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Nii'ig e^og Mfiwrimy, pi^ov a [xr^ voietg. 

Epigr. Incert. 






No. XXXIX. p. 7S. I. 7. habet, read habeat 

if 12. ablative, rtad dative or ablattv^ 

No. XL. p. 290. 1. 20. read constabit 

p. S04. not. 1. 4. read admovebo 
p. S06. 1. pen. read Hantius 
L alt read repent 

No. XIX p. lis. ▼. 7. read Bfiwafya 

p. 114. ▼• 47. read ky{i»Mai9rai^ 
p. 117. T. 1S4. read Ziypmrt 
p. 180. 1. 2Si read Epichanni. 

No. Xm. p. 219. aid of note at hatUurn add : imparted ko evtxy thing from ita ^ 
proper canHe. "Every thing therefore b converted to its proper cause. And conse* ' 
quently other motions are converted to the motions of t^&e soul. But that which is 
tiie object of conversion to any tbiiig» ia that for the sake of which that thing sub- 
nsts ; L e. it is the final cause. The motions of the toul therefon art tiic iisaf 
causes of all other motions. . 

p. 267. 1. 29. quid gU 

p. 260. L14. enmt , 

p* 971. L 4. from bottoiD» Maiem. 


Oo the Origin, Progress^ Prevalence^ and Decliiie of 
Idolatry. By the Rev. George Townsend •••-• 1 

De Davidis Ruhnkenii celebri quodam reperto litera« 
lio. From the Littebar. Analek. No. iv. •••• 19 

Letters on the Ancient British Language of Corn- 
wall. No.^i • •^ • •••• 26 

ll^otice of '' The Enthusiasm of Methodists and Papists 
considered: by Bishop Lavington. A new edition, 
with Notes, Introdnction, and Appendiic, by the Rev. 

R.P0LWH£L£." ••• •••-•••• ••#••»«•• S2? 

PhConic Demonstration of the Immortality of the Soul. 
Part II. •^ • • •^•* • • ••• 40 

Diasertation Historique, Litt^ire, et Bibliograpkique, siir 
la Vie et les Ouvrages de Macrobe. Par M. Al- 
phonse Mahul. No. hi. •.••••••••^^••••••. 51 

The Iphigeaia of Tlmantfaes, a Prize Poem for Idigi » • 65 

BiBLiOGRAPHT : — ^the White Knighls Library, Part iii. 67 

On the Theology of the Greeks, By Thomas 
Taylor • • •••••#••#••• 89 

On the Different Opbions which have been formed of 
Cicero. By Charles Kelsall. •-• • • • • • 105 



An Inquiry into the Opinions of the ancient Hebrews, 
specting a future immortal Existenee. Part ii. •••••• 123 

De Aristophanis Fragmentis. Augustus Sbib- 
LERUS. •^••^••••-••••.••••••••* ••«•••••••• •••••• 130 

Essay '' On the evidence of Scripture that the Soul, imme- 


diately after the death of the body, is not in a state of 
sleep or insensibility; but of happiness or misery; and 
on the mora] uses of that doctrine." •••••.••-• •^ •••.«• •' 141 

£uRiPiDEi Phaethontis Fragmeuta, e MS. Paris, 
descripta ••••^•.••••^••« •••••••.•••.••••• •••••• 156 


Miscellanea Classica, No. x. •....•...•<» 171 

Cambridge Prize Poems, for 1820. • • ••••.•• 176 

Cambridge Triposes, for 1818. •••••••••••••• 195 

Manuscripts found, at the Parthenon —•••••• • • £01 

On the Plagiarisms of C. J. Blomfield. •••••••••••• 204 

Aristophanis Fragmenta emendata. G. B. •••••^•* 219 

Hints to form the Ovidian Distich •..••••...••• 221 

Reply to the Quarterly Reviewer of* Stephens' 
Greek Thesaurus •-•••♦•••.••.••• — ••••• 225 

Adversaria Liter aria. No. xxv.— Claudian, 
Carm. i. 6. — Note of Barnes. — Alexander the Great« 

—The Egyptian Cubit. •••••••• •• ••• 241 

Account of the Library of the University of Gotdngen •• 243 

Oriental Customs ••• 257 

literary Intelligence •••••• •^••.••.•. •••-• 259 

Notes to Correspondents •#*#•• •-••_• • • • t • • # ••-••• •• • • 260 




SEPT EMBE R. i«90. 



Fabt n^lCMtitmedfrom No. XLH. p. 8»1.1 

Section L 

Preliminaty Observations, and Notice of ike chief Works M 

the subject. 

Xh< neit gfevC work wkich presesto itadf to the attention of 
die student eo thisralNect, is, ^ The Origin of Pagan Idolatty'' 
bj Mr. Faber. Having the good fortune to be llie last in hia 
vesearches, Mr. Faber has combined in one splendid and iin<i> 
posing sjstemy all the knowledge of bis predecessors ; and he 
bas examined their several labors widi the skill of a critic^ the 
learning of a scholar, the taste and impartiality of a gentleman* 
He writes in that flowing^ unaffected, and eaeiy style, which is 
indaced only by abundance of materials, and ^e consdousneas 
of serving a good cause. The reader is as completely carrieil 
esway by the interest of the sMbjeet, and the eaf nestness of the 
writer, as if he was reading a new and popular novel, instead 
of a. voluminous work on one of the most difficult questions in 
Aeoiogieal learning. This is no small praise; it is well de» 
eerved, and freely bestowed. The magnificent and beautiful 
system which Mr. Faber has constnicted, will always be consi^ 
iteped, among those who delight i^ such pumitits, a» an impair 

2 On the Or^n^ JProgress^ 

rishaUe monumetit of genius^ talent, and research. If I venture 
to propc^e an obiection to some of the ohiaments of tKis tem]p]^ ; 
to*suggest alterations in one part/ and improvements in another ; 
it is done with the conviction, that they are such as Mr. Faber 
>vould have approved, if they had been suggested to him at the 
commencement of his plans. 

The chief points, which Mr. Faber wishes to establish, and the 
course of argument with wUich he defends them, cannot be better 
related, than by giving the general design of his whole work io 
his own language. — *' The various systems of Pagan Idolatry in 
imferabt parts of the world correspond so ctod^ly, both in their 
evident purport and in numerous points of arbitrary resemblance^ 
that they cannot have been^struck .out independently, in the 
several countries where they have been established; but must 
Save all originated. from some common source. But, if they alt 
originated from a common source, then either one nation must 
have communicated its peculiar theology to every other people 
in the way. of peaceful and voluntary imitation; or that same 
nation must have communicated it to every other people through 
the medium of conquest and violence ; or lastly all nations must 
in the infancy of the world have been assembled, togilther in a 
single region and in a single comin^nity; they must at that 
period, and in that state of society, have agreed to adopt the theo- 
logy in question^ and must thence as from a common centre 
have; earned it to ftll quarters of the globe." . ': 

^^ These are the only three modes, in which the universal 
accordance of the Gentiles in their religious speculations can 
possibly be accounted for. But, as the incredibility of the 
firsts and as the equal incredibility and impossibility of tfaio 
second, may be shown without much difficulty; the third alone 
remains to be adopted. Now this third mode both perfect^ 
harmonbes with the general purport of Heathen Idolatry, and 
minutely accords with an historical fact which is declared ta us 
on the very highest -authority. An examination of the theology 
of the Gentiles forces us to conclude, that all mankind were 
once assembled together in a single community;' and that they 
ftfter\i'ards spread themselves in detached bodies over the face 
of' the whole earth. Holy Scripture asserts^ that such was 
actually the fact." 

i ^^ Under these circumstances, I am necessarily led to treat 
largely of the dispersioa from Babel and specially to insist upon 
kn important peculiarity in that dispersion, which has hitherto 
been entirely overlooked. I am also led to. discuss certain other 
cubseqiient: great movementi^. which are clofieiy connected with 

* fc ». c c < 

a to k <- >. 

4ind Dedline ^ Idolatry. ^ 

• « 

the peculiarity alluded to. In sfaort, tte events^ which occurred in 
the plain of Shinar, have stamped a character upon the whole 
mass of mankind that remains vividly impressed even to moderii 
times. The powerful and martial family, that once obtained a 
decided pre-eminence over their brethren, have never, down td 
the present hour, ceased with a strong hand to vindicate theif 

The work is divided into six books. It may be satisfactory 
to those who have not had an opportunity of perusing it, to give 
an abstract of the contents of each. — The first book professes 
lo give a genera] idea of the Mythology of the Pagans. '' The| 
first idols/' says Mr. Faber, *' were deified men, who lived id 
the earliest antediluvian, and postdiluvian ages, which are uni- 
versally knoM'n as the golden age. The Men thus deified were' 
Adam, and Noah, with their respective three sons: the paganf 
Trinities were not perversions of the real doctrine of the Trinity.* 
The postdiluvian world arose, as it were, out of the ruins of thef 
Antediluvian : as Adam had three sons to people the world| 
Noah toohad the same number, hence originated, (Mr; Faber sup^ 
poses,) the doctrine of a continued succession of similar worjds. 
As the earth was the universal mother of all life at the Creation! 
the ark was supposed or represented to be the - same at the de- 
luge ; hence in after ages the ark and the earth were frequently 
identified, and the same symbols represented both. To Demfon- 
olatry, or the worship of their deified ancestors, succeeded 
Sabianism, or the worship .of the Host of Heaven. The study 
of astronomy commenced at a very early period ; the idolaters^ 
who considered their demon gods as guardians of mankind, were 
easily induced to imagine that they were translated to the hea« 
yenly bodies, from whence they observed, and ruled the world, 
Both Noah and Ham were venerated as the sun. From Sabianr 
ism^ by a natural progression, originated the idea of Materialism ; 
their* deity was the soul, and visible nature the body of the 
universe. As this universe had its periods of decay, and repro^ 
duction, so all the parts of which it was composed were repro- 
duiced ; hence too originated the doctrine of the meteinpsychosis^ 
or transmigration of souls. 

* Because the several theological systems of the Pagan nation^ 
Hgree, not in obvious and natural circumstances only, such as th^ 
worship of their ancestors or the Host of Heaven, but in fanciful 
speculations^ arbitrary observances, and minute ceremonies ;-^ 
Mr;' Faber 'concludes, (though differences among all existed to 
a great extent) that all these idolatries must have had one covo^ 
aiOD SQurce* Contrary to the opinion of Mr; firyaint^ whdM 

mSVI^Iiti ^ ^^amiasd at great leogth, Mr. Faber suppoaeii 
^at therf y!9» but oii^ dispersioo, which was from 8binar ; that 
t^is idolatry hisgan at Shmar uiid^r the dominion of JNimrod» 
Though idolatry be fundamentally the same over the wliole: 
^oriciy yet there are two great divisions of opinion; one the 
^9tem called Buddhism, the other called Brahmauism, of which 
no more can be said at present, than that Buddhism is to Brah- 
^nijim in idolatry, what the conventicle of the Quaker is to the 
^^urcbofSit. Peter in Christianity. Buddhism being more simple 
anduniviej-sal than Brahmanism is si^pposed to have been the first 
ftep towards the grand apostacy. The prigio of idolatry waa 
^he perversion of Patriarchism. 

In the fourth chapter of this book Mr. Faber enumerates 
and discusses the several symbols, by means of which the events 
pf th^ deluge were commemorated ; these were the lotos^ the 
egg, the serpent, the lunar crescent, ^c. &c. The fifth contains 
aici animated yet brief survey of the several systems of heathen 
cosmogony : the Chaldeans-Gothic — Phoetuciau-^f^yptian— . 
Persian— -Etrurian — Hindoo—- Chinese — Japanese — Greek-— 
Orphian^ — and Platonic— American, and Australasian ; each of 
which confirm the general, and the only rational theor}% that aU 
Ibf idolatry ai niumkind originated, as Mr. Bryant, and Faber 
iiffmcrt, from one common source. 

The subject of the secoifid book^is the veneration paid by the 
ancients to high places, to groves^ consecrated islands ; to the 
bull, the lion, the eagU^ and the serpent : and concludes with 
discussing the origin and purport of sacrificial rites* 

Mr. Faber first endeavors to ascertain the exact situation of 

Paradise and Aiaiat. He ent^s very largely into this queiition^ 

niai attempts lo prove that the aik restjed within view of the 

former site of Paradise : that the ancients venerated mountMDs 

because they were transcripts of the holy mountain Ararat : tb^ 

offered on high places, orig^ally, in commemoration of the holo« 

caust of Noah ; the grove wor^ip was instituted to commemo* 

rate tb^ worship in Eden, and was not at first an idolatrous 

custom ; the Scripture assuring us that the Patriarchs planted 

groves, and offered on high places, islands were esteemed 

holy, because when the ark rested on Ararat, beforjc the waters 

hap subsided, its top rose as ai» ijaland above the waves, and 

the summits of the surrounding portions of the gor(fiaean chain 

wer^ seen : this circumstance was celebrated in Uie most remote 

ag^s; and when the ancestors of the Hindoos went to the east, 

anjd left Ararat on their west, th^y celebrated the subsidkig of 

ilia patera of the delLfge^ i^ ^eir acfconsita ot the holjr wiiila 

! • . • • • ** 

• ••• • • • • * 

, • • • • * 

••. • • • • 

and Dedine 9f Meiatrjf. A 

island of the west Tho ark was rem^mbcied under the ilBkMefli 
of the Diooo. A» the mooti ki her ficsi aad' laat ^yiarters apl^aaN 
in the dark blue sky likeaboatj kwaeipade'asBriM^di of Ihfeierifr 
floating on the waters of the deluge ; and as every hag^ mottotahl^ 
was venerated as a transcript of Ararat| it was called ihd moun- 
tain of the shipj or of the nu>on ; the word liuban ia the languagii 
of the early colonists from Sbinar having both these itoeaoioMU 
The reverence paid to the bull, the tioo^ aad the eagle^ Mr# 
Faber supposes to have originated from some mistaken BOiioB 
respecting the cherubim ; the figures of wbich^ monstrbu^ Hi 
they appear to our imagination^ were well known to th^ earif 
Patriarchs. The serpent was worshipped as an emblem of tho 
evil principle ; and because tile deluge proceeded^ aa they suf^ 
posedj from the evil principle^ it was made a symbol of the del ugtt4 
Yet, the serpent was likewise uniformly considered as an embledi 
of the good principle;' among the Egyptians it was cooiiidefed 
as the creator of the worlds &c. ; and Mr* Faber supposed tfaii 
emblem to have been borrowed from the winged aeriqrii« or 
serpent) which was blended with the cherubie symbobi» 

Though I have waded through many of thf works from wbick 
Mr. Faber has drawn much of his materials, i cannot eypresa in|i 
assent or dissent to many opinions now related. Some of ibem 
are evidendy less worthy of our reception than olhertf^ th^Wi^ 
each is supported with learning and ingenuity. I am Ikierelji 
detailing the contents of Mr. Faber's work. The last chapter of 
the second book contains an account of the origin and pufpoft 
of sacrificial rites : which are proved, ill the most satisfactory 
manneri to have been instituted from the beginning. He showa^ 
from the testimony of the Pagan nations^ from the opinions ot 
the Jews, the sentiments of the early Patriarchs, and the kwa 
of Mosesy that sacrifice was always considered to be of a pkk 
cular and expiatory nature. The book concludes with die in* 
teresting question whether each sacrifice did nOl shadow out tbn 
future sacrifice of the Messiah* 

The subjects discussed in the third book are tike F^pas 
accounts of the deluge, the trwlitiofis relative to the saored 
books said to have been preserved in the wk, and tbese relaliTe 
lo the time between the creation and the dekige« it conclnden 
with some discussion of the several local delugea vrluch are said 
to have taken place among the ancient nationa; which art 
shown to be chiefly derived from the received idea of a deluge. 

The /fourth book contms a dissertatiott on the identity^ and 
f^tronomical cbaraclei^ of |be chief Deity of the (Senile natioiis^ 
The moat cunona sfnd viduabfe ^s of tbil^ bpnk i^ the »i »il » 

ft On the Origin^ Progress; 

ki which it is shown how th^ seven! Katies ^ meiige into one/ 
TheBuddhic and Brahmiinic superstitions are examiiiedaftiBBgtb,' 
and the union of the two superstitious, in the worship of Jagher- 
aauty considered. - 

* The fifth hook contains some most ingenious reasoning, on 
the character of the great gbddesises worshipped by the Pagans : 
the njeaning of their navicular, infernal^ and human character is 
discussed ; * the* nature of the . ancient mysteries is admirably 
tl-eated, though- many objections will be alleged against Mr. 
Faber's system. But the most valuable part of this book is the 
chapter which treats on '^the places used by the Pagans for 
religious worship. The high (daces and groves have been con- 
sidered: to these may be added caverns, and where naturaF 
RiQuhtains were not to be found, as in the plains of Shinar, or. 
the levels of Egypt, they constructed artificial mountains, or 
pyramids ; or excavated immense caverns in commemoration of 
Jftrarat, and the ark which lodged on its precipices. The last 
cbaptdr of this book is a most interesting and beautiful digres*' 
sion, to show the origination of romance from the old mythology. 
The superstitions of one age, says Mr. Faber, are the romance 
of another more enlightened. 

The most important, curious, and interesting part of the whole 
work is the sixth book ; of which 1 shall therefore give a more 
Extended account. The subject is the general history of man* 
kind from the deluge, till the expulsion from E^ypt, of the 
shepherd kings. 

*' Mr. Faber begins this book with a position in which all must 
agree who receive the narrative of Scripture, that mankind were 
once united in a single community. He then proceeds to dis^ 
cuss Mr. Bryant's hypothesis of a double dispersion ; one from 
the gradual increase of numbers compelitng the families to sepa» 
rate, the other the dispersion from Shinar when the idolatrous 
builders of the Tower of Babel weremiraculously scattered over 
the world. Mr. Faber concludes that there was but one dis-^ 
^ersion, that from Shinar : the first chapter ends with an account 
of the probable route of the whole body from Ararat to Shinar.^ 
' Having thus conducted the early postdiluvians to this celebrated 
spot, Mn Faber proceeds to describe the extent and polity of 
the primeval empire, founded by Nimrod, in the plain of Iran : 
he ascribes the origin of castes to the Machiavelianisnr of ' th^ 
'* mighty Hunter." The third chapter contains an account of 
the division of the earth among the sons of Noah, of the con* 
liision of tongues, and of the two principal arguments in favor of * 
the hyi^othiiii of a 'single dispersion; namely, that all langusses 

ttnd Declihe of Idolatry: f 

<hay be traced to one^ which are all blended in the language of 
f ran ; and that mankind divide themselves into three races t 
Hindoos, Arabs, and Tartars, which meet, likewise, in the same 
central spot. The origin of the Gentile Triads, and the parti- 
cular mode of the dispifersion from Babel, complete the thircf 

The fourth chapter of the sixth book relates the various settle 
ments of the military caste, who refused to unite with their 
brethren, on account of the schism of the two great sects ; these 
were chiefly known by the name Scythae or Scythians; they 
were alike the ancestors of the ancient Goths, the Indoscythse^ 
the Germants, and the warlike tribes of India. As they were 
one military caste, the division of castes was unknown among 
them. The history of the much controverted shepherd kings of 
figypt, and the various settlements of the military caste, in con- 
sequence of their expulsion, occupies the fifth chapter. ' Mr. 
Brjint's theory, that the shepherd kings were the Cuthim front 
Babylonia, who were expelled from thence after the overthrow 
of the- tower, is rejected; it is asserted by Mr: Faber^froma 
variety of authorities; but principally from Captain Wilford's 
paper in the Asiatic Researches, entitled, ** On Egypt, and die 
Nile, from the sacred books of the Hindoos" — that the shepherd 
icings were Asiatic Ethiopians, or Philitim, who invaded Egypt 
Urorn the East. The most ingenious reasoning is employed to 
prove this point, and to establish the connenon between their 
"history, and that of the Israelites. The' chapter concludes with 
an account of the emigrations of these 'royal shepherds, when 
they were ultimately expelled from Egypt, under the various 
appellations of Danai,Cadmians, &c. &c. 

The last chapter discusses the mode in which the Pagan 

Idolatry originated from corrupted patriarchism. It contains a 

nummary of the whole work. The chief circumstances of the 

patriarchal worship are enumerated. The cause of the resem- 

i>lance between the ritual law of Moses and the ritual law of 

the Gentiles is fairly stated, and referred to their common 

similarity to the more ancient patriarchal Service. The wdn- 

tJerftil connexion between Paganism, Judaism, and Chrbtianity, 

is treated upon ; and the work concludes with an examination 

of several peculiarities in the several characters of the Messiah^ 

and the chief Deity of the Pagans. * . . • 

Since the publication of this great work, Mr. Faber has printed 

*a work entitled Horse Mosaics, which may be considered ai 

a supplement, t>r in some measure the conclusion, of th^ boot 

<«ttider •xamination; In tbi» work^Mdie first edition tif wUcfa traps 

9 Q» the i)rigi$^ Pr^gresi, 

imbliabed «8 ^ the Bampton Lectwne/' Patriai chiim, J udai^a^ 
md Christianity^ are proved to be the same system of doctriii^ 
iod teaebingy communicated under three several fonns : aud tb« 
nsost coBvincing^ and we maj s aj the most irrefutable, argumeats 
^e urged, to show that Moses alooe could have been the author 
of the Pentateuch, from the impossibility ^hat it should have 
he^ written iu any age, and uiuler any circumstances different 
irom those in which it is said to have been written. The wfaoU 
train of reasoning is deduced from internal evidence. I mentton 
^bis treatise in this place^ as it would have formed a good ccioi- 
elusion to the work on Idolatry* 

1 have thus submitted to tlie general reader the mere outline 
of this great undertaking. Though many authors have attempted 
^ iUuslrate several of the obscurities and difficulties connected 
ivitb the Pagan Mythology, Mr. Faber is the only hierophaot 
who has ventured to conduct the stranger and the enquirer 
through all the mazes of the labyrinth. When I venture to 
dii&r from a gentleman who has had so many opportunities of 
becoming well acquainted with all the details of this subject ; 
whisn I eonsider the time he has devoted to it ; the talent wbicb 
he has generally displayed in tlie management of his materials, 
md the apparent judgment with which the contending autho* 
litiea are wei^ed^ I am doubtful if 1 am net guilty of presump^ 
tioq in proposing objections to any part of Mr. Faber's hypo** 
thesis ; yetj, I am compelled not only to withhold assent tonumy 
•f his separate conclusions, but to r^ect the foundation on 
which his theory rests. I should much distrust my judgment 
lyhen 1 thus venture to differ from the conclusions of a scholar 
and divine so celebrated as Mr. Faber, and should certainly 
b/eaitQte to do so^ were X not supported by the arguments of that 
3b)3trious and exemplary schow Mr. Bryant, who is, equally 
WiUb Mr. Faber,^ desesving of every praise. The repetidbna and 
diffusenesa of botb authons proceed from tluit inattentiou to 
mWi" e^cellenaies,. which is frequently induced by an es^er soli<- 
^itudiS tp impre^a the reader with the full force of an argument. 
*f he. points which we mav most hesitate to receive are the fol- 
lowing ;~*Wa may r^ect from Mr. Bryant's system the universal 
jConqjUQats. of the Cuthim^ several positions chiefly proved by 
<Qt;f molo^y ; the th^on of ih^ shepherd kings ; and many of those 
arguments by which he would jpcove that the Greeks derived 
Aft gpatar paipt of their My thofogy from perverting the names 
of jpiCaa* c)i|tie% ^.; the researimes ef Sir William Jones and 
Oth^9. h»W$ fufiy ^stabUsbed this fact, that the gods, aud. the 
,vbp|is P^9tm olmpl^^M ItuUaj^ Egypt, Greecei, and Bom<i 

vN^v«* the sanM. Tbui;. wbsr« Mr» Bryiuit a^s^U tbdt fhtf Oftf* 
^baltis of Ammpiii meant originally the oracle of the god, froip 
itihe radicals Otii|^tii-r*Al; and that Curtius is therefore wron^ 
in translating that word by Umbilicus; we may remember that 
the Navel of Vishoou was veiierated in the same manner, a»tbo 
Omphalus^ or Umbilicus^ or Navel of Ammoo was venerated : 
and many other instaueea could be given, in which Mr. Bryaafe 
IS most ^obably wrong. From Mr* Fabec's system we mvf 
reject the single dispersion of mankind ; the early belief in dmm 
ierialism ; the opinion that tbs knowledge of the true God waa 
ever entirely obliterated ; and that the triad of the Geatilea waa 
so completely of hitman invention that the doctrine of the Trik 
Dity had either not been (H'iguially known, or was so sooa fo|u 
goUen^ that the Pagan Triads were not, in any respect, perversions 
of the true doctrine. I cannot but reject the Klea that idolatry 
was formed at Shinar into that complete and perfect systeoa 
laid dovvvk in his book. Nor do I think that suiBeieat allowanco 
is made for the innovations of the Egyptians ; or for the influ- 
ence of pride, affected wisdom, policy, priestcraft, and inven« 
tion among various nations. Mr. Faber's^system is too perfect, 
to be eatirely accurate. 

Though it cannot be said whether the same, or what degree of 
erbdi^ ought to attach to many of the papers in the Asiatic Re- 
seai'^hes ; the present opportunity cannot be lost, of expressifig the 
very great oU^tioas oif the literary world to the editor o# tha* 
work, and its several contributors. Many of the papers contai* 
iavahiable informalaon. It would occupy too much room to eai^ 
laerate one half of the accessions made from this source to oar 
former stock of knowledge. Mr. Faber*s theory has derived its 
firmest support from the labors of Sir WiUiam Jones, Capiaift 
Wilford, and other eminent scholars who (i^ve eniched that jour« 
aal. Evea if the more cautious and hesitating inquirer should pb* 
ject to the system which Mr. Faber has proposed, the materiala 
collected in the ^' Asiatic Researches," from which he has so freely 
drawf^ wiU ever form a magazine of authenticated facts, and ca» 
rions knowledge; alike useful to the scholar, the critic, and the di« 
vine. I cannot attempt to abridge the numerous articles to wUcIa 
1 would more particularly refer; the gentlemen who compose die 
society established by Sir WilUaaSi J<ones still continue their la^ 
bars. All their researches confirm* by innumerable minor discovo* 
ms^tbe truth of the M.osaic books. None of its members wiU be 
auapected of concealing an opinion, or shrinking from opeidjp 
proposing any obj^^ctioa to preconceived idean. Their fouodea 
J^Iolrj^ dackmd mat ba ysm iva^y to witbboM bis assaat froan 

M) On the Origin^ Progteis^ 

iIm Christian creed, unless he should be convitfced of its tn^lh' 
k^ undoubted evidence ; end his successorr at Bengal have ever 
been actuated by the same fearless spirit. The testimony, there- 
fore, of men, so learned, so zetdous, so-disinterested in their 
pursuit of truth, -cannot be aiispected or rejected. Additional 
psaof of ibe truth of the Hebrew Scriptures, was not, perhaps^ 
nofiupad ; yet, the Christian will always value the well directed^ 
labors, which appeal to the philosophical, the speculative, ^ or 
At sceptic ; and which prove to them on their own grounds,^ 
that no religion under heaven, but the Christian religion, 19 
worthy the attention or the homage of a reasonable man. One* 
thing is yet wanting; that this society would ascertain the date, 
the genuineness^ and authenticity, of the chief records of the 
Brahmins and Hindoos : to enable the Christian to prove, from 
internal evidence, the identity of the Scripture story with the 
original traditions, on the perversion of which their subsequent 
aoperstitions of the Pagan Idolatry have been grounded. 

Section II. 
Plan of the Inquiry ; and Proofs of a Deluge, 

- Such are the principal works, from an attentive perusal of the 
greater part of which those inferences have been deduced 
which 1 have arranged in the present article. My chief object 
in commencing, for my own satisfaction, a brief inquiry into th^ 
origin, progi^s, prevalence, and ultimate decline of Idolatry, 
has been to reject theory, and to ascertain facts. £very reason* 
able hypothesis, says Bishop Warburton, (and the remark is 
adopted by Mr. Faber, as a motto to his large work,) should 
be founded on a fact. This is a just remark ; but it does not 
setem sufficient. Every reasonable hypothesis should • be 
Ibanded on a connected series of many facts. So many learned . 
and laborious writers have bewildered themselves for want of a 
proper observation of this rule^ that I shall state explicitly the 
facts on which my own conclusions are grounded; and then 
mentimi the Conclusions themselves. I trust the inferences to 
which I have arrived will not be thought forced, extravagant, or 
hypothetical. My only postulate is this: — Whatever opinion, cus- 
tom, rite, ceremony or institution, was so universal as to be com-* 
mon to all nations, the origin of which opinion, Sec. cannot be 
traced to any one period, we may conclude to have formed t 
part of the primitive patriarchal religion, either in its pure, or 
Mitpieiitiy^ corrupted atate^ svbile miiikind were still few- ia 

(md D€cUne of Idolairy. '* 1^4 

««i»..*««. and uaited in one body; If iIhs yntt late be grantedi' 
it can, I think, be ahowiiy that Idolatry was to Patriarckism, 
ivbat.dieBoauHiGailfaoiic comiptioDs of religion are to Chris- 
tianity. It was a perversion of known, acknowledged, and di»-* 
finely originated truth. It can be clearly shown, that, at the ctoie 
mentioned in Scripture, a deluge took place over the whole- 
world. . The annals of all nations seem to prove the c^tainty ctf« 
this fact; and of this, as the foundation of thewfade f^bnc^- 
abundant evidence can be produced. After the deluge, mankind 
celebrated that terrible event by appropriate emblems; and' 
commemorated, by the observance of various rites, the chief of 
its distressing and sublime circumstances. After the deluge, 
mankind long continued together; nor, for a long time did they 
lose their knowledge of the true God. Religion, at that period, 
was, we should suppose, in substance the same as it now is : 
that is, the five chief articles, upon which the Christian and tbt 
Levitical dispensations are established, seem to be all traceable 
to the earliest ages of unauthenticated traditional history : I* 
mean, the doctrines of the Trinity, the Incarnation, and the 
Atonement ; the belief iii the immortality of the soul, the neces- 
sity of purity of life and heart. These five articles are the foun- 
dations of the whole structure of revealed religion, in all ita 
forms ; nor can we fix upon a period when they were notincnl < 
cated among mankind. The two latter might, possibly, it has 
been said, have been invented and enforced by legislators, aa 
essential to our happiness in private life; the three first, however, 
bear internal evidence of an origin more than human. 

As the numbers of mankind increased, they would be compel- 
led to move from their primeval settlements; then Religion 
would begin to be corrupted ; or, if the corruption had be^ra,- 
it would have most materially increased. 

• But. the profession of the true religion could not only consist 
in. rightly entertaining various articles of belief; there must 
have been an external service, appointed places of worship^ a sort 
of ritual, or regard to distinctions in sacrifices, observances of 
sabbaths, or festivals, and other outward ordinances. These 
things form part of all religions; aUd we argue the great- 
antiquity of the regard paid to these distinctions, from the samcf 
source as we would show the antiquity of the points of doctrine; 
namely, that we cannot fix upon a time when some religious^ 
institutions, and external worship, were not common to maidund. 
' If, therefore, we can ascertain the creed, and the ritual, of tfa# 
earliest post-diluvians, we shall most probably be able to trace all 
tfie.«oiniptiona of Heatbenism from their true origin. It wHl «et 

19 Om the (higin^ Pfdj^rew^ 

be neetisarjr to enbractt either Faber's or Brjant's kypothesia^ 
i§f from Ch« utter impodsibility of deriving the Pagan doc- 
Irunei and ritual, to other than one source, as well as from the 
equal ioi possibility of assigning to them a later date than that oi 
the earliest postdiluvian ages, we can show what Was the original 
religion of the Patriarchs ; and il this whole inquiry, in all its 
i^ult», be confirmed by Script«re, we are precluded from all 
neeessity of fradsing au hypothesis; we are in possession of a 
firm and solid foundation of facts, on wUch an explanation may 
be founded, of all the corruptions which followed the universal 
profession of pure and primitive Patriarchisni% 

We proceed, therefore, from this point, to trace the mannet 
i»whkli the adoration of the sun, moon and stars. Hero worship, 
the infemoiis murders, '' the dark Idolatries of alienated Judah,'' 
and the surrounding nations^ began and increased. We trace 
their progress from Cbaldaea^ ^gyp^> ^^ £odia> to Greece, 
Some, Britain, and elsewberfe ; and we tMnk w« are warranted 
tD come to this holi conclusion, — that there was not a single 
BOpeiatilion, however corrupt, not a rite nor ceremony, however 
flagitious, not an opinion nor doctrine, however absurd or profli« 
gate, which cannot be traced through antiquity to the remote 
periods of Patriarchism and true religion. Idolatry, therefore, 
may be defined, the adding to, or taking frolii> or tiie perversion 
ofi the doctrines ahd wcH-ship commanded and revesded by the 
Deit;i,.for the benefit of fiie bumati race. It will be impossible 
to enter jdIo minute detail ; we must be contented only to draw 
tbe outline, and delineate the more marked features of this 
monstrous corruption of prinoeval troth. 

: JLet not the more scrupulous reader be surprised at the 
l^diie6a,aDd,at first sight, the apparent absurdity of this proposi* 
tion, — that all the abommations and cruelties of Heathenisni, 
proceeded from any possible perversion of true religion. Let 
him but look back on die eonlenti<Mi8 of Christians. If the 
ioculcatioo of holiness, and purity, and charity; if the most 
aubbnae discoveries, the most s(4emn warnings, tlie most perfect 
morality, the most consistent, clear, and varied evidence, b^ proofs ; 
then Clu*istianity is true: and what mode of Government can 
wo imai^ne the Eternal could have more effectuaHy appointed 
U» the happiness of Mao, than a religioR so excellent, and so 

Yety at one peiiod or other of iitr histfory, its purest precepts 
Immfo been pervertefl^ aod- eve^y description of villainy has been 
dafended from tbe holy pagie : the inquisitor has conducted his 
iliuitia to the^ stake ; Beiiwer datced lotodi the djnng. Martyrs 

iffid J^ecMne of Idolatry. IS 

of oiir Eiigli^i Clmrclh The midnifht bymns of i i »la n | i 
ofthe valleys of Piedmont were succeeded by groans, and shrieks,, 
because the New Teatament had said ** Coiupt;! them to com« 
is/' The Anabaptist of Muuater jusJlified bis appropriately U> 
biiQself the wives of his infatuated compaoiona ; be defended his 
laurder, his treason, and acandalous iiideceQcies^ by texts of 
Scripture. Not a demagogue couldiosuU the uttfortiMiate Charks^ 
but hi3 text, and chapter and verse, was ready : our magistratea 
bave, even oS late days, been bearded by a worthless Radical, 
whose whole diatribe pronounced with hiu bible in bis 
bapd ! We could quote inniunerable inOaoces in which the moat 
sacred passages have been thus perverted* If mett in th< 
tetter ages have thus been given up to delusion, we 
neithei* ini^pute their fol\y to the religion they misuBderstaody 
Bor be surprised^ that, in the earlier ages, when reeding, or 
letters, were, as some suppose not at all, find certainly very bttle^ 
kiiiown, the primitive rdiigioa skould be Gorrupted to the service 
of Idoliatry,, licentiousness, and every descriptiou of csuel^ and 

The fact, that an ueiiversal deluge ouce coveced tbe eartb, b 
tbe foundation of aU history* The records of aUaatiens commence 
with sosne narrative of a ddfuge. In beginning this ioquii^ theceCaM,. 
with some proofs of the undoubted Iruth of a genenal deluge, I 
shall endeavour to condense^as much ^ ppssible, Ihe large cdUee^ 
lion of materials which coD^rm that event, beginning with the 
traditions on^e prevalent in aur own iaiand, as they are celle<^d 
hy Mr. Oavies. 

'' The profligacy of menkiod hjsd provoked ike gceal Supsene 
to send a pestilential wind iipoa the eerth. A pure poiMm 
descended : every blast viras death. At this tijBe, the Patiisidi, 
jisjUnguished for bis integiiity, w^s shuit up, together wilh hm 
seven select companiojas, in. the sacned indosufe vuth the strong, 
^oor : here the juat ones were safe from injury. Presently a 
tempest of fire arose. It splii the earth aanndor to &e gveet 
deep. The waves of the see lifted dtemselves up on high : the 
nuo poured . down from Heaven : and the water covered thl& 
earth. But that water was intended as a iuafcralioii, to purify tfai^ 
polluted globe, to render it meet for the renewal of life,, and. to 
wash away the contagion of its former inhabitaola into the 
cbaama of tbe abyss. The flood, which: swept away from the 
Mirface of the earth the expiring reaiaifis<* of the. patidavehW 
cpol^mporaries, raised his vessel {or ifichuure) on high fcem 
ihejgiKHind.; bove ks^ely iipoo.the sumpiit of ihe wavef^ 


. On the. Origin J Pr ogress ^ 

^proved to him, and to hb associates, the water of life and renov 


' Such is the druidical account of the deluge ; and the bar 
perpetually allude to it in their sacred poems. Many of the 
•expressions are alike curious and singular, but we have no roo 
.for their insertion. The genuineness of these fragments 
.admirably defended by Mr. Faber, vol. ii. page 134 — 5. 

Eusebius has preserved a passage from Berosus, which, thouc 
.often quoted, contains too much interesting information to b 
>omitted. — ** In the time of Xisuthrus, or Si^eisithrus, happene 
the great deluge. The God Cronus appeared to him in 
^ion, and gave him notice, that on the fifteenth day of th 
rmonth Desius, there would be a flood by which all mankin« 
would be destroyed. He then ordered him to build a vessel 
'to take with him into it his friends and relations, and com mi 
.himself fearlessly to the deep. The command was impliciti; 
obeyed. Xisuthrus having carried on board every thing necessar 
to support life, took in likewise all kinds of animals, that eithei 
fly through the air, or rove on the surface of the earth. Th< 
Tessel which he built was five stadia in length and two ir 
breadth. Into this he put every thing which he had got ready^ 
.and conveyed into it, last of all, his wife, his children,*and bU 
.friends. After the flood had covered the earth, and when it al 
4ength began to abate, Xisuthrus sent out some birds from the 
-vessel ; which, finding neither food, nor place to rest their feet^ 
treturned to him again. After an interval of some days, he sent 
them forth a second time, and they now came back, with their 
'feet tinged with mud. ' A third time, he inade trial with them, 
eand they returned. to him no more; he thence concluded that the 
, waters had subsided. He now, therefore, opened the vessel; 
. and found, upon looking out, tliat it was driven to the side of a 
rjnountain. 'Upon this he immediately quitted it,'' 8cc. 
;. Such ia the Chaldean, or Babylonian narrative ; the Greek 
^account, preserved by Lucian, is no less explicit, 
r /f. The former race of men, being of a violent and ferocious 
^temper, were guilty of every sort of lawlessness; wherefore a 
'great calamity befel them. The earth suddenly poured forth a 
«vast body of water ; heavy torrents of rain descended ; the 
'jivers overflowed their banks ; the sea rose above its ordinary 
devel, until the whole world was inundated, and all that were in 
4t perished* ' In the midst of the general destruction, Deucalion 
idone was left to another generation, on account of his extFaor-^ 
idinafy /wisdom and piety. Now. b^i prfiervatiofi was.tbul 

and Decline of Idolatry. ^ ] S 

Effected. . Hie caused hissons^ and their wives, to enter mtoil 

large ark, which he had provided, and he afterwards went into 

it himself. While he was embarking, swine^ and horses^ md 

lions, and serpents^ and all other animals tbatlive upoB tli« 

face of the earth, came to bini in paira," 8&c. '< 

. /' This account may be considered as Syrian, as well as Gremn. 

fTraditions of a deluge, indeed, were more general, perhaps, in 

:Sjria, than in anj other country. And at Apamea, in the 

immediate neighbourhood of Hierapolis, in Syria, during the 

^gn of Philip the elder, a medal was struck, bearing the figure 

of a. kind of square chest floating on the water. Out of the 

chest, a man and a woman are advancing upon dry land, while 

two other persons remain within. Above it flutters a dove, 

^carrying an olive branch : another bird, probably designed for a 

raven, is perched, upon its roof. In one of the pannels of .the 

^cliest, appears the . word Noe in Greek Characters. — la Mr. 

Sryant's celebrated vindication of this medal I think he has 

^own that it is genuine. ■ 

\. The flood. of. ^Deucalion is too well known to require remarks 

Perhaps it is not- so generally understood, that the story of 

fDeiicalion seems to have been brought from Egypt by the 

Greek Colonists, and that it was one of those narratives common 

to the superstitions, both of the Indians, and ancient Egyptianr. 

•The Hindoos are well acquainted with the name of Deucalion*. 

In the dialect of the country the word would be pronounced 

Deo-^Calyun ; the history of whom is the very counterpart of 

the Grecian Deucalion. If the fable did not originate in 

'Egypt, the Hellenes must have . derived it from die Indo^ 

.Scythas ; for Lucian expressly calls Deucalion a Scythian. / 

» The extravagant claims of the Hindoos to remote antiquity^ 

and very early superiority over the rest of mankind, are now 

'appreciated in their proper light ; yet there is no doubt that the 

distinction of castes, which has uniformly prevailed among thenr, 

bas contributed to preserve their religion, laws, and customs, 

'-entirely free irom. innovation* They do hot appear to have 

^undei^otie the least change, since . the : days of Alexander the 

rGreat; and long prior to the invasion of the Greeks they had 

«inamtained . the characteristic features w'hich continue to ' dia- 

.'tinguish them. They still worship the Gods which were formerly 

<adored in Egypt, Greece, and Italy; and^ we shall see, there ia 

'almost deihonstratLve Q^ideiice to -prove that the Idolatry of all 

'these countries was chiefly derived from one source. We are 

.inclined, therefore, to attach great weight to the evidence 

tdedttcible from the pristine tradilioiis, and tbeiacred b^cdLs of 

4(^ On ti€ Origin^ Pr0grtm^ 

Ibe Hiadooi. We know ditt the pundit of Ctpt^ WMv4 

ioterpoiftted a manuscript with a fictitious tale; appareniij 
referring to Sbem, Ham, and Japhet ; and other forgerita loaj 
have been attempted aad accomplished. Yet, there is abundkaal 
reason to believe that the contents of their Vedas, and the chief 
Pttranas, which together foirm the Scriptures of ludia, though 
tfaey may have been partly cornipled, are undoubtedly mose 
ancient than the earlier annals of any other nation, excepting 
•ibe Jews* We may appeal, therefore, (though the controversy 
cannot be now entered upon) to the Indian records, on »B 
subjects connected with the primitive ages, with confideec^i 
The testimony they bear to tlie universal prevalence of the interesting and valuable; it is too long to be inserted 
bere : the history of the evetit is related at length, and it would 
he impossible to make brief extracts. Whatever Corgeries of 
detached passages may have, been made in the Vedas, or tb* 
. Purapas ; so copious are the references and allusions contained 
in them to the deluge, that the whok of the sacred boolu^ 
must have been corrupted, if the accouttts of the flood b» 
among the number of their spurious legends. 

The Egyptiam Mythology is clearly the same im diot of tiie 
Brahmens, ^ and die Druids. ^ The Gods," said the Priest 
who conversed with Plato, '^ wishing to pul'ify the earth by 
water, overwhelmed it with a flood," 8cc. The Chinese Legends 
ure BO less decisive. *^ I may assure you, alter full inquiry 
and consoderatioB, (says Sir William Jonee, in an address to 
the Society over which he so worthily presided,) that the 
jQiinese, like the Hindoos, believe this earth to have been 
wholly covered with water; which, in works of uncbsputcd 
authenticity, diey describe as flowing abundantly ; then subsiding, 
and separating the higher from the lower age of mankind.^ 

From the eastern, let us turn to the western continent, and 
We shall these &id the same belief in a universal dehiger 
^equally prevalent. 

At the time of the compicst of America, the inhabitants, of 
'Mechoaca, TIascale, and Achagna, still preserved a tradition, 
that the world was once overwhelmed by waiter, in consequence 
joF the prevailing wickedness of the age. The Mechoacans 
believed, that a priest was preserved along with his wife and 
/chiklren, in a gveat box of wood ; into which he had also 
collected a variety of animals, and ^cellent seecb of every 
deseriptioB. After the waters had retreated, he sent out a bird 
named Auraj wliich did not return. He next sent out several 
Mkinp which Ukeuuse did aot return^ Last.of all he seat .o^uta 

and Decline of Idolatry. Vf 

fjird much smaller than the former ones, but which the natives 
esteemed the most. ' This soon appeared again^ with the braucl^ 
of a tree in its mouth. The same tradition is given, with a 
slight variation, by Herrera. According to tliis wHter, the Mecho- 
acans supposed that a single family was formerly preserved in 
an ark from the waters of an universal deluge, and that a number 
of animals, sufficient to stock the world, was saved with them. 
During the time they were shut up in the ark, several ravens 
were sent out, one of which brought back the leaf of a tree. 

The Peruvians believed that, in consequence of a violent raiii| 
a universal destruction of the human species took place^ a few 
persons only excepted, who escaped into caves situated on the 
tops of the mountains. To these elevated retirements they had 
previously conveyed a sufficient stock of provisions, and a 
number of living animals. The chief details of the tradition are. 
similar to the scriptural history. 

The Brazilians likewise had their account of a general flood. 
The inhabitants of Nicaragua, Terra Firma, and particularly of 
Cuba, unite in their belief of the same fact. Even the people 
of Otaheite, secluded as they long were from the rest of the 
world, preserve no indistinct remembrance of the deluge, of the 
Patriarch Noah, and his three sons. They have a tradition, as' 
we learn from the Missionary voyage, that once in their atoger 
the Gods broke the whole world into pieces. Other authorities 
could be enumerated, but it will be thought that enough has 
been already quoted to prove the point in question. 

I shall not insist on that proof of the universality of the 
deluge, which has been drawn from the organic remains of 
animals and vegetables ; or from the vast quantities df marine 
productions, every where discoverable on the tops of mountains, 
and at every distance from the sea. The animals of the poles 
are found in the equatorial regions, and those of the warmer 
climates in the polar circles. Whole tribes are extinct, according 
to Mr. Parkinson's account in his laborious treatise on the 
remains of a former world ; and many other arguments have 
been urged : we shall be content however with the detail given 
us in the scripture, the most decisive of all authorities, and 
conclude in the words of Moses ; '^ all flesh died, that moved 
upon the earth." — AH in whose nostrils was the breath of 
life— and every living substance was destroyed— the tops of the 

mountains were covered — the raven and the dove were sent 

J. • • • 

out— and at the end of the year, Noah went forth, and his sons, 

and his wife, and his sons' wives with him. And Noahbuilded 

VOL. XXII. a. Jl, NO. XLIIl. B 

^ akq^ lilMotiu^ J4)r.4; »^ toQK 9f wry pleap. k^^^ V^,^ 
frery clean h\yl, an4.oQV?rf3d burnt offerii^s on tbe.aUarf 

It have Deen thu^ aDxio^s to. collet praqfa that tl^ei^e ..wri^ 
ciiiG^ a^ oniveroal delage ; bec^jiis^ if. tbi? fact be estab^Ubed, 
we possess a known ^ra when i\\ere could be no idolatfy : we 
stand on a lofty ppdestal^ on which sve may securely survey the 
boundless ocean before us^ of fact| hypothesis, tradition, and 

The imagination of a poet, the skill of a painter, would b^ 
required to describe in adequate colors the feelings of the 
iuryivors of a former world on leaving the ark whi^h had ^ayed 
^em from the common ruin. '^ VVe nnd from the narrative ox 
Moses,*' says Mr. Bryant, " that thjB Patriarch, and his fanailyi 
were enclosed in a covered float, wherein was only one window» 
of a cubit in dimensions. This was of small proportion in 
respect to the bulk of the machine, which was above five 
kMndffed feet in length. It was moreover closed up, and fastened : 
IK> that the persons therein were consigned to darkness ; having 
no light, but what must have been administered to them from 
lamps and torches. They therefore could not have been eye-r 
witnesses to the general calamity of mankind. They did not 
see the mighty eruption of waters, nor the turbulence of the 
seas^ when the fountains of th^ great deep were broken up. 
Yet the crash of mountains, and the noise of the cataracts^ 
could not but have sounded in their ears : and possibly th^ 
cries of people may have reached them, when families and 
nations vvere overwhelming in the floods^ The motion too of 
the ark' must have been very violent at this tempestuous seasQn : 
all which, added to the gloom and upcertainty in which they 
were involved, could not but give them many fearful sensations, 
however they may have relied on Providence, and been upheld 
by the hand of heaven.'* 

This picture is not overcharged. From the gloom, and dark* 
rkess, the melancholy security, the fearful solemnity of such a 
situation, they were now happily released, and standing on the 
loftiest part of the lofty Ararat, they surveyed the green vallies 
of the new-born earth. Never could the feelings of th^t 
moment be effaced from their memory. The remembrance of 
whole nations and empires that were now for ever gone ; the 
recollection of the friends they had lost ; the fearful desolation 
and ruin they had escaped ; must have been contrasted with t^e 
silence, and the calmness of that fair morning, when the dQpr 
of the ark was opened, the sua shone^ end the earth was^ gay, as 

if ihe' ffieador of ibe one bad not heoa mtenrii|>le4|' mnr >tl|i 
verduie and the b«mity of the olh^ destroyed* Thf wttjtljfc, 
mteMad from tkeb confiiKOieal, bmm| iMve addod !• ||mi 
kttevesl of tkat sceoo. The picturea which Milton hae |;iMtt 
%H of bk terretcriar Paradise might then have been again #in wi 
from life. 

At onGet:anM forth "W batevef craep^-tha gfound, * 
loftoct or worm : those waved their liihber hm 
. For wings, and smallest lineament. ej(^; 
In all the liveries decked, of summer's pride. 
With spots of guldy and purple, azure, green. 

Th^ lion roared at their feet hia renewed piaiae to God: 
the eagle ascended in the firmament, and soared to the Snn, titt 
it fainted with ecstasy at its recovered life. Tbesmaller birds* 
solaced them with their songs, and " spread their painted wings*^ 
Creation ag^in teemed with existence; and man, among the 
)|uiversal joy^ withheld not his homage from the Creator ; " br 
built an altar to the Lord." 

nm . i iiB 


{Eftracttd from the LUterarische Analekltn^ No. IF.} 

QoAM rem primaia a* 1799 legebaraus a l>0ii. Wjfttemkaehio Ira* 
ditap, deindf a.. 1809 ^ B. Weiskio multis verbis repetitam, sed 
aoiiie addubitataiB, iamque ante apud Britannoa turn a. 1806 la 
libro menstrao, exterorum paucis cognito, turn a. 1807 b Th. Kid* 
dio^ qui illic sub PhUarchai persona latuerat, deouo ad discep- 
tandum propositam: earn rem nunc demuin pauUo accuratius 
iHaatraBdi copiam nobia faciunt £. H. Barkcri et /. F. Boisso^ 
t^udU familiares epistoise, supenore anoo scriptae* PauUo, inquam, 
i^ecttratius: oann plus promittere lecturis veremvr. Ad iustam 
enim veritatis lucem deesse videtur aliquid, quod ut quamprimum 
suppleatur, omnisqae hsec critica quaestio ad exitum perveuiat^ 
vehementer optanctum est; idque a nemine verius qn-dmab iisdem 
ilUs viris exspectari potest. Quippe illis vel Museum Britannicum, 
vel Parisieiisis vel Leidensis bibliothecse omue genus instrumen- 
toratii priebent,non impressorum tantum, vernm etiam tuauu scrip- 
torum, quae hue adhibenda esse vel una Baatii annotatio ad Lon- 
l^num p. 651 argnit: mihi contra sors iniqna uon modo tantas 
negavit copies, sed vix communia studiorura subsidia reliquit, quibus 
per omnem vitam 'aWovpyos rts t^ ^iKoXuyiai fieri cogerer. Igitur, 

20 De Davidis Ruhnkenii 

lit aRa'nliliB iatliiata milii siepe oecessariae materifs defectit* 
4isterlMivit, iCa» ae ilbm qiiaestidDem p^rtraclaDdam mimam, ho« 
inpriwft c^bstel, nvmquam mibi integrum exemplar Grccorum^ 
wbikorma AkUnnm io maaut incidiase. Nam priore volumiiie olim 
€K lipsicBai quadam bibliotbcca satis diu sum usus; ad earn 
aateM vem» quam quserimus, noa minus altero volumine opus est» 
qw> Scholia in Hennogeaem locupletissima' coDtinootur. Sed 
Tcaiamas ad proposituni, quod ipsum nos longiores esse^ iubet, 
ctsi nihil prope ahud nisi illorum yirorum verba afferemus. 

PcimuSf ut initio dictum est, IVi^ttenbachiuM in Ruhnkenii pnt- 
ccptoris vita p. 127 edit. Leid. rem tradidit his verbis, in quibus 
Ipiiic vtoiam petimus, ut dvo tria, quae elegantissimo calamo 
f^idernnt, inter ipsam transcribendi operam mutemus : ** Rbeto- 
mm omnium, certe plurimorum, necdum seorsum editorum, adhnc 
«na est editio Aldina, eaque perrara, ut paucis in publicis, pan- 
CiMimb privatis, exstet bibliothecis, et Hemsterhusius eius exem- 
plum, quovis pretio emere cupieus ac dedita opera quaerens, per 
•exaginta annos nollo in bibliopolio, nullo cuiusquam in auctiouis 
catalogo deprehenderit. Rubnkenius duo, quibus hsec editio 
oontinetur, volumina, rara felicitate, diverso utruroque et loco et 
lempore» sibi comparaverat, et librum, ut suum, eo maiore cum 
otio ac diligentia tractabat. Legens Apsinem, qui unus est ex illis 
RfaetoribuSj animadvertit^ subito se in aliam orationem incidere, 
aimtlem earn Longiui multo sibi usu co^nitae : huius, ut progreditur» 
ita deinceps nova vestigia deprehendit, locum etiam sub Longini 
nomine memoratum ab inedito Commentatore Aristidis loanne 
Siceliota : nihil porro dubii relinquebatur, quio haec esset pars de 
Inventione, e deperdito* Longini opere de Arte rheU^ca. Ut. 
vidit, ita ad Hemsterhusium suum volavit, non tam eius iudiciutn 
ex|^oraturus, quam rem exploratam nunciaturus. Hie item, ut 
audiit et locum inspexit, ita rationes Ruhnkenii probavit, eumque 
monuit ut huius inventionis laudem sibi vindicaret, mentione ae 
notitia eius in Diario Eruditorum Gallico prodenda. Fecit Rubn* 
kenius. Libellura porro cum scriptis codicibiis contulit, emehda^ 
vit, et ad editionem fere paratum reliquit moriens. £t ne hoe 
fiigiat harum litterarum studiosos, hie est ille Rhetor et Longinu9, 
quem simpliciter his nominibus significavit aliis deinde in scriptis^ 
niaxime in altera Timaei editione." 

' Cf. Fabr. B. Gr. IV, 31. p. 492. vet. edit, et cum desiderio mirare 
iaudatorum scriptorum copiam. 

- ^ Sic dedimus pro perdito, cums vocis doraicilium finitimum quidem 
est, sed tamen diversum. Nam perditas v. c. navit superesse possunt 
reliqujae qu^daro, quamvis corruptae; deperdita nihil aut prope nihil 
reliquum est. Pluribus in verbis de significationem aiiget ita, ut rem 
contectam designet. Uiide recte Ictus iu if. ap. Gesn. h. v. Veperditum 
explicati quod m rerum natura esse desUt, 

telehti quodam reperto litt$rario. SI 

Memonl»li hoc repJerto qnuin.ttti cuperet WMdui, no^ilm 
tjongim librum de Soblimi una com Fngmeiitis editonif, WfiUnt^ 
bapAium rogavit ut significaret, quo in Diario fllad indioUini urn 
programma evalgatiifli lateret, simnl a quo Apsmia loco et qsett 
ad locum Ruhnkeirius Longioi verba pevliiiere atatttiMct. • R^ 
spondit Wyttenbachiui, Diarium illud pro certo indkare •€ nan 
posse, suspicari tamen, esse atft Bikiioiheeam SaUmHmwm aUt 
\Dimiwn Eruditarum (Jowmdl de9 SamaUt) aniiOBi aateaa yd 
1766 vel pauUo priorem: qAippe HcmflerAwmmi, qnocttaa w(tk 
torpente inventum communicarit RuknkenilUt iUo anno extraawft 
diem obisse. Apstnis denique locum, quern R. germanum Loogini 
fetum agnorit, exstare in Aldina edit. Rbet. a p. 709 irepl ^^aw td 
p. 720 ovK e^' iifiiv Vindiciarum pmnino nihil et notanim fere mill 
se reperire iu cfaartis, Ruhnkenianis, nee nbi diqiersaa sehecMai^ 
▼elttt Sibyllina folia, unde non nisi divinando et longo tempmrequia 
sensum ernat. Sua si esseut, vix ea conquirexe et pemoscere te 
posse, quamvis R. manum probe calleat : nunc esse bibM^thfMi 
publicse, qualia sine curatorum venia edere non liceat; sad,'ttt 
alia inedita, editoribus destiuata esse doctis, in ipsa urfoe Leidia 
editionem institoeutibus, etc. In his angusttis quid trepidarit ant 
egerit Weiikiui, apud ipsum iucuudius legetur in Pr»f» ad LpB|i- 
num p. XIX— xxiv. Ad extremum is, quasi re despeiata^ at 
magnarum umbrarum nihil rever^ns, ipsum inventum. in honiaBi 
erroris suspicionem adduxit. Nam, pro sua semu, nihil habere 
loDgissimum locum ilium simile rov irepl ^tj/ovs ; breviorem tapnm 
locum, ut ex RiAnkenii sentu vel eonieeiurtty FragBieiitia subN^cit 
Hide a p. 713 usque ad p. 715, a verbis OhK eX&xiprw U /Wlpac.a4 
Ilia rp life h-KOKplatm operpf Trphrovra, qutbus vulgp Fragui* Ylil* 
finitur. Turn eniniy quum typographo paranda asset haec ap^MiN 
^djix, Leidense responsum noodum acceperat, neque ante iUiid ai« 
postbac invenire ullo raodo potuit Diarium, in qoo reperti ratio 
Teddita et detectse fraudis fines defioiti essent. 

lam triennio ante quam baec a WeUkio referrentur, CrUkm aa^ 
Ckmar Britannicua (The British Critic) Vol. XXVII. a« ISOiS p« 
574 ss. eruditam epistolam attulit, hac argumentorum sboibui^ 
Apsinis scriptum illud de Arte rhetorica, in Tomo 1. Aldinomna 
Rhetorum 1508 a p. 682 ad p. 726 sub istius rhetoris nomiaai 
editum, aliquamdiu totum ab ipso quoque Ruhnkenip baud divarsi 
auctoris habitum esse ; id intelligi ex eius Diss, de Antiphonte 9^ 
I765p ttbi p. 719 Aldi citatur p. 807 edit. Reiskii^se,' ex Uistqm 

* Qui earn piss, in G4r. Orr. Vol. VII.recepit| quamvis gQanis.i^ift 
fraudis acadenaicx, pnescripto ostehsionali nomine P. van'Spaan^ quem 
auctorem iteui Hurlesius prodidit in Fabr. B. G. T. IT. p. rsi^addena sub 
Ruhnkenii prsesidio ventilatam. Ipse titulus libellom ffuhUco tiMmini 
.mbUcit : sed v^rbum veniilandi ex Germanorom usu loqusndi signilkiaatius 
est da multis disputationilms eius geunerisr 

tmt«niia<Qir. ft. V/^ «bi |i. wcmii. oiMur Apsion A«> ili^. 

£. for^ ^t|^4 EJBnr.) uMp.fMi t«m cftAniiolatt. in RutUiifttfi 
. p. M» mi p. 687 1 iecirco non molto ante annum 1776, quo 
<mpi|iil«ni Dbs. dte Longiiio*6dirilMret/ iltom ipsi etooveetttniin nstmi 
^^Nte ; iHi iImMMi Ti)(i»iyi' ^^i/ropntn^r quandam inter Longini deperdita 
MMiamrii aiddilis paticw vefbis, quae lationis alibi reddendae spem 
AMefBHC ; aft aaque Afte, ^felat ^ongini, mox ia c. XI. «de Subl. 
f w tim ii'lfcii ^«Ma aliquaH veHbarum emendationem, a Coniubieiisi 
dlitiai^* M^eetaui : dealqae in Timaei altera . editione a. 1789 
J i lBq aa 'iaels (omnia liaec loua etiam Weiskiua attuUt) tandem 
w^i^hfif sab^ Len^i nomine pakm simpliciterque laudari. Prseter 
iMee BOlat PMkar0kdni$^ a H^tiernkMchio parom recte Aristidis 
«(Miime»tatotBm ^ooari loaniMm Sioeliotam : in Aristidem qoidem 
ihtoAlla fckolia cuttodiri in bibl. Leidensi, unde ptara ex<;erpt>n 
Hadiwa VM kmm ' ium , ii§kruoMum, lo. iMzacum;^ sed nihil harum 
iksli«4iorum all ntte eatum isti loanoi adacriptam reperiri* Atqua 
IbaidteMitta -teriMime.- Apeitoa eat memoriae lapsus* vd potiiia 
Calami) aiqaidam eradiliss. Wi^enktOfkUtB ignorare roinime potoit, 
io. ^ceMotsb Scholia in Hermogenem, non in Ariatidem exstarey 
iMaqtfa-ab adaleaeeaite Rabnkanio Parisiis ex C. Fulconeli eodice 
i l ai c ipipta mM, 9Kpe posthac ab ipso citata.^ Oterum Kiddius 
Ipioqoa 4q«ieMiaai tffttt de frastra quaesilo Diario, 4n quo rei aientio 
Atoia^^fia^t ; l^tam aaiem videri aat vergente a. 1768, aut ineuate 
lf69 1 in ^qaa tatioiia €t reliquia praeclarum virura et opinio el tota 
tts MFelNty Uf i mox ^i^idebimus. 

• B rt iiKA i WfUm iAs at aliis, qu^ oonsutto oBnttimoa, paullo post 
llri>iMlllifte illvhthM 4i«Beitiit Kiddmt. At illud antev qiiod nobis 
4e alio queltam «funoli«a Britanno namvit Burktrm. Hiiius amia«» 
¥1^ .ii4bae a. 1815 par litteras querebatory etiam nbi tnultum ef 
iM iMttAi^ iMiiiqitam inveatum else R. pnogramma, de eoqae la- 
¥M^ii^ tamlltteratiMimom Por«Miaim deaperaYisae. 

Kiddifu ergo inter plura in Praef. ad Ojmsec Rwh^henmta 
€fft.^L«M. %807- f* XXVII. h<e€ serihk : " Cuioam Diario Erudi- 
Hartnn Hi tadicton mnim impeitivertt, me, lic«t mixia diligeatia 
^amitafitem, proraus effugit ; in iflis autem Aidiuis paginia mdera 
^ a'tsdam et A'a^enta latere ex £.<mg<iit •opere 4i Arte rketmieUt 
M ifiefotis fatttas gemmaos fetus esse/' (tta pkide tamquam 4e #«o 
halMe per^t) "* ^odant 4ioeodi foroiae, disputandi ratio, babttas 
<ietfiqiie et eolar oratloais per omnia Longtno stmillimus ; atqae 
IMimoaid 8ttO ^oaArmatamiceque.-conspirat'Seboliasttsaaiausia 

"^ **''<Virti wliieh Tdupy and of course Barfe*, has very politely com- 
fdSinented Peter JpKu Sckardam.^ 

* X Taupio. 

^ t>a)£|>utads et Ptoedris Att. p. 105* 

^ Ut de Antiphonte p. 804 R. in Notts ad Timasum p. 102; ad Xenoplu 
Memorabb. etc. 


celebfi q^^mhak npiftA ?i<ldrano. 

•nteoMco iiMUcm, et iienrai «^ ketels iidKclo tigUmi 

fir. //. 380. i 

elvac X^c fa if^ftmri nWut$ 
\4^^ fSitrKkitV fi^Sf Btm ^^rk 

^^Moi^a' Hiriivra favra od /jtoi voda.liwdvtiiHtMitA ptoi9wif0fl 

boKtt biKo^k' tf\fffiar'd M^^Tt^t, hxaitis ifyfifittra raXctinOhc; et^* 

lAfOtph^ i*6f irc&avov ^tv ircre ^Kr^S fril&an^ 'xM^^W 'ku^' ^f^ 

iti¥H^p ^fl fh ftiv yap irpifHHfiiiaP temi ^^' f& /t^ ybp vj^^wf 

%¥ ^« t^^ Mi^crjft re ka\ ^^crift f^y «^i/ >9k 9r^09<yrtd|c re rtifSi^ 
lijbtTf «pflrt)^o." ap«r^ irpf inJlW*" 

Beoe tpuldtm nnpci^me s Bam§madi^ tt^Hum eft Jtpb»» 
fcrfniaiittiii prognmitfiia, ct rapartttm ibt, tilnptkniiih ^|B»ri^W>iMnib 
in ^on ittMrani iilwai^nv foes ff^rMwiHi^AM istti ItSMi aeMiH 
fki fl^l^'o sigprificaban in BMfUoM^ut As SNnma «i dm bikmg 
i#M i. d fo Jfaye, F«i. XX/r» jP. i. Ji. \7€i*p. 87Si ikd m 
f«»lA hie acemnte adscriffte toittil ttHklli, qmbw 'fotfe .ilfaid 
viAttMB mb erit iB.firoMi|rt«. PrtMbittitttr pnmum t BvUiotlMieaa 
«ditxiribii8 bf«^«l4)^idm ibtkiUeeM, dtibii ttarfka eHiBni.Hc«NralMa 
idttfo^ tomo abscdtttus niuiui pilM laiide teeentH^i • deiacepi Imw 
MtpiuHtiffi a' It. seiipta : 

: N y It fulpui imlk yiie Itmiie Apd^h, RkUeur iSrtc^ ^' «• 
t^mne dim M CS»/lto<i'oii fH'ifUr SMmeeu dotuHh di fhMm 
MMt 9wmf^ dB teUi etfieei jt^fiu imfjfrift A Mtr Ir i^fedUA-* 
g^ t&Hi 'd*nn imtp m mdUeu du Utte. Jf^ immimi w^ §mlhmmt 
inmiNrths de Longin, muiis pkmemrs eifftniani pd tui kmd 
pariUsiikhreB. C«niinuBnt mtt Untwre je tvMai $mr mi asia Imig* 
pktiage^ q^ Je Me iouvtffs d'tttknh' Ar da^ k teMMifr 9 lKm m 1 
g^Ut; m dAit$ U tmnmnUairt non tncwt puWd fm Jink 8UdU$t0 
MfilH mr et mime HenrngeHt. €e p^^mgtffM dM man km^ I0 
Adilb dAp$M$^ mi9i& wu* eelui dt Ltmgm^ •! thi( dk ihre qui d 
pour titre, Aoyylrov Tiyyfi ^trnfk^. Vwili doikt iM ^MfN^ dH 

fjikgkk fUi nmi ffeima di rMlm-ef^ ta pm t$titlimmHh ftr0§ojii 

MrAf . n mtUie en etdier i run^Hm 4m fnamar t h tp iin Jk 
TmoetUi^n, ait il paroii mtmquer ametfm tkme* Urnmn^ eU 
digne de L&ngin, ei n'est paint injMeur d »am admirmbk irrnh^ 
mr k Sublime* J'ignare par quel hazard ce Ihre a Sii intdti am 
dMeu d*uH outrage d'Ajminh. II y a apparenee qu'ils $e aami 
trauaia rhtnis dans u» mime vabtau, ei pit le reHeur, qui devak ie 
flacer aaant auaprie le Kvre dApsinii, Va plae^ au milieu. Catte 
arreurapasee dam les wires Manuscrits ei dans tMiiion dAkk. 
MMeureusement cet auarefge a He fart earraanpu par les capiMea* 
II y a aUme pdr<i par-Id des iaeumes indiquSes par Aide ; maia Ja 
majlaite que les MSS. dliaUe et de Frames, fueje fais eamsmUat, 
^ auppiSerami. J'em at d£fd rempti quelquaS'Umes am mayam dea 
mmiamtes quefai tirfes de la bibUotk^ de Wo^^UnUiel. Ja aaa 
propose de publier cet ouvrqge au phMt, callaiiamU ante plmakmta 
MSS., eorrigS, et avec mes remarquts et ume tradmetion Laiimt», 
. - Obiter hinc discimus, quid siin velit formula au pluiSt, 6pdf^ 
«y/ior ^illa fere Latinae yoci propeditm, qua Albertms ad Heajpcb* 
T. IL p. 1262 sub anoum 176O proroittebat Rubakeaii emm pm* 
diturum Scholiastem Platonicuoiy qui tandem 1800 post oMittoi 
itiitts nudus ex Luchtmansio prelo evolavit. Evolavit is tMiMi^ 
dum P. Fonieimii Amstelodamensis editio Tfaeopbrastiebaractieniiiiy 
aab eundem annum 176O ab Wesseling ad Herodotum simiUteff 
promissa, adhuc eruditis scriniis premitur. 

Nuncleniter, puto, subrideret egregius cunctator, sigvatam mi 
memoriam apud bonos doctosque relictam eo yideret valuissii, nt 
tot per annos a tot viris quasi ex quisquiliis quaerer^or lapiUis, 
f nem ipse expolire et in lucem proferre tarn diu neglexisset. Id 
▼eco aatagere decebat Utteralores, qui pateum aTontniqiie setste 
multo minutiCHra et viliora nimiis studiis Tenari soliti, bodie boe 
Maun genus mperbe fastidiunt, ex quo non quotidie magwMl 
illiquid pR^oqui licet. Nondum autem bis pateiactis rem ipsam 
plane confectam esse, ab initio monuimus. Nam, ut vera sit R* 
contecturay iam novis curis dispteiendum erit, utrum in illb paginia 
aiefa liongini verba agnoscenda siiit, an ab alio sen eiusdem setatis 
sen posterioris rhetore excerpta suoque usui accommodata. Bro 
eonsUio indicii aui R« fortasse sibi iiaud plus dicendum putarat; 
sed denuo inquirendum erat aliis, ut Belino de Ballu, qui Parisus 
ISldHistoriam Gr»ctt eloquenti9 admodum proiixam edidit, in 
qua tamen turn alia desideres, tumapsam Longini nostri notitiam. 
Restat igitur in posterum . diiudicanda res aut iis quos snpia 
nominaviy aut eel. Creuzero, qui in his quidem a me disputatis 
itibO exulceratilm videbit. lUi enim banc paginam scribens audio 
e aostro Wilkenio ad manum esse Aldinorum rhetorum plenmn 
exemplar, quod nunc unicum esse yidetur in Germania, sarvatum 
Heidelbergse inter libros.Grasvianos, eidemque viro etiam ad codices 
variarum bibitothecarum facilior aditus esse solet. 
^. Postremo non defpre opinor qui exspectent dum diversam nea 

cetehri quodatn reperto Utterario. 35 

Imonm ingrediar oontioversiaii] de ipsius libelli irepl i^povs auctort, 
de quo volgareai fidein nuper sic labefaotavit Hier, Amatiu$ Ro- 
nanus, ut plores iam aut Anonymum aut qoemlibet certe potius 
quam Longhiuni usurpent citando. , Mihi vero non ita icaak^^ 
eras quttstioDh potidus excipere libet, nee tamen nihil acnicevi^ 
quo nova haec suspicfo saltern ad modestiam doctse ii^quisitioota 
ndigatur. Ac facile quidem foret doctissimi viri opinionem de 
Augastei «vi scriptore refutare, si yerum esset de voce dXKriyoplu, 
noil ante Plntarcfai aetatem usurpata, Ruhnkenii iudicium in Timaei 
Lex. p. 144 (200) prolatum, a ploribasque deinde repetitum 
fii i Mtiiwq tte, ut a Finhero In Praf. ad Demetr. vepi kp^. p. Yiii,: 
sed ilia in re erravit Criticos alias consideratissimus, Ciceronis 
kntnemor sni, apod quern idem vocabulum bis legitur, qnod semel 
«b iUo seriptore^ Longino, positum est. Quocirca tibi alia indicia 
erant qmerenda, ut eias Kbri aetatem probabiliter definias, impri- 
mbque inter laudatos aoctores illustrandus Ammaniw^ cuius capu 
Xiy. mentio fit» qoem incertum adhuc interpretes reliquerunt, quit 
sit inter plures, qui eodem nomine clari fuerunt post vetereoi 
Aristarobi successorem Alexandrinum ; etsi primum legendo qui$» 
qt€ de aequali Saeea cogitandum pntabit. Denique omnino lateri 
BOD pndet me n<m nimis magnifice sentire de eo libro^ quern docti 
pkfiqae, splendidis aliquot locis et illustribus sententiis capti, ne 
dicam occaecati» certatim laudibus extulerunt^ atque adeo in ipsa 
«iiis dietione totaque arte seribendi et philosophandi plura LoDgi» 
i^ani aevi vestigia videre, nulla Augiistei.' 

D.S. Mart. 1819. W. 


* Non pceDitebit cum his nostris contulisse ea, quae de eadera re 
scripait C P. Beckm in Actis Soc. phil. Lips. a. 1811. p. 336. ss* 

gcaaaaawescssssssa ■ d' r" aa 



Dolly iPENTaEAtfr, ice. 


vny ittsC letter I gttr^ f^ sotite ^xtrtNstB fmn a liriigiitis«i wUeh 
a«»loilfer exists ^Qiat in a few sefltMfed ttod «ficOfmecfed doonlDciito^ 
II lias drased to be a Ktttig ttmpkt ; but thofi«^ it h acknowM^tA 
ftat h is now no wbere spdken, it seeias to be a matter of doiiM 
#ith 8oaie» whether it iis not jtt retained by Kome particalar 'ifldi* 
i^duals, I consider k, however, to be as unicb dead as tbe Htbre^, 
and that it has ilever beeh in cottmoH ase, '^Hcb Mf. Lbuyd's ^nmt 
Mito Conrwkll, about tbe begiiinine of tbe ei^teeath eentury. ' It 
may perhaps have survived a Mttte iooget, in the person of tfcwi 
famM Dolly Pentreath, and her companions, if Indeed the d6rrtipt 
and degenerate jargon of an expiring tongue can be called by that 
taXBf, But as the claims of fhis good woman Tiave BeeB 16 confl- 
dently asserted, and were connected with the credulKy of a eele- 
b^ted man of the last age, they deserve to have a sef^arate exami^ 

I have often experienced some astonishment that the^ present 
Cornbh gentlemen know so little about the language of their ances- 
tors, and that it scarcely ever excites their curiosity. It is in vain 
to seek information on this point in Cornwall, among polite and 
general scholars. They have paid no attention to the subject, and 
if pressed for an opinion, it is, that very little is known about it, 
but that it is supposed to have been a barbarous dialect resembling 
the Welsh. It baa also become fasinoiiable to repeat the inquiries 
of the Hon. D. Barcington, and bow Cornish has expired with 
Dolly Pentreath. It is with reluctance that I mention these par* 
ticulars, as they imply something like a charge of ignorance. I do 
it rather, to extenuate any failure on my part, by remindbg tbe 
reader not only of the scarcity of materials, but of the impossibility 
of receiving any assistance from literary friends. I must, therefore, 
claim some indulgence for any n\istakes in my observations on a 
aomenelature, which is now almost as little undentood in Corn* 

Language ^f CothwkU. 99 

yuM, M if it were derived IW»m the Arabic. And if It^bad not been 
Har the excrttoos and writings of Lhuyd, Scawen» Bortase, and 
Firyce, every memorial of Coroigh woold have perished, and every 
fature investigation on the subject would have been imperfect and 

Mr. Lhuyd, an excellent Welsh scholar and antiquarian^ ob« 
served, that, in March, 1701, *' the Cornlsb km^Uiige was only 
retained in live or six villages towards the Lsnd's End." From thia 
period, when it was confined within such narrow limits, and mostly 
restricted to tinners, market-women, and fishennen, it may be sup^ 
posed not rnily to have rapidly declined, but not to have lived 
many years longer. This appears to be the tme sense of ^* 
Borlase's remark : ** that this language is now altogether ceased^ so 
as not to be spoken any where in eonversation." (Nat. Hist. p. 3l6.) 
It is unfair to charge him with inattention for asserting this, because 
tNie individual, Dolly Pentreath, could still speak it in 1758, when 
he published his Natural History. The Doctor must have known^ 
tlRiH out of a population of some hundreds, in those villages, to 
whom Cornish was still vernacular in 1701«a lew individuals wou)d» 
according to the course of nature, be still remaining after the lapse 
of half a century. Af^er the language bad ceased to be commonly 
used, he very naturally considered it as ettinct; and as for any 
particular exceptions that might still remain, they would be const^ 
dered to belong rather to a dead, than to a living tongue. I own 
that, for this reason, I would have expressed myself as the Doctor 
did, even if I had known of Dolly, and given her credit for under« 
standing as much Cornish as her admirers have supposed. He was 
ttierefore very far from deserving the sarcasms of Mr. Barringtoni 
and Mr. Whitaker, who says, " At that very time, (1758), as Mr. 
Barrittgton has observed, to the disgrace of his attention, ah old 
woman was living within four mites of him, and talking the Ian* 
guage Gently.''' Since these two gentlemen have thoaght propet 
to distoi't the obvious raeaaiog of wotds, that th^y might attack 
them, it is barely sufficient to observe, that the fottn^, by hia own 
avowal, knew nothing of the matter,* and that the latter was at i^l 
times an unduly severe and arrogant writer. 

* Whi taker's Supplement to Polwhele's Histe^y, p. 41. 

* ^ Odlv Pentreath spoke in an angry tone for two or three niinutei^ 
and in a language, which $fnmded very Uke Welsh, — I a$ked her compa» 
nions, whether she had not been abusiog me ; to which they ansVemJ^ 
' Very heartily ; and because I bad supt>ol5ed she could not speak Cor- 
nish/*' rHon. D. Barrington's Letter to J. Lloyd, Esq., itl^.) Why 
thMi ask her compsnionB what she had said, if he. had not been ignotanl 
sf Cornish, or haa had any bet«er criteriSn than that it tounded /tfce Wdthf 
The fact seems to be,, that .any artful old woman couM b^ve pahcaed oS 
any gibberish on such a good-natured traveller. ' 

$6 On the Ancient Brkisk 

Dolly Pentmtb, the Ci»riibli Sibyl, was a fisli^womaii, ft mdxrt o 
Mooaeiiole, a village near Peozance, aad about three miles fhn^ 
Castle Homecky the family seat of the Boriases ; so that if she ha< 
been possessed of any extraordinary acquirements, they could nol 
have escaped the knowledge of the Doctor. This humble persoo' 
age spent a very long life in her homely occupation, and died is 
1788 at the age of 102. At the beginning of the last centufy, tfai 
historian informs us, in the parishes of Paul and St Just, '* the fish* 
erraen and market-women in the former, and the tinners io the lal« 
tcr, conversed one with the other, for the most part in Cornish.^ 
Truth is always consistent, and the Doctor and the good woman 
incidentally agree, as the former says, that Cornish was still spoken 
in Psnl parisli fifty years before, (1758), when Dolly was already in 
her iwaUy-ihird year ; while the latter hersdf told Mr. Barrington, 
that she could not talk a word of English before she was past 
twenty years of age. The Doctor again tells us, that the language 
which was generally spoken in those parishes, in 1708, had altoge- 
ther creased during the next fifty years, specifying, however, no 
particular year for its extraction ; for that would have been im- 
possible. But in 1768, Dolly most positively assured Mr. Bar- 
rington, that there was then no other person who knew any thing 
of it, or at least who could converse in it. Thb is a plsdn coin- 
cidence of truth, which cannot be invalidated, 

I readily allow the claims of Dolly to some jargon that was not 
English ; but with her habits and situation in life, it is ridiculous 
to suppose, that she could have been the depository of the true 
Cornish. This may have been another reason why Borlase might 
have declined to mention what still remained of the language in his 
day. Among such low people as Dolly, an expiring language could 
not fail to have been miserably corrupted, even if it was not 
eiitirely unintelligible. It is surprising that a sensible^ man, like 
Daines Barringlon, would condescend to apply in so objectionable 
a quarter, and that too at an inn-keeper's recommendation ; for it 
would not be more ludicrous to seek for specimens of ancient 
Creek among the poor fishermen of the Archipelago. Mr.' Har- 
rington went out on a summer excursion to the Land's End, in 
1768, and it was then that he met with this modem Sibyl of Corn- 
wall. It would be foreign to my purpose to quote here his letter 
to his friend Mr. Lloyd, F. A. S., which is certainly very amusing. 
I am willing to grant that it is indubitable, that she spoke a stmoge 
language, and it n natural to suppose that she did it in the most 
f ttent, if not most accurate manner possible, that she might please 
a respectable stranger, and be the better rewarded. There was, 
therefore, no reason for some of Mr^ Barrington's fiiends to be 
incredulous that she still continued the use of her vernacular toagge; 
though it is probable that at that period she only spoke Coroisli 
occasionally. It is a pity that he did not observe whether he^r 



Language of Cornwall. 29 

, * • * 

£liglMh had a foreign accent, whicb would have been an indireet 
con6rmation of her story, that she knew no other language thaa 
Cornish tiU she was past twenty.* Her two female companion!* 
who were only ten or twelve years younger, and consequently 
children in 17<)8» could not speak Cornish readily, but understood 
U, which is another coincidence that Borlase b correct in the 
assertion, that its common use had ceased soon after that period ; 
for young persons who disuse their vernacular language early, often 
lose the recollection of it entirely. From all these circumstances* 
therefore, and considering the great age which this good woman 
attained, I am inclined to believe, that she was the last person to 
whom Cornish was vernacular, and that at her death it has ceaied 
ip the strictest sense of the word to be a living tongue. 

It is thus that Mr. Barrington has raised this poor woman to 
literary distinction, and very unexpectedly rendered her name cbn-( 
spicuous among her countrymen. But to be serious, there never 
was a greater perversion of antiquarian research and philological 
assiduity, than that of Mr. Barrington and Dr. Pryce. It waa 
already in their time perfectly preposterous in them to seek for 
oral information from native speakers. The latter, when off hia 
guard, confesses tl^e absurdity and the unprofitableness of such a 

groceeding. *^ As for the vulgar Cornish now spoken,'' says he, in 
is Preface, *f it is so confined to the extremest comer of the 
country ; and those ancient persons who still pretend to jabber it 
are even there so few ; the speech itself is so corrupted ; and the 
people too for the most part so illiterate; that I cannot but wonder 
at my patience, and assume some merit to myself for my singular 
industry, in collecting the words which I have accumulated from 
^ral intelligence ; especially as hardly any of the persons whom I 
have consulted could give a tolerable account of the ortliography, 
aiuch less of the etymology or derivation of those words which 
they use,*' &c. 

Even the ashes of Dolly Pentreath have not been left unhonored. 
A Mr. Tomson, of Truro, and by profession an engineer, wrote he» 
epitaph, which, as it is a curipsity, I will insert here in the original 
Cornish, with an English translation. There is nothing remarkable 
in the sense, though it reflects much credit on the writer of it fov 


* <' She does indeed talk Cornish as readily as others do English, being 
-bred up from a child to know no other language; nor could she (if wc 
may believe her) talk a word of English before she was past twenty years 
of age ; as, her father being a fisherman, she was sent with fish to Pen^ 
zance at twelve years old, and sold them in the Cornish language, whicb 
the inhabitants in general, even the gentry, did then well unaerstand,** 
Bee the above quoted Letter of Mr. Barrii^ton. 

30 On the Amknt 

kh ptofi^iiay in Cqrakb, . apd' the nccuiacy with wUdi If hm 
:^xp«essed himself* 

Coth Doll Pentreath cans ha dean, 

Maroiy, ha Icledyz ed.Paul plea. — 

Na ed au Egloz, g^n pohe) bras, 

Bes ed Egloz-bay cotn DoUy es. , 

Old Doll Pentreath, one hundred (aged) and twO, 
Deceased, and buried in Paul parish ; — 
Not in the church, with great people. 
But in the church-yard old Dolly is. 

1 look on Mr. Tomsbn to have been an ingenioas man, wbo^ 
having a taste for such studies, had mad« Mmself master of the 
b^st ranaioiiig pieces in Cornish. This is certainly a fiir mora 
rational account, than to imagine with some, that he was a rarely 
giflted individual, in whom the Cornish language had survived after 
flia death of the humble inhabftapt of Mousehole. Mr. Tbmson 
might even have been able to converse in it ; but there would have 
been nothing extraordinary in it, as thousaadi can speak Latin aad 
ether languages, which they have acquired only from- beoks. A9 
to the epitaph, I do not entirely rest on conjectore ; fop all the 
words in it, with the exception of one only, are to be fpund in 
Bcrktse^s Vooabulanf. Hay^ is a well known Saxon word, which 
signifies an uulosure^ and has long been incorporated with the 

' The other claimants to Cornish speaking were William Bodener, 
aged 65, a fisherman of Mousehole, a Cornish letter from whoas 
Mr. Barrington presented to the Society of Antiquaries < on the dd of 
July, 1 776* In 1777> the same gentleman again infocmed the Society^ 
that he had discovered another individual, one John Nancarrow, 
aged 45, of MarazTon, who could speak the Conii»h language. 
Dr. Pryce also, about 1790, conversed with a very old man al 
Mousehole, who could talk Cornish, and it is not improbable that it 
was tlie same William Bodener. I am, however, still of opinion, 
that the language was already extinct, though, after such respecta- 
ble testimonies, it is impossible to deny that these individuals still 
understood the ancient language of the country. As to their skill 
in it, it might have been acquired from some of their friends, 
ajxuuig whom it had been vemaculac, and who still survived 9&iut 
they were themselves grown to manhood, as from 1730 to 1750. 

. ' Lan is the true Cornish word for it, and means either an inthiure of 
a churoh. Thus Tf/A«y»c is either a place consecrated to religious purposes^ 
er merely a farm, (tome meloted portion of land) 

ifjd (Ah 9i Amuqi TIOAENOS TAMON llfx"' okXXMv, 

£/anguage qf Cprrmalk 

.Tben^ were the f4int gltmiaeriQ^9 t))M s:(illjl)oyeie4{roQ|i4, aQ^ tlM^ 
light itself had departed for ev^r. It is eveii possible t^^t tbeyie; 
may be still individuals who oaa speak and write Coqiisfa ; por, 
would it be at all difficult to acquire both to fi certain degree ; but 
it is a mere deceptioh to ia^i§ine« that this can now be accom-i 
plished through any other ch^unel than that of grammatic^ 

^ I have often had occasioijij iu the course of these letters, to men- 
tion the Rev. Dr. Borlase. He Uve^d about the middle of the laH 
ceitf ury, and was a native apd residept ip Cornwall, as well as % 
writer of considerable merit. His Nati^^ History 9nd Aptiquities 
of Cornwall are elaborate and val^^ble performances. It is re- 
markable^ that all the recent writers on those tqpics have largely 
borrowed from him, not even excepting those who have availed 
themsfelves of every opportunity to load him with censure. It is, 
however, with his Cornish VoiC^bulary, \\hicb concludes his Anti- 
quities, that I am at present concerned* His chief merit consists ip 
having collected inaterials, and indicated the sources where all the 
probable remains might be recovered. Thus far in his praise ; and. 
it is painful to pass censure, however it may be deserved* I have 
already expressed an opinion about him^ as that he was not suQ.:* 
ciently a linguist or a gramnrariap to investigate such a perplexed 
and expiring dialect. Hepce it is seldom that his Vocabulary refers 
to foreign languages ; and I realty believe th^t the disguise of the 
greater number of words escaped him. This ignorance, however, 
is of material advantage to my derivations, as he cannot be accused 
of having changed the orthography, or otherwise modified them to 
suit the purposes of any particular theory. His negh'gence, how- 
ever, is still more remarkable than his inability. Wearied with a 
long work, and incited by the prospect of bringing it to a conclu- 
sion, he seems to have drawn up his Vocabulary in haste, and 
without any regard to selection and arrangement. It is also likely 
that, having no taste for philological studies, he thought but lightly 
of them, and merely added the Vocabulary as a matter of form. 
He apologises, indeed, for not giving a more complete Vocabulary; 
but it is with authors, as with ^reat men, who, find it easier to 
^pAlogise for declining any particular task, than to execute what 
W9uld require tile united efforts of patience and industry. 

In the present scarcity of materials, the Vocabulary i^ stilli 
however, a Valuable performance; and, Borlas^ is rather to be 
biilmed, not for what he has done, but for not having done more 
wiieii be had it in his power. He might, from his situation, have 
made a complete collection of Cornish, words and idioms ; and he 
might also have preserved for his countrymen many manuscripts, 

Erobably no longer in exiatence. H^ mentions, in the preface to 
is Vocabulary, several manuscripts aud other helps in Cornisli 
tlhieihfa^d beep.commitnicatod tabioi; and i« Is to ^ be lamented* 

32 Notice of Lavington's 

(bat he did not look into fuch a mass of matter more accurately, 
and that be did not select more from it for publication. The offer 
of his own collection to any one who would undertake to restore 
the Cornish language, is but a poor evasion. What has become of 
the several pieces he mentioned^ I know not — some may have 
perished, and some might still be recovered ; but the press alone 
can preserve such documents from the danger of destruction. 

It argues, also, how very little trouble the Doctor took, by hb not 
gfoing to Mousehole, whicn is only four miles from his own resi* 
dence, to ascertain and report what might still remain there of a 
Intigoage which, by his own account, was commonly spoken in that 
village fifty years before. Had he done this, he would not hav^ 
been stigmatised with inattention, as he was aflterwards on the ae« 
cidental discovery of Dolly Pentreath by Mr. Barrington. 

Having so often referred to Mr. Lhuyd, I may be allowed to say 
a few words concerning him. He was a learned and ingenious 
gentleman, eminently skilled in all the British dialects. He was 
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. In 1701 he visited 
Cornwall for the avowed purpose of investigating, and preserving as 
much as possible of the expiring language. He was kindly received 
by the literary gentlemen of the county. He afterwards published 
a Cornish Grammar and Vocabulary in 1707 9 and died in 1709. It 
was the first thing ever published in that language, which, it may 
be truly said, had it not been for his journey into Cornwall, and 
the collections he made there, would have totally perished. Borlase, 
and all the other Cornish historians, speak, as well they might, wit)i 
enthusiasm of that very meritorious individual. 



Papists considered: by Bishop LAVINGTON. 
A new EdiHoHj with NoteSy Introduction^ and Ap-- 
pendiv, by the Rev. R. POL WHELE, Vicar of 
Manaccan^ and St. Anthony. One large Vol. Oekh 
vo^Pr. 21*. Whittaker, 1820. 

1 HOUGH it has DOW become very unfashionable to quole 
from the antiquated author of " the Leviathan/' we cannot but 


Metboduts land FapUfs. 39 

confisirtbat the peruial of this book reoniuied us of M? . MMmf 
^efinitioB of laiigbteT^ which be represents as arising from u 
consciousness of oar own superiority^ proceeding from a comr 
jiarison of ourselves with those whom we thiiik either more abr 
surd^ infirm, or ridiculous. Ridicule may be defined a conr 
Jtinued fit of laughter* The writer who holds up to ridipule 
.either an individual^ a party^ or an opinion, possesses the same 
xrcinviction of his own superiority, and of the iqfirmitiea or foUjr 
of others, as the frequent and involuntaiy Is^iigher : and tli# 
comparison will not fail, if we consider th^ir respe<;tive defect^* 
For, as no man in private life is ever convinced of an error by tb^ 
sneer of an antagonist, though he may jba^ made either silent w 
.angry, so it is in public controversy; no seet^ or party, .er 
scliism, either in politics or religion, has ever been confuted hf 
Jircasm. and ricbcule ; their hatred to their apponants beeomcia* 
.more inveterate^ the controversy itself degenerates into biiffooiir 
ery, and the cause of truth uniformly suffers. 

Such were our reflections when the Fepublication of Disbdp 
LaviagtiMi s work was announced to the public. Religion is a 
subject so solemn and so important, and tbe great question beh 
tween tbe Church and its opponents is so interesting, that thou^ 
we are struck with tbe accuracy of the parallel between tbe Me- 
thodists and Papists ; though we are convinced that the sobriety 
of the Church of England is equally distant from tbe fanatical 
reveries, the revivalism, and nonsense of Methodism* or the aot 
perstitious mummeries, and unsjcriptural fancies of Catbolicisaag 
.and though we well know, to use tbe celebrated satire of Swif^ 
Jack was often, and still will be mistaken for Peter, we cai^ 
.not but be of opinion that a Christian divine sbquld never coiv- 
descend to this mode of confuting his adversary. Hq desuenda 
from the vantage ground of fair and impartial debate. Beligi* 
^ous controversy requires a grave, manly, sober stjfle; and thdngh 
tbe folly or the ignorance of an antagonist mny sometimes^pro* 
^voke a taunt, or a sarcasm, it should never be that a whole 
Volume should be written full of mere invective witboilt ai*gifr> 
ment, or ridicule without discussion. Severe,, indignant, impe- 
tuous lang4iage, is frequently necessary or unavoidable> when ibe 
polemic is compelled to reprove and rebuke his opponent ; and 
the effect of sucb animadversion when it proceeds from the hearty 
IS never lost! But when tbe plan is ridicule,, and tbe execution 
of a work is ridicule, all effect, all the intended conviction of 
such a work, perishes with the first hearty laugh ; so long as We 
can forget that religion is the snbfectcif discussion, we approve of 
the author who. amuses as; when once the reflection, however) 

VOL. xxn. a. Ji. no. xuiu c 

$4 Mfi^^ if iiftvingdoif # 

. f1^iai^i/9 mi X^mtM lauglileroii tfiQ aspect of rdiip^nM 9-mm4 
|o4 misplacedy our mirtb is at an end ; we condeain the coBdiKBl 
o^, tHf aiiithor, whose opiaion we approve, and wiaii that abNl^ 

' ^it^ ppuld |>e removed, or error rectified, by more suitaUe anA 
viiobjectionable methods. 

<' These renaarks are not intended to applif to Mr. Polwbde'a 
laboin. Bishop lAviii(ton*s work, though in our opinion sub* 
|ect to the objections now mentioned, is full of curious matter ; 
%t,has long been sold at a high price, and a new edition was d^** 
manded by the public. The experieuce of the world has showi^ 
that all Qburchesy or religious associations, aie.only permanently 
united by. a system of discipline, which shall regulate not merely 
thi^.iervices and def otiens of that Church, but which shall fo^ 
yern the feelings of the mind, and induce sobriety of conduel^ 

> "while it induces purity of faith, and regularity of life; such is tbft 
object of the mild and sober discipline cf the Church of £n|^ 

i hn^, ^hiqh appoints their respective places to the Clergy and 

^ the Laity, and gives to each ample scope for their seal, their 
demotion, and every religious virtue, while it represses by its 
InowUf laws, all those principles upon which the leaders of the 
^^etbodists, and of other sects, have uniformly acted. Thus dib 
-l^aity ai-e forbidden to assume the ecclesiastical functions : Ibe 
Clergy are commanded to confine themselves to their parish, 

; their cure, or their diocese; not to consider the world as thel^ 
diocese,^ isnd to wander everywhere, clashing with, or oppottUg 

. their neighbom?. The grace of God is ever supposed, and tauglit 
•to be attendant on the diligent use of the .meaiia of grace. Pei^ 
-fotial religion,' not inward feelings, is considered as the sola 
criterion of improvement in the divine lifis; and all its people 
.-are required to study uniformity in worship and opinion ; to be 
^ober, and qniet, as well as pious, consistent, and sincere. 

The religion which is thus briefly delineated, did not pi ease 
diOtMetliodists of the last century, as it had not before satisfied 

. tba enthusiasts of the Church of Rome, or the ever^laAorous, 
ctv^r-^chnrch-mending nonconformists. Faith in- the religion of llw 
New; Testament, .which produced humble reliance on the good>* 

^ ness of God, and correspondent regularity of life, was not suffix 
cient; todusmust be added inward feelings, frames, experi* 

;s ences, doubts, hopes, fears, pangs of a new birth, and a long 

;. train of sensations. The Clergy were ridiculed and abused^ as 

« prefchers of mere morality, .^of as learned hypocrites, igoorMl 

. of the Gtod they pretended to serve. The Laity, assumed ^iha 
OjQice o( t^fdiersj pre^hfers,. i|nd eypoiiiidera. The meansi^ 
grace ^p^#.f;o|isjklpr«d.fK^ l^Hf^pr usfflessj or ea^ptg c^remoqies4t 

JIf HikiNff kit M fSfnUM. BS 

MMi I3d4 was tepr esentiM ar MficDiig dbwn tte giM of grae^^ 
jnd 1^6 iitfliieDei^^ of hts Spirit, on whom be pleased, and wli^ 
llapleaaed, and as he pleased, whether those gifted iodividiial^ 
iTMafriied with ^ appointed means of grace ot not. Heiic^ 
^^ doctrine of sodden conversionsi revivalismsi Sic. The ipog 
imbif of ei9or spread among the common people, til) the minds of 
^luiaiids were alienated from the fislablishment ; ai|d a new 
teirn- tif religious aeal began, which, though in many instances it 
nsajr hare dode much apparent good, by stimulating the Clergy 
H^ exertion, and reforming the manners of those of the/Iower 
citfise^ wht» had been previously neglected, has ended in divid*- 
kif the people, in fostering a spirit of hatred to the Clergy, of 
hwitiliff to oiir eiistiag institiitions, ami of siieb genefal eniiitl| 
9»:iSke system ^f government which upholds them, that th<^ 
fwlril results .we to he apprehended in any future moment of < 
Silioaal convulsion,. oc depression of the powers of the state. 
• About the time when this baleful star of Metfiodism 
b^^nlorise above the religious horizon, many of the well rea4 
and thinkii^ portion of the community, perceived the resM«> 
Mance between the absurdities -and enthusiasm of the . Meth'or 
diats and Papists. . Amokig these the chief were Bishops War* 
Nn'lon and Lavington. The opinion of the former is quoted in 
the introduction t^ the present edition, '' 1 will tell you what 
I thblc would be the best way of exposing, these idle fanatic^,--^ 
IHinthig passages oat of George Fox*s Journal, and Ignatiui 
liOyola, and Whitfield*s Journal, in parallel columns,'* &c. Vide 
pBigh iv, note* Bishop Lavington proceeded in great measure 
on this plan, and selected from the books, histories, and journals 
of tfaj^ apparently opposite parti;^ns, a most curious collection 
of coincidences in opinions, conduct, and reveries. Had thii 
been done in a more grave and serious manner, much itfiore be^ 
atfit Would have resulted to the community^ from the Bishop's 
labors. ' We <>bject only to the error, which he has committed 
io condescending to ridicule, even when the subject seemed most 
to idvite it. The ^shop's work is a continued taunt. His facts 
are undoubted. His point is proved. The identity between the 
lollies of the two parties is established ; and his book will ever be 
valaaMe from the slef ling information it contains ; but iN^atever 
Ism its merit, the objection we have now made is with many inr 
Mn-monntable. The mo$t solemn subjects are so associated 
W^ith lid^ulous ideas, that it is difficult to bring back the'micid 
tDifts proper seriousness when religion is the object of it^.cop^ 
tenqpiation, after the perusal of this book. It should* beread in 
Af^aeaem form by none "whose minds, are not ^st^c^ngtbetted Igr 

rl^afltn^, reflectibfii fltid lAatured jtidgmetit ; and we agnbe^ nrflli 
Mr. Polf<^hete,(lntro^uctioi>^ page cclxxvii.) " That in laughing «• 
religious absarditiesj we must take heed to ourselves ; we some^- 
times approach too near the confines of religion/' *^ 

t The present work, of which we almost forgot we were 
merely writing a brief notice, consists of Jhe original work of 
BishM Lavington ; and a copious introduction in three parts, by 
Mr. Polwhele, ftillof very interesting matter. There iw likewise 
^n appendix, containing some well written poems and verses, on 
Subjects of the same nature as those in the work itself; of which 
we shall only observe, they are liable to the same objection 
above mentioned. The principal poem in particular, mtitied 
^ Sir Aaron,*' or " Tlie Flights of Fanaticism f in which Mr. Pol* 
Vhele professes to illustrate, in the character and conduct of Sit 
Aaron, the cause, the operation, and the effects of Methodism); 
is full of expressions which are always objectionable, wheqi 
i^etigion in any way whatever is the subject of the reader's con* 
^ideration. The book concludes with a small collection of pa^ 
pers on the Bible Society, and other subjects^ which Were first 
printed in the Cornwall Gazette. 

J It is after an attentive perusal of this work that we recoin^ 
Mend it to the attention of all who are accustomed to review th^ 
^gfis of the times, and to anticipate the future from a calm and 
miprejudiced survey of the past; and we trust that the defeats 
^ich may be now briefly pointed out^ will be altered id a sub« 
sequent edition. 

Thoiigh the introduction, as its author has very candidl]^ 
neknowledged^ be written in a very desultory manner, its con^ 
tents are equally interesting and important. It is divided into 
thr^e sections, which may be respectively, though not quite ae«^ 
ciirately, intitled ;— the history of the past — the ^account of the 
present state of Methodism, with the system of hostility or^ 
ftised against the Establishment-— -and, the remedies of the ifn^ 
pending evil. 

The comparison between the temper of the dissenters of for«> 
mer times, and that of the chief parties opposed to the Chtirch 
•at present, is accurately drawn. The sections which touch 
upon the iabuse of the Bishops, the intrusion of the Methodise 
tm the parochial Clergy, and the anticipation of their eventual 
snccess, by effecting the overthrow of the Establishment, tire 
particularly interesting. The style however, in which they ar* 
Avritten, is loose and vague; and Mr. Polwhele has apologised M 
*thi$, by, informing his readers that the respective sections wer^ 
originally written as letters. .This reason can account onty' t^ 

^te <K]^]90er W ^Wch. th^jr are writtep, but it is by no meaitA ^ 
prpper apology iFor their publication in their present form. , If 
an author submits his labors to the public^ he is bound to 
give the best polish to his language, and to make his whol^ 
work as perfect as he possibly can ; more especially if he has had 
th^t experience in composition, and been received with so much 
deserved indulgence as Mr. Polwhele. We object too, to the 
.frequent introduction of Mr. P.'s personal history, in so many 
passages. This book is intended for general titility, its contents 
ought, therefore^ to be confined to the discussion of the general 
sqj^^ct : Mr. Polwhele ought not to have introduced (Intro^. 
{'art I. p. clxix, clxx.) quotations from his own Poems. In 
the pages just referred to, and those immediately subsequent 
to them, the reader is diverted from he subject of the book by 
commendations of various illustrious divines, extracted from the 
^English Orator ; we have likewise extracts from an ode on 
Bishop Wilson, and a sonnet, with passages from various pub* 
lished sermons. To all these are added much of Mr. Polwhele'% 
personal histpry : and the error of thus distracting the reader's 
attention from the work,, to the author, is repeated in mapj 
•8e.ctio.ns throughout the introduction. All this is in bad tast^ 
and should be carefully revised in a second edition. 

The next division of the Introduction contains a general and 
highly-interesting survey of the present state of religion, and the 
little regard now paid to religious discipline. Lectureships; 
Sunday schools ; the effects of benevolent and well intended 
associations, with th^ decided enemies of the Churchy and its 
^professed friends ; the manner in which the parish priest is su- 
perseded, even among his own flock, by the interference e/ 
.school visitors, Sunday teachers, bible distributors, and other 
well-pfieaning laborers, who profess to benefit and instruct 
the poor, while they have undermined by their exertions, the 
interests and infli^ence of the Clergy, are discussed at soni^ 
length : and the whole of this part deserves, and will, we have nQ 
doubt, receive the attentive perusal pf the thoughtful and religi- 
ous public ; though the same intrusion of personal history top 
fxequently destroys the universal interest of the general subject* 

The third part contains a suggestion of various remedies foi 
the ecclesiastical evils complained of in the two first divisions of 
the Introduction : and it deserves the serious consideration of the 
heads of the Church. In this part, are many useful remarks on 
the toleration act; ruraldeans, county meetings, vestries, eveniq{^ 
lectures, and frequent preachings, with other subjects of the same 
(lature. ^auy of Mr. Polwhele's ren^arks will not meet with 

WTCTtal •pprotelMi ; indedi, he m aontftiiiies iiieomiatetit 
mth himtetf. Th«f» ki page ccsci, be eif^sses an ofMuao^ 
>'' the Bbhopfl should surely lake care, Hot to censtiire in tib^ 
mott remote dcsgree, the conduct of anj of the Clergy arennd 
4Mni ; not to bint at vices, or faultB, or foibles, or irregularities i 
lest Uie sectarists, pressing frooa behind, aiid eager t» 
catch all they can n;ainst us, charge our nusdeneanors upon 
4ie Establishment ; lest," &c. iu. flcc* Whatan <^inion is this ! 
If the Clergy of any particular diocese, at this period of oniven- 
mi hostility, were to become deficient in attention to tb«r duty, 
•urely it is not only the duty of their diocesan to reprove, re- 
buke, .and exhort, with all patience, diligence, and meekness, 
lint it would be likewise for the undoubted interest of the 
Church, that he should thns come forward, and execute his Im- 
perious, though painful duty. This too, thoug^h Mn Polwbde 
does not seem conscious of the inconsislencyi is the opinioii of 
Mr author : for in page ccxcvi, we meet with a. note, in which, he 
condemns the conduct of a rector, in very severe teroae. *^ At 
n masquerade at Exeter, in 1818, a very rich rector, of one cf 
the western counties, drew more attention to his talents^ as a 
acaramooch, than be had ever attracted by his pulpit eloquence/' 
Jlr.. Polwhele is not restrained from publishing this note by 
any fear that the sectarists should, on account of it, more se- 
dulously abuse the Church : he expresses his honest indignation, 
«nd he is right in so doing : would he shrink kern the same ho« 
Horable exprasslon of bis sentiments if he were himself a bis-* 
libp ? Why then ought not others to do iheir duty also ? 
. It is n6t necessary to detul the sieveral coincidences between 
the absurdities of the. Methodists and Papists, adduced by Bi- 
shop Lavington. Neither can we consider the poems, nor the 
uninteresting personal controversy inserted in the i^ppendix« 
The chief tiimg we o^pected in this edition has not bfen a^> 
tamped: we trust it will be accomplished uhen the work is 
lepnnted ; it is a complete bdex of the contents of die Bishop's 
.'work; with heads to the various sections* The coincidences 
adduced are curious, and numerous ; but the attention is eoon 
wcmried, in proceeding through a multitude of unconnected, 
uniformly printed details. The great mass of readers afe S9 
accustomed to have their oye pleased^ and thtir fatigue relieveii, 
. «t the same time that their attention is excited^ that difse head- 
lines, ^and tables of contents, are beginning to be absoltttely 
i essential to the favorable reception of the most interesting aod 
important works. ^ 
Thougfr more room than we generally give in this miicdiany 

40 Mtieet of bookv has be^d aUreadviallotttd toitm iBttnA^mm 
.onttst but add, tbat mttck good will probably resolt ffotoi^tbia 
atatemeou of facts contained in this volume* AH the iaati- 
lUltona of this country> whether civil or religiousy mwte be'sofi* 
ported bj the conviction of the ^&fAe, of their utility andr M^ 
eeasilj. An eataUiBhed church may be fully compeiaiit to thi 
•nda of ita inatitution ) its prieathood may boat* of its ifivtn 
origin; the OMgialrate may aanction its dottcinea, and afford it 
protection, to promote better the morality and happiness oP4 
coimtty; it may be recommended by every claim which cad «» 
Gtto veneration, eateem, or love : but^it is not'stlfitiant tinlttim 
.^foeanMg, the wise, ^e great, tha good/aton^aUonld linowbni 
acknowledge tliaaa tiiinga ^-^ church is tha/ ^aiaht'^df the ttiuM^ 
tnde, the majority of a paofde. ' If it be aasailad by'perpciiial, 
fitiions opposition ; if by the various aiis of its opponents tba 
mnbitnde be withdrawn from their attadtment ; it will be im» 
pbssibin to maintain its devacion. The ceasidesa eflbrta af^M 
iH:tive minority 9 in tbe reign of Charles/ drew awiyibemnki*' 
tude, and the. Church of England, as an estnbHsbniei|t^ iwaa 
aotaiArown. The present ageis beginning to aaaume thftcbanifefe 
leriatics of tbe age of Cbi»l«B. We diacem the same o|M»fiia^' 
rastteasness, agitation, contempt of the Clergy, intnsaion on Mb 
paroafaiai duty, and other signs of a tarbulcwt and encroaching 
people; which tlieu gradually kindled tbe fianaa tfreligtoita^ba* 
tntd ^and civil war.^ Every work, therefore, which' is written^ aai 
tha plan of thia work, wluch appeala, to thahMopIe ; wbiob 
points out the undoubted coincidences of the f«rmeV and tbk 
praaent age, and which iaevitabiy leads us for tbe oonduiion 
that tbo same cauaea will again pioduce the same offsets ; evety 
-auch work is useful, and deservea encourageoaent it ia tba 
tebicQ too much for the frienda of the Church, to reataecu»: 
fadaqpuseeven the laboraof such men aa Daubeny, Ikfcao 
Kenny, Mr. Polwbele, and others of that <aahool : ihay ni^ 
-oiHed high churchmen ; their works are neadleas alarm Mlft; 
and ibeanselves with their friends and followers, 'are bigptted, 
pp^adiced-, or tiaaid. Let thoae who are of this opinion re- 
Meiiiber that "the wolf has once entered the fold of the En^isii 
'Cbntcb, and he cRniches at the door again, ia it righrto de* 
apiaa^the shephcnia vriio are'^n the watcb taaoundthe alanb? 
Baapatnal vigUaaca iaour only aecnrity ; and wa truat, thevafdim, 
-tfaaanll'vaorks whidiaise ihusintendad, and Mr.-Pdwbele^a among 
•4te number, may be widely diapeiaed thraugb the natiau, and 
produce their due effect ou the public mind. 


.. • 



Paet IL [ConOtdtdfrom No. XLIL p. 230.] 

ABSVMiMO^ however, the eoAsideratioii of the pvopoaitioiiti 
lot us endeavor to render them as perspicuout aa postible. 
*^ The soul is self-moved." By motion here» we must landefw 
slflQid the life of the soul. The soul therefore b self*vital, cob^ 
twining in itself the principle and fountain of life. For if nature 
had intended that bodies should be self-moved^ she would 
have inserted- in them the principle and fountain of BM^toiii 
But BOw> moe it is necessary that they should twek sm alter* 
motive natures, she generated bodies receiving the principle of 
motion from other thitigs. The soul likewise, is seen deUberateij 
choosing many things, and performing many, according to ita 
Qwn proper deliberate choice. But this would not he the caae 
if if w«re not self-moved. At the same time also, if you look to 
the nature of die thing, you will find, on account of its deafness^ 
a great abundance of ai^umentsin prdof of this. Plato, how* 
ever, exciting our reeolieciion from clear evidence, imd from 
the last of things, sajs, that when we see a body incapaUe of 
Imng moved by itself, we immediately say thai it is inanimate; 
hut when we perceive a body which can move itsdf we immedi* 
aiely say that it is anmatedj in consequence of sponiaMoutiy 
inferring that 'self-motion is the form and definition' of the stxtli 
Bat from that which is in our power, you may especially d«i^ 
monstrate the self-motive nature of the soul. For if well-bdag 
is more excellent and perfect than being, but the soul perfects 
itself, it is manifest, that as it imparts to itself that which it 
more exeelleiit, viz. well-beii^, and exoites and perfects ilielfi 
it will much more impart to ilself that which is lesa eaeellea^ 
vizv bekig or existence. The being of the soul, howeiter, h 
Hodiing else than life. But life is motaon. It is evident there* 
fore, that the soul w91 impart to ils^f motion. Hence it- is 
self-rooved. But that which imparts life to other things will 
mtfeh more impart Kfe to itself. For that which vivifies other 
thiag;s will in a much greater degree impart vivification tio 
itself ; so that the soul by imparting life- to itself, will vitxtf and 
elevate itself. But iSs is motion. The soul ther^Tre^ will im- 

ttiblimi to itself* And bcnce it k adf^^iioved* Voriimm 
^tLUafBS, and those tbat first iaip»rt any Jtbkigy begin their enero 
gies ffom tbenwelves; just as the sua diat illiimmates aH things^ 
^IB tight itself, and the fouotiiiij of light. Soul thereforei which 
ka^Mrts life and self-motion to other tbifig»«-«for animalsi ac- 
cording to Aristotle^ are self-^oved — is muck more self^moved^ 
and life, and the fountain of psychical life* 
t But that which is self-moved, is demonstrated to be aifrays 
inaved, by showing that the self-moved is alone always-mOTed, 
«nd is alcme immortai, from assumkig the foe mer propositions 
l^y the«»elves, and so ktr as they zm esseniially what they are. 
Plato therefore demonstrates from the .altefHoaotivei tbat the 
aell^moved is always-moved. For it is evident thai the altev« 
motive has not its motion from itself; and on this account it is 
f^Uod alter-motive* Hence, receiving this' tempoMlly ffOi& 
tytmething else, it also loses it in time. Bat tbat which impaslfr 
motio&to.itaeIf esaeolially, as being always present >yith itself^ 
and the giver and receiver being one and the same^.wiU be II* 
wapa moved. Plato, however, manifests that be assumes mi9-% 
tiofi in Ufe^ '' Forhamngf' says he, '' a ceuaUon ofmoiiom, it 
ha»mko m aaation of life J^ 

But that die alfeer-toiotive has a cessation of motion, i. e* is 
not 'ftlwAys^moved, is evident from hence. For as tkene . are 
tlieae two^ things, the mover and that which is moved^ it ia aeoes^ 
saiy, either that ihemover should accede to that which is maved^ 
and thus Aoirid BM>ve it, just as we do when we move a stone ; 
ortbi^ the thing moved should accede to the mover, and ^ thus, 
skelilil be moved, just as the soul betaking itself to intelleot^ is 
meiied by it,aiid surveys the forms contains; or it is 
■eoaasary th^ both should accede to each other ; in the same 
maoner as the- master and the disciple; for the disciple gtvee 
kimself to be excited by the master, and the master hastens ta 
excite the disoipk, tmd in short is converted to hiaa.. These 
things ibereliire, thus subsisting, that wbick ie alter-motive is not 
able of itself to accede to the mover ; for its vei^ existence cob* 
nstft ill being moved by something else. Hence in order tbat 
what is »ev«d by another may he always moved, it is necessary 
that the motive cause should be converted to it. In.whoks^i 
bowever,'aad eternal natures, it is not lawful for things . wbi^ 
arQ mope .escrilent to.he coavented to natuies siibordiaate to. 
theiseKti. For morebexceUent natures would subsist for the' 



h For Mvm here, It is aeeesMHgr to fiiii'Si^. 

4§ JPHumiie 'Ji emimU nim k </^ 

Bilker oi-.wkick vlhafi stdbcisti m-kicb is MM^ft idtewrd Thttifdbksfa 
k aiter*aK>uve thtreftMBe wiU noC be diways moved in 4»ii- wsj,' 
U 6. liiroBgb the rotiversbti of etemri naturei to it. Bot if it 
is^ie he moved at e certain time^ it is neeetaary that itaheaki te 
W'by aomeliiiof elie to the motive caoae,iiot mfcrdy besHy, 
bot alao accordiBg (o aptitude, if thetefora^ anolimr ttnng cot 
yima it to the motive cause, ivem a cwtain time, it wiii agaift m 
aoertaiotine bo separated from tbis cause. • For^uoivarsaily^ 
all things wliich ave generated by eansea that ane mistaUe^ are' 
gioarated and corrupt^ in time ; bot things which are generated 
iq^wimotable caoaesy arogettcvatedpefpMnUj'in a maimer a»« 
*aif abiy the saoie. . ^ ^ 

<^< Some one, however, may say, 'how is the aublaaary regiow 
siivays. mooed, since it is ahev^motive ? Msy k not be seid^' 
Mm it is Mver riwaja the sana», nor remains the same accmiliiig 
td^WMiber> oaeepC in form ; eo that if it is not the some aocotik^ 
ftie^to its sobjeet, bow wtH it be alwaja^moved i For baiiq; 
oemspted according' to-ito parts it alwa}a remainaio the semr 
tern* But if aeMier geiieralie». is able to accede of itself'to 
tbe heavens, nor tlie beavens are converted to gencimtioa, in ooBp 
ieqpienco of it* not being proper that asore exocUent sboold be 
oonverted to leas exceUwit natures, whence does genentiou as*' 
0BiiPe its aptitude i May it not be replied, that ^ moMnref 
I(io4»aveo8 bcwig efficacious, aets on sublunary natores, ciieo* 
lisi oalures not being conaerted" to tbcm, jnst as the auii^lhiml^ 
Mtes, not by being converted to the illuminaled substaaeesi b«t 
by sympathy P &ut how is tbe heaven not alter-motive, bsM: 
aelf*iuoved, since it is a. body? And if .ia is akorHnotive, bow 
wil it be alwaya*movcd? May it not be said, ihat the heovao 
iir^ieither ahervmotive, - nor siaqdy bodf, -hot an immiAettd 
bddy? We olso say, that tbe self^moved k twofold^ theoM 
being simple and impartibfe, wUeh is property' setf-aioiwd^ but 
dMrotherbavkigeow proceeded into mterval, is not simply iot^ 
piwtible. For so far as it is distended with bukk, -so far it is 
eluinged^from that which is properly self«movsd ; hot so far :as 
it papttcipales of a connascent life in its essence^ so that it is not 
poisiUe, even, in definilioa, to separate that body from tbe Jifa 
ofi^ so &r it has also self-motitm in its .proper essence. Ser. 
sitf <isnotiott is the pesuliartty of aoul aad bfe. As tberefoef^tift 
laampossiUe for a nrntenal body to be une ole red> and.uniigiirsdi' 
thus also it is still more ia^ossible for a celestial bodyito^be 
IMess and inanimate. And thus you may seii the coa|iiifMi>ofit 
mitb sottt, llio anamii^^lib#«iis^^<of' i)K:m^^ m 


tiiemiaiiy he a toeiftohi dMIiBvitjr) «Qd tktot so vseaiui dmj la* 
towene; Mne^^gain^ laotiicrnMire wotiM km retifumtm^ mhick 
nay fiR up that whidi b iMwe^n. Sifice».fcbtr«fef6»<aii c^Mal 
body iglhe* first of bodtet, but toui is the last of kUttlligiUBSi 
iUse oo^l to> be coBJomed^o aacb other, and poiflsai a niittial 
iiauliHide; sUftbat a cskstbl body » sand am^ified mto bidk$ 
and life extended into triple dimeiiMoii. Hcoee the life whiali 
J9 in it ia contiasceot^ aod nature in it it aMiigled*mlb 4ifei 
^E^era are also tti itmany other foams of aranala. « t . .« 

*f But it may be said, let the soai; so far as it is aealy ^ <^^ 
moved, and ahray9»atotiad| yet nothing faindeffs itirom bei«( 
corrupted. To this we reply, that etdier the eaei|^ of k, itpt: 
ita aetf-mtttioki, must first caase> but the eaiatence t»f it httsa^ 
tbrwards. corrupted; or the eai^euce of it fifat,.biit'the aai6> 
motion of it afterwards ; or both these must eeaae atonoe.* ^ Eai 
besides these, there are no other caaes. if the essence^ th^tafisffe^ 
^k isxorrupted, it is not possible to devise how the energy 9S 
ittmn bte mved. But neither me versa, is it possible ia -die 
bypoiiiesii before us, that the eneigy beingcormpted, the essanca 
cfihe sottl catt be satred; for to assert this, would be te.£ei|psl 
die hypothesis which says/ that llm soul, as far as it ia.sottl^ . wiii 
be sdfmered; So diat it is not possible far aelf-av>lieft tei be 
cc»mipted, but the soul- to reamin* For as the hgrpothens sapsi 
aadr as it is soul, it will foe selfMmoved. . If iberefeie^ Hsvery 
tWng wUeh is corrupted, first ioaes: its energy^ but the aeid^ aef 
tmdii^ to the hypothesis, so fiir as it is soul, does net loseste 
anirgy, being sdf-mortd, itia alio inceeroptible* i 

^ tLet, howerer, the third ease be supposed, that the^ soul tmf 
be corrupted at one and the same time with itseneigies. We 
Mr, therefore^ whether it will be corrupted by itself, or i^ seme 
eatemal cause? But it will net, mdeei, be»conupted by itasU^ 
betanse it presences itself by moeitig itedf. And it will 
not be corrupted by external dauses, beoinse it wiMdd thnp 
be^ fldter<^m«6ve, inatead of sebtmotire. Henoe It wili jiait 
be'e6mipced together with- ite energies* Besides, bgr what 
tetemal esiise could it be corrupted i Shall we my, bfi na- 
"titfes more' exceUent than itmlf^ fiat theae are rather tho 
msioun, than die destroyers of it* Can it, therefore^ be epr# 
TUpled by natures inferior to it? Oter them, however, itpoat^ 
Utasse: a'despow ponw^ add *i» the itemaBin of their .vM^HmaT 
Sores 4here are tan motions^ the motion.' lof the soul akne is 
gcJberatire^ of ail the oAers. But itbdv sont .bein9< ts^lf-moi^ 
ym mm siM»:.uaors wnt^se^wfeaitbatfatian afaiiai>s-Ane<i^ aa 

That which perfects itadf^ likewise produces itself. .Por t^Rt 
Wfbich p^rffiols ioyarts good to iMelf. But that which siiuplj 
fomfaiees any thipg, infiorti eustene^ to it. WelUbeingt how- 
ever, is more excdleot than being. Since, therefore, the soul 
fmfkeU itaelf^ it will also produce itself. But the essence of it 
is Ufe, whioh it also imparls to other things* Hence it will inir 
paH life and existence to itself. Hiat, however, which is always 
preseiit with that which iraparte existipn^^, 4way# is. Bujt the 
aoul is always present with itself. Henfie Uie soul always ^^ so 
thai it isi aksays self-amoved, and always-moved. For in reality, 
jiB injury would be done to any thing in the universe which 
ebouid be depilved of that which it imparted to itself. For it 
would not be injured in bei^. deprived of that which it receivful 
ifrom another ; but it is injured, if that . is taken ivway from it 
^n^faich itimparts to itself. 

• The last pcoposUon, howmrer, is not atteiid^ with any anoi^-* 
Ugukyv via. that what is alw^annoved is immortal* For 
•ording to hypothesis, it were mortal and corruptibk^ it would 
Ml longer be alwayr moved. So that all the propositions are 
iw>t oidy tme, but they are so essentvi^y so as to be equal jn 
poller and convertible. What then, some <me may say, is S914I 
alone immortal, but is intellect not immortal i Or is there no 
nhtHwhty in saying that intellect is not immortal i For it is 
akoie the imoortai. But if yon are willing to. say that it is 
innnoftal, you must awanmr anel^er form of self-matiqi|, 
nnd another form of immortality; and in a similar man^ 
ner in the sncceesive live% an immortality must t^e assumed 
adapted to each. For there is a great eitent of thing? 
wUch. exist in eternity ; of those which exist in the whole pf 
tioM ; and of those whose dusation is only in a part of timis. 
for some beings live for one day, others for.a year, otbers*for 
.tearyesirs, and others for a hundred, or a tho^fand years. Bi|t 
bow is it possible that the partial natMre' likewise should} not 
ba immortsd, since it b self-moved i In answer to this, in the 
first place, it must be observed^ that the divine lamUichus^.a^^ul 
the philosopher Porphyry, do not admit that the partial nature 
is seU-moved, but. assert, that being tho instrupient of the ^ou)» 
it is moved indeed by it, but moves the thiqgs which are saved 
by it And this they say, is the ninth motion. It is evident, 
however, that though this partial nature should have n c^tain 

* i. e. The life distributed about the body, the f eculisrities ef which 
are|.§snssaiie(^ nutriiipa^ amlinsisaaai 

tJk immfiMlf of ike SM. U 

mi^mMUj^ jei ft iias this tfter Hae m atoi e r of an iaRf[e, itaitti 
«il iAStrament. 

'But if it be requiiite to s«y sanelihiiig in o|^K>^on to.certM 
philosopheri, nature is not in all respacts aaperior to bodiesi 
liQt there is stometiiiog in it which is inferior to then. For to 
far as it is a certain incorporeal essence, aad eo far at it Ashml 
and adonis bodies, it is superior to then ; bnt so fiu* as it ie !• 
them as in subjects^ and has its existence in them, it isinfeiiot 
lo them. Jttst 9$ the resefnUance in a mirror, in securttjr^ 
beauty, and accuracy of foitn, surpasses the mirror; but in by* 
postasis is inferior to it. For the nurror, indeed, is nM>ce easew 
tia), but the mpresentation has its sufaeistenee a^ en image fnm 
Ae mirror, is whatever it is tot ike sake of it, and on this ac^ 
'count Vf'il have a more obscure being. After this manner diere» 
Ibre, the partial nature subsists with rderence to the body. For 
the nature which is divine has self-motion secondarily, as vre 
have before observed, and conoascent wiA a divine body* 
Fram this syllogism, tberefove, it is demonfttrsted, that the sow 
la not corrupted by itself. In the sobl, likewise, one perl of k 
does not albne move^ and another part is alone moved, but 
iHrhatever part of it may he assnmiedy moves and is moirod a<i^ 
cording to the tame. 

Some one, however, may still desire to leam more clearly 

what the motion is which subMta in the soul. It b eWdeM^ 

dierefore, that it is ndt any one of the coi)»oresi molionr, ndC 

hveii the ninfti [M-faich pertainv to the partid nature]. F^ 

diese are not setl-mottve. But neither do ell thepecuUar ttie» 

tions of the soul manifest the motion which ie ne% investi^atedi 

such as wiH, opinion, anger, and desire : fw the soul is not 

always moved according to these ; but we now inquire what that 

invo/iion is, ^hich is always inbertnt in it. Tki$ moii^m, tkire^ 

fore, ts the -life ufhich if ommascent with the son^ whiek it vdU 

^art$ to it$^, Md accordif^to which it is moved. Aad tbeae 

motfotts indeed, i mean will, opinion, and the like, ere the livea 

''and'liie motions of the soul, 3^t they are not always inherentin 

it, but only sometimes, becoming, as it were, renewed.* Bwt 

'Atmi the sotti perfecting Itself, yon may especialiy afesume that 

-'itria self-ifioved, and' by* this yon may separate tbeintional aoiH 

'ifrom ttfe irrational, end from nature. For it bekmgs to (he 

Motional eoni to perfect? and excite itself, an^io be converted to 

-ttaeif, no one of which pettfiins 14 tbe otherv. • Hence, tins ei^ 

4$ Jfktam J)mii9»Hmlmlk ff . 

Iptftraii if idapted la tbe^dif ine moi hnmm monAf iiiiA Iwtw^ 
Ifiuonul soiil^and not lo Ibe irrauoral iKml «od ui^Uue^i**^.r5M^ 
mch Qih» thingi ^ba. as are mavmit, thU i$ .the fomUmin mnd 
prmcip/e^of moliati. Butipnmewie i$M9t^goii^f &t.** 

The .second mlXogtsm, mhiidk hi#w ibal Sieemil kianoElnl^ 
is-aa follows: The soul is »4elf-4i»9«ed. Theft whidiii^ se)f^ 
moved is the principle ^f «iotioii. .. The pmujipie ot notaociie 
iinbegotteo. . The upihegolieii is . iacomipuble. Tl»e wooie 
mplible ia iqiioorlal. The spul» Iherefove^ ie. inunortaL Tb^ 
piroposilions. here ere fiYe< Ti^ firH . of %ihe. ^sylicfisaia^ thoiie* 
fore^shpwa thaifc the.a(Mil is,witkmnl te ilsetf**^ But chis'-e^ 
food s^llogisiii jdefBOHBtiaiea its^eatenikm to other Ihinga^ ^mi 
aa.all divine ialure8.are aiiffieie^t lo themaalms^ and the^aounnai 
of good to others.. IJor lhQ.ejtttiMied«here:si9aifieay tiMt iriiieh 
anparU lo olhera what It p a ai iaa se s ilatIC Fork is ch^neiefV 
istic of a benefieenfc aaA imeiivjriiig natiiM^ aiKl of 4upeiv|»ki»& 
tilde of power. . .The iiiiention> iheretbse^ of .the reaaonnf » ie m 
manifesl in tl^e. soal the exftessioe of it to elhtr,lhif^gaj . And 
the propositioQy indeed, ,wbkh sajra, ^^Jhaiwiitku ^ftmo9fA 
If the primeiph of motion^** is soffieienilji danMmslraled ^41h»fl 
in the Laws, when he says^ that if all lUuge. shonid eland- «ti^ 
ft^f*qiolLve natures woiaU be die fiiat things Hhal would' iM» 
niovc^. The order of thingSy, likewisei k as fdllM-a;; Thai 
nhich is immoveable is the mft* That ¥fhidli 'ia eel<^nK>fed ' is 
the second* And that which is aUer<-aiotive ie the thint. Jhilr 
tie prifiaple, sajs Plato» ts uBbegotitHi i^ e. Ae principlmot 
motion, for tbia was the thing proposed* Makii^y howe^ei) 
the proiKMilion to be more universal, he;eatands it to evtif^ 
principk.; because every principle; so ferae itis apriadpk^ia 
lubegolteo, . * . .i'2 

But he»^ many, of the more ancieat iaterpi elera ara. distnAid 
about the .meaning of Plato, when he says, ^' thatube prtmiBiphr . 
i$ unbegatieu." For if be asserts this of the princi^e of>«H. 
things, via*. of the first God, the assertion is true; but it ie/na* 
now proposed to speak of this principle. And if he simp^ 
^eaks . of every. priociple» bow is this assertion tftie i For- 
JPeleusis tbe principle of Achilles, yet Peleua is potimbegotieK 
We must consider, therefore, what tbe principle is» of whickhe^ 
U speaJkiug. We say, therefore, that principle, properly so^ 
called, is. that whkh primarily produces the whok fqrm. Thfiy^ 
£(Mr instance, tbe equal itself, is that whkh produces aH*vaf ioua 
equals;, and man itself, is that wbich everywhere prodncee* 
men. 't'bus, therefore, since tbe soul is the principle of motm^* 
i\ will be able to^prod^e ell thetforms or -spnahen olnsoioB^s^' 

<|lM^My hf'9B no^Miy it win notbe genenfted. H^e^, if A 

'•aseiicey or as intellectual^ tt te ^enerHted from being and inteT- 
Icet, yety ao fur as it » motioti, st is not generated. For this h 

*the principle 'of tbe motion of all things. For material fohna 
filsoy are u^»egOtten ; sucb^ for instancei as the fo^m of man^ 
the form of borsej of the equals and of motion^ und consequently 
mtrnk more aswat the cause of f^Mrm be unb^otten. Henoe^ 
mooe the form of motion is unbeg<^ten, much more wMthli 
Milde itself of motion, but this is that iN^hrch is self-moved. 
Phitd^ lilDewisey properly calls it fkefmn'itain of motion. For 
it 'is die peculiaartty of a fountain to impart^ as it were, tvfiat 

. Monp' to itself epontmieoaslyy to tilings whteh are' differeiil 
imm kseif. -But it is the peculiarity of a prinfi|[)le t& presidf^ 
i^ il w^e^' and despotieiiHy role over- things n^bieh* stdbtsit 
lIuMs^h* it.' iPor a eami h a principh^ as' being* to-ofSnaied 
wiik the things of which iHs the princrph': iiit ii is 'itfiuntainr, 
^ exempt f m»d stAeiHing in intethtti ^bth which ette inhered 
bi the semi. Phito, therefore/ would have ^b^n liberated frofA 
tny fortfaer discasnon; by concisely staying the^ principfis of 
*mi^kln is .nnbcgotten^: for genertfttoti istnoHonfy btit the prineiK- 
fie of oietioii will not be moved by any thing etoe, lest wi' 
aheuid proved to infinity. But he thought fit togive a'more 
ample eatent to tbe theory. * .. j . .^. ' 

' - The tinbegotten natnre, therefore, of principle, must b^ 
•aAerstood aa follows : the principle is not any one of th^ 
Ibinga of which it is the principle. Thus, for instance, the sun 
iptl» principle of light; it irnot^Aerefore,* illuminated by any 
•lluiig else. • Inject also, beifig^ the prinetple of intellect, and 
heii^ itsdf itftelleetnal, d<$es not derive from any thing else in* 
fdiectual perception. And being, which is the Cause of exisf- 
CMe lo other things, does not possess its subsistence zis being 

jh&m any^ other source; ' Hence the soul, whit;h is the cause of 
Other things being animated^ and possessing life, has not itself 
a Me^xtrinsically dierived ; so that if it is the iirst^ motion, it wiH' 
h«lhe*cauae*of other thinge being moved, and will not be moved' 
bgrany thing eke. Hence, every principle is unbegotten. What 

, tfaeoy if some- one should say, do n^t all things derive their exist- 
'e9iee from the ^first cause } To this it may be replied, in thk 
feat place, Uiat in asaummg tl>e principle of a certain thing, wt 
ciii^ht. not to Consider any one of the principles albove it. Anfl 
*in:4be< next. place, it may be said, that principle is, ftfcei< another 

. iMMier, a thing of such a 'kind as its produettons. Fm* tb6 
c%«b1 itself gen^ates otb^r secondaiy equals ; and the motion 
ol'l}»0o«lgeDe»9la| other fonns or species of motiori. 'But 


40 P§»i0me J )0mm $ta^ ^ 

ihejku came h not ^/l^r another manner meh a$ the iMnge 

which proceed from it: for it is above principle, and abovi^ 
cause. Intellecti Iherefore, is primarily from itself intellectual j 
but it is being from something else [i. e. from being itself]. 
Bfit Chat which is just primarily derives its subsistence from 
justice itself. And justice itself does not become just through 
any thing else. For so far as it is justice^ and so far as it directs 
other things, it originates from itself^ Nothing, however, pr^ 
▼ent^ k BO far as it is somethiiig else, such, for instance, as being 
or intellect, or a certain God, from deriving its subsistence from 
ihe principle of all things. But Plato summarily demonstrates 
as follows : that, if principle vi'ere generated, it would be gen^ 
rated from that which is not principle, through the hypo^esia 
that it is principle. Nothing generated is the first. But everj 
thing generated is generated from something else. No pritH 
ciple, therefore, is generated ; for if every thing which is gen€^« 
rated is generated from a certain principle, principle also, if lyt 
were generated, would be generated from a certam principle,; 
so that principle would be in want of principle to its generation^ 
and this would be the case to infinity. Again, every thiug ge- 
nerated is generated from that which is not such as itself i^. 
Thus an animal is generated from that which is not an animal^ 
{i* e. from seed,] and a house from that which is not a house j 
so that principle also^ if it were 'generated, would be generated 
from that which is not principle. Hence, at one and the samf 
time, as being generated, it would be generated from a princi** 
pie, and as a principle it would be generated from that whicj^ 
IS not a principle, which is impossible. Every thiug, therefor^ 
which is primarily a certain thing, i. e. every principle, is unbe» 
gotten. These things, therefore, are sufficient to the demonp 
stratioa of the incorruptibility of principles. 

But Plato also adds another demonstration, through a .dedue«> 
tion to an impossibility. " For the principle,^' says he, " being 
destroyed, it could neither itself be generated /rom another 
thing, nor another thing be generated Jrom it.'' For ^because 
every thing generated is generated from a principle, nothing els^ 
could be generated from it : for the principle (from the hypor 
tliesis) is destroyed^ But neither could it be generated again^ 
because that which is generated must again be generated froo^ 
a certain principle. The principle, however, is destroyed. For 
as when, a root b cut ofi", no germination can take place ; thus( 
also, Plato says, *' that the principle of generation being d^ 
str^df all heaven and generation foiling together n^st stop^ . 

the Imniorialitjf ^ the jSmiL A9 

and would Mvtr again have any thing from whence they would 
be generated ** 

The next proposition, which says that the unbegotten is incor- 
rtiptible, Aristotle also strenuously demonstrates; which maj 
concisely be demonstrated as follows : If that which is imbegoN 
ten were corrupted, either all things would come to an end, 
being corrupted, or they would again be restored [i. e. be again 
generated] ; and from corruptible natures we should arrive at 
the unbegotten. And thus that which is generated will be un- 
begotten. For if that which is unbegotten were corruptible^ 
but the corruptible is generated, the unbegotten is generated, 
which is impossible. Plato, however, in his demonstration, 
comprehends both these in one. For if the principle were 
generated or corrupted, it is necessary that all things should fall 
together with it, and thus neither heaven nor generation would 
exist, nor even that which is unbegotten. 

Thus far, therefore, Plato collects through two syllogisms, 
that the self-moved is immortal, without making any mention 
of the soul, except when he pre-announces the conclusion at the 
beginning ; so that he has demonstrated concerning that which 
is self-moved, that it is immortal. Now, however, he assumes 
the first and .smallest proposition, that the soul is self-moved, 
when he says, ** Since then it appears that the nature which a 
moved by itself is immortal, he who asserts that this is the 
essence and definition of soul, will have no occasion to blush, 
tfc!* But he syllogises as follows : Every [rational] soul, is 
alone the princijple of motion to bodies. That which imparts 
the principle of motion to bodies, is self-moved. The soul 
therefore is self-mioved. He reminds us, however, of this from 
the last of things, and from what is apparent. For if the ani- 
mated differs from the inanimated body, in being moved bj 
itself and inwardly, (for that which we see moved by itselfj^ we 
denominate animated) it is evident that the soul, since it moves 
itself, and desires to move the animal, will thus much more 
cause it to be moved. But we must not be disturbed, lest we 
'should be forced to admit, that those souls of animals are im- 
mortal, which we are accustomed to call animations alone and 
entelecheias [or forms], such as the sbuls of worms and gnats. 
For either the soul itself is inserted in bodies as the principle of 
motion, being itself present with them, as in us, or it imparts a 
certain resemblance of itself. 

How, therefore, it may be said, do we see the inanimate body 
moved by itself to corruption { Does not fire also tend upward 
of itself, and a clod of earth downward f For either ^ body 

VOL- XXn. CI. Jl. NO, XLUI. p 


50 Platonic Demonstration^ S^d. 

which proceeds to corruption^ is in reality perfectly inanimate, 
and the soul . is not the cause of all motion ; or it is animated, 
and the soul will be the cause of this, which imparts life and 
existence fo other things. To this we reply, that what is called 
an inanimate body, is so called with reference to a partial soul, 
because it has not a peculiar soul, but is animated by the joul 
of the universe. For every body considered as existing in the 
animated world, is in a certain respect animated ;' just as the 
excrements which are in us participate, so far as they are in ps, 
of a certain vital heat, but when they proceed out of the body, 
are deprived of this animating warmth. Body, therefore, so Jar 
as it is in the world, has a vestige of soul* which moves it, and 
causes it to be that which it is. Through this also, fire tends 
upward, and a clod of earth downward, as being moved by the 
soul of the universiB. For nature, by which they are moved, is 
a resemblance of soul. But we denominate them inanimate, in 
consequence of comparing them with a partial soul. It is not 
proper, however, to wonder, if the soul becomes the cause of 
corruption ; for we have before observed, that it produces mo- 
tions, as looking to its own advantage, and the good of the uni- 
verse. In the human species also, we see that the worthy man 
destroys his body by famine, when by so doing it is beneficial 
to him. Thus, therefore, the soul of the universe, when a par- 
tial soul leaves the body, analyses the body, and restores it to 
the elements whence it was derived. JFor its further existence 
in a composite state, is no longer advantageous to the universe ; 
just as the nature which is in us, compounds some of the juices, 
but dissolves others, extending itself to what is useful to the 
whole of our body. 

Of the two before-mentioned syllogisms, therefore, each 
indeed demonstrates, both that the soul is neither corrupted 
from itself, nor by any thing external to it; nevertheless, the 
first in a greater degree demonstrates the former, and the second 
the latter. Hence Plato assumes the proposition which is com- 
mon to both the syllogisms, and which says that the soul is self- 
moved. And he does this, not simply for the sake of dialectic 
argument ; but since self-motion ^ itself is the essence of the 
soul, this is the cause of the soul not being corrupted, and of 
other things living and being connected by it. Both the argu- 

> For w^vxov here, it is necessary to read cfuf^tixoy. 

^ This vestige of soul in body, is the cause of the gravitation of bodies* 

' For ainn}(ria here, it is necessary, to read «vToiMjo|<ria. 

Dissertation sur la Fie, ^c. 51 

tnentSy therefore^ are demonstrative. For they are assumed 

.from the definition of the soul, and all the definitions are essen- 
tialy so far as the soul is what it is. Hence also they reci- 
procate with each other^ or are convertible. And here, it ia 
especially requisite to adm've the philosopher, for employing in 

• his reasoning that which is most peculiar to, and characteristic 
of the soul, omitting such particulars as are common to it with 

, other ' things. For the soul is an incorporeal, self-moved essence, 
gnostic of beings. You see, therefore^ that according to all the 
rest, it communicates with many things, but is especially cha- 

. racterised by self-motion. That also which appears principally 
to pertain to it, viz. to be gnostic of beings, this no Jess pertains 
likewise to sense. For sense is gnostic of things ca-ordinate 
to its nature/' 



Historique, Litteraire et Bibliographique, sur la Fie et les Ou- 

vragesde Macrobe. 

No. III.— Ftrf. No. XLI. p. 81. 



Premier Age, de 1468 cl 1535. 

L'eoition princeps de Macrobe, publi^e a Rome vers Tan 
1468, est due i Jean Andreas, ^v^que d'Aleria, par les soius 
duquel les ouvrages de plusieurs autres 6crivains de Tantiquit^ 
virent le jour pour la premiere fois. Elle fut suivie de la pre- 
miere de Venise, 1472, et de la premiere de Brescia, 1485. 
Ces deux Editions ont ^t6 qualifi^es princeps par plusieurs biblio- 
graphes. Les 6diteurs de Brescia reproduisirent leur Macrobe 
en 1485 et en 1501 (corrig^). Philippe Pincio reproduisit 
r^dition de Venise en 1500, et Tannic suivante il en parut une 
autre i, Bologne. On peut consid6rer cette piriode comme 
Tenfance des Iditions de Macrobe.' ' 

' Instead of oXAijXa in this place, it is requisite to read oAXo* 

SSL Disiertatfon sur la Vit 

A dater de 1513, le texte de Macrobe commeD^a k B%puveT, 
d'abord dans l'6dition public cette ann^ ItL i Venine, par Jean 
ftrviasi ensuite dans celle de Nicolas Angeliers, qui fut T^dilear 
de la premiere des Giunti (1515), et qui la premier dirigea aes 
corrections, en s'^clairant du flambeau de la critique, et enfin 
dans celles de Jod. Badius Ascensius, k qui J*on doit les ^dttioas 
de Paris, 1515 et 1519. Une ^ition parut aussi k Bftle ea 
1519, conforme k celle de Rivius, Un troisiime correcteur, 
Arnold (Haldrenius) de Wesel, chanoine de Cologne, succ6da 
k Rivius et k Angeliers, et pr^sida k la premiere Edition de Co- 
logne, 1521. II en donna encore une autre, dans la m6me ville, 
en 15£6, in-fol., et 1527} in-S**. La premiere Mition des Aides, 
1528, dont I'^diteur fut Bernard Donat de V^rone, e( la pre- 
miere des Gryphes, 1532, terminent la deuxiime p6riode du 
premier k%e des Editions de Macrobe. Mais ces divers ^diteurs, 
se bomant k rectifier quelques erreurs de leurs pr£d6cesseurs, 
s'aidirent peu de la sagaciti des conjectures, et ne tirirent aucun 
parti des manuscrits. 

Jvant 1468.' 

Edition princeps publi^e k Rome par Jean Andreas, iv^ue 
d'Aleria, qui nous en r^v^le I'existence dans sa preface de l'6« 
dition princeps d'Aulu-Geile, publi6e aussi k Rome en 1469, oik 
il dit qu'il a ditjk donn6 Macrobe et ApuI6e. Quoique, apris un 
t^moignage aussi positif, il ne soit plus permis de douter de 
Texistence de cette Edition, nous avouerons n^anmoins qu'elle 
a 6t6 omise par tons les bibliographes, et qu'on ne la trouve 
mime pas dans une lettre des imprimeurs Conrad Sweinheim 
et Arnold Pannarz, adress^e au pape Sixte IV, pour lui de- 
mander des secours, datee du 20 Mars 1472, que Fabricius a 
ins6r^ d la fin du tome 3 de sa Bibl. Lat., pag. 562, Edition 
d*Ernesti, et dans laquelle Aulu-Gelle er Apul^e ne sont point 
onus. 11 faut en conclure, ou qu'i la date de cette lettre, aucun 
exemplaire de Macrobe ne restoit dans le fonds de Tiniprimerie 

I Edir. plus (lue (louteuse, qui n*e8t gu^re citee que par ies Allemands, 
que personne D'a vne, et sur la nun-existence de laquelle M. Vanpraet, 
quej*ai fait cun^ulter a i*e snjet, n*ei^ve aucun doute Au r» ste, le passage de 
!a preface d'Aulu- Gt Ite oil il en est par Id, peut sVnteiidre sans difficult^ 
des travaux <]ue J. d'Aleria auroit executes pour une ddit. nrojettee de 
Macrobe, mais qui seroit restee iuddite: la seule circonstance qui nesoit 
pas favorable iL cette explicatiun, c'est que TAulu-Gelle, TApul^, le St 
J4r6me, meutionnds en oi^me terns que le Macrobe, existent inconte8ta« 
blement, et avoient d^j^ pani cette meme ann^e. (iVble dtf'Tr«Aiele»r.) 

et les Ouvrages dt Macrdbe. 53 

dirigie par Jean Atidiiasy oti qu'il confia ]« publication de cet 
auteur aux presses de quelque autre ioiprimeur Rooiainy peut* 
%tre A celles d*Udalrich Gallus, que dirigeoit J. Ant. Campauus, 
ami de Jean Andreas. 

Parmi les livres du savant J. Aug. £me8ti| vendus k Leipzig 
en i7B2, on trouvoit uiie ancienne Edition de Macrobe, sans 
date de lieu ni d'ann^e, et avec 6gure8. II raanquoit quelque 
chose ii la fin du septi^me livre des Satumales. ' 

1472. I'^de Fenise, grand in-fol. Macrobii Aurelii The<h 
dasii, viri comularis et iUiutri$ in Samnium Scipionis exposiiio. 
JSiusdem Macrobii Saturnaliorum libri VII, Fefietiis, per 
Jiicoiaum Jenson, MCCCCLXXII. A la fin des Saturnaies, 
on lit: Macrobii Jurelii, Theodoiii viri constUaris et illustris 
Saturnaliorum iibri, impressi Fenetiis, operd et impemA Nicolai 
Jemoii, Gallici. MCCCCLXXII. Fid. Maittaire, Annates 
Tjpograph. t. 1, p. 416. Bibl. de Smith, p. 28K Hamberger, 
torn. 3, p. 88. Catalogue de P. A. Crevenna, * vol. 4, p. 203. 
Elle fut aussi au nombre des livres de Joach.-Christopbe Ne« 
nieiziusy conseiller antique des princes Palatins de Deux-Ponts^ 
Christian IV. et Fr6d6ric. Ces livres furent vendus ^ Stras- 
bourg en 1745. 

Dans la Biblioth. Lat. £dit. d'Ernesti, tom. 3, p. 183> I'ftdit. 
princeps est cotfte sous la date de 1 48£. < 

1483.^ 1~ de Brescia, in-fol. Emesti (Biblioth. Lat. loc. dt) 
eu a poBsidi un exemplaire. Elle existe dans la biblioth^ue 
da college de la ci-devant Soci£t6 de J4susy d'Augsbourgi selon 

■ 8i cette Edition e£kt 6te celle de J. Andreas, il est hors de doute qu^Er- 
nesti en aiiroit fait mention dans la partie bibliographiqiie de Tarticle 
Mmerobcy dans ton edition de la Bihl, Lat.^ k ipoins qu'on ne veuille sup- 
poser que cet exemplaire ne lui soit tumb6 entre les mains que post6- 
rieurement h, la publication de son ouvrage. {Nitte du Traducteur.) 

* II faut prendre garde qu*il s'agit en cet endroit du premier catalogue 
de Crevenna, 1776, 6 vol. in-40y puisqu'^ T^poque oi^ cette notice a ^te 
pablite(1788)» le deuxi^me catalogue 1789, & vol. ia-8o, n'existoit pas 
encore. {Note du Traducteur,) 

' C*est sans doute par erreur typographique, puisqu'aucune prenve 
n'est rapport^e k Tappui. J'ajouterai, relativement 1^ I'^it. de 147i9 
que c'est celie que presque tous les biblioeraphes ont proclam^e edit, 
prineepM. Cumme toutes celles de cette classe, elle est extr^roemenc 
rare et ch^te. L'exempl lire qiii, ^ ma cnnnoissance, a attcint -le prix 
Jt plus 6i«-ve, est celui de la bintiothk|ue Mafft% Pinellif dont I'abb^ Mu- 
relli a p ilui^ le catalogue, Veni-e, 1787, 6 vul. gr. in-8o. Les livres de 
cette bibtioth^qtie out 6ti6 vendus a Londres en 1789, et le Maerobe de 
1479 fut adjug^ au prix de 806 Ir. La BibliotK^que du rui de France en 
poss^e un exemplaire sur v41in. (Nutedu Traducteur,) 

« Die vz. Junii. {Note du Vr0duct9iir,) 

54 Dissertation sur la Vie 

le t^moignage de Ph. G. Gercken, dans son Itinerarium Germa-^ 
norum Scriptorum^ t. 1, p. 9.51, n» 3, o4 il nc fait mention n6- 
anmoins que des Saturnales.' 

1485. 9.* de Brescia, in-fol. Bamberger en transcrit le titre : 
Macrohii in Sommum Scipionis, expositionis lib. II. et SatuV" 
naliorum lib. FIl. Brixia, per Boninvm de Boninis, de Ra-^ 
gusid. 1485, die xv. maii. Fig. en bois ; on j trouve, dit-il^ las 
passages Grecs, mais sans accens.* 

1485. Leipzig, in-fol. Macrobii de Somnio Scipionis et Sa- 
turnalia. Catalogue d'Ernesti, pag. 174, n^ 2582. 

1492. 2* de Fenise, in-fol. II en existe un exemplaire dans 
la Bibliothique archi-palatine de Manheim, dont le chef i\ndr. 
Lamejo donne la description suivante : Somnium Scipionis ex 
Ciceronis libro de Rep. excerptum. fol. 1. Macrobii Aur. 
Theodosii in Somnium Scipionis expositio, fol. 2. — Ejusdem 
Conviviorum primi diei Saturnadorum lib. F 1 1, fol. xxvii- 
Lx XX IX. — Impressi Fenttiis,anno Dom.MCCCC LXXX X II, ' 
die XXIX. junii. — Cette 6dit. est encore mentionn^e dans les 
Annales T^pogr. de C. G. Wilischius, qu'on trouve d, la suite 
des Arcana BibL Annaberg, p. 311.^ 

1500. 3* de Fenise, iu-fol. Macrobii Aurelii Theodosii, viri 
consularis et illusttis^ Saturnaliorum Jibri, impressi Fenetiis, 
a Philippe Pincio Mantuano, anno a nativitate Domini 
MCCCCC, rf/e XXIX. octobris. Augustino Barbadico sereniss. 
Fenetiarum duce. Fid. Catalogue de la Biblioth. d'UfFembacb,* 
t. 11^ ^PP- 1 !• (en Latin) Incunabula artis typographica, p. 72, 
no ccvi. 

' La Biblioth^que du roi de FraDce poss^e un exemplaire de cette 
edit., doQt la subscription est absolument Ja mSme que celle de la sui- 
vante, laquelle parolt n'^tre qu'une reimpression de cel!e-ci avec la seule 
difference des dates. Au reste, toiites deux renfermentle Commentaire tur le 
Songe de Scipion, comme je i'ai verifie. {Ifote du Traducteur,) 

^ Les redacteurs de ce Catidogue des editions de Macrobe paroissent 
n'avoir eonnu d'autre autorit^ en faveur de Texistence de Tedition de . 
Brescia, 1485, que celle d*Hamberger. Le catalogue de M. Jourdan, 
Paris, Bruner, 1813, in 8o, en cite un exemplaire qui fut vendu 55 fr., 
mar. rouge. La Bibliothbque du roi (de France) en poss^e un exem- 
plaire avec des notes manuscrites, no tl-T. Z. On lit, ecrit a la main, en 
t^te de la premiere page, Fabii Farnetii Bertholdi filii : comme cette 
ligne est de la mSme Venture que les notes, j'ai pens^ qu^elle en designoit 
Tauteur. Ces notes, au teste, m'ont paru de peu d^mportance. (^Note du 

^ Macrohii Salumalium lAbri viii. MedioUni per Uldericum Scinzenxe' 
ler, 1498. fol. — Denis Sunpl, p. 449. ex Saxio, in Argellati Biblioth. Scripti. 
Mediol. p. 604. ubi ex Orlando, p. 435. teste suspecto afTertur.^^n f (Pan- 
zer, Annales Typographici. Norimberga*, 1793-1803. 1 1 vol. in-4®> t. S, 
p. 87, no 634* {Note du Traducteur.) 

et les Ouvrages de Macrobe. 56 

1501. 3* de Brescia, ivi'fo]. Macrobii de Somnio Scipionis^ 
nee Mon de Saturnalibus libri, summd diligefitid, suo nitori resti" 
tuti, in quo, plus quam ter mille errores corriguntur, grttcumqut 
quod in olim impressis deerat fere omnibus locis reponitur. 
jSrixia, per Angelum Britannicum, 1501, die 18 mensisjanu- 
arii. Via. Hamberger, 1. I. p. 89. 

Id. Bologne, in-fol. 

1513. 4« de Venise, io-fol. Macrobius, qui anted, mancus, 
mntilus ac lacer circumferebatur, nunc primUm integer, nitidus 
et suo nitori restitutus, in quo Graca mujestatis dignitas, quoad 
ejusjieri potuit superstes reponitur. Joannes Rivius recensuit. 
Impress. Fenetiis^ per Auaustum de Zannis, de Portesio ad 
instantiam D. Luca Antomi de Giunta anno Domini MDX II I. 
die xv.junii. Fid. Cata}. Bibl. Uffembach, t. 2, App. 2, et In- 
cunabula art. typogr. p. 93, n® cclxxvii. 

1515. Florence, in-8°. Macrobii interpretatio in Somnium 
Scipionis a Cicerone confectum. Ejusdem Saturnaliorum libri 
septem, curd Nicolai Angelii, Florentia, operd et sumtu 
Philippi Junta. 1515, mense Julio. — C'est la premiere Wit. 
critique de Macrobe. On n'y a point fait usage des nianus* 
crits, comme on le voit dans la preface d'Angeliers. £Ile pri- 
c^da r^dit. de Rivius qui parut la mSme ann^e. 

Id; Paris, in-fol. Macrobius a Joh. Rivio restitutus cum 
indice amplo et veridico. Parisiis, apud Ascensium.* 

1519. Bale, in-fol. Edition faite d'apris celle de Venise/ da 

id. Paris, in-fol. Macrobius integer, curd Ascensianorum 
restitutus : accedit Censorinus de die natali, apud Jod. Badium. 
Le titre de cette Edition est ainsi rapport^ dans lo Catalogue de 
la Biblioth^que de Schwarz, professeur k Altorf. torn. 1, pag. 105, 
no 1761 (3). Dans le Catalogue de la Bibliothique de Bigot, 
vendue & Paris, en 1706, on trouve (p. 44) sous les no* 1833* 

' Ce seroit ici le lieu de placer I'edition de Macrobe, qui auroit 6te 
publiee chez les Aides, conjointement avec Censorinus, de die Natali, 
15X7 1 si toutefois cette Edition avoit jamais exists. Elle fut annone^e 
7>our la premiere fois dans la Serie dell* edisume Aldine, ouvrage de Bri- 
enne, aid^ du P. Laire, son biblioth^caire^ imprime a Pise, 1790, a 
Padoue, 1791 ; con emendaziota t giunte, Venise, 1793, sur la foi d*un ex- 
emplaire du Cardinal de Brienne, de Tedition de M. DXXVIII, dont on 

Vid. ci-apr^s) est la seule que les Aides aient donnee de Macrobe. 

{Note du Traducteur.) 

56 Dissertation 4ur la Vie 

S4y deux Macrobes, Tun de Pms, 1519, in-foL, Tautre atec 
ndtes de Badius, aussi in fo]., mais sans indication d'ann^e. 

1521. Cologne, in-fol. Macrobii Opera, apud Eucharium 
Cervicornum. Vid. Maittaire, Ann. typ, t. 1, p. 6l6. On le 
trouve encore cit6 dans le Catalogue des doubles de la Biblio- 
thique de Gottingue, sous ce titre : Macrobii in Somn, Scip. 
libri II, et septem ^usdem libri Saturnalium, apud sanctam Co- 
loniam. 1521, in-fol. Cette Edition fut donn^e par Arnold, de 
Wesel, qui nous apprend qu*il a rempli les lacunes, r^tabli les 
passages grecs, s6par6 les chapitres, distingu6 les articles 
et corrig6 des fautes innombrables sans le secours d'aucan Ms. 
" Je Tous offire/' dtt-il, dans sa preface, '^ Macrobe pur, clair, 
facile, bien ordonn6, de souill^, obscur, embarrass^, qu*il 6toit 
auparavant. — Ce n'est point comme d'ordinaire k i*aide d'an- 
ciens exemplaires, de Mss. cbarg6s de ratures, ou en secouant 
la poussiire des vieux parchemins, que nous avons exkcutk cette 
entreprise; mais, si elle offre quelque chose de bon, cela est 
d& & un travail assidu et k de nombreuses veilles. Nous 
afons remani^ tout le texte, tant celui de Tauteur principal que 
de ceux dont il cite des fragmens. S'il s'est trouv6 des passages 
corrompus, nous les avons r6tablis ; nous avons 6clairci ceux 
qui 6toient obscurs, retranch6 ceux qui avoient kii int'erpol6s, 
ajout6 ceux que le sens exigeoit/' ' 

1526. Cologne, in-fol. R6p£tition de T^dit. pr6c6dente. 
Catalog, de la Biblioth. de Schwarz. T. 1, p. 107, n<> 1794. 

1527. Cologne, in-8*. 

1528. Fenise, in-8**. * Macrobii in Somnium Scipionis VI 
Hbro de Rep. erudiiimma explanation Ejusdem Satumalio- 
rum libri rll. Censorinus de die natali, odditis ex vetusto 
exemplari nonnullis qute desiderabantur, Fenetiis, in adibus 
Aldi et Andrea Amlani soceri. 1528. mense Aprili. — C'est Do- 
nate de V6roue, qui donna ses soins k cette Edition ; tl vante 
lui-mAme son travail ; mais tl ne fait mention d'aucun secours 
dont il se soit aid£ : aussi, k I'exception de plusieurs correc- 
tions typograpbiques, ses am^^liorations se born^reiit A. quel« 
ques conjectures. 


amm de Tridino, 1591. in-fol. (Catalog. ««• ^v.,^. ^i„ 

M. du rot {de France) No 9 19. Z.) {Note du Traducteur.) 

,.* C'est ici i'unique ^dit. Aldine. Voici la description qu*en donne 

II. Eenouard. {Annmlee de Vwnprimtne det Aides) : vol. de 939 feuille^ 

priced^eB de i^ feuilles pr^Uminaires, dont a blaocs, et suiviet d*uu 

fcuilltt Imparl lur lequel est Tancre. {Note du lYaduetcur.) 

et lei Ouvrages de Macrobe. &t 

1532. Lyon, l^de S^basden Gryphe, ]n-B^ 
Cette Edition suit, presqu'en'tout^celle de Cologne. 

2* Aoc. Texte de Camerarius, de 1535 i 1597* 

Joach. Camerarius, bom me tris-vers^ dans la connoissance 
de Tantiquit^y donna i. B^le, en 1535^ cbez Jean Hervagius, 
son Macrobe, qui est piut6t nouveau que corrig6. Depuis 
cette ^poque, S^bastien Gryphe et son iils Antoine mirent 
beaucoup de zile h reproduire les ouvrages de Macrobe, puis- 
qu'd dater de 1542 jusqu'en 1585, il sortit jusqu'i sept fois de 
leurs presses, sans compter la premiire Edition, qui avoit paru 
avant celle de Camerarius. Mais cette derniire ann^e (1585)9 
Henri Etienne publia le Macrobe de Louis Carrion, lequel 
avoit compulse les Mss. de Pithou, et en avoit recueilli des 
corrections qui s'^artoient souvent du texte de Camerarius. 
Le m^me Etienne mit aussi au jour, en 1583, un petit trait6 : 
De Differentiis et Societatibus graci latinique verbis tire des 
Merits de Macrobe, par un certain Jean^ qu'on croit &tre Jean 
Erigine, dit FEcossais. Jean Opsopaus (de Bretten, dans le 
Bas-Palatinat,) le reproduisit avec des notes de lui, Paris, Du- 
val, 1588 ; et, depuis, tons les iditeurs de Macrobe I'ont joint 
^ sea oeuvres. Les travaux de Carrion perfectionn^rent un 
peu ceux de Camerarius, qui a attache son nom i, ce second 
^e; mais bientdt J. Isaac Pontanus, que nous pla9ons k la 
tete du troisiime, sut s*approprier les uns et les autres. 

1535. B£/e, in-fol. (^dit. de Camerarius). Macrobii Opera 

omnia, iinwulari dUigentia, a Joach, Camerario emenaata. 

Basil, ex cff. Joh, Hervagii* Edition incontestablement sup^- 

rieure k toutes celles qui avoient paru jusqu*alors, et tellement 

corrig6e et augment^e d'apris les plus importans Mss., que 

Camerarius ne craiguit pas de terminer par ces deux vers Tipi- 

gramme qu'il pla9a en t&te de son livre : 

Qttt tamen et nostri ntunerum vult scire lahoHi, 
Annumeret vertu$ totius Ule Ubri. * 

1542. Lyon, in-8^ 2^ de Seb. Gryphe. Voir Fabricius et 
le Catal. de la biblioth. de- Bigot. Paris, 1706. P. Ill, 
p. 245. — 1548. Lyon, 'ra-8*». 3« de Seb. Gryphe. V. Fabricius, 
p. 184. 

1550. Lyon, in-d^". 4« de S^bast. Gryphe. Macrobii Am^ 
bro$ii, Aurelii, Theodosii, viri comulahs et Hiuitris, in Sam* 

^ La Bibliutli^ue du rui de France poss^de un exeitij^laire de ctttte 
edit, qui a appartenu a U. Dupuy, et qui est enrichi de sa signature (£ry- 
^ifu F^deanu^ et de ses notes. On les retrouve en substance parmi ceHes 
das Ymrianm. (Note du Tradueteur.) 

58 Dmerfation $ur la Vie 

nium Scipionis lib. II. Saiurnaliorum libri FII^ ex varus ae 
vetustissimis codicibus recogniti et audi. Fid. Catal. Bibliotb. 
Bunavianae, t. I. vol. 1^ p. 39^. Haniberger, t. III. p. 90. 
Catalogue de CreTenna, vol Ay p. 204. Le savant Ernesti^ qui 
avoit eu Tintention de donner une Edition de Macrobe^ et qui, 
dans ce dessein, avoit r6uni un grand nombre d'anciennes edi- 
tions, a poss6d6 un exemplaire de celle-ci dont les marges 6toieot 
enrichies de variantes ^ la main d'apr^s un Ms. du monaster e 
de Saint Gall. 

1555. Lyon, in-S®. 5« de Gryphe, cit6 par Fabricius. — 1556. 
Lyon, in-8«. 6« de Gryphe. Edition soignee, m^me titrc que 
celle de 1550. Texte habituellement conforme i. celui de 
Pedit. de Cologne^ 1521. Les auteurs du present Catalogue 
eu out poss6d6 un exemplaire. 

1560. Lyon^ in-8«. 7« de Gryphe. T. Catal. de la Biblioth. 
de Ludewig. P. IV, n<> 12542. ^ 

Id. in-12. r. Catal. de la Biblioth. de Bigot, p. 245. 

1583. Paris, in-8<>. ji. Macrobiiy de Differentiis et Socie- 
tatibus graci latitiique verbis omnia ex emendatione Henr. 
Stephani. Fid. Catal. de la Biblioth. de De Thou. P. II. p: 
224, 6dit. de Hambourg. 

1585. Lyow, 8e de Gryphe, in-12. Id. Paris, m-S^. Ma^ 
crobii in Somnium Scipionis libri II. Ejusdem conviviorum 
Saturnalium libri FII. Dans cette Edition, H. Etienne donne 
quelques fragmens de Touvrage de Macrobe de Differentiis et 
SocietatibuSy etc. II y fait usage des Mss. de Pithou, qui 
avoient 6te r^unis par L. Carrion, lequel doit avoir aussi pr6- 
sid6 k la revision du texte; car H. Etienne dans sa preface, 
apr^s avoir rabaiss6 le m^rite de Camerarius, avoue n^anmoins 
qu'il eftt d6sir6 que Carrion s'6cart^t plus rarement de son 
texte. Dans la preface de cette m^me Edition, H. £tienne 
donne I'espoir qu'il fera connottre I'ouvrage de Macrobe, De 
Differentiis et Societatibus, etc. tir6 des Mss. de Pithou, on 
du moins Textrait qu'en a fait sous ce litre un nomm^ Jean, que 
Pithou, Jacques Usserius, dans ses Epistola Hibernicayti Du- 
cange, croient Stre Erig^ne, dit* Scot. Remarquez, cependant, 

' Macrohii in Samnium Scipionit Lib. ii. Saturnali^rum Ub. vii. ex v«- 
iustits, Codicibus recogniti et uucti. Lugduni apud Thiob. Paganuniy 1560. 
in -So. {Catalog, det Livres imprimis de la Biblioth. du roi(de France) No 
323. Z.) Le corps du texte ressemble parfaitement aux 6dit. des Gryphea* 
le titre seui en diff^re; et au lieu du griffon, il offre un arbre, dont un 
hommt essaie de cueillir un rameau ; son feuillage est entoure d'une 
banderolie, sur laquelle on lit : Virtutes sibi inticem harent, (Note du 

et les Ouvrages de Macrobe. 59 

que Touvrage avoit d^j^ paru seul en 1583, comme on pent 
voir ci-dessu8. 

1588. Paris^ in.8^ De Diff. et Sociei. gr. ei lat. verbis 
cum Tiotis Jo. Opsopai, apud Du VaL ' 

3* Age. Edit, cum notis Fariorum^ 1597 i 1788. 
Cet ftge commence d la premiere 6dition de J. Isaac Ponta- 
nvis, publi6e a Leyde, chez Plantin ; laquelle fut suivie d'une 
seconde plus ample ibid. 16^8^ qui^ outre les savantes notes 
de Pontanus^ contient encore les courtes remarques de Jean 
Meursius. Cette edition fut reproduite k Oxford (je crois 
vers 1665)^ de mani^re cependant que les notes furent plac^es 
au bas des pages du texte. Telles furent les bases de T^dition 

flus ample et plus perfectionn6e que Jaques Gronovius donna 
Leydeen l670^d'apris les Mss. et les materiaux de son pire, 
Cette Edition fut reproduite ^ Londres en l694, et d Padoue 
en 1736, par les soins de J6rdme Vol pi. Cette derniire ren« 
ferme aussi les notes d'Opsopoeus. Enfin, elle a 6t6 encore 
reproduite d Leipzig, 1774. Celle-ci est moins correcte que 
les prec6dentes, et ne se recommande que par les notes du nou- 
vel 6diteur. 

1597. Leyde, in-8®. Macrobii Opera. Jo. Is. Pontanus re- 
censuit, et Saiurnalium libros mss. ope auiit ac castigationes 
sive notas adjecit. ace. Jo. Meursii nota. Leyde, ex off. Plan^ 
tin. Cette 6dit. renferme le trait6 De Differ, et Societ. gr. 
et /at.f etc. F, le Catal. des livres rares de J. Henr. Harsche- 
rius. B&le, 1769, et Hamberger, t. Ill, p. 90. Dans la Bi- 
blioth. lat. de Fabricius, Edition d'Ernesti, p. 184, la premiere 
Edition de Pontanus est fix^e k Tan ]595. F. Catal. de la' 
Biblioth. de Thou, P. 11, p. 2CX), 6dit. de Hamb. et Catal. de 
la Biblioth. de Schwarz, P. I, p. 107, n« 221 1. 

1605. Hanover, in-4o, Macrobii, de Diff. et Societ. graci 
latinique verbi libellus. Imprimfe dans les Grammatici vete^ 
res d'Elie Putsch, p. 2727-2775. 

■ 1607. Genive, in-\2. Macrobii Jmbr. Jurel. Theodosiiin 
Somnium Scipionis libri II, Saturnaliorum libri Fll. Chez 
Jean Stoer.* F. Catal. Biblioth. Ludewig, P. IV, n^ 12559. 

* Voici le litre exact de ce volume : Ambrosii Macrobii Theodosii, de 
Differeniiit et SocietaiibuSy graci latinique verbi, libellut nunc primUm in 
Hicem editus (a Joan. Opsopceo) Faritiit Dionysius, Duvalliut^ 1588. in-8o» 
— je ne sals commeDt concilier nunc primkm editut^ avec I'eiistence, ce- 
pendant iocontestable, de Tedit. de 1583. {Note du Traducteur.) 

* La Biblioth^que Mazarine, ^ Paris, possMe un exemplaire d*une 
edit, de Macrobe (No 27980 de son Catalogue Manuscrit) format in-16«» 

60 Disicrtatian sur la Vie 

Cmd. de ]a Bibliotfa. de Schware» P. I, p. 139, n^23S9, et 
Biblioth. de Has. Br^me, cK IV, eric. p. 688, n<» 29* 

16£8. Leyde^ in-8«. Macrobii Opera. Jo. Isacius Ponta- 
tius secundo receiisuity adjectn ad libros singulos noti$ quibut 
accedunl Jo. Meursii breviores not a. Chez J. Maire. 

1665., Id-80. J. F. Nolten, dans son trait^ De lingua latino 
€Uatibus earumqtie tcripi., k la fin de sou Ijexicon autibarba^ 
rum (Edition de 1744), fait mention d'une excellente edition de 
JM aerobe cum notis variorum^ qui auroit kii, publi^e par George 
Home. >]ous ignorona si ce ne seroit pas la suivante cit^e par 

Vers l66d. Oxford^ in-8<». C'est T^dition de Pontanus ; 
seulement les notes, qui auparavant 6toient rejet6es k la fin de 
Touvrage, sont plac^es ici au bas des pages du taxte, comme 
le remarque Fabricius, Biblioth. lat., 4dition de Hambourg, 
1721, vol. 1, p« 663. C'est cette Edition qu'a reproduite Ja- 
ques Gronovius, mais en la perfectiunnant avec le secours des 
inat6riaux que lui avoit laiss6s son pire Jean-Fr6d4ric Gro- 

1670. Leydtf in-8®. ^tir. Theodosii Macrobii Opera : ac» 
. cfiduni notie integra Is. Pontani ; J oh. Meursii, Jaq. Grono^ 
vii, Lvgd. Bat., ex off". Arnoldi Dovde et Corn. Driehvysen. 
Pour le Commentaire sur le Songe de Scipion, Jaq. Gronovius 
s'est servi de deux Mss. de ia biblioth^que de I'Acad^mie de 
Leyde, et pour les Saturnales, d'un M s. sur papier, tir6 aussi 
de la m&me biblioth^que ; avec leur secours, il a corrig^ 
et ^clairci, d^une maniire heureuse, quelqiies passages des deux 
ouvrages, mais sur-tout du premier. 11 rapporte de longs pas- 
sages d*une Geometria anonymi veteris, qu'il avoit trouv6e dans 
les Mss. de son p^re, et de deux sommaires d'un Ms. Anglais 
dans lesquels Macrobius Theodosius est cit6 en t^moignage, et 
dont les auteurs d^clarent avoir lu le Commentaire sur le 
Sonse de Scipion. 

1094. Londres, in-8". Aur^ Theod. Macrobii Opera : acce^ 

. duttt iniegra 1$. Pontani, J oh. Meursii, et Jac. Gronovii nota 

et animadversiones, edit, novissima, cum indice rerum et vocum 

loeupleti^imo. * Londini, typis M. C. et B. M. C'est une 

reproduction de T^dit. de Leyde, 1670. 

de 745 |ta}i. plus ie» indejf per lain la tUie de 1597, ftpud Jmeohim Stuer, 
Bans nom <le lieu. (Ao^' du IVadvcteur.) 

* Troint)€s sans doutc par Ve}i\nv'>\tn\ locupletisMima, plusieurt biblio- 

graphes (clit M. Foumier, fitmoeau Dtctiommire de Bibliographies ff 4Ait<^ 

Paris, 1809, in 80) uiii pretfndu que I'editiou de 1694 6toit augment^, et 

^tenftnnoit un index plus ample. D'apr^s un examen approftmdi des 

deux Editions, nous avons leoonnu (c'est M. Fouraier qui parie), que celle 

et lei Owrnges de Microbe. ^i 

1736. Padoue, in*8®. Jur. Macrobii Ambroni tfiMe exiani 
omniaf diligent issi mi emendula et cam optimii edit, coUata. 
L'Mitetiry J6r6ine Volpi, a pris pour base de son 4dition qbUo 
■de Jac. Gronovius, 167(>> conferee avec T^dilion des Aides, et 
celle d'Etienne. II traite dans sa preface de rutilu6 des ou- 
.vrages de Macrobe, et des lueilleures Editions de cet auteur. 

1774. Leipzig^ \v^^^. Anr. Theodosii Macrobii r.,C. etil- 
iuBtris OperUy cum natit integris Isacii Pontani, Jo. Mewrm^ 
Jac. Growtviif quibus adjauxit et 9uai, Jo. Car. Zeunius. Xtji- 
sttf impeusis G. Theophiii Georgia Reproduction de T^ditioa 
de Gronoviusy mais tris^fautive. Les reniarques de Zeune la 
rendent n^anmoins recommandable. ' 


1788. Deux- Fonts, in-8o, 2 vol. Aur. Theodoni Macrobii 
V. C. et illuBtris, Opera, ad optimas editiones cotlata ; pramit" 
titur notitia liiteraria, accedunt indices : atudiis Societatis JK- 
pentina. Editio accurata, Biponti, ex typographia Societatis, 
1788. Cette ^diuoHy dont nous avons tir6 la savante notice bi* 
bliographique dont nous venous de donner la traduction, - se re- 
commande sur-tout par une grande puret6 de teste et une ex- 
treme correction typographique ; la notice litteraire, dont il eat 
question dans le titre, est tir^e de la Biblioth^que latine de Fa- 
briciuSy Edition d'bniesti. Comme la plupart des Editions de 
'Deux-PontSy celle-ci est sans notes ; privation qui devient plua 
penible d regard d'un auteur tel que M aerobe, qui offre des 
diflBcult6s de tous les genres. Le premier volume est om6 de 
la gravure d'ufie m^daille d'Honorius^ et le deuxiimei de celle 
d'une m6daille de Th6odose fe jeune, pour indiquer, sans doute, 
l%poque od I'auteur a v^cu. Cette Edition «st due aux soins de 
MM. Croll et Exter. 


Voici la liste complett« des Mss. de Macrobe, qui existent 
dans la bibliothique du roi de France, extraite du Catalogue de 
la dite bibliotbique. * 


de 1604 n'^tuit qu'une copie tr^-incorrecte de la precedente sans aucuaa 
augmentation, tant dans les notes que dans Vindex, {Note du JVaducteur,) 

* C*est sur cette edition que j'ai fait ma traduction. Les aniauukfer- 
lionet de Zeune; qui ne se tr 'uvent d^ins aucune autre, tandis que cellc- 
ci renferme d'aiileurs toutes celies des editions qui I'ont pr^cedie, det- 
▼eot lui faire obtenir la preference aupfis des savans. {Note du Tr^diie- 

* Catalogut codicum Mts. InbHoikeea regis Faritknsii (stud, et Uiare 
Amuii MMft} Fmrisiis ^typ, reg. 1730-44» 4 vol. in-foL> t. 4, pars 9. 

62 Dissertation sur la Vie 

Jf^ 5797. Codex membranaceusy olim Puteanus : ibi cobti'- 

nentur .... 2^ Macrobii Satunialiorum liber Is Co* 

dex 1 3^ sseculo videtur exaratus. 

N^ 6S65. Cod. membr. olim Colbertinus : ibi continentur 
.... 2^ Macrobii^ Ambrosii^ Aurelii, Theodosii, viri Consu* 
laris, Commentarii in Somnium Scipionis duobus libris. Se- 
cundiy pars maxima desideratur. Is Cod. saeciil. 14^ exarat. vid. 

N^ 0366. Cod. membr 2^ Macrobii in Somnium Sci-- 

pionis duobus libris. Is Cod. 14® saecul. vid. exarat. 

N*» 6367. Cod. membr. 1** Somn. Scip. authore Cicerone, 
2® Macrobii in Somn. 5ctp. lib. duo. 3^ Ejusdem 'Sa^tir/^a- 
liorum libri. Is Cod. 14° saecul. videt. exarat. 

N® 6369. Cod. membr. 1° Somn. Scip. auth. Cicerone. 9P 
Macrobii in Somn. Scip. Commentarii lib. duo. Is Cod. H^ 
ssecul. videt. exarat. 

N® 6370. Cod membr. 1° Macrobii Ambr. T. viri Cons, in 
Somn, Scip, lib. duo. 2^ Ejusdem Saturnaliorum lib, primi 
fragmentum. Is Cod. 9^ saecul. videt. exarat. 

]N® 637 1 . Cod, membr. primum Petri Pithoei, postea Col- 
bertinus : ibi 1° Macrobii, Ambr. Th. in Somn. Scip. Com^ 
mtntarii lib. duo ; ad calcem subjicitur Somu. Scip. %^ Ejus- 
dem Saturnaliorum lib. VII. Is Cod. vid. exarat. ssecul. IP.. 

N® 6372. Cod. membr* olim Colbertinus: ibi, Macrobii 
Ambr Th. in Somn. Scip. Commentariorum lib. duo ; passim 
inter lioeas glossa, et ad margineni Scholia, Is Cod. saecul. 14° 
videt exarat. 

N**6415. Cod. membr. olim Colbert. Ibi .... 4** Somn. 
Scip. auth. M. T. Cicerone, accedit Macrobii Commentarius. 
Js Cod. 14*^ saecul. videt. exarat. 

N° 6570. Cod. membr. olim Mazarinaeus : ibi ... 3** M. T. 
Ciceronisy Somn. Scip. accedit Macrobii Commentarius, Is Cod. 
14° saecul. videt. exarat. 

N** 6619. Cod. membr. olim Mazarinaeus : ibi, M. T. Cice- 
ronis; Somn. Scip. accedunt Macrobii Commentariorum lib. 
duo. Is Cod. \2^ saecul. videt. exarat. 

N® 66£0. Cod. membr. olim Philiberti de la Mare: ibi, 1** 
-Aur. Macrobii Commentarius ex Cicerone in Somn. Scip. : ini- 
tio plurima et sub finem nonnuUa desiderantur. Is Cod. 1 1° sae- 
cul. videlur exarat. 

N® 6621. Cod. membr. primum Jacob! August. Thuani, 
postea Colbertinus: ibi, 1° Aur. Macrobii Commentariorum in 
Somn. Scip. lib. duo : finis desideratur : praemittitur Somn. 
Scip. auth, T. Cicerone. Is Cod. 13° saecul. vid. exarat. 

K° 6622. Cod. membr. olim Colbert. : ibi, Macrobii Ambr, 

€t let Ouvrages de Macrobe. 6S 

Th. Expositio in Somn. Scip. : nonnunquam inter lineas g/oM^ ; 

. .conjecta praeterea sunt ad marginem anonymi Scholia : pnemit- 

titiir Somn. Scip. auth. Tullio. Is Cod. 13° saecul. exarat. videt. 

N° 6623. Cod. membr. olim Colbert. : ibi^ 1° Macrobii 
Ambr. Th. in Somn. Scip. Commentariorum lib. duo. Hujusce 
Cod. pars prior 13° saecul., posterior 14° vid. exarat 

N° 6764. Cod. niembr. olim Colbert. : ibi. Soma. Scip. 
auth. Cicerone; accedit Ambr. Macrobii Commentarius. It 
Cod. ssecul. 13° videtur exarat. 

N^7186. Cod. membr. primam Petri Pithoei, postea CoU 
bertinus: ibi . . . . 2° Excerpta ex Hbro Ambr. Th. Macrobii^ 
de Differentiis et Socieiatibus Graci Latinique verbu Is Cod. 
sjecul. 11° videt. exarat. 

N° 7299. Cod. membr. olim Colbert. : ibi . . . . 2° Aur. 
Ambr. Macrobii Commentariorum in Somn. Scip. lib. duo: 
sub finem nonnulla desiderantur. Is Cod. saecul. 11° vid. exarat. 

N° 7362. Cod. membr. olim Colbert. : ibi .... 9° /rog- 
mentum Macrobii de mensura terra. Is Cod. 13° saecul. vid. 

N° 7400. B. Cod. membr. : quo 1° Ambr. Macrobii Frag* mensurd et magnitudine Terra, et Circuliper quern 

Solis iter est, 2° Idem de mensura et magnitudine Solis 

4° Macrobii Fragmentum de situ Oceam, ... 6° Macrobii et 
Capellae Fragmetita de mensurd Terra. Is Cod. saecul. 10° vide- 
tur exarat. 

N° 7710. Cod. partim membranaceus, partim chartaceus, 
olim Colbert.: ibi .... 2° Macrobii Sa^tirna/tortim Fragmenta. 
13° saecul. exarat. 

N° 8314. Cod. membr. olim Colbert. : ibi .... 5° Macrobii 
Commentarius in Somn. Scip., ad saecul. IS"*^ referendus: pars 
maxima desideratur; 

M° 8642. Cod. membr. primum Jac. Aug. Thuani, postea 
Colbert. : ibi ... . Macrobii Fragmentum, e libris Satumalio* 
rum. Hujusce Cod. pars 13°, pars 14°, nonnulla 15° saecul. vi- 
dent. exarat. 

N° 8663. Cod. membr. olim Pbiliberti de la Mare : ibi . . . 
2° Macrobii Comment, in Somn. Scip. sequitur Somn. Scip. 
Is Cod. 11° saecul. videtur exarat. 

N° 8676. Cod. membr. : quo continentur Aur. Macrobii 
Theodosii Saturnaliorum lib. vii. Is Cod. 14° saecul. vid. 

N° 8677. Cod., membr. : quo continentur^ 1° Aur. Macrobii 
Theodosii Saturnaliorum lib. vii. 2° Ejusdeu in Somn. Scip. 

^ X^i$iertatum mr la Vie^ ^c. 

lib* duo: pnemittitur Soma. Scip. Is Cod. IS^sscuL Yid^t. 

N^.8678. Cod. merobr. olim Colbert. : ibi^ Aur. Maqroui 
Saiurttaliorum libri tii. Is Cod. 15° «ecul. videt. exarat. * 

Paul Colomi^s, dans le catalogue dea Mas. d'Isaao Vi^ 
sius, cite parmi les Msa. Latina, sous le n* 30, un fragmeilt 
d'un ouvrage de Maerobe, qui aeroit inthul^, De differeniid 
iiellarum, et de magnitudint solis; sons le ii®48, un .autre 
fragment intitul6, Sphara Maerobii: et enfin sous le no 91, 
un troisidme fragment ayant pour titre, Mac^obiuSf de palliis, 
qu€t sunt lapidum nomina. La nature des sujets de ces divers 
fragmens, d Texception du dernier, semble indiquer que ce ue 
sont que des lambeaux du Commeniaire sur le Songe de Sci" 
pion. £mesti nous apprend' qu'il a existi i Nuremberg, 
entre les mains de Godefroi Thomasius un Ms. intitul6. Ma- 
crobius, de secretis muiierum* 

Un Ms. des Saturnales, sur v^lin, ex6cut£ en Italic, dans le 
quinsd^me siicle, ecrit en caractdres ronds, k tongues lignes, et 
enrichi de belles capitales rehaussies d'or, fut acheti cent quaUre- 
yingts livres, d la vente du Due de la Valli^re, en 1784. 

Le catalogue des Mss. de la biblioth^ue de Lyon, par M. 
Ant. Fr. Delandine, * nous foumit le renseignement suivant : 
n° 99 f Somnium Scipionis, grand iii-8° de cent pages, Ms., sur 
T^tn, k longues lignes, avec une Venture tres-gothique, chargie 
d*abr6viat}ons ; il a €t6 donn6 & la biblioth^ue de Lyon, par le 
savant j^sui^e CI. Fr. M^o^trier. II paroit ant6rieur au sei- 
M^me Slide. 

On a d6jd vu dans le Catalogue des editions de Macrobe, 
qu'Emesti avoit euTintention de donner une Edition de cet au- 
teur, et qu'il avoit rassembii des mat^riaux pour cda. Le 
catalogue de la bibliothique de Vienne? nous apprend que 
Nicolas Heinsius et Pierre Lambecius lui-m£me avoient confu 
un pareil dessein, et commence des travaux en cons^uence. 
Ce mdme catalogue fait mention d^ plusieurs Mss. de Ma- 
crobe, tris-anciens, des bibliothiques de Naples et de De Tbou. 
Emesti nous apprend encore ^ qu'il a possid6 un exemplaire de 
Macrobe de I'edition de Cologne, 15fil, dont toutes les marges 
etoient chargees de corrections et de variantes d'un anonyme. 

* Fabric, BHUoth. Latinoj t. 3, p. 186. 

» Lyon, 3 vol. in- 80. 1812. 

3 Feiri Lambecii commerUmriorum 4e augustimmA Mbliotketi Quani 
Vindobonenti libri VIIL Vindobonctp 1665*1679, 8 vol. in*fol. fig.— torn. 6, 
p. 366. 

« Biblioth. Lat. t. 3, pag. 183. 

Oxford ^zt Foemfw 1919^ , 6ai 

Unites d'liQe nwujhre tr^n^tej ct app»)!^ wr le tliBiiii|ii^gf 
de Mas. tr^anciens. 

JVd peosi que ces courtes indications de qndlqaes SmL de 
Maorobe ajooteroient 4e YnAktkt k mon travaiL £e cduipliter 
c t i^e i ept, dans catte pMlie^ nmit one' eotreiMise loap» et 
pfa&le, et qui d'aiileun eziger#it de» nAtrnkm^Mi Vte«dni 
n'auffoit paade propoili|H] atac leur r^okat . 



\ TfiB - • 


Recited at the Theatre^ Oxf&r^^ thfitwenty^hirdof June^ \^\Q. 

WaiLE the rapt world -mMi oeaitleas woiidar views 

The rescued works of scalptqre> Altic l^use. 

Those forms by fabling bards on Ida sean, 

Tb6 heavenly Archer ^nd the IHipbiaii Queen ; 

Why bfeaihe no mere the gk>^n^ ti«la» that erst 

Jkff ev^Tj giBce'on nature's bosom nurst^ 

To the charm'd eye with soft enchantment direw 

Blmpassion'd life o'er all Timanthes drew. 

And bade in color's magic radiance rise, 

Aulis, thy scene of virgin sacirifice? 

There, in one group, distinguish^, yet comhin'd. 

Grief, pity, tercor,-«-aU that' shakea the mind. 

The mighty master pour'd ; and o'er the piece 

In weeping silence hung enraptur'd Greece^ 

Yet oft will fancy every touch renew, 
Bright as the rainbow; and as fleeting too: 
Per mark, at Dian's fane, where powerless, pale, 
Not glittering now in Hymen's r<M|^^te veil, 

\0U XXII. CI. Jl, ItP, XUII, E 

M Oi^ard Pti)ee Pbmfor img. 

9St tMt Hfg^ itkp, im AoVs <(he eatcfl^ss bramt, 
Nor jHMith's gay ch«ek in smiles un<;1ouded drest ; 
But<all her ftite'Awont. darkest hues reveal'd. ' 
Widiopt tn^ hef te cbeer^ oimi bimd to »bieU^ 
!■ w pi mhhm fgast Ipliigciini stands, 
And cksps at deaths dkiead sbrine her pleadfaig haiMI§; * 
Yet on ^«t cheek, bedew'd with beauty's tear, 
Still heroine firmness strives with female fear, 
And her last glanced bfe « nf abatt thmtr 
Of pitying pardon otHt father's woe. 

See, all around, the sad contagion spread — 
Survey the pensive form, the drooping head— - 
Now e'en til^ases feels, "vnitb milling force. 
Compassion barb the stings of vain remorse. 
Though check'd by patriot pride, and bigot zeal, 
Unl^dden. drops o'er softening Calchas steal ; 
In Ajax, sterner sorrow heaves the breast. 
And swells the lip with anger ilLreprest. 
But most that sunken cheek, and tear-dimm'd eye. 
Sad MeneUma^ *P^^ ^^ kitidaed tie-^^ 
Speak the fond wish without the pcmerto sav^ 
Unless a parent spare the life he gave. 
'Tis vain — ^no aid offended hefven ■UoMr% 
The fillet binds the knmatt viclimb brows— 
Edg'd is the murderous'steel, and c^own'd the shrint ; 
Deatlvonly waits ibe oHHUirch's feteftil sign ! 
. Cythiau, enough ! thy .art baa rack'd the breast, \^ 
Drain'd every grief, each passion'* change «]qmst-^ 
In mercy stay thy harrowing touch-^nor trace ';• 
Weak nature's sir% in Againemiion's face^ 
Yon closc'drawn jrobe's convulsive folds deel a nat*^ 
*-Away — a father's heart is bursting there ! 


New Coll^tx. 




• • » 

liH''^ the' principal liouki of ih^ Dake of JUurtbofouj^i 

^ CiHiettinH at White K)Mh$^ sold by Ar. Eoajn^ hiU 

Mall^ inJune^ 18 L9. niih prices and purchaars. '. ^ 

. i» AET IWr^lCon^nued Jron^ W. XtU. p. 3^91 

■»■■ * ■>» 

Ociav0 el tnfra. 

Olivier dc la Marche, Le Ciievalier Delibere, a mtaascript npoA 
vellam, w4tMft«ett lar«fe IlluiniiKrtioiis, red morocccK Bnixdf. 
)54r. \6i, 4r. M Ttiphook. 

Orpbica «uiii notis Jti[« Stepbaoi, EscheabaeMi^ Cfosacrl^ Tyrwhitti, 
r«e«aafiit fier imifrmi^, largi; velbuii pa)(»er, <m fHticb only twelve 
copiei were priflte«l> lihie marocco, with joints, Lfpsic. 1805. 
61. Perry. 

Ovidii Opera, S vols, green moroeep^ AMtfi, 1 315^151 0. 3IL 1Q$. 

-9 3 tt>l9« oM meroceo binding:, Aotv. }56i. Sf. dj. 



-» ex receas^. Heinsii, 3 vols, blue iiioroeco, morocco 

inside', Elz. 16^9- lli'U.^d. 'Mfik^0k. 
— — — — , 3 vote, tiae morocco, Am9l. 17 W. ll. JBm^im. 
Ovide, Les Metamorphoses en vers Francois, par Habert, 3 vols. 

cuts, green morocco. Par.' 1587* 1^* Triphook. 
Ovid'» Elegies, by C. Marloe^ Ejpigrains,. by K Davif, »caree, at 

Middlebargb. 4/. Perry. 
Pafaneria d'/Vi|gleteri^ Histoire du Prenyl VaiHaol^ltr^ Victorieim 

Chevalier, 2 vols, red morocco, Paris, 1574. J/. 14«., Rodd. 
Paradtn, Devises Heroiques, many plates^ blue morocco, Lyon. f. 

de Tournes, 1551. 2L Ss. MoltenQ. 
ParaagoD de.Nwv^cs^ How^^s at Deloctables, wood cats, Lyotf, 

1532. Les Parolles Joyeuses des Nobles Ancienap^r Patrar^ue, 

in 1 vol. red morocco, Lyon» 1532. . U. IQb. 6d. Hebefr. 
Parrot's Laqaei RkJUciilosi, or Springes for Woodcocks, very scarce, 

G. Steeveas's copy, blue morocco, London, l6l3. 7 1* 7e* 

Partbenia Sacra, or the Mysterious Garden of the Sacr^ed Partbenes, 

many pbtes^raed morocco^ scarcer Jol|n Cousturier, l6(33. 2L 14f. 

Pasqaille, Les Visions de, avec le Dialogs de Probu$» red morocco, 

1547* 1/, 15#. Heber. 
iVittea's Expedition into Sootkuid, of Prince Fdward, Duke (vf 

Somerset, Uncle unto Edward Vl. -extremely rare, iUte copy, red 

66 Bibliography. 

M0ne€a,«ilfaPortnit«rEd«sidTL LoirfM, E. Otikd, 15M, 

Feckc^f PiniHMn Pocrpcnmi, or tone WeB-tfUot to lagdMily^ 
iaEpignu— froiiMartM, Morc»Ac. Moc mo idcco^ l6i$. ll. ^. 

PcBtalracb, The, translated by Tlndal, bbck letter, wood c«ll» 

•oiBe leaves sop|4ied from aiiotber editioB, blue morocco. Pliated 

at Afetflborow, in the Land of Hesse, 1530. ll. ifir. Vripkimk. 
Perefixe, Histoire de Henri 1e Gnud, uncn^ poitndC mserteo, blue 

morocco, with joints, Elsevier. 1679. Si. Ltpmrd. 
Perrierr, La Morosophie en Cent £ml>l^mes par Gnfllaame de la, 

blue morocco, with wood-cut borders, Lyon, 1553. 2l. 2«. 

Pcscatore, la Morte di. Rng^ero coatinoata a la Bfatcria de VAn- 

osto, wood cats, fine copy» moiocco, with joints, Vinegia, 1549. 

61. l?s. 6d. Xripkaok. 
Petrarcha, Triomplu e Sooetti, a very beautifid Italian Manascript 

of the b^g^nning of the sixteenth century; upon vdhim. It is 

written in a very delicate and legible hand, and the titles to the 
^ different <:hi^crs are illaminated in letters of pM, sptendidfy 

bound in morocco. 14i. P^yne. 
Petrarqoe, Les Triumphes tradoictes en Tecs, par le Baroo d'6pe- 

de, wood cots, yellow morocco. Pans, Janot, sans date. 

4/, 14f . M. Rue. 
Petrarqoe, Toutes ks Eovres Valgaiics de, en Vers Franooys par 

Vasqoin Pbilienl, morocco, Avignon, 1555. 2l. Rice. 


•Needle, a Sehole Honse for the^ pUtes, msaa, l624. 3/. I5r. 

'Nef (Le Grant) des foiz da monde, wood cuts, black letter, ydlow 
" mnocco, title manascript, L^oa, 1529. ll. 15«. Tr^kook. 
^ef (La) des Princes et des bataiUes de Noblesse, wood «ats» black 

letter, scarce, Lyon, 1502. ll. 13«. Arek. 
Neperi Logpmthmomm Canonis Descriptio, msam, Edin. 1614. 

ll. 5f. Arek. 
NeveR (Mr.) The Generous Usurer in Thames Street, who alloweth 
« hb Bfaid osnally a Bfau:k Padding to Dinner, l641. ll. i«. 
■ 4^larke. 

^itum Cnstome, a new.Enteriude, no less wittie than pleasant. Mack 
K. 4e^, very rare, 1573. 151. 15#. Htker. 
rliichols% Progresses and Public Processimis of Queen Ehxahetfa, 
,* 2 vol. |>lates, rassia, 1788. 1 7I. 17«- Booth. 
liiielNibr Voyage en Arabic avec le Recocil de Questions par Afi- 

.9ha^lis,.4 voL plates, Amst. 1766, &c. 4l. 8«. Payme.- 
V\%ef% (FranciMsus) Tragedie,' entitaled Freewyl, translated by 
* "^enry Cheeke, black letter, rare, about 1589. i^^- ^- Heber. 
Norden's Specotim Britanniae, maps, blue morocco, 21. 6f • Booth. 


^^i^Sraphy.^ ^Sfs 


N^Tl^W, tajMoJ^^ lB«e- I>avies;s Mining inModum. 
a GUQipMiof God's, Glorietnd^ihe SouJ^s ^Iis^, l602, tpo 

l|j[t»TfPe puo, lfurg(&^per,:red morocco, with joints, rare, Ijopara^ 
1790. 54 10«. BurrelL ,. ■ • ,» 

]9j[c)iodemu8 GoapelL wood ciits, red morocco, fiiKe cop](, Ter| 

; ...infe, Wy nky n de Worde, 1511. 22/. 1 1 f . 6rf. ^iftfterf : ' . 

Oi:|lii9ie'$ Tragoedie, or Dialoge ot the unjiiste usurped primaqie 

' of t|ie Bbbop, of Rome, translaifed hy Podet, black letter, Gwal- 

. ter Lynne, 1549. 21. l6s. Booth, i ., . \ > 

Office (The) of the Holy Vfeek according to the Missal and Roman 
Breviary, enrich t witn many figures, blue iporocco, Paris, l67^» 
1/. 11». Payne. 

Oger le Danuois Due de Dannemarche qui fut Fun des douze Pert 
de France, wood^ cuts, blue morocco, Troyes, l6lO« 2/. \9. 

Ob Read over D. John Bridges, for it is a worthy Worke, an Epi- 
tome of his fyrste Booke against the Puritanes, black letter, red 
morocf;o. 1/, 10«. Triphook. : 

CMd Newes newly revived, or the Discovery of all Occurrences 
harppened since the Beginning of the Parliament, 1641* !/• 5f. 
• Perry. 

Oratio Dominica C« L. Linguis Versa, edente J. J. Marcel, blue mo- 
rocco, with joints, Paris, 1805. 3/. 10«. Arch. 

Oraei Eicones Mysticae, plates, blue morocco, with joints. Franco^ 
1620. 1/. lU. Clarke. . 

.Orio, Le Iscrittioni poste sotte le vere Imagini de gli Huomihi Fa« 
mosi, red morocco, Fiorenza, Torrentino, 1552. Xl.'ds. Payne* 

Otia^acra« (Poems) plates by Marshall, l648. 4/. l6«. Rice. 

Ovalle Hbtorica Relacion del Reyno de Chile, morocco, Roan, 
1646. 3/. 4«. Heber. 

Otridii Metamorphoses, Figurse elegantissime a Cr. Passaeo laminis 
^eneis incisas, russia, with joints, Colon. ^1607. 3/. 5$» Bdyce. 

Otklii Metamorphoses Figuris expressa, Augsb. l681« 2/. Ijw 
Triphook, * 

-Fanzer Annales Typo^p(hi6i ab Artis InventaeOrigine ad Anoutti 

1536, 11 vols. Norimb. 1793-97. 7/. Arch. 
Paradyse of Daintie Devises, 16OO. The Workes of a youi^g Wyt, 
trust up With a Fardell of prettie Fancies, by V. Breton, title 
MS. 1577* Southern's Poems, addressed to the Earl of Oien- 
ford, wanting the title. Watson's Centurie of Love, made per- 
fect in Mr. Steevens's hand^writing, 4 vols, in 1, interleaved witfi 
curious notes and illustrations, by G. Steevens, Mr. RttsoD, Mr. 
Parke, Sir W. Musgra ve, and Lord Orford . 321. 0$. 6d. JViphook. 

Pkris, Tableau Histprique et Pit|<»esqile de, 2 vols. ^eBum i^p^t 
numerous pktes, fceen aoioceo, wilh j<M»ts» turn, IttDf. 
.£/, 12#. 61L Wphookf ' ' > » .•'< t 

» T # t f 

n BHiIhgraph^. 

fMio^ ..." ••• . . ' 

droK lA MifolM du TtLvS, timdultes en f rancots/ 2 vols, wood 
cuts, finecopy^ nilcd« Paris^ Venird, sans date. ^/, 17«. $£/«. 

Oferlaet, One Hundred and Twentj-five admirable Drawings ia 
ttn and Ink, bjr Overbet. ot Autwerp. They consist either of 
Cqiies or Ifititatioils ApqAi Tarious Masters, and are drawn witb 
tetv great spirit and accjiiracy, bound in tuasia^ 1705, l^^GJ. 
9^. i8«. PggfU. 

Ondii MetamorplinMoa .libii QivndecijD, very fine copy, in red 
mofoceo, ' of this eatfenely rare and beautiful inpression of Ihe 
M^MiorphdseB of Ovid/ See Bibfioth. Spencer, v6l. 2, page 
. 204, sine uUa nota« aed circa 1472. 17'« 10s. Trwhdfck* 

^Vidio ttetbamorphoses Vulgare, wood cuts, splendidly bound inr 

£i^n morodcbf Venetia per 2oane Rosso, 1497* 5/. 15$. 6d. 

O^ide. Ia Bible; des Poetes Bfetamdrphosee, wood cuts, Paris, Phi- 
lippe te Noir, 1525. 1/. 6#. Triph^k. 

PalJas, Flora Kossica jassn Catherine Secundae, ^ vols, in 1, colour- 

' 6d platesL ruisia; with joints, Petropdii, 1784. 61.6$. Sir S. 

Palisot-Beauvois, Flore d'Oware et de Benin ea AMque, toI. )» 
i^toured plates, nissia^ with joints, &c. Par. 1805. 51. Ss. 

Pftr/. tlife life df tbe Old, Old, very Old Pacr. A Maanscript, by 
Ireland, illustrated with Portiaits of Parr, and of the Kings and 

SUeenil {ft flrboiie Keign he lived. There are Portraits of Richard 
e third by Cross, of Queen Elizabetb by Marshall, and of 
^ Holi^rdfiarldf Surry^ by Hollar^ &c. boundin russia. H. I5f. 6tf, 

Parthenia, or the Maydenhead of the fifst Musicke that ^er was 
' bklnted for the Tlrgitidls, composed by Bfard, Bull, and Gibbons, 

liigraven 1>y William Hole, very rare, l6l 1. 2/. 8#. Perrjf. 
Pitss&igetf d'Oultte Mer faictz par les Praufois contre les Tuacqr 

et Mores oultre Marins, black letter, Michel le Koir, 1518* 

it t2*.6rf. tiiph^k. 
P^i^a^ Pitture Sceu^ e Dichiarate^ Very tine Impressions, %ith the 
^likfty df Mdre, faog-skin, withjointi^ Colonia, I69I.' 5'. 15«. 6d. 

tPliilifpairv IVMto M ^ Defence of tie nouontof the A^ 

Sk die; Murfu <toMi« of 8(Mliid» nM a Oechxutioii of tier 
t to the Crowneof England, verjr tai>e^ Venetian meroiSco, 
Leodii^ 1571 « ^. 15$. Bcnoett. 

Teofilo Folengi. Original Edinbi^ y^ raire, from Coh Stanlegr's 
C^lemmh bl^e .«^i»€;«o, /Vi!U<|;if^ 6)»q(0||o ,4<^ igjrfgQri^ lA9i^ 

Piinii Historia Naturalis, 3 vols. Elzew, isaj, — Pliaii E^i;|toi«» 
. Cb«v» ji^, 4.v^f ^plef)4^y 4KM»4iff>kf fi^^ (noxopca. i/*. lii«4 

Poggio» Facetie di» Hi;»tari^e, .refl lyioropcp, Ti^^iai^ 9i^n4iO|pi» 

Pompooios fiiela de Situ Orbis, Lugd. Bat. I*l4f^ ^ H. \09. Cfifh* 
. ran* . . • * ) 

tiures and aiinceaot Doiclors n, ))la^b(?pQ$i^ Bpok^y ^wiiyer 
ani^totW P»pists» Uack lelkf, yer; ra^i?^ bLM€ mpvpp^cu Q>P iWf 

Off jpteise. ^ 1Q«. C^chrm* . m . 

Pmi^f llie Pi^t^ of Coipnuu^ Ifjm^ wi A4nimistr^pkm <)f ^b« 

Sacramentes, black letter, rare, iu hhi^ m9rocc/9| i^ i£di^i R. 

The [PriiBser ajwi C0tec|u9f9e ** fttrtji s^ Ijagrgft yrjtfc ?ia*ny 

G«i^ Pray.^r9> biax^k )etteir> without date. T^ Efpiistles ai{4 

. QQipete of ^y^ry Sgnda)! itt tke yiwr^, ^x>Jin Aw4py^. Wi53i^ m 
1 «iol. hhfM morocco, with jpi^ts^ fare, if* $i^ fiodd* . 

Thp §ook of Cx)jnmQ» Prayei;, pl^tjes bjr ^rfc ?!? d f}io^p(^o» 

iiu]kd« Oxf^rd^ J 712. ;i/, Ua. 6ii. Cociv^. 

The Book of CPinman JPrayer, lar^c 3 w. in \Am^ 3f ^vet, 

3/, 18/. ^.J/^. , . .. , 

Tiie Book of Copmon Piftyer^ Jaty |U^^8^ ^q f.H^of 

wood cuts inserted, splendidly bound in yellow morocco, 1'802« 

1/. 16/. Johtkston, 

Propel Criminel fait a Pierre Qarnere dit la ^^ure, Paris^ lM9f 

. Ai;rest de la Ceui contre 5^an Cb^td, %,^p4.-r^tppvtr (Pnvi^t 

jeiiyers son PusceL, 1495^ in 1 Tolf red morocco. 2f. JMjfhook^ 


P^rkfi's Uistprie of tfie Gre^ and 1lH|{(lStie JEingdame^of tShinay 

translated !Vom tbeiSpanisfa^ bkdk letter, greea ino^focco^ 1^8. 

?/, 14#. IVardir. . 
Pasquit*! Pa8se> and j){^«|}) nciif; s^ ifm^t tn ^'^ ^^^•.Va<M» 

Precession and PrjOgnosticatipn^ by ^i<;licfbs Bfetop, ^ttm^mps' 

rocco, London, 160O. ;5f. '18f. Perry. 
Peacbai|i*« Minerva ;&1tanniu or ^Oardei^pf ffierdicall !PrfjbM 

funPHbed with l^robtemes In]ipre5$etf or sundry natures, -Cneteip 

pressions, green ^oropco«' Lpndpfi, I'ClS. dt. 5|. . IjtpaiHt. 
Peelers Love of King David and fair Bettnabe, wMfi tfa/Tf|^p;^dk 

ofBetbsdb^. 1599. 6l. I5t. 6rf. ,&rrw. ^ 

"^^bVdke ((!k)ubt^3t <ft), ^cofiie^f fife kpd CM(t(j^ )^ Vm^j, 

7J» milhgraph^. 

and Afitonist; i Tragedybj Gmter, Ikfih A>iirW QD|lhbv'W. 

Ponsonby, 1592. sl ' i^Mfrf. 
Perotii OiBBiiiuitiiA, Ay» MMfcm, &c. emu Teirtu loctod' Bstfii 

A9ceo8ii» bkck ktler^ very fcafee, Londini pef WynaBdofli de 

Worde^ Ult. 4/. AmW. 
Pesto; lUccelta degU Airtiefai Motumenti delb Cittl^ 4i;^4i Pottn- 
. io]p« jTii— J ct .fra Girgcnti Segole e SdimuKey maay pltM, blue 
^liuNrocoOy r fbomm; a. a. 1/. 15#. * CoUku. 
PJife^ii Fabahe DOtis Hodgstntaiii, large paper/ ptates, Aoist. 

iroi. IL BmrtUy. 
Piciee PHmmao, The Vision and Crede of, newlye tmprynted after 

the Aathour's Olde C<^y» fine eopy, i^reen momcco, exfNmely 

rare, London^ Owen lU^ers, 156l. .7/. Jtrtis. 
PSlgrymage of Perfeccyon v^ profytable for all Christen People 

to rede» with the Exposicyon of the Ave and the Creed, &c. 

black letter, curioils wobd'cuts, very rare, Wynkyn de Worde, 
' 1531. 5/. \0$. Longman. 
Pilkington's Tumament of Tdftenham, published by W. Bedwell, 

green morocco, with joints, l631. 4I* 5#. Booth, 
Plays.. The Shop-Maker's Holvday, or the Gentle Craft, a 
*" Comedy, I6l8. — Field's Amends for Ladies, a Comedie, l6l8.^- 

Chapman's May Day, a WiUy Comedie, i6ll.--^Cttpid'8 Whir* 

ligig, l6l6, 4 plays in one- vol. rus^sia. IS/. 12^, KndL 
Pogii Facetiamm Libri, a very rare edition, in mssia, Medaolani 

Scincseucetter, 1481. 4/. 14«. 6d. Triphook. 
Ponthus. Histoire de Ponthus, Fils du Roy de Galice et de la Belle 

Sidoyne, Filie de Boy de Bretagne, wood cuts, fine copy. Paris> 

Michel le Noir, saps date. 61.6$. JHphook, 

Folio. ■ 

Pefeefowst. La tr^s^legante« delicieiise ^t tr^s-plaisante Histoire 
. du tr^s noble Perceforest^ Roi de la Grande Bretagne, 6 vols, in 

S, black letter, fine copy, red morocco, Paris, Gourmont, 1551. 

i6i. 5s. 6d. Booth. 
Pereeval le Galloys,- Tr^s plaisante et recreative Histoire de, black 
' letter, fine copy, blue morocco, Paris, 1530. 18/. 18«. Trip- 

^hoobl * 

Pehvreha, le Sue Rime, t vols, splendidly bound in green mofocco, 

.,4Jtp. Parma^ Bodoni^ 1799. 61. M. Hay. 
Phebus des Deduitz de la Ch^se des Bestes Sauvaiges et des Oy- 
. . seaulx de Prove, wood cw^. Pans, J. Trepperel, sans date. — 
^, . l4;IJvi^ dui.jfloy Modus et de la Royne Racio, lequel fait men- 

kjA^. cpnimui^ ' on doit deviser de toutes mauieres de Chasses, 

curious wood cut?, rare, Chambery, Ant. Neyret, I486. 25/. 

Pbilclfi Sa^rae^ first edition, red morocco, ruled, Mediolaoi, 
ekmto^VaUarpher, 1476. 71 10$. Booth. 

Bwik, 1778* 5//7f. Srf. AoolAi 
Pilptfi Fftboltt. Hk €»t^ Jiber ParaMirun AatiqttornB Sapiifti-' 

' 4iiaB» ct vo^Mor Lil^r BelHe et Diinfie} et pm» quklemdii Lm^ 
gati fiierat Indorum traitslati]9» &c. wood cut^ fid^ ^PJ* splen- 
didly iNModki' fed motoeeor ^« «ttaii«^>-8cd eirca 14S0. 
A book Qf very gveal raiity and ottriostty. Faitoef awLSantiiR* 
der only mentioo oAe Latin edition of tliese ceMMHted Sables la 
tbe Fiflt«eiilli Century. 9ee Panaer Vok IV. p. l06,wadS»i! 

> tander. Vol. II. p. 376. 21/. 10«. 6d. TripMt. 
Pilpay (avokMi o £K«mplario contfa k>s £agaiiiioa'y'Peligr^8 dd* 
Mttiido, traotferido en ntiestra Lengiia CasteHaoa,- ivwd cvHb,^ 
tine copy^ very rare, Empretrtado en k Ciwdad da Saiago^ de 
AragOD, 1531. 1^/. 19^ Tripkook. 


Octavo et Jnfra^ . 

Propertii Carolina, recenstiit, illustravit, Kuinoel, 2 vols, hrge 
paper, blue morocco, with joints, extremely rare, Lipsia;, 1805. 
8/. 10<. 6d. Knell. 

Protestant's Vade Mecum, or Popery displayed in its proper colours 
in thirty Enofblems, fine impresnons, redm<>rocco, l680. 3/. lOt. 

Prudentii Carmina Heinsir, uncat, green morocco. Attist. Eltev. 
l€&r. 4/. Arch. ' 

Psalmi Davidis, Latiae, in rich binding in morocco, with morocco 
lining, ruled. Rob. Stepb. 1556. l/. Heber. 

Psatmes of David, after the Translation of the Great Bible, black 
letter, in blue morocco, 1553. 2/. 12«. 6d. Cochran. 

Psalmes of David, in lour Languages, blae morocco, 1643. li. lU, 

Pseaume 118, Heures Canonialea contenoes dans le. The bind- 
ing is worked on blue and yellow beads, with the words Quvrage 
de Marguerite Genevieve de la Briife»Comtesse de Cboiseul, mt 
par Elle le l Mars,' 1758. ill lis. 6d. Driphook. 

Ptnolomens, The Compost of, Prince of Astronomye, black letter, 
wood cuts, russia, ruled. London, K* Wyer, no date. l/..l«. 

Puteani Bruma, sive de Laudibus Hiemis, plates by Sadeler^ white 
morocco, Monaci, 1619. 2/. I9i. Clarke. 

Quadriga ^terhitatis sive Uoiversi' Generis Humam Meta, plates 
by Sadeler, fine impressions, re4 morocco, Monaciio l6l9» 
Zl.lSs.6d. Clarke. ,j 

Quarles's Emblemes, first edition, portrait and plates by IVkurahlU 

' and Simpson, russia, 1635. il.^S*, Sedg^f^i^^* '^'^ 

Rabelais, Les CEuvrea de» 2 vols.' Amst. £isev.|^v4^V jU^.ttM^ 

74 ng4ltAsi«A^^ 

de la pliipart des Lecteon» mwc de* Natr^ ^c A iwb. ^rara 

Babflaif, La PUmnte •! Joyeme Hiflo>}« dn ynd Gtaa^- <6t> 
9Mtii% ¥fdMc«« 1^47. ScjBflnd ct Deff» limde P«itii§Hiel» 
1547* ift I v«i« vo«de«U, fedoHNPoecok lli li«. fimik. 

BihihM, Lts SMg9 PwlmifatiT 4« Vwmti^pa^ m 190 plctea^ isrj 

BabeU^ Les Horrttfes Fiu«4ii ^ FiweMw de Puili^nirl ffu AU 

Shanbk», Uae v«rac€o, lS6a 8/. lUd4* 
9«aduif S«haal Pa««M> Odt^ &c« mi ai«roca«» i.9(Hk liL ld«. 

Recoeil de tootes Chroaiqiies et Hystoires depuis le Comsence- 

mart du Monde jas^uTan TaasfB Vna^i^ bteck letter, blue bo- 

rocooy AoTen, par Martin TEmpereur, 1534. 2i. 3s* • Jrck. 
Recucil des Faoeties, contcoaiit ie Bhnoa dcs Barbes de awinie- 

oaai. Im Ckoleie de Mathmine. La Moustecbe de» FHoas ar- 

iadie« Let E«pices. Left Proooetkatioii^ de Boupirux-r-Fas- 

qoia de Coar— oa Promeaade da Fre aoxClescs — La Cavafade 

de I'Aiite-Cbnat, 19 1 toL 1/. 12«* Jrck, 
Becaafl de la Diversity de9 Habits qui sont de preseat ea Usage es 

Pays d'Eorope, Ade, Afirique, &c. 61 plates» printed in. the eur- 

si?e letter, Paris, Breton, 1662. 3L iQc Hcter. 
Becueil de tout Soolas et Pbusir et Paragon de Poesie, jed OMiroc- 

CO, PteiB^ 1563. IL 7$. ibtcn 
R^;nier, Les Fortunes et Advecsitez de feu wble hoainie Jebfuif 

Mackietter, caiioiis wood-cuts, wdiAQiocco, £ae cep)l» ^try 

scarce, 1526. 5L 19$. Ckarlu. 
Belr» Memoires du CardintJ de» et de JMi, 7 vols* gnBenmocooco* 

by Derome, fine copy, AmsL 1731. 5/. Jjepard* 
Biccoboni, CEuvres Complettes de, 8 vols, blue mainpccou pbUeSt 

17PQ. 41, lU. Triphogk. 
Bine Scelti di diversi Autori di nuoi^p oocretti e rUtaffipate, 2 vols. 

beautilttl csjpy in very ricb old bipdimg in monieco, fleaiNde-lis^» 

jMled i JftyMn CoL SUuiley ft eoDaetjonu Yeoetia, Giotit^ l^8&. 

ZL ^. TripiooL 
fiobinson. Handfull of Pleasant. Deiites, containing New Sonnets 

and debctablfr Uisteiies jm divers jEindes of Meetenw Iw Cil»ii»t 

Robinson, and divers olbers. 1584. 

Tbis is presumed to be tbe only per(ept copy of a \txy ootor- 

esdng collection of Old Poetry) wbicb ac^ires additional inMter- 

est ftom the allasion made to the First Feem in tbe cellec* 

tionu i>f the frantic Qphdia when Btseving Uie Howcia ia Iubt 

phrensy: '^TbenTs Koieaiafy, Unit's for remembraiice;^ dc. 

&e UanOfC, Act IT. Scene y . Cfir.l5f.6tf. P^rrg. 

Qmmrt0. " ' 

r « 

Porters Pleaftnt J1klori« of tbe Two Auf rie Womeft of Akil«jfc^> 
scarce, 1599* 9'* 9«- JtrvU. 

Prajer Book, Queen £iuabeth's Book of Cbristian Prayers, ^v^Mxi* 
cut bovdars^ bkie luorocco, with joiols, 1590. nL 1 5s. 6d. 

Prayei;, TUe Book'of\CoiiuEKio«, by Stuct, large papier, pbte;!, red 

' nuM-occo, ruled, 1717. 12/. Cochran. 

P)rayec9, Tbe Posie of f tpwced, disposed in fburme of tbe Alpl^a- 
bel of the Queene ber mo&t exceUeiU Majesties oaine,^ ulaid in 
4to. blue morocco, London, Wykes. 31, 15$. Tr^fkook. 

Pfiai«r (Queen Mary's) in £n|^she and Latin, set out along after 

. tbe Use of Sarum^ wood cuts, blue morocco, very rare, Kyng- 
stoii aud Sutton, 1577' 3/. I3s. €4. Cochran. 

BnltefiuHi, Giaece, liue copy, red. moroocOy Venet. in £dibua 

. Aldi, sine anno. Ul* 14s. Pa^nc. 

Purgatorye* Here begynnetb a )y tell boke^ that speketh of Purga- 
torye, and what Puigatorye is» and in what place and of tbe pay* 
nes tfaat be tberin^ &c. in ven^, very rare, €ao co|iy, blue mo- 
rocco, iniprynted by Robert Wyer, no date. 14/. «/ejrni«. 

Pnttenbaoi's Arte of English Poesie, in throe Bookes : tbe first of 

; Poets and Poesie, (be second of Proportion, |he third of Oroa- 
tnenV first edition, rare, in rnssia. Loudon, Field| 1539- ^* 5$* 

Quintiliam Opera cum NoCis JBurmanni, B vols, large paper, ruMia, 
with joints, Lugd. Bat. 17^. (i/. 6s« Mllkr. 

Rappis^iMntasione &kcre.-^ Coiiection of Ninety-eight early Ita- 
lian Mysteries many of them with wood cuts, 2 vols. voUiim, 
extremely rare. 12/. 15s. Triphook. 

Segnault, Disconrs du Voyage d'Outre Mer an Sainct Sepi^cbie 
de JeruMiiem, wood cuts, fine copy, ruled> Lyon, %51^ 1/* 15$. 

Rwnalmi, BUesensis, Specimen Hastori« Phmtarum, outa, Paris, 
, \6lU ZLo§, Lepard. 

Banvenement de la Morale Cliritieane par Jbs Deiordres do J^o* 

. * siaoWsme^ plates by Hemsklrk^ blue morocco^ sana date* $i\ 5f. 

Ripa's IcoDologia, or Moml tlmbloms, illustrated b^ Thiae i}4in- 
' diwd Md^^#«B|ty<s|x iplates, blue morocco, mtli joints. IfOf • 
4/. Ss. JIf. £%« . 

J • 


Planti A Collection of Porty-«vc Plants, painted with ex- 

, quisite de)ici|cy on VeUitm, by A. Lee, 1772. Tbfe name is 
' ' dfixed to each fonre, mounted on drawing paper, with ti bord^ 
to every page, mm llie Eatl of Bute's €dlcption. lof. 10s. 

74 muf^gt^ip^ 

Plants*— A Collection of Forty-^Hi ' vm large Drawings.' ojCMa^ls, 

. bv J. Millar. The subjectit were coljected by. Captain. .^Hfii* 

^'»Millery of the Alert, wbo, by order of Sir Robert Harlanti^j^fiiH 

^eyed the coasts of the Island of Ceylon*. These Plants 91^ 

>eiy beaotifuUy painted on velluin» mounted on fiae dirawing' 

paper, with borders ^ to the pages* from the Earl of Bute's JiA* 

brary. UL Clarke. ^ .. . ., , * . 

A. Collection of Forty-eight Drawings of PiaQts, op i^Uum, 

>» »ii 

' b^r Taylor, with the name to each» drawn and painted with ad- 
> mirabkdelicacy of finish and beauty of colourii^,. mounted on 
^* diwwing paper, and splendidly bound in' red mor^co, £com the 
Earl of Bute's Library. 23/. Trifkook. 

A volume centaiuiog Six4y*twoDnwii|gsof .Plants of tlie 

»% ■ 'Wk' 

Genus Pinus^ by Francis Bauer, the greater ipart very highly and 
lieautifully coloured. AQl. Is. JU. Staml^.- 

A Portfolio containing Forty-two mos^^guisite and deli- 

cately coloured Drawings, copied by Artists engaged expressly 
for the purpose from the rarest and 'most beauti^l Plants in the 
Botanic Garden at White Knights. Q,sU ^, CL Scott. . 

Another Collection consisting of Fift^y-eight Drawings of a 

smaller sise. l6/. Cochran. 

A volume containing Eight most exquisite and highly finish- 

' ed Drawings of Plants, upon vellum, With a border of gold round 
each page, bound in russia, with joints. 51. 18«. Triphook. 

A Hortus Siccus, in seven volumes, containing above Nine Hundred 

i Specimens of Grasses, &c. with their Latin and English names, 
and an Index to each volume. 11/. 11#. TViphook. 

A volume containing Fifty-nine colourM 'Drawings of Flowers and 
f'ruits, with two portraits of Mandarins, !h old morocco bhiding 
in com^rtments. 7/. Triphook. - . . • ^ 

A Collection of Three hundred and tbirty-twd most delicate and 
beautiftd Chinese Paintings, mounted' on fine drawiflj[ P^^SK^y 
and elegantly bound in four volumes, in rus#ia, with joints. 
The. first volume has eight drawings of the various stagc% of the 
Silk-worm, Fruits of China, and figures of their Btrd^, splendidly 
coloured, and concludes with six painting of Chinese Vessels. 
The second volume contains the Insects of China, . wiCh the dif- 
ferent leaves and flowers on which they feed, and the HiM and 
fourth, Chinese Flowers. I40l. Payne. ' - 

A Collection of Eighteen very beatttffblly cbhnlVed 'Drawings f4 
, Plants, upon vellum, by John Bolton, of Halifax, in a pdttlbHoj 
1794. 91 9s. Triphook. 

Pluvinel, Instj^uction du Roy en fExercice de Monter ^ Cheval, 
Frao^oiM et AUemand, plates after Pass, by Meri^n. very fine 
impresidons. Francf. 1628: 3/. 3«. Triphook. * ' . 

Poliudo. Historia del Ibvencible Cavallero Dob i^olin^b y de las 
Pdaravilio:^a& Fazannas v Estrannas Ayeb'turiu uu^'andaudo pdr 

ISW$: 37/. lQt< ift(0n^ - 
Fc^ipliiH iiypnerotowaQhia, plutei, green nBoraeco. V^nel^/Aldit 

14». 4/. 10*. P«yfie. 
Polipbile, Discours da S^Hige de> plates, gietoa imnnmioo* FlariSy 

KenF«r, 1554. SL 17«« Roger$. 
PolychroiiicoQ ab R. Higden. A Latin Manuscript of the Fonr- 

leenth Century, upon ^luni« " It iinitbes at the year 1352, but 

the copy froni which Caxton ptint^d was coatitnied !• the yedr 

1957 ; Rooi Ibis addition to the history, we' may pMsnne tiiat 
. (bis Manuscript v(«s the first copy whicb R. H^eaf Mhiliited 

of his work/' See Ms. Note by Bryant. GL 6$. DrifhmOt. 

-p<fw in irhiche book beta comprised briefly many woMilef- 

ful historyeei, Q vols, fine copy, splendidly bound in green nio- 
tuccb, with ittdmeco lining* Fydsshed, per Caxton, lA%i. 
94/. I0s» Pi^lH* 


Octmfoei, Infra. 

■ '. 
Roman de Ja Rose avec des Notes, 4 vol. blue morocco, with joints. 

Paris, 1735. 2/. Johnston, 

Rome — ^The Hystorie of the Seaven Wise Maisters of Rome, black 

letter, wood cuts, blue morocco. T. Purfoot, l6S3. 4/. Trip' 

• nooki 

Komyshe Fox. The Huntyng and Fynding out of the' Romyslic 

Fox, which more than seyen yeares hath oene hyd among the 

ftishoppes of England, &c. black letter, very rare, blue moroc<;o. 

' Imprynted at Basyll, 1543. 2/. 6s. Heher. 

Rpy. — Rede nie, and be nott wrothe. 

For I say no thynge but trothe, 

. First edition, blue morocco, very rare, no date. 14/. Road. 

Riy.— The Bote. . . . .^ 

Reade me, frynde, and be not wrothe, ^ ." 

'.. , Fojr I saye notjiynge but the trothe.. 

Second edition, red. morocco, very rare. Printed at Wesel^ in 

;. the veare of oiir Lorde 1546.* ' 1§/. Triphpok. 

Saavedfra. El Peregrino Indianoy par Antonio de Saavedra Guz- 

• man, yellow morocco, with joints. Madrid, 1599* ^^« 18f. 


Sackyille Lord ((uckbursCs Trasedie o^ Ferrex and Porrex, black 

, letter, rare, red morocco. John Daye» 1571. 13/.* Heher, 

Sagard, ie Grand Voyage du Pays des Hurons, avec un t)iction- 

^ naire dc la Langue Huronne|jaiorocco, very rare. From th« 

j,:StanIey Collection, No. 1112.Tans, l632. 87. 18«. M. Arch. 

&ige (Le) Histoire de Gil Bias de Sadtillane, large paper, proof 

plates before the letter. Paris, 1795. %L 8«. Etam. 

Paris, 1631. A Manuscript with 199 eoibund^r»wki«««if '«Aott 

?' rotaqui: Ftgitved^, in ftw «iaiiii«r of tiie SoftgiM 'Dr^lal^iqjiil^lf ^ 
'aDtagruel, with some verses of lotruduoliMi. ^e Ms. lmt% at 
tbt begiattiugi rad -aioioeoo. Id/. ISt. 

^ . . . , . > • 

<IUpay Csbsar. Uiatoriw et A'llegMai praj^ctte^t'dfaigiiatflr «b SIch- 
1 ler, iovente ab Hettt\, in t«n piiris, w^trj fine inspresiions of the 
1 pkktea^ splendidly l»oiittd, red hiotoot^, with jaiidts. AsgUst. 

.Visdcl. s. a. 4l. 4«. Aikn. 
H iha rt Im Dioble, La Vie de, bkidi lett«t, vid aiwoeco^. • Mian 

HuNmf, sBftB date. 62. 1<^. TV^/unxI:. 
Robin the DiveU« The Famous, TfUe, aardliialoricaUiiifeor 

Robert, Second Duke of Normandy, surnanstd R^bin tbebivelU 

interspersed with iroetry, extremely rare. Busbie, \59i. 14/. 

HtbtTm I 

Rollenbagii Nucleus Emblematum Selectissimorum, 2 vols, fine im*' 
pressions, blue nioroccoy e Milseo' Crispiani Passaei, Ultraj. 
1645. 41. 6t. Triphoak. 

Romee, Historiae Septem Saplentium, a yery ancient edition, with- 
out date, place^ or printci^ fine copy, r^d morocco. 102, 15«. 

' THphook. 

Aowland^s Famous History of Guy £arle of Warwick, in verse, 
ruftsia^ with joints. l6'67» 7l.l7s*6d, Frwling. - 

Russell. Propositio Claxissimi Oratorts Magistrl Jolianais Russell, 
dccretoTum doctoris ac adtunc Ambassiatoris Christianiftsimi 
Regis Edwafdi dei gracia Regis Auglie et Francie, ad tiiustrissi- 
mum principem Karotum ducem Burgundie super suffceptione 
Ordinis'Garterii etc. Without Printer's name, date, or place, bat 
^inted by Caxton in 1469 or 1470. 126/. IHbiin. 

Tlie only Copy kno\%n of a Tract of the very first curiosity 
and importance to Collectors of early English printing. The 
Duke of Burgundy, to whom this epistle is addressed, was creat* 
ed a Kniglit of the Garter in 1469; consequently this Oration 
was printed either in that year or in 1470« It is therefore not 
only unique, but is the iirst specimen of the prfss of Caxton. 
Bound up in morocco, Vvith a MS. partly on yelLum itnd partly 
on paper ; ^or the contents of which see the Kew Editioii^ of 
Ames, vol. 1. p. 14. 

Salsmannus. Liber Genesis 2tvw formis a Cr. Faissaeo expressus 
versib usque t^m Latinis quam Germanicis ornatus per G. Sols* 
mauum, russia. Aruhcimii, 4616'. 2K l^s, Gd.-^ Hikf^crL 

$ahwood, a Coniparyson bytwene IV byrde^; thu L^kc, the Nyght- 
yngale, the Thrusshe and . the Cucko, for theyr s^ngynge who 
slitodld'be chauntoure of' the quere, .bl^pk fetjti^i:, ruasiai ex* 
tremeiy rare. '7ohh Mychel, no date. ti6U 12«. Evami 

%mnA$ ^mmAykm^ffm^m of tte uwr •f «lM Rtipi«r ftiiA thtggti, 
^^^M UoMr 9mA hammMe qtrnmh, «Md cuM, taf«. Mm *W«tle, 

fiiiiii<il Vent Hiitoriii AdnnMHitltf cil|i»J4nAi> Kattgttimni in 
Ameckflm* ptelt*; tei ttoro«€o« Nofiteif|ii, 1599^. 4f.;4«. 

SMltend^ Ti» CMBplaynt of^ wrilMi 4it 1 94a, fiMi a PrclHoiiiary 
Dissertation and Qlossarj, MKsia, wtfl» jMMs* £diiiiMir|;li, 1 dO I. 

-Vrayer, The Booke of tde Cotnulofi Pratef and Adminbtracigo of 

tire SlieniBireiites, Mack IcfHer; rar^. Wlfitchurche, 154^. '.6/. 

*Kliyer, Tlie lo6k tif Coimroii Fraycr and Administration of the 
Sacraments, frontispiece, by Loggan, large paper, very fine copy, 
in bltt^ tttor^eo Vitfc jtfmts. l66^. 5f. 7*. 6rf. Cothran. 

PireiMi, Le Tfiomphe d^ Necrf Frenx, avec PHystoire de Bertram 
de Guesclin, wood cuts, fine copy, red morocco. Micbel le 
Nok, 1«07. m. Si. tmberL 

Prinaleev, Loa *!IVes Ltbros del mny effbr^ddp Cavatli-ro ^rima- 
kon (de Greeia) etPo^mfos sn hermano, bijbs del fimperador 
t^diteerilr de- ORi(1a, trood cuts, fine copy, blUe morocco, Tery 
nme, from Col. Stanley's Collection, venez. Nicoddi de Sa)>io» 
1534. 901. HtMrrf.' 
Prints. A Collection of Three Hundred and Forty-two Portraits, 
some of Eminent Characters, but pritnnpalty of Highwaymen, 
Impostors, Gypsies, Criminals, Conspirators, Persons tried for 
Treason, &e. with some original Drawings, in one very large 

Vankerfun -Latine,' a Manvscript of the Fifteenth Century, npon 
' Telloia,' wiah Ike kiilial Letlavs splendMly ilkuttinated, bound in 

ved moidcco. &L lOvv nipkcok. 
'Ptalteriuni QMmcupIeK, Una moroeto, ruled* Genu%, Portus, 

UlSw 3ii 69L^ Eaam. 
Pylgremage of the Sowle, which book is fkil of devoute Ufateres 
> i inc hyrig iKd Sowle, witk nan^ songs and poem^ attril^ed to 

Ly<dgate^- 4utt co|iy, but wanting the last leaf, extremely rare. 

; i^alan, ' 14d8i-^Heiia •beg^nneth a lityH freatiae shorte and 

' abindged spekynge of Ike Aite and Ctafte toknowe well to dye. 

W. Caxton, 1490. Very fine copy of a Tract (rf excessive rarity, 

M % voU NMsia. lAiiL 5k. oUifn. 
Qttatriregio del Decursu della Vita Humana di Fred. Frezzi (Ni« 

cdln-^MttJ^Ngli) in rimn> iam copy, bkrek niorocco, mre. Milano, 

. Antonio ZatottOy 1^88. 4/. pa. Tr^ph^ok. 
.SaaK di Ftnaa^aii Go^aeneado da Coostautiso Imperatnre sccondo 

nolto Lea<^ii^.c4ie im boaMrof^miee mnoheinsienK. ilLo^ 6d. 


80 BtUhgrapky. 

|UiBi«ril4ei HkmuM TriNBBiifei par tMvt k V m tm ^ #ood ct 
;.WMe..«arocpo» lavt* Pam, V«aird, md* dale. 9^ I5a. 7r 

Ac|DauU de Moiitaiibaii» Cy 6mai mtoire dia Noble et VaiUi 

Chevalier Regvauk de Montauban, saas date. . SSL l«. i 

A veiy ancMot editioii with wood cuts and lisgalar Capi 

Letters, fine copy, ved morocco^ e&tremely rare. 
Bedoot^, Les Liltac^es, 5 vols, ooloored plates, aptendidly Jbound 

russia. Paris* 1802, &c. 80/. Sir S. CUrke. 
Romans, Recueti des Romans des Chevaliers de la Table Rondc, 

savoir Le $an*6raal. Merlin, et Lancelot du Lac. A yery val 

able Manuscript upon velium, containing more than Sev< 

Hundred Miniatures, iUnminated in gold aiid colours, irom tj 

Roxburghe Library. See the Catalc^e No; 60939 S vob. n 

morocco. 100/. Tripkook, 
Rousseau, La Botanique, par Redout^, Tellum paper, plates beani 

fully coloured, spkadidly bound in ruasia. Paris, 1 805. 11/. 1 1 

Ruix et Pav6n» Prodromus et Novarum Generum Flantarum Pen 

vianarum et Chilensium Descriptiones et Icones, 3 vols, russi 

Madrid, 1794-8. 9/. 19«. 6d. Loddigto. 
Royal Book, or a Book for a Kyng, reduced out of Frensshe int 

Eoglyssbe by Caxton and fyoyssbed* A perfect eopy in russia 
^ with wood cuts. 1484. 73l> 10s. tiibheri. 

• » ' * 

Octavo et Infra. 

Scottes. Ad exhortacion to the Scottes, to coofonne them sehrc 
to the hoaomble expedient and Godly Union hetwene* the two 
realmes of EoglaQdeand Sootlande. R. GniHoo, * 154(7. A 
Epistle or exhortation sent from the Lord Pvdteetiir to the Nobi 
litie, &c. of ScQtlande. R. Grafton/ 154d. 2 vob. ml, blacl 
letter, fine copies, morocco, from the Roxburghe CoUection 
¥eryrare. 21/. lOs. JViphbok. 

Sea-Man's Triumph, declaring the actions of sneh GentlemeBOap 
taines and Sailers as were at the takinge of the great Carrick 
lately brought to Dartmouth, with the UMumer oi^etr ^ht, an< 
names of men of accompt,'bUiok leHer; very rare, rid morocco 
London, 1592. 5/. 10^. Paynt. 

Senecae Opera Omnia, 4. vols, red morocco, nded. Ebevir 
1640. 2LlU.6d. Triphook. 

Sepulireda, Romances NuevKmente saoados de Historias Aatiguai 

de la Cronica de Espaiia compuestos por Lore9CO de Sepulveda 
aniiadiose el Romance de la Conqohrta &t !a ciudad de Africa ei 
Berveria, y otros di^^ersoe, bhie morocee, morocco inside, rare 
Anvers, 1580. 12/. 18s. Hare^ 

Silmi da ^v»rios , RomatD^eil eiL qite estio mopi^dos ^ AMif |M^ ^PPM^^ 

«il«'lo8 Romances Ci^teUano» que faasta agofit.te ban compiiriprlo. 

Hay al-fin iilgunas cariciones y coplas graciosas y setatidas, \^fOM 

morocca, very rare, Carag^opa, l^^Ck 17//5i. Htier, ■> 

Skeboii's Pithy, Pleasaunt, and Profitable Works, rossia, Loodf^n, 
1736. 2/. Triphodk. 

Sneyders Araorts Divini et Hnmani Eflfectos varii.eqibleniatis sacne 
acripfurae saiicterumque P. P. Seotj^ntiis ac Gallicit YersHji^t:il- 
tnstrati, Anno, l6^. The plates' (56 in Dumlier) printed Qpon 
vellum, and beautifitUy coloured by ^neyders liimself, Tbfl 
Latin and French verses, &c. in manusi^ript upon v^Uuip, bound 
in green morocco, ap unique copy. ' ViL Ppyne, 

Stalbridge*s Epistel Exhortatorye of |ui Inglysbe ChristiaD Qfito 
his derely- beloved countrey of IdL'land, against the pompojuse 
popysb Bishops thereof, black letteri^ fine cvf^y, blue morpcooi 
rare, np date or place. 2/. 129. Cp(*kraM, 

Summe (The) of the Holy Scripture, and Ordinarye of the Cbff t^* 
dan teacbytng the true Christian Fayth, by the whiche we be all 
justified, black letter, blue morocco; with joints, 1548. If. 19^. 
Cochran. . ^ 

Supplication of the poore Commons, wherunto is added tfae.Si^p- 
plicaiipn of Beggars, black letter, blue morocco, fine copy, jio 
date. Vl 16*. Heber, 

Supplication that the Nobles and Commons of Osteryke made 
ktely by their Messaungers unto Kynge Ferdinandus iu the cause 
of the Christen Religion, black* letter, blue morocco, rare, bo 
date. 1/. I4t$. Cochran. 


Sevnt Kateryne^r Lyf and Martyrdom of, manuscript upon veUum, 

from the Towneley Library, blue morocco. 61. -Hibbert. 
Shakspeare's Merchant of Veuicie, 'l6d7. I/. 5#. Jervit. 

■ Love's Labours Lost, l631. ll. It. 7)iphooIs. 

King Richard the Second, 1598. 10/. Jervii. 

Henry the Fourth, Parti. 1599. 18/. 7s. 6d. JerHi. 

■ • ■ " Romeoand Juliet, inlaid, rare, 1599- 10/#10*. Jerpis. 

————— Romeo and Juliet, 1637. !/• M.May. • 

■ Pericles, red morocco, 1609. ^2i. 5s. Jervii. 

— . — : Sir John Oldcastle, red morocco, 1600. 5/. 58. Jervia. 

« •' ' — Sonnets, never before imprinted, inlaid, red moroclco, 

very rare, 1609. 37/. Jervis. 
Shepeherdes, The Kalendar of, wood cuts, imperfect, Wyftkyn 66 

Worde, 1528. l6l. iGs* Jervis. 
Sidney; Exequise Illustrisslmi Equitijs D. Philippi Sidnxi, Pcplus 

Ph. Sidnast, Oxon. 1587. 1*. 7*. Butler. 
Sight of the Transactions Qf these laUer yeare? .e^ibl^^miJEied.witl^ 

VOL. Xl^iL ^ CLJl. xNO.XLlIL F 


«iigfftven plftlaes; iMAwm may read witliout spectacles, c( 
' febtad lijr Jafaa: Vr(«r» blue morocco, ruled, I&47. ZL it 


drpwaa Joy, or a Lamentatbn of our late deceased Sovereigr 

-' Eittabeth, with a Triumpfa for the prosperous succession of 

graeious Kine James, &c. very fine copy, with portraits of £ 

zabeth and Khig James inserted, blue morocco, rare, Print 

by John Legat, Printer to the Univenitie of Cambridge, 160 

il If. Heber. 

Specalum Rellgiosorum et Speculum Christtanorum, a Manuscri 

; of the Fourteenth Century, upon velium, written by John W; 

son, contains several English Prayers in verse. See Watsoi 

History of Poetry, Vol. II. p. I94, blue morocco, with join 

4/. 5s. Hebtr. 

Spencer's Faerie 'Queene, Colin Clout's come .home again.—Coi 

plaints.— Tears af the Muses and other poems, in 2 vols. Fii 

Bdttiotta, fine copies, blue morocco, rare, 1590-9$. 2\L Jerv 

Strmt^erry Hill PuUicatiam. 

Grav's Odes, 1757* To Mr. Gray on his Odes« — Poems, by An 
Chamber, Countess Temple, 1764l<-- Verses sent to Lady Char 
Spencer, with a painted Taffety.— Poems, by the Rev. Mr. He 
land, 1769. — ^The Muse recalled, an Ode, by Sir W. Joiies. 
the Marriage of the present Earl Spencer, 1781. — Bishop Be 

' 'ner's Ghost, 1789.— Rules relative to Strawberry Hill.—' 
Lady Horatia Waldegrave, on the Death of the Duke of Anc; 
ten — ^The Press at Strawberry Hill, to the Duk^ of Clarence. 
The Press, to Miss Mary ana Miss Agnes Berry. — The Mag] 
and her Brood. — Epitaph on a Canary Bird. — Epitaph on a V 
^ ^an who sold Earthen Ware, manv of these being single leav 
are very scarce^ red morocco, with joints. 9'* 12s. Triphoi 

■$ivut Non, Voyage PjUoresque de Naples et de Sicile« 5 vols. pr< 
impressions of the plates, with the double plates of the Sicil 

. ,Coins, very fine copy, in red morocco, Paris, 1 7 81-86. 50/. 1 8s. i 

.Salade, laquelle fait mension de tous les Pays du Monde, wood ci: 
Michel le Noir, 1521. — La Grant Nef des Folz du Monde, wc 

. jcuts, scarce, Geofiry Marnef, 1494, in one vol. red moroc 

' $1:93. Hibbert. 

^ustie. La CoiyuiaciondeJDaialina y laGuerra de Jugurta, tra 
lated by the Infant Don Gabriel of Spain, with an Appendix, 
Bayer, on the Phoenician Coins. One of the copies of the f 
distribution, in red morocco. Madrid, 177^. 6/. l6s» < 


Scotland, the History and Chronicles of, the No 



Clerk Itfaister^ Hector Boece, ChaotiOD of Abodene* tnnslalit 
Jattly ID our vulgar and commou iangage, ba Maister. Joba. Bet- 
leodene, Archdene of Murray. .A boo)i. ofexIraordiBary ranty^ 
morocco. Impriated in Edinburgh Thomas Dayidaon, (about 
1536) 64/. 1$. Appltyard^ 

^bakcfipeare's Comedies, Hi^tories^ And Tragedies^ first edition^ 
morocco; 1623. 18/. 7f. 6cf. 4reh. 

■ ' " ■ ' ■-» — Comedies, Histories, &c. second impretsion^ moroc^ 
eo» 1632. &l 2t- 64. 4reh. 

1664. 14/. Ws. Atxh. 

-• third impressioDj morocco, 
* , -• 

- — — • -— fourth impression, moKQCCO^ 

J 685^ 4/. l6«. Arch. 
SAj¥i% (£neas) de Duobus Amaotibus Eurialo et Lucmtia et da 
Amoris Remedio. A very ancient edition in double icolumns, 
without signatures, numerals, or catch-words, red morocco, 
sine uila nota. 4/. 5f • Heber. 

• ft 


Octavo ct InJT€* 

Taciftos^x Lipsii aceuratissitna Editione, 2 vols, red moroceo, Else- 
vir, 1634. 1/. \$. Ciarke. 

Tacitus ex Lipsii editione cum Not. Grotii, 2 vols, red morocco, by 
Padeloup, Elzevir, l640. if, 11#. Clarke. 

Taciti quae extast Opera recensuit Lalfemand, 3 vols, red moroceo, 
Pariaks, 176O. 1/. ]3«. Sanell. 

Taiirtaria, Doi Itinerarii in Tartaria, per Alcuni Fratri mandati da 
Papa Innocentio IV. aella detta Provincia de Scitbiaper Ambas- 
ciatori, blue mojrocco, Venet. per N. daSabio, 1537* I3l» 10#« 

''This curious little volume js of rare occurrence. Mr. Crofts 
had wit^ten in his copy, ''Liber Baris^mus, quippe cujus apud 
Bib)iograpbos nuUibi fit roentb." But that accurate ItaJian 
scholar does not aippear td have been acquainted with the con- 
tents of the volume, or he would probably have stated, that it 
contained the first edition in Italian, of the Travels of Carpini, 
who !irent through Poland and Russia to Tartary in the year 
1247.'' Stanley Cat&ldgtte« 

TereotiijPoqioedie, per p.- Malleolum recognite, annotataeque,Furis, 
1409. 1/. 15s. Hebcr. 

Aliod Exemplar, 2 vols, large paper, blue morocco, ]75i* U' 6$f 

N. Testamentom (>raecum, 2 roU. morocco, R. Stcphaof, X$^9 
1/. Uf . 6d. NpHand. 

N. Testanieuttmi Graac^ et Latine, Erasmt^ yellow luoroccc, I^ug^ 
per Torow^ium, 1559. J/. 3#, Heber. 

B4 Bibliography^ 

. tN*:TeilBiinotlni'Or.y red morocco, Sedani, l6^S. iL^s. Cochran. 

H«.'nBtlaintiiliMiy Sf.^x legtis aUbque optiiiiis editumibus, 2 vols*. 

««d fliorocoo, Blsevir, l6S3. 1/. 14s. P^n£. 
•K^TestameiiUim^Orvcuiii cvn MiMttaire, large paper, ruled, red 

morocco* Tooson, 1714. 2/. 2s», Hibberi. 
,9%o New TestaiMOt both in Latin aod English after tbe vulgare 
t^xte, Hhich is red in the Cburche, traohiated by Myles Cover- 
4lafe, bitiR motocco, the two first leaves slightly injured. Parts,. 
Regnauh for Richard Grafton^ 1 538. 5/. 2$. 6d. Heber. 

i i ■ ' ' ■ • • — in EiMiKshe after the Oreeke Transbtion an- 

nexed wyth tbe Translation of Erasmus in Latin, bine morocco, 
LoMdini, 1550. 3/. 1#. Heber. 

The New Testament faithfully translated oat of Greke, and 
perused by the comniaunderoent of the kynges majeslie and hn 
honourable counsell and by the authorised, black letter, fine copy, 
bine morocco, R. Jugge, 1553. 4/. Cochrim. 

Thucydides, Gr. et Lat. ex Edit. Was^ii et Dukeri,.* 6 vols, large 
paper, yellow morocco, Edinbttrgi, 1804. 3/. 148. Driphook. 

Tracts. A complete Collectioo of all tbe Tracts, both printed and 
manuscript, concerning Mary Toft, the celebrated Rabbit Wo- 
man, collected by G. Steevens, Esq. with a Drawing of her por- 
trait ; to which has been added a curious original letter from Mr. 
Howard, the Accoucheur, to the Duke of Roxburghe, then Secre- 
tary of State, detailing the whole circumstances of the case, 
russia. From the Roxburghe Collection. 12/. 12«. Evans. 
. .Treatise (A) shewmg^ that Pictures and other Ymages which were 
Wont to be -Worshipped are in no wise to be suflered in the Tem* 
pies or Churches of Christen Men, black letter, fine copy^ blue 
< morocco. Printed for W. Marshall. 2/. Cochran. 


'Taciti (CComeiii) Opera, recognovit, emendavit, snpplimentis ex- 
plevit, notis, dissertationibus, Tabulis Geogra^hicis iHustravit, 
Brotier, 4 vols, large paper, red morocco, with joints, F'arisiis, 
1771. 36/. 15*. Papne. 

Tcstafment (The New), both Latine and Englyshe, faythftilfy trans- 
lated by Myles Coverdale, fine copy, blue morocco, with joints, 
rare, Southw. by J. Nicolson, 1538. 5l. \Ss. Cochran. 

translated out of the Greke, with the Notes and 

«' Expositions of the darke places, wood cuts, Richard Jugge. 
6L l6». 6d. Hibberi. 

"Tlieatrum Orudelitatum Haereticorum nostri Temporis aVerstegan, 
. fine impression^, red morocco. Antverpiae. 1 o92» ^l 38. Cochran. 

•Thotdynary of Cryst^in Men; very fine copy, wood cuts, 1*ussia, 
extremely rare, Wynkyn de Worde^ 15Qo. 18/. iSi. Hibbert. 

'^irante il Bianco Talorosbsimo Cavaliere^ beautiful copy, in oki 
stamped binding, Vineg. Sessa, 1538» 7/. 79. -Clarke. ' 

FolU* . - • • • 

Sjteculain HuraaiHe SakatioBid, one of tJie jeadkNi Spulmtm. ^ 
Printingfrom Wood Bloek9,bloemoroeeos with.the«ittts«ii0i^^ 
- ed, from the Merly Library, A&h IV^A«db. 

Table Roode. Ce sent les Noiiijb» Aniie» et Blaiona^Left Cheifftlitn 
et Compaigaons de la Tab)^ R<H>de aa Tieflips. qo« Us JuntfCDt 
la Queste dii Sainct Gr^al a Camaloth le Jiour de In Penteoo^ 
red morocco, from the Koxburghe Library. A manuscript opoa 
vellum, with the arms richly embtftzoned. The writer conchides^ 

• tbns: — ** Ay cefchc et oonjcneitir lesNomsei Arme» diea^bc- 
valiers tant ou Livre de Maistre Belye, Maistre Robelt de Bar- 
ron, Maistre Ganltier Mdab le Breiqne de Maistre Rusticten de 
Pise qui en parlent en leurs Li^^res/' ^L 18«. 64; Pa^t^ttf 


Octavo et Infra. 

Yarthema, Itinerario de, nella Arabia deserta e felice i^ella Vtp^n, 

jiella India e nella. Ethiopia, e&GesMvely rare, blue . morcHW^ 
. Rome, pc^r Guillirett, 1517. 18/. 7$, 6d. Payne. 

The first edition of these Trayeb mentioiKd by Haym, is priyit* 

ed at Venice, io 1 5 1 S. 
Vavassore, Opera nova laquale tratta de le figuine del Testanaeiito ^ 

Veeebio e. Nuovo, black letter, with very curious and spirited 
. wood cuts, blue morocco, ^c. Venegia, senza anno. 2L 199» 

yirgiUi Opera, best Aldine Edition, laige paper, red morocco, ^ 

wanting the four leaves containing the errata ^ date, Venetpis. 

Aldi, 15H. 2L 2s, Triphook, 
Virgilii 0pei9 ex.recens. Phillippe, 3 vols, plates, red morocco, 

Lutet. Paris, 1745. 1/. 13*. Warner. 
Virgilii Opera cum Figuris a Sandby, 2 vols, royal Svo. large papci^, 

• blue morocco, ib., 1750. \L 10*. Burreit. 

Virgilii Opera ex Antiquis Monimentis lUustrata a Justice, 5 vob* 
plates, red morocco, sine anno. 21. 2s. M. Hay.. 

Virgilii Opera ex recensione et cum notis Heyfte, 6 vols, best edJ* 
tion, plates, eleii^antly bound in blue morocco, with joiatft 
Lipsiae, 1800. sil- 12*. Payne J 

Virgiie, LEneidede, tranblatee de Latin en Fninf ois, par L«mi»dcs 

• Masures, wood cuts, blue morocco, ruled. Lion, Tournei^ ' 
' 156*0. 1/. \08. Triphook, 

Tirgilius, I he Life and Deatli of, reprinted by Mr. Uttefson, only 

50 copien printed, blue morocco, 1 8 1 2. 2/. \6s. Tripkook. 

Wal^e's Fugitive Pieces in verse and pro8e,'rcct morocco, with 

• jomts, Stmw berry Hill, 1758. 2t.2s. Darrani.\ ^ 

— -• Mysterious Mother, a Tragedy>TrHf vkotj^CcOf ib« IToS* 

, 61. l6s. 6d. Triphook. 

WdliMi'i Coniplnt Angler, p1ate», 1668. if. 2t. Tr^h^ok. 
WicUMfe'i Wicket &ythfully overaeene and eorrected iifter tli# 
- 4BrigiBatt and firste copte. — The Ph>testaclon of John Lassel» 
' tetd J iHUned in SniTtlifalde ; and the Testament of W. TiHeie 
expounded, bj W.TVndalland John Fry the^ — A Supplieation of 
tke PooreCommonay blaek letter, fine copies, bhie morocco, with 
'JMtttif np place nor date. 4/. 19#. Hiheir. 


Tiiall of Treasaiv^ a New and Merry Enterlude^ aewiy set foortb,^ 
. .and 9eTer before this time imprinted, black letter, red moroceo, 

very rare, Thomas Purfoote. 1567. 26/. 16$. 6d. Htber. y 
iVoye, Lea Gent Hystoires de, black letter, wood cuts, bine asoroc- 

co, Paris, par P. le Noir, 1522. 72- 17«. 6d. Booth. 
Tiirpin. Oronique et Histoire faite et compost, par Reverend 

Fere en Die'a Tnrpin, Archevesque de Reims, Tung des pairs de; 

France, black letter, blue morocco, Paris, par P. Vidove, 1527s 

8/.8#w Triphook. 
Tj^HsOccasionis in qntt receptse commoda, neglectse vero iBcam- 

moda, personato schemate proponuntur, fine impressions of ihe 

plates, russia, Antv^ise, l603, SL 19«- Ckrke. 
Vsenii, Q. Horatii Flacci Emblemata, blue morocco, Bruxelles, l6Bd, 

1/. 1^. Hayti, 
Mia Editioy 2 vols, mwocco, Floreotise, 1777» 2/. 5s. Jilsytiifr. 
Vakatln et Orsw. L'Histoire des Deux Noblea et VaiUanta Che- 
. valiera, blUck letter, Pbris, sans date. 3/, d«. Rodd. 
Vaierius (Johan) bom without arms. Prints exhibiting several of 

his performances, Mue morocco, with joiuti, S/. 13s. 6d. Booth: 
Talle.^ Les Apolognes et Fablea de Laurens Valle Transbitees de 

Latin en Francois, black letter, wood cuts, sans date. 2l. \Q,o, td* 

ITaicbi's Blasonof Jealousie, green morocco, with joints, 1613, 

5/. Triphook. 


llieseus de Cologne. Histoire du Noble Chevalier, two leaves, MS. 

red morocco, Paris, Ant. BonDemere,i534. 21. 28. Payne. 
Thucydidis, Historia, Gr, Latine, ex recens. Dukeri, russia, AuisteK 
r.a'A731. 62.12s. Poynt^ 

Toison d'Or, compost par Guillaume jadis Ev^sque de Touimay^ 
, auquel sont contenus les Magninimes Faict j; des Maisons de Fr^f , 
\ Bourgogne, &c. 2 vols, black letter, wood cuts, red morocco, 
•$ P^ris. Le Rouge, 1530. 3/» lis. 6d. , Booth. 
TomlThumb^ C<mipleat History of, 1729; 21; Hther. 
Tristan Fils du Noble Roy Meliadus et Chevalier de la Table RidiMie, 

^ vols, in 1, red morocco, extremely rare, Paris, Aot. Verard, 

sans date. 2lf. 10f»6iif. Heber. 
Troye« l^piitfi qne Odiei {a>I>eesse envoya k Hector avee Ccni^ 

ttistoiDes. wood cuts, Cm coot, Phil* PkspbaV «WS dat«. 
8/* ;0*. 6i. Trtphpok. 
VentenHty Jardin de la MalmaisoDy.with Ooe Hiindred and Twenty 

l^cautiiuUv coloured Plates, elegantly hound in ruNia, Pvii* 

1805*7. 23/. 29. THpkook. 
Vere*s (Sir Franci#) Cpmmentaries, publiabed by DiUingbamf large 

paper, 6ne impressions of the plates, rossia, rare» Ciimbridge» 

1657. 9/. 19$. 6d. Payne. ' 

Vkgille, Les (Euvres de, translatees de Latin en Francovs, blaek 

letter, rated, Paris, Galliot dtt Pre, 1529* U.U. Wpkook. 
Lea fineydes de, tranalates de Latin en Francois, par Oota^ 


. Tian de SainctGelais revues et cottes par Jehan Divry, black 
letter, fiue eopy, moi^cooi rare, Paris» pour Antoine Verard, 
1509. 4l. Triphook. 

▼yrgyles Eiieydos. Here fynysheth the bokeof £neydos, coai* 
pyled by Vyrgyle whiche hathe be translated outeof latyne into 
firenshe, and oute of frenshe reduced into Englysshe by me 
Wyllim Caxton the XXIIdaye of Juyn, the yere of our Lorde 

. 14^, a very fine and perfect copy^ extremely rare, nissia. S8I. <4f« 
Evaik9. ' 

yisconti, II Museo Pio Clementino, 6 vols, plates, Roma, 178S-99. 
^41. Zi. Biaquur. 

Vitas Patrum. The Lives of holy Faders lyvyngein deserte, trans^ 
lated out of Frenssbe in to Englysshe by Wyllyam Caxton of 
Westmynfitre late deed, and fynysshed it at the laste daye of bia 
lyff, wood cuts, blue morocco, fine and perfect copy, very rare» 
Wynkyn de Worde, 1495. 33iL 11«. Payne. 

«^This is one of Wynkyn de Worde^s most magnificent Typo-' 
l^mi^ieal Productions. It is ornamented with a great number o]f 
cuts*" Mr. Dtbdili's Ames, vol. t, p* 49* . 


0€ta!90 et Infra. 

Wither^s Psalmes of David, blue morooco, rare* printed b the Nether- 

iands, 1632. 3/. Arth. 

erearoev T. Livii Foro-Juliensis Vita Heniiei Qninti, large papfr, 

russia, Oxon. 171 6. 2/. 2«. Li. Ayl^ferd. 
I ■ > ■> Textus floffefisis, hrgns paper, russiat Oxdn: 17tO. 
\ 2L I2f. W. Payne. ' 

•^ Collection of Antiquarian Discourses, lar^ paper, i^ed 

*■ ■! iMll 

morocco, Oxford, 17€0. %l^s. Triphaak 

Antiquities of Glastonbury, large paper, russia, Oxford^ 

in%. 41. 4f. Barday^ - , . , , , ^ 

— Robert of Gloucester's 0irorocle, 2 vols, large j[>ap^. 

russia, Oxford, 1724. 5/. 12#. M. TrtpUok 

_.^^,Pcter Langtoft^ft Qh^oi^i^^2 foft. }toge ^p^« «:»»»> 

Oxford, 1725. 6/. 6s. Baretay. 



Ua^ Niger Sttcearii, f tob • hargt psipei, niicuti Londint, 1774. l /* 
A]kfenMHi*i Hottse of Tvery, 2 Tob. red morocco, ivants one por> 


Tirfplle. Les Faits mervellleux de YirgiDe, black letter, red moroc- 
co^ Paris, J. Trepperel» nns date. 4/. 4<. Triphook. 

Viigilius. Thb Boke trealh of the Lyfe of VirgUius, and of bis 
D^tk, and manj Marvaylet that he dyd in bi& Lyfe Tyrne by 
WhYchcraft and Nygramansy throwgh the heipe of the Devyls 
of HeQ,' black letter, wood cuts, extremely rare, Anwarpe by 

^ me John Doesborcke, DO date. 29/. 8i. Triphook. 

iXTal^feldr (Roberti) Otatiode Liudibus et utilitate trium Linguarom 
Ajrabicie, ChaMaicae et Uebratcs, inlaid, red morocco, w ith joints, 
rare, Londini apud Winandum de Worde, sine anno. S/. Barclay* 

!1lVarren*s Pleasant New Fancie of a Foundling's Device, entitled and 

. cald the Nurcerie of Names, very rare, Richard J hones, 1681. 
lilL 18«. Triphaok. 

^e1>beV Discourse of English Poetrie, together with the Author's 
Judgment, touching the Reformation of our English Verse, ex* 
treinely rare, from the Roxburghe Collection, mssia, John 
Cbailewood,158fi. 361. 15#. Hmd$an. 

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^ PAET I. 

Im an age uhich profenes to be so enlightened as the present, 

it may seem woi^derfal that there should be a profound igno- 
rance of the theology and mythology of the Greeks; though 
ao intimate acquaintance with them is of the highest importance 
to the philosc^her and divine^ and right conceptions about tbem, 
in general, are indispensably necessary to every one uho wishes 
to make a solid proficiency in classic lore. But the wonder 
ceases when we consider that the genuine key to the Religion 
df Greece is * the philosophy of Pythagoras and Plato, wKich, 
since the destruction of the schools of the philosophers by the 
Emperor Justinian, has been only partially studied, and imper* 
feetly understood.' For this theology was first mystically end 
symbolically promulgated by Orpheus, was afterwards disse- 
minated enigmatically, through images, by Pythagoras, and was 
in the last place, scientifically unfolded by Plato aad bis gc^nQine 
disdples. The peculiarity of it ako is this, that it is no less siaen* 
tific than sublime ; and that by a geometrical series of reasoning, 
ortgimrttng from the most self-evident tratfas, it develops aH tb^ 
deified progressions fr6m the ineffable principle of things>ilnd 
accurately exhibits to our view all the links of that golden chain, 
of which deit> is one extreme, and body the other* 

Id order therefore, summarily to unfold this theology, and 
likewise the mythology which depends on it, I have colUcted, 
for insertion in the valuable pages of the Classical Journal, 
from my numerous publicatic ns, such elucidations oa these 
subjects, as have been* the result of the study, for nearly forty 
years, of the religion and phihisophy of Greece* 

' Fdr a demdnsifsUiou of thi«, see my translations of Proeluis <inlH(B 
Theology^ sidd alio on the "nmitos, of f^lato. 

dO On the Theology 

In the first pkce, thut which is most admirable in UiM 
theology is, that it produces iit the mind properly prepared 
for its reception the most venerable, and exalted concep* 
tions of the great cause of all. For it celebrates this inn 
mense principle as something superior even to being itself; 
MS exempt from the whole of things, of which it is neverthelesfi 
ineffably, the source^ an4 does not therefore think fit to enu* 
merate it with any triad,' or order of beings. Indeed, it even 
^ologises for attempting to give an appropilate name to this 
principle, which is in reality ineffable, and ascribes the attempt 
to the imbecility of human nature, which striving intently to 
behold it, gives the appellation of the most simple of its con- 
ceptions to that which is beyond all knowledge and all con« 
ception. Hence it denominates it the one and the good; by 
the former of these names indicating its transcendent simplicity^ 
and by the latter its subsistence as the object of desire to all 
beings. For all things desire good. At the same time, how- 
ever, it asserts that these appellations are in reality nothing 
more than the parturitions of the soul, which, standing as it were 
in the vestibules of the adytum of deity, announce nothing per*- 
tainiog to the ineffable, but only indicate her Spontaneous ten* 
dencies towards it, and belong rather to the immediate offspring 
of the first God, than to the first itself. 

Hence^ as the result of this most venerable conception of 
the supreme, when it ventures not only to denominate tbe 
ineffable, but also to assert something of its relation to other 
things, it considers this as pre-eminently its peculiarity, that it 
IS the principle of principles; it being necessary that the cbarac^ 


' According to this theok^, as I have elsewhere shown, in every, 
order of things a triad is the immediate proceoy of a monad. Hence 
the iotelligibM triad proceeds immediately from the ineffable principle 
of things. Pbanes, or intelligible int^eot, who is tbe last of the iniel^ 
ligible order, is the monad, leader and producing cause of a triad, which . 
is denominated venre; nait**^, i. e. inUUigible mnd at the$ame timeiTttei" 
lututiL In like manner the extremity of this order produces immedi- 
ately from itself the intdlectual triad, Saturn, Rnea, and Jupiter. 
Again, Jupiter, who is also the demiurgus, is the monad of the super- ' 
mundane triad. Apollo, who subsists at the extremity of the supermun- 
dane order, produces a triad of Wtensted Godi, {9m •vsxutn.) And the 
extremity of the liberated order becomes the monad of a triad of mun- 
dane Gods.* This theory too, which is the progeny of the most consum*' 
m4te science, is in perfect conformity with the theory of the Chaldaans. 
A^d hence it is said in one of their oracles, ** In every world a tri&d 
ikmnjbrth of tMek a monad u the ruling jlnnofk** , (wiivj ynf •» mv^^^ 

* See my traaslaUon of Proclns On the Theology of Plate. > ^ 

fifthe Oreeh. 

tMiftic pr&perty of prmeiple, after the same maftner tfs ocKbr 
things, should not begin from multitude, but should be collect^ 
into one monad as a surmnit, and which is the principle -of All 
pvincipies. Conformably to this Procliis, in the second bo<$fc-' 
of faia treatise on the theology of Plato say s^ with matchleaa 
aKagnificence of diction: ** Let us as it were celebrate the 
first Gody not as establishing the earthxaiid the heavens^ nor aa 
giving subsistence to souls, and the generation of all animals ; 
for he produced these indeed, but among the last of things ; bM 
prior to these, let us celebrate him as unfolding into ligh^ 
the whole intelligible and intellectual genus of Gods, together 
with all the supermundane and mundane divinities — as the God 
-of aH Gods, the unity of all unities, and beyond the first adyta/ 
—as more ineffable than all silence, and more unknown than all 
C8sence.«*-4is holy atnong the holies^ and concealed in the intel- 
ligible Gods.;'* . ^ 
The sdenttfic reasoning firom which this dogma is deduced ia 
the foHowing: As the principle of all things is the one, it ia 
necessary that the prdgression of beings should be continued^ 
and that no vacuum should intervene either in incorporeal or 
corporeal natures. It is also necesssary that every lhing.w*bich 
has a natural progression should proceed through similitude. 
In consequence of this, it is lik«fwise necessary that every pro- 
ducing principle should generate a number of the same order 
with itself^ viz. nature, a natural number ;• 5oti/, one that in 
psychical (i. e. belonging to soul); and intellect, an inteHectual 
number. For if whatever possesses a power Of generatmg, 
generates umilars prior to dissimilars, every cause must deliver 
itaow^ form and characteristic peculiarity to its progeny ; nod 
before it generates that which gives subsistence to progressions 
fiir distant and separate from its nature, it must constitute thiiiga 
proximate to itself according to essence, and conjoined with it 
through similitude. It is therefore necessary from these premi- 
ses, since there is one imity the principle of the universe, that 
this unity should produce from itself, prior to every thing elae^ 
a multitude of natures characterized by unity, and a number the . 

*' i. e. The iiighest order of intelligibles. 

•\af^^f^ »«* i^t^ m/Kmrtwnt ytua-%if, mom r»ur» (am y»p, «XV •»' i^atmc vfh raunw, 
■^ wait fMf TO mnrwf rw Bta» yivo;> «»» it ra ntfot i li^nvi, wavTa; it rovg u«if »o» «^^4«y,. 
mi w7i^ T«> Mo-fAtft Btovs flPiwvTaf , swi ^c disg tan Btwf tvmirm*, nmi •f tms ihAms ""^ 
m( w aiuvoTfun (lege aivrvf) t«»x«i» tm %fmnn, xat wg wticnc •'»y«K *K^*^ff^9. 
miiws na^ vitofS^s •yT»#TOTifov,' nywff if (»yM>ry to*; *WT«»f »wwro»ncft//*(*«»«f 

in»;. Lib. II. p. 119. . ^ .;:"„■,,.; ; 

92 On the Theology 

iViost of all things alKed to its cause ; and these natures are no 
other than the Gods. 

According to this theology therefore, from the inraiense 
principle of principles^ in which all things causally snbsisr, 
absorbed in snperessential light, and involved in nnfathoni^le 
depths, a beauteous progeny of principles proceed, all largely 
partaking of the ineffable, all stamped with the occult characters 
ofdeity» all possessing an overflowing fulness of good. From- 
these dazzling summits, tliese ioeffabie blossoms, these divine 
propagations, being, life, intellect, soul, nature, and body^ de- 
pend ; monads suspended (mm uniiiet, deified natures pro- 
ceeifing from deities. Each of these monads too, is the leader 
of a series which extends from itself to the last of things, and 
whkh while it proceeds from^ at the same time abides in, and 
returns to its leader. And all these principles and all their 
progeny are finally centered and rooted by their stimmits in the 
first great all-comprehending one. Thus all beings proceed 
from, and are comprehended in the first being; all intelieclB 
emanate from one first intellect; all souls from one first soul; 
all natures blossom firom one first nature ; and all bodies pro- 
ceed from the vital and luminous body of the world. And 
lastly, all these great monads are comprehended in the first one, 
ftom which both they and all their dependmg series are imfcMed 
tiHo light. Hence this first one is truly the unity of unities^ the 
raonaa of monads, the principle of principles, the God of Gods, 
one uid all things, and yet one prior to all. 

No objections of any weight, no arguments but such as are 
sophistical, can be urged mgmtt this most sublime theoiy, 
which is so congenial to the unperterted conceptions of the 
humai mind, that it <ran only be treated with ridicule and con- 
tenpt in degraded, barren, and barbarous ages. Ignorance and 
impious fraud however, have hitherto consfMred to defame t b — e 
inestimable uorks," in which this and many other grand and 
impcHlant dogmas can alone be found ; and the theology of the 
Greeks has been attacked will all the insane fury of ecclesias- 
tical ssfeal, and all the imbecil flashes of mistaken wit, by men 
whose ix>nceptions on the subject, like those of a man between 
sleeping and waking, have been turbid and wiid^ phaniaUic and 
eomfutedj prepoittrout and vain. 
' Indeed, that after the great incomfirehensible cause of all, a 

* Viz. The philosophical works of Proclaim together with thoss of 
FloUniis, Porphynr* lamblichus, Syriaous, Anmoaius, Damascios, 
Olympodomsi and Simplidus. 

diviiie mnltltadetubusts, co-operatiiig wiib tltia cauieiin- ths 
production and government of tlie univerK, has slwaji bcea 
aad is still admitted by all nations, and all religipns, however 
much (liey may differ in tbeir opiuions respecting the nature of 
th« subordinate deities, and the veneration which is to be paid ti». 
them by nian ; and however barbarous the conceptions of lone 
nations on this subject tnuy be when compared with those of 
others. Hence, says the elegant Maximus Tyrius, " You will 
Me one according law and assertion in all the earth, that there 
is one God, tbe king and latlier of all thiogi, and many Gods, 
stMU of God, ruling together with him. This tbe Greek saya, 
and the Barbarian says, the inhabitant of the Continent, and he 
who dwells near (he sea, the wise and the unwise. And if yon 
proceed as iar as to the utmost shores of the ocean, there ala» 
there are Gods, rising very near to some, and setting very near 
to olhera."' 

The deification however of dead men, and the worshipping 
men as Gods formed no part of tbia theology when it is con- 
sidered according to its genuine purity. Mumeroui instances of 
the truth of this might be adduced, but I shall mention for thit 
purpose, as uneaceptiouable witnesses, the writings of Plato, 
the Golden Pylhagoric verses,* and the treatise of Plutarch 

HitTi^ mu 9mi idM«, 9hu naillii, iru«sx«"f ^i?- TiWTa wii t lUn t^yu, nai « 

KiM.siy ixSitt T«( n'nat ™u. Ski, -nis fLn miirxnTic ayx'" f«i>a, T<i( li unli>g- 
Ifrm. Dissert; i. Edit. Ptmc 

* " Diuftenes Laertkis ^nys of P^hagnra*, 3%af Ae rharged hit £it^^ 
tul lo gp>e equal dtgrtti ^ konmr totkt God* mtd HerMi. Herodgtus (in 
Euterpe) f&:^i oFtliP Greeks, Tltatt^eytam/tipped Hereiiieib«ni)m,o^ai 
on imaiortai dtUy, end lo titf $acrificed to him : and aaothrr ai a HerOf and 

between tbe honurs ol' Herues and Guds, when he (peaks nf Henelaus 
and Helena. But the diitiiuction is no where moie lutly expressed than 
in the Greek inscription upun tUe statue ufRe^jilla, wl!e to Herodes 
Atlicus, as Salma'iiua thinks, wliich was setitu in hks temple atTrlupiumr 
xnd taken' from the statue nsclf by Sirmundus ; where it is said, Tliat 
Mhe had ntilhrr the Ai'iourof a tnortat, nor yel ikat vhich wtt proper to tkc 
Oodt: •i't< Iff hnr«(, stoj nSiinimtfiiaa. Ii $ecros,by tbe ii 
ilierodes, and by the tesiiiiiieut of Epicieta, extant in Gcvek 
kctioa vt lawipliom, (bai ii was in the power of parllcuUr 
)ieep ftslival duys iii hoiiuiir ot'sonie<>( ihelr o»ti family, 
tawcal Aunoi>rt to them. In that iixhle iiiscripliun ai < 
■ fiod-livce dajs .appointed every year Itf lie jk'Tti a^d ^ i 
pslabli&lied lor tliat pui|>i>se wiih ihr kws bl it. Tie : 
be observed in honour of the Mine.', and socriGcei lo b< 
thein M ikiliti^ Tbe sccgnd *nd third days in honour ol <..•> .^^.. 
uftbefamily; between which bonout and that ofdeitin^ tboy shewed 

9^ Onike TketUagtf 

On Isi^-mid* Otiril. All the works of PUto indeed, evince tli^ 
tfiath of thii potitioDi but thk is parlicoUrly tna»ifest from hiy 
Iaws. The Gulden verses oi^er, that the immortal Gods be 
honoured first as they are disposed by law ; afterwards the 
tUmtfiotts Heroes, unckr which appellation^ the author of the 
vjBrsei comprehends also angels and daemons properly so called'^ 
and in the last place the terrestrial daemons, i. e. such good mee 
es transcend in virtue the rest of mankind. But to honour the 
Gods as they are disposed by law, is, as Hierocles observes, to 
reverence them as they are arranged by their fabricator and 
father ; and thu is to honour them as beings superior to mam 
Hence, to honour men, however excellent they may be, as 
Gods, is not to honour tlie Gods according to the rank in which 
they are placed by their Creator, for it is confounding the divine 
wiikthe human nature, and is thus acting directly contrary to 
the Pythagoric precept. Plutarch too, in his above<*mentiened 
treatise most forcibly and clearly sh^'s the impiety of worships 
|Mng men as Gods, as is evident from the following extract : > 

^^ Those therefore, who think that things of this kind [i. e« 
labtilous stories of the Gods as if they were men] are but so 
anny commemorations of the actions and disasters of kings and 
tyrants, who through transcendency in virtue or power, inscribed 
the title of divinity on their renown, and afterwards fell into great 
qalamties and misfortunes, these employ the most easy method 
indeed of eluding the story, pnd not badly transfer things of evil 
report, from the Gods to men ; and they are assisted in so 
doing by the narrations themselves. For the Egyptians relate, 
Uiat Hermes was as to his body, with one arm longer than the 
oth^r; that Typbon was in his complexion red; but Orus white> 
and Osiris black, as if they had been by nature men. Farther 

the difference by the distance of time between them, and the preference, 
given to the other. But wherein soever the difference iBLy, that tijere was 
adisthuiiim acknowledged among them appears by this passage of Vale- 
rius in his excellent oration extant inDionysius Hdicarnass. Antiq. Rom. 
]jb. xi. p. 696. I caUf says be, the Godt to vntness, mho$e tempUtjmd 
nUurs eur family has worshipped with commm saertfieiBS ; 4tndnext after theniff 
edlithe Genii of our ancestors f to whom we give Uvrtpa^ '>'*|f^f» the second honours 
next to the Gods, as Celsus calls those ra^vf^cnMu^mf ^'Ma;, the due honours 
that belong to the lomer dtmons^ Fnim which we ^take notice, that the 
.'Heathens did not confonnd all degrees of disoine worship, ^viogtethe 
'low^t object the same which ihcy supposed to be due vo the ceUsttat 
iMJn,or the pupreme Qod. Sp that if the disiinctien oi d^lte wor^ip 
ilH&^OKttse from idolatry, the Heathens were not . to bkune for it.** Se^ 
SttiU0gQ^et% answer to a book intit^d Catfaofica no Iitolaters, p. 51C, 

ef the Greeks: 9S 

1^9 thej^dso call Oiiris a commander^ and Caitofnis% pilbt^ 
iVom'wbom tbejr nay ibt star of that naine was deitomiotted. 
The ship Ukewisei \t\Ach the Greeks call Argo, being the tmHp 
of theark ofOsirify and which therefore in honour of it it be- 
eome a consteHation, they make to ride not far fitHii Orion jUmI 
the Dog ; of which ihey consider the one as sacred to OiUs, 
but the other to Isis. 

^ I fear, however, that this [according to the proverb] would 
be to move things immoveable^ and to declare war, not only, as 
Simonides says, against a great length of time, bnt also against 
many nations aad families of mankind who are under the influ- 
ence of divine inspiration through piety to these Gods; and 
would not in any respect fall short of transferring from heaven, 
to ^rthj such great and venerable names^ and of thereby sbaktftg 
and dissolvins; that^orshipand belief, which has been implanted 
in alniost airmen fi'Om their very birth; would be opening 
great doors to the tribe oi atheists, who convert divine into 
human concerns; and would likewise afford a lai^e license to 
the impostures of Euemerus of Messina, who devised certain 
memoirs of an incredible and fictitious mythology,' and iherebi^ 
spread every kind of atheism through the globe, by imaibing 
all the received Croas, without any discrimination, by the names 
of generals, naval'Captains, and lungs, who Uvea in remote 
periods of time. He further adds, that they are recorded- in 
golden characters, in a certain country called Panchoa, at which 
adther any Barbarian or Grecian ever arrived, except Eueme- 
rus ali>ine, who, as it seems, sailed to the Panchoans and Tri^ 
phyHians^ that neither have, nor ever had a being. 'Am) 
though the great actions of Samiramis are celebrated by the 
Assyrians, and those of Sesostris in Egypt ; and fhongh the 
Phrygians even to the present time, call all splendid and sidmirar 
ble actions Manic, because a certain person named Manis, who 
was one of titeir ancients kings, whom some call Masdes, was,^ 
brave and powerful man; and fartlier still, though Cyrus among 
fhe Persians, and Alexander among^ the Macedonians, proceeded 
in their victories, almost as far as to the boundaries of the earth; 
yet tbc^ only retaiti the name of good kings, and are remembered 
as such [and not as Gods]. 
" But if certain persons, inflated by ostenation, as Plato says. 

. • • • * 

•F.Botb Arnobiiis, thiersfore, and MinndusFelia iseia very uofc^tttnaela^ 
la fluoting- this impostor to prove that the Gods of the ancients had 
formerly bean ifiien. . Vid. Arnobi lib. iv. Axlrer&us Gentes, et Minucji 
Fclids Octavo, p. 350r-evo.Pari5iis,t«(>6. - ' 

g6 On4he:3Piieol9g^ 

hsLyitfg their soul at poe aiid the aaoye time.piQamed with ;pu|l^ 
aod Ignorance, have inauleutly assumed Llie»appeUatiou of 0i>d5> 
aiid had temples erected iu their honour, yet this opinion of 
them flourisbed but for a shori time, and afterwards they were 
charged witli vaiiltv and arrogance, in coiijunction with impiety, 
and lawless conduct ; and thus. 

Like smoke they flew away with swift-pac'd fate. > 

And being dragged from the temples and altars like fugitive 
slaves,^ they l)ave now nothing left them but their monuments; 
and tombs. Hence Antigonus the elder, said to one Hermodotus,: 
who bad celebrated him in his poems as the offspring of the sun 
and a Gody *' he who empties my close-stool-pan knows no sucb< 
thing of mej* Very properly also, did LysippMs the sculptor 
blame Apelles the painter, for drawing the picture of Alexan- 
der with a thunder-bolt in his hand, whereas he had represented, 
bim with a spear, the glory of which, as being tr^^e and prppjsr,; 
no time would take away." 

In another part of the same work also, be adm^ably repro* 
bates the impiety o( making the Gods to be things inaiumaie,* 
which was very common .with Latin writers of the Augiistan: 
age, and of the ages tliat accompanied the decline and fall o£. 
the Roman empire. But what he says on the subject is as% 
follows : , 

'< In the second place, ^vhich is of still greater consequence, 
men should be careful, and very much afraid, lest before they 
are aware, they tear in pieces and diss9lve divine natures, into, 
blasts of wind, streams of water, seminationsi earings of laQd,^ 
accidents of the earth, and mutations of the seasons, as those do 
who make Bacchus to be wine, and Vulcan flame. Clean thes^ 
also somewhere says, that Persephone; or Proserpine is the spirit 
or air that passes through (fs^o^Mvov) the fruits of the earth, ao4 
is then sliHH, (f ovfuofuvov.) And a certain poet says of reapers^ 

Then \% hen the youth the limbs of Ceres cut. 
For these men do not in any respect differ from those who conn 
ceive the sails, tlie cabies, and thb anchor of a ship, to be the 
pilot, the yarn and the web to be the weaver, and the bowl, or 
the mead, or the ptisan, to be the physician^ But they alsyo 
produce dire and atheistical opinions, by .giving the naoiea of 
Gods, to nfitures and things deprived of sense and soul, aiid that 
are necessarily destroyed by men, who are in want of and use 
(heffi. Por it' is not possiHte^ tb conceive' tha"t these things are 
Gods ; since, neither can any thing be a God to men, which is 
deprived of sou}, or is subject to human pow*er* ,ffomthes^ 
things however, we are led to cpnceiv/e those i^nga to be Gods^ 

of Oe Greeks. 97 

triio b^ ttiie Ihtm and impart them to n^, and supply them 
perpetually and without ceasingi Nur do we conceive that the 
Oods who bestow these, are different in different ctiuntries, nor 
that some of theiuare peculiar to the Barbarians, 't>ut others to 
the Grecians, nor that sonm are soutliern, and others norihero : 
but as the sun and moon, <he heavens, the land, and the itf a, are 
common to all men, yet are differently denominated by (different 
nations ; so the one reason that adorns these thmgs, and the one 
providence that administers them, and the mmistiant powers 
that preside over all nations, have different appellations and 
honors assigned them according to law by different countries. 
Of those also that have been consecrated to their service, some 
employ obscure, but others clearer symbol8> not without danger 
thus conducting our intellectual conceptions to the apprehen-r 
lion of divine natures. For some, deviating from the true 
meaning of these symbols, have entirely slipt into superstition ; 
and others again flying from superstition as a quagmire, have 
unaware faHen upon atheism as on a precipice. Hence, in order 
to avoid these dangers, it is especially necessary that resuming 
the reasoning of Philosophy as our guide to mystic knowledge^^ 
we should conceive piously of every thing that is said or done in 
religion ; lest that, as Theodorus said, while he extended his ar- 
guments with his right hand, ^ome of his auditors received theni 
with their left, so we should fall into dangerous errors, by re- 
ceiving what the laws have well instituted about sacrifices and. 
festivals in a manner different from their^original intention.'^ 

The Emperor Julian, as well as Plutarch, appears to have. 
been perfectly aware of this confusion in the religion of the 
Heathens arising from the deification of men, and in the frag- 
ments of his treatise against the Christians, preserved by Cyril, 
he speaks of it as follows : ^'If any one wishes to consider the 
truth respecting you [Christians], he will find that your impietj 
is composed of the Judaic audacity, and the indolence and con* 
Jiiiion of the Heathens. For deriving from both, not that 
which is most beautiful, but the worst, you have fabricated a 
web oi evils. With the Hebrews indeed, there arc accurate and 
venerable laws pertaining to religion, and innumerable precepts 
which require a most holy life and deliberate choice. But 
when the Jewish legislator forbids the serving all the Gods, and 
enjoins the worship of one alone, whose portion is Jacob^ anjl 
Israel the line of his inheritance, and not only says this, but also 
omits to add, I think, you shall not revise the Gods, the detes* 
table wickedness and audacity of those in after- times, wishing 
Ip take away all religious reverence from the multitude^ thong)it 


98 On the Thed^ggf 

that not to worship should be foHdWed by Uas^^iMig ikm 

Gods. This you have alone tiience derived ; but there is no M- 
mihtude in any thing else bsetweeu you and them. Hence, fron» 
the innovation of the Hebrews, you have seized blaaphemy to^ 
wards the venerable Gods ; hut from our religion you have ca$t. 
aside revereiK** to every imture more excellent than man, and 
the lore of paterttai institutes," » 

'^ So great an apprehension indeed, says Dr. StillJQgfleet^'. 
had the Heathens of the necessity oi appropriate acts of divine, 
worship, that some of them have chosen to die, rather than to 
^ive tiieni ^o what they did not believe to be God. We have a. 
remarkable story to this purpose in Arrian and Curtius^ concern-* 
ing Callisthenes. Alexander arriving at that degree of vanity^ 
as to desire to have divine worship given him, and the matter 
being started out of design among the courtiers, either byn 
Anaxarchus, as Arrian, or Cleo the Sicilian,; as Curtius saya;, 
and the way of doing it proposed, viz. by incense and prostra*. 
tion; Callisthenes vehemently opposed it, as that, which would 
confound the difference of human -and divine worship^ t»hich 
had been preserved inviolable among them. The worship of 
the Gods had been kept up in temples, with altars, and images^ 
and sacriiices, and hymns, and prostrations, and such like ; bui: 
it is by no means fittings says he, for us to confound tkes€ 
things, either by If ting up men to the honors of the GodSy or 
depressing the Goas to the honors of men. For neither woukt 
Alexander suffer any man to usurp his royal dignity by the vo.te& 
of men; how much more justly may the Gods disdain for any 
man to take their honors to himself. And it appears by Piut- 
tarch,^ that the Greeks thought it a mean and base thing for anji 
of them, when sent on any embassy to the kings of Persia, ta 
prostrate themselves before them, because this was only alloM'ed. 
among them in divine adoration. Therefore, says he, .when. 
Pelopidas and Ismenias were sent to Artaxerxes, Pelopidas did. 
nothing unworthy, but Ismenias let fall his ring to the ground,* 
and stooping for that was thought to make his adoration ; which 
was altogether as good a shift as the Jesuits advising the crucifix 
to be held in the Mandarin's hands while they made theur adora-i 
tions in the Heathen temples in China. 

Conon* also refused to make his adoration, as a diss^race t(k 

V Answer to Cat uJics no Id-laier- ; Lund., 1676. p. 211, 

^ Arrian. de Exped. Alex. I. 4. et Curt. lib. 8. 

' Vlt.Artaxerx.iEIi^n.Var. hist. lib. t.c. 81. • . 

* Justin, lib. 6. . i 

of the Greeks. QQ 


h& dty : and Isocrates^ acruses the Persians for doirtg it^ 
because herem-thei/ shorted , that they despised the Gods rafket 
than metff ^hy prostituting their honors to then- princes', 
Herodotus mentions Sperchies and 43ulis, who coiiid not witii 
the greatest violence be brought to give adoration to Xerxes, 
because it was against the laws oj their country to give divine 
honor to men?" And Valerius Maximus^ says, the Athenians 
put Timagoras to death for doing it; so strops an apprehensioi) 
had possessed them, that the manner of worship which they 
used to their Gods, should be preserved sacred and inviolable." 
The philosopher Sallust also in his treatise On the Gods and the 
World says, ** It is not unreasonable to suppose that impiety is 
a species of punishment, and that those who have had a knoW" 
ledge of the Gods, and yet despised -them, will in another life 
be deprived of this knowledge. And it is requisite to make the 
punishment of those who have honored their kin^s as Gods to 
consist in being expelled from the Gods."* ' 

When the ineffable transcendency of the first God, which wa» 
considered as the grand principle in the Heathen theology, by it^ 
most ancient promulgators Orpheus, Pythagoras, and Plato, 
was forgotten, this obhvion <vas doubtless the principal cause of 
dead mien being deified by the Pagans. Had they properly di- 
rected their attention to this transcendency they would have 
perceived it to be 8o immense a^ to surpass eternity, infinity, 
selfrsubsistence, and even essence itself, and that these in reality 
belong to those venerable natures which are as it were first un- 
folded into light from the unfathomable depths of that truly 
mystic u^iknown, about which all knowledge is refunded into 
ignorance. For as Simplicius justly observes, ** It is requisite 
that he who ascends to the principle of things should investigate 
whether it is possible there can be any thing better than the 
supposed principle ; and if something niore excellent is found, 
the same enquiry should again be made respecting that, titt we 
arrive at the highest conceptions, than which we have no longer 
any more venerable. Nor should we stop in our ascent till we 
find this to be the case. For there is no occasion to fear thfti 
oar progression will be through an unsubstantial void, by con- 
ceiving Something about tht- first principles which is greater and 

* Pa egyr. 

» Lit). 7. 

3 Lib. C. Vap. 3. 

^ Kai vahttaiaii ik it2o; uy«i ttBuay w% amuw^, Tous yap yyavrof 9swc,jiuti 

/Botf'iXMf w( $t9vs rifAti(ray7a:j tin t^v Jtxi|T avrm iro(«i7a( fwy 9wf infKKftty, Cap. 18. 

100 On ike Theology 

re tfuff lif t dao thtir nature. For k u not p ow iM e for 
our coaeeptioiM to take sach a mi^ty leap as to equal, and 
aach leas to pass bejood the digni^ of the first principles of 
thiags." He adda^ ^ This iherefore is one and the best exten* 
MO [of the aoul] to [the highest] God, and Is as much as pos* 
aible ineprchensible ; viz. to know finnlj, diat bj asciibii^ to 
hioft the most venerable exceliencies we can conceive, and the 
■KMt holy and primary names and thiM, we ascribe nothing to 
him which is suitable to his digjakj. U is suflkient, ho^ftever, to 
pfocure oar pardon [for the attempt], that «e can atlribiite to 
him nodiing saperior."' If it is not possible therefore to form 
any ideas equal to the dignity of the mmediate progem of the 
insffslik, i. e. of the first principles of things, how much less 
can our conceptions reach that thrice unknown darkness, in the 
leverential language of the Egyptians/ i^hich is even beyond 
these? Had the Heathens therefore considered as -they ought 
this transcendency of die supreme God, they would never have 
presumed to equalize the humam with the divine nature, and 
consequendy would never have worshipped men as Gods. 
Their theology, however, is not to be accused as the cause of 
this impiety, but their forgctfulnesa of the sublimest of its. dog- 
mas, and the ccmfusion with which this oblivion was necessarily 

In the last place, I wish to adduce a few respectable testi- 
' monies to prove that statues were not considered nor worshipped 
by any of the intelligent Heathens as Gods, bat as the resero* 
blances of the Gods, as auxiliaries to the recollection of a di- 
vine nature, and the means of procuring its assistance and favor. 
For this purpose, I shall first present the reader with what the 
philosopher Sallust says concerning sacrifices and the honors 
vrhidi were paid to the divinities, in liis golnen treatise On the 
Gods and the World. ^ The honors,** says he, ** which we pay to 

-fXW "p •»'f "S 9mXa »»• mnmv f«ra», M( «* f «« ra^ mMfrmnc 

Ou )«{ hnmfsm ntktamrrm w^^nfdm 

.Miii|i«i>^ r K|» I '. K C'lir p. «07 Li t d. l67o. 8v»». 

* Oi tite fir^t p iiiri| Ir, ^ \ - Dtniak^ciii^ (in M. 8. aaft «fx<v> the Bgrp- 
tiaas Mud iiuiliiii», but ceiebraied n a< -a. d^kue^> be>uod all io^ec- 
taal esnjeptiiNB, a thrice ooknowa dsrknns, «pvrw •ex*' sivftfviAnT^ 


of the Greeks. 101 

the tjfods are performed for tbe sake of our advantage ; and 
silica the providence of the Gods is every where extended, a 
certain habitude or fitness is all that is requisite in order to re- 
ceive theu* beneticeut couiinunications. But all habitude is 
produced thrcmgh imitation and. similitude. Hence temples 
imitate the heavens, but aluirs tbe earth ; statues resemble life, 
and on this account they are similar to animals ; prayers imitate 
thai which is intellectual ; but characters, superior ineffable pow- 
ers ; herbs and stones resemble matter ; ' and animab -which are 
sacrificed, (he irrational life of our souls. But from all these 
nothing happens to the Gods beyond what they already possess ; 
for what accession can be made to a divine nature ? But a con- 
junction wiih our souls and the Gods is by these means pro- 

'^ 1 think, however, it will be proper to add a few things con- 
cerning sacrifices. And in the first place, since we possess 
every thing from the Gods,, and it is but just to offer the first 
fruits of gifts to the giver; hence, of our possessions we offer 
the first fruits through consecrated gifts; of our. bodies through 
ornaments ;, and of our life through sacrifices. Besides, without 
sacrifices, prayers are words only ; but accompanied with sacri- 
fices they become animated words ; the words indeed corrobo- 
rating lite, but life animating the words. Add too, that tbe fe- 
licity of every thing is its proper perfection ; but the proper 
perfection of every thing consists in a conjunction with its cause. 
And on this account we pray that we may be conjoined with the 
Gods. Since therefore life primarily subsists in the Gods, and 
there is also a certain human life, but the latter desires to be 
united to the former, a medium is required ; for natures much 
distant from each otliec cannot be conjoined without a medium. 
And it IS necessarv that the mediuiii should be similar to the 
cpnnected natures. Life therefore must necessarily be the me- . 
dium of life ; and hence men of the present day that are happy, 
aad all the ancients, have sacrificed animals. And this indeed 
■ot rashly, but in a jnaiiiier ace mmodated to every God, with 
many f>iher ceremonies respecting the cultivation of divinity.*^ 

in the next place, the elegant Maxiiiius Tyrius adiiiirablj 
observes concerning the worship of htaiues* as follows : ** \x ap- 
pears to iiie tbat as external discourse has no iietd, \\\ order to 
its composition, of certain Phoenician, or Ionian, or Attic, or 

* i>ee c^cip. 15. and 16. oi ni> tran^-laMim ut tlu^ excellent wurk. 

* See Vol. 3. of my traiislatioD uf his Dishertaiiuns, Dissertat. 38. the 
titSeof which is^^'Wbeiher statues should: be dedicated to the Godsr 

104 On the Theology 

Assyrian, or Egyptian rliaracters, but human imbeeilitj devised 
these marks, in uhirh inserting its Hiihiess, it recovers from them 
its memory ; in like maniter a divine nature has no need of sta-> 
tues or altars ; but human nature being very imbecile^ and as 
much distant from, divinitv a< earth from heaven, devised tbes^ 
symbols, in which it inserted the names and the renown of the 
Gods. Those., therefore, vihose memory is robust, and who-are 
able, by directly extending their soul to heaven, to meet w^lh 
divinity, have, peihafi,^:\\o ne^d of statties. This race is, how-* 
ever, rare anvong men ; and in a w hole nation you will not find 
one w-ho recollects divinity, and who is notinXvant of this kind 
of assistance, which resembles that devised by writing»nr>asters 
for boys, who give ri)em obscure marks as copies; by- -writing 
over which, their hand being guided by that of the master, they 
become, through memory, accustomed to the art* It appears 
to me therefore, that legislators devised these statues for men, 
as if for a certain kind of boys, as tokens of the honor which 
should be paid to divinity, and a certain manuduction as it wer^ 
and path to reminiscence. 

i* Of statues, however, there is neither one law, nor one mode, 
nor one art, nor one matter. For the Greeks* think it fit to 
honor the Gods from things the most beautiful in the earth, from 
a pure matter, the human form^ and accurate art : and their opi- 
' nion is not irrational who fashion statues in the human resem-^ 
blance. For if the human soul is most near and ^ost similar 
♦d divinity, it is not reasonable to suppose that divinity would 
invest that which is most similar to himself with a most 
deforined body, but rather with one whicb would be an 
easy vehicle to immortal souls, light, and adapted to* motion. 
For this atone, of all the bodies on the earth, raises its summit 
•^n high, is magnificent, superb, and full of synmietry, neither 
astbnishing through its magnitude, nor terrible through its 


' The philosopher Isidorus was a man of thi$ d«scriptiQn,:a9 we are 
informed by Damascius in the extracts from his life preserved hy Pho- 

tiuS. For he says of him : ovt* ra aya'Kfxarct fffocrxvvfiv e^tXwv, aXX' ti^n tit* 
cLVTovs Toi/f OiQvg itfxsyoSf iktw oc^vnTo fxtyovg ovx «v a^wTotf, aXX* iv avrtv rtw aTToppqra;, 
0, T» iroTs tff*rt *n»f*'7ra'vTfXoyf ayiwcrtag, wooj ovv «»'• tivnvc ""^o roiovrovs •wa; ; 
tpwfri ieiiw^tvfttffrirw }tai toi/tw* %a,t ric it a^Xo; n ttymaTog nai o tpttt^; m»^ .T*y« Tavtw 
^fftjoiey, iiraa-iy oi ^ttii^aQtyTis' iiwuv it a^uvaTev, xat votia-ai yt ovity jocaXXov ^etiioy, 

i. e. "He was not willing i<» ad<»re statues, but approached to' the Gods 
themselves, who are' inwardly concealednot m adyta, but in the occuH 

-ks^f, whatever it n>«iy be, of aU-perfect jfi^^rance. How U^udfMce to 
them being such did he approach ? Throueh vehement love, this also 

. b^ing occult. And what eNt , indeed, rould.conduct him to them, than a 
love which is also unknown ? What my meajQing is, those who have ex- 
perienced this love know ; but it is impossible to reveal'it by words, and 
It is no less difficult to understand what it is/' 

of the Greeks^ 403 

strength, nor moved with difficulty through its Height, not 
slippery through its smoothness, nor repercussive through iti 
hardness, nor grovelling through its coldness, nor precipitate 
through its heat, nor inclined to swim through its laxity, nor 
feeding un raw Hesh through its ferocity, uor on grassi tltrough 
it3 imbecility; but is harmonicaliy couiposed for its proper 
works, and is dreadful to timid animals, but mild to 'such a:i are 
brave. It is also adapted to walk by nature, but winged by 
reason, capable of swimming by art, feeds on c6rn and fruitSi 
and cultivates the earth, is of a good color/ stands iinn, has 
a pleasing countenance, and a graceful beard. In the resem-* 
blarlce of such a body, the Greeks- think fit to honor the Gods." 

' He then observes, ^* that with reispect to the Barbarians, alt 
of them in like manner admit the subsistence of divinity, but 
different nations among these adopt different symbols/' After 
which he adds, 'f O many and all-various statues ! of which 
some are fashioned by art, and others are embraced through 
indigence : some are honored through utility, atid others are 
▼enerated through the astonishinent which they excite; some 
are' considered as divine through their magnitude;, apd others 
are celebrated for their beauty ! There is not indeed any race 
of men, neither Barbarian nor Grecian, neither maritime nor 
continenfal, neither living a pastoral life, nor dwelling in cities, 
which can endure to be without some symbols of the honor of 
the Gods. How, therefore, shall ^any one discuss the question 
whether it is proper that statues, of the Gods should befabri-' 
dated or not ? For if we were to give laws to other men recent- 
ly sprung from the earth,, and dwelling beyond our boundaries 
and our air, or who were fashioned by a certain Prometheus, 
ignorant of life, and law, and reason, it might perhaps demand 
consideration, whether this race . should be permitted to adore 
these spentaneous. statues alene, Yvhich are not fashioned from 
i*K)ry or'gold, and which are vieither oaks nor cedars, nt>r rivers, 
ifei^ birds : but the rising sun, the splendid moon, the variegated 
heaven, the earth itself and the air, all fire and all water; or 
shall we constrain these men also to the necessity of honoring 
^'Ood, br stones,' 6r images? If; hdwever, this is the cotnmott 
law of all men, let \\(i mkke no "inftoVations, Ifet ^us admit the 
(jonceptions concerning the Gods, and preserve iheir symbols as 
well, as their names. 

*' For divinity indeed, the father and fabricator of all things, 
U more ancient than the sim and the heavciis, more e:!^cellent 
than time and eternity, aiid evjery ilo\v}ng nature ; and i^ ^legis- 
lator without law^ ineffable by vpice, aiid invisible by the eyes. 
Not being able, howef er, to cbipprebeiid his essence, we apply 

104 On the Different Opmhns 

for afsbtapce to words and iiatnes, to animals, and figures of 
gold, and ivory, and silver, to plants and rivers, to the summits of 
aaountains, and to streams of water ; de^ring indeed to under- 
ataod bi» nature, but through imbecilitj callii^ him by the 
names of such things as appear to us to be beautiful. And in 
&as acting, we are affected in the same manner as lovers, who 
we delighted with surveying the images of the objects of their 
love, and with recollecting the lyre, the dart, and the seat of 
these, the circus in which they ran, and every thmg in short, 
which excites the memory of die beloved object. What then 
remains for me to investigate and determine respecting statues I 
on! jr to admit the subsistence of deity. But if the art of Phidias 
excites the Greeks to the recollection of divinity, honor to 
animals the Efsyptians, a river others, and fire others, 1 do not 
condemn the dissonance : let them only know, let them only love, 
let diem only be mindful of the otyect they adore.'' 


Extracted from *^ The Ciamcal Excunion from Rome to 

Jbrpino, hjf Cbaklbs Kblsall." 

1. HAT Cicero >tas great in the genuine acceptation of the word, 
none, 1 believe, save Dio Cassias, have ventured to question. 

^ Oonsidcfable diversity of opinion has nevertheless always sub* 
asted as to the d^ree of applause whidi is his doe. 

Most critics join m condemniag his pohtical conduct; at least 
that part of it which he observed with respect to the parties of 
Caesar and Pompeius ; some even have ventured to censure fait 
doqoence ; but those who have presumed to question his oratorical 
powers, are very few when compared with the anaigncrs of his 
political career. 

Of his detractors, Dio Cassius stands in the first rank; but the 
qilern, with which he attacks the character of the orator, wSk fiul 
to have weight with those who reflect that Dio flourished under 
Akaandrr Sevenis, an enipenfr «i bo has been cited by Macbiavelli 
as the most adroit in establishing his power by what the French 
call If* MKam saurdes. I he degree of credit therefore which we 
cam attai-h to Dio, when be bandies the character of anv great 
assertor of liberty, may be tantamount to what vre should batow 
on any of the hirelings of Fkance, who wrote what they call his* 
twj, during the usnrpation of Napoleon : ob mttmm /«#«'. The 

»hifih have been formed oj Cicero. iOS 

▼ukarity of bis miad is conspicuous in the sentence quoted by 
Middleton : ** Cicero^s father was a fuller, who earned his sub^ 
sistence by pruning other people's vines and olires ; he was bom 
and bred iEiiiiong the scourings of ohi clothes, and the tilth 'of 
dimghills ; he was master qf no one liberal science ; neither did be 
ever do any thin^ worthy a great man, or an orator; he prostituted 
bis wife, trained up his son in drunkenness, committed incest with 
his own daughter, and adultery with Cereilia, whom," as Middleton 
remarks, ** he acknowledges at the same time to have been seventy 
years old." A testimony like the above can surely have no 

PIntarcb, whose known partiality to the Greeks renders what 
ht says in fovor of the Romans more valuable, must nevertheless 
be read with caution. He appears to hurry over the leading fea- 
tures of Cicero's career, and dwells at large on repartees, or anec* 
dotes of secondary import, with the fear, we should almost surmise, 
of the Roman proving superior to his Athenian rival. It is pretty 
obvious that the biogn^her of Charonea was not partial to Ci- 


Of his cotemporaries, who generally entertained a high opinion 
of him, Lentulus in one of his despatches from Asia says : liftttM 

Brutus and jCalvus thought his eloquence too redundant and 
Asiatic. But the first thought highly of him in other respects, and 
for a stoic, confers a high elogium in one of his letters to Attient : 
'' omnia fecisse Cieevooein optimo animo scio ;* and in another to 
tbe orator, speaking of the Philippics : '' nescio animi an ingenii tui 
Imm major in his libellis contineatur."' 

Cassius, whose testimony is of high value, confers in seven wbrds 
a high panegyric : " est autem tua toga omnium armis felicior."^ 

Curio, who figures in bis correspondence, called his consulate- 
an Apotheosis. Julius Caesar said tliat Cicero efiected more by 
his eloi|uence than all the other Romans by force of arms; Hor* 
tensius, that his sovereign talent lay in touching the heart; 
Aiifidius Bassus, that his dciquehce was so rare that he seeved 

^ *' Dione in cid che appartiene alia fedeltik, luulti iii liii la vurrebbott 
maggiore; ed ultre i pruaigj ch* egli cucaniente aduua, le an use. con 
cui egli ha cercato di o&ctirar la faiiia di Cicer«/i)e, di C'aM>iu, t di altri 
avuti fra' Rumani in graDdisbm)astiiua.jpiire ^he eel dimt/hiiiiiu u bu- 
giardo caiuuniatore, o scrittore nou bene i[if'uiniatu,''observei» the learned 

* On p*'Ut reprucher it Plutarque de ne s'^trie pas assez ^tci.dii Mur le 
teSDps It^ pins brillantde la vie de Cic^run, qui juua penHant quelle 
temps le pieniier^r^, et qui eiait la seuie i«s»»ource de >a U^ptifaiique. 
Mhm^^ TAcad^ daa kis. Ton. vsi* 

'''/JtamaL.juv. ep. t. Br^l•ad Att* ep» tf; .and Brut, ad Cie, cp. £• 

* jj^amil. XII. ep. 19* 


106 . ' On tht Different Opini^tk 

w|pi^88]jl>orn to- be tlie saviour of his country : " trir nattts ad 
seipubhcee salutem, quae diu defensa et adiiiiiiii>trata, in seuectute 
demuti) e inanibus.ejus tlabitur."' 

Creinutius Conlus, au historian bf Rome, quoted by Seneca, 
said speaking of Cicero : " vides credendam ejus non sohim mag-* 
liitudineui virtutuni, sed etiam multitudtneni cc^nspiciendam." 

, Asinius Poifio, the same, 1 believe, who. figures in one of 
Virgil's eclogues, has left a testimony respecting Cicero,- which 
has been highly praised by Seneca: " Hujusergo viri tot tantisque 
operibus mansuris in ontue sevuni, praedicare de ing^nio> atqpe 
industria supi'i vacuum est. £i quidem iacies decora ad senectu- 
tem, [>rosperdque permansit valetudo ; turn pax diutina, cujua 
instructus erat artibus, contigit. Namque a prisca severitate ju- 
dicis exacti maximorum noxiorum multitudo provenit, qtios 
obstrictos patrocinio incolumes plerqsque habebat. Jam feljcn* 
siina consulatus^ei sors petendi, et gerendi magna niunera, de^m 
consilio, industriaque ; utinam moderatius ^ecundas res, et fortius 
adversas ferre potuisset! Namque utrseque cum venerant ei> 
niutari eas non posse rebatur. Inde sunt invidiam, tempestates 
Qoortae graves in eutn, ccrtiorque inimicis aggrediendi iiducia ; 
miyore enim sirauhates appetebat anino, quam gerebat. Bed* 
quando mortalium nulla virtus perfecta contigit, qua major para 
^ttt atque ingenii stetit, eajudicaddum de homine est, Atquc 
c^oiie miserandi quidem exit us eum fuisse judicardnii ni&i ipse. 
tam miseram mortem putasset." . . 

« Cornelius Nepos styled hiin " vir prudentiae divtnse." Saliuat, 
from his well-known hatred of the orator, seems to speak as little 
as possible of him in the Belhim Caiiiinarium. 

Titus Livius expresses himself respecting Cicero with bis usual 
dignity ; though he does not confer much of a panegyric: '' vixit 
tres et sexagiuta annos, ut si vis abfuisset, iic immatura quidem mors 
vtderi pos^it ; ingenium et operibus et praemiis operum felix : ipse 
fortunae diu prosperae, et in longo teuore feifcitatis, ftia^nis interim 
ictus vuliteri bus, ruioa partium prt) quibus steterat, fiHae4inorte,exitu 
tarn tiisti atque a^cl^rbo, omnium adversorum, nUiil ut virofiiguum 
erat tulit, praeter mortem, quae vere aestinianti minus indigna 
videri potuit, quod a victore inimico nil crudelius passurus erat, 
qUod ejusdem fortunae compos ipse fecisset. Si quis tamen'vir- 
tutibus vitia pensarit, vir magnus, acer, memorabilis fuit, et in 
cujus laudes sequendas Cicerone laudatore opus Tuefit.*'* 

The high opinion which Augustus eutertainea, burst forth in 
spite of himself, when he saw the works of the orator in the hands 
q£ his gfand&on. - 

* The testimonies of ^linius, Valerius Maximus, Velleius Pater- 


' Auf. Bas. ap« Senec; Suas; vr, 
^ Liv. ap. Senec. Suas. 

whidi have been formed hf Cieero. t07 


eii]a«9 Catullus', Lucan/ Silius Italicus, Joveaa], Cornelius Severus, 
St. Jeroni, Aurelius Vicfor, and Cassiodorus, convey tributes of 
unmixed' applause (o Cicen». 

Quiiitiliaii calls him " coeiestis vir." 

The celebrated simile of Longinus illustrative of the different 
diaracter of the eloquence of Cicero and Demosthenes, makes us 
regret that he did not pursue the parallel further. 

Auhts GelKus, after making remarks on the rhetorical powers 
of the principal Roman orators, shows that perfection in the art 
ifras reserved for Cicero.' 

Lactantius, the Christian Cicero, as he is called, had evidential 
a high idea of his Pagan prototype : •* non tantum perfectus orator, 
sed philosiiphvis fu it."* 

Amol^tus proves his sentiments in his reply to those who pro- 
posed bttrnhig the works of the orator, because they thought them 
obstacles to the progress of pliilosophy : *' intercipere scripta et 
pubiicatam velle submergere lectionem, non est deos defendere, 
sed^eritatis testimonium timere." 

8aint Augustine appears to have admired his eloquence, but 
not the complexion of his rnibd.: "ejus linguam fere omnes miran* 
tur, pectus non ila."' 

Petrarch was -not less struck with the cast of his mind, than with 
the grandeur of his eloquence ; ** interdum non Paganum phitoso* 
phnm, sed apostolum ioqui putes," he^ says in one of his letters ; 
and in his Triumph of Fame : 

'* £d uno al cui passar Terba fioriva, 

Questo e quel Marco TuUio in cui si mostra 
Chiaro quanto eloquenza, e frutti, e fiori» 
Questi son gli occhi della lingua nostra.'' 

Sebastiauo Corrado, an Italian critic, in his dialogue intitled 
Quastura, which is an inquiry into the life and character of' 
Cicero, viiTdicates him with warmth from the aspersions cast upon 
^ him by Plutarch and Dio. lie concludes his remarks w^th these 
words : *• non omnibus ego, sed singulis ita praefero, ut audeam 
peue dioere a condito orbe ueminem fuisse, quern prorsus cum 
Cicerone conferre possumus." 

In the iVtagliabecchi library at Florence, I fell in with' a small 
publication, printed at Venice in the sixteenth century, intitled 
Cicero rrhgatus et Cicero revocat us. It consists of a. dialogue 
held by three Venetian gentlemen at Belinzona, on th^ demerits 
iind merits of' the orator. Theiirst part, after collecting all the 


* Noct. Mt. X. c. S. 
^ De fals.Relig. 
^ Aug. Confess, iii. 

108 On the Different Opinions 

abuse that can be mustered against him, doses with a decree to 
banish him, and fine those who shall study his works ; the se* 
cond collects panegyrics from all quarters, and the dialogue 
closes with rescinding the decree of his banishment, and bearing 
his statue in triumph. * 

The opinion of Erasmus is singular. In the early part of his 
life he inveighed against Cicero ; but in maturer age, he changed 
his sentiments, and entertained an opinion of him bordering on 
idolatry : " me legentem sic afficere solet M. TuUius, prseserttm 
ubi de bene vivendo disserit, ut dubitdre non possim, quin iHud 
pectus unde ista prodierint, aliqua divinitas occuparit."' 

It appears that, in the sixteenth century, a certain rage of ad- 
miration for Cicero seized many of the diisttnguished men of tlie 
court of Leo X.^ at the head of whom were Buonamieo and 
Bembo. EraBmus undertook to write down this enthusiasm, 
which it must be acknowledged was carried to excess. He en- 
gaged Budaeus in the controversy. Erasmus was anathematiMd 
by the Ciceronians, for having affirmed at the age of twenty, that 
a perusal of Cicero's works annoyed him, and that St. Jerom 
wrote better Latin. Julius Caesar Scaliger disgraced himself in the 
contest, by heaping upon Erasmus the most opprobrious epithets ; 
which were repeated by one Dblet, a Frenchman, who was burnt 
alive at Paris, convicted of irreligion, A. D. 1546. The dispute 
made so much noise in the literary world, that a history of^the 
dvil war between the party of Erasmus and the Ciceronians wai^ 
written by a learned man of the day, but never published. This 
literary affray terminated as it ought, by conhoing the public 
admiration for the orator within reasonable bounds. Julius 
Ciesar Scaliger conveys a warm panegyric in his Philippic against 
Erasmus ; " tjus scripta sunt ejusmodi, ut in ipsis illius etiamoum 
mens spiret, atque is genius, qui arcanam quandam efferat ener- 

Joseph Scaliger had a high opinion of his eloquence, but a 
poor one of his pliilosophical works : *' libros omnes philosophicos 
Ciceroni<» nihil facio ; nihil enim in lis est, quod doceat, demon- 
stret, et coj^at,. nihil Aristotelicum." 

Cardinal Du Perron said: '* il y a plus en deux pages de 
Cic^ron, qu'en dix de Seneque; il y a plus en une 6pltre de 
Cic6ron, qu'en dix de Pline. La r^publique de Rome n'a rien 
jd'^gHl k elle, que r61oquence de Cic^ron."* 

But of all the moderns, Conyers Middleton has done Cicero 
the fullest justice ; though perhaps he may sometimes be taxed 
with beinj: too enthusiastic in his favor. He usually endeavours 
to«xall the orator at the expense of Brutus, Casaius, and othera; 

> £p. ad Ulatt. 

* deshgerana ct Perronians. 

which Jkate been formed i^ Cicero. 1Q9 

ill niatlciv too of inferior impoctaDcey and in cases wherein from 
tbe sudden and rapid iibases, which politicMl aftairii then uHsoiiied^ 
we may presumie that Cicero was »& nften in the wrung as tlio 
otters. The stodere »nd philosophical Atticus is not s|iared ; 
he is ID feeneral too cold in hi» friendship for Middh* ton ; who 
would have him speed p«»4»t-haste from Vttica to'Arpiuum, on 
the reception of any quertdous letter. In spite of these ftrw blem- 
ishes, hi'i work remains a standard specimen of biography^^ and 
perhaps liie most p^'rlect, that the English language can show. ' 

It may be wished that he had devoted another section tQ an 
analysis of the orator's works. We can only conclude that of 
such volume was ttie heart, of iuch force and cxubt^^ipe was 
the genius of Cicero, that Middleton* though a very siiperior 
man, had neither energy nor time suthcieni tor tlie undertaking. 

It is to be regretted that the philosophical Ba%ie did not 
handle the life; of TulUu9. In one of his notes to the article 
TuUia, be seems to think that the world has been deprived of the 
finest of the orator's woiks. The high opinion, which that 
eminent critic entertains of Cicero* is o|ie of the very few points 
in which hi* is not sceptical. 

F^n^lon, in iiis Dialogiie on Eloquence, prefers with judgment 
the later to th^ earlier orations ; and though be bestows the palm 
of superiority on Demosthenes* he withholds not a .warm enco- 
mium from his rival ; in. which opinion D*Auger, the French trans- 
lator of Pempsthenes, seems to coincide. 

Rapin* in the b^st paf^Hel that has been written between the 
Athenian and Roman orators, is of opinion that the eloquence of 
Cicero is better adapted to make an impression on the minds of * 
the populace, than that of Demosthenes. 

The Abb6 D'Olivet was so Enthusiastic in his admiration of 
Cicero, that he not only devoted the greater part'of his life to 
commenting his works, but felt irritated if any body uilged any 
thing against hb favorite author. 

Quite tbe' reverse Odontesquieu ; who, in his parallel between 
Cato and Cicero, says that -virtue in the latter was merely an 
accessary ; that with a datfzling genius, be possessed a common 
mind; that he was incapable of filling the first station iu the 
republic, during the rage of a civil war ; that he only wished its 
salvation, to prociire applaiise for himself; seeing thiugd always 
** k travers de cent petites passions.' ~ 



' Graudeiir el \)6cd<\. des Remains. He^found ii c^sv to write this 
in his snog retreat at B^irdeaux. What sort of pati^icns wuull he bsTe 
mustered before the Verres, the Pisus, the Catiliues, ilie Aiitooii ?•— 
Grand friikknit tu aurmt iU icrnf^-^Ue seems however^ to ^^^ 
^voit of amende honorable for the i^t>ove assertion in his J^enUti ^' 

1:10 On the D^crtent Opimons 

. Blair» in his valuable Lejrtures, analyses his oratory wMl a 
judicious and tenperate admiration; but agrees witli Fi^o^ftoif 
iu preferring DemosUienes even as a popular orator. 

We may iofer, I tfaink^ froni the works of Labarpe^ cerfainly 
one of the. first critics of the last centery^ tliat he pneferred 
Cicero-upon the whole to Demosthenes as an orator. 

IKAzara^ late ^^paui&h ambassador at Paris, not only translated 
Middleton into his own masculine dialect, but embelhshed hi!l 
production with engravings from valuable busts and medals*; lio 
added moreover interesting annotations, which declare a' mind 
almoht immersed in the contemplation of the various excellencies 
of CiceroT^ 

Voltaire was lavish of his admiration; and entertained even a 
high opiniou of bis poetical talents: '* Va-t-il rien de plus beau 
que les vers qui nous sont restes de son poeme sur Marius?" 

Rousseau thought him nothing but a declaimer. His opinion 
however, one way or the other, is not of much import ; for though 
a man. of ardent imagination, and fine wit, it may be questioned, 
whether he knew how to appreciate duly ^ that steadiness of 
principle, necessary for the formation of a great statesman and 

Burke, in more than one of his orations, bursts forth with en- 
comiums strongly pronounced. 

Not so Fox ; whose opinion as to his character, though not as 
to his.eloqueiice, conveys but a cautious and cold approbation ; 
whether from thinking that he already enjoyed his full share of 
celebrity ; whether from disgust at certain passages in his works, 
betraying self-conceit ; whether from an habitual scepticism' on 
historical topics in general^ uncertain.* 

Of all those, who have discussed the political affairs of Rome, 
Hook,, in his History, has done more to detract from Cicero's 
merit than any other. Had he not been a learned man, his re-^ 
marks, would be consigned to oblivion. Ingenious as many of his 
notes are, a fixed determination to lower Tullins iu the public 
estimation- is but too apparent. It is amusing to trace the pains 

venesi- in which he says: " Ciceron, selon moi, est un des plus grands 
tsprits qui aPent jamais ete; Tame toujours belie, lorsqu'elle u'etait 
pas faible." 

' The political career of Fox corresponded in the essentials with 
the-Roman orati^r's* Greatly, however, as England is indebted to his 
noble exertions, it is incontestable that he was neither so grea^ an orator, 
neither did he move in so ardiK)us a sphere, neither had he the legal 
attainments, or so much philosophical grandeur as Cicero; neither did 
he purchase his fi^me with somuchsufferinir or personal hazard. In one 
point, and in one alone,' ho was superiorp to Cicero ; afidihat was in rarely 
ailudiog to himself, and when he did, in doing it with modesty. 

whieh have hden formed iff Cicero. Ill 

wbicb fae tdkes to harpoon him wHh- bis spleen, and cat him up 
pieCfe-meal- for the mark«ti l>ie fish, however, that he encouiF 
ters is- too great ; the hook has little, or no hold. 

The orator also ap|)ears to be no great favorite with Melmoth; 
towhom we are indebtied for an elegant version- of the Epi$iolns 
Familiares. He dwells with apparent satisfaction on contra^ . 
dictory passages ; and draws therefrom positive conclusions 
prejudicial to the orator,- without making due allowances for the 
possibility of tiie toss of any intermediate letters ; for the rapid 
alterations to which pithlic affairs were subjected, from th^ 
extraordinary characters of Ca?sar and Pompeius ; which proba- 
bly made Cicero appear one day hasty or weak, while the next 
might prove him- to have been in the same case temperate and 

Lord Bolingbroke, in his treatise on Exile, seems to look down 
OR the Man of Arpinum with a mixed sentiment of pity and 
contempt. It is true that he seizes him in the most vulue^ 
Table part, which is his conduct during ^banishment. That it had 
nothing of the firmness of the Stoa, the welt-known letters to 
Te'rentia abundantly prove. But was Lord Bolingbroke an 
adequate judge of Tuliius in this case ? Did he ever come in 
contact with such a powerful desperado as Clodius ? Could his 
retreat in Orleans be put in competition with the exile of Cicero 
at Thessalonica ? Did he, after having rescued his country from 
a formidable cons|>iracy, reap as a reward, the sale of his estates, 
the burning of his palace, the separation of his wife and children, 
himself houseless, defenceless, and 'driven from place to place Uke 
the meanest outcast? If he did, and s!H»wed that firmness in his 
reverses, which he laudsr at the expense of Cicero, his criticism v 
would not fail to have due weight. Henr^ St. Juhu I Though 
your periods maybe more Ciceronian than those of oth^r English 
writers, posterity will compel you to stand on even ground, before 
you can presume to turn up your nose at Tuliius in exile 

Of all the charges which have been urged against Cicero, one 
too which has obtained no trifliuji^ credit, tlrat of coward icf ap- 
pears to stand on the slenderest f(»undation. Let us briefly re- 
capitiilate the leading actions of his life, not with the hope of 
.being able to place them in a new point of view, but tiiat those, 
who persist in thiakiug him a poltroon, may strive to reconcile 
as they can those acts, at one glance, with their opinion. 

Not then to insist on the extraordinary industry of his juvenile 
years, which enabled him at the a^e of >ixteen to discus^, lu the 
prcafiiiccuf thciixit Jawyers of Kome, the necessary qualifications 
of an orator, and which if not actual courage, must have depend- 
ed on a quality of mind very nearly allied to it; we find himi 
abortLy after the commencement of his legal career/ traversing 

as ' (M th* MHJjflertm Opmiofii ' 

M Sicily oa foot, braving at eWry nl^p the ageots Mhd wtfimini 
of Verres^; and not oiilyiil the 'iouitinrat fwril of his life pr»> 
carini; niaferitiU for the uiost bplep<ii<l specimens of forensic elo^ 
qoence extaitt, but thereby eotailiniL' oi) his own head the hatred aad 
inakdictioii9.of more than hfilf of ijie Roman aristocracy. — First 
pioof of his f[H>wardice, 

' After the promulgation uf Olho's law, whijch assif(ned separata 
ieatt to the theatre to the equestrjan order, Cicero, as s^on as 
iafornied of .the dmiurbance which consequently e^isued, and of 
the blows eiv en and received by the partisans an<1 oppo&ers of 
the hiw, entered the theatre in bis toga conhUarpt^ or< tered the 
tnactaiors to fallow him forthwith to the temple of BcHonai f has- 
tised then) there with the valor of his tongue,, and so wrbtigbt 
upon them with his eloquence, that they not only returned in order 
to the theatre, but vied with the knights themselves in conferrioff 
applause on that Otho, whom jo^t before they b^d overwhelmed 
with hts«ies. — Second proof of his cowardice. 

We almost f^el a repugnance in adverting to the well-knowQ 
particulars of the CatUitiatian conspiracy, sounding, |is the^ do^ 
111 the ears 'of every scbooUboy; to his unwearifKcl exertions in 
deteirtiiig and pooisbipg the most nefarious project ev€^r coi^c^ved 
to undermine the settled order of a state. Neither the number, 
nor ferocity of the conspirators, many of whom were of tbe 
first families, nor the suspicion of Ctesar himself beiog privy to 
Ibe plot, nor the concjoiisness of bis own bead being destined for 
amputation, could deter him from laying open thje fvhole eouspi- 
racy in five splendid (Mrations, and thereby proving himself uot merely 
tbe most energetic civil phief magistrate that ever acted on % 
rimOar emergency, but, as the repulse of Catiline from Prsenestf 
showed, an active apd intelligent military officer : 

" -.-^,- galeatum ponit ubique ' 

Presidium attonitis, et in omni gente laborat/** 

* • ' '- •" .i* " 

This then must pass for the third proof of hb cowardice ; which 
shall be further corroborated by the prompt measures whteh he 
took. to punish Lentulus . aiid Cetbegus under. bis own eyes; V 
daring expedient, s|id only justifiable from ihe'^inmiiaeiit^daiigers 
which be^t the republic' , > ; - 

' The Iboftb shall be the incontestable evidence that we posssss 
of his having directed the artillery of his ^loqu^nce against:.die' 
mosl opulent, iniquitous^ ami powerfpl individuals. The Vetres, 
the Pisos, the Cii>dii» the Gabinii, tbe Anteaiii; : : 

' Acfj^f^W}^^ to Ar^i^nt Cicerpi at the head «<f .soii|e tntops, sejcured 
tksir persijns, dtii) itTeu rcturhedTb'tri*i mm late, i6 (lecicfe'rVt^pecniigiiiefi • 
if -sow ^ was in perfect order: but suM)u!>iii^ he w^a nuj:» was 2)^ |iot 
cU^Bf insglstnte in a cri^s of uoexsmpled .difficulty ?^Api|^^^o* i^ iV }• 

Ts^hi^^mfk«m0iMkd ^iSkero. IIS 

were pinioned dcmn hand and foot, by the invectives of this nota- 
ble poltroon. Not to dwell on the vigor of heart and intellect» 
on which the delivery of hit extemporaneous debating speeches 
must have depended, nor on the boldness with which he facedf" 
the people, to dissuade thenl from acceptiog the law proposed by 
RuUus, a law best calculate^ of alt others to foment their feverous 
passions; nor on the spirit which he showed at the siege of Pin- 
denessus, where there appears at least to have been some smart 
skirmishing, let us hasten to the codsideratiou of the circumstances 
6f bis death, which in the ojiioion of his detractors, alford abun- 
dant proofs of his pusillanimity. 

We find from Plutarch, that he was at Tusculanum^ when the 
iitvr$ of his being included in the proscription of tiie triumvirate 
reached him. He and his brother Quintus immediately betook 
tbemsdives to the Asturan villa; but not having made tbeir 
final arrangements, on the road they agreed to separate, after 
many demonstrations of reciprocal affection ; Quiiitus, to return 
to Tusculanum, to procure necessaries for the voyage ; Mkrcus^ 
to provide by the aeu-shore, a vessel for their escape. In the 
interval, Quintus appears to have been killed. Marcus, having 
found a boat at Astura, embarked with the view of dropping down 
to his Fornian villa ; but his stomach being discomposed by the 
notion of the v«s«e!, lie was put on shore near the Circeian pro- 
montory, (Punta di Terracina,) Here, it is true, he passed a nigtit 
iq cniel agitation ; aiid Uie next morning he walked about twelve 
miles oo the fiaAppia towards Rome, with the view of falling b? 
his own hand in the palace of Octavius. Here again he app^drs 
to have been perplexed by doubt; for the thought, which came 
across his niind, of the probabiUty of meeting on the road (be 
endlssaries of the Triumvirs, who most likely viould have put him 
to a cruel d«aftb, iudvced him to turn b»ck» and regain hie 
Fornian vttta ; where it appears that he determined to await hii 
destniy. But bis attendants, more anxioas for the preservatioik 
of bis life tlian himself, bad prepared a litter to convey him to 
tlie beach, which tliey with difficulty persuaded him to euter« 
The assassins shortly after, came up with him ; when eyeing theoi, 
9lf»dfiistly, he protruded his veiu^rable head, so covered mik 
dblted filth and dust, so disfigured by anxieties, as to be scarcely 
Keogniaed by hisattendbms; who, it appears, were willing to 
fight for him, but pursuant to the comaEiands of their master^ left 
lll^ executioners to do their business.* 

* Satis consmt sehros paratos fitisse ad dimicandum ; iiieum d«'p<'ftl 

VOL. XXII. CY. J/. NO. XLlll. H 

114 ^ ^ iOji th Biff&rmt OfMoHa > 

Flutarefa, vhen lie* M^rs tttfit we itmmtit* ew mg in p late il» eidt 
without ptty, evi4eaily'mwli|k«i the 4imbtf vmli M4iieir the orator 
WA» beset, (or fear ; for as soon as be had determined to die, few. 
meD could meet their end with more firmness. 

But, cry his detractors, did he iK>t turn, pale, and betray proofs 
of fearfoL agitation, in the delivery of the Pro Milone? What I 
would they have had him present a btixom rubicund physiognomy, 
with the weight of one of the most difficult aud brilliant defence^ 
exeff uttered pressing on his nerves, at a moment when the Clodiaa 
faction was by no means extinct, when there was more thau aa 
even chance that he would again witness those disturbances,, 
which before compelled htm to seek refuge at Thessalonica 1 So 
rational, so conscientious are these dealess in liypf*rcriticism, that 
thc^ would iiave had Tullius possess all that fine and strong' feel* 
ing on which pure eloquence depends, and not have had him., 
possess it. His anxiety, his agitation, call it, if yo^ y/Wl, fear, did 
jpot prevent him from facing his adversaries, and delivering the 
oration in person.' 

It is not so easy to emancipate him ffom the imputation oi 
vanity. Candor indeed compels us to confess that there are 
Certain passages in his orations, more especially in those which 
were delivered on his return from exile, in wliich he is almost 
lulsome; and the unfortunate letter toLucceius remains a standing^ 
proof of those accesses of weakness to which the gri*atest of our 
sj)ecies are occasionally liable^ Yet something perhaps should 

Iscticam, et quietos pati, quod sors iniqua cogeret, jussisse. Xiv^. aju 

A fragment of Au6diu8 Bassus, a Roman historian, telis us that he 
even anticipated the assassins: *^Au&dius Bassus^ et ipse, nihil dubi<^ 
6ivit de anirno Ciceronis,quiu fortiler se morti non prstbuerit tantiim,' 
ied pbtulerit; et remote velo, postqiiam armatos viditt ego verd con- 
st(>to,«it, aecede, vetefaoe, et si hoc saitem rect^ ^)otes Ucere, int^ide 
eervioem.'' The vercmn hesit£(ting, he appears to haiw encoumged^hinf 
wi|H a sort of joking d^&LOce : ^^ treiBeoti deiude dAibUiint^Mei qui^ a<t 

feyioguity &i primum veftissetisl^ X suppose ywvi wauld£sint arvvay;«i^ 
were the first, whom you had to exe<;me. •' •• ., 

We see from the preceding sentence, that Liviiis^ not vpfv warm Tn 
his admiration of Cicero, bears Alii testimony to the cour&ge \Nrti1ch h.*^ 
displayed m his la?t moments; he adds: **promincnti txlectic^, pfa^ 
iMftdque tmmotani cervidcm, caput prcecisum est/' LiV. a]i. Sdnec* Suas^ 
VIv.-> ■ ' ' ' • 

t ' The Specf^h indeed is believed to have be^ retouched^ but isei^ 
|ip reahoa tor doiibtirjor ihat it was, delivered nearly tp ^ simiUr t^|)Q{| 
'* Ep. Faniit V. ep. 12. » ' -I. 

His owa words will be often Tound^ however^ to vindicate "Cicero oi 
Yfl^7-i£^'"'j: though fertiin ly not a lways \ i* £t( ^ >u n >a in hj^o-feprithftBdia 
oudd solere me dicas de nie ipso gloriosius pradicare ; quis uiiquatn au- 
oivil^uiii t|pde vei-iw cbdiBUis^ aic otioesflikrwdiMnBiu^ iNon^tlim 
U ' ^ , : ' ' '^ t ^ *. , ;•• f'^V 

t^^fiece^Vtf.uuder which he labored^ of co^fixmiv^hy hU ;Q«9f 
example thie waveriiig oj^uj\j»a^ of sejk'er^l of .those 99 ,wii4M«r 
iat^grk^ tlie^salvalion ^f the , republic depended ; %amf thing iai» 
tpat traiisceoydaucy of mind, which auUioci^^d iu iiini:c^i;tain devia^ 
tiQ^ftfrom.cpinmaa^ruleSs which v^onld l>e iue^cusalije in iuinfl3» 
of»^ qrdinary ^ta^p ; sav^e^hinfi^ tQO for tlvose iioipu^es of ^x^u^t^^^ 
t|pi)^ to which,, tiiough better becoming ii politician th^u fi phiioi^* 
T^rj.i\)n^ natural for him to give wayi after {n^ving triumph^ 
ayer> tb^ ioti^^ity of the Clodian f^.ctiQ^^, MuQh,a& fy^ b^^.iof ,ulf 
€|i^ hiiE^;tongue2 no man had less of it in bi$ heart*. . 

His unequalled caris^r, at tb^ bar, and ihe splcador of hif:ci^. 
aiilate> ij^dnce^ fiost pcop^,to,^ expect litile less'tha^ miracles (u^m 

S^e^o ;ai?d ,tiu? position in which He jis mo^ exposed ta attack, is, 
con^duct which he. observe^, with- respect -to. the Caesarean i^Qd: 
^pnipeian f£|c^ions, T|^ wprd factian will, Xihink» |[o a grfsat;. 
nvay towards yindicathigtbe steps which he pursued ;. which' to, 
J^, aflujators of liereditary chief magistmcies^ established by fo«^ 
<]^ frmf, appef^r unsatisfactory, and oscillating. 
.^.It sbQuld be j^emembered that the party of Csesar was evidently* 
a faction purely militarj/, diverging from the civil institutious o^ 
the republic,.. Tbat of Pompeius too, though- far mor^ plausible 
thaulus iant^gonist';s, , screened asjt was by tbe ostensible motivQ; 
of protecting: the existing ciyil institutions, ought, I apprehend,^ 
rather to be .considered as the jival military faction of Caesar^ i£ 
contemplated in its true light. ^ The defeat at Pharsalia cert'4^1^-, 
Ij preserves the honor of Pompeius unimpeachable, since we ^cj^ 

I ■ r 1- ! ■ ^ M ■ ! ■■■■ ■ ■ ' .' ' . . - p i I. I ii if ii* 

sum ex istimandus d&gestis rebus gluriariy quaoa de object^s uqn QonH-*^ 
teri." Pro domo sua ad Pontifices. 35. 



itpmyifafra Qp€iS»$ datus ; ty» ' • - . 

^. • • . . . ^* &mwa iei^Kov fiTToMs 9(rT^<f>t^y<oT,(U y (jjvf^^v^oy Mym Km jniro^^ 

'. }JLovo$ rwv \fyoytwy, kcu vtTroKir tuo^ievm, ryot mjifrris evpoias rot^iv 40 

rMs B^ufois ovK i\nrou, ... '.,.,» 

^j, diMS^MT%n§urpa9Vypi:nT9ypa^vr*,aff€fk6,uypwltcufi9hTi9Vfi^^ 

wparrovr.jL ri rpe^^ ^ijtc irfffirfievovTia irpffT^wxat .vffftdufioTfpov, nrp-t diKi^ortpoy, 
. . '. ■. , . kou Tavrix fiol JravTa TTfirotriTai,' Kai*ov7ifis fiyivoTf cwQpwvw tvpoi t<^ 

r kX t tfO t Pi -! i^i .--.-r- --- - - •' ■- • -- — .. - - 

KUi fieyurr^v S9 irpayyLarav t«v war* ^navrov ctvBpcaircoy vpoaraSf^ 
i' ravTa byiws kui 'ZtKaids tftvokncvjiai, Zia t«ut* o^tw -fijitao-^ot; . .' . . . 
• * - • IIE91 illTB^AflfCm 

TH«^tPuthH that Demosthenes i9 not so mucbtttflltdd. * '"> 

♦TM*' wr^f'be ©ohfirtet^l* Ihr ai''Sab$eqii*fit»ilot*,' afevfgr-4ll 'ten»'lfc» 
dMiti*feAtftesdi9ak>|i(y willadtiiii. -^ • f »' 

■ ff 

swkil i rfi MtMiif foMhe %ith fespect *t« kit idtcrioc ppc^^flMi. 
Biit^li^w iMitttd 'he htv« asted had he tbenf btai tht c#mut< aff^ 
1M»'to» Mt u nriiifirf man iii( the mml exIetKiad t^sseoftheairdidf 
BM iM»t CicCTo, iiitiaMte ai*his knom^edfe iia« of liuasan. oa&it^ 
Aaw*tfi# imnP« than probable ioleieiice, that the final rasidttoftbe 
lepuMic wooM hmt been pretty iiinUar^ whether CaMftr or PompcM 
eottqilered at f haprsiiHal Hour then did ha act n that cotjjjiiiitjotait:^ ' 
As-tftvil appaf<^ni^'aa a riet7 ivdhrMluah couM» who badtbelMMl 
intDirailta'or the vepnibHc at heart ; and who was bent on anppDiii^ 
the good eame, wtlh^ijt tw^tmhf eoRlpromtsiiig iiimctf wtlb Pao^' 

tchlSt'aniA his eohitilk} \ for thongh be ^tns not in tiie £eid, we find 
im active at Dyttachium, in doing nil that a «iai£ indMiiilJ' 
tMldf to jmip the tetilitig fortmin of the rspuMte* - :<}a 

His canHii^ detractors eSB apfiroT^ bb eondnct only wllh)the' 
pfoviioi of his haVtng served wmder Pompeius in the aetiona tiaar 
Dyrrachinro, and at Pharsalia; of his classing himself at a TeHtttra. 
#m l ii i g thaf general^ 'centarionsi and of seeing him driven- from 
milk t^fank by Mustering military chiefs. rTiwii fotsooth, l^otfUI' 
feat^e bbev a proper sphere /or him, who* alone by hit aMf 'naat-' 
tinns had rescued the state fram nu atrocious conf piracy:;! ftfi^r 
Mm, who' ^afir of eonsiter dignity, and who had Ihrewn sock hiiliK 
Maidd the chief magistracy and Uie trftiinaisl ' >|r. r 

'Neither would tlieybe latisfied with titis* They requirer 4iii9» 
iMIerthe battle of Pliarsalia; to have foHbwed tbt discomfited 
Ayrtuhe of F^raipeius, and have died with him. on (he Egypljan 
utrand; though it is obvious that few or no hopes fer the repnUie 
«Nmld have remained had be done so ; and though' it k inc#ntMa-* 
Mutbtfl by resuming his staUito in Italy, iie at once consulted f fats 
eiwnidlgliity/proted Ilia cOunlge/ and ^rmedA ntcessmry fa%fil^-* 
^polntfor'lhe separated partisans of Pompeius ; preferftng>4o<:b«s 
•^rilshed^ by the tottering fabric of the citadel^ rather than biik^/ 

.ifoiot i^nobljK, at Jeaja JuniJiofitaWy- in tlicPJUteoxfo. . . P^Uxif^- 
lonsits* m affairs of sucbmomeut, ought certaioly npt l|^|!n. 

; -into account by those wbo Attempt to draw^conclMsions in v his 
tiltMM*; bnt we amnot diaoover any raaaon why heskoaldkwve 
felt strong yearnings of personal affection for PoiRpeHia»^'wbo* 

'repulsed nim with contumdy, idien Be implored his assistance, 
;igaiai^t Cloflivs;, whp on his return from the Mitt) rldsttrc'ii;^^,' 

. teUified towards Cicero nothing but a polite potdoesst fruit' ptiihftr^ 

• b4y of the jesdousy which he entertained of the glory accruipg to 

* the orator, from the annihilation of the Catibnarian conspiracy.' . , 

■!>•■ iiirnUi 

*' '<<InPompciu nihil come, lubll simplexi nihil jibenuBy nihil •siit'^ 

< ii«IMviiic Aoaesfttif?,'' in one uf th« iettars to ^ticusi and in anotber^^^s 

>qidi wAi^^ibi quondam ad pedes suamsne fublwrabat fuideUfi*'' ^^m/9%9^ 

'S^miiW'^mkjUign^m HkKilinHita jH)«i«r may be discovat adiiroai Ibee^ftdvct 

W Pomt»eius. WteMrm?CttBBim?«ynicFOtiMNUMiUM^ 

^^Vt^^toii tlito ckHtelyto the point* how tyonHMii'fpiiitgi \mm 
hsftiiiim mcti Would Ifaey iwve hud fatmcvst himsdf««Mivf«iitwrili 
%iii4 ^Nvthdttt anj 7eMrve» mumf^ tho ceotttrbfia of P^wpaiwiif 
. llMb would ha^ beeo. ssxaliaiial as Uie »rcfaite^t,fein#vii^,tll^ 
Maui buUicsif necessaty for the support of the eeatre of Wiiottl 
. baildhig; to use of the #iugt.u WouM tji«f have bad hiw eap o»at 
, at oocoiiCauaf^eislelnestsI Thn wonU have beta a d^felictipn of 
Mm anise' of liberty^.of the wtpMie^ ^ thoae firiuQipi^ wbioh.|te 
|ia4 ttnltoofly ftopporled, and tantamoont to treasoiw Would iAojr 
kwni bax^hki^^word ui haod» head a third party of his o«^u 1 Tm 
%Mrwottld4iwve ooovnlsed the siijuug and shattered reputiHc wMi 
^'WMlwdlitaiy Action. If the line of conduot which Ue observoi 
appears at all unsatia&etoFj* it must be attributed to, the diffieukies 
^oceaskmed by the extraordinary qualities of the coutendiog rivals 
'jutherthan^teangr tioiorousness, 4>r te^veraalioD spriugiog froas 
.Inaisdf. it i i , . ... 

1* But," ceMtioae hie detiaeters^ '^ it jeJmixa^sibl^ to auipeuut 

-htohavitag 'flattered Caesar." Do those, who oODtdemo.him pouil 

-Uauk* lor %is, wei^ attentively the ' auperior qualities . with, whieh 

^ulais waeif^edl the paranoval aaceodsuicy which hp 

.jqntfedy- HOC only with the aiinyand,people».bttt with at least (Me 

half of the senate? Great as -TuUius was^ it would not do for him 

:fv1cielr'«I^Tamh)ln against Ifie pykka of the 'nau^ whea^'Udfents 

40^(10 sorvaried'andextniordtnaiy, and whose paiallelvkienergieaatKl 

•iMMOaics^s iiever oxisited, cither befae or a ince< bia period. CkaHo 

inew him >vell; bevraa aware that though banned head^^Hig by 

atebitioo, ho had a heart aaseeptible of ^neroua improsliaas^ 

neither was he a nam to be oontroUed by.lauul* ond lopsoiichnk 

By nsiag then eoncilaKoij ineana»..he iiopedi if oqt.toiexlinfiiaah 

>'tlie jealottiitatbat iaobsiatlBd betunan? the -two* tiva^ u| leaatt^^o 

:fitfaiitthe lolbads Vbatwero blackcdag oir ^ippoaite otdtoaoCtie 

' when Cbsax' was in ^pain. With the hope that the latter i^M tm^^ir^ 

' Csesar not haying yet tully developed his aitabitiuus' views f ^ Per earn nisi 

Tsellicitas aum ; ao malo vetereni. ac dementem dooMoaai habereyi ,qm$a 

^xrudeleni ^oovum experiri..ScisCiieiuaqi4Qi sit fatims: scis quoiaiodo 

. crudeiUatem virtutem p<^tet.'' Cass. Cicerun. Famil. XV« tP. I*^t^rculu8 

400 cooiirais his«ecittt aim ,at..exoibitant power: ^** Deque JPoinpeius.^ut 

primOfm ad rerbpuMicam est adgressuf, qucnauain aniino pareOi tont." 

xl. c. 33. Appian 41so states that Pompeiu», when ordered by the bonsuls 

" to^head the drniies of the republic against Ctesar, repll^dy fhat^he Waa 

ready to obey them in all things, anleas circum&taates su^geslad 

awrffting motf flrffflMMfuAjlgifta Xgog^r^sAaL^ ^as a cunning and 

cvasiye answer. What were the secret suggestions orhis heart, when vn 

. tbraaoraing of Che battle of Pharsalia» turning to bis friends* be remark- 

: ed|' thikt 'on 4whatevcr side the victory migbt prQvt;».it> "waa sM)ra»|eJbo 

'|4w»|^auC ^^xh interminable esdamities .to ^he Roman^oplel.^Mi. Uf c* 

^ VAtt ^hls^^ddito ibew that^ceroV^atitionwitbTeBpacft iaijjoaifaui 

^irs '' On ifie DfJ^i^hlk>pt^d\hi'^ ' 

^pt/kflcA fiorij^on, from co'ming in viotent contti6't,* 'tetA yoBritig 
'then" an^i^ flames on the 'vessel of the state/ As soo'fi irs C«air 
gave proof* of his dishonest intentions, Tu1liu« appears T6 fidVe 

"been not l^ss decided than Brutus, Ca^sius, of- any otfc^r of the 
conspirators. * • » • . 

• **Then why did he not use th^ dagger' in th^ Cwr«« P^m^ 
^ifanat*' Here he seems to have acted with as much judgm^lit^s 
the unprecedented d^fficu]ties of the case would allow, lie whole 
career was so eminently legal, who had grown hoary iii the ci^l 
servfce of the state, would have oflfered violence to his]>rift6ip4es, 

•to Ihc majesty of those laws of which he was the mafin'bulwark, 
tiad he vibrated the poignard with Brutus, Cassius, and se^eraf of 

''the olhers, who were professed military men, or who tiad filled, 

'comparatively with his own, subordinate stations in the republic. 

"We ftiay conclude too that he must have ftflt an intincible i«p«^- 
nance in sheathing a weapon in the breast of that Caesar, liho^e 

•VJtiafftfes of sou! w^re so trauscendant, and who had proved himself 

^no eminent in the faVoifte pursuits of Cicero. ' * 

Standing then as he did, daggerless, in, or near the Curia P'orh- 

'peiafia, fixing merely his ferret and fitry eyes on the gorgeeas 
victim appareled for the sacrifice,' he not only acted ibe mdit 

^ Velitius Ptfterculus vbeerveB that Cicero was the only senator who 
. l^fMised terma <»f recoociliatioii : ''ttoice cav«nte Cicerone eancuidice 

^publicie ;*' contirmed also by Appiao. . Lib. II. c. 4. 

. ?• Philipp. U. passim. Perbaps the first open prooC of Csesar's views 

exploded during that splendid procession in his honor in front of 

"the temple of Venus Geuitrix; on which the tribune Pontius Aquita 

'alone kept his seat. Julius,* starting from the curulfe chair, and on 

thebrink of epilepsy: '*Repete efgd nunc a me refn^CiMicam, Ponti 

Aquila 1" On granung any fiivor to hia pairtiBatis far some days alter- 

^ ivards^ he added : ** si tamen per Pontium Aquilam liaierit." The life of 

' this extraordinary man has never yet been properly handled; it requires 

something higher than the respectable qualities of Plutarch. When we 

consider uie incredible celerity of his movements, the magnanimity 

which lie displayed in pardoning his enemies, the tears wHich he shed 

' on the death of his rival, can we resist froQi dweHtng with complacency 

' on the lines of Virgil? 

" Ca'ndidus insoerum miratur limen Olympi, 
Sub pedibusque videt nubes et stderaD^phnis; 
Erg6 alacris sylvas, et cetera rura vohiptas, 
Panaque pastoresque tenet, Dryadasque puel las." 
Dark spots indeed we 6nd in his character; but they are snrh as we 
liehold in the sun, which the circumambient fire conceah ^tom all 'Mt 
microtcopic eyes. 

» Ovulis cepi, Ad Att. XIV. ep. 14. Wfe may infer from this that He 

^ ^present, or tfliout the scene of action. But there is a passage in a 

"'toTrebociuS, difiicult to reconcile with this : ** Qu|infi vellemad tlfia 

Hrrimas emdas Id^ Mart, me invitftSsesf" Perhaps this appare&tcofa- 

illoD is explained by taking epmik fiteraUji a dhmet perhaps g^ven 

leiiajt leflst.tbe.rj?9t of.fhe consipirators is cmirsge; for if any Ihinf 
baclhappeaod adyeriie to tbem, Tullias, whose political seatiments 
^refe.Mr«U.kiio\Yii, w>iikl bttte S9ld<€e at A.dieaper rate thatt 
the olhers who were armed. ... .. 

« . Xlie.CKfidiict wbieb .Ctcere «bs^rrid subsequent to the death of 
C«$ar« aeema not h*89 satisfactory aiiU judicious; for if the^senatCy 
as he advised, and jiot the conspirators onh{« had assemUed iu the 
capitcJ, the repubhc ^perhaps might have been saved, or atleast 
«pared> thoae sangutoary seenes,which took place during the second 
IriMmvirateJ Those viho per&ist in taxing Cicei^ with cowaralicc'y 
must first tear to pieces Brut us and Casbius, who after the assas^stoft^ 
lioh'of Caesar, -retired to Antiam^ frenm.^ar of tlie popnlaoe^ thoagh 
they fiUed the^ofiica. of. tor; but Cicero at that period filled 
none hut. hls^ usual senatorial station ; had he at that crisis held a| 
ostensible a one as prsetor, he itnost probably wotdd not :baye re- 
tired at such a moment from the scene of action. No doubt he 
<would have displayed the same .firmness as iu the affair of Cati- 
line** . 

This also, is vorthv of remark, that had Brutus -and Cassius 
^hoirhas mitch jcidgutentas Cicero, by remaining in Italy, instead 
f>f abseuliug thcmselve:} hi remote provinces,^ they would have 
.beefc able *fe*-49ke advantage ef -the disaenticifis that oeo«rrr4 her 
Avreen Oc|ai»us andAntouius; ihey might then ha ^e easily sided 
.withitbe f4»rmeF tefcrmsh the latter ; whik tlie boy Octavius .might 
iaaR pr<»babiltty have b#en easily 49QntroUed in any further ich^mes 
asflkh he might have nourished hostile to the goverattieut. • Eat 
no more on the political conduct observed by Cicero. 

Tullius as an orator, in the opinion of the most distinguished 
jcritics, Quiiitiiian I believe aloue excepted,"^ \ields the palni to 
.ilia Alheuian riv^il ; thai is to say. In the wielding of <;lose argunic^nt, 
•ii|Drperted by reaistkss fonce of enthymeni, which is unqnestionably 
Abe most valuable prerogative of the orator. .We hav^ievertheiiBSs 
«ne onUion by Citero of h higher order even than the IIEPI 2TI&- 
4AN0V : for the ckfence of Ligarius involves throughout the con- 

^y oneofihe pon^pir»u>t^ wher^ they arranged- subsequent sveasores. 
«-~If he was riot io the Curia Pompeiaua, U is luure tbjdn probable ikait 
.he was close at harid. 

' See Ad Alt. XIV. ep. 10. 

* The reitreat of Brutus and Cassius to Antinro is confirmed by Plu- 
tartch, anrlbyUtrero. Ad Atr. XV. epp. It, 12. ' *. 

' The orator regcets their absence in a letter to Atticus. ^ O.Qniley,\ihi 
^asy qqantain f<iK«4piai^anmus !*' XVI. ep.8. 

. f Oratoces ^eih vel priecipue Latinam eloquenttam . parem faaare 
iGnrcs (Kissunt; x^am Cieeronem cuicmnqne eorum fortiter opposnomi. 
Quint. X. c. I. 

^ -J 

tni of Urn ntet Mleall -ten in ifcctotie; tod ia Ae ■w i Upi 
mui%9(kaay,^^h9Xtn$cW^t «f Yiilgtrityo»^eoBe)niii4««iMi 
«€ ififi|Nditj» or doubtM ttnse on tbe 9»tkcr, Cactvo nat aiii|> 
ouCsliioes Demosihoiici^ bat «Tery other OM(nr<of vriiofle w4»m 
we have any notice. ' *■ 

tn ftree of invective too, and panefjute, and OMie eepaciat^ in: 
volnme of peroration, hit eloqnence is itnguhHrly trin mf dbanU' Ila4 
ha left Its nothing but the condnstons of the '^^rrrfitefy tbeJ^r^ 
MUmu^ and Pro Fanteio^ he wonM have established a sutteitM 
right to the title of a great orator. His moat partial ndhniner# ai«' 
n^verthelesa obliged to eoofess^ that he is not a little mdebted-ta* 
■the iilustriona AUienian.* ^ , it; 

It Is however only as an prator, that DenUMtheaea ews^be said>i^ 
surpass Cicero. • We cannot trace the Gf<e€San dis^NMing |ihikisa<^ 
|»Mcal topics with his friends, like the Roman, ind^pM&d vrtmi* 
meat; or engaaed throngh life in active conwqiondcnee Wfth'tlm 
leading meo of his age ; we cannot discoverhim altentite iani^liii»> 
iflg the mind of a son ; or filling a colomal goaemmeDt with dignii* 
ty« like Cicero ; or extinguishing such dangevons kiteadne fifebranda 
ns Catiline, Cethegns, Clodius, and their oonnterparts. 

He shines preeminent in his correspondence. We havt ao.ieiteii. 
of ancient or modem times, in which we recognise so^oiliplet^ly 
at once the man of business, the ancera 'lliiettdj the ceslona pntriDy 
and the sage* No one ever existed more ambitioiis «ftniegk^t aa4 
no one braved with more cheerfulness, those toils «i4 anaietiea^ 
without which . a substantial fame is wholly anattainable. He <Hd 
not want to scale the temple by an easy and eommodions fligift of 
steps; but was content to work bis way up over briara, slippeij 
inarl# and rough pointed stones. 

One of the most striking featnres ^f bit charadef. waa that 
bttoyant cheerfuluess, which enabled' him not only to graat bin 
speeches with lively sallies, but to be the sool of every > sbeiMgr 
which he frequented. And perhaps this was no small prool^ hm 
greatness. He dWered in this raspect from Demosthcaes^ wha 
was silent and severe. We know that Tiro registered Ins wjH^ 
ci^ms, which be collected in three volumes, and pob&bed after 
Ills death ; and that Ca&sar enjoined those of his friends,* wtf^ 
frequented Cicero; to note down careliilly the aphomais and 
repartees that fell from his fertile mindi' Of those preserved to- m 
by Pliiterch and Macrobius, we may say in the words of Martial i 

" Sunt bona, sunt quaedam mediocria, sunt mala qosedan*'? 

- I JastusLipsius has collated some passages of Cicero and Demos* 
thenesy which prove that the former jiot uafrequently borrowed frotti 
:Ct»e Aihtniaa. Perhaps the principal delect of the Ciceronian "fferiod a 
-is a redvpdant use of stqi^rl^dves. Most of hia oiaiions^ Mun with 
i»*>inii and errimi. 
* Justus lip^s says t ^in facetiis etjocis' Cicero semper dens est*** 

CoRiiificas tbc^ Aukir^M Vaivpsi th^.F«|tiIi/tiie LentuK^ the flratv 
tfc# CatsU) Ibe.CaMliH^^Mi.Mirei^t othera^ fouDU io bioMi. liuecft 
irieod ; aod were no <ioubt as much iodcbted, aniOQg. Itie meti ^f 
tbekagTai^^r- tlieiitifdauM. ctinferfed^iio Iheiii by Cicero, i^ thtj 
dfii/ among posterity ^^ for f^- celebrity . which . Itiey obt^iii; frooi 
lieinlgifioticedRi jiiS'W0rlit« .V ,/ , 

. Tber^ was one .trail in - his character for which be has been uiir 
£lili]^ctiB•lltod;;I<a^llde4o tb^t hupible comph which h# 

ha4-]«e{iiifBe, in endeaToaring to persuade his iellbw-citizens froaa 
tiding with the Clodian faction. This conduct, for which we'ar^ 
tokl by- Appia«» N «tltailed on himself the most galliiig ridicule^ 
ptao a t hiflsiil aiik advantafeous point of view as a real republican 
and-aiaceta patriot* He did not' keep sullenly aloof from his 
aottfitrym«aiy'as«Cor^i»laaus would have done in any sioiihir coin 
joneteie ; atil^ar did he feign indifference for their £ivorabie 
v§imm% llfci a mei« i^ompouad of blood, pride, and ferocity. 
. jlip /ii^ivjdfial'iiiimers€d.:in such high and various pursuits, ev#r 
iaade the head and he^rt step out so weil together. The saai^ 
man^^ho Eliminated with his oratory the highest and most restiv« 
apirita of Rome, oonld be sprightly and hearty with his friendf 
one (mmmt, and thi$ next, absorb^ in the investigation of philoso* 
phical tnitbsw He was spkndidy hospitable, and the maA of busi« 
neas, at Rome ; dignified, and philosophical at Tusculanum; 
blending occaaionally deep reaearch with the gaieties of the world. 
Mi Ma FoMaianj Cvmaay and Pnteolan villaa ; and, as v/9i should 
aay in England, a plain c^nntry gentleman at Arpinum. 

He appears to have been one of the few Romans who kne«r 
horn to appreciate the ^ntimcnt of conpaasion. 
/ He aaems to have looked upon those nations, that were incapar 
bk of maintaining the elective civil chief magistracy, in an inferior 
.poioiof view.; 

The uniformity of bis political sentiments ia confirmed by the 
mamiar of bis death ; which can be contemplated only as a niartyi^ 
Uodi b the cause ofthe electlire civirchief magistracy, and-'of 'ib> 

Iiial cataatrofAe onght indeed to be considered as one of th^ 
jttoat tiagieal ^lecurrenoes in all history ; for with his constitution* 
it miMrbtifvelie«[^more4ifliciilt to MTtt himself with the reqnisitib 
firmneaa, than with such as Brutus, Cassins, C«sar^ aiid' otbatis 
jpopaessed, who were engaged for the greater part of their Sirea ia. 
sieebng their hearts with military service, and consefoetttly b©- 
seaving death of half its terrors. ** Qui talem Ciceraaia oaanm Mtia 
dign^ tieplorare posait, ftlios Cicero non extat.* 

« YaL Max. V. e, 3, , .' ,' 

*^ Tb ffcose, nvhose spirits may be tfcshed by honeaft'lKit'Al^ifliess 
Miempts to realist ^^^ i" *^« Jirrto^iiw cHreers of pnlities orhsW, 
lie shrines like a be&eon '^een on a dlark nigbr, ffom the 'nrklst *of ft 
tenrpestuoos tea, by the distressed mariner; and in this pohit'crf 
•^ew, fie tmtst ahs'ays prove superior to the philosopbicalpolil^chifi 
or pare<m<yra)rst in their elosets; whose 'ipecufatioiis and eithortii- 
♦ions,' fcoT^'Cvar asefnl lo others,-' and honeraWe to themselves^ 
cannot have the same weight as those promulgate by one, tvhb 
"was more engaged in combating poKtical abuses through life, than 
Uny other individual either before or since his period ; and whose 
t!«reer, in spite of its difliculties, seems to have been a pefpetutfl 
^onttnentary on hrs thoughts and assertions. We search iii Vaiti 
#br- his parallel in modern times ; most likely too in anHent. Fdr 
♦he great meii who have figured on the theatre of politics it! otA: 
«ge,' kave found a firmer point d'appui than Cieero; educatftMi 
"15ei fig 'much more widely extended, and conset^uentljr the weapons 
Vyf ferocity much more blunted. He may be said to resemble, in 
the attitude wirtch he presented to the fierce spirits of the latter 
J)erlod of the Roman republic, tlie seraph Abdiel making his way 
trttb firmness along the lines of Milton's legionary demons. - •** 
*• His philosophy was drawn from tlie snblimest sources ; and he 
trppears to liave formed an eclectic system of his own. The trea- 
tises De Qlorio, De Republita, '<\tid the Ex'hortation to philosophy 
Intitled Horfensius, are great losses to the* literary world . It is 
certain that Petrarch had the first in his possession, and St.- Au- 
gustine, the last.' The Dt Republica "was also entire in France 
flbout the tenth century;* We may infer their value from tlie 
aure{B sententi^y which have been preserved by Lactantius and 
Augustine. • The last records a senteiire=, in w^ich Tidiios seems 
to agree with some philosophers, that man was Seated to expiatle 
"crimes committed in a previous state of existence; a dogma, which 
it might be rash implicitly to adopt ; but whidb from most ap- 
pearances in the phy.sicalaud moral worlds^ it would be difficult to 

j«— — ill I I I I . I II II , I' . 

.' Pet. Kp Senil. It appears that Petrarch lent the MS. * to his 
tutor, 'who pawned it when in drstiessedcircumstaiices. Petrarch offered 
4k large sum for its recovery; hut the tutor ashamed of the traas- 
-vetien, refuted to mention the person to wb^m he had cCKiSigrtftd it.-«t- 
^Xinaboschu , . 

. . ^ Potiti Hadel Des BiWlOlheques. . . . < ; 

> ? Voftairx, in a sentence replete wiib trutb and. energy, $%ys: ^'Lfi 
jlMii^ ,. aakMglapte est asi»ise eiHre la naissauce ot la mort T' ^^^ 
may serve as a commeutarv on the above speculation of Cicero. It 
would \ye easy to subjoin a long note. There are five good dissertatifQAa 
t)n the tnceronian ptrilostrphy imhe Mem. de i'Acad. dcs Inscnpticma 
by M. Gautier de Sibert. 

•-iMrks wJb^Keiii 'be ^ms tlit /PBm% <i> iik iMagHui^ivn, (m iki' Hie 
i)Slamfi^w>«^^pimit»)/ see«i»s tio\«^^ the t«wii«t- 

'^{l^bly. nf the sq^lj .yrhfl^ .in |^M^» t« j^bbh be appUfte .w^nmvntt, 
^^a wmetmes »ppea|r§ iiH;iiA«d^to:<r^ifi;t ilU It » ceitftjin (flftl lie 
ipat^.tUrown a veil pf sc^pticiism over l^i» bigbe#l<9Pi9€iiliaUoii^ ; Imt 
'ivbetber couciusive or not, ^ miuti li^^ Cirero!8y could peA^^r have 
been diverted from the pursuit of ihe KAAON, the AFAGON, 
;a(id the IIPEIION. . . 

But I am gliding insensibly into the last section of Middletov. 
* Sufficient lias been stated to clear Tullius of imputations of pusil- 
'kiiiimit}^,- which have beeri liastilj urged by those, who are secretly 
jeakxis of hfS weil-eatned i^me, though he has long rotted in tlie 
-sepulchre; or by those, vwho, from an inclination to military si^ 
xendaiicy in states, 'Fe^use^ to- associate hb conduct in important 
jfMols with tbeir^approbatioii; • 



; ' into the Opinions of the anciemt Hebrews ^ respecting H 

future immortal Emtence. 

Part II. — [Continued from No, XLL p. S3.] 

W^E have proTed that the ancient songs, and pofetry of all ii|- 

-tiOf1f», mith wbiHi we are acquainted, were repositories of their 

•religious opinfofw, -and that those of Moses were suitimariei» df 

4aitfi. Of thifc description is Jacob's pdefloal valediction to bis 

chitHren, of which, indeed, we may style th&t of Mo^es an imiti* 

tion: — the same example was followed by Joshua, and was, 

doubtless, a custom, in earlier periods^f Ki^^tory;— but,. tboM, 

Which relate to our subject, prove, that tliey extended beyond 

the secular welfare of those to whom tbey were addressed, afid 

.that the doctrine of future rewards and punishments was believed 

4ry their authors. Uantiah'^ song is of the mt>st decisive nature: 

after » recapitulation of the various circumstances of hunpianli^, 

tlie Supreme Being u introdticed, as raising the poor from the 

ll^jst, and the beggar from the duii^hiH, to set them among 

^Htices, to cause them to inherit "TQSKDO^' a term, which trns 

' flee CkibbnlA denudfte» nnd ^ rabbioiail writ«i;|S pitssiiaa. 

194 Am j999ki^\iMit Mk9 O f M^ ^^ ^ 

mm Jnimni^iMo.e wf mi B tkt fuftwe lnrtHticw f4 j/mUmi i Q kmlk 

•NMf » . If no mudk doetrhm Im totciid yi, 'mbM tijpA^ mu w m itM 
vetttRch to tinrfncscrmieirof yfOrt^il^ Md to tht «Ueflce'4»f 
*|KirO DWCn, wkkh the Targum, and e^rjr mbbiniifn conMoM* 
ifttor^ corrccrfj rulers to tbe ^vine judgment «f the hi^hian rfeie^^ 
and its cooscqocncea f This word is rightly appliedi inJ^^ 
aiid the early writers, to the state of the wicked, in contradistiil€« 
tion from *T1M,. a metaphor preserved in the New Testis 
menty in which we rf ad of the outer darkness, of the children of 
darkness and of tbe children of light, of a light shining in dark- 
ness, of luminaries (f(Ofrnift$) in the world ; with a sufficient^arielj^ 
of corresponding phrases to authorise our application of the 
HebMW word. These were common Oriental niel»pbofs^««- 
the inliabitants -of Paradise are said in the Koran to' rm^im 

^VJ6 i-J, whereas, we thus read the sentence of the Wicked^ 

^^ C^ *e» ^ Jt t3iaUt--which Jelkloddenci ob^ 
servesy is the smoke of Tiell, ramifying at.a certain height in 
three directi<M». Both of tliese ideas faaf e parallels in the^ scrips 

tBfris i 'C'^ is the Hebrew ^; and jitst* men are reprei^ntedy 
as dwelling under the shadow of the Almighty; who is liroseTf 
inscribed, in the prophetic books, as hiding Israel in the shadow 
'tf( His hand (Is. xli x. ^.y-^^aatA the observations made on ^Jtn 
W^H exhibit the correspondence with the othen In addition to 
^Wliich God is mentiwied, as thundering upon the M-icked (v. 10.) 
tlld weighii^ the a<^ions of mankind, (v. d.) becatise, - ^ *■ 

iVWD np 0Tf ID^bV !jr VW fTW^WK fV HW, which, nolwtt^ 
Mlinding ait that Bishop Warburton and others inay urge lb 
4h6 eoiitrary, slets this point at rest; and slitows that the eMter 
.Maetites kneMr ibore than we may be witting to allow, elf- the 
^kingdom of the Messiah, as Jonadian Ben Uzziel well b6nw 

^inenis, nrwo note^2T>» 

^" In fact, God's character as Judge, was plainly lioticed in tlie 
^I^en^teuch.. When Abraham intreated Him on the bebaff oF the 
jeMes of the plain^ h^ detioUiiRated Him,'the Judge of ^IHhe earthy 
. jX'lKnbs BBltn, whh:h s«>on l>e€ame ah epithet of the Deity ^f 
;tepeated occurreriee. Thds, in the pretedtng song, W^ i-^anarfc 
j j fiirrti iit allusion- to the resorreotion, where He is styl^^fTf^ 
'^l^rtm ITDD, who briiigs us down to Suaol, and wiH liaise ue 
"m^a^ xhmce^^mhWfynn): it is prolmble, th^t in the diffe-^ 

?']'jri- -' ^ • ^Mr M ' '■■ '''' ^ V s-J.^ : .K*. V^ ' "' 

■■»'. '• . ;■, 


i?^Safl$h««i|i|f!ioflisnta. ,yatA^i|CV^^4flr* . r>.>f>JPkiiacii^ill \ 

atiaki^M^9^(^Mfiui^ ^m^ 

fiMl»OiliWCitK|Dtif ^rAefetyiPf in Ae^^hyi of the Jifl%es 
tWrpMkwistftta, tite i^oiitioD ol' reUgionrfuiMiaiMefitob.ww 
C«NiffiMify>- ttf t the reveaied law mi^t-j^ nmmtaiaed {Hire Aeto 
•eliitm.iiBd Melatry. "Whettlke Isriieiileft dbcardM their iMl^ 
a»4;lbeir IP^, Samuel/ in particolir^ tscecordefl^iM ji6rgui|r* 
tlNin is Milzfieh^ asapre-qumifidation Jo teceive ibe \arir c4^' 
Qdd^«ndtbete tneietiiigsiive^e attended \i'tth efypropriate rdigtmii 
c^Pfmonies (1 Sslni* vie. 6i) it is liatdly Itiely, therefore^ thvt 
krlb«toe M A>ctrine of aucb vital iniportance sbadfd lui«e been 
tfemHedi '-When David (12 Sam. x^ii. 23.) bewailed the death' 
^bi« child, he coniforted himself witb &is reflectioni ^f}f% ^3tt 
'nH^SnSP H^ MDfT1 1^ which werds are an incontroTertihle de^ 
noniAration of the uoiverMlity of the belief of future levninJt' 
ai)d»)iMnifkaieiils, Abandoning all inquiry, whether Moses did 
er.^not write 4lie book of Job^ we roast allow its remote antt^ 
^ity^ from the mention made of his friends in the catajpgoe of 
names in the Pentateuch ; and if we allow its date to be about 
ihii period, we may select ffora it* the mo^ unatisiii'ertible irik^* 
aielilf • * So^reata variety of passa|;es in ita«serrthe^restirf^ae% 
fiDnj'tbut few 'of the namber wiH su^ce to ciorrolKirate the pre^ 
ceding observations* - The 12dt-and 13th| verses of the 14t|i 
<«bepter descepd too nicely into particulars^ to leave a, doubt' 
on the niud^ sh^t at the time in wliich the book was .written/ 
^future stale wes expected; and that the. allotments in it were' 
concmved to be regulated by the actions of the present li^* 
** fit an appointed time^ God was predicted to reipember m^m, 
v^o should live again ; tfaaA when the change (in St« Paul's law- 
4p»»tfi9 h itiwohikfrnr^rt^ amfictr^'ifj^ been revetted^. 

should take place, Gad would call,, and man should smswer hif»^" 
ttiao which nothing can more correctly exiubit the degree of 
J^o^'Iecjse. which tbe^^ncient Jew^ h^ of the truthf nr^or e 4qii3|.-> 
. ^ici tly ^ucidated ; t^ ti^e .Christiafi rej^ion*^ If,, in, fact, ui^jl^^ 
Samuel and the prophets^ the books of JVl.osee'forf|ifd the-bei|S: 
of Jjudaic education, assuredly from these fountains was deiived 
^^barf;.aiuple stream of sacred illumination, which pervades the' 
j^ter hooks of tb^ canon of the Old Test^m^^nt. . ToJhf;8e wi%t, 
we refer the ground-work of Hebrew iheology; they *er^ in* 
jQ^t cases, the tests on which more diffuse commentaries pf 
r^Hjgious knowledge tvere qomposeicU If we ip^ke the Jbtook 9t, 
Jjob parallel (or nearly parallel, for the sake ofthose who defqr' 
«t.s autiquity) to the Pentatelich, we discover ibat the fiiiUre' 
piMiishmettts.of the jyJcked were not unknown: we read, that 
"TWr"^3© SWrTOR^IW; evidently on account of^the punishmept 
6f bis' *evH^t^eds; 1^ i&BpticUm coimifori to (he Sadddceesj 

Jtfit ^ Jn^flfiy >l(0 4d Qlff ftolK^^ 


aivL wme heiwios in. th^ ' Cbrislian CIht^ m§ymfki*i^i 
}s^Y$ ¥^V^ ivaarawtv fb^rs M^U^tsf Mfms^ p&F^^ w^^&iw4q fi^wi im,% 
jg^/tvo, 6ay» Polyc^ FbiUpp^n9€S^ The good ina^Vwi%r> 
m^ ift/ oa tke couirary^ declared to b« in. ^eayen and hiit record > 
GO bigh. Itt other parts of li^s 8ub|ime Book, tlije wicked are . 
c^cpbed as.arrai^i^ before iKlTDJ'POlT-and our SdvioW 
reduced the Sadduceea in hia daj to ao hwurzi^frfu^^hy prpyii^, 
that. Abraham and the patiiarcW ^tted after d^ath. Rabbi* 
Meiias&eb Bea Israel demoiistratea it clearly, in hig tri^ati^e on . 
the resurrection of tlie dead,- and cites a ;nutiiber of &cripturaL , 
|];aMage9*as.bis vouchers. 

Ill tlvit beautiful .verse which precedes our fun^raKs^rnce^ ' 
J^b c^i^pfesses his cef tain conviction of immortality; he knew hi^ . 
God to be tiie living One Yt^ bUd, and that DIp^nEDKttf. Hnelj^' 
in bi« Dem. &augeL observes on this test: *' Jggo^)oadvi Redenv 
toreni meum vivere, ct novissitmim super, pulverem staturum^ 
£j( bis Christum carnem assumttirfibi, et mortuos sijis^silaturiiin^ 
iri apertedocetnr in Thaignmy et in interpret^lione Sjrriaca^ j^t 
in .Acabica. Ita i^^lesit R. Uaccadoth iif revelante Aieaoa^ 
Ita aumitur in Beresbith Ketaona." There appears more to b^^ 
iol^nded iu these words than ma^f be cotfected from our version^. 
'^,be shall stand (at the latter daj> on the earth ;*^ — ^so Jablouski 
and many eminent critics have conjectured « The proper sense, 
of 7}^ is not given: in the 2nd Ps. 2nd verse, it undeniably 
mpps agamst, ■• VVlfc;0"T3n rmT"^, and in Prov. xix. 3., 
137 ^\jSJV TVS^vTS^, besides other instances of familiar occtureiice^ 
Itji tliei.efore, ^ be applied, with this signification, to the present; 
passiige, it will read, ** he shall arise against the dust;" evidently, 

in judgment. In the fourth surat of the Kocan we read, ^^^1> 


. . - ^ - ^ 

* Among the various -siguifications of O, cither dc« e, c]^ or here, 


L«JC^t t^jX^ i^iy^^ ^^^ ^^ word ^ISo is generally used hj 
At-Beidain'ee and the Koranic commentators, to express the titties 
and place of th.e resurrection; which, as well as the day of judg- 
ment, is styled ^1^1 ^yt Possibly, in allusion to this passage^ 
we find the same phrase in Yalcut Sharaoni f. 8d. 3. — D^p^Wl 
:trMS72^pStt^ /yinDV where, however, !^ has the force of 
super; but, that this is uot the case in this verse, may be proved 
Crom the corresponding connection of terms iu Isaiah xxxi, £,. 
:ty.''^!y3 mOTTin UVIO JV^'^bv OpV Job then, when deliver* 
^. from bis iiesh (for TCT^ * canuot mean in the flesh) expected 

to se^ Qpd^.a,od that beiMvoiildajrise in judgm^ntoigflios.Uill aaaiH 

The imagery in. the book of the Psalms shows that tb4 
Mosaic books wer^ tli^ general sfRircesof retfecence: the v^rtoui^ 
ceremonies qf . the lawv and moral precept contained in it^ 
afford in them continual subject^ of allusion, l^refore, as wer 
have before intimated, the poetical .descriptions given off a future 
state^ by David, Asaph,, and others, had their g;round-vvork in, 
these books: for instance^ the pun'isbnient of wick«il nieii^ in the 
llth Psalm, is beautifully assimilated to. the overthrgw . o/ 
^odooi, Gomorrah, and the adjacent cities ;; this signal, act o£ 
iDivine Vengeance afibrded, ki almost every part of the Hebre^v 
writings, a metaphor of Qod's future dealings* w^t^- ui(irig^hteouat 
men. On the one hand. He ia represented in his Ifioly t^n^Cy 
seated, on his judicial throne, .weighing the trausactLons of m^iW 
Ilind in a nghteous balance; and on the other. He, is depicledt 
raining upon thq wicked JT)9J^ TTHS PITW^ V\k QTIE as tlje por- 
tion of their cup. Tl|e metaphors- ia the H<ebrew poetry awi 
sublime, and .such as the, Greeks would call icctpogrrtoi^jM^vM^^ 
but they are just, aiKl bear an analpgy to the liistory of ^her 
nation: — the deluge, the abominations of Egypt, the »> 
tlie wilderness, and phenomena 141 the natural world,; as far $9^ 
they are connecXed with the Israelites, recur in the Jewish pro^ 
phefs with additioiial %emTr^^ and force, when applied to>n2}pend;^ 
ing judgments x)r to the^solemnity of the.linal tribunal* Amid^ 
all, tl|e "lirn nn of the Deity ace pre-e^iin«nt. The focmeiT 
chaotic staj.e is made typical of the general dissolution, whem 
God shall stretch out ini '^UHMHil'^lp, and as far as po^s^e^ 
Che^ Mosaic terms are retained by the subsequent prophets,, and 
H^giographists. The 50th' Psalm pour-trays tbi^ ceremofljjiQ 
very forcible language, and evinces beyond all doubt, that tbjB; 
belief of this doctrine formed a fundamental part of the Je^;^3| 
religion; the Targum calls it ^CTT i^^l DV, Isaiah''*7DiibbV 

and X^y^UISbv r\W'^ M9^^h .P.avidjjind..tlie.xeaJU.,ciu:r;. 
tamTy considered celestial happiness as their summum bonum; 
theng^re. ti^eir glory Jtejoic^d, and' their f)esh rdsted iri h6p^; 
Vftomin^ that tkdv soid^* should not be i€^t ^'6^tS^3; they diedjtf 
fliM assurance of the revelation of the goodness and majes-ty -<)? 

ramer'jiost, is rcquifed: a verse answeriug to the \vliol0 clause, where i^ 
rvvn- ww-^ . ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^p^ ^^i^^^ ^^,^ d^a UW, ;.i 

128 4'^i Inquiry into the Opifiions of ihi ' 

God. Solomon/ who hftd investigated human nature in all its 
propenfitieSi concludes his admirable book with this summary t 
^^ Fear God, and keep bis commandments; for this is the Mbcda 
duty of man; for God shall bring everj work into judgment, 
with every secret thing (Iv ^royri wuoMpaiuhoo, lxx.) whether it 
be goody or whether it be evil."' 'ihe destruction of Jerusalem^ 
foretold by several prophets, was adduced as a practical demon- 
stration of that heavier judgment to come, when God should arbe. 
against (7J^ Qflj^ all flesh. In like manner, the Babylonian cap- 
tivity was another event, that was representative of that time 
when ^ the wicked shall wail, because of the day of the Lord 
of Hosts." ** £nter into the rock,'' says Isaiah, '^ and bide thee 
in the dust (iTIST THB ^JfflD) from the presence of the terror of 
Jehovah, and from the glory of his Majesty," &c. &c. And it 
is impossible to read his grandly poetical imagery in ch. xxiv. 
V. 19, 20. without admitting him to have been most perfectly^ 
acquainted with the subject. Nor can any one read Jeremiah's 
fine description of the earth's figurative reduction to the original 
ttll VU1 in the 4th chapter, 23 — 25. without assenting, that he 
bad in view the first chapter of Genesis. Hie prophetic works 
afford many arguments, that the two advents* of the Messiah, as 
Saviour of the world, and as Judge of it, were asserted by their, 
writers: — in allusion to the latter he is styled JTH^ *PD, the attend- 
ant effects of whose appearance are described by Isaiah in many 
chapters, (lxiii. 4. lxv, 17.) D3np^:i or DYTTM^J the more 
ancient name of the valley of I'opheth' dedicated to the rites 
of Moloch, has been universally, considered typical of (he allot- 
9>ent of the wicked; the Greek I'estament^ accordingly, calls it 
yihna rov irt/p^. 

tiT9^'vynwyy^'1^rf?sn»m^y7l\y'^ (is. xxxm. u.> 

are words, sufficiently demonstrative of our position, even were 
tiie body of evidence less conclusive, lliose determinate words. 

; > Eaekiel, in his account of the judgments to be executed on £|^pt, 
ar|BU^sGod*8 fatal Judgments, from the major inferring the minor; 
^ (JtrVTi'l 1 for the oay is near, even the day of the Lord is near, a clou4f 
day: it shall be Q^J^.*' Armageddon, from the hlaughter of Josian, 
and the valley ofJeboshaphat, have been tvpicaliy refer red, by the pro- 
j»1^els, to t}>i» sol^'mn assembly, which is called, HV^'^^IK *CIV ^^Wl W^ 

rf»n-7BTinW£n^ andynrrnpoyi nvr on — &c, ^e. 

^ * See Isaiah lxi, S. where both are expieshed in one verse, 
s From tf\f), because the cries of the victims were drowned by this 

inraruoMnt*, ..... 

of Daniel' vn, Qi 10. et seqq., although highly figurative, can- 
not be misapprehended, any more than those of Joel; and from 
^e alTusions of the latter to the teremonies of the taw, we have 
i^ery reason to infer, that he conceived future punish inentspra* 
fij^of ed in the writings of Moses. Well say the Rabbin^ 

• :m arfrji ahrji anmn fiw nrm r^ i^^a» rrwa ?^ 

We ready indeed, in the Gemara (Tit. Sanhedriu) that the Sad- 
dueees asked Rabbi Gatnaiid, from inrhence hedre# his proofs^ 
that God would raise the d^ad? to which he replied, from ibe 
Laiv, from the Prophets, and from the CMetmbim. Wherever 
the word i1*13 occurs, the Jews believe future misery intended, 
which, partially, takes place ntTT dVq^I^ but plenarily, 

J^uch to the sam# purpose b the paraphrase oC Maimonides 
on Isaiah i^xiv, 4»* . \ 


Biagdon Jlec^diy . 


* The eipressioD of Abigail, t Sam. xxv, 39. include^rtbts bdief : 

Manasseh Ben Israel describes it to mean an union with God, never to 
be dissolved, Id the life to come. 

*' Buxtorf quotes from the Thdmud a beautifUl fable respecting the 
book of judgment. 

I • 

« .i 

, i 


a. ju 











jVemo Te, Vir eruditisaime, scit melius^ quam levem adhuc 
his lepidissimi poetas uTroa-Tf aa-fji^oiriois, in quibus nonnulla elegan- 
tis&ima sunt, cognitu digna yel unam vel alteraip ob«.cau^Qi 
pleraque, Critici operam navarint. Collectio Brunckiana'niultis 
modis laborat. In qua primum multae repetitae leguntur cor- 
ruptelae, quae facili negotio vel e variis lectionibus eorum scrip« 
torum, unde fragmenta excerpta sunt; vel leni et statim obvia 
conjectura toUi poterant. Alia paulo quideni sunt eniendatu 
difficiliora, sed neutiquam tamen desperata putari debebant. 
Delude magnam apud Brunckium deprebendiuius confusioneau 
Fragmenta aliquot bis diversis locia commemoratat aliauintAr. 
Incerta relata, quae ex qua fabula depromta sint definiri potest, 
quaedam etiam iUata, qua? ad superstites fabulas pertinent, pauca 
denique inserta, quae plane non sunt Aristophanis. Horum 
partem jam notavit Porsonus in Adversariis. Maxime autem 
collectio ista est manca^ quam vel ex his, quae in scbedis meis 
non data opera sed per occasioneni collecta habeo, facile centu* 
ria amplius fragmentorum augere possim. Neque tamen haec 
omnia Brunckii negligentiae trihuenda sunt, sed de multis iibro- 
rum aliquot ope jam rectius judicamua, qui post Brunckii fata 
in lucem protracti sunt. 

Haec ne temere a me jactata putentur, singulorum veritatem 
explicating .ut in libello, cujus tarn exigui suutlimites, exemplis 
aliquot ostendemus. Primo loco ponemus pravas aliquot apud 
Brunckium lecliones. In-4^ragmento Babyloniorum XIV. 

vctUi irav ix mwKnv poiiafyt ^iff^n xoV/uo) . ' . 

De Aristophanis Fragmentis. ISl 

soloecisfmim, qui est in hac Suidft leetione, tollere Brunckiut 
debebat. Recte Phofius ^ti^ sttb ?. f>66m. JBioiiii tftio hn 
borat Fragm. IV. ^olosiconis: 

Haec Toupii correctio est. Suidas oa-ci xiXwug. Sed .nee Ton- 
pius verum vidit, riec Porsonus, qui in Adverss. p. 279. conjicit 
So-* (rif itiKtCus, Genuinam lectionem habent Lexica SdgueHAn* 
^fiekkeri p. 531 , 25. ot ay.xiKeuyf, — In Cocali Fragmentix VlL- 
ceHe postrenia para: *■ . 

lacile a barbara ilia voce ^Btfimavkov iiberari poterat. Namqu* 
haud sane Qi^dipo opus est ad videnduni^ Aristophagem scrip* 
aisse : 

xa^ffira iroog 

Vid. Hemsterli. ad Pint. v. 535 coll. Suida v. ^SSov et Lex^ 
^g* P- 70, 27* Corrupteta inde naf^, quod pl«ne scriptum 
^aset ^titAcovoi SXov, — Fragraentuni e Xbeamopfa. alteris XIV. sic 
propunit Brunckiua: « 


C^i diligentius Aristophanis Scholiastam, a quo hoc fragmentum 
affertur^ inspexerit, nou dubitabit, poetae verba esse haec : 

t»$ hi ye ro&ro rourof ov IvvaiAoit ^ipuv 

If am phuie sic Schdlastes, prasterquani quod faabet crxsui) fipsiv 
]Mro ^fpstv (TxsvY). — Priinuni ex Heroibus Fragmentum ita eintia- 
datum scilicet exhibet Brunckius: 

oux ^yo'pfuov; oiros ttrr oux 'ii^yoXaj, 

propius ad Stephani Byz. lectiones accedens alterum versum 
uumeris elegantioribus lege sic: . 

jtta At, ovU y* ^EXXijv, Jecov Ifwi y« (pa«vfT«i. 
Ex iisdeiii Heroibus Frajrrn. lU., ad qiiod etiam Suidas v. Hw- 
iayifOL$p. ^^15. K-ust. respictt, sic restituendum puto: 

fiijSs yetJecff, Stt ay Ivtoj tijj rpcctity^^ x^ra^ea-jj. 
'EyrJ^ niutaudum now erat. Nam quod Casauboous ad Diog. 

132 De Aristophanis Fragnfentf$. 

isiart* annotate Suidam legere ixris, id certe eo, quem nos cqm<- 
mennoraTimus^ loco secus est^ ubi vel £d. Mediol. babet err^^ 
Intelliges hoc hrh^, si mensarutn fonnae apud Veteres roeminens^ 
— Aliud trochnci tetrametri exemplum ex hac deperdita poetae 
fabula agnoscere mihi videor in Fragmento XI. quod vide ne ^ic 
scribeDdum sit: 

Brunckius ex PoUuce /t^' awiv^Trrpoy et Ixp^wrod. Sed ad hoc 
IpsuiD Fragmentum spectare mihi videtur idem Pollux X. 
inuw>s, to rahg woBas etTfoviirrofieda, xaXelrM ^roSftvixri}^* to Sc air avrw 
SBifl»| vhrrpoVf if Xovr^itv, ^ wohivnrrpov,:iog eiy''Hgoo<nv 'Agiarofivi^g }jEyn, 
Qus ut ad diversum ab illo Fragmentum pertiuentia Brunckius 
seorsum posuit. Voce Troiivifrrpov ntitur Noster etiam Fragm. Inc. 
LX XXVII. — Prorsus negligentem se gessit Brunckius ad 
Fragm. Dramatum IX., ubi iptam poetas edogam^ quam Pollux 
loco a Brunckio laudato -addit, apponere oblitus est. 

Sed bsec fere leviora sunt. Videamus jam de aliquot Frag- 
mentis, quae paulo diflSciliorem vel expUcationem vel emendia- 
tionem habent. . Ac memarabile quidem Fragmentum ex Aris- 
tophanis AmnaXswnv extat apud Galenum in prooemio libri, qui 
inscribitur rooy ' IviroitpeiTovf yXxoacAv e^irfl^^St quod Fragmentum 
apud Brunckium numero secundum est. Fuit ea farbula omnium^ 
quas scripsit Aristophanes, prima. Htulum fabula^ recte ab 
Eruditis monitum est significare convivas, epulones, eucc^rj^etg, ut 
explicat Et37m. Magnum. Chorum enim agebant convivantes^in 
tempio Herculis, ut discere licet ex Brunckii Addendis p. l66. 
De fabulae personis hoc tantum scimus, fuisse in his senem 
ouendam cum duobus filiis, altero bene, altero male morato. 
Galenus 1. I. in eo est, ut probet, vocem yXwrroi nonntinquam 
denotare vocabulum obsoletum, SvofjM ry^g avyiii§leig IxTnrrecxoV* 
Quod tit denionstret, affert ilium ex Aristophane locum. Ibi 
enim, Galenus narrat, senem ilium filio male morato quasdam 
ex Hoinero proposuisse quaestiones, ac primum quidem dixisse: 
WQog Tourd (roi, Ki^cov ''Ofimpe^ yKayrraaTiKa xciXov<ri xopvKa^ deinde : 
tI xa\ov(riv afi^iwjva xa^va. Sic enim haec leguntur in Edit. Al- 
dina. In Basil, expressum est 7/tpge yXmrrr^ r/w xoiXovtriy a qua 
non differt fere Stephan. — Cod. Mosq. 2/tij^? yyJyrri ti xa) xa- 
Xocio'i xopvfioit MS. D. item yKaarri ri et xopvfia Horum pars 
facile e Polluce emenriari potuit, qui Libr. II, s. IO9. locum aic 
profert wpog TaSrac Xi^ov 6/X.19POU ykoorroi ti xotkilrat x6pufji,^$, De 
metro recte judicat Aug. Meinekius in Curis Critt. p. 11., ana« 
paestos tetrametros esse, sed emendationi ejus, 

Dt Aristophanis Fragmentis. 13S 

non ab 6inni parte assentior. Nam primum quidem hoc mocio 
male Galenus demonstraret, quod demoustraturus est^ yooefti 
yXwTTA sigaificare vocabulum obsoletum. Quippe *Ofiaip§ffi 
yXflorrj] sonaret Homerica lingua. Deinde Aristophanes oerte 
scripsisset '0|xi)pe/flp yXcorrp. rorro Pollux et major pars Graieiii 
librorutn a agnoscunt in voce yXsorra. Hinc Aldinam pressius 
sequens emendandum arbitror: 

Simili orationis forma Noster Nub. 96. Xe£d) roiW r^v ap^alaif 
vcuhtav, wg hsKttTO. Con uptio voci's ' OfMfiqehus banc, opinor^ nabuit 

causam, quod in codtce exaratum esset *0/xi}p per compendium. 
Conf. Bast, ad Greg. Corinth, p. 835. Indidem explicari po- 
test accentus omissio in plerisque Galeni libris. Accusativum 
ykirrois, ad nostrum fortasse locum respiciehs, explicat Antiatti- 
cista in Bekkeri Anecdotis I. p. 87. rot$ roov ironf\rwv ij olerriva^ 
a\Kas h^iiyo6[ji,eioi. — In altera qusestione, quae finem tetrametri 
exfaibet^ scribendum: 

t/ xaXou(r aiiiw^voL xapyfifai 

Pergit jam exponere Galenus, quemadmodum patri respouderit 
male moratus ille filius. Atque ita quidem^ teste Galeno, r^- 
spondit, ut similes vicissim quaestiones proponeret, non ex Ho- 
mero quidem illas^ sed e Soionis M^oo-i petitas, quas solvere fra- 
trem suum jube.t^ quem ei hand dubie tanquam exemplar ad imi- 
tandiim pater proposuerat. Videtur enim hie male moratus 
filius earum rerum, qua? ad causas forenses et lites spectarent, 
curiosior fuisse quam Humeri. Ita igitur ille: 

/MV oSy co^y kjMs hi oSro^ ahekpog ^paa-ireo r( xaAovo'iy iSouo'/ rt. 

Ha?c, in quibus nulla est librorum diversitas, nisi quod unus 
jnale habet Iftoi pro liuo^y et quod alter accentus in fine vocis 
!$ou(ri apud Aid. deest, haec, inquam, nemo dum fuit, qui intelli- 
geret aut emendare conaretur. Brunckius quidem: " iegendum^ 
inquit: wtnicpo^iKKBi t&v hf rois XiXaav^i oi^oo'i yXmrrm tig Uxoig Sia- 

^pa(raro$, ri xaAoScriv— 

quid pro lhv<rl rr reponi debeat, in mentem non venit^ Hsec 
BrunckiuSy qui Galeni quidem verba, nisi quod riv^; sine causa 
addidit, bene restituit, sed de Aristophaneis mirum quantum a 
vero aberravit. Primo enim aspectu apparet, metrum non di^ 
versum esse ab illo, quod praegressa senis quaestio habueiat. 
Deinde ilia 6 fti y oh <ris neutiquaai erant tentanda* Facile tmm 

.134 De AristQphanu'Fragfkeniii. 

ufo; intelligittir; Sic Noister Atibu8 t. 212. roy ifioy nmi ^h «► 
^viaKpvv''lru¥. Eur. Alcest* v. 628. Barn, 

a qua lectione Matthis recedere non debebat. Ac non sine 
acerbitate quadani et invidia in fratrem iste nequam nudo hoc 6 
(Tog utitur. Dudum vidisti, Vir eruditissime^ maximatn difficu]- 
tatetn inesse in postremis vocabulis i$ou<ri tb, in qutbus^ ut nexus 
docet, vox obsoleta latet e Solonis a^oai. Jam si metrum re- 
spicis^ versus est justo longior. Atque baud dubie ties ultiinae 
litterae pertinent ad sequentem Galeni orationem, qui pergit 
i^i^TiS fspo^&kXsi* Scribe assumtis istis litteris: elr i^e^i}^ tt^o- 
fiaKXsi, ut pauIo post Galenus : eTr* avii$ sxilvov ^ivTo$. Reliquum 
habenius liotig, syllaba jam ad metrum deticieute. Facile mihi 
consenties^ poetam dedisse: 

6 ffiv oSv (ro$, ff/u.0^ S* o8to$ a^ffX^o;, ^poLcaToo, rl xaXownv ISvloug ^ 

Hesychius enim ]h6ot}$, fjMpTv^as, a-wlaTopot^f et paulo ante 'AvU^ 
(sic enim cum Albertio legendum) fii^peg, ij oi tol$ (pomxas h!xas 
xphovTeg' 01 li irvvl<rTopeg, Ac ne dubiles, Solonem hac voce 
usum esse, ex Albertii ad hunc locum annotatione haec adscri- 
bam: " Eustath. II. S- p. 1158^20., testatur^ Pausanias Lexi- 
con exhibere elSuoi^ et ISuovg, fjAprvpaSf (rvvi<rTOpotf (pro quo *Mov$ 
scripsit p. 1154, 35). Tum addit: on Ss \i6ov$ xa) Jpaxoov 
xa) SoXcov robg [jLi^vpoig ^vi<rh,,Al\io$ Jiovuciog Wropel, Phot. 
XiCX. Ms. IWouf, Tobg fji,ipTug»$' oZroog SoXoov. Cyrill. Lex. Ms. 
fSu/oi. cijjtta/vsf fuapTVpug itoLp 'i^Sijvot/ot;. ivifiv Ss xal crvvia-rogag. 
Malim itaque et h. 1. Idu/oi." Cur cum Albertio scripserim 
I9vhus non \h6ovg causa aperta est. Eadem enim vocis etjmolo- 
git est, quae Homericae vocis in formula i$a/i}<ri irpaTftsa-o-iv. 

Hanc primam filii qusestionem apud Galenum sequitur al- 


cujus explicationem vel correctionem meo acumine majorem 
Tuae sagacitati, Vir eximie, commendo. — Quae pryeterea ex hac 
Aristophauis fabula Galenus in sequentibus affert, eonim partem 
Brunckiiis et Porsonus in Brunckiani Aristophauis censura, 
quarn Pluto Hemsterhusiano Schaeferus adjecit, p. o78. rectt 
•mendarunl. Adjunctia meia emendationibus totum colloquium 
appooam. lotegros enim esse video versus omues, eosque cob* 





TO xaraTXayi9a'€i rouro ^rflcpc^ reoy ^6fm¥. 


caro^freral <roi rairra toT ra ^(jMra\ 


trap 'AXxifiiahv rouro r6i%ofifi(rtrat. • 


Ti S* vnornxiualp$i, KcCi Kctxws ivipot$ xlyti^ 

xaXoKOfya^lav oi<rxovvTot$; > 


of(L\ m Opota'ifjM^e, 
t($ rowro rcov f uvijyopav yvipuiroLt ; 

Priores versus tangit Photius p. 390. o-opiXXrif <rxwyutLOL n\i rowf 
yipovra$ napoL r^v a'6poy' oiJrcof ^Apiirrof ivies' et alii, quorum 
'mentio fit ab Mesycbii interpretibus v. o'o^eXXi). Male Brunck- 
ius dativum posuit a-opeWrif loco non intellecto. Vocativus est 
a-ogiWi^, itemque jxvpov et roLivlat, quibus nominibus homo nequam 
-patrem appellat. Erat enini harum omnium rerum usus in se- 
pultura. Ipsum epitn senem (roplxXi}v dici patet ex Eustath. II. 
9". p. 1289i .1^* ubi inter alia haec leguutur: 8i}Xo7Ss ^ Z'opo^ xo) 
avTyj KofT oLur^v yipovra^ axciMnixm^. Plane sic in Lysistr. S7S* i 
rufuj^t, et eadem allusione £c€l. 1032. x») raiviWai. Septimo 
versu Xeysi^ pro Xiyoig habent Codd. D. et Mosq. et statim post 
naXaxayoiiiM^ Stephanus^ kolxoos autem pro xaxou; e conjectura scrip* 
si propterea, quod non malos quidem istos viros dixerat^sed contu- 
'nieliosam tan turn eorum mentionem fecerat. Kaxms riva \iy$tif 
loctttio est Nostro admodum familiaris^ ut Thesmoph. 85.182, 
539. 963. Acbarn. 503. 

Accedamus ad aliud Fragmentum e\ Aristophatiis Tayfpfh' 
fTTuy, serrtAuni illud ab Athenaeo p. 9^. c, cujus fragmenti 
partes et alibi turn apud ipsum Athenaeum turn apud alios cooi^ 
memorantur, quos Brunckius laudat p. 267* Miiltum hoe 
Fragmentum vexavit Erudttos, atque in his Rrfurdtium^ qui de 
eo diaputat in Horreo Regiomontano P. IIL p. 446. Verba 
sunt hominis gulosi. Schweigbsuserus ^uiickium fere secntua 
sic edidit: aX($ otfwig fior vtipaxtroLfLai yeig ret Xnrapoi xkintaDf: 
«XX«( ^e^ir' &9ofia<riy, ^ariov, i| xOitpMou veou xoXXoira rivflt* ei if 
^p vX^vpoy ^ yXSrrw % ovX^vm ^ iyjfrrw % likfmu^g Araig»y^$ ii^tatw 


136' De Ari^ophaiMi' Fi/'^gfttetUk, 

^Ipfrt hupo jMTfll xoKKaBw ^TaupSv. De inetro^ quod BniiKA:tii^ 
ittotituere nou est ausus, recte Erfurdtius: ** tres primi TeratiA 
parapaeonici sunt^ reliqui psonici.'' Psonicos enim et Cretieos 
eotdem putarit. Sed duobus tamen locis metmm hborat, pii- 
imini in Toce itKi^<nv, quae quid hie agat^ noti apparet, turn in 
▼ocibus 0-irXi}va 1^, qui hiatus tolerari nequit. Quam ▼ocis iacifia^ 
ci^ explicatiooem Sch weighseuserus profert, qui dctiva notione 
de cibo accipit, qui descendere faceret et e primis viis expelleret 
pinguedinem, earn hariolando magis quam certa ratione sese 
roposuisse auctor ipse admonuit, rlec meliora sunt^ quie 
eiecampius^ Casaubonus et Villebrunius exeogttaverunt, 
inri^vciv, airo^uaSa, &ir6fipet(rtv conjicieotea. Qtne noti minus 
metro adversantur quam iivetrtouf ut legendum nonnullis fiaum 
eat. Equidem locum sic restituere roihi ?ideor: 

Tu Xnrapoi Kiineav, 

a\Xa ^iptT c^/rroif fiotriv, 
j^orioy ^ KaTfgiilov viov x^kXovei riv'* 
tl 5f jx^ wXfOpov ^ yXmrrav tj o^Xijya^ % 
y^crnv ^ ^iXfaxos OTrcopivris ^pial'' 
av ^ipiTi hvpo jxera xoXXajScov ^Xiupmv, 

Vjdes, jam et metrum bene decurrere et sensum reddi aptissi*^ 
mum. Dicit homuncio^ se satis habere apuarum^ et nauseam 
jam molestiam se suscepisse pinguium esu. At, pergit> afferte 
losta, batin, hepar, etc. Graeci videlicet distinguebant cocta ab 
aaus eodem fere mode, quemadmodum nos, quod cum aliunde 
patety turn luculentissime ex ipso Atbenseo p. 376, d. rw^^^ 
;(o7^o; — f^ ^ftKreia; fijf icrriv 6irri$, i^iog H Karoi iuregi. Jam 
apuas apud Veteres npn inassatas, sed oleo coctas esse, multl 
docuerunt. Vidv Schweigh. ad ipsum nostrum locum, Ac 
fervidum quidem oleum, sale et papavere adsperso infusum iia 
esse, discimus e Suida y. afvtu At, inquit^ unde tu ^cis, /Sony 

t quae deinceps commemorantur, cupedia assata non cocta esse ? 

d quidem tantum non de singulis demonstrari potest. Sed n^ 
longus sim, cooferri tantum jubeo fragmentum secundum e 
Tbesmophoriazusis alteris, ubi ita duo coUoquuntur: 

A. 4 vijoTi^ otrSr, ^ yot>je^ ^ revtfSe^; 

B. ou x^P^^^f ^^^ irios, ov^ l^ap xavpoUf 
suSf (T^aSoyBSf ou$' ijrptaiw SeX^axof ; etc. 

(in quo loco minus recte Porsonus ^dv. p. 63- o^l /Si^ri;;) 
Hie en piscis ills /Sari; et alia nonnuUa cupedia, quorum ^pstro 


Igt^^^ix^^q, ui lis iittii»efantuf, qwe oMU^i M}if» ajbt Quod , 
ajut^ admutaUoDein attinet^ quAm fecimusy vocis. ^Qj9«0e(4itia: 
^4;^^^^ ^^<>^ ^^^K ^8® leneiM iipp^eU Nam prima rectft. 
Hsepla UttjQras ^ propius ad o.adducta faciledodit », quemiidma* . 
4^m. ft et Q^ ssppisaime permulata €98e constat. £x hac autem 

cormptela nabe sunt reliquae. 

.. Altera difficultas sita est in voce o-irXSiifeL ^^ quae propter biatusi. 
ferri nov poife diximus. Erfurdtius verba yX£rray 4 (rsXijift 
plaae omisit. Npa feciaaet^ ai AtbenaQum .propius ioapexisie^. 
qui earn ipsam ob causam hoc fragmentum attulit, quo demour 
aU^^t, etiam linguam in d^iciis.fuisse. Ita enim ille: yT^ifftnif^ 
^pdf'WITou 'Agiaro^ir^ ^^ Tofy^viareus hot rovrow* cUi^ 0L^g,eiC. 
Alque diaerte Photius: y^oriy, ij (Hesychii interpres Koii v. y^i^> 
arXijya 1} yXaorrav, 'ApiQ'Tofiviif. Jam vero quum Athena^i litoi 
habeant non ovXijya sed o^Xiiyo;, Photius autem Aridtophani 
tribuat a^Kviyu, ex utroque conjuncto fecimus orvX^ya^. Nam 
quum hoc intestinum satis sit minutum, helluo iste non conteiH 
tus uno liene^ plures sibi simul afferri jubet. Nemo mihi obji- 
ciet^ plurali uumero vocem istam significare morbum, V^^^ 
Augli spleen vocant. Neque enim demonstrari potest, bund 
esse unum et constantem pluralis numeri sig^ificatum. Quiu 
^Versa tradit Hesych. v. o-ff-A^ve^^ quem vide. 

Huic fragmento subjungamus aliud ex iisdem Totyi^^ttrraiif 

3uod Scholiastes Aristophanis servavit ad Ran. v. 295. muito 
lud corroptius, sed, si semel rectam emendandi viam ingressus 
sis, ad corrigendum facilius. Leguntur apud Scholiastatn haec; 

ihf J TuyviVfcralf* 

Pauoa hie mutanda sunt, sed lilterae melius ordinanda?^ Scribe: 

Verbum^i quod aut prascesserat aut sequebatur, Scholiastes omi-* 
sit. Ad sensum fiibse videtur invoco. Hesjchius et Phavori- 
OQs cXeXj^o/xey)}, <rnoiihij, Fidem his emendationibus feciat 
Fragmentum Sophocjeum e 'Pi^ot^jxoi^ apudSchol. ApoUotiii 
Rhod. Itl. 1213. in quo *Exati) per coelum et tetram ferri pet- 

w(Moy <rm!pYi(ri ipaxovrcw. 
Poof, Valkenar. qui de hoc Fragmento disputat in IKatrib. p. 

136 Be Aristophank Ffagmetiiii. 

160. et'Interpp. ad Orphei Argon. ▼. 9B0. sqq. cum' Suiidhr V. 

Castigabo jam pauca, quae in Brunckii collectione v^l mimife 

accurate vel parum vere tradita sunt. Fragmentum Idc. XGII. 

wOfous fftwaoiTi fisTfilra pertinet ad Aves v. 580. £t de Fragm^. 

X. e Fijpa vide iie Pollucem memoiia fefellerit. Verba enim 

'#r«%ixot; fiaxTfipUv exstant in Acharn. v. 448. — Fragmentum 

:Iqc. X. pertinet ad Ampbiaraum. Vid. Lex, SegueY. p. 82, 

•15.*^Fr. Inc. XLL referendum est ad Gerytadis Fragm. XXI •, 

■ut obacrvatum jam est a Porsono in Censura p. £80, quod ide6 

xotnmemoravi^ ut tnonerem, unice verara esse leetionem Potlu^ 

CIS ?igirtovf ixag. Athenseus enim KavKovs ixjoi^f quze perpetua 

vocum^ confusio est. — Fragm. Inc. CXIX. est e SKvivag lumc^ 

Xafj^^Mfdua-cuif quemadmodum docet Scholium Ms. Platonis alia* 

turn a Kiddio in libro^ qui inscribitur Trs^cts and Miscellaneous 

Criticisms of the late Rich. Porson. London^ MDCCCXV. p, 

'268. Quod scholium^ aureum vocatuni a Kiddio, adscribatfi 

hie sic, ut legitur in Cod. Vratislaviensi, in quo nonnuIJa em^n- 

rdatius tBcripta sunt, quam in Anglico Codice: 'ApM-To^^avri^ xtofMf- 

'So^OfO; f^Kotxpog ijvy wg avrog ^ricriv ilprivri* sKsoftaf^siTO ST im rm frxoifK* 

fttiy ftey- ff^piviSi^, iMfji0ei(r$pit S* aurov. Kpunvc$' rtc Se o*t;; xoft^^b; 

Ti; IpoiTO 0eaTi];. UToXeTTToAoyo^ yyoajUrfSioncTYi^ dugiTi$agi(rro^ayi^G0V* 

ScjM mirf>g S* I^OjxoXoyfirai (rxrjvag xuraXoLiLfiavovtraig' y^qwiMU yaq 

a&TWf ^^^<9 Tou^ffrofiofros TOO (TTpoyyvXopf'TOvg vouc 8* ayopa«(JOj ^frrov 

li xeivQ^ iroico. 'ApiOToowfJiog $* hv ^Aico ^lyovvri xat a-awvpioov h yt" 

'Xorri rrrpaSi ^aeriv aurov yBVi^dar ho roy Biov Karrrpi'^sv hi^itg 

lewwr 01 yotp rerpuh ysyveojxevoi ^rovowrs^ aXXoig xoLgirQV(r6ui Tcap^^ 

^^oucriv, 0)^ xai ^iKo'xppog h xp vpatTi^ wepi ^jxe^oov »<rTops«. Tpeif 8* 

io^ev vlovg* ^iXittvov rov roig ev^ovXov tpufLOL<riv ayoiVKraifLevov, xai 

.agagoTct lliotg re xai rov irotrpo^ Spajxao'iv hYiywvKrfueyoy' xai rpiroif, 

6v oLiroKko^pog jxsv viXOcrgaTOv xaXei, o! h irepi hxonotp^ov fiXerou* 

fOV. xarexXripcoire te xai n}V alyeivav, cog ieoyevrig ly too Trepi alyeiyvig' 

xcofjuphnai $e ori xai to rvjg sipijvi]; xoXocrcixov e^ijpev ayuX^a, Eu- 

iroXif awToXuxcp, ttKoltoov vixong. — Fragm. Inc. CXXII. 

«*^Xpov vi^ yvvMx) frpifrfivrtig wf^p. 

Stobaeus Tit. 69- Fioril. p. S93. tanquam e\ Euripidis Phoenice 
sic affert, ut pro aWxpov habeat vixpov. Nisi Clemens Alex, 
nremoria erravit, Aristophanes Guripidis verbis usus esse censen- 
dusest. — Fragm. Inc. CXL. pertinet ad^iraXeT^, teste Photio 
T. 6ai — Fragmentum Inc. LXXXIII. a Fragm. LXXXIX. 
non diversum esse cum perse sit perspicuum,. turn r;em oioi^ 
dubitatione eximit Liex. Seg. p. 431, 26. ubi base legimu^: avo- 

. De AristopJmnu FragmefUh. t&9 

postremis lege xa) eo-xiar^o^iifteva. Explicationem eiiim hsec CDil- 
tiaent vocig onreo-xongutevA;. Namquene vocem hfnci»Tpo(pvjfji,evoi alters 
esqaisitioretii «8se censeamus, munemur Stobieo Schowii p. 37v, 

: ufai MuMMiius quidam in prosa orattoiie hoc vocabulo utitur. > 
£x Ansiophanis fabularum iiumero aliquot jure sttAtuIit 

. ficbw«igha;userus ad Athetiseum, ut Philouidem et Pythagoreos; 
jnihi noti minus suspects fidei esse videtur Autolycus. Unut, 
qui Autolycuni Aristophani tribuit^ Erotianua hunc cum Eupo* 
luie- videtur confudisse. Nam quo nituntur Schoiiastte testimo- 
nio ad Vesp. v. 10^0, id, si recte inspexissent, facile intellexis- 
sent^ quomodocunque* locum Vel legas vel explices; non de Aris- 
tophanis^ sed de fiupolidis, cujus nomeu proxime praecedit, fa- 
bula sermonepi esse. Accedii, quod Galenus, qui idem Frag- 
mentum tangit, quod Erotianus affert, ejus auctoreni dicit r»yA 
T&v KeofAixwVf quas ipsa verba suspicipnein movent^ eum non 
Aristophauem^ qui plerumque 6 KaofAixig vocatur, sed aiium illo 
minus celebrem in animo habuisse. Haud raro^ ut constat, 
acriptorum nomina Grammatici confundunt. Sic frequenter 
apud Suidam Aristophanis nonien fragmentis additum, quae 
aiiorum sunt, v. c. sub v. ^ouXg/mvo), l/^^s/SXij/uivep, ljx/3o\a$a^, 
hrtrrpofrig. Nee facile inducar, ut Antiatticistae in Lex. Seg. 
credam, qui p. 106, 24. Andromedam Aristophani tribuit, in 
qua }<si^af dixerit pro XivcGi^.^^Tereus Aristophani adscribitur in 
iisdem Lex. Seg. p. 383, i6. ubi hapc: 0(»/Sf $ : tovos rig 7ceq\ 

. . . -njE* /*jj fffltgep^eiv <re irpiyfuaru, 

Proclive quidem est, conjicere Ffipa pro Ti\peif sed nihil decer- 
nam. Fragmentum Coniici cujusdam esse certum est. Sed 
Tereos scripsere etiam Anaxandrides, Philetsrus, Cantbarus. 
In fine duo e Stobaeo adjiciam fragmenta a Brunckio praeter- 
•missa. E Pace secunda Brunckius non nisi unum fragmentum 
attulit. Cui alterum adjecit Porsonus Adverss. p* 280. Ter- 
tiutn habet Stobaeus Floril. p. 213: 

A. - rijy 9ra<riv flevd^wTdi(riv bI^vt/js ^/X»)f . 

^ dvydrript &h\<pYf, trinei rath* e^py^ri jDtoi. 

B. <ra) V ovopLu dvj rl hartv^ A, o,Tr, y^wpylti. 

Putavel*unt, haec esse e Pace superstite, unde petituiti est Frag- 
ndentumj quod statim sequitur. Sed in hac fabufa ista frustra 
quaesieris. In uno v. 294. similitudinis aliquid hubent haec: r^v 
mouri¥ eipi}y)}y f iXijy. Et Aristophanis quidem esse illud fragmen- 

140 De Aristophanis FragmenHs. 

tarn, pro ceriP affirmaVerim. Perttnuit igitur ad Paoem al- 

Longius Fragmentum Aristophani tribuitar in Stobaeo Grofii 
p. 498. idque, ut opinor, e Codicis A. lectioae, quem paulo 
ante Grotius commenioraty el aappius ad vicinos locoa. In 
JBditt. Trincav. et Gesneri aoctorif nomeu non additum* Nam 
ftlsuiB est, quod Blomfieldius ad ^schyl. Pert. p. I67. monet, 
dtbui hoc FragmenCum Mscbylo. Antecedens qiiidem, sed non 
bdc. Verum Aristophaneum colorem certe non ita referre mihi 
iridetur, quam quod supra ex Pace protulimus. Adscribam ita^ 
ut legenduni arbitror: 

oerep ra xaroo x^ff/rreo Vrlv, cSv 6 Zsu$ ^ii. 
^Otuv yeLp loraf, tou raXavToo to ^mtov 
^ 5 xArco pof^lK^h TO hi xtvov vpo$ riv Ala. 

ov rip' Sty oSreo^ Iff-Te^avou/xeyoi vori 
irpoiKellMi* , oa$ etvto xirw xep^pio-juiyoi, 
Sf ttr^ Karafiavras e^iw$ vlvuv 2Sei. 
9ia TftVTa yap toi x«) XdeAouvroci /xaxa^oi* 
10 ira^ V0tp Aeyei ti;' 6 fMixotplrvis oViTar 
Kor&apteif €vdaifjLmv' 6 S* ovx aviflurrrai. 
Xflt) dvojxey y' auToTiri toi^ ivofvSa'iuaa'tVf 
wrinp hoiiTi, xai x^^S y* Vf Ojxiyoi 
aiTOu/teS' adroi/s, ievp' avieveu TOf/aii, 

V» 4. lOTow scripsit Grotius. Trincav. et Gesn. i0Ta^. Edam 
^ttoy Grotii emendatio est .pro ^loy, vera fortasse, quamquam de- 
siderb vocabulum, quod aptius sequent! xfyoy opponatur. Ges- 
neri vXeoy certe in Aristophane ferri non posset. V. 6. Trincav. 
et Gesn. ov yap Av 9ro7S oSrw; sortftfyoififfyoi, ex qua kctiooe bos-* 
tram concinnavimus. Nimis audacter et contra metrum Gro- 
tius: eeXX' ou yap iih'9$f oSrco; eors^ayco/uilyoi. Proaimum ver- 
sum ita, ut dedimus, emendavit Grotius. Legebatur: ou$ av 
MMTMuxpifiiyoi. Karaxexp^riMvoi volebat Gesnerus. Sed veram 
esse Grotii lectionem, peneiuihi persuadet locus e Nostri Pace - 
V. 1180. Tou^ y aveo re xa) xaroo e^aXai^oyre^, quamquam ibi me- 
taphorico aensu dicitur. V. 10. Eadem formula utitur Aristo- 

£ banes Vesp. 623. Pac. 769. V. 1 1. Vulgo ?t . V. 1«. Post 
lofMy paiticulam inseruit Grotius. V. IS. Trincav. et Gesn. 
«;80ftey. Participium requiritur, quum sequens verbum non 
abeat copulam. Grotius male x^^^l^^- ^- 14« Alias quidem 
'Aristophanes 1 in aviivai producit, ut Ran. 1462. 

On the state of the Soul after death. 14^ 

Uode Buspiceris xkyiV avdveu. Sic apimi in fine Tersus Eq» 
674. mflire Eccl. 745, Sed in Avibus tamen v. 945. trimetn 
iambici initium faciunt verba: ^ofiv^yi/- S ri /SouXii, cum quo.copf. 
Sopb. Electr. ▼• ISK ibique Brunckius. 



Halis Saxonum, 1818. 



On the evidence from Scripture that the Soul, imme- 
diately after the death of the body, is not in a state of 
sleep or insensibility ; but of happiness or misery ; and 
on the moral uses of that doctrine. 


I. Probationary scheme of all rational created beings — iz. The soul's separate exUr 
fence nniversally believed — Opinions of Philosophers — 'in. Sleep of the soul — its 
pre-«xutence.— *Pakt the Second, x. Material and Spiritual substances — ^The Soul 
dies not with the body — ii. after death, is not in a state of sleep — iiz. possesses its 
pinsonality and consciousness — iv. has more active energies — v. has new sensei— - 
▼I. is in a state of happiness or misery — vii. but not oiferfect happiness— ^vxrr. is 
in tiociety — ix. is in union with former friends — x. a ministering Spirit, perhaps, on 
earth — xz. may possibly, on emergencies, assume a visible form. — Part Tjeiibo. i. 
Summary of the whole from the book of wisdom — ii. Authorities for and against th^ 
moral ases of this doctrine — xxx. Its moral uses evident to the Author. 


I. l.That all created beings^ endued with virtue and formed 
for happiness, were originally assailable by various temptations 
as a test of their integrity, was an opinion of the old theolo^- 
ans, certainly not improbable nor unscriptural. 

It should seem, that such a scheme of probation pervades 
the universe. 

And Me may contemplate the hedl^enly bodies, with no risk, 
perhaps, of a visionary hypothesis, as so many abodes of Spiiils, 
who are passing through their states of trial in their progress to 

vm Vnthertule 

perfection. There miuC be cfaangca of bein^ iherefofe, and- 
habitatioDS adapted to these changes. 

• Nor is it unlikely, that even the falkn angels, '' who kept 
not their principality/'' had at first been stationed in plaqea- 
of difficulty and danger, to call forth exertion^ to prove their 
strength, and to claim their unremitting vigilance. 

^2. Agreeably to this grand system of probationary exis- 
tence, we should suppose, that man, in particular, was placed, 
with such a view, upon this earth : and the Scriptures verify 
the .supposition, in almost every page. 

In its earthly body, then, the human Soul is here brought 
forward, to be tried and purified and prepared for a better state. 
And when that trial shall be perfected, the union between the 
body and the Soul shall be dissolved. 

J I. 1. On the dissolution of that union, the Soul, if it exist 
at all, must exist in a state of separation. That it so existed 
was a subject of almost universal belief. Though all had, 
every where, experience of the death of the body, yet all, every, 
where, believed in the immortality of the Soul. 

It was not ill Egypt only, the source of science — it was not in 
Greece alone, the seat of polite literature, that this belief prevailed: 
we might trace the same conception of the Soul imperishable, 
incorruptible, from the Druids of Britain to the Brahmins of 
India.* And in none of tliose coim tries did it appear a fugi- 
tive or an obscure opinion. 

The habitation of the Soul was also expressly determined*: 
To believe in the Soul's existence, indeed, and not assign it' 
^me place of residence, was impossible to a reflecting, mind : 
aioce to exist without relation to place, is one of the perfectiona 
of "God alone ; and no created being could be conceived to 
exist without' locality. To an invisible world, therefore, the. 
eyes of faith and of credulity were alike directed. And in that 
world were different abodes allotted to departed Spirits, whose 
merit was appreciated, or whose happiness was measured, by 
the supposed standard of moral rectitude. 

In the descriptions of that invisible region, there was, doubt- 
less, a display of fancy the most luxuriant : And, respecting the 
nature and pioportion of rewards and punishments, there was 
much diversity of opinion. But, in the general notion of such 
a' place, mankind seem to have concurred ; as well as in the 
principle of resp nsibility and reinuneratiou. 

■■ ■ ■ ' .pi^.— — p^— ^^ I III 

' 'T^immmf iiftXl^F- Jade 6. 
* See Strabo lib. xv. Ilerod. Eutcrp. Csbs. Comm. lib. iv. 

of the SfmL o/irer death. y^ 

. That the J^ws should, almost exclusively, have beep, leflin 
cnrkndss on the subject of the Soul's immortality, would be, 
utterly inconceivable to a plain understanding. Yet such was 
tf theory not long since ingeniously fabricated and strenuously, 
maintained in the face of rational probability and of historical 

The doctrine 1 have stated as difFused among all nations waa^j 
I doubt not, a primeval doctrine ; traditionally derived from the 
patriarchal ages, and therefore originally communicated from 

' How, therefore, spread abroad as it was through countries^ 
^r and near in every direction, — through countries that had. 
almost lost sight of the true Religion, — and stil) retained aj it; 
was, amidst all their degeneracy — how it should have been obli- 
terated among God's peculiar people, is a problem, not very 
^asy of solution. 

2. In the mean time were formed, amidst the reflections, 
and meditations of more enlightened minds, ^ great variety, 
of philosophic systems ; from which I shall select two for ol>* 
servation ; — the one, supposing the cessation of the Soul's indu 
viduaf existence after its separation from the body ; — the other, 
i|s actual existence not only after its separation, but before its^ 
union with the body. 

'_ The cessation of individual existence, as far as it answered 
any moral purpose ; was the same or little otherwise than ex-, 
tiaction. There was one Animating Principle of the universe* 
llence was the Soul^ it seems, derived : and with that Principle 
was it reunited. On the death of the body, it was re-absorbed 
into the Great Spirit, whence it had emanated. 

With others, who held that the Soul, independent of the 
body, was a separate essence, intelligent and active, its pre-ex- 
i3tence was a favorite doctrine. That human knowledge was. 
not the new acquisition of each individual, but the remem-. 
brance of what his soul possessed in its former state, Socrates in« 
(erred from the ready admission truth finds in the mind. Thia 
remembrance miplies former existence. If, therefore, the Sotftl 
^xbted before, we may reasonably suppose it will exist aAer 
the present life.' 

; III. My concern, however, is with two descriptions of per- 
sons of the present day, whose opinions approximate to thoaa 
which 1 have stated; either asserting that the Soul dies or falls inta 
insensibility, or mamiamiug its pre-existeuce. 

, . : \ Phad.. pp. 19(r— aof .. . , 

14^ On the Hate 

mie former opinion seems almost as hostile to the persomijitjr 
of the separate Sou], as that of the first class of philosopher*. 

Its extinction or insensibility is as repulsive to our feeling8,| 
as its absorption in the Great Spirit. 

There is this difference, indeed, between absorption and ex- 
tinction, that, with Christians, extinction is but a temporary an* 

Nor are the death and sleep of the Soul taken as synonymous. 

They who think the soul dies, not to be recalled to life before 
the period of the resurrection, look only to that period for its 
revival ; whilst they who consign it to sleep, have marked an 
intermediate state : where it may repose '* till the trumpet shall 
sound and the Dead shall be raised.'' 

- As to the notion of pre-esistence, we shall soon see, that it 
furnishes a very feeble and fallacious proof of the Soul's activity ; 
though asserted in opposition to the theory of the insensibility 
or sleep of the Soul. And its support from revelation seems 
but slight or dubious. 


L 1. That, though Man be a compound being, consisting of 
two parts — ^a Body and a Soul, — these constituent parts were 
not created with such a reciprocal dependance on each other, 
as necessarily to live and die together, — but that the Soul, sur- 
vivhag the body, will in a separate state, retain its consciousness : 
we should infer from its attributes and energies, even as viewed 
through the medium of a gross corporeal organisation. 

In contemplating the Soul and the body, we form a concept* 
tion of two distinct substances, so very different in their nature^ 
that we cannot but consider them in contrast. The body is 
'matter ; the Soul, spirit. Of the properties necessary to the 
existence of matter, are solidity, magnitude, and figure. These 
are palpable to our senses. But spirit is proved to exist, only 
by those emanations which matter is not capable of producing, 
and which therefore can flow from no other than a spiritual sub- 

In looking to our own minds, we are sure that we possess 
consciousness and perception : and there must be some primary 
principle whence they flow. Is this principle, then, material 
or immaterial f Can consciousness and perception result from 
matter? If so, it follows that matter itself must think. 

It is very far from my intention to enter into metaphysical 
diaquisition. These few prtliminary observations are meant only 
to suggest, that matter uid spirit are so essentially different) that. 

of the Soul after death. ' 145 

tfiough Chey sabsbt m the uoion of the body and the'Soul, ^et the 
union of the body and the Soul is not necessary to their existence 
•^-<tbat, in fact, the Spirit may exist without the material sub^tance^ 
and that, therefore, a belief in the Soul's independence on the 
body and subsequent existence in a separate state, is not only 
more rational than the contrary persuasion, but even philoso- 
phically just. 

2. rrom these premises, our conclusion is, that '' the Soul 
dies not with the body." 

And this we take, as our first position, to be proved from 

Yet the very contrary has been affirmed, on the authority of 
the bible itself; and has been argued from several passfiges in 
the old Testament— 'from the 88tb psalm, for instance, where 
man is apparently represented as having no prospect beyond 
the grave. ** I am counted with them that go down into the 
pit — whom thou rememberest no more :** — ^' Shall the dead 
arise, and praise thee I Shall thy loving-kindness be declared 
in the grave, or thy faithfulness in destruction ? Shall thy 
wonders be known in the dark ; and thy righteousness in the 
land of forgetfulness ?" Tlie Psalmist (says a commentator on 
this place) speaks as a man not assured of a future state. Who 
will now doubt, whether God shows wonders to the dead ; be- 
lieving as we do, that God will raise the dead to life ? Who 
will now doubt, whether God's loving-kindness ;»hail be declared 
in the grave, when not till we enter the grave, shall we truly 
feel, those effects of the divine love, which in this life we had 
only hoped for— when, not till we moulder into seeming '' destruc- 
tion," shall we learn God's '' faithfulness" to those who fear 
him, in his not forsaking us even in the land where " all things 
are forgotten ?" — That the feeling of desertion bad thrown the 
Psalmist into despondence, may, unquestionably, be inferred 
from this passage. But the despondence was momentary. 
From his ^' doubtful mind," the shadows were soon dissipated, 
whilst he had recourse to " the God of his refuge." — " But 
unto . thee have I cried, O Lord ! and early shall my prayer 
come before thee !" 

In the 49th psalm, it is true, man is ^' compared unto the 
beasts that perish." — '' He is like the beasts that perish." — 
** His beiiuty shall consume in the. sepulchre." — " Yet (said the 
Psalmist) God shall deliver my Soul from the place of Ueli" — : 
" Will redeem my Soul from the power of the grave — for he 
shall receive me!" — In the book of Ecclesiast. also [iii. 1^» 
19> 20.] Man is compared to the beasts. '^ I said in my heart 

VOL. XXII. a. Jl. NO. XLIIl. K 

146 . Ontkest<f^ 

it ^ r 

cotoeitiing the estate of the scHm of men, that GUid mighl ma^ ' 
fii(est them, and that they might see, that they tfaemaeUes aM 
beasts. For that which befalleth t6e sons of men^ befalleth* 
beasts; even one thing befalieth them. As the one dieth, «o 
dieth the other : yea, they have all one breath. So that a man 
hath no pre-eminence over a beast. All go into one pkce ; atl 
are of the dust ; and all turn to dust again." In the next verse^ 
however, it is asked : ** who knoweth the spirit of man, that 
goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast that goeth downward 
to the earth ?" 

To see this subject in its true light, let us look to the 
Creation of all living creatures ; and we shall, there, perceive 
an evident distinction between the human being and th^ 
brute animal.. '' And God made the beast of the earth after 
his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that 
creepetli upon the earth after his kind. And God said : 
Let us make Man in our own image, after our Itkeness.-^ 
So God created man in his own image: In the image of 
God created He him ! " With peculiar emphasis we 
are repeatedly told, that God ^'created man after his own 

And in what respect did man resemble God i Surely in bis 
Soul — ^not in his body. Yet still, to discriminate more express'- 
ly, between the Soul and die body, to prevent all possibility of 
misapprehension, we are instructed that '' the Lord God formed 
Man of the dust of the ground ; and breathed into his nostrils 
the breath of life. And man became a living Soul." ^'The 
breath oflife,''---4et us observe — might with propriety be trans- 
lated/' the breath of immortality.'' 

f f we now look to the dissolution of man, we shaH see '^ the 
dust returning to the earth, as it was, and the Spirit returnk» 
unto the God who gave it."* 

So clearly are the body and die Soul defined : so strongly are 
they marked in their union and in their separation. 

That the Patriarchs all died without the slightest exprevsiott 
of a Hope in Hereafter — ^that, at the close of life, they had re* 
spect only to the interment of their bodies, with no apparent re^ 
gard to the fate of their Souls, and that they seemed to enjoy no 
prospect beyond this eafth — beyond aland of temporal promise 
to bring wealth and power to their posterity— such, likewise, 
has been urged with some degree of speciousness. 


* Eccks. xii, 7. 

of the Soul after death. 14/ 

I wbuld resl^ however, the argument on asiogU tici* whicb,> 
Aough it has been Utile or pot at all hisisted on, is to me suffi- 
ciently cofivincing. 

Their frequent intercourse with Angelic Inteliigenciies had 
rendered these venerable characters so familiar, 1 should conceive^ 
with the spiritual world, that their probable state after death in 
habitations like the mansions of thoise very spirits must have been 
often the subject of their contemplations. And doubtless, the 
care taken to inform us, tliat they not only died and were buried, 
but were ^' gathered to their fathers or their people," seems to 
point our view beyond their earthly sepulchres. That, in- 
deed, they ^ died in faith/' we have the declaration of an Apostle 
to convince us. *' By faith Abraham sojourned in the land of 
promise, as in a strange country, dwelling in tabernacles with 
Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise. For 
he looked to a city which hath foundations, whose builder 
and maker is God. fiy faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau 
concerning things to come. By faith Jacob, when he was dying, 
blessed the sons of Joseph. These all died in faith, and con- 
fessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth.'' ' And 
that though they died in their bodies, they were alive in their 
souls, we have the assurance of Him, who was greater than the 
greatest Apostle — of him who said that " God was not the Go<i 
of the dead but of the living." Such were our Saviour's words.* 
TThat they had continued to live, therefore, and were living souli 
at the time when these words were uttered, is unquestionable. 
The latest of the Patriarchs had then been dead more than seven- 
teen hundred years. Yet was the Almighty still their God. 

The first soul, that after the creation of man was disunited 
from its body, was that of Abel. And, not long after, '^ Enoch 
was not" — "for God took him." Enoch '^ had walked with 
God." And had ^^hadrespect unto Abel and his offering." And 
the Apostle places their characters. in the same light when he 
tells us : /^ By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent 
sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness, that he was 
righteous, God testifying of his gifts : and by it he being dead 
yet speaketh. By faidi Enoch was translated, that he should 
not see death ; and was not found, because God had translated 
him : for before his translation he had this testimony, that he 
leased God." ^ Yet Abel, a martyr to his righteousness^ was cut 

^ Hcb. 3ri, 8, 9, 10, &c. * Matth. xxii, 32. ^ Heb. xi, 4, 5. 

148 On the state 


pff bj.a yiolent deatli<-*AbeIythe favorite of the Most Highj w|f 
murdered by bis own brother's hands! And Enoch — saw mt 
death eveniu its mildest shape — he saw not death at all !— Can wt 
thiqk, then, consistently with our notions of God*s moral justice 
-p-can we acquiesce in the opinion, that the soul of Abel, no 
aooner conscious than deprived of its consciousness, — -no sooner 
happy in its rectitude and in the. favor of God in consequence. of 
its rectitude, than plunged into the world of shadows — no soon*- 
er awake to life, than insensible in death— <an we conceive that 
Abely a few years '* a shining light,'' has been almost nix thousand 
vears extinct in darkness — and at the same time believe, that 
£noch.was translated from earth to Paradise without a change, 
e^icept from the frailness of the flesh to a state of spotless glory? 
Was there any essential difference, we may ask, in the Souls 
of Abel and x)f Enoch ? Were they not alike human souls, possess- 
ing the same nature, the same attributes-*-the same faculties and 
aoections ? 

, Was the one created with a perishable principle-^with a body 
to crumble into dust and a soul to be dissipated in air->— and was 
the other created with an immortal spirit — inhabiting an incor- 
ruptible body i These are questions that are natural ; though to 
attempt an investigation of a subject too mysterious for our ap- 
prehension, would border upon presumptuous curiosity. 

All I would suggest, is, that on a comparative view of those 
t^^ antediluvian spirits, we are repelled from the idea of Abel's 
soul annihilated or insensible in death, and are almost assured 
of its conscious happiness in some state of being, the habitation 
of departed spirits. 

Similar to Enoch's translation, was Elijah's. And the inten- 
tion of the Almighty so to distinguish Elijah, was known to Elisha 
— was known to the sons of the Prophets both at Bethel, and at 
Jericho, before the event took place. This is remarkable.^-^And 
there is something in the manner in which the translation is relat- 
ed, which shows an intimacy, I had almost said, with the ^rit«* 
ual world. The circumstances are stated, like those attending 
an ordinary occurrence, in terms of pet feet familiarity-*-<*Know- 
est thou," said the sons of the prophets to Elisha, '^ that the Lord 
will take away thy master to-day .^ And '' Elijah said untoElisha : 
Ask what i shall do for thee, before I be taken away from thee* 
And Elisha said— I pray thee, let a double portion of thy Spirit, 
be upon me. And he said, thou hast asked a bard thing : never- 
Ibelessif thou see me, when 1 am taken from thee, it shall beso 

oj the Soul after death, 14^ 

utito thee: but if not, it shall not be so. And it came to pa^s^ 
to'tbiff stiR wanton and talked, that behold, there appeared 'a 
hkdriotofjire, and horses of Jhe, vLtid parted them both asundei'i 
AikI Elijah M'ent up by a whirlwind into Heaven** '^ And Etisha 
took up the mantle of Elijah that felt from him, and smote the 
waters, and said : Where is the Lord God of Elijah ? '' '^And the 
aom of the Prophets said : The spirit of Elijah rests on Elisha* 
And they came to meet him, and bowed themselves tothegroi&nd 
before him/' > 

The spirit of Elijah, therefore* rests with Elisha. And can 
we suppose, immortal as Elijah's was, that the soul of Elisha 
was perishable, and ready to evaporate into nothing, and at best 
recoverable only at the final judgment i 

Exercising, as we shall see they both exercised, the power, as 
delegated from God, of raising the dead to life, shall we pursue 
the elder prophet, ascending in his track of splendor, that fad- 
e^ not away ; and look back to the younger prophet *^ dying and 
buried " — and not see, as arising from " the sepulchre,^ a living 
9€Mjf ; a spiritual substance, equally formed for glory and for hap- 
piness f No! — From that sepulchre even the accidental corpse 
that touched the bones of Elisha, ** stood up " and arose to new 

What changes the corruptible bodies of Enoch and Elijah had 
undergone, when received into Paradise, — how they were purified 
firom the ^grosser particles of earth, or how they could have put 
on incorruption, are questions not for us to ask, or rather not for 
lis to insist on. 

Nor can we conjecture, in what manner souls divested of bo- 
dies can be rendered visible to mortal eyes. 

Yet Elijah, whom '' the Lord bad taken up, so that his body 
could not be found on any mountain, or in any valley; '' > and 
Moses who had died on Mount Nebo, and *' whose body was 
buried in a valley over against Beth-peor," both equally '' appear^' 
fdto Peter, James, and John, when Jesus was transfigured, and 
his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as the 
light *' — were both observed " talking with Jesus " — and wete 
both made known to his Apostles. 

If it is possible to reconcile these transaciions^-can these dir- 
eumstances in any way consist with thetemporary extinction of the 
Soul-^with its own non-existence between death and the resurreCr 

1 S Kings ii, 5—15. * S Kings xiii, 91. ' H Kings ii, 16. 

a50 OnthestaU 

. . Wb«D tha 8^0 of the poor widow of ZareptNlha was rawed :lo 
Ufe> Elijah cried unto the Lord :' << O Lord aty God ! hff^ 
tliee^ let this child's soul come ioto him aj^is. . And the Lofd 
heard the voice of Elijah : And the soul dF the child camts iiiiU> 
Jikniagaiii ; and he revived."* 
. Of a similar character is the scene at ^ Shunam« 

Tfaas, too, is the daughter of Jairus raised by our Saviour : 
. - '^ Maid, arise ! — And her Spirit came again ! " ^ 

And thus the widow's son is raised. — ** Young man ! I say mno 
thee, arise ! " * 
. Thus, also, the spirit of Lazarus reanimates bis body.^ 

And in the Acts of tlie Apostles, Peter, turning to the d^vl 
body of Tabitha, said : ** Arise ! " And be presented her aliv^ 
to her friends.^ 

In the same manner, Eutychus is instantly restored to life :* 
" Trouble not yourselves -«»His life is in him I" — said St. Paul ; 
with a simplicity truly expressive of Christian sympathy that feltfor 
others onJy**of Apostolic humility arrogating nothing to itself, 
but attributing, in silence the most eloquent, the miracle to God* 

On the whole, we may observe, in every instance, the souVa 
seturn to the body recalled, not re*created. 

Had the soul, after annihilation, been created anew, it would, 
I should conceive, have been so expressed or intimated. 

3. In the mean time, the circumstance of a place or habitation 
being assigned to the soul, necessarily implies the soul's existence. 
• The Hebrew writers termed it " Sheol ;"* signifying ^^ a plaoe 
unknown " — about which all are curious or inquisitive* AikI the 
authors of the New Testament borrowed its name from the/ear* 
liest Greek writers ; calling it ^' ''Ahii,x>r the Invisible Abode/' ^^ 
*' Have the gates of Sheol been opened to thee V* says Job* 
Hast thou seen the place and state of the dead — the conditions 
of men after death ? " Shall he deliver his soul from Sheol ^" 
Bays the Psalmist.*' 

As we may sometimes not improperly refer to tlie Apocry^ 
phal writings, as illustrating the more legitimate text^ I btie 

- ' 1 Kings xvii, S3* * t Kings iv, 11. ' Mark v, 41. ^Lukeuii, 54^ 

' Luke Yii, 14* ^ John xi, 44. 'Acts ix, 40. ^Acts xx, la 
^ ^ In the Sept. translation, Sheol is rendered Hades in almost every 
instance. And I need not observe, that Hades means the mansion of 
human souls, whether it occur in the Odyssey of Homer or the Gos« 
pel of St. Luke. 
** Job xxxvili, 17.^ '^ Psalm Ixxxix, 48. 

of the' Smd )tftti^ death. 151 

^11069 Erf^s, %ho wjBf that, at the dty of' j/nAgmrnkf *^ tk« 
eartb shall restore those that are asleep m h«*; and to ihail 
Ae dnat, those that dwell in silence : And the Mcre< fJmces 
iball dtitver those St>^9 that were committed unto then." " 

To '' rise from tkt Dead/* is of frequent ocourreBce in the 
New Testament. And that it means to arise from the ahoik 
of departed Spirits^^ a comparison of the ditfereut texts would 
clearly evince. It is remarkahle, that Herod the Tctrarchy 
when he heard of the fame of Jesus, said to bis miniatera: 
^ This is John the Baptist : He is risen from the Dead.'' * 

In the ParaUe of the rich man, the neaning is sel^ 
ertdent : ' <' If one went unto ikemfrom the Deodj said the rieh 
man, they will repent.'' And Abraham said : ** If they litar 
not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be ftersnadtdi 
though one rose fVom the Dead." 

The expressions^ as applied to our Saviour, *' till the Son of 
Man be risen from the Dead ''•*-And *' they wondered what tha 
rising from the Dead should mean'' ■ ■ ^ * thus it behoved Christ 
to rise from the Dead "— *'^ they know not the Scripture, that 
ho must rise again from the Dead '*— ^^^ after he rose 'from the 
Dead " — ** Christ, the first that should rise from the Dead, and 
show light unto the people" — '' who sbaH descend into tha 
deep — to bring up Christ from the Dead V^ — '^ if Christ fose 
from the Dead, how say some that there is no resurrection I "-*- 
^ he is the first bom from the Dead "«^*< the God of peace 
brought again fi^m the Dead the Lord Jesus" ^-^ these exprea* 
atoiis indisputably mark the intermediate state* 

Where this region of spirits is situated, we should vainly enquire. 
That it was under the Earth, seems to have been the Jewish 
notion. Yet of Hades, Paradise was considered as one divi* 

The Targums or Chaldee Paraphrases, which are the oldest 
books next the Scriptures, often speak of Paradise and Gehenna 
(or Gehinnon) as the two different receptacles of good and bad 
Souk after death. Thus the Targum on Job : '< Have the 
gates of deatli been opened unto thee ; or hast thou seen the doors 

* 2 Esd. Vii, SI. * Matt, xiv, t, 2. ' Luke xvf, «0— ^1. 
4- Mark ix, 10, Luke xxiv, 46. John xx, 9. Acts x, 41. xxvi, S8. 
Bpn^ X, T. 1 Cor. xv, la. Col. i, 18. Heb. xiii, 20, 

IS^ On the state 

of ih^ Attdom oTGehetlnaf^-Jizst thou perceived die bftttWi 
of the land of Paradise n 

With this Targum-glossary, our Saviour's going down ]flf# 
Hades, and St. Paul's being caught up into Paradise (which *I 
fball hereafter notice) are not quite reconcilable. And it will 
be difficult to conceive, how Dives, looking across the' ^' grdlt 
gulf, '' could, from his own habitation see ** Lazarus afar off in 
Abraham's bosom" — could, from Gehenna, have a view of 

But if with two writers * of great erudition, ingenuity and 
piety, we incline to think, that the intermediate abodes of Souls 
may be the Stars— -the planets among others, perhaps, those of 
our own planetary system, we render Scripture consistent even 
with modem Philosophy. 

'^ In my Father's House are many mansions, " ' says our 
Saviour-^^' I go t.o prepare a place for you. " And, as ^' one Star 
differeth from another Star in glory," these ^* mansions " may 
be the habitations of incorporeal spirits in different states of 
happiness. We have a passage in Heraclitus much resembling 
that of St. John — '^ My s6ul shall not die or perish, but^ im^ 
mortal, shall mount into the Heavens ! Those ethereal Housei 
shall receive me ! "^ 

If Paradise, then, be included in some of the Heavenly orbs ; 
others, though afar off, visible from Paradise, may be allotted to 
unhappy souls : And we even see beyond the grave, if, from 
earth spectators of those orbs, we look to the mansions of spirits*-^ 
if the places whither our souls shall go be objects of sight as 
well asFaith.^«-Still, even in this sense, as all shall be dissolved— 
as the stars themselves shall fall from the Heavens — we may 
say, that ** the diings which are seen are temporal, and the 
things which are not seen, eternal." 

II. l«-^If we take it as our next position, that ^* the 9(ml 
after death is not in a state of sleep" we have first to notice 
those, who, literally interpretintg these texts, would tell us, that 
*^ man lieth down and riseth not till the Heavens be oe 
more"^ — that Samuel's question to Saul at Endor, '^whyhatl 
thou disquieted me to bring me up," ^ means disturbance from 
sleep, though it more naturally implies disturbance from happi^ 
nes8«-Hind ^at '' he sleeps with his Fathert " 7— ^that *< Laxaraa 

'Jobxxzviii, 17, 18. * Bryant and Nares, » 9 JohaxiVj»3^ ♦- 

♦ Aif9iTtu It f4.9 AlBifm Ao/utoi. * Job xiv, 5— If. ^ 1 Sam. jLiYiii, i^, 

' 1 Kings i, 21. , 

of the $9td q^n death. IJI$ 

•-—that ^' the Fathers fell asleep"^ — and other te^its of lik^ 
ioqpQrt) have an equal reference to the soul and to the body, 

Assuredljyfroitijuxta-positioni these texts explain themselves : 
Aod ^' sleep " has no reference to th^ souly — It is but a softer 
tenB for bodily death. 

52* With respect to the texts in our favor on this topi<v there 
ac6 some already adduced, which^ obviously proving more than 
that the soul exists, prove also that it is not asleep. 

^Ajid, amidst numerous passages, let us direct our attention to 
one only, that, with all who are not fond of embracing absur-^ 
dities, must set the question for ever at rest. No Christian can 
doubt, that our Saviour met ^^ the penitent thief " in Paradise. 
Such a meeting our Lord promised. 

And, as we believe the Scriptures, we are sure that such a 
meeting took place* 

But to what purpose was the interview, if the penitent drop^ 
ped into sleep ? 

Surely, we are not to assume, that the penitent's case was 
any way different from that of other separate spirits— -that whilst 
others were plunged into the sleqi of oblivion,^ he alone was 
allowed to possess his faculties and affections, his memory, his 
gratitude, in all theif liveliness. 

3. But the characters of the places whither souls shall go 
their very names carry with them the notion of sensibility— >« 
of happiness or misery. 

In the picturesque description of the 23d Psalm, we may imlh> 
gine the Sheol of the Dead — the Valley of the Shadow of Death, 
and the Paradise of the Blessed. '' The Lord is my shepherd ; 
He maketh me to lie down in green pastures — He leadeth me 
beside the still waters" — ^^ Though I walk through the valley of the 
shadow of death, 1 will fear no evil. Thy rod and thy staff 
comfort me T Such steady reliance on God is, indeed, '' a 
staff" to human feebleness !-~*'^ When the soul, to use the words 
of afiae writer, is hovering in the last moments of its sepai»<* 
tioQ, when it is just entering on another state of ei^istence, lo 
comreise with scenes, objects and companions that are alto* 
gether new^^'— what can support her under such tremblings of 
tboi^t, such fear, such anxiety, such apprehensions, bat the 
CMtiRg of all her cares upon Him who first gave her b^ng, who 

} John xi, 1 1. * 1 Cor. xi, «0. * 1 Thess. iv, 14. ♦ % Pet. iii , 4. 

ISl Ont^ state 

lilM coliilacM ber tkrougb one stage ot it, 9Lni'^1l\ be kfimyg 
with her, to guide and comfort her in her progress through 8t«r- 

ill ' Joel| sl«o, we nmy fancy a picture of the whole Sheol — 

of its two divisions in contrast ** the garden of Eden beibr^ 

US| and behind us, a desolate wilderness." And how beaufifel 
are the images >K4Heh ^ Kaekiel has selected from garden scehe- 
rf, as deacriptiTe of all the felicity that the rnont exalted of hrti- 
man beings could enjoy. 

* ^' The Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches. 
nPhe waters made him great ; and the little rivers were etemt 
out unto all the trees of the 6eld. The fowls of Heaven made 
their nests in his boughs : And under his shadow did the beasts 
of the field bring forth their young* Thus was he fair in his 
greatness ; for his root was by great waters. The cedars of the 
garden of God could not hide him : Nor the fir^rees, nor the 
chesnut^treea were like his branches ; nor all the trees of Eden 
that were in the garden of God." In a northern climatei we are 
scarcely sensible of the intense pleasure arising from groves and 
fountains ; though in a barren and dry country where no water waa^ 
their verdure and their coolness convey an image to the mind of 
nost exquisite enjoymenti^— Can such enjoyment consist with 
the insensibility of sleep ? — And is not the existence of passion 
implied in such enjoyment — of gladness of heart f — And, in the 
horrors of privation — discontent and sorrow f«— And, if subject 
to the emotions of joy and grief, shall v^e eaclude other aflFeetions 
from the soul i 

In eonsuhing the Fathers, we find ' Justin Martyr drawing 
t line of evident distinction between the abodes of the pious aad 
profane—^ Tertulliaui rejoicing in the refreshments of the Bles- 
sed ; and ' Clemens, Polycarp and St Cbrysostom describing 
the holy place, or pointing to the sacred gates of Paradise. 

III. That'' the soul after death poiseises its personality and 
consciousness^* is our next assertion ; as we mount in the scale 
of evidence. 

With those who would ascribe to the separate spirit an awak« 
)»Qtd intelligence, the opinion of Socrates (already noticed) has 
found favor: And its re*existent activity in Hades has been 
inferred from its pre-existent enei^es in the first spiritual world. 

From the facility with which the mind assents to truth, Human 


! Joel ii, S. ^ £zek. xxxi» 8, 9* 'In dial, cum Tryph. p. ff 3^ 
^ Da Aiiim§| cap« 55. ' In Epist »A ad Piul. 

of the S^td.^ter death. 


k no ir l f ^go ii iupftoted. not tp be an atqiuitkiaR, bul^a reoifoi- 
Sraoce : i\nd the remembrance implies t'uriner existence. 

Bot to VI hat does this remembrance amount f does it aiQount 
to a consciousness of identity I If the impression of former 
iBiages remain on our niinds, are \ve at an> time sensible of 
auch an impression? Have we the slightest recollection of a 
former state of being, when such an impression might have 
taken place f No, surely. If there be any analog), therefor^ 
between a pre-existent and a re-existent soi|[*, we ma) conclude, 
that, in Hades, we sfaall have no recollection of the preceding 
states of being. The cootiouity of the soals existence thus 
broken into parts, is destroyed ^ A&d we may as well suppose 
%ao many distinct souls successively produced and perishing. 
. Besides, we have no authority from Scripture in support of 
this doctrine ; unless we think, that " the breath of immortality " — 
at the creation, was the instantaneous production of every hu- 
man soul— -that '^ all iouls are mine " — refers not to theearth alone 
but to other worlds, the habitations of human spirits — and that 
'^the spirit returning nnio the Godicko gave it'^^ may be 
equivalent to similar expressione in tb^ dassic writers. 

Be this as it may— we are very sure that the Socratic remem- 
brance, or revival of former inoages, is not consciousness. 

And, without the power of recognising ourselveSi we are not 
virtually the same persons. With respect to the past, our 
identity will certainly be done away. But the Scriptures ex- 
pressly tell us, that we shall ** be called to an account for the 
things done in the body." And the personality vf AbrahaiD 
and of Lazarus is evident from the Parable-^ an4 of Moses 
and Elias, from theii; interview with Christ, on tlie mountain 
of transfiguration.* 


' Serus in cceliun redeas, &c. * Mark ix. Mattb. xvii. Luke ix. 



e M$. Parti, ducripta ok hnrnmrndt Bekkero. 

Notis subjccit 6. BumcBS. 
FoL. l62. wen. ^ 

Xo/hiv or xoy fuv Tv^omify f 
#il£. vv^ oSv xpi9'§iiu SflpfMi (i^fMy *Hxiw ; 5 

fVf I wtnijp «f fuxffy ou xoAoif Xfyfif* 

opxci' mroil« yap o"! fiif 4^fo^ Kty^iir 

^XX' 2i^ e; oixov;' xoi yetp oA IS^m Mfunr 10 

tfiiieu mpaa-w, oi varpi^ rag ysftotfc 

^aijpotHri toBfba xoi SoyMnr xcift^^a 

xa( inLifM foifimo't i|Mrip^«9pi«i$ 

69'fieuvi tvfuoM'iv ffltf-ofiou; WfUW* 

Jrmr 9 Svyeu yepMog IxXtirm wetriip 15 

vuAo^ &/tf /4n|^ xai kiywg yipuBf vipt 

k^ wgof iipM$y 'HXiw fjMkif tipLwg 

• • • « versus vacuos 

• • * ♦ narit y&9 a nnura correct. tiO 

♦ ♦ • * aabeadem 

♦ * * * versus tscous 
pJXam Sff ^cvSpfftf-i AffiT«y 
iafimf dfpLoyteoff 

IptpBtopLwa yioif U 

*Jtw''Itw noyMptjiinx^ 
wifiyyag $ ovpfiarmi 
Xivw^tv voipLwag tKarm^ 



*' * 

Emipidei Phaethontis Fragmcnta. 157 

fai4d¥ meXeoy ^vyteu* ' SO 

[MKtfioas x6xvo$ St!)(A* 

ojcorrai $ avayovrai Mr tlpio-la^ 39 

eofiiMov r fvaeo'iy potloig 

itvu ihrt * * * * 

fol. 162. recto. 

<rivSfliv li vpoyovoy tri fitroy ff-iAarii 
Tft jxcy oSv hipoia-i fi^ifiiAva xik§t 

ffjXff xa) TO Sixaioy fayei xa) Sj^cu^ 


u/xvffiy SfM»o-}v yaig avoffirmf 5 

wojMfOi irpotrtowTM 

fftoXxou tffwros MOV 

c hn^apfioTa' §1 di rv^et rt rix9i, 

fiapbv fiapiia ^o/3ov hptf/^f^if oTxoj;* 

Iptl^eTM hi TO fio^f yipiMif tsXo;* 10 

TO 81) Tor li^oug iy«o ' 

Xirerofieva %pwri^¥ 

000$ fiXa)Xff,;^^o$ &^«i« 15 

Xffp^of IjUrOio'iv oef^ffTosir 

iTcp TfXff/a yapLon aoiSi* 

aXK oSe yeLp 819 fixir^Kws irpi ^pMV 

xtlpv^ i lego$ x%) wci$ ^otffcov 

/3«/vou0'i^ T^f grAoDy Ceuyo;' ^f <v X^i? M 

OT^ft ey i^a-j^lar 

xtpt yap fAsyiXtiov yvwfMis Sff/^fi^ 

«'0e«8 Vjxevaioi;^ oi; ^^}> OeAfloy 

0ntf«yotf vfS/coy olx^rop^s 25 

158 Buripidd Thaeth^ntii Fragwuntai. 

Ixr^rioi Tf SoJuMoy mot ig«rf 

m TfXfltoi 

xfipuo'a'a} Z 6(rfav /Sao-iXijiay 

Avreo S au^fl^y SO 

cvTfxy/av rt yif^oiSf iv i^ciog 

xp&VM itXivreov' aWat vly irrm Xra; 
MEPO^ ♦ # ♦ ♦ ♦ 35 

* * * * fi y«ip fS Xtya>. 

fol. 163. verso 

0nrfloXofM|v' oux oTtrrr 1^ 80/tou; yfxuy ' 
notris iro<ns /DtoXvai^i oy yafJL>^)uou§ 

[MXirais uvTsi raptiyoig ^youfuvo; 5 

01 dao'irtovg OftoXyoy h^opt^if^in 
snrov ri$ ecrriy oifMcro; X^ftou vfcreJi^ 
ffirffiirre duaXftooSff^ xpu^rco 6< yty 
0f(rroi<ri 9aXaftoi;^ tvt fjurco xei vo 

XP^^^Sy l^^^^ ^^ xXiJSpa lyco (r^^ ] 

00 xaXXi^eyye^ "Hkie, oi$ pi, iwiKtirets 
xa) rovhf '^TToXXcoy $ <y Bgorolf igdwjg ^coXf, 
ocTTi; Ta (Txymr ovopi^otT oJSf &K4/A^y6oy. 
XO. ujui^y u^i^y 

T«^y ^10^ ovpavluv flSofcev 15 

ray egaoroov Tsorviwf rflly xstq^o. , 
yoL\Ly\XiQV '^^poSiray 
ir^yia^ 0*0) raS fyw vup^^iot^, 

<r« T6 yso^uytoToo 20 

TrtiXoD, rov Iv aidlpr xpu^rrti;* 

cay yoLiuoy yeveiv 

«yoy pt,iyoiV 

rifo-^e xoktcos, /SmciXi] yu/t^tuffrtfi, 

up^alov fiXov'A^poUr$^% 

%S Jfav TijXgyo-gi^, 

xft) ftovo^ oAavarmv 

ya/t/3po$ Si' eatilpovoi yaLev 50 

yuvetix avat^^i vsici rois xara CTOf40» 

t§otg ^opev<rat xav xviuaa-aa-iM fMt 

<rifjLVoi(riv vpi.tifodoiO'iV sffjici^ t eSo; So 

«$ y^g Ti avpLfpwv vas otv. cip^sr, . 

e^^S'^ . ♦ * • ♦ 

fol. l6S. recto. 

isas TTpoceXiiv Tefievog e^ eptMy So/tcov 

OEF, i Trirtg icrrge^a ix ioficov rot^vv i(oia* 
ov yap o'u^ooo'iia'sjutyflt ir^pav^yi^iTci 
yjpww hapfuoov t^otp,€tfiwTott vrvki/ig 

xaraivov pi^sXoitvetv cog ivBoiev ariyrig 5 

wpotrielg Trpofrw^rov, fXoya fj^h ou^ ogw irvpog, 
yifuavTOL V olxoy jtteAayo^ eySodev xflnryoS* 
akK io'ii Ig olxov, ft^ tov" Hfaivrog ^o>iv 
deo'fJLOig e^siO'^peK fteXa$^a (rvpi^xi^v^ wop) 
Iv ToTo'iv f/$fVroi0'i 0a(8Jovro^ yafudig - 10 

MEPO^ ifmg ^i\g ; ooa jx^ iufji,arw¥ 9ru^u/tfycoy 
xar' oTxov axjiAoy xsict airoa-TOLkivT TSi|^* 

6£P« abrayra raDr if0pi}<re' xoyvcoTOVf ep^M* 

MJ£P. oiSsy ^ e/x^ rad*^ ^ oux hrlaraTai^ imffimf ; 

6£P. duijTroXovTa tsoi^ IxsTo-' e^si ^pffy«($* 15 

aXX* £ijui'* CTrei roi xou ^iXei t«^ roucfii 
Xi^^dsyra ^auXoo; 1$ fteyap^n/BtcoMt & 
o'u 8* CO iFvgog $£(r9roiya, Jijjxijrpo; 'C^^i 

JiTO. raXaiv lyeo TaXaiva, iroi voSa 20 

mepoirra xaTu<rTi<roo ; 
Ttva tip ^ ya^ ure xsvSo$ a^oy -— 

16D Euripidei Thaetlumtk 

9W Hb^* HB^PB 4bS9 V W^pMW^HP Vw ^Bv 

Irinnt lufmntm r hi AAf 

mmMeofwuifa SO 

woT^g Tfc w tf wn offt 

yeni rou a^ceyeug 

c^ayas otxrpeu apxio'eu (rois Mpcig. 
MEPO^f \m fkol fMf 

XO. IJKowrea' ofX^^ iicvirov <rre¥oeyiJLarm9 ; 35 

MEP09 Uirhmv; 

xmkii rh w xkSorra Sucrw;^ yoiw 

« 4^ ^ ^ ifijuiraQf opSof ca^ri" 


fol. 162. verso. 

y. 9. Lege ^k. EteDim teste Oyndio^^Unafuit-'^cptio. 

V. 3, Lege kHirvfios. Cf. Soph. Trach. IO64,. xois eniTvpos y€yu0S. 
Ita opponantur inirvfios et ypevbrit. 

¥.6. Clymene h«c eloqoitiir: et mox Phaetboo. Recte igitur 
superscribitur^ ecirep: Dubitat eteDim Phaetboo. Mox 
lege v4fuK€ Kovic 6XK{as X^ets. Exstat formula &XXvs X^- 
yety io Eurip. Hec. 302. Or. 708. El. 1035. AliW quo- 
qae permutantur ovk aXXtas in oh koXws. Vid. Porson. 
Advers. p. 284. 

▼• 8. Clymenae baec sunt verba et Pbaethontis in ▼, 9« 

▼•11* Lege iraTpo$ xpos rovs yofiavs* 

JPK9gmisnf9 If^f^^ ^t 

>. / 

%^ 12* Mibi niftgiK^ere dispttcent ilia Sm/jia — i6imv etmox i6(tmr* 
Praetulerini dewv. Cf. Tro. 15. 6eu> avAitopa: ubi Mss. 
iiyaXfMLTa, Hine vero Kec/i^Xia Hesych; nt videtur, hauait, 

^, 20. Mnttla e&t baec Ch#ri vi{u»ba$ : qua ver depingitur. Hwic 
iQCum imitatur Horatius iv. 12. 1. Jam vem comiies, ^w^ 
mare te^per0»t, Impellunt amaue lintea Thracke, — iVt- 
dumponii, It^n^biHhr gem^^^ Infelixam* — Diu^im^tfi 
tenero gramm.piti'S^*^^'!'^ CuHodiS ovh^ atrmmaJkitUa, 

\0 25. Malim h' ev icv^ffc. Horat. Queruntur tn nflvis ave«« 

▼.. 25. Cf. Nostri Suppl. 980. y6oiaw Qp6ip€.vofiivaf 

▼<27« Analogiae oppugnat ovpc/3(ira<. Dejbuit e89e vel opei^rm 
vel oif^fftfi^Tau Vid. Porspn. Hec. 208. Scrip^it Euripides 
OM^Sb^ai vel aypoli^rai. 

V. 28. JWc quoque cXaroi stare neqail. Debiut esse iXar%»es. At 
Euripides seripsit Troc/zva b* ^rerac. 

T. 30. Hesycb. Savd6y' — yXtapov^ 

V. 35. Vice qkovtoi^ quae vox est nihili, perite adm'odum oicaroi eon- 
jecit Dobraeus. 

Fol. 162. recto: 

V. 1. Nihil btc video; Fortbsle atii atiquld ^ei^ere poterunt ope 
Ovidiana : ^ Nte hnguB paMoa lobar est tibi nasse Pe- 
nates ; Unde oritur^ terra domus est contermina nostrtB.*' 
Quae tameti sunt adumbrata ad imaginem Euripideam. 
Vid. Fragm. i. 

V. 3, 4. Sensus et metrum postulant Kovfieiv, ^/jtivaiov leavovToyw 
V fiyei KuX dfdo'o-ai. Etenim haec loquitur Nutrix.. 

V. 6. Matini irpotriovtr^ Dorice pro wpoortovari, scil. Choro muliebri. 

V. 7* I'^gc 6p&(Tos, Ay ova* M x^P/'^ ^' * ^' ^* cirayovm Bpdaos x&P' 
fxa re. 

v.'9« Lege PapeT &v: acil. Chorus. 

V. 11. Mallm TO h\ ^ WOT. Reddc ^ juA vid. 

V. 15. Egregie Dobraeus ihwKc. 

V. 16. Exstat apx^ras in Heracl. 753. et Eleetr. 1149- Verum 
ibi scriptura genuina est &pyi^as. Sic dieitur 'Ayi^acjiaf 
et Mev^Xcu, In Pers. 9^5. vulgatur 'Ay^a/Mr^ yap iroX- 
\ol 0c3r€» — cJ^i^dcFrac. Ibi lege omnino 'Ayc^tX^. Vid. 
Bentl. ad Callimacfa. H. in Lavacr. Pall. 130. et Valck. 
ad Herodot. vi. 56. p. 462. et T. Kidd ad Dawes, p. 19I. 

VOL. XXII. a. Ji. NO. xmi. l 

^Sf Euripidii Phaetkofdis 

Y.'SO. Recte nuperscribitur bivXoov. Etenim Ipse rex futt et pneco 

"W. 25. Cf. ^schyl. Hirfpfjii, Fr. i. AeX^evo^e^pov vihioy, soil. mare. 

V. 37« Vix probnm esse puto &7raeipeT€, Malim woi' deif>ere. Si-' 
militer in Here. F. S15. lege ^vy^ Nvv 6es7r6i\ alpe KSiXov, 
Imrohity, vice NwO^f Tr^^aipe. Est, fafeor, in v. 868. Tre^a^- 
pove^, necnon in Phoen. 1034. Verum hoc e Ms.^ illud e 
conjectura est emendandum. Id alio tempore comprQba,bo. 

▼. 27, 8. Hiatum istum r« w reXaoi ferre metrum nequit. Hsc' ete- 
nim sunt quatuor systemata. Malim /3dr' S Xaoi. Cf. 34. 
eiy iarrw Xetbs : et Sopfaocl. Fr. Incert. LX, Bar*, eis cboy 
Stj trd$ — - Xeups, OS — wpoffrpeirevde neque distat ilia formula 
*Akov€t J Xews, [ita enim legi debet pro 'Aicovere Xedt :] 
J,ovaapitav Xiyei rube : ubi Xeits est monosyllabon : sicut 
in Nostri Erectb. Fr. i. 7. 

V. 39. Lege fiaffiX^ov d-vrw i' avSaV. 

- ^ 

Fol. 163. recto. 

V. i, 2. Hoc distichou estNuncii orationis pars ultima: cui tribuen- 
dum (utcunque renitente Plutarch. 11. p. 665. C. qui 
diserte haec verba Clymenae tribnit; sed eodem, opi- 
uor, errore quo tribuit Clymense Fr. x. fnauf 8* evdy- 
KaXoy [lege eidyKvXoy] to^ov, Kpaveiais yvfxvdcria b* 01- 
Xo^ro) est Fragm. ix. <l>iXos bk (toI "AXqwos ev tpapay^l ffn- 
verai v€kvs : — cui subjuiigere liteat e conjectura 05 iray 
TO a^fi aioTov fi (iia irotei : necnon e ruderibus literarum in 
Ms. eruere Uvpos, Kepavy6s t* kv ycKpdls <pQopay aei : de 
quo tamen versu utcunque dubius, nullus baereq de lec- 
tione probe restituta Zdcray, bi fjy trjffiy hrfiov eyQeoy. Di- 
citur etenim ^Oopay ael SfStrav, ut iiei^iity ^Xkos et viySot 
apud Lex. Bekker. p. 347. et aj(Bps aeiStify in iBsch* 
Suppl. 996. ex emendatione Bothei et Elmsleii in Eddn" 
burgh Rev, N. 37. p. 75. : neque valde distat in Hel. 993. 
'A&ayaTov &Xyos, neque rrfy opyriv — ^AOavaroy in Eurip. 
Pbiloct. Fr. x. neque cuftdirovi yytufxas in Soph. Mv&ots apud 
Hesych. Dicitur quoque arfioy Meoy ut in illo, si 
recte arbitror, Tragici versu apud Longin. c. xiii. iyOa y^s 
•P^y/i' €fff avdnyeov, <^affty, aTfioy ^vB^oy (ita enim debui 
corrigere ad Tro. 8270 ; necnon in illo Sophocieo Aiyiat 
— — Ildpeffr' lie &ixioy warip ^)(t*)y, icepavyl^ 'ArfJuS Kardora- 
£6v re (ivaaiyoy <pdpos ; quod bene convenit cum Vir- 

Fragmerrta TneditaS \^ 

gllhno fuiminisajfiavitifenih. Cette itttaK loco probe 
Gommemoratur Kepavvds, teste ipso Enripidfinfol. 163. 
recto : xepavvlai r* lie Aids irvptfldXoi wXaya^.' Neque m^ 
restituitur i^ pla irvpSs, Hesych. etenim B/a ievpif ivva-' 
futs irvp6s. Ecqub nescit Homerieum wvpot ftivos aut 
^schyleum icrxys — Xafiwahos 1 De looatione SLitnov TlSe- 
' vai vel Troi€7v, cf. Tro. 1321. ^iaroy^fte B^tret, 
V. 9. Gt^mene hsec eioquitar. 
V. 4. et sqq. Ita locum deprayatom corrigere volo. 

TTCis Tis b' (hrtffroXdis rdb*, ov yafirfXloit 
' fioXwdiSf cLvruf, irapBkvois ^yovfikvri) 

8v ^(Ti Oeois fioXvfffiov, i^Ofiop^ere, 
€1 Kpovros iffVir atftaros 'XP-p-O-f- treaifv, 
afr6yyois t^ airoypfp, b/Mtts* iyKpvypta bi yty 
^etnoiari ddXdfjLois, evff kfiol Keirat froXvs 
ypvffhsf fiopfj bk KXjdp* iyiit {rt^paylSo/iai. 
Si eui displiceat vds tls •— * i^ofiop^ere, is legat ^ofiopl&rkt : 
legi quoqpe poterat b\ ey evroXaXs : nam utraque vox est 
proba. Cf. ^scbyl. Prom. 3. hriarroXas: quae mox appel-^ 
lantur kyroXrj in v. 10. Mox Oeois fjLoXvofibv intelligent ii, 
qui norint veterum religionem, apud quos Diis piaculo 
esse perbibetur sanguis et signa mortis. Adi W. DD. ad 
Hipp. 1438. Biiiu — Ohb* o/utfia )(palv€iy dayatr(fxoi<ny CKwyv 
aih\ Dein Kpovvos aifiaros hie dicitur ut alfiaTot Kpovyos in 
Rhes. 790. Hec. 568. 
V. 8. Dixerat Nuncius apud Euripidem in Fr. ix. "AXovroy ey tnipayll 
cHifrerai viKvs — Jure igitur Clymena poterat ministros ju- 
bere Y,ir6yyois ^iro\p^y. Mecum facit neque . distat Ari- 
stophanes in *Ayayvp^ apud Suidam in UcLpaXovfiac 'AX- 
Xa irdyras ')(prl wapaXovcfOai Kar av aTroyyovs cfv. Plura 
exempla tam nominis quam verbi congessit ElmsL' ad Ach. 
463. nempe Vesp. 600. Ran. 482. 487. ct Thesm. 247. 
His adde Pberecratis firagmentum apud Eustath. p. 707> 
36. Rom. Tov tbpuira Kal Hjy Apbay inr ifxov (TTroyyttroy : ita 
enim, vice apbaXlay, legit Meineke Cur. Crit. p. 42. ex 
Eustathio p. 1761, 29. quo respexit et Hesych. "ApSa* 
• iAoXvvfi6s, At fT^oyyois dlxisset Atticus. Vid. Piersoo. ad 
Moer. p. 360# Mox hiro^^f^y plane tuetur Aristoph. Eq. 91O. 
• *AifOftvficifjL€yo99 i ^flpi\ €fjuiv wpos rt^y KefdXi^v dno^vl ubi 

164 Euripidti 1^haeik<mHs 

taman &wmlm est vmi nedice. — £&alat t^to in Eurip, 
' Iph. T. 311. 'A^oV r* AW^, voce activa, necoon vepiyfniv 
ill Equit. 909. *liod* S^v'c^ov Xayti* rw^aX^ni wepiypflr^ 
Veram ibi legi debet vtpvpv in media : sicat UroyltaaSai in 
Plut. 8I7. Eq. 572, Pac. 1231. et Ran. 400. Hesych. 

Opportune admodam Chorus dicitur tUceavo^ irehUav oikti' 
ropes; ideoque spengiam, qu« naaCitur ad maria litus» 
nullus erat coUigere labor. 
Denique de aupplenieotis yooum icecmi-^iroXvf et ^^pay/So- 
fi€u, nemo semel monitus dubitabit* Exstat ir^ay/f o/uac 
in Iph. T. 1372. 

V. 11, 12. Ita tandem Ms. locum pnebet sannm ; quern Critici sa- 
nare noo^ poterakit ope Macrobii L 17. et Sctol. ad Orest. 

V. 13. Praetulerim E(rm Vid. Por^oii. ad Equit. 1272. et 1285. 

V. IS. Optime Dobraus it€iiofi€y. 

V. 16* Nequeo intelligere naryiay: Msdim hnuerpiay addi^ciricem. 
Hesyeb. 'Eir^brrcdf * o £f>/x»7i ^ ^Aicv&yu Lege ^Zvcucrpios. 
Eadem metaphora Kvvtrlav; quod exponit Hesych. 
iiroi^Ape^s Kdptiy ^ 'A'^yap if linBQ: ubi lege Kvyriyiriv' 
jroc **Ap€ws Kopifv* Etcnim 'EiraKr/Ma et Kvpiiyiris esse 
eynon^rma patet ex Hesychio 'Eiroi^pls — ical pi Kwtiyot, 
€w<wrpei$. Dixiaset Comicus Upo^y^yop: cf. Rao. 11 Off. 
vel vpofjyritTTplav : cf. Nub. 41. Aliis fortasse hie placebit 
wmv €pAri0v iraiyv(ov:-^co\lBito Ulo Horatiano, QuamJoeWr 
cinmmv^Mi et Cupido ; aecaen Piodarico Fr. Kvirplbos 
fi4Xrff*a; item Sapphico Fr. 82. quod ex Atitfopfaane Eccl. 
1016. augeve poteitit Blomfieidus ^11 )^v«oSa/iaXrov ifjtop 
^eXij/ia, K.vwpiios fyvo$] MAcrra Movmtfs, ^opiruty dpifiiia, 
Tpv^%s vpoirwroy (Metrum est Choriamb. Tetraia. Cata- 
kct.) ?€rum melius cum iracyWoF convenit Homericum 
Mvpfia. Alicubi me kgisse memini *Epiarowaiyt4oy : sed 
locum non in promt u babeo. 

V.17. Stajf^ quidem potest yaf^iktov. Mldim tlunen nap^yois 

V. ISU Lege omaino trol tob^ &yf0, vufi^, or^fia. Cf. Hipp. !oi 
tiyht irXdnroF m^f/etyey-'-y^i hJi^twoiya^—'^^^^ \ quem 

mitatitf, ai bene ww^ Coauoul aiMid AHwAVlUP. 

Fragmenfa Ineditd. 1 6 A 

y* 20. Lttet altquid in. veo^vy/<mH Malim risop £«?%» Alloqui* 
Ur Chorus Hymenaeu^i ; qui jure eodew dici fot^rat Zi^- 
. yiosf quo dicitu^, Hesyeh. testCi^ Zvyla, Y.H(>Ofyfi Zvyios, 
. Zevc:— 'qui^u9 addit Plutarch* Quaest. Roi^. u. pf 264. B. 
'Afpobirtiy IleiBii Kal 'Aprc/Lc^. 
ir. 2J. Hiiic iotelligas Hesycb. HwAof p» ■ oloy '/ 'A^po&rqs n&Xovs" 
9 ravs pi9y$9 ^ ras via$ fca2 ,7rap6^ovs» £ubttUis apud Athen. 
xiii. p. 568. £. n^Xovs KtnrpLioSn 
V. ^4* Lege omnino (iaalkis, 

▼. 25, MaoifestQ scripsit Euripides iiffrip ^s rolffBe b6^(n ^v 

ir4ov. Loquitur Chorus de Phaethoute. D^ viris cum 

. «tella f*9mparatis, cf. Apoll. Bh. ii, 14Q* oibpavif aroXav- 

rpi *Ain:ipi,TvpSapikill^ oiwep icdXXcorroc laffiir 'Eow^/iiv ica 
vvKra <^iv0ikkvQv a/Aapvyal : et iii. 9^6, 'Y\^f6a^ &yu0p£KrKuv 
&r€ 264(»«9s *Qf^avolo : et cui^us. 1375. Alia e«b ratio loci 
in Soph. £1. 66. ix^^^ ^^rf^r ,it }Jifi4^ir: Mhi Codices 
utioam praebuisseut eydpoU ^pwv, M^tupm^. F^s locn- 
tioois est Homer. II. £. 5. 'A^rip* 6viaplyf4ya\iyKi6t: quern 
imitatur Horatius Juliumsiebuet Carmen Ithyphallicum 
per apud Athen. vL p. 253. £• <^(\oi ftky dor^pes "HXco^ d' 
▼. 27* fallor exhibet, fiauCKtvii heiSfiio* T*o\(ios. Lex., Bek- 
ker. p* 347* AltryvKon TXavicy* Ka2 yeiofiat jrm Tfjs aeiSufov 
V. 28. Ms. sine dubio exhibet is Bmy fiyifffreT&ffeu. 
V. 33. et sqq. Suspicor ita fere fluripidem scripsisse* 
yvvaiK &yi^Q$, vavi rots KaT* e^mo^a 
Qeols \op€v<rai ical ** fiefwyff&trSai.yoMoy 
trifiyoKriy iffjierttloitny, Eheardi ff ibo$, 
{up!' j(s ye ffdn^wy iraa* av ApxofT* ay [irdXi*]," 
clfj^ks v[oiet<rBai r&aie, KahipKTfos oroXov] 
Oeas vpotreXdeiy rifjieyos eh eiftayvfJLOV* 
Hie inteliige 6eo7s rdis jcar' everro/xa Di%$ inferu^Ci. (Ed. 
Ct 126. &X(Tqi — Kopdy, 3s — 7rapafxe{(i6^€<yff&iipicria9'»'*€vf^ 
fAov oTOfia ^yrihos iivTes. Unde patet supplendi ratio 
voeem iiiipKTias. Mox £uripideum iJieiwv^waBqi ridet 
Aristophanes in Lys. il27' fi€fiovaiafiai KqXHs. Dein <v- 
€9Tol et hnln perpiutautur in ^chy). SiippU 377* ut mo- 
nui in Class^ Jaum, N. 5. p. 187* legendo fiiiXoy tUffrol 


16^ Euripidei PkaeibfmUs 

'X9ov6£. Ibi citahtur S. c. Th. 171. kr tleetnA fO^ ^t Agam. 
656, ^(alpcvtrav effetrroi iroKiv. Addit lUomfieldtts Hero- 
dot, i. 85. ey ry iv iraptXBoiitry evetrroi. Ipse tiddo et 
Hesych. KaKCffrovv tccuc^v Karatrratriv § &irp«vyhLv. Ex- 
stat eVAweerrif apad Herodot. ix. 85. et in CalKmocb. apud 
Suid. in V. necnon Weietn^ apud Antiphontem teste 
Harpocratioiic in V. Foit E{>60Tclf, sicut Mo|9/i&, aliaque 
generis ejusdem, pro dsemone quodam habita. De hac re 
poteram notam scribere longissimam, eoHigendo onlniai 
fere ilia dtemonum nomina: sed ea sunt neque temporis 
hujus neque loci. — De vocibus a me insertis dubitari po- 
testy de sententia minime. Vice e^ efin^v ^puav, quo- 
ihodo legerat Bekker, Ms. exbibet, teste Dobrsei amico, 
€5 cv&twfiov, Vero proxinte. Sensus postnlat eh tviayvfwv. 
Furise appellantnr e^&wfxoi : et Furiarum regina, quam bie 
intelligi patet e v. infr. 18. ii<rwoivd J^/ffitirpoi xdprff ap« 
peliari potest eh&wfios Bed. 

Fol. 163. recto. 

V. 2. Dobraeus etrrpo^^ Ipse malim ecrrpeyp'. 

¥• 3. Manifesto legend um Ov y&p trv (rwSeis aefiva driffavpltrfiara* 
Hesych. Gijtravpds* eis ayaXfAarwr Kal •^ruianav ^ Up&y 
awodcffiv oJkos. Eadem sunt KeifirfXia in FoL l62« verso, 

V. 4, 5. Sic lego : 

^vaoVf ii dpfxQy e^a/xeilioiiai, [jloXis 

MEP. &XX &yv(Toy* 

©EP. eKTOtrOey ariyris* 

« • « * « 

Illud dKTcuyofjteyos plane tuetur iBscbylus in loco simillimo. 
Etenim in Eumen. 36. Pythias, quae jam e scena egressa 
eraty iterum extemplo redit, Furiarum visu adeo perterre- 
facta, uti ipsa dicit^ 'Ds fiiire inaKeiy ftrire/jL aKraiyeiy fidtny: 
quern locum respexit Phrynich. in Lex. Bekken p. 23. 
sive apud Rubnken. ad Tim. p. 20. AlaxyXos **o\fKiT' aV 
raiyia' ^ij^l— ^Ic^ ohK^r^ opOwy bvyafxai kfiavroy. Ad simi- 
lem fere locum referri debet gl. Hesychii 'AKraiyovtra' rpe- 
fiovaa ri koi^aX&s Kparovtra : ubi tamen lege drpefjiovaa, — Si- 
militer apud Euripidem Servus in scenam fioXis dxraiyd* 

FragmerUa Intdiial .W8. 

fimf^, pm timore reditu Ibi fidXir reposlii ; quia wSXift 
in siagulari est . res plane siogularis, ut moonlit Porson ad 
Oresr. 1081. Mox illud oXX* dwvov se tueri potest ex Ari- 
atoph. Plut. 413. Ml) vvv &drpcj3** dhX awe vf^fLrrtav e¥ 
T^x^i [sic enim lego vice ^v yk Ti\. Etenim dictis /ueXir 
' dKraiv6fi€yost Servus orationem sistit, ^ colligendi causa : 
at orationem pergi vult, morse impatiensy ut solet esse, rex. 
Oenique defectum asterismis s^navi. 

V* 9* Nihili verbum est eveivt^peis. Scriptores probati semper usur« 
pant clff^if^as. Igitur frustra in Vesp. l62* Ik^c voluit 
Brnnck. in Suppleniento ; frustra quoque Ije^vv Mus- 
gravius in Cycl. 231.: Neque plus tribuerim Photiano Oi^c 
hcfp&iH* ovK efyt^ktai* Ja^kk^si neque conjectures For- 
SQoi dubitantis cje^vfcev ay in Vesp. 125. Quas loca 
onwia, prseter Sophocleum, sunt alio modo facillime emen- 
danda. Quod ad hunc locum attiuet, manifesto corrupte- 
lis acatet. Suspicor Ms. exbibere gii^ ii 'H^ai^rov x'^^^^ 
^(nrXflr 'E^ivyifs fjiiXaOpa (rvfi^Xi^y TvpL Vocem AaorirX^- 
Tu esse aliquoties depravatam monuit Ruhnken. Epist. 
Crit. p. 155. Eadem restitui debet Eumen. 190. o(f XP^' 
rvipiois 'Ev roierhe vXriaiottri rpijieaBai fvitros. Ubi, annis 
prope undeviginti exactis, emendavi *Ey roitrhe bei hatnrXfiTi 
rpi^trSai fi69o$, memor Homeric! da^irXnrcs *£(Dtvyvs : quo 
respexit Hesych; AavirX^rcs* /ueyoXcav koucwk dvaire/uirXa- 
/i^ny, iroXKois v\ri&i&iov<ra'' oi bk diMiarms rifcf#pi|rcjn^ Koi 
XoXen-^* hrl liis ^Epiyyvos. Hac occasione cotrigi debet 
€t Plutarch. 11. p. 988. A. Kai vXiiirloy o^cv rf 'AitoXXaifc 
Ttepl Tov xpijon^p/ov fjtoyonaypvaay ky AeX^iff yeyitrdat Xi' 
yovffi : scribendo ral baairXilTiy o^iv ^— • wepiyeyinBai Xi" 
yovai. Etenim vepiylyyeoBai est superare, Amiee mea 
conjectura bi 'H^altnov x^Xoi^ Aa^irX^r* *Epwy^$ cbnvenit 
cum £1^ b\ i Tvpbs bitnroiyaf ^iifi^rpos K6ptf, "Hi^anni r* 
€%ifr eifieyeis bofiois ifwis, 

V. 13* Suspicor in Msto. esse scriptum ^170^0* xaryot hr* itrtr' l^^c. 

T. l6. Hsec Merops eioquitur. 

V. 17* Scripsit Euripides, opinor, Atu^iiyTa ^avXwt ft* is fiiyav 
Xei/itfv' kX^y. Antiattic^a.' EX^y hyri t9v kXivhuy* Kdv- 
dapo% MiiSce^. 

168 mripidei PkatiM^tis 

^. 2t. Ai^ttteiitiiitf lupplere poBsiHii fcgemi* r^ ft «Mijp0» ij ya$ 

Yb 31^, 9. ]>ge rof ^fa'yhs &fti^at >€iier^&u 
% 97. Hiee loqi^r Cbotas. 

Codice Cfof^monfRoo hrterPaib. N« 9845% mode •InBt de- 
%6ripta sunt, pri«i«n, quod sekiRiy una est Wstotcft. ad Prnf . 
in N. T. Vol. n. p. 6. ibiqiie noMvlfai eiDoitpta d^dil, frag- 
MMsitom Sdphoeli triboeos; qnodnimcSaripkBa^att con* 
alat e Macmbio diserte Hlud diatichai ^taola ^n xpvm^ 
^cyyi^t^Xt', ^c. ubt conMbitia Pononi vierba depravata 
tttendatftis Tragicui ipM ttMidem Kpertas iivila et rata 
Ikeit. Po^ WetftteaiiMi Codioem ilfaim 4»c8fiB • s^jecit 
' dais Hetiplciis Haeiiia ; tpeeitaenqiie «re iacvdi juasit in 
OrilM Phildlog. noo tmtis a«corate t uti fimia eat. — 
Mrfgno litertniiti daiMie' Codex flle p^rvetaatot 'wm oisi 
Mia duo habet retcripta dbaroetete, queai ^iocaat, capi- 
tal!. Hinc evenit at A, A, A : AI, N : F, T, 11 : O, C: 
E, 0. n% tatcr ae dignasci qneant. 
£ fregnentis hisce, aliisqoe aliiii ndgatisy liquldo pitet, quae 
fuerit febalae eecoDomia. Neinpe in ■cenani intrabat Pbae- 
thon con^ieils «oniittottts> (quod et (Edipiisapud Sopho- 
elem se fedase tcatatur Poiybi ad mensam,) qma sibi^ ut- 
pote Solia ilio noo gemano^ ingefebaatar; nnlremque» 
ad iiaptiaB peragibados nato obmn opparhH». hctBm, 
acisoitatiar de sataiibas iaiiOy necne, dictts. Dfeumenta 
<qiiibiis Pbaethon se fiium Solis esse cegaasctfe possil, 
fnater exponit. Uaivt etenim vwti optienem Clymense, 
ant fiio ejn«, prooiiierat ApoUo, (aicut ties optioties Tbe- 
aeO Neptofltis) ut de patre deo ntilbn ewset fiNodnbitandi 
loeua^ Qao andito Pbaethon Meropi, firuitra dehortaoti, 
• * 4MtasiKuai aperuit^ quod 8ecom< eonstkueraty in alias terras 
migraodi, quo melius conrida sequattum effiigere possit. 
Ardbns foeiisdeat Gveonta patfem Meoosceus in Pbceais'- 
8is» mortem sibi pro patria meditatus, so^ima' reddit. 
' ''^-€» soena egvessus Pfaaelheii iUioo se ad PhcBbum cdntu- 
iitk Camis €k>HB rogat^ TOtique compos, teneritiAi pcenas 
dat, ictus fulnuaey pnecepsqoe in tenaan cambnstus ruit. 
Nati casum Clymene per nuncium intelligit : exanimes- 

^ne Bltus post ruinam repertos in foco quodaiai seoreto 
Gondity nbiy Merope iiesciente OjTBicnfe fiUum esse Phae- 
tlionta ApoHini genitufn, imiter lactus suos renovtre pote- 
nt. Vernm is locus, casa quodam insperato detegitar ; et 
dymene Tiolati hymensei jamjam pcenas datura erat> nis 
ApoUof e machioa Deus^ rem omuem patefecisset. Exejus 
ote, iii fidlor, veoit ilia itineris descriptio apud Clement. 
Aiex. et'LoDgtuum, ita legenda [Fragm» tI.} 

[Iy«^ hi y €hr0y]^ fti/ Beyps [r«rr] iivnip 

[J] irais, Airecpvs dy [ar^}, fii) i^ tw il^pov 

iimPfi, ikaivetv [4(f>fca] fjo^ fJtaBity [h-i]* 
^SUtc dicta, quae ridebat Eupolis apud Harpocrat« et Pho- 
tinm y*. Kar^tmiffU* (Kw ^^np^pdvi^Mis, i irpivfivra^ ri^v 

imriK^t excipiebat narratio de Phaethoute voto perstante, 
necDon de patris moiiitis, q«« descripsit Ovidius, iis si- 
mma [Ft. tu. xiti. xit. vih.j 

Kpatriy yap ^pay inm ^X'^y {&€i irdXoc,] 

Oepp^ b* dfwcrot ^X^£, virtpriKKovea yfji^ 
KuUi ra y -iyyvt, ra hk ifp6n» y* wixpur* (x^b 
iett ^' hrra IlXefd&wr iy^ ^ bp6fwr» 
romiBr* iuco^tras eir* fyiap^pty iivkur 
Kpoi&oaM hk nXevpk rrrtptxjujp^y 6x'lfJ^o,Tm^p 
ftcA^icev* «c b* iwrarr h alOipas irrv^fu* 
iyit'b' Sfttuff h vSna Seipiov fiefiiif$ 
irHionovra irart' h^ovdirovv " licei*' ^a, 

De vocibas ad seutendam expleadam interposilis, quid ver- 
db t>pn» est ^ Htt eteilim sunt merae harioiatiooes. De 
mutatb vero, alia est quaistto. Jn primis erui kvkKov b(y^ 
iv or^9ut r^f» ^"tb* S<m ex iiylnba m^y K&rw bi^erei : quae 
nemo Intelligere potoit. Mea lectio reddi potest Anglice, 

• Skallwutke tkeftUg tf the wheel to stand apart disjointed^ 
Mox redde iof eaienus : subaudi iy. Yid. Porson* Ad vers* 
pi 29^. de fcrmda iy 6vf, Dein vice &yaKTos dedi A/<i^os. 
£gt«gie dfuvroF testitttit Eurip. Melanipp.Fr. 13. Heaibiua 

JITO Euripidei ^kaethmtu Frtf^enta^ ^c. 

ante Poison, ad Toup. p« 460. Deinde icakcra w4ppv ra S' 
lyyvs eikpar^ ix^i Vitravius ix. 4. Verum hoc Natune le- 
gibus plane oppugnat Certe Sol Kaiei tA y* iyyvs ra b^ 
7e(^9ia 7* cl^icfMir l^ec. Mox vulgatur cet — ^x^''- Reposui 
1)^ e2. Istud e2 in tali loco est sokone. Cf. Hom. II. Y'. 
309- OloQa yap eZ wept ripfia eXifftrtfiep et 466. • £2 ^^* 
Oee7>' ^epf r^p//a. Deoique Tulgata irari^p £' oircffOe rSra 
leiplov fie^s^lmreve VV« DD. mire tocsit Manifesto ira« 
r^ est citantis Longini verbum ; qui scripsit et eyovOireip 
non yexo1Jgnt€V€ : hoc enim e librarii oscitantia proficisci- 
tur vice vnifaffovTa : quod Icgerat Ovidius — Phaethan — 
Pattuit, et nibiio genua intremuere timore, Sunique ocw- 
lu ienebra per iantum lumen oborta. Inter Fragmenta 
olim vulgata, ad colloquium inter Meropa et Pbae- 
tlionta pertiuet Fr. V. ubi Juvenis, ut opinor, dixerat 
Aoyov b' oveihiffriipa ieivoy Jjy fiaXeiy, 

(cf. Here. F. 218. Aoyovs oveiiiartipas eyiaroi^fxevos) cui re- 
spondit pater» ita enim lego, 
beiyoy yc' rove irkovrovtri i* ift^vroy rihe* 
$A£. tTKaioiai y* ejyai' rl hk^ irarep, roifi* alrioy ; 
MEP. Kopr' oXfios airo¥s iy rvtfXos awiipe^'i, 
^AE. TVifXhs iyovat yovv ij^piyas ra rfis rvyrfs, 

Ibi ij(pv(n est dativus. Subaudi iart. Ad diverbium idem 
refer Fr. ii. ex ore Phaethontis, 

m vayraypv ye varpU ^ (ioffKovffa yfi* 
necnon Fr. xii. — xlntKripia Myipii <lti\ai<rl fi uiKkvaxai Si^erai^ 

Inter argumenta, quibus de consilio Pbaethonta deflectere 
conatus est Merops» suspicor inesse aliquid ad res politi- 
cas et nuptiales pertinens. Fortasse juvenem esse regui 
participem voluit rex; e cujus ore venit Fr. iv. Navy roc 
fii &.yKVf^ ohiafiws awSeiy ^cXcc, 'Qs rpels iiil^iyri* ifpoar&rrii 
& cLirXovs 7r6Xei Y^aXepos, vwtay ik k&XXos oi KaKov irSXei I 

ubi tamen legi debet &yKvp* oIk *iam non ieque ^T^ rpels 

— At ex Fr. xv. coUigi potest quid de nuptiis senserit 
Phaethon, quo judice *£Xei^(Bos b* uy, bovXds eart rov X^- 
X^vs, Tlewpafiiyoy ro a&fia ri^s ^^pviys ^vy- 

Ad orationem vel Apoliinis vel Meropb reienri debet Fr. iiL 
'Ev roiffi fA(apois rwroy iyKplym fiporwy, "O^ris var^p iy trawl 

Misceildnm ClmBicd^ Vt 1 

|4 ifpo9to&mr eZ^ Knl Xmoftohrt wapahilM9*i^jathiar» Ita 
emm lege vice ^H jca^ iroXvrdis. Euripideum e^ verbum 
Aurapeiv, Id patet ex Aristoph. Acb. 450. vtr bfj yivov 
T\lffj(pos' irpo&atfQv XtTapSi <r\ F,hpiirlhrt, AUis fortasse 
placebtt EfK^y iv XiToleri — Verbum ekoi prasbent Indices 

I u ■"■■ {\ 


Ko. Xt^^Continuedfrom No. XLIL p. €80.] 

1. In the romance of Antar (Vol. iv. p. l6g.) the speed of 
Kureem^ on his camel, is illustrated by^ a simile after the fashion 
of the ancient poets : '* To any one that saw him he appeared^ 
like an arrow in its most rapid flighty or like a star sped with 

2. To the parallel passages adduced by Blomfield in his Glos- 
sary on JBsch. Agam. 233. (irpinova-u J*, co$ hv yqa^ai^, x, t. X.)' 
add the description in Coleridge's Ancient Mariner, of a ship in 
a dead calm : 

As idle as a painted ship 
Upon a painted ocean. 
And the comparison of Constance in M armion to '^ a form of 
wax :" — we refer the reader to the poet's eloquent description. 

3.' In the instance of alliteration quoted above, read ^^ prius- 
qnam cdnsules," Sec. 

4. Polyb. I. cap. 81. T^j Se 5iafleo-s«^ oipX*^^^ f'^ ^^^ f<-«y/<mjv 
fi€pS6x yojbucrreov, H^ pL0^6iiget xa) x. r. X. — avvegyot $s xai vXgfeo, 
fuiynrtA he roov (rvvipymv, ris asi toov irpoea-rayrmv vfipeis xai vXiove- 
ilas. (Sch weigh.) Why not rag rmv usl vpota-TooTcov ? 

5. Metrical lines : — 

fierod. VII. 206. *OXvpLipia$ rovroKri roicri wp^yjuwwi— 
Isocr. de Pac. r^piMg igooTyjtreieVy el h^uipLsf «v— • 
Diod. Sic. XV. 48. wadij voiwjraTceg) woXsij *EXX)jv/8aj— 
Polyb. II. 35. rifi^yj TO irXiiov, olKXol <roXX^^8)jy oxav— • 
38. ^Xi)4iv% (rycm^jxa xa\ icpootipidiv^ 

43. rrei, aTparrj^oi alptsig to hsuvBigov — 
III. 33. Mrsqov auTolg ^othtrMy tout ixfiotXgiv. — 

44. t^ipkgifos, Sia^^xc; vofuyY^lXug ifpamvuv'^ 

ttS MiscelfanttM 

P^Iyb. IH; 53. ^sroXXoi; f»h Tmrovjr r&v dhrffkroi^ei 

61. Swaf&ffi; ixire^og, *po$ifU90f ri Tptiroftfc xoij^ 

74. Sift^Sap^yai, wX^v ivoj* s'oXXobf; Se x%i — 

111, xai^oy $n»fwVj Uri xaXci ri ^rpayjxfltra— -• 

Liv. IV. Coiitaminari sangainem suum Patres — 
6. Matthiae (p. 402. Obs. Vol. II. Blomf.) observes on the pleo- 
nasm i tirtpos (Plat. Tim. p. dVO, 8ic.) ** On account of tlie Ulti- 
mate union of the article with its noun by crasisj it seems to have 
been seldom considered tltiit there was an article in the composi- 
ition.'' This remark may be illustrated by the parallel English ex- 
pression ** the t'other/' in use among the viilgar ; which however 
we partly suspect of being an archaism. — We know not whether 
it i^ worth while to notice what appears to be a trifling oversight 
of Mr. Blomfieidy in his preface. He Qu^^^^ ^^^ following; 
passage from the Scholiast on Dionysius Thrax : AItco^j oSv jyif, 
yfotf/^fMLTix^S ij iura^eM, xoi yotp o\ aySgcoroi ivrvy^avovres woi^ourip, 

itwoa-i^orhg, wrefijTija'av Tgp^vijv t^v (ra^ijvfcrai raunjv dwo^iiin^Zy, 
when he translates the word ivrvyp^ayoirre^ 9r. x, ir. (t. '' meeting 
with poems and prose compositions." Is not, however, ivruy- 
;(av»yy in this conjunction^ used by the later writers in the sense 
of" to read r 

7* Cic. Acad. Quf^st. 1^. 44.-— "Cum Zenone — Arcesilas sibi 
omue certamen instituit| non pertiojiciay aut studio vincendi, ^ut 
mihi quidem videtur^ sed earum rerum obscuritate, qu9 ad con- 
fessionem ignorantiae addaxerant Socratem^et veluti amaptes So- 
cratem,(et jam ante S. Davis,) Democrituni, Anaxagoraiii Em- 
pedoclem, omnes paene veteres : qui nihil coguosci, nihil percipi, 
nihil sciri posse : angustos sensus, imbecilios animos, bievia curri- 
cula vitae, et, ut Democritus, veritatem in profuiido ease demer<- 
sam : opinionibus et institutis omnia teneri : nihil veritatl reliu- 
qui : deinceps omnia tenebris circumfusa esse dixeifunt/' Qwf 
modern sceptical poet^ in one of (hose sentimental ej^cursus v/^uth 
which his Fourth Canto is interspersed^ has m^de the latter part 
of this celebrated passage " discourse most sweet music :" 

What from this barren being do we reap f 
Our senses narrow, and our reason frail, 
life shorty and truth a gem whidh loves the deep, 
And all things weigh*d in custom's falsest scale : 
Opinion an.<tonnipotence^ — whose veil 
> Mantiea the earth with darkness,*-^itDlil H^fat 

And wrong. ate aocidenti^ aod men grow- p«l4 
Lest th^ir.own judgmenls sbould become too br^bt^ 
And their free tbouguts be crimes^ a»d earth have too much light. 

Childe Harold^ Caolo iv. St. xciii. 

8. Matthise, ia bia account of the defective verb xdt^m or x^^^ 
(Gf. Gr. p. 343, aqq. Blomf.), baa omitted to mention the old 
form xoilwfi,!, '' I excel/' (hualwro Apoll. Rhod. I. 168i&TfKii- 
WTO Horn, Od. VIII. 219*> in both cases with an accusative of 
the persons excelled) which appears to be distantly connected 
with it. 

9' To the remark on the Roman usage of Jfrica in a 
former Number, add the illustration of tbe Grecma usage ol 
T^Kupoq (Reisk. in Eur. Andr. 159:) by ^"^ English phrase^ ** the 

10. Aristopb. Pac. 153. fiot/xoXijo-erM. dtTarija-ffraM. xmi 
fiouKoXr^fiM^ to deXyi)Tpov* d^ to, xeii 07reo$ S^fi ti ^vho}^iu» t^; \utris, 
ai^xs Tols rolxoiS7FotH{\e^$ YP^^^^ ^wov. dbmfield, in his Glossary 
CO the Agamemnon, 1. 652, has transcribed tbe quotation in tbe 
latter part of the above Scholium^ without noticing its metrical, 
flow ; it is obviously an extract from Babrias's version of the 
fable of the young prince and the lion : 

avedijxfr Toip^oi; iroixlKu$ yga^oi$ t^ianf* , 

11. Soph. Aj. 658. Erfurdt. 

/M^ftf<^o|^>^tf^9« 8* 'Avfil^f 0'«j9fiy« 

ncA yAp tet i^ivoi xa) ra xaprspaoTarot 
rtfuug u^re/xfi* rouro jbtiv, vt^ooTtfitlf 
ynfuaves ^xxi^fwkriv wxipntf $ipu' 
^tTTcerou ^ vuxro$ u\a.viis xuxXoif 
T{[ Kmko^mK^ ^iyyo$ fifLipf f^Xsytiy. 
SffiMoy S' ivffiA mtm^fMToiiv Ixo/jU.iO'fy 
frrivwTa irwrov x. t. X. 

Sbakspeare, in a passage altogether bearing a considerable 
reselnblance to the manner of the Greek tragediana^^ uses a 
similar illustration : 

The specialty ot rule bath been neglected 

Tbe heavens themselves, the planets, and tbi^ centre^ 
Observe degree, priority* ^nd place, 
Innature, course, proportion, season, .form, . . . > 
Office, and custom, in all line of order ; • « 

174 Mi9cdhhea OloMsitti. 

And dierefore it the glorioiis ptaoety Sol, " * 

In noble eminence enthroned and sphered 

Amidst the other ;■ whose med'cinable eye ^ 

Corrects the ill aspects of planets evil. 

And posts, Uke the commandment of a king. 

Sans check, to good and bad : But, when the planets. 

In evil mixture, to disorder wander. 

What plagues, and what portents ! what mutiny ! 

What raging of the sea ! shaking of earth ! 

Commotion in the winds ! &c. 

Troilus and Cressida, Act I. So. 1 
The whole passage is too long for insertion.* 


1. Ad Cererem. mj>cccxvii» 


Alma parens frugum, per quam nova semina terris 

Cecropius volucri sparsit ab axe puer : 
Seu te Sicaniae flaventia rura morantur, 

Rura tuis olim nobilitata malis ; 
Seu molles Corythi tractus, Saturniaque arva, 

Seu quos Arctous perluit Ister agros ; 
Te colimus, regina Ceres, precibusque vocamus ; 

Hue age, ccelestes hue, Dea, flecte rotas. 
Tu tenerae segeti mvigilas, terraque repostse, 

Ceu puero nutrix officiosa sue. 
Vernus ubi tepidum se tollit ad aera culmus^ 

Tu, Dea, brumales rumpis arnica moras. 
Auspice te flavis exundat messibus aestas. 

Auspice te ft'uges falx operosa metit. 
Solque tibi servit, servitque volatilis aura, 

Et qui gramineam rivus oberratiiumuro. 
Te ruris delectat honos, pleiiique novates, 

Messorumque rudi fusa Camoena sooo. 

vphere the great Luminary 

Aloof the vulgar constellations thick, (Steliarum vulgus, Ov.) 

That from his lordly eye keep distance due. 

Dispenses light from far. Milton, P. L. III. 576'. 

(See the rest of this fine passage.) 
* Having referred to this play of Shakspeare, we may be allowed to 
put in a good word for poor Ajax, who has been as scurvjly treated by 


. Mitcellan6aC^a9dm tf$ 

Et vaciri cotieB^ et fontia amabile murmur, , 

Qutque per undautes sibilat Eurus agros, : ) 
Anne tibi placidain terrent fera pra^iia menteni^ 

£t ]itui^ et toto sparsus in orbe cruor i 
Parce metu : cecidere minae^ bellunique resedit ; - - 

Cotiticuit tellus^ conticuitque mare. 
Ipse/ ubi nuper atrox cammistt pra^lia Mavor«^ 

Jam solita rursus fruge virescit ager. 
Nulla manent monumenta necis ; vixdum agmina in {sto 

Credideris campo couseruisse manus. 
Alma venif casusque anni miserata peracti 

Mitior aethereas hue age flecte rotas. 
Sic novus lasion veteres accendat aniores^ 

Desuetoque animum mulceat igne tuum ; 
Sic sua Taenario placeant conntibia Diti^ 

luque tuos redeat filia ssepe sinus. 

Odinus moriens suis. 

O socii^ qui me per mille pericula Martis 
Perpetua cinxistis ope^ et Borealia mecum 
Fregistis maria^ atque intactas Solibus undas^ . 
'Venit summa dies ; volucrique per aera vectus 
Axe^ super terram, et volitantia nubile^ Solemque 
Auferar^ et patrii conscendam limen Olympi. 
Me populi agnoscent numen ; mifai maximus orbem 
Commisit pater — — -^ 

Quocirca belli studia armorumque labores^ 
O sociiy colite ; aetberias ego fortlbus arces 
Largiar, et cceli.stellantia limina pandam. 
Neu vos letifero stridentia turbine tela^ 
Neu vos armbrum moveat fragbr ; acriBus acres 
Vincite claindres clamoribus; incita tela 
Frangantur telis, confiigatUque axibus axes, 
Parcite nee victis ; nee victi ponite finem 
Bellaudi ; nee iiiite fugam, nisi quatuor hostes 
Ingeminent ferro circum et flammantibus bastis. 
Arbtoum bellis rubeat mare ; montibus altis 
Bella lonent ; bellis sylvan campique resultent. 

! Waterloo. 

Va Cambridge PriMC Poenu» 

Ipse pater pitfiMe.; iielMilie«t^nNHl»eiciMtue 
Ipse adero, lbrte4i|iie.iiorUbQr ad arnyanepolea; 
Me Vincent duce ; ne dubiiun. ruet auspice telim. 
Sic patrium fesais pandeut cava vuloera cuelum, 

' Illic perpetuis fuoMOl Icii^ atf ia ianmis ; 
Mistaque mella pnero et sacr« convivia Aeoaee 
Heroum libaiit anioii; turn carmine Martio 
Etherise soiiMere \ynd, et loogo ordine circoan 
Effulgent rutiHs laqneariacelsa cometis. 

At cui grata- qiiies^ sive iUuo) tarda seqectua 
Seu premat atra lues, Helae fera regnajubebo 
Accipere ignavuniy atque suis servare tenebris* 
lllic ferrea per regnum Nox sceptra novedum 
Concutit ; etemum loca per squalentia frigus 
Primsvae cuniulat inontes nivia; e glacie lux 
Moesta' micat, clausosque premunt solida aequora Manea.* 


— 11 I ' ■iii' i 





ITOTNt, £ MowrtLs Upets triKng 
Z^vis tu^pMrdf i<rai >^n fnyivrw^f 

•Iir«T* Aimtf 


I fiaa thn njinning nf n, S^^y^y^Y ^ ,^ 

of three founded on the principles of £e 'Grecian drama: the work ia 
entided ** Nortbero'Sketches^"' 



/or 1880r* 17Z 

pafiHov, i <ri y(ifpi,oiTa it&ms .lo'fup * 

akyiw jStl; iaroxTJipo;, tg {p* 
^0{}v roi /Eteora/xegivoy fisr' pj^jS^oy 
Sffi/Xoi$ 5pfley n^iw* ifUvvotv 

/xi]/»>' far) ruf^^) 

%»i y^p, i\ fii^ vol B&9CKt(g ft' iara^ei, 
AmrofMci cas, A *Po(oxAc7de^ fM^dcy ' 
fte(X/;gcoy tod; ray $ri yDy ivavX»v 

X0i ^ief^wceif fiTJrar^f, us ai 
fikr&ni x&yd wapet rAv Ttakxiiv 
ajxiriXof Xffa]p^{( xarfSvaaftfy ^mh 

uo'raToy {fuij ; 

O'ef^yi;' sti} yfifH* *^^ ^^'^* tAfW 
iHms hfiivti f^rdjpMtMy^ 
iimrii rf y£/t' lofiSfo; Si- 

I ■ r • II ' I 1 I ' m il 

;• , .-^ •. • ^ . . '- ■ ■ '* i 

^ Cf. Petnres Cans. 14. Cbi»re, &e. 

W CambridgfPr^^. Poems, 

aweaif an eioip4ya.v, iyou Off 

y ri j^S»v iMifalvrtou* «/x^fiff S* ^TSov 

a?<Kot Jii»ifiva<r ifJisrlpoov l^coreoV." 
(oo'ffai o'u a-riiiO'tyf es '^ ol^ dyvov 

lf,m9^0fiMi* r! iMjV, ; li^ ifelfCKrtf yap 
vvKTO§ evfpabpig jxa ftovou/tsvoV <ro(^> 
xa) vepiTTTutTiroov xh^* ;^«/Aff<r/y Tf 

xo/ttcj oux Jp^wv, ?r* tP;^e<v <rff &iifflfti-r— 
^epTotra^ Tois ouS* 6 /AgyicTo; alow 

oKXoi fi'Ot,xctvob„yjmT^pa^ vot<roiv, 
f48/Xf;^0f t' ail vofia$ niiva 

xal <rv f^yiv ?4>'fff^«v,(?Jg.05'?y^ ^ 
xa\ ifolXouoov cifAideciov ^tBiaxug 
Tov iro'vov xKio^r*' aito vounraXou n 


^aopluv fioiLiyya Kufiom fotlvifs . 
$em vftvov a^jt^^i^Mfri re ToXftay^ 

Iff j»oy ?X/3oy. 

f.^ ■ " 

for 1820. • ^ If 9 

•• . f 


^H [uiyet Jyoroi? 
yfOo'iy « jukcy fOfO'Offreyfioy gScoxf , 

Col. Rboal. ALU«it* 






Ergo interemit Mors patriae pattern ! 
Dadum imminentein vidimus impetum ; 


•X <^^* 

h^tKrrod, rhtywita rod itSwou icAcios* 

'^- '■ JE$cfl.Fragm. 

^ Absolute, ^f) rh xepdoum yiK§. lloM, 

180 Cambridge 

Composaeve Mme\ 

Cai n(i8tiii'l^iflfik><fliMi'Mis » < 
iEtas I Quid %Bt Btitib illi^) iUhiir 

No^tiii^^ianercaai^^ bnstum t 

Sed ne d<dteiidmi^ plnii' taAMd jMtos ; 
Nam «ee^b€ii "sp^^ ileo br^ve tiliiiBi^ 
FloreiflPire nmrccotes rosaj^ . 
Cum penere^ redocet imber^ 

Nee dormll^Htmi niwiMiea domo 
Aut QaoyiBs^ ant tn cttteiimoiiia - r 
Movebis;hiiiQwa&Vi6 liber 
Spiritus m tenebras redibit. 

Taqae indecoiaiii trtotitiaiii teva9> . 
Hatred' aviti nomiiiis, et din 
PraBceptaYirtutenujaepatris .; 
PrseteritiS'iniitatiis aimis^ . 

GEORGi;«iipeVbft) magna BritaoBue 
Spes> et tiRyfmn gloria^ cni rettui 
Sceptrumque, et insigoes honorea . 
Alalia dat triplicis coropse ; 

Unaque leges^ jnraijike ISberA, ' 
Mords^tie priscos^ et idveam Fide^, 
Arasqae Bobmittit, suomque ^ ' .> 
Grande deciis> meritamque famam ! 

Nee ilia, fie non sis patriae taw 
Tutela praeMiis, (nttm petes) et pater 
Idem, n^ indocta Teretor . . { ^, . 
r.JPr^Q^maaa moderere; at ojini , ^ 

Non te rcMtirs termit imperi 
Com^iissa- Tboies ; nee mdis ayfinm 

^. . . Naari^ni gttbezxiasti pei: atras 

Incolumeipi P^liw^ ondas. . 

Nee te procettas t& pepdR tUtoik, >* ^ * 
\L8Bsere nedte aadta-lMettfia} 
Sed Tmaok cmmmttm TjWjini . 
S«ii«it iii^is» timiikqm flfifCB^ 

(Qoaliem inquieti, etim Notes Afiioa^ : 
Decertat olitn, tuefibos sBqaoiii 

Jactatm^ ittipmideiite nooto^ 
:Nftatavidrt|fforal«liiiMiMQ^^ ^> 

Inter tenebras in scopoio Fbaron |) ^ 
Vid^re gentes te itfseris donram, 
Dantomqne depalm MtoUm 
Princi]^biis« ptpfuCOfM Bcgi; 

Videre regam firangere Tfttenlai * 
Et salva hkixs moenia civibns^ 
Et jnim-Ciliefftatis alnaa 
Reddere> le^tinMque faMefl«^ 

Ergo beat86n4[>tot' Iberiae 
Cessit levietds consfliis tnk^ 
Mimdnsiqiiepaoatawiiiitiiros^ ^ 

-Peserait minitaM fngoteg* 

Non tale qnid^foam poUicitas s^, 
Qnando jnirentas flore tigens novo^ 
Deserta calcayit Sctbaea , 

Mffite/degenafemqiieMiesiqpltfa* .. 

Non RheaiMi ffli terminnfi imperii 
Soperbietttom nee eapita Alpinm ; 
Non lator oudo^i^B/iieo.iriw 

Ibat maligna^ irictima GHoriaD-; 
Nee' torn iMnebat/qnem^^^ esitutt 
Fortnna vellet^^nea pm idtfinii • < 
Ui oadcwet graviwe^lapsii: 

**- ..•••• f 

ff- . ■ J -•-/- ....'.'*- •■• -'»»- Ll ^ 


' '^Ni4K^e^ ' 

iSi Cambridge ^^rim Poems, 

Vectam plrta!bat M qdoqae, dum ttettfit 
Famosa imllto Oallia erimine, 
Et Homnii Aon flM|aum Tymmd 
IniperfaiBi ^tnpet insolenlis ; 

Qqih t6iidit tt)tra-**feite graves TnftfHW 
Ausas Biitaittiiiiti ad bella raentkiBi-*- : 
None oaroere aaga^^ retentiift 
favBlMa fiemat ejLsal ira* 

Quo jam morant^ Fax itemm giadtfs 
Terras rdVisens dirigit oeyns, 
Secumqtte oooMmxtaB- choreail 
Pifltidttm Charitm^qoe doctt.; 

Dnm lasta Vlxb^, et Curia noMUs^' ' - 
Oblita pugnae et sanguinis^ otia 
Deposcity iiiTisisqae templum 
CXattdit o^fuis Yacaum dnellis. 

Quid si improborom Seditio Tiram 
Contaminato cum grege yenerit, 
Nobiaque deanniea minas 
Ferfida^ et imperio pararit; 

Quid civium «i pn^fya ja)>entinm 
Ardor quietem juraque temserit^ 
Urbes et effuso tnmultu 
Miscueritt ^^Toavox furores 

Compressit atros, et sceleri modom et 
Insanienti frasua licehtiaB ' 
Injecity o qui sceptra nostro ' 
Nobilitata tenea amore* 

Dum lu insularum, quas mare dividit, 
Ciaras magistram, te d<»iiinum flsquoris^ 

Quicnnique pacati remotes 

Navigat Oceani recessus, 

-^*'">> A gfc t o st^ viqge»^>yaB«PM»lato 
Torpetperennifiigore; fi^tilii^ : 

■• ^ 

t '•» 

JbrlB^ \ ) 184 

* Qttii lidet Esperanza/ aq^mve 
Aurifeiii rigat ajrva Ganges. 

At te tiionim si procerom. cohors.' 
Cingens triumpfaante ordiiie yocibiis 
Salataty ptgens omnis uao . 
Exoriens ven^ratui 0]:e; 

Non^ quas recessns inter et arbonwl. 
Frigusqae gratum, et mite sileutiiiAi^ 
^t Ivist^jj^a MvtBafiim remittit 
Granta preces, patiere yinci. 

Cui gratala&ti si Isymas^ neqae 
Negleota flebit Mnsa, ndc anrea 

Ta vQce Qfau^iw, ^nec par^t . . 

Aoniis diadema sertis. . i < 





. •• ■ ■ ■■ 'f 


'i J A 

/a Venam Aqua ex imis visceribus terra arte eductnm* 

rpuvTfif ^iXifJCcov. yoi(t,aa'iv ooficmf [JifTA 

fcrawr/x' If 6<f ^vaT , oyrf /^VfTi^ccSy 
$<iC0p0i>ro; oljot;* vpog Ti)(yoov eupijffcsyij 

' Clftpe of Good Hope. 

* hacdf^tnos Vo»/Ahgltce « ¥he Ditiiiog Sod;"* VidAOiMrl. Jtoto:; 
No. XLIV. p. d73. efclffdt. 

]JB4 Cambridgt P(ir«. JPoems, 

ct^ Tti, iiu9 i^wfiTFct^ieu T&^ &v t 
AtysMfMy drri T£/t« twv napvctclav. 

CoLii. B^aAL. Alumn 


Nihil non liodie dapestvalebimt ^ . . > 

Siye est enidienda nostra pobes i .. - ^ ,! 
Gentis pauperior, piave cum ^ ,, t : ,i \ w.- 

ConTerte&da fides ^ebrai.cpcaIll, 
Sea magno statua erigenda civi ; ' | ^f ,^ 

Qmcqaid sil;, genus omne publi^arma n do 
Ccenatum coeunt hetaerianuii. • , ,. r, . ;.,- 

Confert quisque supm volens tn^ujtipo^ v ii r « { y . 
Confert sofarius, illicoque opimap . .. i • h. i ; , 
Sttccedunt epulas, joci, loquela , '•',.)! 
Frequens, plurima vina, copciones ; 
Berum quicquid agant, agunt bibentes* ' 
Becti, judice me^ bonique mons 
Inveraa est ratio ; qutfd est agendum • > , , , ^ v. 

Impransi reputate, deinde prans^ v^ , . ^ 

Nammos promite liberaUores, - • -n'-. 


Coll. Bbgal. Alumn. " 

I : 

> 1 

■ Jit . . _ . • . ., /_ 

f>' V Sv.*» 

j5)M8to: ^ ite^ 

TRocHAioi oaeci; 









. Macbbth. Act 1. Scene 7. 

JIf acj». We will proceed no farther in this business : 
He hath honor'd me of late ; and I have bought 
Golden opinions from alt sorts oif peopiey 
WWch woidd be worn no^^m ^eir.newest gloss, 
Not cast aside so soon. 

Lady M. Was the hope drunk ■ '" ' ' 
Wherein you dressed yourself? hath it slept since? 
And wakes it now, to look so ^en and palb 
At what it did so freely ? From this time. 
Such I account thy love. Art thou afear'd ' 
To be the satae in thine own act and valor,*' '' ' 
As thou art in desire ? Would'st thou have tfiat 
Which thou esteem'st the ornament of life, / 
And live a coward in ^ine own esteem ; ' ' ' ■ ^ 

Lettmg " I dare not"' wait upon " I would,*' 
Like the poor cat i' the adage ? . 

Macb. lYythee, peace : ' * ^ 

I daie do all that may become a man : 


f r- '• 

f^. t'« ' 


vn "* 

Who dares do more, is ncme. 

Ijxdjf JA. What beast was it then, • ".' ^ 

That made you break this ent^rprize to me f 
When you dujcst 4o it, then you were a num ; 
And, to be n^pre than were, you would 
Be so much more the man. Nor time, nor place. 
Did then adhere, and yet you Would make botii : 

186 Cambridge Tri»e Poems^ 

They have ma4e tbeousdres, and that their, fitoess now 

Does oniDake you. I have given suck, and" know 

How tender 'tis to love the babe that milks me: 

I would, wliUe it was smiliqg in my fluse. 

Have plucked my nipple from his boneless gnms^ 

And dash'd the biains ont^ had I so swom^ as you 

Have done to this. 

Macb. If we slioold fail — 

LadyM. We fail! 
But screw your courage to the stickiog place. 
And well not fiul. When Duncan is asleep, 
(Whereto the rather shall his day's hard jonxn^ 
Soundly invite him) his two chamberlains 
WiU I with wine and wassel so convince^ 
That memory, the warder of the brain, 
Shan be a fume, and the receipt of reason 
A limbeck only. When in swinish sleep 
Their drenched natives lie, as in a death. 
What cannot yon and I perform upon 
The unguarded Duncan? what not put upon 
His spungy officers ? who shall bear the guilt 
Of our great quell — 

Macb. Bring forth men-children only ! 
For thy undaunted mettle should compose 
Nothing but males. Will it not be received. 
When we haye.mark'd with blood those sleepy two 
Of his own chamber, and us'd their very daggers. 
That they have done'tl 

Ladjf M. Who dares receive it other. 
As we shall make our griefe and clamor roar 
Upon his death ? 

Macb. I am settled, and bend up 
Each corporal agent to this terrible feat. 
Away, and mock the time with fairest show 
False fiice must hide what die false heart doth know. 



MAjmneos. rrNH. 

Kemg iftho$ fji,* Mfiatr^ ifit iyay/ dintrrottv '- '* 

Xpwrietf riv' i^fAiriktiKa Stff«y,' ^v eurxtiv frpnrsi 
w¥, ioog TO (rxJ^f/M Aafi^poV; jx4^> Ifr Mwveti^ vaoir 
iitito$ ovTflo ^poecrtat. 

' rtn Mav'xaroivoi "^ Afot' ' 
i}a\$, ^v rvr' ifA^t^AXkov ; xcM^ Swno xotfioofiinif 
rou ip&trwi ii^ctX\ct*/9ia^cij wv eig* k^r/ilptrw, 

(Tctev l/a>y' fpoorse xplvto. IJph^ t$&f, oixwv fo|3£ - 10 
tcixvwflei o'atir^ |btey dh^ ^«^ ^s) ifp)ir>fi,li, 
roiov ffl^ Jpyeoy^ftiXXav ; jpae rwyS* l^/W'af 
ffv filtp xaXXffTA xfivt$}s ; fft' uirD?rr^0«f K0%/ 

alivos y ^5? mcdM rm ^roSeiv tp 8»?fimi,' 

wf S$a»^ yo^ ^ojBffTrai, xahnp hnivfMija^ iypasi ^ 

Tuvf iff' Mp\ ipSf wpodjxfi, irpooro^ iv roXfifip'' t yw* ' ■ 
%S ifi^oL TovTOov frpofiahn, t^p ri^, ovx dein^p Sftf. 
rr. ^H TOT* ijir Ti Ajf lioSij if a x«v o-aiiTOU ^pftfW^ 

cSre fusrHooxus rh Ttpoorov r&i^i /toi xotnoviuf ; - ' 20 

owjxfcbw- dlsv^p Twr* ifo^, Tflvr or* oux tlx^ ^ ^^^^ 
xil TeroXfMjxmi ti /xci^ov ^<rdo(,. 0i}po; av fwrnf 

x«} yd^ «u rixag r6f ooKv, oStj xaipof, oD^lXtr' 
«XX^ /xijy ofiflo; sjuuXAf; xav ^/^ irpo(r0t^ft^ai. - 
V iSou xa) o-ol vaptio-iir— Totrro S* av t2 {^f^pdV 
ni9 <rs ftcy Tiftiin^ Avon^pov, xci aiivog kiti to irpfyJ 
Tfxy' lycJ VoT* iSi9gt^»y x«J wafoSir' M(rrapt,ett 


> ir6^a Weiyy t^ofr ^UToAnK^a. Eun 

jftS Cambridge' Prize PoemSf 

oAX' iysty% S»; ffxffiro %poffyi\»v ft ay tfyxaXoi^i SO 

vi|Tiov rfrftfy OfU»f av Ix trrifuiTOs earwwaca, 

JIfil. 3/1} yuy ix ToifrfipyV^oAcoftiy-— •'...- 

FT. fiii rfmXmfi^, ^»f^U 
0^1 fjJffW 4^ux^y hraiftif idT* tfy Ifivl&of l^» 
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(l/HiTfrciy y«^ c)x^ ioriy uwi fuutfis 68o5 /SaSvy) 

ypvy, 7y' ^ fbi^, vii^ifey ^i( fy fptyiiy ^u^«0| 

olt^^f Wttiiy j[^yro; {^ ff'xia; oSp^vrar 40 

XMurh T^ 4^v^( ft/Xal^oy, ayy^f cd$ rcrgiy/tevoy *. 

ftijSfy a vmfyn Suyairo* xa[.t' Troy xo/p«y S/xi|pr 

x«j/Myoi Tup^oM-^ isr' oS^ tfatMrr/fftOi «'tvr«xms-— - ^t 

99m M* i^ij ^tmjfji^ Hrf^ Xufeftaytiffioy 

xfiy^y if ZfrnirmnXlhyrei) 'voia ii^ xoMfifurm 

T^fc yt fiogag fuyltmig — 
t .. .MA, Ila&as ifctifus (Uiwif 

m yvvM, Tfxoi^ ft^you; yt^ o'cm teyixifrflBy ff§my 
fikmfrimi Mpet^Ttf^sf^nti. iri$«y3y o^^m^rarfti/ ' -- 

»S iff el tfoffavTMs oSroi ; 

rr* 17£; Tif o8y £\X«icxpiyej; 
fS y<ip Afif ' aSrou («y^yro$ a-e/otyoy JAoXtfy/tiy Aporiy' * 

M4. "AfOft ToSjbboy, ^S* &ra^ wrXf^ojttat 
Wo'fjS^ T^yS' a!$ uymm'^xuipos o5y— W fUKk^fuv ; 
vtbly' Ifoitiy AfttfttjEtfy ff;;^fifltr' euvporiiMTiKV^^^ — • 
x^tmrioy 4'fu9eTTpoa'(OTflp, fpigv avrp i(reuK); ^Xtxci. -^ 

/or 1620.; 1.901 



Jf BOM stormy skies the Saa wididrew bit I^ht ; 

Terrific in her grandeur reigned the Night: ' 

'Twas deepest glooiiir-*or tigfatning's angry glare; 

Voices of mighty thunders rent the air : . 

In gusts and meanings hollow raved the blaslj 5 

ilnd clouds poured out their fury^ as they passed. , 

But fiercer storms to-morrow's Sun shall frijgihf; ^ 

IM ore deadly thunders usher in the night. . • 

The winds may howl unnoticed ; for their sqund 

'Aiid the deep groans of thousaujds sjh^ll he d^ownei^; 10 

The plain be deluged with a ghastlier flood: , 

That tempest's wrath shall fall in showers of btoodi 

See ! by the flash of momentary day ! 
The hills are thronged with battle's dread array. 
There, Gallia's legions, reeking with the gore 15 

Of slaughtered Prussia; thirsting deep for j^re; 
Secure of Conqiiest; ravening for their prey; 
On Brussels thought, and cursed the nignt's delay. 
Here, Brunswick's sable warriors, grim, and still, \ 
Mourned their lost chief ; and eyed the adverse bill 20 

Vfiih fell intent, r J(ndig|iant at retreat. 
Here Bnton^ burned once more that foe to greet. . . • . 
Yet were there sonie could slumber, and for^^et, 
Awhile, the deadly work for which ihey met. 
Sut anxious thoughts broke many a soldier's rest, ' £5 

Thoughts not unworthy of a hero's breast. 
The rugged Veteran, struggling with a sigh, 
In fancy listened tp his orphans' cry. . 
Saw them a prey to poverty and^woe. 

And felt that pang which only parents know. . . SO 

With eager feelings, not unmised with awe, 
A battle's eve now first the Stripling saw. 
Weary, and ^ wet, and famished as he Jay, 
Imagination, wandering far away. 

Shows him^ the scene of dear, domestic joy ; 35 

LAughs with liim o'er'the frolics of tfee^oy^ '"" 

llie words of parting tingle in bis ears; 
How swells bis heart, as^each loved form appears 

* « 

1;^ CamhridgeyjMm^ Poems^ 

And now it ^ms towtrda her, and ber iilone, '-rf 

Whom youth'SB fond dreams hadgmn him fair hk oiaa* '4(> 

from these— from her-— 'twas agony to part ! 

To-morrow's chance amole chill upon his heart. 

Twas but a moment. Hope asserts her right; 

Grants him his wildest visions qf delight. 

To gay, victorious ihou^ts, he lightly yields^ 4^5' 

And sleeps like Condfi' ere his first of fields. 

Slow broke the Siin thro' that sad morning's ^oom.. 
An awful scene his watery beams iliuttie. 
No glittering pageant met the dazzled, eyes ; ^ ! 

For painful marches and tempestuous skies ^ 40 

Had quenched the light of steel ; the pride of gold t 
Each warrior's plight a tale of hardship told. ^^ 

And youthful eyes beamed gaiety no more^ ' t. \ 

But all a look of settled fierceness wore. ^^ 

It is a breathless pause — while armies wait ; ' " ■^. 

The madd'niiig signal for the work of fate. ^ ^ '' 

Its thunder spoke, — quick answering to the first. 
Peal upon peal in dread succession burst. ' -.^ 

Ditr ted Imperial Eagles fron^ their stand; >l 

Rushed in their train a lung-victorious band ; ^ 

Shot down the slope, and dashed upon the wood, '- -, 

Where, calm and ready, Britain's guardians stood. 

Hark to that. yell ! as hand to hand they close. 
Tliere the last shriek of multitudes arose ! 
-^Hark to the musqiiet*fire ! from man to man. 
Rapid, and gathering fury as it ran, :v 

It spreads, fierce crackling, thro' the ranks of death ; ^ 

While nations sink before its blasting breath. 
The war-smoke mounts ; cloud rolling after cloud. 
They spread ; they mingle ; till one suiph'rous shroud J9 

Enwraps the field. What shoutSy what demon-screams ^ 

Rung from the misty vale ; what fiery gleams 
Broke fast and far— -oh ! .words are weak to tell. ' ' " 

It was a scene had less of earth than hell. > 

But look ! what means yon fitful, redd'uing glare ? • >.7^ 

What flames are struggling with the murky air i • ' - 

Lo ! thro* the gloom they burst ! and full and bright 
Streams o*er the war, their fearful, wavering light. -^ 

t I V ' 

? The battle of Rucroi, on the eve of wbKli, according to VoltairefSiMM 
de Louis XiV.) the Prince, having made all his dispositk>oSr slept, so 
soundly, that they were obliged to awaken him for .the eiigsg(9^9t« . w 


Amidst jon wood 'tis ragiiig. Yenlxhy tmfjtrB, • " 

lU«kfoted Hoitgomont, that blaze devours. 60^ 

Forth blindly rushing initigle friend and foe. • « 

See the nails toUertcig ! there ! down, down they go 

Headlong! VVithni that rum to have been! 

Oh! shuddering fancy quails beneath the scene. 

For there had many a victim crept to difi ; ' : * 8-5- 

7herey crushed and motionless, in heaps they lie. 

And hapfiy they For many a wretch was there^ 

-Powerful to suffer ; lingering in despair. 

Is it the bursting earthquake's voice of fear? 
Tbat hollow rush ? No ! borne in full career, gff 

On roll the chosen squadrons of the foe. 

Whose mail-clad bosoms mock the sabre's blow. ' « ^ ' 

Wild waves of sable plumage o'er them dancing ; 
Above that sea, quick, broken flashes glancing 
From brandished sleel ; shrill raising, as they came, Q$' 

The spell of that all-conquering chieftain's name. 
Dismal the rattle of their harness grew ; '\f 

Their grisly features opened on the view* ' - •'. 

Forth spurring, cheerful as their trumpets rang, 
Ttie stately chivalry of England sprang 2M' 

In native valor^ — arms of proof — arrayed. ' »• - 

!Nought but his own right hand, and his good blade, * -. ' 

To guard each hero's breast. Like thunder-clonds ' > 

Rolling together, clash the foaming crowds. • L 

Ti^eir swords ar6 falling with gigantic sway, 10# 

And gashes yawn, and limbs are lopped away*: - i 

And lightened chargers toss the loosening rein, ' '' 

Break frantic forth, and scour along the- plain. >- f 

Their lords, the glorious shapes of war tbey bore, , < . ', ' 

The terrible, the graceful — are no more. 110^ 

Crushed out of man's similitude, expire, ' *. 

With nought to mark them from the gory mire, > : 

(Tomb of their yet wtirm relics) save the last 
Convulsive flutter, as the Spirit past. ,. - •> 

TEiose Iron warriors reel ! their eagle 's won, 'Irhol 

Tbo' squadrons bled to rescue it! 'tis. done, — ' \ 

That stern, unequal combat! 'tis a chase! ' ' 

Hot Wrath let loose on Terror and Disgrace ! / -? ' 

Such is the desert antelope's career ; . 

Plunging and tossing, mad with pain and fear; iiSiO' 

Whom her keeii foe, th^ murd'rous vulture, rides \ 

With talons rooted in lier streaming sides* « o 

19S Cambriigt Prize Poems^ 

Where, yander, mwA tanmkmmn biHowt roll ; 

Where each w9d pestioo fires die frenaetf soul ; 

The blood, the havoc, of that ralMess hour l£5 

On those steeled hearts have lost their chilling power. 

The chargii^ veteran marks, with careless eye. 

His comrade sink; and, as he rashes by. 

Sees not the varied hohrors of his lot. 

on his foe, and strikes and shodders not. 190 

But tam« and pity that brave, suffering band. 
Beneath the battery s fary doonsed to stand 
With useless arms : widi leisure to survey 
The wreck around them. Hearts of proof were they, 
That shrunk not. Burning like a meteor star, 135 

With whirlwind s fury rushmg from afiv. 
The bolt of death amidst thdr close array 
With deafening crash fells ; bursu ; and marks its way 
With torn and scattered victims. There are they 
Who, but one moment since, with hanghty brow, 140 

Stood firm in conscious manliness. Aad now— ^ 
Mark those pale, altered features; diose wild groalis ; 
'IImsc quiv'ring lips; those Mood-stuned, shattered bones ! 
With burning hearts^ and half-aVerted eyes. 
Their fellows view that hideous sacrifice. 145 

Oh ! they did hail the summons with deKgbt, 
That called them forth to mingle in the fight. 
Forward they press ^ too busy now to heed 
Tlie piteous cry ; the wail of those who plead 
With frantic earnestness to friend and chief 150 

For help to bear them off ; for that relief, 
Which might not be. How sunk the sufferer's heart 
Who saw bis hopes expire : his friends depart. 
And leave him to his woes ; an helpless prey. 
Death ! death alone may be his friend to-day. 155 

^is he shaH calm each agonizing fear ' 

Of trampling hoofs, or lancer's coward spear. 
Shall cool that thirst, and bid those torments cease. 
And o'er him shed the sweets of sleep and peace. 

When storms are loud, go, view some ru^ed shore, 1(S0 

Tow'rds whose stern barrier hoarsely racing poor 
The long daik billows; swelling till they curl; 
Thin full against the rocks their fury hurl. 
And spring alofit^ in clouds. Dost see that wave 
Leap at the cliffs, and info yonder cave lC5 

Ride, swift and bigl| ?, A-pm tiM| twi^ «iAii; fepdfipg 
It flies in showers of spray ; then, fiercely boil|i^, * 
Rallies, and drives its might amongst the crags. 
Wheeling in eddies; Vain! its fury flags ; . 
Tost from their points, it yields ; and to the deep, .170 

Baflled, and broken, as its cunients sweep. 
Leaves to its conqu'rors, on the cayern floor, 
«The wreaths of foam; the crest it proudly wore. 
Firm as the rocks that strew that sea-beat coast. 
In clust'ring masses stood the British host. 175 

Fierce as those waveK, the warrior horse of Gaul 
Streamed, blindly rushing to as sure a fall. 
Ever^ as near to each dark square they drew. 
In act to plunge, and crush tb' unshrinking few, ^ 

Burst, as from Death's ,own jaws, a fiery shower^ 190 

Whose whelming blast, whose paralysing power, j ^ ' 

Nought ^arthl|r might withsitand. To rise no more 
Whole ranks afe^down. The treacfa'rous cuirass tore ^ 

The breast be^iealh; in splipt^s flew the laace, ' ^'' 

Yet, nobly true to Glory jand to France, . v^ t!&5 

Yet, 'mid tfoe ruin, many n stedfast heart, 
£v'n to tb^sbstj; played well a chieftain's part. 
They lived to see their efforts fail to cheer - 'V 

Those veterans, pale with* all unwonted fear* 
In vain devotion, in despairing pride, ' I^ 

They rushed upon the bristling steel, and died. 
What tho' the remnant fled ; fresh myriads rear> i ^ 

The forked banner; couch the threatening spear ; 
^ Drive, and are driven, to that fatal goal ; 
Countless, as clouds before the gale that roll : ^iQS 

.Fast, as the troubled world of waters pours '' 

Wave upon wave from undiminished stores. 

The tide has turned : the roar is dying fast : 
£ach lessening wave breaks shorter than the last. "" 

And France^ the life-blood ebbing from her veins, ^00 

Feeble, yet jfurious stilly for victory strains. 
One effort more ! a mighty one ! She came, 
Nerved by despair, and goaded on by shame. ^ 

"^But Britain marked her fainting rival's plight, 
And gave her vengeance May; and from her height 205 

Plunged, like the lava-cataract, whose, roar 
Shakes frozen Hecla's precipices hoar. 
The bright blue gems of Arctic ice that crowned " '^>' " 

Her lofty head, are mekiog all around^ *? < r v,*-; ; 



i9i Cambridge Prize Poemjfor 1820. 

A thousand winters' hardened depth of snow Sip 

Is vanishing before that torrent's glow ; 

Mighty the rocks that, frowning, bar its path : 

Rending, uprooting, scattering them in wrath, 

The flaming deluge, with resistless sway, 

Holds on its widely desolating way. 215 

France ! thou art fallen ! and he, so oft the boast, 
The idol, of thine oft-deserted host, 
leaves it once more; to curse his name and die. 
But as he turned, what phantoms met his eye ? 
Rising like those wild shapes that from the dead 220 

Return to haunt the tortured murderer's bed. 
No, mighty murderer ! 'tis not a dream ! 
Tia Prussia's self! her own exulting scream ! 
Pliest thou f sher comes with lavish hand to pay 
*The debt that swelled thro' many a bitter day. 225 

There's rust upon her steel. Ay ! there was shed 
The deadliest venom hatred ever bred. 
And she shall wash that deeply cankering stain, 
France, in thy blood and tears : but wash in vain. 
Not all the flames she kindles in thy land 230 

Shall ever brighten that polluted brand. 
*Tis retribution bloody as thy deeds : 
But who shall pity when a Tiger bleeds ? 
■ Thou cry for mercy ! was it not denied 
To every suppliant, in thine hour of pride i 235 

Grim laughs th' avenger hanging on thy way. 
Weary with slaughter, lab'ring still to slay. 
And unfleshed Belgians hurry down to glean 
The field where Britain's generous hand had been. 

To distant skies that hurricane has rolled. 240 

But oh ! the wreck it left ! Could tongue unfold 
The matchless horrors of those cumbered plains, 
^r would chill the current in a warrior's veins. 
And yet, that field of anguish, brief as keen, 
Was but the centre of the one wide scene 241^ 

Of human misery. Oh ! who shall say 
How many wounded Spirits, far away. 
Are left to groan thro' long, chill, bitter years. 
Beneath the woe that nothing earthly cheers i 
Shall Glory be the widowed bride's relief? 250 

She feels it but a mockery of grief. 
Shall Glory dry the childless mother's tears i 
Harsh grate tlie notes of Fame upon her ears ! 

Cambridge Triposes^ far 1819. 195 

Thine are no Spartan matrons, favored isle I ' ' 

Gentle as fair ! The sunshine of their smiley £55 

Where the prond victor loves to bask, is set. 

With sorrow's dew the loveliest cheeks are wet. 

Tliroughout the land is gone a mourning voice ; 

And broken are the hearts that should rejoice. 

Dimly, as yet, the crown of Victory shines ; 460 

Where cypress with the blood-stained laurel twines. 

But there shall Time the brightest verdure breathe, 

And pluck the gloomy foliage from her wreath. 

Then proudly shall Posterity retrace. 

First in the deathless honors of their race, 265 

I'hat giant fight ; which crushed Napoleon's power. 

And saved the world. Far distant is the hour. 

Unheard of, yet, the deed our sons must do, ^ 

That shall eclipse thy glory, Waterloo ! 


Trinity Hall. 



QuAM sibi desperat, tnittit tibi, Laura, saiutem 

Tristia Petrarchan fata querentis amor. 
Mittit eo demens, unde infelicior ipse 

Retulit ingrata nit, nisi damna, vice. 
Si mihi jampridem verissima signa doloris 

Et fronti et madidis incubuere genis ; 
Si mala nee sensus parcunt turbare diumos, 

Nee vigilem noctu solKcitare torum ; 
Si mihi torpescit miserae vis ignea mentis, 

Verser ut in vivis mortuus, ohme tuum est. 
Fatalisne tibi succurrit lucis imago. 

Ultima tranquiUae quae mihi sortis erat ? 
Ante quidem vernae secura inscitia vitae 

Cordis inaccesso strinxerat inia gelu. 
Viderat iratus spenii sua tela, tuumque 

In nostro insculpsit pectore nomen Amol*. 
Solennes (memini) coelum veneratbar ad aras ; 

Hsec te prima oculis obtulil hora meis. 

196 Cambridge TnposeSy 

Tu prope tendebas niveas ad iidera patmasi 

Attollens flexo lumina casta genu. 
Quid loquar i aspexi : subitis siiiiul ignibus arsi : 

Combibit imtnites iroa medulla faces. 
Protinus haerebant vota imperfecta palato, 

Fudit et incertos irrita lingua sonos. 
Mil pietasy aut sancta loci reverentia movit ; 

Tu milii ReHigio, tu mihi M uraen eras. 
Surgis ; ego insector : quoquo vestigia flectis^ 

Ducor, et effneni subsequor usque gradu. 
£xcipi8 imprudens, nimiumque benigaa, furentenii 

Dum potui flatnmas dissimulare meas. 
Moxy ubi se produnt, subito restinguere quaeris, 

Meque abigis foribus dura repente tuis. 
Dura tamen frustra ; cum jam quoque cassibua tsdeni 

Callidus implicitum me retinebat Amor. 
Tu quoque, quern simulas f uptis dimittere vinclis, 

Arctius imposito comprimis usque jugo. 
Captivam veluti cum fune puella columbam 

Detinet, ad sttvos ingeniosa dolos. 
Et fugat| ad seseque trahit, cauteque relaxat, 

Nee spatio patiturliberiore frui : 
Me propria assurgens in nubila prspete penna, 

Audeat aeriam, non reditura^ Yiam. 
Tum mihi proposui, magis aspera facta maneBtii 

Fata sub externo fallere dura polo. 
Damnavi meipsum exilio, longamque paravi 

A cara moerens Avenione fugam. 
Vix tamen egressus, respexi moestus ^ ad urbem, , 

Tsesum est inqoeptae poenituitque viae. 
Fortis ego invitos vetui languescere gressus^ 

Damnosasve animum fingere velle moras. 
Regalem petii sedem, qua * Caesaris arces 

Tranquilla lambit Sequana mollis aqua. 
Hinc virides adii campos et padcua Rheni, 

£t placida^ agrestes simplicitatis opes. 
Ausus eram ^Hercyniae tenebrosa per avia sylvas 

• Magnarn respexi t ad urbem. Viro. JEn. 12. 

* Lutetiam Julius Caesar usque adeo sedificiis auxit, tamque lor- 
titer ciaxiA nimnibmi ut Julii CiviUs a ooanuUis Ait appeilata. 

Stephani Diet. Geography 
' ProminetHercyniaecoafinisRhaetia s^Ivae, CiiAuoiAM. 

for 1818. Wl 

Incustoditum tendere inermi* ^er. 
Nee mihi formido : quijype, in graviora feservaas^ 

Fidus adhuc custos invigilabat Amor* 
Dein natale solum (post tempbra quanta revisum !) 

Accipit errantes Ausonis ora pedes. \ 

Yidi, iterum evectam regno super omnia, Romam, 

.^Bquantem imperio sceptra vetusta novo. 
Nil tamen augustas urbes gaatasque morabar, 

Exul eram in patria scilicet ipse mea. 
Qua tu non aderis^ quoquo sub sidere verser, • . 

Qualibet in terra flebiiis exul ero. 
Hie tamen in 'Clausa reperimus Valle quietem^ 

Omnia sunt nostris hie satis apta malis. 
Hie impune 9nimo licet indulgere doienti. 

Nee quisquam, prseter me, mihi tortor adest. 
Hie mihi nutantes referunt suspiriasylvae, 

Lenis et ardores temperat aura meos. 
Ipse susurrantes docui tua nomina ventos, 

Nullaque non dukes integrat umbra sonos. 
At manet interea cordi imraedicabile vulnus, 

Languida dam sola corpora febre calent. 
Concidity exsurgit, sperat, timet, aeatuat, alget, 

Nee manet in certo mens stabilita loco* 
Vultus in obtutus, animo mutabilis omnes, 

Obsequitur ; nee stat fidus in ore color. « 

Scilicet et tacitum declarant pectus ocelli, 

* Ut gutta inclusam succina prodit apem 
Vos nemora, et placidi, solatia nostra, recessus, 

Quos nee e^x tempus^ nee fera Isdit byems ; 
Qusqne coronatis muscosas flumina ripse,^ 

Vivit adhuc valus, qui fuit ante, decor. 
Solus ego infelix dommus cultorque per boras 

Mutor, et in pejus, quo furor urget, eo. 
Per montes me raptat Amor, sylvasque comantes, 

Cuneta tamen paci sunt inimica meae. 
Per loca sola vagor : sed ubi loca sola petentur. 

Quo mihi sa comitem non ferus addet Amor^ 
Usque virescentem cunvallem, atque altera Tempe, 

Contrahit acdirom montis utriinqtie hrtits. 
Panditur hie nigrum, scopuUs hiscentibus, antrum ; 

Vix tremulum admittunt uxa nemusque jubar. 

* Clausa Vallis, vulgo dicta Vauduic. 
^ Cf. Martial, lib. 4. Epig. Si?. 



Id medio fons est, vitro splendeotior, nnde 

In maro eoUectas Sorgia volvit aquas. 
Fama quidem vivo fundttm uegat esse fluento ; 

Non foeda iilimem poUait ul va simun. 
Hue (simul incumbunt nocturna silentia terns, 

Meque unum {ugieoSy cetera sonmus babet) 
Deferor ; hie animum vana dulcediue pasco^ 

Et juvat aerumnas dedidicisse meas. 
Incusoque ieves irrideos ipse querelas, 

Meque rogo : ^' Quo se dirigit iste furor i 

Forte^ miseri doleas, tibi vilis, amabiiis illi, 
Ploresque, ignoraos quid tibi servet Amor* 

Tu quoties iteras absentis nomen ainicse» 
Forte etiam toties increpet ilia tuum/' 
Tunc etiam, in memori quae semper pectore vivis, 

Obvia amas ocuHs, Laura, venire meis* 
Te s»pe in rigidis (quid non credatiur amanti r) 

Rupibus, in vitrea saepe videroua aqua. 
Pingimus aut liquida candenlem in nube figuram, 

Digna Ixionio qualis amore foret. 
Sa&pe libet, tumidis ubi ropes immin^t undis> 

Culmina difficili vincere aumma gradu. 
Hinc urbes, camposque, et nuUo limite clausa 

^quora prospectu metior alta meo« 
Contemplans spatium, quod me tibiseparat, augor, 

Verbaque vix, gemitu pnepediente, fluunt. 
'' Cur, quod juagit Amor, diveUuol numina vinclum t 

*^ Cur, qu^ divellunt mimma, juogit Amor V , 
Est etiam ut cupiam speeula me mittef« ab alt% 

Et semel arrepta dedoluiasenece. 
Spes cohibet, suadens venturum tempus^ut in me 

Perdiderit Paphii se gravis ira Det« 
Nee, quibus hoc iterum transfigat pectus, habebit. 

Jam nimium vehemens, ampliusarma puer. 
At mihi supremam cum sors compleverit horam, 

Quis scit, an baud grata venerit ilia vice ? 
Quern lenire negas, certe miserebere luctu$ ; 

Uoc etiam in media morte levamen erit. 
Sique (velut perhibent) sensus quoque vivat in Orco^ 

Et sit apud Manes intemeratus Amor; 
Turn Liaribusque tuis, thalamoque superstitis ipsi 
^ Usque jadero,etca£oa.prosequar umbr^ P«4e9,<., 
Quam vivo renuunt, tandem mihi, morte beato. 

Fata mali requiem candidiora dabunt. 

' t 

^ 1918. >9t 

FC7N0AR 1NA191 


SiBFE egO| qui quondatii spatiis inclusttd iiiiquis 
Feci equidem, et muito enixus sudore refed 
Carmina ad arbiti-ium domini dedncta, querebtr 
Durum opus infelix ] clamabam, toliite nostro 
Pugnanteni itigenio morem^ ingratumque camoenis : 
Hoc sattem detur mihij, si cantare necesse est, 
Qufe fert mens, quasque ipse probo, cantare potestas. 

Hie ubi nulla premunt sudaptem vincula vatepi ; 
Nee data lex dure cogit moderamine musam 
Angustum per iter, contractis viribu?, ire ;, 
Me cum fata meis patiuutur nectere verba 
Auspiciis, et sponte mea componere carmen ; 
Quid nioror in? itus, quid iniqua mente recuso I 
Scilicet in causa est libertas ipsa, morantem 
Qu2b partes rapit in varias, perque omnia versat. 
Sicut apis virides casias, et olentia libans 
Serpylia, l^ybbtn s^pes ubi flofibmi balat:; 
Nunc hos nuQo illos kviter d^guf tat, et Qomi^ 
Nescia qui sit, odor, gradisamas ^oaidat b«fbae ; 
Dum dubitat, Z^pb]fM fugiuni eli amalnlia asataa. : 
Non aliter^ labente die^ suqfienaa tenelur 
Res inter varias mea mam <nam.copkt serum 
Se pandit, pnopnadiigiitaaiiiia quseqne canaoana) 
£t libertatem, quam nuper amaverat, odit. 

Dum quae sit ratio incertus, quseque apta canenti 
Materies mecum meditor, mox tristior aura 
Spirare, et liquidas in questum ducere voces. 
Agnosco veteris bene cognita murmura luctus ; 
£t simul in tristes numeros se musa resolvit. 
Nam licet^ humanos forsan miserata labores, 
Jusserit infandum per se languere dolorem 
Natura, et vigilesl mitescere tempore curas ; 
Multa tamen memori suspiria pectore missa 
Te vel adhuc, regum soboles infausta, sequuntur 
PoUicitam meliora tuis j te vota fatigant 

200 Cambridge THposes^ for 1818. 

MflDrentis raptam popaH, spes orta Britannis 
Qose modo fulgeba^, et ni hta, invida fata, 
Abtlaerant^ genti jura expectaUi dedmes. 

Quae scelera, aut quae jam luimua perjuria cives ? 
Ilia quideai periit modo quam speravimus Angli 
Mox fore, quae populoa, pacta atudioaa, bear^ 
Imperio molli, atque Dovaa educeret artea 
Conailiia innixa novis ; eademque per orbia 
(Si modo libertaa aut gloria laeaa vocaret) 
Mitteret extremos belli sua fulmina tractua. 
Ipsa decus palmee^ decua baud leve, foemina tictrix. 
Ilia suam subito confixam vulnere gentem 
Destituit — nullae quod pra^dixere tenebrae^ 
Nee terrs tremor, aut aplendena per inaoe oometa. 

Quia tibi nunc aensua i laevoa qui solus amores 
Et spea effractaSi et votaj miserrime conjux^ 
Irrita qui lugea ; qua te solabimur arte i 
Nam neque te dulces libri, quos ilia legebat 
Tecum una quondam, poterunt recreare dolentem^ 
Nee molles citharae sonitus, quos ilia aolebat 
Voce sua junctis meliores reddere chordis. 
Non nisi Lethaeo capies solatia potu* 

Quam aociare tuo lateri, propriamque tocare - 
Dulce fuit, quam non tibi via in brachia miait, 
Sed fidua conjunxit amor, aed mutua vota; 
Quo tandem poteras morituram cemere.vultu? 
Triate miuiateriimi praMlaiitem et. verba foventem 
Ultima deseruit, gelida jam pallida morte, 
*' Invalidaaque tibi teadena, hen noa tua, palmas." 

Si qua tamen raptae soboles genetricis imago 
Luderet in tectis, neque t« deaertiia ab omni 
Parte videreria, nee gena viduata fuiaaet. 

Paulisper lacrymarum, atrique oblita doloris. 
Mens avetad latebras secreti accedere luci, 
Quas inter, modo vos manibus, par nobile, junctis 
Insano procul a strepitu, procul urbe remotes 
Errare, allernoque frui sermone juvabat ; 
Illic ipsa sua fingens umbracula niyrto 
Coustituit sedem Venus, et sacravit amori. 
Necdum etiam vobis quid sit sentire licebat 
Imperium, nee onus regni turbabat amantes. 

Manu$ieripU found tifihePaHherwn. aMl 

Sed veluti largos sp^tanti rum hooores^ 
Montis apex cupidos looge distantis ocellos 
Allicity et plus quam quae sunt propiora^ renidet : 
Non aliter vobiS| intercedentibus annis, 
Rf^gnum aitideb^t melius^ meliorque corona. 

At tu, quae^ckfis de regibus orta, BritaonU 
Debueras dare jura tuis, composta sepulcro 
Curarum et nostri laogues fors iuscia luctus. 
Quod si jam proprium in aBlum^ tua regnay receptam 
Spectantemque tuoarel adhuc mortalia tan^Hot; ^ 

Te forsan querulas voces bibere aure juvabi^ 
Quas desideriis gens icta fidelibiis edit. 
Quisque tua attonitus metuit sua funera morte. 
Ergo ubi prima mali tanti jam fama volabat 
Nuncia^ serpentem sensitper corda timorem, . 
Haesit et in mediis virgo tremefacta cfaoreb ; 
Inscia quae primos modo concipiebat amores, 
Fretaque jam vernis ridebat inaniter annis. 

Haec ego dum meditor male condita carmina^ forsan 
Vox, opera infecto, letho compressa silebit, 
Peficietque manus, Tuto me tramite ducas^ 
Sancta anima, iu celsas, nuper quibus addita, sedes 
Perpetuo gaudes melioris honore coronas. 


l^HB Marquis de Nointel was, I believe, the first modern pa- 
tron of auy note, who encouraged researches in Greece. He 
was ambassador from France to the Ottoman Portie in the 
reign of Louis XIV. He ei^aged an artist, by name Carrey, 
a[ native of Troyes in Champagne, and a scholar of Lebrun, to 
accompany him to Constantinople. During an excursion which 
the ambassador made to Athens, Carrey took some drawings of 
the Parthenon, and other monuments of the city* After the 
death of the ambassador, these drawings became the property 

Manrnvriptsfinrnd ^ the^ffartJf^nq^ 

of a gentleman of B^chefert; bat in the year 1770 w«re de^ 
posited in the king's libraiy at Paris. The principal libmrian 
indulged me witb a view of these interesting sketches, when at 
Paris three years since. They are almost wholly in red chalk ; 
and though evidently done in haste^ are of considerable value, 
havii^ been taken before the city was besiegjed by the Venetians 
under Morosini. Many of the figures therefore given subse- 
quently by Leroi and Stuart as defective, are here entire. Two 
circumstances struck me as worthy of note in these drawings. 

1 . Many of the figures, composing the reliefs of the Par« 
thenon, are covered with bats after the modem European 

2. The Olympieum, generally called the Columns of Ha* 
drian, is here given with its architrave complete. The last 
column to the left of the drawing, bears also above the 
architrave a curved fragment, from which perhaps we may 
infer that this splendid edifice was covered with a vaulted 

The Abb6 de Fourmont visited the Moiea by oider of the 
government in the reign of Liouis XV. He copied nearly 
seven hundred inscriptions in various parts of Greece. I was 
favored also with a sight of these interesting Mss., which 
have never been published. A few taken by the Abb6 from 
among the ruins of Sparta, I copied, and herewith subjoin. 

SparUjuxta Turrim Sepievtrion(ilem. 



rarransTHi hepi 


Spartie prope Templum Lycurgi, 



J« ■» 

Manmcriptn fdund at ihe< Barthenan. .0t$ 

'' Sp&rtiBJnxia PortmmOrientiBil&H. ' 





21 KAEOY2 f ^A AOY2I02 ATTI 

H^ marmor repmtumfuit in Ecclesia S. S. Virginis in Subur- 
baMp Gerania cut nomen Meya?a^ Motnmot. 


eeiG^ANH ... 

AM^io npn 


The first and third evidently comrnemoratQ SQtne wrestlers, after 
the destinies of Sparta were blended with those of Rome. The 
second is no otherwise interesting^ than because^ according to 
Fourmont, it was discovered near the rUins of the temple of 
Ljcurgus. The last isj I suspect^ the most ancient^ and beyond 

S04 On the Fktgiarknw 

comparison the mosf itii(>ortant. May we not flansiUy conjee* 
tore that it was inseribed on some monuBient erected by tke pa-> 
rents of two brothers, who in the flower of their age fetl glo* 
riously eidier at Leactra or Mantinea^ or at least made them- 
selves conspicuous in some aflair before the ramparts of 
Tkebuf J r J 



Ik the last No. of this Journal, p. d6G, a charge was pub-* 
licly made involving the character of C. J. Blomfiek), as one 
of die three marked Plagiarists, of the present day, on subjects 
connected with Greek Literature. An accusation of so grave 
a cast ought not to have been preferred on slight grounds. 
Whether the evidence we have to adduce in support ii a ceo^ 
sure, not hastily formed, be not such as to establish the chaise, 
is a pomt which we may safely leave to the decision of even 
C. J. B. himself. 

Although this propensity of the English Fiorillo to disregard 
the moral of the fable, ne moveat cornicula risum FurtiviB 
nudata coloribuSf has been so conspicuous, as even to excite the 
attention of those, but slightly acquainted with the various pro*- 
doctions of C. J. Blomfield's compiling 'labors ; yet be may 
me us credit for stating, that, long before the appearance of the 
Jena Review of his Callimachus and PerssB, a work with which 
we have but lately become acquainted, through the medium of 
£. H. Barker's pamphlet, we had draMU up the matenrie of 
the present paper ; but the whole of which we determiiied to 
keep as a sealed book, unless the obtrusive conduct of C*- J. B. 
might be such, as to induce us to break the seal ; when it might 
be said of him, as has been said of more than one individual : 

'A>\.\ei yuvi} ^eigea'O') vltov fiiya ft&iC ^^tXothra 

One consolation will, however, be left to C. J. B.: as he is not 
the first or only person, who has had reason to exclaim, Quam 
temere in nosmet legem sancimus iuiquam ! That such will be 


hi» presttit seiititteDts . we doubt, not; iIumi^ differeiit .fr^(HA 
Aijiat he honorably ex|Mreai8ed, when speaking ooMt similar iub* 
jcwt^ he stated that, '* though it must alwajs be unpkasaot to 
llie cftndid Critic to detect instances of literary disbmestyy.yet 
that justice^ \i'ho8e laws should be as strictly observed in cases 
of literary as of personal property, requires it to be done," and 
on another occasion, , when, in the unsparing language of 
honesty insulted, he speaks of one '' ^wfretrof Fiorillo." Alas ! 
poor Fiorilio had not then learned, whatever he may have 
since done, the meaning of ^i^aro^, and stiil less could he 
dream of the possibility of his being ^paSiis by one, who is 
himself xXerr/oTaro^, though bithorto permitted to carry on his 
calling in seeming secrecy. Whether we are to attribute this 
iallusion to - Fiorillo's fate, as a blind to those, who might 
suspect similar conduct in C. J. B., or to that inherent jealousy 
in him, which will not permit a rival even in plagiarism, is 
a point which we leave to the decision of die thirdinlhis honoia* 
Me fraternity, Augustus Meineke. . . 

Before entering upon our own proofs, we will just transcribe 
what Seidler (for to him are attributed the Jena Reviews* 
which he probably intended to be an agreeable htrSimp^p to 
C. J« B. in return for his gratuitous abuse) has remarked 
(p« 79-) > npon this subfect, so . interesting to the. cause of 
honesty and sound literature* '^We were, indeed, agreeably 
surprised by the real and genuine learning, displayed in the 
mmark on H. in J. 80. until we recollected having ahready 
seen the whole of it in Wesseling's Dissertat. Her#d. p^ 
M. In the same way Mr. .B« appeared in £iHgr. xiv. 1. to hikvo 
surpassed himMf; but we soon found that the one half was 
bo^ wed from Valck. on Theocrit. ?• 11* the other fronl biA 
illustrious eomfryman Gaisford on He^sest. p. 47/' Again at 
p. d8« ^^'Bttt the Albertian Hesycbius has. .been the truest 
prop to the Editor ; from which be has. sometimes appropriajted 
to himself almost entire articles. To be. convinced of tbis^ it is 
requisite only, to compare, at the very threshold of the Gl^MUMiry, 
the article 'ImrtoxufF^i at v. 29* and S/o«o; at v« 44." and laatljs 
p.*10S, 3. '< C. J. B. on V. 944.. of the Persee, stumbles at the 
an^ords w%/«v wkaatcif and says, equidem pang stupider legendum 
jS^ioy itkixa vel fttip^Mtv* Why did he not leave to tlie authors 
of these conjectures their wretched pix)perty f Arnald bad 
already imagined fi&^lciy and Pauw and Heath iw)^iav,'' But 
these instances of Plagiarism are pigmies compared with the 
gigantic examples, which we have to produce. 
'•> were matter of no great difficulty to track C. J. B. 

fOS On ib€. Fiagiarism§^ 

wAk allkis Tiiriatiims.of signaliire dirough tbe p»g» ^f^itkr^^ 
periodieal puUications, and to show that, from the first mpmMt'- 
ke Mt an anbition to appear in print to the la$t eifort of hin 
pen, he hat uinfomily adopted the pilfering system ; yet with his 
earKest depredations, performed as tbey were under modest 
ini^als^ we will not trouble ourselves. An ample field is le& 
in his openly acknowledged publications, to gratify the mdine 
of his bitterest {be% 

We wiU cohimence with the first work, to which C. J. B. put 
bis name ; and, as we promised, will draw up the statement of 
his various individuals, and more particularly to Richard 
Porson. The Prometheus, as appears from the titi^ page, was 
published in 1810, and from the preface we learn that die 
notes of Porson, whose papers were put into the hands of 
C. J, B. are distinctly marked with the initials R. P. Fi^n 
diis we infer such notes, as are not so marked, to be the Editor'a 
own property* Ji, however, a whole host of emendationa be 
found in a note of C. J. B. and every one of these be recorded 
in the Porson papers, without being honored by those distinc- 
tive marks in tlue edition of C. J. B., shall we charitably saji 
that, in this particular case, great geniuses have clashed^ or 
shall we, harshly peihaps, though not falsely, call .C. J« fi. 
a plagiarist on that very individual, whose papers he was 
pemiitted to copy, and afterwards employed to publish f The 
note to which we allude is on Prometh. v. 796* '' Quoniwi 
Yi^ro da particularly agitur, quasdam loca corrigamus, ubi bsec 
•yllaba excidit. i. Eurip. apud Stob* viii* f.QJ' Q^r ^wvi^m 
«ro^v op$dB<rsify av: lege froXnr wfaqiwrHmt av, ii. Eupolii apud 
Plutarch. Cimone p. §Q9,. Grot. £xc« p. 50^. K»nwF* amm(kip4^* 
Aif h Aaxs^alfj^a9$\ corcigo Kelu hvioT. . IJI. CratiQua a|||Hl 
SchoL in Plaiton. ed Ruhnk* p. 88. "£$« ««p^fii^ m ri^ wjfy^ 
if^teXja : lege hi dfv r«$.'' And in the aecond edition of I^IS^ 
IV. Plato Coniicus apud ThemistocL p. 2^SX JC&rori ayi^KKa, 
t£y Mwv, ii&crrcai, lege xc&roroy/^ Delighted and dazzled. a9 
every reader must be witli the extensive research and delicate 
taste of a juvenile editor, equally familiar, as it would ^eem^ with 
the remains of Comedy as of Tragedy, dispersed through the 
bulky volumes of Plutarch, the .el^^nt extract^ of a Stob^Bus, 
#r the colleeted scraps of an unknown scholiast \ i^d unwilling 
as he must be to see a rude hand thus daring to tear oUvam 
undique decerptamjronti ; yet justice bids us say> that of these 
ibur emendations, the first was doubtless found iu Person's 
papers; for it exists in the Advers. p 1275: that the se.cond 
was doubtless found in.Porson's papcfrsf for it is publi^h^ in 

of C. J^ Blomfieldi ife07 

the seconi] eifition of the Orestes at v. 68 h : tlmt the foiiith 
^vas also found in Porson^s papers no doubt ; for it exists in 
the Advers. p. iEQQv though more correctly there, X&mroiv 
SfiiXK* J Toiy veoov, iioar^ut (and so C. J. B. as we sus- 
pect, has silently quoted in a recent No. of the Quarterly 
Review) ; but the third emendation waB not, we venture to 
state, found in the Porson papers ; as it introduces a violation of 
Greek syntax, which any fourth-form boy in a Classical semi- 
nary, unless under the superinten dance of C. J. B., would have 
been whipt for not avoiding. It is creditable to the good sense 
of C. J. B. that, in the second edition, this truly original emen- 
dation of his, M'as, at the suggestion of Elmsley in the Edin- 
burgh Review, omitted ; but we cannot say as much fur bis 
honesty, when he wishes to complete the old number four, by 
introducing in the second edition a correction of Ipfa. T. 1302. 
W it^lv */ iv eivfi toStoj epfj^riveu^ ro5e : ubi, says this wondrous 
Greek scholar, miram est Gaisfordum reliqitisse fjjroi. 

That Gaisford should have left a faulty reading in the text 
inay, perhaps, be a matter of surprise ; but it can be none to 
find an emendation proposed by C. J. B., when he has already 
discovered a clue to it in the notes of others. Nor would thi^ 
merft of this mighty discovery of Gaisford's oversight have beea 
diminished, had C.J. B. informed us, that his improvement in 
the knowledge of Greek syntax, was owing to the Person 
papers upon Aristoph. Eccl. 62i. whereto support this con^- 
struction, the very words vph uv Bhiti^ are quoted from Veap, 
915. We are not ignorant, that this important change of tixH 
itito efcrjj is recorded in the Mus. Crit. N. ii. p. 193. But 
from almost every article in that publication coming from the 
pen of C. J. B. damning proofs of Plagiarism may be pro^ 
duced. ^ One example shall suffice taken from N. ii. p^ 189.^ 
i^pOnlph. A. 1542. where thus the Plagiarist : ^^"Ofuog 5e <rwy§«3ir 
pv&tv iKenva-ov wirgos. Marklandus conjecit rtdgog, Oaisfop- 
dus IxsTsvQ'ov rdls. Liege iKsTwe-ov ts frFpo;, Cf. Phoen* 61 9^ 

Prom. 73. vpog autem et irpos (i. e. frarpii) faciilime ^onfundi 
poterant.** JThis emendation, which, perhaps, may be cons^ 
dered as the most ingenious and most certain of any in that article, 
is, like all the best of C. J. B.'s good things, stden from 
another person. In the Appendix p. 1^29. to Mr. Bnrg^a^ 
edition of the Troades published in 1807., we find the following 
note. " Iph. A. 1242. Aid. ''O/utcoj Be crvv lixpva-tv Ixirris yi'voo 
narpos. MSS. vero proxime <n)vMxp\j(rov Ixlrsuffov wotrgoV P'^ 
JIATPOS tu lege TE IIPQS. S«pe vecsum claudunt r§ wpo$ 
— Cf. PhoBB. 619- et Eum. S33." 

298 On Ae Plagiarisms 

' And this' is one of tfie very persons^ to whom C. J^. B« 

' alludes, when in the article upon Gaisford's Hephate- 
tion, £dinb. Rev. JNo. xxxiv. p. 382. be says, ** we sus- 

' pect that, even now, more credit would be given, in 'flMny 
instances, for arranging than for construing a chorus; and 
many modem scholars, we believe, feel less delight in the 
perception of a beautiful image, or a noble sentiment, than 
Burges feels] in the antistrophisiag a set of monostrophics,'or 
'Seidier does] in the detection of an hitherto undiscovered 
dochmiac." How well C. J. B. cao, or cannot, construe a 
chorus, even when emended by himself, let Seidler t^, in Ae 
^ena Review, p. 100. upon Pers. 83., and how far C. J.'B; is 
alive to the perception of noble sentiments, Mr. Barker will 
answer ; and with what eagerness he catches a beautiful imftge^ 
suggested by others, the present remarks bear ample witness. 
But we have wandered from the favorite, if not first^KMti, hope 
ofC. J. B., his edition of the Prometheus. 

But as in the body of the play C. J. B. has favored as %Htb 
^6t one admissible emendation, pretending to come from his 
own ingenuity, we are deprived of the chance of detecting even 
one plagiarism. In the notes however and Glossary, we have 
a rich feast, not so much in discovering the source of his 

' ' emendations, as in that of his citations from authors of every 
kind, which the youthful Editor doubtless wished to palm off, 
as the result of his own extensive reading and deep research.' 


^ The most usual trick, which C. J. B. ex^ibits to excite the^stoQish- 
ment of the unlearned, is to fill a note with a long list of the names of 
volmninous or unusual authors^ quoted for the purpose of notidog a 
fragment of the Tragic or Comit writers, already to be found ia their pro- 
per place, in the edition of each Poet respectively. For instance, in the 
Glossary on v. 15. d J. B. has occasion to quote two fragments of 
Euripides, discovered by the aid of the ludex ; and we are referred, not 
to Beck's edition of that Tragedian, which is in every tyro's hadids, but 
to Dicfnys. Halicarnat. ii. p. 591. fBeck in Teleph. Fr. i. presents 59. : 
«which is the eorrect; reference, weJcnow cot] aad to Strabo vin. p. 566. 
^ndin the same note we read of ** Fragment. Promethei Soluti apud 
Galen. Comment, ad Hippocfat. de Morb. Epid. i. p. 454.,** as if C. J. B. 

_was the first Scholar who had read carefully Bentley's letter to Mill. p. 
57. ed. Cant.=i500 Lips, extiacted hy Brunck tn fils'li^Jtr'^Opbocl. 

.. where this passage of ^schylus is quoted from Galen ; for tbatC. J. B. 
had himself read thoroughly the works of Galen at the period of his first 
edition of the Prometheus, w^ who are not ignorant of bis early life, 

.. are hard to believe; nqr are we disposed to retract this opinidn by 
finding Galen quoted at v. 658. and. v. 721. since the first passage was 
supplied by Valckenaer. Diatrib. p. 197. and the second by P. Jsftobs 

•f C. J. Blomfiei^. ,^ 

VpOB the filtle credit given to Sttniey's 4ftbort we inake- no 
.•omilient; «ince C. J* B, would^ doubtless^ assert that all fail 
readers well knew, bow little Stanley had left^ on. the score of 
multifarious reading, to the industry of a futiure Editor of the 
Prometheus: and that to mention his name on every occa- 
sion could be of no other use, than to swell the notes to an 
immoderate size. Nor are we unwilling to accept the apology. 
We cannot, however, so easily pardon the* silence of C. J. B. 
respecting his obligations to other scholars. But as we have 
only a small space to spare for a lengthened enumeration of these 
unhandsome debts, we will merely refer to the lines of the text 
or Glossary, and attach the name of the creditor. V. 20. Ho- 
llander — ]Butlen V. 22. Eustatb. 11* ^O V* D. in Comment. 
Spciet. Xips. II. p. 284. By the bye C. J. B. seems, between 
the interval of the first and second edition, to have read Eusta- 
tbitis honestly through : see the Corrigenda to the second edi* 
lion. We believe also that the same observation will apply to 
ibe Venetian Scholia : the citation, however, on v. 244. accom- 
..panied with that to Herodian,is found in Porson's MiscelKQ'il. 
• p. 207* and lest C. J. B. should assert that the MisceU. 
Crit. were not published by Kidd till 1815. and that conse- 
. quently be could not have been acquainted with them earlier^ 
we beg our readers to compare the emendations of C. J . B. 
on Photius in the Edinb. Rev. No. XLii. p. 336. at the words 
. 6^«o-a>/MM6Xi], JSfuTM, XreiifJiMv, and p. 337- respecting Mupi^ 
acftyri, with the notes of Person in the Miscell. Crit. p. 285,6,7. 
and upon Aristopfa. Ntib. 99B; and let them decide whedier 
to R. Porson^ C. J. B. be, or be not, indebted for these correc* 
tions; which, with the exceptions of three others, form the 
iiriiole of C. J« B.'s mighty achievements upon that Lexicon, 
and whether if Porson had left more in his papers, C. J. B. 
would, or would not, have exhibited himself still more to the 
scorn of honorable minds. 

But this Iv irtt^^f. We return to the Prometheus. V. 59* 
ed 2. in Aristarcho'Wgou^] Jacobs. Cur. Secund. in Eurip. 
p. 213. V. 105.] Albert! on Hesych. v. *A^firos. v. 1 12.] Bur- 
ney inMouthly Rev. Feb. 1796. p. 132. v. 1^.] Scha^fer in 


in the notes upon Arphilochus in the Anthologia. That we are not very 
wroOK io attriDuting the knowledge of Gaien to Bentley's letter, may 
be guessed from the note of C. J. B on Prom. 831. who seems to have 
been guilty, even before he appeared in print, of concealed, as be fancied. 
Plagiarism. See Maltb/s note in Morell. lex. Gr. Prosod. v. nl^Af i|. 

VOL, XXIL a. Jt. MO. XLlll. O 

SlO On the Ptagiariimi 


^it. . Lips. . PoTBOQ. 4. fat). Ettrip. lo the. Iwi^y ▼, TJAiw 
,^•£50.3 Diiport quoted b]r Stanley, V. 302,] H. Steph. ?.32l.] 
Jacobs ^l)i^)adve^s• '\\\ Eurip. p« 208. v. 3i63.] Schuts. 
.V, 386.] Suoley and Cicer. Tiisc. will account for ti^e 
.arr^y .of learning \\i this note, with the eibception of the ^efe^ 
.rence to the Venetian Schoha, fof .which C. J. ,B. waa indebted, 
we l^elieve, to the Porson papers. See R. P. in Praef. ed. 3. .-p. 
.10. j^C^n>pi»re also C. J. JBL s reqiarks in the. Edinl^. Rev.. N9. 
;x;p(.^iy« p. 389- nho, when he published the first edition-pf tijM^ 
Pro^ietheus, does not seem to h^ve read the latter, part of tl%p 
.Venetian Scholia; otherwise he would have quoted, as h^ 
,9ub9e4uept]> did, the second passage from 11. 4^* 12.^ .v^ ^^t] 

. y To rtUeye tbe iklaeuof thete ditydetail«i we wftt Oldeavour to am«se 
ourselves, oor readers, and the Plagiarist with one observation or two 
^suggested by thlB^ passage of ^schylus. The words of the Tragedian are^ 

*where instead of ipyrk, Phitarch and Eostatfaio^ ejihiMt ^vjj^ : and ho 
•Isacrates seems to have read : «n«r ^^vxaXf reug ^vMatt od^c* J^iv •xx«.^«p/S«»- 
.nof nXfiie ))6yo(*— But tjiese words, perhafis, have an allusion noher to a Gnoo^c 

Oisticll, — reus it ■l.vyna.Tffi yoa-oCffai; ^affxanoi crjx i^r* aXX' ^ ^oyfffj and COIlse- 

'miently prot^ nothing positive wi^ respect to ^schylas. Amongst tHe 
wOoeaiic MenosHchs boiirever is fonad, v. 428. ^z98c ^vx^k yotisAcnc IttSt Itn^ 
A0r«f» ai|d certainly, in this place -^yyr^ seems preferably to l^yy^ Ss .ii)e 
sentence, when completed, would be*'Og>? •\''S-j(ri; iw^xianQ. To us it appears 
tiat neitlier is the li^t reading ; but that*^schylns wrote 'Ojyf»off»rf »if iv4H 
Imfoe »«yo9. With respect to the varioiu ether iwangevqiieteii iar the aaCtt 
/^ C» J* B.1 we coawve ,th^t not^enander^ bat EuniMdes, vro|^ ... 

A, *larohs w* s(r&^ S >^4yo£ ^yBpwv^c woi«* , 

which was thus imitated by Philemon, 

To Enrijrides also we Would give another distich modelled after the senfi- 
fltCDlof JEschylnSy 

A. *Opyv); fJMTtitoi y* tlah aTnoi x6y»t* t 

and to Menander the imitati9n of both Tragedians, , , 

,0^x wriv ofyTiV, »( /oixr, <pap|LU»xoy 
ixX', ^ Xoyof ernovJaiof ciy9fiu7tov ^iXov J 

wMose words Themistiiis had in mind — ^A^fAhmy If ^ymc^^anC&Hc-^Xvy^t tw^Ct ; 
and with respect to the passage of iEschylns quoted by the Scholiast 01^ 
"Sophocles, C. J. B; has kappHy^ added three words fs9m the VoBctiavflcte* 
lie, but has most unfortunately defended {^*iviA.t%ra against x«v4>t0'/uu»Ta, not 
perceiving, that the variation arose from the confusion of tp and v (thefre* 

3nency oiwfaich change has been pointed out by many scholars) and that the 
istieh should thos be read» 

C^^erning the use of i^fm, coaipai«:Trs; )7S1. «» y^ fdvftt i^ptt^ff m ftmk ^ 

^tuAmiriglim^tr in Athens Iti^ex V. ti\(rx6\6;. <;470.] %. 
fieiA^erlr. • V. *Bpy&irH v; 591. ed. 2.]' Pbrioii. Aa^era^ p. l^, 
%if'09».] Spanheim— See Mr; Barker's Beply, p. Tl,2. v. 0a6(J 
Jl(4sten. Hd ' St^pti/ BjrSs. p.-^J. A*; ir. 865:] fiofney, Momfalj^ 
RfV. V. 87B. ed.i^Mn PorBon ftd' Hec. 1161. in Addend, id 
^uH. 1046. Bt^Pae.'€30. Boggested tbe mateiiais of this 
note. • ' • ' • .'■'•..••• : •' ♦ -J 

* So much' f<6fr ibb (mnotaiioivs ; we- proceed to the Glo^earj. 
tBkitfien^/as if i the notes^ vrt are enabled b)^ internal evidencf, 
=fa det^ttbe plagiarist/ Ati v. €7* Am^eaA, the Sthal* on 
-Apeli. Rh. vt. 487s is'cited. At first ^vre' cowceived the vi. to 
be aniista4(e for* iv. there being infacConly 4:booir8.of Apot- 
lonius Rhodius. But we discovered afterwards that C.J.,B. 
obtained this wrong- reference . (which should, have. been, ii. 
-467) ^rom- D^Oryille dn Chariton 'p« 4l6ir355. wher^ tUe 
Very sam6 error is committed. iia«l D'Orville's natii^ ^bceii 
of^ener mentioned, we should have sooner found to whom C. 
J. B. was indebted in bis 9A* Edit, at v. ^IQ. for. the iragvi^nt 
ef Phryniehus , preserved by Pausaniaa, ^and quoted* by D'Of- 
"vflie^ p. '76r::£44. unlesd, •^indeed, C. J. B.< attimbled .upoih 
that passage^ while - arranging Porson's Advera. p. 38. .^Dt 
-as neither R. P. norC. J.^£. faavethit upon thje t undoubted 
reading, w^ will hazard a conjecture by proposing in 'the fcl« 
lowing Antispastica, (see Meineke, Qusst. Menandr. p. ^2.) |o 

<ri. roD ^ai\xS} Tt^ifiofiivw, jxifr^o^ iS^ ix x«xo/iti^av^. * Where 
our emendation ' of oda^ into idg .seems to be confirmed by the 
preceding words of Pausaniasy Tfiv ^ wA nvpof (read (nfi^fi^tfig) 

Si^pecting the use of lo; in the choral .song^, see IplKA<.1530. 
£1. 1204; and Schol. on Pers. 13. In the dialogue the exprettion 
i og IB more common. Cosipare S« C Th, 638. AJ. 442. CEd. 
T; 1246. CEd. C. 1639. Tracfa. 266. And 6nce we have met 
with olg in the Med. 9^1. Amongst tiie few proofs of literary 
honesty, we quote the note in v. 90. upon the word n»(Ufs,yiTafQ, 
To the instances of c6mpounds of-pt^ri^p^ collected) as C* J. B« 
• . ■ - • ■ . . • . / • . . 

and Iiftx. Bekkcr. p. 84. v. Bafitti* ToTv c^xl jocirp'onr, AxxA tw» )3aj5«i fi^fietu 
'AXif If 2<xywviu;. Fof »oC J. B. ptopefly feads instead of o^x^ '*'»*'*> <>" ^^^ 
Pers. lOdf .— and with respect to o6 Uiim placed at the <^d of th« ime, it is 
ailficiei]i.tDrrferto7r».«llt2d« tKifjuifif mt^, ofiyA* .;xav^«4 rufyai' ev. T\nfi 
word ^xiV/iAATa, though rare, Is still acknowledged by He^ch* Xiex. B«kker« 

-» << 

S12 dn^P^gktrikM 

•ftyty by Abreftch and Talclcenaei^, we adU JitfaikHtitifrmf fioi« 
Hesycb. We wish the same justice had'^beeii done'lo the schi9» 
Imtb, from whose united labors C. J. 6. has fiMMla.his readeiss 
tmile by hii dissertatbu on y^ACf/dlK in tbt &ani«. pa^^lgfr;^ ^u^ 
peibaps^ wemre t^o captiocis vtfom tbis aiid similar -o^cafUMy 
where a refereoee is, indeed, made U>Ah» ^SSprb of iot)i^f^[)q- 
thotigh in such a way as to make the eitcsit of bis obliigiftopiM 
t9 those others little sppaieiit. Thie moQk mQdm%Jf< 9^ ^hi^ 
.giarism in another Editor has been noticed ia the Mpntblj^. lU- 
view, March, 1806. p. 9d6. Some obeervations in thki^W 
article, p. £98., written, we believe^ by nbM^udoff!^,^^^^^ 
are earnestly recowmended to.the«Uie«itioii cyf all Plagia^fy, 
Opened or coaceated. V. 199* The emendatifH* of Ilesjf^^^ 
Sopingtus had anticipatod. y..H49^ /Tk^ fxiof ^o( tifp^^ 
bad been pointed out by Poraon, oa Hei^* 124iS«(,6c.(A(fa(e|p. 
p. 170. from whence a nlistake .of iC» J. B,,or b^ lur^ter^ 

saya C« J. B. 'f Sutqi^iim^ coo^po^^ qfWP^ 
t vpwpu, qtiia e?£'em{)la in Lesicis raiiora si|nt. '^viff^fgn^ 
£mpedocles apnd Aristot. Ph}-sv ii. 8. JPlatarch. in.CofpU^. 
f£058. ed H. St. [= 1 1£3.] £lian. H. A* xvi. £9. .Tbeoptief^i^t. 
* ]Bpist. 44. p. 79. Theodor. Prodr. Epiat*. ad Trapez. I^<;tr^f p}. 
p. 547. iiifthtpooigos. Track. £aa. £uffip. El.. 846. Ujie;s.i,^. 
BaSroiogos. Vid. Uesyoh. AaXAirpaipOj. 3t C Th. 4<3j3in ^8%9)- 
'£37. Of this mighty array of fluthoritie^ evtry onq, wjifa^,^ 
exception cfTheodor., andbe, pecb^sv wiU,be .tnirked.jbf^- 
^afterybas been quoted by the Comui^iitatorSi on Hesivc)]^; 
from which Lexieon mi^t. bava tii^ti.stiU .added^ J^usj^gi^y, 
*iy(di^po>pogf (in the gloss, Saif/'taxis Tg#aftf,);iind T^g^j^yjpi*^ ^-.^ 

With this glaring proof of BlotntidMan Piagisr^^im.we.pught 
.bring our evidence to a close; butta few othi^l'^ maj^s^ll.h^ 
added from v. 453. 'i&HjjSoXo^i where, in the ftis^ment^of, Ar- 
chippus apml Etyniol. m is incbided within curved, lines^ <and 
appears as if C J.* B* wished it to be.eypelled^ did i^yl- 
blir^ius. Tbis passage has, . however, big^Q. b^^er^ eqendeil by 
Meineke, Cur. Crit, p. 48. by reading "Apx^wof Hkourcf vvv 
"e'yevii/.rit Xpll^i^iov htfj^foXo^: 1 he HiiO' readiiig^ is, doubUesfi^^ ^Jif^ 
y(iitit(i^ n^ovToar PfvA 2S yaypjMti ^pf^fAarm »r^/3o\o;. The v^rb 
jyai'VfjLai is found in Vesp* 6 12. TouTCiar^v iyd yaw/jwi* W^^aice 
sorry we cahnot compliment C« J. B. on his sagacity in not^di^ 

; b'ahiib^me ftMrment vf a ComioPMl^ ito the words o(^Anii^ 

tietniUf** ''^ ' ^ '^,?h. ,, .'.,^1 

• it* 

'"'A simihr ^ant of sagacity %m exhibited. in |he aote pn t.^^^ 

<|rbere others, we believe, have retnarkjed that the wor^s^T 

!^otiuSy Sii' Ilk Biblioth. p. 158^ x«} .ftcvfteiiai ^ fi««7ox^ TTflr^^' 

^iS^^OTcXrf refer to'Tracb* 11S8* yjf^^jk in^a^v^ for 3Q it h^ 

*^bjpen rightly cdrrected, tncftead o£jxi;«i|»iV)2. ^i 

* ;' At V. 488. Stanley, Valckenaer and Villoison iwill strip C.J, B. 

^Cff many a plume ; where, respecting bU method of curing it 

- disordered passage of Euripides, something will be said at auother' 

time: at present \?e only remark that bis u^edicine neied not be 

taken j^ as from some inherent defect in the composition of ^be 

in^recnents, arising from the ignorance of the prescribing quack, 

' it m absolutefy incapefble of reoaovitig the complaint. ,,^ : 

But while we are thus busy in detecting Plagiarisois, w^ wjjt 

' J3roTe that we can be just even to one, who ^^servejs litt^le pi|y 

^ at our hands. lii the Glossary on v. 721. Q^J.B* amuses ui 

* With a show of reading, and an attempt at emendatioin ,upqn 

Archilochus. In a letter, however, to Mr, B^rker^ inserted' jn 

hh Reply,^ p.'7«. C. J. B. discovers that D. Heinsius and H^- 

' sterhusius had anticipated his fancied correction. This U w^)l. 

But why did not C. J. B. state, that every passage quoted|jis 

Veil as every emendation made, was to be found in Jacobs^ 

iiotes upon this very passage of Archilochus in the Antholog|a, 

Or was C. J. B. ashamed to give a proof of bis want of inge- 

'itiuity^ as well as of ingenuousness, in not discovering that the 

lacuna in Archilochus* was to be supplied from He&ychius py 

reading Srifiiffiv X«(r/oi(riy^ ov li y cTrivoijfMuriv, ^(^u^ ; which we 

are surprised the ingenious F. Jacobs, (^ scholar, whose cha«^ 

iracter should have been differently described by. Porsoni in a 

Well-known passage) did not stumble upon, especially as ne sa«> 

gaciously dsscovered, that Archilochus alludes to the. Homeric 

Jjv?iatis,ivsos xd(nov x^p, which Hesychius thus ei^ilains : ^ nvxvl^ 

%») (rmfpoov xatxieif $i{oL ^fwx,^ kal o-tiver^ enso rov ftepUxj^yrof rl vef i* 

f;^(jJxevoy. to yoip fiytfionxof tij^ 4^X^ ^ Vt ^^W* ^ ^^^ i^Tiv ilf {tS^ 

ffjifvcp, Sx^ (OS izettrnhMT^v i»(f6 «<m '*«n<r;^w^«'4w;i^oy, J^IjjT ill 

a preceding gloss, from which we have drawn our supple* 

ihent, less applicable to the passages of Archilochus* ^^(rloitrr 

tA(ri<rr '* 5V^Wi Xatrfoij" htlixprroil tiw^, dhro T^f i^niw iiFifafitafi 

* jcySgwSso'/v' aXXoi wffxfoig xui cwttroi^. The same. passage of Ar- 

^ cbmK:hus ts hUuderf |^ again ia JEri^Jh^'i XM-ioKri' srfirvTCvaJ^fj'oi^ 

AoyioftcS nd 9v^uxtf* But to leproach C. J. B. witii^ wfiiil 

d44' Od the ^FB^tistn^ 

oftiig«nnUf, IS) afar aU> diiebss* '-' Mmd^n^t^iigrgM^ 
JfVam th&rns, nor Jigs/rota bramb/e$" Else we woold ask, how 
conld he hti^e permitted so many true readings td eacape him in. 
the text of the Prometheus^ a play, nhich, after ali the.laboraof 
critics^ neither C. J. B. nor any of his school can understatiii| 
or construe ; mhy has he quoted froAi Piutarch, p. 966. ed. H[# 
Steph. =:ii. p. 344. £. avya^-Seo, in a passage where a fourth- 
form hoy would have corrected yvfivaur^io^^vLni have confirmed 
it6y the expression iriigoiy xifie, which Plutarch substitutes in 
another place, when quoting the same tristich ^ why did he not 
correct in v.- 841. Hesycb. ^ekko$' 6 to o-fyjx« iraxyrepov Xiyaov b^ 
reading TO \|/f y^a/4r/t«^ where there is the ^a me change bi^ iato.£ 
as in that gloss of Hesychius, corrected by C. J. B. at y. 694. 

'The three last specimens which we mean to bring forwsird, as 
connected with the history of Plagiarism,' are tsiken from vv. 
80d. 10^51. and one from the S. C. Th. 7d.--Of these the first 
and tfaind debts, of which the account is heavy, are to R. PorsoUi 
as appears by his books,-^See Advers. p. 2?5. and Aristophanica^ 
^^enum. 250. The second is a mixed account of small debts 
to the Commentators on Hesychius, and Pollux, to Mukgrave^ 
Xroad. 82. and Wyttenbach, Plutarch, p. 115. A. ; 

* It was our intention to have gone throtigh the whole workd 
of C. J. B. and to have done our best to exhibit him in his true 
light. We have, however, already extended this article beyond all 
moderate lin^its, and are unwilling, we do not say^ unable, to 
trespass upon the patience of our readers ; and to the taste of C. J. 
&*i W6 suppose, we have said enough. Should he feel, however, 
disposed to complain of our chariness in producing evidence, we 
will tell him, that every work of his furnishes abundant matter 
against him. And as a specimen we have thought proper to 
Ibrin^ one from the commencement of his second acknowledged 
publication ; the very counterpart of which may be seen in his 
anonymous critique of Butler, in the' Edinburgh Rev. N. 38. 
P» 479* promisiog our readers, that we have many arrows in' our 
quiver ready to be shot, wheriever the object exposes itself, as 
It has tateiy done, offensively. 

' ^ tn humble imitation of a certain author, who commenced a History 
of Dancing in the Athenaeum, pillaged, most probably, from Mr.' John 
Weaver's Essay in the possession oi' C. J. B., as appears from the 
Ij^iis. Crit. V. p, 83. we niean to Entitle' otir work ''Every man his own 
Plaigiarist--Dediciite4 to a Gentleman, whorhas verjr eminently exhibited 
Ills talents in the art of a purloi^er, at his bousoL in St. Botplph'si . t^^ 

b/C. J, 

Bl6infifelGL 2^ 

:'j|yvi^fdbihei)Qmiaefieeinent q£ this jslctide an alfatsknhas 
ti'een" udarie to ,.^sop's fable, " I^Tie 'da\i^ with borfowcd 
feather^."— At this tixne whfeii that sent^ttce was written/ tte 
were nbt ^w&re^ that the allusloiV was in every respect' pec nlitrly' 
applicable to the present case. Of the stoi^'we have to tell, an 
cnemy'ofC. J. B. may in the language of Plato say, h ^h fHii 
^y^si fjtuSov, ly» Sg Koyov, But we will add from the same 
siothor^ XXI yoLq uXyfir^ Svra \i^oo, a troi p^iXXoo Ksystv. The feet 
then is, that irf the Mii^teum Critieum N. 3. p.'40^. appeared a 
fdvkw written/ as from internal evidence is manifest, hy Cl J. 
B.y of the fables of iEsop published by P« ,De-FnriaV and 
Reprinted at Leipsig A. D. 1610. Although that article be dis- 
graced by abuse' and sneers^ in the Blomfield style, agaitist indivi-* 
duals totally unconnected with the subject in band^ wis confess we 
read the critique with some pleasure, and felt disposed to award ihe 
praise of considerable ingenuity td C. J. B. for his discovery, that 
amongst the fables first published by De-Furia, 9 Vatican MS* 
i^resented, what, since the days of Bentley, has been a desideratum 
in. Literature, the very words of a most elegant fabulist, onet tkn 
brias ; the fragments of whose works had indeed been preserved 
by Suidas, but scarcely one entire fable of whom Was known^ 
till the appearance of T. Tyrwhitt's, the learned, the inge- 
nious and, what is higher praise, the gentleman-like TyrWhitt's, 
dissertation on Babrias. So great indeed was. the interest we 
felt, that we were induced to purchase the volume, in ord^ to 
Satisfy ouriselves with ' ocular demonstration respecting a dis-, 
fcovery, uo less novel than true. We have since had rea* 
son however, to rejoice, that C. J. B. received no public proof 
of our sadslaction. For had we' done otherwise, we should have 
exposed ourselves to the charge ..of being duped even by that 
very individual, whose honest> we have for a long time suspected. 

The critique of C J. B. was published in March', 1814. But 
in October l8l2. appeared a work with the following title.— 
'* MTBOl AISnnEIOL Fabulae iEsopiae e Codice Augustano 
niiDc primum edttae, cum Fabulis Babriae Choliambicis, collectis 
omnibus, et Menandri Sententiis singuIaribuH ; * receusuit ec 
emendavitlo. Gottlob. Schneider, Saxo. VratislaViae 1812.'* 

At what time a copy of this book was first brought intoBo^ 
land we know not. But that C J. B. saw it before he wrotjB 
that article, is evident from the following passage hi the preface 
to Schneider's edition. Speaking of Tyrwhitt*s discovery of the 
fragments of Babrias, he adds, iis accesserwit liuper aliquot 
fabula ipsius ipsis liabria verbis reddltce, quas e Codicibus 
scripth Faticaiia Bibliotheca exscriptas, iNSCiiis EGBCivil 

il& On the Plagiarismi 

iffimhu Franc. De^Ftiria, Horentut pubKcavii, mox in metn 

$na rtde^, €gregiu$ Mam CarayJ'* — which C. J. B. has thus 
adapted into English : <' But a manuscript of greater import 
tancc is one in the Fatican library, of the value of which th& 
fables are nearly in the same state in which they came from the 
imnd of. Babrias ; but they arenriuled without any diftincjtion 
or indention of their differing ^rom prose. C. J. B. then pfjOr^ 
ceeda to reduce this prose to its ancient poetical form« , Bjit 
will it be believed that every individual attempt of this kind 
made hy C J. B. has been already anticipated in Schneider's 
edition } and that even almost all his proposed emendatio^s^ are 
derived from the same source ? We request our readers to verify 
pur assertion ; for without such proof it is difficult to conceive 
that any individuali laying claim to the character of a Scholar^ 
should have so compromised his literary honesty. 

Had C. J. B. been honest enough to mention^ that Schneider's 
work had anticipated bis restitutions, we might have been disposed 
to give him credit for the assertion, had it been supported by 
some proof of similar restitutions of other fables, which had 
escaped the sagacity of preceding scholars. As a specimen 6f 
what might have been done for the recovery of these remnania 
of the muse of Socrates, we quote the following fable, the very 
one, to which allusion has been made. [Libanium, Aphthonium^ 
et Tzetzem citat Hudson ad ^sop. Fab. 188. Adde Fab. 58. 
Cod. Bodl. apud Tyrwbitt. p. = 174. et Vat. Cod. Fab. 217. 
flpud De*Fur. p. 90. .necnon Berger. in Babrii Fab. p. 36. • 
quibus omnibus inter se collatis bate fabula eruitur.] 

Jt* atiip* ipr irrpaih-t mci nfip^fiM 
TW Zjpfa fukWtn fiatriXi* ogvioif <rrivit¥f 
Srrt$ «ot' f i( to xaXXo$ av pav^ xptWtrwtT 
%iant$ h* f^orreoy, rjiepoiif V opifyrro^ 
hixkfi<rloit rs xupUn rixvou Maiag, 
tig r^y aopvoy mo'tivijyfteyoi Kli^n^f* 
xetnKttfLfistyov hi tracreof, TvA rei pAv fw?<a 
vrip' otwifiaXov, rei S* aZ xebC l^tfeuipufmr 
aKk* ovSfv evirps'9€$ uoXoios el^ uv^uvp 
mrrlg 8i* ainw' ntre^a, 8*, olr' «f wmtt* aXAdoy^ 
mnl^xt raiira, xoiTiiAv ig nv* oixelov, 
ram yt XP^f'^ voixtTioorefOf iroXX«* 
o5 y* tlciirroSf SpupMT karpaffi ntamtM^ 
^m Zwc TO xaXAo^ sWi^av kiapifiif/hi 
kgoxw nSxvw*xeii vkpviv aerw fMcMii^ 

^C, J,BtQnal^4; W. 


When G. J. B. shall' dtMCover a work in MS. orprinty (wm 
iMrhicb lie can pilfer undetected a fable like tbis^ we will ifaeD, 
iHit not till then, retract our opinion respecting his want of 
letmingf^ ingenuity^ and literary honesty. 

Should C. J. B. feel disposed to answer this charge; befMl^ 
he pttts pen to paper^ we recommend him to reflect upon the 
sentiment of a favorite poet of his^ 

Tl)ia. fragment of Sappho preserved by Plutarch, Vol. ii. 
p. 456» E. has been omitted by C. J. B. in his coUectioQ of 
tbe Sappliic Fragments in the Mus. Crit. N. 1. where. 
every care has been paid to the fleeting forms of the d^ad dialect^ 
though. none to the ipiperishabie sentiments of tbe still living 
Poetess* 'J'hat C J . B. should have omitted this fragment, we 
own, surprises us» Time has been when C. J. B. revelled in 
the very sound of Mu^'U>Jix'n^i, But it is one thiiig to be 9 
Barker and another to be a Fain-Barker. 
, ' P« S« Since writing the* above, we understand that a scholar^ 
whose liberality, equalled only by his learning, deservedly places 
him amongst the first of critics, and the most indulgent pt' men^i 
has been disposed to question the accuracy of our statement 
respecting the Plagiarists, Meineke and Blomfield. Unac- 
quainted as that individual is M'ith the secret history of Eng- 
lish scholars, we own that some doubts might have arisen in his 
mind with regard to Blomfield's want of honesty ; doubts, how- 
aver, that may now be reu^oved as satisfactorily, as might have 
been those in favor of Meineke, whose Plagiarisms have been 
so fully and properly ex posed in theClassicalJourna],No. xxxir, 
under the head of Literary Coincidences. The kindness of one 
scholar seems to have misled another of similar feelings. Had 
Kidd designated'his article, as we have done. Plagiarisms, the 
curiosity of the modem M^kland, a character, alas! almost 
unknown in these days, might have been excited to read the 
Literary Coincidences ; and we should have been saved from the 
suspicion of asserting an untruth. 

We are not ^pQtmt, that it may be UTfied m behalf of tfat 

9tlB On- the Plagiarisms, ^c^ 

Plagiarists in, queatioD, .iba^ th^ seem to be -men of learniiq; 

and ingenuity ; and that consequently they might have stumbled 
upon the same enyeM^aliops .and. Uie same • pasfages as those, of 
n^'hom they are accused of being Plagiarists. To this we reply 
in the language of Blomfield himself, in the Quarterly Review, 
N. XV. p. 217* '' There is a wide difference bet\^ een emendation 
and illustration. The chances are very greatly against tKO per^ 
ions hitting upon the same emendation^ unless, indeed, it be a 
fiery tolerably obvious one; — whereas they are just as much in' 
favor of their thinking of the same illustration. Emendations 
are private property : the sources of quotation are common." 

In this sentiment we heartily coincide. A similarity in emen* 
dations, and not in the citations of passages, ia the toucb»aloM 
to try the integrity of a scholar. U we discover many similar 
emendations, we set down the more recent writer as a Pla- 
giarist. But' having found him guilty upon this point, we con- 
sider him not free from suspicion upon the subject of quotar 
Uw\j in ca^es where proofs must, in their very nature, be lesa 
convincing. Nor is il always the number of emendations stolen 
that convict the plagiarist ; but the manner, frequently, in which 
the crime has been committed, will furnish as strong a proof of 
guilt« We know not whether the plan, adopted by C. J. B. is 
an original idea, or whether he was not led to it by hfs suspi- 
cions respecting a similar act of dishonesty, which C. J. JB» 
thinks Stanley committed with the papers of Casaubon* But 
ivbethec even the idea of this novel species of Plagiarism was, 
or was not, original, is not our present inquiry; the real ques- 
tion is, whether we have, or have not, made good our accusa- 
tion. And in order to give both the accused every possible 
advantage, we will agree, not only to a non-suit, but even to 
a verdict for the defendant, if it be discovered that the original 
emendations of either party are equal in number to a moiety 
of those stolen; or, if amongst the unappropriated, specimens 
pf ingenuity, one third are so marked in the quality of excel- 
lence, as to make an unprejudiced jury believe, that all the' best 
might have come from the same author as him, who furnished 
the worst. 

Through the who^e of tliis article the true Reviewer's we has 
been a<)opted. The writer of it is still but one and the same indi- 
vidusll, >Aho has in the last number made the attack upon the 
Jrlagianst* Lt t C. J. B. gainsay this evidence, it he can ; ana 
if he can, the writer of this will give all the credit, which he is 
nl present disposed to deny, to the learning,, iogenuity^ and 
lilorar^ honesty of Charles James Blomfield. 



A G. B. 

« 1 


Xi*fTER Comici Fragmenta notabiliora* principem fere locum 
teiient ea^ 9U%> AuiTotXeuiriv adscripta, conaervavit Galenus ii| 
Prooemio libelli tiomiue ^ rwv 'Jx^oxparov; r>^»v(fSnf e^^eri^ 
Tottmt Medtci Criticique .magHO tn hpnore habendi locum 
de9eribere iittet ^mendfttum. • -. 

jVbftf5» l^ (Tol tSl xmh [leg. I*ij] ^Apicm^vovs ipx^uf ri Ik r&it 
* AonraXeoov cSSs 7ra)$ i^ovra' 

frgofiiKkH yoLp h ixslvep r<» dp«|BiaiT» 6 ix tw i^iMlu wm jl^ri^smm 
irptirfiiTris r& SatoXacftp vUl itpiyr^v i»ip ^\if mpixm, ri v»f hcrU 
l^y^offiiir jxrrA tt rovro, 

'rt XdcXoiNr' k^uivr^va xApr^vct ; 

i^HiriS irgti^XKei, • 

-^SijAoI Se x«} auTo; ovTOg O'^Apttrro^iyyis i^ '''? ^^r^ ipifAart 

7'£xXt»^'o^AX)} Xfle> ](£^oy Ha) raiwW 
fTxlBC 6 'irpe<rfi6Tifis hrta-KaiTrwv, • • • 

I^oO* &opiXXri* toDto^ ^rfiegd^ Ava'iiPppoLroo* 
woiX^y ^i stArw rov itKoXi(rTOt) vliai>$ ehnvros 

xouTOvV uio5 6 irpea-fiuTYis sTfaxco^rrcoy Ipsi^ > 

' * TO kuTUTrXayYj&er rovro frapa rm fnirJpcoif^ 
itr uZhssxsiyovpivrog/ 

* «TO/3i5<rgTai 9 ttoi raOra oro) ra j^ij/toroe; ' 

v«X<y 6 ifpiff^r\i xal rouro o-xeoTrn^ * - 

r^* 'iiAxi^ioSiov rouro r cato^inrsrm 

r/ u70TcxfMiij»«i xoi TMxms av^pas ><iyui 

1« Vulgo AneiMw. 2. Aid. o-oi Xfffcoy ''Oftiyf '/fJanra m}A 
UaKs^i xopixa* lode erui yActiTr^^.T/ )(aXouai : cui fayet PolIiur« 
]l.,I09- a>JiikroLi iroH}rix«l; ^wv^^;, yAcorr^; ix^A^vv* »$ 'il|Mnn^ 

postreihum vix diktat a xpjconiy : quod restitui ex Horn. Od. A. 
441. quo respexit Pollux, vii. 111. "jOfji^i^fos fiopaw^v Alyei, 8 vSv 
Kif»%a XiyouQ-iVy m^ noaruiianros h fa^Jmi^ [f. raAscorjQ 6 y/o^ 
icaytixif^ fiircvy .^^ Ki^oiu xAiTs r4<rSc tuflSa^:'* .nude pate( Jbis 
corriganduin in Galen^ x^x«( vice nqpvKoi. . Paulo ante inserui 
|iioi: collato Aristoph. Lja. 506. «^ S'lfiro) At/f. .3. tov — i^atf^i 
yKuTTOih^iiafegQi^af. 4. Vulgo t/ito; Si oirH otie^is* At ^it 
ille juvenis oxoAacrro;. Poterat igitur ridere Homericum tig^ ex 
yi)8t!of 8UO hisyt iriws htfis. S* Il(ii-«gr«gi» Scidler in Disser- 
tfU de Fragment. Akistopb. .p« 17* advocatis Pbot. '/Su/ou^ 
l/MfTvpas oZtoos SoXcov. et Eustath. ad II. X p. 1138. 20j 1120B. 
SSv/ou^y xa) JffUKcov xoA SoXoof tou^ iiMfrvfis favif. Al?aos Atovi^ 
n*( loTo^ffi. Addo et Eustath. ad Od. H. p. 272. 14; Bas. 
i$(^i) T«u^ ISftoya^ ^«(r}y oi toAaioI : et corrigo iSv/ou^^ Viilgohie 
ISouo-i Ts. 6. ita feliciter Dobraeus ad Aristopb. Acb. 2M. 
'Ovvmv : quod fuit verbum forense. 7* Vulgo SlXas ^q^IaAi}— 
JBlmsi. ad Ach. 7l6. oAA' e». Ipse ^(AAcDf rpvera, Vid.^Rubn* 
ken. ad Tim. p. 199. 8. Ita Porson in Matty*8 Rev, ve\ Mis- 
cell. Crit. p. 37. coUatis Nub. 865. 1242. Vulgo rfu»y isrws 
od xara7A)}y^(r2]. 9» Vulgo o-oi rauTa woT. Voces ijpse trans* 
posui. V. 10. Ita Elmsl. ad Acharn. 716. Vulgo xal xaxouf — 
Atyei^ xaXoxayaieiov. Ex Elmsleo profecit Seidler in Disserlat. 
de Frag^nieiU. Aristopb. p. 17* 11. Vulgo olfjif*' t Ogao*vita;(ff. 
At nihil hic*Wbet ista appeilandi formula, id. Ita Bninck. 
pro npBViTm. Fuit OpotdiufLu^tk^ homo pplitictts. Ejusdeiti me- 
minit Theopompus apud Priscian. xViil. p. llSd^^. ^Fwf^ 6p«- 

.*ji|S|*y^y y^ wTy ' xfltXflS^ IgrKrmt^w Versum non sanavit Tonw* 
Advers. p. 300. neque EliusK ad Ach. S29. 

1B[oc fragmentum eo magis tiotabile est, quo pateat exinde 
apud Athenienses fuisse Glossaria, etiam temporibus Comici, 
ad voces Hamericas aliasque rariorea exponendas. Hanc Yeth 
Hon satis explicate motiuit C. J. Blorofieldus, mor^ sup omne 

ignotum pro mirifico cetisenSit Perlegas, quaeso; verba prae- 

Vtigiatpris istiiis apud literatores Ikmbsi in Quarterfy \Rev. 

'i(o, XLiv. et compara similia ilia ofacula ejusdeoi Critifci 
in. 'Edinburgh Rev. No. xx^tviii. p. 50^. cum notis ejus ad 
^r^phon. iiiMus. Crit. i. p. 49. 'ScHbendi hsec ratio, inepta 
adeo, homibem vere eruditum dedecet. Si quis secum habeat, 
quod rei Iiterariae sit profuturum, id omne sine ambagib^s 

' iuvolucrisque proferre debet. Tecte ista scripta indocti non 

^ inteiligunt, docti rident. Dum Comici ^\(ixr<rsts traeto, non 
abs re fuerit monere veram scripturam, h r^ K(op.ntT^ Al^tt, vice 
!y T0o^itai|xix« Ai^ixooj exhiberi a MS. Vatican. Scfaol. Apcfl. 

' feh. kv. i(5'i4. teste Inverniz. ad Aristopfa. Praef. p. £7; 

'■ sas 



' ' 1. Four verses out of five, or nearly so, commence with a 

2. When the sense of the^rs^ line overflows by a single wtifd 
' into the iecond, that word almbst always forms a dactyl, o^ a 
trochee. '"^ 

Obsequio tranantur aquae ; nee vincere possis 
Flumina, si contra quam rapit unda, nates. 

. . Nunc quoque detecti referunt monumenta vetusti 
Moris, et antiquas testificantur opes. 
Tiie exception to this rule i& very rare, and takes place peN 
^liaps only with a verb. 

y. ■ . • . Inde duae pariter, visa mirabite, palms 
^ ;/ ^^^.,1 jE|urgv|nt : ex illis altera major erat. 

., r 

• k r 

•SSSfe ' Hints ^o-ferm the 

3. A mohAStis initial is preferred to a sponcleey e^f gt fcp i Bibtn , 
4* The PciMameter 18 never foroMiltlHWt (MoiAiisliepila]^fa«) 

Vile cadaver \ smn |f tuque tadftvfe'r eiris. 

ik IRfe long* verse^ in structure, mUom devia^«» fros^ 

Tityre/tu patulae [| recubans sub tegmine | fagi. . • 
Sjlvestrem tenui || musam roeditaris | ayena» 
Formosam resonare | doces (|.Amar;llida { sjlvas.. 

6. The trisyllabic ending is avoided in the shott line, aathe 
%HadrisyIlabic is in the long. The short line on same veiy rai^ 
occasions ends with a quadrisyjiabic word/ 

Quem legis, ut noris> accipe, Posteritas.* 
Me sciat in media vivere barbarie. 
Quicquid et in tota nascitur Anticyra.. 

7. The sense does not overdpvir from one intaaootber diftticli, 
unless under circumstances like the following. 

Languor^ et immodici nullo sub vindtce swsni^ 
Alfaqua, et mvlto tempei^a qvassa niero> 

Eripiunt ouHies animo sine vulnere nefvos t' ' - - - . 

Adfluit incautis iasidiosus amoc. 

(111.) PROSODY. 

8. A short vowel in one word preceding sc, sp^ M^^8%im 
another, very rarely forms a short syllable. 

''In words like Scamander, Sdiunis, Smaragdus, authority 
and necessity consecrate the usage/' G. B. 

9. The caesural lengthening of a short syllable in any plaice 
of the verse is vefy uncommon. 

Ut rediit animus, tenues a pectore vestes, &c. . 

10. M final and final short vowels are rarely cut ofi^, even in 
disyllabic words : much less in monosyllab]es, and with long 
YoWels, ' . - 

1 1 . The most usual forms occur in fine pentametri^ such as 
the following : . 

* * 

Ovididn Distidh^ -^ S^ 

« * • • via est. • • • •solo est, . • • • • tibi es ? # • • .•meuai est. 

c<-*M.- Of the Wf^^ifOfihe so plac«dy the Mkrwing line (oAer- 
wise, objectionable) gives ah extraordinary inataneq. Heroid. 
X. 86. Ed. Burmap. 

Quis scit^ an haec ssevas tigrtdas itisula habet P 

'lS..Consilii, imperii, 8cc. stand as quadrisyllables in Ovid. 
To this head^ perhaps, of convenience in versifying^ may be 
referred the position of que in the short line ; the peculiarity, of 
evolvisse and persqlvenda, as forming words of five'sylla* 
bles ; and the frequent use of implicuisse. Sic, whbre impli- 
care, 8cc. else would naturally occur. 

14. The shortening of Ifae O final is very rare, and 'in a very 
few words'only admitted ; puto when parenthetic^ and ne»ci^ 
quem^ See, are not uncommon instances^ 


15. The words by which the pentameter is usually concliklec^ 
are nouns,, and verbs^ the verb substantiVe very much, and pro* 
nouns possessive. 

16. Of adjectives and adirerbs iu fine pentametri the ini* 
stances being rare and partfcnlar are easily remarked : these it is 
not safe to imitate, unless m cases justified by identity or very 
close similitude. 

17. Instances lifc€ these with sum^faciOf^^LXid other verbs,, are 
readily distinguished. 

Quse tantum lanas non sinat e^se rudes. 
Hoc Jaciet posita^ te mibi, terra, levem. 

18. iThe participle In line pentametri, as in the fictitious verse 
below, is not legitimate. G. B. 

Et laetus vivit, rura paterna col ens. 
19* While the following instances, with a' few ethers, form no 
real exception to the rule. 

^unc tibi sum pauper, nunc tibi visa nocens« 
Picere non norunt^ quid ferat hora sequens» 

♦ ; 'r 

S@4 Hints to form, t^ . Qvidian Dittic/k. 

On the petition of the Adjective. 

_ m 

to. Generally, as id prose, the adjective precedes the ooitii, 
Saoefi^^u^ WWe it. is the longer wordr^ tlpe twe^ 

b. Where it has a very emphatic' or deeisive 

meaning in the sentence, 
e. Where some word belongs to it in govemmoit. 
d. Where one adjective i# coupled tp anovher. 
The following collocations are legitimate, and may be itniialed 
with safety. 

A. Si mea materia \ respondet Musa \JoC9$€Sk,' * ' ' ^ 

B. Ruperat et durara I "vomer aduncus I hdmnm. 

C. Inque sinu natos | pignora chara \ ferunt. 
X>. Prima vocas tardos | ^djiiga panda \ boves. 
E, (any where perhaps but in fine pentametri.) 

Qui raiht ] Livor edax \ ignavos. objicts annos. 
Quae que nee | heUefero \ nee nive, terra, c^rea. . 

£1. Other collocations equally legitimate occur, which it may 
not be quite so easy to class and define. These the Scholar 
will note as he meets with them^ remembering carefully to dis- 
tingui^ where the noun and the adjective go disjunctively as in 
Af, and where conjunctively as in h, C, D, and JS. 

2$. The nouu in the long line is seldom followed by its lid- 
Jective in the short, unless in a few cases very peculiar^ like 

Protinus tfdspicies vetiienti n<M;te Ccronam 
Gnossida ; Tfaeseo crimine facta Dea est. ' 

Dira viro facito ; vires pro corpore - corpus 
^ Gran^fe; pater mohstri Mutetbbrbajueerat. 

'*Nos quoque templa.jwmnt, quamvis antiqiia probemuaj 
Aured: majestas convenit iiita Deei» :~ 

^0 0^.18167 




I t 

* * 

liEPLY ' 

to tHE 

_ ' . . . ' 


■ OF 

[The Thesaurus h to be published in 39 Nos., or all after will Ire 
given Gratis, llie whole \9Hl be printed mthin 5 years from the 
present delivery of No. JT.] 

The Snbscribers to the New Edition of Stbpheks' Thesaurus 
wil] doubtless retotlect the Advertisem^itprefixed to No«IX. iA wbidt 
the Editors annooiiced a curtailment of the plan previously pursued^ 
and tbeadl^tion of one on a more circumscribed scale. 

To enter mto a detail of the reasons of (his change^ imperative as 
they were on us, who are compelled to yield to the wishes of the general* 
ity of Sttbi/briberSy though against our own judgment, and, what is of 
greater consequence, in opposition to the opinions of first-rate Scholars 
in favor of the extended plan, we deem to be needless. And with 
respect 40. the mode, in which the change has been effected,- com* 
mencing with the word AWfl, we conceive it necessary only to refer 
to the contents of our last Number, published in March; 18S0» 

It was therefore With no little surprise, and, we will confess, pain, 
that,' subsequently to tiie publication of that number, our attention 
was called to some animadversions on our labors in an article in the 
Quarterly Review, No. 44, published soon afterwards. Oh evideilce 
external and infenial, sufficiently convincing, we are compelled to 
ascribe that article to the Rev. Dr. Blomfield. 

The grafifVide, which we owe to our steady friends and patrons, 
the interests of literatuR^ wlneh, we hope, will be advanced by the 

' Tu correct any misapprehension that niay arise from this paragraph, we beg leave 
to state, that almost as this reply was going to press, we were given to understand, 
that tha Critique was printed heiote our present plan, which was coimncBOed' at thm^ 
end of 1819, i^ad been actually put into practice in our last number. 

Of this fact, although it has 90 lately come to our knowledge, we feel ourselves 
bound in justice to apprise the render. Had a similar regard to justice influenced 
Dr. B., he would doubtless have embraced an opportunity of qualifying his statement 
previously made. This step might easily have oeen taken in a fly-leaf, appended te 
the last number of the Q. R. But this would, perha^, have been eonsideml at M* 
fashi^med honesty : and we know enough of the Reviewer to suspect, that to such an 
appeal to his candor, the answer would be, lii vi$iiafin iT, tud ffovn; If^j^m, 


236 A Reply to the Quarterly Rcfv^^wer 

com^etton of a woik, tnippofted by the geaeral approbation of 
Soholafs, and enricbed by Ibe ooatribntioos of first-rate philologists, 
and' a rc^rd to oar reputation, compel ns to notice ebarges most 
deMly affeeling onr ebarader, as well in a moral as literary potet of 

We are not ig^norant of the natnre* of the contest, or of the dis« 
piiity of tb^ odds, whicb we have' to enconnter, while answering an 
aftScle ia the Q. R., the extent of whose circulatioh defi^ the 
jkNSSibility of publishing our defence in every place, to whieb tbe 
accusation is wafted. Yet there is one tnbunal, to wbicb we 
most fearlessly appeal, that of Time.; whose motto, so choering 
to all honest minds, is. Magna est Veritas, et pravalAiL A few short 
years will decide the question, whether the Reviewer or ourselves be 
destined to bow the neck in shame to the irrerersible decrees of that 
unerring Court. 

Before we enter on a specific refutation of the chafes brought 
against us, we would ask Dr. Blomfield, whether his mind was so 
tota&y free from prejudice and resentment against the Editors of the 
Thesaurus, as to permit him to enter on a review of that work with 
the candor of a Scholar, and the impartiality of a Critic. He was 
among e«f earliest Subscribers, and appeared friendly -to the-1lnde^•' 
tricing; but between the time of his subscription and that of the 
publication of the first number, some criticisms on his edition of 
iEschylus appeared in the Classical Journal,yrh\ch, as we haVe reason 
to suspect, offended him to such a degree, that he refused to take the 
first Number of the Thesaurus. Dr. B. however states his reason for 
deoliuing, to be, '' that, as the first number did not contain one word 
of tiie Thesaurus, but a farrago of Treatises by various Authors, he 
conceived this to be so complete a deviation from the Prospectus, 
as to dissolve the previous relative connexion of the Subscribers 
and the Proprietors." Now, if he will stake his veracity on the fact 
that his name was given under the idea of having only a bare reprint 
of the Thesaurus, and of leaving nothing to the discretion of the Edi- 
tors, as to what they might consider necessary to the fmblication of 
a useful Greek Lexicon, we will confess he had a right to withdraw 
his name ; but we humbly beg leave to suggest that this stc»p should 
have been taken earlier by him— at the moment when he discovered 
something '^ suspicious " (how suspicious we are at loss to know) in 
the Prospectus announcing unimproved and enlarged editton. By his 
Hciglect to warn us of his suspicions, we naturally considered him, 
like the rest of our Subscribers, so liberally disposed towards the 
pew arrangements as to countenance them by his silence . Had he 
|ibus acted, and explained to us that he wanted only a reprint of Ste- 
ftens' TfaMamrus, and would leave noAiing to the discretion of the 
editors, we should have replied more courteoitsly, though substan- 
tially to this effect, that we could not receive his name, and would 
not accept his money. It seems, however, that we are doomied to 
suffer fimn his su^ioions, if silent ; and his abuse, when tihat sflence 
is broken. Amongst IMs fhmgo ef Treatises, as he calls them, Dr. 
. B. objects i^ecifically to the insertion, in the first Nuftiber, of Kusler 

Dt.VtrbiB Medm. Will he deny the absolute necessity of Kuster^s 

.\irill h^deiqr the necessity of its ii^eriicm ? Will be^tate wbene it (Coid^ 
ha^e been placed m the body^ the Thesaurus 1 , Wbera sowett 
as ia the pffitioaindry matter; eapeeially as it wanld v^auij^ 
^with a view to justice to all parties, the accompanying remanea of 
W^olle, Le Clerc> and others? Does he not Im^^w that, fora jreasoo 
aiwijar to that, which actuated as> H.-Stephens thought itne^^fk 
savy to subjoin to his Thesaurus -works irreleynnt to a liexipi^rv 
yet latiniately coimectejdl with Lexicography ? Audi if he aUptw»d^. 
JkB any discretionary powecs, as by Ms tacit consent he seemed %^ 
60 y oan he. with, any consistency oomplain that we made use of di|^ 
ccetionso permitted t 

But whatever doubt may arise as to the real motives, which ia^ 
duoed Dr. B. to withdraw his name; yet respecting the effect, wh^h 
he intended to prodace, of bringing ruin on the publication, |^ 
calling on the .Subscribers^ if not in dkect teims, at least in languf^e 
sufllciently inteUigible, to follow his example by seceding. Utile 
doubt can remain. Still less is our scepticism respecting hi^ Ikof^ 
tility \» the Printer of the Thesaurus, when we perceive with what 
readiness he travels out of his way, to speak contemptuously of ai|^ 
other publication, in which the same Printer is deeply interested, 
and to defeat, if possible, the success of the Delphin and Yat 
BioRiw Ci^ASSiOB ; which he chose to designate ^' Mr. Valpy's peer 
Qwas schome of republishing the very worst edition of the Lati|i 
Classics." To this obs^ration we may reply in the language of Te- 
rence, Nihil est-^r-Quin male narrando possit depravarier. Tu idf qtiefi 
boni eU^ eji^cerpis ; dicis^ quod mali esi. Were we disposed to admiti 
what no scholar can, the justice of this sweeping censure of the .ori> 
ginal Delphin editions, still in the present case a similar sei^nop 
would be manifestly unjust, and totally inapplicable to Mr, Valpy^s 
Publication. Of this fact Dr. B. might have made himself mas* 
ter. For, had he condescended to examine any portion of the 
Delphin and Variorum Classics already published, (and this he was 
bound in justice and fair dealing to do, before he threw out his op* 
probrious sentiments,) he would have found that, in conformity with 
the Prospectus, the text was taken from the best editions and noi the 
Delphin ; that the most approved Variorum Notes were added ; that 
a list of Various Readings was inserted ; that the Bipontine No- 
titia liiteraria was continued to the present time, and that the Indiceji 
were corrected, and adapted, with considerable trouble and expense, 
to every edition of the Classics. Had he been guilty of no oth^r mis* 
representation, the spirit in which this observation was written, would 
have been sufficiently visible to put the readers of the Q. R. on their 
guard, as to the real feelings of the Critic But with the misrepresei^- 
tations of Dr. B. on other sd^jects the Editors of the Thesaurus haV^ 
little to do. Business, ampte enough, is on their hands, in answering 
.direct, xharges and indirect insinuatioas; of the Jatter of wUdl tv^o 
most conspicuous specimens' imperiously demand their attention* 

The first insinuation, ^bich is repeatedly thrown out, that we 
are influenced by mercenary motives of the. most dishonest kin^, 
we stop in the very thi»sb»ld to r^pel ut»p^%t»9% kf09&wm$ an4 
with a conscience that knows not pallescere cuipa^ 


A neply 10 fhe Quari^i^^^^ 

' ^irufiofadeed frankly confess thftt we ffid lb Ak ferl^ 
petd^iary remlineration for an nndertaking demanding fto'^littte 
indAey'and* time, '^th incessant ftttigne bodily and mdntid. ^^Blft 
we will as firmly deny that profit was the ' only ^fannlii^, VfctBi 
tWfed ^ lis to commence the work, or that it has b^eh thcT only 
cbiii^pfatioh, which has cheered ns & its progress. Had filthy Htdre 
%ekiiX}nr s6le and ui^divided object we mi^t have r^alisetf a KbHSen 
IWrvest ^jf' confining' ourselves stridfii to the very letter pf the J^m ^Jt^ro* 
gpecius; every detiation from ^hich has only l^dtis into* addftiotiiftl 
^expente by the accumulation of those very materials, for Ae' Wpcr- 
^bnndance of which we have triet indeed wiA the reprolbatldn of 
Dr. B., but to which, if the future conduct' of fh'e RcirtWvter be 
Similar to his past conduct as an £ditor. Tie will o#e the saihe t^bcit 
obligations, ^s he is already kiiown to owe to his le^tned 'prefletees- 
'sprs; but for which dbligationls we ekpecit, like them/fobferepcfcidln 
abuse ; from the efffects of which censure we hope W6 may shelter 
ourselves, in the increased attachment of old, and in the ac^sitioh 
of new, friends. ' ^ ' ■" - 

'Th6 second insinuation/respecting H^fmscrWn^, Vb/iiotJfiT, un- 

BOUGHT PAisEGYRic, we publicly proclaim totally unfotmdi^dl 

' AlfliOtrgh the various publications of Dr. B. prove litrt^ IfWe l^ind 

are his feelings towards Hermann, and we might be disposed, in leotfse- 

quence^ to suspect that this remark was advisedly made' by 'D^. B., 

yet, for the honor of human nature, we vrould fain bo^rtf Vbitt this 

^insinuation has unwittini^y slipped from his pen. The chfiirarter 

'which Uermannbears in 9ie literary world fortinimpestclmble ttOn^r 

and integrity, might have shielded him, even in the opinioiiof *a foe, 

iirom the unworthy suspicion of expressing sentnnients, foteigfi'tb his 

'heart, from the bias of mercenary motives.' 

/l*he Be vie\y; may be distributed in(p sections— . , !\.. . ' 
, jTte first gives fi synopsis of Greek Jjiexicognaphy. in J^nerat 
.its origin and progriess, and presents an account of the "various 
Lexica as well extant in MS, or in print, as extinct and only kpown 
'by-name.. — In. the second, notice is .takjen of the printed l4exica 
^alone,, in which, uplike the preceding^ Greek words are explainedby 
synonymous Lati«i, and not Greek.~In tie third, ,^e aire taught the 
j)lan and defects of H. gtej^hensVpwn publication as arisiqgtrom the 
^unphilos.opbical arrangement of matter, and the omission of many 
'word^. — In the fourth jaur republication is more parficiilarly cen- 
sured for a similar want of arrangement, and the contrary vice of a 
.superabundance of .mattei^—Aud to the,^t1th:may be assigned 
mfscellaneou/i remarks oq subjects connected ox not with the 
\[l)esaurus^ copveyed in language well suited to the frivolity of 
common eveuts^ .though not ve^ consistent; with the civilised |eel- 
ings of literary pursuits. 



f m *■ 

. . * It s^'i^l ba re9oUectetJ by tlie readers of the Classical Journal^ that f^ome of tfae remarks 
ofDr.B. bad b«en already made by Hermann, and that to $iich otijectjons, as s^emc^d 
to carry weight, we had given the best answer hf 'adopting his sttgorcstians of iiu- 
provament; and to the others of leit coiMequevce we havel-eason to Mieve that otir 
reply was perfectly satisfactory. 

^ne«pwtp«ir tilie firM fi^rjl^a of the Review, it3 clM^rw^r.fcM-J)!©ea 
9^. Jbrmy und facetiQusly designated by a SiLbscriW«,in a Letter 
recently . j)ul>%hed in. the V^fisncat Journals No. 41^ tlw|t. we sha$ 
bc^^leai?;^ tf^make.^e foUowiQg ejLtracts &om iJt : , .* , 

*' Tpw fiisj pivrt c^ the review is taken up with a somewW 
meagi:c^:iUt4ig||dsted> and uninteresting account of the i^reek L^xi- 
Qoast-^and QlpiS$itrie5» for which the Reviewer is almost ^^tirel^ 
indebted tp^ ih^ piiserfaiiq Critic a subjoined by Haussacii^ to ^'l^B 
editii^n^ Of JEj^arpo^ation,, wb^^ any person ^y easily trace tjie 
esLtept of . h^ obligations,— and to the Preface of Buhnken Xq , the 
5e<;ai|4 vpluinet of ^ilberti's^Hesychiusl A prolix enumeratiQii of 
Tecci^.it^o>P|L^^ Q^y M^ the fashionable readers of the Quar- 
terly J^evi^V ;;but scholars are ioo well acquainted with the. imple- 
ments aiidj^^aids, with which, the erudition and industry of former 
ag^^ has^e^uppHed the shallowness of their successors, to coh^oundr 
tbe j^re^epsipipi to. learning with its possession, or tomistal^e .iKe 
poipp ^^ P^de qf citation for the familiar knowledge of the nature, 
characters, ana works of those illustrious men, whose names 4gure 
on the^^iEgs ct^ the lite^xuy quack, like the hieroglyphical chisgra^ers 
on a Qonguror^s robe^/ 

*\ Th^ Qritic i»e;&t; dji^i)lays the faults of, Steph. Thes. in its origU 
naJ, -ai^ \ .the^eno oive is disposed to question. But, as it wajs the 
proC^ss^.d iiMtentipn of. the Editocs to republish the work of Stephens, 
aad if»,fpake it the basi& of their own^.npt to compose a jxpw c^, 
the iql^^es, nuchas they are, mu^t lest-i^lth Henri Etie^na; and be 
fortunately is, far removed above the., censures of the (ju^te^iiy 

Reviewef^/*' .->*;.- • . ♦• ••.-./•'. '- - ,' 

. T^eJs^ ^Atinients so completely coincide witluour own, ^nd the 
language so perfectly anticipates all that, we, had to ofier/oii^ the 
third section, that we shall dismiss that subject withoiit a single 
remark from, our own gen, and shall only toucn oh the secdnd'^ec- 
tion jqi^ tp eamir^ss our thanks for the wondrous Siscc-^ry respecting 
the peculiar -advantages of the Comment (irii Graci of ^iclgcus;^ an^ 
to congratulate. our &ibscribers (imorant as they must have been op, 
aU subjects connected widi Greek, Lexicography, till informed by 
the pro/b«W and ori^rner/ leaTO the intelligence ihat 

since H^. Stephens made sa copioiis a use of that ^ery- Valuable '^ctrk' 
as to insert nekrly the whole of it into his Lexicon, they will in c<S^f se 
be able to sack the marrow and pick the bones of dld'Biidaeuia in 
our jkesent and theif ftiture Treasury, as Dr. B. wittily expjresses 
himse'ft'^' ^•' _ ., ■ '. '\ ''^' ' [■,''^'''' *" 

We:*nav^ cdled the learning of Dr. B. original yheia^ Uhwillihgto 
offeqdffie.vsmity of um^ To others better £i6quai)ited 

witi&i the i^hSresale plagiarisms of Dr. B., it may be amUsfetg fe jire- 
sent the iyftbVliVspcilnen of this Critic'k propriisitieS: ^ ^^ " ^ 

■ ' ' I ' l . I ■ " tft ,- 

^ The whole aTticTe, written iolhe spirit oTjiislice, >»ittrthc emditiuii of a scholar, 
thciclegance of ^ man tjjf t^sJt^^.iMftd tti^ artjauir^of agcntleman. was for\*jirded to the 
Editor within |hjrf;fs, (jam ^,e'r t]j.e^pearapfe of the Quarterly Review, from a.|Ui^e 
where no access .coil^..H|jii4;|g>^ ■ I' ;. .,,/ .; ./; ' ., [\ 

I f >'. '^f 

,* . .~. 

* At tW foot pT p. dU; lie finishes iJie I^t section of ai€f«tfili#fc^ 
pt)Si^iVing in a small note that a mof^e detailed account 6f the %M9tiM 
vocabularies is given by Bfaussdcus in hisleam&d Dissertatio Ci^i^* 
For what purpose, except to hiile his own pls^attem, has hs^' neg- 
lected to state, where this Dissertatio Critica is to be found ? He will 
reply, perhaps, that evety scholar knows the contente rf M ait»ac^*^ 
edition of Harpocration; and that it was needless to giv0 ^€ tifle at 
Jength. What other scholars may know of the contents' ' of tfttet dis- 
sertation, we presume not to state: but we can state theft Dr. !B. htfs 
read very attentively a work, from which the whole of the ttiateffiahs 
for his learned first section have been compiled. One passage, liowever, 
of ifal'at dissertation, he has, it seems, strangely neglected ; atid'ftv Ms 
instruction we will here* extract it, written as it seemil to be tfith an 
ipye ho less to the past than to the future-~plagiarlst and rcyte#er- 

Recentiorumjidem et labores laudare non omntno damno—tM qltadam 
incognita et inaudila e sinu veiustatis etuerint, dummodo caute semper an- 
iorum — nomina non reticeantur ; nam quid insulsius et inanius eH Telle 
aliena taude gloriari et vicini veste ornarif 

Now had Dr. B. borne this i'emaik in mind, he wouM d^nbtless 
have thus remodelled his note p. 305. ' 

* *^ Ruhnken, in Praef. Hesych, p. ix. says, Comici Lexiei nullus 
editorum scriptorum, quod sciam^ mentionem facit.—'Tt is, however, 

* quoted by Hesychius in the Epistle to Eulogius. But ttiis, as behtg 
. suspected by Valckenaer, Ruhnken probably thought not decisive 
. authority, and all mention of it might have been advisedljr otnitted. 
The Lexicon is nevertheless quoted by name in the Scholia on 
" Apollon. Rhod. iv. 973. and 1614. as Ruhnken*s ,own master, Hem- 
sterhuis, has remarked, on Aristoph. Plut. p. 98. ' A work not very dif- 
ferent of Palamedes is cited by theEtymol. St. *ApijJk$m fiiKo$,f. 
, 145, 4^: as observed by Maussac in Dissertat. Crit p. 366. who there 
gives a detailed account of this and similar Vocabidaries." 

Such might Kave been the form of a single note, Equally creditable 
to his industry as the two he has thought proper tb writel But it 
seems Br. B. has chosen to adopt the practice of modern plagiarists, 
unawed by the chastisement to which they have so jtt^tly exposed 

Before we dismiss the subject of the first Section, we will beg 
leave to make two remarks for the benefit of our readers, and two 
requests for our own instruction. 

The Reviewer asserts that Schow has made maoay mi^^takes in 
deciphering the compendia of the only MS. in which HelSychius' 
valuable Lexicon is preserved. Does he know'this fact from hi^ own 
. collation of this MS. with Schow's edition, or did he, as we suspect, 
take the account without acknowledgement from Bast; whose note, 
in Schaefer's edition of Gregorius de Dialectis^ p. 211r is liot ivritten 
with the accustomed lib^^ty of its author? If however our 

^ The reader's curiosity majrhe grnbtfied by ^rning t<^ the articlefi under the head 
4>f Xiteiai^ Ooincideilcef» in thei Cla^ical^, jQucnal, Nos. 33>nd 34. 

MiyM#iM»..9» t0 tii0 . spofc^j, . ficom ^(heiice J>r, B* derived Mb 
mwM of abaaing poor Schow, be Ol-founded^ and be has ip^ 
deed a se^oUation of that precious MS. we conjure him by the love 
bebeafStQthegopd cause of Greek Literature, to impart the n-uit of hi^, 
labors to tbe other lovers of Greek; and we can assure him, thai;' 
tfaou^ it possess not one original remark of Dn B.,' or though il 
grqtia Uiider the w^igbt. of his borrowed learning, we will receive jthp 
boon with heartfelt gratitude, and devote many a good hour to its per 
rasal with d^ep delight. We suspect, however, for intercourse witfr 
some JKeviewers and Editors has made us sadly suspicious, that he 
has la this, as in the following piece of information, depended Ie£^ 
on his own observation than on that of others ; where, in speaking of 
Suida^, be says that *^ that Lexicon contains many fragments of th^ 
lost treatise of iJBlian on Providence." This idea, we believe, was first 
started by Stanley on ^schylus, and subsequently by Valckenaer^ 
Smely Dr. B., while displaying his own intimate acquaintance with 
tfae lost works of one author, might not have blushed for his ac-* 
quaintance with the preserved writings of other dead. But, perhaps, 
he little (feouj^ht the dead could tell tales. 

The two requests we have to make, are, 1. respecting the tlctpsx^oKoi 
avo roil SovtSot^ their value, and the place where tbey are to be found; 
since, if valuable, we would endeavour to gain access to them, and, 
fox the benefit <^ our subscribers, incorporate such portions as might 
be useful : and, 2. whetber tne exertions of modern scholars have been 
successful or not in discovering the present lurking place, if it indeed 
es;ist, of the MS. Lexicon of Pausanias, from which Eustathius, as 
Pr..B. truly states, makes such extracts as enable us to have some idea 
of its value, and to authorise an incalculable regret for it, if lost* 
And, by way of balding out some inducement to Dr. B., we will en- 
deavour to exalt his reputation by explaining an expression of his^ 
which may not generally be understood. The Reviewer's words aro 
** Tbere were Homeric Lexicons at an early age. One certainly ex- 
isted miich anterior to that of ApoUonius, which we possess, in 
which even the youth of republican Athens had been accustomed 
to search for the elucidations of the great poet.'" This enigmatical 
sentence will be understood by a reference to Galen, quoted by 
Branck qu Aristoph. ^«iraAcI^, Fragm. 2. 

Tbe course of our defence has brought us to the examination of the 
fourth chapter in this long-winded diatribe. And as the charges are 
here showered thick, fast, and heavy, we shall be excused if we take 
a little breathing time to bide the pelting of the pitiless storm. 

Although to give an intelligible form to the objections ''buddled to- 
gether, a perfect chaos and hodge-podge of Criticism,"' is almost a 
hopeless attempt;. yet the accusations may perhaps be all classed 
under four heads : 1. That the quantity of new matter is useless. 2. 
That the arrangeinent of it is bad, 3. That the length of time, whicb 
must elapse before the work can be terminated, is beyond the period 
KisLip^d in ih fi Prospectus. And. 4. That the work will be larger 
and more expensive than the Subscribers expected? 

As it inui^ ever delight an accuser habere ream confitentem, we will 
not deny that the two last chaises Me weU-fotlnded. But we trust 

ifts nwpectiiif tbe ilurbMOTidile. mothres <tf imri specolatimii -Once 
%iaT^ we alfaitded to tMs' ohiurfjb^ »id we feel we taoBt iMl iOmch on 
it once ai;ain, connected as it is with theexistetice of what we priie 
dearer far than i^rdid luere, a spirtlesH vepiitation. 

Respecting oor* pecaniary proits. Dr. B. is |ileased te 4ilale, so 
fiiU is .fai^ mind on tkis interestinf subject^ ^' tiiutt oiir wo|k ^m^s sold 
b^oi]e it was printed/' 

This remark might have been hazarded with some diow 4if trath; 
bad we stipulated for the SnbscYiptioB-money inaclvtacei* But this 
was a step the Reviewer knows we did not take» relying asi we did on 
fliegQod faith of our Subscribers to receive and pay for the Niimbers 
when delivered. Had we believed that many conld be found, with feel- 
ings $)inilar to those ef Dr. B .5 ready enough to give the name^ and thfos 
bcdd out delusive prospects of success, yet refusing to felfil their 
engagements, and thas plunge us into certain ruin, we should either 
have abandoned our design, or so have modified it, as <to secure 
ourselves against the duplicity of a treacheroos, or tbe vaeiHatiiig 
ccpduct of an uncertain, friend. But wo had a higher opiaion of the 
18>eraltty of those who were likely to become our Subscribers, than 
to/a.dopt a plaa which irould express our suspicion of the existence 
of other than honorable meUb For our disinteeestedness: we- appeal 
totibiis Number, in which we have redeiemed the pledge, wfaicb we 
made in the last, of giving 200, instead of 170, pages* And whai 
vmst^te, that with a- view to expedite the completion of the work, 
two able Scholars have been engaged as assistant Editors, w^give an 
additional ptoof of our disregard of the rem, si pouis red^ ;■ ^ nouj 
quocunqtte modo rem* 

It is not for us to display^ oar own deeds; but on <flie ^ score of 
disregard of self inihe pecuniary arrangements conneoted with the 
Thesaurus, we could ^appeal to many satislactory proofs, did we not 
feel ourselves restrained by the sacredness of private intercourse 
from bringing them forward. We may hcMvever refer to the language 
of a Subscriber, who has thought it but due to justice to state that 
the liberality, with which the contributions of foreign SchoIafS have 
been repaid-, has been duly appreciated^ 

AlHiough we ate confident that, had the repuUioation been confined 
to'tlie narrow . limits of the first suggestion, we might have easily 
fulfilled oiir original'tatentiony as well in the length of time as ^piantity 
of Numbers stipulated, still we had no doubt tbatati tiiose, who 
patnoiiised th^ undertaking, would equally support it on4tst>/z7»rot)^ 
an# consequently etilarged plan. Nor were our ideas altogether an* 
founded, as it would seem, since even Or. B. though not a subsmber 
hinreeift Teutures-^o -answer for the^Sabscribers, that ' they woul d 
haye preferred waiting ?i longer time and paying a larger sum for an 
imp^roved work than receiving their present Nunibers at a less price 
aud with a hurried publication. Credat Judmus ! Cor this very indivi* 
dukrwho here is so patient of delays cmd so regardless' of cash, has 
complained in another part of this identieal Review of*our slowness 
of^ publication, arid feK Iso indifferent to the pianper In^'which the 
^vofk might be edited^ ihat he withdrew hi& name on tiie appearance 
tfaevery first Number of the Jbexieon. ^ •: . 

ientlttielitsi'it taay^seetif a Wftsl6 <tf ttme to MtiV'oa albnx»driNM(ttttf0Br 
if the 0A^r tJtOiTgeB brought for^raffd. 'Blrt< wo hazier the foe in si^; 
Mr is itri^M 4o lay 1^ our arms. > i .. . ^,".1 

That the work will bo mote e^]^sivte Hum wo caicirlated is tfinff 
fet« afr we haute elsewhere ; stttM^ the hw^s ^ whieh wilt oust to ^ 
Sttbs^mlierS) in its iia|yrovedstato/ Htd&inoreithati half «f what it cUft* 
in its original form, cannot be considered, as Dr;'B. would wish itttc 
l>e convened, in tbe light of thetnost pii^kpookotittg< scheme, ^vAfchr 
aver -wM engtnderednn the braiit of a aealous piiifter ; and that wo iti 
not ^wetyi-wtimg^itk oar ideas on this point, may be inferred from Hm 
fact that- We have obtained new Sabscribers since the p«M»e8(lioii iof' 
this dopreeiating Review. '^ ^* -*-- 

^WMi respeot tothe probable length of time andqnantit]^ of Nuw^ 
hers re^isite for the completion of the work, a calcnlatlon bai' 
been mi^ andtpuUished separately, by which it will appear h«ywiil& 
founded are the fears of Dr. B. so ' kindly expressed refifwoting tivr' 
sfacnMess of •oar own Ims and those of our finbscribers,' fow ef 
whom, although not of an antedilu vian' race of patrons', printers^ isad 
proprietors^ can, in the oommoncounso of events, bo expected to h^- 
tom from the delights of reading the caustic effiisixms of Dr. B,. witte ' 
out -seeing the ccOKAosion of oar undertaking. . ' c .' 

£noogh peihaps has beat' said on the grealer Imgth of time and- 
w^righti^iexp^se, to which the arrangements on the hnproved pliaii:. 
hav^ subjected all parties; Something, however, remains istiU iwimr^ 
said oathis soti^ect?; ^hich wiHbepiodncedwbenwe cometodisoiuni 
the close of the last section.: 1 At present .we the 1st and<2di.? 
With respect to the first accusation against the useless quantity 0^ 
matter, DnB.ibnads bis< repnsbstion of onreibcrescenoes on celir*> 
tsdn doBona and n»ti(His «f his' own resecting the conshmction ol^ ' 
liexieon, which, however applicable they may be to a Manual^ .mi' 
totaUy iaeompailiblo with tisepianrofaTbes > i 1 . 

Dr. Bidefiaes* a l^hesenifas^ a bock whete the 'stadieait looks nodt 
for ifiss^rtatimiiiat authority. Now, if this be a jnst definition o£a 
Tfae8aiBvs,'how would he, we ask^ define la Manual as distinguished, 
from the greater Lexicon? Surely, the 'difeienco does not coasibI . 
in the lari^ bulk and greater number of congregated wovds ; but hi 
the mxare full ennaieration of authorities^ in the oiabonkt^ oxpianatiim^ 
of doubtfiil meaiiings, in the discussion of ooutrovert^d^ and> if neied 
. be, in ^ emendations of corrupted, passages. 

Now, these are the causes of those very excrescences of which be ;. 
complains, and yet without these a Thesauroa would not answer to . 
its*titie. .-';'' v '^ 

' Bill, on the. subject of incui)HistefK;e, it were hard oa Dr. B. were be coQ\pelled ii^, . 
tccouiit fur sentiments expressed at an interval of eighteen months, a period cltirin||[^ 
which a friaft may have time* to change his very self, mndh morcnis optmottf: 
Else we wuold re^i^nch, to return to the Mihject frem Mitch we («i>e<tigrea$e^ l>r^ B. * 
fur his reeumeaei^iaUo^ tQ wait tilt all buokp were lioiin^h^'reaid* a,nd eiumctedf aodfulji; - 
arraogffiientH made- for ^ubiisliing our wmrk. ija such a wny that^ ^hep oQcecsHllr. . 
menced, it migitt appear as re^iilariy as a new>paper ; and ^t ^be same tioie taMUting. _ 
us for the ihseaious plan devised of making our work ^ unce penodical 1^ pervor 
nial, and Ibis Jtoo wbefi he reminds us tbat^ as we are not aotediiuvi^ns, ws^gmaiif 
to have permitted three years to elapse between the peripdof our fit^itftuoAier and the 

834 ArtUpl!f> jfo tif ,Qimi»tktil^^ 

WelMfV^ IriUk^itto mm^tmmH. ^0xmimtmA»9i*B., |M «tf «ure 
BQt 8«n» ^M» ace so. .fettaoate . aei to toiowtwliat meimBg.te jhpi be 
attaobod to the word aii(hmrity. . ,DQea lia 'inteod by it Ao^Mwre ^Ub* 
tum, the o^i^ ipx, of a Lacohic Lexioogiapher 1 Or doi^ lio mewi 
ivttioiii eited't If : the > former, we wiU remind him .of' B« Payrie 
Mtii^f s obseiYatioOy theX the. dictaia of a LeisicQgmgkm iaioittho- 
lit^f with a duoce ; and, therefofe ia inadmissible by iis> 'wbad^mwet 
M may be to the Reviewer. Aud if he means authors cited, it must 
luqipen in the coatrorerted passages of anthora quitted, titatoa £ur 
fioni not looking for a dissertation in the Thesavns, a dtsaearlal;ion 
isith^ very thing which that s(^li»r theie eacpeoto ta find, who is myt 
^prepared jKrttre in verba magistri. 

If these notions be correct, those of Dr. B. eaanot be so, when he 
slatdsthat in no iostanoe should any critical or philological disoasaion 
bo introduced. For a discussion, as we haye shown, is absolutely 
necessary in>sonie points to produce conviction in tiie feader'SrjiBind, 
a cposoiranation which a view of the whole arpimonta akne can 
attain; at least we speak for ourselvei»« • Some wrilers andiettders 
Of B«views ibimk to arrive at tmth^by garbled extracts. 

We are next talu^t that a nrference to critical works is neoessary 
only in partioalar cases. 

Has ttien, we ask, any scholar yet defined, or can«Jie defliEie, in 
what leases and to what extent such refermces aro. neeossury ? Of is 
this discovery to be left to tlio nicely discerning and psectsion loving 
■und of Ih. B. T Pertiaffts, however, he wishes us to refer only to 
iMioks pablifihed by hknself. Botwill.he not grant us the ttberty he 
aa foHy .takes, of esotracting the works of his predecessoi^ 9 

TOU we are hotter informed on this paint;, we shall continao to 
aiake such r^erences, as will secnse us firom the. charge of plagia- 
mm,' and such extracts mdy as may be de^mad^neoessacy^ irom 
Imoks that are not, and cannot ^he, wkhin the reach of oven det^ 
mined collectors. We alliide particulady to the namefORUi criticfd 
fsanqfddete with wUdh the press in Gesmany teems, bat of which, 
till our recent connexion with continental scholars,, me scarcely 
knew the names, mudi less the contents ; and, thoagfa many of them 
were not intended to live beyond the period of on ephemeral {^roduc- 
tion, yetfimn others we have derured informsutkm very fi^ to find a 
place :in the Thesanras ; bat to whidi, bmig not easily attainai^le, if 
reference alone were made, aoconling to the wishes of Dr. B.^ the re- 
ference would be vain, except to sdiolars of the stamp of Dr« B., 
.whc»se love of plagiarism might induce them to hunt for the work 
. Deferred to, in the hope of meeting with information in a {dace to 
which few had access. He has therefore ample reason for saying 
with Tespiect to himsdf alone, *^ that he does not want a eollect ton 
of treatises on words, however useful the reference to them may be/' 

' ^ It is with this view of avoiding even the suspicion of pl^iansm,'thftt ^vehfffe been 
)ed to dHail, ''page lifter paee^x^scnsston and diatribe/"^ that neither the dead nor the 
Ukring^ inigl)t have to complain of our unwillingnese to give honor tO'whom iiooor 
iadpe. But this is a feeling, of which, as Dr. B. does not enter into it himself, he can 
not suppoftj^ the existence^ ijl the breast of another. Tliis fdea idone can accoimt for 
bU wonder at our superaWndanl honesty. ' -• ^ 

ff4h9J$i^tem\r£^rakTk€m^ 935 

Put WMiii iihiigiWi' M Pf. -B. U^aumiiitAmmmmA iqoiMM^/ he 
is sliil ^ieai so in lifci pwlnlfttM ; siaoe -aAthat he denftnids is^ .n, 
clear sUtteineat of the weaaimg, Aervmlknkt and tBOeetHm of moidB 
s ttpp ofted by snfficieai anttetiiles. Witboat stopping to aatmadiMft 
on tte strai^eiiesa of a vequeBt, the atteument of mrUch be ban dsna 
all a las power to prevent^ we ask what is meaat by sofficieBt ajillia^ 
rities. Wbetfa^ he allude to the age of the autiMnrs, the (M^mptor 
corfedt slate of their texts, or to the anmber of passages qiidted, iw 
are anaUe to decMe : since we perceive that in one place he objods 
to thiiM alalhoiities broagfat from the cdd Hesiod, Ite modern 'Bf- 
phiodovtis, and the interpolated Homerides : in aaolheF we are eeilh 
sored for multiplying anthoiities for a oomiiHA word ; and in tbid 
tiwd^weate reproai^ied finr leaving a word wittmnt any antfaority at 
flU, ajMipiy h aCTinte neither oar own resean^es, noar those of 'Onr 
fellow^li^orers, have been able to offer (me. 

Bot the last pafagraph, which winds up the Wf9mmpeiv7m4 of <he 
aocnsadoay we will first transcribe, and then tooch on snch foiwit^ 
as have not been already exposed. 

^' A Thesanras is a bo^« where the student looks not foft dissertOf* 
ticmbatf or aniiiority« We wish Ihat Ae present editors had kept 
this consideration in view : as it is, we regcet. to 8ay,-^they b994 
detailed pi^ after page of discnsrion smd diatribe, till poor 8te^ 
phens and Ins Thesaurus are often lost sight of in the fray. Bat wo 
do not want a collection of ti^atises onr words, howev^ usefinlvO 
reference to them may be. Alt that we desire is, a clear statemeat 
of the meaning, derivation and inflexion of wor^ supported by di& 
ferent authorities. It is worse than useless to collect, or eveniq 
specify- all the passages where a word is used, unless it be of rare 
occiHnrence, or have some peculiarity, which lendccs itmore fJiaa 
coiamonly remaxkaUe : and it is st31 mooe objectionable, to throw 
together in a dictionary aU that has beoi saia upon it by grainmii^ 
nans and critics ; yet tins is going on to an alarming^ extent (alanna 
ing to Ae eyes and the pockets of the subscribeis) in the naw editin 
of the fThesamrus." 

To this we reply, 

1. We know not what is meant by the ex^pessicm '' to speoily all 
Ae pas^iges^ wh^e a word is used : '' unless Dr. B. insinuates that 
we have done ¥rhat we have not done, and what no man in his sen* 
ses would attempt to do, because in. itself impracticable. 2. We 
know noti what is meant by the exception in favor of rare words. 
If the word be of rare occurrence, and not liable to suspicion^ the 
very cireamstance of its rarity precludes the poasibility of saying; 
much about it. Oar discussions of the longest kind do^ as.thay 
must^ take i^ce respecting words not uncommon, though ased in 
an crocommon way, and directly or indirectly presenting various con- 
tradictory-features, such as the luckless word afyoAjxat, jwhoae pecu* 
fiarities where such as to compel us to write a much longer article 
than-we believed any one word of the Greek language could have pro- 
duced. It seems, however, that in taking advantage of the Re*. 
viewer's own exception we have still incurred his disa]r|[i:ipobation* 
How we are to reconcile this apparent inconsistence is a nratter of oo 

W6 AR^ifyhtkc.QbuKrUt^iM^ 

1110 eitceirtiotf , tkovgh his ty/maA of eandor fvet^M higk fmm iNN^y- 
jaf the «ocM|rtifHi in omt finriif. fli ReapMtkir AiO iiicmmk^^Oiig^ivii% 
togMm all that has beenrisaid/by gywniii<giaiW'iind eiHi€9f'^95i«^ 
«lwenp«iitetbehas strangriy alitafeed lii»: opiniaov in f^Uah:i«nr did 
4lmi; aadntill do kenHbf coincide, oH^tke "uti^ytmi^atrnm^^ ^an, 
Ml feast with the Chfeek .Lexiica, fiiggesled ibgF^tSattte^^ 
Md'pnaised by tke Reriewer clscwher^/^ \ . :*- s.'s o^a V - 
i HariBg tiros diaensaed the definitiofiaj; asipois; and j^ttsdnrtea of 
9tt* B., we pTOoaed to the grand propo^itioaa :foiaMi%de4<ai:tl|eaa,:>Aa^ 
4^ The new matter is liseleas. 2. . That oar \agi9LtgfsnfSK^ i^^tmi* 9. 
Vhat: we h«?c totally failed in pr0daci|ig^ a ^i^.cM^ of ^tapb^aa. 
Kkudy 4. That the only advimtage: to acome^ fDam- it, is -a^t the 
IMtorsandPfioprietors will derive from a puUicatimi iit^ OM0Tpcrio<- 
dical and perennial. : li •-. 

r Of' these fymr propositions the last may be anawesed ; isi» r« few 
aimds. If by advantage Dr.rB. means to. say^ that the JUterafy 
Talne of the Thesauras is none, we may appeal to ^arioaa Scholars 
wlio have lor difeient purposes made reference to tha. . nenK^matter ; 
%ttt If he intends peconiaffy piofit^' we tell him that our l^rofitei^oidd 
ba considerably increased by a rajrid and consaqneotly CMel^as 
{Kfblicaetion, from which we are lestarained by the honoj^abla motave 
0f giiing.onr Subscribers a work worthy of their liberaiyty^ atd not 
diaereditafole to our own exertions. On Prop. 3.^ tiiat omrra^addioa- 
tion does not deserve the name of a reprint^ we shalL 
kalieve our work entitled to that name, asitcoalaias ^U' that Ste- 
phens' Thesaurus does, except its typographioall enrovsrite: aatir 
qiliited orthography,, and such 'sentences as would, :ftfj9apaated, 
Maduce tautology . On Prop. 2., that our arrangement ,is .llad,' as 
kffives' the additional trouble of consnlting Indieea, in oonseqtianee 
4rf' not' knowing ^lere to find the information ^rciioared, sra. itMiId 
ask, in cases wiieie the student wishes ito know, nueivr > tto»i tk€( bare 
iKtcttpietation of a Word, (and what student is, oenleiited}i«ith:jthal 
iaione ?) is not his labor considerable abridged by fiQdii||^iMl..w0 have 
elsewhere stated, all the information, direct or indireot, at onar igbaV, 
and'Widiont being compiled to examine the Index oftiMRr tbaJETimdal 
lAatly, on Prop. 1. that the new maitter is ua^eac^ urocwtaiaid wiidi 
Dr. B; could here speak intelligibly ?. .Does he intend b]ii ' ns^aa,! 
that which cannot^ or will not, .be used 1 , ory if <ns^, b^ prndnetita 
ef no inlbrmation ? If «the last fae.wtend^, we defy him to* piodoM^ 
a'^iNngle^passage, which wiUuot afford inforwaticm ^to Cbojae wba lue 
eMQfpolkd to consult a Lexicon. If he asserts that it will not bo 

* This is tbe tfiird trme that we have been tomyelled tbnieet Dr, Bvon bi& itei> 
inuttioa^l«8pectin|Brth<e \*ttx6t^ which he suppoBet'we are Uk«lx U> t^eri*is ff#J^ qpt^rspe- 
^niialtimi* As l^p iffi\i9a iv$er0^d in x\^^ 8ubject» w^ will luake hixn.a rai|-;«#Br. U 
he is willing to reiipburse iis for the capital laid out 6a tlie Thesaurus^ since' the plan 
was first agitated, and also to pa^' simple interest on that sum from that periorl ppto the 
present, we will hand over to hint all oar rtgHt rh the spccuTdtieni ttll pmfit %iia(feon 
It; fog^li^r \»ith airbdoksmtd iiiateriaii»cMlc<:lied:for tliieMirposfrr-a^ will add 
ainoti fenictit vMi tk>ttnQfMtiire€rUio.n»viiitfrfofekivjtl^^i|dFe^ bli^ 

<— ^ut.thftt he tna^ have and hold the beuents of our envied Treasure, ioihimstV, his 
heirs and assiirns for ever. " ' /_ 

ttsed, ^0iicjAf, Mfufbm flOMMion i«iui6t W jnit»gtoilid» •irtfcga.llii 
tMMAtf/^^Mi mlAth ^uttMtQT 1fl;fwtnmfted> oaanot rbe defaii. 
And tf h^weMmi that thei ntw matter eaaaotbe iwed, ha ak^aM fm- 
dma parages ooamctM ^ilii'theiia<ar matter^ iviiich ata peifiMtti)F 
'unixitrillfibla. ^ Tbiis h6 has not ddtae, aad^ we knaw, liaioaiuiot da(A 

Bnt^ diMrissiAif subjects of this triflbig^ kiBd> wlrioh we aia laiab- 
tantly cdrnpelled to notice, we retnrh to those of a gravar cast. 
And we already fancy the Reviewer siaging loirkmnjAel ** Tboagk 
the ai^gtttneats and assertions have been met aad> overtnmed^f >jret 
fEicts jMtlve the justice of the censines; smta^ if the fldilors-wtit^ 
formoAj rights and ^ Reviewer wrong/ the first in snppoiAing^ mxA 
tke laat In eombatbig the extended plan, they cannot Iteie be eqna21|^ 
right) and their opponent equally wrong, when they exprpsa tli^ 
delemiiiation to adopt a more confined plan/' We do not deii(f 
this change in onr arrangements ; but we do deny that it has beeft 
infloeneed by any chaiige in our seiitimraits respecting die manaei; 
in which the woric oaght to be printed: bnt because we have 8aa% 
that, if smtte aro "billing to go as fat' as we m%ht think necaasfatir 
for the completion 'of thie work/ others are anxioas for a less perfimt 
tbongh quicker publication, with a reasonable hope of a conclttSMB# 
w^hhi a stated period and price. ^ h^ 

' It is to the misrepresentations on these two topics. (hat we hams 
callsfd the attention of tfie Subscribers ; and, though we hftvotabeadiy 
spoken fteelv on this subject, we will not dismiss it eveuinow vaoith 
ticed, as'it'torms the last section of his accusations.* it 

1st Dr. B. asserts we did possess unlimited resoarees in boafcn 
not in onr own libraries, but in the publia reposttcnries of literature^ 

This we deny. To obtain all the works necessary . for oar na^v 
not oidy no single repository, but all the ' repositories anited iii Ihi^ 
kingdom would not itoffice^ We speak more particularly of^ woibl 
published abroad within the last. thirty years, of which in soma 
cases, biyAe exertions of our cehtmental friends, we have, after a 
great length of time, been able to obtain peduips the onfy copy, in 
tills country; and in others research has long proved fndtlesak 
With respect to printed books of' an older date, and espedaUy. eiiti^ 
cal wocki^ those in their very naturo most usefid ta onr oadevtidunA 
and; as l^Eist interesting \o the general collecdMrn most diffienlt to Ji^ 
found in l>ooksellers'' catalogues, bow deficient even the^Bntjcdi 
Museum was, till the recent purchase of ibe Buniey library^ other 
firieiids than he,' who has advocated our. cause so aMf oa.this paii% 
can testify. Indeed, en the subject o£ books generallyf we.oansaji^ 
that unless kind frirads had fevered us with the i use of theii ooSeisr 
tionsT'-ther^-very expense of^ purchasing what ^wa3 Jndispensabb. 
would have overwhelmed the work, though double in price. 

2nd. Dr. B. ** suspects '* that the Subscribers whose names arf 
withdrawn, are, in fact, those who are represented as the deoeaaed 

We have put ibis suspicion down as unfounded, becanse even 4 
suspicion assumes, a wry suspicious character, . when he, who 8a»; 
pects, po^sses, bat chuses to. neglect, the means -of aMMNnima*' 


^ Se« Cla9»ieal Jeurnal, No. 4t. 

SS8 A'Bqffy^io tk^ aiKir««% itkvit^en 

meU^HuAi Bmk 9€. Jl>^e»^tiiww^tl|»^it ef gtbMAMin^ fat 
ni^t hsre MeD-ereii oMB^rt; Ibevmes of ]leMaiift iridir^vliS^Bi. he 
mtm MqQttMcWI, nAvidsals now dead, tat^Ao^ wlkeB l^m^, Wero 
l^ttbstriben;' ttis wilfbl negl^jmoe on a point t» Titel to kU repeta^ 
ttonand oQni, wfll do any tkifaig biit AmM bbn from tbo charge of 
g tt iiig a ieilao oolor to ow acts by hfas uafaanded sailptoioBs, 
'Ad: it is^not to bedonMed Duvt the fartiier the woik proeeedbr, tha 
gancfeer Will he tte aecmmtdMion of ittati^al^ 

Tb^ ohgoction, which this^ reBMnk is meant lo cgtiYey, haa been 
already met, when we stated, ^liiat will prove the reniark of I>r. B. 
faiooxiect, that words, onee dismissed, need not be re p d a te df--and 
liiat all the excrescences, for example, in the word Siya?ifM^ 9xe, m 
fact, ao many deereao»Mses in ottier articles. 

\ ISie experience of eviery scholar -tells him^ tiiat, as-awoilc pro* 
oeeds, his materials must dinunisdi; and the knowledge of every 
fStacian tells him that almost the whole of a Greek Jjexioon, com- 
onaed as Stephens' is, might be brought by means of the compounds 
iBlo a very few letters ; and diat the preportion, whicb many letters 
bear to A alone, is about 1 to 1006 ; 190 that, even were the Editors 
disposed to empty the contents of their accumulated contribjations 
on the latter letters of the alphabet, they could not find words 
enough td miens pegs to their dbtsertations. 

^ ' l%e fourth nrisrepresentation, founded in some measure^ like the 
first, on wilfiil ignorance, is, that he chuses not to observe tJmt, in 
giving so much extraneous matter, one object we had in view was to 
frove to our $ubaeribers that we had diligently amassed materials, 
and to our contributors that we had faitUully exhibited Uieir com- 
immrcations. The last we have been successful in satisfying, and we 
d6ubted not of being able to give equal satisfaction to the fonner. 
flow we have been intercepted in these honest endeavours it is un- 
aeeessary now to t epeat. 

As the whole review is written in a spirit, which proclaims itself 
wanting in every particle of candor, it seems useless to produce any 
insalated example, yet one shall be stated, and ah hoc duce <Mma. 

Dr. B. states timt the Beview was commenced vrhen only four 
Jinmbers had appeared ; atthouj^ he had seen, it appears, but only 
Men, two additional Numbers. We must therefore suppose his ob- 
aervafions apply only to those four numbers ; and yet, after having 
cakml£^ed the whole work to extend »to 240 or evcai 120, he asseils, 
. A«t the defects of these four aife such as io detract very materially 
.firom the value of the whole work. Does then 4 bear so great a pro- 
|K)ttiou to 120, as to warrant such an observation! And are we de- 
barred the power not indeed to remedy the past, but to correct the 
foture U&y so as not to overweigh the frightful account against 4? 
r ^ ^Tfaus then have we met the leading objections of Dr. B., alnd the 
ilMge given in the Classical Journal has, we trust, been satisfac- 
torily redeemed. 

' The feelings with which we commenced this defence hioiEe, by the 
eaiiiieasion of tl^m, i^een cleansed and purified. We wish Dr. B. 
may be able to say as much, and feel the same franqnilMtyof mind, 
when he shall have rescued himself from the.prescoit open .charge 
made against misrepresentations direct and insinuations indirect. 

Befiofe we conclude our rranarks, we will call his attention aiid that 

>lfice tiid mbwifejr or fibeialitgrof the-Aeirtewer in n imtj- ftn^iMhU 
pCM0t of Tiew.-^ After Dtadiog thmigktile etmribroaspaitsr^rftibe'Iln* 
sanniSy he js do sooner freed £rom Ustfaraldoin, flnoi hfe looies abott 
to findnvko haa had the temerity to write farorably of what be la 
pleased to oeiisiifo by the iMrholesale. We idhide moie palrtknfatilj 
to Ibe' aieiiiioa of Mr. Dibdin's comteench^on^ in an aniiimtiid 
aote^ coDceiyed and expressed with? his usaal^iiity ia his BibKogn^ 
phieal Dccamtroif,'^ towards the close of his review of the modem 
scho^drOfprmtiDg. < .. — 

^ Wiih respect to this reference, the reviewer has heen giiihy of two iimecnnicierl 
first, be conceives the work,iu which this eulogy is contained, to be the BiUhmama: set 
condly, in his extract, he chuses to garble the passage, making it almost down^ 
right nonsense. We contend, indeed, that no man has a right, in holding up an au- 
thor to be civilly sneered at, to quote from him on the strength of memory alone — 
especially ti^ere that memory proves to be rather weak. We shall therefore- let Mr. 
l>ibdin speak for hhnself : 

** The undertaking is arduous in the extreme, and perhaps not a little perUqust 

yet let us admire the zeal and love of ancient lore, which could have matured, find 

carried into execution, a project so vast, so expensive, and requiring such constant^ 

unremitting, and (I had almost said) interminable labor. I address myself to thii 

candid, the experienced, and the liberal ; not to those, who, previoius to the pubHcAttOb 

of the first Number, were sharpening their critical knives, and preparing other 4iN 

struments of literary torture, whereby they might inflict a severe wound, and caase 

ipremature death to the undertaking ! English critics, I trust, like Euglish soldiers . 

and sailors, love fairer play than this. Nor can such attempts, after all, damp thf 

ardor, or slacken the exertions of those, to whose conduct this ' monumentuia'ashEr 

^perennios' is entrusted. Let us tell an interesting and unsophisticated tde. "■ 

^* A new Edition of the Greek Thesaurus qf H* Stephens the younger must necessfn 

rily, in anv shape, be a tremendous undertaking; especially too, when one think^ 

of the multiplicity of lexicographical and critical knowledge which has pervaded the 

classical world, since the lirst appearance of that ' wonderful performance. Only tgi 

give an impulse, or encouragement to the plan only to bring the vessel to the 

water's edge^ as it were— required spirit, strength, and no ordinary assistance. Ia 

letters, circular notes, prospectuses, &c. announcing the nature and extent of it, it 

cost the proprietors of the work not less than 1,500/. This was surely iR>ld ci&Quj;h : . 

for till seven hundred subscribers were subscribed, its progress would be uncertain, and 

the loss sufficiently decisive. However, the plan 'grew,' and the subscribers multi* 

plied; and the names of not fewer than nine hundred and eightjf-Jive [1086] of them 

graced the covering of the first Number. Such a number^ to nioh a wo«£, is, I btlievey 

without a precedent: and well xnight Lord Grenville,. the Chanc^lor of jthe JJInh 

versity of Oxford, express a pleasurable pride in receiving the homage of the Dedica-* 

tfon of the new TAeMurus to himself. That Nobleman's letter to the printer, iipon 

the occasion^ of which we are speaking, does equal honor to bis head and heart. 

Now comes the g2ory of the design. All attempts which had been made towards 4 

new edition ofStephens' Thesaurus, in Germany^ Russia^ France, ^nd Denmarkf h9t4 

not only been rendered abortive ; but the materials for it, collected in those fulac^, 

have been almost voluntarily, as well as absolutely, poured into the capacious reserf. 

voir of A. J. Valpy. ] 

•* The manner, in which this new edition is given to the public, need not be speti-^- 

ically mentioned. All the classkal world are aware of it; but, for comeliiiffss and )iro«^ 

portion, the nicer collector will betake himself to the largp pcper. In the small pa« 

per, the text looks abundant and honest to excess. It was the intention of JMLr. 

Valpy to strike off three copies upon vellum, at 800 guinea^ each copy; but tbe 

poisoning infiuence of that recent rash and mthless Act of Parliament, respecting 

literary proper^, which gave one ccyy of the best kind to the British Musetun^ (ttia 

/easM>emicious feature in the Act) diverted his intentions. 

" The vacancies yet open have been occasioned by the cfecease of some of the' 
Sabscribcrs. The price to such a^ were not on the original list has been already 
raised { and ^ Editors m^n^ it should seetPi shortly to raise it ag^itit We shouHl 

240 A Reply to the Qu'arterfy ReUemer 

f He sboiild, hemwer, haw|p(0Wii that a l9ve oftruih is at once the 
bci^test omttiDMit of a pafe ndnd and an honest heart.-^That the 
poweiB both iffhiKfBSng^nd leasowig- are^ potto be perrerted to an* 
iwer petty ptttpostts; erMr irratify prirate feUhig. Dr. B. has read 
much ; bat may still be1|M0raflft Of the words» and insensible to the 
statuneni8» of Sextos EmpMcns^vin the treatise against Lo^cian^, 

att|p<Ro^ewe|BS: $•<)<«$ rn A^ov, ty. tcp Kpb$ty.T^ &?4it^i a«>r4< hap- 
ytUiS ipfMtffiM, &C. oXAr ^ Iviayna oux "o'ny etvrihxy^g vghs yym<rw kycifiw;. 
r ^ Edit. Fabric. 1718^oL p. 401. 

"^e arepot sufe that we are justified in bringing: MV^Dibdin so 
forward in this dispute without something; of an apology to Wni. That 
he h^ our best thanks fot' his honest opinion^ so warmly add kindly 
e^tpressed, we should be hypocrites^not to avow, and if he want ^ur 
consolation (of which it m^y be doubtful) we shaM only bfeg leave to 
inform him^ that Reviewers and Authors seem to have a sort of anti- 
pathy — something like what Oppianhas described in the eternal war 
waged amon^ lobsters, lampreys, &c. "E^oxot'V aXXijXoKyiy itfigaiw 

Here we rest for the pfejfenf. We may prefix to our future num* 
^rs "such remarks as we may deem necessary on ahv similar attacks 
that may possibly^ we will not say ptobab!y, be made hereafter. In 
the present case, it will be easily acknowledged that we are the 
injured party ; but it Is not in our nature topursue a foe with che- 
rished resentment life is too short to be employed in enmity^ or 
wasted in recrimination. 'We hope we have not transgressed- the 
bounds allowed by the peculiarity of our situation. But should our 
expresjsions be thought by any one of our readers u^re severe than 
die subject demoded, 

*' Let oui. disclaiming frotn a purposed evil 
free us in his most, generous thought ! *' - 


;P> Si ' Since this answer was drawn to a elose^ Mr^ Baiter, feeling 
hunself personally attacked, has, like ourselves, puMished a reply, 
ifttbe wape of a letter, signed with' his own name,, addressed per- 
soAdU^ ;to JDr^ B. Although i!^ fe^ as keenly, as^j^yery honor- 
able mind ongfat to do,- the bitter virulence of a mosi^ unprovoked 
and wanton attack made or^ the two publications in which we are 
engaged, yeli tjie Jaijguage Jn^ which we hav vrill 

prove that we are not so struck with the style^f pr. B. a§ to wish 
to imitate its beauties^ Tlie most cursory ^adef ~ will not fail 
to perceive, that the object, wMch we ha^ve endeavoured to 
keep *ii?' view' isi to separate flife' cause from Hbe infdi^dual. It 
would^hav^ gtvenns^ in&iite pleasure to have met Dl. ]$: &i public 
p ww mfej al o n e ! ■ But as -he has ooeasionaily for gott e n what was due 
toiils^rowt dliaracter,it w-piAiMiii thairniiCfilMivo^keim ^d to foi^t it 
equally. Our gmpjogy^^if any be^eauisite, is, tMt^^ehhffe'fetitered the 
fiela^S us ov^ firi^dif i^^ Tifw^cfw/Awo^ ; as oritm^rksim^^agairtst than 

tpcomvoL^TiA^\\]pitbUcJUhrarie»9 in particular, to subscribe before the opportunit^r is lost, 
at only a sufficieni number of copies have been printed to cuv^r tlie ^ubacriptiun/' 



ADVERSilRIA IJTm4BiU<, : . : , f / 

• No.- mv* >■ * <i 

^ Jtfm nora germakis vestigia iorqutdt aniM *Consulibmf^ 

Claudian. Canif. i. 6. 

ZlKitNsiijs Conjectures /a^/tgia for two reasons: l.Ttiat 
Jjasiigia and vestigia are frequentljf confounded in MSS. ; $• 
Thatyas^fgia often denotes co/is<i/(i^ti5, and therefore may in, 
the passage before us signify tomulatus annus or tenipui, 
T9 this conj«(Grture tliere are three objections; that MS$. (ire 
consistent in reading the passage as it stands; that torment 
fastigia is an expressipn or very rare occurrence, if not Wholly: 
destitute of examples in support of it; and that annus torgueati 
navun^ consulaius annum presents .no satisfactory meaning. 
Gesner jntikef the following observation \ ^ **. Personam factt 
annm , qui ad tropicuo) Capricorni cuip sole delatus* retro. 
Jlecterevesfigia, hoc enim^^st. ^or-gvew^inciipiat;''. but this ^j^pli^ 
cation renders the adjective nova null and void ; retro flecteKeve^^ 
tigia nova being wholly unintelligible. It is also inaccurate in 
another respect. Torqucre pestigia does not imply to turn bacJtf 
merely to turn aside, to deviate from, one's original course. 
Thus Claud. Carra. xlix. 58.. '^ Qua jussere mahus^ mobile tor- 
quet iter:" in allusion to a river turned, from its natural direcUony 
Virg.' iBneid. iii. f)67. '* ad souituni vocls vestigia torsi t;'* 
turned quickly ^ suddenly^ on hearing the soifud (viz. qf the oars:)* 
\ihere there is nothing to indicate tnat the hoitfe proceeded from 
behind him. But there is a 'peculiar propriety in' the use of 
iorqueo in the passage before us, which appears to have escaped 
the notice of the commentators, iorqueo in its simplest sense is 
applied to a rotatory motion; hence the poets have' transferred k 
to the apparent path of the sun in the heavens^ to the ravolutioif 
of the seasons, and the successiop of day and niglit TThus Claud. 
Carm. 1.267. * ... 

" O consanguineis felix a'uctoribus anae, ' 
tncipe quadrifidum Pboebi torquere laborem,*** ^ 

XV. 153. *' jam Solis habeni&- ' 

Bis senasi^rjuei^ hyemes.*^ » 

xKv* 87. -^ Namque ttbi viille vias iongioqua refor^ff A sesfal/' 

Vtrg. JSn. ir. 378. '' •^— ^ loiyNef medios nox hamida^nursus.'' ' 

<*— »«»w«<ii»— <* ' I I II ' r i| - < II fill I MW— ^wi»i^i»ii^ni»»»»W li I ' ' <f 

^ Skt an observ«tioa in the BaMish notes on VirgM» £d. 4. In JEd, 

at '■> '* didlMf «aftift^}ter<v^40> 

Ki . 1i4.-'. 

Tiff 1 JB0u'h^^SBIfi ^(k i iMri JnfAwtoftHim AikitiA 
Bumiaiin comfMnres Ovid. Meti'i. 379. 

• I!/ '♦».. 

Ad delubra De* :" ' " ' '| 

19 n&^cH.oV ei^press^on,;© bend ones steps, is paralld. . . r. ^ ' ; , 

Note of J. Barnes^ 

1 met with the following observation in a inargmal note in tlie 
iMfid-writing of. (he fami^us J<|8li|la B^mes, ^Ai,^,ddkr9 in 
iotne measure frbhi the account given l>y Dumezitiil in In^ Sjilo- 

iijpiiifl, r.h«v6>tfati«?i(i%e4 iv< : ^ : : ■' ' r ] '\ f ; ; •; • /r -r • -» 

• *' Habes in 2do Anna!. Tomo^ teatioionio Varronis, ilki a Ro- 
Aianis solita dici Templa, quse sumtuosiAsinie estiwl exlmcta^ 
adeo** tit petpuvica invenirentur ifn tirto iM^pAP/ cttM' <4iMI "^ 
ploDftite Mkent Dh»'difcat» JScfei. JiMtMiiiiay ilniiiil. ^i>flMi».'i; f 

p. dff. ' ' • '» - • . t^ '•• *'• -t.-rjf,.-^ 2 

* Jlexander the Greht ' ^ . , , f 

■ Sir William Drunimond ju'tiff ilBW WT 4>oiNIfcbx, yii^ :.. 
the £lhs9ical Journal vol. 1<6, p. 09 to do, double if DM Ketr-j 
nion means Aleiander the Great. -«*-!. |iave ho%vever no^ besit»» #* ^. 
tioB in declaring^ without fear ^of contradiction, that there ie not-' 
.any 4k>ubt that tbia is the Itf m hf which the conqueror ^waft> 
and is dengnated, in the kngnage of the sons'of Ismaei ; bui "' 
there ap^pears tobe a nMstake in Sir William's terra, astbe words ' 
in the' Arabic are J34 ^hKarMon, whic& iiterdlly ti-anslated s^nif?,' "^ | 
the tkther of two horns, iti kllusio'n to hispov^er in the East ahd "^ ' 
in the West (in India and iii Egypi).\'No/e. The term f^orn, in .<hc 
East dnd in AAritsii is emblematical of power : one of the poe^ic^I, 
titled ,of the King of Housa is, '.' JBa tA Kdrn el Hars%/*\^el^ ^ . 
O thbij father of the horn of th^ Rbinoceroul /I hav^ heard 
this title frfso applied to the str^ng^h and power of the Empet-. ,. . 
ror ^f MojQCCo. 

Tht.Mgypiian Cubii. 

W. DFmnnK^, in hia learnt diaiftrtalion^cai.the sabocaa ^ 
df the Egyptians* and Chaldean, disl^isses tbevarioiisofinioira 
of 'the jearned respecting the exact length of th^ Egyptian ' 
Cubit. Sir- W. in that disser^tatioi^ which is inserted io^jdie ' 
Classical Journal vol. 16. p. ^70, says die Egyptian Cubit cdTett 

^;& 'di&ay is eiHniated liy j^ishop X!ilniberland a^ £ (^ £i^liirh 

ijicImr ; kff Awrit «*^0/^ Finmcb kndies H»f IKftiiilra 1^ t \r 
Ft«acli inches and i^fgbt'^p nMe4i«i9»; tet rfl these culculatidns 
are erroneous ; for having revtded upwards of sixieen years ii| f^ 
Africa as a inerchaitt, and in countries where thev use, no other 
measure but the Egyptian Cubit, I can conKJently assert froin 
my own knowl^ge and experience that the Klgvptian Cubit is 
exactly. fO^ inches Engfish measure/ and that 7 oT these Ciibits* ' ^ 
make one English yard. 



ii|« ♦n^.... r^^^i^^^^^^^^^^T^T^^^^^T^^.' . • ' . till J( 


SiNGR booiis lia^e becB collected, a library has fMsrl^aps n^ycr \ 
existed laore ^f^l in ffprr^djog k|iowiedK«iiiid.#ci^iHT U^i^thM, - 
of Gotfiugeo. AU tboae, who have an opportunity of breomiiig^ . 
a<cquaiuted with it, will coincide in ^lm opinit>n. The great utility^ 
bj which that establishment is divtingnished^ afises, 

1. From the complete store of books, whiiih is to be found there^ 
fore^ei^ Wanci|it\f icieh<iea4Hl literature. ' ^* t* tiMV^ v^^ 

2. ^Fr^m tb^ tiberdity, with which t(i^ usC M* those 'bookWli 
allow^ to every one who desires it. • . : i Im. i^ • \ » 

3; From the acrangeiuent and method, by which ijt is ma»mged*i 
Tbe*lJfiiversity being considered asapkice whese soiettce i» lo.\ 
be yursMed aq4 onltivated, tUfi Ubraj^y serves '4^^ a $to|)i^-M<^i^s€^; . 
fiv>m whence, thie pi^l^ri^i^ ^od . ini^trui^iepts for tfiat pursuit are.t^. 
be obtaine^i.. It is,, not .ppi^si^ereci a^ ii r^pojitoryv^wU^r^ literary . 
ttieaiui^s and cuf'iosities are .an^psed,. for iji^ purpoise chieflji of • , 
preservation^ l^ut it iVa niSigaznie/ 'the copious and vidlmible con-. 
tents of wiiicli are designed to be employed in the usi^ful' work orf 
facilitating iQstruqtipn^Wdextendii|g V>iowledge.^ . ^ tins' view, 
every'depar)tnieiitis^idp'|[>li6d with'^^ those books whicli reluti; to 
the Jifferebt 'subjecte, wlifch'lt' eViibrdcei t «bd 'iU fully a«icf c'dm- 
pleteljf' is it Aimillied; "thitf ' I bi-lii»Ve' It will hardly ever happen, * 
that a man should enquire for any publication, in any brAuch of ^ ' 
scienceor literature, without linijling it, provided it has any ctaim 
to be reckoned among the nii^Vtfier.'l^iremn^ natutatl^ be 

exclnded£un^ the shelves^ but'ifit hadany bearing onthev^^uoj^cl^'^ 
it vrould not be missing. Nettheb lime,' nor 'language makes a 
difference : every wo^k is collected> in its departqient; ani to the \t 
learned it jsax^ advantage ngt tq^be estim^tedj thus to*haye tb^' .!^ 
nieaii$]of ccyis|dtin£)vhateiveriLU^^^ they may,waniH| Jn their various; ^r/) 
studies andiresearcnes;" it is a iuile tiitjii the Library, that every , 

?#♦ ^'^*w.-.^ #»f^^ 

^g fif i enc y iUcd moj «is foon Mil isperoaftcd': Mid vbca' 

tnjutiggestiod'of dnlt\iiid' Js mikit» orwiy new piiblii^sti6irme«V 

tiotKMi, no tfme b iost iii adding it to the stock. The books ti^ 

OQthieaped togelhcif at randotn.'but: thr Library being seientificalty 

distributed^ an cje b kept over eTe% divbion and subdivision, 

md, as far as possible, no blank is suffered to eiist in an;y. This 

ik atfained'by the attention and diligence of the librariaoSy as well 

alf fay theii^ comprehensive iind accurate knowledge of literary hij9-' 

tory, in aU its branches ; and by the untntermptfefd'addifbanra?^ 

Of government^ hi snp^l}ing the necessary fimds. ' ft must be 

tfdtled, that the Library being as it were surrounded by so inimy 

mien of learning tfnd scttTnce, ts Ate profesMrs ar^, who consrtittte 

the University, receives /rom tb^m an animation, which In no o^t 

situation it could possibly enjoy. The sciences are in the UniVeV- 

sity divided into four departments, commonly called FaeulUe^, Viz. 

ThAlogy, Jurisprudence, Medicine, Philosophy. * Eaftf difp&rt- 

ment has its subdiviaion ; for In^t^iit^^ in TAmogjjr we have, the 

doctrinal branch, or what is denominated Dogmatics; the moral 

branch, or the Christian religion considered in its moral' insfi-^ 

tiifions ; ecclesiastical history ; fnterpretation or C3t|K)sftion of tbfe, 

' Old and New Testament ; In Jurisprudence^ the law c^f Katureind . 

df Nations, the Roman law. Canon law, crimitial jo¥isprudeiii£,' 

'Oerman law, feudal law, practical jurisprudence; in MfAV^e,' 

^jA^tomjf, Physiology, Materia Medica, Pathology, ' Nbsolo"*y, . 

- Therapy, Surgery, Midwifery ; in Philosopk^^ Logic.'Metaphy^ics, 

iSorarPhilosophy, Mathematics, Natural fiistory, NaturU i^hilo^ . 

i^ophy. Chemistry, Botany, History in all its branches. Statistics,* 

PdHtlcai Economy, Languages^ both ancient and modern. Oriental 

is well as occidenfal. I have not pretended to be'mrnuti^ dlid 

'ii'6'curate in specifying the various ramifications of science ^%^^ 

lit Gotfirigen ; hut even those, vhich I have named,* IvIll^iWv 

#hat a libraVy* ^hat is to supply all with the books belod^n^ to 

Ihemf, miist eoi^tain. Siippo^ng then at every diVisiOn th^t^'^s 

%^n kiamed, ia regular ptofessor,'^hi> considers it amohg hi^diifties 

^ attieud to the literary progress of his science, and to se^ that tfie 

^Iftrtier^l store^onse is furnished with every article that c^ni^e^hs 

SI^^!r is to be expected that the dlflerent departments vtiRUve . 

'tiieir literature complete, anifl bat it is not liMy that any biitbk'&r 

4oJbtisei)uetice should any wficre be left.' -The tiunJbe/ of prof<^'4l:5rs 

'founts to between forty and fifty;- and if each of tb<^'^iir 

^ j)erfornis bis* duty/ it is easily to be tonc'eive^, " how the Hteiafy 

^%4t^<ibHshments must Ife advanced anfb#me^ - '"^ 

*^ But the profi^s^or trnminated to an/ particular subject has^ii^t 

*Ae *ihonopoly of ijt; it is likewise free to others^ v/hb by meanf df 

1 de^ve<s<%ave the Jjrivifege of lecturing, ter't^ch^tlie 
s afs^ffl^^tMfes^r, f^ho is appointed to the chinr, SN 

'^^fete* b^a^hes' 

^^il^'dModliiMiOti Ji^m H. %^a4o^petitibii WiMSf iid^ 


tlbtoH/lii &oti^geil: W 

'% -y 

'|^^de# iiefle^t; oi the posaibiU^ of coiiiKertiiig suck a «itimf 
IfKlO a sidccnre. - C^rtaio '^eiititions are, there w«# uiaii|i^]iiHi1 
miucii are coQuected wijtb «iq4icatV;iii lUid study. iMui the»^. veivl^ 
ism extensive use of book^ oe^euary. But it 19 v^tmeiely fto|ii 
t^ quarter that an incitement is f^vea tofhelearaed jnen offthn 
yjaoe. Their general reputation aa men, eminent in tbeis mp^^ 
tiye sciences, and the4unbitioa;oC being distkiguisbed as iiykWi^ 
of establishing a name by their vnitings, and deserong v^,Q|th^ 
cause of ^lenmingy are powerfpl motives in s|imumis|g,{indUstig^ 
and aubduii^ ii^lolence. Hiese men, with their ACtW^bfj^iMyjw 
appli^tion, have a watchful e^e over their line of science,: iii^bing 
escapes them connected with it. If a book sbou^cl M, fi^iMu) t9, hi 
wantiDff in the stores of the public Ubrary^or if a ne,w:pnUiffitiPP 
should natre made its {ippearaQce, tbe' pcmssor, to . whose. dep^ri(«> 
jnpAtlt belongs, given notice of the defickm^ to ti|e' Ithn^ians 
wiio procure it without delay* Thiis science is nevei; lefi^iu want of 
Its profier iiouiishiiient. Xhnse intimationsy thoi^h Ibey most coii|- 
Wmly proceed from the professors, are #iot eiidttsively confined to 
ih^m ; but wo^^^ld be eqjuaUy attended. to by. the librarian^ tbodgb 
Vc<mingfrpm other 4|varters. It is^ ataileventi^ar<nle, at pro- 
fessor must never »be . left in want of any bookriequoed in.his 
"idcfNutnif a t .' |ieac^ arises the most complete supply of b«ooks in 
every braobhm.scjeim ' v - ^,^ . 

r%Itwi^ byaingularVgOod'iPortunet that the Uoiv^ty, $li$d Ibe 
Oiriiry^ have from their first foundation ei^oyed the ci^ijb and pro- 
tectiim of ttinislers, who made the be^t and^mbst jndidons npa^of 
4lie noble an^ libarfld disposition ol ^heir^ Sofac^igps,. itf behelief 
thoKs estabbpfaments.* The 4inivecaity waa founded 19 .tbi^ ^j^ 
.,ifja4» by Oebrgje the Secopid^ who had at that tipne, for his ^om 
.|niniatery i^ his .Oeqnan di^^miniomb >the, illustiiens Aluiipbij^^liiaiii, 

Efios^ nanie^ihf country at . this day .iPen|€BBbera .with admkatifi^* 
le wi|s^ who^to a. comprehensive and epilightened.mind^uril^ 
;!edt^^09t ardent zeal and -most dbinterested « devotion;, fi^p'tM 
rsej^vice ot bi^ soyereign,,ai|d the welfare of his conulry^ « Wbat^Pft 
^ba undertook .was cartied mk ,witb so. mmcb intethgfi^„ pers||ii^ 
nvioe^^and. vigor, thaft. success swiSi^certain..,. He was fiiiiox^ ip J^i 
'ii^idlertakiiigalby twf> sovereigns,,, wboph^ l^ad the: honor, to jeFVC» 
l^l^ik&^lKr and bis^eAi^^fty^noi to be surpassed in Uberal|fj^ 
apcltnatdisposition, wbifph entitles, a Prince to. the. appellalioii.^ 
the iaiber of his ce^try!. . So supported, Mnnchb)inseA joatiiiiiiisil 
.4be^ nniinasHify and laici jUi^fi>u9d&ti<»»^ qf .theiibmry. V*^^ bis 
.W!^P^^» ^^ lliQe^waud floiished: and when .he>dif^4«^^A* 
\»fifll7% his.sMccess«NBs. trod in bis stiffs ;. and tbe^w^kp^MMF 

^yhf^MycSovereigft .lent, hi»c# fit te> | i^|(ei y \ ^Am^m4mwm^ 
fralietion MnnrWiiuaen bad beew mnibM .^ seMW. hi^ai^iMii 

«I6 iMbNitff 0) QittHngm. 

to hit cotttilry w ineHlonotis : and tii^ko^iMirtar wti Oniftlieiieft^ial 

Jn^tteoce mere strongly Mt, thao ill those literary mslitiiCiatf ^- of 

wbicii we are speMkJag. Ic is necessary only Co look at Oa(ti^|eo 

^ to judge, whether his late Majesty was justly called a patron 4if 

* learning and 8cidi<!*l^.' 

The noble and liberal dUposltioa of *tlie 8overei|rns, thett,'ttui 
.' the ability and aeal of tnetr miuislers, are ttie priiictpal Hiiise# to 
which the Uatjirersity alid Lib^rJ^ at Gottingeif dw« t^eir present 
moilted condition. But wh<it rendered these qualifier so efficient 
^ lor the advanceaMDt of those establishments, w|is the stteadhtess 
aind perseverance with which tlie attention to them was trotitintiedc 
, To this principally; and not tD any extraordinary efforts mad^ at 
, any particular lime, llietr rise' and perfection are to be aaeribedw 
.For the . library there were from the begtoning certain^ Amfds 
appointed to be employed in the purchase 'of books, and tn |Mre«> 
acrving in a proper state those already c^Bected. By the eohsfaht^ 
.Hointerrapted, and judicious applicatioh of these fundsj tbrotigh 
. a aeries of years, that ▼aluuble store of learned and hterary wbrka 
. has been brohght togetlker» which no^ commands the reispect-atkl 
..admiration of all that are capable of appreciating its merits. 
When the HanoTerian dominiona were seized by the French, >iHid 
afterwards incorporated with the kingdoni of Westphalia, 'under 
^ Jerome Buo|iaparte, a particular good fortune attended Gottin^iH 
X, its University, and the Library. Na[)oleon had, ki the first.instance^ 
^ taken that celebrated seat bflearffliig under his protectiow; and 
Jerome, in imitation of his brother, and, like himv aware how 
^ fesaoh honor and glort dMiy Hocrue even to an usurper 1>y the snp* 
*y pprt of karuing ana 6c;peiice, with' a liberal hand, extended his' 
^ #ti^or aiid bounty to the estaMtshtioents at Go^ttiogen. -- - * ^ 
, . We must« according t^ oUr pilrpbse, coniiue omrseWe»fta the 
^^mry, without adV'Mfii^ f6 <he other instittitions bf the Uni^en- 
^Atjt which were ei|ualfy'b^ti^tfted by Jetome's'patrdilagev' He 
^'fii^pa^ the building Whicb 'boAtains the Itbrai^, by unit%ig^tb 
j4i; the adjoiiiiOg cl^uricfa, abd' fi^ribing fit^m that ai^)|k't* rid^ 
* Vend weTI-propbruoned ditn€!n$ibtis. He fixed the avatial 
f^r the piircbase Of 'bol&k^ ^t 114,006 fraues, a hirger liim 
the Library had" bi^fora i^c^ivM. Healdo bclded to it a «reat 
uinber of books ini ^andscfripts, froiti the liUr^tieS of Wolfeii*- 
''el and Heimhtadt *ilb thd dUchy df BrUnskick', wllidi, ^rle 
lover, was inboirporkted With'' his kiiigdom/' Foil it waii hilr lo» 
iilj|(fii to make Cio<Uii|;eh exclusively the seat ^f learning 'and 

in \\u^ dominions. Bat they were s^nt bad^to thrir kNtfol 
r^AWiier, tlie Duke of Brdnswick, ^a sodn «s the preheat goW#iitetet 
^i|f Hanover \kv^ leifistated. AHer the owrthrbw 6f The Ftelick 
^ \yfmfh ali<^ l^e^diMlution of th^ Wes^bahan monarchyi < fOttifi^ca 

t!^ mt df liieiIanii;>veriin'8tateii^to if^ aaeitot 

:, l]9l^. eye^t*/ ti^at,:festoif^tipD. ft fouQff itself iig^n unaeftuat 

....^lernal goyernin^Q^^by.vvhicli |t.ha(^ been mred and fpatfred^ 

:j 9/}(|. elevated to, r^puti^tionYiQ^dJaTOf There waa^ indeed', a niebii- 

clioly deduction from 'the joy that was felt, j^ the famented iHnesa 

i ;jt|f.iU i«v^ied 39vere^fi. ^ut even this severe ffrief waf) nit^gated 

. 'hi ^^ miiisiMO. of th^ ,Vic,^arenty ^a Princelvmo united the same 

,1 .^enevoienl and lMJ>d,.d'spositio|i towards his Maj^itys JGrerman 

), dominions 10 general, with that particular solicitude for (^ottipgen, 

. . (^ wbi^b^ iyis M^jes^y • had s^lw^ys befp 4>stinguished. I^he spjrM 

\ W i^^. .ff^M^c^. i^as mani/ested^ in the acts of his' government. 

if hM magnanimous .generosity,' whipb belong to' bis Royal High* 

fl?ss».was ^xpeiriienqed bj^ the Univepityi .The* aupulil fund for 

t)if» laUrary was s^ttjf^d at four thousand Hx^dollars, a sum equal 

. v^ amount t^. the ^4,^QQ0 francs before n)entipned« and answering 

. to a))out 600. pounds ai^erlipg* Besi<^es| tbis^ it was intimated that 

tike Priiifc^ ^g^ut's boupty, would provide for the deficiencies^ 

i^ch had o^Quyrred in the branch o^ flnglish literatufe, during1(he 

. <H^cupatiooojf the, country, by the j^reuclv at that period whenatt 

t^pplinunioation between JElngland and Germany was interrupted* 

There wa^ a.great arrear of English works, which could not well 

' fa^ve been mad^ g^od by thQ ordinary resources : but the' prince 

mg^tr^^y^d this.c^mbanrassment by affording extraordinary' sud. 

. "l^aUlupfj ojf^ltOQO r,ix'Klo)lars is. solely dekin^d for the puirciiase of 

f^ booljil^ .Sopii^ trifling. expenses, ^uqIi b^ for justing the books, ^hd 

;^lea9i9g the rooms, are Mot worthy to be noticed, for the salarief 

. of ^h^ ^l^b^rians and attendaiUSj and the wages of the servkn^ts. 

, %o^i;^ ^re^separ^te provisions. , . , <, . f l , 

But in addition to. tlie ft^ vantages l^efpre, eunroerateay tfi^f of 
hek^, for a great number of yearsA uncter the directidiQ' ahd 
management of such a Ubrariai^ ^s Qbtms, is paiticuiarlv to be 
N .cop,sidanM« This extraordinarjf ipan, ,wnose, most^ intei^esViJi|^|Sfe 
tias been published in U)e Qts^sical jfournaL came ]bo 'G^ 
t)>e year fjSh ; and, aoio^g bis othefappppifmen'ts^ was 'that 0^ 
Ubr^riaii* .He wa^ the fittest instrument xhjii Miinchhausen'^o^ 
|iave foiipd. .By the co-yperation . of ^ th^se fy^omen't^l^jAv 
. wa^ formed at^d mouldfsd' Co .that s|iap^, in^ which succeeding V< 
in|ve seen it with so much adyantag.e., ^^M;^ y^^^f tiefore ne 1!^ 
Xq Gpttingen^ .familiar with the 'ipisc^apisnA ,bf a |ibrary, haVliig 

^n «m|>{oyed in subordinate aitnations 19 the library a> Dw " 
\ wh^p be found himself placed at t|^ head of siich an e'stali 
masty afid swpprled aMd, encouraged f^^'an^enliglit^ped slnlt'^ . 
; «|u uunij^tfji^^.^i^d expanded ,^ and displayed ^i( those atiydH^ 
4)pal|fiQ»iio|ia, by lyiiich he. h^s , been' signalized' above 'alfmffi'iil 
..1 fjoiilar situativns. ^ coiiiprebens^ve vie^ ojf Ijtera'ture. a*^mr(^of 
• ^fdcc 9^d arjr^ngemef^i, ii facility, in classing and' dlstiibiiiM ^ 

iZ48^ tibrOf^ at ^ottmgek 

i^te ttd jDiAate attentioti to deteilt; an UdUfatigaUe aetint;^^ l8«;7 
aost 'ardent aeal/ and the moft nnmryin^ yener^nHee, weiW 
gluuiti^ united in Hejne, to a degree in which fliey hav^ perha|^^ 
nrelvbeen po^teued by anotber individaal. This eminent maa^ 
lifed till the year 181$; lie had consequently been at Gottingeii* 
for nearly half a century : and during this long period, the Ittyrtry- 
Iiad effjoyed his unremitting care and attention. What citcitih*'' 
ataoce could have been' more ' conduci?e to its prosperity «»$. 
grandeur 1 

^ To form an idea of the' extent and magnitiide of the fibrary; it 
may not be amiss to mention th^ number of voti^mes, which it i# 
aujpposed to contab. This is certainly not overrated/ in m^* 
qpinion, when it is stated at two hundred thousand. Thefe are' 
not many literary curiosities, such as mantiscripts and old prints^ 
aioiong them : but the whole bearing of the collection is toward^ 
Utility: The department of .history Is particuiarit rich. It is ri" 
inarkable, that when Heyne came to Gotlingen the number of 
▼of umes. was between fifty and sixty Uiousand ; during his admfa^ 
thition it waa raised to' tne vast amount before stated. ' Frotn thcf 
foundation of the Library, the departments of History, Natuiit 
History^ .Natural Philosophy, and the Classics^ were re^rded urith 
partiality, and received perhaps originany a greater share of iit^ 
lention than the rest. They confioued to increase and pros^f 
^nd«r Heyne: but he carried his enlarged vteWover the irhol^^ 
and was solicitous that no branch ' should want any thing, whiCT 
&ad merit or valup, or could be- considered as connected wtll^Jtfiti 
interests of science. Trifling and unmeaning productions w^i 
q'f coprse, not noticed. To that view he steadily. adhl»^, tofd 
l^^ceeded in establishing a library,' which, indeed, mat be c^al^d 
1^ complete an^ well-regulated store^bouse of hnmatt h u i fl ^ kdgi^ | 
i^^cq perhaps as po where else is to be foiind. ' '^ ' ** 

, ^ Xfja proceed natt to speak of th6 iise that is made bf tfii^ Hbtaf V L 
^vi^rv per^n,' who is engaged' in literary pursuits, or any^p^Sra 
. yul^o has occasion to'reiTer to'a book, has Iree access to ihb If bn^* 
And iby free access, in this instance, is not only nieani;'that aidniiU 
fabce IS granted to the biding <if the libitity,,andperm^itt^^ 

JHo^king at t>ook8 there^ under th'e eye of the Itbrariaii-; bin fhi^ 
00^ may be' taken home,\or ^eiit for, and kept, for the use of ifie 
|^d^i^u;iCinM3pn^^l«/l^^%g-^^!^ ^^ ei^ordtnary ad^i^ 
tege this {^ ^0 a student, or man of letters, to have the bbbk^, tn 
,^*,p^u^I or Cpn^idera[tion of which he is engaged, or Which Bf 
Vf^nt^./o confiiit in his studiesi^ hnm^diati^ about hiih io'his 
j^ml>^» those .will acknowledge wbo have experi^cc^ the'ln^ 
•j^nyenience of gping to a public library at eertairi^ fixed hmis^ 
and!tujriimtL om their pfiges In a conkmon Veadi6g-nH)m# :^Vkt 
SRM 4r^t pikce, liave the iigtit'of ^nd^^^m 

CSSSlLl^^^^ Lib^iiry.'' ^ei^tl lie»/t1i^«H^w4 

af^mm'^t ^¥9' 

Y«|p|M>nsj[bf€^ TbfB ^he youiiff nii^'^or rst^dents., Tor '^^ii^' 
necessary/ tliat- a professor A'ouTd be answeraBl^.,^ itlie ji^pd^e oT 
oitaini^gliooks is4Bis.|; Tlie! title'of ttie lK>ok i|"vrjrij;tehon^ pV^t 
4iijj^per;,ZQ^ of ihe jffixson, ythq i€;i\f]s fo¥ it, j||^\si^peja . 

VM^r it, tog<HHerwit& the date. ^ This is,;9ui^pient.for tho^^^^^ 
sons ivbo a^^ lentitiedf ib.^ave bdo1c3 oh their 'own respbnstbilitV* 
The young men must obtain the signature of one of the professor^ 
ii^ addi^ipfi to; their pwn. For^ this purpose they .a^RpIy to any ohe» ' 
v^bos^ Ifqturjegs/Uie^^ attend, o^ Vitli whopa 'tliey afTB otherwise, 
ap^mnteq,; It is pot understoi^^^ the professor should in' 

^j^ity t^ res^dnsibla for a tx>ok^ which is thus lent fr6m the 
lil^rg^ i^d^ the/gaarantee of his namey'to'any young idan, and 
W^l^\i^:c9i^ to make i^ood the damage, if a book were 
iqjnred/lost,. or purr9ined../This would b^ a tiardship on the pro- 
'fcyspra^; Ibut j^kjeir! signatiire' bp the eiSectof verifj^ing to the Kbra-' 
ria^i^ that, the S^titik ajpplyujg is known as beIon|;ing to the Uni-^' 
i^fjBi^^or is c6fi^idei:ed by jbbe professor, who has si^ed bl^ P^P^^f 
a{riffp^tjqM€),.a«d|ehtitled to flie privileges of tfie tibrary.' More^ 
1^jjlfift^viJn9^U^Qi,m^^ ii has, at the same tiine, tiie| 

a^^ai^ta^ .ttial^t^^^ sti^idfent^ who has.borrpwed a book, Will, froik' 
a,fQQ|4a<|j^U<m^/o^^ who (las recommended ^hithji 

bfj cwiidiO^itu/^^^ cbaraciier, iboo^b enrolled in the 

1^ ^, St4i4f9}t^ may, in .this nyanner^ be prevented from obtklhiij^ 
1^kf^;Vi^.^ Yfomd be in the option of the professors, if ,the¥ 
wi(4ied»4p discaontebahce bun, toxiefiis^ t^etr signature. ' T^e 
fl^ia^^jf^iit .tp> the library aa vouchers, for books, which we wul 
h^i^Qi^ ^^MijQkets^er iil|rar^-tickcts, l^Jf^^^^l^^^}^ '^y f J| 

^^_^,_^ __^_^,_,^ ui bei 'cighm jpprts o/a Ipn^ sheei^ or octat^ 
Mves. l^iie number qfbopk^ liQijjch ea<Ai p^sbn may send foft6 
hi* 4^ip ^pas^nt;9| is upHroitf^; I have kP<>\vp^Oorl6o vols^ljf 
ll^possj^ipji^im 1 And w|ientti'eVunAl>^r>f perao^^ 

IS ,9;^pi$iaeine4 tm ma^^ I^ibn»ry,' an'd^ bettive tliere tt 

ztfxtl^y aver f student who dpes not, the ^imbunf ^bf vJQiumeij ra 
^^sji^i^ ^sffiiulatioii Ijiust hi; ^ea um;e4 f^, l^ yerv^^^^ ; Th^4 
Mf pQw above 1200 students at the yoiv^i:s?fy,aii<| ijF ^ inclMdii 
tbf jprofi^^so|8» and other privileged person^,^ we diay estSmiaiteth^ 
mffi%,p^tii9, swpplied byihc library, at i«f6; fi^Mj^^^^ ^ 
gIlow> pp; an av^rage« to each 5 yols.j^ fliid would brln^ tniout WW 

Jirtiiiiiea Into cprculatioh : but tb^ !^^^^^^ i^ j^i^P^^I^ ^^^^ 
»« the lib^ralil;y, with which this edtablishihent is VottdubtwL 
Hiat ^Ihfre, v?oi|Id evep be no difficuU;^ %j ab;jr^ ^^^^'^^V JK'^^H 
ifffidipg jit; ^ distMi^e i^rem GotlSMjg;eh, tp oblam bobks mdi m, 
)jfij«iy^ if ^i appUeants wer* respcQi[at(le W^hawc^^ tfWft 

^f¥4J^iP^^ fbci^bks ^or ^hy tj^rn^tf k stkflWC j 
|ri^a 4fMfo\gW^^. WeT^> •ti^ ^ 

i^itfioiiM frtlw^Mfi mtfftfmima^ tlliiJii}«««^#f Ibtifii'yiiHil^ ia 

.^ ik^ bOMMB af the .Dpi? eraitjr^., tpd to w|i9«ii , tfcie' pni|oiMl ct«re 

. j|ii4 : atrentioQ $?« due* J 1 99 leayy . tQ l>e . ^sioac^iyed Ibat . vma V|cb 

an active and constant use is made of the library, the waste^or.war 

. «9d tear, must be consideiabl^f But^bifi docn not enter into the 

'. f|oiit«mpl^«nof aftto.idivetrt ita views firpm .ijeai 

.Md eittensive useHiiBesa. Whatever damage or josA may aiiaeia 

...iiMMie ^ood, and the conrao of liberal condmunicafioii R.nefer 

>. interrupted, , I inustp however* observe that the .b^ks.are nat/io 

...intich injured* as might be expected; it would (^ ^.eiXM^s 

, tQ compare, tbe' usage which tjiey receive, to th^ treatment wbkb 

: the.circulatiag iibouriea in England commo^y experience. . A %|llse 

bf decorum prevails in preserving from ityury as much as poaiiible 

whatever belongs to the public library. . Thefts, also v^ry ifwAy 

f. ^c|ir« W« wiM puiBue tht>se details a little farther. . r 

The practice now followed b« that wboe«t^r w^ta. any bools^r 

•> books, gives Qotice lo4be library, a day or two be6>re,.^bat b^tm^s 

> are intended Jo be tent fcr. The librarians |h^, at^h^ir leifj^ie, 

. take them from the shelvesy and convey, them iulo a particular 

« room, from wbence they are subaequeniK deliveited QUt, whei» Ihe 

•tickets, referriBg to theni^ are preaenled. That room vre miay 

. denominate ilie Secretary a room. . Formerly they vyere deliverea 

J t)ut ia saloons or galleries of the Library itseH* aiid the Seoretary 

bad a large table, on which be kept bis portfolios and memoraiP- 

.idums, at one end of the jaloon. Those then that f<;tched tbe 

boolis, servants or others, carried them away as the.Ubranan 

banded them from tbe shelves: and they were given at the time tbe 

tickets were presented, viitbout any previous notice .sent to .tbe 

library*. . ^ . . .. , 

But, a few yeara ago, t%vo young^ men, brotheis, aud .studeiita.4>f 

r tbe university, conceived the prqject of robbingtl^e iibrary> by Ibe 

Opportunity which they perceived waa, under tha|^ ^irraiigemeiit, 

.^aily afiofded. They went together to tlie library, and while j^e 

one prest^uted iiis licketa for books, aud iiccomp»nieii tbe libraMA 

to the abelves where they were placed, this other loitered.inaootb^ 

. pari of the library, and not bfiug jaeen, took away anch bo^is 

aahe th«»ugbt proper. They quitted tl\e library both .charged .tn^^tb 

book^, iin$ua|»ected by the librariana or attendants. They caroed 

on thia practice for some time ; ai|d, tiiougb books were ^missiQg. 

yet it occurred to no one, to fix the charge of haviu^ purloinad 

tbem 4'B th«>ae }Ouiig men, or others; tbe librariana, cuuld Wt 

iccouiit Ibr the detici^-ncy. The theft might perhaps h^ve ha^ 

^ntinued, had it not been^aciidantall^ tpund out. Tiit par tioft^ 

Jratrum had, from their aucceaa in, particular iuataijces, acqi^i^ 

H taste for ate^diUug in general; and began to exerciae it i^ ^-^ 

HrQpriatiug to thema^lves, hatf^ umbrellas, and Qtber. ai;tkcl^s, wi|f|i 

HMQrmftl Ib^^ipUoiVfftiNteoti in tl|e iaaiMJie-iEtttflHif,...; Oa .9Qf 9f 

jB*t»afy4!^>0#o«Hap«i, i(H 

' ' Hif W«t a^tloM, 1»y ordar of tlie. mi^gittnifeB, no iccMKiUitM of 
>i l iik rt y Wn8 fettod, >eUedy eoanstiaif iHT ftucb m belanfed to the I^^ 

'* ^' .-^ibey) bad coBected a pretty store of karnii^ ia. thb tmy 
^vlAaftiNM^ IVfaen ^such an example had> ad. i(t waa ii^ 
^^Otfuary to ad^ipt meolMlo prevctti the repetiiioa of ciaiilar ^iitt. 
' ''It'CM}aiti?<<d iinmedait<elyy tbal tbe boobs iDa«i not be gwen aim in 
4be*ti9iaal tmnmer, or ftivould be -itNiiapMMableA eitlier >to pbce 
^aastiacls in every corner of the libnbry, or *to exaniiiie all tho$e 
4bat west out with hooka. N^ttlier of these.aiodes appealed cligjh 
bfo^^aiid it waa^ theret'ore» deienDiaed,-tbat do peraDB gbouM 
.eM^. a book -out uf tbe library itself t but that the books de^ 
■maad^ shotdd be <.s»nveyed by the (wrvauta of 4Aie librariaas to a 
particular rooni, out of which they were 4o be delivered to ibm 
j^yblic. A^ Hie intermedisne paooess of depositiag the books in 
4be Secretary '84^oni requi|«4 a certain allowance of time, no other 
-^pedit'St was foundf bat that of mipomng^an tb^ae^ who wished 
4o bbrr^w books, the task of sending pseviotts notice of what they 
desired. In this there was soma little inooaTevi<'nce^ espeeisllj 
.fa 4hnae nuho had been aerqstomed to tile old and. shorter 
method: bnt it will 4iot be dented^ that s(»me regulation* of that 
Jiind was indispettsable. For every work a disytinct ticket iMist ba 
presented, but iTOt for every volume. If it were to consist of 
twenty oi^ more voluniesj one tieket is luffieienf. When the ticket 
is delivered, and found correet, ais to its signatures, the libiarian^n 
•attendance marks uptm it, in pencil, the Dumber of vohtmesi which 
-^tkt dcBMuidedy of the t)ook» if there are more than one- belongng 
to tbe work ; and besides tiiis, the sise^ 8vo. 4to. fol. ; which pencil- 
■Muk is a^ sort^ conntar-sigiiafnre, ahd reodaffs the ticket effi-. 
'a4ent: the book isnceordingly hatided to the bearer. Thedckats 
so received are thrown - into a box : from whence ihey are siibse- 
••i]nentiy taken by the aecretary, entered into wliat is called. the 
'Monthly bookr aiid dtstributed ia different portfolios. /Tkase 
'ipnrtMios are assigned . to the sevenl professors' naraes» so that 
^eaeh prolbssor has his. portfolio, in which the tickets^ which 'l|e 
HsUbscrabes for the students, as well as his own, are deposited. - llhe 
^^tiokets rof ttiose w1m> receive books on their own name, without ^a 
•JlignBture of a pntfea*»«ir, are kept sepanitrl}. in the same hours In 
-^ahich books areieiven out, those, which are returned, are received, 
•lAa there aknst be a ttnte fined, how long a book may be kept, tbe 
^Mninal t>eriod is H Ibrtuiglit : but it is not expected that it stioiAl 
;be retttisied • in that space. I he rale, however, ao biid d<Mir»ia^ 
'^Vltets the librarian with the light^to demand any book baek, if U 
'Hhoald be wanted ; or H' more persons sbouht be in competition faa 
fkr'lt eiMibics hira not to suffer tbe firi»& applicant to engroas>ft 

*4MiNr,^^«tttb«asaa^ jNMra«H^i<«d# flN a m j p Isa ^nap slj naav; pad 

^ lAb^dky }ir<}dttikgW? 

ilt'ifie Htmi^ may U kept lor 'tlcf^ffibntfi^ 

^du^tt'is presttmed, that no' person will be eidfer ao'iiiii^*(q»; 
^\\t, dr negtigebt, as not to retam them a^ sOon as lus <»bject liaa 
ii^ased. But every six months^ that is« at the periods .of Easter ao^ 
michaelftias. atf'the books^ that have beeil lent out, must absolutely 
iM teturned. ' At these times the librarians r^iew the whol^ 
-stdtfk, and the library is for several days shut,- during wbich no 
book' is given out. When this muster is over, the books 
Yeceired again; by frr^ tickets. A person* may there&re have th^ 
'ise of any books for almost an unlimited space of time^ submitting 
"to those regulations. ' Books may also be consulted in the library 
^tself: there are convenient tables' disposed iiy the different saloons 
lorj^leries. It sometimes happens, that a person wants only to 
^Wt to a bookt but has no occasion to read much in it ; or that 
%t nt^nts to compare several books together, or that the book is of 
suth a nature that it Is not commonly 'lent out : JTor there are book^ 
of this descriptfon, which, being either rare, xir ve^ expensive, ace 
'^ot nfromiscuously leot out. In such a case they may be used Jn 
^e library itself. The hours when the library is open, for a)^ 
?lbose purposes, are, in sumraetr, oil Wednesdays and Saturcfay^ 
*fVom two in the aftefnoon to five; in' winter, on the same day|» 
'from two to fotir : oil the other four days, both winter and suan- 
Hner, from one to two. In those hours every person is admittedio 
"ihif library. 

'Itastfy come to speak of the internal arraingement of tkie library, 

and the method pursued in its management.' On these points its 

'usefulness, in a great degree, depends. lo Heyne's time the 

officers belonging to th^ Library were, the first librarian^*^ the 

second libranaii, two under-librarians, dehomidated tustodcM^BjiA 

two secretaries. Sometimes a young man was added as assiistaut- 

^5ecitet2t'ry,'from among the pupils oriieyne ; but this was no part 

of the regular establishiiient. ithe same,, or nearly the same 

appointments have beeii coptinued since his 'de^h. *phe ^ituatiofi 

W first librarian i^ naturally the most important. To bim Ih^IoI^ 

^tbe superintendence, and direction 6f thei Whole ; and bis per^opal 

;'q98llfties have a remaAable influeoce on the' slate and conditioo of 

^tfre institution « The extraordinary ^ualitie^ Which'^Hieyne combined 

%4iis persoh justified that unlimited t^obfidence which was reposed 

^^hitnriiiid he was allowed to 'aTt wittf unreslniinedjudgmeptvili 

-the discharge of his duties. That directing uidu so vemipg niioil 

•si^fa which^he was enddvl^^d, and-^that comj^eti^nslve and liJi^ 

^i^'^ith Which' he surveyed ;hi»' objects, prov^ singularly^ bei^lk 

'j^% that situation. One c^lhW duties Of tbe^. first librarian^i9.4o 

IMHUhMiMry 46^ pt^grmt ^fiiteramra hi tfl its 


mf.a^jf «mi4f4 kf tbcKcpncl.: Ubrapaii. VKi>,B<^M» !«lm^Mr 
me and tniiiulte acquaintance with literary fiistory is perbajpt; QO|t w 

brsturpaised.. This gentleman is now iirst librarian* and issUsistfv 
in any deliberatioD vilAcp may concern the Library, by a commissioi^ 
iottsistiog of the two ne^t librariaos and two pT Jhe prpfeasors ap« 
pointed by the governnieht, / The second librarian is Mr, Benec]|fy 
a man jiot only of distinguished mental a librarian^ but also em|aj^nt 
fn some particuls^r branches of knowledge. ; His acrjuatntaqce! witli 
the English language aitd Engtisli literature is such as few,foreigp<ip& 
attain : , and German literature is indebted to bira for tfie illnstrk*. 
tionofsomeof its earliest productions. These gentlemen attend 
at the library in the public hours ; aiid are |>esides eoiployisd tb^ire 
every morning, Sunday eyceptea, from nlbe till twelve^' .Tbclr 
occnpation at this time is confined to the study, or what might ,bfi 
called the office of the Ubn^ry/ or as it is there denonii'nated tt^ 
Tvorking room {die ArheUs Stuhe). This is a spacious and conye* 
nient ap^rtmenti which may he comfortably heated in winter,. .It 
contains the catalogues of the library,^ and is furnished wUh 
desks and tables for writing and reading. . l^he principal busii]^^ 
ID which the librarians and secretaries are ^ngag<^d» is the eutfti^|p 
«f neW books in the catalogues, and carrying on t|ie formatiojy^ . of 
futi; catalngues, or tlie completion and improvement of jthpsp wl^ch 
already exist. This furnishes sufficient employment for thps^boMr^ 
and would even fill more, if they could be spared ..The fittend^ppe 
of the Jibrariaps is extremely punctual and regular^. and their assi* 
duif y and industry aninteirrupted. It is by (hese means that the 
establisbmeht is.jkept in the most perfect order, and that no ne§^fct 
or inattention, is to be observed. As I have spoken of H<^n€ 
as first librarian, I have to add, that froin th<^ Various 9th«r siti|9*: 
'tions Avhicli be filled in the University, it was pot (required of J|iin 
to give the same attendance as the other librarians,, Tiyifi »Xi;o,u^(l 
have bei^n inijiqssibW; and it wfis enougfi fpr the good ofthe,IniU* 
\utibn that b^ should direct and superinteodi it^ wiiilie the subord'iuate 
duties were (committed to others* Mr. Reu^s Wng dificront)^ 
fircumstanced, devotes his whole time to the library. One. pf t|^ 
particular excellencies of this Library consists in its catalogi^(|»^)if 
which t will give an account. There are in allfo^r catalogui^s^ Mt 
ilie most important are tJie Alphabetical and the Swntific* . Tw 
two others^ are ike Manual^.ot .Daily Catahgue, and tbo ^C^^Jifg^ 
itf Accession: ; . , -^ ^ :• |it^ 

' i.The MAStJi^>, or Daily Catalogub.— Tn.tJus, fi^ 
^eok is entered as soon as it i^ received. The entry i^ madc^^^l) 
eoncisebess^tjie title being briefly ^t^je^J ?Q<1. it isnot^d wb^e 
thf book catne, «^d.on w^at day.., TKis cgtalo^ii^f i^.begiiq^^||||| 
eveiy year. , ., * . . . ^ . - ,,. '. , ,,-*. 

i.^.x Likrm'iftit^MillgtWi 

1 * 



iblrrmei^fthViiRiiny* « Tbe fobkr arts vtfiewl i«Mwri|l^1ir4Hil^ 
d1vMions» Tu^ Divfintj* Law, HfttorV; tnd MiseelHiiietHis;- midMr^ 
tfke^imfterofwbiefa all sciences tliat do not come undier the tfelM 
#r8t bradfi are comprehended. Tim tilt<A are described lit full* 
rengtU ; and on the margin h mariceYl, on one side, -the fvage of Hwf 
Manaal where the book is to befonnd, andon the other the natt^' 
t^T-^ the book in its division,' andtts sizr. TiHS* nli#iher, and 'the 
size^ are also rnitediiv the Manual.' It is; like \1it MitMia\,htgctfx 
anew every yrar» and yields four Tetanies* for the year. The •ahaimf 
iociifase of .tb^ Library ni'<ty be thns inrteyed/and asort'of de* 
failed and minute history of the colleetfon dbCahied. 'Thi»may ->* 
have |»een intertating m the early perhids of the Library ; * but it HT ^ 
leas'so QOw» when other iootuidefatious 045€*apy the attentiom VtH" -^ 
present purposes that catalogue might be dispensed witli, fbrirha^ 
' no p^dicaf use, and ^ret engrosses -a portion of the' time which thc^- 
If branana might bestow to niore«dvanta|>e. * This tsnot nierelythe - 
notijStt of a stranger^ wlio nwy be sappnsed to^argve superfieMiy ;^ ' 
but it is the opiplan'of those who are the ifw»st eonip^tetii to^jndge. <* 
When a book has pasled the entf^ii^s in the two toiling l^tato^net; •«> 
it istliea* as leisure serves, * inscribed in the other two,- the ^AtpfaaM ' >* 
betip and the Scientilic. •• /« ^d 

3^ Thb Alphabetic CATALoeufc forros» at present", a sMlea^ •*• 
of upwardr of 160 hii^etblto volumes.' This grear work was pfo« ''*i 
jected by Heyne/ begun it the year- 1777, and tinishhd'in 17«7i' ** 
The asstduott}^ labor often yt*prs, on the part of the hbratians^ WaiT- -* 
not more than soAicieiit' th' complete it. - His Maj«>sty graiifed M "-^ 
eitmordiiwry aum of money to carry fliework intoewecution f the^ ^ '< 
eipeine was estiarAted at between 5 and 600 pounds. * - The boole# - 1 1 
are miered, alplmbetically; under- the names ai the tAithoia. " W '•<< 
the name o^ v^he author be not expn^ssed on the titl^-pa)|e;and Wf '> '* 
be koowi^it ir equally inscrtbsd' under his warufiet hut it t9» at th^ '^f 
Mine. time; eotesed in auoHwr place witbosft Ihe nata^ accoitding to ' 
the leading word of the title. Ifais etttrance4s'acc6lbpanied"#ftb'*< » 
a reference h» the page where tlie autbof'svname ia writtvii^'' Wheif ' '' 
the author's name is' not known, theleaditog, orfobjecHvie'^ord of- •'' 
tiletitl«<is made lo correspond with thev Ujphabet. 'TIAis, if th« •'• 
wfitm" of* a 'work, called ' Essay on the Art erf .Painiiii|^,' Wfere<otii • > ^ 
h|l0apii/ it would be. found in the 4ii^betiG ^Uhilegnr, li^tt^rW, • • 
'^Emay, T^re f snevor more than ^ku naknm, oe;tf ^tHci^he ti» nhtni^/ > ^ »^ 
Mie title.- word, committed to a leaf of paper; that is, every name,' 
or e^erjrtitf e-word; has ^rieaf lort6»lf. There armevtrtwo ^aathbrii 
Of tvnp title-words on the same leaf, which produces- this^ very greht 
advantage, thai Icavea, with new names, and new fitle-^words, rib^- v> 
lor cvarha put beiween the existing leaves, without eOilMHtteih^ -^; 
or difturbiog the alphabetical order. The catalogue, 'tfid'rf^. "' 
mafMr* o&'lSr iiit 4ndlf ofte }enetb bf^r^e witH<;ut :t!ie necessity of ;;" 
ire met^ag/an^NvittaigU over il^hih R>r the pur]^se>f.adapt1p|^ ' . 

Xanvrt^^iblS^^I^ 35^ 

m'mm$^ the-Miittil' llie bookbmder is t^i^ required #9r dividii^ ' 
tiK!iiv<thsit <it, iBiilitHs*t«to<volifBai«'6^6Qt of eoe,- which ppocess iimj '' 
Hkewi»eg» uh fur 'ever wilhatii drc^igh^g, in the M>ast» the alpfaa<<' 
helii^«fd^.' Tfan ivb0l« 4^iitTi«aiief* ns as iiigenknts as if is tise* * 
fill.. Th« m^i^M^ \«$iv<e» af« past^di ii? by the honkbinder t6 be' 
pnf^^y s€(e«re<t« -^This cataloiSue, asf<lhe precedib|^j and the fbl-' 
harnm* baS'turo moiigiiis % #0 om ^^ i^HPSe miirgiin of (he Alpbs* > 
betiq.iUauil<»gaei M the s>de of ever^ bi>ak aire mai^cifd, tite year/ 
Mid/^af|9,'of the MaiiUfil, to|S!e( her with its sise, nttmi»er» and da^m,. ^ 
as adtered in Ihe Qactalifgne of Accescifin': on the opposite nmfgifi' 
i« acelereipee to rhei Sciautihi; Catalogue, which; however, tsuot' 
Bftade before tkio book- is boimd. '* ' 

4.TKB8oi«NTiiric CAT4t£o€U&< — There 18 an nkl SeientMic 
Catalo«|iia, whkb i(» slil) in 4i]»e, b^'esse the new (>toe,> iiiirlertaiE«a' 
'aBd;^gjan ifi the year 1^0'Zri& nok yet.'finislied: lit this eatatogoe, 
the hobkia entered ac4iuf)d«ag^to tts- swbfeirf , feit>rre<l to that place 
m t^ayi»tafiiatie«rniiigein«Jit of (he. librafy^ Ho whkdn, IVoin \%t cod* ' 
tcnta,;U bekngs. it is pioat laipoiiianl and inleffestiag to see' ttfe^ ': 
books thus ranged together : the whi»4e held of li«f mngis »urtreyed 
io iti^VfMHOU8*iHvtoi<»na-aud' subdivigioas^ niid aU*>he work<i that have^' 
beeBirwriltea on aiiy pari^eiilar aabject, are' brought under the eye.' '^-^ 
Thi3^t|f«nestiniaye advsnxtage tor any teamed or scifiitifie' fe*^"- 
sean;besyjn mkOKk the Isibof «f eoqutry is greatly facilitated and" ' V 
assiHed^ wbea we kM«^ what has been done beftire us on any sob* 
ject^rith which we areengagedi and ca« avail eursetves of every step > ^ 
Iha^iMMteeii taken by oar predecessors. Wilhout such means it some* : -* * 
liroinbappeiia.tbat! both lime- and troubbilire lostinseekiiig for that >' > 
whiebJittftalreadjKhitra^lnind, or- that .a subject is not viewed in all 't 
those hearings. a«Kl relaliuas^ in which it 'Stiould lie eontetnphrted.' 
To ^ye Uie benefit oi saob a source of infoirniation is no triiing"^ ' 
circitnietance. No book is entered ia thk catak>gue before it it •' 
bound' ;^ and when the. entry has been .made, a reference to it is '^ *- 
iMa^d 19 thev Gatal^ifueiof Aceeauon, aod ta the Alphvbei 16 Gala^ ) i ' 
logue/ > ThaJt . refe rence. ajko w« the- depanmieot mi science to which ')<i • 
the bopk belougi^ and gives. tbe page of'tbe Scientilie Cvtalogue^ni^r* 
Bat i#hat appears of.. the .greatest consequence is, that a siaiiravon^ 
reference to. this catalogue is £ouiMl in the book itself. It is n^^* ^ 

* A difefence in the meatitng tof tfiis expression, which prevails b^"*** * * 
tweeis fioghmd and Gerniaity^ ft\^y be oofioecl* A book is in Germafiy'' }^< 
calledDoihoaady or as.tbey lerni it ^jfMumd, as long as* it is in sheetsa itO 
But Wjiesi.U is put in hoards, or is eveja.i>iiljr sewecl^ it. .is cgnsi€lere4 i%^> <<' 
boona.VjChfeb9.?k»«41e» wtUhWt^sks.all in sbef^ts^ JJ^)^\m^^}ii^%^^.-, 


Ubrofymt Gutimgcn. 

icribttd oil the intide of the left-battd eo^er : %wi this 
DOtafioQ the book is placed on the shelf. By this means it is moat 
readily /ound, when wanted for use. The Scientific Catafa>|{iM 
points out to what division of science it beloiifrs. The librarian 
goes to the set of jrfielves appropriated to that division. From the 
catalogue he likewise knows its subdivisions. He has then only at 
random to take out any book, and to look at the mark, to be guided 
either to the right or the left, above or below, in <irder to find the 
spot wlieie that particular liook» which he requires, is stationed. 
It is like opening a dictionaW, where, if you search for a word, 
you look under the letter with which it begins, then you carry 
your eye to the right or the left, from the page, which you have 
b^ chance opened, and thus approach the very word you wish to 
discover. It is an easy process, and more quick and sure than the 
mechanical plan of putting numbers on the backs. This method, 
than which none is more rational and more convenient, I believe, 
the library owes to Mr. Reuse. 

These different catalogues may not unaptly be compared to n 
Hierchant's account-book. The Jilenual may be said to resemble 
the dav-book, and the Alphabetic and Scientific Catalogues be con-^ 
flideied as the ledgers. The Catalogue of Aecesfcion b a pecilliar 
memorandum, giving information concerning the progressive in# 
crease of the stock. When the question is, whether any givett 
book is in the library, the Alphabetic Catalogue will furnish tbe 
answer : if it be asked where it is to be found, the Scientific Cafa^ 
logue is to be consulted. The Catalogue of Accession would U^l 
when and whence it was obtained. 

Before I take my leave of the library, I most not omit to mention, 
that it possesses also a valuable collection of prints and ei^^rav* 
ings, which is placed under" the care of an eminent professor is 
the fine arte, Mr. Fiorillo. 


/ ^ 

%* We ahall, in our suceessive Numbers, present our reatf^ 
with similar aecoimts of the libraries of Ley den, Hanover, CasseT, 
Ootha, Weimar, Jena, Erlangen, Leipcig, Dresden, Prague, Tieuna. 
and Munich* £o. 

*i . 



No. I. . •• . • 

To the EdUor «/" iht Ciasdeal J^urnaL * " *' . . 

• • • . « ' * ' ' . 

Tbb encouragement which my work;, eatitled Ortental CSM/iBffM, 
bas received irom the public, has induced ine to devote as mitcih 
'time as my other avocations periuit to the continualionof it«t 
^me futitre period, in two additional volumes. 1 have m^de v^ 
considerable preparation -for that purpose, tn the meuD time |.d^ 
"^ign, through .t|ie medium of the CkLmoal JowimK to publish a 
series of Articles selected froin mj papers, for the ill ust ration of th€ 
Sacred Scriptures. I have herewith transmitted you the first. oum'^ 
ber, which, if acceptable, shall be continued in syul^^equent Artiolfd. 
Took' 8 Court, Sept,SS20. SAMUEL BURDER. 

I. — Exodus XV. 25. The Lord shewed himr a tree, which, when 
he had c^H into the woiere, ifu waters were mademD^d *^ Cl-vah 
is fi lar^e village or town, tbiok-platited with paUn-trees^-^lie Oasis 
Parva of the Ancients— the fast inbalnted place to the west that is 
Bfider the Juiisdictioii of Egypt : it'yields senna ahd coloqiixntida. 
The Arabs call £l-vah a shrub or tree not unlike ouriiawtltoni, 
.either in foriin or flower. It was .of this wood, they say, that-Mcy- 
8es*s rod was made when he sweetened the waters of Marah. With 
. a, rod of this wood too, say they, Kaleb Ibn el Waalid, the great 
destroyer of Christians, sweetened these waters at £kvah, on<je 
bitter, and gave it the name from this miracle. A nintiber of very 
;fiQe spjrings burst from the earth at Cl-vah, which retiddr thb small 
jfiot verdant and beautiful, though surrounded with dreary dcsarts 
^on every quarter : it is ^tuate<l like an island in the tsidst of tl)e 
ocean." Bruce's Travels, vol. ii. p. 470. Our c^unifits whb first 
peopled some paris of America corrected the qualities of the 
water 'they Yonnd ihere, b^ ini using in it branches of sassafras ; and 
it is understood that the first inducement of the Chinese to the 
general use of .tea was to correct ij^^. waters of their vivei^s. \That 
other watcf .also stands in $o/ne need of correction^ apd^hat ^ucfa "V 
correction is supplied fo7 it, appears' froQi the custom of Egypt in 
Inspect to tile water of the^Siie — a i^nsiotb which miglit have Deen 
familiar to Moses, as probably it is of great antiqiiity.' '*'-T!i€ 
water of the Nile is always somewhat muddy ; but by rubbing with 
bitter almonds, prepared In a particular manner, the earthen jars in 
which it is kept, this water is rendered clear, light, and salutary." 
,Niehuhr*s Trav. vol. i. p. 71. (Calmet. Diet. Art. Alvah.J 

I(. — Matt. \«i. S. j^nd a very gi^eat muititude spread their gar^ 

' ments in the way, Plutarch inibrms us that the same afiectionafe 

respect and reverence was paid to Cato, ** When Cato's expeditiqa 


258 Oriental Customs. ^ 

was ended, he was escorted not only with tiie customary praised 
and acchimationsy but with' feats, and the tenderest endeanatnts^ 
the populace spreedifuc their garments under hie feet wherever he 
walked, and with aflectionate fervor kissing his hands — testimonies 
of public respect which the Romans at that time showed to very 
few of their Commanders." Plutarch in Catene Jun. p. 402. jEAY. 
Gr. 8vo. ' So also Clytemnestra orders her servant to spread gar- 
laents in the road, m order to grace and honor the return of Agft- 
itteninon. JEschyli Agamemnon, v. 917. 930. See also Stankjf on' 
V. 9 18, in Editiane Pauw. 1745. See also 2 Kings is. 13. Then 
they hasted, and took every man his garment, and put it under 
him an the top 0/ the stairs, and blew with trumpets, saying, Jehu" 
is King. 

m.— 2 Samuel viii. 7* The shield* of gold. It has been the 
.practice of many princes to make the arms of their soldiers oma- 
mental and precious; partly from the love of splendor and magnifi- 
cence, and partly to influence the courage of those who earned 
them, since nothing else could secure them from becoming a prey 
to their enemies. It was probably on this principle that Ale^nder 
Severus instituted bis Chrysaspides, os soldiers with golden shields. 
Alexander the Great bad his Jirgyraspides, or soldiers with silver 
shields. Hadadeaer bad hb golden ones. Delamf's L^e of David* 
jif o. ^ 

** It was farther proposed that a shield of pure gold, exceeding 
the ordinary size, should be dedicated to him in the place allot- 
ted to orators of distinguished eloquence.'* Tacitus, Ann. ii. 83. 
** The images of eminent men were represented on the shield which 
they had been us|ed to wear, and thence the images in honor of their 
memory were usually called shields.'' Pliny, 1. xxxv. s. 3. 

IV. — Phil. i. 7. / have you in my heart. ** The old man fol- 
lowed us with his women to a distance from the village, and at 
parting, recommended me to hb relations : ^ He is your brother,' he 
said to his son, ' and theae,' opening his son's waiatcoat» and putting 
his hand upon his bosom, ' there let him be placed :' a way of re- 
commendation much in use in the Arabian desert likewise.'' Burck- 
hardt's Travels in Nubia, p. 17O. 

. V. — Phil. ii. 25. My brother and companion in labour, and fellow 
soldier. ** According to a military custom, established in an early 
period of the Commonwealth, every Roman soldier chose his favo- 
rite comrade, and by that tie of friendship, all were mutually bound 
to share every danger with their fellows. . The was, 
that a warlike spirit pervaded the whole army." Livy, 1. ix. Tacitus 
Hist. I IS. ' 

VI. — ^Judges iii. 24, 25. The doors of the parlour were locked. 
The wooden locks commonly used in Egypt ** consist of a long 
hollow piece of wood fixed in the door so as to slide backwards and 
forwards, which enters a hole made for it in the door-post, and ia 

. Literary Intelligence. 25^ 

AaK fiistepMd by sauiU Mts of Itod wire, wkieh iStttt fiom tbo^e 
ioto ititle orifices made for them in the top of the lock. The key 
19 a long piece of wood» having at the end small pieces of iron wire 
of different lengths, irregularly fixed in, corresponding in number 
and direction with the faults which fall into the lock : these it lifts 
up on being introduced into the lock, which it then pulls back. The 
bolts of wire differ in number from S to 14 or 15, and it is impos- 
sible to guess at the number a lock contains, or at the direction in 
which they are placed." Twmef's Jowmal of a Tour in the LevanU 
▼• iii. p. 496« 


Stephens' Greek Thesaubus, No. X. — (indudii^ 
two Nos. of the Glossaiy,) Price U. 5s. \. p. 9/. 12s. 6d., 
which will soon be raised to 1/. 7^. and 2/. 15s. The ioi* 
pression is limited to the niintber of Subscribers, which is 1068. 

Dblphik and Variobum Classics. Nos. XIX. 
and XX. Price 1/. Is. small, and 2/. 2s. large paper. Tlie 
number of Subcribers is now 972. The prices will be hereafter 
raised to new Subcribers, as the number printed is very limited. 

The Rev. T. H. Home, M. A. has put to press a new Edi- 
tion of his Intro4uction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of 
the Holy Scriptures (reviewed in our journal for September 
18l9)i revised, corrected^ and enlarged, m four thick 8vo. 
volumes, with marps and ikc^similes of Biblical MSS. As the 
Third Volume will consist priocipatly of new matter, it is intend-^ 
ed to print an extra number of that Volume, including the addir 
tional plates, for the accommodatioa of suda purchasers of the 
first edition as may order the same on or before January 1st. 
1821. No more extra copies wiU be printed than are acttuiUy 

Commentationes Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Gottingensis 
recentiores, Vol. tv. Gott. 1820. 4to. Insunt hae commentati- 
ones Classis Historiae et Philologicae : 1. Frid. Bouterwek de 
Philosophia Euripidea, &c.; 2. lo. God. Eichhom de .S|;ypti 
anno mirabili ; 3. Lud. Heeren de fontibus et auctoritate Vita- 
rum Plutarchi ; 4. Chr. Tychsen de Charte Papyraceae in Eii- 
ropa per medium aevum usu ejusque termino ; praemissa illus- 
tratione duorum fragmentorum in Papyro scriotorum. 

Dzieje Starozytne. Od poczatku czasow Historycznych do- 
drugiey Polowy wieku Szostego, ery Cbrzescianskiey. (By 
Joachim Ii^leweL) Wilno, 1 8 18.. 8vo. 

S60 Nates ta Carregpwdei^s. 

r^ irarpl^ei aurov Xlof. *Ev HoLpia'toig ^ *Airpikiov aa>x!. 
This propempticon thus coni«nences: • 

EU T^v 'RKTpli* uya)(0Dpslc |M.j TMv Mo'j<rm roi tu)o», 
IJcis ol yovug cov X^i^TapoOv ! vms (re Troisi ^ groAic ! ' 
Uwi 01 iraripgc xai rpo^el; vr^f; ysoXa/a; o\tig I 
The meti e of thqse verses is the sam^ as iUat of the fragmeoUi 
of Manasbes, lecenlly puulibliec) by Pi of. Ijoissoiiade ; but ihejF 
differ from those of Maim^ses in Ijeing written in rh>nie. n6\»$ 
and JXi]^ Qie good ond legitimate ibymes ; oAij; being pronounced 

Sup))l6Aieiit aux Annales des Lagkles, conlentsnt la defefise 
de la chionologie de cet ouvrage pur M. Cbaaipollion Figeac. 
Paris, 1820. 

Observations sur la Defense de la Chronologie des Lagi^es ; 
par M. T. Saint Martin. Paris,, H)«0. - 

Ay^yXov Xofi^opoi. jSEsrhyli Choliplioij: [Sic : 'atqoe editw 
•ab ea sciibendi norma nbn rccedil*; nam. liaec' sunt prdefiitionis 
verba prima, In hoc Chdephoyorum edltione sludtti ; et Notb 
hie index praefixus est, Noltc in Ckdephoros,'] Edidit Conr. 
Schwenk. Traj. ad Ulien. 1819. 8vo. 

Gul. A. Teislerbant (diet, li Idevdyk) JCti Observationum 
et emendaiionurn liber unus et alter. Letda?, 1819-^0. 8vo. 

Frid. Gul. Nic. Suringar Commentaiio de niutati Hebneo- 
rum ingeuii post reditum e captiviuite Babylonica ratione et 
causis, pra mio ornata. Leid. 1 8€0. 4to. 

Theod. Adr. Clarisse Commentfrtio de Athenagorae vi(a^ scrip- 
iis, et doctiiiia, piusmio ornata. Leid. 18^. 4to, 

A nevi' edition of Cleomedes is now preparing in lloiland. 
The editor is baid to be the learned M. Bake* 


As our Numbers generally vary as (o quantity, we beg to state 
that the average number of pages was always intended to be ,200. 
V/e believe it will be fouud^ oi^ reference tooiir Nos., that the 
quantil) has on the whole been much exceeded. Our.thailks 
are however due to *An Original Subscriber/ 

Si quum novam et.meliorem Accenluum rationem prof^reo- 
dani censueiit A — , nos sibi morem geientes habebit. 

We have received a variety of communications^ whiph we^bave 
not room.^o mention* They shall not be neglj^tedir 





DECEMBER, 1820. 


lonnon : 







Essay ^' On the evidence from Scripture that the Soul, im- 
mediately after the Death of the body, is not in a state of 
sleep or insensibility ; but of happiness or misery : and 
un the moral uses of that doctrine." Part ii. ••••••. 26 1 

Comicorum Grscorum Fragmenta« Specimen Editionis 

a G. BuBGEs ....••• 277 

Oxford Prize Essay, ISOl i-^Guiklmi Joties, Equiits 

Aurati, Laudatio. H. Ph i lpotts ••••• • 286 

Latin Poem : - Non tangetida rates transiliunt vada. J. H. 

Taylor ••••...•,.. • «• 297 

On the Theology of the Greeks. Part 11. T.Taylor SOI 

Classical Criticism • • • • •• • • • • 315 

On the Origin, Progress, Prevalence, and Decline, of 

Idolatry. Part iii. By the Rev. Geo. Townsend 316 
Notae et Curas sequentes in Arati Diosemea. No. v. a Th. 

FORSTER •••••••••• 327 

Simonidis Fragmenta dao emendata a G. B. •••••••••• 3S8 

De Origine ac Yi Verborum, ut vocant, Deponentium et 
Mediorum Graecae linguas, prassertim Latinae «••••••• 341 

On the New Translation of the Bible ••••••••••«• 348 

Inscriptio Eliaca explicata a G. B. •••••• • • • 352 

Andocides emendatus aG. B. •••••••• 353 

Critical Observations on the article in the Quarterly Re- 
view, No. XLV., entitled "The Course of the Niger/' 

By J. G. Jackson »-«^* ••-••••••••••••••• ••• 354 

An obscure passage in the first Catilinarian Oration of 
Cicero explained. By £. H. Barker •••••••••• 376 

MS. Fragment of a Greek Ritual •• • 379 




In Herodotum Emendaliones. G.B. •• 37S 

Thucydides Emendatus. G. B. •••••••••••••••••• 576 

Oil the Ancient British Language of Cornwall. IConclnded,'] 3f7 

De Patavinitate Liviana •• •• ••• 385 

Amoenitates Pbibsophicaey No. i. Containii^ Observations 
on, and Corrections of. Passages in Hermes, Heronias, 
Jamblichus, and Proelus, Bj E. H. Barker •••••• 587 

Notice of Mr. Elmsley's Ed. of the Medea of Euripides. 

No. III. ..f..4K..*.n» 409 

Remarks on a Passage in Dr. Vincent's ' Periplus of the 

Erjthrean Sea.' By J* G. Jackson 499 

An Account of the Libraries at Leiden, Hanover, Cassd, 

Gotba, Weimar, Jena, Eriangen, Leipzig, and Dresden 430 
On the Arabic Inscription, discovered in the Pyramid of 
Cephrenes, by Mr. Bblzoni, and the Translation of 

the same, by Professor Lee * •••• 448 

On the state of Religion and Philosophy among certain 
Writers of Antiquity,- and the seasons of their silence 

respecting the Christian Religion • 452 

Adversaria Literaria, No. xxvi. — Rhopalic Verses*-* 
Echoici Versus — Versus Reciproci, J.C. Scaliger — 
AdJulium IIL Pont. Max. — Ad Carolum V. Cass.^- 
Ad Ferdinandum. Romanorum Reg.-*Acrostichis— 
Epitapbium Henrici VH. Reg. Angl.— EpTtaphinm 
Henrici III. Gall. Reg. — Epitaphium Borbonii — ^^OXo^ 
Xuy/uio^ and Ululatus — Quantity of AUiA' — H. Stephen's 
reading, of two passages in £uripides^-Notul» MS. in 

Hor. Serm. ct Ep ••••.••••• ••<«•• 465 

Literary ipt^lUgence •«•««• •• • ••%• «• 472 

Notes to Correspondents ••••»••••••• ••••»«••• 484- 





Classical journal. 

NO. XIAVk ' ' ' 

DECEMBER, 1620. 


On the evidence from Scriptur€ thai the Soul, immt- 
diateltf after the death of the body^ is not in a stAte of 
sleep or insensibility ; but of happiness or misery j and 
on the moral uses of that doctrine. 

Part l\^\Coniinued fnm m. XLIII. p. 155] 

That *' the disembodied Soul has even more active ener^es, 
than when encumbered with the body,^ may be assumed^ 1 thhik/ 
on probable grounds. 

That, illuminated with some portion of knowledge, it nevet' 
reposes in indolence, but perpetually aspires after a larger share, 
and proceeds more fervent in its course in proportion as it is' 
ifiore and more enlightened — seems descriptive of the hutimn 
intellect in the present state of being. And, in its route towards 
perfection, ho^ great is its restlessness when interrupted in the 
pwrsuit, yet how iaconceivable its distance from the point to 
which it tends ! how vast the vacuity for ever remaining to be 
filled up— how manifold the deficiencies of which it is sensible — . 
how infinite the space into which it desires to penetrate, but 
which is enveloped m clouds of thick darkness ! — But to imagina- 
tion who can affix boundaries ? — And, fotjiie affectious, whose 
objects are often worthy all their ardor, and apparently held 
oitt as an everlasliug possession — who can picture their fruitless 

VOL. XXII. Cl.Jl. KO. XLiV. 8 

262 On the state 

aiijeqgies^ when those objects are no sooner attained, than snatch- 
ed away from their grasp ? — In its aspirations beyond iLe body, 
we thus contemplate the mind with. wonder: nor should ve 
les^ admire its pre^emioenceover its earthly vehicle, while under 
certain circumstances it abstracts its essence, as it were, out of 
the body — can render the body, though disordered, insensible of 
disease — though tortijyred can dissipate the feeling of pain, 
and, though m every part the brain be injured, cun still pursue 
its thoughts or speculations.' 

Tottering upon the very verge of the grave, when the body is 
all feebleness and fragility, and the mind is lost to every present 
object, with what an astonishing correctness and vivacity can 
^le aged recollect and recount the transactions of their youtli i 
•^Ilow vividly they retrace the scenes that had in early life 
amused their fancies or inflamed their passions ! With all tiie 
images of the past thus crowding upon them — whilst iheii souls 
are rekindled into new life, — it should seem as if they had pob- 
session of two worlds at once : — as if, though inhabitants of earth, 
they were existing in the world of spirit!) — htr«, though in 
the body, yet almost out of the body in Paradise ! 

It is surely a striking circumstance, that, a little before their 
deaths, the Patriarchs were endued with a prophetic spirit — that 
they foretold the fortunes of their children — the fates of their 
latest posterity ; — and that Moses, after the period of his de^ 
cease had been determined, recounted to the Israelites tlieir vari- 
ous history, addressed to them the counsels of wisdom, and 
chanted a song, for sublimity and pathos unrivaled in the Eastern 
poetry. Thus energetic almost at the hour of dissolution-— 
thus endued with preternatural powers, we are almost warrant- 
ed in concluding, that their spirits, about to throw off the in- 
cumbrances of the body, had additional force and fire, and that, 
after death, they gained vigor and animation. 
, 1 have already alluded to our Saviour in Paradise as meeting 
the Penitent. But in what manner our Lord employed hi^ tim^ 
there, and in other mansions of disembodied spirits, between 
his death and his resurrection, .may claim our particular conside- 

' I'he modern theory of the uiaterialists has been entirely overturned 
by reasoning from facts — from experience. See Mem. of Liter, and- 
f%ilos: Society of Manchester, vol. iv. for a valuable paper of Dr. Fer* 
riai ; proving by evidence apparently complete and indisputable, that 
every part of the brain iias been iujured without affecting the act of 

of the Soul after death. 26S 

Wliilit on earth, our Saviour was all activity, both in bcKfjr 
and mind. He not only preached ^Mhe glad tidings of salya^ 
tion" to innumerable multitudes — to all that- '^ had ears to hear/' 
— but '^ went about doing good from village to village, and from 
house to house, visiting the sick and relieving the wretched-^^' 
proclaiming liberty to the captive, and the opening of the pri* 
son to them that were bound." 

And whilst in Hades (it should seem from a fair ind<it^ 
tion) he remitted not a moment from bis labors of love* 

In Paradist*, he met *' the Penitent." To the ** Spirits in 
prison" he went and preached. *^ For Christ hath once suffered 
for sins — put to death in the flesh, — but quickened by the Spirit* 
By which, also, he went and preached unto the Spirits in 
4>r4son, which sometimes were disobedient, when once the long- 
suffering of God waited, in the days of Noah, while the ark was 
preparing — wh<2rein few (that is, eight souls) were saved by 
v^rater." * The words flavaradeij jxev <r»p)^ are very strong and 
decisive, " dead in his twdy" fa>owo*i)J6»f §8 t(5 nvei^ATii '■ light- 
ed up with new life, in his soul !" 

Escaped from the burden of his mortal body, his soul was aoi- 
nflated with a more ardent vivacity — was rendered capable of 
more powerful energies ! 

' And, with a life thus kindled into a brighter flame, be went 
atid preached to the Spirits whose bodies had perished in the 

The Ahcient Fathers (with the exception of St. Augustine) 
understood the passage before us in its obvious sense. That 
'^the ^ul of Christ preached salvation to the souls in Hades>" 
was the persuasion of Clemens : and that '^ as Christ went into 
Hades, so shall our souls go thither," — thought Irenseus and 
Tertulliaii.* ^ 

' I mean not to hazard any new conjecture relative to a passage 
unquestionably obscure, but which has been tinely illustrated 
by a late writer of high eminence in theology. 

' After his exposition of the text, his application of it to our- 
selves is equally clear and concise. '' Christ was made so truly 
man, that whatever took place in the human nature of Christ, 
may be considered as a model and example of what must take 

} Peter, ill. 18, 19, 20. 

^ See, particularly, Irenaeus, lib. iv. c. 45. Clem. A.lex. Strom, lib. vi.aad 
St. t^yril in' Joan. lib. xii. ' 

f64i On the stMe 

plM^y HI ^ certaM diM proportion and degree, in every man united 
to him. CMm^s Soul nurfived the death of hi< body. 

The soul, iherrforei of ev^y believer shall survive the body's 
death. Christ's diseinbodied Soul descended into hell : thiiher, 
therefore^ shall the Soul of every believer descend. 

in ^ftt place the Soul of Christ, in its separate state, possessed 
and exercised active powers : in the same place, tb«ireifore, shall. 
the bettever's Soul possess and exercise activity. Christ's Soul 
was not left in hell, neither shall the Souls of his servants there 
be left but for a season. 

The appcHnted tiane will con>e, when the Redeemer shall set 
open the doors of their prison-house, and say to his redeeuied : 
. '* Go forth !"' 

V. — That " the separate Soul shall even have uew senses^*' 
stems suggested, in Scripture, from several incidents and cir- 

It now we *^ see tbroush a glass darkly, then shall we see face 
to face,*'* '^ If now we know in part, then shall we know even 
as also we are known." 

' It is not enough that the veil of obscurity sliall be withdrawn 
from those oMects, of which we at present form some faint 
conception. There is no doubt that scenes shall be disclosed to 
us, such as have no counterpart upon earth — that voices shall be 
uttered, such as we have never heard — language, to which 
nothing here can bear any affinity. 

; In the Paradise, to which St. Paul was carried, the Apostle 
heard '' unspeakable words :" the vision which he saw was un* 
describable ; the words which he heard, unutterable ; the 
knowledge that was imparted, incommunicable. Yet St. Paul 
declared, he could not say whether he bad been ^' in the body, 
or out of the body." If " out of the body," it was plain, that an. 
incorporeal Spirit has a more enlarged intelligence, and livelier 
perceptions^ than a Soul receiving impressions on the bodily 
organs, and carrying on its operations through the medium of 
the senses. New sources, therefore, of knowledge will open 
upon us; new avenues of delight. It is then, that^ independently 
of the fksh and in the'highest degree spiritualised, the Soul will 
exert its noblest energies ; and amidst abstractions (to set at 

* See Bishop Horselcy's Sermon, Edit. 1811. pp. 414, 415. Why the 
Bishop should have confined ^^the life and activity*' of the intermediate 
tute to " believers''— to <* the sei vants of Christ," — we cannot perceive. 

* 1 Cur. xiii. 

of the Soul after death. 665 

titmglit the proudest boast of our earfbly, epheia«rail philotq^) 
vill increase in knowledge more snd moFe, aad purMie Us ooa* 
templations of truth — of the Eternal Mind"^» that ttDcre«tc4 
light, '< at whose brightness the Moon* shall be coofomMkid^ and 
the Sun ashamed."' 

V!. — There are circumstances, whence we are ferther-assui^d, 
that the Soul, thus possessing coosciottsness, activity, keener 
sensibility and new organs of perception, ^ shall at oner 
e;j;ojr positive happiness or positive misery, 

" To-day shaJt ihou be with me in PamdidjS^' — said our S»* 
triotir to the Penitent. Immediately on bis decease, the Peino 
tent was admitted into btiss. To meet, face to face, the Lord of 
life was, indeed, supreme happiness. 

Nor is it to be questioned, that St. PauPs desire *^ to depart 
and to be with Christ," implied his fuU assurance of an instant 
communication of such felicity. *' To me, to live is Cbrist/' 
(said lie,) *' and to die, is gain.** " But if I Kve in the flerii, this is 
the fruit of my labor. \et what I shall choose, I wot not. 
For I am in a strait betwixt two ; having a desire to depart end 
to be with Christ, which is far better. Neverthelesa, to abide 
in the flesh, is more needful for you.** * 

Nor is it less evident from Scripture, that the SohIs of the 
wicked shall no sooner be disengaged from flieir bodies, than 
they shall be sensible of pain — of mental anguish the most 

The rich man tortured in Gehenna was very «ixious to dia^ 
patch a messenger to his five brethren, wtiom he had left on earth 
immersed in sensuality-^to warn them of his unhappy fate-^leat 
they should come into that place of torment. 

And there is a parable of another ^' rich man," which shows 
that with the guilty there is no respite from punishment. In this 
life, there are scenes that may dissipate attention. Bui after 
death, the Soul will be abandoned to its own reflections ; and 
the conscience of the sinner ^ slumbereCh not." * ** Be not 
afraid of them (said our Saviour) that kill the body, and after 
that, have no more that they can do. But I wilt forewarn yoa 
whom ye shall fear. Fear him, which after he bath kiNed hadk 
power to cast into hell." — '* And he spake a parable. The 
ground of a certain rich man brought forth plentifully.'' — *^ And 

* Isaiah xxiv. 23. * Phil. i. 21, 22, 23. 

' Luke xU. 4, ii.-^16-20. 

266 On the slate 

he 8aid/I'will pull downtnj barns, and build greater: and*lber# 
will! bestow all my fniits and my goods. And 1 ^ill say to my 
•oul : Soul ! thou hast much goods laid up for many years !" — 
^ But God said unto him : Thou fool ! — this night thy Soul shall 
be reauired of thee !" 

/ VI I. — Though the Soul, immediately after death^ is thus in a 
state of .happiness or misery, we believe, on the authority of 
Script ure, that '' its happiness or misery is very far from perfect 
in its disembodied state" Though it hath cast off that flesh and 
blood, which is never resumed, since '^ flesh and blood can* 
not inherit the kingdom of God/' — and though released from its 
''corruptible body" we conceive it-r-ezpatiating in fields of 
bliss inaccessible to mortality — amidst objects to earthly organs 
imperceptible ; — ^yet its union with a body — (refined from all car- 
nal impurities) is necessary to that susceptibility of pleasure or 
of paiQ which is promised to the just, and must await the wicked 
on that day, when '^ God shall judge every mau according to his 
works." For, as St. Augustine asks, '^ What end can it answer^ 
that Souls should receive their bodies in the resurrection, if with- 
out bodies they enjoy supreme happiness f"' 

We admit, then, that the intermediate is by no means a per- 
fect state< The distinction, indeed, between I^aradise and the 
third Heaven (as revealed to St. Paul) clearly suggests the infe- 
riority of Paradise. 

VIII. — Yet, imperfect as this intermediate state must be, our 
faculties and affections shall be refined and enlarged. And that, 
thus refined and enlarged, '^ they shall be exercised in society ;^— >* 
we may conclude^ perhaps, from our own nature, and from its 
resemblance to the nature of Angels-— to say nothing of several 
intimations in the sacred writings. 

. From the very constitution of our nature, as social, from '' the 
tender charities of *' Father, Son, and Brother," and every tie of 
virtuous friendship, we may surely infer, that retaining all our 
generous propensities and affections, we must be social still, in 
our disembodied state. 

I As to the other argument, the inquiry must be^ how far we 
resemble the Angels? 

The Angels are always represented in society. 

If then, we are like the Angels^ we must be social also. 

It appears that " Jngels*' and " Spirits" are, iq the Scripture, 

Epist 57« 

of the Soul after'death, ^67 

i.;nonjmous. '' If a Spirit or' an Angel hath spoken unto him, 
lex us not fight against God/'* "He maketh his Angels, 

In the mean time, the Spirits or departed Souls of Men ar^ 
** like the Angels," or even " the Same" as the Angels of Hea- 

'' When they shall rise from the dead, they shall be as the Angels 
in Heaven." * *' They can die no more, for they a^e equal unto^ 
.the Angels." ^ These observations (by the way) may assist u? 
in elucidating a text, which ha3^been almost given up,. as inex-^ 
plicable, by modem as well as ancient commentators.--^' Know 
ye not, that ye shall judge Angels ?*'' Know ye not, that ye 
shall judge Spirits — the Spirits of men i Our Saviour bad tok( 
the twelve Apostles, that '^ they should sit on twelve thrones^ 
judging the twelve tribes of Israel." i 

'Phat the Angels are scarcely ever noticed but in terms that 
suggest an idea of society, is suiBciently obvious. ^ 

Nor can we disconnect the images of social happiness, from' 
^* the household of God," " the whole family in Heaven," *' the 
general assembly and church of the first born," ** the city of 
the Living God." We are also informed, that *f there is joy in 
the presence of the Angels of God over one sinner that repent-' 
cth." ' 

If, then, there be so close an analogy between the nature of 
Angels and of Men, the Spirits of Men exist not iii solitude. And,' 
whilst Angels have '' such respect unto us," — shall we remain 
uninterested in the fate of our fellow-creatures i 
' It is to benevolence — it is to friendship, that the pleasures of 
Paradise shall owe their zest. It is hatred — it is envy, that shall 
sharpen pain. 

< Who can doubt it, when the very prayer which our Lord him^ 
self hath taught us, breathes the warmest sympathetic affection, ' 
involving in fraternal love the individual interest — and when' 
with every glimpse of the intermediate state, whether of Para- 
dise or of Gehenna, we see social happiness or social misery.^' 
— '^ I say unto you, that many shall come from the East and 
from the West, and shall sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and 
Jacob, in the kingdom of Heaven.^ 

* Acts xxiii. 9. * Heb. i. 7. 

^ Mark xiL t5. ^ Ijake xx. S6^ 

^ 1 Cor. vi. 3. ^ Matt. viii. 11. 



JQt^ tbe cliilcUeQ of the kimgdom absU he ca&t out inta out^r 
cbrkn^ss : Tbere shaUhe weeping qnd gjiasbing of leeih. — Th^v^ 
shalf be weeping and gnashing of teeth^ when }e shall see Abrnr 
h^xn^ Ifaac and. Jaqoh^ imd all U%e Prophets in the kingdom of 
Qpd, mod you youvselves. tbrusit out, 

'' And they shall come from the East and from the West, au4 
from Ibe North and from the ^oykihf and shall sit down io the 
^iiigdom of GodL'" 

lA*! — Such^ then, is qiu* social nature ; such our affinity with 
Aog^U- J fid *^ w^ shall muH hjmt^fterr 

Sut shall *' father^ son, ami brotlter" meet, and yet be held 
in ignorance of their earthly relationships? — Such ignorance 
^i^auld seem ^oivalevt with eternal separation. 

That we shall recognia/e each father, however, is capable of 
proof from our consciousness. 

It has appeared, that the disembodied Soul, possesses its con- 
sciousness ; and that this consciousness incWdeji a recognisance 
^f oiur actions done in the body. 

. la it possible, then, to conceive, that this consciousness will, 
i^qt a^^tend from actiom^f to persons and things V 

If we rea% possass c^ir former selves, we must necessarily 
call to mind those personal connexions, which bad engaged our 
thoughts and exercised our passions. The memory of those. 
nery actions, hy which we shall be judged, seems involved in the 
jfCoUectiQa of the circumsUuces that gave rise to then), and 
tba persQUS by whose assistsnce, or in whose behalf, or in con*, 
junction with whom they were performed. Every act of virtue 
OK we wuat have, in some shape^^ relation to gthexs, ah well as 
to Qursatve^ 

If, then, our transactions here are so combined and qom* 
ptticated » if tV(a ov i^uu'e^ who had lived together upon earth, 
distinctly rawesaJh^i; the very same fact^, — if they call to me- 
i^Qi^ tl^ same plea^tices. ox distresses, the same anxieties and 
fe»(f^ >vhic;h tboy together shared, or in whi.qh they had sympa-, 
thii«d;-*^cm w€| believe that deatb^ though leaving them in 
fWUtppssessipn of the consciousness that includes '* a recognisance 
ojf ^ai^ a^tioos aadoqe in the bpdy^'' wtll yet. deprive them of 
the power of mutually communicati*S their recollections and. 
their feelings ? — From such communication we cannot abstract 
vCFsoiiaK FeeogOfHoBb 

But in that dreadful apped to consdousness, which Abraham 


^ Luke xiii. 38. 

of theSwl ufter death. %€% 

employs 10 hia conversation with the '^ rich man/' we are taughit 
to believe, that their earthly transactions and connexions wilLb# 
£rQsb IB the memories of disembodied spirits. ** Son ; remem- 
be^^ ibat thou in thy lite- time receivedst thy good things, and 
likewise Lazarus evil things : but now he is comforted, aod 
thou art tormented." 

They, who contend against such recollections, allege '* the 
shadowy character*' of the parable. But ^' tite Penitent Thief 
must silence every objection. '^ Lord ! remember fne, whest 
|hf>u coaieat into thy kingdom." 

To that future knowledge^ St. Paul is conceived to allude^ at 
least in two or three passages of his JSpistles. 

Where, in his Epistle to tlie Colossians,' he Looks to tb<l 
hour, when he shall '* present every man perfect in Christ Jesus,'' 
be is supposed to express his hop«, that at the general judg-* 
m^nt he might present to Christ the converts whom he had mad^ 
to his faith and religion, and might present them perfect in every 
gpod work ;-*-^' which affords a msmifest and necessary infigrence 
that the Saints in a future life will meet and be known again to 
one another : for how^ witboul knowing again his converts, could 
St. Paul ex.pect to present them at the last da} r" 'I'o the 
Tbessaloniaus ^ also the Apostle declares : *' I would not have 
you to be ignorant concerning them which are" in Hades ; 
" that ye sorrow not as others, which have no hope/' For, if 
we beUeve that Jesus died and rose again, even them, also, wilt 
God bring with him.** And ** they who remain on earth, at the 
qoming of our l>ord, shall not" aiiticipate '^ (hem" which are in 
Hades. '' For the dead in Christ shall rm fir$i. Then tliey 
vvbich remain on earth; shall b^ caught up together with them 
in the clonds, to meet the Liord in the air." 

Hot is dear from these passages, that personal recog^ 
nition shall take place befote the re^unionof the body and the souU 
. X.-^On the whole, it should appear,, that social, like the 
Angels, we shall n>eet and converse with our friends in Hadea» 
But perhaps, solicitous for our friends on earth, zpe may be 
sent biihet as. miuisUring SpiriisJ' 

From the notice of the scriptural resemblances between 
j^ngels and the Spirits of men, it has been surmised that the 
Semis of the departed may occasionally rerisit this earth, and 
though restrained in general to their Sheol, may be permitted 

^ 1 Col. i. 28. * 1 Thess. iv. 

570 Onthestah ^ 

to come faiihcr, as guardians from danger^ or as minlslers of 

That th« Almighty act^ by ministering Spirits, is probable 
from that sublime picture of Micaiah^ «henb« tells us—'* I 
saw the Lord sittmg on his throne, and all the host of Heaven 
standing by him on his right hand and on his left. And titere 
came forth a Spirit and stood before the Lord, and said, I vi\\\ 
go forth, and 1 will be a lying spirit in the moUths of all his 
Prophets." * 

But that Angels have the charge of men, we have the most 
convincing evidence — or rather the plain declaration of Scrip- 
ture. " There shall no evil befal thee," (said the Psalmist,) ** for 
he shall give his Angels charge over thee, to keep thee in all 
thy ways."* 

We are even said to have our peculiar Angels. *^'lx is his 
Angel." ^ And, according to St. Matthew, * the Angels*' of 
little children are the most favored Angels of the Almighty." 
** Take heed, ihat ye despise not one of ihese little ones : for 
I say unlo you, that in Heaven their Angels do always behold 
the face of my Father." — ** Take care that ye treat riot with con- 
tempt such little children as ye now see before you, or those be« 
Ijevers in me, who resemble these children in docility, meekness, 
humility, and indifference to all that the world calls great and ho-^ 
norable. For your Heavenly Father condescends to take them 
under his protection. He sends even his most favored Angeb^ 
those ** ministers of his, that do bis pleasure," to guard and %\atcfa 
Over these liitle children, and those Christians, who approach 
most nearly to the innocence and simplicity of the child. ^ 
' From the parable of the ** rich man," I should also conceive 
that the souls of men, on their decease, are conducted by Angels 
to their intermediate habitation. ** The beggar died ; and was 
carried by Angels into Abraham's bosom." 
' It was in opposition to the Sadducees, who denied the sub- 
sistence of the Spirits of men in a separate state, that ihe Pba- 

' 1 Kings xxii. 19. 20. SI. For the agency of spirits, see Ilurd's 
serm. on the text: " Resist the Difevil, and he will fly from you.'*— 
James iv. 7. 

* Psalm xci. 11. Malt. iv. 6. Luke iv. 10. 
^ Acts xii. 15. ♦ Acts xviii. 10. . . 

^ Bp. Portcus. 

of the Soul ufter death. fUl 

t\9ee% declared : '' If a Spirit or an Angel hath spoken to him, 
let us not fight against God." ' « 

. That the Spirits of the deceased, therefore, bad access to men, 
•(in common with the Angels,) was the behef of the Pharisees* 
And this was a scriptural doctrine. Whence we infer, that the 
remployment of departed spirits is similar to that of Angels ;«— 
if so, that departed spirits minister to the necessities of men on 
earth — and, if to men on earth, to their nearest friends and re- 
lations. * 

That spirits in Hades look back to their friends on earth 
with all their former feelings, is probable^ not only from tbq 
parable of Dives (to which I have more than once adverted), but 
from a singular text in the Revelations : — ^^ I saw the Souls of 
them that were slain for the word of God^ and for the testimo- 
ny which they held. And they cried with a loud voice, saying : 
IJpw long, O Lord ! holy and true! dost thou not judge and 
avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth i And white 
robes were given to every one of them : — and it was said unto 
them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their 
fellow-servants also, and their brethren that should be killed 
as they were, should be fulfilled," ^ 

1 should not have ventured to speak even thus slighdy and 
cursorily on a point of so much ambiguity, but for the authori- 
ty of Bishop Kerr, (whp seems to have derived comfort from 
the idea of a spiritual intercourse,) and more particularly that 
of Seeker, whose opinion it was, that *^ our spirits, when sepa- 
rated from the body, shall be sensible of what is transacting 
upon earth — shall be witnesses of the conduct and sentiments 
of the friends we leave behind us."^— The Archbishop was never 
accused of credulity or superstition. 

XI. — May we presume to go one step further — and to. pro- 
fess our belief,' that departed spirits, thus visiting us, for various 
purposes of Providence, may be permitted to assume forms of 
visibility — to become actually manifest to our senses? 

. ^ For Angels having the care of men, see Gen. xxiv. 40. xxxii. 1. 
xlviii. la. Judg. xiii. 3. Ps. xxxiv. 7. Zech. i. 14. *DaD. ix. 22. 

* " Neither reason nor Revelation forbids you to hope, that you may in- 
crease the happiness of your departed Parent by obeying h6r precepts; 
and that she may, in her present state, look with pleasure upon every 
act of virtue, to ivhich lier instructions or example may have contri- 
buted." Boswell's Johnson^ Edit. 2. vol. i. 188. — See also vol. ii. 17. and* 
^ol. it. 590. — See likewise Hayjey's Camper j for similar opiniens.— *Not 
that we lay much stress on the argumentum ad hominem. 

3 Rev. vi. 9, 10, 11. 

S72 On the state 

If Spirits frmiKarlj approtck us, is it not easy to suppose 
that their intercourse may be rendered perceptible to our sense»— 
. or that they may Tisibly appear to us, without either trouble or 
commotion? Considering, therefore, the facility with Mhich 
they may appear, (according to our weak apprehensions at least,) 
we shall not, perhaps, object to their appearing on the ground 
of tririal circumstances or useless emmds. But surely, though 
their dwelling be as remote as possible ; though they may be 
utterly unconscious of our transactions here ; their nature may 
admit (for aught we know to the contrary) of an instantaneous 

Bissing from the place of their abode to our eirthly residence, 
nt how (it has been asked) can a spirit become visible — an 
« immaterial being to our corporeal eyes f A question which can 
never be answered, and ought not to beasked, before we know bow 
sprits exist. — Granting, however, that they are essentially invisible, 
the Deity lias surely the power of investing a Spirit with matter in 
order to produce visibility. I trust, it is not unphilosophical to 
speak of the Soul and the body as united in one person. A spirit, 
then, by the superinduction of the slightest shadowy substance 
may be rendered visible to the eye, though still impalpable. 

That Spirits were once accustomed to manifest themselves to 
the eyes of men, is a truth which none but unbelievers will 
make an effort to gainsay. 

Called up from Sheol, Samuel, we know, foretold the fate of 
Saul and his house, in a strain of terrific grandeur, which was 
evidently the voice of inspiration.' It was doubtless the Spirit 
of Samuel. The Sorceress of Endor, preparing her incantations, 
with a view to a deception, was struck with horror at the appear- 
ance of ** Samuel himself,^ And, instantly discovering who it 
was that had consulted her, '' She cried with a loud voice and 
spake to Saul, saying : Why hast thou deceived me i for thou 
art Saul. And the king said unto her : Be not afraid. And 
^ the Lord^ — ^said Samuel to the King — ' hath rent the kingdom 
out of thine hand, because thou obeyedst not die voice of the 

MJnTTTa Xlflu I Xr^Wnvt I UW amfutZ CDCFV BIIV »flT otMiV W Wff# WtV. 

Tlie fuKlment of this prophecy proves at once its divine origin. 
Hence 1 scruple not to declare my conviction, that the Spirit of 
Samuel actiuilly appeared to Saul. Nor should we slight the son 
of Siracfa, who expressly tells us, that '^ after his deaUi Samuel 
prophesied, and showed the kii^ his end, and lifted up his voice 

' X Sam. xxviiU 

of the Soul after death. 373> 

trom jthe earth in prophecy , to blot out the wickedness of the 

But let us refer to the gospel pf Christ. In St. Matthew, 
Me find that our Saviour's disciples, when '' they saw Jesusi 
walking on the sea, were troubled, saying : It is a Spirit.**^ 

^* And they cried out for fear. But Jesus said : Be of good 
cheer — it is I — be not afraid." 

After his resurrection, our Lord appearing to his discipjes, 
was again dreaded, as a Spirit. But he said : " Handle nie and 
see : For a Spirit hath notjiesh and bones, as ye see me have."' 
How it is not to be supposed, that our Saviour would humor, 
notions absolutely false and groundless. If Spirits could not 
appear, he would have removed the terror of his disciples much 
more effectually, by informing ihem, that what they imagined, 
was impossible. But he affirms, that he is *^ not a Spirit ;** 
with this very remarkable observation, that '^ a Spirit hath not 
flesh and bones." We have, here, even a definition of a Spirits 
We learn from the mouth of our Lord himself, that a Spirit, 
though impalpable, may be rendered visible. 

That Spirits have appeared, then, is plain from Scripture* 
And. what should prevent their continuing still to visit us ? The 
belief that they may, occasionally, visit us, hath, beyond all dis-. 
pute, a religious tendency. It implies the active existence of the 
Soul. It intimates our connexion with the world of Spirits : 
it brings departed friends around us : it even secures to us the 
endearing satisfaction of a parent's care, though that parent b« 
no more seen : it bids us ^^ rejoice with trembling 9*^ and it in- 
spires us with a livelier feeling of the omnipotence of God. 

Part lit. 

L— On the whole, it seems a fact unanswerably pl-oved, since 
(to wave all that Philosophy hath suggested) it reposes on the 
b^sis of the infallible Scriptures — that '^ the Soul, immediately 
after the death of the body, is not in a state of sleep or insensibi- 
lity, but of Happiness or Misery .*' 

Before we advert to the moral uses of this doctrine, let us 
open the Book of Wisdom for a summary view of the three' 
•tates of the Soul in the body, disembodied, and united to tfae_ 
body again : — '^ The Souls of the righteous are in the hands of 

* Eccles. xlvi. 80. * MaU. xiv. 96. ' Luke xxiv. 37. 

274 On the state 

God : ihere ahall no torment touch them. In the Bight of the 
unwise, ihey iieemed to die: and their departure is taken for 
miiery, anU their going from us to be utter destruclion. But 
fhey are in peace. For though they be punished in the sight of 
men, yel is theii hope full of inimoriality. And, having been a 
htlle chasliaed, ihey shall be greatly rewarded ; for God proved 
them, and found them worthy for Himself." 

" 't'hcy shnll judge the nations, and have dominion over the 
people ; and their Lord shall reign for ever."' 

II, — That (lie doctrine I have been iiiculcaling, hath its " moral 
uses," a very slight view of the question must, I (hink, deler- 

Yet there are some who, in the main, sound divines, are 
sceptics on this subject. 

Bishop Horseley had declared that " the Sleep of the Soul 
was an unintelli(;ible and dismal doctrine." The British 
Critic (reviewing the Bishop's Sermons) asserts, on the con- 
trary, that the doctrine is neither gloomy nor unintelligible. 
" Time uu perceived," says the Critic, " is nothing. Men have 
been in a deliquium six weeks, without suspscting, when they 
came to themselves, that tliey had been longer in that state than 
an instant. If a man were to sleep without dreaming far a 
thousand years, it would seem to hiroself, when he awoke, that 
he had slept but one night."* 

In opposing authority to authority, let me observe that Bishop 
Bull (himself a host), far from acquiescing in the Sleep of the 
Soul, is anxious to impress on us the idea of its sensibility ; 
directing our thoughts to its Paradise, as a stale of positive en» 
joymeul. Speaking of " the Third Heaven" and of" Paradise" 
as disclosed to St. Paid, " the order of these visions," says the 
Bishop, "is observable. First, the Apostle had represented 
to him, the most perfect joys of the third or highest Heaven, of 
which we hope to be partakers after the resurrection. And 
then, leit so long an eipeclalion should discourage us, he saw^ 
also, the intermediate joys of Paradise, wherewith the Souls 
of the Faithful are refreshed until the resurrection ; — and for 
our comfort he tells us, that even these, also, are ineipres- 

' Witd. iii. 1—8. 

» See Bfit. Critic xli. p. iO. 

' See Bp. Bull's Serm. i. 91- 

of the Soul after death. 275 

*« III.^'^Tothose, who6e fancies glance ligbUy over .the aurfaire 
q{ tbingSy there may appear but litUe difference between uii«! 
consciousness and insensibility. Tbeir views are, indeed, supers 
ficial. They look not. intently on the subject. They take up( 
little or nothing in their grasp ; and their reflections are nol 
$uch as to operate on the conduct. 

. But to the deep reaspner, to him .who ponders* .well on death 
^nd on eternity, there is something in ** the long unbroken Sleep'' 
of the Soul, from which imagination recoils — there is some** 
thhig in its extinction, from which it shrinks vvitb terror. , > 

VVe turn away from a chasm between death and the resurrec** 
tion. — It is a dismal void, more gloomy than the valley of the 
shadow of death — it is a dreary inanity, that cannot be conceived 
without a feeling of dejection, to check our moral and intellec*^. 
tual energies — to chill the kindest, the most virtuous aflections. 
I it is impossible to contemplate the subject, without affixing 
ill our minds some period to time, some point for the com- 
mencement of eternity. We are willing to think, and we con<^ 
ceive that we have good ground for supposing, that six thousand 
years niay be about the age of the world. But that six millions 
of years may qot pass, from the creation^ to the day of judgment^' 
we are not absolutely assured. 

< In the prospect of that day, there is a remoteness — there is an 
obscurity, not to be reconciled with our eager hopes ofjmmor- 
tality — I had Almost said, with the scriptural promise of ^. 
cocompense for all our toils and privations and afflictions, in the 
arduous path of Christian duty., 

• ^' Of that day (said our Saviour) knoweth no man — no, not 
tlie Angels of Heaven, but my Father only.'" 
. In what state, therefore, the Soul shall b^, in the space between 
death and the judgment, is an inquiry not interesting in specu- 
lation only. Pursued with diffidence^ it maiy be attended with 
the best practical results. 

As it respects our friends, whom we have loved in life and in 
death, and whose last moments we have watched with affisctionate 
attention, there can be no greater comfort than the persuasion, 
that though not seen, they exist ; — that, reclaimed from a world 
of trouble to a blessed abode, they are in peace. 

There is a pleasing sympathy in the reflection, that^ like our- 
selves, they still live : there is delight in the idea, that they live. 

* ]Matt. xxiv. 96. 

676 On the state (^the Soul after death. 

where is *^ no more sorrow.'' And if we timik their sttte of 
hepptness is such as iadudes an inCerest in oar welfare, we ar« 
relieved ia the liveliest manoer from the horrors of sepuraiioii 
and the pangs of absence : — ^and Affection, Pietj and Faith will 
earry us on to die end of our earthly pilgrimage, invuinerabte 
almost to the shafts of sin or Satan. Bnt if we see our friends, 
as they are taken an ay from as, dropping, one after another, into 
utter insensibility — if not extinct, unconscious of existence, — I 
will not repeat, how disheartening sach a prospect must be — how 
chilling to that ardor we should feel as Christians, ** in running- 
the race that is set before us," A stop-^-a period is put to the 
labor of love. The chain of connexion is broken between 
die visible and invisible world. If, indeed, the lives and convert 
sations of those who are removed from us were such as even 
the partiality of friendship canncH view with satisfaction, the 
thought that death has, at least, suspended the operation of a 
guilty conscience, may fling a gleam of hope upon the awful 
vacuity between the works of unrighteousness and the day of 

But it is a gleam to which the Christian will not desire to 
look: it can only be cherished in '' a doubtful mind.'' In fine^ 
the intermediate sensibility I have been considering, must sug^ 
gest, to virtuous bosoms, a feeling of the union between £arth 
and Heaven — an animated sense of moral Harmonies, otherwise 
broken or disturbed — of spiritual enjoyments, at once refined <m 
the dissolution of our ** fleshly tabernacle" — of pure Intriligence» 
in happy communion — of felicities always increasing, till tlw 
** Spirits of just men shall be made perfect." And, though We 
may cheerfully " abide in the flesh, and continue, like St. Pauf^ 
with onr brethren, for Aeir furtherance and joy of Faith," yet 
shdl we long to depart and to be widi Clirist. »• 





liiTsi quaedam supersunt pretiosa e reliquiis literarum Grasca- 
rum, quas, veluti e naufragio, sors^ alioquin invidiosa^ aervavit 
integras, Hoinericos dico, Herodoteos, Tfaucydideosque libros ; 
sunt tamen et alia, eaque paene innumera, quorum oil nisi desi- 
derium inane restat. Inter haec ingenii Hellenici monumenta 
Don infimum locum tenent Comicorum scripta. Ex iis, plus 
mille, fabulis, quarum salibus se dederunt Athenienses, ut 
tristem risu hilarem, pravamque praeceptis correctam redderent 
vitam, undecim, neque illa& omni quidem parte integrae, Aristo- 
phanis solius fabul^ supersunt. Hinc evenit, ut, quoties de 
Comicis Graecis loquimur, toties de fragmentis Comicorum 
sermo sit. £a fragmenta ad colligenda, laboribus aliorum 
aliquantisper adjutum, et imprimis Gatakeri scriniis, sedulo me 
accincturum esse praedico, et, modo vita suppetat, neque census 
mihi deficiat, libros de hac re nonnullos publici juris facturum. 
Specimen editionis interim proferre libet. 

Apud Plutarchum T. ii. p. 1142. D. exstat Pherecratis 
fragmentum hodie mendosissimum mutilumque. Id corrigere 
voluit Brunckius ad Aristoph. Fragm. Addend. T. in. p. 170. 
Sed ne levissimum quidem profecit. Successu meliori rem trac* 
tavit Jacobs* ad Lucillii Epigr. xviii. etin Wolfii Literarische 
Analekt. ii. p. 37^* Ipse vero, ni fallor, primus dicar Comico 
restituisse, quae temporis iniquitas modo n on penitus deleverat. 
Ita certe scripsit Plutarchus. * 

To vaXoLihv §oog elg MeXanmrl^riv, rov tmv itivqafi^fioov fro4r^TV}v, 
G-viLpB^Ks^ Tobg adXriToi$ itapoL toov irof)]Toov Xufji^iveiv tgu^ (Jua-Bobg^ 
irpotrraya)VKrro6<rri$ SijXovori Tvi$ froiviareoos, toov 8* avXij^oov VTrvigiTovvTeov 
rois hiourxaXois' wttb^v ds xaH rouro dufiagyj, &<rTe xu) ^epexgotTiiv 
Tov Koofji^ixov fX^OLyoLyiiy r^v Mooo'i)c^v ly yvvouxelco (Tp^^jM^ari, o\r^¥ 
X0tri}xia'ft6yi]v ro (rco/xa* froiel H TtjV Jixaioo-Jyijy hoi'7Fwiayofjt,ivii^v r^9 
ourioLV ry^i Kmfiyjs xol) rigv I7o/i](ny Xiyovaav, 

Ai^a> fjilv ovx ixowrcC <rol re yap xkisiv 

Iftoi re Xe^ai ivf/LOg vfiovv^v e;^ffr 

f/to) yeip ^p^e rm xwum MeKoiviinrl^s' 

ev Tolg oi'JFegavTOig 0$ Xol^w¥ avixotg f/xe 

^(aKufWTipav eTon^o'c xogSocf^ $ctf$exa* 5 

aXX' oSy ouM$ oUrog aev ijv aTroygwv avyjp 


278 Cotnicarum Gracorum Fragmentorum 

IfMiyr w^s roig nw li xolx Ivri ^ivipa 

iti r«py ToiotWcov iroAX^I xurrepwnpar 

Kirf^clae yog 6 xotrapfltro^ *Airruxl^ 

^apiuvtas xafjLTa^ votw h reu^ Trpofous, 10 

TOfUrrtp' aurou'^a/yrr elyoi $$i«* 

&K?i oux ay cTvoi;, iiyara Mwreov roy Sixav, 

wra /xe j^xi) r ^j»Tio;^f , xo^igyayxace 1 5 

irar^ixoy ytvfcrtai xa) SoxsTy irofioTaTov* 

^pwrf^S ^ '/a^o; oT^o/SiXoy hfji^fiaXiv riva, 

xa/AVTfloy jcts xa» (rr^e^coyy oXi}y ^lE^lopey* 

T^y apfuovlaif yag hii to /uiaXAaxwTEpoy 

xpeirioTO^ hLXatr ey mnre x^g^ai^ $co$6xa* 20 

oAX' oSy tftoiys ^'oSro^ ^y flnro;^d0y ay^p* 

ffi yap ri xe^ripiapTev, aZilg 'fjL aviPaXsv' 

6 Zi Tijxotso^ fu, cS ^iXroTi}, xaropoopt^e 

xai Siaxexyaix' a7<r^iOTa' 
idJK. 9ro7o; 00X00*1 

Tijxofiffo^ ; 
MOT. S AfeXijj T<r*, ovrij UHms, ^i 

xaxa ftoi %ipe(r^€V o3to^ oatarras, ovg Xiyao^ 

ira^eX^XuS' iToycoy ar^axirou; firup/xigxia^, 

xay ^yrix^ tou /xoi ^aSi^ou(rj} ftoyify 

£e9rE$U(r'y avaxXoo'a^ SfloSsxap^opSoy Spyavov. 

V, 4. Vulgo ey ro7<ri T^oi^ At Melanippides fuit Dithyram- 
boruin poeta : quae carmiDa solebant esse cacipavra^ sine fine, 
De eodem quoque, sicut de Amynia^ dicebatur fortasse Ou^ei; 
xopt^Ti);, Sjti^ ou 'jnpaheTM. Fuit etenim tam in re Venerea 
quam Musica impotens. Ibid. Vulgo Koifidy ayijxe fie. Dedi 
ayfxa^: collato Eupolid. apud Said. v. '^iyixa^. 'Avixag hralp* 
c3 xoti fi!^i\vpws trv to crxeXo; : ita enim corrigo vice hcalpco xai 
/SSsXupo^ propter illud in Aristoph. £q. 797* eS xai fMugms, De. 
re ipsa^ quam Eupolis depingere voluit, cf. Lysistr. 229* et 
799* Vox eadem restitui debet ad mentem Valck. in Diatrib. 
p. 286. Pherecratis Fragmento apud Scbol. ad Ach. 86. 
legendo ToutI ti «<rT*y co$ avixa$ to xqifioivov, v. 7. 8. Hoc dis- 
tichon mutiluin est apud Plutarch, ita : ipLOtye frpog ra wv xolxou 
At Photius V. Kwrepirara, — ^pexparris Aripois' nreixa tregot 
TOUTooy ffoiouvTGoy ff-oXXfl^ xvrrepcoTiget, Ibi ^arega emendat Bloni- 
field, in Edinburgh Rev. N. 42. p. S37* Ceterum non vidit 
bine fiuppleri posse et Gomici versus et restitui fabulas nomen. 
De formula wpo$ rol§ wv xaxoti^^xmrtpwcnpa cf, Aristoph* Vesp, 


Specimen Ediiionis. 279 

563=583. Idv. £ax« irpo; roi; wf oSo'i xaxois t&iiv lO-oMn) roTo-tv 
IftoTo-iy : ita enim legi debet vice Kunei irpig rols oSo-iv ioo^ av 
MTcpo^ roltriy sfuTio'tv: et sane Erfurdtius ad Soph. £1. 119i« 
vidit xfltxoi; esse repetendum : nobiscum certe faciunt ilia in 
Hipp. 874. xpo^ xuKco xdtxov Cycl. 679* xaxoy ri t^o^ X0(X(» (£d. 
C. 595. 'iFgog xoixoT^ xaxa : Philemon Fragm. Inc. 51. nposro1$ 
xaxoi; — xaxa : et Apoll. Rh. l. 1064. xax£p 8* STri xuvrepov ^AAo: 
necQon S. Paulus Epist. Rom. i. rou; l^i toi^ ^a^aioi^ xaxoif 
m/i« xeuvoTofjLotJVTug xaxa. v. 9* Vulgo *ArTixi$, Hoc plane in-^ 
ficetum in 'A(rrvxo$ mutavi : ubi luditur in a<nvxog et aoTurog : sicut 
luserat Comicus apud Athen. ii. p. 63. F. et Eu^tath. JA. x. p. 
1 390. 4. "Aa-TVTog oIko$ Uikovilaov : ubi alliisio fit ad aararog. Vox 
arruxo^ exstat in ^Sschyl. £um. 1000. v. 1 1 • Vulgo '^9roXi»A.exe ft' 
ovTco^ m-re* Verum illud aToXcoXexe in tali loco est nimium. 
Musa hie eloquitur verba meretricia. Reposui igitur Eh* i^xii^x 
i^ icTs, Certe verbuni aXoav est Comicorum. Cf. Ran. 149* 
*H iM^Tsp' ^Xoi20-fy. Aliis fortasse placebit 'EX^Xaxi /x' ovrcog, Sofrrf. 
Ex sane exstat in Eccl. 39- T^v viyi* oXijy ^Xat/ys jx' ly roT^ orpto- 
fbtto-iy. Mihi vero potius videtur £it iJXo)jx' gjx*. Sic enim 6ir« 
participium sequi solet. Vid. Blomfield. ad Prom. 802. ed. £. 
scrinia compilantem Porsoni in Advers. p. 275. v. 13. Vulgo 
*A§lrreg aurotl ^aivsrai ra ^i^ia. At articulus suum locum non 
habet. Cinesiae etenim facta non erant U^iot verum ofi^rBpa. Mox 
lingua rejicit i}Xoi}X6 fluo-re ^odviroLi. Debuit esse vel ^alvBtrdM 
vel IfaiWo elvm. Quod postremum dedi. v. 14. Vulgo'i^XX' 
eux aif eivoig oZreog ^y o/xo); ofMog. Hie latere suspicor Poetae 
nomen onmium fere pessimi ; queni ridebant Comici ad unum 
omnes. Loca apud Schol. ad Av. 31*. et ad Vesp. 1216. ita 
emendare debueram in Classical Journal N. 31. p. 40. OMg 
f(my '^xeoTcop Tpayto^iag woitjT^j' IxoXeTro he Sixag. — B^Arofwroj 
ii xo} Toy Traripa. uutou Solxolv irpoayiyopevtrev TKrayavor (Vid« 
Schol. ad Acharn. 603.) " — ov ou Kovvug (scis : exstat xoyy^p 
in ^schyl. Suppl. 171*) S^vov; B. aXXa fwa-ov oliu Mwrtoov [ubi 
duplex sensus. Vid. Hesych. Mrxriay — (rwova-Ml^ovTei irveuoTiav] 
*Axi(TToq* A. kvoL'ni^uxEV otKoXouiant I/to/*" 6 $6 aurog xsi Mo70¥ 
IxaXso'ey* elg he r^y 70ii2(riy aurou x^\et}ixoL<ri KxXXlug pi^ev hv Uihv^ 
rcug " xoii Solxolv ''Ov ol xopoJ jxicrowo'iy" xa) KpoLrmg h K\eo^ov\t' 
votg *' 'Ax6(rTogoL f/t,v<rov elxog ijy KoL^elv Ukriyoig, eav jx^ (TVOTge^v^ rot 
tfifiMTOL.*' — xa) ^* rig voXirvig 8* Itti coi llX^y Sixatg Mv(r6g y 
AxiiTTMp xM TO KoLMdou voiov.'* Hinc patet 'Axearopoi fuisse 
malum poetam et Mysium : ideoque in talem hominem pro con- 
vicio invehi potest proverbium Icrp^aro^ Mua-mv mutatum in l^-^^ara 
Afvo'wy sive ecrxocr aiiwa-oov. Inter fabulas illius erat, opinor, 
Tek^us: quam respicere videtur Comicuiapud Plutarch, ii. 

280 Comicorum Gracorum Fragmentorum 

p. 632. E/0; fibf pux}ij T ijfMn^s xi^ayxcta-M Hreop^ov ysvMeu xeli 
hdfMov aviffretrov: ubi collatia Telephi Euripidei verbis apud 
Aristoph. Acharn. 440. 1. Aiiy&f f/,§ Soj^oi wrotxiv flvai ri^/utepoy 
£lmi ftsv Sa-ireg f Ijx), famtriM ^e ftig (quae taraen ita scripsit Tra- 
gicus : EhoLi fuv, wrwip elf/.), ^a/yff<rtai Se ft^^ Jei (r^/ttipov fte, xat 
Soxfiy ^evfOTaroy) patet apud Phitarchum scribi debere ilroj^^oy 
yevia-icu xa) ^oxiiv vevioTarov : quae Philosophus consulto muta- 
vit e Comici verbis ''Oa f/xs — Ilar^ixoy ytvMan' ubi narpixov 
intelligi satis bene potest ex eo, quod et Telephus et 'AxeoTwp 
SixoL^ sint Mysi ; et anibd miserrimi, utpote alter e regno, alter 
e theatro, expulsus. v. 17* Vulgo V %o¥. Hoc intelligere 
nequeo. Reposui 7a$o^. Redde 7(x8o^ — arpofitkov Horatiano 
mottis — lonicos, Citharaedus aliquis dicitur 'JoavoxafAwras a Plu- 
tarch. 11. p. 539. C. unde intelligas et in Ecci. 918. rov air* 
'latvUg rpoTFov. Hanc meam conjecturam extra omnem dubita- 
tionegi ponjt Hesychius *IaSo$ o-Tpe)3x^$. Corrige *Io^o$ (rrpifiiXog* 
Notabilis est de Phryne locus iu Aristoph. Nub. 964. quem e 
Suida primus supplevit Valckenaer ad Diatrib. p. 1^24. etiani 
nunc augendum ope Libanii Invect. in Florent. ii. p. 430; 
mp) Aeafiov di el ti; ^Aiyfy a xti) ^ Trapoifula, Tiirreiricu XF^» [^^« 
Nub. 1362. xpijv OTf TUTTSo'dar] vip) JSlfvov Si pdhov etv eii} xed 
ytiy \iyuv rou; xivyfiivreig ou xoltoL xoa'puiv [ita enim Toup. li..p. 
167.] x») hafietpavrag roO itarpov r^v %a^iv* ubi, quum voces 
uhintae bene <3onveniunt cum verbis fjLo6<reis a^vll^a>y, suspicor e 
prioribus erui posse versus particulam — ou xuta xocfiov xiyiiAevra^' 
cujus initio praeponi potest e Suida Autov ^e/fo^, et fini subjungi 
e conjectura ^ogevroig, et ex Hesychio hue referri gl. Aic^iog 
90^0$. — 01 8« ^pivir x&ei xiXXiov uvo 7ra\ott6ov yoip xexeo/xaSijTai 
oSto^ (0$ hafdei^GOV r^v fjLOV<nxriv xa) wpo$ ro ^fi^Ko^eveiv r^nrouy* 
Scripsit igitur Oomicus : Kel Tt$ aoi$coy fioofuoXo^eutrei* ^ xaft^^sii^y 
Tiva xajXff-^Vy^uTov deltas 06 xotol xocpiov xivrfiivroLi re yogevrcig Aiirfiios 
tolosy xav ipiMvloLig XiiZoov yj SkPviH^oov, '£7frp/|3ero ruirro(ji.evos 
voX\a$, (0$ rag jxouo-fle; a^oLviZpov, ve], ri ys pi^vcrcov afavl^wv* ut 
lusus sit in rot, (iv<rm et pLowroiv. Ex hoc loco corrige Hesych; 
^ia2^siv* o'l^vfaCeiv, v. 1 9. 20. Vice distichi vulgatur unus tan- 
tuminodo versus : 'Ey wevre x^P^**^ 8co8e;^* appi^ovlas ?%»i». Atqui 
Phrynes, ut reliqui, Toi$ ugpiovlag non §lx^* verum Sis^dopty; 
Hue igitur retuli verba Schol. ad Nub. 967. de Phryne : $ijo-l xa\ 
'Agi<rToxgaTvi$[\€go ^egexgarrig* at Valck. in Not. Mss. 'Agtaro- 
^evog] xotdo irpwrog rrjv dgpi^oviav exXounv M ro pi^otkiaxwrspov* unde 
erui T^v cigpi^ovlav yap M ro fAaXtaxwregov Upwriarog exKxa-' iv 
vivre x^f^^^^S SoGSexa. . Proba est formula nri ro pMXietxdnepov. 
Cf. Aristoph. Ran. 545* ro Si Mtrourrpi^&rieu vghg ro iMOAaxw^ 
regov* et Thucyd. 11, 59. airotyaycov to opytl^dpLtvov rris yvflpjxij^ 

Specimen Editionis. 281 

vgo^ TO ^^tdiTtpov. Quod ad xo^dti; irevrff imSexa, bine corrige 
Plutarch, ii. p. 84. A. 0piv$v — rals Iwra ;^op5a7^ Wo, vapevru' 
vifjLivov, legendo Sexa. v. 25. Vulgo Ttfjiotsog MiX^(rirf^ tij Tlyp- 
p/of. De Timotheo Miiesio vid. Plutarch, u. p. 539. C. 
aliosque apud Fabricium. Atqui non de patria Timothei hie 
loquebatur, ut opinor, Musa, verum de alio poeta^ quern uti 
Ximotheum, (ru^irro/xeyov M rp x«iyoroft/a xol) ^apavofji^Biv el$ r^v 
ftovcrix^y Soxouvray teste Plutarcho ii. p. 795. D. Coinici ride« 
bant. Is fuit Mi\r}$ : qui hyninum quidem in Pythias hono- 
rem, licet ipse miniaie fuerit alter Apollo, videtur composuisse: 
Cf. Aristoph. Av. 858. "Irifi rrco de Ilvdlas fiooi iecS. Swadhco 
$f Xuigi$ dJ$ay. ubi Schol. ify Se 6 Xoupig oirog xidotpoodhs xai yiyovev 
avkfiTT^S* [vid. ad Ach. 866. Xaipidilg /3ojxj8uXioi] jxyij/toystJei 54 
Mvrou xoii ^egixpctTifis h "Aypoh^' ^zp iSoo, xAoipt^\% rls xuxkttos 
•yevfTo; *0 nenrlov JWeXijj' Mrroi rov MeXvira tI$ \ "Ex arpe/ji,*' 
e/epS*^ 6 Xaigis, Ita enim lege partim cum Porsono ad Toup. p. 
481. verum ibi praestat 06 Tliiio^ Miktig, sicut in Aristophanis 
loco, "IroOy Itoo ^ ou Hviteig jSoa' quae fuit igitur fioot, MeXi}TO;. v. 27. 
Vulgo IJapekriXvBtv ayeov contra Dawesianum canona. Ibid. - 
!Egregia est Jacobsi emendatio pro IxrpaitiKovg fji,vpiji,yixlas, Cf. 
Tbesm. 105. /xffXw^eiy yap Tretpafrxiuul^eTou Mvpiiyjxos arpuTFOvs* 
quo respexit Hesych. in Mipi^ixag eiTpairo6$' idem quoque ad 
Pherecratem respexit in Mvpf/i^vixla' ria-a-eron ii xat Wi hia^xet- 
Xelov xa) o'Ujx^oir^o'soo;. v. 29* Vulgo *Airi\ua'e xoivikua-i x^S^°^^^^ 
$cu$ffxa. Haec nequeo intelligere. Hue retuli gl. doodixcixopdov 
opyavov apud Etymol. v. Xop^. Quid sit illud opyavov, nemo 
nescit. Verbum avaxXav in tali negotio satis bene exponit 
A then. xill. xara^ikilv avrhv avaxKuo'eiVTU — xa) r&v iearcov hiri^ 
^owrivdvToov fisTo. xporov, xiXtv avaxXdo'ug c^/Xtjo-fV. 

Cetera, quae subjungit Plutarchus, expedire nequeo : neque 
mihi satisfacit Elmsleius ad Ach. 554. Ita exstaht vulgo scripta. 
Koi) *ApKrTo^oivTfis 6 xco/xixo; f/^vrifLovevei ^iXo^eyou xa/ ^ijo'fy on e]$ 
Tovs ■ xvxXiovg x^P^^^ i^'^l elo-ijyeyxaTO xa) tj Movcrix^ Xiyei e^cip^ 
fMviovs VKSp^oXoLious T otvo<rtovs xa) viyXoigovg StrtrEQ re rag 
pa^avovg oXijy xaftxrcoy fie xarff/'rcoo'e. Ubi ex illis mterpositis 
^ he Motxnx^ Aeyei patet aliquid interposuisse r^y Jfxaioo-vyijy 
interlocutam. Si liceat hariolari in loco plane mendoso, dixe- 
rim tali fere modo scripsisse Pherecratem. 

J JX. <iAX* otjTis oL)^os, ?s «r' fxaxjf , Stv^p tr—MOT. ^y, 

o3 ftyij/x' ep^ooyyu 6 ^akoixpo$, 
AlK. ^fXoi^evor 

og e\g xvxXlovg x^P^^S fteXio'/t* i^vryxe ; 
MOT. rl ; 

382 Comicorum Gracorwn Fragmentorum 

iSapjtoiilmi y impfittMs han' ^9' Siraif, 
xlai ViyXiifHi fi, &(mp TthioM ^cc^vsif i^v 
KifnTow Tt, uanitirrten ruv rtgiTurfiMTtBr. 
Inter hnc, deletia 'Agurrtfinn i Kanixi;, quae scribere non potuit 
PlutarchuB, aliud quid de meo toraavi. Fuit Ariatophsnes cal- 
VU9. Id inteltigilur ex Eupolidis Pragm. apud Schol. ad 
Nub. 540. 55i. et JEq. 1286. Touf i-mU; Xvveii>lii<ra tw ^a.\»xqa 
ranrm »c&<ooi[<saf.y!ii. Mox de formula jkrrnui ywmiiv vjd. Blom- 
field! ad S. c. Th. 947. Ibi citatur Iph. T. 702. I^f^jSov re 
j(wro» xoat[$ii ii.vrtfi.tta ^01. At Pollux pro synonymis habet 
fit^fi^- Tat^»;, ;^wfu(. Dein ervi fteXia-it ijviyiu ti e fuAi) 
«<n)vfyx«TO. Eteoim apud veteres Grwcos nan exstat 4>''7xs^ 
fiqv. Id comprobsbo tempore alio. Deinde Phlloxenus ille, 
cujus hie mentio facta est, idem fuit atque is Pbiloxenus itiX^ 
■xoui : cujus fragmenta hodie exstant apud AtbeuEeum: quemque 
Jauclibus cumulat Antiphaues iv Tprayauitrrf . Verum e Plu- 
tarcho patet illius laudatorem esse uon 'Ayrifarrir i* Tgirayievirrf 
verum ' Apiirnf ampi h rayiivitrralf. Hanc emendationem esimie 
tuetur similis var. lect. apud Suid. V. "Ataf aipvjjf ubi male olim 
legebatur 'AvTayionirrais pro Toy^vioraif, quod e Mss. reposuit 
KuBter: aimilis quoque apud Polluc. vii. 166. ubi vulgatur 
'AymtTTMs. Verba Comici apud Athen. xiv. p. 644. U. ita 
sunt legeiula. 

JIoXu S" isrl iravTuiv tmv toiijt«v Bia^ocoj 
a ^lAofcvo;* ra icpura fjiv yelp wiftctviv 

cdo'lv Ki^apirrM' $tif tv la^pmnttiv ^1 

extivo;, (lEcs; t^v oAijScd; ^[wtx^y 

oi vu* Ee xvi'af atXoTxoc kcc; tlxpa xgoviKci, 

iraioiJvTc; i^TXixouo'it' oUsr^icc /u\i). 

Ibi vulgatur »; tS Ktn^arau. At Ms. m$ e3 ni^qmrrai. Dedi 

(Uff^lr )ttj(,^pi<rrcu. Mox paruni intelligo Oi yiw Si xir^xXigxTa xol 

x^iIMTei xal avOfiriTOTar* ri fxeXiec fuXtei; oMftoo'iv. Hoc postre- 

mum, quod corrumpitur propter v. £., in h avpuiffu mutatur : 

unde se luetur meum quoque '» fknu^kcui : ubi vulgo deest V. 

latud fi.fXta. fruBtra tuetur Elmsl. ad Acharn. \\5\. Meum 

' sfLcXci; coiiveiiit cum illo Ananilo npud Athen. p. 417. C. 

nv ftcv K<() faytTv fu(A' mSpticcl. Conveoit quoque 

iri* airX^yiv cuai Horatiano de poelK mali scriptis, quae quia 

feral in vicum vendentem thus et adores, Et piper el ^ui'c- 

i rhartis amicitur tneptit. Unde corrigaa et Ophelionis 

Specimen Mditionis. 28S 

Coniici fragmentum apiid Atben. p. 66. Atfionh vketgt xu) 

6vii,iaiJi,a fii^Klov nKotroovos Ijx^po^/njTOy legendo ivfulafL\ o3 jSi/3x/ov — 
hfATFegovafAM. Hesych. ' Efji^vepovdrpis' IfjMr^ov hvhovv : ubi citatur 
Theocrit. Idyll, xv. 34. KotruTnvxss ^fMrepovaiia, Similiter 
Hesycb. '^TrXijyi^* avfAfA^pos yj^divcc ov Iwtc^fivfi S|rXco(ijvai« 
Nunc tandem intelligitur^ quo respexerit Anstopbanes in 
Anagyro Fr. xi. "Eic ye t^j ejx^j ;^\ay/8oj Tfcij cevAi^y/Sa; woiwv. 
Yerum haec obiter. Ad rem redeo. Manifesto inter se oppo- 
nuntur aXXoVpia et IS/oij-i : opponi quoque debent et reliqua : 
qualia KgovkKu et xaivoT^, a^rXoixa et fji,erafio\ou$' verum quod 

opponi possit too xP^I*'^^^^^ ^^P babeo. Etenim XF^f^'^f ^^^^^ 
Hesycbio^ voifoi to1$ [uova-ncois est xpo(a. Ipse vero reposui 
xviiro^* Hesycb. Kvi^* ^ooov fmivov ojxoiay xfiovticnri : at Suid. agnos* 
cit KViTFos genitivum. Coutulit igitur Aristopbanes varies pie- 
nosque Pbiloxeni sonos cum sonis poetarum aliorum, sicut 
xvivos, semper immutatis^ minutulisque. Dixi Aristopbanem 
laudibus Pbiloxenum cumulasse ; neque senteutiam muto. Ete- 
nim mirum video inter utrosquc cgnsensum^ res fere similes 

depingentes. Ita enim Comicus in Fr. 3. 

« * # « 

vaparrrafjiMi yoLp i 

roi XiirapoL xiwrtav* 

oKKoL ^ipvr owtol^ |3aT«v, rjWOLTiov 

ij xavpi^lov V80U xoKKoTToi riv'. 

ei 85 jx^, w-Xeupov ^ yXarrav ^ c^rX^va^ ^ 

vritrriv ^ SeX^axo^ ^coqtvrig ^rptai* 

ov ^ipere 

^evqo jxsra 

xoAXdt/SetfV yX<apa;y. 

Inter baec oTrrct ^ti¥ debentar Seidlero in Dissertat. de Fragm. 
Aiistoph. p* 18. Sive Class, Journ. N. XLiii. p. 136,7. collato 

Nostri Tbesraopb. 2dis. Fr. 2. ij y^ceri^ vtrrSr ov |3«ti^-— — 

owfi* ijfttap xdvpov ou8* ^rgiaiov SsX^oxo^.. Vulgo bic ax6fieta-iv» 

Ad eandem bcenam refer et Fr. 2>. Aaii^fiivtre x^XXa|3oy i^uurrog 
^y et Fr. iv. Mrfii rci ^aXi}p»xa rai (uxpot rei^* afuSSia \j . Ita 
enim Porson. apud Gaisford. ad Hephsest. p. 331. propter 
metrum Paeonicum, quod et in boc et in alio Aristopbanis frag- 
mento apud Atben. p. 117« detexit Person. Advers. p. 67. et 
plenius in Miscell. Crit. p. 236. At coenam, quam descripsit 
Pbiloxenus, quantum bodie mihi licuit eruere e verbis maxime 
depravatis apud Atben. xiv. p. 643. tftlem fuifse tuapicor. 
T«o-y, are irj Trpoo^ey, ftoXovo*- 

984 Camicorum Gracorum Fragmentarum 

rcu^lU V if ftJa^Mf iyxatidfihi, 

fcof Aif yXwupif, Xtrrolf 

ifixy»i hfoXiYxC ▼. ffiwAjyxioKri 

i»ifM$, wiwK^t^t wiwXouri, sine tooio-i 

w&u Xtrnm ffrtftaif kfetyxm^ v. rais avdyxeus 

(fiphf h ^polf 'AptaraC' 

mox interpositis nonnullisi quse comniendo sagacioribus^ lege 

rvooKVfjO'ra, yiXaxri xa) ' 

fi/xtri ffuyxarA^npf Xr' ijy , 

dein paulo post / 

^r iti^i^ V hfrtpalwro, 

Kywfif Ma n XMvhv iXayti} 
x^|ui\{/oy iiivpiAoiriov xa) liavpia- 
ca¥ airi x&ir^ 
fir' aTvfff'fty. 

Ad eaiidem coenam pertinent et Fragmenta in Athen. iv. p. 
146. F. et sqq. ubi non nisi pauca ad iinem expedire possum. 

km) Kttyff ik9xrpvi¥m¥ ri yioo'cro} wtpiixmv f aersoDy re x^^ 

xfr' liriv hr* hpta |3«\Xito Uppk tfi iroAXel xa) /MeXaxoTrrt^eeoy 

4pr<0y «^/uii9;> cu^uy* £ iii, 

fmMv r* lirtioiXtt /a^Xi 

Koii y^Xtt q-tffdinixroy, ri x«} 

rupiy «[irtt( ri( Ip^fUfm 

Ifmvy^ tittmXiy, 

9i4y«»v i^fMiy* 

iXX* ht yvy S^ fifmrios 0i vsr^o; 

l( M^lpoy i|f^^*y» ^4^ f^ if nr«f ipcvy 

Specimen Edkionis. 2S5 

cui subjuiigebator iHud in Atbcn. ix. p. 409. £• 

(Tfiff/iACLO'i 8* tplov ?y ye jxixtoTj 

lxrpliLyi,ax& re XufAtrpoi 

^plfj^ari T aiJi,Ppoa'lodiJi,a 
xa) arepivous 

Sjmposii initium describit illud in Athen. xv. p. 685. D. 

a^Yvpia vpo^Ssp t» ^e^eoy «y/ t* 
^e, eh* ifepev ore^yov ?ii7CTeis 
a»o fji^vprlSos u\[/iT«y^ tcuv re x^a- 
8fiOV [sAafit;} 

ffS o-wfleTrrov. 

Ad libationem pertinet fragmentum in Athen. xi. p. 487. B. 
<ru ii TavSff, £axx<' «*«, Sp^ou TrXiJpij fueraviirrpl^ot Sefai, 

qua loquitur mensaB ?f ap%o^, dum poculum propinat, libatione 
jam peracta : idemque pergit, apud Athen. xi. p. 476. E. 

w7v5 TO vexrapcov iraijx' h y^pv(riong Trgaxyreug' 
ef vaKoov XipuTeov S* ?jS§«%oy xara y ou o-jxix^oy. 
Hie erui If yaAwy e re ftXAwy : cui favet Aristoph, Ach. 
74. If ioLXlvm Ix^reojttarfloy et Lucian. ^raftjMreygfl? eKvaifAara votKst 
apud H. Steph. Thes. v. ''ra\o^ His dispositis ad Fherecratem 
redeo^ cujus fragmentum est apud Phrynich. p- 136. Pauw, ita 
legendum (i$ iv Kopiavvoif. " Toy udXivov, vai, 805/' ^fifreig' Ibi 
nunc tandem intelligitur, cur reposuerim hlr/ ^<r o(rais vice n 
avoa-lovs. Etenim Philoxeni carmen erat omne de coena. De 
voce Sroj sic posita, cf. Phoen. 102. Soph. Aj. 118. Aristoph. 
Ran. 793. Menand. Fragm. 248. Dein vulgo m<rirep re rds ^a- 
favovs okijv xaftTTcoy jxc xaTejxg(rT«<r6. Ibi Kotpuircov reposuit Elmsl. 
ad Ach. 354. Verum ipse neque TMfMcm neque lectionem vulga- 
tarn intelligo. Propter patpdvm mentionem^ suspicor hie latere 
nomen moechi cujusdam. 'Pafdvco etenim verberari solcbant 
isti impudici. Schol. ad Nub. 1073. Tl 8*, V ^afawWp ye ^rito- 
fLsvos ^01 ri^pf re riXflj ita exponunt : otheo ydqrovg .dXovrus f^'xoi^ 
|x/5oyTO' ^«f «y/8«j Aa/x/Sayoyre^ KoAievwf eiirws vptoxrovs rovrmv, 

286 Comicorum Gracwum Fragmentorum 

xo) irapor/XXovrf^ airwg rippmf Af^ft^y hfimeiffaw ^et/roam^UuLvAf 
l^aXji^iAvoi, Ibi latent Comici versus Keti vapctriXkm auroD 
%q(OKThy defffifjv yt rifpuv Iviitour^oVy Beuravw$ Ixotvas hpyaXfifLivos. 
Similiter ex Hesychiana gl. 'Pa^aytSco^vai* tou^ jxoi;^ou^ roiig 
peupmo'iv ^Xauvov xaroL Tij; ^poLi : t/; yap oLtm r^; ^ot^avl^os op&v 
6^v6vpLiav lK6oi7rpo$ rifias, alii aliter, inter quos et Porson. in Mis- 
cell. Crit. p. 284., erueb^nt; versus Comicos: ipse lego ri$ 
yap ay ToL t^^ paf avisos 6^M(jLi eltrogoov "EXiot v^o; yipi^ag : quse 
eloquitur mulier, ne forte deessent moechi^ conquesta, sicut ilia 
apud Aristoph. in Lys. 107. '/IXX* ouSe /uioi;^ou xaraXiXMrreu 
^tifa\v^. Ad ilium incerti Comici locum respexit Harpocrat. 
V. 'O^viviua — 2yioi pi^h, oSv Iot) xai 'Apl<rrap^og 6(ui6ina xiyecrdai 
fact rei ^vXa, af' m evKayywrcu TWMSy ain rou ^img t» ivfji,m ^gria"" 
iai. Haec obiter^ ad pafdvovs redeo. Valck. in Not. Mss. ad 
Plut. l68. 'OS* aKovs yt /40i;^o; hct, <ri y ou iragarikXirai citat 
Lucian. in. 331. hifvyty pafavfUi rvif 'intyiiy ^fivcfiivos : quem 
versuro Comico tribuit necnon in ui. 384, 22. monet corrigi 
Ta^ATiXAo/xevo^ rov iFpwKTov vice t£^ TrcaoreL : laudatque notas Fabri 
ad I. priorem. At collatis Hesychii verbis xara Trig Upag patet 
Comicum dedisse — Sil^uyey [Moyi;], ^afavlh r^v e^av /Ss/Suo-fte- 
vo$. At quis sit ilie moechus, de quo Pherecrates hie locutus 
est, pro comperto deiinire nequeo. Scio tamen ab Aristophane 
exagitatum esse in A v. l68. quendam Te><iav: quifuit et malus 
poeta, et, uti cecinerat ipse, "Avipcovog, opnq eurrdiiLij^a ttstq* 
fiBVOSf *AriKfjtM^o$ ouSajx* o^Smr Iv ravTcp /xeveov* ideoque inter 
aves relatus est: cf. ibid. 1025. xai rirpaxi xa) ramvi xed ikea 
xoH fiourxa xa) eXdfrot xa) hpcohicp xai xarapdxrri xa) pt^Xayxopu^cp 
xa) aiyirnKkoi. At, inquies^ ubinaro gentium exstat mentio avis 
Ti>iag, Immo in hoc ipso loco ; quem aliter quam vulgatum 
legebat Schol. ad A v. 168. xcep^elrat de eU ffoXKa. Svp^pM^osii 
irpo$ ovdh vj OTi TeXeag opveov ewe) xa) hf to1$ Jfij^ ogverfy ti xaraXiyei, 
TeXia xa) rerodh xa) rami xa) ^aa-tXitrxa. Quae sane varia lectio 
est vero proxima. At omnis ille catalogus ita schbi debet Ka)y 
T^pWTi xai fjpdxov vaKr), Uop^vpuavt xa) llBXexarrt xa) TeXivlxop 
KoXot^pvy), Ka) rer^a^i, TeXia ^acxa xa) Tamvi fia<riXt(rxa, Ka) 
ipoaiiotSy KarapixTvi xa) MeXayxogv^op xa) KBpxiidXXtp. inter 
ha?c duplex est sensus. £tenini avium nomina sunt et faomi- 
num nomina derisoria; Ut a postremis ordiar, moneo Aristty- 
telem, citatum ab Etymol. v. ^£^dG8»o^, dicere inter aves illius 
generis esse alias A4>po5i(ri«xo^, alias non. Vice a\yiidxXoa repo- 
sui KegxiidxXep ex Hesychio KepxiJaAX)^, hpi^tog : in eodem exstat 
gl. MeXayxopv^ovs' ftoi;^oi»^ tou^ yeyvt}Tixo6^ Si4g(07tovg : cujus- 
modi homines sunt epas^loig a^pohxriaxols similes. Lexicon- idem 
Karapixrvi^' 6p/jwjT«xoV. Verum e Scholii verbis, ^ ydp fid(rxa xai 

Specimen Editionis. 287 

fflSfiG^iOfy patet duplicem fuisse scribendi rationem et IpcoSioy et, 
nisi fallor^ ff^oort/Xov : et sane 'EpoorvKog melius convenit cum 
historia de avibus 'Afpohcioixal^. Suspicor igitur Atheniensibus 
satis notos fuisse tres homines, ^EpmriXok dictis, in rebus 
Venereis^ plus minus^ valentes» Per Town fiu<riXl(rxot intelligitur 
MopvxoS' Vid. Schol. ad Ach. 61. Upecrfius Se o5to/ el<riv ol iregi 
T«y M6pvx,ov IjxirXijcrWvTf J rpv^rig : ubi locus hucusque hiulcus 
debet suppleri legendo, ope Uesychii v. MryafivKm Aoyor oi 

KHP, UoLpoL TOU ^ata-lXfcog oi MeyoL^dl^ioi Xoyoi 
Uipwiy rris MoptJvou y69rX>)(r]xeyoi Tpu^ijj. 

A IK, Iloioij jSao'/Xso}^ ; ap^lojubai rol; wp6(r^6(rt 
Kol) Tols Tucoin tq1§ t aXa^^veu/xatn. 

Ubi nunc tandem sentential concinnitas elucet. Neque hie est 
locus unicus ubi Morychi fastus commemoratur. Nempe in 
Vesp. 1137. ubi Philocleonis vestis Persica ^oxsi 'Eoixsveu /xa- 
Xifrra Mopi^ov <rcLy\f,afri : ibi Schol. rc^ %ipi rpn^r^t Icr^rou^oex^wv 
« Mipu^os [tsis ^v.] Jure igitur Morychus assimilatur Tawvt fiottn' 
Xla-Kx : ubi, nisi lusuni voluisset, dixisset Comicus BoLirxlXkn : 
Hesych. jBaVxiXXo^* Ki(nra\ At quid sit jK/o-o-ac, patet ex eodem 
lexico. Kta-a-a' hvi^vii^la^ opvsov, xol) to ywatxsiov ttHo^, Jure 
quoque cum fiouriXla-xct vel /SaerxiAXep conjungitur. TeXsa;* ^ei<rxag. 
Hinc corrige Hesych. Bitrxus' opv$Sv ti* ^outxb mxpoXaa 'jF^riclov 
IJe9oa5» XuSio-t), legendo* f /^j] ^axrxoi mxp^ TeXia *X7rnj(rifi,os 
'0^6 /Soa^oo ^ti^ior) [/u^eXo^] ubi duo sunt anapaesti dimetri. Quod 
ad TeXix lx9rnjo-i/&o^, id satis expositum est supra: quod ad 
kxm^tfjLos, vocem usurpat Aristophanes similem apud Polluc. 
ir. 18, npo^ AvBpag f lo-iv ixvir^a-ijxoi <r;^8$oy. Dein vulgatur xai 
^Ae^i^i xai Tirpaxr ubi Schol. I^Krxenreoy 7rep\ Tovrcoy Ix tiJ; rtiv 
Koioov Wropioi rig 6 rirgot^ xoA fXi^is, E postremis erui xoXoi fpvyl 
ope Hesych. KoKot^pv^* Tavaypa1osoL>^eXTp6(ov. Jure igitur mutavi 
"geKexlvtp in reXevixcp. Etenim, uti Schol. dicit ad Av. 489. xox* 
xvl^eiv xvplo)§, St civ Trap* katnm jxrra yix^y t^; fJ^oi^ifiS fi^X' * unde 
patet legi debere in textu 'IVo t^^ ^cov^; TsXsyixe/i]^ onorav vofiov 
op$$ov 00*1}. Exstat apud Phot. v. TeXeyixiVai — xai XiyeroLt us rf- 
Afyfxffio^ 4x^ • ^tio i^^^ sensu. Postremo suspicor hominum 
nomina esse quorundam per lusum dicta n^gfvploov et r/sXexa$**— 
'Certe Dop^gloov commemoratur in Av. 653, oi Kefipmct x«} 
17op^^/a>y.— Verum ad Pherecratem redeo. batis jam confir- 
4navi conjecturam meam TeXeoey, de malo poeta et avi simili f 
unde patet bene suppleri rdoy TipeTio-jxarflov*: quos sonos edunt 
ct aves, et poetae, Hesychio teste, Teperlo-iMtrx — ra Tijf xAipot^ 

288 Oxford Prize Euay. 

xfou^llMra xei rat rmf mriymg SuTfjaxtL : eoMlem quoque edere 
poUiit moBcbus pa^caftZaattli ri^pa r§ rOJ^iig : qiuJem bominem 
depinxjt Eupolis apud Harpocrat. ▼• ^O^iMifuar ^Ov ^ipfl ^ ralg 

In hoc specimiiie, utcimque breTi, emendanUir et supplentur 

Antiphanes apud Adien. p. 644. B. 

Aristophanes, Achara. 6l. Av.489. 1025. Nub. 964. Tage- 
nist. Fr. 3. Vesp. 563. 
Callias ^ 

Ciatinus v apud Schol. ad A v. 31. et Vesp. 146. 

Theopompus i 

Comicus Incertus apud Schol. Nub. 1073. 

Hesjch. V. Bd<ntas, 'Pa^oyiSflDf^yai. 

Lucian. iii. p. 331. ct 384. 

Eupolis apud Suid. v. 'Avixag, 

Hesychius v. 'Ja^g, 

Ophelion apud Aibeo. p. 66. 

Philoxenus Ditbyrambus apud Athen. p. 146. 409* 476. 
487. 643. 685. 

Pherecrates apud Phrjnich. p. 136. Pauw. et apud Schol. 
ad Acharn. 86. et Nub. 967. 

Plutarchus ii« p. 84. A. 



Quid reperiri tarn eximium aut tam eipetendum potest, quam illam virtu tem non 
latere in tenebris, neque esse abditam, sed in luce Asis, in oculis clarissims provin- 
ciflB, atque in auribus omnium gentium ac nationum esse positam ? Cic. ad Qvint. 
Frat, I. i. 

DiFFiciLLiMUM est, Acadeoiici, quemvis egregium virum 
laudare instituenti, ita suscepto munere cumulate defungi, ut 
merili omnino debitique houores persolvi videantur. De illo 
euim, in cujus memoria celebranda oratio versatur, audientium 
unusquisque fere jam atitea secum judicavit ; atque ex larga 
sane laudum materia aliquid semper deiegit, quod praecipue 
omatum vellet : — ut^ uisi hac in parte expectationi suae plene 

Oxford Prize Essay. 289 

responsum sit, laudationeni* statim mancam atque imperfectam 
arbitretur. Hancigitunveniam peto, qtioniam virum in omni 
prope genere virtutis principem laudaturus sim, ne mihi tantum- 
ooeris imponatis, ut nihil omnino praetermissum patianiini ; sa- 
tisque officio meo factum esse.existimetis, si in effigie pneclari 
ingenii adiioibranda taiem depinxero, ut multo majus quiddam, 
quam quantum a nobis expressum fuerit^ de homine ipso sus* 
picandum videatur. . \ 

' Atque ut inde oratio mea proficiscatur, unde maxime oportet, 
«t ad gloriam vestram, Academici^ prsecipue accommodatum 
<est,.in his vestris Athenis primum humanarum artium doctrinis 
JoNESius. sese imbuit; totum illud, quantumcunque postea 
adeptus est, e vestra disciplina fuit, vestrse fuit laudi. Inerat 
viro cum ingenium varium, flexibile, multiplex^ turn industria 
plane singularis. Memorise autem tanta illi vis erat, ut omnia 
fere^ quaecunque vel audiisset vel legisset, in mente iusculpta 
inhaererent. Accedebat etiam summum doctrinae studium et 
quasi ardor quidam amoris, sine quo cum nihil in vita fieri pos- 
sit egregium, turn certe in bonis literis praesertim nemo unquam 
magnopere admirandus extiterit. His pollens facultatibus, in 
omni ingenua disciplina ita versatus est, ut celeriier omnibus 
antecelleret. Atque ut cetera pra&termittam, in subtili ilia lin- 
guarum discendarum ratione tantum consecutus est^ ut non 
^solum Romanas Graecasque litems penitus perspectas haberet, 
in nullis fere aliis peregrinus ; verum etiam in tarn variis tot 
gentium Asiaticarum doctrinis quasi in propriis suis finibus ver- 
saretur. Qua in parte quantus postea futurus esset, ipse pras- 
clarum dedit documentum, cum adolescens admodum dulces 
iHos ingenii sui motus ostendit, et in poetarum venustiorum 
ordinem jam tum sese ascribendum esse declaravit. Vere 
equidem hoc mihi videor dicturus^ si nihil aliud reliquisset> 
quam commentaries illos poeseos Asiaticae^ suis insuper poema- 
tiis locupletatos, nunquam esset profecto nisi honorifica illius 
apud omnes, ac plena amicissimi desiderii recordatio. In aureo 
enim illo libello tarn incorrupta est Latini sermonis integritas, 
tanta deliciarum ac suavitatum abundantia, tam mirifica aotem 
rerum scientiarumque omnium, quae ad illud argumentum perti- 
nent, copia atque varietas, ut lectoris animum, cum incredibili 
quadam voluptate perfundat, tum vero baud mediocri simullite* 
-rarum istarum cognitione auctum dimittat. Illius beneficio Sadii 
gravissima poesis nostris quoque hominibus aliquando patet; 
Hafezi, venustissimi vatum, idyllia, amoribus ilia quidem ac 
dulcedine plane sua affluentia, nostros quoque animos permul- 
cent \ ejttsdem beneficio Ferdusii tandem carmina, modo. non 

290 Oxford Prize Essay. 

td Homericam Sbiii majestatem et cflBlestem pane ardorem 
accedentia^ not quoque sublimitate sua exagitant atque incea-> 

loterea vero noo magia fortune quadam felicitate, quam 
atttdiis ac voluntatey Jonesius noster erat et Academicus. 
Atque hoc tarn gravi nomine semper sibi gratulabatur, sempec 
illud prscipue in votis suis babebat, ut in dilectos hosce reces- 
8U8 tandem se reciperet, ubi aetas sua perfuncta rebus amplis- 
simis, jamque ingravescens^ perfugium quoddam honestissi- 
mum foret aliquando iuventura. Quam spem cogitationum 
illius et consiliorum praepropera morte intercisam vereor eqni* 
dem ut lugere, fas sit. Iile vero dies qualis fuisset, cum^ exi- 
mio viro ad patriam restituto, scilicet non luctuosum hoc et qua<- 
si exequiale munus subeundum esset^ verum ipsa universa Aca^ 
demia in Isetitiam solennesque pompas suas merito effunderetur ! 
quae autem privata simul gaudia, quantusque amicorum sibi in- 
vicem gratulantium concursus! Fuit enim ille vir, cum in luce 
quidem oculisque hominum praeclarus, tum vero intus domique 
omnino admirandus* Quid dicam de propensissimo in amicos 
aoimo ? de humanitate, qua omnes sibi devinxit, aut benevolent 
tia, quam in eo nemo unquam desideravit ? quid autem, nam 
baec leviora sunt, de moribus faciliimis, de festivo illo sermone, 
mistaque simul hilaritati ac leporibus gravitate? quid tandem, 
etsi maximum istud sit, de indole ejus cum magna et excelsa, 
tum etiam aperta et simplice f Nimirum hae partes eorum pie- 
tati concedendae sunt, qui praeter hunc communem omnium 
luctum anguntur quodam praecipuo dolore. 

Itaque de reliqua privata ejus vita silebo, si modo duas, quae 
^ in illo prae omnibus eminuerunt, virtutes breviter attigero, alte- 
ram, quas ceteras in se habet, singularem erga Deum pietatem ; 
alteram, quae omnium, cum ab ilia discesseris, baud dubie maxi- 
ma est, quod in ipsa honefitate expetenda modum tamen teneret, 
aemperque illud sedulo curaret, ut virtutes suae nullo vitiorum 
confinio Isderentur. Atque ista quidem, sint licet magna et 
praeclara, cum ipsa a public i praeconii ratioqe abhorrent, tum 
ab illo civilium munerum splendore quasi obscurantur. Is enim 
ille fuit, qui non amicis modo et soda! ibus suis, sed cunctis ci- 
vibus optime consuleret, neque tam uni genti ac region! quam 
hominum uni verso generi prodesse concupisceret. Atque ita 
sibi persuasit, muneri suo haudquaquam se satis fuisse facturum^ 
si Uteris se prorsus trad^ret, ac per mutas tantum artes umbra- 
tilemque illam vivendi rationeai de hominibus bene mereretur. ; 
verum tum denique optimi civis officio digne fuisse perfunctu- 
rum^ si in lucem aspectumque civium prodiret. 

Oxford Prize Esmy. 291 

Decurso igitur spatio Aftademico, ad forenses causas agen^ 
das se transtulit. Verum ad ofBcium illitd quantumvia anipla 
supellectile instructus accesaerat^ eventus tamen haudquaquam 
apei hominis ac meritis reapondit : sive id pro temeritate fortunas 
contigerit^ sive quod hominum ineptias, quae de? orandse nonnul* 
lis videntur^ ipse vel severitate nimia vel ingenuo liberoque 
fastidio non tuiit. Hoc certe confirmari potest^ ipsius viri ne- 
que inscitiam Deque negligentiam obstitisse^ quo minus feliciter 
res excideret : testis est egregius liber/ quem in hac part^ 
Gonscripsity in primis euni fuisse legum patriarum prudentem^ 
in iisque percipiendis baud minorem operam collocasse^ quam 
illos etiatn, qui in hac una re separatioi elaborarint, et banc sibi 
viam ad opes et- ad bonores unicani muniverint. Quin et ipsa 
animi ilia elatio, quae ad summa quasque suscipienda eum im« 
pellebat^ baud passa est, ut in angustos fori cancellos includere* 
tur^ rerumque publicarum dignitas^ semper illi ante oculos ob- 
versata, ad sese eum rapiebat^ et baec minora linquere horta- 

Ac principio quidem in tempora ilia incidit, qu% aliqua for<^ 
san excusatioae indigere videantur. Invita admodum in hac 
re versa tur oratio. Repetenda est enim illius luctuosi temporis 
memoria, cum ex tantis patriae miseriis baec non minima esset^ 
quod inter bonos integrosque cives, quo modo reipublicae labo- 
ranti potissimum succurrendum esset, parupo consentireturv 
Jn quo quidem communi temporum infortunio, aliam sibi 
NosCer publicorum consiliorum rationem^ aliam multi boni 
deligendam esse statuerunt. Neque vero ob istam dissen- 
sionem tam discordes fuisse videntur, quam ob communem erga 
patriam amorem, studium^ pietatem^ unanimi ac plane conspi- 

Ac ne illud quidem vereor, ne quis illi libertatis amorem^ 
vebementem fortasse, certe non inbonestura^ vitio dandum esse 
putet. Nam quis tandem est, non dico vestrum, Academici, sed 
oninino omnium mortatium, tam rudis, tam sordidus^ tam denique 
ab humano sensu alienus atque abhorrens^ cujus in mente arden- 
tissimus libertatis amor non inbaerescat f At qualis profecto 
huic in animo libertatis species insedit ? Nempe, perpulchram 
cujus iroaginem a veteris memoriae scriptoribus expressam erat 
contemplatus ; ea, inquam, quae non minutis argumentorum 
conclusiunculisy sed rebus ipsis, civium utilitatibus, ipsa civitate 
tranquilla, incolumi, florente continetur ; ea denique libertas, 
quam ipsa nostra Academia quasi omnium bonarum artium et 

' Nempe qui inscribitur <* £ssajr QO the Law of BailmeBts.'' 

292 Owford Prize Essaj/^ 

goeiam et senrttricem semper coluit^ et alamnorum suorum 
studiis ac pietatt coimnendavit. 

I Talem se Jonesius semper pnestitit, ut debitos sibi aucto- 
ritatis et amoris fructus undique perciperet. Floruit domus ejus 
virorum ia omni genere laudis illustrium celebritate: hue prin- 
cipes civitatisy hue literarum arbitri, eodem occupatissimi, eodem 
honeste otiosi, cives^ hospites, pan se studio contulerunt. Fuit 
hoc olim Attico honori^ quod in dissociatis civium animis ipse 
tamen cum omnibus in gratia maneret. Quod vero magna cum 
laude fecit Atticus> aversus a republica iile quidem, idem ab hoc 
nostro affectum vidimus in mediis contentionibus ; ut, si quis 
eorum, quibuscum viveret, aliter atque ipse, ut fit, de summis 
rebus sentiret, benevoleotia tamen haud propterea langueret, — 
imo saepius exinde auctior evaderet, cum pristinse ilii caritati ex- 
pertse mansuetudinis nova gratia acqessisset. 
. Ab his autem dulcissimis bonorum studiis consentiens vox 
civium ad grave imprimis officium tandem eum avocavit; 
Missus est in Asiam, ut cum aUis pra^claris viris foro et judiciis 
praeesset. Atque hac in parte audiendus est Cicero, qui in re 
non ita valde dissimili negabat sibi videri '' sane magnam varie- 
tatem esse negotiorum in administranda Asia, sed eam totam 
Jurisdiciione maxime sustineri.'^' 

Ad tantum igitur officium ut accederet, Jonesius anti- 
quis amicitiis et patriae aspectu, invitus quidem, sed tamen ca- 
ruit. In exequendo autem munere quam mira ejus merita extite- 
rimt ! quam mitis severitas, quam non dissoluta dementia ! Ita 
enim se popularem prsestitit, ut- imperii majestas gravitasque 
tribunalis illaesa esset et illibata; ita autem in jure dicendo se- 
verus fuit legumque acer vindex, ut nihil tamen acerbum, nihil 
crudele, nihil non benevolentiae plenum audiretur. Profecto 
omnium, quibus praeerat, salutem fortunasque carissimas habere, 
miseris opitulari, excitare afflictos, aures praebere querelis om- 
nium, nullius inopiam ac solitudiuem ab accessu et colloquio 
suo prohibere, — illae ei populares erant artes. * 

. Sed ejusmodi quidem laudes ita ei tribuendae sunt, ut cum 
multis tamen aliis et nostra et patrum nostrorum memoria ho- 
hiinibus communicentur. At vero illius glorias, quam postea 
adeptus est, socium habuit neminem ; totam illam, quantacuuque 
fuit, suani ac propriam reportavit. Cum enim beneficium 
illud provinciae concessum erat, ut incoluroi patriarum legum 
auctoritate judicia exercerentiir, tamen grande haerebat incom- 
modum, quod eraht literae, quibus ipsae leges continebantur, 
-a nostrorum homiuum cognitione longissime remotse. Quo fac- 

) Cic. ad Quint. Frat i. i. 

turn est, . ut ex ipsa Asiaticorum turbaj levissima ea ^uid^oiy 
itlecebrisque corruptelarum maxime obnoxia, arcessendi tamen 
essent omais illius vetustatis interpretes, quorum fide sanctissi- 
ma hominum jura niterentur. Hinc, quod necesse fuit, vagari 
temere ac licenter visa est Justida^ non certis vestigiis insistere. 
Erat hoc quidem dolenduniy sed multo illud magis^ quod jiidi* 
cibus auctoritas inde minuta esset^ judiciis ipsis sublata fides. , 

Ad quae quidem omnia Jonesius animum advertens^ prae- 
clarum miit consilium, ut tantam obsCuritatem rerum ipse suis 
laboribus illustraret, legesque ex Uteris abditissimis quasi e te- 
nebris in diem lucemque aliquando tandem proferret. Quod 
tam grave opus non ille quidem in otio literarum et intimo sinu 
Academias ingressus est, sed in ista tanta occupatione vitas, 
quanta caeteris hominibus nihil vacuum, nihil subsecivura relin- 
quat ; neque ipsius officii gratia aliqua ac suavitate delinitus 
(quid enim eo vel molestius, vel magis ab omni politiore 
elegantia abhorrens ?) sed communi tantum commodo reique 
publicae studio commotus, summum sibi laborem ultro suscepit. 
Neque injuria : scnsit enim vir clarissimus, atque hand scio an 
omnibus, qui in ilia provincia versati sunt,- unus anteponendus, 
sensit profecto dignitatem suam, expectatipuem hominum, pa- 
triam denique ipsam, et si quid sanctius patria, eximium plane 
ac singulare aliquod exemplum a se praestandum postulare. 

Atque ignoscatur mihi in hac parte orationis aliquantulum 
iDimoranti.. Fuit tempus, ac niniium diu fuit, quum ilii pro- 
vincial durius et acerbins imperabatur : pudet vero meminisse, 
quanta exinde in universo populi Britanni nomine macula inve- 
lerasset. Jure igitur sibi quisque gratulaudum putet, quod ea 
demum nati sumus aetate, quum ex ilia veterum delictorum 
turpituduie in melius tandem res mutatas sunt, ac pristinas istius 
culpae ne vestigia quidem diutius oculis obversantur. ' Sit ilia 
bellicarum nostiarum laudum gloria et amplitudo, sicut merita 
est, latissime pervulgata ; vigeat memoria saeculorum omnium, 
nulla unquam oblivione aut silentio obruenda. Quae ccrte quam 
magna sit, vix oratione quidem complecti possumus ; sed tamen 
ftunt alia majora. Miserandos Asiae populos, quos per tot saecu- 
la nemo mortalium, nisi in rapinas et ad bellum accinctus, invi- 
serat, in societatem legum reique publicae partem arcessisse ; 
propria ipsorum jura, atque istam patriarum cbnsuetudinum 
nescio quam dulcedinem subjectis ultro concessisse ; potissimum 
vero sinceruni Dei cultum, et veneranda Christi inonita, inani 
quadada religionis specie deceptis commoustrasse, — ha; sunt nos<- 
trae laudes, base demum vera nommis nostri monumenta, decora, 



S94 Osford Prize Mt^y. 

• • • • 

H»c vero quorsum pertinent, nisi ut optimorum civium, quo- 
rum benefiqo tanta lauHum amplitudo ad patriam pervenerit, 
dignitatem contemplemur ; et ilium praesertim virum exornemus^ 
cui in omin viia res tarn erat nulla proposita, quam ut commo- 
dis provinciae et sociorum saluti optime consuleret? 

Ipsi autem interea ilia res maxime placebat, ut si quid vsicivi 
temporis aliquando daretur, hoc onme ad sua studia relerret lite- 
rarum. Atneid quidem, rem licet sua sponte psene privatam, 
privatim tamen egit; sed hie quoque indolem suani ostendit, ut 
privatae delectation! conjungeret simul utilitatem publicam. 
Cum enim apud id genus hominum versaretur, non modo in, 
quo ipsa sit, sed etiam a quo ad alios pervenisse putetur huma* 
Qitas ; atque iis precipue sociis uteretur,^ qui summo doctrines 
3tudio flagrarent ; perquam illi optandum esse visum est, ut pro- 
▼iticiag regenda^ solicitudini subveniret solatium literarum 
et bonarum artium amoenitates. 

Hapc erant Qieleberrimi collegii primordia, cujus in scientiis 
gravioribus pervestigandis industriam, ingenuisque artibus (de^ 
liciis et gloria vestra^ Academici^) rite ei^colendis felicitatem^ ne 
vos quidem ipsi non summa laude dignum esse existimastis. 
Bgregium profecto ducendum erat> atque ad vestras etiam ran 
tiones mirifice accomraodatum, ut ilia amplissimi et florentissimi 
campi spatia, quae sola vestris as^iduis laboribus aut piano 
essent inaccessa, aut incertis tantum vestigiis lustrata, dignuin 
aliquando cultum honoremque assequerentur. Ecquamnam 
enim laudem, quae ixx universo terraruoi orbe genii cuiquam 
aut regioni convenit, non multo etiam meliore jure Asia sibi 
vindicarit ? Quanta est illi rerum gestarum gloria, quanta iu 
omni' disciplinarum genere praestantia, quam mirifica autem 
quamque diversa ipsius facias naturat;, denique quam veneranda 
ilia non modo vetustas, verum etiam ipsa locorum religio ! 

In banc tantam magnificentiam rerum qui studia sua confer-- 
rent, complures in republica homines primarii, iidemque litera- 
rum peritissimi, ur>ius viri consilio et auctoritate excitabantiir. 
Hominem ipsum vfdere videor corotia literata undique stipatum, 
' et novae sodalitati suae jura legesque describentem ; videre eum 
videor in posterum animo praesentientem, et fausta omnia i^q 
magnifica augurantem, jamque prapclaram illam vocem einit- 
tentem ; '' Quarito olim gaudio perfundebar, quum Indiam pro- 
pius advectus, Arabia vixdum relicta, Perside vero jam tum ant^ 
oculos meos obversata, tanta nationum gloria insolitaque con- 
templatione obstupescebam ! quod simul animum meumxon- 
citavit atque admonuit, non cum inani admiratioiie dimittendaov 
e^ tantarum rerum cqgitationem, sed acientis potiua termipos 
propagandi, quaeque illustrea regiones imperium hoc nostrum 

Oxford Prize Essaj/. i295 

ondique drcuitifiniaiity eas omnes ingeniofiiin acie toHttStraiidi 
S|^m omenque ampiendiHTi/'' 

Ac profecto jam inde ab auspicatis illis principiis nova qufrdantt 
officiorum ratio, novi tandem provinciales fiructus percipt topped 
runt. Non merces sotaiu, non luxus fautam iltam supeiiectilem^ 
Aon diTitiarum copias orientisque antiquas opes, nunc demuni ab 
Asia nostra postulaoius^ sed et alia ampliora queedam, dulces il^ 
los -nimirum animoruni fructus, praeclara mentis ingeniique ob- 
iectaoNTnta, rei literarise denique subsidia, omnisque instruntien- 
ta humanitatis. 

~ Longum esdet recensere qui bus donis egregiis, qui incljtuni 
illud sodalitium instituisset, idem commentarios ejus decoraftti 
Missos igitur faciam prseclaros iliius in naturae rationibus per- 
▼estigandis, in herbarum proprietatibus, animaliumque vita et 
eonsuetudine explicandis labores, ad communem utilitatem illos 
quidem non minus comparatos, quam ad animi humanissiroafii 
remissionem. Ab hiA enim summi ingenii tanquam tusibu9 eo' 
denuim convertatnus animos, ubi vis ejus maxima etucebat, n^- 
vique omnes intendebantur. IHam quippe materiam tractandaili' 
sibi suscepit, qua nihil in universa rerum cognitione uberius, 
nihil niagnificeiitius, nihil gravius, nihil denique quod ad relP. 
gionem sacrasque disciplines magis pertineat. Quas enim de^ 
prinrordiis rerum omnium ille scriptorum vetuattssimus instincta' 
plane divino docnisset, ea omnia ab impiis hostili odio petita 
novo quodam subsidio munivit, omnesque omnium gentium literal 
lu: monumenta ad illaa arces Christianas rei tutandas excitavit. 
- Vans ilia Indofum de innumera saeculofum jam decursorum 
lerie commenta^ admota saniore disciplina, redarguit : adfaibtta- 
que universa corporum coelestiumcc^itione, temporumque rati- 
onibus diligenter subductis^ reperit in tanta opinionum varietat^ 
surfimam cum sacris literts consensionem. I>einceps ad exameqf 
vocavit vir illiistris 6ctam illam Deoram turbam, quoa non modo 
Indicae gentes, sed et Graecae et Latinae colnerunt : qoibus qui- 
dem omnibua ita involucra vetastatis moramque dissimiHimorum 
exeussity ut specie quasi longissime di^unctos^.re tamen vel 
eosdem fuisse ostenderet, vel ex eadem stirpe co^atos. Quio^ 
et in ipsa ilia ineptiarum mole vidit iciterdiHn aliquid divinitus' 
exortum, quod not) modo sacras auas origines raonstraret, sed ad 
iineeram pietatem confirmandam hand mediocriter valeret. 

QuMilum vero reliquui»'«st beneficium, quod de gipntiura origi-^ 
fiibus, incunabulis^ incrementis, tarn egregie dtsputaret f Con^^ 
quiaititf imtionum Asiaiiearum literis fere omnibus, J[quasviri era! 
doctrina admiranda) erutiaque singularum singulis monumentiti 

• • « ___^__ 

i Vide <« Discourse on the Institutiod of a Society, &c«'' 

296 Osford Prize Essay. 

yetufttatif vestigiis, miyorum institutis, nic^ibvjs^ rdigionibuB $ 
saeculorum ordine, fortunarum vicibus, artium dcnique^ quaecun^ 
aue essent, reUquiis indagatis ; comperit Uroos omnino quasi 
rivos fuisse, unde bapc iniQieDsaboininuin multitudo in universum 
terraiiun orbem redundant. Comperit ex uno honim eps orto^ 
fuisae, qui in illas regiones se effuderint, quae hodie Indoruni 
sunt, et Siuentium, et, transraisso Qceano, Peruvioruip, caetero- 
ruinque Aoiericam incolentium ; idem porro bominum genus in 
JEgyptum et Africaoi, in Pboenicen^ Phrygiam, Graeciam, Itali* 
am pervasisse ; quinetiam ejusdeni stirpis alios, itinere ad Aqui* 
lonem verso, Scandinaviam ultimamque Tbulen tandem occu-« 
passe. Alteram interea humani generis partem, mitiore praedi- 
tarn ingenio, in Arabum peninsula consedisse ; et terras nulla in 
re malignae fructibus. ^contentam^ nuaquam fere, aut certe semel 
tantumatque iterum, ifiultis interjectis saecuUs, in alienos fines de^ 
migrasse. Tertium vero genus per Scythicas illas solitudineA 
dissipatum fuisse,* et in sylvis ac montibus errabundos feram 
agrestemque vitam egisse, donee in fdliciores undique finitimjo* 
rum agros irruerint, et sede certa stabilique tandem imperio ,po* 
titi sint. Horum autem omnium vestigia haudquaquam obscu* 
ra in una regione inveniri posse confirmavit^ eamque baud dubie 
patriam fuiase totius humani generis, et incunabula. At quaenam 
fuit ista regio? ilia profecto, qu^e-ab ipso sacrarum rerum scrip* 
tore Noae liberorumque ejus sedes fuisse indicata est, omnium 
scilicet fous'et c^put gentium. 

Cum haec tarn praeclare inchoata contemplamur, majora sane 
et perfectiora animo providentes, ne illud quideijfi nefas sit ex- 
optare, quod sperandum etiam nonnuUisrvisum.est ; lit maximum 
illud divini ' numinis oraculum per gentis noatne commercia exi- 
turn aliquaudo habeat ; ui barbararum gentium immanitas a nos- 
trorum hominum usu atque artibus mitigetur, unoqpe tandeon 
per terrarum. orbem veu JDei cuhu, una agternae salutis spe, uni- 
versum bumanum genu^ conjungatur. 

. Sed ut ad eum revertatMr,. unde hue declinavit oratio : jam 
civium vota, ad patriam b^^^i^^na re.vocabant, quum in causa 
isthac omnium sanctissima defendenda ultimum suun^ spiritum 
effudit. Pebebatur quippe maximo operi bate quoque venera-v 
tio, ut . novissimum esset, etut ipse, post ilk^d :<bvinum et ira- 
mortale factum, nihil mortale faceret.' Mors ejus qua^ gravis 
esset patriae, qiiam luctupsa. sui», (suQS, autem bonos.omnes ha- 
bebat,) quam vero ipsi ad naturam qu idem,. et aid ^aetatiem imma- 
tura, baud fusius dicenduni^ |d potiu^^ quam longum ftd ^Jo~ 
riam et ad virtutem aevuni peregerit, id sane ia boe tanto deaida-r 

* Vide Piin. Paneg. 10. 

Latin Poem. 297 

rioxecordemur et cogitatione nostra complectamur. Dum enim 
rerdni nostrarum stabit memoria, dnm in longinquis flits Asise 
regionibuB laudeni nostram vel famae commendatio vel monu- 
menta virtutis ab oblivione hominum vindtcabunt^ dum etiam 
apud ipsum humanum genus aut artiuin optimarum studiis, aut 
incorruptae justitiie, aut patriae illi dulcissima* caritati, aut ipsi 
denique religioni sua reverentia constabit; tarn dia ilia vis in- 
genii atque virtutis, non solum literis mandata, sed ^t in animis et 
desideriis hominum insculpta, superstes erit. 






Vix jam per fessas geiites f«ra beiia quierant^ 
Armatseque rates carpebant otia portins. 
Cum Britonum tielecta manus, priiicap semula iaudis, 
Atque novos sperans se posse referre triumphos^ 
Audaci sulcat peli^ spatia ampla carina. 5 

Hac spe.contendunt terras- tentare repostaSy 
Baffiniosque sinus penetrare^ et ciaustra profundi 
Pandere Hyperborei ; possint si forte sub Arcloii 
Difiiciles aperire aditus, aitt per freta caeca 
Anfractusque maris longos advertier oris, lO 

Qua Jacet occiduo sub sole Columbia tellus ; 
Unde patet pelagus, cursusque brefissimus uttdis 
Ad Seras, poitusque Indos, atque ostia Gangis. 
ite, ra^es fausta;, Zephyris felicibus actas^ 
Vos ite, heroes ; dubios perferte labores ; 15 

Vos bjemis tolerate minas^ glaciemque nivesque^ 
-Et coeptis faveat placidi indulgentia coeli : 
Vos faciies, spirate, aurse % ros Tiribos, Euri, 
Parcite ; tuque tuis^ Aquilo^ requiesce sub antris. 
Montes, Heda, tui ruptis fornacibus ignem ^0 

Volveotes, et saxa simul, fumumque sut> awns, 
Navibus Angliacis viderunt asquora findi : 
At graviora manent-^Qois deiiide pericula fando ^ 


Latin Poem* 

. Hnumerare valet ? Medii diicrimina ponti 

Audaces terrent-— Gelida subeunda sub Arcto ^ 25 
Quid referam majora fide \ Quos grandinis imbres^ 
Quas glaciesy nebulasque atras, quae frigora tristis 
Perpetuo hie molitur hyems ! Quo turbine venti 
Incumbuut pelago, et Btrictis dominantur in undis ! 
Montibus exstructos videas consurgere niontes^ 50 

Con^eataaque pivea nivibus sub.nubila tolli. 

. Saepius ex terneniotu, aut e murmure coeli, ^ 
Aut per saecla diu cumulatse pondere masaae 
Prserupjis avulsa jugis ruit ardua qnoies 
Desuperiu prascepa — Ingenti exterritus ictu 35 

£x imo gemit OceanuSy 'penitusque cavernis 
1 nrbatam horrendi fremitus referuntur ad Arcton. 
At si forte tonent Australi ex parte procell^, 
Aut si decursu prono fluat agmen aguaruniy 
Solvuntur subito crustsB, toiumque per aequor 40 

Disrupta aspicias fluitantia fragmina volvi. 
Heu ! male navigio turn csecis creditur undis ! 
In medio ^tnaeos montes equitare profundo^ 
Cycladas aut vasto avulsas telluris hiatu 
Per fluctus ferri videas, et fuiminis alis 45 

Ocy^s abreptas saevos miscere Uiipultus*** 
Quinetiam borrisono collisa cacumina motu 
Dissuitant, reboante polo— Quasi fulgura coeli 
Inde ignes subito^ eruropunt) mirabile tisu, 
Atque brevem accendunt lucem caligine mista* 50 

Vortice quo moles niveas illiduntur arenis I 
Qua vi inter sese coeunt, et pnelia miscent ! 
Sin rapidis contortae undis volvantur in Austrum, 
Secum fayemem glaciemque ferunt ad littora Calpes, 
Temperiemque novam miratur Maurica teiius«- 55 

Num pelagi hos inter motus, glaciaiiaque arva 
Audetis majora, viri ? Vos excitat omnes 
Ignea vis animi^-^Vos non immania claustra^ 
Frigora, non cogunt vanis desistere cceptis ; 
Non vada/non rupes» non monstra natantia ponti| 60 
Non ursi probibere valent-*-NautaB acrius instant 
Ire viaiUy et rerum fixos transcendere finest 
Amplius baud magnetis acus» dux fida viarum, 
Keddit opem, nee certa aperit fluitantibus Arcton, 
Sed turbata axem refugit, satliensque vaciilat* C5 

Vi furit iuterea penetrabile fngus in ima 
Descendens maria, errantesque recolligit Alpes ; 

Arctius et stringens gladnli compede campos; 
Altigat inclusfis puppes, tolUtque premeodo — 
Tersunt conati perruoipere moenia nautae, 70^ 

Ter fessae cecidere tnauiis — Evicta malis ars ^ 

Succumbit— Frujstra serras cuneosque bipennesque 
£xpediunt, ferroqiie secant obstantia acuto — 
Certatim ipcjumbunt clau$i; — petit omnia in auras 
Effusus' labor — In pelago pef saecula forsan 75 

Starent non solvenda die, aique immota manerent 

Jfayigia — Interea nox circiimfu$a profundo 
ncubat-— U3fbernus nunquatn vel luce maligna 
Ordine sex totos menses Sol discutit umbras^ 
At.yero nebulae eripiiint solaihina cadus, SO 

Lumina^ quae coeli 8tellae> aut tu, Luna, dedisses — 
Quam crebro nautae natalis imagine terras, 
Turbantur ! dilecta doraus, charique parentes 
Occurrunt animis-^sponsae dulcisquerecursat 
Prolis amor — Letbi^ Britones, praesaga futuri 83 • 

Qiiam corda horrescuut, viresque in corpore languent. 
Cum miseri, quae sit rebus spes vana, videtis i 
Num vos^ in domibus vacui, luxuque soluti, 
Vos^ quibus arridet vultu fortuna benigno, 
Deliciaeque placent falsa inter gaudia noctis, 90 

Millia versatis sub mente pericula ponti f 
Num vobis subit, in ludo dum ducitis horas^ 
Ut inembris subrepat byems^ ut viscera frigus 
Occupet, et torpor contractos illiget artus ? 
Quam crebri gemitus erumpant pectore vobis^ 9^ 

Quam largi fletus humectent imbribus ora» 
Corpora nautarum si vos videatis in ipsam 
Converti glaciem^ subitoque rigescere saxo. 
Des meliorai:^ D|pus*^Perituros morte sub ipsa. 
Exaudi, et letho eripias sic voce precantes : « 100 

** Arbiter Oceani| terra?, coelique profundi, 
(Rumpere sive yelis glaciem seu stringere jussu) 
Tu pelagi rabiem mulces, tibi concidit omnis 
Ventorum furor, et paret vis saeva pruina?« 
Sis bonus et felix nobis— -Si sancta labores 10^ 

Respicit bumanos pietas, ditfringe potenti 
Claustra manu, et tenues Britonum res eripe letho, 
Et tuta in reditum liceat dare vela per undas^" 
Ecce autem vibratus ab utroque aetheris axo 
Accendit tenebras fulgor— ^onsurg^re ccelo 110 


Latin Poem* 

Et jactare jubttr rutilantes igne cokunim, 
Pyramidesque alta? gemmis auroque micantea 
dbnt visce — ^Talea non splendent, Iri^ colorea 
Orfoe tuo, pendens pulchrum cum panderis arcum. 

Hac luce immissa subito, fragor intonat ingetis, 11$ 
£t voxhorreridum stridens auditur ab alto ; 
*' Quo tandem tenuistis iter f quo tendere cursus 
Angligens, audetis i Soli has penetrastis ad oras^ 
Quas nulii posthac tuto accessisse licebit.' 
Hie eg6 (namque loqui me coepti insania cogit), 1£0 

Nimborum brumasque potens^ cinctusque procellis, 
Sceptra gero^ aeternaque obstringo compede fluctus— 
Vos revocate gradus, prorasque obvertite ad Austrum-** 
Quaerendi reditus-— Pelago tamen ante remenso 
Quam tutos portus et nota videbitis arvai 125 

Lustrandi fines, tenebris qua mersa profundi^ 
Gens latet infelix, glacialique aggere septa 
Clauditur — Ite viri— -Miseris} o, ferte levamen^^ 
Et more ex patrio durse miserescite sortis. ^ 

Sic tepeant hjemes, melius sic lumina solb ISO 

Splendescant fobis, nova sic dementia coeK 
Excipiat terras, atque auraa ssecula reddat: 
Scilicet, ut fessae tangant haec littora puppes, 
Montanos perrumpam obices — Maria alta patescent.** 

His dictis, Natura gemit, compage soluta, 135 

£t motus coiA:ussa pavet — Collectus ab imo 
In superimpositas moles cum murmure magno 
Toilitur Oceanus — Glacies ceu fissa securi 
Dissilit horrendo'impulsu — ^Via lata repente 
Panditur, et tutum discludit navibus aequor. 140 

Hydensis Scbolje Alumnus. 

6 Jtimt, 18£0. 

^ ■» 




H^iTH respect to the worship of auimals, Plutarch apologists 
for it in the following excellent manner in his treatise On Isia 
and Osiris. 

'^ It now remains that we should speak of the utility of the^e 
animals to man, and oT their symbolical meaning ; some of them 
partaking of one of these only, but many of them of both. It 
is evident therefore that the Egyptians worshipped the ox, the 
sheep, and the ichneumon, on account of their use md benefit, 
a« the Lemnians did larks, for discovering the eggs of caterpil- 
lars and breaking tliem ; and the Thessalians storks, because, 
as tlieir land produced abundance of serpents, the storks destroy- 
ed all of them as soon as they appeared. Hence also they 
enacted a law, that whoever killed a stork should be b^aqi/shed. 
But the Egyptians honored the ^p, the weasel, and the beetle, 
in consequence of observing in them certain dark resemblances 
of the power of the Gods, like ^hat of the sun in drops of water. 
For at present^ many believe and assert that tl^ weasel engeii-« 
ders by the ear, and brings forth by the mouthy being thus an 
image gf the generation of reason {or the productive principle 
of things]. But the genus of beetles has no female ; and, all 
the males emit their sperm into a spherical piece of earthy which 
they roll about thrusting it backwards with their hind fqet, 
while they themselves move forward ; just as the sun appears to 
revolve in a. direction contrary to that of the heavens, in conse* 
guence of moving from west to east. They also aftsimilated 
the asp to a star, as being exempt from old age, and performing 
its motions unassisted by organs with agility and ease. Nor 
was the crocodile honpred by them without a probable cause ; 
but is said to have be^n considered by them as a resemblance 
of divinity, as being the only animal that is without a[ tongue. 
For the divine reason is , unindigent of yoice^i and proceeding 
through a silent path, and accompanied with ' justice, conducts 

-— aM—afc*Mfc*MM^M*aapiPM»»Mi^.— — I • I 1 •■' ——— *!■»**—— till II iiMiM— ■—■>«>■■<*> 

* In^tefu) of iuu hxncy I read wi ^ruiinais. 

302 On thei Theology 

mortal affairs according to U. They also say it is the only 
aniiinj living in water that has ihe sight of its eyes covereif iwhh 
a thin and transparent film, which descends from his forehead, 
so that he sees without being seen^ which is likewise the case 
with the first God. But in whatever place the female crocodile 
may lay her eggs, this may with certainty be concluded to be 
the boundary of the increase of the Nile. For not being able 
to lay their eggs in the water, and fearing to lay them far from 
it, they have such an accurate pre-sensation of futurity, that 
Chough they enjoy the benefit of the river in its access, during 
the time of their laying and hatching, yet they preserve their 
eggs dry and untouched by the water. They also lay sixty eggs, 
^re the same number of days in hatching them, and those that 
are the longest lived among them, live just so many years ; which- 
liumber ia the first of the measures employed by those who are 
conversant with the heavenly bodies. 

• -*' Moreover, of those animals that were honored for both 
reasons, we have before spoken of the dog. But the ibis, kill-^ 
ing indeed all deadly reptiles, was the first that taught men the 
use of medical evacuation, in consequence of observing that she 
is after this manner washed and purified by herself. Those 
priests also, that are most attentive to the laws of sacred rites, 
when they consecrate M'ater for lustration, fetch it from that 
place where the ibis had been drinking ; for she will neither drink 
nor come near unwholesome or infected water; but with the 
distance of her feet from each other, and her bill she makes ad 
Unilateral triangle. Farther still, the variety and mixture of hei* 
black wings about the white represents the moon when she is 

♦* We ought not, however, to wonder if the £gyptians lovi^ 
such slender similitudes, since the Greeks also, both in theif 
prctures and statues^ employ many such-like resemblances of the 
Gods. Thus in Crete, there was a statue of Jupiter without 
ears. For it is fit that he who is the ruler and lord of all things, 
should hear no one.' Phidias also placed ar dragon by the 
statue of Minerva, and a snail by that of Venus at £lts, to show 
that virgins require a guard, and that keeping at home and 
silenre become married Momen* But the trident of Neptune 
is a symbol of the third region of the world, which the sea pos- 
sesses, having an arrangement after the heavens and the air. 

Me. Should be perfectly impartial. 

0/ the Greeks. 303^ 

^fnce.idsio, they thus denominated Amphitrite and the Tritons*. 
T^ Pythagoreans likewise adorned numbers and figures witj^, 
thft appellations of the Gods. . For they called the equilateral 
triangle Minerva Coryphagenes, or begotten from the summit* 
and Tritogeueia, because it is divided by three perpendiculars 
drawn from the three angles. But they called the one Apollo^ 
being persuaded to this by the obvious meaning of ^ the vyord 
Apollo [which signifies a privation of multitude], and by the» 
simplicity of the monad.' The duad they denominated strife 
and audacity ; and the triad, justice. ' For since injuring and 
^eing injured- are two extremes subsisting according to excess 
and defect^ justice through equality has a situation in the middle* 
But Hhat is called the tetractys^ being the number S6, was, as 
is reported^ their greatest oath, and was denominated the world«. 
For this number is formed from the composition of the fouf. 
first even, and the four first odd numbers, collected into one 
sum.* If therefore the most approved of the philosophers did 
not think it proper to neglect or despise any occult signification 
of a divine nature when they perceived it even in things which 
are inanimate and incorporeal, it appears to me, that they in a 
still greater degree venerated those peculiarities depending oa 
manners which they saw in such natures as had sense, and were 
endued with soul, with passion^ and ethical habits. We mns^ 
embrace therefore, not those who honor these things, but those, 
who reverence divinity through these, as through most clear 
mirrors^ and which are produced by nature, in a becoming 
manner, conceiving them to be the instruments or the art of the 
God by whom all things are perpetually adorned. But wq 
ought to think that no inanimate ^being can be more excellent 
llian one that is animated, nor an insensible than a sensitive 
being) not even though some one should collect together all th<| 
gold and emeralds in the universe. For the Divinity is not in<* 
generated either in colors, oV figures, or srfioothness; but svcU 
things as neither ever did, nor are naturally adapted to partici** 
pate of life, have an allotment more ignoble than that of dead 
bodies* But ^e nature which lives and sees, and has the prin- 
friple of motion from itself, and a knowledge of things appro-* 
priate and foriegu to its being, has certainly derived an efflu^ 

* Instead of ^nrxerorotc iMvaiofy as in the original, which is nonsense^ 
it is necessary to read* as in the above translation, avxorvri m; ^vo^tfl 
» For«+4-h6+8=20; and 1+3+5 +rz= 16; and ?0+16:=;3$, 

$04 On the Theoiagy 

wad portion of tfiat wisdoniy whicli, as HenidittM taysy coo- 
siders how both itself, and the universe is governed. Hence 
the Divinity is not worse represented in these anmisils, than in 
the workmanships of copper and stone^ which in a similar man*- 
ner suffer corruption and decay, but are naturally deprived of ail 
sense and consciousness. This then 1 consider as the best 
defence that can be given of the adoration of animals by the 

** With respect however to the sacred vestments, those of Isis 
are of various hues ; for her power is about matter, which 
becomes and receives all things, as light and darkness, day and 
night, fire and water, life and death, beginning and end ; but 
those of Osiris are without a shade and have no variety of 
colors, but have one only which is simple and luciform. Hence 
when the latter have been once used, they are laid aside and 
preserved ; for the intelligible is invisible and intangible. But the 
vestments of Isis are used frequently. For sensible things 
being in daily use and at hand, present us with many develop- 
ments and views of their different mutations : but the inteltec-* 
tual perception of that which is intelligible, genuine, and hiAj, 
tuminously darting through the soul like a coruscation, is bU 
tended with a simultaneous contact and vision of its object. 
Hence Plato and Aristotle call this part of philosophy epoptic 
or intuitive, indicating that those who have through the exercise 
of the reasoning power soared beyond these doxastic, mingled, 
and all-various natures, raise themselves to that first, aimple, 
and immaterial principle, and passing into contact with the pure 
truth which subsists about it, they consider themselves as hav- 
ing at length obtained the end of philosophy." And that which 
the present devoted and veiled priests obscurely manifest with 
great reverence and caution is, that this God is the ruler aqd 
prince of the dead, and is not different from that divinity who is 
called by the Greeks Hades and Pluto; the truth of which asser- 
tion not being understood, disturbs the multitude, who suspect 
that the truly sacred and holy Osiris dwells in and under the 
earth, where the bodies of those are concealed who appear to 
have obtained an end of their being. But he indeed himself is 
at the remotest distance from the earth, unstained, unpolluted. 

^ For Tixiy fxuf f i7io«-4f laf , it is necessary to read, as in the translation, 

0fih4 0r€ehr 305 

Md piiriEi f r4>Bi 6tery' essence that reecttve^ cortuption iMid deatliw 
The souls of men, however, being here encompassed wilh bbdM 
and passions, caiinoC participate of divinity except as of an 
.obscure dream by intellectual contact through philosophy. Bt»t 
when they are liberated from the body, and pass into the invisibU, 
impassive, and pure region, this God i» then their leader and 
kmg, from whom they depend, insatiably beholding him, and 
desiring to survey that beauty which cannot be escpressed or 
uttered hymen; and which Isis, as the ancient discourse 
evinces, always loving, pursuing, and enjoying, fills such things 
in these lower regions as participate! of generation with «very 
thing beautiful and good." 

And lastly, the Emperor Julian, in a fragment of an Oration 
or Epistle on the duties of a priest, has the following remarks 
oil religiously venerating statues : '^ Statues and altars, and the 
preservation of unextinguished fire, and in short, all such parti- 
culars, have been established by our fathers as symbols of the 
presence of the Gods ; not that we should believe that these 
symbols are Gods, but that through these we should worship 
the Gods. For since; we are connected with body, it is also 
necessary that our worship of the Grods should be performed iii 
a corporear manner ; but they are incorporeal. And they in- 
deed have exhibited to us as the first of statues, that which 
ranks as the second genus orGods from the first, and' which cii^- 
cularly revolves round the whole of heaven.^ Since, bowevei^, 
a corporeal worship cannot even be paid to these, because they are 
naturally unindigent, a third kind of statues was devised on the 
earth, by the worship of which we render the Gods propitious 
to us. For as those who reverence the images of kings, whp 
are not in want of any such reverence, at the same time attract 
to themselves their benevolence ; thus also those who venerate 
like statues of the Gods, who are not in want of any thing, per- 
suade the Gods by this veneration to assist and be favorable to 
them. For alacrity in the performance of things in our power 
is a document of true sanctity; aqd it is very evident that he 
who accomplishes the former, Mrili in a greater degree possess 
Ae latter. But he who despises things in his power, and afterf 
wards pretends to desire impossibilities, evidently does not pur** 

K^P»M — I m il I 11 II W^ — ■— ^— — IMIfc— .— — n^,— — ;,^iM<» 

* Meaning those divine bodies the celestial orbs, which in conseauence 
of participating adiTine life from the incorporeal powers from wbica they, 
are suspended, maybe very properly called stcandary Godt. 


S06 OAtheTheahgy 

4ne the latter, and overlooks the former. For though DMiitfH 
not in want of any thing*, it doed not follow that on this account 
•nothing is to be offered to him. For neither is he in want df 
celebration through the ministry of' words. What then i Is it 
therefore reasonable that he should be deprived of this ? By no 
means. Neither therefore is he to be deprived of the honor 
which is paid him through worki ; which honor has been legaliy 
established, not for three, or for three thousand years, but in 
ail preceding ages, among all nations of the earth. 

Looking therefore to the resemblances of the Gods, we do 
fiot think them to be either stones or wood ; for neither do we 
think that the Gods are these resemblances ; since neither do we 
say that royal images are wood, or stone, or brass, nor that they 
are the kings themselves, but the im4ges of kings. Whoever, 
therefore, loves his king, beholds with pleasure the image of his 
king ;^ whoever loves his child, is delighted with his image ; and 
whoever loves his father, surveys bis image with delight.' Hence 
also, he who is a lover of divinity, gladly surveys the statues and 
images of the Gods ; at the same time venerating and fearing with 
a holy dread the Gods who invisibly behold him.* 

* Dr. Stillingfleet quotes this part of the extract, in his answet to a 
book entitled Catholics no Idolaters, and calls Juliaq the devout em- 

* *^ Dio Chrysostome (says Dr. Stillingfleet in ihe before-cited work, 
p. 414) at large debates the case about images, in his Olympic Oration ; 
wherein he first shows, that all men have a natural apprehension of one 
supreme God the father of all things; and that this God was represented 
by the statue macle by Phidias of Jupiter jOlyropius, for so he said, irtif* tft 
fvi erfjoVf before whom we novo are ; and then describes him to be the king, 
ruler, and* father of all, both Gods and men. This image he calls the 
most blessed, the most excellent, the most beautiful, the most beloved 
image of God. He says there are four ways of coming to the knowledge 
pf God, by nature, by the instructions of the poets, by the laws, and by 
images; but neither poets, nor lawgivers, nor artificers were the best in- 
terpreters of the Deity, but only the philosophers who both understood and 
explained the divine nature most truly and perfectly. After this, he sup- 
poses Phidias to be called to account for making such an image of God^ 
as unworthy of him; when Iphitus, Lycurgus,andtbeold Eleans, made 
none at all of him, as being out of the power of man to express his na- 
ture. To this Phidias replies, that no man can express mind and under- 
standing by figures, or colors, and therefore thev are forced to fiy to that 
hi which the soul inhabits, and from thence they attribute the seat of 
wisdom and reasori to God, having nothing better to represent him by. 
And by that means joining power and art together, they endeavour,^ by^ 
tomething which may be seen and painted, to represent that which is in- 
visible and inexpressible. But it may be said, we had better then have 
no image or representation of him at all. No, says he ; for mankind 

\ »f the Greeks 50t 

TTbe Cattiolics bave employed arguments similar to these, iii 
defence of the reverence whidv they pay to the images of their 
saints. Indeed, it is the doctrine of the Church of England,' 
ihat the Catholics form 'the same opinions of the saints whose 
images they worship as the Heathens did of their Gods ; and 
employ the same outward rites in honoring their imagev, as th^ 
Heathens did in the religious veneration of their statues. Thus 
«s the Heathens had their tutelar GodSy such as, vrere Belus to 
the Babylonians and Assyrians, Osiris and Isis to the Egyptians^ 
«nd Vulcan to the Lemniaiis, thus also the Catholics attribute 

do\h not love to worship God at a distance, but to come near and feel 
him, and with assurance to sacrifice to him and crown him. Like chil-;' 
dren newly weaned from their parents, who put out their hands towards 
them' in their dreams as if they were still present; so do men, out of th6 
sense of God's goodness and their relation to him, love to have him re-^ 
presented as present with them, and so to converse with him. Thence 
nave come all the representations of God among the barbarous nation^ 
in mountains, and trees, and stones/' 

The same conceptions also about statues are entertained b}' the Brach- 
mans in Benares on the Ganges. For Monsieur Bernier when he was at 
their university, and was discoursing with one of the most learned men 
aihong them, proposed to him the question about the adoration of their 
idols, and reproaching him with it as a thing very unreasonable, received 
from him this remarkable answer: ''We have indeed in our temples 
many different statues, as those of Brahma, Mahaden, Genick, and Ga* 
vani, who are some of the chief and most perfect Deutas (or Deities); 
and we have 'also many others of less perfection, to whom we pay great 
honor, prostrating. ourselves before them,: and presenting thiem flowers^ 
rice, oyles, saffron, and the like, with much ceremony. But we do not 
believe these statues to be Brahma or Bechen, &c. themselves, but only 
their images and representations ; and we only give them that honor on 
SECcount of the beings they represent. They are in our temples because 
it is necessary, in order to pray well, to have somethinsbefore our eye$ 
that may fix the mind. And when we pray, it is not tne statue we pray 
to, but he that is represented by it.'' The Brahmans have also another 
way of defending the worship of statues, of which the same authpr gives 
the following account: ^That God, or that sovereign being whom they^ 
call Achat (immutable), has produced or drawn out of his own substance^ 
not only souls, but also whatever is material and corporeal in the uni^ 
verse, so that all things in the world are but one and the same thing 
with God himself, as all numbers are but one and the same unity repeat- 
^.'* Bernier Memoires, tome 3. p. 171. 178. 

, From this latter extract it appears that the Brahroans,.as well as the 
^cient Egyptians, believe that the supreme principle is all things. Aof 
cording to the best of tfie PI atonists, likewise, this principle is aU thinoi 
prior to alL For by being the one, it is all things after the most $imph 

manner, i. e. so as to transcend all multitude. 

» See its Homilies, tome $. p. 46. . . ~ . - - ^ 


^09 OAth6 Th^^h^ 

die defeace of certain countries to certain naiata. Hat^ noTthe 
Mints also to wfaom the safeguard of particular citiea is conl^ 
mitted, the same office as the Dii Praside$ of the Heathens j 
Such as were at Delphi^ Apollo;, at Athens^ Minerva; at Catf- 
tbage, Juno ; and at Rome, Quirinus. And do not the saints 
to whom churches are built and altars erected correspond to the 
X)ii Patroni of the Heathens? Such as were in the Capitol, 
Jupiter ; in the temple at Paphos, Venus ; in the temple of Epbo** 
sus, Diana. Are not likewise, our Lady of Waisingbam, our 
Lady of Ipswich, our Lady of Wilsdon, and the like, imitations 
of Diana Agrotera, Diana Coriphea, Diana Ephesia, Venus 
Cypria, Veniis Paphia, Venus Gnidia, and the like ? The Ca- 
tholics too have substituted for the marine deities Neptune; 
Triton, Neriei^s, Castor and Pollux, Venus, &c., Saint Christ 
topher, Saint Clement, and others, and especially our Lady, af 
she is called by them, to whom seamen sing jive Maris stellar 
Neither has the fire escaped their imitation of the Pagsms; 
For instead of Vnlcan and Vesta, the inspective guardians of 
fire according to the Heathens, the Catholics have substituted 
Saint Agatha, on the day of whose nativity they make letters for 
the purpose of extinguishing fire. Every artificer likewise and 
profession has a special saint in the place of a presiding God; 
Thus scholars have Saint Nicholas and Saint Gregory ; painters 
Saint Luke ; nor are soldiers in want of a saint corresponding 
to Mars, nor lovers of one who is a substitute for Venus. 

All diseases too have their special saints instead of Gods, who 
are invoked as possessing a healing power. Thus the venereal 
disease has Saint Roche ; the falling sickness, Saint Cornelius } 
the tooth-ach, Saiot Apollin, &c. Beasts and^c^ttle also have 
their presiding saints : for Saint Loy (says the Homily) is the 
faorse-leach, end Saint Antony the swineherd, &c. The Hoinily 
adds,^ ^' that in many points the Papists exceed the Gentiles in 
idolatry, and particularly in honoring and worshipping the relics 
and bones of saints, which prove that they be mortal men and 
dead, and therefore no Gods to be worshipped, which the Gen<- 
tiles could never confess of their Gods for very shame." And 
after enumerating many ridiculous practices of the Catholics in 
reference to these relics, the Homily concludes with observing^ 
^ that they are not only more wicked than the Gentile idolaters, 
but also no wi!$er than asses, horses, and mules, which have no 

■ Tome 3. p. 54. 



iffthe'Gttekt. $60 

I shalt conclude this discussion of the flieology of Greece 
trith a Sj^opsis of che Pagan Creed, conformably to the doctrine 
of Orpheus; Pythagoras, and Plato, and which consists of thd 
following articles. 

1 . That there is one first cause of all things^ whose nature is so 
immensely transcendent, that it is even super-essential ; and that 
in consequence of this it cannot ptoperly either be named qi 
spoken of, or conceived by opinion, or be known, or perceiveil 
by any being. 

. 2. That if it be lawful to give a name to that which is tfnl;^ 
ineffable, the appellations of the onentid the good are of all others 
the most adapted to it ; the former of these names indicating 
that it is the principle of all things, and the latter that it is the ul- 
timate object of desire to all things. 

3. That this immense principle produced such things as are 
first and proximate to itself, most similar to itself ; just as the 
heat immediately proceeding from fire is most similar to tb6 
heat iii the fire ; and the light immedia^e/y emanating from the sun, 
to that which the sun essentially contains. Hence, this principle 
produces many principles proximately from itself. 

4. That since M things differ from each other, and are multi- 
plied with, their proper differences, each of these multitudes is 
suspended from its one proper principle. That, in consequence 
of this, all beautiful things, whether in souls or in bodies, are sus- 
pended from one fountain of beauty. That whatever possesses 
symmetry, and whatever is true, and all principles are in a cer- 
tain respect connate with the first principle, so far as they are 
)>rinciples, with an appropriate subjection and analogy. Th&t 
all other principles are comprehended in this first principle, 
not with interval and multitude, but as parts in the whole, and 
Dumber in the monad. That it is not a certain principle liE^e ea(;& 
of the rest ; for of these, one is the principle of beauty, another 
of truth, and another of something else, but it is simply principle* 
Nor is it simply the principle of beings but it is the principle of 

principles: it being necessary that the characteristic property of 
principle after the same manner as other things, should not begin 
from multitude, but should be collected into one monad as a 
summit, and which is the principle of principles. 

5. That such things as are produced by the first good in con- 
sequence of being connascent with it, do not recede from essen- 
tial goodness, since they are immovable and unchanged, and 
are eternally established in the sanle blessedness. All other na- 
laras, bowever, being produced by the one good, and many 


310 On the fhtohgy 

goodoessaf, rince they fall off from essential goodoessi and are 
not immovably established in the nature of divine goodness^ 
possess on this account the eood according to participation. 

6. That as vj\ things considered as subsisting causaliy in ^is 
immense principle, are transceodently more excellent than they 
are when considered as effects proceedmg from him ; this prin- 
ciple is very properly said to be all things, prior to all ; priority 
denoting exempt transcendency* Just as number may be consi- 
dered as subsisting occultly in the monad, and the circle in the cen- 
tre ; this occult being the same in each with causal subsistence. 

?• That the most proper mode of venerating this great princi- 
ple of principles is to extend in silence the ineffable parturitions 
of the soul to its ineffable co-sensation ; and that if it be at 
all lawful to celebrate it, it is to be celebrated as a thrice 
unknown darkness, as the God of all Gods, and the unity of all 
unities, as more ineffable than all silence, and more occult than 
all essence, as holy among the holies, and concealed in its first 
progeny, the intelligible Gods. 

8. That self-subsistent natures are the immediate offspring of 
this principle, if it be lawful thus to denominate things which 
ought rather to be called ineffable unfoldings into light from the 

9. That incorporeal forms or ideas resident in a divine intel- 
lect, are the paradigms or models of every thing which has a per- 
petual subsistence according to nature. That these ideas subsist 
primarily in the highest intellects, secondarily in souls, and ulti- 
mately in sensible natures ; and that they subsist in each, cha- 
racterised by the essential properties of the beings in which 
tiiey are contained. That they possess a paternal, producing^ 
guardian, connecting^ perfective, and uniting power. That in 
divine beings they possess a power fabricative and gnostic ; in 
nature a power fabricative but not gnostic : and in human souls 
in their present condition through a degradation of intellect, 
a power gnostic, but not fabricative. 

10. That this world, depending on its divine artificer, wboia 
himself au intelligible world, replete with the archetypal ideas of 
all things, is perpetually flowing, and perpetually advancing to 
being, and, compared with its paradigm, has no stability, or real- 
ity of being. That considered, however, as animated by a divine 
soul, and as being the receptacle of divinities from whom bodies 
are suspended, it isjustly called by Plato, a blessed God. 

11. That the great body of this world, which subsists in a 
perpetual dispersion of temporal extension, may be proper- 


t^the Gretks. dll 

I; calW a wkoU, with a total subsistence, or a whole of whiles ^^ 
OB account of the perpetuity of its duration, thoQgh this is no* 
(hing more than a flowing eternity. That the other wholes which 
it contains are the celestial spheres, the sphere of aether, the whole 
of air considered as one great orb^ the whole earthy and the 
whole sea. That these spheres are farts with a total subsist 
ience, and through this subsistence are perpetual. 

12. That all the parts of the universe, are unable to partici* 
pate of the providence of divinity in a similar manner, but som« 
of its parts enjoy this eternally, and others temporally ; some in 
a primary and others in a secondary degree ; for the universe 
being a perfect whole, must have a first, a middle, and a last part* 
But its first parts, as having the most excellent subsistence, must 
always exist according to nature ; and its last parts must some* 
times exist according to, and sometimes contrary to nature. 
Hence the celestial bodies, which are the first parts of the 
universe, perpetually subsist according to nature, both the whole 
spheres, and the multitude co-ordinate to these wholes ; and 
the only alteration which they experience is a mutation of figure^ 
and variation of light at different periods; but in the sublunslry 
region, while the spheres of the elements remain on account of 
their subsistence, as wholes, always according to nature; the 
parts of the wholes have sometimes a natural, and sometimes an 
unnatural subsistence: for thus alone can the circle of generation 
unfold all the variety which it contains. The different periods 
therefore in which these mutations happen, are with great pro- 
priety called by Plato, periods oi fertility^ and sterility/ : for in 
these periods a fertility or steril(ity of men, animals, and plants, 
takes place ; so that in fertile periods mankind will be both mor^ 
numerous, and upon the whole superior in mental and bodily 
endowments to the m^n of a barren period. And a similar rea- 
aoniag must be extended to irrational animals and plants. The 
most dreadful consequence, likewise, attending a barren period 
with respect to mankmd is this, tliat in such a period they have 
no scientific theology, and deny the existence of the immediate 
progeny of the iuetf able cause of all things. 

' ' As little as tlie eye of a fly at the bottom of the largest.of the^^grp^ 
tian pyramids setfs of the v/hoie of that pyramid, compared with mhrnim 
aeen of it by the eye of a roan, so little does the greatest experiirtentalist 
•eeofthe whole of thiugs, compared with what Plato and Aristotle saw 
Ofi^ through scientific reasoning founded on self-evident principles. 

* The so much celebrated heroic age was the result x>f one of these ftiv 
tile periods, in which men, transcending (he herd of mankind, both ill 
judical and intellectual virtue abounded on the earth. 

312 On the Theology 

15. That as the divinities are eternally good and profitable^ 
fcot are never noxious, and ever snbsistinthe same uniform mode 
of being» we are conjoined with them through similitude when 
we are virtuous, but separated from them through dissimilitude 
when we are vicious. That whHe we live according to virtue 
we partake of the Gods, but cause them to l>e our enemies when 
we become evil : not that they are angry (for anger is a passion, 
and they are impassive,) but because guilt prevents us from re- 
celling the illuminations of the Gods, and subjects us to the 
power of avenging daemons. Hence, if we obtain pardon of 
our guilt through prayers and sacrifices, we neither appease the 
Gods, nor cause any mutation to take place in them ; but by 
methods of this kind, and by our conversion to a divine nature^ 
we apply a remedy to our vices, and again become partakers of 
ttie goodness of the Gods. So that it is the same thing to assert, 
that divinity is turned from the evil, as to say that the sun is con- 
cealed from those who are deprived of sight. 

14. Thai a divine nature is not indigent of any thing. But 
the honors which are paid to the Gods are performed for the 
sake of the advantage of those who pay them. Hence, since the 

Erovidence of the Gods is extended every where, a ciertaiti 
abitude or fitness is all that is requisite for the reception of 
their beneficent communications. But all habitude is pro- 
duced through imitation and similitude. On this account 
temples imitate the heavens, but altars the earth. Statues 
resemble life, and on this account they are similar to animals. 
Herbs and stones resemble matter; and animals which are 
sacrificed^ the irrational life of our souls. From all these, 
however, nothing happens to the Gods beyond what they 
already possess ; for what accession can ^be made to a divine 
nature i But a conjunction of our souls with the gods is by these 
means effected. 

15. That as the world considered as one great comprehending 
whole is a divine animal, so likewise every whole which it con- 
tains is a world, possessing in the first place a self-perfect unity 
proceeding from the ineffable, by which it becomes a God ; in the 
second place, a divine intellect ; in the third place, a divine 
soul ; «nd' in the last place a deified body. That each of these 
wholes is the producing cause of all the multitude which it con* 
tains, and on this account is said to be a whole prior to parts | 
because considered as possessing an eternal form which holds all 
its parts, together, and gives to the whole perpetuity of subsist- 
ence, it is not indigent of such parts to the perfection of its 

of the Greeks. $1$ 

being. And it follows by a geometrical nc^cessity^ tbaX.the9<| 
wholes which rank thus high in the universe must b^ a^nimated. ' 

16. That of the Gods some ^re mundane, bqt others supper* 
mundane ; and that the mundan^e ar^ those who fabricate th^ 
world. But of the supermundane, some produce esseoces, 
others intellect^ and others soul ; and on this account, they are 
distinguished into three orders. Of the mundane Gods also, 
some are the causes of the existence of the world : others animate 
It ; others again harmonise it; thus composed of different natures; 
and lastly, others guard axid preserve it when harmonically ar- 
ranged. Siiice these orders likewise, are four, and each consist^ 
of things first^ middle, and last, it is necessary that the governor^ 
of these should be twelve. Hence Jupiter, Neptune, and Vulcapj 
fabricate the world ; Ceres, Juno, and Diana, animate it ; Mer- 
cury, Venus, and Apollo^ harmonise it ; and lastly, Vesta, Miner- 
va, and Mars, preside over it with a guardian power. Bujttbe 
truth of this, may be seen in statues, as in enigmas. For Apqllo 
harmonises the lyre ; Pallas is invested with arms ; and v eQi^9 
is naked ; since harmony produces beauty, and beauty is not qon- 
cealed in subjects of sensible iuspection. That as these God9 
primarily possess the world, it is necessary to consider the ot|ier 
mi^ndane Gods as subsisting io tbem ; as Bacchus in Jupiter, 
Esculapius in Apollo, and the Graces in Venus. We may alsp 
behold tbe spheres with which they are connected, viz. Vest^ 
with the earth, Neptune with water, Juno' with air, and Vulca^l 
with fire. But Apollo and Diana are assumed for the sun mid 
moon; the sphere of Saturn is attributed to Ceres ; ^thei; to 
Pallas ; and heaven is commpn to them all. 

17' That man is a microcosm, comprehending in hi^iKself 
^r^ta/Zy every thing which th.e wocld ^oiUai|i3 divinely and totally. 
That h^nce he is endued with 91X intellect subjecting in emr^^ 
^nd a ratioi>.al soul proce^djing frojm the same causes, ^s tbpf^ 
from which the iutell^ct aud. soul of the universe proceed. An4 
that he has likewise an ethereal vehicle analogous to the heavens^ 
a^d a terrestrial body cojmpos^d (com the four elements, and w;th 
which also i^; is 4^0-ordiuate. 

^ 18.. Xlidt the rational part of msa9, in, which his e9;?ence consist^ij, 
IS of a self-motive nature, and that it subsi^ta b^twe^n intellect| 
which is immovable both in essence and ep^rgy, atid ifiatur^j^ 
which both moves and is moved. 

19* That the human as well as every mundane soul, uses 
periods and restitutions of its proper life. For io consequence 
of being measured by time, it energizes transitively, and pos8e88es>- 
a proper motion. But every thing which U moved perpematly, 

314 On the Theology of the Greeks. 

and participated of time, revolves periodically, and proceeds frdnH 
tbe same to the same. 

£0. That as the human soul ranks among the number of thost 
aouls that sometimes follow the mundane divinities, in conse- 
quence of subsiiiting immediately after daemons and heroes the 
perpetual VLiiendvinis of the Gods, it possesses a power of descend- 
ing infinitely into the sublunary region, and of ascending from 
thence toreal being. That in consequence of this, the soul, while 
an inhabitant of earth, is in fallen condition, an apostate from deity, 
an exile from the orb of light. That she can only be restored, 
irrfiile on earth, to the divine likeness, and be able after death to 
re-ascend to the intelligible world, by the exercise of the cathartic, 
and theoretic virtues ; the former purifying her from the defile- 
ments of a mortal nature, and the latter elevating her to the 
▼ision of true being. And that such a soul returns after death to 
her kindred star from which she fell, and enjoys a blessed life* 

21. That the human soul essentially contains all knowledge, 
and that whatever knowledge she acquires in the present life, is 
nothing more than a recovery of what she once possessed ; and 
which discipline evocates from its dormant retreats. 

£2. That the soul is punished in a future for the crimes she 
has committed in the present life ; but that this punishment is 
proportioned to the crimes, and is not perpetual ; divinity pu- 
nishing, not from anger or revenge, but in order to purify 
the guilty soul, and restore her to the proper perfection of her 

£3. That the human soul on its departure from the present 
life, will, if not properly purified, pass into other terrene bodies; 
and that if it passes into a human body, it becomes the soul of 
that body ; but if into the body of a brute, it does not become 
the soul of the brute, but is externally connected with the brutal 
soul in the same manner as presiding demons are connected, in 
theii* beneficent operations, with mankind ; for the rational part 
never becomes the soul of the irrational nature. 

€4. Lastly, that souls that live according to virtue, shall in 
other respects be happy ; and when separated from the irrational 
nature, and purified from all body, shall be conjoined with tha 
Gods, and govern the whole world^ together with the deities by 
whom it was produced. 


Haud secus ac tacitam Luna regnante per Arctoa 
Sidereae cedunt acies, cum fratre rctuso 
i£mulus ad^ersis flagraverit ignibus orbis. . • 

Claudian. Carm. i« SS. 

BvRMANN has the following note on this passage : '' Quia hie 
agitur de lumine stellarum per Lunam obscurato, vel puer viderit| 
acies hie de lumine, quod spargunt stellse, dici, et sidereas aciei 
esse fulgentes Stellas, ut acies de oculorum lumine dicitur : quare 
nee fades cum Delrio ad Senec. Hipp* 745;. legendum^ nee 
ordines vel chorus stellarum intelligendi cuni Barthio, neque hiQe 
explicandus Moyses, qui Gen. cap. ii. dicit Deum terram, c(dos, 
et omnem eorum exercitum perfecisse : uon enim hie uUa figura 
de exercitu ordinato potest desumi, sed agitur tantum de lamine 
minori vel majori ; (sed tunc noudum Gorallus erat, sed Goral- 
lulus, qui seuiina mentis profanae sub Liberii de S. Amoris 
larva, clam in vulgus spargebat, et omnera Sacne Scriptural, 
pne Gentium scriptoribus^ dignitatem deprimere adgrediebatur:) 
et hoe probat vulgatum illud Horatii Od. i. 12. micat inter 
omnes Julium sidus, velut inter ignes Luna minores : et hoc fir- 
mant omnia sequentia, adversi ignes, jubar, ira, caiigantia arma, 
quas non ad exercitum aut chorum stellarum, sed fulgorem refe- 
renda." I have given the whole of this elaborate note, on account 
of the mysterious words included within parentheses ; the eluci- 
dation of which I leave to the ingenuity of others, To^ Bur- 
mann's interpretation of siderea acies there are two objections : 
1st. That it is inconsistent with the metaphorical language of the 
passage that the words should imply simply the light of the stars; 
cousistency can only be maintained by understanding them to 
signify the starry trains, or, with Barthius, the host of heaven. 
2dly. That the sense given by Burmann to acies in tne plural 
number, belongs to the singular only : thus — ^Virg.Georg. 1.395, 

. '' M am neque tum stellis acies obtusa videtur.*' 
In Virgil the plural of acies has but two meanings; it sometimes 
denoted the eyes ; as iEn. vi. 7B8. 

'' Hue geminas hue flecte acies :'' 
but is. more frequently used in a military sense. Claudian in one 
passage uses it of the battle itself, or rather of a series of battles^ 
of war : 

Girm. viii. 1 14- '' Post acies odiis idem, qui terminus' armis.'' 
The meaning of acies in Virg. iEn. x. 408. seems to baYe 
caused some perplexity to the commentators : — '^ extenditur una 
Horrida per latot acies Vukaoia eampos." 

316 On the Origm^ Progress, 

Cerda thus wrU^f: '' NoA ego serious tuiui, Sferti, qui ineptissimi 
scrilMs, de igne aciem dic^re^ nimis ineongruum est : iino nimis 
poetice, ait Erythra^us/' Taubmaiui thus : '< Vis ignis, qui 
veluti exercitus est Vulcani. PLautus violenliam Vuleani dixit." 
Taubmann is uudoubtediy right ; aew Fulcauia is simply the 
wrmy of Vulcan ; the next line confirms this interpretation : 

'^ lUe ssdeos vietor iWininuM despectat ovantes/' 
Vifitor and oeanien ^x^ niilitai?y terms. IIU may perhaps be referred, 
in ihia paaaage^ to Vulcanm^ included in Vulcania iu the prec«- 
4i«g lino, by a figure more common among the Greek writersi^ 
Min^d ^X^/tMt is(i$ TO iry^ftAwoiunu. Thus £sch* S. c. Tfa. 172. 

^ilff fv w&rroi ^lA^ 

li(pin^oDo:a fdiv yeifj %. r. X. 
mkaxm ymy^ 19 to be understood from ytmoK^tf. Again : 
Agani. 3d£ii "^^^ S< /ui'19 Ti( irf^Ttgov ifMtlwTi^ orfi{$r^, 

)• e. mfwrim.tii% ^ b« #uppUed from frrfovsm. 





, Pa»t llh-^lCminued from No. XLIII. p. 19] 

Skction m. 

Statt oftheJirstPosidiluman'Ages; doctrines of vncorritpied 


xitisi were die ivhole fiimily of man celfeeted in one spot^ 
bending at one altar, and united, we may reasonabfy suppose, in 
one bond of friendship, feeling, and religion. ' Apostacj from 
thfeifr God, and hatred to each other were then ut^tnov^n. Wi 
must now therefore endeavotit to aseertain, from the fragments 
ef those traditions, which are strewed among the early histories 
4tf nations, what were the emtouis, the manners^ and the religion 
6f dfe firsts Px>stchkivians, while they contiiKied in one region. 
For this p|irj>b9e it wiH be necessary in the first place to take 
into consideftttion the exact sp^ on which tfie atk rested. 

mkl Decline of Idohtry:. 317 

«^ Jt 18 genemllyy and >ve. think justlyy 8upt)osed to hftve rested 
011 mount Ararat: the . description of which given by various 
travellers explains^ as we shall see, several particulars of tb« 
ancient Idolatry. 

Mount Masisi or Acarati lie« about JL2 leagues to the Bast 
of ErivMi^ and four leagues from the Aras. It stands by il»elf 
ia the niidst of a very large plain^ detached from the other 
mountains of Armenia, in form, it altogether resembiito a 
sugar loaf: though it has two peaks, one of which is consider^ 
#bJy lower than the other, and is more sharp and pointed ; 
the highest on which the ark is said to have rested, rises far 
above the neighbouring mountains. When the air is clear, 
it is so elevated, that it may be seen at the distance of four 
or five days journey : though as some of the more distant 
parts of Mount Caucasus are higher, this apparent excess. of 
loftiness is supposed to proceed from its insulated situation, in 
an extensive plain, on high ground. It is surrounded by a 
range of smaller bills.. Whether the remains of the ark were 
still visible in the days of Abydenus ; or whether the Dutch 
writer, who pretended, th»at a hermit on Ararat gave him a 
cross made from the wood of the ark ; or whether many other 
atrange stories are true, I have neither tlie time nor the inclir 
oation to enquire. 

Near this spot it is evident from Scripture, that the Patriarch 
and his sons must have continued several years. The circum- 
atances which took place during their residence there, are not 
.related in scripture ^ great length ; yet the few points we are 
able to collect are of the utmost importance. Immediately 
«n leaving the ark Noah offered a sacrifice, of every clean 
beast, and of every clean bird. It is well known that sacrifices 
«vere offered by Cain and Abel; and in the opinion of tlie 
best divines both of the Jewish and Cluistian Churches, they 
had been regularly offered by the heads of families who were 
«like Priests, Prophets, and Kings, to their descendants. We 
may justly therefore conclude, tlMt Noah offered his sacrifice 
in compliance with the religion of his forefathers, the recomr 
mencemeiit of which began with the holocaust on the altai^ 
built on Mount Ararat; perhaps opposite the very entrance of 
"the ark, before he decended from the mountain. His burnt 
^fferinga bad in them the nature of a propitiatory, as well as 
90 eucharistical sacrifice: and the custom of offering tbeae 
aaerifices which was thus renewed, had prevailed from the ^ttty 
beginning among thf nations of the ante-diluvian world. 

The mercifiJ Being who created man had, not permitted 
him to remain without a revelation of his will from the moment 

318 On the OrigiUf ProgresB^ 

of his creation. Various modes of its communicatiofi arc 
recorded in the pages of Scripture. Whatever mode was 
adopted at this period^ it is certain that Noah, as the Patriarchal 
l^overeign, Priest, and head of his fstmily, was favored with 
divine communication. New laws were given for the better 
government of his descendants ; some of which are still cele- 
brated under the title of the seven precepts of Noah. The 
tops of the smaller hills surrounding- Ararat were, perhaps^ 
some are still » covered with ruins. It has been thence inferred 
that the Postdiluvians for some years after their descent were 
still apprehensive of another deluge. To remove these fears 
a solemn promise was given that the earth should never again 
be destroyed by a deluge. To confirm this promise the rain- 
bow was placed in the heavens. Either this phenomenon had 
DO existence before the flood, for the earth might have been 
watered by the mist of which we read in a former part of 
Genesis ; or it was suddenly and miraculously made to appear^ 
without the interposition of the usual and natural cause. 

With the exception of the curse pronounced by Noah upon 
Canaan, and the blessing upon his sons, these are the only 
circumstances Telated of the Patriarch and his children during 
their continuance in Armenia. NoaK lived after the deluge 
three hundred and fifty years. During this period it is DK>8t 
probable that His influence would be very great : and that any^ 
general apostacy would be thereby prevented. Immediately 
after the relation of his death, the inspired writer proceeds to 
describe the division of the whole world among bis children. 
If we look to other sources for information respecting the 
intermediate period between the descent from Ararat^ and the 
dispersion from Shinar, we shall, not find any that is satisfac- 
tory. The traditions of every nation confirm the accounts of 
scripture to the very utmost, and they all agree likewise in the 
veneration paid by the Patriarchs to the second father of man- 
kind. In this scarcity of authentic accounts. we must pro- 
ceed with the utmost caution; avoiding as much as possible 
all conjecture, and hypothesis, unsupported by circumstantial 
evidence and the nature of the case. 

So long as men remained in one . spot, obedient to . thiC 
cbief.of their family, who had thus been miraculously preserv- 
ed, they were not likely immediately to apostatise from the 
true ReJigion ; > particularly , as that religion was so lately 
revived in all its purity .« The Patriarch still lived; he could 
recount the escape they had undergone ; the wreck of the 
form^ yirorld; and the wonderful power of the one eternal^ 


md Decline of Idolatry. 51 9 

VtMuhXey and supreme Being. The ark was still before them ; 
the rites of religion flourisbed ; their numbers had not yet so 
itiuch encrea«»ed that their actual crimes could be concealed^ or 
the commencement of their idolatry be long unobserved. As 
h^'ever no authentic information respecting this exact period 
is to be found^ we must be contented to examine the cus- 
toms and religious ceremonies which succeeded it. 

The first period after the deluge of which we have any au- 
thentic information was the time of Abraham^ some three years 
after the' dispersion, when the apostacy had become general** 
To prevent its further progress in one family, to preserve the 
ancient faith, and to perpetuate that faith to the most remote 
age, God communicated with Abraham ; and in obedience to 
the command of God then given, he left his own country, to 
preach to the surrounding nations. We have no reason for 
supposing that Abraham propagated any new doctrine, or es- 
tablished any new ceremony excepting circumcision. What- 
ever therefore were the religious customs of Abraham, and bis 
people ; or of Isaac and J acob who inherited the Priesthood, 
and perpetuated the worship of their father ; we may reason- 
ably conclude were the same as those of the primitive postdi- 
luvians. This does not appear to be demanding too much. 
The apostacy from the pure and sacred worship of the one 
true God, to the gross and indescribable abominations of 
Idolatry, must have been gradual. In relating therefore the 
history of uncorrupted Pati iarchism, as it may be traced in the 
life of Abraham,- and bis more immediate descendants, M'e shall 
arrive at the chief source of the turbid and polluted waters of 
Idolatry. To this source may be added a variety of other 
causes enumerated by Stillingfleet, Sir William Jones, and 
others, which may be thus briefly enumerated : The appropri- 
ation of the several events recorded in the first book of scripture 
to particular countries, when the different nations dispersed to 
their respective settlements ; (thus the Greeks appropriated 
the history of Noah or Deucalion) the corruption of Hebra- 
isms-— alterations of names — attributing to one the actions of 
many — ambiguity of the oriental accounts — Historical truth, 
being perverted into fable by ignorance, imagination, flattery, 
or stupidity ; thus beacons were changed into one-eyed cyclops ^ 
rocks into monsters, 8cc. Divinities were created by the Poets,' 
as Hygieia, 8cc. — Metaphors were a source of additional cor- 
ruption, thus Psyche, or Maya, the Hindoo Goddessof delusioii,' 
were metaphors to express the nature of the soul^ or the meta- 
physical notions of the Hindoos, respecting the nature of mind|, 

930 On the Origin^ Progre$$^ 

and natter. One most eminent soorce was the eothusiaiUc 
veneration of their ancestors, from which originated Uemono* 
latry ; another, more eminent even than this, was their admira* 
tion of the heavenly bodies, from which began Sabianism and 
all its mysteries. 

£vcry step we take in this interesting enquiry is over debate- 
able ground ; and every assertion we may venture to make has 
been the subject of volumes of controversy. In the endeavour 
however to ascertain the religion of the early postdiluvis^ns, 
it is impossible entirely to omit the enquiry, whether the peculiar 
doctrine which characteri>ies the true religion was known and 
believed • It has been the opinion of many of the best and 
wisest among Christian divines, that the belief in .the Trinity 
was well known to the primitive Church, and that the Trinities 
of the Pagan nations were derived from this source. Now 
much confusion has arisen from not properly distinguishing 
between the notion of a Trinity considered in itself, and the 
strange and peculiar additions which have been made to it by 
the promoters of idolatry. It must be confessed that the evi- 
dence iif favor of the knowledge of this doctrine having been 
imparted to the Patriarchs appears greatly to preponderate ; 
iio part of Scripture was given to teach mankind that there was 
a God ; it was given to preserve that knowledge in its purity. 
Mo^s, (as Dr. Allix has admirabjy. shown in his reBectipns 
on the book of Genesis,) mentioned nothing but uhat was ge- 
nerally known at the time he wrote. Inhere is no passage 
through the whole scripture where the word Trinity is mention-i 
ed, or where it is asserted in ^express terms, that the P^ity 
consists of a Trinity in Unity ; the doctrine rests upon this 
remarkable fact ; — that the incommunicable perfections, and 
attributes of the Supreme Being, are iudifferenUy assigned to 
each of the divine persons ; and that the common naojie of th^ 
Pivinity in Hebrew is a plural noun; though in all other lai^ 
f uagesy so far as I remember, it is singular. The dpctrii^e o( a 
plui^ity in the Godhead, that is of the Tripity, se^m^ to me to 
1^6 taken for granted by the inspired writers; and ^must.thea 
have been imparted from the very beginning. It has alw^y^. 
been believed by the Christian Church, and oi|r most learned 
divines are unanimous in their opinion that it ws^s the doctrine 
of the Jewish Church. As we cannot bpwever ascertain A^ 
^i^fit time ^h^n it was revealed to the Jews, we conclude it 
\yas hooded down to them as a portion of the original R^vela- 
tiof^ from the Patriarchs ; and if it was known to^ thenif ^e ^« 
vfarraptied in supposing that it must have beep well knpw9 alfP 
to the early postdiluvians^ at the period we are now discuasing. 

and Detlkie cf Idolatryt. 8S 1 

If it be asked then, whether the Hindoo Triad, as Mr. 
Maurice supposes; or whether the Pagan Trinities, as has 
been attempted to be proved with much learning, be th6 
Christian Trinity, we decidedly answer in the negative ; there 
is no resemblance between them ; but if the idea of a 
Trinity had not been originally declared in the pure religion 
of mankind, I do not, and cannot suppose that- hunian in- 
vention would have discovered a ddctnne, which appears sd 
much above human reason. The belief in a Trinity has 
ever been a stumbling block, and' stone of offence to humarf 
wisdom. We cannot imagine therefore that the founders 
of an Idolatrous creed would have invenfted a doctrine so 
incomprehensible to the faculties of man, and so likely X6 
retard its dissemination. It must have been well established 
when they proposed their corrtiptions of it, and if established 
!t mast have been at first revealed^ and if revealed, it was at 
the beginning, when the All wise Creator communicated the 
knowledge of himself to his creature. 

As we cannot tell whence the idea of a Trinity originated^, 
unless it had been communicated ' from the beginning, neither 
are we able to trace the doctrines of the incarnation, and th^ 
atonement, to any age or nation. They are like a thread 
running through the web of every Idolatrous Religion ; and the 
whole of the Scripture Revelation is founded on them. With- 
out these doctrines. Revelation loses its influence. The promise 
of the future Messiah was given to our first parents immediately 
upon their fall. He was not to have been considered merely as 
a great ^ prophet, who was to confirm by his resurrection the 
certainty of the soul's immortality, this object would hav^ 
been answered by the ascension of Enoch in the Antediluviati 
Church, and by the rapture of Elijah in the Jewish Churchy 
neither was he designed merely to confirm the doctrines or Y6 
enforce the precepts of a pure religion, and this was doni^ by 
many prophets, teachers, and eminent men. A Messiah was 
promised who should not only be thus eminent as a prophet 
and as a teacher; he was to be the miraculous seed 'of 'the 
' woman ; he was to be at once the deliverer of the world froni 
the moral consequences of the fall, by becoming himself ail 
atonement ; and he alone was capable of making this atone- 
ment; for although in the form of man, he was a divine 
personage, an incarnation of the Supreme Being. ' 

Incomprehensible as this doctrine of the Incarnation is t6 

< . 

333 On the Orighf ProgrcMSj 

ouff reasoiii and inconsistent with all. which the finite pawert of 
man could have discovered ; it is nevertheless the belief of the 
Christian worlds with few exceptions, even to the present 
moment. We could prove it to have been the faith of the 
Church through all ages till we arrive at the time of die 
^Apostles, bjf whom it was enforced. Allix and other learned, 
laborious, and impartial inquirers have proved it to have been 
the faith of the Jews. We trace the doctrine among all those 
nations against whose superstitions the law of Moses was 
communicated to the Jews. We could show that it existed 
among the surrounding idolaters at the very time when the 
Pentateuch itself was written, and therefore could not have 
been the invention of Moses ; apd as the doctrines of the In- 
carnation and the Atonement were thus common to all these 
people, and formed a part of the creed of every system of which 
we have yet been able to obtain an authentic account, — it follows 
that they too must have once been derived from some conin2,on 
origin ; that is, they were articles of that creed, which was 
acknowledged by mankind when they M'ere all united in one 
faith ; they formed a part of the uncorrupted, original Religion 
of the Patriarchs. 

In declaring my conviction that the doctrine of the immortality 
of the spul was known to the Patriarchs, I am not unmindful 
that I am opposing the authority of the Author of ** the Divine 
Legation of Moses." The dissertation of Dr. Jortin, however, 
on this subject, completely refutes the idea that the soul's 
immortality is not taught in the Pentateuch. But even if 
Warburton's theory be correct, it is equally, clear that the 
Patriarchs believed in a future state; not only had Enoch 
ascended, a fact sufficiently authenticated by the traditions of 
nearly all the oriental nations ; but the promise of the Messiah 
implied that man should be restored in another world to that 
communication with the Deity, which had originally been granted 
in the present. Morality is essential to the happiness of 
mankind^ and no revelation could be given from the Supreme 
Being, in which purity of mind and conduct would not have 
been commanded, and enforced by every sanction, which could 
impress the heart. For this purpose a Priesthood was institu- 
ted ; which may be considered as another feature of Patriarch- 
ism, and is common to the Primeval, Levitical, and Christian 
dispensations. In the latter no man has a right to take upon 
himself the sacred office of Priest without episcopal ordination : 
m the /ormer the tribe of Levi was set apart, and dispersed for 
this purpose through all the tribes of Israel. Prior to the 

and jyeeUne of Idolatry. 323 

fstri^luliBient of the Levitical priesthood, every head of a 
family was prophet, priest, and king to his own tribe or 
household ; and according to the testimony of Philo and others, 
the elder born in every house was the Priest of tlie house, and 
offered sacrifice at the appointed period in that capacity. 

The histitution of sacrifices too is of the most ancient date. 
All history, whether sacred or profane, unites in commemorating 
the early prevalence of this custom. Noah, as we have already 
seen, offered a holocaust on Ararat. Job as the Priest of his 
family made expiation for the possible offences of his children : 
and the same rite was universal in Egypt, India, Scythia, and 
elsewhere. Now the circumstance of the establishment of 
sacrifice as an act of worship, implies a priesthood, a plan of a- 
ritual, some proper, regular, acknowledged support of that 
Priesthood — it includes offerings, ceremonies, solemnities, sacre4 
days, — prayer,— the original knowledge of religion — a mediator 
in the person of the priest, who offered up prayers tor the 
people-— it confessed a difference between clean and uucleau 
animals, and it acknowledged that sometlang more than the 
niere repentance.of man was necessary to propitiate an offended 
Deity. All this is traced to the union of mankind in one body 
after the flood. We have no time, nor does our subject require 
that we should enumerate the inferences which so naturally 
present themselves to the mind, when the early foundation of 
them can be thus pointed out. Who informed mankind that 
any single action which they could possibly commit, was offen- 
sive to an invisible and supreme being f Vice and crimes do 
not appear to the natural reason of man, to be capable of 
incurring the vengeance of a God, though the magistrate mjist 
punish them^ as injurious to society. And even if men could 
ever have supposed this to be possible, could the> have con- 
ceived that the Deity would have accepted the propitiation of 
blood. It must have been the divine dispensation of provi- 
deuce, which appointed sacrifices, as the original memorial of 
the only atonement for the offences of mankinds 


Ritual of the Patriarcht, 

Having thus considered th^ opinions and doctrines entertained 
by the early Patriarchs, we shall proceed tp mention some of 
their chief customs. 

Whether in imitation of Noah, or as a memorial of the ante-* 
diluviam paradise, we cannot say, but they planted groves, and 

S24 On the Origin^ Progress^ 

worshipped on the tops of mountains. Thus Abraham planted 
a grove in ' Beersheba : and when *he left Moreh, he built an 
altar on a mountain, on the east of Bethel. The Patriarchs 
were ^accustomed to anoint with oil a rude stone column, which 
has given rise to various conjectures. Some suppose the stone 
Was a type of Mount Ararat, which stood, as we have described, 
by itself in a plain : others suppose that it was an emblem of 
the firmness of the divinity : whatever it was, it was a patriarchal 
hieroglyphic, immediately connected with the worship of the 
Deity ; for Jacob erected such a monument, and called it the 
hodse of God : and on another occasion, when he made his 
covenant with Laban, a pillar was erected as a memorial of the 

Every patriarchal chief was priest, and king, to his own 
people. Priam in Homer, Anins in Virgil, and many others, 
seem to have been the same description of sovereign. Such 
were Jethro, Abraham, &c. 

Many Hindoo customs are still similar to the patriarchal: 
particularly the laws concerning marriages. 

Dr. Hales has endeavored to prove, that at the time when 
tlie patriarch Job lived, vihich most probably was many years 
before Moses, Sabianism was punished by the publiciaw. He 
rests his theory on Job. xxxi. 26. — 28. 

We read in the Iliad and Eneid, (books which are not only 
valuable as works of imagination, but as describing the real 
manners of those early ages) that every treaty was confirmed 
by sacrifice. This custom was common to the Patriarchs. 


The dispersion. 

These we believe are nearly all the recorded eustoms of tfad 
early patriarchs, which most problibly originated during tlH^i^ 
residence in one spot ; beftn-e their dispersion (rotn the plac^ 
where the ark rested. The next stage of our in<}Hiry is, what 
were the opinions and customs which may be supposed to have 
arisen in the intermediate period between the commencement 
of their removal from Nachshevan, in Armenia, to the settlement 
at Shinar. And this brings us to the question whether there 
was a single or a double dispersion. 
- It will be nec^ssdry here to recapitulate a part of what has 

' Calmet supposes that a circle of stones was raised at the same time. 

" and Decline of Idolatry. 325 

6eeh already observed, in. the review of the works which treat 
ott. this subject. Mr. Bryant is of opinion that all mankind were 
collected together in one family, at Nachshevan, in Armenia, 
and the surrounding- territory ; that they peaceably dispersed 
from thence to their respective settlements, and that the 
building of the tower at 9abel was the act of one family 
only; who, under their leader,' and patriarchal chief, united 
with stragglers and discontented individuals, who refused to 
go to their appointed territories; and after they had begUn 
their journey to the east, suddenly retunied, invaded theur 
brethren who had occupied the land of Shinar, and began to 
erect the tower, and to perpetuate their dominion. The tower 
was overthrown by miracle ; the people were scattered over the 
.whole earth, and their language confounded. Thus far Mr. 
3ryant's hypothesis seems to be warranted both by Scripture 
and by reason. .The most objectionable, and we may say incre- 
dible part, remains. These dispersed and dispirited wanderers 
immediately attacked the surrounding nations, (which by that 
time would have become great and powerful ;) they universally, 
without one exception, subdue them ; compel them to change 
their opinions ; and conclude by every where establishing arts, 
science, commerce, a knowledge of astronomy, the use of an 
alphabet, and a corrupt religion. 

Mr. Faber, on the contrary, supposes that the whole family 
of man moved in one body from Nachshevan to Shinar. In 
this place originated the grosser corruptions of Paganism, which 
bad already by insensible degrees crept in among the people, 
under the mask of greater wisdom and refinement. Here began 
the institution of Castes, and the first great empire. From 
thence they were miraculously dispersed, as is related in Scrip- 
ture, and the world was then divided among the descendants of 
the three sons of Noah ; who, as well as their father, had died 
before the commencement of this emigration. 

Few matters of fact related in Scripture have undergone so 
much discussion as this of the dispersion. Though [ have 
already in the Classical Journal, in some measure anticipated 
this part of the subject,' I shall enumerate some of the chief 
reasons which have made me decide in favor of Mr. Bryant's hy^ 
pothesis. The simple narrative of Mosf*s, as is usual in these 
cases, is interpreted by each writer, in support of his own views. 

' Vide a Paper in No. XXXII. On the Hypotbe&is of Faber and 

VOL. XXII. a. Jl. NO. XLIV. Y 

326 On the Origin^ ProgresSj ^c^ 

It 18 positively assei;te(l by Moses, ^* when the most High 
divided their inheritance among the nations ; when he separated 
the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to 
the nunij[>er of the children of Israel." That is, the .earth was 
diyidedf by the appointment of the Deity, with reference to 
the future, establishment of the sons of Abraham in the land 
of Canaan.' As it was known among the descendants of the 
patriarchs, that Palestine was allotted to the Israelites, (and that 
It was known to the seven nations who usurped that territory^ 
is amply proved by Mr. Faber,) so were the other several por- 
tions of the world assigned to the patriarchal families by Noah, 
lii conformity with this opinion, we find that all the traditions 
so current among the pagans, respecting the triple division of 
the world, represent tliat event as taking place in an orderly and 
peaceable manner. Epiphanius relates, though not very clearly, 
an ancient notion, that the earth was parted by lot among the 
patriarch's three sons. Wherever the wanderers from Shinar^ 
and in a subsequent age the emigrants from Egypt dispersed, 
they found Aborigines. It is probable, that the movements of 
this immense mass of mankind would have been directed by one 
head ; yet nothing is more unlikely than that all the patriarchal 
chieftains, of the three several branches, should have submitted 
to the same foreign usurped influence. 1 wish to abridge the 
subject within the shortest possible compass ; and shall omit 
therefore all . other arguments, but that which seems of all 
others the most forcible, as it arises from the nature of the case, 
begging to refer to the paper in the Classical Journal alluded 
to above. » 

Noah died three hundred and fifty years after the flood. 
Considerable difficulty has always existed, with respect to the 
proper data by which to ascertain the probable increase of man* 
kind : whatever data we adopt we shall find . that the descen- 
dants of Noah at that time, would be too numerous to permit 
their possible continuance in one spot. The produce of ihe 
ground in those regions would not have permitted a condensed, 
population of many millions, to which by that time they would 
have increased, to remain there so long. Had they so conti-» 
nued under the dominion of one chief, it would naturally follow 
that the eldest son would succeed to the government of his. 
fatlier, and the patriarchal polity would have been crushed ia 
the bud. Every where we find independent, sovereign chief** 

' This interpretation I have since found is objected to by Michaelis.- 
Vide Commentary on the laws of Moses. — Smith's translation. 

Nota et CurcB SequenteSj S^c. 327 

tains, possessing the po^er of king and priest. . Jethro the 
priest, and king of Midian, was a monarcb, as we have observed, 
of the same nature as Priam and Latinus. Each in his own 
territory, at the head of his own family, or dependents, exer- 
cised that power, which had been instituted from the beginning; 
and which had been thus perpetuated for no other reason than 
that they descended from independent chiefs, who had separated 
from the original settlement, where that form of government had 
been established by Noah. 



a Th. Forster, f.L.s. 

No. V.--^\Continmdfrom No.XXXFII. p. 89.] 

reurregt Twwroo(ra» avroog e]KviJi,ivov 58«g' 

H fJM\>^ov SeiXa* ysveot), vdpoKTiv oveiap, 

AvToiev e^ vdarog :7faTeps$^o6oi><ri yvpivwv '215 

. 212.-— 213. Aut circum paJudem " Cum volitat juxta terram sive 

birnndines agitantur, undam convo- aquam pluvias prsesagit.'' [Lin. 

lutain incassum ventre verberantes. Syst. Nat.] Bene de *' hirundine 

•— Rusticis nostris, ut audio, notum rustica*' speciatim scribit ; solam 

pluviae prognosticum. Theophras- banc speciem, juxta terrse aut aq us 

tus olim notavit, XeXi2oyi; rij yaa-rfl superficiem voiitantem, instautia 

wifTcnvtmi to; "KifMaq, ijiwp &yifxa'mv(rt, plnviae indicium accipe. Hoc ia 

[Theoph. Sign. Pluv.] Virgilius tractatu de brumali hirundinis re- 

memorat, inter alia quae incautos cessu notatum est. [Observat. Brum, 

de pluvia praemonent, Ret. Swallow, 3. ed. Lond. 1813.] 

** Aut arguta lacus circumvolitavit Plurima de hirundine vide in Ex- 

birundo.#' cursu. 

[Virg. Geor. i. 877.] 214—215. Vel (ante pluviam) 

' Plinio pluviam indicat, " Hi- magis misera progenies, esca hy- 

rundo tarn juxta aquam volitans, dris, indidem ex aqua ranularum 

ut penna saepe percutiat/' [Plin. patres coaxanu — Theophrastus no- 

Hist. Nat. xviii. 35.] * ' tat, K»l ^arfaxoi /maXXOv aivtris a^fjutt' 

Prpgnosticum denuo minime ne- yovo-ty viwf, [Theoph. Sign. Pluv.] 

flectiim a C. Linnaeo qui in Syst. Addit prognosticum e rana arborea^ 

fat. de ** hirundine rustica** scribit, *Eri ^i nal x^^s fiArff^xog ivl ^Mfw 

998 Noke et Cura Seqtientes 

ahn viw^ ^nfjtmfn, [Ibid.] De ranis dieque resoDsnt; hoc tempore tni- 

Nicander acripsity ciores Tenti pluriaeque accidere so- 

'iux' nTM ysfavwf mii»x« *H^ •'^^' l^Dt. An yocaliores sunt instante 

*ve ^ ^ pluvia nescio. In Australioribus 

'BftT^sx^ ^ X^''P7<" roBt^ffihrts aoia- plagis, post aridum tempus pri- 

,*^ mum imbrium indicium ranas cro- 

BaiA^MVi, -^« T citando facere, c viatoribas accepi. 

[Nicand.Theriac.622.] Neque unum genus ranarum solum 

Et m Alexiphar. : hoc facit, cf. Excurs. nost. ad h. 1. 

K-l Tjr .TV r « 7«P«^>«»V»'f *«P«^«" 216. Aut stridet mane soUtaria 

^'*'^* [Nicand. Alex. 561.] oXoXuy^..-Nescio ad q«««^avem 

Virgilioantepluviam; respeiit pceta. Cicero acredoiam 

** Et veterem in iimo ranae cecinere transtulil ; 

querelam." " Sapc etiam pertnsie camt de pec 

rVire Geor 378 1 ^^'^ carmen 

Plinio pluvik iifdieium* fadunt, Et matufmis acredula vocibus in- 

" Ranae ultra solitum voeales." „ .f^^*. ^ ^ ^ - , - -s. 

[Plin. Hist. Nat. xviii. 35.] Vocibus instat et assiduas jacit ore 
Cicero ranas de ipsarum solertia ^ querelas, * .« 

ila alloquitur: Q""°» P^.»™"? 6«^^^« rores Aurora 

« Vos quodue signa videtis aquai '*™*^**^' . _. . . . , 

dulcis alumn« [Cicero, Divm. i. 9.\ 

Cum clamore paratis inanes fun- ,^ Febtus A vienus ululam reddidit : 

dere voces, " ^ut matutinas ululae dant car- 

Absurdoque sono fontes et stagna mine voces. ^ o-«,t 

cietis." [Fest. Avien. vers. Arat. 377.] 

[Cicero, Divin. lib. i.] Nonnulli, (male vero,) aqualicum 
Addit tamen : " Quis est qui vi- animal reptile intelligunt. Ipse, 
dere ranunculos hoc suspicari pos- Theophrasto teste, avem aliquam 
sit; sed inest mira ranunculis quae* accipio, sed de qua specie nescio. 
dam natura significans aliquid per 'oxoXvyAi aiowra fmn W 4jc{«mi«c x«: 
se satis certa; cognitioni tamen ^V^- . [Tbcoph. Sign. Temp.] 
hominum obscurior." [Ibid.] Ex Theocritus certe avem mtelligu, 
infeusto crociiantium ranarum »«» m spinis arborum canentem 
•mine scripsit Ovidius de juveni- audit: .. , v, ,a 

bus in ranas conversis : '^'^ ^\ «»^' mwipaiff Peo^opytw »i9a. 

<* Quamvis sint sub aqua ; sub aqua . ^'"*^*^ ^ ^ ^ ' . * i. 

. maledicerc tentait." T.TT»y.c^^xaXay*umf .x« '^o'-^ • ^ 

[Ovid. Met. vi. 376.] ,^J iJ'^^^^^varat iSir^t ' rp^f.^f 

Aristophanes ranas canere tacit: ^xciyOais 

*H A,Jf 5>*^;»«? oV^P«' [fheocrit. Idyl. /. 140.] 

AiiAaf I*9«y|iu7crfl* SimillS natura, Ut pUtO, oXoX^y^of 

no/(x4)aXi;y<Mra9Xtt<r/txa<r* ac <rjri'wu esi; quoDiam ambsB avcs 

Bgexfxfx^l jioA^ jcoaf. in spinis (&iMTfBcus) canere dicuntur; 

[Aristoph. in Ranis.] cf. notam ad v. 292. 

Uanae crocitare ihcipiunt paiilo Hesiod.idem pluviaeprognosticon 

ante equinoxiuin vernum, cum stag- ex ave ducit qpae jeux)a/{ nominatur : 

na et paludes eorum vocibus nocte ^h^mq muw^ xoxxwfi* ifi^s h xiTaixtio-A 

in Arati Diosemea. 329 

"H voti xeA Xaxipvl^oi irap* ijtovt icpou^wtrrji 
XBifMtros dp^ofievou xh^V virhttrifs xogaovti' 
"H Tov xflti TOTfltftoio l/3a^^«T0 fiixP^ ^*P' «xpouf 

TJ '^jStov, T/p»ii Ti ^|,6Touf Itc' ifttifofa « Turn cornix plena pluviam vocat 
yaxav,^ „ , . .. . , improba voce 

"'"^[^e7JZ;.TD^l7^T ^' tti^'^'"* secum spatiatu, 
Ip8eturduinviscivoruni,(vuIgofnw- ry:^„ Qg^. : o^q-. 

™T f r^ill!?!'T*J?'^7*l,"?^''' "TequeneclaevusvetetirePicus 
K^r^itlTh ''^/^"'/ ?.*"^"^- Nee vaga comix/' 

ninus generis avem prognosticum , n • 

referendum est. Liicanus procellam navi prsesagit: 

217-221. Jam signnm pluvi» " Quodque caput sparge ns undis 
venientis sumtum est e corohe, per r X5 "^ '^'''^^^^ *'"^'^"' ,. 
Iittuscursitante,aiitaquis8eimmer. I°stabili gres^i metitur httora 
gente. Monendum est quod ista avis cornix. 

quae Graecis K^fiivn dicta est, Roma- [Lucan. Phar. v. 555.] 

ois cornix, Anglis Raven nominar Cicero in libro de Divinatione bi^ 
tur. Lin n aeo corvus cora^ nomina- versibus ex Arato: 
ta est; male vero, qiioniam xop^ '^ Fuscaque nonnunquam cursans 
eadem avis esse videtur quae Roma- per littora corn,ix 

nis corvua dicta est, nostris autem Pemersit caput et flucUim cervicQ 
craw, Nomen proculdiibio hoc recepit." 

atmul ac Latinum corvus duas sper [Cicero, Divin. i. 9.] 

cies, si non plures, referat, nempe Male cornicem fuscam vocat, quo 
corvum cnronem et conmm jrugi" recentiores de antiquorum cornice 
le^um, Cf. excurbum de avium no- decepit ; nee non inter alios ipsum 
minibus. Sensus Auctoris est: Aut linnaeum qui hoc nomen, (ex Cice* 
alicubi (ante pluviam) garrulacornix ^^^^^^ scripto ut opinor,) quodam 
ad littus pruminens instante tern* nigrocinereo corvo imposuit, quam 
pestate terrae subsidit. Etiam ali- avem nostri Royttim crow vo- 
quando flumine usque ad summos cant. Galli vero La Comeille Mai^ 
numeros se immergit, vel tota sub- *^^«' cf. Exc. ad h. 1. 
ternatat, vel saepe ad undaro crori- Haec praesagia sumta sunt e cor- 
tans versatur. Simile prognosticon i^Jce vel se immer^ente vel in ripis 
in maritimis regionibus Theoph- crocitante. Duo alia e cornice prog- 

trufjuufH, ifuu yuiKvy^pntva m^hJ^xtQ xai viae vv. %uv. %(%)• ei iiouiin. Auerum 

vfpiVfTOjUblvti vlw^ ayifjutimt, [Theoph. prognosticum tempestatis est, sed 

Sign. Pluv.] Plinius pluviam ex- e cornicis voce sumtum, cum sim* 

pectat: Et quum terrestres volucres pliciter garrula sit, praecipue ves- 

eontra aqr — "' j~u..«* ««-*: — ^^^^^ — ^. ^i^^ ..ii« ^a «i..- 

nix. [PliiJ 

Virgilius notat : notam. 

330 Nota €t Cura Sequentes 

Kai fioeg ^ roi Tipo$ x^arog IvBioio, 
Oupavw eWayiBoyreg^ wk ai&ipog wr^^ireofrOm 

222 — 2S3. £t ante pluviam coe- stabulum v. 383. — ^3. cum congre- 

lestem bovcs cceIuqi inspicientes gati plus solito mugiunt v. 386. 

mox ab sthere sentiunt. liaustum quos vide cum notis subjunctis. 
(ut alia) e Thcophrasto, qui post- 224—225. Prognostica pluvis 

quam alium e bove praesagium ex insectis et reptilibus— Formicae 

memoraverat, addit lor U ns tJ? w^ etiam cavo foramine ova sua omnia 

m Aw»«5«Tcir» o^TfpaiTiiTB*, S^»p cm^Tii. ^^^^^ efferunt. Thcophrasto inter 

scat ^.T« fxt/xnfi^f i»» 'r^tffiwaraaiay ^„^ |^, y^ xata^if^u Alia;,. [Thcoph. 

Ipx»f*w»« Jfx^fw ^nWi. [Geopon. 1. sjg„ pi^; j Plutarchus de for- 
3. citat Buhle. vol. i. p. 463J Et, micisdicit, tA; iJ t5t enrj^^Twr lutBi^ 

lflriff-»5»Ta».[L)emocr. Symp. etAntip. ^^rot o 'A^arof *h xwxnf /xwp/ix»ii«c 

op. Fol. B. G. IV. iv. 29.] -^lia- l^^^^ l^ »!« wavr* ela<rcx(9 ayifiiyyutiTo* 
nuS bovcs nOO caelum, Sed terram Ksi nus od% tia ypafeva-n^ aXX' ha T»^f 
clfactantes, pluviae indicium accepit, avoxuf^hovs w^vg orar ttsartra trrtaytn^ 

si eodem tempore mugiunt: Bov^lav '"«? olb^wrrai xai ^^9So-i ^dopi? x«* 

iSofi xat oo-^aoifiiTa* tti; ytif i/*it amXxif. tf^^" am^iporra*. [Plutarcn. Solert. 

[^lian. Anim. lib. vii. c. 8.] Addit, Animal, t. x.] Vide ad h. 1. animad- 
*AWnt iJ jSwf ««» ««f« ''oi' f^owc l<r9to»Tff, versiones criticas 1. H. Buhle, p. 
}iiXcD(rt x"f*«^*« [Ibid.] Plinius in 464. Apud Hesiodum duodecima 
Hist. Nat. Arati sensum accuratius die<i bona segetibus metendis vocata 
expressit: " Etboves coelum olfac- est, ubi r^f*f, id est formica, acervum 
tantes seque lambentes contra coiligit: 

pilum." [Plin. Hist. Nat. xviii. 35«] 'HptTOf fxirx«ouoTf T't*eiffffwpo»Af*aya». 
yarro Aticinus memorat : [Hesiod. Op. et Dies. 778.] 

** Et bos suspiciens ccelum, mira- Tzetz. ad b. 1. Hesiodi annotat: 

bile dictU A/yii ii to* fxvffxrnut eSf irpoyittj^9»T« 

Naribusaeriumpatulisdecerpitodo- wtipov^ km iiifAws xm hataifMvs si/a/^oc 

rem." X'*^"f***' ««*P*' yina'Oai piXAcTTOf, xXf.'ct 

[Varro Fragm.] ^w Ov^j tns 4«flf *»5a xaroixiT, flepfAOTtwi/ 

Ex quo Virgilius: ^« f*^** »w«»Ta»»i<r« xol tw trrroT ttc*« 

: — ^ et bucula coelum «>»•» A»oTi5,« f*^c A«4«i<n,, xal V- 

^uspiciens patulis captavit naribus ^f^ »«f«xwoT.f i|«y«i tot »» 
aura*? -' *^*'"* *"* ''^*?' |iif«i»" pn**? <r««»i t»p 

Baconus noster inter al\a vete- P.'" "»• "»• B""'*^' -P ^^'''^ ^"- 

habet,«And a heifer will put Sp his ^^^P'"^ «' *«^"« penetrahb„s ex- 
nose, and snuffe in the aire against . tulitova, ^„„ i^^, ♦» 

raine." [Racon Sylv. Sylvar! 826. Angustum formica te ens iter 
8d ed. p. 208.] [Virfe. Geor. lib. i. 380.] 

Caetera e bubus prognostica Varron. ante pluviam : 
Arato noiata, sunt 1. cum lerram " Nee tenuis formica cavis non 
comupetunt v. 350. — 2. cum ungti- evehat ova. 

las lambent aut extent! jacent ad [Varro Fragm. J 

in Arati Diosemea. 331 

Bcurcrov uw^vsykolvto' x«) ai^obv cS^dev TowXol 225 

Keivoi Touf xaXgouo-l /*«Xaivi)j lvrfe/)a ya/ij^. 

Ei lfieipi(r(ruvTo xai ixpco^oLV imlKol ^cov}}; 

Olov T6 (TTaXaov ^/.o^esi e-^) uSari 5§a)p. 230 

2l^ woTf xal yeveal xopaxcov x«) f 0X« xoXoiav 
"TSaroc Ipp^oftevoio Jioj waga (T^jit' eylvovro, 
•PaivJftgyo* ayaXijSa xai ip)jxg(r<r*y o/toiov 
^ey^dfjLevoy xa! irov xopotKeg 8/ouj orraXayfAoij 

Piinio indicia pluviss faciunt : ^Kaii; wTipwraonxw* xai ^varvSuwn nal 
« Formicffi concursantes aut ova iiroTpifovTif x"^* ?;»'^««'<^*»' L^"*"- 
progerentes." [Plin. Hist. Nat. xviii. Hist. Anim. vii. 7.J 
3^ -j 231 — 235. Jam caiwt prognostica 

- '225—226. Atque inli cumulatim pluviae e corvis et monedulis; at- 
in muros serpere videntur— Theo- que eoruin voces guttis cadentis 
phrasto sionum pluvi» faciunt, aquse assimulat— Quandoque geoe- 
W rauxo* ^?xxoi 'k/s Torxov Vp^wriff. ra corvoruni turmsBque graculorum 
[Theoph. Sign. Pluv.] sigtium fiunt pluviae e ccelo veni- 

- 226—227. Nee non et ilH vermes entis, cum visi sunt gregatmi et 
quos atr» terrae intestina appellant, accipitrum mstar garnentes. Etiam 
Theophrastus : T^s rvTff* «oXxA (patvo- cdrvi, instante pluvia, raagnas gut- 
fxaa X"pSva trnfjiaSyti. [Ibid.] Nican- tas voce imitantur, vel cum gravi 
der de his lurabricis dixit : et congemina voce crocitantes mul- 
■Ht xal hrifa yns, oU rpe^n of/fi^mgalu tum constrepunt, frequentesqucalas 

[Nicand. Ther. 388.] quatiunt.— v. 231. yivwi xojaxwv, 
Numenius, toI fxiv rouxo* xexxwrm lortasse ad eorund greges referas, 
/uixavff yat9(bayoty fyTtp* yai»if. [Num. Si ad aliquam avem speciatim 
-Athen. vii. 15.] PUirima cf. in poeta respicit, certe corvum frugi- 
Excurs. Plinius de hoc prognostico : fegttwi ante oculos habuit; qute 
" Item vermes terreni erumpentes vulgo rook appellatur;- quoniam 
pluviam praemonent." [Plin. Hist, cortd corones numquam grega- 
Nat. xviii. 35.] Et Baconus: " For tim volant; ^Dxa xo\oi«v tur- 
earth wormes will come up, and mae corvorum monedularum (vulgo 
moles will cast up more, and fleas Daws.) Hae sa&pe gregatim vo- 
.will bite more, against raine." lant et interdum cum corvis fru- 
[Bacon Syl. Sylvar. 829.] g^egis mixtae garrientes audiuntur. 

, 227 — 230. Praesagia pluyiae e Sin autem nou conjunctim legeris, 

IiuUis gallinaceis.-^Etiam pulli vo- &ya\riia ad ^Cxa xoXo*S5v solum refe- 
ucres quae galio prognataB sunt rat; et ymal x9pax«w pro corvU 
studiose pedunculos quaerunt ; ma- coronis sumendae sunt; ymai pro 
joreque voce pipiunt, sicut aqua gentes. Sed melius placet prima 
super aquam stillans. — E Theo- interpretatio cf. n. ad v. 270. Prog- 
.phrasto : "oxwf ii i^tOtg xal AxsxTpwef nosticum hoc sumtum est e Theo- 

^Qtipi^oumt if^artuhy (m|i>«.«ov, xal Zrav phraStO : 'Eav Ti xopaxif lav rt xoXotol 


S38 Nota ct Cnra Sequentes 

(Theoph. Sign. Pluv.] Paulo su- vo: « Pessima conroram significa- 
pra scripserat: Ko^ ««xx^ ^m* tio, cum glutiunt vocem velut 
/Jixxft, uw9i,{ f«,T«^, To^roif Ur T.XV slrangulati." [Plin. Hist. Nat Jib: x. 
Jff vBiyinrm nal lir,p«.fn«i x«l Tif-ly, c. 12.1 Et in octodecimo: « Cor- 
lZ5S:;:'!!:«2;^^^i^l/'^*•^ vique slngulta quodam latrantes. 
S;^? r,%."S4 KTi!:, »4"« concutien^s si continuabunt; 

2^ ^nifiolwi. [Ibid.] Mianus ^4°^» vcntosiim irobrem." [Plin. 

scribit: K^f «i T«x«f ic«l l»iTpiix»ff ??''^ ^**' *^"'- ^^'^ -^^J^ng*^ 
fdtyyofMW M^ xfo^wf ^Af r«'pvy«ff, jmI *a«n™ prognosticon e Graculis quod 
jcpofSv a^Tttc art x"/^ <«'«»< iMreyvw Virgilius e corvis suinit: fortasse 
ir^«iro(. [/Blian. Hist. Anina. lib* &<1 eandem avem utrique respicie- 
▼ii. c 7.] £S iuxmsi ^' {fpmcifem;, w; bant, nempe quern corwm frugir 
IflwVof (Aristoteles) x^ii* mi virofAffN^ ^^mir vocabat Linnaeus : " Gra- 
vti fA^v AvwTfpn, «ii 2« wMrttirlpw xf t/fuiiv Kai culi sero pabulis recedentes, hye- 
6fT»» ivUMkm, [Ibid.] Lucretius prog- mem," [Ibid. Conf. Syst. Catalogue 
nosticattonis futurorum ex avibus of Birds by T. Forster. edit. Ni« 
causam reddere conatus scripsit : choUs and Son, London, iai8.] 
^ £t partim mutant cum tempesta^ Multi porro quiquamquam de prog- 

tibus una nosticis minima scnpserunt, for^ 

Raucisonos cantus, cornicum ut tuito tamea de hac pluvis prssen- 

saecla vetusta tione, qua corvus praeditus est, lo- 

Corvorumque greges, ubi aquam cuti sunt. Nicander in Ther. 

dicuntur et imbris Aiyvmol yCvcf t« xepa( r* ofA^ta x^ 

Poscere e< interdum ventos au- ^wy. 

rasque vocare.^' [Nicand. Theriac. 406.] 

[Lucret. de Rer. Nat. lib. v. 1086.] '^ Corvus aquaf' proverbialiter 

Virgilius, corvorum subitum e dictum est, sed unde exortum pro- 

pastil (in uidos) reditum (instante verbium sit docti disputant cf. 

pluvia) feliciter describit in Geor. Gesner. Av. sub. Corvo. £x hac 

libroprimo: tempestatis prognosticatione cor* 

■ • ** £t e pastu decedens agmine nices corvique aves male ominaitae 

magno ab antiquis acceptae sunt; mortem* 

Corvorum increpuit densis exercitus que et res adversas falso praedixissc 

alis." dicuntur, I lias ergo quas vera 

[Virg. Geor. lib. i.] praedictione natiira hominibus utiles 

Ad corvum notura illud Horatii reddif, in malum vertit sumroa 

carm. in libro tertio referendum est, hominum ignorantia ; Iniqui ho* 

sed hoc, quoniam nulla de grega- mines vana gloria se vates existU 

tione mentio fit, de rortx> coroni mari desiderantes, fictas fabulas de 

dictum accipio : divinatione, amplexi ignaros stu- 

*' Antequam stantes repetat paludes diose deceperunt. Sic de physieis 

Imbriiim divina avis imminentum bonis quibus adjuvari possumus; 

Oscinem corvum prece suscitabo, execrabilis ilia et omnium rerum 

Soils ab ortu.*' perniciosissima buperstitio exoria- 

[Horat. lib. iii. Carm. xxvii. 19.] tur. Plura vide in Excureu. 

Plinius in Hist. Nat. libro octa- 3d8 — 239. Jam dicit quod, in* 

m Arati Diosemea. ' SS5 

*£p^(t/E4evoi X0erayeT(r<ra/Tiva(ra^vTflei irrfpv7tf(r<rfy 
rtvia-ioo, fii}$* £1 X6V Iti irXeov ^e iroipoAiV 

stante pluvia, — ^Vel anates puHi do- imber) muUum clamosa redit ad 

mesticique graculi super excelsa terrain; dicunt quasi pluviis in 

loca venientes, alas quatiunt. Hoc mari gaudet, veotos vero aversatur. 

etiam inter alia a Theophrasto me- Fortasse de l^iiu: alterius speciel 

moratainvenimus: Kal n inrrob nfxtfoi hoc loco negligenter locutum ceor 

Jay C^uvva iirl ra yiTffaa aicvnrtfvyl- seas ? Relinquam tibi, docte lector^ 

inrat SJwg aniMaiyu, [Theopb. Sign, has interpretationes incnte pervof 

Pluv.] V. 239. yiro-.rov propne sug- lutandas; ex ingenio tuo vel huic 

gnindmm domus significat ; id est, vei illi fidem addas. Placet interea 

culmen imbricaUm constructum. alios scriptores conferre. Theo* 

^"""'P; habet : phrastus confirmat : Kal i«y Iwl dix«T. 

^H Tps 9ftyycp xpSra cr^y 9paC<ru) ai9n ^^y IpxofxiWff (lp«i»if ) ^^ /tx»XXov, lilaroq 

¥n^as TraXaiA yir«r<ra tjxtovwv Tovoy. o-q^noy ^ iryiV»TOf . Kal oXwp /Smmv iyi- 

[Eurip. Oiest.J ^^,f, ^\ § ^r^^^ ly oi'wv^lv^, lAy (p9eV|i|. 

Sumitur vero poetice pro omni re rat eai^fv vJwp (mfxaiVn ^ XH/M«ya. 

in suggrundii modum elevata, ster- [Theoph. Sign, Pluv.] ^lianus ex 

corarium e figura hoc nomen acce- Aristoteli : niTo/iAcvoc ^t IpwhlQ rrts ^o* 

pisse dicunt. Malo itaque reddere xaT-rif ^^y '^^^9 |f ofipavop paynwflai 

yno-o'a alta loca, quae fortasse anates amrrerau [^lian. ^ Hist. Anim. 

supervenient quam culmina domo- vii. 7.] Ut memoravi n. ad v. 188, 

rum, quibus rarissime insident. Geopon. ex Arato. : Kal ra l^ita sl{ 

Hae domestical aves, brevibus et raicfoe vty^yoc f^»yn 9«vyo?Ta, x"f*"'"? 

fere inntilibus alis prieditae minime ^poifiKova-i, [Geoponicx Arat Buhle, 

domorum culminibus ascendere Vol. i. p. 46r.j Domesticae aves 

potuissent. i^em faciunt ante pluviam j quis 

240. Meminisse juvet quod su- rusticus nescit anseres anatesque 

pra. vv. 181. 182. prognosticum nee non et alias aquaticas aves 

venti vel procellarum, ducit ex clangore ad aquara festinantes in- 

tfwhw e mare venienti; quum voce siantis pluviae certum signuro esse? 

. quum 

Ht x«x»ixw;. Buhle interpretatus est : solito roordeant rauscae, et sangui* 

*H oTav Ipwhhg ^jxa woxx^if xXayyiic Inl nam desiderent. Theophrastus vul- 

'^ ^axarrav o-irtvi^. [Buhle Arat. garem de muscis ante pluviam valdc 

edit. 1795. Vol. i. p. 218.] Male mordentibus opinionem confirmat : 

vero : inter woxXa et ofu XsX»|X«l»; mul- Kal to infMcnov vh vtfi rag fxvfiag X«y»- 

^m interest. Ipse credo Aratum /^"ov ix»ifljc, ?Tay yag ianwuai <r^i^m 

voluisse inter duos sonos ejusdem viarog <rnfxtioy, [Theoph. Sign. Pluv.] 

avis bene distinguere; unum red- Quum ubique fere notum pluviae 

dit l^wiihs hxoiAzyoQ If axof, altcrum prognosticum hoc sit ; nonnulli, 

vero cum iiwxfi lirl uttuf, Fortasse causam reddere conati, dicunt quod 

properat ad aquam ante plnviam, instante pluvia humidiora aera 

acute vociferans; mox vero in- fiunt; unde muscae, aquosis et 

stante procella, (si vento comitatur humidis locis habitare solitae, ift 

334 Nota et Curce Sequentes 

Auxyanf SiWore jxey re ^ios xari xo<rftov ogJopYj, 

scilicet supra paludes et laciis; ma- Cerda p. 266.] Politianus a Cerda 

gis deleclanttir et ad aliquid opus citatus : 

solitum, tnorditioDem scilicet, ma- " Dependent lychoo bullae*' 

jdre vi impelluntur. Sed vanum £t postea, 

hoc et sine ulla auctoritate dictum. ** Flammaque dum flectit cum sese 

Fortasse electricitas atmospherica elidet et ipsis 

alio modo afficit eorum corpora et Vix i^edet in stuppis, scintillamque 

animos ante pluviam quam serene excudit ndam/' 

tempore. De hoc cum nihil scio, [Polit. cit. Cerda, ibid.] 

nihil dicam. 246. Pergitad aliae lychno prog- 

' 244 — 248. Sumit hie pluviae nostica : Lucernariim alias quidem 

prognosticum e lychnis. 244. £t lumen solito more movetur, alias 

primo e fungis rirca lychnum con- vero delabuntur flammae, ceu leves 

crescentibus. — Aut fungi circa hi- ampullae. — Dediversisluminislych- 

cernae labium, per noctem caligi- norum aspectubus admudum o^- 

nosam, congregantur. E Theo- scura veteium scripta sunt. Theo- 

phrasto: Kai o!/uOxnT»f lay voTi'a^ i/'^wp phrastus habet; K»I lav xv^**; 

'vrifxdiyova-t, [Ibid.] Et alio loco : aitrfa-9ai fxn l9eXt>, xh^muvo. (rnfAciiiu, 
Ka\ lav yii^xmog hfog fxvxai i/.i\aiw,i £Theoph, Sign. Temp.] Conf. n. 
ttciytywrai, x"^t»v» o-y,fxaiyn. Kal lay ad V. 267. V. 248. Neque, (plu- 

w<r'jrtp%lyx^oi;iro\\oTgii<tTot'jrU(uyrix"H'^' viaE obliviscere) si ad ipsam lucer- 

p/<r«. Kailivx:5xx?;7r£TSxa|LC7rgo»J«v ^^^m radii resplendeant. — Hoc 

«e«faff«;<r,fx«v*«v. [fheoph. Sign. Theophrastus meminisse videtur, 

, Temp.] Calhmachus a Jheone ..-^^ n'l^i^oxv r^^s ^«fi ^H^ov ^ ^iA xd 

citatus son bit pluviam significan, SI ^^.^ i^n^iyofj^m votU frn(jutU,i iiiara. 

^Xi'o^ iaiofx^ov iWnv lyfvovro fxvxnrtg [Xheoph. Sign. Pluv.] A{fxiov fjivx-n-- 

tit citat Cerda in not. ad Virgilii ^.^ piemorat Callimachus ; 

locum. [Cerda, Virg. p. 265.] Ans- e5 t' &v xO^vow iaiofjihov 5W,iv lyc'vovro 
tophanes in Vesp. fungos in lychno ixux»iti;. 

vcnturae pluviae indicium accipit : [Callimach. citat Buhle, p. 219.] 

Kofix' fVfl' oVwf odx n(x-t^Mv TSTTafwY TO virgilio Notissima omnia hsec 

:,. '^)*^'^'^^\ ^ ^ prognostica: 

T^«p«v«yxa,«;f.X«'r^>^"V7roi^«», « Nec noctuma quidem carpentes 

.*iX«t S orav V TovTi ircieiy i;«Toy uMXic-ra, ,t • iT j^ 4.^.*. ^....». «. 

A - ix •% ~ , „ * , , Nescivere hvemera testa auum ar- 

voZixa dente viderent 

*'Tiwf yiyiaQca xkitiitywaai Bop«ov airoX^. Scintillare oleuiD ct putrcs concrc- 

[Aristoph. Vesp. 265.] scere fungos." 

In Graeco Epigrammate, teste [Virg- Oeov. i. 392.] 

Cerda: Et Plinio: " Ab his terreri ignes 

Mn WOT* xuxw nxuxnTa (pf'poi; /uti^r t^Aftfoy proxime significant: pallidi namquc 

lyii'pot;. rourmurantesque tempestatumnun- 

[Cerda ad Virg. p. 265.] tii sentiiihtur; pluviae etiara in lu- 

Apuleius habet : " Cum ecce jam cernis fungi. Si flexuose volitat 

vespera lucernam intuens Para- flamma, ventum. Et lumina cum 

phylle quam largus inquit imber ex sese fiammas elidunt aut vix ac- 

aderit crastino/' [Apul. lib. ii. cit. cenduntur." [Plin. Hibt. Nat. xviii^ 

in Arati Diosemea. 335 

'AxtIvss' fjuri^ Yiv iipeog fiiyot ttnirroLyi.ivoio 

Nf^ca-eiioi ooviieg hccKFtrirBpoi fopscovron. 250 

Mtjili o'vy' ij %WTp)}j ije rpholog mjpi^rirecio^ 

Sfuviri^eg or* gco<n 'ire^ivXfovff?, XeXaSetrda*. 

AetfiTTfirai Trep) arffj^oiT^ hoixdra xey^peloi<riv, 

*AXX* m Koi ra doxeve TFepitrxovioov ueroio. 255 

E\ yk jttey ^epos(r(rx irape^ opeog fxeyiXoio 
IIvQftivu relvyjTcn ve^eKvj, axpon §£ xoXtovui 
^alvoovTM xaiotpa), fuiXoL xev rod' U7[e6ho$ elrjg, 
ES^U$ X enjj, xa\ ore isKoLrio^ vep) irovrow 
- ' . - -- ^ - - - - ,- ^ 

35.] Conf. Apul. Met. ii. 18. 253 — 255. Pergit monere: Ne- 

Ipse notavi Candelanim flammas que per cinereoi, quum, ardente 
crepitare magis ante pluviam, et carbone, signa cenchris similia cit* 
per tempusventosum et piuviosum. cumcirca spiendeant. Sed ad haec 
- 249 — ^250. Mn^' &c. Neque si omnia respice, pluviam observaes. 
aestate anates aves volantes accu- 256 — 258. Facit transitum ad 
mulatiores feruntur. Sensus est: — signum serenitatis jam e nebula 
Expectesetiam pluviam cum anates per montis convallem extensa de- 
vel aves hujus generis complurimas sumtum — Caeterum si obscura 
volantes in calidissima tempestate nebula per montis magni vallem 
observantur. Hyemis tempore con- extendatur, summa vero culmina 
j;regare solent, sed cum congruunt pura appareant, tunc valde serenus 
in aestate pluviaB signum est. Conf. fueris. — Apud Theophra«5tum est; 

V. 184, 185, ubi COngreganteS xiir^ot 'O^Vfxvo; ii xnl "aBw; xal oXwf ra Eon *» 

aliao-que aves ventum indicare di- <r»jjutavTixA, orav ra; xopvpeif xadagwf 

cuntur; idem etiam anates alas ^x**-*", «^^*'«v o'»ift*t"*. [Theoph. Sign, 

qpatientes, jam vero anates congre- Seren.] Plinio etiam, pura roon- 

gatae volantes pluviam indicant, tium cacumina serenitatem porten- 

Hoc ^lianus notat de ayibus mi- dunt. Prognosticum breviter cx- 

nime autem speciatim : quum ad pressit Maro in Georgicorum prirao 

stagna aut pluviorum ripas venitmt, "bro : 

pluviam illo teste denuntiant; "Op- *« At nebula? magis imapetuntcam- 
yidtg il &9ooi^6fxnoi wipl Taf ?u>yaf xal poque recumbuut." 

iroTajawv ox*«ff x"/'^^'* *^^^"^*'' ®^ ^y*'®^" ' [Virg. Geor. i. 401.] 

<riv. r/Elian. Anim. vii. 7.] ,, • 

251—252. Prognosticum e scin- 259—261. Prognosticum serepi- 

tillis.— Neque tu qiiidem oblivis- ^^^^ s"mit e nebula aquae modo 

cere, cum complures scintilla ad expansa, quam recentiorcs meteo- 

ollam aut ad tripoda in igne stantcs ^logi Stratum vocant. — Serenus 

cernuntur — Theophrastus scribit, sane fueris etiam cunri vastum circa 

K»l x'J-rp* ^T'^i^Bnpi^ovfm »»<r« w.g,^x/«f, pontum humilis nebula videatur, 

^iaris trnuuoy. [Theoph. Sign. Pluv.] neque m alto existit, sed inibi plu- 

-Buhle cit. Geop. ex Arat. "En ii nitici maritimae similis depnmatur. 

awliif xj^Tfay H y&^^Mnn trviyBfi^Mc y«»»- —Circa pontum dicit ; quiaeandem 

/Aiwc, «jutiBpouf ^uXoCo-t. [Geopon. i. 8. nebu lam super terram; perconv*U 

p. 19. cit. Buhle, p. 469.] les scilicet moDlium fractam pr«- 

336 Nota et Cuf^a Seqiwutes 

JS'xeTTSO $* euSio^ fHv ewv, m ye/ftari ^XXo^ji 

*Es ^drwiv opaaVy njv itapxlvo^ ofji^fiekltrcrUf 

tlqwra xaSoupofMVi^v irArng uiFsvtp6& 6/4i;^Xi}$* £65 

ICf/yi] yap ftrnvTi xettalgtrcu h ;^eifi£yi. 

Ka) fkoyts ^(Tvxiou Xt^vcov, xoi WKreplyj yKait^ 

cedentibus versibus descripsit. The- crepitu ncquc flatu flamma cande- 

ophrastus notavit: Kal orri c« fipn wpof larum aut lucerDaruni agitatur ; sed 

T^g(»XaTT<»y odTriy iraeafw*"^?, e^inwf, silente et immoto lumioe ardet ; 

tTheoph. Sign. Seren.] Agricolis serenilatem expecteraus. Mireris 

Dostris certum screnitatis indicium quod invenies apud Theophrastum; 

prsbent, in sestate, strati vespertinae AiJxwf t^^ ^wx«Joff x«»ofx«vof x^f*"'** 

quas vulgo « evening mists" vocant. a-nfJuUini. Fortasse male transcriptu9 

269. Monet, cum serenum coelum est ab editoribus. 
est, e signis tempestatis bene cir- 26r — 268. Prognpsticon sereni- 

cumspectis hyemaie tempus expec- tatis sumtum e noctua ; et noc^ 

tare. — Respice vero serenus cum turna noctua tranquille canens esto 

sis ad tempestatem magis. (Max- sibi signum marcescentis tempes- 

x«) — Sensus est, ma^is oportet ad tatis. Theophrastus scribit: rxauf 

tempestatem e serenitate, quam ad rtcvxeuor f9f>yo^{v»i h x"/^^^ ei>iticiv 

serenilatem e pluvia respicere; ut ivo<mfAaim. [Ibid,] Addit vero, Kal 

contra tempestates praeparatio fiat, vuxrwp x"{^^<^s nffvy^tuoyaiovaa. [Ibid.] 

263. Rursus ad serenitatts pro- Buhl^ citat Geop. ex Arato inter 
spectum revertens docet nosadcon- ^^ta quae ayo/xjSpCav ^qxouo-tv, etiam 
stellationem praesepe respicere.—- yxauf a^va-a avyixws h yvxri. [Geop. 
Ad serenitatem vero e tempestate ex Arat. Buhl. edit. p. 470.] Plinio 
diligenter oportet respicere ad prae- praesagit serenitatem " Noctua in 
8cpe quod cancrum circumvolnit, inabre garrula ; at sereno, tempeS- 
recens purgatum ab omni subtus tatem." [Plin. Hist. Nat. ii. 37.] 
oebula : namque iliud pereunte Virgilius docet ex imbri serena ex- 
sub tempestate purgatur. — De hoc pectare; quum: 
fifttis scripsimus .^d vv. 160 — 176. " Solis et occasum servans de culr 
ad q. ref. Theophrastus inter signa mine summo 
serenitatis ponit : Kal n toV 6iov <f>aTvn Nequicquam seros exercet noctua 

ore ay xa9apa xal XajM^rpa ^atvtrai iviiu- Cantus.*' 

m, [Theoph. Sign. Seren.] [Virg. Geor. i. 403.] 

267. Praesagium serenitatis jam Noctua post serenum teropuy 

sumit a quietis lucernarum flam- nocte canens tempestatem praesagit; 

mis, sine ullo crepitu aut flatu lu- sed tempestuoso tempore serenir 

cem dantibus ; num hoc volet ex- tatem. Ratio, ut opmor, physiolo* 

primere dicens. — Etiam flammae gicis nostris adhnc mini me nota 

quietae lucemarum^ — Nostra aetate est. Vide quae scripsi de tempes* 

audimus, <* The candle snaps, we tatis mutands prognosticis ex ani- 

shall have rain," vel " The flame of malibus. Excursus I. Nomina 

the candle flares, we shall have yXav|, noctua, strix, ulula, et caBt. 

wind;'' ergo quum <X)ntra neqae quamvis a recentioribus quibusdam 

in Arati Diosemea. S37 

FivMo) roi (njpM n»V^jcrv^ot iroiki?J<,(ftHnt, 

^HgrH h-mplri xpeu^ij ittx6^ca^ei xopanni^ '270 

Ka) xigaxeg juiouvoi /xgv hpYifMii^i /Sd^eovrff^ 
JlKr(reung axnoLp hreiroL ftSToSpox xexXi^yoyrs^* 
nXsiorepoi $' ayaXi}Sov It^v xo/roio jxJSooyroUj 
^(ovris fjWrwXgior xafgg^v xs tij wto-croiro, 
07a ra ft^v ^aiaark Xiyaivo/xevOfO'fy 6fbo7a, 275 

'H%i T8 xslov<riv Tta) uw*Tfo^**iwrffptfdyt&J. 

pro avibus diversis sumuntur; ta- CvixpOsyyofAhn fia-^xn «? tw do-rifea 

men a veteribus omnia ad genus «fi^'»vire»gaxaxer. [^lian. Anim. vii. 7.] 

strix, refenint. Noctiia quasi noc- . 371 — 277. Serenitatis prognos- 

tas avis, strix dicitur a strideodo; ticum e corvis — ^Item corvi soli bt 

ulula ab ululando ; ut nostris Owl solitarii ingeminantur vociferantesi 

et Hawlett dictse sunt averbo '< to ^^ postea turmatim clamitantes; 

howl." Bubo et '^to? speciatira freqtucnlius vero congregati quando 

dicuntur de ululis auritis, scilicet cubilis memores sinr, voce pleni; 

ista quae secund. Lin. Strix Bubo laetari quis etiam putaverit : sic 

nominatur. Aliquando strix ad etlam vociferantur m morem ju- 

Screechawl apponitur, sed eadem ctindantium. Saepe item per arbo- 

species et striaet et ululat. Ipse qui- f^^. ramos, quandoque super ipsam 

dem notavi hunc avem cum uluiat ubi cubant etiam reduces alas ex* 

mutandam tempestatem praemo- cutiujit. Prognosticum hoc notavit 

nere, minus certius aulem cum stri- Theophrastus, Kal jtop*| ^i juovo; /uti? 

det. Quibusdam anni tempestati- ^^yx«*«y »p«fwv, xal lav ng xfafaj ^it» 

bus omui nocte cauit utroque mado ; J".^''* woxx«»f xf«i^, riiiitvo;. [Theoph^ 

per tempus autem variabile omni- ^*S"- Seren.] Idem Virgilius ele- 

bus anni partibus. Conf. observat. P"^®*" fxpressit : 

meteor, in Phil. Mag. [Met. Obser- -^""^ hquidascorvi presso ter gut- 

vat. Phil. Mag. Ann. 1811. ad , ^"*e voces 

1814.] Aut quater mgeminant et ssepe cu- 

S69— 270. Cum in alio loco ., ^iHhuH altis 
signum pluviae a cornice simplicitcr Nescio qua praeter solitum dulce- 
garrula sumsit; jam serenitatis • "® \?.'^ 
indicium notat; cum eadem avis ^^^^^ *? '^"^^ strepitant, juvat im- 
vocem suftm speciali modo module* bribus actis 
tur.— Esto tibi signum et tranquille Progeniem parvam dulcesque rc- 
variafts tempore vespertioo crocei- visere nidos. 
tet multisona cornix. Theophras- ^ , C^^^'g- ^^^r. i. 414.] 
tUB scribit: Kai xogcJvn ^9^ l^v xji^ Conf. Heyne notam ad h. 1. Vjfg. 
i7V> tdiiiw aniM,im' xal ifrni^y X"!"***- ^'^*- ** P* ^^^' "^' Burmanni expo- 
se Vvx<«^ov a^o'j<r», [Theoph. Sign, sitionem cum ipsius interpretatioiie 
Seren.] Ego vaxv^wm malim red- confert. Melius ille aetUy abao* 
dere, muUas habens voces, quam tis, pulsis imbribus, inteili^it ; non 
simpliciter garrula: haec interpre- finitts, ut Burmannus. Quis eniin 
tatio bene congruit cum, 7roix»xxoucr».. non audivit raucos cantus oorvorum 
Nee non notavi ipse variatas voces imbre subitoveniente in nidos se 
cbrnicum aerenum diem indicare. componentium f Reftpicit Dsm ad 
Mianus scribit : Kofttfvii-^ Ivl^iffv^ carvoiftnigiiegci. 

338 Simanidis Fragmenta emendata. 

Kci 8* ay tou yipetvoi fjLctXaxrii irptyfrigoAg yoX^yi); 

*Ac^oOJeog ravwruitDf bva ^Ofji,ov ^Ai0a xMrai, 

OMff ireiXtppo9iol xev urev^ioi f o^eoivro. 280 


Inter Simonidis Lyrici fragmenta duo sunt^ quorum neoue 
sensum neque metrum satis bene Viri Docti perspexerunt. En 
tttrumque numeris omnibus absolutum, Prius exstat apud 
Siodor. Sicui. xi. ii. ita legendum: 

Twv fv 6e^jX09n!x- 

ifci $oLv6rroov 

evxks^S ftgy a tu;^- ^ 

a^ xa\o$ S* 6 tot/xo;, 

/Scojxo^ 8* 6 Tafos, vgo xoa)y S* 5 

a [/ivatms, 6 8* oIxtoj ^aiy- 

o$* (TTefotyov le TOioOroy o5r* tvpci§ 

oi irivTcov dafiaTcog ct/xaugcoo'ei 

XP^^^S otvipcov ayaioiv' 

6 ^i crrixos otxeriy £u- 10 

8of/ay 'EKXvjvlS' 

^W ^o5to fji^agrvp" 

€1 AsoDvidetg 

6 Sfripreis ^airiX' 

^s, apsToi$ [jLeyetv XsXoi^roo; 15 

xoVftoy aivaov xkio$ re. 

Nunc tandem metri ratio, diu nimis celata, seprodit. De' 

.• 878-:— 280. Prognosticum sereni- tra, K»l fty Awoa-Tpa^oJo-t TriTWjuwwi, x,"- 

tatis e gruibus — Propterea grues /mwva anfJM{iov<ri, [Theoph. Sign. 

ante blandam serenitatem secure Temp.] Plinioportendunt: '< Grues 

prandere solent unicum volatiiin sileiitio per sublime volantes, sere- 

gregatim omnes: neque sereni re- nitatem. [Plin.Hist.Nat. xviii.35.] 

tffoacti -ferri solent. — - Sumtum e Geopon. ex Arato scribit: rl^m 

Xbeophrasto: "Oraf yig«»o« virwrrai Barrcv ifymnai yitifxuia t^tws Sna-Qat, 

9iaL fAn avaxa/xvTwtriv, iCfiiay a-fifxairn^ od inKwat. [Buhl. Arat. p. 471.] Plura 

yft^ WHinrtu vr^h n h vfTo/Mivat xadapa de gruibus et eorum signincatione 

thKTi, flheoph. Sign, Seren.] Con- vide ad vv. 399, 300. 

^imonidis Fragmenta emendata. 339 

versuum pari satis dictum est in Commentariis de ^scbyli, 
£uripidis, Aristophanisque Moiiostrophicis, quae in Clas^ 
sical Journal saepe tractavi. , Quod ad aententiam^ irpo ;^o£y 
vice TTpoyoveov conjecit Hermann, de Metr. p. S 14. ed. i. idem- 
que vero proxime ohviTav pro oixerav in Graec. Gr. 
Emend. Rat. p. 214. ubi lingua postulat olxmv foemininum. 
At Trgo yom Eicbstaedt. in Nov. Act. Societ. Latin. lenens. i. 
p. 198. Mox vice oIto$ dedi oIxto^, V. 7. Vulgo evrafiov 
he. Ipse dedi crriifavov. Opportune contulit Wesselingius 
Polyb. XV. 10. ol [lev cmoiavovres euyevco^ ev r^ M'axlJ xaXXiorov 
Ivra^iov e^ouaiv rov vTrsp Trarpl^o^ iivetrov, Verum ibi quoque, 
coUato Euripid. Tro. 408. ^eiyeiv [iev ouv. ^pvj iroKsfMV otrri^ 
e5 ^povel, Ei 8* Ig to$* ekioi, o'Tefetvog ovx ei\(ry(jpls woXsi, 
Ka\eo$ 6\e(rdon, jUr^ xaX'Zg ^e, ^vtrxXeYjg, legi debet xi?s^i(rrov 
(TTi^otvov ?0ou(r»v: quocuni compara Eurip. Suppl. S15, o-ts' 
fotvov evxXsiag Xufieiv^ et magis apposite Antiop. Fragm. iv. 4. 
KaAXicTTOv i^ns crrifatvov euxXg/aj ««/ . V. 8. Hue respexit Ovid. Me- 
tam. Tempus edax rerum, etrursus edax aholerevetustas. Reposui 
igiiuriravTcov Sa/taroop vice Truv^afJietTcog. V.Q, ave^eov primam pro- 
cjucit. V. 1 1, Vulgo ^EWahg. At MSS. proculdubio.exliibent 
'EXXaS'. Vid. Gaisford. ad Hesiod. Epy. 184. et meaad Tro; 
6 12: quibus adde Androm. 843. Lasc. Prom. 471* Robortell. 
CEd. T. 99 1 . Aid. ubi variatur inter <t>lKog et <p/A* : vgokog et trgwr: 
c^ios et a^i*. V. 12. Ex gjXaro erui glp^g.TOVTO. V. 13. Aeoovi^ctg. 
ultimam corripit inter Lyrica. ¥.16. Vulgo re xkeo$. 

Nihil ad hoc fragoaenttim sive emendandum sive intelligendunx 
de suo penu protulit Gaisfordiis: neque plus fecit in altero car** 
mine^ ita legendo, (vii.) . 

Uto XipveiK eg SaiSaXav* 

Kivri^eiiri re X/ftva > 

divmg, ffxvetrs S* "^rop, 

ov$* a^tetvrouo'iv Trapvito'iv & 

ufi^flfiaKev Ilepa-el <pl>Mg ^^gag, 

elfrev r, co rexog 

fTD oiwreig^ 

yaXa^vtS r 10 

fiSf I xvato"' 

(Teig ev arepir' 

81 $o/xa2 xu) ^oi\xoyo(i,^f 

vuxTiXa/xwsT xoaviop re 

ivofeo* TV S* SteKXiotiv - 16 

Sire^ie redey xefjfAocy 

340 Simomdis Fragmenta emendMa. 

odS* &vifMU f6iyyw¥, M 

xfi/ubsvo; h 
^XtfWSiy irpi<roonov 

OV^ TO$ff $f IVOV ^V* XlT Tl tr' ^pVV ^))JUMTCOy 25 

fuSrroo $8 ToWo;' aXX' 

xdnOf ex o-stiv ^avs/i}' 30 

rrxvof I ^txcioni; 
ysvoO tffOf |xoi<^ 

' V. \,2. Aid. ore Xa^axi fv'$a<SaAa<a ttvejxo^ TfjttM. At MSS. 
2. Tff jxijy. Inde erai $ero — fs^ifiyiviv, Certe iilud 9ero plane pos- 
tulat sententiae nexus. Nisi quis censeat verbuni tal^ inter priora 
Lyrici verba fuisse scriptum, sicut et nomen Danae ; et legi 
debere hie roVe. V. 4, Vuigo tufxari ripiirtv, MSS. epiwef, 
Inde effeci iivA^^, ixTran S* ijrop. Hesjcli. J/vi]* frurrpo^ij Mtwv. 
Cuin ix7ti<r§v ^op confer Homericum ixma-B ivfji^ov. V. 6. Aid. 
^Km¥ x«p«y. certe pluralis est numerus usitatior. Cf. Agam. 
1561. Androm. 114. V. 11. Dionys. Aid. fyaXadfjvtt} Srt fieixvo- 
(o^-a-ns. Inde ope Casauboni ad Adien. ix. p. 396. E. erui ya- 
Xaiy^vop T it^e'i xvm(r(reis, Apud Athen. est ^o^i : quod minus 
placet. V. 13. Aid. hvvavri. Inde eruo dofuo xai V. 15. Aid. 
TV S* ei; avk eav S* wrep6e. Alias edd. ru 8* ocuaXfay. Ipse dedi 
ru S* anXKcioiv SnregSff. V . 1 7- Vulgo fioiteietv. Inde erui ^odfo} yav. 
De j3 et p peroiutatis vide ad Tro. App. p. 186. V. 18. 
Ita Aid. pro irapt^yrog, I)e vsgiidv trisyllabo vid. R. P. ad 
Vesp. 1020. et Dobraeum in Addendis. V. 23, x^vih. Pro- 
ducitur ^ ob irp. Vid. Seidler. de Dochmiac. p. 21. et 409* 
£lnisl. ad Heracl. 753. V. 24. Vulgo roi. Redde rtf alicui, 
V. 25. Aid. 1] xe xev — Xe^rreov. MSS. duo Xrrroy. V. 26. Vulgo 
ti9rsixe;. Schneider, teste Jacobsio^ Mfxov^as. Ipse dedi h' 
Ix' »$. Exstat in Aristopb^ Pac. 114. ^dns i^xei. At Lyricum 
est Txetv pro IxiarSai. Quod ad syntaxin Ixs hg ovi$ (tb, duplex 
accusativus neminem offendet. Vid. R. P. ad Orest. V. 27. 
Vulgo fuSerce ajMrpov xoacov. At aenteotta fr^et. V* 29- Ita 

De Otigine (JtcmVetboin^y ^c. $4^ 

MS. Ouelferbj^tt. teste Scbaefero pro (lareuofiouXla. V, SO, 
Vulgo cso : mox on 81} — ^tu^o/xai rixvo^i iiKci$ vuyyvw6i /xo». Inde 
erui qus vides. De eSp^offtoi et eu%^jMt« vid. ad Tro. l67. 
ubi in meam emendatioaem incidunt et R. P. apud Kidd. ad 
Dawes, p. vi. et Elmsl. in Quarterly Rev. N. xiv. p. 458. et 
Lenting. ad Med. p. 215. si bene memini. Manifesto hie nuliuni 
locum habere debet ovyyvtoti. 

Omnia fere Ljricorum Graecorum fragmenta in schedts mm 
habeo congesta : quorum editio vulgatis plenior et looge emeck» 
datior proferri potest, et fortasse proferetur. 




Pahs I. 

$. 1 . V ERBORVM quibus linguae quaedam utuntur formasy activam, 
passivaiDy deponentem aliasque subtilius discernere, earumque vim 
et originem laculentius exponere, non adeo leve mihi negotiuitt vide* 
tur. Altius enim repetenda res est docendumque, quid sit agare, 
quid patiy quot utrumque modis accidat, quo alterum ab altero 
diderat) qui denique alteri alterum confine nonnumquam iroplex- 
umve esse possit. Quae nisi indagaveris, natura ortusque et dis- 
crimen harum formarumy deponentis in prinnis et mediae, patere non 
possunt. Gramroatici quidem Latini, qui, si unum, de quo mfra, 
Ferizonium exceperis, omnes diversa conjugandi ratione deponentia 
et alia verba disterminare et explicare moliuntur, nihil quod e re sit 
protulerunt. Quare nos, cum ad linguam penitus noscendam verbo* 
rum cognitio maximum momentum habeat. periculum.faciamus, si 
quo forte modo deponentium atque roedioruro originem et naturam, 
repetita quantum opus est ex Philosophorum disciplina metitis nostras 
intelligendi agendique ratione, detegere et illustrare possiraus. Ne- 
que vereamur, ae tricas nobis grammaticas et inanes argutias qnis* 
quam objiciat; non enim, ut Quintilianus Inst. Or. L. i, c« 7» 
aicit, obstant hae disciplinae per illas euntibus, sed circa illas haeren* 
tibus ; et profecto, quod idem testatur L. i, c. 4, interiora velut sacri 
hujus (gramroatices) adeuntibus apparebit multa rerum subtilitas, 
quae non modo acuere ingenia puerilia, sed exercere altissiroam quo* 
que eruditionem ac scientiam possit. 

J. 2. Agimus animi aut corporis yiribus; patimur ab eo, quod 

VOL. XXII. a.Ji. NO.XUV. z 

S4^ De Origine ac m Verbomm 

extra nos est, sivc qtiod extra nos esse, aut a causa quae extra nos est 
profiwrtum et^se, mc*nte ci»iicipitur:-ut veHm dicam, patimur a rebus 
axternis. Sic verberammr vib alio; morbo, lebri carrt/^ijimr; metu 
alicujus iri, admiralione perceliimur^ Agere autt- in proprio ac magis. 
peculiari nomine dicimur, Qum aliqaid, quod extra nos est, corporis 
^ribus muiBiiiuaaut quocumque modo afficimus. Ejus generis actio 
tendit tota in rem externam. Quando vero actio nostra in nosmet 
ipsos tendit aut tendereconcipitur, perspicuura est, earn non ita pro-' 
priam. esse et simplicem actionem ; sed roixtara potius atque ex 
agendo patiendoque compositam, quod ipsi nos et agimus, et agendo 
patimjir, aliquove modo afficimur. Dupliciterautem fieri potest, ut 
actio nostra in nmmet dirigatur, prtmo cum nostra ipsorum actio nos 
ipsos afficiat et mutet, itaque nos stmus et subjectum, ut vulgo lo- 
quuntur, et objectum patiens ; dein cum actio nostra in nostrum 
coramodum verji^at aut incommodum. Utrumque actionis genu,s no- 
tantia verba communi nomine reciproca compellare licet. Earn re* 
ciprocationem latina lingua aliseque pronominibus personalibus pie- 
rumque signant, quae primi generis verbis in casu accusandi jungunr, 
ut verbero me^ verberat se^ induit se ; alterius generis verbis in dandi 
casu, ut prodest sibi^ dat sibi legem et aKa id genus. Graeci autem, 
qua erant ingenii sagacitate, utrumque genus verborum subtilius ani- 
madversum et ab aliis distiuctum, peculiari conjugationis forma ex- 
prim unt, quae media plerisque Grammaticis nuncupata, reciproca 
verius diceretur. Ita Graeci dicunt KOTrreaOai percutere se vel 
pectus t i. e. plangere^ plorare, at Koirreiy r^y Ovpav; irepi^Xov ro 
iftdrioy, indue ie vestimento, at yv/ivov irepifiaXe indue nudum; 
v^eXeo/iai prosum mihi, uf<l>€\iw prosum alteri, auxilio sum ; ditrSai yd- 
l/Loy dare sibi legem seujubere legem, deiyai ySfioy alteri legem imponere. 
Hujus forroae reciprocal s. mediae vim uberius explanavit CI. Kiis- 
TEaus in opere de vero usu verborum mediorum apud Groecos ; quern 
secutas est Rector Meiner in egregio libro, quern inscripsit : Fer- 
$uch einer an der menschlichen Sprache abgebildeten VernuAftlehre^ 
Oder philosophische Sprachlehre. Lipsiae a. 1781^ ubi parte II, sect. 
Ill, cap. I, §. 26. de hisce verbis disserit. Ex hisce libris discentium 
gratia quaedam delibemus. Prae roanibus autem est ediiio Kusteri 
Toluminis a Wollio adornata Lips. 1733, cui adjuncta est disputatio 
J. Clebici placita KUsteri impugnantis, et Wollii eadero defen- 

§. 3. Ac primo quidem animadvertendum mediae seu reciprocal for- 
mat locum esse, non solum ubi quod agimus, nos ipsos nostrumve com- 
modum aut incommodum remve nostram spectet,sed etiam ubi ut alter 
tale quid adversum nos faciat, velimus, curemus, jubeamus, aut per- 
mittamus. Utroque enim in casu sumus ii, qui agimus sive per nosmet 
sive per alios, quiquc iidem et patimur volentes, aut a nobis aut ab aliis 
cura seu sponte nostra. Qua de causa et verba media appellasse 
o6ro€vcpyi|riica Gaza aliique Grammatici videntur. Exerapla casu^ 
utriusc^uu baec sunt : AioXvecv irdXe/iov- est bellum Jinire alterius heU 

Deponentium et Mediorum* 34d 

lantis gratia ; at. htaXveadat et btaXvtratrdai wSXefiov est in suum 
ipsius emolumenium sen sibi finire helium, 'E/nvtriffe ffvfifiaj^iav s'cribit 
Thucydides L. 2. c. 29. d^ Nymphodoro, qui Atheniensiiim gratia 
foedus cum Sitalce pepigerat ; at eodcm capite de Atheniensibus, qui 
sui gratia seu sibi id pepigeraiit : T6vJ,iTa\Kov oi *A6rivaioi f,v/jifi(tj(pv 
iwoilitravro. Kelpeiv, KelperrSai passivum, et Kelpa&dcu medium differ 
runt. Primura de eo dicitur, qui alium tondet ; alterum de eo, qui 
inscius aut invitus tondetur; tertium de eo, qui se tondet aut sciens 
volensque ab alio tondetur. Hoc Latini dicunt: tondendum seprct'* 
bet seu tonderi se patilur, aut ad Graecorum exemplum tondetur, imd 
tt active tondet, ut Virg. Cahdidiurpostquam londenti barba cadebat^ 
i. e. qui me tondebam, seu tonderi me curabam. Teutones loquun-^ 
tur : sick sckeren lassen. 'Ere/yo) est impello alterum, hrelyofiai im* 
pello me ipsum, i. cfestino. Item Topevto est transfero alium, irope^ 
9fiai transfero me ipsum, i. e. prqfici'scor, Ita Graeca lingua, dum ex 
his aliisque absolutis et activis verbis per formam mediam reciprocal 
eflingit, multas actiones designat, quas in ceteris linguis peculiar! 
rerbo aut plus uno enuntiari necesse est. 

§. 4. Hisce exemplis a Kustero et Meinero prolatis, liceat quae- 
dam a me met observata et collecta adjungere. Ha^w significsit ab* 
itineo alium et reprimo aliqutd, wavofiai abstineo me ipsum sive absti* 
neo : kvrelvia intendo aliquid, kyrelvofiai intendo memet, i. e. dico cunt 
contentions ^ipei xapiv gratiam tribuit, ^^po/iae x^P^^ accipio s. 
mereor gratiam, KoK&t tpipofiai, Ayofxai : alp& top trvpyoy, capio tur* 
rim^ alpov/iai ypdfeiy capio mihi s. eligo scribere: OlKo^fiiia est do* 
mum alteri exstruOy ohobofjiiofiai, domum mihi tKttruo, aut exstruendam 
loco, mando,facio, sicut et Latini saspe pro: domum aliaque exstrui 
Jubeo, euro, dicunt domum exstruo, Plura quoque verba, quas ab 
antiquis nunc activo, nunc medio (xoivdrepov) genere prolata sunt; 
adfert EusTATHius ad II. 0. vers. 8. Haec quoque mediorum verbis 
rum expositio muUis Homeri locislucem affundit. Ita, quod II. L 
V. 534. legitur : &&(raro Sk fjiiya Ovfif interpretandum existimo : no* 
euit sibi valde hac mente s. hac mentis affection e, dum Diana offerrt 
sacrificia, aut pros ignorantia aut pro: inconsiderantia (id enim sibi 
vuU: ^ XaSer*, ^ oIk evoritrev) omisit. Quare perperam a Clark lO 
aliisque vertitur : deviusfuit animo. 

Quaedam hue pertinentia exempla deprehendi in libello Ammonix 
irepl hfioibtv koX hia^optov Xi^ewv, edente Valckekaer. Lugd. Bat» 
Praecipua hoec sunt : Ac^afo^ac et iiha^ut diffe*runt : bibafyi fikv yap, 
inquit, it eavTov doceho alium ipse : bihaipfxai bk, bi* iripov docebd 
per alium, seu docendum euro, in ludum literarium mitto ; primura 
est prarceptoris, alterum patris. rvfxvutdffvai el yvfivaffatrOat diiferuntl 
yv/nviodfivai fikyyap earn ro vip kripov,* yvfjiyatratrOaibi to h(^ eavroB, 
Hue etiam pertinet differentia, quam statuit inter Af^^yeiy et Afivve* 
irOaiy inter evpeiy et evpitrOai, 

Aiia quamplurima exempla lisum yerbi medii ^llusttantia qui Ici^ 

S44 De Origine ac m Verbamm 

geie Tolet, adeat, qnos nomioavi, auctores, Kustervm ct Msnrft* 
WLUU ; nos plarihus adscribendis supenedenms ubeiius explanatori 
▼erborum deponentiam vim atque origineniy qu» ab hisce aliisqua 
Pbilologis prsetennissa aut minus perspecta videntur. 

§. 5. Quum aoimo nostro sive interno animae sensu quidquam per- 
cipimas et sentimus, u aaepe seosus, in pritnis si Tebemens et subitum 
fuerity utriusque et actionis est particeps et passionis : ilHus, quia 
animus ipse agit et sese movet ; hujus, quia foitior et repentinus mo* 
tus ita animum vi sua invadit et agitat, ut velut aiiena potestate mo» 
yeri, ideoque pati nobis videatur. Ad eos motus referuntur laetitia, 
tristilia, admiratio, taediumy misericordia, aliique. Qua de causa 
Qneci Latinique ucm inepte easanimi aflfectiones verbis illis, quorum 
passiva est forma et significatus atque construct io magis activa, i. e. 
dqfonentibus, protulerunt* Hinc dicunt httor ^/lai, tristor Xvxi«N 
fiacy miror, admiror Ayafiai, hrayafiai^ muereor owXayyfvlS^fiai, 
aydoficu tadei me. 

§. 6. Simili modo, quum mente nostra sive intellectu aliquid 
minus certo cognoscimus, aut minus attente et definite de quadam 
re statuirous et judicamus ; illud omnes verae et integral actionis 
liumeros non habere, sed inter agere et pati medium quendam 
tenere locum Tidetur. Quapropter et*boc ipsum non incongrue 
deponeute verborum forma a Latinis Graecisque designatum fuit. 
Itaque dicunt ^uspicarif opinari, arbitrari, avgurari, ratus turn; 
quas verba minus certi qi\id et deliberati indicant, quam acdva 
judicare, <t$t%mare^ scire, cognoscere* Eadem est ratio Grasco- 
rum oiofiai, ^iofMi, iydvfAiofLaig XoyHofiau Hue et spectat obli' 
viicor Xayddyofiaif aliaque. 

§. 7* I^t-in qua&cunque in universum hominis actiones aliquid mi- 
nus deliberati, attenti, aut nimium fervidi, effusi, repentini habent, 
Ut homo minus sui compos videri possit, hae verbis deponente forma 
indutis plerumque pronunciantur. Quare et saepe ejus generis depo- 
pentia inajori hac vehementia et concitatione, sen minore animi 
intentioiie ab activis, quorum affints est significatio, distinguuntur. 
ita lacrtfmari proprie est effuse flerc, largiri est abundt nimis donartf 
fociferari vehementius clamare, cachinnari effuse ridere, nancisci forte 
fortuna invenire aut parare, loqni est quomodocunque verba facere^ dp- 
cere vero polite et ornate (ita Gesnerus inThesauro I^t. sub bis vo* 
cibus base duo disjungit). Porro fari dicitur is, (ut Varro doce( 
L. V. de L. L.) qui pnmum homo significabilem vocem ore emittit* 
{7/cMCt \rh('nientius est quani vindicare, videsis Aus. Popmam de 
Different. Verb. Pariter aspernari vetieroentius quam spernere. Con^ 
spicari et despicari iuten&iva sunt ducta a verbis conspicere et despi- 
cere. Coutemplaii est avide nee sine animi commotione aspieere, fera 
yti Ammonius Graeca fiXhreiyf to pp^v ri mcovovv, et Oeaodai, 
TO 6p^y ri Twp Te)(yiKQ$ yiyofikvwv distinguit. Conari levius est fit 
9UQUS deliberatum^ quam facere, ut docet Donatus ; kortamur, ia. 

Ihpanentium et Mediotum. S45 

qnit id^in» impulsit^ monemus consilio. Veremur parentes; itmemiti 
p^tenaiDy tyrunnum ; ita Cicero dicit: metuebant servi, verebanlur 
llb«ri« Vagari ut et palari est levi animo nulloque consilio passim 
jsrrare. Labi est sensim et lenitsr cadere, labare vero vekementer et 
magno impetu cadere: ita fere Jaiti in Lex. philologico» et Laurek- 
Yius VallA) qui addit: *' Per translationem de corporeis ad incor« 
porea de eo, qui aut per infirmitatem animi, aut per imprudentiam 
deliqiiit, dicimus, lapsus est," Sciscitor, scrutor, speculor, rimor^ 
¥alent : volo scire, inquirere, videre avidius, Comperior et comperio 
ex sententia Diomedis I. p. 373. ita differunt : '* Comperior est, ex 
mea opinione colligo et compertum habeo, pro explorato didici ; 
comperio est ab aliis cognosce." Atqui cum actioni magis hoc 
]proprium est, quamiilud, Diomedes nostras doctrins non refragatur: 
iviiiitoque minus Aus. Pofma, qui I.e. illud, inquit, (comperioj 
fit investigatione, hoc opinione et conjeetura. Ex his quae diximus 
-facile patet, cur deponentia sint otiari, feriari, moriy nasci, nngati^ 
jocariffrui, bacchari, iumultuari, luxuriari, epulari, comissari, convi' 
vari, heluari, pati, compati, perpeti, verecundari, criminari, cavillari^ 
calumniari, itemque expergisci, cujus activum estexpergefacere, alia- 
que verba ejus generis. Eadem de causa Gr£ca ejusdem modi verba 
pleraque deponentium specie declinata esse, inquirenti patebit : pro« 
lixius euim foret, hie et in.iis quae sequuutur, singula adscribere. De 
Latino sermone haec demonstrasse, quae ad Graecum accommodare 
facile est> sufficiat. Hoc tantum moneign us, deponentia Graecorura 
aliis teroporibus mediorum, aliis passivorum terminatione flecti. Fu« 
turum mediara plerumque, perfectum passivam sequitur. Ita dici* 
tur olofxaij fut. oWo/xac, perf. f^/Afiai, aor. dtitSfiyf fivofiai, p^kroixai, lf|&* 
pvfTfjtai, epfivaaro, Pariter XarOdvofiatf fut. Xifoofiaiy aor. eKaO^fAtfyj 
perf. \i\rj(rpai. Idem in aliis observatur, quae §. 5; etl6. adduximus. 

§.8. in deponentium quoque numerum referri ea verba possunt^ 
quae actionem non tam sponte nostra, quam alteriusductu et impulsu 
cceptamj eoque passioni aliquatenus affinem, significant. Hujui 
generis sunt sequor, imitor, comitor, opitulor^ assentiovy auxiiior^ 
adulor, suffragor.,fungor, morigeror, i. e. adalterius voluntatem more^ 
gero, aliaque : quae et ideo pleraque dativum casum adsciscunt, uc 
opitulor, assentior tibif adulor tibi, imo et comitor tibi seu te. 
Eadem forma et verbum suppeditor protulit Cicero : quod mihi sup» 
pedifatus es, cum vulgo sonat active suppeditasti : itemque constiiari 
pfo consiliare in codd. apud Cjesarsm de bell. civ. legitur. H-uc 
fortassis etiam referre possis solari et consolari. Ex Graeco hue per- 
tinet htopat, fjiifjiiofiaif aliaque. Simili, qua nos de Latinis^ ratione 
KiiSTERUs libr. cit. ostendit ab Apx"^ incipio 4erivatum esse medium 
ikpj(pfiat, incipieniem sequor, 

§. 9* Quinet deponentium naturam atque formam baud imraerito 
ea verba sibi vindicant, quse ex nominibus personalibus composlta 
initatioiiem prae se ferunt^ ideoque taaiquam aliquid minus spoor 

346 De Origtne at w V^rbwum 

tanei ^t actuosi designantia m^nte concipi potuerunt. Ejusmpdi %yx^ 
rwticari, villicari, vaticinari,famulari,perfgrinarii lenocinari^ lairth 
einarif patrocinari, vulpimarif i. e. agere rusttpumt villicufn^ V^ten^ 
famulum, el cet. Forte et hue referri passint ;>^i^op^rt, rketorifiari, 
poetari, quamquam alia.horum expositk) infra §. 20* dabitur. 

§.10. In deponentium porro Latinorum numero babenda sant non 
pauca ex eis verbis, quas reciproca supra dixiniU9» quaeque euro qui 
•agit, agendo ipsum pati aut quocuroque modo affici significant. Hisce 
verbis Graeci quidem. peculiarem conjugationis, quae medii^ 
dicitur, tribuunt ; Latini autem id reciprocorum genus quod secundo 
loco (vide §. 2.) nominavimus, propria conjugatione non enuntiant, 
«ed activis addunt pronomina dativi casus, ut sibi nocet, mihi adifico^ 
fnihi acquirOf et cet. Venun tamen unuin aut alterum afferri potest 
exempluin, ubi hsec reciproca vis deponenti itiest. 4ia pigneror va- 
let pignus aihi eaptre, at pignero, dare pignu9 s. pignori : ex aur^ 
matris dctractum uniouem pignoravit. Suet. Ita promiscue dixe- 
runt tnereo laudem, i. e. mihi mereo^ el media seu deponente specie 
mereor: Non videor meruisse laudero. Px.aut. Plus favoris raeren. 
QuiKT. Si bene quid dete merui. Vieo. Bene, male mereri de ali- 
quo. Verum usus obtinuit, ut de militante.dicatur active merert 
^tipendia, meruit aub hoc imperatore, merer e pedibus. Ejusdem con- 
ditionis sunt composita promereo - or^ commereo ' or^ demereo - or^ 
emereo - or. Ita quoque exponi potest origo et via formae deponentis 
in verbis^ recordor, reminiscor, i. e, ut VAftRO expHcat, iterum rem 
mihi in mattem seu in cor revoco seu do ; itemque in verbo imaginor, 
i. e. imaginem cujusdam rei mihi facto : fere uti activa specie A. G£|:«L. 
L. XV. nihil, inquit, speculum imaginat, i. e. nuUius rei imaginem fa^ 
cit ; et in meditor^ i. e. secum ipse meditari, ut Cice&o loquitur. De 
vtrbh fasneror, mutuor, vide §. 22« et de usu forin^ hujus mediae apud 
poetas §. S6. 

Quod vero primum statuimus reciprocorum genus, ut verberare 
«e, vertert se^ id Latini modo junctis verbo activp pronominibus ac- 
eusativi casus, ipodo deponente forma eloqui solent. Pronomina 
usu veniunt in plurimis, ut volvere se, amare se, agere se aliisque ; 
forma deponens in nonnullis, e. gr. in verbo pasci, quod idem est ac 
pascere se sive pascendum se prabere, ut intarpretatur Gesnee. in 
Thes. it€mque in plangiiur, i. e. pUmgii ses^plangit ;.in sponie mQveri 
ap. Cic. i.e. sponte se movere^ cui oppositum est agitari pulsu es* 
temo ; et in oblectari, delect ari, gratificarif i, obketare, delciftare, 
gratvm facer e alicui : liberis oblectabar. Quint. Delectari a,cu- 
mine suo. Id. De verbis dignor, gra'oor, moror vide §• 15. Hue 
etiam referri potest veri>um odorari, cujusactivum odorere est odpre 
aliquid replere, ut ap. OviDtuM odorant.aerajumis; ex quo deriva- 
turn est deponens odorari, i. e. se odorare, quod deiu transiUvo sensu 
(vide §* 15.) dici co&pit, utodcraricibumt hominem. (orte et.adjungi 
ponuDt queror, ghrior, quibus ut et aliis, quse diximus» Teutopil^ 

Deponentium et Mediorum. S4/7 

aJtieque linguse reciproca jungunt pronomina: ich heklage mictf 
r&kme mich, ftyHrdige und errinnere mick^ bilde mir eim, et cet. Ad 
•ea quae dixi confirmanda pertinct discrimcn quod inter iavani et 2a- 
vantvr, Varro L. viii. de L. L. constituit : ''Oronino, iuquit, et 
lavant et hvantur dicitur separatiin recte in rebus certis : quod pue- 
rum nutrix lavat, puer a notrice lavatur: nos in balneis et lavamus 
et lavamur. Sed consuetudo . ... in toto corpore potius utitut 
lavamur, in partibus lavamus^ quod dicimus lavo manus, sic pede^ 
et cet." Lavamur itaque dicitur, scilicet lavamus nos, 

Interdum parum aut nihil i n teres t, an verbum pronomina sibi 
jungat, an deponentero formam induat. Ita pe|;mutantur invicem 
vertii se annus et veriitur, pracipitat se etprmcipitaturjlumen^ferttt 
ctfttlur super be, provolvere se ad genua et provolutus genibus, mergii 
se et mergitur aqua (verum tnergit alium activum est, et mergitur ab 
alio passivum). Ita Viro. dicit : llli se prsedae accingunt; et alio locot 
omnis facibus pubes acciugitur ; item, exercentur (apes) agris, pro 
se excercent ; et, lacrymae volvuntur inanes, pro se volvunt, sen to* 
duttt, Ista pronomina nonnumquam omitti constat ex. gr. veriit 
annus, preecipitat /lumen, accingunt omnes operi, Virg* Genibiuque 
volutans hosrebat. Id. i. e. se volutans, ut exponit Sosipater Cha- 
l^isius. Ita et in verbo nubit, et in lavat omissum esse se apparef. 
Plnra exenipkt dabit Vossius Artis Gramm. L. v. c. 3. Verum tamen 
interdum nonnibil discriminis inter duas hasce formas deprehendere 
licet. Nam magis passivi quiddam sonare videntur/er^ur/^r^qpf 
per mala. Hor. Dubius/eror, Cic. Magis activi quid ista : obviam 
seseferre alicuL Cic. Se/erebant succincti ferro. Suet. Ita quo- 
que fluctuat animus dicitur et Jluctuatur animus, quatenus magis 
minusve in ea re activus esse concipitur. 

§•11. Eandem denique reciprocam eoque deponentem vim et for* 
mam referunt ea verba, quae aliquid quodmutuo fit aut mutuo fiefi 
folitum est, enuntiani. £a sunt rixari, altercari, amplecti, praliari^ 
digladiari, pacisci, osculari, suaviari, controversari, aliaque. Qui* 
bus et forte adscribendum est stipulari sibi aliquid ab aliquo, £an* 
dem ob causam Gneci, docente Kustero, ejusmodi verba media de* 
clinationo elocuti sunt: vkfieoQai pajrtiri, vifietv divider e ; avvBeoBai 
pacisci, XoibopeloBai conviciari. Quaedam ex latinis verbis, quibus 
et activa et deponens terminatio est, banc recipiunt, ubi sensus est 
reciprocus, illam ubi est absolutus. Itadici oporU i pacifico aiiquem 
vel aliquid, ut activum ; verum pacificari cum aliquo aut inter se, uC 
reciprocum et deponens. Pariler dicitur partiri inter se vel cuM 
alio ; cum vero partita sunt a Cicerone et Lucretio pa»sive usur- 
putar, reciprocationem non habet: Hac a inepartitM sunt, dicit CiC* 
1. e. divisa inter vos ; et Lucret* Partita per artus, i. e. distribmta. 
Quid f quod Plautus, ut est apud Nonium Mabcellum, copif* 
iari, verbum aliuquin activum, depunentium riiu protuiit, eapulaniw 
dexttras pro copulant ; fursitaoquia mutuam amborum actionem inc 
dicare voloi^. 





Permit me to offer a few remarks in reply to some para- 
graphs in an article signed S.T. inserted in the Classical Journal 
for June. Your correspondent defends Mr. Bellamy's New Ver- 
sion of Gen. vi. 14, against the remarks of the Quarterly Review. 
Whether the arguments of the Reviewer are altogether conclusive 
or not, 1 do not think either Mr. B. or his Vindicator S. T. will 
gain many proselytes to this new and extraordinary version. 

After quoting a passage from Mr. Bellamy in support of 
his new translation, your correspondent observes^ ** The Critic,'* 

i. e. the Quarterly Reviewer, '' thinks that the word 1B3 kopker, 

means^ ' asphaltus, bitumen, or pitch ; used to smear over wood 
or other things.* The unprejudiced reader,*' says your corre- 
spondent, '' will acknowl^ge that Mr. B. has offered the most 
convincing reason for his translation of this important passage ; 
the declaration of the Scripture itself. He says, ' tlie word 

^D kopher, which the translators have rendered j^tch, has no 

such meaning in any part of Scripture; and excepting this 
solitary verse, it is not translated by pitch in any part of 
the Bible. The word which is always used, and which is the 
proper word for pitch, is ilST zephedi. See Isaiah xxxiv. 9> 

and the streams, Sic. Exod. ii. 3, and daubed it,* &c. Now as 
zepheth is the only word in the whole Bible that is used for 

pitch, and as the word HQD kopher, uniformly throughout the 

Scripture means atonement, or redemption, the reader who is 
in search of truth, will probably admit that there is the best of 
all proof, the Scripture, for Mr. Bellamy's Translation." ' The 
substance of your correspondent's argument, and of that of Mr. 

Bellamy which he quotes, amounts to this : That because USD 

in other passages of Scripture signifies atonement, ransom, 
satisfaction, therefore it cannot possibly have a different sense 
in Gen. vi. 14. . Now this I apprehend is very inconclusive 
reasoning. There are many Hebrew words which are used in 
senses differing widely from each other, and which cannot with- 
out a great stretch of the imagination be traced to a common 
radical sense. If therefore the context and the ancient inter- 

' Classical Journal, xlii. p. 333. 

On the Ntw Translation 6f the Bible. 349 

jireters concur in affixing a particular meaning to a vord^ 
It is no sufficient argument against that meaning that the word 
is used in other passages of Scripture in a different sense. 
The authorised version of Gen. vi. 14. gives a simple and na- 
tural sense to the passage ; not liable, as far as 1 can see, td 
the slightest objection. Let us view it in conjunction with the 
context. '* Make thee an ark of gopher wood ; rooms shalt 
thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without 
with pilch. 'And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of/' 
&c. The 14tb, 15th and l6th verses contain instructions for 
making the ark ; and give directions for the materials^ the 
covering or coating, and the dimensions. All is plain and clear 
and intelligible* I apprehend also that all the ancient versions 
concur in giving this sense to the passage ; ' and all our best 
critics. This one should suppose would be enough to guard 
the passage from rash and fanciful innovation. But there is 
some further evidence in support of the sense affixed to *^S)3 

in this passage. Where the meaning of a Hebrew word is 
doubtful, the cognate languages often assist us : and they con* 
tribute this aid on the present occasion. ^^ ^93, '' says Schindler, 
in his valuable Pentaglott Lexicon, '* Chald. 1S)13, Arab. 19K3 
chafur, quod Rabbini *19p scribunt, camphora, species bitumi- 
nis : materia glutinosa qua aliquid oblinitur tegiturque ; pix, 
bitumen, — Arab. JTHSD cafra bitumen, asphaltum" 

With regard to the radical meaning of the word, too much 
time and labor are frequently bestowed on such researches. In 
investigating a language of such remote antiquity, and of which 
scanty remnants exist, it is impossible, in many instances, to 
trace words from their radical meaning through their various 
ramifications of senses ; yet it is not difficult in the present 
instance to derive the two senses which have been almost uni- 
versally affixed to this word, from the same radical meaning* 
If we suppose that the primary sense of *19D is to cover, it may 

signify, 1st, to cover literally with any substance, and hence, 
with bitumen or pitch : 9nd, to cover figuratively, to cover sin, 
by protecting the sinner frpm the wrath of God, to atone, to 

But even admitting Mr. Bellamy to be correct in rejecting 

V' collect this from Poole's Synopsis and IPatrick. 
* See Taylor's Hebrew Concordance in verb nED# 

050 On the N€k> Translation 

the mitfaoriBed version ; aldmittiBg him to be right in the iiie«ti*> 
ing which he affixes to ")8b in Geiu vi. 14, is he correct in his 


own translation of the words ? I^t us refer to the Hebrew text, 

h^nD n/i» rnBy\ najirrn« nwn D^ip isd-^ nan t> ^mif 

The words are thus translated by Mr. Bellamy ; '* Make for 
thee an ark of the wood of Gopher; apartments thou shalt 
^lake in the ark ; there thou shalt expiate, within and without 
by atonement.*' 

Now notwithstanding all Mr. Bellamy's professions* of 
translating the Hebrew literally, 1 am much mistaken if he has 
not failed to give a literal translation of these words, even allow- 
ing him to be correct in his remarks on the word *)93. He has 
translated PHSiys ** there thou shalt expiate,'' and has given no 

translation of the word HilK it. Perhaps Mr. Bellamy, or his 

apologist, S. T. will say that ^ has the sense of '^ there", in two 
passages of Scripture, 2 Kings xxv, 22. and Jer. xv. 8. I'hese 
passages are mentioned in Taylor's Hebrew Concordance as 
having 1 in the sense of *^ ibi,^ and Noldius also mentions the 
latter passage. In the former ^ is translated '' even" in the au-» 
thorised version, which is a common meaning of the particle, and 
makes a better sense than that which Taylor has affixed to it : 
and Noldius's translation of the latter passage is forced and 
unnatural. I am not aware of any other passages where there 
is the slightest reason to suspect that ^ has the sense of ibi; and 
I think your critical readers will allow that these constitute a 
very slight foundation for Mr. Bellamy's new translation of 1. 
I have already observed that Mr. Bellamy gives no translation 

of n/lM, it. Why, I know not ; unless because it would not 

accord with his new translation of the passage. Had he given 
a plain and literal translation of the other words, retaining at the 
same time his new translation of *183 and /1*193, the absurdity of 
the innovation would have become immediately apparent : ^^ and 
thou shalt expiate it [i. e. the ark] within and without by 
atonement ! !'* 

I have no reason to doubt the good intenti(ns of Mr. 
Bellamy, nor the zeal with which he has applied himself to the 
study of the Hebrew Scriptures, but I fear that he, as well as 
some of his friends, have greatly overrated his talents for the 
important work which he has undertaken : and this opinion has 
been maintained by much abler pens than mine.' I agree with 

' See particularly Whitaker*s Historical and Critical Inquiry into the 

6« T. that Mr. Bellamy ought liot to be pers^Ht^d, not*. Qti^^ 
kis ynotivcs to be impugned: if however he censiirea |h|8, au- 
thorised version without reason; if he assumes a ^uperiofi^ 
which is warranted neither by his talents nor by his accurate 
■knowledge of the Hebrew language, he must be content to sub- 
JViit his pretensions to the test of sober inquiry and rigid invest!* 

Though this letter is already sufficiently long, I am un- 
willing to conclude without saying a few words on the present 
state of the Hebrew text. S. T. says towards the conclusion 
of his paper, " At least I think he [i. e. the Quarterly Reviewer] 
will refrain from persecuting the man whose sole design is to 
defend the sacred volume against the attacks of the enemies of 
divine revelation, and against those who declare that the sacred 
original of the inspired volume is corrupt.'* I conceive that a 
more dangerous dogma cannot be promulgated, for if it were 
believed, there would be no dependence on the Bible ; its ge^ 
nuineness and authenticity would vanish at once, and using Mr. 
B.'s words, *' deism would bury in oblivion the truths of the 
Gospel, as those great truths overwhelmed the Pagan religion at 
the time of Constantine the Great." 

The word *' corrupt," which is used by your correspondent, 
has some tendency (though probably without design) to mislead. 

The state of the case is simply this: £tther the text of the 
Old Testament is now as pure and perfect - in every word and 
letter as it was when first penned by the inspired writers; or it 
has suffered more or lessj as every human work has done> from 
the occasional carelessness or mistakes of transcribers. Now 
as all other works of every age and nation have suffered from the 
faults of transcribers, it follows that the Hebrew text could not 
have been preserved pure and perfect in every word and letter to 
the present day, after having been traiiscribed so many hundreds 
and thousands of times, without a constant miracle, guarding 
the transcribers from the poshibiliiy of mistake. That the 
Hebrew text has* not been miraculously preserved from faults 
of Uanscribers, is proved by the different readings of the manu- 
scripts collated by Kennicott and De Rossi ; many of which isna- 
ble us to restore with the greatest probability the original read- 
ings of passages which were before obscure, if not unintelligible. 
Yet it is wisely ordained by a good Providence that these various 
.readings do not at all affect the doctrines and precepts of re- 

Interpretation of the Hebrew Scriptures; the appendix to which contain^ 
a list of grammatical errors committed by Mr. Bellamy. 

d53 Inscriptio EUaca* 

ligioD.* If we were to ttke that test which has suffered nost 
from the errof»-4>f transcribers, it would be found to contain 
eveiy essential drn'trine and duty of religion. Some passages 
"would become obscure ; others perhaps would lose something of 
iheir force and beauty, but abundantly sufficient would remain to 
levealto us the mysterious plans of Infinite Wisdom and Good- 
ness for the redemption of mankind, through the atonement of 
tfie incarnate Son of God, and to make us wise unto salvation. 


Falmouth, Sept. 18£0. 



Aliorum conaminibus Eliacam Inscriptionem explicare vo- 
lentium nee tamen valentium addatur et meum. Ipsa lamkia 
literas hasce, sed forma longe diversa, exhibet : 

a fparpa roi^ f oAeioi^ xm toi; tu 
feuo^s avvfjiM^ia xea sxarov f cTMt 
cig)(o$ iixctrot M $s ri Isoi eu re femg cutm F 
apyov (Tvvsav xaXa>^is ra r oAX xoi wet 
p iroXffto eu Ze iMt <rwBav raXavrov x 
apyvpo awoTtvo^oiv roi h oXt/jxirioi roi xa 
SotXc/tffyoi XarpuoiA&toy m $ff rip ra y 
gaf€a rai xa SaXeoiro atre sras cuts r 
tkeara aire iafMg ev re 9riagoi kev e^ 
OiTO rofv TOLvyyBgotfji^iievoi, 

1. Vocem Fgarpa, probe exposuit Hesycb. Pijr^r vwdi^xeu 
Zm Xvyoov. Mox TOip videtur esse Dorice pro toi^. At mirati 
possum us sive linguae sive fabri inconstantiam in voceroi^. 

1, 2. EvFams. £ju8dem populi, ut videtur, mentio facta est 
in Gruteri Inscript. p. ccxii. Locum citat Koen. ad Gregor. 


2. Intelligit Knightius xsoi, quasi scriptum esset xe soi. Ve- 

' See Bentley's Phileleutheras Upsiensis, a work which sets this point 
eompletely at rest. 

Andocides Emendatus. 35<$ 

mm in liujusmodi formulis nihil habere poterat istud xa vet 
Doricum xa. Sensus postulat xssrai vel simile quid. Excidertudt 
titerae c^r^iy sicut mox X,oLy exciderant post oX. 

3. Intelligo apxf^i iexaroi, quasi scriptum esset ap;^oi h x%i uvrotf 
•cil. Xaoi. Hesych. '/4p;^of* r^yefMov* Inde intellige mox tc- 

. 5. Plane singulare est illud jx^t pro jxij.. Dorismus ille noa 
alibi reperitur. 

6. Bene vidit R. Walpolius in Mus. Grit. N. iv. p. 538. xa 
fuisse scriptum pro xarot. Lege igitur toi xaHaXefuoi rov uKatm 
rfsio/tsvov: i. e. t« xaraSoXsfup rcov aXarpsfOjUrSvcov. Agnoscil 
Hesych. JftAeftov* xijSijftoya. Dicere poterant £oles, XfltSaXe/xo;, 
sicut Athenienses £«rifteXi)Tii$ : cui c'ur^ aliquid est. *Mox 
OLkkTpniwioLi ipse non alibi reperio. Formari tameu poterat 
satis bene ab AKirqc^ : unde fit et A>^iTpiois i quam vocem Boeoto 
tribuit Aristophanes in Acharni 9^7^ Homericum est A>a76ffieu* 
7f S. Prora yQU^Mot rai xa lege ra ypetfiVTOLiixaL, 
9. ev T6 9riapco. Quid sibi velint haec vocabuia non Grsca^ 
equidem nescio. CoUato Herodot. vi. 56. h r<f Ayu ht^a^iM 
If gi potest fv To» jxiopoi X svep^otro. t. e* tv t^ jxioepo. Cetera non 
expedio. Quserant sagaciores. 

G, JB. 


xvuMOR diu per Germaniam aliasque terras increbuit Imma- 
nuelem Bekkerum esse brevi editurum Oratorum Grascoruni 
relliquias e MSS. plurimis optimisque redintegrandas. Quid 
et quale Uteris Grsecis emolumentum sit proventurum, facile 
prae&tolantur ii^ quibus licuit Codices MSS. vetustiores inspi- 
cere ; neque spem concipient ievem de opere Bekkerianp^ 
quorum in memoriaui venerit, qua diligentia Bekkerus ille 
viilgaverit llieognidem, i'oluthumque, necnon Apolionium 
Dyscoluro, una cum Lexicis Gr«ecis ; quorum omnium aut para 
maxima aut tota in latebris Bibliothecarum fuit diu nimis 
aut nemini aut paucis cognita. fitsi Aldo licuit sub mcunabulis 
rei typographicae libros edere oroni critico apparatu destitutos^ 
eo scilicet animo^ ut nunierus exemplarium augeretur, neque in 
scriptoribus paucis, conimentarioy qui mos est Lipsiensis, onustis, 
operae perstarent intentae ; Bekkero tamen licuit non ita brevi* 
talis esse studioso ; neque causa fuit^ cur libr i ejus nudi exirent. 

354 On the Ctmrse 

Velim sane, si quid loquar audiendum, aliquatenus clepromftt 
Bdckerus de pemi suo, quod et sibi latidem, scriptorique lucent 
sit collaturum, si forte in locum queudam incidat, ope Msti^ 
Tel optimiy hue usque non emendatum. £xeinplo sint Aodoci- 
dit verba ad iiiieiii Orationis contra Alcibiadem. Sermo est 
de Andocidis ipsius, utpote civis probi, meritis. 

Td vgooTorrofusya Sonrawp oux cewi rm xonm, aXX' ain rvn iS/cov. 
xeU TOi Tvy^avco yevixijiuo^ ev oaiBpla km Xafi^ih xa^ TfayeMl^, 

Ita Aid. At MS. Cripsio-Bumeianus, hodie in Musaeo 
Britannico servatus, babet wa^pia. £t sic Taylor, teste Reiskio^ 
emendabaty fortasse ex Harpocratiottis gL 

Euea^la' Jthetpxp^ h rm xar* *AytiCixXsws'. '' Uavstiiifettoif 
E&aiiplag aym i^m/' 'Aifhxl^g Hi h rep xar 'ATjufitaiotf 
tifXoi* xeu [lege »$] ^Xfl^opo^. 

Verum de illo certaroioe Eumiipla dicto non alibi me legisse 
memini. Novi equidem, q|iod> et hie legere nialim, av^^aur^ 
omisso cu. Confer omnino luscript. Vet. Grsecam, Dorice 
scriptam in Clauical Journal^ N. zxvi. p. 3d2, editam. 

Mupi^of noAvxporio^ lapeowpMg Jioyirovo^ ai^para ^9gay9ureirr9f 
ftxwroofTti AiofWTM av^itxeat Ti/Mpyo^ ap^ovrof auktovTOf KAnyMc* 
niHovTog AXxio-tenos. » 

■Uujus loci si meminisset Blom6eldus, emendare potuisset 
Inscript. apud Spon. i. p. 399- allegatam in Mus. Crit. N. ▼• 
p. 81. 6 Sijfto^ ^X^P^y^' — waiSflov fvixa legendo irai<ri9m 
Etenim in hujusmodi formulis casus tertius usurpari solet. Cf, 
Isaei verba *Tirep tou 'ilvoXXoS. p. 6?. 50. ed. HSt. oq yt xal 
^fM&xcp x.'^pcp ^opijycoy Ivixijcrev et Harpocrat. v. HCararojui^.— *^ 

G. jB. 

Critical Observations on the article in the Quarterlt/ 

Review^ XL V. entitled 


^T a time when the press teems with works on Africa, when 
erroneous opinions are continually circulated respecting the 
geography of that continent^ by critics who have neither visited 
Africa nor perhaps seen its inhabitants, who found hypotheses 
on baseless fuundations, it becomes the duty of every individual, 
possessing any personal knowledge of that interesting but undis^ 
covered country^ to repel the propagatidn of such errors, whe* 

^fthcNiger.^ 355 

Iber they be ge(^raphical, orthographical^ or statistical, and so. 
by promoting the cause of truth and science, to clear the road 
from error, misapprehension^ and misconstruction, as our ac-^ 
quaintance with that continent becomes more general. Having 
promised to do this, I shall now endeavour to fulfil my engage- 
ment to a discriminating and impartial public. The extensive 
circulation of the Quarterly Review is a circumstance which 
increases the expedience of correcting the errors respecting 
Africa, circulated through the medium of that publication. In 
the year 1809, I clearly declared to the public in my account 
of Marocco, 8cc« thst the universal opinion oi the native travel* 
lers of Africa, is, that the Nile of Sudan and the Nile of Egypt 
form a junction, and afford by that junction a water communi-* 
cation between Timbuctoo and Cairo; this opinion was then^ 
and has been until lately, discredited, because it rested solely on 
African authority, which was not then thought entitled to credit. 
But the travellers who have been sent out by the British govern* 
ment, and by the African association, having in vain attempted^ 
to ascertain this fact by ocular demonstration, have procured 
information respect iiig this opinion, from the same sources of 
information from which I derived mine, from the natives of 
Africa. The result is, that the Quarterly Review now exhorts 
its readers to give credence to this opinion, because it is founded 
on African authority, and because Mr. Burkhardt has sent to 
the University of Cambridge an imperfect^ abridgment of the 
celebrated travels of Ibn Batouta^ in China, India, Africa, &c« 

' I call it an imperfect abridgment, because when the African Masselmen take 
up a book to copy, they not only abridge the work, but generally omit whole and 
important passages, when those passages are foreign to the purpose for which the 
individnal makes the abridgment, so that three or four abridgments of an Arabic 
work (the Arabs being unacquainted with the art of printing) will most probably 
each differ from the other according to tlie particular and individual motive of the 
writer ; these abridgments of works being made for reference and to serve the par- 
ticular purpose of the copyist, and not for publication. This is the case with most 
Arabic works; it is the case with Professor Hartmann's translation of an abridgment 
of the Geography of Edris (or Edrissi) the Mauritanian (or as he calls him, the 
Nubian) Geogra))her. I am well acquainted with the Prince Muley Abdallah ben 
Edris of Fas, a lineal descendant of the very ancient and noble family of Ediis the 
Geographer. I was a tenant of his, and I have read the original work in the pos>- 
Mssion of his family, and know tiMt HMst tfiifMfiaii^ ptuMgea tare MdUif inmUed im 
Hartmann*8 translation ; this I mention from my own experience, not from the tes- 
timony of others. 
• ^ Whose name and designation is Ibn Abdallah Mohamad AHwaty, Tanjftwy, 

known by the name of Ibn Batouta, i. e. ^1^1 Jc«^^ *^ ^^ {^^ 

856 On the Course 

Thus is the foliy and incoDsisteDce of man made evident, as the 
ailment employed 10 yean since against the veracity of these 
opinions mentioned by me, and founded on African authority, ia 
now adopted in their favour ! 

This being premised, I shall proceed to discuss the errors 
propagated in the Quarteriy Review, which, if suffered to remain 
without animadversion, would tend to impede the progress of 
African discovery, and to throw confusion on the map of Africa^ 
which demands now more than ever elucidation and explanation. 
Whether my observations be regarded or not, whether errors and 
prejudices respecting Africa are to contioue, is not for me novr 
to enquire. It is sufficient that I point them out, and give my 
reasons for suggesting their correction. Less than this I cannot 
do, after the pledge [ have given to adopt' a rule for the ortho* 

raphy of African names; but having done this, I shall feel that 
have discharged a duty to the public, which I should not have 
been warranted in withholding from publication. 

Quarterly Review, page 229^ line 15. '' Bahar el Soudan J^ 
These words should be Bahar Asstidan, because the s, in the 
word Sudan ia, according to Arabic grammar, a solar letter, 
and words beginning with a solar letter change the / in the arti-. 
de into that letter, and accordingly make the word Assudan, not 
al Soudan; moreover, Soudan is incorrect orthography for two 
reasons; first, because there is no o in the word Sudan, nor 
indeed in the Arabic language; secondly, because having an o, 
it might be pronounced by the English reader Sowdan, which, 
would be not only incorrect, but unintelligible. 

P. 230, line I. '^ Jin elsalah.'** These words by the same 
grammatical rule, should be ain essalah, or ain assalah, and the 
signification of them, is not the fountain of saints^ as the Quar^ 
terly Review asserts, but the fountain of peace. 

Same page, 3rd line. *^ Akibly** Here the / in the article 
al or e/, is erroneously made to assume the first letter of the 
following word Kibly ; but the k in Kibly is not a solar letter, 
therefore the article should retain its original sound, and the 

' By writing them exactly according to the original Arabic orthography, sabsti* 
talSng gr (not gh, as Richardson in his Arabic grammar directs) for the gatturai 

Ajrabic letter f^oiiAiv, and fcik for the ^ or guttural fe. Vide' 
fihabeoiy 's account of llmbuctoo aiid Housa, &c. page IS and 14. 

of the Niger: S5t 

word should be written AlHbljff or .more properly Alkihla. 
Alkibla is the term which designates the. tomb or mausoleum of 
Muhamedy but Akibly signifies in the direction of that mauso-' 
leum; therefore it is incorrect to place the word Kibly or Aka^ 
blym the map. (See the map showing the junction of the Nile 
and the Niger, in the Quarterly Review, p. 236. Lat. N. £3% 

Lfong. E. 9^.) It should have been written ALJiIt, i. e. Alkibla, 

not Akably. Moreover, the impression upon my mind respecting 
this word is, that there is no authority whatever for placing either 
Alkibla or Alkibfy in the Sahara, as the Quarterly Review has 
done, and that, by so doing, the author of that article confuses, in* * 
stead of elucidating, African geography. — Elkibla, i.e. the 
tomb or mausoleum of Muhamed, is in Medina in Arabia, where 
it is well known he was interred. 

Same page, line .15. *' Meiheries/* This word is evidently 

a corruption of the word ^^^^ El or Al Hairie,(JoT a full de* 

scription of which see Jackson's account of Marocco, published 
by Cadell and Davies, page 90 to 93) ; the mei makes it the 
possessive case, and accordingly implies of or belonging to the 
Hairie. The Hairie, or swift camel of the desert, (improperly 
denominated by the Quarterly Review dromedary, because the 
dromedary has two bunches on its back, and the Hairie has but 
one) has but three denominations (for which see Jackson's ac- 
count of Marocco, page 90 to 93). But the Quarterly Review 
says, '' they give them different names, as Khamasy, Setasy, Se~ 
basy, Ashra^i according to their ability to travel 5, 6, 7 and 
10 times as far in one day as an ordinary camel." This is in- 
correct; but before I proceed to discuss this matter, I should ob- 
serve that the denomination Sebasy should be Sebayee. I have 
resided about seven years on the confines of the Sahara; I have 
had uninterrupted intercourse with all denominations of African 
travellers, but 1 never heard of more than three denominfitions 
of the swift camel of the desert, denominated El Hairie; which 
are, Telatayee^ Sebayee, and Tasayee; that is to say, the Hairie 
of three days, of seven days, and of nine days. Of the denomina- 
tions Khamasy, Setasy, and Ashasy, I never heard, nor do 1 be- 
lieve that any such exist, or that these terms are used by the true 
Arabs of the Sahara ! 

P. 230. The Reviewer, drawing his intelligence, as I pre* 
sume, from the documents transmitted from Africa by Mr. 
Burkhardt and Mr. Ritchie, says, in contradiction to Adams, the 


S58 On the Course 

American sailor, ^* The city of Timbuetoo is not waited ; the 
h<mu9 are built, some of stone, some of mvd: many of the former 
being tvto stories high.'* L« not this another general confirmation 
of my account, written so long ago as 1809^ (for which see Jack- 
son's Account of Marocco, 3d. edition, chap. 13, pp. 29B, 1299)* 

P. !23l. The Review says; ** There art plenty, of cocoa 
nuts at Timbuetoo; the name given to them by mahomed is 

^ffXjJW j[p." Here the Reviewer leaves his reader to discover the 

meaning of this unintelligible writing, which no Arabian can 

possibly comprehend, and therefore it was as well not to inter- 

*pret it. These words are lux el Henlie, which is not Arabic; 

but if it had been thus written, fg^^^ j^, i. e. l&z el Hehdie, 

it would have signified cocoa nuts, or literally translated, ainionds 

of India. What will the Arabic critics of the Continent think 
of our knowledge of Arabic, when they see such unintelligible 
words inserted in one of the first of our periodical works of 
criticism, and purporting to be words in the Arabic language ^ 
Same page, two last Tines. ^' He tca$ born in the capital 
of Bomou, which bears the same name, and not Birney.** This 
last name, Birtiey, is not, as Mr. Burkhardt imagined, a proper 
name, but a word signifying, not city, as the Quarterly Review 
suggests, but my country, and could be applied to signify 
Bornou by a native of Bornou only. 

ry^j^ i* e. Ber nHh, signifies the country of Noah, the 
Araos having a tradition that this is the country of the Patriarch 
Noah, and that the waters of the deluge rested here ; the ini* 
mense fresh-water lake of this country they report to be the 
remains of the deluge ! 

The Neel el Abeed, or Neel Assudan, is the name given 

Sinerally to the Niger throughout the whole of its course, from 
e Jibbel Kumra,' i. e. Mountains of the Moon on the confines 
of Guinea, to the confines of Nubia or Abysinnia. The names, 
Issa, Tshad, Gir, T'djer and Birum, are local or provincial 
names given to this river in the respective countries through which 
it passes, and I have good reason to think the Abiad (knowing 
the confusion of African names) is also another provincial name 
of the Abeed, and possibly given to it from the color of its 
water in that particular country, contiguous to Abysinnia. 

' Jibbel Kamm u the name of this chain of mountains firom Guinea to Abynania. 
Thej have several provincial names, (as the rivers have) one of which is Jibbel 
KoDg ; but the general name is Jibbel Kumra. 

of the Niger. 359 

P. 9,35. The Quarterly Reviewer absolutely doubts the existence 
of Wangara, because Mr. Burkbardt's informant knew of no such 
country ; but those informants must have been extremely igno- 
rant of the interior of Africa, not to know such a country, even 
by name. I am, however^ not so much surprised at their igno* 
ranee, as that Mr. Burkhardt should have given credit to the in- 
telligence of such men ! It would be equally absurd for an Afri- 
can to doubt the existence of Wangara, as for an £ngIishmao 
to doubt the existence of Edinburgh or Glasgow ! Besides the 
concurrent testimony of the most intelligent Africans respecting 
the existence of this country, it has been celebrated throughout 
that Continent from time immemorial, as a territory abounding 
in gold. The Mauritanian author, the Shereef Edris (or 
Edrissi), whose authority stands high in Africa, has described 
the country of Wangara eight centuries ago, calling it' the 
Golden Wangara, which borders on Gano. A copy of this 
celebrated Mogrubeen work is in the Bodleian Library; but it 
has never yet been translated into any European language, so 
that it must be admitted, that the Quarterly Reviewer is incom- 
petent to judge of the merit of this interesting African authpr 
and prince. A reference however to the original work would 
place this matter beyond all doubt. A translation of an imper- 
fect abridgment of this work, in which many whole and inte- 
resting passages are totally omitted, has been made by Pro- 
fessor Hartmann. I sent a jewel of gold manufacture^ at Wan- 
gara to Mr. James Willis, late Consul for Senegambia, which 
was shown to our late revered monarch, in 1801, (see Shabee- 
ny's Account of Timbuctu andHousa, 8cc. page 103.); and my 
friend Alkaid L'hassen Ramy, a captain in the Emperor of 
Marocco's army, who is mentioned in the 117th page of that 
work, is well known in West Barbary to be a native of Wangara ; 
and I would venture to assert that there are hundreds of negroes 
now in the army of the Emperor of Marocco, natives of Wan- 
gara ! ! These elucidations will, I apprehend, be sufficient to 
satisfy an intelligent and discriminating public, that the doubts 
of the Quarterly Reviewer respecting the existence of the cele- 
]|>rated country of Wangara in Africa, have no substantial foun- 

P. 235. '* Sudan" is supposed by the Quarterly Reviewer to 
be '^ a territory situated between Timbuctoo and Bornou :" but 
in opposition to this opinion, calculated to defeat the elucidation 
pf African geography, I should remark to the British public inte- 
r^ated in the discovery and civilisation of Africa, that Jinnie and 

360 On the Course 

Sego^whicb are situated west of Tiinbuctoo,are included in Sudan; 
that there are several extensive countries south of the Neel Assu- 
dan, and south of the Equator, that are comprised in the term Sudan. 
In short it is an Arabic word, designating olack. All countries 
in Africa, whose inhabitants are black, are called BledAsiudan^ 
a term synonymous with the Latin term Nigritia, or with the 
English term Negroland. Mr. Burkhardt, therefore, (whose 
principles and talents no one can hold in higher estimation than 
myself) was mistaken in giving the name Sudan exclusively to 

die country west of ^W Bagrermy, called Baghermi in the 


P. 238. " The Mare Tenebrosum." The Quarterly Reviewer 
supposes this term to signify the Atlantic Ocean. This suppo- 
sition is correct. It is called in the original work of the Sbereef 

o so 

Edris, fM3)t j^aII El Bah'r Addalom, and the Atlantic 
ocean is designated by the Arabs by the term El Bah'r Adda- 
lom, i. e. the sea of darkness, or the unknown sea. 

P. 239. " TagKary is an extensive plain inhabited by Negro 
traders, and a few white people of the heretical creed of By- 
adha, (whom Kosegarten calls kharidfi,) Christians or Jews/' 
By this phraseology one would imagine, that in Africa no dis- 
tinction is made between Christians and Jews; but the fact is quite 
otherwise. Kojsegarten spells Beada in the German orthography 
byddha, which signifies white, i. e. the race or heretical tribe 
of white people ; and what he calls kharidji, an Englishman 
would write akkurd, which is a term of derision to designate 
infidels, meaning Christians or white Pagans ; q. d. white Infi- 

Whether the Karsekhu of Ibn Batoutabe identified with Sego, 
as the Quarterly Reviewer conceives, I cannot determine, having 
no recollection of the word in Ibn Batouta's work ; but the 
word which is spelled Sego in the maps of Africa, is thus spelt 


in the Arabic language, I^Lm i. e. Shagru. 

Ibn Batouta, in describing the course of the (Neel el Abeed) 
Niger, procures his information exclusively from Timbuctoo and 
Kabra ; which are the same sources from whence I derived mine, 
respecting this extraordinary river. 

Ibn Batouta, whose original work in the Mograbeen Arabic 
I have read, never went himself from Timbuctoo to Cairo, as 
some of my informants have, nor even far to the eastward of 
Timbuctoo. The Shereef Eldris derived his information respect- 

of the Niger. 361 

log Sudan from the same source, from men who bad travelled in 
Sudan, and had gone from Timbuctoo to Fas ; and I procured 
my information from several very intelligent Arabs and Moors, 
some of the latter of whom had resided years at Timbuctoo, 
superintending their commercial establishments, and had tra- 
velled from thence to Cairo, to Mecca, and to Moka. Thus all 
our respective information concerning the Niger proceeds from 
similar or the same sources. 

Ibn Batouta says, that tea/ similar to what he has seen 
cultivated in China, grows spontaneously in Sudan ; but that 
the negroes make no use of it. He mentions also tbe coffee 
plant and sugar cane, as indigenous to Africa ; the former grows 
spontaneously in the vicinage of Timbuctoo.* 

P. 236. See the map. This map, composed apparently for 
the purpose of suggesting the course of the Niger, according 
to Ibn Batouta, should not be considered as correct; for it 
places Kabra^ the port of Timbuctoo, on the south of the Neel 
el Abeed, or Neel Assudan, (Niger); but neither the Shereef 
.Edris, who wrote in the 12th century ; Ibn Batouta, who wrote 

' I remember haying read, during my residence in Africa, an Arabic manuscript 
translated from the Abysinnian or Ethiopian language, being the history of the lat- 
ter country. In this book an account is detailed of the conquests of the Ethiopians 
In Asia, by which it appears that they fought and vanquished the king of Malabaf 
with an immense army, and penetrated even unto China, from whence it is more 
than probable they brought with them plants of the tea tree. These events are re- 
corded to have happened in the 4th century of the Muhamedan sera, which, for the 
information of the general reader it may be observed, answers to the 10th century of 
the Christian asra. There is also an account in the same book of an Ethiopian samj, 
which after having penetrated into the heart of Asia, possessing themselves of the 
finest countries of that quarter, conquered many provinces in China, which were in 
their possession in the 8th century of the Muhamedan sra, and I think for some 
time afterwards, until the united forces of China and Ethiopia were completely de- 
feated by the Tartars, and Wankan ben Dawid (David), the emperor of Aby sinnia, was 
killed at the head of his army ; which event terminated the power of the Abysinnians in 
Asia. I regret that among many memorandums and extracts from celebrated Arabic 
works, which I lost by shipwreck off the coast of Africa, this account of Abysinnia 
was one. The ship foundered, and we got aboard of another vessel, which having 
sfdied from Mogodor in company with us the preceding day, was providentially ii\ 
sight, and heard our guns of distress. She lay-to and took us aboard. I had not time 
to save any thing except some wearing apparel ; but I was miraculously enabled U} 
reach the ship in a high sea, in a very small leaky boat, in which none but the mate 
and one sailor dared to venture. This boat, which was the only one we had left, (the 
other having been carried away by a sea as the crew were lowering it down) swainped 
the instant we got aboard. 

The Emperor Wankan, the son of David, is represented in the Abysinnian history 
above alluded to, as a most valiant and enterprising prince. 

^ I sent a sample of this coffee to Mr. James Willis, formerly Consul for Senegam- 
bia. See Shabeeny 's account of Timbuctoo and Housa, &c. p. 279* 

362 On the Course 

m the I4th ; rior any other African traveller^ will support this 
new geographical opinion ! It is so absurd to place Kabra south 
of the Niger, in contradiction to every credible tesitinionj, 
that 1 am disposed to consider it as an error of the engraver, 
^md that it will be corrected by an erratum in the next number 
of the Quarterly Review. 

P. 241, line 12. *' Nothing short of a little army could hope to 
succeed in traversing the populous countries of the interior of 
Africa*^ This opinion seems to receive some support from 
the lamented Mr. Burkhardt. (See the note in page 241.) As 
the discovery and civilisation of Africa appear to gather advo- 
cateSy and have actually excited the curiosity of all the principal 
nations of Europe, it will be probably not irrelevant here to 
offer a few observations on the suggestion of a little army ; and 
I have no hesitation in declaring that such a little army would 
be cut to pieces if it attempted to traverse the populous regions 
of Africa. The first inquiry of the Negroes would be: What is 
the object of this little army \ If it consisted of Europeans, 
conquest would be immediately suspected, and ten thousand men 
would not be sufficient to this purpose. If the little army con- 
sisted of native Africans, some plausible pretext must be given 
for so extraordinary a journey for a little army. It would be in 
vaia to allege that purposes of science or a desire to ascertain 
the course of their rivers was the object. Little armies dp not 
travel to trade, so that commerce could not be plausibly alleged 
as the motive of their journey. Why then do they come \ to 
take walk and make book, (as the Negroes of Congo aptly ob- 
served to Captain Tuckey,) certainly would not be a sufficient 
or a satisfactory pretext for the march of such a little army. 

The jealousy of every Negro and of every Arab would be 
roused ; they would take the alarm, and all unite under their 
respective banners to repel and destroy such an invading force ; 
hundreds of thousands of Negroes would be immediately raised, 
who would without difficulty overwhelm and destroy such an 
army. I can safely assert, without fear of rational contradiction, 
that no impression will ever be made in Africa i>y such wild and 
visionary measures ! 

I again repeat with additional confidence, that the only possi- 
ble means of effecting an advantageous intercourse with Africa, 
would be through the medium' of commerce. The Africans 

* See Shabeeny*a Account of Timbuctoo, Houm«&c. p. 247 to 270. 

of tht Niger. 363 

are a trading people, of which the slave trade is a lamentable 
example. The profits of trade would be a sufficient pretie^t to 
the Africans fur desiring an iutercopr^e without further exami- 
nation or inquiry. The Arabs, as well as the Negroes, each 
respectively perceiving die advantages they would derive, the 
former by the hire of their camels, the latter by exchange of their 
produce for our manufactures, M'ould co-operate in promoting 
the mutual interests of the parties, and the road through the 
Sahara from the shores of the Atlantic to Timbuctoo would 
soon become, under prudent European managemeut, as safe and 
as much fre<][uenled as the ocean. 

The compass directing the ship of the desert (the camel) 
would then combine with the interest of the several parties engaged, 
to lay open to British enterprise and to British commerce, all 
the extensive and populous regions of Sudan and Abysinnia^ by 
a water communication with the stream of the Neel el Abeed^ 
or Neel Assudan. After which (kafilahs) caravans might pass 
through Africa with as much safety as waggons pass along the 
roads of England. 

Thus would the most important discoveries go hand-in-hand 
with commerce. We should necessarily, (having every advantage 
on our side,) soon be able to undersell our Moorish competitors, 
M ho now trade with Sudan at the fourth and fifth hand, before 
the articles reach the consumer. We should thus no longer 
sacrifice ease, health, and even life itself, to the promotion 
of African discoveries; but we should eifect that desirable 
purpose gradually and progressively, in the same ratio that we 
should improve our own individual circumstances, provide a con- 
siderable new market for our languishing manufactures, (particu- 
larly. Manchester cottons and Irish linens, which are in general 
demand throughout Sudan,) and thus lay open to Great Britain 
those extensive and populous countries, the discovery of which 
has baffled the enterprise of antient and of modern Europe. 






JSifietv TTBiroiico^, o/uiftaraiy f uiriprepoy, x. r. A« 

iEsch. S. c. T. 525. 

Cicero Cat. Or. 1, 6 :— 

QUJE quidem [sica] quibus abs te initiata sacris ac devota. 
fit, fiescio, quod earn necesse putas consulis in corpora dejigere 
Again, in s. 9- -^ quo etiam aquilam illam argenteam, quam tibi 
ac tuis omnibus perniciosam esse confido etfunestamfuturaniy cut 
domi tua sacrarium scelerum tuorum constitutumfuit, sciam esse 
pramissam ? Tu ut ilia diutius carere possis, quam venerari, ad 
cadem proficiscens, solebas ? a cujus allaribus sape islam im^ 
piam dexteram ad necem civium transtulisti? Again, Or. 2, 6. 
Cum aquilam illam argenteam, cui ille etiam sacrarium scele» 
rum domi suafecerat, scirem esse pramissam. 

Hr. Middleton, in his Life of Cicero \, \Q2, translates one of 
the passages thus : — '' All the ensigns of military command, with 
that silver eagle, which he used to keep with great superstition 
in his housed Muretus says upon the 2nd passage: — '^ Erat 
autem aquila parvum sacellum, sive, ut Cicero hie loquitur, 
sacrarium ; in quo inerat aquilae eiBgies, vel argentea, ut hie 
videmusy vel aurea : id sacellum hastse impositum ex inferiore 
parte acutae, quo in terram defigi posset, portabat is, qui Aqui- 
lifer dicebatur; aquilas autem illas divino cultu affici solitas 
esse, et ea, quae modo recitavi, indicant^ et Ciceronis h. 1. verba 

Muretus seems to suppose that the eagle itself was the 
sacrarium, or sacellum scelerum ; but the words domi sua con^ 
stitutum, domi sua fecerat, militate against this hypothesis. 
The words clearly imply, when they are attentively considered, 
that ' Catiline had regarded this silver eagle with such supersti- 
tion, as to convert a part of his house into a separate chapel, 
or sacrarium, in which he was accustomed to pay to it certain 
devotions :' Gesner, in his Latin Thesaurus, thinks that Cicero 

An obscure Passage in Cicero explained. 365 

uses the word^ as he does in his Letters, in the sense of wh&t, 
in later Latinity, was called ^ Lararium, vel Sacrarium dome- 
iticum, in quo Lares et Dii domestici colebantur; but the words 
of Cicero seem to prove that he h^d consecrated for this express 
purpose a certain part of his house, which was probably in 
the impluvium, where the altar of the Penates stood, as Virgil 
informs us, ^n. 2, 514. 

JEdibm in mediis, nudoque sub atheris axe, 
Ingens arafuit,juxtaque veterrima laurus 
Incumbens ara, atque umbra complexa Penates, 

Hejne observes in the note : — '^ Gnecis Poetis erat ara Jovis 
Hercei in atrio sedium Priumi, Iv avAjj — , earn aram Virg. in 
impluvium transtulit, ut Penatium ara esset; propius hoc ad 
Romanum morem/' 

Mr. Percival, in hn Account of Ceylon^ says, p. 155.: — The 
Malays use '^ a kind of dagger, called a Kreese,' or Crisse ; the 
blade of which is of the best tempered steel, and often made of 
a serpentine form, so as to inflict a most dreadful wound; the 
handle is of ivory or wood, carved into the figure of a man's 
body and arms, with a head representing something between 
that of a man and a bird. This they call their Swammy, or 
God ; and to this figure they make their Salam, or obedience^ 
before they draw the Kreese to execute any bloody purpose, on 
which they have determined. After they have by this ceremony 
confirmed their vow, they draw iheir Kreese, and never again 
sheath it, till they have drenched it in blood : so resolute is this 
ferocious determination, that, if their adversary is placed beyond 
the reach of their vengeance, sooner than infringe it, they will 
plunge the dagger into the body of a pig, a dog, a chicken, or 
any live animal they chance to meet. The scabbard is made 
of wood, frequently ornamented with gold or silver wire ; and 
the whole appearance of the weapon, as well as the mode of 
wearing it on the right side, greatly resembles that found in the 
ancient dress of the Celtic nations. This terrible instrument is 
rendered still more so by its being always poisoned ; generally 
by the juice of some poisonous herbs, and among those, who 
can any wise procure it, with poison from the Upa-tree: in the 
use of this fatal weapon they are particularly dextrous, aud, like 
other barbarians, make no scruple to employ treachery or sur- 
prise in destroying their enemies : they generally watch their 
opportunity, and stab, their victim in the back, or shoulder, 
before he in aware. These daggers, the instruments of their 
ferocious cruelty, are looked upon by them as a most sacred 
relic, from father to son, and from generation to generation : no 

366 An cb$curePas$age in Cicero explained. 

moattj IS arcounted sufficient to parchaae tlMoiy and no violence 
can compel their owners to give them up : when a Mahy is 
pressed in liattle, he will sooner be slain, or kill himself, than 
surrender his Krteu to the enemy." 

I shall conclude this article wiih the following extract from 
G. Cuper's Apolkeous Homeric inserted in Poteni Uiriusque 
Thesauri Aniiquitaium Rom. Grstcarwmqut Nova SnppL %, 
37. Venet. 1737- 

'' Seneca jam olimeum (Jovem) cum Junone vocavit sceptri-- 
geros ionaniet, et Justinus testatur, quia ab origime rerumpro 
diis immoHalibuM veieres hasios coluermni, ob e/us reiigionis 
memoriam adhuc deorum simulacris ka$i4U rnddi, quod verissi- 
mum esse, probatissimi auctorea docent ; nam apud Faus. (794.) 
Chseronenses deorum omnium maxime vTOpn^ colunt, quod 
Jovi fabricasse Vulcanum fingit Hom., quod Mercurius dedit 
Pelopi ; Pelops Atreo, Atreus Thyesii^ atque ab eo Agamemnon 
accepit, Tovro ovy tfieijprrpoir irt/Sotiai li^ dpo/Aa&vrt^, et mox, 
JVkof 8ff oux amy «drcp tmmv^la wtnota^iUifo^y oAAa xora trig 
cxATTOv 6 Ugmiuvog h oixiifMeri ^ri to o-xifvrpov luA ai tiHriisu avU 
vSo'eof ^yipoof tvvrreu, xei rpint^a wtt^ixuTM naml&axmf xfteav 
Tuu «tftfMtr«r wXaif/tig: ei, ne dicam Romanos, teslibus 
Festo et Servio, per sceptrmm ex Jovis Teretrii tempio sum- 
tnm in foederibus sanciendis, Parthenopaeum ap. iEscbylnm, 
alios ap. Vii^r. Hom. Val. Fl.^ per bastas jurasse, CaeneumquCy 
teste Eustathio, eo insaniae venisse, ut ax&fTwv, vel telum, in 
-medio foro positum jusserit teoy rovro apitiuh, sive deum existi- 
mare, inter deos numerare, non, ut Erasmus vertit, pracepisse 
diis ut numerarent ; ne, inquam, de his quid dicam, ipsi Romani 
antiquissimis temporibus hastam loco Mortis coluerunt, uti 
Varronis fide tradunt Clem. Aiex. atque Amob., cujus ultimi 
verba ascribenda sunt : — Ridetis temporibus priscis PersasJIu* 
vium coluisse, memorialia ut indicant scripta ; informem Arabas 
lapidem ; acinacem Scythia nationes ; ramum pro Cinxia The' 
spioSf lignum Icarios pro Diana indolatum, Pessinuntios silicem 
pro deum matre: pro Marte Romanos hastam, Varronis ut 
indicant MusaJ* 


Hatton, April 6th, 1813. - 



1 HE following Fragment of a Greek i2i/iia/, tiken from a 
MS. (belonging to the late and the learned Mr. Walker of 
Trin. Coll. Cam. and perhaps transcribed from a copy in the 
Library at Paris,) the characters of which are those of a person 
well skilled in Palaeography, is in itself curious, and, as far 
as our researches have enabled us to discover, is now for the 
first time published. The system, on which it has been framed, 
evidently for th^ purpose of being chanted, is obvious on exa- 
mination. A sentence, which we may imagine to have been a 
recitative,' introduces a hymn consisting of 13 lines, that is, 
6 couplets, and a single line, which is invariably the same, and 
which was probably sung in full chorus. The lines in each 
couplet are of equal length, measured by the number of sylla- 
bles. The number in the first couplet is 10; in the seconds 
13; in the third, l6 ; in the fourth, 14; in the fifth and sixth, 
1 1 . This holds throughout the whole Fragment, with only one 
exception in the third couplet of the first part, in which Oco^, or 
the termination to$ in htoopivio;, is to be considered as a mono- 
syllable. The hymn is succeeded by another sentence, which 
uniformly terminates with the chorus, (as we may conjecture,) 

The words marked thus *, are omitted in >H. Stephens' The- 

Xalpe, jSouX^j airo^jWjTow jxuoti^' 

Xalqef (Tiytig teofiivwv t/oti$. 
XaigSf TfiDV duvfiJLToDV XgioTQu TO itpooifnov 

Xalpi, Twv ioyfiarcov avrou ro xf^oXouov. 
XaTgf, xX//xa0 Ivougayio^, h' ^^ xaxf j3i) 6 6f oV 

Xalpe, yifupoL /xrroyovo'ft rovg ix yris wgig fAkpaoiiv. 
XaipB, TO TflDV AyyiXoov %oXv6p6xXiirov ftaofta* 

Xciipty TO T«ov ^eufJLOvoov * voXuAptfyifTOV rgaufiei* 
Xalp§, TO ^»j ajJ^^Tfloj Viw^oo-a' 

Xaiggf TO wwg yafiiva hha^eura, 
Xalpif u-ofmv vfrigfialvovcra yvwcw 

Xaig8$ xi<rTw¥ Karauyafyvo'a fphag. 

Xaifty yJft^i) kwy^WTt. 

' This is wanting in the commeDGement of the Fragment. 

368 MS. Fragment of a 

Awa^%$ roti 'IVpiVroti vicwxIoufm rore wpig vuKKt^iftv rp cnragoya- 
jUMp* xai Tijif mjKapwoy TOLvn^g vi}$uvy tog ay^ov uirffSei^ev ^Sdy avao*! rolg 
Bikowri tepltjetv U'wn^oiav, Iv too ^'aXAeiv oSrco;, 'ylXXi}AouT0e. 

*£X®U(r« * 8fO$OYoy ^ ^ap$ivog tijv ft^r^dtv, avihpafJi,e irpog r^v 
'£Xi<ra/3«r' ro fit fiptpog nxeim^g eu$vg hctymuv rov ravnjg ao^a(r|xar, 
l^eupr xmi aXfiMffiv mg a^iLounv ifioei wpog TrjV Oeoroxov* 

Xalgif fiXao'Tov aftotpayrov xX^/ta* 

Xalgi, xoLpirov oLxmpaTOV xr^jxa. 
XalpB, yew^ov yeoopyov<ra fi\av$poo7roir 

Xaige, ^urovpyov rrig l^oorig i][Aaov ^uovo'oi, 
Xulpii apouga fiXafrrivovirei ev^oplav olxrtgfMOV' 

Xalge, TpairetloL paarat^owra e^^v/iotv lAaO'jxooy. 
Xoupi, ?n yjsiyJhyoL rr^g rpo^r^g avatiXXng' 

Xaigs, or I \ni.iva r&v ^inj^oov hoifJM^ig. 
, Xoupty $ffxrov TTpeo-peiag 9vfs,iafL0L' 

Xaiptf vavTog rov xofrpi^v l^lXa^fMi, 
Xuipe, Oeov irpb^ $rriTOvg ev^xlw 

Xalpi, tvrirmv icpog Oeov ^tap^irla, 

Xalpe, vu]u.^i] uvif/i^tt/Te. 

ZiXifiy tvMiv S^coVf \oyKr(ji,!ov aft^i/SoAoov, 6 cao^peov '/oKrij^ eropa- 
^ir^y Trphg rvjv ayojAOV ae iioogwVf xai ^ x\g^iy»iMv vtovoobv, ifji^fMrre' 
fLoAwv Zi <rou Tijv (ruXXi9\p<v ex ilveuftaro^ 'Aylouy t^tj, *^AXij- 

"Hxovo'civ ol iroifi^iveg roov 'AyyiKmy ujxvouvrflov, rvjV * evo'oigxov rod 
XpiOTOV tragoDvletr xeA dpetfiovrsg oog ^pig iroijxeyflty itwpown rovrov, 
dg a/tyov upiMijMv, h rji yaarp) Mapletg ^ou'xrfiivrciy ^y uftyovvrs; 

Xoiigiy ofivotj xa) voifMVog f^tfrrip' 

Xalggf avXYj Xoytxoov irpo^aran, 
XaipBy aogiroov lybptov afjLVvrfiptoy' 

Xailgtf fragoL^elo'OV ivpmv * avotxrvipiov. 
Xeugif or I Tflt oxtqivioL * fruvayaXXarM tJ y^' 

XaipB, on rd etriyeia avy^ogevu ovpcnfolg, 
XaigB, T»y 'AiroariXeoy ro wrlyi^rov <rr6fJM' 

Xouge, Tfiov a6Xofigcov ro avixyirov 6agcog. 
Xaigtf (m^phv rtig frlfrreeog ipBiCfiM' 

Xaigt^ XufMrpov Trig x^P^'^^S yviqi^iua* 
Xaigi, $1* ijg iyuf/i,va)ivj 6*'AtBiig' 

Xaipg, $r iig ffyfSuAi}|xey di^aif» 

XaipB^ yu/x^i9 avvfu^wvB* 

' * Offodp^ftoy aaripa tBcopfia-avrBg Mseyoi, t§ rourou ^iioXotf4i)«'«y 
aiyXji* xai ig Xup^yoy xgetrovfTBg airiv, 81' ovroS i)^evyovy xparam 

Greek Ritual. 369 

ifaKTct, xa\ fiairciVTes riv ^ a^iourrov, §x»p^<''OLV aurcp jSoepvrf^, 

"I^ov ifaTBes XuXhaiaoVy ev X'?^^ '^S irotpdivov, roy ^Xaa-avrei x«^) 
Tou; avipiirovg' xai $ecrTon]V voovvreg avrov, el xui SoJXou 2Xft/3s jtMp- 
^ijy, icirewrav rois $copoi^ iegotfreviTM, xot) j3o^o*0e< r^ euAoyij/Xffvi)* 

Xalpe, atrripog aWrou ft^Tijp' 

Xotipn, oLuy^ jxuonxij^ yifjJgag. 
XeupBy Trig enrirr^g r^y xay^i¥Ov (r^io'ourUy 

Xaige, Tri$ T^ia$o$ rou; fi6<rrag ^vXiTTOiHra. 
Xaipe, Tuguvfov aitoLvipaaicov exjSaXotlcra r^^ ^^X^$* 

Xaipe, xupiov ^iKivipcoTrov hnM^oura XpiTriv* 
Xaipe, fj TYi$ fiapfiigov kuTpovf/i^iytj 0pi)(rxe/a$* 

Xati^e, 1} To5 fiopfiigov ^uoftevi] rwv ipyav. 
Xeupt, iFv^g frpoo'xviftia'iv irawraa-a' 

Xalpe, ^Xoyog vetSaov airakXirTOU(ru, 
Xaigg, TiOTwy odijye (rcofpoiruvr^g* 

Xotlpe, naiToov yevetov eu^ooo'uyi}. 

Xalpe, yujUr^ ayu/x^eure. 

Kij^uxe^ Beofopoi, yeyovores oi Mayoi, inrifrrgv^av ei; rijy Betfiv' 
kaavoLy hxTeXiiravreg <ro5 roy Xp)}<rjxoyy xa) xyjpv^otVTeg (re roy Xpirrhv 
tt^rao'iy* a^evres rJy 'HgaiSriv m; kfigdl^ri, fiij elBooret (sic)* 4^aAXfiy, 

AoLfJi4fas ev rjf Alyvtrrn ^fiori^juboy aXijtff/a^y eSloo^oLg roD 4^81; Sov; 
TO o-x^o^' Tfl^ ya^ eiSooXa raun}^ cwnipy ^^ eviyxavra crou ri^y 
i<rxvy> Ttiirrcoxev' ol rot/rooy $s pva-divres efiooov vpos rigy tforoxoy* 

Xaipej kvoptwng rwy aviponroov 

Xaipe, xaruvrooo'is raov ^aift,6va)y, 
Xetigty Tfis Mta-n^g rijy ^rXayijy xarijo'ad'a* 

Xaioe, Tooy eiScoXooy roy $oXoy eXey^oto'a* 
Xotige, &a>MC<ra ToyriVatra ^otgoui roy yoijroV 

Xalpe, Trirpa tj Troricrao'a rou; $i\{;a)yr0e^ r^y ^«oi}y. 
Xaipe, iTvpive crruXe, odijyooy rou^ cy O'xmr . 

Xaipej (rxem^ rou xoVju^ou TrXarurepa ye^sXii;* 
Xalpe, Tpo^tj Tou fjtAvva haio^e* 

Xalpey rpu^ris dylag hixove, 
Xaige, ^ y? ^ t^^ eirayyiXlag' 

Xalgey 1^ ^^ ^eei /xeXi xa] ya\a» 

Xalpe, vu/t^i] ayujx^eurs. 

* MeXXoyro; SifMoavog roD wagovrog alcovog jttsAioTdeo'tfai rou oTdtredtf- 
yo^y c«i!Stfi]^ eo; figi^og avrw, aXX' lyycoo-t)}^ rot^cp xa) Ofo; riXnog^ 
hoirep l^evXayi] erou ri^y a^pijfrov co^lav, xgafy)v, 'ylXXi}Xou7ae. 

370 MS. Fragment of a 

\v a^lo^ov* IvUf TO BavfJM jSXmvrff^, ujxv^eo/Xffy avr^ /SoeDvrEf 

Xalpi, TO av0o^ t^; oL^Sxpalas' 

Xalpi, TO o'Ti^oj Tr,j lyxpaTe/ot;. 
Xaip€, aveurrio'eoog tutov ixX^ft^rovo-or 

Xalpgy Twv ayyiXcov tov |9/oy ififatvova-a. 
Xaigi, liv^pov ayXaoKOfirov, i^ oi rgi^ovrui viaroi' ^ 

Xuips, 0uXoy * fU(rxiof uXXov, u^' o3 (TxeTorrai voXAoi. 
Xaipe, xvo^opoih'a oSijyoy irXayeo/xevoi^* 

Xaiq§, avoyfyyoMra Xurpom^y ai^^aXcvroi^. 
Xalpe, xpiTOu Sixa/ov ^uo'conjo'i;' 

XaipB, TToXXdvy vraioVropy <rv7%flopi|(rj$. 
Xaip§, OToX^ reoy yvi/Lmv ifapfr^aiar 

XalpBf (TTOpyr^ iravra iroOoy yixeeerflt. 

Xailpt, yuftf 1) ovuftf ture. 

Hsyoy Toxoy SSoyre^^ ^eveoiooiJ^ev tou xoixftou, Toy yoOy ei^ oupavov fj^e^ 
TfltSeyTf J* Sifli TOuTO yap 6 u^J/ijXoj 8f^^ «rl y?j l^ayij Taweiyoj ay- 
AjeoTO^^ ^ukofj^BVos eXxuO'ai Trp^; to i^o; rov^ avrw fioobyrag, 'y^XXij- 

''OXoj ^y fy toj; xaroi, xal T»y ayoi ouS* oX«^ flwrijy 6 oiireglypoarrog 
Aiyog' ^vyxari^a-ts yap tiijcri, ou fi^rrifiaa-i^ hi rcTixi) yiyovt, xae2 
t^xo^ ex iroipiivov ieoX^irrou axouov<ri}; rauTa* 

Xaipif Osou op^eo^^TOU ^copa* 

Xaipi, aeirrotj ix^vcrvigiov tvpa, 
Xaigi, rS>v kvicroiv a/x^/j3oXoy axovcfjia* 

XaipSf Toov yricrroov avUft,^l^Xov xai^fiM. 
Xaige, o^rifLU iraivoiyiQV tov M tkv Xiq(n)fi{pu* 

Xaipe, oTxij/UrOi vayapio'Toy to5 hr) t«ov X'spa^Z/x. 
Xalpe, ri ravavtta el$ rauro ayayovo'a' 

Xalge, ^ wapievlav xa) Xop^e/ay ^euyyD<ra. 
Xa'ipe, Si' jj$ iXudi} wapafioL<ri$' 

Xalpe, h' Jig ^vo/x^t} irapaieicog. 
Xaige, yj xksig rris Xpi<rTov fia^tXelag* 
Xalpe, ekins ayaicov alomwv. 

Xajpe, yu/x^i} oyu/x^ffurff. 

Ilava fuo'ig *Ayye>jm xarefrXiyrj to fteya t^^ (t? j evavtgcoviiirecog 
ipyov Toy aT^oViToy ycep dg Oeov, e&empei traa-t vpo<mov dvipanrov, 
^Iv fxh cuvSiayoyra, axovovra 8s vapa vavroov ovreo^, '^XX)]XouVa. 

'P^'opag TToXu^oyyouf, w; (X^va; afivovg Qg&y^ lin <roi, (eoroxs* 
Avopovo'i yc^p Xeysiy ro ^«$, xoi vapiivog yiiveig xa) Tixeiy i^uerte^ 
ij^ig he TO fuvrrf^ioy i^viuaioyregy wiirrAg fioooyi^ev* 

Greek Ritual, 371 

XaifB, coplots BeoD So;^s7ov* 

XaipBy TTpovolaS' ourou rafum, 
Xoup9, ^lAoero^ou^ a^-o^ou^ Sfixvi/Otiirai* 

Xiiipe, Tfp^oX^ovj aXtfyou^ eXe/p^ovo'a. 

Xcupi, on efjLapav&r\(rav ot tcov fji6dȴ miy^raL 
Xaipi^ TCOV *Airival<ev rets ^jrKoxatg iiU9^(oa'»' 

Xxi^e, Twv aXi660V r^i; oray^ya^ TXi}^5<r0t. 
Xaip§, jSudou ayyolag 60eXxou<ra* 

XalpSf ToXXou^ fv yvicret fmrlt^ouiToi. 
Xai^s, oXxots Toov AsXoyrctfV o'ood^var 

XaipB, Xtfirjv rm rov filov TrXedrijpcov. 

Xatpt, yu/t^i} ovuft^euTff. 

XoMTM AIXflDv roy xi^yuov h raov oXcoy xocr/x^eop, ir^o^ rouroy 
ayrnr^eyy«Xro$ ijXtr xa) voi^y urapp^eoy w^ 610;, $1' ijf'^^ e^yi) 
xat* 4fui; ivipunro^* bfioiep y^ to ^oioy xoXfOia^, »$ 6co^ axo6u, 

70<X^^ el Twy irupiivw¥y dtoriiu iraftivB, xai 'kuvtoov rwy cT^ (rt 
vpoa'rpt^ovTaov' 6 yaq toD o^payou xa) rij^ 'y^^ xaTfTXiuoure <r« ^roitgri^f^ 
ap^payrffy olxii<ras h r^ p^^pct (rov, xai vivTas coi irpoa'pavMiv hulas' 

Xaigtf ^ (TTvXi} TYis irapdeviag' 

XaipB f vj iruKri rt^g <runf\plag, 
XalqBy ot,p^yl yoijrij^ ayairXao-so)^* 

Xalpe, ^opi^ye tsix^; ayotdorf^rog. 
Xetiqiy (Tu y^p ayiYivwitrag robg cuXXiyf iiyra; ^t^^fci'r 

Xalpe, <rv yap hfou6iTtj<rag roltg ijvkyiiirras roy youy* 
XalpBf 4 roy ^i^pia roov ^pnaov xaTafyotica* 

XalgSy ^ roy cvopia r% dyv§las TffXov<ra. 
^ai^ff; Tfto-ra^ atrtfopw vvpLft6<rioo$' 

Xaipe, TFia-rovg Kvplx dgpMl^ovj'a. 
XaUpe, xoXtj xovgorpofi itapBeynv 

Xal^e, tfwp^wy wf/^^oariXx ayltov, 

Xaipe, vvft^ij aviifJi^Bvrt. 

TfLvog aTtag jjrrarai * (rvvtxrtlvsa'iai a-irev^aav rep irXijtfsi rmv 
ToXXmv olxTipfLaov <ro5* i(raplifjioug rpaX/UrOu^ xa) oJ$fli; ay ngoc^ipat' 
fiiey 0*01, /Sao'iXeu ayis^ ou$gy reXoD/tey a^ioy^ cuy S^Scoxa^ vjiuv Toig coV 
/SoflMTiy^ 'i4XX9}XoJVa. 

* <^9)TO$^oy XoftiraSat^ ro7^ ly <rxoVei ^avel<raVy opwfjuv r^y ay/ay 
wapievov to yotg auXoy aTrouo'a ^o5^^ 6$«}yei 7pof yv6o<rtv leixi^y airay- 
Taj* auy^ roy yoGy ^eoTiJooo-a, x^auyp Si rt/xcojxeyi] raura' 

373 MS. Fragment of a Greek Ritual. 

Xcufi, iacrii yoiyrou ^Xiou* 

Xalpif /3oA)^ tou aSJrou ^iyyovg, 
Xeuf€, Surrpaini Tug^^^v^ag KceroiXAfMrowret' 

Xaipi, w$ /Spovri) roitg txl^povg xaravXifrrotwa. 
Xauqn, Tri rov ^ ToXu^florov dcvareXXt i; ^eorio'^v* 

Xctipt, OTi roy iroXippffrov avetfikJ^eig Tcoroifiof, 
Xaift, TTfig xoXvj^fiiiipCLg l^poYpa^otxra rov TVTOy* 

Xaipe, Trig iftMprlag aveupowra roy piixoy, 
Xalpi, Xourijp ixwKvvanf (ruyei^ijo'tv* 

Xaigs, xpar^p xipvwv ctyaXklounv, 
Xcupe, ^o-ft^ Trig Ajpitrrou fua>$/a$' 

Xoug€, t^oo^ [iwrTixrig evw^tag, 

Xaigs, yt/jx^i] ayvjx^eurf. 

^a^iv Souyoi IcX^o-flt;, ^^XijjxaTflov etpyodow 6 isiarwf * X^*^^^^ 
flcyA^flpTMy, ^fSij/xiio'ff Si' lauroS xpo^ tou$ airoS^fbou; rij; aurov ^ft^iro^* 
xo\ vyifrag to ytipiypou^yt^ oxouei irapa Trayrcoy ourflOf, '^XXi}Xouia. 

^aXXoyre^ crou roy roxoy^ tLvvfivovf/i^iv 0*1 vayrt^, eo^ ff(r\|n;;^oy yot^f, 
IfOTOxff' ffy rfi 0^ ya^ olxii<rag yetarg), 6 a-vvi^jm TOyra r^ X"P^ '^^ 
(re ijyieurtv, fio^ournf, e$«Sa0ff jSoay 0*01 Tayra$* 

Xouggy (TXTivij Tov 6eou xa} ^e^ou* 

XcCipty oLyia, dylcov fte/^eoy. 
Xaipt, xijSfiOTf ^pwrootu(ra rep mutifiart' 

Xalge, 6ii<ravgi rrig ^oo^^ aSaTayi}Te. 
Xaigiy Tiftioy SiaSi],aa jSflto'iXffioy ewrefiwV 

' Xaipt, XMJ^fJM <r§fia(r(MOV Ugioov eiKufiwif» 
Xoupt, Trig ixxXri<riag 6 aciXMUTog irvqyog' 

Xalge, Trig fiaa-^Xilag to uv^piriTOV rfi^o^. 
Xeuft, $1* jj; r/etporroLi Tpoirmar 

XoChpt, $r r^g ep^Opoi xuTatclirrawri, 
Xoiipe, Xf fiOTOf rou ejxou tegoanla* 

Xalpn, ^ifv^rig Tr^g Iftijj freorrjgla. 

Xaigs, ytift^i) aytJfit^furi. 

*i2 *w«yw/*yj)Tf fb^Tf^y ij T6Xo5<raTJy «yT«y ******* 


Inter oaines fere homines saeculi, quo vivimus^ eruditos, qui 
sedulo se accinxerunt ad editiones Gr^corum Scriptorum pro* 
ferendas^ unum omnes uno ore Schweighaeuserum eniinere 
dicuDt. Testes suntPoIybius, Appianus, Epictetus, Athenaeus, 
Herodotusque : e quarum vel una qualibet editionum baud exi- 
guam sibi famam Schweighaeuser poterat arrogare ; quippe cuine- 
que Graecae linguae cognitio baud mediocris, neque virium suarum 
existimado injusta, deesse neque laboris obeundi improvidentia^ 
neque detrectatio incepti adfuisse videretur. His aliisque dotibus 
Virum cumulate ornatum, non is sum, qui praeconio inepto 
elevare velim. Mibi tamen liceat dolere eum fuisse ita natura 
comparatum^ ut in illo frustra t^v Critici ayx^motv quaererea. 
Minime me fugit nonnullos extare, a quibus omnis ingenii vis 
pro re vilissima haberi solet, quique lucro ponuut achweig- 
haiuserum fuisse magis Wesselingio similem, quam Valckenaero^ 
ctnus irf^lvoioL nihil aliud (ita xopotxtg frpos rov «rroy yijpvouo'iv) 
enecit, quam ut conjecturas ex iogenio petitas aut ineptas 
aut falsas proferret, veteremque scripturam turbaret. Verum 
ipse cum patronis istis inveterati mumpsimus nullum inii 
consortium^ neque inire Volo. Licentiam diu aliam sumpsimus ; 
bodieque genio indulgere libet, dum emendatioues nonnullas 
in Grascae Historian patrem et principem bisce scriptis manda et 
nihil veritus commendo. 

Ordiar ab ilia de Arione narratiuncula in lib. i. 23. 
Jlifiotvipog $6 j}v 1 Kv^iXov ffoilsy oiro$ 6 rw OfutrvfiovKto W 
y^^Wnip^ov fiyfvvircig' trvpavveve he 2 i Ileplu^gog Koplv$oti' tm ^^ 
kiyovtn KopMioi^ o/xoXoyeouo'i U ar^i Ai<r0ioi, h rap 3 /3itt> iivfua 
^iyiiTTOV irctpeurryivai' ^Aplovu rov Mttupi^vaiov M ^eXfmg e^evst^divra 
hfi Taivapov, lovret xAaqtaViy r»v totb 4 hovrcov ovBivog htirepov, hoA 
hdvpotfjL^oVf vgwTOv MgoifToav r&v rjiitlg IdfMV, wot^a-avTci rt koA 
ivofjiMcravra^tt) dit&^etvTci sv Koqiviop. Tovrov rov 'Aglova Xiyova-^f 
5 rov fTokXov Tov XF^^^ harplpovru 6 vaqd negiavhpop, iyFiiui/i^Y^eu 
vkoo<rat hf 'Irethitif rs xa) Sixsklriv spyacafievov hi X?^i*^'^^ H*^ 
yiXoLy ^eX^o-cei oiriVco hg Kopivioy etinKe(riar hpiuMdou fji^iv 7 wv in 
WstpavTOSfmoTZVorra hs 8 oy^aftoTcri^ftaXXov ^ KoptviloKri, [ji^Kridxrairiou 
tkolov avhpm Koptvilaav' rovg he hf rm ireKaye'i «ri/3ouX«u«», rov 
*Aplova infiakovraf, e^^fv ra^f ^jx«ra' tov he o'wUvru QtoSto, ki<r<rer* 
dkij Xt^y^'^^ 1^^ ^^^ vpoiivruj ^^^X^v he napcureofuvor 10 oSxtov ^ 
•i/feiy aurov rotfrotci, uXKi xeXminv robg TropipifieLg ^ avrov hiaxpSurdai 
l/Uv, (og uv II ra^tig h yi ruvn, 12 i^ hxmfiaM ig r^v iotKaa'irav rit 

VOL. XXII. tl. Jl. NO. XUV. 8B 

374 In Herodatum Emendatianes. 

r^i ovrw foxeoi, v§piiimf aurif h rp mcmif too^ oroyra nrrolri ISai- 
jjoto't &M7U' ouia-agti vwMxgro kourh 13 xartpyicafftai' xdA, retoi 
14 k-fXdfnf yap ^^otny*; «* ft^^Aoify axovo-i^cu tou o^iotov Id" 
Mpnoat a»tSw,' eafa^»pii9'eu he t^( wfVfMnif ci^ fteoipr yea. 

Manifesto delenda sunt Kvi^iXw wals : ne forte ovro^ referator 
ad iiCtf4^f\oip. Certe gl. venit e ] . 20. DeplsLii^ tw KinpeAov: simili- 
ter dele (2.) 6 Uipiai^pQf, 3. Quid sibi vefit Leibionim niehtio in tali 
re plane nescio : etsi vox eadem repetitur ad finem narcatiunculap. 
Mox h Tf ^Uf est plane ineptum. Sententiae tenor postulat It rn 
«vi^icBvel simile quid. Itademum ratio patet,cur Herodotus scrip- 
aentoiMAoyeouff-iSff — hra a9oiuim,tamjuiiUYUfTW. — Quod ad voceiu 
ipsamJafii^tQ^, non probabilis, vid. Lexica. Quod ad ^ et /t per« 
inutats^ adi palasograpbias peritos. 4. Displicet Ufranf post f ovra. In 
tali formula rm roT§, participium rectius omittitur. 5. MS. Pass* 
TO woXXiv: quod prsestat. 6, Vice wapa MS.oiiy. Fuit olimb 
Utfiavipov scil. oiiM. 7. Manifesto legi de betiSv vice vw. 8. Prop* 

ter Mpw9 Kop$y6ioo9 sententiK tenor bic postulat — cvUifL avowh (i. e.; 
laAfiKoivi). 9- Vice rovro syntaxis rxigit avrou^ xWicrtai. Mox 
titinam MSS. prsebeaut cuicaw Kj w§ii§w twaTov Koy^^h otXkpt 
x^Aeueiy rov^ Tropica; /ivroy he^gaaial ^ly. 10. Vice ro^^; MS. 
ca^fV. liieptias loci vidit Reiske, neque rem explicuit Wess. 
Herodotus acripsit Sua Sufoai%i ^ y^ Tv;t9' 9>'>'^ procul e conspeciu 
terra fuerit : alioqui metuere poterant naut«, ne insidiae essent 
put^factie. 12. Voces ^ haal^t c^ r^y iaXacv^av manifesto inseri 
debent post (IS) Karepyal!i(riau ; etenim non erat^ cur nautae de 
mortis genere dissiderent, optionemque darent Arioni : qui plane 
fdlsus esset, se in mare projiciess, postqnam sibi manus inferre 
ivomiserat. Atqui is v?r«8exero, ut opinor, kaxniv nempyafyiria^ 
% l%infiav tic Ti}y ii\»9<rav. Quod adrqV To^iVnjy, eae voces jungi: 
debent cum hat^pwrtai. £teuim in tali re, ubi argentum est ca^de 
qusrendum, quisque solet esse impatiens morse. 14* Notam 
prolixam scripsit Scbweigfaaeuser ad tuendum lectionem, quam^ 
T. Hemsterbusius merito offenderat. Cum ScbweighaeuseFO 
facit quoque Hermannus^ sed nihil proficit. £ versione Valbe 
lectio vera erui potest. Kei Tvjrrovi, Itr^xtft yap' ^Soyi}, e^. 
/x/xXoifv^ axouaivdai : quod convenit ad amussim cum verbis^ 
Valise. Istos igitur invaierat enim libido audiendi prastaniissi*: 
mum modulatorem : convenit quoque m^TJis — ^ovq cum T/ciie^; . 
-^cT^M^i in i. 30. Mox fi fiiAXoisy^ quae verba cailide Interpres ' 
praeterit, redde si cunctatifuerint. 1 5. Grasce dici nequit aplarou 
Mpmiraiv whv^ Scripsit Herodotus vel agiirrw htupafifiowoiw- 
vel ^liaptfMi, 

In Herodotum Emendatimes. QIJS 

' JDiu niinis in hoc loco sum moratus. Pergam ad i. 86. * Xbi 
legitur : 

"ET^i l^ (og ^Xtf aqyr'iv i SoXmv Iwv '^iijvaio^. Ubi quid sit 
^oifX}lv exputare neqiieo. Saepe apud Herodotum extat ctpx^ 
vice adverbii, et redditur omnino, Verum semper cum par- 
ticular quae negationem significat, aut jungitur aut jungi debet^ 
Cf. iv. 25. Touro $s ovk MiKOfMu apx^v: itaenim MS. Arch: et 
similiter iniv. 28. ovoi ovx avixprrai ap^^Vy etiv. 29- ov ^6n xipett 
rei xrijvea ap;^^y ; vi. 33. ov^s iv?i(o(rav eip^v. Hie vero app^^v 
tueri volunt Wessel. et Scbweigh. locis plane dissimilibus, 
nempe i. 1 40. xai afji^) /u>ev rtS voftep tovtco i^^iro) »$ xa) ag%ijv 
ivofjiMri : verum ibi debet legi eo^ xar ctp^v ; etenim respicit 
Herodotus ad sua verba rahe Kiyvrai xal ou* ca^ijveflo; dicta sub 
initio excursus. In ii. £8. r^y ap;^^y exhibet Arch, et recipi 
debet. Hie vero ulcus latet altius : verum collato i. 9Q. xct) 
^ xol\ SoXanf ai^p 'Aivivahs, medicina se prodit: ^Xie 6 So\m¥ 
'*ANHP km ^Ahivouog, 

Minbri negotio restitui potest i. 93. 

BaoAfLOLTOL $6 yri Atillr^ ig (jvyypafijV o6 jstaXa Ejp^fi, ola r« xa) a)\}ji^ 
X^pit ffips^ Tov ix Tov TfJi^\ov xarfic^epojxsyou ^ypLotrog. 

Inter liaec nego dici posse BmipLotra''^iuoLkaL i^jsi. Debuit esse 
ToAXa vel oux aKKa. Neque intelligo satis oli r§ xa) ixk^ 
X^P^' Intelligere poteram 'oli re xoii f/^eyoikfi x^P^' Mox 
post ^vjyiMLTOs abesse nequit ^^puo-ou. Id unice comprobatur 
locis quam maxime similibus. Agmen ducit ipse Herodotus 
IV. 195. ^ypi,a oLVafipovo'i ;^py(roil. v. 101, natxTooXov TroTotfMV o$ 
(T^i ^T^yfjLo, ^puo-oD xarafogioov Ix roD TfMokotj. Adde Atben. vi. p. 
233. E. irorapua TUp^oVra ^YjyfjMTa, xP^^^^ xurafepei, Incertus 
.apud Harpocrat. V. Xpva-oxoeloy — eos h *TiM\Trco ;^pu(ro5 ^^frf/iMi 
woAu $av€/ij. Etymol. V. 'Ep^eSojpoj — ^;^gu<rov yuq xarafepm 
^ypMTx. Nihil hie annotavit Schweighaeuser^ neque aliter 
fecit in ii. 33. quod sane miror. Etenim ne Larchero quidem 
lectio vulgata omni parte satisfacere videtur. Loca tamen, ab 
eo allegata, quibus adde et iv. 27. . nequeunt ista. 

Ku) ivj xoti 6 Xoyog oZroo aipier pm yoip x. r. X. Scripsit enim 
Herodotus 6 \6yog oixig ea-w pUi yoip—cL v, 10. Ijxol ftsv vuy 
T«uTa >JyovTes Soxeoucri xiysiv ovx olxora' rot yoLp x. t. X. neque 
distat iv. 195. oixora l<rT» aXij9/)j. Manifesto hterae pesi e voce 
proxima oriuntur. 

. ' Non eodem, quo pra?cedentia, silentio praetereunt Editores 
locum difficilem in ii. 135. Sermo est de Rhodopide meretrice : 

X«« xipra eTra^pohrog ysvQpi^iyr^ pi,eyoi\^ exrritroLTO p^^^jxara dg 
' AN EINAI 'POJnniN, otraq ovx wgys ig 7rvgai/.i^aTavTriv i^txea'$0U'^ 
y.- ibi VaIckenaericonjecturam'Po$c»Tio$maIeediditScbaifer. Ma- 
nifesto scripsit Herodotus aj ANA EINAI JflPON TI, arap ovx 
Af-^^ixi^eu. DoQum illud mox commemorat Historicus, nempe 

S76 Tkueifdide$ Emendatus. 

ifitkobf fiwwifw^ voAXou; ^ii^fiouf» Quale fuerit illud meretricis 
doDum, alibi exponam. Etenim de rebus impudicis, quas He^ 
rodotuB usque aTersalus est, ut verbis Herodoteis ular, tSorrofuc 
/ioi KiUrtto. Lectionem vulgatam fnistra tuentur cuai Wess^ 
Schweighsuser, qui felicior fuit in exponendo iii. 104. ubi solis 
tempore ardentissinBi h t&nri >jiyof canoug [scil. Indos] hrt 
/Spffp^eo^flti. At Don intellexit ille verani esse lectionem £nm 
Sbrrof /3^;^fcrtai. Etenim sudor Indis pro aqua fuit. 

Sed locus ille, qui Criticos minim in modum iropiicitos habet 
in iii. 105. est facillime expediendus. Ibi vulgatur 

At MS. Arcb. omittit xeu. Rectius sedem mutasset loco oux : 
nisi quis potius censeat inde subsidium trahi posse ad tuendum 
Reiskianum xou. Mihi vero certo certius videtur Herodotum 
scripsisse vmpak6e<r$ai xor§ fXjcoftarou; xeu orou ofjifiXuripoug. Redde 
iXxo/Myov^y se trahentes. Scripaisset Tragicus xoXov IXxo^ 
rag, ut patet e Med. 11 78. vel fiiffiv : cf. Pbcen. 31 i. at Buco- 
licus, iro^A^ : cf* Theocrit. Id. ▼. 21. Quod ad ait^kuregovgy 
satis est allegare Hesych. *Aft,fiXimfW Ixni^epof. 

Has emendationeSy decennio jam scriptasj aliae fortasse alio 
tempore sobsequentur. G. B. 


hjx innumeris illis difficilioribus locis, ubi Thucydidis senteo- 
tia modo non penitus amissa est, neque, nisi conjecturarum ope, 
recuperanda, baud scio an magis notabile exemplum proferri pos- 
sit, quam ex oratione Diodoti in lib. iii. c. 44. 

'Eyd 8ff TrapriXdoy ovre avrepmv ireg) MiruXijva/av owrt xanjyop^c-fldf 
ou yaq Vip) Trig exilvoov ahxietg ij^Tv 6 aycoy, f i aoo^povoZpi^ev, oKket 
%Bpt Tvig yip^ffripag evfiovXlag' ijy re yaq auro^fivao tcSlw a^ixotrvra; oLXh' 
rovg, ov ^li rouro xa) avoKtslvai xeXivcrcOf el firi ^vfj^^ipov* ^v re xci 
i^ovrig rt ^vyyvwy^r^g eiev ei tJ 7oXei jx^ ayadov ^a/voiTO. 

Ad hunc locum exponendum multa profudit E. F. Poppo, 
ui tamen ita notam satis longam claudit. " Quid de verbb 
lis statuendum sit, quodammodo adhuc fluctuo/' Ipse vero 
fluctus illoM composuisse dicar legendo t^v re xai t^^ovrig ri ftiy-> 
yv^/utij^, £ ay, 61 T^ TToXsi |u.i} ayaiov ^oLlvono. Ita enim sententiae partes 
librantur : ^v re airo^veo ahKovvrag et ^v re ix^ovrig ri ^vyyvipa^g 
Sutofr^vco : avoxTelvM xeAgt/0'a) et eSiv xtXewrco : ffi jx^ ^v/x^fpoy et ei pL^ 



On the Ancient British Language^ &c. 377 

iyaiiv. Verbutn low manifesto hie tuetur illud dictum in hac 
Qiatione ipsa, (c. 48.) oT; ovSe iyw fdo ic^frayayMcix, 

Si quia Tliucydideas sententias ita librataa diligenter expeodat^ 
ei coutidenter promitto copiam emendationum optimarum. Ex-« 
emplo sit lib. ii. 43. 

uXysmrspa yap av^gi ye ^qovtifMi e^ovn ^ ev rco fuvroL toD /xaAoexi- 
o't^vai xaxfloai^ % 6 fi,nai pifj^y^g x«l xoiyij; tkwkog afMi ytyvofi^tng 
ivaia-tilTog tivotrog. 

Locus est duo-yoVo? judice Dukero. Stobaeus quidem p. 88. 
omittit voces ^ Iv t^ . At in iis manifesto latent ij jSioVou. Ita 
inter se opponi possunt h fitiroi} (i,^§trov jt4aX«xi(r0ijvai xixaxFis et 
o fi,nei pifM^g — apetichiros tavaros. Conferri debet Plato in Legg. 
xii. p. 687. B. ^»^y ala-^pav otfyvfuevog [Mrei. xax^ fMAAoy ^ fitr 
(n^pttag XftXoy xai evWftova davarov. 

Plura hujusmodi proferre poteram. Verum haec in praesenti 
sufficiant. U. B. 




Prbsbrvatiqn of the Cornish Dialect. 

In my last letter, I endeayoured to prove that Cornish is 
now entirely extinct ; and therefore the next question that 
occurs, iSy how far it may be possible to preserve it as a 
dead language. We have already seen that it is of suffi- 
cient importance to require such an attention,; and it is with 
some pleasure that I have to remark, that such an object, 
though attended with some difficulties, is not impracticable. 
If this should ever be accomplished, Cornish scholars 
might still exist hereafter, and many doubtful matters, in 
antiquities and philology, might be thus ascertained. A 
dead language can only be preserved by its written memo- 
rials, and unfortunately these are very scanty in Cornish. 

We know for certain of no manuscripts, except a few of 
sacred poetry, which have been deposited in the Bodleian 
Library. Fragments only, and imperfect Vocabularies, have 
been published from time to time. The plan for preserving 
those manuscripts is obvious, and is no other than what 
was done witli respect to the classics at the revival of let- 

378 On the Ancient British 

ters, — to priot ^gvhatever could be found in the laBgaage ; so 
that by multiplying copies, they might not only escape 
the danger of destmction, but have the advantage of being 
more generally criticised and corrected. I would there- 
fore propose, that those manuscripts should be printed. 
With literal English translations ; that Lhuyd's Grammar 
should be republished ; and that from these sources some- 
thing like a Cornish Dictionary should be compiled. It is 
also possible, that on further research, some other manu- 
scripts might still be discovered. If this expedient should 
be adopted, the language might be preserved beyond the 
chance of common contingencies. Without something o( 
the kind, it may be considered as lost for ever. 

This plan, however, simple as it is, is yet, I fear, not 
very likely to be carried into execution. We live in an 
age of general taste for literature*— for novels, newspapers, 
and pamphlets. A learned, tedious, and troublesome under- 
taking, dry and uninteresting to general readers, would not, 
probably, meet with much encouragement. Such an at- 
tempt for the preservation of Cornish learning could only 
be successful under the decided patronage of the Cornish 
gentlemen. On the other hand, the person, who undertook 
the task, ou^t to be possessed of much leisure, and have 
some acquaintance with the Cornish, in addition to the ne- 
cessity of being a learned, industrious, and accurate gene- 
ral scholar. The difficulty also, of collecting and compili0g 
scattered documents, would be still increased by the time 
and trouble of transcribing, or at least collating the Bod- 
leian manuscripts, for the press. 

But even if any individual should surmount all these ob- 
stacles, he might still experience the mortifying conviction 
that he had labored in vain. The expense of printing a 
work like this, of heavy sale, and on a learned subject, 
would be what in common prudence he would not venture 
to risk. It could only be done by subscription, in procur- 
ing which he might be unsuccessfal. A person may very 
properly devote his leisure, even without any expectation 
of recompence, to the promotion of any literary undertak- 
ing ; but it is unreasonable to imagine, that he ought to 
suffer himself to be injured in a pecuniary point of view. If 
be should obtain a subscription, he merely indemnifies hiin- 
self from loss, and nothing more. At the same time, it is 
made very intelligible to him, that those who subscribe, dp 
it, as thoy suppose, to oblige him ; and that those who d^ 

^Language ofCornwalL 379 

. cllne to support him, do so, because they do not feel inte- 
, rested in his subject. It is indeed true, that subscriptions 
are sometimes no m^re than a handsome way of raising 
money on some mean publication, to relieve the wants of 
some distressed author ; but when the object is to bring 
out some respectable work, which otherwise could not be 
- published, I conceiye that it is the public who receive the 
favor, and not the scholar, who merely secures himself 
from loss, at the same time that he gratuitously bestows 
his labor and his time. To decline supporting any litera- 
ry undertaking, on the ground of not being conversant in it, is 
a good argument for economy, but no farther ; as the most 
unlearned patrons of any book must be conscious, that their 
countenance is the means of multiplying copies, which in 
all likelihood will fall into the hands of those to whom they 
may be useful ; at the same time that they are merito- 
riously employed in the encouragement of literature.' 
,These are a few of the most obvious means by which the 
Cornish tongue might be perpetuated. 

Another question arising from the extinction of this lan- 
guage, is, the natural curiosity of any stranger, to know 
what is that which is now spoken in Cornwall. It might 
indeed be .expected, that it was some corruption of itself, 
as the Romaic is of the Greek, the Italian of the Latin, 
and the English of the Saxon; in which it might be disco* 
vered that the present idiom was still grounded on the 
basis of some former tongue. This is, however, so far from 
being the case, that the language is as much English as in 
any other county ; that very few Cornish terms remain^ 
except in the mines and fisheries ; and that the great mass of 
the population hardly know that this last was ever spoken. 

' I was lately much amused with an Isola's Tasso, published at Cam- 
bridge,'in 1786, which had belonged to the late Dr. John Hey» formerly NoN 
risian Professor of Divinity in that University. Probably he knew nothing 
of Italian, and it was to oblige Isola, and to assist him in multiplying copies 
of a valuable foreign classic, that he subscribed. It was the whimsicali* 
ty of two memorandums on one uf the blank leaves, which struck me, 
and which sufficiently explain his motive for supporting the Italian 
editor. The former of these was, that he had first opened the book in 
1810, cut the leaves in 1811, and looked into it in 1812; so that there is 4 
.strong presumption, that after all the Doctor never read thatdiviif% 

380 On the Ancient Brituh 

Diough little attended to, this is a most remarkable moral 
phenomenon, that a language should, if the term be allowed, 
have been driven from its own proper sphere, and anothef 
artificially introduced in its place. This has happened in 
Cornwall ; the inhabitants have gradually learned the lan- 
guage of their neighbours — ^their own has ceased to be un- 
derstood ; for by being continually pressed within more 
narrow limits, it was at length confined to a few small 
fishing villages, till in the end it expired, at the death of one 
poor and solitary individual. Many generations must have 
passed away before this could be effected, and the pro- 
gress must have been very gradual. The first step to- 
wards the extinction of Cornish, was when young persons 
began to learn English for convenience. This latter would 
soon become common in the same village, and both would 
be spoken indifferently. A succeeding generatiim finding 
that English was the language (tf the Church, and that all 
business, at home and at a distance, was transacted in if, 
would naturally feel a distaste for Cornish; and therefore 
by using the former mostly in their families, the children 
would, from this disuse, be ignorant of the tongue of their 
ancestors, and know no other than that which their parents 
bad lately adopted. In riper years they entirely 
English, and their posterity would continue to be such. 
These, I apprehend, were the slow and progressive steps 
which have effected this great philological alteration. These 
causes, however, could not operate in a large and indepen- 
dent country, which would create and establish a language 
of its own, before that of its neighbours could be substituted 
to any extent. It is therefore an indirect consequence of 
the contracted limits of t]ie Cornish people, and of their 
political incorporation with neighbours, whose manners, lan- 
guage, and customs, they thought it both convenient and 
fashionable to imitate. The same cause is now operating in 
Wales. — Passing through Radnorshire bome years ago, 
I was surprised that the inhabitants were entirely ignorant 
of Welsh ; and I was afterwards told in Monmouthshire, 
that in some parts of that county, where it had been spoken 
within the memory of man, it was no longer used. Among 
other contrivances to advance English, it is common in schools 
and families not to allow children to learn or speak Welsh, 
as being vulgar ; and in many of the churches, the service 
is alternately performed in the two languages. Tliis re- 
sult is also accelerated, when the language is such as tfie 

Language of Cornwall. S81 

Welsh, \f hich the natives do not think it worth while to 
retain. But the contrary to this has happened in the Nor*- 
man Isles, where, although they have followed all the vicis- 
situdes of the fortunes of this country, since William the 
Conqueror, the language is still as much French, except 
in a lew words expressing articles exclusively of English 
|naaufacture or fashions, as at the first period of their in- 
' orporation. The reason of this is obvious, — that as French 
is a polite, useful, and general language, the natives| have 
thought it of too much importance, as well as convenience, 
to be laid aside, however they may be attached to English 
habits, and cultivate English literature and pursuits. 

It may not be improper to remark here, what kind of 
English is now spoken in Cornwall. — It is highly tinctured 
with provincialisms, and sometimes it retains a few Cornish 
words. The Cornish people have acquired English as 
foreigners, and the persons who spoke it first must neces- 
sarily have incorporated with it much of their native ac- 
cent. This would naturally be transmitted to their children, 
with whom a- vicious pronunciation would thus become 
habitual. This appears to be the origin of the provin- 
cial English of that county, and why the lower sort of 
people speak it now with so large an alloy of what may be 
supposed to be the ancient Cornish pronunciation. If this 
view of the matter is correct, it will follow, that the tones 
and provincialisms of Cornwall are of a different cast from 
those of any other part of England. How far the latter 
part of this observation is correct, must be decided by 
facts. It is, however, generally admitted that the lower 
Cornish speak English very ill. It has been sometimes with 
considerable difficulty that I have been able to under- 
stand the coimtry people, though I had often conversed with 
them before. I have also remarked, that I thought I could 
distinguish in them something like a foreign accent, at least 
something that was unlike English sounds. I hint this 
with some hesitation, as when a person has embraced any 
theory, he may be so little on his guard, as to avail himseUT 
of the slightest arguments in confirmation. But even now, 
in the more remote parishes, where Cornish may be sup- 
posed to have been the longest retained, the worst English 
is spoken. In the neighbourhood of the Land's End, the in- 
habitants have an unpleasant way of lengthening out their 
words into a drawl, as if they sung them ; which is contrary to 
iJDBd quidc and contracting tone of the English idiom, and in 

382 On the Ancient British 

all probability has betn bonowed from the ancient vemacii^ 
lar tongue. 


Christian Evidrnce. — Conclusion. 

I MIGHT haTe closed our correspondence with my last 
letter, as I had then offered yon all my observations on the 
Cornish tongue, and on the kind of English by which it 
has been rejilaced. I shall therefore be obliged to confine 
myself to a few incidental remarks io this letter ; the first of 
which that occurs, is that the modem are the lineal descen- 
dants of the ancient Cornish. This is a fact so different 
from what has generally happened in other countries^ 
where there has been a radical substitution of language, 
that it requires some explanation. The present state of 
Cornwall of itself affords internal eyidence, that its inhabi- 
tants are not to any extent a mixed people, or any other 
than the posterity of the ancient natives. Tlie nomencla- 
ture of the country alone is a sufficient confirmation of 
this opinion. The names of places, almost universally^ 
and those of a great number of families, owe their deriva- 
tion to the Cornish language. This would not be the case, 
if the former race had been either exterminated or expelled. 
Conquerors in many instances change the names of coun- 
tries and places; the Romans did it, the Goths and 
Vandals did it, and the Europeans have carried the practice 
into all their modem discoveries, where, at the most, only 
a few disfigured aboriginal appellatives have remainedf. 
Asto families, the conquerors sdso retain their own name^i, 
and indeed every thing else, which can remind them of 
the people, and of the particular blood fit)m which they 
spriug. But nothing of the kind has ever happened in 
Cornwall ; every thing around us is strictly Cornish, and 
the vernacular idiom of the natives is the only thing which 
in the lapse of ages has perished. In short, they appear 
to have continued as a people of nearly unmixed descent, 
since the evacuation of Britain by the Romans in the Fiftb 

Having thus examined the Cornish Dialect through all 
the ramifications which I had intended, I might have con^ 

Language of Cornwall. 383 

eluded here, were it not from a wish to make a few cursory 
remarks on a subject connected with the Christian religion. 
It is pleasing when one can add but even a few scattered 
rays to the bright effulgence which illumines the evidences 
of its truth. I have already given a list of those Cornish 
terms which designate religious objects. If that religion 
was propagated in Cornwall during the first centuries, we 
might expect to find some traces of it in the language, and 
accordingly those terms are generally foreign, and nearly 
all'from the Greek — as Jlestely^ Bodeya, Diagon^ Ebscoh, 
Eglos, Sfc. As all these are foreign terms, it is obvious that 
they must have been imported from some other country } 
that is, from Greece ; and this gives us an additional confir- 
mation, that the Gospel was first preached in Greek to the 
Gentiles, as we are indeed informed by history both sacred 
and profane. 

The words, moreover, are so much disguised, that that 
circumstance confirms us in the truth of the accounts which 
have come down to us, that so many ages have now elapsed 
since the conversion of the Britons. If Christianity were 
of a later date in Cornwall, those terms would have retnain- 
ed something nearer to the original Greek. Nor can it be 
more ancient, as the words themselves are either unknown 
to the classics, or were employed by them in a different 
sense. * 

Cornish did not begin to exist as a separate language 
tin after the Romans had evacuated Britain ; the age of 
saints and legends soon followed ; and the above terms 
having thus become Cornish, show that they belong to the 
religious activity of that period. Christianity, therefore, 
cannot be ascribed to a later, nor to a much more distant 
date ; but its language, thus altered and fitted to the 
Cornish idiom, directs us to the precise point, when such 
exrellent and undaunted men as St. Petroc, St.* Just, and 
St. Kevem, came fcom a foreign land to gather a plentiful 
spiritual harvest on the shores of Cornwall. These were the 
pious and venerable personages, who, however their histo^ 
ries may have been darkened by fable and superstition, 
there can be no doubt, exposed themselves among a barba- 
rous race ; and with a perseverance, which even under the 
greatest difficulties must command success, they instructed 
them in the arts of civilized life, and how to value (he 
spiritual blessings of faith in Christ. Such appears to 
ht^ve been the character of those men^ who thus intrepidly 

384 On the Ancient British Language^ &c. 

deTOted tliemselTes> and wfamn the Chmch has canonized 
as saints. Yet I would not be nndentood^ as if I hinted, 
that the age of Christianity could be traced only in the 
Coniish toi^^e ; for the same cfmcorrence is also to be 
fiMUid in other languages ; Greek and Ijatin in particnbur. 
In the classic authors before oar pres^it era, there is no 
menti<m whateyer of Christianity ; bat this coold not have 
been the case, had it Hncn existed. It cannot therefore be 
older ; bat since it was mentioned andor Neio, it cannot be 
more recent; and consequently, it canbeof no other pe- 
riod than that to which it is ascribed by the writers of the 
New Testament The terms of Christianity are neither pure 
Greek nor Latin ; and that too confirms Ae history, that it 
was first preached by foreigners ; but as their Greek is 
full of Hebrew and Syriac phrases, we may readily imagine 
that they were either Jews or Syrians. Hence this philo- 
logical coincidence adds again to the arguments for tlie 
genuineness of the Acts of tl^ Apostles. 

It is unnecessary to multiply instances here, when my 
object is only to suggest how etymological inquiries may 
be employed as incidental assistances to the establishment 
of the most sacred and the most important historical 

With this letter, I shall conclude our correspondence 
on the Cornish tongue, which has been extended to a greater 
laigth than I originally intended. It is not for me to 
determine with what success I have prosecuted this in- 
quiry. I may, however, confidently assert, that the subject is 
faiteresting. I have endeavoured to explain myself in a 
plain and familiar style, and occasionally to enUven it by 
small embellishments. Philology is sufficiently dry and 
forbidding to most readers, and therefore it should be 
rendered as easy and inviting, as in its nature it will ad- 
mit. An abler band than mine might have corresponded 
more satisfactorily with you ; but even as it is, the time 
and trouble spent in consulting and collating authorities, 
and in deciding respecting words in different languages, 
has been much more considerable than I bad antici- 



Torn. V. p. 433. in Annum MDCCXLIV- 


1. Livio, Romanoruni Historicornm facile principi, PatavinitHteih 
nescio quam exprobrabat Asinius PoUio, magna quoque ipse int^r 
RoRianos rerum gestarum et eloquentiae fama clarus. Id testatdr 
Quintilianuslnstit. Orat. i. 5. et viii. 1. Cui si credimus, Livianu^t 
istud vitium in aliqua verborum insoleutium ac peregrinorum affe- 
ctatiotie consistit. Veruni etsi non minimi ponderis sit tanti Aucto- 
ris judicium, illius hac de re conjecturam viri docti non inimerito 
dubitant admittere. Hactenus enim inventus est nemo, non dice 
recentiorum, sed ne veterum quidem, qui Patavina ilia vocabula in 
Livio deprehenderit. Imo Quiutilianus ipse ubique miram illius 
facundiam praedicat lacteamque ubertatem, ita nt eum juvenibUs 
potius legendum suadeat, quam Sallustium, ut fide candidiorem He 
magis expo$itum. 

£a ratio, ni fallor, optima eruditissimos a duobus retro ssecuHs 
viros impulit, ut Patavinitatis voce aliud quid intelligendum es^ 
censerent. Itaque ab Asinio suspicantur tacite exprobratas esse 
Livio vel nimias Patavinorum laudes, vel Gallici nominis odium, vd 
orthographic insolentiam, sive etiam Poropeianarum f)artium ^td- 
dium. Varias illas opiniones recensuit, et feliciter improbavit vir 
Doctuft, Daniel- Georgius Morho£us, in luculeata dc Patavinitate 
Liviana Dissertatione, §^d nihilo mihi ceteris felicior fuisse vide- 
tur, dum Patavinitatera Livii putavit consistere in aliquo dictionis 
vitio, ita tamen latente, ut a nemiue hodie possit animadverti. 

Ego vero arbitror, si quid in Livio vitii ioesse dicendum est, nih)l 
esse aliud quam redundans illud atque Asiaticum dicendi genus, 
quod, quasi a Romana virilitate alieuum acfrigidum, ut in Cicerone 
Brutus, sic in Livio quidamcarpereausi sunt. Unushorum, Impera* 
tor Caligula, quasi verbosum in Historia negligentemque Livium 
traducebat, teste Suetonio in ipsius vita c. 34. Quin et Quiritilifl- 
Dus Instit. viii. 3. fiaKpoXoyiav in eo reprehendebat. Hand dubie 
sane in eadeni sententia fuisse quoque videtur Pollio, cujus in 
ficriptis diligentia quidem laudatur, sed compositio dura, salebrqsa, 
ac stricta fuisse dicitur, uti ex Veterum judiciis observavit Morhq« 
fius dictaa Dissertationis c. 4. Ideo igitur aurea Livii ubertas ipsi 

386 De Pataviniiaie Litiana. 

displicclMil, qnod exiliteteiii maai fmegravarcf, qaodqne divcm sibi 
cooscius generis placere se in dicendo posse ib, quibus ilk pkeevet, 
diffideret, uti in pari casn de Seneca ail Qnnitilianus Instit. x. 1. 

Qnnm igitnr dicax-^teet et urbanus PoUio, friipdani illam et elum- 
bem^ut sibi videbatnr» Uvii prolixitatem, festive Patavitiiiaiamnp- 
peflabat, ea ratione, qnam a nenine bactenns, qnod sciam, obsenratam 
demiipr. Patavioia scilicet mulieribus Titio dabatar, quod esscnt 
in Venerem Irigidiores. Unde Martialis Epigr. ix. 17. 

Tu fHoqme neqmtimt uowiri Imnuqme iibeni, 

Haec certe in Patavinis mulierihns moram severitas laudari pottos 
meruit, uti landata est a Plinio jiiniore Epist. i. 14. Sed inde 
Pollionem jocandi in Livium occasionem arripuisse manifestum 
nihi videtnr. Quod quin facete fecerit, licet maligne neroo, ut opi- 
nor, ibit inficia?. 

Ha^c de Livii Patavinitate debentur illustri Joann. Buberio. 

''Hue pertinent ilia Livio ab Asitiio Pollione ohject2L Patavinitas, 
qua nihil aliud intellexit, quam modos lcx|uendi Patavinos a Livio 
usurpatos :* qui quidem ea in re maledicus fuit, neque boc suo 
judicio audiendus est : qua de re nos pluribus egimus integro libro 
de Pafavinttate Uviana : ita fuerunt, qui Virgilio MantMmnitatem 
inesse, observasse sibi visi sunt, quod de Asinio Pollione eodem 
memorat Scaliger Poeticesl, iv. c. 17-^ Franc, vero Florid us' 
illud Hieronymo judicium tribnit, et ex eo censor Verdierins idem 
producit in Cennane Scriptormm p. 50. : ex eo enim dicit Hierony- 
mum deprefaendisse Virgil ii Maniuuniiatem, quod sceleratum fri- 
gui dixerit, eoque epitheto ssppius utatur, de qua Mantuanitate 
▼idendus Erythraeus in Indice FirgilioHO ▼. Sceleratmm limtn: in 
Quintiliano Fr. Philelphus Hispanitatem^ notavit, et objicilur idem 

I u 

'Ego veroidincertumesse judico,Dum*AsiniusPolIio jure, an secus, 
Patavinos loquendi modos Livio exprobraverit ? Potuit ille state sua 
scire, quidnam inter urlianam et Patavinam dictionein interesset: nobis 
vero id hodie nullo modo explorare licet : interea stolidum fuisse homi- 
nem facile largior, qui id vitio dederit florentissimo scriptori, quod omni 
fortassis vitio caruit, neque maledicentiorem Asinio, quum.vivertt, qnem- 
quam extitisse ignoro/* J. L. Moshemius. 

* « Verba loc. laudato p. 442. Ed. Heidelb. 1607-8. haec sunt, PoUio sOd 
iohu Bomane vel loqui, vel icribere vinu est, ad Livuis oUt Pataviniiaiem, 
Virgilius Maniuanitaiem, Ciceronis dictio parum sapU.'* J. L. Moshemius. 

3 ** Apologia in Accu Pl^uiti et aliorum Lingua Latina auctorum calumnia* 
foref libro culti&simo, qui Bast leae 1540, fol. prodiit: unde, vero Flori- 
dns hoc de Hieronymo hauserit, viderint alii. Ego non sine cura evolutis 
Hieronymo operibus, nihil ejus rei in iUis repcri." J. L. Moshemius. 

♦ "Erat enim Calaguri, oppido Hispaniae, natus: non vero uuiver^ 
Philelphus de Quintiliano Ep, ad Joh, TuscaneUam ita censuit, verura de 

Amtznitales Philosophica. S&7 

Sen^cse tragico,' de quo inepte adtnodum judicat Lipsius, recla« 
ifiante omnino Scaligero, qui et in Hypercritico suo et id Excerpti$ 
a fratribus Puteanis editis vehementer earn ob causam ilium repre- 
liftDdit, ut imperitum rei poetics judicem : ita Corduba9 nati poete 
jnngue quoddam et peregrinum sonuere Ciceroni : ^ quin et ipse 
Cicero aliquid e patria Arpino trahere sciolis nonnullis visus est: 
Nicolaus Heinsius iu Claudiano Alexandrinam aliquam faeundiam 
Jiotavit : de cetero nemo inter veteres adeo felix fuit, quin illi q use- 
dam fuerint ob jecia, ut prolixe recenset Leo Allatius in lAbro de 
Erroribus magnorum virorum in dicendo, Romae 1635. edito.'' 
D. G. Morhofii Liber de Jiiciione pura Latina, Hanoverae, 1725. 
p. 27* J. L. Mosbemius edidit et Notas adjecit. 


No. I. 

Containing Observations on, and Corrections of, Pas'^ 
sages in Hermes, Hermias, Jamblichus, and Proclus. 

N. B. The wordSy to which a star i» prefixed, are not found in the Gre^ 

Thesaaras of H. Stephens. 

01 ftffv yoip fuSuf T^v ^\n)xh^ at5ra rco<rai)[jieiTi too opyavtxco (Tuvoix/^owr 
criy, ia-vep ot ^rXsioroi tcov IlKareovixoov' oJ de (Ji^rrot^it rrjg tb aa-oofAarou 
^ifuxj^is, xa) T)i5*ayy8Xi»8ou; alSspiu, xoti owpavia, xa) TrvsvfMLTiKa 

^povgag evexev [Xeyoutri,] uwTjpfT«7y le auTjj xaiiireg oy^jxara, 
cvfji^fuirgeog 8* a! xa) frpog to (rregeov a-wfta (rvpi^Pipifyiv luka-oig Ti(r\ 

longioribuSy guae Quintiliano solent tribui, derlamationibus : Orationis, 
itiquit, ejus nlum mihi sane non placet, sapit enim Hispanitatem ne* 
scio quam, hoc est barbariem plane qtiandam : vid. Epistolare, ut vocatur, 
Fr. Philelphi I. iii. p. li. £d. Venet. 1491. in 4to/' J. L. Mosbemius. 
. ^ '^ Lipsii reprehensiii Senecae addita est Editionibus auctoris hujus, 
quas Lipsii Notat habent adjectas : cetemm fallitur hie vir summus, ex 
memoria scribens, Scali<;erum in Hypercritico, qui liber vi. est Poetices 
ejuSf Lipsium ob censuram banc notasse : laudat Scaliger Tehementer 
''oenec^i c. vi. p. m. 773,4. at Lipsii nulla ibi extat meittoria." * J. Ll 

f Orat. pro Archia c. x. p. m. 393. T. li. 0pp. 

388 Anuenitates 

icoifOif ovuSea'fMi^ aMgw wwawrwreu Jambl. t. Beownu ap. Stob* 
Eel. 1, 52. p. 926. Heeren. 

'' Ante oculos nempe hie habet Jambl. placitom, onmibiis 
teeentioribus Platonicis commnne, vane taunen ab lis ex-> 
oiDatnm, qno anunas, quae eorporibns ineloderentnr, in 
ipso deseensa, (qoem xaMof vocant, eni opponitor avo8o^, 
0. Reditas animanun ad loea sapera^) plares poniint ^bi 
assnmere corporam qoasi species, s. involucra, aere, igne^ 
Tel alia natara constantia, quse et iis vspi/Sx^juLotra et o^iifLarat 
Yoeantor, quibns amictse Ita sese demnm corpori insiBuent, 
qnod corpus mortale et terrestre divinam animae Datoram 
alitcr continere ac ferre neqneat. Supra jam explicaTit 
banc sententiam Hermes p. 776. c. 51. fr. 3. cf. et Proel. ad 
Tim. 311. 820. Holsten. de V. Porphyr. 66." Heercn. 

The passage of Jamblichus is thus translated in Heeo^'s 
Edition: — ''Alii enim statim animam oiganico corpori 
conjungont, nt pleriqne Platonici : alii inter animam incor- 
poream et corpus aethcnreos etccelestes amietns^ mentis yitam 
cirenmdantes, tum ipsi anteponi praesidii causa censent, 
tum ut vehicula subservire, tum etiam cum solido corpore 
Tinculis qoibusdam commnnibus apte eonnectere." 

Mr. Taylor in Class. Joum. 34, 455. has presented 
us with the following English translation : — 

" Some immediately conjoin the soul to the organic body» 
as most of flie Platonists. But others say tl^t between 
the incorporeal soul and the testaceoushoAj, ethereal, cele»> 
tial, and pneumatic garments circularly invest the intellec- 
tual life, and surround it as a guard. They add, that Aese 
vestments are subservient to the incorporeal soul as 
vehicles ; and that they are commensurately adapted to the 
solid body, conjoining this soul to it, by certain middle 
common bonds." 

Mr. Taylor subjoins this explanation : — 

" The term ocrTgecoSii^ is very frequently used by Platonic 
writers to denote the human body^ and was origin a H y de^ 
rived by them from the Phaedruso'fPlato (p. 2503c27. Ast.)» 
where, speaking of the felicity of the soul in a former 
life, when she was united to divinity, he says that ' she was 
then liberated from this external body, to which we aro 
now bound like an oyster to its shell:' Ka) ao-ij/xorrot rovrotf, 
8 vw 5ij a-aoiJM xepi^epovTs^ ovo/ta^Oft*y, o<rTggou 'rpovov S€$€o-/x5tif&lyof . 
^y the immortal soul, therefore, in this passage^ Porphyry 
^JwibL] means ' the raticmal and inteUectaal part of ooif 

Philo$ophic€e. 389 

soul;' and this, according to the best of the Platonists, is 
udited to the testaceous body by two media^ an ethereal and 
a pneumatic vehicle, in the former of which the rationat" 
soul eternally resides, and in the latter she suffers the pu- 
nishment of her guilt." 

But, though no Platonic philosopher, and but very 
scantily acquainted with the writings of the Platonists, I 
must as a philologist beg leave to question the accuracy of 
these versions on two solid grounds, 1. that the words 
themselves will not bear the interpretation, 2. that the in- 
terpretation does not suit the sense of them. By the words, 
riis T9 ao'coii.iTov ^^fu^vig xa) r^; oiyyeXt(S)hu$f we cannot unoer- 
stand the soul without bodj^ and the body without soud, because 
in that case they should have run thus, t^j re a. ^. xa) tow 
i. o-ctf/tarof : nor does Jambl. by the word, rvig ayy^Kii^vgf 
mean the outward body at all. For, having said ^' that some 
immediately conjoin the soul to the organic body itself, as 
the greater part of the Platonists," he adds, " that others 
hold that between the soul without body and the soul in 
body certain ethereal, celestial, and pneumatic garments 
incircle the intellectual life," /terof u t^^ t^ aa-»[iMTov ^vxns 
xol) tyis otYyeKKJihus [^^u%^^.] The Philosopher is explaining 
the connexion, which, according to some of the Platonists, 
exists between the incorporeal and the human soul ; but 
neither he, nor any other Philosopher, would venture to 
speak of the connexion by garments between the incor- 
poreal soul and the human body.' On the contrary he ex- 
pressly says that these garments, which connect the divine 
and the human soul, are attached, by certain middle com- 
mon bonds, to the human body, frpo$ to errspeoy <r6of4M 

Pletho in Orac. 135. (in Maittairii Misc. 6r. aliquot 
Scriptt. Carm.) 01 ireplre Uviayopav xol) Uharma vo^oi^v ^pvp^^v 
oviraimi riva X^f^^^^ owrlav icoLVTog trmf/kotTOS vofiiZouinv, ov /xgy 
8i;.ou5* ai -jrawij a;^«pi(rTov — roioOrdv ouv elto$ owrotv r^y ^If^x^v 
<r«0jxaTi oei cuveivon al$ipl(o Ofov oxr^iMtTi laur^;, *<jvyxvaAoLvetri(ro\}U'ot,jf 
xaX otxnh r^ vpoorex^l eVa^j], etvM 8' ouSe to toioutov aurvis oy^iuat. 
a[\pu^oy xaff awTO, aXX' 6\|/u;^coo-fl«i xai auTO, rap hepop Te, xou ^^u;^^f 

^ Proclus, in his 'Apopfutiy most sublimely says ** that soul is in intel- 
lect and in Grod everywhere, in body nowhere; but body is in soul, and 
in God f' Kcu ^v^ h>v^r^ ical 9e^ icwraxov, Ktd oh^aujcv iv <r»fuiri' (rufta 5^ koL 

VOL. XXII. a. Jl. NO. XLIV. 2 C 

390 Amocnitales 

Stkoyifi cilfiyS tvj inj^^s Xoyix% ttiwkov ol o'ofo} xaXawt, fanoffidr* 
i^ MKC9fjaf^fji,hoV'Xa) oio-tfi^o-fi, x. r. X. 

Hermes ap. Stob. Eel. 1, 51. p. 774. T. nA§ ro&ro Kiytigy^ 

(Tou slirdvre; i¥^vfi.a ilvai roO ju.ey voD rijv ^^tf;^i^J T$$ 9t ^t^ij( to 
WffSfta; y4. Svvvoiiv $ii, cS rticvoy^ rivaxouovra r» Xfyovri^ xac 
tf^/iirvfiy, xal o^urigav ^c'v Ti)y axoi)y^ rii$ rou Xcyovro; ^oovi}^; 
*if frMwt^ Tfloy fvSu/xareey ty 9^&iiMri yriivco yiyvirou' S£ivaTO¥ yap 
f^y yo9y cy yi}/y(^ (rdifiari a^^y xotf avrhv IS^^ai. Ourff y«^p rb 
yijVvoy iToofiM Bufar^v io'ri rjy TifXixaiSTi^y iAayetxrloLV enyxelv ovri 
jijv rwrourmv opsr^y ayao'^fo'taiy (ruy;^p«ori!ofcsyov avrjj. l7fltdi)Toy 
oSy o'flujuia ikafitv oMnre^ ir«pi|3oXaiov r^y ^^ti^i^y' 4 Se ^^^OC^' ^^^ ^^^ 
ri; 6tta oitra, xoiAaif*^ uinj^trou roJ iryft/jctari XF^^^y ^^ ^^ iryev/tAa to 
C»oy Si^xffi. 

In this passage for xaiinB^ vm^kwy the sense requires 
vmiperi}. '' Ouy addidi> ut nexas sermonis constaret. 
Pasum tan) en abest, qain miitata interpunctione malinij 
auTjj, 'jca^h oy. XS>i»m ouy ixxfinf" HeereB. It is remark- 
able that Heeren should translate the words^ as if he 
had read 6 you; for cr&fia, '' Assomsit ergo mens animam 
velut amictum •^' and this reading certainly suits the sense 
better. For Hermes had underts^en to prove that the soul 
is the garment of intellect^ and the spirit the garment of the 
soul) and) as he asserts that 4 cvvie^'ts rcoy Muiuirmv h erwfMPri 
yvitvw yiyvnai, it is scarcely credible that he should^ five 
lines afterwards^ say^ that the body receives the soul as a gar» 
merit. The absence of the article too> before ^»fi>et, plainly 
proves some corruption ; for^ if that be the meaning of the 
wordS) the article is just as necessary before coofA^y as 
before ^v^;^, iFvet^fM^, vwg. The passage may perhaps have 
stood thus : Ourt yoi^ rh yiiivov <rwpM luvotrov e<m r^y rt^KiHotikvfV 
aiavoKrtav htyxm' ours rijy ro<ratfTi)y oprr^y Mtcurvhriaiy rvyp^pwr^ 
^o/tfyoy auTJ;, [to] madivfrw (F&fML, ^O yov; ovy] IXotjSey &(rirBf 
%8p^XMH>v rrjv ^xi¥, 

Biit) to return to the passage of Jlunblicbus^ having en- 
deavoured to settle the question about the right interpre- 
tation of it) let us next endeavour to remove a corruption 

from the text : 01 Se fji^rra^ • t^; ts oKTOifJMrQtf ^^n/xyif xa) rijs 
ayysKKJti^oug atiefiUf xa) oupavM, xet) TTvevfJMTixoi iregifikvjfAara, 
vi^iafJi^TrixpyToi r^v yospcey ^coijy) vpo/3e/3x^o'$ai /xsy oiur^; ^goupa; 
hexw [XeyocMTiy.] 

A very little reflection will satisfy the reader that ayyfX»- 
^oui is a vox rdhili, quite as foreign to the Greek language, 
as it IS to the passage of Jamblichus. 'JyyfXuoSn^ can ooJy 

Philosdphica. 391 

be derived from ayyexfa, Nufitium, and iJ^og: If it were 
derived from ayyeXoj, Angeius, an Angela it would be written 
tfyytXoei^^f^ and in the contracted form, uyysxi^g. 

My sole object being the investigation of truths God 
forbid that I should intentionally suppress any things which 
militates against my own opinions, or should not give due 
weight to every objection, which can be urged against them» 
from whatever quarter the objections may come. T should 
infinitely prefer the solid reputation, which may in the 
course of time be acquired by this honorable conduct, to 
the unstable, but more rapid fame of him, who by the aids 
of misapplied learning and perverted ingenaity has con- 
tended for victory, and not for truth. 

The fact, then, is that something may be said in vindica- 
tion of the word ayysXicwSij^ as applied to the Angels. For 
I find in AgathidB Epigr. 38. "-^o-xottov,* ityyeXlapyov, ii<rd)fji,atQf 
elSfV flop frig: see the New Gr. Thes. p. 357. a. c. I also find 
^ ityyeXifiTYis in Jo. Geometrae Hymno 2, 19. 3, 37.; 4, 25. 

Xaig^afTFOTegvofievvi^iftJ^ipirotyoiSa'YyiXiriTag, GaudeqUdeGeniOS 

animarum disjicis hostes : see the New Gr, Thes. p. 356. 
But these are poetic licences, and the licences taken by 
very modern Greek poets, which cannot be extended to 
Jamblichus, a writer of plain prose. 

It is true that we find in the Platonic Scholia a mention 
of Angelic Souls. Hermias ad Plat. Phaedr. 113. iloXu 8> 

vgdrepov xot) avro) oi deo), xet) Troio'eu ai ision ^u^a), ayye\mai re 
xa) Boupi^oviai xa) vipmxoti : 127. 'EoLv ftXv xara ro ielov sl^o^, dslotf 
KotToi a ri ityyeXtxiVf ayysXixoi xet) olvtoI' lav he xoLTot, to $aijctov»oy 
ildo$ ryi$ l^ooYis i(rToovToiif (Cod. la^TYiTUif) haifMvioi xa) uvto) ylvovrar 
lav hi xaToiri rigfipov, tjqcpixoiy xa) opt^oiwg It) wavranv. Jambl. ap. 
Stob. Eel. 1, 52. p. 1064. Usg) rra evixap%lag rm "^wwvy %tt 
xofji^iH^oVTM slaoLrjiig^ hyrnhotv e^ikicoo't rod (rwi^urog, elg ayyeXovs re 
xui kyynXixoL^ ^<^X^^9 to ?Xoy ^oSouo-iv o\ frgea-fivrspoi : 1068. 
*A'jro}^tjiela'ai hs t^j yeveo'ecoj, xarei /xjv rou$ fraXeuovg, * trvih- 
Sioixovtri rolg Qeols rot oKa* xarci he rovg U Kar covixovg Ti}goDo*iir 
uvray rigv ra^iv, xoti afyyi^^S p^v ci<ra6Tcos xar exelvovs pi^ef 
<ru»Sijfwoupyoil<riv rd o\ct' xotroL he tovtovs * o-viAfFepiiFoXown. Seo 
also what I have said in Classical Journal, t. Tii. p. 161, and 
the New Greek Thesaurus p. 357. But, in the passage under 
consideration, the mention of angels is quite extraneous 
to the subject, which relates to the connexion between the 
divine soul and the human soul, the soul without body and 
the soul in body. 

It is not very difficult to account for the introduction 
of a word relating to the Angels, if we suppose the 

392 Am(Bnitates 

transcriber of the Ms. to have been a pious Monk, who, 
being better acquainted with the history of Angels, than 
with the philosophy of Plato, might naturally imagine 
that the word, which he found scarcely legible in his copy, 
because it was written in a contracted form, must have 
some relation to the Angels, as the mention of the incor- 
poreal soul immediately preceded. 

The learned Professor Passow is content with the word 
iyyeXffloSi}^, to which he attributes a Neo-Platonic sense of 
some kind or other, and it will be soon enough for me to 
adopt it, when he is able to explain it, and to defend the 
structure of the word itself: — "'^yytXjaSijj, ab Jambl. ap. 
Stob. £cl. 1, 52, 39. p. 926. auimse incorporese opponitur, 
Tocabulum nobis non satis clarum ; ex adytis, ut videtur, 
sapientise Neo-Platonicse repetitum." Passow. Symb. ad 
Schneider. Lex., in Beckii Actis Semin. Reg. et Societ. 
Philol. Lips. 1, 92. 

TThe Editors of the 'New Greek Thesaurus, p. 357. a. have 
cited Passow's words without any remark. Thinking that 
Mr. Taylor, who had spent neariy forty laborious years in 
the study of the philosophy of Aristotle and of Plato, was 
the properest person to decide a philosophical question of 
this nature, I applied to him for a solution of the difiScuIty, 
and he promptly obeyed the call by inserting the article, 
which appeared in the 34th No. of the Class. Journ., from 
which I have above made an extract, and in which he pro* 
poses to substitute the tcirm oa-Tfewiovc, 

This conjecture was not deemed satisfactory either by 
Professor Boissonade, or by myself: — 

" Nuperrime in Ephem. Class. 34, 455. vir l7XaT«v«xar«- 
Tog pro ayyiXiooBovs proposuit scr. otTTpedhvg, optime quidem 
ad sensum, et e lingua philosophica petitum, cf. quas notavi 
ad Marin. 67.; sed remotum nimis a voce suspecta. 
Equidem legerim eiYyeioo^ous. Judicet ipse V. D. num bene 
conjecerim." Boissonad.adPseudo-Herodian. Pstrtitt. 212. 
"Restitutio vocis ayyeMovg pro ay/BXida^ovg venit in mentem 
et Barkero, viro doctissimo et amicissimo. De qua lectione 
non erit quod dubitet lector criticus, si meminerit meta- 
plflorae vocis ayyeiovy in sensu Corporis : vide omnino 
Novam Thes. Steph. Edit, sub 'Ayyeiov, p. 436.'' Idem in 
Addendis, p. 298. 

But let us hear what Mr* Taylor has to offer in defence 
pf bis conjecture : — 

'' Palaeographists, as you say, may not perhaps approve 
of my substituting 6(rTps<iiovs for ayyeXi^v;* I can only 

Philosophicce. 393 

say, however, in defence of the adoption of this word, that 
it is no unusual thing in Platonic writings to fin^ similar 
mtetakes, in which there is an absolute necessity* of substi- 
tuting for one word another, that is not in any respect like 
it. In proof of this, take the following instances from the 
Commentaries of Proclus on the Tima^us. 

*^ P. 92. To Ss jxijSs svpovTOL dvvaroi ^uvoltov efvou Xiysiv. Here 

for Suvara it is necessary to read eU ivavrag. For the com- 
ment of Proclus in this place is on the following words of 
Plato : Tov j*6v ouv, wonjT^v xa) trocriqa, ToOSg tou wotVTosy evgeiv re 
ipyoVy xcti evpovra b\$ atravrag a^uvurov Aeyeiv, 

*' P. 102. Kot) Th vospov, *evoei^wg jxgy rot, aicrflijTa, ^evrigoig Ss 

pj^ffi Ta aWiriTa. In which passage the second aWiriToi should 
be vorjTa, For that, which is intellectual, comprehends in it- 
self sensibles, conformably to the nature of rAeor^e, because 
it is the cause of them; but it possesses intelligibles secou' 
darily, because the intelligible is prior to the intellectual. 

" P. 107. Toy Is 8^ xiyav yjfMv Ifef ^j irepouvs. These are the 
words of Plato himself, and koyov ought to be vojxov, as is 
evident from the comment of Proclus, who says: *0 51 

vofiog elXyjfrrai onto roov Kiiapoo^ixcov vopi^oov. 

" P. 122. Tot yoip ia-^oiTdi SsTrai raov a-aofioLTODV, where for 
(Toof/^uToov it is requisite to read deurepm. 

** P. 127. To 8e TTsgiKriyniKMTe^v, t% irqwTf\g «p%^j iyyirepov* to 
8« aXXoy 8X61 VI} J gi$ aWioig \oyov xvpioorepov. Here for aWov it is 

necessary to read eyyvrepov, and then what Proclus says, 
will be intelligible and most true, viz. * that the nature, which 
is more comprehensive, is nearer to the first princi- 
ple ; and that, which is nearer to the first, is of a more 
causal nature.' This, indeed, is demonstrated by Proclus 
in his Theological Elements. 

** In the same page also we read : Kara 7ri<roi$ yap rag tou 
voS Ta^eis, vpouijiv ^ toO yoO ^juc*^. But for the second voD we 
should read ^iorj. 

*' P. 141. */2j yoip )} toO i/^Xiov (rfalpu tijj tv avr^ 4^^^$ S^^S ^(FTlVf 
ovToo 8^ Ku) rrig ^f^^S o\J/'? ^o^t) to fleioy sxelvo ^wg. In which 
passage for the second ^v^ns it is requisite to read or^alpag. 

" Many other instances might be adduced from the same 
work, in which I have made upwards of a thousand neces^ 
sary emendations ; but the above will prove the truth of 
my position." 

Mr. Taylor to E. H. B. June 29, 1818. 

^ I shall be much gratified by the perusal of M. Bois- 

394 Anuenitaies 

•onade's Woik, and shall be rarpriaed, if he can find ano- 
ther word instead of oarpeoSous in the passage from Stobaeus^ 
which will give the genuine sense of the passage. For I 
need not remind yoa that a sense is one thing, and the sense 

Mr. Taylor to E. H. B. Aug. 24, 1818. 


. " I have seen what Professor Boissonade has said, in 
his Notes on Pseudo^Herodiani Epimerismi, concerning my 
substituting o<rrf eodSoo^ for ayYsXia^ug. I have written : a Let- 
ter in answer, which has been forwarded to the Profes-* 
sor. As you conjecture, therefore, that the true reading 
is ocyyeicoSouf, as well as M. Boissonade, I shall observe to 
you, as I have done to him, that the conjecture is very 
ingenious, and that it would be no less appropriate than 
ingenious, if there was good authority for the use of it, 
' as indicative of the last vestment or vehicle of the soul. 
But I do not recollect meeting with it in any Platonic 
writer. The word ayyeiov occurs in the Zoroastrian 
Oracles ; but it is not there used to signify the body, but, 
according to Psellus, means to a-wBerov xpdfM. rris ^u^^iS' I 
was, however, much gratified by the honorable mention 
made of me by the Professor." 

Mr. Taylor to E. H. B. Sept. 26, 1818. 

'^ If I am not mistaken, I said in my last Letter to you 
that there was no authority for ayy^til^vi^ being used by 
Flatonic writers to signify the body : and I still say the 
same. For the authorities you have adduced in ; the 
Thesaurtis are not Platonic, Pletho ^ excepted, and he was 
a modem Greek, and, as I have shewn in my Dissertation 
on the Philosophy of Aristotle, was far from being deeply 

^ Pletho is not quoted in the Tket,, but his words were communicated 
to Mr. Taylor in a Letter : — 

'Sanfyhp hr^yuw d^^j x^orbt ouefyrowrur rh -rij* oris iyyetbv i^v)fity rh Bytirhr 
9^ r^6 ffwfuif €hKcti Kol icyi^SaXa oiiefiaovffty. 

In addition to the authorities already produced, take the following 
from Hermes ap. Stob. Eel. 1, 52. p. 1084. T^'^ ahf?Jy^ ro^y, diro?, mil rg 
(kiw r&v wpceyfuinnf i^aXXa/yp^ ica) M yris iariv * * ^ ^^<^» irAiUrrcipa yip 
o^a, KoI aricnvoToihs, iYf^iots wr$dKXoyrai al 4^^« ** Sunt ieyyM Corpordj 
quibus animae veluti vasis inchiduntgr." Ileeren. 

*' Magnam s. putius nimiam fuisse ap. Nostrum Hermetis Trismegistl, 
ut vocatur^auctoritatemy ioca amplissima, ex scriptis ipsi tributis in Eclo- 
gis maxima pbysiciSy (nam in Ethicis semeltantuin^in Fiorilegio nunquam 

Philasophica. 395 

skilled in the Piulosophy of Plato. He had^ indeed, but 
. a very superficial knowledge of either ; Psellus, from liv- 
ing some centuries prior to him, from having paid more 
attention to the doctrines of Plato, and from having 
had books to consult, which were lost in the time of 
Pletho, was more knowing in that philosophy. He was, 
therefore, right in saying that ayyiiov, in the Zoroastrian 
Oracle, meant to cvvierov xpAfiM t^^ ^^ux?^ ^^^ ^® ^^^^ i* 
a mixture, as is shown in the Timaeus of Plato^ from an 
impartible essence, (i.e. from intellect^) and a natare di- 
visible about bodies (i. e. corporeal life.) This mi- 
xture likewise is represented|by Plato, in the same Dialogue, 
as being made in the crater, by which is meant ' the foun- 
tain of souls,' or * Juno.' Hence the soul is a co