, that the energy of action, or the practic 
^energy, is to the worthy man/' For, as the energy of divinity 
about is directed to that which is external, so likewise 
ia the energy of tKe worthy, man when directed to practical 
affairs. P. 185. 1. 4 from the bottom :. to yaip WF^gt^ov pt§i 
SaifAoya Sti xttA»y,> oioy tov Aoyov 8«jftpya to XoyiKoy, tou yov tov 
fffoy. Here for tou is obviously requisite to read tou 
piAoyou; for the meaning of Hermeas is^ fUhat ijt is always 
inecessary to call that which transcends (another thing) the dsmon 
(of that thing). Thus, for instance, tbe^ rational i? dbe dsmon of 
the irrational nature, and divinity is the daemon of intellect.'' 
P. 195. 1. 5. o$6y Imtoxpanig jSouXofMyo^ Sei^ai, oti oux eoriy oeirXovy 
(to oxofta), titreV ei sv ijy to coofiaj ovx av i]Xyi]o-6y, £i h <rvviiTov, ex 
wpvm xpn irttyxsiT^i xpei mmr ori ex TBO'iragwv (rroi^noov, dappitovp 
4nfXP^9 ^^ vypou. In this passage, after uypou,'the words x«l 
i^ou are manifestly wanting; for the four first qualities which 
Hippocrates attributed to the humors, are, the hot and the cold, 

Biblical Criticism. 279 


ibe mcMst arid :ihe'dfy. Aod in tbe last place, iti^. £04« 1. Q^ 
Hcrmeas says, ro yap cro^ov xoXtii^ WFipfiatvit ra avdqwnwa lu&rfd^ 
crayroDV Se r»v ilutayopov xoi irffgi ri «9ri(rr4j|xoycoy (to^oiv xttAouftey»y; 
Uviuyopets iXSoov, to dmv ftovov <ro^oy fxaXff(r€y, w; t^eupvrov ro 
ovofue 7^ 060) airoynfMt^y rou^ Ss opsyojxsyou; co^ia^, fiAoo'O^ot;^ 
exaXf0'6y. In this passage^ for rwy Ilviayogw, it appears to me to 
be necessary to read rcoy vpo Ilviayopoo ; for then the meaning 
of Hermeas will be^ ^^ that all those prior to Pythagoras^ who 
bad a scientific knowledge of any thing, were called wise ; but 
Pythagoras, when he came, gave the appellation of wise to 
divinity alone, as thus ascribing to God a transcendent name-; 
and those who aspire after wisdom) he denominated phihso^ 
phers/' T. 



On the First and Second Chapters of St. Matthew; com^ 
. prising a view of the leading Arguments in favor of 
their Authenticity^ andoftheprincipalObjectionswhich 
have been urged on the subject. By Latham Waine- 
WRIGHT, M. A. F. S. A. of Emman. Coll. Cam- 
bridge, and Rector of Gt. Brickhill, BuckSf S^c. 

No. L 

f^EW circumstapces perhaps have been ultimately more favora- 
ble to the interests of Qbristianity, than the numerous objections 
which have at different times been urged against the divinity of 
its origin. Other religions have been indebted for their pror 
p^gation and support to the sword of conquest, and the counte-^ 
nance of the civil authority ; but when left to depend on the 
unassisted influence' of their initripsic paerit, have either utterly 
ceased to exist, or have, at best, been confined to some in^igni*^ 
ficant and unlettered sect. What to them has proved the source 
of ruin or contempt, has to the religion of Christ been the 
uniform occasion of advancement and triumph. The more ita 
evidence has been submitted to the test of examination and 
inquiry, the more its doctrines have been exposed to the scrutiny 
of dispassionate reason, in the same proportion have they ob- 
tained the approbation and belief of the wise, and have> bedtl 

3S0 BibUcal Crkkism^ 

d^b to resist th^ MCiet maduinfioM of iatemted mttme, and 
dM w^diaffitmA attacks of prejodKco and powec If indeed ear 
baljr ffdigio% anidsl tbe fornndaUe ohata^a vkich oppoaed 
ki frnfjum, has ever kad cause to he seripasly aap tph ewsive 
for Its securi^ aod Immoi^i k has aiisen, not froin tke laoieipse 
of its eztemai eneniies^ not firooi the subtle ^SfprtB of mem whom 
interest has led to conceal tbeir animosity, bat from the divi* 
siofls aad contests of those who have loudly asserted the Huth 
of its daimsy and who have been foremost in the mahs of its 
OTOwed partisans. To separate from each other aoiely on ac- 
count of some firiYolous differences of opinion^ and to forai 
themselves into distinct classes and denominations, either from 
a desice of increasing individual importance, or from a mistake^ 
pride in controverting the creed of the multitude, has been too 
frequent a practice among the followers of Christ, from the era 
of his death to the present hour. But this, like many other 
evils which at the time excited no slight degree of alarm, has 
been productive of unintentional good» Amidst the vehement 
contentions of tbe early sects respecting the foundation of their 
speculative tenets, or Hie external discipline of the church, diey 
aH professed to resort to one mode of determining their dif- 
fcrencea*--by making (heir final appeal to the same authonty, 
and by ackaowkgiog the writin^^s of die apostles to be the only 
standard of their faith and practice. The same zeal hy which 
they were actuated in disputing tbe orthodoxy of their immedi- 
ate opponents, naturally created the utmost vigilance and 
jealousy in protecting the saered writings, which all parties 
equally admitted to be inspired^, from surreptitious interpolation 
and from every artifice which could affect the integrity of the 
original text. To diis spirit of caution, so unremittingly exer<* 
eisMl by the primitive adherents to the Christian feiS, it was 
owing diat a few of the books of the New Testament which 
are now considered to be of equal auAority with the others, 
were not at first acknowleged to be canonical. These, it is well 
known, were the Second Epistle- of St« Peter, the Second and 
Third Epistles of St. John, the Epistles of St. James and 
8t. Jude, and the Apocdypse. It is sufficiently obvious, how- 
ever, that their subsequent admission into the Canon, at no very 
considerable interval, must have been the result of a strict 
inquiry Into dieir pretensions, and of a fuH conviction that they 
were the genuine productions of the authors to whom ihey are 
ascribed ; while, at the same time, it contributes to confirm our 
confidence in the remainder of the New Testament, by showing 
the high degree of improbability that any spurious eomposifion 

Biblkal CriimMu 


olaiitiing diiMQe derivalioii^ eouM long succeed ip etfcaping de- 
tiection. In tfuth, bodi ecciefliatdcal histofy> and tbe proem 
to St* Luke's Gospel^ acquaiiit w with the exktence of otber 
Gospels and odier writings assuming to \» iosptfed, during the 
aposlobc age. Some of these compositiens' were contempo- 

' Of tbe numsrous apocryphal wovks irhieh aopcarod during the ibur 
firsjt centiirifBa^ while vune are entireljf loft and are kaown to us oalje 
from the descrimion of ancieot autbprsi afid the frageients which have 
been preserved oy the letter^ others have reached the present times, and 
afford curious speciraens of human folly and fraud. Among those 
which have been destroyed by the ravages of time, the following are 
apme of tb^ roost remarkable : The Gospels of St. Peter and of Judas 
Iscariot ^ the Gospel according to the Hebrews ; the Gospel according 
to the Egyptians; the preaching of Peter; the revelation of Peter; the 
acts of Paul and Thecla ; the Gospel of Marcion ; the revelation of 
Cerinthus; the Gospel according to the twelve apostles ; the Gospels of 
Thomas, ef Matthias and of Basilides ; the preaching of Paul ; the acts 
of Paul ; the acts of Peter; the acts of Andrew and John ; the Qospels 
of Bartholomew, of Tatian, and of Apelles; the Gospel of the Naza* 
renes, which the learned have determmed to be only another name for 
the Gospel according to the Hebrews; the Gospel of the Ebionites; 
the Gospels of Eve, of Philip, and of Jude; an Epistle of Christ pro- 
duced by the Manichees ; a Hymn of Christ whicn he is said to have 
taught h|s disciplesy. received by the Priseillianists ; the judgment of 
Peter; the revelation of Pauly and the revelation of Stephen. Of the 
apocrvphal books which are still extant, the following catalogue will be 
found to contain the principal ; the letter of Abgarus king of Edessa to- 
Christy and our Saviour's answer; six Epistles of Paul to Seneca, and- 
eight trom the latter in reply; the coflkstitutions of the Apostles; the 
Creed of the Apostles; the Gospel of the infancy of Christ; the Prot- 
Evangelion of James; the Gospel of the birth of Mary ; the Gospel of 
Nicodemus, or the acts of Pilate; the martyrdom of Thecla, published 
by Dr. Gmbe from a Ms. in the Bodlsiau, and supposed to be no other 
than the acts of Paul and Theda mentioned by Tertullian ; St. Paui*a 
^istle to Uie Laodiceans ; and Abdias's history of the twelve apostles. 
Amidst so incongruous a mass of writings, some of them coeval perhaps 
with the primitive church, it might appear to be no very eaav task to 
discriminate our own authentic books from those ofa spurious character. 
Nothings however, can be iestahHshed on a firmer basis than the genuine- 
eess of our canonical scriptures, as we possess an uninterrupted series 
of qu^atkn* from them, handed dowa in the writings, of the Fathers 
from the earliest period, where the authenticity of the former is either 
expressly affirmed or evidently implied. If to this irrefragable proof we 
add that afforded by the oldest Syriac and Latin versions, which are> 
referred by some divines to the first, and bjr others to the beginning of 
the second century, the Diatessaron of Tatian composed in the middle 
of the secoivi century, the caiahgutsoi the canonical scriptures contained 
in the works of the Fathers of the third and fourth centuries, and the 
testimony of HeaihAn and Jewish authors, we shall have a body of evi- 
dence in lavor of the authenticity of the New Testament, to which no 

282 Biliical Criticiim. 

rary witfa the publiaition of bur 0¥fii Scriptores/ while otherr 
ve known to be the indisputable forgeries of a' later period ; 
and in order to attract the notice and secure the belief of 
Christian converts^ they were confidently ascribed either to the 
apostles themselves, or to persons who were known to have 
enjoyed their friendship. Of this indeed we may rest persuaded^ 
that could any diligence of research have proved these writings 
to be genuine, they would have been received with all that ardor 
and confidence which the venerable names attached to them 
would naturally inspire. But though many of them contained 
an admixture of truth with falsehood, yet the vigilant examina-* 
tion to which they were of necessity made to submit, would 
soon disclose the futility of their pretensions; and they were 
accordingly rejected as unworthy of admission into the catalogue 
of canonical works publicly recognised by the primitive Chris- 
tians. Admitting, as we unquestionably must, that the highest 
degree of vigilance and circumspection was exercised by the 
early followers of Christ in the formation of that Canon of 
Scriptures which was . for ever to regulate the faith and to 
involve the salvation of succeeding generations,' it must require 

other compositions in existence can lay claim, and which completely ex- 
cludes the pretensions of those fictitious writings enumerated in this note. 

Respecting the writings of the apostolic Fathers, a ^reat diversity of 
opinion has prevailed ; and though vast learning has been displayed in 
establishing the authenticity of many of them, there are others which 
are universally admitted to be spurious ; some divines, indeed, have not 
scrupled to (Question the autboritv of all of them. 

* Itespectmg the origin of the term canonical, as applied to the 
Scriptures, there are three different opinions. The learnea French critic 
Dupin observes, that as one signification of the Greek word Koftin, is a 
caitaiogue, the books of the New Testament were termed canonical, 
because the catalogue of them was called the canon. To this, however, 
it is replied that there is no authority to show that the word Kmin was 
used in this sense till the fourth century, long prior to which the same 
term was applied to the sacred volume. 

The eccentric Whiston imagined that the books of the New Testa- 
ment were called canonical because they are enumerated in the last of 
the apostolical constitutions or canons, forgetting that for the same 
reason many apocryphal writings would be entitled to that appellation. 
To this it may be added that these constitutions have long ceased to be 
considered as genuine. 

The third and best reason alleged for the original application of the 
term is this, that the word canon, both in Greek and Latin, properly sig-- 
nifies a rule or standard by which other things are to be tried ; and as tlie 
sacred books are acknowleged by all Christians to be the standard of 
their faith. and practice, the co//ec^ton of them obtained at an early period 
the title of canon. The precise period when our present canon was 

Biblical Criticism. 283 

mrgunient8 of more than ordinary 'weight to induce us to reject 
any part of the sacred text which has reached, wiAout dis- 
turbance, so late a period as the present. Notwithstanding the 
reliance which it wus natural to expect would be reposed on the 
authenticity of every part of the New Testament, still there are 
a few passages which have at different times been openly called 
in question, and which it therefore becomes our duty to ex<» 
amine with all that diligence and candor so peculiarly required 
in a subject of this nature. 

Whatever may have been the origin of these objections^ 
whether they have arisen from an imperfect comprehension of 
the proofs, by which the genuineness of ancient writings caft 
alone be established, or whether, which has not unfrequently 
been the case, they are to be traced to the powerful preposses- 
sions generated by the tenets of particular sects, no friend to 
revelation would willingly suffer them to be disseminated without 
examining the foundation on which they are alleged to be sup-^ 
ported, and without ascertaining the degree of attention to 
which they are really entitled. 

It is well known to those who are at all acquainted with 
theological science, that the authenticity of the first and second 
chapters of the Gospel of St. Matthew has been the subject of 
contrpversy, and has been more particularly contested by that 
class of Christians who avowedly disclaim the divinity of the 

As this parjt of the sacred writings contains the detail of 
Christ's nativity, we shall not be greatly surprised at the anxiety 
displayed by the advocates of Unitarianism to annul a portion 
of the text so subversive of their favorite opinions, and which 
they trust, if once expunged, would effectually, undermine the 
belief of the received doctrine of the miraculous conception. 
As long as these chapters are considered as forming part of the 
original Gospel of one of our Lord's immediate disciples, as 
long as they retain the confidence which has so long been 
reposed in them, it will be in vain to attempt to invalidate the 

formed cannot be ascertained with any degree of certainty. There does 
indeed exist an account of its having been arranged and settled at Ephe- 
sus before the close of the first century, but it is now generally rejected 
as destitute of sufficient proof to entitle it to belief; and it is the opinion 
of many eminent critics, amongst whom are Griesbach and Semler, that 
the scriptural canon could not have been formed before the middle of 
the second century. See Jones on the Canon. Dupin's Hist, of the 
Canon, Marsh's Michaelis, vol. ii. notes to ch. T. sect. 6. Paley's Evid. 
vol. i.t 

284 BiUical Criticism. 

doeliine which the; eaiplicitly decfaure^ by reasoning on the 
ftbfttrMt nature of die fact, or by any argumenti derifnd from 
die antecedent probability of its truth. 

lint n priori mode of reaeoniagf honrever, has too frequently 
been resorted to in dkcussiM the credibility of the peculiar 
articles of the Christian faith; bnt by no class of oaen has 
it been moie notoriensly perverted, than by those who without 
hesilnton reject from their cieed every doctrine which cannot 
be supported by obvious analogy or undisptited experience. 
On the same principle many have tentnred to question the 
divine origin of Christianity itself; slid beoanse it was promul- 
gated at a period so remote from the creation of the world, they 
tinnk themselves justified in refnsing their assent; falsely 
assuflung that what so intimately concerned the felicity of hu- 
man creatures, if communicated at nil, must have been so from 
the beginmng, or at least long anterior to the general depr»v»ty 
of the species ; and that it is in the highest degree imprahalih 
that the Deity should restcict the revelation of his mosey within 
the narrow limits which the present case apparently snp^^oses. 
Smeh, however, is the natw^ of the proofs in our possession, 
anch the powerful body of evidence which the inquiries of ovn#y 
day tend ti» confirm, that it appears almost impemible, oon* 
sislendy with the unbiassed eaeroise of our sane faouUies, to 
deny that the Christian religion has actually been published, 
though not till four thousand years after the formation of man^ 
and that tbe subhane truths which it unfolds are not the less 
intimately connected with our highest interest because they have 
hilherto entended to only a poition of mankinds Our previous 
conceptions of what wonld be the conduct of the Supieme 
Being under any proposed circumstances, or of tbe manner 
in which he would display his attributes in die government of 
his intelligent creatmnes, have so repeatedly led to the most 
palpable errors, that th^ ought to obtain but little iafiuence in 
our estxmnte at the positive proofs of any religious system 
offered to onr examination* Kor will it require any elaborate 
investigation to impress upon the mind a conviction, which 
daily observation alone is almost su£Bcient to produce. In die 
phenomena of external nature, in the occurrences which excise 
our attendon in the records of history, and in the moral system 
which influences the conduct of man both as an individual, and 
as connected wifth society, numerous instances might be alleged, 
apparently at variance with die perfections of the Divine Being, 
or, at iea^ very remote from our preconceived ideas of their 
probability. Their actual existence, however, is not on that 

Bibiical Criticism. 285 

account ii» lets certain^ nor lew tbe ttSdai ef prMpeoti^i 

. All that the rational part of the creatioii can be admitted to 
claim with ja»ticey or rather natxxnily ta expect, from the beite^ 
volence of the Deity, is, thait a .prepoadei ance of bappioMs 
should be placed within their reach, aeoner or later, during dm 
continuance of their existence* The oKane which ti^ AlaMghiy 
BE^Bj adopt in the plenitode of his wisdom. for effectuala% and 
aecuring this faappineea,. may very coneiatendy be sapposed to 
form a aubjeot far removed Arom (be reach of human examina- 
tion, and even beyond tbe limila of human co m p re h e miom 
Why man should originally have been so constructed aa to ka 
liable to fdl from his primeval state of Miss, when assailed by 
tenaptation^ and why so many agea should elapse before the 
advent of diat illustrious character appointed to be the great 
instrument in accomplishing his redemption, are questions which 
involve no greater difficulty than is to be diacoveited in that long 
contested point, the origin of evil. To ejcpect to fathom Ae 
counsels of the Supreme Intelligence^ with, fiicultiea so inade* 
qi»ate as our own, and to make the removal of every shade of 
dackneas the previous condition of our assent, ia what va 
practise on no other subject; and it has not yet been expkincd 
irby we should adopt so unreasonable a condudt in that of 

^fter sdl the ob^ctiona which ^ have been advanced against 
the historical detail of the great legislator of the Jews, and aH 
^ boii attempts inthkh have been made to destroy its credibi- 
lity, stiH to eirery unbiassed inquirer it will beibsind to be moiis 
consistent with the facts of subsequent history, and with die 
observations of philosophers sdative to the superficial strootore 
of the globef than any hypothesis which the i|ifiddity of soma 
and the love of distinction in others have led them to invent.' 
Our proper object, therefore, is not to institute an inquiry how 
far the Mosaie a ccomit a cca w fa with the ideaa which we have 
previously entertained respecting the means which the Almighty 
would select in the creation and government of the universe, 
but whether the authority of the writings ascribed to the Jewish 
lawgiver is supported by incontsovertible evidence, and whether 
they contain nothing which the consent of cultivated understand- 
ings has decided to be contrary to the first principles of reason* 

' ^ See Brrant's ^tem af Ancient Mythola||ry; Maarice^s Indian An* 
tiquities ; Sir WiUispi ^aes'^ Discoutses J»efere the AsiatiG SoaieQr* 

$86 tn SophocKs CEdip. Colon. Hmendd. 

Vhen we are sadsfied on these poiott, when we find a histd^f 
of the origin of the world, of which the particulars, though ofteil 
supernatural, are. after minute examination allowed to be recon^ 
citable with the known attributes of the Deity; when this* 
history is proved by arguments, which the most labored ingenu-< 
ity has hitherto been unable to invalidate, to have been written 
by the legislator whose name it bears, our assent seems una- 
voidable. No other conduct remains for ns to pursue, but to 
ascertain the correctness of the text which is submitted to oof 
notice, and to interpret its meaning in conformity with the laws 
of criticism invented by the wisdom and confirmed by the expe-> 
rience of profound scholars. 

Thus also, when a revelation of more recent date has beetf 
once proved to have been communicated to the human species, 
we are not to proportion our belief of its contents to our ante- 
cedent sentiments of probability relative to its mode of promul- 
gation, and to the nature of the doctrines it prdfesseato disclose. 
We are not to say, though we certainly cannot, after a Air 
investigation of the arguments in its favor, refuse our assent to its 
general truth, that we think ourselves at liberty to make a reserva- 
tion ia this belief with regard to panicular passages, because 
they appear to us to affirm what we can never be persuaded the 
Deity would have ordained, and because we conceive that in 
executing the same design he would have selected a mode mudi 
less complicated and refined, and more level to Ae apprehension 
of ordinary understandings. 

This conduct and this language are altogether inadinissit>Ie ia 
the examination of facts which are to be established by historical 
testimony,\ and are indeed, at all times, far removed from that 
diffidence in our own faculties and that perfect reliance on the 
divine perfections, so congenial with the condition of fanmaQ 
frailty. ... 



JbiMENDATioxES liae maximam quidem in partem, jam de- 
cennio prope scriptse diu meas inter schedas latebant, tempus 
aese proferendi opportunum expectaqtes. Quam vero occasio- 
nem f nemo Divom promiltere posset,' earn ^ fortuna en ! obtu- 

In Sophgclis CEdip. Colon. Emendd. 287 

lit ukro/ Fabula etenim faac Sophoclea tiuperrime bis .ejlita^ 
ineam quoque ipsius symbolam volui conferre in coenaur a Rei- 
sigio Elmsleioque Jautissime instructam. Idque eo lib^ntius 
feci, quo'perspexi melius plurima esse loca duumyiris illis vel 
negiecta penitus vel arte, qua par fuit, iion tractataf* Neque id 
mirum cuivis oportet esse videatur in fabula, que una inter 
omnes Sophocleas maxime cori'upta multorum ingenia potest 
exercere^ cujusque sanatio, 'siquid recte curatum velis/ medi- 
CIS ejusmodi committenda est, quibus, morbo penitus cognito, 
remedium sit facile inventu, aut, iisdem de reraedio desperanti- 
busy peritiorem quibus opperiri hominis fuerit parum sani. 

In literis Gra&cis, quae quidem ad res scenicas pertinent, plane 
is hospes fuerit, qui nesci^rit fabularum Sopboclearum esse rie* 
censiones duas e veteribus Grammaticis profectas; quarum 
altera primitus ab Aldo, altera postea fuit a Turnebo typis im- 
pressa. £x his duabu^, quoties inter se dissideant, quod saepe 
faciunt, toties Aldina scriptura majorem sibi auctoritatem vin-» 
dicat apud Brunckiuni, Reisigium, Elmsleiumque ; mihi vero 
Turnebiana visa est saepius verba Sophoclis exhibere. In 
valgus quidem levis, ut cum Reisigio loquar, fama permeavit de 
recensione Turnebiana minus vetusta, utpote a Demetrio Tri* 
clinio instituta ; cujus in caput immerentis iram omnem Brunck* 
ius evomuit. At -Grammaticus avcovufto^, Triclinio nondura 
uato ipse mortuus, potuit Anti-Tricliniania dicere, ' me, me, 
adsum, qui feci, in me convertite tela ; feci etenim, ut Sopho- 
clis verba genuina ne sint oblivioni tradita ; nee tamen intercedo, 
quo. minus vapulet Triclinius pugnis maxime ponderosis, qiii 
meas partes, subdititius plane Sosias, agere voluit, interque can- 
tus luscinias Sophocleas oyKoi^iou, more asini, ausus est impu* 
dentissime. Totn'oy) yovv, tfuI Bvpiyya, ^raie, vale rto ^i^jn* Verum^ 
facetiis huj.usmodi omissis, ad quas animum meum allexit Rei- 
sigius in Enarrat. ad CEd. c. 613. suo versu in Brunckium non 
optime facto, ad recensionem redeo Tricliniaaam ; in qua 
Demetrius quidem habet aliquam partem, praecipue inter ea, 
qu8B pei linent ad cantus Chori et roetra hie iUic resarcienda; 
nihil vero majus fecit, neque facere potuit. Quo tempore vixe* 
rit ille vetustior Grammaticus, se oescire fatetur Elmsleius^ 
neque ego possum dicere. Id unum scio, eum ante Suidas 
tempora vixisse. Suidas enim, qui, saeculo P.C. N. circiter 
undecimo. Scholia in Sophoclem descripsit, semper fere verba 
Sophoclis ipsa citat, Aldinae scriptural congruentia. At col* 
latis inter se lectionibus variis, quas utraque recensio exhibent, 
liquido patet Aldinam de Pseudo-Tricliniana per lapsus scriba- 
ruin devenisse. lllud etiam adjungo, quod Pseudo-Triclinianafr 

VOL. XXIX. a JL NO. LVIir. u 


S88 In SophocUs CEdip. Colon. Bmtndd. 

lecfiones, in pejvs mutatas, ad scribendi ratumein vetostiorein ea, 
quam Aldina scriptura indicate pertinenti et inde fere omnes 
▼idetttur derivari. Nempe in Aldina recensione non nisi carsiTse, 
ut aiunt, acripturae vestigia se produnt^ at in Pseudo-Triclim- 
80a^ quadrate. Fait igitur ille liber^ quern Suidas manibua 
vertaviti recentior altera, qui Triclinii in manus venit. Pie- 
romque tamen neque banc neque illam recensionem per se 
eassa nuce eroerim, licet ex utrisque inter se comparalis lectio 
gemiiDa fere semper erui possit, 

' £ decern libria nianuscriptis, quorum coliationem edidit 
Elmsleius, qnatuor Aldinaoii totidemque Pseudo-Triclinianam 
teeensionem eihibent, inter quas medium locum tenent duo illi 
Par. F. et Rice. B. Ad Aldinani referri debenf Laur. A. Par. A. 
Rice. A. et Laur. B., ad Pseudo-Tricliuianam vero T. Fam. 
Par.B. et Vat. Brevitati igitur consulturus non Mss. ipsos, 
sao qoemque nomine, verlim recensionem alterutram literis AL. 
a«t PT. iadkabo, nisi rationem aliam sana ratio postulare 

Etsi pkirima et gravia sunt in fabula Sophoclea, quae nostras 
curas enixe petunt, nefas tamen es&et insigiie fragmentum bisto- 
ricum de re scenica praetermittere, quod primus edidit Tfaiers- 
. cfaius in Ael. Pbilolog. Monacens. i. 3. p. 322-326. e schedis 
Victoriants, dein Elmsteiua de Codice Laurentiano descripsit. 
.Unde Victorius suum apographum bauserit, non liquet. Id i\A 
Tbierschius evuigavit. 

i *uii8o5<r* i^i^a^iVf vlo$ it *Agi<rTwvo$ ev) apxpvro^ ^Mfjxaivos, og 
itrrt rirapTos ditto KuXXiou, ef* o3 petch oi 'irXslovg tov So^oxXia 
TeXsmvi(roci' Sdifeg ii fofrr* Ifrrh l^ m ^ftev 6 'AptCTO^ivvis hv roig 
Barpixois hcl KotXXhu istfiyet toij ^trrgetr^yovs vireg yrig, 6 Be 
^vvlyog h M66(ruis^ ag Grv/xutriXB rolg Barg^oij, ^)j(r)# *o3 
laixap ' S^^oxXeg og TttXvf %poVoy jSioy^ ewrlJavey e^dotlfuoov itvrjp xoti 
h^ios ^ro^Xflif 7roi^<r«^ xa\ xolXA$ rqaymllag xa>jS>g ^ ersXeunia-ev ooSev 
intx>i/^hu$ xMxiv M Is rtS Xeyofiivea ^ 'iTfTTdlcp KoXaom ro dpoipi^ xsTrar 
Ecrri yctfi xai srepog Ko?^mvo^ wpig rm Eupviraxelcp, irpi$ m ol iM<r6ap^ 
wSwej ■ ^g^tftf-T^xtwaV 9 xcu tjjv iFapotiAtotv iin roig xaSuTveplZovtri 
TBBf xatfttifhaiottiveii, o^f^ ^Xieg itXX' elg rov KoXaovhv J&n>* ffcyij|xovet5?i'^ 
ir&if Iveh K6X»voiv ^qMXp&ry^g Iv " ^reraXjj ^lii t«ut«v," o3to^ 
itot' i!(r^X0er el^- XdAwydv ^p^^fxriv o6 roir Ayopam aXXii rh raov 

1. Ita Victor, at V\hisiia ElmsL 2. Ita Victor, at Ms. teste 
Elms. OiiSdD^. 3. Mkxlmog vult Tbiersch. ad^vocato Diodor. Sic. 
xJT. 17. at M/xctfvo^ Elmsl. ex Aristoph. Lys. 679.. *As Mtxutv 
iypw^* ^' hiemy H,r,X. S. i piiv legit Elmsl. 4. Manifesto 

lis S^hoGhs CEdip. Colon. Emendd. 989 

le^endam tob^ rfntyiwii^. Etecum in Ranis avkyvrm iEschyliis* 
Et Bic legit Clinton in Fastis Hellenicis inter Addend, p. viii. 
niiperrime irulgatis. 4. Vice o3 £lftisL vSrw;. ^* -S'o^oxXffiif 
Elmsl. 6. xaAflo^ r est Tfaierschi at Werferi emendatio hni^ 
<n}r' : mibi vero tautologum sonant eatiiavev et htkBirrja-i. 
Scripsit^ opkitfr^ Pfarynichus KetXiog IraXm^tr, memor Sopho* 
deae sententiee in Fragm. Inc. 58. m$ r^iWXjSioi Kfmt ^t&v^A 
r^vra Bep^dhrti rikif^ MoXoxr' e^ "Aihu. Fait enioi Sophocles 
iinas r&v Moarwvi ideoque apod inferos^ rA ffMrtm Sfyt wvvy^yff 
\lm^ ut cum Euripide loquar in Here. F. 613. 7. Legi debet 
fff9r/». 8. Upofreo-rvixmrouf eaiendat Thiersch, ex Harpocrat. V. 
KoXaavtrecs. 9, &m xa\ iegere vult Thiersch. 10. Excidisse 
videlur $e. 11. Uarpocrat. Ms., olioi -Burneianus^ e^hibet Uf 
r^^^" i. d. fnraXrtaif, unde nihil extrico. 12. Harpocr. 1. c» 
T>Sra^ iti$e^ ^xeig 1$ KoXaji^if ij /4^v ot$ Toy x.r.X. Recte iroScv, let 
vero proxime ^xvs et 19 ftijv : in quibus latent ovx tif et Ui^y^v : 
latent quoque in iUrfi^dir voces sMr^Xfa^ oj^*. ^ Etenim scripsit 
Pherecrates — A. oSt^j wodtv Eio^Xfej a\^' ; B. odx eU KoXemu 
«^))v; A. 06 rov 'Ay^^pouw* B. oXXe^ — A. *o»; B. tov "/mrrov. 
Verbi i6jeti}y gl. est aiit lectio varia <px^M^' Sermo fuit inter 
herum et servum, qui rationem tardae prpfectionis reddit. De 
voce ^^i saepe depravata monui ad ^schj^l. Eumen. £74. et in 
Addend. JLocis ibi citatis adjunge CEd. C. 1536. Seti y^ 
e5 ff»h o^\ 8* Eto-opaja-i : ^scbin. p. 76* HSt. d\[fc [itrufuuv^f^ifrMf 
r^y €\ev6spiav* 

His dispositis ad ipsam fabulaoi accedo. Verum ultra limea 
pes Criticus sine offensione procedere nequit. Ita enim s^ 
habent vv. 3 — 8. 

t/^ T^ vXay^njy OliSirovv naf iifMpw 

T^v ySy inraiwrrols ^^rreii ^(Of^pM^t, 

cpAxpiv jxey l^anowna^ rou o-zxixgoD 9 Itv 

fUiov ^igwTct, Ka) rih' ^apiQw^ Ijxoi ; 

(Ttepyan^ ydp ai xaSai /xs j^co ;^goyo; i^ttywy 

ftaicpo^ S»Sa(rxfi xu\ ri yevvalov r^froy. 
Voces xpoyo^ ^uvdv piaxpag nemo honunum expltcuit; ecquis 
vero eas potuit explicare i Hoc prioium. Deinde coUato Phi- 
ioct. 638. '£yeo ^ aviyxif vpoCpi^ov trripy^iif xaxd, liquet abunde 
nomen desiderari^ quocum arigyuif jungi possit. lUud etiam 
statoo> quod tptrov caudam quasi inutikm hie trahit^ arti So* 
pfaocleae incongruenter. Quid pUira { Rescribe^ quse Tragicus 

vripy^iv y&p m! Triiai t« %co xpoyof ^m^v 
fftoxgo^ SiS^xei xaX ro ycyyaioy tfl^v* 
N&mqne ttrwrhmt it Ivngum tempus docent vel genere nobilem 

990 In Sophoclis CEdip. Colon. Emendi. 

aquq animo tolerare semi tarn vita inhospitalem* Nmhc demum 
intelligitur, unde venerit lectio varia vrafdv vice ivvdv in PT. 
Jj^empe super rft/Sov fuit scrtptum vigov. . Hie r^//3oy eadem 
metapliora dicitur^ qua ixrglfitiv /S/ov io CEd. T. 248* neque 
nop conferri potest Euripideum /mouo-ixov S* upei "Epw^ $iS4<rx8», 
xav ijAova-of ^ to vpiv, aim Sophocleo hdota-xei xx) ri yewam : 
etenim in utroque loco xa) significat e'en Anglice. Manifesto 
sententis tenor postulat mentionem et ^fvot; et rpt^u* Fuit enim 
CEdipus et ^ivog et TFkavij'nig. Quod ad syntaxin^ hiuirxnv riva 
Ti, earn ne pueri quidem ignorant. 

. 6. Reisigius in Enarrat. p. xxvii. per transennam vidit dis* 
crimen inter ^iguv et ^ipeirioLt ri. Nempe hoc significat auferr^ 
jure proprio, illud comessu alterius auferre. Thuringensein 
Jatuit plurimis in locis, ubi hodie exstat ^k(rily ^ipeiv, olim ex- 
stitisse ftiatof opffTy : neque verba prorsus eadem esse fipuv et fSo- 
psTv. Sed de hoc alias. 

11. ^rijo-^v jjLe xa^i^pvcrov 00$ irviolf/i^sioi, Ita Mss. omiies. At 
Brunckius vv6wiM9a, probante Elnisl., non' item Reisigio^ qui 
jure miratur sententiam inconcinnam colloca me, utpercontemur: 
quasi sede opus sit ad sciscitiandum. Gl. est in Ms, Laur. A. 
fi»iria'ofji.sia. : cujus auctor tig pro ml accepisse videtur Elmsleio. 
Atqui glossse scriptor in codice suo legerat o3 vewrovfuiaL, ubi 
dudiemui. De Attico illo futuro vid« Grammatico?^ qui coUi- 
gere solent exempla^ pueris quidem^ non Criticis« profutura. 

12. — pMviiveivyoipijxofiev Sevoi Trgos iiarToov u% axowreoiJi^ 
rsXelv, Ita AL. at PT. ;^aV At nusquam'^ alibi tres syllabae 
per crasiii una iiunt. Id perspexit Elmsl, qui ad. CEd. T. 749* 
legit u% $* axouo-cu/xev— et nunc in textum intulit. V^rum null^ 
est antithesis inter [^uaviaveiv et re^sTv, Debuit a "v r axo6(reo[jt,ev 
reXsTv. JFor nefe strangers are come to learn, atid^ what we learn, 
to do. 

14. et sqq. [lirsg roLXahoop* OIS/ttoujj KVpyoi fiev, 0% IIoKiv crre- 
yowcriv, wg air* ifjifi,irwy wgo<ra>' Xwpog 8* oS* Iglg cog aTrsixacai 
^p6aov Ji^vrig eXa(ag api^TreXov. Ita Ms. Lauf. A. At Schol. 
pro var. lect. »g avofjLfjLaTcp : et Aid. wg trif' slxifTon, Verum 
PT. OMiicw — Upig ig ctveiKotaai, Ex hiace trap* ^lxia^a^ placuit 
Reisigio. Atqui illud f pertinet ad (TTgypvcriv: cujtis vice. (TtI- 
^ouo-iv emendat VVake^eJd. ad Georgic, i. 71. /li^ ^^^^ Doeder- 
linum iurSpecim. p. 42. Placuit quoque Musgravio eo<^ oLy^fJt," 
fi^LTtp, cui scrupulum injecerat illud vpwroi^. At dum levia W. 
DD, persequuntur, praetereunt majora. Nemini eten,im sub- 
oJuit deesse bis verBum, quod vix. semel d^sse poterat. Eo 
restitutOy plana fiuntr omnia* L^ge jgitur-^^rfoyoi jxev, A JIoXiv 
^Te^oucr', otJ* elcr* iLTr\ fljXji«TWV nqi^m^ Xwg%c 5* qS*, (Upog cof ««?*- 

In SophocUs (Edip, Colan. Emendd. 29 1 

iki<ren,) Bpoomf : subaudito ia-rL Dicto o1^, Antigfone digita in- 
tendit ad^ tuires, quae visse sunt extra scenani, iroXiv (rri^ouo'ut^ 
De pronomine ?Ss sic posito vid* Schaefer. in Meleteau Crit. p. 
84. Quantillo qpete oi^ excidere potuerit post oug, intelligas ex 
eOy quod 0* et $ saepe confundi soleant. Quod ad locutionem 
ay ofji^iJLsiTooy frpicreo, confer similia dicta itp6ce»iiV Ofiiiaros in 
Again. 948. et airoTrpoigv o^^oLKfMov in Aichiloch. Fragni. x. 

17. ~ iroxvoTTTfpoi ^ ETcco kolt auTOv eua'TOjxooa'* ki^^ivt^, Ista" 
Mai KOLT umh pessiuie tautologa Sophocles quidem scribere 
non potuit. Poeia dignum esset kolt edtXlv more iibia^ Et-' 
eniui non luscinia ipsa^ veruui (ibicen^ imitatus luscinianiy melos 
canebat. Quo modo ayfiov€$ €wrTO[ji,fiv a Sophocle dicuntur xdt* 
avXiv, sic et Euripides teste Hesychip. V. ^Avfiova — tou^ aoXowf^ 

19 — 22. Hoc tetrasbichon ita pessiineordinatur: 

o3 KooXa XMfi^ov TOuS* eir a^sVrop TTirgou* 
[MiKpuv yag (i$ yigovri irpov(rTiXYig o86v 

t)IA. xati^e vvv pa ku\ f6Xoia^<re roy ru^Xov* . . 

ANT. xpivou /xey oSvsx* ou p^adsiv /x« hi roSs. 

Miniine patr^m decuit imperiose loqui xatfiCs wv /em^ Anti^ 
gonae verbis x&Xu xa|x\|/dv responsurum. Hoc priniuin ; deinde. 
o3 et rouSs sic posita Graece dici non possunt. Id senderunt 
Valckenaer et Piersou : quorum bic in Motis Mss. penes me' 
voluit 60V, iile cb, quod praestat. Postremo f/iv post xpwt^ 
nullam apodosiD babet. Versibus transpositis lege 

07J. xaii^e vuv [i fxii' fuXaa-trs rov tvfhov' 
ANT. ^ovov ftev hex' ow vvv pi^ieiv jxe Sf* toS«' 

au il x&Xa xipL^ov touS* en ot^e<rrov ^rrgou' 
pi,axpoiv yap wg yipdvri nrpovcTiKrig 6^6v. 

Ubi versus ille caesuira carens^ convenit puluionibas exhaustis 
defessi senis; neque minus venustum est in re taK asyndeton 
illud, xaitfy, ^6\a<r(re. Vox exel pertinet ad x^P^^ Upov, de quo 
dudum sciscitabatur OE^ipus^ ad sessionem idoneo; Mox vufr 
|xa$e7v legisse videtur Schol. ou $si fee jiaielv tovto vvv. 

23. Ad voces Jttou xaico-rajctsv ita ElmsL ' Recie. Brunckius, 
latet in verbo xuii<Fraixev motus significatio. Ita Euripides Or. 
1330. "AqoLp* uviyxiig 8' elg ?wyov xoLie(FTapi,eif. Utrobique sen- 
tential conveniret IXij^^d^jxev.' Atqui motus significatio inesse 
nequit verbo xaSeVrajxey : potuit quidem verbo xuiirrimi. £t- 
enim Wrivai siguificat sistere sensu activo, at or^vai htare, sensu 
intransitivo. In Oreste illud upetpe satis aperte indicat xadso-ra- 
jX6v a notione motus longissime distare. Certe id, quod lixum 
est in loco, non propere de loco movetur* 

992 In Sophoclii (Edip. Cobn. Emendd. 

£4, 5. Hoc disticbon alii aliis peraonifl tribttunt. Omnes. 
perpcrun. Scriptit Sophocles : 
ANT. ris yaW 'Ai^Htf elSa- 

ANT. o5* 

wAf yip ; ri$ nfiSa rovr^v l^ituf h if6pf ; 
Inepte vulgatur na$ yap rts nfiHa rovrov ^v l(iar6pon. Vice w- 
Tw Reiskius conjecit twro y , et sic Ms. Par. F. At toSto re- 

ferri deboit ad proximum nomen ix^P^^^* ^^ ^^'^ ^^^^ °^?^ 
potuit, servata lectione vulgata m$ ti; 1)5$^ : qtite verba mam- 
festo pertinent ad rd; 'Attivag olia. De phrasi ov* ws y^y V^^ 
verbis multis opus est ? Mox meum illud iv irop«p scrupulum, 
^uem Scholiasts vox liL%ipm injecit, pulchre aaoovet. 
2&— 31. Ita hi sex versus pessime sunt scripti ; 

OIA. iXX 2(m( 6 t£wos i fJ^ito yAXoup-u voi ; 

ANT» vai rtxyoy tlmg iarl y f^oix^o-ijEto;. 

ANT. oAX' fo-rl juiev oUtiroV- oTo/xai 8e 8»y 

OIA, $ Seu^ irfwrrilxoyra xa£opfM0jxcyoy ; 

^2Vr. xa) Si) fuy o8y vaporra. 
Inter hsec video plurima aut inepta aut falsa* 1 . Ineptum eat ^ 
fa£0fl0 juboXoSo-a toi ; quasi nomen regionb Antigona indagare po- 
tuisset non ab bomine quodam^ verum e lapida aut ligno^ coi 
vilke nomen, quod fieri solet apud Aoglps^ easet ioscriptum* 
2. Grftce dici nequit hie l^oix ^ifM;* Verbalia in — triffo^ signifi* 
cant id, quod fieri potest, non id, quod fit. At senteotis tenor 
postulat holxy^os vel simile quid. S. Oixtjro; est falsum, uti 
patet e 39« "Ai^xros ouS" oix^ro^ • 4. Olop^ou est infrequens vice 
oT/xai. 5. Inepta sunt oToju.0ei 8s 8eTy ovSh. Certe aliquid erat agen- 
dum. 6. Antigonae dicenti iri}iOig ivlgu r&h vtSv l^m respondere 
non poterat CBdipus j{ SsSpo xpoarelxovta. Etenim si prope aderat 
yie homo, CEdipus poterat rem omnem sciscitari ; neque opus 
erat verbis illis inutilibus ^ Snipo irpovrflxoyra, 7* KaiopiM[k&m, 
abundat propter icpofrrtlxovra* Nihil interest celetiter, necoe, 
iUe homo advenent. 8. Vim particularum xai ^ piiv oSy mo 
uescire fateor. Apage hasce sordes et restitue Sophoclea 

ANT. oXX' S(ru$ 6 tvko^ { ^utAm (MXwo'i rotf ; 

OIA. $ou, Tffxyoy, $1 ng ecrriy h^axownfMs' 

ANT. oXX* hr ifiol y w xXajrcfr 

OIA. TifrOfMci 8*— 

ANT. 68tt)y 

ou 8ff? iriXag yUp Saiipa voS* dviiw 6pm' 

OIA. ij[ Sffvpo Tpoo'OTf/^oyra; 

ANT. xi^pf/MfMfinr 

xai 8^ {piiv* o5y) ir«^^ft* 

In S^^ocUs CEdip. Colon. Emmdd. SQS 

Inter haec yJAa — tov coiiveBiuiit dim Sophocleis fp^eo y^Afw otov 
in Aj. 33. Mox md4e ^ttxmrijiiaf, qui potest ^audire. \A enim 
CEdipus curabat, ut ficiscitari posset aliaiieai, sede sua non re- 
Ikta. Dein >pr<d[>e rationem reddk Aatigona, cMr^homine quo* 
dam vko^ ab indecora coixipellatione se absttineat. Mmx, .(&cIo 
&i^l/Mi, CEdipus Aciscitandi cupidua^ sedeni relioturusiest ; quern 
tafioea repfiooit Anlagona verbis ^w¥^6 ifiei. Bean ^roT ipwekv, de 
qua formula Joquondi vide Ludices, quos describere iipi) >suali'^ 
neboy geofirale quid, uti par est, ,de hoaiMis adywtu indica(. 
Postremo voce e^affM»fi,e¥Qv audka, CEdipus keruo) .reprimUVir n 
filia, voces ./pbev' oHv pr<»fef ente, .e;t vecibus gQ^stu«i -cona^enliiioeuiii 
exthibente. Omnis pnofecto ibujws ioci venustas pesauni i^tnH, 
nisi CEdipus in sede illicita ab hoauue, initcemtfn jaQiinlrait^r.Q» 
repertus esset. * 

3d. Sao^os TrgotnJKng oov aSijXoJjxev sppwrah Ua ciw .Steph^ 
Elmsleius. At aionatrum barbariei est iliud aSi]Xoufay« Verba 
transitiva non admittunt a {irivativum. Frusts-a H« Steph. a$Y}- 
A0D/X.6V contulit cum aym(A(i9¥. Qmn^ iMas. t&v Sl SijXoujxev 
^pwroLi : quod aperte vitiosum est. Intelligi poterat x&vS Si 
So-Topoujxsv. At Sophocles s^ripsit^ ^KjM^^is, mv o^ijX* la-fi^v, 
^fua-oi. UJbi wv est Attice piro Twrm a — 

Sa. nfiv yuy Ti. vAefov Wropiiv. Ita AjL. vfk'^ vi PT« N^ii* 
ira lectio est saua. In Uli ioco«pkirale to, v^iov est inepUim. 
•Scripsit Tra^cus. Jlphxr hn vhmv Wropuv^C, ^a^pe laTtk^w 
cuQ) dupike accttsativp jungitur ; et saepi^me Sv :p«pit^ ex- 
cidit In CIms. Joura, No. xxii. p. M5. en^ndav.i Sqph» 
Aj. 130. et Eurip. CEdip. Fragm. xii. legondo */2; y^iMq%v xAi- 
•vei Ttxiauyti v&hw et *A>J< ^iMt% ^v t> ^rat^'KiLg .^roXA^t^ 'hc^h 
coUato PhcBn. 1683. tv r^p ft' wX^mt', tv S* otKwXi<rev: ubi 
Valckenaer citat Sodipbanis fragm. apud Stob. p. J 87 = 11.1. 
^'Ag iv T iBnxs fsyyo^iv r a^fllXero et Hecub. 248. Tov wai^tf 
^' oXj3ov>^f&ag ?v jut* ofie/XfTo, quibus ipse addo Pindar. Isthai. iv. 
4S6. dfuipet yap sv ftta rpop^eia viipa^ troXijxoio rearipm ay^pflnvj*^^- 
jUMw (juctKatfav loriav. Quod ad sv ri, cf. Platou. Tbeaslet. p, 
.178. ed. Bip. Sv ^fvroi ri — apij^xsi: Menon. p. 334. ev ye Ti J^i)- 
T€i; XMTec jramroDv : :et Eurip. Med. 37 5 » ev ri (jmi ngoaavTes,, 

42. Tds.iroivi* ogaxrag Evpuivl^us y iinddcS' aiv £iiroi Xecv; yiv. 
Jta Mss. omnes et Said. V. ^iv. At Eustath. p. 763^ 37^ Aom. 
^Txi}. Primus Vauvillier reposuit ay JSTn-oi. Sed et od* legere 
^buit^ propter autithesin in 2%e et aXXa 8* ^tXXaxoD x«tXa. 

44 — 48. Versus et persooae aunt iterum in pejus mutatae ; 
OlA. olK'^ Jhaoog fugy tovS* ixir^v h^alaro' 

wg oup^ e^pa$ yris rij^i* iv ef ^Xioifu* fri. . 

BE, Ti J' iorl TouTo ; 

i94f In SophacUs (Edip. Colon. Emendd. 

BE. &)J! ou8i ftfyroi roi^vurreiifM viKKHs 

Ita Aid. aed PT. Ta^co— o^r ifMv ri— ^p/y y—rl ipav. Unde le- 
YiBsimuin quid lucraniur. Sed fortiter nego quemlibet vulgata 
posse intelligere. Primo^ jxtv nuliam apodosin habet: l2do, 
Gnece dici nequit per votum it^aletro, dg £v i^ixJkifAi : debait 
asse <ig h^ixiat : Stio^ Ineptum est manifesto ^gag yrig rn<rh : 
4tOy Sententiarum iiexus inter CEdipi et Hospitis verba plane 
nuilus est : 5to, Deest nomen post i^ooftaravMf quod CEdipum 
significet: postremo, inepta et ne Gnece quidem dicta Mil^to rt 
Sf€0. Haec tamen pede inoflfeuso praetereunt VV. DD. nesci^^ 
entes scilicet Sophoclem scripsisse : 

OlJ. &XX' iXffa>; (u etv rh Ixen^v Is^aiarr 

ME, Ti 8* i(m toSto ; 

oAX'ou^fv ov TOWT IfavKTTava*-^ 

- BE. ' vokBoog 

iix, l<rri 6ap<n>s^ itqw c* a¥ fySs/^b' r/ IpSig^ 

Nunc demum omnia facillima intellectu sunt. £ verbis hos«- 
pitis jam CEdipus intellexerat se ad lucum Furiarum advenisse; 
noverat quoque in fiatis esse IvreAia se xotfAxruv tov TakalxwfOf 
filof, iiti in v. 90. planissime indicatur; quo spectat illud ^vjx^ot 
fag iMfi}/k §[i,yig. Jure igitur non votum, defaiWo, eloquitur, sed 
vaticinium, iv Zs^alaro : quibus dictis faospes jure excitatus rei 
adeo mirsecausam sciscitatur, quam tecte ^dipus exponit verbis 
Sws ou^ Uptig y ay r^(r8* av e^ix&ofii en : et tamen^ quam debilis 
sit ipse senexi recordatus, verba nimis arroganter dicta temperat, 
dum metuit ne per vim e lucu depellatur. Metum vero esse 
inanem hospes ostendit, wph av h^sl^vi cuncta roig Iv riXei: quern 
tamen, ad id agendum abiturum, manu retinet Oedipus ; cujusad 
gestum referri debent verba ti Ipag: quae Ms. Vat. optime conser- 
vat, uti patet ex Eurip. Hipp. 325. Tidpag; ^mKji X^gof IJ^prm* 
jxtyi). De verbo cS>g saepe depravato muita possum dicere, sed 
paucis ero contenttis. In CBd. C. 1210. frStg conjecit Scaliger, 
restituit Brunck. qui et crwv reposuit e Mss. et edd. antiq. vice 
^y in Philoct. 2 1 ^ Praeclare Coraius emendat Herodot. i. 209. 
legendo Ixe7 (tw^, I/ao), pro Iku cog Ijucoi : quocum mirifice facit 
Aristoph. Eq. 610. vcog iXriXviagi quern citat Valcken. ad Phoen. 
7S2. quique poterat emendare Bacch. 79 !• legendo oAAa Sffo-fiio^ 
^uym Ata^ugy voS* e! cr&g viXiv avutrrpi^eo, hlxifji/: ubi idxreig Tyr* 
whitto, et triix debetur Piersono in Notis Mss. penes me. 
Dignum sane^ quod parte aliqua exscribatur. Lexicon est Phile- 

In Sophoclis CEdip. Colon. Emendd. 295 

tnonis, V. Smog, unde sua hausit Eustath. Ja. N. p. 941. Bas. 
•irdos 6 ikiKXrigog i voipst. roi; ^Arrtxois (r&g Xiyrreu — troog St iSpijTM 
xei dn\vKao$» *AjKrro^ivv^g' Ovtod xoip' ijfilv ^ voAi; luahASra <raj; 
ay ell}* Aeyovcri Ss %cti trei ri, trmot oS ttoiXmo), irap* dig xai o-a % c&et 
Tltpiirlh^g *7^i7ri\¥iy EvpifJM xai trei xoii xxrea-^payKrf/i.hoL'' xei 
'jfyia-Tofavifig *H [Mil^a yeip <ra xet) rei xgia [^d xigm^og addit Eu- 
fittthius.] Poteram quoque multa de iif sic repetito, verum satis 
est allegare Matthiae Gr. Gr. §. 599- et VV. DD. ibi citatos. 
Qtiod ad ou$ey Sv tout (vel^ quod prsetulerioiy roS*) de corpore 
^eixrixmg dictum^ id plane tuetur Ajac. 766. 6 i^ifih dv et 1218. 
'^Or' ouSev eov roD if^rfiiv arftiarrig wrep : plura de phrasi ilJa vid. 
apud Valcken. ad Phoen, 601. et Matthias Gr. Gr. §. 437. 

49* 0/J. 17^0^ wv 6iwVy i ifw9, fAvi jMr' oriftao-i}^. Karissime in 
fomiula ^§0$ iewv sic wv interponitur. Malim Mij vpSg ars dfooy. 
De (Ti sic interposito vid. Porson. ad Med. S2o. JDe /t^ — ^fti} 
repetitis vid. mea ad £sch. Suppl. 284. p. 115. Sed ut verum 
fi^teary Sophocles aliud quid videtur scripsisse^ nempe Ilupig 
ftc* .OU, vpog 6sw¥, i^eive. — Dicto irigsg, bospes ab CBdipo se 

51. xoux arijxo^ ex y IfMu fotvel* Amat Sophocles ys post 
hi ; cf. Philoct. 700. ?x yg yag IX«v : cf. et CEd. T. 516^ irpSg 
y' IjxoO. Hie vero praetulerim Ix ^ivou propter lusum. Dixerat 
CEdipus ^iivg: responderi poterat he ^ivov. Et sane PT. e0 
^o5. Similiter propter lusum in 52. malim Tig 9, olcff, o^eogog 
S^ Vt, hv £ fie^xotiufy vice Tig 8* M* — ^T: etenim responde- 
tur^Oo-* olia—Xoogog jxJv — oS* ecnr'.— Ibi Brunckius Tic hV 
probante Reisigio, cui displicuit $s et V/ifvct ; neque injuria : sed 
frequentissime li $^ conjunguntur : vid. Orest. 89' 52. 62. 

^4, 5. e^ei 8^ viv Seft^vog IIoa-eiiBcov, Nusquam alibi Neptunus 
tippellatur GSfMog. Ibi fortasse latet 'O Zi]yoTO<rei$fi0y, de quo no- 
mine vid. Athen. ii. p. 42. A. 

58. et sqq. Locus est pessime interpolatus : 

01 8e flrXijo*io» yuai 

f ov8* iTnroTijv KoXcovov ev^ovrai (rfio'iv 
ap^^TY/ov ihai xa) ^epoucri TovvofjLu 
TO Tou^e xoivoy iraVTeg dvoiJLaa'iJi.ivov, 

liSL Mss. plerique. Verum et abundat ooyoftao-ftsvov post fegou(n 
'Touvojxa^ et oyo/x,a xoiyoy intelligi nequit, siibaudito KoXooviitai, uti 
Schol. interpretatur. Sunt tamen^ qui conjungunt TPavrtg cum 
yuai, quod fieri potest; nam yvv^g sigiiiiicat incolam^ mascuiino 
' genere, at yi%i solum foeminino. Mihi vero displicet rouvofisc to 
Tou^e^ articulo inutiliter repetito. Scripsit, opiuor, Poeta, al di 
tAijcio^ yvM Toy JwoVijy KoXcoyoy lup^ovTai ^6(nv. ^Apyy^yh^ o3 xXfi- 

296 In Sophoclis CEdip. Colon. Emendd. 

m ^Ipoiwi TowofMi : deleto versu ultimo^ sen polios ad eunde^ai 
locuio, ac de quo venit, detruso. £teniin mox legitur : 
64| 5* 0/J. i{ yip tih; ya/ovo*! ro6at§ reus Ttvovg ; 
SE, xaiH xafT» toSSi roD AeoS y f9ropyu/xoi. 
Yerum CEdipus dicere oon potuit rouirSff rouf r^ou;. Etenim 
oSs 6 suut 8fixrixfio( usque usurpata. At caecus, quo digitum in- 
teodere debuerit, nesciebat* Mox xiproi yt bic nequeunt dici, 
semper fere ilpwinK&; usurpata. Postremo tautologum sonaot 
TouSff roD 0fou iwwvufMi post o$ ^f^ouo'i oSvo/mu Quid pluraf 
Lege — 

H£. T^ iroiS) T0& x^fliTo; leoD y' tircoyu/toi. 
Ubi intetliguntur Atbenieuses iTrcovuftai 'iiSqva;, ^uas fuit val$ tor/ 
xfaro$ 9ioD. Historia de Minervae ortu est ootissima ex Caili* 
oucheo [jLiry^p S* oSri; srixre iiav, 'AXXa Jtof xopu^a. Mei xparif 
servant particulas et xipret et mvrf^^ necnou %ouSi latet ia 

70, l^ 2. Locus difficiUimus ita se babet in Mss. plerisque: 
OLd. ip* civ Tig aurco vofiTcos i^ v[mov ftoXoi ; 
SE, if vpog rl ^e^0v ^ xaTagria-anf ftoXoi ; 
OJJ. (i$ a¥ vpoaapKoiv jxixpa xfpSavi} ft^iyu. 
At locus expeditu faciliimus ita se debet habere : 
OJJ. ftp' ay rf$ aur^ voimfo$ Ix ^gycuy /xoAoi ; 
BE* is T^o; t/ Aif tipy ; 

OIj^, *^ fii} xetrapyla-oov ft^Xi), 

Of ay, Trpoo'agxwv (rii.ixpot, xep^y^ iMyoL," 
Exstat in Phoen. 760. verbum xoirapyelv siinile ra> xaroipyl^i^^ 
Redde ' ne tardus veniat is^ qui, leve quid subsidium ipse pra;- 
bens, magnum aliquid iucrabitur/ 

7^9 6. treiTfig el Ayyalo^ eo^ i^ovri vX^y roD Saijxoyo;. ^on bend 
dicitur Greece yewalos 00$ iSJvri. Debuit e^se yewxlog elcnhlv^ 
Mox nequeo inteliiger'e vXigy toD Saijuioyof . Scripsit fortasse poeta 
rewaios eWiiilv: mox aSij/toysi^ latet in rot^Sai/xoyo^. Nempe 
colloquio prolixiore defessus CEdipiis ducebat singultus. De 
verbo aSripLovelg alibi depravato vide mea ad Tread. 654. et Mus- 
grav. ad Eurip. Pragm. Incert. 81. Verum locus est mutilus. 

79^ 80. oTSe yap xpivovtrl ye *H yjpi^ (Tb iJi.[pi,V€iv ^ Tsopevea-iou ^oXjy. 
Sic Mss. plerique. Elmsl. ad Med. 480. legebat oTSe yoip xp»- 
yoD(riy s5 : quam conjecturam nunc repudiat, neque vulgatam tm-* 
probat. Atqui vulgata est improba. Dici nequit oT^g. Noa 
enim homines adsunt ^axruXoSgiXTOi. Istud yotg e de venit.. 
Fuit ol te scriptum pro oSrot ie. At yoig omisso, versus deficit. ^ 
Opportune igitur Laur. B, ot ie xpmwky <rol ye. ubi <ro/ ye ve-; 

In SophocUs CEdip. Colon. Emtndd. 297 

niunt e Par. F. oTSs yuq iioivorjin o-oi (sic). Scripsit Sophocles 
oj It y^i Kgmwr tifUy *H X9^ ^' f&/ftV8»y. Junge yri$ Xvol ubi ter- 

84| 5. Ita distichbn misere- corrumpitur^ ^/2 Torviai $eivco7re; 
fUTe vuv ?8paj IJpooToov 1$' 0|x«5v rijo-Sf yijj lxafl^{f' tyco. — At 
Grasce dici nequit Kafi^meiV eSootg. Legi debet el rot. vvv eSpms 
npmToav ef* u/xojy ralch ym iKafjk^* hyw. Dicitur yuia et yovtf 
xafbTrrny : hoc de quovis hominej illud de homine^ quein cured 
senecta premit. 

91. Elmsleius otnittit lectionem variam veramque in Flor. 2. 
riy raXanrwpou j3/ov. De syntaxi vid. Valck. ad Phoen. 1518* 

92. Kipiyi ftev oix^o-avra Mss. plerique ; at Par. F. olxrprovrot. 
Neque xspSo; olxf^siv neque xepSo^ olxeiv est locutio proba. Sen- 
tential tenor postulat exricrorra. Similiter rgofelu exr/veiv vel 
ipfririvEiv ssepe usurpatur. Vid. Valck. ad Phoen. 44. 

93. ^iinjv Se roi; irifji^founv, o7 ft* cnr^Xao'ay. At tautologurp so- 
nant 0? f»* OTT^Xaeray post to7^ vfifttl^acriyy i. e. Surowifi^f^a-iv, At^ 
scripsit Sophocles to7^ ffejxtl/aTiv oE ft a;9r^X0e(rEy, i. e. a l/t? ar^X^t- 
0'8y. Respicitur ad rem, quam commemorat Schol. ad GSd. C. 
1370. ol vep) 'EreoxXea xai IloXvveixyiV h* idov$ l^ovng rep Trarpt 
Oliiicoh vifMTUV e^ kxaarov Upilov ftoTpay rov oipCov, rxXatoftevof trore, 
sire xaret ^eurrrnvriv eiiri e^ 6touovv, la^iov uvtm evepi^^av o $s ftixpo- 
4^vp^co; xai reXioas ityswms (f. uyiXcos rimi non deditus) o[mio$ (f. 
wfAobg) yotJV apotg Usro xar' aurmv, ^o^ag xa,ToXiyoogel(riM : propter 
quas diras patrem filii expulerunt, uti patet e Phoen. 67- 

106, 7. "It CO yXuxeTai wa«Js; otp^alov Scroti* 
"ir, i pi^eylimis HoikKaSos xaXovfteyai. 
Ita distichon vulgatur Sophocle indignum, Nusquam alibi 
Furiae appellantur nomine ykoKslat, neque Pallas fteyicTi} per se 
dicitur. In yXuxftai fruTBeg video latere vocem yXauxcoTr/So;. 
Sed nihil ultra. Meliores Codices sunt expectandi. 

111. — icopsiovrai yap oTSe S^ riy?^ Xgovcp ipaXatol. At nusquam 
alibi riygs indefinite dictum cum oTSs S^ jungitur. Lege oTS* Ihlv 
riveg Xpoyo) vuXaiot, Sic iSfiy veuviag in Aristoph. Lys. 12 IJ. 
Plura de phrasi ilia dixi in C/. J/. No. xix. p. 37. 

G. B. 



On the mistrafislated Passages of Scripture: Joel ii. 23. 

—Job xix. 26. — Deut. xxiii. L 

Objectors have stated that there is no positive declaration, 
ill tlie Old Testament concerning the resjurrection, or a future, 
state. But when it is recollected that the most learned among 
tliis class were not critically acquainted with the Hebrew lau*. 
guage, but have presumed to confirm their opinions from 
modem translations, and those too, so tortured by sophistry as 
to make truth bear some resemblance to falsehood, we need 
not be alarmed at their ingenious arguments: particularly as 
men of this description, who call themselves- philosophers^ be- 
cause they deny the Scriptures, are for the most part those^ 
whose pretensions to morality would have disgraced the pagans 
of India, or the vain philosophers of Greece. Deism^ which, 
embraces a denial of the moral precepts of the Bible, roust 
necessarily make men bad subjects, because they have nothing 
to stimulate them to act faithfully but what is in agreement 
with their sensual appetites and interests; men in whom. there 
can be placed no confidence, because they have no conscience f 
bad husbands, unnatural parents, and false friends ; for as they 
believe that at death all things with them are no more, they are 
always in the habit of acting from the impulse of the moment, 
which is always in conformity with the gratification of their un-« 
lawful pleasures. In order to meet and silence the objections 
of these sceptics, I shall endeavour to prove that the doctrine of 
a future state of things is clearly held forth in the books of the 
Old Testament. 

Among the great number of passages on this subject, from the 
beginning to the end of the Bible, I shall select one, which, as it 
stands in the translation, is conclusive, but when truly rendered, 
is far liiore expressive and beautiful: — it is in Job xix. 26, 
which is thus rendered in the Bible translation, and though^ 
after my skin, worms destroy this body, yet in myjiesh shall I see 
God. Here is a positive declaration, that from the most remote 
time the doctrine of a future state was acknowledged. ' But this 
passage, as well as many others, has been passed over in silence by 
the Sadducean writers of former ages, and also by those of more 
modern times. The subject of the resurrection is as clearly 
asserted in the Hebrew, as it is in the English translation, or as 

On some m$translaiions of Scripture. 299 

it ctLU be io any thing I can say on the subject; but the manner, 
or order of that resurrection, or in other words, the nature of 
that body which is to rise again^ is certainly more clearly and more 
energetically described, more consistently with the principles 
of true philosophy and right reason in the original, than in any 
translation I have hitherto seen, all which appear to be very in- 

These words, as they at present stand in the translation, give 
us to understand that the very same skin and flesh, which wa^ 
then parched on his bbnes, the very material skin composed of 
the elements of this world, should cover his body in the eternal 
M'orld, which is plainly contradicted by the Apostle, . who^ de- 
scribing the resurrection, says: How are the dead raised up 7 and 
with what body do they come? — thou sowest not that body that 
shall be, — there is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body, 
Howbeit, that was not first which is spiritual, but that which & 
natural, and afterwards that which is spiritual. The Apostle's 
meaning is too plain to be mistaken: there is a natural body, 
viz. a fleshly, or material body, subject to change, and suited to 
all the purposes of this life: and there is a spiritual body, 
or a substantial body, not subject to change, not subject to^i or 
composed of, the perishable elements of this world. But it is 
not my intention to enter into a metaphysical disquisition con- 
cerning the rising of the dead, or rather the continuation of life>' 
and with what body they shall come ; but to give a true transla- 
tion of this important passage, instead of a comment, or^ which' 
]8 the same, without crowding in words which are not to b^ 
found in the original, as is the case in the English translation^ 
and in all I have met with. 

Job was here speaking in confidence concerning the coming 
of tlie Redeemer, and the certainty of the resurrection ; he de^ 
scribes his coming at a remote period, viz. pin^^ Feaharoun, 
or latter day, D^pl ^y TVs ^^ shall stand upon the earth : but 
being sensible that before that period he should not be an inha^ 
bitant of this world, he says, and though, after my skin, worms 
destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God. Thus it is 
rendered in the English, and in all the European Bibles : but 
the words though, worms, and body, which render the passage 
inconsistent wiib the meaning of the writer, are not in the origi- 
nal. There are three words in this verse in the translation 
which confound the true sense, viz. though, worm, body: the 
conjunction though does not refer to that which our translators 
have made it, viz. the worm; for it is not in the original, and it 
ought not to be in the translation. And if it were in the origi- 

'3CX) On $ome miitran$latiom 

Bai IIS t coojimctioDy we could not adopt the suMuilctive Iwm 
of the^ verb, because we have no such mood in Hebrew. But 
admitting even this was the case, it would then be altogether 
inapplicable, unless TtDI, Rimmah, or rlS7\n, Thoulagnath^ 
ike worm^ had occurred in the verse. Job was informing hia 
friends of the dissolution of hi* mortal frame, and lBp3, Ntftfte^ 
poUf which means, to enclose, surround, or shut in, is a familiar 
expression; it refers to those who should perform his. funeral 
rite, by enclosing, or shutting in his material body ; therefore he 
Bays, and after they have enclosed this my skin. From the end 
of the 19th verse to the end of the ^5th is read parenthetically : 
he there says, all my inward friends abhorred me: but which 
should be rendered, all my men, my privy counsellors loathed mez 
and it is to all these his relatives and friends that he refers, where 
he says, after they have enclosed my skin. It should be remem- 
bered that Job was the king of Idumea. 

But the most serious error is in the last clause, XVPH^ H&fllQft 
HvM, yet in my flesh shall I see God, which rendering contra- 
tlicts Scripture, as if is said flesh and blood cannot inherit th^ 
kingdom of God, This error has been made by rendering the 
D mem, prefixed to Hlt^^ heskaari, by in, which has no such 
meaning; it is here a preposition distributive, truly rendered by 
from, mit of noting a state of separation, see*! Kings xvii. 12. 
nj^HD Minnegnurai^rom my youth; Ezek. vii. 26. WSpKif 
from the ancients, Inis last clause is a declaration of his belief 
in the resurrection, nttf!lD> Vumibbshan, will then read truly,. 
yet out of my flesh, and the whole verse will read, and after 
ihey have enclosed tkis my skin, yet out ofmyjlesk shall I see 
God, This is also consistent with every other part of Scripture 
where a future state is spoken of, absent from the body, present 
with the Lord, 

It is also Recorded at a very early period in the book of Ge^ 
nesis, that Enoch walked with God, and he was not, for Gad 
took him : and in Isaiah it is said. Thy dead men shall live, to- 
gether with my dead body shall they arise. Awake and sing,, 
ye that dwell in the dust : for thy dew is as the dew of herbs, 
and the earth shall cast out the dead.' Ch. xxvi. IQi. From all 
which it is evident that the doctrine of a future state is clearly 
held forth in the books of the Old Testament : but were we to 
enter into a description of the sacrifices under the Mosaic dis^ 
pensation, and their application consistently with the whote tenor 
of Scripture, it would afford, in addition to the above, conclusive 
proof that the doctrine of a future state is to be found in the 
Old Testament. 

of Scripture. SOI 

In thexxxviii. 4^ 7« of tbis book we read as follows: Where wast 
ihoit when I laid the foundatiom of the earth? witen the morn* 
ing stars sang together^ and all the sons of God shouted for joy ? 
Many translators and commentators have put forth ii^enious 
theoiries concerning the meaning and application of this passage. 
Schultzii Schol. in Vetus Testamentum, gives the following inter- 
pretation : lp2 ^13D *irr X^2, cum pariter stellae matutinae ca- 
nereiDt. *)ph '^^^D, stellar quae aurora exoriente demum dis- 
parent. D^1/N ^!12, filii Dei; ex parallelismi legibus iterum in* 
telligenda sunt sidera, nam omnes creaturae filii Dei vocari pos- 
sunt. How things inanimate are to be called DVpK **i2 sons of 
Gody appears to be altogether inexplicable. 

Most people have concluded by the passage. Darkness was 
upon the face of the deep, that there was an infinitely extended 
chaos, that this world was the first great work of the Creator ; 
and if so, it must necessarily follow that, excepting the short 
lerni of six thousand years, God had dwelt from eternity in soli- 
tude, and that Adam was the first of created beings. This can- 
not be admitted, because it is said, when the foundations of the 
earth were laid, that the sons of God shouted for joy. 

If we carry our inquiries beyond the boundary of the solar 
system, to ihe region of the fixed stars, the utmost stretch of 
human thought is lost in infinite space:— no idea can be formed 
of the vast, the incomprehensible distances of the fixed stars. 
For when the earth is at its aphelion, or its greatest distance 
from, and at its perihelion, or nearest approach to, . the north- 
pole star, which is the whole diameter of the orbit of the earth, 
or two hundred millions of miles, no sensible difference can be 
observed either as to the altitude or magnitude of the star. Like 
the sun of our world, the fixed stars shine by their own light, 
and therefore, like our sun, may have their systems, and planet- 
ary worlds revolving round them. Hence it does appear, that 
the fixed stars, receiving no light from our sun, may be justly 
said to have been a distinct creation. 

In answer to those writers who are of opinion that this pas- 
sage was understood by the sacred writer to refer to inanimate 
things as bein^ the ITrblk ^32 sons of God, I find that the 
words UVhl^ ^32, benee Elohyim, arc always applied to intelli- 
gent beings, and never to inanimate things. From this it appears 
sufficiently evident, that the race of beings mentioned in the 
verse under consideration were created prior to our world, and 
that these beings were present vrfaen the foundations of the earth 
Were laid by the creative efflux of infinite Wisdom. 

The sense of the original is given in the authorised translation^ 

302. On sam^ mistranslations 

but there are words added which have no authority frotn.tbe 
Hebrew text. TPM^^TDU /Wl HBVT, fVhere wast thou at the 
foundations of the earthi-^W^Ik ^33 73 lyni, when thejf^ 
shouted^ all the sons of God, or^ agreably to our idiom, when 
all the sons of' God shouted » 

Jen iv. 10. ' Then said 1, Jh, Lord God, surely thou host 
ereatly deceived this people, and Jerusalem, saying, ye shall 
have peace. Thus these writers say, God is accused by the 
prophet of having deceived hiro^ and all Jerusalem, by the pro* 
mise of peace ; but the very reverse is stated to be the case, a» 
I)e says, Whereas the sword reacheth to the soU. 

This impious charge has no authority from the Hebrew 
Scripture. And therefore, before infidel writers had exposed 
their ignorance by such a blasphemous assertion, they ought ta 
have been better acquainted with the Sacred Original. 

The word TWJf, gnaasah, which is translated done it, is to be 
truly rendered as the same word is rendered in 2 Sam. ii. 6*, 
requite: and the clause reads : Shall there be evil in a city, and 
the Lord huth not requited it? 

It does indeed appear, according to our acceptation of the 
word deceived, that there is some degree of plausibility in the 
statement of these writers ; but if, as in the passage above, the. 
original text had been attended to, nothing of this nature could 
possibly be understood. 

The words ilHVn MttH hashee hisheetha, are rendered thou 
hast greatly deceived: but the verb means to desolate. 

This word has various modes of expression, all partaking of 
the nature of the root, as words have in all languages, and con-^ 
aequently have various applications according to idiom. Ii 
means desolation. Lam. ^i. 47* Fear, and a snare is come 
upon us, /IKlt^, hasheethy desolation and destruction. Isaiah 
zzxvii. 26, That t/iou shouldest be to lay waste, TW!tt^b. 
lehashoth (destruction^ i. e. for destruction : and so referring 
to an invading army rushing to destroy : ch. xxiv. 12, In the 
dty is left^ desolation: and the gate is smitten with destruction. 
Job xxxix. n, Because God rWH hishah, hath deprived her of 
toisdom. 2 Kings xix. 10, Let not thy God in whom thou 
trustest deceive thee : *]tW> yashika, desolate^ thee. It is evi- 
dent that this passage also means to waste, to desolate, as the 
king of Assyria was then desolating the cities, and if they 
should continue in opposition to his conquering arms, they 
were threatened with entire desolation. Thus tl;e opposi-i 
tion is applied to the Hebrews as the cause of their desola-* 
tion. Jer. xxix. 8, Let not your prophets and diviners de^ 


of Scripivre. 303 

c^fvtf (desolate) voti; thai ia^bethe cameofyour desolaiion: the 
T^rb is ia t^ nipbil GQnju0ition> but the translMors hay6 ren- 
dfired it s^ if it had. been id the cqnjugatioQ Kal; so that the 
causative power, of the verb is not nojiiced iiD the authorised ver** 
siop.; It is little short qf blasphemy to. say^ as the clause, is 
tcanslate^ Thoi^ hast greatly deceived, this people and Jenusalenu 
Psa. Ixxux..^, The enemy shall not exact. on, him, that ,is^ 
shall not desolate him iy making contributions. 

So th^t whether we t^^ke . the- wordsv /)MVn tWT) hojshee, 
hisheetha, to desolation thou hast desolated, under tl^ttf shaah, 
i, e. to tvaste, desolate: ok tVOi naAahy L e. to exact, depme: 
otr under K^J na&ha, to exacts seize, it is of no consequence, as 
under all the^ wonds the. meaning, and application are the same> 
and consistent wijtb the^ narrative. This proves that these words 
are of the. same origin, and that rW^ nashah, and iWl nasha^ 
to exacf, or seize, are unden their parent root. riMtt^. shaah, to 
waste, to desolate: although die JLexicon writers, copying, 
after one another, have erroneously divided the word into three 
roots. All these calamities, signified by these words, are the 
common result of an. iavading army, wbicb. desolates, seizes, 
exacts, dfpriveB^ 
. Hence, as, it is not possible^ that. God can either deceive or. 
tempt mail, it will appear that objectocs,. who. endeavour to ca«- 
lumniate the Scriptures^ and by so doing ta destroy all social 
order, have been altogethef mistakent concerning the variation 
o^ words according to idioms Tho true translation is confirmed 
by the obvious meaning of tba word ip other .parts of ScniptuDO 
iQ the authorised version. 

The word lOab hamor^ is in the authorised version render*- 
' ed saying: but the prefix / lamed, which means for, has been 
omitted by. ihe translators; which wilLtlieh read^;: saying: 
and the clause w.iU i<ead,ybr saying. Peace shall be among yjou. 
This is certainly % very important question, for God, consist"^ 
ently with \m tmth, covldnot promise, peace .to Jerusalem, and 
then violate his solemn word, any more thaa he could deceive 
tfie people,. And if, aa above observed, deistical writers had 
attended to the original Hebrew, there would have been no ne^ 
cessity for them to .have made this inquiry* 

The^ Qrigioal- Hebrw informs us that the desolation here 
, spoken of wa^ bxougbi about by the people, not by any failure, 
in the execution of the promise of Qod« At this period, tba 
nation had fallen. into idolatflyyandtthet prophet w^s commission- 
ed to inform them that 9P this account they had forfeited the 
VOL. XXIX. • CI. JL n6. LVIIl. X 

304 On tome mutmnilationu 

protecUoD which God in bk providence had giveo fhem, when 
fhey observed the commaodsy statutes, and judgments, as re* 
corded in the sacred volume. And, tbereforej the people who 
had embraced idolatry said, that they should have peace, not- 
withstanding all that the prophet had declared ; and the true 
translation of one word, which has been omitted in the transla- 
tion, will remove the objection. The verse truly reads. Then I 
said, Ahf Lord Godt iurely to dnolaium thou hast desolated 
thii people, even to JeruMWUffor Maying, Peace shall be among 

Such are the objections which the enemies of divine revelation 
advance against the Scripture, to invalidate its truths. But the 
reader will have reason to conclude in the course of our investi- 
gation, that the genuineness and authenticity of Scripture cannot 
be Questioned — the Scripture requires to be honestly represent* 
ed m order to carry that conviction to the impartial reader, 
which will effectually silence the calumnies of the infidel. 

1 shall now beg the attention of the reader while 1 examine 
another passage in the authorised version, of a very different de- 
scription, which, whenever it is read, must necessarily cause a 
blush on the cheek of modesty. I am sorry to say that in Jerom's 
translation, passages are found, where no such meaning can 
possibly be understood in the inspired writings. This feel- 
ing is universal; and it is the best proof that such passages 
in the authorised version as are not sanctioned by the true 
translation of the Hebrew, which cause a painful feeling in 
the mind of the hearer, particularly in divine worship ; it is 
the best proof that such passages cannot constitute a part of the 
Word pf God, and that these errors have been made by the 
translator Jerom. 

But some have asked, '' How is it that translation has been 
given after translation in all Christian nations, and yet that the 
present translation abounds with errors? what! have none of the 
Rabbies, or the Christian commentators, found out these contra- 
dictions f'* Such persons may now see that some of our com- 
mentators have found out incongruities in the authorised version 
before my time, and this, I hope, will be a suflScient answer to 
those, who may in future ask such a auestion. 

The passage is in Deut. xxiii. £. He that ts wounded in the 
stones, or ham his privy member cut off, shall not enter into the 
congregation of the Lord. 

How Jerom, the author of the Latin Vulgate, could make- 
such a sense, so opposed to the literal meaning of the He. 

of Scripture* 305 

breavy ii only to. be accounted for on- bis not translating from 
the Hebrew text. : I shall confirm the true translation by otbel* 
passages, where the words are truly translated in the authorised 
version, which will ( [ should suppose) be acceptable to your read- 
ers. This is one of those numerous passages which require im- 
mediate correction. There is no necessity to enlarge on the aiiH 
Itiorised version of this verse; I shall proceed to show that in the 
original Hebrew nothing of this nature is signified, and conse- 
quently that the sacred writer had no such understanding; it 
bas, through the errors of the translators, been foisted into all 
the European translations* 

I find that in no other part of Scripture are the words 213^— 

HSM, dakah-'^haphkah, translated to convey an obscene sense; 
of which the reader will be convinced by referring to other parts 
of Scripture, where they are truly rendered in the authorised 
version : this will prove, so as to admit of no contradiction, that 
they have hi^nnmunderslood and misapplied. I have often 
said that this is that kind of proof which we must neces- 
sarily have, recourse to, if we wish to have the true meaning 
of the sacred writer ; it silences all the speculative opi- 
nions of commentators, however sanctioned by hoary-headed 
error, by grammars and lexicons, or by any authorities, however 
learned and respectable : it' is appealing to that authority which 
cannot be controverted.' 

The word 7^31 dakah means, to be afflicted, . See Prov, 
xxvi. £8. afflicted — Psa. xxxviii. 8. broken — li^ 17. a broken spi- 
rt^— xliv. ig. oppressed — Ixxiv. 21. O let not the oppressed re- 
turn ashamed. . 

nOSltf shaphkah, like tlie above word HOT dakah, isonly so 
translated in this verse in all the Scripture. This word means 
an act of separation, see Ezek. xxvi. 8. — xxi. 22.— xvii. 17. — 
Jer. vi. 6. — Dan. xi. 15. — 2 Sam. xx. 15.; and when it is con- 
nected with nirO kerouth, which means to ait, and applied to 
man, as in this passage, it means to cut of, to be mtUiiated; 
literally a man who had lost a limb. 

Yet, it appears very inconsistent with the general tenor 
of Scripture, with divine order, as well as with reason, that 
because a person had lost a member of his body he should not 
be permitted to enter in to the congregation to worship God I 
for this is the plain meaning in the authorised version, viz. shall 
not enter into the congregation of the Lord. With the true 
translation of one word, according to idiom, the obvious meaning 
of the sacred writer, and the proof from Scripture, the halt, the 

306 On some tni$iran$iati(m$ of Scripture. 

smnmed, and the blind, alwajrv itUeftd into the codgregitioo 
tbe Lord, see John ii., we shall find that. this passage will 
be perfectly oorrecti to which bo ohjectioB can possibly be made 
in future. 

Tbe reader will remember tliat no one having any defect in 
his person was to officiate in the office ^f the priesthood^ and 
therefore the word M3^ yaaboy which is rendered enUtf viz. 
shall not enter into the congregatios, has here a different mode 
of-eipression, yis. to qffidate, as in other parts of Scriptnre in 
tbe authorised vesiion ; for those who ojkiated, necessarily ei^ 
tered into the congr^ation of the Liord* 
• The verse tr«ly reads : The vetmded, affliettdf out^ or mutir 
iaUdf tkall not qficiait in the C09gregatum i^Jehaoik. 



N. B. I should be much gratified if any of your learned cor- 
-xespondents would favor me with the true translation of such pas- 
sages as the following, which do not appear to be confonnabLB lo 
the Hebrew teit. Ktk$ ii. Sd.~l Pet. ii. 8^ — Ezek^ xiv. 9.*^ 
ix. a.-cEX. 85, €6.r-sxiii. 8, 8, 11, 12, IS, 15, 1«| 17, eO.~ 
Jnd. ix. IS.-*— 2 Sam. xii. lld-*4sa. Vi. IO«-*-4ii. 17^ — ^ Kings 
XX. g.-*-Psa. IxKviii. 13.--lx«iii. ld> 14.~Cant. vii. 1,^ 3^-^ 
viii. S.— £zek. i. and x. The descriptions of the chmbim 
dife widely from each dther, the free of anDxinthefirstchiqp- 
.ter being omitted in the tenth chapter, and tbe fitce of a cfaeviib 
instead Uiereof : and yet the prophet says in the last verse of die 
tenth chapter. And the likeness of their faces was the tame 
facee which I saw iy the river 'Chebar, described in the first 
.chapter, via. The wordoflMit hoard came expressly unto Exehul 
the prieH, the son i^ Bmi, in the kmd of the Chaldeans, hy the 
river Chebar^ 



Persian, and Atdbic^ on a plan js^^tikely new, 
and perfcc^y easyi ^ojiohkh isflddqia ^^ qfj^^rsian 

. DimgueSf comfmei for the author, bjf Mibza Mv** 
HAMED SAiLiH, of SkifWi, acMnpankd With ofi En* 
gU$h Tramktwn: by William Price, Esq., Assist- 
ant Sscretitfyto the Rt. Hon. Sir Gore OusIeley, 
Bort., Afnbassador Extraordinary and Minister 
^Plenipotentiary to the Court of Perm. Londonn 

^ iQ29. xm.an4 ft9Q pages in 4iQ. 

T. . . 1 

BB autiior oi,ihi» Gmoimar. was cboBen oa aoeount of Ins 
previoMS i^aowlegfs of ibe Persiaa language^ to be aAtacbed to 
S^r Gvre Oifseky9 EoabsAijr |o Persia in 18 iO, wbifib embasqr. 
was accoivpanusd by Mir^a Abm Uhateanf aftervvasda naoicd 
About'iiasiim KJfm% P^ssiao: Ambassador to the coiurt of En^ 
gl^qd, apid tbrqugh wbicb embassj b« ai^ailed ibiniadf of the: 
oppprtunity tp l^arq qfi Ak(m 'Ihois^n Khan tbia oorsecilEarsiaii 
prwuQcifUian, fmi to ac^uitom.hioiaalf to the uae oJF the ]an- 
gusige as spoken ia Persia. During the resUaooe of the Aib>=' 
baasgdor at Sbira7». Mr* PfKo fodroiedap.acquaiolBQoe witba' 
Persian ^ tbat Ioh^q called Mirsia S&lih, who h^d.the ieputa^ 
tion of b^g a man- of lett^rs»i and who attaobedhiinself to ikai 
British legationi' Mr. Pjice persuaded Mirxa S^h to ooai|ioae^- 
io bis laBguagei that is to say, in the dialect of Shiraz, whiab 
19 considered as the |>ures.t in Persia, a collection of dialogues^ 
These dialogues, writt0O in the style of coaversation, 'and tran* 
slated literally into Ei^lish by Mr. Price, are 10 in mmkbcr, 
and occupy 84 pages of this volunie ; they am presented also, to 
the reader in the Persian cbaraGter, accompamed with an Eln- 
glish translation, and alsp in Roman characters with a> French 
translation. Mr. Price has rendered an essential service tb 
persons studying the Persian language by the publication of 
these dialogues. But we feel compelled to limit ourselves to 
this single eulogy. We will only add, that the author of these 
dialogues, Mirza SAlih, afterwards came to London to learn 
English, and after returning to Persia in 1819, he lately per- 

308 Notice of Price's 

formed a lecoiid voyage lo Englandi dmiged with « tpccuil mis* 
sioD from hit aome^pi to Hii Majefty George the IVtb : n* 
turning after this mimon, he went to Paris, and departed from 
thence in the course of 18M for St. Petersbuigh.-«We now^ 
pass on to the Granraiar of Mr. Price. 

We know not upon what foundation Mr. Price could est»* 
blish that the Hindoostanee, the Persian, and the Arabic, are the 
Aree principal languages of the East, to the exclusion of the San* 
scrit, of the Chinese; of the idioms of Tartary and of Tibet, &c« ; 
but this question is scarcely worth a discussion : what is more 
ipiportant is the- amiounGemeDt which he has nuuie, of having 
composed his Grammar, or mcnre properly, the three Orammars 
which he has united ip this volume, according to a plan aZ/oge* 
iher new, and which is recommendaUe by the ejctreme faci£tjf 
which ii prennts to students. If, to possess the itierit of intro- 
ducing into the study of a language a new and an easier method 
than was before known, it be sufficient to limit oneself to simple 
rudiments, extremely incomplete, to neglect in a considerable 
degree the rules of Syntax, and to place at the end what preced- 
ing grammarians for very good reasons had been used to place 
at the beginning, we will readily admit that Mr. Price has ful- 
filled all these services, particularly in his Arabic Grammar. 
But we fear pot to acquaint him, that what renders the study of a 
language difficult, is not a vduminous granmiar, or a multiplicity 
of developemeots, wheii well classed after a methodical analysis, 
or a synthetical ' arrangement, but it is rather a too great con- 
cision, an insufficiency of developements, and above all, the 
want of method. Of the three languages of which Mr. Price has 
undertaken to give the grammar, none presents more difficulties, 
none consequently reij^uires more method in the exposition of its 
multiplied forms and its Syntax, than the Arabic language; and 
our author has also devoted to that language a much larger space 
than to the two others. Nevertheless, it appears to us, that we 
are left to desire in this work complete portions of Arabic 
grammar, which are indispensably necessary to the student. 
« It is almost impossible to assimilate Arabic grammar with 
that of the Persian language. On the other hand, it is not diffi- 
cult to co-dispose the forms of the Persian with those of the 
Hindoostanee, although this last language has a greater variety 
of inflections; Mr. Price^ whom this observation could not es- 

' On this double method vide La Grammaire Arabe. de M. le Baron 
de Sacyi vok ii. pages IS and 14. 

Oriental Grammar. 309 

cupe^ has edited harmonically the Persian with the Hindoosta- 
iiee: but as I do not understand the Hindooslanee I shall coo- 
6ne Bij observations to the Persian and Arabic grammars only* 
The first of these languages is remarkable for the very small 
number of forms which it employs ; and all the etymological 
part, that is to say^ that which teaches the knowle^jge of the 
inflections of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and verbs, might have 
been explained in a still shorter space than Mr« Price has taken 
tQ elucidate them. But we find not in what he has said on this 
subject much exactitude. The Persian language has no cases; 
these are supplied by particles: but our author attributes to 
them a declination of six cases; no doubt because there are six 
cases in the- Latin. They have two ways of formiug the plural 

of nouns ; in adding at the termination ^^1 or l^: and he altoge- 
ther omits the second form. In receiving these inflections, the 

lingular sometimes suffers alterations, as s^^, plural (^j^ x 

jJUl, plural 1^1^ x Mr. Price does not even notice this. 

The Persian language has no pronominal adjective, vulgarly 
called pronoun possessive; where these are used in other lan- 
guages the Persian language substitutes pronouns personal, or 
prefixes which represent them, and instead of saying my book^ 
bis book, it uses the term the book of me, the book of him. Mr. 
Price leaves this to be discovered by the student, and translates 

these pronouns personal, ^^^ or ^ x 3J or tI2» x ^t or (j& x 
by my, thy, his, 8cc. He does not inform us that in certain 
cases' we ought to write, in isolating the prefix^ ^1 x ClAx ifi» 
He omits to notice how mine and thine, Sec are to be expressed 
<-~by means of ^l^t joined to the personal pronoun ^ ul)^' 
mine ; 3J ^|)(» thine. He says not a word of the compounds 

so frequent in Persian, or of the manner of indicating the de- 
pendence that one noun hath with respect to another noun, or 
with a pronoun ; as, in the House of the brother of the King^ 

«l& J^}/i ^a*Ll X and it is remarkable, that in this respect he 

has committed a great fault in the title of his work, in writing 

c^^^ for yd ' a fault, however, which Sir William Jones had 

committed before him. 

The same negligence is remarkable in that which concerns 
the conjugation of the verb. All the Persian verbs relate to two 
forms, which are distinguished by the termination of the infinitive 

in 1^ or in ^.l our author neglects this distinction ; he gives 

8tO N4aice oj Brice^ 

ibr • ptnulsgiD of the active foioe the vetb y^fi^i^ x- vbA ktr 

that of the passi? e voice he ohoosee the verb ^Wfmi x hmt, to 

speak correcdyy as there ia no paadve voice in Persian^ it would 
have been better if he had given the conjugation of the verbs 
ur^ X (£p>f X and of the verb <I2mm!9 vhkby joined to the 
participle of the past active^ serve to eitpress the passive voic^. 
The eoojugfltion of tLe 'Persian veifb is conlfiosed of a vcfrjr 
'email nvmber of forms and inflections, ^hich they modify bjr 
*the help of two particles prefixed, and auxiliary verbs, firom 
^ence the result is, that it can be induced to a very ^mited 
table. Our author has preferred to present it more devi^loped*, 
.posfliUy to .co*diipos^ it with the Hindoestaneie verb ;- bu^ notp 
•wkhstwading, .he has omitted oae of its primitive and simple 

teotes^ th^ preterite ^jj^x which, according to our author, 

appears but imperfect^ and consequently united to the particle 

' i5<«. In feet, the great nvmbier of irregular Persian verbs which 

take their imperative and indicative from a verb disused or obso*- 
lete, forms almost the only difficulty that oc^rttrs in the etymolo* 
•gical part of grammar. We m]g(ht seek in vain the ^lighte&t 
notice* of thi^ in Mr. Price'b work^ who, satisfied with l^is mu- 
tilated skeleton of a grammar, says not a wdhd of Persian Syn- 
tax, nor of that of the Hindoostanee»^***We :now pass to the 
Arabic grammar^. Here the author commences by the verb^ 
iiccording to the usual custom, and he chooses for a model the 

>verb dS^, to which he gives the signification pf to bless, a signi^ 
fication which it never has in Arabic but in .tlte derived forms ; 
whilst under the primitive form, d^, its ordinary, signification is 
to kneel, in speakiqg of the camel. 

By an inconsistence, he translates the participle active ^(^ 
feminine *iSbJ^j by blessed. But what is* 'Still more ex- 
traordinary, because it is not. kss .opposed to all theory 

of language, as Avell aa to Arabic grammar in parti*- 
cular, 19,: that oi^r author gives ep^irely the oonjugatiop »of th^ 

verbj ^^1 to be, to whiph be attributes for the infinitive, lj\^f 

a word of his own invention, instead -^f u^£) x and divides this 

erb into active and passive voice. He has given to this last 

Voice, of which assuredly no one ever beard before him^ 

Omntistl Grammar. Sit 

the s9Xttt me^niog aa Ja ibe adive viHce, Svithout lilivifig 1>eeti 
enabled by this circumstance to percem Us error. After sfmU 
lar mistakes^ there are no other psrtkular errors tiiat eah ^ur-' 

prise us; weare fiotasloiii^bed to find Persian words^ as ^Uv^Im. 
annuknent, (page 85); or Arabic %vords lyitb a form appropriate 

to the Persian language^ as ^^&\m^ (wbicb.Mn Pric^liawJsHAa 
by Sanctity^ page 48)^ classed among Arabic wprds ;. to see. t^ 
nouns divided, we know not why, into sii^ declinatipqs^ <tp fiod 
nothing said on .the irregular plurals^ called by . gramowia^a 
rompus, the Inowlege. of which is indispeujisable. FipaJlyj i(a 
find everywhere numerous errors pf Syntax; errors wliich^ <i»a 
work composed wifh more knowlege of the sulgect, one wouM 
be disposed to attribute to errors of the pre3s ; after whicb it la 
almost useless to say, that the Syntax, which occupies Mp^gef* 
is nothing but a number of rules taken up at a hazard, whicb PfiD 
be of no use whatever, for want of method.; atid that those, the ap** 
plication of which is most frequent, are there wholly omittei^ whilst 
others, which might have been omitted without detriment;, aro 
inserted. 'One observation alone will justify this opinion, bowev^i^ 
severe it may appear: in this Syntax we find not a single word on 
the employment of the various modulations of the Af>rist, moodn 
which rlrpenius and most of the grammarians who succeeded bifn 
have denominated Antithetical future, apocopal, and paragogical. 
Moreover, in this vespect, Mr. Price has been in unison with 
himself, since in bis paradignM of the conjugation of verbs he 
has enHvoly suppressed aU these inflections. 

A remarkable singularity of this grammar is in ll>at viutfaout 
doubt which the author denominates a plan entirely new, and 
in that he has placed last, what all former grammarians have 
considered as preliminary notions necessary to the understanding 
of all the rest. Thus be h^s plaped the rules of permutation of 

the letters t x ^ X ^x at the conclusion of the etymological 
part of the work, whilst they are the key of aH the irregularities 
of the verbs and the nouns ; and it is not till after the Syntax 
that he speaks of the division of letters into classes, according 
to the parts of the vocal organs which perform the principal 
part in their pronunciation; of their systematic division into 
radical and servile letters, solar and lunar; of the formation pf 
syllables; of the accent; arid^of the punctuation. The author, 
it is true, has said somewhat respecting the servile letters in 
regard to the inseparable particles, page 76, and following pages ; 
but that of itself is a farlber proof of the disorder which prevails 

SIS On iMie misiriamlatiom 

wfOQgBMt'tM work* A Toty ]imxmd|noI9 licitiM of Anntf 
Promy Unnintot this Gismiaar. 

. We are sorry that we can say nothiag ia praise of the Oram* 
OMuns of which we have above given an analysb. We presnoia 
that what makes the Arabic graaunary above all, so defective^ h, 
that the author knew the Arabic language merely as an integral 
and necessary part of the Persian, and that he never studied it 
for itself, and systematically. We dare assert that all person 
so situated cannot analyse, nor consequently translate, two lines 
of Arabic without exposing themselves to ftU into the most 
serious errors; and if we have stopped to discover so many 
frttks, it has been thoroughly to convince such as ara desirous of 
mMleratan«&ng Persian o&erwise than for the ordinary purposes 
of life, that it is indispensable that they should first acquire a 
solid and methodical knowlege of the Arabic, "fhe contraiy path 
will never produce but half-learned scholara, who will be stopped 
at every page of a Peraian book by Arabic phrases or parts of 
phrases: £ey may perhaps sometimes be able to guess the 
meaning ; but they will never be able to render a satisfactory 
interpretation. \ 

Nevertheless we Recommend to th^ amateun of Persian lite- 
rature Mr. Price's work, on account of the Peraian dialogues 
which it contains. 

Note. — ^The foregoing is a translation of a French article, by 
Hke celebrated Orientalist, the Baron Silvestre de Sacy. 

Sceauxp March, 18£4. 


Some Passages in the New Testament, inaccurately ren- 

defied in the present version. 

to ah^iU ouS^ort iXfyxirai.-^PLATO. 

Whbn writer after writer has employed his hours of study on 
the subject of erroneous translations in the common version of 
the New Testament, it will hardly be thought inconsistent with 
a general feeling of respect to that version to sUte a few instances 

pf M< New TeaisfnenU 5 IS 

^ th^. B^ less will it be so tfabiight, wben bq^herittterarts 
are involved in the elucidation of what is uonecessanly obscure^ 
and in the detection of what is absolutely false, in it, and the 
groundwork, of misplaced cavil and dispute. Are the interesta 
of the. Christian religion to be thougbt inferior to those of a 
iransliUion of iu documents i An answer in the affirmative may 
be consistent with Popish superstition— but the sensible and 
manly reasoning of Protestants will deny it frankly, and will 
Vturn, if it be necessary, every translation in the world on the 
9brine of the purity of the Christian records. 

It is not denied that many passages of the New Testament 
aflford unnecessaiy scope for the objections of the sceptical. 
When one passage has been called < arrant nonsense ' by the 
learned Dr. Campbell, it becomes as to think there are mistake* 
in others. 

It is my intention to collect such passages, as adminuter to 
the scoffs of cavillers without any foundation in the original 
Scripture^. And, in dwng this, 1 humUy trust that I am forr 
warding the interests of knowledge, of religion, and of *"»*• 

1- The passase alluded to above is the following: '* Behpld,. 
I, having examined him before you, have found no fault in 
this man, touching those things, whereof ye accuse him. No, 
nor yet Herod : for I sent you to him : and, lo, nothing worthy 
of death is done unto him:' Luke xxiii. 15. K«l »ow, oMiv 
i^m iamrw itrfi »«rf«yfwvoy om,^. Translate it by Aim; and 
all will be correct. See Campbell's note. 

«. '* And shall not God avenge his own elect, who cry day 
and night to him, though he hear long unth thmV (Luke xviii. 
17.) Can this be the word of God f say some. The Greek is 
lt,soipoiuiM¥ W aMis. Dr. Campbell shows us that it should 
be translated, though he delays them long. And this removes 
objections. . . 

3. I need scarcely point to that use of the word thought in 
St. Matthew, vi. 25. 28. 31. which is now obsolete, and affords 
matter for objection. For take no thought we should translate 
be fiot anxious. Nor does this translation disagree with ^e 
words in the 34th verse : " Be not anxious for the morrow : for 
Uie morrow shall be anxious for the things of itself,'* 8cc. 
, 4. I refer the reader to Paley, Lardner, and other writers, for 
a less objectionable translation of Luke ii. 2. • 

5. We must be very careful not to ascribe more contradiction 
to the Evangelists than really exists. By our translation Mat- 
ihew is in express opposition to the other three, who say that* 

ftl4 On some fkiifransldiions 

^/hetk tkt Blarys armed^ tbiey fooiid the stone rolled away and 
tbe fooib em^; ctjriii^; ^They htK9t taken away %e Lord, and 
we- kiKrW'fiot where tkey have laid him/ 8tc. JBnt Matthew U 
made 16 say^ when the Marya came/ < Behold, there was a great 
eai^iqoake/ 8dc. But it should be, There' Axkel beenB, great 
earthquake. Sefe Dr. Campbelh^ This dbserration is c^racted 
Irofti a late wofk; mtitled, The 'New Trial of the Witnesses: 
in which indeed it \h the author^s intention to subvert the Cfariat- 
iatt faffth: but an ^nemy is sbmetimes beneficial. If, sdme- 
.times, the only way to'resciie passages of the Scriptures fh)m 
contradictaott or objection is to ^ve them a new translation, 
then' it is a great potpt gained, if our adversaries have led the 
way, and t^ their concessions have already allowed us to take 
Ae -course we wish.' Surely in thttf subject as in aH other? is 
the observation correct. Fas est et ab hoste doceri. 

'6. ^ A chronological objection arises on a dat^ assiigned* In 
fte begiirtiing of St. Luke : ' Nem in the fifteenth' year at the 
reigff of Tiberios Cssar, Je^us began to be about 30 years of 

3e.' The solutiun turns on an alteration in the construction 
the 'Greek, ^t. Luke's words in the original are allowed by 
fbe general opinion of (earned men to signiiy, not that ' Jesus 
began to be aboiif 30 years of age,' but that he < vrsis about 30 
years of age^ •When be began his ministry/ This coAstruction 
being (admitted, the adverb ^ about' gives its alt the latHode w^ 
want,- ahd mo^ eapeeially when appli^ as it is in the present 
instance, to a decimal number.'' .Paley's £videuceS| V^h IL p. 
178. Ed, 1811. ' . 

7- I liave pointed out itf No. d5, p^ IM. of the Classical 
Journal, a new translation of a passage in the second chapter of 
6t.' John's Grospel. The passage, as rt stands in* our common 
version; is faulty in two respects. One af the faulty versions, 
viz. that of rl sjxo) xa) trot; is .differently translated in Mr. VtApfi 
late edition of the iSreek Testament, and tli0 words are tUus no- 
ticfedl : *^ Veiti possunt hs^c verba. Quid hoc ad me et te i Noli 
aolidfta esse: banc i^m^neo ego nee tu curare debemifs.^ 
The present translation of this passage is ait all events highly 
barsh and objectionable. 

8..^^ Sut'l say vnto you, whosoever looketh upon a woman 
to lust aPler her, hath committed adultery with her already in 
his heart/' Matth. v. 28. Dr. Lardoer has observed that 7^1^ 
*alK» should 4iere be transla^d a martiedwMnan, and that, if it 
were >so, all appavendy needless aeverily woidd be destroyed. 
It is pertain th^t ymiata ie used in the se^ae of Wffi in tbe dlst 

^ the N^w Testammt, 315 

and S2d yerses of this chapter. And tii ywM«xf$ is.tbe Gieek 
expressioiEi in that sentence to the Colos^ns: 'Wives^'SUbinst 
yourselves unto, your own husbands.' • Thia iBeaniagia ab^ 
particularly supported by the words ^$)} l/ab.o/;cawa'ffy> «^t^ h rf 
Tutfllof, auroD. How could he be a [mix^$^ ^ere npt the womaa 
a wife? 

9/ The story of the wonian taken in adultery has been made 
a subject of objection. Bishop Pearce is of opinion that this 
story is an interpolation ; and it is certain that many Mss. omit 
it. In a future edition therefore it might be printed in italics^ 
to avoid all cavils 

10. There are some passages, which contain formularies of 
language^ known indeed to the individuals for whom the writings 
of the New Testament weve immediately intended^ but evidently 
unfit for our language* Thus Romans vi. 17. '^ But God be/ 
thanked, that ye were the servants of ^in,< but ye have obeyed 
that form of doctrine which was delivered you.'^ Could St. 
Paul thank God that his Roipan converts had been the servants 
of sin i In such passages the idiom of the Greek should bette- 
s^rted, and should give way to our own. The passage befere 
us might be translated : ' But God be thanked that, having 4i)een 
the servants of sin, you have obeyed^' &c. So again in Matth. 
xi. 25. *^ 1 thank die^; O Fattler>£6rd "of heaven and earth, be- 
cause thou hast hid. tlidi^e^ tilings froA^ ih^ .^j|r|^e and prudent, and 
hast revealed them unto babts." Bc; Campbiall has made some 
good observation! oin ^q principle of this note. Perhaps indeed 
he has carried it even to ^cess"M>ut the principle itself is^ I 
think, indispujtably corrf ctl See his preliminary observations. 

I hopehereaftt^r to continue tliese observations, should you 
have patience to bear with them. In the mean while I will just 
notice that Mr. Bellathy is inlicciirate, when he writes in his 
Antideist, p. 82,'83. that, instead of ** for the time of figs was 
not yet," it should be translated, '' where it was the season of 
.figs.'' Surely the position of ov in ou yip igv xtugo$ avxmif forbids 
us to construe ov for oS, where : ov followed by yip can mean 
nothing but the negative particle. 

I cannot refrain, before I conclude, from observing Aat'tol 
(TTpaTffuojxgyoi in Luke iii. 14. deserves to be. translated^ ' those 
who were on actual military service,' instead of ^ the soldiers/ 
Michaelis, and after him Bishop Marshy have already shown the 
minuteness of this participle, and have derived the legitimate 
conclusion from it of our historian's correct and exact informa- 

dl6 Muhamedan Invocation. 

It is for JOm poor, nit|ier di^n for tbe rich^ that diese new 
translations are proposed : for the poor should not blunder and 
stumble anneoessarily : and what the Author of Christianitjr 
said while on earth, should be thought by Christians slSi 
sary : Urrnxoi ivoY/iXlfyrrcu. 

Sm X • 



Verses composed by SoUman ben Muhamedy late Emperor ^ 
Morocco, which are chanted every momhig at the oreak of 
day by the M&den, at the top of the minarets of the'mosque$, 
throughout the empire, at the conclusion of the ikbn, el f«j£r, 
or the morning invocation, calling the Musulmen to prayers. 
Transcribed with the Oriental punctuation. . 


jJUij UcXe J^l Ca*6 

.Ta^ XJU ^T ^^J 

Glory be to God alone 

The night departs and scatters the darkness with her; and the 
miMrning, in succeeding her, britigs back the light. > > ; > 

Homage to (him) that is the' King ; let none share with Hioi 
praisie ; and thanks be rendered to him^ for all the benefits he 
sends forth upon us. 



Observations on the History and Doctrine of Christ 
tiafdtff^ and^ as historically connected^ on the primeval 
religionj on the Judaic^ and on the Heathen^ publiCf 
mystical, and philosophical ; the latter proposed as an 
append to the political and military History of 
Greece. By William Mitford, Esq. 8vo. 1823. 

Xhis yolume is of a mixed character^ and, under the ap- 
pearance of loose observations on religious history, will be 
found to supersede many bulky commentaries. It is indeed a 
pleasing fact in the annals of literature, that a layman, having, 
in the course of a prolonged life, given to the world the best 
historical work of modern times,' should adduce his testimony 
to revelation, without omitting such doubts as may arise in a 
serious examination. That laymen should undertake such a 
task is less extraordinary than desirable ; " thej are not, like 
ecclesiastics, open to the imputation which allurement of worldly 
interest, or impulse of professional engagements, might stimu- 
late them to labor in if (p. 3.): nor is the circumstance un- 
common: De Groot, Jenyns, West, and Ljttleton, devoted 
their talents to divinity; Weston wrote Sermons, and a dis- 
tinguished poet of the present day has followed his example* 

Mr. Mitford commences his observations with the doctrinal 
portion of his faith, which we shall consider hereafter. In the 
first historical chapter, intitled '' On the Old Testament,^' he 
sums up the early account of mankind in these words : ** Man, 
with reason for his guide, was placed in this world for trial/' 

Reverting, then, to the first human pair, it is obvious that, of the 
matters, countless in the peo|iIed world, adapted to try human virtue, 
and continually occurring, nochinsexisted for tbero ia the circumstances 
in which they were first placed. Their trial was necessarily to be pecu* 
liar. As far as human imagination can go on the subject, it could only 

> ** His great pleasure r4>nsists in prusing tyrants, abusins Plutarch, 
spelling oddly, and writing quaintly ; and what is strange after all, his 
is the best modem history of Greece in any language, and he is ]>erhaps 
the best of all modern historians whatsoever. Havmg named bis sinsw 
it is but fair to state his virtues — learning, labor, research, wrath, and 
partiality. I call tba latter virtues in a writer, because they make him 
write in tfarnest^'' JLord Byron. 

318 Notice of M itfoni's Obiervatians on 

be by the impotition of a command which there might be temptation to 
transeress : the act forbidden^ in ittclf iDPOcenti and faulty only as a 
breach of the command of a benefiictor, oo whom they were wholly 
deMndant. It appears iadienad tlun they weie ereated, not neeessaii^ 
auDJect to death of the body, but dependant oi> food for to support. 
That food was whoHy vegetabre; and to obviate decay of the body^ the 
(iruit of a partieoUs tiee was neccssaryi But whether they 'Were to bold 
immortality on earth, or racheri as reqittsks towaid making' toom for 
ntitJions, their posterity, the dutiful were to be translated, without death, 
to^ another worM, w not said. For the purpose of their trial, another 
fniit was before them, teroptiqe otherwise than by smeli or flavor, b^ng 
called the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. This they were 
forbidden to taste, under pain of bssaming immediately subject to death. 
They were tempted ; and, yielding to the temptation, they disobeyed the 

So muoh^ observes the historian^ is distinctly stated^, and ooLore 
ann6ce93ary : with the same view he proceeds to discuss the 
circumstances subsequent to the Fall. 

Here, then, to revert to the important consideration, that mankind has 
been placed in this world for trial, it cannot but be obvious that, by 
being subjeeted to the death of the body, a wide field is opened to the 
mind of man for tbeeaerciseof viitne. • . . But while man was not abso- 
lutely mortal, yet, for the maintenance of life, food was necessary, and 
for prevention of decay the occasional use of the frait of thef tree, eaUed, 
for Its particular virtue, the Tree of Life : no violence on his original con- 
stitution was required to make the body subject to death : the simple 
denial of the food which had power to prevent decay sufficed ; and that 
denial ensued. 

The institution of sacrifice Mr. Mitford considers as tending 
to remind man of his degradation and fijp^I lot in this world, and 
here offers some curious observatiom on the death of Abel. Cnioj 
. he supposes, ruminating on his degraded state^ the result of hia 
fiithei^ crime, and presuming that he was entitled to live on the 
produce of the soil (the sacrifice being always a meal, of wbick 
some foint vestiges remain in onr graces), refused to offer 
animals. He objeetfr to the term murder in recording this 
event, that word not corresponding in his opinion to the crimo* 
of Cain. It was an important lesson to new mankind, he cen- 
tinues, tbat A^el, approved of God, Avaa allowed to perish by 
violence at an early age, while the sinner was not only permitted 
to Kve, but received into divine protection ; but he was banished 
from all existing society, Lis own family excepted^ '' to wear 
out a length of days^ little probably in happiness, but with 
opportunity for the repentance to which the admonition he had 
received Mvzi so strong.** 

Considering together these circumstances, the failure of Almighty 
Providence to interfere for prevention of deaths by human violence^ to 

the History mi Doctrine of Christianittf. S19. 

the .approved worshipper^ and the afltunnce.ofprotection^m thislife^ 
to th« guilty homicide, they could not fail '^o mark strikiugly to Adam» 
and his rising progeny, how little, in the new state of mankind, the 
death of the bony was, in the Creator's estimation, to the dying man an 
evil ; and afford eround for hope, thoueh throughout the Old Testament 
it is not found fully declarea, that tne body alone was, for Adam's 
crime, made perishable, and that, from God's almighty justice, amends 
lor the worthy, suffering here, were to be assuredly expected hereafter. 

Previous to the deluge human life was extended far beyood 
what it has since been permitted to attain ; the tbial of hu- 
manity was therefore proportionably severe, as the opportunity, 
for indulgence was enlarged, and the expected judgment delayed* 
In Enoch we find an instance df proportionate reward, and in 
later times a most remarkable test : 

How much then, or how wholly, probation was the purpose for which 
mankind has been placed in this world, is strongly marked in the 
various trials recorded of one singularly favored, the destined patriarch 
of the favored nation, Abraham* Among those trials the command to 
sacrifice His only son is eminent It could be, to human'understanding, 
only through faith in God's goodness, and clear confidence that some- 
thing better than any precarious enjoyment in this world was reserved 
for both himself and his son, that Abraham was prepared to obey the 
severe injunction. But the time for the perfect sacrifice was not yet 
come ; and Abraham's faith having been proved enough to be recorded 
for example to his posterity, other trials moreover being in reserve for 
his riper years in this world, his son's life was, for the occasion, saved. 

. Instances of trial for the selected nation are numerous^ 
After the delivery of the Decalogue, Moses was again sum- 
iponed to the mountain, and detained till the people became 
outrageous. On another occasion, intimidated by reports, they 
refused to march for the promised land, a disobedience which 
appears to have been more heavily visited than any other, not 
only by pestilence, but by protracted wanderings in the desert* 
The greatest test seems to have been removed : 

To stop the eztravaffant corruption of morals, which misht kad t» 
excessive trial, both mr the Jews, who were to possess the forfeited 
country of the Canaanites, and for the surrounding Gentiles, to whom 
the Jews were to afford improving example, extirpation was decreed 
against that whole people, while charity was commanded _to all others. 

After briefly noticing the fluctuating state of the Hebrews 
under their early governments, he devotes a long discussion to 
the apostasy of Solomon, of which a passage may be extracted : 

It seems evident that the authors [of the Old Testament] had no satis^ 
factory assurance of a future life. To me then it appears an allowable 
coigecture, that anxious meditation on this failure* working on Solomon's 
powerful mind, while temptation abounded around, was of principal 
efficacy to produce, after a youth of piety and glory, that disregard whicb 


320 . Notice of Mitford^s Observations on 

he Bboweily in advanced yean, for tbe admonitions of the prophetSt and 
the sacred history of his nation ; and then it would be no extraordinary 
course of human conduct to allow others to seek, if not even himself to 
- hope for, protection in temporal enjoymeots from those imaginary dtvi- 
nities which surrounding nations a&red, and, neglecting the God of 
Israel, yet were florishine. Solomon having so given himself up to 
doubt that, at leni^th, having, yielded to temptation, proceeded to 
concur with the predicate nations around him in idolatry, the similar 
errors of princes of in^rior mental powers, bis successors, and the influ- 
ence of their example on the multitude under them, will less appear 
surprising. It seems to me then becoming Christians, who are favored 
with views not open to them, to mix some generous pity with our just 
reprobation of the errors of the ancient Jews. Warrant for us to vie in 
bitterness of reproach against them, with their own prophets, surely is 
wholly wanting. 

The latter part of this extract ia above all praise: but it 
seems strange that Solomon should be ignorant of the motivea 
of the faith of Abraham, nor can we concur in the ingenious 
Explanation of his apostasy : a more plausible cause is assigned 
in Scripture, where his dereliction is obviously attributed to the 
allurements of the haram, composed of the beauties of sur- 
rounding nations, principally, we may- suppose, of Egypt and 
Phoenicia, the attendants on bis queen, and the presents of 

He does not profess to pursue Jewish History throughout, 
but some passages at the close of this portion of his work amply 
illustrate its spirit. Among various observations on the Law, 
the question of sbvery naturally engages attention, and his 
remarks on this subject are superior to any thing we have met 
with : 

It is unquestionabl^r a Christian duty to improve the condition of man 
as expensively as possible. The Jewish dispensation did not require this, 
but, on the contrary, by its limitation of intercourse, was considerably 
adverse to it. Rules for the Jews, therefore, concerning slavery, as con- 
cerning numerous other matters, will not be rules for Christians, and yet 
may deserve the consideration of Christians. The very first article in 
the' Jewish code relates to slaves ; and it sanctions the slavery, not only 
of Gentiles to Jews,- but of Jews to Jews ; giving different rules.for 
their treatment. If indeed dispassionate consideration be given to the 
subject, it will be obvious, that, in the state of mankind m the early 
ages,' slavery was an institution, not only of convenience, and almost of 
necessity, toward the wanted cultivation of the soil for the production 
of ibod for increasing mankind, but really of mercy. Among barbarians, 
from earliest history to this day, it has been little common to spare the 
lives of those overcome in battle. The conquerors had not means to 
maintain prisoners in idleness, and could not safely set them free. Iii 
that state of the world, therefore, wars being continual, it was obviously 
a humane policy to provide that, prisoners being made valuable property, 
it Should be the conqueror's interest to preserve them. . • But tne neces- 

the History and Doctrine of, Christianity. 321 

stty Tor slavery is an evil peculii^r to the infancy of nktions. Wherever 
the state of population and of civil society is such that slavery is no 
longer ' necessary, or of important expediency, it must be the interest, 
not less than the moral and religious duty, of the governing among 
mankind to abolish it. 

Policy, however, though to be controled by religion and morality, 
should not be confounded with them. That slavery, authorised by the 
Old Testament, is forbidden by the New, cannot be shown ; and, if trial 
is the purpose for which man has his existence in this world, the allow- 
ance of slavery, far from being adverse, is an additional mode for both 
slave and roaster. 

The succeeding observations on the Gospels are not suffi- 
ciently connected to animadvert on : they are valuable princi* 
pally to the learned, and, we think, should not incautiously be 
entrusted to others. The chapter on Demoniacs exemplifies a 
saying of Lord Halifax, that nothing is so apt to crack in 
stretching, as an inference. 

The portion which treats of Heathenism, as f^r as it goes, ia^ 
a manual of mythology. Here we think the historian appears to 
most advantage, as be has certainly acquitted himself with most 
success. Candidly acknowleging his ignorance of Hebrew and 
Theology, he seems to exult in having reached that part of hit 
work which does not require an acquaintance with either, 
although the subject is extensive and perplexed. In treating of 
the mysteries he is clear, but not copious, and as this topic is 
fully discussed elsewhere, we hasten to the conclusion : 

Trial, we are assured in the gospel, was not to be ended by its de- 
livery, but rather the contrary ; and, in all accounts of the early perse- 
cutions, this appears to have been fully understood by the converts of 
the early ages, whence came their fortitude in bearing the severest trials. 
Nevertheless contests among themselves, mostly on matters of faith, 
foretold in the gospels, and reproved by the apostles John and Paul, 
were, among such strange doctrine, maintained with violence through 
centuries ; and thus was afforded the opportunity, which the able im- 
postor Mahomet used, for claiming in his outset to be divinely war- 
ranted (as the able author of the History of the Middle Ages has well 
observed) not to be the opponent but the successor of Cmist; not to 
abolish but to correct corrupted and degraded Christianity. 

IVith regard to the sections on Creeds and Prayer, they 
must be read with caution, for to the sciolist they contain dan- 
gerous matter. Such, perhaps, is the character of the whole 
work : with candor and research, anxious that what is received 
for truth should be so established, he has stated doubts and 
proposed alterations, which may stagger the uninformed, while 
those, who have seriously considered the subject, will possibly 


3S8 Introduction to Tajrlor^s Translation 

be ififormed and certainly pleased. He y>pean to have given 

up his solitary orthography, retaining his peculiarities of style in 

many expressions and sentences, of which the last is an excellent 

test for clear heads : 

Excess in abuse of these extravagant iMlvantages, by the chiefs and, 
in natural consequence, by their armies of monks, their ingeniously 
provided instruments^ at length provoked the reformation; Mguo, ia 
the early dawn of literaturei by our WicklifFe, prosecuted, in a more ad- 
vantageous age, with lai^ger success, by Luthery and, though in its pro- 
gress disturbed by political contests, unfailingly attending the ecclesi- 
astical,, brought to the best perfection yet attained among national 
establishments (I venture to declare ny opinion) however, as a humao 
work, still imperfect, in the established church of England. 

The typographical faults of this volume are nomerous, and 
only partially noticed in the tables of jErrata. 

Introduction to the second edition of the translation ^ 
Thomas Taylor. 12mo. 1824. 

Ik this Introduction, the translator professed to have demonstrated 
that the Orphic Hymns were the Invocations employed in the 
Eleusinian Mysteries ; that they are perfectly conformable to all 
that is transmitted to us by the ancients conceming'the Orphic 
dogmas; that these dogmas are perfectly conformable to those of 
Pythagoras and Plato ; and that the Hymns were not, as was the 
opinion of Tyrwhitt, written during the decline and fall of the 
Roman Empire. 

Part I. 

The Grecian theology, which originated from Orpheus, was not 
only promulgated by him, but also by Pythagoras and Plato ; 
¥^ho, for their transcendent genius, will always be ranked by the 
intelligent among the prodigies of the human race. By the first 
of these illustrious men, however, it was promulgated mystically 
and symbolically; by the second, enigmatically, and through 
images; and scientifically by the third. That this theology. 

of the Mistical Hymns of Orpheui. S23 

iiideedy was dented from Orpheus is clearly testified by those 
two great phiiosophi6 luminaries lambiicbus' and f^roclus.* For 
hy them we are informed, ^* that what Orpheus delivered mysti- 
cally through arcane narrations, this Pythagoras learned when he 
celebrated orgies in the Thracian Libethra, being initiated by 
Aglaophemus in the mystic wisdom which Orpheus derived from 
^is mother Calliope, in the mountain Pangeeus.'^ 

This sublime theology, though it was scientifically disseminated 
by Plato, yet conformably to the custom of the most ancient phi- 
losophers, was delivered by him synoptically, and in such a way 
as to be inaccessible to the vulgar ; but when, in consequence of 
the commencement of a degraded and barren period, tl^is theology 
became corrupted through the negligence and confusion of its 
votaries ; then such of his disciples as happened to live when it 
was thus degraded and deformed, found it necessary to unfold it 
more fully, in order to prevent its becoming utterly extinct. The 
men by whom this arduous task was accomplished were the last 
of the disciples of Plato ; men who, though they lived in a base 
age, possessed a divine genius, and who having happily fathomed 
the depth of their great master's works, luminously and copiously 
developed their recondite meaning, and benevolently ^communi- 
cated it in their vnritings for the general good. 

From this golden chain of philosophers, as they have been 
justly called, my elucidations of^the present mystic hymns are 
principally derived : for I know of no other genuine sources, if it 
be admitted (and it must by every intelligent reader) that th^ 
theology of Orpheus is the same as that of Pythagoras and Plato. 
Hence I shall not take any notice of the theories of Bryant and 
Faber and other modem mythological writers. 

That the philosophic reader therefore may be convinced of the 
truth of this observation, the following epitome of this theology, 
derived from the abovementioned sources, is subjoined. In the 
first place, this theology celebrates the immense principle of 
things, as something superior even ^ to being itself; as exempt 
from the whole of things, of which it is nevertheless ineffably the 
■ource ; and does not therefore think fit t6 connumerate it with 
any triad, or order of beings. Indeed, it even apologises for at- 

«M( iMTo vof fMvrpf viyuo^ii; ifei neiv u^Bfjim ovctai euiioy kvam. Iaml)lichas de Vit. 
Fjrthag. p. 135. , 

'^ Ilu0ayop»o; Tifxenof tir ivai raig TlvBayoftttav apx»ie^ tturat it tttriv at O^^iiun 
wapaiotrtig* a yap Of^svf i* ctirop^rwy Xoyonr fAva-rixtv^ vapaiiiontff vravra tlv9ayo^t$f 
iftfjutStv ofyuta-$si{ «v Ai^Bfoi; roif Sfaxiotc, AyXio^a/xov 7iXir»c fxiTa^i^oyTOC, if if 
vtfi 9tM ao^ieci «»•« KmXXioviis ms ^irp^f ivtivcr^v* Proclus in Tim. lib. ▼• p. 291. 

984 ' Introduction to Taylor's Translation 

tempting to giwe an appropriate name to this principle^ which is 
in reality ineffable, and ascribes the attempt to the imbeciUtj of 
^aman nature, which striving intently to behold it, gives the ap- 

Cllation of the most simple of its conceptions to that which is 
yond all knowlege^ and all conception. Hence Plato denomi- 
nates it the <me and the goad; by the former of these names in- 
dicating its transcendent simplicity, and • by the laitter its sub- 
isistence as the object of desire to all beings. For all things 
desire jgood. But Orpheus, as Proclns well observes,' '' availing 
himself of the license of fables, manifests every thing prior to 
Heaven (or the intelligible and at the same time intellectual order) 
by names, as far as to the first cause. He also denominate^ the 
ineffable, who transcends the intelligible unities, Time/' And 
this according to a wonderful analogy, indicating the generation, 
i. e« the ineffable evolution into light of all things, from the 
immense principle of all. For, as Proclus elsewhere observes, 
.*' where there is generation there also time has a subsistence." 
And in this way the celebrated Theogowy pf Orpheus and other 
. Grecian theologists is to be understood. 

-As the first cause then is the one^ and this is the same with ike 
goodf the universality of things must form a whole, die best and 
the most profoundly united in all its parts which can possibly be 
conceived: for the first good must be. the cause of the greatest 
good, that is, the whole of things; and as goodness is union, the 
best production must be that which is most united. But as there 
is a difference in things, and some are more excellent than others; 
Imd this in proportion to their -proximity to the first cause, a pro- 
found union can no otherwise take place than by the extremity of 
a superior order coalescing through intimate alliance with the 
summit of one proximately inferior. Hence the first of bodies, 
though they are essentially corporeal, yet rara uxeviVy through 
habiinde. or alliance^ are most vital, or lives. The highest of souls 
are after this manner intellects, and the first of beings are Gods'; 
For as being is the highest of things afler the first causey its £rst 
subsistence must be according to a superessential characteristic. 

Now that which is superessentialv considered as participated by 
-the highest or true beingy constitutes, that which is called inieUir 
gible. So that every true being depending on the Gods is a 
divine intelligible. It is divine indeed, as that which is deified ; 
but it IS intelligible, as the object of desire to intellect, as per- 
fective and connective of its nature, and as the plenitude of being 
itself. But in the first being life and intellect subsist according 
to cause: for every thing subsists either according to cause, or 
according to hyparxis, or according to partieipatidn. That is^ 

' In Fiat. Cratjl. p. 83. 

of the MtfBlicdl Hymns of Orpheus. SA5 

•very thing may be considered either a& subsisting occultly in its 
cause, or openly in its own order (or according to what it is), or as 
participated by something else. The first of thesis is analogous 
to light when viewed subsisting in its fountain the sun ; the 
second to the light immediately proceeding from the sun ; and 
the third to the splendor communicated to other natures by this 

The first procession therefore from the first cause will be the 
iutelligible triad, consisting of ^etit^, life, and intellect, which are 
the three highest things after the first God, and of which being 
is prior to life, and Itfe to intellect. For whatever partakes of 
life partakes also of beins : but the contrary is not true, and 
therefore being is above life ; since it is the characteristic of 
higher natures to extend their communications beyond such as 
are subordinate. . But life is prior to intellect, because all inteU 
lectual natures are vital, but all vital natures are not intellectual. 
But in this intelligible triad, on account of its superessential cha- 
racteristic, all things may be considered as subsisting according 
to cause : and consequently number here has not a proper sub- 
sistence, but is involved in unproceeding union, and absorbed in 
superessential light. Hence, when it is called a triad, we must 
not suppose that any eMenftal distinction takes place, but. must 
consider this appellation as expressive of its ineffable perfection! 
For as it is the nearest of all things to the one^ its union must be 
transcendently profound and ineffably occult. i,, 

All the Gods indeed, considered according to their unitjes, are 
all in all, and are at the same time united with the first God, like 
rays to light, or the radii of a circle to the centre. And henpe 
they are all established in their ineffable principle (as Proclus \u 
Parmenid. beautifully observes), like the roots of trees in the 
earth ; so that they are all as much as possible superessential, 
just as trees are eminently of an earthly nature, without at the 
isame time being earth itself. For the nature of the earth, as 
being a whole, and therefore having a perpetual subsistence, is 
superior to the partial natures which it produces. The intelligible 
triad therefore, from existing wholly according to the superessen- 
tial, possesses an inconceivable profundity of union both with 
itself and its cause ; and hence it appears to the eye of intellect 
as one simple indivisible splendor, beaming from an unknown and 
inaccessible fire. 

The Orphic theology, however, concerning the intelligible 
Gods, or the highest order of divinities, is, as we are informed by 
Damascius,' as follows : " Time [as we have already observed} ia 
symbolically said to be the one principle of the universe ; but 

* Vid. Wolfii Anecdot. Orse* torn. ui. p. 252. 

dS6 InirodueHan to TajWs Tramlation 

Miur and db0«' are celebrated as the two princifdeft tmmediatdy 
posterior to this one. And hdng, simply considered, is repre-^ 
sented under the symbol of an egg.* And this is the first triad of 
the intelliffible Gods. Bat for the perfection of the second triad 
they establish either a conceiving and a conceived egg as a God, 
or a white gannent, or a cloi|d : becaase from these Phanes leaps 
forth into Tight. ' For indeed they philosophise rariously con* 
earning the middle triad. But Phanes here represents intellect. 
To conceiye him howerer besides this, as father and power, con- 
tributes nothing to Orpheus. But they call the third triad Metis 
as inteUecif^ Ericapeeus as fowerf and Phanes as father. But 
sometimes^ the miadle triad is considered according to the three- 
shaped God, while conceived in the egg : for the middle always 
represents each of the extremes ; as in this instance, where the 
eg^ and the three-shaped God subsist together. And here you 
may perceive that the egg is that which is united ; but that the 
three-shaped and really multiform God is the separating and discri- 
minating cause of that which is intelligible. Likewise the middle 
triad subsists according to the e^g^ as yet united ; but the third ' 
according to the Gtod who separates and distributes the whol6 
intelligible order. And this is the common and familiar Orphic 
theology. But that delivered by HieroQymus and Heilanicus is 
as follows. According to them water and matter were the first 
productions, from which earth was secretly drawn forth : so that 
water and earth are established as the two first principles ; the 
latter of these having a dieperud subsistence ; but the former 
conglutinating and connecting the latter. They are silent how> 
ever concerning the principle prior to these two, as being ineffable : 
for as there are no illuminations about him, his arcane and ineffa- 
ble nature is from hence sufficiently evinced. But the third 
principle posterior to these two, water and earthy and which is 

fenerated from them, is a dragon, naturally endued with the 
eads of a bull and a lion, but in the middle having the counter 
nance of the Grod himself. They add likewise that he has wings 
on his shoulders, and that he is called undeci^ng Time, and Her- 
euUsi that Necessity resides with him, which is the kame as 
Nature, and incorporeal Adraetia, which is extended throughout 
the universe, whose limits she binds in amicable conjunction. 
But as it appears to me, they denominate this third principle as 

* Thete two principles are called by Plato» in the Philebus, bound and infinity^ 

* Thi8 Orphic eg^g is the same with the mixtwre from b&md and infinity, men- 
•tioned by Plato in the Philebus. See the third book of my translation of Fh>cliia 

on the Theology of Plato. 
S mg Totiv is omitted in Uie original. 
^ fufwort is enroaeonsly printed instead of «««. 
^ ft 7f iTBir b I conceiTe enoneoosly omitted in the original. 

of the Mystical Hymhs of Orphtm. 6^ 

established according to essence ; atid as$eit, besides this, that it 
subsists as male and female, for the purpose of eithibiting the 
generative causes of all things. 

I likewise find in the Orphic rhapsodies, that neglecting the 
two first principles, together with the one principle who is delivered 
in silence, the third principle, posterior to the two, is established 
by the theology as the original; because this first of all possesses 
something efiable and commensurate to human discourse. For 
in the former hypothesis, the highly reverenced and undecaying 
Time, the father of eetfaer and chaos, was the principle : but in 
this T^me is neglected, and the principle becomes a dragon. It 
likewise calls triple sether, moist; and chaos, infinite ; and Erebus, 
-cloudy and dark ; delivering this second triad analogous to the 
first: this being potential, as that was paternal. Hence the 
third procession of this triad is dark Erebus: its paternal and 
summit sether, not according to a simple but intellectual subsist- 
ence : but its middle infinite chaos, considered as a progeny or 
procession, and among these parturient, because from these the 
third intelligible triad proceeds. What then is the third intelligi- 
ble triad? I answer, uie e^; the duad of the natures of male 
and female which it contains, and the multitude of all-various 
aeeds, residing in the middle of this triad : and the third among 
these is an incorporeal God, bearing golden wings on his shoul- 
ders ; but in his inward parts naturally possessing the heads of 
bulls, upon which heads a mighty dtagon appears, invested wiUi 
the all*various forms of wild ^asts. This last tlien must be con- 
sidered as the intellect of the triad; but the middle progeny, 
which are many as well as two, correspond to power y and the e^ 
itself is the paternal principle of the third triad : but the third 
God of this third triad this theology celebrates as Protogonus, 
and calls him Jupiter, the disposer of all things and of the whole 
world; and on this account den(»ninates him Pan. And such is 
the information which this theology afibrds us, concerning the 
genealogy of the intelligible principles of things. 

But in the writings of the Peripatetic Eudemus, containing the 
theology of Orpheus, the whole intelligible order is passed over in 
silence, as being every way inefiable and unknawn, and incapable 
of verbal enunciation. Eudemus therefore commences his gene- 
alogy from Night, from which also Homer begins : though Eude- 
mus is far from making the Homeric genealogy consistent and 
connected, for he asserts that Homer begins from Ocean and 
Tethys. It is however apparent, that Night is according to Ho- 
mer the greatest divinity, since she is reverenced even by Jupiter 
himself. For the poet says of Jupiter, ** that he feared lest he 
should act in a manner displeasing to swift Night." ^ So that 

' afivo y»f ^if vvxri Omi aire9t/pa.p(fei. So Damasciai ; bot instead of f/oi, all 
Ui« printed editions of Homer read tfioi. 

d28 Introduction to l^aylor's Trixmhtion 

Homer begins his senealogy of the Gods from Night* But it 
appears to me that Hesiod, when he asserts that Chaos was first 
generated, signifies by Chaos the incomprehensible and perfectly 
united nature of that which is intelligible; but that he produces 
Earth ' the first from thence, as a certain principle of the whole 
procession of the Gods. Unless perhaps Cbaos is the second of 
the two principles: but Earth,*. Tartarus and Love form the 
triple intelligible. So that Lave is to be placed for the third 
monad of the intelligible order, considered according to its con- 
vertive nature; for it is thus denominated by Orpheus in his 
rhapsodies. But Earth for the first, as being nrst established in 

, a certain firm and essential station. But Tartarus for the middle, 
as in a certain respect exciting and moving forms into distribution. 
But Acusilaus appears to me to establish CAao* for the first prin- 
ciple, as entirely unknown; and after this, two principles, Erebus 
as male, and Night as female ; placing the latter for infinity 9 but 
the former for bound. But from the mixture of these, he says' 
that JEAher^ IjovCy and Counsel are generated, forming three 

.intelligible hypostases. And he places JElther as the summit; 

• but Love in the middle, according to its naturally middle sub- 
sistence ; but Metis or Counsel as the third, and the same as 
highly reverenced intellect. And, according to the history of 

. Eudemus, from these he produces a great number of other Gods. 
Thus far Damascius, with whose. very interesting narration the 

^o^trine of the Chaldeans concerning the intelligible order accords, 

.as delivered by Johannes Picus in his Conclusions according to 
the Opinion of the Chaldean Theologists,^ " The intelligible co- 
ordination (says he) is not in the intellectual co-ordination, as 
Amasis the Egyptian, asserts, but is above everjL intellectual 

* Tnv is printed instead of Tn*» 

* As the M'bole of the Grecian theology is the progeny of the hiystic traditions 
of Orpheas, it is evident that the Oods which Hesiod celebrates by the epithets 4f 
Earth, Heaven, <kc. cannot be the visibie Heaven and Earth: for Plato in the 
Cratylus, following tlie Orphic doctrine concerning^ the Gods, as we have eyinced 
in our notes on that dialogue, plainly shows, in explaining the name of Jupiter, 
that this diyinity is the artificer of the sensible universe ; and consequently Saturn, 
Heaven^ Earth, &c. are much superior to the mundane deities. Indeed if this be 
not admitted, the Theogony of Hesiod mast be perfectly absurd and inexplicable. 
Jor why does he call Jupiter, agreeably to Homer, (irar>fp avi^ ri Qtwy ti), 
** father of gffds and men?'* Shall we say that he means literally that Jupiter is 
the father of aU the Oods ? But this is impossible ; for he delivers the generation 
of Gods who are the parents of Jupiter. He can therefbre only mean that Jupiter 
is the parent of all the mundane Qods : and faia Theogony, when considered ac- 
cording to this exposition, will be found to be beautifully consistent and sublime ; 
whereas, according to modern interpretations, the whole is a mere chaos, more wild 
than the delirious virions of Swedenborg, knd more unconnected than any of tlie 
impious effusions of methodistical rant. I only add, that Tnv is Again Erroneously 
printed in the EictTpta of Wolfius for yqv. 

3 ^^f/kt in the original should doubtless be f qo-i. 

4 Vid. Pici Opera, torn. i. p. 54. 

of the Mystical Hymns of Orpheus. S^ 

hierarchy, imparticipaUy concealed in the.idr7S8 of the first unHy^ 
and under the obscurity of the first dai^cacss. ' Coordinatio Intel- 
Hg^bilis non est in intellectnali coordinatione, ' ut dixit Amasis 
iEgyptius, sed est super omnem intellectualem hierarchium, in 
abysso primes unitatis, et sub caligine primarum tenebrarum im- 
participaliter abscondtta. ^ . ^ ^ 

' But from this triad it laay be demonstrated, chat all the proces* 
sions of the Gods may be comprehended in six orders, viz. the 
intelligible ordeTfibe intelligible and at the same time intellectiialf 
the inteUeciuaif the eupermundane, the libevatedy and the mttn- 
dane? For the intelligible^ as we have already observed, must 
hold die first rank, and must consist of beings life, and intellect ; 
u e. must abide^ proceed, and return ; at the same time that it is 
characterised, or subsists principally according to casually per- 
manent being. But in the next place, that which is both intelligi" 
ble and tft^ef/Iecftui/ succeeds, which must likewise be triple, but 
must principally subsist according to lifey or intelligence. And 
in the third place the intellectual order must succeed, which is 
triply convertive. But as in consequence of the existence ,of the 
sensible world, it is necessary that there should be some demiurgic 
cause of its existence,. this cause can only be found in intellect , 
and in the last hypostasis of the intellectual triad. For all forms 
in this hypostasis subsist according to all-various and perfect 
divisions ; and forms can only fabricate when thiey have a perfect 
intellectual separation from each other. But since .fabrication is 
nothing more than procession, the Demiurgus will be to the 
posterior orders of Gods what the one is«to the orders prior to 
the Demiurgus ; and consequently he will be that secondarily 
which the ^rst cause of all is primarily. Hence his first pro- 
duction will be an order of Gods analogous to the intelligible^ 
order, and whicl^ is denominated supermundane. After this he 
must produce an order of Gods similar to the intelligible and 
intellectual order, and which are denominated liberated Gods. 
And in the last place, a procession correspondent to the intellec- 
tual order, and which can be no other than the mundane Gods. 
For the Demiurgus is chiefly characterised according to diversity, 
and is allotted the boundary of all universal hypostases. 

All these orders are unfolded by Plato in the conclusions which 
the second hypothesis of his Parmenides contains ; and this in a 
manner so perfectly agreeable to the Orphic and Chaldaic the- 
ology, that he who can read and understand the incomparable, 
work of Proclus on Plato's theology will discover how ignorantly 

* 1* e. 0101 yotrrot, voitTsi mcu yoipoi, voipoi, t/irio«o0'|ouot, cnroXt/roi sive v7cipovf»ft9if et 

330. Introduction to Taylor's Orpheus. 

the laiter Plafonists have been abmed by the moderns, as fanatics 
and corrupters of the doctrine of Plate. 

According^ to the theology of Orpheus therefore^ all things 
originate from an. immense principle, to which through the imbe-» 
cility and poverty of human conception we give a name, though it 
is perfectly ineffable, and in the reverential language of the 
Egyptians, is a tkriee umkncwn darkn€$$^ in the contemplation 
of which all knowlege is refunded into ignorance. Hence, as 
Plato says, in the conclusion of his first hypothesis in the Parme«> 
nides, " it can neither be named, nor spoken of, nor conceived by 
opinion, nor be known or perceived by any being." The peculi- 
arity also of this theology, and in which its transcendency consists 
is this, that it does not consider the highest God to be simply the . 
principle of beings, but the prittciple of principleSf i. e. of deiform 
processions from itself, all which are eternally rooted in the 
unfathomable depths of the immensely great source of their 
existence, and of which they may be called superessential ramifi- 
cations^ and superluminotts blossoms. 

When the inefiieible . transcendency of the first God, which was. 
considered (as I have elsewhere observed) to be the grand princi- 
ple in the Heathen theology, by its most, ancient promulgators, 
Orpheus, Pythagoras, and Plato, was forgotten, this oblivion was 
doubtless the cause of dead men being deified by the Pagans. 
Had they properly disposed their attention to this transcendency, 
they would have perceived it to be so immense as to surpass 
eternity, infinity, self-subsistence, and even essence itself, and 
that these in reality belong to those venerable natures whidi are 
as it were first unfolded into light from the arcane recesses of the 
truly mystic unknown cause of all. For, as Simplicim^ beanti- 
ftilly observes, ** It is requisite that he who ascends- to the prin- 
ciple of things should investigate whether it is possible there can 
be any thing better than the supposed principle ; and if something 
more excellent is found, fhe same inquiry should again be made 
respecting that, till we arrive at the highest conceptions, than, 
which we have no longer any more venerable. Nor should we 
stop in our ascent till we find this to be the case. For there is 
no occasion to fear that our progression will be through an unsub-^ 
stantial void, by conceiving something about the first principles 
which is greater than and surpasses their nature. For it tj not 
posnbiefor our conceptions to take such a mighty leap as to equal, 
and ntkch less to pass beyond the dignity of the first principles 6f 

I •! 

Of the first principle (m^s Pamascias, in Ms. ««pi tf^x**^) ^^® £gypt>&ns 

Sid nothing, but celebrated it as a darkness bejond all intellectual conception, a 
rice unknown darkness," •n^foryt* apx^'" ovt^f^vn'MO'tvyy axorof vittf <jra<rai yeqaiy, 

» In Epictet. : 

Museum in Greece^ SfC. ^31 


jf.^ He ftdds, " This therefore is one and the best extension 
[of the so)il] to [the highest] God, and is as miush as possible 
iri^prehensible ; viz. to know firmly, that by ascribing to him the 
most venerable excellencies we can conceiTe, and the most holy 
and primary names and thbgs, we ascribe nothing to him which 
is suitable to his dignity. It is sufficient, howeTer, to procure 
our pardon [for the attempt] that we can attribute to him nothing 
superior/^ If it is not possible, therefore, to form any ideias equal 
to the dignity of the immediate progeny of the ineffable, i. e. of 
the first principles of things, how much less can our conceptions 
reach the principle of these principles, who is concealed in the 
superluminous darkness of occultly initiating silence ? Had the 
Heathens therefore considered as they ought this transcendency 
of the supreme Ood and his immediate offspring, they never 
would have presumed to equalise the human with the divine 
nature, and consequently would never have worshipped men as 
Gods. Their theology, however, is not to be accused as the 
cause of this impiety, but their forgetfiilness of the sublimest of 
its dogmas, and the confusion with which this oblivion was neces- 
sarily attended. 



To one who can divest himself of all political infterest, and 
contemplate the presefit struggle in Greece merely with the 
feelings of a classical antiquary, it may, perhaps, seem desirable 
that the Turks should still continue to extend their iron sceptre 
over that ill-fated country, since those barbarians, from a total 
apathy respecting works of art and ancient monuments, are ea- 
sily induced by bribes to facilitate the researches of inquisitive 
strangers, and even the removal of statues,, vases, inscriptions, 
and other precious remnants of former ages. '' But," says an 
accomplished traveller, (Sir William GeU, in an article on the 
Elean Inscription, Cbssical Journal, No. xlviii. p. 401.) " the 
revolution has put an end to all hopes of future discovery ; for 
if the Greeks triumph, no government of theirs would ever pen* 
mit an excavation by the Franks.'* We may, indeed, reasonably 
suppose that the rulers of such a state as regenerated Greece 

333 . Mmeum in Greece ^ ' 

would not allow the tombs of their illustrious ancestors to be 
violated bjr every foreigner who could afford to hire workmen 
for the purposes of dilapidation— ^they would not allow their 
temples to be defaced, nor their sculptured ornaments to be 
exported* They might, howeverj be encouraged by the exam- 
ple, and assisted by ingenious persons of other nations, in insti- 
tuting a grand National Museum; such a receptacle for anti- 
quities as my fancy has delighted to form whenever favorable 
intelligence excited a hope that the Greeks might ultimately 
recover their independence. For the situation of this Museum^ 
Athens, at first view, presents itself as the most suitable place ; 
but many circumstances would, perhaps, recommend some other 
spot less exposed to maritime invasion, and more central ; to 
which might be sent with the greatest convenience, every inte- 
resting object discovered in the different provinces. 

However abject the Greeks may now appear^ debased by a 
galling slavery of centuries under the Turkish yoke, 1 am fully 
persuaded that the meanest among them would, in a state of 
emancipation, feel conscious pride from having contributed 
towards such a collection : the shepherd, the ploughman, the 
little children^ by a voluntary donation of those valuable relics 
which chance daily offers to them in the classic soil of Greece, 
would soon abundantly furnish the galleries and cabinets of our 
imaginary Museum; and this, in due time, would be further en- 
riched by the result of excavations and researches, made, either 
at the expense of government, or of wealthy and patriotic indi- 
viduals, among the ruins of numerous places celebrated in an- 
cient history, but hitherto not explored, though it is almost cer- 
tain that they contain subterraneous treasures which would prove 
inestimable to an antiquary. • «. 

Of such a Museum I have often fancied various departments 
assigned to the superintendence of well-informed ^nd diligent 
officers, native Greeks, assisted by learned antiquaries and iuge- 
nious' artists from different parts of Europe, Englishmen^ 
Frenchmen, Germans, Italians, and others, who, through the 
medium of their respective ministers and consuls, might com- 
municate to the whole literary world most accurate descriptions, 
delineations, models, impressions, or casts of every thing pre- 
served in this great National Repository^ of which my imagina- 
tion' has already formed the plan— ^appropriating, on one side of 
a stately edifice, proper galleries for the reception of statues and 
places for the scientific arrangement of sepulcral moiluments, 
marble reliefs, historical and mythological^ terra-^ottasy bronzes^ 
&c.-^on the other side, spacious chambers containing inscribed 

and AbbS Fourmant. 333 

miirbles^ vases of every sort, armor and implements of war;* 
musical instruments; personal ornaments of gold and silver, 
trinkets of various materials; articles of domestic furniture; and' 
cabinets replete with gems and medals. In another part of the 
building should ^be deposited exact models of all the temples* 
and ancient structures worthy of notice throughout Greece; and 
finally, cedar presses, for the preservation of manuscripts, in a 
large room furnished as a library with shelves, which we may 
believe would soon exhibit many thousand printed books through 
the bounty of several European states, the bequests of opulent 
Greeks, and the dobations of foreign travellers and students, 
who, it must be supposed, would frequent in multitudes this 
school of antiquarian science. 

Had such an establisnment, depending on the emancipation * 
of Greece, existed in 1729, when, by desire of Louis XV, 
Monsieur Fourmont visited that country, the destruction of 
many interesting monuments would not have been perpetrstted ; 
for that French Abb6, actuated by the most insane kind of va- 
nity, personal and national, was induced, as we learn from his 
own letters (now in the Biblioth^quedu Roi), to obliterate many 
most valuable inscriptions, lest any future antiquary might have^ 
an opportunity of copying' them — and Mr. Dodwell found 
among the ruins of Sparta, a few years ago, some fine slabs of 
marble from which the letters had been barbarously chiselled 
out and erased; and this operation his guide, besides other per- 
sons in the neighbourhood, attributed to a Frenchman, whom 
they dignified with the title usually bestowed on English travel- 
lers, milordos. (See Dod well's Classical and Topographical 
Tour through Greece, Vol. ii. p. 405.) That this can have* 
been no other than the Abb6 Fourmont, is evident from his own* 
letters above-mentioned; in -which he particularly boasts of the 
havoc that he made at Sparta^ not. leaving one stone upon ano- 
ther; employing, for above a month, thirty, forty, or sixty 
workmen, who, says he, '' abattent, detruisent, exterminent la 
ville de Sparte.'' ^^ Imagine,'' he adds, '' my delight at being' 
employed in the final demolition of this place. 1 know not that 
any one has, since the restoration of letters, conceived the idea 
of thus overturning whole cities." And that himself or his 
country might possess an unique collection of drawings and co* 
pies of inscriptions, it appears that besides Sparta he dilapidated 
other cities of the Morea; Hermione, Trezene, Argos, PMia- 
sia, &c. But it was of his Spartan exploits that he seema 
chiefly proud : *' Je n'mms que ce moyen Id pour rendre illustre 
mon voyage:** and he consequently adopts the title of SfrMpria-^^ 

334 Museum in Griice, ^. 

T$n9f I It 18, however; tome coneolslioo to fiod that mmxj df ikm 
most able judges do not consider Foumiont by any means guiltgr 
to the estent which he himself acknowleger; and they are coo^ 
tent to regard him rather as a liar and impostor, who probably* 
defiiced a few monuments that he might the better escape detec- 
tion with respect to those inscriptions which he forged. '^ For. 
it is worthy of remark," says llord Aberdeen (see bis letter ixt 
Mr. Walpole's Collection, Vol. ii. p. 500.) ** that the only in- 
scriptions said to be destroyed (by Fourmont) are precisely those 
whose existence is most doubtful, and which it was most incum«- 
bent on him to produce/' His lordship also remarks, that 
although many of the inscriptions in Fourmont's collection ap~ 
pear to have been accurately copied^ the originals existing at thia 
day in different parts of (Greece, yet these he never thought 
worthy of publication; while the pretended discoveries commu- 
nicated by him to the French Academy seem founded chiefly on 
fabricated documents, and inscriptions of which be affirmed 
that the originals had been destroyed. Against the authenticity 
of these inscriptions, it is here unnecessary to state the decisive 
arguments adduced by that distinguished antiquary, Mr. Payn^ 
Knight, in his '' Analysis of the Greek Alphabet.'' 

There are, however, among the learned countrymen of 
Fourmont two very ingenious writers, M. Raoul Rochette^ 
and M. Louis Petit Kadel, who^ it is said^ have shown 
much ability in endeavouring to prove that hia inscriptions 
are genuine, and his Journal accurate. Whether they 
have availed themselves of any English traveller's testimony I 
know not ; but the following passagie in Dr. Perry's ** View of 
the Levant," (.Folio, London, 1743« Preface, p. xiv.) has often 
excited my horror and indignation. Having mentioned hia de-> 
aign of visiting Ephesus and Samos, and the reports concerning 
their uninteresting condition, and the paucity of their ruins, h^ 
adds, that on the subject of Delphos, Aigos, and Sparta, nearly 
the same accounts were given. '^ Indeed," says he^ ** the two 
last-mentioned did exhibit remains of antiquity sufficient to en* 
tertain the curious and the connoisseurs, till withia a few year». 
last past, consisting chiefly of pieces of pillars, and other frag- 
ments of marble, which were fraught with abundance of ancient 
Greek inscriptions, &c. But a certain French g^tleman, tra* 
veiling in those parts about ten years ago, by the order and at 
the e^tpense of his Most Christian Majesty the King of France; 
and moreover being vested with extraordinary powers and pri yi- 
Iqjes from the Porte of Constantinople to examine, transcribe, 
and carry away whatever he pleased*-he (the said French gen« 

Cambridge Examination for Junihr Sophs. 335 

tieman) having cobidd ofFftll the'inscriptibtis, and taken a fqU 
account of every fning that he found there^ did afterwards cause 
many of those precious remains to be broken and mutilated ^ 
and many others, which were not so easily disfigured^ he caused 
to be turned with their faces downwards; i. e. with (hose side^ 
or parts on which the inscriptions and other works of sculpture 
were, to the earth. We could not easily be prevailed on to cre- 
dit this report, that a gendeman, and Especially of so polite a 
nation as France, could be capable of such barbarous conducts 
but one of our own retinue (not to mention several others who 
attested the same thing) averred to the truth of it; and said fui'^ 
ther, that he was one of above two hundred Greeks, whom this 
gentleman had hired to aid and assist him in copying off the in^ 
scriptions at Argos and Sparta." 



(i. e* Examination of Students at the end of their Fir^ 

Yearns residence.) 



Thomas Smart Hughbs, B. D. Emman. 
James ScHOLBriELD, M. A. Trtn. 
Edward Bushbt, M. A. St. John's. 
William Greenwood, M. A. Corpus Christi. 


I. 'EiirecS^irep iroXXoi lve)(e[pri<ray avara^airOat Siiyyifcriv wepl rQi^ 
weir\fipo^ofni/Aiy99V ev ^fiir wpayfiarmr, tcaOiis jrapeboaay iifAiy oi &ir' 
^PX^ O'Vrimat Kal hvrperai yevd/uvoi rov \6yov' iho^e Kafiol, irapif- 
ko\ovOijk6ti Avtadev iratriv iiKpifiws, KaBe^ijs troi ypaypai, xparufre Bed* 

1. Translate this passage literally » and mention what hypothesis 
it has been brought forward to confirm with regard to the three 
first Gospels* 

2< eireti^ep iroXXo), &c. Do you suppose the narratives of these 
persons to hare been fabulous and false, or only defective and 


336 Cambridge Examination 

3. lo what point of Tiew has the passage from **l4yfi9w** to 
** Tov \&y€m ^ been considered by Bishop Marsh 1 

4. irffirXqy>o^9/i^M#y. How do you deduce the meaning given 
to thb word in our translation t 

5. alr^irrac cai vrqp^ac. Whom do you suppose that St. Luke 
aUndes to by this expression 1 

6. rov \j&yov. What meaning do you ascribe to this expression t 
Give your reasons. 

7. iraf>9ro\ov6if«(ri. Render this word accurately into English, 
and illustrate it by classical authority. 

8. de^iXe. Is this word used here as a general appellative, or as 
a proper namel Give your reasons. 

9. KOTirxJ^m. What is the primary sense of this word t Is it here 
necessarily limited to that sense, or may it be used in a more 
general one t 

II. In the absence of all direct evidence upon the subject, where 
is it most probable that St. Luke composed his Gospel, and about 
what timet 

How does the preface just quoted appear to refute the opinion 
held by some, that he wrote it at the request and dictation of St. 

What peculiarities are observable in his style, and to what other 
parts of the New Testament does it bear the greatest resemblance ) 

How may the defect of chronological arrangement in the 
facts and narratives of St. Luke's Gospel be satisfactorily ac- 
counted for ? . 

What mention is made of St. Luke inScripture, and whom did 
he accompany in his travels 1 

What other book in the Sacred Canon is it probable he wrote 7 
State the grounds of this probability. 

in. Who was Marcion, and what where his tenets? What liberty 
has he been thought to have taken with St. Luke's gospel I Upon 
what authority does this rest, and to what credit is it entitled ? 
How did he contribute to establbh the genuineness and authen* 
ticity of our canonical Scripture t 

IV. Explain the primary meaning of the word hia^ai^ and how 
it comes to signify a testament % 

What is the derivation of thayykXwv 1 How was its meaning 
restricted during the first century at least, and to what vras it 
afterwards extendafl 1 ' 

V. Draw a map of Palestine, divided according to the tribes. 

VI. Chap. xiii. I. Tuv FoXi^a/i^y, Jv to al/ia IlcXdros ^lutfi /ncra 
Tur Ownmv ainrmr* 

Cha)>. xxiii. 6. ThX&rot ik ^Kovaas FaXikaiay, hmtp&nivty^ el 6 
6,yQ^mwis roXiXacof koriv. 

What was the pecyliar character of the GalilsBans ? From 
whom do we learn itt and how does it illustrate the foregoing 

/or Junior Sophsj 1^24. 337 I 

Wai there any peculiarity in their dialect 1 If so, give some ^ 
iDttstration of it from Scripture. 

What reason can you give for our Saviour's being called a Gali- 
hsan. Matt. xxvi. 69 ? ' 

VII. '£y Irec ik freyreKaiieKaTf rffs ^efiortas Ttfieplov Kaltrapoi 
— ~Ka2 aifros Jjp 6*hiffoik &(rellT&v rpiaicoyra iLpf)(6/jLevos, i^y, As kyo* 
fdSero, vlos 'Imtrii^. What chronological difficulty seems to exist 
here; and how nyay it be obviated ? 

VIII. Chap. ii. 1, 2. *Eyiyero ik iy rais iiftipau ixelyais, if^XOe 
h&yfui vapa KcUffapos Ahyovtrrov, €LToyp6upeaBai. irdirav n^v ohovfiiyrivi, 
Avni i^ aTToypa^i) irpuyni kyiyero ^yefioyevoyros rfls Y^vplas Kvpi|v/ov. 

Translate this passage : state its apparent anachronism, and the 
different methods which have been proposed for rectifying it:, 
which do you prefer t 

Are the words &iroyp&f€irdai and iiToypafi rightly translated in 
our Version l If not, how ought they to be rendered 1 

Tl&tray n)v olKovfjtkyfiy. How must this expression be limited 
kere t Give an instance from the New Testament of a similar 
limitation of it, as well as one of a more extended sense. 

IX. What was the difference between reX^vi;^ and hfiixoaiityris\ 
H6w do yon account for the hatred which the Jews so constantly 
expressed against the former^ which of the Evangelists was a 
TtiMyri%% what was the office of ^xcreXi^M^^ held by Zacchs^us 
(chap. xix. 2.) ? 

Explain the terms ypaftfiarels and ^apiaaioi. Why are they so 
often coupled together in a bad sense in the New Testament ? 

X. Ei^ooic^w. What is the classical meaning of this word ? and 
in what senses is it used by the writers of the New Testament? 

itX rov vliv roff Siydpunrov iroWa itadeiy koI aitohoKi/AatrBfiyat &iro 
rmy wpetrPvripwy, With what peculiar restriction is the expression 
o vios rov iLyOpunrov always used in the Gospels? What is the 
original sense of &iroboKifidSw, and how is it here used ? oi irpetrfiif 
repot. What are the different significations of this term in the New 
Testament? and what is the meaning in this passage ? 

rb m-epiiyioy rov Upov. Is there any authority for our version of 
ftr^i&yioy ? Hesychius explains it by the synonymous term ajcpw- 
T^puiy : from hence, how would you tradslate it ? 

^riyaptoy, SovSoficov, &c. What kind of words are these used 
f>y St. Luke ? Is there any evidence that a similar mode of usage 
was adopted by classical authors of the apostolic age? 

ty rpatroy opyis ri^y iavrfit yoiraiay (jcrvyayei) {nr6 ras nrfyvyas. 
How cotnes the word yotnna to signify the young of a bird ? 

yei^ffdac Bayarov. From what language is this idiom drawn ? 

Chap. iii. 14. 'E/mip&riay hk ahroy Kal trrpcwevofteyoiXkyoyres^&c. 
What is the difference between erparevofAeroi and orpanGrail How 
has the very appropriate use of the former word in this passage 
heen shown by Michaelis ; arid to what argument is it applicable ? 

S38 Cambridge Examination 


I. For what reasons does it appear probable *^ from the nature 
of the case/' that the first propagation of Christianity was attended 
with difficulty and danjp^erT 

II. Give ''from profane testimony " an account of the sufferings 
pf the first propagators of Christianity. 

III. Show ** by indirect considerations" that the story we have 
now is in the main that miraculous story which was delivered by 
the Apostles. 

. IV. Mention the reasons for which we are apt insensibly to 
undervalue the aggregate authority of the written evidences of 

V. In what centuries did Celsus, Porphyry and Julian live } and 
what arguments can be brought from their writings for the authen- 
ticity of our Scriptures ? 

VI. What is meant by *' Apocryphal Books of the New Testa- 
ment 1" Mention some of them, and state in what their authority 
falls short of that of the books composing our sacred Canon. 

VII. In appreciating the credit of a miraculous story, what 
** considerations relating to the evidence'' may be left out of the 
case 1 

VIII. What are the instances with which the Miracles of the 
New Testament have been confronted ; and what objections may 
be taken to them ? . 

IX. Mention some of the facts related in tlie New Testament* 
^bich by their conformity with independent accounts establish 
its genuineness. 

' K. Show that the successVof Mahometanism affords po argu- 
ment against the truth of Christianity. 


I, Mention according to the order of their position the provinces 
into which Italy was divided, and the period at which each was 
brought under the power of Rome. Describe the situation of La- 
nuviuqi, Aricia, and Interamna. 

II. Give a narrative of the circumstances which attended the 
deaths of Sp. Maelius, Saturninus, and Drusus. 

HI. ''Duodecimtabulae.'^ What disorders in the Commonwealth 
caused the framing of these laws? State the purport of any of 
those fragments which have been preserved. What measures were 
adopted, at other times, to remove the causes of contention be-, 
tween the different orders of the people 1 

IV. In what respects were the usual forms of trial abandoned 
in the case of Milo 1 Independently of this Oration, has any infor- 

/or Junior Sophs, I8fi4. 3S9 

iiiaitioD been left which may guide us io forming an opintbn of his 
criminality ? 6i?e ao account of his subsequent fortune. 

y. Mention the orators who preceded Cicero at Rome, or were 
his contemporaries, and the peculiarities by which, in his opinion, 
the eloquence of each was distinguished. 

VI. Give the statement, made by Cicero, of the coarse which 
he pursued for perfecting liiraself in the art of oratory. 
' VII. Mention the public offices which were held by Cicero, and 
the date9 of bis appointment to them. What circumstances 
caused him to undertake the government of Cilicia 1 Give an ac* 
count of his proceedings in that province. 

• VIIL "Cn. Pompeii justissimi viri.'' State some instances in 
the condi^ct of Pompey towards Cicero by which the propriety of 
the epithet hefe applied to him may be estimated. 

DC. At what times were the difiSsrent Comitia instituted 1 Ex* 
plain the formation of them, add the purposes, peculiar to eacb| 
for which tliey were assembled 

X. Give an historical explanation of the following passages : 
''In qua tandem nrbe hoc homines stultissimi disputant? 
Nempe in ea, quas primura judicium de capite vidit M. Ho- 
ratii, fortissimi viri: qut,nondum libera civitate, tamen po« 
puli Romani com i tits liberatus est." 
'* Doctissimi homines memoriae prodiderunt, eum qui patris 
ttlciscendi causa matrem necavisset, variatis hominum «en- 
tentiis, non solum diviua, sed etiam sapientissimtt deae sen* 
tentia liberatum.'' 
'< Quae ego vidi Atheaia? quae aliis in urbibus Graeciae 1 quas 
res divinas talibus iostitntas viris 1 quos cantus 1 quas car- 
mina? prope ad iromortalitatis et religionem et memoriam 

XENOPHON. Anabasis, I. II. 

I. By whom, and when, was the office of Satraps instituted f 
What was the nature of the office 1 and how many were there of 

II. Draw an outline of a Map extending from the ^ean, and 
marking the relative positions of the principal places mentioned 
by Xenophon in his first two books. 

III. By what other name was Lydia called 1 What different 
fiehmilies successively reigned in it? Enumerate in order the kings 
of the last family ; and mention, with dates, the events by which 
that family acquired the throne, and by which their empiie was 

IV. Give the English values of the iapeucos^ ofiokos, oiyXos, 
KUwlOiif X9^^*if fpopaadyyns, ajdbioy, irXiBpoy^ opyyia* 

S40 Techfucal Memory. 

V. Explain the foltowiog phrascg ; QiaOai ra 9frh a l^ y t ^ ml 

VL Traoslate aud explain l/iij3(iXXei els rov.Mo/ayJpoy. Abo, 
^iritfff fi^ KoTOi £irl rj> dSeX]^. What other seoses has kiti with a 
dative case t 

VII. Distinguish accuntelj the ^Xlrati i^iXol, 'and ircXraora/* 
What Grecian nations excelled in different kinds of military force 1 
and which of them are mentioned in these two Books with their 
characteristic excellence t 

VIII. What were the dialects of the Greek language ? In which 
did Xenophon write) Mention some particulars in which hia 
style differs from other stages of the same dialect. 

IX. Siipfyfi hrr^ls rf fiaxp* What battle was this t Give its 
date in years B.C. and Olympiads. Do the same with the Imttle 
of Issusy and describe its geographical situation. 

X. Explain the following assertion of Tissaphemes : iyiiyeirmy 
olr» rp 'EXXdSc. 

XI. Translate the following: 

1. Ka\ rocs arpaTiuTdis A^iXav fuoBo$ mXiov ^ rpt&r fAfivAv ml 
iroKK&Ku i6vT€S M riu Ovpas hiyrovv. H) Ik kXiclhat \iywy bi^ye* 
Koi irikos i(v iiviwfAeyos* oi yup j[y xpof rov Kvpov Tp6fK0v. iypvra ^^ 

2. 'Ety rovtf hk rf T6irf Jy fiky ii yff veiioP, Aimv oftaXov dnrep 
BaXarra, ii}ptvdiov ok wXiipes' el ik tk koI &KKo ivilr vXiys ^ KaXd/iov, 
&iravra ^y ebwbri, ^airep &p6/iaTa' biybpoy S^ oibky ky^y* Qtfpla ik^ 
wXeiOTOi fjiky oi &ypu)i oyoiy cifK iXlyai bk 9rpovdol ai fieyaXai* eyffiray 
bk Kol iiribes KoX bopxabes* raftra bk ra Oiipla ol ivweU iblvKoy iyiore. 
Kal ol iiky oyoif etrei ns biwKot, wpobpafi6yT€S iLyeim^Ktiray toXv yap 
Tov tmrov darroy irpexoy* Kal iraXiy iirel irXiitn&Soi o tmeat, raMi 
imlovy Amt oht ^k Xa/SeiVi tl fiil biaarayru ol UnrtU Oiipfey ScaSe- 
j(6fi€yoi ToJs twwou. 


No. Ih^-^Continuedfrom No. XJ.] 

I HAVE already troubled you with some observations relative 
to artificial memory : but I am so confident of its utility in a 
great variety of respects, that I am unwilling to drop the sub- 
ject, and cherish the hope that I shall be able, from time to time^ 
to bring under your notice fresh results of this study. * 
In No. 51. of your Jburhal I made some reniiarks which 

Technical Memory. 341 

were intended to be general. I stated, haweveri two or three 
particular iiiiMtrations of mj design. Bj them we were ena- 
bled to arrive at an easy method of remembering the duration of 
the TcttothM'iMSj the date of ApoUonius Tyaneu8> and the difference 
of the expressions, pollicempremo, and poUicem verto. 1 purpose 
to continue these particular instances, and am confident that 
matiy, who now read without benefit, would by a little attention 
stay the swift flight of knowlege ; fix in the mind those fluttering 
facts which wander there in confusion ; and, by giving them a 
local habitation, euable themselves to say of them in the words 
of Ulysses: 

0T8', w yap &Kpeig xetfUla^ Ivpauo*/ jubou* 

-After premising that no order is to be expected in the position 
of the following facts, I proceed to- particularise a fourth memo- 
rial association. It was not until a few weeks since that I dis- 
i^vered that I had from time to time read and forgotten the 
Glyconic and the Pherecratic measures. I determined to invent 
some mode by which these metres should not elude my me- 
mory hereafter. 4. I fixed the Glyconic by this Glyconic of 
Horace : ' Urit me Glycem nitor/ 5. The Pherecratic by a 
line of the same writer in this metre : ' insignemque pharetra/ 
And thua by a little exertion I succeeded in imprinting on my 
mind two points of knowlege, which no care or attention had 
hitherto been able to secure. 

6. In Valpy\ Grammar j p. 12, we are told, that 'a contrac- 
tion of two syllables into one, without a change of letters, is 
called Synaeresis :' and that, ^ if there is a change of vowels, 
it* is called Crasis.' How shall we remember this? For the 
difference does not seem suggested by the derivation of the 
words. In Synaresis, a and e are contracted into one vowel, 
the word remaining the same. This is a sufficient distinction, 

7* 'The penultima of comparatives in leov, is long. in the 
Attic, short in the Ionic and Doric dialects.' Valpy^s Gram--' 
mar, p. 153. Consider a word like xoXXiovf^ at the end of an 
Iambic line in the dialogue of Euripides. 

8. The Choriambic foot consists of one long, followed by 
two short, and one long. By an inversion we obtain blccho- 
damb. Though, it must be confessed, this may be better known 
from the choretis, and the iamb* Some grammars, we have 
observed, state the choriamb, but omit the choreus, which is 
synonymous with the trochee. 

9* The Ionic a niajore we obtain from the word majoribus. 
The Ionic a minore is vj^—, the reverse of the former. 
• .10. The Proceleusmatic I remember by repeating its two 
first syllables, which are Latin words : prSce proce. 

342 Technkal Mertiofy. 

J 1. The PocluiHac bj prefixing in two lait qrHablet: m^*^ 

12, The firat of tbe Paeonic feet ia -v»vw, Paoiiia^ a diatrict 
of Maqedooia^ ia ao marked* Tbe aeoond pla^ea the long sjU 
i^.ble ia tbe aeqopd place: aud ao tbe tbird^ and the fourth^ in 
tbe correapoudiog place?* Tbe meaaure of tbe Epitrite feet i« 
preciaeljr tbe reverae of thia. Tbua, tbe third P»oa ia »^w-*^ : 
the third Epitrite ia —w-. 

J3« 'Ert^avro ia ao inatance of tbe Aotiapaatiq. Tbe termi- 
qatiofi m^TOf the aame aumber of ajUablea in tbeae worda, and the 
past tense of tbe Greek word, cannot fail to bring thia to tb^ 
meaiory.-'7ffTp4'o la an inatlince of tbe Ampbrbracbya : but the 
derivation of tbe word, meaning a abort ayllable oo either aide, 
takea away tbe necespity of any artificial aaaociatioa. The Aoit 
phin^acer is eaaily remembered for the aame reaaon. it ha<| 
been well for science, had all worda been forn^ed tbuf ^^onvenir 
ently for tbe purpoaea of the memory, 

14. The Bacchic ia y — . Now laccbua and Bacchus are uaed 
for the aame person. The term lacchic will fix in the mind the 
mea3ure of thia foot. 
. 15, The Pyrrhic may be remembered by the word »*f>*. 

16. The Molossus is marked like the united worda p^ixsi$ and 

17. '' Latius patet 6/to^uXo; quam 6fjLo§ivos/* says Schweigbasi^ 
ser ad Polyb. 1. 10. The former is more full than the latter. 

18. In distinguishing the accentuation of words in t/^ctio, rpifa^ 
jkc. Dr. Valpy (Gr. Gr. p. 168.) writea: ' Kaorpiip^^, he who 
feeds the people : , . . Aa4/>p*pj, be wbg ia fed by the people.' 
Who can foiFget this part of an hexameter : Ka | Qxjdfdj | he who 
18 I fed by the j people, 

. J 9. Of tbe two Plinys the elder was the naturaliat. We 
pfllen hear of ' mtu maximna/ aeldom of ' natu minimus.' 

^0, < Cohora ' was larger than 'manipulua.' Think of ^ m«re 

21. Cicero reckons three Jupiters. The termination of * ju- 
piler' may establish tbe fact in tbe memory, 

2A, * A ttici dicunt t/%4, tWij^, t*V»^* aays Dawes. *AS % m 
will ma]ce this easy. . 

83. Zi<f9iT8, and jxoMov av fo-^/ftijy are solecianas, The ai in 
these worda and in o-oAoixicrjtA^. will make this plain. . 

24. We readily know, and never mistake the quantity of adi* 
tus, obitus; why should Me perpetually hesitate in thai of 
coitus and abitos? 

, 25. Tfox^i ia, cursua : rpoxoh rota. That ia curaua, which 
has tbe ac2ite. 

TeUhmcdl Mmary. MS 

r. '^. ^' ^^nSvXoif ; !|i«idaiDi ctttMh»%^ minus Avxit,^* Pondn 
ad Pboen. 1428* Th9t is, some spoil it by writing nrM^Xoij;. 
/ 27*' MQnk;9ay9^,ad HippoU 37> that seiMO) has for its fat»re 
ahifit^ ia Homei:, ttmtrm in the Tcagics. This is easily* remetti* 
bered: as «iw<rfi$ cannat be admitted into Homer's vevse. 

289 Xhe quantity of ftiicpo; will be easUy remembered, froni 
^he circumstance, that, were it a pyrrbic, no controversy woidd 
exist as to the pronunciation of ' otnicron/ 
. 89« The AUaic stansea mKy be learnt from that stanaa in 
Horace.: * Non, si priores Maeonius tenet | Sedes Hottierus, 
t'indarica^ latent, | Geaeque et Aleai minaces, | Stesichorique 
graves Camceme/ Nor will the stanaa, b^inning witb ^ Sat>pho 
puellis^' &c. interfere with this, on the ground, that that stanza 
nught with e^ual propriety be called a Sapphic, and dierefore 
deceive us ; smce that passage must be considered as ambiguous, 
as it contains the name of Alcaeus as well as of Sappho : ' Al- 
case, plectro,' &c« 

30. * 'ilvrsAaCsr' edd. Mss« Quod dedi, (sc. avreX^^ur') est e 
Schol. Altera forma utuntur Attigt, ut Orest. 446. sed banc 
praefierunt/ Person ad Med. 1213. The passage in the 
Orestes is this : *A>J! uvriKaXfln xo!\ nivoov h t^ /xepei. Here it 
is manifest that avxiXa^uo-o would not have suited the metre. 
Hence we may remember the distinction, by imagining that avTi- 
Aa^uo-o would have been introduced intp the passage in preference, 
had it been metrically correct. 

I shall bring this number to a conclusion by a few genera^ 
observations. The utility of this science, if we may dignify the 
system by so high and venerable a title, is sufficiently demon- 
strated by the custbm of the earliest ages, still existing, and per* 
haps gaining ground in our day, of softening the difficulties of 
committing ethical and sacred maxims to the memory, by the 
sweet numbers of the nuise.' The < 'ii/Af ' *JBXf mj^, Helenam 
propter,' and other metrical rules, may not be distinguished 

* It is singalar, however, that the author of LUfy^s Grammar has coiv* 
trived to leave a difficulty, which is perfectly uncalled-for and unneces* 
sary. In such lines or parts of lines as * Callis, caulis, follis, collis,^ ' £t 
vermis, vectis, postis/ * Mos, flos, ros, et Tros, mus, dens, mons, pons, 
simul et fons,' 'Rus, thus, jus, crus, pus,' &c. how could it have escaped 
the writer not to place words of similar termination in alphabetical offoer. 

following * caufis.' This irregularity 
in Valpy's Metrical Rules ; which have been copied in Granfi ImtUutes 
qf IdUim Qramnmr. 

3#6 Glagncat Qritkiim. 

eoQvey tbeidfeft of motion leniuimted at thd pQint wbicb tMlf 
ndverbt describe, a conception which io Latia it secim^ the 
province of the accusative alone to express* Our pl^ject in t)ie 
IbUowing reoiarksi accordingly, is to prove by such evidence aa 
the case will pdmU^ that these words were originally the accosai- 
tives of iheir respective roots. This opinion is not ei»Iy. coimtOr 
nanced by die meanii^ of the several words^ bpt^dedves p^weir 
fill .udditioQid support irpm si|cb forais of qonstru^tiott:aj9 .tbf 
following: Quo tu te agis? Quonam^ nisi domumlf Plant. 
Triu. 4. 3. 71. Quo te/^Mceri, pedes? an, quo via ducFt^^Ai 
urbem? Virg. Ed. ix« tfs urbem, quern in hewn via 
ducit 7 Q^onam hsec omnia, nisi ad suam penUdem pertineref 
Cva. B. Civ. i. 9. i. e. a^ quidnam, nisi aa, &c. 

At a period in the history of the Latin language contempo- 
vaneous with that io which we may suppose these words to have 
assumed their adverbial character, the elision of the final m oc*- 
curs so frequently as to afford us, without violating any known 
principle whatever, at least a plausible solution of the difficulty^ 
The rejection of this letter in verse, when it is the terminatiii^ 
fionsonant before a word which begins witb a vowel, and the 
well-known fact, that in ^he oldest inscriptions its absence as a 
]6nal letter is almost universs^l, furnish rational p;round8 tor b^ 
lieving that these adverbs may without any obvious impropriety 
be referred to the accusative case sii^ular. At an early pexiod> 
of which, however, distinct traces still remain, this case in words 
bf the second declension, as the roots of all those adverbs mani- 
festly are, terminated uniformly not in um, but in om or o. The 
extant proofs of this peculiarity are too numerous and tooi weU 
authenticated to leave any room for imputing it to accident or 
the engraver's oversight; It is to. this antiquated form of the 
accusative then, and not to datives or ablatives. singular, npr to 
accusatives plural, that we think the language indeoted for such 
words as Quoy Eo, Modem, &c; .and the ellipsis mayy we conh 
ceive, in perfect accordance with existing constructiiMns, and the 
Victual meaning of the abbreviated or adverbial form, be thus 
applied ; Quom (in locom) : Eom (in locom) : Eomde^m (in lor 
com) : &c. 

' It seems not improbable that the Romans imparted somewhat 
bf a nasal enunciation to their m and n; and that it is from them 
.that such of the continental languages as are the immcidinte dcr 
/icendants of the Latin have derived this nuirked peculiarity of 
utterance. Hence the Omnis of the Romans slides with facility 
into tlie Ogni of the modern Italians, and hence the aneieiit 
writers; as is remarked by Columna on Ennii Frag. Hesselii, 

ddssical Criticism] S4/T' 

pi 182. uBedadvtnles for tidveniens, abtei for! abwis; rfec,- . U^ 
wema probable then that ia ordinary conversation the prontto«» 
oiation of the soft final m waa scarcely percep^ble, &hd in somen 
words the existence of the letter was at last forgotten. Botr 
when the languaige became an object of more general study^ 
when, in consequence of the progressive ioiprovemcnt of the 
people at large, it became morei cultivated and refined, and it9 
grammatical principles were more perfectly understood, it* 
sounds were uttered with greater clearness and precision, and the 
indistinctness of the unlettered age which had passed away wa« 
succeeded by that fulness of articulation which every polished 

Eeople is ambitious to employ. In a writing and a reading age^ 
esides, the eye and the ear eaert themselves conjunctly to se-f 
cure for each letter a distinct utterance; in the ages of ruder 
antiquity, when written documents are far from being familiair 
even to the best informed, the ear alone, whose decisions yield 
in accuracy to those of the eye, is the only guide to whose 
counsel and direction it is permitted to resort. Hence there 
seem tb be grounds for concluding, that in an early 3tate of so* 
ciety those letters that are uttered with a soft and somewhat 
inaudible sound are frequently lost, and, even when the intro« 
duction of writing begins to give stability to the external forme 
of die language, are not always resumed^ though their absence 
is sometimes indicated bj such marks as have been invented to 
announce an incomplete orthography. When, however, the 
superior cultivation of the people has rendered the perfection of 
their language an object of care and attention, the anomalies 
which m*iginate in conversation gradually disappear, and- the more 
full and perfect forms of the language are, partially at least, re^ 
stored. It need not then surprise us much to observe the oc 
eiirrence of words in the earliest remaining monuments of the 
Latin language deprived of certain essential letters, which in ita 
more advanced state again resume their proper place ; nor on 
the other hand ought it to be held wonderful, ii; in many cases/ 
letters that at one time formed primary constituents in the struc«« 
ture of certain words, when they were once dropped, were ever 
afterwards forgotten and neglected. Now if, agreeably to these 
doctrines, it can be shown, either fi'om any peculiarity in the 
pronunciation of the final m in the most improved state of the 
language, or from the monuments and inscriptions of earlier 
times, that it was not sounded or but feebly articulated, and that 
in inscriptions it was of so little consequence as to be often en- 
tirely disregarded, we are certainly warranted to conclude, that 
no objection can be drawn from the circumstance that Eo, Quo^ 

S48 Ckmioal Ctkiam. 

iuc. mat the AmI .niy po powerful as to render it dMulely tie« 
ceuttj to resort to any other caae tban the accusative for* tbe- 
adtttion of the ap|wrent difiicultj which their temaiiiation in-' 
vohres. • »* 

Of die haiity with which the Romansi even in the most peri-' 
feet state of their literature, dupensed with th«r final m, none 
can entertain any doubt who recals to mind the fact already- 
alluded to, andfiuniliair to. the meal^ ordinary scholar,' its regii^ 
elision in eveiy kind of verse, when the following^ word begina. 
with a vowel. As this elision is universal, we cannot be per- 
suaded to consider it aa a poetical licence, nor an unauthoriaed 
innovation on the established pronunciation of Latium. The 
poet was taught it by the practice of his country, and merely 
adhered to a usage which be found he. had neitller the rq^ nor 
die power to alter. . 

Again, in regard to the final m of the accusative singular, ge- 
nitive plural, &c. we may observe, that its obscure enundadoii 
appears to have led to its exclusion from all inscriptions of very 
ancient date. Some contrivance, indeed, such as the apostrophe 
before s of Uie English genitive, may possibly in these cases 
have been employed to denote the absence of a letter, though 
none such, so far as 1 know, is mentioned by those who have 
examined, collected, and arranged the inscriptions that remain. 
Of the fact itself there cannot perhaps be adduced a stronger 
and more conclusive proof than that furnished by the inscription 
dug lip about three centuries ago near the Porta Capena,- com- 
memorative of the! reduction of Corsica and Aleria by L. Scipio, 
a son of Scipio Barbatus. It is thus exhibited by Sirmond and 
Aleander: and by Hobhouse, Illustrations, &c. p. 170. Seedso 
the preceding pase of the same author, where be quotes another 
inscription equal^ illustrative of the opinion which we have ad*^ 

Hone omo ploirume. cosentiunt. R. Luonoro. optnmo fuise; 
viro Lucio M« Scipione filios Barbati ConsoL Censor. Aidilis; 
hie fuet. Hie cepit Corsica Aleriaque urbe. Dedet tempes- 
tatibus. Aide mereto. These words in the orthography* of a 
later age are as follows : Hunc unum plurimi consentiunt Manue^ 
banorum (mtumuinfuisse virum Ludum M. Scipionem. Filius 
Barbati, Consul^ Censor, MiiUs hicfuit. Hie cejrii Carncam 
AUriamque urbem. Dedit tempestatibus adem rnerito^ The 

* * 

* Sed et patet illud, quod dixi, ex antiquissima inscriptione L. Scipio^ 
nis, ubi mm aliquot vocabulorum extreme omittitury tanquam literaolim 
minus, at a posterioribus magis frequentats, irel certe adscititis, et ideo 

ClatiicaiCriHcwn. 349 

omission of the final m throughout this inscription cannot bie 
accidental. The peculiarity which so strikingly attracts our at- 
tention, in contemplating this very ancient reliijue, gives a strong 
appearance of plausibility to the opinion which has been ad- 
vanced ; and when we consider that this explanation coincides 
perfectly with the signification which the words referred to bear,' 
whilst M others deviate fiH>m it more or less, the evidence in 
favor of the ori^ for which we tbntend seems to be as clear, 
fuU, and consistent, as thd phiI<dogist can reasonably expect. 

The termination om is well ascertained to be a more ancient 
form of the accusative than um in words of the second declen- 
sion, nor can it for a moment create a doubt in the mind of any 
intelligent inquirer. On somewhat better grounds, however, 
it may be questioned how Quo can be a product of Quern; a 
position obviously assumed when we maintain that to all the 
words mentioned, tit locum must be supplied to fill up the ellip- 
sis in their construction. 

Whatever be the rationale of the declensions — ^whether, as 
many grammarians think, their number may safely be restricted 
to three, pr whether they may be <)ivided into five, as is uni- 
formly done by the practical teacher of the language, or whether 
they may with still greater propriety be reduced to one, appears 
on this occasion to be a question which it is of little consequence 
to investigate. That the same word assumes the garb sometimes 
of one declension, sometimes of another, is a fact of too ordi- 
nary occurrence to be denied ; and the simple mention of this 
circumstance is sufficient to account for the apparent anomaly 
observable in attempting to derive Quo from Quem^ Quo, gua, 
quo, in the ablative; quorum, quarum, quorum, and queis, in the 
genitive and dative plural, with other cases as analogically formed 
as these, cleariy demonstrate the relation subsisting between Qui 
and words of the first and second declension; whilst Quibus, the 
obsolete nominative plural ques, quern, cui, &c. evince its a^nity 
to the third. The forms cuimodi and cuicuimodi too, which are 
decidedly genitives, refer us at once to Quus, or Cuus, a, um, as 
their nominative, and prove the regular inflexion of this word in 
ancient times, either as an adjective of the first and second de- 
clensions, or of the third, at the pleasure of the writer. From this 
Quus then is formed in the accusative Quum, or Cbiom^ or Cum, 

addi modo, modo omitti, solita. Denique colligitur id ex ^ etiam, quod 
sola hsec consonans in metro, sequente vocali, eUditur. Periion. in 
Sanct. Min. p. 487. Ed. Amstel. 1714. 

350 De qtMfit^iUt $j/U(ibatwfi'itncipitum 

yfkick gnsninariaot denoniaate advef b^ fcdnjuiiotibny or firepan 
sitioD^ according to the place it holds, and the dul;^ itperfornny 
10 a aentence.' There can be no doubt, then, that the acqutatm 
was ancientlj quom; and, if thia is admitted^ we have onfy to 
contend for the facility with which the elinioo of the final m it 
effected to establish a perfe<?t coipcidence between the form of 
die word and its appropriate afid characteristic meaning, lliia 
correspondence between the origin and the meaning — a corrB-* 
spondence MrUch ought to be the groundwork of every pUlolo- 
gical investigation-— cannot, on any principle with which we 
are acquainted, be reconciled with the formation of these words 
from any ot^er case than that to which we have referred them. 

If such be the origin of Quo, the other words mentioned are 
so obviously formied on. the same principle as to need no fardier. 
illustration or comment, 

JL» jB« C* 
Edinburgh, Jpril, 18^4^ 


Fartuitus, Gratuitus, Pituita. 

** Graiuitus sicut etfortuitus, auctoritate Moratii contra vut- 
gum, penultima producta.^ Chr. Becmani Bomensis Manu^ 
duetto ad L, L. necnon de Origg. L. L., Hanovise 1629. p. 

' ** A forte est fdrtuitus ; ut a g^ratis, eratuitas. Fortuito 
non tarn adverbium est, quaro quasi advemium. Nam intelli- 
gitur cam. liiterdum tamen junctim legas, Casu et fortuito. 
Sed turn potiusybr^t«fYt£ scribendum, ut est in melioribus libris. 
"""'^Eji gratiis autem factum gratis katoL o-uyxoinjy: a quo gra- 
HUtus ; ut ^ forte, fortuitus.** Jo. G. Vossii Etym. L. L. 
" JPor/utfifi, paenultima producitur ab Horatio Od. 2, 15, I7«' 


' The preposition, as it is called, seems to imply thne, and intimates 
that some act or condition is contemporaneous with another mentioned. 
It is spelt ^uom in an inscriptioD quoted by Lanzi, p. 164. Dr. Butler's 
derivation from o-vy or Sf^v is not, we think, probable. See his Praxis^ 
&c. But this'subject would require a dissertation. ^ ^ . 

ih Fortuiius^ (h^atuituSf Pituita. 351 

Necforiukwn tpernere cewUem Leges rinebant. Sic Pfaaexlras 
£9 4, 4. Auson. in vii Sap. de Sohne v. 3. At Manil. 1, 
18£. PetroD* Sat. c. 135 JuveDal. Sai. 13, 225. et aUi corri- 
piiiiit: nisi malis ad sjmieresim recurrere, et trisyllabam vocem 
facere : quod tamen durius esse videtur/' Forcellini Lex. M. 
Latin. *^ Gratmtus, paenultima dyllaba brevia est^ Stat. SUv. 
If 6, 16. Quadquid nobile Ponticis nucetit. Quod ramis pia 
geroibat DamascuSi Lai^s gratuitum cadit ruinis. Poase 
tamen produci quidam piitant, exemplo rwfortuitus ap. Horat. 
Od. (I. c.) ;^ Forocllin. 

'' Fortuito, mediam ut plurimum producit^ Plaut«ilu/« 1, 2, 
41. Horat. Od. (I.e.) Necfortuitum spemere ceipitem. Sic 
gratmtus, pkuitaJ' Ph. Parei Lex. Cr. " Gratuita opera^ Cist. 
A, 2^ 74. penultima longa^ ut ap. HoTtiUfortuitum*' Parens. 

'' ^ Fortuitus/ inquit Serv. in JEu. 6, 1 79. ttur in antiqnam 
silvam etc. * ab eundo est et a fortuna compositum.' Quod 
vanum : itus est termination ut in gratuitus. Sed illud recte, 
quod ibidem ait, 'Producit autem 1^ et corripit/ laudatque 
Juvenal. Sat. 13. extr. Noti quasifortuitu nee ventorum rabie, 
sed Iratus cadat in terras, et vindicet ignis. Et contra Horat. 
Carm. (I. c.) Hie enim nisi I litera longa sit, non stat versus. 
Hactenus ille. Versus Horatii est alcaicus dactylicus; tui 
•secundus pes est iambus. Sic corripitur Manil. 1, 182. Nam 
neque fortuitos ortus surgentibus astris : producitur in illo tro- 
chaico Auson. vii Sap. Solon., Non erunt honores unquam 
fortuiti muneris.^* Gesner. Tkes. L. L. 

*^ Gratuitus, quantitas tertian syllabae prorsus est anoeps, 
eodem modo ut m fortuitus, cujus tertiam Horatius produxit 
(1. c.) Stat. SUv. I, 6, 16. Et quas pracoquit Ebosita cannas, 
Largis gratuitum cadit rapinis. Sunt pbaleuci.'' Gesner. 

'' Fortuuus, anceps est ; usitate autem corripitur. Piautus, 
Horatius, Ausonius, Buchananus^ et Heinsius produxerunt : 
Manilius contra et Juvenalis corripuerunt ; quorum tamen in 
locis qui cum Olao Borricbio in Pamasso in Nuce ad v. 830. 
(ruv(^i}<riy comminiscuntur, quasiybr tui tus tribus syllabis longis: 
ultima nempe ob sequentis vocabuli incipientem consonantem 
per positionem longa : dicti hi poetae posuissent, temere nituntur 
contra. Analogia enim, quae est in gratuitus, de quo paulo 
post, huic figmento obstat; si enim rapinius Statius penulti- 
mam in gratuitus corripit, cur non similiter eadem in fortuitus 
corripiqueatf Ct.Poet.Giess. 71. etVoss. Art. Gramm.297.*' 
Noltenii Lex. Anti-Barbarum \, 275, 

" Gratmtus, anceps ; usitate autem corripitur. Dousa qui- 

858 De quantitaU syllaharum ancipitnm 

dem L 1. Praeidaneorum ia Petron. 16. produci tantosi de- 
Jbere conteodit; sed contra Staciii luculentiMimi poets, auctori« 
Iw «8t 1« 1. Sih. Carm. nlu, ubi leg&s v, 16. Lafgjtt gratni- 
him eadit rapinia. Neque etiim hk commiaiteeDda vw^tfyiris 
tMf ffxui ginUwtum tribuB syllabit dizerit Nasquam enim 
Papinios Iq phalsBcit in hac r^ione, spondeo est usus, quod 
Catullus sibi permisit Rectius igitur statuetur peaultima 
•nceps, ut eadem mfortuUuip de quo supra. Nam ^i Papinius 
tertiam in graiuitu$ corripuit^ cur non similiter tertia ixxfortuUm 
corripi queat ? Ac si Plautus^ Horatius, Ausonius tertiam in 
fortuitus produxere, cur non ad illud exemplum tertiam quoque 
in graiuiius producere liceat V Noltenius 1. c. p. £83. 

'' At anceps est penultima in fortuitus : quod aliqui semper 
corripi putarunt* Sed tantum abest, ut evincant quod voluot, 
ut ne illud quidem, corripi earn posse, solide probent. Jove-, 
nalis versum adducunt, cui tres prim» syllabse constituaot da- 
ctylum. Locus est Sat. 13. 

Non quasi fortuitus^ nee ventorum rabie, sed 
Iratus eadat in terras^ et vindicet ignis. 
Ita enim ez Aldina et Ms. nostro legendum, non judicet, ut in 
▼ttlgatis et altero est Ms. nostro. Sed profecto argumentum 
hoc invalidum est, cum dici possit secundam et tertiam in for-' 
fyitu B.fbrtuitus, (utrumque in Mss. legas,) contraht jwri, <twU 
Ijm^p: quomodo et Horat. dixit £p. 1, 1. 

Pradpue sanus^ nisi cum pituita molesta est. 
Nam produci primam, liquet ex illo CatuUi ad Furium, (^, 

A te sudor abest, abest saliva, 
Mucusque et mala pituita nasi. 
Sane pene ultimam in trochaicis istis liquido producit Plant. 
uiul, actus €, scena 1 : 
Post mediam atatem, qui mediam ducit uxorem domum, 
Si earn senex anum pragnantemfortuitufecerit, 
Quid dubitas, quin sit paratum nomen puero Postumus f 
Apud Horat. quoque legere est (1. c.) 

Necfortuitum spemere cespitem 
Leges sinebant. 
Et ap. Auson. in iLudo Sapientum est iste trochaicus, 
Non erunt honores unquamfortuiti muneris. 
Estque scriptores bosce secutus Alciatus, cum scripsit 1. 2. 
IlapegY' Juris c. 7. 

Frustra pvtavit esse te, Virtus, datam, 
Qua fortuitis serviebas casibus. 
Nee in fortuitus tantum, sed in gratuitus quoque eos fugit 

in Fortuitm^ OraiuituSj Pittdta* 55S 

rttio. JNoii taraen assentio Jano Douw, qui in Pracidaneis ad 
Sorat. (2^ 16^) to I in bujusoiodi male corripi putat. Nam ap. 
Stat, est phalaecius ille Stlv. 1. 

Largis gratuitum cadit rapinisJ* 
G. J. Vossii Aristarchiis p. 104. 

'' H«c qui non considereti facile in quantitate labetur. Ifa 
prioiam in pituita corripere non dubitabit^ quia ap. Horat. sit 
Ep. I, 1,(106.) 

Pracipue sunus^ msi cum piitdta nutksta est. 
At bic trisjUabum est. Produci vero primam, indicat CatiUli 
hoc ad Furium, 

Mucus et mala pituita naH. 
Et Persii istud Sat. 2, (57.) 

Somnia pituita qui purgatissima mittuntP 
Voss. I. c. p. 71. ** Pituita per synseresin vox est trisyllaba 
ap. Pers. (I. c.) Primam syllabam aperte producit Catullus ad 
Furium s. 93, 17* 

A t€ sudor abest, abest saliva, 

Mucusque, et mala pituita nasi. 
Itaque trisjilabum etiam est ap. Horat. Serm. 2, €75. stomacho^ 
que tumultum Lenta feret pituita, et Ep. (I.e.)" Gesner. Thes^ 
Li. L. '' Pituita^ humor redundans, ex ore tiaribusque fluens, 
producitur, Horat. Ep. (1. c.) ubi tamen synaeresi hoc vocabuium 
contrafaitur in trisjilabum ; nam prima syllaba semper reperitur 
produeta. Ol. Borrichii Parnassus in Nuce ad v. 1630." 
Nbhenius I. c. p. 332. ** Pituita, sanguis imperfecte coctus, 
humor crudus, aqueus, excrementitius, vel naturaliter vel praeter-. 
naturaliter in corpore genitus: quo pertinent mucus nariura, qui 
ex capite redundat, saliva, phlegma, pblegma ventriculi et in- 
testinorum : a imca et vixiw, Spuo, et vnv&o, Coagulo. Ridet 
Quintil. 1, 6. (al. 10.) eum, qui dictam putavit, quia petat vitam. 
Prima syllaba producitur, et tertia, Catull. (I. c.) Secunda et ter- 
tia aliquando per synteresin coalescunr, Pers. (1. c.) Horat. (1. c.)'* 
Forceiiinus. *' Sic et Catullus pituita primam cum produxit, 
Mucusque et mala pituita naso, non eorripuit Horat. nisi cum 
pituita molesta est. Sed trisyllabum posuit ita ut medium ele- 
mentum, iBolicum fiat digamma : quod et elicitur ex JBlii Sto« 
lonis judicio, qui a petendo vitam duci ratus est." J. C. Scaliger 
Poet. 7. p. 844. ** Pituita, J. C. Seal. (1. c.) Catullus pituita 
primam produxit, Mucusque et mala pituita nasT^ [ap. Seal, 
est naso,"] '' nee eorripuit Horat. nisi cum pituita molesta est. 
Sed trisyllabum posuit ita, ut medium elementum ^olicum fiat 
digamma: quod et elicitur ex Mln Stolonis judicio, qui a pe-* 
tendo vitam duci ratus est. Quintil. (J. c.) Quamvis autem 

354 De quantitate syllabarum ancipitum 

pUuita aliis formetor a whra, quia sit lentus humor, adinsiar 
picis, taoien £Iium sublevat Plato in Timeo: ^^ffyfMe.8ff <S% 
xa) aXi^ph %^y^ irarrav voai^iuarm, Sara yhvrm xarap^oixi* 9tA 
li ro&; r^ou^y 1 1; od^ ^fi, vartciMwoh^ Srrag wavrola yoo^ftara fTXi)- 
^ly. £t qnia pituUa vitae quasi hostis et pluriroorum morbonmi 
causa est, sane a pttendo vitam merito dicitur.'' Chr. Becmani 
Manuductio ad L. L. p. 850. '* Pituiia si coacervetur aut 
corrumpatur, multos niorbos saepeque mortem adfeire solet, 
eoque ^lio Stoloni videbatur sic dicta, quia petat vitam. Quam 
etymologiam merito iroprobat Fabius (1. c.) Grascis vocatur 
fXiyiiM, quod, (ut est in Etym. M.,) irotpa ri ^>Jsy» xaer* SLfrtppo!^ 
ctr ifVYf^raroy y&q fcrri. Verum antiphrasis nihil est nisi iusci- 
tise asylum. Quare videndum an non pituita potius di'catur m 
wlrra, i. t. Pix^ nempe quia glutinoso kntore pici similis sit. 
Atque hoc etymon firmat, quod eapse de causa etiam herba 
genus dictum sit virrfle, cuius tactu, si cum melle teratur, digiti 
cohasrent, Plinio auctore. ^Xiyiua autem, ut ego quidem su- 
spicor, non ita quidem dicitur, quia sit per se igneum, sed quia 
per accidens causetfebres. Quippe ^Xiyfia 6^b xa) aXi^vpiv mtyii 
warron vocrrifMiTonf Zv'a y/yvfrai xaerap^lxeLf Pituita acida et salsa 
fans est morborum, quicunque e distillatiofie Jiunt, ut ait Plato 
m Timao** G. J. Voss. Etym. I^. L. 

The above passages are all, which I have seen on these con- 
troverted points, and from their juxtaposition it is no very trou- 
blesome matter io make our way through the difficulty and to 
put the student in possession of rules sufficient to direct bis 

1 . To determine the quantity of the penultimate iofortuitus, 
gratuitus, we must define the etymology of those words. Ser- 
vius derivesybrftitVus ffbni eo and fortuna : tile habeat secum 
servetque sepulcro. Vossius with more sense and felicity derives 
it from forte, and therefore considers uitus as the mere termina* 
tion, and in like manner he derives gratuitus from gratis. Let 
us for a moment admit the absurd etymology of Servius — then 
the word fortuitus has its penultimate short to a certainty ; for 
it would follow the same analogy, as in circuitus: Virg. JEn. 

Vndique circuitum, et cert am quatit improbus hastam. 
But if we have recourse to the opinion of Vossius — then also the 
quantity is manifestly determined to be sl]ort,y(>r^iif^u5. 2. But 
an objector will start up and say that an adjective so formed and 
terminated is a novelty in the Latin language. 1 answer that 
the principle of formation and the kind of termination appear in 
at least two adjectives^ fortuitus and gratuitus, and therefore. 

in Fortuitu^ Gratuitus^ Pituita. 3^5 

bowe?er novel the fact inay be, it is not singular. And ivho, in 
the consciousness of universal knowlege and the pride of accu'* 
rate learnings will venture to assert that the whole, compass of 
Roman literature supplies no other examples? Does not the 
parent Greek language abound with noveltiesi and even with sin- 
gularities ? For instance^ Aavflavtjxo;, a word coined by Simonides 
(fip. Aristot. Hist. Anim. 5, 8.) is formed against analogy^ and 
to the best of my belief unsupported by any other Greek word of 
kindred formation, 3. The words circuttus and tenuitas show 
that there was nothing in the sound o( fortuitus cacophonous 
enough to be rejected by the delicacy of a Roman ear. 4. The 
language of Roman satire, like the Greek iambic, approximates 
to common discourse, and^ as Juvenal has used fortuitus, the 
probability is that the word was so pronounced in ordinary con- 
versation. 5. Statins has shortened the penultimate of gratui- 
tus, and would^ no doubt, have served fortuitus in the same 
manner. But, supposing the common pronunciation to have 
been fortuituSj gratultus, neither gods nor men would have 
tolerated the impiety of a poet, who violated the sanctity 
of the language by substituting t for 7. 5. The advocates for 
lengthening the doubtful sellable in prose confidently appeal to 
Horace tis Augustan authority. But the authority applies only 
to verse, and undoubtedly a modern writer of Odes may follow 
the example of Horace. But 1 ask, has Horace treated any 
other word in a similar manner i If so, he has availed himself 
of a poetic licence, and his authority in reference to prose will 
avail nothing. 6. Horace had the authority of Plautus to plead 
for his usage, and the language of Roman Comedy would deter- 
mine the point in favor of Horace, if this be the only instance, 
in which Plautus can be himself accused of violating quantity 
to accommodate his verse. It may be reasonably supposed that 
in the time of Plautus great liberties were taken with the Roman 
tongue and that the quantity of many words had not been ob- 
served with uniform exactness by all Writers. 7* But cannot 
' ^ fortuitus and gratuitus be pronounced as trisyllables i I reply 
that they cannot be so pronounced in prose, because the Latin 
language has no diphthong tii, but the contraction of u, i into uf 
may be occasionally admitted into poetry, as in the instance of 
pituita. It must, however, be confessed, (and I am indebted 
to a learned friend for the remark,) that in the ^olic dialect, 

from which the Latin is derived, the diphthong u7 exists, as in^ 
rvtSt ap* Sapphonem. Priscian p. 22.: ^^ Apud ^oles ua ssBpe 
amittit vim literse in metro, ut Sctw^d, *A?<\ei rtf/S".'' See Mait- 

556 On the Oriein ofMHtoa'ii Lyddas. 

taii«*8 Gr. L. Didiai p. S£7^ 8. I tbttt be happy to see^die 
Bttbjecti which I have attempted to discma, argoed by abler p«M 
than mine; and 1 daim no other merit than that of a pioneer^ ia 
clearing the ground for a future adventurer* 


Thetford, May, 1824. 


Since the days of the impostor Lauder no one has dared to 
accuse Milton of plagiarism. It is far from the intention of 
the writer of the following pages to fasten that charge on the 
immortal poet. If we look to the essay of Dr. Farmer on the 
learning of Shakspearcj or consult any of his numerous com- 
mentators, we find that all his dramatic and poetical works are 
built on some tale or history, yet we do not presume to consider 
him as a plagiary: therefore if we discover a monody on the same 
subject as that on Lycidas, treated in the same allegorical manner, 
similar in structure, containing the same imagery, and often the 
same expressions, we may conclude^ that it was the model on 
which Lycidas was formed, without accusing Milton of intended 

It is singular that neither Warburton, Hurd, Warton, John- 
son, Todd, nor any other acute and able commentators, dis- 
covered the source from which this monody was derived. . 

Milton's profound knowlege of the laipguage of Italy and 
of her Latin writers is too well authenticated to require farther 

Among the most celebrated of the Latin poets of Italy is 
Balthasar Castiglioni, a Mantuan, bom in 1468, who 
was made Bishop of Avila by the Emperor, when sent by 
Clement the Seventh on an embassy to that monarch. 

Castiglioni was distinguished for his learning and for his 
works in prose and verse. Some of his poetical compositiotts 
have been highly lauded by Julius Scaligen Among his poetus 


On the Ofigin qf Miltott's Lyfcidas. 3fi7 

18 an elegy entitled Alcon. ^rrariiia fpeaking of this pio^m 
says : 

Castilionius (scilicet lolas) deflet poets Falconis Mantuani juvenis 
morteoiy quem secum domi ab state ineuote aluerat, habuecatque comi- fiocium studiortuB ac vigiliarum suarum omnium^ 

I - ^ 

• I 

Milton in his monody laments, under the name of Lyoidas, 
his friend and fellow-student Edward King, who was ship- 
wrecked on his passage to Ireland in a crazy vessel, which 
foundered during a ealm, not far from the coaat of England. 

The similarity in th^ subjects of the Elegy of Alcon and 
the Monody of Lycidas i» evident. Let us now examine the 
manner in which both the poets have composed their poems. 

Milton allegorically says of Lycidas : 

For we were nursed upon the self^me hill^ 

Fed the same flock by fountain, shade, and rill. ' ' 

iolas, i. e. Castiglioni, tells of Alcon : .. ; j 

Nos etenim a teneris simal usque buc vixinnis aimis, ' 
Frigora pertulimusque aestus, noctesque, diesquei 
Communique simul sunt pasta armenta labore. 

In the above.quotations both are allegorically represented in the 
characters of shepherds, each purauing with his friend their 
pastoral avocations. 

Dunster acutely conjectured that the lines 

I come to pluck your berries harsh and crude; 

And with forced finders rude, 

Shatter youk* leaves^efore the mellowing year--- 

were derived from these words of Cicero : 

£t quasi poma ex arboribus, cruda si sint, vi avelluntur ; si matura 
et cocta, decidunt; sic vitam adolescentibus vis aofert, senifous maturi- 
tas. f» 

The mind of Milton was so imbued widi classic lore, that 
Dunster's suggeation bears the air of probabililgr ; particularly 
as the word cruda is used by Cicero: but as the Elegy of 
Alcon contains the following lines^ and since, as will be seen, 
the structure of the poem is throughout the same^^ I am inclined 
to consider the idea as emanating from 

Non metit ante diem lactenlcs mesaor ariatas, 
Immatura rudit non carpit poma colonus. 

' Milton tells us of his friend's untimely end : 

For Lycidas is dead, dead ere his prime, 
Young Lycidas, and hath not left his peer. 

S58 On the Origin of Milton's J^fddas* 

CastigUoiii commencea bis poem with 

^ Ereptum fatis primo subflore juventte, 

Alconem nemonim decus, et solatia amantum* 

L^cid^s' love for the Muses is celebrated ; and the elegant 
htinism from the first epistle of Horace, 

Seu condis amabile carmeDi 

18 made to adorn the beautiful apostrophe-^ 

Who would not sine for Lycidas? He knew 
Himself to sing, aod build the lofty rhyme. 

Castiglioni thus speaks of his friend : 

Alcon delicis Musarum et ApoUiniSy Alcon 
Pars animsy &c. 

When the fpllowing lines from hoth the poet^.are considered 
together, it is presumed that the association of ideas will be too 
evident to require any metaphysical elucidation. 

Milton under the fictitious images of rural employaients 
describes his studies with his friend : 

Meauwhile the rural ditties were not mute. 
Tempered to the oaten flute ; 
Rough Satyrs dauced, and Fauns with cloven heel 
From the glad sound would not be absent long; 
And old Damcetas loved to hear our song. 

Castiglioni in the same figurative language writes : 

Quern todes Fmmi et Dryades sensere canentem, 
Quem toties Pan est, toties miratus Apollo, 
Ftebant Fagtoret ' 

The former speaks of 

■ F auns with cloven heel. 

The latter enumerates amdng the mourners for Alcon, 

C apripedes Sa^riscos. 

Milton in the follovnng words conveys a poetical and tool- 
ing thought : 

The willows, and the hatd copses green. 

Shall now no more be seen 

Fuimng their joyous leaves to thy soft lays. 

the origin of which is found in 

Non tecum posthac molli resupinus in umbra 
Sfliigiam longos sstivo tempore soles; 
Non lua vicinoa midcdiit fistula montes, 
Docta nee umbrosie resonabunt cannina valles. 

On ike Origin of Milton's Lyddas. 359 

Even the lin« 

Ay me! I fondly dream « 

has a thought responsive to it in 

Vana nubi iocassum fingebam somnia demens. 

In the ensuing verses of our English bard are a few lines 
on which I wish to offer some remark^ since the reference of 
Milton has not been noticed by Warton : 

Were it not better done, as others use 
To sport with Amaryllis in the shade. 
Or with the tangles of Neera's hair ? 

These lines contain a sarcastic aUusion Ito Buchanan, who 
often wandered from his severer studies to sport with Amaryllis, 
or sing of Neaera : 

Cum das basia, nectaris Nesra 
Das m! pociila, das dapes Deonim, 
Ut factus videar mihi repeote 
Udub e numero DeQro, Deisve 
Siquid altius est, beatiusve. 

Milton was residing in the country when he wrote the 
monody on his friend, consequently his mind was alive to every 
rural image ; yet even this lament. 

Thee, Sjiepherd, thee the woods, and desert caves 

With wild thy^je and the gadding vine overgrown, 

And all their echoes mourn : 

The willows and the hazel copses green 

Shall now no more be seen 

Fanning their joyous leaves to thy soft lays. 

As killing as the canker to the rose. 

Or tabu-worm to the weanling herds that graUf 

Or frost to flowers, that their gay wardrobe wear, 

When first the white thorn blows ; 

Such Lycidas thy loss to shepherds^ ea r - 

has a passage so responsive to it in feeling and imagery, that, 
when considered with the other similarities, it leads us, at least, 
to conclude that he remembered it : 

Arboribus cecidere comse, spoliataque honore est 
Sylva suo, ioUtoique uegat pastoribus umbrfu. 
Prata suum amisere decus, morientibus herbis 
Arida ; sunt sicci fontes, et flumina sicca. 
InfoBcuhda carent promissis frugibus arva, 
£t mala crescentes rvbigo exeSit aristas* 
S^uaUfr trutii habet peiSdcip peeudumque magktroi. 

Thdse who are accustomed to watch the operations of their 
mbds, to trace with patient care their ideas to their sources. 

960 On the Origin of Milton's Lyddas. 

and to observe accurately the Tarious associations addog hora 
the same origin, and spreading into various ramifications 
unconnected in their details, will readily perceive that the fol* 
lowing passage, (with the circumstance of his friend being a 

Impaitus ttabulis ssevit lapuSyUbere raptos 
Dilamat^u^ ferus luiseris cum matribus a^nos ; 
Perque canes prardam impavidus pastoribus auftrt—- 

gave rise to the prophetic insinuation of the execution of Arch- 
bishop Laud, whom he considered as the cause of all the 
schisms then existing in the church-— 

Besides what the grim wolf witb privy paw 
Daily devours apace, and nothing sed : 
But that two-handed engine at the door 
Stands ready to smite once, and smite no more. 

The opinion almost receives confirmation from the fact, that 
both de poets make a sudden transition to rural ima|ery of a 
more tender character : Milton in his beautiful invocation — 

Return^ Alpheus, the dread voice is past. 

That shrunk thy streams ; return Sicilian Muse, 

And call the vales, and bid them hither cast 

Their bells, and flo wrets of a« thousand hues. 

Ye valleys low where the mild whispers use 

Of shades, and wanton winds, and gushing brooks, 

C' Nil nisi triste sonant et sylvs, et pascua, et amnes, 

£t liquid! fontes; tua tristia funera flerunt*') 

On whose fresh lap the swart star sparely looks ; 

Throw hither all your quaint enaroelFd eyes, 

That on the green turf suck the honied showers 

And purple all the ground with vernal flowers. 

Bring the rathe primrose that forsaken dies. 

The tufted crow-toe, and pale jessamine, 

The white pink, and the pansy peak'd with jet, 

The gl ow i ng violet, 

The musk-rose, and the well-attired woodbine. 

With cowslips wan that hang the pensive head. 

And every fiower that sad embroidery wears : 

Bid Amaranthus all his beauty shed. 

And daffodillies fill their cups with tears,^ 

To strew the l^ureat herse where Lycid lies. 

This invocation has one in ibe Alcon so nearly responsive to 
it in the names of the flowers and the scope of the passage, that 
the spring from which it flowed is clearly seen : 

Vos mecum, o pueri, beneolentes spargite flores, 
Narcissiim, atque rosas, et suave rubentem hyacinthumi 
Atque umbras hedera lauroque inducite opacas. 
Nee desint casiae, permixtaqite cinnama amomo, 

In DemoBthenem Cammentarii. S6S 

(toD Biforayip^^ ^ ''^^^ * E^xioroVfY ^Miovr* if (6 Btpo'isiyifug 
xcii 6 'JS0ijxeoTo;) vwo rou u/MTipoti ^^Sa-fiaros. 

In AristocrateiDi p* 673. 1. 26. ovxow roS (rh Markland) xo- 
ffUMiou tA SanKuXora )^»plx Mroo^oftevou XeigiHiMv, SittjSftyro;, 

Tfloy TTpirtpw rou; xivSui^ou;. 

Construe, 6 ttp;^ iCpiftfrQ; fi}0'}y, 
i^afiivTog, (i. e. Tri SiajSijSijxei i XagOt^iMs) roitg' xtiiuifovg irgp) 
roav wfapxp^on yfysvijO'Sai, fUitfyvi roov irgmpov* 

'laAhstocratem, p. 689> !• ^. xatroi a-xa^tifrig dg hxiXafyv ol 
vji^^ovoi too; aSixoSvrat; latrrou;, ei ira^airXi}0'f»; Uftiy. IxeTvoi Bsftio** 
roxXffa Xafiiyrsg ftfiCoy aurwv afioDvra ^povuv, i^ffXao'eiv ix r^; iro^ 
XffflOfy xft} fiii}$id*fioy xarffyycoo'tfy. xat KIimovu, «r» Ti)y mrpioy jL&frff- 
x/yijcf iroXirsfay If* ^auroD, vap^ r^ei; /tey a^(rav ^^vg ri ijjj 
tavaTtp ^ijpokrai. mvrrixovTa Si roAayra iWeTF^ei^uv. xa) tovtov roy 
Tpowov irpotri^eporro Ti}Xixa5T aurou; uyeAoL ApysLirpJvoig ioApayiroig. 
iixatoog, ou ykp axtrtng avcSISoyro rigy aurcDy iXsuttp/ay, xa) jxsya- 
Xo4^up^/ay rooV epyoov. 

Ante r«y ejpya)y subaudiendum ^yr/. 

ov y^p auTolg x. r. A.) Non enim factis illorum suam 

libertateoi magnanimitatemque illis vendebant. cum factis 

illorum libertatem magnanimitatemque suam non mutabant. — 
£adem constructio %ip) Trapawp. 

P. 349* I. 24. iroXX^y aWxyrnv xa) iisyukovg xivivvoug ram* 
^f I rp ToXf I, h9L TJjy a.Wy(jpfixi^uav r^y rovroui xai to XPHMATUN 

In Timocratem, 

In Timocratem, p. 702. 1. 10. o&riav&^wvog' y&p (tg ■ ■ gf; 
ay»ya xarian^a-gv. h hi rot/rcp to viii^irrov pJgog rm ^fij^eav o6 imtol^ 
XajSfipy, cSfXg %iX/(x;. gyou Se, ifrictp ijy S/xajoy| ftaXio*Ta /xiy Bi«l 
TOVf dgou;, IrgiTft Sg xa) hoL to&; Sixa^oyra; ujxay, go-wtfiyy. 

Rectius Tou; Sixao-ayra;. qui tunc judtcabant. non enim iidem 

In Timocratem, p. 706. 1. 8. M Sg r^; irp&r/^g wpvnntlag Tjj 
MtxiTji, hv Tcp iviiMp, gTgiSay gS^ijTai 6 xi^gu^, fan;^gigoToyiay iroigiy 
r«y vifMOV* 

if Mixar^i) rou ^Exaroiifioumog ftijy/;. Infra p. 708. 1. 10. 
r^K ixxXfi^lag iv § rou$ vSpi,oug eTgp^giPoroy^o'arg, ouo^; Jy$gxan); rou 
ixarojE&jSaicDyo; f^^vo;> S»Stxar« roy yo/xoy glo^ygyxgy. 

In Timocratem, p. 707* L 5. o2 Sg Sgo-ftofgrai rohg Mit^i 
tWayorrcw gi^.ro Sixaori^pf oy xoerfli roy y^/xoy* (^ jxi^ oyioVrooy fl; Jfpfior 
myoy, eo; xoeroXuoyrg; r^v hravopitociv r&v vSfS0m¥h 


964 In Denmi^hettem 

t) fi4 hitftm 4g Afvm it&f^ «lio()iiin ne .Mcendaiit (promo- 
veantur, "provehantur) jb Areopagum* 

In Timocrtltfaif p. 714. 1. 10. voAXoT; im yd^Miy spoov/e- 

inf % irl^afj jiaI njp^^y ironjo-oi xop/oof, ^ 6 tel^ icatrrov 

LibffBter kgereio, ay)t Mjfu^ff i()utiMf aWi, ro&^ Of T/IJ? rmr 

WfK%l» Wi fV 4fib^v au^' ^ Mii^wfj'^^. r. A. Senteotkai loci 
aaiU accurale 4at Taylor : Qui y«to p0ftes legem liaae talk, 
modo r^tatain ; oon ffiqauin ceBauU legHbin iit| quae disevte 
jtt^Uir auetortlatia iaitiiim capere, interje<^ aUquo teqipom 

Eoetquam lats fuerinl^ auetoritateni dare nb eo ip9o die in qiip 
itee esseBt, atque eo pacto ratas habere priuB quam ipse k^r 

In Tiniocratem^ p* 7^8. 1. 18. h Se, voXAwv ovrcov xai Seivcoy, 
Jry iv Tf v^/Hif refifixf, (Tioiocrates seil. cujus lex debkoref pub- 
Iieo0| qui vades darent, immunes a vinculis praestabat) fiAXMrt 
i^lov MT* aiyBeyaxr^<rai, /SouAoftai ^^0; S/tta^ ti^rfiv. Si' ?Aoti yitp rou 
vojutou T« X0eTao"H9O'avri rovg ^/ywiirei$f axwna^ Xlyei, ti» &i fd) 

noSy ^ly^ ox^tfkieuf oSri 8ixi)y, ourc rifioDptav ^rpooysypa^ffVi ^l^X^ 
oSfiav irfiro/i}xff Too'aeunjv, oo-ijy oTov re yivMou vkettrnfiv. 

Hujusce loci sententiam quod non vidit Reiskius, idcirco 
pravam lectionem, aTfavras, verissin^ae, uiravra, praetulit. ancavrx 
tanien in plurali numero est^ et neutro genere ; non in singulari 
et masculino^ ut ReiAio videbatur. Delenda interpunctio post 
ly^ra^.'^T^ xsn'oun^etufVi roij lyywffa^ Shtafrm, xiy«, Uli, 
qui vadet dederit, omnia dicit, Legi« ofxinis pro^isio^ eautiones 
omnes, omnea tanetiones, ad ilium diriguntur, itiuoi dpectaitt^ 
qui radea udque dederit. Sed qpid faciendum debitore qui 
vades non dederit i De hoc consulto et vafre tacuit Timocrates, 
inquit Orator, quo effii^iant wrarii. 

in Timocratero, p. 7^* !• 17. iuthr^t, 4 Tui^bcfctrnu ^» |^^ 
ovrff^ y^[iAV xvpioi vifjLOi, rotirova) ttoiouo'i xvglovs oarivroav, — mwowrX) 
Judices, scilicet. 

In Tunocralem, p. 739- 1. \ ^m ro/vuy xw) rwr' thiif, o!roi^ 

Snof iiafipi$T8 rva» ^rppwv fLeyotKofgoffufif) Vobis ipsis, scilieet, 
humHioribas, non paj-ceodo legtbus abrogandis, ei quis vestrum 
poenam commeruerk. 

Commentariu 866 

In Timocratem^ p. 7^9* 1* ult olofucu rolwv ^iv oM^ iutl^m 

oL^i^ea-iM rm Xoyatv, 00$ isivoi av vitoi, el, ypd^fag hto^ 'Ah^valwi 
IMofieig tei^erfti, whig inl^erett ti xaxov-'— ^^ — xpoj Si tou^ twcu- 
TOU$ Kiyovg ^iXrtov vfoeac^xwivai fux^st vama^ ^H'^h ^' ^k^ov ^cam^ 

tctvirw ^mjioiianos vpuig, oi yoLq tout J^xsv, oXX' Sxt»$ 6f/i,9is Jbt»fw 
T&¥ 7rpo<miMifjMrant ymf^o'eaie. 

InterpoQendum Si«.— ov yip AlA rovr' I9i|xev, aXX' Jir«o; — 
at, T« A. 

Jn Aphobum /. 

In Aphobum L p. 818. 1. 6. ou yap fiiS^vro; Toimu (^Afi^) 
arlrov T^ /^)]Tp}^ T^v 8e vpolKa syoyroSf ooSe*roy oTxov fucfiouv MfAovrb^, 
a!AA«^ fMr«l rwy oi^Xetfy mrpovouv &a;^ffip/^8iy o^muvto^, faroi^orrt 
hiyowi wip\ Toinw b A^y^fip^S' ouil roir oTxov pirtoSy IM Aoyro^) 
^' Elocatio aBcUunn iotelligatur cum omiri iostrumento et AmuI- 
tatibtts^" Wolf.-*-*-Atqui aedes elocandae non erant^ cum De- 
mostbenis patris testametito Aphobo habitandae fuissent retictae. 
auT^ Si TOUTO) (^A^ofiw) TtjV fjLfprega t^v iifji^sTipuv, xa) irpolxot, ^ySoij- 
XOVTOL (Ayai^, xa) Ty olxi^ 7ta) trxevfO'i XS^^* ^^'^ ^/to7;. P. 614« 
1. £5> oUtcs yetp i^Afo^i) fu9u; ftrr«e t\v rod varpo^ Sayfliroy^ «xei 
T^y oSx/ticy ei<rffA(lfl»y xotra Ti^y ixt/vou Siafli^xi^y. P. 817. 1* 20. i^y 8e 
TOMf^\ & yrypi^ai ^(rh Iv t^ haii^Kin, Mo /xiy Tdkctrra Ji}/bM^£yrde 

KafifiV fuSw^, Tijy 8* aSeXf ijy, oray ^Aixky ?;^* toutov 8* (^Afofiof) 

iySoiiKoyToi fums ^oii r^y fMlfrigci njy lfti]y, xm) r^y olx/«y olxeiy. 
^pimrHtiv 8* lj38o/&^xoyra jttyo^ Xafiirra xoLgwuxraffiMj 3w; lyco ayi|p 
yfyp/jifti]y. rtl 8* ofXAa, &-' fjuto) X^P^^ rovrcoy XMrsAs/^9i}, x«i t2 jxkt- 
A(Miy riy olxoy, ^^w^ey Ix 7% SiaA^xi}^ 

In Aphob. III. p. 8.57* Ubi notandum olxtav et «7xoy dis* 
^gui. oUog igitur hac oratione est, Passessiones. Property, et 
ID hoc 0en8u est apud Lysiam m Aristogit. p. 906. ^' substantia 
imi versa" ut Reisk. inter pr. 

In Aphobum, I. p. 820. 1. 21. Tctiras Tolnfv l|p(f« r^ TfU^ 
Ksvr« ft^vas iaro t»u ifyeumiploit0f xo} re 2jpyoy «^«0y ^rw trtav. S 
Uy M 8pa;;^p ri$ nip ftoyoy, J[AX«^ ojxou TfuUmrra fivS^ i^^ffi. 

''Triginta minarum usura drachmahs annua conficit 360 
drachmas. Hasc octies iterata conficit 3040 drachmas, seu 
triginta minas cum excessu 40 drachmarum. unde constat 6fMi 
significare Circiter, Praeterpropter, cum pauculo quodam aut 
ddectu aut exoessu. Non semper exacte summam positaa 
aequat ; neque semper iiifra eam subsidit, quod sunt qui opinati 
sint, sed etiam ultra summam datam assurgit/' Reisk. 

Summa drachmarum 360 octies iterala conficit 3040 drach- 
maa i QoS potest? Immo vero drachmas £880 conficit ; h. e. 

S66 In Demoithenem 

28 miou^ et 80 dfadunas. Hie igitui' cert^ ifuQ infra summun 
pontam subsidit. 

. in Aphobum L p. 827. 1. 18. !mg yip ix nrrdfrn rakirrtop 
x«} rpMVf A/mr Toif fMir rfla rdXana xal twYi}Jas *pdixa tiiwxs, 
i^f 8* ifSopJ^xanti lums tuuprwvtcu, ^euftphv tffww 9fluri¥ hi ovx &ri 
fWifif oicUiip &kKi wkMf ^ tiwKewlas, ^f Ifftol xctrbivn, rearr 

if§ikw» irX^ov ^ inrkowUi, lif ifM} juertf Am, non est De pecii- 

ma plttsquam duplo majore quam ea pecunia quam mibi reli- 
quit ;— verum .De pecunia plusquam duplo majore ea pecunia 
tutoribua data ; quam pecuniam, plusquam duplo majorem, mihi 
reliquit. Secundum idioma notissimum^ casu eodem positum 
est relativum if, quo antecedens, quod reticetur ; alioquin esset 
vAiOV ^ SivAflto-fa;* ^y Ifto) xttriham. 

In Apbobum 1. p. 827* L 24. Sequitur o6 yip S^^ou roy /xsy 
vloy ifM iFim/jfra sjBouXtro xoroAiirfiy, rourot;; Sf , irXouo'fou; flW^eV, In 
irXotfO'iflorffpov^ voiija'tfi tirstufAato-iV, ^cAA' Ivexa rou irAigflou; rwy- cfAol 
x«raA»irof4JM0y Biigtwwtiji too-outov apyipiov xa) . Ji)ftop»yrf ra Svo 
TtfAotirai oSirflB jxcAAoyri rjf ^lAf j[ rp iftp onyoDt^o'siyi xo^ouo^ou 

oSvw) Quia tunc quinquennis erat Demosthenis soror. 

In Aphobum I. p. 828. 1. 25. ir^AfM roiW vpof r^ houmj^ 
Atyfiyi 8o; onri xflov ^iifMcrayy XF'^ ^' m/utToAAa ixnerixsv ^ip I/mu 
An^yM^yri itcii 8i}piTviSp, roi; (rvyfrirp^i;) xal »; iroAAa rSav efimv 
kifioimfp ovSmpoy ^cov hriSeixyuyai rourfloy. 

v^^ T» SiaiTiiTJ) xAijpflorcp videlicet ; a quo provocare licebat^ 
et ad judicium venire, alpmv recusaverat Aphobus : quod docet 
Orator p. 813. tl ftty f/^ot/Arro "A^ofios—ra ItxMot iroul¥, i^ 98^1 
Sv haip§piiiida roi; ys olxe/oi; IiriTpmiy, odSty ciy ein Sixcoy ov^s 

In Aphobum I.^ p. 8SS. 1. 8. iiaXa^mg Si xAi.rixXa aUr- 

Xi^S ovrco TuvreLf vAfoy ^ rei ^fil(rtaT&vxp^l^'''f'>^ F''^^ xaraAfi^fi^* 
yai xoiyp wa¥Tt$ o/xf io'/3i]rou(riy, »$ irsyreraAayrou Si fMvov ri); owrias 
ownis, ex rwrairug robs Xoyou^ aireyiivd^ao'iy^irjoo-oSoy /xey i0 aur»y 
oux MtofahofT9g, ret St xs^^Aaia ^ayfpi flCToSffixyurre^i ^tAA' aura r A 
apXoTia ovrco$. amiSn; oyiiAaJo-flai f a<rxoyrsf . 

Interponendum OT inter aireyi)yap^ao'iy et vp^oSoy. ov, irpo- 

o'oSoy fMy f^ aur«y oux a9ro^a/yoyTs;,^T«^ 8e xi^oAotia fays^ onvo* 
tsixyvvrc;, d(AA* avr^ taI ^epx^^ oSrw; ayoiSw; fltyijAflDO-dtfi ^o-xoyre^. 
Ut nunc se habet hie locus, manifesta repugpantia ^st inter r^ 
Ȥ^aXMa fanpoi car^tixvuvai, et rei ap^aia aniXmim ^oo'xsiy. 
Medela mea si Reiskio succurrisset^ nihil ^oix/Aoy ad incsxplica- 
bilia explicanda excogitavisset. 

In Aphobum II. p. 838. 1. 2. cilSi raura iewofaho^reg, 1^ c^y 
nfui^af/Lwoi rag nW^opig (Mp ifMv scilicet) s icref sperf. Svfl^^Tf y^ 

Commentarii. S67 

Tfltunii^ rijV owrtaf, ti$ ^, xol) rou ipapiSori f/uoi, xa) r/yo^ tvamlov* r J 
ftsv ycip 8uo TaXavra, xai Tflij iySo^xovra ftva^, utto to5» Trrfap»v 
TaXavTfloy xa) Tpi(r;(iX/eoy eXajSffrff. war ovSe raSA' u^rep Ijxou si; ro 
Si^ftoo^iov. eript^(r0((rde. ufj^irspsu yag ^o-av jy Ixs/yoi; rolg ^povnig, 

Tm TFTTagoov tuXolvtoov xa) rpi(r;^iX/coy) Talenta duo, Denios- 
tbenis sororis dotem^ acceperat Dehiopho; ininas dctoginta, 
dotem matris Demosthenisy Aphobus. 8i his addantur septua- 
ginta minse, quarum usunifructum habuerat Therippides, erunt 
talenta quatuor^ et triginta minae ; h. e. talenta quatiior^ et tria 
millia drachmarum. 

In Aphobum, 111. p. 844. 1. 6. El fx,^, xal vporsgov fioi S/xij; 
yevoiiivrig ifpog "A^ofiov, oH avdpe$ iixoLoroilf (TUV^^i; iroWco roijTcov fcei'^o) 
xa) demrep* aurou ^Ifsua'api^ivov l>ot8lcog s^eXiy^ag hoi r^v Tre gi^iveiciv 
Tfloy ciBixrifiMTcov, ioLoy^ourrlog av Itroag eokotPovpi^riV, fji^rj xa) viiv ou ^uvijdco 
dei^eii w^ wapaxpova-eroil woJ* exaarot Vfioov uurwv, *' Locus cor- 
ruptus, quem neque Simonis Fabricii^ aut Flieronymi Wolfii, 
divinalio videtur pei:sanas8e; neque nbstra nobis satisfacit, &c." 

Mibi videtur corrigendum esse, ft^ xa) vuv o6 dvw^dco hl^ai v^ 
Trapaxgwa-erai %oi* exaara 'TMIN aurcoy. 

ujxiy cohaeret cum dsl^at, axnm vero cum exacra. 

In Aphobum, II L p. 848. I. 21. vep) tij^ pLaprvptas jxey tfvyi 
ryjV fiicavoVf irep) oS /xaXiora vpoariixev avrtS riv x6yov Troislo'iai* 
Trep) 8' aKKoov ^(r)v e^atTeiv, \t/suSo/tsyo;. P. 859* h. orat. yvtoa-e(r6e 
yotg If auTTis axovj'avTig, ra lui^aprvpr^p^iva cog B<rrt\^ aXriitj^ xa) rhf 
JlfiAuoey Srt vvv [lev jrep) Tfimov ^ijaiy efairsiv' to ti vpwrov vvlp 
rgiaxovTU fiivov pi,vwv l^jfrei. 

In Aphobum, III. p. 851. 1. 2. xa/roi traig a^iov ean xaru" 
yvSavai rmv fiagrupmv ^lai touto, o*i jxoyoi tcov ^dnroT ^ycavitrfii^wv 8/xi}y 
hv xtfMif Toy 8iwxoyr' auroy avroig p^apruga roiroov hriBsixvvown yeye^ 

F. xarayvoovai TwvpiMprvpm ha TOTTON. (Apbobum scilicet.) 
Non enim video quo roDro referatur. 

In Aphobiun, III. j3. 854. 1.7. Apfaobus, Demosthenis tutor, 
damnatus fuerat, per fraudem, ut quidem aiebat ipse, Demos- 
ibenis ; qui Mil>am mauumissum esse affirmasset, ideoque ilium 
Aphobo ad tormenta dedere adnegasset, Phanumque, seu Ste- 
pbanum testem produxisset verborum Aphobi ipsius, M ilyam 
liberum esse, quondam confessi. Pbanum vel Stephanum nunc 
falsi testimonii accusal Aphobus, defendit Demosthenes ; docet- 
que, testimonia dicta de Milya non effecisse ut Aphobus causa 
caderet : rolg 8e iiaprvci (inquit Orator) ri pi^ip^grupfiTai ; /Mtg* 
rogowrt nagaytviir^ai Trgog t£ SiainjrJ ^^^^SX^> ^^ *A^ofiog oopLO- 
Xoyu MiXiav tXsJtepoy nhat, i<PiiivTa uro rou Jr^pM^thovg warpog. 


S6S In Demoithtnem 

% yoi^g ourco iauiia^'i^s Soxii ymafai, xa) Xey^siv Seivo;, iar ax rau- 

TTfig (i^yirpoi T^f bivrou. xai r/ Atyaw ; d irgo; ^'i^# djxoAoysi; elyod- 
Mi^sjioiv IXeuStpoy ; xa) t/ ftaXXoy l;(a> rj^y vpoixa ; 

Vulgata lectio est, xa) t/ Atycoy <3 «^pif ro5 Jm; »fioX^)n90'fy sTyau. 
MiXuay fAfu$?poy ; hiMknyug intulit Reiskius e codice Ms. quem 
Augustanum primum appellat.— cSftoXoyijo-a; habet codex Ms* 
Bavaricus. Profecto corrigendum ** xa) ti ti, xlyanr, c8 ir^^ to& 
Jio;, tiSftoXoyijo'a tlyai MiXuay iXfuflfpoy ; r/ /taXXoy ff;)^flo t^ irpoixa j'^ 
Istis verbis, xal t/ tl, Xt y cpy [^» rijy ^o7xa, inest proso- 

popoeia, in eis Aphobi personam suscipit Demosthenes; suat 
enim quae recte dicere potuisset ille. 

In Aphobumi III. p. 855. 1. 16. ri troi Toiiio-ouo-iy oi [uifTVpts^ 
od yflip o5to/ ys fte|fta^gigxa(riy (i$ ofMKoyilg M roi; f/to7; Soy^/Ccty, 
xal Xo^fly ToySpoToSa «; (Fourrir oAA* iy Tfi A^yisp tojuita yiygafag 

F, cus ifMXiyeis M r. f . 8. 

In Apbobum, III. p. 868. I. 8. mp) li,rov xorraXfiffl^ai rei 
XPW^ ly^oy, ^iXofuu (Fafws ^^i^w mScifoi '^^lAiyLevav* Taienta 
ilia significantur, de quibus In Aphob. I. p. 830. rr^A/uMgo-e 4^eti- 
va(rioCi TTcirroev leiviTfitTOv, dg rsrraga /xoi. raXavra i vetriip xariXiir^ 
xaropfopvyfji^ivaf xa) rourcoy xugiav jijv [Mpripa holi^Sm 

In Aphobuin, III. p. 858. 1* 12. TFtp) ii tou xaroXei^^yai r« 
;(p^fMtT eySoy, /SouXo/xai O'a^co^ ujxTy IviSei^ai \|/suS^jX6yoy* rouroy yap 
Toy Xoyoy xa^iixey, mil^ rd ;^pi}ftaTa /xsy toXX«( iri^ij^ev oyrst, oux. 
tT;^8 ^ eTi^si^ai raDd' w; a^roSeScoxey, 7y« e^ cixorcoy ouSev vpoo'^xon 
^/iiy favji xo/xi^Am ra y* oirra votp* jj/uy. 

7ya e^ elxorcoy ) Ut probabile fieret, nihil esse causss cur 

pecuniam recuperar^mus, quae jam turn. penes ods esset. 

In Aphobum, III. p. 859. L 27. i^po/xijy auroy %6(ret sTii roL 
^ipiftMTCi TO vX^of, xmS a Toy M^Kuay, oo§ slSc^a, e^^njo'^? o3rof Se 
ipeuSojXffyo^y nepi vivreov i^r^s. 7sep\ [liy roivuv, l^ijy cyco, rovrouy 
wage^m'oo 0*01 tov e^ovra TavTlyga^ay 00$ aru [is ^gouxoX^troi* 

^' Constructio baec est : vapaioaaw coi roy i/oygta Tcofrtypa^a, 
pS cu [IB irgowcec}J<F» TKfji tovtov." Reisk. 

Mihi secus videtur. nam V9p\ ^y ro/yt/y Touroa, est, JQie hoc 
quidem igitur, (i. e. utruni de omni pecunia, an de trigiota soluni 
minis.) ds est, Quemadmodum. 

De hoc quidem igitur, inquam ego, servum ilium tibi dedam 
iorquendunf, qui provocationis tua exemplum ,servatr*(quo ex* 
emplo scriptum est) super quibus rebus provocasti ote*. . 

Tayriypa^PL (isiru [is %pQVKuhi(rcop The copy of the term$ qfyouw 
challenge to me. 

Cammentarii. 369 

In Aphobuniy III. p. 859. 1* ult. vgooiMtravroi ii [lov, roy Jy* 
tpamov ei$ tifioXoytia'ag eXz^iepov bIvoli, xa} xara ^ijfjLeovog hfAOLprupyi^ 
cetSy av aTrojXocTf); rctvamlx roirmv xotToi Trig duyurgogf ee^/ijfAi croi 
vavd'y vveg wv av B^uiT^<ras ^av^s to irpcoTOV, /Sao'ayi^ojxiyou rou 

' -irpoo[A6(rctVTog 81 f*ou) Et quum ego prius juravero . ^atroL" 

vifyiifivov Tou 9rai$o$) per quaestionem babilani de servo qui pro-^ 
vocationis tuae exempluui servat^ ut appareat^ super quanain 
pecunia Milyam prioio ad tormeuta poposcisti. 

In Onetorem. 

In Onetorem^ I. p. 866. 1. 10. o<p\ovTo$ U fMi tyjv lUr^v *A^o$ov 
'^iS eTnrpofrr^Sf xa) ou^h 8/xaioy Troielv eisKovrog, hxhtinv fusv r^ii^ig 
'OvriToog ovK ene^stpvifrev, oux airoh^ooxcios Se r^v irpoixu, (sororis suai 
scilicet^ quam duxerat Apbobus^ retinente dotem Onetore^ ne, 
si Apbobus judicio tutelae damnaretur, amitteretur dos) oXX* 
auTog xvpiog oov, mg ciTroXeXonrvlag rtig a^sX^rjg, xai Sou; xojx/o'ao'tfai 
ou huya[A8iog, avtyriiufjtrairdM ficxaav rijv yijv^ e^ayeiv pu If auTrig 


Potestne tcog significare dotem ? babetne locum in solute ser- 
mone ? Si ita sit^ corrigam lubeiis, xa) JflS xofilcra<r6eu ou Siwee- 
fi^evog. Sed meKus forsan iesset legere, xu\ iovg, (^Afo^ ri^v 
icqoiKd scilicet) xoixlcratriai J' ou ivvipi^evog* 

In Onetorem, I. pr867. K 26. eycJ roivvv opi^oXoyovpLivoog othco 
TCLUT fiAeg^coy, cog ouS* So'Ts^ov Sfire^oaav, otopMi pu^ioog hnSet^tiv 10 
auTiov Tfiuy iFiirpayfj^ivooy ; oi^^i* vpiiv ysvetrdui ^uvepov, on Xftv ei (Lyj 
Iff) TouTOig, otkk* €7f) Tttt Sa^ Ta^lcov affoSouyai^ ra^yvptov el^ov, oux 
av ffor' aTeSotrav^ ouS* ay TrpdtevTO, TOioturag etvayxag elp^ev auroi; ro 

Ordo bic est,-— o7ojxai paJ^lcag entBei^snf If a^Twv touv vetrpayfii^ 
vflov co; ou8* uoTffpoy a9re$o<rav. Deinde rescribeiidum opinor, axrfi* 
Ujxlv yivMui ^avspov, Sri, xav ei jxij Iff) rourot;, aXX* It) tco 8i«^ 
Ta%€tt>v airoSoDvaf rapyipiw, EIXEN, oux tlfv ffor aTsSoa*av, ouS*- av 

xav jf /x:^ lirl rovroig) etiam si noH bis conditionibus, &\X' 1^) rep 
Sifl^ Tot^im airoiotJvou rotfyupov, sed bac lege ut Onetor et Tinio- 
crates, quern, maritutn suuni priorem, Onetoris soror reliquerat, 
confestim Apbobo, novo manto, dotem numerarent, EIXENf 
(sororem Onetoris Apbobus, scilicet) ovx av vot otnt^aLV, 

X. T. X. 

In Onetorem, I. p. 869* !• 23. pLtj yetp ori irpig rovrov, toiovrw 
ovra, aXX* ouSs xgo$ jfXXov ovS* dfy fl; ouSeva roiourov <rvvixXaypi>ei 
voto6[M9og (sororis suse conjugiuni videlicet, cum talento dotis) 
apLoiprv^wg ay Ivpof rv. aWa rm roiovreuy rvexpe xa) yoifiovg iroioSftfy, 

370 On the Error relative to 


Hie yaiuou^ significare videtar, Convivia nuptialia. 
In Onetorem, II. p. 876. 1. 19* '^obs Spovg awo rrig o\xtas if^^ 
filf Koi roAayrov [aovw ilvpu ri^v wpoixi f ijo-iy^ h ^rh x^^^/ov &xaTf- 

Opinor '£^ tp to xeoplov &]roTfrijui^0«i. 

0;i /Ae Error relmve to tAe <i;we ©/"Me departure of 

the Israelites from Egypt ^ 

XnE opinions of some of our most learned bishop^i, kindly con* 
yeytd tx> nue, have enabled me to assert with a degree of confi- 
dence^ which I should not otherwise have felt^ that I have dis-» 
covered a very remarkable mistake of all commentators w fixing 
the time of day at which the Israelites quitted Egypt. This 
discovery, though at first sight apparently insignificant, leads to 
two results, by no means unimportant. It brings to light, oo 
the one hand, some beautiful and additional specimens of the 
wonderful harmony and minute accuracy with which the Paschal 
types accord with their antitypes. On the other hand, it pow- 
erfully tends to set at rest that controversy in which so many of 
the most profound theologians of various countries and times 
have engaged, respecting our Lord's anticipation of the JjasX 

However, as the subject, though important, possesses ifkone: 
of those attractions derivable from a reference to the disputes ' 
and passions of the day, it would be presumptuous in me (an 
individual unknown to the literary world) to suppose th'at, by 
printing a small tract, I shall in a great degree succeed in ex- 
citing public attention to it. 

Permit me therefore to introduce it to the notice of the 
many critical and scientific readers, into whose hands your 
Journal usually passes. The subject is curious, and may not 
be uninteresting to your readers. It adds, I think, a new evi- 
dence of the truth of our religion, to the bundle (if 1 may so 
express myself) which w6 already have collected, and. which^ 
united, the whole force of infidelity never has beeui and, I trusty 
never will be, able to break. 

the JeTm* departure from Egypt. 37 1 

Many expoMtorSy and of no little eminence, appear to have 
been influenced by a persuasion that^ for the accurate and conif 
plete accomplishment of the paschal types, it was necessary that 
the sacrifice of Christ, and of the paschal lamb, should take 
place on the same day. But this persuasion appears on exami- 
nation to be totally erroneous. The sacrifice of our Saviour, and 
that of the paschal lamb, were not designed to have taken place 
on the same day. Their doing so, instead of producing a close 
fulfilment of the paschal types, would exhibit a very remarka- 
ble discrepancy between some of the types and their antitypes ; 
and could come to pass only by our Lord's setting an example 
of opposition to the Jewish ecclesiastical authorities, in respect 
to one of the most solemn observances of the law : an example 
entirely at variance with his general declarations and conduct. 
This persuasion, then, seems to have taken its rise from two 

I. From a want of accuracy in distinguishing the ol^ects 
which the several paschal types were respectively designed to 

II. From a mistake, into which, I believe, all commentators, 
without exception, have fallen ; in fixing the time of day at . 
which the Israelites took their dgparturejrom Egypt. 

I. in considering the principal circumstances of the Passover 
we shall perceive that there are five perfectly distinct classes of 

1. The Deliverance of the Israelites from the Egypti9n 
bondage was a type of our deliverance, not only as to its nature, 
butdso to the month, the day of the month, and the hour 
of it. 

2. The paschal lamb, with its qualities, lypified the Redeemer, 
in virtue of whose merits and atoning sacrifice both these der 
liverances were vouchsafed. 

3. The sacrifice, the sprinkling of the blood, 8cc. were types 
of the death, sufferings, and bloodshedding, of the Redeemer. 
By these he reconciled us to God, and purchased that dispensa- 
tion of grace and mercy, of which His protection, and miracu- 
lous superintendence of His chosen people, formed a part, and 
to which they were subservient. 

4. The eating of the paschal sacrifice was a symbol, and 
means of their participation in the benefits of the sacrifice, and 
also a type of that feast, which was, in the fulness of time, to be 
established, and at which our souls and bodies are strengthened 
and refreshed by the body and blood of Christ, as our bodies 
are by the bread and wine. 

373 On the Error relative td 

5« The concomitants^ such as the eating it with bitter herbs 
and unleavened bread^ and in the posture of travellers, &c. were 
types of the conduct, of the dispositions, and of the circumstances 
of those M'ho should be delivered. 

The two first of these are the objects to which our present 
remarks must be directed. 

The prhicipal object of commemoration in the Jewish Pass* 
over may be easily and abundantly < proved to have been the 
deliverance from btmdage, according to a promise made to Abra^ 
ham. This deliverance was the type of another deliverance, 
also promised to faithful Abraham and to their forefathers. 

*^ White the punctual and specific performance of one promise 
was a pledge of the faithful fulfilment of the other, it also typi- 
cally represented the nature and the time of the deliverance, 
which was the subject of the latter promise. It foreshowed^ 
that as they had been delivered from the hou&e of bondage in 
Egypt, so, when the fulness of time should come, the true 
children of faithful Abraham would also be delivered from the 
bondage of the law, and of sin, and death. Here then is the 
type and the antitype. In the month Ahib or JNisan, on tJie 
Jif'teenth day of the month, " between the two eveiungs/* at the 
time of day, but not on the day^th^t the paschal lamb was slain, 
the children of Israel marched out of Egypt, received the punc- 
tual fulfilment of the former promise, and were delivered from 
the '' house of bondage.'^ In the same month, on the same 
day of (he month, probably on the same day of the week, and 
about the same hour of the day, the latter promise was fulfilled; 
our deliverance from worse than Egyptian bondage was com- 
pleted; and Jesus on the cross exclaimed, '' It is finished T 
bowed his head, and gave up the ghbst. But St. Paul teaches 
us that it was by faith that the patriarchs embraced ** the pro- 
mises, not having received them," but having ^' seen them afar 
ofl^." By faith ! But what was the object of their faith i The 
Promised Seed — the Seed that was to bruise the Serpent's 
head. ^^ The Scripture foreseeing that God would justify the 
heathen through fiiith, preached before the Gospel unto Abra- 
ham, saying, In thee shall all the nations of the earth be blessed." 
*' Abraham," said our Saviour himself, '* rejoiced to see my 
day, and he saw it, and was glad." The object then of his 

' A collection of several opinions and proofs on this subject may be 
seen in the Appendix to my Seraioo on the Passover, published at Ri- 
vington's^ ^ 

the Jews' departure from Egypt. 373 

fsidi was Christ oHr Passover. This, be was seasible^ vfas 
the procuring cause of all God*s promtsed blessings to his pos*- 
terity. The lamb itself was no more the procuring cause of the 
deliverance from Egyptian bondage, than of the deliverance of 
mankind from the bondage of sin and death. It would be of 
no, value or efficacy whatsoevei^ but as it typified, and was a 
Mcramental memorial, representing the sacrifice of tbe '' lamb 
slain from the foundation of the world.'* In' both cases the 
same propitiatory sacrifice was the procuring cause of God's 
merciful dispensations, in hoih the same ^ fore^ordained^* 
scheme of redemption was kept in view. The day before the 
accomplishment,, then, of the former promise, a type was or- 
dained to represent the procuring cause of both deliverances. 
This type was to be annually continued till the Deliverer prefi- 
;gured by it should appear; in short, it was to '^ show the Lbrd's' 
death till he came/^ And as this type of tbe Deliverer was 
ordained on ;the evening before the former deliverance^ so the 
last anniversary of the type was observed the evening before the 
latter deliverance was accomplished. Immediately after this 
its final anniversary, it was solemnly and authoritatively abrogat- 
ed by the appointment of another rite, which is to '^show the 
Lord's death till his coming again." The sacrifice then of the^ 
paschal lamb typified neither the deliverance of the world, nor 
the day of the deliverance. If it had any reference to the time' 
of the deliverance, it marked only the hour of it." 

From this it follows that, to fulfil the types, our Saviour 
^ould not have been ordained to suffer on the day on which the 
paschal lamb was slain. If he had suffered on that day, the 
fulfilment would have been less minutely accurate than it really 
was. The completion of our deliverance was to be expected 
on some anniversary of the deliverance of the Jews. And we 
are informed that such an expectation did prevail.' To tbe 
particulars of this deliverance ours ought to correspond : and it 
may be shown that they do correspond most circumstantially : 
they agree in the month, the day, and the hour. 

II. For the other source of the persuasion which we have 
been considering, is the mistake into which commentators hava 
fallen, in fixing the time of day at which the Israelites left 
Egypt, For all commentators have agreed in laying down tbe 

^ There was a tradition among the Jews, that they should be redeemed 
'On the very day of their coming out of Egyp^ viz. on Uie 15th of Nisan. 
Whitby's AanotatiuDs, Matt. xxvi. 3. 

d74 On the Error relatite to * 

MORifiKO ai the time of their departure; whereas^ it was/ ill 
fact, at 1 have already hinted, '' between the two evenings/' after- 
the ** ninth hour/* about the hour when the Saviour exclaimed 
** it is finished r when the ** vail of the temple was rent in 
twain from the. top to the bottom/' that the free approach to the 
mercy-seat was opened *' to all believers;" that the rocks were 
rent; the graves unclosed; and that heaven and earth proclaimed 


The proofs, which may be brought to establish this curious 
fact, appear to me irrefragable. They may be classed under 
twQ heads ; viz. proofs deducible, 

'^ 1. Froip a general view of the transaction, as related in the 
twelfth chapter of Exodus. 

II. From the direct testimony, and from the expressions used 
in various parts of scripture, describing or alluding to this event. 

]. From a general view of the transaction, it will appear ex-^ 
tremely improbable that they could have commenced their march 
much before the above time, and still less cpuld have all quitted 
Eg^pt. The destruction of the Egyptians took place at mid- 
night* ' When it had taken place, it is no unreasonable presump- 
tion that some considerable interval had elapsed before a mes- 
senger was sent to Moses. 'i\e time consuffted in unavailing 
lamentations, in tl^e confusion and consternation that must have 
ensued, and rendered them, at first, incapable of deciding upon 
the measures to be taken, in announcing the calamity to Pha- 
raoh, in assembling his counsellors ; all this must have occa- 
sioned some del^y, even before a messenger was despatched to 
Moses. Then (he children of Israel, dwelling in a district of 
their pwn, and being withal treated as slaves, it can scarcely be 
supposed that the abode of Moses was near the king's palace.' 
Therefore, before he could have come, to receive the orders for 
the dismissal of his countrymen, it ipust have prqbably been morn- 
ing, or very nearly morniqg. Consequently, the business of 
assembling the people for their march could not have commenced 
till that time. ^ 

But we arrive at thi^ conclusion more directly, by the express 

* In Exodus, ix. v. 89. is a strong, if not decisive intimation, that the 
dwellingr-place of Moses was ^ out of the city." And this is conformable 
both with the history of tlie first settlement of the Israelites in Egypt, 
and with what we might reasonahly presume would be their situation, 
when we consider the cruel and jealous policy of the Egyptians, in de- 
stroying their male children. It is not at all probable that the Egyptians 
would suffer a people, at whose increase they were so greaitly alarmed^ 
to remain within, or even very near, the walls of their capital. 

the Jews departure Jrotn Egypt. S75 

teatimoify of the historj before us. We there read^ that the 

Israelites were positively forbidden to stir out of their doors till 

the mormng. I contend, then, that no movement whatsoever 

towards the collection of the Israelites was made till day-Ught; 

and moreover, that there is reason to doubt whether Pharaoh's 

orders could have been transmitted to ^11 the proper officers, to 

permit this collection, till some time after day-light. Then, 

when these orders were transmitted, we must consider the time 

required (whatsoever degree of preparation we may suppose 

to have been previously made), to assemble a mixed and un-^ 

organised multitude, consisting of men, women and children, 

and computed to amount to 1,. 500^000 souls; carrying with 

them whatever articles of clothes and furniture were portable^ 

and taking also ihew flocks and herds, '' even much cattle** It 

is not probable, it is scarcely possible, (however disposed the 

Egyptians might have been to assist and hasten their departure), 

that they could have been assembled and prepared for their 

march, for many hours. 

But if we could admit that they might have set out in the 
morning, it is utterly impossible they could have commenced 
their march early in the morning. What then becomes of those 
passages which vi^e shall presently have occasion to consider, 
and in which, it is said, they came out of Egypt *' by night" 
JMoreover, in such a climate' as that of Egypt, it must at all 
times be an important object to travellers to avoid as much as 
possible the heat of the day. But in how great a degree must 
this have been important to the Israelites, journeying as they 
were, with their wives, their children, theil* j^oc/» and their herds^ 
and carrying their kneading troughs (and probably as many other 
articles as they could .bear) on their shoulders. Yet, if they did 
set out in the morning, I contend they must of necessity have 
set out so late^ that the whole journey must have been performed 
in the very hottest part of the day, which the above view of their 
situation renders extremely improbable. But if we suppose 
them commencing their march ^^ between th^ two evenings," 
perhaps after three o'clock, or between the ninth and eleventh 
hour, then the sun had declined considerably, and the heat was 
beginning to abate. [The last and heaviest part of the journey, 
when they w6uld suffer most from fatigue, would be accom- 
plished . after sunset ; a circumstance highly important, if not 
essential, to a body so composed and encumbered as they were. 

The inference to be drawn from all thin is, that (supposing 
no express scriptural authority for the morning or the evening 
commencement of the march) it is probable that the Israelites 

376 On the Error relmtive to 

mardied from Rameses '' bettfeen the two e^^inp^ or afte^ 
three o'clock i4i theaftertioon of the fifteenth of Nnan ; the very 
^ seawH*^ at which, on the day before, they were ordered to 
sacrifice the paschal hiinb; and that tliey reached Succoth some 
time after sunset^ in the coonie of the nights 

II. It 18 now to be shown^ what countenance this deduction 
receives from accounts of, and allusions to, the transaction, to 
be found in scripture. 

1. Negatively. There is no passage in scripture, in which 
the morning is said to be the time of their departure. Under 
this head, too, may be classed the arguments derivable from the 
embarrassment under which commentators of acknowleged 
eminence are evidently placed, when (under the supposition of 
the morning being the time of the departure) they attempt to 
reconcile the apparently opposite declarations of scripttn*e, that 
they were brought out '^ by day and by ikight.*^ 'Fbis embar- 
rassmeint will be pointed out in notes, as we consider the several 
texts descriptive of the time of the going out of Egypt. 

2. The first passage, tending to prove that they went out of 
Egypt in the afternoon, is written in the 41st and 42nd Verses of 
Exod. xii. 

. Even the self -same day it came to pass, that all the hosts of 
the Lord went out from the land of Egypt. It is a night to 
be much observed unto the Lord, for bringing them 0i/^from the 
land of Egypt. 

So they marched out that day. But further we read, it is a 
night to be observed. What night ? why, the night of that day, 
the 15th. The night in which they were brought ** out of the 
land of Egypt." This was not the night of the fourteenth, for 
in that night they were not to stir out of their doors tiU the 
morning. But it was the night of *the Jifteenth, the night of 
their arrival at Succoth, the halting place of their first 
MARCH out of the land of their captivity. 

The solution is easy and natural, if we suppose the Israelites 
to have set out ^' between the two evenings,'' and to have arrived 
at Succoth at night. Then we can comprehend with ease, and 
reconcile without violence to the simple and obvious sense of 
the historian's words, the two circumstances of their marching 
out of Egypt *' in the body and strength of the day/' and yet 
Observing the mgfit unto the Lord for bringing them out, &c. 

3. Another passage is Numbers xxxiii. 3. *' On the morrow 
after the Passover, the children of Israel went out with an high 
hand in tu^ sight of the Egyptians." They went out with 
an *' high hand ;" they would hardly (however urgent the Egyp-' 

the Jews' departure^from Egypt. 3.77 

iiafid might haVe been) have broken the <:ominand of their God, 
and have quitted their bouses before morning* And accordingly, 
they went out in the sight of the Egyptians^ They assembled 
themselvei and their flocks and htrdA in broad day-light ; and aa 
soon as all was ready, (which I have endeavoured to show scarcely 
could be the case till the afternoon,) they set out. 

4. Compare this passage with Deut. xvi. 1. where it is ex- 
pressly declared, ^' the Lord thy God brought thee forth oul 
of Egypt by night J* 

In this comparison the followhig points may be noticed. In 
Numb, xxxiii* it is s^d, they departed from Ramesea on the 
Jifteenth, on the morrow after the Passover^^. and in the sight of 
all the Egyptians. This agrees in all .^^^r^ect^ with the state- 
ment (Exod. xii. 22«)» ^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^'^ ^ ^"^ ^"^ ^^ ^^^ doors 
till the morning. Therefore, hitherto, there>.was no going forth 
by night. They " departed^' they setout^ some time in broad 
day-light on the fifteenth. Their being brought forth out of 
Jigypt could nut refer to the time antecedetit to their departure. 
Their departure was not at night. Consequently the phrase, 
'' by night" is fairly referable to some part of their march, 
subsequent to their departure. And what part of it more pro- 
perly^ than their arrival at Succoth, the close of their 
march, the^rsif stage of their journey out of Egypt r 

5. But tbe^assago which appears to speak most decidedly ' 
upon the point, and indeed, to mark distinctly zxkA positively the 
time of their quitting Egypt, is Deut. xvi. 6. '^ At the place 
which the Lord thy God shall choose to put his name in, thei^e 

' thou shalt sacrifice the Passover, at even, at the goiV/g down of 
the sun, at the season that thou camest forth out 
OF Egypt." 

This passage amounts to a clear determination of the time of 
^their setting out,— ^namely, **even," or between the two evenings; 
the time at which the sun was on the decline. The '' season" 
evidently means the precise time of day, as may be proved from 
the words connected with it ; for the two first expressions de- 
note time of day^ and they are all obviously meant to specify the 
same time, viz. the time for slaying the paschal lamb. Thus, 
the time of day for slaying the paschal lamb, the evening, the 
time of the soing down of' the sun, and the time of their coming 
forth out oj Egypt, were the same. Consequently, we hav« an 
express authority of Scripture that the Israelites left Egypt, not 
on the day, but at the hour, when the Passover was slain, ^nd 
this has been shown to be the hour which best agrees with all 
the circumstances of the transaction, and which affords a simple 

S78 On the Errors ^c. 

and natural method of reconciling those expressions, in which 
the going out of the. Israelites is said to have taken place, in 
some passages by day, and in others by night.** 

Now if these reasonings be correct, a beautiful and wonder- 
fully circumstantial conformity between one of the chief paschal 
types, and its antitype, is exhibited. In the perfection and 
closeness of their correspondence, they stand, perhaps, unri- 
valled ; and present to us a most striking evidence of the divine 
origin of the law« and of the identity of Jesus as the true pas- 
chal lamb, prefigured in it. ' 

Another consequence is, that the discovery sweeps away the 
groundwork' of the celebrated controversy respecting the day,' 
in which our Liord partook of the Last Passover. 

^* For i^ was not only not essential, but not conformable to the 
accurfite fulfilment of the paschal type?,, that our Lord should 
have celebrated the last Passover before the national day. It 
is in the highest degree improbable, and at variance with the 
general tenor of his character and conduct, that he should do jso« 
There is direct evidence (Matt. xxvi. 17* Marl^, xiv. 12. Luke, 
xxii. 7.) that He did not do so. An explanation can be given 
of those phrases which might seem to imply the anticipation of 
the national day. Therefore, as long as the first covenant was 
in force. He set an example of obedience, in all things lawful, 
both to its ordinances and to its ecclesiastical authorities. He 
annulled nothing. He resisted nothing. He removed nothing of 
the law, till its destined purpose had been effected, and theful^ 
ness of time had come. The paschal supper was not abrogated 
till^ the last anniversary of it had been duly observed. The ad- 
juration of the High Priest was not despised, till our High 

* I cannot but think, that an iDaccurate view of the paschal types 
and a pious desire to reconcile a teeming discrepancy, predisposed the 
many learned men, who have maintained the anticipation of the national 
day for celebrating the Passover, to admit and support the arguments for 
an act so anomalous, and so uncongenial with the principles upon which 
our Saviour generally appears to have modelled his conduct. The state- 
ments in Matt. zxvL 17. Mark, xiv. 12. and Luke, xxii. 7. are so plain, 
and decisive, that no effort is necessary to understand their purport; but 
considerable ingenuity has been required to raise a doubt upon them. 
The difBculty, too, and the differences of opinion among critics, in at-' 
tempting to account for the anticipationi is remarkable. The reader may 
see them briefly stated in Jennings' Jewish Antiquities, p. 455. In the 
second part of the Appendix to my Sermon on the Passover, I have en- 
deavoured to show, and I trust not unsuccessfully, that there are insu- 
perable objections to the scheme of the Anticipation, and clear evidence 
on the other ude. 

De Verba 'AxruiMf vel 'Aktouvogj. 379 

Priest had blFered the one great and all-sufficient sacrifice. 
The vail of the temple was not '^rent in twain/' till Jesus had 
given up the ghost, and the eternal mercy-seat had been '* opened 
to all believers.'^ His conduct^ to the last, was in unison with 
His splemn declaration ; Think not. that I am come to destroy 
the law, or the prophets : I am not come to destroy, but to Jut" 
fit. For verily I say unto you, till heaven and earth pass, one 
jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all bje 

Southampton, May» 1824. 

De Verbo *AxTaiv^ vel *AxTMyoco, scr. E. H. Barker. 

[Vide Misc. Cr. V. U. P. z. p. 63.] 

Insunt Emendationes Suidce, Etymologicorum, Hesychii, 

Mschyli, Flatonis, et Orphei. 

JEscn. Eum. 36 • *!!$ jx^re (rcoytelv ft^s ]x' inTulveiy ^io'tv, ubi 
notavit G. Burges. : — •'* Phot. Sooxelr uvt) toD la^vetv. Extat 
iterum (tooxm in Soph. El. 117*> netjue pluries ap. Tragicos. 
Inter *' [ri] " ava^ Xgyoftsva recensen debet et axratvBiv. Phry- 
nich. Arab. 23 : *AxTaim(ra,i* crifJiMlvei jxiy tI u\(foo(rai xa) iftapai 
xeii fji^erecoglo'eu. AWypXoc, Oix St' uxralyai, ff^cr\ PaguTOvcos, olov 
ovx er igiouv IvvaiAat sfji^otur^v/' [Iftaurov, D. R. ad Timaei Lex. 
20.] '' n\ura)v tv tm ^atSeovt ds cerro ^epiOTTcofiivov. Corrige h 
Tw ^eieȴr, v. Kidd. in Critical Review Jan* 1803* p. 142.*^' D. 

' Locus est hie: — " Suid. V, 'OfTvymtovog : Aiyu wi h 'AXxijSia^j (Plato 3, 
120. USt.) O^— aXX^ Tip^g MuHai <n in Tov iprvyono^oy, (see Schol. Plat. 74.) 
dffojSxiyiiv 7ia\&Xk9V( toioOtov;* jv ^{Jwvi, *'OTi od vfog roifs ruy^Qiras kydn l<m, 
nt^ is Tov^M^^f. What says Kuster to h OatWi? ' Pessime;' and well 
he mighfy^^^lif^^sease is admitted, where is the remedy ? Alas, Sape 
evenit lii, ^l kri^n nostram exercent, lU, dum astra speculantur^ ea, qwB ante 
pedet sunt, non mdeant. If K. had submitted to the drudgery of reading 
a few lines of Leopardus Emendd. 9, 5. he would not have permitted the 
illusive h ^aiiton to remain unaltered, and his dgnificare nimirum vult, 
would have been countenanced at least by a Greek word : — ' Hoc Platonis 
verba Proclta aut Phtinus atU alius qvisquam irUerpretaru, inguit, 'EM^AI- 
vaSy oT» od Ttfos fouf tvy}yttts ay^ hri, i. e. Significam non esse Alcibiadi 
certamen cum vulgo aut aliguo e plehe. Negue enim ex Pfwdone Platanis 
seguentia verba deprompta essecrtdendum est. ^Omi is, as we shall have 

$80 De Verba 'Ai^rahm. 

R. ad Timaei Lex. L c. x-^* Id Phtdont cum huic gloats non 
Mtia aptum locum reperirem, oborta niihi suspicio est, Phryo* 
ly TM ^(Spn 'Scripsbte^ propterea auod in illo Diatogo plura^ 

Juam in ullo* alio, xeiroii}f4fya xa) ^tvu xa) k^mfixfuin^ ou» in 
latone reprehendit Dionys. H. Ep. ad Pomp. 127*> rcpenuntur. 
Sed ne bic quidem verbi sedem ita demonstrare licet, nihil ut 
dttbitationis supersit* Et erunt fortasse, qui Phryn. memoriae 
lapsu Phadonem pro libris de LL* 2. p. 583. laudasse dicanl : 
*E¥ i XP^^V f*^^ i^inTy^Ton t^v olxalap f^oifri(rtVf wv (Lsilvrral r§ xoe) 
/3o» «raxra>(' xal Srav oKTCHywr^ iavrOf Tuyivra arixTcos cA Tnfia, 
Sic tres Codd. Par. Leid. et alius, quo HSt, usus est, item 
Stob. Ms. et Schol. Plat, ad h. I. haiic lectioncm produnt/' 
Tdem D. R. in prima Timai Editione: — '' Hanc rarissimam 
vocem e Plat, expulit sciolorum imperitia, dicam, an audacia i 
Neque bujus rei testem dabo Timseum, cujus hac parte fides 
propter crebras interpolationes vacillat, sed alium locupletiorem, 
omnique majorem exceptione, Phryn. Arab. Ilpovap, So^» Ms. 
aliquando, si Deus^ierit^ a nobis luce donahdum. At enimvero 
liquide mihi videor posse affirmare, verbi axra/vsty nullum in 
Phtedone vestigium reperiri, quin ne locUm quidem, cui satis 
apte conveniaty nisi forte hue referre velis p. 398. lisp) IxeTvo 
voXvv XP^^^^ e9rroY}jxeyi], xou 7Fe§) rh opotrov roVov ttoWsL avrntlveKrm, 
xol) ToXXfl^ iraSovora, Scripsit igitur Phryn., iii fallor, Iv ^ottBgeOf 
in quo Dialogo plura sunt, q'uam in quovis alio, 'jceTCottifiiva xa) 
^ot xai apxoti(yxpvnvif quibus Philosophum, quando se attollit^ 
delectari notat Diooys. H. £p. ad Pomp. 127. Neque in 
Phadro commodas verbo sedes diu qua^rends sunt. Ecce enim 
p. 348. (=31. Ast.) "H^rr* lit\ tu icrp^toc flfjtt^co xadto'xi rw Tvsro), 
Toi^ jxsv, kxovToi hoi TO [iri avrmlystV Toy Ss v^gKrrrjVy fia\ot akovrei. 
Quid si hie olim Gramniatici legerint, hoi to ftij ^XTaiveiv?" 
[Scholia tamen Hermeae p. 168. leetioni volgatse favent, ^Hg pt^ 
avrirc/wiv ro aXoyov.] '* Ibidem pergit Plato : B»a^oju«y0f , XS*'' 
fter/^oov, Ixxow ^vayxaa-ev au tfpoa^Xim rolg TTMhxoig. An hje pro 
ikxwv quondam scriptum fuit axralvcov, vel, ut Phryn. jubet, ax- 
raiv&vi Vitii certe suspicionem movet Cod. Voss., queni ia 
Bibl. Leidensi contuli, Ixxeoy prorsus omittens* ^wviderint 
aeutiores.'' [Nihil varietatis notavit Gaisford. fyett. Plat, e 


occasion to observe, one of those infame$ tcopuli so dangerous \o literary 

ibi IfA^VMiv cum Leopardo leg. monet Porson. ad Suid." Dobrxus p. 
78i. Sed aliquid htimani paasus est V.D. mifrique amicissimus; nana 
locum frustra queesivi in Koraoni Appendice. 

Membr^BodL Oacoo* 1820. Scholia Itermeae Lc« *Oti Itolmto^ 

T^^rcoVy auT^ §E av9IXxE< roy yelpova t&v Xmctffit afi,x reS a/xs/voyi r£^ 
77nrooy el; roi vor^rei eTS)].] '' Timasi glossam cum duidas descrir 
beret^ aliam quoque interpretationem^ qusk Platonis loco mirific^ 
conveoit, adjecit, ri Trgos trmorxriav opfji^/' Cf« Timaei glossam t 
*Pt;/x|3siy' ^Ofi,fietv, roOro is itTto rr^g nivritrtrng to^ ^oftjSou. Ubi Dr 
R, : — '^ Hoc verbum neque ap. Plat, inveni^ neque ap« uUom 
veterum Scriptt.'^ At refer ad Plat. Crat. s. 9^.| cum Scbnei- 
dero in Lex. Cr.; et sic Ms. Clark.^ teste Gaisfordia Lectin 
Plat, 35. Vide quae notavi ad Etj^m. M. 1121. Storz. 

Pergit vero G. Burges. ad ^scb. Eum. 1. 1.:—** AHud for- 
tasse exemplum uktolIvov yi^ivos cxtat ap. Etyt0, M.: 'AxTuivcar 
en) tiTTroov, *AKTOLlveiVf to fMTSco§lt^e(r6ai, xai hralge<rSon, xoi yat>-' 
piav. ItoLgoi to ^ktui uktos xa) pri[JM axrco^ k^ o5 to xOu^/^ 
ncapai Al(r^v\cp, 1^ o3 uxTutveo, [f lege £$' oS axraivcoy rh xouf /^ 
votpi AW^ktf,* D. R. ad Tim. 1. c« ' Etym. aunotat derivari ab 
ayoo, ex quo primum fieri axro^^ deinde verbum axTw, sigoificana 
xou^/^co ap. ^sch., ex hoc autem axra/yco.' HSt. Thes. Siue 
corruptelae suspicione citavit Stanl.] xa\ iutTouvav i^ivog, to avuyQ^ 
Ko^ ivva[Mvov ivopiovv. Verum ipse for titer nego hie stare posse 
uKTulveiv, Etenim scripsit Tragicus, 

cos j^^Ti <r»X€iv (jJ, aXX' uTraxralveiV CTao-iy. 
Unde bis corrigas et intelligas Hes. : 'AXsKraivsr Wxyei, yavgiu, 
^6T€(ogl}^6i" [f Sic ipse male scripsit pro axralvei/ D. R. ad 
Timaei Lex. ; seu potius scriptum invenit.] ^* '^^raxrlyeoy* & 
xiygTo-Jflti jx^ iwafAeyos" \^AvaxToilvoov correxerat Is. Voss., con- % 
jecerat Kuster. ' Apud Hes. e$t multo rarius comp. '^iroxra/- 
veiv: 'A'jeaXTuhoov' 6 xiveicriai ftij Soya/xeyo;.' D. R. 1. c] " Ne- 
que de nihilo est illud oux^t axralvco in Phryn.^' Hactenus 6. 
Burges. '^ iEschyli locus, quem Grammaticus", [ap. Bei^k. 
Anecd. Gr. 373,1 " et Phryn. respiciunt/' [imo P'hryn. verbis, 
Ai(r^vXo$, Oux ir axruhoo, ^kjo) fiapvToyooSp oloy ouxIt ogiotjv Suya- 
UMi efMLtnov, plane respexit ad versum quendam deperdita^ JPtf- 
bula,} *^ est in Eum. 36., ubi Scholio subjecto,'' [Z'coxsTy- xpo- 
' f i^siy, (niiMilye$ 8e xa) to yavgiStv xa) araxroifs ffi]$ay. "APJ^s, ^oa* 
xelv hoi TO y^pas :] *Axraivu¥ pra^ponendum est, non Stoxtkf*'^ D, 
R. 1. c. Recte ; nam v. Smxeiv^ cum sit intransitivum, non 
potest significare to xouf /^sty. Scholion illud tacite sic, ad D. R. 
mentem, edidit Schutz. ad ^^ch. V. 4. p^ 408. : Swxur lioL to 
yyipotg, ^Axratveiv xou^/(«iy. Stiiiulvei> ii xai to yavpi^v xati areCX" 
rco$ 9n)S^y. L) verbis araxTco; miS^ respicitur Plat, locus, quem 
D. R. supra citavit, atque adeo hinc firmatur lectio Platonica 
axraivcoo-j}, quam idem vir doctus protulit. Ex hoc Scbolio , 

383 De Verba ^AxraUof 

quoque disci potest, Etyno. M. et 0« cum Orlone Thebano 
(ad calcem Etym. 6. 6 18.) quibus uktuIvm est to xovfll^oo, ad 
.^ch.'Euin. S6. respexisse. Pauw. : — *' Ut neque valeani, neque 
ine erectam tenere possim gradiens ; rpep^o) is X'P^'^ aptissime 
sequitur; et animo et. corpore perturbata erat vetula. Xoco, 
a-wKOf, cmxtlv, Corpore volenti esse J* Vide HSt. Thes. v. Say- 
xieo, et Eust. 854. Adde Orionis Thebani Etym. 142. : Saoxos' 
hr!9rro¥ 'Epfiov, ^roi S la^vf6s< Sooxiiv, avr) W^vav* ^H auoixo^, 
^ 6 oixiws O'lUOftevo^y ^ ipfi^obv iyynkoi yip. 

Ad iEscb. referenda est glossa Hesychii haec : 'Axrahfuv* ft?- 
rf0)p/^fiy. '^ Equidem arbitror locum a Pbryn. citatum, Ovx sr 
axralvco, alium esse atque ilium Eum. 36., deinde ap. Etym. 
M. *AxTeiiifov fuiyog quoque .£schyli verba esse et inter ejus 
Fragmm. referenda." Schutz. ad iBlsch. V. 5. p. 267- Recte 
omnino statuit Schutz. Sed mirum est viris doctis hodieque 
non suboluisse veram lectioneni in Etym. M. sic corrigendo : 
'^xraiyojxeyoy, ri aviyov xou dwafitvov ayop$ovv, Nam vulg. istud 
axretivov is^ivos parum Grscum videtur» Cf. Etym. 6., a quo con- 
Jjectura nostra satis firmatur: 'Axrahuv* ro ftsreoogi^ga-lai xal 
iwaipt^¥y %oipa, to {xTai axTo;, to ^ijfta 10 autou axroo, af o3 to xou- 
^iCfio iroiQ A](r^kiff a4>* o3 axTuivw, /xrro;^^ axraivo/tsvoy to uvoiyov 
xxi Suya/xsvov ^yoptouy. Corrige, a^' o3 ocxTalvoo, to xouf /^go vag* 
Alr^6?itpf firrov^ axraiv^fuvov. Orionis Theb. opusculum ad 
calcem Etym. G. 618.: 'Axredvety irep) to ax-nj axris, xa) ^pi^ot 

axTflo, a^* o3 ri xou^/^eo irap* Al(r^6\co. Lege vagA , aip* oS 

ixTedvw, TO xov^/^oo vap* Ala^uKif, 

** Sic lego, 

;^uo'ou, 8i' dpfum i^afusl^fUM, iUXig 
■ ixTajyc/tevo^ 
lilud axT. plane tuetur £sch. inlocosimillimo; etenimin Eum. 
36. Pythias, quae jam e scena egressa est, iterum extemplo 
redit, Furiarum visu adeo perterrefacta, uti ipsa dicit, 

»$ jx^Tff o-fioxffiy fuyjTb /x' axratvBiv /Sfto-iy : 
quem locum respexit Phryn./' [imo alium, in deperdita Fabula 
inventum, respexit, ut supra notavij ** in Lexx. Bekk. 23. sive 

a p. Ruhnk. ad Tim. 20, Altrx^^St Ouxer uxraheOf ^ijo*! , 

oloy ouxer 6pitv¥ Stiyocftoti ^/xotuToy. Ad similem fere locum referri 
debet gl. Hes. 'AxroJvwtra* Tpljxouo'a ^ a<rfoLXws xpoLTOwra, ubi 
tamen lege argc/xouo-a. Similiter ap. Eur. servus in scenam 
fi(fXi; ctXTMvofABvos, pr» timore redit.'' G. Burges. ad Eur. 
Phaetb. Frr. Ms. in Class. Joum,j 43, l6B=Fr. Tr. Friede- 
manni et J. D. G. Seebode Misc. Cr. V. 1. P. i. p. 22. He- 
sychii glossam sic correxit G. Wakef. ad marg. : *^ F. Tge;^ot;o'« 
1^ v^aiifytwa, <rxipr&iru,*' Sed nihil mutandum est :•—**' In uostris 


Litterce quctdam ineditcBj ^c. 383 

Horn, exemplis Od. 4". 3. legitur, '^SZeg S' viFepiKTatvovTo. At 
Hes. aliam prodit lectionem : 'IVoaxra/vovro* Ir^g/xov. Quam 
ipsam, non vulgatam^ ob oculos habuit vetus Criticusi Lysanias 
ap. Etym. M. 739. Aviroivlag knl roD rpe/tffiv ^o*) Ttrayiou" 
[Vide G. Burges. ad ^sch. Eum. I. c. et Nov. Thes. Gr» L. 
1088 — 89.] *' Hes. 'AKrahowroi' rps/touo-a, ^ atrfaXw^ xgoiTOwra.'^ 
D, R. ad Tim. 1. c. lllud aa-^oiXws xpaToucU tirmat Hermaoni 
conjecturaiQi Pseud-OrpheOil. 376. feliciter restituentis verbum 

6mm yag [Ji^iv ttarfXP ^^^"^^ ^^ X^h^^^ vaWcov, 
l^etTrlimig opcrei vsoyiXou fraiSos avTrjV, 
Malv^g ev xoXtfco xexXijyoro^ a/x^i yoAaxri. 
^^19 SI (re rerXijMri voep otxTtfive/xey alei, 

Ix p^eipoov ouSacSs fiaXoov, y(6\ov amy iplvtjig 

'' Pro aivljxev, quod aperte mendosum est^ conj. xrfiouvifiiv 
Bernard, adlliom. M. 177. Sed magis placeret fieXsiamfiev 
eodem sensu." Tyrwh. ^' De corrupto alvifiev equidem pro- 
babilius esse existimo verbum^ quo Jirmiter tenere, quam quo 
curare, cavere, ipdicetur^ positum esse. Praeterea in tali loco 
non est mutatio facienda^ nisi quae literarum similitudine sese 
tueatur. Quare neque xijpaivgjxsy nee jxsXeSafvljxev placet. Pro* 
pius ad AINEMEN accedit 'AKTAINEMEN. Itaque hoc repo- 
sui. Hes. 'AxTamiif' fterew^f^eiv. '^xraivoua'a* rpifiooa-oif 1} 
aa-faXMs KpdTOv<roi, £sch. Eum. 36. *Ilg ft^re (ToaKiiv pJj^i jx* ax- 
ralveiv /Saciy.'' Hermann. 

Ceterum de vv. 'AxtolIvod et ^AxtH^m, deque compp. fuse 
actum est in Novo Thes. Gr. L. 1086 — 90. 

Thetfordia, Martiili. A.D. 1824. 





Viro cdebeniiDo amicissimoque J. Ph. jyOnrille 

S. D. P. Wesseling. 

HiODORUs ante hos daodecim dies in meas aedes immigravit ; 
hospitio exceptum comitesque schedaa diligenler ezaminavi, nee 
multuni, quod Camussati esset, reperi ; varianteSj quae dicuntur, 
bonap aunt notae^ aed paucissimae libria poaterioribua adacriptae. 
Gratia? horum omnium <:aus8a a me tibi debentur et habebuntur. 
De Wolfio, quod narras, gratisaimuni accidit: perge, quaeso, 
Diodori apud eum cauaam agere, quam et ipse ubi pauIo plus 
otii fuero nactus, illi coromendabo. Montefalconium in opere 
egregio atrenuum ease laetor, aperoque et ibi me reperturum 
quod Bibliothecae Diodori prodeaae possit. Tu, ai occaaio ferat, 
esquire ex illo, ecquid ejus generis Msa. catalogi sint compre* 
bensuri. Maffei Antiq, Galliarum exemplar a.te dudum babui ; 
itaque boC| aut si prius. malueris, commoda occasione ad te re- 
dibit. Politicum carmen de Constantini donatione legere non 
memini : forte non aliud atque illud erit, quod ex Bulengero, 
sed soluta oratione scriptum, Fabricius L. V. bibl. Gr. C. 5. 
[Vol. 6. p. 5.] inseruit. Novi in re literaria nibil hie geritur; 
neque enim nova tibi erit Gneca historia numis ab Havercampo 
illustrata, quaiii fugientibus oculis nuper inapexi. Ferunt Otto* 
nem Baldiuni opera recenaaturum^ [sic] et alium^ cujus nomea 
baud ^uccurrit^ ex juris consultorum familia. HabNBbis intra 
decem aut xii. dies a me dissertationem in numos quosdam 
Thesauri Morelliani, cui locum in Miscellaneis, si vacet, peto. 

Vale et me ama. Trajecti 94^ ixber [1735.] 

Clarissimo Amicissimoque Viro Jac. Phil. D'Orville 

S. P. D. J. Alberti. 

Post continuas dilationes^ quae vel Jobi patientiam expug- 
naaaent^ tandem prodiit Glossarium meum^' quod pro amicitiae 

■ Cui titulus Ghisariuni Gracum in tacros novi Faderis Hbrotf ex Msi. 
primus edidity notisque illuitravii Joann^ts Alberti, Ecclesiiutes Harlemensis. 
accedunt t^usdem Mkcellanea crilica in GlossQS ifomicas, Suidam, Hesyehium ; 
, tt indeii auctorum ex PhotU Lexico inedito, 8vo. Lug. Bat, 1735. ^ 

Utters quadom imdita^ ^c. 385 

tessera ad te mitto^ ea lege^ uf Bkiibi ^oreai deteserisy camfide 
(vX. mtet bonos solet) me mooeae^ ne in Hesjfcbii edkiooeni 
Ibrte-propagctur.. Venor nunc in lit. .4* pag, ^40* ciUori.(ut 
^lero) gvadu stadium conepturuf* Pro trao»iiuasi» Dovissimit 
Observatioiiibus gratias agq masimas. Sed aliud esl, ftuod te 
porro Teliiii. Ableganda sunt quanto ocyus e^eoaplaria ad Cll* 
Viros Wolfiam et Fabricium. r asciculuoi cui cr^daov oescio, 
iieque ttbt gravis esse vellem^ ut banc ciiram susciperesy quuiQ 
lq>ttd Tos commoda dabitur occasio. Quaeso itaque^ ut quam 
primum me certiorem facias, quae via tibi certissima videatur^ 
quseve mine forte orcasio ad m^ntts sit, ae ulterius morantem 
gelu opprimat. Sic optime de me mereberis, quern tuum esse 
uosti. Vale. Harlemi pridie idus Jan, mdccxxxv. 

Emditissimo Amicissimoqoe Viro J. Ph. D'OrVillio 
S. P. D. Ti. Hemsterbuis, 

Me Duper ab itinere Groningano reducem adventicife literae 
tuae ezcepecimt: iis apertis, quicqtiid ex procrastinatione moles- 
im animo adhaeserat, illico dissipatum est. Gratulor, Glossis 
meis in honoratiorem locum promotis. Eloqui non possum, 
quam mihi tuum fratrisque tui carmeui quo Fetrum nostrum, 
suavissimum illud caput, condecorasses, placuerit. De Luciano 
actum est : in vincuk solutus, nuoquam redibo : tempore non 
suo injuriam insignem mihi fecerunt Bibliopolae; Gesnerum 
optem in banc provinciam succedere; videtur enim mibi a Uteris 
Gnecis non mediocriter iustroctns, et ad veraioiieai conficiendam 
fiacultate singulari. Nescio qufiato opere Aati-Pauwiana tua 
desiderem : tergum e^regie laceratuin nullam nobis misericor- 
diam commovebit : vide tamen, ne cicatricem ducant vulnera 
in Miscellaneis postremis impressa, Quanquam viderit afui- 
psvsiy, pessime tamen rem egit ; acribendum enim ii u8«p infA 
rwi xiflnt}^ itfuitfwmv, vertendumque quasi aquam per bortos flexu 
multiplici derivaret. En tibi meam disputationem de Lysiae 
loco, et emendatione Meursiana : si punctum tuum ferat, non 
intercedo, quin Miscellaneis inseratur ; sin roiniM, Pythagoraei 
KvifMu scriptorem nunquam divinassem : ita mihi salivam movit 
nobilissimus Hudecoperus, ut te obtester, ne desinas ilium 
meo quoque nomine, si quid valere potest, instigare ad omanda 
Miscellanea. Jure fatalem annum erudito orbi conquereris: 
paratas babebam ad Juliani Caesares adnotationes, quas rogatus 
ad Liebium mitterem : Jamque manum admoveram epistolae 
obsignandae, quum .de obitu ejus nuncius ad me perfertur. Quid 
fandem est Olud scripti, quod titulum Cbrestomathiae Burman- 
nianae pnefert i an pater horribilis libelli, sic tfnim audio, detec- 

386 Adversaria Literaria. \ 

ttu i percupio videre. Arnaldi vita in sammo periculo vemitur, 
longiorem ejus usuram, et melioreni in nonnullis mentem ex 
animo precor : de his aliisque plura coram : qaamvis enim nec- 
dum certi quicquam constitueriro^ credo tamen me Amsteloda- 
mum hisce fenis venturum. An urbe aberis, et quo maxime 
tempore I facile enim intelligis, me gratissimo itineris illius fmctu 
nolle privari. Plurimum salve a Venema et Burmanno nostris, 
cum qttibus banc vesperam jucunde ponam : genio tuo poculum 
libabitur. v Optimo fratri tuo multam a me salutem. Vale et 
me ama. 

Franequera, xxvii Junii, mdccxxxvi. 



In hanorem Gtd. Browne^ Eq. ^c. , 

4^o!i|3ff| Tuio* iXd* cSiroxa xaripwra 

^i]V <rs xa\rj[jL[i$. 
JRuxo/tuov hog ftoi jfapirmv ajamoih, . 

Fxpisy [le dujtto^ a^ayyeif Ala- 

Tip (ppeiihg xapr^v y\vxh¥ f uM>our* ex 

JSrixrapog l^crav. 

Elvi ftoi rax^o-Tf *iy/gia, rexvop 
Xpwriag avmZuptag (pipitrToVf 
EiTs juboi TOLX^o-r oera ;|^apftaT aXXoi^ 

Zmog idrixe. 

Achersaria Liter aria. 387 

IIoWaHtg diTiytjTpoL ^ipovrog aurou 
EudaTidiv Ho6pai$ epiQafJi ipmraov 
*-4yXaoV ff ai^ds xXlo^ aSdiy IvvJ- 

2^y It.a'Kifrr f;^ flaipsv oKva^ re Nepri- 

p(ov *A'iia)Viug, 

Nti¥ Kajxou xXsiva^ syipapsv o;^da^, 
MwHT^xoig "ipe^Bp acorov, Ix 81 

'2IXX* }9*y *^;^o7j nepce^orfOLs $oftoVS€^ 

Xi^^f xouga. 
Ren NELL: Coll. Reg. 


Scire pdtesiates herbarum mumque medendi. 

O beatorum series soluta 
Temporam ! o saevi nova regna Letbi ! 
Posteris semper sacer, o Satoris 

Lapsus Adami ! 

Nubium nigrans slobus incubantem 
Portal ultorem, mrit eose rubro 
Angelus^ claustrisque patet reclusis 

Pestifer Orcus. 

Irruit longo glomerata tractu 
Turba morboruniy-varias nocendi 
Instruunt formas, et ubique luctus 

Semina fundunt. 

Multa per terras pyra fumat, exit 
Ipsa praegustans animo cruentas 
Mors dapes, captatque graves apertis 

Ndribus auras. 

388 Adversaria Literaria. 

Inibibunt herto nova jam vetusoM, 
£t ttiment fiitb epulsi calentiB 
'Febri8.1iiiic ardens furor, hitic vetemi by- 

dropicus bumor ; 

Pestis hioc velox, maculisque Lepra 
Squaliidifly mersseqiie nom tenebris 
Luniinum taKhe, genitiiqiie tracta . 

Ti^sais anhelo. 

O simul luctus bominamque Princq;>8 ! 
En jacent fractae tibi spes futuri ! 
Sed patet cttlum precibus, trementem 

Porrige dextraiB : 

Qiue manus poenas, eadem levamen 
Suggerit, sacro tumet omnis intus 
Halitu tellus^ nova crescit herbis 
^ Undique virtus : 

Tardius praedam sibi destinatam 
Mors rapit, certam minus ilia dextram 
Sentit, et segnem retrahit maligno 

liumine gressum. 

O fatiscentem, Medtdna, vitas 
Tu foves flammam; xeducemque labris 
Spiritum includens gelidis, rapacem 

Decipis Orcum : 

O juventutis columen labantis ! 
Seu manu mukens tenera cerebrum 
Febre correptum recreas, vel ipsis 

Mortis ab ulnis 

Surripis lenta tacite po^UaiD 
Tabe languentem ; igerit iUa mortis 
Inter amplexum decus^ et doloso 

Pulcra dolore. 

Spes fovet ; vines tamen iotus urget 
Morbus invictasy nisi tu benigna 
Das opem deztra, meliore replens 

Flumine venas : 

Te vocat tiisti piece, lacrjrmisque 
Mater effusia, puerumque jnoUi 
Mulcet ttgrotum grenaio, necisque 

Pr^cipit amens 

Af^per^ana Literaria. 389 

Tela ; tu matris miserata curas 
Detegis noxanii subito per onyn^a . 
It salus nervosa solito et tenore 



Nod tamen justa careat Camoepa 
Ille/ Musaruin pariter tuique 
Quein decos versu memoret fideli 

Musa quotannis ; 

Hunc suae gratis citharae Patronum 
Laudibus vates celebret^ modisque 
iDtegret nomen^ geminoque rite 

Plaudat hoDori. 

Pott : Colleg. Sanct. Johann. Cant. 
In nummis com. Cant. 

no¥6S 7c«rT0i(riv wnjS«i. 

m\7<0LK$g 'HpaxJii^g ^ofiepoS^ ixparr^^eif aymmif 

ToSry tfnrwg "H^ flSJxe xoreo-o-ajxevij. 
T%9 Kupa rpUpavov rov f vgp9«, ^Ij^^i TreTroi^mg 

Movvog ewv Secr/tfjS %6«f>i^ i^as ^aps7. ^ 
Ka) TaSpou yalr^g ^Xaarrruud f^tyitrrov '^^[^^^ . 

*Pe7(t {mAtC *1Vt« xavpov, xal xoXuSeipaS* o<piv. 
"AmC in a-olg ayaimtnv, ''Epmg, fis-Kietra-t ^a/teWi 

Blpoirix* iv Ai}ha7$ tpya Tsraxro x6pa$gj 
Tpix^a r$ acai rerpax^^ rftMpsig wo ;c«i^l «ra;^6»7) 

*Epparp\ tjXaJcaTflii^ h irrpo^aXiyyi iriwg. 

^uftTa^roiv, KTjfloiv ^€l^TA, iri^wv ifiaSi. 

1. Dalton : Schol. Reg. Buriens, 

• Gul. Browne, Equ. qui musis indulgeps pr«mia (quorum aemuluro, 
felix fuit hoc carmen) apud Cantab. constituU. 

390 Adversaria Liter aria. 


Salve ! magna tui BritanDiasque 

Salve ! gloria temporum tuorum ! 

Qualis nemo futt^ nee est, eritve 

PostbaCy o utinam repente voces 

Sint centum mihi, sint et ora centam^ ut 

Te tui nmilis poeta laudem ! 

Audin*? nunc hominemve foeminamve 

Juxta, nunc procul et remotiores 

Hac, illaCy puerunive ineptientem 

Credas multa loqui, simul diserta 

Ac vox parturiit sonos in alvo* 

Atqui nil tremit os loquentis^ atqui 

Nil motum est labium. Quid ergo? fallor? 

An verum est i loqueris^ tacesve F certe 

Et nusquam tua vox et est ubique, 

Tviteddbll: Trin.CoU. 

In max. com. Cantab. 


ThefoUowins EpUaph an the tomb of a favorite dog, from the 
British 'Museum^ is so plaintive, and contains so much sim- 
plicity, that it will of itself be an apology for its itisertion. 

In pbitum Canis dilects. 

Gallia me genuit^ nomen mihi divitis undae 

Concha dedit^ formae nopiinis aptus honos ; 
Docta per incertas audax discurrere sylvas, 

Callibus hirsutas atque .agitare feras: 
Non gravibus vinclis unquam consueta teneri, ' 

Vuluera nee niveo corpore saeva pati ; . 
M'olli namque sinu domini, domina^que jacebam-— 

Et norani in strato lassa cubare toro. 
Et plus quam licuit muto canis qre loquebar — 

Nulli latratus pertimuere meos ; 
Sed jam fata subi partu jactata sinistro, 

Quam nunc sub parvo marmore terra tegit. 

A dtiersaria Liter aria. 391 

I ; 

Illustration of Herodoim, L. ii. Ch. 57* 

UtXeiaSes ii jxoi Soxlotxri xXv^ivivM TFoig AoalSoovaicov hfi rovie at yu- 
vaixBg, hm fiip^agoi r^coir ISoxsov Ss a-^i hyji'mg Spnct ^iiyy^cu' 
fMJsrat 8ff ;(govoy^T^y 9re\eiaSa ay9ga)9n]t|2 ^wvp aiHict^ourdai kiyovo'i, 
hnl re truvsra <rp< ijwSa ^ yuyi}. 

We cannot, perhaps, have a greater example of the power of 
superstition over the mind of man, where reason is unedlightened 
by divine revelation, than the testimony of the great historian 
now before us ; assuring us, that the most civilised nation on 
the face of the earth was deluded by the juggling of two com- 
mon gypsies, if the conjecture be correct, that the present race 
of gypsies came originally from Egypt. . . - 

The most successful artifice, which they seem to have prac- 
tised to delude the people, was (hat of causing their 'voice to 
appear to proceed from the stems of trees, from the bowels of 
the earth, or from any other place which might suit their pur- 
pose ; an art well known at the present day under the name of 

Those, who were unable to acquire sufficient command 
over their voice, made use of another species of imposition, 
easier indeed, but more liable to detection. A' tube was 
conveyed to the statue of the deity from a particular spot where 
the priest concealed himself, and in this manner sounds emitted 
by the priest appeared to proceed from the moiith of the image. 

The words (if they could be so st3rled, as tliey were little more 
than an unintelligible confusion of sounds) were hastily collected 
by the scribes in attendance, and delivered to the pers6ti who 
consulted the oracle. 

The former method was common among almost all the more 
civilised nations of antiquity. It is mentioned repeatedly by 
Isaiah, and it is probable that the witch consulted by Saul made 
use of similar practices. It was considered, of course, a crime 
among the Jews to consult familiar spirits, and it is one of the 
abominations mentioned by the prophet, of which he advises the 
Israelites to beware ; " When they shall say unto you. Seek 
unto them that have familiar spirits, and unto wizards that peep' 
and mutter, should not a people seek unto their God? for the 
living to the dead?" Isaiah, viii. 19* 

To terrify the imagination, and preclude suspicion, some 

' To peep signifies to cry as young birds, to chirp, to whisper -«%pr. 


399 AdvMrMtia Id 

wizards resorted to hollow places tinder ground, to, which prac- 
tice the following passage seems to refer : '^ Thus said the 
I^rd, that created the heavens» I have not spoken in secret^ in 
a dark plac^ pf the earth," Isaiah xlv, IS, 19« 

Perhaps, then, the origin of the fable of the doves was derived 
from the noise which was made bj the peeping sounds alluded 
Co t>7 the prophet, and not as the historian supposes by the hear- 
ing a strange and foreign language^ 

G. P. C. 

In Herodotum, vii. 187* 

Several emendations have been proposed by commentators; 
'^BffTw m, Mw, Slcp &c. '£vW would certainly explain the 
liassage ; but Valckenaer considers that the word'^Eyioi requires 
after it a genitive case, as "Eftot xAv voretium, "Evm ra» Xf^V^' 

A more sjiipple and moderate alteration may be foi^M^d in the 
aubstitutioq of 'fortwraw, which is as frequently used ip Greek 
as synmiymous wiih kina^f as * existere' in Latin fqr esse. 

1 should, however, prefer the original reading given us by 
Schweigbaeuser, with the separation of tori in the following 
manner; U ti tapv, i. e. ft£po^, which is omitted by ellipsis, of 
which Lambert, Bos, and viger, give us several instances : ^* To 
y ifiinf Iroifioir, lotif o3to$ steXq," P.iat. in Theag. *' EU to vuy a$t 
leyov " supple ((Jf^g xgoW. ^schyl. in Choephor. 699* &c. &^. 

Zeunius says, in a note to Vig. de Idiot. Cap. III. Sect. vii. 
Reg^ 5* ^'Miraest hujus nominis * itMfog* sive expressi, sive 
aubauditi elc^ntia, si adjectiyum additur conveniens." 

X do not exactly understand, how Schweigbaeuser could hav/e 
trauriated the passage in the following mannet, unless it had been 
altered as above : 

'' Minioie mirandum mihi videtur flumiuum nonqullorum 
aquam^defecisse.'' G*P* C. 

Ad6er$aria Literaria. 998 


No. VIII. 

Eixh P^o ^^^"i <^^ feUcibm auspicns. 

Orta dies coelo est, nostras ortajsalutis origo 

Qua fuit^ et vitae spes rediviva novae. 
Orta dies coelo est, generis qua gaudia nostri 

Sunt nova, et est iterum pristinus ortus honos. 
Orta dies coeio est, veteris qua ciauditur anni 

Cursus, et auspicium surgit in orbe novi. 
Sit precor orta dies, quae noctem e mentibus altam 

-Tollat, et a yitiis pectora pura ferat. 
Sit precor orta dies, quae vel sine nube malorum 

Prima hie fdices inchoet orta dies, 
Vel quae perpetuas a?temo tempore luces, 

Primaque coelestes inchoet orta dies. 

Ad GdUum* 

Odi te, Gelli, nee possum dicere quare, 

Hoc tantaoh; sed et hoc, idem amo te nimium. 

Unius alteriusque eadem mihi causa profecto est, ^ 
Odi te quod amo, teque amo quod mi odio es. 

Ad Zoilum. 

Nil opus est nostros ut rodas, Zoile, versus, 
l^se ego quos toties rodo, vocoque ntliti : 

I»taclas perquire dapes ; servire palato 
Si vis, ne-rodas, Zoile, rosa prius. 

Ad in$ulsum quendam. 

Vis nobis joctilum referre, cuncti 
Quo risu moriamur, o Fabulle : 
Ne tantum scelus in tuos sodales 
Committas; joculum referre noli. 

Hieronymus Arconatus poeia Germanus Lectori de lihelli} suo. 

Si quid in bis cbartis occurrat qioUius, aures 
Kadere quodve tuas, lector ah ice, queat ; 

Da veniam :: hand alii mores sur^ ^mpuris bujus. 
O te felicem qui levitate cares ^ * 

Ut sine labe tamen nostros percun' uisus 
Possis, virgineus nee notet ora ritoor ; 

394 Adversaria Literaria. 

• .Pnidentes imiteris apes^ quae dalcia amaris 
Ex Iierbis etiani fingere mella queunt. 
Ut cuique est animus, sic prodest carmen obestve : 
Aspergi maculis mens generosa nequit. 

Fero et q>ero. 

Fata ferenda fero patiens, melioraque spero : 
Speraotem nescit deseruisse Deus. 

Ad Chrysidem. 

Errabam, fateor, Chrysis charissimai quod me 
Indignum quondam rebar amore tuo. 

Nam tu virtutem tribuis, te dando ; tuusque. 
Si quid amas, dignum reddit amoris amor. 

> In No. 53 of this Journal, p. 170, was quoted a poem of 
Hugo Grotius, entitled, " Hyporchema in obitum Aldinas Ca- 
tellae," consisting of verses composed wholly of short syllables. 
The following, from Acidalius, deserves quoting, on account of 
the rarity of this species of composition, as well as from the 
oddity of its construction. Acidalius delights in passionate 
protestations of friendship, ringing changes on words, obsolete 
language, and merciless elision of vowels. In this last respect 
be is the very Antipodes of modern Latin poets in general. He 
has written some admirable epigrams. 

Ad Amicum. 

Animitus ego te amo, animitus et amor ego tibi : 

Tibi sum animula ego tua, mea tu es aniniula mihi : 

Tuum animum habeo mihi, veluti tibi meum auiraum habes. 

Quid, animule mi, igitur inanima tibi mea pianus 

Avide ita petitur f eane librum in animum hunc 

Dare pote melius erit aliud i an animo aliquid 

Alibi potius habeo f quo ego neque video, neque 

Scio, neque dare tibi queo melius. At age age jam 

Cape tibi modo, quod habeo reliquum, uti sat habeas : 

Capiam item ego mihi tua. Tua mea,* mea tua dehinc : 

Neque tuus eris, ego neque mens ero. Meus eris 

Tu> ero tuus ego. Satin' ita tibi sit f an et aliud 

Cupis i Ego tu ero, tu eris ego : jam age^ quid ubi superest i 

Adversaria. Literaria. $Q$ 

in NiEVolum. 

Desine collectis iofestse^ Naevole, linguae 

Foemineum probris dilacerare genus : 
Unum nam satis est^ uno simul omnia dices^ • 

Nsevole ; te talem foemina quod tulerit. 

In Navolum* 

Sic est^ Naevole ; quum tua ilia primum 
Vidi carmina^ nee bonum poetam 
Verus te potui vocare censor, 
Et malum timui tamen vocare. 
Per lusus igitur jocumque, vatum 
Dictus es mibi pessimus bonorum. 
IndignariS| ut audio, levemque 
Fers parum leviter jocum et.moleste. - 
Serio tibi dehinc loquar, meamque 
Mentem, ut sentio, serio fatebor : 
Non vatum mihi pessimus bonorum 
Posthac, verum eris optimus malorum. 

In Roscium' 
Di male te perdant, Roscij qupd te mihi jactas * 

Assidue, et toties exanimas miserum 
Laudibus insulsis ! utinam bona numina surdum 

Me faciant, tu ne me toties facias ! 

Epitaphium in Fr, Rahelaisium. 

Somnus, et ingluvies^ Bdccbusque, Venusque, jocusque, 

Numina, dum vixi, grata fuere mihi. j 

Cetera quis nescit ? fuit ars mihi cura medendi ; | 

Maxima ridendi sed mihi cura fuit | 

Tu quoque non lacrymas^ sed risum solve, viator, | 

Si gratus nostris manibus esse velis. ' 

In Incredulum. 

Quum sine chirographo dicas, incredule, credi 
Posse nihil, credis hoc sine chirographo i 

In Pompilium. 

Innumeros mihi se numeros soepe unius horse 
In spatio jactat fundere Pompilius. 

096 Oxford Latin 

Haud niirum : innuiaeris qnonian viius mihi buIIim 
Vel modus eat, vel pes, vel caput in mmieriB* 

£t quidni iDiittiiieros numeros ae fuadeve jactet, 
Cujua tam extra omnem sunt immema^ nuawfi I 


Magous es in vulgo, Fanni : me vulgus hiiquum 

Despicity et duns vocibus exagitat. 
Scin' quod ego interea mecum i mihi gralulor unum id, 

Fanni, tam vulgo dbplicuisse tuo. 

From the Italien. 
{See Roscoe*$ Life of Lorenzo di Medici.) 

The night that Pietro Soderini diedy 

His soul went posting tp the gales of bell : 

'' What ! hell for thee r indignant Pluto cried : 
'* Go, and with brainless babes in Limbo dwell," 

Idem Grace redditum. 

fvpfiSiov Herpoio Sc&i/^plvo^o 6av6yrog 

TapTogov |y ^goivpois xiKfi fptivrm *Alifii^^' 
**' Ou col y Sf^ iaiS^ fMipaihti(i.ts tiO'«ipixe(r0ar 



Arbectis suspensa animis se Europa tenebal, 
Arctoi sibi praecipiens commercia ponti ; 
Cum tu ! per saevas glacies, et inhospita regna, 
Ignoturo aggressus praepandere-gentibus aecjuor. 
Cum tu ! grande decus Britonum ! medio ipse laborum 
Deficis in cursii, et coepta imperfecta relinquis. 
Spes erat, et sero quamvis coDamine, tandem 
Insolitas aperire vias^ ipsoque sub axe 
JEquoris inclusi glacialia ruropere claustra ; 
Scilicet, ut cursu breviore, et tramite certo 
Navita longinqui penetraret ad ostia Gangis, . 

Prizi Poem. 397 

Cathaisque oras ; longun niinc usque coactiis 
Kadere iter, tardos et circuoiflectere cursus. 
Sive vias lustnet, qua Gama ingefttibus auais 
Insuetum sulcabat iter, (non ille minads 
Vim metuens ponti, et dubii pro{>e littoris oram 
Vela legens^ seu m'agno olim mqliinine fama est 
Pboeuicas tardis cursum intendisse carinis) 
Sseva illic niaria, et longo procul Africa tractu 
Lustranda, atque obeuuda feri plaga torrida solis, 
Arentem Angolam contra, Daradumque sonantein. 

Quin ubi se tandem extremis Cafraria terris 
Ostentat, superest diris tamen usque proceliis 
Vexata, et rapido fervens Mozambia fluctu, 
Seu quis Erytbrsum littus^ moUesve Sabaeos, 
Seu porrectam ultra speret sibi Persidos oram* 

At Bengala tibi, jam turn cum littora linqnis 
Afrorumy procul ingenti jam dissita ponto, 
Poscit iter durum^ et discrimina lotiga viarum : 
Neu facile est, si quis Sinas et inhospita quaerat 
I^ittora Niphonep, tutam expediisse carinam 
Aut superasse f return, qua Java, et maxima propter 
Sumatra, Eoos claudunt vasto obice fluctus* 
Nee facile est ilfi scopulos vitare latentes 
Et dubios sestus, et qua) jacet undique caecis 
Interstincta vadis^roagno crebra insula ponto. 
Nee brevior cursus si quis te, magne Magellan ! 
Occiduas per aquas Auroras ad regna sequatur ; 
Longa via hie nautis etiam et discrimina rerum ; 
Atque ubi Atlantaei longinqua ad littora ponti » 

Perventum, et magno propius jam Plata sonore 
Audita in morem pelagi devolvere fluctus ; 
mine continuo devexos cursus ad Austros 
Flectendus longe, gelidoque sub axe necesse est 
Noctem intempestam, atque acres perferre procellas. 
Ante aut diifuso quam circa luuiine ctelum 
Rideat, aut detur delabter squore aperto 
Pacati maris, et tutos accedere portus. 

At non aetemum adversis cobibenda periclis 
Mens humana, alio demum conamine quasrit 
Pandere iter pelago, tantosque levare labores, 
Si forte Arctoo breviores tramite cursus, 
Eoumque aditus faciles speraret ad orbem. 
Nimirimi extrerno qua littora inhospita fluctu 
Curvat, Atlantasi fugiens procul aequoris oras, 

398 Oxford Latin 

Hudson! sinus aut sublimes altius Arctos^ 
Qua pelagus petit^ et Boreas lavat ultima regna ; 
Hie fireta, si qua fides, aestu interfusa reducto 
Dant aditus nautis, atqne ostia recta viarum ; 
Inde ea Russiaco sese immiscentia ponto, 
Mox Asiae fines, projectaque Kamschadalae 
Littora discurrunt supra, extremosque Curilos. 
Inde ergo ingentes terra, atque expansa paterent 
Ante oculos spatia Oceani, et commercia rerum. 
Hinc ubi Tartareas specie jacet undique saeva 
Littus arenosum, et tristes longo ordine cam pi, 
Quos contra opposito murorum limite claudit 
Dives opum Sina, et varias exculta per artes. 
Quid dicam ? quam crebra ingens exinde per aequor 
Insula se laeto nautis ostendat honore 
Munera gemmarum et fragrantia aromata jactans ? 
Usque ubi Tematem supra, arentemque Tidorem 
Innumeras offert ultro tota India merces. 
Parte alia magno sese California tractu 
Porrigit, unde viae faciles tranquilla per alta. 
Ante oculos donee nimbosa cacumina longe 
Attollunt Andes, donee Peruvia circa 
' Ostentat pulchras urbes, et ditia regna 
Argentique frequens rivis, aurique metallo. 
At vero hoc frustra multo conamine gentes 
Explorare iter, atque aditus recludere caBCOs 
Aggressae ; usque adeo magnis obsistere coeptis 
I Taeidia longa viae, et gelidi inclementia ponti : 

Ergo ille hunc iterum qui possit adire laborem. 
Qui possit duris virtutem opponere rebus, 
Ille, decus Britonum, et seri lux inclyta saecii 
Exoritur, quem nee casus, nee fata priorum> 
Nee super incumbens prono de cardine mundi 
Oppressit bruma, aut angusto limite clausit; 
Verum ideo magis obniti, et vi tendere contra, 
Impulit aeternae succensa cupidine famae 
Virtus, et dubiis jamdudum assueta periclis. 
Ipse etenim faustus nnolitus jam ante labores 
Pacati late lustraverat aequoris undas, 
Felicesque habitu terras, qua^foedere justo 
Hospitii exceptus sibi mitia sascla virorum 
Devinxit, pulchram referens sine sanguine laurum. 
Ipse etiam Australem longi spatiatus ad axem, 
Extremos veterum cursus processerat ultra. 

Prize Poem. . 399 

Gentibus ostendens qui certus denique dois 
Terrarum oceanique jacet, qua navibus obstant 
iBternae glacies et non tractabile coelum. 

Ergo ilium tantae sortitum munera laudis 
Jampridem, iogentique animo majora moventem^ 
Ipse pater populi^ non un<j[uain passus iniquis 
Virtutem in tenebris condi^ et sine honore jacere ; 
Ipse adeo movet auspiciis^ et rite secundans 
Hortatur studio^ neque enim non denique cordi est 
Imperium Oceania et Britonum proferre triumphos. 

Ergo alacris patrios portus et littora linquens. 
Scilicet baud tantis impar conatibus heros^ 
Magnum opus aggreditur, jamque aequora nota remensus, 
Securas sectes, et mollia rura Taitae 
Devenit^ hospitioque iterum laetatur amico. 

Mox Kamschadalae tractus^ glacialiaque arva 
Propter, Hyperboreum lustrans interritus orbem, 
Extremum penetrare fretum, optatamque iaborat 
Ire viam, et patriis praspandere classibus aequor. 

Jamque ilium Catharina sui prope littoris oras 
Imperii fines obeuntero, atque ultima regna, 
Laeta suis opibus, tanti nil invida coepti, 
Adjuvat, atque ultro portu .tutatur amico. 
Ipsa etiam, bostili quanquam succensa furore, . 
Gallia suspendit saevi fera munera Martis, 
Compescitque odium, studiisque secundat euntem. . 

Jamque illUm ingenti dudum Britannia plausu 
Poscebat reducem, ventosque in vota vocabat, 
Longum iter increpitans, et laedia iniqua viartim: 
Tum vero, ut tardi ulterius longo ordine menses 
^ransierant, necdum patriis successerat oris 
Ezoptata rates, dubios qiusque inde timores 
Spargere in ambiguum, et cunctandi quaerere causas : 
*' Quo nunc sub coelo ? queis demum erraret in undis i 
Quaeve adeo fortuna virum, casusve tulisset ?" 
Atqui ilium interea peregrino in littore longe 
Gens hominum effraenis fatali oppresserat ictu. 
Heu finem coepti invisum ! temerataque jura 
Hospitii ! heu pelagi necquicquam erepte periclis ! 
Hoc illud fuit? Haec denmm te fata manebantf 
Nee fas optati metam tetigisse laboris. 
Nee patriis iterum incolumem considere terris ! 
Ergo te Britonum fletus, te publica cura, 


400 American Classical Schools. 

Taotum opus aggressuoi, et magna inter coepta cadentem 
Condecorant : neque enim non te per saecula geutia 
Indigetea inter, laudumque exempla priorum^ 
Anglia in setemmn referet, atudioque fideli 
Rite tibi jttstoa memor instaurabit bonores I 


Ex JEde Christi, 1780. 


We have been favored with the Prize cooipositions at Boston^ 
of which we insert a specimen, in these poems we observe a 
marked improvement; and we shall hail the progress of that 
laudable spirit which pervades those estabtishnents. 



Aspice, qua tenernm caput ille inclinat ad unda» 
Flos niveus, vehiti lacrymas infundere fonti 
Optans ; dum saiicis circum protenditur HOibray 
' Quae Pheebi radios excludit, et aeris testum. 

Ueu ! fuit hie quondam Narcissus, imagine fonnce 
Captus^ qui solitus ripas accedere fontis 
Hujus, quum noctis tenebras Aurora Aigare 
Cceperat ; baud unquam rediens vestigia vertit, 
Donee Sol ponto radios absconderat alto. 
Ad fontem recubans voces sic fudit inanes ; 
'* Eheu D>e misemm ! cur. Oh placidissime Divfim, 
Oh Veneris proles^ cur nostros occupat artns 
Tarn cruddis amor, merui cur talia dira i 
Kusticus incultus si captus amore ptiellft^ 
Nee mora, quin vinclis Hymenaeus jungeret anrt)Os ^ 
lUe tamen, toties qui in flammas pectora misit, 
Yadere damnatur, nullo miserante^sub"Ofcum» 
Quum vagus hue veni per sylvas sedibiis errans 
Primum, tunc animi levis^ ac intactus amore, 
Huic vitreo similis fonti; nunc denique caecus 
Spicula contorsit Deus, et sunt omnia mota. 
Hanc Nympham, juro per Divos^ semper amabo.' 
Dixit, et in sylviis Echo respondit " amabo/^ 



N/otice of CoL Leake's Journal^ ^c. 401 

f nrka vox, ekeu ! captjis. perveDit ad aiires, 
Spesque le^ pectus jnediiaiUis falsa revisit. 
Nam putat audiri dilectas mente puellae 
Vocem, ac €xc1amat^ dum gaiidens omnia lustrat^ 
'* Oh pueri cdmites, Nymphseque valete decorae, 
.Na^i mihi quae cordi, uuiic pignora priiebet amoris^ 
Htcque maoeBs, laudes sylvas resonare docebo." 
Sic dicensy palmas diiplices i^ubmersit in undam^ 
:Ut daret amplexus, et figeret oscula iabris. 
Forma tamen fugit, percusso fonte^ sub undas. 

Desioe piiira Joqui^ chordas nunc, Musa, coerce ; 
Hoc satis est : noli miserabite dicere fatum. 
Mox vide^ Narcissus per tempera maxima cunctans 
Qiiserltur a Njmphis monies ubi nubila tangunt^ 
iDeinde ubi labuotur tacitis in vallibus aumes ; 
Jam voces Dryadum resonant in saltibus atris. 
Naiades et sonitu^i redduut .: ^' Narcissus ab agris 
JDecessit : comitem per cunctas qua^rite terras !'* 
Aspectum fallit Narcissus, et ipse videtur 
Flos mveus vergens ad fontem, nomine scripto 
Narcissi; atque canit moeste super aura sepulcrum. 

In this poem we scarcely object to any part of the metre^ 
except to nomine scripto ; but we might find instances of a 
similar position in our College prizes* Ac should tK>t be placed 
Jbofore a word beginning with a vowel. 


with comparative Remarks on the Ancient and Modern 
Geography of that country. By William Martin 
Leake, F.R.1§. &€. Qvo. Lond, 1824. 


In tracing vestiges of Grecian art amidst that barbarism and 
desolation which have pervaded the Ottoman empire, a .traveller 
finds peculiar diiiioulties opposed to his researches in Asia 
Minor, whilst this region offers a more fertile field of discovery 

402 Notice of Col. Leake's Journal 

than any other Turkish province. Having noticed the hatred 
which Musulmans generally bear to Chnstians, our learned 
author adds : 

In Asia Minor, among the impediments to a traveller's success may be 
especially reckoned, the deserted state of the country, which often puts the 
common necessaries and conveniences of travelling out of his reach; the 
continual disputes and wars among the persons in power; the precarious 
authoritv of the leovemment of Constantinople, which rendering its pro- 
lection ineffectusd. makes the traveller's success depend upon the per- 
sonal character or the governor of each district ; ana the ignorance and 
the suspicious temper of the Turks, who have no idea of scientific tra- 
velling^who cannot imagine any other motive for our visits to that 
country, than a preparation for hostile invasion, or a search after trea- 
sures among the ruins of antiquity-r-apd whose suspicions of this nature 
are of course most strong in the provinces which, like Asia Minor, arc 
the least frequented by us. If the traveller's prudence or good fortune 
should obviate all these difficulties, and should protect him from plague, 
banditti, and other perils of a semi-rbarbarous state of society, he has 
still to dread the loss of health, arising from the combined effects of cli- 
mate, fetigue, and privation, which seldom fails to check his career be- 
lore he has completed his projected tour. Asia Minor is still in that 
state in which a disguised dress, an assumption of the medical character, 
great patience and perseverance, the sacrifice of all European comforts, 
and the concealment of pecuniary mean^ are necessary to enable the 
traveller thoroughly to investigate the country, when otherwise qualified 
fur the task by literary and scientific attainments, and by an intimate 
knowledge of the language and manners of the people.'' (Pref. p. iv.) , 

These remarks were written before the insurrection broke put 
in Greece : an event which has thrown many additional obsta- 
cles in the way of travellers. To Colonel Leake, therefore, our 
obligations are the greater for having given so much valuable 
information respecting a country where few wilT, probably, ven- 
ture to extend their researches, for a considerable time. 

In January, 1800, oiir author set out from Constantinople, in 
company with the late General Koehler, Sir Richard Fletcher, 
Professor Carlyle, and others, well armed and disguised as Tatar 
couriers, and with servants of different descriptions, forming a ca-^ 
ravan of So horses. From Iskioddr or Skutdri (in Greek Skovtu- 
piov) they proceeded to Kartal, Pandikhi (27ayTJ%fov), and Ghebse. 
Near, this place they met a Mollah (or Turkish priest) travelling 
luxuriously in a Taktrevdn (or covered litter), reclining on soft 
cushions, smoking the Narghil6 (or water-pipe), and accompa- 
nied by attendants, mounted on horseback and splendidly 
dressed: his baggage consisted of mattresses and CQveringGT for 
his sofas ; valises containing his clothes ; a large assortment of 

of a Tour in 4sia Minor. 40$ 

-^tables of copper ; cauldrons, saucepans, and a complete batterk de cui' 
sine. Such a mode of travelling is undoubtedly very different from that 
ivhich was in use among the Turks of Osman and Orkban. The articles 
of the MoUah's baggage are probably for the Aiost part of Greek origin, 
adopted from the conauered nation, in the same manner as the Latins 
borrowed the arts of ttie Greeks of a better age. In fact, it is in a great 
degree to Greek luxuries, with the addition of coffee and tobacco, that 
the present imbecile condition of these barbarians is to be ascribed; and 
^ Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit** applies as well to the Turk as it 
once did to the Roman; for though Grecian art in its perfection may be 
degraded by a comparison with the arts of the Byzantine Greeks, yet in 
the scale of civilisation, the Turki did not bear a higher proportion, to 
these than the Romans did to the ancient Greeks. (P. 4.) 

The first chapter conducts us from Ghebse to Kizderwent 
(or the /' Girl's Pa8s")| Lake Ascanius^ Nicsea, Ij^fkcp Shughut, 
flski-Sbehr (the ancient Dorylasum), Seid el Ghazi^ Doganlu,^ 
Kosru KhaO| Bulwud^n, Isaklu, Ak-Shehr, llgl^ii, Ladlk^ and 
K6Dia. Id the course of this journey our author remarks that 
tbe Tiirkish Isniki which represents the Grecian Nicaea, was 
never so large as the ancient city, from the ruins of which it 
«eems to have been almost wholly composed, its baths and 
mosques exhibiting numerous fragments of Greek temples and 
churches. (P..1 1.) Of an extrabrdinary monument in the valley 
called DoganlA, an engraving is given from the sketch made by 
General Koehler, while Mr. Carlyle and Col. Leake copied the 
inscriptions. This monument appears to be a sepulchral cham- 
ber excavated in the rock, with an ornamented front rismg more 
than 100 feet above the plain: the lower part resembles an altar, 
and probably conceals the entrance into a sepulchre where lie 
the remains of some personage in Whose honor this magnificent 
monument was formed; ^^ for in some other parts of Asia Minor, 
especially at Telmissus, we have examples of the wonderful 
ingenuity with which the ancients sometimes defended the en- 
trance into their tombs.'' (P. 23.) A ruined fortification in the 
vicinity of this monument, our learned traveller is inclined to 
regard as indicating the site of Nacoleia,* the chief fortress of 
this country in the time of Arcadius, and named by Strabo 
among the cities of Phrygia £pictatus. As to the sculptured 
monument, it may be supposed a work of the ancient Phrygians, 
who, like other nations of Asia Minor, in a state of independence 
before the Persian conquest, used an alphabet slightly differing 
from the Greek, and derived from the same Oriental origin. 
The characters of its inscriptions resemble the Archaic Greek 
in some respects, whilst in others they are manifestly semi^ 

404 Notice ofCkA. Leiake's Journal 

Bolh ia the lesoDbkoce and diMimilitude, tli€vefoi«f they accord ^\th 
what we shoukl espect of the dialect of the Phrygians^ whose coooexion 
with Greece is evideot [torn roaoj parts of their early history; at the 
saiue time that the distinction between the two nations is strungly 
marked by Herodotus, who gives to the Phrygians the appellation of 
barbadana. (P. S7.) 

In one of the inscriptioiia CoK I* discovered the worda 
MUAi FANAKTEI ''to King Midas;" furnishing aa iionie- 
diate presumption that this monument was constructed in honor 
of some Phrygian monarch of the Midaianr family. This opinionf 
18 supported with our author's wonted erudition and ability^ 9nd 
he recommends, as we sincerely do, that future travellers should 
devote some time to a^more complete examination of this highly 
interesting object than circumstances allowed to himself. The 
second chapter illustrates in a very masterly manner the ancient 
Geography of the central part of Asia Minor,, establishing the 
sites of many cities respecting wliich we have hitherto been 
almost wholly ignorant. And the third chapter continues the 
author's route from Konia through various (Jaces, until tn^ arri- 
val nt the see-coast, where be embarked aiKl landed at Tzerina 
or Cerina, in the ieland of Cypnis, near which are some cata- 
combs, the only remains of ancient Ceryneia. (P. 118.) Here 
he remarks that — 

-—the mtural formation of the eastern part of the north side of Cyprus 
is very singular: it consists of a high, rugged ridge of steep rocks, run- 
ning m a straight line from east to west, waich descend abruptly on the 
aoutb side into the great plain of Lefkosia, and terminate to the north 
in a narrow plain bordering the coast. Upon several of the rocky sumr 
mits of the ridge are casdes which seem almost inaccessible. The slope 
and maritime ^aii^ at the foot of the rocks on the north possess the finest 
soil and climate, with a plentiful supply of water; it is one of the most 
beautiful and best cultivated districts 1 have seen in Turkey. (P« 119.) 

Aniong various interesting, curious, and useful remarks, which 
our author, as usual, intersperses throughout his works, we 
ahall notice one, iu P. I £4, showing, that from a comparison of 
aome computed measurements with the real distances on the 
aiap, a Greek mile may be estimated at about two-thirds of 
the geographical; and as the word fiiXi was borrowed from the 
Latin, Col. Leake concludes that the measure miist have been 
originally the same as the Roman mile, though it is now shorter ; 
tbe distance however is merely computed^ not measured, and he 
never could obtain an accurate definition of it from the Greeks. 
The ruuis of Assus, opposite to Molivo, (the ancient Methym- 
na) in Mitylene, afford numerous remains, fumisliing perhaps 

of a Tour in Aua Minor^ 405 

the most; perfect idea of a Greek city, that anynvhere exists-— 
temples^ sculptured figures^ walls and. towers, a gate in com* 
plete- presenration, a cemetery witi^ gigantic Sarcophagi, an 
ancient causeway, and architraves with inscriptions. On one 

of these we read lEPETS TOT JIOS .... KAISAPJ Z'J&. 

BASTflL Another records the name of one who had be- 
queathed lands for restoring the city, arid from the profits of 
which the temple had been rebuilt, £x tij; 9rpoo*oSou rmv etygooVf 
toy afrsXtrsf eig svicrxet/ijv rrig iroXeeos KKeoarparos wos noTiSoosip fwre^ 
8s TVXXixovTO^, eTfifo-xguacffjj. (P. 128.) 

The fourth chapter treats of ancient places on the road from 
Adalia to Shughut, with remarks on the comparative geography 
of the adjacent country. 

We shall here direct the inquisitive reader to our learned 
author's observations on the ^ite of Apameia, respecting which 
he examines the ancient evidences. 

Because it is a point of great importance to the ancient geography of 
the western part of Asia Minor; not less so than Tyanaisto the eastern; 
and because, adds he, in regard to both these places, I h&ve the misfor- 
tune to differ from the author, in whose opinion the public is justly in 
the habit of placing the highest confidence. P. 163. 

ft is Scarcely necessary to mention that Col. Leake here alludes 
to the celebrated geographer Major RenneU. 

The fifth chapter relates to ancient places on the southern 
coast of Asia Minor; and here a due compliment is paid to 
Captain Beaufort's excellent work on Karamania, a country 
now poor and deserted^ but appearing, from the numerous 
remains of antiquity that it exhibits, to have been one of the 
most populous and florishing regions of the ancient world (p. 


In chapter vi. we have remarks on the comparative geography 

of the western and northern parts of Asia Minor; on the 

principal places in Persea -Rhodia, in Doris, in Caria, in the 

valley of the Maeander, in the valleys of the Caystrus, on the 

coast of Ionia, in the vallies of the Hermus and Caicus, and in 

the adjacent country, in Troas, in Bithynia, s^nd in Paphlagonia. 

Here (p. 240.) our author gives a very remarkable inscription 

from Branchidae^ in the Boustrophedon manner of writing ; it 

was copied by Sir William Gell from the chair of a sitting 

statue on the Sacred Way, or road leading from the sea to the 

temple of Apollo Didymaeus. This road, which on either side 

was bordered with statues on chairs formed of single blocks of 

stone, the feet clos» together and the hands placed on the 

kneeS) is an exact iikiitation of the avenues to Egyptian temples. 


406 Notice of CoL Leake s Journal, ^c. 

Respecting' the remains of Ephesiis Col. Leake observes^ thai, 
though still very considerable and of easy access. 

They have hardly yet been sufficiently explored, or at least they have 
not yet been described to che public with the accuracy and detail which 
they merit. The temple of Diana Ephesia, the largest and most cele- 
brated of the Asiatic Greek buildings, » the only one of the great exam- 
ples of the Ionic order of which we do not now possess particulars more 
or less satisfactory. The temples at Samus, Branchidae, Priene, Mag- 
nesia^ and Sardes, have been measured and drawn by experienced archi- 
tects, but not a stone has yet been discovered that can with certainty be 
ascribed to the Ephesian temple, although very little doubt Temains aa 
to its exact situation. P. S58. 

For the total disappearance of such a vast edifice our author 
accounts, by remarking its position near the sea, which facilitated 
the removal of its materials for the construction of new build- 
ings during the long period of Grecian barbarism : whilst that 
gradual rising of the soil, which has not only obstructed the 
port near the temple, but has created a plain of three miles 
between it and the sea, must have buried every vestige of the 
temple that escaped removal; an architect, however, would 
probably still find beneath the soil suflScient traces to afford 
a perfect knowlege of the original construction. 

For Col. Leake's very interesting remarks on Troy, which 
occupy above thirty pages, we must refer to the work itself — 
noticmg a very curious sketch explaining the supposed altera- 
tion in the coast and in die rivers of Troy since the time of the 
celebrated war ; and a map of the Troas from Rboeteium and 
Alexandreia to the summits of Mount Ida. 

Although many remarks on the central parts of Asia Minor 
have already been made by our author in a Journal published 
among the collections of Mr. Walpole (vol. ii.), yet so much 
new matter has been added that the work before us appears as 
a most valuable acquisition to the classical antiquary and geo- 

We cannot close this interesting volume without noticing the 
admirable map of Asia Minor which illustrates it, executed by 
Mr. John Walker, after the drawing by Col. Leake. 




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Greek (^ammar, translated from the German of Philip 
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Contents of the Journal des Savansfor November, 182S. 

1. Klaproth, Asia Polyglotta; reviewed by M. Abel Remusat. 

2. D'Ohsson^ Empire Ottoman, tome 3; M. Silvestre de 

3. Chefs-d'oeuvre des Th^&tres Strangers; M. Raynouard. 

4. Eusebe Salverte, Hoi'ace et TEmpereur Auguste; M. 

5. C. C. Sallustius, curante J. L. Boumeuf , M. Letronue. 

6. Carmen Almotenabbii, 8cc. ; M. Silvestre de Sacy. 

For December f 1823. 

1. Guizot, Essais sur THistoire de France; by M. Daunou. 

2. Hug et Ceilerier, Introduction critique au Nouveau Tes-^ 
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3. Chefs-d'oeuvre des Theatres' Strangers ; M. Raynouard. 

VOL. XXIX. CI. JL NO. LVlir. 2 E 

408 Literary^ Intelligence. 

4* Silvestre de Sacy» Les Siances. de Hariri (in Arabic) ; M. 

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6. Explication d'une Inscription de la Statue de Memnon^ par 
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For March, 1824. 

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For April, 1824. 

1. S. Lee's Edition of Sir W. Joneses Persian Grammar; M. 
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6. Biot, Astronomic Egyptienne; by M. Letronne. 

6. Note coneemant une Inscrljption Grecque traciie sur line 
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Recbercbes sur le culte de Bacchus, &d. par P. N. RoUe : 
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Th6&tre choisi d*£schyle ; contenant Prom^th^e, Les Sept 
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1823. 8vo. 

Fr. N/Gisl. Baguet de Chrysippi Vita, Doctriua et Reli- 
quiis, Commentatio in Academia Lovatiiensi prsemio ofnata. 
Lovanii 1822. 4to. 

De ambiiu, utilitate et necessitate studii Exegeseos sacrae: 
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Schneider's Lexicon, Greek and English. 


W. B*f who discusses the question^ '* whether horse-shoes 
were used by the ancients?'^ (Classical Journal^ No. Lvi. 
p. 367.) is referred to a curious coin, ap. Patin. Numism. 

p. 7. foU Amst. 1697. 
• . ' • 

The passage to which Ricardus alludes is perfectly correct : 
o7 ys refers to *A6^vas in sense/not in construction, by the gram- 
matical figure Synesis. 

Is Caipe Ohsessa a Prize Poem ? Our friend C. P. Gr will 
perhaps state the date, author, &c. 

The Inscription will require a wood-cut, which C P. G. 
will perhaps send. 

W. H. S. came too late. — Jd Murem, &c< in our next. 


Preparing for publication^ in one vol. 8vo. 


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By Thomas Mitchell, A.M. 

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interest the Statesman, Merchant, and Traveller. This work 
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This day are published, 

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