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No delay ought to occur in the delivery of' this Journal in the 
countryy as every Number is regularly published on the First of 
April, July, October, and January : should any difficidty, however, 
he experienced in the due arrival of the Numbers^ a Letter directed 
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The former Numbers may still be had of all the Booksellers, 
Price 6s. each. 

Articles are requested to be sent one month at least before the day 
of puhUcatioiif directed to Mr. A, J. Valpyy [jpost paid."} 



v-^ ONJECTURES on tlie Chronology of ttie Travels of St. 
Paul. Founded on the opinion of the Bishop of St. 

David's, that Felix was recalled in the year 56. 1 

Hebrew Criticism, « • • 7 

Notice of Aug. Matthiae's Observationes criticze in Tragicos, 

Ilomerum, Apolloniuni, Pindarum, et Theocritum, •••• 11 

On the Use of civ or xe with an Optative Mood, •••• 21 

On the Book of Jasher, and other subjects of Hebrew Lite- 
rature, • • • 23 

On the Latin Poetry of Professors Barrow and Duport, •• 2J> 

In Carmina Epodica Euripidea Cornmentarius, • • • 34 

Concio ad Clerum, habita Cantabrijia; in Templo Beatae 
Mariie, XI Cal. Apr. MDCCLXVIIL pro gradu Doc- 
toratus in Sacra Theologia. Auctore Roberto Sumner, 

Col. Regal, olim Socio, • • • • 43 

D. Nestor Novarenus ; Momi Miscellanea subseciva ; et 

Adversaria Literaria, 54 

On the Words e^ttij, oAtt*?, oAtti^, sXtioc, sAfo?, and celt is, 
with Occasional Remarks on the Observations of Mr. G. 

BuRGEs, and Mr. C.J. Blom field, 58 

Distinctive mark over the Indeclinable Particles of the Latin 
Language. Error in Gilbert Wakkfield and Sir 

William Jones, 64 

On the Greek Inscription on the i^osgf'/'rt Stone, 66 

Cambridge Greek, Latin, and English Prize Poems for 1814. 80 
Bishop Pearson's Minor Tracts chronologically arranged, 95 

Euripides corrected, 99 

NO. XIX. a. Jl. VOL, X. a 

1 1 8 :i 



Manuscript of iEsch}Ius, compared with Pauw's Edition^ •• 100 

Juvenal vindicated, 107 

Oraiio Norvicensis, 1 08 

Nott^s on ^^sch}*lus, by Professor Person, never before 

printed, 114 

Index to the Three Volumes of Brunck's Analecta, 115 

Derivation of English Words and Phrases from the Spanish 

and Italian, • » « • • • • 118 

Classical Connexions, No. ii HQ 

On the inceptive power of S, 122 

Notice sur la Vie et les Ecrits de M. Larcher, 130 

Notitia Codicis Manuscripti Sallustii et Eutropii, 144 

J. Ad. Nodell Epist. critica ad C. G. Heyne, •••• • 156 

Cambridge Prize Poem, Greek, 164 

Adversaria Literaria, No. 1 1 1 l65 

Notice of Grant's English Grammar, • • 1 74 

Poecilographia Grseca, No. 1 1 1 . • • 1 76 

Momi Miscellanea subseciva, No. 1 1. • • ib. 

A short account of the Anatomy and Physiology of the 

Brain, of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim, 180 

Oratio habila in Theatro Slieldoniano Oxonian, die 15 Junii 

A. D. 1814. A Gulielmo Crowe, LL. B. publico Univ. 

oratore 183 

Literary Intelligence, 1 84 

French Literature, * 1 89 

Notes to Correspondents, *iy 1 

Materials fur (he Improvement of the new Edition of 

Stephens' Greek Thesaurus, J93 

*** The three plates to come opposite p. 176, 



SEPTEMBER, 18 ]4. 




Founded on the opinion of the Bishop of St. Da FiD*Si that 
Felix was 7-ecalled in the year 56. 

1 HE opinion that St. Paul preached in Great Britain is grounded 
on the probability that Felix, the brother of Pallas, was recalled 
by Nero soon after his accession to the empire. Whoever pe- 
ruses the account given by Tacitus of the first years of this em- 
peror, cannot doubt, that, as soon as he suspected Agrippina of 
aiming at his subversion, he would take the best measures for self- 
preservation. Now it is clear, that, before the end of the 2nd 
year of his reign, suspicions of a very serious nature had arisen. 
These were certainly not without foundation. Therefore he re- 
moved from all places of trust and power his mother's friends. 
Felix was then governor of Judaea, and that with a powerful army; 
not only because such an army was necessary for the control of a 
province so turbulent, but, favored by Claudius, he was appointed 
with unusual powers, as the words of Suetonius seem to hint, 
Nero hesitated not at the murder of Britannicus : he could not 
scruple to remove the brother of Pallas, the peculiar favorite of 
Agrippina, from a place of such importance ; an act of common 
prudence, which the most moderate governor would have done. 
That Felix was removed under circumstances of disgrace, and 
that his last efforts were to conciliate the Jews, the observation of 
NO. XIX. C/. Jl. VOL. X. A 

2 Cofijectures on the Chronology 

St. Luke proves. To please the Jews he left Paul, whom he 
deemed innocent, in close confinement. That, therefore, Felix 
was recalled about the end of the second year of Nero, none can 
doubt, unless we doubt that he was a tyrant. The greatest lati- 
tude which can be given, is, that this event did not take place until 
the next year ; but this supposition will not materially alter the 
following calculations. Let it then be assumed that this event 
took place in Nero's second year, A. D. 5Q. Then St. Paul was 
seized at Jerusalem in the summer of 54, and his journies, with 
the dates of his epistles, must be regulated according to that epoch. 
There is indeed another date which may be ascertained with some 
degree of accuracy, the famine that prevailed in the time of Clau- 
dius. This is said to have happened in the year 42 by some chro- 
nologists, by others in 44 ; both probably are right ; since it ap- 
pears from Suetonius to have been of some continuance : «* Pro- 
visions being scarce on account of the continued sterility of the 
earth," ob assiduas sterilitates. Suet, in Vit. Claud. Chap. 18. 
This scarcity, therefore, being foretold, and coming on gradually, 
contributions would be sent to Jerusalem before the poor Chris- 
tians there were severely affected by it. Hence we may conclude 
that they were carried to Jerusalem before the winter of 42. We 
have now two dates, 42 and 54. Between these took place the 
council at Jerusalem ; the time of which may be ascertained from 
St. Paul's account of his travels in the epistle to the Galatians, 
where he says, that three years after his conversion he went to 
Jerusalem for 15 days, and saw Peter and James. <' Then again 
after 14 years, I went to Jerusalem," to the council, as ap- 
pears from what follows. Now here arises the question, whether 
these three years are part of the 14, or to be added to them. St. 
Paul's conversion could not have taken place before A. D. 34. 
From thence to 54, are 20 years, take 17 away, i. e. 14 -j- 3, and 
there are left only 3 years between the council and the arrest of 
St. Paul. But St. Luke's account of his travels during that interval 
renders this computation impossible. For in that period he is re- 
corded to have travelled over Macedonia, Epirus, Illyricum, and 
Greece, staying 18 months at Corinth, and 2 years at Ephesus. 
Therefore the 3 years must be contained in the 14, which leaves 
6 years for the travels of St. Paul after the council, and it must 
have been held in 48. From these dates the travels of the apostle 
may be arranged with some degree of probability. The chief dif- 
ficulty lies in accounting for what Luke has omitted, his visit . to 
Crete, and his acquaintance with Titus. The name of this early 
bishop is never given by St. Luke. But we learn from St. Paul's 
epistles, that he went with the apostle to Jerusalem, when he car- 
ried thither the contributions in 42, and from the epistle to himself, 
that the apostle left him in Crete. We find too from the last chapter 

of the Tramls of St. Paul $ 

of that epistle, that Apollos was then in Crete, or very shortly ex- 
pected there ; and that the apostle intended to winter at Nicopolis. 
Now Apollos was not known to the church until after St Paul's 
visit to Jerusalem, subsequent to the council in 48, as appears from 
Acts 18th and 19th. Hence this epistle must have been written 
after the riot at Ephesus. As St. Paul went thence into Mace- 
donia, and there met Titus returning from Corinth, see ii. Cor. ch. 
7th, it follows that this epistle could not have been written during 
that excursion, and consequently not before St. Paul's first impri- 
sonment, as he could not have gone to Crete and returned into 
Greece during that interval. Nicopolis was a name common to 
many cities. There were three in the circle of St. Paul's travels, 
one in Bithynia, one in Cilicia ad Issum, and the other in Epirus, 
opposite Actium, and built in memory of the victory off that place, 
and is thus noticed by Tacitus, lib. 5, ad finem. "Poppseus Sabinus 
. . . .dein Corinthense littus angustiasque Isthmi evadit, marique alio 
Nicopolim Romanam Coloniam ingressus ibi demum cognoscit. . . . 
nempe Pseudo-Drusum." Titus being in Crete, he could visit Ni- 
copolis ad Issum, or Nicopolis Epirus with equal ease. It appears 
from the 2nd epistle to Timothy, which is allowed to have been 
written by St. Paul during his second imprisonment, that he was 
attended to Rome by Demas Crescens, Titus, Luke, and Tychicus, 
see ch. iv. 10, 11, and 12, and that Tychicus was- with St. Paul 
when he wrote to Titus, whom he was to send for the purpose of 
fetching Titus. Hence at Nicopolis, Tychicus, Titus and the 
apostle would meet together. There is, therefore, a certain degree 
of probability that they continued with him until his arrival at 
Rome, whence Titus returned to Dalmatia, and from thence, per- 
haps, went southward to Crete. 

This will render it probable that St. Paul's visit to Crete was a 
little while previous to his last imprisonment. With respect to 
Apollos, it is probable that he was an Egyptian, since he could 
scarcely have been an inhabitant of Alexandria in the Sinus Issicus, 
which lies between Tarsus and Antioch, without being more com- 
pletely acquainted with Christianity thjn he was. The Jews of 
Alexandria in ^gypt were all Hellenists, as is well known, and 
such Apollos seems to have been. Again it may be observed, 
that, when the epistle to the Romans was written, Aquila and 
Priscilla had returned to that city, see ver. 3, ch. xvi. Hence as 
they were banished by Claudius, their return must have been 
about the time of his death, and therefore this epistle written later 
than commentators usually imagine ; most probably during St. 
Paul's last journey to Jerusalem. For it by no means follows that 
it was written at Corinth, because carried to Rome by an inhabitant 
of Cenchrea. Phoebe might have sailed from Asia Minor : the 
same, or similar busniess, calling her thither as to Rome. The 

4 Conjectures on the Chronology 

place, therefore, where it was written is uncertain. But the fact 
of Aquila ami Priscilla being then at Rome marks the time pretty 
accurately ; it may be added that St. Paul would scarcely have 
promised very long before-hand to come to Rome, without so 
doing. This will appear more probable from a comparison of his 
travels with their dates. And as he certainly visited Jerusalem 
five limes after his conversion, as he set out from thence, and there 
ended his travels, we will make the intervals of these visits the 
different epochs of his life. This hypothesis and mode of arrange- 
ment will be found, it is hoped, as free from difficulty as any yet 

First interval, from A. D. 34 to 37. 

St. Paul leaves Jerusalem for Damascus, converted on the road 
■ — Arabia— Damascus, escapes in a basket^ Jerusalem, stays there 
15 days, and sees Peter and James. This account we have from 
the epistle to the Galatians, and it requires no corroboration. 

Second interval, from A. D. 37 to 42. 

Jerusalem— Csesarea — Tarsus, and other parts of Syria — Cilicia 
— Jerusalem, in the time of the famine. See Acts ix, and the 
epistle to the Galatians. 

We have no further materials to fill up these five years. Nor 
is it necessary to suppose that St. Paul did not leave Asia Minor 
during the above period ; on the contrary, as Titus, a native of 
Crete, accompanied St. Paul to Jerusalem with the contributions, 
it is at least probable, that St. Paul visited Crete for the first time 
about this period. 

Third interval, from A. D. 42 to 48. 

Jerusalem— Syria — Seleucia — sails to Cyprus — returns to Pam- 
phylia — Lycaonia— stays a long time at Iconium — Attalia — An- 
tioch — Jerusalem, to the council. 

The time the apostle remained at Jerusalem and its neighbour- 
hood is unknown, but six years will not be deemed too much for 
the conversion of these provinces of Asia Minor, together with the 
island of Cyprus. Nor do we here deny the probability of other 
excursions, not recorded in the scriptures. 

Fourth interval, from A. D. 48 to 50, 

Jerusalem — Syria — Cilicia — Lycaonia— Galatia—Mysia—TroaSj 
leaves Asia for Europe — Samothracia — Macedonia, one week. 
Acts xvi. — Thessalonica, three weeks. Acts xvii. — Beroea, a short 
time — Athens, a short time — Corinth, 18 months — sails to Ephe- 
sus, leaves Aquila and Priscilla there — Csesarea — Jerusalem, to 
keep the passover. See Acts xviii, ver. 22. 

of the Travels of St. Paul. S 

Soon after St. Paul left Ephesus, Apollos came there. So that 
his conversion may be dated A. D. 50. 

Fifth uiterval, from A. D. 50 to 54<. 

Jerusalem — .Antioch— Phrygia — Galatia — Ephesus, near two 
years, driven out by Demetrius about Pentecost, I. Cor. xvi. ver. 8. 
52. Macedonia — Greece — Macedonia — Philippi, in April j see Acts 
XX. ver. 6. — Sails to Troas, 7 days— Assos— Mitylene — Samos — 
Miletus, where the Ephesian clergy meet him— Coos — Rhodes — 
Patara — Tyre, 7 days — Ptolemais — Caesarea— Jerusalem by the 
day of Pentecost. 

He was therefore six weeks in coasting from Phllippi to Cae- 

Our next attempt must be to try whether this arrangement 
will coincide with the probable time of writing the epistles. 
These then will be found to admit of the following dates. It 
appears that the first epistle to the Thessalonians was written 
from Corinth, see chap. iii. vv. 1 to 6. This point is generally 
agreed, and therefore, from the above date of the apostle's travels, 
this must have been in A. D. 49. The second epistle was written 
some time after the first, and from the same place, we may there- 
fore place it in 50. The first to Timothy was also written from 
Corinth, and must of course be dated during St. Paul's long visit 
to that city, 49. The epistle to the Galatians is usually placed 
first, which seems erroneous, on the following account. It was 
evidently written after the council, because that is referred to, 
therefore it must have been written after St. Paul visited them re- 
turning from the council, the decrees of which were delivered to 
them, but these they soon disregarded. " I marvel that ye are so 
soon removed &c." Allowing, therefore, a reasonable time for 
this perversion, and for its coming to the knowledge of the apos- 
tle, we cannot place this epistle earlier than the end of 50. It 
does not appear from what city, but if the above d&te be accurate, 
St. Paul was then at Corinth. The first to the Corinthians was 
certainly written from Ephesus, as we learn from chap, xvi, and 
therefore it must have been during the apostle's long abode there 
from 50 to 52 ; say then 5 1 . The second epistle was written 
some time after the first, in consequence of the report made by 
Titus of the effects which the first had on the Corinthians, see 
chap. ii. It is likely, therefore, to have been written from Mace- 
donia, about the year 53. From what has already been said con- 
cerning the epistle to the Romans, its date must be fixed in the 
year 54, somewhat previous to the arrival of the apostle at Jeru- 
salem. The epistles to the Ephesians, Philippians, and Colossians, 
were written from Rome during St. Paul's imprisonment, perhaps 
about A. D. 37 ; that to Philemon, being evidently the last, and 

6 Conjectures on the Chronology <§t. 

on the point of liberation, may be dated 58. Of the other epistles 
to Timothy and Titus, it is clear from the first chapter of the 1st 
to Timothy, compared with Acts, chap. xx. ver. 4, that the first 
was written from Corinth, and therefore about A. D. 49, as al- 
ready observed. The 2nd epistle to Timothy was undoubtedly 
written during the apostle's last imprisonment, and therefore in 
the year 68. And as it would seem from what has been already 
noticed, that the epistle to Titus was written some time previous 
to this imprisonment, and that Titus accompanied St. Paul to 
Rome on that occasion, we may place it in A. D. 67. Now the 
learned Bishop of St. David's has satisfactorily shown that the 
apostle visited Britain. But from the epistle to Philemon it would 
appear, that it was not immediately after his first imprisonment. 
It is indeed most probable, that after his liberation, the apostle 
would visit the churches which he had first planted, and confirm 
them in the faith, that then he would perform his intention of 
visiting Spain, from whence he would easily obtain a passage to 
Britain, even if he did not pass through Gaul to Portus Iccius. 
For of those who doubt his arrival here, none dispute his visiting 
Spain ; and as we are certain that this was not done previous to 
his first imprisonment, we have only to compute at what time 
afterwards. But if we are right in the conclusion drawn from the 
second epistle to Timothy, and that to Titus, that St. Paul's last 
travels were a repetition of his first, and that Titus accompanied 
him to Rome from Nicopolis Epiri, or ad Issum, we may conjecture 
that after his return from Britain, he visited the east, and Europe. 
On these grounds we may place his journey to this island in the 
year 60 •, and as it is probable that his stay here was short, there 
will be left full six years for his journey in the east, and return 
from thence. 

To this scheme one objection presents itself, namely, that St. 
Paul's conversion could not be so early as 34. But if it were a 
year or two later, this will alter only the length of the interval 
ijetween his conversion and the famine, and throw the date of the 
council so many years back. It might be also urged, that as the 
intention of Nero to recal Felix could not be instantly executed, 
we may defer that date one year, and the dates of the epistles 
would admit of a similar adjustment, none being dependent on a 
fixed era. For even the famine raging two years at least would 
allow of St. Paul's coming to Jerusalem in 43 or 44 with the 
contributions : this too would shorten the interval between the 
apostle's liberation from his first imprisonment and his martyrdom. 
But all this would affect the whole plan in so trifling a degree, as 
to render no single date improbable. Besides, as the time of the 
apostle's conversion must be a matter of conjecture, that conjec- 
ture, which produces an harmonious system of dates, must be more 
probable, than one which is irreconcileable with any. 

* # # 



X OUR correspondent T. Y. justly observes, " that to read the 
Hebrew text of the Old Testament with ease and intelHgibility 
requires long initiation in any form :" he adds, " but especially 
without the reading points." This 1 most readily grant him to be 
equally just as to ease in reading, but the intelligibiliti/ of the 
Masoretic reading is a point very far from being so clear. The 
Render, undoubtedly, is not very much obstructed in the under- 
standing of what he reads by the points, because, although they 
very frequently guiescate several of the letters, yet he sees what 
these quiescent letters are, and is at little difficulty in discerning 
the root. Very different, however, is the case with the hearer — 
there may be a y, an K, a H, a 1, or a ^ which he hears nothing 
about, and which may most materially affect the meaning of the 
word ; — a prefix or a postfix alters the complexion most effect- 
ually — so that for a person to be enabled to understand Hebrew 
by hearing it read masoretically, it would indeed require a very 
'' long initiation;" and after all his labor, he would be initiated into 
a harsh, guttural, and unpleasant language, in every respect, with in- 
numerable trifiing rules about pronunciation, which serve only to in- 
cumber and deform it. T. Y.'s plan is certainly superior in many 
respects, but in the following pages I submit one for your con- 
sideration, which, if you think proper to lay before your readers, 
is likewise '' respectfully at your service." 

One of the great disadvantages attending the reading Hebrew 
as it is at present done, either with or without the points, is the 
confusion of the root by mixing it in the pronunciation so much 
with the affixes, (unless when it is the simple root itself), that 
one has very little chance of being guided to the root by hearing 
the word pronounced ; and even upon seeing it, the difficulty is 
increased by the syllables being so run one into anothei', a prefix 
joined to the first letter of the root, &c. The inconvenience of 
the quiescent letters to a hearer, and even to a reader, who is apt 
to forget that they have any thing to do with the word w hen he does 
not sound them, has already been stated. These inconveniences 
might, in a great measure, be removed by attending to the follow- 
ing rules : — 

1st. Instead of any of the Hebrew letters being quiescent, which 
seems to be so incompatible with the simplicity of a primitive 
language, let every letter have a full and perfect sound. What 
these sounds ought probably to be, we shall afterwards consider. 

8 Hebrew Criticism. 

2d. Every consonant in a word (excepthig perhaps some post- 
fixes^ &c. such as '^D, &c.) to' have a short vowel sound following 
it — without vi'hichj indeed, it cannot be pronounced, but also not 
to be varied even in the case of a vorcel following it. 

3d. The pronunciation of the word not to be altered by the 
addition of any letters — these affixes to be pronounced distinct 
from the original word. 

As to the first rule we have laid down, very few observations 
are necessary. It must readily occur to every one, that leaving 
letters unailiculated seems to be very distant from the ideas of 
simplicity we naturally attach to the parent language. There are 
not many different opinions, 1 believe, about the articulation of 
most of the characters in this alphabet — it is concerning N, il;1, %i^, 
by some considered vowels, and by others consonants, that there is 
the greatest difference of opinion ; nor is it likely that the learned 
can ever nearly agree concerning these. It is not my intention to 
take up your time with any lengthened disquisition on them, which 
would answer no good purpose; but to state, that, from the Greek 
characters given by the LXX. for them, as well as a variety of 
other reasons, K might with propriety be pronounced as the 
English A, although a little varied, sometimes approaching iE 
very nearly, and sometimes the French A. — H as H, with a short 
vowel following, generally A, often Av — 1 as oo in English, in 
wood, good, &c. ; but when forming part of the root, as V or W, 
with a vowel sound following it, which will be found to be the 
same as if a vowel followed the oo pronimciation — wuu and ooau 
differ but very inconsiderably, as I or EE English, generally with 
a vowel, as A, following, which will give it exactly the sound 
of Y, and when very strongly pronounced, J. At the end or 
middle of words, when it is no part of the root, to lose the other 
vowel. 1 shall trouble you with only two or three examples from 
the LXX. favoring these hypotheses — VH, Htiin, not Hin — 
1^21 Dabtii'r' — yip Keooz (easily shortened into Kooz) — Uty 
contracted for D''D'' yameim or jameim — vi< Eloi. As to the 
much contested sound of }J, I could produce innumerable in- 
stances (principally proper names, w hich may be supposed to have 
been more widely known than any others,) in which the Masorites 
have placed the sound of Hholem near this letter, although not 
immediately upon it, as if they had been afraid to expunge it 
altogether — such as nyiS, which they point thus, rtj^lH) PhareoA, 
which has a near resemblance to, certainly the proper method, 
Fhurdah.—UVy^'' Jeroboam— T:irn Boaz, &c. &c.— D"?!;^ Gnolam 


for Oiilam — '^h'^ Shemoang for Shemao, 8cc. — as also a number 

of examples, such as nb"^, lli^j "1!2i^> &,c. in which they give it 
its proper sound ; and, as from our own language we know, that 

Hebrew C?iticist7i. 9 

there is no letter we are more liable to aspirate than O, at the be- 
ginning of words, we may readily suppose they might aspirate, 
perhaps strongly, some of them, for instance, Gomorrah, Homer, 
or as the LXX. have it, rOMOP. 

The second rule I have laid down is justified by very many in- 
stances, in which the Masorites have followed itj as well as the 
LXX. from whom 1 have given a few examples above, in proof 
of the sound of the vowels, and which also corroborate this. 
That they (the Masorites, at least) did not generally follow it, is no 
proof that the system is incorrect, it only shows how the language 
had been corrupted by the period in -which they lived. 

But 1 have still one proof to bring forward in favor of their 
suppositions, and 1 venture to assert, the only proof, that, in a 
case of this kind, can be at all relied upon with any degree of cer- 
tainty, that is, the application of it to the Hebrew Poetry. 

That many parts of the Sacred Books are poetical, no one will, 
I presume, attempt to deny ; but, certainly, when read by either 
of the plans at present in use, with or without the points, they have 
neithei- the sound nor the measure of poetry. That we can ever 
attain the true ancient pronunciation, and therefore the full beau- 
ties of the language, is undoubtedly a vain hope ; but^ however far 
the following specimens may be from the sound, it must appear 
evident, that by this plan the metre has been nearly attained : at 
least, that those parts of Scripture, which to the eye have the ap- 
pearance, and from the subjects and style, have these two essential 
qualities, of poetry in an eminent degree, by this method of read- 
ing, are found to have a very essential part of poetry likewise, 
— metre. 

Moses' Song, Deuteronomy 32 Chap, Verses 1, 2, ^ 3. 

Masoretically. Without the Points. f ^^ 

Ilaasinu hashamaim veadabberah 13 Ha-aseinu hashamaira vaadabarah ?" w 
Vetishma haaretz imre phi 9 Vethesharuao ha-aretz amarei phai i ^ 

laaroph kanimatar likchi 8 Yaoroph ke-matar lekohi } ^ 

Tizzal kaital imrathi 7 Tiiizal ki-tal amarathai J 

Kishirim ale-deshe 7 Kisheoirim olei deshea ^ 

Vekirbibim ale-eseb 8 Ve-ki-rebeibim olei osheb J 

Ki shem Jehovah ekra 7 Kai shem Jehovah Eekarea ? .^ 

Habu godel lelohenu S liabu gadol lo-elohiJiQu S 


Hehreto Criticism, 

Moses' Song, Exodus, Chap. xv. Ferses 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5. 

. DO HD-I inD-ll DID 

^liD-DO lyn^o rt:^7t:^ inaDi 

Asheirah la-Jchovah kai goceah goceah 

Sous verocabu rainah be-yom 

Ozi vezimarath jah vajelii li leisiioah 

Zeah Eloi ve-anavelm 

Elohei Ahei ve-aromamenehii j 

Jehovah aish milehaniah Jehovah sheinu I 

Mcrccaboth PhareOah veheilu jarah beyom 

Umibehar thalisheiu tubaou beyom-suph 





The Song of Deborah and Barak, Judges, Chap. v. Fer. 1^2,3,4. 

mn^ oin Dr.nunnn 
D^jTi "lrT^<^ do7o, wow 
,rT^wi^ oii^ nm OJ^< 
biiiur \"T7« mn"-"? '^Dr^< 

Diij^ mt^^D T^^^iin 
•iH)D2 d^di:^-d:) ntr^i^i p» 

Bepherao pheraouth be-ishar-el 
Behithnadab oin baracau Jehovah 
Shimeoii melakim ha-azinu rozenim 
Anoki la-jehovah anoki asheirah 
Azamer la jehovah elohei ishar-el 
Jehovah betzeatheka misheoir 
Bezaodeka meshedeah tedeuin 
Arez raoshah gam thamaini nataphu. 

1 12 


One of the Songn of David, as in 2 Samuel, Chap. xxn. Fer. 2 & S, 

in-iTDnj^ niii '^rvn 
••DiJDi ojit^D^:;?:^^ 'np^ ^:i:ia 

Jehovah salabi umazadthi umephalati lei 18 

Elohei zuri aehezah bou It 

Magani vekaren isheoi meshagabi umenusi 18 

Mesheoi mehamas thesheoni. 11 

Matthiae's Observationes Criticce, S^^c. II 

It is unnecessary to take up jour paper with longer or more 
numerous quotations ; there are few of the parts of Scripture 
generally considered poetical, to which it will not be found equally 
applicable. It must be confessed, that, in some instances, in order 
to make out, what would appear to be, the proper length of the 
line, the rules must be in a small degree departed from ; these, 
however, are far from numerous, and such as might easily happen, 
through errors of the transcribers, or, in cases where it may be 
naturally enouoh supposed that they might run two vowels into 
one for the sake of the metre, as we know many instances in va- 
rious languages. For the vowels accompanying the consonants, 
I have in the above generally followed the Masorites; they must 
even while Hebrew was a living language have been fluctuating. 
We cannot, therefore, attempt to fix them now, and it saves 
trouble to take them generally by the Masorites, although any others 
would certainly do as well. When D is the last letter in, a word, 
I have given it a vowel sound fol/oTcing it; as we can hardly think 
that the Masorites would alzcays have done so, without some 
foundation ; nor does it appear at all improbable, that it would be 
done to soften the harsh sound of K ; besides, the metre requires 
it, — T^ final, from the frequency of its being done, and from its 
agreeing with the metre likewise, is in the above rendered by 
^' ah." 

I have thus endeavoured to state as briefly as possible what I 
would consider to be a more eligible method of reading Hebrew, 
than any I have had access to see ; whether it has been before 
this suggested, and not approved, I have not found in any work on 
the subject that has fallen into my hands. It is to me a matter of 
regret, that I have not had leisure to draw up this paper with more 
care and attention, for I am perfectly sensible, that the subject is 
left in a very imperfect state. Should I be the means of suggest- 
ing any thing new, or of the smallest importance, to those far 
more capable of following out the subject, it will give much 
pleasure to 


AUG. MATTHT^'S Obsewaiiones criticcB in Tragicos, 
Homeriim, Apollonium, Pindarum, et Theocritum. 
Goettingce, 12mo. pp. 44. 

We shall content ourselves with laying before our readers all 
Matthiae's conjectures on Sophocles and Euripides, which may be 
interesting and useful to those admirers of the Greek drama, inta 

12 MatthiaD s Obser'cationes Criticce 

whose hands they may not liave fallen. The length of the whole 
article is too great to allow us to discuss them separately and fully, 
but we shall be obliged to any of our readers, who will favor us 
with remarks on them in a subsequent Number. 

Sophocles. CEW. Tyr. 649. 

Quum locasta litem Qidipodis et Creontis dirimere frustra conata 
esset, Chorus Q^dipum precatur, 

avoi^y Xlaa-ofxat. 

-Tri&otj $s\Yi(rag ohtcmpera voleiis, i. e. Ixcoy jejunum, nee ulla cum vi 
additum. Lego ttj^ou 'KsYjcrocg, i. e. tti^ou kks^a-ug, miseratus infclicem 
reip. staium, fjiii jiirgia non admit lit, el pieces nostras, cf. 635. 
Paulo ante locasta dixerat, 

w Ttpoc $su)V 7r»'o"T£uo"ov, OiS/ttouj, TaSe 

Suffragatur v. 671. to crov eTroiKTslgoa cttoij.' lAsejv^v. 
Mr. Elmsley in his edition has not noticed this conjecture. 

(Ed. Tyr. 878. 

duo ejusdem radicis verba male copr.lata sunt, et quid est ttoSi 
XpYja-lixa) xpYiO-Qai t Unde frustra coyiatur aufugere, seA ubihociu 
verbis ? Lego £v9' ov ttoS* y aWlii^oi p^^^rai. 
Mr. Elmsley has not noticed this conjecture. 

(Ed. Col. 1^1. 

CEdipus Creonti, quiipsi persuadere conatus erat, ut cumeo abiret, 
«XX', oTS« yaq <T£ TuvTu fj^ij tisISmv, Ti3<. Quomodo ha^c cohaerent, 
ylbi, quia scio, me tibi hccc non persuadere, sc.fore, ut plus damni 
quam commodi percipias ex hoc tuo sermone, Br.; imo, ^bi, quia 
scio, te mihi hoc non persuasurum sc. ut tecum abeam. Verum 
viderunt priores interpretes. Legendum est, oi^a. ya.^ <re tcwtu [j^if 
xeldovT, 'iSt. Apud Horn. //. /, 315. Achilles, 

ovrs [xs y 'ArgetlrjV ' Ayui/^iiuvovx 7rsKre[/.ev olco. 

Elecira, 718. 

6jtx.ou yap oifj^ip) vwtch xa.) tpo^oov ^uctsu; rj^pj^ov, ej(re/3«AXoi/ JTTTTJJcaJ irvo- 
ai — e((re/3aXX&v sc. suuTus vix tolerandum, quum jam ^i^jSi^ov pra;ces- 
serit. Deberet saltern esse eI<re/3aAXov 6". Sensus, Currus cum 
equis unus juxta alterum cursum instituebant, pro eo ornate, Con- 
fertiequi alii aliot urn aurigai'um in terga rotarumque orbitas spu- 
mam fervidosque fundebantjlatus. Quid si legeretur, rifqitpv, dig 

in Tragicos, <§-c. 13 

Itt' cIkKov^ iTTTTixai ■TTVoaj. Ejj Its' oiXKov sc. iWoj, quod ex jTrwJxai TTVoat 
retrahendum est, Vid. Eurip. Hec. v. 14. Soph. Truck. 818. 

This conjecture is not noticed by Professor Monk in his Notes 
on this Play. 

Antig. 345. sqq. 

Praedicatur honiinis solertia. 

QrjglctiV T kyqlcjov shrj^ 
TTOVTOD r evciXlav (pucnv 

(TTrelpaKTl S<JCTU0XXc«(7T0»f, 

TtEgn^pulYji uVYjg. 

SO. oiyst vel xgarcT, dura ellipsis, et TrepifpaS^j otiose additum. Mal- 
lem, cmclquiTi SjxtuoxXcootojj Trsgi^gaxTsi y' av^^j si metrum ferret. 
TTcgK^goiTTsiv, ut <$gaTTc/v_, proprium dc retibus. v. Xenoph.rfe Fenat. 
2, 10. Cf. infra v. 364. 

Track. 53. Quuni Deianira Herculis abitum lugeret, aucilla 
consilium ei dare, quo certior de ejus rebus fiat, conatur, 

vuv, S* e» 8/xajov touj sKsuSsgovg •p^svoO'v 
yva)[jt.uKn ^ovXaic, xcc[j.s ^gvj (pga.cra,i toctov. 
TTcog Traicri jU,5v roaoltrds wKrj&uiig, uroig 
avSgoj xaxa l^r}Tri(Ttv ov TrejaTrsjj TJVa ; 

Apodosis, xaixh ^gr; i^pa.<7ui rocrov habet nescio quid languidi. 
Legendum videtur, 

— £» S/xajov Tovg hhev^spoug fgsvovv 
yvuilxai(Ti SouAaif, xa[x; ^prj ^ga.<Ton to <rov. 

(jam incipit apodosis) ttoj? tt. etc. ^qau-ai to crov, exponere, indicare 
ea, qu(t ad res tuas pertineant, quce. esse ex re tua possint, ut Ajace 
491. ei3 <^povca rocau. Mox V. 56. ut salebrosee et orationi, et sen- 
tentiae subveniatur, lego, [jici\ia-Ta 8*, ovvsg sWog, "T\Xov (sc. TreWcK) el 
TTurgog Nb^biv tiv' wpav rod xaAwj TrgccTTeiv (svexa) SoxeT. 

Ajax, SGO. Ajax, Choro, ex sociis navalibus constant), 

ere T0», ere to* jU,o'vov SsSogxa 
7roijji,svoQV s7rapxe<T0VTa. 

7roi]u,evajv a Brunckio redditur, ex w, ^in' tnei oiim ciiram habuenmt, 
an verbum hunc sensum habere possit dubito. Nee 7:oi[/,sveg sensu 
Homerico apud Tragicos obvium, nee navales Ajacis socii inter hos 
referri possunt. Legendum videtar Trgeu^txev^ y siragKscrovTa. 

Philoct. 54. Ulysses Neoptolemo interroganti 

T« 8>5t* uvwyu: ; respondet 

Trjv <PiXoKTrjTO(j <rs Ss7 

^'J^ijv oirtos XoyoKTiv sxxAerJrff/j Xeywv. 

14 Matthias's Ohsertationes CriticcE 

Quis ferat putidum pleonasmum, IxxAsTrreiv Xoyoan Xsywi/ ? Lego 
sine haesitatione, 

'\>v^yiV OTTMg XoyoiTiV =x*tAs\|/=»f, Xsycti. 

Dico, meditari (ctjcottsIv omiss.) te oportere, quomodo Philoctetis ani- 
mum verbis f alias ^f- 

Philoct. ]26l. Mirum, iii legendum sit, 

<rOi 8', ih UoiccvTog TTCtl, <PiXoxTriTrjg, Kiycjo. 

Philoct. 1364. Philoctetes Neoptolemoexprobratj quod ipsum 
in Trojam reduceie conetur, 

X^r^y ya.q (Ts jU,>jT avTOV ttot' elj Tgo'iav jj,oKs~iv, 

i^ju-aj T dirslpyziv, o\ ye <rou 3<«9y/3gicrav, 

TTUTPog yegocg a-vXcovrec. sli a Tola'Ss cru 

si ^v[Ji,[/.a^y}(Tu)v, xccfj,' dvayxoc^sig raSe ; 
o7 ye quum nullum substantivum habeat in antecedentibus, quo 
referatur (nam ad jj/x-aj illud referri non debere, ex toto coiitextu ap- 
paret) cum sequenti peiiodo forte conjungendum est, a.7rslpyciv o'iys 
(Tov xaQu^picTCiv, TTUTPog ysqag ctuAwvtsj, sItol ToTtrSs <tu etc. ut roTaSi et 
ol ye sibi respondeant. Hoc cum peiiodo sua alteri praeponitur, 
quia in ea vis exprobrationis sita est. Respicitur ad. v. 359' sqq. 

Euripides. Phan. 372. Polynices, 

^govioc Hmv fj^sXaQgci xa.) ^u}[xoug Sswv, 
yvjj,va(Tnx 6', o'ktiv eveTgcc<t-^v, Aigxr]g S' uSojp, 
wv ou S<x«(«jf aTreAa^EJf, ^a'vrjv tto'Ajv 
va/o), ?»' ocTwv 6ju.j«,' ep(^cov duxgvppoouv. 

Locus corruptus a variis vario modo tentatus est. Mihi legendum 


vaiui S»' ocrrov, Ojaju.' ep^w dcixpvppoovv, 
.quamdiuperegrinamuibem incolo, lacryniis ocidimadent. 

Med. 424. Quum antea viii tantum celebrati sint, mulieies vero 
ob perfidiam fuerint infames, nunc contra, Chorus ait, virorum lau- 
dibus omissis, muliebre genus laudem et gloriam carminibus adep- 
turum esse. Jam pergit, 

OX) yug Iv dixeTepa. yvM[/.u Kupocg 

co7ra<re &e(nnv aoitav 

(pol^oc, ayrjTMg [/.eXeuv stts) ocvt- 

ago"£va;v ylvva. 
ev ocixeTega yvw/xa esse debet, mea quidem sententia; nam OTra^eiv 
T< ev Tivi dici nequit. Sic vero manca existit sententia, Mea quidem 
sententia Phabus non dedit cantum lyrcc, nempe, ut sola; virorum 

in Tragicos, &jc. \5 

iaudes eo celebrarentur, quod contextus suadet. Lego itaque es-ij 
a.vTa.y(ri(Tcn v[j.vmv a.g(Tevwv yswa, ut caucrent homines humnos in 
genus virile. eTDj vfxvcov pro u,avo<. uvTa^Y,<rui ujo-vov tivi, contra qnam 
ante factum erat, hymnum alicui canere. 

Med. 1107 — 12. Melius esse chorus affirmat noii habere libe- 
ros, quam habere. Inconimodis ex hberoruniprocreatione enascenti- 
bus enumeratis, maximum malum sese nunc afferre velle ait, 

xa» drj yoig aKig /Siotov suqov, 
aw^oLxa. T eiq yj^rjv yjKSs tsxvcov, 
^gri(j-TOi T eyevovT' el 8; xut/jjcsi 
8a(jU,a)v, ovTog fgou^og ej aj'Sav 
QavuTog Trpo^ipMV (rcuju-ara rexvwv. 

ci 8« Kvg^aei ^ulfXMV sine sensu ; et qua vi ouroj Savaroj dicitur ? Legen- 
dum puto, 

Xri S^ yxg aXic jBiorov eugov, 
a-wiJi^ara. t tig t^(3yjv r,\$c tskvcov, 
^f>rj(rTo) T syevovT, ev S' lxu^>}(r£ 
^(Xi[j,aov, ouKog <pgouSa y elg 'A'tdav 
QocvuTog Tgofepit cwixoctcx. tsxvwv. 

ial[x,Mv su ^vgfi, fortuna bene cadit, seciinda fortuna evenif, ut ^uvtu- 
^lu xgsl(r<rMv £^ugy]<Tc Hecuh. 215. Pro adjective uya^og dxlf^ivv 
adverb, positum est, 8. eJ xt/geT, ut Hec. 521. crTya 7r«j scttw Xewj. 
OxvdTo; non dicitur fgovhg, sed ii, qui moriuntur. 

Alcest. 201. sq. De Alcestide moribunda, 

<p5('v£» yug xa» fLapoilviToii vocrca 
'!rugsi[xsvYi 8e X.'^^gog a^Aiov jSapog, 

Cjw-wj 8a ■ 

xAet|/a» 7zgo<TC(.vyug ^oCKstch Toig i^\lou. 

Sic vulgo distinguitur, contorto, vel nullo adeo constructionis 
ordine. Alcestidem per appositionem dici ^sjgoj (sc. Adnieti v- 
199.) "SAjov /3ago?, ut Penthei corpus exanime Bacch. 1214. vidit 
jam Heath. Quid vero tunc erit 7ra^s»ju-£v>) ^a.gog y(sig6g^. et quorsum 
duplex 8e in eadem periodo ? Legendum videtur, 

<t6(vsi yoLg, xal iJi,xgaivsTai, voVo) 
TrctpeiiJ.evri ye, ^eipog adXiov fixpog. 
T«gfiju,6voj voo-oj Orest. 879. 

yi/c. 992. 

X«4 Sewv (TKOTiOl ^QlvOVITl 

TrajSej Iv flavarco. 
f6.'ve<v ly davaxw vix probum, et inepte additur o-xo'twj 7r««8rf, spurii 
liberi. Mallem itaque jungere, a-K^rm fQivoixri, i. e. o-xoVw Svrja-Houa-t, 
ut /ftp/j. 837. et legere, 

l5 Matthias's Observationes Criticce 

TTuldsi aSavaTWV, 
quod majorem vim addit sententiae. 

Suppl. 45. Chorus Aigivar'am mulierum iEthias supplicans 

ava. jw-oj Tsxvoi. Kvarai <^3/ju,jvwv 
vsKVcav, o'j xciTuKBiTTOva-i jU-eArj. 

HUTuXslTTtiv [xsXy] dc moriente vix bene dicitur, et h. I. esse sahem 
deberet, xaTsXn^av. Leg. videtiir, k'j.tuXu^ou7i fJ-iXf], KuroiK?ijB:Ta.i 
cnim jxsXr} aliciijus aegritudine, in primis putredine. Pro eo ipse 
homo (xara) ,alA>j xazoiXzl^sTUi. Infr. 1119- Aa/3=T£ — ypalag — Kurit- 
Ae</«j «Aye(r<. And)0)n. 131. t/j o"oj kxiqo; — S='a«j usiksXiov kutol- 
As/jSeJV decTTTOTcov uvayKotic. 

This conjecture is not noticed by Mr. Gaisford in his edition of 
Markland's plays. 

Suppl. 75. 

IT, u) ^vvctkyri^ovsg, 

Ife, consortes doloris noatri^ ad chorum, quern Pluto colit. Est p^ogo; 
Twv ^qrivovvTotv. Quum vero fipJjvoj Plutonl sacri sint, hinc et chorus 
lugenlium. Quomodo igitur chorus iste a Plutone coli dicitur ? 
Lego, jt' CO ^uvaAy>]Sov£f, x'^^^'^ ''°'' "■^^ cre^siv, ite, ut chorum Piutoni 
sacrum colatis, et. intersitis. Chorum AUov dici usitatum est, infr. 
773. adov iMoXTToig sKx^o) "^axgvffooug. Elect. 143. yooi dicuntur 
ftsAoj a/Sa. Hs^ovTcn propr. fisot, deinde, quicquid diis sacratum est. 
This conjecture is not noticed by Mr. Gaisford. 

Iphig. Aul. 1356. 

TCiU[j^ov Se <TuifJ,u Trig efjL,rjg VTsp TZocTpoig 
x«t TYjg OLitoLwrig ' EXXa^og yalxg vvrsp, 
9ucr«» dldooft,' exovcTix Trgog ^ooiMv 9saf, 
uyovTug^ e'lTsg sctt) Qsa-i^aTOV rods. 

uyovTug vix habeas, quo referre possis. Puto, ockovtI <r' (i, e. <ro») ut 
opponatur ipsa Ixowcra. Nam Ugsbc ^v 6 ysvvrio-ag TrciTrjg. Iphig. T. 

This conjecture is not noticed by Mr. Gaisford. 

Iphig. T. 294. Orestes de Furia loquens. 

<p$oyyxg ts ij^octxc^v, xai x.vvu>v vXccyfjLXTa. 
a (^oicr' 'Eqivvug Isvxi fjLiiJ,fj[JiaTex.. 

jM-<jtt^jw.aTa so. <t^&oyyYjg languet. Lego fj^vx-YH/^ara.. MvxolcrQoci, de quovis 
sono rauco et indistincto dicitur. Aristoph. Ran. 56'<i. e(2Xs^sv elg 
ljw,g 8g»jW.u, xdixuxocTO ys. Plut. de Deo Socr. tov 8e [jiVKua-Sa.) xa) 
dtpievoti (fic/ivug Tivocg dvctp^govg. Emendationem adjuvant (pQoyyu) 
ju-oVp^cov V. 29s. memoratae. 

in Tragicos, Hon.erumy &^x. 17 

Troad. 98. 

Vel in KE<paX^v,\e\mdBpT,v mendam cubare necesse est; deest 
efliim copula. Lego yspxgriv sTrasips Ssg>]y, vetulam cervicem attulk. 
Sic. ^IkcT. 42. IxsTrow <re, ysponx, yepctq-Jiiv ex. a-T0[/,aT<JOV. Apollon. 
Rho. I. 6*20. Hypsipyle oiri Ik ttoktsxv yegaoou Trsct^e/o-aro Trar^oj. Ct". 
IV. 203. iEsch. Agctm. 7S2. 

Troad. 988. 
inepte legitur, o aog h' jSwv viv voDf Ittoj^Sj) Kutt^k, 

Tua mens facta est I'enus! sine diibro leg. snroirfi-fi Kintqiv. Iphig- 
Aid. 586. 'ipani^ avTOg STrTOaSrjj. Cf. Ci/cl. 184. ApoU. Kh. l- 
1232. rrjV 8s (Pgsvag s7rTolr,G-s Ku-Kqn;. 

Bacch. 327. 
Tiresias Pentheo contemtum Bacchi exprobrat, 

fxcuvryoig cog ocKyKTra., xoun ^agiJi,axoig 
uxYi Xixpoig uv, OUT avev toutwv vo<J£i. 

Postrema sensu carent. Lego, aur av Ix rouToiv vocrslg, iiec insa- 
nires propter ista ("sc. Orgia, et qua nos agimus) i. e. si et tu ista 
celebrares, pro insaitis, propterea quod ista communia. 

Bacch. 331. 

oixsi fji,s$i' i^'jxwv, jaij Q6pa'(5 tHov vojxcov. 

ivga^s Twv vo[ji,Mv olxslv durum esse videtur. Forte, ju.^ 'Ss^i^s toov v. i. e. 
/xij a9c'g»^£. uQsgi^civ cum genit. occurrit etiam ap. ApoU. Rh. Ti. 477- 

Bacch. 404. 

Uotipov 6', av exuToa-TOiJ!,oi 

Postrema Papho ins. non conveniunt, de qua nihil ejusmodi nie 
moratur, sed ^gyptum designare videntur, quod et Reiskio in men- 
tern venit. Turn vero legendum eritav 0' kxaroo-To^oi. Neque vero 
Nilus kxuTO(TTO[/.og est. Lego itaque, 

TIu^ov fl', av S' £gaTO<TTO[JiOi 

/3. TT. poo.) 

xagTri^oixriv avoiJi^POi. 
Bacch. lOOOsqq. 
Versus corruptissimos ita lego, 

yva)]u.«v a-co'^gov, aQavurov, a'!rgo(pa,(n(rTOv, 

elg TO. TS fijcov ?(pi> 

^goTslctiV T sp(;£<v a.Kjmog fi'ioi. 

TO cro<pov ov (pSovw xongco Srips'jou(ra. 

TO. S* STsga. [XByaha (Z«>ffa, ygsMV «5 

NO. XIX. C7. J I. VOL. X. B 

18 Matthias's Observationes Criticce 

S7t) T« XOiXoi j5iov 
■fj[X(XP si; VUKTU T sv 

ayovr, sutre/Ssiv 

TO. 8' s^oo vOjaiju-a dUuc hx^aXov- 

Mudesfiam perpetiiam et promlam in rebus cum divinis, turn hu- 
manis habere, felixvita est (felicitatem affert). Non recusu consec- 
tari sapietdiam, diimrnodo rite id Jiat, ipsaque non nimia sit. Cete- 
ra auteni magna et eximia, ut temperantiam, veiierari, vitam bene 
rebus honestis semper inslituentem opoilet ; aversantemgue en, quce. 
circa jus fasque sint, leges deorum colere. Locum simillimum vid. 
siipr. 385 sqq. infra 1 148. Sophoci. Jntig. 1348. Jam singula 
videamus, yvM[ji.ri a-ui(pgMv, (yw^goa-uvYj oiSavciTog, modeslia semper servata. 
Sic oqyTi u^ocvuToc trap;m. Eur. Phil. x. 3. aXyog a^xvarov Helen. 
993. <rcio(^pocr6w, u7rQO(puTi(TToc,qucEnon causaspratexens tergiversatuVf 
promta, parata, ut (Tv^ixa^oi a.7rgo(poc(rKrTOi. Xen. Cyrop. ii,4, 10. 
jS^OTs/w saltern in (SpoTs'iMv mutaudum est, pro ^goroov, slg to. j5goTa>v, 
quamvis ethoc durum. Mallem /SpoVsia, si metrum ferret. Sed <^ctig 
figoTsiog occurrit Bacch. 542. to <rofov ou <^9. x. Qvigsuovcroi, non recuse 
ad sapientiam pervenire rite ; non mihi displicet sapientem esse, 
dummodo id esse possem ita, ut decel, nou nimium sapiens. Nimis 
sapientia est, quae supra liumana sentit, humana divinaque contem- 
nit. Supra 393. to <TO(fov S' ov (rofla, to ts [xyj SyYiTu (pgovslv, ^puyhg 
aldov. — %f :«;v av pro twv ah) sine sensu : ae) in margine tw YjfLcig xa) 
vvxTo. adscriptum in textum irrepsit. Turn desiderabatur verbum 
oportet. Jungenda autcm verba, ^pvj sucrs/SsTv ra sTspu ju-sy. <^av.f 
(T»ya)£u ayovTcx. tov ^lov Iti) to. xaXa ^y. s\g v. rs — vo/x-j/xa QsuiV occurrunt 
Suppl. 19- Soph. Antig. 455. cf. ibid. 77- svtiixo. Sbwv. 

Cycl. 581. 

Legendum videtur, 

vat jW-a A'C ov «P7ra^«; y lyta 'x tou Fagyugov. 
Heracl. l63. 

Cophreus Demophonti persuadere studens, ne Heraclidis opern 

TToTa TTsS/' a'^aigsh\g 
Tigu'Moig Ojjj TroAsjUtov, 'Apyeioig t s^siv. 
Lego, Ttg, (^fig ttd'a. 'Agysloig t 9(^eiv. 

Mr. Elmsley in his edition reads Tiguv&iixg yrjj, and says, " Quae 
scriptura cum extra dubitationem posiia videatur, infelices dd. W. 
conjecturas memorare supersedeo." 

Heracl. 396. sqq. 
de Eurystheo, Atticam ingresso, 

cxOTrsl, d6xy](riv drj to'§* uv Asyoijai cro/, 
7ioi<x7rgo(Tci^?i cTTparoTts^ov tuvvv "^ogog, 

in Tragicos, Homerum, ^c. 19 

orpaTSTTS^ov dogo^ insolita locutio, et ravuv prorsus otiosum est : forte 
CTgaTOTTshv yuvovv ^ogog, exercitus splendens haslis, ut et yavuxrut 
ia-'rrl^eg dicjintur, et genitivus pro ablativo frequens ap. poetas, v. c. 
Soph. Track. 847. Tsyyjiv a.'^jjav ^Xcagav daxgoMV pro 8axpuo<c. In 
sequeuti versu particiila deest, quae ubi sigiuficet. Lego 

(rxOTTfl, (So'jc>]cr<v 5^ to8' av Xiyoii^i croi) 
TTolx Trgotra^si (XToaTOTTzdov yavovv ^ogog, 

Mr. Elmsley is silent about this conjecture. 
Helen. 362. 
6i5jtjt,a T^j^uyojc Ssaicn, to) ts cugiyy' ocoi- 

Locum jam ab aliis tentatum ita lego, 

(Tvptyya. y "idr^g 
0"E/3»'?oyTJ Tlgiajjii^a. ttot' a/x-^j jSoycrTa^jO-ouj. 

••6/3/?siv <j-6giyy» explicat Musgr. Junge, d^fi jSouo-ra^jW-ouj "/?»)?. 

i/e/e«. 537. 

ttoVjv tov ajttov ?aJVT« (^lyyoj sWopav, 

feyyog sWopdv Iv ^ae* ineptum. Lego, <pYi(r) S" IjtjtpaSjjy, i. e. crsn^oog, 
rid. Hesych. 

fZe/f«. 678. 

JEX. ^»95, 6 ^»0f, CO TToai, TTulg 
ja' STteKoKTs NelXca. 
Ms. DaviJ.a(TTa rov TrsfX'^avTOg' co ^sivo) Xoyoi. 

Legendum, 6av[ji,aa-Ta.' tov (rlvog) Trsfji^uvTogf respoudet Helena v. 
680. a A tog jw,' aXo^og wXeo'EV," Hgu. 

Ion. 83. 

agi/,UTOt. fjisv TaSs Kay^Trga, rs^glzitviv 
TiXiog ^S») XajW-TTSJ xara yr\v. 

r^Xiog XajW-TTfj \ai/.7cga. ugfiaTu hand bene dicitur. Lego, ^S)j x«jM.7rT«f 
xara yijy. 

Jon. l66. 

wa^a TS TTTspvyug 

A/jav«j t' l7r//3« t«j J>)Aj«Sp?. 

Constructio laborat ; quo enim referas vagoi Tr-rspvyag ? Lego wegu 
Tt TTT. transfer alas, i. e. transvola. Sic fl-sgay ico^ixHec. 53. 

Ion. 737. 
CO oyyareg, «^i" cc^loov yevvrjTogoov 
^Qri <pD\u(r(reig, ko6 v.a.rct.i(Ty({)va.(T syiig 
Touj aouf 'na.Ka.iohg iKyovovg avjo^^ovtug. 

20 Matthiae's Obser'oationes Criticce, S;c. 

ifxyovoj de majoribus inusitatum. Lego 

TOUf (Touc, TTuXuiov y £t ysvov; avTo^&ovoS' 

Ion. 748. 

yuvoiixe;, Wrm xwv l[j,wv ku) asgnidog 
iovKsvjxa TTKTTOV, Tivct TV)(rjv AajSwv TToVif 

Quaerit Creusa, quale oraculum Apollo Xutho reddiderit : igitur 

Tv^fjv Xaf/,^ixvsiv nou convenit. Lego^ SouAjujxa, ttuo-tjv riva tv^vk 
Xa/ScJv ttoVjj SelBYjx.s 7r«j8cov. ttJcttj? (Tspi) Traldwv, vel 7rsg» Tvp^r|f w, 
qiwdnam oraculum deji/iorum obventu, etc. 

/o«. 1404. 

x«» T^crS?^ jc«» crou etc. 

(r<pa?ovTff ou Ai^yoiT av ineptum. Lego o-Tracravrsj ou X^yeir* av, JViff 
trahere me prehensam et vinciendum desiuatis : quatitumvis me ra- 
piatis, tamen non dimittam ista. Sic (nrav usurpatur Hec. 92. 408. 

Here. Fur. 399^ 

dgaxoVTCi Trvpa-ovcarov, 
OS uttXcit'ov aja^eXjxTOj shix efgovgsi, XTotvuiV. 
u[MfsXmTos eXtxa sfpovpst inconcimium ; forte aXox' s^povgei, sulcum 
pro terra. 

Mr. Elmsley in his admirable notice of Hermann's Hercules 
Turens, in one of our former numbers, does not notice this conjec- 

Here. Fur. 11 Q. 
^gvcrog, a. t svtv^Icx. 
fpovslv j3goTovg e^ixysTUf, 

Ic^eAxwv y^^Qovov yap trXct, 
T07raA»v s\tTopoi.v' 

vofxov wugif/.svog, euv0ju,j« Yag'V tilous 
eSgauasv o\(Bov >ts\amv kpi^u. 

Locum luxatum et jam ab aliis tentatum sic restitui posse arbit- 


stpsXxMV x§^v°S y «p' erAa 
TOTraAjv eicropav 

vojitwv 7ragejji,svov, evvofx-ia %ag*v SjSoJj* 
e&gavas S' oAjSou xsAaivov a.p[ji,a.. 

Tempus remunerationem facinorum afferens, eum, qui leges 
neghxitf rursus aspieere, pietati gratificans, conatur, opumque 

On the Use of dv or xs, ^c. 21 

nigrum currnm frangit. Trapsf/.svos t/voj pro 7ra^5»jaevof, neghgens, 
a 'TTup'tsa-Sai. Sic et fxsQiso-Qixl tivo<; dicitur, similemque vim pr^epo- 
sitio 7r«c^a etiam in verbo Ttaqoqw habet ; et laudatar ex Sophocle 
■xu^siTO, Jieglexit. Locus simillimus Eurip. f ragm. Belleroph. vi. 

6 yoig ovdsvog 
sKfb; ^povog dtKocloug 
STTuyoov Koivovag 8e(xvu(r»v 
dvQpwTrcov xuaoTi^Tug. 

Pind. Olymp. o-t', 164. /x^ Spava-oi ^govog oK^ov sfspTroov. 

Here. Fur. 794. 

^7r«gTwv 'Ivu ysvos sfave, ^aXxa(T7rldcov >^6j(0g, 

yaXxa.<y7ri'BaiV cum ^S-rroigTciov jungendum. Lego, STrd-gruv tva. ^ccvog 
t^v<Ts ■^uKKUfTTt. k6-^(ov. yoLwg hiatus terrceproduiit, e^uas. Paulo ante 
792. legendum Yjy^slT svy. nam quomodo Trsrpoc TluSlov et Sw/x-ara 
Mov(ru>v venire possunt? ri)(^siv riva, celebrare. Quod proprie in domo 
fit, ipsi domui tribuitur. 

On the Use of dv, or xs with an Optative Mood, and a 
Conjecture of Dresigius on Justin, b. IL c. 10. 

To THE Editor of the Classical Journal. 

I BEG leave to offer to the consideration of your correspondent, 
Mr. Seager, one or two remarks upon his Miscellaneous Obser- 
vations on several ancient and modern Authors, inserted in the 
XlVth No. p. 240. 

In the first place, as one who feels a strong interest in whatever con- 
cerns the boolcTrepl uvl/ouj, commonly attributed to Longinus (of which 
I may probably some day or other publish a Variorum Edition), and 
who in the fourth No. of the Class. Journ. in the Critical Remarks 
on Longinus, p. 821., has touched upon the word, 1 thank him 
for the additional instance of )ixTagx°^ipB<Tioi'(siv, which he has pro- 
duced from Plutarch, though J. Touphad numbered it among the 
T« «7ra0 Xsyojjievx. 

As to the canon of Brunck, " ysvoi'jw-riv habens eam significatio- 
nem, a qua denominatur, qua quum pollet, particulam av nunquam 
adsciscit, quae optativum potentialem semper comitatur/' which 

22 On the Use of av or as 

Mr. Seager quotes, I shall not at present examine the propriety of 
it, which Mr. Seager himself seems inclined to dispute, but content 
myself with offering the following passage to his consideration : 
" Mutandinecessitatemimposuit defectus particulae av, quae ut nun- 
quam jungitur optativo eam signiticationem habenti, a qua denomin- 
alur, ita polentialem optativum semper et constanter comitatur, de 
quo usu ac discrimine optativorum ntnio neque crebrius, neque 
diligentius prascepit acutissimo Brunckio, cujus comicus et tragici 
etiam ex hac parte expolitissimi sunt, v, ejus Notas ad Aristopha- 
nem T. III. p. 17. ad ^schyli Prom. 622. 1065. Eurip. Pha7i. 
514, 1211. Hccub. 1097. add. Dorviilium «f^ Chariton. \y. 9.^9..'. 
Fateor equidem me olim dubitavisse annon haec tanta loquendi 
axpl^sici Atticis tantuni poetis tanquam propria esset attribuenda, 
quum caeteri et antiquiores, et seriores, iicentiae aliquid indulsisse 
sibi videientur : verum excussis sedulo, quae inveniuntur, exemplis 
pluriniis, ubi ve! constanti tide hbrorum cum optativo potentiali 
particula ponitur, vel exclusa perfacili negotio reponi potest^ plane 
compertum habeo, inconstantiam, si qua occurrat, profectam a lib- 
rariis esse, in quorum erroribus toliendis Brunckiana sit diligentia 
imitanda. Sic in versu Homerico //. V. v. 303. quern unum Hoo- 
geveenius in Doctrina P'lrtiridarum Lmgiice Graca T. i. p. 91 • 
laudavit, ut av ovvyitikov interdum omitti ostenderet, in illo igitur 

TuSs/S»3J, f/^eya sgyov, o ov S-Jo y uvdgs <pspoisv, 

etsi neque Venet. Manuscr. nee alteri Codd. varietatem afferunt, 
tameu nou dubito, quin reponendum sit o cv tuo k uvlps (pspoiev: re- 
currunt verba //. xx. eodem modo et corruj)ta, et emendanda : lo- 
cus, geminus est II. I. 272. ubi particula recte adjecta legitur, xei- 

vojo"» 8' «v ouTjj Twv, di vuv /Sgoro* s'ktiv l7np^9o'v<o», fjox^ioiro : pariter in 
Eid. inter Theocritea xxii. v. 162. legebatur olim, 

cog aya^oii ttoXss; |3oyAo»VTO ys TreySspo) shai : 

nunc recte Brunck. ^ovXoivro xs rescripsit : sed idem vitium exi- 
mendum erat ejusd. carminis versui 74. 

ovx aXKoo ys fj.a.^so'a'alixsa'S' Itt' ocsQKc/j, 

scribe owx aXAcu xs (i-ot.-^. : dissimilis est ratio subjunctivi, qui parti- 
culam illam et comitem adsciscit, et saepius spernit, Horn. //. in 

Cererem v. 49 1. Miy oXjBios ov rr/ kxilvai Ugo^govsMg ipiXcovrat Imx- 
Oovlcuv avflgcuTTOiV, iEschylus S. C. Tlicb. 2.39- coWs/s avdgag, wv uKia 
izoKic, Itiscriptio Triopea 11. v, 30. Ov |tt»v ovoVa-y^Taj, xen) Ksxpoiri- 
Iriv 77=^ sovTu: de hac particulte omissione monuerunt Brunckius ad 
iEsch. .S'. c. Th. 259. etad Eurip. Med. 519- atque Visconti Liscri- 
zinni Gr. Tiivp. Borghes. p. 88." H. C. Abr. Eichstaedt's *Spe- 
€imen Qu&stionum phitologicarum,\A^s\dd, 1796. p. 68. 

xoith an Optatixe Mood. 23 

An to Mr. Seager's conjecture on the very celebrated passage 
(to $guK\ouiJ,?vov aTroppyjTov) of Justin, bk. ii. c. 10. contained in the 
441st p. of the Class. Journ. No xi\ ., I commend it for its in- 
genuity, Easdemque cera superinuucta (for superinductu) deiet. 
Perhaps Mr. Seager may not happen to have met with the conjec- 
ture of Dresigius in the Epistola super Juslino, subjoined to the 
excellent critical Edition of Justin published by J. Fi\ Fischer, 
Lipsiae, 1757. p. 69j. : " Si conjectural locus relmquatur, mep.dum 
potius in nomine cera statuerem ; nam quemadniodum cera hanc 
ob caussam tabellls ligneis superindncta fuit, ut scriplura tegeretur, 
sic ea dolum, quern omnino tegere debebat, prodere non potuit : 
videatur omnino Faber : jam vero res omnis a Demarato suscepta 
duplici ratione prodi potuisse videtur, vel scriptura, quod cera su- 
perinducta evitatum fuit, vel ipsis tabeiiis, novis so. ac recentibus, 
usuque nondiun tritis : quo posito levi mutatione pro recens cera 
scribendum auguror recens ora so. tabellarum, ita quidem, ut non 
solum scriptura seu litterce insculptae, verum etiam extrcmitates ta- 
bellarum lignearum recens coufectarum cera superinducta deletes et 
tectas ab auctore dicautur : licet enim scriptura fuisset cera abscon- 
dita, nisi tameu ipsae quoque tabell* recenter factie, novitatis spe- 
ciem cera inducta vitassent, dolum onmino prodidissent, quum 
Persa? novas tabellas frustra confectas fuisse vix credidissent." 


Hatlou, August Id. 1813. 

On the *■ Book of Jaslier^ and other Subjects of Hebrew 
Literature, noticed in Mr. Bellamy s ' Essay on the 
Hebrezv Points , and on the Integrity of the Hebrew 

NO. I. 

While Mr. B. finds so much fault with all the Europeau 
translations of the Old Testament, it need not be a matter of sur.» 
prise that he is dissatisfied with our present authorised English 
version, nor that he should take the liberty of correcting it, when 
he has occasion to cite particular passages in defence of his own 
opinions in Hebrew literature. In his " Essay on the Hebrew 
Points, and on the Integrity of the Hebrew text," inserted in the 
Classical Journal, No XVI. he cites 1i:^M 13D, the Book of 

24 On the Book of Jasher, 

Jasher, as the words are rendered in our version, not as an histo- 
rical document written by a person of the name of Jasher, but as 
tlie title of the " original standard copy of the law of God received 
on Sinai by the Hebrew legislator." On this circumstance he 
builds an important part of his hypothesis. In this opinion, 
however, Mr, B. is not peculiar, having followed the authority 
of some learned men, who have given a similar meaning to the 
original words. Parkhurst, in particular, following the LXX. 
considers "1Ii.*^■^ HBD, as a descriptive title of the 7'ight or correct 
hooJc, the authentic record ; and I'efers to Josephus, who explains 
it by Tojy avajcsijasvcui/ Iv ra; Ugw, the writhigs or books laid up in the 
temple. Antiq. Lib. iir. c. 1. § 7. 

With all deference to such superior authority, it may be re- 
marked that the expression of Josephus, referring to more books 
than one, may designate books of any Icind laid up in the temple, 
and not particularly the one correct book of the law of God. 
This may include the book of Jasher ^ as an authentic historical do- 
cument to which two of the inspired writers refer, in recording 
two different events. Josh. x. 13, 2 Sam. i. 18. 

In like manner we find similar allusions to other historical re- 
cords, which not being divinely inspired, nor intended to become 
a part of the sacred canon of Scripture, have long since perished. 
We read of the hook^ or "dDords, ''IH'T, of Nathan, of Gad, of 
Shemaiah, and of Jehu, 1 Chron. xxix. 29. 2 Chron. xii. 15. 
XX. S^. If the term "^121 twrds, and not 13D, book^ is found in 
these passages, we meet with the term 13D, book, in a similar 
connection, where the author ef the book of Numbers, alludes to 
another historical record. Wherefore it is said in the book of the 
"dDars of the Lord, mn"" /IDH'^D 1W2, Num. xxi. 14. It ap- 
pears singular that so peculiar a rendering should be given to the 
words llB'^n "13D, as to refer them to the standard copy of the 
law of God, when the manner of expression is equally applied to 
several other books, which, I suppose, have not been considered as 
any part of the authentic book of God, all whose <' statutes are 
right, enduring for ever." The reason of this peculiar version 
has been derived from the circumstance of the emphatic H being 
prefixed to the word I^V, as if it were never prefixed to proper 
names as some Hebrew Grammars tell us, and which is certainly 
not prefixed to the names of the other writers of the historical books 
above mentioned. This may generally be the case ; but some 
instances may be pointed out, where the H demonstrati'ou7n is 
prefixed to proper names; pHi/'H Anak, Num. xiii. 22, 28. 
n:"nKn, Jraunah, 2 Sam. xxiv. 16. The word DIKH 2 Sam. 
VII. 19. 1 Chron. xvii, 17. is rendered that adam, by the Vul- 
gate, Pagninus, and the Tigurine versions, the passage acquiring 
a peculiar importance and beauty, as prophetic of that divine per- 

and other Subjects of Hebrew Literature. 25 

son, whom an apostle denominates " the second Adam — the Lord 
from heaven." Aben Ezra says the word D"[><rT, Gen, iii. 22, is 
the proper name of Adam, with il demojistrativuniy because in 
him the whole race of mankind were included. The emphatic H 
prefixed to the name 1W^ Jasher, may intimate that he was an 
eminently upright man, on whose faithful record dependence 
might be placed, on the matters of fact to which the two inspired his- 
torians refer. Tremellius and others render it liber recti, and the 
Vulgate liber Justorum. Dr. Adam Clarke, in his edition of the 
Abbe Fleury's Manners of the Israelites, refers it to the authentic 
copy of Joshua and Samuel, that was preserved by the High Priest, 
as the law was. 

Dr. Winder in his ' History of Knov/ledge, chiefly religious/ 
supposes the Book of Jasher " to be the same with the Book of 
the Wars of the Lord, viz. a collection of devout Poems, or Sacred 
Songs, composed on remarkable occasions ; and some way joined 
together, and gathered into one volume, though of different dates. 
Thus it might contain both the triumphal Song on the conquest of 
Adonibezek, attended with the preternatural phenomenon of stop- 
ping the sun •, and David might add to it the funeral Poem on the 
death of Saul and his sons." 

This learned writer thinks that «< Mr. Pyle's fine criticism goes a 
great way to determine as to this opinion. Jasher may be naturally 
derived from the hebrew root "yw shur, to sing ; and so all these 
citations may refer to the Hymn or Song Book, or to the collection 
of devout Historical Poems, or Odes. And the quotations, being 
all in a poetical strain and manner, strengthen this criticism beyond 
reasonable exception ! " 

Whatever may be thought of these Criticisms, they discover at 
least the ingenuity of their authors ; and it may not be unworthy 
of remark, that the Syriac version seems to favor such an interpre- 
tation, by having in one place, the book of Canticles, that is, the 
hook of Songs. 

It is remarkable what extremes of opinion different writers may 
advance upon the same subject, and that connected with scripture 
history. Jacob Hive, a printer and letter-founder, who undertook 
Romaine's edition of Calasio's Hebrew Concordance, published, 
among other strange pieces, one pretending to be a Translation oiF 
the Book of Jasher. 

Mr. B. characterises the pretensions of Jerome to any de- 
gree of Hebrew learning, as merely " employing a Jew to read 
Hebrew ; " intimating that the venerable I^atin Father was unable 
to read the language for himself. This is certainly a very extraor- 
dinary assertion. Jerome is generally acknowledged to have been 
well skilled in the Hebrew Language, as being more than any of 
the ancient Fathers devoted to the study of that sacred tongue. 

25 On the Book of Jasher, 

He had for his preceptor Bar Raban, and other Jews, whose as-' 
sistance he obtained at a great expense. He spent more than 
twenty years in Judea, merely for the purpose of attending the 
schools of the most celebrated Jewish teachers, and of conversing 
with the most intelligent native Jews on the subject of their lan- 
guage, and the meaning of their sacred writings. The testimony 
of Cappellus, a champion in Hebrew learning, is most honorable 
to the proficiency of Jerome in Hebrew studies. Mieronymus 
omnium Patrum diligentissimus et accuratissimus rerum Hebraica- 
rmn indagator^ nulli labori, tiullis sitmtibus, neque tempuri peper- 
city ut linguae illins, quantum Jieri turn potuit^ periti&dmus evade- 
ret. Whatever hand he might have in the translation of the 
Scripture, styled the Vulgate, Isiodore Clarius, a learned Italian 
Bishop, who distinguished himself at the Council of Trent, asserts 
that it has been corrupted in eight thousand places. For this 
assertion, as might be expected, his book was honored with a 
place in the Index ILx pur gator ius. Many writers of the Roman 
Church acknowledge some errors in the present editions. If a 
conjecture might be hazarded with regard to the reason of Jerome's 
being characterised in such a manner by the author of the Essay, 
it may be mentioned that the Latin Father, who studied Hebrew 
in the fourth century, says nothing about the Vowel Points or 
Accents of the language — ut ne minimus quidem apex de illis api- 
culis in CO exstety as Cappellus expresses it. Had they existed in 
his time, he would certainly have heard of them, especially as he 
was taught by learned Jews. The author of the Essay, however, 
and some other advocates of the points and accents, have found 
them mentioned in the New Testament, under the names of " iota 
and tittle," iajra and xsqaia. (Matt. V. 18.) It must surely be more 
rational to refer the former to the letter jod, from which jwra is 
evidently derived, the least character of the Hebrew alphabet, and 
the latter to those cornicles^ or little ornamental curvatures or 
florishes, which when Hebrew is elegantly written, are generally 
used at the beginning and end of a letter and sometimes at the 
corners too ; so denominated on account of their situation, just as 
the ornaments on the top of a wall or column are denominated 
cornices. All the vowel points, except Cholem^ are placed 
below or within the letters, but detached from them, which cannot 
be considered, as the natural situation of horns of any kind. 
Elias Levita, a celebrated Jewish grammarian of the sixteenth 
century, was the first who gave occasion to agitate the question 
respecting the authority of the Masoretic punctuation among 
Christians. He maintained that the vowel points and accents 
were not of divine original but invented by the Masorites about 
500 yearc after Christ. An host of the most learned theologians, 
grammarians, and critics adopted the opinion of Elias, among 

and other Subjects of Hebrew Literature. 27 

whom were Luther, Calvin, Zuiiiglius, Beza, Pellican, Munster, 
Fagius, Piscator, Mercer, Martinius, Jos. Scaliger, Hackspan, 
Franzius, the two Vossius's, Cunseus, De Dieu, Grotius, Hel- 
mont, Cappellus, Erpenius, Casaubon, Drusius and Hutter, among 
the Reformed ; to say nothing of ReuchHn, Picus Mirandula, Ma- 
sius, and others, among the Romanists. Perhaps our EngUsh 
Walton [vir nroXvyk'jJTTOTa.Toc) might express himself too strongly 
when he said, vix quemquam se novisse^ qui quidem judicium cum 
eruditione Hebraa co?ijimj:erity qui a Cappello dissentiaty refer- 
ring to the work of Cappellus, against the authority of the Masoretic 
punctuation. Aben Ezra, a learned Jewish Rabbi, who florished 
in the twelfth century, says the whole punctuation was received 
from the Masoretic doctors of Tiberias. 

Mr. B. speaks of Synagogues as existing before the time 
of the Babylonian captivity. Most learned men are of opi- 
nion that there were no synagogues erected among the Jews 
till after that period, and some of the Jews themselves say 
as much. The words b\^ Hi^lD Vd all the assemblies of God, 
Psalm Lxxiv, 8, refer to places where the people met to wor- 
ship God, which were not properly synagogues^ as expressed 
in our translation ; but proseuchce as they were afterwards called. 
None of the ancient versions, except that of Aquila render the 
word ni^lD synagogues. The principal service of the synagogue 
being the reading of the law to the people ; where there was 
no book of the law to be read, there could be no synagogue. 
Mr. B. seems to suppose that such a number of copies might 
be supplied as would necessarily be wanted for the thousands of 
Judahy in all their towns and synagogues. But how rare the 
book of the law was through all Judea before the Babylonian cap- 
tivity, many passages of the sacred history inform us. When 
Jehoshaphat sent teachers through all Judea, to instruct the people, 
they carried a book of the law with them, 2 Chron. xvii. 9. which 
they needed not to have done, if there had been copies in those 
cities to which they went ; which certainly there would have been, 
had there been any synagogues in them. And when Hilkiah found 
the book of the 1 iw in the tempk-, 2 Kings xx. 8. neither he nor 
king Jo^iah needed have been so surprised at it, if books of the 
law had been common in those times. Their behaviour on that 
occasion proves that they had never seen it before, which could not 
be, had there been any other copies to be found among the people ; 
which would have been the c^se if there had been any synagogues 
among them at that time. The Jewish writers affirm that some of 
the idolatrous Kiu'js of Jud.ih burnt all the copies of the law 
wliich they could find: ^'\ t supposition of some learned men, 
that the copy, found in ;' . t* mple hy Hilkiah, was the original 
autograph of Moses, from the words HiZ^D T2, by the hand of 

S8 On the Book of Jasher, S^c, 

Moses, 2 Chron. xxxiv. 14, seems scarcely defensible. If that 
circumstance had been the occasion of the surprise excited on the 
discovery, it was certainly too remarkable to be omitted by the 
historian who recorded the same fact elsewhere, 2 Kings xxii. 8. 
Besides, this very circumstance is omitted in the farther history of 
the book as given in the former account of the fact, where it is 
simply called the hook — the law, and the book of the covena7it, I 
know not that 1^ the hand is ever used in the Hebrew scriptures, 
for ha7id wrifmg, as Dr. Kennicott understands it in this passage. 
T2 is often used as the instrument or medium of any communica- 
tion. inUi' 1^2 By the hand of thy servants hast thou reproached 
the Lord. Is. xxxvii. 24. / have multiplied visions, and cited 
similitudes D''J^''23n "VZ hi/ the ministry, or hand, of the prophets, 
Hos. xii. 10. As the Lord had spoken Hti^D T'l by the hand oj 
Moses. Exod. ix. 35. The expression answers to the Greek pre- 
position li'l ; the laiv "iSoas given 5<a MaxrBca;, hy Moses. John i. 17. 

Admitting, however, that the copy found by Hilkiah was the 
autograph of Moses, Dr. Prideaux supposes it was a few years 
afterwards burnt and consumxcd with the Holy City and Temple. 
Mr. B. says, the Hebrew is not a dead language, but is still 
spoken. It were to be wished that he had informed us in what 
part of the world the Hebrew language is still vernacular. It 
might as well be said, the Latin is not a dead language because it 
is still used in the services of the Romish Church, as that the 
Hebrew is now spoken, on account of its being used in the services 
of the synagogue. Since the dispersion of the Jews, they speak 
the languages of the several countries where they sojourn. They 
may study the language, and adopt some expressions from it, but 
it is believed they have lost the primitive pronunciation of some of 
its letters, particularly the ^, the sound of which appears to have 
been lost before the Septuagint translation was made. For in 
those Hebrew words, expressed by Greek characters, in which this 
letter occurs, it is variously represented. 

It has been the opinion of some learned men, that tlie Gospel 
of Matthew, and the Epistle to the Hebrews, were written origi- 
nally in Hebrew. Mr. B. goes far beyond this conjecture in 
his zeal for the sacred language, " the language of heaven," as he 
styles it. As if the Divine Being should not give his commands to 
man in any other language, he asserts that " The New Testament 
was written originally in Hebrew by the Apostles themselves." I 
suppose this expression includes all the books of the New Testa- 
ment. Whether any other writer has ventured a similar assertion, 
I know not. Does he suppose the New Testament to have been 
written by divine inspiration, as well as the books of the Old Tes- 
tament .'' Does he contend for the « absolute Integrity " of the 
original of one, while he admits the whole of the original of the 

Ofi the Latin Poefri/, <^c. 29 

other to be lost, — every letter, every iota, and tittle ? How are we 
to reconcile the opinions of the author of the « Essay on the He- 
brew Points, and on the Integrity of the Hebrew Text," — we will 
not merely say, to the Scriptures and Truth, but — themselves one 
to another ? 

Basingstoke i 31 March^ 1814. J. J- 



And force them, though it were in spite 

Of nature and their stars, to write. — Hudibras. 

To THE Editor of the Classical Journal. 

As I Avas rummaging the other day among some old books belonging 
to the library of a College of no small magnitude, by some chance, 
I descried a lean volume of the quarto size, consisting of nearly 
sixty leaves, and bearing the following very strange and whimsical 
title: AcademifB Cantahrigiensis SliSTPA. Sive ad Carolum II, 
reducem, de Regnis ipsi, Musis per ipsum feliciter restitutis Gra- 
tulatio. Cantab. l660. It is a sort of poetical contribution levied 
upon the component parts of the university at that time, both 
young and old, by the circumstances attendant upon the restora- 
tion of the second Charles; and consists of con^^ratulatory addresses, 
written upon that happy occasion, in Latin, Greek, and even Hebrew. 
The printer's name was Field ; the same person who, five years after, 
sent out the only edition o the Septuagint ever issued from the Cam- 
bridge press. 

" Eli2TP0N (as a critic of the present day would say,) est id quod 
conservatus conservatori dat; et dignum est quod comparetur cum 
©f£7rrf0v, iJiiJax'i'f ov, ©scj^-jjrfov, xoajcrrfov, Xir^ovy &c. &c." The easy 
application of the term here your readers will quickly perceive ; — nei- 
ther was this way, however obsolete and unfashionable now, of collect- 
ing, and showing to the face, the public opinion of the University, 
deserving of censure, either as to the peculiarity of its method, or its 
general external appearance. Notwithstanding, it must be allowed 
that little interest would accrue to an ordinary reader from a perusal of 
the volume itself. By the curious, however, this and the like will 
itill continue to be read ; nor will the philosopher and the man of taste 
throw that wholly aside, from which the feelings of so considerable 
and so respectable a part of the state, on an occasion too so moment- 
ous, might be more minutely and more exactly determined than from 

30 On the Lat'm Poetry of 

the more dignified page of the historian. Nay even, in some of these 
collections, I have seen what would have furnished entertainment to 
the poetical mind, accompanied with a sort of regret that those, who 
could do so much, should, by untoward circumstances or premature 
decease, be shut out for ever from the possibility of doing more. And 
who is there, who would think himself above a consideration so noble, 
and so replete with generous feeling as this ? 

Nothing, however, of that description occurs in the work of which 
we are speaking. Peace to the shades of the individuals, whose names 
are here recorded by the printer of the Cambridge Septuagint. The 
memory of those, who never so much as thought of aspiring to any 
thing above the common, can never be offended on its being said, that 
what they did is nothing more than what they pretended to do. We 
will not even except a name, so far as concerns us here, which occurs 
in the collection, and which, did it not glow with light borrowed from 
another source, would, if thought of at all, be considered equally 
ignoble and equally worthless. Nothing short of the importunity and 
unceasing solicitation of his brother Academiaus, who would natur- 
ally enough be ambitious to have their volume embellished with such 
a name, could have induced so great a man as Isaac Barkow to 
pour forth on this occasion, against reason and against the grain, a 
flood of Mathematical Latin in the shape of an Alcaic Ode. In 
length, it is equal to three times any other in the whole set ; in qua- 
lity, as good as any, and better than most ; in peculiarity of style and 
thinking, and oddness of execution, it is incomparable, and not to be 
placed upon the same shelf with any of the rest. To give to your 
readers a full length of this unwieldy and outlandish composition 
would be to transgress out and out the limits which we can expect to 
be prescribed to us. Let one stanza suffice as a sample of the whole, 
— ' et segmine ah uno Disce orbem. We introduce it, therefore, 
without further ceremony ; taking care to premise that the first word 
is not to be understood in its strict sense, it only having been brought 
into the place of campanee by reason of an unmanageable series of 
syllabic quantity, with which the line must necessarily commence. 

Campanula non immemores sui. 
Quod imminebat, martyrii, sonis 
Nos a3mulantur; ne liquentur 
Motibus immodicis veremur. 

Here we have, shaken up together, history, poetry, and philoso- 
phy. — The bells were ringing ; the Academians were issuing forth all 
the noise they could devise ; 'twas hard to say whether the clattering 
of the bells or the applause of the Academians, from head, hand, and 
foot, was louder. These are historical facts. 

Next; these instruments of sound are represented as reasoning thus 
among themselves : 'Tis quite out of character that so fine and stately 

' The Mathematical reader may do this by referring to the third book of 
Barrow's Euclid; for which alone, though one of his inferior works, his 
name deserves never to be forgotten. 

Professors Barrow and Duport. 31 

a piece of huildbig as ottr's shcidd he dumb and silent on an occasion 
like this. No, no ; it cannot be that we should he forgetful for the 
credit of that tower,' which has oft, in times past, sheltered us from 
wind and iveather. Instant, well send iji our adherence, sfeeide and 
bells by the lump ! —^o\v, as a self-haranofue, under circumstances 
like these, is at once preposterous and unnatural, it inu^t needs be 
poetical,- dit least, if we believe that learned gentleman, who will 
have it that poetry is nothinij more nor less than prose run mad. 

Again; — Heat is occasioned by motion, and varies directly as that 
motion. Let the motion be increased continually ; the heat will also 
he increased ; till, presently, it shall be such as to reduce to a state 
of liquefaction even bell-metal. Now, as there was a rivalry between 
the sound, that is to say, (read Wood's Mechanics, Art. Wheel and 
Axle,) the motion of the bells, and the tumultuary bustle of the 
gownsmen ; and as the author of the Ode represents the rivalry as 
actually going on, it follows that the heat (if nothing previously 
should interfere with the clatter) would, at some particular point, 
commence liquefying the bells. Well then might they exclaim in the 
language of the Professor : Ne liqnentur Motihus immodicis veremur. 
N. B. This is philosophy. 

We subjoin a metrical version in English of this inestimable stanza, 
which, we hope, your readers will consider as preserving some of the 
force and spirit of the original. With their permission we will sub- 
stitute for the present tense what the grammarians term the prater- 

Right mindful of the tow'r sublime, 
Where they were wont to ring, or chime, 
The bells ill brook'd it to be reckoned 
Disloyal, false, to Charles the Second ; 
On this, they rais'd so loud a clg,ck, — 
'Twas fear'd they'd either melt or crack. 

Before we take leave of this composition, we think it a duty we owe 
to ourselves as well as to others, to assure all those, who know how 
to appreciate the merits of Professor Barrow, that his memory is not 
the less venerated by ourselves. As a theologian, as a classical scho- 
lar, and as a mathematician, he was, perhaps, the first man of his 
age ; and eminently qualified to fill that station in his University, 

• \i martyrium here denotes the church tower, and the poet is speaking of 
the tower, in which the bells are suspended, or which rises around them, one 
would have expected imminet, but perhaps imminebat was introduced for 
the sake of the verse. Our correspondent is probably right in his interpre- 
tation. Vet. Vocae. " Martyrium, testimonium ; cruciatus martyris, vel 
locus, vel templum martyris, quia in memoriam martyrum sit constructum, 
vel quod sepulcra ibi sunt sanctorum martyrum." Walafr. Strab. De Reb. 
Eccles. c. 6. " Martyria vocabantur ecclesife, quse in honorem aliquorum 
martyrum fiebant." Hieron. " Constantmopoli Apostolorum martyrium 
dedicatur." Sic August L. 22. de Civit. Dei c. 8. " Loci sancti cancellus, 
ubi martyrium erat,'' Confer M. Martinii Lexicon Philologicum sub voce. — 

32 On the Latin Poetry of 

which, on his resignation, was conferred upon his friend and admirer, 
Newton. Seldom has the biographer to record in the same person 
such an union of distinguished abihtv in so many very different and 
very opposite departments. 

The next and last of these, which attracted our notice, is one of 
three specimens given us by the Regius Greek Professor Duport ; 
who, in his own language, epiloghes on this occasion, that is, 
brings up the rear. It is hard to say whether the compositions are 
more distinguished for their eccentricity, or their imbecillity. The 
titles themselves (as Doctor Bentley would say, and did say on a 
similar occasion,) are so fulsome, as to be enough to make a man 
spew. Here, we are presented with a Carmen S^iajM^svriKOv, an 
AlviyiMx 'ETTiXoyiyJjv, and an Anagramma Epiphonematicum. He was 
afraid, we imagine, lest we should forget that he tilled the Professorial 
chair ; and thought that the most effectual way of reminding us of his 
being Greek Professor would be to din our ears with Greek words 
and Greek epithets. This is the man, we believe, who translated (for 
what purpose we know not) the whole of the Psalms into Greek Hex- 
ameter verse. Perhaps, in imitaiion of him who rendered Milton's 
Paradise host, and his Paradise Regained, and his Samson Ago- 
nistes too, into Latin Heroics, and dreamed of puthng off his trans- 
lations as a substitute for Virgil in the Grammar-schools, he had the 
vanity to imagine, that it was titter for beginners in Greek to learn 
to sing his Psalms, than to read Homer's Iliad. We have heard too 
that he was the author, or (more properly speaking) the compiler of 
the Gnomologia Homeriea ; a book of some use, but which in the 
amassing of it required labor and assiduity, rather than acuteness 
and vigor of intellect.' A man like this ought to have been employed 
in making Glossaries and Indexes, or in abridging Lexicons. 

The writing of Anagrams is a species of wit of the lowest order; 
and is much of the same sort as the writing of Echoes and Acrostics. 
Duport's Anagramma is upon the King's name ; which is bracketed 
at the head of thirteen foolish hexameter lines with the words At tu 
ros clarus. This little witticism consists of precisely the same letters, 
in a different order, as the words Carolus Stuart. The grand mys- 
tery of the Anagramma Epiphonematicum, is no other than this ; — at 

* It required not merely " labor and assiduity," but extensive reading 
and real learning, to write the Gnomologia Homeriea, of which James Duport 
was the editor, and whoever will be at the pains ot examining his marginal 
references to passages in other classical writers, where similar moral sen- 
tences, or philosophical itleas occur, and of perusing his long preface, will 
acknowledge the justice ot our remark. It is a book of much use to those 
who know how to use it } ro}>erly. Tlie learning and talents of J. Duport 
are sufficiently displayed u\ his profuse Commentarius in Theophrasti Charac- 
teras, (in'«erted in Needham's edition), and of which it- has been very im- 
properly said that it is a mere compilation from Casaubon's Commentary. 
To Duport's Commentary frequent refprence is made by Scblcusner in his 
Lexicon, und by other foreign critics, whom it is unnecessary to mention. 
Duport was, we Lelieve, tor some time the Vice-Master at Trinity-College, 
Cambridse, and atterwards Master of Mas^dalen-College, in the same Uni- 
versity. — E. 

Professors Barrow and Duport. 33 

least, this, together with what may be gathered from the substance of 
a facetious note, that occupies a place on the margin, from the read- 
ing of which we could easily conceive that honest James Duport 
would have wiUingly pulled twenty pounds out of his pocket, could 
he but, by exchanging an R for an L, have put Sol in the place of 
Ros. He accordingly harps upon this ; and this is the burthen of 
the poem. As, iiowever, it is so short, we will be at the pains to 
transcribe it for the amusement of your readers, along with the afore- 
said note. 


Ad Regem 
Anagramma Epiphonematicum. 


Ante tuum reditum, Princeps, heu ! quanta malorum , 

Ilias, et nubes, et nox horrenda Britannis 
locubuit, Clero inprimis, Gentique togat£e ! 
At TV Ros CLARUS noctumas discutis umbras, 
Mane novo cum Sole raicans, pulsisque tenebris 
Languentem recreas geniali sidere terram : 
Sol, an Ros? an uterque? Hi7ic lucem et pocula sacra, 
Et Musas, vitamque tibi, ter Maxima Regum, 
Acceptam Alma refert Mater, suaque omnia debet, 
Teque suum agnoscit Grantana Academia Phoebum. 
Hinc tibi sfisxPA damus, qui pro te 2ft2TPA vovemus, 
Quod Tu, Rex, nobis, tibi quod Deus ipse salutem 
Reddiderit. Pylios idem Te servet in annos. 

It may not be amiss to remark, that this figure of speech, ycleped 
by the Greek Professor Traulismus Alcibiadeus, must, if it be allowed 
to have any meaning at all, allude to Critias's Elegy on Alcibiades ; 
in which, on account of an unfortunate combination of quantity in 
the syllables of which that word is composed, instead of giving us a 
pentameter in the second line, he gives us an iambic senarius, — as the 
reader will see. 

Ka» vuv KXsivlov vlov 'A5r,vaTov (ri'sC^oLvt^aiM 
Ou yap iTu:; ijv Tovyoi/^' ki^a^^ot.av iXsysiM, 

1814. V, L, 

* Vel (det modo veniara lector Lambdacismo, sen Truuliimo Akibiadeo, 
L pro r) Sol Clarus. 

No. XIX. Cl.JL VoL.X. 



Auctore G. B. 
No. HI. (Ex No. XVIll. p. 293.) 

xXd finem Commentarii, quem paginis hujus diarii olim mandavi, 
tredecim Cantus Epodici recensentur, de quibus omnis fere mihi 
spes evanuerat, ut ad forinam Canftinum Euripideorum redigere 
possem. At res praster exspectationem evenit. Elenim hodie 
video, quod tarn diu pra>tervidisse mihi subirascor, illis etiam 
Epodis suum ordinem restitui posse, verbo quidem vix uno mu- 
tato. En loca, quae Viri metricarum rerum periti pro cruce habe- 
bant, nemini in posterum oifensionem datura. Ordinem vulga^- 
tum fabularum persequi lubet. 

Hecubae v. 649- et sqq. 

'Ett) doupi re xa) 'povco 

t)§ afjif) Tov 
supoov Eugcjorav Aax.aivoi 

r\p Ti3sTa« Tfxewv Quvovt- 
Tul Ts TTugeiav 

J/«JjW.OV TI$S[/,SVCt 

(T7rugixyy,0Knv owyci. 


V. 1. Saepe deest re ante x«j. In Agam. 202. restituit Porso- 
nus veaiv ts x«/. V. 8. Vuko ts'xvwv. Vid. Porson. ad Phoen. 254> 

Orestis v. 821. 

t\ci VQ<TOg V] TlVCt 

daxpuoc T»V S' eAe- 

og jK-s/^wv xard y«v 

>j [/.arpoxTOvov ajjW.- 

(X. %ngi Qs(Td- 5 

at ; olov ^py- 

QV Oi y iTAUC, 

/35|3axp^eucr' Eu- 

jX£V»Cr<V jW-«Vl'«»J ^Tip(XfJ.X ^ovco 

?ipo[j,a.(7iv hivsuwv ev /3Ae(pago«j 10 

V. 1. Vulgo doLKpu rj, alii Saxgya xal. mox adest 8'. V. 7. rsXl- 
crag MS. Harl. og reKsaas. Reposui IrAaj. Verbum amat Euri- 
pides. Vid. Beck. ludicem. V. 8. Vulgo /3e/3«x;)^EUT«» ft-aviajj jEufce- 

TTCiig 'Aya.fA,siJt,voyios' 
u) jU-eXs [Margocj ots, 
^gvasOTTYivriToov fagsuiv 
[j,u(TTOV UTtsqrsKKovT icn,t<J6v, 

(Tfayiov jMUT- 

' > "a ^ 

sg ejou Tocv 

icav aixoi^av. 

In Carnnna Epcdica, fy. 


yis-i: mox Iv deest. V. 12. Vulgo jitsAeoj, V. l6. Ex sQsto erui 
sQoo Tixv fortius est secunda persona j cui favet et metriim. 

Alcestidis v. 276. et sqq. 

xAjWts jw,'* ou crfllvct) 
9rocrr -ttXyjctiov adag' 
wxoriu V Itti vu^ 0(T(t- 


ouK ST £(ttIv '^alpon 
CO rexva" TO§e 


V. 8 


<Pu>§ ogcoTOV 

Vulgo ;^a/§ovTef. At in hac formula non usurpatur 
Errat Moukus ad Hipp. 1438. 

Supplicum V. 1087. et sqq. 
OJSj'ttou [J^epog m ysgov 1 Verba praecedentia in Antistrophica di^- 
ac«) (TV ttoAjj s[jia. tKu^mv. J gessi ad Troad. Append, p. 197. 

Iphlgeniae in Aulide v. .573. et sqq. 
E[ji.oXsi CO riugig Yj- a (r' 'JEXAaS' h7rs[X,Tr 

re cruye fiovxoXog a^y- 
svvalg Irpa^yjc '/- 
Zalaig Trapa [xo(r^oig 
^ap^aga arvgii^- 
oov <Ppvylcov avh- 

WV Iv 'OXufJ^TT- 

ou xa.Xa.[/.oi(r~ 

IV jU-jju-^jU-ar IjXTrAexwv, 

sy9>jAoi Ss /3oOj rgecpovT'j 

OTS xgiing or' 

sfjievs dsoiv, 



h(roi§ 'EXsvag 

avTMTioig oVcrojj ^\sfup- 

oicri <T egooTO. beoooxag eg* 


In V 

oc/fv ep- 

<5 'ipiv 

'EKXuta (Tuv Sogi vau(r» t a- 

yei Tpoiocg eg Ilsgyaijucx.. 



V. 16. Vulgo ogrcig: quod stare potest. V. 17. Vocem otrcrojf 
propter oig omissam revocavi. Idem fere peccatum correxi in 
Oreste. Vid. Classical Journal, N. XIII, p. 377. Dicitur uvtm- 
"KOig QCrcroig ut Ojaj«,a — ($aiSpcu7rov in Orest. 883. (xxv^gcwnov oijl[/^ix 
Phoen. 1354. aygiooTrov oy.[xot, Here. F. 990. aipt^UTCMTroug xoga^ 
Orest. 250. yogywTr-g aiya) Here. F. 131. uix^Xwireg avya) Rhes. 

- ibid. V. 1080. et sqq. 
Ho) h' STti xaga. 


vKoxov "Agy- 

eloi, ^aXlav wctts wsTga/aiv un 

lA^outrav ogiwv [AOO'^oy, axYjpuTOV 

^go- 6 


In Carmina Epodica 

AluKidotKri yaafi. 
)j TO Tu: cip?ra; 



TrgotrMTTOV, ors to ju-sv «~ 

(TSTTTOV £p^e» §yvajx»v" 
a 8' a^sTa xaroViv 

Asjxar TavofJix 

8e VO|aOV KpaTzi' 
xaxovoig 8' aycuv 
jSgoTOKTiv, hocv Tig 

5:(ioy tpSovog sXSrj. 


V. 4. V^ulgo 7rAox«jW,ov. Eadem var. lect. in Med. 782. V. 5. 
TTSTgodov : correpto ai : vid. Gaisford. Hepha?st. p. 2l6. V, 6. 'Ogsoov 
est diss) Ilabon. V. Q. Vulgo ovS' £v poj/3Si^(re<. Vocem noii alibi inve- 
nire possum : reposui tx tiesychio 'Poj/SSc/jSs;. hiuc iiitelJigas verba 
Lexicographi [xeToi^y^ov f. >c«t« y;;5(^a) ay]5e7(scil. cru^jyy*) «jj ol 7roi[x,sv;s. 
V. 1'2. ^Jvax^^'^^S yoL\Lov inleiligi neqiieunt. Redde AlaxldoiKrt yaij^fi. 
Nuhes Actiilli. V. l6. Vulgo to Trgoixc/mov qttots. V. 20. Vulgo 
ccvo[xiu. sed excidit t« propter rai. V , 22. E xu) xoivoc erui xaxo'- 
vojj. Eandem vocem ope Suida? restituit Brunckius Aristophani 
Pac. 49^. Hesych. Kocxo)iog, xocxovowv. 

Baccharum v. 900. et sqq. 

(TTg. j3. 
i/'tJSai'/xcov jw,sv be Ix QuXoiTcrYig 
sipsvy-- xu^j^a Xiixsvu o' sxi^sv 2 

oK^iog' XM Suaij 
jjivplcict jj.vpia.i§ 
eiliv ST gltrlv 
IX7r/8ef, od /xev 

UVTitTTO. p. 

2 7rap>jA9=v iTs'pa S' lyavyfl' STsgog 4 

O TeXrUTWCJV Iv 0A/3cU 9 

^poTolg' a\ V uTis^yiaaV 
Tov Ss xar' yjfJ'Cig, otco /Sjoj 
suZal^cav, fxaxagli^oo. 

V. 4. Vulgo sylvsd' STspa. 8* ste^oj sts^ov "OX^co xctT duvoc[ TragrjX- 
6iv. Haec iutelligere non possum. Transpositis -Tragr^X.^e et sy/vsfl' ; 
e proximo erui eyocvvf. hoc verbum bis Euripides usurpat in Iph. 
T. 1239- et Cycl, 502. ubi lege, ut id obiter moneam, 7ra»8of >jp»jf, 
vice SajToc, quie voces permutantur in Ion. Saspe Trag^A^s apud Ho- 
merum fej'ellit, in activo sensu : hie in neutro. Similiter ^e/'e/Z/i in 
Ilorviinnw vixit 77io?iensqne fejellit. Mox alteium hsgog delevi. 
In talibus vox bis tantum usurpatur. Vid. Beck. Indicem, V. '''ETsgog. 
dein e xa) Suvajaej erui 8oatj alsv. Cf. Simonid. Fragm. iv. 20. 
fj-vglat BgoTolci xrigsg xuvsTri^gucTTOi 8wai. V. 11. Vulgo (^ioTog. 

ibid. 1013. et sqq. 

^oiVY/Qi raC'pOs, 
t] 7roK-JKocpr]vog 

fiV dpUi 

>3 TTVp) (^Xeycov 
6goi(T$(xi Xscuv 

VflJ To' 5 » X 

lO (ti pClK^ ICO 

Euripidea Coinmentarius. 37 

ysXu>VTi TTgo(Too7tcti 6 <Aay tov ttso-ovt- 

vsgi^ciXB ^go^ov a. Tuy Mixiya.ti(jiV. 

V. 3. Vulgo y Miiv i. e. o-'ilsiv. Sa.'pe permutantur y et <t. Vid. 
Iph. T. 692. Alcest. 236. Philoct. 571. Pers. 636. Hesych. V. 
'A^'M^a; et 77s7r»y/xevo<. Quod ad s\<nh"iv cf. Phoen. 149- Fogyoi; 
tKTiliiv. V. 11. Vulgo aye'Xav. Hesych. "/Ai^v. ubi citant Interpp. 

Heraclidarum v. S72. et sqq. 

Elgyjvcn /x=v e^j^oiy upscrH- ' Oup^ outcoj, a Soxsir, xupjj- 

«<* 0"£ 8', w xa.x.6fpcuv otva^, <r;<j* cu (toj jito'vov eyp^oj owS* 

Xeycti, si ttoAjv ^'^=<c 3 irsa Karay^aXKOS. 6 

aAX' w TToKsixctiV SQa.(TTa.g svcalo;. 

lJ,Yj-fj.oi 6og) (TUVTugci^ri^ 

su ^«^(Twv sp^o'JO'av 

Tav TToAiv, aXX' avaff'p^ou. 10 

V.6. £<rT»v deleri jubet Blomfieldus, Quarterly Rev. N. XVIII. 
p. 3.57. de reliquis Vide Classical Journal, N. XVl. p. 401. 

lonis V. 491. et sqq. 
*i2 IJavog QuKYjfLoi, xa.) Ttup- 

uuXlKovaoe. Tzsrpa [x,u^cti^i- "vu Tsxoucra ti; 

(Tiv Maxqtxli, TTugUvog jLteArj 

Tva yoqoKT- figstpov; (poBoo TTTavolg J5 

»v <TTzl^oi)(Ti TToSoov *^yA- e^cugtasv ^olvuv 
uvpov rglyovoi xovpai 6 6r;pcr/ re ^otviav 

oraSja ^Kosgu, Trgo dulra, wixguiv yoifxc/jv 

IIaXXa.dos vawv, v^pktijJ' out bti) x!gxl(nv 

avpiyyog vtt', aloXag t lax^cig our' Iv Xeay^ocKTiV (paT»v 20 

vjji,vov(T^, OTdV avXiog a-vglt^r^g oiiov suTv^lxg (jlsts- 

w riav, To\<Ti yza ficoSsV T£XV« SvaroTf . 
0"o7j Iv ocvrgotg' 12 

V. 1. ©ax)jjw.aTa. Saepe nuuieri usurpantur. V. 2. Egregie Tyr- 
whittus fAupi^coSso-j emit e /au^oi Sajs-/. V. 10. Aid. vfx,vcov MSS. Steph. 
v[ji.vov mox auXjoj pro auAia est conjectura Musgravii, quam pluribus 
locis comprobaie potuissem. Trach. l65. emendat Wakefieldus 
legendo Tgijw-rjvoj et citat Apoll. Khod. i\ . 841 . Orph. Argon. 66l. 
(ed. Herm.) Virgil. iEn. viii. 465. Theocrit. vii. 21. ubi plura 
Toup, et Valck. V. 14. Vulgo jw^jAsa redditur infelix ; reposui 
ju-eXij membra : mox vice ^oi'/Sw dedi (fo^co pra timore : cf. v. infr. 
89B. fgUa. [xurpog : et 1498. 'Ev <^o/3c« xaraSsSeTcra. V. 19. Vulgo 

38 In Carmina EpocUca 

''T^qiv : et mox Xoyoitriv : at mulierum conventus est, /ieV;^«J. 
Vid. Hesycb. v. In Hippolyt. 1135. restitui XeV^*) vice Aex*' ^^ 
Troad. 602. 

ibid. 711- et sqq. 
' H ^Yj TTsKua-a-ag 

rs x«j TTXTYig iTToXoig oif/^a. (Tvix,^a,K^ciig- 

vsog vsov, jut^TToQ' slg Iju-av ttoXjv 7jtoi6' 6 Trttlg, 

'iva ys See' aTSs Uagv- 5 a]U,£pav v£«y S" aitoKmuiV Qotvoi' 14 

acou TtsTpcug syov- (rTSW[/,svoc yug dv crx^^'iv ep^cn ttoAjj 

o-j trxoVeAov ^svixov elcr/SoAav. aAAa yaj o-TTOgof, 

oupavjov kgyjxylg wv, '£g- 

sSpavov 5', »V' 6 Baxp^iof ajU-Cp- eji^fiswj avacrcro*. 18 

iTTupovg oive^oiv Trsuxaj 10 

V. 5. Vulgo jW Isgalsg. De ye post »W posito vid. Valck. 
ad Phoen. mox erui Sep' «TSe i. e. Se'^ai dl'^z ex lepahg. Hesych. Aepoi, 
UTreg^oXrj ogovg. V. 8. vice eSpav dedi 'ilpoaov. V^id. ad Troad. 1082. 
ubi eadem var.. lect. V. 11. \a\'\)y\gai. Vid. Porson. Hec. 788. et 
quse dixi in prceeunte epodo. V. 16. Vulgo " AXig ag e Tragog. erui 
aAAa yoig (Tttopoj. Construe ' Egs^$ioog (nropog, mv Ugyayog, avofi-tyoi 
ySig. Denique vulgo «v«^. excidit ultima syllaba compendiose 

ibid. 912. et sqq. 

xaxbg svvoltooq, 

og TO) [xsv Ifxco 

vv[Ji(psuTU X^piv ov TrgoXot^uiy 

TralS' e]g o'iKOug olxl^sig. 

Strophas praecedentes disposui ad Troad. Append, p. 138. 

Herculis Furentis v. 134. et sqq. 
lie TTUTgog oia. ou AeAojTrsv ex tskvuiv' 

yogycoTTsg a»'Se crov ^ caroiysTUi ^agig, 

7rgo<y<^sgslg 'EWoig, el, 

auyui' TO Se y' o'iovg o'loug oAecrcra- 

ijv xuKorvylg, era, TmV uTrocrTsgYjcrsi. 

Vulgo TO Se S^ ; at de ))y et Sjj permutatis vid. Porson. ad Horn. 
OS. mox vulgo OTA : excidit c propter o. 

His tandem cantibus dispositis, video etiamnum restare tres 
Epodos in Troasin, de quibus consulto nihil dicere mecum con- 
stitui, ne Editionem iteratam quam dim meditabar, aliquatenus 
praeoccuparem. Verum quo tempore illud opus sim per- 
feeturus cum sit valde incertum, in praesenti omnia proferre in m«- 

Euripidea Commentarius. 39 

dium libet, quae ad nietra Euripidea pertinent. Hanc ob causam 
cantus Hippolyti et Iphigeniae m Auiide, melius quam vulgantur, 
denuo disponam. 

Troadum v. 56l. et sqq. 

'Eyvj 5e Tav opstTTsgctv <^Gvla. 8' ava tttoAjv /3oa 

TOT ik[i<i)) jas'Xaflpa Trap^svov, xarsl^s iTc^yajU-aJV s^pa;, 

AiQs Kopxv ," ApTsiJ^iV /3gs^>) Ss <^/A« Trsgt TreTrAouf 

e{/,skiroy sv ^ogoKrt' 4 £/3«AAs jW-ar^j %eip«f 8 

l7rT&»jjU,gv«5* Xo^ov S' e^£/3a»v' "AgYjc, x.6ga.g t STTM^Oi. 

egya. naWdlog' (T^oiyoiX S' ajW.^(/3a)|xio» 4>pvycov 

(TJV xagaTOjtiOj 

l^*}ju,/a 1 3 


'JEXAaSj xougorpoipa) (ppv- 
ycuv ya. TrctTglh Trevfljj. 

V. 4. Vulgo sfjisKTTOfjiciv. At Euripides Mediam vocem hujus 
verbi non usurpat. In Andr. 1017. sic lege IloWoi 8' Iv 'Ewdvoov 

k'xpgois (TTOva^sTtg MsAttovto du^TOiVoi rsxscov' aXo^oi 8' ' E^bKsittov 
mKOug nrpog aK\ov svva-Togot : et in antistrophico /3=/3axe S' 'ArgslBotg 
aKo^ov 7raAajM.«»j" /iurd 8' hvaKKa^wra, <povov QctvuTcu irpog tsxvmv 
siTtYjogoc. Qsog. fleoD y '£v x=Asyo-jaaT< (rrgafyi. x. r. A. V. 7- <p/A»« et 
s/3aAe; Porsonus Advers. p. 263. e/SaAAs, coUato Bacch. 6l9- 
V. 10. Ita MS. Fl. Aid. aju-^i /3a)|W,oT^». V. 18. Omittebatur ra 
ob 7ra. In Suppl. 1037. tacite Hermannus y^v Trocrpl^x vice t^v 
troiTgldx. Multa proferre potui de y^ sagpe sic corrupto vel oniisso. 
Sed taceo prudens. 

ibid. V. 1240. et sqq. ibid, ad fabulae finem. 

EK. 00 (p(\TctTCici XO. ayopi^sQ 


yuvutKsg w* (psp6pt.s$x 

XO. <roif' svstt' ' Exoi^i) EK. aXyog a.\y» 

tIvx 6posig «y8«v ; og ^oxg 

8ouAs<ov siii jU-eAafl^- 
ov BK TtoLTgctg s[x,Sig. 

Inter haec <ru(f est conjectura Musgravii pro a-ag. 

Postremum denique carmen Epodicum emendabo : quod olina 
pessime disposui in Append. Troad. p. 192. Verius in 
Classical Journal N. XVIII. p. 296. ubi monui Stropham et 


In Carmina Epodica 

V. 1300. etsqq. 
ev9a TTOTg UaXXui; Ijao- 

"Hga V 'EgiJ:,a.g x 
ayysAof oiv ACog 

"Hoa. T civoiKTog euv- 
aig (3«(r»Ajcr<y Jio'f. 

Antistropham redigi posse ad regulam nostra m. Lege igitur 
versus rion Antistrophicos tali fere mode. 

V. 1283. etsqq. 
'/2 vtfojSoXov ^qvyuiv 
aTTOj id«f T oge« 
Tlaqiv oSt 


[xctTphg oczovgo voa'<^t<rag, [lo- 
pcu 'ttj SavaTo'sVTi npia[JLog, 
ore oa- 
oj 6 8«A- 
Of e^Ajyev sv 
4>qvyaiV TtoKei. 

Inter haec mutavi O^' lAAIOS lAAIOX in OTE AAIOX O AAAOX; 
de qua mutatione dixi in Class. Journ. N. XVIII. p. 297. mox 
vulgo 6 Aiog ayysXog. In Class. Journ. N. XV^. p. 148. promisi 
Hippolvti carmina Monostrophica fore restituta in Censura editio- 
nis, quam Monkus deniio procuravit. At quoniam consilium diu 
abjeci illam censuram in lucem proferendi, libet, hac occasione 
data, promissum aliqua parte absolvere. -Lege igitur 

V. 811. et sqq. 

<Trp, a. ccvTHTTp. a. 

0H. 'Iw Icti TitAaiva u.s\eoov kukoov xotTaxovoi ^? vuv a^lorog j3tog. 

'tTra&sg, elgyoi<Tco re ToA/xac , Ico, xuxcov §' u> rocXocg 7re\uyog slfrogai 

ro(rouTOV, ciVre TOucrSc crvy^ecci toctoutov, axTre jU-i^Tror' sxysucrai 

SojW,ouf, TTaAiv, 

Iw (Siaicp T otvoo-lca ts (yv[X^ogoi [J^rjT sxTrsgatrai xvfj:,ci t^j-^s (XUjW,- 


era,g X^^o? 7raA«j£rj«,a /xsA=«j 

W Tig dp\ a> TaXaiva, ixocvgol 

t^oav ; 6 

■fj jjio) ^upficK, xa» SojM,o<j Ittect- 

x^Ajj ai^gu(TTog e^ aXaa-Togoov 

00 /U.OJ eyca ttu^cwv hraSoVf w 


TO. l/.d.XKTT ipi'UiV XUHUIV, UJ 

Tvxa, 10 

arg. (3, 
Trig crrjj (TTiprfiiig (^tXTUTYjg biJ^iklug' 
6i7rw\i<rug yug f/,S,XXov rj xuTsfQicro, 

T(V« SoAov TaAaj Tiva ruyav ce- 

^a.gv7:oT[xov, yvvoii, TrgoiroctJ^cuv 
Tuxca ; 

» ( 'I , ~ V 

ogvig yap wg Tig ix yegwv afavTog 


Trrj^Tf/.' kg' Ahu xpumvov 6g[XYj7a.a-x 


TO xuTu yug crxoxog to xxtx. yug 

fj^sTOixsiv Qecvoov 6 tXyji^cov SsAoj. 20 

avTiTTg. (B. 
SI TTQi Tij av TO 7rpci)(^Qh r) [/.ocrriv 

Euripidea Commentarius. 41 

«! ou fiihsa jaeAsa raSe TraSrj 23 (Treys* Tvgavvov Swjxa 'Kqo<y'n6KoiVf 

T'jp^a Sai/xovcuv ; 23 t/vo; 7ro9ev QavoLcrfixog Tv^a. 

ov xAyjToy ou8= frjTOV aAX* «?:«)- yvvon croiv, rxXuiv, e|3« xagStav. 

Aojw,»jv »w jW-o* creflcV 

sp-t\iiog olxos' KCi) Texv' o^:p«vsvsrai XO. ou trot raS wva^ j^aSs 8:7 jtAOi/to 

HfSyov Xiy(oi, 35 

OH. [xeKsog olov siSov aKyog 80- 

crx^. y. ayTKTTq. y- 

fAiTTHj e?a7TcC M 37 XO. CO TaAxj TaA«j 

(fiAa yovai'xcuv a.pi<TT- xaxov e3(f=' ScojU,' oa"ov, 

a 6' Q7t6(Txg l^oqoi - {J^Xsipupa. jiou dun^ua-iv 

cpiyyog dxlov ts x«j 40 xuTxp(iiUvTX Teyysraj) 45 

vuxTOf uTTEPMTrov oiji.y,x [XYjVY (raTup^a'TrJTjjSs'TrrJjW'afg/crcra). 

Si qiiis haec cum vulgato ordine conferat, vix dubium videtur 
quin in nostras partes accedat. Neque Monkus neque Seidlerus 
(p. 20.3.) rem feliciter gessit ; et licet neutrum latere videatur 
carmen ejsse Antistrophicum, ii tamcn nou perspectum habebant 
quibus terminis Strophe et Antistrophe intercludantur, nee qua 
ratioue versus de sede turbati in proprios locos reduci possint. 
Mutationes paucissimas ob meirum t'uctas quantum potero bre- 
vissime commemorabo. V. 2. tb propter to omissum reposui : 
mox versibus transpositis roAjaaj et toctoOtov junguntur, sicut 
Tocrourov ccfjiu^la; in Ion. 367. V. 4. Pro /Sja/coj, Elmsleius ^iaicu. 
Ipse addidi r'. Mox SavouTa in TraSoucra mutavi, ut TrixXcn(riJL» 
habeat, unde pendeat. V. 7- Suae ipsius interrogationi respondet 
Theseus. Reposui igitur yj vice wg ei STrsa-TixSr) cum Valckenaerio 
vice iTTscTTa^Tjj. V. II. 'A^'ioTo; Seidlerus de Dochmiacis p. 208. 
V. 15. Ao'yov vix capio. dedi SoAov. V. I9. Si hue respexerit 
Hesychius To kuto. yac, ^Ifos, aliam dederit interpretationem, quae 
nunc fortasse spectat ad locum Comici verba Euripidea ludibrio 
habentis. V. 24. Vulgo Tr^oauiSsv dL Dedi Trgocra^UvTa. V. 28. 
Vulgo Twv 7r«poj5=v Tivof. At Tivo; omni venustate caret, lego 
ysvou;. V. 30. TrpocTTToAwv Ijxwv. At friget IjW/Cwv. Reposui xKvca, 
ut Tivog pendeat de subaudito irro. Cf. supra 270. 352. V. 32. 
Ita Elmsleius. V. 41. Vice ua-Tsgaiirog ccAava restitui cco-ts- 
pcoTtov o[X[xoi (j^rjvtj. Respicit Euripides ad verba ^schyli in 
Suvrplccig: quae feliciter emit Bentleius Epistol. Mill. p. 501. 
ed. Lips, e prava scriptura Ovtm Ah^^Xog ESANTIAX ovts ttIju.^*^ 
»)Ai'oy TTgocrSegxsTaj Ovt AXTEPflN STOMA Ar\T<joa.g x6qy\g, legendo 
OuTcu A\<7-y6Kog Iv Bcuvrqicng ^''Ag outs Tti^xfi^ r,klov Tr^otrSspxeTai Our' 
oKj-TsgcoTTov 0/jt.jM.a ArjTwug xogij;. Cui conjecturae eximiae favent 


In Carmina Epodica, ^c. 

Orest. 883. ofifia — (pxidgcoTrov Phoen. 1354. o-KvdpuiTov oi/.[ix Here. 
F. 990- ocYgiMTTov ofj^iJ^a. Respicitur quoque ad Prom. 821. aj ou3' 
ij'Aior Trpoa-dsgaerai 'Axrla-iv ou^' y} vvKTsgog /xi^v*) ttotI. Voceni /xijvyj 
paulo rariorem exponit Hesychius per crsA^v*;. V. 43. Vulgo oVoi/ 
xuKov sy^si So/jtoj. At quoties dciuftx et ^ofxog permutentur raonet 
Porsonus ad Phoen. 337- 1596. et quoties oa-og versum claudat 
Toupius ad Suid. Vol. i. p. 252. V. 46. TraAaj omittit Lascaris 

Neque meliori conamine rem gessit Monkus ad v. 869. Sed, 
ut verum fatear, ille Editoi' rebus metricis non multum operse 
videtur insumsisse. 

XO. To'Se vio^iJi^ov ev Ixdo^aig sttskt- 

oKofj^svovgyag ovxer ovragAeyco^ 
^so fsv, Toov l/AoJv Tvgcivvcov 80- 

ru^ccv xpog to Kguv&iv 5 

eTjj /xoi Xsysiv. 
M dixl[ji.ov, eT TTcug s<tti, (atj 

(r(paA>j SojM-of' 
a\TOV[UiVY^g 85 xXwS/ /xou. Trgoug- 

yoo Tivog 
o^wvov uxTTS [/,a.VTig sWopia kol- 
xujv. 9 

GH. o^fJ-oif ToS' oiov a. Wo Trgog 

xaxco jcajiov 
XO. r't %§>5P-a >■ As^ov, St' t/ /aoj 

Xoyov fcerw 
OH. uXucTTO. SeATo;-7roj <p6yca /3a- 
pog xaxoov, 
cu olV XO. xotxcav ocg^vjyov sx- 
<poclnig Xoyov 


OLTTO 8' oXo^svog o\y(0\h ' oiov sid- 
ov h yga^xlg fXsXog 15 

^Qsyyoi^svov raXxg; o» 'yco^)g rocXoig. 

TO^S 8' Sy^OV OUXSTl (TTOl^OCTOg sv 


xa^s^M dv(TSK7rsg- 
arov XOLXOV oXoov, 

06 tAvJTOV Ot;8' aVSKTOV CO tA^jW-COV 


'/ttttoAutoj suVYjg tvjj s[/.Yjg Qiysiv 

/3/a TO tre;avoy Zijvoj ovojw.' ocTifxci- 

aAA , CO TTOiTsp no(TSt^oVy kg sfjiol 


jW,/a xuTsig- 


agug vttso-^ov rgsig, 

TOUTcav IjtAOV 7rai8'" ^jo-lgay 8g 

TV/vS', sTtts^ ^jxTv c«nao-a5 cra^slg 


V. 2. Post xa;cov inseruntur s/aoj 
V. 3. Lasc. oAoujxsvouj. V, 5. 
Tu redde Ulinam mihi liceat 

V. 1. Fugitivum Iv revocavi. 
/xev ouv a/3/coTo$ /3/ou e v. supr. 823. 
Haec muius mtellexit Monkus. 
dicei'e fo" I unas domtis contra fati decreta. Nempe dixerat Cho- 
rus perdjtam esse domini domum. V. 6. /xo» de meo mserui et 
Tvysiv in Xsysiv mutavi. Stare tanien potest tv^bIv in sensu scopum 
attingere. V. 7- Codex Paris. a-fa.Xv}g i. e. a-^aXYji. V. 8. Vulgo 
ffgof ya^ rtvo'g. Non intelligunt Editores. Reiskms Trpo, et sic Cen- 
sor Angkis Quarterly Rev. N. XV. p. 228. Ipse dedi 'Trgovgyou. 
Adi Hesych. V. niox xaxov^ Aid. MSS. xaxov dedixaxwv: cf. 
Horn. JX. A. 106. MuvTi xuxiov CEd. C. 1080. jxocvTij — uymMV He- 
len. 345. Trpofjt^avTtg uXyscov. Vid. Class. Journ. N. XVI. p. 391. 

Dr. Sumner's Concio ad Clerum. 43 

V. 12. /3o« jSoa sunt interpoktoris orationem Thesei imperfectam 
supplentis. V. l6. Ex w ttoXjj ttoXjj erui o1yca 8»f rccKag. Urbis 
mentio hie nihil ad rem. V. 20. Ita Valck. Cf. Hec. ^59- T^g ou 
TAaraj rajou fsprag. Vulgo ovU Xsktov. V. 22. vice Ojotju,' res- 
titui : ovofji,' : adi Poison, ad Orest. 1080. 

Hacteniis de Euripideis ; ad ^schylea mox pergam. 

The Concio ad Clerum, delivered by Robert Sumner, while he 
was a fellow of King's College, Cambridge, for his Doctor's 
Degree, was admired by the Scholars of that day as the finest 
specimen of Latinity, which this country had produced, and, 
anxious as we are to rescue England from the imputation cast 
on its Scholars by J. L. Mosheim, in a note to D. G. Mor- 
hof's Tract De pura Dictione hatina, noticed in No. XVII. 
page 47, we have resolved to re-publish it. We are indebted to 
the politeness of the learned and excellent Head Master of 
Harrow School for the loan of it. 







Coll. REGAL, olim SOCIO. ' 

ACT. Jpostolomm Cap. xvii. Comm. 21. 

'yl9y)vaioi Se Travrej x«) ol l7r»Sr)ja.ouvTS? ^ivoi eJj oli^h eregov evaon^ouv 
vj Xsysiv Ti Kxi axousiv xuivoTsgov. 

Ceterum Athenienses omnes et Inquilini, nulli alii rei vacabant, 
nisi ad dicendum, aut audieudum aliquid novi. 

AN historiis nihil fer^ gravius legenti cuivis aut memorabilius oc- 
currit, quam narratio brevis hascce, sed dilucida atque apprime ele- 

44 Dr. Sumner's Concio ad Clerum. 

gans ; qua exponitur Divi Paidi egregia quiedam in religlone nos- 
tra propaganda constantia et fides. Videmus fortem eum et stre- 
nuum veritatis vindicem cum hominibus harbaris aliquandiu versa- 
tum, cum Judeis identidem et Grucis acerriiu^ decertantem. 
Nee vero mirari licet, cur exitus parum felices et fructuosos solcr- 
tia ejus atque iudustria habuerit, cvini certamen esset couditionibus 
adeo iniquis comparatum, Hinc nimirum obstabat, quae opinio- 
nem quamvis prayudicatam tueretur, coiitumacia et stupor ; iliuic 
subtilior disputandi ratio ; et sapientiasj nou vera quidem, sed qua- 
dantenus adumbrata, sed ad illecebras composita quodammodo et 
facta, species. Alii orationem ejus nondum exauditam respuebant ; 
alii auditam perperam intelligendo fecere, ut nihil omnino intelli- 
gerent. In Judicium deinde vocatus, causam sibi demandatam 
gravissime vir fortis idem et rerum prudens perorabat ; nee aliud 
sibi ab Areopagitis patrocinii petebat, quam quod officii eorum 
exigeret religio et fides. 

Incorruptum illud tribunal ab Atbeniensibus semper habitum est, 
atque in primis grave : nee qui subselliis ejus assideret, subornatus 
quispiam satis atque instructus videbatur, nisi is, cujus pi udentiam 
et fidem spectatani satis et cognitnrn perlonga civium experientia, 
atque eorundem favor comprobarat. Idonei sane judiees ! quorum 
arbitrio hominis cujusvis rei caput et fortuna; committerentur. De 
causis quse in foro plurimiim disceptari solent, severe satis et caste 
judicabant ; de rebus ad religionein attincntibus non item. 

Erat enim Atheniensibus solenne Deos quoslibet e gente quali- 
bet nullo diserimine habito asciscere, aut civitate quemadmodum 
hospites donare ; ita tamen, ut numinibus patriis atque indigenis 
cultus quidam proprius constaret et suus : rati nimirum Diis, qui 
jam multi essent, locum esse pluribus ; eosque externos simul et 
domesticos in eadem Civitate commode satis et socialiter posse 
consistere, Inde tot templa, qua^ Paiili bilem commovebant, in 
Deorum, qui nullierant, cultuni, ni popuJi coleiitis opprobrium ex- 
tructa. Inde Ara Tfli AFNSlSTflt QEfLi consecrata ; cujus men- 
tione facta, exinde idem ille argumenta texuit, quae veritatis judicia 
confirmarent, et superstitionis commenta coarguerent. 

Si \ey^ quaeratur, cur religioni Christianae ade6 obnixe adversa- 
rentur homines in pietate niniii potius quam parci ; cur ii, qui ex- 
ternas ceremonias ritusque omnes atque omnigenos amplexi sunt^, 
religionem banc unam contemserint ; brevis est et facilis respon- 
sio. Idololabicc species permultae sunt, diversae eae quidem, sed 
non et contrariae ; ita ut consortium quoddam commune et cogna- 
tionem inter se non difficilem habeant, Numinibus cultum eum, 
qui aliis habebatur, nemo putabat esse detractum suis. Templa 
ubivis quotidie fundata sunt ; extruebantur arae Diis omnibus quot- 
quot uspiam fuerint, tum Grcccis turn Barharis, viventibus perinde 
ac mortuis^ Notis atque Jgnotis. Deum vero unum atque unicum 

Dr. Sumner's Concio ad Clerum, 45 

agnoscere, quo semel agnito actum esset de ceteris, id neque Urbs 
KATEI dflAOS pal'iehatur, nee aquo aninio ferebant Magistratus 
ii, quibus cura? esse debebat, ne quid Religio popularis detrimenti 
caperet. De veritatis igitur indagatione non ab iis constanter 
et seri6 agebatur ; autorem libenter audiebant novas cujusdam 
opinionis, quam nemo aut comprobare ausus est, aut potuit refel- 
lere. Nee accusatoribus, nee judicibus curae fuit, quid verum esset 
aut decens ; novum aliquod et antea inauditum desiderabatur : 
'Adj}vciiioi yag e\g ouSsv %T-pov suKoclgouv ri Kiysiv ti xxi uxoustv xatvorspov. 

In diibium res merit6 venire possit, maline plus an boni homini- 
bus attulerit vehemeus ilia, quae m Atheniensihus repreheuditur, no- 
vitatis cupiditas. 

Ei certe acceptum refertur, quicquid id est, quod in veritate in- 
daganda laudatur. Hinc exoriebantur artes illze, quarum ope ac 
subsidio vita lautior tit atque elegantior, et quasi munditias suas ha- 
bet. Hinc res literaria originem atque incrementa duxit ; hue dig- 
nitatem suam refert doctrina ilia, qua? lionoris causa humanior ap- 
pellari solet ; hue spectat omnium, in eadem aut stabilienda aut 
ornandii, scriptorum indies succrescentium labor. 

At ver6 idem illud novitatis studmni, quod in veritate inveniend^ 
niagnam vim habet, inventae non rar6 obest. Sunt, qui conspici 
malunt, quam prodesse ; famzeque ii quam utilitatis studiosiores, 
sapientes si haberi possunt, esse Hon desiderant. Hujusmodi ho- 
minibus opiniones, quas anteactorum temporum sapientia atque 
auctoritas comprobavit, fastidium quoddam pariunt. Obsoletas 
istius et veteris prosapiae taedet pigetque : quia scilicet quicquid 
exinde laudis parari queat, id jam ab antiquis praeoccupatum nihil 
recentioribus sublegendum reliquerit. Praeterea, simplex quiddam 
est atque unum Veritas ; limites sibi priescriptos habet, eosque per- 
angustos. Non est ibi, quo se pra^cipitet liber ille spiritus, qui 
tum demum sibi sublimius sapere videtur, cum vagatur, atque er- 
rat audaciiJs ; incerta pro cognitis habet, nova pro veris ; homini- 
bus ceteris discrepat, nee tamen constat sibi. 

In civitatibus, ubi artes ad civilem vitam attinentes, eaeque ade6 
qua* ad mores informandos spectant, rudes plane atque incultae 
jacent, mirum quiddam efficere solet curiosa, imm6 et pneceps 
ilia res varias atque omnigenas pernoscendi aviditas. Multum 
valet hominum eorundem iisdem in studiis concertantium asmula- 
tio : quod unum latuit, quod alterum fefellit, id alii felicius succes- 
sit ; quod hujus industria neutiquam extudit, id illi nee opinanti 
fortuit6 scire contigit. Neque enim fieri potest, ut ars quaevis om- 
nibus suis numeris perfecta sit atque expleta, nisi plurimi multum 
diuque in singulis ejusdem partitionibus elaborarint, ut tandem ali- 
quando efficiatur cumulata atque absoluta universae cognitio. 

Malta cuivis in arte qualibet laboranti occurrant necesse est, 
qu<e consimilia videntur esse, nee sunt. Multa idem ille diversa 

46 Dr. Sumner's Concio ad Clerum. 

'\mn\h et contraria esse autumet, quae taiuen vinculo quodam et 
cognatione communi continentur. Alia sunt ita minuta et subtilia, 
ut acutissimam ingenii aciem eludant ; alia magna adeo atque im- 
mensa, ut animum elatiorem postulent, quam naturae humance im- 
becillitas patiatur, nisi contentioVie perpetua crebrisque identidem 
exercitationibus vigorem tuerit plusquam suum consecutus, Id- 
circo hominum labore niultorum opus est, qui res varias in partes 
quamque suas distribuat, ut consimilia distingui possint, separata 
congregari ; ut animus, cum ad res exiles et minutissimas se denii- 
serit, neutiquam tamen in maximis contemplandis defitiscat. 
Tarde ita ac pedetentim ab artificio ad arteni perveiiiri solet. Artifi- 
cium enim in rebus singulis versatur ; ars in universis constat : atque 
ejus est res passim et late diffusas constringere, eaque comprehen- 
dere et complecti omnia, in quibus sejunctis aliquid pro certo ha- 
bere est permagnum, et perdifficile. Perfectum illud atque excel- 
lens quod requiritur, non paucorum hominum, nee ver6 aetatis est 
iinius ; multa nimirum occasio secum affert ; multa res atque usus 
corrigit ; omnia maturat, atque confirmat dies. Ad magnum ali- 
quid efficiendum accedat oportet plurimorum labor ; nee ver6 ab 
ullis sedul(> laboratur, nisi quum studio novitatis vehementi eo, et 
fortasse nimio, ad industriam commoventur. 

Idque Atheniensibus usu venisse constat. Si quid enim in stu- 
dfts fuit severioribus difficile, aut reconditum, si quid in doctriiiae 
humanioris amoenitate dulce aut elegans, utrumque ii pariter data 
opera arripuerunt, ut alterum aiteri aut ornamento esset aut subsi- 
dio. Quodcunque ad oculorum aut aurium oblectationem elabo- 
rare potuit vel pictorum ars vel melicorum ; quodcunque in poesi 
animum aut delenit, aut perceilit ; quicquid demum in causis re- 
rum indagandis perfecit solicita atque erudita naturae investigatio ; 
quicquid accuratius et subtilius excogitavit atque extudit mathesis ; 
id omne expressit atque exhausit curiosa populi istius diligentia, 
qui nihil se didicisse ratus est, dum aliquid amplius restaret addis- 

Eousque valuit novorum quotidie snborientium studiorum atque 
oblectationum ratio ; in quibus non plus effecit Atheniensium in- 
dustria, quam inconstantia ipsa et levitas. Ingenium nempe popu- 
li multiplex et versatile hue et illuc transvolabat. nullibi diutius 
commoratum. Nota libenter reliquerunt; quodcunque esset re- 
cens, id sedult> exploratum est : auctores habuere nullos, quorum 
ad imitationem se componerent, exemplum ipsi posteris suum, nee 
id onmino inutile nee prorsus imitandum, traditmi. 

Nee vero alio, quam iisdem Atheniennibus, exemplo opus est, si 
cui dubium videatur, utriim novitatis illud studium veritati bonisque 
artibus plurim^m necne obfuerit. in rebus omnibus, quas notitise 
hominum subjecit Deus, justum quiddam est et perfectum, quo 
nihil excellentius elaborari potest aut absoiutius. Animus tamen 

Dr. Sumner's Concio ad Clerum, 47 

hominum, eorumque praesertim qui ingenio potissimiltn valent, 
acriter se iutendit atque erigit, ut ultra praescriptuni sapiat : nee 
vero dignitatis esse suae deputat, eadem cum vulgo aut nescire, aut 
pernoscere. Idcirco cilni scientia semel maturuerit et veritati sta- 
bilitas sua jam coustiterit et fides; nihil habet ilia, quo se homini- 
bus commendet, qui ingenii uon vulgaris laudem affectant. Neu- 
tiquam iis sufficit ilia simplex et diiecta ratio : pudet vestigiis ite- 
rum atque iterum jam tritis insistere. In devios potius et confra- 
gosos calles transcurritur ; ad studia erroribus implicata, ad sapien- 
tiam deniqUe insanientem deferuntur. 

Inde fit ut Athenienses, quibus tantum bonae literae debuerant, 
ubi semel ad scientiie culmeu pervenissent, non sensim, sed praeci- 
piti quodam cursu in deteriora delapsi sint. Sermo ipse, quem 
patres castum satis et pressum reliquerant, a sequentium seculorum 
scriptoribus exilior factus, et languidior, ad fastidiosam inornatae 
cujusdam simplicitatis affectationem limabatur. Apud veteres re- 
perta erant verba, quibus oratores, historici, poetae deberent loqui. 
Subtilius quiddam et delicatius recentiorum aures plus aequo teretes 
et religiosee postulabant. Inductum est novum dicendi genus, je- 
junum^ exsangue, aridum. Oratoribus laudi dabatur, quod orna- 
mentis caruerint, et quodcunque in se habuit aut ponderis aut splen- 
doris parum, id demum venustum fuit atque elegans. Omnem 
verborum lucem atque ardorem extiuxerat frigida quaedam atque 
obscura diligentia ; abundantiam prajciderat affectata tenuitas et 
penuria : ita ut in Athenis ipsis sermonis Attici vis atque ampli- 
tudo desideraretur. In priore illo secuio, quicquid ex bonarum 
artium supellectile varia eA, ac lautissim^ depromi potuit, id omne 
in communem utilitatem transtulit hominum philosophantium in- 
genium, atque industria : eorum institutis omnis morum disciplina 
et ratio, omnes officiorum loci ad suam quandam sunt normam cer- 
tasque leges revocati. Diversa illi vitffi turn communis tuiri civilis 
munera designabant ; ita ut tutior unusquisque res domesticas 
administraret ; paratior idem, atque instructior ad publicas capes- 
sendum accederet. En ! philosophiam, venerabilem quondam 
vitae magistram, legum adjutricem, sanctissimis civitatum regenda- 
rum ministeriis consecratam ! En ! religionis falsae expultricem ! 
verae et divinioris aliquando futurae ducem quodammodo et vgodgo- 
,aov ! ' videte, quam abjecta fuerit eadem, quam dispar sibi ! quam 
• ■ ' ■ ■ ' — — — - 1 I 

' Xl^oSfOjxoy (piXocroipiav a\ti9tia; oStrav tt'xova Iva^yrt 'B-XKricri StSou,£y>iV. Clemens 

Alexancirinus Stromatum Lib. 1. C. 2. De philosoplii^ nondiim corrup'a niag- 
nificentius Clemens idem disserit, atque ajiquanto audacius : h julv o5v icpi r'n; rou 
Kvfiov itiifovcriai fif Six-atoaiixny 'EXXtiViv avayHaia ^iXoaaCfia, Ta~j(a Si y.a,] IIPOHronf- 
KON, 'ax O NOMOS TOTS 'EBPAIOT2 EIS TON XPISTON. Liber 1. Stlomat. C. 5. 
item in Libro 6to. Stromatum Cap. 5. 'o aCiro; ed;, 'am*oin tain AIA0HKAIN 

De philosophic corrupta iive de sophistica vide ewndem Lib. Strom. 1. C. 8. 

48 Dr. Sumner's Concio ad Clerum. 

destituta veteribus suis ornanientis, qimm ad novas delirantium 
opiniones refingeretur. A ccelis ilia quondam in humanos usus 
devocata, instituti siii finem non amplius spectabat. Ex senatu, 
ex judicum subselliis ad discipulorum disputantium cathedi as de- 
trusa, in controversias inanes abiit et niiniitiores quffistiuncularum 
argutias, quibus nihil sani potuit ac veri subesse. 

Omnia fere, quce mens homiiiis intelligendo consequi potuit, 
consecutus est Plato. DiscipliniP, subinde ortte (neque enim faml- 
lias onines recensere opus est) magistros perquam absimiles habe- 
bant, pree ceteris tamen egregios, Epicurum et Zefionem. Taedet 
conferre odiosam utriusquc subtilitateni in veri tenninis definiendis, 
cui nihil ex istiusmodi hominum auctoritate aut decedere potest, 
aut accrescere. Eorundem de natura, de homine, de Deo com- 
menta et, ut ita dicam, opinionum monstra explicare dispndet. 
Vitiorum alter satelles et minister omnia ad voluptatem retulit, 
eamque inquinatissiniam ; alter virtutem magnifice quidem lauda- 
bat, sed tetricam, sed efferatam ; taleiii denique, qualem nemo 
deamare potuit, nisi qui ralionem simul et humanitatem exuisset. 
De utriusque igitur sectae auctoribus hoc constituite ; nihil esse a 
natura nostra tarn absonum, quod non hie discipulis suis mandarit ; 
nihil tarn immane, quod non ille suaserit. Egregii sane vitaj et 
morum magistri ! quorum alter virtutem oninmo sustulit, alter 
male defendendo prodidit. 

Philosophorum omnium ineptias ad amussim excutere nee 
faujus loci est, nee temporis : omnes autem, utcunque de rebus 
ceteris discordarint, in hoc uno videnlur consensisse ; ut nihil pro 
comperto haberent, quod alius quivis comperisset : veris falsa 
astruebant ; nova, nee ea coha^rentia inventis addiderunt ; turn de- 
mum seri5 triumphantes, ciim ea, quee a majoribus recta accepe- 
rant, prava fecissent. Veritati neutiquam studentes satis habuere, 
si opiniones suas cujusque novitas ' conimendaret auditoribus, plus 
aequo curiosis facile placebant ; nee vero curabant prodesse. 

Recentiora tandem aliquando tempora libet recognoscere ; quan- 
quam pudetdiccre,quantam religioni nostra infamiaminusserintquo- 
rundam hominumnovisrebusstudentium arrogantiaettemeritas. Nee 
tamen diffiteri licet sub primis opiimisque ecclesi* temporibus non- 
nihil hujusmodi extitisse : veritati enim jam nascenti error iliico suc- 
crescit, adultaeque adeo adha^rescens, stirpi ramusculos suos ita in- 
nectit atque implicat, ut utraque simul ad maturitatem perveniant. 
Nonnihil, inquam, hujusmodi antiquitus fuisse repreliendendum ex 

n Si cro^jo-TiJcri Ti^y^ ^i' l^iXujHas-iv 'EXXjjvff Ixiia^l; Is-ri 9av'rwo-Ti«ri ^o^wv ijU.7roj»jT4)t^ 
■if-il/iuiy to; r\'kn9uiy, 

' Novitas : — twi^n to?? Iv^ofoic ytvofxivoi; (nyovt ^(Xofro^oif) aKo\ov9rie'ai roii; n>i»)ijy 
i^iTau'atira; a'kriBilig Tii^f jcaraTrXreyiVTaj il fjicvov Trjv -Aapreciay a:/TWV, \al TO 5ENON 
TilN AOrilN Tavra. a.\yi9n ya^ia-ai a, Trafa ToC iii'a.trKic'Koii i'^two-Toj Sf/,aQiy, Justiui 

Martyris dial. p. 139. Thirlb. Edit. 

Dr. Sumner's Concio ad Clermn. 49 

Pauluia epiatold constat, in qua Corinthiorum levitas, novorum- 
que prasceptorum audacia perstringiiur. Ecclesiam adhuc nas- 
centem vesabat hinc ceeca Ebionaorum insulsitas, quibus iioinon 
ipsiim ' singularis quzedam ingenii tenuitas induit ; illinc G?iostico- 
rum* subtilior in veritatem labefactando solertia. Novitatis lau- 
dein affectabat cilni impudicissima Ceriathi ^ spurcities, turn ambi- 
tiosa Nicholai* castimonia : quorum alter discipulos in imitationem 
sui facile adduxit; alter eos, quibus continentiam minime necessa- 
riam niandabat, in nequitiam et libidines inquinatissinias impulit. 

Cum autem Apostolis adhuc viventibus a veritate adeo descitum 
est, quidnam fuit m temporibus subinde subsequentibus expectan- 
duni ? i\ iv vygco ^vXoo tovto. ■KOiovcnv, ev tco ^Yjpco t» ysv-^rai ; nova in- 
dies documeuta novi homines commenti sunt, quse Christ us, cujus 
minislri appellati sunt, neutiquam probasset, neque jdpostuli, quo- 
rum interpretes haberi postulabant, agnovissent. Infinitum esset 
dicere de abominandis Montani, ' et Cataphrygum * luroribus, de 
Marcionitis, aliisque fere innumeris ; qui novis rebus studentes ^ 
ecclesiam hue illuc distractam ac pene sedibus suis evulsam afHixe- 
lunt : ita ut ab aetate ilia Apostolica usque ad Constantini tempora 
non acrivis ci esset cum hostibus, quam cum filiis suis decertandum. 
En ver<i eandem, simui atque esset tranquillitatem vix vel ne vix 
quidem adepta, novis quotidie oj)inionibus laborantem ! in tempo- 
rum illorum opprobrium cxorta est teterrnua iila inter Alcxandrum 
atque Arium contentio ; ciim sanctissimum religionis nostras Mvcr- 
rrjpiov hie, singularem ingenii laudem aucupans, ad dialectical. ^ ie- 

TTij Jfavoi'a,- iT.'Jirj^ai. — 'E^iiuy yao « itTsuyJ); •nu.o 'El^faiotg^sTai, Origca de 
Pihic. L. 4. 

* Gnosticorum — Carpocrates Gnosticorum princcps liabetur, cujus est ilia 
yvw5-if ■^fjiuj-rjy.o; ab Apostolis iileiitidem n)emorata. Is, quia deoruni noRien a 
Cliristianis odio habitum esset, eonim vice alZya; substituit a I'latonicis de!<uin- 
tos ; quorum yiti-.Xoyia,; sive emauationcs ad Orpiiei atqiic Hesiodi 9:ciXoyi'*v aXM- 
ycfijccyf refinxit. V. Hammond, in F,p. ad Timoth. et alibi pasiim. 

^ Cerinthi — ToL/to yap m rng ii^aay.a'hia; aiiToO to Joyfxa sTriyfiov itnaBai ttIv to-J 
Xpifl-ToD ^aciXfiav* xai ulv aCrof u^iyiTO ^I'Mcrtulxaro; diy 5cal Haw ffa-^y-ixo; ly ToiiToii 
ayit^o'xa'Ku lo-icSai. Diouysius apud Ensebinm Lib. 3. Cap. 28. 

* Nicbolai- — 'Ll^nlny yjva'iKa syjuv NixoXaof Tt^o; riuv 'Attot-toXcuv ovtiJicrSfif ^ttKorv- 
Ttlcii If (OtiVjv ayayuji yr,fJMi Tm /3ot/AO|ix;'vju iTiT^i^'^'*' "■'>ii'>^o'^Oov yao iivai f^>j <r»)V Tfa^iy 
TauTtiv ixa'vT) T?) <fujyr] on Tra^a^facSrei Tn (^a^VA tii. Kal ej? >caTaxoAot/9r,C"av7'Ef Tjf y;yf- 
yyiij.hifJ "tZ T£ tlfn^itjj aiit-M; xal a^aciyi(T7ujg. ai/aiSyjy IxTtofitvovo'iy 01 r»iv a'.'fc<Tiy axnuD 
iwfTiovT£;. Clem. Lib. Eusebio citatus. 

NiXoXao; sTf afx^pi Tov Trl'^fayoy Aiaxo-tuv. Eusebius Lib. 3. Cap, 2.'>. 

^ Montani — de iSlontaiio et Marcione vide Eust-bium Lib. 5. C. 13 et 16. 

^ Cataphrygum— sttI t?^; ^fvyla,; iT^Tt&v Toy MoVTavov HAPAKAHTON fTvat Xf'yavTf;, 
Eusebius L. 5. C. 14. 

■^ Rebus KOvis— 'lAiaS mf] rnv aUfinuy NEflTEPUElN HEIPflMENOI. Eus. L. 
5. C. 15. 

^ Dialectical — AiaXiXTiXuraTo; yiv6,(xtyof 'AffOf {'; arovTovf l^iv.v'Kiu^n Xoyot/;' (*; 
~fiiTifoV Trap' Irifov wtj il-nfJi-iloy T3X;>t'7,crai a'7!oir,yac-9at. SozOUieO. Lib. 1. Cao. 15. 

VOL. X. CI. Jl. NO. XIX. D 

50 Dr. Sumner's Concio ad Clerum* 

ges levocabat ; ille, quod omnibus jam esset agnitum, id more 
plane novo defendere aggressus adminicula veritati adhibuit, quibua 
ilia neutiquam indigebat. Quje cognitione comprehend! nequeunt, 
ea curiose magis qudm prudenter pensitabat ; et, ubi nullus esset 
philosophic locus, ibi ambitiose philosophabatur/ 

Si ad sacras scrlptinas provocatum esset, ha?slsset illico haere- 
siarcha atque obmutuisset, quantacunque ejus esset audacia et 
fiiror/ Ciim autem ab utroque non aniplius fuit de Apodolorwn 
opinione decertandum^ sed de sua, nullus aut maledicendi modus 
fuit, aut ignoscendi locus. Desiderabatur interea ofjiovoia ista et 
pietas in epistolis decrelisqiie synodalibus identidem ab lis decan- 
tata, quorum in vita fuit ac nioribus plane nulla. Nee lites tantas 
componere valebat, nee concertantium animos ad caritatem flec- 
tere, aut ecclesite aut imperatoris, qui eam tuebatur, auctoritas.^ 

Prastermitto controvevsias, qu£e temporibus alioe aliis locisque pro- 
creatae sunt ; nee necesse habeo dicere, ex initiis quam ridiculis 
exortae qu^aii funestos exitus habuerint. Cogitanti cuivis subtriste 
quiddam suboriri solet, cimi discordias hasce de quiiestionibus ad 
salutem publicam minime atlinentibus intuetur. Rerum humana- 
ruoi odium quoddam nobis et fastidium obrepit, quoliescunque tot 
stultitiae eadem et immauitatis monumenta recognoscimus. Per 
quatuordecim fere secula in religionem, quasi certatim, ab hostibug 
ejus atque amicis sa^vitum est. Hinc crroribus et contumacia, 
illinc superstitione et fraudibus, utrobique novitatis studio pecca- 

Ex historiis abunde patet, quot ceremoniae ritusque a pontifici- 
bus fuerint singulis inducti ; quce porro dogmata unusquisqua 
eorum fidei nostras, nova ea sane et sua, astruxerit. Supervaca- 
neum foret dicere, quam acerbum et grave in hominnm vitas fortu- 
nasque, imm5 et in animos, imperium exercuerit servorum ille 
servus ; quibus idem eos erroribus et praestigiis, erroris ipse expersy 
falli ipse nesciitc, fefellerit. 

Artem earn qua- a Pktone et scriptoribus plerisque antiquis Dialect ica vocatur, 
Aristoteles et recentiores Metaphysician appellant : 'a^io-totIx*,? tovto to u^o; META 
TA^OTIIKA. xraXi-r* xat riyi xaxo. ITXcircyva AIAAEKTIKH t'jij twv ovtujv i>jXtuo-£u;j Ei^oETtlcn 
ri; eVtiv iiciarrii^n. Clemens Alex. Strom. Lib. I. Cap. 28. 

Coiitentiosum ilhiJ disputandi artificium, in synodo Nica^a; habiti utrobique 
usurpatuni, a populo quidam scite coarii;nebat : "Ap-s o Xpio-ro; -^al 'attoo-toXoi ou rrjv 
roi2 OTAATTOMENKN. Socrates Lib. 1. Cap. 8. 

^ Ambitiose — 'AX/lavJpo; CIAOTIMOTEPON TTEpI r'n; 'Ayta; Tfli«.5of $IA020<I>ilM 

'E0EOAorEi. Socrates L. 1. C. 5. 

* Furor- — Abominandam iilam Arii hceresin cuncti fere patres Insaniai nomine 
notariuit. Mav(wi>K aioio-i^ ab Epiphanio dicitur. Ab eodein appollantnr Ariani 
'Aftiof^ivfTai; ita. Grcgorius Nazianzenus Tny ^A^ilov KAAP-2 'ONOMA2©Ei2AN MA- 

^ Auctoritas. — Vide Constantini epistolam a Socrate laudatam. Outj ydp 'Axl- 
CavJpof oSre 'Afiio; v'^o rm ypafiVTm iiAnWaffa-oyro. Socratis Hist. Eccl. Lib. 1. 
Cap. 8. 

Dr. Sumner's Concio ad Cleriim. 6\ 

Nee vero mirum quiddam videatur, si turn temporis nova quas- 
vis dogmata pro veris habeljaatur, cum hujusmodi fraudibus igao- 
rantia caliginem quandam noctemque objeclt: 'Ev i^io KA3ET- 

Qiue de temporum istormn ignorantia a ple:isque dici sclent, ea 
nee nihil sunt, nee omnia. Duobus enim axit tribus fere seculis 
antequam Grascas literal reviviscerent, id genus theologies potissi- 
miim vigebat, quod ScholastkuiU appellari solet. in eo versati 
sunt homines, si qui unquam faerint, perspicaces, acuti, subtiles ; 
in dispututionibus fortlasse nimii ; sed eo noniine laudandi, utpote 
qnibus moris fuerit opmionem quamvis novani euriosiiis sciscitari 
atquc expendere, nihilqne pro vero habere, quod non penitus per- 
speetum esset et cognitum. Animum autem ad aecuratam rei cu- 
jusvis inquisitionem, satis per se acrem etstrenunm, dialectieai insuper 
diseiplinis exercitatum et subactuni, informabant. Nee doctrina 
iis nee acumen defuit, quibus ecclesis corrupts aut errores aut fal- 
laeiae coarguerentur; si armis, qua* soierter tractare didicerant, iis- 
dem ad veritatem defendendam uti calluissent. lilos autem cum 
pontifiee Romano Ita consuetudo majorum atque officii perperam 
intellecti ratio conjunxerant, ut eos ille defensores paratissimos ba- 
buerit, quorum ingenium et solertia maxime essent in hostibus ex- 
timescenda. Itaque ineptias quascunque superstitio sacraverat, ii 
sibi pro virili tuendas desumserunt ; dum veri farsique terminoa 
non rerum ipsarum, de quibus agebatur, natura, sed iu&idiosis qui- 
busdam et subdolis dialecticae delinitionibus, decernebant. Quem- 
admodum enim in prioribus ecclesias seculis Plalonica nonnuUi 
dogmata sanctissimis religionis nostree i.istitutis temere atque au- 
daeter immiscuerant, ita tum nemo in theologorum nuniero habe- 
batur, qui non Arislotdi se totum adJixisfet. Apostoli, quorum 
in seriptis frustra quiKrereniur Xoyojxsi^rxi aut •Kapalia.Tfi^at, nulli 
repente facti sunt ; ne in scholis quidem diutlns auditi suis ; dum 
in eorum eathedris dominabatur novus ille categoriarum ma<^isteret 
disputandi artifex. Nee tamen is fait, quern hodie unuiquisque 
fere iiterarum non rudis niiratur, acumine quodam aninii proprio 
armatum, et sermone elocutum suo ; sed eiinguis aut sane semi- 
barbarus, sed mancus quodammodo, cum verborum esset elegantiis, 
simul et sententiarum viribus atque pondere destitutus ; tabs deni- 
que qualem Averroes aut Avicenna immani eommeutariorum satel- 
litio stiparant, aut Latinus quivis * interpres exhibuerat, deforma- 
tuni utique et dissimilem sui. Difficile profect5 est aut verbis 
comprehenuere, aut cogitatione complecti, qu^m vaaos, imm6 
quam nuUos exitus habuerint disciplinoe eaj, quas parum intellectas 
istiusmodi praeeeptor tradidcrit. Simplex ilia religionis nostras 

' Interpres — Averrois Arabia comnientarins in Aristotelis Categorias latia^ 
wrsiui est a Jacobo Mantino Judeo. Vide Fabricii Biblioth. Gr. 

52 Dr. Sumncr*s Cuncio ad Clc7'um. 

«c nuda Veritas in argutias abilt, in contoi tulas qucestiones, et sub- 
liiiores quasdam conclusiuiiculas, quarum ilia, etiamsi verJE fuerint, 
subsidio non indigebat ; falsis iacile potuit carere. Nee tamen 
plus theologite dttrimenti, quam iheologis gloriaj, attulit anibitiosa 
ilia eruditio. Tnni certe sicubi iinquam speetabatur non medio- 
cris ingenii laus ; at verc>, inter tot doctores subtilcs, illuminatos^ 
irrefragabilcs, qiiotusquisque reperiebatur, qni niunus sibi deman- 
datum ronstanter et seri6 obierit ? quotnsquisque non religionis 
noviv potiiis cujusdam aiictor visas est, quam traditas aut minister 
ant vindex ? 

Atque utinam, id, quod ecelesiai Romance objieere solemus, niil- 
lus esset in nobismet reprehendendi locus. Nee ver6 dissimulan- 
dwni est, opiniones ftullibi extitisse a Christi disciplinis institutisque 
alieniores, quam fuerint ea>, quas in religionis reformatte oppro- 
brium ijrocreavit sectarum multiformiuni, atque adeo inter se dimi- 
cantium, discordia. Infinitum esset o})uiiones excntere, quas nos- 
tri homines libris mandarunt, quibus legentiuni animus sensim de- 
lenitus a veteri ac severiore religionis disciplina deducitur, ita ut 
novis et mitioribus corruptoris sui pr<eceptis conquieseat. 

Omnibus fere, qui in hoc genere scribendi nomen profitentur 
suum, idem est operis instituti finis ; sed alia aliis/ id quod utrique 
velint, consequendi ratio, Legitima illi argumentatione subornati 
ad veritatem expugnandam accednnt ; leviusculis hi facetiarum 
aculeis lacessitam perstringunt. Perpensis illi rerum momentis ad 
rationem provocant ; hi ad tribunal aliud causam deferunt ; Ridi- 
culum opinionibus quibusvis quasi tormentum admovent ; ejusque 
testimonia, in rebus pra^sertim gravissimis, revereri solent. 

Ab aliis ojf'u-iorumjwes a^quo latius proferuntnr ; ut religio, qua 
in illis designandis potissimum valet, luanca aliqnatenus atque im- 
perfecta videatur : alii eos angustiils coarctant, et peccantium de- 
iicta mitioreni in partem interpretantur, ut disciplinse Christianas 
sevevitatem objiciant : " Legem earn rem aiunt esse surdam, in- 
exorabilem, salubriorem inopi quam potenti. Nihil laxamenti 
nee veniffi habere : periculosum esse, ciim tanta sit peccandi libido, 
sola innocentia vivere." ^ 

Sunt, qui hominum Christianorum vitia curiosa quadam et ma- 
ligna diligentia rimantur ; ut infamia a cultoribus ad cultum, a 
discipulis ad, ^ derivata transeat. Scriptor contra inter 

' Alia aliis. — 0-3 yap wpo; Tv irJof r\ix~y fxayjn; n Trapas-xiVJi aWa troiXi'Xof ovro; a "niKi- 
f*o;' xai IX iiapofwy o-i/vxpoTOUfxEvo; Twv i-^9fuy, Ovri yap oTrXoi; aTayrir y^fZyTat Toi'f 
aVToTf" ouTt hi irforr^aXAiiy vfMy fj.ifj.f'ht'rri'Kcicn TpoTTio. Kal Jirrov (UfXXovra Triv itfhg tiky- 
nng a.ya,liyj.<j^a,i, fA-ayjiy •ra; atcayTMy elShai riy_ya;' ChrySOStomUS Trfsi 'lifocri/ytij L. 4. 
C. 4. 

K<»1 itof oy jix(xp<i> fj.r\ toV iTffov tI; 9iXuy ^nKuy i^tto Qctrif^j ■nXnyii^ Id. lb. 

* V. Liviuin L. 2. C. 3. 

' Disciplinas. — K-ata^ ^ayoZciy ixC aa-TaTov xa\ oi/o'.y tyijf iyj)va-i\; Tri^ 'TTicrTiiM;, ME- 
TABAIKONTES dznioivTx; AHO TUN AEFOXTilN IirJ Toy 7.iysr Gregorius Nazien- 

/enat jn Orat. Apolog. 

Dr. Sumner's Concio ad Clerum. 53 

malos facile deterrimus hoinlnum singulorum ait vitia univeisi3 
esse conimodo ; ideoque omnia, quK ad mores informandos a 
Christo sunt preecepta, nee civitatibus prodesse posse, nee civibus. 
Prajmia, quae cultoribus suis religio proponit, queruntur non- 
nulli, conditionibus perquani duiis promitti ; eaque esse, qua; ne- 
queat imbeciiiitas humana consequi. Quibusdam tamen virtus ita 
firma suique potens videtur, ut nee poenis exterreii possit, nee prai- 
niiis ailici. 

Religio ea, quae salutem hominum universorum complectitur, m- 
terdum serius dicitur esse divulgata, qudm ut dubilantium scrupulis 
et suspicionibus satisfaciat. lisdem tamen miracula ad veritatem 
ejus confirmandam edita neutiquam placent, propterea qu6d tem- 
poribus diu anteactis prolata sunt, iisque testimoniis innisa, quo- 
rum, ut aiunt, indies elabitur vis, et decrescit fides. 

Reperiuntur, qui tantum rationi tribuunt, ut nihil opis divinae in- 
digere videatur. Eadem tamen ilia, si quibusdam credendum sit, 
adeo humilis est et abjecta, ut nullum habeat cum Deo com- 
mercium ; nee aliquid divinitus oblatum tenuitas ejus aut intelligere 
possit, aut excipere. 

Quid, quc)d alii sapientum nomen arrogant, quia res perspectas 
satis et cognitas dubitanter et meticulose pensitant ; alii ignoratas, 
sed tamen novas, audacter proferunt ; ha^rent, ubi haesitatione non 
opus est ; ubi opus est, sibi temere contidunt. 

Ex opinionibus tarn contrariis interque se pugnantibus impie- 
tas conflatur ; quarum auctores singulinovitatis laudem afFectabant, 
quam ut adipiscerentur, omnia, qua; sibi dicere libebat, ea credide- 
runt et licere. Leges interim cum humane turn divinaj, procuIcat« 
jacent ; in dubium vocatur sacrarum literarum auctoritas ; toUuntur 
vitae solatia pra?sentis ; irridetur futurae aliquando et diuturnioris in- 
stauratio. Sed flagitia ha;cce niagis nota sunt quam quae ulterius 
opus sit explicare; robusta magis eadem, atque audacia, quam 
quae legis vim, nedum reprehensionis imbecillitatem, extimescant. 

Cilm vero in religionis nostrae delrimentum adeo increbuerit cap- 
tiosa ilia controversia' importunitas et licentia ; est tamen, cur vobis 
hoc nomine sit, Academici, gratulandum ; cum vestris effectum est 
disciplinis, ut veritati vindices fidi atque idonei nunquam adhuc de- 
fuerintj nee ver^ sint in posterum defuturi. Vestrum est, ut vetus 
ilia inter religionem et literas necessitudo intercedat ; ut dialectica 
ad utilitatem tandem aliquando transferatur, nee frigidis tota occu- 
petur disputatiunculis ad subtilitatis ostentationem comparatis : sed 
momentis rerum subductis, vim cujusque et pondera perpendat, ut 
discentium animi, opinionibus nee veterura plus aequo addicti, nee 
recentioribus acclines, omiiem vim suam ad incorruptam veritatis 
inquisitionem intendant ; ut philosophia sanctissimis Dei minisieriis 
famulata ad deniissiorem sapientiae Christianae modestiam se coni- 
pouat J nec; ubi laus maxima est parere, ibi dominari audeat. 

54 D. Nestor Novarenus, 3fomi Miscellanea 

Facite, friictu suo destituatur novoriim hominum, in fide labefac* 
tanda et in moribus conumpendis laborantium, industria; nee diu- 
tius pro verh et compertio habeantur ea, qase conjtictura plus ^quo 
cunosasuspicatur, novilatis studimii coniminiscitur, ignorantia pra- 
vi docilis compiectiliir. In hujusmodi enovibus compriniendis 
ipultum semper valait, atque etiamnum valet, vestri ordinis sapien- 
tia ; cujus auctoritateni hominum levicuioium pelulantia reverea- 
tur, pessimorum audacia refbrmidet. 

X>. Nestor Novarenus, Momi Miscellanea subse- 
civA, ET Adversaria Literaria. 

To THE Editor of the Classical Journal. 

In the XVirith No. of the Chssical Journal p. (26 1. is a paper 
signed by the initials N. A. and soliciting any information relativd 
to a Work published under the title of Nestoris Novariensis f^oca" 
hula. I have never seen the work itself. But from the character 
given of the writer by a competent judge, 1 should not be under 
any great anxiety to see it. Your correspondent will, perhaps, 
be gratified even by the scanty information, which I have it ia 
my power to give him on the subject of this work. 

^' Dionysii Nestoriensis ISovareni Opus Grammaticum.Venet, 
1496. Fol. 

*' Multis, pro tempore illo, superfluis, immo et quisquiliis, non- 
nuliis scatet. Auctor tamen referendus merito quodam suo est 
inter eos, qui post depulsam quodammodo barbariem bonis literia 
lumen aliquod accendere conati sunt. 

" Dedit etiam Dktionarium sen Vocahula secutidum Alphabeti 
Ordincm, Ludovico Sfortize dicatum, in lucem emissum Venet. 
1488. recusum postea Paris. 1496. et Argentorat. 1602. et 1507. 
Fol. in quo Lexico suo Papiae et Vautionis, Hugutionis — Huigui- 
tionis barbarorum lexicographorum somnia, qu£e appellat, omni- 
bus prope paginis redarguens satis docet, quam copiosum modo 
dicti bini scriptores pro ista temporum ratione loliuni tritico suo 
jnsperserint." J. Fr. Noltenii Lexicon Latinos Linguce Antihar- 
harum, ex Ed. G. I. Wichmanni, Berolini et Stralsundias. 1780. 
Vol. II. p. 33S. 

£. H, BARKER. 
Thetford, July, 1814. 

Subseciva, et Adversaria literaria. 55 

P. S. Before I conclude, I shall make a few remarks on .some 
papers in your last No. 

Momi Miscellanea Suhseciva. Supplemeidory No. to XVIII. 
p. 526. " ' Romee aliquando pestis fuit ta n sieva, ut homines in 
via, in mensa, in ludis, in coUoquiis subito morerentur. Itaque, 
cum quis sternutahat, svepe cum sternutatione spintum exhalabat, 
unde, cum aliquem sternutantem quis audiebat, statim occurrens, 
jyeus te adjiivet, acclamaret.' Nitg. Ven. p. 51. In our nurse- 
ries, at this day, it is no uncommon thing to hear a child, when 
sneezing, saluted with God bless you. On the Continent, it is a 
common compliment. This has been traced by Strutt (if 1 mistake 
not), as well as others, to a similar source." 

To the same purpose M. Martinius in the Lexicon phi lologi cum 
Tr. ad Rh. I698. says, " Quod sternutantes salutamiis, aiunt vulgo 
ex eo profectum, quia sternutatio olim in quodam morbo letalis 
esset, ut salute dicta periculum a Deo deprecareutur, et qui salvi 
evaderent, iis gratularentur." Upon a similar principle connected 
with bodily health, Perottus, as quoted by M. Martinius, says : 
" Solo steinutamento fere totum corpus extenditur, ideoque non 
modo caput, sed reliquas etiam partes bene valere indicio est. 
Quamobrem moribundos interdum sternutatorio excitare solemus, 
tanquam, si hoc efficinequeat, nulla amplius sit spes salutis, unde 
consuetude invaluit, ut sternutatio veiuti bonae vaietudinis indi- 
cium sacra habeatur, et sternutantes salutemus, ac eis bene pre- 
cemur." To the same effect M. Martinius adds, " Alii morbum, 
aut morbi indicium sternutationem interpretabantur ; idee sternu- 
tantibus bene precabantur usitata formula Zei3 o-aitrov. Eadem 
opinio doctores Hebrjeos tenuit." Though we may with great 
probability derive the origin of this practice from the circumstance 
of sneezing indicating symptoms either of life, or of death, yet we 
cannot possibly date the commencement of the practice from the 
pestilence, which happened at Rome, as mentioned above in the 
extract from the Miscellanea stibseciva. For the salutation was 
just as common to the Greeks, as it was to the Romans, and it is 
in our own country. M. Martinius cites Ammianus Epigr. L, 
2. 15. 

rr,: pivhg yag sp^sj t^v ^^go- (J^scy,goTsgr]V. 
Ov^s Xsysi ZET XftXON, eav VTixgYi' 06 yap ukovh 

" Sternutantes salutare consueverant antiqui. Apul. Milesiac, 
L. 9. Atque ut primtim e regione mulieris pone tergum ejus, mari- 
tui acceperat sonitum sternutationis, quod entm pularet ah ea pra- 

56 D. Nestor Novarenus, Momi Miscellanea 

fectum, solilo sermone salutern ei fueiat imprecatus, et itcrato rur- 
siim, et frequent ato sccpius: ubi vide Colvium. Petron. Saii/ric. 
c. 58. Diim hac ego jam credenii persiiadeo, Gyton coUectione 
spiritus pleinis, ter contiuuo ita sternutavit, ut grabtdum concii- 
teret, ad quem motum Eumolpus converses, Salvere Gi/tona juhet. 
Ad h. 1, qui plura voltierit, adeat Douzam et alios. [Plin. 28. 2. 
Cur sternutatnentis salutnmiir, quod eiimn Tiberium C&sarem, 
tristissiiiium. ut constat, hominum, in vehicnio exegisse tradunt. 
Lege et cap. 6, Alex, ab Alexandro L. ii. c. 26.] Steniutaiitibus 
Gra^i- Zsu (jui<rov dicebant, qua superstitione vid. apud Scaliger 
JLectt. Auson. L. i. IQ. et Athen. L. ii. c. 25." 1. Jac. 
Claudii Dissertulio de Salutationibus Veterum. Ultraj. 1702. 
12mo. p. 131, 2. 

Casaubon {in Athen. Lib. ii. 15.) assigns a less probable reason 
for the practice than that, which is given above : " Sternutamentuni 
anoratioae expiabaut, quod non sacrum esse tantum putabant, 
is^ovov TUiV TTxa^pI)'/, ut ill Historiis sciipsit Atistoteles, verum etiaiii 
Deum : Xenophon De Exneditione Cyri Lib. in., Tovto hs X^yov- 
Tcg auTOv, tttu^'jutoh tiq, aKOUGc-ivTsg og ot (TTgarioorcti Travxsj jttia op/x>j 
T:poa-;K6yrj(rixv rov Ssov." M. Martiuuis has the following additional 
remarks. " Xenophon sternutaiiiCJitum et Deura, et Jovis Serva- 
tons aram appeliat. Causam dicit Asistoteles, yj Sio'tj sx, tou hio- 
TocTOV rotj TCEol r)jxa; ty.c }CspaKT,g, o^bv o Kr^yKy^o^ £<rT»> yiveraij y] an ra. 
l^sv ciXKa cmo vecrouvToJV ylvcTon, touto S' ov. Divinatioues per ster- 
tiutationes vocabant ^vy-SoKovg. Suidas, ^u^a/SoAouj, outu) rovg 8«a 
raiv Trrapiaiov crxvi(y[x.ovg sKsyov. ccveTi^BVTo S' ouroi, ArjiJ^riTgi. Sic et 
Hesychius. i elix ouaea captabant ex sternutamento, praecipue 
pom^.iidiano e!: dextro. ilouierus Odi/^s. g- cag (^uro, TriKi^xy^og Ss 
[j.zy i--roLQs. Plutarchus in Ihemsstocle, a^aa II TTTCtgi^hg sk tUv 
Tj-'fiMv iijriiiy]Vc. Fro])ertius, 

A) Idas ci7-gutufji stfirnuU omen Amor. 

Tc aieo et quaedani sternutanienta infelicia habebant. Aristoteles 
quiiit, Quare a niediis noctibus usque ad medium diem non hoiuc 
sternufationes'^ Idem disputat in Problem. Sect. 33. Qu. 7. 
Quare sternutamenlum pro Deo habcatur, tion tussis, out sra- 
vedo '<"' 

The Author of the Miscellanea subseciva may compare 
the passage, which he has quoted (as given above) with 
a passage from IM. Martiuius (sub voce Litania). " Lita- Ciirislianorum sunt mlnoves, tridao ante ascensionem 
iJomini. V^ide Sidonium Kpisl. (id Miimercutn, et Epist. ad 
Apru/n. lias Mamercus Claudianus Vietmensis episcopus anno 
454. in Gailia instituit. IMajorcs Gregorius niagnus instituit anno 
Ciinsli 591. sexto Calcndis Maii celebrari solitit. Eo tempore 

Subseciva, et Adversaria Uteraria. 57 

urbem magna pestis affligebat, et ad ceteros casus, qulbus homi- 
nes passim absumebantur, hoc mali accesserat, quod multi, cum 
sternutarent, alii cum oscitarent, repente exspirabant : inde volant 
banc nostram cousuetudinem introductam, uti sternutantibus salu- 
tem precando et oscitantibus signum crucis supra os formando 
praesidium quaererent. Vide Sigon. Lib. i. Regni Italia ad anu. 
i90. Sed mos sternulantes salutandi a gentilibus manavit." 

Adversaria Literaria, Supplem. No. XVIII. p.5Q\. " Virg. 
, yE«. I.S39. 

Punka regna vides, Tj/rios, et Agenoris urbem, 
Sed fines Libyci, genus intractabile bello. 

Nonnulli Codd. habent sed Jinis Libj/e ; Bigotianus, sunt fines 
hibyci. Trappe legit sed fines Lilii/cos. Burmamii, pro vulgata 
stautis, explicatio satis est tolerabilis, subintelligi nempe sunt, et 
voculam sed inservire ut urbem distinguat a regione,« in qua Tyrii 
posuerant coloniam, regionem auteni, nota figura, pro ipsis incolis 
poni. Nescio tamen an uon simplicius scripsevit Virgilius_, 

Punka regna vides, Ti/rios, et Agenoris urhem ; 
Adfines Libyci, genus intractabile f err o." 

The writet passes over in silence the observation of De La 
Cerda, which differs materially from Burmann's, and is to my 
mind much more satisfactory. " Subaudi sed fines sunt Libyci' 
regni. Sequitur genus intractabile bello. Agnosco quiddam non 
vulgare, tum ex hoc, turn ex particula sed, in qua est oppositio. 
Phoenices et Tyrii, sicuti plurinmm omnes Asiatici, habiti sunt 
mollissimi. Ergo post horum mentionem infert bella. Quasi 
dicat : Etiamsi Carthaginienses ortum habeant a Phoenicibus, et 
Tyriis mollisshnis : ne tamen virtute Phoenices, et Tyrios puta, 
non Agenoreos, sunt enim bello acres: coutingitenim mores mutari 
cum loco : docet sa?pe hoc uatura ipsa in plantis." De la Cerda 
afterwards adds, " Quid si allusum a docto poeta ad banc partem 
Africa?, ubi erat Carthago, dictam veteribus Eschatian, 'Eo-;/«TJav, 
et Coryphen, Kopv<^r,v, quod e.sset extrema, et veluti culmcn. Vide 
Ortelium in Indice Geographic, voce Libya." 

E. H, B. 


On the IVorcls ip-xig, o7^Tric^ oX;r;^, s7\7rQC, £?^<pog, and 
CELT IS, xvith occasio?ial Rema-rks on the Observations 
of Mii. G. BuiiGLS and Mr. C. J. Blomfield. 

J. HE [Remarks were suggested by the perusal of tlie 
excellent Observations on this subject, which are contained ia an 
article written by Mr. G. Burges, and inserted ia the kst No. 
of the Classical Journal, p. 299- 

The passage of EustathiuSj which Mr. Burges has not 
quoted, is this, SaT^pcu 8f, sIttovctu u)g a.iJ.^goa-ia.g Kgarvip kx-sKgoiTO, 
tig TToViv Si]Aa5)5' oio xcn TCijril^o'J(rci tm civcp aurYjv^ STraysi, 'Ef[j:^r>g S* 
sAoJv spviv, Osolg ujvo^oriTev' lio'Ti Si ' EPIUS AlyvnTiTTl , 6 olvsg, kxCx 
xou 6 Avx.o'(pgcfJV olhv. Mr. Bioniiield has overlooked the passage 
of Eustathius, which Mr. Burges cites, or else he would never 
have altered epTnv into oXinv in tlie passage of Sappho, as he does 
in these words, " Athen. x. p. 425. D. et ii. p. 39. A. ubi 
tg-TTiv pro oAttjv, sed hoc jure prasfert Toupius in Suid. ii. p. 444." 
The passage in Toup is this : " Restituenda etiam ista vox [TrAla] 
Achaeo Eretriensi ap. Athenaeum Lib. x. p. 451. 

At^upyugog S' 
oAtt*) TragYjuipzlTOJ y^ol(Tii^UTQg irAza.. 

"OXTTt) •x^qldfj.a.roi 7rA=a, a Jiask of oil. — Ceterum voceni oAth; 
usurpat Theocr. Idj/IL ii. v. 156. 

xci] Trap" spAV stIQh toLv AuigiZot. ttoXKcdh; oKircty, 
ubi vide Scholiastam."OATJv vocat Callimachusin Fragm, CLxxxi^ 

xai pu. "JTugx. cthxioIo (SQU^iO'Jcg eJlvtAsov oATriv. 

Sappho ap. Athen. L- ii p. 39- 

cifM^QCcrlag [j.h x.oiXTr,g eKsxpazo' 
'EpiJi,xg 2' eKuty okr.i'J Qioig covo^o-/)crs. 

Ita legendus postremus versiculus, sAcJy oAttjv, ut Lib. x. 7. p. 425. 
ubi oAttjc est pociduni, sive triilla vinaria." It is strange that 
Toup should have overlooked the fact, as he seems to do by say- 
ing taciily " hXcov oXttiv, ut Lib. x. p. 425.," that Athenaens in 
both the places referred to is quoting the same fragment of Sap- 
pho : oATTiv is given indisputably in the latter place of Athenaius, 
where the same passage is quoted ; and if Toup had observed 
the fact. It would doubtlessly have appeared to him to confirm 
his conjectural introduction of it into the former place. It is 
strange also that Mr. Blomfield should have otFered no remark oa 

Classical Criticism. S^ 

the discrepancy in the two passages of Athenaus : he merely says 
as we have seen above, " Athen. x. p. 425. D. et ii. p. 39, J^^ 
ubi sgTTiv pro oXttiv, sed hoc jure prsetert Toupius in Suid. ii, 
p. 444." Mr. Blomlield would in all probability have thought 
otherwise, if he had read the note of Schweiohaeuser upon 
Athen, Lib. II. cap. VIII. which is as follows: " Sapphus ver- 
sum poslerioreni, in quo niendose s^yrev et oho^orjcrcuv editum erat, 
ex E'jstathio loc. cit. et vetiistis libris corrigenduni esse nionuit 
Casaub. Nostri quidem Codd. etiam recce eoniv dabaut. Signiii- 
cabat autem sgTtis, vinum, iEgyptioruui sermoue, ut docet Eusta- 
thius : eodem vero vocabulo, pra'ter Lesbium poetara, etiam 
Lycophron usus est in Cassand. 579. et Hipponax, ap. Tzetzem 
ad Lycophr. 1, c. A p. Deipnosophistam quidem x. 425. ubi iidem 
Sapphus versiculi proferuntur^ qK-ji-j pro sq-rny iegitur." It may be 
satisfactory to the scholar to see Casaubon's own words, and I 
cite them, because Casaubon gives a very probable reason, which 
Schweighzeuser has omitted, for the variation in the two passages 
of Athena^us : " Sed turpius et periculosius est corruptus, qui 
praecedit, Sapphsis versus. Legendam est spmv ex Eustathio 
et libris vetustis : e^ttjj vinum signiticat lingua ^gyptiorum, si 
criticis fideni habemus : spyrig, inquit, Eustathius, Alyrj^TidTi olvog, 
aa^a. xa) 6 Avxoipg'MV oTSs. Lege, si est operae, quae Tzetzes scribit 
ad istum versum Lycophronis, 

eWjv ts ps?s<v y,S' oiXoi^alov Xlzog. 

oVou Tov eg7r*v <tx6to; xuTrYjKsvsi. Hipponax. 

Libro decimo iterum laudat hunc Alcaei locum Athenaeus, et pro 
Jfgffiv scribit oAttiv, quod inrogiianfia factum patent, seiisum atlen- 
dente illo, non verba. "OKing enim oho-xpri, trulla vinaria" Ani- 
madvv. in Athen. p. 82. The passages in Lycophron and Tzetzes, 
to which Casaubon appeals, indisputably prove the genuineness of 
the word saziv in the fragment of Sappho against Mr. Blomfield. 

«j tri Ilgo^XcityTO; s^B7ralo=iKTS Qgix<ju; 
fjL.uXripaTotj ^tXolo dat^xXiVTglug, 
eciTTtv rs pB^siv -f]^ aXof^cuov xItto;, 
olvoTPOTTOvg ZxgrjKog sxyovovg ipu^'xg. 

Lycophronis Cassandra v. 580. Tzetzes here has these words : 

yaXig xat igvig, olvog' %aX<j fx-h, ttupx to ^aXoiv rrjv ha, y^youv r^v 
luvaju,<V ''EpTTtg 2e, Tragoc to spTrovTug ttoTsiv Tovg TTivovrag uy^sTgcog' oSiv 
xai o» AlyoTTTioi "ig-mv xctXoiKTt tov olvov. ^l7nra)va)iTSiot Si eiciy at 

oXlyx ^gov»5ci,v «I p^aAj* wsirwaoTSf' 

6o Classical Criticism. 

V avrix' eX^oov ciiv rgtoTcrf ]u.*f'Ty(r»y, 
av^QOJ-aco'y sopov T^y a"Teyr,y o^isAAovra. 

In the Scholia breviora MSS., as published by M. Chr. G. Miiller 
in the continuation of Reichard's Ed. of Lycophron, Lipsitc 
1811. Vol. IT. p. 1088. 8vo. we have, upon this verse, Tov 
ohov 0! AlyvTiTiOi KaKovcriv sgTriv, eAajoy olvov, eXaiov. 

Thus then I reject upon indisputable authority, the reading of 
oAtt/v, lagenam, introduced by Mr. Blomlield for ep7r*v, vinum, in 
the fragment of Sappho. Mr. Barges would reject oAttiv from 
the fragment of Callimachus, by reading oAcrav, and oA7r<£oj from 
Theocritus Idj/Il. xix. 45. by reading ^iaAxiSoj, and correct the 
gloss of Hesychius, (which runs thus — oATra* ^ sXtti;, kou y^ovtpoit 
Tij I'f so-jr, Ar^xoSoj, sSjo-jW-a T(, Yj o'a^oc, and again, oATrtj, olvo^orj) by 
transposing the words, and reject altogether the word oATri?, but I 
regret that I cannot agree with him ; and 1 shall assign my 
reasons at full length, after having produced his transposition of 
Kesychius's gloss. " Noli dubitare quin Hesychii verba male trans- 
posita in ordinem redigi debeant legendo — "Okitw XrjxuQog -^"OX-Trig 
ri spTTig ^c'vogov rig svf/rjo-ij, Bh(rfj.u ri, )j oA,3oj — tXitiv — oivo;;^o»]crs. Inter 
haec mutavi eAttj? in e^TTjj: nam Hesychius ad Sapphus locum dum 
respicit et. coniirmat var. lect. quam prajbet Eustathius, non male 
vim vocis exponit : — -IXxig qIvo-^oyi nuitavi in oAtz-jv oiyop^o'jjo-e : error 
etenim provenit e compendiosa scriptura non satis intellecta." 
Mr. Burges seems to have supposed that Hesychius is the only 
lexicographer, who has a gloss upon the word oAttj;. But this is 
not really the case : fur both the Etymologicum Magnum, and 
Zonaras comment on the word as one, which occurs in Calli- 

OXiiig. KciXXliia.-^o:, 

xcil pa Tragoc axcaolo ^gxyjovo; efi^Xsov oXttiv. 

wifxalvEi Is ri Xs^tg TrjV XyjkvGov eigi^Tat Ss Traga. to olovs) IXxiOTZiV rivu 
iivai, Zia. TO li auTT^g iTziTCcuBtT^ui rouXuiov. Etym. Mag. Phavorinus 
has all these very words, but it is in him sXcaoXiriv. 

OAttj;" yj Xyjku^o:, KuXXijjiu^og, 

TTsg] (TKUmo ^pcf^iovog £/x,7rA£cy oXxiv 

tiQr^Tca TTCcgu ro ohvsi sXchottiv xiya, rj ttxpu to S/ kx'JTYig OTtiTiueaQcm, 
« scTTjy l7riTrj5£7o"9aj, ?ta» ^ta^yAaTT?a"5aj to tXctiov. Zonaras. 

The word oXxig occurs too wuh nearly the same words in the 
Xer. Hcg. MS. as quoted by Alberti, who in the Notes on Hesy- 
chius thus writes under the wuid r'>,7r« — " Sclioliasta; Theocrili 

Class} col Crlticis>d. 6. 1 

Jd. II. loS. p. 35. oKva dicitur proprie esse &5§|U.atrtV/j A);x'jSoc, Si" 
^f e<rT<v OTTT^cracrSai (sed scribo OTTTicr^at) to eXuiov. Jens. jLuo- Hes. 
p. 170. Nicandri Schol. p. 10. Iv oAtjj, avri tcu sv A?ix!>$aj, Le?^:. i^<?of, 
31S. oKTTig' rj XvjKvSoc, turn Cailimachi verba adlert, eadem iiwa 
Elym. M. habet, additque voci OTrnrs'jcj^ai (quaiu et Theociiti 
Scholiastae reddiderim potius) explicationem, eariv izirriQilr^ai. 
xaj Oia^uKo(.TTS(T^on to eXaiov." 

Moieover, we have tlie express authority of Theocritus Id. xix. 
45. for the word oATij. 

uoyupsix; h^ vKzilog vyqhv dXsi'^OLO 

It is true that Mr^ Burgcs disposes of tlie word oKTrt; by sub- 
stituting jcaATTjSoc, or tteAAjSoj. " Cf. Hipponacteum iikid," says 
he, " TriWiloc y^Qua-Yiv ap. Athen. xi. p. 495. D." But, vvheii he is 
told that he is removing from the passage of Theocritus the proper 
teclinkal term, used by the Greeks to denote the vessel containing 
the uypov aXu^xp, 1 have no doubt that he will candidly retract his 
conjecture. 'OXTirj et oAttij are properly used for oil-flasks, and 
consequently the word cAttj^oj is the proper word in the passage of 
Theocritus. Thus xVchiJeus (ap. Athen. Lib. x. p. 451. quoted 
above by Toup, who rightly reads ttAscz) says, o'Atd^ y^q[<T^xTOi ttXsz, 
a Jiask of oil. See too the Etym. Mag. and Zonaras as quoted 
above. Thus Suidas says^ "OX^iti, r^ Ai^xuSoj o'lrjii lAaioVrj t/j Qvcrar 
ii« TO Zi uurr^g OTriTTTsvciQcii to eXaiov Iv ' E7riygccjj.ix^.ri, 

XxXxsov a.gyvQsca fj.s TuvsiyisXov, 'Iv^ixov egyov, 
cX-jrYjV YioIttov ^s'tyiov elg hraqou. 

Upon the passage of Theocritus, to which Toup refers above, 
we have these vvords in the Scholia, xa» elj rov olxov ju-ou ttoAAxxjc 
(TiSsi TY/V Acoolla oXtvuV iOMS T^v Xr,xv^oy tyjV \y(0U(7av to 'iXaiciv, m 
i-)(^pM'no h rale TrocXataTQciu. AXX<m$ oAtd) xugicjog, yj dsgixacr'tvYj Xyik'j- 
6of, 8»' i]c e<rTiv 07rTri(TCii7^cti to sXoiiov. vuv S; 'Icrco; tyjv p^aAxijv <prj(rt 
Ajjxu^ov, diu TO ^Moldy. t^avai, avu Kogivdius' to. yap KopivQia ynxXxii- 
{loiTOi. S»a/3=/3o'>]Tai. 

Hesychius, as we have seen above, explains oA^ra by XyjKuSog, 
and XrjKvSoc denotes an 07l-f^.ask. " Ar^xu^o: S=, ayyzivj lAcaoSo^^oy, 

•770.001. TO SXCCIOV X:u3f»V_, ?V« r, sXxiOKU^O; Tig. OTl t\ "^ Aj^XvSoj KCii oAtHJ 

XiysTcn, ^sqsi y^qri^Tiv ' A^-q^uiog If 'A';(^ci.ioi) yXa^^itgov <pri<n ttoiijtow 
h^yctiv xa» OTl Arjxufloi, x«{ Ix Ttf/.ioig sysvovTO uA>;c, olov aTspavci xou 
iiXrixv^ov fx.uQOit ^gvTovv xcc\ apyvoovv OOKzi Ss t) f-rfisiiTix cAttij ylvsaQotij 
Tcxgu TO sXv.iov '7i€7ra.(r5 w, , r,yovv x6jcTv;cr3«<. Eustaihius, Roma?, 1550. 
Vol. III. p. 1552. 1. 23. IJaQo. Oso-xpirw — oAttjc to ovcaa tou aA/lwc 
Tfotga. TYjV XsTTiOd Tvov i^'J'j'jJVj J; TTUgy. tt.v tou (j'jiiuoLTfic (j'^i(TiV oXra)/ yag 
fci(Ti T^v A^xrjSov, wg glvai Tragia T^v crfuxpOT^ira rovvo^a. 

H. Stephens in the Index to his Thesaurus Lhig. Gr. admits 
both oAtttj, and oX-vig, and gives the following correct account. 

^2 Classical Criticism. 

""OXttj) et JXtjj, Hesychio Xijxu'Jof, lecythuSy ampulla olearia, VAs 
olearium. JSicand. 

Theocr. Idyll. 2. 156. 

xai Tiaq l/xlv hrl^si ra,v Aatfiilx TrokXcixig oAwav. 

Hie enim Schol. oXttyiv interpretatur X:^>iw$ov. Itidemque 'skTih^ 
pro XrjxuQov accepit idem Theocr. Idyll. IS. 

ctpYvpsas s'^ oAttiSoj Cypov oiXsi(pu^ 

*0X7r«; vocariint etiam ;)(^o«j oIvo^oyj; a-^rjixot t^ovTug, aptos tt^oj t^v 
TO'j oTvou tK-^v<nv, teste Athena^o Lib. ii. ubi simul afFert hoc 
lonis testimonium J ex ^uUmv TnQxKvm a^pvcra-ovTsg 'oKnaic olvov uTrfp- 
ficiXov TisXdQu^BTs. Sic oXttij etiam Hesychio est oivop^^orj." 

This is {]iute sufficient, as I suppose, for the satisfaction of my 
readers, as well as the conviction of your correspondent. I mtist 
not however fail to add that Hesychius has, "EXtto^' eXaiov, c-rsa^, 
euflrjvi'a (and so has Phavorinus). Again, eXipog, (Soutu^ov, KvTrgiot. 
This eXTTog denoting oil is probably of the same origin (if it be not 
a corruption of the text) with oXttyj and oX-jrig denoting an oil-flask, 
and the editois of Hesychius would do well to attend to this hint. 
Moreover it is very remarkable that in the Scholia breviora MS. 
in Lycophronis Cassandram upon v. 580. 

egiTnv re ps^jiv ^S* aXoK^alov XiVof, 

■we have (as quoted above) tov olvov ol AlyuTrriot y.aiXovcriv eJsttjv, 

Bochart (as quoted by Alberti) identifies eAfoj, mentioned in 
the other passage of Ilesycliius as the Cyprian term for buttery 
with a Hebrew and a Phoenician word. Perhaps some orientalist, 
whose eye may chaiice to see this article, will give to us a little 
help about the words 'iXitog, sX^og, spTrig, oXzfj, or oXzig. Besides, 
it is a very curious coincidence that Hesychius as quoted above 
interprets 'iXirog by eoSi^v/a, and oXita. by oX^og. 

As to v.hat Mr. Burges says that the Celtis of Pliny (Nat. 
Hist. XI n. 17-) is the Greek or Egyptian word, whether it be 
oXTTig, 'iXinc, or epTT/j, for my own part 1 deem it exceedingly pro- 
bable, from the circumstance, which Pliny mentions, viz. that uine 
was made from this celtis. Mr. Burges evidently has not himself 
examined the passage of {"'liny, or else he would have remarked 
that not only Polybius as quoted by Athena^us (whom alone he 
quotes,) but also Pliny asserts that the lotus supplied both wine 
and food, llie passage runs thus : 

Classical Criticism, 63 

" Eadem Africa, qua vergit ad nos, insignem arboreni loton 
gignit, quam vocant celtin^ et ipsam Italioe iumiliarem, sed terra 
mutatam. Prrecipua est circa Syrtes atque Magni- 
tiido, quffi piro, quanquam Cornelius Nepos breveai tradit. Inci- 
suras folio crebriores, que? ilicis -videntur. Difrerentice plures, 
eveque maxirae fructibus fiunt. Magnitudo hnic fahcEf color 
croci, sed ante maturitatem alius atque alius, sicut in uvls. Nasci- 
tur densus in ramis myrti modo, non ut in Italia, cerasi : tam 
dulci ihi cibo, ut nomcn etiam genti terrseque dederit, nimis hos- 
pitali advenarum oblivioue patriae. Ferunt ventris non sentire 
morbum, qui eum inandant. Melior sine interiore nucleo, qui in 
altero genere osseus videtur. V inum quoque exprimitur illi^ 
simile miilso, quod ultra denos dies negat durare idem Nepos: 
baccasque concisas cum alica ad cibos doliis condi. Quin et exer- 
citus pastos eo accepimus, ultro citroque commeantes per Jfri- 

llarduin here refers to Herodotus Lib. iv. cap. 177., and I 
quote the passage, 'AKir,v 5; 7rgos;!^oua-av Ig -rh -tvovtov toutcov rSiv 
Tiv^uvaiv ve[j.ovTai Acorofoiyor o', tov Kag-Trov jj^ovvov tov XckiTOu Tpujyov- 
re; ^coovar — -woisuVTa* §5 l>t tov KapTTOU toutov ol A'jjro<pa.'yoi kx) olvov. 
Upon the words haccas concisas cum alica ad cibos doliis condi, 
Hardain cites the passage of Polybius, (which Mr. Burges quotes, 
and which he applies to justify his correction of Hesych. ^ovdgotj 
Tis £'>|/»icr<f for ^o'^dgou ng ^sc-ic, uud here I may remark that Phavo- 
rinus has the very words of Kesychius, and that it is in Phavorinus, 
as in Hesychius, spcrig). But Harduin is silent upon the word 
celtis, for which no other authority than the passage of Pliny is 
given in the Dictionaries of B. Faber, M. Forcellmus^ or J. M. 

As to Mr. Burges's correction of Photius C" v. AoJTog, ^oravn 
eicadrjc, r^v svtoi j«,upaAwTov y.aXov(Ti, lege omnino lUiXix-jnov collato 
Atheneeo lil. p. 73- A. kc/.XoxJ<ti II A\yv-mioi [xsv avTO Xktov, Nav' 
xgaTicii U jx£A(/\a;TOv"), I venture to pronounce it indisputable. It 
has escaped the sagacity and the learning of Schleusner, as the 
reader will see by turning to his Appendix ad Aiiimadvv. in Fhotii 
Lexicon, if Mr. Burges had peeped into C. Salmasius's PH- 
niana Exercitationes, where he is speaking of the lotos, he would 
have found niuch matter upon the subject, and some other quo- 
tations to vindicate his conjecture. He has not remarked that 
Zonaras has the very same words, as Photius, and that m 
Zonaras also it is ix.vgaXu>Toy. 


Hation, June, 1814. 



Distinctive mark over the Indeclinable Particles of the Latin 
language. Error in Gilbert Wakefield a7id Sie 
William Jones. 


Hoc,' puto, non justum est ; illud male ; rectius istud. Peusius. 

vXenerally' speaking, the method of distinguishing by mark 
the Indeclinable Particles of the Latin language is threefold : 

1. Along with those, which are the same in orthography with the 
cases of particular nouns, ^ or the persons of particular verbs, to 
accentuate all such as have terminations similar to those of the 
cases of nouns, or the persons of verbs. Of the first description 
of those similar are, seciis, nisi, magis, niag^, nam, aged^m, 
palam, coram, tarn, d, saepi^, &c. Of the second, duntaxdt, sci- 
licet, videlicet, ilicet, &c. The instances given under the next 
head will serve for these which are the same in orthography with 
the cases of particular nouns or the persons of particular verbs. 

2. To accentuate such only as in orthography alone might 
aclnalli) represent the case of some noun, or the person of some 
verb. Of the former are, mod6, fortuity, quam, belle, enu- 
cleate, tantum, tantiilum, oppid6 ; as also for a similar reason, 
prseterea, admodum, tantummod6, obviam, adamussim, &.c. of 
the latter, licet,*^, cedti, amab6, puta, &c. 

3. To accentuate all indeclinable Particles whatever. 

The first of these rules, considered in all its parts, has nothing 
in it even specious, much less reasonable : the last is at once ex- 
travagant and absurd : the second appears so far reasonable, that 
all persons will do well to comply with it, for some time at least. 

• I say generally, because some have been known to proceed upon a 
plan so vague and cunfused, as to accentuate adverbs on account of some 
particular termination, aad yet not allow that reason to extend to conjune- 
tions ; to mark conjunctions and yet not preposilions, and so on. Though, 
perhaps, this is scarcely worth the mentioning. 

* Under the head noun is implied pronoun also, and adjective. 

Classical Ci'iticism. 65 

For our own part, as M'e are persuaded that the system has had its 
origin iyi toto with the Grammarians, we should, in company with 
most continental scholars, and a good part of our own, prefer re- 
linquishing it entirely. The cases in v.'hich the distinctive mark is 
of real use are few, very few indeed. None but beginners will find 
the context insufficient for this. 

NO. II. 

Vilibus in scopis, in niappis, in scobe quantus 

Consistit sumtus ! neglectis, flagitiiim ingens. HoRAT. 

Before we close this article, we will call the attention of our younger 
readers to a construction, which was once a stumbling-block to no 
less a man than Gilbert Wakefield ; through which circumstance 
he had the misfortune to come under the censure of several of his 
learned contemporaries, and, amongst the rest, of Professor 
Porson. The passage, we apprehend, is in the Preface to his 
Hion and Moschus ; though, as we have nothing at this moment 
but our memory to refer to, we do not feel quite certain that it is 
not in the Preface to his Tra^adiarum Delectus^ Be that as it 
may, it is of this nature, " Video has chartas consummafas iri." 
We need not say he should have written consummatum. Compare 
Terence, " Et sine opera tua illam deductum iri domum." The 
mistake arose fiom considering that as a participle, which is in 
reality a supine. 

But if Gilbert Wakefield errs, he errs at least in high company, 
as the following passage from the fourth book of Sir William 
Jones's Poeseos Asiaticce Conimenlarii indisputably shows — 
^' Denique naturam sibi parere autumat, et ad desiderium suum 
levandum cofiversarn iri sperat." 

Not that we think much worse either of Sir William Jones, of 
«ven of Gilbert Wakefield, for having been led into a mistake like 
this. They have their merits to support them ; and a flaw of this 
nature, trifling by itself, will very nearly vanish, if brought into 
comparison with the accurate and the creditable part of what they 
have left behind them. Yet, this is no excuse for a beginner. 
A learner, once taught to understand this, ought not to need 
being told twice. 

1814. r. L. 

• It is in neither. Ed. 

NO. XIX. a. JI. VOL.X. 



On the Greek Inscription upon the Rosetta Stone, contain- 
ing a decree made in the reign of Ptolemy Epiphanes, 
Son of Philopator, a copy of which is inserted in the 
\6th Vol. of Archceologia ; and also on the two trails- 
latiojis and annotations annexed to them in that vqI- 


A FAC SIMILE of this inscription, distributed by the Societj of 
Antiquaries to various persons, accompanied with a request of 
receiving remarks upon it, has, after seven years, produced only 
one Latin translation by Professor Heyne, and another in Eng- 
lish by the Rev. Stephen Weston, together with learned annot- 
ations by both of them, and also additional ones by Mr. Taylor 
Combe. On all these I shall take the liberty of making some 
remarks, and 1 hope without any dissatisfaction to those annot- 
ators ; as it seems to be the wisii of that society to receive far- 
ther explications, by their distributing copies of the Greek inscrip- 
tion separately from the 1 6th Vol. These Greek copies seem to 
have been revised by Mr. Raper ; and the society appears to be 
rather disappointed at not receiving a greater number of remarks 
on this curious relic of Egyptian antiquity so unexpectedly dis- 

The first eight lines upon the stone itself are employed in form- 
ing the first long period, which contains a kind of Introduction, 
together with the date of the subsequent Decree ; but has so much 
intricacy of construction, as renders it difficult to ascertain the 
nense of several parts of it. This arises chiefly from the interven- 
tion of so much hyperbolic and verbose flattery, that those Greek 
words are too far disjoined from one another, which convey to us 
the principal information contained in that period. This distant 
dislocation of words, which are very closely connected in sense, has 
forced Mr. Weston, in his English translation, to include three por- 
tions of that period in three parentheses, and one of them containing 
no less than six of his own lines ; yet still the meaning is sometimes 
ambiguous : therefore I shall attempt a different method, which is, 
to omit altogether such phrases as are irrelevant to the principal 
sense and matter of the period, but to preserve scrupulously the 
original arrangement of the G reek words ; because the original 

Remarks on the Greek Inscription, S;c. 67 

arrangement will not only show the causes of the doubtful mean- 
ing of some phrases ; but also assist readers in ascertaining better 
what, in their own opinion, is the right sense of those doubtful and 
ambiguous sentences. By this method the principal parts of that 
period will be brouglit near to one another, and the disjoined words 
of it placed at once under the eyes of readers according to their 
original arrangement. 

BaciXsuovTo; Tov Nsov, xou vagaXa^ovTog rJjv ^oia-iXeiav, Ttaoa. row 
'TTUTQOg — SIX.OVOS ^cti<7Yjg Tou Ailg ulou Tou "^HXiov TlToXsy^/xlov alwjo^iou — ■ 
!Tov§ Ivaro'j 1$' 'hgscog 'Aerou — 'jW-tjvoj Suv$ty.ov Tsvpudt AlyoTrriauv Sj 
Ms^s)p onTctixaidsKaTYj ^rj^io-p^x ol 'Ap^ispsig Ka) Trpo^ijrai — jcnii tttboo- 
^oqai xa» \BpoypaiJ.^y.rsig xa) ol ccXXoi Upslg iravTzg o\ onrocvTrjO-avTBg — > 
slg Ms[/,(piv TM ^(XiTiXst Tzpog x^v Travijyugijv rijj irxqaXrf^tZMg rrjj ^ci(riXslas 
TlTQXr[i.aiov — )jv 'TTupcXu^sv rrragx tou Trargog auroy cuvayflivTSj sv tco h 

Mc[X,<Psi 'ls§M TJ5 ^JX5^a TOtUTYj sItTUV. 

It is not to be expected, that when the above long period (of 
which 1 have omitted more than half) was translated into this pro- 
vincial Greek, it could be rendered so as to avoid all equivocal 
phrases, or that any person should be able now to translate it into 
pure and perfectly explicit English ; all that can be reasonably ex- 
pected is, to avoid erroneous, and, as much as possible, equivocal, 
senses. I conceive, then, that the above Greek words, many of 
which are still too far disjoined from one another, ought to be so 
connected together as to express the following senses. 

" Ptolemy, the living image of Jupiter, the son of the Sun, 
having, after his father, reigned while under age, and having taken 
the government into his own hands by inauguration on the fourth 
day of the month Xanthicus, but, according to the Egyptians, the 
18th of Mecheir in the 9th year of his reign, Aetos being high 
priest, this decree by the high priests and prophets, and the Ptero- 
phorK and sacred scribes, and all the rest of the priests who went 
to Memphis to meet the king, to form a procession on account of 
the inauguration of Ptolemy to the kingdom, the government of 
which he then took into his own hands after his father, was on that 
same day ordained." Then follows the Decree itself, which is loo 
long to be even abridged like the first period, but the chief words 
of it are not too far disjoined from one another ; on the sense of 
some of which I shall however make some remarks, as they seem 
to me to have been not rightly explained in the annotations and 
translations, to which I have alluded. 

The situation of ^--i^ipjcraa, decree, in the middle of the period, is 
«uch as separates it into two parts, in the second half of which the 
words r^if^'ga. rcuxr) ejTrav prove the date of the decree, to be fixed 
no otherwise than by a repetition of the dates inserted in the first 
half, by means of the above words in the same day was this decree 

68 Uemarks on the Gt'eek Insaiption 

ordained. Now it appears, that the dates in the Jirst half must be 
those of either the tirst accession of Piolemy on the death of hi» 
father, or else of the time at which he took the government into his 
own hands, which 1 will call his Inauguration, he being only about 
four years old at his father's death : and on first reading the words 
nxguAu^ovTog, 7r«paXi^4/ewc, TrapEAa/Ssv, one might be apt to conceive 
them to lelate to the first accession of the king on the death of his 
father ; but this is afterwards disproved, by the word 'rrugotXri^tg 
being employed when mention is made of the procession, or con- 
course of people and priests, to 7neet the king at Memphis, (for 
there could be no such procession at his father's death) and also of 
the decree being dated on that same daij. So that only his inaufur' 
ation can be meant by those words wherever they occur, and to 
that alone the dates can refer likewise in the first half of that long 
period. Nevertheless it does not follow hence that those same 
dates tna^ not express likewise the time of his first accession, it 
being very probable, that his inauguration would be fixed on the 
anniversary day of his accession, and I believe that no evidence ex- 
ists to the contrary : we may therefore consider the date of the day 
in the inscription, as the commencement of the ninth year of his 
reign. The words ninth year are, however, placed so ambiguously 
in the inscription itself, and also in Mr. Weston's translation_, that 
they may be mistaken to mean the ninth of the priesthood of 
Aetos ; but will be seen with certainty to mean the ninth of Ptol- 
emy, when w^e inquire with what Julian dates those of the inscrip- 
tion correspond, beside that his eighth year is mentioned in line 24^ 
and again afterwards. 

These first doubts then being removed concerning the sense of 
such ambiguous words as 7r«g«A«/3ovTOf, and the dates there being 
ascertained to be those of the inauguration as well as decree and 
possiblii of the king's accession likewise, another doubt presents 
itself concerning the sense of ^ot(nXrjovTog tov vsoo, which Mr. 
Weston translates a decree of the young king : yet it was not so, 
it being a decree of the high priests. The translation by Heyne, 
likewise, is at least very obscure, if not as erroneous ; for w hat does 
his Rcgnante novo Ptolemcco mean ^ It can neither mean young, 
nor nczely come to the throne, it being the king's ninth year. I 
have had some doubt, then, whether Heyne did not mean the same 
as by vEOu in Greek inscriptions on coins of the Roman Emperors, 
where liii hovs vsov Isgou signify on the sacred anniversary or rievf 
year of any Emperor s accession ; which the Romans imitated by 
novus annus imperii. If this sense of vsov could be here maintained, 
it would prove that the inauguration had actually been fixed on 
the anniversary day of his accession in his ninth year : but imless 
this meaning of regnante novo can be better ascertained, /SacrtXeuov- 
TOf Tou VEOU seem to mean, agreeably to Mr. Combe's sense, that 

upon the Rosetta Stone. 69 

the king had reigned while U7ider age, in order that readers might 
more readily conceive the propriety of \vhat is often afterwards 
mentioned, his inauguration, by the word TTapaXyj^si and such 
others ; for as he was then only 13, young would equally well ap- 
ply to him after inauguration as before. 

We have next to inquire concerning the dates of year, month, 
and day, at which the inscription fixes this inauguration, and the 
decree also at the very same dates ; these are " on the fourth day 
of the Macedonian month Xanthicus, and the 1 8th day of the 
Egyptian month Mecheir in the 9th year of the reign of Ptolemy." 
Heyne is the annotator, who has chiefly inquired concerning the 
dates in the Julian Calendar, to v/hich the iibove correspond, and 
although he is not far from the truth, yet he has fallen into some 
errors, which ought to be corrected, lest others should be mjsled 
by such an eminent author : his determination is, " that the day of 
the inscription on the 18th of Mecheir and 4th of Xanthicus, 
which answered to our February and March, fell upon the 4th 
year of Olympiad 145, and near the end of it, which was the year 
197 before the vulgar aera of Christ." pp. 236, 237. The other 
annotators express no objection to any of these dates, and Mr. 
Raper, I think, accedes to the year 197 of Heyne. Now Heyne's 
date of near the end of the 4th year of Olympiad 1 45 is right, but 
this was not in the year 197 before Christ, but in 1 96, at the mid- 
summer of which that Olympic year ended. Neither is he sufiici- 
ently accurate in saying that Xanthicus corresponded with our Feb- 
ruary and March, since it was rather with March and April, at 
least in the year 196. If indeed he conceived the solar year of the 
Macedonians to have subsisted at the time of this inscription, ia 
this solar year Xanthicus began every year on Febr. 22 ; but this 
solar year was not introduced in Asia or elsewhere until after the 
Julian Calendar, and in imitation of it, therefore 1 50 years a/irer 
the date of the inscription ; at which time the Macedonians and all 
other Greeks made use of lunar months which began at or near the 
new moons, therefore fell sooner or later just as the new moons 
did. So that it is not 'possible to know on what Julian day or 
month in any year whatever the 4th of Xanthicus fell, not even by 
calculating how the new moons fell in any given year; because it 
would fall sooner or later through another cause, that is, according 
to the years, in which the intercalary month was inserted, of which 
we know nothing, and this was generally once in about every three 
years. We must therefore despair of being able to ascertain either 
the right Julian day or even month, if we had no other guide than 
the above Macedonian date. But Heyne has not observed, that 
both day and month may be ascertained with accuracy, by means 
of the Egyptian date on the 1 8th of their month Mecheir, to have 
l*«en ou March 27 in 196. 

70 Remarks on the Greek Inscription 

In order to prove the inscription to be thus dated, it must be re- 
membered, that the Egyptian year was a solar one of 365 days 
only, and remained fixed, like our Julian year, except that by hav- 
ing no intercalary day on every 4th year, it began one day sooner in 
the Julian Calendar in every 4th year. ISow it is known from 
Ptolemy's astroaomy, that at the epoch of Nabonassar, the Egyp- 
tian new year's day coincided with the 26th of February in the 
Julian Calendar reckoned backward : hence it has been computed 
by Petau in his cloctrin. temp, that in the 197th before Christ it 
would commence so much sooner than February (at the rate of 
one year in every four) as to fall on the 11th of October for the 
first time in the 197th before Christ, by its having gone backward 
so far into the preceding Jvdian year between 747 the first of 
Nabonassar and that 197th ; it would therefore remain stationary 
on Octob. 21 during the four years 197, 19^^ 195, 194, because 
197 was a leap year in the Julian Calendar extended backward, 
and the intercalary day had been inserted in February before the 
11th Octob. at which the Egyptian year commenced. It only 
remains then to inquire on what Julian day the 18th of Mecheir 
must fall in those four years ; now the first five months of thirty 
days each amount to one hundred and fifty, to which when we add 
the first eighteen days of the 6lh Egyptian month Mecheir, they 
amount to one hundred and sixty-eight ; and one hundred and sixty- 
eight days, reckoned from October 1 1 inclusively, will not end 
until March 27 inclusively, in the subsequent year, 196. This then 
was the Julian day of the inscription, if it was made in any of the 
above four years. Here the Macedonian date on the 4th of Xan- 
thicus will give us assistance to determine in which of those four 
years the ninth of Ptolemy Epiphanes fell. For the true ninth 
year must have been one, in which the fourth day of a new moon 
coincided exactly or nearly with the 27th of March : but this could 
not have been in 197 before Christ, for in this year there was no 
new moon until about the 30th of March. In the subsequent year 
however, I96, it would consequently happen about 1 1 days sooner, 
which would be the 19th or 20th day, and thus the 4th day of it 
would be about the 24th day of March, two or three days only be- 
fore the 27th, but in the 195th still eleven days sooner. This con- 
firms what I said before, that Heyne had erroneously made the 4th 
of Olympiad 145 end in 197, instead of iy6, and thus fixed the 9th 
of Ptolem.y one year too early. 

lire same error w ill appear again, if any one turns to the tables 
by Petavi or Riccioli, both of whom fix the first of Epiphanes in 
the 204th before Christ ; now if we should even allow his first 
year to end so early as with 204, yet still his ninth will not begin 
before 196; and Heyne himself, at p. 236, does accordingly fix the 
accession of Epiphanes in 204, in which Philopator died. Euse- 

upojt the Rosetta Stone, 71 

bins, in his Chronicon^ agrees to the same year as being the H.rst of 
Epiphanes ; but it is lixed still more demonstratively by the aera of 
Philip, which may be seen at the end of Petau's Ration, temp., 
where Philopator ends with the year 119, and Epiphanes began 
with 120. Now 119, added to the 424 before Alexander,, amount 
to 543 for the corresponding date in the asra of Nabonassar, which, 
as may be seen in Petau's tables, did not end until October 13 in 
205 before Christ ; therefore the 9th March after this would ba 
March in 196, and not sooner ; and Heyne himself lixes Xanthicus 
in March. 

This correction then does not depend solely on the above com* 
putation of the new moons ; neither can the disagreement of the 
4th day after the new moon in March of 196 with the 4th of 
Xanthicus form any objection to this proof of the right 9th year, 
on account of that 4th day being three days later than the 4th of 
the new moon. We know, that in the most correct mode adopted 
by the Athenians, the metonic cycle, the new moons would fall 
two days later than they really did after the 236 years from its first 
adoption to the 196th before Christ; and other Greeks were lesi 
accurate than the Athenians. It is then a sufficient proof for my 
purpose that in no other year from 198 to 194 before Christ could 
the 4th of any Macedonian lunar month fall even near to March 
27^ except in 196. Heyne is inaccurate again in saying at p. 236, 
that the month Mesore, at the end of which Epiphanes was born, 
coincided chiefly with August, for it was really with September. 
I do not, however, comprehend what Mr. Raper means at p. 210, 
by fixing the accession of Epiphanes in the year 200 before Christ, 
which must perplex readers, who find that Heyne places it in 204j 
and rightly ; unless it was intended by 200 to correct the vulgar aera 
of Christ, which M'as needless here at least, but it became necess- 
ary for me to notice this to prevent doubts concerning the preceding 
inquiries relative to the 9th year of Ptolemy Epiphanes. 

There are still other particular phrases in that long Greek 
period, which require explication, some of which 1 have retained 
in my abridgment of it, but have omitted others. Thus in regard 
to TTTcgoipogai Mr. Weston says *' that tt!ing hearers and water 
sprinklers were employed in the temples to brush away flies, and 
lay the dust, like the mnscarum abactores mentioned by Pausaniag 
in Eliacis." To this he adds *' that the sacred scribe had wings 
upon his head, and a book and rule in his hand, as see in Clemens 
Alexandr." Whether the above persons were all included by 
Mr. Weston under the name of Pterophorae does not clearly 
appear : however, it is a mistake to conceive that any persons of 
that appellation had Tci7igs upon their heads — nevertheless Mr. 
Combe understands those words of Clemens in the same sense, 
TTxega s;j^wv kr) T'is JtefaXijj;, wings being zeorn on the heads of tits 

72 tlemarks on the Greek Inscription 

priests, p. 257. : and in Diodorus again he translates TiTspov leguKng 
by the zci7ig of a hawk being worn on the heads of the sacred 
scribes. Heyne, however, may possibly have conceived the right 
sense of Trxs^a in these cases^ but he has expressed himself in such 
an ambiguous and perplexed manner, that it is impossible for any 
reader to conjecture what lie might mean, neither can any one con- 
ceive the right sense of 7:Tsqa, who has had no opportunity of seeing 
the sculpture to which Heyne there refers in the Adiniranda Homes 
by Beilorius, tabl. l6. For after quoting those words of Clemens, 
he adds : *' mihi ex antiquis moisumentis Pterophorae innotuere, in 
quibus pon)pa3 iEgyptiorum exhibenlur; praicedunt enim in iis qui 
capita habent utrinque penud ornata ; tenent illi voiumen, ut appa- 
rent esse eos ex genere scribarum : exeniplum ejus videre licet in 
pompu Isiaca, vel in Admirandis Roma', tab. l6." JNow will 
readers of these ambiguous words conceive Heyne to mean by penna 
&c., any different sense from those other annotators, i. e. wings on 
their heach'i as to what he himself really meant he has not suffici- 
ently explained to others, but in order to know the right sense of 
vTcqov penna, it is indeed necessary to see that sculpture in the Ad- 
miranda to which he refers, where, instead of wings, are found two 
feathers, stuck upright one behind each ear ; whence it appears, 
that in the above quotations from Diodcrus and Clemens TTTsga. does 
not mean wings, nor yet here in this inscription the word Pteroph- 
orai, but only feathers: and Heyne may have meant the same, but 
this he has not communicated to his readers clearly enough for them 
to comprehend what he did mean; and no reader can discover the 
truth who has never seen the above sculpture. 

It is again ambiguous as to what meaning a reader is to affix to 
his words in pompa Isiaca vel in Admirandis Roma. Did he 
mean by pompa Isiaca only the same isiac procession exhibited in 
that i^cidpture, or did he include in it any other Isiac processions.' 
If he meant other processions, and included in his phrase any re- 
ference to the Isiac table, it may be observed, that in this no one 
priest or priestess has either zvings or feathers annexed to the head. 
The sense, however, of Trrepa adopted by Mess. Weston and Combe 
must be a mistake, owing to the doubtful sense of that word, 
which may mean either wings or feathers. In the Isiac table, in- 
deed, the Goddess Isis herself is represented with a hawk perched 
on her head, the wings of which hang down very low on each side 
of it, a hawk being the symbol of divinity, as Clemens says, ^y/A/3o- 
Xov hov b 'Uqci^, Strom. 6, and Horapollo the same, Deum cum vol- 
unt significare Mgyptii accipitrem pingunf. lib. I. But wingg 
are never seen there on the head of any mortal person ; and it is 
only to tlie deified animals and monsters to vvhicli they are there 
ever found annexed, and sometimes also a pair of wings tied with a 
fibbaud are seen in the air hovering over those deified animals as a 

upon the Rosetia Stone, 7S 

token of their dhmnty, just as a pair of wings so tied together are de- 
scribed by Diodorus. It was probably iVoni this practice of the 
Egyptians that the Greeks borrowed the method of denoting such 
celestial beings as Genii, and Cupids, and others by annexing 
wings to them, which they also absurdly fixed to their shoulders, 
as if they were to fly through the air, the symbolical meaning of the 
mi/gs of a hawk being lost among them. 

l^'or the same reason it probably was, that the above Pterophoras 
stuck a hawk's feather behind each ear, as a token of their sacred 
office as scribes, for Diodorus expressly informs us that it was the 
feather of a hazck ; and his whole account is so explanatory of the 
sculpture in the Admiranda, that I will quote the whole of it, Mr. 
Combe having quotedonly a part ; it will be equally explanatory also 
of the Egyptian procession in Clemens, which is often so similar to 
that in the sculpture, that they all confirm one another, and prove 
that nothing more was meant by Trrsqci, or by Pterophorae, than 
those feathers at the ears of some of the scribes. The origin of 
this practice is thus related by Diodorus : " tradunt vetustis tem- 
poribus Librum filo puniceo circumligatum Sacerdotibus Tliebas 
allatum esse, in quo Deoritm cultus scripti fuerunt, quam ob cau- 
sam sacri notarii {UgoypufxixoiTsic) nunc quoque purpureum licium 
et accipitris pennam -nTspov in capite gestent." lib. 1. In that 
sculpture accordingly are tovbe plainly seen the ribband tied round 
the head of the scribe, with a roll of papyrus in his tw o hands, and 
a feather stuck upright behind each ear. The same roll or book, 
as described by Diodorus, is also mentioned by Clemens, as being 
in the hands of a similar scribe with feathers at his head, irreqai 
iXMv IttI Trjf -x-ii^aXr^c. Two of the other persons in the procession 
on the sculpture are likewise the same as in Clemens, and I will 
enumerate them all that the reader may compare them with the 
account in Clemens. The last of them is a musician with a Sistrum 
as in Clemens. Before him a Priest holding a large pitcher or 
Hydria within his arms, as in Clemens, supposed to be symbolical 
of the Nile ; and before him the Pterophoros as described above, 
the foremost figure being apparently a priestess of Isis by having a 
serpent twined about her arm. There are only these four persons 
in the sculpture, which represents apparently a procession relative 
to Isis ; in Clemens are several more persons, and no priestess : but 
he expressly calls one propheta, and the Pterophoros he calls onlj 
Hierogrammateus ; so here, in this inscription, the propheta is 
ranked with the high priests, while the Pterophoros is only ranked 
with the other sacred scribes, as being of an inferior degree. 

Another phrase in the inscription, not yet rightly explained, is an 
appellation given to the king, which 1 have before omitted, viz. 
Kvpiog TMV TgiaxovrasTTjo/Scov, in the second line ; this Mr. Weston 
translates Lord of the festival of oO years, yet in his note he rend- 

74 Remarks on the Grczh Inscription 

ers it by tlie. festival of 30 drn/s, and afterwards explains it as ref- 
lating to live days added to the year. But as eVij is the foundation 
of the word sTYjpihg, this word must imply periods of years not days, 
Thus TSTouiTYjpiltg was the word in use with the Greeks to signify 
the Julian periods of four years, and in a fragment of "^1 heon, sub- 
joined to Dodwell's Dissert. Cyprian. Egyptian periods of twenty- 
five years are called sUoai TrsvTasTrpi^ig : Heyne then rightly trans- 
lates by periodi oO aiinorum ; yet with little probability supposes 
that appellation to allude to the SO gods mentioned by Herodotus 
in lib. 2. Mr. Weston is again not sufficiently accurate in saying 
" that there were Trieterides, liepterides, and Enneaterides, or 
feasts of every three, seven, and nine years of Bacchus the same 
with Osiris." vide Plutarch's Quast. Grac. Here, however, he 
rightly conceives years to be meant, but his reference to Plutarch 
relates to Apollo, not Bacchus ; and no liepterides are there 
mentioned, but only Septeriov, not deduced from hnu but from 
csTnhg, sanctns. Whether any more plausible explication can be 
given of the above appellation 1 will not promise, but there is one 
passage in Syncellus, which seems to throw some light upon it at p. 
5 1 . He there quotes, from w hat he calls the vetus chronicon of the 
Egyptians, an account of the reigns of the gods in Egypt, " the first 
of whom was Vulcan, the second his son the Sun, who reigned 
rqiig [xvgiu^ac, the third was Saturn." JS'ow three myriads are 
30,000 years, which is the same sum as 1000 times SO, and as the 
rotation of Saturn is in 30 years, the Sun may on this account have 
had the vast multiple of this period assigned to him, Saturn being 
not deemed an Egyptian deity. So among the Hindoos divine 
years are always some vast multiple of the years of mortals. Here 
also w-e find in the inscription a similar genealogy or succession at 
least of great kings of all Egypt, assigned to Vulcan, the Sun, 
and the god Ptolemy: for Ptolemy in that first Greek period is 
called " Son of the Sun, Lord of the periods of SO years, as tc'as 
Ynlcuu the great king, as rcas the ^uii the great king and oj all 
Egypt.'^ So that the san;e vast period is iiere assigned to Vulcan^ 
«nd to the Sun, as is promised to his son Ptolemy, and all three 
are deemed great kings over all Egypt. Those reigns then of the 
gods in Syncellus have at least some similitude to the successive 
reigns of the gods in this inscriptiosi ; and it is very possible both 
that the vetus Chronicon may not have given quite an accurate ac- 
count of such hidden mysteries, and also that Syncellus through 
contempt may have abbreviated it too much by assigning to the 
Sun three myriads of years instead of a thousand periods of thirty 
years, for his reign. The Greek words are, Kugiov T^jaxovTaertjo/Scov 
xa^oLTTsp 6 "H'^ona-rog 6 fxiyag (3a(XiKiv:, xa^uitep o "HXiog 6 fjJya.g ^ct<Ti~ 
Aeyj ToJv re avoj Jia» ■x.utoo ^aygaov {Alyvitrov) — eiKovog ^ai<rijj tou Ailg 
t/Iou TOU 'H>Jou nTOkt^t^iou. Mr. Weston's traoslatiou does wot 

upon the Roselia Stone. 75 

ir.ake out tlie same sense, which 1 have given to the words, but (as 
I believe) it at least agrees with nie in Ptojemy being here styled 
Son of the Sun, and not that these words are to be applied to 
Jupiter, as in Heyne's translation, for I never knew that the Sun 
was the reputed father of J upiter ; by the arrangement of the 
Greek words they become here ambiguous, and Heyne erroneously 
translates them Ptolemao imagine viva Juvis filii Sulis. It is 
only by degrees, that tiie right sense can be tluis affixed to every 
sentence of this difficult inscription. 

At line 45 occurs another sentence, which has much perplexed 
both translators, and to which neither of them has given a coherent 
sense ; the difficulty has arisen from the doubtful meaning of xutcc 
TO 7rgo;ipr)[^svov j5ciarl\Biov — Mr. \^ eston understands it to mean oj' 
the aforesaid Crown; and Heyne also as sign'iiYiugjujta pradicium 
Diadenta regium; but I am persuaded that the right sense is of or 
belonging to the aforesaid royal shrine. 1 shall not state what difterent 
and incoherent translations have been produced by the first sense, 
but proceed to justify my own, in order to which we must look back 
to line 41, after previously stating, that Uqh is the word uniformly 
here in use to mean a temple, and yoibi always denotes a shrine or 
small portable house, in w hich the gods were placed when carried 
in processions, and which Heyne always and properly translates by 
(zdicula ; Mr. Weston sometimes also by a shrine, yet in lines 43 
and 44 he erroneously changes its sense to a temple. Bx<riXstci, 
beside a kingdom, is here used to mean a crown or diadem ; but it 
is doubtful what the above to fiua-lkuov means, which word occurs 
no where else. Both translators say it means a crozcn like ^xaiKilx, 
and Heyne justifies this sense by a reference to Plutarch ; but 
fiaa-lXsiov may mean likewise a royal house, like ^u(tiXixyi, and I 
shall show this to be its actual sense here, and to refer to vah 
before-mentioned in the sense of tov Trgosjpyjfisvov ^ctcriXsiov vuov, royal 

Now in line 41 the decree directs to place a golden shrine {yuov) 
for King Ptolemy {^aa-iKii TlToKsp^uloo) in the sanctuaries along with 
the other shrines (ju-sra rwv aWoov vaaiv). 

In line 43 it directs again, that zchen processions of the shrines 
(vacZv) are made, to place on the shrine {tm v«aj) the ten crorfiis of 
the king, on which the figure of a serpent shall be formed as npon 
the c7'owns placed on the other shrines (juiv aAAwv vawv), and in the 
middle of them the crown called Pschent {uvtcov 8s ev tw /xeVo) ^ 
xaKovixsvYj ^cKTiXsla ^■^ivr). 

Then in line 45 it directs still farther, linh'iyy.i l\ xn) I/tj too -ttsp) 
Tag fiaciXsiag TSTgocyuivou kolto. to TroostgYiiJ^evoy (3«(nAs»ov fuXaxTYigm 
'^prjG-a. Here the difficulty is to conceive to what the phrase koltoL to 
^goeiprj[/.ivov /3ao-/A=»ov refers by before-mentioned. Both translators 
nay to the /3«(riAej« '^yhr before-mentioned, but by adopting this 

76 Remarks on the Greek Inscription 

reference to that ^ua-iXslx, or crown, neither translator makes out 
any probable sense for the whole sentence, although they make a 
different one ; therefore I apprehend that the word 7rQosi§y)ijAvov re- 
fers to rco vuca {^acriXicog) in line 43, which is afterwards called to 
^txalXzisv in order to show that the roijal slnijie was meant, and not 
any of the twv aAAwv yaS^v — for, in the first place, why should /Sacri- 
XeiK be changed here to to /3aa-(Xrjov, when j3x(riK£iu had been every 
where in use before for a crown ^ Secondly, by its thus referring to 
vaco before-mentioned in line 43, we get a good sense for rsTgayaJvou, to 
which the translators have given no plausible meaning, but which 
may thus mean the tetragon, or square top of the aforef>aid shrine. 
Thirdly, a similar phrase occurs again in line o2, viz. tov TrgosigYj- 
jtsvov vaov ; here vaov is actually inserted, which was before called 
only TO /3a(r('A=»ov, but no-where does vaov occur before until we go 
back to rco vauj in line 43. The sense will, by these means, be this ; 
the decree directs " to fasten golden Phylacteries upon the tetragon 
or square top of the aforesaid roijul shrine, which tetragon goes 
round those crowns placed upon it, Trsg) tuc ^oc(riXslag." The tetragon 
then here meant was the square top of, or belonging to, the shrine, 
and not that the crown in question had ybur corners, as Mr. Weston 
translates the sentence: accordnigly Heyne does'so far accede to 
my sense, as to conceive that those crowns were placed upon some 
tetragon or other, but does not understand it to mean the square top 
of the shrine. His translation is this, " ponere snpra tetragono, 
quod ea regia insignia \i\c\ndi\t,juxta pradictum insigne \I/xevT, am- 
uleta aurea." But thus, like Mr. Weston, he makes Trgosiorji/^svov 
^ua-lXuov refer to the /3ao-jXei« \I;;^evT before-mentioned, not to the 
royal vaoj before-mentioned, and kutu to mean 7iear it, juxta, in- 
stead of of or belonging to, that royal vaov, called in this sentence 
TO ^aaihsiov, as if he had said }iar§: tov TrgojepTjjxEVOv ^oi.<jIKhov vaov 
to distinguish it from the aXXxv vam. 

In order still farther to cciifirm diis proposed sense, it may be 
observed, that, as Mr. Combe informs us here in his note, " it is 
reraarkable, that no Egyptian shine has been iigured in any works 
concerning Egyptian antiquities, one however is thus described in 
the catalogue of John Kemp, '* templum tetrastylum in quo sedet 
Dea, forsan Isis, z\\ya», fasti gii quatuor angulis tohdem hosti-* insi- 
dent, quincuucetn ahum." Here express me\ition is made of the 
four corners of the square top, and it was these which were appa- 
rently meant by TETpaycovoy. hi support of this 1 may add, that a 
similar shrine may be seen in Denon's Egypt, vol. ii. pi. 40. fig. 3., 
with an Egyptian Deity in it, and carried m a boat in a procession 
by water. In the Isiac table moreover the three Deities, Isis, 
Horns, and Osiris, appear as inclosed within a figure, which on 
Paper is like a parallelogram, because only one side of the shrme 
is represented, but i have no doubt it meant to represent such a 

upon the Rosetta Stone, ^77 

shrine, although there it may be thought by some to be a throne; 
and that of Isis has also a raised Curp on the top, M'hich probably 
went round the square top, and would prevent the insignia placed 
upon it from falling off in processions. This may have been the 
tetragon in the inscription, v.hich thus went round the ten crowns 
or diadems placed there, Trsg) rxg ^u(TiKziac ; in the middle of which 
was to be placed that Diadem called vJ/^avT, which Mr. Weston has 
first changed into 7rcro;!^;VT, and then conjectures it to be so called 
from Mercury, styled ^myyg in Homer ; and this, notwithstanding 
his other supposition, that the first letter \|; was a corruption of ttj, 
the Egyptian article for the. But what business can Mercury have 
in Egypt, or to have an Egyptian article prefixed to his name ? the 
whole word must have been Egyptian; accordingly Heyne here 
more rightly refers us for its meaning to the Coptic language — 
" hujus vocis iuterpretatio e.\ Copticis foeuerabitur." 

As to the meaning of ^^%iVT, I have explained it to signify a Dia- 
dem of Cotton, p. 157, Qth vol. CI. J I. to which sense the word 
vepi^sfjisvos refers soon after, as being bound round the head, which 
sense Heyne has preserved, but Mr. Weston has lost it by his word 
wore. I shall at present, however, confirm this sense still farther 
and the antiquity of the word in the Egyptian language by a similar 
one, expressed by Greek letters in Plutarch's hid. et Osir., where 
he informs us, that '' Ivy was called by the Egyptians ^h"0(npig.'* 
i. e. the tree of Osiiis ; here we find the very same Egyptian word 
Tche preserved in a Greek dress in die sense of a tree, viz. Tche ii' 
Osiris, and it was probably the Egyptian ni, oj, which, by adhering 
to the end of Tche, changed it into Tchen among the Copts, of 
which adhesion of such particles innumerable other examples exist 
in the Coptic ; just as in Tche n siphi to mean a'ood of Cedar, and 
I'che ?}' aloli for zoood of a vine in the Coptic translation of scrip- 
ture, bat there may possibly have been the same difference between 
Tche and Boo, as between arbor and lignum in latin. However I 
have traced, there at least, the antiquity and genealogy of the Egyp- 
tian she and shen from the Hebrew of Moses to the Kosetta inscrip- 
tion 200 years before Christ, and to the Coptic version, and now to the 
age of Plutarch 100 after thateera. In what other language will TchCy 
or Sche be found to mean tcood or tree, and hence Cotton, ]nst as ^u- 
Aov does in Greek r The Hebrews borrowed the original Egyptian 
word sche, as meaning cotton, without manifestmg any know- 
ledge of its primitive sense, but the Greeks literally and rightly 
translated its primitive sense by |yAov. Tiiese two words ^yhv and 
^h both in a Greek dress confirm moreover that the ^ is o-nly the 
Greek mode of expressing the Egyptian tt' for the. 

In this place I may also observe, that although both translators 
render i:i the first Greek period sTxovoj Jiog by image of Jupiter, 
yet it is doubtful whether that was its meaning, because the Egyp- 

fS Remarks on the Greek Inscription 

tian word seems to have meant only Deify in general, or possibly 
originally the Sun, as I have shown in a former paper. To this I 
may now add, that Diodorus says expressly, that the Egyptians 
themselves called Thebes the '^ City of the Sun" lib. 1., which 
was afterwards called Dios-polis. In your Journal, likewise, men- 
tion is made that even the Greeks did sometimes mean the Sun by 
e ^£0^. Jupiter has as little concern with an Egyptian inscription as 
Mercury : and oo the word for Aiog in the Egyptian letters, together 
with Hon still the modern name in Egypt for Dios-polis confirm, 
that the Egyptians themselves rather meant the Sun, than Jupiter 
by the word Jiog ; to which the account in Syncellus, and also here 
in the inscription itself corresponds^ of the Sun having been deem- 
ed the jw-syac /3a(r»\fuj of all Egypt, next after Phtha the first ixsyag 
/6«criAsyj. The Greeks gave the name of Jupiter to the chief Deity 
of every country, and Herodotus, having visited Egypt before 
Greek mythology was known there, found himself at great loss to 
give Greek names to Eoyptian Deities, which was the cause of his 
confused statement of Egyptian mythology, by his intermixing two 
incongruous accounts. But it is evident from this inscription^ 
that the Egyptians themselves never admitted any Greek mythology 
to be mixed with their own : I presume, therefore, that the temple 
of the Theban Jupiter, (as Herodotus pretends) was no other than 
a temple of the Sun at Thebes, as was also that of Jupiter Amnion 
in the desert, where Herodotus himself mentions a spring of water 
to have been called the fountain of the Sun. The vanity of the 
Greeks, in giving the names of their own gods to those of other 
nations, has obscured the native ra3'thology of all of them; but this 
inscription has recovered for us one genuine specimen of that cur- 
rent in Egypt, and which at the same time proves, that some degree 
of credit is to be given to the vetus chronicon preserved by Syncel- 
lus, although it nuty be sometimes erroneous. 

Heyne, moreover, in a note here observes, that as the name 
Phtha occurs sometimes in this inscription and at other times He- 
phaistos, this seems to contradict the general opinion, that the 
Egyptian Phtha meant the same as the Greek Vulcan; but he 
could not have read Akeiblad's letter concerning this inscription, 
which removes the objection, for it says, that in the Egyptian let- 
ters the same forms are found where Phtha occurs in the Greek, 
as where Hephaistos occurs ; so that this translator likewise into 
Greek has sometimes Grecianized the Egyptian names, and he may 
have done the satne in regard to Aiog, which, however, ought not 
to mislead us from the original Egyptian sense of the word. 

At line 4f) the two translations are again somewhat different, and 
neither of them quite accurate : the words are, xu) Itts) rpiuxadct tov 
Mscogrj yici) ojj^olajg [rov Mi^sig oktoo xou Sexaxov] sTroowjxovc vsvO[ 
ol a,§)^is§sl: ; whicii Mr. Weston renders thus, " And when, during 

upon the Rosetta S^one, 7^ 

these two days of the same na7ne, it has been decreed by the high 
priests." But Heyne has more accurately represented the sense of 
iTToovufAOv; to be * nomine ejus [Ptolemcei] consecrarunt sacerdotes :* 
for just as at Athens the Archon, whose name was affixed to the year^ 
was called the eponi/mos iVrchou, so here those ttro days are called 
•TTwyy/Ao*, to which the name of Ptolemy was affixed by the priests, 
in one of which he was born, and in the other inaugurated ; agree- 
ably to this, Plutarch informs us that the Egyptians affixed the 
name of some deity to each of the last five days of their year, and 
the later Persians did the same to every day of the year. We need 
not be surprised then that the decree directs, in line 48, raj ^/xloaj 
TaJraj aystv kfTrjv Kara jW-^va, w^hich Mr. Weston translates to hold a 
festival on those days, monthly, but Heyne makes no plausible sense 
by rendering v.ara ixyjvx in mense ; and as kxt eviavrov occui^s in the 
inscription as meaning yearly, surely xaTafjtTJva must signify monthly. 
Upon the whole it is to be wished, that a new translation, with a 
selection of notes, may be undertaken ; a translation, which will be 
more easy in Latin than in Englisli. 

The Greek copy appears to have been revised by Mr. Raper, 
and in general accurately, yet there are some accidental errors in it, 
as at line 23, y^n{6yjou has (o) placed between crotchets, but it is the 
rho which is omitted, and it should be y{p)oyoii. I see also no 
propriety in altering by conjecture letters clearly visible, because 
they may be thought errors by the sculptor, for this takes away 
the right of private judgment. Thus, in line 44, aa-Trihsgoaof 
is perfectly visible, which in ti;e Greek copy is changed to acr- 
'^jSoe(/')8c/jv intentionally ; whereas the former may be the most 
proper, for the crowns were not made in forms of serpents, 
but only the form of a serpent made upon the front of each of 
them, and some how there represented, which e^Swy may express. 
But at least such letters as are thus altered merely by conject- 
ure, ought to be distinguished from those which are really de- 
faced, or, if not defaced, yet written with a wrong letter ; but in 
all the three cases the doubtful letter is here included within 
the same kind of crotchet as (o). This renders it impossible 
for readers to know exactly what is the reading on the stone 
itself. For what reason, moreover, is the word fTTjyga^^ pre- 
fixed ? there is no such word on the stone, and yet this is not 
placed between crotchets. The addition of accents was at least 
superfiuous, and through all these means together a reader is 
prevented from knowing the exact state of the original words, 
which all persons may wish to know, in order better to ascer- 
tain the meaning of them. 

lSorz£ich. S. 





Wellingtonus Regionem Gallicam, Pyrenceis Montibus 
suhjcctam, despiciens. 

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&goov av6cra(ra. 
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dsla ya\oiva, 

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glcrogoi XOPOLKTl TTOXUTrkccVOKTl 

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" «ego($io»Ti5 

Cambridge Prize Poems for 1814, 81 

** OW^aVOJ (TTWi^S ft.S(T0O xup/xvov 

" sv 8 asKKuKTi o'TspOTToig ' Ev6oo 
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" a-vis.p.oL'^og ecTTXi." 

wg <^uT , ouS sppi^s ixaroiv roT fwyoj* 
ovg yoig evpusvsrrcn dlxu Trgocrsldiv 

Xscrfogos aUv. 

dig OT ev wsTgtx %i'ovoj riSxva 
dyifXMV 'Polvi^ ^ Korca.'yjxKY.og ea-Toif 
y£v eTTicrxoTrcwv TroXvxugTrov, aVTrep 

voifuu Kxnswv ^goaspolg psi&goig, 
rovg yvxg ughi 'xKoipohg, »V' au^u 
hyovct ^ xKuTolg 'irocKoig as) ^e«- 

hcupog agovgct. 

» "ETtTv^a. evjj.oy. Soph. CEdip. Col. 1465. 
j" <l>ot'v;| Hannibal scilicet. Ita Pindarus de Poenis, Pyth. I. 138. Vid 
Heynium ad locum. 3 CEdip. Tyr. 170 

No. XIX. CI, Jl. VOL. X. F 

83 Cambridge Prize Poems for 1814, 

Xoup' 'l^ap'ia, TV yoig el (xuKtxipct 
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ijpivco xociguj' Tiva ^ dga Qprjvuiv 

' Persse 925. * Idem quod o?S«^jw6T£y>tT9v, Alcest, v, 184. 

Cambridge Prize Poems for 1814, 8S 

vuv OT Iv vsxpr37o"» TragayKaXnTfJia. 
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av&og o'l^erat 7rs(rov' eu ^s/3ax£V 
6o"TaT«v oSov veoTYjgj Ajttojo-' ^- 

/3a5 d^pOTYiToc. 


Coll. Trin. alum. 
In Comitiis Maximis, 



Germania Lipsice vindicata. 

QuALEM in reductis tigrida saltibus 
Venator urget pluhmus Indicam^ 
Clamore latratuque coecos 
Exagitans siluse recessus; 

Cambridge Prize Poems for 1814. 

Mox ilia, apertam prospiciens viam, 
EfFrgena feitur per juvenum manus, 
Per tela, per rivos, et ipso 
Strata pedum fruticeta pulsu : 

Tales catervae praelia Gallica; 
Gessere ; testis sanguine decolor 
Albisque, vicinaeque turres, 

Quas rapido prope plangit amne. 

Ter inde Callus prosilit impetu 
Frustra, ter iHem pallet ut obvias 
Cernit cohortes, ter recurrens 
Solicito latet urbe vultu. 

" Ergo peractum est ? ibimus, ibimus, 
Quod fors nialorum cunque minabitur 
Teutemus," exclamat ; " triumphura 
Vel fugere hinc potuisse credam." 

Eheu ! futuri mens mal^ provida, 
Instans periclum dum cavet^ invenit ; 
Imbresque devitans viator 
Fulmineo cadit ictus igne. 

Ultro sinistra Gallus avi petit 
Periculosze moenia Lipsiae, 
Arcesque turritas salutans 
Ipse suam properat ruinam. 

Non sic quiesces — te Tanais premit, 
Rhenique potor, te gravis Austria, 
Te, siqua gens litus pererrat 
tllterius propiusve Balthis.' 

Quid semper audax in vetitum ruis ? 
Quid tu serenum solem aquilonibus 
Mutare festinas, et agros, 

Quos vitrea Liger ambit undS, 

Fastidiosi deseris ingeni ? 
Nil te chorea, nil citharae juvant, 
Vitisque projectum sub umbr^ 
Purpureo bibere ore nectar ? 

' Mare Suevicum sive sinus Codanus Baltkis vocatur apud Casimirum 
Sarbieviura. Lib. iv. 8. 15, 

Camhridge Prise Poems for 1814. ^^'> 

Nunc danda veiitis ista. Necessitas 
Quodcunque retro est carcere comprimit, 
jNon lenis infectum precanti 
Reddere quod semel hora vexit. 

At Vox tubarum est missa, — phalangibus 
Cerno phalanges oppositas rapi, 
Signisque respondere signa, et 
Fulmina fulminibus lacessi. 

Illos, suorum vulnera civiuiri 
Umbraeque, et aegris Patria fletibus, 
Ad ausa pugnantes, ad ausa 
Magna ciet, stimulatque vires. 

Hos, prisca gentis gloria, et immiuens 
Discrimen urgent, urget in impetum 
Testisque laudatorque Princeps 
Insolitos acuens furores. 

Sed quid Tyrannus, fama quid ImperJ 
Possint ? coruscam concutit aegida 
Adversa Libertas, et hostem 
Ecce! suipudet, ecce! partes 

Non indecorus transfuga deserit 
Inauspicatas ; et, vice mutua, 
Servire dediscens, Tyranno 
Servitium minitatur ipsi. 

Adhuc supremam nutat in aleam 
Fortuna pugna? : signa fugacium 
Jam versa, ductorisque tergum 
Cernere erat, refluumque Martem. 

Nunc pande portas, Gallia, nunc tuis 
Sparsas cohortes excipe moenibus. 
Cessasne ? mox miles sequaci 
Qui superest rapietur ense. 

Audis ut instans ingruit hostium 
Tumultus ? audis quo fremitu canit 
Pceana pubes, et tremendam 
Destinat ingeminare cladem ? 

" Nunc Urbis arces, nunc ego Sequanam 
Visam triumphans, — non patrios Lares, 
Non templa^, non turpi parentum 
Busta sinam violasse dextr^ 

86 Cambridge Prize Poems for IS 14. 

Impune G alios." — ^Parce tamen, precor. 
Ah ! parce captze (vel capere est satis) 
Urbi, nee admoto ruinam 
Igne sacrae meditare sedi, 

Quam semper Artes, et soror Artium 
Discincta amavit Gratia, qua frequens 
Graiumque Romanumque marmor 
Spiral adliuc, veteresque gazae. 

Non vana fovi vota — manet, manet 
Antiqua sedes ; stat caput Imperi, 
Porta^que nequicquatn minaces 
Cardiiiibus patuere versis, 

Non foederalorum agmina Principum 
Ansae morari ; qui, generosiils 
Pugnare quzerentes, vetustae 
Rite colunt monumenta famae. 

Quo nunc triumphi, Gallia, pristini ? 
Quo fugit ardor ? quo jocus insolens ? 
Princepsque Regnatrixque, et Infans 
Spes dubii male firma regni ? 

Ergo paterni litoris exulem 
Tandem vocavit post hyemes Ducem 
Multas, redonavitque avito 
imperio popularis aura ? 

Ridet benigna Phoebus adorea, 
Ridentque campi ; jam gladium novas 
Confiabis in fakes, nee Arcton, 
Galle, tremes, neque tu Britannos. 

O Pax, inaccessi aetheris incola. 
Quae saecla quondam Justitiae eomes 
Ferrata fugisti, retrorsum 
Usque timens iterare eursus ! 

Ergo revises, tarda nimis^ genus 
Mortale, et almo regna supervolans 
Vultu, fatigatuin duellis 

Dona ferens recreabis orbem ? 

Felix redibis ; nam neque lubric^ 
Decepta Veri rursus imagine 
Tu, Diva, debebis Tyranno 
Ludibrium facilesque risus. 

Cambridge Prize Poems for 1814. 87 

At caua tecum perveniet Fides, 
Cornuque pleno Copia ; te colent 
Legesque, Libertasque Legum 
Auspiciis stabilita dextris. 


Coll. Div. Joann. Alum. 
In Comitiis Maximis, 





1 YRANT of earth ! whose banner wide unfurl'd 
Wav'd o'er the ruins of a conquer'd world ; 
O Rome, beneath yon heav'n what region lies, 
But calls on thee the vengeance of the skies ? 
What favor'd shore where ne'er thy legions dread 5 

Have crush'd the flow'rs of Peace with iron tread ? 
But now — an outcast band, a robber horde, 
And now — of half the globe the scourge and lord. 
Ausonia's plains beneath thy bondage groan, 
And Carthage sinks, and leaves her place unknown; 10 

E'en fair Athena sees her sacred fane 
Shrink at thy touch, and mourns her agis vain : 
For thee the East her sparkling treasures spreads. 
For thee her mountains lift their spicy heads ; 
Ungorg'd with all the teeming Orient yields^ 15 

Thou ask'st the North her bleak and barren fields ; 
Indignant Ister rolls his subject flood, 
And feels his eddies warm with native blood ; 
Albion looks forth from all her cliffs — thy oars 
Bear war and bloodshed to her peaceful shores, 20 

Impatient still while Peace and Freedom own 
One single spot beneath the starry zone. 

And thinks thy soul, elate with conquest's glow, 
Thy widening reign no bounds on earth shall know ? 

88 Cambridge Prize Poems for 1814. 

Think'st thou the Deluge of thy power shall spread 25 

Till not one islet shows its verdant head ; 

Till, like the dove the olive-branch that bore, 

Fair Peace shall seek in vain a frieadl} shore, 

i\nd banish'd Liberty on soaring wing 

Back to her native skies indignant spring ? — 30 

Vain thought ! beyond thy empire's sweeping bound 

Shall Freedom find some hallow'd spot of ground ; 

Driv'n from the climes where fervid summer glows. 

She seeks the northern wastes and polar snows, 

There, though the bleak blasts rend th' inclement sky, 35 

Shall Nature smile beneath her cheering eye, 

Unfading there her blooms and flow'rs remain. 

Till thy vast empire shrinks to naught again. 

What though thou deem that thine is Albion's shore. 
Her day of freedom gone, her battles o'er ; 40 

Deem thou may'st smiling hear around thee rise 
Her groans of anguish, her atcusing cries, 
And see her Qufeen in widow'd sorrow stand. 
Red from thy scourge, a^id bleeding from thy hand, 
Destiu'd in vain her country's wrongs to mourn, 45 

Slave to thy slaves, insulted and forlorn ; 
Perhaps e'en yet her patriot arm may stay 
Thy mad Ambition on his crimson'd way. 
Fi'en noW' — while 'mid the calm that slumbers wide, 
Thou view'st the prospect round in swelling pride, 50 

Inhal'st each breeze, and think'st for thee they bear 
Their ripening fragrance through the balmy air ; 
E'en now the coming tempest loads the gales, 
Waves through the woods, and breathes along the vales ; 
It comes — it comes — 1 hear the boding sound 55 

lliat calls the spirits of the storm around ; 
O'er all the sky thtir sable wings they spread. 
And point tJje bolts of Vengeance at ihy head. 

Ye Pow'rs that guard your Albion's rude domains, 
Her trackless wilds and grey-extending plains, 60 

L'ntrod since Nature's hand in ruin hurl'd 
The bands of rock that chain'd her to the world ; 
W'hom the rapt Druid sees in terrors rove 
'Mid the deep silence of his gloomy grove. 
Or wiiere your temples vaulted by the skies, Q5 

A frowning band of giant columns rise ; 
And ye who haunt the shores where Mona rides 
Securely moor'd amid the rocking tides. 
Bend from your cloudy car. Jf e'er your force 
Check'd Julius' steps, and stay'd his victor course ; 70 

Cambridge Prize Poems for 1814. 89 

If urg'd by you Caractacus's car 

Swept down Silurian steeps- the torrent war ; 

If fir'd by you his captive eye could roll 

Its freeborn glance and awe a despot's soul ; 

Now bid each arm in injur'd freedom strong, 75 

Avenge a Country's woesj a Monarch's wrong. 

Lo ! through the surge the Roman chargers bound, 
That girds your sacred Mona's woods around ; 
In vain your hoary Druids on the shore 

Their torches toss and imprecations pour ; 80 

In vain your fearless tribes, a faithful band. 
Before your shrines unyielding fall or stand : 
The victors stride above the ranks of dead. 
Your hallow'd vistas shrink before their tread ; 
Fall'n are your sacred groves where silence reign'd, 85 

Your altars ruin'd and your shrines profan'd ; 
Your priests, their silver hair with gore defil'd, 
Lie on the strand in ghastly carnage pil'd ; 
And lie they unreveng'd ? with impious hand. 
Shall Rome deal woes around the groaning land, QO 

And shall no pow'r that guards the injur'd good 
Look from yon azure skies, and mark her deeds of blood ? 

Yes, they have mark'd ; and speak in ' portents dread 
The wrath that trembles o'er th' oppressor's head. 
Push'd from its base his idol Vict'ry falls, 95 

Unbodied furies howl along the walls, 
Empurpled Ocean glows with slaughter dy'd. 
And hoary Thames beneath his glassy tide, 
Unseen before, his shadowy tow'rs displays, 
And wrecks of palaces of former days ; 100 

As if some nation once that rose sublime. 
Once proud like Rome, and deep like her in crime. 
Would lift its head and break its long repose^ 
To warn the tyrant of impending woes. 

O sinking Albion, yet again arise, 10,5 

Rear thy fair front, and lift thy gladden'd eyes ; 
Feel all a mother's joy thy sons to see 
Grasp the red blade for freedom and for thee. 
Pour'd from the pathless glen, the forest's gloom, 
Fierce as their native bands of wolves they come ; 110 

Dark-frowning chiefs, and shaggy forms appear. 
Burning for blood, and shake the thirsty spear. 
White, 'mid the throng, like whiten'd foam that laves 
The restless ocean's darkly-rolling waves, 

' Tacitus, An. XIV. 32. Dio Cass. LXII. 1, 

90 Cambridge Prize Poems for 1814. 

The hoary Bards and white-rob'd Druids fling 1 1 5 

The song of battle from the trembling string. 

But why above the throng observant strains 
Each eager gaze o'er all the crowded plains ? 
'Tis she ! — above the countless thousands seen 
Lifts her exalted form the Warrior- Queen : 120 

Her lofty forehead mark'd with high command, 
And stamp'd with majesty by nature's hand ; 
Indignant Freedom glows upon her cheeks. 
But on her front no milder passion speaks. 
Severe and stern ; — not her's the gentler grace, 125 

The melting eye, the fascinating face. 
The charms that o'er each speaking feature rove, 
And fix the gaze, and steal the soul to love; 
No — would'st thou view fair Woman's softer mould ? 
Then by her side those sister forms behold; 130 

Bright o'er the wavy crowd as western beams 
That gild with trembling light pleas'd Ocean's streams. 
Oh ! though each bosom there, each untaught mind. 
By social arts untutor'd, unrefin'd, 

Knew but the feelings Nature gives her child, 135 

Rude as her savage scenes, and harsh, and wild. 
Yet think not there might Beauty shed her rays 
Unmaik'd, unfelt, by ev'ry careless gaze. 
No — as each Briton's eye was thither turn'd. 
Each swelling breast with keener vengeance burn'd, 140 

Each firmer giasp'd his spear and inly swore 
To write their injuries in Roman gore. 

O Beauty ! heav'n-born Queen ! thy snowy hands 
Hold the round earth in viewless magic bands ; 
From burning climes where riper graces flame 14S 

To shores where ciiffs of ice resound thy name. 
From savage times ere social life began 
To fairer days of polish'd, soften'd man. 
To thee, from age to age, from pole to pole. 
All pay the unclaimed homage of the soul. 150 

Though not, Bonduca, thine the dove-like eye 
That asks, omnipotent, for sympathy. 
Yet to that stately form, that regal brow 
Might free-born Pride, and fearless Valor bow. 
All hail, thy Albion's much-loved Queen, to thee, 155 

Daughter of JSIonarchs ! Monarch of the free ! 
Heiress of Kings whose patriarchal sway 
Th' untan''d Icenian triumphs to obey ! 
Qft have thy Britons seen a female hand 
- Pour life and gladness round a grateful land, 160 

Cambridge Prize Poems Jor 1814. 91 

Oft have they seen a woman's prowess guide 

The storm of war, and stem the battle's tide ; 

E'en now they feel thy words, thy looks impart 

Indignant courage to each free-born heart, 

And bid thee lead them on, where Freedom cries, l65 

And Vengeance beckons from the angry skies. 

Heard'st thou, O Rome, that shout, whose deepen'd shock 
Shook to its base the isle's eternal rock ? 
Thy steel-clad watchman from his turret high, 
Has heard it burst the lurid eastern sky, 170 

As when the tempest M'hich th' horizon shrouds 
Rolls in the centre of his gather'd clouds, 
And up the concave from the south afar 
The distant Thunder drives his rapid car ; 
And as his fiery steeds impetuous come, 175 

And glance with ruddy track across the gloom. 
So, red with blood and Desolation's stains 
The path of Ruin sweeps across thy plains. 

Haste, Roman, haste ! lo, bending to its fall. 
Destruction trembles o'er Augusta's wall, 180 

Thy rising cities wildly shriek dismay'd 
And ask thy guardian hand, thy parent aid ; 
Go — bid the surge of insurrection bide 
In midway course, and backwards roll its tide ; 
No — bid thy angry Adria's waves obey 185 

Thy chiding voice, and call their storms away ; 
Push backwards up thy red Vesuvius' steep 
The lava torrent pouring to the deep ; 
Alike thy might is vain ; 'tis thine to fear. 
Imperious despot ! thine to tremble here. 190 

Woe to thy towns ! amid their shrieking walls 
Quick in the work of death the falchion falls ; 
Exulting there Destruction's Demons rise, 
And on the steaming cainage mount the skies ; 
And nodding ruins in a lake of blood 195 

Mark the sad place where peopled cities stood. 

Speak not of mercy ; — ^of the kindly glow 
That warms the heart to spare a fallen foe. 
Would'st thou to pity soothe with suasive tongue 
The raging lioness who seeks her young, £00 

And bid her if her course the spoiler meet. 
Fawn at his knees, and harmless kiss his feet ? 
Frenzied with wrongs they seek revenge alone, 
Mercy to beg or give alike unknown. 

But ah ! not yet 'tis theirs to view the foe £05 

Crush'd at their feet, and laid for ever low ; 

92 Cambridge Prize Poems for 1814. 

Though droop his eagle crest and ruiBed plumes, 

Still stern revenge his fiery eye illumes ; 

Driv'n from his quarry, watchful yet he sails, 

And wheels in distant circles on the gales, 210 

And nearer sweeping still, in balanced flight, 

Prepares to stoop with renovated might. 

Heard ye the clang of mingling armies there, 
Mix'd with the groans of Anguish and Despair, 
And all the piercing sounds of battle roar, 215 

Loud as the deep that yawns on Norway's shore; 
When o'er the Ocean's voice of thunder rise 
The shrieking vessel's agonizing cries. 
Lo ! chiefs sublime amid the storm of death 
Buffet the raging surge that roars beneath, 220 

While through the mangled files the scythe-arm'd car 
Tears its red path across the opening war, 
And naked bosoms bar'd to danger feel 
The mailed legion's points of gleaming steel : 
Ah, mourn not, warriors, for the life ye leave, 225 

Grieve for your Albion, for your country grieve ; 
For lo ! the whirlwind blast of battle veers. 
And backwards bends that grove of patriot spears, 
And louder swell above the mingled cry 
The Roman's pealing shouts of Victory. 230 

In vain above the shatter'd throng is seen 
With terror-darting eve the Warrior-Queen, 
While wet with blood her long bright tresses toss'd 
Float like a standard o'er the rallying host ; 
In vain the conqu'ring legions pause and stand 235 

In mid career, check'd by a woman's hand : 
Borne down the cataract that sweeps the ground, 
O'er falling ranks her fiery coursers bound, 
Fling from their rapid wheels the crimson spray. 
As Death and Fate in vain might stop their way, 240 

And like some meteor red that shoots afar. 
Across the gloom of elemental war, 
Deep purpled o'er from head to heel with blood. 
They dart and vanish in yon blacken'd wood. 

Unheard thy seraph notes, O Pity, rise, 245 

Where War's stern clamor raves along the skies ; 
In vain would sex, would youth, demand thy aid 
To stay the Victor's slaughter-blunted blade. 
With tiger port along the carnag'd ground 
Glad Triumph stalks, and rolls his eyes around; 250 

And Freedom, lingering ere she onward sweeps 
To Caledonia's wilds and rugged steeps, 

Cambridge Prize Poems for 1814. 93 

Sheds o'er her sons and daughters, there who fell, 
A mournful tear, and breathes a sad farewell. 

But deep within that wood, where branches throw 255 
A vaulted, monumental gloom below, 
So still that all the battle's distant scream 
The tumult of another world might seem, 
Lo ! where its leafless arms yon blasted tree 
Waves o'er the form of fallen Majesty. 260 

Grasp'd in her hand that empty chalice tells, 
Why on her forehead death's damp chilness dwells, 
Why at her feet her children pale are seen. 
Lovely in death with marble looks serene. 
It seems as on her brow the changeful strife %Q5 

Would soon for ever close, of Death and Life ; 
It seems as Life but linger'd there to cast 
One mother's look before she look'd her last. 
And near, a Druid's sacred brow is rear'd. 
White on his harp is toss'd his silver beard, S70 

While sad and wild amid the waving trees 
The death-song floats upon the sighing breeze. 
And seems in tones of sadden'd praise to shed 
A grateful influence round her dying head. 

Though o'er the strings his hands have ceas'd to stray, 275 
And left the plaintive notes to die away. 
They melt as if some spirit of the air 
With notes of triumph lov'd to linger there. 
Well may the Druid mark that vivid glow. 
That lightning glance which fires her pallid brow ; 280 

As if those sounds that breath'd around had cast 
On life's warm embers one reviving blast ; 
As if those floating notes on wings sublime 
Had borne her soul across th' abyss of time : 
While her fix'd gaze in air appears to spy 285 

Unearthly forms conceal'd from mortal eye. 
And her pale lip triumphant smiles at death. 
In accents wild she pours her parting breath : 

" — Yes, Roman ! proudly shake thy crested brow, 
'Tis thine to conquer, thine to triumph now ; 290 

For thee, lo ! Vict'ry lifts her gory hand. 
And calls the Fiends of Terror on the land. 
And flaps, as tiptoe on thy helm she springs. 
Dripping with British blood, her eagle wings. 

" Yet think not, think not long to thee 'tis giv'n 295 

To laugh at Justice, and to mock at Heav'n ; 
Soon shall thy head with blood-stain'd laurels crown'd 
Stoop at the feet of Vengeance to the ground. 

94 Cambridge Prize Poem for 1814. 

I see amid the gloom of future days 

Thy turrets totter, and thy temples blaze ; SOO 

I see upon thy shrinking Latium hurl'd 

The countless millions of the northern world ; 

I see, like vultures gathering to their prey, 

The shades of states that fell beneath thy sway ; 

They leave their fall'n palaces and fanes, 305 

Their grass-grown streets, and ruin-scatter'd plains, 

Where lonely long they viewless loved to dwell. 

And mourn the scenes that once they lov'd so well ; 

Triumphant, lo! on all the winds they come 

And clap th' exulting hand o'er fallen Rome, 310 

And hovering o'er thy domes that blazing glow. 

Their waving pinions fan the flames below ; 

They view rejoic'd the conflagration's gleams 

Shoot their long glare o'er Tiber's redden'd streams; 

And snuff" the carnage-tamted smokes that rise 315 

An incense sweet, a grateful sacrifice. 

— " Sad Tiber's banks with broken columns spread ! 
Fall'n every fane that rear'd to heav'n its head ! 
Poor heap of ashes ! Grandeur's mould'ring tomb ! 
Art thou the place, was once Eternal Rome ? 320 

" Yes, Roman ; snatch thy triumph whilst thou may, 
Weak is thy rage, and brief thy little day : 
Vanish'd and past the momentary storm, 
Albion, my Albion, brighter shows her form. 
Far o'er the rolling years of gloom I spy 325 

Her oak-crown'd forehead lifted to the sky, 
Above the low-hung mists unclouded seen. 
Amid the wreck of nations still serene ; 
She bursts the chains, when hands like thine would bind 
The groaning w orld, and lord it o'er mankind. 330 

Amid yon glitt'ring flood of lifjuid light, 
Float regal forms before my dazzled sight; 
Like stars along the milky zone th^t blaze. 
Their sceptred hands and guld-bound fronts they raise : 
My Sons ! — my Daughters ! — fanit, alas, and dim, 335 

Before these failing eyes your glories swim, 
Mix'd with the mists of cieatli. — '1 is yours to throw 
Your radiance round, while happier ages flow; 
I smile at storms of earthly woe, and rise, 
Shades of my sires ! to your serener skies." 340 

July, 1814. WILLI.iM JVHEJVELL, 

Trinity College, 



NO. IV. 

ScHiSME unmaskt; or a conference between Mr. P. Gunning, and 
J. Reison on the one part, and two disputants of the Pvomisli profes- 
sion on the other. Paris 1638, 8vo. 

As this report purporting to be set forth at Paris is apocryphal, the 
testimonies 'of contemporaries concerning it will be produced in an 
appendix to the tracts. 

NO. V. 



Ensuing Paraphrastical Exposition ; ' 




Minister of St. Clements Eastcheape. 

If the Eunuch in the Acts, having a Prophet in his hand, and being 
asked this question, Understandest thou what thou readest? could give 
no better answer than that, How can I, except some man should guide 
me 7 If this were the best account which could there be given where 
the original language was familiarly * understood ; what need of an In- 
terpreter must they huve, who, far distant both in time and place, caa 
read the Prophets in no other than their mother language, and that most 
different from the tongue in which those holy authors wrote ? As there- 
fore the generality of Christians could not read the Scriptures at all, 
except they were first translated : so when they are, many parts of them 
cannot yet be understood until they be interpreted. And, as of all the 
holy writers the Prophets are confiessedly most obscure ; so amongst 
them the smallest must necessarily be most intricate : brevity always 
causing some obscurity. 

' A Paraphrasticall explication of the twelve Minor Prophets. By Da. 
Stokes, D. D, 4to, Loudon, 1639. 

96 Bp. Pearson's Minor Tracts, 

Now, though there be many commentators, who have copiously 
written on the Prophets : yet we shall not find that light which might 
be expected from them ; because some have undertaken to expound 
those oracles, being themselves either altogether ignorant of their lan- 
guage, or * very little versed in it. Others enlarge themselves by way 
of doctrines or common place, which" may belong as well to any 
Authors fis to those to which they are applied. Wherefore if any man 
hath really a desire to understand the Scriptures, I commend unto him 
those Interpreters, whose expositions are literal, searching and declaring 
the proprieties of the speech of the Author, and the scope and aim 
which he ih t wrote had in the writing of it. 

Of these literal Interpreters, useful to all readers, those are most 
advantageous to the unlearned, vAio contrive their expositions by way 
of paraphrase, anrl so make the Author speak his own sense plainly, 
and perspicuously; which is the greatest life that can be given unto 
any writing originally obscure. For if the Interpreter truly understand 
the mind of the Author, then without any trouble or circumlocution it 
becomes the same thing as if the writer* had clearly at first exprest 
himself. And therefore proportionably to our opinion of the know- 
ledge of the Paraphrast we may rely upon the uuderstanding of the 

Thus in these smaller Prophets acknowledged by all, especially by 
such as know most, to be obscure, that Interpreter who shall be able 
to deliver their mind, and contrive the same as if it proceeded imme- 
diately from themselves, must necessarily be confessed the best exposi- 
tour. And no man can be able to perform this but he who is exactly 
knowing of all the idioms of the Hebrew tongue, and familiarly ac- 
quainted with, and constantly versed in the Prophets themselves, and 
the writings of the Jews. 

Now such a person, as this is, hath taken the pains to benefit the 
church of God with a paraphrase of this nature. The Reverend and 
learned Dr. Stokes, who hath from the happy beginning of his studies 
been known most industriously to have prosecuted * that of the Orien- 
tal languages, and hath for more than forty years constantly made re- 
marks upon the Hebrew text, from which he hath raised unto himself a 
body of critical observations ready and most fit for public view. 
Amongst many advantages accruing especially to the understanding of 
the Scriptures, he hath made choice to publish this paraphrase of the 
small prophets : a work of more real than seeming value. Which I 
cannot sufficiently commend to the reader, neither in respect of itself, 
(it is of so great use and benefit) nor in reference to his other works, 
which we may hope to see according to the entertainment given to this. 
And that (Christian reader) he desires may be found correspondent to 
the desert thereof; who i« the Author's 

Most affectionate Friend, 
but in this more thine, 


Chronologically Aii^anged. 97 

NO. vr. 












EATON COLLEGE, etc. 4V 1659. 

To THE Reader. 

If that Reverend and worth}' person, Mr. Faringdon, had not died 
before the impression of this book, you had received from that excel- 
lent hand an exact account of the Author^ s Life, which he had begun, 
and resolved to perfect, and prefix to this edition. And as the loss of 
him is great in many particulars, so especially in this ; because there 
was none to whom Mr. Hales was so tlioroughly known as unto him, 
nor was there any so able to declare his worth, partly by reason of his 
own abilities eminently known ; principally he learn'd his authourfrom 
an intimate converse, who was a man never to be truly express'd but by 

I am therefore to entreat thee, reader, being deprived of the proper 
Plutarch, not to expect any such thing as a life fron) me, but to accept 
so much onely as is here intended. If Mr. Haleswere unknown unto 
Ihee, be pleased to believe what I know and affirm to be true of him ; 
if he were known, then onely be satisfi'd that what is published in his 
name did really proceed from him: and more then this needs not to 
bespoken in reference to the advancement of this work ; because he 
which knew or believeth what an excellent person Mr. Hales was, and 
shall be also perswaded that he was the authour of this book, cannot 
chuse but infinitely desire to see and read him in it. 

In order to the first of these, I shall speak no more than my own 
long experience, intimate acquaintance, and high veneration grounded 
upon both, shall freely and sincerely prompt me to. Mr. John Hales, 
No. XIX. a. JL Vol. X, G 

1)8 Bp. Pearson's Minor 'Tracts. 

sometime Greek Professor of the University of Oxford, long Fellow of 
Eaton College, and at last also Prebendary of IVindsore, was a man, i 
think, of as great a sharpness, quickness, and siihtility of wit, as ever 
this, or, perhaps, any nation bred. His industry did strive, if it were 
possible, to equal tlie largeness of his capacity, whereby he became as 
great a master of polite, various, and universal learning, as ever yet 
convers'd with books. Proportionr-.te to his reading was his medita- 
tion, which furnished him with a judgement beyond the vulgar reach of 
man, builfupon unordinary notions, rais'd out of strange observations, 
and conjprehensive thoughts within himself. So that he really was a 
most prodigious example of an acute and peircing wit, of a vast and 
illimited knowledge, of a severe and profound judgement. 

Although this may seem, as in itself it truly is, a grand elogium ; 
yet I cannot esteem him less in any thing which belongs to a good man, 
then in those intellectual perfections : and had he never understood a 
letter, he had other ornaments sufficient to endear him. For he was of 
a nature, (as we ordinarily speak) so kind, so sweet, so courting all 
mankind, of an afiability so prompt, so ready to receive all conditions 
of men, that I conceive it near as easie a task lor any one to become so 
knowing as so obliging. 

As a Christian, none more ever was acquainted with the nature of the 
Gospel, because none more studious of the knowledge of it, or 
more curious in the search, which being strengthened by those great 
advantages before mentioned, could not prove otherwise then highly 
effectual. He took indeed to himself a liberty of judgeing, not of 
others, but for himself: and if ever any man might be allowed in these 
nsatters to judge, it was he w ho had so long, so much, so advanta- 
giously considered, and which is more, never could be said to have had 
\he least worldly design in his determinations. He was not only most 
truly and strictly just in ail his secular transactions, most exemplary, 
meek and humble, notwithstanding his perfections, but beyond all 
example charitable, giving unto all, preserving nothing but his books, 
to continue his learning and himself: which when he had before 
digested, he was forced at last to feed upon, at the same time the hap- 
piest and most unfortunate helluo of books, the grand example of learn- 
ing, and of the envy and contempt which iolloweth it. 

This testimony may be truly given of his person, and nothing in it 
liable to the least exception, but this alone, that it comes far short of 
him. Which intimation I conceive more necessary for such as knew 
him not, then all which hath been said. 

In reference to the second part of my design, I confess, while he lived 
none was ever more solicited and urged to write, and thereby truly 
to teach the world, than he ; none ever so resolved (pardon the 
expression, so obstinate) against it. His facile and courteous nature 
learnt onely not to yield to that sollicitation. And therefore the 
world must be content to suffer the loss of all his learning with the 
deprivation of himself: and yet he cannot be accused for hiding of 
his talents, being so communicative, that his chamber was a church, 
and his chair a pulpit. 

Euripides Collected. 99 

Onelythat there might be some taste continue of him, here are some 
of his Remains recollected ; such as he could not hut write, and such 
as when written were out of his power to destroy. These consist of 
Sermons, Miscellanies, and Letters, and each of them proceeded from 
him upon respective obligations : this impression is further augmented 
with the addition of some Authentic Letters, relating to the same trans- 
action. His letters, though written by himself, yet were wholly in the 
power of that honourable person to whom they were sent, and by that 
means they were preserv'd. The Sermons preach'd on several eminent 
occasions were snatch'd from him by his friends, and in their hands the 
copies were continued, or by transcription dispers'd. Of all which 
now published for his, there is need to say no more than this, that you 
may be contident they are his. 

This, Reader, is all the trouble thought Jit to he given thee, 


Correction, by conjecture, of Euripides in the 336th 
lineqftheVucENiss/E, Ed. Valckenaer 4:to. ]755, Fra- 
nequera. Bar?ies and Beck 335. Porson. v. 340. 

viref) T:gr|U.v« t' ccy^ovag. 

QSdipus being blind, o/xju,«TocrTs^^f, and regretting exceedingly 
the division of the brothers, that is, the absence of Polynices, 
rushed upon his sword above the beam of suspension, or from 
which he had suspended himself, groaning and cursing his chil- 
dren ; that is, he stabbed himself first, and hanged himself after- 
wards — but this is not the meaning of the place, and it is useless 
and unnecessary for me to show the Improbability of such an In- 
terpretation. The professed critics and scholiasts have labored 
in vain to clear the passage of Its difficulties, which Is inexpli- 
cable as it stands, but on reading repejva t kyyovac, for TEgsy-vcx. it 
will be Intelligible, and signify, that he drove the sword to his own 
destruction beyond the tender parts of strangulation. Compare v. 
1467 Phoeniss. Si« fxicrov yxg u\}')(kvog 'flSfi crl^rif/ov. V, II. A. tspsvoi 
Xg°oi. V. 237. and Cressae In fragmentis 

10® Manuscript of Mschylus^ 

kvfi^s [xh ^l^ovg he went, or leaped, or fell upon the sword, U5rej 
regeiva r ay^ovag against the throat, that is, he stuck himself in 
the neck : uvspj with an accusative, has the force of Trag^a, trans, 
ttltra, contra. 



Compared with Pauw's Edition. 

NO. I. 

Those ingenious men of letters, who compiled the Catalogue of Ma- 
nuscripts belonging to the King of France, have indicated as curious, 
on account of its various readings, a copy of iEschylus preserved in 
the Biblioiheque du Roi, at Paris, and numbered 2/89. " hunc codi- 
cpm consulere operee pretium foret, utpote qui varias lectiones non 
contemnendas exhibeat." Mons. Vauvilliers, a distinguished French 
critic, was induced to examine this MS. which he found to be of the 
sixteenth century, written on paper, in a quarto forn), and containing 
the Prometheus, the Seven at Thebes, and the Persians : a life of iEschy- 
lus is prefixed, which with the difference of a few words, more or less, 
is the same tliat we find printed in Pauw's edition. 

The MS. having recorded the inscription placed on ^schylus's tomb 
by the inhabitants of Gela, gives another comprised in one pentameter 
verse as follows : 

These words, v/hich but vaguely describe the manner of our poet's 
death, appear like the conclusion of an epigram. We may certainly 
correct 'Aarov and read ^Astov. 

In the Prometheus, verse 42, the printed editions have 

Aki T= I-)] VYiAYjg (Tu Ku) Qgix<rovg TrAewj. 

perhaps the poet would have written als) a-u Srj vtjAt'; rs, the MS. reads 
als'iTi, which may be rendered in our language, " you have a certain 
character of harshness." 

In verse 87, the editions have f^x^iSt which but faintly expresses the 
actual state of Prometheus, fettered by the hand of Vulcan : re'^^vrj; 
in the MS. describes with much more truth and precision the chains 
forged by that able artist whom Homer denominates K\urota'xvr}i, 
(Uiad A. 571.) 

compared with Pauivs Edition. 101 

In verse 21.0, [j.sXa[j.f3x(pri; instead of /xsAaaiSaS^j written in the text, 
as in our editions, is perfectly according to the style of /Eschylus. 

'Ittou'/xsvo^ pl^aiG-iv Ahvaiocic uVo, (verse 365.) seems as good a read- 
ing as that commonly received hvovaEyo;, for the poet has already said 
that Typhon had been burnt by the thunderbolt ; he then mentions his 
being reduced to cinders : JTrou/xsvoj-, placed between the two passages, 
is still the same idea under another word. Such a repetition appears to 
argue the sterility of .^Lschylus, but iTrovasyo; would j^resent, by a new 
image, Typhon overwhelmed beneath the weiglit of iEtna, which Pin- 
dar calls 

IjTOV rjVS[j,0£<Tauv sKuroyTHi^ocXix Tufoovog, 

*' pressuram onus praecelsurn centipitis Typhonis." (Olymp. 5.) : Itto^, ac- 
cording to Julius Pollux, signifies properly " a fuller's press.'" So that 
the reading of our MS. would have the merit of combining the images 
employed ou the same subject by two poets most bold in their use of 

Verse 389' ^ocKOuvri irayy-^arsl; s3^ac, prevents the homonymy of our 
editions K(>arovvri itayK^arils 'io^ag : and in verse 430. Jrocrreva^si ex- 
presses more happily the weight which overwhelms Atlas than uVo/Satr- 
rd^ei, as we read in the printed copies. 

Neither tt^oit^Ao-j/xsvov (in verse 437-) nor 'it^OffsKoiiiiBvov suffice to the 
measure, but it comes near r^oo-triXoutj.evovj a fortunate conjecture if 
any examples of this compound verb could be discovered, and which 
should not be rejected even though none appear. This })iesents a second 
conjecture: might we read cvSs Ttws ff-ry^Aomevo!/, " Sic quasi cippum 
factum," for this image would perfectly express Prometheus chained 
and immoveable as Caucasus. 

In verse 479, we read, according to the printed editions, 

ovx ^v uXe^YjuJ ovdh, ovTt /3ga;(ri/xov 


" Nullum erat remedium, neque esculenlum, non unguentura neque 
poculentum," this is evidently a defective reading, although Mr. Heath 
says that ^Eschylus did not trouble himself on the subject of grammati- 
cal exactness, but the phrase appears perfectly regular, if we adopt the 
reading of our MS. 

ov ^picrrhv, ou ttotkttov. 

Perhaps in verse 638. w; '2' diroyiXxua-ai, according to the MS. may 
not be right ; but the common reading is certainly bad, the passage 
wants correction. M. Brunck has printed oiixr d-iroxXavtrai. 

In verse 839- x£>cAr'crHraj is, perhaps, better than xAvy^y^o-erai, because 
it presents to lo, as more near, the glory of bestowing her name on the 

' We refer our correspondent to Mr. E. H. Barker's dissertation about 
the word iwoCv inserted in No. XVII. — Eu. 

102 Manuscript of ^scJiyhs, 

kv^x^ ^c^yajv (in verse Qg6.) appears fully equal to the reading ccv- 
6a.Sr,i ip^evMv, but in verse 970. TTfay/xatrj seems much better than 
ifTiij.acn, for Mercury says to Prometheus (as we read in the printed 

It is thus but a simple expression : if we substitute Tf§dyij.a.<n, " deli- 
ciari vidiris re^um hiariim statu," becomes a most bitter taunt, and 
the answer of Prometheus yO-.iioj' y^Xi^kcvrai cvSs rov^ s[/.ovs sycv i')(Jl(-ovg 
^Soiy.1, " I do enjoy it, and may I behold niy enemies enjoy the same," 
is a cutting re{)artee to the cruel irony. 

In verse 1056. s] rai' stiru^'^ would re-establish the measure and 
render unnecessary the conjectures of Canter, Stanley, and Pauw, 
dividing the diphthong sv so as to read si rd,^^ svrvyjj which would be 
the plural neuter of iurvyric, for it is a solecism to suppose it of the 
subjunctive oi evrvyjoo, as the conjunction z\ can only be in construc- 
tion with the indicative or optative. 

The measure of verse 1070 is destroyed in our printed editions by 
the reading arr' syuj. We find in the MS. ar syco which restores the 

We now proceed to the Seven at Thebes. In verse S5, "xntw is not 
absolutely necessary, the printed editions have sKsntov. They also read 
(verse 83.) 

lAsSeftaj TrsSiOTrAoxTOTTOj 
T eyy^glfji^TSTCn j3oa. 

The MS. has irsSioirXoKrvTrof ts cva-i y^lixTTTsrai, and wcri is much 
better : this Mr. Brunck has adoj)ted. " Armorum sonitus trenien- 
dus e canipo auribus appropinqtiot." 

In verse 104. irdrayog ovy evos ^o^o; gives a very regular iambic: 
fo/Stui/ (at verse 136.) instead of i^o/Sol, more poetical certainly. The 
word TtavOiKOv; in verse 178. signifies nothing, the MS. reads TtavSlKcv^, 
which is very correct, xXusts Travilxujg Xiras, " hear our prayers con- 
formably to justice." 

In verse 250. (^ovm ^^orwv. Mars delights rather in the carnage than 
the fears of men. 

Verse 274. TTaiav/trov. 

In verse 314. svT^afsrrarov seems preferable to the fur^etpEVraro? 
of our copies. 

At verse 503. the printed editions have sv^so; 5' a^r^v, a form of which 
it would be ditiicult to find an instance, the MS. reads ivho$ 5' ap;, 
" afflatus autem marte." This reading is adopted by Brunck. 

In verse 667. (polnv (p^avcov is, without doubt, the expression of 
^schylus ; because, the word being very rare, we cannot suppose that 
the copyist w ouhl have substituted it for Tufcv, more commonly used. 

The printed editions at verse 1003. read io) tt&vo^ ovcp' Tj^Iv: this per- 
haps may be ascribed to the interlineary scholium bv iuAv, which has 
since crept into the text slightly aUered, the MS. has iw xovoi iw ymy-x. 

compared with Pauw*s Edition, 1 03 

In verse 1008. ftoKvitovMraroi is not, in itself, preferable to itoKvarj- 
Qvcoroczoi ; but it is, perhaps, better adapted to the circunistance. 
T'ls ouv roJjtx Ttl^Oiro (verse 1073.) according to the printed copies, is 
certainly incorrect, for, as Wr. Dawes observed long ago, the optative 
never has a conditional power without the particle ay. Our MS. there- 
fore is right ; it gives ri; av oh. 

In the Persians we discover but few variations of importance: T^fXa- 
y\a.S dxlg (verse 46"7.) is infinitely better than the common reading 
'mkoLo-yloii, which seems to have been admitted without any reason 

We find also, in verse 677j hyoL^ra, hvi^To., instead of Swdra., 
which the printed editions give, and which is not a proper expressioH 
for characterising the Persian Monarch. 

We must not forget TfoXsig (at verse 866.) which Mr. Brunck has ju- 
diciously printed instead of ttoAi^, and irsc) Tru^yov (in verse 873.) whick 
thnt learned editor has likewise adopted in place ofirs^i it-j^^yoi. Above 
all, c(.u^r,iJ.&voi.i (verse 878.) presents a fine image that must have pleased 
the good taste of Mr. Brunck, " maxime placet," says he, in de- 
signating those cities whose pride was humbled before the Sovereign of 
Persia. The printed editions have syju^svai, a miserable reading. 

In place of 'Ikx^ou S' sSos, at verse 893, Mr. Brunck is astonished (and 
with reason) why the modern editions have preferred aXos, as if the 
island of Icarus had ever been called the Marsh of Icarus. 

We shall close these observations by returning to verse 1 62, where 
Atossa, consulting the chorus of ancient Persians, on the subject of a 
dream which had terrified her during the night, expresses herself thus, 
according to the printed editions. 

fj.Yl [J^eyag TrXouro^ y.ovi(r<Tag ov^ag uvTge^ri Ttod) 
oX^ov, &c. 
The MS. reads ovg dhii^arog which is evidently a fault, but a person 
accustomed to the perusal of manuscripts knows how frequently the 
words and accents are misplaced, separated, and confounded, and if he 
reflects, that this form f'^aaur^^ o'jg d^sliioLVTog does not seem very pro- 
per to express what it is supposed to signify, and how weak and 
vague, in this case, is its sense, he will be almost tempted to follow th« 
letters of the JMS. and read 

ovddjxaog s[ji.a,VTYig ovcru lilfxaTOg, 

an elegant and appropriate phrase ; and thus, from a glaring fault, be 
would derive not only a very good, but perhaps the only true, reading. 

We now^ proceed to the examination of another Manuscript preserved 
in the Bibliotheque du Roi, or Imperial Library at Paris. It contains 
the Prometheus of j^iscliylus, the Ajax of Sophocles, a Treatise on 
Dialects, a Letter of the Pythagorean Lysis, and an Essay on Anoma- 

104 Manuscript of Mschylus, 

Icus Verbs, all in one quarfo volume, written on paper during the l(5th 
cenlury, and numbered '27i)0. Of this MS. Monsieur Vauvilliers says, 
that it abounds in faults of the transcriber, but that from various 
circumstances it appears to have been collated with more ancient 
copies, which gives considerable authority to many of its readings. 
We coiifine our observations to the Prometheus of Jischylus, as the 
Letter of Lysis to Hipparchus or Hippasus differs only from the printed 
edition in some few errors of the copyist ; the same may be said of the 
Treatise on Dialects, which has been published by Aldus and by 
Henry Stephens, in the fourth volume of his Greek Thesaurus, and 
the Essay on Irregular Verbs is a most meagre and trifling per- 

In the 87th verse of the Prometheus we find ts^^vyj; for Tu^rjg as in 
the niaiiuscript before noticed. 

'ASrlcr^Toy, in v. 105, confirms the testimony of Hesychius against the 
authoiity of several modern critics, who have wished to efface this 
word, and the verb as well as the substantive primitive, from the num- 
ber of Greek words. Monsieur Vauvilliers cannot persuade himself 
that St/C-/], Srj^YjO'aa-^cj, dSr/^TiTr^v in Hesychius, and SyjI^Tj^ in Panyasis, 
are to be considered barbarisms. He thinks such a proscription very 
u^yust, if we allow credit to the aira^ Xsyoixsva., many of which ap- 
pear extremely liable to suspicion. 

In verse JOS, Ev&il,£ is not, perhaps, better than, 
but iTts^'eyj-jvras in verse 213 is preferable to the common reading 

Sufi'^wv (po/Sov (sibilans terrorem) in verse 355, speaking of Typhon's 
combat with ti)e Gods, is more exact than (povov, because the hissing of 
a serpent terrifit s but does not kill. 

In verse 411. Buoiyioi — in the printed editions we read ottoffoi sttoikov 
dyvag 'Aa-lccg ioof ya[j.ovrai. As there is not probably an example of 
this word employed in a passive sense, the reading of our MS. may 
suggest a necessary correction, *' quicmique advence sacrce Aslcs sedem 

We shall point out a difference of punctuation in verse 5'66, &c. 
The printed edition reads 

TOO IXOiKPOV TslvtlV /3(0V IAtJO"<, 

favai; fiu/AOV aX^alvoucruv hv euppoa-uvaig. 

" Dulce est fidenti spe vitani longam producere manifestis vohqHatibns 
animum oblectanlem." The MS. points thus 

TjSu T< ^oL^oraXsiuq 

(^avalc, ^viMv oixxav ev eui^gotry'vafj. 

" Didce est securis inter spes manifcstas, longam vitam producere 
animum ohlectantem in voluptatibus." 

The sense of both is good — the latter would perhaps be preferable, 
if the construction were not a little embarrassed. 

Compared with Pauxvs Edition, 105 

Verse S55. aAX' dTra.y.SXvyQYjasrai yv'jjy.yjv. 
In verse 9-57, the MS. has 

here roViJs is an evident fault : but if we read 

rglrov da rov vvv xoipavovvr l7ro\I/o/x«i 
the sense will be perfect : whereas the printed editions have 


a defective line, which gives a trochee at the third and a spondee at the 
fourth foot of an iambic verse. 

In the same collection (the Bibliotheque du Roi, at Paris) which 
contains the MSS. of ;?ischy!us, noticed in the preceding com- 
munications. Monsieur Vauviliiers discovered another copy marked 
No. 2782. — This is a quarto volume of the l6th century, and com- 
prises, besides the Prometheus, and Seven Chiefs at Thebes, of 
iEschylus, a Treatise on Greek Syntax, and an Essay on the Fabulous 
Gods — all transcribed by a most inaccurate and ignorant copyist; 
yet we must remark in the Prometheus, at verse 602, that th« 
MS. reads 

instead of /j.-rj which the printed editions have. 
V. 6'38 appears happily restored by the Manuscript, which has 

aj Ka-joK\uv<Tai, ■Ktx.TCoZuqa.fT^cn ruyctg.. 

In verse 677, •/.syy^^slx; peo; is the true name of the port of Corinth, 
«alled Cenclirea. 

In verse S66, diraii^XvA-fio-zrai yvcuiMYiv is the form used. 

Homer says, oi')(yuJvog kyJ^ 

In the Seven at Thebes we find at verse 284, dyvols vo^uoig. Although 
$iyvoig Uu.oig of the printed editions yield a good sense, yet the 
dwellings of the Gods, where the spoils of enemies should be offered, 
have been just designated by the words io-rlag QsuJy : so that Somi; 
becomes an unnecessary repetition ; dyvolg voy,otg, therefore, expresses 
the religious use of this consecration. 

Us^i^rp/yvy.'svuiv (pa^scuv restores the measure in verse 335. 
The printed editions at verse 630 have 

Trag* acTTr/Sof yUjU,vaj9iv upTTo.o'ai ^opu, 

which is translated " extra clypeum nudatum arripere hastam," an 
unmeaning passage. The MS, reads So^Ji, and the sense thus becomes 
*' dypco nudatum corpus haurire hasta" — this would suffice, were there 
no other various reading, to prove that even from the worst manu- 
scripts some help towards a new edition may be derived. 

The word rjo;/aAov in verse 766 appears better than the r^ip/aAo^ 
of our printed copies, for although it is easy to comprehend the sense 
9^ fulmen trisulcum or lingua trisulca, one does not so readily under- 

106 Manuscript of Mschylus, 8^c, 

etand the meaning of "Jluctiis trisulcus" Homer uses th* word 
XDpTov to describe a wave that becomes convex as it swells ; r^(iy(a.\w 
which signifies roiundum seems to convey the same image. 
We read iu the modern editions, at verse 772, 

The ancient Scholiast has remarked that reXslai would be necessary 
for the Syntax, but that ^Eschylus cut off the i on account of the mea- 
sure — this was a most unfortunate remark, for rzKzia.1 is not more 
necessary to the syntax than tristis in Virgil's Triste lupus stabulis, but 
on the contrary the measure requires a long instead of a short, to 
render equal in metre the verse of the strophe and that of the anti- 
fltrophe ; and Aldus's edition (as M. Brunck has observed) read* 
tkXsion like our manuscript. 

At verse 832, da-ivsl cruirri^i cannot terminate an anapest. The 
second Scholisst appears to have read (raiTfj^ia which we find in the 
MS. before us. 

In verse 1067, [J^rifs r^oitiij.'n'siv. Mr. Brunck, on the authority of 
another copy, has adopted this, because it restores the measure of the 
anapest, which is disfigured in the common editions thus, fj^Yits os TTpo- 
Tt'siJ.'itziv . After this we find TtoXirojv Sslaa, at the end of the line, which 
is a very bad transposition of verse IO69. 

Monsieur Vauvilliers on examining another MS. of Jischylus, pre- 
served in the same great Library, and numbered 2788, (containing the 
Prometheus, the Seven at Thebes, and the Persians) written in the 
1 7th century, found at verse 49O of the Prometheus, if^o; aAAijAou;, 
where the printed edition reads the passage 

vgog uKKr^Xoig Tiveg 

** queenam inter se odia et amoves et societates," the MS. is right in 
using the accusative and not the dative. 

The ravrcc ^eT fj-ocK^ov Aoyov, which the printed copies have at verse 
874, is certainly a correct form — but the MS. reads, with more spirit 
and elegance, ravra Syj^oC Koyov, " hcec verb longi sermonis." 

In the Persians (verse 159) %f^cr£OcrrlA/3oyi- oofwvs seems to be a 
more brilliant expression than the common reading ^^vcrso(r76?^[j.oui. 
And the MS. may be followed in verse 753, 

dsdoixa (A^ TToXvg ttXovtou vovog 
6v[tog uvQguiTTOig yEvr^rai rov cpiua-avTog dpTroty^. 

*' Timeo ne magnis meis lahorihus acquisitce opesjiant hominibus occu- 
pantis prceda." In the printed editions we find tto^og, the simple 
expression, and perhaps to be preferred in Homer, but Pindar and 
^schylus looked far around them for images and metaphors. 

A remarkable form occurs in verse 337 (of the Persians) : our 
printed copies have. 

Juvenal Vindicated. 107 

which signifies, " quoad numervm, certo scito harharos classc supera- 
turosfuisse" — this is a very good phrase, but the reading of the MS. 
seems more lively and more elegant, 

" Quod ad mxiltitudinem pertinet, erat, certo scias barbarorum navibuf 
tincere." Those who are well acquainted with jEschylus know that 
these broken forms are quite in his style, as in that of Thucydides. 



Dear Sir, 

When I saw you last, you showed me Dr. Mead's emen- 
dation on that verse of Juvenal, Sat. xiv, 97. 

Nil prater nubes et call numen adorant ; 

where instead of numen he reads nomen, with the approbation of 

Upon considering the passage I think niimen Mill best answer 
the intention of the poet, and the true meaning of the words. 
My reason for this opinion is, that the Rabbins ascribed ten names 
to God, one of which was, D''Qli^, Shumabn, ' the heaven,' Cunaeus 
de Repub. Heb. lib. 3, c. 6. It w as likew ise another tenet amongst 
them, that God's name was God — from the Old Testament, where 
his Natne is frequently used for his Essence. By this name of 
Heaven they worshipped him, and by this name they swore. 
Malt, V. James v. which our Lord reprehended them for : Swear 
not by Heaven, as by a God, for it is no more than his throne, and 
therefore not wortliy that honor. This Shamaim the Chaldeans 
in their language called ]D'^, !Samen, as in the word Balsemen, the 
Lord of Heaven, from whence the Etruscans and Latins formed 
their Summan-us, which Varro lib. 4. L. 1. says, Sabinorum lin- 
guam olet, 8i.c. Hence Summanalia liba farinacea, Festus : these 
were the cakes made to the Queen of Heaven y i. e, the Host of 
Heaven, Jer. 7, 18. and 44, 19- 

This notion of calling the Heaven, God, perhaps took its rise 
from his being called the Lord of the Host of Heaven, and Sabaoth, 
and this word Sabaoth the Basilidian Jews inscribed on their 
Abraxas, and supposed them to have a divine energy from having 

108 Oratio Norxicensis, 

that name. Chifflet and Montfaucon supply many of these 

We see from hence that the Rabbins worshipped God under the 
name Wt2i^ and mKHJJ Shamaim and Sahaoth, ' the Heavens and 
the Host of Heaven ;' which was the Coeli numen that Juvenal 
here alludes to ; and surely nothing could be more proper than to 
ascribe divinity to the object of worship — so that coeli numen seems 
to me to deserve to keep its place, and the old reading to remain. 

Dear Chancellor, — Fungar vice cotis, — only — you know best of 
any man how to judge of this hint, which is at your service, as is 
every thing that falls within the small compass and good wishes to 
literature of your affectionate humble Servant, 


Westminster, 26th Jan. 176'2. 

P. S. Perhaps the 7mbes et cocli tinmen might have some 
reference to what Aristophanes objected to Socrates concerning 
mental devotion — which was also the worship of the Jews. 


SLuroLi ya.pi'oi [xovai eW) flea*, xaAAa ds ttccvt' Iotj (pXva.^05, 


Editori Class. Eph. S. P. D. E. F. 

Hanc orationem ex annuo institute apud Praetorem Senatumque 
Norvicensem nuper habitam, tibi mitto; quam si tanto honore 
dignamjudicaveris, fac in proximis commentariolis tuis ascribendam 
cures. Nullus moror, si forte quaedam in eti minus accurate, aut 
parum perpolite, aut etiam non satis Latine dicta deprehenderis. 
Si qua tamen scintillula ingenii videatur ; si aliquantulum elegantiae 
veteri Latio non prorsus indignae, si animus ingenuarum artium 
studio accensus, si denique quaedam in rerum cognitione et judicio 
ultra annos maturitas appareat, non est profectc> cur banc oratio- 
nem in tenebris esse ablegandam censeas. Boni et sapientis 
hominis est, ingenia alere, fovere, et laudis dulcedine ad majores 

Oratio Norvicensis. 109 

conatiis excltare. Quantum autem hoc tui moris semper fuerit 
prob^ scio, atque igitur spero fore, ut istum pueri quindecim 
annos nati partum summa benevolenti^ accipias. Paucissimis, 
vel polius nullis immutatis, totam orationem i!le sibi suam asse- 
nt. Optimas saoe indolis et spei puer est, qui cum aliquot aliis, 
sequalibus suis, et eodem fere ingenio praeditis, in nostro ludo 
literario operam in veterum nionumentis investigandis et cognos- 
cendis impendit. Neque id dico^quasi nascentibus ingeniis adu- 
lari velini ; neque existimes, quaeso, me in meze vitee institutis 
et laboribus laudandis nimium esse. Semper enim in animo per- 
suasum habui, magnum vel potius summum cujuscunque, qui stu- 
diis juventutis moderandis prjesit, esse munus, ut nullam unquam 
occasionem praetermittat, qua ingenii acumen, mentis in excoo^i- 
tando vigorem, et in antiquorum voluminibus evolvendis puerorum 
diligentiam, ultro hortari, blande tractare, amice collaudare, summ^ 
ope provehere, et in lucem educere licitum fuerit. Eo igitur 
animo cum sim, vix ulla excusalione opus est, qu6d tibi banc 
orationem mittam, quam si edideris, mihi pergratum feceris. Neque 
ille egregius puer una tantum in re laudari promeruit ; Greec^ 
enim, Latine, et Anglic^, quod quidem eodem tempore, nonnisi 
rar6, et viris eruditissimis contingit, carmina luculenter scribit. 
Quasdam etiam lyrica apud me servantur, quje cum aliquibus 
aliis turn Graeco, turn nostro sermone versiculis conscriptis, tuo 
judicio limatiori fortasse posthac subjiciam. Vale. 

Dat. 7. Kal. Septemb. Norvici. 

Prcetor dignissime, Prczior designate, et Senatores 
utriusque ordinis : 

Ex instituto majorum hoc in more positum est, diuque invaluit 
consuetudo, ut e nobis quispiam in hunc locum quotannis ascen- 
deret, et quam posset politissimam haberet orationem. Sapientis- 
sim^ profectc> majores decrevere ; eo san^, ut, et quae literarum 
essent ratio et disciplina signis clarioribus intelligerent, et eJoquen- 
tiae doctrineeque studium pro viribus promoverent. Rursus, igitur, 
annuo orbe revoluto, praestitutadies rediit, dies tanta apud cives nos- 
tros latitia coucelebrata; rursus igitur mori paremus, atque apud vos, 

110 Or alio Norvicensis. 

auditores gravissimi, muniis nobis assignatum, quantumvis licet 
impares, suscipimus. Qiiis autem, quain in prgesentia, praclariorem 
concionandi occasioiieni unquam nactiis est ? Cuinam enimvei^, 
qui literarum vel prima elementa iabris attigerit, cum tot ade^que 
repentinas rerum vicissitudines conspeximus, ciim tot prseclara, 
tot admiranda, tot fere incredibilia_, nisi ipsorum quasi prae oculis 
versata^ extiterunt, argumentuni aut facultas defuerit dicendi? 
Quo termineturj non unde incipiat oratio, in dubio erit. Uberrima 
sane patet materia dicendi, et facundissimoruni studio et eloqueutia 
dignissima! Sed quanto dignior, quanto uberior materia, tanto 
magis est verendum, ne altiora ingenii culpa deprimamus. Si 
quid igitur per infantiam nostra lapsa fuerit oratio, si quid Jevius 
et inconditius ab ore exciderit, quam quod locus hicce ornatissimus, 
auresque vestree benignae postulant, pro hunianitate vestra, vos, 
auditores gravissimi, obtestanmr, nostris erroribus atque impru- 
dentiae benevole ignoscatis. 

Vidimus profect^, vidimus tyrannum, ad aliena per cruorem 
et injurias grassatum imperia, c^m totam fere Europam, dementi 
furens audacia atque ambitione, devastasset, sanguine immersisset, 
crudelitate infestasset, casu repentino, seu potius fulniine divinitus 
immisso, e male parta potestate actum praecipitem, atque ipsa vitS. 
graviores quiim morte poenas dedisse. JNeque enim coelesti absque 
numine hoc evenisse reor ; mirabuntur posteri, .et melius ac nos 
de re judicabunt, quae ut nobis propior ante oculos versatur, ita 
minus animum commovet, nee videre sinit, qudm mire, et ex 
quantis periculis erepti evaserimus. Vidimus contra reges, patria 
et regno exulantes, in sedem majorum restitui ; libertatem prostra- 
tam humi, laetiori auspicio instaurari ; vidimus denique Pacem, 
quae discordia et tjrannide perterrita discesserat, in terras redeun- 
tem sua gaudia secum reportare. Salve! alma felicitatis parens, 
belli vulnerumque medicina, hominum divina conciliatrix ; commo- 
reris diu apud niortales propitia ; sera, aut potius nunquam in 
coelum revertaris. Te adveniente, baud amplius labores agricolaj 
stridor lituorum perrumpit; baud amplius exercituum strepitu, 
saxa, viae, nemora repercussa sonant ; agri, quos modo ferruni ct 
ignis terribilem in modum devastaverant, segete flavescenti vestiun- 
tur ; rates ipsae, per quas commercia tamdiu diremta fuerant, per 
fluctus tranquillatos transmittunt merces ; viie Irequentia hominum 
celebrantur ; negotiatorum multitudine strepunt provinciae. Pec- 
tora, curis discruciata, fracta servitudiiie, benigniori lumine rursus 
libertas accendit ; mercatura, pra?grand^ scilicet vectigal, opulen- 
tiam reducit ; certum doniiciiuun atque sedes occupat Scientia. 
Concordiae foedere conjuiicti homines inter se invicem securi com- 
miscentur ; in irritum ceciderunt insidi^e ; fraus constringitur ; 
conciliatur pax atque confirmatur ; " redeunt Saturnia regna ! " 
Cur autem in re tara copiosa, tam late patenti mihi diutius morau- 

Oratio Norvicensis^ 1 1 1 

dum ? Si quis enim omnia pacis bona nunierare sibi propositunj 
habuerit, quanta oratio — oratio autem ? \n\h Iiaud mediocre volu- 
inen inde conderetur ! 

Quamvis ^ bello tot pjene mala sint derivata, quot k pace bona 
uiiquam efBuxeriiit, in bello nihilominus pleraque eximia patrata for- 
titudiue enituerunt,qua? famam et laudes majoriimnovis quasi laureis, 
siiigulari gloria atque bonoribus decoraverunt, auxerunt, aniplifi- 
caverunt. Nonne enim Britannicos illos heroas, nullis casibu» 
dejectos, nullo labore perfractos, nullis periculis exanimatos, ad 
propositum virtute et pertinacia instructos proruisse, et reliquos 
Europa? populos e somno et desidia ad jugum servile discutien- 
dum suscitasse, vidimus ? Hcec procul dubio manes eorum, qui 
olim pro patri^ fortiter pugnando mortem oppetiere, ovantes pro- 
spexisse mibi videiitur : neque ipsam Britanuiam natorum poenitu- 
isse. Nonne Russos ex Hyperboreis illis regionibus, apud quas, 
si non alia, fortitudo saltem inprimis maturescit, armis ultricibus 
in tyrannum prorupisse ? Nonne manus strenuissimorum, in e^k 
ipsa tellure, qua Ciesar pro imperio et ambitione dimicavit, pro 
patria et libertate decertare admirati conspeximus ? Multa alia 
hujusmodi, mod6 tempus superesset, liceret memorare, quae in 
omnem posteritatis memoriam consecrata, novaque in aeternmi* 
gloria cumulata innotescent. 

Jam ver6 nostr^e omnium lastitiae quae oratio par potest inveniri ? 
quag facundia, quae verba perpolite ade6 limata, glorias splendorem 
Britanniae circumfusum digne depingere ? Sinite igitur hoc loco, 
gravissimi auditores, pro temporum felicitate, pro rerum gesta- 
rum magnitudine, vestraque dignitate, me vobis gratulari. Anne 
ulli enimverti nobis, qui hac patria, hoc sub imperio, hac zetate 
vitam agimus, feliciores aestimandi ? ea nostr^ patria, quaj jam- 
pridem inter Europai populos primas et illas eximias omnino 
partes obtinuit ; eo imperio, quo libertas omnibus est sequa 
ratione sancita ; e^ denique aitate, qua, belli muneribus sopitis, 
pax redux terras conccrdize fcedere componit. Vos equidem 
existimo, tamdiu belli, licet externi, terroribus curisque exagitatos, 
jam tandem divino pacis munere donari, ut philosophise studii* 
dediti, et literarum fautores, senes in tuta otia recedatis. 

Quid etenim tempus ad doctrinal studium pace accommodatius ? 
jam tandem castrorum freraitu composito, imbellis lyra resonabit ; 
rursus in domos, e quibus armorum tumultus eas deturbaverat, 
nostras revertentur Musae; jam studio literarum est diligentius in- 
cumbendum, jam ad rerum naturam investigandam summa navanda 
opera. Dux emeritus in ruris quietem receptus, inter musa?i silentia, 
Czpsarem per Helvetios, Belgas, Germanos, gentesque, quas ipse 
exploravit, remotissimassequetur. Cum Csesare moutes superabit, 
transibit sylvas, flumina ; ubi ipse bellum gesserat, penetrabit ; illi 
«tiam, locorum haud ignarus, se comitem ubique adjunget. Efferut 

112 Oratio Kormceiisis. 

bellator pacificls carminibus allicietur. Omnium deniqne mores, 
bello duratos, pacis studia emoliient. 

Liberalis nimirum institutio pueroriim, tuni ad commoda reipub- 
licae, turn ad privatomm felicitatem quaiiti intersit, quis animo 
expendere atqiie judicare poterit r Ut juvenes igitur, artibus ingenuis 
instructi, uec patria; inutiles, neque iiecessariis dedecoii forent, 
omnes, neque nijuiia, curam sibi esse adhibendam existimavere. 
Qua sententia inductus, Eduardus ille, in preesid'um doctrin^e, ut 
qui fuerit humanitatis studiosus^ has aides olim Scientiae consecra- 
vit; has a?des vos hodie, eodem studio accensi, ad animos juveniles 
Uteris imbuendos, quaj est vestra beneficentia, baud recusatis. Vos 
juventulis eruditioni, foventc manu, oculo diJigenti invigilatis; et 
huic civitati onmiuni bonarum artium tutelam, literarum defensores, 
patronos denique studiosorum, vosmetipsos pr^belis. Vos ingenii 
latentis vires, ne per obscuritatem indicis indigeant, et silentio 
indigne obsolescant, in lucem aspectumque omnium proferre digna- 
niini ; vos cives honestos literatosque, qui in futurum pace aut 
bello, forensi sermone aut studio literaruni, sint aliquid ad conimu- 
nem fructum allaturi, abhinc, gravissimi auditores, saepissime in 
sinum reipublic^ dimittitis. Quae cura patriae utilior ? quaj vo- 
bis honestior ? 

Quot eximiae laudis viros, et illos summa quidem eruditione, sin- 
gulari sapientla atque pietate prijestautissimos, hasc schola, nutrix 
humanitatis, in hoc suo greniio Uteris ornatos ab oblivione in gloriam 
et honores vindicavit ! Haec igitur loca quum pervagor, quum cir- 
cumspicio, videor mihi equidem inter frequentiam virorum praecla- 
rissimorum versari: quacunque oculos converto, incidit aniuio famas 
majorum dulcis qua^dam memoria. Quis ignorat quanta constan- 
tia Parkerui ille sanctissinius Cantuareusis, eximia virtute, fide in- 
temerata vir insignis, his a^dibus liberal! doctrina institutus, ad pro- 
positum interritus perrexerit ? ISeque Cokius, legum Anglicarum 
interpres, omnium, quos unquam novimus, peritissimus, qui summa 
diligentia, laboribus, ac laudibus^ ad juris pervenit sapientiam, 
silentio omnino praetereundus. Vivent, in memoria bonorum 
omnium reposita, Caii beneficentiae monumenta. Vivent, fuga 
temporum iliaesa?, Clarkii in omni literarum genere summa cum 
laude versati, doctrina et sciential Vivetdeuique hand tantum apud 
historias, veriim etiam in omnium Britannorum mentibus recon- 
dita, Nelsoni, fortissimi imperatoris, viri patria amantissimi, virtus 
singularis, inaudiia magnanimitas ! lili omnes amplissimi laudatis- 
simique viri, hinc exceilentiee, bine gloria principia, tanquam h 
foute purissimo et perenni, deduxere. Hos autem qui vestra ope, 
vobis auspicibus, e primo limine Musas jam salutant, illorum asniu- 
los, k virtute majorum, reor equidem (si quid veri mens auguratur) 
baud degeneraturos. Erit, erit illud, ni fallor, tempus, atque illu- 
sescct aliquando ille dies, ciim ex his haud pauci, variis artibus in- 

Oratio Nbri'icensis. US 

cumbentes, divers^ quisque ratione, ad commoda relpublicai pro- 
movenda atque adjuvanda intenti, totam fer^ Britanniam nomiiiis 
fama sui impleverint, Alter fortasse causas agendi jurisque civilis 
peritissinuis, fori lumen et decus enitebit : alter Demosthenem aut 
Tulliuni jemulatus dicendo tenebit hominum coetus, mentes alli- 
ciet, potens voluntates audientium impellendi quc!> velit, unde autem 
velit deducendi. Hie mira verboruni facundia ornatus, Senatui, 
quid sit nociturum commonstrabit, quid autem fieri oporteat, per- 
suadebit : ille igne ApoUineo accensus lyra divinum carmen con- 
texet. Alius singulari in homines benevolenti^ impulsus opem 
feret supplicibus : excitabit afflictos, dabit miseris salutem ; perdi- 
tos periculis liberabit: alius denique, Episcopi venerandi, hac regione 
nostra sanctae religionis ministerio praepositi, exemplum imitatus, 
sacris pietatis muneribus fungetur; snorum felicitate intentus, suc- 
curret inopi, animo dejectos solabitur, nudis vestimenta, cibos 
esurientibus erogabit. Si haec dim contigerint, si hujus alumni 
Gymnasii, in gloriae curriculo eb fastigii sint aliquando ascensuri, 
quantum ex iliorum factis repercussum vos, auditores gravissimi, 
laudum decus illustrabit ! Famae poene dimidium vobiscum parti- 
entur, Quaj vobis, in honestam provectis senectutem, dulcior feli- 
citas, quae fortuna magis expetenda potest contingere, qudm, quos 
ipsi e tenebris extraxistis, quorum prima vestigia in via, quae ad 
honores gloriamque ducit, ipsi sublevastis, meta, ad quani tanto 
labore contenderant, tandem potitos intueri ? Vos illi tanquam Mze- 
cenates suos, beneficiorum baud immemores, mirati suspicient. 
Vestrurn erit decus, vester honos, cives patriag idoneos, utiles agris, 
utiles " et bellorum et pacis rebus agendis," ex hoc seminario 
in reipublicae campum transtulisse. Turn denique conscii, vos 
pro patria n}unera optime praestitisse, emeriti quiescatis. 

Vos igitur cimi intuemur, illustres Musarum nostrarum praesides 
et custodes^ vos qui mira omnino cura et alacritate studia huma- 
niora adjuvatis, quanta laetitia nos perfundi existimatis ? Nobis 
etenim non mod6 via, quae ad solidiorem eruditionem duceret, 
praeivistis, verilm etiam tot et tarn luculenta apud nos collocastis 
beneficia, ut nisi iliorum memoriam religione sanctissima servemus, 
ingratissimi omnino animi coarguamur. At ueque facti gratia ex 
animo delebitur, neque vos nostrorum (ut spero) laborum posnite- 
bit. Eodem studio, eadem diligentia, qua solemus, vestris mune- 
ribus (quantum in nobis est spondere) utemur ; ea munera eadem 
benignitate, in reliquum nobis prx)pria et perpetua confirmate. Sic 
vobis, civium bonorumque omnium consensu amplissimishonoribus 
etsumma laiide decoratis, vobis fortuna, vobis gratia popularium in 
perpetuum obsecundet ; vos sempiterna felicitate floreatis.. Vestro 
sub regimine ha?c antiqua civitas, fide, mercatura, civiunique con- 
cordia tot per secula insignis, rebus onniibus affluat, pacis muneri- 
bus ornetur, opulentiam, qualem antea nunquam, consequatur. 

No. XiX. CLJL Vol. X. H 

1 14 Notes on Mschylus. 

Idenj iiniversiis populus, idem omnes ordines sentiant : fequo justl- 
tiit (quod nullus dubito eveiiturum) libramlne civitas haec nostra 
gubernetur. Turn demum, ad tantas provecti dignitates, quasi ex 
oceano reipublicae latiori, in secretes otii recessus vosmetipsos tra- 
dalis : at ne turn quideni, Auditores gravissimi, Scholse alumnos 
Norvicensis, vestrorum sic usque memores beneiiciorum^ ex animo 
fuuditus abjiciatis. 

Scripsit Clique hahuit 
A. BJRRON, Norvicensis. 




I PROCEED to transcribe, for the use of your publication, the remainder 
of the notes on ^schylus by Professor Porson, as they occur on the 
margin of the edition before mentioned by me. B. 1814. 

In Choephoras. 

236. *' 'ivcfix Valckenser. ad Eurip. Phceniss. 415, vulgatum tuente 
Heathio." Vulgo 'oftf4,ci. 

490. ** Usimrviy Valckenaer. ad Eurip. Phceniss. 1310.'* Vulgo 


765. " TTWf (p*ii ; Valckenser. ad Eurip. Phceniss. 923. ti -xug ; Can- 
ter, favente Heathio." Vulgo ^ tt^j j 

1068. " TTcti'^c^o^ai Valckenaer. ad Eurip. Phceniss. 1576. egregie, 
judice Heathio." Vulgo 7r«<3(Sft«go<. 

In Agamemnonem. 

6. " Hunc versum CI. Heathius contra Valckenasrium, (ad Eurip. 
Phceniss. 506.) ut putat, defendit, cum tamen ille non hunc, sed 
proximum o/SiXi^a." 

50. " ctM/icri ob metrum." Vulgo geminatur <r. 

346. *'eJ a-B^tva-i. Valckenser. ad Eurip. Phceniss. 1331." Vulgo 
iCa-:/iov(ri. Vide Porson. ad Phceniss. 1340. 

916. " w 'v«|. — -Tie^OKro^oi Valckensr. ad Eurip. Phceniss. 1518. 
Sed vulgatum ut ./Eschyleum defendit Heathius." Vulgo cim^y et 

In Eumenidas. 

44. ** fiu e'lU Georg. Arnald. apud Valckenaer. ad Eurip. Phce- 
niss. 994." VolgO fiiyie-T». 

Index to Brunck's Analecta. 115 

1008. " TT^oTrof^TrSv Stanl. probante Bentlelo in Phalar. p. 141." 
Vulgo TT^oTo^TTov, quod metrum pessumdat. 

1010. " Legit etiam cum Bentleio urtj^ov pro vulgata «Ty'g«av, postu- 
lante metro." 

In Supplices. 

36. " o^/3^6(pi^oiTtv Bentl. in Phalar. page 134." Vulgo deest t 
finalis, contra metrum, 

257. " Hunc versum (versui) 253 subjicit Valcken. ad Eurip. 
Phoeniss. 1331. renitente Heathio." 

356. " ^M/idroti '/v' Valckenser. ad Eurip. Phoeniss. 215. minus 
aequo Heathio." Vulgo ^Xi/SdrciFiv. 

531. « Tro^a-v'jMv Valckenser. ad Eurip. Phoeniss. 1082. quod 
Heathius pro suo venditat." Vulgo •jTo^a-vvm. 

688. Lectio Porsoniana, ut in editione Glascuensi A. D. 1794 im- 
pressa est, hie loci in chartula laxa a docto quodam memoratur, Scrip- 
tura Rainii, ni fallor, manus est ; cujus post Porsonum, liberfuit, ex quo 
desumtas sunt hae notulae, Siibsignantur literas S. P. P. Idem factum 
ad. vv. 94'5 - 6, nisi quod ad calcem libri in charta alba notatur. 

925. « i^id Valckencer. ad Eurip. Phoeniss. 712." Vulgo lya. 

1022. " Laudat Heathius Valckenserium ad Eurip. Phoeniss. 1331 
reponentem ivdd^a-ii." Vulgo eJ Sd^s-a. 

*^* In variis lectionibus, quje huic editioni subjiciuntur, ad Sept. c. 
Theb. 790. in v. K^iirs-eT'Uvm, inquit ; " forte f^Krerixvav, si hoc verbum 
admitti possit." Immo et lectionis meminit Robortellianae rdh pro t* 
ad V. 857 ejusdem fabulas. — Hasc omnia ad verbum. 


To the Three Volumes of Brvnck's Analecta. 

TOM. I. Callinus, 6 

^r^ Chaerilus, S4 

iX^scHYLUS, 25, 234 Cleobulus, 12 

Alcaius, 114 Cratetes, 34 

Alexander, 96 Dioscorides, 115 

Anacreon, )3 Diotimus, 54 

Antimachus, 29 Dosiade, 95 

Anytas, 37 Eratosthenes, 111 

Archilochus, 6, 7, 256 Erinne, 9 

Aristoteles, 32 Euphorion, 57 

Asclepiades, 43 Evenus, 28 

Bacchylides, 26' Hegesippus, 55 

Bion, 87 Hydistus, 113, 255 

Calliniacbus, 99 Ion, 27 


Lide.v to the Three Volumes 

Leonidas Tarent. 47, 315 
Meleager, J, 6, 312 
Mimneiums, 10, 234, 314 
Moschus, 88 
Mnasalcas, 34 
Nicaeiietus, y6 
Nossii, 36 
P'limphilus, 57 
Pancrates, 57 
Phfedimus, 58 
Phaljecus, 99, 235 
Phanocles, 95 
Philiscus, 34 
Phocylicles, 13 
Plato", 29 
Plato Junior, 31 
llhianus, 112, 235 
Saniius, 114 
Sappho, 8 
Scolion, 27 
SimniiasTheb. 29 
Sirainias Rhod. 38 
Simonides, 17, 314 
Solon, 10, 236 
Sophocles, 28 
Sosipater, 119 
Theocritus, 58 
Tiraocreon, 25 
Timon, 2() 
Tyinnes, 119 
Tyrtaeus, 7 


Addjeus, 188 

Adrianus, 196 

^^inilianus, 318, 194 

Alphei, 155 

Animianus, 2l6 

Antiochus, 198 

Antipater Sidon, 121, 155, 236 

Antipater Thessalus, 149 

Antiphanes, 309, 177 

Antiphilus, 168 

Antistius, 195 

Apollinaris, 195 

Apollinides, 156 

Archelaus, 137, 309 

Arcliias, 236, 145 

Archimelus, 138 

Archimelus Ptoleniasus, 31$ 
Argentarius, 192 
Aristocles, 149 
Aristodius, 191 
Ariston, 190 
Artemon, 140, 318 
Asclepiodorus, 231 
Atheneeus, 190 
Aulomedon, 310, 178 
Bassus, 167 
Bianor, \65 
Callias, 121 
Callicteres, 239, 197 
Chctrenion, 137 
Christodorus, 227 
Cleanthes, 225 
Crates, 121, 314 
Crinagoras, 157 
Cyllenius, 195 
Cyrilius, 231 
Cyrus, 226 
Damagetes, 131 
Damostratus, 191 
Demodorus, 137 
Diodes, 173 
Diodorus Junior, 174 
Diodorus Zonas, 140, SOp 
Dionysius, 190 
Diophanes, 19 1 
Diophaatus, 199 
Epigonus, 199 
Erycius, 197 
Eugenes, 226 
Euripides, 137,309 
Frouto, 204 
Gallus, 149 
Gastulicus, 168 
Glycon, 195 v 
Herodes Atticus, 198 
Hippias, 137 
Hymnus in Bacchum, 233 

in Apollinem, 233 

Julianus ^gyptius, 231 
Julianus Imper. 219 
Julius Leonidas Alex. 174 
Isidorus .^geates, 228 
Isidorus Scolasticus, 22S 
Laureas, 149 
Longinus, 177 

of Brunck's Analecta. 


Lucianus, 199 
Lucillius, 201 
Matron, 180 
Maecius, 186', 310 
Menses Roraani, 233 
Mesoniedes, 196 
Metrodorus et Problem. 229 
Mucins Scaevola, 192 
Munatius, 188 
Musaruni imagines, 233 
Myrines, 149 
Nestor, 204 
Nicander, 121 
Nicarchus, 205 
Nicomedes, 2l6 
Onestes, 19() 
Palladas, 310, 220 
Parrliasius, 138 
Pantelius, 219 
Parmenion, 177 
Persas, 121 
Phanias, 137 
Pliilippus, 179 
Philodemus, 141, 313 
Philoxenus, 138 
Pisander, 196 
Pitheus, 189 
Polemon, 173 
Pollianus 223, 319 
Polyaenas, 196 
Polystratus, 121 
Ponipeius, 149 
Posidippus, 134, 236 
Proclus, 224 
Quintus Srnyrnaeus, 228 
Rufinus, 217 
Satyrius Thyillus, 194 
Shiletas, 234 
Simraicus Rhod. 235 
Statilius Flaccus, 192 
Strato Sard. 207 
Syuesius, 226 
Thallus, 16s 

Theaeletes, 189 
Thea:tus Scol. 232 
Themistius, 219 
Theodorides, 132 
Theon, 219 
Thucydides, 186 
Thyniocles, 191 
Timon Phliasius, 139 
Tryplion, 226 
Tullius Genuinus, 195 
Zeaodotus, 13S 


iEnigmata, 305 
Agaltius, 240 
Arion, 308 
Astudanias, 309 
Cometes, 238 
Damagetes, 309 
Daphites, 309 
Democharides, 24 
Eratosthenes Schol. 254 
Heroicoruni, 257 
Hippo, 309 

In aurigarura imag. 238 
Incert.^Poet. 258, 310 
Joannes Barb. 238 
Julianus Antec. 238 
Leontius, 250 
Leo Philosophus, 255 
Macedonius, 251, 310 
Michael Psellus, 255 
Monumeuta Byzant. 256 
Orpheus, 237 
Panyasides, 308 
Philiades, 309 
Paulus Silentianus, 245 
Sophronicus, 254 
Secundus, 237 
Tbeaetetes Schol. 256 
Theon, 1ZT, 



Of English JVords and Phrases from the Spanish and 



Your Correspondent S. E. in 2Vo. 17- p- 120. of your Journal, 
speaking of the obligation which our language appears to owe to the 
Spanish, asbcrts, "^ From Grana, scarlet, conies the term "" Dyi}ig in 
Grain." If, however, he will consult a Currier, or Shoe-maker, 
he M'ill be informed that " Di/ing in Grain' has no reference at 
all to scarlet ; but means dressing the leather in the grain, that is 
the upper side, m contra-distinctiou to the flesh side of the pelt. 
Thus, black shoe leather so dressed is called " black on the grain" 
and if the words " in grain" mean scarlet, what a laughable tauto- 
logy our worthy poet Spencer utters, when he says, 

" How the red roses flush up in her cheeks, 
" And the pure snow with goodly vermil stain 
" Like crimson dy'd in grain." 

Why grana in Spanish signifies scarlet, I can inform your cor- 
respondent by an extract from an old dictionary in my possession. 

" Grana — small seeds or grains in Spain which grow to the 
" holm-oak, and which they gather in the spring : within them 
" there breed little worms as red as blood, which break out of these 
'' seeds, and run up the walls ; \vhence they sweep them down 
" with hares' feet, and then sprinkle them with white wine ; of 
'• which tliey make litlie cakes of rich scarlet, to dye cloth, silk, 
" &c. &c." 

It must be obvious that for our word " grain" we are under no 
obligation to the Spanish ; but both English and Spanish must 
acknowledge their venerable parent granum. The Spanish word 
deleyle has no claim on our word delight : S. E. will more naturally 
trace them to their common origin detector. And while for 

Tumble - we find - tommolen Dutch 

To comfort - - comforto Low Latin 

To remember - - rememhrer Old French 

To scorn - - schernen Dutch 

Hobby _ > - hoppe Teut. 

and knowing how great a portion of the ancient Celtic, Saxon, oi 
Gothic tono'ues is ditil'used through the modern German, the Dutch 
and our own language, we must attribute the above word, together 
with the Italian quoted by your Correspondent, to the same ancient 
original. They are indubitable vestiges of the northern hordes, 
who successively ravaged and incorporated themselves with these 

Classical Connexmis, 1 1 9 

respective nations. And, in proportion to the vicinity or distance 
of the countries whence these savage innovators issued, we perceive 
the Gothic vocabulary more or less blended. We note their words 
here and there interspersed in Italy and Spain : they increase in 
France, from whence proceeding to England, Holland, Germany, 
Denmark and Sweden, we tind their offspring universal. 

As to the resemblance in phraseology of tlie English and Italian, 
I must join in the opinion of your Correspondent : as to priority 
of use it is uncertain which nation has it. But two of the phrases 
which he notices, are not peculiar to the English ^nd Italian. 
** Fugir via' is exactly the " weg Jiiegeii" or " zceg laufeii' of the 

The sense oi" stare" in " sta in quatirojiorini" is the " sieleril" 
in the following : " Neque hoc periculum ignoro, expertus non 
" levi documento quanti steterit mihi qu6d semel imperata non 

** feci." QuiNTILIAN. 

What effect the predilection of our early poets, or the temporary 
possession of the countries in question by our soldiers, may have 
had on the language, is perhaps difficult to ascertain, in the in- 
stances however of the words just noted, your Correspondent, I 
think, will at least suspend his opinion. 

J. TV. 

Liverpool, Q.Oth Aug. 1814. 

The list of Italian Phrases similar to our own might be consi- 
derably enlarged. Thus, 

Dar via - - to give way. 

Far via - - - to make way. 

Dar ordine - to give order, 8cc. &c. 

No. II. 

4. 1 HE Memoirs of Algernon Si/ d7iei/ lately published, are wound 
up and close well with the following paragraph. 

** And if, in the revolving annals of her history, that day shall 
*' ever arise, when the despotic prince and the profligate minister 
" shall again prompt the patriot of noble birth to do or die for his 
" country ; then may the image of Algernon Sydney rise up to his 
" admiring eye : and against the darkness of fate, whether its saiile 

120 Classical Connexions, 

" or its frown awaits his ' well-considered enterprise,' let him 
** fortify his spirit by an example of magnanimity so choice and so 
" complete." 

The sentiments of this passage are wonderfully ilhistrated by 
the dying scene of Thrasea Paetus. (Tacitus Annal. xvi. So.) 

" Accepto dehiiic senatus consulto, Helvidium et Demetrium 
" in cubicuhim inducit ; porreciisque utriusque brachii venis, 
" postquam cruorem effudit, humuui super spargens, propiug 
" vocato quiBstore, /ibemus, inquit, JOVT LlBEllATORl. 
" Specta, juvenis, et omen qu/dem Dii prohibeant : ceterum in ea 
" tempora natus es, quibiis Jirmare animum expediat constantibus 
" exemp/is." 

5. When Demosthenes contrasts his own birth, fortune, and 
education, with those of his rival ^schines, in the oration de 
Corona, s. 78. he thus commences the detail of his honorable 

'EfJ-o) ju-sv TOiVUV U7rr,p^sv, AW^'ivr), "Trail) jw,ev ovti, <^o»Tav slj t« Trgocr- 
^xovTU dilacxaXsla, xa) e ^ e j v o (t ex. X§V '"O" jU-ijSsv alcr^gov 
•jTOirjiTOVTcc 8<' I'vSsjav e^eXSoWi 8s SK vul^'jov, axoAoufia TOuTOJj 
•ngoLTTSiv, ^opYjyslv, TgiYigag^slv, elcrtpsgstV, jU,j)S=/xiaj (^iXoTifiiccg p-jjTS 
ic'iac, j«.^T2 di^fJi-Qcrlag iStTtoXsiTrsarQai, aXKa xai t^ ttoXej xou Tcng (piXoig 
y^oYf(Tip.oy sivui. 

If tiie free citizen of Athens could thus reflect on the proud 
possession of that competence which he inherited •, well might 
the nobleman of England look foiAvard with bitterness to tlie 
degradation which threatened hfm. 

In a letter from Rome to his father the" Earl of Leicester, May 
2d, l66l, how touchingly does our exiled patriot speak of his 
distresses and wrongs ! The pathos of the writing is heightened by 
its dignity. A short extract must suflTice. 

" By all these means together, I find myself destitute of all help 
" at home, and exposed to all those troubles, inconveniences, and 
" mischiefs, unto which they are exposed, Mho have nothing to 
" subsist upon, in a place far from home, where no assistance can 
" possibly be expected, and where I am known to be of a quality y 
" which makes all low and mean ways of living shameful and 
" detestable." 

6. Milton in his Apology for Smectymnuns makes it one of his 
objectioi^is to academical education as it was then conducted, that 
men designed for Orders in the Church were permitted to act 
Plays, " writhing and unboning their clergy limbs to all the antic 
'* and dishonest gestmes of trinculoes, buffoons and bawds, prosti- 
•* tuting the shame of that ministry, which either they had or were 
" nigh having, to the eyes of courtiers and court-ladies, with their 
" grooms and mademoiselles." 

Classical Connexions, IQl 

*' There," says Milton, '' while they acted and overacted, among 
*' other young scholars, 1 was a spectator : they thought themselves 
*' gallant men, and I thought them fools : they made sport, and I 
*' laughed : they mispronounced, and I niisliked : and to make up 
" the Atticism, they were out and I hissed." 

1 know not whether Milton's allusion has been remarked before : 
but it is very clear, where the Atticism was got ; if you will but read 
the following words of Demosthenes to iEschines, in the bitter 
contrast of their respective fortunes. [De Corona, s. 60.] 

psvzg, kycti 8' h^Ofiriyow lypxii^ii^otnusg, eyca 8' IjcxArjTi'a^ov' STqtTa.yc»ivl(r- 
Te»f, lyw S' eSsoo^ouv b ^ s tt ittt s g, s y m S' io'vgiTTOV. 

7. In reply to the charge of his rival, that he had been the 
author of all the troubles and difficulties into which Athens had 
fallen, Demosthenes tells him, that to maintain the liberties of 
Greece against tyrants was no peculiar policy or principle of his : 
it had been the standing rule of his country for ages. (De Co- 
rona, s. 90.j 

'EtTs) s'l^Oty' si TOVTO 8oOr/>J Trap' U/ACUV, TOTUUTOt. 8i' ejU,S VfUXg YjVOCVTI- 

uia-Qui rfi KUToi tcov 'EKatiVimv oig^f, 7rgaTTO|0t.jvr, |w.£»^a;v uv SoSc/y; Scopea 
cujw-Tracr'Juv wv rolg aAAojj SsSctocars. 'AXk' out' av eyw txvtx <p)ja-aij«,<, 
(aSjxotjjv yoig a.v vy-oig) ovt dv iju-eij e'J 0(8' or* cruy^ajpr^traiTS* oOrog r* 
d dixaiu sTrom, ovx av svsxoi TYjg Trpoj efxs e^Qgag, ra [/.iyi<rTx tcuv 
VjxSTsgaov TCuXcuv e'SAaTTTS xa» lU^aWsv. 

In that splendid pamphlet in which Burke repels the attacks 
made upon him and upon his pension, by the Duke of Bedford, 
he writes energetically thus, in the year 1796. 

" But above ail, what would he [Lord Keppel] have said, if he 
*' had heard it made a matter of accusation against me, by his 
'* nephew the Duke of Bedford, that I was the author of the war ? 
" Had I a mind to keep that high distinction to myself, as from 
" pride I might, but from justice 1 dare not, he would have snatch- 
*' ed his share cf it from my hand, and held it with the grasp of a 
" dying convulsion to his end." 

" It would be a most arrogant presumption in me to assume to 
'' myself the glory of what belongs to his Majesty, and to his 
" Ministers, and to the far greater majority of his faithful peo- 
" pie," &c. &c. 

It is impossible for the intelligent reader to miss a wonderful 
correspondence in these sentiments of Demosthenes and of Burke. 
But that correspondence seems to have been the result of similar 
circumstances, influencing the one orator and the other alike. If 
the matter was so supplied, the manner yei more forbids the idea 
©f imitation : and the passages above produced M'ould of them- 

122 On the Inceptive Power of S. 

selves in no slight degree illustrate the different style of two men, 
matchless in eloquence both, but in politics most widely divided 
from each other. The comparison of the men, and of the times 
in which they lived, might afford much matter for curious specula- 
tion. And yet after all, Cicero is more properly the counterpart 
of Burke, than Demosthenes. 

SOth August, 1814. * 


Jf a more critical acquaintance with the Latin language has enabled us 
to detect occasional inaccuracies in earlier writers, it has also tended to 
excite a spirit of fastidiousness, and ultiraa^tely to increase the difficul- 
ties, which it ought to have removed. 

In prose the prevalence of this spirit is less injurious, because Latin 
is, with few exceptions, become the medium merely of philological 
and scientific communication, and the beauty of the style and round- 
ness of the period are consequently of little or inferior importance. 
The sentence also admits of such variety in its structure, that in all 
which relates to the usage and position of particular words, the ob- 
servance may easily accompany the knowledge of the rule. 

In poetry, however, where the structure is nearly as important as 
the sense, and the accuracy of a copy occasionally as necessary as 
the spirit of an original, we may be allowed to pause before we recog- 
nize a law, which not only imposes an additional restriction, but con- 
demns as vicious the practice of all our countrymen, who have most 
successfully composed in Latin metre. 

Terentianus Maurus is usually cited as the decided advocate of this 
initial power, but on referring to the treatise itself, and not merely 
to the lines quoted by Dawes and others, we shall find that his opinion 
kas been unfairly represented. 

Quae sibi tres tantum poterit subjungere mutas, 

(Si quando scutum, spumas, vel stamina dico) 

Hcec sola efficiet nudo ut remanente trochjeo 

Spondeum geminie possint firmare sonoraj : 

Exemplis an prava sequar vel recta probabo. 

Quisque scire cupit, vel quisque scribere curat, 

Ante stare decet quum dico, et separo verbuni ; 

Ante Stesichorum vatem natura creavit. 

Ultima vocalis remanens finisque trochan, 

Excipitur geminis queis proxiuuis exoritur pes. 

On the Inceptive Power of S, 123 

Quae quanquarn capite alterius verbi teneantur, 

Sutliciant retro vires et tempus oportet : 

Consona quod debet gerainata referre priori. 

Nam cur spondeo credas non reddere tempus, 

Qute tali positu (quom dactylus incidit) obstant ? 

lucipe si dicas, et scire aut scribere jungas, 793 

Creticus etHcitur, quis viribus ergo nocebit 

Subdita prajteritte, cur isdem viribus seque 

Tempora non prvestet, quura sit subjecta priori 1 

Quin niirum magis invenias, ut tempore duplo, 

Semisonans isthiec, pariterque et muta cohaerens, 

Correptam retro nequeunt augere trochaei. 

Nam nisi vocalis producta sequatur utrasque 

Tertia, quas dixi, nullum poteruiit dare tempus. 

Scire etenim quom dico, et stare spumeus amnis, 

Tertia vocalis producta adjungitur illis, 

Atque iude accipiunt vires prosuntque priori. 

Si fuerit correpta, nihil przestare valebunt, 

Quom scapulam, spatium, stimulum, subjungo trochzeo. 

The subject is continued for the next 40 lines, but they contain 
nothing to invalidate what is here admitted, namely, that these 
consonants, when followed by a short vowel, have no effect on th« 
preceding word. 

If then the authority of Terentianus is held to be conclusive, an 
important and extensive exception is thus established ; and even when 
he tells us that the dactyle becomes a cretic, it is not certain that ho 
interdicts it from the hexameter, as he says in another place, 

Creticus in nostris si la^via carmina paugas, 

Raro invenitur: qualis hie Maronis est: 
Insula? lonio in magno, quas dira Cel<eno- 
Creticus ofiendit pes primus et asperat aures 

Dabo et latentem, sed notandum creticum : 
Solus hie inflexit sensus, nam primus et isthic 

Pes longiorem terliam dat syllabam. &c. 

79. De Metris Liber. 

The words ' raro invenitur,' &c. prove the existence, though not 
the propriety, of the usage, and whether Terentianus is right or wrong 
in his remark on insuise and solas hie, the inference is still the same ; 
and incipe, when followed by scire or scribere, may claim as a cretic 
the place which it is denied as a dactyle ; unless, indeed, Terentianus 
is not the proper interpreter of his^ own words, and his calling incipe a 
cretic, coupled with his remark on scutum, spumas, and stamina, is 
decisive of its exclusion, notwithstanding his subsequent observations. 

With the research or accuracy of this critic I have no concern, but 
if his opinion on this topic be thought unsatisfactory or inconsistent, 
on examination we shall find that it is as explicit and conclusive as 
that of other grammarians. 

124 On the Inceptive Power of S. 

The use of insulje may be accounted for in different ways, but it is 
the thing, and not the name, that we contend for. 

Diomedes (as will be seen on referring to Mr. Gaisford's valuable 
edition of Hephcestion, pp. 207-8.) reckons the position of a final 
short vowel before two initial consonants, of which S is one, as the 
fourth among the seven species of common syllables ; and in another 
place, gives the following verse as an example of the ' partipedes :' 
Miscent fido fiumina Candida sanguine sparso. 

(De pedibus Metricis, 498. Puts.) 

I am not ignorant that it is very easy to transpose sparso and fido, or 
miscent, but the verse stands in Putschius as I have quoted it ; and 
Diomedes, as has just been mentioned, allows the position. Of the 
fairness with which alterations are sometimes effected, we may judge 
from Dawes' remarks on the 

Addita styli sublevaret siccioris tsedium 
of Terentianus, which he changes to 

Addita styli levaret, &c. 
in pretended compliance with the rule of his author, but in actual 
contradiction of his very words. 

Priscian says, {557' Putsch.) S in metro apud vetuslissimos vim 
suam frequenter arailtit. Virgil in xi. ^neid. Ponite spes sihi 

Zinzerlingius,* however, accounts Diomedes, Priscian, and Teren- 
tianus, the chief advocates of this inceptive power, and it is probable, 
therefore, that I have overlooked the proper passages, for what I have 
quoted does not countenance his assertion. 

Maximus Victorinus, (19^3. Putsch.) observes upon 

Namfuerantjiivenes suhito ex infantihus parvis 
Vita ilia dignus locoque, 

and Tmvi lateralis dolor certissinms nuncius mortis, 

*' Sic habetur quasi subtractis S litteris : quia licentivis antiqui et ipsa 
quasi pro liquente utebantur, inerudit^ adhuc novitate, quod poste- 
riores poetae non ferunt. Non quod ista definitio recta non esset, sed 
quod versus suos liquidius discurrere nullis salebris voluerunt," &c. 

Marius Victorinus, (2517- Putsch.) after saying that the first foot in 
Insula; lonio in magno is not positively a cretic, proceeds thus : 

" Nee te idem pes in illo versu decipiat, velut hujus similis, qui 
est talis, 

Ponite spes sibi quisque : 

Nee enim hie, ut in superiore, primus pes Creticus erit propter duas 
consonantes, sed pes est Dactylus, primo quod pars orationis com- 
pleatur cum pede, id est Ponite, dehinc quod spe sequentis pedis 
inferre superiori non possunt, quando aliuui inchoant sensum. Nee 
unquam consonantes duai longara syllabam faciunt, nisi in eAdem parte 
verbi constitutae : quod et in ceteris observabimus." 

Dawes (Mis. Crit.) was at first satisfied with this reasoning, but 
afterwards discovered its fallacy ; for in 

' Gaisford's Hephccstion, p. 209. 

On the Inceptive Power of S, 1 25 

Ferte citi ferrum, date tela, scanclite muros, 
the foot is completed with tela as with ponite, and scandite begins 
another sentence, but the last syllable of tela is nevertheless long : 
and besides, Victorinus is at variance with Terentianus. 

(Heyue says, Veteres Grammatici Servius, Donatus, Priscianus, 
Martianus Capella distinxere. Ponite, spes sibi quisque; ut sit, de- 
ponite. Sed melior, &c.) 

It seems not unwarrantable to conclude from hence, that the pecu- 
liar privilege of S cannot be established by the testimony of the Latia 
grammarians. What evidence may be found in the Greek, I know not, 
but none has been produced from Hephoestion, and if my memory 
does not fail me, he contains nothing to prove that a-x. a-r. ox a-ir. had 
more force than ir|U,. irr. or similar combinations. 

But the principal argument is yet to be examined, and rests not on 
the canons of the grammarians, but the practice of the poets. It is 
urged, that as there are numerous violations of this rule in modern, 
and very few in ancient poets, the latter must purposely and diligently 
have avoided a position, into which ignorance or inattention has so 
frequently betrayed the former. 

To answer this assertion we must ascertain what the practice of the 
classics really was, and endeavour to determine the boundary between 
the laws and the license of their metre.' 

Lucretius, according to Zinzerlingius, furnishes two instances (one 
of which however is disputed) in favor of this rule, and seven against 

Catullus, with the exception of 

Testis erit magnis virtutibus vmda Scamandri, 
has always observed it. 

In Virgil we find 

Ferte citi flammam, date tela, scandite muros, 
Brontesque Steropesque. 
Ponite spes sibi quisque. 

In Tibullus, Pro segete spicas. 

In Propertius we find one which supports, and six which contrarene 
the rule. 

' Some stress has been laid upon Virgil's never using the word Scelestus ; 
if, however, as I strongly suspect, the word does not occur in Lucretius, wc 
need not be surprised at not finding it in Virgil. The same poet is also 
alledged to have shortened the middle syllable of steterunt from a similar 
reason. The truth is, that in steterunt, as in all other verbs, this syllable 
was common. Valerius Probus, indeed, says (p. 1434.) " Sunt aliquae 
syllabce apud Virgilium quse necessitate metrica, cum vitio ^af^a^ia-jxoVf 
qui apud poetas fj.cTa-u-KaTjj.oc appellatur, contra rationem corripiuntur. Sunt 
aliquag, quEe cum breves sint, necessario producuntur. Corripiuntur in his : 

3Iatri longa dexem tulerunt fastidia Menses. 
Item, illius arma, et ipsius ante oculos, Mediam syllabam pronominum, cum 
sit longa, corripuit. Item, 

Obstupui steteruntque comtz et vox faucibus hasit : 
te syllabam longam in verbo corripuit." But I can produce ample proof ia 
support of my assertion. 

125 On the Incepthe Power of S. 

In Horace eight of the latter description ; and fourteen, all of which 
are suspected, in Ovid. 

In Lucan, on the contrary, 

Aut pretium, quippe stimulo fluctuque furoris. 

And in Silius, gelidosne scandere tecum. 

Immane stridens agitur. 
Diversa spatio. 
But on the other hand. 

Milk Agathyrna dedit perflataque Strongilos Austris, 
where, however, some read Trogilos. 

In Statius, • Agile studium. 

In Juvenal, Occulta spolia. 

And in Martial, Ut digna speculo fiat imago tuo. 

Quid gladiuni Ptoniana stringis in ora. 

These, perhaps, are all that need be mentioned, ' and with regard to 
Lucretius, it is obvious, that as the omission of the final S was still 
customary, that consonant was rather deprived of its natural, than 
endowed with an added power. 

Much importance has been attached to the practice of Catullus, 
and it cannot be denied, that excepting the solitary instance of uuda 
Scamandri, the vowel is always lengthened ; but if Vossius is correct, 
the inference which is usually drawn is erroneous. 

That author says, (De Arte Gram. 72. folio,) " Imo Catullus, nni- 
cum si locum exceperis, nunquam aliter, neque id taiitum, si sequa- 
tur sc, sp, aut st, de quibus Maurus : sed quotiescunque duae sequun- 
tur consonze," ^ &c. 

If then Testis erit magnis virtutibus unda Scamandri is the only 
instance in which Catullus has not lengthened a final vowel before any 
two consonants whatever, instead of asserting that he attributed a 
peculiar power to sc, sp, or st, we ought rather to conclude, that in 
his opinion sc was weaker than any other combination. But we are 
told that it was necessary to mention the Scamander, and conse- 
quently the use of a short vowel could not be avoided. Homer, 
however, has given two names to that river, and Catullus might easily 
have siibstituted Xanthus for Scamander. It is true, that Pliny denie* 
them to be identical, but even if Catullus was aware of this diiierence, 
the authority and usage of Homer could not be slighted bj a poet.^ 

In the Harleian MS. we find KaaaviJfoc, but the orthography is 
firmly established both by Greek and Latin authors. That Homer 
himself had no alternative might also be alleged, but the liberty 
which the Greeks, 

quibus est nihil negatum 
et quos"Af2;'Af£f decet sonare, 

' See Classical Journal, No. L pp. 71-81. 

* I suppose, ' Inde pater Divum sancta cum conjuge gnatisque,' is no ex- 
ception, as the g may be omitted. 

^ In the 21st Iliad, to which Catullus alludes, Xanthus is used 6 times. 


On the Inceptive Power of S, 127 

took with proper names,' is well known ; and Homer, had he been so 
inclined, might safely have lengthened the first syllable in the name of 
a river, which derived its consequence, if not its appellation, from 

If then this metrical accuracy is to owe its birth to a later author 
than Catullus, Virgil will next demand our notice. Dawes at first 
thouglit that ' Ponite quisque sibi spes,' was the right reading, and on 
second thoughts was positive that the words following ponite had been 
interpolated. But as this is mere assertion, and the explanation of 
Victorinus is declared by Dawes himself to be inadmissible ; 

Ponite spes sibi quisque, 
must be allowed not only to remain unaltered, but undiminished ia 
its force. Whether 

Date tela, scandite muros, 
is the proper reading, must be determined by others, but it may be 
questioned, on the authority of several MSS., some of which read 
et scandite, others ascendite. 

Brontesque Steropesque forms but one of the numerous lines in 
which que occupies the place of a long syllable. 

The length to which this article has unavoidably been extended, 
renders it necessary to be less particular in what remains. If, however, 
the meaning of Terentianus has been correctly explained, and unda 
Scamandri is indeed the only instance in which Catullus has not 
lengthened a final vowel before any two inceptive consonants, our 
purpose has been nearly accomplished ; for although date tela, scan- 
dite rmiros counterbalances jjonite spes sibi quisque, it can claim no 
preponderating weight, and the great authority of Virgil furnishes no 
support to our opponents. Dawes observes that it is not wonderful, 
if Horace has neglected this rule in what he himself calls sermoni 
propiora, and certainly the hexameters of that author do not always 
accord with our ideas of harmony, but sermoni propiora, as well as 
musAque pedestri, seems to refer to the matter rather than the manner, 
to his style, and not his versification. For a few lines afterwards he 
says of Comedy, that it is 

— -nisi quod pede certo 

DifTert sermoni, sermo merus. 
And in the Epist. ad Pison. he says, 

Et Tragicus plerunjque dolet sermone pedestri. 

But the humbler nature of the subject may have warranted a less 
rigid attention to metre, and it may perhaps be thought that he, who 
is acknowledged to have been correctly elegant in all the lyrical mea- 
sures, was unable to manage the hexameter with gracefulness. 

The ancients, however, do not appear to have noticed this de- 

' The Latins, notwithstanding their worshipping Musas severiores, were 
not very scrupulous, if we may judge from their use of Sichaeus, Diana^ 
Italus, Orion, Proserpina, Rhea, Porsena, &c. 

128 On the inceptive power of S. 

ficiency, and Horace himself, so far from thinking the harmony of 
little consequence, calls Lucilius a clumsy versifier, and censures the 
old Romans for their foolish admiration of the humor and numbers 
of Plautus. 

The ingenium, the mens divinior, and os magna sonaturum, are 
expressly disclaimed by him, and if his metre is also incorrect, we 
must indeed admit that he has no title to the name and honors of a 
poet. (Vide Fitzosborne's Letters, 37 let.) 

Fallible, however, as his judgment may have been, his open ridi- 
cule of Lucilius, and avowed attempt to treat the same in better 
verse, would have hindered him from recommending the labor of 
revision in a line which actually violated the rules of metre. (Sajpe 
stylum vertas 1 S. 10. 72.) In his odes he has certainly abstained 
from this position, but in all his poetry no instance can be found of 
his lengthening of the vowel, and his practice therefore is wholly in 
opposition to those who maintain that a short vowel may be used as 
long before these consonants. 

The examination of the different passages in Ovid must be waved 
for the reason which I lately mentioned, and of which indeed I should 
have been more mindful. ' 

The frank assertion of Wakefield (" Owners of MSS. have perpetu- 
ally corrected them, as we see at this day, according to their own 
fancy." Corresp. 29th Lett.) might perhaps authorize us to suspect 
some of the various readings; but at all events, Ovid, who not unfre- 
quently substitutes short for long final syllables, has uniformly, and 
we may therefore say carefully, observed a contrary practice before 
these consonants ; and Heinsius and Burman, the most learned and 
critical of his editors, are satisfied that he did not acknowledge their 
inceptive power. 

The six passages in Propertius are allowed to bear an undisputed 
testimony ; while on the other hand, in most of the opposite instances, 
(and they are not many) it is difficult, if not impossible, to prove that 
the length of the final vowel is to be attributed to these consonants, 
and not to the caesura or other causes. 

To conclude, had Virgil lived to finish his great work, his excellent 
genius and skilful assiduity would undoubtedly have made the jEneid 
the sole standard not only of poetical language but of elegant and 
correct versification. 

Whether the changes in the language of the Latins ; the unfinished 
state of their noblest poem ; the partial adoption of Grecian license ; or 
the nature of poetry itself be the cause, considerable doubt and confu- 
sion prevail in many points of their metrical system. If this uncertainty 
may be removed by a careful perusal of the old grammarians, I have 

» I must be allowed to mention that Tyrwhitt (Mis. Crit. Burg. 287.) 
thought the que in addidit et fontes immensuque stagna lacusque was ne- 
cessary " Ad 5oni numerique integritatem :" He also quotes " Ante meos 
oculos tua stnt, tua semper imago est" as a parallel instance, and must 
therefore have been satisfied with the reading. 

The inceptive power of S, 1 29 

onlv to laineiit and confess my failure : but if it should appear that 
our usage is founded less on positive precept than on tacit compact, 
if much not only of questionaMe purity but of high authority ' has 
been relinquished, and nothing of undoubted viciousness retained, 
why are we called upon for further sacvilices, and to adopt a system of 
general exclusion, rather than of partial admission ? The custom of 
the ancients is far from authorizing this extreme strictness, for none of 
them refrained from all licence, though they differed in particulars. 

Martial, for instance, has never violated the rule in question, and 
very seldom, if ever, begins the hendecasyllabic verse with an iambic 
or trochee.^ He does not scruple, however, to shorten the final o of 
verbs, which, as Marius Victorinus says, apud oinaes vet^res semper, 
et apud Virgiiium plerumque pro long-i syllaba, est. I have mentioned 
this, because the same argument which is used in support of this 
inceptive power applies with greater force to the final o. ^ 

This, therefore, will probably be the next point which must be 

' The hypercatalectic verse, the monosyllabic termination, the hiatus, 
and what is called the csesura, must be ranked among the latter. 

■^ " Ohe priorem habet coramunem, lit indicat Phalaecius ille Martialis lib. 
" 4. Epig. 91. 

Ohe, jam satis est, ohe libelle, 

" Neque enim ignorabile cuiquam esse arbitror, Martialis a^vo iambum ac 
*•' trocha;um a prima Phalascii sede exulasse. Decent id epigrammata ejtis 
" cevi : tum autem, quod Plinius in praefatione Historian Naturalis, ut durum, 
** cujpet nunc Catulli versum : 

Meas esse aliquid putare niigas." 
In Horace we find — 'trecentos inseris : ohe. 1. Sat. v. 23. 
In Persius, 

Auriculis, quibus et dicas cute perditus ohe. 

3 If we observe how frequently Statius and others have shortened it, we 
cannot but allow that his predecessors must have avoided a similar conduct 
with great carefulness. 
In Catullus fco^yever we find. 
Nam unguentum dabo, quod mere puellse. Carmen 13. v. 11. 
Die nobis. Volo te ac tuos amores. Car. 6. 16. 
Nam quasdam volo cogitationes. Car. 35. 5. 
Torquatus, volo, parvolus. Car. 5 1. 216. 
And in other poets, 
Ciim veto te fieri, vappam jubeo ac nebulonem. Hor. 1. Sat. 104. 
Nunc volo subducto gravior procedere vultu. Propertius 2. 10. 9. 

Protinus ut raoriar, non ero, terra, tuus. Ovid, Trist. 1. iv. el. 10. 
Ingenio format damna rependo meje. Sapp. Pha. 32. 
Desino, ne dominse luctus renoventur acerbi. Tibullus, 2. b. 41. 

Nescio and scio are allowed to be short. At puto, frequently forms a 
dactyl in Ovid. 

At puto, praiposita est fusca; mihi Candida pellex. 
At puto, funeribtis dotabere, regia virgo, &c. &c. 

No. XIX. a. Jl. Vol. X. I 

1 50 Notice siir la Vie et les Ecrits 

yielded ; the Genitives in ii, of substantives, will follow of conrse, 
notwitlistandinj; the authority of Ovid ; the usage of the enclitics will 
be regulated by the nicest notions of harmony ; and after we have 
done all we can to increase the dithculties of school-boNs, and to 
hinder men from cultivating as an amusement what thev learned as a 
task, we shall with laudable consistency deplore the needless attention 
which is paid to versitication in our public schools. 

Much time and genius have been employed on Greek metre : let U3 
ask ourselves whether the result be satisfactory, or the fruits j)ropor- 
tioned to the labor. If there should be any cause to regret that such 
time and genius have been so employed, while we, who call ourselves 
a learned and a wealthy nation, are dependent upon foreigners for the 
very materials of our studies ; let us not augment the evil by insist- 
ing on the scrupulous observance of every dubious point, and by 
mousing for faults in the practice of our forefathers. If the poetry of 
Buchanan, or May, or Bourne, possesses any merit ; if the names of 
Milton and Cowley ' are entitled to any reverence ; let us not lightly 
condemn what they so frequently practised ; or if the most fastidious 
are not necessarily the best judges, let us beware of cherishing a 
species of criticism, Avhich betrays but too plainly the spirit of pu- 
ritanisra, while it still maintains the tone of orthodoxv. 




Memhre de VInstitut et de la Ltgiou-d' Huiineur : honoraire de 
rAcadtmie des Scie7ices de Dijon, et Piqfesseur de Littera- 
ture grecque dans la Facultc des Lettres de VAcadcmie de 

jS/A.. PrnRRE-HENEi Larcher* naquit k Dijon le 11 octobre 
1726, d'une tr^s-ancieune famille de robe, alliee aux premiers noms du 

> I have not mentioned Cov/per, as it may be thought that he implicitly 
followed the practice of his former instFUctor and coubtant favorite, Vin- 
cent Bourne. I could add a long list of learned foreigners, but it might be 
said, " In re non dubia utitur testibus non necessariis," 

* La preface de la seconde edition de la traduction (I'H^rodote, par M. 
Larcher, porte pour signature : Petrus Hauiais Lare/ter, Divionmis, anna 
atatis septuagesimo sexto. Cette signature latine, un peu bizarre peut-Stre 
El la tin d'une preface franf aise, prouve que I'auteur du Tableau, lies £crt^ 
tains fran^ais a eu tort de donner h. M. Larcher le prenom de Fhilippe, et 
qu'il a corrige cette faute pur une autre, lorsque, dans les Tablettes bwgru- 
phiques, il I'a nomra^ Pierre-Andre. 

de M. Larcher. 131 

parlement de Bourgogne/ " et ce qu'il y a de plus flatteur dans la 
g^nealogie d'un litterateur, a la niaison de Bossuet."* Son p^re etoit 
conseiller au bureau des finances.' II le perdit de fort bonne heure, 
et resta sous la tutelle de sa mere,* feinmeexcessivement severe, et qui 
le destinoit a la niagistrature ; niais il se sentoit une autre vocation. 
Apres avoir fini, chez les Jesuites de Pont-^-Mousson, ses humanit^s 
qu'il avoit comniencees a Dijon, le jeune Larcher, entraine vers la 
litterature par une passion d'autant phis irresistible qu'on la vouloit 
contrarier, s'^chappa, en quelque sorte, de la niaison maternelle, et 
vint s'etablir a Paris dans le college de Laon, oil il put se livrer, sans 
reserve et sans obstacle, a I'etude des lettres et des sciences. II pou- 
voit alors avoir dix-huit ans. Sa mere ne lui fit d'abord que 500 liv. 
de pension ; et, pourtant, avec cette l^gere sonime, il trouvoit le 
moyen d'acheter des livres. Deux ou trois ans apres, sa pension fut 
portee k 700 liv. " Oh ! pour lors," disoit-il en riant a M. de La 
Rochette, "je me trouvai a mon aise, et je pus houquintr coniraode- 

Ce fut apparemment vers cette epoque que, suivant, au college 
Royal, les lefons de grec de Capperonnier, il temoigna tres-vivement 
son indignation, en le voyant se servir, tons les jours, au risque de le 
gater, d'un superbe exeniplaire du Thucydide de Duker en grand pa- 
pier.' On voit que, des sa premiere jeunesse, M. Larcher avoit le 
goAt des beaux livres. Ce go6t, augmente avec I'age et les moyeus de 

' Lafamille de M. Larcher est originaire d'Arnay-le-Duc. Elle a donn^, 
sous Louis XIV. un abbe de Citeaux. M. rArchcr, conseiller au parlement 
de Paris, auquel Chavigny dedia, en 1570, son Hj/mne de I'Astrie, apparte- 
noit peut-etre a cette maison. Voycz Goujet, Bibliotli.Jrun^. torn. 14. pag. 
42. 467. 

^ M. I'abbe de B. dans le Journal des Debats, 21 fev. 1803. — Annie litU- 
raire, 1769, torn. 3, pag. 147. 

^ Selon ce que M. Ranter de Monceaii, neveu de M. Larcher, m'a fait 
I'honneur de m'errire. Dans une note de M. Leschevin, qui m'a ete com- 
muniquee par JM. Chardon de La Ilochette, il est appele trhorier de 

* Elle dtoit une demoiselle Gauthier, selon la note de M. Leschevin. 

5 C'est Jean Capperonnier qui obtint, en 1743, lachairedegrecde Claude 
Capperonnier son oncle. Il Itoit grand amateur des belles editions hol- 
landoises. Je rapporterai, a ce sujet, un passage curieux de la Vie de Ruhn- 
kenius, par M, Wyttenbuch (p. 64) : Regi<£ libLiotheoE — scriptis codicibus 
prirfcctus erat Capperonnerius, qui in plcriaque eorum excerpendis aut descri- 
bendis utiLein jam nperam navaverat Hemsierhiisio, Dorvillio, Albertio, ipsi 
lluhnkemo, aliis item. Is oblatam gratia loco pecuniam solebat, ut illiberalem 
mercedem, spernere ac rccusare, operaque sua pretium estimare cerlo bonorum 
libroruin 7iumero, in primis exemplorum ex optimis recentis^imisque veterum auc- 
toruni editionibus, veluti Livii Drakenborchiani, Virgil ii Uvidi'que et aliorum 
a Burmanno editorum, Aristophanis et Suida Kiisteriani, Josephi Haverkarti- 
piani, Diodori Siculi Wesselingiani, et nullorum non scriptorvm gracorum ac 
latinorum: visus putare hos libros docti^ Batavis sponte et gratis venire, nee 
gravi (Ere e bibliopoliis emenda esse. Erat vero illud librorum sive pretium sive 
doniim, ut accipienti honestius quum parata pecunia, ita dunti molestius multa 
et gravius. 

1 32 Notice sur la Vie et les Ecrits 

le satisfaiie, devint une veritable passion ; et Ton me pcrmettra de 
dire que JM, Lurcher, qui, dans les derniers inois dc sa vie, ne vouloit 
point acheter les Lcxiqucs receniment publics de Pliotius et de Zona- 
ras, sous pretexte qu'il etoit beaucoup trop vieux pour en faire usage, 
ne balan^oit ccpendant pas i\ donucr iinc somnie enorme pour un livre 
qui scmbloit devoir lui etre encore p5us inutile, i'edition princeps de 
Piine le Naturaliste. 

I! est probable que, pendant les premieres annees de son sejour k 
Paris, M. Larclicr avoit deja rassemble une assez uombreuse bib- 
liotheque ; car, vers cetle epoque, ayant, ■<'■ I'insu de sa famille, forme 
le projct de visiter rAugloterre, pour y iliire connoissance avec les 
gens de lettres de ce pays, et se perfectionncr dans la langue Anglaise 
qu'il aimoit passionn6ment, il vendit ses iivres pour fournir aux frais de 
ce voyage/ Le Fere Patouillet, .jesuite auquel les sarcasmes de Vol- 
taire ont donne une sorte de celebrite, favorisa le dessein de M. Lar- 
cher, et consentit a recevoir et k faire parvenir a leur destination les 
lettres que le jeune voyageur ecrivoit de Loisdres a sa mere et a ses 
parens, mais qu'il datoit de Paris, leurfaisant croirepar-lil qu'il n'avoit 
pas cesse d'habitt'r le college de Laon. 

II ne paroit pas que M. Larclier ait ricn publie avant sa traduction 
deVElectre d'Euripidc, laquelle parut en 1750;^ car le Cclendrier 
jjerpetuel de \7'^7> q"i lui a ete attribue,^ n'est point de lui. Je le 
peux assurer sur le temoignage de M, Larcher lui-nieme.'*' Je vois 
d'ailleurs que ce Cakndrier ne se trouve pas dans la liste que M. 
Larcher avoit faite de ses ouvrages ; liste qu'il avoit donnee a M. de 
La Pcochette, et que ee savant a eu la complaisance de me communi- 

M. Larcher ne mit point son nom h. cette traduction d'Euripide, et il 
est a remarquer que la plupart de ses productions ont ete donnees sous 
le voile de lanonyme. Le Mcmoire siir V^nns, le Xcnophon, I'Htro- 
dote, sont, a pen pres, avec les Dissertations acadtmiques, les seuls de 
ses ouvrages ou il ait voulu se nommer. 

U Electre eut peu de succes, et n'a jamais ete reimprim^e. On la 
trouve, il est vrai, dans le Thtuire bourgeois ; mais ce n'est pourtant 
pas une reimpression. Le libraire Duchesne eut, en 1755, I'idee de 
reunir en un volume le Marchnnd de Londres, de Clement ; le Monms 
p/dlosophe, de BouUenger de Rivery ;^ cette Electre, de M. Larcher, 
et I'Abailard, de Guys,*^ dont apparennnent il possedoit un grand 

' Lettre de M. de Monceaa.1. 

- La date de 1770, dans les Sieclcs litti'raircs (torn. 4. pag. 105), n'est 
qu'ime faute d'impression. 

3 Dans le lableuu des Ecrivains Jrangais, et dans les^Tablettes biogra- 

* Journal de I' Empire, 13 mars 1310. 

5 L'auteur du Dictionn. des Anony7nes {10830) a, om'is Momus philosoplie. 
Dans Ja Biographie universelk, on dit, a I'article de BouUenger de Hiveiy, 
que son Momus philosophe a et6 r^imprim^ dans le '£h&ulre bourgeois. Je 
crois le mot reimprimi inexact; c'est insirS qu'ii falloit dire. 

* Cette pi^e, attribuee k Guys (Voi/ez M. Earlier, Anonym., 10830.), est 

ck M. Larchev. 133 

nombre d'exemplaires pour lesquels il ne savoit comment trouver des 
acheteurs. II fit coadre ensemble ces quatrc pieces, sans prendre 
m^me le soin d'en changer les dates, et donna u cette collection le titre 
fieneral de Thtdtrc bourgeois, ou Recueil des meilleures pieces de dif- 
feretis auteurs, qui ont etc rcpresenttes sur des theatres bourgeois. 
Assurement, jamais titre ne fnt plus ridicalement imagine, et Ton ne 
comprend guere comment il pouvoit convenir i VElectre, qui u'avoit 
jamais ete representee sur aucun theatre. 

Ce meme Boullenger de Rivery passe pour avoir ete le principal ri- 
dacteur d'un livre qui parut, en 175\, sous le titre dc Lettres d'une 
Societe, et reparut, en 1732, avec le nouveau titre de Mclarige littc- 
raire.' Cetoit un ouvrage de critique, une espece de journal lilte- 
raife, dont I'idee etoit peut-fetre prise des Lettres de la Comfesse par 
Freron, des Lettres de Clement de Geneve, ou d'autres feuiiles pe- 
riodiques qui avoient ete publiees sous la forme epistolaire. Les bih- 
liographes ont nomme Landon et M. Larcher comme les collabora- 
teurs de Boullenger. II est permis de douter un pen de la coopera- 
tion de Landon.^ Quant ^ INI. Larcher, il a fourni h ce recueil la tra- 
duction du discours de Pope sur la pocsie pastorale. Voici dans 
quels termes I'editeur annonce ce morceau (p. l6"3): "Nous croyous 
vous obliger en vous euvoyant le discours de M. Pope sur la pastorale, 
traduit par M. Larcher, a qui Ton est redevable de la premiere et de 
laseule traduction que nous ayons de VElectre d'Euripide, et qui sait 
aussi bien I'anglais que le grec." 

Le nom de M. Larclier ne reparoit dans aucun autre endroit de ces 
Lettres ; cependant, s'il est vrai qu'il y ait travaille comme associe de 
I'editeur, je crois qu'on peut lui attribuer un article oil Ton releve le 
plagiat d'un ccrivain qui s'etoit approprie, sans en ricn dire, une disser- 
tation d'Addison. Je le presume, parce que M. Larcher etoit alors 
tout rempli de sa litterature anglaise. L'annonce du vingt septieme 
Recueil des Lettres edijiantes est peut-etre encore de la main de M. 
Larcher, parce que I'editeur de ce Recueil etoit le P. Patouillet, et que 
M. Larcher avoit de grandes liaisons avec ce jesuite. Je serois aussi 

on ne peut plus bizarre. Abailard est apporle dans unjhuteuil a^^rhs rope- 
ration, et I'auteur etablit entre lui et Heloise une cgnversation fort ridicule. 
La situation est d'une absurdite qui passe I'imagination. C'est le premier 
ouvrage de Guys. 

» VoT/. M. Barbier, Did. des Anonym., 10043, 10129, et M. Beucbot, dans 
Tarticle Boullenger de la Biographic universclle. Mais on peut douter que 
Boullenger ait eu part a ces Lettres; car son Momus philosophe y est i'ovt 
maltraite. Voyez pag. 10.5-113. 

^ Mes doutes viunneiit de la maniere dont Landon est traite dans ce Jour- 
nal. II est auteur d'une petite brochure intitulee : Ri/lexions d'une Come- 
dienne frangaise, et le Journaliste en rend compte dans les termes suivants 
(pag. 114) : " Cet ouvrage est celui d'un jcune homme qui n'a point encore 
acquis de connoissances, et qui prend pour dos decouvertes les veriles les 
plus communes, qu'il txprime d'une maniere encore plus triviale. II y a 
quelques traits saillans ; on les a empruntes des La Bruyfere et des La Ro- 
chefoucault. Loin de nous plaindre de ces plagiats, nous voudrions, pom' 
I'interet des lecteurs, que le reste fut puise daqs les memes sources," 

1 34 Notice sur la Vie et les Ecrits 

fort teute de lui donner I'article sur le Mortri de I'abb^ Goujet, k 
cause de I'eruditioii litterairc qu'on y remarque. Au reste, je ne fais 
nioi-meme auciin conipte de ces conjectures, et je suis fort port^ i 
croire que M. Larcher ne se charges, pour les Lettres d'une Society, 
d'aucun travail suivi : car dans la liste de M. de La Rochette,' il n'est 
pas du tout question de ce recueil. 

La part que M. Larcher prit k la Collection academique est plus con- 
nue. Dans le tome second il a traduit, en societe avec Roux, Buffon, 
et Daubenton, les Transactiotis philosophiqnes de la Societe rovale de 
Londres. Les articles qui lui appartiennent sont designes par la lettre 
A, niais, en ni^me temps, confondus avec ceux de Roux, qui avoit pris 
la menie lettre.^ Ce volume est de ]Jf}5, 

L'd ni^me annee vit paroitre la traduction du Martinus Scriblerus 
de Pope,^ plaisanterie un peu longue contre les erudits, et qu'il conve- 
noit peut-etre a M. Larcher de l.isser traduire k un autre. II y a 
joint un Discovrs de Swift, " oii Ton prouve que I'abolition du chris- 
tianisme en Angleterre pourroit, dans les conjonctures presentes, causer 
quelques inconvenients, et ne point produire les bons eftets qu'on en 
attend." C'est un chef-d'oeuvre de bonne plaisanterie. 

C'est encore en 1735 que M. Larcher, qui, dans son voyage d'An- 
gleterre, avoit beaucoup connu le chevalier Pringle, publia la traduc- 
tion qu'il avoit faite des Observations de ce savant medecin, sur les 
Maladies des armees. Get ouvrage reparut en 1771, considerable- 
ment augraente.'*^ 

En 17^7, M. Larcher, touj(;urs occupe de litteraUire anglaise, revit 
le texte de VHudibras, joint a la traduction fran^aise de Touwnley, et 
y mit des notes. ^ 

La traduction de VEssai de Home sur le Blanchiment des toiles ip'A- 
rutenl76'2. Quoique ce livre ne se soit point trouve dans la biblio^ 
theque de M. Larcher, il n'en est pas moins vrai qu'il est sorti de sa 
plume ; car il I'a compris dans cette Hate de ses ouvrages qu'il lit pour 
M. de La Rochette, et que j'ai deja plus d'une fois citee. 

Tons ces travaux n'avoient point detourne M. Larcher de Tetude du 
grec, et la traduction des y^;rto?ij\$ de Chtrtas et de Callirrhce,^ qu'il 

* Vo^ez plus haut, pag. 132. 1. 24. 

^ Voyez VAvis du tome second. 

^ Voltaire, torn. 16, pag. 4 ; M. Leschevin, sur Mathanasius, torn. 2, pag. 
434, 497. 

•^ M. Desessarts, dans les Sihles litt^raires, et M. Ersch, dans la France 
litlaaire, attribuent a M. Larcher un T7-uUt: du Sco7liut, traduit de raiig/aiSf 
€t piiblie a Paris en 1771. Dans son Supp/imenf, M. Ersch dit que "les 
traductions des Muladie.-i des armees et du Scorbut sont aussi attribiiees, et 
avec plus de vraiscml)lance, a Carrfere." M Ersch se tronipe sur I'ouvrage 
de Pringle. C'est lies cerlainement M. Larcher qui en a fait la traduction : 
elle est comprise dans la liste de M. de La Rochette. Quant au Traiti du 
Scorbut, il n'y est point indique, et je ne sais quel en est le traducteur : c'est 
peut-ctre Savary. 

^ Voyez rarlicle But/cr, dans la Biograpfiic universelle, et VAvertisscment 
du Llbraiie dansle premier volume de cetie traduction tV Hudibrus. 

<5 Voltaire, tom. IG, pag. 4; M. Larcher, pret". d'Hirodoie,-^. xxxiv ; M. 
Harles, Bibl. Graca, t. 8, p. 131. 

de M. Larcher. 135 

|.- iblia raiinee suivante, promit ^ la France un hellenistc distingue. 
Cette traduction, "que Pallet defigura en 1775,"' a ^te reinipriiuee 
dans la Bibliothtque des Romans grecs, o\X elleremplit les tomes VIII. 
et IX. A la tin de ce tome IX. est une note sur les temples que Ve- 
nus avoit en Sicile. Cette note, qui ne se trouve point dans la pre- 
miere edition, avoit ete faite pour remplacer celle de la page 124 sur 
la Venus Callipyge. M. Larcher, devenu tres-scrupuletix, la trouvoit 
indecente, licentieuse meme, et ne vouloit pas la laisser subsister. Ses 
desirs ne furent pas remplis. On lui dit que sa nouvelle note arrivoit 
trop tard. Cela n'etoit pas tout-a-tait exact ; mais ce petit mensonge 
t^toit, en verite, fort innocent. Rassure par la purete de ses intentions, 
SI. Larcher prit aisement son parti sur un nial qu'il voyoit sans re- 
made, et sa note fut placee k la tin de I'ouvrage en forme de supple- 

La Bihliothlqne dcs Romans dcvoit aussi contenir un Memoire sur 
Ileliodore,^ que M. Larcher avoit !u, en 17^1, a I'Academie des Belles- 
Lettres, et qu'il avoit consenti a donner aux editeurs. Ce Memoire 
fut imprime sous le litre de Remarqiies critiques sur les Mthiopiques 
d'Hiliodorc ; mais des raisons que j 'ignore en empecherent la publica- 
tion. II cxiste, dans la bibliotheque de M. Barbier, un exemplaire de 
ce rare opuscule, et M. de La Ilochette se propose de le faire reim- 
primer dans le quatrieme volume de ses Melanges. 

M. Larcher revint, ea 1765, a la litterature anglaise ; et, cette fois, 
il traduisit un ouvrage plus convenable a ses etudes que ceux de Prin- 
gle et de Home, VEssai de Chapman sur le Senat romain. Dans ua 
petit nomhre de notes Jointes ^ la traduction, il leleve, avec modeslie, 
quelques legeres meprises echappees a I'auteur. 

L'annee 17t)7 vit commencer les querelles de Voltaire et de M. Lar- 
cher. Quoique lie avec plusieurs des ccrivains qu'on appeloit philo- 
sophes, et meme assez favorable ^ quelqucs-unes de leurs theories, M. 
Larcher ne voyoit j)as sans une genereuse indignation les coupables 
exces de Voltaire. Lorsque parut la Philosophic de IHistoire, I'abbe 
Mercier de Saint-Leger et quelques autres ecclesiastiques, qui savoient 
que M. Larcher meprisoit fort I'erudition de Voltaire, et qu'il etoit lui- 
meme fort erudit, " allerent le trouver dans son modeste reduit, I'in- 
vitferent a diner, et I'engagerent ^ refuter le nouvel ouvrage. II se de- 
fendit long-temps, mais eutin il promit d'y travailler, Ces Messieurs 
le harcelerent tant, qu'il leur porta un premier cahier, auquel il ne vou- 
loit point donner de suite. Mais la lecture de cette ebauche les en- 

' M. de La Ilochette, Melanges, torn. 2, pag. 86. 

* M. Harles (ibid.) dit que la traduction, qui se trouve dans la Biblioth. 
des Ruinuna, est de Mercier ; c'est une erreur. L'abbe Mercier de Saint- 
L6ger n'est le traducteur d'aucuns des romans compris dans ce recueil ; il 
n'en est pas non plus I'editeur, conime I'avoit cru M. Ersch. Le scul mor- 
ceau de cette collection qtii appardenne a l'abbe de Saint-Leger, est le Mi- 
moire sur la iraduci ion de. Paithcnius par Fornicr. Yoyez les Mdlangcs At 
II. de La ilocheite, torn. 2, pag. 3 et 268. 

3 M. de La Kochette, AJel. torn. 2, pag. 86, 270. 

* Voy. I'Avis des Libraires-Editeurs, torn. 1. 

1 36 Notice siir la Vie ct les Ecrits 

clianta ; on lui prodigua niille eloges ; et comnie il vouloit laisser son 
papier, on le lui enfonja tians la poche, et on I'vicconipagna jusqu'au 
bas c!e I'escalier, en lui faisant promettre qu'il continueroit." " Je 
rappelois uu jour," m'ecrit M. tie i.a Rocliette dout je vions de copier 
les paroles, " je rappelois cette anecdote a I'abbe de Saint-Leger, prin- 
cipal acteur de cette scene ; il en r't aux eclats, et rae dit : " // est 
vrai ; nous I'avons un feu escobardt;." Voltaire avoit sans doute 
conuoissance de cette espece de coniplot : il dit dans V Avis des tdi- 
teurs au-devant de la Philosophic de I'Histoire : " Un repetiteur du 
college Mazarin, nomme Larcher, traducteur d'un vieux romun grec," 
intitule CalUrrhoe, et du Martiiim Scriblerus de Pope, fut charge 
par ses camarades d'ecrire un libelle pedantesque cootre les Veritas 
trop evidentes enoncees dans la PhiJosophie de I'Histoire." Ce libelle 
pedantesque est le Supplement d la Philosophie de I'Histoire, ouvrage 
pleiil d'erudition, de I'aveu de Voltaire iui-nieir.e/ et qui causa a I'iras- 
cible vieillard des acces de fureur. II tacha de repondre par la De- 
fense de man oncle ; production hoiiteuse on il s'est emporte contre 
son adversaire aux exces les plus condamnables. La qualite de repe- 
titeur au college Mazarin, qu'il y donne de sa gr^ce a M. Larcher, est 
un de ses mensonges les plus innocents.* M. Larcher repliqua par la 
Reponse a la Defense de mon oncle. II y fait de penibles efforts vers 
la plaisanterie; ce u'etoit pas avec cette arme qu'il pouvoit lutter con- 
tre Voltaire. Le sarcasme et I'aniere ironie etoient les armes de son 
ennemi : le veritable role de M. Larcher etoit d'etre erudit et raisow- 

Ces deux ouvrages de M. Larcher, et le premier surtout, eurent 
beaucoup de succes ; ils comniencerent sa reputation. Le Supple- 
ment a la Philosophie parvint menie ^ une seconde edition ; et, quoj- 
que les ecrits polemiques survivent rarement a la querelle qui les a 
fait naitre, on peut encore aujourd'huirechercher ceux de M. Larcher, 
a cause des discussions savantes qu'il y a repandues ; surtout, a cause 
de la traduction qu'i! y a jointe de i'yJpologie de Socrate, par Xeno- 
phon.^ Au reste, il etoit lui-ni6nie peu content de la forrae qu'il 
avoit prise. " 11 a toujours," m'ecrit M. de La Rochctte, ** refus6 de 
ine preter le Supplement, parce que le ton iie lui paroissoit pas assez 
decent; c'etoit, disoit-il, le ton d'un homme qui n'avoit pas encore 
I'usage du monde: et il me renvoyoit k ses Remarfjues sur Htredote, 
ou il a pris un ton different, quoiqu'il cut ^ combattre les monies prin- 
cipes et les m^mes personnages ou leurs adherens, Voltaire, Ray- 
nal, etc." 

Voltaire, dont les ressentiments etoient implacables, ne cessa de 
persecuter ISI. Larcher qui cessa de lui repondre. M. Larcher etoit 

' Tom. 90, pag. 148. " II y a beaucoup d'erudition dans ce petit livre, et 
les savans le liront." 

^ Voyez M. I'abbe de B. Journal des DSbats, 21 fevr. 1803 ; M. Larcher, 
R^poiise d la Defense, pag. 16 ; et plus bas, pag. 14. 

3 Cette traduction a echappe aux rccheiches du nouvel editeur de la Bib^ 
liotheque grecguede Fabricius. 

de M. Lurcher. 137 

trop estim6 pour que les injures de Voltaire pussent lui nuire ;' et M. 
Bruuck, dans la preface de ses Poefes gnomiques, I'a tenioigne avec 
une energique verite : Vir, dit-il en parlant de M. Larcher, v«or«m 
probitate, integritate vita:, docirlrKC elega?itia apud honos omnes 
maximt commendaius,et supra inqmrissbnorum scur varum calumnias et 
convicia immensiim quantum ercctus. Les amis meiiie de Voltaire fu- 
rent choques de la violence de ses emportements. La Harpe, dans le 
temps de sa plus grande aduiirution pour Voltaire, ecrivoit au grand- 
due de Russie," a I'occasion de la traduction de 1' Expedition de Cy- 
rus; par M. Larcher : " Cost le metne M. Larclier que INL de Vol- 
taire a si durement traite dans la Defense de mon oncle, ouvrage d'un 
ton qui donneroit tort il un hojnnie qui auroit raison, et que les amis 
de M. dc Voltaire out d'autant plus blame, que M. Larcher ne meri- 
toit pas d'etre traite ainsi. 11 avoit releve M. de Voltaire sur des nie- 
prises de plus dune sorte, et en cela meme il avoit fait son metier 
d'erudit. D'ailleurs, Larcher, dont M. de Voltaire s'est obstine a 
faire un repetiteur au college Mazariu, est un academicien qui cultive 
les lettresdaus la retraite, et n'a jamais repondu aux outrages de M. 
de Voltaire •} du moins, la seule reponse qu'il fit fut tres-douce et 
tr^s-philosophique. 11 se mit a rlre de la coiere et des injures de son 
adversaire, et parut n'en voir que le cote plaisant. // stra toujoiirs 
gai, disoit-il. Ce fut VS. toute sa vengeance. Dans ce moment, ce me 
senibie, le savant fut au-dessus du grand poetc." Ce mot rappdle 
tout naturellement celui de Caton, qui, persiffle par Ciceron dans 
rOraison pour Murena, se piit a rire, et se tournant vers ses amis : 
" Nous avons la, dit-il, un consul bien gai."* D'Aiembert, ii qui Ton 
peut reprocher d'avoir presque toujours caresse servilement les pas- 
sions de Voltaire, eut le courage assez remarquable de lui faire 1 eloge 
de M. Larcher. " 11 y a deja quclque temps," 6crit-il a Voltaire,^ 
" qu'il (I'abbe Coger) alia trouver Larcher, ayant a !a main un livre oii 
vous les avez attaques et bafoues tons deux, et excitant Larcher a so 
joindre a lui pour demander vengeance. Larcher qui vous a contredit 
sur je ne sais quelle sottise d'Heiodote, mais qui, au fond, est ua ga- 
lant homnie, tolerant, modere, modeste, et vrai philosophe dans ses 
sentiments et dans sa conduitc, du moins si j'en crois des amis com- 
muns qui le connoissent et I'estiment ; Larcher done le pria de lire 
I'article qui le regardoit, le trouva fort plaisant, ecrit avec beaucoup 
de graces et de sel, et lui dit qu'il se garderoit bien de s'en plaindre." 
Cette lettre, qui est de la fin de 1772, fut sans effet sur Vesprit de Vol- 
taire : il nen laissa pas moins subsister dans son Epitrc a dAlembsrt, 
qui est de la mevne annee, des vers et uuc note oil il attaque M. 
Larcher avec son insolence accoutumee. 

' liigoley de Juvigny, de la Decadence, etc. pag. 377. 

^ Correspoivl. torn. 2, pag. 223. 

^ La Harpe ne connoiasoit pas apparemment la Repome a la Defense de 
mon oncle. 

•^ Plutarch. Cat. Vtic.^. 21, torn. 5, pag. 53, de rexcellente Edition do M. 
le Dr. Coray. 

i Volt. torn. 90; pag;. 403, 

138 Notice siir la Vie et les Ecrits 

M. I.archer avoit prouv6 par ses notes snr les Amours de Chervus, 
et par le SiippUment d, la Philosophie de I'lJistoire^ qu'il avoit une 
Erudition pen coiuinune, et 6toit Ires familiarise avec Herodote. Sur 
la reputation que ces ouvrages lui avoient faite, des libraires de Paris, 
possesseurs d'uue traduction nianuscrite d'Herodote par I'abbe Belian- 
Cer,' s'adressereut a lui pour qu'il voulut la revoir et la disposer pour 
limpression ; car I'abhe Bellanger etoitmort sans avoir eu le temps d'y 
mettre la deruiere main. Se figuiant qu'il ne s'aj^issoit que de corri- 
ger quelqnes negligence', et tout au plus d'ajouter quelques remarques, 
M. Larcher ne refusa point d'en etre I'editeur. " Mais,^ dit-il, je ne 
fus pas long-temps sans reconnoitre les defauts de cette traduction, et 
ne pouvaut plier men style a celui de M. Bellanger, je resolus d'en 
faire une nouvelle." 

II se prepara k cette ditHcile entreprise par de longues etudes, II 
revit soigneusemeut le texte d'Herodote sur les manuscrits de la Bib- 
liotli^que royale, et lut, la plume k la main, la plus srande partie des 
anciens, afin d'y recueiilir tout ce qui pouvoit eclaircir les obscurites 
de son auteur. II consulta les voyageurs, les critiques modernes, en 
un mot tous les ecrivains oi\ il crut pouvoir trouver quelque secours. 
11 etoit dans toute la ferveur de ses etudes bistoriques, quand M. de 
Pauw publia ses llechav'/tes phUosophiques sur les Egi/pfiens et les 
Chinois. Cet ouvrage, plein de paradoxes, eut un succes de vogue ; 
et M. Larcher, voulaat ramener le public a des idees plus justes, ecri- 
vit, dans le Journal des Savans de 1774, une docte refutation des er- 
reurs de M. de Pauw sur les Egyptiens. 

L'annee suivante, M. Larcher fit paroitre son JMemoire sur Venus, 
que rAcadeinie des Inscriptions venoit de couronuer.^ Ce iVIemoire, 
qui etoit le fruit de rechercbes infinies, et oil Ton pent dire que le 
sujet est k pen pres epuise, fut compose par M. Larcher pendant une 
grave maladie qui ne lui pcrnieltoit pas de se livreraux travaux serieux 
et penibles qu'exigeoit la traduction d'Herodote.''" 

L'on doit a une autre interruption la traduction de la lictraite des 
dix mille de Xenopbon. 

* II n'y a pas tout-;i-feit assez d'exactitude dans ce que Ton a ecrit recem- 
ment sur ra1)be Bellanger. On a dit que sa traduction des Antiquilis ro- 
mahien, de Denys d'llalicarnasse (1723, 2 vol. in-i.), a ete reiniprimee en (• 
vol. iu-8. II eut ete a propos d'ajouter que, dans cette reimpression (1807, 
Parix), on a sGpprime les notes et les cartes de Tedition originale. On a dit 
que le SuppUment mix Essais de Critique a ete publie sous Ic nom de Va7i der 
Meusen. Non seulement le Supplement, niais meme les Essuis, ont paru 
sous le faux nom de V(m dcr Meulcn. 

^ Trad. (YHcrodofe, torn. 1, pag;. xxxiii. 

3 Voi/e.z sur cc Mcmoire, la Biblioth. criiica de M. Wyttenbacb, I. 3. pag. 

+ Brunck, Anal. Gr'^ca, torn. 1, pag. xxvi. — Je m'abstiens de faire ici 
I'histoire de certains exemplaires du Mcmoire sur Venus, auxqiiels se trou- 
vent joints un huitieme index satirique de la composition de i'ai)bR Le 
Blond, et une gravurc qui represente I'aventure des deux jeunes tilks Cal- 
lipyges, racontee a la page 177. Ces details, qui ne sont pas pari'atltuient 
decents, pcurront trouver leur place ailleurs. 

de M. Larcher. 139 

Je laisserai ici parler M. Larcher. " Comrae je fais, dit-il/ copier 
ma traduction d'Herodoto, el que je ne puis en entreprendre une der- 
niere revision que je n'aie sous les yeux toutes les parties de cet im- 
portant ouvrage, j'ai cru devoir employer dune maniere utile nies mo- 
mens de loisir. Je n'ai rien vu qui le fut davanta2;e qu'uue traduction 
de l'exi)edition de Cyrus le jeune dans i'Asie-Mincure." Celte tra- 
duction vit le jour en 177S: elle fit honneur ii M. Larcher, niais 
comme helleniste et erudit, plutot que connne ecrivain ; et il est per- 
mis de croire que M. de Juvijrny a ete plus poli qu' exact, quand il a 
dit^que " cette excellente traduction lui paroissoit rendre toutes les 
beautcs et toute I'elegance de loriginal." La Harpe^ I'appelJe une 
assez bonne \rd(\\\ci\on; ce qui est plus juste. Quoique M. Larcher 
n'eut pas absolument dans le st>le toutes les qualites que doit avoir ua 
traducteur de Xenophon, son ouvrage n'en est pas nioins reconunaa- 
dalde a cause de I'exacte intelligence du texte et de Timportance des re- 
maiqucs ; et personne, je crois, ne contestera la vorite de ce que disoit 
]\]. Wyttenbach dans I'article de la BibUotheca critica (I. 4. p. 97,) 
ou il en rendoit conipte : Larcherus is est qmm non dubitemus omni- 
nm, qui nostra (State veteres scriptorcs in linguas tertunt recentiores, 
antiquitatis lingnceque gra'ca scieniissimnm vocare. 

M. Larcher joignit acette traduction quelques Observations sur la 
prononciation du grec. II y soutient contre Guys, que les anciens 
Grecs pronon9oient le /3 et le tj comme ou les prononce dans I'uni- 
versite de Paris, et il ne manque pas de tirer un argument de ce vers 
de Cratinus oil le belement du mouton est represente par p-^ Br,. La 
question est loin d'etre resolue par les Observations de l\\. Larcher, et 
le vers de Cratinus pourroit bien n'fetre pas aussi decisif qu'il paroit le 
croire. Mais ce n'est pas ici le lieu d'entrer dans une telle discus- 

Le Memoir-e sur Vtnus et la traduction de Xenophon augmenterent 
Bingulierenient la reputation de M. Larcher, et lAcademie des In- 
scriptions le choisit, le 10 mai 177''^, pour reniplacer M. Le Beau 
quelle venoit de perdre.'^ On a dit que Volhiire, qui etoit alors h. 
Paris, confus apparemment de ses torts avec M. Larcher, s'employa 
pour le faire recevoir t\ ['Academic. Le fait est peu vraisemblable. 
II est bien vrai que d'Alenibert, qui portoit beaucoup d'estime a M. 
Larcher, le reconmianda chez M. de Fouccmagne a quelques acade- 
micieus, Mais ces recommandations de politesse n'eurent aucune in- 
fluence sur I'election. M. Larcher etoit depuis loug-tenqjs desire par 
I'Acad'mie, et il avoit en les secondes voix ^ la nomination prcce- 
dente ;' ce qui lui assuroit la premiere place vacanle. II n'avoit done 
pas besoin de la recommandation de d'AIembert; et quant a celle de 

* Trad, de Xenophon, torn. 1, pag. xl. 

* De la Decadence, etc. pag. 21. 
3 Correspond, torn. 2, pag. 223. 

* Acad, des Inscript. torn. 42, Hist. pag. 5. Proces-verbaux mss. de 

5 La Ilarpe, Corrap. torn. 2, pag. 230, 236. 

140 Kotice mr la Vk et Ics Rents 

Voltaire, qui lui etoit tout aussi peu nC'cessaire, il avoit Ic coeur trop 
bien place pour se laisser proteger pa^ rhoinnie qui, pL-udant dix ans, 
I'avoit si grossierement outrage. M. Larcher avoit droit d'attendrc 
de Voltaire une reparation publique; et c'etoit, saus aucun doute, 
tout ce qu'ii eut voulu recevoir de lui. 

Les travnux de I'AcadL-mic auxquels M. Larclier prit une part fort 
active,' le detournerent peut-etre un peu de sa tradiKtion d lierodote, 
qui ne parut qu'eu 17S(). On peut, sous le rapport du st;yle, faire k 
M. Larclier d'assez graves reproches ; niais la richesse du comuientaire, 
rimportance des recherches geogra])hiques et chronologivpies, font de 
la traduction d'Hcrodote un des plus beaux monumens de I'erudition 
franjcNse. M. de Sainte-Croix ^ a dit que M. Larcher avoit, par sa 
chronologic d'Hcrodote, nieritc la reconnoissauce de la posterite. M. 
Wyttenbach ^ ne s'exprinie pas avec nioins de force sur le merite de 
ce grand ouvrage : (^^uo opsj-e quantum incrementi allatum sit, cum 
cd intelllgentiam Htrcdoti aliornmque scriptorum, turn ad judicium 
et cos;nitionem 07)inis itiius hintoricr et antiquitatis, si diserfa epitome 
significare velimus, vix nobis centum pagiriK svfficiant. Ailleurs'* il 
appelle M. Larcher le plus exact et le plus savant de tous les inter- 
pretes d'FIerodote. M. Chardon de La Rochctte,^ se rencoatrant 
avec M. de Sainte-Croix dans Texpression de son admiration, dit que 

* Voici I'indication des Mhnoires qu'il a fournis an Recueil de I'Acade- 
mie: I. Sur les Vases t/iiricUejis (t. 43, pag. 196.) — II. Su7' les Va'.es mur- 
rhins {ib. pag. '^28.) — III. Sur ijuclques Epoques des Assi/riens (torn. 45, pag. 
351.) — IV. Sur les Fetes des Grccs umises par Castellanus et 'Meurslus (ibid. 
pag. 412.) Continue dans le torn. 48, pag. 252. — V. Sur une Fcle pni'ticu- 
liere aux Arcadiens {ibid. pag. 434.) II s'agit des Molies. — VI. Sur ['Expe- 
dition de Cprus-le-Jeune (torn. 46, pag. 14). — VII. Sur F/iidun, roi d'Argus 
(ibid. pag. 27.) — V^LII. Sur rArchonlat de Creon {ibid. pag. 51.) — IX. ^e- 
marques critiques sur V El ipnologicuni mugnum (t. 47, H. pag. 105.) Ces Re- 
marques ne soiit impriniec's que par extrait. Le manuscrit complet a etc 
donne a la Bibhorheque inipcriale, par les heritiers de M. Larclier, avec 
plusieurs cartons ou sout conienucs de nombreuses iettres de M. Brunck, e£ 
quelqucs-unes de M. Wyttui.bach. — X. Rec/ierches et conjectures sur les priu- 
cipaux Eveneinents de I'hisloire de Cadinvs (t. 48, p. 37.) — XI. Sur I'Ordre 
equest7'e chez les Grecs {ibid. pag. 84.) — XJI. Sur Hermias, avecl'Apologie 
d'Arii^totc, relativemeiit anx liaisons qud eut avec ce prince {ibid. pag. 208.) 
■ — XIII. Sur la Noce sucrce (ibi,d. pag. 323.) 

^ Examen des Ilistor. d'Alex. pag. 581. — M. Larcher etoit intimement lie 
avec M. de Sainte-Croix. Les ouvrages de ccs deux savants hommes 
offrent du frequents tenioignages de I'estime nuituelle qu'ils se portoient. 
Dans le second Livre de \\i Fhilomathie de M. Wyttenbacli (pag. 261), il y a 
une lettre tres inieressantc ecrite par M. Larcher, apres la mort de son ami. 
M. Wyttenbach a etc I'ami de tous deux. II a lone dignenient M. de Sainte-. 
Croix {Philom.l. pag. 169); il accordcra su.*"ement; un pared tribut de lou- 
anges ii la memoire de M. Larcher. Je lui dirai ce que iui disoit M. Lar- 
cher, pour I'engager a faij;c reioge de M. de Sainte-Ciuix : Et hoc tuo officio 
plane dignus est, qr.i le niultum umavit (Fhilom. II, pag. 20). 

^ Biblioth. crit. Ill, 2, pag. 153. 

"^ Selecta, pag. 344. 

^ Melanges, toin. 3, pag. 115. 

de M. Larchcr. 141 

la traduction d'H^'rodete merite toute notre reconnoissance et celle de 
la posterite. Enfiii M. Larcher a oblenu un honneur duqucl ont joui 
fort pen de coiiinientateurs : sa clironologie a ete traduile en latin par 
M. Borheck,' en allemand par M. Degeu ;^ et ses notts ont paru dans- 
les principales langucs de I'Europe.^ 

Au comniencenient de 1785, le roi crta dans rAcad6mie un comlte 
de huit menibres charges de faire connoitre, par des notices et des ex- 
traits, les manuscrits de la Bibliotlieque royale. M. Larcher fut 
nomnie; mais il reuisa, faute de loisir, 
Vauvilliers.* II est k rcgretter qn'il n'ail pu ou n'ait pas voulu accepter. 
Ayant unc grande connoissance do la langiie grecque, une grande habi- 
tude de lire les manuscrits, ii est hors de doule qn'il eut tresutile- 
mcnt coopire aux travaux du coniite, et nous lui aurions probable- 
ment I'obligation de lire aujourd'hui, dans les Notices, le Vocabulaire 
etymologiqwe d'Orion, dont il avoit fait, pour son usage, une copie 
qu'il a depuis envoy ce vl M. Wolf. C'est en reconnoissance de ce 
present que M. Wolf lui a dedic son edition de quatre Discours de 
Ciceron. Le mot civrl^x-fov, employe par M. Wolf, ne seroit pas 
facile k entendre, sans cette explication. M. W' olf a proniis de pub- 
lier Orion, et il est fort a desirer qu'il puisse bieutot tenir cet engage- 
ment. Orion pent servir utilement il corriger ie grand Etyniologique, 

' Tru.d.d'Hcrodof.c, torn. 1, pag. xxxix; torn. 7, pag. 7. 

~ M. Ersch, la Iranre Litf6iaire, toni. 2, pag. 2J1- 

^ M. (le la Rochette, Melatiges, torn. 1, pag. 59; torn. 3, pag. 83. 

* Notices des Jilss. torn. 1, i)ag. iv. — Je ne crois pas que le detaut de loisir 
filt le vrai motif de ce refus. J'ai entendu dire a M, Larcher qu'il avoit re- 
fuse pour n'etre pas le contrere de M. de Vauvilliers. Sa niemoire le servoit 
mal, puisque M. de Vauvilliers fut son successeur. Peut-etre craignoit-il 
d'etre associe a M. de Viiloison, qui etoit un des huit commissaires, et qu'it 
aimoit fort peu, parce qu'au fait M. de Viiloison etoit fort pen airaable. 
Quoi qu'il en soit, ce motde M. Liuxher prouve qu'il goutoit mediocrement 
la personne de M. de Vauvilliers. Intmiement lie avec M. Brimck, M. 
Larcher avoit epouse les sentiments et les querelles de ce savant, qui a tou- 
jours, comrae on le salt, parle de i\L de \'auvil!iers avec le dedain le plus 
impertinent. De son cute, M. de Vauvilliers ne paroit pas avoir tente de 
se conciiicr M. Larcher. II kit meme, en pleine Acadeniie, une disserta- 
tion, qui n'a point ete imprimee, oil il essayoit de le retuter sur un point de 
la chronologic d'llerodote (Voyez Trad, d' Herod, torn. 4, pag. 288). A\i 
reste, M. Larcher avoit eu autrefois avec M. de Vauvilliers des relations 
plus amicales, et il lui avoit fort obligeamment communique de nombreuses 
observations sur Pindare. M. de Vauvilliers les cite souvent et avec recon- 
noissance, dans son Esr,(tl sur ce poete (p. 217, 223, 224, 228, etc. Voy. 
Trad, d'licrod. torn. 5? pag- 283.). M. de Vauvilliers n'est pas le seul a qui 
M. Larcher ait rendu de ces services litieraircs. II collationna Lougin sur 
le Ms. de Paris pour I'edition de Toup (Voy. Toup- prfpf. Longin.) ; et sur 
plusieurs Mss. quelques idylles de Theocrite, de Bion, de Moschus, avec le 
second Autel de Dosiadas, pour les Ancdtctes de Bruiick (Vuy. Brunch, 
•pr&f. Anal. pag. xxvi.). Brunck lui dut aussi une bonne remarque sur An^ 
creon {Od. 23.), et une annonce trfes flatteuse de son edition de Sophocle 
(Journ. des Sav. 1783, dec). En general, personne n'etoit plus obligeant. 
plus communicatif, plus a,imable que M. Larcher. 

142 Notice sur la Vie et ks Ear its 

oil h. le c6rnpUter: tres-souvent il cite les noms des auteurs oi^ il prcnd 
ses exemples, et cette exactitude le rend precieux.' 

Pendant la revolution, M. Larcher vecutdans une retraite profonde, 
ne s'occupant que de litteratnre, et particuiierement de la revision de 
son Herodote dout il pieparoit une seconde Edition. 11 fut peu tour- 
niente. On le traduisit devant le coniite revolutionnaire ; et ses pa- 
piers que Ton visita ne causerent pas un mediocre embarnis aux cum- 
niissaires, gens peu charges de grec et de latin. Pendant une nuit, il 
eut une sentinelle ^ sa porte ; niais une bouteille de vin endorniit le fac- 
tionnaire, et le lendeniain matin, muni d'un petit assis;nat que M. 
Lurcher lui donna, il partit et ne revint plus/ La persecution n'alla 
pas plus loin ; et nieme, quand le gouvernenient republicain, devenu 
plus tranquille et plus sage, eut la fantaisie d'encourager les homines 
de lettres, M. Larcher re^ut, par decret, une somme de 3000 livres.' 

D'apres cette espece de faveur, on pent s etonner qu'il n'ait pas ete 
compris dans la premiere formation de I'lnstitut. An reste, il ne tarda 
pas a y entrer. La place de M. de Sacy ay ant ete declaree vacante 
sous pretexte de non-residence, M. Larcher, M. de Sainte-Croix et 
M. Chardon de La Kochetfe furent projioses pour la remplir. On 
k\\xi M, Larcher;''' ce ne fut pourtant pas sans quelque resistance. 
Ses opinions politiques et religieuses etoient trop en opposition avcc 
cedes qui prevaloient ^ cette epoque, pour que ce choix ne deplut 
pas a beaucoup de personnes; mais ses amis le ser\irent vivement, et 
I'eniporterent. II disoit, en plaisantant, qu'il s'etoit surtout deter- 
mine a accepter, parce qu'on I'avoit prevenu que les nienibres de 
I'lnstitut etoient payes en argent} 

BL Larcher fut attache a la section des langues unc'unnes de la 
classe de littcraturc et beaux-arts ; niais pendant tout le temps que 
dura I'ancienne orgainsation de I'lnstitut, il ne tit aucun memoire. 
Lorsque I'lnstitut fut divise en quatrc classes, M. Larcher entra dans 
la troisieme, et redevenu en quehjue sorte, par ce changemeiit, niembre 
de lAcademie des Inscriptions, il reprit ses travaux academiques, 
et composa quatre dissertations * qui paroitront dans les Recueils de 
]a classe. La derniere lui avoit coute beaucoup de travail, ct donne 
tant de fatigue, qu'il en avoit pris du degofit pour ce genre de re- 
ciierches. " J'ai In" ecrivoit-il a M. Wyttenbach,' " ou plutotona lu 
pour moi,^ dans une seance de I'lnstitut, une dissertation oil je 
in'etois propose de demonlrer qu'ils se sont trompes ceux qui out ecrit 

» M. B-ist, ad Grcgor. Corinth, pag. 459. 

■^ Raconi.e par M. de La llochetle. Voi/cz M. Wytteubach, Bibl. crit. 
Ill, 2, pag. 143. 

5 Trois janv. 1795. Voyez M. Ersch. 

* Cinq therm, an iv. — 23 juill. 1796. 
^ llacoiitc jiar i\I. de La Kochettr. 

^ La preniiorc, stir les premiers Sicrles de Rome; la deuxi^me, sur le Thc~ 
nix ; la troisieme, sur la Pseudoni/mte dc la hainnigue de D'cmosthene, en rc- 
ponsc a la Leltie de T'hilippe ; la quatrieme, sur les Observations ustron*- 
miqves envoi/tcs d Aristole par Cullisthene. 

'^ M. Wytteubach. Vhilom. 11, pag. 2G4. 

* Ce fut M. de Sacy qui fit cette lecture. 

de M. Larcher. 143 

<}ue Callisthene avoit envoye, de BaV)ylone, h. Aristote, des observa- 
tions astronomiques faitcs par les Chaldeens, lesquelles vemontoient k 
1903 ans avaut Alexandre ; ou que, si Callisthene a envoye de telles 
observations, elles ne peuvent pas etre plus anciennes que I'ere de 
Nabonassar, dont le commencement tombe en 747 avant notre ere.' 
J'ai iu et relu, pour cette dissertation, la tj.zyoiXrj a-vvra^i; de PtoJe- 
mee. Tout ce travail, qui n'est peut-etre qu'un radotage, m'a extra- 
ordinairenient fatigue ; c'est au point que je suis a pea pres degoute 
des memoires et des dissertations." Heureusenient c'est k quatre- 
vingt-quatre ans qu'il conimencoit ainsi a se degoiiter un peu de I'eru- 

Cette nouvelle edition d'Herodote dont il etoit question tout a. 
riieure, parut en 1 802. La table geographique est corrigee en beau- 
coup d'endroits; les notes sont fort augnientees, et il en est plusieurs 
qui contiennent les resultats de quelques memoires qui devoient faire 
partie du Recueil de I'/^cademie <les Belles-Lettres, et dont la suppres- 
sion de cette savante compagnie avoit empeche la publication.* 
L'Essai sur la Chronologie ofiVe surtout des charjgemcnts remarfjiia- 
bles. Dans sa premiere edition, M. Larcher avoit hasarde quel(|ues 
idees peu d'accord avec les verites chretiennes. Devenu, avec i age, 
et niieux savant et plus pieux, il a efface toutes ces hardiesses. 

Je devrois peut-etre ne pas rappeler I'entreprise niulheiueuse d'un 
litterateur fort celebre, qui essaya, en 1808, de prouver que cette 
Chronologie etoit un tissu d'erreurs. M. Liircher I'avoit, dans ses 
notes, critique avec plus de verite que de politesse. Par forme de 
represailles, ce litterateur voulut aussi attiiquer M. Larcher, et il ne 
mit dans sa critique ni politesse ni verite. Mais je laisse cette que- 
rolle oubliee ; en parler plus longuement, ce seroit abuser de I'exacti- 

Lorsque VUniversitt imptriale Cut mise en activite, M. le Grand- 
Maitre nomma, de son prupre mouvement, M. Larcher professeur de 
litterature grecque dans la Faculte des Lettres de I'Academie de Paris. 
M. Larcher se trouvoit trop age pour exercer les fonctions qui lui 
^toient confiees, et ne vouloit point accepter. Mais M. le Grand- 
Maitre insista, et, pour lever les scrupules du venerable professeur, il 
le dispensa formellement de toute espece de lecons ; piiisant que ce 
seroit un grand honneur pour I'Universite naissante, que de pouvoir 
orner la liste de ses fonctiounaires de ce noni europeen. Les cours 
furent donnes par un professeur-adjoint. Voici ce que M. Lvucher 
icrivoit alors a son ami 1\L Wyttenbacli :* " Vous me demandcz com- 
jnent je me porte, et ce que je deviens. Je me porte aussi bien que 
peut se porter un homnie de 84 ans. Apprenez de plus que je viens 
d'etre fait docteur es-arts dans la nouvelle University imperiale ; mais 

^ Traduction d'Herodote, torn. 7, pag. 70G; torn. 9, pag. C07. 
^ Ibid. torn. 1, pag. Iv. 

^ Voy. Supplement d VHircdote de Larcher, etc. — Journal de I'Empire, 24 
aoUt 1808. 

'^ M. Wyttenbach, Philom, U, pag. 264. 

144 Not it la Codicis Manusc7ipti 

il me faut vous avertir qu'il y a grande difference entre docte et doc- 
teur, et que i'on peut fort bien etre Tun sans I'autre. Si vous en 
doutez, regardez-moi. En nieme temps j'ai ete nomme professeur de 
littorature grecque,' et, corame je ne puis exercer par raoi-meme. 
Ton ni'a donne un suppleant, etc." 

M. Larcher contiuuoit de jouir de cette bonne sante dont il parle 
dans cette lettre, et tout portoit a croire qu^ sa fin etoit encore 61oig- 
nee, lorsqu'une chute assez legere, qui lui avoit foule et fait enfler une 
main, le for9a de gardcr le lit. Get accident n'inquietoit personne, et 
i'on ne pensoit pas qu'ii put avoir aucune suite. Mais il en etoit 
resulte dans les niouvenKnts du nialade une gene assez grande; et 
avant voulu, dans un moment ou sa garde etoit absente, changer 
d'attitude, il toniba de sen lit qui eloit tres eleve. Cette seconde 
chute fut suivie de syniptomes alarnians : bieutot la tete s'embarrassa ; 
ies premieres voies fureut obstruees; et M. Larcher s'eteignit, presque 
sans souffrances, le 22 decembre 1812, a I'age de 8(i ans, laissant une 
niemoire glorieuse et Texemple d'une vie sans reproche. 





Qui in Bibliotheca Rostochietisi Aeadcmica asservafur ; 

una cum specimine prcEcipuarum lectionis vai^ietatum 

publico e.vhihita a Joanne Christiano Gulielmo Dahl, et 

Petro Daniele Friederico Zaepeliehn, Tkeologice Siu- 

diosis. Lipsice, 1791. 

J.NTER plura literaria antiquitatis monumenta^ quibus Academi.Te 
patriae Bibliotheca ornata atque instructa est ; non ultimum sane locum 

' La nomination est du 6 mai, 1809. 

^ Quorum solummodo codicem chartaceum Comrediarum Terentii indi- 
camus hue usque non collatum itemque editionem Sallustianam Ascensii 
repetitam Fabricio, Erne:r;tio, Harlesioet Bipontinis editoribus, incognitam. 
Forma est foHi minoris et in calce Icgitur : " C. Crispi Salhistii Catihna et 
Jugurthina cum reliquis collectaneis :ib Ascensio utcumque explanatis : hie 
suura capit fincm. Lugduni diligenti recognitione impressusper Claudium 
Davast ah;v, de Troys. Impensis honest) viri Simonis Vincentii. Anno 
domini mllte&imo quingentesimo nono 18. Junii." 

Sallustii et Euiropii. 145 

tenet codex MS. mcmbraneus C. Crispi Sallustii belliim Catiliuarium et 
Jiigui'thinum itemque Eufropii fragmentum complectens; cujus hie 
brevem notitiaiii una cum specimine pra^cipuarum lectionis varietatum 
in illo obviarum tradere in animo constituimus. 

Iste codex a J. B. Quistorpio in hac Alma dim JMcdicinas Doctore 
et Prefcssore nee non civitatis Rostochiensis Poiiatro dono datus, anno 
1745 Bibliothecse accessit. Unde vero et quomodo illi in manus vene- 
rit, non exploratum est. Ceteroquih codex in folio minori, uti vocant, 
et 68 quidem paginis extans, pura atque tersa exaratus est manu. Sed 
posterior codicis pars non pallidiori solum scripta est atramento, sed 
quoque Uteris minutioribus, quce tamen a pristinis baud multum dis- 
crepant. Margini satis amplo scholia addita sunt minusculis literis 
scripta, quae aut argumentum sequentis et constructionis ordinem pra3- 
bent, aut sensum periodi paraphrasi interprotantur, aut interduni illus- 
trationes ex antiquitalibus (e. g. quid sit consulatus, prcetura, lictor cet.) 
exhibent, revera autera exigui prctii sunt. Non minus qiioque glossas 
interlincares adsunt, verba et phrases textus Sallustiani explicantes et 
etiam lectiones eraendantes sive alias substituentes. Utrum vero scrip- 
tor, glossator et emendator codicis unus idemque fuerit, non sine diffi- 
cultate definiendum est. Nam si literarum ductus tam in textu ipso 
quam in schohis et glossis invicem ad similitudinem non paullulum ac- 
cedentes consideres, forte nil ccrtius putes, quam totum ab una eadem- 
que scriptum esse manu. Tunc vero etiam censeas ; librarium deposu- 
isse laborem nondum absolutum et prceterlapso nonnullo temporis spatio 
se illi rursus accingentem breviores literarum ductus forsan ex inopia 
membranie elegisse ; atque scholia et glossas ea mente minusculis literis 
scripta esse, ut notabilia et ab textu diversa redderentur. Quod quo- 
que non multutn a probabilitate abest. Cui vero id adhuc proprius ac- 
cedere videtur ; quod alius scriptor codicem nondum a prima manu 
absolutam denuo perlustraverit, passiia emendaverit et adjectis scholiis 
marginalibus et glossis interlinearibus, continuaverit. Pra^cipue huic 
opinioni favet scquens glossa, quae in codice occurrit: " Quia bello in- 
cepto pax in manu victoris constat, hoc nostri libri non habent." Hsec 
enim probare videtur glossa; reccntiorem manum hunc codicem cum 
alio contulisse et tunc ipsi scholia glossasque adscripsisse: et cum li- 
terarum ductus scholiorum et glossarum inter se assimiles majorem, uti 
nostra quidem fert opinio, similitudinem gerunt cum literarum ductibus 
quibus scriptor posterioris codicis partis usus est, quam cum iis in pri- 
ma ejus parte; conjecturam quoque vero non alienam esse arbitramur, 
quod nosier duabus manibus conscriptus sit codex alterque scriptor 
idem sit, qui scholiorum glossarumque auctor fuit. Equidem in poster- 
iorc codicis parte sicuti in priorc quaidam lectiones emendata: nonnulla- 
que verba correcta sunt, sed hoc a scriptore ipso factum esse, lucide ad- 
parct, neque insolitum etsingulare est, quod scribcndi vitia exerrorevel 
negligentia commissa ipse librarius emendando el corrigendofamoveat. 

Fragmentum Eutropii supra memoratum, quod finito Jugurthino 
Sallustii bello, in codice, paullulo intervallo relicto, adjectum legitur, 

NO. XIX. a. Jl. VOL. X. K 

145 Notitia Codicis Manuscripti 

est liber V. breviarii historiae Romana?,' quom scriptor ca mente an- 
nexuisse vidctur, ut historiam pnrro exsequcretur llomanam. Cujus 
vero libri quinti tcxtus mullis additamt^ntis in nostro cudice intcrpolatus 
est, attanien nuiltum abhorrct a texlu interpolato, quLMii editio Eutropii 
prEcbet, qua; Basik-se 1532 tol. piodiit ; i?te enim est argumenti copio- 
sioris ac nostii codicis tcxtus. Ccteroquin vcrisimile est, librario in an- 
imo fuisse, adliuc pUira adjungere et nondum hiborem ad exitum ad- 
ductum esse ; desunt eniui noii modo signa, qiiibus finis Manuscripti 
notaretur, scd etiam tota in extrema codicis pagina, cui non nisi paul- 
lulum inscriptum est, linca? ductae sunt. Simulque abest subscriptio, 
quae nomcn libiarii annunique in quo exaratus est codex, indicaret : 
quod CO injucundius, cum nunc ajtas codicis baud certo definienda est. 
Attamen ex senteutia iliustris Tychscnii noslri, arbitri in rebus criticis 
acutissimi circa exitum sceculi duodecimi vel medium decimi tcrtii 
scriptus est. Cujus judicii ansam magno viro pra;buit vcnustas et elc- 
gantia iiterarum ductuum, atramcntum paliescens ac id, quod pauca 
scribendi compendia eaque minima intricata et ditficilia explananda le- 
gendaque occurrunt, et quod nulla membrana? adhuc adharet cieta. 

Cum nunc iste codex Sallustii tarn quoad materiem, quam tractat, 
quam quoad styli elegantiani, qua utitur, prtestantissimi et lectu dignis- 
simi auctoris omnium qui ex orbe Romanorum literario ad nos feliciter 
pervenerunt — cum iste codex plurimis ex causis bonae not^ putandus 
adhuc nondum collatus csset et forsan lectiot\es exhiberet obscura enu- 
cleantes, et huic vel illi loco meliorem largientes sensum, aut qua; servi- 
rent veriores lectiones ad indagandas corroborandasque ; nobis non 
inutile sed operae pretium esse visum est liunc codiccm cum editione 
typis expressa conterre, omnesque lectiones ab iis in editionis textu re- 
ceptis varias eruere et bona fide iiotare. In hac collatione nunc editi- 
one usi sumus ilia, quam Sigbcrfus Havcrcampius fama et eruditione 
clarissimus Amstelod. 1742. 4. edidit splendidam, idque hac de causa, 
quia ingens lectionum variantium ex MSS. ab editore ipso coUatis ex- 
cerptarum copia huic editioni adjuncta est, et prarterea quoque multa 
Icctionis varietas in notis aliorum Criticorum ibi congestis indicalur ; 
quo autcm adminiculo cas lectiones, quas noster codex perhibet solus, 
ab iis discernere poteramus, quas illi cum aliis codicibus communes 
sunt. Quo quidem respectu merito editio Cortiana ©b apparatum cri- 
ticum perinde conspicua a nobis conferenda esset, sed heec, prolf dolor! 
non ad manus fuit. E contrario autem Bipontina editione, quiE secundis 
curis 1780 in lucem exih, usi sumus, idque ita ut semper, cum lectio- 
nes se in codice oft'errent a textu Ilavercampiano diversae, has illi con- 
ferremus atque annotareraus si eandem lectionem aut in textu recepisset, 
aut in animadversionibus de ilia dissererct. Etiamnum de novissima 
Sallustii editione, quam S. V. Teller typis comnitiidavit, commemoran- 
dumest; huic enim index lectionum variarum quas celebrata; Hispa- 

* Adhuc commemoramus, in margine codicis versus finem Sallustii, se- 
quentia verba, quae libram quartum Eutropii concludunt, addita esse : "Ante 
curium Marii Jugurtha cum duobus filiis ductus est cateuatus et mox jussu 
corisulis in carcere strangulatus est.'' 

Sallusi'tl et Eutropii, 14? 

fticas vcrsionis cteditionis' auctor augiistissimus e codicibus Escurlalibus 
crutas c.xhibuit, adjt-ctus est. Has quoque lectionis varietates, cum 
illarum niimerus tantiim exiguus est, cum nostro codice conferendas 
esse duximus : sed cum minime, uti nunc invenimus, novas sunt easdem- 
que jam apud Havercampium relate leguntur, etiam earum rationem 
porro non habuimus: examcn vero variarum majoris momenti Icctionum 
in hac editione a eel. editore oblatum baud omnino negleximus, sed in- 
fra aliquando ad id provocabimus. 

Has lectiones nunc, quas ex Bibliothecse Academicje Codice colle- 
gimus et quarum multse maximi sunt momenti, publici juris faciendas 
esse. Duumviri clarissimi Tychsen et Lamis Professores in hac Univer- 
sitate celebcrrimi arbitrati sunt, sperantes fore ut illaj cuivis Critico, 
praisertim Sallustii operum cultori, admodum cara} essent accepta^que. 
Itaque etiam, annuentibus his V^iris maxime nobis colendis, prascipuarum 
specimen lectionum e codice nostro cxcerptarum hie exhibentes prelo 
subjicimus, omissis veroiis, quarum pretium estexiguum, e. g. illis, qus 
non nisi ordinem structuramque vocabulorum a textu vulgato discre- 
pantem attingunt. Tota autem lectionis varietatum collectio in Bibli- 
otheca apud codicem ipsum asservatur et future Sallustiancrum operum 
editori vei commentatori critico lubenter communicari potest, qui ilia ad 
utilitatem literariam utatur. 

Adhuc commemorandum restat, nupcrrime quoque (sicuti Bibliothcca 
imiversalis germanica nos certiorcs facit) cl. INI. J. A. Miillerura in 
Tomo 2do libri vcrnacula lingua sub titulo : " 23ClTUCi) t\X[U tOlIftan- 

Di'gen oB^fci^ictite Der Ciiurfactififttni irutften* unD llanDt'cijulE ?u 

HieiCCfn/^ Lipsise, 1789 editi notitiam codicis Sallustiani una cum 
lectionis varietate publice proposuisse. 

Ad ipsum specimen prtebendum progrcdimur. 


Led. text. Havercamp. — Lectio codicis 3IS. 

Cap. 1. Inter mortales; inter homi- trans: e<cp?i?»a irreptum esse ex nota 

nes^ marginal!.) 
veget ; eget 6. alii alio more viventes ; alius 

2. homines; omnes alio more viventes 

Jransigere; transiere (cum edit. Bip. et Teller.) 
5. auctorem ; actorem longe a pcriculis; apericulis 

4. cujus rei libet; cujuslibet , (c. ed. B. et T.) 

rei (cum Ed. Bip.) libertatis atque augendae ; 

loquentiae; eloquentiae libertatis causa atque au- 

ex pulcherruma et optima gendae 

pessuma ac flagiliosissuma ; dominationemque convertit ; ' 

ex pulcherrima pessima ac dominationemque se con- 

flagiciosissima. vertit 

(Quam lectionem quoque S. V. 7. memorare possem; memo- 

Teller, sua in editione suscepit, arbi- rave possum 

' Cujus quoque exemplar splendidissimum ill. Tychsen acceptum pos- 

^ Quae sequentium codicis lectionum typis insigniorea factsR sunt, in aliis 
codicibus non inveniuntur, sed eas solus pnebet. 


(cum e 

(c. ed. 

Notitia Codicis Manuscripti 








ej; lubidine quam ; ex lubid- 

ine magis quam 
d. Bip. et Telleriana) 
excesserant ; discesserant 
in pace vero beneficiis ; in 

pace vero quod beneficiis 
Bip. etTell.) 
optandae ; optanda 
Ea quae ; Ea quasi (c. E. 

B. etT.) 
in civis facinora facere ; in 

civibus facere facinora 
quam in Asia ductaverat; 

quern in Asiam duxerat 
delubra Deorum spoliare; 

delubra spoliare (c. E. B. 

et T.) 
neilli ; nedum illi (c. E. B.) 
victoves hostibus reliquer- 

ant ; victores reliquerant 

lubidinibus; lubidine 
flagitiorum atque facinorum ; 

facinorosum atque flagiti- 

animi moUes et aetate fluxi ; 

animi moUes et Jiuxi 
vexabat ; vastabat (c. E. B. 

poenas dederant ; poenas 

procul abesse; procul esse 

(c. E. B. etT.) 
in provinciam ; in provincia 

(c. E. B.) 
in exercitu ; sine exercitu 
quae niente agitavi ; quae 

hactenus mente agitavi 
conditio vitae futura; con- 
ditio vitae futurae 
quae quousque tandem pati- 

emini ; quae quousque pati- 


et rnontibus ; in montibus 
praeter miserain ; nisi mis- 


admonere ; admonebat (c. 

E. B.) 
eo dictitare fecisse ; eo dido 

amoverant ; moverant (c. E. 

nisi obnoxia; ni sibi obnoxia 
insolentiae ; insolentia 
populares coniurationis ; phi- 
res coniurationis 
Faesulas ; fesulis 

26. docta; satis docta. 
lubidine; libido 
modeste ; modesto (c. E. B.) 

28. simulmoliri; moliri 

29. qui parabatur; quia paraba- 


30. nujli ; nullius 

31. dicebat a QuintoFabio; in;] 

dicebat. in 
et sestertia ducenta ; et ses- 
tertiorum ducenta millia 

32. postulare a patribus; post- 

ulare patribus 
urbis Romae; urlisKomanae 
Z3. optumum factum : optimum 

34. plerique patriae ; plerique 


35. Massiliam ; in asiam 

36. cum et alienis ; ex alienis 
38. praeceps ierat; praeceps 

qui ubique — praestabant ; 

quod ubique — praestabat 
aut facinus ; atque facinus 
quod ex ; qui ex 
aliarum atque senati ; alist- 

rum quam senatus 

40. ipsi innoxii ; ipsi noxii 

41. civitatium; civitatum 
(cf. notam 2 Ed. Bip. p. 45.) 

mortem exspectare ; mortem 

quin cupidissime; quod non 


42. certa praemia ; certurn prae- 


43. Bruttio, Apulia ; briitio in 


44. constitiierant ; constituerat 
46. ita agant : permittit illis ho- 
mines; ita agant permittit. 
Illi homines 

(eandem cnnslructionem licet muta- 
tis aliquantulum verbis habet editio 
Bip. p. 50. cf. quoque Telleri examen 
variarr. !<=ctionum p. 203, ubi hunc 
locum vc.xatissimum sic mutari 

49. quidam L. Tarquinius ; L. 
animi nobilitate impulsij 

animi mobilitate inipulsi 
exercitatos in audaciam or- 
abat ; exercitatos orabat m 
de iis fieri placeat; de his 

Salhistil tt Kutropil. 


facere placeat 
praesidiis additis ; praesidiis 

50. aetatem agunt ; vitam agunt 
fuerit; fuit (c. E. B.) 
aut niniis grave; ant grave. 
erit ; trat 
52. neque j-uperbia; neque illis 

superb la 
damnatis permissiim est ; 

damnatis civibus permis- 

surn est 
iiiprimis magnam ; in primis 

mth magnam 
bene parta ; bene parata 

54. timens ne, si Romae sint, 

aut a popularibiis conju rati- 
on is ; ti?>iens vt aut a popu- 
lainbus conluratiojiis 

55. si ita res esset ; si ita esset 

56. vertet; vertatur 
maxume ; maxima 
iterum ; alterum 

in faucibus ; faur ibus (c. E. 

67. opulentis ; opulentksimis 

58. escenderis ; ascenderis (c. E. 

vindices reriim capitalium ; 
per indices rerum capitali- 

59. brevi spatio duas legiones ; 

brevi spacio legiones (c. E. 
in lugam sequerctur; in fu- 
ga sequeretur 
00. cuiusque animo ; cviique an- 

61. fient; aeqae locus, neque 

amicus quisquam teget; fi- 
ent. Quia bello incepto pax 
in munu victoris conslat ne- 
que amicus quisquam teget 
(in margine addita siuit, iiti iam su- 
pra commemoravimus, sequentia 
verba : " Quia bello incepto pax in 
manu victoris constat. lioc nostri 
libri non habent.") 

amissis bonis; amissis om- 
nibus bonis 
ea vero dementia est; ea 
vera dementia est 
semper in praelio iis maxu- 
mum est periculurn ; sem- 
per his maximum pericu- 

62. et ab dextera rupes aspera ; 

et ab dextra rupe aspera (c. 

E. Tell.) 
reliqua signa in subsidiis ; 

reliquorum signa in subsi- 

colonis ; coloniis 

63. res geritur ; res agitur 
videt Catilina, memor; vi- 

det. memor 
6i. Nam fere, quem quisque 
vivus pugnando locum ce- 
perat; Nam fere pugnando 
quem quisque locum vivus 
qui de castris visundi, aut 
spoliandi gratia processer- 
ant ; qui ad ea castru viseii- 
di ant spoliandi gratia pro- 


Cap. 1. virtutis via ; virtutis vi 

suam quippe culpam aucto- 
res ad negotia transferunt ; 
suam quippe culpam ad ne- 
gotia irunifcrunt 

3. quibus per traudem jus fuit; 

quibus is per frandem fuit 

4. Ceterum ex iis ; Ceterum ex 

existumet memet, studiuni ; 
existimet. studium 

5. absumtis; adsumtis 

7. modestissime; honestissime 
magisque eum in dies ; ma- 
gisque in dies 
(sinceriorem fore lectionem si to eum 

expunctum esset, ait Putschius in 

notis Havercamp.) 

8. suamet ipsum pecunia prae- 
cipitem casurum ; suam pe- 
cuniam et ipsum praecipi- 
tem casurum 

13. metus invadit; itimor invadit 
sed ilium alteruni ; sed Ju- 

ex praecepto regis hospiti- 
bus; ex praecepto hospitibus 

14. uti regni ; uti regnum 
secundum ea ; sed ea 

15. fortuna pendenda erat ; for-= 

tuna petenda erat 


Notttia Codicis Manuscripti 

avus mens una ; avus mens 

masinissa una 
in armis erat: in armis s/Ya 
17. aliquando aut apud ; ali- 
quando apud 

19. et poUicendo, multa pr-rfe- 

cit; et pollicitando perfecit 
(c. E. B. et T ) 
adgressus ; aggressos 

20. Europam esse ; sed ; Eiiro- 

pani, sed 
Iliempsalis direbantur ; Hi- 
emsalis diversa dicebantur 
cultores ejus terrae; iiuolue 
eius terrae 
31. Nomo-Niiniidae ; nomine 
(cf. notam Ed. Bip. ad h. 1. p. 110.) 
adpellatur ; appellantur 
22. Numidae ; numidiae 
24. discedere : de controversiis 
suis, lure potius, quam bel- 
lo disceptare : ita ; disced- 
ere. ira 

26. vestra, qua moveri; vestra, 

a quo moveri 

27. honoribus usi : in queis; 

honoribus. in quis (c. E. B. 

in senatu princeps ; senatus 
rapiebat, rapiebatur 

31. cum parvo argenti pondere ; 

cum non parvo argenti pon- 

32. unam ex tarn multis oratio- 

nemejusperscril)ere; imam 

ex tani inultis eius orationi- 

has perscribere 
ea dicam quae ; eam dicam 

S3, superbiae paucorum; poten- 

tiae paucorum 
quamque inulti ; quam multi 

34. vos hortorj vos Quiriles 

Quidquid ; quia quicquid 

35. majus dedecus est, parta 

amittere, quam omniiio 
non ; magis dedecun parta 
om'Utcre, quam omnino 

36. sociis vestris ; snciis nostiis 
mentibus ; moribux 
beneficii cjuam maleficii in- 

Hiemorem esse; beneficii 

quam inemorem esse maleficii 
37. qucniain se ; quo se 
39. negotu artifices ; negociipar'> 

paucisdiebus profectns; pau- 

cis diebus eodem profectus 
42. occultiora tore ; occultiora 

capere alii : alii se ; capere. 

alii se 

44. C. Mamilius Limetanus ; g. 

mallius limuanus 
accepisset ; accepissent (c. 

E. B. et T.) 
iussf-rit, decreverit, voliierit, 

mniiis ; iusserit. magis (c. 

E. B.) 
supra luemoravimus ; supra 

d>;cuimus (c. E. B. et T.) 
quaestione exercita; questio 


45. mos pai tium popularium et 

senati factionum ; nos par- 
cium et factionum 
abundautia earum quae ; 
hiibunduncia earum rerura 
ducunt; dicunt 
pensi neque sancti; pensi 

atque sancti 
quoad ; quo 
(superscriptum legitur : "aliqui co- 
dices quod habeat") 

47. quamquam adverse populi 
partibus ; quamquam ad- 
versus populi partium 

51. nunciari iubet; nunciare iu- 


52. ex eo medio ; ex eius medio 
humi arido atque arenoso ; 

humo arida atque arenosa 

53. postremo pro cuiusque; pos- 

tremo cuiusque 
conspicatur; conspicitur 

54. praetergressum ; praeter- 

fuerant ; fuerat 
56. interiere; interire 
b7. apud alteros ; apud alterum 
et paene inprudentia admis- 
sum ; et pene admissum. 
58. hortatur, ad; hortatur m^ ad 
omnium Numidarum; om- 
nium numida 
interfici iubet ; interficit. iu- 

consilium capit. exercitumj 

Sallustii et Eiiiropii. 


consilium exrrcitum capit 
seqiiitiir; inseijuitiir 
C. 59- in advorso luto victor tamen 
virtute fuisset ; iji advorso 
loco victor fuissef 
(in spatio quod Imeas dirimit vox : 
tamen addita est.) 

Auli ; Albini 

magis aaxius; magis animus 

agitahant ; agebant 
otium pati ; quietem pati 

60. additis auxilio pcrt'ugas ; ad- 

dil bis pertugas auxilio 
Mariuni ex itinere frumen- 
tatum ; Murium frumentu- 

61. pugnaie : evadere alii, alii 

succedere ac miirum modo 
suffodere; piignare. alii va- 
dere ac ?nodo 7nu7-um suf- 
praeterea pice et sulphure 
taedam mistam ardeiitia 
mittere ; praeterea picem 
et sulphure taedam niixtam 
ardenti mittere 

(videtur urdcntia scriptum fuisse, sed 

littera u erasa est.) 

62. frustrati ; tVustrari 
clamorem et tumuhum hos- 

tilem a tergo accepit ; cla- 
morem accepit 
(ciii in margine recentiori, uti vide- 
tur, nianu additum est " a tergo 
quasi tumultum.") 

63. sed advorsis equis concur- 

rcre ; sed adversi sequi con- 
cur r ere 
63. ab se defecerant; ad se de- 
(probatur haec lectio a S. V. Teller. 
p. 2'20. ed.) 

nietucnti ne, si ; metuenti, si 
66. tradere ; traderent 
§r. fortunarn quam ; furtuua 
cuncta ; omnia 
altusj alitus 
alium post aliuin; alios post 

talis vir, nam postea ambi- 
tione praeceps datus est, 
consulatum adpetere non 
audebat, Etiam ; talis vir 
appetere non audebat. Nam 
fostia umkicione praeceps 

datus est. Etiam 
(vox: consulatxim quoque apud 
alios desideratur.) 

68. Igitur : ubi Marius haruspi- 
cis dicta eodem intendere 
vidft quo cupidoanimi hor- 
tabatur; ab; Igitur marius 
cum auruspicts dicta eodem 
quo cupido animi hortaba- 
tur intendere videt ab 
facto ullo : facto alio 
(superscriptum est eadem manu ali- 
quo, quam lectionem unus quoque 
codex Haverc. praebet.) 

C9. cb eam causam ; ob hoc 
satellites ; satelliti 
ingentem virum ; ingentem 
esse virum 
70 tentare : prorsus nihil ; temp' 
tare, nil 
pars edocti ; pars edocta 

71. turpis vita Integra fama po- 

tior fuit ; turpis vita Jama 
focior fuit 

postquam de rebus Vacc?e 
actis comperit ; postquam 
de rebus actis ucceperat 

72. ira atque spes praedae am- 

pluis ; irae atque praedae 
spes amplius 
ex Latio ; ex collacio 

73. ipse eum suspiciens ; ipse 

despiciens cum 
suis : qui plerumque ; suis. 

utriusque consilio ; utrius- 

que consiliis 
metusque; metuque 
cupidus ; cupidinibus 
74. erat ei Numida ; Krat nu- 

adlatas litteras audivit; alla- 

tas litteras vidit 
praeventum ; eventa 

75. excitus, adreptis armis tu- 

multum facere ; excitus 
tumultum facere 

76. de profectione ; ex projcc- 


celebrare ; cxtollere 
Sed senatus paullo ante Me- 

tello Numidiam decreve- 

rat; senatus sed vuulo decio 


77. varius incertusque ; vanus 

(cf. notam 2 ed. Bip, p, 184.) 


Notitia Codicis Manuscr^ipti 

aliqiiamdiu ; aliquantian 
hostiuni potiti ; hostium pau- 
corum potiti 
(<;. E. B. cf. quoque Tell. p. 223. ubi 
haec leguntur : " Ut paucorum cum 
qiiibiisdam libris omittatur non pa- 
titur sensus.'') 

78. ventum quod ; ventum est 


79. Metello infcctum ; infestum 

(litterae : e superscripta est : c.) 

simul oppidiim et operibus 

et loco munitum ; simul ej; 

operibus et loco munitum 
post dies quadraginta ; post 

dies XXX. 
pependere ; prendere 
orantes ; orare 
impetrata, semper boni ; im- 

petrata boni 

81. peterent, Graeci optiimem 

Carthaginienslum faciunt ; 
peterent. Cirenenses op- 
tionem carthaginiensibus 
ad rem redeo ; ad inccptum 

82. bellum suscipiat ; bellum in- 


83. certaturos ; certaturus 

ne moras agitando ; ne mox 

85. habere eum ; habere turn 
aegerrume desinere ; acer- 

rime definire 
(ultimae liiterae : e superscripta est 
littera : i.) 

86. turn vero multus atque ferox 

instare ; turn vero supcrbus 

multus atque terox instare 
abuuere : negare 
aut studium ; aut studia (c. 

E. B.) 
Tediturum, alia ; rediturura 

sperabat alia 

87. primo industrios, supplices 

modicos esse ; primo indus- 
tres suppliciis modicos esse 

sint. Ita ; sint qui contra me 
tendunt. Ita 

jam ex consuetudine in na- 
turam vertit ; iam connictic- 
dine in naturam vertitur 

ad hoc aut aliud tale ; ad hoc 
aut ad tale 
f8. scio, Quiritesquipostquam; 

scio postqnam, 
(vox : cjvi eadeui manu in spatio 
quod lineas dirimir, addita est.) 

gerere quam ; gerere consu- 

iatum quam 
ego naturam unam ; ego 

fortunar.i unam 
cum apud vos aut in senatu 

verba faciunt, pleraque ; 

cum apud vos verba faciunt 

in senatu, pleraque 
posteris quasi lumen ; post- 

eris lumen 
facta mihi dicere; yacfa di- 


89. piacuit reticere; placuit ire- 

mere vel reticere 
falsam vi'a ; falsa vita 
Haec atque alia majores ves- 

tri; Haec atque talia ma- 

iores nostri 
repetit; repetunt 

90. sudorem pulverem et alia; 

sudor cm et alia 
ubi se omnibus flagitiis de- 
decoravere ; ubi fiagiciis se 
et ignavia ; et avaricia 
(cui tamen recentiori, uti videtur, 
manu superscri|)tum est : ignavia.) 
omnis bonos ;omnibus bonis 

91. armis aliisque utilibus; ar- 

mis atque aliis talibus 

93. cognovit, statuit ; cognovit 

copiam, statuit 
timeret; metueret 

94. aliametu; aliis metum 
egentia aquae, infesta; egen- 

tia a quae euqae mfesta 
vitebantur. Id ubique ; wi- 
nntur. Id ubic\\\fi 

95. fiunien Tai am ; flumen 

'^Q. intidum ante neque; infidum 

neque (c. E. B.) 
'^7. incommodo patravit, mag- 
nus; incommodo magnus 

plura, deserta propter; plura 

praecisum; praecise 
98. repentes cochleas ; repente 

intellexit ; more humanae cu- 
pidinis ignara visundi ani- 
mum vortit; intellexit mo- 
re ingenii humani cupido 
difficilia faciundi animum 

^Sallustii et Eutropii. 


inflexfi; flexa (c. E. B.) 
qua ipse escenderat ; qua 
ipse descenderat 
(cf.notam 5 to. Bip. p. 214.) 

99, qui centuriis praeerant; qui 
ex centurionihiis erant 
(praeposidoi-prae scripta fuisse vi- 
detur se.d eiasa.) 

intentos proelio Numidias 
habucrat ; intentus proelio 
invidias i;iabuerat 
(in spatio iuterlineari scriptum est: 

100 et asociis exercitum cogeret; 
et sociis cogeret exercitum 
maiorum ignavia; maiorum 

pudeat an pigeat; pudetma- 
gis an piget 

101. sollerti-^sumus; fortissumus 

102. adduceiet ; adducere 
neque arma; neque/a?«a 

(cui vero superscriptum legitur : 

IDS. visu ; visui 

104. deinproviso vectigalis, item 

cohortium, turmarum ; de 
inproviso coliorciuui tur- 

(in spatio inter), additum est: xecti- 


105. in hiberna proficiscitur, quae 

propter; hiberna propter 

106. aiebant: pars quod ; uiebant. 

Respublica; reip : 
redeuntes; abeuntes 

107. itinere morati; itinere quod 

instabat; erat 

108. multi, vulneribus ; ?nultis 


109. a priucipio inopi, melius vi- 

sum amices ; a principio 

tibi visum melius amicos 
minimum, gratia par, ac si ; 

minimum gratiue par quum si 
piacuisse et vim ; piacuisse 

credo vim 
Eumquam populum Roma- 

num beneticiis ; numquam 


110. unde vi Jugurtham ; unde 


111. ad hiberna Romanorum pro- 

ficiscuntur; ad hiberna pro- 
ad SuUam pergunt; ad Sil- 

1am perfngiunt (c. E. B.) 
112. postquam mtecto negotio, 
quo inteiiderat, Ciriam re- 
dit, de adventu legatorum 
certior factus, illosque et 
SuUam veni e iubet, item- 
que L. Bellienum praeto- 
rem, Utica, praeterea om- 
nisundiqueSenatorii ordi- 
nis; quibuscum — post- 
quam coni'ecto quod in- 
tenderat, negocio cirtam re- 
rfuYet de adventu legatorum 
factusest cercior. iilosque et 
Siliam ill) Utica venire iubet. 
item h. Bebenum praeto- 
rem, praeterea omnes sena- 
torii ordinis quibuscum 
Cn. OctavioRulo, qui Quaes- 
tor siipendium adportave- 
rat; G. N. Octavio Rufone. 
Questor stipendium in af- 
fricam portaverat 
respondctur; responsum est 

113. equitum ; equitatum 
funditorum Baleariorum ; 

fundatonim atque baleurum, 
Sullae aliisque omnibus et; 
Sillae omnibusque svis et 

114. paullo post morbo interi- 

turae ; post paulo intcri- 

proficiscerentur ; proficisce- 

ignesque creberrimos ; ig- 

nesque quani creberrimos 

ante considisse ; consedisse 
dicereut, manu vindican- 

dum, neque ; dicerent ne- 

115. decere, qui m anus armave- 

rit,abi;iermispedibus auxi- 
lium pete re, in maximo 
metu; diceret qui manus 
armaverit. maximo meLu 

116. praeraissus ab Jugurtha, 

postquam Sullam accitum 
audierat, orator et subdole 
speculatum Bocchi con si- 
ll a : praeterea ; praemissus 
a ivgurtha qui postquam 
Sillnm uccitum audierat, sub- 
dole speculatum bocci con- 
silia ierat. Praeterea 
bona earns acceptusque 
quem ; bona acceptus erat 


Notitia Codicis Manuscripti 

pertimesceret: accitum esse 
quo res communis licentius 
gereretur ; pertimesceret, 
quo res commu«es licentius 

Sed ego ; 7iam ego 

117. occulte autnuilo; occt</^f. 

sicuti voluerant ; sicuti vo- 

luerat (c. E. B.) 
se missiim a cunsule ; se a 

Turn rex uti; Tunc uti 
ex sententia jurat arabobus: 

ac ; ex sententia amborum ac 

118. novi, opulentissimus, priva- 

te ; novi, privato 

119. sua retulisse; sua causa re- 




deberetur; deheret 

invisi essent; invisi erant 

(c. E.B.) 
bello, avidissimus; belloerat 

Jugurthae venit; iugurthae 

et ei nunciat; et enunciat 
Ilaec Maurus ; Haec marius 
occulta oris patefecisse ; oc- 
culta rectons patetecissent 
Jectionem : pectoris quae in quibus- 
dam aliis Codd. occurrit, et quoque 
in edit. Bip. et Tell, suscepta est, 
permutavit cum hac insulsa, cui ad- 
huc supcrscriptum est: vel r/ietoris. 
122. Q. Caepione ; quinto sci- 


Led. text. Sylburg. — Lectio Codicis MS. 

C. 1. 

Manilius: Manlius 

jnternecione attriti etiam ; 
internecione etiam 

quinto; quintus 

XXX et unum ; triginta 
(Post vocem : unum usque ad verba : 
Is belli finis insertum est sequens: 
*' Sed ab eorummulieribus graviorem 
pene quam ab ipsis pugnam Ilomani 
experti sunt. Hae etenim plaustris 
in modum castrorum dispositis. ipse 
desuper din obstitere romanis. Sed 
cum ab eis novo cedis genere terre- 
rentur. abscisis enim cum crine cer- 
vtcibus inhoncsto satis vulnere tur- 
pes relinquebantur. ferrum quod in 
ho'tes sumpserant, in se suasque 
verterunt. Namque aliae concursu 
mutuo iugulatae, aliae funibus ad sua 
coila ligatis, aliae apprehensis invi- 
cem fa^cibus strangulatae : equo- 
rumque cruribus pertractae interie- 
runt. Aliae laqueo de subrectis 
plaustrorum tcmonibus pependerunt. 
Quaedam dum se suspenderet filios 
«]uos traiectis per colla eorum la- 
queis ad suos pedes iunxit. Ita his 
ducbus proeliis cccxi gallorum occi- 
»a. cxi capta sunt, absque innumera 

multitudine mulierum quae furore 
femineo se suosque necaverunt." 

Idem fere sed aliquanto tamen 
mutatum extat p. 58 editionis inter- 
polatae supra memoratae.) 

C. 2. sexcentesimo quinquagesi- 
mo nono ; dctVIII 
Titus Vietius, Hierus Asi- 
nius, Titus Herennius, A u- 
lus Clueutius ; Titus Vet- 
rius. Gervius Asianus. 
Titus Legennius. Cluen- 
tius Albus 
praetor gessisset; sed prae- 
tor gessisset 
Post vocem : gessisset usque ad 
verba : Anno urbis conditae sequens 
intextum est, sed rursus diversum ab 
eo, quod ilia ed. interpolata praebet: 
" Ipso in tempore dira prodigia 
visa sunt, nam sub ortu solis globus 
ignis a regione septentrionis emicuit 
cum raaximo coeli fragore. Apud 
Arretinos in convivio cruore panibus 
quasi e vulneribus corporum fluxit. 
Per septem continues dies grando 
lapidum inmixtis etiam testarum 
fragmentis terram lalissime verbera- 
vit. In Samnitibus e vastissimo 
terrae hiatu Hamnr.a prorupit et us- 

' In collatione huius fragmenti secuti sumus textum Eutropii, qui extat in 
F. Sylburgii corpore Scriptorum Roman, minorum Francof. 1587 fol. edit« 

Tom. I, 

Sallustii et Eutropil 


<^ue in coelum extendi visa est. Tunc 
etiam omnium generum animalia, 
quae inter hiomines vivere soliii erat, 
relictis stabulis pascui^que cum ba- 
la'.u hinnitu mugiluque miserabili 
ad silvas montesque t'ugerant. Ca- 
nes quoque quorum natura est extra 
homines esse non posse lacrimosis 
tilulatibus vagi luporum rituoberra- 
runt. Nee mora post haec tarn 
gravia prodigia civilia bella secuta 
sunt. Apud Judeos ea tempestate 
primus Aristobulus Rex pariter et 
pontifex diadematis sumpsit insig- 

C. 3, commotum est ; commotum 
exortum est 
primus urbem Romam in- 
gressus est; primus in ur- 
bem armatus ingressus est 
cum Bosphoro ; in bosphoro 
bellum se ei propter; bellum 

Inde ad Ephesum; Inde et 

stiam Athenae civitas; eti- 

q.m Maihone civitas 
miserat non iam ad ; mise- 
rat enim ad 
4. ipsamque urbem cepit; ip- 
sas athenas cepit 
exercitu XIV ; exercitu XIII 
LXXmillialectissima; LXX 
commisit. Primo ; commi- 
sit bellum. primo 
viginti miliia hostium; quin- 
decim miliia hostium 
filiusque Archelai Diogenes, 
secundo ; et tilius Archelai. 
Mithridates cum Sylla de 
paceagere coepit. Interim; 
Mithridatesiussitcum Silla 
de pace agi. Interim 
5. turn vii miliia eius cecidit; 
turn VI eius occidit 
CXXIV suorum amisit ; 
XXim suos amisit 
perdidit. Mox etiam et ur- 
bem ingressus est. Marium 
Marii filium ; perdidit. Syl- 
la deinde cum campania 
sanicium duce et reliquis 
<;opiig ad portam coUinam 

signa contulii.LXXX homi- 
num occidit, mox etiam ur- 
bem ingressus tria miliia 
hominum contra fidem da-- 
tammermesperemit. Cmn- 
que magna crudelitate ad- 
versus sontes insontesque 
sasviret. quintus ratulus pa- 
lam Sylla? dixit, cum quibus 
tandem victuri sumus si in 
bello armatos in pace iner- 
mes occidimus. Sylla de- 
hinc PJarco Marium de 
caprili casa extractum vin- 
ciri ius!-il ductumque trans 
tiberim effossis oculis mem- 
bris minutatim exsectis vel 
fractis trucidari. Marium 
Marii filium (Pauca horura 
vestigia extant in ed. in- 
ter]), p. 66.) 
LXXX mili ia ho stium in eo 
proelio ; LXX hominum 
6. traditis exercitibus ; tantis 
Hiarbam ; Jerdam 
consu'iiserunt ultra CL mil- 
iia hominum ; cousumpse- 
runt au tern plus quain CL 
consulares XXIIII ; consu- 

senatores fere CCC ; sena- 
tores fere CC 
(Quibuscum verbis liber Vtus Eutro- 
pii concluditur : sed in codice adhuc 
addita sunt sequentia, quae quoque 
in ed. interpolata leguniur licet ali- 
quantulum mutata : 

" Post haec tamen Sylla mortuo 
Lepidus Marianae partis adversus 
Caiulum Syllanum diicem consur- 
gens bellum reparavit. Bis tunc acie 
certatum, plurimi Romanorum ex- 
tinct!. Albanorum civitas pro eo 
quod illuc Scipio Lepidi filius con- 
fugisset, expugnata et capta est„ 
Brutus in cisalpinarn galliam fugiens 
apud regium interfectus est. Hoc 
tempore liierosolymis Alexandra ux- 
or Ale.xandri regnabat ex cuius aetate 
Judeos rerum confusio et variae cia- 
des oppressere.") 


€pi!Stola Ctitica 




Kp'icrig IcTTJ IluXXadoi hcipov j«.£y«. 
"Jvsu yap avTY'C 'k'/vto. ylvsroci axorog, 


^alpsiv xa\ suTrgaTTSi'J ! 

NO. I. 

CluuM forte his diebus nonnihil nactus essera otii, in tnanus incidc- 
runt ilia Tzetzje, quae egregius i!le tuus Jacobsius panels abhinc 
annis edidit. Accidit autern illud legenti, quod accidere debuit ueces- 
sario, ut ofFenderern ad niulta, quss cum tollere cuperem, in chartam 
conjeci nonnulla, quae, ecce, oblata occasione, tibi audeo niittere, ut 
nimiruin judicio tuo stent aut cadant, eisque tu, sicut videbitur, utare„ 
Sed jam hoc ago. 

Antehom. vs. 7S. an ? — aylvsoy e; T^onjv pi r. 
V. 065. Num scripsit *0; era, o"/.rjTrr^cc TTcc^al^srcci., pro Tta^a.^£7roit 
a verbo Tfa^at^sotxai, aiifero. 

V. 573. Quun) dubitave te dicercs in nota, an homo eXsirroXig 
dici queat, non memineras, id quod tibi profecto rarissinie accidit, hoc 
nomine non semel se ipsam designare Iphigeniam apud Euripidem, 
Jphig. in Aul. v. 476' seqq. Conf. omnino Jischyl. Agam. v, 696. seq. 
&c. Plutarch, in Deraetr. c. 26, p. 42. v, 6". Ed. Hulteni. 
Homer, v. 18, ut e versu tollatur vitiura, scribenduni 
fig Uagig v]TTJi3>), crus 8e Tpooeg opy.ia ytuov. 
Vel, si correpta prima in T ^ u: a ; displicet, 

• TgcvBg OS avv opKia ^swv, 

nt malebat quindecim annorum adolescens N. N. Matze, Bataviis, 
disciplinae nostra.' alumnus, quique, raro admoduni hodie in juventute 
nostra exeniplo, egregia valet legnni nietricaruni, ex continua turn 
aliorum, turn Homeri imprimis iectione, peritia, Ejusdeni et alia oc- 

' Professor Nodell, soon after the emancipation of Holland, put us in 
possession of his unpublished Criticisms, part of which we present to our 
Readers in the present No. The remainder we shall give in our next. The 
Professor died soon after he forwarded his MSS, to us. Edit. 

J. Ad. Nodell Epist. Critica, 157 

current infra, quse litera M. notata videbis, ut suus juveni eximio ho- 
nos habeatur. Forte taraeu eani adspirationi vim tribuit Tzetzes, ut 
prtEcedenteui brevem, consona finitam, producat, sicut pauIo post. 

V. 53. hsKoC (pr^iucxy, 

nisi illic scribas a v sksv. 

V. 82. scribo MsvsXaov ol divnocovtac. 

•1 facile excidit ob prsecedens ov. Sed quid fiet v. seq. 89, ubi in /3 I o v 
producit ultimam ante vocalem, et v. 303, iiSov o^^xX^jiols, et v. 329, «? 
— av, et Posthora. v. ig, ubi Jacobsius (psvyov. Posth, v. 189, 
226, 367, 439, et_496. 

V. 153. y^pa-OKs^cag rs ttoctsis. 

Mariii inaiiraiis cornilms. Credo, qui donorum caussa in 
uxor urn adulteriis connivebant. Cornigeri enini jam veteribus 
dicti moecharum conjuges, V. Salinas, ad Tertul. Pallium, p, 338, ubi 
quod profert Lucilii epigramraa, habetur apud Bruuckium Anal. v. ii, 
p. 318. q"ai jt £ p a tr (,5 o ^ o v expouit per Gallicum cornard; conf. 
omnino Solanum ad Lucianum v. i. p. 332. quem uuper locum per 
literas et amantissime et elegantissirae scriptas niihi indicabat CI. mei 
Heusdii hunianitas, 

V. 348, addita particula corrigo Auypa re. 

V. 355, repone r^^v pro v;v, ut, recepta in praecedente Jacobsii emen- 
datione, sensus, quem is vult, eliciatur. Seq. versu lubens scribam 

■ Ittj t q"i g d^goiiTi ^agii^iu. 

V. 3S4, forte eVr* 5' dv d-Krco ^, seu, ut malebat M. Icrny 

«.yag OS. ^ 

V. 412, an? — Toiccv a'^i^f^ero y.J5a;v. 

V. 42 1 , deleatur ^' post jcAsOf. M. 

V. 449, Lege — ^coov 5' d^^i y.x) r o 'J. 

V. 453, yoiaiv r eo-t'. M. 

V. 461, an ? rov k^yj sKdhovv '2}i.cci/,dvS^iov. 

Primam enim in Scamander producit etiam infra r. 464. 

PosTHOM. V. 22, num? sots ^v\ dw§Oi;. 

V. 27. (T f < ry J ) an? tf A £ w ;, quod facilius excidit ob praecedens 

V. 103, proTTso-ov corrige, sis, Ttl'irroy, flagitante metro, et mox 
V- 109, £V/3ecr£ 5' M. in eodeni ttso-ov recipiam xa.) cum Cel. Edi- 

V. 142, lego • y^^sixsrias Tfavs'msXu [j^u^oiJ^ivoicnv. 

V. 157, plane monstroso quid fiet? an? £. y. A. 0; syj'^' 

V. 162, Ttoriovro, vitiura erit typographicum pro irat'sovr^, 

V. 1 67 > an ? [jAvy vel alvr' M. 

V. 175. Licet TzETZ^ consuetudineni CI. Jacobsio in aota me- 
moratam non ignorem, nialim tamen 

Tal pu fJAV Imrrisg I ip = ttovto. 

V. ISO, lege, 'AtrTTiSoyoi^ixyj r s xai 

V. 229, an ? 'rrdvv V ya. 

V. 237, Num? Aa^Sdvioi M. 

153 J. Ad. Nodell Epist. Critica, 

V. 24.1, puto %e(fo; V £ u ju. a r <, nutu seu gestu, 

V. ^CP, an ? A/af o J iirxKixsvo;. 

V. 358, num ? a]tra oe sJas. M. 

V. 378, pro Eu'irrT; 5 £f IVAs in MS. est ttsXs, utiumque con- 
tra metrum, quod poscit e u tr r vj 9 o 5- rs. M. 

V. 379, ail? y.a)a.vcu (pdXo^. 

V. 4'24, si v£)coov scribas, salva tamen erit prioris syllabae quan- 

V. 434, (pakayyi oov, non dubito esse aTzetzas nianu, quanquam 
contra metrum. Si KXayyT/Soy Homericum 11. B. 463, quod ali- 
quando repoiiebat Eleg. JacobsiU£, reciperetur, hoc iusuper scriben- 
dum esset xar a5 ccK § u ^s ov r s s. Hesychius 1^ a Aayy)j Jo v, xaro. 
'za.'^sig, quod et ipsum Hoiuericum est II. O. 360. 

V. 447, an ] oaoi T^wxv sv 'kyjxloic. 

V. 452. Posset scribi ijAya, Savy^oc 5a\oi<TG-Y^g. conferri autem po- 
test Catulli Epith. P. et B. v. 14. ubi parum abest quia sci'ibendum 

Emersere i ergs candenti e gurgite vultus 
iEquorea; monstrum Nereides admirantes, 

quod niiror non reposuisse egregium ilium poetarum Latinorum sospi- 
tatorem N. Heinsium, quum SE emersere reponeret apud Sil. 
Ital. Pun. vii. 414. qui locus e Catullo sumtus, quod tamen non obser- 
iratuni Siiii commentatoribus. Conf. Bosii Ind. ad Nep. in v. 
V. 473, posset quideni scribi 

Sed manet tamen peccatum in prima syllaba vocis I oriiJ^aiT i qu35 
brevis est, nisi corrijjere malis S § ex, a- [j. o'l o- 1. 

V. 4S5, an? So^i^^ccroi, uti apud Eurip. Hec. 105, quamquam vel 
sic male corrigitur syllaba fa. 

V. 600, lege n/;A£ioao. Paulo superius v. 492. 

■ ' Hgwog aKOVS jj^ogftiv. 

Durissimus est trochcuus sic positus, quum in pronitu sit rcscribere 

rou i/.6g<^Yiv jj^cjoj axcu£. 

M. trocha?us tamen est in eadem sede v. 5^5, nisi illic inserta particula 
mzVis r.slvov ys ii£<r6yrog. 

V. 570, num ? s'/Sov aXsyro, includebantur, ab aA£,aa<, inchidor, 
unde aA£(j et similia Homerica. 

V. 611, an? T£7(:^a-6a<, et praecedente versa AajSovra/. 

V. 615, num ? 

TM Travraj xarsgu^av Ircarioi. 7rp£cr/3=' Jcvrej. 
Frustra, re infecta dimittentes legatum Antenorera. 

V. 639, £'JpTaT£ M. 

V. 640, potius SJfa M. 

V. 675, Tou T£ WpyV >cA-;)i'(rcr£v, ilyia, r sihro e^ycc. 
V. 677, ad fulciendum versum scribo atrcroi. Supra v. 606, an 
sS 2 0!,<Xiv scripsit pro iit it) <t s. 

ad C. G. Heyne, 159 

V. 701, Lege d'7ia<p\<r-i<.siv, fallere, dectpere, et insuper forte, 

jiisi Kiyjjv accipias \)Xo putans, quo sensu ^^//-J frequens Ho- 

V. 713, monstri similem sic corrigere possis, sequente etiam leviter 

A. S. /X. TOV Itt'ttov ovtucts do'Jp) 

TT. t, UTtCaXiQsT S. £. 

V. 738, SiAarj'oi' scripsisset, consuluisset metro. 

V. 739, Emenda (ptuyov M. nisi malis vitsKcpvyay. 

V. 772. Forte quis corrigendum existimet av^s; Ss r. x. 

Et hiec quidem hactenus, quibus tu, vir illustrissime atque huma- 
nissime, quod videbitur, faoies, sive edenda hoc vel iiio niodo, 
seu premenda duxeris. Ego si, nee tibi, ueque egregio Jacobsio tuo, 
omnino ingrata fuisse hiec iuteliexero aliquando, gaudebo sumrao 
opere, unde enim iiis temporibus gaudia nisi ex literis ? in quibus ego 
si adquiescere licet, sat beor. — Acta Literaria nostra IVajectina tarde 
procedunt adniodum ; potuissem alioqui dare paucula niea, pluscula 
ex schedis penes me doctissimi Lentzii, rou fjiXKccclrov, discipuli quon- 
dam tui, cognati mei. Narratur tamen volumen tertium jamjam eden- 
dum. D'EscuRius meus mirifice triumphat tuis literis, tualaude. — 
Vale, Vir Maxime, atque ita habe, post Schraderum meum, roy 
itavv, quem niajore cum veneratione diligam ac mirer, reperiri homi- 
nem neminem. Tu amare lue perge. — Scr. Rotterodami ad Mosam ia 
Erasmiano A. D. X. Kal. Sept. ClblOCCCI. 

Kp I (T I g Tjv UTT e c T ip Z su g o u x. Io"t* Z su $. 

Data hac occasione, adjiciam pauca alia e penu mea in Scriptoribus 
quum Graecis tum Romanis observata, et primo quidem, ob materije 
atfinitatem, videamus Tryphiodorum. 

'Iaj'ou igitur 'AAwcrswf , ex ed. Florentina Bandamii v. 26. lege 

e. T. TT. /xsy' «yaAAoj«,=vr] S. e. 
V. 197 et 198, adsumto versu e C. A. scribendum susplcor, 

'Oi^SaXaw (TKorsovri ( vel a-MvaovTs) ixdySayoy ixrog sovrag. 
V. 200. scribo tinr v. 

V. 205. adsumto iterum versu, quem exhibet C, A. lubenter emea,- 

A. r. X: 67rexi'5v«TO ?^uoy aurrit " 

^euyeiv «, xu) s. e. a., x ihetg 

Nt^ctg e. 

V. 256. hXQitXwov syvsTte jWruflav. 

1^0 J. Ad. Nodell Epist. Critics, 

V. 295. fvVxsV.roif T£ Kx.Xr)i(riv.fumbus. 

V. 307. Ssivov V r 0/3^ tip^a-ro. 

V. 266. an ? fiavarois TsAof. 

V. 43S. novi, qui scribat s'jvr, in fine, licet conjecturos vix con- 

V. 460. corrlge, sodes, is ^yy/sva, et v. 535. uirs-/.. 

Sefl, missis hisminorum gentium poetis, videanius polius eorum prin- 
cipeni. Apud Homeruni igitur H. in Merc. 99- pro vulgato 

quod, quum de oriente die sernio sit, sensui est coiitrarium ; lubenter 
corrigani xar s py'o-aTo, vel, quod accedit propius, dirsforio-aro, ut 
apud Ovidiuin Lurifer cali slalione novissimus exit. Paulo autem 
superius v. 93. malic me hcc /xtj, dixi in notis Criticis ad calcera 
Aviani, p. 50". 

II. n. 8. 

TiTiTS ^s^ocxpvirai, IlaTpoxXeig, yjuts KOupr\ 

zl«xpuo£a"cra Se ixiv TroTidipxsTat, o^q ocveKYjTat. 

Pulchre expriniit Imnc locum M. de Florian, Numa, L. 3. II le 
rcQ;arde et se tait, semblahle a I'enjant timide, qui suivant sa r.ih'e d, 
pas invgaux, la retient doticement par son voile, Jijce sur elle des yeux 
noyes de plenrs, et ltd demande sans rien dire de la porter dans ses 
iras. Ainsi Numa suivoit Tatius. 

Hymiio in Cer. v. 37. scribo d'xyvij.zrr, irso. 

V. 344, 45. an? — -TjI' sV arAr'roi? 

"Eoyoig 3. /x. ttuxv^^v ^.Y/tUto jSo'jAjjv. 

V. 404. pro y.a) posset legi i], num. 

V. 409. arreptis ceteris, quoe dat CI. editor RuHNKENiUS, Leidensis 
Academiie decus, potius tamen scribam 

Euripidis Fhfen. v. 879- ed. Beckii majoris 

A (TvyxuXv-^ui TT. O. ')^g6vca. 

Quum egregie hunc locum interpretarentur et Musgravius et alii, 
miror, non offensos fuisse import uno mihi quidera % f v a', quamquam 
illud in suo Cod. invenisse video Valkenaerum. Sed alio ducit Scbo- 
liastes Sid rov a-uyy.Xs Is iv tov Trars^a xzciTvyJjyra.g. Occultare quo- 
vis modo rem omnem conabantur, et tenebris mandare (Edipodee ; 
quare lubeus equideni pro Xf svcy scribam a-xonv. Cont'. Statium, 
Th. 1. 47. seq. et II. 441. 

Iphigen. in Aul. v. 355. lego H^idy^ouys, deleta distinctione ante 
nfJa'^aou— paulo aliter Beckius. 

' Sic Hermannus.— Edit. 

ad C. G. Heyne, \6\ 

can scrlbendura esse it'jXrjg dixi in Notis Crit. ad c. A. Nunc addo, 
eamdem emendationem proponere, et pluribus firmare CI. Jacobsiiira 
Animadv. in Eurip. c. 4. editis A. 179^- quern cultissimi viri cousen- 
sura niilii gratulor. 

Apiul Tzetzen ab eodera Jacobsio editimi in Posth. v. 41], 
Diomedes et Ajax iuveniunt Acliillem 

Aolcr5ici (pv(nomTot. 7iag«t Qavciroio tt u ^ >] o" » v. 
Janua letki et letho frequeus poetis, sed alio plerumque sensu. 
"AiSov 'jruha.i sunt apud Jischylum p. 2l6. Ed. Steph. et Ajjam. 
V. 300. V. Stanleium ad Agam. v. 1300. et, quern laudat 111. Gro- 
tius nostras ad Matth. Evang. xvi. i S. 

Iphig. in Aul. v. 357» (rte^ivra c' d^^ag. puto ju/ dfy^oic. Verba 
sunt Agamemnonis. 

Iphig. in Taur. v. 1386. seq. ita accepta ab interprctibus video, 
ac si Dianae simulacrum vocera edidisset, quum taraen, quae sequun- 
tur, verba sint Orestae socios adhortantis, unde quivis, adraonitus, 
•erte scribendum videat 

AajSciov 0. M. s. a. 

Bote 5(J 5. Ji. £. X. 5. 

E^y]KS a. £. ?. V. 

TO, T ovgavou it. t. 8. x. 

AyxXixa. vi^oj S' Ix x. s. 

BoYjV Tiv CO yrig x. t. A. 
Troas v. 6X5. an scribendum v. L y^. d. 

E. CO. y. ov. fjt,. ou. u. yivsTcn, 

KuKov xaxwv y. s. a. e. 
Mala malis certant, nota formula ■aa.'Ka. ntoo; xaxoT^, de qua 
V. Valcken. ad Phoen. p. 453. 

Phcen. V. 888. Tiresias vates hoec ait, 

^r. S. V. TT. V. TT. 

A. X. X. jw.. |S. 

9r. y. Sou (TO y (T I ^- X' 
S. ^\ CO. T. (T uy x.cir o(.<T X ocrrTrj '!r. 
Ita editor; poeta tanien, ni fallor, dedit Oi$ou<ri; fulura enim, 
sicut praesentia, enuutiare solent vates. Cassandra apud Ovidium 
notissimo loco, 

Graia juvenca venit, quae te, patriamque domumque 
Perdet; lo, prohibe, Graia juvenca venit. 

Conf. Colum. ad En. p. 13. unde video recte vindicat Burnian. 
Lucano I. 694. Hue pertinet illud Promethei apud iEschyluni, v. 170. 
ubi, indigebit mea opera, inquit, aliquando Jupiter, ut ipsi indi- 

ixp' orou 

S. T. T UTTO (TV KaT a tf 

ubi Scbol. dTroa-uXti^a-srai, et praecipue ejusdem Cassandrae vaticinium 
de rebus in Atridarum domo gestis gerendisque. Apud euradera jiEsch. 
NO. XIX. Cl.Jl. VOL.X. L 

1^2 J. Ad. Nodell Ep'ist. Critica 

p. 209. V. 1099- seqq. idem de impense aliquid cupientibus observat 
Sclioliastes ad Eurip. Phoen. v. 1259- Conf. Notas lueas Crit. p. Gq, 
ubi iunuebam egregiuni illud dictum, 

Aslron yap flsoj^ i'msp Icrr ovTcog fi=c/jj 
habere poetam a magistro Socra<e. Conf. Lucian. in Cynico, p. 545. 
€t 111. Grotiura, ac prcccipue VVetsten, ad Acta Ap. xvii, 25. Plutarch, 
in comparatione Catonis prisci et Aristidae c. 4. dir^oaSEyjs f/Jy ydo 
ditXuJs Sf^fj dvS^unrivyjs ^' d^sryj^, w a-uvdysTai tT^oj- to sAd^KXTOv ij 
^fsi'a, rovTO TsXsiirocrov kou ^Biorarov. 

iEschylus Prom. V. 436. v. Notas meas Criticas p. 58. ad Erasm. 
Adag. p. 257. Metaphorica ratioue hoc verbo it^ocnjXouv pulchre 
usus est Plato in Phjvdone v. 1. p. 190. Ed. Bip. quem locum videre 
est apud Bentl. ad Horat. Serm. II. 2. J9- 'tXXo [msv ov dixit Apollon. 
JRhod. II. I24<d' T^ § (T IT ccrr a Xsu^Tj y a, I et xa raTrr) 7 v u o- 5 a< Lu- 
cian. Prom, qui verbo ir ^0 (TTt o(,(r(raX£v siv aliter etiara utitur de 
Andromeda scopulo adfixa, Dial. Mar. 14. ubi tamen de alligata tan- 
tura capiendum, quum posted Sicr[j.ovg memoret, quomodo in Cata- 
plo p. 411. Ed. Bened. Tr^oo-TTHTraTraXgu/xsvo;, malo alligatuSy 
praecesseral enim itoo^ rov Icrrov osoriTsrcci. acratos nodos dixit Propert. 
II. 16. 9'Ubivel ad Promethcum, vel ad Andromedam alludi cen- 
sent eruditi. dv cccrtccu ^ouv denique dixit idem Lucian. de Sacrif. 
p. 258. 

Pers. V. 601. an? ^^ordi Tiv' pro /3f orolcr* v. 

V. 731. malim inverso ordine Xaos tt a j , ut a^quali cum reliquis 
procedat versus, in quibus quintum pedem integra semper vox auspica- 

V. 918. s»5' MtpeXs Zsvs X. {XST a. 

T. 0. 

Ut versus ultimus sit parcemiacus anapaesticus, to i^oT^a, primocasa 
erit accipiendum, ut sit 

OuvciTOV I xoiTu jM.oT [ gct xaXuvJ/aj. 
Et Zsv vocandi casu scribendum v. 91 8. quo eodem versu cur 
HipsXs prima brevi (ob leges scilicet anapzestici) legi jubeat D'Arnaud 
in Spec. Animad. p. 115. vix video (nisi As in w^eAe productum puta- 
ret ob sequentera Z, quam tamen syllabam corripi posse, ait Pauwius) 
secunda enim sede uon raro est anapaistus, prima spondeus, ut 

nsg(TU)v I yevsx. | t» ttoc&co | TX>)ij.(av. 
Sic ergo sW w | <fsA£ Zeu^ j x. t. X. 
Agam. v. 915. v. Notas meas Crit. p. 58. Seneca Phoen. v. 11, 

Et patere ccecum, quo volet, f'erri pedem. 
loquitur Iliic CEdipus. Idem Agam. v. 400. Agameumour. 

adC. G. Hey lie. 163 

Tncolumis, auctus gloria, laude inclytus 
Heducem littore expetito impressit ^jetZem. 

Paridi adnlferos crines dat Horat. Od. I. 15, I9. 

Xenophon Cyrop. I. 6'. rovrcvv Ss (pavevTcuv, ouSsv sti aXXo o]u}Vi^Q[/.svoi 
eTtO^BhOvro, u)^ ovSava dv ?^ri (r av r a ra. roO y^syla-rov Qsov arjiMSiO,. 
Ita exliibet Ed. Welsiana, repetita a Thiemio — corruptum esse 
locum monstrat et sententia impedita, et lectionis varietas. Lego a-V 
c'vSsv av aAXolcxjo-ov. Nullum, inquit, aliud curabant omen, tanquam 
nihil omnino mutaturum ea, quae summus jam deus ostenderat. 

lb. IV. b", 2. xa.) TOTS aev d,via<rSc]$ aca xarscr^sv ourcug rov (p^ovov. 
Puto Of/^uj g, continuit tamcn. 

Symp. p. 455. V. IV. Ed. Thiemii in fine pro Tcuij.a,a-i lego crro- 

lb. p. 495. addita distinctione, proculdubio scribendum, s^iuov 
etv ^ igl nostrum da capo. 

Plutarchus Nicia p. ^75. V. 111. Ed. Hutteni, difficilis locus, varie- 
que tentatus sic videtur constituendus, ovosig 0' sn xai^ios r^y li. it. s. k. u,. 
our s IT. S. a. r. v. 0. ^XsitovTo;, {j^rj x^arrjSyjvxi Tols Xoyia-[j.o7f. x. r. X. 
^Neque pueri instar, qui, jam in navem receptus, relictos in littore 
parentes aliosve identidem respicit cunctantem et versantem rem variis 
ratiociniis scepius non obedire ac vinci necessitate, nimirum quum nihil 
prodesset cunctatio, atque ita reiundere etiam ac cohibcre coUegarum 
impetum. cet. 

Crasso v. III. p. 355. in fine. Nisi periturum se videntem Crassum 
magno tamen animo excusatos voluisse suos milites, ne proditi inipera- 
toris crimen Romanes premeret, nisi hoc, inquam, contendas, scrip- 
sisse putem Plutarchuin, ovx dirarrj^); v. r. it. sxSoSsls. Ipsum eniin 
Surejiee dolum probe perspexisse, sed coactum a suis ad colloquium 
venisse, ex praecedentibus apparet perspicue. 

Quajst. Rom. p. 519. Ed. Steph. lo7f os xa) wxraXloig. pro nihili 
Toce \0~15 lege svloig. Hesychius bvIujv, S toy vcy iaxw v. — suicc 
^a.xyrEvu.ara, sunt apud Eurip. Cycl. 25. 

De Fortuna Rom. 573. ed. Steph. in fine, \dyov SliruXoy, ttoXs- 
fiou rv^Yiv xzXova-i. — in Latina Xylandri versione recte est belli 
portam, licet in notis nihil sit monitum. Scribendum igitur iri Xtj •/. 

"On h^axTov apr-J; p. 783. ej. ed. ixslvai roug olxsrag ixrv- 
fXova-iy, OTTcvg iraoao uj any avroig. Sic editur nullo sensu. Loquitur 
de Scythis. Scriboex Herodoto IV. 2. OTtwg ydxa Soveovcri. aurolg 
Conf. omnino doctissiinum Barthelem. Itin. Anach. p. Ill, 117. 

Ueft do^yla-g p. 808. ej. ed. iEschyli sic videtur scribendus, post 
r-^v (pxiycc cet. Si£(pQsi^s cet. w. i ^da- a<r a rsAToywy voyov. Ut sit 
aioristus ab oj/Saw, sive rifSdaxiu, 


The following Exercise gained Sir Wm. Browne's Medal in the 
second year after the institution of that prize at Cambridge. It 
was written by the Rev. John Hayter, M.A. F. A. S. the* 
a Scholar of King's College. 


iToiOv ujw-vcov, MwcrUj ^pewsiv acuTOV, 
H f,a 1^.01 QcK^ei; uvlag ev A\o~ 

r«v K'jqci SoiTii^oi yXvKspav /xeAJcrSev 
^ETTuyXwaarcu, xctl t IXeA»(J"8« xouga; 
''AKKa /X£A7roj(raj xuTctraxsT alvuis 
"Ehxii flojiAOf, 

' EXhs' ac^eo'Tco' [xsya y.a[uu.iv sXko; 

Kocp^lav da.Kvacra'ev, oXoog t larl/ev, 
XysTXla -TruTpii' xovsgolg iiapUl 
9r£v9e<r<v ijrog. — • 

^flg \6pa. fjLOt ^smv txqa.^'', agsicog 
'^A TTo'vwj ouXwv 7reSajW.s»4/' hgwTwV 
'^i2j aTTiiTrsv crxA«ga criSago;^ag|«.«>» 
"Egyx TTOAjTwy. 

.dielfj-ci ^etlj,aivsi (ppevag — A I' avXriarot 
Mo-'iVSTui, [AixTrig ^ratrewc, 'Epivvvg' — 
Ka.W 'Ato. KXixyyola-u jSejSaXov u)g<rer 
Mr^viv OjJ.a.ifj.UiV'—' 

BaXXsrai S* ol 7tug7ra.h(x.ff,o; ^sXefxvQu 
' Jg' fXoyog 8' atSwvo; utt (nrTrxTcuv ol 
Bel (reAaj, <poira Se* rpejaovra S' opya. 

Fviot, T«g«TT£». 

Svyyovov <pvgBi xovtg av$og u^ctg' 
Ttsoov 7rajU.ju.»XTOV, aSeXipswv re 
AliJ-Uy x«t 7r«Tg«v yizTai' 5«(Po»vov 

Adversaria Liter aria. 165 

KapTTOV udo^wv. 

'T(3gscug xxgavTog — apag Os, (^sAXo; 

/ij, a^xTTTKXTOg 0"xeSa(re< |xep<jU-vav 

KviioLTa TTdTpig. 

Niiv Se, 7r«i ^gixroig 6e'/xjT0?, avarrot.^ 
ZoivQg a xaX« TragsSgoj, flXcav re 
EvTrpsTTYjg epyctiv tujj^Iu, 'OAujU-ttou 

AwfJ^XT uyuXXstg' 

Aeup' Tfl', EJgava, %6ovoj Oj«.jw,a, <piyyog 
KTUfjiUTaiV, oX^ov xogui^oi, yavog T£' 
Olo-ov Ij TtuTpav uyjec, iLoXrncrx 

EvvofJLOv TraiSoj agaliav xvl<rais 
lIuTspog (TTogya. "ttots, yrigo^o<rKov 
Av^ig uvTslvYi ijf,£XsTav, tv S' aura 
" E(T<rQ (Tuvspyog. 

Kx) yag si Icuxy ' Ti, TrXscav y o-ixoilSoi. 
' Ei <piA>j, jxaT*)§ TrXg'ov «u <f)Aa(re»* 

A^Qovct Swpa. 

'A[ji,sga,v S* oXoiTO 7roXo<^Qoga.u)v 
Av(TTOvog XdiXwli' eTriTryeucrov ou|50V 
^ov^ flea, xaj ^sl[i.XTog otyplov dog 
NyjVB[xov aluv. 

In Maximis Comitiis, Jul. 2, 1776. 



Peculiar usage of the Preposition Otto. 

An No. XVII., to which unfortunately I have not at this moment 
the opportunity of refeiring, are some metrical notes, by a corre- 
spondent, who signs himself G. B. Remarking on line 838 

• Si cui displiceat haec vox, utpote nimis Alahi^ova-a, is scribatj nee me 
invito, Jid^. Ed. 

l66 Adversaria Literaria, 

(Porson^s edition) of the Ph(Enissa,\ie seems deterinined to quarrel 
171 toto with the luckless preposition in question, and scruples 
not to part with it even at the expense of cutting up the line 
without mercy. Construcfionem non expedio, are his words, unless 
my memory fails me. In quoting the line from Porson, to the best 
of my recoilection, he accentuates the preposition in a manner, 
which makes some difference in the construction. Nothing, how- 
ever, can be more correct than the passage, as it stands in Porson's 
edition, and, bating the circumstance of the idiom being rather 
of rare occurrence, nothing more easy and clear. The words 
must be taken thus ; Trvgyog t= diSvaxv avia-ra vtto Xvga^ 
Tu; 'AiLi^iovia-i. *' And the citadel of the twin streams [Dirce and 
Ismenus] rose up to the sound of the lyre, namely, that of Am- 
phion." So in Herodotus, Book i. | 17. £crTg«T£u?TO 11 'YIIO 
(rvgiyycov tb xa.) ttvjxtiScov, xa» ocvXoi) yvvotixyj'l'ou ts x«( avSo^Vou. The 
expression Ttupyog Sj5up(,c/jv 7totc<!xmv may be paralleled by one in the 
Medea, line b42, (same edition), where the words izoXtg Ugoov 
•jTOTa[xu}v are applied to the city of Athens,* in allusion to its position 
at the junction of the rivers llissus and Cephisus. With refer- 
ence to the great ingenuity which the author of the notes evinces, 
as well here as elsewhere, we hope that we shall give no offence if 
we observe, that it is one thing to set forth the reading of a passage 
as it might have been, and another to present us with what it was. 
That he " lies like truth," — is the very least that can be said of 
the Critic. ' N. A. 

In tracing to a Latin original that line of Blair's Grave, 
" Where are the mighty thunderbolts of zoar" 
I found that ihefulmhia belli had been applied by different writers 
to the two Scipios — by Virgil, (^^^n. vi. 842.) 
" Aut geminos duo fulmina belli 

" Scipiadas." 

By Cicero, (Orat. pro Corn. Balbo) " Cum duo fulmina nostri 
imperii," Sec, 

Those heroes are styled by Lucretius (in. 1048.) 
" Scipiades bello fulmen, Carthaginis horror." 
But Blair's line seems more immediately borrowed from Silius 
Italicus, (vu. 107.) 

"" Aut ubi nunc sunt fulmina belli 

" Scipiadas." 

And this appears imitated in the old Moral Quatrains of the 
Seigneur de Pibrac, commonly called the President Faur, in the 
following line : 

• See Class. Joum. No. III. p. 566. 

Adversaria Liter aria. 167 

*' Oil sont ces Empereurs, ces foudres de la guerre ?" 
In his ninetieth Quatrain the venerable Seigneur de Pibrac (an 
author, whose work is now, I believe, ver^ rare,) has thus anti- 
cipated Rochefoucault — 

" Le Peche t'a quitte, tu ne le quittes pas" — 
Which in the Maximes et Rtfiexiom Morales, (197) 1 find am- 
plified in the following words — " Quand les vices nous quittent, 
nous nous flattens de la creauce que c'est nous qui les quittons." — 

P. D. V. 

Ad Ilhistrissimum Baronem H* *****. 

Vicina quoties vestigia vertis ab Urbe, 
Unde sonat confusum atque illaetabile murmur, 
Has inter ramorum umbras, viridesque recessus, 
Qua Philomela sonos dulces el amabile carmen 
Integral ; O ! reputes quam sint commercia vana, 
Quam vanus vitae strepitus, mundique procellas. 

Foile per has errat sylvas, et amoena locorum, 
Ille, fatigato qui special lumine ccetus 
Vulgares, lacitse gaudens solamine Musae, 
Aut qui solicilas volvit sub pectore curas 
Causa ardens Patrice ! Vernae vos, suavius, aurce, 
Spiretis ; voces et tu, Philomela, canoras 
Suavius instaures ! mihi sit satis addere votum 
Ut longum has sedes Dominus clarissimus omet, 
Ipse pari cultu pra'slans, ac munere Musa?! 
Non. Jmu 1814. W. L. B. 

Tlie following Inscription has been incorrectly printed in Le 
Chevalier's Voyage dans la Troade. It is seen at Bournabat, 
near Smyrna, on one of the columns, which are supposed to hav« 
befiu brought from the Baths of Diana. 







168 Adversaria Literaria. 

Scale of Foreign Painters. 

To interest the recollection, or to direct the taste, of our reader?, 
we are requested to insert the following Scale, under what our 
correspondent is pleased to call a coinprehensive title, the Adver- 
saria. The article is curious, and we readily comply with the 
request. The author considers 20 as the highest degree of per- 
fection, of which we can form no adequate idea ; 19 as the degree, 
which we can conceive, but which no artist ever attained ; and 18 
as that^ which has been reached by the most perfect masters. 

The Scale is divided into four columns, comprising the most 
essential parts of Painting : 

Composition. Design. Coloring. Expression. 

Albani 14 14 10 6 

Albert Durer 8 10 10 8 

Andrew del Sarto 12 \6 9 8 

Barocci 14 15 6 10 

Bassano 6 8 17 2 

Baptist del Piombo 8 13 l6 7 

Bellini (John) 4 6 14 2 

Bonarotti 8 17 4 8 

Bonrdon 10 8 8 4 

Le Brun l6 l6 8 l6 

Buouacorsi, or Perrin del Vaga 15 l6 7 6 

Cagliari, or Paul Veronese ••15 lO l6 3 

Caraccis 15 17 13 13 

Caravaggio • 6 6 l6 2 

Corregio 13 13 15 12 

Dan/de Volter 12 15 5 8 

Diepembeck 11 10 14 6 

Domenichiuo 15 17 9 17 

Giorgione • 8 9 18 4 

Guerchini 18 10 10 4 

Guido 15 13 9 12 

Holbein 9 10 l6 3 

Jordano (Luca) 13 12 9 6 

Jordans (James) 10 S l6 6 

Josepin, or Avpiuo 10 10 6 2 

Julio Romano 15 l6 4 14 

Laufranc 14 13 10 5 

Leonard de Vinci 15 l6 4 14 

Lucas of Leyden 8 6 6 4 

Mazzuoli, or Parmesiano, '-• 10 15 6 6 

Mutiano 6 8 15 4 

Otho Venius 13 14 10 10 

Palma, the elder, 5 6 12 2 



































































Adversaria Liter aria. l69 

Palma, the younger, 12 

Penni, il fattore 2 

Pernfiino 4 

Polidoro da Caravaggio • • • • 10 

Pordenone • • 8 

Pourbns 4 

Poussin ♦••• 15 

Primaticcio 15 

Jlapliael 17 

Rembrandt 15 

Rubens 18 

Salviati « 13 

Le Sueur 15 

Teniers 15 

Testa 11 

Tintoret 15 

Titian 12 

Udino 10 

Yandyck 15 

Vanius 13 

Zucchero (Thadeo) 13 

Zucchero (Fred.) 10 

Litforaqiie Epiri legimiis. Virg. Mn. u. 292. 

In an Historical Memoir, M, Gail proves that in this expression 
the Poet is guilty of an anachronism. In Homer, Herodotus, 
Thucydides, and other ancient writers, ^ttsj^oj signifies a Continent, 
and not Epinis. That word was not used to express a Geogra- 
phical division at the time of the voyage of ^neas. Thucydides 
calls the inhabitants of i^Trsigog barbarians, hence Epirus could not 
be a part of Greece. Pausanias (Elea. 1. i. 14) says that Her- 
cules brought the white poplar from Thesprotia into Greece. 
Thesprotia was in that part of the Continent since called Epirus ; 
Epirus was not then a part of Greece. 

~l irri> ^ 

Gnate mild longa Jucundior unice vita. 

Catull. lxii. v. 215, 

Pronam satis vulgata lectio explicationem admittit. Una tamen 
literula mutata legerim, longe. Sic 

O mihi de fratris loiige graiissime natis. Ovid. Met.xii. v, 686. 
Et longe ante alios omnes mitissima mater. ' Tibull. in. 4. v. 93. 
Sed quid in aliis moror ? Ipse alibi eodem modo hac voce usus 
est noster : nempe Carm. lx\i. v. 159- 

Et longe ante omnes raihi quae me carior ipso est. 

J. H. H. 

170 Ad-cersaria Literaria, 

Mr. Scott Waring, in his " Tour to Sheeraz," p. 126., me«- 
lions the ignorance of a barbarian on the Southern coast of Persia, 
who, " finding a watch, which some one had dropped, held it in 
his hand till he heard it beating, which he thought to be extraordi- 
nary, as it neither walked nor moved —he put it to his ear, and 
heard it more distinctly. After considering some time, he cried 
out, ' Ae quorm sag too kodjaee, dur bia,' — ' Wretch, w here are 
you ? come out' — and threw it in a passion on the ground. The 
watch still went ; he then very deliberately took up a large stone, 
and broke it to pieces — the noise ceased, and congratulating him- 
self upon it, he cries out, ' Akhir kaoshteed' — ' have I killed you?' '* 
(or moie literally, ' at last are you killed r) 

To this story an extraordinary parallel may be found in a work 
lately published, the '^ Letters written by eniinent persons in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries," (8vo. 3 vols. 1813.) It is 
there recorded of Mr. Thomas Allen, (who died about the year 
3630, having from his skill in mathematics been suspected of 
astrology and magic,) that — " one time being at Home Lacy, in 
Herefordshire, at Mr. John Scudamor's, (grandfather to the Lord 
Scudamor,) he happened to leave his watch in the chamber win- 
dowe, (watches were then rarities). The maydes came in to make 
the bed, and hearing a thing in a case cry tick, tick, tick, presently 
concluded that this was his Devill, and took it by the stringe with 
the tongues and tinew it out of the windowe into the mote (to 
drowne the Devill). It so happened that the stringe hunge on a 
sprig of an elder that grew out of the mote, and this contirmed 
them that it M'as the Devill — so the good old gentleman got his 
watch again." Vol. ii. p. 203. 

The Literary ISIagaziiie and British Review for January, 1789, 
gives, from some anonymous traveller, observations on a collec- 
tion of curiosities belonging to Baron Hiipsch, at Cologne, mIio, 
it appears, was author of a work on the JNaturai History of Lower 
Germany, and other publications. Among those curiosities was 
a most remarkable Hchrezc Wlamiscript, of the thirteenth century, 
Mritten in beautiful characters, and particularly valuable on account 
of the ancient portraits, and other miniature paintings, with which, 
it was decorated. Does this collection still exist — or has the 
Hebrew MS. found its way to Paris? 

The Baron's Museum contained, besides, Altaria Portatilia, 
or yha. Piatoricc, travelling altars of the early Christians — many 
fragments of silk, interwoven with gold and silver, and other pieces 
of ancient tissues and stuffs, fabricated between the sixth and riiiith 
century. How the antiquity and authenticity of those relics werf 
ascertained does not appear. 

Adversaria Liter aria, 171 

Epitaph on Mr. Tweddell/ zcho died at Athens in 1799, and 
was buried in the Temple of Theseus ; written by Mr. 

E^'^sig sv (fiSifxiuoKri' ^aT7)v Xo<^trjg ttot s^psi^ag 

' Av^sa., KUi as viov MotKr sCpiX-vjcs ixoltyjU. 
^AXT^a fMovov roi arcHixa ro yrfivov a[Ji(pixa7\.67rr£i 

T6[x(iog- T7]v \f/up^r;V ouQavog aiTTug e^ci. 
*JEZjw,Tv (f, oH (Ts (pl'AQij <piXov cog, xara ^axprj ^iouTsg, 

MvTjixa (pi7^o<^po(rovrig, ^Xa>^ov, 6^ijpo[xsSa, 
'Hd6 y o[xa}g xa) rspTrvov £;^£'v tout sryriv, — AOHNAI^ 

'fig <rhf JBperoLVVog scov, xsktsui sv (rTro^ir}. 

A Letter^ of the celebrated Dr. Bentley, dated 25th Sept. 1697. 

(In the collection of the Rev. Mr. Payne, Crickhowell.) 

To the Rev. Mr. Gordon, at Reading, in Berkshire. 

Rev. Sir, 

'Tis a long time ago since I received by your hand 
the kind present from Mr. Jablonski ; the first occasion of my delaying 
to return f hanks to youracif and him, was a desire I had, not to return 
him a bare letter, but to make him also a humble present of all the 
things y*^ I had published : two of w^i being then in y^ press, one at 
London and another at Utrecht, I stayed till they were finished. 
That at London has been done a Q''^'^. of a year since : but the Dutch 
one, w<^'i is a Callimachus, is but just now a coming over; though it 
has been sold in Holland some months since ; but since I can at length 
get them all together, I purpose by the first opportunity to make my 
acknowledgments to him for y*^ singular honour he has done me by so 
elegant and accurate a translation — tiiere is now in England a friend of 
his, one Mr. Grabe, once professor of Divinity Wejiio-monti, who 
brought me another copy of my book from Hamburgh : he told me 
when I saw him last, he could convey any parcell to ye hands of Mr. 
Jablonski. If I do not find his an easy and sure way, I will make bold 
to write to you and beg y^ favour of your direction. I was a fortnight 
this summer in Berkshire; but by my very ill fortune it never once 
came into my mind y"^ I was so near a person to whom I had so great 
an obligation : since y' I took Reading in my way to Oxford on purpose 
to wait upon you : but calling at your lodgings I was told you was 
gone abroad. Sir, I give you a thousand thanks for your favour, 
being y 

most obliged Humble S"'. 


' Author of Prolusiones Juveniles. 

» See Dr. Clarke's Travels, Part II. Greece, &c. p, 534, 

? This Letter is not in Dr. Burney's Collection. 

172 Adversaria Liter aria. 

Inscription lately discovered in Samos; communicated by Mr, 
Renouard to Dr. E. D. Clarke. 

*H ysvsy) So^Y] rs xoi) ev ftoua-rjO-i Tvpivvcx, 

"E^oX^Si ^ TrdfrrjS axpcx. <^spou(r apsrrigf 
*EvV£OL0ag rpi(T<Ta.g sricov ^ri(rcz<TOt, ro>csu(riv 

jdi>crrr}Vois e7\.i7rov haxpoa xcu (rrova^ag. 
Hag yap, £[xou (^Siixevr^g, -/yipog ^oixog, ours yap au-nj 

AeiTToixai, our sXittov ^'karrrov a7roi)^oixBvr]. 
*Avt) OS. TraTpuiou rs xa) u->^opo(poio [xeT^aBpoVy 

Asirri * Tou/Jtov l;^£/ G-(o[xa Xa;^ouo"a Trerpy]. 
JEI 8' TyV su(rs(dicov omog "Koyog, oottot dv olxog 

Ou [/.og, £]U,ou (ptji[xsvrigf raKrO svsxvpas ru^aig-' 

— Nescis quantis in mails verser miser, 

Quantasque hie suis consiliis mihi confecit solicitudines. 

Ter. Andr. Act. iv. S. i.£5. 

Verser is here governed by the indefinite quantis. Quantas re- 
quires the same mood : the conjunction too demands the sub- 
jmictive. Conjidrit would restore the grammntical accuracy. 
This will be considered as a shght alteration^, when it is recol- 
lected that some copies read conjiavit. 

Notwithstanding is not unfrequently, but erroneously, used 
as a Conjunction. It is the French nonobstant. Deprived by time 
and use of its participial form, it is now a Preposition. Hence 
the following expression in an elegant and popular writer is incor- 
rect : — " Notwithstanding an Archbishop had strong claims to the 
purple." It should be either, Although an Archbishop had strong 
claims to the purple: or, Notwithstanding the st)vng claims of an 
Archbishop to the purple. 

* Fortasse XtJtj). a>j'to;, vel Xiii'tc; idem valet quod ^ASfT-joj. Ed. 

Adversaria Liter aria, 173 

Of monumental inscriptions in a church yard, none is more cal- 
culated to make a strong impression than the following : 

Tons ces morts ont vecu ; toi qui vis, tu mourras : 
L'instant fatal est proche, et tu n'y penses pas. 

Over the gate of the Emperor's palace at Vienna is inscribed a 
monument of Austrian ambition, in five vowels, A. E. I. O. U. 
The interpretation is : Austriacorum Est Imperare Orbi Universo. 

Alexander of Paris was the first who made French verses of 
twelve syllables : in that measure he wrote a poetical History of 
Alexander the Great. Hence arose the name of Alexandrine verses. 

Inscription, written by Beza, on a picture of Erasmus bj 
Holbein, at Basle: 

Ingens ingentem quern personal orbis Erasmum, 

Hie tibi dimidium picta tabella refert. 
At cur non totum ? mirari desine, lector, 

Integra nam totum terra nee ipsa capit. 

'The restoration of the equestrian statue of Henry IV. on the 
Pont-neuf in Paris, brings to our recollection the following qua- 
train on that statue : 

Ce bronze etant du grand Henri Timage, 
Qui fut sans pair en armes comme en loix, 
Regoit ici de son peuple I'hommage, 
Et seat lui seul d'exemple 'X tous les Rois. 

in a funeral service celebrated last year at St. Petersburg, in 
honor of the Duke d'Enghien, a Cenotaph was made, with the 
following Inscription : 

Inclyto Principi 


Borbonio Condseo Duel d'Enghien 

non minus propria et avita virtute 

quara sorte funesta claro 

quem devoravit bellua Corsica 

Europge terror 
et totius humani generis lues. 

174 Notice of Grant's 

Inscription over the Fountain of tlie Mineral waters of Bourbon i 
Aufiferas dives jactet Pactolus arenas, 
Ditior haec volvit mortalibus unda salutem. 

Epitaph ium in Heynium. 

Koii (xh, ''Apov, y.uTci. yaTav sttm^so <puXa ^avovTcoVf 

yrjpoioc r)^l KO-xoiV a^Qog aTrOTrpoAJTrcov, 
•SAs xcti slv \i''ica.o, Kska.(TfJisvog cuv a.7re^cogeig' 

ov yuQ tT cc'/igaiTroig (^alvBTOH vfeAioj* 
iXX' o'lKTOg Ku) egic ^vo(psgr]V STTiKihaTcti ouoiV, 

(pa.(TiJi.ura 8' s^ 'Eps^sv; Xuyq eTtayovcri ^goTolg^ 
"EvSu S' aTTSigscrlYj ere yj*.pii (^^oyym re Xugacov, 

'Hp'jicjov Se <paTJj de^ar iTTspy^oiuivov' 
ivS' apsTYj <ro(piYj re TraKaiysvsoiv uv^pcuitoiV, 

olov iScTv sjca/xij, XajW.7rp' avs^ovcri xxga. 
Kcxl pa crs Ma.ioviZY,g re Mixgoov r sttsmv yTro^ijTijy 

IguiV TEgTtovTcg Klov ayoxjcri yogov. 
Too (TV ixj^gavicov 5v[x,ov <pl\ov Iv i/,a.K0(.gs<T<7iV, 

^cape, iJ.cfH.upy yXvKspciig apt^fiSaXrig ^agt(nv. 



complete Summary of' its Rules, with an Elucidation of 
the general Principles of elegant and correct DictioUy 
accompanied zvith critical and eaplatmtori/ Notes, 
Questions for Examination, and appropriate E.vcrcises. 

JL HIS M'ork has claims on the patronage of those, who consider 
the fabric of their native language as an object fitted to engage and 
to requite an assiduous investigation. Other Grammars niay dis- 
play a creditable share of industry in their remarks on the popular 
usage of words ; but we too often delect the want of philosophical 
precision, when they endeavour to trace back that usage to the pri- 
mary elements and powers of speech. To this volume should be 
conceded an honorable station among those Grammars, accommo- 
dated to general use, of which the philological principles are best 
calculated to bear the test of rigid inquiry. The compiler seems 

Eimlish Grammar. 175 


to have diligently availed himself of anterior researches ; but there 
is yet, we apprehend, in the present work, enough to vindicate the 
praise of an intellect, vigilantly and profitably exercised in the 
various pursuits connected with philological criticism. The obli- 
gations of our native vocabulary to the Greek and Latin languages 
may possibly have led former writers to seek for a further analogy 
in the assimilation of its grammatical forms ; but Mr. Grant very 
properly distinguishes between " the syntactical capabilities of a 
language with respect to expression," and " its etymological powers, 
arising from verbal iniiection or modification." The article is 
assigned by Mr. G. to the class of Definitives (p. 19, See.) ; a term 
which blight be usefYdly adopted to denote many words frequently 
arranged under other parts of speech. Mr. G. attributes three 
cases to the noun : the nominative, the objective, and the Saxon 
genitive. In the verb he appears to regard the imperative and 
infinitive as modifications of the indicative ; and he admits only two 
tenses ; the present and the preterite. For a future action he holds 
that '' there is no simple and appropriate form of expression." In 
relation to the moods, our author observes that we have not in 
English as in other languages, " any form of the verb implying 
possession, power, ability, or the like ;" but the advocates of the 
old system are comforted by the remark, " that we possess suitable 
means of denoting, distinctly and explicitly, every mode and cir- 
cumstance of thought that can be associated with action." Indeed 
the observations on verbs and their inflexions form a prominent 
characteristic of this grammar. 

On a cursory view of Mr. Grant's list of irregular verbs, we do 
not perceive the imperfect strook, which is formed equally from 
strike and stroke. Is there not an authority for sweaten in Mac- 
beth ? 

" Grease that's sweaten from the murderer's gibbet, throw into the flame." 

Pled was formerly derived from plead, as led now is from lead. 
See Spenser's Faeiy Queene. Book 5 — Canto 9j Stanza 43. 

Those who maintain (280) that contemporary is the adjective and 
cotemporary, the noun, might perhaps allege co-sine and co- 
tangent in support of their opinion. Nervous does not convey 
the most commonly received idea of weakness ; for nervous pa- 
tients are often remarkable, not only for their muscular strength, 
but their vital powers of endurance. But no blemishes, that we 
might discover or imagine, will affect the credit of a work which 
is evidently the result of much intelligent and well-directed labor. 
With respect to its general merit, our judgment is already before 
our readers. 




J.N presenting these plates of Greek Contractions and Connexions 
to our readers, we take the liberty of reconnnending to the notice 
of such of them as are concerned in the education of youth, the 
labors of Mr. Hodgkin, which we consider as peculiarly calculated 
to facilitate the adoption of that plan for the improvement of the 
memory, which is recommended by Quintilian, ' and which was 
followed with so much success by Professor Porson. ^ We shall 
conclude the plates in the next No. 


NO. II. 

Et prodesse et delect are. 

11. 1 HE algebraical problem, given in our last, was written, we 
believe, by Owen ; better known, perhaps, by the title of " The 
British Martial." The last line, as it stands in the original, is — "Si 
quid arithmetic'A doctus in arte potes." But as, in our opinion, The 
method of x's and y's is preferable to that clumsy rule termed by arith- 
meticians Position, we took this opportunity of recommending that 
method, as well as its illustrious patron, to tl)e notice and admiration 
of such, as might possibly be so ignorant of what is going on in the 
world, as not to know of the existence of either. But let us hear 
Owen's answer : 

iEqualem numerum pomorum carpsit uterque ; 
Sex etenim Petrus, sex quoque Paulas habel. 

Very true, Mr. Owen ; but this is not telling us how you came by 
the result. Well ; if we must, we must ; — and the task of explanation 
shall fall upon ourselves. Let (or, put, as a celebrated malhemati- 
cian will have it) x = what Peter, and y = what Paul, had, after 
they had robbed the orchard. Now, if Paul give Peter 2 from his 

* Il'.ud neminem non juvabit &:c. Lib. xi. cap. 2. 

* See Hodgkin's " Sketch of the Greek Accidence," and " Definitions of 
the Terms made use of in Geography and Astronomy." 

Momi Miscellanea Subseciva. 1 77 

stock, Pefer's siiare, so increased, will be {x _L 2), uhile Paul's, 

being less by the 2 so given away, will be {y — 2). But, by the 
problem, Peter's share, &o increased, = 2ce Paul's, so diminished: 
i. e. {x J- 2) = 2. (3^ — 2). By a parity of reasoning, it will be 
found tlsat (3/ _1_ 3) = 3,(.r — 3). And from these two equations the 

corresponding values of jr and y may be easily determined by rule. 

The riddle too is Owen's : but, as I have never yet met with an 
animal which will answer its conditions, I shall leave it to time and 
the ingenious to force out the meaning. — Davus sum, non Oedipus. — 
Those, however, who shall be found sufficient for this, will easily solve 
me the two following, which are not Owen's : 

I. Die quanam hoc habitat monstvum regione viarum, 

Cui cibus est telhis, pocula sunt maria. 

II. Die quibus in terris homines Natura dedit, quos 

Sole sub adverso non solet umbra sequi. 

To the latter I can give the reader some clue. For, surely, the 
poet had none other in view, when, breaking out into the fullness of 
poetical expression, he produced the following distich : 

He roar'd so loud, and look'd so monstrous grim, 
His very shadow durst not Ibllow him. 

N. B. If this be true, his lungs must have been more brazen than 
those of the celebrated throat-performer,' Stentor ; and his mien and 
visage more hideous than those of Polyphenie. 

The reader must not, however, think to escape the difficulty by ima- 
gining that we allude to those gentry, who dwell where the sun is ver- 
tical. Their shadows are in as constant attendance there as our's are 
here. It is one thing to be indefinitely small, and another to be in a 
state ol nihility, — whatever mathematicians may say to the contrary. 

12. It does not seem to be generally understood that Eustathius, the 
celebrated commentator on Homer, was a Christian ; otherwise, we 
suppose, this would have been noticed by Dr. Lempriere. He was, 
however. Archbishop of Thessalonica, and florished A. D. 1180. 
(see Bentley on Phal. p. l6=22) though some say he lived as early as 
A. D. 750, in the time of Manuel Con)neuus. lu token of his great 
and extensive learning, he is called by Nicetas Chroniates, who was 
himself a great admirer of Honier, TToXvg xa) [J.sycx.§ iv Xoyoig. Hfe 
also wrote annotations in Greek on Dionysius Periegetes. Tlie follow- 
ing references to his Commentary on Homer, from which, if other 
proof were wanting, it might be inferred that he professed the Chris- 
tian religion, are at the service of the reader. Iliad, p. 22. 1. 27. p. 7S. 
I. 25. p. 289- 1.40. p. 357. I. 3. p. 595. 1. 29. p. 878. 1. 27. Odyss. 
p. 340. I. 38. The pages and lines correspond to those of Froben's 

' This title was, we beUeve, first given to Stentor by the author of The 
pursuits of Literature ; who, in that work, and more especially in the notes 
to it, has made many shrewd remarks upon men and things, and few with- 
out effect. 

No. XIX. CIJL Vol. X. M 

178 Momi Miscellanea Subseciva. 

edition, Basil 1559 — ^0. He is not to be confounded with a half- 
learned and half-witted sophist, who wrote a fooHsh and ill-digested 
Romance in Greek, entitled, " The Courtship of Ismenias and Ismena." 
That author's name was Euniathius. It was mistaken for Eustatbius, 
by reason of the resemblance which the letters C T bore to the letter 
M in the original MS. 

13. " Est pro ha beo reg\t dativum." — So say the Latin Grammars. 
Bat, with the good leave of those who compiled them, I affirm (and in 
company with others of no small repute) that it is not in the power of 
man to produce a single instance from any Latin author, indicative of 
est occurring in the sense of habeo. That Est mihi, est tibi, est illi, pater, 
are respectively equivalent to Habeo — habes — habet, patrem, — is truth 
direct. And this is what Lilly meant, though he was too lazy to ex- 
press it. 

14. " Qui scrive, non ha memoria" — was the remark of Prinelli. 
Common-place and other books of reference should be used sparingly, 
and never where they are not absolutely necessary. By inuring our- 
selves to the habit of committing to paper what we wish not to forget, 
at each step of this sort the natural memory is excused one moiety of 
exertion. It was said of Lord Strafford that " his memory was great, 
and he made it greater by confiding in it." — " Memoria augetur curA, 
negligenti^ intercidit." 

15. Anacreon died eating grapes, and Archimedes working a geo- 
metrical problem : — which was to be envied more ? 

16. The usual way of writing personal satire, so as to escape the 
effects of personal resentment, is to outstep the truth just so far as to 
defy the party satirized to own to the representation ; taking care that 
the outlines of the reality may be all along descried through the veil of 
exaggeration. Yet, methinks, a judicious statement of the plain fact, 
in all its nudity, may be made just as effective, to say the least of it. 
When the facetious Menart wrote the following distich over the door 
of his country-house, — 

Faux conseils, & mauvaises tetes 
M'ont fait clever ces fenfires' ; 

tvhere was the man who dared to disturb one stone of it I 

17. The wisdom and edification, which we have derived from the 
Greeks and Romans, are almost incalculable. Among other wonderful 
truths, we have been taught by them to understand, that* to commence 
operations is the same as to have half completed them, — af%^ ^^m-'o"" 
vdvros, Hesiod, Dimidium facti qui coepit, habet, Hor. and 
that 1=1, not taking the overplus into the account, — vrptioi, ovh 'ira- 
civ ocro) TiXkov yj[U(rv itavTog. H«siod. However, in these days of reason 
and refinement, we have been able to carry the last assertion just twice 

' So completely was Atisonius convinced of the truth of this, that he 
wrote an Epigram on the subject, which to every idle man must be amusing. 
He tells us, in tact, (who does not see the inference?) that to begin a thing 
twice is tantamount to finishing it. Incipe ; dimidium facti est aepisse ; 
supersit Dimidium ; runum hoc incipe^ et ejjiaies. 

Momi Miscellanea Subseciva. 179 

as far as tlie Ascreau sage, and to show that | = 2, =, in fact, a 
quantity four times as great as itself. Now to the proof, — Let ^r = y, .•. 
ai^ =y^ =z xy I .-. x^ — V^ = ^^' — ^P > ^^> which is the same thing, 
(j? _|- 3/) X (x — y) = X Y, ('*■ — y)- Dividing both sides of the 
last equation by their common multiplier {x — y), x -j_ y = x ; or 
(since x =^ y) x J^ x z= x ; i. e. Ix =■ x ; and, dividing both sides by 
X, 2 — I. But \ (according to Hesiod's rule) = 1 ; and things that 
are equal to the same thing are equal to one another; ••. I = 2, == 
a quantity four times as large as itself! Q. E. D. 

IS. " I will print Hesychius, Suidas, Etymologicon, allin one page, 
after the manner of Walton's Polyglott, in several divisions : so that 
the proper series of each alphabet shall be preserved, upon which the 
authority of each depends. For Phavorinus, while he mixed all to- 
gether, spoiled them. Emendations shall be made of them all, which 
will make three volu.mes in folio. And then Pollux, because he can- 
not be reduced to an alphabet, with Erotianus, Phrynicus, &c. and 
an Appendix ex MSS. shall make a fourth. I lind very great encou- 
ragement for this design, and I do^ire to hear your opinion of it." Letter 
from Dr. Bentley to Dr. Bernard.— Bentl. Epist.p. 154. — It is much 
to be regretted that a design so noble and praiseworthy as this, should, 
from some cause or other, have never been brought to perfection. Nay, 
it even seems to have existed only in intention. Of all men Dr. Bent- 
ley was certainly the most competent to undertake this. To him be- 
longs the merit of having first found out that the Scriptural Glosses, 
which are interwoveji with the text of Hesychius, are interpolated and 
spurious. From a letter of his, printed in Dr. Burney's collection, it 
appears that he suspected this to be the case as early as the year l684; 
which, as he was born in l662, carries the discovery as far back as 
his two-and-twentieth year. His reasons, which are there supported 
by examples at some length, are in the strongest degree conclusive. 
These, which may be placed under three heads, we will endeavour to 
lay before the reader in his own words, and with as much conciseness 
as shall seem fit. 

I. " Lexicon Hesychianum verum, ad seriem literarum tarn in 
secundis quam priniis Syllabis, more Dictionariorum hodiemorum, 
accurate institutum esse. — Glossas [Sacras] extra seriem, locis non 
suis, plerasque omnes reperiri, certissimo indieio, non ab Auctore 
profectas esse eas, sed a studioso quodam Christiano in exemplaiis sui 
margine et ora vacuA scriptas, j)osi ilia (quod in aliis libris multi? sci- 
nius accidissp) prava Exscriptoris diligenti-A in contextuni esse diditas. 
CCim autem Glossas illas pra? marginis angustia liueola una non cape- 
r^t, pluraque adeo in Textu vocabula intra Glossse alicujus marginalis 
caput caudamque compreiiderentur ; et ignarus et parum diligens 
Exscriptor conturbavit pieraque omnia, et extra ordinem coUocavit." 

II. " In Codicibus MStis fine singulorum opus^ulorum, et in Lexi- 
cis fine singularum literarum, si quid paginee supererat, purum id 
et scripturaD vacuum fere a Librario relictum esse. Ea spatia, qui 
libros illos posted possidebant, alienis ssepe fragmentis iiihilque quic- 

ISO Short Account of the new Anatomy 

quam ad srriptorcm attinenlibus complere soliti erant : quod ipsodutrt; 
Codices ejusniodi raaiiu verso, sa^pe his ocuiis conspexi. Ad hiiuc 
morein vide quas iiugas Chrislianus ilie Hesyciiio suo iuterserit iiue 
literic A, post Awcov ; &c." 

in. " Cum lihrariiis — spuria ilia in Textum insercret, adfd male 
rem gessit, ut eadem verba Iciritinia ante et post emblema illud novum 
interdum iterarit ; nonnuiiquam in ipso emblematis circuitu iegitimum 
cum interpretatioue suA verbuni quasi captivuin clauserit; est ubi 
median! verbi legitind interpretationem emblemate uotho diviserit, et 

These reasons are still further confirmed by the relation of the fol- 
lowing fact, with wiiich he concludes the letter: *' Quid quod eadem 
onniia, quaj \\\c visuntur, ex Christianorum Lexicis, quaiia plura— 
vidimus, aJro/.2,^£) tradr.cta sunt ? Sylvani horuni babes in Hkronymo 
Martiannei, vohumm secundo. Ibi on)nia fere Pseudo-Hesychiana, et 
multo plura reperies." The Gloss on Moviog, which is a Scriptural 
word, is one of the very few which has chanced to preserve its proper 
alphabetical order. But this, it is evident to conuiion sense, must, 
notwithstanding, receive condemnation along with the rest. BrodiEus, 
however, in his edition of the Anthologia, p. Si?, has the following 
remark: " Hesychius in voce ^Aviog : eo ex loco Hosychium divi 
Cyrilli testimonium producentem, atque id genus plerisque, Christia- 
num fuisse existinio, tanietsi alitor sentiat Siiidas." — But it were vain to 
look for sagacity, where common understanding is wanting. If Bro- 
daeus had been able to turn into Dutch, or whatever was his vernacu- 
lar language, Suidas's account of Hesychius, he would have learnt 
probably that Suidas was there speaking of one man, and he thinking 
of another ; — and that 'Ro-vyj'j; Mi/ojcriOf is not the same with 'Ha-uyjog 
'AXs^cc-^dosuf. Aldus, it seems, who knew just as much about the 
matter as he, had made the mistake before him ; ry^AsV Se TVfXoy isif 





JL HE great public interest which has recently been excited 
in the metropolis by the Lectures of Dr. Spurzheim, and 
the erroneous and imperfect opinions entertained by people in 
general about the nature and object of the doctrine he promul- 
gates, have induced me to communicate a short account of it, for 
the amusement and instruction of such of your readers as may be 
curious about the progress of the philosophy of the mind. For I 

and Plij/sioiogi/ of the Brahi. 181 

consider the Discoveries of Gall and Spurzheim as constituting 
one of the most important steps which science has taken since the 
days of Pythagoras and Aristotle. You have loo little share al- 
ready unoccupied in tlie present Number to allow me to give a 
copious detail of this important system. 1 shall, therefore, con- 
tent myself with a short account of the leading doctrines, of the 
facts which led to their discovery, and of the rate of their progress 
among modern physiologists. 

It is a principal docirme of this system, that the faculties of the 
human mmd are innate, or in other words, that they depend on 
our physical organization ; not tliat our iiieas are innate, but only 
the material conditions of the mind's manifestation. Walking and 
speaking, for example, cannot be considered as innate, but the 
legs and organs of voice are connate material conditions of our 
bemg able to walk and to speak. In like manner the brain has 
ever been considered as the organ of the mind. The doctiine of 
Gall and Spurzheim divides the brain into an assemblage of organs 
which are the material conditions of different mentai functions. 
Thus the propensities of physical love, of concealment, of anger, 
Sic. the moral sentiments of justice, of hope, of benevolence, and 
the intellectual faculties, of languages, of mathematics, 8cc. have 
their seats in different portions of the brain ; and the talents and 
character of individuals are varied according to the strength and 
relative developement of these various organs. It is well known 
that some men, who can become great mathematicians, cannot be 
great in any other science, and that many who are geniuses in other 
sciences cannot be mathematicians, and so on of other faculties. 
One of the great errors of many Universities and Academies ap- 
pears to be that of erecting one science as the standard of human 
intellect and abilities in general. Gail and Spurzheim, and their 
pupils, have, in instances too numerous to be recorded, and in 
various countries, pointed out the peculiar forms of the head, 
which indicate the greater or lesser developement of these diffe- 
rent propensities, and have pronounced at once such a true cha- 
racter of individuals as has been confirmed by inquiry, to the great 
astonishment of their friends and acquaintance. The primitive 
feelings or manifestations of the mind are o3 in number. They are 
divided into 1st, the propensities; 2d, the sentiments ; 
and .Sd, the KxNowing faculties. According as the different 
organs and the faculties which they give the mind are developed, 
so the character of the individual varies. 

Dr. Gall first discovered the method of determining the mind by 
the form of the head, by actual experience. He first noticed that 
people with large jutting out eyes were go!>d linguists; those with 
large crebella had strong passions, J>i,c. The same facts are ob- 
servable in animals ; our farmers prefer bulls with large necks, and 

1 82 Physiology of the Brain. 

the Roman Bard is well known to have praised him, Cuiplurhna 
cervix. ApoUonius Rbodius lib. iii. v. 70 1. mentions that Medea 
felt a violent pain in the back part of her head occasioned by her 
amorous feelings ; a circumstance corroborative of Gall's system. 
By mnlti plying his observations of the different forms, and compa- 
ring them with the minds of the individuals, Dr. G. and his colleague 
arrived at last at the great degree of perfection to which they have 
brought their science. The iirst thing which struck me was their 
Anatomy ; and I will venture to say, that before their accurate 
demonstrations of the brain were published, nothing was actually 
known and published about the anatomy and phvsiology of that 
organ in Eurtipe. The progress which this science is makmg is 
rapid, and Dr. Spurzheim is attended by the most respectable and 
ingenious medical practitioners of London. Those who wish to 
see the objections raised against this system, and their proper an- 
swerSj may consult a joint work by Gall and Spurzheim, " Sur les 
dispositions innees de I'Ame et de I'Esprit." Paris, 8vo. 

Dr. S. is preparing a work on the yliiatoim/ and Physiology of 
the Brain, which will be published in England sometime during 
the ensuing winter, vvhere a fuller account of the theory will be 

The remarkable difference of form, given by the ancient artists 
to the heads severally of their gladiators, philosophers, priests, and 
emperors, is well known, and must have been founded on actual 
observation. The present system explains the difference whereby 
an accurate eye can discern by seeing the head of any famous Gre- 
cian, whether he was priest, poet, boxer, &c. by pointing out the 
differences of form given to the human head by the comparative 
magnitude of the organs of veneration, poetry, pugnacity, &c. 
arid confirms our notions of the accuracy of observation and of the 
skill in sculpture possessed by the ^Egyptians, Greeks, and Ro- 
mans. These early nations, who ripened science in the infancy of 
Society, with whom philosophy first dawned on the night of time, 
afford a remarkable instance of the connexion which exists be- 
tween the physical form, and the intellectual character of our spe- 
cies ; and contribute, with modern physiological researches, to 
show that however great the intluence of education on moral habits, 
the susceptibility of improvement depends chiefly on our organic 
structure, and that we must cross the breed as we do cattle in order 
to improve society and enhance the moral and physical character 
of future generations. 


1S5 . ' 


DIE 15 JUNII A. D. 1314. 



oERENlSSIME Princeps^ dilectissimi Regis nostri vicem ger- 
cns, Vosque augustissimi Reges, Duces invictissimi, illustrissimi 
Hospites ! 

Quantum hodierno die gaudium universi capiamus, ego licet sile- 
am, res ipsa declarat ; cum propter adventum vestrum optatissimum 
non modo homines omnium setatum et ordinum, sed etiam moenia 
ipsa videantur, atque urbis tecta, exultare. Magno sane honore et 
incredibili laetitia cumulastis Academiam Oxoniensem, quod earn 
visere dignati estis, quod hoc potissimum tempore, cum vobis non 
solum ut hospitibus gratulari possimus, verum etiam ut servatoribus 
nostris gratias agere meritissimas, ideo quod per eximiam virtutem 
vestram a gravissimo bello salvi tandem et liberati sumus. Jam 
veio ille Vester tot potentissimorum Regum et Principum consessus 
perfundit haec loca lumine quodam novo, et splendido, et quale nun- 
quam antehac huic Academiae, prueter banc nulli afFulsit. At non 
ii sumus profecto, qui nosmetipsos honore tali dignemur ; neque 
tam arroganter quicquam a me dictum aut conceplum esse velim : 
cum autem mente repeto tot viros praestantissimos, qui omni genere 
scientiarum hie floruerunt, tot Principes et Reges Collegiorum 
nostrorum aut fundatores, aut ipsos disciplinis nostris instructos, 
ante omnes vero magnum ilium Alfredum, a quo, Tu Princeps au- 
gustissime, genus ducis tuum, cujusque sceptri haeres tu es amplis- 
simus, Alfredum ilium, quem conditorem Academiae nostras vindi- 
camus, turn vero de dignitate ejus dissimulare non licet. Quin Ipse, 
si nunc adesset, jure optimo posset de Academia gloriari sua. 
Quapropter, oro, liceat mihi vicem ejus sustinere paulisper, dum 
voces proferam in persona graviori, et digna quam vos, Augustissi- 
mi Reges, attente audiatis. Eum igitur putatote vobiscum sic loqui. 

"Quam aspicitis Academiam, Hospites ilktstrissimi, omnium 
fere quae exstant antiquissimam. Ego princeps formavi. Postquam 
enim crudelissimum hostem debellassem, (quemadmodum Vos nu- 
per fecistis) nee prius neque sanctius quicquam habui quam ut se- 
dem quandam in regno meo stabilirem, ubi literai humaniores, et 
scientiae, et pacis artes coli possint ; sciebam enim quantum hujus- 
modi studia ad summi Dei honorem, quantum ad humani generi* 
felicitatem, conferre valeant. Sperabam quoque tam honestam 
operam a me inchoatam, ab aliis post me Regibus et Principibus 
viris auctam et amplificatam fore ; turn vero partem istius gloriae 
ad me redundaturam. Nee me fefellit mea spes. Haec est ilia in- 

184 liUcrary Intelligence. 

clyta Oxonia, cujus nomcn etiam ad ultimas gentes et populos re- 
motissimos pervenit : cujus ego alumnis, tanquam militibus tneis 
usus, niultas de barbarie, de inscitia, de impietate, victorias report- 
avi ; plurima porro literarum posui tropaea et moimmenta, qua£ 
nulla delebit vetustas, nulla unquam obscurabit oblivio." 

Haec i'\liredo fas esset magniiice pra^dicare : nos humiliora et 
sentire et loqui decet. Nunc autem a Vobis, Augustissimi Hospi- 
tes, petimus ac etiam oramus, ut qua benignitate hue advenistis ad 
Academiam nostram visendani, eadem htec excipere velitis, quae of- 
ficii et reverenliaj gratia facinuis. Parva quidem sunt, sed ex ani- 
mis gratissiniis proticiscuntur, sed propensissima voluntate persol- 
vimus, sed justissima de causa vobis debemus : quoniam, ut tran- 
quilla pace jam fruamur, quod cum studiis nostris apprime accom- 
niodatum, turn maxime optandum erat, id Vestris, Augustissmii 
Principes, consiliis prudentissiniis, Vestra, Duces fortissimi, admi- 
rabili et pa^ne divina virtute, et nobis, et totius Europee geutibus et 
nationibiis, est efjteclum. 



Plautinorum Cupedioriun Ferculum quartum, a Rest, Gymnas. 
Lips. Prof, et Rectore. 

The Mostellaria is the play under the author's consideration in 
this Progranima. He is dissatisfied with tlie chemical interpretation 
given of vivo urgenio, A. I. Sc. iii. 84, an error arising from a 
false interpretation of Homer ii. 14, 399. Vivum he understands 
nativum, pitrum, solidum. He puts the words Ileus, Tranio, A. H. 
Sc. ii. 83, in the mouth of Philolaches. In A. HI. Sc. i. v. 59, 
he contends that the metre requires age for euge. V. 66. for 
extentatum he puts exienuatuni. In the JFirst Scene of AxCt V. he 
distributes and corrects vv. 40 — 45 thus : 

Th. Dat profecto. Tii. Quin et ilium in jus irejtibe, inve* 
Tiiain. Th. Mane. 
Lxperiat; ut opiiior ; certum est. Nunc mihi hue hominem cedo. 
Th. Pet juhe hominem cedes mcvicipio poscere. Th. Imo, hoc 

primum volo, 
Qucestioiii accipere servos. Tr. Faciundum edepol censeo. 
Th. Quid si ego igitur anessam homines? Tr. Factum jam 
esse oportuit. 

M. Mohnike has published at Greisswald, in Pomerania, the 
First Volume of the History of the Literature of the Greeks and 
Romans. The History is divided into Six Periods, from the 
earliest time of Greece to the Fall of the Eastern Empire. 

lulterary Intelligence. 185 

Elemens simplifies de la Grammaire Grecque ; par J.B. Bar- 
BiEit, Auteur des cinq Lexiques Grecs-Francais. 12mo. Paris. 

Last year was published at Leipsic, a new edition of Oppiant 
bvScHNEiDERj with the various readings of MSS, at Venice 
and Moscow. A second volume will soon appear, edited by 
Messrs. Schneider and Sch^i^fer, containing Translations of 
both the Poems, of Illustrations, and of an Index Grjecitatis. 

M. Schneider endeavours to prove, and we think successfully, 
that the Poems on Hunting and Fishing were not written by the 
same person. 

\ An edition of Xenophon's Anabasis, with a German translation, 
and a vocabulary, was published at Leipsick before the events 
which have immortalized the name of that city. 

Tractatus de Elementorum Grascorum pronunciatione, Auctore 
Anastasio Georgiade, Philippopolitano, Grace et Latine elabo- 
ratus. Paris, Vienna, et Leipsick. 

Part L handsomely printed in 4to. Price One Guinea, to be 
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By Samuel Johnson, LL. D. With numerous corrections, and 
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Pindari Carmina, Gr. et Lat. cum notis et emendationibus, 
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Vigerus de Idiotismis Linguae Graecifi, edidit Hermannus, Edit, 
nov. 2 Vols. 8vo. Lips. Is'lS. 

Durr, Lexicon Homericum, Gr. et Lat. 8vo. Lips. 1812. 

Schleusneri Curae Novissimae ; sive A ppendix notarum et emen- 
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8vo. Lips. 

Archilochi, lambographorum Principis, Reliquiae ; collegit, 
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Literary Intelligence. 187 

Les Vers Dores de Pyihagore, expliques et traduits pour la 
premiere fois en vers Eiimolpiques Francais, par Fabre d'Olivet, 
8vo. Paris. 1813. 

Strabonis Geographia, cum notis Siebenkees, cura Tzschucke, 
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Mr&OI AISnnEIOI. Falmla Msopi(B, e codice Augustano 
nunc primum editas, cum fabulis Babrii Clioliambicis collectis om- 
nibus, et Menandri Sententiis singu.laribus aliquot etiam ineditis. 
Recensuit et emendavit Jo. Gottlob Schneider. 12mo. Fratisla- 
vicz, 18)2. 

Besides the successful attention paid to the Fables of ^sop and 
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from some MSS. The TvtZiixi aovoa-ri^oi of Menander are considerably 
increased by the introduction of many, which had been published as 
the productions of an unknown author, and of others from various ]MSS. 
Of the corrections the learned Editor gives an interesting account in 
the Notes, which are extended to 65 closely printed pages. 

A neat edition of Virgil, by Mr. A. J. Valpy, who has col- 
lated the best editions of Hei/ne, Burmann, and others; and has 
printed it for the use of Schools. Pr. 4s. bound. 

A neat edition of Horace, for Schools, which has been colla- 
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Travels in various Countries of Europe, Asia, and Africa, by 
E. D. Clarke, LL. D. Part li. Greece, Egypt, and the Holy 
Land. Section II. 1814. 

To announce the continuation of this work, is to excite the curi- 
osity, and command the interest, of the classical scholar, the moralist, 
the historian, and the politician. We can only say, in general 
terms, that this volume fully supports the character of the author. 
Few men of classical taste there are, who will not envy his situation 
on Mount Anchesmus, when his view was gratified by the following 
interesting objects ; 

1'88 Literary Intelligence. 

Central. The lofty rocks of the Acropolis, crowned with its majestic 
temples, the Parthenon, Erechtheiimy &c. 

Fore Ground. The whole of the modern city of Athens, with its 
gardens, ruins, mosques, and walls, spreading into the plain beneath the 
citadel. The procession of an Albanian wedding, with music, &c. was 
at this time passing out of one of the gates. 

Right, or North-lVestern Wing. The Temple of Ti!Eskus. 

Left, or Soi/th'Easterfi TFing. The Temple of Jupiter Olympius. 

View beyond the Citadel, proceeding from West to South and East. 

1. Areopagus. 2. Pnyx. 3. Ilissus. 4. Site of the Temple of 
Ceres in Agra-, and Fountain Callirhoe. 5. Stadium Panathenaicum, 
site of the Lyceum, &c. 

Parallel circuit, with a more extended radius. 1. Hills and Defile of 
Daphne, or Via Sacra. 2. Pirjeus. 3. Munychia and Phalerum. 
4. Salamis. 5. /Egina, 6. JNlore distant Isles. 7- liymettus. 

Ditto, still more extended. 1. Parncs. 2. Mountains beyond Eleu- 
sis and Megara. 3. Acropolis of Corinth. 4. IMountains of Pelopon- 
nesus. 5. The ^gean and distant Islands. 

Immediately beneath the eye. 1. Plain of Athens, with Albanians 
engaged in agriculture; herds of cattle, (Sec. P. 56.5. 

Those, who cannot visit this classical ground, would feel no siiiall 
gratification, if one of the |)anorania painters Mould take a view of 
the scene, and prepare it for representation under the inspection of 
Pr. Clarke. 

Mr. Haygartli has just published his Poem intitled Greece, in 
Three Parts, which contains many notes, classical illustrations, and 
sketches of the scenery. Royal 4to. Pr. l/. I2s. 6d. 

Researches in Greece. By Major Leake, who has been em- 
ployed by government upon several missions into that country. 
This part of the work is confined to inquiries into the Lanpuaoe 
of the Modern Greeks, and the state of their Literature and 
Education, with some short notices of the Dialects spoken within 
the limits of Greece, viz. the Albanian, Wallachiau, and Buls,a- 
riait. It is intended as an intioduction to the further Researches 
jnade by the Author, during his residence in Greece, into the 
Geography, Antiquities, and present state of the country. One 
Vol. 4to. 3/. Ss. boards. 

Professor Coiistantin Nirolopoulo, a celebrated Greek, is engaged in 
making an' analysis of this work for the use of the French Institute, 
lie is also trunslritiiig many parts of it for instrtion in the Moniteur. 
\Ve hope soon to give our Readers some account of the work. 


Dodd's Famihf Bible, reprinted in two very thick quarto vols, 
of upw ards of a thousand pages each, royal paper 61. 6s. demy 
4/. 4s. 

This work is neatly and correctly printed, with a large letter, 
on a superfine wove paper^ and contains, accoiding to the Pie- 

hiterary Intelligence. IS9 

fece, a selection of Notes from all the best Foreign and English 
Commentators, with Dissertations prefixed to the Pentateuch and 
Gospels, showing the different authorities and proofs of authenticity 
now extant. 

In this edition it will be found, that every historical narrative is 
explained, as well as the ceremonial laws and peculiar rites of the 
ancient Israelites, the purity and morality of the Gospel clearly 
pointed out, and the whole interspersed with such pious reflec- 
tions, collected from the works of the best English Divines, as 
naturally occur to every serious reader, forming altogether a most 
elegant and useful edition of the Scriptmes of a convenient s!ze 
and moderate price. 

Messrs. Mant and D'Oyley are proceeding with great zeal and 
ability in ihe Family Bible. Five Parts are already printed. 


The College Council of Calcutta has recommended a subscri{> 
tiou for a hundred copies of a few of the most valuable works of 
!Mahummedan law, to be printed and published under the superin- 
tendance of Dr. Lumsden, and the learned native now attached to 
the College. 

Captain Roebuck, the Assistant Secretary and Examiner, is pre- 
' parmg to publish a new and augmented Edition of Di. Hunter's 
Hindoostanee and English Dictionary. 

The Bengalee and Sanscrit Professor, Dr. Carey, has just finish- 
ed the printing of a Grammar of Uie Punjabee language, and has 
now in the press Grammars of theTelingu and Carnatic languages. 
He is also writing Grammars of the Kashmeera, the Pashto, 
Ballochee, and Orissa languages. In addition to these various 
and extensive labors, this pious minister and indefatigable scholar 
will complete in two years more his Bengalee Dictionary. 

A Grammar of the Burmah language by his son, Felix Carey, 
wlio already treads in the footsteps of his father, is also in the 
Missionary press of Serampore. 

Mr. Marshznan, and his young pupil, now become his associate, 
do not slacken in their pursuit of the Chinese Grammar and learn- 
ing, by which, indeed, the public is about to profit. 

Mr. Marshman has composed a work under the title of Clavis 
Sinica, or Key of the Chinese language. It was at first intended 
only as an augmented edition of his Dissertation on the Chinese 
language, formerly published with the first volume of the works 
of Confucius ; but the matter extended as he proceeded, and the 
book has assumed a new form and title. Of this work the first 
part is already printed, and consists of two Dissertations, the first 
©u the Chinese character, the second on the colloquial medium of 

190 Litei^ary Intelligence. 

the Chinese. The second part of the Clavls will be a Grammar 
of the Chinese language. These two parts of the work will con- 
tain from four to live hundred quarto pages; and Mr. Marshman 
has in contemplation to add as an Appendix, a Vocabulary, con- 
taining the characters in the whole of Confucius, which he con- 
ceives will render it a complete key to the language. 

The passages in Chinese characters contained in these works 
are printed from moveable metal types, which Mr. Marshman and 
his coadjutors have had the merit of bringing, by the most laudable 
ingenuity and perseverance, to a state of perfection, perhaps not 
known before. 

Mr. Colebrooke has lately presented the College with a Voca- 
bulary of the Punjabee language. 

Captain Lockett is preparing a list of books purchased on his 
late lour to Arabia ; and a faithful and detailed memoir of that 
tour, deeply interesting to the antiquary, the historian and the 
scholar, is anxiously looked for by the public, from the authentic 
and learned pen of Captain Lockett himself. 

Of the Sanscrit and English Dictionary by Mr. Wilson, the 
Manuscript is in great forwardness, and some progress has been 
made in printing it. The same author has presented to the public 
tlie valuable gift of a translation in verse of the Sanscrit Poem, 
entitled the Megha Duta. The Megha Duta, or Cloud Messen- 
ger, is a work of high repute amongst the native professors of 
Sanscrit literature, and is entitled, by beauty and simplicity of 
style, by rich description, just sentiment, and warm and tender 
feeling, to the rank it holds. Calidas, the author to whom it is 
generally attributed, is already known to European literature 
through a prose translation, by Sir William Jones, of the Drama 
of Sacontala, one of his most esteemed works ; and he is beyond 
doubt the author of many of the most admired compositions in 
the Sanscrit language. 

From one of the best authors, therefore, of that language, Mr. 
Wilson has selected for publication and translation, the Megha 
Duta, as a book equally calculated to gratify the Sanscrit scholar, 
and the cultivator of general literature. The original text of the 
poem has been published wiih the translation into English verse ; 
and as the poet is led, by the nature of the subject itself, into many 
allusions to the ancient geography of India, and to many peculiari- 
ties both in faith and manners of the Hindoos, the version is ac- 
companied with explanatory notes. 

To render it more interesting to the literary reader, many 
passages are illustrated by comparison with analogous passages 
in English and Classical poetry ; and for the satisfaction and 
assistance of the Student, the notes comjirise also literal transla- 

Literary Intelligence, ig\ 

tions of such passages as have been considerably deviated from, in 
the poetical version ; together with corresponding extracts from a 
few other Sanscrit writers ; and some points of etymological and 
critical discussion, affecting the meaning or construction of the 

The metrical merit of the Megha Duta, the smoothness and 
harmony of the verse, the felicities of idiom, heightened by their 
allusions to customs, opinions and events, and by national asso- 
ciations, the perception of which is instant, and the application 
familiar to the minds of those, for whom Sanscrit poetry was 
written, can be taken only upon credit by those who are not con- 
versant in that classical language ; but enough is conveyed by such 
a translator as Mr. Wilson, to afford great delight to his country- 
men, and to claim their warm acknowledgments. 

This work of Calidas, which we are to beheve may claim nine 
centuries of antiquity, and which some refer to even earlier ages, 
unfolded now for the first time to such distant generations as our 
own, displays that uniformity in the character and genius of our 
race, which seems to unite at once the most remote regions of time 
and space, and which it always gratifies the human mind to discern 
through the superficial varieties, in which some slight difference of 
external and intellectual fashions may disguise it. In Calidas we 
find poetical design, a poetical perception, and thence poetical de- 
scriptions of nature in all her forms, moral and material, poetical 
imagery, poetical invention, just and natural feeling, with all the 
liner and keener sensibilities of the heart. In these great, immutable, 
features we recognize in Calidas the fellow and kinsman of the 
great masters of ancient and modern poesy ; familiar to us, but 
with whom he never communicated : we acknowledge genius, 
taste, and judgment in his work, equalled, no doubt, but not 
often surpassed by the most admired authors whom we are accus- 
tomed to read in their own languages. 

The excellence of Mr. Wilson's version, regarding it only as 
an English work, lifts him far above the humble, though useful, 
rank of Translator. 

Bibliotheca Arahica : auctam atque integram edidit D. Christia- 
Hus Fredericus de Schnurrer. Halae ad Salam. 8vo. 

This work contains an account of the principal Tracts in the 
Arabic language or in Arabic literature. It will be sufficient to 
observe that it is divided into the following parts: Grammatica, 
Historica, Poetica, Christiana, Biblica, Koranica, Varia. 

A small work is just published, intitled, " A Defence of the 
Jewish Keligion." — This is intended as an Answer to the Argu- 
ments of the Rev. Mr. Frey. 

The Samaritan and Syriac Alphabets, with a Praxis to each, by 
the Bishop of St. David's, 12mo. Is. Qd. 

192 Literary Intdligence. 

The Samaritan and Syriac Texts are printed from Leusdeu's Scholag 
Syriuca: et Diss, de Lingiid Sainaritanu. 

A Vocabulary, Hebrew, Arabic and Persian, by the late Miss 
E. Smith ; to which is prefixed a Praxis on the Arabic Alphabet, 
by the Kev. J. F. Usko, 12nio. 

This was published at thcexpen-se of the Bishop of St. David's, and is 
dedicated to Mrs. Harriet Bowdler. 

Elements of Hebrew Grammar in Two Parts. Containing, Part 
1. The Doctrine of the Vowel Points, and the Rudiments of the 
Grammar. Part \l. The Structnre and Idioms of the Language. 
With an Appendix, containing the Notation of the Hebrew Verbs in 
Roman Letters. By J. F. Gyles, Esq. M. A. Oct. Pr. 12s. bds. 

An Abridged Hislori/ of Greek Literature, from its origin to 
the taking of Constantuiople by the Turks, has just been reprinted 
at Paris, from the original in German, by F. Schoell. 2 Vols 8vo. 

We undersiand this work is reprinting in England for the use of Stu- 
dents at College, and for the higher classes of Schools. 

New FJemejils of Literature : or an Analysis of the different 
kinds of literary composition, of the best Classical works, ancient 
and modern, Erench and Foreign : containing Extracts or Trans- 
lations of the most esteemed authors. Partly translated from the 
German work of Eschenberg. By ^I. Breton. 6 Vols. duod. 
Pr. 1/. 4s. 


Notitiacodicum MSS. qui in Biblioth. Nuremberg, asservantur, 
a Mullero. 8vo. Lips. 1813. 

An Litroduction to the study of Bibliography ; comprising a 
general view of the different subjects coiuiected with Bibliography, 
as well as some account of the most celebrated public libraries, 
ancient and modern ; and also a notice of the principal works on 
the knowledge of books; numerous specimens of early printing, 
together with fac-similes of the books of images, and the mono- 
grams or marks used by theiirst printers. Illustrated by numerous 
engravings on wood, 8cc. By T. H. Home, 2 vols. 8vo. ll. 8s. 

M. Ant. F'r. Delandine, Librarian of Lyons, has published in 
S Vol. 8vo. an account of jTOc MSS. of the Lihraru nf Lyons ; 
or Notices respecting their antiquity, their authors, the subjects of 
them ; the character of their writing, &c. Preceded by a history 
of the ancient Libraries of Lyons, and an historical essay concern- 
ing MSS. in general. 

The Catalogue of these MSS. begins with the Oriental. A Maimo- 
nides may be distiiigainhed among the Hebrew, a Koran among the 
Arabic, and a Gulistan among the Persian MSS. The great curiosity 
is a MS. No. 23. in an unknown tongue. It was sent, through the 
hands of the Senator Lanjuinais, to Langles and to Sacy, who could not 

Literary Intelligence. *187 

pronounce concerning its jiatria. It was then transmitted by INI. Castera 
to Dr. Haider, at Pavia, and to Fra Paolino, at Rome, and still no de- 
cisive information could be obtained. The inference, however, seems 
to be that it is a MS. from the island of Ceylon, written in Pali, con- 
cerning the sect of Budha. The Library contains also Sanskrit and 
Chinese MSS. 

An account of the Classical, Biblical, and Biblico-Orieiitatf 
will hereafter, we trust, form a part of our article on MSS. 

MM. Debure have published a Catalogue of the books of 
Larcher, the translator of Herodotus. The Catalogue contains 
2143 articles, with notes indicating their value and their rarity. 
It consists of many Classical editions in vellum, and in large 
paper. Several of the books are enriched with MS. notes of the 
learned possessor. 


Herodotus, Gr. et Lat. with all the Notes of Wesseling, Gale 
and Gronovius, also a Collation from ancient MSS. to be edited by 
J. Schweighaeuser, upon the plan of the Bipont. editions of the 
Greek Classics, to form 8 vols. 8vo. 

A Lexicon to Herodotus is also preparing by Schweighaeuser. 

A few Copies will be worked off on fine thick paper, and one copy 
onli/, on the purest Augsburgh vellum. 

Schweighaeuser's Prospectus of the above edition, in the Latin Lan- 
guage, has been printed in this Journal. 

Ftiur Volumes ot this important edition are already finished, and 
the others are rapidly advancing. 

Mr. kidd is preparing some Criticisms, Tracts, &;c. by the late 
Professor Porson. 

We understand that Mr. Blomfield's edition of the Persre will 
speedily be published. We are sorry to hear that it has been delayed 
by the author's indisposition. 

Shortly will be published a Translation of Velleius Paterculus. 

Elegantly printed ni 8vo. price 12s. in boards, a new Edition 
-with some Additions, never before published, of The English 
Works oj Roger Ascham, Preceptor to Queen Elizabeth : con- 
taining, I. Report and Discourse of the Affairs and State of 
Germany, and the Emperor Charles his Court. — II, Toxophilus, 
or the School of Shooting, with the original Dedication to Kmg 
Henry Vill. — III. The Schoolmaster. — IV. De^lication to Queen 
Elizabeth of (a Work which he appears to have meditated, but 
never published) the Lives of Saul and David ; now first prnited 
fiom the original MS. in the Publisher's possession. — V. Familiar 

NO. XIX. C/. //, VOL. X. *M 

188* Litcrarif hitelligence. 

Letters. To which will be prefixed the Life of the Author by 
Dr. Johnson, with Notes by Dr. Campbell, 8cc. 

The impression will be strictl} limited to 250 copies. 

Mr. Sharon Turner is printing a History of England from the 
Norman Conquest, at which the Anglo-Saxon Histur. coses, to 
the accession of Edward I., comprising the Literary History oil 
England during that period. 


M. Gail, Greek Professor in the University of Paris, the author 
of an excellent Greek Grammar, of an edition and translation of 
Thucydides, and of several classical publications of considerabl* 
Oierit, is preparing a new edition of Herodotus. 

Proposals for publishing by subscription, The Holy Bible; 
containing a new translation of the Old and New Testaments. 
To which \\il! be added copious Notes, illustrating the Customs, 
Manners, and Usages, of die Ancient Jews ; exemplifying the pe- 
culiar phraseology of tiie Original Languages, from the Writings 
of the most learned Rabbies, the Talmuds, Gamara, the Greek 
Fathers, &.c. and refuting the Objections of the ancient and Modern 
Deists, which have been made for the last I6OO years, from 
Porphyry and Celsus, down to Spinoza, Hobbes, Bolingbroke, 
Morgan, Tindal, Voltaire, Volney, &,c. by a strict adherence to the 
literal sense of the Original Languages. By John Bellamy; 
Author of "The History of all Religions," — " The Ophion," — 
and " Biblical Criticisms" in the Classical Journal. P'or further 
Particulars, see the Prospectus inserted at the end of this Number. 

We rejoice to learn that a Facsimile edition of the Codex Alex- 
andiiinis has been ordered to be executed by the House of 
Commons, at the public expense. It is gratifying to observe the 
highest autiiorities in the realm thus interesting themselves in the 
promotion and encouragement of sacred criticism. The diligence 
and acuteness of men yet living, or but lately dead, have carried it 
to a degree of perfection, which no man, livuig in the beginning or 
even the middle of the last century, could reasonably anticipate or 
hope. Let it be proceeded in with the same rapidity and ability 
which are now exercised upon it, and we shall not despair of seeing 
it in the course of titty years attain its highest acme of perfection. 
The original Texts have now received nearly all the advantages 
■which a collation of MSS. can afford ; and the invaluable labors 
of LovMh, Blayney, VVintle, Newcome, and last, not least, of the 
deeply learned aud lamented Horsley, have demonstrated what 

French Literature, *189 

beneficial effects may be derived from them. All that can now be 
wished for, is a careful collation of MSS. of the ancient Versions — 
of the iEthiopic — the Arabic — the Armenian — the Chaldee Tar- 
gunis — the Coptic — the Georgian — the Persic — the !>lavonian — 
the Syriac — and the Vulgate. The Septuagint is already in good 
hands. It were also much to be wished that the Jerusalem Syriac 
version of the N. T. discovered by Adier, (See his Vers. Syr. p. 
137. & seqq. 4to. Havnia-, 1789,) miiiht be published entire. 
From the present aspect of affairs we are inclined to hope that the 
accomplishment of these wishes is not ver) distant. Mr. Bauer, 
one of the Librarians of the British Museum, is appointed the Editor. 

ISlr. Jacob Ge^Mge Strutt, Author of *' A Translation of the Rape 
of Pi(xserpine, with other Poems from Claulian," also of the '' Latin 
and Italian Poems of Milton," has issued Proposals for publishing, 
by subscription, a new translation of Virgh,, in blank verse. 
This Work, limited to 250 Copies, is to be elegantly printed in 
One thick Vol. Royal Quarto, and hot-pressed. Price 3 Guineas. 

Two or three literary Gentlemen are pieparing for the press a 
work on the Oiigin and Progress oj' Siiperslitions, which will give 
an account of the different superstitious opinions of different coun- 
tries, ancient and modern ; with a Preface on the Nature of 


A Monsieur I'editeurdii Classical Journal. 
MoKSiEOR, ^ Paris ce 20 Septembre, 1814. 

Je m' empresse de vous communiquer les nouvelles litt^- 
raires suivantes, dans 1 esperance que vous voudriz bleu les inseier 
dans votre estiniablo Journal. 

Depuis quelques annees, M. Arsenne Thiebaut de Berneaud, I'ml 
des S. Ribliothecaires de la Bibliotlieque publique Mazarine, prepare 
une traduction frau^aise de I'lJistoire dis plantes de Theopliraste. 
Cest la premiere traduction de cet ouvrage entreprise en France. 
Elle sera accompagn^e du texte, revu. corrige et augmente d'aprei 
plu>ieurs Manuscrits du Vatican, de la Bibiiotheque Laurentientie de 
Florence, de l' Ambioisienne de Milan, et de Va Bihliothtque Royale 
de Paris. Les notes du savHnt tradiicteur scront trts-etenducs. De'a 
plusieurs out ele souniises ^ la premiere classe de I* Institiit National 
de trance, qui a encourage I' auteur de la maniere la plus flatteuse ^ 
continuer son utile travail, et k lui douner tout le developp* uient 
necessaiie pour faire bien couuoitre les vegetaux nonniies ou decrits 
par Ica dassiques Grecs et Latins. L' Institnt a particuliereinent 
jusqu' ici distingue les inemoires de M. Thiebaut de Berneaud sur 
r nha des llomaia';, le cytise des Grecs, le Chara de Jules Cesar, etc. 
Eufiu, pour douner k 6oa travail un caractere antique, si j'ose m' ex- 

190* French Literature. 

primer ainsi, I'auteur a entrepvis un voyage ptdestre pendant sept 
aniiees enltalie. il a recneilli dans cette belle coniree des n)ateriaux 
vraiiiie-!t precieux. On pent en prtndre une idee, en lisant sou 
Voijas^e (} r lie d Elbe, cite avec elogc par votre celebve Pinkerton, 
et le coup doeil hmorique, agricole, botanique et pittoresqut sur le 
Munie Ctrce'lo, qu' il vient de publier i;t que je conipte vous envoyer 
par la pr* liieie occasion. L' infatijiabie autenr a deja fait honiniage il 
la Societc Liwiemne de Londres de ses menioires sur Theophraste, 
ainsi qu- des rapports de in lere classe de V Inatitut. M. Ihiebaut 
est un eleve distini iie de f u Sonnini, et il possede quelques menioires 
inedits de ce celebre u turaliste, piMini lesquels on distingue un essai 
sur Ihistxiire natiirdk de la Moldavie. 

M. Loui= Petit-Hadel a in a la Seme classe de 1' Jnstitut, dont il est 
membre, plusieiirs memoires interessauts sur \gs monuments Cyclpeens. 
Ce venerable savant s'occupe aussi d' une traduction franpaise des 
Antiqtdlks Romaincs de. Denys tl' iJalicarnassc, 

M. Clavier, niend)re de 1' [nstitut, et Tun des plus savans Helle- 
iiistes <le France, vient de publier le Icr volume <le son exceliente 
traduction de Fausanias, accoinpagner du texte grec et de variantes 
precieuses, d' apres les Manuscritb He la Bibliotbeque du Roi. ' M. 
Clavier est professeur d' Histoiie au C llcge Royal de Fra<cc. II y a 
donne i'annee derniere un courb A' Antiquitts Grecqiiesy qui a iix^ 
r attention de tons ceu\ qui I'ont suivi. Le savant et laborieux pro- 
fesseur a expose wn grand nonibre de faits qui avaient echappe aux 
recherches de Meursius, de Potter, de Lambert Bos, etc. 

M. Letronne, .leune Helleniste et geograpbe tres-distingue, vient de 
mettre an jour un ouvrage important, dont voici le titre : " Recherches 
Geopaphiqnes et critiques sur le linr DE Mensura oebis terr^e, 
compod en Irlunde, an commencement dn neuviemc sii'cle,par DicriL ; 
suicies du tcxte restitue." un vol. in So. de 350 pages. Get ouvrage 
a obtenu un grand succes. L' auteur fait preuve, dans ses notes, d'une 
Erudition classique, pen commune en France. II est aussi I'auteur 
d' un excellent ouvrage, publie i'annee derniere, et qui a pour titre, 
" t^isrii si/r la To pogr a phie de Syracuse, pour servir d l' intelligence 
de Thuci/dide et de plusieurs autres auteurs ;" format in So. avec uu 
plan Ge Syiacnse. 

LeceUbie Boissonade, membre de I'lnsliiut, professeur de Littera- 
ture Grecque a I'Universite de Paris, vient de publier a Leipsic par 
les soiiis de M. hchaei'er son ami, une nouvelle edition de Marinus, 
phiiosophe Neoplatonicien, "^ accompagnee de notes philologiques et 
critiques, tt de plusieurs morceaux inc'iits. Le savant editeur montre 
dans ses notes une sagacite rare, utse critique juuicieuse, et une con- 
naissance profonde de la belle Litterature classique. 11 est vrai que 
Marinus est un aulenr dc peu d'importance ; m^is M. Boissonade, en 

■•■ Je donnerai dans un des prochains Nns de ce Journal une analyse 
detaillec de cet ouvrage. 

- Voycz sur ce philosophe les auteurs cites par Saxias dans son Onomaiti- 
con LiterariwVf part IL pag. 5. 

Notes to Correspondents. *191 

s'occupant de restituer le texte, qui 6fait g^n^rale ment corrompu, a 
saisi 1' occasion de corriirer ou d' ^claircir une foule de passages 
U'autrnrs (iu preuiier ordie. 

M. BuriKHif, professeur de Rlietorique au Lycte Louis-le-Grand, 
a puhlie, il y a qnelque temps, une gramniaiie grccque, in1itul6e : 
*' Mtthodc pour etudier la Inngue grecque" Les amateurs de la 
lanffut- n'Romere out rendu graces au ciel, de ce qu'ils out vu pa- 
roitre en France, pour la premiere fois,. une grammaire grecque ^crite 
avec mefhode. L'auteur, avant de conunencer son travail, a eu le bou 
esprit <i' etudier Talleinand, pour pouvoir consulter les srraminaires 
grecques ecrites dans cette langue. II avoue dans sa preface que la 
fameuse grammaire de IMathias lui a ^te d'un grand secours. M, 
Burnouf est sans contredit un des plus habiles hunianistes de France. 
II fait honneur a sa nation non seulement par son m^rite litteraire, 
mais encore par son zele ardent pom la propagation de la l;tt6rature 
grecque, qui jadis enllanimait le genie des Ravine, des Fenelon et des 
Boileau, ef qui aujourd'hui est pen cultivee chez les descendants de 
qes grands 

M. Neophytos Bauibas, savant eccl^siastique Grec, r^sidant h Paris, 
a dornierement public aux frais de ses corapatruites, une excellente 
Illietori(]ue, ecrite en grec moderne, et portant ce litre : " 'Pr^rooiKv, 
!K Tujv EvS-j^orsc'MV Tsyvoy^x(pujv ira.Xxioijv kcc) vsyjrs^^ojy scccyicr^sKra xoJ 
a-vvrcc^^slrro'. v-jto NsoOuto'j Baa/3a, etc. Get ouvrage, 6crit avec 61§- 
gance, et dans un esprit philosophique, a obtenu un succes ronjplet 
parmi les litterateurs de la Grece modorne. Je le recomniande avec 
confiance ^ tous les Hollenistes de la Grande Bretagne, qui d^sirent 
avoir des notions exactes >ui la Litterature de mcs cbers compatriotes. 

Je suis, Monsieur lediteur, avec un^ consideration distinguee, 
Votre devoue serviteur, 

a N. 


In our next Number we shall present our readers with a collation 
of an ancient MS. of Cicero's Paradoxa. The collator has in- 
formed us that the readings are frequently of great importance. 
It is well known that, even in Ernesti's Edition, the state, in which 
these short treatises are found, is unsatisfactory. Among other novel- 
ties which it contains, is the division of the last Paradox m\o tzco. 
Some account also of the lost Treatise De Gloria, written by 
CicerO; and mentioned by him in his Letters to Atticus ( Epist. 
ad Attic. XV. 27.^ will be there given by the person, who has 
promised vis. this collation. 

In No. XX. we shall likewise insert a very curious letter from 
tlie Author of the Miscellanea Critica to Dr. Taylor, on the sub- 
ject of the Sandwich Marble. We take this opportunity of re- 
turning our acknowledgments to Dr, Burney, who has kindly 

192* Notes to Correspondents, 

permitted us to re-print it from the Appendix to his Bentleii 
Episto/(B. In the same Number we shall give a Lite of the author 
of the letter. 

Major Rennell's Answer to the Remarks on his Topography of 
the Plain of Troy came too late. It w ill appear in our next. 

W. A. Hails' last paper shall be inserted as soon as possible. 

3. '^^''h Defence of a Passage in Herodotus will appear in an 
early No. 

H. A. M's Answer to Mr. B's Essay on the Integrity of the 
Hebrew Text will appear in No. XX. 

Katon, on the Hebrezo Descent oj the Jhi/ssinians, shall hare a 
place as soon as possible. 

M's last article of Biblical Criticism in our next. 

We shall give in an early No. a valuable Chart of Arabic 
Grammar, written by Abbe Morso, of Palermo. 

No. V. of The Account of MSS. S^c. came too late for our 
present No. 

The Collation of the Odysaey will be continued in our next. 

Tn our next we shall give an account of the Present state of 
Classical Literature in France and Germany. 

Mr. S. Weston's Classical and Oriental Fragments shall ap- 
pear in our future Jiio's. 

Sappho's Ode from Longinus is not within our plan, but we 
shall rejoice to hear from the Translator on other subjects con- 
nected with our views. 

The nt-wly published Fras^ment of Isocrafes de Permutafione 
will be printed in our next No. to which we hope we shall be able 
to add some annotations. For an account of this, see No. XV. 
p. 124. written by Professor Nicolopoulo. 

We are afraid that L. T. will not find an authority for illeque 
in pure Latin poetry. 

Tlonardius carceres invisens shall have, as it deserves, a place 
•very soon. 

We are sure that C. P. is in the wrong, because he is intempe- 
rate. Causas tanti sciat illefnroris. 

If we cannot immediately notice, we duly appreciate, the com- 
roumcations of our correspondents. 

A list of Errata to Vols. IX and X will be given in No. XX. 




'* Quod si nunc Lexica respiciamua Graca, qtiaiia multa fnerunt, laudabili instituto mairnoque 
labore a recentioribus consarcinata, ne iinicum quidem hue usque piodiit, non diro omnibus suis 
numeris absolntum, sed ne unicuin quidem, quod viam patefaciat, ad priniani verborum iiidolem 
et foimam detegendani, atqne adeo, quod videatur, valde coininendabile. Thesauhum iilum 
copiosum Henr. Stephani gustulum modo prtebere divitiariun Grcecarum verissime atiirmavit 
illustris auctor operis, muiquam satis laudandi, De Defectibus houierms Lingu.« Hebr.«^, 
p. 101." L. C. Valckenaeri Ohstrvationes Academica; quitms Via miinitur ad Originex Gracas 
investigandas, et Leocicorum Defectus resarciendos, p. 5. 

" Neque tamen Stephanus omnes numeros ita explevit (Olai Borrichii Dissert, de Lexicis p. 50), 
aut ob varias causas honiinumque infirmitatem explere pofuit, ut nihil deesset, nee posteronmi 
diligentife ad supplendum atque eniendandum aliquid fuisset rclictuni. Immo vero pemuilta 
desiderantur vocabula. Quare varii docti homines passim notarunt ea, qua?, deesseat in Stephani 
Thesauri), In primis id fecenint I. Fr. Fischerus Lipsiens. in Indicibus ad Editt. Gr. auctoiuni 
ah ipso curatas, et C. Fr. Munthe." Th. Chr. Harles iu the Prolegomtnu to the Introductio in 
Historiam Linguce Grcecce, Aitenburgi, 1778. page 51. 

Ihe persons, who have taken on themselves the superintendence of a new and 
improved Edition of H. Stephens' Greek Thesaurus, present their 
grateful acknowledgments to the very respectable and numerous body of Sub- 
scribers, who have honored them with their names, and express their regret 
at the unavoidable delay which has hitherto taken place. The encouragement 
which they have received has been so great, as to induce them to spare no pains 
to give the utmost possible perfection to the work. As soon as there was a great 
probability that the communication with the continent would be in a little time 
restored, they resolved to wait for this happy event, that they might enter into a 
correspondence with foreign scholars on the subject of their undertaking. To 
convince the Subscribers, however, that they have not been idle during this 
interval, they have determined to insert in the Classical Journal the foilowinf 
observations ; and they respectfully solicit the advice of scholars on the several 
topics, which they have discussed in them. They have only to request the reader 
to bear in mind that these papers contain only imperfect hints, which they will 
be rejoiced to see improved by himself. Their first intention was only to incorpo- 
rate into the Thes. those words, with which H. Stephens met after the completion 
of the work, and which he has thrown into his Index — to insert in the Thes. Scott's 
Appendix — and to verify the quotations. But they mean to extend their plan, 
because they entertain little doubt of the success of their undertaking. 

Whether they will preserve the present arrangement of the words under their 
roots, or adopt the plan of Matthew Gesner in his edition of R. Stephens' 
Latin Thesaurus, or the alphabetical plan pursued by Forcellinus in the Lexicoji 
totius Latinitatis, or the plan followed in B. Fabers Thesaurus 
Eruditionis, which appears by far the most satisfactory, is a point not yet deter- 
mined. Most assuredly the reasons assigned by H. Stephens himself in favor of 
the arrangement which he has adopted, as contrasted with the strict alphabetical 
order, are to them quite satisfactory against the strict alphabetical order, but 
No. XIX. a. JL Vol. X. N 

194 Materials for the Improvement of 

they must at the same time confess that the observations of L. C. Valckenaer 
respecting H. Stephens* own arrangement are to them equally satisfactory. 
The reader shall judge for himself. 

" Superest ut cos metu liberem qui (uti dixi) quoniam vocabula in meo Thesauro longe 
alio quam alphabetico ordirie digesta esse audierunt, quisnam is esse possit, valde mirantur; 
ac, ne iis duntaxat qui in lingugi Grsecae cognitione velut vcterani sunt (ut ita Joquar), non 
item tyronibus labor meiis utilis futurus sit, verentur. Sciant igitur illi, qui hoc timent, 
earn contra, qua> in meo Tkesavro habetur, vocabuiorum seriem, tantum commodi vel iis qui 
Grsecam linguam discere incipiunt, aft'erre posse, quantum alphabeticus ille ordo affert in- 
commodi. Hoc tamen ingenue fateor, si initio, quum ilia serie uti coepi, rem tot difficul- 
tatibus esse implicitam, quot postea sum expertus, existimassem, et fore ut nullus mihi 
quicquam ad eas auxilii afterret, neque ex priscis, neque ex iis qui eos sequuti sunt ad nostra 
usque tenipora grammaticis, sed futurum ut eas Marte meo perrumpere cogerer ; quodvis 
onus potius quam illud suscepissem. Sed hac in re profecto, si alia in ulla, locum habet 
vetus proverbium, quod difficilia esse prfedicat quae pulchra. Reddit enim series ilia multo 
ditiores (ut ita dicam) Grtecse lingua divitias, et qute hactenus locupletissima foecundissi- 
maque esse visa est, tacit ut multo eiiam locupletior foecundiorque quam credita sit, com- 
periatUr. Quemadraodum enim opulenta domus longe opulentior videbitur, si in unum tota 
supellex comportetur locum, quam si dispersa sit, eademque hominum multitudo, major multo, 
quum conl'erti sunt, quam quum dispersi, videlur : sic etiam vocabuli unius, tanquam stir- 
pis, numercsa propago et soboles minime dispersa divulsaque et in varios locos distracta, 
sed in unum ita cuUecta, ut uno propemodum aspectu contemplari universam possimus, 
multo certe numerosior nobis videbitur. Quod autem studiosorum lingua; Grsecee magis inte- 
rest, seriem illam tyronum etiam studiis esse perutilera, res equidem ipsa clamat : quum 
plerunque mutuas operas in sese vicissim velut exponendis tradant, qua? ab eadem stirpe 
ortum habent vocabula, et interdum per varia qua? derivata vocantur, tanquam per gradus 
quosdam ad cognitionem sigiuticationis vocabuli illius unde manarunt, ascendamus. Sed 
tarn multa sine exeniplis, frustra fortasse: »it igitur te non diu morans, ad ilia veniam, 
en tibi in illis vulgaiis Lexicis, «f''^i« quidem (quod est cano) in litera prima totius 
alphabet! ; at vero ulln, cantus, et "--^o;, cantor, in litera ultima. Quinetiam inter illud 
verbum al-M et verbale ejus «o-^^a interjecta sunt aliquot vocabuiorum millia. Przeterea 
compositorum unumquodque seorsim positum est, dispersa et ipsum sua derivata ha- 
bens. Duo vero magis etiam reprehensione digna sunt hac in parte : unum est, quod 
passiva vox ab activa semper sejungitur, et quidem non parvo intcrvallo nonnunquam, 
nudtis aliis vocabulis (ut poscit alphabeticus ordo) interjectis : alterum, quod de uno eodem- 
que verbo in diversis agatur locis : nimirum non solum in ejus prassenti, sed etiam in infini- 
livo. Interdum vero et in diversis teraporibus, nimirum futuro, pra?terito, aut alio, et qui- 
dem interjectis ilidem aliquibus vocabulis. Exemplum autem habemus cum in aliis pluribus 
verbis, turn vero in alsiw, w. Cum eo enim posita non sunt, sed seorsum, ista omnia, 
•Txov, t'xov, Vxoi^i, jAu), lAj'fiv, fXtiv, fXwv, necnon «p?ixEi : seorsum vero et passiva vox a'pfo^i, 
sejuncta habens et participia KipSfif atque rip>,f^»voj. Tantum abest ut verbalia suo verbo ad- 
juncta sint. Quinetiam quum unum idemque verbum ex Atticae quidem linguse consuetu- 
dine in ttw deri^'etur, ex cummuni autem in Trrw (ut quidem tradunt grammatici, qui tamen 
aliquid his verbis addere debebant) nihilque ex diversa terminatione mutetur significatio : 
interdum tamen alio in loco, quod in a-crai terminatum est, in alio, quod in ttiu, coUocaut. 
Quinetiam (quod non minus quis mireturj interdum duobus in locis idem ponitur thema, 
prius quidem, contractionem non passum, postea vero contractum, aliis inter ilia interjectis, 
ut in Qfwp/cu et Bix^a, factum esse vides." — H. Stepfiatti Epistola ad quosdam Amkos. 

To the same purpose H. Stephens thus expresses himself in the Epistola ad 
Lecforem, prefixed to the Thesaurus: 

" CJt autem et ipse de hac spe mea deque opinione quam concepi judicium ferre possis, 
audi obsecro quae in hoc opere prae^titerim, et in quibus potissimum praestandis sudaverim. 
Pruuum quidem mea est nee prius audita vocum Griecarum dispositio, qua earum maxima 
pars ad suas origines, tanquam rivi ad suos fontes, vel stirpes ad suas radices, revocantur : 
qua derivata nonnunquam duccnta, interdum trecenta ad unum primitivum ita reducuntur, 
ut mterim ne ipsa quidem permixtim collocentur, sed in certos ordines distribuantur. Hffic 
autem series (propter quam indice opus huic Thesauro tuit, ut etiam in Frcefalione illi prse- 
fi>.a docui) vix dici potest quam multa hujus linguse studiosis afferre commoda et adjumenta 
possit, Tria quidem certe affert longe maxima : quod lector magno labore quaerendi pei 
diversos sparsa locos, et eadem in diversis legendi, levetur : quod a primitivis derivata dig- 
noscat, et quomodo factfe suit derivationes, primo aspectu intueatur : quod uno eodemque 
loco et in promptu habeat qua; niutuam quodammodo lucem sibi afferant, et sese mutuo ex- 
plicent. Adde quod haec series ditiores (ut ita dicam) reddere videtur Gnecse linguae divitias 
«t qua autea locupletissima verborumque omnis generis fcecundissima esse visa est; facit u' 

Stephens' Greek Thesaurus, 195 

multo etiam locupletior foecundiorque quam credita sit comperiatur: ut etiam dixi in Epi$- 
tola ante biennium excusa, gua ad multas multorum Amicvrum, de mecE Tifpographice Statu, 
nominatimqne de meo Thesauro Lingua; Gracee, reapondi : ubi et alia pleraque non solum hac 
de re, sed etiam de aliis ad hunc Thesauruin et ad vulgaria Lexica pertinentibus, disserui : 
quae in hac prffifatione (quam et properans et animo minus quam in ulla operis parte tran- 
quillo scripsi) non immerito desideralurus sis. Casterum tu quoque pulchram esse hane 
meam vocabuloruni antea permixtorum et confusorum dispositionem, tkteberis, sat scio : 
sed ad xaX^y, addito yaKmy'iy." — Page 10. 

H. Stephens actually meditated the design of republishing the Latin Thesaurus 
of his father, R. Stephens, on the same plan, as appears by the following passage 
in the Epist. ad Led. prefixed to the Thes. Ling. Or. which we have just quoted : 

" Haec sunt, lector, quae ad illustrandam Graecam hnguam, praesertimque ad discutiendas 
tenebras, quas ei lexicorum vulgarium consarcinatores offuderant, pnmus ego praistiti : 
parentis mei lloberti Stephaiii (cujus tot lantaque in rempublicam literariam merita extant) 
exemplum sequutus. Eiim enim in suo Latliia Lingua T/iesauro multas itidem errorum 
nebulas, quae in praecedentibus diclionariis erant, discussisse, nemo e.^t qui ignoret. Spero 
autem fore ut paternis vigiliis meas aiiquando addens, illud Thes. Ling. Lat. opus cum aliis 
rebus, turn vero vocum diapositione ei siniili, qua in Grac. us2issuin, luculentiusreddam." — P. VZ. 

H. Stephens thus speaks of his plan of arrangement in another Epistle prefixed 
to another work : 

" Henrici I'hemuro diu in mora metus, ne illud quoque opus repente incideret in eos 
asstimatores, qui ad errorum ab aliis commissorum centurias solebant connivere, ad ipsius 
decadas oculos plusquam Lynceos atferre. Vulgata, quai tunc omnium manibus terebantur, 
Lexica nil aliud erant quam oninifaria, sed omni carens judicio, consarcinatio : at vero in 
suo Thesauro, praeterquam quod omnia, quoad fieri potuit, ex ipsis hauserit fontibus (quod 
et Pater ejus Robertus in Latino studiose fecerat), omniaque suis auctoribus accepta tuierit, 
suo nomine quemque (sive antiquum, sive recentem, sive etiam sui temporis) designans, 
ita tamen ut suum passim judicium interponeret; praeterquam etiam quod aptissimum in 
disponendis diversis significationibus distinguendisque earum exemplis ordinem tenuerit ; 
denique praeterquam quod in lingua Grseca fecerit (non sine magno et prope incredibili la- 
bore), quod in nulla unquani nisi in Hebraica factum fuisse audivimus, et cum in aliis ditii- 
cillimum factu esse, turn vero in Gnxca ne fieri quidem posse multi crediderint, ut nimirum 
infinitam illam verborum multitudinem ad certas radices reduxerit, totamque singulorum 
verborum prosapiam sub uno aspectu posuerit, tritavum abavum proavum avum ordiae col- 
locans : prcEter haec omnia, jam se plurima restituisse asseruit in iis, quae suo Thesauro cum 
aliis Lexicis communia sunt ; multo vero plura, nisi animus et vires deessent, restituturus." — 
Epist. prefix. Art. Med. Princ. (quoted by M. Mailtaire m Vita H. Steph. sec, T. n. P. ii. p. 35 2.) 

Let us now see what L. C. Valckenaer says of H. Steph. own arrangement — 

" Quando de verbis ■primitivis et denvatis, deque his ad origiuem deducendis, loquimar, 
videri possit, ac si nemo hoc sibi studium sumsisset decuirendum. Ne quis ergo cogitatione 
animi praspostera labatur praeceps, nunc dabinlus operam. 

" Inter Lexicographos recentiores Graecos, post litteras, barbaria et superstitione domitis, 
in Italia renatas, multi difficile munus fuerunt aggressi ; sed ante Henriium Siei/kanmn nemo 
de derivatis ad originem deducendis, ac tantum primitivis secundum ordmem Alphabet! 
digerendis unquam ita cogitavit, ut hoc in genere Lexicon Graeco-Latinum vulgaverit. 

" Qui Lexicis Gra-cis consarcinandis primi manum admoverunt, triplici hac in parte via 
insistunt. Vel enim, nullo originis habito respectu, omnia, quae quidem norunt, vocabula 
secundum literamm ordinem d'ls^onunt, sive derivata, sive composita. Vel om\iia, ordine indi" 
gesto, neque originis, neque etiam seriei litterarum, habita ratione, disposuerunt. Vel tan- 
dem voces quisque pro sua sapientia ad originem deducere tentarunt. 

" Qui prae caeteris, quotquot fuerunt inter recentiores, Lexicographi, longissime eminent, 
ad secunda?n classem pertinere sunt existimandi, Budceus et Camerarius. Gudielmus Budeus, 
vir muneribus in Francisci I. Galliarum Regis aula conspicuus, niagis autem eruditione ex- 

auisita nobilis et sui seculi facile princeps, Parisiis anno cioioxxix. Lexicon edidit, seu, ut 
le vocat, Commerdarios Lingua Graca. In his infinitae voces docte illustrautur, nulla 
tamen ratione habita ordinis litterarum. Hujus libri, omnibus, qui ad eruditiouem viam 
affectant, valde commendabilis, sapius repetita fuit editio. Omnium optima est ilia, q^uam 
Robertus Stephanas anno ci3idxlviii, Parisiis in folio excudi curavit. Eadem ratione indi- 
gestos commentarios utriusque linguae, Basileae anno cioioli, in folio vulgavit vir litterarum 
callentissimus et eruditissimus Joachimus Camerarius. 

" Priorum, quos commemoravi, Lexicographorum, qui voces omnes secundum seriem 
alphabeti disposuerunt, turba est maxima, a nobis non commemoranda. Sed de turba ista 
merito est segregandus vir itidem primarius, Robertus Constantinus, qui (anno cioiocv mor- 
luus, anno statis cm, ut notat Teissierus ad Blogia Thuanea) itidem secundum alphabetum 


196 Materials for the Impromment of 

confectum, sed tamen luculenttim et egregium, dum in vivis erat, vulgavit Dictionariura 
lingiicE Grfficte, editiim Genevae anno cioiolxii, diiobus voluminibus in Iblio, cujus compen- 
dium consarciuavit Johannes Cri&pinus in lexico sapius obvio. Kob. Constantinus in praefa- 
tione dictionari) sui tabulam memorat artificiosam aliquando a se edendam, in qua origines 
lingua Gntcftf occurrereiit et primitivis subjecta collocarentur derivata, alphabeti ordine 
tantum servato in primitivis. Sed promissis non stetit vir optimus, ncque unquam ista 
tabula artiticiosa in luceni liominum prodiit. 

" Hffic itaque laus Henrico Stephana illibata est conservanda, qui, quantum ego sciam, 
primus oainium verboruni derivata et coniposita ad rudkes suas reducere acprimitiva rariora 
colligere fuit aggressus, edito Ttiesauro linguse Graecae, IV vcluminibus in folio anno 
ciDioLxxir. Hujus Lexici compendium fur littcrarius Johannes Sca/ju/a anno cioiolxxix, 
uno volumine complexus, edidit, atque isto facinore praeceptorem et dominum suum ad 
resiini adegit. Scapula Lex. saepe vulgatum, accuralissime prodiit apud Elzev. et Hackiura 
an. ciaioci 11. Veruin qua^vis huj. lib. edit, studiosorum hominum commodis queunt inservire. 

" De Thesauro Stcphani ha-c bina scitu digna probe auimadvertenda sunt. (1) In lexico, 
ad eam, quam dixi, rationem digerendo, Roberti Stephani, Henrici parentis, labores filio 
plurimum profiiisse. Vastumauiem ilium eruditionis Gra^cjeThesaurum non ab unis «S^e- 
phanis, std coljata pluiiuai opera, (uisse congestum, nionuit vir summus Tiberius Hernster^ 
husiue ad Luciani Promelhea, o|ieruin, quae etiamnum sub prelo sudant, Vol, i. p. 191. et 
ante Hemsterhusium id ipsum non latuerat diviiio Scaligero, quern vide in Scaligeranis. 
(2) Non est arbitrandum, omnes linguae Greece divitias, (qua? temeraria est et minime recta 
quorundam cogitatio) Ttiesauro Stephani fuisse inclusas. Minime. Qui levi tantum oculo 
amplas capacis linguae copias introspexerit, mecum confitebitur, ad eas ordine decenti repo- 
nendas volumina requiri ejusdem molis minimum duodecim. Si quidem vero in rebus 
magnis sufficit voluisse, magna; laudi reputandum est Henrico, quod primus, laborum non 
fugitans, opus immensum ausus fucrit inceptare, quodque primus mstituto laudabili derivata 
sub primitivis posuerit. Hinc subit admirari, quam diversa sint hominum in litteris versan- 
tium judicia. NonnuUi eiiim istam rationem, ad quam Stephani digestum fuit Lexicon, 
adeo improbaverunt, ut eruditissnnus Moj/ses Solanus, notisin Lucianum, ut speramus, brevi 
nobiiitandus, dicere non fuerit veritus, caussam neglectae litteraturfe Graecag ex ista ratione 
Lexicorimi digerendorum esse repetendam. Plurimi tamen, inter quos nomen nostrum mo- 
deste reponimus, Thesaurum Stephani, in quo primitiva tantum secundum ordinem alpha- 
beti sunt disposita, vei ideo potissimum vehementer coUaudandum esse autumant. Nunc 
hoc, quod ad nostrum spectat iustitutum, addamus. Existimandum minime est, in isto 
Thesauro singulis vocabulis derivatis suam adsignari originem, singula verba derivata ad 
suam radicem et priscum fundum reduci. Neutiquam. Hac in parte millies peccavit Ste~ 
phanus : hac in parte Thesaurus iste amplissimus scatet erroribus. Neque tamen propterea 
insigni viro, et pra; aliis forte omnibus prajclariun in modum de litteratura Graeca, atque 
adeo etiam de nobis omnibus, merito, temere et proterve insultandum est. Hujuscemodi 
errores sine ulla stribiligme aut verborum acrimonia sunt reformandi, quoniam, per rei na- 
turam et humaui ingcaii modum, aiiter tieri non poterat, quin multiplicibus errorum amba- 
gibus impediretur, qui seinita incedebat integra, priorum nemini contrita, atque adeo intri- \ 
cata et squalida. Etsi autem StepJiuno erroris sui tributum erat solvendum, istis tamen 
erroribus tanluui debeinus, ut nobis nunc, expeditis tricis, via ad veritatem plana et sim- 
plex patescat. 

" Quantus vero hac in parte in Stephani, atque adeo etiara Scapula Lexicis sit defectus, 
panels explicari non potest. Qua; nos observatione IX. proponebamus, tanquam primitiva 
in Scapula Lexico si quis forte se reperturum putet, is opinione sua errabit plurimum. Si 
quis itaque nunc quadrat, qu;e ergo lanti defectus sit causa et origo, earn dico ex fonte duplici 
derivandam esse. (1) Quod verecunde dictum sit, Henricus Stephanus, aliis rebus multi- 
plicibus nimium occupalus, veram linguje indolem minime habuit perspectam, neque etiam 
homini aiiter licet ; nisi enim is ab aliis rebus liber uni rei totus vacet, fieri non potest, quin 
ingenium hebescat, quin frcquentissime in minimis pedem offendat. (2) Stephunus ea tan- 
tum verba primitiva in Lexicon suum recepit, qua; in libris veterum, qui ad ejus notitiatn 
pervenerant, reperisset." — Vide L. C. Valckenaerii Obss. quibus Via munitur ad Origines 
Griecas investigandas, el Lexicorum Defectus resarciendos, pp. 28 — S.*}. 

jiefore we proceed to lay before the public a list, at present necessarily im- 
perfect, of works, from which the Thesaurus may be improved, we shall give 
from diflferent writers, some interesting extracts, containing particulars about 
papers on the subject of the Thesaurus, which have not yet seen the light, and 
highly indeed should we be gratified to find that any of our readers can supply us 
with additional information respecting these papers. 

" CtEterum ut illarum quas dixi emendationum desiderium lenius feras (nisi forte me 
•xpectationcm earum magis tibi commovere dicturus es) scito me, favente Deo, aliud opui 
uui; tditurum, cujus argumeatum buic di^simiid a(>o erit. Cicerouis enim, Livii, Flinii, 

Stephens* Greek Thesaurus, 197 

aliorumque doctissimas pariter et elegantissiraas interpretationes complectetur : ideoque 
inscribetur, Veteres Lat. Ling. Interpretes. Quod si iino eodenique tempore et Corollarium 
Thes. Gr. Ling, edere potero, baud scio an tuo desiderio satisfecero, mei quidem certe voti 
compos ero." H. Stephens in the Address to the Header prefixed to the Gloisaria duo. 

" Budfeum in plerisqiie hbenter sequuntur Lexicorum Gr., post eura vuliiatorum, auc- 
tores, etiam H. Stephaniis, qui in paucis quibusdam locis ab ejus sententia discedit, quorum 
rationem uberiorem reddere vokiit in suo, quem promisit, Thes. Gr, Ling. Corollario, et in 
editione nova Comment. Budeei, Cogito e/nm, inquit in Prasfat. ad Thes. L. G. p. 12, de 
Libri illius editione, quce habeut cicm alia, quibus multo qwnn antea utilior reddatur, turn vera 
mens in quosdam locos Annotationes. Sed nee Corollai'iuyn illud, nee editio Comnient. Budtean. 
a Steph. notis ilkistrata, lucem vidit.'' J. A. Fabr. in Bibl. Gr. vol. vi. Ed. Harles, p. 664. 

" Commemorandum videtur accepisse me a viro piurimuin reverendo et clarissimo, C. 
Ch. Folgero A. M. oraculorumque divinorum Gizie, vico non procul Lipsia, interprete doc- 
tissimo, quo pku'imum usus est Dresigius, earn etiam in H. Stephani Thes. Gr. Lin. Ani- 
madvv. conscripsisse edereque voluisse, sed ignorari, Cce quo essent delata-." J. F. Fischer 
in the Preface to S. Fr. Dresigii Comment, de Verbis Mediis N. T. 1755, \2nio. p. xvii. 

" Perfectum et absokitum in Lat. hng. L^exicon hactenus non habemus: fehcior ea ia 
parte Gr. hng. est ; est enim H. Siephnni Thes. Gr. Ling, nihil perfectius, qui quatuor vel 
quinque tomis prodiit, magna cura et diligentia congestus, et postea a Scapula in novum 
ordinem recoctus, cum magno auctoris detrimento : desidorat tamen in illo Stephani Thes. 
multa J. C. Dietericns, Professor Giessensis in Chrestomuthia Gr., ubi promittit se addita- 
menta quaedam ad ilium I'hesaurum non contemnenda divulgaturuni : sed labor ille hujus 
viri morte intercidit : ceterum in Gr. Ling, subsidio sunt varia ilia Glossaria, qua nobis su- 
persunt, de quibus lege Maussacum in Praf. Notarum ad Harpocrationis Lex. et Boeclerum 
m Diss, de Lexicis, turn et C. du Fresne in Pnef. Glossurii sui Gr." D. G. Morholii De 
purn Dictione Lat. Liber, a J. L. Moshemio cum Notis ediius, Hunov., 1725, p. 80. 

Mosheim adds the following note : 

" Egregium licet opus sit Thesaurus Stephani, passim tamen viri, Grace doctissimi, variis 
cum maculis et nsvis laborare, neque pro perfecto haberi posse, docuerunt: audiamus ex 
multis eruditissimi viri, J. H. Maii, filii, verba ex Notis ad Orat. Basilii M. de legendis Gr. 
Lihris, p. 69. Quod bona lectoris venia fiat, ex occasione Stephani Thes. et emendabimus et 
augebimus: Stephani, inquie.s, 'Ihesaurum, quo nihil absolutius vidit Hellas f scio multos dariy 
qui et illius et reliquorum Lexicographornm dccreta, ut t(|w/vu;v upa obfiervuJit : nobis vero aliam 
dedit mentem Deus O. M. : notavimus in Thes. illo ntulta admndum, aut non ita ut par erat, 
ant non plene satis exposita: quin et aliquot congessimus rhiliadas vocabulnrum ab eo preetermis- 
sorum, quibus auctius olim reddere splendidum opus decrevimus : Idem lo. lensiusmuitis munet 
Lection. Lucia7ieisL, iii. c. 1. p. 309. sq. ubi centum et quinqnagintaex solo Luciano vocabula 
proponit, qufe in Stephani 'Thes. frustra quaruiitur: Addidit etiam Jo. Grummius, vir uti 
omnis eruditionis, ita Gneci sermonis intelligentissimus, ingenioque pr^ditus peracuto, 
Gr. litterarum Prof. Hafnije, TTint. Deorum ex Xenoph. Hafn. 1715. in 4. a se editse, Specimen 
Supplem. Lexicor. Gr. ex Xenoph. p. 111 — 159: hoc viro nemo foret aptior ad novam, cam- 
que locupletiorem Stephani editionem adornandam : mitloalia: de Lex ids ceterum Grtrcis 
omnium eruditissime comniendatus est J. A. Fabric, etin Peculiuri Exerc. et in Bibl. Gr." 

" Parum circumspecte celeberrimus Morhofius, 1. c. c. 9. p. 109. Gr. Ling, ea parte 
(Le.xicorum sc. perfectione) longe feliciorem esse Lat., et Stephani Thes. adeo copiosum dedisse 
apparatum, ut paucis vel emendari, vel augeri possit, cmn in Lat. ling, omnium opera sit imper~ 
fecta, et in partibus tantum exculta, etc. cum tanien Borrichius, 1. c. p. ni. 50 tria in Ste- 
phani Thes. jamdudum desideraverit, primo; quod exstent non pauca in Us, qui omnium mani~ 
bus versantur , auctoribus, hie omissa ; secundo, quod multa id temporis Gracorum ?nonumenta, 
hodie in publico notissimu. vondtim evulguta essent ; tertio, quod voces plurima plures admittant 
significationes, quamqna: in illo Thesanro signattE sunt, et versatissimum in his litteris virum 
Tanaq. Fabrum jam olim quatuor millia vocum Gr. Lexicis prietermissarum, coliegisse me 
moret filia ejus doctissima (in Not. ad Ajiacr.") 

Severinus Llntrupius in the preface to Ch.r. Fahteri Siippl. Ling. Lat. she 
Obss. ad Lex. Fabru-Cellarianum, F/ensburgi, 1717. duod. 

" Atque utinam (quod invitante bac occasione impensivis atque ex animo vovemus) con- 
spirantibus eruditi orbis precibus exorari se patiatur Max. Rev. Dn. Theodorus Dassovius, — 
ut quae — ab insigni Witiebergensium philologo, rarioris in Uteris Grajorum doctrinae viro, 
Balthas. Stolbergio relicta, et ad se devoluta possidet, Suppl. Lex. Scapula, Antiquitaies 
Grfficas N. T. ordine alphahetico, ad form am Lexici congestas, etc." Sever. Lin trup. ibid. 

" Doctorem Busbeium audivi dicentem,sibi virurn quendam doctum ostendisse bina volu- 
mina vocum, quae in H. Steph. Thes. non reperiimtur." M. Maitt. in Vita H. Steph. sec. \). 388. 

5acra?-«m Oiss. Liber singularis, Auctore Jo. Caspar© Suicero. Tiguri. 1665. 4ro. " 1b 
Specira. Suppl. Ling. Gr. •jrjoyfj^xa tantum quoddam eoruin, qu£e vulgatis necessario adhuc 

198 Materials for the Lnprovement of 

adjicjenda essent Lexicis, exhibere volui, reliqiiis,eodem pertinentibus, in Thes. Ecdesiasticum, 
cujus in ipsis etiam Ohas. seinel atque iterum facta mentio, rejeclis. In eo namque non 
tantiim vocabula a Scriptoribus ecclesiasticis usurpata, a Lexicographis vero vel prorsus 
omissa, vel non satis explicata, exstabunt : sed omnia insuper ex iisdem coUecta; quantum 
indelesso labore effitere et consequi licebit, apparebunt; quaecunque ad vocum et phrasium 
explicatioiiem, qiiacunque ad variorum riluum, sanctionum, sacrorum, caerimoniarum, 
rerumque aliarum enodationeni aliquid cont'erre videbuntur." Prasfatio. 

This Specimen Siippl. Li/ig. G?-. forms the 13th chapter of the Work : it extends 
frooi p. 3 1 1 to p. 342 : it contains 152 words. The words are divided into 2 classes : 

" Prior Ciassis eas continet voces, quae a Lexicographis ex veterum tantum Lexicis afFe- 
runtur, nullo alio auctore, qui iisdem sit usus, producto," 

" Posterior Ciassis eas exhibet voces, quae in vulgatis prorsus non apparent Lexicis." 

The Specimen has these vsords in the preface : 

" Nee existimandum est, post immensum magni illius Stephani laborem, quem in constru- 
endo Ling. Gr. Thes. exantlavit, nullas amplius apud auctores Gr. reperiri voces, quarum 
observatione Lexica locupietari merito deberent. Affirmare namque ausim, ex sola Patrum 
ler tione non centurias tantum, sed myriades etiam vocabulorum, vel prorsus a lexicographis 
omissorum, vel observatorumqiiidem, nullo tamen auctore, qui iis sit usus, nominato, haberi 
posse. Ne cui base assertio temeniria videatur, ultimum harum Observationum caput 
fcjusmodi vocibus, ad solam primam alphabeti literam referendis, tribuere visum." 

The chapter concludes with these words : 

" Atque hoc est Specimen Supp., quod in gratiam eorum, qui aliquo Ling. Gr. amore ducti, 
auctorum Gr. in Lectione versantur attexere visum : ut inteliigant, ad omnes voces diligenter 
esse attendendum, nudtas etiam, utpote a Lexicographis omissas, notandas. Maximam 
vero carum tarragiiiem ex operibus Cyrilli Alexandrini colligi posse, non mirabitur, qui 
consideraverit, istum auctorem a nullo hactenus Lexicographorum, quantum ego scio, 
lectnni esse." 

lo. Casp. Suicer'i Thes. Eccles. e Palribus Gr. Or dine ulphah. Ed. sec. Amst. 1728. 
1 Vols. Fol. 

In the Dedication to Sir Richard Ell^s, prefixed to this second edition, the 
following fact is mentioned : 

" Eandem curam, sumtusque eosdem in instructissima supellectile libraria undique 
coUigenda exhibens, splendidam sane et numerosissimam Biblioth. possides, optimis qui- 
busque singularum scientiarum auctoribus refertam ; talem denique, tantamque, ut paucas 
per oinncm, qua patet, Anglian:, agnoscat pares, paucissimas superiores. Ut alios, eosque 
numero plurimos primi ordinis Codices taceamus, est in ea ipsius Suiceri manu exaratum 
Volumen, cui hie titulus prafixus, Lexicon Gr. hat. novum, innumeris Locis ita auctum, ut 
hac editio omnibus hactenus edilis Lexicis incredibili Rer. et Verb. Copia sit locupletior." 

We should feel ourselves under great obligations to any person who could 
furnish us with any information respecting the contents of this valuable MS., or 
the manner in which Sir Richard EUys's Library w as disposed of on his decease : 
if the books were sold by a public auction, we should wish to know the name of 
the person who purchased this MS.; and of course it would be very desirable for 
us to have the fate, which it has subsequently experienced, well ascertained. 
J. C. Suicer himself thus speaks in his own preface to the Thes. Eccl. 

" Alia quoque mihi dari credebam negotia, ut Lexicon Gr. minus, quod sub prelo nunc sudat, 
et proximej^vv esa/, lucem aspiciet; atque Lexicon Gr.majas, quod immensofere labore collec- 
tum et metliodo naturali disposituni, omnes, ut opinor, voces exhibebit Gr., additis ubique 
exemplis, et variis significationibus distincte propositis ; quod propediem, siquidem nos 
meos quaiescunque conatus otx.'xx./o-iv baud uigratos esse intellexero, in duos in folio distri- 
butum, sequetur." 

Whether this Lexicon Gr. majus be the same with the MS. Lexicon Gr. Lat. 
T?orww, written in J. C. Suicer's own hand, and once in the possession of Sir 
Richard EUys, or a different work, is more than we can pretend to say. 
J. A. Fabric, in Bibl. Gr., Vol. 6, p. 671, Ed. Harles, has the following notice: 

" Jo. Casp. Suiceri Lexicon Gr. Lat. Tiguri, 1683-4. qui majus etiam aliud, duobus vol. 
in fol. adornasse se testatur in praefat. ad Thes, Ecr/es., quod lucem haud vidit." 

The Lexicon Graco-Latinum here mentioned by J. A. Fabricius, is the iden- 
tical work, which J. C. Suicer had in the press at the time when he was writing 
the preface to the Thesaurus Eccksiasticus, and which he, in the words above 

Stephens* Greek Thesaurus, 199 

cited, calls, Lexicon Gracum minus. Of this smaller Lexicon, as we learn from 
the Notitia liter aria Lexicorum N. T. (Jr., prefixed to J. F. Schleusner's 
Nov. Lex. Gr.-Lat. in N. T., an improved edition has been published under the 
following title: " N. T. G lessor ium Gr. Lat. sive Sy/loges Focum N. T. 
dim editcB a J. C. Suicero nova Recensio, cura J. C. Hagenbuckii. Tiguri, 1744,-8. 

Gr. Ling. Dialecti recognitte Opera Maittaire ex ed. Fr. Guil. Sturzius. Lips. 1807. 8vo. 

" Provectiores, eosque qui Auctores edere parant, non spernendiim inde commodum cap- 
tnros, non est quod multis deprsdicem. Quatnvis enim satis actum de Dialectis videatur 
in ampla ilia Appendice, quam H. Stephanm Thes. suo adnexuit, satisque nuitatoriim copiam 
dederit atque exposuerit Mmilius Partus in Lex. Dor. atque Ion., tamen aliam hujus, quern 
Lectori ofFerimus, libri rationem, alias dotes esse, inspicienti patebit. Stiphanus enim circa 
Atticam Dialect, fere totus occupatur, ac de locutionibus niagis quam de singulis vocibus 
agit, et plus raliocinationis quam auctoritatum profert, quum Noster contra verborum et 
auctoritatum copiam Herculeo labore undique conquisitam adferat, interque baud pauca 
deprehendes alibi tVustra quserenda, aut difficulter invenienda. Neque tamen hoc ideo 
pradico, ut prajclarae Stephani opers; quidquam derogatum, aut Forti Lexico nos carere posse, 
indicare velim, sed ut adpareat, nos plenum jam Diulectorum conspectum habituros, si tria 
ilia conjunxerimus, quod enim in uno desideraveris, in altero inveuies, vel quod in hoc male 
exaratum offenderis, ex illo corrigere, aut dubia ex cousentientibus duobus ternisve his tes- 
tibus confirmare licebit." J. F. Reitzii, Prsf. p. IX. 

Maeridis Atticista Lex. Attic. Lug. Bat. 1759- 8vo. 

ThomcR Magistri Kar' 'Ax^a^riTov'ovofxiiTwv 'atti'xoiv 'ExTioyai, ex ed. Jo. S. Bemardi. Lug. Bat. 
1757. 8vo. 

In the Notes subjoined to the Text in Alberti's Edition of Hesychius, a vast 
harvest of words may be found. Hesychii Lexicon ex Codice MS. BibliotheoB 
D. Marci restitutum et ub omnibus Musuri Correctionibns repurgatum, sive Snp- 
plementa ad Editionem Hesychii Albertinam, Auctore N. Schuzc. Lips. J 792. 

Im. Bekkeri Anecdota Gr. Vol. primum. Lexica Seguerana. Berol. 1814. 
6vo. This work is dedicated to Fr. A. Wolfius. It contains no preface, and 
it embraces — 'Ex twv <Pgvvlxov rijj croi^KrTJjcrjf 'ngo'jra.goKTKturjS' — 'AvriaTTiKiaTYn Trsgl 
cuvTcc^soog, TTOia twv f>Yj[ji,ixTcav ysvixjj xa» Sotjx^ x«» airiar/x^ <rvvTa.(r(rovrai AIkmv 


Roberti Conatunlini Lex. Gr. Lat. Secunda hue Edit, purtitn ipsins Auctoris, partim Fr, 
Porti et aliorum Additionihus plurirman auctwin, turn quanta fieri potuit diligentia recognitum, 
utjaynpossit esse Gr. Ling, {into et Lat.) Thes. Lxcud. Hier. Eustut. Vignon. 1.592. Fol. 

[Liber rarus in Auctione Petaviana divenditus pro 39 floren. cuique Bunemannus statuit 
pretium 14 taleros. Vid. Bunemanni Catalog. Libror. rariss. p. 93.] 

Jo. Voght Catalogus historico-criticus Librorum ruriorum. Erancof. et Lips. 1793. 1'imo. sub voce. 

In the Bibliotheca Verheykiana Lug. Bat. 1735. No. 336. we read the fol- 
lowing words : 

" R. Constantini Lexicon. Lat. 1592. olim fuit Is, Vossii, qui a capite ad calcem 
Adnotatt. suas adscripsit, quibus etaliorum accesserunt." 

Perhaps some one, whose eye meets with this passage, may be able to give us 
some information respecting the fate of this copy. 

ApoUonii Sophista Lex. Gr. II. et Odyss. Ex Ed. Paris, repetiit, recensuit, et illustravit 
Hermannus Tollius. Lug. Bat. 1788. ^vo. 

" Villoisoni Commentario Obss. nostras, et Excursus aliquot atque Indices adjecimus." 
Herm. Tollius in Pref. 

I. Rutgersii Glossarium Gr. a Strunzio. Vit. 1719. 8vo. 

Jo. Dan. A. Lennep. Etymolog. Ling. Gr. ex ed. Ev. Scheidii.Traj. ad Rh. 1790. Bvo. 3 vols. 

In this Work many words omitted, or imperfectly explained by H. Stephens, 
are noticed. 

Fr. L. Abreschi Animadversionum ad jEschylum Ubri II. Accedunt Adnott. ad qutsdam Locm 
N. T. Medioburgi. 1743. Bvo. 

It contains an ^' Elenchus Vocum, quze se offerunt apud ^schylum, et maxi- 
mam partem praetermittuntur iu H. Stephani Thes. asteriscus indicat de illis agi 

^^'^^ '"^ Materials for the Improvement of 

Iri^Sfti^'" Elenchus Vocum " there are in all about eight hundred 
;id about Jiff ij are marked. 

f»^jF J>. t^^hre<chi Animudw. ad ^schylum Liber tertius. Accedit Dilucidationum Thucydi- 
ijtcrmijn /iurturtum. Zwotice, 1763. 8bo. 

To {his is subjoined an ^' Index Rerum et Verborum praecipuorum ;" and in 
I'lis Index aixty-one words are marked. 

Fr. L. Abreschi Dilucidationes Thurydidea. Traj. ad Rh. 1755. Svo. 

To this is subjoined an " Index Rerum et Verborum. Praefixus Asteriscus voces 
indicat in Steph. Thes. Ling. Gr. aut praptermissas, aut auctoritate destitutas," 
in which otie hundred and twe)ity-one words are marked. 

Timffi Sophists Lexicon Vucum Flutonicarum. Lug. Bat. 1789. Svo. 

It is the intention of the editors to insert in the Thesaurus, under the proper 
heads, all the Notes of this excellent scholar, so far as the}' relate to lexicography. 
At the same time the following work will be carefully consulted: — 

Si kolia in Phttonem ex Codd. MSS. multarum BMiothecarum primum collegit D. Ruhnke' 
nius. Lug. Bat. 1800. 8vo. 

Of these Scholia D. Wyttenbach thus writes in his Vita Ruhnkeniana, p. 187. 

" Scholia typis dudum descripta sunt, animadversionum non nisi una pagina : reliqua 
pars nee conscriptu, ita in commentariis adumbraia ac per adversanorum libellos dispersa 
jacet, ut ab operis successure, non nisi bene versato in Gra-cis liiteris et Platonico argu- 
ment", nee iiibi multo cum labore nniltaque diligentia, constribi probabiliter possit. Sunt 
]iac Scholia eo genere, quod et res et verba persequitur. Esc sane eorum usus ad consti- 
tuendain Platoiiis scripturam ; nee doctrina est contemnenda : liabent multa in aliis jam 
tditis grammalicis prodita, habent baud pauca etiam nova nee aliunde cognita, Illud non 
dubiiun, quin maxima libro commendatio a Ruhnkenii Aniniadvv. accessura fuisset. Et 
vero aiictarium ei addere destinabat, collectis interpretamentis grammaticis ex scriptis et 
commtniariis Platonicoium philosophorum, qui raro grammaticum genus attingunt, veluti 
Pcrpiiyni, Procli, Hermiiv, (Jiympiodori, aliorumque nondum editorum." 

We cite the following passage from the short preface : 

" N ovinias partem hoium Scholiorum, ductam e tribus taatum Codicibus MSS. Venet. 
anno 1798. Norimb. esse vulgatam in Jo. Ph. Siebetikees Anecdotis Gr. e prsestantissimis 
Italicavum Bihlioth. codd. At vera, ne repetamus, quaj nunc in lucem prodeunt Scholia, 
es^ denvaia ex aliis etiam libris scriptis, ex coUatione utriusque recensionis protinus cuique 
patebit, ne vix quidem partem lertiam Scholiorum, quae hie ieguntur, rcperiri in cl. Sieben- 
kees Anecdotis Or." 

The Rev. I'honias Kidd, one of the most enlightened and profound scholars 
in this country, was at the pains of collating these Scholia with what was 
published by Siebenkees. 

" Collectionem banc cum Anecdotis Gr. ex optimis Italias codd. a cl. Siebenkeesio 
tJJ ^-/.aoiT^ descriptis accurate contuji ; ac lectionis vavietatem aut vitia et additamenta 
iudicare couientus, nihil ultra quassivi." Th. Kidd in Fraf. ad Opusc. Ruh?ik. Lond. 1807. 

Svo. p. XLV. 

Doctrine Farticitlarum Ling. Gr. auctore et editore H. Hoogeveen. 2 To7n. 1769. 4to. 

H. Hoogeveen Doctrina Farticul. Gr. Recensuit, breviavit, et auxit C. G. Schatz, Lips. 
1798. 8r(). 

'•' Primv.m," says the Editor, " universum cl. Hoogeveeni librum diligenter ita recensui, 
ut, sublatis quas aceiriniam ediloris subterfugisseut, operarum erratis, hie ibi, quae 
vel minus vere disputata, vei baud satis plane explicita esse viderentur, corrigerem, quas 
quidem emeudationes,ubi paulo graviores essent, nominatim indicavi, ubi leviores, tacite 
invcxi. Aliquoties in locis Gr. scriptorum ab Hoogeveeno allatis,vel lectionem e meiioribus 
editt. emendavi, vel versionem correxi ; nee non alia locorum exempla, quai apliora vide- 
renuir iis, quibus auctor doctissimus usus tuerar, substitui." 

Matt. Derarii Liber de Gr. Ling, Farticulis. Emendavit et Not. addidit J. G. Reusmann. 
L'ps. et Schleizd. 1775. Hvo. 

" Libelli niodum," says J. G, Reusmann, " semper respici, ne in nimiam accresceret 
molem. Qua de causa etiam consilium adjici( ndi Specim. Suppl. ab L G. S. Bernholdio in 
Bihlioth. Hamburg. Miscella Vol. iir. editi mutandum erat," 

Tr. Vigeri De pmcip. Gr. Dictionis Idiot. Liber, cum Animadvv. H- Hoogeveeni, J.C, 
Zeuniiet G, Hamunni,cujii.s accedit DeFrunomine »vtoj Dissert. Oxon. 1813, 3w. 

I \ Stephens' Greek Thesaurus. 201 

L. Bosii Ellips. Gr. es Edit. G. H. Schafer. Appendicis Loco subjiciuntur B. Weiske Fleo- 

nasmi Ling. Gr. necno?i G. Hermanni Dissert, de Ellipsi et Fleonasmo in Gr. Ling. Oson, 
1813. 8m 

Aretai Opera, curante Bcerhaave, Lug. Bat. 1731. Fol. 

To this edition is subjoined an Index by Michael Maittaire, who, in his dedi- 
cation to John Wigau, writes thus — 

" In hoc Indice adnotantur pleraeque voces rarfe et insigniores, loquendique formul2e« 
prasslaiitissimo huic auctori vel proprije, vel cum aliis, Hippocrate preesertim, Homero et 
Herodoto, ad quorum normam suum stylum conformavit, communes. Vocabula in Con- 
stantini Lex. et H. Stephani praetermissa asterisco indicantur; obelo, quae in illis occurrunt, 

Nearly five hundred words are thus marked. 

Erotiani, Galeni, et Herodoti Glossaria in Hippocratem Gr. Lat. Recensuit Franzius. 
Lips. 1780. 8vo. 

Bartiiolomad Castelli Lex. Medic. Gr.-Lat. ante a Jar. Pancratio Brunone iterate editum, 
nunc denuo ab eodem et aliis plurimis novis Accessionibus locupletatum, et in multis cor- 
rectum. Lips. 1713. 4to. 

In the Bih/iotheca Gr. J. Alherti Fahricii, as republished by Harles, a later 
ed. of this Lex. Medic, is mentioned, but the Editors have not yet been able to 
meet with it — " Barth. Castelli Lex. Medic. Gr.-Lat. Genevse, 1747." Vol. vi. 
p. ^72. Tliey would feel themselves greatly obliged to any gentleman in the 
possession of it, who would lend it to them. 

Fr. J. Bastii Epist. Crit. ad Jo. Fr. Boissonade super Antonini Liherali, Parthenio, et 
Aristceneto. Cum Auctoris Emendationibus et Additamentis MSS. e Ling. Gall, in Lat. verm 
a C. A. Wiedeburg. Lips. 1809. 8vo. 

To this is subjoined an " Index Rer. et Verb. Gr. explicatorum, in quo voce* 
asterisco notata:^ in sec. edit. Lexici Gr. Germanici Schneideri frustra quaerun- 
tur." In this Index forty zcords are marked. 

Appendix ad Fr. J. Bastii Epist. crit. Partirn Lat. vertit, cumque suit Not. et Indie, 
edidtt G. H. Sckafer. Lips. 1809. 8vo. 

To this is subjoined an " Index Rer. et Verb. Gr." in which twenty-tzoo words 
are marked. 

Fr. Guil. Sturzii De Dialecto Mucedon. et Alexandr. Liber. Lips. 1808. 8vo. 

To tills is subjoined an " Index Verb. Gr. in quo Indice non tantum ea, quse in Indies 
Thesauri Slephauiani non reperisset, asterisco prailixo insignivit, sed etiam siglis distinxit 
vocabulis, ita ut M. significet Macedonica, Mg. Mgyptioca, quse non origine Grasca essent, 
Gr. JE.g. Grceca quidem, sed ab ^TLgyptiis vario modo mutata, Al. vere Alexandrinis usitata, 
pr. At. probabililer Alexandrina sive Macedonica et Menandro propria, utque adeo lector 
slatim ex hoc Indice, quo quodlibet sit referendum, cognoscere et judicare facile possit." 

In this Index one hmidred and seventy-two zeords are marked, as not to be 
found in the Index to H. Stephens' 27iesaurns. 

Theophrasti Churacteres recensuit, Animadversionibus illustravit, atque Indicem Verborttm 
adjecit J. Fr. Fischerus. Accessit Comment. Is. Cusaubuni Coburgi. 1763. 8vo. 

To this is subjoined an " Index Vocabulorum Formularumque quae leguntur 
in Characteribus Theophrasti." This Index is glossarial, and in it are noticed 
fifteen zeords, either not found in 11. Sleph. Thes. or imperfectly explained there. 

Herodiani Hisioriarum Libri VIII. e Recensione H. Stephani cum Varietate Lectionis III, 
Codicum MSS. nova Berg/eri Versioue, Notis Var. et Indicibits Verb, ac Her. curante T. Guil, 
Irmisch. Lips. 1789. 8w. Tom. i. Lips. 1790. Tom. ii. Lips. 1792. Tom. in. 

This work is now completed by the publication of two more volumes, of 
which the last was printed at Leipsic in 1805. To it is subjoined a most copious 
" Index Grsecitatis," which will be of the most important use. 

Lexicon Technologic ._Gracornm Bheloricce. Congessit et Animadvv. illustravit Jo, Chr, 
Theoph. Ernesti, Fhilos. Prof. Lips. Lipsitc. 1795. 8ro. 

It is the intention of the Editors to reprint the whole of this admirable work, 

202 Materials for the Improvement of 

inserting the explanation of technical terms and phrases under their proper heads. 
It forms a complete Lexicon for all the Greek rhetoricians, who have come down 
to our age, and thus the labor of searching the Opera Rhetorica of Aristotle, of 
Hermogenes, of iElius Aristides, of Longinus, of Demetrius Phalereus, of 
Dionysius Halicarnasseus, of the Rhetores selecti, published by J. Fr. Fischer, 
of Aphthonius, of Sopater, of Cyrus, of Phoebammon, of Menander, of Ap- 
sines, and of Miulicianus, is in a great degree spared. J. C.J. Ernesti has 
collected from Plutarch, Diogenes Laertius, Philostratus, Sextus Empiricus, 
Eunapius, Libanius, Synesius, Marcellinus, Photius, and others, and particularly 
Ulpian's Commentaries on the Orations of Demosthenes, whatever he found 
useful for his work. The author thus speaks in his Preface : — 

" Memini me ssepe mirari, cum Rhetoribus illis legendis animadverterem, quam parum 
in quamplurimis locis mea me Imguffi Graecae intelligentia juvaret, quje tamen ceteris scrip- 
torious Grtficis bene intelligendis sufficere posset. In his enim cum ita comparata ratio sit, 
ut, qui GrfEcam Linguam satis callent, recie assequi sensum scriptoris possint ; Rhetores 
legenti idem fere accidit, quod illis, qui artifices vulgares, fabros, textores aliosque ejus 
generis, de arte sua disserentes audiunt, ut quamvis communi et vernacula lingua usos, 
tamen vix intelligant, nisi antea verborum a vulgari significatione ad res t£x,v'x<»; designan- 
das translatorum peculiarem vim et usum cognoverint. Nam quaecunque ars iis demum 
temporibus ccepta est excoli et praeceptis illustrari, cum jam lingua ad absolutam formam 
definitumque ambitum perfecta esset ; in ejus institutione verba singula, quae quidem ad 
artem ipsam illustrandam pertinent, hoc est, Tsxvwa, eadem etiam jusTos^opjxa, translataque 
sint, necesse est. Diserte quidem Dionysius Hal. de Compos, p. 146. cum tres elocutionis 
characteres generales definire vellet, lyii jue'vtoi, inquit, xupot? ovo^ao-fv aw ex'"'' ".ura; wpoo-aya. 

ftvirai. lu; nymTOtcfj.afTrovg fAETccfopiKOig otOfjMo-i v.aKijiy tjiv ^a\v avafnfa.y j tt|V li yXacpLipav, n av9>ifav, Try ii 

Tfi'rr))! jcoiviiv. Quo major autem vel illorum verborum, ex artis ambitu, copia, vel, ex ejusdem 
indole, translationis subtilitas est, eo major intelligendi difficultas oritur. Unde passim 
animadverti viros doctissimos eo, quod elocutionis illius rhetoricae rationem ex communi 
linguae Greecee consuetudine metiebantur, ssepenumero in errorem interpretandi adductos, 
neque tutum ad Lexica refugium esse, quorum auctores universis linguae copiis addicti, ad 
illas dicendi formas, quas certi scriptores ad usum artis sucE accommodassent, vel non de- 
scenderant, vel tani leviter eas attigerant, ut nihil, aut certe non multum inde peti ad 
intelligendum adjumenti possit. Unus Henricus Stephamis bos etiam Rhetorum angulos 
excussit. Sed primum, quotusquisque est, qui illo Thesauro uti queat? deinde summa viri 
immortalis diligentia, cum in res pcene infinitas esset diffusa et dissipata, totumque Linguae 
Graecae corpus complecteretur, non poterat in singulis membris et partibus tantuin prcestare, 
quantum vela mediocri studio, in his solummodo partibus collocato, expectari potest. Mea 
igitur in hoc laboris genere commodior faciliorque ratio fuit. Nam cum et sola Rhetorum 
antiquorum scripta, et hoc terto consilio excuterem, ut, quibus quisque modis et formis 
artis suae elementa, partes, praecepta, enunciaverit, vidcrem notaremque, ea re factum est, 
ut non solum diligentius et plenius omnem tecbnologia; varietatem deprehendere, sed et 
singulorum verborum ac formarum dicendi, quie ad illam pertinerent, vim sensumque 
accuratius definire possem. In ulroque genere studium certe meum non defuit." 

Antiquitutes Asiatica Christianam Aermn antecedentes ex primuriis Monumentis Gr. descrip- 
ttp, Lat. versiB, Not. et Comment, illunlrutte : accedit Monum. Lat. Ancyranwn. Per Edm» 
Chishull. Land. 1728. Fol. 

At the end of the work Chishull subjoins the following notice : 

" Admonitio de opere partlm nunc prastito, partim adhuc p?w/(JSSo. lis omnibus, qui, sin- 
gularis hujus operis promovendi gratia, unum aureum Brilannicum aut persulverunt, aut 
persolvent, tradetiir nunc in manus primum hoc volumcn complectens Antiqq. Asiat. Chris- 
tianam Mram antecedent es ; iisdemque nunc promittitur, conditione alterius ainei, perfecto 
demum opere, solvendi, alterum iilud, quod sequitur, longe justius volumen, Antiqq. etiam 
exhibens Asiat. ex Inscript. Gr. partem longe maximum ineditis, historicis, honorariis, agonis- 
ticis, sepulchralibus, una cum Indie thus nccessariis, et Lexico totius operis alphabet ico." 

" He formed a design of publishing a second volume, the printing of which 
was actually begun, when death put a stop to its progress, and it has never been 
ascertained m what manner the MSS. were disposed of." Dr. Rees's Cyclopczdia 
under Chishull. 

The writer of that article in the Cyclopedia of Dr. Rees does not seem to 
have met with the following passage in Robert Auiswortb's Dedication of his 
Latin Dictionary to Dr. Richard Mead : " Edmundus Chishull; cujus prjeclari 

Stephens* Greeh Thesaurus. 203 

et elaborati Asiaticarum Inscriptionum corporis alterum volumen ipse in lucem 
emisit, alterum a tua in manes ejus pietate expectatur." Mr. Beloe, in his 
Anecdotes of Literature and scarce Books, vol. i. London, 1807. p. 167, states 
that, " during the life of Dr. Mead, Dr. Askew bought ail his Greek MSS. 
for £c»00." Possible it is that E. Chishull's second volume might be among 
them. Whether it be mentioned ii; the Bibliotheca Meadiana, or the Biblio- 
theca Askeviana, is more than we know. 

Historia Deorum ex Xenophonte, sive Antiquitatum Xenophonteanim Prodromus: cui 
accedit Specim. Suppl. Lexicorum ex Xenophonte. Auctore Mag. Jo. Grammio. Havniae. 
1716. 4to. 

Of this specimen, which extends from page 111 to page 159, we are told 
that it is an 

" Index Vocum Xenophontearum, quae in prcestantissimis, stiidiosorum Grsecse Linguae 
manibus quae teruntur, Lexicis Grteco-Latinis vel proisus non habentur, vel nullo auctopis 
classici teslimonio confirmantur.'' 

In this specimen three hundred such words are collected. 

Lexicon Xenophonteum. Vol. i. Lips. 1801. Vol. ii. iii. j803. 

This admirable work was begun by C. A. Thieme, who, after having pro- 
ceeded as far as the word y/yyAu/xoj, as we learn from the address to the reader 
prefixed to the first volume, page 3^ grew weary of the undertaking, and handed 
his papers over to Fr. Guil. Sturzius, who thus speaks of the Specimen pub- 
lished by Jo. Grammius : — 

*' Jo. Fr. Fischeri gravissimum exemplum etiam in eo sum imitatus, quod iis vocabulis. 

Suae non commemorantur in Indice Thes. Steph. asteriscum praefigerem. Cum enim jam 
o. Grammius ad calcem Historia Deorum ex Xenophonte, sive Antiq. Xenoph. Prodromif 
colligere instituisset ea vocabula Xenophontea, quae in Thes. illo H. Steph. vel desiderantur, 
vel auctoritate boni alicujus scriptoris destituti sunt, cumque ego facile animadvertissem, 
ne Grammii quidem taUinn vocabulorum catalogo omnia, qua ei inserenda fuerant, conti- 
neri, et tamen scirem, adhuc esse nonnullos inter viros eruditos, quibus talis diligentia, 
quae nee omnino inutilis est putanda, egregie placeret: notavi ea vocabula omnia, quibus 
prorsus Stephani Thes. caret, praeier verbalia in e'ov et ioj desinentia; quas vero ita extant in 
isto Thes., ut nee verba nee nomen auctori.s ciijusdam antiqui sit additum, et quorum in- 
tredibilis multitudo est, iis, quamvis apud Xenophontem reperiantur, asteriscum apponere 
omisi. Unde simul, quam plenus sit Index noster, potest coliigi. Prorsus enim in Stephani 
Thes. si quidem recte numeravi, desunt vocabula 413 ; quibus si annumeraveris 67 terbalia 
qualia dixi, efficitur summa vocabulorum 480., quorum tamen num multa vel omnia jam 
relata sint in D. Scotti Append, ad Thes. Ling. Gr. ab H. Steph. constructum et ad alia Lex. 
Constantini et Scapula, vel in Append, ad Lex. G. Lat. a Jo. Scapula constructum et ad 
alia Lex. e Cod. Ms. olim Askeviano in lucem nunc primum vindicatam, definire mihi non 
licebat. Quae vero Jo. Caspar Suicerus in Specim. Supp. Ling. Gr. (quod Specimen consti- 
tuit caput xiii. Suiceri Sac. Obss. Tiguri, 1665. 4. p. 311-342.) et Jo. Henr. Mains in Specim. 
Supp]. Thes. Gr. Ling, ab H. Steph. constructi (Maii Specimen adjectum est ejusdem libro 
quarto Obss. sac. ad diversa utriusque Testamenti loca, Francf. 1732. 8vo. p. 161-233.), ille 
ex litera a, hic ex litera s, banc in rem observarunt, ea singulis locis inserere non neg- 
lexi." Pr<ef. ad vol. i. p. 8. 

Gregorii Curinthii et aliorum Grammaticorum Libri de Dialectis Ling. Gr., quibus addi- 
tur nunc primum editus Manueiis Moschopuli Libelius De Vocum Passionibus. Kecensuit 
et cum Not. G. Koenii, Fr. Jac. Bastii, Jo. Fr. Boissonardi, suisque edidit G. H. Schaefer, 
Lips. 1811. 2 vol. 8vo. 

To the second volume is subjoined a most copious '' Index Graecitatis — 
Voces asterisco notatae in Lexicis non leguntur." In this Index nearly three 
hundred words are thus marked. 

Abr. Kail, Specimen Suppl. Thesauri Gr. Ling. Stcphaniani ex Theognidis Sententiis (litt. 
A.), Halhiae, 1760. 8vo. Vide Bibliothec. Gr. ed. Harles, vol. vi. p. 672. 

We have not yet been able to meet with this Specimen, and have yet to be 
informed whether it is inserted, and whether any additions are made to it, in the 
following work, which was published, as it should seem, six years after. 

204 Materials for the Improvement of 

Ahr. Kallii Specimen nova Editionii Sententiarum Theognidis Megarensis, Poetae antiquis- 
•imi. Gutting, et Goth. ap. J. C. Dieterich, 1766. 7 pi. 4. 

This Specimen nov. Edit. Sentent. Theognidis is noticed in the Comment, de 
Libr. minorib. vol. i. pars iii. Bremae, 1767. 12mo. p. 333-6. where we are 
told that in the meditated edition " agmen claudet Vocum Theognidearum copi- 
osissimus index." 

Appendix ad Lex. Gr. Led. a J. Scapula constructnm et ad alia Lex. Gr., e Cod. MS. olim 
Askeviano in lucem nunc primum vindicata. Lond. J789. 8vo. 

Dr. Burney, the learned Editor of this work, writes thus in the Preface : 

*< De auctore, qui scripsit, aut e variis scriptoribus Suppl. hoc collegit, nil certi in promp- 
tu est dicere. Eruditionis tamen et diligentise argumentum gravissimum et firmissimum 
post se reliquit. Quee fuerit illius setas, quae patria, quod nomen, jeque ac causa, quae 
ilium ad tantum laborem exhauriendum impulerit, prorsus ignoratur." Pag. xii. 

•* In hoc Opeie Supp. ad Lex. Scapula, Henrici Stephani, csterorumque scriptorum, 
reperire licet. In hoc, multa verba, ab illius praetermissa, diligenter enotata : et in hoc, 
plurima, vel nullis, vel taiitum recentioribus, dubiisque exemplis defensa, veterum, atque 
optimifi notag auctorum testimoniis, quibus fidera nemo temere nej^averit, firniata, Lector 
videbit. Ex jEschyli Sophaclisque Reliquiis, et ex quibusdam Euripidis, Aristophanisque 
Fabulis, auctoritates plerumque sunt desumptae; at praiter omnes alios, ex illo principe 
Tragicorum, cujus voces pauIo abstrusiores, aut minus consuetae, et quae, magna ex parte, 
in Thes. omnibus et Lex. desiderantur, in hoc libro sedulo sunt servatae. 

" Satis diu, nullum exstare Thes. Gr. omnibus numeris absolutum, deploraverunt viri 
eruditi, et in praesens deplorant, et in posterum tbrsan deplorabunt ! Vocum aliquot cen- 
turias, ab H. Stephana omissarum, suppleverunt Suicerus, Jensius, Scotlus, alii. Horum 
tamen omnium vel memoriam, vei industriam, quam piurima? i'ugerunt ! O si qui, laurea 
Apollinari merito donandi, novum Thes. Sleph. Edit, vulgandam susciperent ! Singula exem- 
pla, et singula verba examinanda sunt, et expendenda; auctorum paginae, locaque citata, ex 
optimis et ultimis editionibus, accurateque et cogitate rescribenda; errores vani corrigendi; 
omissa supplenda; criticorum, astate S/e/iAani recentiorum, observationes legendae ; acces- 
sionesque ex scriptoribus olim editis, et maxime ex Auctoribus, Epigrammat. et Inscriptio- 
nibus, quce, post Lexica emissa, e Bibliothecarum latebris, vel aliunde prodierunt, adf'e- 
rendae." Pag. XI. 

Caspari Fr. Munthei Obss. philolog. in sac. N. T. Lib. ex Diod. Siculo collecta, una cum 
Indice Vocum Diodorearum, quibus Lexica locupletari et suppleri possunt. Hafn. et 
Lips. 1755. 12mo. 

To it is subjoined a " Specimen Defectus Lexicorum in Vocibus aut notioribus Vocum 
Diodoreis, quae Lexicographis, in primis Stephano, vel plane praeteritae, vel nulla penitus, 
aut sequioris /Evi Auctoritate stabilitje sunt." 

It extends from p. 491. to p. o60. and 830 words are noticed in it. 

J. H. Maii Fil. Ohss. sac. ad diversa utriusque Loca Libri IV. Fr. ad Mcen. 1716. 8vo. 

In Dr. Gosset's Catalogue the Work is dated Franc. 1732., but in the Bod- 
leian Catalogue, it is dated 1716. : in the following passage the date assigned to 
the Work is the same, as in the Bibiiotheca Gossetiana : — 

" Jo. H. Mali Specim. Suppl. Thes. Gr. Ling, nb H. Stephana constructi adjectmn est lib. 
quarto Obss. sac. ad diversa utriusque Testamenti Loca, Franc. 1732. Bvo. p. 161-233." 

Jo. Jensius, in the third Book of the Lectiones Lucianea chap. 1st, page 309- 
16. Hag. 1699- 8vo. " ex Luciano Indicem Vocum, quae in H. Stephani Tlie- 
sanro omissa; sunt, consignavit." The words amount to 150. 

Geoponicoruvi, sive De Re Rustica Libri, curante Jo. Nic. Nidus. Lips. 1781. 4 Vol. 8vo. 
It contains an " Index," m which " asterisco ea signata sunt verba, qute in Thesaura 
Stephaniano non apparent." 

In the Miscellanece Obss. crit. in Auctores vet. et recent. Vol. VI. Tom. I. 
Menses April, Maii et Junii complectens. Amst. 1735. is inserted in p. 179-89. 
Suppl. Vocum omissarum Specim. in H. Stephani Thes. Ling. Gr. The 
article contains exactly 502 words. The editor thus writes in the first page — 

" Quamvis maluissemus non ita nudas has vocum auctoritates nobis transmissas, et saepius 
hie illic aliquid addendum fuisse de significatione, usu, et probitate vocabulorum censeamus, 
noluinuis tamen viro erudito, qui nofiis hoc Specimen impertiu, suura laborem pcrire, cum 
terte aliqua inde ad fiXl>.Myct{ vjros redundare possit ulilitas. B." 

Stephens' Greek Thesaurus. 205 

The article itself has the signature H. L., but we know not who is meant to 
be designated by those initials. 

T. C. Harles, in a Note on the Bib. Gr. J. A. Fab. Vol. VI. p. 663., writes thus: 

" Vir quidam doctus in Ephem. Liter ar. Gothanis a. 1789. pag. 521. exhibet e Meleagri 
Carminibus plura Vocum Gr. singularis formse, quse in Lex. Steph. desiderantur." 

Aristotelis Liber De Mirabilibus Auscultationibus, curante Jo. Becraanno. Gottingae 
1786. 4to. 

It contains an " Index Verborum; Verba asterisco signata in Lexicis desid« 
rantur." 27 words are thus marked. 

Utriusque Leonida Carmina, cum Argumentis, Varietate Leclionis, Scholiis, et Comtnen> 
tario edidit, et Indice ornavit Alb, Chr. Meincke. Lips. 1791. 12fno. 

It contains an Index Verb, which notices £3 words not found in the Lex. vulg, 

Aristophanis Comczd. Plutus : adjecta sunt Scholia vetusta. Recognovit ad veteres Mem- 
branas, var. Lect. ac Not. instruxit, et Scholiastas locupletavit Tiberius Hemsterhuis. Edilio 
nova Append, aucta. Lips. 1811. 8vo. 

It contains an " Index Rer. et Verb, quse in Adnot. explicantur — Voces, quibus 
Asteriscus praslixus est, in Lex. non leguntur." The words thus marked are 
50 in number. The Work was edited by G. H. Schaefer. 

Fabula JEsopica, quales ante Planudeni ferebantur ex vetusto Codies Abbatiae Florent. 
nunc primum erutas una cum aliis partim hinc inde collectis, partim ex Cod. depromtis, Lat. 
Vers, Notisque exornatae. Studio Fr. De Furia, Lips. 1810. 8vo. 

It has an " Index Gra^citatis" made by C. Em. Chr. Schneiderus, in which 
fi3 words are noticed as not found in the Lexicons. 

Artemidorus, curante Reiff, Vol. I. Lips. 1805. 8vo, 

It contains an " Index Rer. Verb, et Nom. propr. — Asterisci vocabula, qua 
nondum in Lex. relata sunt, denotant." 

Xenophontis Ephesii De Anthia et Habrocotne Epheiiacorum Libri V. Curavit Aloys Emeriei 
Liber Baro Locella. Vindobonae 1796. 4to. 

It contauis an *' Index Graecus, Verbis quae in H. Stephani et D. Scotti Lex. 
non repenuntur, vel Auctoritate carent, Asteriscus est praefixus." 24 wordt 
are thus marked. 

In the Index to //. S. Reimars Edition of Dio Cassias all the words, which 
do not occur in the Thesaurus, are marked, and the number of marks exceeds 

Homeri Odt/ssea, Gr. Tom. III. continens var. Lect. e Cod. Harl. et Not. R. Porsoni. Lips. 
Edidit G. H. Schsefer. 1810. 18mo. 

To it are subjoined " Indices in Not. ad Bucolicos Poetas, Horn. Pind. 
et Sophoc," " Index Verb, et Rer. in quo Voces asterisco notataa Lexicis acce- 
dant." In it 33 words are noticed. 

Homeri Opera omnia ex Recensione et cum Not. S. Clarkii. Accessit Var. Lect. Ms. 
Lips, et Edd. veterum cura J. A. Ernesti, qui et suas Not. aidspersit. 8vo. Lips. 1759. 
Vol. I. 1760. IL in. 1761. IV. 

Homeri Operum Appendix, Hymn. Epigram, et Fragm. continens. Recensuit var. Lect. 
Not. Indie, denique Gr. in Contextum addidit J. A. Ernesti. Vol. V. Lips. 1764. 

Addendorum ad Tndicem Homeri Ernestinum Specimen I. scriptum a J. G. C Hoepfncro. 
(inserted in the Commentationes philologicae editae a G. A. Ruperti et H. Schlichthorst. 
Vol. IV. Bremae, 1796. 12mo.) 

This Index extends from page 154 to page l67. The first part consists of 
additions to the Index ad Notas ; the second part, which is confined entirely 
to the letter A, relates to the words in the Text, and l64 words are noticed. 

Index Vocabulorum in Homeri Iliad, et Od. cffiterisque quotquot exstant Poematis Studie 
M. VVolfgangi Seberi Sulani. Editio nova auct. et emend. Oxon. 1780. 8vo. 

Homeri Hymnus in Cererem editus a D. Ruhnkenio. Accedunt duae Epist. crit. et C. G, 
Mitscherliciiii Adnott. in Hymu. in Cererem. Lug. B. 1808. 8vo. 

206 Materials for the Improvement of 

J. G. Berndtii Lexicon Homericum, seu Index copiosissimus Vocabulorum plcrumque om- 
nium formulanimque dicendi complurium, qu« in totaHom. II. occurrjnt; in usum tironum 
accommoi]. Stendal. 1795. 2 Vol. 8vo. 

G. H. C. K'os Probe ernes griechisch-deutchen Worterbuchs iiber den Homer und die Home- 
riden. Kopenb. 1806. 

Of Damvi's Lexicon Homericum et Pindaricum the greatest possible use 
will be made. 

Segim. Fr. Dresigii Commentarius de Verb. Med. N. T. nunc primum editus cura J. Fr. Fis- 
cheri. Addita est prater Lud. Kusteri Libellum Jo. Clerici Dissert, de eodem Genere Verb. 
Gr. e Ling. Franco-Gallica in Lat. conversa. Lips. 1755. 12mo. 

It is the intention of the Editors to insert in the Lexicon under the proper 
heads the various observations respecting the middle verb, as contained in this 
publication, as well as in the Collection of Chr. WoUius, which reached a 
second edition. 

Miscellaneous Tracts and Collections relating to Natural History selected 
from the principal Writers of Antiquity on that Subject by W. Falconer, M. D. 
Cambridge. 1793. 4to. pp. 203. 

*' The last and largest of these pieces is an alphabetical table of the Greek 
plants. The former of these exhibits 1st, the Greek name of the plant and the 
author who mentions it. 2d, the name assigned to the same by Caspar Bauhin 
in his Pinax and other Works. 3d, the corresponding name given by Linnaeus 
in his Spec. P lantarum. 4th, the modern English name where that could be 
found. The second part of this Table exhibits the Linnaean names of the Greek 
plants placed in alphabetical order with the Greek names subjoined. The use 
of this is to enable the Reader to discover if any particular plant, the Linnaean 
name of which is known, be one of those with which the Greeks were acquainted. 
An attempt of this kind, though sufficiently laborious to the compiler, must be 
liable to much error and uncertainty ; but some indulgence may be hoped to be 
given to the first attempt of this kind, at least in our owu country." Pre- 
face, p. v. 

Platonis Euthyphro, Apologia Socratis, Crito, Fhado, Graece ad Fidem Codd. Mss. Tubing. 
August, aliorumque et Librorum Editorura vet. recens., emend., explic. J. Fr. Fischerus, 
Lips. 1783. 8vo. 

It contains an 

" Index secundus Verb. Gr. qucE in Not. illustrantur, explicantur, et a Librariis permutata 

This Work cannot fail to supply us with some important matter for the aug- 
mentation and the correction of H. Stephens' T/ies. as J. Fr. Fischer in the 
Notes is constantly referring to the Thes. J. Fr. Fischer has also edited the 
following Dialogues of Plato, as we learn from Chr. Theoph. Kvinoel's Nar- 
ratio de J. F. Fischero ad Fr. Volkmarum Reinhardum, Lipsia, 1799. 8t70. 

Platonis Crutylus et Theatettis Gr. cum Animadvv. crit. Lips. 1773. 8vo. 

Platonis Cratylus Gr. et Lat. Annotat. crit. et grammaticis illustratus Prolus. I-XIV. Lips. 

1792. 8vo. 

Platonis Sophista, Politicus, et Parmenides cum Animadvv. crit. Lips. 1773. 8vo. 

Great assistance vvill be derived from the following works published by J. F. 

Anacreontis Ted Carmina Gr. e Recens. Guil. Baxteri cum ejusdem Not. tertium edidit, 
Varietatemque Lectionis atque Fragm. cum suis Animadvv. adjecit J. Fr. Fischerus. Lips. 

1793. 8vo. 

It contains 

" Index secundus Verborum, qiiae in Od., Fragm., Epigram. Anacreontis leguntur." 
" Index tertius Verb. Gr. quje m Not. Editoris explicata sunt, atque Script, vet. quorum 
loci ibidem vel illustrati sunt, vel emendati." 

jEschinis Dialogi III. recte emendat. explicat, Ind. copios. adjecit J, Fr, Fischer. 
Ed. IIL Lips, 1786. 8vo. 

Stephens* Greek Thesaurus, 207 

JEschinis Axiochus Gr. recensuit et Notis illustravit, Lips. 1758. 8vo. 
A fourth Edition was published " Misniae 1718. 8vo./' but we know not whether 
it contains the Index mentioned in the preceding article. 

Palaphatus. Ed. VI. recte emend., explic. Accedunt Prolusiones IV. in Palaephatum. 
Lips. 1789. 8vo. 

Prolusiones de Vitiis Lexicorum N. T. XXXIII. ab a. 1772-90. conjunctim editae. Lips. 
1791. 8vo. 

From the following Works of the same Scholar the most copious extracts will 
be given. 

Animadvv. adJac. Welleri Gram. Gr. Spec. 1. Lipsiae, 1798. Spec. II. Lips. 1799. Spec. IIL 
Pars prior. Lips. 1800. 8vo. 

Welleri Gram. Gr. Ed. II. Lips. 1780. 8vo. 

In the Acta Seminarii Regii et Societatis philolugic^ Lipsiensis, edited by 
D. G. Beck, (Vol. I. Lips. 181 1. 8vo.) there is, in the three following Articles, 
an immense list of words, either altogether omitted, or only imperfectly ex- 
plained by Schneider in his Lexicon. 

Symhola ad J.i. Gottl. Schneideri Lex. Gr. Scripsit Fr. Passow. 
C. G. Ahlwardti Syvihola ad augendum Schneideri Lex. Gr. 
De Lex. Gr. et Lat. omnino et recentissimis singulatim. 

Having been informed by a zealous friend to our undertaking, that Professor 

Niclas, now deceased, the learned Editor of the Geo/)owic4, had made considerable 

progress in an intended edition of H. Stephens' Thesaurus, but for the want of 

a sufficient capital, had been obliged to relinquish the design, we have used our 

best endeavours to obtain the possession of his papers, and much concerned are 

we to find that we have so slight a chance of success. The following are extracts 

from two Letters, which we have received on the subject : 

" On the receipt of your letter of the 3 1st of March, 1 hastened to communicate 
the contents of it to my father, requesting at the same time that he would forward 
your proposals to Prof. Niclas, or his heirs. I have now received an answer, 
and likewise a letter to my father, from one Director D. J. Wagner, dated, 
Luneburg, the 4th inst., by which I was concerned to find tha^ my well-meant 
offer has led to nothing but the discovery that the MSS. of the late Professor have 
made their disappearance. The following is a translation of the letter : 

" Respecting the labors bestowed on the Greek Dictionary by the late Mr. 
*' Niclas, 1 have the honor of informing you that my colleague. Rector Langer, 
*' has assured me of his having, in the year 1796, (when he was the disciple of 
" N.) taken a copy of the MS. in question as far as the letter A for the author ; 
" but not a sheet of the same has been found after the decease of the latter, whose 
" literary reputation and the inquiries which from various quarters have been re- 
" ceived, have occasioned the most diligent searching through his letters and 
" papers without a trace of the MS. having been discovered : otherwise the heads 
*' of the monastery of St. Michaelis, which is in possession of the entire 
" library of the late Mr. N., would undoubtedly have made, or granted to others, 
" the most worthy use of it." 

" The source of the above communication is one of so great a respectability, I 
thought it my duty to place you in possession of it immediately : surprize and dis- 
appointment are equally great on my part ; but from the facts mentioned in your 
letter, and the first mention made of the MS. by my father, I still do not entirely 
despair of the success of further inquiries." Extracted from a Letter written on 
the Q.4thofMay, 1814. 

" The MSS. of Professor Niclas, at least the first volume of Stephens tran- 
scribed for the press, the other oever, 1 understood, completed, was shown to me 

208 Matdialsfor the Improvement, ^c. 

by my learned friend A. F. Wolf, at Halle ; in whose hands Niclas had placed it for 
the purpose, through the medium of his powerful recommendation, to obtain more 
favorable terms from the Leipsig booksellers : this happened in 1805. The war 
with Austria that year delayed the undertaking ; and the overthrow of Prussia and 
establishment of the kingdom of Westphalia in ] 806., compelled Professor Wolf 

to remove, first to Frankfort on the Oder, and thence to . What has 

become of Professor Niclas' papers since that period, I have no means of 
knowing." Extracted from a Letter recently written. 

J. F. Boissonade, as our subscribers will be glad to hear, has, with a very 
meritorious generosity, and a most commendable zeal for the interests of Greek 
literature, transmitted to us a long list of words not inserted in H. Stephens' 
Thesaurus, with which he has met in the course of his extensive and recondite 
reading, and we trust that his example will be followed by other distinguished 
continental scholars. 

We know several eminent scholars in this country, who have made large addi- 
tions to Stephens. From some of them we have reason to expect great and 
valuable assistance : from all we earnestly solicit communications. Even the 
addition of one word, or one new sense to a word, will be a desirable acquisi- 

For a List of Subscribers, we refer the Reader to Mr. Valpy's Catalogue, 
inserted at the end of this Number of the Classical Journal. 



An Answer to a late Book written against the learned and 
Reverend Dr. Bentley, relating to some MS. Notes on 
Callimachus. Together with an Examination of Mr. Ben- 
net's Appendix to the said Book, No. iii 209 

Biblical Synonyma, No. iii. 228 

Inquiry into the Causes of the Diversity of Human Character 
in various Ages, Nations, and Individuals; by Professor 

Scott, No. V 237 

Dissertatio T. S. Bayeri De Origine et priscis Scytharum 

Sedibus, ^ » 258 

On the Attic Months, &c. 8cc. 266 

Answer to Mr. Bellamy's Essay on the Hebrew Points, and 

on the Integrity of the Hebrew Text, 268 

Answer to the ' Remarks on the Topography of the Plain of 

Troy,' by Major Rennell, 275 

Conjectural Criticism on Virgil, -« » 29 1 

Carmen Toghrai, . . . . .^ -* 293 

Genders, 294 

Arabic Proverb, • ♦ • • ibid 

Biographical Memoir of J. J. Griesbach, late Professor of 

Divinity at Jena, by Fr. Aug. Kothe, 295 

Manuscripts Classical, Biblical, and Biblico-Oriental, No. v. 302 
Conjecture on a Passage in the Cato Major vindicated, » • • . 306 

Notice of C. A. Klotzii Opuscula varii Argumenti, 309 

Bibliography, 3 16 

Modern Words derived from the East, • • « • • 317 

On the Affinity between the German and English Dialects, 3 1 8 
Error in the Translation of the Periplus of the Erythrean 

Sea, by Dr. Vincent, 323 

Defence of the Common Reading of a Passage in Herodotus, 326 
NO. XX. CL Jl. VOL. X. a 




Inscriptions at Barcelona, • 331 

Passage from the Persitia Poem of Sliirin and Ferbad, • • • • 332 
The Authenticity and Genuineness of ^ Renaudot's Travels of 

Two M ahommedanS;' • 333 

Hebrew Criticism, » 33.5 

Adversaria Literaria, No. i v. So9 

Ilouardius Carceres Inviseas, 345 

Letter from Mr. R. Dawes to the Rev. Dr. Taylor, ...... 349 


scription de la Grece de Tausanias. Traduction Nouvelie, 

avec le Texte Grec collationne sur les MSS. de la Riblio- 

th^que oil Roi, Par M . Clavier, Vol. i. • • • 353 

Notice of J. F. Gyles's Elements of Hebrew Grammar, •. 356 
French Literature — Numismatography — Description d'une 

Medaille deSiris, dans la Lucani€. Par A. L. Millin, &c. Sic. 358 

Classical Connexions, No. 1 1 1. • 366 

In Carmina Epodica Euripidea Commentarius, No. iv. •• 369 

French Literature, « • 377 

Notice of Dr. Crombie's Gynmasium, sive Symbola Critica, 3S4 

Geometrical Problem, by Professor Porson, 401 

Answer to the Observations on tlie Researches in Greece, in 

No. XXII. of the Quarterly Review, by Major Leake, •. 402 

Notas in Euripidis Med. Edit. Porson, 412 

Supplement to the Materials for the Improvement of the new 
Edition of Stephens' Greek Thesaurus, in No. xix. of 

the Classical Journal, 413 

Curae Posteriores, » 417 

Literary Litelligence. Fiance, 419 

Germany, 42 1 

Italy, 422 

Spain and England, 423 

French Literature, 427 

Notes to Correspondents, ♦ "j^ ^» • *-••• — •• 420 



DECEMBER^ 1814. 



A ILATE book: 

Written against the Learned and Reverend 
Dr. Bentley, relating to some Manu- 
script Notes on Callimachus. 




No. HI. 

To the Author of the Remarks upon Dr. Bentley's Fragments 
of Callimachus. 

Remarks upon Decad I. 
X-^EAVING the rest of your proofs to answer for themselves to the 
several exceptions clapp'd upon the back of them ; two of them there 
are of so peculiar a complexion, that I cannot but make a stop at 
them, sc. Pr. 6, 7. The two Citations out of the Scholiast upon 
Homer, Dr. R. fr. n. 5, 6. To which I returned no other Answer 
than not proofs. Which whether it were sufficient, let the reader 
judge from what follows. With them therefore I begin my Re- 

Remark I. 

Putting your sense into words at length, and making it intelligible, 

you alledge them in this form. (p. 33.) From Parrhasius, to whom 

the Doctor is referred by Mr. Stanley's MS. he had his information 

that the Scholiast upon Homer often cited the ^Etia of Callimachus. 

No. XX. a, Jl, Vol. X. O 

'210 Answer to a Book written against 

From whence the inference is ; ergo. Dr. Bentley stole his two citation* 
out of Didynius upon Homer, n. 5. 6. from Mr. Stanley's MS, But 
how so ] Are they in your MS. ? No, not so. But Mr. Stanley 
directed him to Janus Parrhasius, and so he came by them. To Janus 
Parrhasius therefore I go, and by the help of Gruter's Index to the 
first volume of his Fax Artiiim, 1 readily turn to the place you intend, 
and there, p. 874- I find these words, Ex JEtiis pratered Calllmachi 
velustus et iniiommatus interpres Homeri, qui in Publica Vaticana 
Mibliotheca Ronue legitur, saj^issime testimonium petit, i. e. " There 
is to be seen in the Vatican Library at Rome, an old nameless Scho- 
liast upon Homer, who often quotes Caliimachus's AiVia." And this is 
every word that Parrhasius says to the matter. And now let us see 
how deeply the Doctor is indebted to your MS. upon the account of 
these two quotations. Just thus much and no more. Mr. Stanley, 
he sends him to Parrhasius ; and Parrlmsius, he sends him to Rome, 
telling him vsrithal, that 'tvi^as but going into the Vatican Library, 
and enquiring there for a certain old nameless Scholiast upon Homer ; 
and so, if he had the luck to hit upon the right book, he would meet 
with somewhat to his purpose in it : and so, the Doctor came by his 
two citations out of Didymus. An information much like that which 
the old man in the fable gave to his son of a treasure buried 
under ground in the vineyard ; but not telling him the place 
where the young heir was fain to dig the vineyard all over, 
and so, he found his treasure indeed, not what he expected, pots 
of money, but what his father designed, the fruit of good husbandry. 
After the same manner, the Dr. having (by the help of your MS.) 
heard somewhat of an old scholiast upon Homer, that quoted some- 
what out of Callimachus his .3itia, was resolved, whatever it was, and 
whatever pains it cost him, he would have it. But that Scholiast upon 
Homer being a nameless one, least he should not hit upon the right, 
he turns over all the Scholiasts upon Homer: and so he gets not only 
these three Citations belonging to Callimachus his Ama (for there's 
another of them to follow in the next Decad) but about half an hun- 
dred more some way or other belonging to the same Author : but all 
by the help of your MS. which first put him upon the Quest. For 
had not your MS. sent him to Janus Parrhasius, the Doctor had never 
thought of any of the old Scholiasts upon Homer. But to be serious 
with you, Sir ; would you have offered such things as these for proofs 
against the Doctor, but upon the presumption that no body would 
have been at the pains of tracing you ? The Doctor is a notorious pla- 
giary. And why ? why, because the Doctor hath three quotations 
out of Didymus upon Homer, referring to Callimachus his A'lnx; and 
before the Doctor had printed his Fragments, he had seen Mr. Stan- 
ley's MS. and Mr. Stanley's MS. takes notice of Parrhasius, who takes 
notice of an old Scholiast upon Homer, who takes notice of Callimachus 
his A'ina, ergo Dr. Bentley is a plagiary. A surprising consequence ! 
But, Sir, before you can bring this proof to bear, there may be made 
several Queries, to which it behoves you to give a punctual answer. 
As do you think the Doctor would never have looked into Didymus 
upon Homer, had it not been for this special information, which at second 

Dr. Bentki/, relating to CaUhnachus's Fragment s.9>\\ 

hand he received from your MS.? Or would not Gruter's index, which 
literh C. hath these words, Callimachi JEtia, quo argnmento Parrhas. 
p. 873. have sent him as strait to Parrhasius as your MS. could have done? 
Or are you sure that Parrhasius his old nameless Scholiast of the 
"Vatican was ever yet committed to the press ? or that Didymus was it? 
For there are several old Scholiasts upon Homer both printed and in 
MS. As besides Eustathius and Didymus, whom every body hath 
heard of, Gruter's Index to the fifth Volume of his Criticks refers me 
to H. Stephani Schediasmata, lib. 4. c. 21. where I find mention of 
Quiedam in Homerum Scholia, quce nondum edita sunt, et qua: quam 
paucissimis legtre datur. In the Epistle printed at the end of Ma- 
lela's Chronology, p. 63. I find the Doctor himself quoting Joannes 
Tzetzes his Uias interpretata AUegorici, quce nondum edita est. And 
in num. 135 of this his Collection, I find him producing a Fragment 
of Callimachus with a large quotation out of Porphyriusin Homericis 
QucEstionihiis. And these indeed have been printed over and over, 
but in Holstenius his Notes upon Porphyry's L%fe of Pythagoras you 
will find mention of other old Scholia upon Homer, bearing also the 
name of Porphyrius, which have never been yet printed. And other 
old MS. Scholia upon Homer undoubtedly there are in the world 
more than either you, or I, or the Dr. or Mr. Stanley, or Parrhasius, 
or any one man else whatsoever may have seen. Now to which of all 
these did Parrhasius send the Doctor ? To that which is now known 
by the name of Didynuis you suppose, but it might be to any other 
nameless Scholiast as well as to him. I might farther ask you, Sir, 
how many quotations out of all or any one of these Scholiasts are 
there in your MS. ? In the Doctor's collection, taking them all toge- 
ther, there are (for I have been at the pains of counting them) above 
half an hundred quotations out of the old Scholiasts upon Homer. 
As far as you have carried on the comparison, I find not so much as 
one single reference directly out of your MS. to any one of all these 
Scholiasts, and therefore very much question, whether in the drawing 
up this imperfect draught Mr. Stanley made any use of any one of 
them. And yet by a strange fetch these three quotations must be 
stole from your MS. But if he came by these three by the help of 
your MS. how came he by the other half hundred ? were they from 
your MS. too? a compendious way of making him as notorious a 
plagiary as you please. For you might as well have charged him with 
the whole as with part. And do such proofs as these deserve a better 
answer than what 1 gave them ? Not proofs, nor any thing like proofs, 
but mere suggestion, and altogether groundless. And now as for that 
sentence out of Parrhasius with which, as it were by way of Epipho- 
nema, you back these two proofs, and by the help of which translated 
into English, you call the Doctor plagiary in two languages, I have no 
more to say to it, than that I believe the translation to be your own : 
Vhich is more than I dare venture to say for that choice piece of an 
JEsopick, which adorns your Title-page. There seems to be too much 
of the spirit and stile in that for a person of your gravity and serious- 
ness. I am almost as confident as if I had seen the hand that did it, 
that in your title page and postscript you had the assistance of some 

212 A7isxver to a Book written against 

second. It was pity he did not take the same care of you through- 
out your whole book. Your stile stood in £;reat need of mending. I 
fear I have already detained the Reader too long upon this particular. 
But I was willing to let him see how resolved you were to make the 
most of your cause. And remark the second, as for another instance 
of your plain dealing, and a bold stroak of the Pen, he'll find not at 
all iuferiour to the first ; but (as to the former part of it at least) of a 
more general concern. 

Remark II. 

Just after the Titulus Ahux, you have these words. " The two 
epigrams out of the Anthology are omitted by Mr. Stanley, with 
which the Doctor makes a flourish ; but the epigram out of Martial is 
in Mr. Stanley's collections." 

With which the Doctor makes a flourish. 

Which the Doctor quotes you mean j for the one of which he pro- 
duces a fresh authority, and upon the other of which he bestows a 
correction. This is all the flourish the Dr. makes with them ; and 
this is the Dr.'s way of nraking a flourish : scarce any thing passes 
through his hands, but he leaves it better than he found it. Nor can 
you yourself forbear now and then offering at such kind of flourishes : 
with what success we shall see in its proper place. But whether the 
Doctor hath the same things with your MS. or hath not the same 
things, something must be said to him. I might also ask you, since 
we are here allow'd to suppose the Doctor to have sought these two 
Greek Epigrams out of the Anthology itself, why may we not also 
suppose him to have sought Martial's Epigram out of Martial himself? 
Is it because Martial is a common Book, and the Dr. loves to read 
out of the way 1 So let it be then. But this paragraph is fruitful! of 
observations of a more important consideration. I shall deliver them 
as succinctly as I can ; yet so as to make myself throughly under- 
stood, and set things in a full light. 

First then I observe that we are but just got over two of your 
proofs against the Dr. (sc. the quotations out of Harpocration and 
Suidas) but that he matches them with two additions of his own, (sc. 
the two Epigrams out of the Anthology) to the one of which the new 
authority added makes the Dr.'s some additions, three ; to his suppo- 
sed plagiarisms, two. You see. Sir, you have lost ground at the 
starting-post, and I dare say you'll be distanc'd out and out e'er you 
reach half the course. I might farther observe that this new authority 
produced by the Dr. (which if any body had done before him, 'tis 
more than I know) for part of one of these Epigrams, gives it with 
something of diff'erence in the reading from that of the Anthology. 
'Tis true, that difterence is not in this place very material, the sense 
in both comhig to the same. And yet this cannot be said to be an 
insignificancy ; since though not here, yet in many other places the 
same fragments produced out of several authors, what from the varie- 
ty of the Lections, and other circumstances is rescued from that ob- 
scurity in which it must otherwise for ever have remained unintelligible. 

Dr. Bentley, relating to CalUmacJiuss Fragments. 2 \.^ 

And this is a case which happens so very often in the Dr.'s collection, 
that there are but few pages, which alford not instances of it in 
abundance ; proving at the same time the compass of his reading, and 
the exactness of his judgement. Or however if any one should (as 
none that understands any thing in affairs of this nature will) censure 
this multiplying of authorities to the same purpose for a vain and 
fruitless curiosity : yet at least it clears him from the imputation of 
plagiarism. For if in some, nay in many places, the Dr. and your 
MS. fall in with the same quotations: [Supr. p. 17.] that, as 
hath been before said, the nature of the thing renders impossible to 
have been otherwise : But if your MS. produces a fragment attested 
(as is generally the case) with only one authority, or suppose two, and 
the Dr. adds one, two, or three more ; how is he a plagiary ? if he 
could out of his own stores produce four, three, two, nay or but one 
authority to which your MS. directed him not ; why may we not suj)- 
pose him as able to have produced those others also whicli are to 
be seen in your MS.? Since the same reading of the ancients required 
for the former would have done his work for the latter. 

And here I cannot but give tlie reader notice of a common fallacy 
put upon him throughout the whole course of your book : which is 
this, that you generally alledge your proofs against the Dr. by the 
tale of the number of the Fragments: and these figures in many 
places stand crowded together so thick one upon the other, that they 
make a formidable appearance. Thus p. 36. under the title AITION 
A' (Alriojv it should have been, as in Dr. Bentley, To it^ouTOv rujv AjtIcov) 
you run on strangely with your Numbers; as. N. 12, 13, 14, are 
taken from Mr. Stanley, as is is also the 17th; the 18th from Parrha- 
sius, to whom he was directed : 21st from Mr. Stanley ; 27, 28, 29, 
from Mr. Stanley. But what a shoal of them is there in p. 42, No. 
50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55. 57, 58, 59, 60. And what of all these ? 
Why all taken from Mr. Stanley. But this is a most notorious 
illusion ; the quotations produced by your MS. under the several 
numbers, or other references to the Dr.'s collection making sometimes 
not the half [as N. 2. 27- 38. 40. 42. 46. 50. &c.] sometimes not the 
quarter [as N. 52. 67- tit. 'EXsys'ia., n. S6. &c.] nay sometimes not the 
tenth [as tit. 'ET^iy^dixy.acrcc vid. Dr. B. p. 324. et 228. et Graevii 
Prooem. p. 5. et tit. IBIS Dr. B. p. 345.] nay sometimes not the twen- 
tieth ['ETrjyfaajfxara, ut supra, et (notwithstanding our Vindicator's 
Caveat, p. 54.) tit. Qa.v^a,<na, Dr. B. from p. 327- to p. 337.] part of 
those produced by the Dr. in the places so referr'd to. He that 
thinks I am upon the stretch, let him collate the Dr.'s collection with 
Mr. Stanley's MS. upon the places pointed out in the Margin ; where 
under the first of those references he will find the Dr.'s additions to 
be at least three to two, under the second at least five to one, under 
the third at least ten, and under the fourth twenty to one to what he 
is supposed to have found ready collected to his hand in Mr. Stanley's 
MS. And yet so have you printed the case that the reader who 
understands no more of the matter than what he sees of it in your 
Book, and never gives himself the trouble of looking into the Dr.'s 
collection, takes it as if ail that was uoder those numbers were traus- 

214 Ansxver to a Book written against 

scribed from Mr. Stanley : and goes away satisfied of your ingenuity 
because you acknowledge the Dr. to have made some additions of 
his own ; sc. the addition of those simple Numbers omitted in your 
tale; as between Number 50 and 60, the addition of that single 
Number 5(5. whereas the addition of the simple Numbers doth not 
upon the V. hole (and I am sure I speak within compass) make up a quar- 
ter part of these some additions which you ingenuously allow the Dr. 
to have made to Mr. Stanley's MS. Nay I am inclined to believe, 
that upon a just calculation, all that is in your MS. will scarce be 
found to bear the proportion of one to twenty to v,hat is in the Dr.'s 
Collection : taking in all, I mean, that the Dr. hath done upon Calli- 
ni.'U'hus, either by way of addition of fresh Epigrams, Fragments, or 
Teslimonia, or tlie addition of fresh authorities to those already pro- 
duced (as effectual an addition as any) or by way of emendation and 
explication of the text in his notes upon the several parts of that 
Author : his translation of almost all the Fragments, and many of 
the Epigrams I put not into the accounts, though a work requiring the 
exercise of some other faculty besides that of memory. [Sup. p. 7'] 
All these things, I say, laid together, I am pretty confident the Dr.'s 
some additions will be found more than twenty to one to what is iu 
your IMS. But there is no need of my runniug things so high. Sup- 
pose we stood upon the par, and the Dr.'s addition did but just keep 
up with your MS. yet even so, why must he have stole his half share 
from Mr. Stanley ? Since the same industry that supply'd him with the 
one half part, not in your MS. would in course have supply'd him 
with thy other half A\hich is in your MS. As for instance, in p. 37 
of your Book, the quotation out of the Scholiast upon Sophocles, n. 
21. you charge upon the Dr. as directly stolen out of your MS. in 
these words, n. 21. from Mr. Stanley. But another quotation out of 
the same Scholiast, and standing in the same page [p. 310,] of the Dr.'s 
Collection, n. 26. you leave him in full possession of: nay, and yet 
Enother quotation out of the same Scholiast, n. 20.9. you allow hini to 
have transcribed from that Scholiast himself, adding in express terms, 
[p. 71.] whom the Dr. had consulted. But what reason can you give 
for the difference here? why n. 26. and n. 20.9. should have been (as 
you elegantly express it,) [p. 30.] the genuine offspring of the Doctor's 
own brain ; but n. 21. diiectly taken, as you positively aver, from Mr. 
Stanley ? So again, in p. 42. I find you bringing in the Dr. debtor to 
Mr. Stanley for a quotation out of the Scholiast upon Apollonius 
Rhodius, n. 49- but another quotation out of the same Scholiast, Dr. 
B. p. 355. you frankly allow to be his own. But why the one rather 
than the other? your words in that place are so very express and 
significative, that I think them worth the transcribing, p. 6S. under 
the title 'la-'To^iy.a 'TTrop.vTj'aaTa. The passages out of Athenaeus and 
Harpocratiou are transcribed from Mr. Stanley ; the other two out of 
the Scholiast upon Apollonius and Eustathius are the product of Dr. 
Bentley's own observation in reading the ancients. And with this 
you conclude (as to the Fragments) your detail of particulars : and 
more unluckily you could not have done it. Thus much I must needs 
say for you, that you are no artist at managing an accusation, nor 

Dr.Bentley, relating fo CaUimachits's Fragments. 215 

much practised in tliis way of writing ; which I assure you I ?.m far 
from objecting; against you as a disparat;ement. I wonder that some 
or other of the i>arty did not spy this riaw, and put some better dis- 
guise upon tlie matter for you. But 'tis plain, from the many mistakes 
in the first edition of your Book not corrected, or coloured over in 
the second, that they took no manner of care of you. 'Twas ungrate- 
fully done of them thus to neglect a person who had discovered so 
forwardly a zeal for the cause ; [p. 31-] and ventured his all to serve 
them. But 'lis strange, that you yourself should not have perceived 
it, that these last words overthrow all that you had been doing before. 
For I cannot conceive any reader so very thoughtless, as not to catch 
you up here of his own accord : If the passages out of the Scholiabt 
upon Apollonius and Eustuthius were the product of the Dr.'s own 
observation in reading the ancients ; why then, why might not the 
two passages out of Athenaeus and Harpocration be so too ] Or by 
what strange fate were the Dr.'s fingers directed, that should thus 
have led them directly to the very book, page, and line, where lay any 
of those Fragments of Callimachus, which Mr. Stanley had not med- 
dled with ; but bound them up from so much as once touching upon 
any one of those which Mr. Stanley had before impropriated ? This 
is so obvious a reflection, that upon second thoughts you cannot but 
bb^ne your own indiscretion in laying it so full in view. The un- 
toward way of your concluding your detail of particulars puts me in 
mind of the words with which you conclude your whole book, 
[p. 9'5.] " If this will not convince and amend him, 1 resign him to 
better management." And really, Sir, that you must do. If it be 
resolved that Dr. Bentley shall he confounded, it must be done by 
some hand more accustomed to these sorts of exercises. 

This article of the Dr.'s some additions I lock'd upon to be a most 
material point, and such wherein the very substance of the cause is 
very nearly concern'd ; and therefore gladly laid hold on the first 
opportunity of considering it somewhat particularly. 

At the beginning of this remark, I made mention of a bold stroke 
of the Pen, and what that is we shall see in the observation I am now 
going upon. It naturally arises from this same paragraph, and is one 
of the choicest of the whole set : and therefore I cannot but usher it 
in with a special recommendation. 

I observe therefore, that the other book, be^ides the Anthology, out 
of which the Dr. fetches part of one of these Epigrams, is that 
known Lexicographer, Suidas ; nay, but Suidas in the Letter oiny.^ov 1 
If you remember a certain passage in your book, the very mention of 
these words cannot but a little startle \ou : perhaps you have forgot 
it : turning therefore to your 82d page, you will find yourself thus 
directing your speech to your honorable patron. 

"These two quotations" (your meaning plainly is, the omission of 
these two quotations) " from so known a Lexicographer incline me to 
believe that the remark is very true, p. 245. (m. 244.) of your learned 
examination of his dissertation, that he is got no furtJier than the 
letter Katftfa in Suidas." 

Those two quotations you speak of are out of Suidas, lit. K. vt. 

215 Ansxver to a Book xvritten acrainst 


KcjuXixc, Kwarjrcci, whicli being in Mr. Stanley's MS. but not in Df. 
Bentley's collection ; from thence you infer, that the Dr. hath not 
read Suidas beyond the letter KccTTTra: now from thence should I have 
inferr'd, that the Dr. did not transcribe Mr. Stanley's MS. for had he 
transcribed Mr. Stanley's MS. he could not have rniss'd of those two 
quotations. How these two passages out of Suidas came to be want- 
ing in the Dr.'s collection I know not. 'Tis most likely it was purely 
by oversight in his digesting and transcribing his collections for the press, 
[Sicmma festinatione, not. in Epig. 4^. p. 40.] which he tells us was 
done in great haste. And I am the rather inclin'd so to believe, be- 
cause in the Dr.'s collection I find the title TAATKOE (as you well 
observe) wanting in its proper place : which can have been only an 
oversight ; that title, with several others being preserved by Suidas, 
V. KaAAf'aa^&f : and accordingly, though wanting in the body of the 
collection, yet we find it standing [p. 304.] among the rest in the 
catalogue which the Dr. hath given us of all the works of that Poet. 

As you refer us to the very page where that remark is to be found, 
and indeed that honourable gentleman himself seeming desirous that 
his penetration upon a like occasion should be taken notice of; I 
presume I shall oblige you both by transcribing it. Not every one 
that reads these papers may have that book by him : and besides I 
were ambitious of having in this silly piece of mine some few Wjita 
at least, that will be unexceptionably good. 

"And this (to his eternal scandal be it spoken)" [Mr. B. p. 241.] 
*' is a plain proof that he hath not read over all Suidas. Nay, I have 
reason to suspect, that he is got no further than Kditita., which I 
observe iiere" [I see that little word here^ and guess at the meaning of 
it ; but how that alters the case, I see not.] " to be the utmost line of 
his citations. I would not have the reader slight this discovery of mine 
for 'tis as considerable as any of Dr. Bentley's, that are purely his own." 

No, Sir, I do not slight it, nor did I at the first reading of it. And 
though ihf re be so many peculiarities in that ingenious gentleman's 
way of writing, that no man who hath read through (so as to know 
what he is doing) but one half quarter part of his book can be much 
surpris'd at any thing that follows : yet when I came to this particu- 
lar passage, both the matter of it, and that air of satisfaction with 
which it is delivered, struck me with fresh admiration. How ! thought 
I ; the Dr. so very familiar with the Lexicographers, so conversant 
with Suidas in particular ; and yet not got beyond the letter Kditita, 
in Suidas? 'Tis strange. I cannot suppose that honourable gentleman, 
when he wrote his examination of Dr. Bentley, not to have thoroughly 
read that piece of the Dr.'s which he so often quotes, sc. his Letter 
[p. 147. 138. \6Q. 170. 191, 192, 193, 194. 196, &c,] to Dr. Mill, 
printed at the end of Malela's chronology : where he could not but 
have seen the Dr. p. 32. upon the letter A. in Suidas, v. Aulid^ujv, 
and p. 62. t)8. upon the letter vv. "Op;pof, 'O^fsv; : upon the letter 
* v. ITfio-jtof, p. 85. and p. 12, upon the letter c. v. '2o(poK\yji. After 
all whiih I cannot see what reason he had to suspect that the Dr. 
was got no further than the letter KocTTira in Suidas. 

Dr, Bcntley, relating to Callimachus's Fragments. 217 

But there is a certain proverbial gnoraa [Mr. B. p. 140. 285. Vind, 
p. 26.] in our language, which by the help of an extensive charity 
will cover a multitude of that ingenuous gentleman's cri^aA^aara |W,vij- 
/xovma, viz. good wits have short memories. How you should have 
been so forgetful, is a thing not so easy to be accounted for. With 
what grace could you say, that you are inclined to believe, that the 
Dr. is not got beyond the letter KaV^a in Suidas, when in the very 
first page of his collection, you find him in the letter oawfov? 
'Twould be unmannerly in me to say, to your eternal scandal be it 
spoken : but if your complexion will bear a blush, you cannot read 
these lines without changing countenance. You tell us, that the Dr. 
[p. 30.] ought not to be angry at it, if he be treated as he deserves, 
and that you have done it in a plain unaffected stile, [p. 95.] calling 
a spade by its right name. Should I, upon this and the several 
other occasions, which almost every page of your book presents me 
with, treat you as you deserve, and call things by their right names ; 
I know what I should be called myself: unmannerly would be too soft a 
word for me, and perhaps the pen too gentle a weapon for my chastise- 
ment. [Mr. B. 220.] But I am for sleeping in a whole skin, and therefore 
shall only in the plain unaffected stile tell you ; that what you say you 
are inclined to believe, you are not, you cannot be inclined to believe : 
at least you cannot be inclined so to believe upon the reason here 
given. For if the Dr.'s having omitted those two quotations out of 
Suidas, vv. KujXidg, Kuiu,rjrai, inclined you to believe that he was not 
got beyond the letter Katfra in Suidas : then his having quoted Suidas 
in V. ovsiao, should have as strongly inclined you to believe, that he 
was got as far as the letter ouay.^ov in Suidas, Give me leave here to 
trifle with you a little, Sir, and answer you in your own way ; for why 
may not I now and then make a flourish with my numbers as well as 
you? turning to Num. 245. in the Dr.'s collection you will find him 
upon the letter A. in Suidas. In Num. 46. 144, 350. and p. 431. 
Upon the letter />t,. Upon the letter v. Num. 345. and p. 431. In 
Num. 2. and 92. upon the letter 0. 1 Num. 48. 84. 227- and 344. 
upon the letter it. In Num. 49. 59. 71. 299. upon the letter tr. In 
Num. 210. upon the letter r. In Num. 42. upon the letter u. la 
Num. 50. and p. 349. upon the letter (p. In Num. 193. upon the 
letter ;>/. In Num. 184. upon the letter \|/. And lastly, in pag. 352. 
upon the letter oj[j.sycx.. 

And now. Sir, what think you of the matter ? Are you still inclined 
to believe, that the remark is true, that the Dr. is got no further 
than the letter Kdirira, in Suidas ? Is not this what I called in the be- 
ginning, [Sup. p. 3.] making your court to a young gentleman at 
the expence of your own modesty ? Nay, and is not that honourable 
young gentleman himself most deeply oblig'd to you for your bringing 
the scapes of his pen also under a review ? 

I wonder what the reader thinks of me. Certainly 'tis that I am 
an idle man. What a parcel of figures have I been at the pains of 
drawing together here ? And to what end or purpose 1 What's any 
body the better for reading such stuff" as this ? Upon my word I am 
perfectly ashamed of myself. But who can help it? If men will put 

218 Answer to a Boole written against 

fuch things as these into print, in print they must be told of them 
again. For there is no reason in the world for it, that impertinence 
should he a protection to impudence : or that men of worth should 
be matle the mock of fools, because they that make them write 
things so wretchedly trifling, that a man of any regard to his own 
reputation, would be ashamed of the scandal of having so mis-em- 
ployed his time as to answer them. 

To come off handsomely with your Kd'Tttta. observation, you have 
no other way left you, than to plead that the Dr. stole all his quota- 
tions out of Suidas, beyond that letter from Mr. Stanley's MS. In 
answer to which, I need give myself no farther trouble than to turn 
you back to Except. I. [Supr. p. ly.] to the special mark standing at 
the top of p. ()th to the Dr.'s familiarity with this Lexicographer 
before ever he saw your MS. Except. 4. and to several other things 
before said. But the case of SuiDAS is somewhat particular, and 
therefore I caimot think it foreign to our purpose to bestow upon it a 
•pecial consideration. 

This undertaking therefore of collecting the Fragments of Callima- 
chus I have reason to suspect was not with that learned gentleman, 
Mr. Stanley, [Supr. p. 12.] as it was with Dr. Bentley, a design long 
before premeditated, and therefore of a long time carry 'd on throughout 
the whole course of his reading ; but a late and sudden thought tsken up 
upon some special occasion, as probably upon a prospect of publishing 
a new edition of the works of that poet; which had he finished, it 
would in all probability have superseded the labours of those learned 
persons [Dacier, Greevius] that came after him, and Mr. Stanley's 
Calliuiachus might have stood to this day (as his yEschylus still doth, 
and is like long so to do) the last edition of that Poet. 

His first Essays toward this work appear in those papers with which 
you make such a stir, which were once (without his seeking) put into 
the Dr.'s hand, and which are now put into other hands to be shown 
as evidence against the Dr. at the sign of the Half Moon in St. Paul's 
Church-yard. [Sup. p. 14.] That they are an imperfect draught of a 
more compleat work you yourself acknowledge. But the method in 
which he proceeded in drawing up this imperfect draught, is perhaps 
more than what you may have yet observed. I must confess I could 
willingly have seen the original itself, but as I think I can do my 
work without it, I were not over eager of satisfying an unnecessary 
euriosity at ihe hazard of venturing into a place where 'tis so danger- 
ous a thing to express one's self too familiarly. I think I have even 
without the sight of your MS. made a discovery, which if I can make 
out; let me tell you. Sir, I shall not a little value myself upon it, 
but judge it altogether as considerable as that upon which your 
learned friend so much applauds his own sagacity: and as it is purely 
my own, I hope the reader will not slight it. 

Mr. Stanley therefore having once entered upon this design of col- 
lecting the Fragments of Callimachus, he doth, as upon the like occa- 
sion another man would have done ; that is, he fetches in his first ma- 
terials from such places where they were the most readily found : he 
turuft over the Indices Authorum at the end of several Books, [As 

Dr, Beniley, relating to Callimachus*s Fragments. 219 

Clera. Alexanclrinus, Stobaeus, Strabo, Athenaeus, Etymolog, Magn. 
Stephan. Byzant. ^JLc.] and from thence hastily transcribes into his 
papers the several passages pointed out to him, v. Callimachus, re- 
serving (as you yourself in part acknowledge) [p. 60.] a more diligent 
perusal of the authors themselves, and a more accurate examination 
of the passages taken out of them to his second thoughts. There was 
not any one author more proper to his purpose than Suidas. But 
Suidas having no Index Authorura, annexed to him, with him Mr. 
Stanley begins, and turns over all that Lexicographer himself from the 
beginning to the end : as for the rest contenting himself, for a time, 
with what the Indexes supply'd him with. This, I confess, is mere 
conjecture : but a conjecture so manifestly founded upon matter of 
fact, that I dare boldly pronounce it next to a certainty : and whether 
I am too confident, I shall submit to the judgment of the reader upon 
an instance or two by and by to be produced. Now Mr. Stanley 
having taken this course with Suidas in particular, it is impossible 
but that the far greatest part of the quotatior.s out of Suidas in the 
Dr.'s collection should have been anticipated by Mr. Stanley. And 
had that learned gentleman in these papers of his taken the same 
course with many other authors, you would have had, though not 
more of truth, yet a better colour for your accusation. But if you 
will still resolutely maintain it, that the Dr. having seen your MS. 
thereiore all the quotations out of Suidas in the Dr.'s collection shall 
have been transcribed from Mr. Stanley, I know not how to clear 
myself of you, but by the help of a distinction. And this distinction 
of mine, Sir, I desire y^u well to consider, and withal to remember, 
that it w ill perform the same upon any other author, as upon Suidas : and 
therefore though Suidas be the name we are here upon, yet the Argu- 
ment extends to the whole body of the cause : which will excuse me 
in insisting the more particularly upon it. 

Of the quotations out of Suidas therefore I observe some of them 
to stand in that Lexicon with the name of Callimachus atlixed to them 
in words at length: others of them to contain some Fragments of 
that poet, or to refer to some passages in him, but without express 
mention of his name. Those of this later sort (as they are not nume- 
rous) 1 will be at the pains of marking out to you ; viz. one quotation. 
Num. 2. one of the quotations (sc. that v. vSarrjyog) Num. 42. 
another Numb. 48. Two quotations, Num. 50. and another 88. Now, 
Sir, there are in the Dr.'s collection (as far as you have carried on the 
comparison, that is from Num. I. to Num. 103.) in all about thirty 
quotations out of Suidas, to every one of which, saving those in the 
Numbers here mentioned, you will find added the name of Callima- 
chus standing in words at length : and every one of those Fragments, 
to which the name of their author is so added, I find you charging 
upon the Dr. as stolen from Mr. Stanley ; that single one v. wAijv, 
Dr. B. p. 352. excepted, though even that also (however by you 
omitted) I am apt to believe upon further search would be found in 
your MS. But of these latter sort, which have not the name of 
Callimachus so added to them, I do not find you mentioning any 
•ingle one of them as taken from Mr. Stanley, and therefore hav* 

S20 Answer to a Book written against 

some reason to suspect that learued gentleman to have overlook'd 
them. Upon this point I have endeavoured to express myself as 
plainly as I could, and 1 desire the reader to look over these lines 
again, till he fully takes my meaning. 

Now, Sir, if this observation of mine should hold as to all or but 
the major part of those quotations, it would do me considerable 
service, and that upon more accounts than one. 

1. It absolutely confounds your Kutttx observation, since in severzd 
of even these quotations from Suidas, not (as I presume) to be found 
in your MS. we find the Dr. advanced far beyond Kccttttcc, as in the 
letter o. Num. 2. ir Num. 48. v. Num. 42. <p. Num. 50. with others I 
could name. But of this I think you have had enough already. 

2. It effectually clears the Dr. from having stolen from your MS» 
those quotations which are in your MS. For if he could of his own 
sagacity fetch out of Suidas such Fragments of Callimachus as had 
not the name of their author joyn'd with them, he cannot be supposed 
to have overlook'd those where the very word KcckXiyMy^os staring him 
in the face, could not but have put him in mind [Supr. p. 11.] of hi» 
common-place book. 

3. We have here yet another instance of what I have so very often 
observ'd in the writings against Dr. Bentley ; That there is scarce any 
cue single article any where advanced against him by way of accusa- 
tion or reproach ; which, when thoroughly sifted, doth not turn to 
his acquitment and greater approbation. As in the present case, what 
a plain proof is here of his extraordinary readiness at these sorts of 
studies, [Supr. p. 12.] and with how just an assurance he might make 
that boast (for so, to be sure, you'll call it) beforementioned that he 
thought he could not easily be deceived, in knowing whether a Greek 
verse were ascribed to its proper author ; since in so many instances 
here given, meeting with a poor straggling Fragment of this ancient 
Greek Poet, though in a lost, and as it were orphanized condition ; 
yet he presently knew (so well was he acquainted with the v/hole race 
of them) to whom it belonged, and returned to its right parent. Thus 
while you prefer against the Dr. an accusation of plagiarism, you do 
but the more fully prove to any one that will be at the pains of exa- 
mining into the matter, how rich he is in his own stores, and how 
little a loser by being placed in any comparison. 

Cease therefore, let me beseech you, this your critical war, or 
rather go on still writing till you shall have made him, as generally 
observed and admired at home as he is abroad. 

So Diamonds take a lustre from their foyle. 

And B y owes his honours to a B e. [Dispensary.] 

A. But fourthly, and that which I principally intended in making 
this observation, it hath given me the hint of putting the reader, who 
is minded to be satisfied in this affair into the method of doing it for 
himself more effectually than I could have done it for him. But in 
order to that, I must put my distinction upon a little farther tryal. 
How the case stands between the quotations from Suidas of the 
former and of the latter sort ; and between the Dr.'s collection and 

Dr. Bentley, relating to CalUmachus's Fragments. ^2\ 

Mr. Stanley's upon that distinction from Num. 1. to Num. 103. hath 
been already consider'd. From Num. 103. to the end of the Dr.'« 
collection there may be thirty or forty more quotations out of Suidas ; 
of which all the rest are of the former sort, so. standing there wth the 
name of their author added to them : but these few following are of 
the latter sort, so. referring to passages in Callimachus, but without 
any mention of his name. The quotations under Num. 103. 128. 
193. 227. (vv. KiXXiK'Mv, 'Ey.xrzi'jy) 233. and 304. (v, 'Acrsidcrt.) Now 
to shew the use and application of this distinction. 

In that pithy Peroration which, p. 6S. you make upon the main 
body of your proofs against the Dr. you have these words. Thus 
have I pass'd through many of those Fragments that are capable of 

being placed in their several classes. And for the rest,the reader 

may, as his inclinations lead him, collate the MS. copies (in which 
great variety offers itself out of Athena^us, the Lexicographers, and 
Scholiasts) with Dr. Bentley's printed collection. 

With all my heart : most gladly do I joyn with you in your appeal 
to the MS. itself, and I hope these papers may fall into the hands of 
some readers, whose inclinations may lead them to make the experi- 
ment you propose. I would desire no fairer play in this cause than 
to have the Jury bring in their verdict upon view. 

Let the reader therefore take these papers along with him, go to the 
bookseller's shop at the sign of the Half Moon in St. Paul's Church 
yard, call for the Manuscript to be shown there against Dr. Bentley, 
and leisurely collate Mr. Stanley's collection of the Fragments of 
Callimachus with the Dr.'s. And though I have never seen that MS. 
nor know any thing more of it directly or indirectly than what, Sir, I 
have learned from your book : yet I fansie I can pretty nearly tell the 
reader what he will tind there, and what he will not find there. [Mr. 
B. p. 9S, 232.] A profound scholar this ! (will you say of me now) 
as well read in what he has not seen as in what he has. But such 
things may be done. Sir. You have led rae part of my way : and you 
know the proverb, ex ungue leonem. How far I go upon sure grounds, 
sc. upon the authority of your Book, shall be mark'd out by this 
stroak (f) : and though for what follows, (saving for here and there 
a Number) I shall be purely upon the conjecture ; yet I hope the 
reader will not find me very often mistaken in my guess. 

Of the quotations out of Suidas in Dr. Bentley's collection of the 
Fragments of Callimachus these following Numbers. 
In Mr. Stanley. 

Num. 1. 41, 42, 43, 44. 46. 4.9, 60. "53. 59. 66. 6S. Ji- S2. 84. 
92 t; and 110. 144. 182. 184. 210. 
289. 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304. 307, 308, 309, 310. 311, 312, 
313. 338, 339, 340. 344, 345. 350. with five or six more quotations 
out of Suidas, Dr. B. p. 430, 431. 

Note, Some of the Fragments under these Numbers being produ- 
ced from both the Etymologicon and Suidas, perhaps Mr. Stanley may 
have contented himself with one of those authorities for them, and so 
kave omitted the reference to Suidas; and others of them containing 

222 Answer to a Book written against 

only single and independent words, perhaps lie may not have thought 
them worth the transcribing. But this is mere guess. 
Not in Mr. Stanley. 

The Quotations under Num. 2. 42. 48. 50. 88. 103. 110. (vv. 
'A;:(^£oou(n'a Aavaxry) 128. 227- 23.'}. 245, 304. supr. p. 45. 48. 

And now, Sir, could you yourself, had you pursu'd your topick to 
the end of the chapter, have made more of" your MS. against the 
Dr. than I have made of it fur you ? having scarce left him through- 
out his whole collection one single number not voluntarily surrendered 
up to Mr. Stanley : which yet is so far from convicting him of plagia- 
rism, that the more it appears against him, the more it proves for him. 
For Mr. Stanley having (as 'tis plain he had) read over all Suidas, and 
read him.wiih a design of collecting the Fragments of Cal.'imachus; 
few of those Fragments which stood there marked out to him with 
the name of their author written upon them can be supposed to have 
escaped his observation : but if many or the greatest part of those of 
the later sort not so marked out to him .; which are to be seen in the 
Dr.'s collection shall not appear in Mr. Stanley's; my inference is 
already made : [p. 4>6, 47.] therefore those Fragments which are ia 
Mr. Stanley the Dr. did not transcribe from Mr. Stanley. For since 
for the quotations of this latter sort he must have read Suidas himself, 
he cannot have wanted the help of your MS. for those of the former. 
So that the conclusion from the whole is this ; that Mr. Stanley had 
read Suidas thoroughly, but Dr. Bentley had read him more tho- 

'Tis time now that I let you see what I have been doing all this 
while in making such a stir with the quotations out of Suidas. 

" Great variety," say you, [p. 68.] " of the same passages which are 
printed in Dr. Bentley's collection will the reader (whose inclinations 
shall lead him to make the tryal) find in Mr. Stanley's MS," 

Yes, Sir, great variety of that kind undoubtedly he will find. But 
have you many authors that will present him with greater variety thaa 

Out of Athenaeus. 

Yes ; for Athenaeus hath an Index Authorum made to him. 

Out of the Lexicographers. 

And most of those Lexicographers too have such Indexes printed 
with them ; and some of the Lexicographers (of one 'tis certain) Mr. 
Stanley may have turned all over. 

And out of the Scholiasts. 

For some of the Scholiasts also have the like Indexes ; and with 
other of the Scholiasts Mr. Stanley may have taken the same course 
that he hath with Suidas. 

Here therefore to the reader, who shall have the curiositv to make 
the experiment you propose, and who shall be endued with the pa- 
tience to go through with it, I shall offer some few cautions, by the 
help of which he may be secured from passing a mistaken judgment. 

I. In the first place therefore, he is not to judge of the Dr.'s col- 
lection by the great variety of its coincidences with Mr. Stanley's as 
to those Fragments of Callimachus which are taken from such Books 

Dr. Bentlei/, relating to Callimachuss Fragments. 225 

as have their Indices Authorum printed with them. These iideed, 
were they all muster'd up together, with our Vindicator's— in Mr. 
Stanley, bringing them up in the rear would make a terrible show 
against the Dr. as, 

Harpocration, The quotations in Dr. Bentley, n. 1. p. 352, 353, 
354. t and n. 319 —»n Mr. Stanley. 

Clemens Alexandrinus, The quotations, n. 2, 3. 8/. p. 337.t and 
n. 133. 145. 187, 18S.— in Mr. Stanley. 

Strabo, The quotations, p. 337. 354.t and n. 104<. 1 12, 113. p. 430, 
431. — in Mr. Stanley. 

Hesychius, n. 58.t and 229, 230, 231, 232. 352, 353, 354, 355, 
357.— in Mr. Stanley. 

Pindari Scholiastes, [Q. Is not n. 48. in Mr. Stanley, th^gh omit- 
ted in the Vindicator's tale of the Numbers.] n. 77. 80. p. 352.t and 
n. 108. 112. 119, 120, 121, 122. 136. 138. 188. 195, 196", 197, 198. 
— in Mr. Stanley. 

Etymologicon, n. 12. 17. 19- 28. 36. 40. 44. 53. 66. 67. 86. 
^6. p. 349. 351. 467. 469.t and u. 129. 130, 131, 132, 147, 148, 
149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 15S, 159, 16O, 
161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 
173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179. ISO, 181, 182, 183, 184,— 
240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 
252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, &c.— in Mr. Stanley. 

All or at least the greatest part of these numbers in the Dr.'s col- 
lection, with their leading Fragments, I little doubt, but that the col- 
lator will find in Mr. Stanley's MS. with far greater variety of the 
same kind out of Athena?us, the Lexicographers, some of the Scho- 
liasts, Servius upon Virgil, Stobzeus, Priscian, Hephestion, and some 
others. But then he must consider, that all these authors have Indices 
to them, in which (v. Callimachus) all these Fragments were ready 
pointed out to him. So that Mr. Stanley, in drawing up this imper- 
fect draught, having taken (as most certainly he did) that method of 
fetching in his first materials from the Indexes of Books, where those 
Indexes were tolerably perfect : the Dr.'s coincidencies with Mr. 
Stanley must be proportionably frequent ; and, as to those particular 
authors, far outnumber his additions to it. 

Here therefore the collator is to apply the distinction before made 
upon the quotations out of Suidas, and the inference from thence 
drawn : and to consider whether or no those some additions of the 
Dr.'s own are not such which necessarily imply his having read, and 
that thoroughly too, the authors themselves, out of whom he produces 
his quotations, and consequently such as place him far above, wanting 
the help either of the Index or of your MS. As for instance ; the 
Fragment n. 50. is in Mr. Stanley (I conjecture) from Athenreus, 
whose Index supply'd him with it. Is it in Mr. Stanley from Suidas, 
yv. ye^yiciij.ov, f^tvoTtcv^ov (or at least from the later of them) in both 
which it stands without the name of its author? The Fragment, n. 48. 
may be in Mr. Stanley. But in Mr. Stanley from the Scholiast on 
Pindar, an Index'd Book. Is that manifest reference to this Frag- 
ment, Suidas, V. irxvccoK-^s in Mr. Stanley ] So that Fragment, n. 227", 

224 Answer to a Booh tvritten against 

from Siiidas, I doubt not but that the Collator will find in Mr. Stan- 
ley, but from Suidas, v. ttov^^ oV will he find it also from Suidas, v. 
v.i\Xi-Kuiv, where it stands without the name of its Author? The 
Fragment, n. 245. he will find in Mr. Stanley, but from the Etymolo- 
gicon, whose Index directed him to it : will he find the authority of 
Suidas for the same Fragment, who hath it, but without the name of 
its author. The Fragment, n. 1()9. he will find in Mr. Stanley from 
the Etyniologicon ; but will he also find the emendation and explica- 
tion of that Fragment from the Scholiast on Theocritus, and from 
another place in the Etyniologicon. If not, therefore that other 
place in the Etymologicon the Dr. read himself. But this is a thing so 
very certain, that no man who hath but once dipp'd into any chance 
place of the Dr.'s Epist. ad fin. Malel. who hath but just glanc'd 
over somenfew pages of his late answer to Mr. Boyle (though as hasti- 
ly and heedlessly as the man that read it all over in a day,) [Mr. Ben- 
nett's Appendix, p. 134.] who will but cast his eye upon this his col- 
lection of the Fragments of Callimachus, can entertain the least scru- 
ple concerning it. However, since I have to do with men who will 
not be content with a moderate conviction, I shall desire the reader, 
who will be at the pains of making the experiment, to collate, and 
that somewhat nicely, the Dr. with Mr. Stanley upon the following 

Num. 13, 14. 18. 29. 32. 51. 54, 55. 57. 75. (v, K^dvjjv)^. and n. 
4. 15, \6. 23. 30, 31. 33, 56. 73, 75.) (v. 0ij^>)) 126. 16'8. 186. 207. 
218. 234. 238. 259, 260. 306. 314. 334. 351. 3(52. d67, 368, 369, 
570,417. _ \ 

Upon this list of numbers the reader is desir'd to observe, that all 
the Numbers standing before f, together with the quotation produced 
by Dr. Bentley in his Notes on the Epigrams of Callimachus Ep. 39. 
p. 210. are in Mr. Stanley ; excepting Nura. 18. [P. 36. N. 18. from 
Parrhasius. n. b. not from Stephanus] (v. T^ivaK^icc) which Fragment I 
have as great an assurance as 'tis possible for a man to have in a mat- 
ter of this nature, and which our Vindicator himself with a simj)licity 
truly simple acknowledges, Mr. Stanley transcribed from that fore- 
mentioned passage in Parrhasius, marked out to him in Gruter's Index. 
But of the Numbers followingf there's not one of them so marked 
out in the Index to Stephanus. Here therefore query. How many of 
these numbers afterf are there in Mr. Stanley 1 Upon this the collator 
is to make the scrutiny. And if the experiment answers my expecta- 
tion my inferences are plain. 1 . That Mr. Stanley did indeed take 
this method of fetching in his Fragments from the Indexes of Books. 
2. Dr. Bentley read over the Books themselves, and was above both 
the Index and Mr. Stanley's MS. Here are in all, quotations out of 
Stephanus Byzant, forty ; of which eleven index'd, sc. ten in the index 
to Stephanus ; and the other in Gruter's Index : all these — in Mr. 
Stanley — Not index'd twenty nine, — in Dr. Bentley — Not, I suppose, 
in Mr. Stanley. 

And if this conjecture of mine should hold, I think 'tis pretty 
much fo the purpose. But where the Indexes are compleatly drawn, 
the like experiment cannot be made. In such cases a great part of 
the Dr.'s quotations must of necessity have been anticipated by Mr. 

Dr. Bentley, relating to Callimachuss Fragments. 225 

Stanley. Nor need I, I think, say more to show the reasonableness of 
this caution, not to judse of the Dr. by the yreat variety of his co- 
incidencies with Mr. Stanley, as to his quotations out of such authors, 
where the Fragments of Callimachns are marked out in the Indexes. 

2. Secondly, is he to judge of the Dr. by the great variety of his 
coincidencieswith Mr. Stanley, as to his quotations from some few 
particular authors, who may have no such Indexes made to them. 
For with some particular authors Mr. Stanley may have taken the 
same course as he hath with Suidas, and if so, the same effects of it 
will appear in his MS. As for example, I find the Scholiast upon 
Nicander once produced by Dr. Bcntley, n. 6o. and that the same 
Fragment is in Mr. Stanley. Nor within the line of comparison do I 
find any thing more of that Scholiast. But from after n. ](»3. I find 
the Dr. producing out of him several Fragments, as n. 139- 14,0. 201. 
228. 253. 267, 268. &c. Now if Mr. Stanley had after his having 
began his collection read over this Scholiast, those numbers of the 
Dr.'s must also be in Mr. Stanley. The like may be conjectured of 
the Fragments from Aramonius, irsfi ?j^£ujv, &c. But the Vindicator 
hath not carried on his comparison far enough for. me to go 
here upon any certainty. Now such coincidencies, though never 
so constant, prove no more against the Dr. than that Mr. Stanley and 
he had read the same books;. And here, since I have been at the 
labour of drawing them up, I shall present the Collator with a list of 

Apollonius Alexand. Artemidorus, Athenagoras, Censorino adjectus 
scriptor, Johannes Charax, Ciseroboscus, Cicero, Diogenes Laertius, 
Dionysius Halicarnass. Sextus Erapiricus, Erotianus, Eusebius, Fi;l- 
gentius Planciades, Galenus, A. Gellius, Helladii Chrestom. Herodi- 
ani Parecbol. Hyginus, Juiianus, Lucianus, Macrobius, MSS. et Codd, 
inediti, ut Photii Lexicon ineditum, &c. Phlegon 'IVallianus, Plinius, 
Plutarchus, Proclus in Platonis Timienm, in Parmenid. inedit. iu 
Hesiodum, Chrestomalhia, Quinctilian. Solinus, Statius Poeta, Te- 
rentianus Maurus, Theodoretus, Tertullianus, Tzetzes (uterque) Varro, 
Scholiastie in Homerum, Didymus, Eustathius, Porphyrins; in /Es- 
chylum, Aratuni, Aristophanem, Euripidem, Ibin Ovidii, Thtocritum. 

Thus have I chosen rather to expose the Dr. to the repeated 
censure of being a Polymalhist, (that is, a great scholar, and 
one that hath read a great many books) than to be wanting in my 
instructions to the reader, whose inclinations shall lead him to collate 
the MS. Out of all these authors will he find in the Dr.'s collection 
somewhat (more or less) either by way of Fragment or Testimonium, 
properly belonging to Callimachus. Qu. How many of these authors will 
appear in Mr. Stanley's MS. and how often I Some of them ('tis 
likely) will be found there, for some of them (for ought 1 know) he 
may have made use of toward his collection, and some particular pas- 
sages out of others of them his course of reading may have casually 
presented him with. But not many of them, I presume, will appear 
there, nor very often. If so : then i hope the reader will see the 

No. XX a. JL Vol, Xj P 

226 Answer to a Book xvritten against 


reasonableness of this caution; not to judife of the Dr. by the 
(though constant) coincidencies of his collection with Mr. Stanley'* 
MS. as to some few particular authors, though utiindex'd. For if the 
Dr. shall be found to have turned over so many more, books, than 
(after his havini,' begun his colleclion of the Fragments of Cailima- 
chus) Mr. Stanley had ; surely he may be allow'd to have read those 
other few of the same with IMr. Stanley. 

N. B. I have ventured to insert the name of Plutarch into this List. 
For though the quotation out of Plutarch, n. 86. be in Mr. Stafiley ; 
yet I rather suppose it to have been taken inmiediately from the Ely- 
uiologicon ; as n. 103. from Hadr. Junii Animadvers. lib. 4. c, 21. 
marked out in Gruter's Index to the fourth volume of his Thos. 
Crit. Q. is n. 26. 13/. there ? 

The Scholiast upon iilschylus I have also (though perhaps too 
boldly) pat into this list. The reader, will not, I hope, suppose me 
so unacquainted with the very titles of books, a? to make a question 
of Mr. Stanley's having read (and that most thoroughly) the Scholiast 
upon /Eschylus. But the question is, whether he had turned over 
that Scholiast after his having began this collection ? For I am not 
here making the comparison between Mr. Stanley and Dr. Bentley, or 
enquiring which of them had read the most books ; but between Mr. 
Stanley's imperfect draught of a collection of the Fragments of Calli- 
maclius, and Dr. Bentley 's most tiinshed collection of them that 
hath ever yet appeared ; and who had read most books from after 
their having begun their collections. And let this answer serve once 
for all to what I should otherwise certainly have heard of, that I 
am retlecting upon the memory of Mr. Stanley ; which he that shall 
say of me, will say a falshood. 

These two cautions preceding will justifie the reason of the two 
following, as that, 

3. He is not to discount from the Dr. every number, the Fragment 
of which he may find in Mr. Stanley's MS. And so without more ado 
report it abroad, that he hath been at Mr. Bennet's Shop, collated the 
MS. and finds matters to stand just as the Vindicator hath related 
them ; tiiat out of the 417 Numbers in the Dr.'s collection there are 
$0 many hundreds, tens, and units in IMr. Stanley's. What a numer- 
ous appearance of this kind he will be sure to meet with, 1 have given 
him so fair notice of beforehand, that I hope he will not be surprised 
at it. For where a Fragment is preserved but in one Author, and ia 
him correct, there the Dr.'s collection and Mr. Stanley's must fall in 
with the same words and syllables : for let two men transcribe the 
same quotation from the same Author, 1 cannot see why it should be 
to any one, as it seems to have been to our Vindicator, p. 76. a matter of 
admiration, tiiat they siiould hit upon, Jiot only the same sense, but 
tiie same words. The reason of this caution therefore, I hope, the 
reader is satisfied in ; that he ought not to discount from the Dr. 
every number, the whole and only passage under which without th«; 
least syllable of variatioa, be will fiad in Mr. Stanley. iMucb k«, is 
kc, in ths 

Dr. Bentleyy relating to CalUmachuss Fragments, 297 

As. Fourth place, to abjudge from the Dr. every Number, of 
*vbich only the leading Fragment is in Mr. Stanley ; and so, which 
is the Vindicator's method, for the sake of half a line in Mr. 
Stanley's MS. to cashier, it may be, a whole page, or two, or more, 
in the Dr. But here also he is to remember and a}>ply the distinc- 
tion before made upon the quotations cut of Suidas, and to take into 
the account the many additions of tlie Dr.'s own making under every 
number, and to consider uot only the quantity of his additions, but 
the quality of them also. And particularly, whether or no those 
additions are not such as would have supported the Number itself, 
though the Fragment, supposed to have been taken from Mr. Stanley, 
had not been there. As for instance, the Fragment, n. 179- 's, Aiti 
«Tf iMxxoi; [uxxx h?0'J(n Qsoi. This Fragment the Collator will un- 
doubtedly find in Mr. Stanley : for 'tis (with only a little difference in 
spelling the word (j^ikko;) in bf»th the EtyuKilogicon and Stobieus and 
index'd in both these authors. And yet the Dr. did not steal it from 
Mr. Stanley ; for 'tis in both Vulcanius and Dacier's printed collec- 
tions. But in the Dr.'s Collection this same Fragment is produ- 
ced from a new authority, sc. Artemidonis his Oneirocriticks : 
which new authority is not in any of the other collections. Qu. 
Is it in Mr. Stanley ? If not : then this Fragment would have 
been in the Dr.'s Collection, though it had not been either in the 
Etymologicon, or Stobaius, or Vulcanius, or Dacier, or Mr. 
Stanley : Therefore this Number must not be cashiered. Changing 
the name of Artemidori Oneirocritica into Eusebius Pra^p. Evang. 
The case is exactly the same with the Fragments from Clemens Alex- 
andrinus, n. 87. 133. Now in such cases, though the Fragment 
itself be in Mr. Stanley, yet the new Authorities from whence it is 
produced makes it the Dr.'s own, and secures to him even the tale of 
his numbers. Instances of this kind I could produce by scores, 
where the Fragment itself would have been in the Dr.'s Collection, 
though it had not been in any of the others. If, therefore, so many 
Fragments would have been in the Dr.'s collection, though they 
should have escaped the observation of all that went before him ; 
'tis not very likely that many of those Fragments collected by them 
would have escaped the Dr. 

And thus much by way of caution to the Collator of the MS. tlie 
justness and reasonableness of which I submit to the judgment of the 
impartial, nay, or even the most partial reader. Many more of the 
like nature and tendency may he collect for himself from the whole 
tenour of my discourse foregoing ; but I have satisfied myself in par- 
ticularizing upon these few. Furnished, therefore, with these instruc- 
tions, let him go to the Half Moon, collate the MS. and speak as he 
Ands. And so good an opinion have 1 of my own performance, as to 
hope, that he will fiud, that I have done even more than my work, 
and answered as well what I have not seen, as what I have. 

This Suidas hath carried me on (such is the chain of thought) a 
wide circumference, and made me launch out into unknown Seas. But 
our Vindicator's appeal to the MS. was a temptation I found myself 
wnable to withstand : and whether my discoveries will prove land or 

228 Biblical Synonyma. 

clouds will soon be known ; unless upon some sudden occasion or 
other the MS. should chance to be called in. 

I made a kind of promise of managing three or four decads of our 
VitKlicator's nndeniaf)les in the same manner 1 have this first. But 
the reader must needs be weary before now of reading such a parcel 
of unedjfying lines as these, nor can he think me less weary of writing 
them. But who can help it? Such is the Book I am answering. And 
since I am fallen upon so dry a subject, I were willing to give it a 
thorough examination, and write a book for egregious dullness, and 
elaborate insignificancy, out-doing (if it be possible) even our honest 
Vindicator himself. And so, for a brace of controvertists 1 defie the 
age to match us. I cannot however pass over this Decad, without 
bestowing upon it yet one more remark. 



Genesis i. 2.] t/lND the Spirit of God moved npoti the face 
of the waters, ^t. 

It was a prevailing opinion amongst the ancients, that water was 
before all things created in the Heavens. Such was the doctrine 
of Anaximauder and Thales : the words of the latter, quoted by 
Cicero,^ are, " Thales euini Milesius qui primus de talibus rebus 
quaesivit, aquam dixit esse initinm rerum. Deum autem, earn 
mentem, quae ex aqua cuncta fingeret." That such was also the 
opinion of the Hindus may be learnt from the opening of that 
beautiful drama of Sancontala, or the Fatal Ring, translated by 
Sir William Jones — " Water was the frst zcork of the Creator ; 
and fire receives the oblations ordained by law ; the sacrifice is 
performed with solemnity ; the two lights of heaven distinguish 
time, the subtil ether, which is the vehicle of sound, pervades the 
universe ; the earth is the natural parent of all increase, and by air 
all things breathing are animated — May Isa, the God of Nature^ 
apparent in these eight forms, bless and sustain you." 

For many other authorities upon this subject, the reader is re- 
ferred to the well-known notes of Grotius, on cap. l6. lib. 1. de 
veritate Christ. 

Genesis xvi. 3.] And Sarai, Ahrarris zcife, took Hagar her 
maid, the Egyptian, and gave her to her husband idbram to be 
his zcife. 

The people of Florida generally marry one wife, who was 
obliged to continue faithful to her husband. The men, however, 

» Euseb. Prajp. Ev. lib. 1. c. 8. * Cic. de Nat, Deorura. I. 1. c. 1© 

Biblical Synonyma. 229 

did not conceive themselves bound by this law, but connected 
themselves with other women, which custom prevailed amongst all 
the Indian nations of the new world. This connexion \\ as notwith- 
standmg always conducted with a deference to the first legitimate 
wife, the others being rather handmaids than wives, acting as ser- 
vants, their children illegitimate, inferior in rank, and incapable of 
inheriting with those of the lawful wife. [Ensai/o Cronologico 
parala Hist, de Florida, v. 2. p. 6. 

Genesis xviii. 1.] And the Lord appeared unto Abraham in 
the plains of Mamre ; and he sat in the tent door in tht heat of 
the day. 

And he Ift up his eyes and looked ; and lo, three men stood by 
him : and when he suw them, he ran to meet them from the tent 
door, and bowed himself toward the ground, S)'c. S^c. 

For the hospitality practised in early ages, of which other in- 
stances occur in Scripture/ the following heathen testimonies may 
be adduced. 

Mithridates, as he sat before the door of his house, perceived the 
Dolonci passing by, and as by their dress and spears they appeared 
to be foreigners, he called to them ; on their approach, he offered 
them the use of his house, and the rites of hospitality. They 
accepted his kindness, and being hospitably treated by him, re- 
vealed all the will of the oracle, with which they intreated his 
compliance. [Herodot, 1. 6. c. 35. 

The Lucanians had a law, which enforced the payment of a 
certain fine on any man, who refused admission to a stranger, who 
coming to him at sun-set requested a lodging for the night. \_JEliani 
Hist. 1. 3. c. 1. 

The custom in Japan is very similar : at Jazami, where we 
dined, gays Thunberg, we were received by the host in a more 
polite and obsequious manner than 1 ever experienced in any other 
part of the world. It is usual in this country for the landlord to 
go to meet the traveller part of the way, and with every token of 
the utmost submission and respect bid him welcome ; he then 
hurries home in order to receive his guests at his house in the same 
humble and respectful manner. IThunberg's Travels, v. 3. p. 100. 
also Kccmpfer's Japan, v. 2. p. 443. 

Genesis, xxxv, 8.] But Deborah, Rebehah's nurse, died, and 
she was buried beneatli Bethel under an oak.^ From the previous 
mention of Deborah,^ added to the attention here paid her, we 
may learn that considerable respect was offered to persons in her 
situation. Virgil describes JEneas as performing similar honor to 
his nurse Caieta. 

* Gen.xlx. l. Job xxxi. 32. 1 Sam. xiii. 10. * Genesis xxiv. 53. 

230 Biblical Synonyma. 

Tu quoque litoribus nostris, iEneia nutrix, 

^ternam moriens tdrnain, C^iieta, dedisti ; 

Et. nunc servat honos sedrm tuus, ossaque nomen 

Hespcria in matina, si qua est ea gloria, signat. 

At puis exsequiis iEueas rile solutis, 

Aggere cortiiiosito tumuli, postquain alta quierunt 

jliquora, teadit iter velis, portumque relmquit. ^n. lib. 7. I. 

In Kasmpfer's Japan we have the following account — On the 12th 
of June, at 4 in the afternoon, tlie Berklam's, or Chancellor's of 
Siam, who hath also the direction of foreign affairs, mother 
was buried wiih great pomp and solemnity. 1 he Siainttes call 
also their nurses mothers, and those brothers and sisters w ho sucked 
the same breasts. This was only the Berklam's nurse, for his 
mother was buried about fifteen months before. [Kicmpfers Japan, 
h. 1. c. 1. p. 15. 

Genesis, xxxi. 19-] -^nd Rachael had stolen the images that 
were her fathers.] There can be little doubt but that these 
Teraphim were Laban's Penates, or Household Gods, or symbols 
of the Divinity, to which they attached a degree of religious vene- 
ration. These images, which originated in piety, would, amongst 
a superstitious people, soon degenerate into objects of idolatry, 
and in this light they are found existing in various parts of tlie 
world. Thus the Scandinavian prophets, according to Mallet, had 
many of their familiar spirits who never left them, and whom they 
consulted under the form of little idols. [^Mal/et's Northern An- 
tiguities, v. 1. 147. 

Genesis xxxiv. 12] j4sk me never so miith dnniry and gift, and 
I zcill give according as ye sltall say unto me ; but give me the 
damsel to wife.'] This appears to have been the custom in Homer's 
days — • Thus in Agamemnon's speech to Nestor concerning 
Achilles,' he says, 

I have three virgin daughters, from the three 
(Chrysothemis, Laodice, and fair 
Iphianassa,) choosmg forth a bride 
lie shall conduct her, with no cost ofdoxc'r. 
To his own h<)me ; for at my proper cost 
She shall he dow'r'd as never child before. 

In Japan, we are informed that the mo.'-e daughters a man has, 
and the handsomer they are, the richer he esteems himself, it being 
here the established custom for suitors to make presents to their 
father-in-law, before they obtain his daughter. [Thunbcrg, v. 5. 
p. 52. 

When a Tartarian girl becomes marriageable, they cover her 
tent with white luien, and put a painted cloth on the top, which ia 

* Iliad 9, 

Biblical Sy7i07iyviff, 551 

Hsually tied with red strings ; they have also a painted waggon on 
the side of the tent, and this is to be her marriage portion. Those 
who design to marry observe this signal, and the girl is generally 
given to him who offers the father the most valuable present. \_Han-- 
Vi'ai/'s 'J'rave/s in Persia, v. i. p. 86. 

Marriages are thus conducted in Africa — If a man takes a fancy 
to a young woman, it is not considered as absolutely necessary that 
he should make an overture to the girl herself. The tirst object is 
to agree with the parents concerning the recompense to be given 
for the loss of the company and services of their daughter. The 
value of two slaves is a common price, unless the girl is thought 
very handsome ; in which case the parents will raise their demand 
very considerably — if the lover is rich enough, and willing to give 
the sum demanded, he then communicates his wishes to the damsel, 
but her consent is by no means necessary to the match, for if the 
parents agree to it, and eat a few kolla nuts, which are presented 
by the suitor as an earnest of the bargain, the young lady must 
either have the man of their choice, or contmue unmarried, for 
she cannot afterwards be given to another. If the parents attempt 
it, the lover is authorised, by the laws of the country, to seize 
upon the girl as his slave. [Parker's Travels, p. 0.66. 

L'on nomme Pariam une sorame determinee que le pere de 
lepoux, ou le chef de sa faniille donne au p^re de la fille, quel- 
ques jours avant le mariage, comme le prix de la fille qu'il achete 
pour son fils — Kn remettant la somme il dit a haute voix devant 
im Brame, et les parens assembles, " Tor est a vous, et la fille est 
'A moi" — le pere de la fille repond de meme tout haut " I'or est d 
moi, et la fille est X vous." Le Pariam n'est done autre chose 
qu'un achat que le mari fait de sa femme : aussi le mot Collon- 
gradon, qui signifie qu'un homme est marie, veut dire proprement 
qu'il a achete une femme. [So7merat, vi. p. 121. 

The same custom prevails in the Island of Formosa. See 
account by Candidius — Churchill's Collect, vi. p. 531.— It is 
also noticed as common in India by Crawford, Sketches of 
Hindus, V. 1.5.; and by Herodotus, amongst the Babylonians^ 
lib. 1. c. 196. 

Genesis xwW. 18.] It is a present sent unto my Lo7'd Esau."] 
Agreeable to die Eastern custom, the Japanese neither visit each 
other, nor t!ie Dutch, without sending some present previous to 
their coming. These presents are made more for form's sake than 
for their value, which generally is very trilling. They frequently 
consist of a fresh fish, or the like, but are always made with some 
degree of pomp ; for instance, on a small table made for the pur- 
pose, and covered with paper folded in some particular shape. 
When the grandees of the country, who are considered as princes, 
were on board to see our ship, each of them sent our captain a 

232 Biblical Synonyma. 

present, which consisted of a tub full of Sakki, and a few dried 
spotted Sepiee (cuttle fish), a fish which is in great request with 
these people. [T/iirnberg's Travels, v. 3. p. 72. also Kccmpfer's 
Japan, v. 2. p. 395. 

Almost every intercourse in China, between superiors and in- 
feriors, is accompanied or followed by reciprocal presents; but 
those n)ade by the former are granted as donations, while those on 
the part of the latter are accepted as offerings. [^Macartney's 
Embassi/, v. 3. 4.5. 

It is usual with the Laplanders, as in the East, never to wait on 
a superior without a present ; if they have occasion to attend a 
magistrate, or a clergyman, they bring them either a cheese, a hare, 
partridge, sea or river fish, a lamb, some venison, a rein-deer*s 
tongue, butter, a quantity of down feathers, or something of the 
like kind. In return for his present, he never goes back empty, 
but receives eiiher some tobacco, or a bottle of mead, a kear of 
beer, some gniger and spices, or m short whatever is at hand, 
which may be supposed acceptable. The same custom prevails 
amongst the Muscovites. [Acerbi's Travels, v. 2. 281. 

Jonas Han way, p. lo., mentions it as the usual practice in 

Ge?iesis xli. 42.'] j4nd Pharaoh said unto Joseph, See I have 
set thee over all the land of Egypt — and Pharaoh took off his 
ring from his hand, and pnt it upon Josqjh's hand.] The custom 
of showing a ring as a mark of authority is of very ancient date ; 
Crauford, in his Sketches of the Hindus,* relates an anecdote 
illustrative of its existence in India; and it is stated in Cullen's 
account of Mexico,' that when Montezeuma had occasion to send 
two of his courtiers on a particular mission, he delivered lo them a 
certain gem, which he always wore hanging at his arm, and served 
in place of a seal as a sign of his commands. 

Genesis xliv. 5.] Is this the cup whereby indeed he divineth? 

In every nation we find claims to mysterious and superstitious 
modes of penetrating into futurity ; it would be too much to as- 
sert that the following remedies against theft were derived from any 
traditional knowledge of the use of such vessel as the cup of 
Joseph, but their similarity deserves attention. 

The king, who was one of our company this day at dinner, I 
observed, took particular notice of the plates ; this occasioned me 
to make him an offer of one, either of pewter or earthenware — 
he chose the first, and then began to tell us the several uses to 
which he intended to apply it. Two of them were so extraor- 
dinary, that I cannot omit mentioning them. He said, that when- 

» Esther iii. 10— viii. 2. * V. 2. 281. ^ V. 2. 78. 

B.iblical Synonyma, 833 

ever he should have occasion to visit any of the other islands, he 
would leave this plate behind him, at Tongataboo, as a sort of 
representative in his absence, that the people might pay it the same 
obeisance they did to himself in person. He was asked what had 
been usually employed for this purpose before he got this plate, 
and we had the satisfaction of learning from him, that this singular 
honor had been hitherto conferred on a wooden bowl, in which he 
washed his hands. The other extraordinary use to which he meant 
to apply it, in the room of his wooden bowl, was to discover a 
thief; he said, that when any thing was stolen, and the thief could 
not be found out, the people were all assemljled together before 
him, when he washed his hands in water in this vessel, after which 
it was cleaned, and tlien the whole nuiltitude advanced, one after 
another, and touched it in the same manner as they touch his foot 
when they pay him obeisance. If the guilty person touched it, he 
died immediately upon the spot, not by violence, but by the hand 
of Providence ; and if any one refused to touch it, his refusal was 
a clear proof that he was ihe man. [^(J^oolis 3d Voyage, b, 2. c. 8. 

The method taken by the I^oaaids, or Lapland Priests, to recover 
stolen goods, is this : — He comes into the tent where he has reason 
to suspect the thief is to be found, and pouring a quantity of 
brandy into a dish, which then reflects the features of any person 
looking into it, he makes a number of grimaces over it, and ap- 
pears to consider it with very great attention. After some length 
of time employed in this way, he takes the suspected Laplander 
aside, charges him with the fact, declares that he saw his face 
plainly in the dish, and threatens to let loose a swarm of Zanic 
flies upon him, who shall torment him until he makes restitution. 
[Acerbi's Travels, v. 2. 312. 

A mode very similar to the above is also practised in Africa. 
See Hist. Sierra Leona. 

Genesis x!i. 54. And the dearth was in all lands, but in all 
the land of Egypt there teas bread.'] In the reign of the Emperor 
Ching Tang, there was no rain for seven years together ; according 
to computation this happened m China at the same time, that the 
7 years' famine was in Egypt. The diviners advised to mix human 
blood in the sacrifices which were offered to heaven and earth. 
The Emperor answered, I ask water of heaven that my people 
may live, if 1 kill men for sacrifices, it is contradicting myself, 
killing those for whose lives 1 pray. The Emperor fasted, cut 
his hair and nails, (the Chinese put great value upon both), he put 
his chariot into mourning, and clothed himself in white lamb-skins. 
[Fernandtz Navaretli's account of China, Churchiirs Coll. v. 1. 
p. 114. 

Mr. Maurice, in his ' Indian Antiquities," mentions the same 

» V.5. p. 425. 

f 54 Biblical Synonyma. 

circumstance, to prove, as he says, that the Chinese really did, 
either traditionally or by revelation, entertain a rooted belief of 
the pacification of the Divine Being by means of a human oblation 
of royal descent and of distingnished piety. The account of 
Martinius varies from the former, in as nmch as it states, that the 
king himself became the devoted victim.' The aged king says, that 
that author having subjected himself to certain pieparatory cere- 
monies, esteemed indignities in China, barefooted, covered over 
with oslieSy^ and in the posture of a condemned criminal, ap- 
proached the altar of sacrifice, where with suppliant hands he 
entreated heaven to launch the thunderbolt of its wrath, and 
accept the life of the monarch as an atone^nent for the sins of the 
people. In the annals of China this solemn fact is recorded tohavs 
happened in the 18th century before Christ, the same in which, 
according to Usher, and the chronology of our Bibles_, the 7 year* 
famine happened in Egypt. 

Ge«eA7s xlvii. 19. Wherefore shall we die before thine ei/es, 
})Oth we and our (atid? buy us and our land for bread, and rce 
and our land will be servants unto Pharaoh, &c.] The Arabians 
inhabiting the barren deserts between Barbary and Egypt, live in 
great misery and want. 1 he soil produces no corn, and all the 
labor and industry of the inhabitants of some few villages, are only 
rewarded with a plentiful harvest of dates ; besides they are a 
numerous multitude. When they come to buy corn, and their 
money falls short, they leave their sons in pawn in great numbers, 
and if the money be not paid on a certam day, they are claimed 
for slaves, and a ransom is put upon them, amounting to three or 
four times the debt. [Leo and Marnu fs D sc. of Africa. 
Harris's Coll. v. 1. 310. 

Mr. Parke, in his account of Africa,^ states famine to be one 
of the great causes of slavery, he says — " There are many in- 
stances of freemen voluntarily surrendering up their liberty to save 
their lives. During a great scarcity, which lasted for three yeara 
in the countries of the Gambia, great numbers of people became 
slaves in this manner. Dr. Laidley assured me that, at that time, 
many free men came and begged, with great earnestness, to be put 
upon his slave chain, to save them from perishing of hunger. 
Large families are very often exposed to absolute want; and as th» 
parents have almost unlimited authority over their children, it 
frequently happens, in all parts of Africa, that some of the latter 
are sold to purchase provisions for the rest of the family. Every 

• * Martini Martinii Hist. lib. 3. p. 75. 

^ On occasions of grief and moiirning the same custom prevailed amongst 
the Jews. 2 Sam. xiii. 19. is. xv. 30. 

3 P. 295. 

Biblical Symnyma, 2SS 

evening during my stay at Wonda/ I observed five or six womeu 
come to the Mausa's house, and receive each of them a certain 
quaiilJty of corn. As I knew how valuable this article was, during 
such a scarcity, 1 inquired of the Mausa, whether he maintained 
these poor women from pure bounty, or expected a return Mhen 
the harvest should be gathered in. * Observe that boy, (said he, 
pointing to a tine child about 5 years of age,) his mother has sold 
him to me for 40 days' provision for herself and the rest of her 
family ; 1 have bought another boy in the same manner/ — The 
mother was much emaciated, but had nothing cruel or savage in 
her countenance ; and when she had received her corn, she came 
and talked to her son, with as much cheerfulness as if he had still 
been under her care. 

Genesis 1. 2. And the physicians embalmed Israel.'] Herodo- 
tus,* and Diodorus Siculus,^ give a very particular account of the 
mode of embahning — I shall insert the latter as being rather more 
minute and interesting. " Those who have the charge of burying; 
the body, have learnt the art from their ancestors. They give 
an account to the family of every thing which will be required, 
and receive their instructions as to the manner in which they would 
have the body interred. When every thing is arranged, the body 
is delivered to those, whose peculiar office it is to take charge of 
it. Their chief (who is called the Scribe), having laid the body 
upon the ground, marks out how much of the left side toward* 
the bowels is to be opened, upon which the Paraschistes, or dis- 
sector^ with an Ethiopian stone, makes an incision to a certain ex- 
tent prescribed by law, and having done it, he immediately runs 
off, pursued and execrated by all present, who cast stones after 
him, as if he were guilty of some dire offence, looking upon him 
as a hateful person, for having wounded and offered violence to 
the body. 

The Taricheut£B, or Embalmers, are, on the other hand, held in 
great honor. As companions of the priests, and sacred persons, 
they are admitted into the temple. On approaching the body, one 
of them thrusts up his hand through the wound into the breast of 
the corpse, and draws forth all the intestines, leaving the reins and 
the heart — another cleanses the bowels, washing them in Phoiniciau 
wine, mixed with aromatic spices. Having washed the body, they 
anoint it all over with oil of cedar, and other precious ointments, 
for the space of 40 days together ; after this it is well rubbed with 
myrrh, cinnamon, &c, calculated to perfume as well as preserve 
the body. Tt is then delivered to the kindred of the dead, with 
every member so perfect and entire, that no part of the body seems 
to be altered. The hairs of the eye-lids and eye-brows are pre- 
served, and the very features of the face retain their original form. 

• Po 248. ^ Herod. 1. 2. e. 86. 3 £)joj]. gi^. hb. 1. c 7. 

tS6 Biblical Synonyma. 

Such indeed is the perfection of the art, that the Egyptians, by 
preserving the bodies of their ancestors in stately monuments, 
are enabled to trace the countenance of those vvhe were buried 
many years before they themselves were born. 

Mr. Glasse, in his account of the Canary Isles, gives the follow- 
ing account of the method adopted by the early inhabitants for 
preserving the bodies of their ancestors. — " When any of their 
nobles died, they brought out the corpse, and placed it in the sun, 
took out the bowels and entrails, which they washed, and then 
buried jn the earth ; the body they dried, and swathed round with 
bandages of goat-skins, and then fixed it upright in a cave, clothed 
with the same garments which the deceased wore when alive. 
Some of their bodies were put into chests, and afterwards deposited 
in a kind of stone sepulchres. There were certain persons among 
them, whose profession it was, and who were set apart for the 
purpose of preparing the dead bodies for burial, and making up 
the tombs, and, excepting those bodies which were placed upright 
in the caves, all the others were laid with their heads towards the 
North. The king could be buried only in the cave of his an- 
cestors. Not many years ago, two of these embalmed bodies were 
taken out of a cave ; they were entire, and as light as a cork, but 
quite fresh, and without any disagreeable smell ; their hair, teeth, 
and garments, were all sound and fresh. [Glasse's Canary Ides, 
74 & 151. 

The Persees do not bury their dead, but having embalmed their 
bodies with divers sorts of drugs and spices, place them in niches, 
and cover them with nets, in order, according to their several 
families, but their flesh drieth with their bones, and when gro^vn 
stiff they seem as if they were alive, and every one knows his 
ancestors for many descents. {^Benjamiti de Tudela — Harris 
Coll. v. 1. p. 551. 

Mr. Southey's beautiful description of the perfection of the art 
of embnlming may not be unacceptable to the reader. 

So well had the embalmers done their part 
With spice and precious unguents, to imbue 
The perfect corpse, that each had still the hue 

Of living man, and every limb was still 

Supple, and firm and full, as when of yore 

Its motion answered to the moving will. 
The robes of royalty which once they wore, 
Long since had mouldered off, and left them bare : 

Naked upon their thrones behold them there 

Statues of actual flesh, — a fearful sight ! 
Their large and rayless eyes 

Dimly reflecting to that gem-born light, 
Glaz'd, fix'd, and meaningless — yet, open wide, 

Their ghastly balls belied 
The mockery of life m all beside. Southey's Kehama. b. 16. St. 10. 

E. S, 






By the late Professor Scott, of King's College, Aberdeen, 

NO. V. 

Part ii. 
Of the Effects of Climate upon Human Characters. 

JMan possesses not only a greater versatility of mind than the lower 
animals, but he is also endowed with a greater pliancy of bodily frame. 
While the range of most of the animals is confined to one climate or 
one region, man exists with ease in them all. From the frozen moun- 
tains of Greenland to the burning deserts of Zaara, wherever animal 
life is found, the human species appears. Vicissitudes of heat and 
eold, which instantly prove fatal to the animal tribes, are endured 
without much inconvenience by man ; he can fortify himself against 
the perpetual frosts of the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and he can 
provide against the scorching rays of the tropical sun. He can explore 
the snowy summits of the Glaciers, of the Alps, or Andes, and he can 
resist for a time the suffocating vapors of an oven. 

In the case of those few animals which can endure the vicissitudes 
of climate, a remarkable change is produced by its influence. The 
wool of the European sheep is converted into hair in the torrid zone ; 
and the dog of a temperate region, when removed to a frozen climate, 
assumes a thick covering suited to his new situation. The effects of a 
change of climate upon the external appearance of the human species, 
are not very remarkable. But upon the individual its effects are 
insignificant, it fails not in the lapse of ages to produce very remarkable 
effects upon his descendants. The native of G.uinea, and the inhabit- 
ant of Great Britain differ scarce less from one another in external 
appearance, color, hair, and features, than the dog of Italy differs 
from the dog of Kamtchaska. 

So great indeed is the diversity observed between the inhabitants of 
different regions of the earth, that many philosophers have been induced 
to assert, that mankind are not all s|)rung from the same family, but 
that they are derived from a variety of original stocks, of which the 
primitive forms and qualifications corresponded to those of their present 
descendants ; that there was, for example, an original parent for 
the European, another for the Negro, a third for the Tartar, and 
St) forth. 

This question is materially connected with our present inquiry ; for 
it is ©f evident importance towards the ascertainment of the causes 

258 Inquiry wto the Causes of 

of the diversity of human characters, previously to the decision whether 
men are all of the same family or not. The investi£;ation of this question 
likewise will lead us to discover the more remarkable effects of eHmato 
npon the bodily frame of man ; a subject which is intimately con- 
nected with its effects upon his mind ; for it is well known that the 
body cannot be seriously affected without a corresponding influence 
upon the mind ; and that the affections of the mind produce remark- 
able effects upon the body. 

I shall therefore begin my incjuiries concerning the effects of climate 
upon the human character with an examination of the question con- 
cerning tlie common, or multiplied original of the human species. 

Sect. i. 
Of the cause of the diversities among the iinbes of men. 

The more striking diversities among the human race have been 
reduced to six: 1st, The European, 2d, The Samoeide, 3d, The 
Tartar, 4ih, The Hindoo, 5th, The Negro, and 6th, The American. 

The fust of these classes, the European, need not here be described. 
It is only necessary to remark, that under it are comprehended not only 
the actual inhabitants of Europe, but likewise the Circassians, Georg- 
ians, Mingrelians, the inhabitants of Asia Minor, of the Grecian 
Archipelago, and of the northern parts of Africa. The Samoeide is 
of a low stature, squat form, with a tawny complexion, and large head,, 
and of very weak intellectual powers. Under this class are compre- 
hended, besides the inhabitants of that part of Tartary from which the 
name is derived, the Laplanders, the Greenlanders, the Esquimaux 
Indians, the Karatchadales, and the inhabitants of Terra del Fuego. 
The Tartar is of a sallow color, middle stature, with f^at features, and 
the upper part of the visage uncommonly broad. To this class belong 
tlie inhabitants of a great part of Asia distinguished by the name of 
Tartars, as also the Chinese and Japanese. The Hindoo is tall and 
thin, of an olive complexion and effeminate disposition, and to thi* 
class not only the inhabitants of the East Indies, but also the Persians, 
Arabians, and natives of the Islands of the Pacitic Ocean may be re- 
duced. The Negro is a stout, swarthy race of men, with flat noses, 
thick lips, and woolly hair, which inhabits the greatest part of Africa, 
the island of New Holland, and some other places. And the Ameri- 
can, who is of a copper color, with straight, black hair, and a well-pro- 
portioned form, inhabits the greatest part of the continent, from which 
he derives his name. Under this enumeration are not included various 
subordinate races, which occupy particular districts of the earth, or 
are scattered among other tribes, and are of a more peculiar and 
anomalous structure. Sucli are the Dondos, or white Negroes, whose 
akin and hair is of a dead white, instead of the usual swarthy color, 
and their eyes red. These are also called Albinos, a name, however, 
which more properly belongs to a similar race found among the African 
Moors, and even among Europeans. Such also are the Kakkerlaks, or 

the divei'sity of Human Character. 235 

iRoon-eycd Indians of the Isthmus of Darien, a small race of men of 
the same external appearance, and whose eyes are so weak, that they 
can scarcely endure the light. Such too are the Patagoni;ins, a people 
of gigantic stature found near the southern extremity of the Americaa 
continent. The Cretins, or Idiots, who inhabit certain vallies of the 
Alps, way also be added to this list of peculiar and anomalous racfs- 

Without at present takinw notice of those last mentioned peculiari- 
ties, let us confine our attention to the more extensive classes first 
timiuerated, and inquire whether their diversified appearance can 
fairly be ascribed tollie effects of the climates in which they are found, 
or iinpels to the conclusion that they have originally sprung from a 
different parentage. 

As iiW as the effects of climate upon the human body are knowu 
and ascertained, they are precisely such as are exhibited in the appear- 
ance of the inhabitiitits of the different regions of the globe. The 
cifect of extreme heat is to blacken the skin and swell the features. 
Extreme cold has effects which are not very dissimilar; for an inter- 
rupted perspiration ' discolors and darkens the skin,' and distorts the 
features and form, from their just proportions. Hence the inhabitants 
of the torrid and frigid zones have perhaps a greater resemblance to 
each other, than either bear to their nearer neighbours in temperate 
climates. Intermediate degrees of heat and cold will naturally pro- 
duce intermediate alterations upon the outward appearance ; a con- 
clusion which is fully justified by an examination of the inhabitants of 
the intermediate clhaates. 

" Man," siiys Buffon, " white in Europe, l)lack in Africa, yellow in 
Asia, and red in America, is still the same animal, tinged only with the 
color of the climate. Where the heat is excessive, as in Guinea and 
Senegal, the people are perfectly black ; where less excessive, as in 
Abyssinia, the people are less black ; where it is more temperate, as iu 
Barbary and in Arabia, they are brown ; and where mild, as in Europe 
and Lesser Asia, they are fair," (Nat. Hist. b. 5.) 

But it has been objected, that according to this doctrine, all people 
at the stiuie distance from the equator, should uniformly be of the same 
color, which is by no means agreeable to fact. The Chinese are white 
within the tropics ; the Negroes are black in a high southern latitude; 
while the Americans are red from one extremity of their vast continent 
to the other. In answer to this objection we have only to observe, 
that climate depends upon a great vavitty of circumstances, as well as 
upon the mere degree of latitude. Insidar, or continental situation, 
tlie vicinity of mountains, of sandy deserts, of rivers, of marshes, of 
the sea, all have a very powerful influence in determining the heat, 
moisture, and other qualities of a cinnate. Thus it happens that on 
account of its very elevated situation, and the neighbourhood of the 
ocean, the province of Quito, in Peru, enjoys, almost under the line, 
the coolness of a temperate climate. And it appears to be in conse- 
quence of the great uniformity of heat and cold all over the continent 
of America, that so little diversity is exhibited in the appearance of its 
inbabitaats. The wiuters are severe, even ia the tropical regions of 

240 Inquiry into the Causes of 

that continent, and tlie heat of summer is intense even in Canada, 
Nova Scotia, and Labrador. 

It has farther been objected to the hypothesis of all mankind having 
originated from a common stock, that, on this supposition we cannot 
conceive how the necessary emigrations could have been performed in 
early ages ; or how continents and islands, so widely distant troiu 
one another, should have so long ago received inhabitants from the 
place of abode of the primaeval pair. This objection had more weight 
before the geographical discoveries of some of our recent navigators : 
because then it was believed that the continent of America was removed 
to a very great distance from the old continent : so that it was dif- 
ficult to conceive how it could have derived its inhabitants from the 
old world, in those ages when navigation was necessarily in its infancy. 
It was found, however, in the hist voyage of Captain Cook, that in 
the northern parts of the Pacific Ocean, the Asiatic and Aujerican 
continents in one place approach so near, that the one is risible from 
the other; and even this narrow strait is interrupted by islands. The 
one continent might therefore have been easily peopled from the other, 
even when the art of navigation was in a very rude state. Islands 
which are at a great distance from any continent have probably been 
peopled in consequence of the ill-constructed barks of early tribes 
having been driven out of their course by unexpected storms ; and we 
have in the same voyage of ourcelebratcd navigator a detail of an 
accident of this kind which serves greatly to conlirm the hypothesis. 

But the objection apparently of greatest weight against the supposi- 
tion of all mankind having sprung from the same stock, remains yet to 
be mentioned. When whites are transplanted into torrid regions or 
blacks into temperate climates, they do not lose the characteristics of 
their native countries. The negro continues black in America, or in 
the more temperate regions of Europe, while the European retains his 
complexion, although exposed to the burning suns of the East or West 
Indies. Nay, what is much more remarkable, the descendants of this 
Negro or European, through many generations, continue of the same 
complexion with their progenitors, though born in a very different cli- 
mate. " There have been," says Lord Kaimes, " four complete genjC- 
rations of negroes in Pennsylvania, without any visible change of 
color; they continue jet black as originally. The Moors in Hindostan 
retain their natural color, though transplanted there more than three 
centuries ago. And the Mogul family continue white, like their 
ancestors the Tartars, though they have reigned in Hindostan above 
four centuries." (Sketches of the Hist, of Man. prel. dis.) 

This argument has been considered as altogether unanswerable by 
those who maintain that men have sprung from a variety of original 
stocks; it therefore deserves a full investigation. And in the first 
place it may be remarked, that as the effects of climate are slow and 
progressive in producing the original change of color, which is not 
accomplished but after a succession of generations ; so the process of 
the restitution of the natural complexion must be equally gradual and 
progressive. Hence though a very trifling difference only can be dis- 

the dwersity of Human Character. 241 

coverable in the course of one or two generations, yet vvlicn the number 
of generations is considerable, the efi'ects of climate will be very dis- 
cernible, whetlier in changing or restoring the complexion. 

Indted there is not wanting very respectable testimony, that the 
diifereuce is perceptible even in a single generation. " The children," 
says the Abbe Raynal, " which the Africans procreate in America, are 
not so black as their parents were. After each generation the differ- 
ence becomes more palpable. It is possible, that after a numerous 
succession of generations, the men who have conje from Africa v/ould 
not be distinguished from those of the country into which they may 
have been transplanted." It deserves likewise to be remarked, that 
the climates in which successive generations of Negroes are to be met 
with, particularly those of America and the West Indies, are not cal- 
culated to produce rapid changes in their complexion. Neither has 
the subject met with the accurate examination which it merits : nor 
have such experiments been instituted as might tend to illustrate what 
is doubtful in it. 

Again, we have well-authenticated historical facts which serve to 
prove, that in the lapse of ages, climate has sutHcient power to produce 
the most remarkable of the observed diversities among the human race. 
On the African Negro Coast are several small settlements, originally 
established by the Portuguese ; one of the most considerable of which 
is at Mitoraba, a river in Sierra Leone. In this settlement there are 
people still called Portuguese, who are bred from a mixture of the 
first Portuguese discoverers with the natives. In their complexion, 
and the woolly appearance of their hair, these peoj)le have become 
perfect Negroes, although they still retain a smattering of the Portu- 
guese language. Here then we have pretty direct evidence that in 
process of time a scorching sun will produce a race of negroes. 

On the other hand, if we can give credit to the testimony of ancient 
historians, we are likewise possessed of evidence that climate has suf- 
ficient powers, in the lapse of years, to change the Negro into the 
ruddy European. Herodotus relates, that the Colchi were black, and 
that they had crisped hair. These people were a detachment from 
the Ethiopian army, which had followed Sesostris in his celebrated 
expedition into Asia, and settled in that part of the world where Col- 
chis is usually represented to have been situated. But that district of 
country forms the modern Circassia, so celebrated for the fair com- 
plexions and beauty of its inhabitants. We have, therefore, good rea- 
son for believing that the fair Circassians are the lineal descendants of 
a sooty race of Ethiopians. 

A very striking illustration of the assimilating powers of climate is 
afforded in the case of the Jews. This tribe is scattered over the whole 
face of the earth, and though naturalized in every soil, it is still pre- 
served distinct from the rest of mankind. The Jews, on account of 
the prejudices of religion and other causes, never intermarry with any 
but those of their own sect. If, therefore, tht y are assimilated to the 
people among whom they reside, this cannot be ascribed to a mixture 
of races. Yet it is found that the English Jew is white, the Portu- 
guese brown, the American olive, aud the Egyptian swarthy; so that 
CL Jl. 1^0. XX. Vol. X. Q 

24S Inquiry into the Causes of 

there are, in fact, as many different species of Jews, as there are 
countries in which they reside : a diversity which can scarcely be ac- 
counted for from any other cause than the influence of cHmate. 

An analogical argument of considerable weight may he drawn frona 
the observed effects of climate on some of the animal tribes. The 
dog, it le well known, in different regions of the world, exhibits diver- 
sities of appearance fully as striking as any that can be observed in 
the human species. It may, indeed, be objected that the varieties of 
the dog species have not all originally proceeded from a single pair ; 
althouijh the most esteemed Naturalists, and among the rest Buffon, 
are decidedly of ibis opinion. But if this be doubtful as to the dog, 
the same objection will not exist in the case of the hog ; as the history 
of the introduction of this animal into certain regions of the earth can 
be accurately ascertained. 

It is a curious fact, that in his anatomical structure, the hog has a 
jiearer resemblance to man, than almost luiy other animal has; and 
this resemblance is said also to hold in the pecuHar qualities of its 
flesh, its fat, and its hide. There is, besides, this further analogy, 
that the hog, like man, can endure the effects of the most opposite 
climates, at the same time that his external appearance is remarkably 
modified by their influence. Thus, according to the researches of 
Professor Blumenbach, the hogs of Cuba are double the size of those 
of Europe ; a greater diversity than that between the heights of the 
Patagonian and Eurojpean. The hogs of Piedmont are all black; in 
Bavaria they are reddish brown ; and in Normandy all white. Again, 
the Norman hogs have long and soft hair, instead of bristles, and 
stand very long on their hind legs. Swine with solid hoofs are found 
in large herds in Hungary, Sweden, &c. ; and those, which were first 
carried over by the Spaniards to Cuba, degenerated into a monstrous 
race, with hoofs which were half a span in length, &c. So that the 
varieties found among this race of animals, are at least equally remark- 
able with those which have arisen among the human species ; and like 
them descends through successive generations. 

But it may be said that there are many peculiarities among the races 
of men, w hich cannot with any probability be ascribed to the effects 
of climate, and which therefore seem to prove the existence of separate 
original stocks. Such a peculiar race are the Kakkerlaaks or moon- 
eyed Indians of Darien, whose diminutive bodies, dead white skin and 
hair, and feeble red eyes, cannot be occasioned by mere climate, 
as in their immediate neighbourhood we find tribes very different in 
external appearance. Such too are the inhabitants of Patagonia, 
whose gigantic stature and robust limbs cannot be ascribed to a cli- 
mate, in the vicinity of which are the people of Terra del Fuego, re- 
markable for the very opposite qualities. 

Some of these peculiar races seem evidently to have had an acci- 
deu tal origin ; and cannot be said to be directly occasioned by cli- 
ma'^e. Of such accidental anomalies we have examples in the Dondoes, 
or white negroes, who, though differing so remarkably from the rest 
of that race, are born of common negro parents, in whom generally 
no peculiarity is at all discernible. But when such a peculiarity arises 

the dkersity of Human Character. 243 

accidentally, it is the natural tendency of the human constitution, that 
it should descend to the offspring of the individual. There are found 
among the negroes, families of Dondoes or Albinos ; and the peculi- 
arity is diminished or encouraged according as it is checked or pro- 
pagated by marriage. Races of European Albinos are also found in 
the valleys of the Alps, where those Cretins, Gortres, or swelled 
throated "idiots are found. In this last case the peculiarity seems 
partly due to climate ; but accident seems likewise to have a share 
in it, as it is well known that idiocy, once introduced, is apt to de- 
scend in a family. 

That a bodily peculiarity, however accidentally it may arise, has a 
tendency to descend in a family, is suHicienlly proved by the case of 
the sex-di^itaire, or person witli six fingers on each hand, recorded by 
Maupertuis. The children of this person iiad some of them six fingers 
and some of them not ; and their children bad still some remains of 
this peculiarity, though in a less degree than their parents. Should 
we, however, suppose tlie sex-digitaire to have found a wife possessed 
of the same peculiarity, there is reason to believe that a race of per- 
sons distinguished by six fingers would have been produced. ' 

In the Philos. Trans, for 1732, there is an account given by Mr. 
Machin of a very singular peculiarity of the human species. It is of 
an individual whose body was covered with a kind of scales or rather 
spines, having some resemblance to the quills of a hedgehog or por- 
cupine. The children of this man had the same peculiarity ; and M. 
Bluraenbach informs us, that in 1801, he saw two grandsons of this 
person, who perfectly resembled, iu this respect, their grandfather 
and father. The spines or excrescences were of an irregular prisma- 
tic form, generally forke<l or split at the extremity ; and the largest 
were about three lines in diameter. If they were forcibly removed, 
blood immediately followed ; and if they dropped oif from fever or 
other causes, they were gradually renewed. A Frenchman of this 
description, named Lambert, is particularly described in the bul- 
letin de la Societ. Philom. for 1802. Two' brothers of this family 
were then at Paris, the one of 24, and the other of 14 years of age. 
The body of the eldest was entirely covered with spines, except the 
head, and the inside of the hands and feet. The youngest was naked 
in several places, particularly about the breast ; but certain brown 
spots on those parts sutficientiy indicated, that in time he would 
become as rough as his brother. The spines on the back of the luuid 

' Stedman, in his narrative of an expedition to Surinam, informs us of a 
tribe of people, known by the name oi Accorees, who lived among the rebel 
Seramaca negroes. This lieterogeneous race are so deformed in their hands 
and feet, that while some have tluee or four fingers and toes on each hand 
or foot, others have only two, which resemble the claws of a lobster, or 
rather limbs that have been cured after mutilation by fire or some other ac- 
cident. Having seen but two himself, and that at too great a distance to 
take a drawing of them, he does not pretend to vouch for the accurate 
truth of what he heard ; but informs us that an engraving of one of theae 
figures was sent to the Society of Arts and Sciences at Haarlem. 

244 Inquiry into the Causes of 

are described as very large, and compared in diameter to the quills of 
a porcupine ; but those on the breast had a greater resemblance to 
scales, being! long plates, very numerous, and near together, 
vertically implanlcd in the skin. This peculiarity, we are informed, 
had been transmitted through five generations, but confined to the 

We may, therefore, conclude with tolerable confidence, that the 
diversities of external appearance, which are to be found among the 
various tribes of men, are not such as to reduce us to the supposition 
of a variety of original and independent races of the human species. 
These diversities may either be ascribed to the eftects of climate, 
which has sufficient power, in the lapse of ages, to alter the color 
and general appearance of the human race ; or they may be ascribed 
to accidental anomalies, which, when once introduced, from what- 
ever cause, have an evident tendency to descend to succeeding gene- 

If the variety of external appearance observable among the tribes of 
men can be accounted for without the supposition of separate original 
stocks ; surely we shall not be obliged to adopt that supposition on 
account of the diversities of talent, temper, and disposition, which 
have appeared in the inhabitants of differcHt parts of the world ; al- 
though this argument has likewise been adduced in opposition to the 
doctrine of the common original of all mankind. It is observed by 
lord Kainies, that " there is no propensity in human nature more 
general than aversion from strangers." " And yet," (he adds) " some 
nations must be excepted, not indeed many in number, who are re- 
markably khid to strangers ; by which circumstance they appear to be 
of a singular race." Some tribes, be finds, are remarkable for courage, 
others for cowardice ; some are active, others are indolent ;; — from 
these and like diversities of disposition, he thinks it certain that men 
could not all have a common origin. But surely such slight diversities as 
these may be explained without having recourse to a supposition which 
is so unsupported by evidence. 

If, on the other irand, we consider the numerous important parti- 
culars in which all the tribes of men yet discovered, resemble one 
another, we shall find the strongest reason to believe in their common 
origin. Every where we find the same anatomical structure, the same 
organs of sensation, and the same mechanical habitudes ; such as the 
universal use of the right hand in preference to the left. Every where 
jiien are possessed of the same powers of speech, and endowed with the 
liigh prerogative of articulate language: every where they have facul- 
ties adapted to intellectual exertion, affections and appetites, moral 
and religious j)rinciples : so that we are entitled to consider them as 
members of the same coumiunity, and children of one great family ; — 
differing indeed from each other in the dignity to which they have 
attained, and the improvement they have made of the gifts of nature, 
but all possessed of the same capacities of enjoyment, and capable of 
advancing from the rudeness of the savage state to the more enviable 
condition of civilized refinement. 

the diversity of Human Character. 24.^ 

Sect. ti. 

Of the direct ejj^ects of climate upon the human cha- 

Having discussed this preliminary question concerning the effects of 
climate upon the external appearance of man, and the origin of those 
diversities which distinguish the various tribes of the human race, I 
now proceed to the more proper object of this part of my work, viz. 
to inquire into the effects of climate upon the human character. 
These, I think, may be advantageously considered under two points of 
view, either as they produce their influence directly or indirectly. 
By the direct effects of climate upon the human character, I mean 
those which it may be supposed to produce immediately, without the 
intervention of any of those circumstances which, indeed, dejiend 
upon climate, but which are more remotely connected with it. By 
the indirect effects of climate, I mean those which are not thus imme- 
diately produced, but flow from the intervention of other circumstances 
remotely dependent upon it. 

First then, I think climate has a direct influence in regulating the 
strength or weakness of the human constitution ; and in consequence 
of this influence, it materially affects human character. The inha- 
bitants of a hot climate are never so robust as those of a more tempe- 
rate region : extreme heat relaxes the muscular fibre, deranges the 
natural secretions, and enervates the whole corporeal system. This 
imbecility of body necessarily in a considerable degree affects the 
mind ; and among such a people we have reason to expect timidity and 
cowardice, rather than valor and a capacity to endure hardship. In 
a climate where moderate cold occasionally prevails, the animal fibre 
is braced, and all the bodily functions are allowed a free play. Here, 
therefore, we have reason to expect a strong and hardy race, equally 
qualified to endure the fatigues of the field, and to brave the dangers 
of war. 

The testimony of history is in exact conformity to these deductions. 
In almost every instance have we beheld the inhabitants of the sultry 
legions of Asia or Africa pusillanimous in the field of battle, and an 
easy prey to their more robust invaders from the north. The Chinese 
have repeatedly been conquered by their northern neighbours, the 
Tartars. The mhabitants of Hindostan have fallen a prey to various 
hordes of the Tartars, and other barbarous tribes who have been 
allured by tlie spoils of that rich and fertile country, to desert their 
own more barren climes. Myriads of the ancient Persians were sub- 
dued in the field by mere handfuls of the warlike Greeks : and Alex- 
ander, at the head of no great number of that heroic people, carried 
terror and devastation through every region of southern Asia, that 
was then thought an object worthy of his conquering arms. In the 
New World, the devastations committed in Mexico and Peru by a 

246' Inquiry into the Causes of 

handful of Spaniards iiiay be added to the proofs of the imbecility of 
those people who live under a sultry sun. 

The warlike achievements of the Arabs or Saracens under Mahomet 
and his successors attbrd the most remarkable exception to this general 
cliaracferii:tic of the people of the torrid regions. But it ought to be 
remembered that the nations, among whom they carried terror and 
(lesoiiition, weie in genera! those most remarkable for pusillanimity ; 
and even allowing this nation to form an exception to the principle 
which we have lai<i down, the reality of that principle is not the less 
certainly established ; and we are fairly warranted to assume tlie cha- 
racteristic traits ot the inhabitants of sultry climates to be timidity and 

On t!ie other hand, the people of more temperate regions have 
generally been reniarkuble for strength and courage. Tacitus describes 
the ancient Gernsans as a robust race, well qualihed for the fatigues of 
war, which to (hem were but pastime. ' So greatly did they delight iu 
warlike employments, that according to this author they transacted no 
public or private business whhout arms in their hands. These were 
to them the distinction of virility, and it was the first honor of youth 
to ie{ eive them from a father, a kinsman, or a prince. ^ A circum- 
stance truly characteristic of the martial spirit of this nation was the 
marriage-gift of the wife to the husband, which, according to our 
author, consisted in a part of his arms. ^ 

The robust make, the strength and the martial spirit, of the ancient 
nations of Scandinavia and ttf Scythia, are noticed by all the writers 
who have tre-^.t^nj of these people : qualities which proved too powerful 
in the field for the degenerate descendants of the Romans, at the 
period when luxury and imbecility had usurped in the empire the 
room of ancient frugality and military ardor. No fact, therefore, can 
be better establisJied, than that the inhabitants of hot climates are in 
general inferior in strength, prowess, and military enterprize, to the 
more hardened people of colder latitudes. 

If we proceed to a climate of extreme rigor, in respect of cold, we 
shall find it as unfavorable to the robustisess of the human frame, and 
as inimical to genuine courage, as a climate of extreme heat. The 
inhabitants both of the arctic and antarctic regions are a dwarfish, 
feeble, and pusillanimous race, who find their security in their harm- 
lessness, and love of peace, rather than in their capacity to endure the 
fatigues, and encounter the dangers, of warfare. 

' " Truces et caerulei oculi, rutilaj comas, magna corpora, et tantum ad 
impetum valida." 

* <' Nihil autem neque publicse neque privatas rei, nisi armati agunt. Sed 
arma suinere non ante cuiquam moris, quam civitas suftecturum probaverit. 
Turn in ipso concilio vel principum aliquis vel pater, vel propinquus, scuto 
frameaque juvenem ornant. Hsc apud illos toga, hie primus juventie 
honos : auie hoc domus pars videntur, raox reipublicas." 

3 « In hsec munera uxor accipitur atque invicem ipsa armorum aliquid 
viro afiert," 

the diversity of Human Character. M7 

Secondly ; Climates appear to have a direct influence upon the 
human character in respect to its activity or indolence. Extreme heat 
has a direct tendency to produce languor, and an aversion to labor. 
In hot climates, rest and repose are considered as high enjoyments, and 
every active exertion is submitted to with reluctance. I'he extreme 
power of the sun during the greatest part of the time, that he continues 
above the horizon, renders it impossible to be actively employed during 
much of the day without great fatigue, insomuch that those, who are 
not obliged to labor, indulge themselves in a listless inactivity. Hence 
in countries of a hot climate the luxuries of cool alcoves, shady arbors, 
and refreshing fountains are greatly sought after. In the gardens of 
Turkey we do not find those varying walks and alleys, which are so 
much the objects of attention in the gardens of our own climate : the 
Turkish garden boasts chiefly of its sequestered grot, its spreading 
trees, and its cool arbor, where the Musulman, indolently reclined with 
his pipe constantly in his mouth, and his attendant busied in keeping 
off the troublesome flies, dreams away his existence, little troubled 
■with the past, or solicitous about the future. 

The women of Hindostan are said to enjoy nothing so much as a 
state of complete idleness, and consider it as a reproach to learn any 
kind of work, which they always associate with the idea of servitude, 
and consider as the badge of an inferiority of caste. " Les Indiens," 
says Montesquieu, " croient que le repos et le neant font le fondement 
de toutes choses, et la fin oil elles aboutissent. lis regardent done 
I'entiere inaction comrae I'etat le plus parfait et I'objet de leurs desirs. 
lis donnent au souverain etre le surnom d'immobile. ' Les Liamois 
croient que la felicite supreme consiste ^ n'etre point oblige d'aniraer 
line machine et de faire agir un corps. ^ Dans ces pays oii la chaleur 
excessive enerve et accable, le repos est si dehcieux, et le mouvement si 
penible, que ce systeme de metaphysique paroit naturel." (L' Esprit des 
loix, liv. 14. ch. 5.) 

Even in chmates where the heat is by no means so excessive, labor 
is rendered irksome by the occasionally too powerful influence of the 
sun. In Italy it is a regular practice to indulge in a Siesta, or after- 
noon's nap, during the greatest heat of the day : and in Spjin all busi- 
ness is interrupted during that overcoming interval. The streets are 
completely deserted by those whom business or pleasure had before 
attracted there. The shops are all shut, and the keepers of the stalls 
are to be seen stretched at full length under (he shade of their wares, 
sunk for a period in profound repose. 

Extreme cold, as it approaches to extreme heat, in the changes which 
it produces upon the external appearance of man, so also seems to 
occasion certain corresponding effects upon his character. Indolence, 
languor, and inactivity are equally characteristic of the inhabitants of 
the frozen regions which approach the poles, as of those of the scorch- 
ing climates of the tropics. The inhabitants of Terra del Fuego, 

Panamanack, voyez Kircher. 

La Loubere, relation de Siam. p. 446. 

248 Inquiry into the Causes of 

who are situated in the chilly and inhospitable regions near the southern 
extremity of the American continent, are described by Captain Cook 
as the most torpid and indifferent of human beings. " Curiosity," observes 
that writer, or at least his editor, in the account of his first voyage, 
" seems to be one of the few passions which distinguish men from 
brutes ; and of this our guests (the natives of Terra del Fuego) ap- 
peared to have very little. They went from one part of the ship to 
another, and looked at the vast variety of new objects that every 
moment presented themselves, without any expression either of wonder 
or pleasure." (Hawkesworth's Voyages, vol. ii. b. 1. ch. iii.) " They did 
not appear," he adds afterwards, " to have among them any govern- 
ment or subordhiaf ion : no one was more respected than another; yet 
Ihey seemed to live together in the utmost harmony and good fellow- 
ship. Neither did we discover any appearance of religion among them, 
except the noises which have been mentioned, and which we supposed 
to be a superstitious ceremony, merely because we could refer them to 
nothing else : they were used only by one of those who came on board the 
ship, and the two who conducted Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander to the 
town, whom we therefore conjectured to be priests. Upon the whole, 
these people appeared to be the most destitute and forlorn, as well as 
the most stupid of all human beings ; the outcasts of nature, who spent 
their lives in wasidering about the dreary wastes, where two of our 
people perished with cold in the midst of summer ; with no dwelling 
but a wretched hovel of sticks and grass, which wosdd not only admit 
the wind, but the snow and the rain ! almost naked, and destitute of 
every convenience that is furnished by the rudest art, having no imple- 
ment even to dress their food : yet they were content. They seemed 
t(» have no wish for any thing more than they possessed, nor did any 
thing that we offered them appear acceptable but beads, as an orna- 
mental superfluity of life. What bodily pain they might suffer from 
the severities of their winter we could not know : but it is certain, that 
they suffered nothing from the want of the innuujerable articles which 
we consider, not as the luxuries and conveuieiicies only, but the neces- 
saries of life : as their desires are few, they probably enjoy them all, 
and how much they may be gainers by an exemption from the care, 
the labor, and solicitude, w hich arise from a perpetual and unsuccessful 
effort to gratify that infinite variety of desires which the refinements of 
artificial life have produced among us, is not very easy to determine : 
j)ossibly this may counterbalance all the real disadvantages of their 
situation in coniparison with ours, and make the scales by which good 
and evil are distributed to man, hang even between us." (lb. ch. 4.) 

Thus we may safely conclude that the spirit of activity in man may 
be benumbed by the chilling influence of a polar sky, as well as ren- 
dered torpid by the relaxing heats of the tropics. Secondary causes 
may indeed counteract the natural influence of these extremes of tem- 
perature, and industry may be made to rear its head in climates 
aj)parcntiy the most unfavorable to its exertions. China and Hindostan 
both afford ample proofs that even under a burning sun the artizau 
may be nsade to produce the most perfect and highly labored efforts 
of his skill. But in the ordinary course of nature we are not to look 

th^ diversity of Human Character. 249 

for much activity either in the pohir or tropical regions : the temperate 
ciainates of the earth, which happily shun either extreme, afiord to 
active exertion its genial soil. But let us not too arrogantly plume 
ourselves upon this supposed pre-eminence. The author of nature is 
too bountiful and too impartially just to all his creatures, to have dis- 
tribuled their enjoymenls with a very unequal haud ; or to have con- 
demned the inhabitants of certain climates to a joyless existence, .while 
to other races he has given the capacity of every pleasure. As is hinted 
by the author whom we have just quoted, the exemption from the 
care and toil, which the desire of varied gratification necessarily 
occasions, may prove an ample compensation to the indolent but con- 
tented races which dwell in temperate regions, for the want of diversity 
of pursuit, and intensencss of enjoyment. The negroes ot Guinea are 
said by Mr. Park, and other late travellers, to be like the people of 
Terra del Fuego, a mild and harmless race, living in good fellowship 
with one another, and undisturbed by the desire of those luxuries 
which are occasionally brought to their view by thevisits of strangers. 

The spirit of activity, wliich is the natural offspring of a temperate 
climate, appears in %'ery dift'erent forms, in different ages of the world. 
During the ruder periods of society we shall in vain search for this 
spirit under the aspect of industrious labor, or a sedulous and prudent 
exertion either of the intellectual or corporeal powers. It is long be- 
fore untutored man perceives the advantages of steady industry ; or is 
convinced that the amelioration of his condition can be alone accom- 
plished by the successive improvement of the various arts of life, and 
the advancement of that knowledge which requires for its perfection 
the accumulated experience of ages. If we look into the early history 
of those nations which are now the most highly civilized, we shall find it 
a period of turbulence, ignorance, and barbarity ; of enterprize without 
a definite object, and of activity without prudence or foresight. 

The manners of most of our European ancestors may be considered 
as happily exemplified in those of the ancient Germans, of which we 
have been fortunate enough to receive an account from the philosophi- 
cal pens both of Caisar and Tacitus. These writers inform us that the 
Germans did not concern themselves with agriculture ; that the 
greatest part of them lived on niilk, cheese and flesh ; that none of 
them had any land appropriated to themselves ; but that the princes 
and magistrates of every tribe allotted to each person a certain por- 
tion of land which he was to possess for a year. (De bel. Gal. 1. 6.) 
This people is described both by Caesar ajid Tacitus as highly enter- 
prising in war, and capable of enduring, without shrinking, the greatest 
dangers and fatigues. The latter author speaks with admiration of the 
high spirit of martial honor with which the band of warriors who 
called themselves the companions of their prince were inspired, and of 
the emulation which prevailed among the princes, concerning the num- 
bers and bravery of their companions. The princes, he says, consider 
their dignity and power as chiefly supported by these chusen bands, 
which constitute their ornament iii peace and their rampart in war. 
A prince is celebrated in his nation, and among the neighbouring, 
people, if he surpasses others ia thg number and courage of his com- 

2 ^0 Inquiry into the Causes of 

panions. In battle, it is disgraceful to the prince to be surpassed in 
bravery ; and disgraceful to his companions not to equal the valor of 
their prince. It is eternal infamy to survive him, and the most sacred 
engagement i-< to defend him. The prince tights for victory, and his 
companions iiglit for the prince. He subjoins, however, that the 
prince can only support the largesses which he makes to his compa- 
nions by war and rapine ; that it would be much more ditficult to per- 
suade tiiis people to till the ground and wait for the returns of harvest, 
than to provoke an enemy and incur the dangers of battle. The 
Germans, says he, do not acquire by the sweat of their brow what they 
can obtain by their blood. ' This picture agrees in several important 
particulars with that which has been drawn of the manners of many of 
the savage tribes of South America. 

The active disposition of the ancient Germans is evinced by another 
remarkable trait of their character particularly noticed by this eloquent 
Iiistoriau, namely, their devoted attachment to gaming, in which they 
embarked with such keenness, as to play away not only all their pro- 
perty, but even their own personal liberty.^ It was not however to be 
discerned in the cultivation of any of the useful or ornamental arts of 
life, or the acquisition of property or knowledge. But it had enabled 
this energetic people to make considerable advances in legislation, one 
of the most important of all human acquirements ; for, according to the 
testimony of our classical authorities, the Germans possessed a distinct 
political constitution, which contained within it the germs of that happy 
mixture of monarchy, aristocracy and democracy, which characterises 
the most admired governments of modern times. ^ We are to look to 
countries of a greater amenity of soil and climate than the German 
wilds, for the first civilization of the human race, and the perfect 

I Magna et comitum semulatio, quibus primus apud principem suum locus ; 
et principum cui plurimi et acerrimi comites. Hsc dignitas, has vires, 
magno semper electorum juvenum globo circumdari, in pace decus, in bello 
presidium. Nee solum in sua gente cuique, sed apud finitimas quoque 
civitates id nomen, ea gloria est, si numero ac virtute comitatus emineat. — 
Ciim ventum in aciem, turpe principi virtute vinci, turpe comitatui virtutem 
principis non adccquare. Jam vero infame in omnem vitam ac probrosiuii 
superstitem principi suo ex acie recessisse. Ilium defenderc, tueri, sua 
quoque fortia facta gloria ejus assignare, praecipuum sacramentum est. 
Principes pro victoria pugnant : comites pro principe. — Materia munificentige 
per bella et raptus. Nee arare terram, aut expectare annum, tam facile 
persuaseris, quam vocare hostes et vulnera mereri : pigrum quinimmo et 
iners videtur sudore acquirere quod possis sanguine parare. 

* " Extreme ac novissimo jactu de libertate et de corpore contendunt. 
Victus voluntariam servitutem adit. Quamvis junior, quamvis robustior, 
alligari se ac venire patitur. Ea est in re prava pervicacia : ipsi fidem 

3 " Nee regibus libera ant infinita potestas," says Tacitus. " Ceterum, 
neque animadvertere, neque vincere neque verberare, nisi sacerdotibus est 
permissum." " De mmoribus rebus principes consultant," says the same 
author, " de majoribus omnes ; ita tamen ut ea quoque quorum penes 
plebem arbitrium est, apud principes pertractentur." De Mor. Ger.) 

the diversity of Human Character. 25 1 

stablishment of arts, science, and government. These have intTeed 
first attained to a considerable degree of eminence in regions which we 
do not now consider as happily adapted to cherish them, namely in the 
sultry climates of Asia and Africa. Chaldiea, India, and Egypt, af- 
forded the nursery of the infant arts and sciences, and fostered them 
till they attained sutficient maturity to take root in a less luxuriant 
soil. But it was not in these regions that they were destined to arrive 
at their full growth. These countries were among the first that received 
a full stock of population, the fertility of their soil afforded ample 
leisure to a people not devoid of ingenuity, to improve in many of the 
arts of life, and to make a certain progress even in science. But the 
arts and the science of Asia and Egypt have very peculiar features, and 
are evidently marked with an inferiority to those of the more genial 
climates of Europe. 

In the ancient science of these countries we perceive less of genius 
than of mere observation ; and more of absurd hypothesis and mon- 
strous fiction, than of a happy analysis of the mysteries of nature. In 
astronomy, the Chaldeans, Indians, and Egyptians, doubtless made con- 
siderable advances. to which the antiquity of their government, the se- 
renity of their atmosphere, and the leisure of their lives, all greatly 
contributed ; but with this exception their science was little better than 
a tissue of absurdities, consisting of wild fancies concerning the ori- 
gin of the universe, the first elements from which all created beings 
have been formed, aud the changes tliey are destined to undergo, ge- 
nerally clothed in stratige and inconsistent allegory. 

The arts of these countries will be found, on a near inspection, to be 
intitled to but little praise. Their architecture was frequently splen- 
did or rather gaudy, but never graceful, or truly beautiful. The 
buildings of Babylon have been represented as exceeding every thing 
in modern times in vastness and grandeur. The buildisigs of ancient 
Egypt, which still remain, may enable us to form a tolerable estimate 
of these wonders of architecture. In the half ruined temples of 
Egypt we indeed find immense masses of building, proving the power 
and wealth of the potentates who commanded the structure, but we 
find in them no marks of architectural skill, for every where the arch 
and vault are wanting, nor do the ornaments, with which they are fre- 
quently loaded, display either taste, or a high state of the arts of de- 
sign. The graceful column of the Grecian temples, with its appro- 
priate accompaniments, is no where to be found, and the attempts at 
statuary anrl painting, which still remain, are calculated rather to excite 
disgust than admiration. In the boasted pyramids of Egypt we be- 
hold immense masses of architecture, the erection of which has neces- 
sarily required much time and labor, but which are destitute of ele- 
gance, usefulness, and even grandeur, except in so far as that quality 
can be attained by magnitude alone. An Indian temple or pa- 
goda is a glittering object, but is adapted rather to please the taste of 
a child than of a man ; for it possesses neither solidity of structure, ele- 
gance of ornament, nor symmetry of parts. 

if we wish to behold the sciences and the arts, taking firm root and 

252 Inquiry into the Causes of 

florishing as in a genial soil, we must turn our eyes to ancient Greece. 
Among the inhabitants of that wonderful country, alike renowned for 
their achievements in arts and in arras, the spirit of activity during a 
succession of ages took the happiest turn, and exhibited to the world 
models of civil polity, examples of scientific investigation, and speci- 
mens of art both useful and ornamental, of such transcendant merit 
that many of them have not yet been equalled, and but few sur- 

From the period of Grecian pre-eminence and mental exertion, the 
efforts of those nations, which had preceded in the field of invention, 
seem almost entirely to have ceased. The science and the arts of India, 
and we may add of China, have been stationary for thousands of years, 
while those of Egypt, of Chaldasa, and the rest of Asia, are now chiefly 
known by the ruins which they have left behind them. The effort of 
invention was evidently not congenial to those luxurious regions, and 
has given place to a torpidity more in unison with the climate. They 
may be compared to a field which has been stimulated by the agri- 
culturist to a fertility which it was not intended by nature to sustain ; 
in consequence of which it must, in future, be condemned to a perpe- 
tual sterility. 

It has of^en been remarked that the progress of the improvement of 
the huuian race has spread gradually from the south to the north. 
Where the Greeks left the arts and the sciences, the Romans took 
them up. By the Romans they were successively introduced into the 
more northern regions of Europe. Britain, where now they find so 
congenial a soil, was one of the last countries which felt their bene- 
ficial influence. For this progress of things, sufficient reasons might 
easily be assigned. Leisure, and an abundance in the necessaries of 
life, are required for the cultivation of science and even of art. Man 
has no thought of refinenKut, when his attention is imperiously called 
to supply the pressing wants of nature. But in the genial climates of 
Greece and Italy, the necessaries of life are obtained with little effort, 
while moderate labor will produce many of its superfluities. Hence 
in such countries we may naturally expect those speculations, which 
arise from leisure, sooner to have birth, than in regions of a less 
favored soil and climate, where the hand of industry is necessary to 
produce fertility, and much effort is required before even the common 
conveniencies of life can be secured. 

In the natural order of improvement, it is well known that the cul- 
tivation of the arts precedes that of the sciences. The origin of the 
arts is founded in the natural wants and desires of man. The rudest 
savage, to prolong his existence and guard himself from the dangers 
which surround him, must practise the arts of architecture, of agri- 
culture, of clothing and arming himself. The sciences may be consi- 
dered as the offspring of the arts ; and are due to that leisure which a 
highly cultivated state of the arts produces, while in their turn they 
afford the principles by which the arts may be most successfully cul- 

0» some occasions, however, it has been found that the genius of a 

the diversity of Human Character. 255 

people is more peculiarly adapted to the exclusive cultivation of the arts 
or of the sciences. The ancient Phceniciani were a people whose genius 
led them to make high advances in the arts rather than in the sciences. 
The Egyptians have been more celebrated for their attention to science 
than to art. The Phoenicians inhabited a country possessing many 
natural advantages, but requiring the eiforts of industry to secure the 
full benefits of its situation ; and their history, like that of the modern 
Dutch, affords a striking proof of the wonders that industry can ac- 
complish. They have been honored by all antiquity as the inventors 
of navigation ; and as the first nation who carried on a commercial in- 
tercourse with distant countries. Strabo ascribes to them the inven- 
tion of arithmetic and of writing, (1. l6 and 17.) and they are generally 
allowed the honor of inventing weights and measures ; to all which 
expedients of art they may have naturally been led by their attach- 
ment to commerce. They are also known to have peculiarly excelled 
in various ingenious manufactures, and even in works of taste. 

The Egyptians, on the contrary, were altogether averse to the pur- 
suits of commerce and navigation. They left every kind of traflic to 
their women, as Herodotus expressly informs us (1, 2. n. o5.) It was 
a maxim among this people, as it is at present among the Chinese and 
Japanese, never to leave their own country. They even excluded all 
strangers from their harbours, Naucratis being the only place where 
they were allowed to touch, unless they were compelled to take shel- 
ter elsewhere by stress of weather. (Herod.) This policy was indeed 
altered by Psammetichus and his successors ; but it is a strong testi- 
mony of the aversion of the Egyptians to commerce, which is a prin- 
cipal cause of the advancement of the arts. To science, however, 
such as it then was, the Egyptians devoted much of their attention. 
In Egypt, says Aristotle, the priests applied themselves wholly to 
study, (Metaph. I. 1. c. 1.) But as the object of their study seems to 
have been rather to secure the admiration of the vulgar by the sup- 
posed profundity of their researches, than truly to advance the know- 
ledge of nature, posterity has not been greatly benefited by their scien- 
tific labors. 

In general, however, it may be assumed that a permanent improve- 
ment in the condition of man can only be accomplished by a success- 
ful cultivation both of the arts and the sciences. In Greece, and in 
Rome, the progress in each was equally worthy of admiration ; nor in- 
deed can either attain to any thing approaching perfection without the 
assisting influence of the other. In those countries of modern Europe, 
where civilisation and refinement have made the happiest progress, 
an equal attention is bestowed upon the improvement of the arts and 
the cultivation of the sciences ; and in those which are but newly 
emerging from barbarism, it is equally the object of the enlightened 
legislator to encourage the practice of the useful and ornamental arts 
of life, and to secure the advancement of intellectual improvement, and 
the various branches of scientific knowledge. 

It may fairly, then, be asserted, that much of the peculiarity of human 
character depends upon the degree of its activity, and upon the peculiar 

254 Inquiry into the Causes of 

direction which that important principle in human nature assumes., 
That in temperate climates man is naturally more active, as well as 
more robust, than in those which are exposed to the extremity either 
of heat or cold ; and that consequently it is there that we arc to look 
for the origin of genuine improvement, and for the permanent ameliora- 
tion of the human species : but that, even in such chniates, many ages 
elapse before the spirit of activity exerts itself in truly beneficial ef- 
forts ; and (as will afterwards more distinctly appear) many peculiar 
eircunjstances may arise, which tend either to interrupt the natural 
progress of this tendency to improvement, or to divert it into a chan- 
nel in which it was not naturally suited to flow. 

A third direct effect of climate upon the human character, which is 
not without important consequences, is the influence which it has upon 
the sexual appetite. In hot climates it is well known that this appe- 
tite is more ardent, and insatiable than in those of a cooler atmos- 
phere. In countries near the pole the sexual desire is but barely suf- 
ficient to provide for the needful increase of the human species ; but 
under a burning sun it is usually excited to a very intemperate degree, 
and often gives rise to a highly blameable looseness of manners. 

" C'est la,'' says Montesquieu, " qu'on voit jusqu'a quel point les vices 
du climat, laisses dans une grande liberte, peuvent porter le desordre. 
C'est la que la nature a une force, et la pudeur une foiblesse qu'on ne 
pent comprendre. A Patane, la iubricite des femmes est si grande, 
que les honnnes sont contraiiits de se faire de certaines garnitures 
pour se mettre a I'abri de leurs entreprises. Selon M. Smith, les 
choses ne vonf pas mieux dans les petits royaumes de Guinee. Quand 
les femmes, dit-il, rencontrent un homme, elles le saisissent, et le me- 
nacent de le denoncer a leur mari, s'il les meprise. Elles se glissent 
dans le lit d'uu homme, elles le reveillent ; et s'il les refuse, elles le 
menacent de se laisser prendre sur le fait. II semble que dans ces 
pays-la les deux sexes perdentjusqu' a leurs propres loix. Aux Mal- 
dives les peres marient les filles a dix et onze ans ; parce que c'est un 
grand peche, disent-ils, de leur laisser endurer la necessite d'hommes. A 
Bantam, si t6t qu'une fiUe a treize ou quatorze ans il faut la marier, si 
Ton ne veut qu'elle mene une vie debordee." (L'Esprit des loix, I. lO". 
eh. 10.) 

The ancient history of the Assyrians, Babylonians, Egyptians, 
Medes, Persians, and other nations of the east and south, proves them 
to have been a people strongly addicted to voluptuousness and gross 
sensuality. What we read in scripture of the mission of the prophet 
Jonah suffices to show the height to which debauchery and corrup- 
tion had arisen in Nineveh, the capital of Assyria. The writers of an- 
tiquity have very probably exaggerated the debaucheries ofSemira- 
niis, Ninias, and his successors down to Sardanapalus ; yet their re- 
lations were not without some foundation, and serve to show that 
looseness of morals greatly prevailed among this people. 

The dissoUiteness and corruption of ancient Babylon have become 
almost proverbial. The sacred writers describe Babylon as a city 
plunged in the most shocking lewdness ; and profane authors acknow- 
ledge that there never was a more corrupted city. According to 

the diversity of Human Character. 255 

Qiiintus Curtius, its inhabitants made a particular study of all that could 
delight the sense, or excite the most shameful passions, (lib. 5. c. 1.) 
He adds, that they made no scruple of prostituting their daughters for 
profit ; and that husbands were not ashamed of abandoning their wives 
to strangers for money. Herodotus gives the same account of their 
manners duriug the age of Cyrus. (1. 1. n. 196, <!tc.) It was in this city 
that the unheard-of regulation prevailed, by which all women were 
obliged to repair once in their lives to the temple of Mylitta or Venus, 
and there prostitute themselves to strangers. That such a practice 
actually existed in Babylon, we have the testimony of Herodotus, (lib. 1. 
11. 109, &c.) and Strabo, (1. 16.) as well as of jiEIian, Justin, and other 
ancient writers ; and it proves a depravity of inanners, of which mo- 
dern times cannot furnish a parallel. ' Yet abominations of this kind 
were by no means confined to the Babylonians. Justin informs us that 
from time immemorial it was a custom in Cyprus to send maids to the 
sea shore on certain days, for the purpose of paying homage to Venus 
by prostitution (I. 18. c. 5.); and ^lian speaks of a like practice 
established in Lydia.* (Var. Hist. 1. 4. c. 1.) 

With respect to the other nations above spoken of, it were easy to 
adduce proofs of a like relaxation of morals. The Egyptians are re- 
presented by ancient historians as practising the most shameful excesses 
even in their religious ceremonies ; so gross indeed, that those writers 
have seldom ventured to describe them. (See Herod. 1. 2. n. 6\. Diod. 
1. 1. Strabo, 1. 17.) This species of depravity is by no means un- 
known to modern ages; for it is still exemplified in many of the cere- 
monials, and objects of worship in Hindostan, where debauchery, ia 
various forms, has long continued its reign. 

Let us contrast this looseness of eastern morals with what Tacitus 
relates concerning the manners of the Germans. " The marriages of 
that people," says he, " are rigidly respected. Infidelities are not with 
them a subject of ridicule. To corrupt or be corrupted, is not con- 
sidered as a matter of farhion. The examples of adultery in a nation 
so numerous are exceedingly rare." " The Germans," adds be, " are 
almost the only nation of barbarians, who content themselves with a 
single wife ; if we except certain persons, who not from incontinency, 
but on account of state, are permitted more than one." ^ I shall have 

" This practice of the Babylonians is evidently alluded to in the following 
passage of the prophet Jeremiah : " The women also, with cords about 
them sitting in the ways, burn bran for perfume ; but if any of them, drawn 
by some that passeth by, be with him, she reproacheth her fellow that she 
was not thought as worthy as lierself, nor her cord broken." 

■^ The prostitution of women, considered as a religious institution, was 
also practised at Heliopolis; at Aphace, a place betwixt Heliopolis and 
Biblus; and at Sicca Veneria, in Africa, where Venus was supposed to 
have first received the embraces of Adonis. See Bryant's Etymologicum 

^ "_ Severa illic Matrimonia. — Nemo vitia videt, nee corrumpere et cor- 
rumpi sasculum vocatur. Paucissima in tarn numerosa gente adulteria. — 
Prope soli barbarorum singulis uxoribus coutenti sunt. Exceptis admodum 
paucis, qui non Ubidine, sed ob nobilitatcm, plurirais nuptiis arabiuntur." 

256 Inquiry into the Causes of 

occasion very soon to remark, that the continence of the Germans, in 
being contented with one wife, was by no means peculiar to them, as the 
expression of Tacitus would seem to insinuate ; but might be equally 
asserted of nearly ail the nations of the north of Europe, among whom, 
the practice of polygansy seems to have been almo>)t entirely vmknown. 
In the mean time it is suthcient to establish, that chastity and conti- 
nency have been considered as characteristic of these ancient tribes ; 
and for this we have various respectable authorities ; aud in particular 
Crantz, who, in his History of the Savons, expressly affirms that chas- 
tity was always in the highest estiniation among the Danes, Swedes, 
and other Scandinavians. (1. 1. c. 2.) 

It is not pretended that in countries of a temperate climate, instances 
of grossness of manners and sensuality are not to be found, both in 
ancient and in modern times. Such irregular conduct is but too fre- 
quent every where ; and in a rude and barbarous age has given rise to 
many acts of excess and debauchery in the north as well as iu the 
south. The ancient Scandinavian poems, and historical documents, 
record many instances of the forcible seizure of women, a practice 
which made so conspicuous a figure in the heroic ages of Greece and 
Rome. Johannes Magnus, Archbishop of Upsal, in his History of the 
Goths, relates many instances of this kind of violence towards Ihe fair 
sex ; and informs us that nothing was a more usual cause of war be- 
tween neighbouring principalities. Caisar mentions a very singular 
kind of association which prevailed among the Britons when he visited 
the island. Ten or a dozen men, he informs us, were wont to have 
their wives in common ; and brothers chiefly had this community with 
brothers, and parents with their children. ' Such examples, however, 
can only be adduced as deviations from the general character of the 
northern nations, which if contrasted with that of more southern tribes, 
was certainly remarkable for moderation in sensual indulgence. * 

(Tacit, de Mor. Ger.) — In another place he says, " Sera juvenuni Venus, 
eoque inexliausta pubertas : nee virgines festinantur. Eadem juventa, 
similis proceritas, pares vahdivque miscentur, ac robora parentum liberi 

* " Uxores habent deni duodeniqiie inter se communes et maxime fratre» 
cum fratribus, parentesque cum libens ; sed si qui sunt ex his nati, eorum 
habentur liberi, quo prinuim virgo quasque dediicU est." Herodotus men- 
tions a like practice among the 'Jassagetfe; and it lias been found by mo- 
dern voyagers to prevail at Otaheite, \\'\\h this additional aggravation, that 
the children springing from the mixed concubinages are put to death with- 
out remorse. Tlie members of these aboniiuable associations are tiiere 
called Arreoues. 

^ We have a curious iikistration of the different tastes of the Northern 
and Southern nations in respect of the subject at present under discussion, 
furnished by the religious creeds which have in ancient times made the 
greatest figure among them. I mean the religion of Odin as it prevailed 
among the Scandinavians, and the religion of Mahunipt, as still professed 
by the Arabs, and many other Asiatic nations. The Valhallo or paradise of 
Odin, though its pleasures were not of a very refined or intellectual kind, 

the diversity of Human Character. Q57 

Tn climates exposed to a rigorous cold, the sexual appetite but very 
feebly exerts itself; and produces a continence which is deserving of 
the name of apathy, rather than of chastity. In such countries women 
are generally very ill treated, and are condemned to the most servile 
offices. Most of the savage tribes of North America are remarkable 
for their indifference in this respect, and among them the female sex 
are treated with great contempt, and subjected to the most laborious 

In so far as we have yet ascertained the influence of climate, it is 
evidently highly in favor of the inhabitants of the more temperate 
regions of the earth. It is there tiraf man acquires his just proportions, 
and greatest vigor both of body and mind ; and it is there that the 
amelioration of the human species is effectually provided for by the 
love of activity, which is rendered torpid either by the burning suns of 
the equator, or frozen atmospiiere of the poles : but in the more genial 
regions of the temperate zone, exerts its beneficial influence in the 
discovery of useful or ornamental arts, the cultivation of science, and 
the advancement of legislation and civil government. This natural 
tendency to improvement is greatly promoted by that moderation io 
respect of sensual indulgence, which is congenial to temperate regions ; 
while the proneness of the inhabitants of a hot climate to sensuality and 
debauchery but too much contributes with their natural indolence, 
to retard their advancement to a highly improved and civilized state. 

It is in temperate regions, therefore, that we are naturally to look 
for a highly advanced state of the arts ; for essential improvement.'- in 
science, and for the institution of equal laws and a free government. 
It is there that we are to expect examples of heroic valor, transcend- 
ent genius, incorruptible patriotism, or unshaken virtue. And it will 
not be denied that historic evidence affords the most direct confirma- 
tion of the truth of this doctrine. It remains to be seen whether the 
other more indirect effects of climate are equally in favor of temperate 

yet offered no gratifications to the mere sensualist ; to sit round the social 
board supplied with ever undiminished stores, to Usten to the recital of 
martial deeds and exploits of heroism, and to quaff large draughts of beer 
out of goblets formed from the sculls of their enemies, were among the 
principal pleasures of Odin's faithful followers ; to which was added the 
very singular amusement of occasionally hewing each other to pieces, and 
being put together and animated again for the repetition of similar delights. 
This forms a sufficiently striking contrast to the paradise of Mahomet, 
where the pious Mussulman is taught to look for his chief enjoyment in the 
society of the beautiful Houris, whose blooming charms are never to decay. 

NO. XX. C7. Jl. VOL. X. 



T. S. Bayeri De Origine et priscis Scytharum 

To THE Editor of the Classical Journal. 

1 REJOICE to see so large a portion of the Supplement to the Classical 
Journal No. XVIII. devoted to the elucidation of Classical Geogra- 
phy. In this department of literature a vast field remains yet 
unexplored : vallies are to be filled up, and mountains are to be le- 
velled. It has always appeared to me that sufiicient light has not yet 
been thrown upon the history/ of the Scythians, notwithstanding the 
researches of so many learned and ingenious scholars. To draw the 
attention of your readers to this most interesting subject, I have been 
at the pains of transcribing Bayer's Dissertation De Origine et priscis 
Sedibus Scytharum, which deserves particular notice for the singularity 
of the opinion, which its writer holds. I have taken the article from 
the following Work, which v/as purchased at Dr. Gosset's sale — T. S. 
Bayeri Opuscula ad Historiain antiquam, Chronologiam, Geographianif 
el Rem nwnariam spectantia, editore C. A. Klotzio. Halce, 1770. 8vo. 
pp. 572. Klotzlus has prefixed to the Work a biographical notice of 
the authoi-. In the year 1726. he was invited to Petersburg, which 
was then a place of great rer)Ort for all learned men, and he was ap- 
pointed Professor of Greek and Latin Antiquities in its then florishing 
Academy. Before the Academy he disputed De Russorum prima 
Expeditione Constantinopolitana et de Originibus Russicis (see the 
Comment, Acad. Petrop. Vol. VI. ) I shall cite a list of such of his 
Works, as relate to subjects of oriental literature. — 

1. T. S. Bayeri Regiomontani Historia Osrhoena et Edessena, 
ex Numis illustrata, in qua Edessse urbis, Osrhoeni regni, Abgaro- 
rum regum, praefectorum Grascorum, Arabum, Persarum, Comitum 
Francorum, Successiones, Fata, Res alias memorabiles, a prima Ori-- 
gine Urbis ad extrema fere Tempora explicantur. Petropoli, ex Ty- 
pogr. Academ. 1734'. 4. 

2. Historia Regni Graecorum Bactriani, in qua simul Graecarum 
in India Coloniarum vetus Memoria explicatur, auctore T. S. Bayero: 
accedit Chr. Theodos. Waltheri, Missionarii Regii Danici, Doctrina 
Temporum Indorum cum Paralipomenis. Petropoli, ex Typogr. 
Acad. Scicnt. 1738. 4. 

3. De Ecllpsi Sinica Liber tingularis : Sinorum de Eclipsi Solis, 

T. S. Bayeri De Origine, S^x. Q59 

quse Christo in crucem acto facta esse, creditur, indicium examinans 
et momento suo ponderans, auctore T. S. Bayero. Accedunt Prte- 
ceptionum de Lingua Sinica duo libri eodem auctore, Regiomont. 
1700. 4. [There must be some mistake in this date.] 

4. T. S. Bayeri Museum Sinicum, in quo Sinicas Linguae et Lite- 
raturas Ratio explicatur. Petropoli, ex Typogr. Academ. Imper. 
1730. 8. 

5. T. S. Bayeri De Horls Stnicis et Cyclo horario Commentationes. 
Accedit ejusdem Auctoris Parergon Sinicum de Calendariis Sinicis : 
ubi etiam quasdam in Doctrina Temporum Sinica emendantur. Pe- 
tropol. Typ. Acad. Scient. 1735. 4. 

6. De re Nnmarla Sinorum, inserted in the Miscellanea Berolinensia 
Tom. V. p. 175. seq. 

7. Commercium Sinicum, ibid. p. 185. 

8. De Ferdinandi Verbiesti S. L Scriptis Sinicis, praesertim de 
ejus Globo Terrestri, ibid. Tom. VL 

9. Elementa Literaturae Brahmanicae, Tangutanaj, Mungalicas, in 
Commentar. Acad. Petropol. Tom. III. p. 389. seq. et T. IV. p. 
289. seq. 

10. T. S. B. Orthographia Mungalica, quam Academise Petropo- 
litanas tradidit a. 1730. Cal. Dec, in Actis Erudit. Lips. a. 1731. 
Mens. Jul. p. 307. seq. 

11. Epistola ad I. B. M. de Tattarorum Literis, in Act. Erud, 
Lips. Supplem. T. IX. sect. i. p. 20. seq. 

12. Specimen Libri Schagire Turki, Latine conversi in Act. Erudit. 
Lips. a. 1732. Mens. Aug. p. 356. seq. 

He has also written De Literatura Mangiuriensi et Mungalica, De 
Lexico Sinico Cii Guey, De Coyifucii Libro Chun-Cien, De Elementis 
Calmucicis, in the Commentar. Acad. Peirop. Vol. VI. Vol. VII. He 
also wrote Paradoxa Russica de Originibus Prussicis, in Lilienthal. 
Actis Borussicis. 

On the subject of the Scythians, besides the Dissertation Dt 
Origine et priscis Sedibus Scytharumf we find in the Opuscula taken 
from the Commentarii Acad. Petropol. the following Dissertations. — 

De Scythias Situ, quails fuit sub aetatem Herodoti, p. 73-94. 

De Muro Caucaseo, p. 94-126. 

De Cimmeriis, p. 126-37. 

Chronologia Scythica vetus, p. 137-82. 

Memoriae Scythicae ad Alexandrum Magnum, p. 182-220. 

Conversiones Rerum Scythicarum Temporibus Mithridatis Magni 
et pauUo post Mithridatem, p. 220-69. 

July 11, 1814-. 

Ut omnes intelligant jam inde a principio, quae mea de Scythicis 
gentibus opinio sit, ita prsdico, me nequaquam ex earum stirpe Sar- 
matlcas, Russicas, et Sclavonlcas gentes, aut Hunnos veteres nostros- 
<iue Hungaros, aut denique Tattaricos populos repetere, sed Lituanos 

260 T. S. Bayeri T>e Orig'me 

et veteres Prussiae incolas,' turn Curones, Livones, Aestios, Fennos, 
et Lappones, et paucos alios. Ista tarn directa confessio obversa- 
bitur animis hsc nostra legentlum, donee in progressu id a nobis 
paullatim constitutum reperient. Cum Ruthenos non patior supposi- 
titiam Scytharum esse prolem, jam fructum eum refero, quod turbari 
stirpes et inseri nobilissimam per se gentem alienis populis non sino. 
Simul et illud operse pretium facio, quod de ea regione, quje a Scy- 
thico nomine antiquitus nobilitata fuit, nunc accessio ingentis Russo- 
rum imperii est, exquirendo veterem memoriam elicio et quasi exprimo, 
quod aut verum sit, aut ad veritatem quam proxime accedat, ne 
dicam, illis me adjumento esse, qui in edisserendis Hungarorum, 
Polonorum, Tattarorum, Turcavum, aliorumque populorum origini- 
bus, ad Scythas veluti tempestate delati, tamquam ad saxum adhsres- 

Nam, qui ante nos de Scytliicis rebus commcntati sunt, uno insigni 
maxime errore implicati constrictique fuerunt, a quo nisi providemus, 
oleum et operam in restituenda veteri gentis illius memoria perdimus, 
multorumque aliorum populorum origines aut proxima originibus 
coinquinamus. Multos et magnos viros citare possem, ni satius sit, 
eorum nomina, ex quibus quotidie in aliis proficimus, in hac aberra- 
tione silentio obtegere, quam quasi pompam hac prasterducere. Ex- 
tendunt autem Scythicum nomen vastissimis terrarum spatiis ab Istri 
propemodum fontibus et Vistula Balticoque mari, juxta Oceanum 
septemtrionalem et Pontum Euxinum Caspiumque mare, usque ad 
extremum orientem. Eo in errore vetnsti quoque scriptores praeluse- 
runt, nostrisque fuere offensioni. Primus eorum, de quibus constat, 
Ephorus in Hist. Lib. 4. orbem terrarum inter Scythas, Indos, 
Aethiopas, et Celtas divisit. Fragmentum ejus loci Cosmas Indico- 
pleustes in Topographia Christiana conservavit, f. 148. Non sum 
nescius, quod a Diodoro Siculo objecta est Isocrateo illi Ephoro veri 
negligentia et quidam quasi stupor (f. 26. ed. Steph. «aa' ovx. »v rt( 9r«g* 
'E^'ifw l^rtTiitnn* ix, TTKVTOi tpottov rccic^t/iii, o^uv uvtov h 7re^Ae7; oXiyu^vtitorct 
r»i uMStixi), sed quam lenissime pronunciai-e velim, postquam historia: 
ejus interciderunt, ut judicari non possit. Video igitur Ephorum, 
cum locorum positus per certa capita distribuere et explicare constitue- 
ret, insigniorum nomina gentium vastioribus adhibuisse, nulla mala 
fraude, at successu infelici. Nam Ephoro quoquo modo dicta, pro 
exploratis habebant Grxci plerique et Romani, ita gliscebat eiTor pos- 
teritate. Igitur tot tamque diversae stirpis gentes non modo intra 
communem quandam regionem definitae, unum omnes Scytharum 
nomen his auctoribus subierunt, sed etiam ab ilia regionis appellatione 
in eandem nationem sunt conflatse. Sic Cimmeriorum res cum Scy- 
thicis, Scytharum cum Sarmaticis, Russicis, Hunnicis, Tattaricis 
commiscentur. Sunt qui delnceps non modo regiones, sed etiam 
tempera confundunt. Nam quaecunque regionum aut gentium ilia- 
rum nomina apud omnis aevi scriptores reperiunt, ea ad describendam 

• Non tuli inique ea, quas eruditi viri in Memoriis Trevult,inis in me 
injecerunt, cum nostram de Prussicis originibus sententiam atlin^^trent ; 
sj)ero enim eos pro sequitate sua plus mihi, cognita causa, concessurcs eisc'. 

et priscis Scytharum Stdlbus. 261 

g^ographiam adhibent, tamquam aleatores tesseras, quibus temere in 
tabulam jactis, qujecumque sors exit, situm illarum definiat, r^k e|, 
^ r^ii? Kv.3«);, quse quidem secum, si verum spectant, commentata et 
meditata habere debebant. Nobis adhibenda diligentia est, ne noster 
labor in easdem reprehensiones jure meritoque incurrat, neve quis nos 
debito testimonio privet, nihil nos ex vano haurire voluisse et inexplo- 
rata non edidisse pro compertis. 

Scythas plerique a Magogo Japeti filio ortos referunt, quorum in 
numero Sam. Bochartus facile princeps est. In ea opinione nemo est 
antiquior Josepho {Antiq. Jud. L. i. c. 7.), qui quidem Scythas 
nomine citat. Hausisse eum videtur ex Ezechiele c. xxxviii. xxxix., 
qui terram Magog ad septemtrionem Caucasi inter Tanaim et Vol- 
gam ponit. At idem ille cum populum Scythicum Gog in terra 
Magog adpellat, satis perspipue ostendit, alium populum Magog ante 
Scytharum irnxptionem ilia ioca incoluisse, quae adhuc priscum nomen 
apud gentes Asiaticas i-etinuerint. Tantum igitur abest, ut Ezechiele 
auctore Scythas a Magogo repeti conveniat, ut is etiam adversarius 
huic opinioni sit. Alii Turcas quoque et Tattaros Magogicas stirpi 
adserunt, quos quasi ab originibus suis Ezechiel Magog nuncuparit. 
Itaque de primis Scytharum parentibus et auctoribus non liquere 
puto. Hoc tamen mihi visus sum ex argumentis minime vanis con- 
jectura consequi, Scytharum majores ex Armenia descendisse ad aus- 
trum atque turn orientem petiisse hibernum, donee ad septemtrionem 
Caspii maris, a tergo urgentibus aliis familiis, concesserunt. Ex eo 
tempore ad septemtrionem maris Caspii et ad Volgam eos degisse 
reperio, juxta Massagetas et Issedonas. Scythas ipsi se mille ante 
Darii expeditionem annis ortos tradidere apud Herodotum L. iv. c. 7. 
cd. Gron. Interseritur huic loco a Scythis fabula : Targitaum Scy- 
tharum patrem Jove et Borysthenis fluminis filia natum, tres habuisse 
filios. Nomina eorum hsec sunt, Leipoxais, Arpoxais, et minimus 
natu Colaxais. Colaxais imperium coelesti prodigio adeptus est, a 
quo inter Scythas nobilissima domus c< lioccriXyiii ol x.u>\ievTcii TIoi^xXxtmi, 
reges qui dicuntur Paralatce ; a Leipoxai Avx^eirxt, ab Arpoxai Kar/afgoj 
««/ T^da-Tfii?. Colaxais rursum in tres divisit filios gentem. Universi se 
'ZKoXorovi Tov /^xTiXvioi (Truvv^ivty, Scolotos, quod regum cognominatiim esty 
adpellarunt. Scythce sunt vocati tantummodo a Grascis, ut diserte 
monet Herodotus. Inde autem manavit vocabulum, quod, cum Grsci, 
qui inter eos in coloniis Ponticis degebant, admirabilem eorum in 
sagittando artem et industriam cemerent, sagittariosque ab iis Scythas 
dici audirent, id nominis toti genti attribuerent. Et manet adhuc 
vocabulum in Scythicse originis Unguis. Hodie Lituanis Szavti,Jacu- 
lari et jaculatorem significat, a quo est ap. Constantinum Szyruidum 
Szaudu, arcuy sagittis jacidor, et Rzaudikie, sagitia, sj^icitlum ; Fennis 
et Livonibus, sagittarisy est Skytta et Kytta seu Kyt, sic Curonibus 
et Aestiis et Lapponibus. Veteribus denique Prutenis, ut Prastorius 
in Orbe Gothico nos docet, fuit Szyt/d. Manavit etiam in aliorum et 
diversaj stirpis populorum linguas. Et apud Grascos Scytharum 
nomen per monumenta evasit celebrius, quam Scolotorum, verum 
quidem, sed obscurum nomen. Mansit tamen Scolotorum nomen 
apud Athenienses in ludibrio. Nam publici ministri et vigiles Athenis 

262 T. S. Bayeri De Origine 

dictl snrit Ttxirtct, ildem et "ZkUxi et T«%lrai. Tolot^ a Scolotis depraira- 
tum. Scythse iidem, qu?d sagittarii essent et in medio foro habitareiit 
sub pellibus. Sic apud Romanos per contemtum a Phrygibus, Dacis, 
Syris, Getis, servi nominahabuere. 

Quantum in hac Scytharum narratlone apud Herodotum verum 
esse videatur, qurerendum nobis duco. Ego vero ejusmodi veteres 
gentium memorias contemnere non soleo. Forte quod a Jove et 
Borysthenitide Herodotus interpretatus est Targitaum prognatum 
fuisse, id eo factum, quod pater ei Pappseus aliquis (Pappaeum autem 
summum deum dixere Scythse, Jovem suum Herodotus putavit) et 
mater e Cimmeriis ad Borysthenem regia domo oriunda esset. Sub 
Targitao Scythse in unum corpus et rem publicam coaluere, divisi 
postea in tres ejus filios totidemque tribus. Plerique populi a consti- 
tuta primum re publica aut insigni aliqua conversione originem repe- 
tierunt. Chald:ci Callistheni de vetustate eorum sciscitanti, mille 
noningentorum trium annorum summam edidere, teste Porphyrio 
apud Simplicium de coelo. Ex quo colligitur, Chaldaeos centum 
et quirdecim annis diluvio posteriorem gentis suae originem posuisse, 
ab eo tempore cum rei publica3 formam subierunt. 

Ergo cum Scythae mille annis ante Darii expeditionem se ortos tra- 
dunt, iniiium rei publicas suce nobis aperiunt. Si expeditionem Darii 
ante annum periodi Julianae 4200 collocamus, historia Scythica caput 
tollit circiter annum 3200, sive annis 1514 ante epocham Dionysianam, 
extremo tempore servitutis Israelitarum in Aegypto. 

De prisca autem Scytharum regione Herodotus ita acceperat : 
Scythas Nomadas fuisse, et in tuguriis passim circum opportuna pas« 
cuis loca trans Araxem coluisse, inde pulsos a Massagetis bellum intu- 
lisse Cimmeriis super australi mari seu Ponto Euxino habitantlbus. 
His vehui parum consonantia ex Arimaspeis Aristeae Proconnesii 
addit : Arimaspos pepulisse Issedonas, Issedonas a tergo ursisse 
Scythas, Scythas, non nisi cedendo ab infesta Issedonum vicinitate se 
defendere potuisse, idcirco invasisse Cimmeriorum regiones. Hie 
vero Herodotus L. IV. C. 13. ev^l ovrog <rv^(pi^ircti TTi^t Ttij x>'^^yi? rctvryu 
Skv^vjiti, ita nee Aristece cum Scythis convenit in regione quaiu primitus 
incoluerint, constituendn. In quo autem, Herodote, Aristeas Scythaeque 
dissentiunt ? Scythse, se primitus ultra Araxem coluisse tradimt ; at 
Aristeas juxta Issedonas, i. e. adorientem Caspii mai-is. Ita videlicet est. 
Araxem quern Scythae dicerent Herodotus ignoravit, putavitque ilium 
esse in Media, \k Mxvrn,vuiv, (L. i. c. 102. seu potius MecnvivMv, iit Gro- 
novius recteedidit,) quae ad meridiem vicina Armenis provincia est, L. 
V. c. 48. Is autem Araxes longissime utique ab Issedonibus et oriente 
distat. Sed non vidit Herodotus, Scythas ab hoc flumine non potuisse 
se in Cimmeriorum regiones infundere. Quae enim ilia fuit discursa- 
tio, si Scythae per Medicas provincias patefacto itinere, trajectoque 
Araxe, in Cimmeriorum terras irrupissent, atque inde persequentes 
hostium agrnen, fallentibus fugientium vestigiis, per errorem viae in Me- 
diam, eadem qua iverant, reversi, ex inopinato incidissent. Hoc ne 
objiceretur, timuisse videtur Herodotus L. iv. c. 99. Igitur regionem 
ab Istro ad Cercinltin vocat veterem Scythinm, tamquam ex ea regione 
Scytharum niajores per Bosporum Thracium in Asiam minorem supe- 

tf priscis Scytharwn Sedibus, Q(3 

rlorcmque et Araxe trajecto per claustra Caucasea in Cimmeriorum 
terras concesserint. Sive ita scenam, seu quemcunque in modum instrux- 
erit Herodotus, undlque haeret et tenetur. 

Dicam, sicuti sentio, neque tarn Herodotum, quam eos, quorum 
testimonio est usus, producam quasi in forum ad tribunal, exquisitius- 
que tamquam in judicio testes admotis qusestionibus percunctabor. 
Dicebant Hecodoto, Scythas trans Araxem juxta Issedonas et Massa- 
getas coluisse : pulsis Scythis Massagetas ukeriora Araxis (L. i. c. 
201.) sub oriente Caspii maris tenuisse e regione Issedonum, qua in 
latissimam planitiem terra se difFundit, Eum Araxem L. i. c. 202. 
dicebant cum Istro de magnitudine certare et in ostiis multas amplecti 
insulas, Lesbo asquales magnitudine. Nihil horum ad Araxem Medi^ 
convenit: non Massagetarum situs, non magnitude fluminis, non tot 
et tantae in ostiis insulae. Omnia autem ad Volgam. Ad orientem 
Massagetae veteres : longitude fluminis Istrum tertia parte superat : 
ostia ad octoginta et amplius, (Nicol. Vitsenii A^oo?-^e« oost Tartarge, f. 
700,) quae insulas ingentes circumdant. Quod ait Herodotus, 'Ag«'|>i5 
hiyncn Kxi f^u'^uv xxl ixua-a-uv uvxt T6v"\<rT^ov, Araxes et 7)2aJor et mmor 
esse Istro dicitur, id quoque confirmat, de duobus fluviis eum inaudi- 
visse, quorum alter, hie Volga major Istro, alter, qui nunc quoque 
Mus, minor fuit. Et fuisse utique Volgaz vetustis temporibus nomen 
A^-axes, sive RuSy Bos, et Rhas, satis exploratum habeo. Onomacritus 
ct incertus auctor Peripli Ponti Euxini Tanaim dicunt ex Araxe flumine 
in Mceotin, exonerari. Aristoteles quoque in Meleorolugicis L.i. c. 13. 
auctores habet, U Ux^vaa-ov (ex Paropamiso dicere se putat) maximo 
omnium ad orientem hibemum monte, Bactrium, Choaspen et Araxem 
fluere, rovrcv oi Txvxii xTrcajc'^iTxi, fii^oi; uvy £<? tky Mxiurty A/)t4v»)f, ab 
hoc Araxe Tanais divisus [pars enim ejus est) in Mceotin paludem 
exoneretur. Ortus est error e Tanais et Araxis vicinitate. Accedit 
Agathemerus p. 235, ed. Gron. qui laxartcm, Oxian, Rht/ymium, RhoSy 
(qui est Medise Araxes J Ci/rum, (qui est Ku7; cum hoc Araxe se mis- 
cens) et denique Araxetn Caspio mari infundi scribit. Qviis non videt 
eum ab oriente littora Caspia obire, donee ad septemtrioiiem desinit in 
Volga ? Claudius tamen Ptolemaeus Volgam vocat 'Tx Rha, quod 
nomen adhuc frequenter in ore habent Rutheni, ut ne ab setate quidem 
et temporum populorumque miris conversionibus obliterari potuerit. 
Inter cetera sic loquitur Claudius, le-ri xxi Wig^x %ov 'Vx -norxf^ov IkQoXa 
vXnrid^ova-x rri Toy Txyxt^e?. Vossius ad Melam in eo emendat vocem 
IxSaA*) et rescribit i7rttrT^o(pii. Sed relinquendusest suus Ptolemfeo eiTor, 
qui Volgam et Tanaim misceri atque orientalem quidem Volgse 
alveum in Caspium mare, occidentalem autem in Tanaim exonerari 
credidit. Duo quidem fluminis illius ostia Pomponius Mela L. in. c. 
9. habet, sed in Caspio tantum mari : Mulii, inquit, in Caspio sinu magni 
parvique amnesjluunt : sed, quifamam hcUjet, ex Cerauniis montibus uno 
alveo descendii, duobus exit in Caspium, Rha. Ammianus MarcellinusL. 
XXII. c. 16. Hide Tanai Rha vicinus est, amnis, in cuju^s superciliis 
qucedam vegetabilis ejusdem nominis gignitur radix, prqficiens ad usus 
multiplices medelarum. De Rha barbaro eum loqui intelligo. Videtur 
autem illud nomen Rhos et Rha eique alia similia ex antiqua mortalium 
communique lingua ad Scythas aliosque populos permanasse, quo 
fluvium dixere. Apud Arabes est Roha, apud Turcas et Persas est 

S64) T, S. Bayeri De Origine 

Rndy apud Ruthenos POKA, Recn, Qux fluminis adpellatlones, et 
apud Graecos ^ih et fortassis Rheuus, Rhodanus, Rhaduna, apud Geda- 
num, turn Eridanus seu Rhudon Ptolemaei et Marciani Heracleotae 
(nunc Duna apud Rigam,) et Russia in Prussia, non nisi reliquiae 
priscje linguce sunt. Est eodem referendus "Eg<? fluvius apud Lyco- 
phronem v. 1333, cum Cassandra canit Amazonas^Egtv, Lagmum, 
Telamum, et Thermodontem reliquisse et invasisse Athenienses. Ubi 
Joannes Tzetzes,''E^(5, Aciyy.o^, T-JiXxf/.o^, Qt^f^u'^m, ■xotx^.d} i:,y.v6lei<;. Ex 
vicinitate Thermodontis Eris ille cognoscitur situs fuisse in Ponto. 
Xenophonti est'l^;? Anah. v. c. 6'. et ex eo fortassis etiam Plinio. In 
Mesopotamia duo flumina fuere, quas Arabes appellavere Roha, hoc 
est nihil aliud quam Jluvios. Alter apud Edessam, quern Scirtum 
JMacedones coloni dixere, alter eo inferior, qui a Ptolemseo et nunc ab 
Arabibus Chnhoras dicitur. Ex iilo fecere Grseci K<«AA<go'>)v, ut in his- 
torid Edessena ostendi, ex hoc ipse Xenophon ibid. L. i. c. 4. fecit 
Jraxp-m, alium utique ab Araxe Media:, quern Xenophon non attigit. 
Mansit etiam postea corruptum Araxis nomen. Nam geographus 
Arabs, quern Jos. Scaliger De Emendat. Temp. f. 399. inspexit, Carce- 
siani urbem ait allui a flumine, A I Harias cognomento Al Chabor. 
Harias est ab Araxe Graxorum in Mesopotamia, Araxes ab Rhoa. 
Gnrcarum autem aurium tarn admirabile fuit fastidium, ut barbaros 
vocabulorum sonos non ferrent. Itaque seu nova nomina gentium, 
locorum hominumque e lingua sua effingebant, seu barbara ita ori 
aurique Grsecae aptabant, ut vix tenueremaneret vestigium, unde essent 
ducta. De ea consuetudine Plato in Cratylo disputat. Is quoque in 
Thnao vocabula Atlantici sermonis retinere non audet, nisi Grseceenun- 
clata. vSed vaga fuit enunciandi talia lubido, nullis definita praeceptis, 
ut in primis e Persicis et Medicis et Armenicis nominibus intelligi 

Est igitur Volga ille Araxes, cujus ad orientem prisci Scythas vicini 
Massagciis et Isredonibus degerunt. Massagetas enim non modo 
Herodotus, sed etiam omnis veterum turba ad Borapelioten Caspii 
maris collocat. Laonicus Chalcocondylas, cf. 62 et 67 ed. Paris, ad sep- 
temtrionem Caspii maris ponit, et praeterea adjicit, eos ante id tempus 
ad alteram Araxis ripam egisse, nunc autem trajecto flumine citeriorem 
partem tenere. Quis non videt Araxem ilium esse Volgam ? ni cui 
visum sit quovque, meridie non lucere. Hie fluvius cum latissime 
pateret et a multis gentibus accoleretur, mirum non est, si quosdam 
suo insignivit nomine. Ut nunc Bulgari a Volga profecti, nomen a 
fluvio tractum conservant, ita Russos opinor ab eodem dictos et Roxa- 
lanos, quasi Alanos ad Russum fluvium. Ptolemxi Bogav<r)coi, quasi ad 
Ritssum populi. 

Hunc quoque ilium esse Araxem judico, ad quem contra Massage- 
tas male res gessit Cyrus. Herodotus, cum audivisset, Cyrum trans- 
misso Araxe petiisse Massagetas et petiisse a Babylone, ilium ipsum 
in Media Araxem dici putavit in Oio7i. Qui eum non satis intellexere, 
Araxem alium sibi qujesivere sub oriente, ut trajecto eo, petere Massa- 
r^etas pnsset Cyrus. Isaacus Vossius Oxum sibi elegit, quem Chr. Cel- 
iaiius secutus est. Nihil tamen habent, quod pro ea sententia 
pugnet, et longius ab Oxo siti fuere Massagetae, quocirca veteres qui- 

et priscis Scytharum Sedibus, 91,65 

dam, teste Plinio, ultra laxartem posuere aras Cyrl, veluti ille esset 
Araxes. laxartem autem Scythae, ut ait Plinius L. vi. c. 1(5., seu 
quicumque alii fluminis accolas, Silyii vocarunt, aut fortassis Sihyn, 
quod nomen adhuc permanet. Neque tamen etiam pro laxarte aliqua 
idonea verisimilitudo pugnat. Profectus autem est Cyrus in banc 
expeditionem, ut nobis videtur, non contra solos Massagetas, sed in 
primis contra Scythas. Hsesit enim semper Regum Persarum animis 
quam impotenter Scythse devictis Medis in Asia superiori egissent. 
Atque illud tot bellorum initium est ab Herodoto indicatum, qui 
summa cura hoc egit, ut ostenderet, per quas causas bella ex bellis 
seminata fuissent. Babylonem Cyrus cepit secundum Usserii rationes 
anno periodi Julianas 4-176". Anno uno post et paullo amplius, si 
Xenophonti credimus, gentes a Syria usque ad mare Erythrsum sibi 
subjecit. Inde adhuc sunt anni minimum septem usque ad extrema 
Cyri. Hoc omni tempore turn in Asia minori, turn ad Caucasum 
et in Scythia res potuit gerere, donee apertis per arma regionibus, 
trajecto navibus et per pontem a se factum Volga, Massagetas est 

Quo autem tempore Scytha; Araxem trajecerint et Tanaim, ostendam 
postea. Nam id potius et prius quoerendum est, quibus regionum 
spatiis Herodoti astate coluerint. 

The classical geographer would do well to remember that, when 
the classical writers speak of the Araxes, they may mean very different 
rivers, as it was a name applied to various rivers. Thus Claudius, in 
the notes upon the work of Vibius Sequester Ed. I. lac. Oberlini Ar- 
gentorati. 1778. 8vo. p. 56, says: " Isidorus Orig. L. xiii. c. 21. Araxis 
amnis Armenice, qui ab uno vionte cum Euphrate diversa specie oritur. 
Dictus, quod rapacitate cuncta conaternat, Unde et cum Alexander eum 
transgredi vellet pontejabricato, tanta vi inundavit, ut pontem dirueret. 
Convenit haec Araxis descriptio cum eis, quje Strabo scribit L. xi. 
quod eo magis observandum est, quod maxime varient in ejus cursu 
enarrando geographi. Thermodontem enim, Phasim atque Tanaim 
ex eo fluere canit Orpheus Argonaut, v. 717. CoUocat in Scythia 
Scholiastes Apollonii Rhod. L. iv. v. 133. Thermodontemque Ipsnm 
Araxrm nominari scribit ; sic enim loquitur, c ll 'A^u^m TrcrufMi; 'ZKviUi. 
}A.YjT^odcjj^oi fiit iv TT^ciiTM Tuv TTi^t T (y^fivt})! Toy €>ipfiaaovrx 'Apd^yiv tpijtri 
Xiyia-dcct, Peneum vero Araxem appellari, observat Spanhemius ad 
Callim. H. in Del. v. 105. Quaproptcr variis amnibus idem nomen 
Araxis inditum, solidissimis rationibus adstruit Is. Vossius ad P. Me- 
1am L. III. c. 5. quern omnino respiciendum moneo." And Oberlin 
himself adds, " Nomen Araxis rapidi torrentis naturam vel sono ei- 
primit, Persis tritum et amnibus muhis commune fuit. Herodoto L. 
I.e. 201. aut Oxus est, aut R/ia, hodie IVolga, a.ut Rhymnus, hodie 
Faick, (confer S. Croix in eximio opere, quo eorum, qui vitam Alexan- 
dri M. scripsere, censum egit p. 297.) ; Xenophonti Chnboras, vel 
Saocoras Mesopotamiae ; Straboni L. xv. p. 729. et Curtio L. v. c. 
4*. et 5. alius prope Persepolin ; Thermodon quoque Ponti et Peneus 
Thessalicue, Araxes appsllati olim. Is, cui magis id nomen adhaesit pr^e 
ceteris, quemque cum Vibio Mediam ab Armenia sejungere scribunt 
Plutarchus in M. Antonio et Plinius L. vi. c. 13. graphice describitur ' 

t66 On the Attic Months, ^c. S^c. 

a Pomp. Mela L. iii. c. 5. Armeniam hodiequeab Aderbigiana sepa- 
rat, Aras salutatur, Geographo Nubiensi quoque dictus Ross, et in 
Caspium mare delabitur. Diversimode tamen nominari ab aliis tes- 
latur Ortelius, qui et antiqua ejus nomina adfert." 


I have never set pen to paper in order to promote disputes, but 
only to point out occasionally in some writers errors, vv^hich ob- 
structed the prevalence of truth ; and this indifferently, without the 
least respect to any particular writers, but by whomsoever I per- 
ceived errors to be adopted. My only view has been, if possible, 
to remove some of the discordant opinions of learned men, who by 
means of unsolid reasonings in some cases and ingenious imagi- 
nations in others, have hid real truths from the public eye, and have 
misled by that very learning, which ought to have opened our eyes 
to knowledge. Thus the world are involved in more perplexity than 
could have been produced by the most absolute ignorance ; but, 
if this object gives offence, I relinquish the attempt. 

Yet what can reasonable men think, when they see Jive Athe- 
nian inscriptions now discovered to be set aside by the confused and 
unsolid arguments deduced by Dodwell from insufficient premises 
in Aristotle and others, the fallacies of which all men may easily 
trace ; and which the unbiassed judgment of Barthelemy has 
seen and has allowed ? Why are others averse to the same candid 
conduct, and thus to drive old errors from the world, and along with 
them eternal disputes and useless wranglings, although sup- 
ported by great names but frequent mistakes \ The hope of 
this, however, is vain. The case is the same concerning 
Plutarch -, nothing can be plainer than that he is every where con- 
sistent with himself concerning the order of Athenian months and 
the priority of Pyanepsion to Maimacterion ; yet nobody will see 
it, because Dodwell, after Petau, opposed Scaliger in this, and pro- 
posed objections removeable by the most superficial sight, just as 
in those five inscriptions ; with which Plutarch agrees, and is sup- 
ported by Diodorus, Josephus, and Appian, without contradiction 
from any other ancient author to my knowledge. Dodwell has 
misled Potter, and thus errors have been perpetuated among Greek 
students, in the face of evident demonstration to the contrary. A 
late defence of this error is absolutely incomprehensible : and how- 
can that be opposed, which cannot even be understood ? Truth 
has so many enemies, that its defence is a desperate cause, and the 
world must go on in its old errors. 

On the Attic Months, S^c. 8^c. 9.67 

The case is the same concerning other subjects ; a merely ac- 
cidental similitude of two names has caused every kind of inde- 
cency to be imputed to the only decent deity among the Egyptian 
gods, whom no historic testimony has stigmatized as an indecorous 
image. When the Egyptian gods were carried in procession, their 
attendants doubtless displayed all kinds of indecent representa- 
tions, as well when they attended Honis as any other deity, but 
their msane conduct does not render him similar to his attendants, 
and thus make a modest beardless boy become the cJiief represen- 
tative name of indecency to other distant nations instead of Pan, 
Bacchus, Anubis, and Osiris ; whom alone the sculptures of Caylus 
exhibit in any indecorous attitudes, or Plutarch or thelsiac table. Of 
all kinds of evidence, an unlucky similitude of names is the least 
convincing proof, unless it be that of a mere symbolic staff, the 
meaning of which is only known to the symbol-maker himself. 
Yet here again the coherent historic testimony of antiquity must 
give place to mere suppositions, to doubtful symbols, and warm 

Manetho has told a tale about some shepherd kings in Egypt, 
who went into Syria and built and named Jerusalem, notwithstand- 
ing that scripture shows it to have been named by Jews, who had 
been slaves in Egypt, not kings ; and yet credit is claimed for the 
existence of those kings, and for the belief of a mere fable. In 
fine, if the weaker evidence is thus preferred to the stronger, 
truth has but little chance of being defended, and I must leave it 
to be overwhelmed by a torrent of errors. 

When I attempted to defend truth, my words have been altered 
in the Supplement to No. 18, and others inserted not to be found 
used by 7«e, while those really used have been sometimes omitted 
in order to support a favorite argument. It must be a weak cause, 
which stands in need of misrcpi'esentation, and such practices 
prove that truth is not the object of argumentation. For this 
reason I must perhaps be content to enjoy truth in my own mnid, 
and leave the world in possession of its old and new errors, with- 
out attempting to disturb them any more. Reasoning is pleasant 
with those who will acknowledge the force of reason, but dexterity 
in misrepresentation is a method of throwing away both time and 
argument ; necessary to those only who are greedy of ne'w visio- 
nary fancies without evidence, while at the same time they are te- 
nacious of old errors against evidence ! S. 


*^* We have omitted the last sentence of our learned corre- 
spondenty who 'willy on rejlectiony be convi?iced that truthy on what- 
ever side it lies, will Jinally prevail y and that the only certain mode 
of promoting its triumphy is temperateypatienty and laborious inves- 
tigation. Ed. 



To Mr. Bellamys Essay on the Hebrew Pointi^ and on 

the Integrity of the Hebrew Text. 


JL O expose errors, and to discover truth, as they are unques- 
tionably the noblest objects to which the energies of the 
human mind can be directed, should be the end and aim of 
all our inquiries into the history of past ages, and the writ- 
ings of antiquity, whether sacred or profane. In the course of 
these researches we shall frequently meet with mistakes and mis- 
apprehensions in the works and the opinions of such as have 
preceded us in the same path : and it will no doubt be conceded, 
that, whenever we meet with them, we should do our best to refute 
and contradict them. Entertaining, therefore, such sentiments, I 
make no apology for calling the attention of your readers to cer- 
tain passages in Mr. Bellamy's « Essay on the Hebrew points," 
which has lately appeared in your Journal, ' and for offering a few 
remarks on the subject. 

At page 377 of your 8th vol. Mr. B. has the following words : 
— " In the ninth century, Jerome began to mend the first Latin 
translation by the Hebrew, which was made from the Septuagint." 
If, however, we recollect with whom Jerome associated, it will 
appear evident that he must have lived in the latter end of the f^ourth 
century. About the year 381, Jerome went to Constantinople to 
attend the sermons of Gregory Nazianzen, who was appointed to 
the see of Constantinople by Meletius : we read, that he s/Ss/Sa/coo-s roi 
fisiOTaro; FgY]yog>('cw t^v t>;j A'wvcTTavTivou 7ro\EMg 7rpO!Sp;('«v.* Jerome too 
was patronized by Damasus and corresponded with Augustine ; so 
that altogether we have abundant evidence respecting the time in 
which Jerome lived. 

In the next paragraph, however, he makes a more extraordi- 
nary assertion. »< Pagninus of France, was sensible that 

Jerome had committed many errors, and he attempted to rectify 

them : this was in the xvith century. at this period. 

Christians knew very little of Hebrew, as no bibles had yet been 

■ Vid. Class. Journ. Vol. viii. page 374, &c. (No. xvi.) and Vol. ix. p. 895. 
&c. (No. xviii.) 

* Theodoret. Hist. Eccles. 1, v. c. viii. p. 201. ed. Readiug. 

Essay on the Hebrew Points, S^c. 269 

printed in that language" If Mr. B. had read the works of Dr. 
Keniiicott and De Rossi, whom he pretends to hold m such con- 
tempt, he probably would not have written tliis passage. He 
would have learned from them that the first edition of the whole 
Hebrew bible was printed in the year l-iSS, in two vols. foHo : and 
that another was published in 4to. Brisci(je 1494'. Detached 
books were published as early as the year 1482 ; and the editiong 
either of separate parts or the whole bible printed before the year 
1500, amount to twenty-eight. They are enumerated by Dr. A. 
Clarke in the " Bibliographical Dictionary," and, I believe, by De 
Rossi in his Aimales Hebrao-Typographici . The Complutensian 
Polyglott was edited in 1514, and contains the Hebrew bible: 
and the editions printed in the sixteenth century are very nu- 
merous. — A copy of the edition of 1488 exists in the library of 
Exeter College, Oxford ; and another in the valuable collection of 
Lord Spencer. 

In my present letter I shall offer some remarks on the absolute 
integrity of the Hebrew text ; and on the reasoning by which 
Mr. B, has attempted to support it : and in the course of the in- 
quiry I shall notice some other misapprehensions incidental to the 
subject, into which he appears to me to have fallen. 

Before I proceed farther in treating of the subject, I would wish 
to make a few remarks. In pursuing the argument, I shall have 
occasion to push Mr. B's. reasoning to its greatest length, in order 
to show to what opinions it, in the end, must carry us, if it be 
followed to its full extent : and I shall show that if it be found- 
ed in truth, it must, at length, weaken the authority of the New, in 
the same degree that it confirms the authenticity of the Old, Tes- 
tament. In so doing, however, I feel myself treading upon slip- 
pery ground : and I must request the reader to observe that of the 
authenticity and authority of the New Testament I do not in 
reality entertain or harbour the smallest degree of doubt. It is 
founded on grounds of sound reason •, it is confirmed by all testi- 
monies, Jewish and Profane ; and derives fresh support and glory 
from each attack of its enemies. The grammatical or other corrup- 
tions of its text do not in any degree affect its historical truth or 
its doctrinal integrity : one MS. retains what another may omit ; 
and what one copy wants, another will supply : sound and judi- 
cious criticism, therefore, can never materially affect it : and even 
in what is apparently its greatest and most important corruption, 
(the spuriousness or authenticity of 1 John v. 7.) it signifies little 
whether the verse be genuuie or not : the doctrine of the Trinity 
could not be subverted in the one case, and could hardly 
be corroborated in the other. 

It appears to me, therefore, that the arguments against the inte- 
grity of tlie Hebrew text are reducible to two classes : those which 

5270 Ansxver to Mr, Bellamys 

may be drawn from the discrepancies of MSS. &c. are to be 
ranked as positive arguments : while those which are deducible 
from the corruption of the New Test, are to be classed as ne- 
gative arguments. 

In considering the subject a priori y I do not see that we have any 
reason to suppose that the Jewish transcribers were more infallible 
than those of any other nation : it is probable that they used their 
utmost endeavours to transcribe correctly •, and I believe that the 
same praise may be given to Printers in modern times ; yet how 
seldom do we find a printed book in which typographical errors 
do not occur. I shicerely believe that there are not a dozen books 
in the world, which are entirely free from them. It should be re- 
membered also that in printed books corrections may be easily 
made before the sheets are printed off : in MSS. on the contrary, 
corrections cannot be made without destroying in a great measure 
the beauty of the book ; and we have good reason to believe 
that the Jewish scribes were sufficiently careful to preserve the ap- 
pearance of their copy. An erasure would, of course, not only 
completely disfigure the book, but it might also induce a suspicion 
that it was inaccurate in other instances, which would naturally 
diminish its commercial value. — But the supposition that the 
scribes occasionally erred, may be supported by other arguments. 
Kennlcott's Cod. 135, it is said, contains 3300 erasures. Why 
were these erasures made ? Do they not in some measure counte- 
nance the supposition that errors had been discovered in the origi- 
nal text which were afterwards corrected ? and is there any great 
improbability in the supposition that the same errors may also ex- 
tend to other copies ? — Every one, who is at all conversant with 
Hebrew MSS. knows that they abound with erasures j and he also 
must have noticed the attestations contained in the epigraphs, that 
they have been diligently corrected according to the Masora. Little 
more need be said : the reader will immediately perceive that it is 
very likely that errors may extend to other MSS. and it may be 
rather difficult to assign a reason why any one copy should be free 
from the corruptions to which others appear to be liable. 

Mr. B. has indeed given us an account of the manner in which 
the copies of the Scriptures were prepared hejore the time of 
Ezra. This, however, has little to do with the dispute : it is of little 
importance to us what was the state of the text in the time of 
Ezra, because that can have no effect on the text as it has been 
printed for three hundred years past. If, however, he still thinks 
that his argument has any force, he may strengthen it by observing 
that the text of the Pentateuch was undoubtedly pure as written by 
the hand of Moses. — He may also confer an everlasting benefit on 
classical literature by defending all the bad and corrupt readings to 
be found in the old editions of iEschylus, on the plea that the text 
was certainly metrically and grammatically correct when it was 

JEssai/ on the Hebrexv Points, ^c. 271 

first composed by the author. — But to proceed : even the integrity of 
the text before the time of Ezra receives a very slight degree of 
support from Mr. B.'s argument : for although the copies, which 
were dispersed, were first examined and compared with the book 
of Jasher or Temple copy, still they could hardly receive a greater 
degree cf correction than any printed book ; and as I have before 
remarked, there are very few printed books which are entirely free 
from errors, whatever degree of care may have been bestowed upon 
them. In fact, the whole argument rests upon this judicious as- 
sumption •, that no corrector of MSS. or printed books ever did, or 
ever could, fail to observe inaccuracies in his work. 

Mr. B. then makes use of another argument to prove his point. 
Because " Zerubbabel and Joshua returned to Jerusalem, and set 
all things in order according to the law of Moses, and the ordi- 
nance of David, king of Israel," he argues that " they must have 
had the law of Moses as it was originally given to him, as well as 
the other books giving an account how all things were observed in 
the time of David." — This is certainly correct as far as it goes : 
but still I cannot perceive how it can at all prove the " absolute in- 
tegrity of the Heb. Text." If they still possessed the book of 
Jasher, they had a correct copy of the law of Moses, and they 
might have used this book ; and, therefore, for this specific pur- 
pose, they would not need any other copy of the law. If they 
did not use the book of Jasher, they still might use a copy which 
was particularly accurate : but will the accuracy of one copy 
prove the correctness of all others ? Is the copy necessarily as 
accurate as the original .? — To take an illustration of the first ques- 
tion from Mr. B.'s own paper, or as the Romans would express 
it, ex fumo dare lucem ; are we to conclude, that, because he 
may be correct in one part of his argument, he must be correct in 
all ? He is accurate in asserting the existence of a standard copy 
of the law ; but are we therefore to believe him right when he 
tells us that Jerome did not live until the ninth century, and that 
the first edition of the Heb. Bible was not printed in the year 
1488 ? 

But after all, Mr. B.'s argument will only prove what nobody 
has denied, — the doctrinal integrity of the Heb. Text. — The copy 
used by Ezra to direct him in the work might contain an accurate 
copy of the law and be deficient or corrupted in other parts ; or it 
might contain a history of facts which might be entirely correct 
in point of truth, and yet be extremely inaccurate with respect 
to literal correctness and grammatical propriety j and deficiency 
in either of these points would constitute a text to all intents and 
purposes corrupt. 

Mr. B. gives also another strange reason for believing that the 
text was in a state of absolute integrity in the time of Christ, — It 

272 Answer to Air. Bellamys 

seems, that although " he told them that thei/ travsgresscd the 
eommandment of God hy their traditions^ he never told them that 
they had perverted the original, or taken away one iotUy or one 
tittley (i. e. vowel points, and accents,) from any part of the 
word of God •, which he undoubtedly would have done, had this 
been the case, for we shall find that the quotations made by him 
and the Apostles from the Old Testament are quoted 'word for 
Wordi as they now stand in all the Hebrew copies, with the 
vowel points. This is sufficient authority for us to rest assured, 
that to the time of Christ, and the Apostles, the Hebrew lan- 
guage was as pure as when it was delivered by God to man." ' — 
To this I reply, that it would have been surprising if any charge 
of this kind had been made-, for the object of Christ's mission 
was to preach repentance and rem.ission of sins, and to accomplish 
the great work of human redemption, not to dispute upon points 
of criticism. But conceding that such a disputation would have 
been relevant to his mission, it is surely impossible to show that 
such a conversation never passed. Certainly it is not recorded in 
our Gospels j but, doubtless, Christ held many discourses which 
are likewise omitted : it is impossible to suppose that any sayings 
of our Saviour could be either uninstructive or unimportant, yet 
certainly many of these are entirely omitted in the canonical ac- 
counts of his life which we possess ; and I assert this on the au- 
thority of an Evangelist. St. John, who wrote a supplementary 
Gospel, which contains many things which are unnoticed in the 
others, finishes it by confessing that there were many other 
things which yet remained untold : « "Ean d). xaci "A AAA 
no AAA ocra eTrOiricriv 6 ^Ir^fTovg, ariva lav ygxipYircii xa3' ev, oudl ocvtov 
clival Tov xoa'[Jiov ^copri(Tai roc yga<^0[xsva /3»/3Aja." ^ — It does not seem, 
therefore, very improbable, that such a conversation may have 
passed, although it may not have been recorded : and when we 
consider that it was not very consonant with the object of his 
mission, it is equally probable that such a conversation never 
passed at all, though corruptions might exist in the text : Mr. B.'s 
argument, therefore, when we examine it, appears to have very 
little to do with the subject. 

Neither is it strictly true that all the apostolic quotations agree 
with the Heb. Text. We have at least one instance in which 
they very remarkably differ. — In the speech by St. Peter,^when the 
Apostles received the gift of tongues by the visible descent and 

influence of the Holy Spirit, we find these words : Ju(3)i 

Xeysj elj avTOv- oux lyxaT«Xe('\{/e»j tyjv vI'uX'jv ju-ou elj ahu^ ou5r 

« Vid. Class. Journ. vol. viii. pp. 376,377. (No.xvi.) 
* John xxi. 25. 
3 Actsii. 25—27. 

Essay on the Hehrezv Points, S^c. 2/3 

lixTsic Tov o(Tm (To'j Idslv liafboqiiv. The last words are intended for 
a citation of Ps. xvi. 10., the Hebrew of which is as follows: 

■ rr\'^ rsS^rb ■fj^i'pn ijf»jn-*s'? b^mh ^k'BJ i\vr} ^b and this 

differs both from the LXX and the quotation in the Acts ; for 
^""TDH would have expressed tou; oa-lcvg crou — sanctos tuos : if St. 
Peter/ or rather St. Luke who wrote the Acts, did not quote 
from the LXX. it is manifest that he must have read in his copy 
of the Heb. Text ^7''^D sanctum tuum. — But v/hichever way 
this argument tunis, it must still confute some of Mr, B.'s asser- 
tions : if he should say that the words -h oo-iov aov are a mistake in 
the Septuagint, and that from the Septuagint they have been copied 
into the Acts of the Apostles, he must give up his opinion that 
the Apostles always quoted from the Hebrew Text : and if to 
defend that notion, he should say tliat the Apostles quoted imme- 
diately from the Keb. Text, he must acknowledge that the He- 
brew, as written in the time of the Apostles, differed in some 
considerable degree from the Heb. Text as printed at this day. 

I do not animadvert on what Mr. B. has said ' respecting the 
Text after the time of the Apostles, because I should merely have 
to repeat what I have said on the Text as published by Ezra. 

He also gives a very forced exposition of Matt. v. 18. XEyat 

v[MV, sxc oiv TiiC'^sK^r, o ovpuyo: xa) rj yrj, \'jy:a sv, rj (jao. xsgaici ori fxri 
TrapshSri aitl TO'J vo[xo'j, sv:c av nrkvT'X ykvrftai. He would expound 
this verse in the following manner : it seems, that our Saviour 
meant to say, « that he will preserve his word inviolably "pure te 
the end of time." ^ Let us, however, transcribe the context, 
and we shall soon see how it will agree with Mr. B.'s explanation, 
*' M-f\ vo[ji.i(rYjTc or* v;ASov Ka.Tu?vua-ai rov vofj^ov, r; touj Tr^oipr^raf ovx. 
r}\l)ov xuruKufxaij a.XXu TtXr^i^ojsai. 'Aixr^v yoip Xsyco vtuv, ecu§ dv 
'TrapsX&ri 6 ougavog xai r) y>;, loiTo. sv, Tj [jliu Ksgaia ov [xfj TragsX^rj utto 
TOU vctxo'j, £C0f «v 7ravT« ysvrjTCii. ' Oj eav otiv Xva-rj [xiccv raiv Iv r o ka> v 
TO'JTMV TOQV lAap/ZcTTcuy, xa) IiOol^T) ovtco Tovg av^gooTrous, lAap(^»0'T9^ 
aXrfiYiasTai Iv tyj /Sacr/As/a twv ovgavoiv oc S' av tto < jj cr >] xx) h t 8 a ^ r, 
ovTOc i-f-sya; xXy\^ri<mai Iv ri; /3itcnAt/a tcuv cvpuyiLy. . A'iyw y oi p viMV, 
OTi Siiv /Jt-jj TtsgirrdsudYj yj Zixaiocruvri vpi.cav ttAsjcv tojv rgafj^ixxreuiv xu.) 
^aQKTuiav, 06 i^Yj ejVlASrjTS e]g tyjv /SacriAt/ay Tiii' cvpawjv." Our 
Saviour then goes on to state several ccmniandments in the Mosaic 
Law, and to show that they were not only not abolished by the 
Christian dispensation, but that they still remained in force, and 
were to be observed even more strictly than before. Explain the 
18th verse in the manner that Mr. B. has proposed, and you will 
considerably weaken our Saviour's argument, and embarrass a pas- 

• Class. .Town. vol. viii. p. 377. 
■^ Class. Juunt. vol. viii. p. 383. 

NO. XX. CI. Jl, VOL. X. S 

274 Amwer to Mr. Bellamy s Essay, ^c. 

sage which otherwise is extremely intelligible. Understand it in 
the obvious sense, and nothing can be more clear and consistent. 
— Here I may remark, that passages in the Scriptures, and indeed in 
all other books, must be explained and understood according to 
the context : by so doing we shall generally arrive at just conclu- 
sions : for there are very few passages, which, if detached from 
their situation, may not be explained to prove any tiling, however 
erroneous and absurd. 

Mr. B. proceeds to give exam.ples in which the Apostles quoted 
from the Hebrew, and not from the Septuagint, in which he is as 
unfortunate as in other parts of his paper. He quotes several 
instances In which the Greek Version agrees with the Heb. Text 5 
and therefore he takes for granted that they quoted from the Heb. 
Text, because their citations agree with the Greek Version. He 
then proceeds to give an example in which the words of the 
Gospel agree with the Hebrew only. The passage he selects for 

this purpose is Matt, xxvii. 46. where we are told that tts^i — 

TrjV ivvoLTYiv djociv uvB3oy]<T:V ' Iyjtouc ^MVYj fL^yaXri, XiyCtiV WXl, //A<, 
Aa^aa (Tix^cix^civl. This is a citation of Ps. xxii. 1 . HD? ^"l^S^ "bii 
'^^r\2,X!^ and Mr. B. triumphantly remarks, — « thus we have the 
testimony of the Apostle who was an eye and an ear witness that 
these are the words of Christ himself, which are quoted word for 
word from the Hebrew, and not from the Septuagint, and which 
proves that the Hebrew is the same now tvoy-d for "joord, letter for 
letter^ and vowel for voxi>el, as it was when Christ was on earth." 
He then gives a minute and particular list of the letters and vowel 
points employed in the words in question, and informs your Clas- 
sical Readers what are the names by which the Greek characters 
V and 1 are generally called. He insists also much on the precise 
similitude of the three first words : but he carefully conceals the 
dissimilarity between ''inZlUi and tu^u^Sxv), and merely spells the 
two last syllables of the words, for the use of Hebrew scholars 
who carmot read the Hebrew characters, and of Greek scholars 
who do not know the proper maimer of reading Greek words. 

But after all, the reader may be amazed at being told, that the 
word a-otoct^Su-A is not Hebrew, but Syro-Chaldaic : and he will 
probably inquire how a Syro-Chaldaic word was substituted for 
an Hebrew word. Certainly (ra)3a;^0a/i is not an accurate copy of 
^2/^11^ : indeed it has nothing in common with it except the simi- 
litude of the tv/o last syllables. The true original of cra/Saj/Savl, 
is to be sought in the Chaldaic '^^r\\)yp which is found in the 
Chaldee paraphrase on Ps. xxii. 1. or else it may be traced in 
*he Syviic ^jfvcii^ which is the reading of the Syriac version 

Major Rennell's Anm^er to the Reniarks, ^-c. Q7S 

both in Matt, xxvii. 4^6. and Mark xv. 34. — Neither has Mr.'B. 
noticed the reading Mark xv. 34. which differs even more from 
the Heb. Text of Ps. xxii. 1. 'EKu/i, 'EXxt, Kuij.ft,oi <7u3x^^xvl : 
though it agrees more with the Chaldee paraphrase of that passage, 
the words of which are — : ^Jflipit:' HD Wi^iD 'nbi^^ ^ribi^^. Upon 
the whole it is probable that the Syriac version has preserved the 
genuine words uttered by Christ : — ' 

It appears, therefore, thnt our Lord did not quote the Heb. 
Text : and that the Evangelists Matthew and Mark, in relating 
the circumstances of his death, partially, at least, quoted the 
LXX, I think will plainly appear from a very cursory comparison 
of the text of the LXX. with the text of the Evangelists. The 
reading in the LXX, is 6 Osoc, 6 Osog fxov, 'n-^oa-^sg fj.oi, Ivari 
lyKxriXmsi [j,s : St. Matt, interprets the words of Christ thus : 
6se ja&u, 0S£ jw-oy, Ivuri /x; syxaxf A*7rec ,* and St. Mark writes, 
* 0SOJ jU-OM, 6 ©50^ jitou, s]g Ti [x,z lyxaTsAiTT:;. 

But if it were certain that the Apostles always quoted from the 
Heb. Text, and that their citations always agreed with it in the 
passages quoted, it still would not absolutely prove that the text 
was entirely perfect in their time, because there are many thou- 
sand verses which they do not cite at all : and therefore we cannot 
say what readings were found in their copies. — Besides, supposing 
that the Hebrew Text was perfect and correct in the time of the 
Apostles, it will not follow that it must be equally so in our days. 
■ — It seems, however, difficult to account for St. Peter's citation 
of Ps. xvi. ip. unless he found the singular reading ^TPD ^^ ^^^ 
Heb. copy, if indeed he cited the Heb. Text, which appears to 
be very problematical. M, 

[We shall proceed in the next number.] 


' Remarks <m the Topography of the Flam of Trot/, 

Inserted in the Supplement to No. XVIII. of the Classical 


iN oTWiTH STAN DING the decisive tone and style of the Remarks 
on my Observations on the Plain of Troy, I should have left them 

Q76 Major Rennell's Jnswer to the Remarks 

to the judgment of tlie public at large, had not the inaccuracies, 
mis-stalemeiits, and inuendoes, been so numerous, that it would 
have been a breach of duty, as well to the public, as to myself, 
to have remained silent : snice some persons who read the 
Remarks, may take for granted that the statements and quotations 
are always correct, and tnay look no farther. 

Having had from the beglnniug, no other view in the publica- 
tion in question, than to ehck the truth, 1 wish the subject to be 
thoroughly investigated, in order that the public opinion may be 
fixed. That a person should have written m support of the claim 
of Bounaibashi to the site of Troy, 1 am not surprised ; but I 
am really asininshed that any one, more especially a person who 
has been on the spot, should attempt to defend the general 1 opo- 
graphy of M. Chevalier, after an examination of the plans and 
views of Sir W. Gell, and the plan of M. Kaufi'er : because a 
comparison of the landscapes (since credit is given to them by the 
Reviewer) with the Topography of M. Chevaher ouglit to have 
convinced han at once how erroneous it is. Yet, strange to say, 
in spite of this utter disagreement, this gentleman is a staunch 
defender of M. de Chevalier's Topography. 

It appears to the author, that the Remarks are in truth those 
of a person who, at least, opposes verbal criticisms to the general 
sense of Homer, taken in its natural and obvious acceptation ; 
and also, that the facts themselves, in his iiunds, are often distort- 
ed, or perverted; in Older to answer the purpose of his system. 
Thus, the woodman's time of dinner, (or principal meal) which is 
given as a circumstance, by which to mark the time of day, this 
gentleman decides to have been e«r/y in the morning'; contrary 
surely to reason, and to practice, in all countries : and this in order 
to allow time enough for the armies to accomplish the improbable 
length of distance, arising on the system of M. de Chevalier, 
between the Grecian camp and Troy. Again, these large armies 
are supposed to move w ilh the celerity of ordinary travellers ; and 
cattle are to be conveyed in carts to the Trojan camp ; all to suit 
the same purpose ; although the Trojan carts are understood to 
have been remarkably small. Carriages are ceitainly mentioned 
in the text ; but one would have limited their use to the transport 
of the bread, wine, &c. Bullocks are seldom cairied in small 
carts ; or indeed, in any kind oi carts : and the object in view, was 
to provide a meal for .30,000 men, who had been long fasting. — 
The springs, although acknowledged by the Reviewer himself 
to be of equal temperature, (page 6 17.) are to be reasoned into 
.a contrast to each other ; and are at last absolutely spoken of, as 
warm and cold springs, (page 621, 622.) — The existence of ruins 
is made a criterion for the site of Troy, although the general sense 

on his Topography of the Plain of Troy. Q77 

•f the ancients was, that the precise site was unknown ; because 
the ruins themselves were removed ; or in poetic language, the ruins 
themselves had perished. Farther, the descriptions, applicable 
alone to the capacious bed, and furious stream of a torrent {Sca- 
mauder) are applied to a snvail perennial river ; and as the circum- 
stance of a ^z'oof/ of the same river could not be got rid of, this 
small river is to be swelled, not by an additional volume of water, 
but by the armies wading across it! (Page 620) And finally, 
because no Tumuli are found in situations such as M. Chevalier's 
system requires, it is gravely supposed, that a Tumulus may be 
ploughed down, and thus annihilited ! (page 620.) Yet this gentle- 
man, from having visited the spot himself, might have been aware 
of the bulk of the Tumuli in that quarter. 

There are very few points in my work that escape attack ; but 
the principal are. First, my want of knowledge of Greek ; 
Secondly, Professor Carlyle's Sketch, and the river Shimar, 
included in it : and Thirdly, the Tumulus, sometime ascribed to 

My want of Greek is made a very heavy cliarge ; and very often 
repeated. One might have supposed, that I had at some time 
pretended to a knowledge of Greek, and had been detected in 
the imposition ; instead of having declared my ignorance of it at 
the outset. 

In page 607, he says, " In page ix, is an avowed declaration of 
ignorance of the Greek language; from which all the knowledcre 
worth having on the Plain of Troy must be derived. We do not 
insist upon the absolute necessity of it, if the passages bearing upon 
the subject be literally translated by another person, — but without 
some knowledge of the language, no one has the least chance of 
learning what is universally admitted to be interpolation ; while 
these interpolations are often, if not always, the verv passages that 
bewilder and mislead. We do not denv that the translation of 
Cowper may be sufficiently accurate for all the purposes of 
poetry : it signifies but little in verse, M'hether the clouds over- 
spread the moon, or the moon be hidden behind clouds; but in 
matter of science, the difference would often be essential, and 
fatal to the sense." 

To me, there seems to be something like contradiction of him- 
self here : ^ see-saw of Greek, and no Greek. 

Admitting, for the sake of arirument, that such interpolations 
really exist, may not the same person, who is equal to the transla- 
tion of the original parts, be as much in the secret of the interpola- 
tions as this gentleman ? It would seem, then, as if these interpola- 
tions (which by the bye are kept out of sight) are meant to operate 
as an injunction^ to keep the whole of a work in check ; and to be 

278 Major Rennell's Answer to the Remarks 

let out at pleasure, on any part of the text. But has it ever been 
pretended, that the descriptions of the plain, the rivers, (the two 
springs excepted), or the Tumuli, promontories, &c. which are the 
characU ristic marks which I have followed, have been interpolated 
in the Iliad ? 

But without resorting to this gentleman, for an opinion, " whe- 
ther a passage in Greek, containiiig matter addressed to the under- 
standing, strictly : such as desciiptions, narratives, &,c. may be 
communicated in a different language/' I shall beg leave to quote 
another great authority on this occasion ; that is, Dr. John- 

He says, in his life of Pope, that " Mr. Pope might always 
have obtained his author's sense (that is, Homer's) with suffi- 
cient certainty from the literal translations, in Latin." — And that 
'* among the readers of Homer, the number is very small, of those 
who find much in the Greek, more than in the Latin, except the 
music of the numbers." And he adds, that " minute inquiries 
into the force of words, are less necessary in translating Homer, 
than other poets, because his positions are general, and his repre- 
sentations natural" — and also, that " Homer has fewer passages 
of doubtful meaning, than any other poet, either in the learned, 
or in modern languages." The Doctor is quite silent respecting 

Now, if Dr. Johnson admits that " the sense of Homer may 
ahvays be obtained nDith suJficietU certainty from the literal trans- 
lations" — may I not be allowed to obtain the requisite knowledge 
of certain passages in the original, by means of literal translations, 
also? Moreover, Dr. Johnson speaks of the Jliad at large; but 
I confine my argument io \\\e descriptive parts di\oYie. And here, 
1 cannot but remark, that my antagonist appears to admit, that the 
translation of Cowper, (or I suppose he means any other fair trans- 
lation), rnay he accurate enough for the purposes of poetry , but 
not for scientific matters : that is, geography, I conceive, is here 
meant. (1 confess, 1 had thought otherwise; and that poetry was 
the n)ore difficult of the two.) 

Perhaps, then, it may be assumed, on the opinion of Dr. John- 
son, that a man, ignorant of Greek, may, nevertheless, be put in 
possession of the sense of Homer, respecting his description of 
the Plain of Troy, its rivers. Tumuli, h,c. &ic. or, which is the 
same thing, that if a man puts me in possession of the knowledge 
of a fact from a book, I may be as capnble of reasoning on that 
tact, as if 1 had read it in the same book with my own eyes. 

1 next proceed to the article of Mr. Carlyle's Sketch, and the 
course of the Shimar river, contained in it. 

on his Topography of the Plain of Troy. 279 

It is natural enough that the Shimai should be subject to a severe 
attack from the admirers of M. Chevalier. It has most audacious- 
ly started up, to dispute the honors of the SiMois, with the 
Mender : that is, it has rebelled against the system of jM. de Che- 
valier. It has accordingly been threatened with worse treatntent, 
than even its brother Scammider suffered from the hands of Vul- 
can ; for that was only dried up temporurily, but this has been 
threatened with absolute annihilation: for, at one time, it seems^ 
there was a speculation to turn it into the upper part of the Thym- 
brek river : and thus to get fairly rid of it, as an individual stream : 
but the proof of the alibi having perhaps been found difficult, 
the next resource was to lessen its bulk and consequence as much 
as possible ; so as to disqualify it altogether for a Simois. In 
page 6l2, it is " a brook so inconsiderable, as not to be worth 
notice, towards its head." And in 6 15, "vestiges of the bed 
of a torrent, through one of the deepest of which, about 70 yards 
long, and without water, in the middle of winter, the common 
road for carts passes," is admitted to exist, near Kalifatli. (No 
doubt, the road would be carried across one of its shallowest 

But it appears, that however they may argue against its claim 
to the title of Simois, there is no getting rid of it as a river, or 
rather torrent ; for when Dr. Clarke saw it, it not only flowed, 
but was too deep to be forded in many places. Here are the 
Doctor's words, (Vol. u. page 96.) " The Kalifat river [our 
Shimar] can scarcely be said to flow towards the Mender ; yet 
is so deep, that we were conducted to a ford, in order to pass. 
1 have no hesitation in stating that I conceive this river to be the 
Simois." And in p. 99, " i he Kalifat river appears in Kauffer's 
map to be a nuich less spring than his Scamander (meaning the 
Bounarbashi river), which is not the case." And in p. 101. he 
says, that " it joins the Mender, near the Greek Church at 

It is probable, however, that Dr. Clarke saw it, after its bed 
had been recently filled, and before all the rain water had been 
drained off; because it would appear f/om others that it was 
lower at ordinary times ; at least in its course towards Kalifatli. 
But Mr. Carlyle certainly says, that at the junction of the Shimar 
and Thymbrek, the Shimar is the larger of the two rivers. (More 
information is wanted, respecting that part of its course, between 
the valley of the Shimar, and the river Thymbrek.) 

The Shimar is indeed obliged to tigbt its way throughout its 
whole course. In page 6 IJ, the existence of the lower part of 
its course, " in the manner shown in my map" is disputed. Is 
this then to be understood as an ndmifsion of a lower or summer 

280 Major Rennell's Answer to the Remarks 

course, of the Sliimar ? I should hope it was; because Mr. Car- 
l\Je says, that " being the larger stream, it comiminicates its name 
to the Thymbrek river, after tlieir junction ;" for surely Mr. Car- 
lyle vdW never be suspected of inventing such a story! (See his 
Journal in the Observations in the Ttoad, page xxi.) That it may 
not take precisely the same line as in my map, may well be; as it 
was drawn into it from a rude sketch : but the general truth of 
it^ I conceive, is not to be doubted. 

I'lie stream noted as the Siiuois by Dr. Pocock, appears to be 
no other than this Shimar. The same must be said of that inserted 
by M. D'Anvilie, in his map of the Troad ; which has in it two 
rivers between the Mender and the HeUespoul. And that it is 
the river seen by l^v. Chandler, to join the Mender in the Plain, 
near Kalifatli, and which he found omitted in Mr. Wood's map 
of the Troad, is perfectly clear ; for w hat other river is there ia 
that quarter ? The D\. (Chandler) names this in his map of Asia 
Mmor (most unaccountubiy, i tisiiik,) the Scainander. It serves, 
however, by tlie bye, as a presumptive proof of its being somewhat 
more like a river than the Reviewer is willmg to allow ; since Dr. 
Chandler took it for the Scamander ! 

Now the Reviewer, in his wrath against the Shimar, passes over 
all these authorities, as if the Professor and Dr. Clarke were the 
only evidences in question. It is proper also to remark, that 
M. D'Anvilie, Pocock, and Chaiidler, all committed their ideas 
to paper, long before Bounarbushi was talked of. 

if It be argued that the Shimar is not the Siinois, because it is 
often stagnant, and has many parts of its bed nearly, or even quite 
dry ; it may be answered, that Homer says no more, than that the 
Simois Vvas a torrent. And a tt)rrent is, like the Shimar, a river 
onlii at intervals.' But it must have been a river at some time, 
or Y)x. Clarke would not have found so nmch water in it, as to 
render it, at intervals, not fordable ; and that water also in 

it l)ecame necessary to say thus much, in addition to tlie facts 
already given, respectuig the Shimar, in the observations, pages 
35 to 39. 

Before I proceed, I shall beg leave to ofifer a remark, which 
being founded on one of our natural propensities, will not, pro- 
bably, be disputed by many, it is this : " That if another person 
reports a discovery of any particular, which we have in the course 
of our inquiries, missed ; and, which we think that we ought, 
liad it existed, to have ourselves discovered ; we are very ready 

' It was, obviously, in tliat state, whea ti:ie Scamander called it. Absence, 
"in the casu otati adjunct nver, was itie same as non-existence. 

on his Topography of the Plain of Troy. 281 

lo reject such a discovery altogether." 1 could cite more thaa one 
example of this fact, in matters of much greater import to man- 
kind than any question relating to antiquities, or ancient geogra- 
phy, could be. And I can aver, from my own observation, that 
certain useful discoveries were not received and acted upon, by 
professional men, until a new generation had grown up, who were 
not ashamed to be instructed in that particular, because they were 
taught it in common with other matters, which were equally new 
to them. 

It is with considerable regret, that I read the very severe attack 
on the veracity and consistency of my poor friend. Professor Car- 
lyle ; and the more, as [ have been the innocent cause of it ; whilst 
the man himself is removed, and unable to repel it. This might 
stirely have been spared, without any detriment to the criticism, 
it is lamentable that a man should be accused of falsifying evi- 
dence, when, had he been in the wrong, tlie utmost that could have 
been said, was, that he liad couimitled an error ! But has he even 
committed an error ? The reviewer himself admits the existence of 
the Shimar river; but contends that it is only a small insignificant 
stream. Carlyle does no more than declare its existence : he has 
no where said whether it was large or small : its positive bulk 
being either inferred or understood, from the reports of others. 
What, then, has Carlyle falsified ? 

But it happens that his report bears too heavily on M. Cheva- 
lier's system ; and is irresistible, as far as it goes : besides that, it 
receives, as I have just said, a countenance from Chandler, Pocock, 
and D'Anvilie. 

Great stress is laid on the want of skill and science in Car- 
lyle's Sketch, as if it had been offered for any other purpose 
than to prove, by the aid of the Journal which accompanied it, 
(See the Observations_, page xxi.) two lines of route ; that is, 
from Sigaiwi to Bounarbashi, and back again by a different road. 
The sketch itself, considered in any other light, is below criti- 
cism : and is ratlier to be regarded as of that class of documents, 
which is described by Captain Lewis in his American expedition : 
that is, a map drawn by an intelligent Indian, Tcnih a piece of char- 
coal on a mat: but which, however, produced conviction; and 
served to regulate their general ideas of the geography. I ask, 
would the evidence of a peasant, respecting the existence and 
course of a river be rejected, because his language was coarse, 
or ungrammatical ? It is internal evidence that is to be attended 
to in such cases. 

But this sketch Is affected to be considered as a geographical 
document, for the whole Troad ; .and is most elaborately descanted 
on, through several pages. This seryes two purposes : in the 

!g82 Major Renneil's Answer to the Remarks 

first place, by abusing or ridiculing the execution of the sketchy 
to attempt to depreciate the value of the evidence it contains ; 
although the execution and the evidence have no more to do with 
each other, than the materials made use of by the Indians have 
M'ith the truth of the story which they meant to tell. A second 
and more important use of the sketch, is, the employing it as a 
Joil, to set off the bad topography of M. Chevalier. And, no 
doubt, if classed as a geographical document, (which was neve^ 
yet thought of,) it falls very nuich below the other. ' 

It may be asked, why, in a fair inquiry into the value of this 
evidence, respecting the Shimar, the Journal should not have been 
referred to, as well as the sketch, since it contained plain matters 
of fact ; that, and the sketch, mutually explaining and corroborat- 
ing each other ? 

The Tumulus described in the map, near Kalifatli, novv dis- 
owned, after having been adopted about a dozen years ago for 
that of Myritma, comes next to be considered. There must be 
something more than ordinary in a case where a fact is five times 
denied, in the course of one dissertation. Is it, that it would draw 
Troy too far from Bounarbashi t for where Myrinna is, there, 
close at hand, will be the Scaatt gate ! But surely, whatsoever 
name it may be allowed to bear, there must be a Tumulus in that 
general position. Dr. Chandler saw two Tumuli in that quarter, 
•whilst standing near Kalifatli : and what is still more to the pur- 
pose, a highly respectable gentleman has assured me, since the 
publication of tlie book, that he certainly placed his instrument 
for taking angles in the Troad, on a Tumulus, in that general situa- 

It is not at all extraordinary that Sir W. Gell should have 
missed this tumulus ; as it is well known that he Jound others, 
which had been missed by fornier travellers. The same may be 
said of Doctor Clarke, and of Mr. Carlyle ; each of m horn saw 
Tumuli, which no other persons had seen. 

In page 620, the Reviewer says, that the plough is often fatal 
io such structures, in a plain. Also, that he finds in a note, that 
Sir VViliiam Gell saw one, in the plain, between the Mender and 
Bounarbashi rivers. The reader will find in page 147 of my ob- 
iservations, (the passage alluded to,) that Sir VViliiam says, he savr 
*' a batik of sand or earth, with trees or bushes on the top, on 
the west side of the Mender, about east from Erkessi-kui." He 

■ In the Prefare to the Observations page xx. it is said, " This is a 
very rude and imperfect perlormaiice, if considered as a piece of geography, 
to which it has no title; being done merely to express the general direclion 
«f some important routes.'' 

on his Topography of the Plain of Troy. 28S 

adds, " this may have been thrown ^p by the water/' &c. (Thi* 
V as communicated to me by Sir William, after he had read my 
observations, which were then generally printed off.) 

If the Reviewer will have thh to be a Tumulus, it is more than 
Sir W. Gell himself contends for. A Tumulus thrown up by a 
river, seems to be no improper comparison for one that miglit be 
ploughed down ! 

He also speaks of a Tumulus in Kauffer's map, implied to be 
in the same position. I do not find it in the map of Kauffer. 

The authority of Demetrius of Scepsis is made very light of, as 
might have been expected. (Page 6 12.) In p. 6 15, he is said to 
have possessed no advantages for investigation over modern tra- 
vellers ; on the contrary, his prejudices misled him ; and, on the 
whole, circumstances are considerably in favor of modern tra- 
vellers ! In 617, Demetrius is said to have only looked on ;f/je 
other side of the plain, being totally misled by the claims of the 
people of New Ilium, &.c. May we ask where these prejudices, 
&c. are recorded ? 

But one is really amused to hear that Demetrius kept to the 
high road, and did not beat the bushes, which then concealed the 
ruins of Tioy on the hill of Bounarbashi, (pp. 6 1 1, 6 16.) So 
that a personage, whom Strabo thought worthy of being quoted ; 
whom Scipio took for his guide in the Troad ; and who is reported 
to have passed so much of his time in exploring it, only kept, it 
seems, to the high road when in search of antiquities ! It is some- 
M hat like what one has heard of, going a hunting in a gig ! 

It appears to be the determination of this gentleman to scout 
every particular that the ancients have said concerning Troy, since 
the days of Homer; so that those who lived two thousand years 
nearer to the date of the transactions, are supposed to have known 
less concerning the Iliad, and the plain of Troy, than certain 
learned people of the IQlh century. He will not admit any place 
for the site of Troy, that has not " vestiges of antiquity." (Page 
606.) Now, had the ancients told us that such weie in existence, 
or rather had they not told us the contrary, such an argument might 
have weight ; biu, in iny idea, the remains at Bou'jarbashi rather 
furnish an argument against, than for, its bemg the site of Troy. 
But the remains may be of a later date than Troy. 

To the authorities adduced from Homer, in proof of the iden- 
tity of the Mender river with the S.amander, 1 have nothing to 
add ; but some explanation may be necessary, as the Reviewer 
appears to wish to render of no effect any authorities adduced 
from Homer, by a person who is unable to read him in the original. 
Even Cowper is slighted, as if he had been rather a reader, than a 
maker, of a translation. And fiom the contempt sometimes ex- 

284 Major Rennell's Answer to the Remarks 

pressed towards him, one must conclude that he greatly under- 
valued the Greek of Cowper, in comparison with his own. 

It is obvious that a person, who undertakes a translation of a 
great work, such as the Iliad, Oclijssei/, &c. cannot allow to every 
passage the same attention which he would be able to give to a few 
select passages only. Accordingly, certaui of the passages, which 
I have adduced in proof, may, perhaps, be expressed in terms that 
approach nearer to the meaning of the original, than others. The 
truth is, that 1 consulted a friend respecting the exact meaning of 
many important parts ; but yet have generally quoted Cowper. 

1 am again assured, that the terms employed by Homer, re- 
specting the Scamander river in particular, are really such as I 
have set forth in the observations, taken in their general sense. 
(Pages 55, 50.) Or taking them more strictly translated by exact 
equivalents, in English, they are the following : (lib. xxi.) 

" The vortigiiioiis Xanthiis," (v. 2.) " T/ie deep-streamed river, 
foaming with vortices,'^ (v. 8.) " The deep stream roared" (v, 9 ) 
" The terrible river," (v. 2.i.) " The great river" (v, 92.) " The 
deep-einbanked Scamander," (v. 36.) " The Scamander, abound- 
ing in deep uhirlpools," (v. 603.) 

Again, " The Trojans lurking, crouching under the craggy 
shores of the impetuous stream :" or, " under ihecraggs bordering 
the stream of the terrible river" (lib. xxi. v. 25.) 

If these phrases have any meaning, they cannot surely be applied 
to the Bownarbashi river. Homer never departs from character, 
which he would most egregiously have done, had he described a 
torrent flood in a river, which was fed by equal ana perennial 
springs. The proper and natural qualities of things he, indeed, 
as is the business of a poet, heightens ; but he would not be 
listened to, if he ascribed courage to a deer, or swiftness to a 

It is also remarked that the Scamander is always introduced 
"with some ennobling epithet, but not so the Simdis. 

Jn eflect, it nnist rest with the unbiassed reader of Greek to 
determine, whether Homer's descriptions of the rivers are to be 
understood m the manner in which 1 have applied them. 

Previous to the time of M. de Chevalier, the Scamander was 
doubtless regarded as the larger of Homer's two rivers. Indeed, 
the Reviewer seems to have half a mind to make the Boiuiarbaslii 
the larger, (pp. 6 IB, 6 19-) I have no wish to degrade it as a 
river, it is a most beautiful and useful stream ; but, fed alone by 
perennial springs, how can it swell, and take the character of a 
torrent, as the history requires .** The Reviewer says, that it is 
*' deep, compared to the streams of the east," (p. 619.) and asks 
" whether 15 feet by 3 does not constitute a large streani in the 

on his Topography of the Plain of Troy. 285 

eastT' By this one may conceive that this gentleman has not 
travelled far eastward. 

The flood, or swelling of the Scamander, when Achilles crossed 
it, is accounted for rather in an unusual manner, (p. 6'20.), that 
is, " by the passage of 100 to 150 thousand men." This suppo- 
sition involves some very whimsical ideas ; for, as the swelling is 
said to be occasioned by the passage of the armies over the river, 
(that is, of course, by dispiacing a part of its waters,) it must 
necessarily have been, that the operations of Vulcan, to reduce the 
flood so raised, must have been performed during the time that the 
troops were actually in the river, since it was by the immersion 
of their limbs, and a small part of their bodies, in it, that the 
waters swelled. Now, as we learn 'that one effect of Vulcan's 
fires on the river was the total d<.8truction of every living creature 
in it, the men could not have been much at their ease whilst 
passing over. 

But, seriously, do columns of armies, in wading a river, occasion 
any remarkable swell or flood in it ? or is it to be supposed by any 
person, save the Reviewer, that 100 or \oO thousand men plunged 
mto it at once ? 

The woodman's time of eating his meal, which affects the length 
of the interval of time allowed to the transactions of the day on 
which the Grecian wall was stormed, comes next under consider- 

I confess that I cannot for a moment suppose, that the time of 
eating his principal meal (as this is implied to be) was early in the 
morning, as the gentleman supposes ; and it is difficult to under- 
stand how he should know the fact, as he delivers it — " that the 
woodman's hour for eating, in that country, was very early in the 
morning,"' (p. 627). " Homer describes him as being fatigued 
with felling high trees, and then recruiting his strength by taking 
food." (Ihad xi. v. 86.) Here, then, we have a proof that it could 
not be very early in the moining, for he had worked long enough 
to be fatigued. And to argue from the reason of the thing, do 
hard-working men eat their chief meal very early in the morning, 
and then labor through the rest of the day (almost the whole of it) 
fasting r or rather, do they not divide the day nearly into two equal 
parts, as reason points out, in order to obtain the greatest advan- 
tage from the use of their food i ' Nor does it suit the circum- 
stances of the battle of that day, that the Trojans should have given 
way, early in the morning, as it appears to have been a hard con- 
tested one. 

It is also said, (p. 627), in support of the same position respect- 
ing the distance, that the heroes " had all of them chariots with 
fltet horseii ;" but ihey had infantry attending them, and must have 

285 IVIajor Rennell's A?isrver to the Remarks 

regulated their motions accordingly. However, this the Reviewer 
easily gets rid of^ by saying, (p. 628), that " modern travellers are 
accused by our author of thinking that armies could move as 
quickly as they themselves can ; if they think so, they are perfectly 
right, there was nothing to prevent 150,000 men from marching in 
a level plain, just as easily, and much quicker, than the persons who 
walk by the side of the horses of these travellers." 

Here I must remark, that the gentleman has not quoted me very 
accurately ; for I say, (p. 12G of the Observations,) " large armies 
IN ORDER OF BATTLE." And if he really thinks that 100 or 
150 thousand men, in order of battle, can march as fast, (muck 
quicker are his words,) as grooms walk by the side of horses, I can 
only leave him in possession of his opinion, for it would be of no 
use for me to say any more to him on that part of the subject. 

It is also necessary to caution the reader not to suppose, as he 
may possibly be inclined to do, from the manner in which it is 
worded in the Remarks, (p. 628), " that I deyiy the possibiliti/ of 
passing over .SO miles of country in a single day,,' (which would, 
indeed, have been a very extraordinary position, having myself 
made longer marches on pressing emergencies) ; but that the sub- 
stance of what I have stated is this, as may be seen in pages 1 19 
and 120 of the Observations — "That seven hours and a half is 
too short an interval, in which to perform the different services of 
marching in order of battle, and frequently fighting by the way, 
over 30 miles of ground ; of attacking and carrying the wall ; 
fighting three times at, and within, that wall ; and also before Troy, 
and at the wall, for the body of Patroclus." 

This is very unlike the statement of the Reviewer, who, notwith- 
standing, accuses jne of " wilfully misrepresenting facts to ser-ce a 
system .'" 

It is probable that the fighting on that day, independent of the 
marching, must have occupied many hours. Mr. Pope, (or rather 
Mr. Addison, who is said to have written the Arguments to the 
different books of the Iliad for his translation,) classes this fighting 
as four distinct battles; and although there may be a want of pro- 
priety in this statement, yet it shows that he considered the trans- 
actions to be such as required a great deal of time. I have re- 
marked in the Observati<nis, that even allowing the Sccean gate to 
have been no more than 3^ miles from the Grecian camp, the time 
is rather too short for the marching, and for the other transactions,, 

Here it may be proper to remark, that in page 628 it is said, 
that after all the talk about the distance, " Bounarbashi is only 
about two miles more distant than the Pagus from the shore' 
But the question concerns the distance between the shore and the 

on his Topography of the Plain of Troy. 287 

Sc(Ean gate, not the Pagus; and that is about 3\ miles more ia 
M. Chevalier's map than in mine, making about 13 miles ditfer- 
ence in the total of the marching on that day. 

in page 6 13, 1 am called to order, for not mentioning an ancient 
bridge, said to have been built over the confluent stream of the 
Mender and Bounarbashi rivers ; and to be " of the same age 
with that of Demetrius." And hence it is inferred by the Re- 
viewer, or rather insisted on, that in consequence the Mender ran 
in that line of course in the time of Demetrius. May it be asked, 
" hovi' is the date of the bridge ascertained ?" Roman times lasted 
a great many centuries after the time of Demetrius ! 

In p. 620, he says, that " the width of the plain between the 
Mender and Shimar he has proved to be falsified." If I under- 
stand him rightly, 1 can only answer, generally, that in my map the 
width of the plain rests on the authority of Sir W. Gell, who par- 
ticularly describes it in his book on the topography of Troy, 
pages 33, 34, as well as in his map. 

In p. 624, much is said concerning my statement (in p. 91 of 
the Observations,) " that the Scamander flowed betzceen the Gre- 
cian camp and Troi/, and that in consequence the Bounarhashi 
river cannot be the Scamander." I cannot understand how the 
matter could be otherwise. What is it to the purpose, zohich zcay 
a road led from the site of the Grecian canjp, to that of Bounar- 
hashi ? this does not alter the relative positions: the camp and 
Bounarbashi w ere surely on the 'same side of the river of Bounar- 
hashi — how then can it come between them ? 

h\ 626, 1 am asked, how the Trojan camp could have been 
situated between that of the Greeks and the Scamander V I can 
only answer, because the Grecian camp was in its front, and the 
river on its flank. Is not London between the Thames and the Lee ? 

When 1 say that the Kalli-celone was seen by Homer from the 
lower part of the plain, it is not necessary, hi common acceptation, 
that it should mean the extreme verge of the plain, it is doubtless 
seen as low down as two-thirds of the whole space between Atche- 
kui and the site of the Grecian camp, on what was then the sea-shore. 

With respect to the position of Atche-kui, whatsoever may be 
altered is accounted for in the Observations, page 113, and nothing 
that is altered is pretended to be taken from Sir W. Geil. There 
is a distinguishing line in the map. 

My idea'respectingthe meaning of the term left, as applied to 
Hector, is combated in p. 623. 1 should really have conceived 
that no one passage in the whole Iliad couid furnish less matter for 
doubt; but it was perhaps a sufficient reason for combatuig the 
©prfiion, that I had given it. 

i believe it will be found difficult to reconcile the term left. 

288 Major RenneiFs Ansive)^ to the Remarks 

to the left of Hector's army. The post of A]^\ was on the side 
towards Rhateum, which was on the left of the Grecian camp. 
It was the post of Ajax that was attacked by Ilector, and surely 
that division of the Trojan army, at the head of which he made 
the attack, must necessarily have been the right, as being op- 
posed t<j the left of the Greeks. The left of the Trojan.s would 
have been opposite to the post of Achilles, if they had attacked on 
that side. The Reviewer offers no reasons in proof of his assertions. 

But it may be remarked that this redoubted Grecian quotes his 
Homer very carelessly, since he says, pp. ^lo, 6£4, " We are in- 
formed, that Hector on the left knew not of the slaughter occa- 
sioned by Ajax, who we know was stationed on the left of the 
ships," ([Had, xui. v. QlC).) I will beg leave to set this gentleman 
right : the name of Ajax tjoes not appear in that place, because 
the poet was alluding to the havoc made by Idomeneus and Me- 
rioiics, as is described in the former part of the same xiiith. book, 
and not to Ajax, \\ho was then lighting in a different place. But, 
as 1 have said in the Observations, p. 89, the teft, meaning the left 
division of the battle, is one thing, and the extyemity of the left, 
or flank, another. This gentleman accuses me of wilful misrepre- 
sentations to serve a system I 

I shall now beg leave to take notice of some misrepresentations, 
or mis-statements, which, assuming the shape of facts, have a ten- 
dency to the disadvantage both of the book and of the author. Jt 
is possible that some of them may be umnteutioaal, and only arise 
from the disposition in which the Ivevievver appears to have read 
the book, that is, with a determination to find faults every where ; 
and therefore he has sometimes led himself into errors. 

In p. 6ll, it is said, that 1 "pretend to doubt the fact of the 
Bounarbashi river having once run into the blender." This is 
answered by refei ring to pages 1 and .'3, where I suppose it to have 
been turned out of its coarse to the Mender, after the date of the 
Trojan war; and to page 106, where it is repeated. 

In 62.5,^ I an» said to '* wish to make it appear, that the suppo- 
(sition that the mouth of the Scamander was near the Rhoetean 
Promontory in ancient times, is a^y own discovery." 

In the Observations, p. 97, I have expressly said, that this was 
the opinion of Sir W. Gell ! Also, to the same effect in p. 149- 

Again, in 625, lam said to "suggest that ISeacho'e is a com- 
powid of Greek and Turkish." My' vunds are, " Neachore is 
nearly contiguous to Jemkin — the former name is doubtless from 
the Greek, the latter from the Turkish; both having the same 
meaning, that is, Neza Town" 

Likewise, in the same page, the reader is left to suppose, that I 
place more than 100,000 men m the Grecian encampment on the 

on the Topography of the Plain of Troy. 289 

shore. But in the Obs, p. 80, 102,000 men are stated to be the 
original numbers, as collected from Thucyd.des. And in p. 148, 
I have said, that " it may be supposed, that they were reduced to 
half the number, or nearly to an equality with the Tiojans." It 
would, indeed, have been disgraceful, had 100,000 Greeks al- 
lowed themselves to be besieged hy 50,000 Trojans ! 

Possibly this idea gave occasion to the Reviewer's partiality 
to the Trojans, expressed in page 624. 

In p. ^'ii'), the slip of putting beech-tree for Jig-tree, affords 
matter of exultation. 1 apprehend that the hill of the wild rig- 
tree has been so often mentioned in translations,, that no one could 
well be ignorant that it meant the Eii-ieus. (I conclude that the 
beech-trees of Theophrastus, on the Tumulus of Uus, ran in my 
head.) Sir W. Gell kindly pointed out the error to ne after it was 
printed off; and it is corrected in the errata accordingly. Is 
one then to have no benefit of clergy t<^ 

1 am censured for not mentioning the name of Mr. Morrit ; 
surely, if 1 have not the good fortune to agree with a respectable 
writer, it would be more polite to be silent, than to mention him, 
merely to say that I differed from him ! 

No argument concerning the Throsmos can be founded on the 
present appearance of the shore, whatsoever the Throsmos may 
have been. More than a mile having been added to the plain, the 
plain itself in consequence raised, hollows filled up, and declivities 
lessened, these circumstances forbid it. Who can tell what the 
nature of the shore was at Priene and Mijus, now that they are 
several miles inland t 

I shall now beg leave to mention some of the Reviewer's 
inconsistencies likewise. 

He sets out, page 606, with " professing personally that re- 
gard, which is inspired by amiable qualities," &c. : and in Q9<5, 
afifects great delicacy in speaking out, lest he " should deviate 
from that respect, which he professes at all times for the author :" 
which having said, he thinks he has a right to make as free with 
me as he pleases. 

In p. 61 1, he says, I "pretend to doubt:" in p. 6l2, I have 
^^ insinuated away facts,'' and act in a " treacherous rv\2mner." In 
6 14, " not quite adhered to mutter of fact.'' In 624, a step 
farther, " wilfully misrepresented, to serve a system ;" and in 625, 
" corrupting the readings of an ancient author," (that is, Plmy.) 
Also, in p. 624, he seems to accuse me of something, but I really 
cannot understand what. It may be seen that he has, in that place, 
worked himself up, till he is grown unintelligible. After much 
more blame, of various kinds, he finishes by saying, " we are never- 
theless persuaded, that all which has been advanced by Pr. Clarke, 

NO. XX. a. Jl. VOL. X. T 

S90 Major Renneirs Answer, §c. 

of whose talents no one can think too highly, and Major Rennell, 
has been done with a laudable desire, not only to further truth, 
and promote investigation, but with a conviction that they xcere 
doing so ;" and all this after a charge of treacherous conduct, de- 
parture from fact ^ and z&ilful misrepresentation ; and for the sake 
of supporting a si/stem ! 

Now does this gentleman seriously expect to be listened to 
through a long dissertation, when he so soon forgets what he said 
at the distance of a few pages ? 

One is much entertained with a compliment of his, (page 607,) 
that I am qualified to make " a general map of India." Now, 
although much seems to be comprehended in these words, yet, in 
fact, much more is meant to be excluded. 1 am first of all re- 
stricted to India, that is, I must not venture westward into Asia 
Minor, for fear, perhaps, that I might stray into Troas; nor meddle 
with any other than general geography, lest I should think of the 
topographi/ of the Troad: so that " his veneration for my geogra- 
phical acquirements" ceases, when I descend from the subject of 
empires, to the task of tracing the beds of torrents, or the skirts 
of narrow plains ! 

And it must not be forgotten, that this question of the topogra- 
phy of the Troad is by some affected to be considered as distinct 
from a geographical one ; as if it was not really as much a ques- 
tion of ancient geography, as any relating to Greece or Rome. 
All questions of ancient geography must necessarily be decided 
by ancient history, or by ancient descriptions and monuments; 
but the means employed do not alter the nature of the question. 
Perhaps it is not admitted to be a geographical question, lest I 
might possibly have been deemed equal to tlie solution of it. 

An objection is also taken, page 607> that 1 have never been in 
the Troad. Speaking honestly, 1 am of opinion, that had I been 
one amongst those, who have reported what they saw, I should have 
been less qualified than at present, as I probably might not, from 
my own personal observation, have been so much master of the 
subject, as when the observations of so many persons are before 
me. But to the point of the remark, " Has the position of Jupiter 
Ammon ever been doubted, because the person who pointed it 
out had not been on the spot ?" 


.1.. AM induced to offer a criticism on a passage in Virgil^ which 
I have never seen so explained as to give me satisfaction. 

Primus Ego in patriam mecum, modo vita supersit, 
Aonio rediens deducam vertice Musas: 
Primus Idumreas rcferam tibi Manlua palmas. 

Georgic. iii. v, 10. 

I perfectly agree with any one that shall say^ in patriam rediens 
marks the intention of the poet to return to his native country, 
whither he proposes to conduct the Muses from Aonia ; but I 
can no more subscribe to the notion that by Idumasas palmas 
Virgil meant to bring palms from Idume^ than I can suppose, 
with Catron, that the Roman poet meditated a voyage to the 
Levant. Jt is far from my intention, to attempt to prove my 
point, by showing how unlikely it was that Virgil should be ac- 
quainted with Syria, Egypt, or Palestine ; this is not, in my 
opinion, the ground on which any thing solid is likely to be esta- 
blished, since it were no very arduous task to demonstrate, that 
numberless beauties and sublimities have been transplanted into 
the soils of Greece and Rome from the sacred gardens of the East. 
For my own particular part, if I may be allowed the liberty, after 
re-considering the whole of the passage with the splendid and 
ingenious comment in the notes on the Epistle to Augustus, 1 
would wish to join with those who think Idumaeas unfit for its situa- 
tion, and would endeavour to substitute another epithet in its place, 
could it be done without offering violence to the trace of the letters, 
and could it bring out a meaning more agreeable to the general 
scope of the passage than the present reading. And first, we may 
observe, that the poet tells us, Primus ego, 1 will be the first, 
if I survive my return to my native country, to bring the Muses 
from the Aonian Mount ; I will also be the first to bring to thee, 
O Mantua, palms from Idume, and I will erect a temple on the 
banks of the Mincius ; Caesar shall be the God, and 1, the coi>- 
queror, in purple^ will exhibit the games on the banks of my 
native river, for which all Greece shall leave Alpheus and the 
shores of Molorchus. All this is very intelligible, and without 
any difficulty, if you except the sudden jump from the heights of 
Bceotia over the ^^gean, and the Mediterranean Seas, to fetch 
palms for the conquerors at the INlincian games. I am fully aware 
that the palms of Idume were used by the poets for palms in gene- 
ral; as Silius Ttalicus and Martial abundantly testify, lib. viii, v. 456, 

292 Weston's Fragments 

lib. X. Epigr. 50. — But here the circumstances of the place have 
induced me^ I confess, to look for palms in a more confined sense^ 
the palms of Greece, aiid llie victories of its games : For does not 
the poet say, " When I ?\::\i\ return to my native country, I will 
bring with me the Muses iVom the Aonian mount r" and in the 
same breath does he not go on, " I will (also) bring back (refe- 
ram) with me Idumaan palms r" From whence ? it may be 
asked — Why from Aonia certainly, whither he was just gone but 
the instant before. And if we inquire for what purpose, it may 
be answered for the Mincian games, where V^irgil, as concjueror, 
in honor of Augustus, was to drive his hundred chariots in the 
presence of all Greece. 

On the- words " Centum quadrijugos agitabo ad flumina currus," 
Servius remarks, " Id est, unius diei exhibebo Circenses." This 
makes it clear for what the palms were designed, which he pro- 
mises to exhibit to his native Mantua, with the Muses, for the first 
time. And here we may remark, that in patriam cannot mean 
Italy at large, as in this sense primus could neither be true of the 
Muses, or the games. Virgil was not the first epic poet of the 
Romans ; but as he first offered to exhibit the games of Greece 
to Mantua, so was he the first bard of that country, who promised 
to celebrate his own victories over the muses of Helicon. But to 
the point. To say the truth, 1 consider Iduma^as as an idle 
epithet, and of no use but to complete the verse, and puzzle the 
commentators. We naturally look for something in the adjective 
which agrees with palmas, that shall expressly mark its meaning, 
and its country ; Idumean palms are applicable to a triumphal 
entry, more than to the hands of the victors in the games ; but as 
the Muses come from Greece, so do the palms in question, and 
signify tlie introduction to Mantua of those branches which, in the 
hands of the victors, denote a superior strength in running, leap- 
ing, wrestling, and so forth ; in a word, 1 think it not at all improba- 
ble that Virgil wrote, 

Primus ITHON^AS referam tibi Mantua palmas. 

Nor is this unlikely, on account of the apparent difference of the 
different letters, THON for DUM, since ITHOME and 
ITHONE appear anciently to have been confounded together, 
and it is probable, that from ITHOMEAS or ITHONiEAS, 
came IDUMiEAS. Whosoever will take die pains to examine 
the authorities, will be a better judge of the probability of such 
changes. Ithone was a town in Breotia, sacred to Minerva, whose 
temple stood in a plain before Coronasa, where the Ilriix^'jiaorix 
were celebrated, hinc illas palmis. Callimachus mentions the 
Jthonian games, 

of Oriental Literature. 293 

'//v9ov 'iTwvuxhg /xjv 'ASavoilois W asQ\n. 
We learn also from Statius, that Ithone was sacred to Minerva, 

Ducit Ithonseos atque Alcumenaea Minervae 
Agmina. I'heb. vii. 339. 

And in another important passage, lib. ii. near the end, 

Seu Pandionio- 

Monte venis, sive Aonia devertis Ithone. v. 721. 

Consult Hesychiiis, v. 'Itcuvix Etym. Mag. Callim. Cerer. v. 75. 
i\poUon. Rhod, 1. 5j1. and Holsten ad Stephanum Byzant. 



?. 17. V. 45. oxoN. l66l. 8vo. 

Syp^jH Ai5;.3l 'j^\ ^lys. !JsA 

3^^' A:s:***5 t5*v^ *^-*^ hr* 

The reward of a man z&ho wishes for long life, is to outlive all 

his friends. 

This sentiment was inscribed in the form of a curse on an 
ancient wall. 



294 Weston's Fragments, S^c, 


Mr. Harris, of Salisbury, who was considered, on the authority 
of Bishop Lovvth, as a great grammarian, till Mr. Tooke arose, 
lias an idea which, it may be safely observed, is perfectly unfound- 
ed, and without the shadow of truth. I mean with respect to 
genders, which he fancied were masculine and feminine according 
to the nature of things, wherefore Oceanus and Sol were mascu- 
line, because they had something in thern incompatible with female 
delicacy, and the earth and the moon feminine, because one 
brought forth every thing, old mother earth, and the other was 
called the sister of the sun, and shone by reflected light. I'o say 
nothing of the German language, in which the Moon, it is well 
known, is masculine, Der Mond, and the Sun feminine, Die 
Sonne, I shall produce a passage iVom an Arabian poet of great 
celebrity, not hitherto much quoted, but very much to the present 
purpose, who says, that there is neither glory in the masculinCj 
nor shame in the feminine gender. 

And to he in the feminine gender is no disgrace to the sun, 
No^' oj' the masculine any lionor to the moon. 



Thejirst man that forgot uas the first of men. 

Kothe's Biographical Memoir, ^r. 295 

Here the words nas, man, and anus, women, with nasim, in 
Hebrew, are derived from nasee, * he forgot.' Abi Tenian, a 
well known poet, alludes to this etymology,, when he says, 

Do not forget this precept , since you have got the name of Ensaun^ 
fiom your hahit offoi'getting. 

Thus, Shakspeare, without understanding Hebrew or Arabic, 
makes Cleopatra say, 

' O my oblivion is a very Antony, 
And i am all forgotten.' 

Which is, as if she had said, 1 had something to say, but my 
forgetfulness is a very Antony, who is oblivion itself in the 






Professor at Jena. 

John Jacob Griesbach was born on the 4th of January, 1745, 
at Buzbach, in Hesse Darmstadt. His father, Conrad Caspar, 

295 Kothe's Biographical Memoir 

minister of the place, and married, in 1743, to Johanna Doro- 
thea Rambach, received a call, a few weeks after the birth of his 
son, to Sachsenhauseu; was, two ^ears afterwards, appointed minis- 
ter of St, Peter's church, Frankfort ; in 1767, became consistorial 
counsellor there, and died in 1777- Young Griesbach was early 
distinguished b^ rare qualifications and a thirst of knowledge. 
Having acquired the rudiments of learning from the instruction of 
private teachers, he pursued his studies at the Gymnasium of Frank- 
fort under the rectors Alhrecht, (st\led by Gothe, in his Life, an 
original character,) and Purmann, and in particular became tho- 
roughly convt rsant in the learned languages. On the 2(3th of April, 
ird'i, he removed to the university of Tiib.ngen, where he had Schoit, 
Baur, Hoffuiann, and E.ies, for teachers in philology and philoso- 
phy, and Reuss, Cotta, and Sartorius, in divinity. These he held 
in high respect, and remembered with {)leasure, even at a late period 
of liie, the hours which he had spent especially in the society of 
Baur, and the solid instruction which he had enjoyed from all. In 
September, 1764, he left Tiibingen, and went the following month 
to Halle, where, besides the science to which his attention was 
principally devoted, he pursued his philosophical and philological 
studies under the direction of Segner, Meier, J. P. Eberhard, and 
J. L. Schuize. In divinity, he was a diligent disciple of the elder 
Knapp, Mosselt, and above all of Semler, Avho distinguished and 
admitted him into his more select circle. In October, 1766, he re- 
paired to Leipzig, where he chiefly improved himself by the lec- 
tures of ErnesLi and Reiske, but likewise attended those of Crusius 
and Morus, Gellert, Ernesti, jun. and Schrokh. 

He had now completed his academic studies, in which he had 
collected an ample and well-arranged store of knowledge in divinity 
in general, and particularly in criticism and ecclesiastical history, 
to which he already resolved to dedicate his labors. In October, 
1767, he returned to Halle, where he, the same year, defended his 
Diss, de Jide hi.storica ex ipsa rerum qua narranlur naturajudi- 
Cauda, which was his first literary performance (4to. 1767) Oct. 
23, 1768, after defending his Diss. hist, theol. locos theologicos ex 
Leone M. Pontijice Romano sistens {\1?l\. 1768, 4to.) he obtained 
the degree of M. A. and left Halle on the 2oth. He then spent 
some time with his parents, in preparing for a course of tra- 
vel, the object of which was most intimately connected vvith his 
studies. To obtain a more thorough insight into ecclesiasti- 
cal history, he deemed it necessary to observe various religious sects 
with his own eves, that he might be able to form so much the 
more independent an opinion respecting them. For his critical la- 
bors, the use of the English libraries, and of the most celebrated 
and least known manuscripts was of essential importance ; he was 
de!;irous of personally exauiining, compariiig,aud proving, the cor- 
rectness of those canons of criticism whidi lie had established fojr 

of John Jacob Grieshadi. ^97 

himself. He was likewise solicitous, as the best part of his youth 
had been passed among books, and in literary avocations, to mingle 
more freely in society, and to unite experience and a knowiedoe of 
the world with the ardent desire of moving, at some future time, 
in a more extensive sphere. 

In April, 1769, he commenced his grand tour. He first visited 
the most considerable libraries and the principal universities in the 
south and west of Germany, and then proceeded tp Holland, 
where he made but a short stay at Groningen, Amsterdam, Leyden, 
the Hague, Utrecht, and Rotterdam, because he cherished a hope, 
in which, however, he was afterwards dis;ippointed, that he should 
have an opportunity of revisiting that country. He next embarked 
for England, and in September, 1769, arrived in London. There, 
in the British Museum, as also in the Bodleian library, at Oxford, 
in the college libraries, and other pubbc and private collections at 
Cambridge, hep.asecuted his researches with an assiduity and per- 
severance, and availed himself of then' literary treasures, with a dili- 
gence, which few travellers have displayed. He then repaired to 
France, and reached Paris, on the 13th of June, 1770. There, too, 
he spent most of his time in the principal libraries, and his clear com- 
prehensive judgment, and penetration, every where met with a rich 
reward. Both in England and France, mutual esteem united him 
with the most eminent scholars; Schurrer, the friend of his youth, 
and afterwards an ornament to the university of Tiibingen, was his 
fellow traveller, and during this tour he formed a permanent friend- 
ship with the meritorious Bruns, who had devoted himself to the 
same kind of studies. 

In Oct. 1770, he returned to Frankfort, and spent the winter in 
sifting, arranging, and completing, the rich materials which he had 
colk'cted, against the last preparation for the functions of academi- 
cal tuition. In March, 1771, he defended at Halle, with his re- 
spondent, F. A. Stroth, (afterwards rector at Gotha,) his learned, 
acute, and critical Diss, de Codicibus qnatuor Evangeliorum Ori- 
ge)na)iis, Partic. l,(Hal. 1771, 4to.^ and then commenced his lec- 
tures with the most decided approbation. 

His merits were acknowledged, and soon acquired him distinc- 
tion ; for, in February, 177j, he was appointed extraordinary Pro- 
fessor of Divinity. From his youth he was accustomed to incessant 
and indefatigable activity : he now bestowed his undivided and un- 
common diligence upon his lectures and literary labors. Residing 
in the house of Semler, and m close friendship with his future 
brother-in-law, the celebrated philologist C G. Schiltz, he devoted 
not only the day, but also great part oi the night, to his studies, and 
thus laid the foundation of many subsequent infirmities, especially 
of the habitual weakness and swelling of his legs. But a happi- 
ness was reserved for him which not only embellished, animated, 

298 Kothe's Biographical Memoir 

and cheered his early years, but attended him in old age. In 1775, 
Frei^erica Juliana, the accomplished sii ter of his friend Schiitz, 
became his wife. He was now relieved from the necessity of 
attending to the cares of life, and after his hours of labor, his 
often so arduous researches and inquiries, he found in her society 
recreation, refreshment, and a tender participation in all his con- 

Already in 1774 he had announced his first great work, his mas- 
terly critical edition of the historical books of the New Testa- 
ment— Liirz historici N. T. grtece, Part I. containing the synop- 
sis of the first three Gospels (which appeared also under the title 
of Synopsis Evangdionim Matth. Marc, et Luc. Hal. 1776. Svo.J 
The second part was published in 1775. So early as 1777 anew 
edition was called for, which, without any synoptical arrangement of 
the gospels, was given to the world with this title — N. T. grccce, 
texhvm ad Jidem Codiciim, Versionum et Patntmemendavit, et 
lectionis varietatcm adjecit J. J. G. Vol. I. et II. in which the 
text of the whole of the New Testament is corrected, with such 
critical care, and illustrated with such erudition, that this work is 
justly classed among the most valuable and excellent of the time. 
It was not completed at Halle ; for in June, 1775, the author re- 
ceived an invitation to Jena, where he was installed on the 2d of 
December as the third Professor of Divinity. The records of that 
seminary will transmit to posterity the day on which it gained such 
a teaclier, on w hich this light began to shine upon it, as one of the 
most auspicious in its annals. 

He entered upon his functions with a public discourse, to which 
he invited the students by the simply eloquent and luminous pro- 
gramme : De Histories, ecchsiasticrc, nostri secuU usihus sapienter 
accommodate, utilitafe(Jen. 1776. 4to.) This was soon followed 
by the two programmes, written on academical occasions : De vera 
iiotione vocabuli TtvsviJ^a in cap J' III. Epistoliz ad Roma7ios. I. and 
II. (Jen. 1776 — 7. 4to.) On taking the degree of D. D. on the 7th 
of Feb. 1777, he defended the admirable Diss. Ciirarum in histo- 
riam textus gra^ci Epislolarum Paidinarum, specimen I. (Jenae 
1777, 4to.) M'hich displays throughout the shrewdest critical acumen. 
It has been oenerallv and iustlv regretted that he never had leisure 
to produce the continuation. After his reception into the theolo- 
gical faculty, he wholly devoted his time, his labor, and his life, to 
the university, as is honorably attested by a long series of perform- 
ances composed on academical occasions. The following is a list 
of them in chronological order: 

Comment, ill Ephes. I. 19 sq. 1778. De potentiore ecrlesiec Ro- 
mana priiuipalitate ad loc. Jrencei. 1. IH. c. 3. 1779. Comment, 
ad. Io,c. Paiili 1. Cor. 12. 1 — 11. 1780. mimdo a Deo Pa- 
ire condiio per FUinm. 1781. — Pr. defontibus iinde Evaiigelistc^ 
suas de resurreciione Domini ?iarratioTies hauserint, 1784. Pr. de 

(f John Jacob Griesbach. ^99 

Spirifu Dei, quo abhiti, saricfijicati et justlfcati dicuntur Corin- 
tliii, I. Cor. 6. 11- 1784. Pr. de verba Jirmo prophetico IL Pet. 

1. i6 21. Part. IL 1784. Pr. de Nexu inter virtntem et rell- 

oionem, 1784. Stricture in locum de theopiiemlia Ubrorumsacro- 
^um. Partic.V. 1784 — 8. Pr. quo probutur, Marci Evangelium to- 
ium e Mattli. et Luc(Z commentariis excerptum esse, 1 789- Con- 
timmtio, \ 790. Pr. de Lnaginibus Judaicis, qaibus auctor epis- 
tolcR ad Hebraos, indescriheiida Messire. provincia usus est. Partic, 1. 
et II. 1791-2. Pr. quid Hebr.lll. 7- 10. 11. xunx 7rciu(rscov Sbov 
imagine adumbretur, 1792- P>- sidenslocorum N. T. ad ascensmn 
Christi ill ccelum spectantium sylhge, 1 793. Pr. in quo Eutychis 
de nnione nalurarum in Christo senteiitia illustratur, 1794. — Com- 
mentarii critici in graaim Matthm textum. Specimen i. — IX. 
1794 — 1800. Epimetronad commentarium criticum in Matth. tex- 
tum, 1801 — Commentarii ingr&cum Marci Textum critici. Pcrtic. 
J. — IX. 1802 — 1810. These programmes were mostly written in 
the name of the university for Whitsuntide, and some of them are 
reprinted in the collections of academical pieces. The eighteen 
Comment, crit. in gr. text. Matth. et Marc, are collected in the 
Comment, crit. in text. grac. N. T. P. I. et II. the second part of 
which likewise contains the valuable Meletemata de vefustis textus 

So long as his strength was unimpaired and his health good, he 
held three lectures daily ; one exegetical, the second on church 
history, which he subsequently composed after Schrcikh's Epitome, 
and gave only thrice a week. The third he devoted alternately to 
popular dogmatics, and the introduction to the New Testament, 
but at a later period his infirmities compelled him to coutine him- 
self to two hours a day. 

As a guide to his lectures he printed in 1779, at his own expense, 
his Introduction to Popular Dogmatics. This work, which was 
more particularly designedjfor the use of his hearers, became known 
and esteemed abroad, and repeated solicitations induced him seven 
years afterwards, to put to press a second edition, under the title of 
Introduction to the study of Popular Dogmatics {J enn, 1786. 8vo.) 
In June, 1787, a third edition was called for, and in I789, a 

With his functions as a public teacher were soon associated other 
duties, which occupied much of his time and attention. In ISIarch, 
1780, he was appointed inspector over the students from W^eimar 
and Eisenach; in August the same year, he was elected to the office 
of Vice-rector, with w hich he was afterwards frequently invested. 
From that period he entered more and more deeply into all the con- 
cerns of the academy, of which he soon became one of the most 
experienced, and active conductors, exerting himself with such as- 
siduity, and taking part in the complicated and arduous business of 

500 Kothe*s Biographical Memoir 

the accounts, with such integrity and ability, as could not fail to 
gain him universal confidence. 

Neither did the illustrious patrons of his seminary remain igno- 
rant of his merits. In 17SI he was nominated ecclesiastical coun- 
sellor to the Duke of Saxe Weimar,, and in 1784 received the title 
of Privy ecclesiastical counsellor. In 1782 he was chosen Prelate 
and deputy of the district of Jena ; he soon made himself familiar 
with this new vocation, and was a most active and respected 
member of the general diet till the spring of 1811, when he at- 
tended that assembly for the last lime, though suffering under severe 
bodily infirmities. 

These,and other public employments, occupied no inconsiderable 
portion of his time; yet he never neglected his aca^lemical duties, 
but by a judicious distribution and appropriation of his time, he even 
gair.i-d hours which he could devote to learned researches. This is 
abundantly proved by his farther critical labors, especially the Sym- 
bols criik(e ad supp/ciidas et corrigendas varias N. T. leciiones. 
Accedit muhorum N. T. codicum gracortim descriptio et examen. 
Pars. 1. Hal. 1785. P. U. 1793. 8vo. We may likewise adduce 
his profound communications to periodical w'orks ; for instance, to 
the Repertory of Biblical and ()}ievfal Literature, and his elabo- 
rate criticisms on books in the General German Libraii/ and Ge^ 
neral Literary Gazette. If we finally consider how much of hi» 
time was engaged by an extensive correspondence^ and by the nu- 
merous visits of strangers and students, to whom he always behaved 
. with kindness; how much he lost by frequent illness; and how 
many hours he was fond of de%'oting to the society of his wife and 
friends ; we cannot forbear admiring the man who knew bow to 
make so good a use of his days. 

As long as his health permitted, he bestow^ed his attention on his 
New Testament and its perfection. This work at length appeared 
in a form more worthy of its aiithor, who himself took an active 
part in the typographical arrangements for the fine edition. The 
first volume was finished in 1803, the second in 1804, the third in 
1806, and the fourth in 1807. By a convenient common edition, 
which he was anxious to render as complete as possible, he sup- 
plied in 1805 a want that was sensibly felt. A larger edition, be- 
gun in I79G, and finished in 180(3, was calculated for England as 
Weil as Germany. The second volume of the Comment. Critic. 
which appeared in 1811, was his last publication. 

In the spring of 1810, he undertook a journey to the south of 
Germany, where he revisited many an old friend of his youth, and 
many a favorite spot, and returned greatly invigorated from this 
excursion. In the following year his strength rapidly declined. 
During the summer lie suffered severely from oppression on the 
chest, and a violent debilitating cough. His friends trembled for 
his life. At Michaelmas, he recommenced his lectures ; for so 


of John Jacob Griesbach. 301 

long as he had any strength left he could not be prevailed upon to 
relinquish his professional duty. The exertion was, ho'vever, 
painful and fatiguing. The winter destroyed all hopes, and at ihe 
beginning of 1812 he was obliged to give up his lectures, ile took 
leave of his hearers not without hope, but with d'l'ep emotion ; and 
their profound regret and veneration accompanied hun in his re- 
tirement. From that tinic he never quitted his routn. At inter- 
vals, when he was comparatively easy, he anticipated with pleasure 
the return of spring, and the possibility that it might restore him 
once more to his disciples. The last ray suddenly vanished ; he 
could no longer rise from his bed. His mind yet remained 
vigorous ; but his body was exhausted ; every motion cost a painful 
effort ; and thus he awaited his dissolution with composure and 
resignation. He expired in the Passion week, on Tuesday, March 
24th; and early in. the morning of Good Friday his remains were 
consigned to the grave. 

Of a large athletic make, Griesbach's figure indicated at first 
sight the firmness, solidity, decision and integrity of his chaiacter. 
The gravity that dwelt upon his brow, the penetrating keeniiess of 
his eye, the austerity that strangers read in his features, were tem- 
pered by the almost hidden kindness, the expression of benevolence 
and love, which illumined his countenance, won the confidence of 
the timid, and often attracted his more intimate friends with silent 
but irresistible force. It was not his grey hair alone in the latter 
years of his life that inspired veneration — his whole figure com- 
manded reverence: a tranquil dignity, acknowledged by all, was 
diffused over it ; not of that spurious kind, which only seeks to dis- 
play itself, but the unsophisticated, the living expression of inward 
worth, independence of mind, nobleness of sentiments, and well- 
earned reputation. He was, in short, all that his exterior deaotod : 
a model of humble ardent piety, clearness and decision, truth and 
fidelity, magnanimity and love. His generous heart was thoroughly 
penetrated with the univers;d philanthropy which was manifested m 
his voluntary renunciation of personal enjoyments and indulgence, 
in the most disinterested activity, the most cheerful sacrifice of his 
strength, experience, wisdom, time, nay even of life itself. When 
once gained over by the celebrated seminary to which he belonged, 
no offers, however seducing — no vocation, however honorable — 
could prevail upon him to leave it: he chose rather to renounce the 
most brilliant and lucrative appointments, and to be satisfied diere 
with what v.'as sufficient to su|>ply his simple wants, than to desert 
the teiiiple of philosophy tu vviio?e service he \\:\s attached. 



* =1 

TVe ha'ce made arrangemenis for collecting an ac- 
'Count of ALi. ^anu^ccipt^ on the foregoing depart- 
ments of Literature^ which at present exist in the 
"carious Public Librauies in Great Britain. 
JFe shall coiiiinue thtm in each Number till finished, 
when an Index shall be given of the whole. JVe 
shall then collect an account of the Manuscripts in 
the Royal and Imperial Libraries on the 
Continent. All communications from our Friends 
will be of assistance to our undertaking. 


CoDiCf!? ^lEanuCcripti Cla.s.sici ^fstu 


131. Fragmenium Folia 2. Sec. XFI. [No. 3318.] 


132. EpistoU 29. 'See. XIV. [No. 5610.] 

133. EpistoU. Sec. XF. [No. 5635.] 


134. Syracusanorum Principis de regno libri 4. Sec. XF. [No. 


135. AiOVva-ioo'AXs^av^gscoi ol}iov[isvYjg ■7Tspir,yri(ng. [No. 1814.] 

Obss. Non solum gaudet hoc exemplar interlineariljis Scholiis prima 
manu conscriptis, verum etiam aliis una cum emendatio!),lnis et notis mar- 
ginalibus viri cujusdam perdocti superiovis, ut videlur, seculi, quae nondum 
quod sciam luccm viderint. 

J36. Peiiegesis cum brevi prologo. Sec, Xlf . [iVo. 5577.] 
137. Periegesis 51. [No. 5662.] 

Obss. Subjungilur, nullo sensu, hie versus : 

dXkriO aa-crvoiOi^ Eva.y.iyysri ay^scri uAAtov. 

Patinas suas habet hoc pocma usque ad 40. 

Codex folia habet 100. Scriptus A, D. 1493. Subscribitur enira 


Manuscripts. 303 

138. Jntiockkmis Epistolce 46 ad Philoxeninn. Sec. XIV. 

[No. 5610.] 
139- Areopagitce, opera cum paraphrase Geo. Pachi/meri. Sec. 

XV. [No. 5678.] 


140. 3. AJcestidis fragmentum a versu 1032 Ed. Beckii, ad 
Jinem. Sine Scholiis. — 4 Rhesus. — 5. Troades. Sec. (forsan) 

XVL [No. 5743.] 

Obss. IIujus ad finem Codicis scriptum est : " Librum hunc Tragoediarum 
acquisivit Liidovicus Boiirguetus Nemansensis, a Doctore Antonio dc 
Blanchis Veronas d. 4 Octobris Anno Doni. Mill. Septingentesimo secundo.'' 

141. Hecuba Tragadia prremissis Ili/pothesi et epigrammate in 
Euripidem. Sec. XIV. [No. 5724.] 

142. Hecuba cum G/ossis interlinearihus et margirtalibus : pra- 
missa sunt quccdant de generc Euripidis. — 2. Electra. — Sec. XIV. 

[No. 5725.] 
143.— 1. Hecuba. — 2. Orestes. — 3. Phaniss(e cum Scholiis inter- 
linearibus et marginaiibus. [No. 6300.] 
Obss. Prpemittuntur ut in aliis nonnulJa de genere Euripidis. Scriptura 
similis num. 5725. et atas forte eadem scilicet sec. XIV. 
144. Epistola. Sec. XV. [No. 5635.] 


145. De metris et poematibus. Sec. XV. [No. 5618.] 

Obss. Michael Aposteles Byzantinus post patria; direptionem penuria 
vivens, scripsit. 

146. Ars Rhetorica. Sec. XVL [No. 5681.] 


147. De gente et vita Homeri. Sec. XIV. [No. 5600.] 

148. De gente Homeri. Sec. XV. [No. dQSd-l 

149. Historic liber primus cui titulus Clio. Sec. forsan XV. 
[ATo. 6312.] 


150. Aspis. Sec. XIV. [No. 5724] 

151. Opera et Dies cum interpretaiione interlineari et nofulis, 
[No. 6323.] 

Obss. Manu rudi sod satis clara. 


162. In Pythagora: aurea carmina. Sec. XV. [No. 2678.] 

304 Manuscripts. 


153. 1. Epistola ad Pfolomceiim. — 2. Apliorismorum liher 2 — Q. 
Sec. XV. [No. 5626.1 

154. Aphorismi cum commenlario pkniore. Sec. XIV. \No. 

0/js,v.:ncipit Commentator «'E7rc;o7}7rs^ IxsKXowsv (Tvvroiw:^ fSKO,) <roc(pMS 

1.5.";. IHados liber primus cum argu/neiitis. [No. 1675.] 

Oftvs. Codex chartaceiis in folio miii. Sedatii scriptus circi A.D. 159-1. 
perpetuis fere commentariis atque glossematis interJinearibus D. Burclieti 

156. "T1J.V01 is 9£ol';.— [N'o. 1752.] 

Obsi. Vide supra ad art. 93. 
557. 'Ou^rjoov 'iXidhi pcc^cuSicc a. 

Obss. lliadis primre (qiuu hoc in codicc vocabulo aa*A producte scripto 
denotatur) ^^rguraentiim desiderari notandrun. 

2. 'Ttojsc-ig jS' 'Oij.r^oO'j px\bajSlccs. — 3. "AWw;. 

Obss. Quin et in ipsij Argumentis occurrunt Lectiones ab editis discrepan- 

4. 'l^idSog /3' 'Ou-Yioov pail/cudi'a^. 

Obss. In bina qiiasi l^oemata dividitur. Nam post versum 493, leguntur 
haec verba iiteris miniatis scripta TeAo; ryjg 'lAta^o; |S' 'O;j.-rj^ou pa^cv^lag 
quae statim excipit. 

5. 'H vito^su-is rr^s BoiMtlccc fijs 'OiJ/jcou px'^cy3locs qu* "on comparet 
novissima omnium Humeri editione per Josuam Barnesium elaborata. 

6. Numerus Principum, Navium ac BellatorumGrcecorum. 

7. '■^^X'^ '•"^i^ Boicvrlc; Boiu^rcvv yAv YItjVsXbuj; kou Ar^'irog rf^yov* 
— 8. 'Tiroho-ig y rijs 'Oij,TjOO'j poc^cv^lxg. — 9- 'iXi&Soc y •Of/.rj^ou pccv^aj- 
Sixc. — 10. 'TTt6^sTic\rrjg S' 'O;x-^^0'j pa4'C'-'^''«>. — 11. "AXXujg. — 12. iKid- 
hg 'Oy.-ijpou pa^'jjSlccc.— 13. 'TTTojsa-ig Trjg s 'OfJ^rj^ov f)ix\p(x.'§lxg . — 14. 
AaXvjc. — 15. 'IXicioog a 'Oixtj^ou pa^^w^lxg. — 16. 'tiro^ea-ig rf/g ^' 'Oy,i)- 

§ov pa\l>jj^Accg. — 17. Ka< dXXujg. — 18. ^iXid^og ^ '0|U,ijcoy pa4>M^ixg. — 
19' 'TTTo^Es-ig rrjg 7;' 'Oy/ij^ov pa.'h'jMag. — 20. "AXXvug. — 21. 'iXi^x^g njf' 
'Op/jfoy oa^JcyVia.c. — 22. 'TiroSsa-lg &' 'Oajj^ou px'hwllx.g. — 23. "AXXcvg. 
• — 24. 'iXixSog & 'Oy^Yi^ov fx^uj^Jiag. — 25. 'TTtoSecrig irjg i "Ow/jfoy fx- 
yl>cv§lag. — 26. "AXXcvg. — 27. 'l/.idoog i 'Oa-)jco-j fx4^:volag. — 28. 'TTtokerig 
"rijg 'iXidSog k 'Ojj.-j^ov px^hiv^ixg. — 29- "AXXx'c. 

Obss. Hoc Argumentum in Editione Homeri BarneMana desideratur. 

30. 'iXtdoog K '0[juY,^ov px^^uioixg. — 31. 'Tir6Ss(rtg TTJg X '0(j.Yj§oa 
f!X^a)S!xg. — 32. "AXXcvg. — 33. 'iXixhg a' 'Ou-vjcot; pa^iuSlxg. — 34.'T7ro- 
Qecig Tyjg iXixoog (l' 'Qiltj^ov px^l/ujSlxg. — 35. ''AA^^uf. 

Obss. Deest etiam hoc argumentnm in Editione Barnesiana. 

36. '[Xidcog yJ 'O/xij^ot; px'h'jj^lxc. — 37- 'TttoOscti; rff 'iXixSog V 
'OaTjfiOu pa^/cuJjas'.— 38. "AXX'j:g. — Z^- 'i.Xidhg v 'OiJ^rjcov pa^^^Slxg. — ■ 
40. 'TiroSs-rig r-ijg 'IXidSog ^ 'Oy-Yj^ou pa^x'Slxg. — 41. 'AXXcvg. 

Obss. Neqne invenitur hoc argumentum in Editione Barnesiana. 

42. 'IXtxhg g' 'Oyy/^oov pa^'jjolxg. — 43. 'TTtokcng fi-g 0' '0/xiJ£)C(U pav^o" 
6ixg. — 44. "AAaw/. 

Manuscripts, 305 

Ohis. Neqiie occurrit hoc argumentum apud Barnesium. 

45. — 'lAiaiJoj o' '0/x>jpoy px^^ivSlacg. — A6. 'TttoSso-i; rrj; ^iKidhs it 
Oijirjoov px'^cvolxi. — 4*7. 'iKid^og tt' 'O^ri^ov pa^cvSlo!.;. — 48. 'iKid^og §' 
Oa^j'foy pa^iv^ixg. — 49- 'T7ro^£<Tig rij; 'iKidSo; s' 'Oaij'^ou |Oav|/cyo/af. — 
50. "IkidSo; f' '0/xv)'fou 'pa,'\)x^lag. — 31. 'Tirodsais T-^s'lMdSog r 'Oaij'fou 
pa.\l/ujSlxs.- 52. 'lAidSo; t 'Of/.^j'sou poA^M^lac,. — 53. "lTto^z<ng Trjf 
'IXidSog v 'Ofj^Ti^ov pa-^l^cvSlccg. — 34. 'lAidhg v Ot^r/fO'J px^^iySloig. — 55. 
TiroSsa-is Trjg 'iXiaoog (p 'O[j,rj^ou px^'u-'^locg. — 36. 'Ikidhg (f>' 'OjU-^^ou 
px\p'jjSia.s. — 57. 'Tiro^sa-ig rij; y^' 'Oa-)j^0Li pa^/uuSlxg. — 58. "AaXujs. — ■ 
59. 'IXidSog ^' 'OiLr.r^ov pa,\ljujSlag. — b"0. 'Titoho-i; rijg 'IXidhg ^' 
'Ojj.rjoov pwlfivoiix;. 

61. Aliud argumentum in Barnesii editione desideratum. 

62. 'IXiac^og ^/' 'Ou.ri'jov pa.^'ujSiocg. — 6'3. 'X-nd^&ffis Trjg cu px^uiSlas. — 
64. 'IXidooc uj' 'Ou^rjonv pa.^cv<^lccg. 

Obss. In tine desiderantur tolia 5 aut 6. 

In hoc codice continentur non mode Argumenta Iliadis varia et Epigra- 
pha Grffica, sad schuha etiam q\iampluriina tani marginaUa quam interU- 
nearia adhuc ni filler incdita, adduntur. [No. 1771.] 
158. Lias cum sJrgumentis et Epigrammate. [No. 5600.] 

Obss. Scripsit Johannes Presbyter Cretae A. D. 1366. 
1.59. — 1. Batrachomyomachia. — 2. liias, cum Prolegomenis ar^ 

gumentis et interpreiatione Grceca interlineari. Sec. XF. [No. 


160. Odyssea script a super membra na sine versuum divisione. 
Ad Jinem liac inscriptio. MsTsyqafri ^ tou o/^jj^ou 'OSucro-s/a 
«,vaXu)[xucri jxh rotj svTtixooTXTOo uvdgog xoglov j3up$Q\oiJ.otiov toD xpucr- 
TTiavov ^Bigi 8e luiuvvov hgsMc paii(rov xou nmTog. "Etsj «7ro t^j yu' 
yeVvr^a-sMc y^iKiocrrwj Texgaxoo-Joo-Tcu £/35o|*»xo(rT«i Ivarw /u,>jvog aw- 
youTTQUj OrxaTJj, ev jscojt^jj. Anno 1479- 

Obss. In hac inscriptione et in codice ipso vocalia * et u puncto duplici 
suprascripto signantur .' et U. Iota non subscnbitur. Codex folia habet 
260. [No. 5658.] 

161. Batrachomyomachia cum scholiis et glossis interlinearibus. 
Sec. XF. [No. 5664.] 

162. Iliados liber primus cum fragmentis secundi tertii et quarti 
Scilicet B. 1—9.490—534. ' ' 

163. Catalogi navium initium. F. 123 — 302. A. 67 — 246. Sec. 
X/F. [No. 5672.] 

164. Odyssea cum notulis recentioribus Latinis. ^ec. XF. [No. 

Obss. Subjiciuntur versus lambici Incipientes <pvyujv'Oov(r(r£'jg qui extaot 
in 5674 et etiam alii ; 

AiiXTJv jxsv TiSug aXAa xa.) ^i^Xov taXog. 

165. Odyssea cum scholiis. Sec. XIII. [No. 5674.] 

Obss. Codex insignis a eel. Viro Ric. Person pro Homero Grenvilliano 
eollatus. Descriptionem codicis, quia mehor proponi non potest, verbis Por- 
sonianis damus. 

" Codex est membranaceus forma quam in folio vocant minori ; quod ad 
altitudinem scilicet et latitudinem attinet, Aldino Herodoto simihs. Mem- 
brana crassa est et firma, sed aliquando pinguis ; unde fit, ut scholia qus*-- 

NO. XX. C7. Jl. VOL. X. U 

306 Conjecture on a passage 

dam lectu difficiliora sint, qucedam minus eleganter scripta. Plerumque 
vero et textus et scholia nitide sunt exarata. Totus ut opinor uno tempore 
textus absolutus est; deinde scholia addita eademne an diversa manu nori 
certo dixerim. Neque id multum refert cum satis constet unius jussu et 
consilio totum M. S. concinnatum esse. PaucaqiuBdam bon* notm margin! 
insunt cteteris recentiora quidem ut colligo ex liquoris colore qui est ruber 
flavescens sed exiguo intervallo recentiora. Hunc codicem decimo tertio 
sasculo adscribit Casleius (in catalogo priore) nee quidquam habeo quod 
contradicam. Ilium notandum, scriptum esse, cum jam dubitari coeptum 
esset utrum nota ad latiis an infra poni deberet. Nostri enim textus media 
quadam via incedit. Hie etiam codex, ut id obiter moneam, collatus est a 
Thoma Bentleio sed negligenter admodum. NuUas enim, certe rarissimas 
ejus lectiones, preeter eas quas in textu inveniebat, notavit." 

Codex folia habet 150. Ad finem scriptum est "Antonii Scripandi et 
amicorum." Collationes Porsoni paginas occupant 84 in 4lo. charactere 

166. — 4. Batrachomyomachia. 

167. — 6. lUas, coiitinens versus 15634, cum glossis Porphyrii. 
{No. 5693.] 

Obss. Codex certe sa-culo 15 antiquior; folia habens 319. 
l68. — Batrachomuomacliia j'ol. 9- fwm glossis. [No. 6301.] 
169. Odyssea. Sec. XV. [No. 5625.] 

Conjecture on a passage in the Cato Major ^vindicated. 

To THE Editor of the Classical Journal. 

1 beg leave to call the attention of your readers to a passage in 
the Cato Major of Cicero, on which I ventured to offer a con- 
jecture. That conjecture has not the good fortune to be favorably 
received by some respectable scholars, though it perhaps deserves 
more notice than they are at present disposed to pay it. On a 
recent perusal of the profound Coynmentary bij Claudius Salma- 
sius on the six Writers of the yiugustan Histoty, I was much 
delighted to find that this wonderful scholar had anticipated me in 
my conjecture, and that, as is apparent from the tenor of his note^ 
he had evidently hit on the conjecture by viewing the passage 
in the very light, in which 1 have view ed it myself, viz. as relating 
solely to military exercises, without any allusion to the game of 
the pilu, or ball; my opponents may, if they please, charge me 
with plagiarism, but 1 am myself so much gratified to discover 
that 1 have the authority of CI. Salmasius to support my conjec- 
ture, that I shall easily bear up under the pressure of such an 
unjust charge. 

Sibi igitur habeant arma, sibi equos, sibi hastas, sibi clavam, $ibi pilam, sibi 
natationes, et cursus ; nobis scnibus ex luiionibus muliis talos relin^uant «•? 
*€*seras. Cic. J)e Senect. c. H. 


in the " Cato Major,'" vindicated. 307 

I now produce my own note : 

The reading of pila, which Graevius seems half-inclined to admit, will 
lead us to the true reading, which I suppose to have been sibi claram, sibi 
ilnw. We cannot understand by pilam the in&trumentum lusoruim descri- 
ed by Gesner; for the context evidently requires vis to understand some 
miliiary exercise, sibi arma, equos, hastai>, clavam, pilam, jiaftitiones, et cursus. 
Gesner says under pilum : " Armorum genus, hastile pedum qniiique et 
semis, ferro triangiilo unciarum novem, ad cujus ictum praecipue exertehan- 
tur milites, quod arte et virtute directum et scutatos pedites, et loricatos 
equites sa pe transverberat : haec Veget. II. 15. : — Serv. ad JEn. 7. 664. 
Pi/um proprie est hasta Eomanorum." Plautus B«ccA. III. 3. 24. (quoted by 
Gesuer under p^/rtj says, Ibi curxu,luctando,hasta,ci?'co,pngiUutu, pila, saliendo 
se exercebant mugis. Plautus is evidently here speaking of miliuiry exercises, 
and therefore, here also pi!a is improper, and must be changed into jj/'/o. 
These alterations are so slight, that I hope they will readily meet with the 
approbation of critics. 

Who would have supposed, Mr. Editor, that these words 
would subject me to censure for dogmatism .'' Yet " Hylax," the 
author of a paper in the Monthly Magazine for Jan. 1614., 
writes thus : 

Mr. Barker pronounces this to be a difficult passage, and accordingly 
(credite poste-^i) proposes an emendation, or rather, he positively assents 
tiie true reading is pilum, overlooking, no doubt, the word hastas, which had 
gone before. The common reading is rightl} understood by Janus Rut- 
gersius V. L. 11, 12, and is confirmed beyond contradiction by Cicero in 
the De Amicitia 20. Si qui ineunte cetate vcnandi, uut pila studios \studiosi^ 

Before I reply to these words, I shall cite what I have in 
another place written on the passage in question : 

With respect to the conjecture of pilu7u for pilam, which your corre- 
spondent in p. 445. has anointed with the vials of Ids wi-ath, I still maintain 
that, as the exercises which are mentioned boUi before this ill-fated pilum, 
and after it, are military, (which I shall more fully prove on another occa- 
sion) it is at the least highly probable that it means some military exercise. 
A Writer in the British Neptune, who has assailed the propriety of this 
conjecture in more decorous language, has been well answered by the per- 
son, who has reviewed my publication in No. IX. of the Classical Journal., 
to which I refer your correspondent, as these remarks have been already 
protracted to too great a length. See the Gent. Mag. No. for June, 
1812, or The New Review, No. ^Vl. for June, 1813. p. 696. 

The observations of CI. Salmasius, alluded to above, are these : 
*' iElius Spartianus, Armisque et pilo se semper exercuit. Putant esse 
figuram hli.aivoh, armis et pilo, ut patera liba.nus et au?o : ego contra sen- 
tio. Exe'citium anorum ab exercitio sagiitarum, missilium, pilorumque 
diversum. Sic exercitium armorum a sagittis separat Suetonius in Domitiano, 
Armorum, inquit, nutlo, sagittarum vel pracipuo studio tenebatur. Pilum, 
autem et sagittas conjungit Vopiscus in Aureliano, Nullum- unquam diem^ 
pra:ter,i'isit, quaynvisj'estum, quumvis vucantem, a quo non se pilo et sagittis cele- 
risque armoi-um exerceret ojjiciis. Si «rOT« generaliter accipiantur^ non sum 
nescius et sagittas, et pi/a, et alia missilia eo nomine comprehend!. Sub 
armorum vero exercitio scutum et gladius tantum comprehendebatur. Ovidius 
jaculandi peritiam ab armis distinguit. 

Sunt Hits celeresque pila, jaculumque, trochique, 
Arma^ue, et in gyros ire coarius equus, 

308 Conjecture on a passage, fy. 

Cicero in Catone Majore, ubi exercitationum militarium genera enumerat, 
urma quoque ab hastis separat, Sibi habeant i^it)ir anna, iihi e(]uus, sibi hustas, 
$ibi clavam, sibi pitam, sibi venationes. [The Edd. and MSS. read not vena- 
tiones, but nutationeSy or nationesJ] Quo loco lubentius etiam legerim sibi 
pilum, quam pilum. Armorum igitur exercitium, tarn apud milites, quam gla- 
diatores, in solo clypeo et gladio constabat. Qui clypeum scienter vibrare et 
quatere, obliquis ictibus telorum jactum deflectere, qui gladio dimicare 
noverat, is in armorum exercitio peritus censebatur. Vegetius L. II. c. 14. 
Qui hastas vel missilia perife jaculetur et jortiter, qui dimicare gladio, et 
scutum rotare doctissime noverit, qui omnem artem didicerit urinatuice. Ai'tna 
tractare pro eodem dixit Seneca, Majores nostri rectum juventutem. exercue- 
runt hastilia jacere, sudem torquere, equum agitare, arma tractare. Armu 
movere JVIanilio, 

Aut solo vectatus equo nunc arma muvebit ; 
in vetere Epigrammate, 

Et in morem militis arma movet. 

Non audiendus Lipsius, qui' hie legit Paloque et armis se semper exercuit. 
Ut, inquit, duplex exercitii genus intelligatur, armatura et palariu. Sic 
.autem inter armaturam et pularia distinguit, ut armatura levium fuerit, et 
palaria gravium. Quasi illud exercitii genus, quod armaturam Vegetius 
aliique recentiores passim appellant, idem fuerit cum exercitio armorum 
aut ad leves tantum pertinuerit, non etiam ad graves. Quid ? nonne 
ut levis armatura de levibus, sic et gravis armatura de gravibus dice- 
batur? Sane levem armaturam, ut ferentarios, funditores, et id genus omne; 
ermaturas dicebant. V^egetius, Post has erant ferentarii et levis armatura, 
quos nunc scultatores, et armaturas dicimus. Louge tamen differunt ar- 
vmtura et armaturtz. Armaturas dicebant levem armaturam. Armatura 
vero exercitium posterioris Eetatis longe diversum ab armorum exercitio, 
de quo hie agimus, et tota re falluntur eruditissimi viri, qui idem faciunt, 
Armorum exercitium in solo clypeo et ense consistebat. Armatura vero, 
vel armaturtz exercitium erat cum milites armati sub signis decurrentes in 
campo proluderent, ut pluribus docebimus ad Alexandri Severi vitam. Nihil 
igitur ad rem pertinet ilia distinctio armature et palari<iE exercitationis, et 
falsa h. 1. emendatio, Armisque et palo.'^ Cl. Salmasius In HistoritE Au- 
gusta Scriptores VI. Parisiis, 1720. p. 58. 

The Note of Is. Casaubou has been produced by the person, 
who noticed my work in No. IX. of the Classical Journal. It 
will, however, be right to repeat it here. 

" Est Fv ita Ji/orv ligura, armis et pilo, ut patera et aura. Vel ita cape, cuna 
Cceteris armorum generibus, tum etiam pilo. Separat pilum ab armis, quod 
in illis tamen vel prgecipuura, et omnium gravissimum : ideo nominalim 
indicandum : sic, w Ziv xal 9so\, apud Comicum. Paulo aliter Seneca, hastilia 
separat ab armis, in Epist. LXXXVIII. Mujo7'es nostri rectam juventute?a 
exercuerunt hastilia jacere, sudem torquere, equum agitare, arma tractare. 
Ita autem libri omnes, non pila, nee palo. Vopiscus in Aureliano, Nullum 
unquam diem praterrnisit, quamvis festum, quamvis vacantem, quo non se pilo 
et sagittis, caterisque artnorum exerceret officiis." Page 42. of Is. Casaubon's 
Motes, subjoined to the above mentioned edition which was published by 
Salmasius himself. 

Salmasius has well explained what is meant by arma, as contra- 
distinguished from pila, ha&tcc, hastilia, sagitta ; in the passage of 
Cicero arma is used for exercitium armorum, and by that we are 
to understand the shield and the sword. This explanation shows 
the propriety, with which Cicero speaks of the hastes, clava^ 

Notice of C. A. Klotzii Opuscula, ^c. S09 

\mdipihim, as distinct from the arma. By these words of CI. Salma- 
sius the objection of " Hylax " (quoted above) to the proposed 
conjectural emendation of pilum for pi/am, viz. " the word liastas 
which had gone before," is destroyed. For CI. Sahnasius has 
produced passages not only where arma are contradistinguished 
from pi/a, Iias/ce, hastilia, sagitla, but where pila are contradis- 
tinguished from sagitta, as in our passage pi/a are used with 
hastce. Vopisc. in Aureliano, Nid/urn unquani diem prcctermisit, 
quamvis fentum, quamvis vacantem, qRo non se pi/o, et sagittis, 
cateiisque armonim exerceret officiis. 

I add the following passages, unnoticed by Stalinasius and Ca- 

Curtius L. III. c. 3. Currum decern millia hastatorum sequebantur : hastas 
grgento cxornatos, spicula auro prsefixa gestabant. Tacit. 2. Ann. c. 14. 
Prima utcunque acies hastata : ceteris prausta, aut brevia tela. " Hasta 
differt a pilo, quo legionarii utebantiir : hasta vero auxiliarii, ut ex Tacito 
constat Ann. 12. c. 35 : Si auxiliuribus resisterent, gladiis ac pilis legiona- 
RiORUM ; si hue verterent, spathis et hastis auxiliarium sternebantur.'' 
Forcellini et Facciolati Lexicon totius Latinitaiis. 

h Hylax objects to the passage produced from Curtius, be- 
cause spicu/a, and not pi/a, are there joined with hastas, let hira 
know that spicu/a and pi/a are exactly the same, which 1 assert on 
the authority of Vegetius, who thus writes in Lib. ii. c. 15. 

Missile majus, ferro triangulo, unciuriim novem, hastili pedum quinque semis, 
quod PILUM vocabant, nunc spiculum dicitur. 

This is sufficient to show the great mistake, into which Hylax 
has fallen in supposing that Cicero could not have said pi/a in the 
passage under consideration, because hastas " had gone before." 

Thetford, Nov. I, 1814. E. H. BARKER. 


C. A. Klotzii Opuscula varii Argumenti. 

A/lenburgi, 8vo. pp. 330. 

J T is our intention to adorn our miscellany with two or three of the 
articles, which this work contains. On the present occasion we shall 
content ourselves with laying before our readers two articles relative 
to the Eclogues of Virgil. The first of them exhibits a curious list 
of passages, which, from their remarkable resemblance to the phraseo- 
logy of holy writ, and the general complexion of the matter, Klotzius 
deems to have come from the pens of monks. Eighteen passages are 
produced, and pronounced to be pious frauds. 

S 1 Notice of C. A. Klotzii 

De Ecloga Virgilii quarta. Conjectura, quomodo acciderit, ut 
inter profanorum et sacrorum scriptoruni verba szepe magna simi- 
litudo esse videatur. 

Nemo ieiQ erit, quin, lecta interpretatione loci Sibyllini a Guilielmo 
Alabastro, dene nescio cujus, Pythias certe alicujus, in cerebello homi- 
nis nidulantis, ope excogitata, ingenium dicani, an stuporeni ? inter- 
pretis suaviter irrideat. Nam, quaj Sibylla Erythreea in Libr. III. 
canit, cerfe cecinisse dicitur, et quorum particulam hue transferamus 
(neque enim belli sunt vtrsiculi, et digni muliercula ista) 

ijs\iov TTVgosvTct \hiyav, Ka[XTrg(x.v ts (reX^VYjV, 
xa] Vixvcic (rTrjcrsi xa) (rrjUUTu ttoKKoL TroirjO'Ei 
avSpM'Trois' olW' o'jp^i Tc\s<T<^opu IfrcrsT h oivtco-— 
Ea iste Alabaster sic exposuit : 

' Ex Augustinianis, qui religione reguntur Augustini, veniet Lu- 
therus, postquam postpositus est in indulgentiarum pra^positione. Et 
sistcre conabitur regularum permissarum subordinationem : sistere 
etiam conabitur riispositionem Laicie ))o!itica2. Veritatis illuniinato- 
reni praecipuum, erroruni censorem magnuni, et docendo subordinatara 
literarum discijilinara et castilati devotas sistere conabitur, et argu- 

mtnta multa faciei protestantibus' 

At ohe ! jam satis esr, wre fLOi X£Kcx,'/rjV. Quae quidem ctsi febricu- 
losi hominis, nimium aniantis Sibyllam suam, pulcellamque virgun- 
culain exosculantis, somnia esse omnes intelligunt, non desunt lamen, 
qui in Ecloga IV. Virgilii, cujus initium, 

Sicelides Mu«;r paullo niajora canamus, 
explicanda eandem viam iiieant. Quid enim pervulgatius est, quam 
poetam in ilio carmine de divino generis humani servatore loqui ? 
Noudum autem nos pfeiiitet eorum, qua' in Actis Erudit. Lips. a. 
175.'/. mens. Aug. contra cl, Angelum Floerclien, licet paullo Iristius, 
quam nunc volumus factum esse, super hoc arguniento disputavimus. 
Si quis velit aliorum sententias cognoscere, |)raeter laudatos a Bur- 
jnanno scriptorcs, nieniiui hoc argumcnlum tractare alios, ut, Boecle- 
rum in Dissertaiione dsbucolico Virgilii, quarto. Argent or. l6'6"l. Fr. 
Bened. Carpzovivim in Dissertatiorie de Publii Virgilii Maronis 
Echga qnarfa Lips. 1669. Tob. Eckharduni in Non Christ ianovum 
de Christ oTestimoniis c. 2. s. 17. Guil. Whistonum in Libro A Sup" 
plemeKi to the Literal Accomplishment of Scriptui^e- Prophecies, 
Lend. 1725. Dissert. IIL Jc. Massonuni in Dissertatione affixa 
Edv. Chandleri libro ^ F/wrf/ca^/o/2 of the Defence of Chrisdanitp from 
the Prophecies of the Old Testament, etc. Lond. 1728. Jo. Martyn in 
The Bucolics of Virgil with an English Translation, Lond. 1749. 
Digtia sunt pue aliis, quts expendantur, ea, quae disputavit Lowtliius in 
libro pulcherrimo De Poesi Ebrceorum sacra Prcel. XXL p. 427. 
quo libro Gernianiae donato, atque ita donato, ut nnilta et pra^clara or- 
namenta iiberaliler adderet, quantum sibi omnes verae doctrinae stu- 
diosos devinxerit iilustris Michaelis, dicerem, nisi et illius modestia 
nostras laudes respueret, et me, de quo ille immortaliter nieritus est. 

Opuscula "varii ArgiimentL 311 

tacite potius adrairari iliarum virtutum praestantiam, aut iis privatim 
coniruemorandis niihi et amicis satisfacere, quam palam eas pi^dicare 
debere existimarein. Ego facilius niulto esse puto, qunraodo non, 
quam quomodo illud carmen explicandnm sit dicere. Quare et eos, 
qui Cliristi natales hie inveniunt, errare dicere audeo, et me, utrum de 
Marcello, an de alio quoquam poeta loquatur, nescire profiteor. In 
primis vero in legendis Graecorum et Latinorum auctoruni libris hanc 
cautionem adhibendam esse arbitror, ne ob siniilitudinem quandam cum 
sacris scriptoribus mysteria nescio quie fingamus, et quomodo ea aut 
scribere, aut cogitare potuerit auctor, operosius disputemus. 

Judieanti enim de talibus duo consideranda esse duco. Primnm 
placent mihi valde, qua; beatus Gesnerus in Prolegom. ad Claudian, 
p. 6. dicit: " An fortasse plus interdum sit," inquit, " in illius versi- 
bus, quam ipse sciret, per discipliuam, disputationem, causas cogno- 
visset? Fieri quidem potest, nt poeta aliquis suipoivraa-luiros prassertim, 
lit noster, dum qua? sunt vos^a etiam aicrS^ra vult facere, et contrec- 
landa velut praibere sensibus, dum in partes se omnes vertit et liberuni 
spiritum nunc ad superos evolare patitur et magnum inane percurrere, 
nunc prsecipitat ad inferos, in eas incidat vel cogitationes vel imagines, 
in quibus plus sit veri, quam ipse prinio intuitu observaret, vel postea 
inde elicit." Atque etiam niliil verius est, quam poetam qui in illud 
operam dat, ut quam clarissime aliquam rem exponat, omnibus orna- 
mentis ornet, et venustissimis coloribus, ut ita dicam, pingat, atque 
hac de causa totam rerura naturam pererrat, undique, quse placeant, 
decerpit, optimis imaginibus perite utitur, sive sacrorum, sive profano- 
rum,scriptorum dixerit, etsi ille horuni carmina nunquam attigerit. For- 
tasse ha^c observatio ad Eclogam Virgilii rectius explicandam facit, prae- 
sertim si, quod fere suspicor, poetam Hesiodeam aureas aetatis descrip- 
tionem ante oculos habuisse dicamus. Sed venit etiam mihi alia con- 
jectura in mentem, audacula forte, sed taraen non destituta veritatis 
specie. Magnam partem eorum locorum, quse, quod atlinet ad verba, 
ad orationem sacrorum scriptorum propius accedunt, puto deberi in- 
genio rnonachorum. Nam his codices describentibus obversata fuisse 
verba propria Christianse religionis, atque pro veris lectionibus substi- 
tuta et intrusa, jam alio loco ostendimus, qu<« nunc repetamus et aliis 
exemplis augeamus. 

(1.) Apud Theophrastum in Character, c 6. w; cr'jvr^^/flv auToig rrjv 
dyo^ccv Ko.] rd s'^yaa-TYj^ta. : ridiculam habet aliquis Codex lectionem, 
/Aovao-Trjfja, e boni monachi cerebello natara. (2.) In Didymi SchoUis 
vd II. r. 365. legitur, ovrujg cru)(p§ovouixiv ol s&vim), ol dSsoi, ko.) tj \|/fu- 
hujvvu.a. KO.) eiJwAoAarfsTa <To<p\oi., quae a Christiano addita esse, et facile 
apparet, et recte animadvertit Jac. Rhar in Ftr'ds Daventriens. L. I. 
c, 12. (3.) Apud Quintilianura V. 14. 13., pro omnes volunt heatam 
vitam vivere, habent quidam libri videre, nbi cl. Gesnerus adscribit ex 
sacro sermone monachis familiari. (4.) Duo porro exempla profert 
D'Orvillius ad Chariton, p. 192. primum ex ipso Charitone p. 31. ubi 
monachum scribentem, kv^ios yd§ s'tfjn, xcci s^ova-iocv ex^ <^^T^iiy putat in 
animo habuisse illud, syuj sltM ku^ios Qso; <rou. (5.) Denique in 
AnthoL Epigr. vett. L. II. Ep. 68. 4. pro sed terras omnes implevit 

312 Noticeof C. A, \{\oiz\i 

nomine cfaro, monachi, ait Burniannus, invexerunt in Codicem scd ter' 
ram omjirpoiens etc. (6.) Acute eliaii) Heunianmis ad Cic. Orat. ad 
Qujrit. poit Redit. I. 8. Ipsa aiitem polria, dii immortales, did vix po- 
test, quid, caritatis, quid vobiptatis habet, suspicatur, formulae ethnicae 
dii immortales, gramniaticum quenipiain Christianum banc in mar^'iue 
substituisse did vix potest. Nolim tan;en eL'O, quamvis inireniosam 
hanc conjecturam esse nnn nepem, duo verba ojicere. Mutarem potius 
habet in haheid. Sed videanms certiora. (70 In Corn.Nepot. A^esH. 
III. 5. Cum animcdierteret Deorur.i nvmai facere secum, notat Heu- 
singerus, codicem Axen. habere unius nwnen, e glossa religiosi homi- 
nis, qui non Deorum, sed uuius dei numen agnosci voluerit, seque 
simile idque iusigne exempium protubsse addit ad Jufiani desar. p. 
J 42. qui liber nunc non ad manuin est. (8.) Apud ^Escbylum Agam. 
171. Schol. notat r^i-Jro ^l oy.oiov ea-ri tuj, 'Eij.vrjStjV 701 Qsou xa.) su(p^dy- 
^r^v. Stanleius putat hinc apparere, scholioruni auctoreni fuisse Cbris- 
tianum. Ego potius credo librarium fuisse nionaclium, qui hunc pan- 
num attexuit. (9.) Ap. Ovid. Amor. I. 5. in carmine non severissimo, 

/Estus erat, mediamque dies exegerat huram : 
uotavit Burmannus in priscis editionibus esse Festus erat, et tarn banc 
lectionem Nasoni a monacbo obtrusam fuisse, quam II. 9- 51. 

Si tamen exaudis pulcra cum niatre rogantem, 
cum audire niagis Latinum sit. (10.) Idem non seniel observavit v. d. 
in commentario Servii in Virgilium. Nam ad IV. 301. commotis exdta 
sscris, notatum legitur hoc vulgo apertiones appellant, ubi recte mona- 
chi nianum sibi deprehendisse videtur, nam apertionis mysterium fuisse 
cerimoniam constat, qua sacerdos accedentis ad baptismum nares et 
aures tangeret, dicens epheta, i. e. adaperire. Denique IV. 201. Kx- 
cubias divum (eternas, etc. legitur in commentario Servii, Qnod signi- 
Jicat, sine intermissione fieri sacrifida, atque excubare per diem et 
noctem, ut dicimus, cotidie in ofieio esse. Haec ultima recte dedit 
Burmannus glossara monachi sapere, qui de missa, excubiis, lectioni- 
bus, et cantibus ecclesiaj Romanae cogitaverit, quaj omnia oj^cii no- 
mine appellentur. (11.) Denique ap. Thucydidem III. 83. y.oi\ra.s 
Si cr^ffif avrovs iritrrsig ov tcv Ssiiv vo^xu; piaXXov exf aru'vovro, rjr(p KOivr, ri 
•7ta,§ayO[j.riO-ai, Wassius in pra^fatione Duckeri raJ dsloj vofj^u! a Christiano 
Scholiasta introducta esse conjicit, et verius Dionysium Halic. legere 
ruj Qa'iiv Kcc\ vQ[uij.w. Ex his apparere credo sa^pius libraries substi- 
tuisse verba e Christianze religionis doctrina repetita. Atque in iis 
locis, ubi sententia aliquantuhim ad orationem sacrorum scriptorum 
accessit, faciilime illis horum verba in menteni venisse, et saepe, pra^ter 
voluntatem fortasse, pro profani auctoris verbis posita esse pnto. 
Quid si igitur bona pars eoruni locorum, quorum similitudinem cum 
aliis scripturae sacrae locis admiramur, non tarn ipsis auctoribus anti- 
quis, quani librariis Christianis debetur? Nam si iis in locis eorum 
nianum deprehendimus, quae nihil meniorabile habent, quanto magis 
nihil tale cogitantes neque fraudem meditantes, errare potuerunt, ubi 
similitudo aliqna sententiarum iis verba scripturae in memoriam revoca- 
vit, et, ut fieri solet, in rebus nobis notis, manus non attendentis diligeu- 
ter satis monachi ea scripsit, quaj deinde neque potuit delere, neque 

Opuscula "carii A rgiimenti. 5 1 S 

vol nit. Hos igitur aut niniio stupore, aut pietate plerumque, certe 
non data opera, peccasse arbitror. Sunt vero exempla, ubi clare ap- 
paret, a Cliristiano hoiuine aliquid additum fuisse. (12.) Sic ea fa- 
buiiK conciusiuncula, quam iiTiuMiov dicunt, o jU-u5of iJ^ao/, on y.v^to-g 
VTts^riZiyoi^ avTirda-a-sroLi, roLitsivolg Ss Slouia-t %af<v, quaeque prope abest 
ab illis Salanionis in Prov. c. 3. aut Maximo Planudi, cujus ingeiiio 
tantum uon onines iEsr.pi fabulas deberi puto, aut Christiano alicui 
scriptori est ti ibuenda : vicL Fr. Vavassor de Ludicra Dicfione p. 25. 
(13.) Ha?c etiain verba, 'ffsfi rovroti Uavkog 6 Ta^crsui, ovrtva ko.) ttouJ- 
tig <prjiM ■K^OKTTo.fXBvov Soyaazog dvaTToosiKro'j, quai Loiigino tribuuntur 
in Codice Vaticano Evangeliorum, ubi post nomina oratorum sumnio- 
runi, Lysite, ^Ilschinis, Aristidis, alioruni ilia ponuntur (vid. in Edit- 
Pearcii niajori p. 159.) ^ Christiano esse profecta, fere assentior Fabri- 
cio in Bibl. G}\ L. IV. c. 31. p. 445. vide tanien Guil. Smith in 
procemio versionis Anglicanae Lougini, p. 22. Et putavit fortasse ali- 
quis se banc fraudein eo facilius facere posse, quoniam jam Moses a 
Longino in cap. IX. laudator. Non ausim equidem dicere, quae loca 
corrupta esse existimem. Sed fortasse alii hac conjectura nostra ad 
quasdam difficultates tollendas tenebrasque dispellendas uti poterunt. 
Eclogam autem Virgilii, ut eo redeain, oiunino incorruptani esse puto, 
quod ideo nioneo, ne quis me illam a librario depravatam existimare 
suspicetur. Videtur hoc in fatis Virgilii fuisse, ut lepidos interpretes 
nancisceretur. Nam et Galius quidam Faydit, Georgic. I. cxtr. u])i, 
quae ante et post necem Caesaris acciderunt, portenta narrantur, Vir- 
gilium defectum solis, qui moriente Domino nostro et Deo, Christo, 
obscuratus fuit, indicare potuit, et in Eel. VIII. 73-5. 
Terna tibi hfec primum triplici diversa colore, 
Licia circumrlo, terque hffic altaria circum, 
Effigiem diicu : numero Deus impare ^audet, 
doctrinam Cliristianorum de trinitate latere odoratus est homo enn.nctae 
naris (Fabric. Bibl. Lat. T. II.) et ne de Cbr. Landini AUegcriis Pla- 
tonicis, quarum ope JEncida explicuit, aliquid dicam, Jo. Ilarduinus 
in JEneidt, i. e. opere e monachorum officinis prolato et impio preete- 
rea atque insulso, victoriam Ciiristianae religionis de Judaica, receptis 
Romae, post templi liierosolymitani eversiouem, Chnstianis sacris, cani 

Virgilii Eclogae illustrantur, explicantur, emendantur. 

Audiat hcPc tantum, vel qui venit, ecce Palaemon. Eel. III. 50. 
Locum distinguo et interpretor sic — Audiat hcec tantum vel — sed dum 
ipsum nomen arbitri pronunciare vult pastor, Palaemonem advenire vi- 
det : ideo statim addit qui venit ecce Palcemon. Sentisne banc inter- 
pretationeni majorem loco venustatem conciliare ? propius enim acce- 
dit ad sermoneni vulgarem. 

Malo me Galatea petit, lasciva puella, 
Et fugit ad salices et se cupit ante veniri. lb. 64. 
Hujus loci incredibilem semper venustatem esse credidi, eumque mul- 
tos poetas imitatione expressisse observavi, inter quos ipsis poetae ves- 
tigiis insistere memini Anjjelum Poliiianum, qui ilia sic mutavit. 

S14 Notice ofC. A. Klotzii 

Aureolo petit hunc porno lascivaque currit 
Ad salices Nymphe, furtivo prodita risu. 

Nisi Politianus banc imaginem a Virgilio et Horatio expressisset, et in- 
venisset ipse, superatum esse Virgilium faterer. Sed videamus quid 
alii egerint. Ita autem Horatius, I. 9. 21. 

Nunc et latentis proditor intimo 
Gratus puellse risiis ab angulo, 
Pignusque dereptnm lacertis 
Aut digito male pertinaci. 
Animadverti praeterea duo in ejusdem carrainibus similia loca ; pri- 
muni II. 12. 25. 

Dum flagrantia detorqiiet ad oscula 
Cervicem, aut facili sasvitia negat, 
Quse poscenie magis gaudeat eripi, 
Interdum i^pere occupet. 
ubi quam venusta est WlAfacilis scevitia ! Deinde I. 6. 17. 
Nos convivia, nos praslia virginum 
Sectis in juvenes unguibus acrium 
quo in loco explicando niiror quomodo vv. dd. hjerere potuerint. Vir- 
gines, dicit poeta, unguibus autea resectis involare in facieni juvenum, 
eoruiiique protervitatem his arniis, hac vi, non vera, sed jocosa, repel- 
lere videri velle : nou vere eos laedere, non vulnerare, uon fugare et 
avertere cupere puelias, sed speciem tantuuimodo pugnantium prae- 
bere. Progrediamur ad patrem amorum, qui in Arte I. 483. ha^o 

Forsitan et primo veniet tibi littera tristis 

Qusque roget, ne se sollicitare velis. 
Quod rogat ilia, timet, quod non rogat, optat, ut instes, 
Insequere, et voti postmodo compos eris. 
atque eodem libro v. 663- 

Quis sapiens blandis non misceat oscula verbis ? 

Ilia licet non det, non data sume tamen. 
Pugnabit primo foriassis, et, improbe, dicet, 
Pugnando vinci sed tamen ilia volet. 
idemquepaullo post V. 673. 

Vim licet appelles, grata est vis ista puelli?, 
Quod juvat, invita; ssepe dedisse volunt. 

Eandem elegantiam sectatus assecutusque est Tibidlus, I. 4. 55, 

Tunc tibi mitis erit, rapies tnm cara licebit 

Oscula : pugnabit, sed tamen apta dabit. 
Rapta dabit primo, post oft'eret ipsa volenti, 

Post etiam collo se implicuisse volet. 

atque I. 9. 43. 

Sffipe insperanti venit tibi munere nostro 
Et latuit dausas post adoperta fores, 
quod Bruckhusius recte ineliusque Vulpio interpretatur, Latuit tMv- 
quani quaj nollet reperiri, quum tamen id vel niaxime cuperet. Pras- 
tereo alios e rerentioribus, inter quos liujus venustatis studiosus fuit 
Heinsius in 5^/r. p. 218. ed, Lugd. 1606. Sed maneamus in auti" 
quis. Ex his Apollouius canit Argon. III. 1G22. 

Opuscula varii Argumenti. 315 

ai^^ui S' aXKoTS /*5V ts xar' ovdsog h^i-iuuT sgsjSov 
(xl^oixsvor OTB 8' auTif S7ri (r<picr» ^uXKov OTTiOTraf, 

quibus quid p jtest elegantius esse ? Loquitur vero de Jasone et Me- 
dea. E Graecis niemini uiollissinie dicere Achillem Tatium, L. i. p. 
39. TO yocQ efioi<7TOu (^iXYjixoi Trgog l^ajjU^lvr/y, flsAoocrav jxh Ttags^BiVj aiT>j- 
(Ttg lo"T< (riW7r>i, Trpoj aTrejQouo'av 8s Ixsrijgi'a' xav ju,£V Trootrr Tig (rvvQrjxy\ 
rr^g irga^soog, TroXXuKig 11 Kcti SKOV(rcii v^og spyov sp^o[j:,svai 9sAou(rj /3»«- 
Z^icr^QLi SoxeTv, Tva rrj 8o0->) t5^j ayayxrjj a7roT§£7ra)VT«» t^5 al(rp(^'Jvi;? to 
Ixoucrjoy: et pariter Aristjenetuni L. i. Ep. 12- Xsktsov dl [/,qvov oog ocvti- 
xiysi TOcrouTOv, ocrov Iv tw ^gaZ6vstv aigcSsTcraj, ubi Mercerus similem 
Ovidii locum adfert. 

Qute cum ita pugnaret, tauquam quae vincere nollet, 
Victa est non gegre pioditione sua. 
Sed sat raulta contuliunis exempla ad illaui Virgiliani loci elegantiam 
illustrandam esplicandamque.^ 

Eel. V. 40. Inducife fontibus umbras. Quoniam unus Codex 
frontibus habet, venit mihi nova liujus loci interpretatio in meutem, 
Nempe interpretor eum sic, Cingite frontem sertis, aut, Imponite capiti 
tristes cupressos mcsroris dolorisque signuin. Virgilius, sive Mopsus, 
mortem amici deplorat. Quare non video quam bene dici possit, ar- 
bores, quae fontes inumbrent, vel ramos frondentes esse ponendos, ut 
explicant. Neque meliora sunt quae habet Servius. Longa denique 
alia ratio est loci, quern hue non pertiiiere puto, in Eel. IX. ip. 
Quis caneret Nymphas? quis humum florentibus herbis 
Spargeret, aut viridi fontes induceret umbra ? 
Frontem non male de toto capite dici, finnant exempla Ovidii Art. I. 
223. prceeinctus arundine frontem, et Fast. VI. 321. Ttirrigera fron- 
tem Cj/bele redimita corona, atque Horatii I. 1. Doctarum hedercR 
preemia frontium. Umbram de sertis optima arbitror dici, cousidera- 
tis exemplis similibus a Gronovio allatis in Obs. L. IV. IS. et Bur- 
manno ad Ovid. Metam. III. 665. ubi pro racemiferis frontem circum- 
datus uvis etiam Scbol. Statianus exbibet nmbris. Laudatur ibi etiain 
Virg. yEw. VI. 77'2. 

Atque umbrata gerunt civili tempera quercu. 
Et sic equideni intelligo locum iEscbyli in Sept. c. Theb. 390. r^st; y.x- 
TaiTxlo'jg }^opoug crsisj. De verbo denique inducere pro tegere vide quae 
notaverunt Heinsius ad Ovid, ex Pont. IV. 12. 32. et Metam. IV. 
408. Burmann. ad Virg. Eel. IX. 1 9. et Oudendorpius ad Lucan. 
IV. 132. 

lb. 36. Candidus insuetum miratur limen Olympi. 
Ilia confusio inter Zmeen et lumen omnino frequentissima est : vide ad 
Ovid. Trist. IV. 4. 45. Drakenborch. ad Liv. X. 23. 12. et el. et eru- 
ditiss. Corn. Val. Vonck. in Spec. crit. p. 27, sed h. 1. praefero omnino 
lumen, quod est in quibusdam Codd. Videtur melius convenire ruo in- 
suetum: Nondum, inquit, tantum luminis splendorem unquam exper- 
tus est Daphnis. Quemadmoduni, qui ex obscuro loco repente in so- 
lem prodit, non ferre potest lumen, ad splendorem connivet, Ty^a^xo- 
[j.irT£i, ita etiam Daphnis, etc. Inteiligisne quid velim ? Caiterum 
probe uovi limen dici sa;pe poetis de superis et iaferis locis, neque 

3 1 6 Bibliographij, 

-ffuXag aoou ignoro : vid. Elsnerus ad Matlli. XVF, 18. Albert! in Obfts. 
p. HI. Alb. Schultens. ad Job. p. 433. cl. Rhoer in Miscdl. L. 

I. c. 20. 

EcL VII. 52. Quantum 

Aut numeniin lupus aut torrentia flumina ripas. 
Exponunt, Lupum etiam numeratuni pecus invadere, quod provcrbium 
notum est, atque etiam in vernaculum sermonem transiit. Sed nescio 
an bene bJc sensus Iiuic loco conveniat. Malim numerum interpretari 
multitudineni oviuni : nam talem significationem etiam ro numertis ha- 
bere, docet Heinsius ad Ovid. Met. VII. 8. et ex Pont. II. i). 6o. at- 
que idem et Burmannus ad Epist. VIII. 24. Ncc numerum Danai 
militis, ubi alii libri habent numeros. Sensus est, Non niagis frigns 
Boreae euro, quara lupus magnum gregera curat, quani timet niulti- 
tudinem ovium. 
EcL X. 4(5. 

Tu procul a patria (nee sit mihi credere) tantum 

Alpinas, ah dura, nives et frigcra Rhesi 

Me sine sola vides. 
Si interpretationes vv. dd. quas Burmannus coUegit, examinaveris, vide- 
bis eas esse coactas omues preeter Heumanni expositionem. Ego puto 
verba nee sit mihi credere tantum, esse conjungenda et ita exponenda, 
Dummodo ego hoc non credere deberem, si niodo hjcc non vera essent. 
De hac rariore verbi tantum significatione vide Marium ad Ovid. Am. 

II. 15. IS. 

Tantum ne signem scripta dolen4^ mihi, 
ct Douzam ad Remcd. 7 1 4. 

Tantum judicio ne tuus obsit amor. 



I have now before me a copy of Bond's Per sins ( Amstel. \Q5Q.) 
Mbicli was presented by the Jate learned Dr. Stock, then Tutor iij 
Trinity College, Dublin, to the eldest grandson of Yorick's Eu- 

Will any of your correspondents, conversant in such matters, be 
kind enough to inform me, what is the estimate of value which this 
book holds amongst scholars, either for rarity or for critical 

Mr. Porson, in presenting a copy of Bond's Horace to a gentle- 
man of great classical fame m our University, was thought by him 
to convey a very strong approbation of its intrinsic worth. 

Such seems also to have been the meaning of Dr. Stock, in pre- 
senting the Persius : but it appears to be a book very little known. 

J5th Nov. 1814. SIDNEYENSIS. 

sir ^' 


^^IjU Balan, papari, viTisgi, pepper. We learn from Athe- 
na-us, p. 66. lib. 2. cap. 25. that, jw>e'Xj is the only word in Greek 
that ends in i, TrfVegj, xo]a,a«, and xo<^i, are foreign terms. 

j^j^ Barbar, a bearer of burdens, a day laborer, a beast of 
burden m Persian, hence probably harbartis. 

^L» A bale of goods, a box, a misery, or oppression, in Per- 
sian, as in Saxon, calamity, complaint. 

^^J-t- F^^ula, in Latm as in Persian, a board, lath, shingle, 
or chip. 

cij A puff, or blast of wind, ^»,j^ c^^. |^*-eJ;^ to blow out 

the candle, in Persian. 

^iiiiJlj Balakhane, balcony, a gallery on the top of the house, 
an upper chamber. Persian. 

js Whore. Persian. According to Mr. Tooke's learned and- 
ingenious etymology, our word comes from the preterit of huren, 
to hire, which is indeed very characteristic of the person—-' stat 
cuivis mercabilis aere.' There is, however, another Saxon word 
that seems to be with still greater probability the original of our 
term, I mean worian, to wander, or walk the streets. *Ponag in 
Greek is meretrix, sive vaga, from whence, that is, from <Ponciv, 
the Latins have made a word, and the Italians puttana, to which 
they have added errante. 

y**!LJ\ Emba/us^ a vine. "JfXTrsXog in Greek. 

j"»&^^^ Alhambra, the residence of the Moorish kings of Gra- 
nada, has been supposed to have its name from the red material, 
with which it was built, like the case rosse at Venice, but then the 

word would have been ^^^-t-^^^ alhamra, the red, whereas there is a 
ba in the right term of alhambra, which is resolved thus into two 
words as 1 have written it, and means, the care-free, or like the 
palace of another king, the Sans Souci. 

■iji* Keredj card. The worst or coarsest part of the wool. 

ij Kefe, chaff. — The refuse remaining after the grain is 
threshed out. Persian. 

(ji^l Lekash, money, cash. 

u^^jpj^ motion of the tongue— speaking. Persian. 

3 1 8 On the Affinity hetxcem 

«XXj j^Lw Saul-bund, year-knot. The Chinese and the Peru- 
vians reckon by knots ; the Romans drove a nail into the temple 
of Jupitei, to mark the years, and in Hiadostan the register of the 
bu'th of a child is stili a knot in a string. 





It may perhaps be admitted, by those who possess a competent 
skill in the different dialects, spoken at this day, deriving their 
origin from the ancient Teutonic, that in Upper Saxony it appears 
to have suffered the least from foreign admixture : but there can 
be no dispute, that the dialect, which we ourselves speak, is not 
only the most debased by the indiscriminate admission of words of 
foreign origin, but that our idioms most frequently are formed on 
foreign models. That our ancestors and ourselves have incurred 
these obligations wantonly and needlessly, may be made evident by 
a slight comparison of the translation into German of any English 
work, with its original ; or vice versa. The reader will speedily 
be convinced that the indigenous stock of words, properly modified 
and employed, would have been quite adequate to the expression 
of all ou) ideas. 

In order to attain a more perfect acquaintance with our own 
tongue, to discern its original stores, and to account for some of 
its apparent irregularities, some acquaintance with one at least of 
its sister-dialects appears necessary. On this account alone, it is 
fortunate that the study of probably the purest of them is increasing 
sensibly amongst us • — It must not be dissembled, that in learning 
German, an Englishman has to encounter some difficulties; in 
part arising, however paradoxical it may seem, from the sitnitaritif 
of the languages. Numerous words, for instance ah the auxiliary 
verbs, and many particles, strike him as being identically the same 
in the two tongues ; and it requires sonit attention and experience to 
interpret precisely the different senses into which each word has 
deviated, and is now applied, in one or the othtr tongue. Still, 
their general resemblance must, on the whole, considerably facili- 
tate our acquiring German : — I'he number, for instance, of nregular 
verbs, uncompounded, or if compounded, of which the simple verb 
is no longer in use, is in that tongue about 194 . these are oi course 
among the words of most frequent occurrence. Now of these 
vcrbs^ no less than 118 appear m our own tongue; for the most 

the German and English Dialects. 319 

part irregulars in exactly the same form; and all of them employed 
in the same sense as in German, or in one perfectly analogous. 

To facilitate to beginners the study of this noble tongue, and to 
point out to those further advanced, some few traits of resemblance 
to our own, which may possibly have escaped them, the insertion 
in your valuable Journal of the following little paper may be of 
some utility. — The changes of letters, or syllables between English, 
and German words, bearing the same meaning, and the rules by 
which those changes appear to be governed, are stated in it. — The 
late Sir Richard Sutton originally prepared it, and prefixed some 
few remarks on the sound of the vowels and diphthongs in the 
Upper Saxon dialect. These do not appear wholly free from ob- 
jection, and have been omitted. — To Sir Richard's paper have 
been added some few instances of analogy between the two tongues, 
unnoticed by him ; and also, some additional proofs to those which 
he notices. 

Vowels. Changes from German into English. 

A. — a, aa, or ah, — German, becomes in English, ea, or ee. 
Schaf, Sheep: Schlaf, Sleep: Aal, Eel: Stahl, Steel: Mahl, 
Meal. — a, before cht, becomes i long : Macht, Might .- Nacht, 
Night. — a before It, becomes o : alt, old : Falte, Fold : halten, 
to hold: kalt, cold. — au, becomes oo. Raum, Room: Baum, 

Sometimes it retains nearly the same sound, Haus, House : Maus, 
Mouse : Faum, Foarn. 

Oftenest, into ea, and i, short. HaufFen, Heap: Kauffen, 
Cheapen : Tauffen, Dip : Sauffen, Sip : Auch, eke ; Faust, Fist. 

Sometimes into ezi,' : Kauen, to chert: Thau, Dew:^ Blau, 
Blue: Brauen, to hrew. 

Sometimes — u short, as auf, up : Daum, Thumb: rauch, rough: 
Tauchen, to duck. 

E. — before b, becomes i. — Geben, to give: Leben, to live: 
Streben, to strive. 

Echt, becomes ight, as recht, right .- fechteu^ ^^ fight : Knecht, 
(valet) Knight. 

En final, generally dropped. Hauffen, Heap: Nacken, Neck: 
Helfen, to help : Nagen, to gnaw : Schlafen, to sleep : Zeigen, 
to shew. 

Ee, Ei, Eh become o: Schnee, Snozv : Stein, Stone: Pfeil, 
Pole : Gehen, to go : Zehe, 'Foe : Eiche, Oak. 

I. — in a few instances becomes E : as Hitz, Heat : Schilt, 
Shield: Sitz, Seat: Wichtig, Weighty: but usually remains un- 

' In the Eastern Countries, this word is pronounced Dag. It had probably 
received a guttural termination from our Saxon, or Danish forefatiiers. 

S20 On the Affinity between 

O. — and oh, become ea, and ee. Ost, Easf : Woche, Week: 
'Noth, Need: Boht), Bean: Strohm, Sheam : Ohr, Ear. 

Sometimes, u short. Voll, Fail: Ober, Upper : Ofen, Ovenr 
Sommer, Summer: Donner, Thunder: Kolbe (the L transposed ') 
Cliif) : morden, to murder. 

Sometimes i : hoch, high : Stock, Slick : trocken, dry. 

Occasionally, a : horchen, hearken : rob, raw. 

Often retains the sound, as Kohl, Coal .- Dohm, Dome : Horn, 
horn : hopfen, hops. 

U. — becomes oo : — Buch, a Book: Flur, Floor: gut, good: 
durch, through : huf, hoof: blum (a flower) bloom. 

Sometimes o short: Fuchs, Fox: Furt, Foid: Sturm, Storm: 
Futter, Fodder: Kupfer, Copper: — Ruthe, takes both these sounds 
Rod, and Rood. 


B. — In the middle of a word, softens into V, as haben, to have - 
geben, to give : leben, to live : Fieber, Fever. 

Final, becomes oftenesty : as Stab, StoJ/ : Dieb, Thief: Weib, 
Wife : Laub (foliage) leaf. Haib, Half. 

But sometimes v. Grab, Grave: Sieb, Sieve: liebe, love: stube, 
stove : Taube, Dove. 

Final, after 1, becomes ow. Schwalbe, Swallow: falbe, fallow : 
gelb, yelloze. 

Ch. — medial, becomes g, or k : Drache, Dragon : Rechen, 
Rake: Machen, to make. 

Sometimes, ft, as lachen, to laugh : sacht, soft. 

Ch. — after 1, or r, final, becomes o : as Talch, Tallow: Furche, 

Ck, — becomes tch, or dg : as strecken, to stretch : hecke, 
hedge: briicke, bridge. 

u. — generally becomes th ; as dass, that; daum, thumb; 
dick, thick: Dorn, Thorn: itiden, fathom: durch, through: diinn, 
thin : Bad, Bath : Feder, feather. 

Sometimes retains the sound : as doppel, double : deck, cover- 
ing : Magd, Magdlein, Maid, or Maiden : laden, to load. 

' By adverting to this occasional transposition of letters, of which in- 
stances occur in different provincial dialects of our own tongue, and pro- 
bably of every tongue, the identity of many words, not at first obvious, may 
bediscovered. Thus Ross (German) answers to our Horse; — Drehen, toiiirn; 
Brennen, to burn; Brunnen, (« Spring) corresponds with Bourn, in our 
Northern dialect, a Rivulet. Borste, Bris^/e;— Spalten, to split. 

the German and English Dialects. 321 


F. — medial, and final, often becomes P : tief, deep : schlafen, 
to sleep : hehen, to help : gaffen, to s^ape. 

Sometimes V : as Hafen, haven: Glen, oven. 

G, — initial sometimes changed into y : gahnen, to yazcn : gelb, 
yellow: ^-Mu, ynr}i : gascht, //^f/i:^. 

Often retains the sonnd, as in geben, gold : gast, a Guest. 

IV'tedial, between vowels dropped, and the svllables contracted : 
as Segel, Sail: Hagel, hail: Flegel^^oi/ .- Regcn, Rain: Cragen, 
Craze: Bogen, a Bou\ 

After Ij n, and r, it also disappears : as Galgen, gollores : folgen, 
tofollozs): Morgen, Mo;7orc; ; ^oxge^, Sorrow: menge, mam/. 

J. — which in German has the sound of our Y, is in the English 
words common to both tongne?^ usually spelt with that letter : as 
Jahr, Year : Jung, and its derivatives, Young. 

There are a hw exceptions, \vhe»e the J consonant is retained, 
and sounded in English, as Jubel, Juhilee: Juwel, Jeioel. 

K. — oftenest softened into ch. Fmck, Unch: kaiiffen, to 
cheapen: keisen, to chuse: rencken (verrenken) to zcrench : 
hecken, to hatch : Knfer, Chafer. 

JBut sometimes retauis its sound : as kalt, cold : Krmm, a Comb. 

P.— pf, drops the f, Pfeil, Pole: Pting, Plough: Pfeffer, 
pepper: pfropfen, to prop : schlupfen, to slip : apfei, apple. 

Q. — seems to have been originally but a strongly aspirated w : 
in some instances, tbe aspiration has become a consonant ; in others, 
dropped: thus Queile German becomes our Well; ajid on the 
other hand their VVachlel is in our tongue Quail: the re- 
mains of lbs medial consonants appear in the Italian, Qunglia. 

In the sarae word indeed, in one instance, the ditterent sounds 
appear to be preserved, wallen is to boil, i 'uall, is the boiling. 

S. — and ss, medial, become t: Wasser, Water:' IS esse), 
Nettle: besser, beitcr : Rasseln, to rattle: Fuss, Foot: Geis, 

' In this histance it may be doubted whether the ancient and correct 
sound may not be preserved in the EngUsh, and whether the corruption 
may not be tound in the modern German dialect, [n Greek, which has by 
some means certainly received an infusion of Gothic, iwo of these words 
appear, and approach more nearly to the English, than to the German 
form — v}iw^, and /SIXTtpof. — Agam; the country now called Hesse was, when 
Tacicus wrote, peopled by the Catti, — not the Cassi. In Saxony itself, the 
pronunciation of wor,ds with the medial double s, or t, is as little uniform 
at this day, as formerly it was in Athens. 

NO. XX. Cl.Jl VOL.X. X 

S22 On the Affinity between 8^c. 

Goal : das, that. — sch, before a consonant, drop tbe cli : Schnee, 
Sfiozo : Schwann, Sit-'dii : Schlaf, Sleep : Schniahl, Smalt. 

T. — and th, often become d. I'ief, (Jeep: Thai, Date: knaten, 
iu Icnead : Enter, Udder : Schnlter, SItoulder : Biut, Btood. 

Sometimes retains the sound : trelen, to tread. 

V. — sounded in German nearly as f, in English is generally 
changed into that letter: as Vogel, Fowt : Volk, Folk: Vliess, 
Fleece : Y order, further : Vater, Father. 

W. — sounded in German as V, sometimes in corresponding 
English words becomes aspirated; as Weil, While: Was, What: 
'We'meii, to zchme: W aitze, IV/ieat : Weiss, White. 

But generally has the open sound, unaspirated ; as in weis, 
warm, wild, wise, zmrm, mid: wapen, zceapon: weben, to weave: 
weg, war/: werk, work. 

Z. — and tz, become t, as zoll, toll: salz, salt: warze, wart : 
zismaus, titmouse : lenz, tent : zeit, tide : zipfel, the tip, or ex- 
tremitj/ : zunge, tJie tongue: zweig, fa'ig,' 

The earlier the stage of our language at which the comparison 
is made with the German, the more striking will be found the 
resemblance. In consequence of the introduction into ours, of so 
many words from other tongues, those originally in use, of mean- 
ings nearly synonvmous, have often passed into oblivion : to arrive 
at their true interpretation at this day, it often becomes necessary 
to range through several of the sister-dialects. Some phrases too, 
in our earliest writers, which puzzle the commentators as confused 
and irregular, are perfectly idiomatic : — by a reference to the daily 
practice in another dialect, they become intelligible. — On this 
latter subject, I may probably ask the favor of you to insert 
another letter. 

S. E. 

' In this instance also, it may not be unreasonable to suppose that the 
deflexion from the original sound is in the German. Duo in Greek, and 
Latin, with their derivatives ^iTrXovj, duplex; and even in the German dialect 
itself, the terms doppel Dutzend, approach more nearly to the English tao, 
than to the German, zwet/. — Anxp, 9g9ivo;, are more nearly allied to tear, than 
to the German zahre ; Stannum, and the French derivative Etain, to titi, 
than to the German Minn. — Their preposition au, to, i/sems formed from the 
verb Thun. 



Of the Periplls of the Erythrean Sea. 

It is only within these few weeks, that I have obtained, by favor 
of a friend, a sight of Sahiiasius's commentary on Teitulhan de 
Pallio, which, with all the usnal erudition of the author, has still 
much to put the patience of the reader to a trial. 

But I met with one passage, that, in correcting an error of his 
own, convicts me of a mistake into which 1 had been led by his 
authority, and which 1 have now the same authority to set right. 
It occurs in my translation of the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea, 
p. 113, where the Greek text stands thus : 

'Ev kv) ToVctt Tepovs~tTai -Trag auTYjV Trjj ' H-KioZoooao (TvXXsyo^Bvov 7riv»- 
xo'v (pfpovraj yap 10 aurrjj o-»vSov=j'£jSaoy«p5JTjSs5 Xeyo'[/,svon. 

That this passage was corrupt 1 had no doubt, yet so it stands in 
the original edition of Gelenius, and with some slight variation in 
the editions of Stuckius/ Blancard, and Hudson, with little or no 
attempt at correction. The principal corruption is in Tsgovzhai, 
which Salmasius, in his commentary on Solinus, reads TcepovsWcn in 
one place improperly, and Trsgovaraj in another ; this he mterprets 
by pertunditur, as applicable to the boring of the pearl, and so in 
deference to him I had rendered it. 

That Gelenius had the same interpretation of his rspovslTai ^ in 
view cannot be doubted, for the boring of the pearl was familiar; 
so that, corrupt as his manuscript certainly was, and perhaps difficult 
to be read, he might well adopt a word which would afford an in- 
telligible meaning, and correspond with an operation on the pearl, 
which he knew to be in practice. That the other editors should 
follow his reading is rational, for they concluded it had the autho- 
rity of a manuscript, or at least of an ednio princeps, and was not 
rashly to be rejected, unless tliey had somethmg better to propose 
in its stead. Manuscripts they had none to assist them, for, as far 
as I have been able to learn, no manuscript of the Periplus has 
ever been discovered, except that which was used by Gelenius, and 
what became of that is not known. 

This being the state of the text, Salmasius, it should seem, is the 

' I have not Stuckius at present, I write from memory only. 

• Tte»y«w does not occur, it ought therefore to be TtgfVTaj, from tij/w. 

S24 Error in the Translation 

only critic who lias aitenjpted to correct it, and his first effort ap- 
pears in his commentary on Tertullian, where he reads, p. 219, 

loioviiTai for T?&oy£~Ta», 
axTvjv lor auTT^y, 
and takes no notice of 'EjBapycipBiTihg. 'E§iovs'toh, however, being 
a word of his own coinajje, he rejects in his commentary on Solinus, 
(p. 826. Edit. 1689) and substitutes Trspovaraj in its stead ; in the 
same passage he changes 'E^upyugi'mhg into il/a^yapmoej, and 
leaves avTr-jV as it stood in Gelenius. Mugyup'iTidsg he niterpreta 
tunica margaritis consertas, and then adds, ita nunc malo quam ex 
vellere pinnarum margaritaruni textus. sicut olim volui. 

Ilii:? sense of textus ex margaritaruni vellere he had obtained 
by the substitution of sgiovs^Txi for rsgovfATon, and this he had 
adopted in the discussion of an expression of Tertullian — De mari 
vellera (p. 219 ) His argument on that passage is singular, and 
will probably lead to a solution of the whole difficulty : for he ob- 
serves first, that these words of Tertullian evidently relate to the 
manufacture of a web obtained from a fleecy substance in the pearl 
oyster itself; and this he confirms by another expression which 
Tertullian uses immediately afterwards — quo muscosa? lanositatis 
plautiores conchae cumant. The larger pearl oysters have a bush of 
hair, a mossy fleece. Of this fact, strange as it is, and stranger 
still that this fleece should be spmi and woven up into a cloth, 
there is undoubted proof, for Salniasius adduces the testimony of 

Procopuis,' "^Xa^jMc l^ s^'toov TrsTrojvjju-evjj Ix 9aXa(7cr>)? (TVVSjAsy- 

jji,ivujv. Uivvovg ra "C^wa xolX-am vsvo[jilxoc(ri, ev olg r; twv spimv ex(pv(rti 
KtvsTai. A cloak made of a fleece collected from the sea, the 
animals ('from which it is obtained) are called (niwoi, that is) 
pearl oysters, in which this fleece is produced. The spinning and 
weaving of such a substance accords sufficiently with the ingenuity 
and patient industry of Hindoos ; but the price of the manufacture 
must be excessive : as Prcscopius mentions tlutt a cloak or robe of 
this manufactuie was part of the state dress worn by the dependant 
Sovereigns of Armenia, on the day of their inauguration by the 
Roman Emperor; and the testimony of Procopius, Salmasius cor- 
roborates by a quotation of similar import from Pollux. 

In searching for m;)dern authority to confirm this extraordinary 
pr()duction of ;iii oyster shell, I find Dalryniple, in his account 
of the Sooloo iishery, (p. 3.) and Cordiner, in his relation of the 
fishery at Manar and Ceylon, (vol ii, p. 44 ) both mention the 
beard or hair of the pearl oyster, consisting of fibres, by which the 
young ^hell fish becomes capable of locomotion, and the maturer 
ones adhere to the rocks, from which they are torn, and brought up 
by the divers. Gibbon, (vol. iv, p. 23.) mentions a pair of gloves 
made of this material, aixl presented to P. Benedict, XIV. 

* Procopius de ^dificiis, lib. iii. p. 53. Edit. Paris, 1663. 

of the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea. C25 

If then the fact is sufficiently established^ recourse to the history 
of this production will be more likely to conduct us to the correc- 
tion of a corrupt passage, than critical sagacity ; and this brings me 
back to the consideration of Sahnasius's Igjovslrai ; for however just 
the analogy may be in coining such a word, 1 have searched the 
Lexicons to discover its existence, in vain. It does not occur in 
Hesychius, Suidas, Budeus, the Thesaurus of Stephens, or his 
Glossary, in Schottus or Meursius ; these are all I have at hand, 
and I must trust to abler commentators to supply the remainder. 
But the observations upon the history lead to a conjecture, that a 
very sligl't alteration of Iqiavincti will conduct us to the true read- 
ing; little versed as I am in the province of conjectural emenda- 
tion, 1 propose, with some hesitation, to read Iqiov vilrcni for the 
egtovuTai of Salmasius, or to sglov v?7tch for the Tegovslrai of Gele- 
nius. [f TliviKOv were a substvmtive, the article is wanting ; but I 
consider 27«v»xov as an adjective from the nlnot ' of Hesychius, or 
the nivvog of Procopius ; to epiov 77»vjxov would then signify the 
fleecy substance of the pearl oyster, and to sglov vslzui • • Ilivixov 
would express, " thejieece of the pear/ oi/ster is spun" 

For the portentous word 'E^ciyags'iTt^sg I should suppose the 
MotgyufiiTihg of Salmasius would readily be admitted, or any read- 
ing which would supply an intelligible meaning ; and if 2!ivl6ve^ 
Mtx-gyagirihs were then interpreted cloth of pearl, mstead of cloth 
set or sprinkled with pearl, as Salmasius supposes, the whole 
passage would be consistent. 

Under this form I shall now give the text, as corrected, from the 
Periplfis, and submit it to the candor of those who are more con- 
versant with the art of emendation than myself. 

MzTO. ds KoX^ovg IvSep^eTai itgoTsgog a\yiuko§ Iv xoXirca xsi^svogy 
^X^^ ;^a>g«v jxeuoyEiQV K'-yoixivog 'AgyxKov Iv ev» Tonca [to^ sglov 1 
vfirai Trap' atir^v 2 tyjv 3 'HTrioloigoii [vijcovj G-vWsyd[LBVov i7<nxov* 
fcgovTui yxp s^ auTvjj ^ivdovsg Magyaglri^sg 4 Xsyo'[j,svai. 

1. Tegovslrat, Gelenius, 7r;povocTsti, IpiovjjTa*, Salmasius. 

2. 'Aktyjv, Salmasius, which seems a preferable reading. 

3. Ty^g, Gelenius, as connected with vvjtou understood, certainly 

right, if oiXTYjv is admitted. 

4. Mapyccplri^sg for 'E^uyagslridsg, Salmasius. 

The interpretation 1 propose stands thus : 

The first anchorage which occurs after leaving Kolkhi is the 
[bay or] coast of Argalus, and Argalus is the head of a district in 
the interior. [But] in one place the pearl oyster collected near the 

' iiivixov is Trjwixoy in some of the editions. Tiivv%, in Hesychius, is applied 
to the attendant ou the pearl oyster; and Tr'nya;, in Procopius, to the oyster 

326 Defence of the common reading 

Isle of ISTanar itself furnishes a fleecy' su^'stance, wliich is spun, 
for it is from M mar that the delicate^ web is brough), that is called 
cloth of pearl. 

( should have wished to refer sv\ to'ttw to Argalus rather than to 
Manar, expressing, that the Iplay obfained at Manar was manu- 
fac*';re'J at Argalus; but 1^ aurrjc, in the last clause, must of neces- 
sity rtl earse vy^uoi) or vrjcrov, as its immediate antecedent, and not 
yJ^QOLV, the more remote, and for this reason 1 refer the manufac* 
ture to Maiar. 

Very different as this interpretation must appear from the trans- 
lation [ have ;iiven in the Periplus, I acknowledge my mistake with- 
out regret, for thinking, as 1 do, that I have discovered the true 
reading with the assistance of Salmasius, it is more creditable to 
redeem m) error by my own confession, than to wair 't!l the charge 
of ignorance mn:ht h-ive been substantiatea against me by an abler 
commentator. If the emendation should be approved ^y those 
who are competent to decide on such a question^ it will give me 
pleasure ; if it should be rejected, my original translation is cor- 
rect. Disquisiti< ns of this sort are a literary amusement, and those 
who indulge in --peculations on a Greek text, will appreciate the 
present attempt with all the candor and liberalitj '\hich it may 

Noy. 30, 1814. W. VINCENT. 


Of the common reading of a passage in HERODOTUS, 

JL HERE appears to me no necessity for any alteration in the 
passage from Herodotus, BouXojW-gvoj vYjaov, x. t. X. (See p. 490. 
Supplement to No. XVill. Class. Journal.) Mr. Barker takes 
a great liberty in his transposition ; besides, the expression 
** avsvi^jOTog Se Tracra (ti^j lylvsro," is scarcely admissible Greek. 
There is a peculiar distinction between the verbs sTva* and ylvsa-Qxi, 
which, I am sure, Mr. Barker understands, and which, 1 may ven- 
ture to affirm, is constantly observed by Herodotus, and all the 

' Literally, the pearly fleece is spun. 

* ZivJovij expresses any fine texture manufactured in India, usually the 
finest nmslins. 

of a passage in Herodotus, 527 

other writers of pure Greek. — jlvai is used with reference to in- 
determinate, yivsirQcii to inceptive, being. Thus, in the expression 
avSofj ayaSoi ^fl-av, " thei/ were good men,'^ the word ^(tuv denotes 
their indeterminate, or mere existence as such ; but avSgej ayadoi 
lysvvoTQ, intimates the epithet xyot^ol to be accessory or inchoative. 
So if, w ith Toup, we say in the passage under question, avivhros 
?£ Tratra (ripi lysviro, (speaking of the Isthmus, through which the 
Cnidians were digging,) the mind is impressed with the idea, that 
the ground became avevSoxoj, or unyiekhng, when the Cnidians 
commenced their labor ! For what else does ocvivhrog syivsro mean 
but " became nnyieldiug" and how does this avsvhros accord 
with the sequel, " QpctvofxsvYig t>5j TrsVp^f T' If one of the poor 
diggers could inform us, he would say to the correctors of Hero- 
dotus, " Ov [x.rjV 'ANENAOTOX ys' aAA« ttXejov % ljBou\6iJi,riv 
'EAflKEN V) X^^QO!--' If Herodotus wrote avsvSoroj, he would no 
doubt have connected it with the verb 15V, and, on the same sup- 
position, the particle aKKa, not 8s, would have been requisite, if 
not indispensable : see Hoogeveen de Particulis. Besides, as Mr. 
Barker justly remarks, the causal conjunction yaq m the following 
clause, T>) yap r; A'viS/t) x^^"^^ x.t. X, would not be logically con- 
nected. " The Peninsula was all hard ground, or uvivloros, for 
where the Cnidian territory joins tli£ Continent, there is the 
Isthmus which they were digging." — Admirable deduction ! and 
yet it is inevitable, if Toup's emendation must take plac^. " Car 
tout leur territoire etoit en dedans de I'lslhme" — is not the sense of 
ivrlg l\ TToia-a. (r<^i lyevBTo. For where can it be shown, that the 
particles yag and 8e are synonymous, as Larcher in this version 
makes them, by using corV Besides, this use of c«r in the French 
creates a pleonasm, and the motive of the Cnidians is told twice as 
it were in the same breath. Thus, in the preceding clause, eo'jayj; 
Ts ■na.(T'f\i Trig A'vjS/i^j, ttX^v oXi'-y*]? vsptppooo, x. t. A. is the motive — ■ 
TO cJov l^ oX'tyov TOVTO lov o<yov tj stt) ttevts (TToc^tx wpvarcrov ol KviZkji, 
the consequent rtc^, which is quite intelligible and sufficient: but 
next comes Mr. Larcher, with his c(ir tout leur territoire, &.c. 
and we have a complete tautology of " loua-ric ts Traa^rjj t^j A'viSi'ijj, 
•kXyiV oXlyrjc Trs^jppooy.' .^ 

As to Valckcnaer's alteration of svxoj into Ixtoj, and making the 
sentence Ixtoj Ve iratra <Tfi eyevsTO (sive ^v) vrio-og, nothing, m my 
opinion, can be more repugnant to the context and to common 
sense. Speaking of the Cnidians, who were digging across the 
Isthmus, what country w as sxtoc to them ? surely the Continent. — 
Mr. Barker, by striking Ivtoj Ss Traaa erf j lysvsTo out ot its place, 
makes TJj yag r, KvjSi>}, x. t. X. causal to ^ouXofj-Bvoi vyjo-ov rijv X'Jopi\v 
TTOiYjaai, and, 1 fear, introduces a false inference. Thus, " desirous 
to make their territory an island, because Cnidia was connected 
with the Continent by the Isthmus through uhich they were dig- 

328 Defence of the coimnon reading 

ging." Not merply — because their country was connected to the 
Continent at this place. i\ll their motives are given in eouayji ts 
vtx<Tr,c, K. T. X. Let us not then use violence with this venerable 
historian, by unauthorised trans()osi(ion of entire sentences ; but let 
us hear it" he cannot be his own interpreter. My own decided 
opinion is, that the passage Ivtoj Se Tratra aipi lysvsTO, is perfectly 
right, and in its place, as we have it in ail the editions. The phrase 
ylvsaSai ii-A, or with the ellipsis of h), often means " to become 
subject," or " come into the power of any one." If we so under- 
stand this phrase in the })assage under notice, and suppose the 
ellipsis of oiv, the narration, 1 think, becomes consistent and in- 
telligible. To assist in forming a better judgment, it may be well 
to transcribe the passage, with a little more of the context than 
Mr. Barker gives us. 

'Eoucryjj re Tracrr): rrjj A'viS/yjc, ttX^v oAjyi^j, 'jrsgifii.oou (ra jw-ev yaig 
aLVTr,g 7rpo§ ^opii]v ave[j.ov h Ae^aju-Jijcoj xoknog ocnsipysi' rot, Zl TTQOg votov 
^ xara. 2,uiJiYjv ts jc«» 'PoZov QoiXaccra'^) to ojv S^ oX'iyov tovto, sov otrov 
re £7:1 Trevre (TtocChx, co^votov ol A'viSn*, Iv oaw ' ApTruyoc rijv Icovtriv 
xaTsaTQi<psTO, |3ouAo'jU,svoi vrjTov tjjv pj^wpyjv ■jroi^cra*. Ivtoj Ss ttuctx. o"4>» 
syhsTo' (or to supply the I'lhpsis evtoj S' av Traira,' sttI (T(^i eyeveTo) 
t^ yap ri Kvilir} y^^Qf^ s? t^v JiV^igov TsXiura. tuutyi b 1(tS[ji,oc s(TTI tov 
Sq'jo-o-ov. kou S^ TToWrj X-'§^^ Igya^OjU-evaJV twv KvioImv' ij-uKKov yap t» 
xai QziOTspov s:pcclvovTO T»Tpa,>c£a-9ai ol sgya^oy-evoi tou elxoTOj Ta ts uWx 
ToD (Twi^aTOf, xa) [xaXiaTO, to. icsqi rovg 6<^^ixX[ji,ovg, QgocvofJisvi]; t^j 
Tihgrig' r/refj-Tiov sg zl=A<fouj (iso-nqoitovg STrc^riO'oy.evovg to avTt^oov. 
V\ hich may be literally translated — " All Cnidus, except a small 
part, being surrouiidtd by water, (for it is bounded on the north 
by the Ceramic Gu!ph, and rn the south by the sea with the 
islands !Syme and Rhodes.) This small part, (to the distance of 
about 5 stadia,) while Harpagus was subduing Ionia, the Cnid- 
iaus were digging, being desirous to make the country into an 
island, and all nithin the Isthmus zoould have become secure in 
their jpozcer, as the Cnidian territory joins the continent at the 
Isthmus \\hirh they were digging. At length the Cnidians labor- 
ing thereon with numerous hands, they sent messengers to Delphi 
to inquire the cause of an obstacle which opposed them ; for the 
laborers appeared to be wounded in a strange and supernatural 
manner, on different parts of the body, and especially about the 
eyes, by pieces falling from the rock," 

Thus, Sir, the whole narration becomes intelligible and con- 
sistent throughout ; and as to the version given to Ivto; Sg 'noiau a-fk 

' Perliaps the ellipsis might be rendered more perfect, if we read — 

4»T3; r a.1 ToC ^IcrSfxav tiaa-a Ivri (7,pi lyiytTO vta-og — " All within the IsthmUS 

would have become an island safe in their power." 

of a passage in Herodotus. 329 

lyhiTO, we may appeal to our historian himself for confirmation. 
Amono- nu.nerous passages 1 shall cite but two. In the Oration of 
Xerxes, lib. 7. cap. 8. we have, TlpuTs fx,iv wv xa) Aapmv j'fluovra 
(TTparBVccr^ai sv) tovc uvdpcig toutou;. aX\' 6 jxev TSTeKsuTtjKS, kou oux 
e^zyevsTo ol Tii^cagrio'a-<^l^ur — " and it happened not to be in his 
power to avenge hmiseU," is, doubtless, the meaning of the latter 
clause. In the spirited and nianiy opposition of Artabanus, eod. 
lib. cap. 10. we read, xa/roj x«» Xoyw Sckowoh Ssjvov, ett' uvlpl ys 
kv) Travra xa /Sao-iAsoc Trpiiy/xaxa y5ysvy;(79«j — " and surely the bare 
hearsay is terrible, that the soveieignty of the King should have 
come under the power of an individual." See also Thucydides Ed. 
Dukeri 477,49. 315,76. 180, .36. and 278, 13. where this verb 
is used in exactly the same sense. 1 need not remind Mr. Barker 
of the occasional ellipsis of the particle av, he will find this well 
proved in the excellent work of Hoogeveen, see Vol i. p. 92. cap. 
4, 5, 6. Ed. 1769. Even the condition itself is occasionally under 
ellipsis, or indirectly expressed m the context ; as it is in the passage 
we are examining, hrog ^ a./ tou 'Icrfijxou Tracra (T^j hyiVBTo — m what 
follows there naturally suggests itself to the reader's mind, si /x^, 
$potuoiJ.iV^i Tr,g TrsTf^c, h$.oi.{voiJTO TtrgcLxBaQui, Tr,g TlvUvi; Is avTi^OLicri]^, 
exwXvovTO jc. T. A. Hoogeveen, after citing nun)erous examples of 
the conditional form of uv, proceeds thus — " Sed ea conditio non 
semper adest ; verum non raro implicita latet, et e sensu eruenda 
est." — It will be seen, that in the version I have given, sTrsftTrov is 
connected with xa) trj 'KoKXrj yjtgl sgyailoiJi,£vcov x. t. \. as there is an 
elegant transposition of the particle ya.g in [xciXXov yag> ti x. t. A. 
and not unusual in our historian. Such transpositions of yuo, Lon- 
ginus numbers among the instances of the sublime; and quotes a 
passage from lib. 6. 'Ett) ^vgou yc-.o xJiJ a.x[j.ri5 s-yBTai r^iMV t« Trgay- 
jxaTa X. T. A. Having said ail ihat occurs at present in favor of the 
proposed version of the passage under our notice, I shall merely 
repeat my conviction, that the phrase Ivrog S; itoicra. cr$< lye-i^zrOf 
has been misunderstood from a disregard to the difference between 
elvaj and ylvs^^ai. Such is this ditfVrence, Mr. B. well knijws, 
that there are substantives, and their epithets, with which yivsa-Qoii 
cannot be connected. Thus to write, to QzIov yi'vera* (instead of 
ecrri) a.'aivjov, would 1)6 as preposterous as it is false ; equally so the 
expression yj 4/^^^ y/vsra* aflavaroj. Hence the verb ylveadai can- 
not be, and, we may venture to afFirm, never is, by good writers, 
connected with substantives indicative of utichangeable essence ; 
and so we cannot write ^ A'n8/>j x^'f'"^ syivsro avsvJoToj . The ground 
in Cnidus was the same, ages before, and aged after, the epoch in 
question : so if IvTog Ss ttuo-o. x. t. A. be wrong, dimSoroj 8e Trdtra, 
X. T. A. is not right. I have this moment stumbled on a sentence 
in Theognis, which exhibits the difference between shut and ylvsc-^at 
so clearly, that I cannot help transcribing it. 

330 Defence of the common reading, S^c, 

S6v (rot xa) xotxog m, ylyvofji-ai etr^Kog ayjjp. 
Before 1 take leave of the subject, 1 beg to point out to Mr. 
Barker, and your readers, the expression to cuv Zyj oXlyov tovto sov 
cirov TS Ittj ttsvts CTultu (oq\)(T(xov o\ Kvllioi X. T. X. which in the ex- 
tract given by Mr. Barker from Valckenaer, is translated, "^ Istum 
quinque stadiorum isthmum voluerunt perfodere," 8cc. Wesseiing 
has, *' istud igitur exiguum circiter quinque stadiorum Cnidii 
fodiebant ;" by which it seems, this Isthmus was no mor6 than 5 
stadia across at the part which they were digging ; but on refer- 
ence to the maps, it will be found, that the narrowest part of that 
peninsula is at least eight times as much as these versions make it. 
Hence the sea, since the period of this event, has greatly receded, 
(of which we are not informed,) or Herodotus is wrong in his 
Geography or the passage is corrupted, or mistranslated. J am 
much inclined to think the latter to be the case. With the to mv S>) 
oX'iyov, should we not supply the ellipsis [xoglov tou 'Ia-&fio~j ? The 
whole sentence I would read, to wv ^ ixlyov touto tou 'la&ixov 
{jioglov K. T. A. ; or, with a small alteration of the text, tou dv ^ 
6\lyou TOUToy ocrov ts ett) tts'vts a-Toclm — " of this small part to the 
distance of about 5 stadia the Cnidians were digging," 'EtA, with 
the accusative, frequently means direct motion and arrival at a 
point. Our historian has (lib. 3. 30.) To ro^ov jutouvoj Tlepa-scov oa-ov 
Ts sn) 8uo SaxTuXouf eipva-? — " alone of the Persians he drew the bow 
to the distance of two fingers." That is, the bow strhig so pulled 
towards him that, his hand having hold of it, is brought to the dis- 
tance of two fingers from a point in the middle of the bow at rest. 
The bow at rest, and the bow full strung, plainly show the sTgoo-s 
Itt/. As to the oa-ov t? Ittj ttevts (TTaSia, had the historian intended 
merely to inform us that the whole breadth of the Isthmus at the 
place in question was ahiiost or about 5 stadia, he would have used 
oVov T£, without ett), as he does in numerous passages, and he would 
have written, most probably, t^v wv 8^ ox/yrjv x^^pYjV, and not to dv 
Iyj X. t. a., w hich leaves the diminutive i^oplov clearly understood. 

1 do allow that the ok'iyov touto x. t. X. seems, on perusal, to 
allude to the ttX^v oXlyrig x. t. X. above, and, of course, to the 
distance across at that place. The pronoun outoj, however, has 
sometimes a prospective allusion, and here the to oAi'yov x t. A. 
may refer to what iuimediately follows, viz. oVov t£ In) ttIvts TTuitx 
X. T. A. — " to the short distance of about 5 stadia." 

You have, Sir, my humble endeavours to remove the incongruity 
of the common Latin translation with the geographic appearance ; 
and 1 submit my opinion of this and the other passage to the con- 
sideration of Mr. Barker, and your other learned correspondents. 

Liverpool, 20th Jug. \Q14. J- W. 


The following Inscriptions were carefully copied by your Correspondent 
in the Court Yard of a House near the Cathedral, in Barcelona, and may 
pos&ibly be worth your acceptance. E. S. 






E N T I V S ' P R I M V S 


'!-. •1(111.-- 





' IvmlviRAVG^ 

agathopvs l^b 
inme mori a ml. ped an 
evphroniscvivs. basis 








Passage from the Persian Poem of 


To THE Editor of the Classical Journal. 

Among some very rare and beautiful Eastern Manuscripts collected 
in Persia and Turkey, by a gentlenian who lately returned to England 
is a fine copy of the Poem entitled Shirln ii Ftrhdd :^\£>j3^ hr^J-^ 
by the celebrated VahsJti, ^^=>^' This eoniposition, under the form 
of a romance, (founded on the amorous passion of Ferhdd for the 
lovely Shirm, mistress of Khusrii, or Chosroes, King of Persia) is in 
fact a metaphysical work of extraordinary merit; and the gentleman to 
whom it belongs, will probably soon ofter an account of it to the pub- 
lic, as of many other valuable manuscripts in his collection ; meanwhile, 
he has obligingly permitted me to extract some lines which I had been 
desirous of perusing in the original language, ever since Sir William 
Jones's translation of them fell into my hands, which 1 shall here tran- 
scribe from his admirable " Anniversary Discourse on the Philosophy 
of the Asiatics ;" adding, for the entertainment of the orientalists 
among your readers, the original Persian verses. 

Nov." 20, 1814. P. 

" But," says Sir William Jones, " the most wonderful passage on 
the theory of attraction, occurs in the charming allegorical poem of 
Shirm and Ferhdd, or the Divine Spirit, and a human Soul disin- 
terestedly pious — a work which, from the first verse to the last, is a 
blaze of religious and poetical fiie. The whole passage appears to me 
so curious, that I make no apology for giving you a faithful translation 
of it." "There is a strong propensity which dances through every 
atom, and attracts the minutest particle to some peculiar object. 
Search this universe iVora its base to its summit, from fire to air, from 
water to earth, from nil below the moon to all above the celestial 
spheres, and thou wilt not find a corpuscle destitute of that natural 
attractibility : the very point of the first thread in this apparently 
tangled skein, is no other than such a principle of attraction ; and all 
principles besides are void of a real basis. From such a propensity 
arises every motion perceived in heavenly, or in terrestrial bodies : it is 
a disposition to be attracted, which taught hard steel to rush from its 
place, and rivet itself on the magnet : it is the same disposition which 
impels the light straw to attach itself firmly on amber. It is this 
quality which gives every substance in nature a tendency toward 
another, and an inclination forcibly directed to a determinate point." 

Travels of Two Mahommedam. SSS 

ji\xj> Li" j^i«-!) ^3^ yi 

jy^LsL 3>iy (jjr'^ o^^ t5'';^.'» *J 

«i3LsL Li' tXLj ji t_jLj Li' (i*o'!j 

wJiXil ^ML Li' oU ^j)j 

-fAA J. (?^>^ i?*W *-^-^^ i^t^-* M"^*^ 

C^uy^ o\S Lj ^ ^^1 3"^ (J^*^ 
c^j^^^t jj Ij CJ^^ «IXi«*^ ^t^"* (j^*'^ 

tf?3jj' O^^V tjR^ 

The Authenticity and Genuineness of 
'^ Renaudot's Travels of Two Mahommedans^'' 

In an obscure publicalion, which accident lately brought before me, 
i found some doubts expressed respecting the authenticity of a very 

§34 The Tra^cels of Two Mahommcdans, 

interesting and valuable work, generally quoted with confidence and 
due praise b\ our most learned writers, on the Geography, the Man- 
ners ana Customs ol' Eaateru Nations. 

The suspicions entertained against it at the time of its first appear- 
ance, had long since, I thought, disappeared before the evidence, which 
proved it to be genuine, and which I shall here briefly notice, as some 
persons mviy be still uninformed that such evidence exists. The work 
to which 1 allude is that curious account of India and China, given 
by two Mahommedan travellers of the ninth century, and published in 
the year 1/18, at Paris, by Monsieur Renaudot, in a French transa- 
tion, with copious and excellent Notes, under the title of" Anciftmes 
Relations des Indcs et de la Chine, &;c. Traduites de I'Arahe." In one 
Volume, Octavo. 

This translation was treated as a literary imposture by Father 
Premare, and Father Parennin, besides other ingenious men in 
England, Italy, and France. But the celebrated orientalist. Mon- 
sieur de Guignes, having found a copy of the work in the original 
Arabic, preserved among the manuscripts of the Royal Library, at 
Paris, compared it with M. Renaudot's French version, to the fidelity 
of which he bears ample testimony, in the first volume of the " Ex- 
traits et Notices des Manuscrits de la Bibliotheciue du Roi," p. \56, 

The original work is entitled, " Selselet al Towavikh wa at helad 
wa al behiir," Sfc. In Arabic, 

Or, "An Historical Chain of Countries, Seas, &c. &c.," and numbered 
among the oriental manuscripts of that vast collection, 597- 

Monsieur de Guignes remarks that this MS. always reads par asaiig, 
where M. Renaudot uses the word lieiie, or league, although there is 
some little difference in the measures. And he also observes a strong 
variation between the original text and M. Renaudot's translation of a 
passage in page 42 of the French volume, which unjustly charges the 
Chinese with a most abominable practice, " considered by them as one 
of the indifferent actions performed in honor of their idols," M. de 
Guignes corrects this mistake, by referring to the Arabic words of 
the two Mahommedan travellers, adding, " ainsi il ne faut pas leur 
faire dire <jue les Chinois commettent ce crime par principe de Re- 

In page 6 of the French translation, a mountain is called chachenai, 
which in the manuscript is written khouschnami. 

In page 10, a place situated between .S'/rff/" and Mascate, is styled 
" ISesiJ Bani el Se/ac ;" in the original text it appears " SmJ'-bani 

In pp. 20, and 108, M. Renaudot mentions a King of Haraz, and a 
Kingtioni of Goraz: the Arabic manuscript reads these names 

Hebrew Criticism, 335 

In p. 51, the taking of Canton shonld have been dated Anno 
Hegira;, 264, (of Clirist, 8/7.) in the printed version it is A. H. 877, 
and of our aera '254, a typographical error. 

At the end of the work (p. 124) it appears that Monsieur Renaudot 
forgot or omitted to translate some lines. The Arabian author having 
said that emeralds were carried from Egypt to China, and there made 
inta rings or seals, adds, " They carry also there the houssad, other- 
wise called merdjan, or coral, and the hadjion, named likewise dahnadge. 
Most of the kings of India allow the people of their own country to see 
their wives — a favor which they do not grant to foreigners." " On y 
porte aussi le boussad autrement nomnie merdjan et le hadjion qu'on 
nomme encore dahnadge. Laplupart des Rois de I'lnde laissent voir 
leurs fenmies a ceux de Icur pays; ce qu'ili ne permettent pas aux 

The original manuscript is dated A. H. 596, or, in the year of 
Christ, 1199. 

Y. M. 


To THE Editor of the Classical Journal. 

In looking over Mr. Bellamy's <* History of all Religions" — a 
work which undoubtedly does the author the highest credit, equally 
as the Gentleman, the Biblical Scholar, the Orthodox Theologist, 
and the Genuine Christian — I was of course not a Httle surprised 
to find, at the very conclusion of the subject, among the " Ten 
Names " selected for the Supreme Being, God, that of D^H^h?, 
Elohim (Alehim ') should be still conceived ot the siyigular number , 
contrary to the now generally received opinion of every biblical 
student. But as this can therefore be no longer considered as 
a controverted point, to attempt to go over the ground again, with 
the abundant proofs that may be deduced from the << Sacred 
Volume," and which is already done by the many able writers 
of the present day, particularly by the autlior of the " Commentary 
and Critical Notes on the Holy Scriptures," could manifestly add 
no farther weight to the now decided argument respecting the 
plurality of the word Elohim. The few remarks, therefore, that 
I mean principally to offer on the subject, refer to the reason 
Mr. B. has now given for his still asserting (for there is no 
doubt that this gentleman has read every popular and recent pub- 

' Vid. the present Bishop of St. David's " Hebrew Reader," in which the 
Anti-masorethic method is adopted. 

536 Hebrew Criticism. 

lication on this head) that DTT^N must be of the singular number, 
— viz. « It is a noun of the singular number, or it could not 
have been connected with a verb singular," 

Dvoi:rn Di^ D^n'^N H12 /^^I^'^<"I2. Gen. \. 1. 

No classical reader certainly needs to be reminded that nothing 
is more frequently to be met w^ith, both in the primitive and 
derivative languages, than grammatical anomalies respecting the 
agreement and government of words. The Arabic, the Hebrew, 
with all their dependent tongues, abound with them ; nor are 
the Greek and Latin, even in their purest state, exempted from 
these deviations : and it is from their frequent o currence, and 
respectable authorities, that grammarians have deduced rules for 
such syntactical irregularities as the principles of universal gram- 
mar can by no means justify. 

Hence, we find singular nouns connected with plural verbs, 
and plural nouns with sintrular verbs ; and when the predicate, 
singular or plural verbally^ expresses a collective idea, the verb is 
indifferently put in either the singular or plural number. And 
hence also are often found the junction of different cases- and 
genders of substantive and quality. 

To exhibit examples of these grammatical anomalies in the 
various languages would be endless, and manifestly superfluous to 
every classical student, as they are every where to be discoverr^d, 
even in the best authors. We shall therefore select only a few- 
concise instances from a language tliat '.s universally allowed to 
have been brought to the highest degree of perfection (probably 
that may be possible) of any in the known world, and from 
authors that are too familiar to need particular reference. 

1. TcJ ocQyvgr~y inroTct(r<T?roi.i •nc/.vru. 

Here is 7^ 'plural noun (neuter) joined with a verb singular. 

2. ihc, pliTixv ri ttXti^'jc. 

A singular noun (collective) with z phcral verb. 

K plural noun (feminine) with a verb singular. 

4<. oq^lv rj i/\-^9:ia aei. 
A neuter adjective, with a masculine or Jeminine noun. 

A dual number joined with a phiral, &c. &c. 

To cite examples from the Latin authors in these respects, it 
is presumed, is wholly unnecessary, ana every one knows the 
established rule observed in that tongue with nouns of multitude 
(having a singular or plural verb at pleasure) j a rule uni- 

Htbrcxv Criticism. 337 

versally adopted in all the derivative tongues from the Latin, as 
M^ell as in all those that have been enriched or improved by that 
model ; of this the English language is far from being an obscure 

The Hebrew language presents us with a variety of examples 
similar to the above, as also of plural adjectives or pronouns 
joined with singular nouns, and sometimes singular adjectives 
and pronouns with plural nouns •, but it may in general be ob- 
eerved that, when a plural is thus connected with a singular, it 
implies a distribution in the predicate. No biblical reader, either 
in our own or the original tongue, stands in need of particular 
references in these respects, and therefore the few following in- 
stances will no doubt be thought abundantly sufficient. 

*' Thy judgments is right,"— i. e. every one of them. 

« Those that curse thee is cursed,"— i. e. every one. 

«I will rehearse thine (plur.) praise," — i. e. all and every one of 

Also when the substantive is repeated j — 

« A nation, a nation (//) made Gods," — i. e. every nation. 

" A man, a man," — i. e. every man, with a verb singular. 

"Two, two entered^' (singular) — i. e. they entered by pairs. 

If, however, a conjunction copulative or disjunctive be found 
between the substantives or adjectives, it expresses a contrariety 
or difference. 

"They speak with a heart and heart,"' d^'\^, i. e. with a dif- 
ferent heart,' &c. &c. 

May it not therefore from hence be fairly inferred that on the 
ground of syntactical agreement the argument is not well founded, 
and of course is far from being conclusive ? And, it is presumed, 
there can be no impropriety in here adding, that it certainly 
cannot be deemed judicious in an author of " A New Trans- 
lation of the Holy Bible," whose grand object announced is the 
<* refuting of the objections of the ancient and modern Deists, 
by a strict adherence to the Hteral sense of the original languages," 
to call the plurality of the word DTlVi^ again into question, which 
is now allowed by the most able theologians to be equally ex- 
pressive with mrT'-of the triune essence of the Supreme Being ; 
the latter of which was not unsatisfactorily attempted even so 
early as the time of Athanasius. 

It is every where evident in the sacred writings, that Jehovah 
is applied to God when mercy and clemency are to be exercised, 
« Quando egreditur sententia ad clementiam;" — as to Moses in 
the cleft of the rock,— mHN rW\\ " The Lord merciful and gra- 
cious, slow to anger, &c." and in invocation — « O Jehovah, 
NO. XX. CI. Jl. VOL. X, Y 

S38 Hebrew Criticism* 

according to thy mercy, &c. OTT "fTDil^ niH'' :" and Elohim^ 
« Nomen divinum a Judicio, quasi Deus Judex ; " or is expressive 
of dominion, power, &c. ; also when it is mentioned as the object 
of adoration. Hence the reason why our Lord said not in that 
av/ful hour of derehction, Jehovah^ Jehovah^ but ILli^ EU^ or 
Eloiy Eloiy (either having the same import) My God, I\'Iy God ! as 
addressing the Judge of all the world, who was then inflicting 
upon his own son the punishment due to the fallen and rebellious 

The learned (converted) Jew, Lyonsy in his Masorethic Heh. 
Gr. thus observes : — " Elohijmy Gods, a noun radical masc. the 
■plural of Eloah. Its root is uncertain ; whether from El, strength 
or mighty j or from El-hcm, their strength •, — but as tzere never 
changes into catepJiscgol this is not probable. It has been sup- 
posed to be from alahy to swear, referring to the covenant-oath 
mankind are under to God. But it is most consistently concluded 
to be from alialiy to worship, honor, respect, &c. plural masc. 
mavpic and patach-furtmmi being expunged." And then adds: — 
« It is observable that words expressing dominion are always of 
the 'plural number in the Hebrew, though spoken but of one : 
thus we find Elohijmy Adonijm, BhoaUjniy &c. are joined to sin- 
gulars, as holy gods himself, gods created, &c." The idea of 
the author now quoted, of Elohim being a derivative from Aliaht 
to worship, &c. is ^now supported by conceiving this latter to be 
from the Arabic noun Allah, the common name for God in that 
tongue J and which is still preserved in all its corrupt derivatives, 
the Arabesque, the Morisc, Sec. The Castilian poets, whose 
dialect still retains a considerable portion of the ancient Moars^ 
present us even now with this distich : 

Padra sir que ALA perrrdta, 

Que tetiga Jin mi disf^racia, — -Romance Esp. 

These cursory remarks, it is presumed, cannot be concluded in 
more appropriate and impressive language than is found in the 
" Commentary and Critical Notes," before alluded to. 

<'The original word QM'^K Elohim, < God,' is certainly the 
plural form of ^K ely or Th^ eloahy and has long been supposed, 
by the most eminently learned and pious men, to imply a plu- 
rality of Persons in the Divine nature. This plurality of three 
Persons in the Godhead has formed an essential part in the Creed 
of all those who have been deemed sound in the faith, from the 
earliest ages of Christianity." And he must be strangely pre- 
judiced indeed, who cannot see that the doctrine of the Trinity, and 
of a Trinity in Uidty is expressed equally in the words Jehovah^ 

Adversaria Liter aria. 339 

and EloJiim. Vid. Ainsiioorth^ « The verb i<Jll hara^ he created, 
being joined in the singular number with the plural noun D^H^i^, 
has been considered as clearly pointing out the Unity of the 
divine Persons in the work of creation. In the ever-blessed 
Trinity, from the infinite and indivisible unity of the Persons, 
there can be but one will, one purpose, and one infinite and 
uncontrollable energy." 

R, M. C, 


NO. IV. 

AfrcR heyiignitas. 

Assueta exercens sero sub vespere pensa, 

Effert incultos Afra puella niodos : 
" Noctem inter mediam, venti pluviasque ruentis 

Dum resonat late per neniora alta fragor, 
En aeger, Libycisque errans male tutus arenis, 

Hospes longinquo a littore solus adest. 
Nostras ante fores, nostraeque sub arborls umbra, 

Stravit in herboso languida membra toro. 
Nulla illi est mater, post taedia longa laborum 

Spuraea quae dulci pocula lacte ferat. 
Nulla est, quce apponat fruges ketissima conjux, 

Fruges, quas propria torruit ipsa manu. 
Quare agite, 6 socias, nostrum est ea solvere matris 

Officia, inque pioe conjugis esse loco. 
Ipsae inopes quamvis, quamvis misera omnia passa2, 

Ne tamen hospitibus fei re gravemur opem." 

Gratia Musarum, 

Efpsi xat TO X.KS05 <rx)v uzmsXlois' (tv Ss, iV/oucr«, 
AVAttojj Mv>]/xo(ruv»iJ MB(ro aslo flXovg. 

Frid. Thiersch. 

» This excellent Lexicographer presents us with the following quotation 
from an eminent Jezvish Rabbin, in his comment on Leviticus. 

"Come and see the mystery of the word Elohim: there are three degrees, 
and -each degree by itself alone, and yet notwithstanding they are all one, 
3i,ud joined together in one, and are not divided from each other." The words 
«f a learned but unconverted J Qy/ 1 

340 Adversaria Literaria, 

Ut pelago suadente etiam retinacula solvas, 
Mulla tanien latus tristia potilus habet. 

Ovid. Ep. Did. JEnea, vv. 55, 5(). 
Latus hie frigidum est epitheton ; legendum conjicio latus, quod 
suadet elegans tm tristia oppositio, quam Nasonianum genium 
sapere, nemo, qui poetie delicias vel summis gustavit labiis, iuficias 
ibit. Conf. Ep, XXI. v. I67. Sensus hue redibit ; " Etiamsi 
mari Iranquillo ac paiato abitum pares, necdum securus ibis ; sub 
blandientis enini specie insidias et pericula multa tegit pontus." 
Quam explicationem egregie juvat Lucret. 1. ii. vv. 561,562. et 
1. V. vv. 1002, 100:3. Saepissime latus et listus confundi docet 
Drachenborch. ad S'll. Ital. 1. v. v. 8. et Triller. Obs. Crit. 1. i. 
c. 8. Santenius hoe sensu malebat stratus. 

J. H. H. 

Pendebat lata garrula "parte lyra, 
Hanc primum veniens plectro modulatus eburno 
Felices cant us ore sonant e dedit. 

TiBULL. 111. iv. 38. 
Languet illud primum veniens ; alterutium enim sufficiebat, 
quod sequenti disticho opponeretur. Pra'terea, quae CI. Heynii 
est observatio, nemo Lalinus dixit lyram moderari ; hinc corrigit 
hac, vel moderatus. Ut utrique suecurratur incommodo, fortasse 
pro veniens legendum feriens. Certe Latinum esse lyram ferire, 
non est quod probem, prEesertim cum hac parte otium mihi fecerit 
Mai'klaud. ad Stat. Sylv. iii. 5, 64. qui eandem ibi auctori suo 
restituit vocem, et Broukhus. ad Propert. 1. u. El. i. v. 9- Ferire 
quoque pYOve7iire in Floiv corrigit Triller. Obs. Cint. 1. i.e. 12. 

J. if. H, 

" II ne sera pas mal-a-propos de eommuniquer une remarque 
assez curieuse sur I'analogie de 1' Anglais avee les langues voisines. 
Tons les mots de necessite y viennent de I'Allemand, et les mots de 
luxe et de la table dn Francais : le ciel, la terre, les Clemens, les 
noms des animaux, tout cela est le meme en Allemand et en An- 
glais. Les modes dans les habits, et toutes les choses de cuisine, 
de luxe et d'oniement, sont tirees du Francais, et cela a un tel 
point de precision, que les noms des animaux qui servent a la 
nourriture ordinaire de I'honjme, comme bcEuf, veau, moutun, se 
nomment en Anglais, ox, calf, sheep, comme en Allemand ocks, 
culb, schaf, en nature ; mais servis sur la table ils changent de 
nom, et derivent du Francois, beef, vealy mutton. Tout lecteur en 
verra facilemeut la raison." 

Aihersaiia Literaria. 341 

Carmen Eroticum. 
"Ecrvspe^ (pouvs xoCkov, vtara yap ttoT^ov £<r«£T£V op^vr^, 

Kai 8;a Trerpacov vi(r(ro[xai r^7^i^aTU)v. 
Tpuij[xa yap ix f^sT^scov rrjg KuTTpi^og s'j ^aka ospixov 

^Ev (TTri^z<T<Tiy ep^fov scra-vixai oTpa/Jcog. 
Ka) "kuxoi copuQvrai ava. trxorog' a.7\ka [xivsi ixe 
'HSu <pi7\.r}[x ^Ivoug- "Ea-TrepSy (palvs xaT^oy. 

Fkid. Jacobs. 

Ad Rothium, Virum artis historicce peritiss'wium, 

Ou [xav s^ op=og tou NcopixoUj cog ayopsv=iCj 
KapTTwv a[x^po(ria)U e\g crs xaTrjT^Se 3oV;^. 

Kkeio) ^ a\^spifi(Ti Aiog ■KapajlayxroL TtiKsiT^g^ 
^AvTi (piX^^svirjg (roi ttoost^xs (pipsiv. 

FiiiD. Thiersch. 

Hie erat Arganthi Pege mb vertice monlis 
Grata doraus Ni/rnphis humida Thyniaain. 

Propert. 1. XX. v. S3. 
Perhaps no passage has been read more variously than this. For 
Pege, different copies and editors have P/iege, Phegt, Phagi, 
Phegcz, Phegie, Plilega, Ph/ege, Ph/egrcs, Phlegre, &c. The 
apphcation of domus to pege has appeared forced to many critics. 
Might vi'e not read, 

Hie erat Arganthi Phrygio sub vertice Montis'? 
The word Phrygio differs httle from some of the readings. But 
it will be said that Arganthum is a mountain in Mi/sia, not in 
Phrygia. Strabo, B. xiii.says, that Caria, Lydia, Mysia, and 
Phrygia, run into each other so indistinctly, that they are called 
l\j<ylici.y.piTci ; in B. xiv. he mentions that the poets confound those 
provinces, and give promiscuously the appellation of Carian, 
Lydian, Mysian, and Phrygian, to the inhabitants of each. Hence 
Lucian calls Attis a LydicUi, although he is by other authors said 
to be a Phrygian. Hence, too, the proposed reading may perhaps 
be defended. 

Inscription at Messina on a statue repnsenting Neptune ehaiiiing 
Scylla and Charybdis. 
Impia nodosis cohibetur Scylla catenis ; 
Pergite secura? per freta nostra rates. 
Capta est praedatrix Siculique infamia ponti, 
Is'ec freniit in mediis saeva Charybdis aquis. 

342 Achei'sarla Liter aria. 

TTBTTBUTYjC, SlE<p5e»g>£. PoLYBIT Hist. ]. I.C. 84. 

In thus describing the skill of Amilcar, in cutting off small 
detachments of the enemy, the author has generally been under- 
stood as comparing his hero to a bomi.s aleator. It is difficult to 
conceive what allusion can be intended to a dice-player. The last 
and the best editor of Polybius, who has not been very concise in 
his notes, makes no observation on this passage. May not the 
historian mean a chess-'player'? Giving check, in the language of 
the game, expressed by cruyxXucav, is a proof of a good player, 
Lyu%g 7tiTTiurr,s. There is, indeed, an appropriate beauty in the 
allusion ; for the game is of a military nature. Vida thus opens 
his Poem on the subject : 

Lndimtts efjigiem heU'i, simulataque veris 


Nee fibi magnificum femina jussa mori. OviD.Ep. in. v. 144. 

Douzje, monente Burmanjio, placebat : 

Ao; tibi magnificum femina jussa mori. 
Sed literarum ductui non minus accederet, si per interrogationem 
legeretur : 

Sic tibi magnificum femina jussa mori ? J. H. H. 

Inscription hij Gilbert Wakefield, on a blank leaf of a copy 

of his edition of Bion and Moschus, which he presented to the 
National Library at Paris in 179<5. 

Mos'^ou Tcc &;ia 3c«i Btx'jog arru^ara. 
f/,vpcf:iv o^uido^' ol(n Tn^^fV aftlBpoTMV 
xui KvTrgig s^s[^u'^e xov Xuoi: fxia- 
a <Poi^og «UTOc, ouS' af ag jU-sAiS^ooj 
Aioc Quyurgsc, iXaoKTtv oiJ-jJoxa-iv 

(TTS'^'uc VBods=7rs-j(n dci'Pvivoic xXudotg 
a^qOKTiJ^ot. (Tsix-voTiiJ^ov sig /3j,SXcov toob, 
Tuyjjjv ciVYip BpsTcivoC) wvoftcc/xavoj 
FiX^sgrog, avTtSy](Tiv zuxXizaTuro} 
XoLoov, b(Toig TTSQ s^j5spXr,xsv YjXiog 
" r,pcozg, suTV^(^oiTz ttuvt an" fpucoig. 

Parve, quod invideo, sine me, liber, ibis in urbem ; 
Hei mihi ! quo domino non licet ire tuo. 

Adversaria Liter aria. 343 


Quique sui memores alios fecere merendc. Virg. 

The two following lascriptions were written by the celebrated 
Dr. Bentley : the former for the monument erected to the me- 
mory of Bishop StiilingHeet in the Cathedral at Worcester ; the 
latter for that of Professor Cotes, which stands in the Chapel of 
Trinity College, Cambridge. 

r . JLr. 

TT C p 

Edvardus Stiilingfleet S. T. P. 

Ex Decano Ecclesice PauiiiiiE Episcopus Vigorniensls 

Jamtibi quicunque haec legis 

Nisi et Europje et literati Orbis hospes cs 

Ipse per se notus 

Dum rebus niortaiibus infuit 

Et sanctilate morum et oris staturteque dignitate 

Et consummata) eruditionis laude 

Undique venerandus 

Cui in humanioribus literis Critici in divinis Theologi 

In recondita Historia z^ntiqiiarii in Scientiis Philosophi 

In Legura peritia Jurisconsuiti in civili prudentia Politic! 

In Eloquentia universi 

Fasces ultro submiserunt 

Major unus in his omnibus quam alii in singulis 

Ut Bibliothecam suam cui parem Orbis vix habuit 

Intra pectus omnis doctrinal capax 

Gestasse integram visus sit 

Quae tamen nullos Libros noverat meliores 

Quam quos ipse multos et immortales edidit 

Ecclesiae Anglicanae Defensor sonper invictus 

Natns est Cranbornise in agro Dorcestrensi 

XVII Apri'is mdcxxxv patre Samuele Generoso 

In matrimonio habuit Andream Gulielmi Dobbyns Gen, F 

Atque ea defancta 

Eiizabetham Nicolai Pedley equitis 

Eodem hie secnm sepulchro conditam 

Focminas quod unum dixisse satis est 

Tanto marito dignissimas 

Obiit Westmonasterii xxviii Martii mdcxcix 

Vixit annos Lxiii menses undecim 

Tres liberos reliquit sibi superstites 

Ex priori conjugio Edvardum ex secundo Jacobum et Annam 

Quorum Jacobus Collegii hujus Cathedralis Canonicus 

Patri optimo bene merenti 

Monumentum hoc poni curavit. 

344 Adversaria Literaria. 

H. S. E. 

Collegii hujiisS. Tiinitatis Socius, 

Aslronomize et Experimentalis Phiiosophiae 

Professor Plumianus : 


Tmmatura Morte przereptus, 

Pauca quidem Ingenii sui Pignora leliquit, 

bed egregia, sed admiranda, 

Ex inaccessis Matheseos Penetralibus, 

Felici SulerUa turn primum erula. 

Post mngnuni ilium Newtonum 

Societatis hujus Spes altera 

Et Decns gemelium. 

Cui ad suniniam Doctrinze Laudem 

Omnes Mornm Virtutuuique Dotes 

In Cumulum accesserunt ; 

Eo magis spectabiles amabilesque, 

Quod in formoso Corpora gratiores venireut. 

Natus Burbagii in Agro Leicestriensi 

Jul. 10, 1632. obiit Jun. 5. 1716. 

Aslug aTTacra?, xai xaTYivagKr[ji,evag 

'Ex. -^siooc, avToii TrQijXViMV S7n<TTa.Taig. SoPIIOCL. Ajax. 25. 

Notwithstanding tlie authority of the Scholiast, it is probable that 
fTntrraraic refers to jcyvaj ^ottjOolc, mentioned by Tecmessa, v, 297. 
See Triclinius in v. 232. Had the madness of Ajax extended to 
the destruction of men, Minerva and Tecmessa, in their account of 
the transaction, would not have omitted so striking a circumstance. 
In the interview between Menelaus and Teucer, it was natural 
that the former should charge Ajax with the blackest injuries ; yet 
he only says that he vented his rage mqoc, ix^r^Ka. x«j xoiix,vai. 

Inscription at Messina, on some young men who perished in the 
Straits of Messina. 








Angliacis jampridem oris, patriasque per usbes 
Gens hominum misera in claustris, iiimiaina fata 
Casiisque infandos frustra sub vincla gemebat : 
Ciim tu, magiie parens, insueto Hooardius ausu, 
Cilm tu tecum una sortem miseratus acerbam, 
Et caro impulsus studio, dulcique labore, 
Tandem infelicis solatia pandere vitee 
Aggrederis, longumque paras lenire dolorem. 

Quippe etenim infaustas ubi jam illaetabilis oras 
Carceris, et diri intrarunt penetralia tecti, 
Coepta ibi mox omnis vital dia voluptas 
Cedere, et in luctus retro inimutarier atros. 
Turn graviter pressos ingenti pondere ferrum 
IJssitj et immites arcebant membra catenae. 
Et saepe instrato prisdura in saxa cubili 
iEstatem, aut saevas hiberno frigore noctes 
Pertulerunt ; donee miseris labeutibus annis 
Defecere animi longis moeroribus aegri 
pauLtim, et labefacta vigor tandem ossa reliquit. 

Sed non ulli adec) dura sub lege labores 
Scilicet, aut rigidi quanquam inclementia coeli, 
Neve fames, nee jam ardentes sitis arida venas 
Depascens, quantiim devota per agmina morbi 
Miscebant stragem ; claustrorum ita septa venenum 
Sufficiunt nempe, et mortem lethalia fundunt. 

Quippe homines, pecudesque atque omnia saecla animaulAm 
Aura quidem tenuis subtili flumine pascit, 
Per nares patulas quai pnmum, atque oris hiatus, 
Admissa, in varios artus ac viscera sensim 
Diditur hinc ima^ et toto se corpore miscet. 
Erg5 eadem assiduis ventis si percita largo 
Pura fiuat spatio^ servetque agitata tenorem, 
Crescere tunc foetus omnes, pin'guesque per agros 
Hinc pecudes videas lagtasque instare volucres ; 
Ante alios genus humanum trahere inde vigorem 
Usque novum, et rosea sese vestire juventa. 
At si jam angusto conclusus limite nuUos 
Accipiat raotus, densoque humore putrescat, 
Aut aliam quamvis labem conceperit aer, 
Continuo hinc languor miseris, tristesque sequuntur 
Morborum species, et lethi mille iigur8e. 

Im6 hie vitalis quanquam et spirabilis aer, 

345 Oifoi'd Prize Poem. 

Pectore qui ex imo membris alimenta ministrat, 
Neinpe idem in venas si sjepius insinuiirit, 
Aera neu capiat permistum extrinsecus ullum 
fJetiactus toties, sensim cornimpitur omnis 
Hinc tibi, neve haustits poterit preestare salubres. 
Quin hominum et summo semper de corpore salsos 
Emanare ferunt a;stus, putresque vapores, 
Atque illos late in partes dispergier omnes 
Undique cncuitu et tota immiscerier am'a. 
Multum adeo causasque domus, et caeca cavernaB 
Adjumenta mali praibent, quando altior intus 
In tectis ingens longiim collectus aquai 
Stet liquor, et tepido sudent luimore lacunag. 
Sive aliquod forsan squalenti in limine ccenum 
Immiuidam nebulam, ct tetros exhalet odores. 
Prsecipue jam tum propior si Sirius agros 
Torreat a>stivos, et Jupiter uvidus Austris 
Incumbens pluviis coutristet nubibus orbem. 
Tum virus coelum omne tibi, et contagia venti 
Concipiunt avide, non uUo tempore tantdm 
Horrescens vulgo febres ardere malignas 
Per populum aspicies, et tristia funera duci. 
Hinc adet) semper s£evo sub carcere cernes 
Aera corrumpi citiiis, diversaque sese 
Morborum genera, et varias ostendere clades. 
Saepius hie, vitio aurarum putrore coorto, 
Fervida vis homines flammai", et mortifer aestus 
Insinuat, corpusque hinc omne amplectitur igni, 
Aut diram illuviem scabies per membra superne 
Suscitat, aut fcedam turparunt ulcera pellem. 
Seu nodes furtim illapsus penetravit ad imos 
Scorbutus membrorum, atque ossibus altus inhaesit. 
Saepe etiam et tristis crudeli tabe Marasmus 
Confectum luctu, longisque laboribus aegrum 
Occupat, et tarde absumtos depascitur artus. 
Quid referam, quoties atris nutrita cavernis, 
Dum miser assidue clauso captivus in autre 
Carpitur, et sola moerens secum incubat umbra, 
Pestis acerba ultro populum dispersa per omnem 
Egreditur, latasque domos contagious implet ! 
Pnmum incerta quideni per totum frigora corpus 
Percurrunt ; tremulaque manus, viresque sub iniis 
Ossibus, invalidique intus per viscera nervi 
Procubuere ; et sub nocteai calor aridus artus 
Porr6, atque ad tactum tractantibus igneus urit. 
iEstu&quc mterdum, atque immundus olentibus humor 

Oxford Prize Poem, 347 

Exire e membris, largoque erumpere liuctu. 
Seepe videbis item sparsos hie inde rubores 
Fundere se, maculisque sinus signare cruentos. 
Mox caput atque humeri magnis crucialibus illinc 
Tentari ; et rapidus circum praecordia sanguis 
Volvitur ; ast idem morituris lentior ibit 
Contra, nee pressas pulsabit flumine venas. 
Turn subitos aeger lymphato corde furores 
Concipit, atque atras frustra effervescit in iras ; 
Ac saepe ingentes inagno molimine nisus 
Edit, et impositas tendit divellere vestes : 
Aut moista in terram defixo lumina vultu 
Dejicit, et lacrymis humectat tristibus ora; 
Inde ubi jam rabiem explevit vis morbida tandem, 
Proluvie denuim nigra, taboque fluente 
Viscera solvuntur ; donee lethi acrior ictus 
Eluctantem animam per caulas corporis omnes 
Discutiat raptim, et vitalia vincula rumpat. 
At ver6 extremii infelix dum in morte tenetur, 
Gaudia multa olim, et lastos reminiscitur annos 
Nequicquam, tenui ciim sub lare pabula tectum 
Dulcia prasbebat, nulloque infecta veneno 
Purior a gelidis spivabat vallibus aura. 

Ha;c ille, hcec vidit miserans crudelia primus 
Nempe animo vigili, promtisque HouAiiDius ausis, 
Fata virum_, casusque iiltro respexit iuiquos. 
Quare etiam aggreditur, secumque hinc mente sagaci 
Consilium, et niagnas volvit jam in pectore curas. 
Scilicet ut duram immiti sub foedere normam 
Imnuitare queat, moremque abolere nefandum. 
iMajoresque ade5, conversa lege, recessus 
Clausis, atque amplas spatioso limine sedes, 
Et puras auraruni animas, victumque salubrem 
Sufticere, et largos currenti flumine rivos ; 
Collectumque situra, et secretis abdita muris 
Semina morborum abluere, immunemque periclis 
Et nitidam penitus captivam reddere gentem. 

Proinde omnem ut posset ccrlo expendisse labore 
Rem secum, et veras scitari ac quaerere causas. 
Ipse urbes patrias, atque oppida lata pererrans, 
Ingratos aditus iion dedignatus obire 
Claustrorum, atque arctas munitis moenibus arces 
Ca?casque intravit crassa caligine fauces, 
Impiger, et tetras condense humore cavernas, 
Atque antra immundos circum exhalantia fimios. 
Nee mala corruptis timuit coiitagia tectis. 

548 . Oxford Prize Poem, 

Nee frustra horribiles propiori fiinere morbos 
Nimirutn, usque adeo praesens in limine numen 
Adfuit assidue gradienti, atrosque vapoies 
Arcebat longe, et pestem mortemque fugavit. 

Quinetiam pati jam et dilecta hiiic arva relinquens, 
Ausus et EuroPjK nmltas ex ordine terras 
Lustrare^ et penitus longinqua invisere regna ; 
Ut rationem omriem^ variasque edisceret artes 
Nempe, et pruecipuos cultus babitusque locorum : 
Quamcunque ad la?tas Batavus felicior urbes 
In claustris justo exercet sub fcedere legem; 
Quasve etiam fovet, hyberni procul accola mundi, 
Moscov^ ad fines^ Co dam cue in littore longe, 
KussiACUS poenas acres, normamque severam : 
Quoque modo, flavus qua jam per pinguia Iberum 
Arva Tag us, camposque astern^ aestate virentes 
Effluit hinc lato LiSBoiCA in aequora fluclu, 
Gens eftiaena virum saev^ sub relligione 
Sanguineam in czedem, et funestas surgit ad iras 
Improba ; qualisve admotis vicinior oris 
Per populos vigilem conservat Gallia morem. 
Iv] imirum saepe bic, si vera est fama, repente 
Incola ad incensi imperium nutumque tyranni 
Carcere vi magna furtim occultatur in arcto ; 
Nee tristes natos audit, flelusque relictae 
Conjugis, aut socios ad limina nota vocantes 
Praeterea ; at longos nequicquam obscurus in annos 
Servatus, sortem indignam et solatia secum 
Rapta gemit, mcestamque aniniam sub vincula fundit. 

lllud in his etiam bine animo secum ipse capaci 
Jam struit, et magna molitur mente laboiem, 
Ut divisa procul Byzanti ad moenia TuRris 
Comnionslrare queat medicos solertior usus, 
Auxilioque juvare, et pestem arcere malignam. 
Quippe etenim infelix certis gens partibus anni 
Vastari late corrupto ex aere lilies 
Conspicit, atque urbem penitus contage teneri ; 
Neve malo in tanto potis est sperare salutem, 
Neu tractare artes, nee contra obsistere tendit. 
Scilicet baud ullo dum jam medicamine pelli 
Alte aegro haerentem credit de corpore morbum 
Nee precibus flecti quanqiiam, miserisque querelis 
Posse Dei naturarn, at fati fcedere certo 
Regnare, et vita? pactos imponere fines. 

Hffic tu, magne pater, tantis erroribus actus 
Usque paras ; haec te ducit praeclara cupido 
Tot nmndi lustrantem oras et littora circum ; 

Bawes^s Letter^ to Dr. Taylor. 349 

Quamvis jamdudum per membra effoeta senectus 
Solicitans sero tandem decedere sajclo 
Admoneat, dulcemque optet defessa quietem. 
Ergo ni fugeres, et te cura ista gravaret, 
Officii talis^ tantarumque Anglia rerum 
Hinc memor, in littos iret jam eft'usa triumphos 
Ecce tibi, et meritum rite instauraret honorem. 
Sed til non aequa nimirum ea praemia mente 
Accipis, aut propriae tangunt tibi pectora laudes ; 
At pietas tantum^ et Siiperi tejussa Jehov.e 
Magna movent, qui nunc ad ccepta ingeutia praesens 
Usque etiam hortatur, certamque in sa^cula secuni 
Promittit sedem, atque annos sine fine beatos. 

1788. B. 

Mr. R. Dawes to the Rev. Dr. Taylor. 

Sir, Newcastle, May Slst. 

JJE pleased to accept of my most hearty congratulation upon your late 
preferment, and thanks for the favor and honor of your letter. 

The point controverted between us stands thus: you had advanced 
that the ancient Greeks expressed the power EI by the single vowel E. 
The authorities, to which you had appealed, seemed to me, and still 
seem, to be inconclusive. I took the liberty to hint such objections 
as the principal of those authorities appeared liable to, desiring at the 
same time, that if you was furnished with any more, you would be so 
kind as to communicate them. This favor you very readily granted. 
You likewise proceeded to make a reply to the objections, which 1 had 
hinted. I shall now in my turn offer my sentiments upon each parti- 
cular of your letter, flattering myself that I shall make it appear that 
the authorities, upon which you build your hypothesis, are not able 
to support it. 

The first is that of Victorinus, which you thus cite: E et O ternas 
habebant apud eos [Grascos] potestates. But I am persuaded, that 
you will find reason, upon second thoughts, to acknowledge that the 
grammarian is there treating upon the triple power not of the Greek 
but of the Latin E ; and that the third power, which he mentions, is 
what obtained, when E in Latin words answered to EI in the Greek 
ones from which they were formed, as in HomermSy Diomedtus, S^c. 
iu Greek 'O,ay)feioj, Ajo/xij^gio;, &c. I should write the passage thus: 

350 Dazces's Letter 

" Nostri Latini cum literis uterentur, quas a Groecis accepcrant. A, B, 
&c. (^et GriEci vocales habebant totidem quot et nos A, E, &'c. nam H 
et X2 postea sunt ab his repertas,) E et O ternas habebant apud eos 
[Latinos] potestates, ut E esset breve et productum, I autem ionguni 
quodammodo sonaret cum ex [Greecis] E et I ductum esset." To sup- 
pose Victoiinus here treating upon the Greek E makes him inconsistent 
with himself ; for in the very next page he teils us expressly, that 
amongst the Greeks O was indeed allowed a triple power, but that E 
had only a double one : " Apud Griecos autem E — duarum obtinet viceni 
brevis et producta; O vero et pro brevi, et pro longa, et pro U |)osita est." 
He tells us much the same thing in another passage, which you your- 
self have quoted, page 7, of your Commentary : " Signiiicaveram, 
priusquam Graicis inter vocales repertae sunt H et £1, vicem earum tarn 
apud illos quam apud nos explesse E et O; O etiani scribi solitam pro 
OT." Surely he would have added uti et E pro EI, or something tan- 
tamount, if he hiid b' fore intended to suggest any such thing. His 
silence in this respect has the force of a negation; dum tacet, clamat. 
Thus we find, t'Kit Victorinus, instead of confirming your hypothesis, 
declares clearly against it. 

The second authority, which you produce, is that of Athenaeus : 
JlavTa; ol d^y^aioi nv OT dvrt roiJ O a-roiy^slou Tr^oa-s^^cjvro, Tta^aTtKr^Ti'Mg 
xoc) rcy EI avn roJ E. These words you say are interpreted by the 
critics, as if the author had said, " The ancients used OT and O, EI and 
E, promiscuously." The critics must excuse me, if I cannot concur with 
thera in being so libera! to Athenteus, as to bestow upon this passage 
just twice as much meaning, as it ever had in it. He tells us only, that 
the ancients used OT iiibtead of O, and EI instead of E : but as to the 
converse he is entirely silent. This observation of Athenaeus, I presume, 
relates to such words as voJo-o; and ^s'lvo;, instead of voa-o; and ^svo^. 
If this be the case, it either does not aft'ect the present controversy, or 
makes against your hypothesis. I could wish you had referred me to 
the page, where it occurs in Casaubon's edition. But you have con- 
trived a method by transposing the author's words to make him affirm 
the converse of what Iras hitherto been his constant doctrine. But the 
ancient system of grammar, you say, requires this tranposition. It in- 
deed allows of it, as far as O and OW are concerned; but this, with 
submission, is all that it does. 

Your next quotation is from Plato : Oi a'^p^aio'rarot l^s^ccv rr,v r/xs^av 
iyidAOvv, oi oa sy^s^av. You are welcome to add, if you please, ol Sa in 
xoc) altjA^xv, for even so the passage will have no relation to any thing, 
which I maintain. It does not at all concern my cause, in how many 
different manners soever any word was at different times or at the same 
time written. All that I contend for is, that the same Greeks, who 
wrote E, never pronounced it EI, any otherwise than as A was pro- 
nounced AA$A, that is, when its name, not its power, was considered. 
I shall here take occasion to offer my sentiments concerning the passages 
in Mich. Apostolius and Plutarch, pages 8 aod 9 of your commentary, 
I am persuaded that the emendations you have suggested to be neces- 
sary have proceeded from a mistake about the meaning of those authors. 

to Dr. Taylor. 351 

When tlie former says, yp'^'a? fx;Kfov OT, and the latter, OT uAycf. 
ycd^oivTsg, they mean not the diphthovg, as you apprehended, but the 
voivel called OT, that is O. It was the general, if not universal, custom 
of the Greek writers to express the letters not by their character, but 
by iheir name. This you will find to prevail quite through Luciaa's 

You proceed in the next place to cite from the Sisean inscription, 
MEAEAAINEN and EIIOEISEN. The former word' in Shuckford's 
copy, appears in this manner, TvIEAEAA-INEN. If the other copy, 
which you mention, exhibits the same representation, I should desire to 
know what account you give of the vacant space betwixt the two letters 
A and I; for you have brought those letters together. I account 
for that vacant space by suijposinu; it to be only misplaced, and that it 
should be thus represented MEAEAAINE-N. By this means we have 
room for the I necessary to the completion of MEAEAAINEIN. I had 
no thoughts of having recourse to the Doric dialect, in order to solve 
an appearance in an inscription manifestly Attic. I have been for some 
time fully satisfied, that different dialects were never mixed by any of the 
yoviij.01 (}reeks. But supposing the other copy of the inscriptiim ex- 
hibits MEAEAAINEN, without any such interstice as appears in Simck- 
ford's; I shvdi oppose the one to the other, that so the authority of both 
may ne destroyed. As to the other word EtlOEISEN, which you say 
shews, that E and EI were convertible; all that I can gather from thence 
is, that E and I were capable of being by inaccuracy transposed, that 
is, that EnOEIEEN might be written instead of EHOIESEN. For I 
think there is no reason to inmgine that this verb was ever used by the 
Greeks without the I subjoined to the O. That it has sometimes that 
form in the present editt, and perhaps MSS. amounts to nothing; nor 
is it of any moment, that ttoibIv often has the first syllable short, for in- 
deed it cannot be otherwise, miless the I be doubled in pronunciation. 
But to allow that there is no blunder in the form EIIOEIEEN, it can 
only be an argument, that EI was sometimes used instead of the com- 
mon way of writing H. But this is foreisi;n to the present dispute. 

Instead of ELMI and SIEETETSr, which are in Shuckford's copy, 
the other as you acquaint me has EMI and :STKEET2IN. Such a dif- 
ference as this disqualifies both coiiies for bei!5g of any authority with 
respect to these two words ; nay, the credit of tlie whole inscription is 
affected by it. Let me add, that, probably, at least, they both give the 
latter word an absurd form. There seems to be no reason for doubt- 
ing, that it should be SIFEIETSIN according to that of SirEIES. 
Upon the whole, no part of the inscription can be justly allowed to 
have any weight in the present coatioversv, except the two words 
nPTTANEION and SIEEIES: and for whether of us these declare, I 
need not mention. And here be pleased to consider, whetlier it would 
not have been an extravagant wantonness to intend, that the letter E in 
SirElES should be pronounced EI, when this very power is in the 
preceding syllable expressed in full. You meet with nothing similar to 
the use of O. 

Another auihority referred to in your Commentary is the Delian In- 

352 Dawes s Letter 

scription. To this I objected, that the iisscription was ^olic, and th?,r, 
therefore, the power of the verb EMI was there not EIMI but HMI. 
You reply, " 1st. If I maintain, that EMI is archaic^ for EIMI, and yon, 
that it is iEoIic^, our assertions are not bindinu, the one upon the other; 
but there must be some third judgment, sonie other topic to be con- 
cluded by." I answer, that su|>posinfj neither of us couhi give a reason, 
whereby his hypothesis nii<:ht appear the more probable, our assertions 
would amount to no more than if we had both been silent. So that even 
upon that footinir, the authority of this inscription would be set aside; 
and that would be enough for my purpose. But further, thedigannna 
F, which appears in the inscription, is a stron:< argument for its beinnr 
iEolic: for that the digamma was peculiar to that dialect is at least 
highly probable, from the epithet constantly given it. The inscription 
has still further marks of yEolisni : for if it was not .-Eolic, there is no 
doubt to be made, but that we should have there had TOF AFTOF 
AI0OF, not TO AFTO AI0O : for why should the power of the aspi- 
ration waw be left to be thrice understood, when it is plain, that a 
character expressive of it was ready at hand ? The reason of our meeting 
with such instances as AIONTSO is, that in other parts of Greece there 
was no capital character denoting the aspiration watv. This, as well 
as the other aspiration he, was left to be supplied by the common 
norma loquendi. On the contrary, supposing the inscription to be 
.^olic, it wilt be liable to no such objection ; the power of the words 
will be Tcw awTcu Xi^'jo YjUA. The T, which I have prerixed to the O, is 
absolutely necessary ; for awros destitute of the article never means 
the same. Now my hand is in, I shall add another conjecture about 
the genuine form of this inscription, which [ am persuaded has been 
still further corrupted. The reading which now prevails is no verse ; 
and the language, when considered as prose, is vicious. The nature of 
prose requires the article along with dvS^lccg, as well as with cr,psAaf, o 
dv^iag, or rather t r£ dvSolx; ko.) to (x(pi\xg. Aiid now we have no 
sooner rectified the language, but what confirms the emendation, instead 
of prose, there turns out acomplete Iambic verse, to be thus pronounced, 
Twwtu) aS'x^jJ r av^^ix; kccI to (r^pskctg, or Tuowrw Xi^iu ija' ; for the 
iEolians might perhaps allow of tins hiatus, though the Athenians did not. 
The T in AF1T0 I imagine has been written near the F in the later 
times, by way of explication of the ancient power of that figure ; for 
what is now written olvtoc is never used as a trisyllable. 

You proceed: " 2dly, If I allow you your opinion, it does by no 
means conclude against mine. For instance, if the ^folians wrote 
HMI, and the more modern Greeks EIMI, does it therefore follow, that 
the more ancient Greeks did not write EMI? For be pleased to observe, 
that you are bound to maintain a negative illation." You must mean 
an illation universally negative. But, with submission, I conceive the 
case to be of a very different nature. You assert, that wiiat was written 
E by the ancient Greeks was sometimes pronounced EI ; and as a 
proof of this you appeal to EMI in the Delian inscription. But this 
amounts to no proof, unless it be impossible, that EMI in that inscrip- 
tion should have any other power than EIMI. Whereas I have assign- 

to Br. Tai/kr. S33 

ed another power indisputably possible, nay highly probable, or rather 
certainly true. 

Lastly, If the Delian inscription be, as I maintain, /Eolic, it is plain 
that your account of dialects and archaism is not applicable to it. By 
your accouui, the di-itsnction of dialects, as far as relates to the powers 
T/iJii and £jx(, did not take place, till the character H was isitroduoed. 
But, according to my explication, we have in this inscription the power 
vj^i in the form g'xi. So that your notion of archaism and mine of dia- 
lects are found not to coincide. 

I am prepunng for the press a volume in the critical way (which I 
shall desire the favor of you to revise,) with the foliowii'.g inscription: 
" Emendationes in Poctas (ira^cos, Aristop-anem, Euripidem, Sopho- 
clem, ^schylum, Callimachum, Theociituni, Pia(!arnm, Hesiodum, 
Homerum. Prasniiftitur dissertatio de pra'cipuis Poetarum dramati- 
coruni nietris, uti et de accentibus cum ^i/fuiJwvyp.oJj tnni veris. Hanc 
excipiunt Ani' i^dversionesin CI. Bentleii Emendationes in duas priores 
Aristophanis a abuias. In Praefatione autem disseritur de aspiratione 
vau prout in sermone Homerico obtinebat Anmen exlremum claudunt 
alterae Aniniadversiones in Phileleuiheri Lipaiensis sive Bentieii Emen- 
dationes in Menandri et Fhilemonis i'.eliquiab." I have a pretty large 
apparatus, out of which these emendations will be selected ; upon Aris- 
tophanes in particular about 1 500. For one of these I am in a great 
measure obli-;ed to a conjecture of yours, Lect. Lys. p. 6s6. For the 
nonsensicdi (x>a.'r'0Ast<r^a.i you write diroAKr^atvEt. But we have by 
this means a dactyl in the beginnisjg of a trochaic verse, contrary to 
the laws of that metre. Bv tlie way, the true v^riting of the verb you 
have offered is aTroMaSdivEi. I read a-/ OLttoKia-hi. This reading you 
will find preferable to your conjecture, even in point of diction. I 
need not mention its conformity to the laws of the trochaic verse, or 
the prnximity of its form to that of the common kction. 

Your company at Newcastle will give very great pleasure to. Sir, 

your obliged humble servant, 

R. Dawes. 

P. S. I am afraid that the only subscription for your Demosthenes, 
which I shall be able to sen<* you, will be my own. The good people 
in this part of the world are not very fond of Creek. Piease to send 
me a transcrijit of the other reading of the Sigean inscription. 


nATXANior 'EAAAJ02: nEpmrnxiX ~T)escnp- 

tion de la Gr^ce dt Pausanias. Traduction nowcdkj 
avec le te.vtt Grec coUatiomit sur Ics MSS. de la Bi- 
NO. XX. a. JL VOL. X. z 

354 Notice cf M. Clavier's Description 

bliotheqilc da Roi, par M. Clavier, Memhi'e de flnsti- 
iut, et Professcur an College Royal de France. Vol. I. 
8vo. Paris, 1814. 

This learned '^friend or foe, for such we are, 

*' j^^ltcrnale as the chance of peace or war," 
has met ns on the threshold of his work with so sensible, so pa-^ 
triotic, and so just an address to that great and good man, whom 
we have long loved and admired, l.ouis XV 11 1, that he has 
won our hearts. We will gratify our readers with it. 

" SIRE, Si jamais j'ai eu Urn de me felicitcr d avoir consacre mes 
iseilhs a traduire la description de la Grece par Pavsanias, c'est snrtout 
dans ce moment, oil Votre Majesty veut Men en agreer k'wnimage, et oH 
il mest pei mis de lui cxprimer en mon partieulier des seniimens de 
recnnnoissance et d'aimmr qui me sent communs avcc tons les Francois. 

Livrh a toutes les horrenrs d'mie invasion (trangere ; menaces de 
perdre notre existe^icc politique ; nous avons du a la eonjiance inspiif.e 
par voire nom et par vos vertus la retraile des armees ennemies,^ la rentrte 
d'une Jotfle innomhrahle de nos soldats qui gemissoient loin de leur 
patrie, et le retour de la paix que nous osions a peine esperer. Ces 
Men f aits seront graves perpetuelhment dans nos cceurs. Puisse le del 
exati^ant nos vceux prolongcr les jours precieux de Votre Majeste, ajin 
quelle termine glorieusement son ouvrage en rctablissant I'ordre, et en 
consolidant Vedijice social dont elle a deja raffermi les bases. 

J'ai I'honncur d'etre avec le plus jjroj'ond respect, SIRE, Sfc." 

In his preface, the editor gives an account of the editions, the 
MSS., and the translations, which form the basis of his work. 
The edition of Aldus, in 151 6, in folio, contains only the Greek 
text, very imperfect and incorrect. A copy in the Royal Library 
was enriched with notes of Is. Casaubon, which were consulted by 
Kuhnius. The next edition Mas printed by Wechel, at Frankfort, 
in 1583, in folio. This beautiful and correct book owes its merit 
to Fred. Sylburgius, who availed himself of the notes of Xylander, 
and of Camerarius, cleared the obscurity of many passages, and cor- 
rected the text in several parts with great critical sagacity. He re- 
vised and added the Latin translation of Amaseus. This edition 

* Our c/assif a/ readers will permit us one word of political criticism. Those 
who aflect to regret the late ruler of France, should recollect that, had not 
Louis XVIII. been recalled, the allied powers would not have treated Paris 
with such luiexampled lenity ; the Cossacks would have been permitted to 
deal that terrible retribution, which they considered as the object of the 
eampaign. — He who will not be generous, ought at least to be just. 

de la Grecc ck Pausanias. 3j6 

was reprinted without alteration, at Hanover, in folio, in 16 13. 
The edition of Leipsick, I696, in folio, is a corrected reimpression 
of that of Sylburgius ; but the notes and observations of Kuhnius 
have thrown a new light on the author, and have preserved a merited 
pre-eminence. The last edition is that of Facius, 1796, at Leip- 
sick, in 4 vols. 8vo. This is represented as undertaken by a book- 
seller ; and the editor, affected by the circumstances of the times, 
could not perform all that was expected. He had the assistance 
of two MSS., one in Vienna, the other in Moscow ; but he 
probably had not the means of being very correct in the collation. 
He took Kuhnius for his guide, and has repeated even his typo- 
graphical errors. But it must be acknowledged that his notes 
display great judgment. 

The MSS. to which M. Clavier had access, were in the Royal 
Library, and had never been collated. Kuhnius had, indeed, 
slightly consulted them, but concluded that they did not differ from 
the Aldine edition. No. 1399 bears the date of 1497 ; No. 
1400 is of the l6th century; No. 1410 was written in 1391, and 
has been found of considerable utility, and has often led to the true 
reading of a passage. No. 1411 is nearly of the same date, but 
with little variation. Besides ihese. No. 1409 contains extracts 
from Strabo, Dion Cassius, and Pausanias, by Phralites, in 1431. 
Although the extracts from Pausanias were published in the 
Academy of Inscriptions, Vol. XIV. Facius appears to have ne- 
glected the various readings which they offer. 

The translations consulted by M. Clavier, were those into Latin 
by Amaseus, already mentioned, and by Loescherus, printed at 
Basle in 1550, more faithful than the former — An Italian trans- 
lation, by Alfonso Bonacciuoli, printed at Mantua, in 1597 — Gold- 
hagen's in German — One in French, by Gedoyn ; which he repre- 
sents as done, not always with accuracy, from that of Amaseus. 
He notices Taylor's English translation, but observes that, as it 
does not bear a high character, he was not solicitous to procure it. 
We must here observe that Mr. Taylor, notwithstanding some 
singularities, is a man of great learning and industry, and that his 
translations have been treated by our reviewers with too much 

The work is to be completed in 6 volumes. The present volume 
contains the Attica and the Corinthiaca, the notes to which are re- 
served for the next. We can only observe that the text is correctly 
and clearly printed ; that the numerous lacunae, occasioned by the 
effects of time on the original MS., are either marked by an as- 
terisk, or supplied by the conjecture of the editor, included 
between crotchets. For a judgment on the conjectural emen- 

356 Notice of Gyles's Hebrew Grajnmar. 

dations, which are expressed in the translation, we must wait untii 
the publication of the notes. 

The translation is as literal as the genius of the French language 
will permit. The subject seldom admits of ornament ; but the 
translator has neglected no opportunity of introducing elegance. 
The atithor is often harsh, and sometimes obscure ; but we think 
that the manner, in which M. Clavjer haii^ndeavoured to make him 
clear and consistent, will meet with an approbation proportioned to 
the difficulties which he had to encounter. We will quote, as a 
specimen^ a part of the 2 1st chapter of the Attica : 

" On voit dans le theatre d'Athenes des portraits de Pontes tragiques 
et comiques, tr^s obscurs pour la phipart. Menandre est en effet le 
seul de ces deruiers qui ait eu do la celebrite, et parnii les tragiques 
qui sont la, Sophocles et Euripi<les sont les plus connus. On racontc 
que les Lacedemoniens a\ant lait une irruption dans I'Attique an mo- 
ment de la mort de Sophocles, Bacchus apparut en songe a celui qui 
les commandoit, et lui ordonna dc rtndre a la nouveile Sirene les hon- 
neurs dus aux morts. II pensa que ce songe designoit Sophocles, et 
ses poesies ; en efl'et, on compare encore maintenaut le charme des 
poemes et des discours au chant des Sirenes. Je crois que le portrait 
d'.T^sch;vle a ete fait longtems apres sa mort, et apres le tableau de 
la bataille de Marathon. ^Eschyle dit que dans sa jeunesse s'etant 
endormi dans une vigne oil il gardoit les raisiiis, Bacchus lui apparut en 
songe, et lui ordonna de coniposet une tragedie. Lorsqu'd fit jour il 
essaya d'ob^ir au Dien, et y reussit aver beaucoup de facility : voila ce 
qu'on racontoit. Sur le mur austral de la citadelle, du c6te du theatre, 
on voit une jegide au milieu de laquelle est une tete doree de la Gorgone 
Meduse. Vers le soinmet du theatre, et dans les roches, au-dessous 
de la citadelle, est une grotte sur laquelle est un tr6pied qui renferme 
Apollon et Diane tuant les enfants de Niobe. J'ai efe nioi-menie au 
mont Sipyle, et j'ai vu cette Niobe ; c'est un rocher escarpe qui, vu de 
pr^s, ne ressemble nulleraent k une femme, mais en vous eloignant un 
pen, vous croyez voir une femme ayant la t^te penchee et en 


Elements o/* Hebrew Grammar. In two parts ^ ^c. 
By J. F. Gyles, A. M. Svo. bcls. l^s. Hatchard. 

.i\J.R. Gyles in his Preface tells us, that the ""difficulties 
which opposed his ovv»} progress in the Hebrew language, origi- 
nally suggested the plan of forming the Grammar which is now 

Notice of Gyles's Hebrew Grammar. 357 

submitted to the public." The work is, M'e thirik, executed with 
considerable ability ; and the language, which in treatises of this 
kind is often harsh and obscure, is here plain and perspicuous. 
The author has adopted the system with points, which we are glad 
to see : for although the points may not have been invented till a 
late period, they are of considerable use both to the student and 
the critic. Very valuable emendations of the text may be occa- 
sionally obtained by a slight alteration in the points : and that alter- 
ations of the text are sometimes necessary to produce even a tole- 
rably consistent meaning, no one who has read the Hebrew test 
with moderate attention can doubt. The points too occasionally 
indicate the true reading in passages where the text is corrupt, 
and may therefore be reckoned as a separate and additional autho- 
rity for the emendation. I'hus in the first passage noted by Dr. 
Kennicott in his lirst dissertation on the state of the printed 
Heb. Text, (Oxford, 8vo. 17a3.) p. 343. Gen. iii. 12. the true 
rendering of the words in the original would be, '' the woman — 
He (J^IH) gave me :" the reading proposed by Dr. K. which is 
found in many Heb. MSS., is also supported by the points ; for 
we have both readings in the printed editions, which retain indeed 
the vvrong reading in the let'ers of the word^ but add the right read- 
ing in the points, MIH : it would, however, be much better to 

make the alteration entirely, and read ^<^■^. The same absurdity 

is retained also in verse 20., where we read, " He (ik^'^) was the 
mother, &c. ;" and the text again has KIH. This, as we have re- 
marked before, is but a partial correction ; the proper punctua- 
tion of the masculine pronoun would be mn. — The necessity of 
marking the genders in the third personal pronoun, is well shewn 
by Harris, (Hermes p. 70. ed. 1705.) 

We are sorry to see that Mr. G. retains the old pronunciation 
ofy : he says that it is an " aspiration, at the end' ;/g'." In this 
too, there is an inconsistency : if it be an aspirated letter in one 
part, surely it can never become a nasal, meiely because it may be 
placed at the end of a v>'ord. Indeed it is wonderful that 
Mt. G. should admit it to be a nasal in any way, since he refers 
to the paper printed in the Classical Juurnal, Vol. viii. p. 97., 
where it is clearly demonstrated to be merely a guttural ; and 
places it himself among the gutturals i.^^^^ ; {Gram. p. S.) 

In one particular, Mr. G.'s Grammar far exceeds all others,