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F"TO -T? % T>"V 

N'^ij e^yj Moutrecuv, pi-^ov a ju,^ voUig. 

Epig. Incekt. 


aLontJon : 





XXXVII. p. Ib8. 1. 6. read oden. 

XXXIX. — 73. —12. dative or ablative-. 


As the Index to the first 20 Volumes or first 40 
Numbers will not appear till the 1st of July, do not 
bind Vol. XX. till then. 




M)'stical Poetry of the Persians 1 

Oxford Prize Poem. By the Hon. Mr. Stanley. Sj/~ 

racuscc 3 

Remarks on the Pyramid of Cephrenes lately opened by 

Mr. Belzoni. By George Stanley Faber, B.D. 

Rector of Long Newton 8 

Miscellanea Classica, No. viii 22 

An Inquiry into the Opinions of the Ancient Hebrews, 

respecting a future immortal Existence. By the Rev. 

D.G.Wait 29 

Arabian Story 33 

On the Science of the Egyptians and Chaldeans, Part v 1 1 1 . 

By the Rt. Hon. Sir VV. Drummond 35 

Commentary on the Description of Ardent Fever given by 

Aret^cs. Part II 57 

Letters on the Ancient British Language of Cornwall, 

No. VI , do 

1 J f) 8 ;l 



Bibliography. List of the principal Books of the 
Duke of Marlborough's Collection at White Knights, 
sold by Mr. Evans, Pall Mall, in June, 1819. With 

prices and purchasers. Part ii . 68 

Dissertation Historique^ Litteraire et Bibliographique, sur 
la Vie et les Ouvrages de Macrobe. No. ii. Par 

M. Alphonse Mahul. 81 

Observations on the Critique in the Quarterly Review on 

the new Edition of Stephens' Greek Thesaurus • • • • 90 

Corrections in tlie Text of Wakefield's Lucretius 102 

Greek Ode • 113 

On the Pretensions of Laurens Koster, of Haarlem, to the 
Invention of Printing with Moveable Types. By 

Professor No EH DEN 117 

Parallel Passages. By the Rev. J. Sea ger 137 

Adversaria Literaria. No. xxiii. — Joannis Bapt. 
Bolla Iambi in Pantomimam Vigan6. — ^Important Ad- 
ditions to the First Alcibiades, and Timaeus of Plato. 
— Ad vtnerandum virum, Ricardum Busby : Ficta 
sunt proxima veris, a R. Freind. — De Cometa qui, 
an. 1819, ipsis improvisus Aslronomis, apparuit •••• 141 
On the Origin of the Heathen Mythology. I3y John 

Bellamy 148 

Stanleii Not* quaedam in Callimachum l62 

Literary Intelligence l66 

Notes to Correspondents 187 



MARCH, 1820. 

Of two Persian Odes, praising God in the extraordinary lan<Tuage 
of the Sufi sect, a French translation in manuscript lately fell 
into my hands. The original author was Aga Seid Ahmed, of 
Ispahan ; and the ingenious translator. Monsieur Jouannin, first 
interpreter to the late embassy at the Persian court, under General 
De Gardane. As these poems are not only of indisputable au- 
thenticity, but very excellent specimens of that mysticism so preva- 
lent among the Persians, they seem not unworthy of a place in the 
Classical Journal, which occasionally devotes some of its valuable 
pages to communications on the subject of oriental literature. 
They will be found to illustrate, in a remarkable degree, Sir 
William Jones's admirable discourse "On the Mystical Poetry of 
the Persians and Indians," (Asiat. Researches, Vol. iii.) which almost 
wholly consists of a religious allegory, figuratively expressing the 
fervor of devotion, or the ardent love of created spirits toward 
their beneficent Creator ; " though it seems," says he, " to contain 
only the sentiments of a wild and voluptuous libertinism." In the 
vocabulary of the Su/i poets. Sir William observes, wine invariably 
signifies devotion ; sleep is explained by meditation on the divine 
perfections; perfume by hope of the divine favor ; kisses nnd em' 
braces are the raptures of piety ; idolaters, infidels, and libertines, 
are men of the purest religion ; and their idol is the Creator him- 
self; the tavern is an oratory ; beauty the perfection of the Su- 
preme Being ; ivnntonness, mirth, and inebriety, mean religious 
ardor and abstraction from all terrestrial thouglrts. By means of 

2 Mystical Foetry of the Persians. 

this vocabulary, many sonnets of Hqfiz, which, to the uninitiated, 
appear merely Anacreontic, amorous, or bacchanalian, may be in- 
terpreted into subhrae eftusions of enthusiastic devotion. In the 
two followin;? poems, Seid Ahmed, with the true spirit of a Sttfi, 
regards the fire-worshippers and Christians as only paying lioniafje 
under different forms of worsiiip, to the same great and sole 
Divinity ; whilst, by the common Muselmans they are regarded as 
absolute pagans and idolaters. In that great and sole Divinity, 
whom M. Jouannin's translation entitles Ythoica, we instiintly 
recognise the Almighty, "Jehovah, Jove, or Lord !" D. V. 

Ode 1. 
O Thou, for whom my heart and my life incessantly offer them- 
selves as a willing sacrifice ! allow my soul to pour itself out at thy 
feet. How difhcult is it to withdraw our hearts from thy power ! 
how easv to sacrifice our lives on thy footsteps ! The road which 
leads to thee is replete Mith difhculties : the evil of loving thy 
beauty is an evil without remedy. Behold tiiy slaves ! they ofler 
thee tiieir hearts and souls : their eyes are fixed on thy movements ; 
their ears are attentive to thy commands. Dost thou desire j}eace ] 
behold our hearts. Dost thou wish for war? here are our lives. 
Last night I wandered about on every side, filled with anxiety and 
glowing with love. At length the ardour which consumed me, 
directed my attention to the temple of the iNIygi. Remote from 
j)rofane eyes, I beheld a lonesome place, resj)lendent from divine 
light, but not from waxen torches. I sa\v, all around, tJiat 
heavenly fire which Moses, the son of Amran, beheld on Moinit 
Sinai. In that temple, an aged personage excited the sacred flame ; 
and about the venerable man were arranged the voung disciples, 
all of hlooniing complexions, all with vermilion lips, uttering soft 
language. There mi^lit have been heard the sounds of guitars, 
harps, flutes, and tubours. There were delicious fruits and nectar, 
roses, and a thousand other flowers. A youth of dazzling beauty, 
his curling ringlets fragrant with exquisite perfumes, pouted out 
the nectar; meanwhile a sweet singer exerted his voiee in melo- 
dious strains. The youths and the priests surrounded their vene- 
rable chief, whilst I, concealed in a corner of the temple, blushed 
at being a IMuselman. The aged pontift" asked "Who is this 
stranger.'" I answered, •' I am a lover, bewildered and forlorn." 
" Give to this guest," said the old man, "give him, although unin- 
vited, some of the purest wine." The fire- worshipping cup bearer 
poured out a consuming fire : I emptied the cup, and instantly all 
traces of religion vanished. I fell intoxicated; and in my delirium 
heard an unknown language which cannot be described ; but it ex- 
pressed in words which every member of my frame repeated, and 
which thrilled in every vein — "Yes, he is alone — he only exists; 
Ychowa is alone ; there is none other but he !" 

Oxford Prize Poem for 181 9. 3 

Ode 2. 
O my beloved ! never will I break tlie ties which attach me to 
lliee, even though the edge of the sword shoiiid divide me into 
pieces. Surely a thousand lives would but cheaply purchase one 
lialf-sniile of thy sweet mouth. O oiy father, no longer advise me 
on the subject of my love ! no longer reckon on thy son — he is 
distracted. Well do I know the path that leads to the palace of 
happiness : but what can I do ? Behold, I am in chains. One day, 
in a church, I said to a lovely Christian, " O thou who hast capti- 
vated my heart, who bindest me with the threads of thy sacred 
girdle, when wilt thou discover the true path of Unity? Wilt thou 
not renounce with shame the doctrine of a Trinily in one, sole 
Person ? How canst thou believe that the Eternal can have divided 
himself into Father, Son, and Holy Ghost V She opened her sweet 
lips, and replied, wilh a fascinating smile, in these charming words : 
" If thou hadst possessed the secret of the Unity of God, thou 
wouldst not have accused me of infidelity. The beloved Almighty, 
can he not at once reflect on three mirrors the brilliant rays of his 
divine countenance ? Does silk change its nature when thou callest 
it by different names, satin, purple, and velvet 1" Such was her 
discourse, when I heard an awful voice proceeding from the bells 
of the church, and pronouncing, " Yes ! he is alone — be alone 
exists — Yehowa is the only God !" 



Propter floriferi consuetiim flumen Anapi, 
Dilcctaeque Hyblae per dulcia riira, tacetis, 
Sicelides Musae ? nnllarane Arethusa Camoenam 
Scrvat adhuc ; vitreo quam saepe Theocritus antro 
Nectentemque moras, et molli carmine captam 
Detinuit, vetuitque freti raiscerier undis ? 
si suave dolens lugubri Moschus aveua 
Fuiiereum cantu patriae decus adderet urbi ! 
Jam nulla Aonidum in sacris vestigia lucis 
Apparent, mutique lacus, et Dorica Tempe 
Pierios testata modos : quin occidit omnis 
Gloria Trinacriae : jacet urbs, quae fertur Athenis 
Haud inipar congressa ; jacet, quae nacta tridenlis 
Imperium, terraeqiic potens, sua jura volentes 

4 Oxford Prize Poem 

Per popiilos dabal; angnsto nunc limitc saxiini 
Continet Ortyoia?, sqiiallorquc ir.lionestus obumbrat. 
Non sic fatifficus ventura canebat Apollo, 
Tunc cum divitiis inhians, ot iniqua Syracae 
Stagna nihil metuens, nullo munita labore 
Conditor exiguas fundamina poneret nrbis ; 
Parva quidem, sod tuta loco ; nain plurima fuidit 
In latos sese unda sinus, dupliccsque recessus. 
Fertur et ipsa novis Pallas risisse colonis: 
Palladis aurata? prirnum per tenipla columnar 
Ad solera fulsere ; Dea hinc praesentior urbeiu 
Eiiitique dcdit panlatim, ct viribus auctis 
Cresccre ; dum sensim per terram brachia tendens, 
Quatuor amplexa est, a ventis quaiuor, arces. 
Turn belli leutare vices, ultroque propinquas 
Solicitare armis gentes ; turn foedere victos 
Accipere, et lajtae comniercia jungere pacis. 
Vosque, Syracusas, hand nullo ISumine Divuraj, 
Ad suinmas vexistis opes, et culmina rermn, 
Illustres iieroum aniuiae! tu primi5S ad auras 
Surge, Gelo ! tibi enim vicinos fata dedcre 
Subjicere imperio populos, et Marte secundo 
Poenoruni domuisse acies, patriamque tueri. 
Salve, magne Parens urbis! tibi pr^emia Virtus 
Pert propri;), et vivos tumulo circumdat.honorcs. 
Nee te Musa, Hiero, tanto vix fratre minorcm 
Transierit, ni Pindaricis super a?thera pennis 
Evectum exigua fugerem tenuare Camoena. 
Me, sacra Pieridum nutrix, ante omnia rap tat 
Aurea Libertas ; illam sancto omine lastae 
Accipiunt gentes; ilia adveniente beatus 
Ridet ager, viget artis honos: ea maxima fovit 
Jngenia, Uermoeratemque, et sanguine jura Dioclem 
Firmantem proprio, legesque in morte sacrantcm. 
Ilia etiam, regnandi avidas, rerumque potentes, 
Sola Syraeosio confregit militc Athenas. 
Vos, vacui portiis, lateque silentia Thapsi 
Littora, sent a situ, fama^que oblita vetustae, 
Vos testor, vidistis enim, qu;e pvalia vestram 
Turbarint requiem, quantas induxerit aegra 
Ambitio strages, gcmini(iue iusania belli! 
Nunc quoque (Pleramyrio quamvis sub vertice rarus 
Tendit iter, leviterque secat maria alta pliaselus, 
Et, fidei moiiimcnta, cruces circum ostia fulgent) ; 
Nunc etiam antiquas vidcor mihi cernerc classes. 

f,)r 1819. 

ClangoremquG haurirc tnba3, mixtosqnc tumulhis 
Ad piTgnam horteiiilum, et sacrum Pcieana cancntum. 
lieu iiox ilia ir.alis ct acerbo Ibeta dolore, 
Cum jam Cecropidura resfractce; et Luna, labores 
Insolitos pcrpcssa, fugae dare ters;a vetabat! 
Longc alii raotus animorum, ubi non sua puppes 
Serta coronarunt, ct jam clamore secundo 
Pandentcs velorum alas, Salamine relicta, 
Sicanium Ifietis oneiarunt classibus aequor. 
Nunc, pro cantu alacri, pro spe, plausuque suorum, 
Exercet vigiles efiosso in carcere luctus 
Insopita tames ; quin tela arsere diei 
Pestiibra, iufecitque auras spirabile letum. 
Nee tamcn has inter strages furiasque triumphi, 
Nullus honor Musis ; Graiae merainisse Camoenae 
Profuit affiictis ; teneraque Euripidis' arte 
Molliti dominorum animi, laxa^que catena;. 

Ecce autem invigilans urbi irrequicta Tyrannis 
Vincla movet super ; et Siculis juga dura minatur. 
Cui non Lautumia^, cui non dolus iste barathri 
Auditus? Claustrumque, ct mons excisus in aurcm 
Dasdaleam, infandique auctor Dionysius antri ? 
Martis anians tamen hie patria; non defuit urbi; 
Auspice non alio, crebra tremefiicta bipenni 
Pinifcris sonat iEtna jugis; Calabraeque fragorem 
Dant sj ha? ; unde novis na\ alibus ostia pandens 
Thapsus inassuetas miratur surgere classes. 
Hinc urbs imperium pelagi, et Mavortis honores 
Praeripere; hinc princeps torquere rubentia belli 
Fulmina; succubuit pertcrrita Naxos, et Enna, 
Et Catane victorem, et Troia sensit Acesta. 
Nee quamvis scras non accepere catenas 
Rhegini grassante fame ; cum civibus ipsa 
Gramina deficerent, et victus herba negaret. 
Quid memorem Motya; clades, et fortia frustra 
Pectora? quid caedem Entella^, quid Amilcaris arm a 
Versa retro, et Pceno rorantes sanguine campos. 
O modo legitimis animum satiare ferocem 
Si spoliis voluisset, et extera bella movere ; 
Nee patriae armasset rabies in viscera dextram ! 

Exoriare ultor, pra^claro digne magistro, 
Digne Platone Dion! doctas paulisper Athenas 

Plut. Nicias. 

6 Oxford Prize Poem 

Desere, felices Academi deseie sylvas, 
Rursus ' et horrendam belli emctire Charybdln, 
Te quoqiic fraterna quamvis de ca?de cruentuni, 
Timoleon, te labenti succmreie sajclo 
Fata sinunt ; nee enim frustra delapsa, verendo 
Crine sedet, spoiidetque novos sacra"^ vitta trinmphos. 
Eia agite, ultores vos sceptrnm immane Tyraniii 
Jaiiidiidum vocat, et violatae injuria gentis 
Ulterins non passa moram. Vos eximet revo 
Nulla dies. Si quid patriae pia cura valebit. 
Si quis honor tumuli^ longum per ssecula nomen 
Timoleontei servabit gloria Templi. 

Felix, auspiciis semper si talibus usa, 
Trinacriae Regina ; nee unquam fraude maligna 
Hippocratis decepta, ultro funesta tulisses 
Preelia, Romanis audax te opponere signis ! 
Quid ruis in fatum ? quid flavae spernis aristae 
Munera ? quid Cereri Libyca dilectior ora 
Fastidis pacem, armorumque incendia misces ? 
Annibalis victor, spoliisque beatus opimis, 
En tandem Marcellus adest ! super ^equora victrix 
Longa triumphali sese explicat ordine classis : 
IVnile adsunt nova bellorum instrumenta, necisque, 
Cratesque, pluteique : et centum fulta carinis, 
Extans, urbis opus, muro sambuca minatur. 

O Sophia, o sanctos dignata recludere fontes 
Doctrinae, mentemque extra confinia mundi 
Elatam rapuisse : unus, tna jussa secutus, 
Cnus consilium ducis, et Romana moratus 
Agmina, devotae fortunam distulit urbis ! 
Ille etiam coelique vias, et sidera novit : 
Et vitreae Solis jubar in convexa tabellae^ 
Contrahere, et subitis naves involvere flammis : 
Aut raperc elatas, fractasque illidere saxis. 
At misera extremam falsa inter gaudia noctem 
Urbs agit, efiuso* spumant carchesia Baccho, 
Letiferisque vacant epulis. Heu nescia fati 
Mens hominum ! — crebro sonat ariete porta, tubarumque 
Horrendos audit strepitus Acradina, videtque 
Victrices Aquilas, ipsam intra mcenia Romam. 

' Dion, ut ait Plato, Syracusas rediit '0<pp' en r7}v oKorjv avafierpriffeii Xa,- 
» Plut. Timoleon. 3 i>i„t_ Marcellus, et Liv. 24. * Liv. 25. 23. 

for 1819. 

Marccllum iaterea jam devastata videntem 
Labdala, et immissis ruituras ignibus arces, 
Contimio fati subiit melioris imago, 
Et qualis quanta populus sub clade jaceret; 
" Ergo, ait, ha^c Siculi sedes pulcherrima regni 
Occidct, et signis strages ea debita nostris ? 
Usque adeone brevi Manes Hieronis amici 
Spernimus, et junctas non ha3c in foedera dextras, 
Ut manibus nostris accensae haec omnia flammae 
Diripiant, et sseva eflfragni militis ira ? 
Non ita : victorem magni miserebitur hostis, 
Et lauro implicuisse piam laudabor olivam." 
Talia mente movens rabiem compescere belli 
Gestit, et hac iliac studio volat acer honesto : 
Nequicquam ; tota fervens dominatur in urbe 
Janidudum strages ; animos furor ebrius urget, 
Et, stimulata mora, sitis iiTequieta rapinae. 

Ecce autem incumbens peraratis pulvere formis, 
Mystica doctringe Sapiens, penitusque latentes 
Naturae toto volvebat pectore leges : 
Infelix, qui non vicina tonitrua belli 
Audierit ! capiti impendens sublime coruscat 
Fulmineus mucro : non conscius ille pericli 
Sternitur, inscriptaque jacet revolutus arena. 
Ergo te, patriae columen, te barbara leto 
Dextra dedit ; magnusque cinis tellure jacere§ 
Ignota, ni parvam inter dumeta columnam 
Vix humili ornatam sphaera tenuique cylindro 
Inventam Arpinas ' merito cumulasset lionore. 
Tam leve, tarn fallax decus est quodcunque sepulori ! 

Heu quianam Immanos semper volventia casus 
Fata ruunt in pejus ; et alto in cardine rerum 
Pendentes trepidant, bellis vertentibus, urbes ? 
Ergo ea legitimis Marcelli erepta tropaeis 
Marmora Praxitelis, spirantia signa, supersunt. 
Scilicet ut Verres manibus populetur avaris ? 
Inque novas venient clades, ut saevior hostis 
Det flammis ; ut Romani vigor igneus astri 
Cum defcrbuerit, praeda laetentur opima 
Lunatum Mahumedae agmen, Turcaeque feroces ? 

Suave aliquid tamen haec veteris vestigia gentis, 
Siqua manent, lustrare ; et saxo effossa theatra. 

Cjc. Tusc. V. 23. 

8 Faher's Remar-ks 

Teniplaque, lapsiiramqiie Jovis veneraiier aedcni. 
Et ji.Vfit inter agios eirare : hi, tristia quondam 
Notaqi e suppliciis loca, nunc IJoientibus hortis 
Lautrmiiir ' lidcnt ; inlixaque viucula rupi 
Viva teoiint folia, atque ingens oleaster obumbrat. 

Felix nunc etiam tellus, si prodiga quantum 
Sparsit opes, largasque sinu Natura prot'udit 
Delicias, tantum ipsa animis armisque tuorum 
Consuleres t"ama3 ! Turgent in collibus uvae ; 
Hybla thymo, ut quondam, redolet ; flaventiaque arva 
Non magis averso nutrit Sol aureus igni. 
At genus acre virum, at nullo frangenda labore 
Corda absunt : friget, qui Spiritus intus alebat, 
Libertatis Amor : subiitqne insana Libido, 
Et furiale Odium, et dissuasor Luxus honesti. 
Nequicquam obtusas tibi Gloria personat aures ; 
Et sanctum Patrite nomen : nihil ista morantur 
Degeneres, queis fceda nigra super incubat umbra 
Desidia, enervatque animos, prohibetciiie nefanda 
Excutere imperia, et dominorum erumpere vinclis. 


1819. EX ^DE CHRISTI. 


On the PYRAMID of CEPHRENES, lately opened by 
B.D. Rector of Long-Newton. 

Qiiidquid sub terra est, in apriciim proferet aetas; 
Defodiet condetque nitentia. 

Hor. Epist. lib. i. epis. G. ver. 24, 25. 

b EW subjects have occasioned more speculation than the intent 
and use of the Egyptian pyramids. Respecting these stupendous 
edifices the common opinion has been, tiiat they were raised as 
the tombs of certain \ery ancient sovereigns of ihe country : and, 
as this opiuion has come down to us through the mediuul of the 
Greek writers from very remote antiquity, it has been deemed 
almost a sort of literary profaneness in any degree to controvert it. 
No doubt such an opinion cainiot have arisen without some \ery 

' Stolberg. 



the Fijramid of Cephrcnes. 9 

jfood reasoi) : that is to say, the (J reek writers rould never liave 
imas^itifd tlie pyramids to be tombs, unless liiey hat! i)een iielually 
informed by the Egyptians that tiiey were tombs. Hence we may 
be tolerably snre, that they received tiiis information; thougii it is 
very possible that they may have greatly mistaken its import. 

What they were told by the priesthood, seems to have been this: 
that each pijramid was the tomb of a verif ancient kins; of Es^ijpt. 
Having received this general account of them, and finding that the 
three principal ones were ascribed to the three kings, Ciieops and 
Ceplirenes and ISlycerinus, they naturally enough concludt d tliem 
to be the sepulchres of these three princes. Their opinion, which 
seemed to rest upon a very solid foundation, was forthwith com- 
mitted to writing: and hence originated the general persuasion, 
that three vain-glorious and tyrannical kings had harassed their 
subjects and had exhausted the wealth of their country for no bet- 
ter purpose, than that they might repose after death in tombs of 
extraordinary magnitude. The truth of the matter meanwhile was 
this: each pyramid was indeed a tomb, as the Egyptians had very 
truly informed the Greeks ; each pyramiil was likewise the tond) of 
a reputed very ancient king of the country, as they had no less 
truly told their incpiisitive visitors; but, instead of being the literal 
sepulchres of the literal kings of the country, they were eacii alike 
the mystical sepulchre of Osiris, the supposed primeval king and 
liero-god of Egypt. 

The striking uniformity of Paganism, as established in every part 
of the world, will lead us, if I mistake not, without much dithcully, 
to tiie rationale of tl.e pyramids. I have discussed the subject 
very mucli at large in my work on the Origin of Pagan Idolairi/ : 
and, as an author usually feels some degree of parental atfeclion for 
the offspring of his brain, it has certainly afforded me no small sa- 
tisfaction to tind, that the late curious discovery of Mr. Belzoni has 
completely established my previously advanced oj)inion on the sub- 
ject. That the matter may be the more clearly understood, I shall 
give a brief statement of the argumentative process, by which 1 
was led to a conclusion now demoiistraled to be true by the con- 
tents of the long-closed pyranud of Ceplirenes. 

I. As the rudiments of Paganism are the same in all parts of the 
world, so is there a surprising uniformity in the religious structures 
of the old idolaters. We are wont familiarly to talk of the pyra- 
mids of Egypt, as if pyramids were something peculiar to that 
country : but the fact is, pyramids of different sizes and propor- 
tions and materials are to be found in every (|uarter of the globe. 

1. In no region are they more common than in Ilindostan; be- 
tween which country and Egyj)!, through the medium of the shep- 
herd-kings, there was a very early and a very close religious con- 

Now the Brahmins, who may be supposed to understand the 
allowed principles of their own national superstition, arc unanimous 

10 Faber's Remarks 

in declanug, tiiat every pyramid is an artificial mountain dtsigU' 
ediy constructed as a copy of the holy mount Meru. The earliest 
of these, they assure iis, was raised on the banks of the Euphrates; 
but they likewise mention three very famous ones in Misrastlian, on 
the banks of the western Nila, or blue river; yet, wherever edifices 
of this form occur, such edifices are invariably to be deemed imi- 
tative copies of the holy mountain. What then are we to under- 
stand by the holy mountain Meru, which they thus make the pro- 
totype of every montiform pyramid ? They describe it as tlie 
special abode of Iswara ; who, during the prevalence of an uni- 
versal deluge, floated in the ship Argha upon the surface of the 
interminable ocean : they tell us, that the ship Argha was a form 
of his mysterious consort Isi; and they contend, that, when the 
waters of the flood retired, Iswara and Argha were metamorphosed 
i«ito two doves. Sometimes they relate the same story in a more 
literal form. In this case, a mighty deluge overflows the whole 
world ; and none escape, save Menu with his seven companions 
and a select number of all sorts of animals. These are preserved 
in a vast ark ; which at length, when the flood abates, rests upon 
one of the peaks of mount Meru. 

2, Exactly the same account, relative to the design and origin of 
the great pyramid of Cholula, prevailed among the Mexicans, and 
still even at the present day prevails amone their posterity. 

Before the general inundation, the country of Anahuac was inha- 
bited by giants. All those, who did not perish, were transformed 
into fishes ; excej)t seven who fled into a cavern, the cavern no 
doubt (in plain English) of the ark. When the waters subsided, 
ane of these giants, Xelhua, surnamed the architect, went to Cho- 
lula ; where, as a memorial of the mountain 'I'hyloc, which had 
served for an asylum to himself and his six brethren, he built an 
artificial hill in the form of a pyramid. The gods beheld with 
wrath this edifice, the top of which was to reach the clouds. Irri- 
tated at the daring attempt of Xelhua, they hurled fire on the 
pyramid. Numbers of the workmen perished : the work was dis- 
continued : and the monument was afterwards dedicated to the god 
of the air. 

3. From these concurring accounts it is sufficiently evident, that 
the holy mountain, of which every pyramid was an avowed tran- 
script, was no other than mount Ararat, upon which the ark rested 
after the deluge. Each pyramid then was a copy of mount Ararat : 
whence we must obviously conclude, that the religious notions 
attached to the pyramid bore a certain relation to the history of the 

II. The Hindoo theologians, though they occasionally differ as 
to the form which they ascribe to the holy mount Meru, very gene- 
rally represent it as being square, as standing with an accurate re- 
lation to the four cardinal points of the compass, and as composed 
of eight successively diminishing towers placed one upon the other. 

on the Piiramid of Ceplircncs. 11 

1. Now, according to Herodotus and Strabo, this was tlic exact 
form and arran;5ement of the tower of BabyUtn. It was composed, 
they tell us, of eijilit successivelv diminishing towers, piled one 
upon another: its shape was scpiare or parallelograniinic ; it was 
arranged, with studious reference to the four cardinal points : and 
earli of its four sides presented the aspect of a gigantic flight of 
eiglit steps. But this very pyramid, raised on the banks of the 
Euphrates, was, according to the Hindoo theologians, the earliest 
niontiform edifice which the sons of men reared as a studious copy 
of mount Meru. 

2. 1 need scarcely remark, that the Mexican legend, attached to 
the pyramid of Cholula, is plaiidy nothing more than a corrupted 
and locally appropriated narrative of the building of the Babylonia 
tower, doubtless brought away in the first instance from the plain 
of Shinar by them of the dispersion. Accordingly, the form of 
this pyramid, like the form of the Babylonic tower, bears ample 
testimony to the accuracy of the Hitidoo declaration, that every 
pyramid in every part of the world is a designed copy of mount 
Meru ; or, to quit the language of mythology, that every pyramid 
in every part of the world is a designed copy of mount Ararat. 
The Cholulau pyramid, which still exists, corres{)onds both in 
shape and position with the tower of Babylon, as described by the 
Greek historians. It is composed of four successively diminishing 
towers, piled one upon another; and it is constructed with exact 
relation to the four cardinal points of the compass. The number 
of steps differs indeed in the two pyramids : but, in the general 
outline of the form, and in the astronomical arrangement of the 
parallelogram inic basis, they perfectly agree. 

3. As the Cholulau pyramid differs from the Babylonic in having 
a smaller number of steps than eight, so the Egyptian pyramids of 
Ghiza differ from it in having a larger number of steps. In all 
other respects, they perfectly resemble the tower of Belus : for 
they are built with a studied reference to the four cardinal points ; 
and the two, which have been opened, contain each a dark central 
chamber, which answers to the similar chamber mentioned by 
Herodotus as constructed in the heart of the Babylonic pyramid. 

4. On the same principle are built the Indian pyramids of 
Tanjore ; though, in their proportions, they are higher in reference 
to their base than the pyramids of Ghiza. Each is framed with 
many steps: each has a dark chamber in tiie interior: and each is 
built with a relation to the four cardinal points. 

5. The Egyptians however did not always construct their pyra- 
mids with many steps : it is worthy of observation, that one of the 
pyramids of Saccara bears the same close affinity to the l»abylonic 
pyramid as the Cholulan pyramid of Mexico ; for it consists of 
four steps or four square towers piled one upon the other, 

6. Of this same pyramidal form, no doubt, were the artificial 
high-places so frequently mentioned in Holy Writ. Natural hills, 
ivhich were deemed natural copies of the holy mountain, were very 

12 F•>f^or•s Ji CI// /irks 

frcquesUly v.'^rd f .f -iscnnce: but llie zea! of super- 

stition pi r;;'.* 1 u ,1\-. ;■ -/a! hilU aIso or artificial liigh-piaces, 

which, wiuii (i)..:!;.'!! ; — '. ■ ^ ^'iiipldveti in tlie svime ni une\ Their 
form ren(iert'.i fi>< vn ; \' riu iij tortrt-sses : accordingly, tiie strenu- 
ous resistiuice made !\v iiie Mpxicvuv, to Cortes and hi^ foliow- 
ers from the ureat pvrami.i (if llieir c aiiiiiti cily, was but d repetitiou 
of what hafi occurred many ceutuiies before in Palestine, when the 
men of Siiecheu) retired io the tower or pyramid of Baal-Berith in 
order to dt4i-nd tiiemselves against the attack of Abinieleth/ 

Ilf. As all these j)Yramids were equally copies of mount Meru or 
mount Ararat, and as every natural higli-[)lace was still a copy of 
the same holy mount in, lluy were each employed as an enormous 
altar; for, in absolute strictness of speech, though they were the 
primeval oratories of Palriarchism corrupted into Paganism, they 
can scarcely be denominated icmphs. 

The iirst postdiluvian sacrifice was offered on the summit of 
mount Anirat by the great patriarch, who was preserved in the 
ship. Hence, on every imitative mountain, whether natural or arti- 
ficial, sacrifices were devoted to that principal hero god : who was 
said to be the father of three sons ; and who, with seven compa- 
nions, was reported to have sailed over a shoreless ocean in a won- 
derful ship, by the Hindoos called Arglia, and by the Egyptians 
and the Greeks styled Ar^o or Boris. For this purpose, the 
pyramidal altar was built with a flat top ; which sometimes sus- 
tained a sacellum or cliapel, and which at otlier times was left 
wholly naked. The summit of the chief pyramid of Ghiza, though 
from the enormous bulk of the fabric it seems a mere point to the 
eye of the spectator, is yet a square platform of not less than Ihirfy- 
two feet. 

IV. If then each pyramid were a copy of mount Ararat, in what 
manner originated the belief, that the pyramids of Egypt were the 
tombs of the ancient kings of the country f or how could the priests 
inform their Grecian visitors, which yet I have no doubt they did, 
that every Egyptian jjyramid was the sepulchre of a very ancient 
king ? 

The answer to this question is readily afforded by the theolo- 
gical system, which prevailed on the banks of the Nile; though it 
was the very reverse <*f bring any way peculiar to that country. 

1. It is well known, lliat the worship of Osiris or Thammuz was 
of a funereal nature, in the celebration of bis mysteries, the god 
was first bewailed as one dead : and, after a certain time had been 
allowed to elapse, his supposed restoration to life was celebrated 
with the most riotous niirlh and the m<ist frantic acclamations. 
To these rites we have frequent allusions in Scripture: for they 
prevailed in Palestine, Just as much as in EL'y|)t. The women, 
who wept for Thammuz, bewailed the dead Osiris or Adonis: and, 

■ Judges ix. 4G— 49. 


the Pi/ramid of Ccphrcncs. 1. 

when the Israelites fell into tiie idolatry of their neighbours, (jiey 
are s.iid to have eat the ofleriiigs of the dead. These rites are ac- 
cortlinply denominated, by the ancient author of the Orphic Argo- 
nautics, the lamentations of the Egyptians and the sacred obsequies 
of Osiris. 

The mode, in which they were celebrated, was this. 

In memory of Osiris being compelled to enter into an ark by 
Typhon or the evil genius of the ocean, an image of the god was 
annually placed in a boat shaped like the lunar crescent, which was 
set atloat upon the Nile or the Oceanes of Ei;yptian mythology. Tiiis 
boat was thesaored ship of the deity ; in which along with tlie seven 
other great gods of tlie cowiitry, he was wont to be painted saihng 
over llie uaters of a iMiuiuiitss sea. Under this aspect, it was de- 
noniijKiU'd the Arg'o : and uoiliiiig can be more evident, than that 
it is {lie same as the ship Argha of the kindred tlieoiogy of 
Himiostan. But it was likewise deemed the mystic coffin of the 
god : whence, as an entrance into it was esteemed the same as his 
death, an evasion from it was esteemed the same as his restoration 
to life. i\greeahly therefore to such a view of the matter, when 
the <!od entered into his floating coffin, he was bewailed as one 
dead, and was anxiously soii<!ht as one snatched away from the 
sight of Uioitals : but, vviien the funereal ship came to land, an~"d 
when the god was taken out of it, he was rejoiced over as one re- 
covered from the dead, and was celebrated as one found after a 
long disappearance, 

2. Very little penetration is necessary to develop the meaning of 
this curious ceremony. 

Every part of the fabled character of Osiris demonstrates him, 
so far as his humanity is concerned, to be the scriptural Noah. 
Now, in the allegorising phraseology of antiquity, the great pa- 
triarch, who was the chief hero-god and t!ie reputed oldest king of 
every nation, was said to die out of one world and to be born again 
into another. Hence the ark, within which he was for a season 
concealed, v/as of course viewed as his floating coffin : and his 
liberation irom the ark was his restoration to life, or his return 
from the realms of Hades. Such speculations obviously made tiie 
worship of Egypt funereal. Osiris was bewailed as one dead, when 
he entered into his ship or his floating cotfin : and he was welcomed 
as one restored from the dead, when his ark came to land and 
when his image was taken out of it. 

3. If this obvious explanation of the ceremony required any con- 
firnuition, we should find it in the kindred fal)le of Hindnstan. 

Osiris, or (as his name is properly written) Isiris, stands con- 
nected, in the theology of Egypt, with his consort his and his sliip 
Argo ; just as Isivara, in the theology of Hindostau, stands con- 
nected with his consort /si and his ship Argha. For, in the theo- 
logy of Egypt, the ship ^rg-o was deemed a form of /«/* ; and 
hiris is driven into it by the fury of Typhon, who is honestly con- 

14 Faber's Remarks 

fessed to be a personification of tlie Ocean, and who is said to 
obtain the sovereijnity of the whole world after Isiris has taken 
refuge in the ship : while, in tiie theology of Hindostaii, the ship 
Arglut is similarly deemed a form of hi; and fswara enters into it 
at a time when the whole world is overwhelmed b\ the waters of 
the ocean. Such a coincidence both of names and of arbitrary 
circumstances cannot be accidental : it is not more evident, that the 
Iswara and the hi and the ship Argha of Hiiidostan are the hiris 
and the his and the ship Argo of Egypt, than that the one legend 
is explanatory of the other. But there cannot be a reasonable 
^oubt, that the legend, of hicara entering into the ship Argha 
when the ivhole earth is overjloived by the ocean, and of hwara 
and Argha being metamorphosed into two doves when the waters 
retire, is the history of the general deluge given in the peculiar 
language of the pagan hierophants. Therefore the parallel legend 
of hiris being driven into the ship Argo by the Jury of the mur- 
derous ocean, and the funereal ceremonies which were founded upon 
it, must also relate to the history of the general deluge. 

V. We shall now begin to perceive the reason, wliy each Egyp- 
tian pyramid, though like every other pyramid a copy of mount 
Mem or mount Ararat, was yet very truly, according to their 
theological speculations, declared by the priesthood to be the tomb 
of a very ancient king of the country. 

If the ark was the allegorical coffin of Osiris, mount Ararat, 
where the aik rested many \\eeks before his liberation from its 
dark interior, would of course be his tomb: and, as that gloomy 
interior resembled an immense and darksome cavern, it was mysti- 
cally denominated a cave in the mountain itself Hence originated 
those legends, which we frequently meet with, of the arkite family 
being preserved in a great sea-girt cavern during the prevalence of 
the deluge: and hence natural caverns in natural high-places came 
to be deemed peculiarly sacred. When tlierefore a pyramid or an 
artificial high-place was to be constructed, it wan always furnished 
with a dark cavernous chamber : and, as mount Ararat was at once 
the altar and the allegorical tomb of the patriarch ; every pyramid, 
though used sacrificially as an altar, was not on that account the 
less esteemed his tomb also. But the patriarch, under the name 
of Osiris, was the reputed first king of Egypt ; just as, under some 
other name, he was tlie reputed first king of every other country. 
Hence the priesthood, truly enough according to their enigmatical 
mode of expressing themselves, told the in(|usitive Greeks, that 
each pyramid was the tomb of a very ancient king. By this ancient 
king they meant the hero-god Osiris, and his tomb was such another 
tomb as the Cretans showed for the sepulchre of their chief hero- 
god Zan or Jui)iter: but the Greeks took them literally; and 
thence handed down to jjosterity, that the pyramids were literal 
tombs of certain literal Egyi)tian kings. 

VI. The funereal character of the pyramids of Ghiza is no way 

on the Pyramid of Cephrencs. 15 

peculiar lo them : the very same funereal character is ascribed to 
other pyramids also in other countries ; and doubtless the same in- 
terpretation is to be given of it, wherever it occurs. 

Thus, according to Herodotus and Strabo, the pyramid of Baby- 
lon was indifferently called the temple and the tomb of Bel us : thus, 
throughout Greece, those tumuli, which were reported to be the 
tombs of the hero-gods, were deemed also their temples, if the 
term can properly be applied to artificial montif'orni liigh-places : 
thus, among the Celts of Britain, each high-place of the ship-god 
Hu was called h'la grave : and thus, at tiie present day, the pyra- 
mids, \\ltich throughout the east are dedicated to the diluvian 
Bud<llia, and which are declared to be copies of the holy 
mount Mcru or Ararat, are said to be at once the temples and the 
tombs of the god ; whence the ))riests frequently show as relics 
certain fragments of bones, which they give out to be portions of 
tlie sacred bones of the hero-god himself. 

The Greek writers therefore did not so much err in handing down 
lo us, that the pyramids of Egypt were tombs ; as they erred in fan- 
cying them to be /<7fra/ tombs of the ancient ///erff/ kings of the coun- 
try. Tombs they doubtless were : but they were the tombs of no such 
literal kings, asCheoj)s orMycerinus or Cephrenes. On the contrary, 
in strict accordance with the funereal worship of the old pagans, they 
were each the mystical tomb or hi'^h-place of tlnit reputed first king 
of every primitive nation ; who by the Egy|)tians was denon)inated 
Osiris or Ammon or Phtha ; by the Chahieans Behts or Oannes ; 
by the Pheuicians Adonis or Thammuz ; by the Hindoos Buddha 
or Menu or Istcara ; by the Celts Hu or Dijlan ; and by the Mexi- 
cans Vitzli-Putzli or Mexitli. The dark central chamber was the 
allegorical sepulchre of the god : the level platform on the summit 
smoked with the sacrifices devoted to him. The same platform 
Avas frequently used also as an astronomical observatory ; for the 
demonolatry of the Gentiles was inseparably blended with their 
astrolatry. It is to be feared, that in every part of the world these 
gigantic altars have been polluted with human blood : but the 
Mexicans to the last offered up men on the summits of their own 
national pyramids, which their traditions avow to be professed imi- 
tations of the mountain where Xelhua and his family were preserved 
during the prevalence of an universal deluge. 

VII. Such was the theory relative to the pyramids of Egypt, 
which I was itiduced to offer in my work on the Origin of Pagan 
Idolatry ; a theory, not lightly or fancifully ado])ted, but regularly 
built on the known worship of the country, and on the rational 
j»rinciples of inductive comparison. A late very interesting disco- 
very has completely established this theory, and has set at rest for 
ever the nmch agitated question of the design and use of th:: py- 

On the 2d of March in the year 1818, the long-closed pyramid 
of Cephrenes was opened by the skill and perseverance of Mr. Bel- 

l6 Fiber's Ranarks 

zoni. Like the large pyramid, it was found to contuiii a dark 
chamber and a stone sarcophagus : but the- sarcophagus, instead 
of being empty, was occupied by a few bones. These bones, ac- 
cording to the vulgar notion that each pyramid is a literal tomb of 
a literal Egyptian sovereign, were naturally enough supposed by 
IVIr. Belzoni to be human : and the question was now thought to 
be determined in favor of the old opinion handed dow to us by 
the Greek writers. Soon after the opening of tlie pyramid, however, 
it was entered by Major Fitz-Ciarence ; who sacrilegiously hrouuht 
away with him a portion of the supposed venerable reiiiiiins of the 
primeval Cephrenes. So royal a fragment of the mighty dead 
could betit none, save a royal cabinet, 'i'lie august bone v/as re- 
verently presented to the Prince Regent : and th.e Prince commit- 
ted (he relic of his defunct brother sovereign, big with the fate of 
jarring systems, to the inspection of Sir Everard Home. Not more 
fatal to the antique shield of the renowned Dr. Cornelius was the 
impious scouring of the cleanly housemaid, a scouring which con- 
verted the jcrugo-stripped buckler into a sconce, than tiie inspec- 
tion of an accomplished English surgeon proved to the thigh- 
bone of Cephrenes. Tlie relic turned out to be, not the bone of 
A MAN, but the bone of a cov\% 

VIIL Yet, however ludicrous according to our modern notions 
of bovine dignity may be the bathos produced by this Avhimsical 
circumstance, it would have presented nothing ridiculous to the 
mind of an ancient Egyptian deeply imbued in the religious specu- 
lations of his country. 

From time to time, Osiris was supposed to become incarnate in 
the body of the sacred bull JMncuis : and, whenever that venerattd 
animal died, another, distinsuished by certain marks well known 
to the priesthood, was diligently sought for in order to supply the 
place of the defunct. When such a bull was at length discovered, 
he was inaugurated with much solenmity : the soul of the god was 
forlhwilh believed to enter into him: and he was thence worship- 
ped as the visible image of Osiris himself We have received from 
Diodorus Sicuhis a curious account of the mode, in which every 
newly found Mneuis was floated down the Nile in the mysterious 
Baris : and, on the Bembine table, we may still behold the figure 
of the animal standing in that holy navicular coffin. 

Jt was one of these bestial Avatars of Osiris (to adopt the techni- 
cal language of the kindred theoloi^y of Himiostan), that was com- 
n)itted after his death to the dark sepuh hral chamber of the pyra- 
mid ascribed to Cephrenes : (he bone, brought home by Major 
Fitz-Clarence, and at first mistaken for the thigh-bone of an Egyp- 
tian king, was evidently a bone of the sac red bull Mneuis : the 
sarcophagus, that contained this curious and decisive remnant of 
the animals skeleton, was the ship Argo executed in stone (by the 
Greeks denominated f/ie stone-ship of Dkmusus), which was at 
once the ark and the reputed coifin of Osiris : and the pyramid 

on the Fyramid of Cephrenes. 17 

itself, like the pyramid of Babylon, tlie pyramid of the Mexican 
Cholula, anfj the numerous pyramids dedicated to Buddha, was an 
artificial copy of the sacred mount of the appulse. 

Exactly the same remarks apply also to the larger pyramid of 
Cheops, the interior of which has long been accessible. There the 
stone Argo is empty : but, when we consider the length of time 
during which the pyramid has been open, it is not very difficult to 
account for the disappearance of its contents. In the course of a 
few years, the Argo of the pyramid opened by Mr. Belzoui will be 
as empty as its fellow: the example of Major Fitz-Clareuce will 
soon, no doubt, be followed by succeeding travellers : and the 
bones of the holy bull will all find their way to the cabinets of 

IX. Most probably the sarcophagus or navicular coffin in the 
larger pyramid once contained the bones of another Mneuis : though 
I think it not unlikely, that it may have held the bones of a man. 
If such however were the case, the man was no king of Egypt : 
for be it observed, though the discovery of the bones of the bull 
Mneuis within the pyramid of Cephrenes effectually demolishes the 
notion that the pyramids were literal tombs of literal kings, the 
discovery of a human skeleton in the same place would not have 
overturned the opinion that each pyramid was a mystic tomb of 

1. Throughout a large part of the east, Buddha, who is the 
same mythological character as Osiris under a different name, is 
devoutly believed, even at the present day, to become incarnate, 
both in the successive Lamas of Thibet, and likewise in many 
other Lamas of inferior note who are to be found in various regions 
of Asia. The natural consequence of this circumstance is, that 
certain bones are shown at each pyramid of Buddha, as the saci'ed 
relics of the incarnate god. I say the natural consequence, be- 
cause there cannot be much doubt, that the human bones thus 
exhibited are the bones of those deceased Lamas, who during their 
life-time were supposed to be Avatars of the deity. 

Now the successive incarnations of Buddha in each human Lama 
differ only in a single point from the successive incarnations of 
Osiris in each bovine Mneuis : every Avatar of Buddha is a man ; 
every Avatar of Osiris was a bull. But, though the form may be 
different in the two cases, the superstition is radically the same. 
If then Osiris was ever supposed to become incarnate in the figure 
of a man, the identical superstition, which [)laced the dead body 
of the bull Mneuis in the sepulchral chamber of the Ceplirenic py- 
ramid ; would certainly have placed the dead body of the man, 
who had been reverenced as the fleshly vehicle of the g(;d, in the 
sepulchral chamber of any other pyramid. Hence, even if a human 
skeleton instead of a bovine had been found within the pyramid of 
Cephrenes, I should have considered it as no satisfactory proof, 
that the pyramids were literal tombs of the literal Egyptian kings. 

18 Faber's Remarks 

Analogy would rather have led nie to conclude, tliat a human ske- 
leton, so situated, was not the skeleton of an ancient king who had 
caused the pyramid to be built as his tomb ; but that it was the 
skeleton of the man, who during his life-time had been deemed an 
Avatar of Osiris, and who thence after his death was placed within 
the mystic tomb of the god. 

2. I have said, however, that very possibly the sarcophagus in 
the larger pyramid may once have contained the skeleton of a man ; 
though on this point nothing positive can of course be asserted : 
and I have moreover said, that should this have been the case, I 
should have concluded the skeleton to have belonged to some 
Egyptian Lama, who was given out to be an incarnation of Osiris. 
It may be proper therefore to state the grounds, on which I suspect 
that Osiris, wlio was said to be incarnate in each successive bull 
Mneuis, was sometimes fabled to be also incarnate in a man ; just 
as Buddha is feigned to be incarnate in every successive Laraa of 

My authority for this supposition is a very curious passage in 

That writer tells us, that, at Chemmis in the Thebaid, there was 
a celebrated temple of Perseus, square in its form, and doubtless 
(according to the universal principle of the Egyptian buildings) ex- 
hibitingthe figure of a truncated pyramid by the declension of its four 
walls from the perpendical. Within the consecrated inclosure, which 
seems exactly to have resembled those consecrated inclosures that still 
surround the oriental pyramids of Buddha, were the shrine and sta- 
tue of the god : and the inhabitants of Chemmis athrmed, that the di- 
vinity himself often appeared both in the country and in the temple. 
Sometimes the priests pretended to find one of his sandals, which 
Avas of the gigantic size of two cubits : and, whenever that was the 
case, it augured a year of unusual fertility.' 

What the Chemmites told Herodotus was, I dare say, perfectly 
true. Perseus was the same character as Osiris : or, to speak more 
properly, one of the many names of Osiris was Perseus. Hence, 
because Osiris was set afloat in an ark during his annual commemo- 
rative festival, the Greeks, who received a great part of their na- 
tional superstition from Egypt, had a fable that Perseus and his 
mother Danae were likewise set afloat in an ark upon the waters of the 
mighty deep. At Chemmis then, it seems, Osiris, venerated under 
the name of Perseus, was supposed to become incarnate in the 
body of « ma7i ; as, in other parts of Egypt, he was supposed to 
become incarnate in the body of a bull. This pretended human 
Avatar of the god was plainly enough the person, who, as the 
Chemmites told Herodotus, often appeared both in the country 
and in the temple. The superstition in short of Chemmis was ex- 
actly the same, as the superstition which still prevails in Tliibet : 

' Herod. Hist. lib. ii. cap. 91. 

on the Pyramid of Cephrenes. 19 

and the curious circumstance of the gigantic sandal sufficiently 
proves the identity of Buddha and Perseus. As the Egyptian 
priests showed the vast sandal of their national god ; so do the 
Buddhic priests, even at the present day, point out to the venera- 
tion of tile people various pretended impressions of the gigantic 
foot of their favorite deity. 

3. If then the precise superstition, which now prevails in Thibet 
and various other regions of the east, ever prevailed in Egypt; that 
is to say, if Osiris was sometimes believed to become incarnate in 
the person of <z man, as Buddha is believed to become incarnate 
in the person of tlie Thibetian Lama : nothing can be more clear, 
than that the same religious speculations, which caused the sepul- 
ture of a dead bull within the pyramid of Cephrenes, might equally 
cause the sepulture of « dead man within any other pyramid. But, 
in this case, the dead man would not be a literal Egyptian king : 
he would obviously be neither more nor less tlian a reputed hu- 
man Avatar of Osiris, wJio was fabled to be the earliest king of 


Hence, if the pyramid of Mycerinus should ever be opened, 
and if a human skeleton should ever be found within it ; the cir- 
cumstance must assuredly be interpreted by the already known 
circumstance that a bovine skeleton has been found within the 
pyramid of Cephrenes. For, since the pyramids must all have 
been erected under the influence of the same idea, whatever that 
idea was ; and since the discovery of a bovine skeleton in the se- 
pulchral chamber of the Cephrenic pjramid is palpably fatal to the 
vulgar notion, that the pyramids were literal tombs of literal kings: 
we may be sure, that any human skeleton deposited in the pyramid 
of Mycerinus (should such a thing be hereafter discovered) must 
have been deposited there under the impression of the same reli- 
gious idea, as that which led to the sepulture of the bull Mneuis 
within the pyramid of Cephrenes ; and consequently we may be 
sure, that any such human skeleton would not be the skeleton of 
an Egyptian sovereign. 

4. As yet however no human skeleton has been discovered in 
any of the pyramids : nought has been found save the bone of an 
unlucky bull ; and this bone is placed in so provokingly preemi- 
nent a station, to wit, the mystic coffin itself in the very heart of 
the pyramid, that no reasonable doubt can be entertained that the 
BULL was the primary object of corjsideration in the construction 
of the e'iitice. 

Had a human skeleton been found royally paramount in a more 
costly sarcophagus, while the skeletons of different animals reposed 
around it in lower and less sj)lendid sarcophagi ; it might at least 
have been a plausible conjecture, that the human skeleton was that 
of an ancient king, while the bestial skeletons were those of ani- 
mals which had been slaughtered to accompany their master to the 
nether world. But instead of any such imagined arrangement, a 

20 Faber's Remarks 

single solitary coffin is discovered in a superb chamber, which has 
been ascertained to lie under the very apex of the pyramid : and this 
coffin, to which alone the post of honor is given, has been found 
upon examination to contain, not the bones of A man, but the 
bones of A bull. There cannot therefore be a shadow of rational 
doubt, that A bull was the creature, in honor of which the Ce- 
phrenic pyramid was constructed. But we may be sure, that no 
such labor would have been undertaken in honor of A bull, unless 
with a reference to the peculiar theological aspect under which the 
Egyptians beheld that animal. Now we all know, that A bull 
was deemed the living image and the corporeal vehicle of the god 
Osiris. Hence it follows, as clear as the day is light, that the 
post of honor in the pyramid was given to the bull, because he 
was deemed an Avatar of the god. 

Thus at length we are brought irresistibly to the conclusion, that 
each of the famous pyramids of Egypt was a mystic tomb or high- 
place of that Osiris, who was annually bewailed as dead, and who 
was annually committed to what was indifferently styled his ship 
and his coffin : thus consequently we are also brought to the nega- 
tive conclusion, that the pyramids of Egypt were NOT literal 
tombs of certain ancient literal sovereigns of the country. 

X. Two corollaries result from this discussion, which are much 
too interesting to be passed over in silence. 

1. The one is, that the peculiar superstition of Egypt must at 
least have been as ancient, as the erection of the pyramids. 

Nothing is more evident, than that the pyramids were built for 
the identical purpose, to which we find them applied : for it will 
scarcely be contended, that the pyramids were Jirst built, through 
mere whim or accident, each with a dark central chamber in its 
very heart; and that, ivhen so built, they were employed as con- 
venient sepulchres for the bull Mneuis, though their founders had 
designed them for no such purpose. Hence, in exact accordance 
with Holy Scripture which describes tlie Israelites in the wilderness 
as bowing down before the bestial image of the bull Mneuis, we 
must carry back the bovine superstition of Egypt to the earliest 
postdiluvian ages : for, even in the time of Herodotus the father 
of Greek history, the pyramids were an object of antiquarian won- 
der and speculation. 

2. The other is, that the sepulchral worship of Osiris or Buddha 
or Adonis or Belus, as the same ancient character was variously 
denominated in various coiuitrifs, could not have been more recent 
in its origin than the dispersion from Babel. 

It is sufficiently clear, that the pyramid of Babel was construct- 
ed under the same religious impressions ;is the pyrami<ls of Egypt; 
for there is loo great a resembltince between them in matters arbi- 
trary to have resulted from mere accident. Of this the ancients 
were fully sensible : and, as all the primeval nations were remark- 
able for their vanity, the Egyptians, instead of deducing their theo- 

on the Tyramid of Cephrenes. 21 

logY from Babel, which is the true mode of accounting for the 
identit}' of the two systems, pretended that the Babylonians had 
borrowed from them. Hence originated the idle figment, that Behis 
was an Egyptian, and that out of pure philanthropy he left his own 
country and travelled to Babylon that he might instruct the Babylo- 
nians in the scietice and theology of Egypt. The fact was, the 
Egyptians plainly enough saw, that in all leading essentials their 
own pyramids were the very counterpart of the Babylonic pyramid, 
and that their own superstition was the mere double of the Baby- 
Ionic superstition. What then was to be done in this emergency 1 
They boldly claimed the Babylonic Belus, whose pyramid on the 
banks of the Euphrates was at once his tomb and his high-place, as 
their own countryman : and, having given him the god of the sea 
for his father (the usual allegorical origin of the ship-god), they 
sent him to teach the less learned Babylonians what all the while 
they had had before the Mizraim were a nation. The truth of the 
matter was however exactly the reverse. Instead of the theology 
of Babylon coming from Egypt ; the theology of Egypt, like the 
kindred theology of all the other pagans, came from Babylon, that 
MOTHER of harlots and abominations of the earth. The original 
Babylonic tower was begun by Nimrod before the dispersion : and 
the very nature of its construction, far unlike that of the easily di- 
lapidated house-temples of Greece and Rome, would effectually 
prevent its evanescence ; for it were just as rational, to talk of one 
of the Egyptian pyramids tumbling down and disappearing, as to 
talk of tiie evanescence of the huge Babylonic pyramid. Thus left 
unfinished by Nimrod, it remained for many ages, ^\i length, when 
Babylon once mure became the seat of empire, it seems to have 
been repaired and carried up to its originally intended height by 
the magnificent Nebuchadnezzar.' 

Now from such premises the conclusion, which I would draw, 
is this : 

As the building of the Egyptian pyramids necessarily supposes 
the already existing superstition to which they were devoted ; so 
the building of the Babylonic pyramid equally supposes the pre- 
vious existence of a kindred superstition tvhich in fact gave rise to 
its construction. Agreeably to the just opinion of the Hindoo 
theologians, the pyranjid on the banks of the Euphrates, an artifi- 
cial mountain raised in a fiat country where there are no natural 
mountains, was the tirst-erected copy of the holy mount Mem or 

' See this interesting topic discussed at considerable length in my Horse 
Mosaicae, book i. sect. i. chap. 5. §. ii. 7. 2d edit. 


1. In a ghostly leijend cited from Matthew Paris in a late Number 
of Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine (Vol. vi. p. 8.3.), ^he appari- 
tion of a person deceased is made to say to his surviving friend — ' 
" I am plunged into the sulphureous gulph of hell ; where, so long 
as the stars roll round the pole, and the waves of the sea break 
upon the shore, 1 shall continue to be tormented for my sins :" a 
manifest, though singular plagiarism, from the concluding line of 
Claudian's Rufinus, wbere Minos is introduced as passing a sen- 
tence of condemnation upon the object of the poet's invective: 

■ Agitate flagellis 

Trans Styga, trans Erebum : vacuo mandate barathro 
Infra Titanum tenebras, infraque recessus 
Tartareos, nostrumque Chaos, qua nocfis opacae 
Fundamenta latent, penitusque immersus anhelet, 
Dum rotet astra polus, feriant dum littora venti. 

II. Instances of alliteration from ancient authors: — Horn. Od. E. 
2^5. ^e<T(Te t eTrtorayuevws, ical IttI aml^fiiip "iQvvev. V. 333. oljxioyi] 
t)e bebrje, hebaicpvi'Tcii be Trapeiai. (An instance of a somewhat 
different kind occurs E. 282. roy b' et, AWioitwp dj'iwv Kpeiwv 'Ejo- 
(Tij^idwp TrjXvdey ck IoXv/kov opewv 'ibe.) The following, or nearly 
the following, (for we quote from memory,) occurs in one of the 
latter books of Livy: — " Priusquam pra^tores proticiscerentur, pro- 
digia per pontitices procurari placuit." It may perhaps be conjec- 
tured, from various passages in their works, that the Latin poets 
exercised a licence in alliterating with the letter v, which they did 
not extend in tlie same degree to any other letter. Can any infe- 
rence be drawn from this circumstance, if true, with regard to 
their pronunciation of that consonant ? 

III. Edinburgh Review for Nov. 1814, art. Boyd's Translations 
from the Cireek Fathers. " St. Gregory, in the Funeral Oration 
upon Caj^arius, says, that the tears of his mother were subdued by 
philosophy — lirrtofxepoa rfj (piXoaocpiq. — but this is too matter-of-fact 
for Mr. Boyd, who renders it, " her tears are dried by the sweet 
breezes of pliilosoj)hy." p. JO. The critic might have traced this 
embellishment to the pages of his counlryman, Walter Scott — 

The tear, I hat gather'd in his eye. 
He left the mountain breeze to dry. 

Ladi/ of the Lake, Canto ill. St. xix. 

Another unauthorised addition, quoted in the next page, appears 
to be from the stores of a modern writer on inlidelity. 

Miscellanea Classica. ^5 

IV. To the former instances of metrical lines add Tac. Ann. iii. 

12. " Si quos propinquus sanguis, ant fides sua — ." 

V. Mitford, (Hist, of Greece, Vol. vii. p. 46, note) in relating a 
series of transactions by which Dionysius the elder anci his party 
obtained the supreme power in the Syracusan state, observes : 
" The wctrst irregularity that the defeated party could impute, was, 
that Dionysius repeatedly incurred the penalty for proposing the 
removal of the generals before the expiration of their term, and 
that Phiiistus had the insolence to declare himself ready to pay it 
as often as it niigiit be incurred. That Phiiistus would be so im- 
prudent seems unlikely enough." We notice this passage, less for 
its own sake, than as exemplifying one of our historian's peculiar 
characteristics, which may be defined an unwillingness to believe 
that any person of eminent abilities can ever have been guilty of a 
rash or absurd action. This disposition may be traced in many 
passages of his work, as in the parts which relate to the hves of 
Themistdcles, Alcibiades, and otht-rs. The act here attributed to 
Phiiistus by the historians of the opposite party, so far from being 
improbable, appears to us rather in character, when considered as 
the act of a youthful statesman, in a democracy like that of Syra- 
cuse, and heated by the tumult of party ; and this consonance 
would seem to be an argument in favor of its authenticity. 

VI. Oedipus, in Sophocles, speaking of the place in which he is 
to die, says, addressing Theseus : 

TovTov be (^pa^e ju>; ttot avdpojirwv rivl, 

fjiyS' 01) KeKevde, fiifT ev o'ls icelrai ronois. 1522. 

And again, 1. 1530, referring to certain other particulars connected 
with the same subject : 

aiiTos alel arw^e, -^wtuv els TeXos 

Tov $^y a<piKVT\, TW TTpoipepraTM fiottd 

m'^fxaiv' 6 b' alei rw 'ttwi/tl beiKyvro). 
See in the notes to Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel, a similar 
tradition relative to the tomb of the celebrated magician, Michael 

VIL The dying reply of Anaxagoras to his friend is well known: 
Trpvs Toy bvtrcjjopovrra, on eirl ^ertjs reXevra, riai'raj^oSeK, e(pTf, o/uoia 
karlv 1] els ubov KaTa(3a(ns. A very similar story is related of our 
own Howard. 

VI n. In Class. Journ. No. XL. p. 352, a work is mentioned 
under the title of " Veteris Mediaj et Persiae Monumenta." Is the 
proper name Persia, which occurs not unfrequently in modern 
Latin, sanctioned by any ancient writer? — In p. 342, six lines 
from the bottom, for " nive* lacertaj," read " nivci lacerti." — 
Misc. Class. No. VIL, same number of Class. Journ. p. 344. 1. 6. 
for avrewv read avriLv. P. 345, eight lines from the bottom, for 
" vel," read " aut." P. 350, 1. 13, for'ypv read ^vfifiaxoy- 
p. 351. two lines from the bottom, dele the second period. In 

24 Miscellanea Classica. 

the same article (p. 8), by a singular oversight, a couple of verses 
were quoted as part of an ancient Scandinavian poem, translated 
in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, which supposed piece of 
antiquity, on a closer inspection of the article in which it was con- 
tained, was discovered to be merely one of those satiric<tl jeux 
d'esprit, which (as it will be remembered) were periodically levelled 
from the pages of that facetious work against its elder competitor, 
on occasion of the literary schism which gave birth to tiie former. 
This is recorded for the benefit of future collectors of miscel- 
laneous remarks. To Milton's imitation of Euripides's »/Atov Knvwu 
(Ta<pfis, (Misc. Class. No. VI. Class. Journ. XXXVIII. p. 331.) add 
a modern writer (Literary Pocket Book for 1819) who describes 
" the early sun striking magnificently into the warm mists, as if he 
measured them with his mighty rule." To the illustrations of Jo- 
sephus's niKpos fxey yap 7]}^, k. t. X. add the following from one of 
those repositories of original reflection and imagery, our old 
writers : " His soul," says Fuller, speaking of a person of small 
stature, " had but a short diocese to visit, and therefore might the 
better attend the eftectual informing thereof." 


1. Judicium Herculis. Fragmentum. 

Merserat unda diem, et tremulas quatientia flaranias 
Astra suam explicuere vicem. per amoena quieti 
Ruris inaccessos petiit Tirynlhia saltus 
Progenies, fontemque adiit, quern populus albeus 
Luxuria foliorum et opacis texerat umbris. 
Mens ibi venturaj dum ingentia tempora vltai 
Prospicit, immensoque barret stupctacta labore ; 
Coernleus subito nitor et jucundior aer^ 
lUuxit canipis, niveaque per aera veste 
Cincta dea aliapsa est, sceptroque insignis eburno. 
Perque humeros leeves, per Candida pectora nullis 
Interfusa fluit gemrais coma, conscius horret 
Aer, et nemora alta tremunt ; fons ipse renidet, 
Attollitque vada, et placidis immurmurat undis. 
Ignea quum rutike mitescens lumina frontis 
Accessit propior juveni, et sic voce locuta est : 

" Hue ades, o magni soboles Jovis, o nova leeti 
Spes coeli, et sacr^e dudum exspectate cohorti ! 
Sint procul insani coetus, quos dira Voluptas 
Fumosa ducit devexa per avia tajda, 
Attonitosque agit, et slimulis furialibus urget. 
Non dulces epulas, Tyrii neque somnia lecti, 
Nee fremitus irae, et tacitum sub pectore amorem, 
Numina nostra dabunt : alind super a;thera Virtus 

' Claudiau, 

Miscellanea Classica. 25 

Monstrat iter : bella, et casus, sgevosque labores 
Me diice persequerc, et patrii scande ardua cceli. 

" Hand faciles pru^bent aditns, sacrsve patescunt 
Sponte fores : longis illuc conatibus itur. 
Quare a»e, miUtiae jam nunc accingere nostras, 
SoUicitamque irani, et dubii rege pectoris aestus. 

* * *- * * :■:- * * 

•' Runipe moras : tacitis properant Oblivia pennis, 
Omniaijue aeterna condunt niortalia nocte : 
Sola inter tenebras propria se luce tuetur 
Clari fama animi, moleraque relinquit inertem, 
Cognatasque petit sedes : \ehit igneus ales 
^therii Jovis, incepto quum fluctuat aether 
Turbine, et in toto densantur nubila campo, 
Surgit, fulniineoque secans nigrum aera cursu 
Erigit ad Solem pennas, intactaque nocte 
Pervolitat spatia, et sum mo bibit aethere lumen." 

2. (Fragment um.) 
O tui quaecunque per arva ruris 
Immemor fortasse niei vagaris 
Appetens florum, tenerasque figis, 

Sylvic), plantas: 
Sis precor felix ubicunque mavis, 
Sis precor toto niihi corde felix, 
Juncta mi quondam puerili ad imum 

Pectus amore. 


3. (Fragmentum de anima boni viri corpora excedente.) 


Hie, invidendis functus honoribus, 
Nexuque rerum liber alieneo, 

MoUe interim coili (piietus 

Carpit iter, sonit unique mundi, 
Lapsusque subter prajtereuntiuni 
Exaudit annorum, haud secus ac freti 

Viator ex alia reclinis 

Exiguum bibit arce murmur. 


X. Parallel passages continued. 

1. Jamque volans apicem et latera ardua cernit 
Atlantis duri, coelum qui vertice fulcit : 
Atlantis, cinctum assidue cui nubibus atris 
Piniferum caput et venfo pulsatur et imbri ; 
Nix humeros infusa tegit : turn fluniina mento 
Praicipitat senis, et glacie riget horrida barba. 
Virg. Mn. iv. 246. 

26 Miscellanea Classica. 

A similar picture occurs in Lord Byron's Manfred : 

Mont Blanc is the monarch of mountains. 

They crowned him long ago 
On a throne of rocks, in a robe of clouds. 

With a diadem of snow. 
Around his waist are forests braced. 

The Avalanche in his hand. 

2. Nullum numen abest, si sit prudentia. Juv. Sat. x. i. penuH. 

Crabbe concludes one of his tales (containing an account of a 
spectral warning) with a somewhat similar yvw^it] : 

If our discretion tells us how to live, 

We need no ghost an helping hand to give ; 

But if discretion cannot us restrain, 

It then appears a ghost would come in vain. 

Tales of the Hall, Vol. ii. p. 183. 

3. In the Phoenissai of Euripides, the dying Polynices says of 
his brother : 

(j)i\os yap, e^Qpos eyever, aW ojj.ii)s ^iXos. 1455. 

Is this the same sort of feeling which Cassius attributes to Brutus 
in Shakspeare ? 

Strike as thou didst at Cvesar; for I know, 

When thou didst hate him worst, thou lov'dst him better 

Than ever thou lov'dst Cassius. Julius Ccesar. 

4. Albi nostrorum sermonum candide judex. 

Quid nunc te dicam facere ? 

An taciturn sylvas inter reptare salubres, 
Curanlem quicquid dignum sapiente bonoque est? 

Ho7\ Lib. I. Ep. iv. 1. 

Perhaps Cowper had this passage in his eye, when he wrote, iu 
the interesting sketch of his own situation, contained in book ill. 
of the Task : 

With few associates, in remote 

And silent woods I wander 

Here much I ruminate, as much I may. 
With other views of men and manners now 
Than once, &c. 

The passage of Fletcher referred to in a criticism on another part 
of the same passai;e, (Misc. Class. No. VII. Class. Journ. XL. 
p. 351.) as the possible origin of the tines "I was born of woman," 
See. may be here subioined : 

Sure I am mortal. 

The daughter of a shepherd ; he was mortal. 

Miscellanea Classica. ^7 

And she who bare me mortal. Prick my hand. 

And it will bleed ; a fever shakes me, and 

The self-same wind that makes the young lambs shrink. 

Makes me a-cold. 

Faithful Shepherdess, Act i. Sc. 1. 

See also Shylock's well-known complaint in the Merchant of 

5. In an account of the Sikhs, abridged from Colonel Malcolm, 
we are told that " Nanac (the founder of the religion of tiie Sikhs) 
taught the omnipotence of God, and that he dwells not more par- 
ticularly in one place than another: for, when reproached once by 
the Mahometans for lying with his feet toward the house of God, 
' Turn then,' said he, ' if you can, where the house of God is not.' " 
This noble sentence coincides with the sentiment expressed in the 
well-known passage of Lucan (Phars. ix.) : 

Estne Dei tempi urn nisi terra, et pontus, et aer, 
Et coelum, et virtus? ' 

Again : " He himself was directed (by the Deity) to put on armour 
that will hurt no one ; that his coat of mail was to be that of un- 
derstanding ; — that he was to fight with valor, but with no other 
weapon than the word of God." Compare Ephes. vi. 13 — 15. 1/. 
" Wherefore take unto you the whole armour of God ; — Stand 
therefore, having your loins girt about with truth, and having on 
the breast-plate of righteousness ; and your feet shod witli the pre- 
paration of the gospel of peace — and take the helmet of salvation, 
and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God." 

6. Dextra mihi deus, et telun), quod missile Hbro, 
Nunc adsint. Virg. Mn. x. 773. 

Dryden improves on this : his hero, in the Virgin Martyr, swears 

— by the gods (by Maximin I meant). 

7. 'O hk. (^rjfxoadevris) — wtnrepel KUTafipovr^ /cat Karacpeyyei Tovs 
air ahoi'os pr'jropas. Longin. de Subl. xxxiv. Hence perhaps Smol- 
lett, of Lord Chatham : " It (his eloquence) tlashed like the light- 
ning of heaven against the n)inisters and sons of corruption, blast- 
ing where it smote, and withering the nerves of opposition." 

S. at b' [tTTTTOi] eyhaKouauL (TTOfxia ■n-vpiyevrj yvadols 
(oicf. (fjepourriv, ohre vavtcXi'ipov ')^€p6s, 
ovd' linTuheajxwv, ovre Ko\Xt]Twv o^wv 

" Thf- climax iu this passage of Lucan resembles that in is. Ivii. I'l. «' For 
thus saith the high and lofty One tiiat inhabiteth eteiiiily— 1 dwell in the 
liigh and holy place, with him also that is of a contrite and humble spirit." 

28 Miscellanea C/assica. 

HeTaaTpe(povaaL' Kel /uev eh to. fxaXOako. 
yaias e^ivy oiaKcis Wvroi bp6/j.ot', k. t. X. 

A similar comparison occurs somewhere in one of Chapman's 
plays. Lord Byron's lines are perhaps not irrelevant. 

Once more upon the waters — yet once more ! 
And tlie waves bound beneath me like a steed 
That knows its rider. 

Childe Harold, iv. St. 2. 

The germ of the simile might be contained in Homer's dXos 'Ittitoi, 
quoted on a former occasion. 

p. Sorrows desfroy us or themselves. Sir T. Browne. 

All sufFiring doth destroy, or is destroy'd, 
Ev'n by the sufferer. 

Lord Byron, Ch. Harold, Canto iv. 

10. — Pater orantes cajsorum Tartarus umbras, 

Nube cava, tandem ad meritaj speclHcuhi pugnaj 
Emitlit: summi nigrescuut culmina montis. 

Vol. Flacc. 

So Statins, on occasion of the single combat between Eteocles 
and Polynices : 

Ipse (juoque Ogygios raonstra ad gentilia manes 

Tartareus Rector porta jubet ire reclusa : 

Montibus insidunt patriis, tristique corona 

Inl'ecere diem, et vinci sua crimina gaudent. Theb. xi. 

Southey (Notes to Joan of Arc, Vol. ii. p. 179,) has quoted a 
passage from May's Supplement to Lucan, which he states to be 
an imitation of the above lines of Valerius Flaccus, but which 
bear obvious marks of having been, in part at least, suggested by 
those of Statius. 




into the Opbiions of the ancient Hebrrcvs, respecting a 
future immortal E.vistence. 

-ini^ ^^mj br\T^ nrr dv nni< vnikb nK2 nmtz ^^nrr nby^r^ 

Sepher- Ikkarim, I. iv, c. 31. 

'ATTOfc-etrai toIs u%>6pu)7rois airat, inrodaveii', ixera be tovto Kpiais. 

Heb. ix. 2r. 

No. I. 
Grotius, Spencer, Marsham, and Warburton, conceived the 
promises of God to tiie early Israelites to have been of a temporal 
nature, and did not imagine them to have been influenced by 
higher motives, or to have extended their hopes and ideas beyond 
this present transient state of things. But this opinion appears by 
no means warranted by Scripture: from detached passages, super- 
ficially examined, such a statement may, indeed, seem inferrible, 
though a more accurate survey of parallels in their natural con- 
nexions with preceding and subsequent verses will readily exhibit 
the fallacy of this extraordinary doctrine. The Gentile world in 
the earliest aeras recorded by history, and in the most ancient 
specimens of wild and primitive poetry, is a demonstration, that 
the belief of a future state was indelibly imprinted on the human 
mind by the Creator ; and from the expectations of immortal re- 
wards and punishments, exactly proportioned to the virtues or de- 
linquencies of this life, we have every reason to suppose that these 
originated in some divine communication made to the earlier mem- 
bers of the human race. As sacred history assures us, that the 
Chaldeans, Syrians, and Egyptians, in particular, practised their 
superstiliuns, and of course accredited the fables on which they 
were founded, before the compilation of the Pentateuch, so we have 
incontrovertible authority that this main part of their theology then 
existed. Since it must, therefore, have been a well-known doctrine 
at the period when the Israelites sojourned in Egypt, it was in no 
ways requisite for Moses to enter into a minute detail of it : if he 
refers t<> it in the same manner as he refers to other established 
facts, it will be suflicient to show, that in his time, the cliildren of 
Israel looked forwards to a future state: nor may we deem it con- 
trary to reason to presume, that God revealed it to Adam and the 
Patriarchs, in some of those manil'estations of his presence recorded 
by the inspired penman, and that when the earth became peopled, 
each colony in its emigrations disseminated it far and wide. But, 

30 An Inquiry into the Opinions of the 

it may be admitted, tliat alfiioupli it was received as well by the 
apostate tribes of idolaters, as by the servants of the true God, and 
couched under various symbols and allegories, »he minutiie of it be- 
came more and more accurately apprehended under the instructions 
of the prophets, until it was explicitly revealed, and distinctly pro- 
mulgatfd by our Saviour, who brought life and immortality to 
light by his Gospel. 

The promise of redemption, believed in every age of the Jewish 
Church to be fulfilled in the days of the Messiah, was not simply 
nnderstood to appertain to this life, but to an existence to come. 
Adam hardly inferred the recovery of the terrestrial paradise from 
the promise made to Eve ; he assureflly conceived it to extend to 
eternal felicity and communion with the Supreme Being in another 
world. Hence, the New Testament marks a strong antithesis 
between the type and the anti-type ; the natural father of the 
human race, as well in it as in the rabbinical writers, is aptly 
denominated the first Adam. The Son of God, the spiritual 
Father of mankind, and author of everlasting life, is stiled the 
second Adam, called in Cabbalistical language ]lDlp Dli^. Moses 
Haddarshan, (Ber. Rabba. xxxiv. 67.) accordingly, weaves this 
ancient doctrine into the fable of Messiah the Son of David going 
to Kippod, the angel of death, at the gates of hell, when the cap- 
tives therein confined, beholding the light of the Messiah, exult- 
ingly, deemed the prophecy in Hosea xvi. 14. accomplished, and 
expected immediate redemption, as it is written, m?2l;3T /IKtif ^^D. 
In the same ancient work we read, that redemption was, of old, 
understood to be two-fold ; one species from the servitude of 
nations, the other from the angel of death. In the narrative of 
man's creation, Moses distinguishes between the body created after 
God's image from the dust of the earth, and the soul communicated 
to it by the breath of God : and this distinction is repeatedly en- 
forced in Scripture, where this dust or body is exhibited as returning 
to its original earth, and the spirit to that Divine Essence from 
which it proceeded. 

We know not the extent of the early revelations, but we find 
some, byway of eminence, stiled_D''n7i^'"'i^, and a striking contrast 
maintained between 1U?2 '"id TT)"), which is also continued in 
the New Testament. Enoch was most singularly translated 

Q'^nbi^ ^n^^ npb o *i2:3^i^T QM^j^n dk Tin it'nn^i— Abraham 

is said to have "looked for a city, which hath foundations, whose 
builder and maker is God :" on this subject our Saviour expressly 
declares, Trepl be rijs avaoTaaeios rwi' veKpoiy ovk aveyrure to pijdeu 
Vfily VTTO Tov Qeov, Xeyoi'rns' 'Eyw etfji u 0eos 'A/3|0a«jU. Kal a Qeos 
'laaai:, kui 6 Qeus 'Ia^•w/3 ; oi'ic eaTiv b Qeos, 0eos I'etcpioi', 
aXXa i^MVTMv. .Jacob, in his sublime prophecy, looked forwards 
to the salvation of Jehovah, and predicted the time and family of 
Shiloh. Moses Bar Nahhman and Rabbi Bcchai, emphatically 
name this ''D7IV JlPIIi^/1 ; and it may be remarked, most gene- 

ancient Hebrews of a future EiUtence. 31 

ralhj, that wherever the Hebrew Scriptures mention a person living 
in the coniniandments of God, the Chaldee paraphrasts, Aben 
Esra in particular, and indeed the collecfive body of rabbinical 
commentators, expound the phrase by everlasting lift', and vice 
versA, /1")D by everlasting death, which appears the most satisfac- 
tory explanation of these terms in the New Testiiment. Rabbi 
Bechai avers, that when Balaam inquires who shall number the 
dust of Jacob, he alludes to the resuscitation of the dead, and 
Rabbi Menahhem on Num. xv. 31. says, that the impenitent shall 
be ETERNALLY punished. 

The patriarchs are cited by the apostle Paul, as living in hope, 
and dying in full assurance of the promises : these promises must 
therefore have been made in the revelations recorded in Genesis : 
Moses, the author of the Pentateuch, who conversed with God, as 
no other man did, D''J3 b^ D''JH), " had respect unto the recom- 
pence of the reward, and chose rather to suffer affliction with the 
people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season ; 
enduring, as seeing HIM, who is invisible :" and we may presume 
that the translation of Enoch, before adduced, was intended to 
afford to a deiicnerate race a full corroboration of this doctrine, in 
the same manner as that of Elijah, on the revival of religion after 
the destruction of the Baalites, was calculated to confirm the 
Israelites in it, at a later period of history. Whenever a patriarch 
is said to die in the sacred text, the rabbinical commentator^ 
most frequently represent him as gathered to the righteous souls of 
his fathers. The belief of a future state forms one of the funda. 
mentals of the Jewish faith. The Talmud deduces it from the law, 
the prophets, and the hagiographists ; and Joseph Albo, in Sepher 
Ikkarim, paras, iv. c. 35., on what authority I know not, main- 
tains, that Esra and the coadjutors, which the Jewish fabulists 
have given to him, in all their formularies of blessing, exclaimed, 
D^JID.I n''WJ mn^ Ch'\yh linjl nm^. Eusebius (Pra^p. Evang. 
LXI. c. '27-) remarks, 'O fief ye JSIwrrz/s irpwros lidavaTor ovirtau 
elvai rriv ev avOpwvh) tpv^i)}' ojpiaaTO, e'lKOva fi'iaas virup-^^elv avTtjV 
Qeov. Origen urges as an argument against Celsus (1. v. p. 2()0.) 
that this doctrine was in their earliest infancy familiar to the Jews ; 
TDjXiKov be TO (j-^ehov li/Lia yet'errei kui (TVfnr\r]pu)aei rnv Xuyov biba- 
(TKfirdai avrovs tijv rfjs \pvx_fjs a.duvaaiay, Kal to. vtto yTp' biKaiairiipia, 
K-ot Tcis Tificis tG)v koKCos f3el3iii}i^0Tioi'. Gamaliel, also, the instructor 
of St. Paul, is introduced in the Talmud, as proving the resurrec- 
tion of the dead from each of the three divisions of the Hebrew 
Scriptures. In that most ancient commentary Pesichtha, (paras. 
OJi^ nj^l), this doctrine is est;iblished from the law ; and the 
Geniara of Jerusalem cites Deut. xxxi. lb. xxxii. o9- as evi- 
dences, that it was inculcated in the law, and pabsa<i< s loo obvious 
to require citation to support it from the prophets and hagiogra- 
phists. The Targumin of Jerusalem, and of Jonathan the son of 

32 An Inquiry into the OpinionH, ^-c. 

Uzziel, proclaim, continually, a future state from the text of the 

Temporal rewards and punishments would have been inadequate 
to religious purposes, and would have opposed hut feeble barriers 
to idolatrous defections, and other infractions of the Divine Law. 
The firm persuasion of the mind alone, that man shall be rewarded 
or punished according to the deeds done in the body, could have 
ensured a permanent existence to religion, and enforced statutes in 
direct opposition to many more ancient customs. How could the 
devout Israelite, meditating on the attributes of God, and inferring 
from his own Scriptures the divine origin of his soul, have read in his 
tabernacle, '^):^ U^yh "["PD^ HIH^, (Exod. xv. 17, 18.) without the 
sure and certain hope of glory and of immortality ! Could he, in 
fact, have believed his nation to have been planted, n')n''""D7ni "1*13, 
and in the sanctuary, which his hands had established — if, observ- 
ing the transitory machinery of affairs, he knew nothing of retri- 
butive justice beyond things temporal? It is positively certain, 
that he looked beyond the present constitution of things, that he 
expected an everlasting mountain of inheritance, and sanctuary 
"not made with hands, eternal in the heavens," where Jehovah 
should reign for ever and ever. If we attentively consider the 
nature of God, from temporal judgments analogy will argue 
spiritual ; things seen are to the inquisitive mind evidences of 
things not seen. In like manner, the various blessings and punish- 
ments mentioned by Moses manifestly prefigured those that will 
be attendant on man's future condition. We cannot imasjine so 
total a blank in the Mosaic system, as we must observe, if whiht 
other and debased nations were instructed in this important truth, 
the Israelites alone, to whom the law had been revealed by the 
mouth of God, and attested by extraordinary appearances, were 
left in iiinorance of it. We divest the types and allegories of this 
ritual of tlieir most excellent ofiice, if we conceive the Israelites 
perfectly unacquainted with their recondite and anti-typical im- 
port. That sabbath of rest, ordained to be kept for a perpetual 
covenant thnuigliout their generations, as a sign between Him and 
them (" because in six days God made the heavens and the earth, and 
rested on the seventh, and was refreshed,") was, undeniably, re- 
ferred to that future sabbatism, anticipated by the patriarchs, and 
thus apprehended by all the Jewish writers. Those peculiar rites 
of sanctifying the congregation, mid separating them from the 
Gentile world, i,D3li^"lpQ Hin^ ''J^iO,) had purposes far extending 
beyond the circimstances of that people, and were gradually better 
known as the days of the Messiidi approached. The veil of the 
atonements and expiatory sacrifices of the law was pierced by 
thinknig men of that disj)ensatiun : the institution of the 7KJ, 

^ l-JCH of the early Arabs, and the cities of refuge, were strong in- 
dications of further divine intentions. Passages in the Sth ch. of 

Arabian Story, 33 

Deuteronomy would alone determine the Israelites to have received 
this revelation : "jnnnK^ "l^lDTlV could not refer to temporalities, 
l)ut must signify, that God here tries and proves men to qualify 
them for a celestial condition. In the 32nd Ch. we read like- 
wise, "Oh! that they were wise, that they understood this!" 
DJT'ini^b in"" ! and from the 35tli and 36th verses, we cannot 
but infer a future judgment. Accordingly, in tlie 29th ^erse of 
the following chapter, those who adhered to these statutes, are 

stiied mrra :;::n: do^. 

Blagdoii ReHory. 


We promised in a former "Number (xxiv. December, 1815, p. 
260) some account of the Arabian Story entitled Keid ul nesa, 
"The Stratagems, Frauds, or Cunning Devices of Women," moie 
happily expressed in French, " Ruse des Femmes," by Mons. 
Langles, the celebrated Orientalist, who has published it with the 
original text at the end of his "Voyages de Sindbad le Maria'' 
(Paris, 1814. ISmo.) Of the Keid ul nesa we nov/ offer an abridged 

It is related that a young man of graceful stature and beautiful 
countenance resided formerly at Baghdad, where he was most dis- 
tinguished among the sons of the merchants. One day, wliilst 
he sat in his shop, a lovely damsel approached : having looked 
at him she perceived written over his door these words: '^ There 
is no cunning equal to that of men, since it surpasses the cunning of 
women." "By my veil then I swear," said she, "this man shall be 
the sport of female cunning, and he shall change this inscription." 
Ou the next day she returned, most richly dressed, and attended by 
many slaves ; under pretence of purchasing some article, she seated 
herself in the young man's shop. " You have beheld," said 
she, "the gracefulness of my person — can any one presume to af- 
firm that I am humpbacked?" at the same lime she uncovered 
part of her bosom — the young Merchant was fascinated. " I appeal 
to you," continued she, "whether I am not well formed :" — she then 
shewed him her finely turned arm, and her face, which in beauty 
equalled the moon when near its fourteei-th night ; saying, "Are 
these features marked with the small-pox ] or who shall dare to 
insinuate that I have lost the use of one eye?" The Merchant 
requested to know her reasons for tlius exposing to his view so 
many charms, generally concealed under a veil. " Sir," said she, 
" I am rendered miserable through the tyranny of my father, a sordid, 
avaricious man, who, though abounding with riches, will not ex- 


34 Arabian Story » 

pend tlie smallest trifle to establish me in matrimony." " Who is 
lliy futher V inquirod the Merchaut. " He is the grand Cddky," 
replied she, and then departed. The young man in a transport 
of astonishment and love, shut up the doors of Ihs shop, and has- 
tened to the tribunal where he found the Magistrate. " 1 come, Sir," 
exclaimed he, "to demand in mamage your daughter, of whom I am 
enamored." "She is not worthy, "replied the judge, "of so handsome 
and so amiable a mate." " She pleases me," said the young man; 
" do not oppose my wishes." A contract was immediately concluded : 
the Merchant agreed to pay five purses before the nuptials, and 
settled fifteen as a jointure. The father still represented how 
unsuitable the bride would prove, but the young man insisted that 
the nuptials should be celebrated without delay, and on the next 
night he was admitted to ti)e chamber of his bride. But when he 
had removed the veil that covered her face, he beheld such an 
object !— may the Lord defend us from the*ight of so much ugli- 
ness! for in her was comprised every thing completely hideous. 
He passed the night as if he had been in the prison* of Deylem, 
among the monstrous demons. At dawn of day he repaired to a 
bath, and having performed his ablutions, he returned to !iis shop, 
and refreshed himself with coffee : many of his acquaintances 
passing by, amused themselves with jokes respecting the charms 
of his bride. At length the lovely form of her who had contrived 
this affair, appeared before him. She was more richly and more 
voluptuously ornamented than on the preceding interviews; so that 
a crowd of persons stopped in the street to gaze on her, — " May 
this day," said she, " be auspicious to thee, iny dear Ohi-ed- 
dyn ; may God protect and bless thee !" The young man's face 
expressed the sadness of his heart. " How have I injured 
thee," replied he, " that thou hast in this manner made me the 
object of thy sport ?" " From thee," answered the beautiful stran- 
ger, " I have not experienced any affront, but if thou wilt reverse 
the inscription over thy door, I will engage to extricate thee from 
every difficulty." The Merchant instantly despatched a slave, desiring 
him to procure from a certain writer, an inscription in letters of 
blue and gold, expressing, " Tlitre is no cunning equal to that of 
'women, since it surpasses and confounds the cunning of men." 
The inscription was soon traced, and brought by tlie slave to his 
master, who placed it over the door of his shop. Then, by advice 
of the fair damsel, he went to a place near the citadel, where 
he concerted with the public dancers, bear-Uaders, and those who 
exhibit the tricks of monkeys ; in consequence of which, while 
he was silting, the next morning, drinking cofiee with his father- 
in-law, the L'ddhy, they came before hini, with a thousand con- 
gratulations, styling him cousin: the young merchant immediately 
scattered them handfuis of money. The judge was astonished, 
and asked several questions. " My father," said the young man, 
" was a leader of bears and monkeys ; such has been the profession 

On the Science of the Egyptians^ ^c, S5 

of my family ; but having acquired some wealth we now carry 
on the business of merchants with considerable success." " But 
dost thou still," asked the judge, " belong to this company of 
bear-leaders]" "I must not renounce my family," replied the 
young man, "for the sake of thy daughter." " But it is not fit," 
exclaimed the judge, " that such a person should espouse the 
daughter of one who, seated on a carpet, pronounces the decisions 
of law: one whose pedigree ascends even to the relations of our 
prophet." " But, my good father-in-law," said the merchant, " re- 
collect that thy daughter is my legitimate wife ; that I value each 
hair of her head as much as a thousand lives; that for all the king- 
doms of the world I would not consent to be separated from her." 
At last, however, a divorce was formally executed — the money 
which the merchant had settled was returned — and he, having ap- 
plied to the parents of her who had contrived this stratagem, ob- 
tained the lovely damsel in marriage, and during a long succession 
of years, enjoyed the utmost conjugal felicity. 


Part VIII. [Continued from No. XXXIX. p. 42.] 

It is remarked by Proclus, that the Egyptians indicated through 
their fables the secrets of nature ; and Phornutus intimates that the 
mythological traditions concerning the gods are reconcileable to 
truth, as tliey were composed by the sages of antiquity, for the 
purpose of explaining the system of the universe by means of 
symbols and tenigmas. The more indeed we consider the my- 
thology of the Egyptians, the more we shall be convinced, that the 
principal object of its inventors was to perpetuate the memory of 
philosophical researches, and of scientific discoveries. Even the 
Greeks, who did not possess the science of the Egyptians, were 
not always inattentive to the intentions of those from whom they 
principally borrowed the elements of their mythology. Their 
mixed fables, though generally overcharged with poetical embel- 
lishments, yet often continued to exhibit ingenious allegories, which 
related to agriculture, to astronomy, to physics, and to metaphy- 
sics. Thus in the fable which chiefly occupied the attention of the 

S6 On the Science of the 

initiated at Eleusis, Proserpine typified, in orte sense, the corn., 
when it is sown under the surface of the ground ; under another 
point of view the same goddess represented Nature, when the Sun 
descends to the lower hemisphere : and according to another in- 
terpretation, the allegory exhibited the soul, when it quits its pre- 
existent state, is united to the body, and becomes enamored of 
material pleasures, as the spouse of Pluto forgot the flowery vale 
of Enna, and took dehght in the gloomy regions of Hades, 

But although the fabulous deities of Greece were in many ex- 
amples considered as merely allegorical personages, yet the my- 
thology of the Greeks differed very considerably from that of the 
E<^yptians. In Egypt, mythology was the offspring of mystery ; 
and was at once the private interpreter of science, and the public 
organ of superstition. Its exterior appearance presented nothing 
to the eye of the stranger but a monstrous medley of extravagance, 
absurdity, and incongruity ; but as Lucian has observed, though 
he himself too often forgot the precept, the aenigmas of the priests 
of Egypt ought not to be derided by the profane. Those priests, 
as we learn from Plutarch, placed sphinxes, not without a meaning, 
before the gates of their temples ; while in the interior of the 
sacred colleges they explained their aenigmas ; showed that their 
mythology was only a symbolical illustration of the system of 
nature ; and in lifting the veil of allegory discovered to their dis- 
ciples the revealed forms of truth and science. Mythology wore 
a very different appearance in Greece. There it became the 
favorite of the Muses, and the ally of the arts. Instead of being 
employed to express in ainigmas the discoveries and the systems 
of philosophers, it was altered and new-modelled to flatter the 
vanity, and to please the taste of a people, who were not unwilling 
to believe that their country had been the abode of the gods, and 
who were more attentive to the charms of poetry than versant in 
the truths of science. Greece was represented as the country 
where the mythic traditions had their origin ; its kings and its heroes 
were easily admitted to the honors of the apotheosis ; real and 
fictitious histories were confounded together ; foreign and domestic 
events were blended into one mass of fabulous incongruity ; and 
a new Pantheon rose on the ruins of the old, and was soon filled 
by a crowd of Grecian deities, who were far from beariug an exact 
resemblance to their prototypes in Egypt and tlte East. 

Egyptians and Chaldeans. 37 

From these observations it must, I think, be evident, that the 
fictions invented on the banks of the Nile were not the mere crea- 
tions of sportive fancy, like those which owed their existence to 
the poets of Arcadia and Attica. The deification of mortals, as 
Herodotus testifies, was unknown in Egypt ; though Euhemerus, 
to flatter the divine Ptolemy, had the impudence to assert the 
contrary, and though Diodorus had the weakness to believe him. 
The learned Egyptians, when they were not misled into the errors 
of maieriaUsm and atheism, were monotheists in religion, and ideal- 
ists in philosophy. They considered all the nominal deities of 
fable as mere symbols, which bore various meanings, according to 
the view which was taken of the allegorical histories by the 
initiated mythologists. Thus Osiris variously symbolised the active 
principle — the good principle — the Sun — the Nile — the patron of 
agriculture — the first planter of the vine. Isis represented some- 
times universal nature — sometimes the passive principle — some- 
times the air — sometimes the earth — sometimes the moon. We 
are therefore to recollect, that the same allegories, and the same 
symbols, expressed many different things ; and served to illustrate 
now the science of the astronomer — now the system of the physi- 
ologist — and now the theory of the metaphysician. 

It was my object in the preceding article of this essay to show, 
that the Egyptians were not altogether ignorant of the existence of 
those elements of elements, (oroixeTa aToi-^eiwv) which our modern 
chemists assume to themselves the merit of having first discovered. 
I shall now proceed to corroborate my former statements by ad- 
ditional evidence ; but as this evidence, which is chiefly derived 
from the Egyptian mythology, has been furnished by Greek and 
Roman writers, it is necessary that I make a few short remarks on 
the fidelity of their reports. I have then to observe that the writers 
of whom I speak, too generally endeavoured to assimilate the fables 
of Egypt to those of Greece and Italy. Osiris, for example, was 
the prototype of Dionysius and Bacchus, but the Greek god is not 
the same with the Egyptian, and the Latin drunkard differs from 
both. Buto has been improperly confounded with Latona, and 
Bubastis with Artemis and Diana. Orus and Apollo were both 
beardless youths, both were symbols of the sun, and both were 
born in a floating island, where the mother of the one sought re- 
fuge from the pursuit of Typhon, and where the mother of the 

SS On the Science of the 

other fled from the persecution of the serpent Python ; but Orus 
made love neither to the daughter of a river, nor to the daughter 
of the ocean — he neither fell from heaven, nor played on the flute, 
nor flayed alive an unhappy rival, nor pulled the ears of a Phry- 
gian king for being a bad judge of music. The Egyptian mytho- 
logy was of a graver cast than the Greek ; and it is an error to con- 
sider the symbols of both under the same point of view. I have 
likewise to remark, that the Greeks and Romans, from their igno- 
rance of some parts of science with which the Egyptians were ac- 
quainted, have frequently mistaken and misinterpreted the symbo- 
lical language in which the priests of Egypt alluded to their dis- 
coveries in physics and in natural philosophy. It is also to be re- 
gretted that the Greeks have reported the Egyptian fables without 
attention to order or method ; that they have blended together 
different allegories ; that they have confounded various Egyptian 
deities, not only with each other, but with those of Greece ; and that 
they have never preserved the original orthography in writing the 
names of the stranger gods. We can only excuse them by saying, 
that when they made but one partition of the world between Greeks 
and Barbarians, they were not aware of the treasures of knowledge, 
which, during a long lapse of ages, had been amassed by nations 
that were grown old in civilization, before their own had escaped 
from the rudeness of a savage state. They never attained to that 
degree of perfection either in experimental philosophy, or in the 
abstract sciences, to which the Egyptians and the Chaldeans had 
arrived ; and consequently it was not always possible for them to 
explain the allegorical language, in which the sages of Memphis 
and Babylon briefly and obscurely rather hinted than developed 
their systems and opinions. 

Nothing seems more to have embarrassed the interj)reters of the 
Egyptian aenigmas, than the symbolical language employed by 
the disciples of Hermes concerning almost every branch of chemis- 
try and physics. Their doctrine concerning the elements appears 
especially to have puzzled the philosophers of Greece and Italy, 
lamblichus tells us that, according to the Egyptians, the Sun presides 
over the elements of generation, and the Moon over those of produc- 
tion ; and that four of those elements are masculine, and four femi- 
nine. {De Mysier. 1. viii.) Long before the time of lamblichus, the 

Egi/ptiims and Chaldeans. 3f) 

Egyptian doctrine had been thus explained by Seneca : — JEgyptii 
fjuatuor element a fecere ; deinde tx singulis bina, marem et foeminum. 
A'crim marem judicant, qua renins est ; fceminam, qua nebulosus 
et iners. Aquam virilem vacant mare ; muUehrem, omnem aliam, 
Ignem vacant masculum, qua ardtt Jlamma ; et fceminam, qua lucet 
innoxins taclu. Terram fortiorem marem vacant saxa cantesque ; 
fccmince nomen assignant huic tractabili ad culturam. — {Quftst, 
JSatur. 1. iii.) All this is prettily imagined, but much of it has 
no foundation in Egyptian mythology. According to Horapollo ,i 
hawk was the hieroglyphic for the winds; and if the wind were 
always masculine, how came Thueris, {Typhonis pellex) to typify 
the w ind which blows from the south 1 Again it can scarcely be 
true that all water but the sea was called feminine, since Osiris 
symbolised the Nile ; nor is it more consistent with mythology, 
that rugged ground, rocks, and stones, were denoted as mascu- 
line, since the barren border of Egypt next Arabia was typified by 
Is'ephtys, the incestuous wife and sister of the terrible Typlion. 

Seneca states tiiat out of each of the four elements the Egyj)tians 
raade two, — the one masculine, and the other feminine. It is more 
natural to suppose that they represented fire, air, caith, and water, 
its resulting from the combinations of eight i)rimordial elements, 
which they feigned to be masculine and feminine, because by their 
union they produced something diflerent from themselves. It is 
iirpossible to conceive why rugged land should be called mascu- 
line, or why a distinction of sexes should be imagined between 
salt and fresh water; but when the chemist proves to me that both 
earth and water are compound substances, I can bear with the al- 
legorical language in which the elements, by the union of which 
they have been produced, are called masculine and feminine. 
Thalcs, who had studied in Egypt, told the Greeks that fire, air, 
earth, and water, were not elements, but were compounded of 
elements. He told no more, probably because he knew no more ; 
but that his Egyptian masters had formed a theory on this subject, 
a little less whimsical than that which is attributed to them by 
Seneca, 1 shall now endeavour to prove. 

1 have already observed, that the allegorical and aenigmatical 
language of the Egyptians upon the subject in question must have 
been very embarrassing to most of the Greeks, who believed that 
fire, air, earth, and water, were primary and uucompounded cle- 

40 Oji the Science of the 

ments. We cannot wonder then at the erroneous explanations 
which they have given of the symbols, which represented the com- 
ponent parts of the nominal elements. Air and water, for example, 
are composed of aeriform elements, which the moderns call gases. 
How these were expressed by the Egyptians in common language, 
it would be difficult to say; but I can scarcely doubt that they 
were frequently indicated in the fables, where the Greek inter- 
preters employ the words alOnp, ave^os, Trpevfia, &c. It was, how- 
ever, the fictitious deities of Egypt that were principally employed 
as the symbols of the natural elements ; and the component parts 
of air and water seem to me to have been clearly indicated by 
these allegorical divinities. 

Isis, according to the fable, fled from the persecution of Ty- 
phon, and concealed herself in the island of Chemmis, where she 
brought forth Orus and Bubaslis, who were confided by their 
mother to the care of Buto. It is obvious, however, that Isis and 
Buto were in fact the same, and that this last was only one of the 
names assumed by the goddess Myrionymos. We have already 
seen in the last article, that Minerva, or Neitha, symbolised the 
air ; and Plutarch tells us that Isis and Minerva were the same. 
Now according to the testimony of Porphyry, Latona, or Buto, 
was the symbol of the air, whether light or dark, under the Moon— 
rmi hk VTTO (xeXjyvT/v ^wri-c^evou ical ffKonSoi^erov aepos, jy Ai/rw crvLt- 
fioXoy. Thus Isis, under the names of Neitha and Buto, symbol- 
ised the air. Plutarch says that the Egyptians called the Moon 
the mother of the world, and assigned to her a nature composed 
of both sexes. She is impregnated, continues he, by the Sun, and 
again emits and disseminates the generating principles into the air. 
This author would have adhered more exactly to the Egyptian 
mythology, if he had written Minerva, or Neitha, instead of the 
Moon, and Pthah, or Vulcan, instead of the Sun. This appears 
evident from a passage in Horapollo, whose text, however, requires 
correction, as some words seem to be omitted, which I shall ven- 
ture to supply. "HcpaiffToy be ypa^ovres [ol Alyvirrtoi] Kavdupav kol 
yvna iwypafpovoir, 'Adrjyap bk yvza Kai Kuydapov. <Ao»:c7 yap avTols 
6 KOfffios (TwetTTayai ^k re rov apaeytKOv vat drjXvtcov. 'Etj be rtjs 
'A6r)rds T>)y yiJva, [kuI Toy Kaydapoy, eiri be. 'HtpaioTOV Toy kayBapov 
kcA T^y yCTra] ypatpovaiy ovroi yap fioyoi Qeoiy Trap avTo'is apaevoBt)- 
Keu vKof^ovai. The Egyptians indicate Vulcan by painting u 

Egyptians and Chaldeans. 41 

beetle and a vulture ; and Minerva hy a vulture and a beetle ; 
for it seems to them that the world is constituted out of what 
is masculine and feminine. They therefore paint the vulture 
and the beetle for Minerva, and the beetle and the vulture for Vul- 
can, because these alone of the gods are deemed by them to be of 
both sexes. Let us then correct the language of Plutarch, and read 
— the Egyptians called Minerva the mother of the worlds and 
assigned to her a nature composed of both sexes ; she is impreg- 
nated by Vulcan, and again emits and disseminates the principles 
of generation into the air. Pthah, or Vulcan, was feigned to be the 
father of the Sun, and was in fact the symbol of that ignis fabrilis, 
of which the Stoics have since said so much. This god was also 
the symbol of the letherial fluid, which the Greek physiologists 
supposed to permeate the whole material world ; nor can it be 
doubted that he was considered as the type of the living principle, 
and was thence called the father of the gods (6 tQu deaif irarfifj'). 
Chrysippus therefore and his followers only copied tiie Egyptians, 
when they taught, according to Diogenes Laertius, that the whole 
world, being an animated and rational animal, has for its conduc- 
tor the cether, tvhich they say is the first god — (oy'rw bi) kuI tov 
o\ov Koajuot', iwoy Kal 'ij.ii^vyov koX Xoytfcov e-^eiv iiyavfxzvov fxh' rav 
aidepa, 6 Kal TrpwTOv Qiov Xeyovixir), 

Neitha bore in many respects the same character as Ptah, and as 
he was said to be the father of the sun, so the goddess was feigned 
to be the mother of that luminary ; and she is made to say, ac- 
cording to Proclus, the fruit which I have brought forth is the sun: 
{uu eyw KupTTOP ereKoy ijXios eyeyero.) In the former the masculine 
is put before the feminine — in the latter the feminine before the 
masculine. Ptah symbolises oetiier, (otherwise the fabricating tire,) 
and air — Neitha, air and aether. 

The Phoenicians seem to have taught a similar doctrine. Ac- 
cording to Sanchoniatho, the iirst principles are symbolised by the 
wind Kolpias and Bau, night, or chaos ; and their immediate off"- 
spring was Mot, slime. It appears, however, from a passage in 
Damascius {Trepl tUv npujTwp ap-^iov) that this fable had its origin iu 
the Egyptian mythology. JEther and air were the first : these are 
the two principles, out of which Oulomos, the intelligible god, was 
generated. Oulomos is nothing else than the Phanician word 
UT\V> oulorn, eternity, auage, time. Now Mcnes, the first fabulous 

42 O;? the Science of the 

king of Egypt, and the institutor of the worship of Ptdh, according 
to Herodotus, was also the symbol of eternity, or lime ; for the 
word UGHGI)j meneh, which the Greeks wrote menes, signifies 
eternity anrl time. Sanchoniatho himself seems to indicate what 
was meant by his wind Kolpias, for he also states the primary ma- 
terial cause to be a dark and spirit-dilated air: {aepa $e(i>wbr) /cat 
TricvjjiciTujbt]) ; and this dark air was symbolised by Athor, the 
'A(j)pobiTr] (TKo-ia, Veiius tenebrosa, of the Egyptians. 

Tiie Greek mythologists seem not to have known what to make 
of the letlier of the Egyptians and Orientalists. Hesiod lias it that 
Erebus and night sprung from chaos, and aether and day from night. 
That ligiit came out of darkness ; and tliat night preceded day, was 
universally admitted in the East : but there the a?therial spirit was 
always put the first, and was held to be the primary agent employed 
by the divine and immaterial creator. Thus we have seen in the 
last article, that Cneph, the divine demiourgos, was represented 
with an egg in his mouth, to show that the universe had been 
called into being at the word of God ; and Ptah, as Eusebius re- 
ports, sprang from Cneph, and was the material demiourgos, who, 
mider the guidance of the supreme mind, gave form to matter and 
beauty to the world. The primordial wind, of wliich Sanchoni- 
atho speaks, and which he calls Kolpias, or Kolpia, was no doubt 
written in the Phoenician text H^ "'3 b^p, kol-pi-Jah, the voice or 
uord of the mouth of Jah ; and the word for wind, or rather spirit, 
was of course written TXH, ruach, which Pliilo of Byblus, the 
Greek translator, would have rendered better by -rrpevfua than by 
avej-ios. It is this wind, or spirit, then, that came from the mouth 
oi Jah, which was the primordial material principle of the Phoe- 
nician mythologist, and which the Egyptians called aether, and 
symbolised by their god Ptah. Nor are we to reject this explana- 
tion, because we find the creator called Jah by Phoenician idolators. 
The Tsabeans gave that sacred name to the sun and to the moon, 
the objects of their worship. What is the name given to the sun 
in the verses ascribed to the priesis of Apollo at Clarus, but a cor- 
ruption 01 Jah? — (ppa$eo TOP ■iravTb)v virarov Qebv efifiey lau). Again, 
what is the ancient Egyptian masculine name for the moon, 101), 
Joh, but an abbreviation of Jehovah, as we improperly pronounce 
nin% which in the ancient Jewish characters was written ^?^\, 
Jeoef It appears from Suidas, in voce 'Oppevs, that this niytholo- 

Egyptians and Chaldeans. 45 

gist taught (he true doctrine of the Egyptian theisls ; for according 
to him, at the beginning the eethcr appeared in the ivorld fabri- 
cated {8ri/jiiovpYi]deis) by God. 

When we come down to later times, we find the Greeks still per- 
plexing themselves about this aither. The poets openly said that 
mind is constituted of aether; and some of the philosophers argued 
that aether is the substance of the soul. Euripides has the follow- 
ing verses : 

"Odev 6' '^Kaarov els ro aufi a(piiC€TO, 
'E)Tai/9' cnrfiXde, Trrevfia fxey irpos aWepa, 
To (Twjua 6' eis yrji'. SUPPL. 

Plato, with most other Greek philosophers, taught that aether is 
that fine and subtle fluid, in which the celestial bodies perform their 
revolutions; and he seemed to consider it as a fifth element, more 
•excellent than the rest, for he gave it the epithet of glorious, 
(■eTTtKXe^j'.) Aristotle, in defining the substance of the soul, calls it 
a spirit enveloped in the seed and froth ; and adds, that its nature 
is analogous to that of the stars. It is evident then that the Stagi- 
rite meant to say that aether is the substance of the soul. 

We have seen that Isis, under the name of Buto, represented 
atmospheric air. Let us now consider the parts assigned to Orus 
and Typhon. According to Plutarch, Onis represented the season 
and mixtion (wpa Kn\ k-pdcrii) of the ambient air which nourishes 
and preserves all things. What is it in the ambient air which can 
give it this character, if it be not the zotic element, or that part of 
its composition which we call vital air? The same Plutarch says 
in another passage, that the moon cannot always restrain the 
noxious influence of Typhon, who, though often vanquished, still 
returns to contend with Orus. Now it was in the marshes of the 
bland of Chemmis, (compare Herodotus in Euterpe with Plutarch 
de Iside et Osiride,) that Buto concealed Orus from the researches 
of Typhon, who sought to destroy him while he was yet young and 
feeble. The allegory then signifies, that under the influence of the 
moon, and during the night, when vegetables give forth much of 
the azotic element, the due proportion of vital air is diminished, 
and most especially in wet and marshy ground. But the story 
goes on to say, that when Orus quitted the marshes of Chemmis, 
he overcame Typhon, and sent him bound to Isis, who immediately 
released him from his bonds. Here we have the vital air super- 

44 On the Science of the 

abundant, but the balance restored between the zotic and azotic 
elements by Isis, the type, in this instance, of atraospheric air. 

That Typhon was the symbol of the azotic elements in air and 
water, appears to be indicated in many examples. Plutarch assures 
us, that whatever is pernicious in nature was denominated a part 
of Typhon. The noxious wind of Arabia was termed Typhonic 
{'Apa(3iK^ TTJ'o/) 7/ Tviptvi'iKi'i. Hcsych.) : the mephitic vapors 
arising from fens and marshes were called exhalations of Typhon 
{Tv<pu)vos €i:Tn'oas) : and typhus fevers are so named from the evil 
daemon of Egypt. 

It is apparently in repeating the doctrine of the Egyptians, that 
Plato distinguishes between two kinds of air, the one pure, and the 
other gross. We have seen that the ancients considered the su- 
perior part of the atmosphere to be free from noxious vapors, and 
that they denominated it rether'; and the Greeks seem often to 
have confounded the pure part of atmospheric air with the lether of 
the regions of space which lie beyond it. Thus Empedocles has 
opposed Typhon, whom he calls Titan, to the sether, whereas it is 
manifest, that the distinction must have been originally made as ex- 
isting between the zotic and azotic elements in common air. 
FuTa re (cat ttcvtcs TToXvKVfXwv, ijb' vypos aijO, 
Tirav, i'jb' aW^ip ercpiyyuv Trepl kvkXov aTrayra. 

Earth, and the wave-abounding sea, then humid air, Titan, then 
ather binding a circle round the universe. Titan can have nothing 
to do here, and it is obvious that Empedocles confounded this giant, 
whose name is derived from the Phoenician word tit lutum, with 
Typhon. But Typhon's place is here made to be between air and 
jether. It seems to me that, in the Egyptian system of physics, 
from which Empedocles probably borrowed his doctrine, the 
azotic and zotic elements which compose air must have been in- 
tended to be indicated by Typhon and cether. 

HorapoUo says that the Egyptians indicated the world by 
j)ainting a serpent biting its tail. Eusebius (Praep. Evaug. 1. i.) 
tells us that the Egyptians called the good daemon Cneph, and 
that they represented him by painting a serpent within a circle, but 
adhering to the circumference. (The passage is sufficiently obscure, 
but this seems to me to be the sense of it.) Again HorapoUo ob- 
serves that a serpent was a symbol of the spirit which pervades the 
universe. The serpent then seems to be the symUol of that oethera 

Egyptians and Chaldeans. 45 

which at once envelopes and pervades the universe. Ptah appears 
to iiave typified not only this aether, but the principles of heat and 
of life, because these principles are supposed to exist in the ^ther 
and to be inseparable from it. This god, therefore, who was the 
symbol of the material opifex mundi, appears to have been some- 
times confounded with the unbegotten and immortal Cneph, the 
spiritual Demiourgos. No doubt the hyloists of Egypt willingly 
confounded them ; and this I suspect to have been the case with 
those who painted the circular serpent as the symbol of the Agatho- 
deemon, whom they called Cneph. Here indeed it is evident that 
Cneph, symbolised by a serpent, (of which the scales represented 
the stars, according to HorapoHo, and of which the convolutions, ac- 
cording to Clemens Alexandrinus, denoted the courses of the celestial 
orbs,) is himself the type of the sether. Now we find that one.of the 
most venerated symbols in Egypt was that which typified Orus in 
conjunction with the Agatho-djemon. A hawk was the symbol of 
the sun, but more particularly so when that luminary, in the astro- 
nomical sense of the fables, was represented by Orus. Thus we 
find from Strabo, (1. xvii.) that the city of Orus, no doubt from 
the frequent recurrence of his peculiar symbol, was called the city 
of hawks. Now let us hear Eusebius: to trpMTov ov OeioraTov o^is 
€ffriv lepctcos e'xwv fxop(j)))v, &c. the first being that divine serpent 
having the form of a hawk, &c. (that is, having the head of a 
hawk.) Here that deity who symbolises the season and mixtion 
(rather the portion and element) of air preserving all things, is 
united with the Agatho-daemon to show that he represented the 
vital principle, and zotic element, put into activity by the solar 
influence. In this same city of hawks, Orus was represented with 
a hawk's head, and as aiming a javelin at Typhon, symbolised by a 
hippopotamos, the type of water. (Euseb. Praep. Evang. 1. iii.) 
Plutarch says that at Hermupolis was formerly shown an image of 
Typhon under the form of a hippopotamos, and on it a hawk was 
represented fighting with a serpent. Of these two last symbols the 
former represents the aqueous particles arising in pestilential exha- 
lations from feus and marshes, dissipated by the rays of the sun, 
and replaced by purer air — the latter typifies almost the reverse, 
and shows that the sun, when he draws up niephitic vapors from 
swamps and bogs, is at strife with the Agatho-dairaon, the symbol 
t)f pure and vital air. 

46 On the Science of the ' 

That tlie gods of Egypt symbolised the elements cannot b6 
doubled by those who have at all studied tlie mythology of that 
country. Plutaich (in Sympos. 1. viii.) says that the Egyptians 
allow the intercourse of a male irod with a mortal female, but that 
they do not think that conctplion Miid parturition can result from 
the commerce of a man with a goddess ; and then he adds, what 
is deserving of attention : bta to ras ovuias rCov dewp ev aepi kuI 
TTvevfiacri, Kai ritn dep/uorrjtri Kal vyporrjaL ridetrOai — on this account, 
that the essences of the gods are placed in air, in spirits, (what the 
moderns call gases,) and in certain heats and humidities. The 
same author observes elsewhere, that Osiris and Isis, after having 
been good dasmons became gods. Serapis, or Sarapi?, the Egyp- 
tian Pluto, appears from a fragment of Porphyry to have had his 
share in the government of the elements: Mt'iTrore ovroi elcriv [ol bai- 
/xoves] Jr apx^* Tapanis, Kal bia tovtojp crvjifioXcv [avrov] 6 rpiKuprji'os 
KV(t)V, Tovr icTTip 6 ev rots TpvaX oroij^etots, iJ^ari, y>;, aipt, 'Trovrjpos bai- 
fxtiyv, ovs Karavravei 6 deos. Perhaps these may he the dcemons 
whom Sarapis governs, and on account of these his symbol is the 
three-headed dog, that is the wicked dcemon in the three elements, 
water, earth, and air, which the god trunquillises. This is not a bad 
specimen of the ignorance of liie Greeks concerning the mystic 
meaning of the Egyptian symbols. The symbol of Serapis was not 
a three-headed dog, like the Cerberus of the Greeks, though Gre- 
cian sculptors have often represented it as such ; but a yet stranger 
monster exhibiting a serpent's body convolved in the form of a 
cone reversed, with the head of a dog and of a wolf, and the head of 
a lion between them. Now the three-headed dog of the Grecian 
Pluto is a symbol without a meaning, whereas the three-headed 
monster of the Egyptian Serapis is full of meaning. Serapis was 
the type of Sol inferus, or the winter sun, when that luminary de- 
scends to the lower hemisphere. In the early ages when the 
winter solstice corresponded with the entry of the sun into the sign 
of Aquarius, the constellations, at that period opposite to him, were 
Hydra and Leo, with the dog on one side, and the wolf on the 
other. This was the state of the heavens then at midnight while 
the sun was in Aquarius, that Leo was at the meridian, the serpent^ 
or hydra, extended its vast length along the half of the southern 
hemisphere, where the wolf was also seen to the east, and the dog 
towards the west. The Greeks therefore have destroyed the 

Egyptians and Chaldeans, 47' 

meaning of the symbol in cliant;ing it. It is however obvious, from 
the passage wliich I have cited from Porphyry, that the elements 
water, earth, and air, were feigned by the Egyptians to contain evil 
daemons ; but it is more than probable that the mythologists meant 
nothing else by these evil diemons than what the plainer speakers 
of modern times denominate azotic gases. 

We have seen, in the last article, that Typhon was called the 
syndjol of the sea, because, according to Plutarch, the sea was pro- 
duced by fire, and Typhon was the proper symbol of fire. But 
Plutarch, as I have shown, must consequently have been mistaken, 
when he said that the Egyptians considered Typhon ttuu to av^^rj- 
poy, Kai nvpQbes, kui ^rfpai'riKOi' oXcJs, kcu TZoXefiiov Tf] vypoTrjri — 
every thing arid, and fiery, and entirely of a drying nature adverse 
to humidity. Typhon was always the opponent of Osiris, who, in 
the physical sense of the fables, was one of the several symbols of 
vital air, whence whatever was healthy, as Plutarch styles it, in the 
wind?, and seasons, and temperatures, was denominated a fluxion 
of Osiris. Typhon and the sea were held in abhorrence, because 
the mythologists taught that Osiris was destroyed by Typhon, as 
the waters of the Nile were lost in the sea. Now the «hoIe of 
these fictions may be explained as follows : The worshippers of 
Ptah, whose tongue they said w^as a flame of fire, held that deity to 
be the opifex muncli ; and in opposition to the partizans of Cano- 
bus, represented the ignis fahrilis as the great agent in nature, and 
the material principle of all things. But as the latent principle of 
heat cannot be developed without the presence of vital air, Ptah 
was represented of a double sex, and Neitha, likewise of a double 
sex, was associated with him, and after having been impregnated by 
him, disseminated the seeds of generation, as the fable has it, into 
the air. This Neitha, however, being the type of air and aether, it 
follows that, according to the Egyptian Vulcanists, the ignis fabrilis 
in combination with the various elements which bear the form of 
gases, generated all things. Typhon, as I have attempted to prove, 
was everywhere opposed to Osiris, and was the symbol of all the 
azotic elements, of which the humid element, now called hydrogen 
gas, is one. This gas is, of all others, the most inflammable. In 
combustion it absorbs double its own volume of oxygen gas, and 
by its union with that element, is resolved into water. In this 
manner, then, the sea might be supposed to be produced by fire» 

48 On the Science of the 

but Typhon was the type t)f the inflammable gas rather than of llie 
Hre by which it became ignited ; and so far is this inflammable gas 
from being adverse to humidity, that in uniting itself with oxygen 
gas, it immediately takes the form of water, parting, no doubt, with 
much of its caloric, and losing in proportion its expansive force. 

Upon the whole then, I think it must appear to the unpreju- 
diced reader, that the fables of the Egyptians related not only to 
agriculture, and astronomy, but to physics and chemistry, I am 
aware that the tide of opinion is against me. I am still told that 
the ancients had neither telescopes nor microscopes, and therefore 
could know neither what is great in the heavens, nor what is 
minute on the earth : that they had no chemical apparatus, not 
even retorts and alembics ; and that they formed their systems 
without making any appeal to experiment, the only index of truth 
in physics and in natural philosophy. In answer to the first of these 
objections I shall merely cite the following passage from Moscopu- 
lus : Karo:rrpoj', Ka\ evciTTpov, Kal eaoTrrpoy, Kal biOTrrpa biaipepovaC 
yaTonrpov filv yap Kal evoirrpov 6 Xeyofxeyos i:adpv7rrios, kaonTpov hk 
TO Xeyofierov ^avapioV {/ be biowrpa, opyavoy ri rots auTpovouois 
karlv oTTolos 6 \€y6/j.ei'os a(TTpo\a(ios. I do not translate this pas- 
sage, because there are no English words to correspond exactly with 
the names given to the instruments mentioned, yet they seem to be 
nothing else than diff'erent kinds of microscopes and telescopes. 
To the second objection I reply, that the Greeks were certainly 
acquainted with the art of distillation, since Dioscorides, as 
]M. Dutens observes, not only speaks clearly of distillation, but em- 
ploys the word amhix, which we have barbarised into alembic. 
(Dioscorid. L. 5.) Neither were the Egyptians ignorant of this 
art. M. Dutens has cited a passage from a manuscript work of 
Zosimus of Panopolis, which can leave no doubt about the matter. 
Zosime, says the French author, reccmmande a ses tltvesde se pour" 
voir de B/kos veKiros, aaXrjv oarpaKaos, Xorras Kal ayyos (TrevoaTouoy ; 
et plus loin ; enl uKpa twp atSKrivwv (dIkovs veXov /.leyaXovs Tra^^eli 
eTTiOe'tvai, ha fxt] paywv ol-ko tTjs depfxrjs rov vbaros. That is to say, 
the experimenters are desired to provide themselves with a glnss 
vessel, a shell tube, a plate (perhaps a kettle,) and a vase ivith a 
narroiv mouth; great thick vessels of glass are to be placed over the 
iubesi that they may not be broken by the heat of the water. Had 
M. Dutens translated this passage, I think somp of his readers would 

Egyptians and Chaldeans. 49 

have asserted less confidently than they have done, that the art of 
distillation was unknown in Egypt. In answer to the third objection, 
I refer to the example of Democritus, who, after having been edu- 
cated in Egypt, cetatcm, says Petronius, inter caperimenfa con- 

I now come to a part of physiology, which occupied much of 
the attention of the early Greek philosophers, and to the considera- 
tion of which they were led by the example of the Phcenicians and 
Egyptians. The doctrine to vvhicii I allude is this : There are only 
four forms under wliich matter becomes cognisable to our senses, 
and all bodies are either aeriform, igneous, aqueous, or terrene. 
From this it follows that we ought to distinguish body from its 
dements ; for though all bodies wear the form either of fire, or air, 
or earth, or water, yet fire, air, earth, aud water, are not primary 
elements, but are themselves composed of elements which are prior 
to them. Again, these prior elements, which exist chiefly in a 
fluid, though sometimes in a solid, state, are themselves con)pounded 
of primary particles infinitely minute. These were denominated 
monads (ixordbei) by Pythagoras — smallest fragments {dpuimfuara 
eXa^tirra) by Empedocles — motes {^uafuiTo) by Dem.ocritus — atoms 
(dro/iot) by Ecphantus, &c. The doctrines of Pythagoras and of 
Democritus on this subject principally merit our attention. 

Democritus, though not even the first among the Greeks who 
adopted the corpuscular system, was certainly its .most able sup- 
porter. He seems to have attributed all primary qualities to atoms, 
such as figure, gravity, solidity, position, and magnitude : and 
these primary quulities he supposed to be as infinitely varied ia 
atoms as they are in the bodies which are composed of atoms. 
Thus he thought that the figures of atoms are different in different 
elements, and that though their magnitudes are always infinitely 
minute, their relative proportions may be infinite in variety. Some 
atoms are spherical, some cylindrical ; some take the shape of the 
cone, some of the pyramid, some of the cube ; others exhibit un- 
equal sides, and unequal angles, and others show themselves under 
every prismatic form, and under every irregular figure. It is evi- 
dent, however, that it is absolutely idle to call sucii particles pri- 
mary, or to denon\iuate them atoms, since ihey must still be capable 
of infinite division. Imagine a sphere to be as minute as possible, 
still this sphere may be divided into two hemispheres. Tl.c 
VOL. XXI. "ci.Jl. NO. XLI. D 

50 On the Science of the 

smallest pyramid may be truncated ; the smallest cone admits of 
infinite sections. No cube can be so minute as not to be capable of 
containing a smaller sphere, and every sphere may contain a cone, 
and every cone a pyramid, h\ short, the xusmata of Democritus, 
since they have both magnitude and tigure, cannot be atoms, which, 
as their name implies, admit not of section or division. 

The numerical system of Pythagoras has often been treated as 
visionary, and even as unintelligible. It ought, however, to be re- 
collected, that we have it transmitted to us in a very imperfect state, 
and that we cannot form a very adequate judgment of it from the 
reports of the Greeks, who in general did not understand it much 
better than the moderns. Even Plato, who in part adopted this 
system, though he expressed its doctrines in other words, and by 
other terms, has but too often added to the obscurity in which the 
immediate disciples of Pythagoras left it involved. We ought be- 
sides to recollect that Pythagoras brought this system from Egypt, 
where he might have been only imperfectly uistructed in its prin- 
ciples by the philosophers of that country. I am aware, indeed, 
that some modern authors deny that this system had its origin in 
Egypt ; but their opinion may be easily refuted on the authority of 
the Greeks themselves, and is therefore of no weight whatever. 

The numerical system, of which we possess only the fragments^ 
may be considered under two points of view — ^as it relates to 
physics, and to metaphysics. As it relates to the former, it 
probably served as the basis of the corpuscular philosophy; and 
as it relates to the latter, it has been made the foundation on which 
the ideal system has since been built up by Plato and his disciples. 
With this last system, which in my judgment is the most beautiful 
that ever was imagined, we have at present nothing to do. We are 
now to consider the Pythagorean doctrines as they relate to the ma- 
terial world. Let us, then, listen to the reports of the Greeks. 
Number, says an ancient writer cited by Stoba;us, is a system of 
monads, or the progress of multitude from the monad, and the re- 
gress of combinations into the monad, (eort he apiQixbs avaTi'i/j-a fxo- 
vc'ihwv, T] ■KpoirnhitTfios ■kKijQov utto jiovahos, Ka\ ayciTrobirrfxos els fxovaha 
KaTuWnXwv.) lamblichus tells us, in his misty language, that 
Pythagoras defines number to be the extension and energy of semi- 
nal ratios in unity, (jov apidfiov 6pi$ei eKraaiv kui eydpyeiav tmv ty 
According to Hermias, the monad is 

Egyptians and Chaldeans. 5 1 

the principle of all things, out of the forms and combinations of 
which the elements are produced. Plutarch says that numbers, 
and the symmetries in them which are harmonies, were styled 
principles by Pythagoras ; but that the elements which were 
constituted by them he called geometrical. Moreover he placed 
the monad and the infinite duad among principles: by the former 
he understood God and good — the Daemon and evil by the latter, 
whence proceeded the material nuass, which is the visible world. 
(Plut. de Placit. Philosoph.) 

It would, however, only fatigue my readers were I to repeat all 
the fragments in Plutarch, Stobaeus, Porphyry, lamblichus, and 
other writers, concerning this system. Let us take a rapid view of 
the physical doctrines which it seems to announce. The monad 
then represents the material principle in unity — simple, and indi- 
visible. It expresses this principle existing, as the Peripatetics 
would say, not in energy, but in power. The duad represents mat- 
ter in actual being, and consequently expresses combination, de- 
pending indeed upon the operation of two principles, which the 
Pythagoreans called friendship and discord, {<pi\la Kal yetfcos,) and 
which the moderns term attraction and repulsion. By the triad is 
to be understood the union of the monad and of the duad, and the 
production of the triangle, or of figure under its simplest form. 
The tetrad is the symbol of solidity, and consequently of the four 
sensible elements. 

We have seen that the Pythagoreans named the elements, which 
result from numbers and proportions, geometrical. No doubt, then, 
the elemental symbols, which according to Diogenes Laertius were 
employed by Plato, had been borrowed from the Pythagoreans, who 
in their turn had obtained them from the Egyptians. Fire is repre- 
sented by a regular pyramid, of which all the surfaces are equi- 
lateral triangles: this pyramid is consequently a tetraedron. Earth 
is symbolised by a cube, or hexaedron ; air by an octoedron ; and 
water by an eikosaedron. Plato also considered the dodecaedroii 
as the symbol of the universe. (Alcin. isagog. c. 13.) Now it is to 
be observed that these are the only regularly formed figures which 
can have solid angles, because the angles which unite their piano 
surfaces are less than 360°, or 4 right angles. Three angles of 
equal and equilateral triangles can form a solid angle, because they 
are each equal to only 60°; consequently 3 of these triangles joined 

52 On the Science of the 

in the tetraedron will make a solid angle equal to 180°. In this 
way we find 4 angles of the octoedrou, making a solid angle equal 
to 240° ; 5 angles of the eikosaedron, making a solid angle equal 
to 300°. Again, each angle of a square is equal to 90°, conse- 
quently 3 such angles joined can make a solid angle ; and Ihe solid 
angle of the cube is equal to 270°. The dodecaedron is compre- 
hended under 12 regular and equal pentagons. Each angle of a 
regular pentagon is of 10S°: 3 angles of such a pentagon will con- 
sequently make a solid angle equal to 324°. No other regular 
figures can make solid angles. 

The Pythagoreans, or rather their Egyptian masters, chose the 
duad as the symbol of matter. But as 2 is the root, 4 the s(|nare, 
and 8 the cube, so the square of the material duad is represented 
by the tetraedron, and its cube by the octoedron. The hexaedron, 
or geometrical cube, consists of 6 squares, and 8 angles: but each 
of these squares may be equally divided into 2 isosceles triangles. 
The regular octoedron consists of 8 equilateral triangles, each of 
which may be divided into 2 equal scalene triangles. Thus then 
the elements, fire, air, and earti), bear proportions to each other in 
the same manner as these figures ; and it would seem from the 
symbols mentioned above, that igneous particles can never form 
soHd angles exceeding 180° , nor aerial particles solid angles ex- 
ceeding 240°; nor terrene particles solid angles exceeding 270°; 
nor aqueous parlicles solid angles exceeding 300°. 

What we call solidity in atoms is, perhaps, nothing else than 
their power of repulsion; and this repulsive power in atoms will be 
according to their mass and density. When the Pythagoreans re- 
presented fire by the tetraedron, they seem to have indicated that 
the distance between igneous atoms alters according to the square 
root of the intensity of the fire, or more properly its density. 
Again, when they symbolised air by the octoedron, they indicated 
that the distance between aerial atoms differs according to the 
cube root of the density of the air ; and that if this density be sup- 
posed as 1, and that if air, according to this measure, be com- 
pressed into the 8th part of its actual expansion, its density will 
become as 8; and the distance between the atoms will be found to 
be inversely as the cube-root of 1 to the cube-root of 8, or as 1 to 
2; whence it will follow, according to the Pythagoreans, that if air 

Egyptians and Chaldeans. 53 

be compressed into an 8th part of its usual expansion, the distance 
between its atoms will be diminished one half. 

I shall leave it to others to determine whether or not tins reason- 
ing be just, and to judge how far similar reasoning will apply to 
the other symbols representing earth and water. There are, how- 
ever, some more remarks which I should wish to make concerning 
these figures. 

I. The ancient philosophers of whom I speak seem to have con- 
sidered the matter of heat and of light as the same ; and perhaps 
they held this matter to be of the same nature with the magnetic 
and electric fluids. If I do not mistake, however, they understood 
all the sensible effects produced by these to result from the motion 
of their constituent particles. I must observe, too, in this place, 
that the ancient inhabitants of Italy, v.ho had much intercourse 
with the Lydians, Phoenicians, and Egyptians, appear to have been 
aware that h'ghtning is notlung else than the electric fluid ; and 
Numa Pompilius, while he invoked the Elician Jove, elicited the 
fire from the cloud, and conveyed the harmless thunderbolt to the 
earth. Tullus Hostilius, less fortunate, or less scientific tlian 
Numa, probably perished in the same manner as the modern phi- 
losopher Ptichmann. With respect to the magnetic fluid, I cannot 
help thinking that the Phoenicians and Egyptians considered it as 
the matter of heat existing in a particular state, and exerting a pe- 
culiar influence. The former called the magnet ^1D~irT P^hf, 
aboil hercul, i. e. lapis caloris universalis ; and the latter termed 
it the bone of Or, that is, the power or strength of Or, the symbol 
of light and heat. 

But to return to my subject. If the primary particles of light 
and caloric be pyramidal, and be regular tetraedrons, we may make 
the following remarks: 1. No solid figure is more adapted to per- 
meate the pores of bodies than the pyramid. 2. As, in a regular 
pyramid, the axe is a perpendicular drawn from the summit to the 
base, all other lines drawn from the summit to the base must in- 
cline to the axe ; and as the figures of luminous pyramidal atoms 
are too minute to be individually discerned, a series of them will 
appear as a straight line extending in the direction of their axes. 
J. As the power of the wedge is in its axe, the same is true of the 
regular pyramid, and each series of luminous atoms will always 
seem to proceed in the line of their axes, and consequently in a 

54 On the Science of the 

straight line, unless Avhen deflected by some extraneous cause. 
4. It follows that when a ray, whether of light or of caloric,' falls 
upon a surface capable of reflecting it, the angle of reflection will 
appear equal to the angle of incidence. 5. When a ray passes out 
of one medium into another, for example, out of air into water^ it 
■will continue to proceed in a straight line, if it fall perpendicularly, 
because the power of the pyramid being in its axe, the ray must be 
either reflected, or must pass on in a straight line, and as the pores 
of the water are too wide to hinder the passage of the ray, it must 
necessarily advance in the same direction as before : but if the ray 
fall obliquely on the water, the power of the luminous atom to ad- 
vance will be weakened according to the angle which its axe makes 
with the surface, and this will augment as it proceeds in its course 
through the water. 6. When a ray falls perpendicularly upon any 
surface, all the powers of the luminous pyramidal atom are con- 
centrated at its apex, and this apex will be as much as possible iti 
contact with the surface ; but if the axe of the atom be inclined to 
the surface, all the sides of the pyramid will not be equally near to 
the surface, and the light descending from the upper side will not 
come nito contact with it in the same instant or in the same point, 
as that proceeding along the lower side. In fact the upper line of 
light must be prolonged something beyond the apex of the pyra- 
mid in order to come into contact with the surface. Now if the 
surface be not a reflecting one, the powers of the luminous pyra- 
midal atom will be divided, and some portion of the light will have 
penetrated the surface before the rest. Refraction therefore really 
begins before all the light of a ray has passed out of one medium 
into another. J. When a ray is thus refracted, it will produce new 
sensations in us, which, it would seem, ought to be as various in 
intensity as the angles, Avhich the lines of light form with our 
organs of vision, are diff'erent in magnitude ; but from the extreme 
minuteness of these angles they individually escape perception ; 
and it is only when we come to have distinct sensations produced 
by their continued gradations, that we class the rays in the order 
of the prismatic colors, from red to violet. S. The matter of heat 
and of light being the same, though existing under difterent modi- 
iications, the heat, as well as the light, ought to be most intense in 
the line of light which is least deflected by the prism ; and this 
will be obviously true if the luminous atom be a regular pyramid. 

Egyptians and Chaldeans. 55 

l)ccause its power being in its axe, the other lines proceeding (Voiu 
tlie base to the summit will have the more power the more they are 
in the direction of the axe. The greatest intensity of heat is accord- 
ingly found in the red ray, which is that which is the least deflected. 
9. It apjiears from the experiments of some modern philosophers, 
that tiie luminous atoms are capable of polarisation. Thus if under 
certain circumstances a luminous atom of a refracted lay be made to 
fall at on a circle marked with the degrees, a spectator viewing 
it under a certain angle would see it in that position exhibiting a 
portion of light, which would continually dinuuish until it became 
altogether evanescent, if the atom were made to move round the 
circle through the different azimuths until it came to 90°. If, how- 
ever, it were still made to move on, it would again gradually recover 
all its light when it came to the line of the meridian at 180"; it 
%vou!d again become evanescent at 2/0^, and would not regain all its 
intensity until it returned to the point whence it set out. It seems to 
follow from these facts, that luminous atoms have sides and angles, 
and that it is owing to the manner in which these are turned by the 
polar attraction, that the atom varies its appearance in the experi- 
ment of which I have been speaking ; and perhaps the phaenoniena 
can be best explained by supposing the luminous particles to be 

II. The next regular polyedron which can make a solid angle is 
the cube. It was probably chosen as the symbol of the terrene 
element, because of all regular solid figures it is the most difficult 
to be moved, and because atoms under this form are the most 
capable of filling space. 

III. There seem to be several reasons why the octoedron was 
chosen to symbolise aerial particles. The octoedron is formed by 
the junction of two pyramids, for when we join two developements 
of a tetraedron at a common base, we have the developement of an 
octoedron. Now if the attraction and repulsion of aerial atoms, 
(which we suppose to be octoedrons,) be in the line ot their axes, 
and if they approach and touch each other only in the same line, 
the spaces between their sides will be void. But since we know 
that air is highly elastic, and capable of being either expanded or 
compressed greatly beyond its common state, we may presume 
that its atoms do not ever come into actual contact, but attract 
and repel each other at greater or smaller distances, and that upon 
this depends what we call the density or rarity of the air. If then 

56 On the Science of the Egi/ptians, cjc. 

the equilibrium of an aerial atom be disturbed, and if by any con- 
cussion its axe be made to vibrate, it uill produce by its attraction 
and repuls'roH a similar effect on tlieaxes of its neighbouring atoms, 
tind their sides will be raised and depressed alternately, until the 
vibration cease altogether. The sensation of sound is produced in ivs 
by the vibration of the aerial particles which are in contact with our 
organs of hearing ; and f see no reason why these particles may 
not be octoedrons, since we can still account for all the pha?noraena 
while we suppose them to be such. But it is not improbable that 
the ancient philosophers may have chosen the octoedron as a syra- 
))ol of air; ^rst, because the distinct different sounds produced by 
the vibrations of a musical chord are contained in the octave ; 
secondly, because if you count the rays of light from their least to 
their greatest distinct degrees of refrangibility, you will find, when 
you come to eight, that you have returned to the same coloured 
ray from which you began to count ; thirdly, if we suppose aerial 
atoms to be diaphanous, the octoedron seems to be a figure peculiarly 
fitted for the regular transmission of light, since, if I mistake not, 
those crystals which aie of this form do not admit of a double re- 

IV. The universe was symbolised by the dodecaedron ; and 
thence the Egyptians divided the zodiac into 12 partitions, each of 
which was subdivided into 30 sections, making in all 360 partitions 
of the circle; for the dodecaedron consists of 12 pentagons, and if 
each of these be divided into 5 triangles, the number of triangles 
will be 6(), and if each of these triangles be again subdivided into 
<i, the whole number of triangles will amount to 36o. 

V. The moderns seem generally to consider the primary particles 
of water as spherical ; but from the extreme minuteness of those 
particles we cannot ascertain their figure in any other way than by 
inference. I am indeed inclined to think from the crystallizations 
which they form when in a state of congelation, that they have 
plane sides and angles. The ancients believed them to have 20 
bides and 12 angles. Why they did so I am unable to say. Per- 
haps in employing the tetraedron, the octoedron, and the eikosae- 
dron, to represent fire, air, and water, they meant to indicate that 
the specific gravity of air is four times greater than that of flame, 
and that the specific gravity of water is twelve times greater than 
that of air. Perhaps, as all the faces of the eikosaedron are equi- 
lateral fr an,'les, and as each of the angles of these triangles is con- 

Ardent Fever. 57 

sequcnily equal to GO degrees, they may have indicated that water 
assumes its solid state by shooting into crystals crossing each other 
in angles of t)0 degrees, for this really happens in the formation of 

I have extended this article to too great a length already, but I 
cannot close it without observing, that the symbols of which I have 
been speaking appear to me to merit the attention of the philoso- 
pher. I call them symbols, because, according to the genuine 
doctrine of the schools in which they were employed, there can 
really be no material atoms existing under any form whatever, 
since there can be no such particles M'hich are not capable of in- 
finite division. But if matter be capable of infinite division, let 
the advocates of its existence point out where it is to be found. 
Can that exist any where but in the mind, which the mind can prove 
to itself to be capable of infinite division ? The sciolist will think 
this question absurd — the philosopher, who must have often con- 
sidered it, knows that it is equally difficult to solve and curious to 

Naph .^ A'oy . 1 1 , 1 8 1 9. W. VRUMMOND. 


On the Description of Ardent Fever given hij 

Part l\.~\Coutlnmd from No. XL. p. 247.] 

" First of all the patients foresee that they are about to quit 
this life, ami enter upon another ; and then they foretell to those 
present, things that are yet to come to pass." UpoyivlxTxou- 
(Tiv Trp'JjTia-Ta, uvtbokti ToiJ /3/ou tyjv /xsTaAAaysV itsitx toIcti 7rccgov<ri 
vpoXiyovo-i Toi uUig ecroftrva— What immediately follov\s is in the 
translation: " Nonnulli vero interdum corum dictis fidem nou 
liabendam putant;" the original appearing in the text ol dl auTious 
lj,iv I(r6' OTB xaj ciWo (^ua) So^cioua"), words to which it appears 
impossible to affix any determinate meaning, or even to construe 
them according to the rules of the language. The emendation 
of Petit renders the passage at once intelligible, and is not to be 
regarded as conjectural, but a coircclion that in all future 

58 Areteeus's Commentary on 

editions ought to be received into the text. When the words 
aAAo i$a<ri loxioucri, altogetlier unintelHgibie, by a very slight alter- 
ation are rendered a.k\of!X(Tcrsiv Sojceoucrj — videntur de/iiare, the 
sense is evident, and the present reading evidently appears to be 
an error in tiauscription or of the press. The Latin translation 
renders ol by noiinnUi, v\hereas it ought to be //', as it refers 
to the bystanfters ; and supposing the present text to be as printed^ 
it appears altogether inexplicable how it could be rendered 
" interdam eorum dictis fidem non habendum putant." The 
meaning of the passage evidently is, " that those exhausted by 
this disease, foreseeing the change that awaits iheni, and fore- 
telling fntine events to those present, sometimes (;o-5' ots) appear 
to be delirious; but upon the occurrence of the events as 
foretold men are astonished :" xi] a7ro'/3acri Is tHo-j slpT,^sywv flcjujtAa- 
Koucri wv^paoTToi. " Some again address their conversation to 
some of the departed, they alone easily discerning ihem on 
account of their pure and highly refined sensation, the soul 
readily distinguishing and holding converse with those men 
with whom they are to associate ; for before it was involved in 
turbid humors, and darkness, but after the disease has ex- 
hausted these humors, and removed the cloud from their eyes 
they perceive aerial beings, and the soul being freed from 
all corporeal impediments they become true Prophets : but 
those who have arrived at this degree of extenuation, andsubtile- 
ty of intellect, do not long survive, the living power being 
already dissipated, or exhausted." In this concluding passage 
Petit has made two emendations which, like that already men- 
tioned, deserve to be received into the text. ^Epiova-i ru rs ev tm 
^5^j, he makes bgkva-i ; and Iv jXuj toTj-j uygola-i syjv, he says 
perhaps should be altered to sv IhuJjB-a-i vypola-t ; and considering 
liovv very inaccurately the text of this chapter has been printed, 
there is every reason to believe the emendation right. 

That conjectural emendations of the original text of an 
author ought to be very cautiously admitted, is true; but if we 
iind the words of any writer do not convey a clear and distinct 
meaning, and cannot be brought within the common rules of 
construction of the language ; if we find that by the alteration 
of one or two letters the sense appears consistent with the 
context, and the words thus altered fall within common rules, 
we may rest assured that the correction is just. Admitting 
then the emendations of Petit to be correct, the sense of the 
whole chapter would, generally taken, be as follows : 

'' An ardent and subtle fever pervades the whole system, but 
chiefly aftects the internal parts. The respiration is hot, as if 

Ardent Fever. 59 

proceeding from fire ; fresh air is eagerly inlialed, with a longing 
for M'hatever is cold; the tongue is dry, the lips and skin are 
parched, the exlreniiiies comparatively cold, the urine largely 
tinctured \^ ilh bile ; the patient is restless, the pulse frequent, 
small and feeble ; the eyes active, glistening, and slightly tinged 
with red, and the complexion is good. But if the disease 
continue to increase, all the symptoms become stronger and 
worse. The pulse is exceedingly small and quick, the dry heat 
is violent in the extreme, the judgment is disordered while the 
patient is ignorant of all that passes around him, there is great 
thirst, with an instinctive desire to touch any cold substance — 
the wall — vestments — the pavement — or cold fluid. The 
lingers are cold but the palms of the hands exceedingly hot, 
the nails are livid, the respiration hurried, a dewy moisture 
appears upon the forehead and neck. But if nature has arrived 
at the extreme degree of drought and heat, then is the hot 
changed into cold, and the parched state into a profusion 
of moisture. For things brought to extremity, are changed 
into their contraries. When therefore the bonds of nature are 
dissolved, thrs is the fatal termination. A sweat not to be 
checked flows from all parts of the body — the respiration is cold 
— much vapour exhales from the nostrils, the patient suffers no 
longer from thirst, for other parts are dried up, except the 
mouth and stomach, the organs that suffer from thirst, the uriiie 
is thin and watery ; the bowels for the most part in a state of 
constipation, but in some there are scanty bilious stools. — A 
great redundancy of superfluous fluid prevails, the very bones 
undergo colliquation ; and, as in a river, zehich deposits floating 
substances on its banks, there is a current towards the external 

State of (lie Mind. The senses are highly acute, the powers 
of the mind active, and the sick are disposed to foretell future 
events. First of all they foresee that they are about to enter 
upon another life, and then they foretell to the bystanders things 
yet to come to pass. They indeed sometimes think these vati- 
cinations the effect of delirium ; but upon the occurrence of the 
events foretold men are astonished. Some also address their 
conversation to those already departed from this life, readily 
discovering their presence by their quick and retined sensation ; 
the soul easily distinguishing and holding conversation with the 
men with whom they are to associate ; for before it was 
immersed in turbid humors and darkness, but after the disease 
has exhausted these humors, and removed the cloud from 
their eyes_, they perceive aerial bemgs ; and the soul being now 

60 i\retrjeus*s Commentary on 

disengaged from all corporeal impediments they become true 
Prophets. But those who have arrived at this degree of exhaus- 
tion of humors and refinement of intellect do not very long 
survive, the powers of animal life being already dissipated." 

The Greek text of Aretoeus was from the manuscript in 
llie French King's Library, corrected for the press by Goupylus, 
a learned Physician, in the year 1554, and the work was printed 
by the celebrated Turnebus, one of the first Greek scholars 
then in Europe. Yet if the foregoing remarks be just, the text 
of the chapter which is the subject of this paper, will appear 
to have been very inaccurately printed, and the Latin translation 
re-published under the sanction of Henry Stephens, and after- 
wards of Boerhaave, is intolerably bad. 

From this we niay see the great propriety of a more strict 
examination of the text of the Greek medical authors, and a 
careful examination of the manuscripts by readers qualified 
to report upon the proper punctuation, and what mistakes may 
have occurred through the ignorance or haste of transcribers. 
The text of Hippocrates might thus be in a great measure 
restored ; and many corrections might be made of all the Greek 
authors down to the 12th century, when works of merit in the 
profession were no longer printed in that language. 

From this part of the writings of Aretaeus, it appears that 
the immortality of the soul was a doctrine well understood and 
firmly believed in his time, being indeed a principle assumed in 
ancient philosophy as demonstrably true. " Morte carent 
anima," says Ovid in his recapitulation of the tenets of Pytha- 
goras ; and although some modern writers have attempted to 
show from some passages, in the works of Cicero, that he 
doubted the fact of the soul's immortality, certain it is that the 
Peripatetics, whose philosophy he studied and preferred, enter- 
tained no doubts on the subject, holding the human soul to be 
an emanation from the deity in its very nature indestructible. 

The opinion has prevailed among the learned of all ages, as 
well as the unlearned, that upon the approach of death the 
soul exerts a more divine energy, and that in many cases 
the vaticinations of dying men are true. Homer tells us, that 
Patroclus dying foretold the fate of Hector, and Hector in his 
turn foretold that of Achilles, the event in each case proving 
the truth of the prediction. Cicero says that upon the approach 
oi" death the soul acquires new powers, to be much cncieased a3 

Ardent Fever. 61 

soon as it is disengaged from tlie body. *' Yiget autem, et 
vivit animus, quod multo niagis faciet post mortem, cum 
omnino e corpora excesserit : itaque appropinquante morte, 
nrulto est divinior. Nam id ipsum vident, qui sunt morbo 
gravi et mortifero affecti, instare mortem, Itaque his occurrunt 
plerumque imagines niortuorum : tumque vel maxime laudi 
student, eosque qui secus quam decuit vixerunt, peccatorum 
suorum tum maxime poenitet. Divinare autem morienics etiam 
ilio exemplo confirmat Posidonius : quo affert Rhodium quen- 
dam morientem, sex a^^quales nominasse, et dixisse qui primus 
eorum, qui secundus, qui deinceps moriturus esset." This 
passage from Cicero's work de Divinatione, manifests no doubt 
of the soul's immortality, but the contrary ; and the error of 
Blacklock and others, who say that he did express such doubts, 
arises from their taking the opinions of one of the persons he 
introduces in a dialogue for his own. We find that Jacob 
on his death-bed desired his sons to assemble around liim 
that he might declare to them the things that should befall them 
in the latter days ; and Moses on the approach of death also 
foretells future events to the children of Israel. 

Sometimes in the delirium of fever, the patient appears to 
see events passing at a great distance, an instance of which is 
recorded by Margaret of Navarre, as having happened to her 
mother, who being dangerously ill and quite deliriotjs, suddenly 
exclaimed, raising herself from the bed, " See how they fly ! my 
son has the victory ! — Ah, my God ! raise up my son, he is upon 
the ground ! — Do not you see the Prince of Conde lying dead 
in that grass f " Next day, when Mans, de Losses brought the 
account of the battle of Jarnac, anxious to inform the Queen of 
the happy event, he caused her to be awakened to hear the news ; 
when she heard them she complained that her sleep had been 
unnecessarily disturbed, as she knew it all very well. 

When we find a physician of eminence describing, amongst 
the natural symptoms of disease, that abstraction of the 
soul from the body and foreknowledge of future events which 
we suppose to be conferred upon beings of a superior order, 
we cannot doubt that the immortality of the soul was then 
an established article of faith ; for not tiie least appearance 
of hesitation is manifested by the author, when he tells us that 
the living powers being totally exhausted, the soul sees those 
spirits wilh whom it is about to associate, " millions of whom," 
our great poet informs us, *' walk the earth, unseen, both when 
we Wrtke and when we sleep," The expression which Aretaeus 

62 On the Ancient British 

uses fisTuKKay^ toii ^'tou is not adequately rendered by migratio 
de vita, or departure from this life : it strictly implies a c/?a?/ge 
of the manner of life ; and as, according to the Philosophy of 
Ancient Greece, the soul was held to be an emanation from the 
Deity _, it was consequently believed indestructible ni its nature. 



No. \l .—[Continued from No. XL, p. 270,] 


After having examined, in my last letter, the different 'vays, in 
which words are disguised, I may be permitted in this to proceed 
with some remarks more immediately connected with the Cornish 
dialect. Tlie iirst suggestion however that occurs, is how far re- 
searches into a subject of liie kind may be attended with some 
utility.' It is indeed true, that Cornish is not of that importance 
which attaches to the ancient and modern tongues, that may be 
called classical. I understand by the term, those whose standard 
has been fixed, and liave now hecome valuable by the productions 
of eminent writers. As these characteristics certainly do not be- 

' Dr. Borlase thus expresses himself in the Preface to his Cornish 
Vocabulary: "In tiie present language of my countrymen, there are 
many words, which are neither English, nor derived from the learned 
languages, and therefore thought improprieties by strangers, and ridi- 
culed as if they had no meaning; hut they are indeed tiie remnants of 
their ancient language, esteemed equal in purity and age to any lan- 
guage in Europe. 

"The technical names belonging to the arts of mining, husbandry, 
fishing and building, are all in Cornish, and much oftener used, than the 
English terms for the same things. Tlie names of houses and manors, 
promontorie?, lake*, rivers, mountains, towns and castles in Cornwall, 
especially in the Western parts, are all in the ancient Cornish. Many 
families retain still their Cornish names. To those, therefore, that are 
earnest to know the meaning of what they hear and see every day, 
I cannot but think that the present Vocabulary, imperfect as it is, (and as 
all Vocabularies, perhaps are at first,) will be of some satisfaction." 

(Antiquities of Cornwall, p. 375.) 

Language of Conmall. 63 

Ions: to the Cornish, it can be interesting only as an object of an- 
tiquarian and etymological research. These are, however, point* 
of the highest consequence to the philosophical inquirer into the 
origin, and the history of nations, and sometimes they are the only 
confirmation that we can obtain of our conjectures respecting the 
state of former days. For instance the etymology of the Cornish, 
as having been derived from several foreign tongues, remarkably 
confirms the truth of history concerning the several nations who 
have at any time either traded or settled in the west. The marks 
which they have left on the language attest the truth of historv. 
It is owing to this mixture of foreign idioms, that the Cornish has 
so much less of an original cast, tlian the other British dialects. 
An acquaintance with Cornish remains, may also be singularly 
useful in the study of antiquities, especially of such as are con- 
nected with the ancient Britons. It must, however, be acknow- 
ledged, that a great part of the interest it excites, is of a local 
nature ; but I apprehend that this objection also applies to every 
other tongue, that lias never enjoyed any extensive circulation. 
It cannot fail to be important, as connected with general literature, 
to add to its accumulated stores, by preventing any particular 
dialect from sinking into oblivion, and to exhibit its excellencies 
and defects. If attempts to preserve the aboriginal languages of 
America and the Southern Islands, are commendable, how much 
more so must be the endeavour to form an acquaintance with the 
scattered fragments of tiie speech of their ancestors ! 

The most striking utility of Cornish to general readers, is the 
helps which it alfords in explaining the local names of men and 
things. There is no part of the world where the proper names 
are so entirely original as in Cornwall ; and there is in them an 
extraordinary variety, which is occasioned by the particularly di- 
versified scenery of the county. As to English local names in 
Cornwall, they are but few, and even those are evidently of mo- 
dern date. To a stranger travelling there, and indeed to almost all 
the natives, those Cornish words are as entirely destitute of mean- 
ing, as if they were Sanscrit. It is not perhaps generally proper 
to learn the language of any country, merely for the sake of under- 
standing the nomenclature of its topography ; but to natives and 
residents, an acquaintance with it to a certain degree, 'is desirable. 
It enables one at once to guess at the locality of any place, and on 
looking over a map, to determine the face of the country from tlie 
names ; and even where the inferior objects of buildings, woods, 
mines, and enclosures have vanished, wc are enabled to assign 
them their former positions, without the assistance of history, or 
even of tradition. A Cornishman, unacquainted with these severs! 
terms, is in fact to be compared to one, who is a stranger in the 
land of his ancestors ; and while he mentions any particular spots, 

64 On the AncieuL British 

it must continually appear to him as if he had succeeded to an 
unknown race of men, and was expressing the sounds of a dead 
and barbarous tongue. 

I have had occasion to mention in several of my former letters, 
that the Cornish is not guttural, and that it is much more harmo- 
nious than any of the other British dialects. It is indeed so far 
from being disagreeable, that if it had been cultivated by a polished 
people, it would have been particularly smooth and elegant. It 
lias none of that frequent concourse of consonants, which so much 
disfigures some of the modern languages ; and I have no doubt 
that a foreigner would tind it much easier to articulate -any given 
number of Cornish than English words. 

The Cornish derives a particular advantage from the expressive- 
xjess of its proper names ; as indeed it is singular that there are 
few or no places in Cornwall, whose names are not connected with 
some local circumstance. And yet could this have been the nomen- 
clature of a barbarous people? Their accuracy in this respect forms 
a striking contrast with the fanciful, unmeaning, and sometimes 
ridiculous appellatives of modern discoveries. 'J'he Cornish ought 
to be a pattern to our modern navigators. Valveuna, the old 
tnoor ; Hendra,' the old town; Handue, God's enclosure, or the 
church-yard; Mesnio], the holed atone ; Portreath, the sandy cove ; 
Tregoose, the wood farm ; Trenance, the village in the valley; 
these are a few from some hundred proper names, and which are 
all equally expressive. 

After so many revolutions, religious as well as political, it is 
really surprising that those names have not only been retained, 
but that they have been so little altered. Conquerors and new 
settlers, and even the descendants of the natives, in general either 
adopt new, or so corrupt the old names, that they can be no longer 
recognised. This happened in the nomenclature of Europe after 
the subversion of the Roman Empire, as the like has more recently 
taken place in the European colonies in the two hemispheres, in 
ihe almost unaccountable omission or perversion of native names. 
But the Cornish appellations of the hills and vallies still remain to 
•attest the abode of former generations, and by these faint but lasting 
memorials, they remind their posterity, that the country is still 
the same, and that they inhabit the very spots, which were the 
scenes of the residence and of the pursuits of their forefathers. 

A few Cornish names, liowever, seem to have given way to 
modern ones, especially in those of parishes, as in St. Ives, 

' There are exceptions when the substantive is not placed before the 
adjective, as in this Hendra, from Henn, old, and Tre, a town, or rather 
village; or in Camelford, from Cam, crooked, Hel, a river, and Ford, a 

Language of Cornwall. 6'5 

Sf. IVIavvos, and St. Just ; but even these are very ancient, as they 
must he referred to that remote period, when Christianity was first 
introduced, and the Cornish, from religious veneratiou, gave the 
names of their Saints to the new division into parishes. The words 
have also been very difierently pronounced at diflerent periods, 
an<l this has occasioned some of that diversity in tlie orthography, 
which I have already noticed ; and there is also a disposition to 
Anglicise Cornish names, whenever they bear any resemblance to 
English ones,' as in Port Isaab, The Lizard, Pendennis, and Brown 
Willy, instead of Porihiz-ick, The village of corn creek; Laz- 
herd, The projecting land ; Pcn-dinas, The hill of fortification ; 
and Brae-an-wellon, The hill of high crags. 

The Cornish abounds in compound words, as may be seen in the 
different names of places. They are generally formed of two words, 
and, occasionally, of three ; but they consist of only from two to four 
syllables. Thus we have Chyprase, the house in the meadow; Clow- 
ance, the valley of echoes ; Tre-mabe, the boys^ village ; Killi-grew, 
the eagles' grove; Lan-hadron, the thieves' valley ; Pte-sugga, the 
moist valley ; Killi-gorrick, Megrore on theicater-side; Pen-callinick, 
the hill of thk holly trees ; and Menadowa, the rocky place by the 
tcater. Some are contracted into a monosyllable, as Choone for 
Chy'-un, digammated from Chy-goon, the house on the common ; 
and some of three syllables are made into two, as Kill-ock, from 
Killy-oke, the oak grove. Few languages could express so much 
within so small a compass, or with so much smoothness. Among 
the compounds of three words are the following : Cois-pcn-hayle, 
the wood at the river's head; Hel-men-tor, a rocky hill on the 
moor ; Pen-hal-veor, the head of the great moor ; Tre-pust-ick, 
the wooded house by the brook; Tre-men-hir, the long stone village ; 
Tin-tag-el, the good fortification on the moor. 

I observed in my last letter, how very often Cornish words are 
digammated. This was done chiefly to avoid any collision or 
harshness of sounds, and for that reason consonants were removed, 
and the vowels coalesced, as we have just seen in Ciioone, from 
Chy-'un and Chy-glin ; and again, Ar-allas, upon the cliff, and 
Ar-owan, on the rivulet, are put instead of H ar-allas and W^ar- 
owan ; w hile Bus-var-gus, the house on the top of the wood, and 
Clow'ance, are put instead of Bus-it'ar-gus, and Clow-wance. In 
short, it seems to have been the genius of the language to soften 
all asperities, and at the same time to retain its manly character by 
not admitting an unnecessary concourse of vowels. By not remov- 
ing the superfluous consonants, how very disagreeable would be 

■ 1 recollect being once called up very early, hy a new servant, a native 
of I'lymouth, as Tom Gcnys waiited me; but on coming down, I was sur- 
prised to find, that I had been sent for to the village of Tremagenna. 


€6 On the Ancient British 

the corresponding English compounfls, Meadhouse, Thitves' Fak, 
Wood/arm, Wood-top moor, Moorstone hill, &c. This harshness 
is owing to our retaining all the consonants in our composition, 
and which makes it almost impossible to compound words in many 
cases, especially when they are monosyllables. 

The Greeks, like the Cornish, softened their compounds by drop- 
ping certain letters, as in loTrXoKafios, 'nnroba/jos, \Lyv<pd6yyns, and 
TTobaptcrjs. The disadvantage of Greek compounds, however, is, 
that the words become of an immoderate length, and occupy 
nearly as much room as if they had been expressed in a separate 

The Cornish is free from this defect, as the greater part of its 
compounds are only of two, and a few are at the most of three 
syllables. It is thus that it combines the advantages of the Greek 
and the English compounds, without incurring the length of the 
former, or the harshness of tlie latter. Contrary to the Greeks, 
whose compounds consist of only two words, the Cornish have 
sometimes three, and yet they neither lengthen the word too much, 
nor render it disagreeable, as in Bud-och-vean, the little oak haven; 
Tre-van-nance, the village in the great valley, &c. 

The Cornish compounds are mostly formed of two monosyllables, 
which are occasionally softened, as has been said before, by the 
removal of the redundant letters, as in Clowance, &c., while others 
again are connected by the particles a, an, u, and i/, or by ar, bar, 
gan, vor, or ivar.^ All these occur in, Menadowa, the rocky place 
by the water ; Chy-an-dour, the house on the waterside; Chy-'n- 
hale, the house in the moor ; Lau-y-un, the church on the downs ; 
Ar-allas, upon the cliff; Chi-bar-bes, the house on the high green; 
Chi-vor-lo, the hoiite by the great pool; Tre-gan-horn, the iron 
house; and Ty-war-'n-hai!e, the house on the moor. Sometimes al- 
so letters are added for euphony, as Guste-\'or, for Gus-vor, a large 
wood ; aod Lanf-eglos, for Lan-eidos, the inclosed church. This use 
of the t lo harmonize sounds is the same as in the French ya-f-ill* 

Greek proper names are often nothing more than possessives, as 
in 'A\ictpTcs, \ii)pa'dos, WrcXeov, the synonyms to which are render- 
ed in Cornish by two words, as Mor-va, a place by the sea ; Tre- 
melzy, the honey farm ; and Ellen-glaze, green elms. The Cor- 
nish compounds sometimes consist of a substantive and an adjec- 
tive; but more conmionly of two substantives, with or without a 
coniyecting particle. This is owing to the paucity of Cornish ad- 
jectives, as Nan-killy, Carn-glaz, Pen-trivel, and Tre-vor-der; all 
of which, if in Latin, would be thus expressed, J^allis tiemorosa, 

^ To these may be added, ga, gor, hurlha, and warthu, as in Trega- 
niinion, i/ie house of stones; Tregorricli, the house by the brook; Trebartha 
and Trcwartha, the upper house. 

^ Is not the original termination of the verb in this instance retained, 
rather than a letter arbitrarily inserted for Euphony ? Ed. 

Language of Cornwall. 67 

Rapes vlridis, Caput equinum, and Domus palustris. This is the 
same idiom as that which so frequently occurs in Hebrew, and 
irom the same cause, and which Grammarians call the regimen, as 
V3/1 Y">i^. « delightsome land, (Mai. iii, ^2.) ')'iy}lJ '121, It/ing, 
(Prov. xiii, 5.) QillO -H?")^' " good blessing, (Prov. xxiv, 25.) 

Several lists have been made of the Cornish proper names, some 
of which have received difierent meanin;[:;s; but this is not surpris- 
ing, when we reflect, that when the translator has been at a loss, 
he may have conjectured at a meaning from actual localities; and 
on the other hand, it is well known how difficult it is to trace a 
multiplicity of proper names, in a language of which only a few 
scattered fragments remain, and which is now totally extinct. 
Many of those appellatives also can undoubtedly bear different 
significations, yet with all these disadvantages, I apprehend that it 
would be less arduous to interpret any j>iven Cornish nomenclature, 
than that of the Greek places in the second Book of the liiad. 

Such then seem to have been some of the excellencies by which 
the Cornish language was distinguished, even in the rude and im- 
perfect state of the people by whom it was spoken. It is then evi- 
dent that it would have been susceptible of a high degree of culti- 
vation, and might possibly have even surpassed many of those 
tongues, which, at different periods, have been the vehicles of use- 
ful science and elegant literature, and afforded the means of com- 
munication between numerous assemblages of men. But it is v/ith 
languages, as it is with individuals; it is not always those who ori- 
ginally had the best pretensions, who are advanced to eminence 
and fame. The language of a large and powerful population be- 
comes an object of attention, and in the course of ages it is pro- 
gressively improved, till it receives the highest degree of perfection, 
which, in its nature, it can admit. But the dialect of a small and 
insulated race, is deprived of those external supports ; and w hat- 
ever may be its original merits, it is left to itself, till it decays un- 
known and unregretted, and is finally merged and lost in its more 
powerful neighbours. The Cornish was the least unmixed of the 
British dialects; but it was at the same time the most harmonious 
and the most improveable. It is indeed to be lamented, that after 
so many ages, and the convulsions of so many political storms, none 
of these dialects shoidd have become the tongue of some great Euro- 
pean nation. I cannot also but express my regret that the one which 
I hare now been endeavouring to elucidate in these letters, should 
have been that which has been the first extinct, which has been the 
least cultivated, which has been spoken by the smallest tribe, which 
the fewest attempts have been made to preserve, and which, but for 
a few philological antiquarians, would have entirely sunk into oblir 
vion. Z>w 


List of the principol Books of the Duke of Marlborough's 
Collection at White Knights, sold bj/ Mr. Evans, Fall 
Mall, in June, 1819. With prices and purchasers. 

Part II. [Continued from No. XL. p. 394.] 


Octavo et Infra. 

Brumoy Theatre des Grecs, 13 vols. Papier Velin, gravures avant 
la lettre, red morocco, by Derome. Par. 1783. 10/. Payne. 

Burnet's History of his own Time, 4 vols, large paper, elegantly 
bound in green morocco. 1800. 15/. I5s. Lo7'd Yarmouth. 

Carmina Quadragesinialia ab iEdis Christi Alumnis composita, 
2 vols, green morocco. Oxon. 1723. ll. I3s. Ward. 

Brant Stultifera Navis, first edition, wood cuts, red morocco. 
Basil, Bergman do Olpe, 14.97- ll- 13s. Triphook. 

• Navis Stultifera a Badio illustrata, wood cuts, red morocco, 

with joints, per Nicol, Lamperter, 1406 (sic) 2/. 10s. Triphook. 

Stultifera Navis, wood cuts, red morocco. Parisiis, sine 

anno. ol. Triphook. 
Brant Carmina in Memorabiles Evangelistarum Figuras, red mo- 
rocco. 1502. 2/. 10s. Triphook. 
Bryant's New System of Ancient Mythology, 3 vols, fine impres- 
sions, with the plate of Cupid and Psyche, by Bartolozzi, and a 
duplicate inserted by Sherwin, red morocco, with joints. 1775. 
8/. 18s. Gd. Payne. 

Boccaccio il Decamerone, (Venezia) j>er Christofal Valdarfer di 
Ratispona, mcccclxxi. J)18/. 15s. Longman.^ 

Notwithstanding the publicity of the extraordinary sum which 
this Book produced at the Roxburghe Sale, all researches through- 
out E\nope to procure another copy have proved entirely fruit- 
less. This Volume still continues to be the only known Perfect 
Copy of this Edition, and is, in all probability, the only copy 
which will ever be offered for public sale. Its unparalleled 
rarity, however, is not its only recommendalion, as it contains 
many important Readings which have not been followed in any 
subsequent Edition. 

* This celebrated Book, for which the Duke had given 2260/., is now 
in the rare and sjilcndid collection of Lord Spencer. 

Bihliography, 69 

Boccaccius de Montibus, Sylvis, &c. first edition, fine copy, red 

morocco, with joints. Venet. Viudelin de Spira. 1473. 4/. is. 

Boetius. The Boke of Consolation of Philosophie. Attc reqneste 

of a singular frend and gossib of niyne, I, William Caxton, 

have done my debuoir and payne tenprynte it. Imperfect, 

bound in russia, without date. 22/. 11*. 6d. Triphook. 
Bretaigne, les Grandes Croniques de, black letter. Paris, Galliot 

du Pre, 1514. 4/. 14*. 6'rf. Boolh. 
Brusonii Facetiarum Libri Septem. Original and only complete 

Edition, all others being castrated, blue morocco. Roma?, per 

Mazochiuni, 1518. 27 1. 10*. Longman. 
Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, with a plate representing jNIelan- 

choly, by Albert Durer, and a copy from it inserted, fine copy. 

Oxford. l632. U. l6s. Jarvis. 


Octavo et Infra. 

Catherine Quene of Englande's Prayers or Meditacions, wherein the 
mind is stirred pacientiy to suft're all afflictions here, Sec. black 
letter, first edition, red morocco, T. Berthelelte. 1545. 3/. 7«. 

Ciceronis Opera Omnia, 10 vols, very fine copy, red morocco. 
Elzevir, 1642. 61. Lepard. 

, ex recensione Ernesti, 8 vols. Halie Sax. 

1774. 31. 10*. Hayes. 

Cicero de Philosophia, Pars Prima, large paper, russia, rare, Aldus, 
1541. 61. 15*. Appleyard. 

Clarendon's History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars of England, 
6 vols, large paper, elegantly bound in blue morocco, with 
joints. Oxford, 1807. 21/. Newton. 

Condones et Orationes ex Historicis Latinis excerpta^ blue mo- 
rocco. Amst. Elzev. l652. 1/. 3*. Hibbert. 

Alia edilio, green morocco, with joints, uncut. Amst. Elzev. 
1662. 1/. 10*. Payne. 

Alia editio, blue morocco, with joints, uncut. Amst. Elzev. 1072. 
41. 1 9s. Hibbert. 

Confession of the true and Christian Fayth, according to GJod's 
Word and Actes of Parliament, holden at Edenburghe, the 2Sth 
of Januarie, 1581, being the 14th yere of the King's (James VI.) 
reigne, black letter, blue morocco, rare. Loud, by R. Walde- 
grave. 51. 5s. Longman. 

Casas, Brevissinia Relacion de la Destruycion de las Indias : cole- 
gida por el Obispo don Fray Bartolome de las Casas, o Casaus, 
de la Ordcn de Santo Domingo, 1552. Trcyuta Proposiciones 

70 Bibliography. 

niuy Juridicas, 1552. Una Disputa entre el Obispo, Barlolome 
de las Casas y el Dotor Gines de Sepulveda, 1552, fine copy, 
russia, rare. 7 1- Longman. 

Catecliisnie, That is to say, aiie commone and catholick instruc-- 
tioun of the Christin people in niateris of our catholick faith and 
Religioun: set furth by John, Archbischop of Sanct Androus, at 
Edinburgh, the 25 Day of Januarie, the zeir of our Lord, 1551, 
black letter, fine copy, blue morocco, rare. Prentit at sanct 
Au'lrous, 1553. 35/. lU. Heher. 

Catherinse Senensis Vita ac Miracula selectiora forniis aineis ex- 
pressa, very fine impressions. Antv. apud Fhilippum Galium, 
1603. 4/. 4.S. llibhert. 

Catzii Erableniata varia, blue morocco, Rott. 1627- 2/. 5s. 

Caylus Recueil d'Antiquites Egyptiennes, Etrusques, Grecques, et 
Romaines, 7 vols, very fine copy, red morocco. Par. 1752. 
18/. 5s. Triphook. 

Centeno, Historia de Cosas del Oriente, russia, scarce. Cordova, 
1595. 9l.2s.6d. Payne. 

Cervantes' Don Quixote, by Jarvis, 2 vols, with very fine impres- 
sions of Hogarth's, Vandergucht's, Hayman's, Coypell's, and 
the plates from the Madrid edition inserted, green morocco, 
with joints, 1742. 22/. 1*. Jarvis. 

CJiarlemaigne. Chronique de Charlemaignc des douze Pairs de 
France et de Fierabras, black letter, wood cuts, very rare, im- 
perfect at the beginning. Lyon, 1486\ 3/. I85. Utterson. 

Charlemaigne, la Conqueste du Grant roy Charlemaignc des 
Espaignes, Et les vaillances des douze pers de France. Et 
aussi cedes de Fierabras, black letter, wood cuts. Lyon, 1501, 9/. 

Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, with Notes and a Glossary, by Tyr- 
whitt, 2 vols, large paptr, with Mortimer's plates inserted, 
russia. Oxf. 1798. 4/. 14*. CatUey. 

. Plough-man's Tale, with a short exposition of the words 

and matters. Lond. by Machara, 1()06'. 4/. lOs. Triphook. 


Cathon. The Booke called Cathon, translated oute of Frensshe in 
to Englyssiie, by William Caxton ; wauling signature e, russia. 
Caxton. 1483. 22/. 1*. Triphook. 

Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles, wood cuts, black letter, red morocco, 
Paris, A, Verard, sans date, 9/. 9s. Triphook. 

Chastysing of Goddes Chyldren. The Prouffytable Boke for 
mannes soule, and right condortable to the body, and specyally 
in aduersitee and tribulacyon, Caxton, without date, "^rhe Tre- 
tyse of the Love of Jhesu Christ, VVynken de Worde, without 
date, 2 vols, in 1, fine copies of two books of very great rarity. 
32/. lis. Lord Aylesford. 

BihUographij. ^\ 

Chaucer's Troylus and Cresivle, fine copy, russia, wauls one. leaf, 
signature p. I. from the Towneley Collection, very rare, expli- 
cit per Caxtoii, sine anno. 16"2/. Ij*. Triphook. 

Chauncy's Historical Anticjuitics of Hertfordshire, fine copy, red 
morocco, with all the plates. I7OO. 26/. 5s. Rodd. 

Chesse. The Game and Playe of the Chesse, translated out of 
the Frenche, and enipryntcd by Caxtou. 1474. 42/. Payne. 

This is one of the rarest productions of Caxton's Press, and 
reputed to he the first book printed in England. Fuie copy, 
Venetian morocco, but the last leaf is supplied by MS. and the 
leaf of the table wantini^. 

Chronica del muyesclariscido Principe yReydon Alfonso el Onzeuo, 
very rare, blue morocco. Valladolid, 1551. 20/. Arch. 


Octavo et Infra. 

Coverdale (Myles) The Olde Fayth, an evydent probation out of 
the Holy Scripture, that the Christen Fayth (which is the right 
true olde and unfounded faith) hath endured sens the begynnynge 
of the worlde, black letter, very fine copy, blue morocco, rare. 
1541. 2/. 15s. Cochrane. 

Crannier's Catechismus, that is to say, a short Instruction into^ 
Christian Religion, for the synguler commoditie and profyte of 
children and yong people, black letter, fine copy, portrait in- 
serted, blue morocco, rare. Gualterus Lyune excudebat. 1548. 
4/. 18s. Hutton. 

Cromwell, Court and Kitchen of Elizabeth, commonly called Joan 
Cromwell, portrait, blue morocco. 1664. 2/. 18*. Higgs. 


Christi Vita, The Lyfe of our Lord Jhesu Chryste after Bonaven- 
ture, black letter, wood cuts, blue morocco, very rare. Wynkyu 
de Worde, 1517. 8/. Longman. 

Christ, La Vie de Notre Seigneur Jesus Christ, suivie de plusieurs 
Prieres, Manuscrit sur velin du commencement du quinzieme 
Siecle, avec vingl-cinq miniatures Ir^s curieuses. 8/. 15s. 

Christofol, Varios Versos per Honrrar de Sant Christofol, contain- 
ing a series of Prize Poems in praise of Saint Christopher in the 
Valencian Dialect, very rare. Valencia per Peretringer, 1498. 
29/. 10s. Triphook. 

Churchyarde's (Thomas) Works, collected in two volumes, morocco, 
of uncommon rarity, from the Roxburghe Collection. 1560. 
^jl. Is. Triphook. 

Ciceronis Opera omnia, Oliveti, 9 vols. Geneva, 17^8. 10/. 5s. 

7- BibUogj\iphi/. 

Cionto Xuvolle Antikc. i^Le^ original edition, very fii'^ copy, ^recn 
morocco, rare, from the Ro\buri;lie Collection, liologn.i, Girol. 
UenedeHi, 13:."i. 11/. 14*-. Triph'wk. 
Cockes luid Cock riiiliiiii<:. The Commomhitioii of", wherein is 
sliewed, that Cocke-lightiiis; was belore the conimiiin of Christ, 
by George Wilson, black letter, russia, rare. K. Tomes, l607. 
8/. S>\ Lotis:))itin. 
Cooper's Chronicle, black letter, fine eoj>y, red morocco, lod."). 

•1/. Booth. 

Copland s live Way to the Spyttel Hous, in verse, bhick letter, 

morocco, extremely rare. Lond. R. Copland, no date. 13/. Ijs. 


Cornazani i^Antoiiii'^, quod de proverbiorum origine inscribitur: 

opus nunquam alias impressum, iVc. tine copy, bounil in russia, 

by Roger Payne, very rare. Mediolani, 1303. 4/. \ls. Hare. 

Coryats Cram be, or his CoUvort twise sodden, very fine copy, red 

morocco, loll. 3/. lOs. Hare. 
Coriat ^Mr. Thomas^ to his Friends in England sendeth greeting 
from .\gra, the Capitall of the Great Mogul, red morocco. 1018. 
61. 6s. Triphook. 
Cracovia ;^MatthxM de") tractalus Rationis et Conscientia? de sump- 
oione pabuli Corporis N. Jesu Christi, a very early edition, in 
characters resembling those of the Catholicon of 1400, attri- 
buted to Guttcmberg, a beautiful copy, uncut, elegantly bound 
in Venetian morocco, by Roger Payne, very rare. 6/. 6s. 

Chronycles of Englonde, with the Description of Britain, black 
letter, red morocco, from the Roxburghe Collection, very rare. 
Lond. Julian Notary, 131o. 307. 14s. Higgs. 
Cicero. The Boke of Tulle of Old Age and Friendship, russia. 
Emprinted by me, symple persone, William Caxton, 14S1. 
SJi. 3s. Triphook. 

A remarkably beautiful copy of one of the best specimens of 
Caxton"s Press. From the Merly Library. 
Cirongilio. Los quatro libros del Valeroso Cavallero Don Ciran- 
gilio de Tracia, por Bernardo de Vargas, very tine copy, red 
morocco, extremely nire, from Col. Stanley's Library. Se villa, 
1543. :i.>/. ICi'. Triphook. 
Compost et Kalendrier des Bergiers, wood cuts, black letter, Par, 

Guy Marchaut, 1300. 3/. 3s. Hiblnrt. 
Dauiell's Oriental Scenery, containing one hundred and thirty-two 
most exquisitely beautiful coloured views, on a grand scale, 
faithfully representing the Edifices, Antiquities, Ruins, Mausolea, 
Hill Forts, Landscapes, circ. of Hindostan, and the Hindoo Ex- 
cavations at EUora, in 6 vols. Atlas folio. 1795, c*v.c, 6S/. 5s. 

Bibliography. 73 

This is the finest work ever published upon India. The views 
are all coloured, so as to resemble the finest Drawings. 

This copy wants the twelve first Plates of the Second Series. 

Denou, Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte, 2 vols, plates, 

splendidly bound in blue morocco, with joints. Par. 1802. 

14/. 14s. Johnston. 

D'Ohsson (Mouradja) Tableau general de I'Empire Othoman, 2 vols. 

plates, elegantly bound in russia, Par. 1787-90. lo/. Arnould. 


Octavo et Infra. 

Dialogue or Familiar talke betwene two neighbours concernyng 
the chyefest ceremonyes that were by the mighti power of God's 
most holie pure Worde, suppressed in Englande, and now for 
our unworthines, set up agayne by the Bishoppes, the inipes of 
Antichrist, blue morocco, rare. From Roane, by Michael 
Wodde, 1j54. ll.Ws.fSd. Rodd. 

Donne's Poems, with portrait by Marshall inserted, uncut, red 
morocco, with joints. Tonson, I719. 4/. 10*. Rodd. 

Drunimond of Hawthornden's Poems. This copy has both the 
title pages, with portrait by Gaywood, bound in russia by Roger 
Payne, rare. 1(5j6\ 3/. 5s. Jervis. 

Eicon Basalice, The Pourtraicture of his Sacred Majesty in his 
Solitudes, frontispiece by Marshall, blue morocco, with the royal 
cipher on the sides. 1649. \l. 3s. Seipnour. 

Elder, John. Copie of a Letter sent into Scotlande, of the Arrival!, 
and Landynge, and Marryage of the Prince of Spain to Queue 
Mary, black letter, rare. J. Wayland, (1555.) 67. l6s. 6d. 
Trip hook. 

Emblemes Divers, Recueil de, 100 Emblems painted upon vellum 
with great spirit and delicacy of execution, bound in red mo- 
rocco. 5l. 1 5s. Payne. 

Emblemata Amores Moresque spectantia, Hollandice, Gallice, et 
Anglic^, 52 plates, sine nota. 2/. 19s. Clarke. 


Cromwell, Irenodia Gratulatoria Oliveri Cromwelli, dedicatum 
Domino Prtesidi Bradshawo, ca^terisque Coiicilii Statu-Consultis, 
&c. a Payne Fisher. Two Portraits of Cromwell, one on horse- 
back, by Fiiitliornc, the other, a Page putting on his sash, by 
Trevilliau. With an Account of the Family of Cromwell in MS. 
by Richard Veruey, blue morocco, rare. Londini, l(i52. 3l. 

Damasceuus. Liber Gestarum Barlaam et Josaphat servonun 
Dei, greco sermone editus a Johanne Damasceiio, editio antiqua, 
red morocco, sine uUa uota. 5l. \5s. 6d. Triphook. 

74 Bibliography. 

Daryiis. A pretie new Enterludc, bo!h Pitbie and Pleasaunt, of 
the Storye of King Daryus, black letter, red morocco, very rare. 
London, by T. Colwell, 1565. IS/. 7s. 6d. Jervis. 

De Bry (Tbeodori) Einbleniata Nobilitati et vulgo scitu Digna- 
Singulis Historiis Symbola adscripta et elegantes versus Histo- 
riam explicantes, 2 vols, fine impressions, red morocco. Francof. 
1593. 191. 85. 6d. Payne. 

Decor Puellarum. Questa sie una opera la quale si chiama Decor 
Puellaruni : Zoe honore delle Donzelle. Jenson, 146"! (sio-). 
Luctus Christianoruni. Quesfa e una opera la quale se chiama, 
Luctus Cliristianorum ex passione Christi, &c. Jenson, 1471. 
Palma Virlutum zioe Triumpho de Virtude, Jenson, 1471. 
Gloria Mulierum. Qui comenza el proernio del ben viver de le 
done Maridade, Jenson, (circa 1471). Parole Devote de I'Anima 
inamorata in Misser Jesu, Jenson, 1471. Five Tracts of the 
greatest naity. In very fine condition, bound in one volume iii 
russia. 39Z. 18s. Appleyard. 

Dialoges of Creatures Moralysed, of late translated out of Latyn 
into our Englisshe tonge, wood cuts, black letter, red morocco, 
rare. 15/. Triphook. 

They be to sell upon Powly's Churche Yarde, no date. 

Dolce, 11 Palmerino, fine copy, red morocco. Venet. Sesso, 156l. 
31. 15s. Triphook. 


Doomsday Book, 2 vols, russia. 5/. 10s. Newlund. 

Durerus (Albert us) De Geometria et Symmetria, cuts, Thuanus's 
Copy, in yellow morocco. Par. 1535. 3/. 19*. Payne. 

Dyalogus Creaiurarum optime Moralizatus Jocundis Fabulis plenus, 
wood cuts, first edition, very fine copy, red morocco. Gouda; 
per Gerardum Leeu, 1480. 10/. Clarke. 

Fmblesmes et Devises Chrestiennes et Morales, consisting of thirty 
Drawings in pen and ink, with MS. explanations in French, blue 
morocco, ol. 2s. 6d. Payne. 

Rsplandian, Las Sergas de Esplandian Hijo Legitimo de Araadis 
de Gaula, yellow morocco, very rare. Alcala, 1588. 11/. II*. 

" Esplandian was written by Ordonez de Montalvo, the ori- 
ginal editor of the four first books of Amadis of Gaul, in 
Spanisli, and intended to form the fifth book of that celebrated 
romance. Esplandian was in Don Quixote's Librarv," — Stan- 
ley Cat. 

Evangelia Quatuor, Latin^. A manuscript upon vellum, which 
appears by the inilial letters, <!v:c. to have been written about 
the loth century. The figures intended to represent the four 
Evangelists are drawn in the most grotesque and ludicrous style 

Bibliographij. 75 

imaginable, and are evidently of very great antiquity. From 
the Monastery of Como, hound in purple velvet. 7l. 7s. Booth. 
Everdingen's Original Spirited Drawings for the History of Reynard 
tlie Fox, with a Proof Set of the Etchings, carefully mounted on 
drawing paper, and bound in 2 vols, in russia. 85/. Is. Hibbert. 


Octavo et Infra. 
Euripidis Tragoedia; Septemdecim, first edition, red morocco. 

Venet. Aldi, 1503. 4/. 14*. 6d. Lepard. 
Fabliaux et Contes, &c. Nouvelle Edition, par Meon, 4 vols, grand 

j)apier de Hollande, proof plates, russia, gilt leaves. Par. 1808. 

5/. OS. Warder. 


Dysputacyon, or Complaint of the Herte thorughe perced with 
the lokyiige of the eye, tine copy, morocco, very rare. Inprynted 
at London by Wynkyn de Worde, without date. 34/. 13s. 

Edward. The Lyfe of Saynt Edwarde Confessour and Kynge of 
Englande, black letter, splendidly bound in red morocco, with 
joints, extremely rare. Wynkyn de Worde, 1533. 13s. 13s. 

Edward Vf. Certayne Sermons or Homilies appointed by the 
Kinge's Majestic to be declared and redde every Sonday, black 
letter, red morocco, scarce. Loud. Whitchurche, 1547. 2/. Is. 

Edyth. XH. Merry Jests of the Wyddow Edyth, in Verse, black 
letter, very rare. ' Rich. Johiies, 1573. 22/. Is. Triphook. 

Egeria. The Adventures of Lady Egeria, her miserable Banish- 
ment by Duke Lampanus her Husbande, &c. by W. C. scarce. 
Lond. R. Walde-grave, K)/. bs. Heber. 

Emblematum Philomela; Thilonia; Epidigma, Verses and Emblems 
on the Family of Thilo, with an engraved title, and very fine 
impressions of the plates, green morocco, with joints. Typis 
Ligiis Sartorianis, l603. 7/. 7s. Payne. 

Emblemata Selectiora, Typis Elegantissimis expressa, blue mo- 
rocco, with joints. Am'st. 1704. 1/. 19s. Payne. 

Englysshe and Frensshe. Here begynueth a lytell Treatyse for to 
lerne Englysshe and Frensshe, black letter, very rare and curious. 
Wynkyn de Worde, no date. 9/- 15s. Rodd. 

Epistles and Gospells, with a brief Postil upon the same from after 
Easter till Advent, black letter, blue morocco, very rare. 
Richarde Bankes, 1540. 4/. Cochrane. 

Erasme les Louenges de Folic, black letter, wood cuts, very fine 
copy, yellow morocco. Paris, Galliot du Pre, 1520. 5/. 12s. 6t/. 

76 B^ihliography. 

Espee, Icy comraenche ung tres beau Livre, contenant la Chevale- 
reuse Science des Joueurs d'Espee, black letter, numerous very 
curious wood cuts, blue morocco, excessively rare. Anvers, par 
Guillaume Vorsterman, 1538. 5/. 5s. Payne. 

Exhornatorium Curatorum for the Cure of Soules, black letter, 
consisting of l6 leaves, not mentioned in the last edition of 
Ames, red morocco, very rare. Julian Notary, 1519. 8/. 

Evelyn's Silva ; or. Discourse on Forest Trees, with Notes by Hunter, 
2 vols, in 1, plates, russia. York, 1776. 71. Sir C. Blunt. 


Fayttes of Armes. Here begynneth the Book of Fayttes of Amies, 
and of Chyvalrie, splendidly bound in Venetian moiocco, with 

morocco lining. |)er Caxton, (1489). 44/. 2«. Longman. 
A very fine specimen from Caxton's press. 
Ferrarii Hesperides, sive de Malorum Aureorum cultura et usu, 

yellow morocco, ruled. Romse, 1646. 2/. 6s. Triphook. 
Fier a Bras. Le Roman de Fier a Bras, le Geant, first edition, 

fine copy, morocco, from the Roxburghe Collection, extremely 

rare. Geneve, 1478. 29Z. 18s. 6(1. Triphook. 
Florando. La Coronica del Valiente y Efibryado Principe Don 

Florando d'Inglatierra hijo del Principe Paladiano, wood cuts, 

blue morocco, very fine copy, extremely rare. Lisbona, 1545. 

26/. 15s. 6d. Triphook. 
Fontaine, les Fables de la, avec figures par Oudry, 4 vols, large 

paper, red morocco, borders of gold. Par. 1755-59. 13/. 2s. 6(1. 

Froissart's Cronycles of Englande, Fraunce, &c. translated by John 

Bouchier Lord Berners, 2 vols, in 1, very fine copy, in blue 

morocco, by Roger Payne, Lond. Myddelton and Pynson, 

1525. 34/. 2s. 6(1. Clarke. 

Octavo et Infra. 

Gallaei Icones Illustrium Feminarum Veteris et Novi Testamenti 
et Prophetarum Veteris Testamenti, blue morocco. 1594. 3/, 3s. 

Fenton's Certaine Tragicall Discourses, black letter, green morocco. 

T. Marsh, 1579- 3/. 12s. Warder. 
Figures Emblematiques, iNianuscript upon vellum, containing 81 

very spirited Emblematical Drawings, with the Moral of each in 

French Verse, morocco. 10/. 5s. Triphook. 

Bibliography. ^T' 

Floudoii Felde. Hereafter ensue the trevve encountre, or Batavle 
lately don betwene Englande and Scotland. In which Batavle 
the Scottisshe Kynge was slayne, black letter, consisting of four 
leaves, a tract of extraordinary rarity, green morocco, &c. 
Eniprynted by me, llicharde Faques, no date. 13/, 13^. 

Frederyke of Jennen. This mater treateth of a merchauntes Wyfe 
that afterwarde went like a man, and becam a great Lorde, and 
was called Frederyke of Jennen afterwarde, black letter, with 
singular wood cuts, a Book of the greatest rarity, from the Rox- 
burghe Library. Imprynted in Anwarpe, by me, John Dus- 
borowghe, 1518. 44/. 12s. 6'rf. Knell. 

Freheri Paradoxa, Erablemata, .Enigmata, Hieroglyphica ; A Manu- 
script, evidently prepared for Publication. The Mathematical 
Figures are drawn with very great accuracy, and are accompanied 
with Explanations in Latin and English. There is also a Portrait 
of Freherus, by Leuchter, yellow morocco, with joints. J I. 2s. 6d. 

Fyssher's (Bishop of Rochester) Treatyse concernynge the FruytfuU 
Sayenges of Da\id, in seven Sermons, made at the exortacyon of 
Margarete, mother to Kynge Henry the Seventh, black letter, 
fine copy, blue morocco, very rare. Wynkyu de Worde, 1525. 
5l. 7s. 6d. Triphook. 

Fyssher's Sermon on the nioost famouse Prynce Kynge Henry the 
VII. black letter, very rare, blue morocco. Wynkyn de Worde, 
1500. 8/. 10s. 6d. Triphook. 

Fyssher's Mornynge Remembraunce for Margarette, Mother unto 
Kynge Henry the VH. black letter, blue morocco, very rare. 
Wynkyn de Worde, 1509. 8/. 10s. 6V/. Triphook. 

Galien Rethore Noble et puissant Chevalier filz <lu Conte Olivier 
de Vienne Per de France, wood cuts, black letter, red morocco, 
rare. Paris, Denis Janot, sans date. 31. 18s. Triphook. 

Gardiner's England's Grievance Discovered, in relation to the Coal 
Trade, with portraits of the Kings and Queens of England, and 
other plates, russia, scarce. Lond. 166'5. 5/. 10s. Longman. 

Garrarde's Arte of Warre. Beeing the onely rare Booke of MylU- 
tarie Profession, corrected and finished by Captain Hichcock, 
plates, blivck letter, with joints. R. Warde, 1591. 3/. 5s. Booth. 

Gascoigne (George). Flowers. Dan Bartholomew of Bath. The 
Reporter. Comedie, called Supposes. Jocasta. Herbes. The 
Fruites of Warre. The Fable of Ferdinando Jeronimi. The 
Steele Glasse ; and Phylomene, black letter, russia, wants title 
and some leaves of text. (Jf. Booth. 

GcoftVoy. Scnsuyt les faitz et gestes des nobles coquestes de 
Geotfroy a la Grant Dent seigneur de Lusigncn et siziesme filx 
de Raymondin Conte du diet lieu et de Molusine, black letter. 

78 Bihliographi/. 

green morocco, (lie last leaf supplied by MS. a very rare ro- 
mance, sans date. 7/. Triphook. 

Gerard. L'Histoire de Ires noble et chevaleureux Prince Gerard 
Conle de Nevers et de Rethel, et de la Ires vertueuse et tres 
chaste Princesse Euriant de Savoye sa mye, black letter, wood 
cuts, rare. Paris, pour Philippe le Noir, 1 j26\ 5/. Triphook. 

Gerardo di Vera 'Pre Navigation! fatti dagli Olandesi e Zelandesi 
al Settentrione, Venet. 1399. Diarium Gulielmi C, Schoutenii, 
Amst. 1662. 2 vols, in 1, plates, russia. 6/. l6's. 6d. Hibbert. 

Gerson. A Treatyse of the Imytacion and Folowynge the blessed 
Lyfe of oure moste Mercyfull Savyoure Criste, compiled in 
Latin by John Gerson, and translate into Englysshe, the yere of 
oure Lorde, 1502, by Maister Willyam Atkynson, Doctor of 
Divinite, R. Pynson, 1503. The fourthe Boke of the folowinge 
Jesu Chrjst, and of the contempninge the World, R, Pynson, 
1504, in 1 volume, rare. 11/. 15s. Heber. 

Gesta Romanorum cum quibusdam aliis historiis eisdem annexis 
de vitiis virtutibusque cum applicationibus moralisatis et misticis, 
fine copy, russia, very rare. Irapressit Johannes de Westphalia 
alma in Universitate Lovauiensi. sine aimo. 4/. 5s. Triphook. 

Giglan. L'Hystoire de Giglan filz de Messire Gauvain qui fut 
Roy de Galles. Et de Geoffrey de Maience son Compaignon, 
black letter, wood cuts, yellow morocco, rare. Lyon, Huguetan, 
1539. 61. 10s. Lang. 

Godeffroy. Les Faitz et Gestes du preux GodeftVoy de Boulion, 
et de ses freres Baudouin et Enstache, black letter, wood cuts, 
fine copy, from the Roxburghe Collection, very rare. Paris, par 
Jehan Bouffon, sans date. 18/. 18s. Longman. 


Glanvilla, Bartholomeus, de Proprietatibus Reruni, translated into 
English, fine copy, Wynken de Worde, no date. 53/. ] Is. 

This Book is printed on the first paper manufactured in 

Good Lyvyng and good Dejing, the Traytte of, et the paynys of 
Hel et the paynys of Purgatoyr, &c. wood cuts, very rare, im- 
perfect at the beginning. Paris, A. Verard, without date. 8/. 5s. 


Octavo et Jnfra. 

Goulburn's Blueviad, a Satyrical Poem. 1805. 3/. 10s. Ponton. 

Henry VHL The Practyse of Prelates, whether the Kinges grace 
may be separated from hys Queue, because she was his brothers 
wyfe, Marborch, 1530. A Treatise of the Cuhabitacyon of the 

BihUograpliy. 79 

faitlifuli widi flie unfaithful!, 1555. A Declaration of the then 
Cominandementes, wants title. Three Tracts by Tyndale, 
black letter, very rare. 4/. 4*. Heber. 

Henry VIII. Letters in answere to a certayne Letter of Martyn 
Luther sent unto hym by the same, and also the copy of the . 
foresayd Luther's Letter, in suche order as liereafter foloweth, 
black letter, tine copy, blue morocco, extremely rare. See 
Dibdin's Ames, Vol. II. p. 488. London, R. Pynson, no date. 
Al. 14*. 6d. Triphook. 

Herodotus Gr. et Lat. ex Edit. Wessolingii et Reitzii, 7 vols, large 
paper, yellow morocco. Edinburgi, 1806. 5/. 13«. Triphook. 


Greepes (Thomas) the True and Perfect Newes of the Exploytes 
performed and doone by that valiant Knight, Syr Francis 
Drake, not onely at Sancto Domingo and Carthagena, but also 
nowe at Cales, and upon the Coast of Spayne, 15S7, in verse, 
black letter, russia, rare. J. Charlewood, 1589. 10/. Strettell. 

Gringore, les Fantasies de Mere Sote, avec Privilege, date de Paris, 
1 5X6, black letter, wood cuts, fine copy, blue morocco, first 
edition, rare. 9/. Qs. Lang. 

Heinsii Poemata, Gr. et Belg. plates, fine impressions, blue mo- 
rocco, with joints. Amst. I6l6. 2l. \6s. Clarke. 

Hentzner's Journey into England, morocco, with joints. Reading, 
1807. Si. \2s. Triphook. 

Herbarum, Tractatus de Virtutibus, cuts. Venet. 1508. 3l. U, 

Heywood's (John) Parable of the Spider and the Flie, portrait,, 
wood cuts, black letter, fine copy, red morocco. Lond. T. Powell, 
1556. 10/. OS. Triphook. 

Heywoode's Workes, a Dialogue conteyning the number of the 
Effectual Proverbes, concerning two maner of Mariages. With 
six hundred Epigrammes, portraits, black letter, fine copy, blue 
morocco, rare. T. Marsh, 1576. 8/. 8*. Strettell. 

Hoare, the Itinerary of Abp. Baldwin through Wales, by Giraldus 
de Barri, translated by Sir R. C. Hoare, 2 vols, large paper, 
plates, red morocco, with joints. 1806. 10/. 15s. Milner. 

Holinshed's Chrom'cles of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 6 vols, 
russia. 1807, &c. 8/. 10.s-. 6V. Clarke. 

Hollar's Habits of English and Foreign Ladies, l640, with 28 
Plates added, chiefly Views, mounted on drawing paper. 
4/. 6s. 6d. Arch. 

Holy Bull (The) and Crusado of Rome, first published by Gregory 
XIII. and afterwards renewed and ratified l)y Sixtus V^ black 
letter, green morocco. John Wolfe, 1588. 2/. 18*. Longman. 

Homelye (An) to be read iu the tyme of Pestilence, and a most 

80 Bibliography. 

presente remedye for the same, by Bishop Hooper, black letter, 
blue morocco, rare. Worceler, by J. Oswen, 155^3. 31. iSs. 
Ilomeri Ilias et Odyssea, Gr. et Lat. cum Schohis Didymi cura 
Schrevehi, large paper, red morocco, very rare, with Schiavo- 
netti's two plates inserted. Lugd. Bat. 1650'. 13/. 13s. Drury. 


Gower Confessio Amantis. Emprynted by me, William Caxton, 
1483. 205^ \Gs. Triphook. 

A remarkably fine and perfect copy of one of the most inte- 
resting and desirable books printed by Caxton, bound in russia. 

Gower's Confessio Amantis, russia. Berthelet, 1354. 4Z. 14s. 6(/. 

Gregorii (Sancti Papae) Expositio in Librum Extremum Ezechielis 
Prophetae. A very ancient Manuscript, upon Vellum, which 
appears, by the formation of the Capital Letters, to have been 
written in the l3th Century, red velvet. 61. l6s. 6d. Drury. 

Gnerino prenominato Meschino, second edition, the Table is want- 
ing, and the first leaf is very accurately supplied by MS. red 
morocco, from the Roxburghe Library. Yenezia Gerard, de 
Flandria, 1477- 13L 135. Triphook. 

Guerino chiamato Meschino, fine copy, red morocco. Venetia 
per Jo. Aluiscio Milanesi de Varesi, 1498, 10/. Triphook. 

Guy de Warwick Chevalier d'x\ngleterre qui en son temps fit plu- 
sieurs conquestes en Angleterre, en Aliemaigne, &c. wood cuts, 
red morocco, very rare, from the Roxburghe Library. Par. 
Fran^. Regnault, 1325. 27/. 6s. Triphook. 

Gyron le Courtoys avec la Devise des Amies de tons les Chevaliers 
de la Table Ronde, wood cuts, extremely rare, a very fine copy, 
in red morocco, from the Roxburghe Library. Par. Verard, 
sans date. 34/. 'Zs. 6d. Hihbert. 

Hamilton's C^ir W.) Campi Phlegraei, coloured from Drawings after 
Nature, original edition. Naples, 1776". 11/. lis. Longman. 

Harris's Thirty beautifully coloured Drawings upon vellum, of 
English Insects, with the Plants upon which they feed. The 
original Drawings for his Natural History of English Insects. 
8/. 10«. 6d. Triphook. 
Herball, (The Grete) which geveth parfyt knowlege and under- 
standyng of all maner of Herbes, wood cuts, black letter, russia, 
rave. Peter Tieveris, 1525. 51. \2s.6d. Triphook. 



Historigue, Littiraire et Bibliographique, sur la Vie et hs Oiiv- 
ragesde Macrobe. 

NO. u.—Vid. No. XXXIX. p. 113. 


i^ous voici parvenus au plus important des ouvrages de 
Macrobe, a celiii qui lui assure une reputation durable parmi 
les savans. 11 n'entre point dans nion plan de decrire les f^tes 
dont cet ouvrage porte le nom ; d'ailleurs il suffiroit pour cela, 
de transcrire les chap. 7 et 10 du livre I", qu'on pourra tout 
aussi bien lire dans I'auteur lui-menie. Qu'il me suflfise de dire 
que Macrobe a divise son ouvrage en sept livres, dans lesquels 
il raconte d son fils des conversations qu'il suppose tenues dans 
des reunions et dans des festins, qui auroient eu lieu pendant 
les Saturnales, cliez Pra?textatus, Avant d'analyser I'ouvrage, 
je dirai quelque chose des personnages que Macrobe y fait 

C'est d'abord un jurisconsulte nomme Postumien, qui ra- 
conte a son ami Decius ' les discussions qui out eu lieu chez 
Prtetextatus, pendant les Saturnales, telles que les lui a racon- 
tees Eusebe, I'un des interlocuteurs, lequel avoit eu soin, au 
scrtir de ces reunions, de niettre par ecrit ce qu'il venoit d'y 
entendre. Postumien y avoit assiste le premier jour ; mais 
ensuite oblige de vaquer a ses occupations ordinaires, il s'y 
etoit fait remplacer par Eusebe ; en sorte que les veritables in- 
terlocuteurs des Saturnales ne sont qu'au nombre de douze, sa- 
voir : outre Eusebe, Prajtextatus, Flavien, Symmaque, Ca3- 
cina Decius Albinus, Furius Albinus, Eustathe, Nicomaque 
Avienus, Evangelus, Disaire Horus et Servius. II est -k re- 
marquer que Macrobe ne parle jamais de lui-meme a I'occa- 
sion de ces reunions, et ne dil nulle part qu'il y ait assist^ ; il 
est meme difficile de ne pas croire, d'apres les expressions de 
son prologue, que ce ne sont que de pures fictions, ou du 
moins qu'il a beaucoup ajoute a la realite. " Je vais exposer," 
dit-il, " le plan que fai domie a cet ouvrage. — Pendant les Sa- 
turnales, les plus distingues d'entre les nobles de Rome se reu- 

' D'apres un passage dii cli. 2,liv. 1, il paroitroit que ce Decius est le 
fils d'Albinus Cacina, Tun des iiUerlociileurs des Saturnutes; Ponlaiius 
en a fail la reniarquc. 

VOL. XXI. C7. Jl. NO. XLI. F 

82 Dissertation sur la Vie 

nissent chez Praetextatus, etc." N'est-ce pas 1^ un auteur qui 
expose le plan de sa fable ? niais poursuivons : apr^s avoir com- 
part ses banquets a ceux de Platon, et le langage de ses in- 
terlocuteurs ^ celui que le philosophe grec prete d Socrate, Ma- 
crobe continue ainsi : " Or si ies Cotta, les Lelius, les Scipion 
ont pu disserter dans les ouvrages des anciens sur les sujets les 
plus importans de la litterature Romaine, ne sera-t-il pas permis 
aux Flaviens, aux Albins, aux Symmaques, qui sent leurs egaux 
en gloire, et ne leur sont pas inferieurs en vertu, de disserter 
sur quelque sujet du meme genre ? et qu'on ne me reproche 
point que la vieillesse de quelquesuns de mes peisoiniages 
est posterieure au si^cle de Praetextatus, car les Dialogues 

de Platon sont une autorite en faveur de cette licence : c'est 

pourquoi, A son exeniple, I'age des personnes qu'on a reunies 
n'a 6te compte pour rien, etc." ' Apres ces derniers traits, il 
reste demontre pour moi, que si des reunions et des discus- 
sions philosophiques et litteraires se sont reellement tenues 
chez Praetextatus, M aerobe ne nous en a transmis qu'un re- 
sultat arrange ^ sa mani^re. Quoi qu'il en soit, comnie les per- 
sonuages qu'il met en sc^ne ont eflfectivement exist6 et 'a. peu 
pres vers la nieme epoque, je vais successivement dire un 
mot sur chacun d'eux. 

Prattxtatus doit occuper le premier rang, car c'etoit lui qui 
presidoit la reunion en qualite de rex mens(t : outre que les se- 
ances se tenoient dans sa biblioth^que, ^ il paroit que c'6toit un 
homme profondement verse dans les rites sacres et les mysteres 
du polytheisme. N6anmoins, et malgr6 Tattachenient qu'il pro- 
fessoit pour le paganisme, il disoit, s'il faut en crone saint 
Jerome, ^ " qu'on me fasse eveque de Rome, et sur-le-chanip 
je me fais chr^tien." C'est lui qui, dans rouvrage de Macrobe, 
porte la parole le plus souvent et le plus longuement. S'il fut 
un des hommes les plus distingues de sou temps par ses con- 
noissances, il ne le fut pas moins par les emplois miportans 
qu'il remplit. En eflfet on le trouve designe comme prefet de 
Rome en I'au 384, sous Valentinien et Valens. "^ Godefroi rap- 
porte, ' sur la foi d'un manuscrit, qu'il fut prefet du pi^toire an 
S84. Ammien-Marcellin'5 lui prodigue les plus grands eloges, 

» Saturnal., liv. l, ch. 1. ^ Saturnal., liv. 1, ch. 6. 

3 Epist. ad Pammach., 61. 

* Codex Theodosianus, 1. '2, ut dignitat. ord. servetur. 

5 Codex Theodosianus, cum Commentario perpetuo, Jac. Gothofredi, 
edit, a J. Dan. Rittero, Lipiiic, 1736, 6 vol. in-fol., sur la lui 5, de mod. 

^ Liv. 27, a««o 368. 

et les Ouvrages de Macrobe. 83 

en ^num^rant tout ce qu'il fit ^ Rome pendant sa prefecture. 
II nous apprend aussi ' qu'il fut proconsul d'Achaie, sous Julien, 
et il occupoit encore cette place pendant les prenii^res ann^es de 
Valentinien, comme on peut le voir dans Zosime,* qui au reste 
ne lui prodigue pas moins d eloges qu' Ammien-Marcellin. Sym- 
niaque lui a adresse plusieurs de ses lettres ;' dans d'autres, il 
eut a deplorer sa niort, et dans la lettre 25 du liv. 10 il nous 
apprend que, lorsqu'elle le surprit, il etoit desigue consul pour 
]'ann6e suivante. C'est ce que confirme aussi une inscription 
rapportee par Gruter, et que je vais transcrire. Elle provient 
d'une table de marbre trouvee a Rome, dans les jardins de la 
villa Mattei.'^ 

Cette inscription etoit placee au-dessous d'une statue 61evee 
en I'honneur de Prcetextatus. Sa famille. Tune des plus distin- 
guees de Rome, a donne d cette ville plusieurs personnages 
illustres, dont on peut voir la notice dans la Roma subterranea 
d'Aringhi. On y verra aussi que cette famille a donne son nom 
k I'une des catacombes de cette ville. Ariiighi lui lonsacre le 
ch. 16 de son liv. 3, sous le titre de Ccemeterium Prixtextati.^ 

Symmaqne est connu par une collection de lettres, divisees en 
dix liv., qui est parvenue jusqu'^ nous. II y parle plusieurs 
fois contre les chreiiens ; saint Ambroise et Prudence y repon- 
dirent. L'heureux et infatigable conservateur de la biblioth^que 
Ambroisienne de Milan, M. I'abb^ Maj, vient de decouvrir et 
de publier, pour la premiere fois, des fragmens considerables 
des discours de Synimaque.'^ Ce dernier avoit fait aussi une 
traduction grecque de la Bible, dont il ne nous reste plus que 
quelques lambeaux. Son p^re avoit ete senateur sous Valen- 
tinien ; lui-meme il remplit sous cet empereur la charge de 
correcteur de la Lucanie et du pays des Bruttiens en SQ5 ou 

I Liv. il. ^ Liv. 4. 

3 Liv. 1, Epist. 44-55, etiiv. 10, Ep. 80-32. 

* Vettio. Agorio. Prateitato. V. C. Pontifici. Vesta. Pontifici. Soli. 
Quindecemviio. Avguri. Taureholiato. Coriali. Neocoro. Hierofante. Patri, 
Sacrorum. Qutrstori. tandidato. fnelori. Urbano. Correctori Tuscice. Et. 
Umbria:. Consular i. Lusdanite. Procons. Acha'ia. Frafedo Urbi. Pref. 
Prat. II. Jtuiiie. Et. lUyrici. Cumuli. Designato. — Dedicata. Kal. Feb. 
— 1>«. 17. Valciitmiano. Aug. HI. Et. Eutropio. Coss. ' 

^ Jdn. GMVlfJiW, imcriptiones ant iqua curd, Joan. Georg. Grtcvii, rcccnsitce. Am- 
slelod., 1707, 4 vol. iu-lol. pag. 1002, no. 2. On trouvi ra eucore d'auires inscriptions con- 
cernant Pra:t«xutus, dans le niem<- Hecueil, p. 209, "• 2. 3, 4, p. 310, n. 1, et («. 44*6, n. 3. 

' Roma subterranea, Pauli Aringhi. Roma, 1G51, 'i vol. in-fol., t. J, 
p. 476. 

^ Q. AuR. Symmachi. octo Orationum ineditarum partes, invenit, noiis- 
que dcclaravit Angelus Maius. Mediolano, 1815, in-8". 

84 Dissertation siir la Vie 

368 ;' il fut proconsul d'Afriqiie en 370 ou 373, ^ c'cst lui-menie 
qui nous I'apprend/ et il paroit, d'apres plusieurs de ses lettres, 
que I'Afrique etoit sa patrie, et qu'il conservoit pour e]le le 
plus tendre attachement. 11 fut prefet de Rome sous V'alenti- 
nien le jeune, en 384, Richomer et Clearque coss. '<• Entin il 
fut consul avec "^J'atien, en 391'^ Son fils, qui fut proconsul 
d'Afrique sous Honorius, lui consacra une inscription trouvee k 
Rome sur le mont Ccelius, et publiee pour la premiere fois par 
Pontanus, dans ses Notes sur Macrobe,^ 

Eusebe, auteur de cette inscription, est sans doute le meme 
que nous retrouvons au nombre des interlocuteurs des Saturnaies, 
Tout ce que nous savons de lui se reduit a ce que nous en ap- 
prend Macrobe; qu'il etoit Grec de naissance, et neanmoins 
aussi verse dans la litterature latine, que dans celle de sa nation ; 
il exerga avec distinction la profession de rheteur, et son style 
etoit abondant et fleuri, 

Flavien etoit frere de Symmaque. Gruter rapporte une in- 
scription qui le concerned En voici une autre trouvee en 
meme temps que celle de Symmaque, que j'ai rapportee plus 
haut. ' Pontanus demande si notre Flavien ne seroit pas le 
meme dont a parle Jean de Sarisbury en ces termes: '' Cast ce 
qu'assure Flavien dans son ouvrage intitule, de vestigiis Philoso- 
phorum ;" 9 et ailleurs, " cette anecdote (celle de la mafrone d' 
Ephese) racontee en ces termes par Petrone, vous I'appellerez 
comme il vous plaira, fable ou histoire, toutesfois Flavien atteste 
que le fait s'est passe ainsi a Ephese." '° 

Cacina Albiiius fut prefet de Rome sous Honorius en 414." 
Rutilius Claudius Numatianus fait mention de lui dans son Iti- 
neraire, '* ainsi qu'Olympiodore, cite dans la Bibliothcque de 

' Leg. 25, de Cursu publico. ^ Leg. 73, de Decurionibus. 

3 Eput. 10, liv. 10. ♦ Uv.44:,de Appellationibus. 

5 Epist. 1, liv. 1 ; ep. 62-4, liv. t ; ep. 10-13, liv. .5, etc. 

^ Eusebii. Q. Aurelio. Symmacho. V. C. Quc^st. Prat. Fontifici. Ma- 
jori. Correctori. Lucanitz. Et. I'rittiorum. Comiti. Ordinis. TtrtiL PrO' 
cons. Africa. Prat. Urb. Cos. Ordinario, Orator i. Disertissimo. Q. Fab. 
Memm. Symmachus.— V. C. Pain. Optimo. 

7 P. 170, no. 5. 

8 Firio JNicoinacho Flaviano V. C. Quast. Prat. Pontific. Majori. Con- 
sulari. Sicilia. Vicurio. Africa. Quasfori intrci Palatium P'raf. Prat, 
ittrxim cos. ord. hislorico disertissimo. Q. Fabius Memmius Symmachus V. C. 
prosocero optima. 

^ Polt/craticus, sive de nugis Curialium et vestigiis philosophorwn Lib. 
viii. a Joanne Saresburiense. Lugd. Batav. 1639. m 8o. Lib. 2. Cap. 26. 
'° Id. Lib. vnu Cap. 11. 
^^ Leg. un. de Naviculariis. "^ Liv. 1, v. 466. 

ct les Ouvrages de Macrobe. 85 

Piiotius. G niter rapporte deux inscriptions ' qui le concernent.* 
N/comachiis yl vie mis (tioxX. encore tres-jeune, ^ et se bornoit 
ordinairemeiu u iiiterroger.* Saxius pense ^ «jue cet Avienus est 
RuJ'us Serins u4vieiius, non point I'auteur des Fables, mais 
celui qui a traduit les Phenomeiies d'Aratus et Denys Periegetes. 
Gruter rapporte/ d'apres Smetius et Boissard, une inscnption 
trouvee d Rome, au pied du Capitole, et qui servoit de base 
a une statue elevee d L. Avr. Avianus SymmachuSj V. C, le 3 
des kalendes de mai, Gratien IV et Merobaude coss. 

Les auti-es interlocuteurs des Sattirnales sont : Eustathe, phi- 
losophe distingue et ami particulicr de Flavien ; uiais qu'il ne 
faut pas contondre avec le savant arcliev^que de Thessalonique, 
!e comnientateur d'Homere, puisqu'il n'a vecu que plusieurs 
siecies apre.s ; Evangelus, que Macrobe nous peint sous les 
traits de la rudesse et de i'aprcte ; Horns, Egyptien de nais- 
sance, ^ comme son nom I'indique assez, qui, apres avoir 
remporte plusieurs palnies alliletiques, avoit fini par embrasser la 
secte des cjniques ; Disaire, Grec de nation, qui fut de son 
temps le premier medecin de Rome ;^ et enfin le grammairien 
Servjus, le meme dont il nous reste un commentaire de Virgile : 
peut-etre con§ut-il I'ldee de cet onvrage au sein des discussions 
approfondies sur le poete latin, qui eurent lieu chez Praetexta- 
tus ; du moins les paroles que Macrobe place dans sa bouche, 
a la fin du liv. 3, se retrouvent a pen pres textuellement dans le 
Commentaire du grammairien que plusieurs de ses obser- 
vations. A i'6poque de nos Saliuna/es, il venoit d'etre regu 
tout recemment professeur de grammaire, et Macrobe loue 6ga- 
lement ses connoissances et sa jnodestie, qui se manifestoit chez 
lui jusque dans son exterieur.9 

' Pag. 286, no. 7. 

* La premifere> d'apres Guttenstein qui I'avoit copiee a Rome sur le 
marbre; la voici : SaLuis. D. D. Honor lo. Et. Theodoslo. F. P. F. F. 
Semper. Augg. Caecinu. Decius. Aeinatius. Albinus. V. C Praff. Urbis. 
Facto. A. Se. AcileciT. OrmwiT. Bedicata. Pridla. Nonas. Novembrls. 

rust il. Linio. Cos. Voici maintenant la seconde recucillie sur le 

meme marbre par Smetius et par Boissard: — D. p. D. 9. FL Arcadia, 
plo, FeLici. Victori, ac. Tr'mmFaTori. semper, Augusta. Caecina. De- 
cius. ALbinus. V. C. PraFecTvs. Urbi. Vice sacra, indicant, devotus. nu- 
mini. maiesTaTique eius. (Gruter, p. 287, n. 2.) On trouve encore, 
parmi les iiiterlocuteurs d|es Saturnales, un autre Albinus {Furius), sur 
lequel je n'ai pu obtenir aucun renseignement. 

3 Sat., 1. 6, ch. 7. * Id., liv. 1, ch, 6. 

5 OnomasUcun Litterurium, t. 1, p. 478. * Pag. 370, no. 3. 

' Sat., liv. 1, ch. 15 et 16. » Liv. 1, ch. 7. « Liv. 1, ch. «. 

86 Dissertation stir la Vie 

Maintenant que j'ai fait connoitre les personnes que Macrobe 
fait asseoir d son banquet, je vais tracer une anal}se rapide de 
I'ouvrage lui-meme. 

II est divise en sept livres. Un passage de la fin du sixieme, 
oil il est annonce que Flavien doit disserter le lendemain sur les 
profondes connoissances de Virgile dans Tart des augures, an- 
nonce qui ne se realise point, a donne lieu A Poutanus de 
soupQonner qu'ji devoit exister un huitienie livre, ce qui efit 
forme un nombre 6gal au nombre de jours que remplissoient en 
dernier lieu les fetes des Saturnales. J'ai deja dit que Barthius 
a pense que le Commentaire sur le Songe de Scipion formoit 
ce luiiti^uie livre. Quoi qu'il en soit, 11. Etienne a divise les 
sept livres qui nous rtstent en tvois jowntes, nombre primitifde 
laduree des Saturnales ; la premiere renferme le premier livre. 
La deuxieme renferme les livres 2, 3, 4, 5, et 6, et la iroisieme 
renferme le septieme et dernier. Cette division, quoique pure- 
raent arbitraire, et meme en opposition avec le texte precis de 
I'ouvrage, oii il n'est fait mention que de deux journees, a tou- 
jours ete indiquee depuis dans les editions posterieures. Voici ^ 
pen pres les matieres qui sont renferm6es dans les sept livres, 
et I'ordre dans lequel elles sont disposces. 

Le premier livre traite des Saturnales, et de plusieurs au- 
tres fetes des Romains, de Saturne lui-meme, de Janus, de la 
division de I'annee chez les Romains, et de son organisation suc- 
cessive, par Romulus, Numa et Jules-Cesar ; de la division 
du jour civil, et de ses diversites ; des kalendes, des ides, des 
nones, et gfeneralement de tout ce qui concerne le calendrier 
romain ; il se termine enfin par plusieurs chapitres tres-importans, 
dans lesquels Macrobe deploie une vaste erudition, a I'appui du 
s} Sterne qui fait rapporter tons les dieux au soleil. Cette partie 
est originale autant que les travaux d'erudition le peuvent etre : 
dans le reste du livre, il a beaucoup pris ^ Aulu-Gelle et a 
Sen^que le moraliste. 

Le deuxieme livre est le plus original, et le plus connu de 
Touvrage de Macrobe. C'est un recueil d'anecdotes, de plai- 
santeries, de bons mots, meme de calembours, en un mot un 
veritable ana. La plupart des choses qu'il renferme ne se 
trouvent que 1^, et nous les ignorerions enti^rement, si Ma- 
crobe avoit neglige de nous les transmettre. La seconde partie 
du deuxieme livre est remplie par des details tres-curieux sur 
les moeurs domestiques des Romains, leur cuisine, leurs mets, 
les fruits qu'ils consommoieut, et plusieurs autres particularit^s 

de ce 


et les Ouvrages de M aerobe. 87 

Depuis le tioisieme livre jusqu'aii sixit^mc inclusivement, les 
S'lturnales deviennent un coiiimentaire approfondi de Virgile, 
considere sous divers rapport*. Dans le Iroisieme livre, on de- 
veloppe les connuissances du po'ete latin, concernant les rites 
et les croyances de la religion. Dans le quatnenie, on fait voir 
conibien toutes les ressources de I'art des rheteurs liii ont ete 
f'amilieres, et avec quelle liabilete il a su les employer. Le cin- 
qui^me ii'est qu'un parallele ontmuel d'Honiere et de Virgile, 
oil sont signales en meme temps les nombreux larcins que le 
dernier a fails an poete grec. Ce qu'il a emprunte aux poetes 
de sa nation est devoile dans le sixieme livre, oil sont aussi de- 
veloppes, d'apres les ouvrages de Virgile, quelques points curieux 

Le septieme livre est imite en grande partie du Symposiaque 
(repas) de Plutarque. On y trouve discntees plusieurs ques- 
tions iMteressantes de physique et de pliysiologie ; et on y remar- 
que ses exemples curieux de la niani^re dont les sophistes sou- 
tenoient le pour et le contre d'une meme these. 

Sans doute la latinite de Macrobe se ressent de la decadence 
de son siecle ; mais il faut convenir aussi que les defauts de sou 
style ont ele b( aucoup exageres par les critiques anciens qui, 
pendant long-temps, n'ont eu sous les yeux qu'un texte mutile 
et totalement detigure. On lui a surtout reproche ses plagiats 
avec beaucoupd'amertume. Lrasme' I'appelle " Msopica cor- 

nicula quae ex aliornm pannis suos contexuit centones. Nou 

loquitur, et si quando loquitur, Grveculum latine balbutire cre- 
das." Vossius le qualifie de bonorum scriptorum favernam. 

Muret* dit assez plaisamment: " Macrobium -factitasse 

eamdem artem, quum p/eriqiie hoc seculo faciunt, qui ita fni- 
mani a se nihil alie/tum putaiit, ut alienis &qu^ utantur ac 
suis." Ange Politien et Scaliger le pcre ne lui sont pas moins 
defavorables. Un reproche cepeudant qu'ils ne lui ont pas 
adresse, quoiqu'ils enssent pu le faire avec beaucoup de justice, 
c'est le defaut absolu de methode et le desordre complet qui 
regne dans son ouvrage. Encore auroit-il pu s'en excuser par 
la licence que lui donnoit A cet egard le genre de la conversation, 
qu'il a adopte. Au reste, la maniere modeste dont il s'exprime 
dans su pr6tare auroit dd lui faire trouver des juges moms se- 
veres. En effet, il n'a pas pretendu fane un ouvrage ; seulement 
il r^unit dans un seul cadre, pour rnisiru tion de sun iils, le resul- 

' Desiderii Erasmt Opera. Lufid. Bat. 1702, 11 vol. in-fol. Dialogm 
Ciccronianus, sive de optimo genere dicendi, t. 1, p. 1007. 
- In Sen EC. de henefcUi, Uv. 3. 

88 Dissert at mi sur la Vie 

tat de ses nombreuses lectures. II le previent qu'il n'a point eii 
dessein de faire parade de son eloquence, niais uniquement de 
rassenibler en sa faveur une certaine masse de connoissances ; 
enfin, il a eu grand soin d'avertir le lecteur, que plus d'une 
fois il avoit copie jusqu'aux propres expressions des anteurs 
cites par lui. Tous les critiques ne sent pas resles insensibles 
a cette niodestie : Thomasius ' se croit bien oblige de lui as- 
signer un rang pai mi les plagiaires, mais il convient que ce rang 
est I'un des plus distingues ; le P. Vavasseur* remarque que, 
s'il emprunte souvent, souvent aussi il produit de son propre 
fonds ; Coelius Rhodiginus ^ I'appelle autorem excellentisumum, 
et virum reconditct scientice. 

Mais ce sont surtout les critiques modernes qui out rendu ^ 
Macrobe une justice pleiue tt entiere. L'editeur de Padoue 
(Jer. Volpi) dit avec beaucoup de justesse dans sa preface: 
'* Nemo fer^ illorum qui studia humanitatis cum disciplinis gra- 
vioribus conjungere amant, cui Macrobii scripta et grata et 
explorata non sint." Chompre, qui dans son Kecueil d'auteurs 
latins k I'usage de lajeunesse, a insere des fragmens du ch. il 
du liv. l*"", et des ch. 2-5 du liv. 2 des Saturnales, avec la tra- 
duction de ces morceaux, s'exprime ainsi -^ " S'il y a un livre 
a faire connoitre auxjeunes gens, c'est celui-1^. 11 est rempli 
de choses extremement utiles et agreables; le peu que nous en 
avons tire n'est que pour avertir les etudians qu'il y a un Ma- 
crobe qui merite d'etre connu et lu." Entin, M . Coupe qui, dans 
ses Soirees litttraires,^ a consacre un article k Macrobe, et tra- 
duitd sa mani^re, c'est-d-dire analyse vaguement quelques mor- 
ceaux des liv. 1,2 et 7, apr^s plusieurs autres choses flatteuses 
pour notre auteur, finit en ces mots : ** Voila tout ce que nous 
dirons de cet auteur charmant, a qui nous desirous un traduc- 
teur." Ce traducteur s'etoit rencontre ; mais son ouvrage n'a 
point vu le jour. J. B. Coutures, ne en \f)o\, mort en 1728, 
qui fut professeur d'eloquence au college de France, et dont 
I'eloge a ete public par de Boze, est auteur de cette traduction, 
selon I'abbe Goujet, ^ dont I'autorite a 6te suivie par M. Beu- 

1 Thomasius Dissertatio de plagio Utterario, Lipsitt, 1673, in-iOj ^ 503. 
a De Ludicrd didione, section 3, § 2. 
3 Lectianes antiquct, liv. 14, ch. 5. 

* Selecta latini sermonis exemplaria, 1771, 6 vol. in-12, t. 3. — Traduc- 
tions des modeles de latinite, 1746-74, 6 vol. in-12, t. id. 

5 T. 4. 

6 Memoires historiques et UUiiubes sur le College de France, Paris, 1768, 
3 vol. ia-12, t. 2, p. 455. 

et les Ouvrages dt Macrobe. 89 

chot.' Au reste, je crois pouvoir assurer, d'apres les reclierches 
que j'ai faites dans les bibliographies etrangeres, que les Satur- 
vales n'oiit ete jusqu'ici traduites dans aucuue langue.^ Douze 
de Verteuil, traducteur d'Aulu-Gelle, avoit eu le projet de tra- 
duire aussi Macrobe, peut-etre I'a-t-il execute, car dans un 
avertissement {)lace en lete de son 3" vol. il annouce qu'il en 
avoit pris I'eiigagenient envers le public. On trouve la traduction 
de quelques fragmens de Macrobe, dans I'ouvrage suivant : ks 
Apophtegmes des amietis tirts de Plutarque, de Diogcne 
Laerce, d'FJieii, d'Athtnee, de Stobte, de Macrobe, de la tra- 
duclion de Nicolas Perrot, Sieur d'Ablancour {Paris, Louis 
Billaine l664. in-Vl.) 

Nous avons en f'ran^ais un ouvrage en 2 volumes in- 12 
(Paris, Prault, 1 730), intitule : Les Satuniales fraricaises. La 
seule ressemblance qu'on y trouve avec celles de I'auteur latin, 
c'est d'etre divisees en journees. La scene se passe pendant 
les vacances du Palais, dans le chateau d'un president, situe aux 
environs de Paris. Cette production mediocre, est attribuee, 
dans I'excellent ouvrage de M. Barbier, ' a I'abbe de la Baume. 


Ce traite de grammaire ne nous est point parvenu tel que Ma- 
crobe I'avoit compose; car ce qui nous reste n'est qu'un abrege 
fait par un certain Jean, qu'on suppose, d'apres Pithou, etre 
Jean Scot, dit Erigene, qui vivoit en 850, sous le regne dc 
Charles-le Chauve, et qui a traduit du grec en latin les ouvrages 
de Denys I'areopagite. Cependant il avoit existe auparavant, 
selon Tridi^me, un autre Jean Scot, qui v6cut sous le regne de 
Charlemagne, environ I'an 800; et il exista depuis un Jean 
Duns Scot, qui vivoit en 1308, sous I'empereur Albert. Le pre- 
mier editeur de cet opuscule de Macrobe, Opsopa^us, pense que 
Jean Scot en a beaucoup retranche, mais qu'il n'y a rien ajoute 
du sien.''^ 

Vn. Outre I'auteur des Saturnales, il a encore existe deux au- 

1 Bivgraphie universelle, t. 10, p. 138. Vraisemblablement Fabricius 
aura ete indnit en erreur par la ressemblance de nom, lorsqu'il attribue 
cette traduction (Biblioth. /at.,t.3, p. 181. edit. d'Ernesti) au baron des 
Coutures, auteur des traductions de Lucrece et d'Apulee. 

^ L'auteur de cette dissertation prepare une traduction franjaise des 
Saturnales, a%'ec des notes tres etendues. 

' Dictionnaire des ouvrages anonymes ct pseudonymes, par A. A. Bar- 
rier. Paris, 1806. 4 vol. in-8o t. 2, p. 321. 

♦ Vid. en tete de son edit. I'Eoitre dedicatoire a Frederic Sylburg. 

90 Observations on the Review 

tres ecrivains d» nom de Macrohe : I'un diacre de I'eglise de 
Carthage, zele partisan de la doctrine et des ecrits de saint Cy- 
prien, et dont rauteur de I'appendice au traitede saiiil Hildefonse 
de S. \L. ' cite uu ouvrage en cent chapitres, tires de I't^criture- 
Sainte, en reponse ;mx objections des heretiques ; Taiitre plus 
connii, fut d'abord pretre en Afrique, et ensuite clandestinement 
eveque des Donatistes de Rome. ^ N'etant encore que pretre, 
il ecrivit un ouvrage adresse ad coufessores et virgities, qui est 
beaucoup loue par Gennade^ et par Trith^me. "^ Mabillon, 
dans la dt-rniere edition de ses Analecta,^ a public un fragment 
d'une epitre adressee par ce second Macrobe au peuple de Car- 
thage, snr le martyre des Donatistes Maximien et fsaac. L'An- 
glais Guillaume Cave lui a consacre un article dans son Histoire 
des ecrivains ecclesiastiques, ^ sous I'annee 334. 

Pour completer mon travail sur Macrobe, j'ajouterai dans le 
prochain No, une notice, tres-exacte et tres-detaillee, des edi- 
tions des ouvrages de cet auteur, qu'on trouve en tete de celle de 
Deux-Pottfs, etquej'ai traduite du latin, en y joignantquelques 
notes, et une addition. 


Observations on the Critique in the Quarterhj 
Review on the new Edition of Stephens' Greek 


Some of the readers of the Quarterly Review may have been, 
as well as myself, alarmed at the sight of forty-six pages in the 
number published on Friday last, filled with what pretends to be 
a criticism on the four first Parts of the London edition of Ste- 
phens's Thesaurus. The celebrity of that Journal, however, 
niduced me to hope that the asperity, with which a cursory glance 
showed them to have been penned, would be compensated for 

. Ch. 2. 

* Vid. Optat., Historia donatistira,\iv. 11, ch, 4. 

3 De Scriptoribus ecclesiasticis, ch. 5. 

4 Ch. 107. 

5 T. 4, p. 185. 

<» Scriptorum eccIe$iasticorum Hiitoria litleruria. Ojronitf, 1742-43, 2 vol. 

of Stephens' Greek Thesaurus. 91 

l)y some luminous example of the manner in which some one 
definite Greek word ought to be explaintd and dhistiated in a 
Treasury of the Greek language ; and that one, who spake thus 
authoritatively, would prove thai the loudness of his sounds did 
not nierel} proceed from the emptiness of his brain. Tliat hope 
has proved utterly \ain. If}ourot> the Reviewer (jf his petu- 
lance, his spleen, and his buffoonery, the scanty remnant will be 
scarcely worth preserving. But 1 will leave the turnpike-road 
for a moment, and hunt the critic to his covert. 

The tirst part of the review is taken up with a somewhat 
meagre, ill-digested, and uninteresting account (>f the Greek. 
Lexicons and Glossaries, for which the Reviewer is almost en- 
tirely indebted to the Dissertado Ciilica subjoined by Maussacus 
to his edition of Harpocration, where any person may easily 
trace the extent of his obligations, — and to the Preface of Ruhn- 
ken to the second volume of Alberti's Hesychius. A prolix 
enumeration of recondite names may astonish the fashionable 
readers of the Quarterly Review ; but scholars are too well ac- 
quainted with the implements and aids, with which the erudition 
and industry of former ages have supplied the shallowness of 
their successors, to confound the pretension to learnuig with its 
possession, or to mistake the pomp and parade of citation for 
the familiar knowledge of the nature, characters, and works of 
those illustrious men, whose names figure on the pages of the 
literary quack, like the hieroglyphical characters on a conjuror's 

The Critic next displays the faults of Steph. Thes.' in its ori- 
ginal state : these no one is disposed to question. But as it was the 
professed intention of the Editors to republish the work of Ste- 
phens, and to make it the basis of their own, not to compose a 
new one, the charges, such as they are, must rest with Henri 
Etienne ; and he fortunately is far removed above the censures 
of the Quarterly Reviewer. The ancient grammarians here and 
elsewhere are spoken of with the contemptuous arrogance, be- 
hind which an inability to understand always skulks, in order to 
conceal its own weakness. Justice has rarely hitherto been done 
to the labours of these very acute and ingenious men. In respect 
to every thing which can solely result from comparative criti- 
cism, from an examination of the similitudes and differences, 

' Tlie lleviewer is factticusly pleased to exclaim (p. 331) that this is 
an " tleraiit al)breviatinii." It would be to confer a noble benefit upon 
mankind ^^ » re the liarmd critic to divulge his theory concerning the 
beauts i.f abbreviaiions; nor do we know any employment more appro- 
priately befitting a Porsoniunciilus, than the laying down of canons con- 
cerning App. and Ms. 

9^ Observations on the Keview 

ihe analogies and contrasts, which pervade and prevail through 
different languages, grammar, like every other branch of Greek 
science, is great!)' and necessarily defective. That singu- 
lar people knew and acknowledged no nation except itself. 
But so far as grammar is an art, as distinguished from a science^ 
there is no other nation m which that art has been carried to 
any thmg like the degree of perfection which it reached at Athens 
and Alexandria. In the cultivation and purification of their 
own language, and in the intelligent developement of its beauties, 
all other nations compared with the Greeks are mere barbarians. 
The reader needs only to compare the quibbles and blunders, 
which usurp the place of verbal criticism in all, even the best of 
our reviews, with the extreme delicacy and refinement of percep- 
tion constantly evinced by Dionysius, and handed down by him 
and by the other great critics of antiquity to their scholars, so that 
traces of it are to be discovered in even the dullest of the Scholi- 
asts. What a shapeless, unorganized, chaotic mass does every mo- 
dern language, even the Italian and Spanish, present to us when 
compared with the Greek ! Nor is our superficial science any 
thing more than a very sorry substitute for their exquisitely deve- 
loped art. The perceptive faculty in this, as in many other re- 
spects, appears to have been almost overlaid and crushed by the 
extreme amplification and extension of the refiective. 

To examine the Reviewer's observations upon Greek etymo- 
logy in detail would be inconsistent with the plan of the present 
letter. They may in part be applicable to any project for con- 
structing a new lexicon of the Greek language, but a deviation 
from the original in so important and fundamental a point 
could never be expected from those who commenced their under- 
taking as editors and republishers of the great work of Stephens. 
The Reviewer, indeed, inveighs against the prevalent practice 
of reprinting old editions of ancient authors. But there is scarce- 
ly a sclioolmaster throughout the country, who will not acknow- 
ledge bis obligations to the Clarendon Press, to Messrs. Cooke. 
Bliss, Priestley, Valpy, &c., for having enabled them to place in 
the hands of their pupils readable editions of all the standard clas- 
sical authors, editions which, however faulty, are the best. Every 
person acquainted with the condition of either of our universities 
during the last twenty years will have observed that an ac- 
quaintance with the chief Greek and Roman writers has become, 
and is daily becoming, beyond comparison more frequent than it 
used to be ; and this extension could never have taken place un- 
assisted by the republications which the Reviewer is pleased ta 
reprehend, as " closing the market against better and more ac- 
curate publications." A charge less founded has never been 

o/ Stephens' Greek Thesaurus. 93 

brought forward. Pitiful iudeed must be the Reviewer's idea of 
learning, m heu he imagines that the increase of the supply wil! 
clog the demand : 

'• Other pleasures 

Cloy th' appetites they feed ; but it makes hungry 

When most it satistit-s." 
Where are the still- born editions of the ancient classics, the 
appearance of which has been prevented by the republication of 
former editions ? What English scholar has wasted his midnight 
lamp over Homer, or Herodotus, or Thucydides, or Plato, or 
Demosthenes, and at the moment when his task was over, and 
the infant has been about to see the face of day, has it been 
overlaid and stifled by the masses of books which already weighed 
down the counters and shelves of our booksellers ? It is rumoured 
at least that about a dozen editions of single plays, with a very 
few exceptions, form almost the sum total of what half a century 
of English scholarship has produced. And are our students to fa- 
mish because the indolence or paucity of their teachers is unable 
to supply them with sufficient food: Is a prohibition to be enact- 
ed against every importation of foreign learning ? It might mdeed 
prove beueticial to our own pretenders, if they were enabled to 
strut without fear of competition or rivalry ; but the youth of 
our country would fare but ill, if dieted upon nothing except 
grammatical and metrical canons, enacted by the authoritative 
nod of a few self-complacent critics.' 

The propriety of receiving every " primitive, the regular 
tenses of which are preserved in a language," into a Lexicon of 
that language, must still remain a very doubtful question. I 
should feel extreme reluctance to admit into what was designed 
to be a dictionary of the Greek language, as it existed in 
actual reality, not as it may exist in the wormy brain of this or 

' The only reasonable ground of complaint against this praciice applies 
solely to a certain piratical portion, though untoi tunalely a very consi- 
derable portion ot it. The custom of imrnecHatelj/ re-printing every sale- 
able classical work, which appears in Germany, is scarcely consistent 
with the laws of iuter-national honesty and iionour, and defrauds the in- 
dustrious conlincntal scholar of a certain portion of emolument, which 
formerly resulted from his labours, and which at the best was sufficiently 
scanty. For the German publishers, especially in \he Jine paper portion 
of their ti7ages, were accustomed to calculate greatly upon the demand 
of the English marker, and one very important work, Schweighaeuser's 
Lexicon Herudoieum, was on the puinL of being altogether clucked by 
this cause. It is quite clear that a reprint can always be effected at an 
expense considerably less tlian that of the original publicaiinu, and such 
reprints in the present state of the world must be legal, but it were much 
to be desired, that literature should be freed frum the nifannesses that 
always result from keeping strictly to the mere letter of the law. All this 
nowise applies to works wherein all literary property has ceased. 

94 Observations on the Review 

that theorist, any word which notoriously never belonged to that 
language at any known period of its existence. No language, 
the nature of which has hitherto been fully investigated, possess- 
es within itself all the first seeds from which in the course of 
ages it has grown into that form, wherein it is more or less 
fixed by the introduction of a written literature ; and it is a false 
aim at simplicity to attempt to reduce all the anomalies which 
it contains under a single form. The roots of all languages 
mingle and intertwine more or less with one another ; some 
words bear intimations of a connexion with one, some with 
another of the sister tongues ; and all more or less retain the tra- 
ces of their original union. Hence especially in those words in a 
language which are of most general application, such as the 
auxiliary verbs, the pronouns, &c., the meeting together of va- 
rious primitives, frequently derived from different languages, is al- 
ways discoverable ; nor is it just to conclude, that because 
some inflections of a word have been introduced into a language, 
all its inflections must have once belonged to it. Thus for in- 
stance the almost complete similarity between the verbs in /xj in 
the Greek and the Sanscrit proves that such verbs were not in 
all cases derived from Greek primitives in sm, but that many of 
them are to be classed among the original constituents of the 
language. This applies particularly to the verb elfu, which the 
Reviewer selects as an example of a false primitive, but which 
is proved by its resemblance to the Sanscrit to be a true one.' 
1 must however relinquish this subject, merely recomnjending the 
Reviewer to study Hermann's remarks on Greek primitives with 
more attention, than he yet appears to have bestowed on them, 
before he ventures to state particularly what themes ought or 
ought not to be introduced under aw. And since 1 have advert- 
ed to the name of that illustrious scholar, I will inform the Re- 
viewer that a more candid, high-minded, honourable man 
does not breathe upon earth, — that he is even more endeared to 
" his school" by the qualities of his heart, than by those of his 
head, — and that that man must be very much wanting in the in- 
dependence which constitutes, and the modesty which adorns, 
such a chaiacter, who can disgrace himself, and pollute the 
pages of the Quarterly Review, by the miserable insinuation 
in the paremhesis p. 340. " Mr. Heimann has intermixed a 
few trivial objections, extorted from him by a sense of decency, 

' The >aii^(;riT, osmi, osi, (jsti, coincide^ pertecily wiili fVy.(, ia-a-i, 10-71, 
if we take li.e <.kl tonus of the two first persuns. The o is merely t!ie 
short vowel, which would not be expressed except at the beginning 
word, according to the grammatical system means a short a, and is 
commonly pronounced. 

of Stephens' Greek Thesaurus. 95 

amongst several pages of the most fulsome and unsupported 
(although, we doubt not, unbought) panegyric." — For what possi- 
ble purpose can such a negative have been introduced, except to 
insinuate the possibility, if not the probability, of the contrary 
case? the very notion of which could scarcely have occurred 
to a person of unprejudiced and gentlemanly feeling. 

But what knows the Reviewer of this " school?" The names 
of Erfuidt, Poppo, Reisig, Nake, the younger Schneider, Seid- 
ler, &c,, and the anonymous Reviewer of Mr. Blomfield's 
Pers« in the Jena Alg. Lit. Zeit. (a translation of which I 
should much like to see inserted in the Classical Journal,) may, 
I think, contribute to rescue them from oblivion. If iheir merits 
are measured by their performances, and contrasted with those 
of the " English scholars, whom they facetiously enough term 
Porson's disciples," he would be most facetious indeed, who 
should decide in ftivor of the Porsoniunculi. ^o man has a 
higher respect for the memory of Richard Porson than myself; 
and therefore no man more regrets the habits which prevented 
his bequeathitig to posterity more numerous and important 
menjorials of his unrivalbd critical acuteness. Yet it is but 
fair to add that foreigners can only judge of him by his pub- 
lished works, and that an edition of four plays of Euripides how- 
ever accurate, — that even the total extirpation of that monstrous 
usurper the Anapaest in the third place, or all his other efforts 
for the restoration of legitimacy in the Iambic verse, — are not 
achievements, however splendid, which in any degree entitle him 
to that rank amongst the philologers of Europe, which he holds 
in this country. His letters to Travis, although they complete- 
ly crushed the latter, only re-settled a question, which, by his 
own confession, had been determined before ; and his posthu- 
mous reputation would not have been diminished, if much of 
that, which encumbers the hot-pressed wire-wove pages of the 
Adversaria, had been exchanged for those emendations of He- 
sychius and Aristophanes, the praises of which are proclaimed 
in the preface. Mere hearsay reputation is only handed down 
unimpaired (if it be so at all) when no authentic records remain, 
wherewith it may be compared. Porson, like Pitt, would have 
been classed among those gjants, who abstained through con- 
sciousness of superiority from the daily conflicts of men, had 
he left no writings behind him. As it is, his friends, like Fox's, 
will mourn, that he has left a lasting standard whereby to esti- 
mate his powers. — With things Porson appears to have pos- 
sessed but a very inconsiderable acquaintance ; and not a trace 
a))pears amidst his writings of that combination of universal, en- 
cyclopa,>diacal knowledge with language-learning, which is so 

Q6 Observations on the Review 

abundantly found in the Dissertation on Phalaris, and the count- 
less pages of Scahger, Saimasuis, and Casanbon. If the Re- 
viewer can read the controversy on the Homeric Theogony be- 
tween Creuzer and Hermann, he will find that classical litera- 
ture aft'ords some problems, which require for their solution quite 
as much learning and sagacity, and are not a whit less important, 
than the erasure of an Anapaest ; and he will also learn, that it 
is possible for differences of opinion to be discussed in a man- 
ner befitting gentlemen. When Hermann's long expected, and 
notwithstanding Mr. Blomfield's very meritorious labours in the 
same field, nmch to be desired, edition of ^schylus is published, 
it will be found in what manner he is a worthy successor of the 
greatest critics, — 

" What figure of them he will bear? 
For you must know, they have with special soul 
Elected him their absence to supply : 
Lent him their powers, drest him with their love, 
And given his deputation all the organs 
Of their own dignity." 

But to return to the Thesaurus. The main objections whick 
the Reviewer, after the employment of nineteen months' in 
attempting to hunt out flaws in the work, has made against 
it are, 1. that some things are omitted which ought to be 
inserted; 2. that much is inserted that ought to be omitted, 
" because it increases the bulk and expensiveness of the work, 
and needlessly distracts the attention of the student," and this is 
by far the most substantial charge ; 3. that improper critical 
discussions have been admitted — In this I agree, and trust that 
Liebel and Vogel will never more occupy its pages ; 4, " that 
Stephens is not given entire," which I too " truly think that he 
deserves," and which I trust will be done most scrupulously 
for the future : I expect to have Stephens, all Stephens, but yet 
much besides Stephens. 5. That the Editors are ''guilty of in- 
consistencies in their abbreviations of authors' names," and quote 
their works at an immoderate length. The last is an evil which, 
if the Reviewer had taken the trouble to examine the fifth and 
sixth Numbers, he would have found already in a great degree 

' The Reviewer says, p. 335, " .Since the former part ot this Article 
•was written, tlie fifth and sixth Numbers of the Thesaurns iiave been 
put into onr hands." Now the fifth Mnmber was pnbhshed in August 
1818, and I sincerely congratulate the Editor of the Quarterly Review, 
on the possession of such a ready, ofi-hand contributor. How poor Ho- 
race would wonder to find a Reviewer acting upon his precept. 

of Stephens' Greek Thesaurus. 97 

remedied; and if he liad awaited the publication of the seventh, 
of which, in common with other subscribers, T received my 
copy four days anterior to the pubHcition of the Quarterly 
Review, he would have seen not only the promise, but in the 
greater part of it the observation, of a system, in which most of 
these defects uere obviated ; defects which the Editors had very 
candidly acknowledged in their reply to Hermann, who had long 
since anticipated almost all the Reviewer's objections, and to 
M'honi j)e is indebted even for some of his examples. So that 
they may retort the Reviewer's censme of these objections that 
they are " trivial," though not " extorted by a sense of decency," 
against himself. What portion of the hitter is possessed by the 
Kevievver, it would require a new infinitesimal calculus to dis- 

1 have neither time nor materials with me for entering into an 
examination of the objections to particular passages (pp. 342 to 
345), but doubt not that it will be readily acknowledged that the 
Note p. 68. should have been omitted, and that some of the 
English interpretations might be amended. This is " the iiead 
and front of the offending ;" and when [ consider the vast ditii- 
culty, labour, and expense necessarily incurred by the under- 
taking, I am much more surprised that so much has been done, 
than that so little has been done wrongly, I'he mere reprinting 
of Stephens was, for individuals, a sufficiently arduous task ; but 
it must have imprinted a great stigma on the nineteenth century 
to have been barely contented uith republishing the produce of 
the philology of the sixteenth. The accessions to our ciilical 
knowledge of antiquity during the last two hundred and lit"ty 
years have been proportionable to the progress that has been made 
in any other branch of science, and to present these accessions 
embodied to succeeding generations was reserved for the Editors. 
Jt is a noble attempt, and demands, as it has received, the en- 
couragement not only of English, but of European scholars. That 
the parts, which have hitherto appeared, should not be perfect 
was unavoidable, for such works must always be imperfect ; yet 
the plan wiiich has been entered upon m the last Numlter proves 
that the principal defects will be amended, which is all that can 
reasonably be expected in an undertaking of such extent. Instead 
of *' closing the m;;rket" against a future more conipendious 
lexicon of the Greek language, these pandects of philolouy will 
only prepare the way for it, and incalculably diminish the difficul- 
ties of sucli a vork ; indeed it is the only manner in which such a 
collection of materials could be prepared for use, unless the task 
had been undertaken by a society of scholars maintained at the 

VOL. XXI. il.Jl. NO. XLl. G 

^8 Ohservations on the Review 

public expense : and ylas ! lliis is not the era when nations 
engage in works so beneficial to mankind ! The Benedictines 
of St, Germains des Pres have hitlierto found no successors ; 
though a splendid promise is held out by the Berlin Academy. 

At the outset the Editors very naturally sinned on the side of 
excess; the use of the file is at once the most difficult and the latest 
acquired of literary talents. But though it would not be *' reason- 
able to conclude that the farther the work proceeds, the greater 
will be the accumulation of materials," though on the contrary it 
is strictly reasonable to conclude, that the niere habit of ar- 
ranging and digesting them will progressively and incalculably 
diminish their mass, — yet I cannot help picturing to myself the 
situation of a responsible Editor of a Greek Thesaurus, over- 
whelmed by the torrents which come rushing in upon him from 
every side, and which he is to embank and reduce into an equa- 
ble tranquil stream. Lexicographers, Glossarists, Scholiasts, 
Grammarians, Critics, — the whole host of Greek authors from 
Homer to Procopius, are marshalled in array upon his desk. 
Every word in the most copious of languages is to be traced 
through every modification of meaning which, in the course of 
above a thousand yeais, it progressively acquired ; and almost 
each of these words has been diveisely, and often in the very same 
passage contradictorily, explained and illustrated by a multitude 
of interpreters. What an incitement to prodigality have we here! 
The greater part of these he is bound to record ; his very mo- 
desty inducing him to shrink from assuming unto himself the 
arbitration between disputants, whose talents and erudition all 
Europe has agreed in acknowledging. How long must it be 
before he discovers that in learning, as in finance, inanrtium vec- 
tigal est pars? moil i a ! 

Even the Reviewer seems disposed to agree with me in think- 
ing it ''hardly pos!<ible tliat ihe Editors should not iuq)rove as they 
proceed." But how charitably does he contrive to pare off this 
excrescence of candour so unnatural to him ! It only flashes in 
the pan, and is followed by nothing but the smoke, in which it 
is his iiabit and delight to be enveloped. " The \\ant of care 
which is observable in the first Numbers is sufficient to detract 
very materially from the value and utility of the entire work, 
even if the iemai/ii//^ portion of it s/iou/d be executed zcith greater 
skill and acciiraci/." Strange though it be, these words are to 
be found p. 345. Jt |)uzzles me to imagine in what manner they 
have incurred the sin, (roin which not even leformation can re- 
deem them. A considerable portion of the article indeed would 
lead one to conclude, that it is the joint manufacture of the 

of Stephens' Greek Thesaurm. Q^ 

hack of some publisher, who is jealous of them for " closing 
the market" against a projected Thes. of his own, and 
of the same publisher's head clerk ; so accurately versed is the 
waiter or writers in all the double entries of the day-book and 
ledger; so repeatedly does he calculate and re-calculale with 
a kind of gloating delight the 200 and 400 guineas which 
he fondly fancies are likely to accrue to them, and which at 
the bottom of the very same page become 240 and 480, and 
in the next 250 and 500 (" inest sua gratia parvis"); and 
so utterly unable does he appear to understand that they have 
ever looked for any success \n their undertaking, except "in a 
pecuniary point of view," p. 331. A fair and honourable profit, 
as it may justly have been within their aim, so 1 irust, not- 
withstanding the Keviewer's efforts to crush them, will be 
within their reach, though hitherto the expense must have very 
greatly exceeded the returns; and the liberality \\ith which I 
know that they have repaid the contributions of some foreign 
scholars, has been duly appreciated. 

The reservation of the marks of quantity for the Index, 
where the accents, to avoid confusion, may be omitted, meets 
with my entire approbation; and the addition of a poetic in- 
stance to most of the words, a requisite improvement, pre- 
cludes all necessity for them in the bodv of the work. This 
and the other changes, to which 1 have alluded, and which are 
promised in the recent advertisement, will render the Thesau- 
rus, what it ougiit to be, *' a complete body of philology, a 
well-fuinished storthouse of criticism and valuable information 
upon every subject connected with Greek literature." It is 
high time that students should not be compelled to refer perpe- 
tually to a thousand different works, which those, who have most 
need for them, have generally the least ability to procure. This 
Thesaurus, with a copious Greek Grammar, and a Greek and 
English Lexicon, w hich might be nearly adequately supplied by 
a literal translation of the new and enlarged edition of Schneider's 
Dictionary (though the Reviewer speaks with his usual con- 
temptuousness of that work) ought to constitute the chief sm^- 
sidia of a scholar's library. 

Another word, and I have done with the Reviewer. He 
exclaims in answer to the apology of the Editors, that " they 
did possess unlimited resources in books, not in their own 
libraries perhaps, but in the public repositories of literature, 8cc. 
It is never a valid excuse for any scholar to say, that he did not 
consult this or that book — the answer is, he ought to have done so." 
The Reviewer ought indeed to have known that, compared with 

100 Observations on the Review, ^c. 

France and Germany, England is very deficient in great pnblic 
libraries; that until the late purchase of Dr. Burney's coilection, 
even that of the Museum was poor in philology; and that the 
iise of most of them is clogged with many difficulties. If, in- 
deed, the length of human life would allow of their employing 
upon each page a period proportionable to that consumed by 
the critic in the composition of his review; if they had not, on 
the contrary, at a rate sufficiently slow, brought forth three new 
Numbers during the same period, it might be possible for them 
in that case to travel to and fro from London to Aberdeen for 
the verification of an example, and to fix a year, which it would 
puzzle even this sturdy arithmetician to calculate, for the ter- 
mination of their labours. As it is, forty Numbers and eight 
Volumes (the space allotted long since by Vaickenaer to a 
Greek Thesaurus) will bring them to a close. 

The approaching publication of the Classical Journal' warns 
me to conclude ; and I will therefore dismiss the Reviewer with 
recommending to his meditation the warning of the philosophic 
emperor, Elns, wg ijikuiotutov (palvsral (roi, ixovov ev[ji,svoocj y.a.i al^Tj- 
lAOvcog, xal avuTrojcgJTOJj. The Editors possessed my warmest 
wishes when they commenced their undertaking ; and as one of 
the subscribers, nowise eiUicr direclly or indirecttt/ connected 
with their " success," I frankly declare, that I have yet seen no 
just cause for withdrawing the confidence I had reposed in 
their ability, or fur doubting the ultimate and prosperous accom- 
plishment of the work. Much obloquy they must resolve to 
endure; all the impertinence of vexatious criticism will, if we 
are to judge frou) this specimen, be aimed at them ; if they 
fail, which I prognosticate they will iiof, they will have the con- 
solation of thinking that they have only failed in an attempt, in 
which few would have had sufficient boldness and public spirit 
to venture, — and if they succeed, as 1 think they must, they 
will have conferred a lasting benefit, a real xt^ju.« =j as), on every 
student of Greek literature, and will therefore be justly entitled 
to the praise of their contemporaries, and the gratitude of 
j)Osterity. //. 

' The publicatiun of this No. has been necessarily delayed from the 
usual period, the 1st vf April, to the 1st of May, by tlie Primer's re- 
moval from Tooke's Court to lied Lion Court; which susiieuded the 
regularity of his labors. 


p. S. In page 94. of this article the following should read on 
after ' pronounced,' to render the note complete :•.•." as a 
short e." — Frederic Schlegel on the language and wisdom of the 
Indians, p. 9. This completely establishes that gip was not de- 
rived by the Greeks from ew, and that even if eoo ever had been a 
(Jreek verb, sljx) would still be the older form; a form not deriv- 
ed by the Greeks themselves from sm as a primitive, but brought 
by therh out of the East. The same is true of S/Scoju.*, which is the 
Sanscrit dodami, dodasi, dodati. Sic. It is possible indeed that 
the termination in [xi having been incorporated with the Greek 
language, several new verbs in /x< may have been in after-times 
formed from verbs in w : though this is scarcely probable, it 
being the universal principle in all languages to throw off all 
complexities of form, and as far as possible to simplify their 
construction ; whence earlier writers always abound to an infi- 
nitely greater degree, in what are called anomalous forms. Till 
due attention has been paid to the filiation of languages, and 
till the ridiculous notion has been given up that it is a feasible 
attempt to reduce any one language to the simple, elementary, 
organic sounds, which are supposed to have been emitted by 
man in his state of pristine barbarity, etymology can never be 
any thing but a mass of crude hypotheses. Its procedure must 
be inductive, not dogmatical. The ambition to theorize has 
been the bane of this, as of every other science. 

In p. 9.3. read Porsonunculi. 


Brighton, March 21, 1820. 



1 1115 restoration of precious archaisms and otlier valuable read- 
ings, which preceding editors had changed because they did not 
understand, m the text of this greatest of all the Latin poets, 
renders that now under consideration of extreme importance in 
spite of the tilth and rubbish occasionally foisted into it, in the 
form of conjectural emendations. It is indeed, with all this filth 
and rubbish, which is in many instances most offensive and dis- 
gusting, the only one which exhibits tlfe genuine character of this 
genuine old Latin, preserved in manuscripts and early editions; but 
modified to the usages of succeeding writers by niodern [jolishers, 
whOjlike the cleaners of other precious remains of antiquity, have, 
in rubbing off the rust, rubbed off the original surface, and 
obliterated all the characteristic touches of the artist ; in which 
alone the peculiar energies of his art were displayed. 

The late Mr. Gilbert Wakefield, whom the writer of this 
article personally knew, was a man of quick and acute appre- 
hension, unwearied industry, enthusiastic perseverance, and most 
retentive and capacious memory ; but hasty, irritable, opinion- 
ative, and eccentric almost to insanity ; so tiiatnot havuig strength 
of mind to digest, or judgment to discriminate, and arrange his 
vast acquisitions of knowledge, they fermented into fsoth, and 
overflowed in those shallow puddles which disgrace almost every 
page of his Annotations; but at the same time often hide valu- 
able treasures of critical information for those who can patiently 
undergo the drudgery of groping for them in the mud. 

Had this mud been confined to these puddles it might have 
remained unknown and inoffensive to all but such gropers: but 
when he rakes it up, and scatters it over that brilliant and 
sparkling ore, which he had perhaps just before purified from 
the less offensive, because less prominent, alloy of others, the 
evil becomes general: but as mere removal is all that is want- 
ing, it is to be hoped that the next editors will accomplish it, 
and do that justice to his labors which he was incapable of 
doing himself. 

These blots and blemishes, though in some instances alike in- 
jurious to the metre, sense, and syntax, are so few compared 
with the valuable emendations brought from purer sources, that 
scarcely any poet is more indebted to any editor ; and as the 

Corrections of Wakefield's Lucretius. 103 

whole impression has been long since dispersed, and the Com- 
mentator, who embarked his wliole property in the under- 
taking, h)ng since removed from any interest in it, they may 
be pointed out and removed for general benefit, without any 
particidar injury. 

How far the archaic spelling adopted is authentic, cannot be 
very satisfactorily ascertained; the oldest manuscripts extant being 
m this respect of no authority, and the written monumenis of early 
times remaining, of sufficient length to afford much information, 
being very inconstant in their orthography, which appears to 
have continued very unsettled till the reign of Augustus. Lu- 
cretius, however, though contemporary with Cicero and Cagsar, 
seems to have retained the more ancient language, and there- 
ore probably the more ancient spelling of his predecessors in 
heroic poetry ; so that the longest forms, as adopted generally 
by the editor, are the most probable ; and all that we have to 
complain of under this head, is, what he admits in his preface, 
a want of constancy and uniformity. In the beginning of the 
poem we have suspicio^ — afterwards subspicio^ — ohteiido,^ sub- 
tento,^ subteneo,^ &c., and ai'terwards obstendo,^ substenlo,^ 
substiiieo,^ &c. ; which are probably just, it being much more 
likely that the B should have been dropped to produce the com- 
mon form, osloidn, siiste/ito, amlinco, &c., than that it should 
have been changed into an 8 ; and we have uniformly siibspendo 
for SHspe/ido, where the B would have been more liable to eli- 
sion or change on account of a similar consonant P so nearly 

Consistent with this archaic spelling, as well as to avoid am- 
biguity, we should write arclus, arete, 8cc. ; not as we here 
find them artus, arte, &c. ; and also write viilii contracted into 
one sellable, not mi, where nihil in one syllable is constantly 
writtm at length ; and nihilum, vehemeus, prohibet, &c., pro- 
nounced as two. Littera, littiis, and sitccus, seem also more 
truly Latin ihan litera, litus, and s;/<;7/s ,• the investing one let- 
ter with the power of two being a mean employed by scribes to 
shoi ten their labor even as early as the time of the Ehean In- 
scription. The adjective signifying swooM, was however, pro- 
bably written levis from the Greek Xsioj ; not l(ctis,ns we here find 
it, without any apparent root or origin. Does not consistency 
too require that, where we write artubtis, we should also write 
se)isubits, ar<d continue the same forms through all nouns re- 

' 1.36. - V. 1203. ^ 1.(35. + 11.1116. ' 11.607. 

^ IV. 676. ^ V. 97. * V. .-isn. 

104 Corrections in the Text 

spectively of the same declensions ; and not suppose tliatj be- 
cause the manuscripts of the fourteenth and iifteenth centuries 
exhibit them promiscuously, the polished writers of the most 
polished Latinity so employed them r 

Different authors, indeed, of the same age and country, and 
even the same author in successive works, may have adopted 
different modes of spelling ; but that a single author in a single 
work should, intentionally and deliberately, have admitted such 
variations, where they served neither his rhythm nor his metre, 
seems quite incredible. 

Of particular instances of injudicious alterations, the follow- 
ing appear obvious and prominent. 

l-i. 1. 14. Persaltant for pemultant, received from a manu- 
script of no authority, in this instance only, while the common 
form is retained every where else; nor does the Latin language 
any where acknowledge such a word as persulto. 

L. 1. 406. I/ijectis for iiitectas, to the utter subversion 
both of the sense and Latinity, \\hich are generally very inti- 
mately connected. That doers discover the secret haunts of wild 
beasts covered with foliage by their noses, that is by tracing the 
scent which they leave in going to them, is well known : but 
that they discover them by having their noses thrust into foliage 
would be new to hunters, even if the words admitted this sense ; 
but to produce this, or indeed any at all, we must read fr audi or 
in fnindem, for frunde ; neither of which the metre will admit. 
It is true ancient poets sometimes took the liberty of employing 
an ablative form in the place of a dative : but this is a liberty 
which modern critics must not venture to take for them, at least 
without being authorised by a case completely parallel : for it is 
impossible that they can have that just feeling for the delicacies 
of a dead language, which can enable them to decide in what 
particular case such liberties may or may not be taken. 

L. 1. 889. On the authority of one manuscript against two, 
we have ac preferred to atrjue before a vowel ; though ac in 
that one is probably only a compendious way of writing at (pie ; 
which seems to have been rejected because justly and properly 
received into all the modern editions. 

L. II. ^14. ISlnnc heic, nunc illic (which by the same rule 
that he writes heic he ought to write illeicj arbitrarily substitu- 
ted to nunc hiiic, nunc illinc, though these express the poet's 
meaning much better ; which is not that, fres or lightnings 
bursting from the clouds, meet now here, nozc there; but that 
they meet (concursant) nozo from this and now from that fart 
of the heavens. It were well if editors would condescend to 

of Wakefield's Lucretius. 105 

understand before tliey alter — especially such passages as this, in 
which there is really no difficulty : but unfortunately the latter is 
always most easy and most flattering. 

L. II. 36'2. Here, on the authority of two manuscripts, 
or rather on the authority of imperfect writing in two manu- 
scripts of very little authority in themselves, we have Jlit- 
mina ilia for Jlumiua ulla ; though there is no previous allusion 
to rivers, to which ilia can be referred ; and the general sense 
of the context so obviously and decidedly requires ulla, that the 
editor would without doubt have adopted it from other manu- 
scripts and old editions, had later editors received the other pro- 
noun, and all the gall of his ink would scarcely have been bitter 
enough for his abuse of them. 

L. II. Q?>\. Bentley haviug in some manuscripts found Jieti, 
and in others freti, for l(£ti, though he rejects both, yet the 
former is eagerly seized and inserted into the text, for no other 
apparent reason than that of being without either sense or syn- 
tax, and therefore supposed to contain recondilum quiddHm et 
exquisitum. Had he condescended to adduce an example of 
such an expression as sanguine Jieti, we might have been 
tempted to examine how far it is a proper nominative for lu- 
duiit and exultant. 

L. 11, QQo. is extremely obscure, but nevertheless both eadern 
and iiidem, the readings of the best manuscripts and editions, 
afford meaning, the one if referred to verba, and the other to 
litleiis : but his conjectural eidem seems to afford none ; nor 
does his note supply any at all consistent with the text. 

L. II. 740. From manuscripts of little or no authority, we 
hav€ here numina for luinina solis — despexere ; though who 
ever looked dozen upon (despexit) numina solis — the deities of 
the sun : on whose light we can only look down when it shines 
on objects beneath our eyes? 

L. 11. 1167-8. are bungling interpolations ; the second hemi- 
stich of the editor's own manufacture, and the rest by a work- 
man of the same class : but their liaving been rejected and 
omitted in preceding editions, was a sufficient motive for restor- 
ing them ; as their retention would have been for ejecting tliem. 

L. 111. \[)0. Jiuitat unnecessarily and improperly written 
flulat, the u and i being perpetually joined in a diphthong and 
pronounced as one syllable in tenuis and other words. 

L. HI. 347. repolto is received for reposla, on the authority 
probably of the iniperfectly-formed or half-obliterated letters oi 
some manuscripts; and the strange expression aivo /epoi/o. jus ti- 
tled by Virgil's terras repostas, and Horace's /a/<?«/ew matrisin 
alvo ; the first of which is quite irrelevant, and the second fa- 

106 Corrections in the Text 

vors the generally received reading — alvoque reposta — con- 
demned as dnctc minus et exquisite, because consistent with 
common sense. 

L. III. 522. If rationis be preferred to the reading of Pius, 
rationi, there should be a comma after the preceding word 
f(ilH(C, which must bejomed with /e/ understood. 

L. 111. 97t). Incilet should be written i)icille.t, for which 
there is sufHcient authority cited in the note. 

L. III. 1082. Here the editor has exceeded all his former 
feats in substituting obit to udit, without a shadow or semblance 
of authority, and in defiance alike of metre, sense, and gram- 
mar. '1 he poet, after describing, with his usual vigor and viva- 
city, the restlessness of a man flying from his own vacuity, and 
seeking for change of mind in change of place, (1073 — 80.) 
adds, " In this manner each flies himself; but whom he catinot 
jiy out of, he still iuncillinglij sticks to and hates," with which 
the editor not being satisfied, replaces odit with obit, which he 
interprets obversatur, circumit, se opponit ; without, however, 
producing a single example to authorise the Latinity of such an 
expression as se obire, or the metrical license of doubling the B 
(which was never pronounced double either in Greek or Latin,') 
and reading obit — abbit ; for that of obex is wholly irrelevant, 
being derived from objicio, and written at length objex. Even 
when elided, the metrical power of the j is still retained, so that 
in all its forms the flrst syllable is invariably long, whereas that 
of obeo and its derivatives is invariably short, except in this in- 
stance of true British manufacture. The Latinity too of se op- 
ponit by which it is explained, belongs to the same sample, 
the author meamng, I suppose, se sibi opponit. It is strange 
that the obtruder of so vile an interpolation should, in the note 
to it, harshly condemn the licentiam temerariani, et Lncretii 
amatoribus mininie tolerabilem of his predecessors, who had 
given angit for odit ; since they had at least preserved to their 
author grammar, sense, and metre ; whereas he has deprived 
him of all three. 

L. IV. .549. His hand being now in, according to the vulgar 
phrase, he is determined that it shall not lose its habitude 
through want of exercise ; and this verse being detective and 
evidently corrupt in all hi? manuscripts, affords him ample scope 
for all the temerity of conjectural alteration. The reading of 
the common editions is vatlibus et cygni gelidis orti ex Helico- 
Jiis ; which, though the editor Hnds it rugged and inelegant^ 

' See F'roleg. in Hum., published in a preceditig Number of this Jour- 
nal, s. rlix. 

of Wakefield's Lucretius. 107 

seems to be only objectionable in the want of authority for the 
epithet o'^//r//5 ; which is, however, most elegantly supplied by 
the reading of better manuscripts cited by Pius, adding only the 
final s to the word de/orti, from which it had probably been 
obliterated by time or accident. 

I' aiiibus el cygni deto/lis ex Heliconis affords a sense con- 
sistent with the elegance and precision of the poet in the use of 
epithets ; crooked valleys with abrupt turns bounded by high 
and bare rocks, such as those of Mount Helicon, being apt to 
reverberate and prolong sounds ; whence n)ay have arisen the 
Fable of that mountain being the seat of the nuises. This, 
however, is too plain and simple to satisfy the prurient ears of 
our editor; who, finding in his ov^n written rubbish /tece tortis 
for detortis, is determined that an expression so exquisite and 
recondite shall be duly honored, and therefore remodels the whole 
verse into a form which \\ould have made Lucretius stop bis 
ears, and look like the enraged musician. Et valli cygnis, uece 
tortis, ex Heliconis: nor would he have been less puzzled with 
the construction than offended by the sound : for though torti 
usque ad neceni might have been horribly familiar to him, nece 
torti would probably have been new ; especially when employed 
to signify the tranquil death — the euthanasia — supposed to be 
denoted by the expiring melodies of the swan. 

Iv. IV. 6 1 9. Qui, which the editor receives instead of qiWf 
should, for the sake of consistency, be printed, as in other places, 
qui : but after the specimens of his own modesty, which we have 
been exhibiting, his invective against the audacity of preceding 
editors for changing this archaic qui into quo is quite ludicrous. 
L. IV. 989- Lactaut is a mere error of the press here for 
jactaut in the Venetian edition; though in its place, and justly, 
restored by our editor in a subsequent passage. L. v. 1067. 
Dogs do fondle and caress (lactaut) their puppies with their 
paws ; but do not caress or fondle their own legs, when dream- 
ing of pursuing other animals in the chace ; but throw them out 
(jactanl) in their visionary efforts to run. The alteration pro- 
duces utter nonsense, which the editor's usual eagerness for in- 
novation, caused him not to perceive. 

L. IV. 1020. Purei received for puerei or pueris, because 
forming a spondee ; and defended by the absurd derivation from 
purus: but the vowels ue form one long syllable in many other 
words, and puer is derived from the Greek Kovpo^ ihiough the 
medium of other ancient dialects of Italy.' 

' See Proleg. in Horn., published in a preceding Number of this Jour- 
nal, s. cxxix. 

108 Corrections in the Text 

L. V. 30 — 2. The note of interrogation at the end of the 
first line, and the crocliets enclosing the two parts of (he 
second and third, should be, without hesitation, removed : for 
though Stympfutlides may signify the birds of the lake Stym- 
phalus, without any explanatory adjunct, Stj/mphaia co/eiites, 
without the preceding explanation, would signify the human in- 
habitants of its borders. 

L. V. 448. Secretam, humorque, received partly from corrupt 
manuscripts and partly from conjecture, instead oi secreto humore, 
which is first misunderstood and then altered ; secretn, not being, 
as the editor supposes, to be taken as an adverb, but as a par- 
ticiple, which gives the clearest and plainest sense— seor sum 
mare utei, sec^eto humore, paterct. Whilst his alteration, of 
which he boasts the elegance, affords none at all but by a con- 
struction very unworthy of the poet. 

L. V. 589- The composites are usually written by him in the 
archaic manner separately and at length, as alteram uiram is 
here : but soon after (684.) we find uterutrd in the more recent 
and common form. Either the one or the other should be con- 
stantly adhered to in one individual work. 

L. V. 7^3. Jiia is an error of the press for alia. 

L. V. 947. Excibant is substituted to exibaut, contrary to 
the best authority, in defiance of all elegance of construction 
and collocation, and in direct contradiction to the poet's system; 
which allows no such office to the nymphs, or any other divine 
personages ; but accounts, very much at lenglh, for the secretion 
of waters through the earti), by natural and necessary causes. 

L. V. 965. Conjlictabaulur tor conseclabaulur, altered from 
a manifest nusprint, conjiectabantur, in the Ver(Mia edition, said 
by himself to be umtn geuere corrupfe/urutn rej'erliss/ma ; and 
received into the text, in an active sense, agamst all authority, 
and in violation of all sense and syntax. A depravation so mon- 
strous and insulting is perhaps without example, except in these 
rash and hasty effusions of one vvho is perpetually contrasting 
his own modest timidity with the nnpudent temerity of his pre- 
decessors. The authority cited from Cicero, to be at all applica- 
ble, should, instead i.f conjiictavisset, have been coiijiiclatus 
esset rempub/icom, a specimen of l^atmity from which even he 
would probably have shrunk. 

L V. 9()8. Subus i'oY suibus ; the i being dropped on insufli- 
cient auth(.rity. 

L. V. 99'3. Privaraut received from n)anuscripts in (lefiance 
of all analogy of tense for privaruut. The other manuscripts 
of more authority give privabaut, the precise tense, which the 

of Wakefield's Lucretius. 109 

context requires, and which would probably be found in the ma- 
nuscripts that have misled the editor, if more carefully inspected. 

L. V. 1000. Nee, hesu)s, is the reading of all the old copies; 
therefore it may be prudent to retain it instead oi aed, till some- 
thing better occur, though it requires u mode of construction, 
\*hich the i<liom of the language can scarcely admit. 

L. V. 1038. Finding the unusual form proporro in some 
manuscripts and editions, he is determined to receive it in 
spite of all laws of prosody ; and therefore contracts alituum 
into aliluin, by which, however, nothing is gained ; since the 
latter cannot, any more than the former, be contracted into two 
syllables, which his metre absolutely requires. 

L. V. 1163. Is a manifestly spurious line, pronounced to be 
so by Fabre and Beutley ; and therefore ought to have been 
enclosed in crochets. 

L. VI. 11. ^ or per qua, which the preceding conjunction ef, 
referring to qute in v. 9-, absolutely requires; and the approxi- 
mate readings of manus'-.ripts, per qua and per quam, fully jus- 
tify, he receives from books of no authority pro quo ; and en- 
deavours by a construction in violation of all syntax, to join it 
with the context : for there is neither antecedent nor consequent 
either to the relative or its preposition, except in victum or usus, 
which no known licence ot construction can join to them. 

L. VI. 47-8. Seem to be incurably corrupt without the aid 
of better manuscripts; and perhaps the conjectural alterations 
made by our editor are less objectionable, because less violent, 
than those of his predecessors. 

L. VI. 87. Partim for partem in this instance only must be 
wrong; and, being usually employed as an adverb, cannot be 
generally restored as an archaism without introducing frequent 

L. VI. 344. Coniciem for conjiciens has arisen out of a com- 
pendious way of writing, by which one letter was made to stand 
for two ; and is, otherwise, a word of no better note than coueo, 
coniturus, &c. would be, if received instead of coeo, coituras, 


L. vi. 393. Fovitur for volvitur,'\s merely a misprint, of which 
1 have observed only two instances in the whole impression. 

L. VI. 508. Humect i is here foisted into the text by mere con- 
jecture instead of vi venti, a manifest interpolation from the suc- 
ceeding line, though a respectable manuscript offered /lumeritt, 
the best possible word, and the syntax absolutely re(juired the 
sixth case — coufertoi, or more properly conferctcc nube^ hutnend, 
Clouds Jilted unth fiumid matter : but this is plain and gram- 
matical, and therefore sacrificed to a conjectural alteration. 

110 Corrections in the Teat 

which is neither ; coiiferius with a genitive being a mere bar- 
barism, for which no shitde or semblance of authority is offered. 
J^. VI. 514-0. Are obscure and probably corrupt: but the 
editor has done wisely ni leaving them for future di>coveries 
wilhoui admittmg conjectural emendations of his own or others. 
Inestimable wduld have been his edition had he been guided in 
all instances by similar discretion. 

L. vi.()24. Fe///(?i lu'gligently repeated from the preceding 
line for poiiti, and continued in some manuscripts, is eagerly 
seized upon and introduced as one of those elei;ant repetitions 
of which the poet was fond ; though in a situation where both 
the sense and collocation of the words render it most crude and 
inelegant, the passage being one of dry argument, whereas such 
repetitions belong to the ardor of passion and glow of enthusiasm. 
L. VI. 791-2> Finding in some of his manuscripts, acris for 
acri at the end of the first of ihese two lines, he boldly makes a 
place for it, by two most outrageous conjectural alterations in 
the second, jiidor suhfutidit for nidore offeiidu, and cogit for 
sopit ; both in (hrect violation of syntax, which, indeed, never 
stands in his way, when he attacks it pen in hand. ISidor se 
subfundit paribus, or nidore snbfund<t nares, would be Latin, 
but not 7iidor subfundit nares ; and nidor is not sufficiently sub- 
stantial to precede cogit, at least without the sanction of safe 
authority. The true reading of the passage is probably 
Nocturnumque recens extinctum lumen, ubi acri 
Nidore obfendit nareis, tum si)j)it ibeidem ; 
Concidere nt pronos qui morbus mittere suevit. ' 
At least it is both grammatical and intelligible; and therefore, 
as every word is sanctioned by the authority of Manuscripts and 
old editions, ought to be retained. 

L. VI. 800. riie archaic //we;/5 iromfluo, which he approves 
in his Notes, ought without hesitation to have been received into 
the Text for J'ueris : but having exhausted all his energy in the 
preceding heroic effort, he dares not venture to adopt an obvious 
and necessary emendation sanctioned by the best authoritv. 

L. VI. 890. Here, howevei, he suddenly recovers his temerity 
and inserts est without necessity or expediency, or any shadow 
or semblance of authoiity : for though the first syllabic of aradiis 
be short, the first of aiadio might, by a well-known licence, be 
pronounced long, as that of Ihitanni is in v. 1 104. It is not, 
liowever, quite so certain that the final io would be conlractcJ 
into one s\ liable : for the example which is cited from Homer, 

" Such junctions of two infinitives are not uncommon in the early 
poets. See Plaut. Mil. Glor. Act ii. Sc. 1. vs. 48. 6cc. 

of Wakefield*s Lucretius. 1 J 1 

AlyvTTTly) is utterly irrelevant. We now indeed know that the 
prosody of ihe old bard did not, like that of his successors, allv)w 
a vowel to he short before ttt : but the ancient critics do not 
appear to have observed these obsolete fieculiarities : but to have 
adapted his metre, as nearly as they couKi, lo their own respective 
modes of pronouncing : so that the rh.ipsodists of Pisistratus, 
Dionysius, and Alexander, read AlyijTTTi-^, ni which they were of 
course folio ^\ed by the grammarians of the age of Lucretius. 

L. VI. 95 5 — 8. are unintelligibly corrupt m every individual 
manuscript and old edition, and the emendations, by which they 
have since acquired meaning, amount to a complete remodelling 
of the text. These our Kditor has wisely rejected ; but by a 
most injudicious alteration of his own — ccc/i into co//t — and by 
a no less injudicious selection of readings from old copies, he 
has left the text more unintelligible, and more uugrammatical, 
than he found it. In such cases the only safe way is, v\ holly to 
renounce conjecture ; constitute a text out of the best selection 
that the judgment of the Editor can form; place the other 
authorized readings at the bottom of the page ; and trust lo time 
for further elucidation. On this plan I recommend the follow- 
ing, not as satisfactory, but as the most probable that genuine 
authority can supply : 


Ignis, guiferri quoque vim penet? are sutv/l. 
Denique, qua cinum cali lorica coeiret ; 
Morbida visque simul, quoin extrinsecus iusiuuatur ; 
Et tenipeslules, terra caloque coortcc, 
In calinn terr unique remote, jure facessunt ; 
Quundoquidem nihil est, nisi raro corpore nexum. 

To make sense, facesso must of course be taken in the 
archaic sense of retiring or tcithdrazcing, -dwdjus for the laro of 
physical necessity. 

L. VI. 974. 'i'he i unnecessarily dropt from suihus, which 
may be contracted into two short syllables. 

L. VI. 1003 and 1015. Vacefit, \\\\n:\\ the Editor introduces 
from authorities of no validity in sucli matters, is in nowise better 
than strenejit would be ; and, according to his plan of constituting 
the text, it should be written separately — vacuefit. 

L. VI. 1030. Navem is here arbitrarily changed in the nomi- 
native plural, naves, and the puucUiation altered, so as lo save, 
by a forced and crude construction, the following line, which 
Lambm and Bentlev had justly condemned as an inttrpolatiou. 
The true i fading is manitestl\ — trad it et impellit, quasi navem 
vclaque vciitis, where the paragraph should end, and v. 1031 be 
ex])ungcd, or enclosed in crochets. 

112 Corrections of Wakefield's Lucretius. 

A new edition of Lucretius being about to appear among the 
Delphin and VuriorumClussics, for which this of Mr. Wake- 
field must necessarily be the foundation, 1 have thought it due 
to the publishers and the pubhc, that tiiese instances ot negligent 
inconsistency, gross error, and wanton interpolation, should be 
pointed out and exposed, that they may nut be lepeated. Others 
may discover still more, or may propose better substitutes for 
these here exauiined, for I do not pretend to have made any re- 
gular collation of the text, nor have any other object in view than 
the restoration of its purity ; to v\hich whosoever shall contribute, 
even by tlie detection of errors of my own, shall share njy grati- 
tude, with that of other admirers of a poet who, in fertility of 
imagination, and brilliancy and variety of illustration, is the 
second — and in depth, energy, and justness of thought, and in 
vigor, perspicuity, conciseness, and precision of expression, the 
iirst, of all poets. 

This opinion of him is however directly contrary to that which 
is generally circulated under the authority of one who must 
necessarily have been a better judge of the general merits of a 
Latin poet than it is possible for any modern critic to be, 
namely, of Cicero ; but this contrariety is entirely owing to one 
of those iuipudent interpolations, against which our Editor is con- 
stantly inveighing, and which he is constantly practising. Quintus 
Cicero had, it seems, in a letter to bis brother JSlarcus written 
at the time of the poem's first publication, admired the splen- 
dors of genius displayed in it; to which Marcus in his answer 
entirely assents, but adds, that there zcas nevathekss much of 
art. Luctetii. poemala ita sunt, lit scrihis, multh luminibus hi- 
gcnii ; mu/ta: tamen artis, ' in which the coi junction tamen 
naturally connects the additional observation of Marcus to the 
original one of Quintus : but a dashing P^ditor not perceiving 
this, and therefore concluding that it wanted an antecedent, most 
rashly and impudently inserted von alter scribis ; which having 
been retained by n)Obt of his successors, the passage is now com- 
monly quoted as an instance of the great orator's want of skill 
and discernment in poetry. He was, indeed, a vei) bad poet, 
and a most fond and partial admirer of his own frothy veises, as 
many other such versifiers have been ; but, nevertheless, neither 
he nor liis brother were so blind to the merits of otliers as to 
blame a poem for the want of that particular excellence for 
which it is most pre-eminent. 

This instance alone should make all Editors cautious in 
receiving or repeating conjectural alterations. R. P. K. 

' L. ii. Ep. 11. 




'I'm kccQqKov Ba<^^X^KM fZgoxoupaTWg* 

(ere* oc^jo'.) 

\iieOMENAi:i:i fjiivoivcus 

-TrvsTy jt/'Sy', w Moi<T , o^nx re 

y^pi} w7raxoucre'jM.=v a- 
5 vayxa, xai auxilu fSua'ai 

uUtov »7rTajU,EV&v 

aAxa vohg, OjjLtixTog ccpyou apTtoLyi, 

«f rap^ei t rjAsy^s x»i^ovTU$ arju;, 

Kca^pioKTavTU Kmsv 
lb ooKVTiTspog (^QovM ^us- 

fiovT , coxs'yjj viKoc^opov 6* 

'AKXa T'j, TroTvia Moiaot, 

15 fpoyr»Sa;v aT\|/« ToXi/.ripoiv, 

o^pa. Aay^tjTiix X£- 

v[jivoov. 'AosToiv 8s (Tuv ayvw ^uffrti 
'29 u/*vge«v ei^o) weXev vfipios' fvu 

yvco/xai, 0£vr]v altrav xXjS'Jj 
Aa/XTTgav ^9ov^evT» cxo'tw 
aiyaf xaAuTrrejv. 
VOL. XXI. a. J/. NO. XLI. 

114 Greek Ode. 

A. y. 

0,5 '"if pa aevofpovsg su;^«» 

yovTi SvaTOJv fpsvag, tu<PK^ 
T ^Topj lo-Aa psovT, 
cuxgov Ts ttAoOtov SivJ/acrj 
30 ^povTiaiv ufLvioixsV 

oA/Soj S' apsToig (ere fj.h ayvuv [xxTspot, 
IJuWois, sa-\u)V [ji,ugT6poixix.i) Ttupa. QvxTols 

[xOiQuv, vs[ji5(T<ru)V CO y hyw 
35 o-weoSw l7ra(rx^(r«i xXvtuIs 

rjpojet upi^uis' 

A. 8'. 

og voog v^i^xtoio 

ds^lOV OIJ.y.U TlTCX.'lVUiV, 

40 avTvyag ovpocvlov, 

Svpico AiTTCov alav, xa» a- 

yvov (^oiog avxAsrV Ix 

TTayxg xu^upag coct^riTOV Aa/x^/joj* 

TS^jj uvf/rjAaj (rn^iag x«» cKpuvTOV, 
45 uv ys (ptj\a(Tcrojxevoig 

OT(TOKrtv 07rrovT«i ^pOTo), 

aTyAyjj ayujw-vacTTOU /SoAaTj 

dct[j.evTeg ijrop. 

J. e'. 

Kei&sv uyvoic voov sgcrag 
50 kyK6{ji,ov If I Jayro-crsuj 

fttpd' lAwv, yjf t' JaAAjj Ojtx,- 

/3pov xxQupSic (TO<plug, 

Txv KeATjxav Tep^wv %ura 

ocjj^^poiTt/x Trpanl^cuv, 
55 ^ cifLfi^ciXiv xAIqj oXjSov a.<p^lTO'J' 

o'lcofxvTi Z^vx VOT 'A^po^hug 7r«I8', 

Greek Ode. ii5 

s'lvaKiotv ye 'PoZov 
(TTe'lrat, ^uSaiv euT* evpsctiv 

J. ..'. 
Zevg TOTS jj v»^a8:cr(r< 
<TToi^a(T' ocyoLvopa. y^QVCov, 
Ofji^pov oX^oio Iv ^cxv$ci 
ra. ve(J)/Xa TrvKxcrac, 
')5 vocTco re co7raa-(7eV reyva^, 

0<T<TXTS XvltoivBtp' 

6ivZpia-(n (piXfi a-o<plr, rsv^eiv y\vxa. 
'A>X eav TTxrqcx.v xa6«po7(j-< ^aysao'iuj 
vufLuari rey^s kKsovc, 
70 ^gviToh -TTAOVTco xpi<T<yoyi 

roiv oK^KTcts iprj(j.cis, «p£- 
Txv re xXesvvaiv. 

'£XA,aj ocr' Au(TOVtr} re 

otyXax av9E//.« ya7a 
l75 Spe\|/aTO yvoiosoov Tsp-Kvoiv, 

Xe^aro S' o(rcra yi^jj 

^Ox' £^og', AlyvTrris Q' o(Tug 

evSsTO %s»^ craviVi, 

xai 7rXa0» y^upa^i Ttor , t\v eclvlyiJitx.<ri 
80 wxri xai trs/xva X£xaAu/x/x6y«j opLfcc^f 

Qsa-^oiTot 8* oWa flsro 

alcov, xuXj'vScov pz6[/,ccTi 

flvTJTOWJ ^pOVOU, fieC/XoIffJ T£ 

lJ,eTpoig Te cigav, 

A. ri'. 
85 TrjvTaTiv ETTTa eraiv (oii 

(psp^sToii, irclv^' kXcuv KoXnoiff 

116 Greek Ode, 

xa» rufiUvas vow 

eugel Jayeo-trfuj* ou re /Xiv 

90 Aavflave 5'»xeX<xa7f 

yp<x[iiJi.ixv T;^vi* ev \J/a]U.aflo<j, yYifiepril 
vco ^apa^^evT , ovx ISesuv ^yysv o^Xoc, 
«* weXov ii^^pvx e- 
vupym a.(iiih§ix. vpayfiaTcny, 

95 aXX' ajVov ^'ffAcotre vo'ov, 

x«i Spe\p' awTov, 

J. 6'. 

wv «7raj tdpt.evui tXlsv, 

ex ye <J>w«j ^poros' Avrap 

(XQUCTJXav TOj(r< cry^eu^aj 
100 ayXocieiv, [/.sXertx. 

TspTTVu, xXlij IctAwv aTrayr' 

^Topj «ntip/rr£V. 

'H yap TreXev oX^ioc, 05 y' oISs-v /3/cy 

IJi.ov<Tmuii ap/xo^Eju,£v aliv avccyxuts. 
IOj "Axfji-ovoi Ix, IlvQxyo- 

pct ^Aufiov (Ttf Up!^A«TO» 

puflju.01, fLEAof TS oi f%aX- 

xeycrsy <r/Sijgoj, 

J. »'. 
aS'XeTa ^fpab ajtova-uis 

1 10 TOTTTo'lU-fVOf . IJoK'j'idpif 

eirXt^', 05 flijxjv ev ^psaaiv, 

ufisplov Ts Tup^aj, 

xaiflc; ■yraXippoiuv xsccp 

Kpe<r<TOV e;^£iv, S<a^cu- 
113 vojf ev Te poTroiia-t, TctXuvTiV(Txs v6oV 

aptv v^o^ fly/xov ivapix,oviov. Tb 

Z' i6npay{ciK7i xojxwv, 

crsfi,vov, flarjTov t' « ft£X>j/x' 

av5p5cro"i, x^p eup^opJov «Jf 
120 tZ^Srjj xfgaa-(raj 

On the Invention of Printing, II7 

J. »a'. 

dpftovixctlc y^aplT6(r(Xif 
<tqI ts oixo^pova. Ksuiv 
Sju.7r£S«jo"«f Traflwv, reC^a; 
6vSoV»nAOV (^iXafpov 
12.> XaolcTiV elpdvug (rs/*vaf, 

apTia. [x,rido[j.svog, 
sx^pd-v $' vjSgiog Tpifiov dyvolg tp^v?(7t 

130 oX3y t«» y^/rj^oj Tov otJ 

fji,up4>st ^flovof SaXXovTa X*o-- 

J. «^'. 

"y4X<ov lo^oXcti rig 
yap -rroTS hdyf^uTU /3a\|/6V ; 
135 xtv^vvou evTi yufxvoi tsv 

igyfixTci, Yii AUag 

x^uv&svTu ^ouXtxlgy ^ctccuvog 


x«« firjxs <r' ayvov 6£ju,«Soj fiw<rT«v ejiASv. 
1 40 Ti* 8* evy6pi,u) ^ropi r^ r aSuT* elcrSwff 

flecr^ara a/ATreTatraj 
aju./x»v voy,wv, Toltri tttoXejj 

144 k<r\wv sipcFong. 



O// ;Ag Pretensions of Laurens Raster, of Haarlem, to the 
Invention of Printing with Moveable Types. 

A SHORT discussion on the invention of the art of Printing, and a 
statement of the arguments, by which that invention is attributed 
to a native of Holland, may perhaps not be unacceptable to the 
readers of the Classical Journal. My attention was drawn to this 

118 On the Invention of Printing 

subject when I was at Haarlem, in September 1815, In ti;e market- 
place of that town is to be seen the statue of one of its former 
inhabitants, Lawrence CostTer, or, as he is called at lull length iu 
Dutch, Laurens Janszoon Koster. On the pedestal of this statue 
is the following inscription : 

"JE. M. S. 
Laurentio Costero, Harlemensi, viro consulari, ti/pographife inven- 
tori vero, monumentum hoc erigi curavit Collegium Medicum 


Adjeining the market-place, near the statue, the house in which 
Koster hved is to be seen. In front of this house, in the gable-end, 
(for the houses in Holland are frequently built with their gable-ends 
forward,) there is a similar record upon a tablet, in these words : 

"M. S. 
Viro Consulari, Laurentio Costero, Harkmensi, iypographiie in- 
ventori, circa annum mccccxxx," 

In these inscriptions, Lawrence Koster, of Haarlem, is proclaimed 
as the inventor of the art of printing, and the opinion that he really 
was so prevails throughout Holland. To one who had never before 
considered the grounds on which that opinion rests, it was natural 
that so interesting a subject should afford occasion of enquiry, 
especially when it was suggested on the very spot to which it re- 
lates. No opportunity of farther investigation occurred while I 
remained at Haarlem ; but I retained the topic in my mini!, and 
when I arrived, subsequently, at Leyden, determined to avail my- 
self of the information which the learned men of that city might be 
able to communicate. I accordingly mentioned the subject to two 
gentlemen of that university, Messrs. Van Kampen and William 
Henry Tydeman, both distinguished for their learning and ex- 
tensive knowledge. Mr. Van Kampen, with whom 1 tirst con- 
versed, stated, that Hadrianus Junius, a Dutch writer of the l6'th 
century, had directed the attention of his countrymen to the claims 
of Koster: that these claims were founded, 1. on a tradition. 
Landed down from generation to generation, concerning his inven- 
tion of printing ; 2. on certain specimens of old printing at- 
tributed to him, which are preserved, according to Mr. Van 
Kampen's account, in the town-hall of Haarlem. He added, that 
it was part of the tradition alluded to, that one of Koster's jour- 
neymen, or workmen, eloped from him, carrying with him the types 
invented by his master, and other articles of the printing apparatus, 
and witlidrew to Mentz, where he betrayed the secret of his mas- 
ter's art, and set up a printing establishment, which gave rise to 
those other typographical institutions at Mentz that subsequently 
attained so much celebrity. Mr. Van Kampen referred me for farther 
information to the Origines ti/pographiae of Gerardus Meerman. 
Nearly the same intelligence I obtained from Mr. Tydeman, who 
likewise recommended Meerman. He farther showed me a book. 

avVA Moveable Types. 119 

written in Dutch, by Henry Gockinga, on the invention of printing* 
taken from Mcerman's Latin work, and accompanied with the 
notes of the editor.' Besides this, he mentioned a treatise on that 
subject, in a periodical work, called Mnemosyncy which is edited 
by himself and Mr. Van Kampen. And lastly he observed, 
that a Mr. Cog an, an Englishman, in a book, describing a tour 
along the Rhine, had adverted to this topic, and taken a very just 
view of it. This publication I have not had an opportunity of 
consulting ; but I purchased, at Leyden, the work called Mne- 
mosyne,'^ and what I shall communicate respecting the subject in 
question is chiefly derived from this source. There are, however; 
several other writers, who throw a considerable light on all the 
details that belong to this argument. They are : " Van Oosten de 
Bruyn, Geschiedenis der Stad Haarlem," (History of the Town of 
Haarlem); " Daunou, Analyse des Opinions diverses sur I'Origine 
deriuiprimerie,"in Memoires de I'lnstitut National des Sciences et 
des Arts, Tome 4; " Woltii Monumenta Typographica ;" " Jansen, 
Histoire de I'Origine de I'lmprimerie ;" " Lambinet, Recherches sur 
I'Origine de I'lmprimerie, et sur ses premiers ^tablissements dans la 
Belgique ;'' " INlarchand, in Annalibus Hirsaugiensibus ;" " San- 
tandra de Serra, Diclionnaire Bibliographique ;" " Seiz, Derde Ju- 
belgaar der uitgcvordene Boekdrukkonst," (Third Jubilee of the In- 
vention of the Art of Printing) ; "Breitkopf, iiber die Geschichte 
der Erfindung der Buchdruckerkunst," (on the History of the Inven- 
tion of the Art of Printing); and lastly, the following important work, 
" Initia Typographica illustravit Jo. Frid. Lichtenberger," published 
at Strasburg and Paris, 1811, 4to. by Treuttel and Wiirtz. 

The honor of this important invention has been claimed by seve- 
ral places, in different parts of Europe. Those, whose pretensions 
have the best foundation, are Haarlem, Mentz, and Strasburg. 
Other towns, (hat offer themselves as competitors for that distinc- 
tion, Augsburg, Basil, Bologna, Feltri, Florence, Lubeck, Rome, 
have no adequate pleas in their favor. They can exhibit some old 

' The title is: "Uitvinding der Boekdrukkery, gebrokken uit het 
Latynsch werk van Gerard Meerman, met eene Voorrede en aanteeke- 
ningen, van Hendrik Gockinga. Hierachter is gevoegen eene Lyst der 
Boeken in de Nederlanden gedrukt voor't Jaar M. D. opgestelt door 
Visser." i. e. " The invention of printing, taken from the Latin work of 
Gerard Meerman, with a preface, and notes, by Henry Gockinga. 
Alter this is subjoined a list of books printed in the Netherlands before 
the year 1500, drawn up by Visser." 

^ The title of this interesting publication is: "Mnemosyne; Menge- 
hngen voor Weienschappen en Fraaye Letteren ; verzameld door Mr. 
IL W. Tydeman en N. G. Van Kampen. 1«. Stuk. Dordrecht, 1816. 8vo." 
i. e. " Mnemosyne ; or Miscellanies for Science and Belles Lcttres ; col- 
lected by IL W. Tydeman, A. M. and I»f . G. Van Kampen. 1st Number. 
Dordrecht, 1815." 

120 On the Invention of Printing 

prints which they have produced ; but from these it is too hasty 
and presumptuous a step to the origin and invention of the art. 
The only fair candidates for that reputation are the cities of Haar- 
lem, Mentz, and Strasburg ; and their title of priority seems to be 
estabhshed in the order in which they are here named. Haarlem, 
which claims to be considered as the birth-place of the art, founds 
her right,^r«^, on the traditional account which is preserved of the 
invention. According to this tradition, the inventor was a mao 
named Laurens Janszoon Koster; in English, Lawrence Johnson 
Koster. Of this individual it is recorded, that he was the son of 
Jan Laurenszoon, or John Lawrenceson. It was, in those days 
when surnames did not generally prevail, the custom to distinguish 
a person by subjoining to his own Christian name that of his father, 
with the word zoon, son, annexed to the latter, as its terminating 
syllable. Therefore our subject was called Laurens Janszoon, Law- 
rence the son of John ; and his father had been denominated Jan 
Laurenszoon, John the son of Lawrence, as the grandson iisually 
bore the name of the grand-father. Subsequently, a farther dis^ 
crimination began to be introduced by means of surnames, as 
we call tbem. These had their origin from different sources, 
and, among others, from an office, trade, or occupation. Hence 
the man of whom we are speaking derived the appellation of 
Koster, which means parish-clerk ; for he was parish-clerk for 
many years to the principal church at Haarlem, or the church of 
St. Bavo. The name Koster might, therefore, in Enghsh, be ren- 
dered clerk, and the whole name expressed by Lawrence Johnson 
Clerk. We shall, however, retain the appellation of Laurens Koster, 
by which this individual has been distinguished. The year of his 
birth does not appear to be known, nor is that of his death ascer- 
tained. It seems likely that he died between the years 1434 and 
1440. The office of parish-clerk was, at that time, both respect- 
able and profitable, and to attend to the duties more conveniently, 
it seems that he took the house in the market-place, near the 
church. He was one of the magistrates of the town of Haarlem ;' 
a situation, however, for which it does not appear that he vacated 
the office of parish-clerk ; but he probably retained the latter 
through life, which may be concluded from the circumstance of its 
having furnished his surname. The year in which the art of 
printing was invented by him is not exactly determined.^ Some say 
it was the year 1428, others 1440; the writer in Mnemosyne places 
it between 1420 and 1430. In the inscription on Koster's house, 
as I read it in September 1815, the year 1430 was distinctly writ- 
ten; yet it seems that others read it 1428.^ The history of the in- 
vention is related by Junius, iu the dedication prefixed to his 

§€« Mnemosyne, p. 147. * Il>. p. 150. ' lb. p. «06. \u>\c :U). 

tdth Moveable Types. 121, 

Batavia.' It is founded on tradition. But this tradition was by 
Junius derived from sources, besides the common hearsay, which 
were particularly entitled to credit. They were two old men, of 
most respertable character and station in hfe, who remembered 
une Corntlis or Kornelis,^ who had been journeyman or servant to 
Koster, and from whom they had heard the |varticulars hereafter to 
be detailed. One of those two men was Nicholas Gael, the mas- 
ter or preceptor of .Tuuius: he was of very advanced age when 
Junius was his pupil. ^ The other was Quirinus Talesius,* burgo- 
master of Haarlem, also a very old man in the time of Junius, He 
was the friend of Erasmus, and had been burgomaster from the 
year 15.52 : he died in 1573. If seems that Gael was acquainted 
with Piefer Thomaszoon the grandson, and particularly with 
T/tojnas Pieterzoon the great grand-son, ^of Laurens Koster;* from 
whom he might have an opportunity of learning the history of the 
invention, and be enabled to make a comparison between their ac- 
count and the narrative of Cornells. Neither Talesius nor Gael 
could have any motive or interest to ascribe the invention to Lau- 
rens Koster, if the fact had not been true in their judgment. Cor- 
iielis himself could have no temptation to tell a falsehood ii^ his 
old master was long dead, and the printing business had passed 
into other hands, so that no imaginable advantage could be seen in 
such a fiction. We cannot suppose that the story was adopted for 
the mere purpose of a fiction. But the general belief that prevailed 
at Haarlem on this subject, is likewise entitled to some weight. The 
house which is called Roster's, and the inscription with which it is 
marked, are proofs of the popular opinion ;^ and it is to be ob- 
served, that this opinion was maintained, and continued without 
interruption, even in times of confusion and trouble,* when facts 
of this nature might easily have sunk into oblivion. The report of 
Junius is as follows:' " Laurens Janszoon, surnamed Koster, was, 
one afternoon, walking in the wood near Haarlem, and happened, 
while handling his knife, to cut some letters in twigs, or small 
branches, of beech. By reversing these letters, in the manner of a 
seal, he made impressions with them on paper, transferring the 
characters, either by means of the simple dry pressure, or by the 
help of some liquid. This accidental circumstance fixed Koster's 
ultention, and he improved upon it by cutting in a similar manner 
whole lines in wood, for the purpose of using them in teaching his 
grand-children. He dipped these wooden characters into common 
ink, but found that this was too liquid, and would be blotted. 
This induced him to think of another medium, and to make ink 

Mnemosyne, p. 153. "^ lb. p. 152, 160. ^ lb. p. 158. * lb. p. 1.50. 
lb. p. 159. <6 lb. p. 170. 7 lb. p. Ij7. * lb. p. 156. 

5 lb. p. ISi, 153. 

122 On the Tnven tion of Frintmg 

that should be more ghitinous and cohesive. In this attempt lie 
succeeded, and was enabled, not only to print off the letters upon 
paper or parchment, but also pictures and tisjures that had been 
cut in wood. In this way he printed a book, both with letters and 
with figures. It was printed only on one side, or page, of the leaf, 
and was the work of an anonymous writer, being in the Dutch 
language, and bearing the title " De Spiegel onzer Behondenisse," 
i. e. *' The Mirror of our Salvation." Afterwards he made types in 
lead, and subsequently in tin or pewter, finding it necessary to have 
a stronger and harder material for his purpose. Laurens employed 
in his work the assistance of Thomas Pitte.rszoon, to whom his 
daughter was married. In order to make his discovery more 
efficient and profitable, he had occasion to extend the number of 
his workmen : lie therefore took some persons, as journeymen, 
into his service, among whom was one called John. This man, 
unmindful of the fidelity due to his master, and of the oath he had 
taken, when he learnt his master's invention, determined to share 
the advantage which was likely to be derived from that invention ; 
and watching his opportunity, one Christmas-eve, when every 
person was at church, slipped into his master's printing-office, and 
having packed up some of the types, together with the most neces- 
sary tools, secretly departed from Haarlem. He was probably 
aided in his enterprise by some accomplice ; and he first betook 
himself to Amsterdam, thence to Cologne, and lastly to Mentz, 
where he settled, and erected a printing-office in the year 1441. 
He printed immediately two little books, well known at that time, 
and used in schools, viz. "Alexandri Galli Doctrinale," which 
was a Latin Grammar in verse ; and the other book containing some 
small tracts, relative to Logic, by Petrus Hispanus. These two 
books were finished in the year 1442." Such is the relation of 
Junius. The points it contains are these: 1. Laurens Koster first 
cut letters in wood, .and printed with them. 2. He next substi- 
tuted leaden or tin letters. 3. A journeyman or workman of his 
robbed him of his types and implements, and carrying them, to- 
gether with the secret of the art, to Mentz, there began to print 
books. If these points be established, or, what is next to it, pro- 
tected from contradiction, there will remain no doubt that the in- 
vention of the art of printing belongs to Haarlem. The testimony 
afforded by the tradition itself, such as it has been stated above, 
goes a considerable way in the proof. There is nothing in it, to 
which the historian would object ; no improbability in the attend- 
ing circumstances ; no incompetency in the sources of the tradition ; 
no inconsistency between different reporters. The argument will 
be admitted as sufficient, till the contrary is proved ; and if there 
be no attempt to controvert it, it will be considered as established. 
Such a task, however, is undertaken by those who advocate the 
cause of Mentz and Strasburg, and claim the honor of the inven- 

with Moveable Types. 123 

lion for either of those cities : the pretensions of them and of Haar- 
lem cannot stand together : it is therefore necessary to enquire, 
on what foundation the former rest, in order to compare the, t with 
the claims of Haarlem. The persons who are celebrated in Bibli- 
ograpliy as the first printers, are John Guttenberg;, John Fust, or 
Faust, and Peter Schceffer (or Opilio, as he calls himself, by trans- 
lating his name, which means shepherd, into Latui). Of these 
Guttenbei'g is looked upon as the first inventor; Fust, as a man 
that supported and promoted the invention ; and Schceffer, as an 
assistant, who, from a journeyman, became the son-in-law of Fust, 
and a partner in the concern.' It is further related, that some of 
the workmen having withdrawn to Strasburir, divulged the art, and 
exercised it at that place. ^ Another account assi','ns the honor of 
the first invention to Strasburg, alleging, ihat it was there made by 
Gutlenberg, and thence carried by him to Mentz, where he j>reatly 
improved it.^ Though these accounts contradict each other in the 
place, tiiey ai.'ree in the inventor, which both allow to have been 
John Gultenbers;, supposed by some to have been the same person 
with John Gensjleisch^ Another point that seems to be conceded 
is, that the first attempt of what is called printing was made with 
wooden types, and that Guttenberg originally printed with thera.^ 
By these I mean moveable wooden letters, with which the first 
printed edition of the Bible, which issued from Guttenberg's press, 
was probably executed.*^ Whether Guttenbtrg ever printed from 
wooden plates, or tables, according to the mode which in modern 
times is called stereotype, may be doubted ; though one of his his- 
torians speaks of a Caiholicon,^ * or Dictionary, that was thus 
printed. But the existence of such a book is to be questioned ; 
and that art of engraving on wooden tables, and printing from them, 
seems to be of mucji earlier date. It is usually distinguished by 
the uame of Xylography,^ i. e. writing in wood, and vestiges of 
it are found long before the time of Guttenberg ; so that he could 
not boast of it as a new invention. 

The Hbri stampati, which occur about a century before his time,"* 
or earlier, must likewise not be confounded with what we call 

' See Mnemosyne, p. 139. ^ Ih. p. 141. ^ lb. p. 141. 

^ bee Eloge hlstorique de J. Gensfleisch, det Guttenberg, par I. F. 
Nee de lu Rochelle. Paris, 1811. Lichtenberger's Initia Typographica, 
p. 8. Mnemosyne, p. 210. n. 47 and 49. Gemjleisch sh^uifies goose-Jiesh, 
and may have been a sortof nick-name given tu Guttenberg. 

5 Mnemosyne, p. 133. ^ Ibid. p. 179, and 140. ^ ib. p. J40. 

* See Lichtenberger's Initia Typographica, p. 20. and compare Mne- 
mosyne, p. 182. 

'^ See Specimina Impressi«nis Tahellaris, in Meerman's Origines, Vol. I. 
p. 217. sqq. 

■° See Mnemosyne, p. 215. and Lichtenbcrger, p. 141. 

124 On the Invention of Pri?iting 

printing, though the step from the one to the other seems to be sw 
easy and obvious, that it is surprising so long a time should have 
elapsed before it was accomplished. It will be proper, in liiis 
place, to say a few words on the practice of sfamping, instead of 
writing books, which undoubtedly was the forerunner of the art of 
printing. The manner in which that operation was pt-rformed, I 
presume, is not exactly known; but it appears likely that every 
letter required the distinct application of the hand. The letters 
were cut upon instruments called stampilli, or stamps, and these 
stamps must have been made of metal, because it seems that in 
many instances they were heated to make the impression ; for exam- 
ple, when the book was to be executed in gold or silver characters. 
Then the process was probably similar to the mode which is used 
by bookbinders in lettering the backs of the books. Whether they 
bad a contrivance to hold several letters together, as the book- 
binders have in Germany,' so as to make the impression of them 
at once, or whether each letter was distinctly intprinted on the 
parchment, as the English bookbinders do in lettering books, may 
be a matter of doubt; though I should be inclined, as I have before 
intimated, to suppose that each letter required a separate impres- 
sion, because, if the means of fastening a certain number together 
and imprinting them jointly had been familiar, it would have been 
obvious that such a conjunction of several letters might be carried 
to a greater extent, and near advances might have been made to our 
art of printing. But probably they had not such a help, or any 
thing like a tool resembhng the type-case of the German book- 
binders. Tliis may in some degree be concluded from the im- 
perfect means which were employed at the commencement of the 
art of printing, when we know that the w'ooden types which were 
first invented were tied together by means of strings.* If any 
more efficient mode of keeping single letters together had been 

' The technical term for this instrument, in German, is Schriftkatten, 

^ See Lichtenberger't Initia Ti/pographica, p. 101. I will quote his 
words: " Ad iiifructuosa artis tentaniina referendi videntur lignei il!i 
typi, funiculo colligati, quos cum asseribus et primordiis artis cum cura 
asservasse Jo. F;iustuni, amicisquo qiiandoque monstrasse, traclit ejusdem 
relationis aiictor. — Paukis Pater anno 1710. refert: 'Ligneos typos, ex 
biixi frutice, perforatos in medio, ut zona coUigari commode possint, ex 
Ffiusti offirina reliquos, Moguntiae aiiquando me conspexisse memini.' — 
Argentorati quoque Specklinus, qui obiit a. 1589, testatur se vidisse ligneos 
typos perforatos, ut tunioulo colligari possent, quos e primi invenloris 
Mentelii officiua reliquos fuisse dicit, additque eosdem baud amplius su- 
peresse. Venetus quoque typos perforatos se vidisse Rocha memorat 
a. 1591, monetqiie primos artis inventores consuevisse charactcres connec- 
tere filo, in literarum foramen iramisso," 

with Moveable Types. 125 

previously known, it would probably have been adopted by tbe 
tirst inventors of printing ; though it must be allowed that this 
reasoning is not decisive, because it might Imppen, as it unques- 
tionably often has happened, that an invention or piece of mecha- 
nism existed at a certain period, and fell into disuse, without being 
communicated to succeeding times. Besides, that mode of stamp- 
ing books was, at the time that it was practised, by no means in 
general use. It wns probably, in the manner in which it was em- 
ployed, more troublesome than the most exquisite writing, and 
therefore we do not know of many books that were thus executed. 
Lichtenberger' mentions the following: 1. The celebrated silver 
Codex of the four Gospels, translated into the Gothic language by 
Ulfilas, in the century, which is preserved at Upsala, in 
Sweden.- 2. A Latin Cotlex of the Four Evangelists, preserved 
at Verona, and edited by Blanchinus m his Evangeliarium Qua- 
(iruplex, in the year 1748.^ 3. A Psalterium, in the hbrary of St. 
Germain, at Paris.* The two learned Benedictines, the authors of 
the " Nouveau Traite de Diplomatique," did not believe* the fact, 
that books had ever been impressed in that manner. It was a 
learned Swede of the name of Ikre^ who first entertained that idea, 
from contemplating the Codex of Ulfilas. He observed, in the 
Jirst place, that there was a considerable impression made in the 
parchnsent by the letters, more than could have been done by a 
pen or reed, and that where the silver with wiiich the letters were 
written was worn away, or had peeled oiFj still the figures of the 
letters remained perfect, on account of the impression made on the 
parchment. To this impression it was owing that the space be- 
tween the lines was rough and uneven to the touch, because the 
edges of the letters were somewhat elevated by the impression. 
Secondly, the letters, which are all capital, are so exactly alike, 
that not the least difference between one type and the other, re- 
presenting the same character of the alphabet, can be perceived ; 
an exactness which could not possibly have been attained by the 
band of the most expert writer or penman. These arguments ap- 
pear to me very strong ; but they did not convince the authors of 

» Initia Typographica, p. t42. 

■^ This Codex, wliidi is one of the greatest literary curiosities, w^s 
published at Stuckholni in the year 1671, tiiider the title : " Evangelia 
ab Uifila e\ Graeco Gothic^ irausiata, cum versiuiubus." A fac-simile of 
the characters is to be seen ni the preface to tiie 4lh volume of the 
■Nouveau Traite de Diplomatique, p. iv, 

3 Blanchinus describes it m the Evangeliarium Qtiadruplex, Tom. Ii. 
PfK 697,599. This Evangeliarium was published ai Rome 1748. fol. 

♦ See Lichtenberger, p. 143. 

^ See the preface of that work, Vol. iv. p. iii. 

• In his •* Ulfilas lUustratus," pubhihed at Stockholm in 1?52. 

126 On the Intention of Printing 

the "Nouveau Traite de Diplomatique." These learned men 
answer, first, that the\ have consulted a skilful artist, who was an 
engraver and letter-founder, and that this man had declared it to 
be impossible to print a book on vellum such as that of Ulfilas 
with heated iron punches ; and secondly, that as to the exact like- 
ness of the characters, it is surprising what a practised penman 
will be able to do. It seems, however, that these answers are not 
sufficient to overthrow Mr. Ihre's supposition. The impos?ibility 
of stamping such a book as Ulfilas, must be conceived to arise from 
two causes ; the one, that the parchment would not bear a succes- 
sion of impressions such as would fill a whole page with characters 
and words, because the parchment would probably be affected and 
injured by the application of so much heal ; it might, for instance, 
contract and shrivel ; and the second, that it. would be an operation 
too laborious to be imagined, that the letters should by such a 
manipulation have been fixed on the vellum. To remove the first 
objection, it need only be remarked that there was no occasion to 
apply much heat at once: a certain number of letters or words 
might be fixed on the parchment at a time, as many as it would 
bear uithout being affected ; a short interval might be allowed for 
the parchment to recover its tone, before the operation was repeated. 
But even this expedient is not necessary; for it seems to be gratu- 
itously assumed, that that mode of impression would have such an 
effect. Meerman tried the experiment, and printed a leaf of 
parchment, on both sides, with golden characters, in the manner 
alluded to, without finding that those consequences ensued.' it 
should have been recollected, that the heat to be applied to the 
parchment is nol required to be great; the type, or puncheon, need 
be little more than warm to make the impression ; it is evident that 
it ought not to be very hot, because it would singe the parchment. 
The other ground on which the Benedictines rest their opposition 
is, that the identical appearance of the letters is to be explained 
from the skill and expertness of the transcribers. But this argu- 
ment will scarcely be allowed. Let a hand be ever so steady, and 
ever so nmch exercised, it must be doubted, that on a minute in- 
spection no difference in the tracing and expression of the letters 
would be discovered. No writing can stand such a test ; it is only 
the dead unchangeable type which will be invariable. On the 
second objection, to which we have alluded, the authors of the 
Nouveau Dictionnaire de Diplomatique have not touched ; but it 
would be a plausible allegation : namely, the immense labor it 
must have been to have produced a book by impressing the single 
letters, or few at a time, by the hand, on the parchment. This 

' See Orifrines Typographicffi, Vol. i. p. 4. as quoted by Lichten* 
berger, p. 143. 

with Moveable Types. 127 

labor niav undoubtedly have been great, but it is by no means in- 
credible. Those who are acquainted with the performances of the 
monks in the execution and embellishment of their books, would 
express no wonder: the labor which they frequently employed is 
astonishing. In the Nourenu Dictionnaire lie Diplomatique are to 
be found many examples illustrative of this fact. Where their de- 
votion and religious zeal were interested, their exertions and per- 
severance knew no bounds. Hence the labor of printing the Holy 
Gospels, letter by letter, by the hand, if this have been the ope- 
ration, would not deter them. The editors of the Dictionnaire 
must have been aware of this ; and for this reason perhaps it is 
that an argument so specious and obvious has by them been omit- 
ted. How the monks were led to think of stamping instead of 
writing a book, may not be ditficult to explain. The stamps, that 
is, the tools with which impressions of letters were made, were of 
old date ; even the Romans used them, though probably never for 
the purpose of printing books, but only to affix certain marks. The 
Benedictines mention them, and observe that they are found, both 
with letters cut inwards, and raised.' In the British Museum 
several specimens of them are preserved, consisting not of single 
characters, but of words : in looking at which one cannot help 
wondering, that such means as were in use should not have led, at 
an earlier period, to the invention of printing. They were, however, 
calculated to suggest to the monks that process, of which we are 
speaking. It enabled them to produce letters of that uniformity and 
accuracy, w hich they could not so easily attain by the pen ; and if 
it were nothing more than the very labor and the unusual mode of 
executing a book, that perhaps was, in their eyes, a sufficient in- 
ducement. How this stamping business may have been carried on, 
is to be seen in a bookbinder's shop in England, when the workmen 
are employed in lettering the backs of books. Each stamp has 
only one letter or character, and by this means whole words are 
without difficulty imprinted, with a regularity that has been acquired 
by practice. The foregoing observations will show the probability 
that stamped books may have existed, and that Ifire's conclusions 
are by no means defeated by the objections of the two Benedictines. 
But the libri stampati, as they are called in the Latin of the mid- 
dle ages, occur in the remains of old records, under that denomi- 
nation, as distinguished from written books. For these proofs I 
will refer to Lichtenberger,^ as this digression has already been of 
considerable length. 

And now to find our way back to the point from whence we 

' See Noiiveau Traite de Diplomatique, Tom. ir. pp. 431, 433. 
note 4. 
^ luilia Typographica, p. Ml. 

128 On the Invention of Printing 

digressed, it is said, that John Guttenberg's first attempt in print- 
ing was made with wooden types. The progress then was to meta! 
types ; and with these the celebrity of Guttenberg and his associ- 
ates began. It will be conceding much in tiseir favor, if it be 
admitted, that this great improvement, from wood to metal, in the 
material of the types, belongs to them : but their advocates claim 
the whole invention for them of all types, as instruments for print- 
ing books. This, however, is by no means established, and the 
very claims in behalf of Laurens Koster render that pretension 
doubtful. There have been other pretenders, besides Guttenberg, 
to whom the bare assertion, that they were the first authors of the 
art, cannot insure that honor. I will not go into a detail of these 
points, but refer those who desire particular information to the 
work of Lichtenberger,' already quoted. In the early history of 
Guttenberg's art, there is some confusion. He is said to have 
been a native of Mentz, then to have resided at Strasburg, and 
afterwards to have returned to Mentz.* Lichtenberger, who is an 
inhabitant of Strasburg, is ambitious to vindicate the honor of the 
invention of so important an art to his own town : and a similar 
bias prevails in others, from the vanity inherent in human nature, 
to make the countries and towns, to which they themselves belong, 
the seats of that invention, in order that they may themselves share 
the honor and the fame that result from it. This may, by a flat- 
tering appellation, be called patriotism ; by one less so, prejudice; 
but it is, in fact, vanity and selfishness. As human n^iture is 
subject to this failing, it should always be taken into consideration, 
when we estimate the weight of any testimony, on such an occa- 
sion. Hence, both what the Dutch say in favor of their country- 
man, and what their rivals allege, in opposition to their claims, 
ought to be weighed with the same impartial caution. The uniform 
tradition, that has prevailed in Holland, respecting Laurens Ros- 
ter's invention, must have had its origin in some fact; it is other- 
wise not to be accounted for: that which regards Guttenberg 
may be explained, without tlie necessity of setting aside the former. 
If we suppose that it was this man, and his associates, who im- 
proved on the original invention, brought it into notice, and 
more widely spread its fame, it is easy to imagine, how the merit 
lie thus acqiiired might be so magnified as to make him the first 
inventor of the art : but it is not to be understood, how an indivi- 
dual, as Laurens Koster, if he had been unconnected with the in- 
vention, could have been successfully represented as a participator 
in those claims. The subject appears in a natural light, by assum- 
ing, that Koster invented that method of copying and multiplying 

* Initia Typographica, for instance, p. 54. 

* Ibid, r- 8= and the following pages. 

mth Moveable Types. 129 

liooks, of wliicli we are speaking; and that Giiltenbeig, to whom 
hy some means it was imparted, improved and perfected it in sucli 
a manner as to obscure the reputation of the tirst discoverer. On 
the other hand, if we attribute tiie lirst invention at once to Gutten- 
berg, many circumstances remain wiiich are not to be accounted 
for. Those wlio plead for Kosler as the inventor of tiie first types, 
or moveable letters, need not go farther, in order to secure that 
honor to him, than to assert that he invented moveable wooden 
letters.' It is on this very point that the tradition, which we have 
before quoted, dwells : for though it adds, that Koster subsequently 
had substituted letters of lead, and afterwards of tin, there is not 
sufficient evidence that this improvement was made by himself. 
That the metal replaced the wooden types, was known as a fact, 
and it may be no more than an assumption, in the advocates of 
Koster, that this change for the better also belonged to him. On 
the contrary, of Guttenberg and his associates we know, that they 
made use of metal types, and it is probable, not only that they 
improved them, but originally invented them. Concerning the 
mere improvement we are told, that after the wooden letters were 
relinquished, and others, cut or engraved on metal, employed, at 
last the mode of casting types in matrices had been discovered.* 
This is attributed to Guttenberg and Fust, or to their associate 
SchoefFer: it is immaterial to which individual the credit of the 
first thought is due, if we but admit that this melioration originated 
from one of their society, and was put in practice by lliem jointly. 
Of the wooden types they seem to have made little use,^ as if they 
had not perfectly learnt the manipulation of them, which it is not 
natural to suppose, if they be considered as the inventors. For 
the inventor, whoever he was, would gradually become familiar 
with what he had contrived, and arrive, by a slow progress, at 
some dexterity in the use of it : which would not be the case with 
another person, to whom the invention was at once imparted, and 
who, instead of patiently applying it, would probably be inaccurate 
in the use, and endeavour to make improvements for the purpose 
of facilitating the intended operations. Accordingly, we find that 
Laurens Koster seems to have plodded on with his wooden types, 
while Guttenberg and Fust could not make much use of them. 

The story told of Laurens Roster's invention is very natural, 
and consistent, and carries with it a considerable degree of proba- 
bility. It is said that he carved some letters in sticks of beech- 
wood in order to teach, by these figures, his grandchildren the 
alphabet. This was by no means an unusual mode of instructing 

' See Mnemosyne, p. 131. 

* See Liclitenberger's Inilia Typographica, p. 99 — 101. 

J Ibid. p. 101. 


150 0)1 the Invention of Printing 

children; it was even practised by the Romans, as we learn from 
Quintilian,' and it is not unknown in our nurseries. To make 
impressions, with letters so carved, upon paper, by means of some 
liquid, after this to join several of them together, and to print 
words, are gradations which may very well be conceived as having 
ultimately led to the origin of jjrinting books. Of itself perhaps 
this obvious and natural progress from one step to another does 
not furnish a decisive proof, that the man, U) whom tradition 
assigns this invention, is in truth entitled to that honor; but when 
we compare this relation, concerning Koster, with what is told of 
Guttenberg and those, who were joined in his labors, a far greater 
degree of probability attaches itself to the former than to the 

That appears by no means an unreasonable mode of proceeding, 
which the editors of Mnemosyne^ have adopted as an accommo- 
dation between the claimants, that the probability i.5, that Laurens 
Koster was the original inventor of moveable wooden types, and 
that with these he printed the first books : but that Guttenberg, 
and the early printers of Mentz, improved upon his invention, by 
discovering a method of casting types in metal, and thus producing 
books, the superiority of which over every antecedent attempt of 
printing raised them to such distinction, that their merit eclipsed 
the fame of the tirst inventor. With this the history,^ that a ser- 
vant, or workman, of Laurens Koster, purloined some of the print- 
ing apparatus of his master, and conveyed it to Menli;, where, by 
this means, he divulged, or at least converted to his use, or to 
that of other individuals, the secret of the art, may be well com- 
bined. We have only to suppose, that Guttenberg was the person 
to whom Koster's man imparted tlie secret, and the reputation of 
the invention, supported by the improvements which Guttenberg 
made in the types, is easily explained. It is difficult to resist the 
arguments in favor of Koster, nor is it less so to establish clearly 
the pretensions of Guttenberg. By the supposition just made, the 
claims of both seem to be fairly or equitably adjusted. If this be 
admitted, there is no question that the honor of the first invention 
belongs to Laurens Koster, and consequently to the city of Haarlem. 
It is true, that these points are not absolutely supported by 
demonstrative or legal proofs, but where such are not to be had, 

' Inst. Oral. i. 1. Those letters were sumetimes carved of ivory, as 
Qiiintihan says: " Non excludo autcm, id quod est notum, irritanda; ad 
discendum infaniia; {:ratia, eburneas etiam litcrarum fcjrmas m lusum 
oft'erre." Tliey were also made of wood, and nominally of box. See 
Nouveau Traitc de Diplomatique, Tome i. p. 543. Cicero (de Nat. D. ii. 
37.) mentions something like metal types, " forma literarum vel aurcse, 
vol quales libet." 

- See p. 130—133. H6. ^ Ibid. p. 135, 136. 

with Moveable Types. 131 

circumslantiiil evidence and grounds of probability cannot be 
refnsed, in order to form an opinion. On arguments of this kind 
it is concluded, that printing was practised at Haarlem between 
the years 14-20 and 1430,' several years prior to the period assigned 
to the first operations at Mentz. For these are not pretended to 
be earlier than the years 1450, 14-40, or at most 1436". It is easily 
conceived that Guttenberg, Faust and Schoefter, who had |>rofited 
by the perfidy of Koster's servant, had more than one motive of 
interest to conceal the theft. Not only the honor of the invention 
might be an object of ambition to them, but still more the advan- 
tages to be gained from the exercise of the art, if they could 
appropriate it to their own advantage. Whatever their advocates 
jnay say to render the story of elopement of Koster's servant 
with the printing implements improbable, it cannot be easily con- 
futed. There was a report of such an occurrence not only in 
Holland but also in Germany, which the adherents of Guttenberg 
have not succeeded in silencing.'' It would have beeti easy to 
refute it by a simple statement of the manner in which Guttenberg 
had arrived at the first invention, if it had clearly been due to 
him ; but tl*e want of such an account, on the part of the printers 
at Mentz, adds to the credibility of the Haarlem tradition. 

The objections which are brought forward are not calculated to 
invalidate it ;^ 1. I'hat it is impossible that one man could have 
carried away in his wallet all the printing apparatus of Koster, 
which must have wiquired a cart to convey it; and 2. That it is 
not to be believed, tliat such a thief should have been sutfered to 
depart unmolested, without an attempt to overtake and stop him. 
The answer to these objections is obvious. For the purpose 
which the thief must have had in view, it was not necessary to 
encumber himself with all the mass of articles which the printing- 
oiiice contained. A sample of the ty[)es, and of the implements 
that were used, would be sufficient. And as to the otlier point, 
that he was suti'ered to depart quietly with his spoils, this is barely 
assumed. We do not know that Koster did not adopt measures 
to pursue him, and recover his property, though these particulars 

' Mnemosyne, p. 147, 151- I find it noted in one of my Journals, 
that when 1 was at Paris, Sept. ■«?, 1802, M. Caperonnier, then Cliief' 
Librarian of the National Library, showed me a wooden plate with fixed 
letters, from which, he raid, they printed at Haarlem, before the year 
1430, and he exliibited some specimens of such printing. M. Caperon- 
nier would not allow the natives of Haarlem the credit of having invented 
that art, but was of opinion that thciy liad it frum Guttenberg, through 
the perfidy uf S'^me of his jo^•lrrl^ymen. This latter part of his observa- 
tion seems to be a misconception of the Haarlem story, 

^ See Mnemgsync, p. 1G7, 169. and Meermaii, quoted therein note 43. 
^ See Mnemosyne, p. 162. 

132 On the Invention of Frinting 

are not related. It may perhaps he inferred from the change of 
place, which is mentioned as having occurred in the residence of 
that individual : for the tradition says,' that lie first went to 
Araslerdiim, then to Cologne, and lastly to Mentz, as if he had 
not thought himself secure in the two former to\viis. What de- 
serves to be attended to in this story, and gives it a great appear- 
ance of truth, is the detail with which it is narrated. Tlse nmne 
of the faithless journeyman is given — John; the time, when the 
theft was committed, is precisely noticed — Christmas-eve ; the 
course of his flight is pointed out — Amsterdam, Cologne, Anlwer]>; 
and when he is settled at Mentz, the books which he first printed 
are named.* The art of printing was not exercised at Mentz 
before the year 1440, or, at the earliest, before 14-o6. But it was 
early practised in the Netherlands,^ and this would be best ac- 
counted for by supposing that it was a native invention. For if 
it had been imported from another country, some space would 
have been necessary to make it so generally known. It is farther 
remarked, that some natives of Haarlem settled, about the middle, 
or towards the end of the loth century, in Italy, ivliich renders it pro- 
bable that the art they exercised abioad, existed in their own coun- 
try. There is also a presumption that the art was, between the years 
1434 and 1459, carried from Haarlem over to England.* It is 
certain, that the heirs of Laurens Roster were engaged in the busi- 
ness of printing,' a circumstance which operates likewise in favor 
of the opinion, that their ancestor was the inventor of the art. It 
is not injudiciously observed,^ that those who bear testimony in 
favor of Mentz, and of Guttenberg, though they say that printing 
was invented at that place, and by that person, do not distinctly 
speak of the invention of the moveable wooden types; it seems 
probable, on the contrary, that the first printers at Mentz did not 
make use of Hum. Yet it is not to be denied, that these t^pes 
preceded those of metal, as they were themselves preceded by 
wooden plates. And if thtre is ground to attribute the inveulion 
of moveable wooden letters to Laurens Koster, a ground sulficiently 
furnished by what has been stated in the fmegoing pages, we can- 
not otherwise than declare Laurens Koster to be the original 
inventor of the art of printing, though we may be induced to de- 
cree a considerable share of honor to Guttenberg, whoso much 
improved that art, as to exhibit it in a light superior to that of its 
first introduction. It is alleged against Koster that, if he really 
had printed books, there must remain some of them as i)roofs of 
that assertion. We shall subsequently see that such specimens 

See Mnemosyne, p. 163. ^ Ibid. lOi. ^ Ibid. lG5it 

Ibid. lG(i. 5 Ibid. 166. «> Ibid. 177. 

with Moveable Types. 133 

are brouglit forward : but tlieir scarcity need not be wondered at, 
if it be considered that what Koster printed were works of little 
value, some of them mere school-books, which were not likely to 
be preserved with much care, but would soon perish by use and 
by neglect. The number of copies printed of each book was pro- 
bably small, so that the chance of preserving any was, from this 
circumstance also, more precarious. 

There are some direct testimonies adduced' to prove Roster's 
invention, which must be allowed to have their weight. Among 
them is that of Ulricus Zell, who, in his Chronicle of Cologne, 
published there in 1490, says,^ that this manner of printing was 
invented at Mentz, between the years 1440 and 1450; but that the 
tirst example of it was given at Haarlem, in the editions of Do- 
natus, and that the art was thence conveyed to Mentz, and tliere 
improved. Zell, it is shown by Meerman, printed at Cologne as 
early as the year 146"7 ; and it appears that he had been a jour- 
neyman in Guttenberg's office, which gives his declaration par- 
ticular weight : he would scarcely have transferred the honor of 
the tirst invention of the art from his own country to Haarlem, if 
the fact had not been generally admitted. Another important 
witness is John Van Zuren,^ a man of highly respectable character, 
and of letters, at Haarlem, who lived about 100 years after Laurens 
Koster; and bears testimony to the fact by us assumed, that 
though the art of printing was, in the highest degree, improved at 
Mentz, the first discovery of it belonged to Haarlem, where it was 
practised as a mystery ; and thence carried to Mentz, where it 
acquired notoriety and fame. Next follows the attestation of Dirk 
Volkertszoon Coornhert,* of Amsterdam, born 1522. He speaks 
of this subject in a dedication prefixed to his Dutch transla- 
tion of ' Cicero de Officiis,' in which he mentions, on good authority, 
that the first rude beginnings of the art of printing were made at 
Haarlem ; and that the art was thence, by a faithless journeyman, 
carried to Mentz. He says, that he had heard from aged persons in 
the former town, in what manner the printing was at first managed. 
This shows that the tradition of the invention at Haarlem was at 
that lime considered as undisputed. He complains of the care- 
lessness of his ancestors in neglecting to preserve the reputation 
of so important an invention.' Henry Laurenszoon Spreghel* 
born at Amsterdam 1490, touches on the same topic, in a celebrated 
work called ' De Hertspregel,' ' The Mirrour of the Heart ;' as 
does Luigi Guicciardini,'' an Italian by birth, in his Account of the 
Netherlands, published at Antwerp in 155'7. The latter speaks of 
the tradition generally prevailing respecting the invention of print- 

' See Mnemosvne, p. 180. * lb. 181. * lb. 182. 

♦ lb. 183. " 5 lb. 191. 6 n,, 184. ' lb. 184. 

134 On the Invention of Printing 

ing at Haarlem, and appeals also to the authority of anterior 
writers. Mariangeius Accursius,^ a learned man in the beginning 
of the l6th century, and a native of Italy, had made an annota- 
tion on the first leaf of his " Donatus," saying, that " Donatus," 
and a book called " Confessionalia" were printed at Mentz in 
1450, but that Faust, the printer, was preceded and gui<led by 
the " Donatus'' printed in Holland. From the work of Richard 
Atkyns, published in England in l6()4, " On the Invention of 
Priming," so much may be gleaned, that it seems to have been 
thought in England, at that time, that the art of printing was 
brought over from Haarlem.'' And this notion receives a strong 
confirmation from the circumstance that William Caxton, the 
tirst printer in England, or rather the first English printer,^ passed 
a great portion of his life (about 30 years) in the Netherlands, in 
the countries of Brabant, Flanders, Holland, and Zealand ■* and it 
is very natural to conclude, that he there learnt the art which he 
afterwards exercised, and which was not known in his own country. 
Indeed his earliest productions were printed by him in the Low 
Countries, as far back as 1471, or even 1470;^ and he does not 
seem to have returned to England, and established his press there, 
much before the year 1477-*' The character of his printing 
entirely resembled thai used in the Netherlands.^ The specimens 
shown as remains of Koster's press, are ihe following three books, 
which are preserved in the library of the senate at Haarlem: 1. 
" ^liu9 Donatus de octo partibus orationis." It is the first edition 
of that author.^ It is evidently printed with wooden characters, 
and was considered by some, for example by Funccius, Fabricius,' 
and Daunou,'° as a specimen of xylography, that is, as an impres- 
sion from wooden })lates. But this notion Meerman" has proved to 
be erroneous, by demonstrating that it must have been printed 
with moveable types. For some of the letters, in single words, 
appear inverted, as n for u, and some are moved out of their 
place, so as to make the line uneven, which could not be the case 
if they had been engraved on a wooden plate, instead of being 
merely fastened together. Similar defects are to be observed in 

" See Mnemosyne, p. 186. ^ lb. 187—191. 

^ I make this distinction, because it is supposeil that a tract entitled 
Expositio suncti Je.ronimi in symbolo Apostolorum, was printed at Oxford in 
ttie year 1468, but by a foreigner. This was before the time ot Cdxton. 
See the Life of VVm. Caxton in Dibdui's Typographical Antiquities, voi. 
I. p. Ixxv, the note. 

* Dihdin, lb. p. Ixxxi, ^ ji,. p. xc. ^ lb. p. xcviii. ^ lb. p. Ixxxix. 

' See Fabricii Bibliothec. Lat. vol. lu. p. 406. ed. Eriiesti. llarles. 
Notitia Literature; Romana^p. 378. 

"5 See llarles. Not. Lit. Horn. p. 578. "o See Mnemos. p. 196. 

" In Ongines Typo^raph. vol. i. p. 130. 

rmtli Moveable Types. 135 

the second Haarlem edition, which is printed somewhat smaller 
than the former.' These observations apply equally to the two 
following books, viz. 2. "Horarium ;"^ and 3. A Dutch Version 
of a monkish tract, entitled " Speculum Salvationis."^ All these 
works show a very imperfect state of printing, when the art was 
still in its infancy. They are by tradition attributed to Koster ; 
but they neither bear a date, nor are marked with the name of the 
printer. On this circumstance Lichtenberger, and those who 
support the same opinion, lay great stress. It is true that the 
demonstrative proof which would be afforded by the signature of 
the printer's name and the date, if it existed, is wanting ; but it 
will be asked, if those prints are not Koster's, to whom they 
belong I Can any thing better be substituted in the room of that 
assertion, supported by better evidence? It is not to be denied, 
from H view of those specimens, that they must be regarded as 
among the earliest attempts made in the art. Lichtenberger says,* 
" Impressionis defectus hoc in opusculo (he is speaking of the 
* Horarium,') produnt quidem typographum minus peritum, baud 
tamen evincutit, illud a Laurentio Harlemensi esse impressum :" 
" the defects in the printing, which are perceivable in this work, 
betray indeed an unskilful printer, but do not prove that it was 
printed by Laurens of Haarlem." This is true, the direct proof 
for Koster is wanting; but if he was not the man, who was it? It 
could not be Guttenberg, for his advocates would disdain to attri- 
bute such imperfect work to him ; nor has any one attempted it. 
Much less can it be supposed that those books were executed at u 
period subsequent to the time of Guttenberg, Faust and Schoeff'er, 
when these persons had given examples of superior printing. We 
are then left to conclude, that they must have been prior to that 
time; and this is the very point which was to be established. If 
tliose specimens are to be considered as being of an earlier date 
than the press of Guttenberg, to whom can they be assigned on 
more reasonable grounds than to the man whom tradition has 
pointed out? He is the sole person named; no other competitor 
is even hinted at prior to Guttenberg. The omission itself is not 
to be wondered at, but is i-ather a collateral argument. Other 
printers of the early period were guilty of it. There are several 
books of Caxton's which are without his name and date,' but are, 
for this reason, not the less thought to be his work ; and there is 

' See Mnemosyne, p. J06. ^ lb. p. 197. 

3 Lichtenberger in Initia Typographicu, p. 116. fol. gives an account 
of it. See also Mnemosyne, p. 198. 

* Inil. Typograph. p. 135. 

' See the Lite of William Caxton in Dibdin's Typographiral Anti- 
quities, vol. I. p. cxxxv. 

136 On the Invention of Printing, ^^c. 

no book whatever extant with the name of Guttenberg subscribed,' 
yet no one has ever doubted that he was a printer. 

It appears, on the whole, thai the pretensions of Laurens 
Koster, of Haarlem, to the honor of being tiie first inventor of 
the art of printing are well founded : this is the result of the fore- 
going disquisition. 1 will, in conclusion, advert to some farther 
arguments, by which that opinion seems to be still more confirmed. 
The most recent opponent that I know of is Lichtenberger, whose 
work* has been quoted in the foregoing pages, and his arguments 
introduced. One of his objections is, that the invention of print- 
ing by Laurens Koster is not mentioned in the Annals of Belgium:^ 
not one of the chroniclers of that time, and of that country, has 
taken notice of it. Surely, lie thinks, such an important fact could 
not have been passed over in silence, had it really existed. This 
is a fallacious, nay, an absurd argument. How many facts and 
occurrences must be annihilated, if their existence depends on tiieir 
commemoration in certain books or records. There are so many 
causes of omission, that nothing would be more unsafe than to draw 
conclusions from the silence of contemporaries. As a man is not 
expected to relate every event, so a writer is not to be presunied to 
record whgtthis person or that person may think deserving of atten- 
tion. Such subjects as the one in question may well be passed over 
by those whomakeit their business to write on facts of a politicaland 
general nature. Who would expect, in a history of England, that 
any particular invention or discovery, though in itself great and 
useful, should be mentioned ? The history may be faithful and 
accurate, and the fact may have occurred, yet the latter may not 
have been entered on record. Such circumstances are purely 
accidental. But let it be considered what was Koster's invention 
when it iirst was made. Could any person then, or for some time 
after, have imagined to what important consequences it would 
lead ? Hardly any historian would have thought it, even in its 
improved state under Guttenberg, a matter of public concern, 
which came within his province to be related. In short, the whole 
objection appears to be futile. 

Another argument which Lichtenberger uses, may be, with 
advantage, turned against himself. He states,* with a sort of 
triumph, the inconsistency of Meerman, one of the most etbcient 
defenders of Koster's claim. This man, in one part of his life, 
did not give any credit to the Haarlem invention, but regarded the 
whole story as a fable. For, in a letter to Wagenaar, in the year 
1757, he writes: " Quaj de invents per Laureutium Kosterum 

' Dibdin, p. Ixxxviii, note. 

'^ Initia T^'pographica. Argentorati, 1811. 4to. 

^ See p. 123, and foil, also pp. 1CJ7, 129. ♦ P. 126. 

Parallel Passages. 137 

typograplna venditantur, in dies magis magisque fidem arnittunt : 
quajcunque ea de re narrat Seitzius, quseque ex historia patria pro 
eodem Laurentio petuntiir, gratis supposita sunt; inveutionuni 
Kosteri clironologia fabulosum est commentum," &:c. But the 
same person, eight years after, when he publishes a history of Typo- 
graphy (" Origines Typographicae, Hagee Comitum, Arc, IjGs,") 
stands forward as a zealous and ardent assertor of Koster's claims. 
How is this problem to be solved? Very readily, though not in 
the manner which Lichtenberger would suggest, as if such contra- 
diction involved the destruction of the fact before us. In the year 
1757 Meerman did not believe the story; but it seems, that when 
he had turned his thoughts to the publication of the work alluded 
to, and bestowed pains and attention on the examination of the 
subjects of which he was to treat, when he had investigated them 
with more diligence and accuracy, he relinquished his former 
opinion, and did homage to what appeared to him to be the truth. 
Such a conviction, from such a man, speaks most strongly in favor 
of the question, and, instead of producing a negative argument, 
affords the most decided affirmative. It is puerile to say, as Lich- 
tenberger does, that Meerman had acted so, patrice ut placeret 
sure. It was an honest conversion from one opinion to another, or 
rather from prejudice to rational persuasion. 



We have lately received from the Rev. J. Seager, of Welch Bick- 
nor, the following Parallel Passages, in addition to those which have 
already appeared in a former Number. 

Seneca. Epist. 95. (p. 602. 1.5. ed. Lipsii fol.) Homicidia 
corapescimus et singulas caedes. Quid bella et occisarum gentium 
gloriosum scelus ! 

Young. One to destroy is murder by the law, 
And gibbets keep the lifted hand in awe : 
To murder thousands takes a specious name ; 
War's glorious art ; and gives immortal fame. 

Love of Fame. Sat. 7- 

Bishop Porteus. one murder makes a villain. 

Millions a hero : kings are privileg'd 

To kill ; and numbers sanctify the crime. 

Essay on Death. 
Ovid. Quid magis est saxo durum? quid mollius unda ? 
Dura tamen molli saxa cavantur aqua. 

Dc arte amandi. L 475. 

138 Parallel FassaQcs. 


ChrYSOSTOM. ntT(oa>' ycip KoiXaivei, (prfffi, parls v^tirwv erhe- 
Xe^oiis'a. Kairoi tL paXaKwrepoy vburos, ri be rerpas fTKXriporepov ; 

Horn. 46\ torn. v. p. 30.5. 1. 9. of Sir Henry Saville's edit. 
Virgil. Uritur infelix Dido; totaque vagatur 
Urbe fureiis : qualis conjecta cerva sagitta, 
Quam procul iiicautani nemora inter Cressia fixit 
Pastor agens telis, liquitque volatile ferrum 
Nesoius : ilia fuga s\ivas saltusque peragrat 
Dicteeos : liseret lateri letalis arundo. X.n. IV. 6.9- 

ChRYSOSTOM. 7] fi€v yap to rpavfja evdelna, tnreTri]bri/7€ ttoX- 
XaKis' TO be rpavpa ovk aTroirrjboi, aXXo fievei ttoXXukis Kai cnruXXvai. 
Kai KaBaTrep eXafns befytfie%'r] fteXos ei' Kaiplo) tov trw/iaros, Kav eKfvyr] 
Tu>v drjpnroit' ras -^^e'lpas, ovbkv Kepbairei Xonrov' ovru) Kui \lvyj] be^a- 
fievTf fteXos eniQufiias e'i cikoXckttov loai Treptepyov Seiopias, kciv to jyeXos 
cKbelcxa (quae teluni con jecit) aireXdri, avn) bia<pdetpeTai /.at uTtuXXvTui. 
Homil. 23. ton). V. p. 143. !. 7- 
Lucretius. Suave raari magno turbantibus aequora ventis, 

E terra magnum alterius spectare laborem, &c. 
ChRYSOSTOM. ojffTrep yap ay ris els uKpoy aKoneXov aveXQojy, 
deiopfj Tt)r daXarray kui rovs Tavrrjv TrXeorras, toiis fiev vttu Kv/uarojy 
jyaTTTiSo/iiepovs, tovs be v<paXois irpoGapaaaoyras, aXXovs be erepwdi 
{lev (TTrevboyras, erepbjdi be ayofxeyovs, dxinep beapiovs, rjj tov Tryev- 
fjLUTOs piif-iTi, KUi TToXXovs juti' vTTOj^pvj^^iovs yivo/uerovs, TToXXovs be eni 
aaylbos ptas, f; eiri Tiyos Tujy cnro tov ■kXolov, fepo/jieyovs, Koi tovs 
fiev ayTi irXoiov Ka\ TrrjbaXiov rats X^P"^' •^(puyfxerovs fxovaiSy aXXovs he 
veKpovs eiriirXeovTas, TroXveibrj two. Kal TroXvirpoawnov rjvfxfopay' 
vvTit) b)) Kal o lipi(7T(p (TTparevojdeyos, Ttjs rapa^'ls tov (iiov Kai Twy 
KVftaTCjy eavToy e^ayayior, rddrjraL ctt' aacpaXel ku tV\pt]Xw ■^wpio). 

Ad Theodorum. torn. Vi. p. 5^. 1. 30. 
Cicero. In armis, militimi virtus, locorum opportunitas, auxi- 
lia sociorum, classes, conimeatus, multum juvant : niaximani vero 
partem quasi suo jure Fortuna sibi vindicat ; et quicquid est pros- 
pere gestum, id poene omne ducil suum. At vero liujus glori-ie, C. 
Cissar, quam es paullo ante adeptus, socium habes ueniinem. totum 
hoc, quantumcunque est, quod certe maximum est, totum est, in- 
quam, tuum. nihil sibi ex ista laude centurio, nihil pr^tectiis, nihil 
cohors, nihil turma decerpit. quin etiam ilia ipsa rerum humanarum 
doinina, Fortuna, in istius se societatem gloria; non ottert : tibi 
cedit : tuam esse totam et propriam fatetur. numquam enini tenie- 
ritas cum sapientia commiscetur, nee ad consilium casus adniittitur. 

Fro M. Marcello. il. 
ChRYSOSTOM. ov'^ ovTb) to KpaTijcrai ■noXtfiiwy Xo^crpous trotcl 
Tov% (iaaiXevovTas, uis to Kparfjuai dvfxov Kal opyTji' eKe'i /.ley yap Twy 
onXwy Kal Twy (TTpanwruiv to KUToptjwfia ytyeTai, eyravOa be yvfxvov 
GOV eiTTi TO TpOTratoy Kal ovbeva e-)^eis Toy fiepi$.6fieyoy fxeTci aov Ttjy 
tPis (piXocofias bo^ay. 'Ar^p/ayrwv 6. torn. vi. p. 504. 1. 9. 

Parallel Passages. ISp 

Waller. In battles won Fortune a part doth claim, 
And soldiers have tlieir portion in the tame, &c. 

Of the Turk's defeat. 

Seneca. Navis, quiP in flumine niai;na est, in marl parvula 
est. — Tu nunc in provincia, licet contemnas ipse te, niagnus es. 

Epist. 43. 

King James I. used to tell the country gentlemen at his court, 
that on their estates they were like ships in a river, things of great 
magnitude; whereas in London they resembled ships in the sea, 
where in appearance they are diminished almost to nothiiii;. 

DiODORUS SiCULUS. eKelvoi /uer yap rov '0(pEIAOMENON 

THi <I)T2EI Qdvarov els irarpihos arwrrjpiay avaXwcrai'res, liQavarov 

tavrwv ho'iav KaraXeXoLTraau'. XIII. p. 3-tl. ed. 11. Steph. 

Cicero. Non est viri, rainimeque Romani, dubitare, euoi Spi- 

rifuni, quern Natur.^j: quis debeat, patriaj reddere. 

Philipp. X. 20. 
Pope. The life which others pay, let us bestow ; 

And give to fame what we to nature owe. 

Transl. of Iliad, XII. 
Horace. Proprias telluris heruni natura neque ilium. 

Nee me, nee quemquam statuit : nos expulit ille ; 
Ilium aut nequities, aut vafri inscitia juris, 
Postremo expellet certe vivacior heeres. 
Nunc ager Umbreni sub nomine, nuper Ofelli 
Dictus erat, nulli proprius; sed cedit in usuni 
Nunc mihi, nunc alii. Serm. II. 2. 129- 

LuCIAN. ovbt Ti)i' u.pyj}v aiirou elyai {uypoi') biiOf^oXoyei. ravT, 
olfiai, bieiXyjfuis, on rovrwy /uev (pvnei ovbevos k(TjjL€v Kvpwi, vufiio be 
icai biabo^/j Trji' -^pijaty avrwv eis aopiiTTOV ~npaXafij3dyorTes, oXiyo- 
^oyioi befTTTorai yofxico/ueOa' KU~eibay i] -apeXdrj, Tr]V(.KavTa 
TrripaXajJwy riXXos cnroXavet rov c'j'o^inros. 

In Nigrino, p. 39. B. ed. Salniur. 
Lucretius. Turpis enim Fama, et Contemptus, et acris Egestas, 
Semota ab dulci vita stabilique videntur : 
Et quasi jam leim portas cunctarier ante. 

III. 65. 
Virgil. Vestibulum ante ipsum, primisque in faucibus Orci, 
&c. &c. JEn. \T. 273. 

Lucretius. Inque brevi spatio mutantur saecla animantum ; 

Et, quasi curs<»res, vitai lampada tradunt. U. 7T. 
DiO CassiuS. To OnjToy riis fiiffews iifiioy aibio) biaboxy yeywv, 
aSHEP TINUN AAMnAAIIlN, TrapafwdelrrBai. 

LVI. p. 573. ed. Leuncl. 
Compare LucRETius, book III. from v. S83 to 9^3, with Lu- 
ClAN, De Luctu. 
Herodotus. flaviXfios x^'p v-Kepn^Kr^s. 

140 Foralld Passages. 

Ovid. An nescis longas regibus esse nianus ? 

" And the Lord said unto Moses, Is the Lord's hand waxed 
short? thou slialt see now wliether my word shall come to pass 
unto theo or not." Numbers, XL 23. 

ThuCYDIDES. AiatpepovriiJS yap bt) Kai Tube e.-)(OfX€r, wore roX/jdy 
re 01 avTol fxaXitTTa, ical Trepl toi' eTTi-^eipiiaofxev eKXoyieieaOai. IL 40. 

Sallust. Ac sane, quod difficillimum in priinis est, et prcelio 
strenuus erat, et bonus consilio. Bell. Jug. 

Shakspeare. 'tis much he dares : 

And to that dauntless temper of his mhid. 

He hath a wisdom, that doth guide his valor 

To act in safety. Macbeth. 

^^SCHINES. ws ovv eTTt rr\% ApuKorros y KKeitrSevovs iroXiTeias 
olhev Trepi ere KUKoy 7]i', {ap'^iiv yap ovk ?'/s, irepl ov ay 7]v) ovnos ovbe 
fxera T}jv Te\evT))y yevijaeTaC av yap ovk eirrj, irepi ov earai. 

Dialog. 3. De Morte. 

Lucretius, lib. IIL v, 842—854. 

Cicero. Si post mortem miseri futuri suraus, niiseri fuimus 
antequara nati. Tuscul. Disp. L c. 6". 

^^SCHINES. {jfiels fiey yap enfiey \pv)(i), $.Ci)Ov uQayarov kv byt]Tf 
KaTeipyixkvov (ppovplf. Dial. 3. De Morte. 

Vi KGIL. neque auras 

Respiciunt, clausae tenebris et carcere caeco. 

JEn. VI. 734. 

^ESCHINES. aW »; yeupyla yXvKv' bf/Xoy. aXX' ov'^oXor, ws <pa(Tiy, 
eXKos, alei Xvtdjs iTp6<t>aniy evpiaKOfieroy, KXaloy vvvi fiey avy^^ov, vvvl 
be €no/dftpias, yvyl be eiriKavtriy, yvv\ be epvaipr^y, yvvi be daXiros 
ixKaipoy f/ Kpvoi ; Dial; 3. De Morte. 

Horace. nunc aquas Culpante, nunc torrentia agros 

Sidera, nunc hyemes iniquas. Od. HL 1, 30. 


No. XXllI. 



TIpaaTOV ■rtaXonag ' EXXctlog tout ci^iov 

KuiTTSp TC(T06rwV TtCtVptX. QYj<raVQU>V OLTTO. 

'Atui S up avKou T Yi)(_ov ' Apxadtxav yXyxuv, 
Ka) Oviytxv'M TrapsaT , ccyei 8' uutyjv Egcac, 
Aei^ovcra ttojj rsp^vrjv ^ucTij vixav QsXif 
"H/xicru jotsv 'A<PpoyevtKx, ^' rj[j,Kru Apuccg. 

Adversaria Liter aria. 141 

'i^v^uc jxaXuTTzi yJtb, xa.) Sakysi vooV 
Tloioy /3«8»crjuta 8'* w tto'S* ou Styovre yY,v, 
TrjV xupViOLV TrotTOuvTS 5'' c? uypov Hjxa;, 
jJkx XiijKQv iZoitsv yxp <Ti (^apog to yap'tiv, 
[lav dnixXoTT^i, Trav rjSov;^' xa» f)'v ^oSojj 
KojtAJj ij^iKatva. y, 5^v e'/3a\|/av ts Xotptn^. 
Tig I' 0'fX.fji.u, Tig ypa^si ngoawirov ocuQ' ohov, 
"jEvS* ^3»x^j xpxTog £(79' opav (/.ifLfjosuj; ; 
'£v jSx='jU,j«.a TTixi/Toov xpsl<j(Tov r^v itri^rjiMarcuv 
4>Buyit, 8»aix5j t'. ;^8' Ipa xxv^tg Tpsfi,'!, 
' EttcTocI Ti; x' IXitl^ei, iT epvxei ^ po^og. 
A" r)jU.=T; rpeyiOixsv, sKioi>[ji,;v, xfLX (rvy^oclpoiXcv' 
Ts^TTOuaoL -TTcti^ei, vOv Se Sivei t' suxoAwj, 
A'«» SaxTuXoj XaXoDcrj, %s/p ts ttocSyj Xtyei. 
Tla-v a-y^Yifjix 8^ kuXov, v6u.u> 6' ' EKKr^vixcu' 
£u ^ [x.£v"flpix:, ev 8' av op-^oiro Auva.y)V 
Tr,v 8' ' EWxg ccnoli^otTO, xauTr) 8' 'EXKuict. 
<PiKov Sf'aaa toDto toT; aiVflavojw-eVoij. 

Important Jdditions to the First Akibiades, and Ti/naus 
of Plato. 

1 HAT the editors of Plato should not have availed themselves 
ot the sources, whence important additions to his text may be 
derived, and particularly w hen those sources in the present state 
of literature may be easily obtained, is not only a negligence 
highly blameable, but wholly unpardonable. And that they 
have been thus negligent, the following instances demonstrate. 

In the first Alcibiades of Piato, then, towards the end, (p. 99. 
of Etwall's edition,) and after the words SilK. To Is yiyvM<Txeiv 
avToy, oixoXoyovij^sv caxppoa-uvrjv nvai. AAK. FIuvii ye, the following 
very beautiful passage occurs in Stobajus, Serm. xxi. p. 183. ' 
Jp' cti(T7rsg xotTOTTTpx crixps(TT£pcx. s(rTt TQv ev TCO o<pQxXi/.'jo eVOTTTpOV, 
xa» xctQixpuiTegu tb xxi AwjU-TrpoTega, ovtm xaj o &sog tqv ev ttj rnxfTspoc. 
^^XV /SeATitTTOu, xxdxpcoTspov re, xa< Aa.aTrgoTsgov Tuy;)^«V£j wv ; Eoixs 
ye SctixgxTrjg. Etg rov Seov xpx ^KeirovTeg, exetvai xxXXkjT'm evox- 
7pco p(^pajjU.e3' av, xa< tmv xvSpwTrivwv ug tyjv ^v^^g apsTYjv, xaj ovTwg 
XV jxaAiora o^a)jx;v xxi ytyvwa-xottjLsv Jjjtiaj xvTOUg. Nxi. i. e. ** Soc. 
Shall we not say, therefore, that as mirrors are clearer, purer, 
and more splendid than that which is analogous to a mirror in 
the eye, in like manner God is purer, and more splendid than 
that which is best ni our soul ? Ale. It is likely, Socrates. Soc. 
Looking therefore at God, we should make use of him as the 

' The edition here quoted is that of 1609, fol. which is the best. 

142 Adversaria Literaria. 

most beautiful mirror, and among human concerns, we should 
look at the virtue of the soul ; and thus by so doing, we shall 
especially see and know our very selves. Ale. We shall." 
This passage is omitted in all the editions of Plato thai I have 
seen, not even excepting the Bipont edition, it appears also to 
have been wanting in the Medicean manuscript, from \\\\\c\\ 
Ficinus made his translation of Plato. 

In the next place, the follov\ing omissions in the Timasus of 
Plato have been unnoticed by all the editors, in consequence of 
not having compared the manuscript and printed copies of that 
dialogue with the text in the Commentaries of Proclus. 

After the words, then, ytura S») t>)v fiaregoy <popuv -KXayiav ovj-uv, 
dicx. Tr}g tuvto'j (^\j<Trjoc iov(7av re xai xpaTOVix,svr,v , to [j,sv^ova au- 

7WV, TO 8= EAaXTO) X'JXXOV JOV (3«TT0V jU.=V, T« TOV SXciTTCU^ TU 0= 70V 

/xsi^ova /SpaSyrepov TtsgiiovTix, (see vol. ix. p. 320. of iJje Bipont 
edition,) the following passage occurs in the Conmientaries of 

Proclus p. 261. A'jV£*Ta» TU STTTO. (JCUlJ.OI.TU, TU fXSV /3ga5uTffg« OVTa^ 

T« Se 6«TTw. T« /xev, sXxTTcu Ttspi'iovTU xvkXov, SxTBgov (lege SaTTOV) 
Trepisjaiv Is K^ovog /xsj^co TrepiuiV ^pudvTegov. On these words 
Proclus comments as genuine, in his usual admirable manner. 
They are also unnoticed by Ficinus, though lie appears to have 
frequently consulted the Commentaries of Procius ; and of 
course, he did not find them in his manuscript. 

And in the third place, in the following passage, (p. 328. of the 
Bipont edition,) AXKctTToov t= ov wpoTegov ttovohv Xi^^si, Trgiv t-tj tuutou 
KUi 0[ioiou ■Kspioloo TYj sv txvTcv (Tvvs7n(T7rcv[J,evog , tov'ttoXuv oyKov, xaj 
uo'Tspov Trgoa-^vvToi £x Trvpo; xxi uSaroj xa< argog xai "yr^g, ^opv^cult] 
x«» ahoyov ovtci Koyao xpuTYicrag, eig to tyj§ tt^ojtjjc xui apKTTYji a$»- 
xoiTO sjSoj e?£i05, it appears from the Commentaries of Proclus, 
that there is an omission after tov ttoXvv o^Xov, of the word e^coSev. 
For Proclus observes, that I'imaus Sia tou Trpoa-^uvTu (puvat, xon 
Tou xara Travraj to'jc /3iouj e^avj/aj to uKoyov tovto tijj \l'uyYjg, discr- 
Tijcrsv avTO touSe tou o-a-p-aTO?, x«i TYjg jS»«j touto ^ojrjj. Tau Is tou 
r^wflsv, xaj tou utrTgpov aVTO Trgoa-Qsivai, tou crufjo^uoug o^>)a«TOf, ev oj 
HXTioua-ctv ctUTYiv STTOiYiasy lrji/.ioupyo;. T. TAY LOR. 


Ficta hunt proiima veris. 
Insanire licet, sed cum ratione, Poelis ; 
Et, si cum venia spires mendacia, Vates, 
Si novit nullos foecunda licentia fraenos, 
Sic fingis, tertis el sic incerta remisces, 
Ut mire lateal ficla sub imagine verum. 
E coeno varias hominum Bnxisse figuras, 

Adversaria Litcraria, 143 

Et luteos artus animasse Piomelliea nairas ; 
Nee non tt tygres cithara traxisse sequentes 
Oiphea ; nenipe rudes animi iiicultosque Pronielhens 
Insliuxit, victuque fero deterruit Orpheus. 

Progeiiiem teirae prosteriiunt fuimiiiis ictus, 
Spiral inexhaustum Siculis sub moiiiibus iguem 
Enceladus, vastusque iminani mole I'vpiioeus. 
Hi conteiiitores superum, sasvaque frementes 
Seditione inonent, nequis rescindere justurn 
Regibus imperium conatu tentet inaiii. 

Narcissus, liquidis iit formam spectat in uiidis, 
Se fertur stupuisse, suique cupidine captus 
Interiit miser. Haec ridetur fabula ? quot jam 
Narcissos omnis latae dabit atiguius urbis, 
Qui sua pulchra ferunt, qui se mirantiir, adorant, 
Seque putant tmllis respersos corpora na;vis ! 

Icarus et Phaethoi), juvenes ingenlibus ausis, 
Anni quae teneri, qu£e vires ferre recusaut, 
Absterrent ; iie pra?cipites trahat ambitus, et ne 
Jn sua veloces nimium discrimina currant. 

Proteus aut in avem vel se tranformat in anguem, 
Conversa fallens sensus oculosque figura ; 
Jupiter Europam petiit sub imagine tauri, 
In niveuni La'dam fallit mutatus olorem ; 
Quis non has formas effingit hypocrita \ quis non 
Nocte dieque potest alienum sumere vultum, 
Callidus et larvam culpis obducere tentat. 
Te, Danae, summo multum dilecta Tonanti, 

iErea custodit turris, vigil atque satelles ; 

Kex superum fulvo descendens aureus imbre, 

Et faciles aditus habuit, facilesque beatce 

Virginis amplexus : Atalantee fervet amore 
Tardior Ilippomenes, currenliqne aurea poma 

Obstruit, tjippomenis victoria debita porno ; 

Auro nil obstat, penetrat solido aere rigentes 

Hoc turres, armis teloque potentius omni ; 

Hoc rigidas mollit mentes, adversaque corda 

Conciliat, vanis prKstat^j/e cupidinis armis. 
Duritieu! Celmus, Midas ttmeraria vota, 

Tu Niobe, fastus, et tii perjuria falsa;, 

Balte, velas Imguae. Fumusu Cacus in antro 

Herculea? passus saevissima verbera dextfK, 

Dat monitum nequis furto leetatus inani, 

Astute speret nieritas evadere pcenas. 
Cui miranda subit Lyrneae dira paludis 

144 Adversaria Liter aria. 

Bellua, quae toties ferri secura dolentem 
Crescit in Alcideiu, damnoque potentior extat, 
Quisnam hominum est queni tu contenlum videris uno 
Flagilio ? saevo crescit sub veibere crimen. 

Hinc fera Tisiphone saevis armata flagellis, 
lUinc squamosis serpentibus horret Erynnis, 
Et torquet miseios animos vitioque gravatos. 
Quis uon Tisiphonen, quis non sibi praestat Er^nnim, 
Conscia queni premit et surdo mens verberat ictu ? 

Maenades et Pentheus, contemto numiue Divum, 
Ut Vates perhibent, alias habuere liguras : 
Illas praegnantem dum torquent stamine fusum 
Et festam stulto lucem sermone profanant ; 
Hie sacro dum fundit ovans opprobria Baccho ; 
Nimirum qui non digno veneretur houore 
Numina, qui sacris faciat convitia divis, 
Exuit iile viri mentem, digniisque yidetur 
Qui brutis socium se niisceat, atque viriles 
EfFugiat longe coetus ; aut, quod fuit olim, 
Montibus eduruni saxum formetur in altis. 

Ut quae sint posthac virtutis przemia veras 
Exhibeant, oculis longe distantia nostris, 
Elysios canipos sacri linxere Poetae, 
Hie blandi ilores Zeph^ris melioribus halynt, 
Hie etiam lucis arbor praedives opacis 
Fulgentes viridi ramos curvata metallo, 
Quae spatiosam umbris praebet spatiantibus umbram. 
Hue admissa; aniniae Lethaea ad flumina tendunt, 
Longaque piaeteritae potant oblivia vitas. 
Finxerunt etiam natos melioribus annis 
Heroas, gelidos cum prinium spirilus artus 
Deseruit, socios ipsis accumbere divis. 

Vos etiam, Vales, ut quae post funera sontes 
Expeclent poenae, discant linjeantque nefandi, 
Inuocuum et dutant vitae sine labe tenorem, 
Praebetis justas daniem Salmonea poenas ; 
lilt vastum in latos Tityou extenditis agros, 
Et fcecunda niniis <lepascit pectora vuitur. 
Saxa, rotas, furias, hventes sulfuns ignes, 
Vates, licta licet, cecinere simillima veris. 

Tui I'avoris studiosissimus, 

1694. II. FREIND. 

'** The autograph is in the printer's possession. 

Adversaria Literaria. J44| 


Qui, anno 1819, ipsis impromsus Astronomis, apparidt. 

CEDANT, aethereos oculis quicunque meatus, 

Atqiie inconcessi tentant penetralia cceH, 

Nee superam tellus sedem sibi vindicet. Olim 

Fas erat : iiigenii volucres quo tempore nisus, 

^Terrenamque animam vir plus quam humanus ad altum 

Erigeret Newto, mundumque amplexus, et astra 

In rutilas cogens temere palantia turmas, 

Exiguo niagnos radio comprenderet orbes. 

Atque ulinaiu, 6 Newto, ccelo mens reddita rursus 

Dignaretur humum ! querimur sed vana. Pusillas, 

Heu ! mentes hominum nunc degener educat aetas. 

Ipsa, suis quondam Newtonibus inclyta, quondam 

Praescia fatorum, divina? pra^scia legis, 

Ipsa quoque, inventam lustris labentibus artem, 

Gallia dedidicit : nee jan\ fugitiva requirit 

Sidera, nee certos reditus variosque labores, 

Crinigerive globi callet pradicere caudam. 

^thereas quanquam tentet creberrimus arces 

Uraniee tiro, specular! lumina vitro 

Armatus, stellasque novas indagine captet, 

Uraniam nuper riserunt numina nostrum, 

Et clandestinum tacita sub nocte comelen 

Incautis misere sophis : delusa sophorum 

Erabuit virtus ; veterum sic provida sensini 

Degenerat, retroque ruit prndentia patrum. 

Tempus erat, quo prima quies subrepit in urbem, 
Atque Parisiacos involvit languida muros ; 
Tardus in obliquum pjaustra inclinare Bootes 
Coeperat, et pleno Phcebi soror a^mula cornu 
Luna micans, tremulas radios fundebat in undas. 
Jam noctis decimam summis e turribus iioram 
^nea vocali ferro canipana per auras 
Tinnierat ; clausae ferro valvisque tabernce, 
Atque catenarutn solida compage silebant. 
Amplexus trepidis mortalia Morpheus alis 
Corpora, secura nmlcebat pace ; nee unus 
Astronomos inter stabat vigil, ardua coeli 
Qui peteret, vitreisque tubis circumdatus, orbes 
Aerios oculis, procul explorator obiret. 
VOL. XXI. a. Jl. NO. XLL K 

iiS Adversaria Liter aria, 

Tanta viris secura sui fiducia ! tantum 
Astronomis robur coeli queis sklera parent ! 

Ecce autera toto proflant dum pectore rhonchos;, 
Et leiiti recubant stratis in niollibns, ingens 
Exoritur clamor, variisque e partibus urbis. 
Per Euxemburgi tranqnilla palatia repens, 
NoGturnasque inter tilias grassatur ad aedeS;. 
Magnus ubi Lodoix proeclaris artibus, olini 
Perfuginm sublime, polo vicina locavit 
Atria; divinas ubi Gallica prospicit arces 
Uranie, solisque vias et sidera servat. 
Nee mora, confuso misceri limina motu, 
Et ceeci plebis circum mugire tumultus. 
Astronomis somnum rupit paver : ociils artus 
Lente festinant dulci subducere lecto. 
Quid plebes clamosa petit ? niim proximus sedes 
Ignis corripuit ? subito num Sequana iiuctu 
Crevit, et oppositas afFectat gujgite moles? 
Nee praesentis enim, Lodoico principe, castas 
Fas aliam Gallis nunc causam quajrere : bella, 
Horrida bella procul Deus abstulit : impia dud^n:^ 
Tempora fugerunt, nunquam reditura, cruentae 
Plebis ubi furiae magnos ad vincla Quirites 
Prolraherent, strictoque manus vilissima ferro, 
Funera funeribus tota cumularet in urbe. 
Unde tamen densum fervet per compita vulgus^ 
Atque soporiferas turbat clamoribus boras ? 
Nulla quidem ninibos inter cajcosque recessus 
Stella injussa latet : non prttmatura cometee 
Cauda, vel exiles ducens sine nomine flammas, 
Ignaris est ausa sopbis fulgere : sophorum 
Prfesagas nequeunt ccelestia fallere mentes. 
Sed qute tanta sophis abrumpit causa soporem ? 

Dilm dubitant haerentque viri, tardique veterno;, 
Et dormitantes, vestigia lenta sub umbras 
Hortorum gelidas, loca somno debita, ducunt, 
Diim causas ardent scitari et quierere, coelo 
Forte unus patulii cervicem oscedine librans, 

Languentes oculoruni orbes inflectit, et ecce 

O pudor astronomis ! 6 improvisa futuri 
Pectora! cerla fides; sensus non decipit error; 
Ecce novum, socii, sidus ; novus orbis Olympum 
Occupat : Arctous Boreas qua rauca volutat 
Murmura, suspicitis ? Rutilas crinita per auras 
Stella Irahit radios^ Stellas supereminet omneS;, 

Adversaria Liter aria, 147 

Caudaque ad occiduum vergit nitidissima solem ; 
Veriis adest (verusque aderat sub nocte) cometes. 

Extempl5 treniefacta pavor per membra cucurrit 
Astronomis: tollunt ad coelum lumina, tandem 
Pervjgiles ; solos inter, mora nulla, recessus, 
Quisque suas tacitis adrepens passibus aedes, 
Qu^ data porta, subit, tempestivasque per umbras 
Multa gemens ignominiam, communia summte 
Ascendit trepido specul^e fastigia gressu. 
Hic chartas vitreosque tubos, doctasque tabellas 
Expediunt, nitidique inopinos hospitis ignes 
Scrutantur, signantque viam, finemque f'uturum 
Coujiciunt, magicaque involvunt arte cometem. 
Tunc senior, penitds coeli cui cognitus orbis, 
Cui rerum major coUecta scientia, fatis 
Ora movens, placido medius sic pectore coepit : 

" O socii, tenuem queis invidere triumphum 
" Numina, venturum quoniam prjenoscere nobis 
" Haud licuit, praesens liceat nunc dicere sidus, 
" Et quiP forma globi, quid prodigiale minetur, 
*^ Olim flammigero uon unquam crine cometes 
" (Haud ignota loquor,) terris impune refulsitj 
" Saepiiis et mundi gentes timuere ruinam, 
*^ Cum piceii pallens ferrugine cauda, tremendi 
'^ Sideris obscuras radiis incenderet umbras. 
" Haud nescitis enim, media quo tempore Rom^ 
'' Interiit Cfesar, micuerunt plurima coelo 
" Fulgura, nee diri toties arsere cometa. 
" Nos etiam nuper (priscis conferre recentes 
*' Si casus liceat), nos Galli vidimus, ingens 
" Forma globi, lugubre rubens, ignesque sinistros 
*' aT,there diftimdens apparuit : ilicet imis 
" Sedibus exclusae venere ad praelia gentes; 
" Sarmathicumque patens armis audacibus orbem 
" Inter inaccessos brumarum Gallia montes, 
" Tmprudens gelidis jacuit tumulata sub oris. 
" Nunc autem melior Lodoico defluit astas 
" Principe ; nunc alter seclorum panditur ordo, 
" Pacatisque favent ccelestia numina tenis. 
" Non ferrugineo preesentis cauda cometag 
" Igne micat : pallent radii, lucemque modestam 
•' Ejiciunt, almoque polum splendore serenant, 
'* Tolle caput, felix 6 tandem Gallia ; sidus 

148 The Origin of 

" Ecce novum placido procedere coepit OlympOj 

" Aurea quo plenis manabit copia rivis : 

*' Regius en infans, dudilm exspectatus, amanti 

*' Terrze allabetur, magnae spes altera matris. 

"Jam roseo nostrum reclusit lumine coelum 

*' Auroras facies, nitidi praenuntia solis, 

" Sol etiam, divina suos modcS numina curent, 

" Sol etiam totum radiis complebit Olympum. 

" Exoriare, puer ; tellus tibi lilia fundit, 

*' Innexaque parat cunabula myrtea lauro^ 

*' Ipse suos crebro przecingit palmite colles 

" Pampineus Liber, multoque exercita vino 

'•^ Doha venturum siccat renovanda per annum. 

*' Exoriare, puer ; pretioso nectare Bacchus 

'* Ipse tuos, diim fata sinant, celebrabit honores ; 

** Nee jam (si qua fides, si conscia pectora veri) 

** Astronomos fatum non praedixisse pudebit." 

Sic fatur senior : plausu freniituque secundo 
Docta cohors magni miratur verba prophetse, 
Errorem solata suum. Tunc quisque lenaces 
iEthereis oculos defigere sedibus ; omnes 
Dim lecto recubantj noctis vigilare sub umbrS, 
Terque quaterque poli longos ambire meatus ; 
Nee mora, nee requies : durum nunc ferre laborem 
Astronomi, somnosque volunt pro laude pacisci : 
Scilicet egregium certe deprendere sidus 
Quo praeeunte puer nascetur regius, alta 
BorbonidAm proles, optanti debita mundo. 
Atque ntinam non sera canam, felixque Garumna 
Burdigala puerum regnantem cernat in urbe, 
Burdigal*que Ducem tot^ cum gente salutet ! 

Parisiis, 1820. Henriot. 


In every Christian age, objectors to the Bible have industriously 
labored to adapt the ancient compositions of the sacred volurae to 
more modern circumstances ; and to show that *' the heathens 

tlie Heathen MytJiologi/, 149 

were a just and moral people, and had much better and clearer 
ideas of justice and moraUty than are to be found in the Bible." 
If this could be proved, it would strike at the root of the morality, 
antiquity, genuineness, and authenticity of the Bible. For if it 
were as modern as these objectors have endeavoured to represent 
it, and if it could be proved that the " heathens had clearer ideas 
of justice and morality than are to be found in the Bible," the 
heathen mythology being more ancient, and the principal transac- 
tions recorded in the ancient part of the Bible agreeing with those 
in the mythology, it would then follow, according to the wish of 
these objectors, that the Bible would be founded on the fables 
of the heathens. 

The ignorance of these men respecting the people, who, they say, 
had as clear ideas of justice and morality as are to be found in the 
Bible, is manifest ; for that race of ancients, who had as perfect 
ideas of justice and morality as are to be found in the Bible, lived 
before the time of Moses, and worshipped the true God according 
to the dispensation which came down through all the patriarchal 
churches to the time of its renewal under Noah : and thus the di- 
vine order descended from him to Abraham ; was established in 
Jacob, who became the visible head of the tribes of Israel, and of 
the church of God ; and was again renewed under Moses. That 
those were the men who had " as clear ideas of justice and mo- 
rality as are to be found in the Bible," is true, because the record 
of their justice and morality is to be found in the Bible. 

But the heathens, or the D"'U goim, which should be rendered 
nations, so frequently mentioned in the Bible, were the idolaters 
of the different nations, the Deists, the " moral philosoi>hers," the 
free-thinkers, the theophilaiithropists, of that day — men of vanity, 
who took the high-sounding names of Jupiter, IBacchus, Mercury, 
and Hercules, adorers of reason while living, and worshipped as 
gods when dead:— these were the men who are called in the Bible 
heathens. If it appear what description of men are in the Bible 
said to be heathens, that every objection respecting the antiquity, 
authority, and genuineness of the Bible may be removed, I will say 
a few words concerning the mythology of the heathens ; and by 
the testimony of the best and most ancient historical writers, 
sacred and profane, show that the principal things recorded in the 
heathen mythology, are taken from the Bible, and have, in suc- 
ceeding ages, been applied to their gods or deified mortals. 

The fabulous Egyptian mythology being prior to the Grecian 
and the Cretan, I begin with 'Bacchus and his father Jupiter Am- 
mon, the first and most distinguished among men who weive wor- 
shipped as gods, and who, according to the best authorities, did 
not live till more than 300 years after the time of Moses. 

The first thing then to determine is, who this Bacchus Avas, and 
tlrc time in which he lived. That this Egyptian Bacchus was the 

150 The Origin of 

same person whom Herodotus calls Sesostris,' will appear froia 
what follows : Sesostris came out of Egypt with a great army, and 
invaded the East in the same manner, and with every circumstance 
as is recorded of the true Bacchus, who, on account of his con- 
quests, was celebrated in various nations by different names. The 
Arabians* called him Sheshac, and Bacchus, wliich, in the 
Arabic language, signifies great ; the Chaldeans called him Belus, 
which is Lord ; the Phrygians and Thracians called him Mars, 
or Valiant; the Greeks, Osiris; and the Egyptians, Sesostris. 
The actions of this Bacchus and Sesostris are the same ; both are 
said to have conquered India,^ invaded Greece, and to have been 
routed by the army of Perseus ; both are said to have reigned at 
Thebes in Egypt, adorned that city, and to have been very potent 
by land and sea ; both came over the Hellespont, and were there 
in danger of losing their armies ; both are said to have conquered 
Thrace, and to have returned in triumph to Thebes ; both are said 
to be the first king of all Egypt, that is, upper and lower Egypt, 
including Thebais, Ethiopia, and Libya. Pliny informs us that 
Ethiopia served Egypt till the death of Sesostris : and Herodotus* 
says that he alone, of all the kings of Egypt, enjoyed the empire of 
Ethiopia. Hence as none of the kings of Egypt subdued the em- 
pire of Ethiopia but Sesostris, and as Bacchus, king of Egypt, con- 
quered the empire of Ethiopia, this Theban, or Egyptian Bact'hus, 
could be no other than Sesostris, as it plainly appears that Sesostris 
was the ancient Egyptian Bacchus. 

The next thing to determine is, who Sesostris was, and at what 
time he lived. Many attempts have been made to ascertain 
the person and time of Sesostris; but on account of the variety 
of names given to this great conqueror of the eastern nations 
by those whom he subdued, and who spoke a difl'erent lan- 
guage, nothing is clear as to the person and time of this power- 
ful Egyptian king. In order clearly to fix the time when Se- 
sostris governed Egypt, we must refer to the ancient records of 
the Bible, which will prove, in conjunction with the above-mentioned 
historians, that Sesostris was no other than Shishak, king of Egypt, 
who is so repeatedly mentioned in the Scriptures. For as none of 
the kings of Egypt had dominion over Ethiopia but Sesostris, ac- 
cofding to Herodotus, and as Ethiopia served Egypt till the death 
of Sesostris, according to Pliny, and other writers ; if it should ap- 
pear that Shishak, king of Egi/pt, had dominion over the Ethi- 
opians, and that after his death the Ethiopians were sufficiently 
powerful to invade tlie rest of the eastern nations, it will prove that 
Sesostris was Shishak, king of Egypt. Li the 2nd Chron. xii. 2, 3. 
it is said, " And it came to pass that in the fifth year of king Reho- 
boam, Shishak, king of Egypt, came up against Jerusalem with 1200 

'L.ii.c.llO. ^ Chron. anc. King. Uh'id, '^L.ii.c.llO. 

the Heathen Mythology, 151 

cliaiiols, and 6o,000 horsemen, and the people (tlie foot soldiers) 
were without number that came with him out of Egypt, the Lubims, 
the Sukkims, and the Ethiopians :" viz. the nations he had con- 
quered and incorporated with his own people. 

Thus we see that the Ethiopians, who came with Shishak out of 
Egypt, formed a considerable part of this immense army, which is 
suthcient Bible evidence to prove that Shishak must at that time 
have had dominion over Ethiopia ; otherwise such great numbers 
of Ethiopians would not have been united with his army in Egypt. 
If we compare this with what has been observed from Herodotus 
and Pliny, " that Sesostris only, of all the kings of Egypt, had do- 
minion over Ethiopia," it will so far prove that Sesostris was 

We are informed, in the 2d verse, that when this powerful army 
enteired Judea it was in the fifth year of the reign of Rehoboani ; 
and the 13th verse says he reigned 17 years; Abijah his son 3 years : 
and the 14th verse states, that the land rested from war under Asa, 
the son of Abijah, 10 years ; which will be 25 years in all from the 
time that Shishak invaded Judea, and which will no doubt bring 
us to the death of Shisliak, or Sesostris, when the writers above- 
mentioned say that the Ethiopians threw off the Egyptian yoke. 
And this is evidently recorded in the same chapter; for at the end 
of the period of 25 years, it is said, "and there came up against 
them Zerah the Ethiopian, with an host of a thousand thousand ;" 
viz. (a million) from which it appears that the account given by 
Herodotus and Pliny concerning Sesostris is in perfect agreement 
with the Bible account of Shishak, as to time, place, and circum- 
stance. Hence as it is evident that Sesostris, or the ancient 
Egyptian Bacchus, was the Shishak of the Scriptures, Sesostris 
being the Egyptian, and Shishak the Arabian, name of that king, 
we can no longer be at a loss to know who this Sesostris was, and 
at what time he lived. For Shishak, or Sesostris, reigned in Egypt 
in the time of Rehoboam the son of Solomon. Hence it is clear, 
that the most ancient heathen Bacchus did not appear till 60O 
years after Moses : consequently those parts of the Heathen My- 
thology where we find the particular transactions and circum- 
stances recorded of this Bacchus, which are also recorded in the 
Scriptures, must have been taken from thence by the compilers of 
the Mythology. 

I have no objection to the name of Bacchus, which signifies 
great ; for whoever attentively examines the theology of Bacchus 
as recorded in the mythology of the heathens, and compares it with 
the books of Mosts, will conclude that the true Bacchus was 
Moses himself, and that the true Jupiter, the father of Bacchus, 
was Jehovah the father of all mankind. 

That the word Jujtitor, is derived from Jehovah, will appear 
from what follows. Diodorus Siculus says, that Moses called the 

152 The Origin of 

God of heaven Jao, and Jehovah, and the Phoenicians, who dei- 
fied their kings, when first they went inlo Greece with Cadmus, 
their commander, gave the name of Jao pater, (Jupiter,) which 
is Jehovah the father, to their kings. 

It is fabled in the Mythology that Bacchtts dried up the river» 
Orontes and Hydaspcs, by striking them with his thyrsus, and 
passed over them : as it is said that Moses divided the Red Sea and 
the river Jordan with his rod, and passed through them. That ati 
iey stick throtvn on the ground by Bacchus, crept like a dragon : 
as it is recorded, that the rod, cast on the ground before Pharaoh, 
became a serpent. That the enemies of Bacchus once were all covered 
with darkness, while those who wereivith him enjoyed perfect day : 
as it is written concerning the Egyptians and the Israelites, A dog 
was given to Bacchus as a constant companion : so Moses had his 
Caleb, which in Hebrew signifies a dog.' Pausanias relates, that 
the Greeks at Troy found an ark tvhich was sacred to Bacchus : 
the ark was one of the most sacred symbols given by Moses. 

Again, Bacchus (in the Mythology) is said to have been born in 
J^gypt, put in an ark, and exposed to the waters: the same is re- 
corded of Moses. 

Bacchus is said to have had two mothers : so had Moses, his own 
mother, and the daughter of Pharaoh. Plutarch says, " the 
Egyptians affirm that Isis was brought to the queen and appointed 
by her to nurse the child." 

Bacchus is said to be the god of wine : alluding to Moses, who 
sent the spies to the land of Canaan, from whence they brought 

Diodorus Siculus and Strabo affirm that the sepulchre of Osiris 
(Bacchus) was unknown to the Egyptians, that is, to the Israelites, 
whom the heathen writers called Egyptians : the same is recorded 
in Deut. xxxiv. 6. concerning Moses, *♦ But no man knows of his 
sepulchre unto this day." 

Bacchus' s Jiight was toward the Red Sea: so was the flight of 

One of the symbols in the theology of Bacchus was a serpent : 
Moses set up the brazen serpent in the wilderness. 

Bacchus had great numbers of women in his army : as Moses in 
his journey to Canaan. 

It is said wherever Bacchus went the land flowed with milk and 
honey: the same is recorded in the Mosaic history concerning the 
land of Canaan. 

Moses was instructed in mount Sinai respecting the rites and 
sacrifices of the Jewish worship: the same is said of Bacchus by 

Eiirip. in Bacch. 

the Heathen Mythology. 153 

It is further said in llie Mythology, that Bacchus was instructed 
in the highest ivisdom in a mount of Arabia called JSissi : Moses 
resided there 40 years, and erected ai altar which he c ailed Je- 
Jiovah Nissi. Exoil. xvii. 15. From which it appears sutHcieulJy 
evident that the true Bacchus was INIoses. 

The ancient heathen writers have also noticed many other things 
recorded in the books of Moses. Eusebius relates that his being 
taken out of the Nile is sung by the author of the ancient Orphic 
verses, which expressly mention his being taken out of the water, 
and the two tables that were given him by God.' 

" So was it said of old, so he commands. 
Who's born of water, who received from God 
The two great tables of the Law." 

Pharaoh's two principal magicians,^ Jannes and Jambres, and 
the opposition they made to Moses, are recorded in Ennienius,^ 
Pliny,**^ and Apuleius. The plagues in Egypt are mentioned by 
Eupolemns i^ and the departure of the Israelites out of Egypt is 
related by Tacitus."^ 

Thus have the-^e pagan writers (whom we cannot suppose to have 
been friends to the religion of the Bible) noticed the above, and 
many other particulars recorded in the books of Moses. Also the 
ancient lawgivers who followed Moses, in order to imitate the 
grand and awful display of the divine presence on mount Sinai, 
have pretended to receive their laws from sdme god or goddess; as 
Nunia, from Egeria ; Zeleuciis, from Minerva ; Lycurgus, from 
Apollo at Delphi ; and Minos, from Jupiter in the Cretensian den. 

Hence we see the origin of the prostitution of those sacred truths 
contained in the ancient part of the Bible ; for when the pride and 
wickedness of the nations, like modern deists, had banished from 
the mind of man every idea of the superintending providence of 
God, oi A future state, and of God himself; — then it was that they 
began to deify their kings and great men, and to worship their re- 
semblance in wood and stone ; — then it was that the actions of 
Moses, the true Bacchus, were fabled of the Theban Bacchus, the 
conqueror of Asia, and king of all Egypt. 

That Jupiter Ammon, or the Egyptian Jupiter, was a king of 
Egypt, and the father of the Egyptian Bacchus, is contirmed by 
Diodorus Siculus,^ who says, that "Osiris (Bacchus or Shishak, as 
above) built in Thebes a magnificent temple to his falh^^r Jupitep^ 
Ammon, who reigned in that city." And Thyametes,' .vho lived 
near the time of Orpheus, wrote expressly "that the father of 
Bacchus was Ammon, a king of Egypt, reigning over all that part 

« GrotiujjBooki. Sec. 16. ^ 2Tim. iii. 8. 

3 Jiluscb. I'rarp. Evang. 1. i. + [b, ], yiii. 8. ' i\^^ 6 L. 

7 Diod. 1. i. 9. » ApuU Diod. 1. iii. 141. 

154 The Origin of 

of Libya anciently called Ammonia ;" fi'om which he was called 
Jupiter Ammon, king and sovereign father of that country. Now 
Amnion the father of Sesostris the Egyptian Bacchus reigned in the 
time of Solomon ;' so that those parts of the Mythology where 
these writers introduce Jupiter Amnion, the most ancient of the 
heathen gods, or deified men, will not reach beyond the time of 
Solomon or David ; consequently what is recorded in the ancient 
part of the Bible, as performed in the time of Moses and Joshua, 
wherever it occurs in the mythologic history, must have been taken 
from the books of Moses and Joshua. 

Diodorus Siculus says, l.i. 145, that the Grecian Mythology 
was of a fiir later date than the Egyptian, which is also confirmed 
by the fatlier of the Greek historians, Herodotus, 1. ii. who observes 
that " the oracle at Dodona was the oldest in Greece, and was set 
up by an Egyptian woman after the example of the oracle of Jupi- 
ter Ammon at Thebes." 

Jupiter Olympius, or the Cretan Jupiter, celebrated by Homer, 
is of a later date than Jupiter Ammon, or the Egyptian Jupiter; 
for the Cretan and Grecian Mythology succeeded the Egyptian and 
Tyrian ; and it was from the mountain Olympus in Crete, that the 
Cretan Jupiter was styled Jupiter Olympius, who, in the ] 8tli 
Iliad, declares himself to be eternal antl supreme, by shaking the 
mountain Olympus with his imperial nod, threatening his rebellious 
offspring with destruction. But it will appear that this is also an 
imitation of the awful and tremendous descent of God on mount 
Sinai, when he threatened the rebellious Israelites with destruction ; 
for this circumstance, which the heathens have applied to Jupiter 
Olympius, took place near 600 .years before the Olympic Jupiter 

The Mythology also informs us, that Mercury icas horn in Egypt, 
was the secretary of Bacchus, and the messenger of the gods : and 
that tvith his caduceus, or rod, around which icere tivo serpents, he 
could perform tcondeiful things. But it will be evident, by com- 
paring these passages with the facts recorded in the Bible, that the 
true Mercury was Aaron : for Aaron was born in Egypt, and was 
the messenger from God and Moses (the true Bacchus) to Pharaoh. 
The caduceus, or rod, is in perfect agreement with the rod which 
he cast down before Pharaoh, and which destroyed the two ser- 
pent-rods of Jaunes and Jambres, the magicians who opposed him. 

I shall conclude this subject with a few remarks concerning the 
Hercules of the heathens, and show that the great acts related of 
him are literally transcribed from the history of the Joshua of the 
Hebrews. Hercules is said to have fought against Typhosus and 
the rest of the giants by command of the gods ; as it is written. 

I Chrou. anc. King. p. 193. 

the Heathen Mythology. 155 

that Joshua fought by llie command of God against the Canaanites, 
men of great stature, the sons of Anak. 

That ivhilst Hercules was fighting, he was assisted by Jupiter, 
who rained doiim hail-stones, which destroyed great numbers of 
them; the same is recorded in the book of Joshua. "The Lord 
cast down great stones from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and 
they died." " This oriental Hercules (says Vossius), for many 
ages more ancient than the Theban (or Egyptian) Hercules, was by 
his true name called Joshua, who made war with the Canaanites." 

That the giant Typhosus was Og, the king of Bashan, appears, 
not only from the same author, but by other unquestionable au- 
thorities. This word in the Greek (the language in which the 
heathens wrote their mythology) signifies, to kindle or smoke, and 
has the same meaning with ^ij;, Og, to bake or burn ; so that Ty- 
phoeus and Og in both languages have the same meaning. That 
Typhosus and Og were only different names for the same person, 
will appear from Homer, who, speaking of Jupiter's striking down 
the giant Typhoeus with his thunder, informs us that the chief of 
the giants had his bed in Aram : 

E(V 'Apifiois odi (patTL Tv(p(Of:os e/Ufievat evpcis, 11. B. 783. 

That this Arima, where Homer says the giant's bed remained, 
was the same with Syria, ^ is certain. Strabo^ observes, " by the 
Arima, they understand the Syrians, who are now called Arimi." 
" This name, instead of Syria, has also been continued in the 
English translation of the Bible down to the time of Elizabeth, 
where Syria is called Aram, and the Syrians Aramites. The bed 
of Typhoeus therefore being said by Homer to be in Arima or 
Syria, is in perfect agreement with the account we have of the bed 
of Og. Deut. iii. 11. "For only Og king of Bashan remained 
of the remnant of the giants : behold his bedstead was a bedstead 
of iron, is it not in Rabbah of the children of Amnion V which was 
Atram, or Syria, as above : from which it is evident that when 
Homer celebrated the war of the giants against the gods, though 
unknown to him, he recorded the transactions of the Jewish leader 
in the land of Canaan. 

The Mythology says, that Hercules and Bacchus made an ex- 
pedition to India ; but as we know nothing concerning such an 
expedition by Moses and Joshua to that part of the world which we 
now call India, this seems to set aside all that has been said on the 
subject. We shall however easily remove this ditJiculty by 
proving, that the land of Canaan was anciently called India. 
Vossius says, " the ancients called all parts eastward of the Medi- 
terranean sea India." This appears also from Ovid,^ who says, 

' Strabo, 1. xiii. 

^ Syria in the original is called Q")}*}, Aram, 2 Kings, vi. 11, and the 
Syrians Aramites, v. 9. ^ Vossius, de Idolat. 1. i. c. 26. 

* Ovid, de arte Amandi. 

156 The Origin of 

*' Perseus brought Andromeda from India ;" but Perseus did not 
bring his vife Andromeda from modern India, but from Joppa, 
a town in tlit- land of Canaan, according to Strabo.' Therefore it 
is clear that the expedition, which Hercules and Bacchus are said to 
have made to India, will perfectly agree with the expedition of 
Moses and Joshua to the land of Canaan. 

The place also, where this ancient oriental Hercules is said to 
have fought with the giants, will perfectly agree with the account 
of Joshua and Og. Vossius* proves this battle to have been fought 
in Arabia, near mount Nissi and Serbonis, which also is clear from 
Apollonius : " Typhceus came thus to the mountains and Nissian 
lield, where he lies overwhelm'd under the waters of Serbonis." 
The mount Nissi in the Mythology is sacred to Bacchus, originally 
Moses, (as above,) who erected an altar in the Nissian mountain in 
Arabia, which he called Jehovah Nissi. Exod. xvii. 15. It is 
further said that Hercules urns fellow-soldier with Bacchus, and 
together with him fought near the mountain Nissi against the 
giants, which exactly answers to Joshua and Moses against Og and 
the Canaanites. 

It is further said in the Mythology, that "the gods with whom 
the giants fought came out of Egypt, and were twelve in number ; 
that Bacchus was commander-ui-chief of the whole army, but that 
tlie direction of the war was under the management of Hercules his 
iirst general." Hence it appears that the twelve tribes are described 
as gods ; and the war of the Hebrews with the Canaanites, as the 
war of the gods with the giants. Lastly, that the most ancient 
and true Hercules was not an Egyptian, Theban, Cretan, or 
Grecian Hercules, who lived in the time of liehoboam the son 
of Solomon, but lived long before any of those who were wor- 
shipped as gods of the heathens, is asserted in Lucian, who says, 
(speaking of the Syrian goddess,) " that temple of Hercules, which 
is at Tyre, belongs not to the Theban Hercules,^ which the Greeks 
so much extol, but he that I now speak of is more ancient, called 
the Phoenician Hercules." Phoenicia was a part of the land of 
Canaan, the theatre of the wars of Joshua ; therefore as this ancient 
Phoenician Hercules lived before those who were worshipped as 
gods by the heathens, and as the above circumstances both as to 
time and place will apply to no one but Joshua, who was prior to 
them all ; it follows that the true Hercules was Joshua, who lived 
near 500 years before the Theban Hercules, the most ancient Her- 
cules of the heathens. Consequently those acts recorded of him, 
which are found in the Bible, have been taken from it by the 
compilers of the Mythology. 

' Strabo, 1. i. ^ Voss. de Idolat. 1. i.e. 26. 

^ Who was the oldest Hercules of the heathens. 

the Heathen Mythology. 157 

Having thus ascertained who the true Jupiter, Bacchus, Mercury, 
and Hercules were, and as these were the greatest an(J most 
powerful of the gods of the heathens, I shall quit this subject (for 
the lesser gods, though they be numerous, must necessarily share 
the fate of their leaders); and endeavour to prove by undeniable 
evidence that among the Phoenicians, Sanchoniatbon and Moclius, 
who lived 200 years before the time of David ; also the ancient 
philosophers, historians, and poetjs, down to the time of Plato, 400 
years before Christ, had a great part of their information concerning 
divine subjects from the books of Moses. 

That the ancient part of the Bible was the fountain from whicli 
the Egyptians, Phoenicians and Grecians drew their theology, is 
proved in the Chronicon of the laborious and learnel Eusebius, 
who searched the libraries of the historians and philosophers of 
Phoenice, Egypt, and Greece. He has shown by the testimony of 
their authentic memorials that the books of Moses were prior to 
the origin of the most remote pagan antiquity. 

It appears that the most ancient tradition among all nations is 
consistent with the relation of Moses,' for the Phoenician descrip- 
tion of the creation of the world nearly agrees with that of the 
venerable penman, as it is translated by Philo Biblius from San- 
choniathon the Phoenician historian, and preserved by Eusebius.* 
The words of Sanchoniathon are : " The foundation of the universe 
was a dark air, or the breath of a dark air, and a dismal chaos 
covered with thick darkness ; but when this spirit or breath 
placed its desire or love on these first principles, and a mixture 
was produced, this conjunction was called love. This was the 
beginning of the creation of all things ; but the breath or spirit was 
not created." Nuraenius,^ cited by Porphyry, about the nymphs' 
den, affirms, it was said by the prophet, (meaning Moses,) that the 
spirit of God was moved upon the waters. Linus,* who lived a 
long time before Hesiod or Homer, respecting the chaos, informs 
us, as he was himself taught: " In the beginning all things were 
confused." It is also said in the Phoenician Theology that " the 
earth was illuminated with light, whence came the sun and 
moon. Anaxagoras says, "All things were blended together till 
the divine mind separated them." Hesiod, who was older than 
Homer, almost literally follows the text of Moses : he says in his 
Theogonia : 

"H-ot jjikv TTpuJTKTTa \a.os yever, avrap eireira 
I at' elpviTTepfos, ■Karrcov eboi aacpaXes aiel 
'Adava.TO)y, o'i e^ovai Kapq vnpoevTOS 'OXv/uttov, 
Taprapa r y'/epueira l^vyu ■^dorus evpvobeujs. 

} Grotius, book i. ^ Euseb. Prjep. Evang. 1. i. c. 10. ^ lb. ♦ lb. 

158 • The Origin of 

'EcXcieos 5'"Epe/3os re, ^eXaiva re Ni»| eyivoyro. 
"NvKTos b' avT Aldrip re teal 'Hj^iepr] k'ieyevovTO, 
Oi)s ritce Kvaarafiei't], 'Epe/3pt iUXuTriri fxiyelcra. 
Thales, whom Herodotus and Leander assert to have been originally 
a Phoinician, says, "that darkness was before tlie light." This is 
also expressed in the verses of Orpheus : 

" I sill" the night, parent of men and gods." 
Aristophanes says: 

" Chaos and Night, the first of all, take place, 

Dark Erebus, and gloomy Tartarus, 

No Earth, no Air, until the God of Love, 

(When Time began,) who with his golden wings 

In mighty whirlwinds flew, temp'ring black chaos. 

Produced mankind, and brought them into light." 
All this is in perfect agreement with the descriptioa that Moses 
gives of the evening in Genesis. 

Virgil, in the 6th book of his ^neid, says : 

" Principioccelum ac terras, camposque liquentes, 

Lucentemque globum Lunie, Titaniaque astra, 

Spiritus intus alit," &c. 
Ovid also, in the first J30ok of his Metamorphoses, closely follows 
the text of Moses : 

" Ante, mare et telius, et, quod tegit omnia, coelura, 

Unus erat toto Naturee vultus in orbe, 

Quem dixere chaos ; rudis indigestaque moles ; 

Nee quicquam, nisi pondus iners ; congestaque eodem 

Non bene junctarum discordia semina rerum. 

Nullus adhuc mundo praebebat lumina Titan ; 

Nee nova crescendo reparabat cornua Phoebe ; 

Nee circumfuso pendebat in acre telius 

Ponderibus librata suis : nee brachia longo 

Margine terrarnm porrexerat Amphitrite. 

Quaque fuit telius, iliic et pontus et aer : 

Sic eral instabilis telius, innabilis unda, 

Lucis egens aer : nulli sua forma manebat. 

Obstabatque aliis aliud : quia corpore in uno 

Frigida pugnabant calidis, humentia siccis, 

]\Iollia cum duris, sine pondere habentia poiidus. 

Hanc Deus et melior litem Natura diremit: 

Nam ccelo terras, et terris abscidit undas, 

Et liquidum spisso secrcvit ab aere ccelum. 

Eurus ad Auroram, Nabathjeaque regna recessit, 
Persidaque, et radiis juga subdita matutinis. 
Vesper et occiduo quae littora Sole tepescunt, 
Proxima sunt Zephyro : Scythiam Septeraque trioaeiu 
Horrifer invasit Boreas ; contraria telius 

the Heathen Mythology. 159 

Nubibus assiduis, pluvioque madescit ab Austro. 

Haec super iin{)osuit li(iuidui!i et gravitate carenteni 

jEthera, nee quicqiiain terrenae fa^cis habentein. 

Vix ealimitibus dissepserat omnia certis ; 

Cum, quiie i)re.ssa diu inassa latuere sub ilia, 

Sidera coeperunt toto eflervescere coelo. 

Neu regio foret ulla suis auimantibus orba, 

Astra tenent coeleste solum, formaeque Deorum : 

Cesserunt nitidis habitandae piscibus undic : 

Terra feras cepit : volucres agitabilis aer. 

Sanctius his animal, mentisque capacius altae 

Deerat adhuc, et quod dominari in cetera posset. 

Natus homo est : sive luinc divino semine fecit 

Ille opitex rerum, mundi melioris origo : 

Sive recens tellus, seductaque nuper ab alto 

^there, cognati retinebat semina coeli. 

Quam satus lapeto, mixtam fluvialibus undis, 

Finxit in effigiem moderantum cuncta Deorum." 
It is said. Gen. ii. 8, " The Lord formed man out of the dust 
of the ground." Agreeably to this is that of Sanchoniathon, ac- 
cording to the version of Philo Biblius : " One sprung from the 
earth." And Plato, in imitation of Moses, says: "The original' 
of men was extracted out of the earth." Also Hesiod, in his'Epya 
Kcu 'Hfxipai : 

"H^atoTOi' S' eK"eXeu(re TreptKXvroi' otti ra'^KTva 

Taiav vbei ifivpeii', kv 6' avdpioirbv Qe^ev auhi)v, K. t. X. 
And Homer 'A\X' v^els ^e^- Trapres vbwf) Kai yaia yivoiade.^ 
The derivation of the soul is thus explained by Moses, Gen. 
ii. 7. "And breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man 
became a living soul." The same is almost literally expressed by 
Sanchoniathon:' " Kalphijah, the voice of God's breath." Or- 
pheus nearly expresses himself in the same manner :'•■ " Man was 
framed by God himself out of the earth, and received from him a 
rational soul." And in his poem " De Verbo Sacro," speaking of 
God, he says: " None hath ever seen God, but a certain man de- 
scended of the Chaldean blood." Add to this, that of Porphyry, 
who informs us that " Sanchoniathon ' gave an account of persons 
and places, the first origin of the universe, the chaos, &c. con- 
formably to that of Moses ; and that he extracted bis account 
partly out of the annals of the cities, and partly out of the 
book reserved in the temple, which he received from Jeromba- 
Jus, priest of the great God Jao." That this great God Jao 
is the same with Jehovah, appears from many parts of Diodo- 

• Philo Bib. ill Boch. Can. 1. ii. fol. 784. "^ Plato de Repiib. 1. iii. fol. 414. 
3 11. II. 99. + Philo Bib. 5 Euseb. ex Tim. Chronographo. 
^ Porph. l.iv.advers. Christian. 

l60 The Origin of 

rus Siculus, who says that " Moses, among the Jews, owned 
the God of Heaven called Jao, as the author of his laws." Thus it 
is clear from the united testimonies of the most ancient writers, 
that Sanchoniathon, who lived about 250 years after the time of 
Moses, extracted from the books of Moses a great part of the Phce- 
nician Theology. 

Strabo, in his l6th book, mentions Moses, and is of opinion that 
1)C was an Egyptian priest, which he had from the Egyptian 
writers, as appears in Josephus. Pliny* also speaks of Moses ; and 
Juvenal says : 

" Judaicum ediscunt et servant ac metuunt jus, 
Tradidit arcano quodcunque volumine Moses." " 
Hermippus, in the life of Pythagoras, quoted by Josephus^ 
against Appion, observes, " These things he said and did, imitating 
the opinion of the Jews and Thracians, and transferring them to 
himself, for truly this man took many things into his own philo- 
sophy, from the Jewish laws." Some suppose that as the 
Bible was not translated into the Greek language in the time of 
Pythagoras and Plato, the theology of the Jews could not be 
known to the Greeks ; but as Pythagoras travelled into J udea for 
the purpose of acquiring knowledge, there can be no doubt that he 
learnt the Hebrew language : and Aristobulus, who lived in the 
time of the Maccabees, writes to Ptolemy Philometer, king of 
Egypt, and affirms that the Pentateuch was translated into the 
Greek before the time of Alexander the Great, and that it came to 
the hands of Pythagoras and Plato, which is thus contirmed. 
Plato travelled over all Egypt, and acknowledges that the Greeks 
received their most valuable learning from the Phoenicians and 
Hebrews.* From them, and in particular from Moses, he has 
borrowed so largely, that Numenins, the Pythagorean, styles hira 
*' Mosen Attica lingua loquentem." Moses describes the perfect 
state of man. Gen. i. '27, God created man in his own image ; 
this description of the creation of man in the image of God is 
also mentioned by profane Avriters. Plato says, " In the days of 
old there florished in the first men a divine particle of God."^ 
He also adds, ♦' they did not converse with men otdy, but with 
beasts," which is the same as the Mosaic account of Eve and the 
serpent. He also speaks of the state of man in paradise : " Saturn 
therefore reigning, mankind enjoyed their vigor inmiediately after 
man was produced out of the earth ; whence this age was truly 
golden." He also speaks ngreeabiy to the text of Moses con- 
cerning the fall of man from the Adamic state. After discoursing 

' Bookxxx. c. 1. ^ Sat. xiv. 101. ^ Book ii. 

'^ Plato in Cratylo, p. 426. and Bochart Phaleg. l.iv. c. 28. 

^ Critias, fol. 106. 

the Heathen Mythology, 161 

on the divine nature, which flourished in men in the golden age, he 
says,' ** This divine nature being at last contempered with the 
mortal or stnsual part in man, the human inclination or custom 
prevailed, even to the pestilential infection and ruin of mankind, 
and from this fountain all evils rushed in upon men." Eumenius, 
of the first authority among the Pythagoreans, says, that " Plato 
stole out of the writings of Moses, whatever he had of God and 
the universe." This agrees with Clemens Alexandrinus, who, 
speaking of Plato, says,^ " But as for laws, whatever are true, as 
also the opinion of God, these things were conveyed to him from 
the Hebrews." Hence it appears that Plato, as well as the 
ancients before him, had their information respecting the origin of 
the world and man, the purity of the Adamic state and depart- 
ure from it, out of the books of Moses. 

Another argument for the undoubted antiquity of the writings 
of Moses, and which no other writings however ancient can claim, 
is, that the Greeks, from whbm the western nations derived their 
learning, own that they had their letters from Phoenicia, which 
have the same order, name, and shape, as the Syriac or Hebrew.^ 
Herodotus, in his Terpsichore, says, that " the lonians learned their 
letters of the Plicenicians, and used them with very little variation ; 
which letters were afterward called Phoenician." He also calls them 
" the Phcenician letters of Cadmus," because Cadmus, a Phceni- 
cian, first brought them into Greece. And Callimachus says, 
" Cadmus, from whom the Greeks derive their written books."* 
Plutarch calls them Phcenician letters, in his ixtli book, where 
he says, that " Alpha, in the Phoenician or Hebrew language, 
signifies an Ox.'' Eupolemus, in his book of the Kings of the Jews, 
says, "Moses was the first, a wise man, who delivered letters to 
the Jews, and the Pi)oenicians received them from the Jews." That 
is, the ancient language of the Jews and Phamicians was the 
same. Thus Lucian, " he spake some words like the Hebrew or 
Phoenician." See also the learned men, who have written on tliis 
subject, as Scaliger's Diatribe on the Eusebian Year; the first 
book, chap. 10. of Gerrard Vossius's Grammar; Bochart, in his 
Canaan; Clement of Alexandria, Strom, book the 1st; and Euse- 
bius's Gospel Preparation, book tiie lOth, cliap. 5. 

Diodorus Siculus^ says, that " Moses was the first of all legis- 
lators who, according to that inicient institution of life, which was 
in Egypt, persuaded the people to use written laws." And it also 
appears that the most ancient Attic laws, fro:u whence the 
Roman were afterwards taken, owe their origin to the laws of 
Moses. A few instances of this may for tiie present suffice. In 

' Ciiiia--, lol. 106. ^ 111 Admonitione ael Gentes. 

^ Grot. Look i. sec, 16. + Grot. ' Diod. Biblio. 1. 1. 

VOL. XXr. CV. Jl. NO. XLI. L 

l62 Stanleii Nofce quadam 

the law, which Sopater recites, " Let him that is next akin possess 
the heiress :" which is thus explained by Terence, " There is a law 
by which widows ought to be married to the next kinsman ; and 
the same law obliges these kinsmen to marry them." Also the 
feast in which they carried clusters of grapes, taken from the feast 
of Tabernacles. The law that the high priest should marry none 
but a virgin, and his countrywoman. That next after sisters, kins- 
men by the father's side should inherit, &c. 

Plato, in his Minos, speaks of the lawgivers of Greece, and 
says, " they brought laws from Crete into Greece ;" and Serranus 
informs us, that " the Cretans drew their laws froni the Jews."' 
This appears to be the truth ; for, as the Grecian mythology suc- 
ceeded the Cretan, and as the Cretan was consequent on the Phoe- 
nician, it is reasonable to conclude that the knowledge of the 
Phoenician or Hebrew laws, so far superior to all others, would be 
communicated also. That this was the fact is evident ; for the 
Lacedajinonian code established by Lycurgus, and the Athenian by 
Solon, are, for the most part, substantially the same as the laws of 

Now, as by the unanimous consent of the most ancient historians, 
the Grecians had nothing remaining equal to the antiquity of the 
Phoenician records, written by Sanchoniathon ; and as it is proved 
that the Phcenicians received their literature from the Hebrews ; it 
is evident that the books of Moses are far more ancient than the 
origiu of the Phoenician, Egyptian, and Grecian antiquities, or the 
genealogies of all their fabulous gods. 



No. V. — \Contimied from No. xxxvii. p. 55.'] 

In Hymn. VI. Els S^iifxriTpos KaXadov. 

i^UAllTO die Calathi processio fuit, utexistimo. Inter proceden- 
dum, acclamatum a nmlieribus fuit, x"''P^> ^hjJ-W^p- Ei'at vero Calathi 
repreesentatio, quo Proserpina flores lectos posuerat. Clemens me- 
ininit in Protreptico. 

1. 7w KoXftQw.] In Eleusiniis Cereris adhiberi olim solere cistas 
ex Apuleio didici, qui ita Mctaraorph. vi. Tacita sacra cistarum. 

in Callimachum. 163 

Idem Met. xi, Ferehatur ah alio cisia secretorum capax, penitils 
(dans operta magnifiae religionis. Et Tibull. Eleg. I. i. 

Et levis occultis conscia cista sacris. 
Hanc arcara portantes Kta-ocpopoi appellabantur. B. 

3. /3c/3aXot.] Suid. /3e/3;j.Xes aviip, 6]TOi Koi yutapo's. ^vpnrihrjs, 

• ov Befits p€j3t)Xov ixTTTeaQai Sujuuiy, 

3. x^A*"' dairae'iade.] Omnium affectuura vehementior as9ultus 
oculos deprimit; unde apud Alcimum 

oaths attolkjacentes 

€st, animura perculsum erige. Sic depudibund^ Hero Musaeus; 
TlapdeviKi) 6' iicpdoyyos enl ■\Q6va -Kr]t,ev OTTbJirrjy. 
ColutllUS : — 'H 6' ipoeaauv eirl yQova TzTi^ev dirwTrrjy. 
Ovid. Erubui, gremioque pudor dejecit ocellos. 

Stat. Theb. iv. de Ira. Jlle ad humum pollens unde ei 

Achilles Tat. 'Ihujy oi/y ica\ yvwpiaas €(l)pi^a, Kale^jXeTrov els yfjy, k.t.X. 
Virg. ^11. vi. Ilia solo, &c. 

5. Karex^varo ^airav.] Non qu^ perfudit (ut m-ale vertit Frisch- 
linus) sed potius qua effudit seu diffudit capillos, ut Stephanus 
rect^ ad liunc locum : sed quod subjecit " haec dicta esse k Calli- 
macho de puellis, (\vi^ passis seu sparsis capillis calathum seque- 
bantur," minOs recte. Satis enim notum est apud Graecos meretri- 
cibus esse proprium coraam alere ac promittere. Ergo ciim Non- 
nus de Marii Magdalen^ 

aire jjia^aTO fiayXahi. ■^aiTy 

dixerit, ->) Ti)s avrT^s ti'is /xa^XaSys voluit. 

At quis non uiiretur ha^c Frischlinum miniis quani et ipsum 
Vulcanium latuisse, qui adeo infeliciter haec interpretatus est ut me 
ejus valde misereat ] S. 

Sed ad hoc videndus est clariss. Blomfield in loc. Et Kust. ad 
Aristoph. p. 222. 

6. TTTVbjfies.] Quae abominamur atque execramur, in ea despi- 
cimus. Oppian. Hal. iii. 274. 

airo 6' eiTTVffay, e-^^dypayres 

Kat Kofjubrjv Kal xwpoy oXedpiov — 
et Cyneg. i. 255. atroizTvaTos OaXufios, i. e. execrandus. Sic De- 
mosthenes Ilept Ire^cti/ou adversarium suum ^schinem vocat kutu.- 
■xrvarov. B. 

12. ov Tries, ovr iip ehesJ] Unde viiareipa dicitur "Nicandro in 
Alexipharm., ubi Schol. r?7s Ylepaecpovris apTrayelarjs viro rod VlXov^ 
Twvos, fj iiiiTi]p avTijs >/ A>jw Tiepdpy^ero yijaTis irjTOvaa avrijy. 

l64 Stanleii Notce qiicedam 

13. apyvpobiyar.] Sic Apuleius Metam. iv. fons emovebat undm 

Oppian. Cyneg. ii. apyvpov vbwp 

et Hal. i. apyupeoi TTorafioi rovreort, biacpavels, \a/inrpo\, biavyels. 

Sic iioster in Jo v. IQ. Erymanthuni vocat \evic6raroy Trora^w*', 
et infra habet aXhrptyov vbwp. 

l6. KaXAt^opw.] Putei Callichori, ubi consedisse Ceres com- 
memoratur, nierainit etiam Nicander in Theriacis. 

28. ei' ir'iTvs, K. r. \.] Meliore consilio Robur esse fecit Ovidius 
quam Populiim noster. Est enim sterilis nee quicquani ad Cererem 

neque inter se ilia conveniunt, quas hic niemorantur. Quis 

enim terrarum locus units pyrum fert cura ulmo et pinu et populo? 
Scalig. Poet. V. viii. S. 

62. avayKal^.] Kara Ttapayioytiv pro 'Avay/f/j. Oppianus sexies 
60 utitur. 

Callim n Del. 122. — 'Ai'aycan; neyuki) deoa. 

Horn. II. et Odyss. — 'Avayjca/?? yap kireiyei. 

Herod. nnXiara avayKaij]v (paaiy elrui, rbv ocpeiXoyTa KUi ri t^eD- 
bos Xeyeiy. loq\iitur de Persis, lib. i. 138. 

Sic noster in Jov. 63. laai^ pro 'iarj. B. 

102. /3ov/3p worts.] iSovfipwffTis, ait Suidas, u fxeyas Xifxos, e'lpij- 
rai 6' OTi ftovs Xv}iaire-ai, Kui ras [3ovs ftpuiffu' Troiel. Nugae, O Suida. 
Imo €K fiou intendendi particula et fipwtns potius est. Similia nomi- 
11a sunt (iovneiva, i] [leyaXi] Trelia' jJovXiixos, »/ errtrerajuerjj Xi^os' 
iJovdoLrrj, i.e. i^eyaXj] doii'j]' (oovftwy, olov fxeyaXoJs ftaiyujv els o'lbrifia. 
Sic bucera secla apud Lucret. i. e. magnis cornibus praedita. Sic 
(iovXijiiar, (3ovXi/j.u)rT€iy, &c. omnia utto tov (3ov iiripplifxaTos, oirep 
eTTiTatrews kari bt^XujTiKoy. Sic improbam ventris rabiem dixit Virg. 
^n. ii. et rabiem edendi,^ M,n. ix. Juv. Sat. xv. vacui ventris furo- 
rem ; Ovid. Met. viii. urdorem edendi, et alti voraginem ventris. 
Porrc> quod nomen hic substantive usurpavit Callimachus, eo Op- 
pianus adjective usus est. Hal. 11. 208. 

\vaaav det (jovftpwcTTiy ayaibei yacrrpl (pvXtKTcrei. 
Hanc famem cauinam veteres Latini furcillara, curcillam, etoppila- 
gineni dixere, at est apud Isidorum de Buliraiie causis et remediis. 

114. eyl TpivboKTi.] Proverb, /n iriviis dictitatum (vid. Erasm. 
Adag.) quo et Musaeus utitur ; 

iy be o-twTrj; 

"Epyov OTrep reXeei ris eyl rpLoboKjiy aKovei. 

' Applicetur ad xa^«1"^ &ypios, aWuv Mj^hs in hoc hymno. 

in Callhnachiim. l65 

et quod Cicero pro Misena usurpat, ex trivio arripere convkium. 

Virg. Ed. iii. — Non tu in triviis, indocte, sokbas, S)'C. 

Apul. Met. lib. i. Qualia solent fortuna deterrimcB stipes in tri- 
viis'erogare: ad quem loc. vid, Beroald. In triviis autem potissi- 
nium mendici stabulantur, utpote locis frequentioribus. 

115. atr/cwv aicoXws.'] Heliod. ii. Kai ifiol boKelre roiolbe ovres, 
ovK uKoXovs, aXX 6.opas ical XeftrjTus alri^eiv. (vid. Bourdel. in loc.) 

Hom.Od. p, 225. aiTi$.u)V clkoXovs, ovk iiopas ovbe Xe/3/jras. 

"AtcoXot sunt proprie \pwfjo\ // Tpofpri, quam niagistri vocant evQeaiv, 
quae circa Prytaneum niendicantibus solebat erogari. 

AfVi^etv apud Graecos, ut passim apud Demosth. acceptione qu^ 
rogare apud Latinos sc. * mendicarc ;' ut apud Catull., Mart., 
Juvenalem, &c. S. 

124. a-ebiXoDToi.] Oppianus Cyneg. i, de Venatoribus, 
- yvfxvoTaL he TToaa\v obeveiv. 

Hos infra vocat iv. 369. aftXavrovs,^ Trobas, Callimaclius ciTreSt- 
XwTovs : Theocritus, Id. viii. aj'aX(7roi/s. Sic Nicolaus apud Stob. 
xlii. -srepl rofiwi' teal IBuiy scribit, Kprirwy ircubas avvTrobi'irovs kutu- 
vveiv di'jpas /cat hpojxovs avavreis. Callimaclius Dianai tribuit eybpofxi- 
bas. (In Dian. 16.) Rittersh. 

13.3. 5wo-e7 Travr'.] Diodorus, lib. i. Terram Z)/»u7erfl a GrsKcis 
appellatam tradit, quoniam omnium sit mater, tanquam si particula 
superfluat. Melius Plato, qui ait Cererem Grzecos appellare Ai;yU)/- 
repa, quasi bibovcra nriTt]p sit, hoc est, exhibens mater. B. 

137- a.jjia<jri.'] Prima in u^tofiai anceps est. Hie enim corripitur. 
Apud Oppianum vero Cyneg. ii. 56. Ka< a/dwyrai ttooX yaiar, et i. 
ad fin. uf.irjTos producitur. B. 

138. fieya Kpdoiaa fleawv.] Mirum cuidam docto videtur earn 
Divam omnibus caeteris anteponi, etReginam quidem Dearura per- 
hiberi. Ego vero mirum hoc prorsus non habeo : nam cum ex 
utilitate generis humani deorum dearunique houores et dignitates 
prisci metirentur, nemini sane divee major honos dandus erat quam 
isti, cujus beneficio panis communi bono acquisitus est. Nee 
solum hoc Callimachus, sed et alii Graeci poetae celebres : 

Hesiod. — Arintjrrjp fiev -rrXovTOV eyelyaro bla Oeduy, 

et Eurip. Phoeniss. — Aij/jy'jrrfp deU Ii-kuvtuv avaaaa. S. 

' BAairrdJ, ^Aai/Sey, Mkit/m soleae. ^Wrij, eiBos i!/7ro5i7/w«Tos. Said. ^o.ypovs.'R. 


Hiterarp ginteUigenee, 


Stephens' Greek TuiiSAURUs, No, IX.— (including two 
Nos. of the Glossary.) Price 1/. os., L p. 2/. 12s. 6d., which 
will soon be raised to 1/. 75. and 9.1. \5s. Total subscription 
108G. No more are printed. 

To this No. is prefixed an Advertisement, which we subjoin, 
p. 169. 

*^* A few days after the publication of this Number, a most 
extraordinary article, professing to be a review of the four first 
Numbers, appeared in the Quarterly Review. We think our- 
selves particidarly called on to notice this article, because the 
Iiostility of the Reviewer arose from some criticisms, which 
appeared in this Journal. He, and a learned friend of his, en- 
gaged in similar classical and editorial pursuits, had been among 
the earliest subscribers to the Thesaurus, and had expressed their 
approbation of the undertaking. But, before the appearance of 
the first Number, these unfortunate criticisms, which proved, but 
without the least asperity, that these two learned critics were not 
absolutely infallible, were inserted in the Classical Journal. 
The first symptom of their resentment was the establishment of a 
rival periodical publication. So far was the Printer of the Journal 
from feeling the least vexation on this subject, that he adver- 
tised and encouraged the work, thinking that each might pro- 
mote the interest of the other ; and the sale of the Journal ac- 
cordingly rose after the publication of the other work. An early 
opportunity, however, was seized by these gentlemen of exer- 
cising much severity on some typographical inaccuracies in an 
article in the Journal, which had been left to the correction of 
the author, and which proved that the best writers are frequently 
the worst correctors of the press.' 

This was not all. The Printer of the Classical Journal, who 
is well known to have rested his fortune on the success of the 
Thesaurus, was doomed to destruction, as far as it could be 
effected by the hostility of those gentlemen. They not only re- 
fused to receive the first Number, but they engaged in a pretty 

" It is a curious fact that one of the objections of our opponent was to 
Mytilene for Miti/lene ; and that afterwards the Critic corrected in his 
own work Mitylene into Miftilene. 

Literary Intelligence, l6t 

active canvass to check the increase of the list of Subscribers. 
Kvery engine of torture was applied to decry the honest labors 
of the Printer, until the coup dt grace was given by the article 
in the Quarterly Review, which we lament has introduced an 
attack so eminently fraught with mala mens, mains animus. 

It is but seldom that a Printer can control the writings of the 
authors or editors of a publication; but we can witness that the 
Printer of the Classical Journal has on all occasions recom- 
mended moderation and candor. We have indeed proved our 
willingness to be actuated by ihe same spirit; we have often 
softened, and sometimes rejected, some critical articles tending to 
prove the fallibility of the Heviewer himself; we have particularly 
hitherto declined the insertion of a certain foreign Review^, w hich 
we were desired to make known to the English scholar. As a 
proof of our conciliatory spirit, we need only refer to our notice 
of Matthias's Greek Grammar, in No. xxxix. p. 'il4. ; but 
alas [ 

' H yap's uKKu^tn T-i]V (pJcriv ou "^vVciTUi. 

Thus far on the real cause of an article, the spirit of which 
has been understood by all candid and impartial readers. On 
the article itself we shall say little, because the only part of it, 
which has a semblance of plausibility, is completely answered 
by the Advertisement prefixed to the last No. of the Thesaurus; 
so that our readers will form a judgment of the Reviewer's cal- 
culation of the 200 Numbers or 50 Volumes, and of 200, 400, 
and 250 and 500 guineas. He might have given credit to the 
Editors for some little knowledge of the Rule of Three, and of 
arithmetical progression. If they were destitute of that know- 
ledge, they would have been instructed by Professor Hermann, 
who had warned them of the possible extent of their plan. But 
the Professor wrote with the candor of a critic, the feeling of 
an author, and the liberality of a gentleman ; and for this, in- 
deed, he has fallen under the lash of the Reviewer, who loves to 
scatter firebrands on every side, from which the character and 
fortune of the Editors may receive an injury: et si fion aliqua 
vocnisset, mortuus esset. To him may be applied, with a slight 
variation, what he is pleased to say of the illustrious Professor: 
'' he has intermixed a few trivial commendations, extorted from 
him by a sense of decency, amongst several pages of the most 
fulsome and unsupported (although we doubt not, unbought) 

168 Literary Intelligence. 

ahusey^ But his praise is more than qualified by a propor- 
tionate quantity of censure. This breaks out on every occasion. 
After acknowledging the utility of Dr. Valpy's Grammar, he 
gives the preference to the " more copious and elaborate per- 
formance of Matthiee." Of the latter we have spoken in terras 
of high panegyric ; but we may ask the Reviewer whether his 
commendation is as impartial and disinterested as ours t 

We have reason to believe, that the Editors never intended to 
carry their collateral criticisms and disquisitions beyond the letter 
A ; but to establish a set of principles, to which they might 
refer in the subsequent part of the work. They are censured by 
the Reviewer for not delaying the commencement of it ; but, had 
he seen a tenth part of the complaints, which were made of 
their delay, he would at least have been convinced of the neces- 
sity of publishing a Number, ahhough of preliminary matter. 
His principal cause of condemnation is the size of tiie work ; 
and yet he, with the inconsistency, into which illiberality floun- 
ders at every step, sneers at the abbreviations, which tend to 
diminish that size. He cannot have forgotten his advice to the 
Editors before they had is'.curred his resentment. 

In undertaking a work of such imporlant consequences, the 
Editors relied on the favor and generosity of those, whose pa- 
tronage they solicited, and in which they have not been deceived. 
Had they, however, imagined a possibility of encountering 
much opposition from such a spirit, as animates the Reviewer, 
we think they would have paused before they embarked on an 
ocean, where they were likely to meet with such hidden rocks 
and shifting sands.^ 

Sed manum de tabula. We refer our readers to an article in 
the former part of this Number, written by a scholar not 
inferior in any respect to the Reviewer ; and to a fuller answer. 

' This insinuation it is not easy to meet in a suitable stile of indigna- 
tion. Of the same nature are several of the Reviewer's other sarcasmSj 
particularly the " suspicion" expressed by him that " the deceased sub- 
scribers" are those who " took the alarm, and declined having any tiling 
further to do with the work." From his present state of intemperate irri- 
tation we might appeal to his future calm, conscientious reHeciion, were 
we not convinced of the truth of the remark of the great historian, Fro- 
prium est humani generis odisse quern Iccseris. 

^ If the llevrewer will turn to No. VIII. of this Journal, he will 
find the observations of the learned Chancellor of Oxford, Lord 
Grenville, and of another writer, signed II., which in themselves were 
almost sufiiciciit to assure the Editors of unconditional patronage and 

Literary Intelligence. 169 

which will soon be published, in reply to the particular obser- 
vations of the Diatribe. 

One word we may be permitted to add. We entertain as 
high an admiration of Porson, as any menjber pf his illustrious 
College. Of that, indeed, our readers must be convinced, when 
they recollect how many of that great Critic's articles we have 
inserted in this Journal. JMore we have still to produce, for it is 

" our plan, 
To lose no part of that immortal man." 

The Advertisement to No, IX. is as follows : — 

The Attention of the Subscribers to the neio Edition of Yi. 
Stephens' Greek Thesaurus is particiihir/i/ called to 
the following Advertisement, announcing the Plan, on which 
the Editors intend for the future to publish the Work. 

Although many of the Subscribers in this Country, and some 
of those on the Continent, have given their approbation of the 
Plan, on which the Editors have hitherto been acting, whh the 
increase, which has been the necessary result of so large an acces- 
sion of the most valuable contributions; yet, as it would swell the 
V/ork to too great an extent, and require too much time for its 
completion, the Editors have felt it a duty to narrow their plan 
within more practicable limits, by irf erring ow/y to passages instead 
of quoting them at length, in order to retain that general coniidence, 
which tl)e Subscribers have so generously reposed in them. 

Indeed, without general contidence it would be vain to attempt 
a work of such magnitude. For a difference of opinion as to the 
best plan of editing it must ever necessarily exist amoi g Scholars ; 
and the situation, in which the Editors stand, from the peculiar na- 
ture of the work, and the pecuniary interests, which are involved in 
it, precludes the possibility of continuing that hitherto pursued, 
however useful or excellent in itself. Tliat the Editors have been 
supported in a deviation from their original plan, they need only 
observe, that not eight' out of 1086 Subscribers have declined to 
continue the work. The Editors have, however, tiie satisfaction 
to add, that sjhoc the publication of No. I., they have received 
upwards of 130 additional names, at the advanced prices of 23s. 
and 25s., for the Copies of deceased Subscribers. The slow pro- 
gress of the work, indeed, has been a subject of lamentation to 

' Most of these resigned, as the Editors were assured, in consequeuco 
of a defalcatiun in their resources. 

170 Literary Intelligence, 

others, and loss to themselves, but the present arrangements must 
insure a more frequent publication, and will therefore be more 
satisfactory to the Subscribers. Indeed the whole is confidently 
expected to be completed within six years. 

The contracted Plan, which the Editors, on due consideration, 
and with able advice, here announce as that alone, by which their 
future proceedings will be regulated, has been already brought into 
actual practice in the last half of the No. now published, as will be 
seen by the relative quantities of the old and new matter, which it 
contains. The Vlth No. commenced with the 89th page, and ter- 
minated at the 127th, thus containing only 38 pp. of tiie original, 
exclusive of the incorporations of passages from H. Stephens' In- 
dex-Volume. But the present No. begins with p. 127, terminates 
at p. 251, and therefore contains 124. pp. of the original, exclusive 
of incorporations from the Index, many of which are very long. 

The Editors, on the new Plan, will of course employ all their 
present MS. resources, and such as they may hereafter procure. 
But in the new matter it is their intention for the future wholly to 
abstain from extraneous criticism of every kind, to employ no 
quotations from any books of criticism, to indulge in no lengthened 
discussion on any word, and generally to content themselves with 
mere reference to ancient authors, instead of making quotations 
from them to vindicate the explanations, which they may give of 
the words introduced. If the Subscribers will turn to the last half 
of the No. now issued, they will see that this intention has already 
been carried into effect, and that the shortest possible mode of 
referring to books, of which the titles are long, is now followed. 
Tlie Editors will be glad to adopt any suggestions, which the 
Subscribers may be able to offer for economising room still further. 

One great advantage will result from the adoption of the plan, 
on which the Editors henceforth propose to act, that the Subscri- 
bers will have no difficulty in distinguishing the matter of H. 
Stephens from that furnished by the Editors themselves, because 
the former will always be given entire, and the latter always sub- 
joined and placed within brackets. 

The Editors, on the Plan of referring only, and not quoting, 
have made a minute and acairate calculation, from which tiiey 
tind that the Work will not exceed 39 Nos.; but they feel 
assured, that, when it is considered that the old edition could 
not, at the commencement of their undertaking, be obtained 
under 75 guineas, it will be allowed that the new Edition, 
with its great and various improvements and additions, is by 
no means expensive at 39. — A moment's reflection will show 
that it was impracticable, with all such improvements and addi- 
tions, as have been introduced into their plan since their original 
Prospectus was issued, to print the work within that precise num- 
ber of Parts, which w as then contemplated as sufficient. 

Literary Intelligence. 171 

't'he Editors have made their calculation from the foUowiij* 
statement of the pages, i. e. columns of the old work, which will 
be as ob\ ious to every Subscriber, as it is to themselves : 

Nos. Colt. 
Numbers already printed . , . . . 9 

in Vol. I. of old edition are 1946 pp. i. e. columns, of 

which are printed 251, leaving to be printed . 169.5 

Vol. II. contains ..... 1712 

III. ..... 1789 

IV, 834 

V. contains 1958, of which 308 are printed, 

leaving .... 1659 

VI. contains 913 pp.=1826 columns, of which 
are printed 666 pp. =1332 columns, leaving 
to be printed . . . 494 

Labbe's Glossaries contain 988 columns, of which 

908 are printed, leaving to be printed . . 80 

Total columns 8254 

S254 columns by 400, which each future No. on an 

average will contain, leave . . .20 254 

On which 20 Nos. the 7ietc matter will be less than 
one-third, according to their future plan, but say : . 7 

N.B. In this are included the incorporations from 
Scott's Appendix to the Thesaurus. 
Lexicon Vocum Peregrinarum 

Index — allowing for new matter, as the old matter is 
calculated in Vol. V, above 

Total Nos. 

It is presumed, that this total of Nos., though beyond what was 
originally speciMed, will not be thought objectionable, when the 
immense accumulations of new matter from Schajfer's Mss, &c. 
are considered, as well as the extension of margin, which was gene- 
rally demanded by the Subscribers, and which in reality will nearly 
equal 2 Nos. 

While the Editors are disposed to think that such of the Sub- 
scribers, as are competent to judge of the heavy expenses attend- 
ing this undertaking, are perfectly satisfied with the present limita- 
tion of each No. to 1/0 pages, or 340 columns, as all which can 
reasonably be expected for the price; yet with tlie view of mani- 
festing their anxious desire to reduce the work within as few Nos. 
as possible, and thus to render it less expensive, tiie Editors have 
determined to extend each future No. to 200 pages, or 400 columns. 
This, they trust, will at least remove any impression from the minds 
of their Subscribers, that they are actuated by mercenary motives, 
or capable of taking any advantage of those, who have so gene- 
rously patronised their arduous, and national undertaking. 

The Subscribers may, from seeing the extent of A, by far the 
most prolific letter in the Greek Alphabet, form an erroneous opi- 





172 Literary Intelligence. 

nion of the extent of the new matter. But A in the old work occu- 
pies 6'28 pages, whereas the whole of B, P. A, and more than half 
ofE, are contained in the same number of pages. Many of the 
new words, particularly the compounds introduced under A, might 
with equal propriety, and witii equal conformity to H. Stephens's 
practice, have been placed under some other letter. For iustance, 
the words a/3p<//3<os, 'A/^pcyacmjs, aftpoyoos, aj^pohais, afjpoKOTiJTjros, 
6./jpoi.ii'Tpri$, uljpoTrebtXos, uftpowrivos, ufjponXovros, a/3|0OTray))s, afipu- 
tnros, al3pocr-vXi(TTOS, ajoporifios, ajSporpcnreios, uj3pn-^airiieis, might 
have been placed under (jios, yaari'ip, yoos, bais, KoajuedJ, /jlrpa, ire- 
biXoi', vi'iri], TiXovros, araiu), alros, rif^i), rpcnreSa, \alrri : and as 
the discussion of them occupies five columns, had they been so 
placed, the quantity of matter under A would have been so much 
the less. 

It may be added, that, while the Ilnd No. appears to contain 
only two columns of the original, it in reality contains several in- 
corporations of words, the discussion of which H. Stephens, for 
reasons, which he has stated, threw into his Index-Volume, besides 
24- pages of H. Stephens's preliminary matter on A, and through- 
out Jablonski's Glossarium Vocum j'Egyptiarum, which, with the 
Editors' Supplement, occupies the remainder of the No., H. Ste- 
phens's explanations of the jEgyptian words are given from his 
Index. The incorporations in this No., many of which are of con- 
siderable length,' amount to 205 ; and in No. III. they amount to 
119. Thus the surprise of many persons at the apparently small 
progress made wifh the first letter of the alphabet would have en- 
tirely ceased, if they had examined the book, and. had not merely 
collated the pages of the old and the new work. The Editors 
would add, thata number of words, wholly omitted by H. Stephens, 
and properly belonging to the other letters of the Greek alphabet, 
have been, for good reasons, in the Nos. already published, inci- 
dentally discussed, partly in the text, and partly in the notes ; and 
2ndly, that for reasons equally good, the Editors have often found 
themselves obliged to enter somewhat fully into the discussion of 
words belonging to other letters, which are not omitted by H. 
Stephens, but will occur in the Thesaurus as they proceed. These 
observations apply only to the Nos. which have been already pub- 
lished. The Editors do not intend for the future to indulge in any 
discussion whatever of words out of their proper places. 

' See tlie Articles — 'Adrjva, 'AOrjvai, Alyimros, 'A;uapai/0ox, "A/u/ucof, 'ArTaySr, 
BaJ'y, Bapis, 'Rvacros, 'EyKOfi^Su, Zorpeuo), Zea, ZT]Tpe7ov, Zcovretov, QXatnri, 
'l6v<paX\os, KdXa'is, Kdvco^oi, Kdvuirov, Ki^Jjpiov, Kiki, Kix^^P^ov, KoXoKaffla, 
Ko/u^i, KopaWiov, KovpaAiov, Kvcpt, ha^vpivQos, Aarrhs, Mdvva, Micrv, Mvpov, Mu. 
piM)S, Mvfipa, NoTTi;, "OXvpa, "Opv^a, Tlai'aOrivaia, na7ri;pos, 2a/t4'i'X<"'> Se/nISoAtJ, 
2e<Te\i, 27)(70;U)7, SiStj, 2(>'5wj', Sri/it/ii, 'Zvpnala, Titpi], "Xaawnos, *ciAAb5, *5(r»y, 
'>ifdy$as, ^^l/Mvdvu 

Literary Intelligence, 173 

The Editors Lave remarked in a former Advertisement the high 
value, which they, in common with many learned scholars, set on 
Labbe's Glossaries ; and w hile they are reprinted entire for the 
ready use. of those, who have occasion to refer to them only, the 
matter relating to each word is almost uniformly given under that 
word for the rcflc??/ w«e of those, who are interested in its discus- 
sion : in so doing the Editors have merely acted on the plan of 
the judicious Ernesti in his Edition of Hederic's Lexicon, where the 
Glossaries are regularly cited as high authority. 

The Editors uniformly indicate the sources, whence they derive 
their information, whether taken from printed books, or from Ms. 
articles, by subjoining the authors' names. When no name is 
given, the matter is to be considered as having been collected by 
the researches of the Editors themselves. 

It has been the Editors' object to make the Thesaurus not a 
depository of their own particular opinions on certain points of 
Grammar and Lexicography, which would have been the case, 
if in ihe study of brevity they had omitted all notice of what has 
been said by Grammarians and Lexicographers on the topics under 
discussion, but to record what scholars of every age and coun- 
try have written on matters, on which it would be high presump- 
tion in them to assume the exclusive right of deciding. But the 
Editors have not shrunk from an open avowal of their own 
opinions, whenever they have found themselves qualified to give 
them; and they trust that they have always given tliem with a sense 
of the imperfection of all human knowledge, and a sincere disposi- 
tion to embrace any other opinions, which have fairer pretensions to 
accuracy and truth. In doubtful cases, the reader is left to form 
his own judgment by comparing what the Editors have transcribed 
from others with what they have said themselves. The Editors 
refer their readers to Dr. Burney's Preface to the Appendix to Sca- 
pula's Lexicon, from which they are inclined to believe that this 
part of their plan met with the approbation of that eminent scholar. 

The Editors, aware of the difficulty of reprinting \l. Stephens's 
most valuable Tract on the Attic Dialect with such additions and im- 
provements, as the present state of Greek literature requires, have 
applied to ProfeiSorHERMANN for that purpose, whose name is suf- 
ficient to ensure the best possible execution of the work ; and they 
belJeve that he has already made considerable advances towards it. 
The employment of this illustrious scholar is attended uitii 'he fur- 
ther advantages of saving all that time (and no doubt uiikIi vould 
have been required,) which would have been otherwise ci. earned 
by the Editors themselves, if the performance of this duty li . "i beea 
left to them, and of securing to the ubscribers a more speedy 
completion of the whole undertaking. 

With the same views of economising time, the Editors have re- 

174 Literary InteUigenct. 

quested Professor Dahler of Strasburg, who was reconimended tt> 
fheir notice by Professor SchwilIgh abuser as well qualified for 
tlie undertaking, to complete the Lexicon Vocum percgrinarum in 
Gr. Scriptoribus ohviarum, and they have reason to think that the 
remaining portion of it is in a state of forwardness. Many of the 
articles, which now appear in the Index-Vol. of H. Stephens, and 
have so increased its bulk, will be thus placed in regular order 
and in a separate part of the Work, ou a plan, which they have 
mentioned in a former Advertisement. 

The new Index will be made with the greatest care, and con- 
structed on the plan recommended by Professor Hermann ; and, as 
it will immediately refer the reader to the words, however inter- 
spersed, all objections to the new Work in this respect will be satis- 
factorily obviated. 

As some of the Subscribers have considered that the quantities of 
words should be marked, the Editors add that it is their intention, 
as they had before declared, to mark the quantities of words in 
the General Index, and they are inclined to think that this plan is 
on some accounts much preferable to that of marking the quanti- 
ties of the words in the Text itself. 

The Editors suppose that the formation of the new Index will of 
itself require at least six months, and, as they are anxious to save 
time in every possible way, they design to have it prepared by some 
intelHgent and industrious Scholars, so as to be ready for the press 
as soon as the Editors are arrived at the conclusion of 11. 

If any of the Subscribers can suggest other means than those, 
which are above stated, for facilitating the progress of the Work, 
the Editors will be happy to receive their communications. 

Delphin and Variorum Classics, XIII and XIV. 
Price \L\s. small, and 2/. 2s. large paper. 96? Subscribers, 
large and small. 

If any proof was wanting of the spirit in which the article in 
the Quarterly Review is written, the note on the edition of the 
Latin Classics publishing by the Printer of this Journal, is suffi- 
cient. The Critic is pleased to call the Delphin" the worst edition 
" of the Latin Classics." With the least particle of candor, the 
Reviewer would have asserted, with great accuracy, that the dif- 
ferent authors are edited with a considerable variety of merit. 
It will not be easy to find a work better edited than Virgil is by 
Ruaeus, a Scholar, a Critic, and an elegant Latin Poet. It is, 
indeed, acknowledged, that some of the Classics are not edited 
with the same degree of ability. 

But those who have seen the Prospectus of t!ie new edition, 
will know that the text is not that of the Delphin edition ; that 

Literary Intelligence. I75 

it is the best, which the learning, the researches, and the sagacity 
of the best modern Critics, have produced; that the best 
variorum notes are inserted ; that the fullest bibliograpliical 
accounts of MSS. and editions are added. The editor 
cannot flatter himself with even the hope of obtaining any 
praise from a Critic so evidently liostile ; but he is led to 
regard his individual sentiments as " the idle wind," when 
he perceives that he is supported by the suffrages of not less 
than 960 individuals, among whom are many of the first scholars 
of the age. It is indeed a gross libel on the judgment of so 
many subscribers to suppose they would patronise the worst 
edition, and not very complimentary to the prudence of the 
editor to suppose he would not take sage advice on a point so 
vital to his fame and fortune. 

Testament de Louis XV I, Roi de France et de Navarre, avec 
une Traduction Arabe par M. le Bon. Sylvestre de Sacy. Paris. 
Imprimerie Royale. 1820. 

A new edition of the Enthusiasm of Methodists and Papists 
compared; by Bishop Lavington, one large Vol. 8vo. With 
Notes, Appendix, and an Introduction by the Rev. R. Polwhele. 
21s. bds. 

This is a reprint from the scarce edition now selling for a very 
high price. The author's principal design is to draw a compari- 
son, by way of caution to all Protestants, between the wild and 
pernicious enthusiasms, of some of the most eminent saints in 
the Popish communion, and those of the Methodists in our 
country; which latter he calls a set of pretended reformers, ani- 
mated by an enthusiastic and fanatical spirit. 

Juvenal and Persius, from Ruperti's and Koenig's texts, ex- 
purgate, with the Delphin Notes. No interpretatio. pr. 8s. 
bound. Oct, 

At the suggestion of many Schoolmasters Mr. Valpy has 
published the Delphhi School Books on this new plan ; and 
should any difficulty occur in procuring them through the regular 
channel, he will most readily supply them on equal terms. 

Virgil, widi English Notes at the end, original, and selected 
from the Delphin and other editions. No interpretatio. Price 
7s. 6d. Third edit. 

176 Literary Intelligence. 

The bodj of Notes forming the Appendix constitutes an ex- 
cellent commentary upon Virgil ; and must prove of peculiar 
benefit to the pupil in clearing up difficulties of the sense or the 
metre. But these explanatory notes are of still farther utility, as 
tending to lead juvenile minds into a train of enquiry that will 
expand their ideas and facilitate their progress in classical litera- 
ture. — The notes of Voss in particular contribute highly to en- 
rich the present impression, because they have been little known 
in this country, and were till now confined to the original Ger- 
man of that learned and acute critic. 

Cornelius Nepos ; with English Notes and Questions on the 
plan of Kutropius. By the Rev. C. Bradley. Second ed. 3s. 6d. 

Recherches sur les Langues Tartares, ou Memoires sur diffe- 
rents Points de la Grammaire et de la Litterature des Mand- 
chous, des Mongols, des Ouigours, et des Tibetains ; par M; 
Abel-Remusat. tome ler. Paris. Imprimerie Royale. 4to. 

De Compositione Tetralogiarum Tragicarum Dissertatio. 
Auctore Godofr. Hermanno. Lipsiar. 1819. 4to. 

Studii di Paleografia e di Bibliografia, Letti in adunanze 
academiche (dal Sign. BaroneGiuzeppeVernazza.) Torino. 1818. 

Amedeus Peyron, Torinensis, vir doctiss., Dissertationem nie- 
ditatur de Nnmmis Phoenico-Tarsensibus. 

Classical Excursion from Rome to Arpino, by Charles Kel- 
sall. Embellished with engravings executed in Italy, illustrative 
of the Monuments and Villas of Cicero, and including a Disser- 
tation on his political Conduct, To w hich is subjoined : — 

An Excursion from Naples to the isle of Capri ; with a chart 
illustrative of the Villas of Tiberius Caesar. Geneva, printed 
for the Author, and sold in London by Mawman, Ludgate-hill. 

This day is published, very handsomely and closely printed 
in Columns, in 4 vols, royal 4to, with complete Indexes, price 
15/. 155. Athena^ Oxonienses: the Hislory of all the Writers 
and Bishops, who have had their Education in the L'niveisity of 
Oxford, from the year 1500. To which is added. Fasti Oxoni- 
enses : or^ the Annals of the said University. First writieu by 

Literary Intelligence. 177 

Anthony A. Wood, M. A. of Merton College ; and now very 
considerably augmented, in Text and Notes, by Philip Bliss, 
Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford. 

In the present republication of this valuable body of English 
Biography, (containing upwards of two thousand two hundred 
Lives,) every word of the two former editions has been retained 
with exact fidelity, so that the curious reader is no longer subject 
to the troublesome necessity of collating the book as tirst pub- 
lished by the author, with the subsequent edition given to the 
world by Bishop Tanner. Besides the text of the two former 
editions, that now offered to the public contains a vast number 
of notes by Bishops Humphreys, Kennet and Tanner, by Sir 
Phillip Sydenham, Dr. Rawlinson, Mr. Baker, Gray, Loveday, 
Macro, Morant, Peck, Wanley, Whalley and Watts, with several 
by the present editor, and many of great value, which have been 
communicated by intelligent persons now living : add to which, 
each volume contains some few new lives of persons whose con- 
nexion with the University had escaped the industrious enquiries 
of the Oxford biographer. 

Subscribers not yet having received all their volumes are re- 
commended to complete their sets without delay, as the publishers 
cannot undertake to supply any separate volume after six months 
has elapsed. The work may be bound either in four, or in tive 
volumes, at the option of the purchaser ; if the latter mode be 
adopted, the " Annals of the University" now attached to the 
second and fourth vols, by being placed together, form a fifth 

Histoire de la ville de Khotan (dans la petite Boukharie), 
tiree des annales de la Chine et traduite du Chinois ; suivie de 
Recherches sur la substance minerale que les Chinois nonmient 
Pierre de Iu,et sur le Jaspe des Anciens; par M. Abel-Remusat, 
Professeur de Chinois et de Tartare au College Royal, etc. etc. 
Paris. 1820. 8vo. 

De Deo Carmen Rossiacum illustris Derzavini Latinis elegis 
explicuit Stan. Czerski, Canonicus Brest. Graec. et Lat. Liter, 
praecept. in Gymn. Vilnensi. Vilnae. 1819. 

Table generale des Matieres, par ordre alphabetique et 
ehronologique, des 12^ volumes qui composent la Collection 
complete du Magasin Encyclopedique ; redigee par I. B. Sajou, 
Imprimeur. Quatre Volumes in 8vo. : Prix 60 francs. A 
Paris, chez L B. Sajou, Imprimeur, Rue de la Harpe, No. 11. 

Pendant 21 ans consecutifs, depuis 1795 jusqu'eu 1816, le 
Magasin Encyclopedique fut le depot oil les Savans Francais et 


178 Literary Intelligence. 

Strangers s'empresserent de consigner toutes les Decouvertos 
faites en Europe. Get ouvrage fut aussi le centre d'une Cor- 
respondance eminemment utiie entre les amis des Lettres et les 
Savans, qui se plurent a I'enrichir de Dissertations et de JMe- 
moires, dont la plupart ne se trouvent point ailleurs. 

Pour faciliter la recherche de toutes les Matieres traitees dans 
les 122 volumes du Magasin Encyclopedique, il fallait un guide 
siir, c'est-a-dire, une Table des Matieres raisonnee. C'est ce 
que vient d'executer M. Sajou, Imprinieur-Editeur de ce Jour- 
nal. II a consacre trois annees a ce travail important. La 
Table, que Ton doit a ses soins et a ses veilles, prcfsente, a la 
fois, par ordre alphabetique et chronologique, Tanalyse de toutes 
les Matieres de cette Collection; le nom des Auteurs, avec les 
circonstances qui concernent leur personne et leurs ouvrages ; 
les Decouvertes de tous genres, soit sous le nom de I'auteur, soit 
sous le nom meme du precede, soit sous celui de i'instrument, 
ou de la substance. 

Plusieurs Membres distingues de I'lnstitut de France, et 
autres Savans, apres avoir examine scrupuleusement cette Table, 
en ont fait le plus grand eloge. Plusieurs d'entre eux out ete 
portes a honorer de leurs suffrages I'entreprise de M. Sajou, 
avec d'autant plus de plaisir et de justice, qu'ils ont trouve, sur 
le champ, dans le Magasin Encyclopedique, des objets qu'ils y 
recherchaient en vain depuis long-temps. — On peut dire que 
rOuvrage de M. Sajou est un Dictionnaire historique de la 
plupart des hommes celebres, des Sciences, des Lettres, et des 
Arts, depuis ]795jusqu'en 1816. Messieurs les Bibliographes 
y trouveront aussi un Catalogue detaille d'une grande quantite 
d'ouvrages nationaux et etrangers qui ont ete publies, pendant 
ces 21 annees, dans tous les Pays de I'Europe. 

La Table du Magasin Encyclopedique etait desiree du 
monde savant, depuis bien des annees. Sa mise en vente ne 
peut que faire plaisir aux litterateurs, aux hommes studieyx de 
toutes les nations, ainsi qu'aux Academies, societes savantes, 
et Bibliotheques publiques de I'Europe. Les possesseurs de 
cette interessante Collection s'empresseront d'acquerir cet utile 
complement, qui est la clef de I'ouvrage; et les savans, qui ne 
peuvent, aujourd'hui, se procurer les 122 volumes du Magasin 
Encyclopeiiique, a cause de sa rarete, et des 1230 fr., qu'il faut 
mettre a son acquisition, pourront, pour fiO fr., reuiplacer cet 
immense recueil, puisque cette Table leur en offre I'analyse 
exacte et raisonnee, par ordre alphabetique et chronologique. 

Cette "^Fable, qui n'a ete tiree qu'a un tres-petit nombre d'Ex- 
emplaires, ne sera vendue separement que jusqu'a la fin d'Avril 

Literary Intelligence. 179 

prochain, Ce delai expire, elle ne sera plus separee de la col- 
lection complete des annees dont I'Editeur est proprietaire. 
M. Sajou coiiipieltera, jusqu'A la meiiie Epoque, les collections 
incompletes, a raison de 10 fr. le volume, et de 48 fr. I'annee. 
On peut se procurer, a la nieme adresse, la collection complete, 
en 126 volumes, de cet ouvrage important. 

Memoirs of Dr. Walton, Bishop of Chester, and editor of 
the London Biblia Polyglotta, with important notices of his 
coadjutors in that illustrious work, are in preparation; by the 
Rev. H. J. Todd. 

M. Rosen MULLER, Professor of Oriental Languages in the 
University of Leipsic, published formerly an elementary work 
for facilitating the study of the Arabic. It has been held in 
high estimation, and is now succeeded by a very complete 
Grammar, which unfolds the rules of syntax, with a perspicuity 
and precision that fully correspond with the wishes of the stu- 

The proprietors of a public journal published at Boulogne, 
entitled the Telegraph, have announced their intention to offer a 
prize to the author of the best heroic poem on the evacuation 
of Parga ; an island given up to the Turks by the English govern- 
ment. The poets of all enlightened nations are invited to the 
competition. The prize to be a beautiful silver urn, with an- 
tique emblems, and bearing this motto, from Virgil : 
' Nos patriae fines, et dulcia linquimus arva, 
Nos patriam fugimus.' 

The following work is announced for publication early in 
1820, ' Voyage dans la Grece, or a Voyage into Greece, by 
M. Pouqueville, late consul-general of France at Janina, cor- 
respondent of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres 
of France, and member of the Ionian Academy of Corcyra. 
This work is now in the press, (F. Didot, printer,) and will 
make four volumes in octavo, with plates, representing inscrip- 
tions and medals, and maps, by Dubocage, of the Institute. 
The two first volumes are finished. 

The public have been already apprised of the publication, in 
the Armenian language, of the Chronicle of Eusebius ; to 
which may be added, that Doctor Zohrab, who brought the 
manuscripts to Constantinople, has been an assistant to M. 
Majo, in the Latin translation, and in the publication, by aug- 
menting it with a copious preface, with notes, and with the 
Chronicle of Dr. Samuel, an Armenian writer, who lived in 
the thirteenth century. 

180 Literary Intelligence. 

True Christian Religion, or the Universal Theology of the 
New Church : translated from the Latin of the Hon. E. Swe- 
denborg, 2 vols, royal octavo. 

A Grammar of the Arabic Language. By James Grey 
Jackson, Professor of Arabic ; late British Consul at Santa 
Cruz, in South Barbary ; Resident Merchant upwards of six- 
teen years in a country where the Arabic is the vernacular lan- 
guage ; Author of an Account of the Empire of Morocco, and 
the Districts of Suse, Taiilelt, and Timbuctoo ; of Critical 
Notes on an Account of Timbuctoo and Housa, by Ei Hage 
Abd Salam Shabeeny ; and of Letters, descriptive of his per- 
sonal Travels through West and South Barbary, and across the 
Mountains of Atlas, &c. &c. &c. — It is extraordinary that the 
many professors of that bold and figurative language of the East 
have never yet favored the public with such a desirable work. — 
An attempt will now be made, by the above autiior, to supply in 
England this deficiency in Oriental Literature. 

Epigrammes choisies d'Owen, traduites en vers Francois par 
feu M. de Kerivalant, Sec. et publiees par M. de la Bouisse. 
Lyon. I819. 12mo. 

De R. Bentleio ejusque editione Terentii dissertatio. Auctore 
G. Hermanno. Lipsiee. 4to. 

Dissertatio de Musis fluvialibus Gricharmi etEumeli. Auctore 
G. Hermanno. Lips. 1819. 4to. 

In Nuptias Friderici Principis et Carolinze Austriacag D. 26. 
Sept.1819. AcademiaLipsiensis. Carmen Lyricum. Lipsize. folio. 

Proposals for publishing by Subscription, the Desater; with 
the ancient Persian Translations, and Commentary, and a Glos- 
sary of the Ancient Persian Words. By M6lla Firuz Ben 
Mull a Kaus. To which will be added, an English Translation. 
— Whatever may be the result of the Editor's labors, he feels a 
consciousness that he has done whatever industry and diligence 
can effect, to make it worthy of the attention of the learned. An 
English Translation and Preface will accompany the Work. 
The Work will be published in two volumes, octavo, and it is 
expected the price will not exceed S5 rupees. Subscriptions 
will be received by Messrs. Smith, Rickards, and Co., No. 2, 
George Street, Mansion House ; and Messrs. Rickards, Mack- 
intosh, Law, and Co., 15, Bishopsgate Within. 

We have been favored by Mr. Bohte, of York Street, with a 
list of new works published at the last Easter Fair, at Leipsig, 
for 1820. 

Literary Intelligence. 181 

We have extracted such as relate to Classical Literature, 
which may be had at Mr. Bohte's. 

Beiiedicti, M. Traug. Fred., Observationes in septem Sopho- 
clis Tragoedias. 8 maj. Lipsice, libraria Weidmannia. Charta 
impress, et scriptoria. 

Bessel's, F. W., astronomische Beobachtungen aufder Konigl. 
Uuiversitats-Sternwarte in Kiinigsberg. 5te Abtheil. vom 1. Jan. 
bis 31. Dec. 1818. Fol. Konigsberg, UniversitUts-Buchh. 

Betlimann-HoUvveg, Aug., de causae Probatione. 8 maj. 
(Berolmi, Nicolai in comm.) 

BibersteivijMarschallde, Flora Taurico-caucasica. Tom. IHus. 
8 maj. Stuttgartiai, Cotta. 

Bibliotheca classica poetar. Grzecor. T. XIIIus et XIVus. 
Cont. Euripidis Tragoed. e rec. A. Matthiae. Tom. llus et 
lllus. 8 min. Lipsise, Weigel. 

Ejusdem libri Tom. XV — XVIIIus. Homeri Opera cont. 
IV Tonii. 8 min. Ibid. Idem. 

Bibliotheca classica scriptorum pros. Tom. Xus. Xeuo- 
phontis Exped. Cyri. 8 min. Ibid. Idem. 

Ejusdem libri Tom. XIus. Xenophontis histor. Graec. 8 min. 
Ibid. Idem. 

Ejusdem libri Tom. XIIus. Xenophontis memorab. 8 min. 
Ibid. Idem. 

Ejusdem libri Tom. Xlllus. Xenophontis Opuscula polit. 
equestr. et venat. 8 min. Ibid. Idem. 

Ejusdem libri T. XIVus et XVus. Thucydides. II Tomi. 
8 min. Ibid. Idem. 

Ejusdem libri Scholiorum Graecor. Tom. lus. cont. Ex- 
cerpta ex Procli scholiis in Cratyl. Plat. prim. ed. J. F. Bois- 
sonade. 8 min. Ibid. Idem. 

Bibliotheca classica latina edidit N. C. Lemaire. Tom. I ad 
VII. contin. : Tom. lus J. Ciesarem ; Tacitum, Tom. 1. 2. 3. 
et Virgilium, Tom. 1.2.3. 8 maj. Paris. Renouard. (Lipsiae, 
Leop. Voss.) 

Bothe, F. H., Virgilius Virgilianus, sive Quacstio de Virgilii 
locis quibusdam dubiis aut corruptis. Accedit index, in quo 
poetie omnis cimi rerum turn verborum antiquitas proprietasque 
breviter explicatur. 8. Heidelbergte, Oswald. 

Bretschneider, Dr. C. G., Probabilia de evangelii et episto- 
larum Joannis, Apostoli, indole et origine. 8 maj. Lipsiae, 

Caesaris, C. J., Conimentarii de bello Gallico et Civili, una 
cum Hirtii vel Oppii supplementis. Ed. nova. 8. Halae, 
libraria Orphanotropliei. 

182 Literary Intelligence, 

Ejusdem Opera omnia, cura Hutten. Editio sec. 8 maj. 
Stuttgartia*, Cotta. 

Ciceronis, M. T., Opera omnia, deperditorumqae librorum 
fragmenta. Textum accurate recognovit, potiorem lectionis 
diversitatem adnotavit, indices rerum ei verborum copiosisbin)OS 
adjecit C. G, Schiitz. Tom. XlXi. pars 3ia. (Lexicon Cice- 
ronianum, lorn. llli. pars 3ia,) 8. l.ipsiaj, Gerh. Fleischer. 

Eljusdem Opera omnia. Ad opt. libror. lidem edita. Tom. VI. 
VII, cont. Orationes. Tom. VIII, IX. cont. Epistolas. 12. 
Editio stereotypa. Lipsia?, Tauchnitz. 

Ejusdem, de officiis libri III, ad probatiss, quorumqiie exem- 
plarium fidem emendati. Cum commentariis Car. Beieri, Prof. 
Lips. Lib. lus, Lipsite, Steinacker et Wagner. 8. charta 
pergamena (velin), scriptoria itemque bibula. 

Ejusdem, de Officiis libri III. quibus accedunt ; de Lcgibus 
libri III. Cato major, de Senectute, Lielius, de Amiciiia, Para- 
doxa, de Petitione consulatus et Somuium Scipionis ; ex nova 
recensione Ernestiana adjunctis lectionibus Gruterianis. 8. 
Hake, libraria Orphanotrophei. 

Ejusdem Opera omnia, ex recensione lo. Aug. Ernesti, Editio 
nova. Tomus lus. 8. Ibidem Eadem, 

Cornelii Nepotis vitze excellentium imperatorum ad opt. 
editiones collatie. Cura Dr, lo. loach, liellermanni. Edit, 
alt, 8. Erfordiae, libraria Keyseri. 

Ejusdem vita; excellentium Imperatorum cum animadvers. 
partim crit. parlim historicis Augustiui van Staveren cura 
Theopli. Christ. Harless qui et suas et lo, Kappii v. c. notas 
adjecit. Edit, alt. 8, Erlang.e, Heyder, 

Ejusdem vitae excellent. Imperatorum cum notis selectisBosii, 
Lauibini, van Staveren, Cellarii, Fischeri, aliorumuue, quibus 
suas addidit Chr. H. Haenle. 8 maj. Hadamariw, nova schola 

Demosthenis oratio pro corona in usum pr^electionum recen- 
suit E, C, J. Wunderlich. Edit, nova. 8, Gottingai, Dieterich. 

Etymologicum Graecai linguae Gudianum et alia gramma- 
ticorum scripta c codicibus manusc. nunc prim, edita. Acced. 
notae ad Etymol. magn. inedit, E. H. Barkeri, Imm. Bekkeri, 
Lud. Kulencampii, Amad. Peyronii aliorumq, quas digessit et 
una cum suis edidit Frid, Guil. Sturzius, C. indd. locupl. et 
fig. Tom, li Pars 2a et ult. 4 maj. Lipsiai, Weigel. 

Euiipidis tragoedia, Phoenissae, cum scholiis Graecis e recens. 
Valkenajrii edidit, indicemque verbor. copiosiss. adjecit Schiitz. 
Edit, sec, et aucta, 8 m:ij. Hals, Hendel. 

Euiropii breviarium historian Romans ad Valentem A ugustum 

Literary Intelligence, 183 

ab urbe coiidita ad illius usque et fratres Valentiniani tenipora 
deductum. Editio duodecima. 8. Halae^ libraria Oiphauotrophei. 

Ejusdem breviarium historiae Romauee. Cum scholiis et 
notationibus in us. stud, juventutis editum ab £. Th, Holiler. 8 
maj. Vienna^. (Lipsije, Liebeskiiid in c.) 

Fahse, M. G., Observationes criticae in Plutarchi opera, 
quae inscribuntur nioralia et in Hes)'chii Lexicon. 4. (Lipsige, 
Barth in comm.) 

Franckii, I. V., Exanien criticum D. Junii Juvenalis vitae. 8 
maj. Altonai, Hammerich. 

Herodiani Historiaruni Romanarum libri VIII, Ad opt. 
libror. iidem accurate editi. 12. Editio stereotypa. Lipsiae, 

Herodoti Halicarn. Historiaruni libri tX. Musarum no- 
niinibus inscripti, Latine, ex Laur. Vallae interpret, cum indici- 
bus. Vol. Hum. 8 maj. Lipsiaj, Scliwickert. 

Hesychii, Milesii, Opuscula duo quae supersunt, I. de 
hominibus doctrina et eruditione claris. H, de originibus urbis 
Constantinopoleos et cardinalis Bessarionis epistola de educandis 
filiis, Joaniiis Palaeologi lingua Grceca vulgari script'a. GraBce 
et Latine. Recognovit, notis Hadr. Junii, Henr. Stephani, Jac. 
Meursii, Petri Lan^becii, Gisb. Cuperi, F. 1. Bastii aliorumque 
et suis illustravit lo. Conr. Orellius. Accedunt anonymi scrip- 
toris Latini topographia urbis Constantinopolitanae cinn notis 
Guidonis PanciroUi et C. G. Heynii pars commentationum de 
antiquitatibus Byzantinis quas ad Hessycliium illustrandum per- 
tinel. Cum indicibus necessariis. 8 maj. Lipsiae, libraria 

Homeri Odyssea, Greece et Latine, opera J. G. Hageri. 
Vol. Hum. Editio quarta recens. VVolfianae accommodata. 8, 
Chemnicii, Starke. 

Horatii, Q. Flacci, Opera. Ad opt. librorum fideni edita. 12. 
Editio stereotypa. Lipsiae, Tauchnitz. 

Ejusdem Opera collatis opt. editionibus in usum scholarum 
denuo accuratissime recusa. 8. Hanoverae, bibliopolium auli* 
cum Hahnianum. 

Ejusdem Opera curavit Fr. H. Bothe. Edit. alt. emendat. 
2 Voll. 8. Manheimii, Liiffler. Charta impress., scriptoria et 

Isici Orationes quie vulgo in editionibus leguntur. Ad opt. 
libror. tidem accurate editae. Acced. oratio de Meneclis bere- 
ditate, Londini prinmm expressa et duplo auctior de Cleonymi 
hereditate, edita per Aug. Maium. 12. Edit, stereotypa. Lip- 
siae, Tauchnitz. 

184 Literary Intelligence. 

Isocratis Orationes et Epistolse. Ad optim. libror. fideni 
accurate editae, Acced. plenior oratio de permutatione ab 
Andr. Mustoxyde, inventa exque ejus editione diligenter expressa. 
II Tomi. 12, Edit, stereotypa. Lipsia?, Tauchnitz. 

Koch, Clir., Loca qua^dam Homeri et Taciti illustrat. 4. 
Marburgij Krieger. 

Lesbonactis, Soph., Deelamatt. li quee supersunt, Graece et 
Lathie, recognov. annotatt. Canteri, Stephani aliorumque et suas 
notit. literar. et indie, verbor. adjecit J. Conr. Orellius. 8 maj, 
Lipsia?, Reclam. 

Lion, A., Commentatio de ordine quo Plutarchus vitas scrip- 
serit. 8 maj. Gottingae, Brose. 

Livii, T. Pat., Historiarum libri qui supersunt. Ill tomi. 
Editio nova. 8. Halct, libraria Orphanotrophei. 

Lucani, M. A., Pharsalia. Cum notis selectis H. Grotii 
integrisque R. Bentleii. Codicum nondum collatorum lectiones 
varias, appendiceal indicesque adjecit C. Weberus. II Tomi. 
8 maj. Lipsise, Gerh. Fleischer, 

Luciani Samosatensis Opera. Ad opt. libror. lidem accurate 
edita. IV Tomi. 12. Editio stereotypa. Lipsia?, Tauchnitz. 

Miiller, C. O., de tripode delphico. 4. Gotiinga*, Die- 

Navarro, Dr. I., Tentamen de Archytae Tarentini vita atque 
operibus. 4. Hafnias, Reitzel. 

Orellius, J. C, Symbola critica et philologica in C. Cornelii 
Taciti Germaniam e codice priesertim Turicensr denuo excuso. 
4. Turici, Orell, Fuessli et Socii. 

Orionis, Theb., Etymologicon, E Museo F. A. Wollii pri- 
mum edidit, annotatt. P. H. Larcheri ejusd. Wolfii nonnullas et 
suas adjecit F. G. Sturzius. 4 maj. Lipsiag, Weigel. 

Ovidii P., Nasonis quae supersunt. Ad opt. libror. iidem 
accurate editi. III Tomi. 12. Editio stereotypa. Lipsiae, 

Ejusdem Amorum libri III., ad opt. libror. fidem accurate 
editi. 8. Tubingai, Osiander. 

Ejusdem Metamorphoseon libri XV. in us. scholar, ad opt. 
editiones diligentissime expressi. 8. Hanoveraj, bibliopolium 
aulicum Hahnianum. 

Ejusdem Metamorphoseon libri XV. Editio duodecima dili- 
gentiss. expressa. 8. Hala-, libraria Orphanotrophei. 

Ejusdem Tristium libri V. Editio quarta. Ibid. Ead. 

Ejusdem Metamorphoses ad opt. editiones coUatie tironum 
institutioni accommodatas. Studio et cura Dr. J. Joach. Beller- 
manni. Editio alt., Integra et emend. 8. Erfordiae, libraria 

Literary Intelligence. 185 

Philoiiis, Judjei, Opera omnia, gra?ce et latine. Ad editionem 
ThomiE Mangey, collatis aliquot MSS. edeiida curavit Aiiu. Fr. 
PfeiflFer. V. Volumina. Editio altera. 8 maj. Erlaiigit, Header. 

Phrynichi Eclogze iiominum et verborum atticoruii,, cum 
notis P. J. Numiesii, D. Hoeschelii, J. Scaligeri et Cornelii de 
Pauw partim integris partim contractis edidit, expHcuit Chr. 
Augustus Lobeck. Accedunt Fragmentum Herodiani et JNotae, 
Pra?fationes Nunnesii et Pauwii et Parerga de vocabulorum ter- 
miuatione et compositione, de aoristis verborum anthypotacto- 
rum etc. 8 maj. Lipsite, libraria Weidmannia. Charta impress., membranacea. 

Platonis qua? extant Opera. Accedunt Platonis quw feruntur 
Scripta. Ad optim. librorum fidem recensuit, in linguam lati- 
iiam convertit, annotationibus explanavit indicesque rerum ac 
verborum accuratissimos adjecit Fridericus Astius. Tom. IIus, 
continens Theaetetum, Sopliistam et Politicum. 8 in-rij. Lipsiai, 
libraria Weidmannia. Ciiarta impress., script, et meuiuraii. 

Ejusdem Dialogorum delectus. Euthvphro, Apologia Socra- 
tis, Crito. Ex recens. et cum latiiia interpretatione F>id. Aug. 
^\'olfii. — In us. gymnasiorum. 8. Berolini, Nauck. 

Ejusdem Philebus. Recensuit, prolegomenis et commentariis 
illustravit Dr. G. Stallbaum. Accedunt scholia Olympiodori in 
Philebum e cod. Cizensi nunc prinium edita. 8 maj. Lipsias, 

nXuTmo; TioKiTslx, sen de republica libri X, edidit D. Fr. 
Astius. FMitio altera emend. 8 maj. Jenee, libraria Crbckeria. 

Plauti, M. Accii, quae supersunt Comoediae. Ad opt. libror. 
fidem accurate editze. Tom. lus. 12. Editio stereotypa. Lip- 
sise, Tauchnitz. 

Plinii, C, Ca^cilii Secundi, Epistolarum libri IX. Ad fideni 
maxime cod. priestantiss. Pragensis collatis ceteris libris scriptis 
editisve recensuit, praifatione, notis criticis, indicibus, et tabula 
ad repraesentandam cod. Prag. scripturam efFormata instruxit 
Franc. Nicol. Titze. 8 maj. Pragee, Krause. 

Plutarchi, Choeronensis, varia scripta, quae Moralia vulgo 
dicuntur. Ad opt. libror. fidem edita. Tom. 1 — III. 12. 
Editio stereotypa. Lipsite, Tauchnitz. 

Ejusdem, Demosthenes et Cicero, cura Hutlen. 
cunda. 8 maj. Stuttgartiae, Cotta. 

Pompeii Commentum artis Donati et ejusdem in Donati de 
barbarismis et metaplasmis commenlariohis. Ulrumque nunc 
primum edid. et brev. notis instruxit Frid. Lindemann. 8 maj. 
Lipsiff", C. ¥. G. Vogel. 

VOL. XXI. ^ CI. Jl. NO. XLl. N 

186 Liter ar^y Intelligence, 

Prisciani, Ciesariensis Graminatici, Opera. Ad vetustiss. 
Codicum, nunc primum collatorum, fidem recensuit, emacula- 
vit, lection, varietatem notavit et indices locupletiss. adjecit 
Augustus Krehl. Vol. II et ult. 8 maj. Lipsiae, libraria Weid- 
niannia. Charta impress, et scriptoria. 

Procli, philosophi Platonici, Opera, e codd. rnss. biblioth. 
reg. Parisiensis nunc primum edidit, lect. varietate, versione 
latina, commentariis illustravit Vict. Cousin. Tom. lus, cont. 
Ill opuscula de libertate, providentia et malo. 8. Parisiis, Re- 
nouard, Treuttel et Wiirtz; et Argentorati, Levrault; et Lipsiae, 

Sallustii, C. Cr., Opera cum historiarum fragmentis, duabus 
epistoiis ad C. CiEsarem et declamatiouibus, una in Ciceronem, 
in Saliustium altera. Editio emend. 8. Halae, libraria Or- 

Scholia antiqua in Homeri Odysseam, e codd. bibliotliecje 
Ambrosianae Mediolanensis ab Angelo Maio eruta emendatius 
edidit, notulis illustravit, et scholior. Harleianorum excerptis 
Porsonianis auxit Ph. Buttmannus, Acced. varise lectiones in 
lliadem e cod. Ambrosiano antiquiss. ab eodem Maio in lucem 
protractas. 8 maj. Berolini, Mylius. 

Suetonii, C, Tranquilli, Opera. Textu denuo recognito 
brevi annotalione illustravit D. C. G. Baunigarten-Crusius. 11 
Vol. 8. Lipsiae, Gerh. Fleischer. 

Sulpitiae Satira de corrupto statu reipublicte temporibus Do- 
mitiani, praesertim cum edicto philosophos urbe exegisset ; gal- 
licis versibus reddita notisque illustrata a Car. Monnard. Edit, 
alt. Parisiis et Francofurti, Sauerlaender. (Etiam sub titulo : 
la Satire de Sulpitia contre Domilien a I'occasion du decret par 
lequel il bannit de Rome les philosophes; trad, en vers francais 
avec des notes par Car. Monnard. Sec. edit.) 

Taciti, C. Corn., Opera in usum scholar, ad opt. editiones 
diligenter expressa, Tomus IIus. Edit. nova. 8. Halae, libra- 
ria Orphanotrophei. (Etiam sub titulo: C. Corn. Taciti histo- 
riarum libri V. accedit de moribus Germanorum libellus, Julii 
Agricolze vita, de oratoribus dialogus.) 

Terentii, P. Afri, ConiceditE. Ad editionem R. Bentleii 
diligentissime expressae. Editio stereotypa. 12. Lipsiag, Taucb- 

Ejusdem Comoediie, e recensione Rich, Bentleii. Ictus per 
accentus acutos expressi sunt, discentium commodo. 32. Bero- 
lini, libraria Maureria. 

Virgilii, P. Mar., Opera, dtnuo curavit Fr. H. Bothe. Edit, 
altera emendatior. 2 Voll. 8. Manhemii, Loffler. Charta 
impress, script, et meliori. 

Notes to Correspondents. 187 

Ejusdem Opera, studio singular! recognita. Editio septima. 
8. Haize, hbraria Orphanotrophei. 

Hsvo^oJVToj ava/3a(r<j Kupou. Xenophontis de Cvri expeditione 
conmientarii, in us. scholar, recogniti et iiidice copioso instructi. 
Edilio sec. auct. et emend. Accesserunt animadversiones non- 
nullae et tab. geograph. 8. Halif, libraria orphanotrophei. 

Miscellanies in Prose and Verse; containing the Triumph of 
the Wise Man over Fortune, according to the doctrine of the 
Stoics and Platonists ; the Creed of the Platonic Philosopher ; 
a Panegyric on Sydenham, &c.&c. By Thomas Taylor. Second 
Edition, with considerable additions. Price '2s. CJd. l2mo. sewed. 

"^IVavels in various Countries of the East ; being a continua- 
tion of Memoirs relating to European and Asiatic Turkey, &c. 
Edited by the Rev. R. Walpole, M.A. Lond. 1820. 2 vols.4to. 

Travels in various Countries of the East, more particularly 
Persia. A VVoik wherein the Author has described, as far as 
his own observations extended, the state of these Countries in 
1810, 1811, and 1812; and has endeavoured to illustrate many 
subjects of Antiquarian Research, History, Geography, Philo- 
logy, and Miscellaneous Literature, with extracts from rare and 
valuable Oriental Manuscripts. — By Sir William Ousely, L.L.D. 
Vol. First. London, 18 1<). Rodvvell and Martin. Two more 
Vols, are to follow. 


OwTjj from [-full came t.>o late. 

Observations on Herodian in our next. 

R. H. on Horace in our next. 

If any of our readers shou'd possess a copy of " Wassenberg 
de Transpositionibus," we should be glad of the loan of it to 
reprint in our future pages. 

'V. P. justifies the use of the " indicative after interrogatives 
in an indefinite sense," to which we have frequently objected, 
and appeals to the authority of Cicero, as quoted in a late 
Review : " Quantum facinus ad nos delatum est videtis." We 
beg he will lurn to a good edition of Cicero, and he will find 
that the passage, as written by that great master of Latinity, cor- 
roborates our opinion. 

188 Notes to Correspondents. 

Belfastiensis is not forgotten. 

[n our next No. we shall give an interesting article on the 
present state of literature in Greece. 

The Interpretation of Psalm 87 shall be published. 

W. W.'s article requires more consideration. 

We have received several valuable articles from the Continent, 
to which we shall pay a proper attention. 

This day is published, 8vo, 15s. 



Late Fellow of Sidney-Sussex College, Cambridge. 
Printed for John Mukray, Albemarle Street. 

This day is published, in two Volumes, Royal Octavo, 
Price 2l. 2s. in Boards, 


Partly original, and partly altered from Dryden and Pitt. 

Printed for Longman, H urst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, Paternoster 
Row ; and W. Carpenter, Lower Brook Street. 

Of whom may be had, bv the same Author, Price 6s. in Boards, 
the COMMEMORATION of HANDEL, the Second 
Edition, and other Poems. 





JUNE, 1820. 



HtmDon : 




With this is published the Supplement to No^ 
XL. containing a General Index to the First Forty 
Nos, of the Classical JournaL 

Direction to the Binder. 

The Twentieth Volume may now be bound, as the 
Supplement to No, XL. is published with this No. 



On the Instruction and Civilisation of Modern Greece, 

Professor No EH DEN 189 

Remarks on a Hieroglyphic which Dr. Clarke terms a 

Horse's Head 198 

Platonic Demonstration of the Immortality of the Soul • • 20 i 

On the Origin of the Drama 230 

Ancient British Language of Cornwall. Lett. X. 238 

Translation and Observations on an Ode of Horace. 

R. HoBLYN • 248 

Some Emendations on Aristotle. Rev. J. Seager •. 252 

Cambridge Prize Latin Essay, 1802. 254 

Important Discovery of the Original of many of the Sen- 
tences of Sextus Pythagoricus, which have been hitherto 
supposed to be alone extant in the fraudulent version of 

the Presbyter Ruffinus. T. Taylor 266 

Noticeof Researches in Greece, by William Martin- Leake 270 

Miscellanea Classica, No. ix. .• 276 

Corrections in the common Translation of the New Testa- 
ment. No. V. 280 

Notice of Dr. Symmons's Translation of the lEneis of 
Virgil , 286 



On the Interpretation of Aristotle^s famous Definition of 

Tragedy • • 292 

Oxford Prize Poem for I8O6 -.—Trafalgar 295 

Cursory Observations on a Translation of the Arabic MS. 
describing the deadi of Mungo Park, by Mr. 
Abraham Sala me', inserted in an account of a Mis- 
sion to Ashantee, by T. E. Bowdich, Esq. : occasioned 
by reflections made in the Quarterly Review, No. xliv. 
on another Translation of the same MS. by James 

Grey Jackson 299 

Bibliography :— the White Knights Library, Part 11. • • • • 307 
On the Origin, Progress, Prevalence, and Decline of 

Idolatry. By the Rev. George Townsend •••• 320 
Remarks on a Criticism on Mr. Bellamy's new Translation 

of the Bible 331 

Illustration of Jonah ii, 2 .- 337 

ETPiniAOr MEAEA. Euripidis Medea. In usum stu- 
diosEB Juventutis recensuit et illustravit Petrus Elms- 
ley, A. M. No.ii 338 

Letter to Dr. Lee on the author's New Translation of the 

Scriptures, by John Bellamy • 358 

Adversaria Literaria, No. xxiv. — Discovery of a verse of 
Homer, and Error of Kiessling — Ad popularem hydram 
—Hebrew Elegiac Ode, on the Death of King George I II. 
— Latin Inscription to Prince Blucher — Latin version of a 

Commandment •••• 36 1 

Notice of Dobree's Porsoni Aristophanica SQ5 

Literary Intelligence • •- • 372 

Notes to Correspondents t # 378 



N«. XLII. 
JUNE, 1820. 


1 HE present state of Greece has frequently been a subject of re- 
flection to those, who know the early history of that country, and 
its glory in former days. The vestiges of ancient greatness are to 
be traced by the traveller ; the people retain an echo of that lan- 
guage, which in old times was so harmonious, so eloquent, and so 
powerful ; and the generation before us calls to our recollection 
the heroes, the poets, the philosophers, the orators, the historians, 
of yore, who adorned that brilliant spot of the civilised world. A 
veneration and a predilection for Greece are bred and nourished in 
the breasts of all who enjoy the benefit of classical instruction ; and 
there are urany who look to that quiirter as a source, from which 
they have derived some of their most valuable knowledge. Others 
justly consider the debt, which the enlightened and learned world 
of modern days owes to the influence of that illustrious country. 
The sciences, the arts, the civihsation of our times, and all that 
the human mind esteems as its most precious acquisitions, stand 
in a certain relation with ancient Greece, and have to acknowledge 
benefits obtained, directly or indirectly, from its genius. To see 
that country in its present state of humiliation, under the power 
ot an arbitrary government, and connected with an illiterate and 
untaught people, who hold it in servile subjection, as conquerors ; 
to reflect that a tract, which nature seems to have marked for the 

190 On the Instructmi and Cmlisation 

abode of the Muses, is overwhelmed with ignorance and barbar- 
ism ; and, on the other hand, to conceive the idea of rescuing, by 
our efforts, the country and its inhabitants from so deplorable a 
condition, and to restore them, iu some degree, to those rights to 
which they seem to be entitled — are matters which cannot fail to 
make an impression on the generous feelings of the present en- 
lightened age. The scholar, above the rest of his cotemporaries, 
who owns particular obligations to that country, will be accessible 
to such sentiments : and it might thence be presumed, that in 
England, where ancient literature is so much esteenitd, and the 
recollection of ancient Greece and Rome so fervently cherished, 
numerous advocates would be found interested in this cause. It 
deserves consideration, that the modern Grecians still preserve 
themselves as a distinct people, and that they are not confounded 
with those who subdued them ; and what is more, that they still 
regard themselves as the descendants of the Greeks of old, nor 
have, in their misfortunes, lost the recollection of what tiiey for- 
merly were. They feel a strong desire to emancipate flieniselves 
from that mental servitude, under which they have been kept, and 
to make amends for that degeneracy, with which they have been 
charged. These feelings have, at different times, been manifested, 
but more particularly of late : and Ihey seem to show that the na- 
tion is actually in a state of intellectual improvement. Some 
individuals among them are even distinguished for their literary 
acquirements ; and it is only necessary to name Capo d'htria,' 
Coray,'^ Mestosidi,^ Ignatius,* Rhasis,^ Anthimos Gazy,'^ and 
Nicolopoulo,^ to convince us that learning and knowledge are not 
entirely lost among the descendants of Plato and Aristotle. Men 
of this description were alive to the situation of their country, and 
animated with the noble ambition of raising it to a level with the 
rest of the civilised world. They were sensible that this could 
only be done by spreading instruction and knowledge among the 
j)eople. For this purpose they determined to combine their efforts, 
and they formed, about the year 1813,* a society at Athens, called 

' A man known and esteemed for his enlijjhtened and liberal mind. 

^ Justly placed among the literary men of the present day : he generally 
resides at Paris. 

^ Secretary to the Senate at Corfu. 

* An eminent ecclesiastic of the Greek church, and a zealous friend to 
the cause. 

5 Rhasis the elder is physician to the Grand Vizier at Constantinople ; his 
son is professor at Paris. 

<5 Chief ()astor of tiie Greek congregation at Vienna, editor of a Greek 
Lexicon, and of the well known Greek Journal, 'Epfirjs 6 \6ytos. 

^ One of the under librarians at the French In'stitnte. 

^ I am not in possession of distinct information concerning the date at 
wliich the society was establishe<i, but 1813 seems to be the year. This I 
conclude from an address to the Germans, written by a Grecian, in German, 

of Modern Greece. IQl 

the Friends of (he Mus€<i, 'H 'E-aipla rwr (^iXonovffwv, or, 'H ^iXofxov 
(Tos'ETfiipeia, on whoni it was imposed as a duty to promote literary 
and popular education, and as it were to bring back the Muses 
into theii di>.erie(l country. 

The society had scarcely been estabhshed, when it proceeded 
to the eNecution of Its desii:ns : no time was lost. The tirst step 
they took was ilie tuundation of a school at Athens. 'Inhere had 
been schools at Alliens before, and Chandler particularises two, 
which existed in his time, that is, in the years 1765 and 1766.' 
One of them had an annual income, arising from a legacy which a 
benevolent Allienian had bequeathed, and which was to be paid 
by thf Bank of Venice. But the payments were not regularly 
made, and ceased entirely wlien the Bank of Venice was closed.^ 
These schools were not adequate to tiie purpose of furnishing the 
necessary instruction, especially after the latter had been deprived 
of its resources. The elder Rhasis, who visited Athens about the 
year 1813, found them in a deplorable condition ; and he was the 
first who thought of their renovation and improvement. He used 
his influence to that effect at Constantinople, with the goverimient, 
and with the Greek jjatriarcli, and was assisted by the principal 
inhabitants of Athens. He found a most active co-operation from 
the Friends of the Muses : and a school has, by these united en- 
deavours, been established, which promises to extend its beneficial 
influence not only over Attica, but the whole of Greece. There 
are schools in other places, for the instruction of Grecian youth ; 
in Smyrna, Chios, Constantinople, Bucharest, Yassi (in Moldavia), 
in Cydonia (a small town in Asia Minor), and in almost every place 
that calls itself a town ; but the sum total of what they have pro- 
duced is much below what the country required. The foundation 
of the new school at Athens, on a more comprehensive and efficient 
plan, was therefore a measure of great importance. 

Another advantage was soon after gained by the creation of 
a second establishment in Thessaly, near Mount Pelion. In this 
undertaking the principal merit belongs to Anthimos Gazy. Meliis, 
the town where that establishment is situated, was his native place. 
It had a school, upon a small scale, so early as 1770, when that 
school was founded by a man of the name of Anthimos, who 

July 5, 1814, in which he says, that the society has scarcely existed a year. 
This paper, together with others, was communicated to me by Professor 
Thiersch, at Municli. 

' See Chandler's Travels in Greece, chap. 25. p. 121. (Oxford cd. 1776, 
•Ito.) His words are : " The Athenians have two schools, one of which pos- 
sesses a small collection ot" books, and is entitled to an annual payment from 
Venice, the ciulowment of a charitable Athenian, but the money is not regu- 
larly remitted." 

* See Millin'3 Magazin Enajclopcdique for the year 1815, vol. I. p. 318. 

192 On the Jmtruction and Civilisation 

left a sum of money to maintain it. Anthimos Gazy, inspired 
with a love for his native place, and for his country in general, 
conceived the design of enlargiiig that school, and forming it into 
an institution, which might be extensively useful. He did not 
hesitate to employ his fortune in the enterprise, and in conjunction 
with some friends, nominally two, Gregorius Constanta, and Da- 
niel Philippides, he carried his views into execution. Thus a 
most respectable seminary arose, in the same spot, it is said, where 
in old times Acliilles received his education from Chiron. It is 
called Au(ceto)' M)?Xtwrtk-o»',' or Tvjxvaaiov MriXiajriKdr ; and is pa- 
tronised by the Greek Patriarch and Synod of Constantinople, but 
derives its chief support from the society of the Friends of the 
Muses at Athens. Anthimos Gazy furnished it with considerable 
buildings, for a library, and the difterent rooms and apartments 
that were required. He gives an account of it, in the 'Epnijs 6 X6- 
ytos, and states the numl)er of the books in the library, at the time 
when he wrote, (abaut tive years since,) to amount already to up- 
wards of 8000 volumes.^ ' It was desired that it should represent 
what we call a university, and that the subjects taught there 
should be of a higher order than those at ordinary schools, or even 
that of Athens. The situation of Melits, at the foot of Mount 
Pelion, near Zagora and Macronissi,^ is peculiarly favorable to a 
retreat of the Muses. It is remote from the jealous eye of the 
Turkish governor, and still more secured from his encroachments 
by certain privileges and immunities, wliich have been granted to 
the town by the government. These circumstances fully justify 
the preference given to that spot, over any other part of Greece, 
for the site of a literary establishment, and happily coincided with 
the predilection which Anthimos Gazy cherished. 

The society of the Friends of the Muses (twv ^tAo^uoucrwr) at 
Athens, had not been long instituted, when, in the year 1814, it 
occurred to some members of it residing at Vienna, that it might 
be practicable to obtain the aid of some of the enlightened and 
liberal inhabitants of other parts of Europe : and it seemed that 
the congress of the European nations, which was abuut that time 
assembling in the capital of the Austrian dominions, afforded an 
opportunity peculiarly favorable. When so many strangers were 
collected, and among them persons of the highest rank and dis- 
tinction, it was thought likely that the cause of Greece would not 
be pleaded in viiin btfore the tribunal of generosity. A subscrip- 

' The names of o-xoA);, (txo^mv, KvKewu, yv/xvacnov, niiglit pcrliaps be pro- 
miscuously applied t« Ix'tli f stalilLshmciit.s ; but it ieenis that rrxo^e'iov it 
more parrictilaily appropriated to that of Athens, and yvfxvdixiou to thai of 
Mount Pelion ; and that the latter is intended to denote an institution higher 
thao a school, one that approaches to a university. 

* See Magazin Encyclopidique, p. 312. ' Ibid. p. 311. note. 

of Modern Greece. 193 

lion was opened, which met with encouragement so far, as to in- 
duce the formation of an association at Vienna, which was to be 
united with the society at Athens. It was placed under the direc- 
tion of Ignatius, the Greek metropolitan at Vienna ; and was organ- 
ised so as to make its contributions available to the attainment of 
the objects in view. These were, in the first place, the support 
and maintenance of the two literary establishments in Greece, the 
school at Athens, and the Gymnasium of Mount Pelion ; but the 
views enlarged with the hope and expectation of increasing means. 
Additions and improvements were contemplated : besides the pay 
of teachers, books, maps, and instruments were to be purchased ; 
poor scholars to be maintained ; and what was more, promising 
young men were to be sent to the German universities, at the ex- 
pense of the society, to enrich themselves with stores of know- 
ledge, which they might afterwards impart to their countrymen at 
home. The society was likewise solicitous to render some service 
to the sciences themselves, and to literature in general ; aud ac- 
cordingly ordered, tiiat the collecting of antiquities should be at- 
tended to, and that investigations should be made in the natural 
history of the country, and especially in Botany. With a similar 
intention it directed, that some of its members residing at Athens, 
should be in readiness to accompany and assist any foreign travel- 
ler who, for the sake of information, might visit Attica. If these 
various projects should succeed, if a foundation for learning and 
knowledge be once laid in the country, and if encouragement and 
support continue to be given, the work of civilisation will proceed 
quickly, and the character of the people, and the face of the coun- 
try, will be greatly changed for the better. For instruction will 
be multiplied, ignorance will be dispelled, industry and morality 
improved, aud the difference between the modern Greeks and their 
progenitors considerably lessened. 

But while these tiattering and pleasing ideas are indulged, it is im- _ 
possible not to remember the power of despotism which hovers over 
the country, and which with its chilling gripe may at once destroy 
the fruits of the exertions of many laborious years. But neverthe- 
less the friends of mankind ought not to be discouraged from lay- 
ing their hand on so meritoriojs a work. Even if complete suc- 
cess is but a matter of chance, it is worth the trial, and efforts, in 
themselves so laudable, though in the end defeated, while they 
may leave regret at the failure, will, at the same lime, bequeath 
the satisfaction, that what was done proceeded from a virtuous and 
rational motive, that can find its reward in the conscionsnesi of a 
right intention. We will, therefore, not view the shade of the pic- 
ture, but look with cheerfulness on the bright side, to stimulate our 

It will be proper to say a few words on the organisation of the 
Athenian Society, with which that at Vienna may be considered as 

194 On the Instruction and Civilisation 

forming one body. The members are divided into two classes, 
one the avri'iyopoi, or fellows, and the others tlie evepyerai, or bene- 
factors. The diflterence of the denomination arises from a differ- 
ence in the annual subscription, which is altogether very moderate. 
The yearly contribution of three Spanish dollars, equal to about 
12s., constitutes a crvt'ijyopos ; double that sum, or three Dutch 
ducats, equal to 24s., gives the title of evtpyerrjs. There is no 
essential, but a mere honorary, distinction between these members. 
Instead of receiving a diploma from the society, they wear rings 
as badges, which have either the emblem of an owl, (yXav^), in re- 
ference to Athens, or that of the Centaur (ei/cwv -oD Kerravpov rat 
rov 'Ax«A.^^ews) with little Achilles, in allusion to the Institution at 
Mount Pelion. I believe it is a matter of indifference, whether the 
Athenian or Thessalian ring is worn ; both equally designate a 
Friend of the Muses ; there is only this peculiarity observe*!, that 
the ring assigned to the euepyerat, or benefactors, is of gold {baKvv- 
Xiop ypvrrovv), and that given to the ordinary members, or awTljyo- 
poi, of bronze or copper, {ba^rvXioi' ■^^nXKovp). The Athenian ring 
has the inscription (^iXofioixrijoy, " of the Friends of the Muses ;" 
the Thessalian of MovcrayerCjv, " of the Leaders, or Guides, of the 
Muses." The title Movcrayerrjs originally belongs to Apollo, but 
may here be understood to be applied to those, who, as it were, 
lead back, or conduct, the Muses into the country which they had 
abandoned. The society would, of coui'se, be glad to receive like- 
wise aid, in any other way, besides the annual contributions, which 
would be equally appropriated to the proposed objects. The 
names of the members are entered in a book, and published in the 
Greek literary journal, 'Epfiris b Xoyios ; and to do them still more 
honor, they are engraved at Athens, upon tablets or pillars of white 
marble {els ari^Xas XevKov jxapj-iupov). Towards the end of the year 
1814, or thebeginningof 1815,the number of the members amounted 
to near 200. For the regular administration of the funds, a board 
or office was established at Vienna, under the management of Mr. 
Alexander Basil, a Greek merchant, as the treasurer. The money, 
as has before been intimated, is applied, 1. to pay the teachers of 
the two establishments. 2. To the repair and improvement of the 
buildings. 3. To the purchase of books, maps, instruments, mo- 
dels, and all useful articles. 4. To rewards, or prizes, for the 
scholars who distinguish themselves. 5. To the maintenance of 
j3oor scholars. 6". To the support of such as are sent to the Ger- 
man universities. To this may be added, the expences which the 
collecting of antiquities may occasion. They are to be preserved 
in appropriate buildings, called Musea, both at Athens and Melies. 
How far the funds may be adecpiate to all those objects, I cannot 
say : it will require a liberal support to make the income meet the 
intended expenditure. The Grecians themselves feel a great inter- 
est in the attainment of what is designed, which is, as it is some- 

of Modern Greece. 195 

where expressed, tTriboaLs twv fxaBiiaeoyv KaX ^vpo-dtKos 7roXtor/z6y, 
" promotion of the sciences, and European civilisation ;" but, un- 
assisted, they would not have the means of realising their wishes. 

A new prospect seemed to open at Munich. There much en- 
thusiasm had been created by an account, which Professor 
Thiersch had given of the efforts that were making in behalf of 
Greece, and of the views and hopes that were entertained. He 
had represented these objects, guided by the warmth of his own 
feelings, in a paper read before the Academy of Sciences. Some 
of the members were electrified with the spark of sympathy, and 
ardently embraced the suggestions of the Professor. The Secre- 
tary-general of the Academy, Mr. Schlichtegroll, in particular, 
eagerly entered into the subject. It was determined to take an 
active part in the cause ; and the question arose, whether it should 
be proposed to government to make it a subject of public concern : 
but it was wisely decided to leave the work to the private exertions 
of individuals, who by their zeal might produce as much good as 
the government, and would not excite the jealousy of the Turks, 
as if the sovereign of a foreign country, or his ministers, were sus- 
pected to interfere in the affairs of their subjects. Besides, it was 
more easy for persons of different countries to combine with a pri- 
vate association, than to submit themselves to the regulations of a 
government not their own. But though this point was so deter- 
mined, the Bavarian ministers, and the King and Prince Royal 
themselves, expressed their approbation of the undertaking, and, 
divested of their public characters, gave it their countenance, by 
becoming subscribers. The enthusiasm that was felt, is not diffi- 
cult to account for ; and I confess, that I was affected with it my- 
self, under the first impression. For there is something capti- 
vating to the mind, in the thought, that we are discharging a debt 
of gratitude towards the ancient Grecians, our masters and in- 
structors, and conferring benefits on the posterity of the great and 
illustrious men of antiquity. These sentiments, 1 anticipated, 
would become very current in England, and would warm the 
breast of every scholar. I concluded, that very powerful support 
would be derived from this opulent and generous country : the 
present address to the public, added to that of Adamantius Coray, 
printed in the Classical Journal, No. 40., may perhaps be more for- 
tunate than my former endeavours. At Munich, Messrs. Schlichte- 
groll and Thiersch received subscriptions, and it was under the 
auspices of these gentlemen that my name was, in July, 1815, 
when I was at Munich, added to the list of the members. There 
was an intention of establishing a board of the society in the capi- 
tal of Bavariii, and probably to transfer the administration thither 
from Vienna. I have, however, not heard since, what steps have 
been adopted ; or learnt whether the society prospers, or lan- 
guishes, whether its friends increase in number, or whether the 

106 On the l7istriiction and Civilisat 


zeal that pronioted it has died away. Whatever those who have 
the welfare of modern Greece tit heart, may iiiiderJake — In what- 
ever specidations they may engage — it ought always to be remem- 
bered, liow essenliiil and necessary it is to be cautious in their 
proceedings, and above all things to take care not to give umbrage 
to tiie Turliibli government. The fruits of the labor of many years 
may be lost by a single indiscretion: for wiuit will resist the 
power, or moderate tlie violence, of that government, if its suspi- 
cions are roused, or its pride offended ? The poor Greeks would 
be the sufferers : their improvement would be arrested, tiieir insti- 
tutions annihilated, and they would be thrust back into their former 
state of helpless inability, and of mental servitude. Nothing of a 
political nature ought to be mixed with the efforts that are used : 
and whatever a lively imagination may conceive to be the ultimate 
result of a more civilised condition of Greece, produced by in- 
struction, it will be prudent to check those flights of fancy, and to 
keep such thoughts under the seal of a judicious silence. 

It has been mentioned, as part of the plan which the society 
Tu)v ^iXofxovaiJv had formed, that Grecian youths were to be sent 
to the German universities. For tiiis purpose such individuals 
were to be selected, as were distinguished by abilities and talents. 
But to render their peregrination useful, certain preparatory stu- 
dies were necessary. Not only was it fit, that they should be in 
possession of that elementary or fundamental knowledge on which 
the sciences are to be built ; it was also expedient, that they should 
understand the German language, which was to be the vehicle of their 
instruction. To this end, Prof. Thiersch resolved to establish at Mu- 
nich, an academy or preparatory school for young Grecians; and this 
speculation succeeded. He called the institution the AtherKsum {to 
'ABrjvaiov), and these are the outlines of the plan. 1. It is to receive 
youths of more than 12 years of age, who are expected to know 
their own language, modern Greek, so as to be able to read and 
write it. Nothing more is required of them, in point of knowledge. 
The Professor himself had made the modern Greek his study ; and 
was sufficiently conversant in it, to understand, and be understood 
by, his pupils. Practice would every day add to the facility of 
intercourse. 2. The subjects to be taught in the Athenaeum 
were, first of all, German; then ancient Greek, and Latin. As to 
the ancient Greek, this is not neglected in Greece itself, but it 
forms a branch of instruction to those that are well educated, 
though the lower people are ignorant of it. Besides those lan- 
guages, geography, history, mathematics, natural history, and phy- 
sics, were to be attended to : and an opportunity was Viho to be 
afforded of learning other modern languages, besides the German, 
such as Italian, French, and English. They were also to be al- 
lowed to bestow a certain portion of their time on music and 
drawing, if their inclination and talents led them to these accom- 

of Modern Greece. 197 

plisliments. 3. From the AtlieniEum lliey n)i!);ht pass into the 
Lyceum, or public school, at Munich, and thence proceed to a 
university. The terms wliich the Frol'essor fixed, to cover the 
expellees, were, lOl) ducats per annum for each pupil, which is 
about 45/., accordiiiii to the present course of exchange, besides 
the chargt^s for clothing, and other items. The estabhshment of 
the Athenteum was announced to the inhaliitants of Greece, by 
Prof. Thiersch, in an advertisement written in ohi Greek, which 
he styled, 'Aia/cZ/pu^is eh rovs "EXXriras, bearing date, April 1", 
1815 : and when 1 visited the Professor in July of the same year, 
he had three pupils in the Athenaeum. In the following October, 
when he was, for a short time, in England, he informed me that 
the number was augmented, if I am not mistaken, to 7 or 8. I 
presume, that it has continued to increase ; but I have had no late 

The information which I have communicated, is partly derived 
from my conversations with Messrs. Schlichtegroll and Thiersch, 
and partly from some printed papers, which the latter put into my 
hands. They are: 1, A Greek Epistle, written by Count Capo 
d'Istria, to Mr. Alexander Basil, merchant at Vienna, in which he 
speaks of the Athenian society tu>p ^^iXo/uovawy, and of the associa- 
tion to be formed in aid of it, at Vienna. The inscription of the 
Epistle is : 'Itjuryrjs 'Ajtwj'/ou K.6jur]S Kcnrobiarpias rip Kvpiij 'AXe- 
^aj/^pw BaaiXeiov \alfjety. Opposite to the Cireek, there is a 
French version. 2. Project of regulations for the manageuient of 
the Vienna Society, also in Greek and French. It is called Aia- 
rayrj, in French Reglement. 3. A brief account of the foundation 
of the Athenian Society, and of the Gymnasium at Mount Pelion, 
like the former pieces, in Greek and French, with these hiscrip- 
tions : SuTrafxis r>7s ey 'AQ^/vats 'Eraipe/as Tuiy ^iXofxovaojp, kcu tov 
Tv^vaaiov tov YlriXiov "Opovs : Fondation de la Socittt des Amis 
des Muses (i Athenes, et du Gymnase du Mont-Pelion. 4. A 
paper, published in the German language, antj written by a native 
of Greece, which contains a short statement of the measures taken 
to promote the instruction of the modern Grecians, and an appeal 
to the Germans to support these exertions. 5. The address of 
Professor Thiersch to the Greeks, 'Aj'a>.-»;|Oi/^ts els tovs "EXXrjyas, 
which has been before mentioned. Some particulars were gleaned 
from an article in Millin's JMagazin Encyclopedique, for the year 
1815, vol. 1. p. 309, entitled : Coup d'ceil sur I'etat actuel des 
Ecoles de la Grtce. The account which appeared in the Gbttin- 
gen Literary Review, ( Gottingischt Gelehrte Anziigen) Sept. 11, 
1815, No. 145, and which afterwards was translated into French, 
in the Bihliothcque Universelle, was written by myself. 




On a Hieroglyphic which Dr. Clarke terms 
Horse's Head. 

Jt has been a general remark, lliat a division in mental, is as 
necessary as in meclianical, labor ; and nothing has established 
the necessity with greater force in my mind, than the fail- 
ure of Dr. Clarke in the explanation of Egyptian symbols. It 
would appear indeed that the tasteful and classical acumen, which 
never for a moment fails him in investigating the relics of Greece, 
no longer directed his research amidst the monuments of Egypt. 
At all events, the archetypal rudiments of Grecian art, the ma- 
trix in wiiich its embryo lineaments were formed, deserved from 
the idolater of that art a more elaborate and reverential inves- 
tigation. A careless illustration of some of the hieroglyphics 
particularly struck me, and in cases, too, where explanatory au- 
thorities, 1 should have imagined, would present themselves to 
the recollection of the scholar. Hasty and rash decision upon 
one of these, is the subject of my present letter. V allude to a 
figure which Dr. Clarke calls a horse's head, engraved upon a 
stone, and which he thence presumes to be an amulet. Now with 
the latter supposition I have no quarrel ; because engraven 
stones, it is well known, were by most of the oriental nations 
employed as talismans; and of this description were the stones 
upon the breast of the Jewish High Priest. But to affirm that 
the figure is a horse's head, argues, in my opinion, either a strong 
obliquity of vision, or great power of fancy. Few, I think, having 
no bias of theory in their minds, would admit the resemblance. 
The only excuse I can offer for the Doctor's optical mistake is, 
that all which concerned his favorite Ceres, had an undue influ- 
ence on his judgment : and that the horse's head which was one 
of the attributes of Despoina, or the Lady, haunted the imagin- 
ation of her champion and liberator. 

It is not, indeed, wonderful, that the particular turn of his 
Grecian enquiry may have warped his critical perception, which 
in general is sufficiently straightforward. But, I believe, no 
one as yet ever heard of a horse's head in Egypt serving for a 
talisman ; nor do 1 believe, that amidst ail the animal head- 
dresses of the Egyptians, any one can be pointed out with a 
liorse's head. And it is the more singular, because we know, that 
in the cognate religion of Mythra, a horse was certainly dedi- 

Hemarks on a Hieroghjphic. 199 

cated to the mediatorial divinity. But in the figure before us 
it is only necessary to use one's e\e-sight, to decide that it is no 
horse's head, nor can any mode of position pervert the symbol 
so egregiously. The Egyptians, whatever may be said generally 
of their sculpture, were not inaccurate delineators; and though 
they sometimes substituted characters of compact, for characters 
of imitation, they never traced the outlines of an animal, with 
so preposterous a deviation from truth. The arbitrary sign was 
kept disjunct from the imitative ; the two modes of symbolical 
writmg would not admit of an amalgamation destructive to the 
features and the purposes of both. Perhaps a little more atten- 
tion to the distinct classes of Hieroglyphical writing would have 
prevented a lapse into tliis unlucky error. 

The symbol in question is very frequent among the Hiero- 
glyphics. Though badly drawn by Denon, it occupies the 
centre of a circle on the Tentyrian Planisphere ; it is on two of 
the mummies in the Museum ; it is the most conspicuous of all 
the objects on the "Lover's fountain," where two of these figures 
are suspended over the sacred stable of Apis. To me the figure 
appears connected with the deepest Egyptian mysteries. But 
this is conjecture : I come to fact. The type is a quadruple 
combination; and consists of an eye, united to a tongue, sur- 
mounted by a ship's prow, and having a devolved curtain or veil 
subjoined. There is no begging the question in this assertion : 
we need not refer to Kircher or Proclus, for proof that combined 
Hieroglyphics in picture language were analogous to compound 
words in alphabetical ; whatever was the mode in which the 
Hieroglyphics were read, whether discursively, as Proclus avers, 
each image furnishing its train of thought ; or connectedly with 
grammatical indications, which is the connnon opinion, eye-sight 
is sufficient to convince us that the same symbols are occasion- 
ally conjoined or disjunct ; and that, in consequence, a similar 
process has been resorted to, as that which is manifest in the 
formation of compound characters among the Chinese. 

This being premised, what can be more evident, than the 
meaning of the compound figure in question .'' Need I elucidate 
the beautiful precept it conveys ? It may be explained by one 
of the laws of Pythagoras : " $peak not of the mysteries wWhoxxt 
a directing light." Viewed thus, the figure is at once a precept, 
and as Proclus intimates, a text; while, like the Chinese charac- 
ters, it may have possessed one simple sound, and one decom- 
pounded idea ; such as, perhaps, the Initiatory silence. On this, 
however, some argument may be maintained ; but on the sepa- 
rate meaning of the combined characters, little or none. An 

200 Remarks on a liieroghjphic. 

eye represented the mind, or tlie intellectual light. By an eye 
and a tongue, (a combined portion of" the figure too evident to 
escape attenti .w) Horns Apollo avers that the Egyptians indicat- 
ed discnurse ; the eye repiesenting the mind or agent, and the 
tongue llie UKsirument. Implying the governmg voug. an eye was 
variously conibnied, sometimes with a sceptre, sometnnes with 
a prow, at others with a globe, in all which the meaning is 
obvious. Joined to tuo arms, it portrayeil the active interposi- 
tion of the governing mind ; and corresponds with a phrase of 
the Rabbis, the two arms of God. 

The eye, the prow, and the tongue, are clear in the figure, 
and 1 think their meaning is indisputable ; but the figure of the 
VOLUTE attached requires a lew words. 

That the volute infers something involved, or a mystery, the 
analogy of language seems to imply — it is a sign of evolution 
or involution, according to its position, among arithmeticians at 
this day. Tliat the figure was mysterious and sacred, is proved 
by the celt of the Barbarian, and the lituus of the Augur. Now, 
if reasoning by analogy and assuming the crescent sursum and de- 
orsum as a clue, I infer that the upward volute meant mystery 
or involution, and the downward evolution or revelation, as in 
arithmetic, 1 think 1 am not encroaching too far, on my assumed 
position, by understanding the volute in the figure as a revealed 

What indeed could better express the rolling up or withdraw- 
ing of a veil than the figure in question ? "^I'here is, indeed, a 
curious coincidence to support this supposition. The word 
mistor, from whence the mysteries are derived, implies in Cop- 
tic, a veil. The veil of the temple, which concealed the Holy 
of Holies, is familiar to Biblical readers. To remove the veil, 
thence became synonymous with a revelation. In this sense 
Zechariah uses it ; and no doubt {he rending of the veil during 
our Lord's passion, was meant to symbolise a universal revel- 
ation made by an act of violence. 

The character, in this combination, therefore seems to imply, 
a veil drawn up, or a mysteiy evolved — simply, a revelation. 

The conjecture is further supported by accessible represen- 
tations. On the Fountain of Lovers, there are two of these fi- 
gures, called by Dr. Clarke horses' heads, from which the folds 
1 have described devolve on both sides, like the drapery of a cur- 
tain. Behind appears the sacred stable of Apis, perhaps the 
object of revelation, as we know it occupied the adytum of his 
temple. And that some mystery was connected with it, is evi- 
dent from this ; that the bars of his stall are manifestly arranged 

On tlie hnmortality of the Soul. 201 

in mystic order: such as might be expected from devotees to 
the sacred theory of numbers. 

Finally, lliat the conjoint symbol was a figure, connected with, 
and perhaps represented and explained in, the mysteries, is cor- 
roborated by another representation. 

There is a plate in Denon where, surrounded by a circle, and 
placed upon a sceptre, it forms the terminating point of a Hight 
of fourteen steps (a mystic number) to which a procession of as 
many priests is directing its approach. It is placed exactly as 
if to imj>ly, that it is the grand object of the procession : and the 
figure of the Hieropliaut Heimes, kno\\n by his ll»is head, 
waiting its arrival, indicates beyond dispute an Initiation. 

That connected with this indication and with the sceptre and 
globe, it uiay possess another meaning than that which I have 
assigned, 1 shall not dispute. New combinations t)f figure pro- 
duced, without duubt, a different interpretation. Besides, the 
signs themselves were cabalistical ; that is, they involved variety 
of meaning, according as the analysis was theological, philoso- 
phical, or physical. 

1 shall not therefore object to those, who may discover the 
Egyptian trinity in the object of this initiation, referring the 
helm-surmounted eye, to the governing mind, the tongue to wis- 
dom or the Logos, and the volute to the universal soul or Binah 
of the Jews. 

Should these remarks correspond with the general tenor of 
your Classical miscellany, I will enter more fully on that inter- 
esting, but hitherto unproductive, field of speculation, the Hiero- 
glvphical Language. 



PART 1. 

Jr LATO has demonstrated the immortality of the rational soul 
in three of his dialogues, viz. in the Fhitdo,' in the 10th book 

' There are five arguiuents in the Pluedo (or the innnorlaliiy of the 
soul, the tilth of which properly nod fully demonstrates it from the 
essence of the soul. See the notes to my iranslatiuu of that didogue. 

202 Platoinc Demonstration of 

of his Re|)ul)]ic, and in the Piieeilrus. But lh(>ii;:h the arguments 
empl(>/i(1i)\ him inearhol tlu-se dialogues, iii proof of this 
most iinj)oii-uit iniih, uiJl I'c found to possess, \i\ those that 
understand them, inconlrovertible evidence; vet, it a|)|>ears to 
me that this is peculiarly the <:ase with the reasoniiiij, lu tht- Phae- 
drus, which is not only, in the language of Plato, accompanied 
by geometrical necessities, but is at once admirably subtle and 
singuiarly sublime. 

As this reasoning is most perspicuously developed by the 
Platonic Hermeas m his Scholia on the Phaedrus, 1 shall give a 
translation of his elucidations, and also of the text of Plato, on 
which these elucidations area comment. The words of Plato 
are as follow : 

" Every soul is immortal : for that which is always nsoved is 
immortal. Bui that which moves another thing, and is moved 
by another, in consequence of having a cessation of motion, has 
also a cessation of life. Hence that alone which moves itself, 
because it does not desert itself, never ceases to be moved ; but 
this is also the fountain and principle of motion, to sucii other 
things as are moved. But principle is unbegolten. Por it is ne- 
cessary that every thing which is generated, should be generated 
from a principle, but that the principle itself should \ic<t be ge- 
nerated from any one thing. For if it were generated from a 
certain thing, it would not be generated from principle. Since, 
therefore, it is unbegotten, it is also necessary that it should be 
incorrupiible. For the principle being destroyed, it could 
neither itself be generated from another ihing, nor another 
thing be generated froiu it, since it is necessary that all things 
should be generated from principle. Hence, the principle of 
motion is that which moves itseif : and this can neither be de- 
stroyed, nor generated. For otherwise, all heaven and all gene- 
ration falling together must stop, and w ould never again have any 
thing, from whence being moved, they would be generated. 
Since then it appears, that the nature which is moved by itself 
is immortal, he who asserts that this is the essence and defini- 
tion of soul, will have no occasion to blush. For every body, 
to which motion externally accedes, is inanimate. But that to 
which motion is inherent from itself, is animated ; as if this were 
the very nature of soul. If this however be the case, and there 
is nothing else which moves itself except soul, it necessarily 
follows that soul is unbegotten and immorlal." 

The following are the elucidations of Hermeas : 

" In the first place, it must be inquired about what kind of 
soul Plato is speaumg. For some, among which is the Stoic Po- 

the Immortalitij of the Soul. 203 

sidonius, are of opinion that it is alone about the soul of the 
world, because it is said 7rao-«, and it is added a little after, < all 
heaven and all generation falling together must stop.' But others 
say, ihat is simply concerning every soul, so as to include the 
soul of an anl, and a fly. x\nd iliis was the opinion <(f Harpo- 
cration. For heundersiands the word Tracra, as pertainnig to every 
soul. If however, it be requisite neither to restrict the problem, 
nor to extend it simply to all animals, we must assume from Plato 
himself, what kind of soul it is, of which he is now speaking. 
He says therefore, that it is necessary in the first place to speak 
about the nature of soul both the divine and the human, i.e. 
about every rational soul ; so that the present discourse is con- 
cerning the rational soul. To which we may add, that the 
ancients are accustomed to call the rational soul, that which is 
properly soul. For they call that which is above it, intellect, and 
that which is beneath it, not simply soul, but the irrational life, 
or the arilmalion of the spirit, the life which is distributed about 
bodies, and the like. But they denominated the rational part 
that which is properly soul. For Plato also calls the rational 
soul, that which is properly man. He previously, however, 
enunciates the conclusion, since he is about to make the demon- 
strations, from things which are essentially inherent in the soul, 
and which pertain to it, so far as it is soul. On this account 
therefore, he first enunciates the conclusion, indicating by so 
doing that the diori, or the tchy, is contractedly comprehended in 
the ot;,' or the that. For the soul possesses the immortal from its 
essence. Hence, prior to the evolved, divided, and expanded 
demonstration, he gives the contracted and that v\hich contains 
the Zihij together wuh the that.^ But there are here, two de- 
monstrative syllogisms, through which the immortality of the 
soul is demonstrated, and which directly prove that it is so ; and 
there is also another syllogism which demonstrates this, tlirouoh 
a deduction to an impossibility. Why, however, is there this 
number of syllogisms \ For the intention of Plato, was not sim- 
ply to adduce a multitude of arguments, since in this case he 
would have eujployed many others, as he does in the Pha^do ; 
but he employs such as are adapted to each subject of discus- 
sion. For now, as we have aheady observed, he adduces argu- 
ments derived from the ess^rnce of the soul, and from things 
which are essentiall) iiiheient in it. ^d answer to this it must 
be said, that since it is proposed to demonstrate that the soul is 

' For Tco ovTi here, it is necessary lo lead tw on. 

* The same reading as the above, must also be adDjitcc] here. 

204 Platonic Demonstration of 

immortal, if we see liow many niudes tliere are of corriiplion, 
and show i!iat the soul is not corrupted according to any one of 
these, we shall then have demonstrated that it is incorruptible 
and indestructible, and it will also be evident that it is immortal. 
For every thing that is corrupted, is corrupted in a twofold 
respect. For either it is itself corrupted by itself, through the 
matter which it contains, or it is corrupted externally Thus 
for instance wood, by alone lying on the ground, is corrupted 
through the putrefaction which is in itself: for it contams in 
itself the cause of its corruption ; as Plato also says m the 
Republic, that every thing which is corrupted, is corrupted by 
its own appropriate evil. But it may also be corrupted exter- 
nally, by being burnt, and cut. Since, theieiore, there are two 
modes of corruption, on this account Plato adduces two syllo- 
gisms. For one of these demonstrates, that the soul is not cor- 
rupted by itself, which he shows through its being self-moved 
and perpetually moved ; but the other syllogism demonstrates 
that neither is tlie soul corrupted by any thsng else, which he 
shows through its being the principle of motion; 

Shall we say, therefore, that each of these syllogisms is im- 
perfect, but that the demonstration derives perfeciion from both ? 
Or shall v\ e say, that in either of them the other is comprehetided, 
, but that the peculiarity of each, previously presents itseil to the 
view .? For that which is not corrupted by itselfjcannot be corrup- 
ted by another thing. For having itself in itself, the cause of pre- 
serving itself, and always being present with itself, how can it be 
corrupted by any thing else ? For that which is self-motive is a 
thing of this kind, as will be demonstrated. And how can that 
which is not corrupted by another thing, but is the principle and 
cause of other things being preserved, be corrupted by itself? P'or 
the principle of motion will be<lemonstrated to be a thing of this 
kind. Forneither will it be corrupted by the things which are 
above it, since it is preserved by them, nor by the things posterior 
to itself, since it is the cause of their being and life. If, therefore, 
it cannot be corrupted by any thing, how, since it is the foun- 
tam of life, can it be corrupted by itself.'' Hence, as we have said, 
each of the aigunienls is of itself perfect, and comprehends in 
itself the other. Hut one of them shows, and is characterized by 
this, that the soul is not corrupted by itself; and the other by 
this, that the soul is not corrupted by any other thing. Let us 
however, in the iirst place, arrange the prepositions of the syllo- 
gisms, and afterwards consider the developement of them. 

The fiist syllogism therefore, is aj follows ; The soul' is self- 
moved. That which is self-moved is perpetually moved. 

the hnmortalitu of the Soul. 225 

That wliich is perpetually moved is immortal. The soul, there- 
fore, is immortal. Hence this reasoning shows us that the soul 
is not corrupted by itself. But the second syllogism is, the soul 
is self-moved. That which is self-moved is the principle of 
motion. The principle of motion is unbegotten. 'Ilie unbe- 
gotten is incorruptible. The incorruptible is immortal. The 
soul, therefore, is nnmortal. And tins reasoning demonstrates 
to us that the soul is not corrupted by a certain other thing. 
The truth of the assumptions, therefore, we shall accurately dis- 
cuss in wliat follows. But now considering the first and com- 
mon proposition of the two syllogisms by itself, that the soul s 
self-moved, and which Plato arranges in the last place of the 
whole reasoning, let us survey how that which is self-moved 
is the first of things that are moved, especially since no casual 
man' doubts concerning the existence of the self-motive essence. 
And perhaps it will be found that the philosophers do not dis- 
sent from each other. For Aristotle indeed takes away all cor- 
poreal motions from the soul, which we also say is most true. 
.But Plato clearly shows that the mcUions of the soul are differ- 
ent from all the corporeal motions. For he says in the 10th 
book of the Laws, "that soul conducts every thing in the heavens, 
the earth, and the sea, by its motions, the names of which are 
to will, to consider, to aliend provideiitial/i/ to other things, to 
lonsidt, to opine rightly and falsely, together zciih rejoicing, 
grieving, daring, fearing, hating and loving." That there is, 
therefore, a certain principle of motion, and that it is that which 
is self-moved, will be from hence evident. For as it is mani- 
fest that there is that which is alter-molive, this will eiiher be 
moved by another alter-motive nature, and that by another, and 
so on to infinity ; or alter-motive natures will move each other 
in a circle, so that the first will again be moved by the last ; 
or, if it is not possible that either of these modes can take place, 
it is necessary that the self-motive nature must have the prece- 
dency. It is evident, therefore, tliat motive natures cannot pro- 
ceed to infinity : for neither is there the infinite in essence, nor is 
there any science of infinites. But neither is it possible for motive 
natures to be in a circle. For the order of beings would be sub- 
verted, and the same thing would be both cause and effect ; so 
that it is necessary there should be a certain princijjle of motion, and 
that motion should neither be to infinity, nor in a circle. This prin- 
ciple of motion, however, which, according to both the philoso- 
phers, is soul, Plato says is self-moved, but Aristotle inmiovable. 

' i. e. Aiistullo. 


226 Platonic Demonstration of 

But that it is necessary this principle of motion should be de- 
monstrated to be self-moved, even from the dogn)as of Aris- 
totle, you may learn from hence. In all beings nature does not 
proceed without a medium from a contrary to a contrary, as, 
for instance, from winter to summer ; but it is entirely requisite 
that a medium should precede, at one time spring, and at an- 
other time autumn ; and the like takes place in all bodies and 
incorporeal essences. Here, likewise, as there is the alte.'--motive 
and the inmiovable nature, it is necessary there should he a 
medium which is the self-moved essence, being one and the 
same in number, and in subject. For that which Aristotle calls 
the self moved nature, as, for instance, the animal, is not that 
Mhith is now proposed f<ir investigation. Vuv the animui, ac- 
cording to hiuj, being composed of the immovable and the 
alter-motive, he says ihat the whole is self moved. So that, as 
there is that which is entirely immovable, such, for instance, 
as the principle of all things, and as there is that which is alter- 
motive, such as bodies, there will be between ihem the self-moved 
nature, which will be nothing else than soul. I'or that which 
we see moved by it, this we say is animated, so that this is the 
very nature of soul, itself to move itself. There are, therefore, 
these three things according to Aristotle, viz. intellect, life, and 
being ; and in the first place, that we may speak of being, as 
there is something which is generated from anodier thing and 
which receives existence from another, there is also that which 
imparts existence to itself, such as the heaven and intellects, 
which he says always exist unbegotten by any other cause. 
For, according to him they are neither generated by a cause, 
as neither are they generated in time, but they are always un- 
begotten, and the causes of existence to themselves. And 
again, in life there is that which receives life from other things, 
for man generates man ; and there are also things which 
have life from themselves, such as again, the heaven and 
intellect. For they have not an adscititious, but a connascent 
life. Farther stiil, as there are things which receive from 
the power of iiUellectual perception, and become through them 
intellective, as the intellect which is in capacity, according to 
Aristotle, there is also intellect which is in energy, which pos- 
sesses from itself intellectual perception, and intellectually per- 
ceives itself. ' Hence from all this it follows^ that as there is 

' And tliis iutelloc t in energy is the medium between tlie intelligible, 
properly so called, which is siiperiur to intellect, and the intellect which 
is in capacity. 

the hnmortality of the SoiiL 227 

that which is moved by another thing, there is also necessarily 
that vvl)ich is the cause to itself of being moved, and imparts 
self-motion to itself. For, otherwise, it would be absurd to pass 
entirely from the alter-motive to the imniovable without assum- 
ing that which is self-moved as the medium, in the same 
manner as it is absurd to pass from that which is generated, and 
which only sometimes exists, to that which is super-essential 
non-being, without assuming being as the medium. For it will 
be immanifest what kind of non-being we assume, whether tlsat 
which is inferior to a generated nature, or that which is superior 
to it, unless we assume the interuieiiiate nature, which is eternal 
being. Thus, likewise, in motion, it will be immanifest, what 
kind of the immovable we assume, whether that which is subor- 
dinate, or that which is superior to the alter-motive nature, unless 
the self-moved is assumed as a medium. And the like takes 
place in life, intellect, and other things. 

This self-motive motion, therefore, is detnonstrated by the 
philosopher in the Laws, to be the first principle of all other 
motions, and the cause of them according to all the significations 
of cause. For it is the effective, the paradigmatic, and the 
final cause of them, which are alone properly causes. For the 
formal cause is in the effect, and is the effect itself. And the 
material cause is much more remote from being properly cause ; 
since it has the relation of things without which others are not 
effected.' Hence, that the self-moved nature is the effective 
cause of other motions is evident, as Plato demonstrates in 
the Laws. " For if all things, says he, should stand still, what 
would that be which would be first moved ?" Is it not evident 
that it must be the self-moved nature ? For if that which accedes 
to the motive cause is moved, and all other beings are alter- 
njotive, ^ but that which is self-motive possesses in itself a 
motive power, and does not merely approximate to it, but is 
united to it_, or rather, has motion for its essence, it is evident 
that this, being first moved, will move other things. For as, if 
the sun did not set and rise, but was immovable, we should 
be dubious what is the cause of so great a light, and if he were 
invisible to the things which he illuminates, we should be still 
more dubious ; thus also, with respect to the soul, since being 
incorporeal it is the cause of all motions, it occasions us to doubt 
how this is effected. As, therefore, the sun who illuminates all 

• Because it is thaC_/mn which or in which, other things are effected. 

* This is on the sujiposition that all things stand still. 

228 Platonic Dernonstration of 

things, much more makes himself luminous, thus, likewise, the 
soul, which moves all things by a much greater priority, moves 
itself. For every cause begins its energy from itself; and you 
\vill find that the motions of the soul are the paradigms of cor- 
poreal motions. 

Let us then assume the corporeal motions ; but these are eight 
in number, being rather passive than cfTective; viz. gencratiofi, 
corniplion, increase, diminution, lation, circulation, mixture, 
and separation. In the soul, therefore, there is increase, when 
giving itself to more excellent natures it multiplies its hitellec- 
tionsf But there is then corruption in it ; when departing from 
thence it becomes more imbecile, and more sluggisli in its in- 
tellectual perceptions. Again, generation takes place in it when 
it ascends from this terrene abode. ' But the corruption of it 
is its last lapse from the intelligible. And mixture, indeed, in it, 
is collected intelligence, and at the same time the contemplation 
of forms. But separation in it may be said to be a more partial 
intelligence, and the contemplation of one form only. Again, 
lation in the soul is the motion of it according to a right line, and 
into the realms of generation. But circulation in it is its periodic 
revolution about forms, its evolution, and its restitution to the same 
condition. Circulation, therefore, may be more appropriately as- 
signed to divine souls, but lation to ours. You may also perceive 
in divine souls both these motions. For the Demiurgus, gays 
Plato in the Timieus, takuig two right lines, bent them into 
a circle. Hence it is evident that the circular inflection and intel- 
ligence of souls is not w ithout the right line. For it pertains 
to intellect alone to be purely moved in a circle. But the ninth 
motion, which is that of incorporeal natures about bodies, such 
as calefactions, or refrigerations, or animations, has a paradig- 
matic cause in the soul, so far as the soul gives life to bodies. 
And thus we have sufliciently show n that there are motions of 
souls, which are the paradigms of corporeal motions. ]t re- 
mains, therefore, to demonstrate that the motions of the soul are 
the final causes of other motions. ^ For immortality is not pre- 

» For this is, as it were, a new birth of the soul. 

^ Tiie demonstration of this is wanting in the original. For in the 
original after ^^fi'Trtrai In -mi t-eXjx^; aura; arohn^ai, there immediately follows 

which evidently implies that something; preceding is wanting. And it 
is obvious from tlie translation of what follows, tliat there is no demon- 
stration of the motions of the soul being the final causes of other mo- 

the JmmortaUtij of the Soul. 229 

dicated of the soul, as a certain oilier diing, but is co-esseutial- 
ised Lu the very essence of it, and unically comprehends the 
whole demonstration. Far immortahty is a certain life in the 
same maimer as self-motion. Plato, therefore, afterwards ad- 
duces an evolved and expanded demonstration, when he says, 
''J'or that zohich is always moved is immortal," &c. omitting to 
say that the soul is self-moved, as being common to the two 
syllogisms, and intending to introduce it as the last of the four 
arguments, where also we may more accurately investigate it. 
Now, however, prior to the discussion of the parts of the first 
arguments, let us logically adapt the words themselves of Plato 
to the propositions. 

All the propositions, therefore, of the syllogisms are three. 
The soul is self-moved: the self-moved is always moved : that 
which is always moved is immortal. Uut as we have said, the 
first and smallest of all the propositions, which says the soul is 
self- moved, is ranked as the last. For the third and greatest of 
all of them is placed first, as being connective of tlie whole 
reasoning; and this is that in which Plato says, ^' for that which 
is alzcays moved is immortal." But the proposition posterior 
to this, which says, that which is self- moved is always moved, is 
introduced through the contrary, the alter-motive, together with 
demonstration. For Plato here says : " But that zchich moves 
another thing, and is moved by another," i.e. the alter-motive 
nature, " /// conserjuence of having a cessation of motion," i. e. not 
being always moved, "has also a cessation of life," i. e. is not im- 
mortal. If, therefore, that which is moved by another, in conse- 
quence of not being always moved, is not immortal, that which is 
self-moved, being alwa}s moved, is immortal. All the propo- 
sitions, however, are assumed essentially, and so far as each of 
them is that which it is. For from that which is moved by ano- 
ther, it is not only demonstrated that the self-moved is always 
moved, but also that the always- moved is self-moved ; so that 
they convert, as for instance, the self-moved is always moved, 
and the always-moved is self-moved. For if that which is 
moved by another has a cessation of motion, i. e. if the alter- 
motive is not always-moved, it will be evident that the always- 
moved is self-moved. F'or this is collected by the second hypo- 
thetic syllogism. F'or if the alter-motive is not always-moved, 

lions. It may, however, be summarily shown as follows, that the motion* 
of the soul are the final causes of other motion-. The motions of the 
soul are, as has been demonstratetl, the etfective causes of otlier motions. 
Every thing dcbircs good. Good is proximately imparted. 

230 On the Origi?i of the Drama. 

it is evident that the always-moved is not alter-motive. But 
tliat which is not alter-motive is self-motive. And from the 
words, '* because it does not desert itself," it is coliected, 
that every thing which is always-moved is self-moved. For if 
the alter-rnotive is likewise always-moved, it is in consequence 
of subsisting in conjunction with the motive cause. Much more, 
therefore, will that which is self-moved be always-moved, be- 
cause it is not only always present with itself, but is united to 
itself. T. 


Ihe Origin of the Drama has been assigned to various 
periods and various causes; but, as it would seem, without such 
definite precision of inference and such force of evidence, as 
are necessary to make it no longer a question. In tracing the 
drama to the mysteries, 1 should perhaps be wrong to presume 
on any striking originality, but, 1 may venture to say that, al- 
though this mode of accounting for the origin of the stage may 
have been previously broached as a surmise, it has hitherto 
never assumed the mature form of a regular hypothesis. 

We have very few glimmerings of light to direct our search 
iox the origin of the drama in Greece. All that we collect widi 
any certainty is, that it was introduced originally to the public 
under a very inartificial and inelegant form, and that a peram- 
bulating stage, in no degree better than similar contrivances of 
our tumblers and mountebanks, was the humble cradle in which 
Melpomene and Thalia first made their appearance before the 
Grecian world. 

Nevertheless there is reason for pronouncing, on a slight ex- 
amination of their features, however disguised by so unworthy 
a garb, that the same superstition which fabricated the Pagan 
mythology was their parent, and that the Pagan Hierarchy 
was the Lucina who presided at their birth. It appears, indeed, 
that the abuses of the original comedy, or rather farce (for in 
its original slate it resembled more what we have since desig- 
nated by that name), were of a very undignified complexion. 
The gestures and actions of the bye-standers were mimicked with 
the grossest caricature, and their lives and characteis laid open 
to the lash of scorn with the most unsparing scurrility. Now 
it is well known that the particular branch of Poetry called 

On the Origin of the Drama. 231 

Satire took its origin from this sarcastic licence, and that satire, 
bolh by name and character, is fairly traceable to Bacchanalian 
and Suturnalian rites. Here then is a strong presumptive proof 
of religions origin : but it is necessary to trace the connexion 
deeper. Jt was in the nature of the rites I have alluded to, 
particularly the Saturnalian, to prescribe a state of brotherhood 
or equality among the initiated. The licence of language \vas 
permitted as the proof and result of that equality; and the cus- 
tom has descended to the Carnivals of Italy. During the Eleu- 
sinian iSlysteries a perfornjance still n)ore curif>usly in point 
occurred ; that of a scurrilous and obscene dialogue between 
two of the acting characters, Ceres and Bcrnbo. The proces- 
sion, also, in setting forth from Athens, was indulged in indis- 
crimate abuse of those whom it passed : and the same thing seems 
to have occurred in the Isiac processions, from which the Eleu- 
smian were certainly derived. 

I J ere, then, in this scurrilous dialogue, and the accompanying 
choruses of the devotees^ we have the elements of the original 

Willi regard to the higher walk of the ancient drama, traged}', 
its very name, (the hong of the goat) cleaily connects its origin 
with the same rites from whence the cognate apjjelhitiun of sa- 
tire is derived. It principally occupied itself with the splendid 
fictions of the Pagan mythology, disdained the emj)lo\ment of 
lower beings than deities or deified heroes, and introduced cho- 
ruses conuncnting and moralising on the succeeding events of 
the action, with an austere grandeur v^hich resembles the effect 
of Church music in the solenm pauses of the service. Even 
the apparent unnecessary length to which they are prolonged 
possesses soniething of a religious character ; it seems to infer 
that morality of effect is more considered than the gratification 
of the sight or the taste. The chorus, in short, constitutes the 
discourse, to which the events of the drama compose a kind 
of pictoiial text. 

The actors, on these occasions, scrupulously adhered to cer- 
tain prescribed signs of cast e, by no means indispensable to dra- 
matic effect. Of these the sock and buskin are the most fa- 
miliar; but the masks most deserving of attention. The 
effect of these last, indeed, appears so ill calculated for the suc- 
cess of either comic or tragic performances, as to create no 
Jittle wonder, 4iow a refined |)eople could be induced to tolerate 
so senseless a deformity. Certainly any attempt to ally such 
hideous excrescences which, besides disfiguring the face, and neu- 
tralising the physiognomy of passion, imparted a scindcliral 

232 On I he Origin of the Drama. 

cadence to tlie voice, with modern comedy or tragedy, would in 
a great measure aiiuid the illusive magic of Shakspeare him- 
self. All that could be said in favor of this custom was, ihat 
it was sanclianed by the antiquity of its oiigin. Aristotle con- 
fesses, that the period of its introduction was unknown. There 
is no alternative, then, but to conclude, that it was a custom 
«riginally prescribed by the religious rites of Paganism. To no 
less authority would tlie delicate taste of Greece have so zealously 
immolated its nice discrimination. 

Ail these circumstances combined make out a strong pre- 
sumptive case in favor of the religious origin of the drama. 

But, in order to consolidate the proof, and to connect the 
drama by an unbroken chain with the Pagan mysteries, it will 
be necessary to inquire what those mysteries were, and to place 
them before the eye in as clear and concentrated a position as 
the authorities which refer to them will allow. In order to epi- 
tomise the inquiry, and collect the scattered rays of description 
into one focus, I shall begin by assuming, wliat few I believe, 
will now object to, that the mssteries of Greece were a copy of 
the Egyptian, and that the rites of Osiris were the same as those 
of the same deity among the Magians, characterised as he was 
by a name which has been proved to be radically similar.' 

The most striking circumstance about these mysteries is, that 
in them were represented dramas, pantomimes and masks, 
founded uj)on mythological stories. The chief fund for 
these representations in Egypt was the popular story of Osiris 
murdered by his brother Typhoii. Accordmg to Plutarch the 
search of Isis was the subject of superb pageants and water 
spectacles ; and in truth the whole narration, concluding with the 
triumphof Horns, is by no means ill calculated for dramatic effect, 
A similar representation of the story of Ceres took place during 
the Elcusinian mysteries." It would appear also that on the 
same occasion four priests, dressed in a particular costume de- 
rived from Egypt, performed a kind of mask in the characters 
of Jupiter, Mercury, Apollo and Ceres ; an allegory which con- 
veyed instruction to the aspirant. Sometimes the creation of 
the world w as represented, the cause of death accounted for, 

' IVIizra, that is, Osiris with m derivative, agrees nearly with Mithra. 

^ And among the Druids devoted to Ceudvcn (the lady of corn), 
Davies' Mythology. Nor is it unlikely that tl)c sacred amphitheatre 
of Stoneheiige was occa'-ionally tlie site of these dramas. Tiie Edda 
ahoundswiih fictions well calculated for dramatic pageantry. Freyu, 
weeping and searching ibr licr liubband, is the story of Venus and Isis 
ni another dress. 

Oil the Or/gin of the 'Drama. 233 

tlie lapse of tlie soul described and its restoration portrayed. 
To this class of masks indubitaljiy belongs the beautiful story 
of Cupid and Psyche, described by Apuleius during his account 
of initiation ; and it is not a little singular, that it is an inexhaus- 
tible source of the most beautiful operas and masks to the 
present time. While these scenes were representing the n)ys- 
tagogue performed the part of the explanatory chorus ; but on 
some occasions, as in the search of Ctres, a chorus accompanied 
the action. Syml)ois were {)resented to the as[)irant, and a 
mysterious dialogue was introduced, followed by an explanatory 
lecture. A splendid pageant of Gods and Goddesses passed 
over the stage, and the king of the mysteries sung a hymn sup- 
posed to be composed by Orpheus, describing their generation 
and performances. We are also told that he concluded by a 
palinody or recantation, denying their existence, and proclaiming 
only one god. 

All these things were derived by the Greeks from the Egyp- 
tian priesthood. Among a body of men so crafty and so skilful, 
so versed in natural magic, and so famous for jugglery and de- 
lusion, it is natural to suppose that their religious melodrames 
were clothed with extraordinary pomp, and produced astonishing 
effects upon the senses. Perhaps the heroic descents into hell, 
which have furnished poetry with its grandest machinery, are 
traceable to these exhibitions. 

With regard to those of Eleusis, which can be considered in 
no other light than as copies from these originals, there ia sufti- 
eient evidence, without going the length of Warburton, or as- 
suming that Virgil's 6th Book is a detail of the initiatory drama, 
to establish the point that the performance was of the most stu- 
pendous and admirable description. 

In the first place, the Theatre (for so it is curiously called) 
of these dramatic pageants was capable of holding 80,000 spec- 
tators. Aristicles calls it a "kind of Temple of the \\hole earth, 
and of all that man beholds, performed in the most dreadful or 
exhilarating manner. In what other place have the records of 
fable sung of things more marvellous ; or in what region upon 
earth have the objects presented to the eye borne a more exact 
resemblance to the sounds which strike the ear 'i What objects 
of sight have the numberless generations of men and women 
beheld comparable to those exhibited in the ineffable mysteries r" 
Pletho says that *' frightful and shot king apparitions, in a variety 
of forms, were displayed to the mystie; and that thunder and light- 
ning, and fire, and every thing portentous, was introduced." 
" Towards the end of the celebration/' says Slobieus, " the 

234 On the Origin of the Drmna. 

^^hole scene is terrible : all is trembling, shuddering, heat, and 
astonishment. Many horrible spectres are seen, and strange 
cries and iiowlings uttered. Light succeeds darkness ; and again 
the blackest darkness the most glaring light ; then open lawns 
appear, tlowery meads and waving groves ; dauces'dwA choruses 
are seen there, and various holy phantasies enchant the sight. 
INIelodions notes are heard from far, mingling with the lotlier 
symphonies of sacred hymns/' 

These quotations, thus combined, afford an idea of the scenery 
and mechanism attached to the mysteries of Eleusis. Nor were 
the dramas exhibited in the caves of the magi of a less mag- 
nificent character. A fertile source of the sublime and won- 
derful «as supplied by the cosmogony of Zoroaster, and the con- 
tests of good and evil genii. But if we may trust to Porphyry, 
there was another feature about these oriental representations, 
the introduction of astronomy. Indeed, it appears that some- 
thing like a celestial orrery, acconipanied by sacred music and 
explanatory lectures, was exhibited by the magians to their no- 
vices. Something of the same kind may be presumed to have 
composed the antopus, or last stage of initiation of Eleusis ; for 
i\puleius says that after passing through darkness, the wreck 
ot elements, and every species of horror, he arrived on the 
threshold of Proserpine's temple, and beheld a midnight Sun 
shining with the splendor of noon day. The inference is less 
doubtful with regard to the scenery exhibited in the cave of 
Trophonius : that was evidently of an astronomical character, 
and supposes the utniost perfection of scenic mechanism. Stars 
ascended and descended, happy islands were discovered afar, 
gulphs boiling with vapors, and cataracts, and rivers of fire. 

Judging, therefore, from all these circumstances, we may 
safely pronounce, that the Pagan mysteries, in various countries, 
actually contain the germ of every species of stage performance 
which has descended to the present day ; masks, pantomime, 
ballet, farce, and the legitimate drama. I'hus the question seems 
naturally to end here : but there are a variety of little corroborat- 
ing circumstances, of a less getieralising nature, which will place 
the result beyond all doubt. 

We have seen ihatTragedy, in its original construction, differed 
in nothing from the choral hymns in honor of Bacchus or Pan, 
with an occasional monologue to break the uniformity ; that 
the dramatis personie of gods and heroes are the same as those 
exhibited in the secret rites, 'j'he first actors w ere therefore, in 
all probability, an order of priests, as they were at the revival of 
the stage. Comedy and Tragedy were distinguished by certain 

On tlic Origin of the Drama. 235 

emblems wliich partake of a pontifical character. The first hy 
the sock, wiiich was a peculiar kind of low shoe laced above the 
ancle ; the last by the buskin, which was a species of quadran- 
gular boot profusely decorated, but very ungraceful, with a high 
sole, and fastened beneath the knee. Mow, it is curious, that the 
priests of Egypt, dunng the course of particular rites, assumed 
a particular kind of shoe. Much indeed cannot be extracted from 
this meagre fact ; but I am strongly inclined to suspect that the 
buskin, which was peculiar to hunters' as well as tragedians, 
is connected with the mysteries ; for the priests on some occasions 
assumed the garb of /luiitsmeii, and a mimic hunt was represent- 
ed. However this may be, another symbol appropriated by the 
ancient drama, the mask, proves beyond a doubt its origin from 
the sacred rites. 1 have before stated reasons for believing their 
use tolerated only by superstitious prescription. The fact is 
that we have the strongest proof possible that masks were worn 
by the actors of the mysteries. We have extant representations 
of the masks worn by the Egyptians : we have the evidence of 
Tertullian, that the priests of Mithras wore masks after the 
Egyptian fashion : we have the authority of Eusebius for assum- 
ing that the four actors in the diama of the Cosmogony at 
Eieusis — Jupiter, Apollo, Ceres, Mercury, wore the symbols of 
the same deities in Egyptian rites, lit short we have extant the 
figures of those four actors, masked as they were in the riles of 
Serapis, on a variety of monuments. "^Ihis inference, too, in a 
great degree explains the reason of the sepulchral look and se- 
pulchral tone, given purposely to the tragic mask. The cha- 
racters represented in the mysteries were most probably evoked 
before the initiate as ghosts inhabiting the lower world. 'I'hey 
appeared perhaps before him and recited their history, as they 
did in the original Tragedies, and as they do to Llvsses in 
Homer's book ol Necromancy, which has equal title with Virgil's 
account to be considered as a description of the most ancient 
initiation : perhaps of Cyclopean institution. 

Another circumstance which tends to the same result, is that 

' It is curious thai, diiriiis; die mysteries attached to the African secret 
tribunal called I'urrati, and evidently derived tTuni Egypt, men with 
masks offici^ite, apparitions arc evoked, dramas performed, and hunts 
represented. Thus the extraordinary square liuntiiig boots, worn by the 
Sierra Leouese chiefs, may be connected with the buskin. The temples 
of this curious association are Uke those of the Druids, composed of cir- 
oular rows of trees, lopped into the shape of columns, with a square altar 
in the midst. 

236 On the Origin of the Drama. 

a mysterious and sacred dance, called Etumelia, was introduced 
into the oiiginal tragedy, which was beyond a (ionbt derived 
from dances peculiar to religious rites, and whieli Plato ap- 
proves, as conducive to a love of virtue and an abhorrence of 
vice. On the same principle, serious ballets may be traced to 
the same source. 

That masks and pantomimes ore traceable to the mysteries, 
may be inferred from theii- allegorical characteristics. Spencer 
and liunyau show in what manner the lirst may be made to serve 
the purposes of morality and religion. With regard to the last 
Dr. Clarke has not only argued the point with his wonted inge- 
nuity, but has exhibited a very curious pictorial proof of it, 
taken from a sepulchral vase. (Travels through Greece, &c.) 1 he 
Italian harlequinade is evidently, as he infers, a ditfeient version 
of Cupid and Psyche, and similar allegorical stories represented 
in the mysteries. Columbine is the wandering soul, hisrlequin 
the pursuing.lover, the pantaloon ' her tyrannical father, and the 
scurra or buffoon, as he thinks, ISIonms, but as 1 imagine, Mer- 
cury, who is frequently introduced in that character. The pic- 
ture he exhibits proves this, and farther, that such paufominies 
were exhibited in the Egyptian rites. For the characters are 
not Greek but Egyptian. The male figure on the left is dressed 
in the well known Egyptian pantaloon. He has on his head the 
symbol of Serapis, who, like Adonis, was represented in search 
of the lost soul, and Hermes was his appropriate attendant. 
The symbol which the latter holds is evidently an Egyptian, not 
a Greek Caduceus. What is most curious about this analysis 
of modern pantomime, which shows to what serious things tri- 
fling customs may be traced, is, that the four elementary charac- 
ters which compose it are precisely those of the four actors in the 
Egyptian and Grecian mysteries — Jupiter, Mercury, Cupid or 
the torch bearer, and Proserpine, or the wandering soul. 

Perhaps the circumstance which has contributed to perpetuate 
this popular fable under its present form is the masquerades of 
the Carnival. These are evidently relics ot" the ancient Saturn- 
alia, and are only one of many proofs how far the court of Kome 
originally gave way to the force of Pagan prejudice. 4'he cha- 
racter of this amusement, the scurrilous jests allowed — the masks 
■ — the favorite characters usually adopted — the unbounded mirth, 
agreeing with the licence of Syria and b^gypt on the regenera- 

' Guldoni has inlroduced the above characters into legitimate comedy 
with a very tiresunie obedicuie to national prejudice. 

On the Origin of the Drama. 237 

lion of llifir deities, are curious proofs of the dnraliou of 
ancient habit.' 

But there can be adduced a still more curious proof of this 
principle, as well as the hypothesis 1 am contending for : tliat 
the modern dranra reappeared after its extinction, not only with 
the same form, the same objects, the same description of actors 
as the ancient ; but actually under the same primitive designation, 
that of mysteries. This fact is not only curious but strikingly 
corroborative of my positions : and this, whether we take for 
basis, that the human mind under the same circumstances uni- 
formly pursues the same march, or whether we infer, as there is 
great reason to believe, that tlie Church of Home availed itself 
of one of the most powerful weapons of Pagan theology. 

Be this as it will, the modern French Drama, from which the 
English is derived, appeared in the reign of Charles the 5th in 
all hs original simplicity, consisting of choral hymns to the Vir- 
gin and the Saints, to which in time episodes were added, and 
finally scriptural characters introduced. Tiie actors compos- 
ed a Friary, called Brothers of the Passion, from the subjects 
they performed ; and their plays w ere named CAa?/rs lioyaux, or 

It is here worthy of remark, though few, I believe, are igno- 
rant of the fact, that the noblest poeni in our language, the Para- 
dise Lost, was originally composed as a diamatic mystery. In- 
deed it is very capable in its present state of being de- 
composed and restored to its original form. So restored, it 
would in fact exhibit all the features of the most ancient myste- 
rious drama, the Cosmogony, the la])se of man, the machines 
of good and evil spiiits, the scenery of an Elysian garden, of the 
starry universe, of heaven and hell. It is not certain that any 
thing like this object entered into Milton's purview in writing it : 
thouoh the mighty and beiieticent purposes to which the stage 
is capable of being applied, could not have escaped his great 
and piercing mind. And he may have wished to re-apply it to 
its original purpose, as the gigantic lever of national religion and 

I cannot go the length of Darwin, of wishing to see a repre- 
sentation of the mystic shews of Eieusis reproduced upon our 

» It has been supposed that Comedy took its origin from the happy 
denouement of Tragedy. I'here may be some foiindalion for this idea. 
It occurs to metbat tragic scenes were performed dining the ritual period 
of mourniiijr; for Bacchus, Osiris, Adorns, &c. and that Comedy bad its 
source in tbe festivals, unbounded licence and joyful choruses ccmse- 
quent on their revival. 

238 On the Ajinrnt British 

stage under the more eisnobliug (eatiiies of our nati.inal religion. 
But 1 am inclined to thmk that a selection of sacred subjects might 
be performed during the periods of religious festivals, as the 
oratorios are during Lent, with public advantage as well as 
gratification. I would of course be understood to mean this 
under vcr\ punctilious lestriclion. Tlie sacred Dramas of 
Hannah More, for instance, might perhaps on such . occasions 
be advantageoisslv performed. The subjects indeed, equally 
fitted for stage effect to be found in the same inestmiable 
reservoir, are inexhaustible. 'J he magnificence of oriental 
scenery is there united with all tiie wonderful of incident, all 
the sublime of supernatural agency, and all the beautiful of 
morality. C. 



Cornish Extracts. 
XlAViNG in my former letters compared the Cornish with those 
languages, to wliich it bears the greatest affinity, and endeavoured 
to trace its phraseology under its several disguises, \ou will now 
expect that 1 should give you some account of xhe writings that 
are still extant in it. Unfortunately, its remains are few, scattered, 
and difficult to be procured ; and, as compositions, possessed of 
little literary merit. The Cornish manuscripts are characterised as 
the works of men, who wrote to j)lease a rude and illiterate people. 
What remains is mostly in verse, and is an inferior kind of sacred 
poetry. But it is foreign to our subject to enter into any exami- 
nation of the sentiments, or to reprobate the absurdities which 
occur in those writers. Let us consider theni merely as the vehicles 
in which the language is now preserved ; and because they were com- 
posed while it was yet in conunon use, we may very jiroperly sup- 
pose that they are pure, or in other words, that they represent it 
as it was then spoken. It is therefore in this point of view that 
those manuscripts are valuable. It is indeed on the examination 
and study of these, that the only possibility of examining the Corn- 
ish language depends. 

I wish it had been so far in my power to inspect those venerable 
relics, so as to have given you sucli an account as would be mutu- 
ally satisfactory. As it is, 1 can ofter you but few original remarks. 

Language of Cornwall. 239 

and mu>t, in a great measure, give you the substance of what has 
been said by otlicra. 

The moat ancient Cornish manuscript is the Cottonian. It 
is supposed to be of the eleventh century. It is a vocabulary, 
which was mistaken at first for Welsh ; but when examined by Mr. 
Lhuyd, the archicologian, he pronounced it to be Cornish. He 
thus speaks of it in a letter to his friend Mr. Tonkin. " 1 know not 
whether I mentioned that I had sent Mr. Moor a copy of an old 
Cornish glossary in the Cotton hbrary. It is a valuable curiosity ; 
being probably seven or eight hundred years old. If you cannot 
procure it, you shall have a copy of mine : alphabetically, or in 
the order of the Cotton MS. which is in continued lines, but 
with some regard to natural order." (Polwhele's Hist, of Corn. vol. 
iii. p. 32.) Dr. Borlasc has incorporated it in the vocabulary at 
the end of his Anti(iuities of Cornwall. 

There are two manuscii|)t poems in Cornish, which have been 
preserved in the Bodleian library.' They were dramatic, and are 
such as might have been expected to be produced about the 
fifteenth century, among a people little acquainted witli literature. 
The mysteries of religion were the subject of the modern drama 
in its infancy, perhaps borrowed by the Cornish from their conti- 
nental neighbors. It was not their original invention, as the silence 
of those who have written on the subject would lead us to infer. The 
second of these manuscripts is of the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, and is said to have been expressly coniposed for the 
purpose of being represented in an ancient British amphitheatre at 
St. Just, near Penzance. The language was then declining, and 
the poet must have written rather as it formerly was, than as it was 
then actually spoken. I cannot do better than give you Dr. Borlase's 
account of those compositions in his own words. 

" Another general custom was the play or interlude in the Corn- 
ish tongue. Of these plays the subjects were taken from Scripture, 
and the design suitably'good, even that of instructing the com- 
mon people in the meaning and excellence of the Holy Scriptures ; 
although the design, it must be owned, is executed in a coarse and 
rude manner. 

" There are two manuscripts in the Bodleian library, which con- 
tain souse interludes, or, as the author calls them, Ordinalia : 
the first, in parchment, written in the fifteenth century, exhibits 
three Ordinalia; the first treats of the creation of the world, 
the second of the passion of our Lord Jesus Clirist, the third 
of the resurrection. The other manuscript is on paper, written 
by William Jordan, An. 1()11. This has only one Ordinale, of 

' Bib. Budl. b. xl. Art. given by James Batton, Esq,, of V/orcester- 
shire. An. Itjl5. 

240 0?i llie Ancient Brithh 

the crcalion of the uorki and the dehij^e. There is a tliird book 
written in Cornish on velhmi, which Mr. Ed.Lhuyd, lute keeper of 
the Museeum at Oxford, received from John Anstis, Esq., 
Garter King at Arms. It treats of the passion in metre, but 
not ill dramiitic dialogue, intitletl Mount Calvary. 

" The first Ordinak of the cieation begins thus(God the Father 
!5j)eaking) : Cornish. 

" Eu Tas a Nef yur Gylmyr, 

Eormyer pub tra a vydh gwrys, 

O nan, ha try on, yn gwyr, 

Eu Tas, han Mab, ban Spyrys; 

Ila hetliyn me a thesyr, 

Dre ou grath dalleth au Bys. 

y lovara'f, Nef, ha Tyr 

Forniyys orthe ou brys." 

" The Father of Heaven 1 the maker. 
Former of every thing that shall be made, 
One, and Three, truly, 
The Father, the Son* and the Spirit; 
Yes — tliis day it is my will 
Of my especial favor to begin the world. 
I have said it — Heaven and Earth, 
I3e ye formed by my ccunsd, 

" This metre is not ill chosen or unmusical. 
" The scanning to be performed in the following manner : 
" Eu Tcisa Nef-yur Gyl-wyr, 
Formy-er pub-tra vythgwrys, &:c. 

" It is the Trochaic Heptasyllable, otherwise called the Trochaic 
Dimeter Catalectic. It consists of three trochees and a semiped. 
Aristoplianes was very fond of it at times. 

" In Eatin, Horace adopts it. 

" Non ebur neque aureum. 

" In English, Shakspeare frequently uses it; and Dry den for 
his tenderest numbers : 

" Softly sweet in Lydian measure, 
Soon he sooth'd his soul to pleasure. 

" The language suits the metre; as the subject is sublime, the 
compoiition is not unsuitable, as may be seen by the above and 
following stiuiza : 

" Yn peswero gwreys perfjth 
Then bys ol golowys glan, 
Hoga hynwyn y a vyth 
An Houl, an Lor, h' an Stcryan. 

Language of Cornwall, 241 

Me a set a Niigh au gueyth 
Yn creys an Ebron avan. 
An Lor yn nos, Houl yn geyth, 
May rollous y golow Splan. 

'* In the fourth (day) I shall make perfect 
For the world all the resplendent lights. 
And I will that they be called 
The Sun, the Moon, and the Stars. 
Then will I place them on high 
In the midst of the firmament above. 
That the Moon by night, the Sun by day. 
May yield their glowing splendor. 

*' The stanza consists of eight verses with alteniate rhymes ; 
sometimes this is changed for a stanza of six, of which the first and 
second are of one rhyme, the fourth and fifth of another, and the 
third and sixth line of a third rhyme ; but the heptasyllable metre 
continues throughout, with few deviations, in this piece and all the 

" The poetry is the least exceptionable part of these interludes : 
a person called the Ordinary was the chief manager ; every thing 
was done as lie prescribed, and spoken as he prompted. The 
persons in the drama are numerous: in this no less than fifty-six in 
number ; in the second, sixty-two ; in the third, sixty ; princes, 
patriarchs, saints, angels (good and bad), and even the persons of 
the ever-blessed Trinity are introduced. Unity of time, action, and 
place, is not at all attended to ; this first-mentioned play runs 
•through a space of time from the creation to king Solomon's 
building the temple, and incongruously ordaining a bishop to keep 
it. It takes in also the fabulous legend of the martyrdom of 
Maximilla; in which part the actors are a bishop, a crosier-bearer, 
a messenger, four tormentors, the martyr, Gebal and x\malek. The 
bishop gives to the tormentors, for putting the martyr to death, 
Behethlan, Bosaneth, and all Chenary. King Solomon speaks the 
epilogue ; the audience, with a strict charge to appear early on 
the morrow in order to see the Passion acted, is dismis ed in these 
words : 

" Cornish. " Englished. 

" Abarth an Tas, 1 *' In the name of the Father, 

Menstroles a' ras, i Ye minstrels holy, 

Pebourgh whare, } Tune your pipes. 

Hag ens pub dre. | And let every one go to his home. 

" This may serve to give a general notion of these interludes, 
which were all translated into English by the late Mr. John 
Keigwyn of Mousehote, at the desire of the late Ptiglit Reverend 
Sir Jonathan Trelawney, baronet, bishop of Winchester, in a 

VOL. XXI. a.Jl. NO. XLIl. Q 

242 On the Ancient British 

literal manner, for the better understanding the language, though 
to the disadvantage <.f the poet, and Ins language too. The best 
composition now extant in the Cornish tongue, is that called Mount 
Calvary, which is not dramatic, but narrative, and more soiemn ; 
the incidents (with few exceptions) are ail taken from tho gospel 
history of the Passion, and the circunistanccs of distress and sutfdr- 
ing very affecting. It was first turned into metre, as I imagine, by 
the before-mentioned Mr. Keigwyn, at the instance of Mr. Seawon 
of MoHneh above-mentioned ; but Mr. Scawen, disliking that 
translation, has placed a Hteral one in the Lytteiton copy. But to 
return to the interludes : The places where they were acted were 
the Rounds, a kind of amphitheatre, with benches either of stone 
or turf." (Natural History of Cornwall, p. 2^)5.) 

Thus far concerning the Interludes ; but in another place Dr. 
Borlase also tells us : " There are also several proverbs still re- 
maining in the ancient Cornish, all savoring of truth, some of 
poiiited wit, some of deep wisdom. 

" Neb na gare y gwayn, coll restoua. 

*' He that heeds not gain, must exj)ect loss. 

" Neh na garc y gy, an givra devecder. 

" He that regards not his dog, will make him a choak sheep, 

" Guel yn guefha vel goof en. 

*' It is belter to keep than to beg. 

*' Gura da, rug ta honan te yn gicra. 

*' Do good, for thyself thou dost it. 

" Many proverbs relate to caution in speaking, as Tan Tavas, 
Be silent, tongue. 

" Cows nebas, cows da, ha da veth coivsas arta. 

" Speak little, speak well, and well will be spoken 

" Of talking of slate affairs, there are some remarkable 

" Coivs nebas, cows da, nebas an yevern yw an givella. 

*' Speak little, speak well, little of public matters is best. 

" The danger of talking against the government is excellently 
represented in llie following proverb. 

" Ayn~ ges gun neb lagas, na kei heb scovern. 

" There is no down without eye, nor hedge without ears." 

(Nat. Hist, of Cornwall, p. 319,) 

* THi ' imiler insfaiic of ific diL^amnia gea for cz, est, e, is, Sac. 
Thus again, Dn> /ffz ; po negez uez cho pcf/i ez. Brin>^ cheese ; if there is 
not cheese, bring what there is. Negez for nebex, and ues tor kez, occur itt 
the same line. 

Language of Cornwall, 245 

1 add the following rhymes, which are selected from some that Mr. 
Tonkin, a Cornishnian and antiquarian, procured from Mr. Lhuyd.* 

* The following extract from tiie Preface to liis Cornish (Jr tmmar 
and Vocabulary, gives an accoimt of the Cotton Manuscript Mr. 
Lhuyd's observations are interesting, as they throw much light on the 
substitution of letters, or, as I have before expressed it by a general 
though perhaps improper name, the Digamma. 

" Mr. Anstis found a British Vocabulary, hand-written many ages since, 
in the Cotton Library in Londun, and, as he did always, so according to 
his good-will on the lilce occasion before and after, he wrote to me about 
it. When I had looked over the book, I perceived very well that it was 
not a Welsh Vocabulary, according to the Latin name (written at the 
latter end) Vocabularium Wallicum ; but a Cornish vocabulary, as the 
thing (according to my thought) must appear to every British reader, 
that slrall consider the translations of these Latin words, viz. 
Angelus, Ail; Stella, Steren ; Membrum, Ezel; Supert ilium, Abranz ; 
Collum, Connu ; Palatum, Stejenii ; Mentum, Elgtt ; 'Vih \'i, Elesker ; 
Vitricus, y//^ro; Regina, Ruisanes; Vulgus, Pobel biogo ; Puer, Flo/i ; Senex, 
Cotk; Mer calor, Guicour ; Prora, Flurrog; Umbra, Scod ;Mll\^^\s, Seoul ; 
Bufo, Croinoc ; Rana, Guilschin ; Passer, Golvan; Piillu5, Ydknunc; 
Scomber, Brethyl; Lucius, Dens/ioe dour ; Vulpe^, Louver n ; Ui>us, Ors; 
Scrofa, Guis ; Echinus, Sorb; and many other v/urds, which are not 
known among us Welshmen. I know full well that I could produce one, 
and that with more true likeness, than can the small vocabulary of the 
British Armoric, or British of the country of Lezou m France, although 
they are not used now in the county of Cornwall. But this wrong 
thinking is put away, without much trouble, when we discover that the 
author of this vocabulary, when he was in want of British words, did write 
down old English words for the same, by giving them sometimes a 
Cornish termination; and did not bring any of the words from the 
French, as he would without doubt, if he had been an Armoric Britoru 
Now these, and the like, are the words thereof, taken out of the old 
English: Comes, Yuri; Lector, Redior ; Hamus, //ye ; Fiald, /f«r/e/; 
Saltator, Lappier ; Sartor, Senyod ; Contentious, S^nuor; Spuither, Brooch ; 
Fibula, S/ret77g; Raptor, Jio66;or; Noctua, //u/c ; Ualec, //errm^' ; Pra- 
hun, Bidin ; Lagf-na, Kanna ; Truta, Trud. Now as it could not be any 
Armoric Briton tliat wrote this vocabulary, so neither could it be writtea 
by any Welshman. For had he been a Welshman, he would with- 
out further consideration iiave written, Durtkmnodh, Brej/r, Hox, 
Telj/n (or Kuth), Neidiur, Guniadi/dh, Kynhennys, Guaeg, Aniestr, 
Yspeiliur, Pylhyan, Fennog, Guerlodh, Ysten, ('or Ky/inog Piser, or 
Kostrelh) and Brethylh. In like manner, if it had been done by an 
Armoric Briion, lie would never have named the things calied in 
Latin Querens, Rhamnus, Aklis, Le.pus, Hadus; Glastanen, Eiiiiuien, 
Broz, Sconarnou;, Min ; but instead ttiereof, Gtiazen daro, Lun, Liis, 
Gat, and Gavar bian. Doctor Davies (accorinit; to my tlionghl) 
has named this Cornisli VocattUiary in the Cotton Lihrary, Liher Landa- 
vensis ; for there are many words in this Wel^ii Vocabulary, marked 
Lib. Land., which I never saw in any other book. But yi i as he had seen 
the book, which is now in the Cotton Lihrary, I wonder that he would 
ijot draw uU the words from that to his own book. Nevertheless the 

244 On the Ancient British 

" Hye oare gwile padn dah gen tye glan ; 
Ha et eye ollaz, hye dalvealli gowas tane. 

truth is, I knowvery well, that the words therein marked Lib. Land, are 
not written in the book called Liber Landavensis; for I have looked 
over that before written book, in the library of that most learned and 
most knowing gentleman, the Lord ofLanner, in the country of Guenez, 
i. e. North Wales, and likewise a fair transcript in the library of Jesus 
College, in Oxford. There is some hope in me, that the reader will forgive 
me, that I do not always write after the language of our time, nor yet 
keep to the writing retained in this Cornish Vocabulary. By perusing 
tlie aforesaid written books, I liave discovered, that there have happened 
four noted changes or variations, and remerwber very nmcli, in the 
Cornish tongue, within this age, or these last hundred years : and the 
same being before very little printed in the LatUi and Celtic Vocabulary, 
I was very desirous to give them in the Cornish Englisli Vocabulary by 
hand here to you. The first change is, to put the letter h before the letter 
m, and to speak and write Tyhm, Tabm, Kabrn, Gybman, Kruhman, and 
Kylohman, &c., in the place of Tym, Tarn, Kam, Gi/mman, and K.ylomman. 
The second is to put the letter f/ before the letter n ; and to speak thus, in 
the place of Pen, Pan, Pren, Guyn, Guan, B/on, Brynan ; Pedn, Padn, 
Predn, Guydn, Gnadn, Brudn, Bydnan. Neither did I sec fit to give a 
place to these changes in this vocabulary; for neither will they'here- 
after retain these changes; and likewise their language is thence more 
hard and rugged than it was before: and for that many limes you must 
turn the m and n to 6 and d, by saying tubbi, obba, fiodda, hcddo, wliere 
you said before, tubmi, obma, hodna, and hedna. And this second novelty 
hath cast oft' these words so far from the former words, tumrni, umna, henna 
and kanna, that not any can at all, neither Arvior-ic Briton, nor yet Welsh- 
man, find out their foundation, by seeing from what place they are come. 
The third change is, to put the letter d before s, (the wtiich * is almost 
always pronounced as^',) and to speak the « as sh, (or I liave found out in 
one of the aforesaid written books, which is a book setting forth miracles 
out of the Holy Scripture, written, more or less, one hundred and fifty 
years since, where are these word?,Just as now you speak them, Kridzlii, 
Pidzhi, Bohodzach, Pedzhar, Bledzhar, Lagadzho, &ic. instead of these, 
Cresy, Pesy, Behosoc, Peswar, Laguz. I know very well that you do not 
■write these words as I write them with dzh, but only with the singleg, or 
with an i consonant; but this falls in with the manner of the English 
■writing : and since the speaking is from tiience, the writing must be put 
and likewise changed from z (or s), as was the s before, from d to t. The 
fourth change is turned very much like the third : and that is, to put sk 
after t, or (according to the Armoric writing) of late the letter t for ch ; 
and so to change the words Ty (or Tey) to Tshey ; Ti to Thi (or Chce), 
Pysgettu to Pysgetsha, and more the like. From whence the other 
speakings,in which you go off very far from us Welshmen, viz. in speak- 
ing, afore; e i'ot and y ; i for e ; o for u ; and u consonant for/,- and 
likewise h fur :;• ; th, x or h for f, is easy enough; and in part for that few 
of them are so old, (if any of them are very old,) as our language, and 
the language of the people of Lezou. And another is, in naniing of late 
the letter t for s ; which is not so hugely old, yet may be old enough for 
llie good taking, and keeping it hereafter. But now the reader will ask 

Language of Cornti)all. 245 

Na dalle deez perna kinnis war an sawe ; 

Na moaz moaz rautle an drize dro dan keaw j 

Rag hedda vedn boz cowzes dro dan pow : 

Gwell eye veylia perna nebas glow ; 

He hedna vedn gus tubra a sheller e a rag. 

Ha why el evah cor gwella, mor seez de brage. 

Na dale dien gwile treven war an treath ; 

Buz, mor mennow direvall war bidn an pow yeiue. 

Why dal veya gowas an brossa mine. 

Ha ryney vedn dirra bidn mor, ha gwenz. 

Na gez drog vyth grez, lebben, na kenz." 

Thus in English. 

** She knows to make cloth good with her wool ; 
And she must hearth it, she ought to have fire. 
Nor ought men to buy fuel by the seame. 
Nor go to gather brambles about the hedges; 
For that will be spoken about the country ; 
Better she Iiad bought some coal ; 
And that will warm you behind and before. 
And you may drink best beer, if you have malt. 
Nor ought men to make houses on the sand ; 
But, if you will build up against the country cold. 
You must have the biggest stones, 

me, without doubt, why I have in this writing preserved the aforesaid 
alterations myself, since I knew the deficiencies myself: my answer is, 
that it was my very great desire, that they might be taken aright; and 
that every one might know to speak Cornish (or understand further) 
according to this letter. But my hope is, that you will not in such a 
manner suffer any other defects in your future Cornish printings, as you 
have hitherto done in the fore-written alterations. Neither can any one 
make many novelties in any tongue soever at one time. It is an early 
work, and therefore too short a licence to take any one thing, before 
that it be born and bred in the country, to oifer it. When any one is 
willing to know the more late Cornish alterations, that he may the better 
find them out, let him compare the Cornish words with the like Welsh 
words of the country ofGunek (or, which is much nearer,) and the Armoric 
words ; and when you see the agreement and concord about the conso- 
nant letters of these two tongues, then you may see whether the Cornisli 
hath kept to tliese consonants, or not; if not, you may, without any 
doubt, kniw that the Cornish words are changed. For example ; when 
you see that we turn the English words, to laugh, to play, to whistle, bitter, 
iin, sister, in the language of Gnenck, xuerthin, xuare, xuibany,xueru, xuexy 
xuaer ; and in the Armoric, xousin, xoari, xuibanat, xuero, xeux, xosr ; 
but in the Cornish, /merf/itn,gMfl7-e, huibanat, huero, hui, bor ; we know 
then very easily that the Cornish is changed. For the like passages are 
never thus turned by the people of the Welsh Guenez; and the people 
of Lezou have learned to turn from them." 

246 On the Ancient British 

And they will last against sea, and wind. 
There is no hurt at all done, now, nor before." 

Quoted by Polwhele, Vol. iii. p. 31. 
There is a quaintness in the three following lines : 
" An lavar koth yn lavar gwir, 

Na boz nevra doz vaz an tavaz se hir ; 
Bez den heb davaz o goUaz i dir." 

The same, p. 32. 
In English. 

" The old saying is a true sajing, 
A tongue too long never did good : 
But he that had no tongue, lost his land." 
I transcribe the two first stanzas of a Cornish Idyll, with a 
poetical translation by Mr. Polwhele. I dare not quote more on 
account of its licentiousness ; if there should be any one whose 
curiosity would lead him to read the whole, he may find it at ful! 
length in his History of Cornwall, Vol. iii. p. 32. 

" Pelea era why nioaz moz, fettow, teag, 

Gen agaz bedgeth gwin, ha agaz blew mellyn'? 
Mi a nioaz tha 'n venton, sarra wheag, 
Rag delkiow sevi gwra muzi teag. 

*' Pea ve moaz gen a why, moz, fettow, teag. 
Gen agaz bedgeth gwin, ha agaz blew niellyn ? 
Greuh mena why, sarra wheag. 
Rag delkiow sevi gwra muzi teag." 

In English. 

*' Pray whither so trippingly, pretty fair maid, 

With your face rosy white, and your soft yellow hair? 
Sweet Sir, to the well in the summer-wood shade. 
For strawberry-leaves make the young maiden fair. 

*' Shall I go with you, pretty fair maid, to the wood. 
With your face rosy white, and your soft yellow hairl 
Sweet Sir, if you please ; — it will do my heart good ; — 
For strawberry-leaves make the young maiden fair." 

Sermons were preached in Cornish till 167S by a Mr. RobiusoD 
at Landewiduek, near the Lizard ; and it is therefore surprising 
that we have not iu it any compositions in prose. This is to be la- 
mented ; for though the writings of such men as Robinson and 
Jackman, who was Cromwell's chaplain at Pendenuis, might have 
little intrinsic nserit, yet they would now throw much light on the 
nature of this departed language. None of these have been 
printed, because they had nothing in the matter to recommend 
them, and because they were in a despised and unintelligible 
dialect. But it is not impossible that some of these might be still 

Language of Cornwall, 247 

«xtant in manuscript ; and if hereafter, on further research, ortly 
a few could be recovered, it would be a material acquisition in a 
philological point of view. 

If the Cornish ever had its bards, like the other British tongues, 
their lays have been lost, and their names are unknown. I do not 
however suppose that there were ever many bards in Cornwall ; 
because from its situation and its mines, it acquired so much of the 
Roman customs, and was so much earlier subjected by the other 
invaders of Britain. As the language was itself looked upon a» 
rude and barbarous, not only bards, but scarcely any writers, would 
choose to make it the vehicle of their compositions. 

The Lord's prayer in Welsh, Cornish, and Armoric, is as 
follows : 

Welsh. — Ein Tad yr hwn wyt yn y nefoedd ; Sancteiddier dy 
enw, Deved dy deyrmas; Byd dy ewyllys ar yddaiar megis y 
mae yn y nefoedd : Dyn i ni heddyw ein bara bennyddiol ; A 
madden i ni ein dyledion ; fel y maddewn ni i' n dyledwyr ; 
Ac nar arwaiu my brose digaeth ; eithr gwared in rhag drwg. 

Cornish. — An Taz ny es yn nef ; Bethens thy hannow ughelles; 
Gwrenz doz thy gulasher ; Bethens thy voth gwreiz in oar, kepare 
hag yn nef; Ro thyn ny hithow agan peb dyth bara ; Gava thyn 
ny agan cam, kepare ha gava ny neb es cam ma erbyn ny ; Nyn 
hombreh ny en antel, mez gw gwryth ny the worth drok. 

Armoric. — Hon Tat, petung so en eoun ; Or 'h hano sanctifiet ; 
De vet de omp Roantelez ; Ha volonte bezet gret voar an douar 
euel en eoun ; Roil dezorap hiuow hor bara bemdezier ; Ha par- 
donnit dezymp hon ofFancon evelma pardon nomp d' ae re odens 
hon offancel ; Ha n' hon digacit quel e' tentation, hoguen hon 
delivril a drone. Amen. 

Camden very gravely tells us in his Remains, (p. 30.) " That 
the Armorican Britons, marrying strange women in Armorica, did 
cut out their tongues, lest their children should corrupt the lan- 
guage with their mothers' tongues." This is at once improbable 
and ludicrous; but here the Gallic corruptions in the Armorican 
Lord's Prayer at once disprove such a monstrous story. This is 
another of those instances, where philology comes in to the assist- 
ance of history. The fact seems to be, that the Britons married 
Armorican women, and that, as might have been expected, their 
language lost something of its purity by this connexion. 

The Scriptures are not extant in Cornish ; if they had, there can 
be no doubt that the language would have been preserved. But such 
was their dislike or their indiiference, that the better sort of the Cor- 
nish petitioned at the Reformation, that the Scriptures might not be 
enforced upon them in their mother tongue. A request, which so 

248 Translation and Obss. 

well agreed with the political views of government for the unloR 
and consolidation of empire, was readil)^ granted. 

Mr. Scawen^ Mr. Keigwyn, and Mr. Tonkin, were Cornish gen- 
tlemen, and friends of Mr. Lhuyd, the celebrated archaeologian, 
and who either had Cornish manuscripts, or wrote in illustration! 
of it. Dr. Pryce, of Redruth, published in 179O his Cornu- 
British Antiquities, or an Essay to preserve the Cornish language. 
These are the Cornish authorities to which I have had occasion to 
refer ; but some of them have brought so little general literature 
into the discussion, that where I have not had to notice their inac- 
curacies, I have yet received little assistance from their labors. Mr. 
Whitaker, the historian of Manchester, and rector of Ruan Lany- 
liorne, in Cornwall, is well known. 

From the above summary view, you may judge of the poverty 
of Cornish compositions ; but you may perceive also, that what 
has been advanced by most writers on it, that it is a pleasant and 
harmonious language, is not destitute of foundation ; and that it 
was circumstances, which doomed it to decline, and be extin- 
guished ; and not because it was unworthy or unsusceptible of 
cultivation, D. 


HoRAT. Carm. Lib. iii. Ode xxviii. 
Festo quid potivis die 

Neptuni faciam ? Prome reconditum, 
Lyde strenua, Ca^cubum, 

Munitaeque adhibe vim sapientioe. 

Inclinare meridiem 

Sentis ; ac, veluti stet volucris dies, 
Parcis deripere horreo 

Cessantem Bibuli Consulis amphoram ? 
Nos cantabimus invicem 

Neptunum, et virides Nereklum comas. 
Tu curva recines lyra 

Latonam, et celeris spicula Cynthia?. 

Summo carmine, quae Cnidon, 

Fulgentesque tenet Cycladas, et Paphon, 
Juuctis visit oloribus, 

Dicetur: meritu Nox quoque naenia. 

on an Ode of Horace, 249 

A Translation. 

What better tribute can 1 pay 

To Neptune's consecrated day ? 

Alert, my Lyde, draw the wine, 

With old Czecubian deck his shrine. 

That prudish coyness now dispel, 

So long affected, and so well. 

See from its noon declines the day, 

And, fleeting, mocks our slow delay. 

Still does the dormant jar conceal 

The vintage mark'd with Bib'lus' seal i 

Mine be the task, with changeful lays, 

To strike the shell in Neptune's praise : 

And chant, in lighter strain, the fair 

Nereid Nymphs with sea-green hair. 

Be thine Latona's cares to sing. 

And tune to Cynthia's darts the string. 

At last be sung, who Cean isles. 

And Cnidos brightens with her smiles ; 

W^afted by pinions of the dove. 

Who visits Paphos, seat of love. 

Night too shall be remember'd. Night — 

With festal, or with mystic rite. 

"Notes critical and explanatory. 

Festo. The poet proposes to make an offering to Neptune 
on his festal day, which is to consist in spending it with the 
utmost hilarity, free from all business and care, in the company 
of his mistress. 

Faciam. When the verb facere occurs in an unconnected 
way, it generally mevi\\s facere (sacrum). None of the commen- 
tators or former translators have adverted to this discrimina- 
tion, on which the beauty and propriety of the ode in a great 
measure depends. Thus Virgil, Eel. iii. vs. 77. 

Cum ^'faciam " xitula pro frugibus, ipse 'cenito. 
And G. i. vs. 339. Operari (sacrum), after the same manner ; 
Sacra refer Cereri, latis " operaius " in herhis. 

In both places " sacrum " must be understood. 

A friend has suggested that 'Pe^sjv is used by the Greeks in 
the same way with Tspov, either expressed or understood. Thus 
Homer, II. i. vs. 443. 

250 Translation and Obss. 

'Ps^ai VTTsp Javcicav o(pp' l\ucr<7oo[x?Si' ocvuKTa, 
" Phoeboque sacram hecatomben 
' Sacrificarem' pro Danais, ut placemus Deum." Clarke.' 
The poet makes the offering, and assigns to his mistress the 
province of pouring out the liioation, since the festal rites were 
to be celebrated in her apartments. After these were duly 
performed, the parties themselves proceeded to a[)ply to their 
own use the remaining portion of the sacrifice. The pas^sage 
Laving been consulted to establish by the authority of Horace 
this signification for another purpose; and a disappointment 
having taken place from its not being thus noticed by the 
commentators, has led to the present translation. 

Cacubum. The Cjecubian wine was particularly reserved 
for libations and festal entertainments. Thus Carm. lib, v. 
ode ix. Quundo repostum — Cacubum ad festos dies — Iretus — ■ 

Adhibe vim sapieniia. This is usually understood to signify, 
^' to give new force to guarded wisdom." But the scope of the 
reasoning requires, that by the instrumentality of old mellow 
wine, some degree of '' violence " should be given to accus- 
tomed prudence. And the poet, as a casuist, would scarcely 
remind his mistress to fortify what, as a lover, he was endea- 
vouring to undermine. Nearly the same phrase is used by 
Cicero : Vim vitce afferre, to offer violence to life ; and 
variously in his works. 

Horace himself has the same sentiment in his Ode Ad Am- 
iphoram^ in which there are many similar places to this under 
consideration, and they mutually serve to illustrate each other. 
He says of his jar of wine, and the similarity is noticed by 
Cruquius, Tu hue tormentum (a gentle assault) ingenio admo- 
ves — phmmque duro: and in another part, Narratin- et prisci 
Catonis — Sa'pe mero ca/uisse virtus. The virtus Catonis, and 
sapientia Lijdcc, were both expected to relax fron) their usual 
severity by the influence, and moderate indulgence of wine. 
Many other parallel places are traced, and pointed out in these 

» tlouw is used in tlie same sense by Xenophon ; and in Virgil, iEn. viii, 
188. we find — s-avis, hospes Trojane, pencils 

Servati tacinius; 
spoken by Evander, when he relates the cause of the annual sacrifice 
celebrated in the city of Pallanteum. Ed. 

on an Ode of Horace. 251 

Parcis deripere. In most editions the poet puts this in 
form of a question, showing some inipalieiRe to prepare the 
libation, and pioceed to the festivities of the day, suuv all the 
nine ■ i lie lioinans, destined for store, was foriiied into a 
decoction, tailed defrutnni, being boiled down witli spices to 
the consisteiK e of honey or jelly : this inspissated juice to be 
made pot^ibie was liquefied by water; and the old wine thus 
managed became what Horace terms lariguidiora viiia. We 
may suppose il'.e form of the libation to be somewhat after this 
manner, like those recorded by Cato : " Te, Neptune, hoc 
libamine vini Caecubi precor, uti sies volens propitius mihi, 
faniilieeque meae, et omnibus sub domiciho nostro conimoran- 

Deripere horreotessa litem antphoram. The v\ords here used 
are analogous, yet varied in the expression, to those at the 
beginning of die Ode ; deripere corn sponding with piome ; and 
cessaiitem amphoram with Cctcubuin recondi/nm. V\ hen the 
amphora ces.sans had remained long enough m a stale of rest 
(in horreo), it became the pia te^to moveri digiia bono die of 
the former Ode (ex horreo). I'hese expressions therefore of 
rest and removal are assignable to the stored mellow wine, 
which fiom age had become of an excellent quality. 

Bibu/i Consii/is. Horace was born in the Consulate of 
Manlius, A. U. C. 688, Bibulus was Consul 094; consequently 
the wine had been hoarded from the time that Horace was six 
years old. 

Neptunum. After all due preparations the poet proposes to 
consummate their joint offerings by song and festivity. On his 
part to sing alternately of Neptune, to whom the day was dedi- 
cated, and his attendant Nereids ; who were accounted Nymphs 
beautiful in their persons, and accomplished in their manners, 
yet at the same time gay and easy in their conduct of life ; 
Pattupeia (as observed by Servius) being the only one of the 
thousand designated by the appellation ot Virgo. 

Latonam et spicula Cyiithia. The office of singing alter- 
nately {invicem being understood) of Latona and Cynthia is 
assigned to Lyde : of Latona, because she presided over the 
cares of parturition ; of Cynthia, because, to make his conquest 
appear more difficult, she would probably celebrate the chastity 
of that goddess, who was more attached to the pursuits of the 
chace than of those of love. Cynthia was also invoked three 
times by women in child-birth, as Diva iriformis, once under 
each name of Luna, Diana, and Hecate. 

Summo carmine. Last of all, he says, shall be celebrated a 

252 Emendationes 

Deity who shall be nameless, but one who presidee over 
Ctiidos, the Cydades and Paphos : and who, if she is in good 
humor (si lata aderit), makes these places bright by her presence ; 
(fulgentes having this signification.) 

ISanid. The naiiia were properly memorials of conquerors 
generally recorded at their funerals, and hence they were accounted 
dirges ; but here they are taken to signify memorials of such 
actions of lovers, as were celebrated under the auspices of 
the Goddess of Darkness. 

The last stanza of this quoted ode may be thus translated : 
** But, my prattling Muse, do not, relinquishing jour talent for 
pleasantry, draw back from handling again, {retractare having the 
same force as revellere, " to retract," '* to re-vel," or in a stronger 
sense " to pluck up by the roots'') your wonted office of 
recording the Cean memorials (of love) : but seek with me to 
modulate your song to lighter notes, v\ithin some retired grot, 
consecrate to the Daughter of Dio)ie." 

Euripides calls Venus — 6soi o-kotsIo. xci) vvxti 
" Dea tenebris et noctu admiranda." 
The subject of the ode, according to modern notions of pro- 
priety, should have ended at dicetur : but the poet, who was an 
Epicurean both in principle and practice, extends his festivities 
into the night also. 



\_Duvars Edition.'] 

By the Rev, J. SEAGER, Rector of Welch Bicknor, 
Monmouthsh ire. 

De historia Animal. VII. c. 11. Kai oaais h' av fxti yivofxeviay 
Tb)V KaQapffiwv alfiu (TVfXTreari kfieaai, ovOey joXdirroprai, 
Before it was ufxa. 

Porphyrius. cap. ix. 3. Koivov be Kal TO avvu)vvjjiws. . . . 

X. 4. Tct bk yiyt] KATA ra eibr} (jtvcret. . . , 

in Aristotelem, 253 

Aristotle. Vol. I. 
p. 17. 1. 4. eyy iov. — p. 34. 1. 9* TH yap tov ^(povov irXeiu), Sec. 
p. 35. c. xiv. 1. 3. oil yap iariu ?/ yeveais, <j)dop(x, ovbe ye av^rjais, 
olbe fxeitoiTis, ovbe caTO. tqttov fx. — p. 38. 1. 6. avra /j.ey ovv Kad' 
aura. Aristotle must mean verbs in the infinitive mood, which 
express neither time nor affirmation. — p. 39. last line but one. 
TO i:a66Xov KaTijyopelrai. 

INIeteorolog. I. |). 544. 1. 30. K^jvovfievov tov ayyelov. — p. 547- 
last line but one, i] fiey yap apFr;. — p. 583. 1. 1. 'Atto TOT ijXiov. 
— 583. 1. 8. ovt: 'EttI t})v yrjv (peperat, Along the earth. — 609. last 
Hne but three, 5exo/xej';/. So Budeeus seems to have read. — (3lO. 

I. 8. read Wtan'ovatv. 

I. 610. D. 1. 11. Kara to eyylov Ae (cat HoppujTepop Beov elpui 
fidXXov Te Kal 7]ttov . . . Same page, last line, av-ovpye'i ro eiri yi/s. 

II. 7Q5. 1. 7. o'iiTe TOV Trp6Xo3ov, aXXa Tijy, &c. omitting evpvv. 
797- 1.4. els -a. tri^eXi], eKarepa. TO nap" eav-rj. — 800. D. 1. 1. Trpui 
re T))y PAXIN ndXXof . . . 800". D. I. 9. perhaps Trepie?xeTai. p. 
903. B. 2. bill Twv <fYo[xei'(oyl — 904. D. \0. Trpoai'iYlovaa. — and SO 
Gaza seems to have read. — 9O8. B. 2. vn-epftoX}) meiins excess, i. e. 
of heat or cold. — 910- E. 3. ^at've-ai aAPav//j ? 915- C. 11. 
perhaps irepieXKorres, drawing the stones close round.— 929- E. 1. 
MEra be raDra.— 930. B. 10. oVwj /./») aWOs.— 943. C. 1. perhaps 
TrFo-ideiTai. So Gaza seems to have read. — 955. C. 6. Omit 
tcrj^et, which seems to have been wrongly taken in from line 10. — 
then we must stop thus, fapdos' Kal tijv (pwrrfv, (understand fiera- 

/DdXXei)h' yAv yap, <tc. Vol. III. p. 198. D. 10. aXXO>/ raa r. 

199. D. 9. efxTTeipbis. Men of practice are imposed on by the specious 
^discourse of men of theory, wiio are quite incapable of practical 
knowledac. Vol. IV. 6s6. D. 9- Haj^i/j'et. — Ibid. E. 2. TrvpiKavirra. 
j) OT bia Tu avTO ; noiel. fxey yap tr. . . . 6'9t. A. ()'. bia to j-iAXXok. 
i. e. bih TO fiaXXoi' depfxaipetrOai. Vol. III. 293. D. 4. Kal (even) 

Triv biKalap 'HSONHi' Kal to TCTaXdai Vol. IV. 6'94. c. 2. 

perhaps aTro^fJiV-etv T A nEPI/3o\AIA. Vol. IV. 727. D. 5. oTiTrep 
" because." 728. A. 9. Tc7s fxey iiXXois OY voarjfxa. " In other 
animals it is no disease, but natural, to be spotted with white." 
729. B. 8. . . rr/s ev ITZ/Gci 5tarp£/3)/s ? " On the breast," i. e. lu 
arms. Begin queest. //y. — 734. D. 7- ohbeya, c5ia AH ro -//j' bidXeK- 
Tov ev(j)dapToy eJyai, T,)y avT>)y be ao^tiy djd(])OTepwy eirai, Kal Tfjf 
tiaXeKTOv, (fbiv)] yap -is) Kal t^s uko/js, Aairep 'EK (7Vfij3e(3T)K6T0s 
p^crra, &C. — 735. B. tpQeyyovTai. Koi ofxoiov to'is a.TTY-^-)(0V(ii Kal Tiis 
j/XoiJs. And the sound of an echo is sharper, like those who are at 
a distance. 

Vol. IV. 688. C. 6. A<a rt . . . TrpoTWTra ; >*? ofxa dpaia Kal iypa. 
fxaXiuTa, bia T0VTU)y .. .&C.— 689. D. 10. TravaD.i'Tai. — 690. A. 2. 
II «VE fidXXoy . , . 650. B. 14. . . TTOiovai' (soil. JSpwra. " they are 
making, or preparing it.") TreToN/j/coj-es be. ircTroliiKaffiy. — 6'91. E. 

254 Ccwihridge 

6. tbpoviTi tavra o'isttov overt. — 6.Q1. B. J). ftdWoy, o'crOI ay . . . 6,9-i. 
c. ll.oiKcia, QepnirrfTi. "AAAOTPIAt /uiyvv/nevos, . . . 694. E. 8. o^ 
Ti yap ai' . . . 6"95. C. 12. rpoi/jr/s Vooi' Treirefifiei'rjs . . . 696. D. 3. 
liriTToXris must moan, On the •surface of the cuiiieut^ of the stomach. 

698. B. 7, . . biacjiepei, eay fjiev MH inratjrj .... 698. C. 3. Kuraprio- 
fjicya means, I suppose, lieavy bodies tu'd to a siring; the ^nd of 
the string being held in the hand, the l)()die.s move in a circle.— 

699. A. 8. ay he *H ey y vyp6Trjs.—699' B. 4. /xdWoy vaOl ay . . , 
707. B. ]. rail be depovi ra'is fxey . . . 709. B. 8. 6 ffe(l»'running.~712. 
D. 3. TrXijyeyrOs, when a person has struck his foot — (^for this 
occasions sometimes a swelling in the groin) 5. rf/s ap-x^fjs tlie 
origin of the malady, (which origin is in the foot.) — 713. c. 2. 
v7rEFf^oX)'jy.—7l6. B. 3. ware Trpos to eyayrloy, TO 'ENANTION 
<Tj^)?/,(a Trpo epyov. — 719- E- 1^. '/ oVE. TrXeiwv. — 720. D. 12. rw TO 
vypON TTCTrriyeyai, on account of the consolidation of the moisture. 

721. E. 8. . . . >/ ovX})"AyEY tovtOT (i. e. without any disorder of 
the spleen) yiverni . . . 722. D. I .tovx^^i^ov OT vriyyvrat, ciXXa . . . 

722. E. 6. (paiveTui. eTi p.a fxeyaXa cXki] kuI TcoXv^oyia fieXairas 
Tcis ovXas Kr^et' to be iroXXaKis . . . 723. C 1. uttEP aapt.a. — 723. c, 
6. -npo^eaTo)s. — J 06. D. 10. Kiyovcriy "ETt be €7rnroXfjs. — 737. c. 2. 
ey, 'H AE ITAXEIA TrXt/w. — 4. owrO. (i. e. Tryeiifxa) in the nomina- 
tive. — 738. A. 11. Twy dXXcjy 'OMOim, (or djauvTOis) virapyovTwv 
avTa'is. that is " ceteris paribus,'' for the materials, &c. of the 
chords might make a difference. — 739. B. 7. Kara (pvaiy, {bto dXlyois 
TOVTO (TVfAJ^aiyei) teal (pvaet &c. — 740. E. 8. €VKpiy\\s. scil. ?'i hu(voia. 
Capable of judging or distinguishing.— Next line, aWli. — 741. B. 8. 
civK 'AIT 'i(7Jjs, " with." — 741. D. 3. 'Akovctul for KpoveTai. — 8. 
l3paAvT€pa. — 743. A. 6". 7r6ppu)''loy . . . 10. \po<povyT[lN. — 749. B. 3. 
&X\oTi in one word, " num." 6. TOVrw be . . . i. e. (TKopobo). — 749. 
C. 6. KEyov/j.€yr]S. — 7^9- D. 10. KvcpOTcpwy. — 7^0. c. 6. nvpeTOS 'EN 
'12, Twv e^(o. . . . 



Deo, Optimo, Maximo, visum est inter alia summa? erga sues 
beiievoleiitiie indicia, id scilicet curavisse, ut certis aliquando 
annorum intervallis enascerenturaliqui, turn capaciuri intellectu, 
turn elatioribus aftectibus coelestem, ultra quam niortalitati fere 

Prize Essay, 255 

tobtigit, originem referentes. Hi sunt, quorum vitam respiceie 
possint alii, veliit astra nocturni viatores ; quorum oratione, 
exenipio, scnplis, ad sapieutiam atque virtulein uiformari de- 
beant et inipelli; [Ji sunt, de quilnis, Academici, hodie mihi 
demandatuin est qualiacunque dispulare, qua;siluro, '' OL^- 


igitur aumilium notis diligeiitius paullo institerit, is quatuor 
tantum mundo illuxisse sitcula reperiet, in quibus absolute sunt 
admodum et peifectas artes : ea vocare liceat Socraticum, Cice- 
ronianum, Mediceuin, Newtoniaiuim; qnot vero in iis floruerint 
et qui viri, si equidem perceiisuerini, id esset hominis jejune 
matheraaticeque dimetientis quam spissus in lacteo orbe coeat 

colluceatque stellarum chorus. 

Jam nostra de quzeslione, cum multiplex sit et subobscura, 
copiosius inter philosophos quam accurate est disceptatum. 
Alii certam quandam pra^ se ferunt ' " coeli terraeque proprieta- 
tem;" quasi quibus sphaera circulis lineisque, iisdem circum- 
scribi posset et concludi liumana mens. Sunt qui mirandam * 
nescio cujus Fati potentiam occultasque siderum rationes sibi 
finxere ; quorum mehercule ubi peculiaris indulgenlia regionem 
aliquam exceperit, continuo emicet ibi necesse est Cadmeum 
quoddam agmen, fortibus fnigentibusque armis doctrina2 et 
literaruni instructissimum. Aliis demum persuasum fuit, aetatis 
quippe 3UUB stenlilatem espertis, Naturam,^ sicut agrum, ubertate 
prioris aevi defatigatam atque effetam, nequire prustina benigni- 
tate przebere mortalibus ingenii alimenta ; sed + non uiutatur 
Natura, quia non mutatur auctor moderatorque Naturze. — 
Restat itaque, non tarn ceterorum refellere sententias, quam 
proferre rneam : si mea quidem vocanda est, quam, cusn erudito 
olimviro^ in mentem venerit, ipse ampliticaudam suscepi et 
illuslrandam. Age vero experiamur, si qua sub Ajacis '^ clypeo 
Teucer scopuui attingani. Aries igitur crediderim, quo a prin- 
cipio habuere ortum, ab eo certis pruicipue lemporibus viguisse: 
e legitima scilicet ingenii et morum progressione, eque fortuito 
sinuil exteiiiarum caussarum felicique concursu. limniveio re- 
spicite Suleiii atque intuemini, quam exsiliens e crepusculorum 
quasi cuua ui ad (tt( uirt^nda cceli spatia uggiediaiur; quam 

' Liviu- Du Boj — 1 oiu- uelle, &c. ^ Juveiuilis— Bi bsu, &c. 
J Columella. -^ Avenaimi . |i. 332. 

» Blackwall's Life of Homer, p. 75. ^ Horn. 11. •&. 266. 

256 Cambridge 

inter eundum magis effulgeat magisque, sudam nactus et seie« 
nam tempestatein ; cjuani ei obveniat, ipsum aliquaiido nebulis 
obscurari, niisceri turbinibus, defectus pati ; quam porro, simul 
ac meridianum cidmen attingat, coepeiit se inclinare ; donee 
aniplissima sed ianguidiore luce paullatim totus occidat, non, 
nisi per noctem et tenebras, rursum oritiirus. Eodeni videbitis, 
Acadeniici, ac pariii niodo, affici hiimaiiura aiumum : cujus 
varia in progressu incrementa, altitudincm, atqiie occasum ; 
quibiis iusuper rebus floreat interea aut afficiatur, paucis expo- 
nam. In pnmis dissipatorum hominum cougregationibus, inque 
rudi qualibet vita? societale, ad necessarias artes efliDgeiidas 
reperieudamque corporeae salutis rationem omnino mcunibit 
animus : qui cum interea rebus imposuit nomina, et paene 
infinites vocis sonos una atque altera literarum nota lerminavit, 
inde sensa sua numeris' ccepit includere, postniodo prosa 
oratione. Quid deinde leges dicam latas, aut in numinum 
honore composita carmina ? quid oppidorum munitioues, aut 
agricultural opera, alias denique militates, quee omnes ab imita- 
tione Solent profluere ? Protenus in hac setate, quee necessitatis 
vocetur, cunctarum fere inventionum jacta sunt fundamenta : 
harum enim ea est natura, ut nuUo politee mentis studio, nulla 
eruditaj cogitationis vi certo possint extundi ; sponte vero sua 
videtur quitque e nebula quadam erurnpere, et interesse turbae 
indagantium, ut iEneas ille Virgilianus, (Mn. i.) 
Cunctisque repente 
Improvisa loqui, " coram, queni qnteritis, adsum." 
Jtaque dum omnes plurima ignota tentarent, niultis aliqui novis 
oportet occurrerint. Ad finem demum liujusce spatii, asperos 
sane ac reiigiosos, sed integros liominum et fortes mores credi- 
deris : linguam, si non limatam, gravem tamen et cum simplici- 
tate maguiticam : Et jam suus atque unicus epico carmini 
honor, ipsam inter militiam et heroas florentissimus; sola etenim 
Musarum Calliope clypeo induitur. 

Porro, ut a necessariis artibus ad utiles defluxinms, ila ab 
utilibus ad elegantes sumus deiapsi ; quare l)a?c ajtas, eleganiis 
nuncupatur. Hie autem prosa oratio, qu;e poesin, veluti puelhi 
matrem, baud iequis passibus sequebatur, incedere coepit alliug- 
que iugredi : cunique hujus, die scilicet mitigatus, deferbuit 
vehementior spiritus, illam plenissima niaturilate contigit e.xpleri. 
Parem quinimo ac similera vicem expertae sunt mentes homi- 
num : post enim istam priscoruuj barbariem delevere usus et 

'o wi^sf xtya; juijut)/xct tow TrooiTtxoC; Itrri. Strabo. I.— ct Lopgini Fragj 

Lathi Oration. 257 

necessitudo, jam in alterius rationes magis quisque et magis 
congrueie, jam tenuia vitae officia lenioresque amicitiarum 
excolere virtutes ; unde communis quaedam facilitas moruni et 
dulcedo oriunda est, eaque polita inter populos et concivis bene- 
volentia, quae pulcherrimum nomen obtinet humanilatis. 

Continue in scenam prodit Poesis, ad depingendos saeculi 
mores exhibendasque mentis aflfectiones aptissima : quos aut 
graviori exaggeret sermone, aut condiat hilari, aut acri destrin- 
gat ; hoc praecipue spectans, ut diversissima virtutum vitiorum- 
que lineamenta fideliter possit osteniJere. Hujus in amplissimam 
quasi clientelam conferunt se Artes, quotquot officio est, varias 
rerum formas atque imagines per imitationeni exprimere, colori- 
bus, saxo, quavis denique materie : Hae omnes umbratili otio, et 
placida quiete sunt contentae. Contra autem Eloquentia, rebus 
nata agendis, in frequentissima luce atque in oculis hominum 
versatur : ea est, quae pulcherrimo Professionum cincta comi- 
tatu, habenas moderatur imperii, bellorum et pacis claves tenet, 
ipsi etiam Justitiae assidet, domina magis quam comes. Similis 
est Homereo Achilli, famae semper suae instanti, prima semper 
sibi vindicanti : idem, cum ad pugnam ventum sit, suos in con- 
fertissimam hostium aciem impellit, voce, vultu, dextera ; idem, 
in castrorum solitudinem detrusus, tabescit inertia et defatigatur. 
At Poesis Helenam illam refert, quae domo interiore cum ancil- 
lis desidet, et varia florum artificia intertexit Testimenlis ; negoti- 
orum, ut impar, ita secura. 

Succrevit jam interea et adoluit Philosophia, quae fcemineum 
hujusce cultum, sine deliciis; virilem illius vim, sine impetu, 
conjunctos sibi una conciliat. Ejus est, morum indagare princi-: 
pia, et rationis limites praefinire : unde doceat, quid est virtus, 
quae honesti exemplaria; doceat, qualis sit Veritas, quibusque 
indiciis agnoscenda. Ejus etiam est, Naturam introspicere, 
suo coelum ipsum ingenio supponere, omnes denique omnium 
rerum usus et proprietates, experiendo ; caussas atque elementa 
persequi, componendo ac dissociaiido. Qui igitur potest ani- 
mus, quin propiore quasi oculo purissimaque in luce Deum 
coram intueatur ; interque opera ejus perscrutanda, ipsum 
opificem humillime deveneretur, sanctissime colat, amet pien- 
tissirae ? 

Hactenus Philosophia, centum Scientias complexa, consenes- 
cere demum coepit et languere, usque dum tertia atque ultima 
superveniat aetas, dicta Luxuriae. Enimvero quod Capua erat 
Annibali, id luxuria est menti humanae : ppohibet quippe, ne 
Romam perveniamus. Desidiosa scilicet voluptate deliquescil 
omne illud pectoris generosissimum robur : omnia ilia arden3 


£58 Latin Oration. 

liberalisque aflfectuum dilabitur vis, per quam aut ad nova ten- 
tanda, aut ad vetera ulterius propaganda incitari solemus et 
inipelli. Pcenus itaque miles, antea in eundo strenuus, in pugna 
alacer, evasit ab hybernoruni mollitie iners^ hebes, iaboris impa- 
tiens ; et qui omnia sua secum niodo portabat, nunc spoliorum 
et meretricularum et coquorum impedinientis oneratus, exercitui 
interfuit ad speciem magis quam ad rem composite. Sic et 
animi, ut ita loquar, copiae, luxu corrumpunlur : nequejaniin 
acie quidquani videas, praster inanes Metapliysiconim veiita- 
tiones ; aut levia Criticorum tela incursusque ; aut artificiosam 
Logices et ineflicacem disciplinam : ne quidem bellicum canit 
Poesis sed " plorabile quiddam eliquat" et subinsulsum. Post 
igitur aspera Alpium superata, post fertilissimos ItaliiB victoria 
perlustratoscampos, tandem demum in otia Campanile et exitium 
videmur declinasse. 

Usque adeo, Academici, naturalem mentis humanae progres- 
sionem, quotque ab ea quibusque niodis profluunt utilitates, 
conatus sum adumbrare ; neque vos interea ipsos fugiet, pluri- 
mas harum, prope dixeram omnes, intra breve niedii saeculi 
spatium, tanquam claustra quiedam sua cancellosque, coercitas 
videri et circumseptas. Supervacaneum itaque foret demou- 
strare, certis itidem regionum finibus solere eas comprehendi ; 
cum, nisi in iis populis, quorum mores induerint elegantiam, 
florere non posse oporteat. — lllud porro ausim confirmare, 
caussam hancce, quam proposui, semper esse actuosam, usque- 
quaque physica constantique ratione pollentem ; neque, externis 
modo rebus non impediatur, unquam fore hiesuram. Sed ut 
pavis, bona, quod aiunl, alite soluta, quern spectarit portum tuto 
debet invenire ; nunc citius, prout aura faveritj nunc tardius 
decurrens 0( eanum : seepe aulem vi procellarum aliorsum rapi- 
tur, illidenda scopulis ; aut in brevia urgetur ac S}?rtes ; sa^pe 
etiam frangitur omnino et dissipaiur; vento quippe enim usa 
est nimiunj secundo, vel copia deficitur instrumentorum, vel 
occulto fortasse vermium morsu peresa demum contabuit. 
I^eque aliter cum instituto liumanie mentis iliuere se res habet : 
qu£e autem et quam multie interveniant tempest&tes, quamque 
raro aspiraverit iortuna, horum omnium neque facilis esset neque 
jucunda commemoratio. Piget enimvero respicere sex millium' 
annorum seriem, cujus exigua sane pars scintillulis aliquibus 
coruscavit, exiguissima vero plena luce effulsit sapientiae: leliqua 
jaciiit ignorantia; tenebris obruta penilus atque oppressa: — piget 

' V. Gibbon. 7. loi. not. 

Latin Oration, 2o.9 

etiam diffusos circumcirca orbis terrariim respicere populos, 
onines ad artificis divini effigiem I'orrnatos, ouuies imrnortalitati 
addictos, ouiues lelicissiinai rationis capaces ; quorum tainen 
infinita pitne niultiludo frustra vixisse potest videri, quibus 
.scilicet luillateuus airisit Cognitio, angulorum quorundam et 
quasi puuctoruni iiicola et civis. — Jam autem inter plurimas 
qu£e a recta via depellere soleiit et deturbare ingenium, tres 
przecipue caussae iDemorantur; quarum in primis belluni incu- 
sare contigit ; idque jure, si eousque incumbat populo, ita 
intimis personarum negotiis comiuus intercedat, ut aut emoveat 
ipsos e sedibus, aut continuas studii exercitationes distrahat 
irrumpendo; unde oriatur necesse est ' maximum illud perfecti 
operis impedimentum, frequens et mobilis transitus. — Minima 
tamen is sum, qui militares ab aliis artibus abhorrere censuerim ; 
immo faniiliarissimas sunt inter se comites, convivae, contuber- 
nales. Quandoquidem^ ut in homine vigor corporis auimique 
simul fere maturescunt, nisi quod ille hunc paullo antevertat ; 
sic in rebuspublicis mililaris gloria literataque aut coaeva sunt, 
aut se proxime consequuntur. Nee sane aliter fieri potest : id 
etenim quod insiigat sensus, sine praecipitando ; acuit sine divel- 
licando ; accendit, nee tamen infiammat ; commovet, uec tamen 
confundit ; id omne, cum utile judicarim, turn etiam pa;ne 
uecessariuni. Abeat autem decantata ea otii gratia, abeat ilie 
principum favor, quibus ali foverique Scientias ' vetus est 
perinde atque inanis opinio. Modo non tumultuatum sit, baud 
pacis eget ingenium : modo non contundatur barbaria, baud 
aliunde honorem, quam ipsa ex se anquirit doctrina. — Tunc 
enim ea profecto prope abest ab exulando, cum propriam 
et quasi pontificalem exuta majestatem, coniponitur ad exem- 
plum patroni ; circa aulas versabuuda, et atriensem agens : turn 
demum armis annisque fractus est Carthaginiensis, cum impera- 
toria veste rejecta fugit ad externa subsidia, 
atque ibi n)agnus, 

Mirandusque cliens, sedet ad praetoria regis. 

Donee Bilh3no libeat vigilare tyranno> 
Sequitur alia moru; caussa, qua nescio an ullum usquam sit pos- 
leriufj malum : cvenit nimnum ex Servitute, ea debilitata animi 
et humilis et abjecta timiditas, quie erumpere aiiquando inque 
virtulis campo exspatiari nequit ; qua^:, sue carens arbitrio, ad 

' Paterculus. lib. i. ad fia. 

^ Bacon de Augniin. Scicntt. p. 31. ed. ful. ^ Juv. 10. 

* V. Cicero in Bruto. Cf. Ferguson un Civil Society, 3. U. 2Q9. 

260 Latin Oration, 

alterius nutum tota fingitur; aceibissimumque dominationis 
jugum sinejactando perferre potest. — Haec de corporis servitute 
— quid ergo erit expectandum, siquando ipsam eliam rationem 
edoinuerit Superstitio ? cujiis contra horribileiii aspectum qiiotus 
est quisque niortalium qui oculos audeat attollere ? Cum ea 
itaque arcano semel terrore et sancta occupatam ignorantia obli- 
gaverit sibi rudis intellectus imbecillitatem, quis locus est doc- 
trinae relictusf quis praescriplus barbarise terminus? — hinc scilicet 
est, quod jam per plura saecula Artes et Scientia; non, nisi in 
Christianis populis, floruere : — Possem his alias subnectere et 
plures caussas ; qu£e licet minutiores, neque certo tenore prove- 
niant, concurrentes tamen inter se et cohaerescentes, ingenii 
cursuni, uti remorze qua?dam, impediunt. Sed hue olim fortasse 
erint notanda*, dum in praecipuis quatuor aureorum temporum 
ineritis, el propria cujusque forma, expriniendis, versabitur 
oratio mea. Jam autem contemplamini Athenas atque admi- 
ramini, quam urbem peculiaris Dei providentia nobis, Acade- 
mici, videtur excitasse, ut unum quoddam et unicuni extaret ' 
exemplar, qualibus quantisque adornari debeat virtutibus, per- 
fecta, cum Natura, tum industria, mortalis conditio : ut ex 
eadem, parente, altrice, patria, " humanitas, doctrina, religio, 
fruges, jura, leges ortae forent ac distributie :" ut inter caliginem 
annorum, quaedam Pharos ; inter lucem, esset mundi oculus : 
saeculo suo succus et sanguis ; posteritati sensorium, Haec 
inter finitimos undequaque populos, bonorum steriles pjene et 
seros studiorum, haec urbs * Gra?cia2 erat Graecia : adeo ut 
5 corpora illius gentis separata in alias civitates, ingenia solis 
Atheniensium muris clausa viderentur. Itaque dum apud Euro- 
tarn et Asopum nihil erat nisi armorum strepitus, aut tristior 
adhuc solitudinis quies ; +I]yssi ripas perambulat Philosophia, 
interque Cephisi platanos verum quaerebat : cuncta vivebant, 
movebant cuncta : omnesque omnium nervi, sensus, facullates, 
atfectiones, ad summam laudis exercitationem omnino intende- 
bantur. Quid igitur mirum, si pulcherrinio cognationis vinculo 
ibi conjungerentur universa artiuni turba : si in picta Polygnoti 
porticu doceret divina Zenonis vox : si inter tenerrimas Tragici 
venustates e Socratico ore deflueret Sapientia ? Atqui ipsum 
«ie contineo, ne rerum historiam unicuique vestrum notissimam 

' V. Harris' Philolog. Inquiries. 3. 257. Hermes. 5. 417. Shaftesbury. 
S. 97. ed. dijod. 

* "EKXaJo; "avx»;, 'a9w<4i* Anthol. 3 Paterc. 

♦ PJatonis Acadenua*-Aristoteli3 Lyceum. Cf. Gibbon. 7. p. 143. 

Latin Oration, 261 

pro voluptate longius persequar: idem memineritis velim, Atti- 
cam, solam esse Helladis regionem, quae nascenle republica 
non passa est ' migrationes : quae, post depulsam Persarum a 
cervicibus suis dominationem, iiberrimi sibi formam constituit 
imperii : cujus gubernacula, neque unius voluntas, neque pauco- 
rum factio, sed optimum eloquentise consilium tractavit ; cujus 
arma, non tarn ad sui defensionem, quam ad exteros debellando» 
sunt parata. Earum ideo quas habuere cetera loca, utilitatum, 
ipsi pariter contigit facultas ; quibus alias sunt afflictatae, ea sola 
caruit molestiis : donee suorum aeque licentia ac Macedonum vi 
fracta, hospitium jam inde praebuerit doctrinis, non originem : 
educarit ingenia, non genuerit. Talem excepit Italia, per quin- 
gentorum anncrum lapsum intestinis praeliis continuo occupata : 
cum jam mores ejus per commercia molliri ; et, jacente hoste, 
ipsa demum coepit quiescere : necdum excogitatis, quod sui 
imitarentur, ex Achaia, e Sicilia, e toto denique orbe collata 
sibi transtulit illustrissimi cujusque operis exempla ; quae porro 
felici quadani generosaque cura fecit publicata,^ ita ut unaquae- 
que ars, non in exilia villarum et carceres esset detrusa, ut nunc 
fit, sed urbe excubaret, resque communis esset civium : turn 
progressio admirabilis, incredibilisque cursus ad universam ex- 
cellentiam factus est. In hoc autem brevissime processit,. 
quippe quae totius mundi ' libertatem rescindere aggressa, suam 
ipsa amiserit : adeo ut iisdem fere terminis, quibus vita M. 
Tullii, Rom« etiam fama concludatur. Quis enim extra Cice- 
ronis memoriam naius, aut virtute fuit maximus, aut perfectum + 
prosse eloquentiae decus attigit ? Quis, nisi ab illo visus, vel qui 
ipsum viderit, aliquod suramae pulchritudinis invenit, fecit, 
scripsit ? Probe nimirum id notit pestilentissimus humani animi 
iste hostis, a tyrannide virtutem, a servitio abhorrere sapientiam : 
novit suos, potentiae ipsorum conscios, non ferreis violentiae, sed 
aureis desidiae vinculis esse devinciendos : hoc itaque consuluit 
Augustus, hoc effecit, ut, dum privata cujusque licentia, publica 
videretur Libertas, aequalitate omni exuta, jussa tantum principis 
cuncti obsequiose aspectarent. Immissis igitur in urbem, tan- 
quam e cavea feris, Voluptate et Inertia, inde creata est Luxu- 
ries, Avaritia exstilit, erupit Audacia ; acerrimve mentis inexo- 
rabilesque dominaj. Ex quo tempore nemo ^ Romanorum 

■ Thucydides. 1. 

^ " Hoc idem evenisse grammaticis, plastis, pictoribu^t, scalptoribus, 
quisquis temporum institcrit notis, reperiet." Paierculus. 1. 
3 V. Plinium. N. H.35. 10. Roscoe. 2. 193. 
♦ Shaftee. 1. 148. * V, Longin. cap. ult. 

262 Latin Oration. 

sursum tueri potuit : tum is supeibissimus nequitiae despectiis, 
is honestus recti ardor, ea magnanima difficultaturn conitemp- 
tio, isque excelsus elatusque excellendi spiriUis, defei buerc, 
periere, evanuere : — Post autem diutiirnam libidinum et crudeli- 
tatis tempeslatem, respirare paullum visa est Roma; cum prime 
beatioris saeculi ortu, res olim dissociabiles miscuit Nerva,' 
principatum ac liberlatem. Ciijus peculiari indulgentfa, floscu- 
ios qiiosdam literaium subito exsurgcre, atque ascito horti 
lepore, breviter luxuriare cerneres : sed, ut quercp.s vigeat, 
necesse est inter sylvas leute augescat, et radices alte agat, et 
expectet solein, et turbinibus obluctetur. Quare etiam accidit, 
id quod * observandum est, omnem tenam uno sapienti;e pro- 
ventu efl( tarn, non iteruni usquani parere, nisi ita diu intacta 
jaceat et inculla, ut novo deniuni ubere quodammodo redinte- 
gretur. Exacta ideo longissima nescio quoiorum a^vorum steri- 
litate, pulcberrimatn rursus sibi in Italia sobolem produxil 
Natura, Sed quid equideni in Medicea hacce atate comnie- 
morare peigam I'oederatas tum niercatura tum discipliuiscivitates: 
quid felicissimam Florentiae cum ^ Byzantio cognationem ? quid 
proposita publice laudis prasmia ? quid prieclusas ad dignitatem 
semitas, praetcr virtutis unicam ? Haec enim uti in manibiis sint 
onniium inque mentibus haereant recentia, optima curavii hodier- 
nus inter nostrates vir; qui elegantissime negotiorum intervalla 
dispungens otic, documentum edidit, quantum temporis a iieces- 
sanis multiplicum curarum officiis, quantum ab amicorum 
coUoquio, quantum denique a voluptate excerpi possit, ad 
delectandum erudiendumque orbem. Caruisset alioquin merita 
jpsius gloria haec urbs, quae exiguo licet aevi et regionis spatio 
circumdata, lamen pingendi, sculpendi, scribendi numeros abso- 
lute explevit : caruisset etiam sua Laurentius ; cujus magnifi- 
centia incendebatur honesta ea ac pagne Alheniensis aemulatio, 
eximius ille praestantiae et jugis fons : cujus prudentia, ad turbu- 
lentissimas populi factiones sedandas nata, nee socordise locus 
nee violentiaj relinquebatur. Sed cum patre suo periit patria : 
iieque quisquam exinde ortus est, qui aut vindicare aut narrare 
potuit 4^ collapsaj fata et dedecus reipublica?. 

Venio tandem ad quartam nitimamque atateni, quie non uni 
tantum arrisit populo, sed iinitimas et situ et moribus regiones, 
Angliam Galliamque, divisit belio, certamine virtutis consocia- 
vit. Amplissima in utraque poetarum, heroum ; artificum parcior 

« V. Tacit. Agric. 5. Shaftes. 1. 150. ^ Hume's Essay?. 14. 

» Hams' Phil. Inq. 3. 5. 319. 3. 10. 45.5. "^ Roscoe. 2. 311. 

Latin Oration. 263 

seges : quse ut vigescebat prope simul, ita et simul prope mar- 
cescebat : quasi quidem ille, qui inter cives solet esse, sit 
etiam inter terras, consensus aniniorum mirabilisque synipatliia, 
Atqui hie vereor, ne sacer quodanimodo sini, ausus quippe 
lapidem niovere, qui aictioribus hinc puto terminis, iljinc laiio- 
ribus, continuit hue usque aureani lirilanniaj aetatein. Profecto 
multi et iilustres viri, post depulsani Papa? ridiculain pariter ac 
crudelem inipotentiam, subinde extitere : niagni autem nienses 
procedere incipiunt sub inipcrio primi, desinunt sub fugaalterius 
Jacobi : ex quo tempore nali sunt, quibus delectamur pauci ; 
quern admiramur, plane nemo. Hanc inter tenipestatem, arniis 
motibusque, et, ut fatear, licentia occupatissiinaui, publicis se 
in tabuiis inscripsit eiveni Scientia, ' ac doniieilium in urbe 
posuit; quin et eoniilem adjunxit Eloqiientiam, quae constituente 
se republica orta, constituta videtur decessisse. Earn intelligo 
Eloquentiam, non qua tonabat, fulgurabat, niiscebat Graeciam 
Pericles; non qua Demosthenes ad quemcunqiie veliet habituni, 
tanquam machinatione aliqua, contorquebat audientes : non qua 
ad debellandum istuni Romse Phihppum concitabatsuos Cicero : 
sed sanctiorem quandam et diviniorem, religionis filiam, minis- 
tram lidei, coeli internunciam. Tunc etiam ad maturitatem 
nostra pervenit lingua : speciem pras se ferens virilem ; toros 
exercitatione expresses ; coloreni succo et sanguine redundan- 
tem ; generosam insuper circa munditias negligentiam. Trans- 
eunt profecto in colloquium transfuga hominum studia ac 
mores ; et cum temporum conditione et diversitate aurium, 
forma quoque sermonis et species imnjulantur : unde evadit 
cultissiuia ea hodiernorum loquela, curiosiorque proprietatum 
anxietas, et multiplex frivolorum atque ornamentorum lascivia : 
concisis ac corruptis, quidquid veteres habuere roboris, quidquid 
vehementiffi, quidquid sanitatis. Quare inter omnia, ^ quae 
declarant solem nobis occidisse, non minimum est, quod fasti- 
dieiites, integerrimam Hookeri facundissimanique sapientiam ; et, 
quae ante onmes in Tayloro apparent, facilem elocutionis magni- 
licentiam, sententiasque modo tei\eritate, niodo sanctitate 
pollentes, prie his inquam patimur nosmet frigidis Huniii meri- 
triciisque argutiis deliniri ; aut pingues Gibboni, fucatosque et 
mechanica quadam regula composites periodos possumus admi- 
rari : quod denique apertam illorum et magnanimani Christiani- 
talis defensionem avertimur, ut contueamur nimirum insidiusas 

Royal Society. 

'HJ)| ynf ffaa-hi rJtW ['Chivi ajwjoti iiivxtir, Theocr. 

264t Latin Oration. 

horum jaculationes, Parthicamque hostium tnilitiam. Et quo- 
niam aliquos audio, non bene tantummodo sentientes, sed et 
optime, de hisce nostris temporibus, circumspiciant velim ipsi 
pauca qu£edam languescentis, ut opinor, et deticientis szeculi 
indicia. Quis quaeso non videt, praecipiti lapsu descituni jam 
esse a disciplina, ad libidines transcursum ? quis negat, majorem 
haberi pecuniae, quam excellentice auctoritateni ; duni rationis 
relicta, perversam corporis gratiam gratificamur ? Critici simus, 
grammatici, geometrae, historici, iique forsan divini — Dii tamen 
minorum sumus gentium. Circa quoque opera, non, ut imnior- 
tales antiquae memoriae pictores, quatuor' solis coloribus utimur; 
sed copia nos ipsa obruit : neque ut illi naturam, sed naturae 
imitatores imitamur. Quod ad studia spectat, quis ignorat, 
turn existere illam nescio quo vocandam nomine * ingenii ax(x,Yjv, 
cum diversae magni animi dotes in unius rei studium unice et 
separatim incurabunt; cum id toto pectore arripiunt, id solum 
agunt, id universum hauriunt. Hoc sane in prima aetate fieri 
non potest, propter necessarias vitae curas ; in tertia not) solet, 
propter voluptarias. Desilit jam enim inconstans animus ab 
alia ad aliam materiam; seu desperat tentata praeterire ; et quod 
assequi nequit, desinit sequi ; seu quod commune est, fastidit ; 
et ejus, quod parabile est, satietate capitur ; seu denique, ut 
aegri ardens stomachus solidum aversatur et simplicem cibum ; 
et deliciarum egens, dubiae sibi poscit condimenta coenae ; sic 
tumultuaria ' cognitione et erudito luxu pascitur corrupta mens; 
neque fontem rerum amplius consectamur, sed rivulos cursim 
delibamus. Sic est profecto cum rebus hominum; quod rebus- 
publicis facit mercatura, id ingenio doctrina ; dum nutriunt, 
dum augent, hoc una sequitur, ut nutritae, aucta?, dilabantur, 
evanescant. Sunt suae igitur utrique columnae, ultra quas pro- 
gredi vetat naturae ratio; est fatalis utrique lex, qua ad summum 
evectis fastigiuni, ibi diu consistere non licet. 

Restat, Academici, ut patientia vestra pauUo diutius abutar, 
dum deprompta sparsim argumenta, ante oculos composita 
revoco. Quid itaque mirum, tarn paucas mundi et aetates et 
regiones^ Mngulari ingeniorum ubertate floruisse beatissiraas : 
cum ad banc rem tot niille facultatum desiderentur, tot mille 
jmpediant molestiarum. Concurrant^ enim necesse est in 
njedio adolescentium animi, morum, linguag, spatio, libertas. 

Plin. N.H. 

V. Johnson's Life of Cowley, p. 2. Ferguson, 4. 1. 803. 

Shaftes. 1. 238. ♦ Ferguson. 3. 8. 296. 

Latin Oration. 265 

commercium, imitatio, agitatio : quee porro per se singula, sint 
propria; inter se omnia, justo quodam temperamento misceantur 
oportet : abeant autem contraiia hisce aut dissimilia. Quod si 
yerze habeaniur, quas excussi rationes, nullam protenus in nostra 
Tel Occidentalis India?, vel Orientalis ditione, expectare datur 
sumiiiae virtutis claritudinem : spes tamen aliqua subest, miserri- 
mos Africae populos aliquando tandem e mortua, quod aiunt, 
vita erumpentes, fore se ostensuros, non ad violentia; toedissimam 
aut mercaturae servitutem natos, sed ad suas legitimasque glorias 
et humanitatis partes sustinendas. Spes etiam certior nos tenet, 
utcunque ab artium laude ac poesews simus degeneres, ad 
scientiarum plenitudinem jam adhuc progredi, adhuc progres- 
suros : utcunque a superbissima cognitionis luce delapsi, ad 
pristinas ignorantiae tenebras non posse retro referri. Per enim 
typographiam, et aerearum tabularum picturas, nova reruni 
apparet facies, major ordo nascitur; per ea, quidquid magni 
unquam viri, docuere, scripsere, fecere, prope dixeram cogita- 
vere ; quidquid Natura in se habet aut habuit videndum, cognos- 
cendum, hoc onme traditum accepimus, mobile, perpetuum. 
Frustra igitur Luxuries ingenium, ut Herculaneum Vesuvius, 
divitiarum diluvio rursus obruet ; frustra belli furor, combusto 
alterius Alexandrian templo, illo toto igne et vocem clarissimorum 
scriptorum, et memoriam, et totius orbis conscientiam abolere 
poterit: frustra* t)'rannorum impotentia, expulsis iterum sapien- 
tiae professoribus, omnique bona arte in exilium acta, id efficiet, 
ut ne quid usquam honestum occurrat : Jam enim quisque, ut 
Ulysses ille, cum mortuis habet commercium ; librisque, tari- 
quam heroum imaginibus, interest ; et suam singulos poscit 
historiam, et praeterita revocat, et futura consulit — neque timet 
interea ne Gorgoneum "■ caput Superstitionis plura quaesituro 
superveniat. Porro, quod spe sibi gratulabatur olim Socrates,^ 
post mortem ipsi eventurum, id nobis jam in vita contiglt, ut 
scilicet cum Homero, cum Virgilio, cum Tassone, cum Boi- 
lavio, cum Miltono, cum Shakespeario colloquamur; ut tecum, 
mortalium maxime, Britannorum ultime, ut tecum, Newtone, 
conversemur: cujus oculus universe mundi naturae concentricus, 
omnes suo in puncto concurrentes Scientiae radios accepit ; qui 
cum innumerabiles coeli motus conversionesque animo vidisti, 
tum docuisti tuum ejus esse animum, qui ea fabricatus est in 

CnlL S. S. Trill, ap. Cautabrigienses. H. V. B. 


• V. Tacit. Agric. 2. ^ Horn. Odyss. xi. ' Plato. Apolog. 


Important Discovery of the Original of many of 
the Sentences of Seatiis Pythagoricus, which 
have been hitherto supposed to Ije alone extant 
in the fraudulent Version of the Presbyter 

Any thing written by Porphvry must always be deemed iuva- 
kiable by every lover of antiquity, and particularly by the student 
of the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, as he was no less dis- 
tinguished for his uncommon proficiency in that philosophy, than 
for the profundity of his erudition. Hence it is justly said of 
him by Eunapius,' " that, being let down to men, like a Mer- 
curial chain, he unfolded, through his various erudition, every 
thing into perspicuity and purity ;" and by Simplicius, " that 
he was the most learned of the philosophers." 

Great praise, therefore, is due to the editor for the publication 
of the Epistle of Porphyry to Marcella ;^ but, as he has taken no 
notice of the sources whence most of the beautiful moral sen- 
tences with which this epistle al)ounds, are derived, it becomes 
necessary to unfold them to the reader, particularly as by this mean, 
several of the sentences of Sextus Pythagoricus, which have been 
only published in the fraudulent Latin version of the Presbyter 
Ruffinus, may be obtained in the original Greek. 

Previous, however, to this developement, 1 shall present the 
reader with the emendation of the following defective sentence 
in p. 19 : To ds TisTrixi^sua-dcti oux ev 7:oXv[xa.$Eicig «vaA»jvI/ej * * * * 
TTuKct^si ds Tojv 4/v^ixoov TTuSwv sScwpsiTO. Tlic cditor not being an 
adept in the philosophy of Pythagoras and Plato, conceived that 
TraAa^ej was a genuine word; for he remarks, " JNota vocabu- 
lum 7r«Aa^»c," wiiereas it is only a part of a word, i. e. it is a 
part of unnXXa^ei. Hence, if after avaXr^rf/si, the words sv ajtuK- 
Xu^Bi are inserted, the sentence will be perfect, both in its con- 
struction and meaning, and will be in English, *' Erudition does 
not consist in the resumption of polymathy, but is to be surveyed 
in a liberation from the psychical passions." The editor, not 
perceivmg the necessity of this emendation, has, by the following 
version, totally mistaken the meaning of the sentence : " Bonam 

O it nofipi'sioj wa-Tiff Epfxaijm zt; crcifa xai -rrpo; aySfumov; cjrtyivouaa, iia. iraiXiXtij 
ftiihia; Ttavra j;; to luyvuia-rai «aj KaBapov i^riyyiXtv. 

* This epistle was published byAagelus JViaius, Mediolani 1816, 8vo. 

Original of many Sentences, S^c. 267 

auteni institutionem minquam sestimem, qu?e cum eiuHitionis 
copia, aiiiiiialium quoqiie passionum cotjtamiiiatioiie sordescat." 

The first sentence, of which I have discovered the source, is 
from Sextus, and is the following, in p. 23: 6eoj ju,?v yap detrm 
ovhvo;- (Tofog S? ju-ovoy fisow : i. e. " For God js not in want of 
any thing; but the wise man is alone in want of God." This, 
in the version of Ruffinus, is : *' Deus quidein nullius eget, 
fidelis auteu) Dei solius." (Vid. Opusc. Mylholog. 8vo. 1688, 
p. 046.) 

2. nx<TYig Trpx^saig KaiwavTO; spyov x«i Xoyou 6iog eTrOTrTvjj vupeaTCti 
xcti s<popo5 (p. 24.) : i. e. " Of every action, and of every deed and 
word, God is present as the scrutator and inspector." This is 
evidently derived from the following sentence of Demophilus, 
(Opusc. Mythol. p. 621.): Euv aet jj-VYjU-ovevrig, on ottov «v y rj 
'ifv^Yj (ToVfXat TO <ru)iJ.a. epyov uttotsX^i, 6soj e^scrryjxsv sfopog, ev %u<Tcni 
(xou raig eo)(^txig x«< 7rga^s(Ttv, aiSeo-firjcrr) /xsv tov dscopov to aXija-rov, 
s^e«5 -Sa TOV Seov (TvvoiKov. i.c. " If you always remember, that, 
wherever your soul, or your body, peiforms any deed, God is 
present as an inspector, in all your prayers and actions, you will 
reverence the nature of an Inspector from whom nothing can be 
concealed, and will have God for a cohabitant." What imme- 
diately follows in this paragraph, is from Sextus, viz. xai Travrwv 
MV ayuQoDv tov dsov uiTiov riycaius^a : i. e. " Of all the 
good that we do, we should consider God as the cause." And 
Sextus says, p. 648 : " Dens in bonis actibus hominibus dux 
est." Porphyry adds : Tcov Ss jcaxwv ajTJO* »!ju.s<j ect/aev oi shofisvor 
Qiog h avcuTiog. And the latter part is evidently from Sextus, 
who says, p. 648, " Mali nullius antor est Deus." Porphyry 
further adds, OSsv xaj syxT«»ov to. a^m ^sov xui uitcuixs^ocu fji,r, XajSoi- 

fJl,!V OLV "KOLp STSpOV XUl OJV r]ySfJi.OVSg 0» [/.ST apSTYjS TTOVOI, TUVTCt £0X0- 

jxeQa ysveo-^ui ixsTO. Tovg TTOvoug : i.e. " Hence we should ask of 
God things which are worthy of him, and which we cannot 
receive from any other. The goods also, of which labors are 
the leaders, in conjunction with virtue, we should pray that we 
may obtain after the labors [are accomplished]." All this is 
from Sextus. For, in p. 648, he says : " Haec posce a Deo, 
qua dignum est praestare Deum. Ea pete a Deo, quas accipere 
ab homine non potes. In quibus praecedere debet labor, base 
tibi opta evenire post labovem." Only m this last sentence, 
Ruffinus has omitted to add after iahor, the words cum virtute. 
VVhai Porphyry says, almost immediately after this, is precisely 
the tirst of ihe sentences of Demophilus, (Opusc. Mythol. p. 
626,) viz.'\-i Ss jcTr;(raju,£vof o^ Kah^ng, /xrj a»TOu TzapaQeoV 8a>gov 
yap 6eoy wav uvoc(p»ipeTOV o)7Ti ov Swo-g* o /*>} KuQs^etg : i. e. * Do 

268 Original of many Sentences of 

not ask of God that which, when you have obtained, you cannot 
preserve. For every gift of God is incapable of being taken 
away ; so that he will not give that which you cannot retain." 
The sentence immediately following this, is ascribed to Pytha- 
goras, and is to be found in the sentences of Stobaeus, (edit. l609, 
p. Qo^ viz. fLv Zs Tou (TMfjiaTOs aTtuWaysKTu ou 8s)j9r](rr), gxetvojv 
xaT«(pgow»' xai uiv av airaKKuyziciu Ssjj, sjj tudtch. <ru aaxcuaevr; Toy 
6tov TtapBTiaXzi yevicQat <7x)XKr^'7iTopct. in Stobaeus, however, there 
is some difference, so as to render the sentence more complete. 
For immediately after xaTa(pgove» there is Travrwv ; for 8e>;S»](rr) 
there is Ssjjcrr] ; for Ssjj, Seijcrrj; for tov fieov, rouj 9eoi/j ; for cri> 
acrxoy^gvv), (to* acrxoujxevw ; and instead of yevecrflai 0"uXX>]7rT0pa, 
yeveo-lJaj <roi <TvK\Yi7rroQ(x. This, therefore, translated, will be : 
" Despise all those things which, when liberated from the body, 
you will not want ; and, exercising yourself in those things, of 
which, when liberated from the body, you will be in want, in- 
voke the Gods to become your helpers." In p. 27 and 28, 
Porphyry says, cupsTcoTspov croi ovtoc, [xg^jju-aTa] e»x>j /3«X(iv % Xoyov 
xoLi TO rjTTOKT^ai T aAvjOrj XeyovTct, yj vixxv aTrarcovTa, i. e. " It should 
be more eligible to you, carelessly to throw away riches than 
reason ; and to be vanquished when speaking the truth, than to 
vanquish by deception." And the latter part of this sentence is 
to be found in Sextus : for in p. 649 he says : " Melius est 
vinci vera dicentem, quam vincere mentientem." Almost 
immediately after Porphyry adds, AZvvutov tov auTov fiXoQsov re 
eivon X.UI (pihYjhvov x«< (piXotrioiJiecTov' o yap (^iXrjSovoj xa« i$i»Aocr«;jw,aTOf , 
•xavTcog xaj i^iXo^prjfJ^aTO}' o Zs (piXo^pT^iji,(x.Tog, e^ avayxrjj aSjJtoj" o Ss 
aSixof, xajsjjfljovxai ejj 7r«T£pajavo<rjOf, xajgjj touj aXXovs Trapavoftoj" 
oojTs xav exaT0|Xj3«? dvrj, xai jxupioi§ i»va&r}ij!,a(n vswg ayxXXri, aa"£/S>jj 
scTT* xaj u9sog Kdt Tj) TTgoocipsosi lepoavXag' Zto xcti ttuvtx (piXoa-MfjiaTOV 
wj oL^sov y.a.1 ja.»agov exTpeTretrflaj x?^- This sentence is the last of 
the sentences of Demophilus (Opusc, Mythol. p, 625); but in 
Porphyry, it is in one part defective, and in another is fuller 
than in Demophilus. For in the first colon, cfuXo;:^g}3ju,aTov is 
wanting. In the second colon, after o yuq fjArjSovoj xaj piXocrui- 
fiarog, the words o h <piXo(ru}[jiUTOi are wanting. And in Demo- 
philus, instead of o Ss aSixoj, xaj e»j fisov xai sig naTBgag avoaiog, kui ng 
Tovg aXXovg Trapavojxog, there is nothmg more than, o 8= aSixoj, eig deov uvo(nog, sjj h avflgcoTrouj 7rapavojM.oj. In Demophilus, also, 
after wcrTg x«v SKcuTo^^ug fiuj], the words xa» y^vptoii oiVctdYifji.a.(Ti towj 
vswj uyaXXri, are wanting And in Porphyry, after vswj uyaXXYj, 
the words ttoXu jxaXXov avoa-icuTspoi s<m, xon, are wanting. This 
sentence therefore, thus amended, will be in English, " It is 
impossible for the same person to be a lover of God, a lover of 

Sextus Pythagoricus. 269 

pleasure, a lover of body, and a lover of riches. For a lover of 
pleasure is also a lover of body ; but a lover of body is entirely 
a lover of riches ; and a lover of riches is necessarily unjust. 
But he who is unjust, is impious towards God and his parents, 
and lawless towards others. So that, though he should sacrifice 
hecatombs, and adorn temples with ten thousand gifts, he will 
be much more unholy, impious, atheistical, and sacrilegious in 
his deliberate choice. Hence it is necessary to avoid every lover 
of body, as one who is without God, and is defiled." 

3. The following passages in the epistle of Porphyry, are 
from Sextus : Se a^iog avdgcuTroi Qeov, Seog uv ej»], (p. 30,) i. e. 
" The man who is worthy of God will be himself a god." And 
Sextus says, " Dignus Deo homo, deus est et in hominibus, 
(p. 654.) Porphyry says, Kai Tifiria-eis ii.iy ugKrru tov Seov, orctv 
Tw 5;£o TYjv (ToiVTrji dtavoiuv oixoicti(T£l§, (p. 30.) i. e. " And you will 
honor God in the best manner, when you assimilate your rea- 
soning power to God." Thus also Sextus, '* Optime honorat 
Deum ille, qui mentem suam, quantum fieri potest, similem Deo 
facit," (p. 655.) Again, Porphyry says, Osogds ctvSpwTrov /3s/3«»o< 
irpci(T(i'ovTot HuXa,' xaxwv 8s vpa^soov xaxoj duijxwv viyifxMV, (p. 31.) 
i. e. " God corroborates man when he performs beautiful 
deeds ; but an evil daemon is the leader of bad actions." And 
Sextus says, " Deus bonos actus hominum confirmat. Malo- 
rum actuum, mains daemon dux est," (p. 653.) Porphyry adds, 
^vyr^ Is cro^'ov agpio^ery.! tt^oj hov, asi Qsov opu, o-uvecTJV ae» 5s«, 
(p. 31.) i.e. " The soul of the wise man is adapted to God ; 
it always beholds God, and is always present with God." Thus, 
too, Sextus, " Sapientrs anima audit Deum, sapientis anima 
aptatur a Deo, sapientis anima semper est cum Deo," (p. 655.) 
There is, however, some difference between the original and the 
Latin version, which is most probably owing to the fraud of 
Ruffinus. And in the last place, Porphyry says, AkXa xprivig 
ev<rs^tiag <ro» 7oju,i^s(r6aj r} (^iXuvSpwTnu, (p. 58,) i.e. " Philan- 
thropy should be considered by you as the foundation of piety." 
And Sextus says, *' Fundamentum et initium est cultus Dei, 
amare Dei homines," (p. 654.) Ruffinus, however, in this ver- 
sion, fraudulently translates ^ihstvQpwTria, amare Dei homines, in 
order that this sentence, as well as the others, might appear to 
be written by Sixtus the bishop. 

4. The learned reader will find the following passages in the 
epistle of Porphyry, to be sentences of Demophilus, viz. Aoyov 
yap hou roig vtto So^ijs hs(pQoip[jLBVoi; Xsysiv, x. t. X. usque ad, kxov 
^spe«, (p. 29.) Ow;^ ij yKcorra tou <ro^ov TifCiov yrapa. Step, x. t. X. 
usque ad, jaovoj siSoJj sv^ua-Qut, (p. 32.) Ov ^oKmiVTsg ovv ot flso* 

270 Notice of 

^XoTTTOyo-i, X. T. X. usque ad, Sso; 5s ovhv u^ovKyjtov, (p. 36.) Oirn 
Bstxpuu xai iKiTitai Seov siriaTpcpovai, oun 5u>]7roA«« firov Ti/xaxriv, 0!>Ti 
«v«d*)jU,«T«)v 7rA*)9oj xo<riJi.ou(Ti kov, x.. t. A. usque ad, i?go(j-v\oti %og>j- 
yj«, (p. 36.) In which passage, however, there is a remarkable 
difference, as the learned reader will find, between the text of 
Porphyry, and that of Demophilus. Eav ovv ae» jw.v)5jxovet/j]j, otj 
OTTOU av Tj \J/y;)(;») (TOu Trg^tTrarr), xa« to (rw/xa evspyov (lege epyov) avo- 
T«A*), x. T. A. usque ad tov fleov cruvojxov, (p. 37.) a-vvsTog avrig xai 
5s(3(piA>]c, X. T. A. usque ad o-TroySa^eraj Trovi^Tas, (p. 34.) ruiJ.vos 
Ss «7roo-TaAe(j [(rofojj x. t. A. usque ad enrixoo; o Qsog, (p. 54.) 
XctKiTTUiTspov douXeveiv 7raSs(r»v >} Tvgavvoig. And otrccyap 7ra5)j ^j/y;^*]?, 
TOffOUTOi x«» WjCtoj SscTTrOTaj, (p. o7.) And lastly, ttoAAw yap xgfir- 
T«v TsSvava* ^ S»' oi.xpoc<nav tvjv 4"^X'J*' ctij,civpw(Tat, (p. 58.) In all 
these passages, the learned reader will find, by comparing them 
with Porphyry that they occasionally differ from the text of 
Demophilus, yet not so as to alter the sense. 

I only add, that the learned reader will also find many of the 
sentences of Deuiophilus among those of Sextus ; and that this 
is not at all wonderful, as it was usual with the Pythagoreans, 
frou) their exalted notions of friendship, to consider the work of 
one of them as the production of all. 



Researches in Greece, hij William Martin-Leake. 
London, Booth, 4to. pp. 472- 

i uis Volume, we learn by the preface, is to be considered as 
*he first part of future observatior.s, which the author intends to 
publish in one or two additional Parts. The ne.\t Part is to 
exhibit a comparative view of the ancient and modern Geo- 
graphy of Greece, illustrated by a delineation of the country. 
The publication before us comprises a GramuMr of the modern 
Greek Language, and of the Albanian and Tzakonic dialects, 
besides what the author calls Pentagloss Exercises in the 
Wallachian and Bulgarian dialects ; the phrases of those two 
idioms being associated with corresponding terms in Albanian^ 

Hesearches in Greece. 271 

in Romaic or modern Greek, and in English. The book also 
presents criticisms on modern Greek Literature, accompanied 
with extracts, and remarks on the pronunciation, &,c. of the 
modern Greeks, with an outline of Albanian, VVallachian, and 
Bulgaria!! History. 

A large portion of the work is occupied with grammatical 
details and vocabularies. 

The iifih section of the first chapter, is of superior value to 
most others in the work. It comprehends remarks on the pro- 
nunciation of the modern Greeks — on the letters of the alphabet 
— on accent — and general observations upon their education, 
literature, &c. The writer professes to do this, without pre- 
suming to enter into the difficult question respecting accent and 
quantity, which has long occupied and eluded the researches of 
so many of the learned ; but particularly of Mr. Mitford, the 
learned historian of Greece, and the author of the " Inquiry 
into the Principles of Harmony in Language:" a truly excellent 
work, which we feel pleasure in recommending, on this occasion, 
to the literary cabinet of every English scholar. 

The pronunciation of Hellenic, whether prose or verse, is 
regulated, like the speech of the modern Greeks, solely by 
accent ; but they have a kind of cadence in reciting, which is 
evidently derived from the mode of chanting in the Greek church, 
and has been taught them in their youth by the priests who keep 
the grammar schools. 

Mr. Mitford has proved that accent, and not quantity, is the 
regulator of harmony in Greek and Latin poetry, according 
to our mode of reading it. For instance, an hexameter verse is 
read by us, as if it were a verse of five feet of the triple 
rhythmus, indicated by tiie arrangement of accents. Thus an 
hexameter verse has five strong accents ; the three former either 
on long or short syllables ; the two last on syllables prosodi- 
cally long. The harmony of Latin verse, therefore, is not 
determined by quantity, but by the same species of accent 
which creates the harmony of Italian, English, or Spanish 

The Latin versification is in great degree susceptible of the 
accentual harmony of modern European languages, though it is 
framed on very different laws ; because its rules of accentuation 
are very simple, and approximate to our own; but as the accents 
of Greek words are referred to other principles, they very fre- 
quently interfere with our method of reading, and m consequence 
are unduly depreciated. 

" At present there are very few Greeks, even of those who 

272 Notice of 

can understand and admire the poetry of the ancients, that have 
any familiar knowledge of the rules by which it is constructed. 
If learnt, they are soon forgotten, for the same reason that 
accents are neglected among us. We are negligent of Greek 
accents, because they interfere with quantity ; and the modem 
Greeks are mattentive to the laws of syllabic quantity, because 
they interfere with accent. If the Greeks should ever become 
more familiar with Latin literature, which they despised \vhen 
they were independent, and under their present oppression have 
not the means of acquiring, they might perhaps in time adopt 
the same method of reading Greek verse that we now employ. 
The only modern Greek I ever met with, who had acquired 
this habit, had been educated in Italy, and was a very good 
Latiii scholar ; but he seemed perfectly sensible that it was 
not the true ancient method of reciting Greek poetry. 1 have 
known modern Greeks, who had a perfect familiarity with the 
best writers among their ancestors, and in many cases that 
superior feeling of them, which it is natural to expect in men 
still speaking a dialect of the same language, but who never 
bestowed a thought upon ancient prosody, who made the same 
objection which an Englishman would niake, to the exact ob- 
servance of quantity in the recitation of verse, namely, that it 
would often divide the words, and render them unintelligible to 
the hearer ; and in short, who could not at all comprehend the 
kind of harmony we give to Greek verse, by applying Latin 
accent to it." 

" That we should be able, in reading Hellenic compositions, 
in verse or prose, to adhere to modern Greek accent, and at 
the same time to give them a sound perfectly harmonious to 
our own ears, formed as they are to the very different laws of 
poetical harmony, inherent in all the modern languages derived 
from the Teutonic and Sclavonian, seems extremely difficult in 
practice : but the atten)pt is well worthy the attention of 
scholars, and must be materially assisted in its success by the 
remarks of the two writers already referred to." [i. e. Mr. 
Knight and Mr. JVIitford]. 

'* The right pronunciation of the letters of the Greek alphabet, 
is a question quite distinct from that of the reconciling of accent 
^vith quantity." 

The author then remarks on the different vowels and accents 
of the modern Greeks, and enters into discussion on the compara- 
tive expediency of ancient and modern Greek accent. He 
seems disposed to recommend the adoption both of the accent 
and the pronunciation of the modern Greeks ; and to think that 


Researches in Greece. 273 

ihey have in general retained the accent of their ancestors, 
though he is rather indeterminate on this subject. He observes, 

" If it be admitted that the mode of accentuation, as observed 
in reading (ireek in our schools, is that of the ancients, we must 
also conclude, that the descendants of a people, who have been 
less nyxed with foreigners than any other nation of the South of 
Europe, and still inhabit the same countries, where the names 
of places have in many instances continued to be the same, from 
the most distant ages of which we have any historical know- 
ledge, have entirely altered and disfigured those names, in giving, 
for instance, the sound of /lapicrcra, "EAvft-Troj or" OKvixttos," Eypivog 
or EvpiTTog, Kapv(rTo;, KopivSog, Olvorj, KuXipporj, 'ETrl^avpog, Kri(pKr- 
(Tioi, with the tone upon the accented syllable,' to the places for- 
merly called Aupl(T<ra, '0\6ix-nog, Evptyrog, Kup6<TTog, Koplv&og, 
OlvoYi, KaXlppori, "Eni^uvpog, Kr^fla-a-ix, with the accent upon the 
long syllables — and it is so much the more unnecessary to make 
this violentsupposition, as we have an easy and natural mode of 
accounting for the rise and progress of our own mode of pronoun- 
cing Greek, by tracing its accentuation to the Latin tongue."^ 

" It may even be remarked, that in tracing the vestiges of 
ancient names of places in Greece, (an inquiry very important 
to the geographer,) accent will generally be found the surest 
guide to identity. Letters and syllables are often lost, and 
vowels changed ; but where any trace of the ancient name 
remains, the accent is generally the same as it always has been. 
Thus 0x'j[x.ocx.o\ is now Dhomoko — 'AXfsiog, Rufias — OXooircriov, 
'Uivog, Elasona — 'Avoc<pXv(TTog, Anatiso — [JsvTeXr}, Mendeli — 

' It is almost unnecessary here to repeat a remark, which has often 
been made upon this subject — that the elevation or depression of tone 
in a syllable, has not necessarily any thing to do with its quantity or 
extension ; and that the accent on the first syllable of'oxy^Troj no more 
makes that syllable long in point of time, or the second syllable short, 
than the accent on the tirst syllable of our word hmestlj/, makes that 
syllable long, or the second syllable short. It often occurs, indeed, that 
a person, in order to give greater emphasis to a word, prolongs the ac- 
cented syll ible, and in this manner makes a syllable, which in ii9 
nature is short, longer than one, wliich is naturally long. It is perhaps 
this tendency to jirolong the accented syllable, derived from onr barba- 
rous ancestors, who corrupted the Latin and Greei<, and introduced the 
accentual prosody, that Ibrms the chief difficulty in the way of reconcil- 
ing accent witii quantity. 

^ Upon tliis subject the reader is once more referred to Mitford's In- 
quiry. Sect. 13. 


274 Notice of 

'I&oLXYj, Thi^ki, 8cc. &c. In Italy the same adherence to accent 
in names derived from the Greek, has already been remarked 
by Mr. Mitford,* in the instances of Felipe, Sofia, Maria, 
Taranto, Posilippo, Monaco, &c. ; to which examples might 
be added those of Calispera, Caloghero, and some others in 

" if modern accent be different from that of the ancients, it is 
necessary to fix some period, at which the change took place. 
It is generally admitted, that the notes called acute, grave, and 
circumflex, were in use two thousand years ago, to explain the 
pronunciation of Greek to foreigners ; and we have an incon- 
trovertible proof of the same accents now employed, having 
been in common use between seventeen and eighteen centuries 
ago,* in the verse of Euripides, found inscribed upon the wall 
of a street of Herculaneum, which was overwhelmed by qn 
eruption of Mount Vesuvius, in the reign of Titus. There 
seems nothing left, therefore, for those, who maintain that the 
accentuation of the modern Greeks in speaking is different 
from that of the ancients, but to suppose, that the same notes 
formerly used to indicate some unknown laws of pronunciation 
were, in or about the ages which gave rise to the accentual 
prosody of the modern Greeks, applied to fix a new mode of 
accentuation then introduced. Whether this hypothesis can 
easily be maintained, n^ust be left to the judgment of the 

" It must be confessed that, if we adopt modern accent, the 
metrical harmony of the ancients is not very easily ej^plained ; 
but as we are aware that our method of reading Greek verse does 
not depend upon quantity, but is regulated by a peculiar arrange- 
ment of accents, which we have borrowed from Latin verse of 
a similar structure, it cannot be asserted that it is the right 
mode of recitation : and it seems more important to adopt the 
modern Greek accent in common discourse, than, by sacrificing 
it for the sake of a kind of harmony in verse, which may be 

' Harmony in Language, Sect. 15. Art. 6. 

* Pittiire Antiche di Ercolano, t. ii. p. 34. Napoli, 1760. 

A fac-simile of this line may also be seen in Villoison's Anecdota 
Grffica. Dialriba, p. 207. 

The verse, '^; tv o-oipov ^ovXiv^a to; ttoXXw; x'''f'*? >"<''> 

is quoted by Polybius, 1. i. c. 35. 

At Herculaneum, the words j'v o-oipov are improperly written "cito ^oy, and 
Twj is not accented at all ; but these are probably only the ercors of an 
illiterate person. 

lie searches in Greece, 275 

widely different from that of the ancients, to render the language 
unintelligible to those, who still speak a dialect of it. 

" A question has often arisen among those who have remarked 
the present state of the Greek tongue, and the affinity of the 
modern dialect to the parent language, so much nearer than 
that of the languages derived from Latin to their original speech, 
whether it would not be practicable for the Greeks, as they be- 
come more civilised, and better acquainted with the writings of 
the ancients, to abolish the Romaic dialect entirely, and revive 
Hellenic ; and whether practicable or not, it certainly is not 
unreasonable to imagine, that, by giving an education exclusively 
Hellenic to the rising generation, the use of the vulgar speech 
might, in the course of time, be confined to the lower orders 
though not unintelligible to the higher, like the dialects of many 
parts of France and Italy, It may be conjectured, however, 
that their ignorance of ancient Greek music, and of the princi- 
ples of ancient harmony, and the discordance of Greek and 
Latin accent, which would prevent the Greeks from adopting 
that kind of harmony, which we give to Greek verse, by the use 
of Latin accent, would be the chief obstacles. It might soon 
become common for the Greeks to speak and write their ancient 
language more fluently, elegantly, and correctly, than it has ever 
been done by the learned of the rest of Europe ; but the verna- 
cular tongue has contracted too close a resemblance to that of 
the nations with whom, in a more advanced stage of civilisa- 
tion, the Greeks would have a constant intercourse, ever to 
become obsolete, it is to be feared, that the poetry of the 
ancient Greeks will not obtain all the credit \i deserves with 
tl>eir living descendants, until these are masters of the true 
method of reciting it ; and that while accent continues to be the 
only indicator of harmony among them, modern metre, and the 
jingle of rhyme, are likely to maintain their place. In such a 
case, therefore, if they cannot expel their modern dialect, its 
improvement ought to be a primary object with them ; and it 
can hardly be doubted, that with the advantage it possesses ol 
retaining a close affinity both with ancient Greek, and with the 
modern languages of Europe, and its consequent facility of 
receiving beauties from both, it might become equal, if not 
superior, to any modern European dialect." 

We apprehend that the author, notwithstanding his note, p. 
220, has not distinguished with sufficient expiicitness between 
emphasis and accent. The modern Greeks, even when they 
retain the accent on the same syllable as their ancestors, enij>loy 
it, as we corvcieve, merely to designat^e ictus or emphasis ; and 

276 Miscellanea Cfassica. 

it may be observed, that Major, now Colonel, Leake, through- 
out his book, in his references to modern Greek vvord.s, uses 
only the Bcute accent, as being competent for the purposes of 
the ancient acute, and grave, and circumflex. 


Continued from No. XIA. p. 152. 

I. XXOMER, in his account of the interview between Ulys- 
ses and Penelope, the fornjer being yet in disguise, describes 
ihe suppressed emotion of the hero on witnessing ihe tears 
excited by his narration : 

KhaiO'jjrii lov av^QO. Traprjixsvov avTUfj 'Odvcrczv; 
OvfjitZ [jlsv yoowa-xv srjv lAsajge yvvalxct, 
' 0<p&a.K[jio] S* cucrsj xipa ecrxacrav, yjs cr/Syj^oj, 
'ATgsiJi,us h ^Ksi^uqoKir So'AwS' oya dxxpvci xsuQsv. 

Od. xix. 208. 

This natural illustration has occurred to an old Spanish bal- 
lad-writer, (author of one, aniong several pieces of the kind, 
admirably translated in Blackwood's Magazine, No. xxxv.) in 
describing extreme old age : 

An old woman cometh forth, when she hears the people cry ; 
Her hair is white as silver, like horn her glazed eye. p. 4<J 1 . 

II. Hom. Od. xxiv. 330: 

OuX^v jLtev wpwTov Trjvds (Ppaa-ai 6<p6a\[xo1(nj 

Trjv h nupvYjCw jU.' eXaasv a-'Og Xsvxai odovTi 

Olp^o/xevov" cru SI f/.s Trpo'/eij xa.) TroTVja jW-^r^jp 

£j TTdTsp' AuToXvxov ju-ijTpoj (^t\ov, otfp' uv s\ol[X)^y 

Auipci, X. T. A. 
Perhaps the last lines would be better pointed thus : 

0]^6[j.svov, ah Ss !«,£ Trpotui xou Trorvtct [J^riTrig, 

'£j TTursp' AuTokvxov, x. t. A. 
Ij Trureg being supposed to pertain both to olxofj^-svov and Trpo/n?. 
There are several other passages in tlomer oi which the punc- 
tuation might possibly be altered with advantage, a similar con- 

Miscellanea Classica. 277 

slvuction having been apparently intended. Some of these we 
nia*" point out on a future occasion. 

III. Eur. Iph. Aul. 599. Markland. 

"Atto, fjiYj (T<paXspu)s Ittj t^v yaiuv, 
'Ayavcoi ds %spoTv, jutaAaxjj yvw^rt 
M^ Tixpj3rj<n^ jU.01 vsooctt) /xoAov 
To xXuvov Tsxvov 'Ayuixs[/,vmov. 

" In V. 600. Male inseritur articulus, quem in hujusniodi 
locutionibus Tragici non usurpant. — Ut male conjecerit Mark- 
landus Itt) Tfjv y^v. Legendum potius cum Heathio, sir) youavj" 
C, J. B. Mus. Crit. t. i. p. 188. Could the difficulty aris- 
ing from the short syllable av at the end of the line be obvi- 
ated, we might perhaps read rijv^ It:) yuictv. It would have 
been a bad omen, had she stumbled on first setting foot upon 
Trojan ground. 

IV. In the passage quoted from Homer's Hymn to Apollo 
by Thucydides, iii. 104. ujasTj 8' eu /xaAa wacraj uTTOx^Jvacrfle 
af i^jawj, is the conjecture o7roxg»v«(j-9a» (the infinitive for the impe- 
rative) admissible ? 

V. Blomfield's translation of Matthias's Greek Grammar, 
Vol. i. p. 167. § 1'55. Catalogue of Comparatives and Super- 
latives, of which no positive is left: *' >jV<ra)v, neutr, ^o-crov, &c. 
— ri^ia-Tu, improperly assigned to jxixgof, from which it deviates 
in its signification ; it means * weaker.' Comp. § 130. Obs." 
(An error, for 131.) In the section referred to we read : " "Ha-a-wv 
or rJTTwv must have been formed from ^po-jwy for yjf^Krvg. Yet the 
superlative rjKKrTot. seems to indicate, that it is properly r^xluiv, 
from an unknown positive." Does not rjxKrra correspond with 
the positive yjkcc, " slightly," " gently," (derived perhaps from 
the obsolete >jxuf, as cuxa from wxvf, whence also ^xkttx)? 
Horn. II. XX. 438. 

^H poi, x«» ajxTTSTraAwv Trpo'isi Sopu, xa) Toy 'A^vyj 

We may take this opportunity of observing, that the valuable 
work, to which we have just referred, is not printed with the 
accuracy which might have been wished. We would instance a 
few errata: p. 155, 1. 20, for nom. sing, read tiom. ace. sing.; 
p. 15G, 1. 10, for TToWoh read ttoAXow ; p. lG5, 1. 12, for uireooj. 

278 Miscellanea Clossica, 

vTrepos; p. l66, 1. 21, for " latter," "former;"' p. 173, 1.6, for 
fj^u), xa) ; p. 170, 1. 4, for § 139, | 140; p. 180, 1. 11, for {r{x,ft, 
vfjifis. Nor do we intend to depreciate the merits of the trans- 
lation, when we remark that there is an occasional uncouthness 
in the style. 

VI. Additional metrical line. Thuc, ii. 22. crTaasasc sxaTspo^ 
Ix hs *Pap(ra\ov, Mhwv. 

VII. The passage of Statius, quoted in p. 28. of the last 
Class. Journ. (Art. 10), has been imitated also by Jonson in his 
Catiline : describing the battle in which that traitor lost bis life, 
he says : 

The furies stood on hills, 

Circling the place, and trembling to see men 
Do more than they ; while pity left the field, 8cc. 

The latter idea seems also to be adopted from the same pas- 
sage of Statius. lb. 1. 8, for iv. read iii. 

VIII. Homer (11. xvii. 434.) describing the grief testified 
by the horses of Patroclus for the death of their master, says : 

" fl<TTs (TTy]KYi ij.evsi e/ATsSov, yJt Ittj rvfji^M 

'Avsgog elcrTrjXn Ts9v>]0T0f, ris yvvumog' 

Tig ftevov acr<paXea)5 TrspjxaAXsa Si'ctgoi sp^ovTsc,— 

Hence Glover in his Leonidas : (Book ix.) 

As a marble form 

Fix'd on the solemn sepulchre, inclines 
The silent head in imitated woe 
O'er some dead hero, whom his country lov'd ; 
Entranc'd by anguish, o'er the breathless clay. 
So hung the princess. 

Coleridge, in a fine allegoric vision prefixed to his second 
Lay Sermon, has fallen upon a similar expressive image: he 
compares a figure seated in silent abstraction, to ** an emblem 
on a rich man's sepulchre." 

IX. Mitford, Vol. i. p. l6l. " The combat of the chiefs, 
so repeatedly described by Homer, advancing to engage singly 

' We recollect a similar instance in another Grammar, the word last 
put for first. This was owing, as no doubt in the present case, to aii 
accident in the press work. — Ed. 

Miscellanea Classica. 279 

ki front of their line of battle, is apt to strike a modern reader 
with an appearance of absurdity much beyond the reality. 
Before the use of fire-arms, that practice was not uncommon, 
when the art of war was at its greatest perfection. Czesar 
himself gives, with evident satisfaction, a very particular account 
of a remarkable advanced combat, in which, not generals indeed, 
but two centurions of his army engaged. The glory attached 
at Rome to the acquisition of the spolia opima might have 
been still more appositely mentioned here. 

X. To the passage quoted from Lord Byron as parallel 
to Virgil's description of Mount Atlas, in Misc. Class. No. viii. 
(C. J. No. xli. pp. 25, 26.) add the following from Montgo- 
mery's Greenland, which we think not unworthy of being asso- 
ciated with the others. He is describing an Icelandic moun- 

Of Alpine height and mould 

Schapta's unshaken battlements behold ; 
His throne an hundred hills ; his sun-crown'd head 
Resting on clouds ; his robe of shadow spread 
O'er half the isle ; he pours from either hand 
An unexhausted river through the land. 

Campbell's well-known picture may also be quoted. 

On Atlantic waves he rides afar. 

Where Andes, giant of the western star, 
With meteor-standard to the winds unfurl'd. 
Looks from his throne of clouds on half the world. 

Dr. Symmons's translation of the passage of Virgil is worth 
subjoining : 

In his flight he sees great Atlas rise — 

Gigantic Atlas, on whose piny brow 
Beat ceaseless winds, and gathering winters blow : 
Snows veil his shoulders ; from his chin descends 
The rush of floods ; in ice his beard depends. 

iv. 309. 

XI. To Mitford's conjectures (Vol. ix. p. 178, &c.) con- 
cerning the family and government of Pharnabazus, it may be 
added, that Herodotus (passim) and Thucydides (i. 129-) men- 
tion an Artabazus, son of Pharnaces, in the time of Xerxes, the 
latter as satrap of Dascylium ; that Pharnaces son of Pharnabazus 
IS mentioned Thuc. ii. 67, in circumstances apparently demon- 

£80 Corrections in the Translation 

strating a connexion with the family of Mr. Mitford's favorite 
hero ; and that the terms of the treaty recorded in Thuc. viii. 
58, ^uvSrjKon eyevovTO Jaxe^aiixov'KOV xct) 7u>v ^ufjifiix^MV Trgo; Tkt- 
(Tocipe^vi/jv xa) 'hqct^zvr^v, xa< touj <Pa.pva.HOU TraiSac, bear no 
unfavorable aspect on some of the historian's speculations. The 
subject is scarcely worth pursuing, or perhaps other arguments 
might be found. Possibly, the origin of the great Mithridates 
might be traced to the same family. — We are not satisfied with 
Mr. Mitford's substitution of Polydamas for Polyaces, (ix. 
p. 79.) «or with some of his strictures on the democratical 




in the common Translation of the New Testament. 

No. V. 

*^* I venture to continue these remarks from No. XXXII. 
of the Classical Journal. They are intended to prove that, 
although the expediency of a revision of the Common Trans- 
lation is apparent, the necessary corrections are much fewer, 
and less important, than some of the advocates for a new 
Translation have asserted. C. P. 

Acts of the Apostles. 

Chaptep 1. V. 1. of on. 

V. 2. After that he, through the Holy Ghost, had given com- 
mandments to the Apostles, whom he had chosen, when he had 
given to the Apostles, whom he had chosen, directions for what 
they were to perform through the Holy Ghost. 

V. 4. Which, saith he, ye, which you. (The addition in the 
commont ranslation destroys the beautiful Conversion menlioned 
by Longinus. §. 27.) 

V. 6. restore again, restore. 

V. 11. which also, who (et passim). 

V. 14. and Mary, particularly Mary. 

V. 15. and said', (the number of the names together icere aboui 
120), whose number was about 120, and said. 

V. 20. bishoprick, office. 

of the New Testament. 281 

V. 21. which have companiedwith us, who have accompanied 

— went in and out among us, was conversant among us. 

Ch. II. V. 3. cloven tongues like as ofjire, and it sa^, tongues 
Bs of fire, distributed and sitting. 

V. 4. with other, in different. 

V. 8. man in, man speaking in, 

V. 20. notable, illustrious. 

V. 22. approved, distinguished. 

V. 17' in hell, in the place of the dead. 

V. 41. were added unto them, were added. 

V. 47. such as should be saved, those who were saved (allud- 
ing to a-wSrjTs, v. 40). 

Cm. ill. v, 2. whom they, who was. 

V. 3. an alms, alms of them. 

v. 13. denied him, denied. 

V. l6. by him, in Jesus. 

V. 17. wot, know (et passim). 

V. 18. But fulfilled. But God has thus fulfilled those 

things, which he had before show n by the mouth of all his Pro- 
phets, that Christ should suffer. 

Ch. IV. V. 1, Captain, Captain of the guard. 

V. 4. which heard the zeord, w ho had heard the discourse. 

V. 7. them, Peter and John. 

V. 13. took knowledge of them, knew. 

V. 2\. folding nothing, not finding. 

v. 24. zvhen they, when the other Apostles. 

V.34. ani/ among them that lacked, any poor among them. 

Ch. V. v. 9. tempt, provoke. 

v. 12. Jnd by the hands oj the Apostles were many signs and 
wonders wrought among the people, and they, and many signs 
and wonders were wrought among the people by the Apostles, 

v. 15. overshadow, cover. 

v. 24. doubted of them whereunto this would grow, wondered 
how this could have happened. 

v. 26. for they feared the people, lest they should be stoned, 
for they were afraid of being stoned by the people. 

V. 34. to put the Apostles forth a little space, that the Apos- 
tles should withdraw for a short time. 

v, 40. to, with. 

Ch. VI. v. 2. reason, reasonable. — serve tables, attend to the 

v. 6. and when they had prayed, they laid, who, having pray- 
ed, laid. 

282 Corrections in the Translation 

V. 14. u»f to us. 

Ch. VII. V, 2. Ae sa/^, Stephen said. — MeUy brethren, Bre- 

V. 4. he removed, God removed, 

V. 5. and he, He. 

V. 10. one? he, who. 

V. 23. iV came into his heart, he resolved. 

V. 26. 5ef Mew at one again, reconciled them, 

T, 37. iike unto me, as he has raised up me. 

V. 38. the lively oracles, the words of life. 

V. 39. to whom, whom. 

V. 44. as he had appointed, speaking nnto Moses, that he 
should, as God had appointed, in ordering Moses to. 

V. 45. Jesus, Joshua. 

V. 59. calling upon God, calling upon. 

Ch. VIII. V. 3. haling, dragging* 

V. 4. therefore, but. 

V. 5. the, a. 

V. 9' giving out that hitnself was some great one, pretending 
to be a wonderful man. 

V. 15. for them, for the Samaritans. 

V. 17. Then laidthei/, then the Apostles laid. 

\,SS. both Philip, Philip. 

Ch. IX. V. 2. to Damascus to the Synagogues, to the Syna- 
gogues of Damascus. 

V. 7- stood, remained. — way, sent. 

V. 8. when his eyes were opened, although his eyes were open. 

V. 15. a chosen vessel, a choice instrument. 

V. 20. CAns^y Jesus. 

V. 26. assayed, attempted. 

V, 27. a7id that he, who. 

Ch. X. V. 22. words of thee, thy instructions. 

V. 35. accepted with him, acceptable to him. 

V. 40. shozced him, showed. 

v.AQ.zcith tongues, in different languages. 

Ch. XI. V. 1. had also, also had. 

V. 4. rehearsed, related. — by, in. 

V. 5. descend, descending. 

V. 6. Upon the which when I had fastened my eyes, I opu' 
sidered, and, Having attentively examined it, I. 

V. 13. and he showed us how, who informed us that. 

V. 15. / began to speak, I was speaking. 

V. 18. also to the Gentiles, to the Gentiles also. 

V, 19. about, after. 

of the New Testament, 283 

V. 23. that with purpose of heart they would, firmly to. 

Ch. XII. V. 4. Easter, the Passover. 

V. y. him, the Angel. — wist not that it was trite^ which was 
done by the Jngel, knew not that what was done by the Angel 
was real. 

V. 1 1. of a surety, with certainty. 

V. l6. saw, seen. 

V. '20. was highly displeased with them of Tyre and Sidon, 
meditated war against the Tyrians and Sidonians. 

V. 2.S. eafe}i of worms, and gave up the ghost, consumed by 
worms, and died. 

V. 25. 7ninistry, commission. 

Cn. XIII. V. 9- also is called, is called also. 

V. 15. sflj/ ow, speak. 

V. 27. him not, not Jesus. — voices, words. — they have, have. 

V. 48. ordained, disposed. 

Ch. XIV. V. 5. of the Gentiles, and also of, by the Gentiles 
and by. 

V. 13. which, whose temple. — done, offered. 

V. 23. ordained them elders, ordained elders over them. 

V. 27. with them, through them. 

Ch. XV. V. 2. they, it was. — other of them, others. 

V. 4. with them, through them. 

V. 5. which believed, who had embraced the Christian faith* 

V. 7. among us, of us. 

V. 12. a7id gave audience to Barnabas and Paul declaring, 
and heard Barnabas and Paul declare. 

V. 31. when they, when the Christian converts. 

V. 33. a space, they were let go, some time, they departed. 

V. 38. to take him with them, who departed, to take with 
them one, who had departed. 

Ch. XVI. V, 1. Place the Son — to Greek in a parenthesis. 

V. 10. assuredly gathering, concluding. 

V. 14. whose heart the Lord opened, the Lord opened her 

V. 16. met us, which brought her masters much gain by sooth- 
saying, which brought her masters much gain by soothsaying, 
met us. 

V. 17. The same folloxced Peter and us, and cried, saying, 
As she followed Paul and us, she cried out. 

V. 22. rent off their clothes, and commanded to beat them, 
commanded them to be stripped and scourged. 

V. 33. baptized, he and all his, straightway, immediately bap- 
tized with all his household. 

V. 37. nay verily, no truly. 

284 Corrections in the Translation 

Ch. XVII. V. 5. lewd, idle. — company/, crowd. 

V. 8. and they troubled the people and the rulers of the 
city, and the people and the rulers of the city were troubled. 

V. 11. noble, ingenuous. 

V. 14. as it were to, as if towards. 

V. ig. unto, to the court of. 

V. 22. too superstitious, very religious. 

V. 23. your devotion, the objects of your worship, 

V. 24. seeing that he is, being. 

V. 26. and hath determined the times before appointed, and 
the bounds of their habitation, having fixed the appointed times, 
and the boundaries of their habitation. 

V. 30. winked at, overlooked. 

V. 34. among the which was, as. 

Ch. XVIII. V. 6. clean, clear of it. 

V. 7. a certain mans house, the house of a man.— joined 
hard to, was near. 

V. 14. wrong or wicked lewdness, injustice or wicked propen- 

V. 26. whom zchen Jtjuila and Priscilla had heard, when 
Aquilaand Priscilla had heard him. 

V. 28. Christ, the Messiah. 

Ch. XIX. V. 2. whether there be any Holy Ghost, that the 
Holy Ghost is given. 

V. 3. into, with. 

V. 8. disputing, discussing. 

V. 9- divers, many. — way, doctrine.— disputing, teaching. 

V. 21. purposed in the spirit, resolved. 

V. 24. for Diana, of Diana. 

V. 32. 7nore, greater. 

V. 35. how that, that. — a worshipper, the guardian ot liie 

Ch. XX. v. 4. dele into Asia. 

\. 9- toft, story. 

V. 11. so, then. 

V. 21. testifying, preaching. 

v. 30. of, among. 

Ch. XX J. V. 5. zeith reives, with their wives. 

v. 15. we took up our course and went up to Jerusalem, 
we prepared ourselves for our journey to Jerusalem. 

V. 20. unto him, to Paul. 

V. 21. the customs, the customs of the law. 

V. 22. What is it therefore, What then must be done : 

V. 25. concluded, decreed. 

V, 37. to be led, entering. 

of the New Teatament. 285 

V. 40. licence, leave. 

Ch. XXII. V. 2. kept the more silence, were more si- 

V. 3. / am verily a man rehich am a Jezc, I am a Jew. 

V. 4. this way unto the death, the Christian religion to death. 

V. y. heard, understood. 

V. 30. appear, meet. 

Ch. XXlil. V. 1. Men and brethren, Brethren. 

V. 3. shall, will. 

V, 6. hope and resurrection, hope of the resurrection. 

V. 12. banded together, formed a conspiracy. 

V. 27. should have been, was on the point of being. 

V. 33. zcho, the horsemen. 

Ch. XXIV. V. 1. who informed, to inform. 

V. 6. gone about, attempted. 

V. 12. neither raising up the people, neither in the synagogue^ 
7ior in the city, nor raising the people either in the synagogue 
or in the city. 

V. 27. came into Felix' room, and Felix, willing to show the 
Jews a pleasure, succeeded Felix, who, to gratify the Jews. 

Ch. XXV. V. 3. a7id desired favor against him, requesting. 
■ — laying wait in the way to kill him, formed a plan to kill him 
on the road. 

V. 5. which among you are able, the best informed among 
you. — wickedness, guilt. 

V. 14. declared FauVs cause, explained the case of Paul. 

V. 25. I have determined, I determined. 

Ch. XXVI. V. 5. most straitest, strictest. 

V. \\. persecuted them unto strange, forced them to fly to 

V. 15. But, Therefore. 

V. IG. in the which I shall appear nniothee, in which I shall 
instruct thee. 

V. 21. went about, aitevnplGd. 

V. 23. the people, this people. 

V. 25. speakforth, speak. 

V. 26. also, tlierefore. — this thing was, they were. 

V. 31. between, among, 

Ch. XXV U. v. 7. not suffering us, being contrary. 

V. 9. the fast, the season.' 

V. 14. wind, called Euroclydon. North-East wind. 

V, 2 1 . gained, saved. 

V. 23. the angel, an angel. — given thee, granted thee the 
preservation of. 

V. 3y. they knew not the land, but they discovered a certain 

286 Notice of Dr. Symmons^ 

creek with a shore, they discovered an unknown land with a 

V. 40. taken up, cut. — rudder bauds, helm. 

Ch. XXVm. V. }.. they were^ we had, — ihey knew, we 

V. 2. barbarous people, barbarians. 

V. 3, there came a viper out of the heat, a viper was forced 
out by the heat. 

V. 4. beast, animal. — vengeance, divine justice. 

V. 13. set a compass, and came, sailed round. 

V. 14. 50, then. 

V, 31 no man forbiddipg him, vyithout molestation. 


The MNEIS OF VIRGIL, translated hij C, SYM~ 
MONSf D. D. of Jesus College, O.vford, 4to.' 

V lEGiL has frequently been fortunate in meeting translators of 
taste and spirit congenial to his own. We allude to the 
attempts of Pitt, Sotbeby, the Abbe De Lille, and the present 
translator. Virgil may be placed at the head of tlie artiticial 
class of poets ; those who, with distinguished abilities indeed, 
but not of the highest order, have obtained, by means of un- 
wearied industry and a skilful use of their talents, a place in 
popular estimation beside the great masters of the art. He is to 
be considered as the representative of the Roman age of poetry ; 
the age of polish, minute elegancies, subdued beauty, and stately 
dignity. No writers, who have been habitually classed together, 
ever differed more in the quality of their genius (not to mention 
the immeasurable distance in point of magnitude) than Homer 
and his disciple Virgil. It has sometimes occurred to us, that 
the comparison may be illustrated by the difference between ihe 
shield of Achilles and that of ^neas : the one a kind of reflected 
universe — a living picture of nature and human life in all their 

' On the scene of this transaction, see a learned dissertation in Classi 
■il Journal, No. XXXVIII.— Ed. 
^ We perceive that a second edition in octavo has just appeared. 

Mneis of Virgil, 287 

^arie^ies : the other a splendid history-piece, a noble work of 
art, dedicated to the glory of the Roman nanje ;' but, as a mere 
yi^ork of art, no more to be compared to its prototype than the 
dome of a ca,thedral to the great arch of heaven. Homer is a 
god ; one who can ** wield these elements ;" Virgil is only the 
most accomplished of mortals. The poetry of the one is a 
mighty river, traversing a whole continent, and reflecting in its 
mirror all the landscapes of nature and all the habitations and 
employments of man ; that of the other is a fair and stately 
stream indeed, but confined within comparatively puny banks, 
and regulated in its course by art, yet winding among an agreea- 
ble succession of objects, and assorting best with the works of 
rural peace and the scenes of love. 

Tjbris ea fluvium, quam longa est, nocte tumeptenj 

Leniit, et tacita refluens ita substitit unda, 

Mitis ut in morem stagni placidaeque paludis 

Sterneret aequor aqiiis, remo ut luctamen ahesset. 

Ergo iter inceptum celerant ; rumore secundo 

Labitnr uncta vadis abies : mirantur et und<e, 

Miratur neinus insuetum fulgentia longe 

Scuta vinim, fluvio pictasque innare carinas, 

Olli remigio noctemque diemque fatigant, 

Et longos superant flexus, variisque teguntur 

Arboribus, viridesque secant placido aequore sylvas. 
For the above hasty and crude observations we must beg par-r 
don of the reader, and return to our proper subject, lest he 
should suspect us of having robbed (and murdered too) some 
modern lecturer on poetry, or critic. Of English translations 
of the iEneid, Dryden's and Pitt's are most in vogue. The 
former, like most of its author's performances in the same vvay, 
is rather a transmutation than a transfusion of the original. 
Denliam, or some other of our older writers, gives it as his 
opinion, that a translator of poetry ought to extract the spirit of 
the original, and infuse a new one of his own ; if by this it is 
meant that the translator should impart the peculiar coloring of 

' Perhaps we shall be thought a little fanciful — but we cannot help 
considering ^Eneas, as delineated in the poem which bears his name, no 
bad representative of his posterity the Romans, in the representation of 
Livy; a brave soldier and a good general, observant of the offices of 
religion, and particularly tenacious of his relative duties — the Grandisori 
of heroic times ; invading the rights of others on the best possible pre- 
texts, and conquering countries merely in self-defence. To do him jus- 
tice, indeed, this is rather the impression of his character left on the 
mind of the reader, than the reality as intended by Virgil; in which 
there are some really nohle points. Virgil has defined ^Eneas a true 
hero; but he wanted skill to paint him as such. 

2SS yofic€ of Dr. Symmons* 

hi* own mii>d to the work tnndited in Hea of that br wbich it 
was before ctirscterised, 3t seems s sinnge crhjcal precept ; yet 
tkis rule Drrden p«cticallT to8o«e<i. To his .£iieid maj be 
applied «hat ttts been s»id of Kean's Coriaianus. It is ^^t 
Tk^il ; but k b a good duD^ of a difnerent kind. It has little or 
soduDg oiike d^mtr, tke taademess, tbe delicacv, the equcible 
delkacT of Ae annual ; bat it has a vigor, a freedom, a de- 
fehtfial%Tv»citT. of trhkh die ordinal affiwds do exampk. It is 
trahr and pcoperij IhydeM's JE^^ii. With all its coarsenesses, 
Ihcac f bre , and ksiixqiBlities, as a poem it b bejoud ccmpanson 
aapenor to aaoy of ks saccessor? ; as a translation it ranks below 
Ad.^ Pitt esUfaits &r nsofe of his author's peculiar character ; 
baft be v^ts fire : aud m his attonpts to nsake \ irgi! duer than 
Ik B, be freqveodj gagaresteiB. He is perpetuallv -' gilcing tbe 
refined gold. '^ He wanted die powa^ of his master Pope. 

IwUmi, of Dt. SjianoBs's traosladoQ from our pre5cr.t 
acnwbMce with it, we Atmid pefkaps s^v, that it has more 
poetTT tiavi Pitt's, sBd nwore resenfalaace to the onginai iLzn 
Drydet's, bot ovedoaded viith oruameDt, and a liiiie riebcieni ia 
ease. In this last respect be is inferior ic Pitt. Piu"s couple is 
fioOow offle anptber a lasandtf and —icwbafrassed pomp, lile 
dK hLAJMc fc jJ!. of flwdiiii, or tbe sesteaces » Johssoo s Ram- 
bin^ His weapoK ■ny be kdoior, boi be vieUs ibesD with 
more f*dJktf. The tiefect of Dr. Sjsmas's per^onnnoe^ 
^ited, is a perradiig air of ssiftiess, and (if we my so express 
r) a Tt of t -mr—'-j He secsK to be de6deat ia the 
pover — Aeaf^HofwIy. Oae pai^;npb socreeds 
bat is Mt ooakiMd viik iti The diffoeat parts of bis 

Hesce a perpetaai a«a seqaatmr — aa as ct tRcomst- 
fmemce, wfecb hil ii Ae wadar Araa^oat tbe wbole iron. On 
Ae mbole, bovevcr, coaU Ae perfimaace before us be deared 
af ibe f^aks viA if^mck k is ♦iM»»ilr«l y we are not certain that 
k Kaald not be sapeikir lo^aaj rrwnifaitiA" of \ irgii in cur 1^- 
gae^e. Tbe aatbor ili^^js a practised ^jlk in tLe maoageiBest 
of tbe cocplet of Pope, and seeais to aariersiand tbe niuBer ous 
ilde scoets cf eleganoe, vbieb cowdtaie nicb of its cbaxai. 
He kas hkewbe a oocere a&ctiea lor his anthor, and eaten 
iaio Ae (fiscasaoa of hb escdeacies caa amtore. But we 
ahafl cocteat ourselves vkb extnctiag a few ifieriaiFms ; kafifig 
af Ac raedts of oar avAor to 

yUnels of VirgiL ' 289 

The following is the Dr.'s version of the exoidiuni : 
Armp^and the man who fiist, by Fate's cominand, 
Trom Ihon flying, sought ItaUa's strand, 
And gain'd Laviuium, are my themes of song. 
Long toss'd by waves, on land he suffer'd long : 
From power supernal, such his doom of woe ; 
By her deep ire condeain'd as Juno's foe. 
Much too in war he bore, ere Fate assign'd 
Ilis walls to rise, or gods to be enshrined 
In Latium: whence the Latin oftspring came, 
Old Alba's chiefs, and Rome's majei^tic frame. 

The description of the ^^olian cave is thus rendered : 

While thus she gave her boiling bosom vent, 
Her course the Goddess to ^Lolia oent. 
Parent of storms; within whose pregnant womb 
The whirlwind grows in power, and heaves for room. 
The winds, his restless subject*, here with chains, 
In a vast cave, king jEoIus constrainf. 
Mad with control), they shake their prison's bounds ; 
And the high mountain with tiieir howl resounds. 
Aloft in state their sceptred Lord presides; 
Soothes their fierce spirits, and their fury guides. 
By him uncheck'd, their lasvless force would tear 
Earth, seas, and skies, and scatter them in air. 
Prescient of this, in caverns, deep in night, 
The Sire of Nature plunged their dangerous might: 
With mountains crush'd, and gave a king to awe; 
To hold or loose them with the reins of law. 
Our next extract shall be the description of the harbour in 
-which the Trojan ships took refuge after the storiji : 
There, in the bosom of the land recess'd, 
Screen'd by a fronting island's rocky breast, 

Which breaks the surges rolling from the main, 

Spreads a deep haven m a glas^^y plain. 

Clifis threat on either side; and o'er them rise 

Two giant summits, that invade the skies. 

JIutc at their feet the subject waves repose; 

And woods, sun-lighted, glitters on their brows. 

Gloomy beneath, the shades collected throw 

A sable horror on the tlood below. 

Where the barr'd waters meet the closing land, 

A grot is arch'd by Nature's curious hand. 

Within the fretted dome fresh foimtains play ; 

And scats of spar reflect a living ray; 

Haunt of the nymphs. In this environ'd sea 

The wave-worn vessels float at liberty : 

Safe, though by no retaining cables bound ; 

Nor held with biting anchors to the ground. 
We give the following, as no unfavorable specimen of our 
author's narrative style : 

We sail, till near us the Ceraunia rise ; 

Whence o'er the narrowest main Italia lies. 


590 Notice of Dr. Symmons* 

AnJ now the sun in mellowing glory fades; 

And all the mountains solemn twilight shades. 

The watch we fix by lot ,- then, landing, rest, 

Stretch'd at our ease on earth's delicious breast. 

There, as diffused we lie, sleep's genial dews 

Bathe our tired nerves, and healing power infuse. 

Night by the hours, her sable handmaids, driven. 

Had scarcely gain'd the steepy brow of heaven j 

When from his slumbers Palinurus sprung ; 

And on the breeze with ear attentive hung: 

Then view'd the stars that gemm'd the ethereal plain, 

The showery Hyads, and the northern wain : 

Mark'd as, unstain'd with mists, Arclurus roH'd ; 

And great Orion flamed in arms of gold. 

Then, when he saw the heavens undiinm'd with cloud, 

He gave the signal from his ship aloud. 

Our camp we move, and to the sea repair; 

Spread our wide sails, and catch the spreading air. 

Aurora's blushes purple now the skies ; 

And every star before her radiance flies : 

When, stretch'd in shady perspective, we see 

The hills and prostrate shores of Italy. 

" Italia!" first Achates' shouts proclaim : 

And all our ships resound Italia's name. 
In the sixth book, that exquisite specimen of Virgilian art and 
power, Dr. Symnions has not been so successful. We sub- 
join the conversation between JEneas and Deiphobus, as illustra- 
tive of the charges which we have brought against the author's 
manner, and as affording a better idea of the general style of the 
translation, than some of the preceding extracts : 
And here, Deiphobus ! he saw thy shade ; 

Whose form the havoc of the sword betray'd : 

Lopp'd of both haiids ; the head of ears bereft ; 

And with dishonest wounds the nostrils cleft. 

Him as he shrunk, desirous to conceal 

The dire defacements of the mangling steel, 

iEneas hardly knew, and first address'd, 

Surprise and sorrow struggling in his breast : 

" Deiphobus! renown'd for martial force ! 

With blood derived from god-like Teucer's source ! 

What heart could wish th"e vengeance that I see ? 

What hand had power to wreak it thus on thee? 

Fame told me that, in Troy's disastrous night, 

O'erspent with slaughter, not o'ercome in hght. 

Thou fell'st upon accumulated death, 

The unconquer'd hero to thy latest breath. 

Then on Rhoeteum's shore a tomb I raised ; 

Gave it thy name, and with thine arms emblazed : 

And ill rice my lifted voice invoked thy shade. 

Thy tor^e, my friend ! escaped the search I made ; 

JEneis of Vii^gih 29 1 

And wrong'd my wish, to thee and friendship just. 
To place in Phrygian earth thy hononr'd dust." 

*' AW," said the mournful ghost of Priam's son, 
" For my sad corse thy piety has done. 
These wrongs from Fate and Helen's guilt I prove : 
These the dire tokens of tfie Spartan's love! 
Too well thou know'st in what pernicious joy 
We pass'd the night that saw the wreck of Troy : 
The scene with horror memory recalls; 
When big with death the horse o'erleapt our walls, 
And triumph'd in our town : that fateful night, 
Pretending orgies and the festive rite, 
Girt with our female Bacchanals, she raised 
In her fell hand the signal flame, that blazed 
To point the Grecians to their destined prey. 
Spent with the toils and pleasures of the day, 
In the disastrous room my couch I press'd, 
VVith senses whelm'd in sweet and death-deep rest. 
The egregious wife meanwhile disarm'd her lord ; 
And robb'd my pillow of my trusty sword. 
Then, fondly deeming with my blood, thus spilt. 
To blot the record of her former guilt, 
And make a great peace- uftering of ray fate, 
She to her Grecian spouse unlock'd my gate. 
Why should I more the dreadful tale prolong? 
With curst Ulysses in the assassin throng. 
They burst my chamber, and my sleep invade. 
O ! be the murderous deed on Greece repaid ! 
If justly, O ye Gods ! my voice demands 
This debt of vengeance from your righteous hands. 
But thou, in turn, declare what wondrous cause 
To these sad realms thy daring footstep draws, 
Comest thou a wanderer by fierce Ocean driven ? 
Compell'd by Fortune, or the will of Heaven ? 
That thus in depths, where sun-beams never dive. 
Thou roam'st Death's pallid universe alive." 
Dr. Symmons has thrown too much of an English coloring 
over his original. We have also to complain of a few Johnsonian 
or Darwinian Latinisms, such as, 

My wretched food has been the herbaceous field, iii. 848. 
The sire dismiss'd them through the eburnean gate. vi. 1199. 
Such hnes as the following are too plain-spoken for Virgil : 
But ah ! without the Gods 'tis vain to hope success, ii. 634. 
These things befal us by the Gods' high will. ib. 1042. 
The translation of " poUutum hospitium," (^iEn. iii. 6l.) is 
faulty in a contrary way : 

thp. shore 
Where Hospitality had died in gore. 1. 80. 
So also in the tifih book : 

placida laxarant membra quiete 
Sub remis fusi per dura sedilia nauta;. 1. 836. 

292 On the Interpretation of 

In placid rest the seamen's wearied ranks 

Found toilcoulii soften beds of caked planks, i, lOGO. 
We may remark that in his description of Polypheme, in the 
third ^neid, our author has unwarily crossed the path of a 
modern satirical poet : 

Lanigerffi comitantur oves : ea sola voluptas, 

Solanrienque mail. 1. 660. 

Tliis Dr. Symmons, imitating the alliteration of his original, 
renders : 

Jiis fleecy vassals wait upon their lord ; 

These the sole solace that his ills afford. 1. 862. 
This reminds us of Kotzebue's " reformed housekeeper," 
who, as described in the poetry of the Antijacobin, 

Bids brandied cherries, by infusion slow. 

Imbibe new flavour, and their own forego, 

Sole cordial of her heart, sole solace of her woe !' 



\_Exlraclcd from Episi. Crii. Barkeri ad Boissonad. appended lo an Edition 
of Arcadius, just published at Leipsic.~\ 

V ox Ku^agm; aliquando usurpatur pro purgatione i. e. cultura 
animi per philosophiam, qu£e, ut a veteribus philosophis detini- 
tum est, (vide Senecam Ep. 89.) nihil aliud est quam rerum 
divinarum et humanarum, quibus hiE res continentur, scientia. 

Eunapius in Vita Maximi p. 86. ed. 1568. : Sv Sh toutmv (jly^Uv 
^utrixaTYig, axTTnp oiits lyoo, tioi tou Koyou xa9«pcrjv, jU-sya tj 
X^^l'^^ u7roAa)x/3a;/a>, propterea quod ratio nos rectius imbuerit. 

Pint, in Libro, An Seni Resp. gerenda sit, c. 8. : Ovlsyuq i) 
Tou (ppovsiv i^ig Qfjioiwi Trapajxsvsj roig {j,iOel(Tiv avrovc, a\\' vtt apylocg 


p.5A£T>jv, TO XoyiaTiKov hyeipo6(Trii xui dta.KCi$iuipo6TYjg' 
Kct.[x.7T^i yup ev ^psluicrtv axTTTsg suTrpcTirjg 

» ■■■'' ,1.1 - . 1 

' Southey (Thalaba xi.) has " Friend and sole solace of my solitude." 

Aristotle's /rt?7^o^^s Definition of Tragedy. 293 

Sic vox uvuKa^apcrii exponitur a Maximo in Scholiis p. 48. 
allegoric! et recondili sensus anagogica explanatio : 'AvuxoL^uocng 

ZoxovvTWv oiTOTToov Tu a>j[xj2oKa. Conf. Budaeum Comnjent. Gi. 
L., II, Steph. Thes., et Suicerutn Thes. Eccles. 

Ut apud Lat. Scriptores philosophia est duplex, physica, 
qute " sludeat omnium rerum divinarum atque humanarum vim, 
naturam, causasque nosse" (Cic. de Oiat. I. 49.)^ et ethica, 
*' animi medicina" (Cic, Tusc. 3, 6. c. 3.), *' quae vitia radicitiis 
extrahit" (Tusc, 2, 13, c. 5.), " ars vita?" (De Fin. 3, 4. c. 2.), 
^' magistra virtulis"(Tusc, 4, 70.), " mater omnium benefactorum 
beneque dictorum" (de Clar, Orat. 11. 322.), sic xaQapa-is ap. 
Grascos scriptores, quae nihil aliud est, ut diximus, quam aninii 
cultura per philosophiam, aliquando, ut in Eunapii loco, refe- 
renda est ad physicam sapienliam, quae rerum naturam perscru- 
tatur, aliquando autem ad ethicam, quse animum componir, 
afFcctns quasi purgans, imminuens, leniens, teniperans, " ita ut 
ad>jT« quandam, i. e, mediocritatem, restringantur ; in 
mediocritate enim ista virtutem positam esse, * perturbationi- 
busque adhibendum modum quendam, quern ultra progredi 
non oporteat,' ut loquitur Cic. Tusc. IV. 17., docebat Aristo- 
tcles, Ethic. Nicom, II. 5. p, 27. e." Matthiae Miscell, philolog. 
Vol.11. P. I. pap, 23, In hoc postremo sensu vox x«fi«^(r<j 
usurpaturap, Aristotelem Poet, c, (5.: 

"Ea-Tiv ovv rpuy^/^ViU f^laYjcrt; Ttga^swg o-7rot;S«i'«j xct) TeXsla^f 
jxBytSog ly(^ouTr^i, rj^ivcrixhcp Koyco, yo^fii skuo-tm (sic Tyrwh. pro 
exacTTOu) TuiV elScov Iv rolg ixoploig, dpujvTwv huI ov Sj' a.T:a.yysKla.g, uXKa. 
2(' lAeoy xou <f o|3ou, Tspatvovcru xr^v Twv TOicuTWV TTuQrjfxtxTMv xada^criv. 

Ad hunc insignem Aristotelis locum dubio procul respexit 
Jamblichus de Myst. sect, I, cap. 11. p. 22. : 

"Eysi 8' en TctvTct ho.) a\Kov Xoyov toiovtov al tivvaixsig twv 
ay^puiirlvcuv TrafljjjxaTWv h ri/xr/, ttoivty} (jav upyouy^zvcti, xaSiVravTaj 
<T<poopoTspar elj hvspysiccv 8j, /Sgap^eT? x«» «%§< toD a-vjx^iTpov 
'rrpouyof/.sva.i, ^aipouci fj.?Tplooc, kuI ccTrOTrXrjpovvTai, xa) evTsOflsv 
a7ro>ta5««gi3)xsv«*, 7rs»5oj xxj ou tt^oj /3('«y cntOTravovTUi' 5ia Touro h ti 
xw/xcuS/a xa) rpctyui^ia aAXoVpia TraSrj SiUipQVVTsg, 'iaTU[xsv t« oixsla 
7ric9»j, x.x) ix-STgiMTepu aTrsgyxtJjxe^a, kcu a7roxa^atpo[xr^' ev re Totg 
ho'jtg, Qixiioiijl Tier I xa) uy.o6aiitx.Ti twv alcp^gcZv, aTroAuo/xeSa t^j tTTi 
Ttiy E^ycwv cctt' auroiy {ru/XTnTrTOOo-y/f |3Aa/3r,f. 

Nec Tyrwhittus, nee Twiuingius, nee Lessingius, nee Hcr- 
niannus, iicc Matthiite (Miscell. philolog. Vol. II. P. 1. p. If) — 
27 ,, ubi oplinie disputavit de Aristotelis loco) hue Jamblichi 

294 On the Interpretation of 

verba adduxit ad obscurissimam tUam Aristotelis sententiatn, 
quaiTi luce clarioreni faciunt, illustrandam. Bene Galeus ad 
Jatnblichum scripsit : 

" Aristoteles de Poet. I. 3. ait Tragoediam 8»' Ixloo xa^ 4)t^/?ow 

TYiv Twv ToiooTwv 'TTuQi/jfi.a.Tciov v.a^a.p<Tiv praestare. Meminit hujus 
xu^upaswi; in Polit. IX. 7- et de ea ex professo egerat in tertio 
de Poetice libro, qui periit. Sciendum autem Aristotelem et 
Jamblichum in his Platoni adversari, qui ideo Comcedias et 
Tragcedias rejecit, quia nimium incenderent in nobis to 7r«5>}TJxo/, 
et nimium a simplicitate et morum stabilitate abducerent lia. 
Ti^v TtoiHiKlav. Platoni favebat Epicurus. Proclus in Polit. p. 
360. pugnam banc inter Philosophorum principes animadvertit, 
et multis adversus Peripateticos velitatur. Tantee litis idoneus 
judex audiatur Plut. de Audiendis Poetis. Habet nonnihil, 
quod hue spectet, Aristides quoque Quintilianus de Musica 
L. II., et Juiianus, 'Ispa)ixivo; tij ju-i^ts ^ ApyxKoyon avayivojaKsTcw, 
etc. 'ATTOxXiveTco xa) tvjj 7raXa»aj Kcaiicu^lotc o<tcc t>;j ISsmj t(3i«ut)jj. 
De purgatione agit Piotinns Ennead. 1. 2. 5." 

" Sequitur tertia via, qu£B est philosophi. Hue pertinent 
quze Platonicze rationis sectatores de gradibus tradunt, quibus 
anima paullatim pura divinaque redditur. Scilicet ii ita dis- 
tinguunt, ut inchoari illam perfectionem dicant xaStxpcrsif tanquam 
prinio instituto. Ei succedere, tradunt, Xucriv sive aituXkayr^'j, 
et cumulum denique addi per teXejWiv (Jamblich. de Myster. 
^^gypt. V. 6. ibique Galeus p. 264.)." Fr. Creuzerus ad 
Plotini Librum de Pulcritudine p. CVI. (Heidelberga^ 1814. 8.) 
Iterum p. CXI. : — " Versatur hie idem liber niagnam partem in 
admonitionibus pra^ceptionibusque ad fugam earum rerum, quce 
sensus feriunt, inprimis quae vel sonorum dulcedine eos titillant, 
vel iisdem blandiuntur venustate nioUitieque formarum. Est 
igitur hactenus mere purgatorius (xada^o-jo^) hicce liber, pan- 
ditque aditum ad philosophiam, ut qure et ipsa quodammodo 
pertineat ad xadapo-iv, sed nee minus tamen Aucriv perficiat atque 
adeo TsKslwa-iv." Iterum pag. 277. " De xa^apasi vid. Jambl. 
in libro de Anima ap. Stob. Eel. p. 1056. seq. Heer. : IlXMrl-^og 
8e xai ol TrXsicTTO* tmv TlXaTcuviKcJov aTfoSsatv twv Traflwv — t^v nXsix- 
TaTvjv xa9apcriv v7roXaiJi,^uvov<Tiv. Gregor. Naz. Orat. stel. I. adv. 
Julian, p. 37. sq. Eton, describit sanctioris vitze studiosos homi- 
nes: 'Opug — Touj ^iixTYjV vixgcua-iv ocQuvaTovg; rovg diet Kvcriv Oico 
(ruvijjtx.|M.5Voyj ; Toi/g e^co ttoQov, xct) [/,stx too ^elov xot) ocTraQoOg tpooTog ; 
60V — xaj r\ Toy voi) irpo; Siov lxS>]]x»a TpoocgTra^ofMsvov, dov >; xixS(xp<rtCf 
xai mv to xa9aig2o-9«», (iri^sv fisTpov sISoVccv ayajSacrewj x«» SsMCiWi." 

Avhtoih's fa?}20iis Definition of Tragedij. 2Q5 

Iterum p. 289- :— " Jamblichus de Myster. iEg. X. 7. p. 178. : 
Auto rayaSov, to ft=v Sriov YiyouvTai Tov Trposwooufxevov hov to o'«v- 
$ga>irivov, tyjv Trgo; auTov hoo(nv' — ou?e Trepj afj^ixpcijv o'l Ssovpyo) rev 
6uov vovv evo^KoiJa-iv' kXhoi izsqi Twv aij "^v^yj; xaQap(rtv xa) «7ro'Au<7iv 
X3c( (j-wTi^plav avrjxo'vTxv. Extrema baud iiieple conferas verbis 
Paullinis I Cor. I. 30., ubi dyic(Tfi,o-j Grammatici explicant 

Platouicae philosopbice sectatores banc tiotionem de purga- 
tione ammae ipsiusque in mentem conversione e Platone ipso 
sumserunt : in Phiedoiie p. 186. ed. Forster. (p. 21. VVytt. p. 
do, Heind.) legas base, qu« Plotinus de Pulcritudine p. 55. p. 
40. a., notaiite Creuzero, respexit : To S' aAr;6if, rcu &vt» ^ 
xu.^a.p(Ti; TJj Twv TOiOUTcuv TTaVToJV, Koii Yj (ra;$po(7'jv>], xaj jj ^ixuioa-uvrj, 
x»i Yj av^gsia' kou xivduv:6cu(Ti xai ol raj reXeraf ijfiTv outoj xarct- 
<TTYi<TavTig ou (^axikoi rivsg eivai, aAAa tw ovtj ttuKui uhWrBd^ai, cti 
o: XV 6ifLvy)Tog xai xTiXitxrog alj a5oy a^iai^Tui, Iv /3og/3offwx=»'crsTa», 6 c« 
X:xx^aof/.=vog t; xaj TcTsAjTjute'vo^, IxsTcTi a.fi7iotx.;voi, usTci Sesuv olxi^o";"!. 



Est locus e la^va nautae tendentis ad Ausfros 
Hesperiumque saliim, cum jam Vincenlia saxa 
Consciaque Angliacae decedunt littora famae; 
Necdum etiam Herculete fauces, sejunctaqueregnis 
Ipsa suis aperit jugum inexpugnabile Calpe — 
Nempe obscura diu Rupes, parvique Trafalgar 
Nomiiiis, bine noslris jam tandem insignior armis ; 
Hinc, ebeu! memoranda nimis ! — libi pectore tristi 
Rite triumpliales cantus, feraliaque inter 
Mnnera, funestie aggredior praeconia laudis. 

Quippe ubi jamdudum Britonum nota arma pavcsccns 
Galkis, elindigno socialus fcudcre Iberus 

296 Oxford Prize Poem 

Oceanum occiduiiiri, atque arva intemerata Baliamfe 
Deseruit, partaque (neias ! ) sine vnlucre prasda 
Fata fuga evasir, niminmque faveiUibus auris, 
Continuoiii portum se^e, segnesque latebras 
Abdit, et e tutis prospectat Gadsbus liostem — ■ 
Ignava inleiea dudum statione nioratum 
iinpu'erit seu lenta fames, sive addita fallax 
Spesnumeris, sociaeque animet iiducia rlassis, 
Stat peiagus tentare, atque arma infausta Britannis 
Coiisereie, et dubia? tandem se credere piigiite— 
Deniens ! qui Nostros tolies expertus ovanie?, 
Ultro se inlerre ettrepidas opponere vires 
:/\usus, et assuetos hosti instaurare tritimphos. 

Jam matutino scopuiique et marmora ponti 
Sole rubescebaut, ccelunj sine iiubibus sether 
Pandere luce nova, et sopito murmure iUicius 
Componi — placidaj per caerula Tethyos arva 
-Aiigliacas lacita se niajestate moventes 
Cemere erat puppes — puro vexilla sereno 
Vix fluitant, leniqite tumescit carbasus aura : 
Ut vero liSic inter subito data sfigna monebant 
V'i conjurata deductas eequore classes 
Prospici, et instriictas lunato ex ordine proras, 
— O ! quanta Angliaci pertentant pectora naulae 
(jaudia ! — conlinuo ante oculos hortantis imago 
Stat Patriaa — sacer ilie aninios accendit, ut olira, 
Jgnis, et instigat laudum insatiata cu[)ido. 

Nee mora — quin medio ne aggressos impete fallat 
Iloslis, et incautos curvata c.lasse Britannos 
Sepiat, instruitur geminus recto ogniine contra 
Ordo ratum — sequitur paribus, sortita laborem 
Quseque suum, spatiis, obliquoque ardua sulco 
Pindit aquas, mediumque instat perrumpere cornu — 
Circum cuncta silent — mortique simillimus horror 
Puppibus incumbit, neque enien prius ingruit undis 
Belli ingens tonilru, quam obnixa carina carinas, 
Atque latus lateri j quam transtra minantia transtris 
Vincula dura tenent, ferratusque alligat uncus — 
O ! ubi jam peiagus placidum, sudique diei 
Purpureum jubar ? — exteniplo caligine corlum 
Obvolvi picca, et dcnso certamine junctas 
J liter se puppes fumo circum ignca nubes 
Obruit, ct late feralibus incubat umbris. 

for 1806. 297 

At Sol decedens fnistra obluctata Britannis 
Aginina, iicc dubio suspensum examine Martem 
Prospicit — exhausto ut sensim veiiit ignis ab boste 
Pallidior ; sensim jam decrescente tumultu 
Apparel strages, rerumque miserrima fiactarum 
Indicia, et laceris submissa aplustiia velis 
ilarior erumpens adversa e classe per undas 
Auditur fragor, et nioestis sonat intervallis 
Laesoriim planctus, creberve extrema gementum 
Spiritus, aut in aquas jactiun de piippe radavt-r. 

At vero interea solitus noniie a?thera Paean 
Perstrepit, assuetoqiie sonat Vicloria plausu ? — ■ 
Eheii ! funereffi nimium vicina cnpresso 
Laiirus, etiiigenti parta ehcu! Gloria luctn ! 
Non htec discedens dederat promissa Britannis 
Ille suis — neque enini imposita est tarn dura triunlpho 
Lex ea Niliaco — non inerces ilia subactie 
Elsinoroc — proh ! lapsa salus atque invida Fata ! 
Online queui faiisto reducem gratarier oiim 
Sperabat Patria, et titulis decorare superbis, 
Fortunce secura nimis ! nunc corpus inane 
Expectat moesta, ut saltern (solatia luctus 
Tenuia !) supremos umbrae persolvat honores. 

Scilicet ille dies niemori nunquam excidet itvo 
Qno tristes inter gemitus, concussaque luctu 
Pectora, funeream duceus longo ordine pompam 
Mandabat cineres Patriae pia cura sepulchre : 
Ibat niffista phalanx, versisque exercitus armis — 
Ibant pullati proceres, lacrymisque Juventus 
Regia suffusis, tantaj ne debJtus umbrje 
Desit honos, tristi tletu comitata feretrum — 
Post, quibus albuerant jam longo tempera Marte 
Fraterno desidcrio solvuntur, inertes 
Multa sibi dextras questi, tardamque senectam, 
Quod non pro patria media inter tulmina belli 
Contigit oppetere, atque luinc ignorasse dolortni— « 
At fidi ante alios socii, (queis gloria tanto 
Sub duce militiam gessisse, tuumque Trafalgar 
Una ingenspeperissedecus,) lento pcde moesti 
Procedunt ; furtim generoso e pectore runipit 
Eiuctans gemitus, suspiriaque intusab imo 
Corde lament, grandesque micant in luminc guita. 

298 Oxford Prize Poem for I8O6. 

At vero irrepat ne quando in tarda veternus 
Sapcula, nee resides nioveant ingentia belli 
Facta animos, solido ponet de marmore signum 
Anglia, et ingenti sutTultam mole columiiam ; 
Aut veteres inter socios, ubi flexibns errans 
Ca?ruleis sancias Thamesis preetertiuit aedes, 
Ilospilia emeriti nauta?, fractaique senectasj 
Sive ubi candentes attoUit maxima cautes 
Dubris, et Armoricos poitiis et mille carinas 
Despectat secura, et inertem provocat hostem. 

Interea egregia consurgens arteCulumna 
Quadratam faciem, sculptisque horrentia pugnis 
Attollat latera, et partes se pandat in omnes. 

Pfincipio, Eoos qua frons obvertitur Euros, 
Fingat aquas opil'ex refluentiaque ostia Nili, 
Et duplicem belli speciem, confusaque passim 
Signa, et nocturnis late freta pallida tlanunis. 

Parte alia, gelidam facies qua prospicit Arcton, 
Elsinoram, et fusos proprio sub littore Cimbros, 
Atque catenatas caelet fracto ordine puppes : 
Quinetiam in mediis, magnaque astante corona, 
Ipse heros, crines felici comUis oliva, 
Jura dabit populis et honestoc fcedera pacis. 

Addat et illaesa florentes messe Bahamas, 
F'identemque fitga Galium, dum classe Britannus 
Instat ovans : ilium aspiceres freta tarda remensi 
Culpare Oceani, segnesque in carbasa ventos 
Poscere, et immissis raptim dare funibus Austros. 

Contra aulem surgent longe spectanda, Trafalgar, 
Saxa tua, ingenles surgent imitata triumphos 
jVIarmora, non aequo tot rapta ex hoste tropsea, 
Bisque decern nostro submissa aplustria nautic. 
Ipsum inter belli strepitus heroa juvabit 
Mirari ; nee jam votivo vulnere morti 
Uhro occumbentem (quippehaec aeterna Britannis 
Tristitias monunienta forent!) sed qualis inibat 
Przelia, et in medio, placidus ceu pace, tumuitu 
"MuNERE ouEMQUE sijo lUNGi," (fausta omiua I) 

Pectorecomposito mandans, vullusque sereni 
Lumine, felicis referens przesagia Martis. 

At tu, seu nautis crrantibus utilis olim 
Meta per hybernos fiuctus, seu elaustra propinquis 
Certa dabas populis, ignoto in littore rupes 

Obsei-vations on an Arabic MS. 299 

Hactenus obscura, at seris nunc addita Musis 
Gloria, jam demum nostris praeclarior annis, 
Inter Atlantseos surgis memoranda triumphos : 
Ergo ubi caeruleas albescere visa per undas 
Nota patet cautes, secum alta in mente volutat 
Navita, dum obtutu pendet defixus in uno, 
Virtntes, sortemque Viri, visuque solutus 
In lacrjnias te sancta Anima hand oblita tuorum 
Voce vocat, surdajque preces immurnnirat umbn» — 
Continuo ante oculos astare Herois In)ago, 
Inspiratque animis et amorem laudis, et ignes 
Jnsolitos, et quicquid id est, quo rapta diei 
iEtherios inter tractus, et luminis oras 
Sese Anima evectam praeter terrestria sentit. 

Recitavit iu Theatro JOHANNES LJTHAMy 
1806. Coll. JEn. Nas. Commensalis. 

Cursory Observations on a translation of the Arabic 
Manuscript describing the death of Mungo Park, 
by Mr. Abraham Salame', inserted in an account 
of a mission to Ashantee, by T. E. Bowdich, Esq* 
p. 478. ; occasioned by reflections made in the Quar- 
terly Reviezv, No. x li v. p. 294., on another translation 
of the same manuscript by JAMES GREY JACK- 
SON. _ 

Having observed in the last Number of the Quarterly Review, 
under the title of Bowdich's Mission to Ashantee, p. 294, an opi- 
nion tliat a preference is due to Mr. Abraham Salame's translation 
of the Arabic manuscript of the death of the lamented Mungo 
Park, I consider it as an act of justice to myself and the public, 
to offer a few cursory observations on that loose, defective, and 
unintelligible translation. It is expedient that I should previously 
inform the intelligent reader, that I gave Mr. Bowdich a decyphcr 
and a translation of the Arabic document inserted in his work on 
Ashantee, purporting to be a manuscript or certificate of the death 
of the indefatigable and enterprising Mungo Park. When I received 
this document from Mr. Bowdich's hands, to decypher and to trans- 
late, I understood clearly and unequivocally from that geutlenian. 

300 Observations on an Arabic MS, 

thai he had been endeavouring, ever since his arrival in England from 
Ashantee, to procure a correct decypher and traisslation of it, but 
that he had not succeeded. — I felt myself competent to the task; 
and I thouglit that, if I did not supply him with a translation, he 
would possibly be obliged to pjiblish his book without one, or at 
least without a decjjphtr. I knew from previous experience 
during the last ten years, that whenever His Majesty's government 
or the Admiralty had been in want of translations of Arabic docu- 
ments, they were obliged to apply, and had actually applied to 
me for the same : incontestable evidence of which facts I have in 
my possession. I knew that the intelligent part of my country- 
men were extremely anxious to know the fate of the lamented 
Mungo Park ; this alone was a sufficient stimulus for me to engage 
to decypher and translate this manuscript document gratuitously ; 
but what has been my reward for my disinterested exertions 1 Not 
thanks, but abuse from the Quarterly Reviewers, who have affected 
to prefer Mr. Salame's translation to mine, although I believe none 
but those critics can comprehend that gentleman's unintelligible 
translation of this document. For a proof of this I refer the can- 
did reader to the Quarterly Review itself, in which both transla- 
tions are laid before the public. Nothing has preserved this docu- 
ment from oblivion, but tlie circumstance of its containing intelli- 
gence of Mr. Park ; but as I have given to the public a translation 
of this paper which has produced controversy, and as I am now to 
state my observations on Mr. Salame's translation of this document, 
1 wish it to be understood that I mean nothing personal : it is the 
unavoidable weakness of human nature to err; but my object is to 
elicit truth. I shall therefore proceed to investigate, not the errors 
or the talents of that translator, but the inaccuracy of his trans- 

The Quarterly Reviewer seems to have forgot that it is necessa- 
ry to understand practically as well as theoretically two languages, 
to be enabled accurately to translate any language ; and he is in- 
correct in supposing that Mr. Salame's translation is the best 
because it is his native language. This is not a necessary conse- 
quence, for many people do not understand their own native lan- 
guage, innumerable examples of which might be adduced without 
going out of England, 

Some of the public papers' have asserted, that Mr. Salame's 
translation and mine differ but immaterially ; but no man who un- 
derstands Arabic, I presume, will be of this opinion, after com- 
paring the following passage. 

' Seethe Englishman, 9th May, 181P, title 'Mungo Park;' also the 
liiilish Statesman, and otiier papers about the same day. 

relative to Miingo Park's Death, 301 

" This declaration is issued from the town called Yaud, in the 
country of Kossa." Vide Mr. Salame's translation. 

«' This narrative proceeds from the territory in Housa called 
Ecauree or Yaury,"^ Vide Mr. Jackson's translation. 

The reader's attention is referred to the respective translations 
above, and I maintain, and I anticipate that every erudite Arabiin 
scholar will support my assertion, that the words town, Yaud, and 
Kossa are not to be found in the original Arabic: 

Anma n'henna gilsenna, ensemmahu sakh sebian, arreet sfoena. 
And as we were sitting, we heard the voice of children. I saw a 
ship ; that is to say, I the sheerif saw a ship. This is a literal 
translation from the original ; first ^j which is the plural pronoun 
personal we, and afterwards ilX>|J which is the singular preterite 
of the verb (s\. to see. 

Mr. Salanie in his translation has omitted the sentence 
• Ly-«> 4.1*5 %4M^j 2 n'smahu sakh sebian 
i. e. we heard the voice of children ; which he has rendered, We 
sat to hear the voice of some persons : but there is no authority 
for some persons in the original. 

^UJLw Jwam^ Li 4 fa rassul Sultan, and the Sultan sent. 
The preterite of the verb Mr. Salame has rendered pluperfect, for 
he writes " had sent plenty ;" but the Arabic scholar will perceive 
that there is no authority, in the original, for the pluperfect time ; 
if it had been the pluperfect, it would necessarily have been 
j.UsX^ Jww; (ji'-^' ^ ^^ ^^" rassul Sultan. 

iUAAAjl ^i ^^!a*s 3 5 wa akkadan <ie sfeena; 

i. e. there were persons bound ^ or fastened in the vessel. The 
word akkadan is the preterite of the verb jJtc, akkad, to bind-. 
Mr. Bowdich, in giving the note on this passage, has omitted to 

- It should be observed, in converting Arabic names into English 
letters, that the English double e, the Greek /, or English?/, are svnony- 
mous letters ; the final ee or v in Eeaiiree is optional, the last letter of 
the word being r, which is governed by Kasra. 

^ "These tv/o men bound with cords or otherwise, might have appeared 
like dead men to Amadou Fatouma, who reported to Isaaco resnectiin^ 
Park's death. (See Park's Travels reviewed in Quarterly Review, Nc" 
XXV.) Being bound, tliey probably could not move, and would therel'ore 
resemble dead men. The circumstance of missile weapons, as lances, 
pikes, and arrows, being discharged at Mr. Park by the natives, as re- 
ported by Isaaco, is corroborated in my translation of this document of 
the sheerif Ibrahim, and which is actually in the original i ^_,S 
**6JUm wa kiibu fie sfeena; but this important passage is totally 

302 Observations on an Arabic MS. 

relate the circumstance that led to its interpretation, which he 
knows to be the fact, and is as follows. At the time I gave him my 
translation, Sir William Ouseley wrote from Wales, to say, that this 
sentence signified two female slaves. Mr. Salame, who was then in 
London, said the same; but how two Arabic professors, at a dis- 
tance of upwards of 100 miles, should both be of this same opini- 
on, excited my curiosity. I went with Mr. Bowdich to Mr. Bul- 
luer, the printer, and I asked Mr. Turner, the Arabic compositor, if 
he could account for the coincidence t Mr. Turner replied, " O yes, 
they have both the authority of Richardson." Richardson's Arabic 
Dictionary was produced, and it there appears that ^IjJic in a 
figurative sense means virgins. Both these gentlemen then, it 
seems, had had recourse to the Dictionary for this tjgurative inter- 
IJretation; but I could not admit the propriety of interpreting 
words in a figurative sense, which were found in a document, 
which, so far from having the flowers of rhetoric to recommend it, 
was not written with even grammatical accuracy. The verb joLs, 
to bind or fasten, is generally used in the west of Africa, in a plain, 
Jiteral sense, a circumstance which I conceive to be an incontro- 
vertible argument for not using it in its figurative meaning. 
.^IkL*! *.4*X4Xj 5 G wa ed^iihume Sultan. 

T^iese words literally signify, ' and the Sultan summoned them,' or 
' urged them strongly,' or 'called aloud to them ;' not simply 'asked 
them,' as Mr. Salame has translated it: the verb ask is not in the 

Mr. Salami's translation runs thus: "while they were sitting in the 
ship and gaining a position over the Cape Kood, and were in society 
with the people of the kingof Bassa, the ship reached a head of moun- 
tain which took her away, and the men and women of Bassa alto- 
gether with every kind of arms." From this phraseology it would 
appear that the ship contained the men and women of Bassa all 
armed, before the current carried her away ; but there is no au- 
thority for such an interpretation : the original says 

JU-oUkJI ^ L^^ ^ 7 Ava kubu fie sfeena; 

i.e. they poured into the ship, that is, poured ' their missile wea- 
pons, and fired their guns into the ship. 

Further on, the original has the following passage : 
^aJ^ ^ aXT ^Lo ^^J J 8 wa ermy melha kulha fie elb'har 

omitted in Mr. Salame's translation, for which see Quarterly Review, 
No, XLiv. p. 294. 

' See a confirmation of this interpretation in a letter from the late Sir 
Joseph Banks to Mr. Dickson, Mungo Park's brother, inserted in Sha- 
beeny's account of Torabuctoo and Ilousa, &:c. p. 425. 

relative to Mango Park's Death. 303 

that is to say, and threw the whole of her property or treasure 
into the sea, that is, the tvomen's property. Mr. Salanie trans- 
lates this passage, " threw all his property ;" there is, however, no 
authority for transferring the fenuiiine into the masculine gender, 
as the passage itself above quoted proves, without the necessity of 
further elucidation. 

Uj^L) *i (J*^^ 9 elkhfif thima eekudu; Fear there seizing him. 

Here we have the masculine singular again : this loose phraseology 
clearly evinces tiie writer to have been illiterate ; these words have 
been rendered by Mr. Salame " also from fear ;" but what Arabic 
professor in Europe will make it also from fear? 
^wo ^Xs.\ Jf}S\ ^ sUi\ j^'i ^ y}i\ sjJ *J U^^ tX=»l5 ^ 10 
wa wahud minhume lim nurrah akul tie kaher elma, wa Allah 

alem s^ha. 
This passage literally means, " and one of them we saw not at all 
in the body of the water, and God knows the truth" (of this re- 
port) : but Mr. Salame translates it, ^'perhaps he is in the bottom of 
the water, and God knows best." There is however no authority 
for the word bottom, nor for the word perhaps, nor for the word 
best, here inserted by him. Allah alem seh signifies, * God knows 
the truth ;' there is no comparative in the sentence, but it is the 

There is not any authority in the original for the word authentic 
No Arabic scholar in Europe will find authentic in the manuscript: 
the sentence is a simple one, j^llah alem seh, ' God knows the 
truth ;' that is to say, the truth of this report. 

It would be illiberal to ascribe to Mr. Bowdich any design to 
confuse. I believe the direct contrary ; but if he had accompanied 
my letter with iny translation, the one would have elucidated the 
other ; instead of which he has blended Sir W. Ouseley's notes with 
my translation; thus he says in a note of Sir William, " and the 
other did not, from the violence of the water," See his account of 
a Mission to Ashautee, note p. 480: thus rendering what was clear 
and intelligible, obscure and ambiguous ! Did not what 7 I ask ; for 
the note does not say what. The original however is sufficiently 
perspicuous: it is, slj! j^ ^^i yi\ XjJ J U^JU <Ss>.\^ ^ 
wa wahud minhume lim nurrut akul fie kahar elma ; which signifies 
literally, " and one of them we saw not at all in the body" (not the 
bottom) " of the water." There is no authority for the words, ' Ihe 
other 6\d not,' nor for the words, ' violence ^i the water ;' no erudite 
Arabian, by the most refined sophistry, can transfer this passage 
into such language. 

j»sA^Lj^ «--V!r^ (^ L^ 11 ^^ ^^'"^*^ shcerif Ibrahini. 

S04 Observations on an Arabic MS. 

Kasra governs invcriahly the first Aiif in the word * Abrahim, which 
makes it Ibrahim ; this is the uniform Arabic pronunciation. 

I ought to observe to the European reader, that this document 
purports to have been written by a sheerif, that is to say, a man 
descended from royal blood ; but it does not thence follow that it 
is a correct writing : many princes in Africa can neither read nor 
write; I myself know two or three. Neither is the reader to affix 
that honor and deference to a prince of Africa, that is due to a 
prince of Europe ; the nobility of family in Africa is not so great, 
because all the descendants of princes, sons, brothers, cousins, and 
all degrees of consanguinity, assume the title of sheerif, however 
distantly removed by succeeding generations, so that in Barbary 
there are, in proportion to the population, more sheerifs than 
there are nobles in Europe. 

There is a sort of corroboration of »?j/ translation of this paper 
in the report that the sheerif Ibrahim made to j\Ir. Hutchison ; for 
he himself told him he had seen the ship (see Quarterly Review, 
No. XLiv.p. 294.) When we compare the Arabic language and 
other languages of the East to those of Europe, the heterogeneous 
nature of their respective idioms must be evident ; hence the diffi- 
culty of adapting the Eastern expressions to those of Europe : some 
allowances should therefore be made; for the language of the 
Arab, as well as the body of the Arab, becomes equally stiff and 
awkward in the European costume. 

I could say more on fiie subject of this document, but I think I 
have^already said enough to satisfy an impartial and discrimirtating 
public respecting my translation, and to refute the erroneous opi- 
nion propagated by the Quarterly Review, that my translation of 
the manuscript of Park's death is not so accurate as that of Mr. 


Note. For the gratification of such Arabians as shall be curious 
to investigate this subject, I have subjoined my decypher of the 
Manuscript, together with a copy of my letter to Mr. Bowdich, 
which accompanied that decypher and translation. 

An accurate transcript of the Arabic manuscript of the death of 
Mungo Park, deciphered for Mr. Doiodich by J. G. Jackson, and 
inserted in that gentleman's account of a mission to Aihantee, 
p. 4S0. 

' A confirmation of tbis i'act will be seen throughout the Turkish Spy, 
anJ particularly in Vol. iv. book 4tli. letter 2nd. 

relative to Mungo Park's Death. 305 

it^^^ J ^y c^ --''*^' ^^ ^^^ J jy- 

[>T^r^ (^Uaxj (^i^:^ ^UxAwJl v.^ (^IcXiic 
J ^r^ (jUiLw i^< ~aJ L^ j LwJ OXi f^\ 

^1 ^^ ^ ljt)c^lj J' L ^^^i ^ ys:V^ 

cX_Aj /^I aj <s.'^ ijj i3>^ C_5j!j o^"^^^ 


506 Observations on an Arabic MS. 
^uljj t^ ^J3C^j CsjIj vj^^"^ *-^^ L3^ 

Letter from Mr. Jackson to Mr. Boivdich, respecting the above 
Arabic document. 

London, 7th March, I8I9. 

Dear Sir, I liave deciphered the Arabic manuscript of Muiigo 
Park's death, and I have affixed tiie Oriental punctuation to the 
letters, that Mr. Buhner may have no difficulty in fixing the cha- 
racters for the press. 

This manuscript is very inaccurately and ungrammatically writ- 
ten, and I have preserved or transcribed the maccuracy of the 

I am of opinion that Sir W. Ouseley understands the Arabic 
of Africa, and from his observations on litis manuscript, I have 
no doubt that he v.ould have been able to translate the Emperor 
of Morocco's letter, inserted in my account of Morocco, which re- 
mained in the Secretary of State's office some raonlhs, without their 
tinding a person capable of translating it, although it had been 
sent to the Universities, and to the Post Office, for that purpose, 
but ineffectually. I mention this circumstance, that you may know 
Avhere to apply, on any future occasion, in the event of my decease 
or absence from England after your next embassy to Ashantee. 

Sir William in the fifth line of his notes, has, however, committed 
an error in calling ^jcS Kude, Kumen. The original cannot be 
converted into Kumen. In the eighth note he writes (Sy*aj i. e. 
nasri, that is to say, belonging to Christians ; but the manuscript has 

it tSjJoJ nas'ra orChristians: nominative plural. The word ..f^l^^ 
is not a proper name, asSir William sug^^estsit may be, nor is it equi- 
vocally written ; it signifies called out or cried to them. Sixteenth 

note '^ «^'^J is unequivocallv Kanjee, and will not admit of 

being called Kaiija. Eighteenth note, Sir W. quotes the miinuscripf 
Aj^jJ i ^uii • wa deffenha fie trabha ; which cunnot admit of 
any translation but the following, And we buried it in its earth ; but 
Sir William translates it, And caused him or it to be buried in the 

Bihliographij. 307 

As to the translation aaaJuJ! ^ o''^^ J ^^ akaddau fie 
Sfeeua, i. e. And tied or bound them in the vessel or ship, how this 
has been converted into two maids in the ship, I am at a loss to 

I am. Sec. 

J, G. J. 


List of the principal Books of ilie Duke of Marlborough's 
Collection at White Knights, sold bi/ Mr. Evans, Fall 
Mull, in June, 18\9. IVith prices and purchasers. 

Part II. [Continued from No. XLI. p. 80.] 

Octavo et Infra. 

Horatii Carmina, first Aldine edition, in red morocco, Venet. x\ldi, 
1501. 2/. 5s. Payne. 

Venetian morocco, by Roger Payne, capitals illu- 
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printed by Stephens in the Roman letter, red 

morocco, ruled. Thuauus's Autograph, Lutet. Steph. l6l3. 
1/. 16s. Payne. 

Lulot. Stephani, l6l3. Juvenalis et Persiusi 

Lutet. Stephani, l6l3. In 1 vol. large paper, beautifully bound 
in blue morocco, by Roger Payne. 2l. 6s. Triphook. 

Notis Bond, red morocco, fine copy Elzev. 

1678. ll. 5s. Lepard. 

, red morocco, Paris, e Typographia Regia, 1733. 

1/. 2*. Clarke. 
Hours of Recreation, or the Garden of Pleasure, with divers 

Verses in Italian and English, collected by Sandford, fine copy, 

red morocco, Bynneman, 1376. 4/. bs. Rodd. 
Ignatius of Lovola's Life, portrait and plates, blue morocco, 1616. 

3/. 18s. Heber. 
Imagination Poetique, traduicte en Vers Fraufois des Latins et 

Grecz, wood cuts, green morocco, Lyon, 1532. 2/. 135. Rice. 

Ilomeri llias et Odyssca, Or. 4 vols, in 2, russia, with joints, the 
three private plates inserted. Oxon. 1800. 3l. 10s. Payne. 
Homcri Batrachomyomachia, cum glossis interlinearibus Cbaractere 

SOS Bibliography. 

rubro distioctis, Grtec^. first edition, red morocco. Venetiis, 
Leonicus Cretensis, I486. 61. Payne. 
Homeri Speculum Heroicum principis cranium temporum Poeta- 
rum. Les 24 Livres d'Homere reduicts en Tables demonstratives 
Figurees, par Crispin de Passe. Trajecti, l6l3. ll. 12*. 

Homer's Iliacies (Ten Books of), translated out of French by 
Arthur Hall, black letter, with MS. notes by G. Steevenss, 
russia, rare. R. Nevvberie, 1581. 11/. Rice. 

Horace's Salyres Englysshed accordyng to tiie Prescription of 
Saint Hierome, by T. Brant, first edition, blue morocco, very 
rare. Thomas Marshe, 1566. 3/. Triphook. 

Huon. Les Prouesses et Faictz du tres preulx noble et vaillant 
Huon de Bourdeaulx, Per de France, Due de Guyemie, black 
letter. Lyon, sans date. 3/. 4«. Triphook. 

Hvllon's Scala Perfectionis, blue morocco, very fine copy, Wynken 
'deWorde, 1533. 7 1. Triphook. 

Hylton. Hereafter foloweth a devoute Boke, compyled by 
Mayster Walter Hylton, to a devoute Man in leraperall estate, 
how he shulde rule him, &c. black letter, blue morocco, very 
rare. R. Pynson, 1506. Al. 4*. Longman. 

Irelande, the Image of, with a Discoverie of the Irish Woodharne, 
aiid their notable aptnesse, celerilie, &c. to Rebellion, made by 
Jhon Derricke, in Verse, russia, rare. Loud. J. Daie, 1581. 
13/. Rodd, 

Jeronomi. Incipit Exposicio Sancti Jeronirai in Sirabolum Apos- 
tolorum ad Papam Laurentum, of very great rarity, in a blue 
morocco case. Explicit Expositio S. Jeronimi irapressa Oxonie 
et finita, 1468. 28/. Payne. 

The first book printed at the University of Oxford. See the 
discussions respecting the genuineness of the date in the Biblio- 
theca Spenceriana, and in Mr. Singer's pamphlet. 

Jerom, the Lyf of Saint, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, with 
Caxton's Device, russia, no date, 4/. \6s. Rodd. 

Johanuis de Hese, Presbyteri a Hierusalem, Itinerarius Anno 1489, 
describens Dispositiones Terrarum Insuiarum, &c. etvariiTrac- 
tatus de Indorum Moribus, et de Presbyteri Rege, blue morocco. 
Jmpressi Daventriae per me Richardum Pafraer, 1499. 3/. 15^. 

Johannis dc Garlandia Synonima, cum Expositione Magistri 
Galfridi Anglici, Lond. per Ricardum Pynson, 1509. — Joannis 
de Garlandia Multorum Vocabulomm Equivocorum Interpretatio, 
Ric. Pynson, 1514, in one volume, scarce. 5/. 15*. 6d. 


Heritier Stirpes novae aut minus cognitsc, large paper, with a 

^ihliographii, 309 

double set of plates, one set first impressions and the other 
beautifully coloured, with gold borders to each plate, 2 vols. 
, elegantly bound in russia, with joints. Par. 1784. 17/. 17s. 

Ilistoire Universelle qui traite de tous les Royaumes et des Roys 
qui out regn6 depuis la Creation du Monde jusques a la De- 
struction de Jherusalem. 22/. Is. Longman. 

A magnificent Manuscript of the fifteenth Century, upon 
vellum. It contains 36O leaves, 98 miniatures, and about 500 
iiluminaled capitals. The six large illuminations, one of which 
represents the landing of the Romans in Britain, are painted with 
great boldness and splendour of colouring, red morocco. 

Ilistoire Merveilleuse du Grand Empereur de Tartaric, noraroe le 
Grand Chan, black letter, wood cuts, fine copy, in green mo- 
rocco, extremely rare. Par. 1324, 15/. 155. Triphook. 

Hogarth's Original Works, russia. Boydell, 1790. 14/. 3«. ^d. 

Holbein, CEuvres de, ou Recueil de Gravures d'apr^s ses plus 
beaux Ouvrages, avec sa Vie, par C. de Mechel, 4 parts, fine 
impressions, russia. Basle, 178O. bl. Anderdon, 

Holland, Heroologia Anglica, 2 vols, in 1, fine impressions of the 
plates, russia, I62O. 10/. 55. Cochrane. 

Hollinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland, with 
the Castrations, 3 vols, russia, 1586. 9/. 9*. Alexander. 

Horatii Odse, Satyrce, et Epistolas, cum scholiis. A Manuscript 
of the Twelfth Century, upon vellum, the first twelve Odes 
supplied in MS. of the fifteenth Century, russia. 10/. 10*. 

Horatii Carmina, cum Commentariis, wood cuts, red morocco, 
fine copy. Argent. Gruninger, 14Q8. 3/. 3«. Bentham. 

Horatii Carmina, fine copy, russia. Mediolani apud Alex. Minu- 
tianum, 15©2. 1/. 3s. Heber. 


Octavo et Infra. 

Jesu Christi Vita juxta quatuor Evangelislarum Narrationes, artiiii^o 
graphices eleganter picta, &c. wood cuts, blue morocco. Anlv. 
apud Croumie, 1537. 1^- os. Clarke. 

Justiniani Institutionum Libri quatuor, large paper, very fine copy, 
green morocco, with joints, from Col. Stanley's Collection. Lugd. 

. Bat. 1671. 5/. 10s. Payne. 

Kelton's Chronycle, with a Genealogle declaryng that the Brittons 
and WcLshemen are lineally desccJided from Brute, in Vorsc 
black letter, very rare, red morocco, tine copy. R. Grafton, 
1547. 13/. 10*. Ilebtr. 

310 Bibliography . 

Knox's Copie of a Lettro delivered to thp Ladie Maiie, Regent of 

Scotland, blue morocco. Geneva, 1558. 3/. l6*. Rodd. 
KnOx, Serii.on preached by John Knox, in Edenbrough in 15(j5, 

blue morocco. 1566. 2/. 7s. Heber. 
Knox's Answer to a Letter of a Jesuit named Tyrie, blue morocco, 

Imprenlit at Sauctandrois, by Lekprevik, 137'2. 2/. 8^. Rodd. 
Lachrymaj Musarum. The Tears of the Muses expresl in Elegies 

upon the Death of Henry Lord Hastings, with frontispiece, 1649. 

3/. 3*. Warder. 


Landon Vies et CEuvres des Peintres les plus c6!ebres, savoir, Do- 
meniquin, Raphael, et Poussin, 9 vols, plates in outline, elegantly 
bound in fawn-coloured morocco, with joints. Par. 1805-9. 
38/. 17*. Lord Yarmouth. 

Lascaris Grammatica Graca, cum inferpretatione Latina, russia, 
first book printed by Aldus. Venet. Aldus, 1495. 3/. \6s. 

Letters of such True Saintes and Holy Martyrs of God, as in the 
late bloodye persecution, gave their lyves for the defence of 
Christe's Holy Gospel, black morocco. John Day, 1564. 
51. 7s. 6d. Clarke. 

Livre (Le) des trois fi!z de Roy, c'est assavoir de France, d'Angle- 
terre, et d'Escosse, lesquelz au service du Roy de Sccille eurent 
de glorieuses vicloires coutre les Turcz, &c. wood cuts, black 
letter. Lyon, 1508. 6/. 6s. Hibbert. 


Ireland. A full and explanatory account of the Shaksperian For- 
gery, by myself the Writer, William Henry Ireland. 

Ireland's own Manuscript, containing his Original Documeats, 
Contracts, and Indentures of Shakspeare, and his Love Verses 
to Anne Hatherway, with a lock of his hair; illustrated with 
drawings by Westall, the Irelands, &c. portraits and engravings 
of many of the principal persons and places mentioned by 
Sliakspeare. The whole bound in one volume, and containing 
a very interesting account of a literary imposition, which deceived 
several eminent persons. 30/. 9*- Jervis. 

Jason et Medee (Le Roman de) par Raonl le Fevrc, an ancient 
edition in a large type, in double columns, red morocco, the 
first six leaves manuscript, very rare, no place or date. 17/. IO5. 

Jason. A Boke of the IIoolc Lyf of Jason, green morocco, cv- 
cessively rare, printed by William Caxton about (1475.) 85/. Is. 

Bibliography. SIX 

" Tills volume is among the scarcest and most intcroiliiirr of 

those which owe theii* first existence, in an En£;lish form, to the 

pen and press of Caxton." — Bibl. Spenccriana, V. 4. 
Jehan dc Saiatre, flystoyre ct plaisantc Cronique du Petit Jelum 

de Saintrc, bhick letter, wood cuts, russia, very rare. Par. 

Michel le Noir, 1517. 20l. 9^- 6d. Hlbbcrt. 
Jourdaiii, Lcs faitz et prouesses du noble et vaillant Chevalier 

Jourdain dc Blaves, bhick letter, fine copy, russia, rare. Par. 

Michel le Noir, lj'20. 23/. 12s. 6(1. Uibberf. 
Justlnia.ii Institutiones, cum SchoUis. A beautiful manuscript of 

the fourteen! h century, upon vellum, with miniatures ant! 

illuminated capilal letters, in very fine preservation, in crimson 

velvet. 10/. Payne. 
Juvcnaiis et Persii Satyric, fine co])y, in russia. Mediolani apud 

A. Slinulianunj, sine anno. l/. l\s. Gd. TriphooL: 


Octavo et Infra. 

Letter sent by .1. B. unto his very frende Maister R. C. wherin is 

conteiiicd a large discourse of the peopling and inliabiting the 

cuntrie called t!ie Ardcs, and other adjacent in the North of 

Ireland and taken in hand by Sir Thomas Smith, black letter, 

liilaid in^4to. russia, rare. H. Binnemann. 10/. Ilodd. 
Lewis's Life of Maystre Wyllyani Caxton, portrait, blue morocco, 

1737. 3/. 85. Triphook. 
Litur;ia Gra;ca, a Field, large paper, blue morocco, Cantab. 

1665. 2/. HoUing'ivorth. 
Livii Historia ex recensione Heinsiana, 3 vol. Elzevir, iGSif. 

\l. Is. Hayes. 
Alia Editio, cum notis Gronovii, 4 vol. blue morocco, Elzevir. 

l6"4.5. 1/. loy. Hayes. 
Livii Historia ex recensione Gronovii, fine copy, russia, ib.lGrS. 

2/. Payne. 
Livii Historia cura Ernesti, 5 vol. Lipsia;, 17S5. l/. \ls. Cd. 

Longus, Les Amours Pastorales de Daphnis et Chloe, plates, 

ruled, elegantly bound in morocco, in compartments, by Monnie!-, 

Paris, 1732. 2/. 8s. Triphook. 
Lucani Pharsalia cum fumiliari atquc perlucida Annotationc Petri 

Deponte cceci Brugeuais, with ornamented capitals, red morocco, 

Parrhibiis, Lerougc, 1512. 4/. 4s. Lloyd. 
L\ndcvvode (Wiihelmi) Constitutiones Provinciales EcclcsicF, Angli- 

caunc, very line copy, l)luc morocco, Wyna'.iduni dc Worde. 

i \i)'S. \L j5. Triphook, 

3 1 2 Bibliography. 


Lucani Pharsalia cum notis Variorum curante Oudendoipio, russl.i, 
Lugd. Bat. 17 '2 8. 2/. Haj/es. 

Grotii et Bentleii, rod morocco, with 

joints, Strawberry Hill, IjGo. Q.L Triphook. 

Luciani Opera, Gr. et Lat. cum nolis Henisterhuisii et Rc-iti.ii, 4 
vol, Amstel. 1743. 4/. 14*. 6d. Payne. 

Lucretius de Rerum Natura, cura G. Wakefield, 3 vol. large paper, 
elegantly bound in green morocco, Londini, I796. '291- 'os. 

Ludolphi de Suchen liber de Terra Sancta et Itinerario Ihero^roli- 
mifano et de aliis nnrabilibus quae in mari conspiciuntur, videlicet 
niediterraneo, black letter, very fine copy, blue morocco, rare, 
sine ulla not&. 10/. 15*. Clarke. 

Lydgate. Tbe Tale of tlie Chorle and the Byrd. Eniprentyd by 
iiie, Richarde Pinson, no date, extremely rare. Not mentioned 
by Ames, Herbert, or Dibdin, red morocco. \7l' I7s. Trip- 

Lydgate. Lyfe of our Lady, very fine copy, blue morocco, rare, 
R. Redman, 1531. 1//. 5s. Triphook. 


Knyght of the Toure, translated oute of the Frenssh into onr 
Maternall Englysslie tongue, by me William Caxton, 14S3 
85/. Is. Triphook. 

A very fine copy of a book which rarely occurs perfect, 
sjdendidly bound in green morocco, with morocco lining, &c. 

Lambert's Description of the Genus Pinus, illustrated Avith figure?, 
directions relative to the cultivation, and remarks on the uses of 
the several species, with the plates beautifully coloured, of which 
the number was very small, 1805. 30/. l£is. 6d. CI. Scoif. 

Lancelot du Lac, Le Roman de, 3 vol. wood cuts, black letter, 
fine copy, green morocco, Paris, Jehan Petit, 1520. 11/. 5s. 

Lc Brun Galerie des Peintres Flaraands, Hollandois, et Allemands, 
ouvrage enrichi de 201 planches d'apres les meiileurs tableaux 
de ces Maitres, 3 vols, very fine impressions of the plates, Paris, 
1792. 31/. ]0«. LordYarmouth. 

Le Brun Voyages par la Moscovie en Perse, et aux Indes Orienta- 
les, 2 vols. Amst. 1718. Voyage au Levant, Paris, 1714, 
together 3 vols, large paper, blue morocco. 17/- 6"«. 6d. Payne. 

Legeuda Aurea, The Golden Legcnde, Finyssiicd the 27 day of 
August the yere of our Lord 1527. Imprynted at London in 
Flete Strete at the sygnc of the Sonne by Wynken de Wordc, 
elegantly bound in blue morocco. 15/. 4j. 6d. Thompson. 

BlbUography. 313 

Liiuarte. El Octavo Libro de Amadis : qiu' trata de las estranas 
aveturas y grandes proezas desiinieto Lisuarte, y de la imierte 
del inclito rev Amadis, en Castellano por Juan Diaz, Sevilla, 
1526. — I'l nov'.-no Libro de Amadis de Gaula : qui es la cronita 
del Cavallero de la arJiente espada Amadis de Grecia; hijo de 
Lisuarte, Sevilla, 1542, 2 vols, in J, wood cuts, fine copies, 
yellow morocco, very rare. 15/. Triphook. 


Octavo et Infra. 

Murguerite Reine de Navarre, Nouvelles de, 3 vol. large paper, 
fine impressions oftlie plates, Berne, 1780. 5l.l5s.6d. Chamier. 

Margaret de Valoys, Queen of Navarre's lieptamerou, or the 
History of the Fortunate Lovers, scarce, l65-i. 21. Ss. Trip- 

Marguerites de la Marguerite des Princesses tres illustre Royne 
de Navarre, 2 vols, in 1, fine copy of the best edition, rare, 
Lyon, 1547. 2/. 15s, Triphook. 

Marguerite, Le Tonibeau de Marguerite de Valois R,oyne de 
Navarre, fine copy, green morocco, Paris, 1551. 3/. Heber. 

riarlborough, The Opinions of Sarah Ducbess-Dowager of Marl- 
borough, 178S. 1/. lOv. MoHeno. 

Mary Queen of Scots. Buchanan's Detectioun of the Duinges of 
Marie Queue of Scottes, touchand the murder of hir husband, 
and l)ir conspiracie, adulterie and pretensed mariage with the 
Erie of Both well, black letter, no date. 2/. \6s. Heber. 

Martyre de la Royne d'Escosse, Douairiere 

de France, avec son Oraison Funebre, blue morocco, rare, 
Edimbourg. 158S. \L 19«. Rodd. 

Medici (Lorenzo di) Stanze Belissime et ornatissime intitulate Le 
Selve d'Araore, fine copy, yellow morocco, with joints, very 
rare, Venef. Rusconi, 1522. bl. 10s. Heber. 

Meichsneri Thesaurus Saj)ientiae Civilis sive Vitoe Humanae ac 
Virtutum et Vitiorum Ihedtruin, plates, fine copy, green mo- 
rocco, Francof. l6"26. 2/. 19*- Clarke, 

Melancton. 'I'he Epistle of Philip RIelancton, made unto onre 
late Sovereygne Lord Kynge, Henry the eight, for revokingc' 
and abolishing of the Six Articles, <!fec. black letter, rare, 
Printed at Weesell, 1547. 2/. 18«. Hibbert. 

Mclandri Jocorum et Serioruni Centuriae aliquot, 2 vols, red mo- 
rocco, ruled, Francof. 1626. \l. lb'*. Perry. 

Menagii Poen)ata, red morocco, with joints, uncut, Elzevir, l663. 
4/. 10*. Clarke. 

ISJerlino, Historia di, wood cuts, red moj-occo, rare, Veiietia, per 
Rofiinelli, 153f). U. 14s. 6rf. Heba; 

ol4 ' BibUographij . 


Marcus. Evangelium secundum Marctim cum glossis. A Manu- 
sciipt of the 13tli Cenlury, upon vellum, blue morocco, \vil!i 
joiiit-j. l/. \bs. Triphook. 

Marcus Paulas de Vt-netiis (!e Consuetudinibus et Condicionibus 
Orientaliam regionum, very fiue copy, blue uiorocco, extremely 
rare, sine u!la nota. 10/. lOs. Payne. 

PJarguerite de Valois Royne de Navarre, rHeptameron dcs Nou- 
vellcs, scarce, Paris, \560. '21. 15s. Triphook. 

Mariiiilis Epigrauimala ciuu Vila Calderini, fine copy, sine uUa 
nota. The diameter resembles tbat u>.ed by Vindeliu de Spirn 
in his Dante of 1477- 4/. 4.9. Triphook. 

Martin de Cordova. Jardin de las nobles Donzellas, fine copy, 
rare, 1542. 10/. 5s. Payne. 

Martyn's Universal Conc'jologist, exiuliifing the fiixure of every 
kijown Shell, accurately dravra and painted alter nature, 2 vols. 
l60 plates, red morocco, 1789. 20/. M. Hay. 

Ptiary of Nemmegen. Here begyiineili a lyttell story that was of a 
trwethe done in the iande of Gelders of a Mayde that was named 
Mary of Nemmegen that was the dyvels paramoure by the space 
of VII yere longe, wood cuts, extretnely rare. Imprynted at 
Antvarpe by me lohii Duisbrowghe. 42/. Longman. 

Mary Qaeene of Scots. A Defence of the Honorable Sentence 
and Execution of tiie Queene of Scots, together with the Answere 
fo certaine objections made by some of her Favourites, fine 
copy, morocco, ruled, rare, London, luhn Wiiidet, 1587- 67. 6s. 

IMathcolus. Le Livre de Matheolus qui nous monstre sans varier 
Jes biens et les vertus qui vieigneiit pour soy marier, wood cuts, 
red morocco, sans date. 2/. IZs. Cd. Triphook. 

Meisneri Thesaurus Philo-Polilicus, 2 vol. plates, Francofurti, 
16"24. 1/. ](js. Clarke. 

Meliadus. Histoire des hauts et chevalerenx faicts d'arraes dii 
Prince Meliadus dit le Chevalitr de la Croix, fils unique de 
Maximian Empereur des Alleniaignes, morocco, Paris, Bonfons, 
1584. 2/. Arch. 

rJercerii Eniblemata Ltitinis versibus explicata, blue morocco, 
1592. 1/. lis. Clarke. 

Mercurie's Message, or the copy of a Letter sent to Archbishop 
Laud, 1641. An Answer to Mercurie's Message, l641. Mer- 
curie's Message defended, l64I, 3 vol. l/. .'>*. Taylor. 
Mcrlino, La Vita de, et de le sue Prophetic historiade, wood cvtts, 

black morocco, Vcnetia, I6O7. 3/. 10s. Triphook. 
Mrrlin. Sensuit les Prophecies dc Merlin, bluck letter, blue mo- 
rocco, Paris, 1j28. 2/. 10s. Triphook. 

Bibliographi/. 315 

Milton's Paradise Lost and Regained, C vol. blue morocco, Bas- 
kerville, 17^9- 3/. 4s. Triphook. 


LIvre(Le) des Fais d'armes et dc Chevalerie, wood cuts, fine, copy 
green morocco, very rare, Paris, par Anthoine Verard, 14SS. 
1 S/. Triphook. 

Loggan Oxonia lliustrata, fine copy, splendidly bound in russiii 
with joints, Oxon. lO/.'i. 61. I2s. '6d. Knelt. 

Luis do Escobar. Las quatro cienias Kespuestas con las cient 
Glosas o Declaraciones assi en Prosa como en Metra, Vulladolid 
en Casa de Fernandez de Cordova, 1550. La Segunda Parte de 
las quatro cienfas Rcspuestas, Valladolid, 2 vols, very rare, russia, 
1552. 75/. 12*. Hibbert. 

Lyf of our Lady, made by dan John Lydgate, Enprynted by 
VVyllyam Caxton, uo date. 1 7/. Triphook. 

This Copy wants the Table and six leaves at the end. 

Mabillon de lie Diplomatica cum Supplemento, large paper, Paris, 
1581. 3/. iSs. Payne. 

Mabrian. Histoire singuiiere et fort recreative contenant le rcste 
des faitz et gestes des quatre fi!z Aymoi), <i'c. semblablemeut 
La Cronique et hystoire du chevaleureux prince iVIabrian, Roy 
de Hierusalcm, first edition, wood cuts, fine copy, blue mo- 
rocco, rare, Paris, pari. Nyverd, pour Galliot du Pre. Ig/. \^s. 

Madien. La conqueste de Grece faicte par le trespreux et redoute 
en chevalerie Philippe de Madien, fine copy, blue morocco, 
rare, Paris, 1527. i7l.6s.6d. Lung. 

Mandeville. Cy Commence le Livn- des parties d'oulre mer le 
quel fut fait et ordoniie par Messire Jehan de Mandeville. 
Chevalier qui fut nes en Angleterre dans la ville que on dist 
Sainct Albain. A splendid Manuscript of the 15t!i Century, 
upon vellum ; the first page contains a large Miniature, beauti- 
fully painted with borders of flowers, &c. and tlie Arms of the 
person for whom it was written. The capital letters illuminated. 
Elegantly bound in red morocco, by Hering. 25/. As. Trip- 

Manerbi Legend! di tutti li Santi della Romana Sedia, blue mo- 
rocco, Venet. N. Jenson, senz' anno. 3/. Longman. 

>Iarmol, Descripcion General de AftVica, 3 vol. red morocco. 
The third volume is very scarce, Grenada, 1573, et Malaga, 
1599. 16/. lO's. Payne. 

Martial d'Auvergne, Les Vigilies de la Mort de Charles VIL wood 
cuts, fine copy, Par. Pierre le Caron, sans date. 3/. 3*. Trip- 

S 1 6 Wihliography . 

Masson Stapeliae Nova;, or a Collection of several new Species of 

that Gtnus fliscovt-red in tlie interior of Africa, coloured plates, 

russia, witli joints, 1796. 4/. IO5. CI. Scott. 
Masuccio, 11 \i>vellun>, nel quale si contengono cinquanta novelle, 

wood cuts, hue copy, green morocco, very rare, Venet. Greg. 

de. Grt-gorii 149,.'. yl. Triphook. 
Meliadus, Li^a Nobles Fails d'Armes du Vaillant Roi Meiiadus de 

Leoiiu ys, hlack letter, fine copy, blue niorocco, Paris, D. 

Jaiiol. ^.^3'2. 8/. 10s. Triphook. " 
Melusnifc, L'llistoire de, nouvellement corrigee, wood cuts, fine 

copy, russia, very rare, Paris, Pierre le Caron, sans date. Qil. 3s. 


Octavo et Infra. 

Meygra Entrepriza catoliqui Imperatoris, quaado de Anuo domi- 
ni luille ccccxxxvi. veniebat per provensam bene corrossatus 
impostam i)rendere fransam, &c. per A. Arcnam, orijiinal 
edition, red morocco, rare, Avenione, 1537. 2/. 2s. Trip- 

Meynier, la Naissance et les Triomphes esmerveillables du Dieu 
Bacchus, plates, blue morocco. 2/. 2s. Triphook. 

Milton's Paradise Lost, cuts, Addison's copy, Tonson, 1711. 3/. 

Manuscripts of the Bible, S^c. Missals, and Offices of the Church. 

The Book of Psalms, on vellum, red morocco, ll. 7s. Heher. 
July 26, 1728. Examined this MS. by Wickliff's Bible in 
Queen's CoUedge, Oxon. and find it the same. Jo. Ames. 
See Note. 

Les Sept Pseaumes de la Penitence. A modern MS. on vellum, 
delicately written, with the capitals illuminated in gold, and 
each page surrounded by a gold border, red morocco, with 
blue morocco lining. 3/ 13s. 6d. Jarman. 

Explication de I'Oraison Doniinicale Presentee k Monseigneur, le 
Prince de Galles. Beautifully written on vellum, by Berthelet, 
in 1692, for Prince James, son of James the Second, with eight 
highly coloured ami splendid miniatures. Each page is encircled 
with a border of gold, bound in red morocco, with the Royal 
Arms. 1^1. 4s. Triphook. 

F.pistolae Saucti Pauli ad Romanos, &c. a beautiful specimen of 
Cal'iorapiiy, on Aeilum, with illuminated capitals and gold 
borders to all the pages, bound in red morocco. At the begin- 
ning of the volume is the following note : '• The two Paintings in 

Bibliography , 317 

this Book of St. Paul and St. Jerome, with the Flowerg and 
Insects on the borders, were painted by the celebrated French 
Artist, Marolles, and the MS. was written by the famous Writing 
Master, MonchaHssee." 18/. Triphook. 

Missale Ecclesiae Romanas cum Psahni.«, MS. of the Fifteenth 
Century, upon vellum, with 45 miniatures, and painted borders, 
and Arms of the Family for whom it appears to have been 
executed, red morocco, with clasps. 61. I2s. Arch. 

Ofticium B. M. Virginis cum Calendario, with l6 pai'ntings and 
borders of flowers, &c. bound in satin. 8/. Ss. Jarman. 

secundum Consuetudinem Romana: Curiup, 

a beautiful MS. of the Fifteenth Century, on vellum, witli 
illuminated capitals, and bofders of flowers. It contains ten 
miniatures, very splendidly executed, which are said to have 
been painted by Girolarao, the son of Francesco dai Libri, 
bound in crimson satin, with silver gilt ornaments, &c, with a 
Virgin and Child engraved on silver on one side. l6l. 5s. 6d. 

Missale sive Officium Beatas M. Virginis cum Calendario. IIOA 
5*. Jarman. 

A very beautiful Book of Ofiices, executed at Bruges in 1531. 
Tt contains 32 miniatures of the Birth and Passion of Christ, of 
the Twelve Apostles, &c. painted with a taste and delicacy of 
execution far superior to the generality of Flemish Missals. 
The Calendar is also ornamented with appropriate emblematic 
devices to each month. It is said to have been executed for 
the celerated Diana of Poitiers. It concludes thus : " Author 
ac scriptor hujus operis presentis nomen est ei, Antonius Van 
Damme moram trahens Brugis anno 1531," bound in red velvet, 
enclosed in a silver cilt fillagree case, and a blue morocco case. 

OflScium Beatae Marias Virginis cum Calendario. A beautiful 
specimen of Italian Calligraphy of the beginning of the Six- 
teenth Century. It has l6 large miniatures very splendidly 
painted and illuminated with arabesque borders to the opposite 
pages, in gold and colours. In very rich old morocco binding, 
in compartments with clasps, in the finest preservation. 32/. 6s. 

Missale Romanura, printed upon vellum, with illuminations and 
engraved borders, a very fine copy in old binding in compart- 
ments, ruled, Paris, Simon Vostre, sans date. 5/. t5s. 6d. 

lloije Beatissimae Virginis Mariae, printed upon vellum, with 
coloured plates, and illuminated capitals, bound in old morocco, 
with morocco lining, in compartments, Antverp, Plantiu, 15/0. 
3/. 3*. Arch. 

Mors. The Complaynt of Roderyck Mors, somtyiue a gray fryrc, 

318 BibUographi/. 

unto llie parliament howse of Ingland, his natural cuntrv, «^x- 
cessively rare, inlaid, russia. Imprinted at Savoy, per Francis- 
cum de Turona, no date. 51. 7s. 6d. Payne. 
Musick, The Praise of, (by Joseph Barnes), green morocco, black 
letter, Oxenford, 1386. 3l. Tripkook. 


!Mirrour, (The) of Majestic or Badges of Honour conceitedly em- 
blazoned with emblems annexed, poetically unfolded, red mo- 
rocco, rare, W. Jones, 1619. 18/. Perry. 

Missals and Offices of the Church, t^'c. 

A Manuscript of the 15th century upon vellum, in a glass case, 
one side of which contains the Horge Beatae Marise Virginis, the 
other, Precationes Christo et Matri. 51. 15s. 6d. Booth. 

Missale in Lingua Germanica, a MS. of the 15th century, upon 
vellum, with uioe large Paintings, and Capitals tastefully illumi- 
natpd, boiuid in velvet. 10/. Jarman. 

Precationes Pitc, a MS. on vellum, with nine large splendidly painted 
Miniatures and borders of flowers to each page, red morocco. 
13/. 2.'^. 6d. Triphook. 

Missale Romanum cum Testis Sanctorum et Calendario, a Manu- 
script of the 14th century upon vellum. It contains a great 
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Illumination. Each Month of the Calenuar is ornamented with 
appropriate Emblematical Devices. See MS. note at the begin- 
ning, red morocco. 7/. 17s. 6d. Arch. 

Missale Ecclesiie Homanic, a very beautiful Flemisli Manuscript 
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this description, bound in red velvet, with gold ornaoients, and 
a blue morocco case. 57/. 15s. Triphoofc. 

Officium Beatae Marias Virginis secundum Consuetudinem Romanai 
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in blue velvet, with gold ornaments, in a red morocco case. 53/. 1 Is. 

Psalterium Latine, a Manuscript of the 15th century, upon vellum, 
with very delicate Paintings of Groups of Figures and Landscapes, 

Bihliogrophij, 319 

in t!ie Ciipltal Leltcrs, and Borders richly Illuniinated witli Figures, 
Candelabras, &c. IS/. Triphook. 

Moor's Miiida Far.theon, ]>lates, rn:?sia, 1810. 4/. 14s. 6</. Cochran. 

Morlini Novellie, first edition, very fine copy, morocco, from tiic 
Roxburghe Collection, extrenieiy rare, Neapoli, in asdibiis Joan. 
Pasquet de Sallo, 1520. 19/. l^s. Triphook 

Wuld Sacke, or tlie Apolo^iie of Hie Mulier to the late Declama- 
tion against licr, portrait on the Title, lussia, rare, 1620. 
07. 12s. 6d. Clarke. 


Merlin, Les Prophecies do, f.p.e copy, from the Roxburghe Col- 
lection, rare, Paris, Verard, 1408. 9I. 9s. Triphook. 

Milles et Amys, le quel racompte les gestes et hauix fais du cheva- 
lier i>Iiies tre.3 renomrae et de At«>s, Sec. wood cuts, fine copy, 
very rare, Paris, Verard, sans date. l67. \6s. Hibhert. 

Missale Ecclesite Noviomensis, a Manuscript upon vellum of 
great antiquity. It is of an oblong form, and appears by the 
Capital Letters and singular Illuminations to have been written 
in the 1 1th Century, bounti in red velvet, bl. 7s. 6d. Payne. 

^Missale ad Usum Ecclesije Portugallensis. A most splendid Manu- 
script upon vellum, executed in 1557, for John the Fourth, 
King of Portugal, and Catherine his Queen. It coiitaiiis above 
a Thousand Illuminations painted with a great variety, richness 
and brilliancy of colouring, and each page is surrounded with a 
border and other ornaments of gold, bound in I'ed morocco. 
33/. 14s. Triphook. 

Monde. L'(]Euvre qui a pour Titre Le Monde plein de Fols, 
c\irious grotesque plates, with borders after designs by Vaa 
Sasse, with descriptions in French, German, and Dutch verse, 
no date. 4/. 4s. Sir J. G. Egcrton. 

Myrrour of the World, or thymage of the same, first edition, two 
leaves wanting, and two supplied by Manuscript, red morocco, 
William Caxtoii, 1481. 15/. Triphook. 

Myrrour of the World, wood cuts, sc(oii * edition, very fine copy, 
in blue morocco, William Caxton, 1481. 55/. lis. Triphook. 

Mystere des Actes des Apostres, 2 vol. in 1. black letter, wood 
cuts, red nsorocco, Paris, par N. Cousteau, 1.J37- 7 1- 10*. 

Mystire <le la Conception et Nativite de la Vier^e Marie avec la 
Nativite, <!v'c. de Jesus Christ, 3 Mysteries in 1 vol. wood cuts, 
fine copy, blue morocco. Par M. le Noir, 1507. 15/. Trip- 

Napoleon, Tableaux Historiques de ses Can-.pagnes en Italic, 
plates, ru>-.ia, Puris, 1806. \0l. Sir J. G. Egerton. 

Ordonnaricca (te rOr«lr» de la Toison d'Or, beautifully printed 
upon velltim, red mon.cco, in a red morocco case, Le Noir, 
1523. 4/. 45. Triphook 







Preliminary Observations, and Notice of the chief F/orks en 
the subject. 

Few subjects are so interesting to the unlearned and the learned ; 
to the philosopher, the sceptic, and the Christian, as the origin, 
the progress, and the once universal prevalence of Idolatry. Ac- 
customed by the common laws of society, in the present day, to 
morality, gravity, and decency of manners, we can scarcely ima- 
gine the possibility of the existence of a state, in which inhuman 
and deliberate murder, and the most infamous and scandalous 
abominations could have formed a part of the public religion of a 
country. We seem to contemplate the idiotcy of the human mind, 
when the confused rabble of the heathen Gods, with their long 
train of" Gorgons, Hydras, and Chimaeras dire," pass before us in 
rapid, monstrous succession. The absurd, inconsistent, and ap- 
parently unaccountable traditions, which were alike believed by 
the vulgar, and with few exceptions even by the philosophical part 
of mankind, excite only our scorn ; and we pity the blind- 
ness and ignorance which bowed at their altars, and were instructed 
these " Devils to adore for Deities." 

Few, who have been initiated in the elements of classical know- 
ledge, have not felt, at some period of their youthful studies, an 
intense eagerness to be well acquainted with the meaning of the 
fables of the Pantheon. We all remember, how much the general 
curiosity of a whole school has been excited, by any attempt to 
elucidate the histories of the Gods and Goddesses of Greece and 
Rome. The very unsatisfactory explanations even of Tooke's Pan- 
theon, or those in Dr. LemprieieV Dictionary, served only toincrease 
the desire of information which they could not gratify; we were 
perplexed and bewildered ; and were at lenijth compelled to defer 
the examination of the question to an indetiiiite period, which sel- 
dom or never arrived. So steong however are the early impres- 
sions of youth, tliat very few lose entirely the wish to unravel 
the strange details which formerly contributed to their amusement, 
or roused their boyish wonder. 

The subject of the Pagan Idolatry, too, is not merely interesting ; 

and Decline of Idolatrij, 321 

it has far higher claims to our attention — it is of real importance to 
every man, who would comprehend the ways of Providence ; 
the object of the Mosaic law ; the external evidence of the Truth of 
the Hebrew Scriptures, deducible from the History of Paganism ; 
and the wonderful connexion between anticipated History in Pro- 
phecy, and accomplished Prophecy in History. The books of the 
Old Testament give us an account of the early Religion of the 
world — the gradual dispersion of all nations froui their primeval 
settlements —with many other events in which the whole of the 
human race must have been deeply concerned, and which they 
must have witnessed when they were but few in number. They 
give us a simple detail of events, which are to be believed or rejected 
from the same reasoning, by which we should judge of the truth 
or falsehood of the records of nations in general. As the foreign 
events of the History of England might be authenticated from an 
accurate detail of the transactions of the surrounding people ; so 
will the facts related in the books of Moses, and the Prophets, be 
confirmed by the records, the superstitions, and worship of the 
neighbouring idolaters. The history of one nation is " indented 
and dove-tailed into that of another." If the earlier histories con- 
tained in the pages of Scriptures be true, we shall necessarily find 
some traces of the important events there related among the pris- 
tine annals of every nation. 

If then the ancient prevalence of idolatry be proved, and if the 
identity of the facts on which it is founded, with the events related 
in Scripture be ascertained, we have additional reason to believe 
after a consideration of both systems, that the Deity created man, 
and imparted to him a Revelation ; we are warranted m rejecting 
the corruptions of that Revelation, which encourage the degrada- 
tion of women, the exposure of infants, the slaughter of human 
victims, and the public perpetration of every unmentionable infamy ; 
while we retain the purity of that system which inculcates mercy, 
justice, and love. From this preliminary we are led to the 
unavoidable inference, that Christianity is the gift of the same 
Creator, who placed our primary ancestors on the earth. 

Of so much importance then is it that every man, who would be 
satisfied that Revelation is the gift of God, should be well inform- 
ed on the subject of the Pagan Idolatry. Our Religion is founded 
upon facts. If the facts of Scripture be proved to be true all theo- 
retical objections must vanish. Gibbon may point his irony, and 
Hume may fatigue himself with arguments against the probability 
of miracles; the disciples of Paine, and the shallow admirers of 
the superficial Frenchman, may discover ten thousand imaginary 
difficulties ; but until the facts are disproved, and the united testi- 
mony of every nation that has retained a remnant of civilisation 
be discredited, the authenticity of Scripture cannot be overthrown. 
The Deity has condescended in all ages to confirm the truth of this 

322 On the Origin, Progress, 

Revelation by appealing to our senses ; and as the existence of the 
scattered sons of Israel, and the gradual fulfilment of Prophecy, 
appeal to our reason at the present time ; so did the very idolatries 
of the Pagans, which were merely the corruption of Truth, 
strengthen the conviction of believers, in their attachment to the 
Hebrew Scriptures. 

From thus considering the importance and interest of the sub- 
ject, and having perused with some attention the works of Maurice, 
Bryant, Faber, the papers of Sir William Jones and Cap- 
tain Wilford in the Asiatic Researches, with some other works, I 
had intended to have drawn up the result of this reading in one 
or two small volumes, and submitted them to the world. The ia- 
formalion collected, and the subjects discussed by the several 
authors I have mentioned, extend through so many volumes, that 
but few persons can find leisure to peruse them throughout : 
an abridgment therefore of their discoveries and reasonings would 
be most acceptable to the great majority of readers. My engage- 
ments however are at present so numerous, that I have not an 
opportunity of bestowing on the subject that attention which its 
extent and nature requires. Yet as 1 shall be most happy to faci- , 
lilate, even in the least degree, the labors of any one who may be 
inclined to attempt this task, I have drawn up some few papers for 
insertion in the valuable pages of the Classical Journal, 

It is impossible to satisfy every doubt, and to anticipate every 
objection ; and though many of the ideas I may propose may ap- 
pear new, and not yet sufficiently confirmed, I trust, as my wish is to 
reconcile contending theories, that I shall contribute to the more 
easy fulfilment of the abridgment of those larger works I have 
mentioned : an abridgment, the object of which ought to be an enu- 
meration and arrangement of the wonderful proofs contained in the 
annals of the most remote and forgotten nations, as well as in the 
most detestable rites of Paganism, that the Scriptures are worthy of 
credit, and Revelation the gift of God. 

Before we j)roceed however, to enquire into the Origin, Progress, 
and Decline of Idolatry, it will be necessary to survey the chief 
writers, from whom our information is principally derived. We may 
pass over the period which elapsed from the writings of the early 
Greek and Latin Fathers, till we come to the celebrated Rabbi 
Maimonides. Cyprian in his treatise Idolorum de Vanitate, Lactan- 
tins, Eusebius, Alhanasius, and others declaimed, it is true, against 
Idolatry, but none of these celebrated men attempted to explain 
the fables they ridiculed. Maimonides was the first who endeavour- 
ed to solve the mysteries which had so long perplexed the world. 
He perused, he tells us, with great attention all the ancient authors 
on the Rise and Progress of Idolatry. He did this, to explain the 
reasons of the enactment of those ordinances, and rites of the Jewish 
Law which appear to have no meaning, unless they arc considered 

and Decline of Idolatry. 323 

ill cumiexion with the idolatrous customs of the surroundin-' 
nations. Among other opinions which this distinguished author 
defended with equal learning and talent, and which have attracted 
considerable attention, was this, that the worship of the heavenly 
host was practised by the Antediluvians, We read in Genesis in 
our translation, that in the days of Enos, " men began to call on 
the name of the Lord." The learned Lightfoot translates the pas- 
sage, " then began profaneness in calling on the name of the Lord." 
Heidegger (in his eighth dissertation, on the Theology of the 
Cainites, and the Antediluvian Idolatry) adduces many arguments 
to prove that Idolatry was the corruption prevalent before the 
flood. The words of Maimonides are, " in the days of Enos men 
grievously erred, and the wise men became brutish ; and (our 
author adds) from worshipping the stars as the representatives of 
the Deity, who had placed them on high to govern the world, men 
began to praise, honor, and worship then), and to esteem them as 
Mediators." — The idea of a Mediator indeed runs, like a thread, 
through the whole web of the ancient Idolatry. Mr. Young, with 
other celebrated men, agrees in this opinion of Maimonides. 

One of the chief difficulties which present themselves to the 
Mosaic account, is derived from that abstruse subject, the antiquity 
of the Zodiac. M. Bailly in his history of Astronomy places the 
iiivention of the Persian sphere about 3200 years before Christ : 
he supposes likewise that the movable zodiac was discovered 2250 
years before Christ : the zodiac of Esne has been referred to a still 
earlier period. The arguments on which these hypotheses are sup- 
jjorted have been undoubtedly refuted. Even if the theory of M. 
Bailly and others be of no authority, the early perfection of astro- 
nomy at a very early period after the deluge, when the first post- 
diluvians must have been much occupied in choosing their new ' 
settlements, ought to have some weight in influencing our decision. 
Burnet justly observes in his Archeeologia, at the conclusion of the 
first bo(»k, " it is reasonable to believe that the antediluvian fathers 
were not utterly foolish, and ignorant of the sciences. Of these, 
whatever they might have been, Noah was the heir," &c. 
Whatever the aged Patriarchs knew, Mas most probably communi- 
cated to Noah. He was the inhabitant of bo+h worlds, and trans- 
ferred the lamp of the sciences from one to the other. Mr. Maurice 
too, in his memoir on the ruins of Babylon, very justly observes 
(p. 22.) " the very early proficiency of the Egyptians and Chaldeans 
in Astronomy can only be accounted for by the supposition that a 
considerable portion of the antediluvian arts and sciencts, among 
which must be numbered Astronomy, was by the permission of 
Providence preserved on tablets of stone to illumine the ignorance 
and darkness of the earliest postdiluvian ages,' To suppose that 

' I am compelled to abbreviate Mr. Maurice's long and labored sen- 

S24 On the Origin, Progress, 

our antediluvian ancestors for sixteen hundred years together couM 
be uninterested spectators of tlie celestial bodies, would be to ima- 
gine them destitute of common curiosity. Josephus too has 
asserted that the antediluvians were well acquainted v/ith the grand 
cycle of six hundred years; which Cassini declares to be the finest 
period ever invented; since it brings out the solar year more 
exactly than that of Hipparchus and Ptolemy ; and the lunar 
month, within about one second of what it is determined by mo- 
dern astronomers," &c. &c. In addition to these evidences in favor 
of Mairaonides's opinion, we may add tiie traditions so current 
among many nations, that there were certain sacred books pre- 
served by the second father of mankind. These traditions are col- 
lected by Mr. Faber in the fifth chapter of his third book. 
" Whether any books," (says Mr. Faber) " of antediluvian science 
and theology were preserved by Noah in the ark, I shall not pre- 
tend to determine : yet I can see nothing very improbable in the 
supposition, that he may have delivered to his posterity a volume 
or volumes replete with the treasured knowledge of a former world." 
Other reasons might be brought forward. We shall however 
confine ourselves to one. Job seems to have been well acquainted 
with astronomy, and with its perversion, then commencing, to ido- 
latrous uses. 

It may be thought inconsistent with that sober judgment with 
which wr ought to examine this controverted question, thus to 
declare an opinion in favor of antediluvian Idolatry, without any 
demonstrative proof; there yet seems to be much more evidence 
in support of the conjecture than possibly can be urged against it. 

The patience of most readers would be exhausted with the at- 
tempt to take even a cursory view of all the writers who have dis- 
( nssed the subject since the revival of learning. Much curious in- 
formation, has been collected by Heidegger, in his Sacra Historia 
Patriarcharum. Vossius has written two folio volumes De Origine 
et Progressu Idolatriae. Bp. Cumberland in his " Planting of 
Ni'.tinus" has some interesting tracts, particularly one " De Legibus 
Patriarcharum." Bochart's two celebrated treatises " Phaleg" and 
" Canaan" abound with interesting details : the work of Archbishop 
Temiison is chiefly compiled from Bochart. Witsius's Jilgyptiaca is 
an invaluable work : He has completely overthrown the hypothe- 
sis of Spencer and Marsham, that the Jews borrowed from the 
Egyptians. Burnet's Archasologin contaius so much that deserves 
condemnation, that we cannot rank it so highly, as the learning and 
ingenuity of the author deserves. It is well worthy the perusal of 
the curious, though it must not be depended upon. One of the 
most virluable works on the subject, although little known and less 
appreciated, is the treatise of the Ilev. Arthur Young, entitled " An 
Jlistorical Dissertation on Idolatnnis Corruptions in Religion," '2 
Vols. 8vo. 1734. He has anticipated much of the labors of bissiicces- 

nml Decline of Idolatry. 325 

sors, he proves the divine origin of the law of Moses, from its di- 
rect opposition to the customs of the surrounding idolaters ; an 
argument since adopted and enforced by more modern writers. 

To mention the name of Bryant, is to recal to the minds of all 
who are interested in these researches one of the most illustrious 
ornaments of our country. Distinguished alike for his love of truth, 
his devotion, and his dedication of himself to the acquisition of 
knowledge, Mr. Bryant has had the honor to be esteemed the most 
effective of the learned advocates of Revelation, of the last century. 
He conducts us safely through the labyrinth of mythology ; through 
all the darkness of fable, and the fogs of error and superstition, till 
the day-star of Revelation bursts upon the view. We trace the form 
of knowledge through the primeval corruptions of the early post- 
diluvian age, through the disguises of Paganism, and the mistaken 
vanity of the Greeks. The earth is divided and colonised ; and 
the predecessors of the Romans and the Greeks again survive. 
Though Mr. Bryant has sometimes permitted his ardor and imagi- 
nation to influence his judgment ; though the immense mass of 
learning which he has accumulated seems sometimes to extinguish 
the discrimination, which usually characterises him ; still we are 
reminded only of the caution of a skilful general, who in a danger- 
ous position makes his attack with a force so numerous, that he 
obtains a complete victory, though many of his troops are lost in 
the action. Half his arguments are useless, but the other half proves 
his point. His analysis of mythology is as entertaining as a Ro- 
mance ; to use the language of his biographer, " it is a literary phae- 
nomenon, which will remain the admiration of scholars, as long as 
a curiosity after antiquity shall continue to be a prevailing pas- 
sion among mankind. Nothing in the ancient Gretk and Roman 
literature, however recondite, or wherever dispersed, could escape 
his sagacity and patient investigation." — " This elaborate produc- 
tion is distinguished not only by its erudition, it is equally distin- 
guished for its ingenuity and novelty. It departs from the com- 
monly received systems, to a degree, which has not only never been 
attempted, but even thought of by any man of learning." It has 
been objected that he rests too much on etymology ; yet an attentive 
student of his work will find that every important position is sup- 
ported by facts, and not by etymology alone. 

An accurate knowledge of Mr, Bryant's work may be declared 
essential to the right understanding the Origin and Progress of 
Idolatry. His great object was, to obtain some height or pedestal, 
from wiiich he might survey the confused ocean of all "which 
fables yet have feigned, or fear conceived." He justly reasoned 
that the histories of the heathen Gods, Juno, Jupiter, &:c. otight 
not alone to be rejected as incredible and absurd ; the Heroes and 
Demigods, Perseus, Hercules, Osiris, Sesostris, Cadmus, &c. &c. 
cither had no existence, or their histories were completely dis- 
guised. We will fix upon the history of the latter to give the 

326 On the Origin, Fr ogress, 

reader a specimen of this masterly performance. It was impos- 
sible, he justly argues, that Cadmus could be a real personage, 
though Bochart has endeavoured to explain and render consistent 
every fact related of him. " Is it credible,'' says Mr. Bryant, 
*' that any person could have penetrated into the various regions 
whither he is supposed to have gone? To have founded colonies in 
Phoenicia, Cyprus, Rhodes, Thera, Thapsus, Thasus, Anaphe, 
Samothracia? To have twice visited the Hellespont? To have 
worked the mines in the Pangean, and other Mountains ? To have 
made settlements in Euboea, Attica, Boeotia, and Illyria? And 
above all to have founded temples, and a hundred cities in Libya ? 
He settles after much wandering in Greece, where he likewise 
builds cities, and lives sixty-two years. Then he is made king 
in Illyria ; and he had no " small territory in Armenia," &c. &c. 
&c. — By this reasoning, he is naturally led to ask, v.'ho then was 
Cadmus ? and concludes in this, as in other questions of a sinsilar 
nature that Cadmus was one of the names of the sun, the chief 
Deity of the Idolators. That is, that the name Cadmus, was but 
a term for the successive colonies of the Cadmians who proceeded 
from several parts of the East, to Greece, Africa, &c, ; and who 
carried with them, civilisation, arts and arms, assumed the names 
of their God, and attributed to him the success of their various 
enterprises. The actions of Osiris, Sesostris, Perseus, &c. &c. are 
all of the same description as those imputed to Cadmus. 

The principal question discussed by Mr. Bryant, is, Who or 
what was the people which was enabled to give laws, sciences, 
and civilisation to the world? Suffice it to say that by innume- 
rable facts, arguments, examples, and learned illustrations^ he 
proves them to have been all branches of one illustrious family ; 
they were all the Sons of Ham, who under several names wor- 
shipped their ancestor ; and who imposed, on their more peaceable 
brethren, who after the flood had betaken themselves to their 
appointed settlements, their own idolatrous superstitions and 
arbitrary laws. Mr. Faber, as we shall see, objects to this theory, 
but there is, in fact, but little difference between them. Mr. Bryant 
supposes Idolatry, Science, and War, to have originated at Shinar 
among the ciiiidren of Ham. Mr. Faber supposes that they origi- 
nated at Shinar among the apostate families of the three sons of 
Noah ; these united in one place. Now we know from Scripture 
that the sons of Ham were more numerous than those of both his 
brethren together. Both writers therefore agree in this, that 
by far the greater part of mankind were corrupted at Shinar 
prior to their dispersion thence : and it is of little consequence 
whether the rest of either hypothesis be correct. The proba- 
bility is, that Mr. Bryant and Mr. Faber have both supposed too 
much ; a question however which will be soon considered. lu 

and Decline of Idolatrif, 327 

the course of his researches Mr. Bryant leads us in the most en- 
tertaining manner among trilies and nations, hitherto known only 
by name. The Toniai, the Cuthim, ihe Scythae, the Indoscythas, 
the Hyperboreans, and Pelasgi ; the Sauromatee, the Cyclopians, 
Arimaspians, and the Orilae ; the Cimmerians, and the Titans, 
"come like shadows, and so depart." Before the Greeks were 
known, or Rome was founded, these people were eminent in com- 
merce ; they had in many instances, though not perhaps to the ex- 
tent supposed, erected fire towers or temples, on the coasts and 
headlands of Europe and Africa ; they had visited under the name 
of Phoenicians, ( a word by no means to be appropriated to the 
inhabitants of the country round Tyre alone,) Carthage, Spain, 
Britain, and the Indies. Wherever they settled they carried with 
them memorials of the deluge, and enclosed spaces round their 
temples for worship ; where they compelled strangers to fight, 
where they offered human victims, aid performed all their more 
odious ceremonies and games in honor of the Sun. The know- 
ledge of these circumstances has been handed down to us through 
the Greeks, who changed every tradition, and disguised every circum- 
stance at pleasure. The names of cities and towns were altered 
into those of individuals ; the names of men became the titles of 
cities; and all was confounded by that inordinate vanity of the 
Greeks which appropriated every wonderful circumstance to their 
own people or nation. Hence a fii'e tower of Sicily among the 
people name<l Cyclopians, became the one eye of a Giant named 
Cyclops. Every word of harsher sound the Greeks adapted to 
their own ear : all the ancient knowledge, in short, of the people 
who colonised and possessed Europe, has been disguised or lost 
in the subsequent dominion of the Greeks and Romans, whose 
histories refer chiefly to themselves. However great, commercial, 
or celebrated their predecessors were, they have left no records ; 
and all our information respecting them is gathered from frag- 
ments, verses. Scholiasts, hints, traditions, and of late years the 
legends of the Hindoos, which like the moss-covered ruins of 
towers and castles, speak only of past greatness, and long lost 
unrecorded glory. 

Omitting all further consideration of Mr. Bryant's new and in- 
genious, though mosterroneousand untenable mode of arguing from 
etymology, it is time to consider the objection to Mr. Bryant's 
system, which have been proposed by that greatest master and 
liierophant of modern days, the learned Mr. l-aber. 

Bryant supposes that the people, who were thus eminent and 
distinguished, were the descendants of Clius the Son of Ham : who 
continued together, contrary to the command of God at the gene- 
ral migration of families ; but were at length (Hspersed over the 
face of the earth. They united, (after much wandering, as they 
would not obey the command of the Deity who appointed their 

3^S On the Origin , Progress, 

respective settlements in the plain of Shinar. In their journey 
thither, as well as on their arrival at this place, they were joined by 
numerous tribes, and discontented wanderers. They first dispos- 
sessed their brethren, the sonsof Ashur, who had established them- 
selves near the Euphrates. They then built the City and Tower 
of Babylon, but were dispersed from that city by miraculous in- 
terference. From Babylon they wandered in detached masses 
over every part of the world, conquering their brethren wherever 
they came ; imposing their Religion by force; and introducing 
into the original patriarchal worship their own idolatries. From 
this source originated that wonderful uniformity, which we every 
where discover, between the rites, worship, and deities of the an- 
cient idolaters wherever they were established. 

Great as the merit of Mr. Bryant is, in having thus explored 
his way among the darkness which till his time had covered this 
subject; his theory is undoubtedly incorrect, when he imputes 
the universal similarity among the idolatries of all nations to the 
conquests of one dispersed and broken nation; whatever might 
have been its ambition, its knowledge, its wealth, or greatness. 
Mr. Faber's arguments on this head are irrefutable. " [f could not 
have been," says Mr. Faber, " that the CuJhites could have com- 
pelled their brethren in every part of the World lo receive their false 
worship, even if they had subjected them to their arms. The body 
n)ay be subdued, but the habits and opinions of a nation cannot 
be immediately altered at the will of a conqueror. The brethren 
of (he Cuthites too, had they dispersed, as Mr. Bryant has repre- 
sented, to their several allotted habitations, by the time the Am- 
monians or Cuthim arrived at Shinar, would have become eminent 
and florishing. Is it probable that they could have been so ea- 
sily subdued, their religion changed, their worship utterly 
abolished, and the laws of Jehovah forsaken, by a people Avha 
had been punished by a miracle which must have confirmed the 
faith of those whom they thus attacked ?" These difficulties are 
insuperable : yet, as we shall see when we examine Mr. Faber's 
system, the truth is most likely between the two opposite hypothe- 
ses, which these learned men have proposed, and defended. 

If Mr. Bryant's chief hypothesis be thus untenable, why, it will 
be said, does he deserve so much applause, and what has he done 
for the promotion of satisfactory knowledge on the subject? I 
answer he has cleared away so much rubbish ; he has shown how 
the fables of tradition melt into truth ; how consistent are the early 
histories with the Mosaic account; how much confirmation, in par- 
ticular, is given to the history of the delude from the singular 
prevalence of the arkite emblems and superstition, which from the 
first commemorated that event. Mr. Brjant reduced the chaos of 
rude materials into order ; though it was, and is, reserved to others 
to comolete his labors. By his rciearches alone the whole enquiry 

and Decline of Idolatry. 329 

into the origin and progress of Idolatry may be reduced to 
this one question, namely. Whether we have most reason to believe 
with Mr. Bryant, that there were two dispersions ; or with Mr. 
Faber, th^t there was but one dispersion of mankind ? 

From Mr, Bryant our attention must be directed to the author 
of the Indian Antiquities. The devotion to his subject, the perse- 
verance, ingenuity, and knowledge of Mr. Maurice entitle him to 
our admiration. At an early period of his life he commenced the 
study of the History, Religion, Commerce, Laws, and Government 
of Hindostan. He has added much to the information of his 
countrymen. His exertions have unifonnly been directed to the 
support of the Ciiristian Religion. He has confirmed by his re- 
spective discoveries the truth of the Mosaic account. His subse- 
quent disappointment, and his indignation at the neglect he seems 
to have experienced, have excited no common interest. After a 
life of literary labor and research, these complaints are not dis- 
continued. The last work which Mr. Maurice has submitted to 
the public, " Observations on Mr. Rich's Memoir on the Ruins of 
Babylon," was published by Subscription : and its Author by the 
bankruptcy of his bookseller has been compelled to become the 
vender of his own publications. His fate certainly appears to be 
unusually hard ; neither the booksellers, nor the public, have re- 
moved the disappointment of which Mr. Maurice complains ; 
though all will acknowledge his talent, knowledge, and merit. 

let the British public is generous and discriminating ; and 1 trust 
I shall not give offence even to Mr. Maurice in observing, that the 
author of the Indian Antiquities, from the mere want of a little 
common sense, has been in great measure the cause of his own 
failure. The style in which his works are written, is so 
pompous and labored, that it is with the utmost difficulty 
tiie most curious and anxious reader can toil through its redundant 
periods and swelling paragraphs. "Knowledge and wisdom," 
says the poet Cowper, " far from being one, have oftliines no 
connexion." There is no simplicity of diction ; every thing is 
forced, conceited, and turgid. Instances of tiiese faults ntrd not 
lie selected, they abound in every page, nor is Mr. Maurice's last 
work free from them. The most tme and common ideas are 
couched in the most unnatural language. Thus, when Mr. Mau- 
rice would tell us, that lie thought some plates were necessary 
to illustrate his descriptions, we are informed: "While I daily 
advanced more deeply into the Ocean of Hindoo Mytiiology and 
Sciences ; subjects so uncommon, and indeed, in some instances 
so improbable, succesively pressed for discussion, that the force 
of language could not fully elucidate them ; nor the most solemn 
attestations of the most authentic travellers, give them the stamp 
of credibility. I was therefore, to illustrate the ideas I wished 
to convey, compelled to have recourse to the power of another 

330 On the Origin, Fj ogress, f^-c. of Idolainj, 

science, and Engraving came in aid of her sister Mythology." 
Pref. p. 86. The intolerable bombast in the lOlst page oi the Pre- 
face ; the description of the Milljraic worship in the second volume, 
which is full of the most absurd and inflated language ; with a pas- 
sage in the seventh wliere, for the word water, we meet in a com- 
mon sentence, the synonym of " the aquatic element," are some of 
the most distressing specimens of the bad taste, and perversion of 
language which characterise the productions of this otherwise 
admirable author. 

But this error is not the only one which has prevented the more 
universal reception of these laborious works. Mr. Maurice by some 
strange fatality introduces himself, his exertions, his expenses, and 
private history on every possible uppoi iunity. The extent to which 
this harmless, yet offensive, because obtrusive, egotism is carried, is 
scarcely credible to those who liave not the good fortune to be 
acquainted with his volumes. At an early age Mr. Maurice pub- 
lished some poetry which did not become popular. In the 6 1st 
page of the Preface to his Indian Antiquities, he consoles himself 
under the neglect he experienced, by recalling, as every juvenile 
author is proud to do, the praises which had been bestowed on him 
in private by some eminent scholars, to whom the verses had been 
submitted. Mr. Maurice actually applies the following language 
to his own works. " Amidst continued and universal neglect, it is 
still matter of honest triumph, that the few detached pieces, &c. 
have received the warmest tribute of applause from men who would 
equally disdain to flatter or deceive; from men upon whose ster- 
ling judgment, and upon whose unadulterated taste I dare to rely ; 
from men who know and feel the difference that subsists, between 
the nerveless singsong effusions of the day ; and that sublime, ener- 
gic, manly poetry, tliat strikes with the force of electric lire, and 
seizes upon the ca))live heart." He then proceeds to add, that his 
love of poetry has corrupted his prose. It is unpleasant to observe 
the weaknesses of men to whom the common cause of hteralure is 
so much indebted, but it is this strange and uninvited egotism which 
runsthrougli the whole book ; it is this inflated language, which pre- 
vents the possibility of its popularity. 

It may excite surprise thus to detail the faults of an author for 
whom I profess the greatest respect, and to whon) is attributed 
such acknowledged merit. But there is no inconsistency in so doing. 
In relating what I truly believe to be the real cause of tlje apparent 
inattention with which the woiksof Mr. Maurice have been received, 
a most important lesson is presented to all authors. Learning, 
genius, and perseverance are of no avail, unless they are disciplined 
by good sense. If an autlior is not, after many exertions, well 
received by a pubhc which can be neither deceived, nor Imbed ; 
which is too sensible, and too impartial, to decide wrong for years 
together; and which is ever pleased with the ambition and activity 

Remarks, ^-c. 331 

of ail, who appeal to its protection ; let that author snspetit him- 
self, and rigidly examine into Jhe probable causes of his failure. 
A high opinion of his own merits, and a compassion for the i<»no- 
rance or bad taste of the age ; though they may afford consolation, 
will viold no improvement. The fault is almost uniformly in them- 
selves : and the spirit of labor which has enabled them to do so 
nnich, will always conquer the most inveterate faults. When De- 
mothenes was hissed from the stage, he did not declaim against 
the people. Rediscovered his faults, and avoided them. Above 
all, let the man who would hope to be a favored author carefully 
abstain from all self adulation, and obtrusive egotism. His readers 
know that books cannot be written, nor knowledge acquired with- 
out much patient thought, ranch laborious study, much anxiety 
and self-denial ; they give the writer their approbation ; but if he 
pays himself beforehand by relating in every page the privati«nis 
and ditficulties which must necessarily be undergone ; they will 
withhold from the most meritorious his just tribute of applause. An 
author, who thus distracts the attention of the reader from his book 
to himself, is like a painter who exhibits a picture to the pubhc. 
The spectators admire the splendor, or taste, or coloring, or other 
merit in the picture; they represent to their imagination the labor, 
anxiety, and desert of the artist ; and would retire delighted with 
the picture, and interested in the fortunes of its painter. But, if 
instead of permitting them to examine the canvas undisturbed, 
its meritorious but ill-judging author were to place himself before it, 
were to persist in pointing out, what he considered its chief excel- 
lences ; and proceed to relate his domestic sufferings, his assiduity, 
and skill, the most enthusiastic lover of the arts would be offended, 
and would relieve himself from the fatigue of listening to the painter 
by silently and totally neglecting the picture. 7". 


On a Criticism on Mr. Bp-llamy's New Translation 
of the Bible from the original Hehrezv. 

An article having appeared in a review on some passages in 
the New Translation of the Bible from the original Hebrew, 1 
will offer a few remarks on some of its a-ssertious, which do not 
appear to me conformable to the genius of the Hebrew lan- 

The writer of the article says, " The palpable absurdity of 
supposing that all the learned men of the present day, and of 
some centuries past, had been so enormously mistaken, and o;i 

332 On Mr. Bellamy's ^ew 

such important points, till Mr. Bellamy arose, and was able to 
set right every error, (without apparently feeling the least doubt 
of his own correctness) appeared too gross for any ignorance to 

1 do not think these remarks sanctioned by experience. There 
was a time when the world believed that the earth, and not the 
sun, was in the centre of our system, and this was believed even 
to the very late period of the world, the eighteenth century, 
when the great Newton ventured to oppose the " consecrated 
error." What was the treatment of thai man, who has immor- 
talised his nation by discovering to the world that knowledge 
which had been buried in oblivion for oOOO years ? When he 
first broached what was then called by the bigots '' a)i hijidd 
dogma, opposing the sacred scripture," he was persecuted by 
them. And Galileo was brought before the tribunal of a horde 
of ignorant fanatics, and had his choice to deny his own words, 
that the sun, and not the earth, was in the centre of our system, 
or to end his days in the dungeon of the inquisition. 

The Critic then proceeds to point out what he conceives to 
be an inaccurate translation of Gen. vi. 14. Jnd thou shalt 
pitch it within and without with pitch. He says, " "^riie whole 
tenor of Mr. B.'s labors precludes any hope of his proving ac- 
cessible to the argumentum ad verecundiam. We shall there- 
fore treat the question as still disputable ; and go on to shew 
that the meaning which he declares to be the radical, or primary 
sense of the word, is perfectly incompatible with the known and 
undisputed meaning of all its derivatives except one, or two at 
the most." 

The Critic has here comriiitted an error. The radical mean- 
ing, which Mr. Bellamy says is given by the sacred writer to the 
■word 13D kopher, is atonement, ransom, satisfaction. He says, 
" That this is the true meaning of the word 133 kopher, and 
that it cannot possibly have any other, is confirmed in every other 
part of Scripture where it occurs. See where the same word, 
that-is, with the same consonants and vowels, is so translated 
even in the common version; Exod. xxx. 12; Job xxxiii. 24 ; 
Prov. vi, 35 ; Isa. xliii. 3 ; Numb. xxxv. 31, 32. This being 
the radical meaning of the woid, so used, and constantly applied 
by the sacred v^riiers, 1 h^ve accordingly translated it as it is 
understood a^d applied in other parts of Scripture. This not 
only relieves us from the incongruous expression, pitch it with 
pitch, but we are informed that the dispensation given to Adam 
after the fall, and continued in all the churches to the time of 
Noah, was preserved by him in the ark, where sacrifices were 

Translation of the Bible. 333 

offered during the time that the deluge was upon the earth, and 
the divine communication was given, as in the churches before 
the flood, from the mercy-seat between tlie cherubim ; which 
communication was never given, but rohen the sacrifice for 
atonement was upon the altar as representative of the Messiah. 
And therefore the word IBD kopher, atonement, expiation, ran- 
som, satisfaction, or redemption, can have no other meaning in 
this verse, than it has in every other part of Scripture. It evi- 
dently refers to the Messiah, the great High Priest of this last 
dispensation, who is passed into the heaven of heavens : who is 
said to be the propitiation for our sins, I John ii, 4. — ffho 
hath put azvay sin by the sacrifice of himself, Heb, ix. 26. 
Who also maketh intercession for us, Rom. \\\\\. 34, before the 
seat of eternal mercy, of which tl)e earthly mercy-seat was 
only a tigure. Surely if this were the meaning of the word 
■)3D kopher, then we must render Exod. xxx. 12, thou shalt 
give every man pitch {xax\?,on\) for his soul — Numb. xxxv. 31, 
ye shal Itake nov\Tcn (satisfaction)/or ///e life of a murderer — 
Job xxxiii. 2, 1 have found pitch (a ransom) — Prov. vi. 35, 
he will not regard any pitch (ransom) — Isa. xliii. 3^ I gave 
Egypt for thy pitch (ransom). 

The Critic thinks that the word "133 kopher means, " as- 
phaltus, bitumen, or pitch ; used to smear over wood or other 
things." The unprejudiced reader will acknowledge that Mr. 
B. has offered the most convincing reason for his translation of 
this important passage; the declaration of t/ie Scripture itself. 
He says, " The word 133 kopher, which the translators have 
rendered pitch, has no such meaning in any part of Scripture ; 
and excepting this solitary verse, it is not translated by pitch in 
any part of the Bible. The word which is always used, and 
wliich is the proper word for pitch, is ^DT zepheth. See Isa. 
xxxiv. 9, Jnd the streams thereof shall be turned into pilch — 
Exod. ii. 3. Jnd daubed it with slime and with pitch. Now 
as JnST zepheth is the only word in the whole Bible that is used 

for pitch, and as the word "13D kopher, uniformly throughout 
the Scripture means atonement, or redemption, the reader who 
is in search of the truth, will probably admit that there is the 
best ot all proof, llie Scripture, for Mr. Bellamy's Translation. 
The writer of the article docs not appear to be Ultimately 
acquainted widi tiie genius of the Hebrew language. He tells 

334 On Mr. Bellamy's New 

us that TBI) kephor means a hoar-frost ; and because a hoar 
frost covers, that ")3D kopher, which is a ditFerent word, must 
signify pitch, because pitch covers that to which it is applied. 
No attention has been paid by him to the orthography of the 
language. These two words differ as mucli as the words poor 
and pare ; but it would be absurd to say lliat pare might mean 
poor, because the property of a person had been cut off, pared, 
or impaired. " The same word," continues he, " is also used for 
a small village; a covert, retired place in the country." This is 
really the case as we have it in 1 Sam. vi. 8. but the translation 
of this passage has been much disputed by the learned. Most 
assuredly ■'THprriM li^'] vcgnad kopher haphruazi, cannot be 
translated, and of country villages. If this writer had examined 
the Hebrew, he would have found that no such meaning can be 
given to the clause ; for the word 1E)D kopher, is not translated. 
He, and some other writers, seem to suppose that the word 
when written with different vowels, alway? has the same meaning; 
whereas the same consonants widi a change of vowel, always 
vary tlie mode of expression, as well as ap[)iication. 

The Critic says, that the atonement does not obliterate the 
sin, and he refers to Isa. xxviii. 18, "your covenant zcith death 
.shall be disannulled, and your agreement zcilh hell shall not 
stand ; literally, your covenant shall be completely smeared, over, 
i.e. so as to become illegible. Had the verb been rendered 
obliterated, the original metaphor would have been preserved." 
'j'his does not agree with the apostle, who says. If zee confess 
our sins He is faithful and just to forgive zis our sins, and to 
cleanse us from all unrighteousness : not to " completely smear 
it over." The Critic is obliged to assent to the scriptural proof 
given by Mr. Bellamy. He says, " In every other case, where 
the verb is found in these intensive voices, it has a reference to 
sins or otfences, and is very properly rendered by the words 
connected with those ideas, which Mr. B. has assigned to the 
primary meaning." " Thus in Exod. xxxii. 20. we have no objec- 
tion to Mr. B.'s translating it — ye have committed a great sin; 
therefore noze I zcill ascend before Jehovah, perhaps I shall 
ATONE for your sin. Yet even here," says the Critic, "an ad- 
herence to the original idea would have made no confusion ; 
and perhaps I shall completely cover, or obliterate your offence." 
But this would not be in agreement with the original. Mr. B. 
would call it a comment; for to completely cover over any things 

Translation of the Bible. 335 

plainly means that the thing covered still remains : the language 
also is improper, for to cover, is to " cover completely." The 
writer has given a new sense to the word disaiinii/led, which he 
says, is to smear over, illegible. But the word means to make 
null, to make void. And the word jiull is to annihilate — the 
state of being no where, non-existence. Johnson. 

The word "ISD k/iphar, which is in this verse of Isaiah ren- 
dered disannnlied, is in Exod. xxis. 33. properly rendered 
atonement ; viz. those things zchcrezcith the atonement was 
made; not those things zchich were smeared over, "^ihe Critic 
is here guilty of a perversion of the plain sense of this word, 
which is the same, both consonants and vowels, and can be 
rendered by no other word than atonement. 

I cannot allow any force to the arguments which have been 
advanced against IMr. B.'s translation of this passage. His 
proofs must be attended to, because diey are the declarations of 
Scripture, and he has set his foot upon a rock from which he 
can never be moved, the atonement, reconciliation, satisfaction, 
or redemption, which was to be accomplished at ihe coming of 
the Messiah, and concerning which he hns, to the satisfaction 
of the unprejudiced reader, proved thjs miportant passage to be 
most clearly descriptive of the truths of the gospel dispensation. 

The Critic tells us what has been said before without proof, 
and which has been refuted, not only by Mr. Bellamy, but by 
all able Hebrew scholars who have written on the subject, that 
the translators translated from the Hebrew. The Critic says, 
" Mr. B.'s assertions, that * translations only were resorted to, 
and that no appeal was made to the Hebrew,' are in direct 
opposition to the plain fact before us. What can be said of a 
person who thus n)akes assertions, which the very passage on 
which he is at the time commenting proves to be false r'j 
Mr. B. has not said that the translators had not the Hebrew 
before them as well as translations, and therefore that in 
many instances they might translate from Hebrew; but he 
has properly said that " no translation has been niade from 
the Hebrew only, since the 128th year of Christ." And 
the English translators themselves confirm it, as has been 
recently proved in the most satisfactory manner by Sir James 
Burges, in a publication intitled, Reasons for a Neze) Trans- 
lation oj the Scripture. And therefore, disclaiming all improper 
personality, I niay, according to the fair rules of criticism, ask 
in the words of the Critic, " What can be said of a person who 
thus makes assertions which the express words of the translators 
prove to be false .^" If the writer fairly examined the original, 

336 On Mr. Bellamy's New Translation, ^c. 

he would be sensible, by comparing the authorised version with 
the Hebrew, that the translators were correct when they said in 
their preface, that it was not their design to make a nezv trans- 
lation, " but out of many good ones to make one principal 
good one." Surely the writer \s\\\ not again assert, that, if the 
translators out of many translations attempted to make a 
good one, they translated or attempted to make a good one 
from the Hebrew only. If he had read the Anti-deist, 
lately published in refutation of the blasphemous publication 
called the Deist, he would be inclined to form a more candid 
estimate of the author, and be convinced that the translators did 
not translate from the Hebrew. I would also recommend to his 
perusal, the Critical Examination and Refutation of the Objec- 
tions made by Mr. Wliittaker to Mr. Bellamys New Transla- 
tion ; and he would perhaps find sutiicient ground for changing 
the tone of his nest article. At least 1 think he will refrain 
from persecuting the man whose sole design is to defend the 
sacred volume against the attacks of the enemies of divine reve- 
lation, and against those who declare that the sacred original 
^' the inspired volume, is corrupt." I conceive that a more 
dangerous dogma cannot be promulgated, for if it were believed, 
there would be no dependence on the Bible; its genuineness 
and authenticity would vanish at once, and using Mr. B.'s words, 
** deism would bury in oblivion the truths of the gospel, as those 
great truths overwhelmed the Pagan religion at the time of 
Constantine the Great." 


*^* We shall not refuse to admit articles on either side of 
this question, provided their length is confined to onr limits, 
and their spirit critical, not personal ; argumentative, not con- 
tumelious : Ta a-KXYjpd yag toj, kuv wiphx ^, Saxvsi. Ed. 


Ire difficulty in this verse, arising from our vulgar translation 
of it, is occasioned partly by a misconception of the original 
phrase S^li? ]iD2, and partly by a ridiculous fable of the Rab- 
bins, founded on this j)assage. ]l^^ here signifies locus medius 
intimns, and the sentence may be rendered : * 1 cried from the 
midst of the grave :' or in other words, jyom the most intimate 
peril, and expectation of death. In reviewing the numerous 
miraculous occurrences recorded in the Old Testament, from 
which the Hebrew poets borrowed the principal part of their 
fniest images, we find the overthrow of Pharaoh in the red sea, 
to be one of the most majestic, and most capable of exciting 
sentiments of astonishment and terror. Accordingly, in the 
writings of the subsequent authors, we frequently discover meta- 
phors derived from this source, and applied as fear, sorrow, or 
entreaty, most prevailed. The sea may be naturally considered 
as a grave, and by an easy transition, its floods, billows, &.c. 
were used to express the attendant or imminent dangers of the 
tomb. Jt is in this light we niust explain many verses of the 
Psalms. Thus, Ps. xlii. 7. Ixix. 1, 2. cxxiv. 4, 5, are only 
meant to betoken the fear of David at the approach of death, 
and to give a lively and sensible idea of a man struggling for life 
in the abyss of waters, the unfathomable deep. In Ps. 
Ixxxviii. 6, the figure is more clearly shown, and will throw 
light on the present remarks. 

* Thou hast placed me in the lowest pit ; (thou hast placed me) 
in darkness in the deeps.' Here, by a parallel, one part of the 
text is analogous to the other, and consequently both mean the 
same thing. In the same Psalm, v. 7. * Thou hast afflicted, me 
with all thy Maves,' and v. 3. ' my life draweth nigh unto the 
grave,' imply precisely the same meaning. Job, in a similar 
manner, but with more reality, exclaims : * For thou hast cast 
me into the deep, in the midst of the seas (D''Q^ 12^2) and the 
floods compassed me about: all thy billows and thy waves 
passed over me. The waters compassed me about, even to tlie 
life, (ad periculum vita?) the depth closed me round about : 
weeds were wrapped about my head ;' c. ii. S. 5. The next 

VOL. XXI. a.Jl. NO. XLll. Y 

333 Notice of Mr. Eimslev s E<iiriuH 

rent 'u descripCtre of the Jewish sepalcbre, but as usaal, b^hH 
fi^arathe, aad we recognise in it epitheU fcM»d in maaj other 
parts of ^ SoipCnre. 

' I weatiiow to the boUontis of the mouDtains ; ike earth n ; .h 
its bars ws dbovt im for erer : vet thou bait railed up inv hit 
from comqition, O Jdiotah ! mj God/ 

The aocieots in their poetical representations of Hade?, te=- 
tifv somewhat similar ideas. In Hesiod we read^ It k-vstit, 
ftrvx>Jt; kf x^»as\ Fah^y and TtT-^rr,; l-ryarrv. yxlr,: ; and the sab 
g-irzite vastOf and fri'i/i comp^i^it unda, of Virgil and Horace 
are Veil known. But the bcit comment on the Hebrew quo- 
tition.:, and which points out their genuine signification, b the 
following epigram from the Anthologia : 

.Vovny-^-j T2Z:: zVoa' i c'irr*;* err* y*xry:v. 
'/2j a/J xai yaiT ^>r:rvxs5T* 'Atlr,:. 
* Naufragus hie jacto ; contra, jacet ecu coloims ! 
Idem Orcus terra, «V, pelagogue sukest* 

£x xeruon. S. Juhason. 
If this b faTorabiv received, I may be tempted ^') send an 
essaj on the preci>e extent aad meaning of the -.lord 'TT^'w, and 
the knowiedge of a future stale of puui^ment among the Jew ?. 

June, ISeO. 


In uium siudioMS Jiaentutls recertsuit et illusirazit 
PETRI'S ELMSLEY, A, M. Oxonii, 18 18. 819, 

No. n. iCcntinued /rem So. XXXVIIly p. 2S3.] 

Uc'iD untrerse de opera, quam P. Elmsleias Medes przsdtir, 
v:iitirema5, in prima parte censnrz nostra dixiniu5. Pcigamuj 
nunc reliqua deioceps persequi, dc quibus aliquid nobi^ adno- 

of the Medea of Eunpides, 339 

t-indum videtur. noa tamen ut omnia, przserdm aJnotaticnes 
secundarias in imis p.^.ginis attingamus. Has enim «i penrac- 
tare rellemus, liber nobis scribeadus esset multo maior, qu^ra 
Elmsleii liber e;t, quum plurimos ilJe in adnotationibu^ Utis 
veterura scriptorum locos brevissirae indicatis rationibus cor- 
rigere tentaverit, quarum coirectionum cur plurimse nobis con 
probentur, dicere longum est. Viderur autem Elmsleius corri- 
gendi opportunicates nimia cum cupiditate quzrere : id qucd 
eum non dubitamus ipsum aliquando improbaturum esse. Est 
enim hacc communis sors eorum, qui ani criticae operam danr, 
ut initio nihil non comiptum esse suspicennir, ubi autem maru- 
ruit scientia, paullatini intelligant, multo minus corruptos ad 
r.os penenisse veteres scriptores, quam a cridds. esse ccr- 

In anapsEsris, qui sun: a v. 95., quum libri fiuctuent inter 
Doricas et communes formas, Doricas Elmsleius Medex, com- 
munes nutrici restituit, Porsonumque dicit maiorem sibi in hoc 
genere licentiam sumpturum fuisse in Hippelrto, quam in 
Medea fecit. Veremur ne non satis idcneus in hac reauctor sit 
Porscnus, siquidem non potest dubitari, quin tragici etiam in 
eiusdem persons verbis pro rei, de qua sermo est, narora, 
animique affectionis diversitate communes Doricasque formas 
coniunxerint. Ouamquam his quidem in anapaestis ncn est, 
cuod magnopere pugnare cum Elmsleio velimus. 

V. 97. Non possumus quin adnotationem ex eo genere ccm- 
?>:emoremus, quales permultas in hoc hbro inveniri in prima 
parte censurx nostras diximus, quae cur scripts sint, plane intel- 
Jigi non potest. " Ante Euripidem,*' inquit, " x;a4*a in ana- 
psesto usurpat -£schylus Prom. SSO. xpxl^x -A t:Sx c:b>x 
;-.axT»?f»." Cur hoc, obsecro, dixit ? An quemquam adeo inep- 
tum esse putavit, ut xx:ils dici poise in anapsstis credai ? In 
iambis si xpzliz pcsuisset ^schylus, dignum memoratu fuisset, 
quia hi xxct'.x potius postubnr. 

V. 102. Corrigit iyfi:'; r ^;;r, copulam saeplas in pricre 
membro omitti ab librariis observans. Qua oppcnunitate 
utitur, ut locos nonnullos corrigat. Sed ut recte emendaTerit 
Eurip. Androm. ^2^. et Suppl. ST. at in -£schyli Agam. SIO. 
non erat idonea caussa, quare scribi vellet, xx;t' k'zzxivTz: t 
y,Tix yryQxu.uJv'.{j zxrr' vj T;xTi$x»:Taxa vriurj, pro ec, quod Isgs^ 
batur, y.xQT x-7:u.:.-jTxc i,7ix yrysaaatij:;, oiV. Aliquanto pe:us 
res cessit Blomfieldio, aTca:vrxv scribenti. Ncn magis prcban- 
dum putamus, quod in Aristoph. Lys. 551. Elmsleius reponi 

340 Notice of Mr. Elmslej's EcUlion 

vult, aXk' yjvTTsp o re yXvxvduixos "Eom^ yy\ KuTrgoysvei' 'Afpoliry^, 
Facilius erat et aptlus, uXX' i^VTrsg y . 

V. 105. Difficilis locus est : S^Xov 8' "■(:X<,i I'^aapo^zwv vsi^og 
cluLuyrjc, wf ra^' ava^si /fe/^ov* 9u/*cw. Disserit vir doctissimus 
de scripturse varietate, constructionemque fortasse dicit huius- 
modi esse : ^Xov 8' wj ra^' ava\I/5j /Ae/^oi't 9u|[/,aJ (ij Mr,hici\ i/i^og 
o]^aiyrii itoxhi e^aig6[ji,svov. Intelligi hic potest, quid difFerant 
constructionis explicatio, in qua Elmsleius, ut alii eius populares, 
rnultam operam collocavit, et explanatio sententi^e. ■ Construc- 
tlonem enim explicuit : sed quid iuvat, construi posse orationem 
ad leges grammaticas, si, quern sensum habeat, et an is aptus 
sit, non ostenditur ? Atqui quid est ugy^ric h^uigoix^svov ? Porsonus 
id per anastrophen dictum accipit pro l^ apx^li alpr^svov^ eum- 
que sequi videtur Elmsleius. At iterum quserimus, quid hoc 
sit. Nam si 1^ °t-2X^ii est ab initio^ negamus admitti posse 
anastrophen, quae, ubi prcepositio cum nomine suo vim habet 
adverbii, nullo modo locum inveniet, ut appareat, alienum esse, 
quod Porsonus afFert, crWjaaT« r^^riv sWfjX&s, pro arMixaru sic T)^r,v 
riKh. In culusmodi exemplis recte se habet anastrophe, quia 
singula verba suam propriam vim et potestatem retinent. At 
quod est, e^ apxh^ e'f tsXoj ^uIvbiv, ah initio usque adfinem ircy 
i. e. perpetuo ire, neque «gx»i? sx^oiiveiv, neque reXog slcr^c.lvsiv 
dici potest. Itaque si anastrophe hic usus esset Euripides, 
proprie singula verba accipienda forent, nubesque dicerctur 
sublata ex suo initio, quod dici absurdum esset, quia nihil est, 
quod non nascatur ex suo initio. Apertum vero, hoc dici 
debuiose, ex initio, quod fecisset Medea, cognosci, multo earn 
graviora nubila concitaturam esse. Quare sic distinguendum 
putamus, O^Xov 8' otpx^i? e^aig6[/.svov VB^og olfixyy^g cog ru^' avai>si 
//.si'^ovj flofiw. Insolentius quidem dictum, driXov ocpx^,:, sed 
tamen ut recte dictum videatur. Et habet banc interpretationem 
scholiastes, neque alio spectat 1^, quod libri quidam ante agx^? 
iiiserunt. Hkc expHcatio si cui displicebit, ei non video quid 
reliquum sit, quam ut vicfioj agy^rig olixcoyrj; coniungat, nubem 
initii gemituum, quod neque elegans, neque satis aptum est. 
Cseterum etiam de avi'4^£j paullo accuratius quzeri potuerat. 
Nam sic si legitur, idque verbum de Medea accipitur, facilius 
quia 8)jA>], quam 8>5^ov exspectet. Quod nomen quum arguere 
videatur, verbum illuci ad vs'foj spectare, melior videtur altera 
lectio, «v«^£j : sic enim pro ava^si scribendum, recte monuit 
Elmsleius. Atque optime congruunt e^uipoixevov et av/x^ei. 

V. 1 1 5. Miramur, quod Eljoasleius, quum Porsonus edidisset, 

of the Medea of Euripides. 341 

t/ Is (To\ -Kull-^i TTCiTgo; uixTrXuxlui f/.STe^ov(ri, vulgatam ti U (toi 
pnullo meliorem, saltern non deteriorem videri dicit» Ne multo 
quidem meliorem, sed unice veram dici oportebat, siquidem 
quod Porsonus dedit, plane frigidum et omnino non aptum est. 

V. 118. Bene quidem monet vir doctissimus, non satis apte 
hie phiJosophari nutricem, sed quod ait, nihil cum Medese con- 
ditione commune habere, quas de regum animo dicautur, ipse 
potuerat ex parte saltern explicare, si in versa 117. recte func- 
tus esset officio interpretis. Ad eum versum nihil adnctavit, 
servans interpunctiones Porsoni, oi'/^oi, rixva, ju-ij n 7ra5>)(3' dog 
VTrepaKyo). Ut videatur construi voluisse, u>§ VTrepaXyooj /w-ij ti 
-TiuSriTi. At non modo dubitari potest, an ea verba sic potius 
interpungenda sint, ixyj t« 7ra5*;9'' ai: vTrsgotXyui' sed suadere id 
etiam planior verborum ordo videtur. Quin tertia supererat 
via, eaque ipsa est, quam ingrediendam fuisse existimamus, ut 
melius cohaereret nutricis digressio de regibus : oT/acx, tUvu, /X17 
Ti Ta5>)6'' cu; (jTrs^uXyui d:ivu Tupavvoov XY,fj,a.TU. 

V. 121, Probamus, quod Elmsleius vulgatam, Toyaq =l3/o-fia;, 
restituit. Sed vellemus, vir doctissimus, qui alias leviora et 
quae vix cuiquam prosint adnotare solet, hac opportunitate 
ostendisset, cur, quod Porsonus ex Brunckii coniectura posuerat, 
TO 8' up' s\^l<j^at, hie quidem ferri posset, aliis autem in non 
paucis tragicorum locis, in qulbus 8' uq pro yup reponi volue- 
runt critici, non esset admittendum. 

V. 126, Valde miramur virum doctissimum, qui non ac- 
quiescens in ea interpretatione, quam. nos dederamus, verba 
roL S' vTTip^uXKo^T ovl'zva xuiplv luvarui sic explicanda putet, ut 
I'jvaTon sit 'io-xyu^ a-^hsiy quse nostra quoque sententia erat, ouUva 
xcitpov autem significet, oux sU xaipov, uxalgcuci idque hie non sit 
intempe stive i sed immoderate^ supra modum. Unde sensum esse 
vult : 2>lus cequo valent mortalibuSi i. e. potentiores quam expc" 
dit, reddunt homines; ad tempus scilicet. P^rgere enim poetam, 
/xsj'^ouc 8' cirac orav ogyij^ 8ai'/xajv, o'Uoig aTreSoJXsv. Vix putamus 
infeliciorem horum verborum interpretationem exeogitari posse. 
Nam ne ov^jiva Kutpov pro ax.tx.lpwg dictum urgeamus, quid ra 
uTTsp^ocWovToc ; quum mediocritatem laudet, aliud sunt quam 
immodica ? Quod si etiam ou8='va xaipov est supra modum, quid 
aliud dicetur, quam, immodica supra modum valida sunt ? Illud 
prasterea, quod sibi invenire vir doctissimus in his verbis videtur, 
iusto potentiores reddi homines ad tempus, ipse viderit, quo- 
modo elicuerit. Accedit, quod, si posset haec in his verbis esse 
sententia, tamen inepta foret hoc loco, in quo planum est, ita et 
procedere et debere procedere sententias : optima est mediocrt' 

342 Notice of Mr. Elmslejy's Editio7i 

tas : quod autem modum excedity nihil tempestivum efficit mor^ 
talibusymaioraquej quum Deus irascitur, affertmala. Cseterum 
xa«eov pro -Kaifia. dixit Pindarus Pytii. i. 157. Neque alicna 
sunt apud eumdem TroXAiv ^a.\Q^o<i Nem. i. 28. et x«(^.o\' oA/3ou 
Vll. 86. pro TToAXa xalptu et oA/3of jtalpiog. 

V. 131. Numerorum, ut videtur, insolentiaoiFensus Elmsleius 
post Ko^x^hg aliquid excidisse suspicatur, fortasse olxrpav vel 
«u8av. At utrumque valde friget. Jure videmur postulari pos- 
se ut, qui tragicum edat, eum habeat numerorum usum, ut, 
praesertim in tarn facili loco, quse metra usurpata sint anlmad- 
vertat. Et vidit quidem hie aliquid huius rei Elmsleius, quum 
V. IS*, yoov pro ^oav scribendum coniecit, et v. 135. m yuvai 
scripsit: sed quos dedit v. 131 — 135. numeros, ut verum 
dicamus, partim insolentes et pravi, partim elumbes sunt. Ita 
describi verba debebant : 
Taj 8u(rTavou 

KoK^lhg, ouSs TTca yji^iog' aXXoi yepaict. 
Inde sequi debebat hexameter dactylicus acatalectus, et penta- 
meter acatalectus. 

V. 136. Dedit Elmsleius, iTre/ /xoi (J>iX/a v.Upuvrai, comparans 
ipiv xpulveiv in Androm. 478. Videtur eum base phrasium com- 
paratio movisse, ut hanc scripturam, quam unus codex a 
Puteano collatus priebet, in textum admitteret. At quid ad 
rem, si similis phrasis alibi invenitur ? Plerique libri cpikcvi quod 
vel propter hanc caussam, et magis etiam propter sensum recipi 
debebat. Ksh^uvtui nihil est quam effeclum est. Et ita legit 
etiam scholiastes. 

V. 137. 138. Bene ostendit Elmsleius, Porsonum errasse in 
emendando hoc loco. Ipse x«i Ir^ yap ex^i coniicit, has parti- 
culas ita positas inveniri observans v. 1076., quam coniecturani 
dignam quidem commemoratu, sed non in textu ponendam 
dicit, in quo Musgravii emendationem posuit, tov ut.\v yap s^si, 
pro /utsv yap ep^ci, quod libri habent. Verissime Musgravius. 
Nam et veteres librarii, et nemo non sjepe in scribendo quae 
eodem redeunt, maximeque quse inverti possunt, permutant. 
Suam vero coniecturam Elmsleius neque commemorare ct pro- 
fecto ne facere quidem debebat. Quid enim ad hunc locum, 
quod istae particulse alio in loco leguntur ? Hie non sunt aptae, 
jieque alterutra sola posita, neque ambae coniunctae. Idque non 
vidisse virum doctissimum tanto magis mirum est, quod ipse, 
quae vis sit particularum xu) ^y ad v. 380. docet. 

V. 147. " Si certum esset," inquit, " laxccv mediam apud 
^tticos semper producere, facile reponi posset «p^av." Optamus, 

of the Medea of Euripides. 343 

ut numquam oblivlscatur vir praestantissimus, quod ipse 
sapienter dixit in subiecta adnotatione ; <* si unum tantum de 
his quinque exemplis exstaret, quis vulgatam scripturam defen- 
dere auderet ?" Itaque etiam atque etiam rogamus, procul 
habeat istud ux^Vy quod in ^schyli quideni S. ad Th. 921. 
i-ecte restituit, versum ilium ingeniosa, sed minrme tamen pro- 
babili coniectura tentans : So/awv ju,aA* u^oiv e§ ov; 7rpo7re|w,7rfi, 
Quid enim prodest coniectura quamvis elegans, si ab sensu loci 
aliena est> ut omittam, quod simul etiam antistrophicus versus 
emendandus erat, quem attingit quidem vir doctissimus p. 147. 
sed ut non afFerat medelam. De sensu autem quod dicebamus, 
quem criticus ante omnia debet respicere, quid aliud nobis dedit 
Elmsleius quam huiusmodi sententiam : adium luctum mens 
luctus mihi ad aurem admovet ? 

V. 149. Scribendum coniicit, t/j toI hots raj a7rA«Tou xo/raj 
spo^y eo sensu, quo v. 423. raj avavlpov xoWag. Nam TreAa^ejy, 
-rrXxkiv, 7rArj(r«a^?«v de coniugio usurpari, quod aliquot exemplis 
demonstrat. Non diffitemur, banc quoque ingeniosam esse 
coniecturam : sed istorum, quibus utitur, verborum exempla 
nihil ad rem faciunt. Illud erat demonstrandum, etiam aTrXaroj 
ita dici, quod veremur ne demonstrari nequeat. Ita enim huic 
nomini videtur rei gravis et metuendse significatio adhsesisse, ut 
valde dubium sit, an non recte de eo, quod simpliciter vetitum 
et prohibitum est, dicatur. Cseterum, ut solet vir doctissimus 
ubique occasionem corrigendi quserere, parum circumspecte 
quum de aliis locis iudicat, tum de Rhesi v. 310. in quo Pier- 
sonum ad Moer. p. 25. recte uTiXarov scribere ait. At male 
Piersonus, cuius disputatio de verbis unXeTos, aTrAvjo-roj, ciitXr^foi 
omnino parum explicata est. Unice cinXriO-Tos illi loco convenit, 
idque libri etiam in Medeje versu recte, ut nobis videtur, prs- 

V. 156. Bene disputat de forma verbi euveVav, sed quod ait, 
in hoc metri genere epitritum primum et diiambum bene sibi 
respondere, etsi per se verum est, tamen quse exempla afFert, non 
quadrant: sunt enim ex aUis metris deprompta, et alterum 
quidem etiam corruptum. Quo numero esse putet versum, 
quem dedit, 

p,^ klciv Taxou dtjpo[j,svu (tov tuvtreiVf 
non potest ex iis, quae dicit, intelligi. Accuratior obscrvatio 
usltata prsebuisset metra, in quibus Cretici ac Molossi pcrmu- 
tatio offensione caret : 

Zc6i crot To5e (ruv8ixjj(re»' /xij K'xv 
TUX.OV hupojxsva cov tvyeTav. 

344 Notice o/" Mr. Eluisley's Edit'wn 

V. 162. Si interpretis officio fungi, ut promiserat, volebat 
Elmsleius, mallemus omisisset longam adnotationetn ad v. 160. 
qua usitatissimam et nemini non notissimam formulam avTolg 
(ishaSpoig SixKvcuojjiivovg multis exemplis confirmat, et potius, 
cur in his, o'l y; ja= Trpoo-Qsv toXju^cSo-' a5ixe7v, additum sit TrpoV^Jv, 
docuisset. Hoc enim elusmodi est, ut, quum facile possit 
inutiliter adiectum videri, aliqua adnotatione indigeat. Faucis 
indicabimus, monendum fuisse, dici ita propter prsegressum 
opxot; evBri(TaiJ,ivaj siquidem Grseci, ubi de pacto et fcedere 
sermo est, illud maxime urgere sclent, si quis prior fidem 
solverit, quo facto alter, si idem facit, iure agere vidctur. Sic 
iam Homerus : 


V. 179. Scribendum putamus, (ntsva-ov Ss n Trph y-'xy-axrai, 
Ut cod. Rom. D. habet, nisi quod cum c?eteris libris l\ omittit. 
T\ in his non cum o-Treuo-ov, sed cum xaj£cu(ra< iungendum. Simi- 
les encliticarum collocationes indicavimus sd Vigerum p. 893. 

V, 210. In verbis, olla yup -noXXoug jo^orwv a-efLvoh; ysyaoTag, 
Toijg (xsv oixiJiuTcuv am, Tohg 8' Iv ^vpocioig, iuxta ac rellqui interpretes 
dublus haeret Elmsleius. Verum vidit Seidlerus sensum esse : 
novi multos homines ausleros, alios quos ipse oculis meis vidiy 
alios de quibus audivi. Comparat ille ^schyli Agam. 997. 
wcuflojttaj 8' ciTT 6iJ,[j!,ccTU)v vo(TTov, uuTOjj^apTug Mv, et Soph. CEd. Col. 
lis. TTvgy 01 /x=v o'l ttoXiv (myova-iv, (Jog octt' 6[j.[j.oltcoVj ttpo'Tcu'. i. e. 
ui adspectu cognoscitur. 

V. 215. Laudamus diligentiam, qua de constructione voculae 
Trpiv disseruit Elmsleius, licet non in omnibus ei assentiamur. 
Statim quod ait, " subiunctivum non usurpant tragici, nisi in 
priore membro adsit negandi aut prohibendi significatio," ita 
dictum est, ut lectores credere debeant, qui ita loquatur, aut a 
caeteris scriptoribus non esse observatam hanc regulam dicere, 
aut se praeter tragicos nihil legisse significare. Atqui non pro- 
prlum hoc tragicorum est, sed comnmne omnium, qui Graece 
scripserunt. Paullo aptius Trpjv sine av cum subiunctivo tragicis, 
sive rectius omnibus poetis, qui non familiarem sermonem 
imitantur, tribulsset. Et abiudicat sane hanc omissionem parti- 
culae » cum Porsono a familiar! sermone : iure an iniuria alibi 
qtJ3eremus. Nunc si Graeci omnes a coniunctlvo cum Trpiv 
coniunpendo abstinent, nisi negatio sit in altero membro, 
operae pretium fecisset vir doctissimus, ut nobis videtur, si 
huius rei caussam aperuisset. Permirum enim videatur necesse 
est, ou 9ro»^(rw 7tp\v oiv xeAeutrjjf recte dici, male autem ttoh^co) vph 

of the Medea of Euripides. 345 

av xrAroo-y,;-, quum prcEsertim neque Latlna, neque aliae linguse 
huiusmodi discrimen norint. Verumtamen si omnes Grjeci 
illud discrimen observarunt, quid aliud, quam caussam ali- 
quam subesse censebimus, cur necessario ita loqui debuerint ? 
Aliter enim ne millena quidem exempla vincent, ut non 
potuisse etiam discedi ab ilia consuetudine credamus. Vide- 
amus vero. Recte dicitur et Troiiljo-aj et o'j mir,(ru), vr^iv crs x;- 
Xvjo-ai. Quid ita ? Quia hoc idem est, ac npo tov xsXsuTal as. 
Atqui quse praecedunt mandatum, sive fiant, sive non fiant, 
cerium est et planum quo tempore fiant vel non fiant : fiunt 
enim aut non fiunt ante mandatum. Longe aliud est xglv av x£- 
XvjiYjc. Quod qui dicit, non solum illud, ante mandatumi dicit, 
sed primo subindicat, incertum esse, utrum tu sis mandaturus, 
an non ; deinde autem, quoniam apud Grsecos in omni coniunc- 
tivo significatio qusedam futuri exacti inest, mandatum illud 
etiam ut iam datum commemorat, hoc vc\odo, prms quam quo tem- 
pore tu mandaverisj sive Grzece, Ttgh -^ oVav KeX^jarig. Iam oy 
■Totrj<rcu Trgh r, orav x=Aeucr>;c planum est, nihil aliud significare, quam 
Tid^o-o) oVay xsAeuo->]c. Vide vero quid sit 7r(3(r)(rw Trpiv 13 oVav xeAsu- 
o-Tjf. Nihil profecto aliud, qu:im Jaczam prius, quam quo tem- 
pore tu mandaverisy quod nescio an sis umquam mandaturus. At- 
qui si facies quid quo tempore id, quod nescis futurumne sit an 
non, nondum factum erit, quando tandem facies ? Certum enim 
esse debet non modo esse futurum, sed etiam quando futurum 
sit, si ante, quam fiat, facere quid vis. Quare nisi infinitive 
uti voles, dicere debebis aut Trojy/Too Trph KsXsvasig, aut 7rci:^cra; -Trgiv 
av xsXwaoiig, i. e. priusquam iubere poteris. Sed Troji^crw irfiv av 
}irA;u(r*]j non mngis Grsece dicas, quam Latine,ya«V5 priusquam 
iusserim. Eadem enim in utroque perversitas est. Sed redea- 
mus ad ea, quse dixit Elmsleius. Ac laudamus, quod monuit, 
non illud spectandum esse, utrum ipsa particula ov vel /xrj in 
altero membro sit, sed utrum sententia sit negativa, an non. 
Nam etiam in afiirmativa sententia particulam negativam usur- 
pari, et negativam posse sententiam esse sine particula negativa. 
Sed erravit tamen in loco Orestis v. 1218. 

<^6Xcca-crs S', ^v rig, Trplv tsKsutyj^yJ ipovos, 

Ik^djv eg o'lKOug (pSfi. 

Neque enim in verbis (p'j\a<T<Te 8' ^v rig, quse idem sint ac (fuAao-o-i 
firi TJj, quserenda negatio est, sed adest in ipso verbo (pSfj, de quo 
verbo dictum ad Vigerum adnot. 320. Simonides fr. 231. apud 
Stobseum Serm. xcvi. (xcviii.) 

346 Notice of Mr. Elmsley*s Edition 

fSaVci oe Tov /xev yrigag a^ijAov Aet/Sov, 

Aliud huiusmodi exemplum ex Syneslo adnotavit Devarius. Cse- 
terum operae pretium erat errorem eoruni notare, qui in Sopho- 
clis Antig. 618. interpunxerunt, eicoVj S' ovdh, 'ipnu, Ttqiv Trygi 
^=pij.w -Trola rig -^rgoa-ipava-ri, siquidem et linguts lex, de qua dic- 
tum, et sententia verborum ouSev cum egvet iungi postulat. Ele- 
ganter Seidlerus ita hunc locum emendat : slSoVi S' ouSev pevrei, 
Tzpiv vjgi Sspixw rto^a. Ti? Trgocrayfijj, nihil mutans in strophicis, 
nisi quod uKafjiuvTOi scribit. 

V. 218. Hie non abs re fuisset adnotare, in Cleonem hiec 
dicta esse, qui tum maxime civibus incommodabat. 

V. 228. Recte putamus Elmsleium dixisse, scripturam yiyvdi- 
o-xsjy xeiXwg a scholiasta tribui vidcri histrionibus. Apposuit 
autem verba scholiastae, ut in ed. Ven. leguntur : KutQuvbIv 
p(^pr}^w.) TOVTO ev ^Sei'7re(pwvrjTa.i. KuxtcTCc dvdgcuv ev u) ijv jU-oi 
TTavTX, xaxKTTog uvi^pwv Ix/Sg/Sijxev ol S* VTroxpiru) ov c'Ji/,Ttepi<^sg6i/,svot 
Tw rpovu), Xtyoua-i yivoKrxejv xaXcbc. «* Hsec," inquit, '* acutio- 
ribus corrigenda relinquo." Curobsecro corrigenda ? nisi quod 
ita consuerit, corrigendo initium facere, quod fieri interpretando 
debet. Adeo plana sunt omnia, ut miremur profecto, quid 
corrigi velit. Nam illud quidem nemo non videt, xuxKTTog etvogwv 
ante sv w poetae verba esse, quibus suam deinde explicationem 
addit scholiastes. larn quid ille ? KurQuvsiv xf?)?« moribus con- 
venienter dictum ait. Ferox enim Medea et animi impotens 
est. Quae sequuntur, sic construenda significat, iv w y^v ;xoi 
iravTu, xuxKTTog kx^s^Yjxev. Ex quo apertum est, cum non yiyvuxr- 
x?iv xaXwg, sed aliter legisse. Quid legerit, non dicit : sed veri 
simile est, legisse eum yiyvwcxag xaXwg' Histriones enim, non 
accommodantes se ingenio Medese, yiyvwaxsiv xaXHg pronunciare 
dicit. Hoc videlicetvult, Medeam, qua est animi affectionum vehe- 
mentia, ea etiam in amore uti, ideoque dicere, in quo mihi, ut bene 
scisy omnia sita crant. Id fugisse histriones : unde eos aliter 
pronunciare et construere haec verba. Quomodo vero ? Res 
ipsa monstrat. Nam si yiyvai<rxuy illi pronunciabant, TtavTu cum 
hoc verbo, non cum ^v debebant coniungere : iv m yap yjv y.oi, 
TTuvTu yiyvwa-x-.iv KuXwg, in quo mihi situm erat, ut omnia recte 
instituerem. Nam yiyvwvxnv est etiam decerneref constituere. 
Iphig. Aul. 107. a ^ ov xaXoog syvcov tot', av^ig [i£Tuypa.(Pco xuKwg 
-naKiv. lam vero alia oritur quacstio, verumne sit, quod de his- 
trionibus refert scholiastes, an fictum. Ac magnopere vereor, 
ne, quod ille legisse videtur ytyvwcrxsjj xaXoSj, emendatio sit 
critici cuiuspiam, convenire id ingenio Medeae, infinitivum autem 
ab histrionibus invectum rati. Quare nescio an Matthiw etiam 

of the Medea of Euripides. 547 

haudandus sit, quod yiyvMo-jieiv revocaverit, quod optime cum iis, 
quae ante dixerat Medea, congruit, ^ux^v hi^^upxu et .xarSav;?-/ 
XPvK''^' Intelligit enim hxc choro videri debere /x^ xaXwg lyva;(r- 
l^iva : unde addit, non mirum esse, si quid minus recte consuiat : 
per quern enim sibi steterit, omnia recte facere, ab eo se deser- 
tam esse. 

V. 224-. Non perutilem qusestionem movisse nobis videtur 
Elmsleius de eo, utrum in quinta sede trimetri sptoj an oufcc; 
prsestet. In qua re iudicanda si vellet recto iudicio procedere, 
nonnisi ^ eiusmodi exemplis uti debebat, in quibus pariter ec 
j/Aoj et bvfj.o; dici licebat. Nam quid mirum, ubi non poterat 
i'jlKog dici, Ijxof ; ubi non poterat Ijttof, ouju-o;, dictum esse ? 

V. 256. Mirabar, quum legerem, ttoViv S/xjjv xml' uvTa((rtf 
crOai xaxajv et similia me in Obss. crit. p. 64. nullo pacto cum 
Grjecx linguae legibus conciliari posse contendisse, librumque 
inspexi. Et quamquam neque qus olim adolescens scripsi, de- 
fendere, si falsa sint, velim, neque, si nunc me errare quis 
doceat, non libenter sententiam mutem, tamen non hoc, quod 
Elmsleius ait, ibi a me dictum est, sed ijlud, rovg xTctyovrag 
u.-iTixciTaxTav=lv 2»xi)v GrjEcse linguae legibus repugnare. Id vero 
nondum refutavit Elmsleius. 

V. 257. Non satis circumspecte scrlpslsse eum putamus ^' r 
syrjiAciTo pro rjv t syr^ixiiTo, quod et libri omnes et Eustathius 
tuentur. Non intercedam equidem, quominus quis Antiphanis 
auctoritatem elevet, quoniam non exstat locus, ut iudicare pos- 
simus j neque defendam grammaticum, qui diserte scribit de 
illo Antiphanis loco, lyv^u«a);v o avrjp Xsyu a.vr\ tou iy-tuj.a. At 
illud non iniuria postulari poterit, ut, qui apud Euripidem ^' t 
lyri^ciTo scribendum contendat, prius quserat, quid sit yy}^a(T(lai. 
Mirum enim, quum vir yr'iixui dicatur, mulierem non modo dici 
yajw,r)9^va(, sed plerumque yriuaryScii. Ex quo facile conjicias, 
yrjfjixa-dxi proprie esse, dare in mafrimomum, se scilicet, vel suos, 
quemadmodum ya|xeo-«cr9«i est exjpet ere puellam in matrimoniurn: 
ex quo yaja=9=ja-a, expelita, despo7isata y fefellit interpretes Theo- 
criti viii. 91. ut ostendimus in Diar. litt. Lips. 1817. m. 
Februar. n. 37. p. 294. Verum vidit nuper etiam Kiesslingius. 
Itaque apud Euripidem omnia Sana sunt, ipsis poetse verbis 
veram interpretationem monstrantibus : neque enim de lasone, 
sed de Creonte verbum illud intelligi voluit, quum dixit, rcy 
Uvra. r uvtcS Suyarip', ^'v t syr,ixaTO, et qui dedit ei fUtanXi (t 
quam dedit. 

V. 274. Nihil Elmsleii adnotationes legenti tam molestum 
est, quam pruritus illc corrigcndi, etiam ubi omnia intcgerrima 

348 Notice of Mr. Elmslev's Edition 

sunt. Exemplis vix ulla pagina caret. Sed hsec pleraque omnia 
intacta prjeterimus. Tantum hie illic aliquid ex hoc genere 
adnotabimus. Ad verba, xoux IVtjv uttjc eintQocroia-Toc Fx/Satrtc, scho- 
hastes adscripsit: s^JTrpoa-oKTTOc, eu-Trj/Sot^Asuroj, koc) pa^lu ■ttpoc to oia- 
(^uysTv avTTjv. " Immo," inquit, " npo^ to Sia-^yysiv uTYiV. 
Quid vero pro svBTn^ouXsvTog legendum sit, non video." Neque 
hoc mutandum, et pessime xvrrjv, quod nemo non ad ari^v referet, 
in hanc ipsam vocem mutavit, quam si posuisset scholiastes, 
scripsisset t>;v aVrjv. Quid est autem, quod in sv-:7iii5ou?^svTo; 
reprehendat ? Nam si eTrijiovXs'jsiv proprie est agitare aliquid 
animo, moliriy quod constat non semper in malam partem dici, 
quidni etiam emin^ovXsuro; recte significabit id, quod quis facile 
mente concipiat atque aggredi conetur ? 

V. 291. Recte quidem aAA>)j servavit Elmsleius in verbis 
yj^q^i y^p aAAvjc aey/a?, sed quo argumento utitur, ssepe abun- 
dare uWoc, uti minime debebat. Insani profecto fuissent Grseci, 
si verba orationi inseruissent nihil significantia. Aptus hie 
locus erat longje et non inutili dissertationi, quae de nomine 
aWog, quod nimis ssepe hisit interpretes, contexi poterat. Quern 
id usum habeat in his Medese versibus, 

p^wplj yixg ixXXr}^ i^j Ip^oucnv a^yiig 
fSovov Trgcg ucttwv aXfocvovon Suffjajvjj, 
is sic explicandus est : 7iam prate)- aliUy nominatim ignaviamt 
etiam invidia laborant. Satis putamus, haec tribus verbis indi- 
casse, qui non ipsi interpretationcm, sed censuram interpretatio- 
iiis scribamus. 

V. 310. Bene atque acute ostendit vir doctissimus, scripsisse 
Euripidem, aAX' s'/cw ^pz^Hv oppcadla [jioi, ju.>j ti /3oLiA=!;>;g xukov, non, 
ut legitur, /SouAeuo-y^c, quia non metuat Creon, ne aliquando 
Medea malum machinatura sit, sed ne id iam nunc faciat. Non 
ex omni parte tamen, quse disputat, nobis satisfaeiunt. " Le- 
gitur," inquit, " apud Sophoclem Troch. 550. tuvt ovv (pojBovfjLCii 
/a^ TTo'cnf [xh ' HpuxKYfC e[xog xaK^rai, xrjj vsKTegoig 8' avifp. Ubi 
fulurum tempus significari res ipsa declarat. Sic etiam Aristo- 
phanes Eccl. 865. dedoiKoc yap [j,yj v.v\ -TTupu tj/ <TTguTY}ylli, ot av 
xaraTifio;, TrpocTTrojyy to^v pj^pvj/xaTwv. Non sum nescius huiusmodi 
cxempla nonnulla reperiri posse. Sed si centum millia exsta- 
rent, non defenderent scripturam quam nunc oppugno. Nam 
ex eo quod ypa?*; pro ypa^l/Yj nonnunquam usurpatur, temera- 
rius sit qui statuat ypail/r, pro ypxi^r, usurpari posse." Lauda- 
mus quidem, quod exemplis se non moveri dicit : sed in re 
ipsa tamen nonnihil fallitur. Nam neque ypaipri pro ygu^r) dici- 
tur, neque omnino ilia, quae aflert exempla, aut si qua similia 

of the Medea of Euripides. S4p 

reperluntur, praesens pro aoristo poni posse evincunt. Eteiiim 
ubique in his verbl modis videndum, utrum de re permanente 
vel aliquamdiu durante, an de eo, quod cito transit, agatur. 
Recte dlcit Deianira, <^o(Bciv[jicn ixy] xaXiJTai, quia hoc manet, 
neque seme], sed semper ita vocatum iri Herculem putet, ne 
illud commemorem, ex iis, qux ante dixerat, coniici posse, earn 
omnino non de re futura, sed de praesente loqui. Si K\-r,'jr, dix- 
isset, significaret, meftio ne hanc appellationem accipiaty (\\xo6. 
unius momenti est. Eodem modo Aristophanes |U,^ 7rwoo-7roi^ 
dixit, Jie. qffectes mea : TTpocTroiriO-ri si dixisset, id asset ne pelas : 
quod semel et paucis fit, quum illud diuturnum sit et per- 
manentem voluntatem indicet. In adnotatione ita scribit : 
" Aristophanes Vesp. 1432. u/3/Ji^', ewj av tjjv dUriv upx^v KuXf,. 
Quia non mallet xaAsVrj, si per metrum liceret ?" Hoc alius 
generis est. Nam iidem modi saepe etiam propria temporum 
suorum significatione usurpantur, neque id tamen temere et 
sine caussa. Si xaAeVr) dixisset, sensus esset : iace conltimelias, 
tisqiie diim litem vocaverit archon. At hoc minus accurate 
dictum foret : iam enim dum ille vocat, cadet spiritus Philocle- 
oni. Itaque recte dicit fwj av kolKyi, usque dum vocei, i. e, quam- 
diu non vocabit, Valde idoneum huic rei illustvandse est illud 
Xenophontis Cyrop. iii. 3, 18. xa.) ovk ocva[jt.ho[jLBv, scoc oiv ^ rjM.?- 
Tipci yjjipa xci-x.wTa.1 : neque exspectamus dum nostrum regionem 
vastare incipiant. Kukm^ si dixisset, nemo non videt quam 
id alienum foret : duin vastaxerint . Herodotum vero, qui vii. 
l-l-l. scripsit, otXX' auTOtJ TJ^Os \i.vA(j\i.vj ^ eVr' av v.yX TeXaur:^(ra;ju,£y, 
apertum est nullo modo scribere potuisse T2A:UTc<;,aey. Addit 
Elmsleius in alia adnotatione, si vera sint, quae nos ad Aiacem v. 
272. dixerimus, apud Euripidem potius ju,:^ t. /3oyA=Jsij scribendura 
fore. Sed veretur, ne id non recte contenderimus, siquidem 
non meminerit, se apud Atticos poetas legere lkl^ i^yj eVr/, 
nee putet eos nisi in praeteritis verborum temporibus indicativo 
uti. Non negamus, pleraque huius constructionis exempla 
praeteritum habere : sod quum per se intelligatur, ubi praeterito 
perfecto locus sit, recte etiam pra^sens poni, apparet nihil esse, 
quod prsesentis indicativum usurpari prohibeat. Sed operae 
pretium est, hanc rem accuratius considerare, ut eius caussae 
in clara luce conspici possint. Bene Sch?eferus in Meletem. p. 
115. seq. docuit, quid difFerat, utrum dicas, opx xocS' vttvov jxyj 
xaT«jcA»9:j? x.')ob"i, an, opci jw,^ ^^ffi. Indicative enim significari, 
vide num dormiat ; coniunctivo, vide ne dormiat^ i. e. vereor, ne 
dormiat. Horum illud est nescientis, sitne quid, an non sit j 
hoc autem metucntis, no sit. Utrumque aut est, aut non est : 

350 Notice of Mr. Elmslej's Edition 

sed qui nescit, utrum sit, an non sit, nihil nisi veritatem rei cog- 
noscere vult, i. e. eum, in quo nunc res est, statum ; qui autem 
metuit, ne sit, cupit non esse, operamque dari vult, ut, si non 
est, ne fiat ; si est, ut esse desinat : quod est futuri temporis. 
Ouare ille indicativo, ut qui verum rei statum indicet ; hie con- 
iunctivo, in quo futuri significatio inest, utitur. Neque enim 
existimandum est, diversas esse significationes particulse jxr', ut 
quum Latine num et )ie dicimus, quorum altera indicativum, 
altera coniunctivum requirat. Nam si ita esset, non posset ilia 
particula uno eodemque in loco simul utramque significationem 
habere, quod necessarium foret, ubi cum utroque modo con^ 
iuncta est, ut apud Euripidem in Phcen. 90. 

Nam ut prior?, recte vertas, num quis in via appareaty at mox 
necessario debebis dicere, ne reprehendar. Recte vero utruraque 
sic dices : ne quis appareatt reprehendarque. Quod si non in 
particula caussa inest, cur indicativus aut coniunctivus adhibea- 
tur, num forte inest in verbo, ex quo pendet particula ? Ne 
hoc quidem. Esto enim, ut oga ftjj sZhi et opx fj,r] su^ dupllcem 
admittat verbi significationem, alteram cognoscendi, alteram 
cavendi : at ea ipsa verba, quse quam maxima cavendi metuen- 
dique notioneni habent, indicativo iunguntur. Homerus Od. 
t\ 300. 

Thucyd. iii. 53. vuv ds ^o/3oJm,=9«, /jl^ aix^OTipoov u'^x ^aapr^xa- 
^jy. Vide Matthise Gr. Gr. §. 520. not. 5. Cur vero alter non 
sT7r»j,alternon fi^aagr^xw/Acv dixit, quum utrique liceret? Homerum 
dicat quis ambiguitatem vitare voluisse, quum eTtj! et dixerit et 
dicat significare possit. Esto: (sane enim ambiguum est etirri, ut 
de uno dese sermone. Nulla ambiguitas apud Platonem Cratyl. 
p. 517. A. ciXKoi jJLeVTOi TioAAoy y= 5f7, m ^d,xpaTeg, /Mr) vore ng tmv 
vZy sgycc toixutu Ipyaa-^Tcn : ubi quum de pluribus factissermo sit, 
epyaaviTat necessario est perfecerity ut Heindorfius interpretatur : 
nam de prtesenti tempore ob eamdem caussam Ipya^rjrai dicen- 
dum erat, quod quidem Basileensis secunda habet, ne unum, 
idque breve factum intelligatur.) Sed quid Thucydidem censc- 
bimus ? Nam in perfecti coniunctivo nulla ambiguitas est. 
Nimirum de prxteritjs proprie non possumus metuere, quia 
omnis metus de future est. Itaque ubi de re practerita metui-» 

oj the Medea of Euripides. 351 

mu j, nihil aliud possumus metuere, quam ne cognoscamus factum 
esse, quod nolimus evenisse. Aliter, si de tali re nos metuere 
Jicimus, abutimur verbo metuendi, ut nihil nisi nescire nos, 
quid factum sit, significemus. Ut si quis de amici vita soUicitu* 
sit, is si dicit, SiSoixa /x^ TiSvjjxjj, hoc dicit, metuo ne mortnuni 
esse accipiam. Sin dicat, Se'Soixa ^ri Ti$vr,xs, non sollicitudiiiem 
suam at metum, sed opinionem significabit. lam quura in 
plerisque rebus prseteritis frustra sit metuere quidquam, satis 
plerumque est, si tantummodo opinionem nostram indicamus. 
Eadem vero etiam praesentium ratio est. Nam quod iam est, 
coepit esse, eoque non amplius metui ut futurum potest. Ut 
si Euripides dixisset, oppaat'iu /xo<, /x^ tj ^ovKsvu; xaxov : i. e. 
opinor te aliquid mali agitare. Pertinent hue etiam ea, quje 
semper sunt. Lucianus Hermotim. c. 53. t. 1. p. 797. tMvjM 
li o<rTi; 6 TaArjflJ) \iyuiv Wriv, ogx jx^ ou;^< fx,oplov ho'Tiv ^/xf§«j, aWu 
ttqWcov r^fx.ipu>v Se'rjrai. Schacferus in Meletem. p. 115. hlrai 
scribi iuljet, quod neque necessarium et minus elegans est. 
Ouum enim, quod non potest particula aiiqua diei perfici, non 
continue integros multos dies imi)leat, distincte apteque Lucia- 
nus indicativum de eo, quod certum videretur; coniunctivum 
de eo, quod dubitationi obnoxium esset, posuit : non particula: 
diei J opinoi'y esi, sed vereor ne sit multorum dientm. Etiam in 
futuris haec ratio obtinet. Xenophon Arab. I. 8, 24. evfia S^ 
/\ug3f hla-ccs [J^f] OTTJO-Ssv yevoixevos xuTUKoi/ei to 'JSAAijvjJcoy, IXauvsi 
&;i/T/of. Sic edd. veth i. e. putans cum a tergo impetumfactnrum, 
Recentiorem edd. scriptura xutuko^yj metum potius indicat, 
reyilus ne impetum facer et, Sed satis dictum ad illud illustranr 
dum, quod volebam. Infinita enim haec et inexhausta materia 
est. Unum tamen addam, ad quod vellm attendant, qui de his 
rebus quserunt. Quum omnis metus ad futura spectet, non est 
idem, prxsentisne coniunctivo, an coniunctivo aoristi, an futuro 
utare. Nam coniunctivus, cuiuscumque ille temporis sit, ad 
ea refertur, quae certo tempore, et quidem, si non diserte est 
definitum, eo, quod nunc instat, futura esse metuimus ; ita 
quidem, ut prsesentis coniunctivus de re vel diutius durante, vel 
sacpius repetenda, aoristi autem de uno eoque celeriter peragendo 
f^cto intelligatur. Futuro autem ibi locus est, ubi quid infinito 
tempore, i. e. aliquando eventurum metuimus. Tria harum 
irium formarum vicina exempla sunt in AristophanisEcclcsiazu- 
sis : primum v. ^QB. 

Ixfivo Sfjvov ToTo-iv rjkUoKrt VCUV, 

(x,^ KaTa\a.j3oua-ui T^g TroXeuss T«f ^v/af, 

STiHT uvctyKu^ocat Trgoi /S/aj? 

KIVSIV exvTccg. 

352 iV tice of Mr. E 1 m s I e y 's Edit io n 

Secundum v. 481. 

<p6\aTTB (TauTOV oicr(p!x.Xca:, ttoXXo) yug ol 'Travoupyoi^ 
jXTjTro'j Tig Ix rovnia^iv wv jo (T')(Yjixot. xixTutuKa^r^. 
Tertium v. 4-86. 

TT^oc raZra cuctteXaoo (rsayr^Vj 
kukX'jo Tnpiax.o'froujxs'^Y] ToiKfufs xa» tu tyJos 
BX. dif-nMV, ju-jj ^Ujji.:^ogu ysvrjffBTCii to Trpay/xa. 
Non obstant his talia, qualis Xenophontis locus est, quern modo 
vidimus. In quo etsi scribi potest, quod Schneider© in men- 
tem venit, ycuTaxo^Bis, tamen futurum, si de opinione accipitur, 
recte se habet •, non, si de metu. Scilicet hoc illud est, in quo 
difficultas linguse Grxcse posita est, quod multa, quze eodem 
modo dicuntur, alibi alios explicatus habent. In eadem adnota- 
tione quod de Herodoti loco vii. 103. Elmsleius nobis contra- 
dixit, recte fecit. Nam sane, quod ibi scriptum est, opu fxr} 
f/tarrjv xofj.'nog 6 Xoyog outoc 6 sipvj^asvoj eTrj, non debebamus inter- 
pretari, vide nejiierit, quum optativus, licet saepe de praeteritis 
usurpetur, tamen non aliter ad prjeterita referatur, nisi si alio 
verbo id tempus indicatum sit. Sed minime tamen in eo acce- 
dendum putamus Elmsleio, quod sine dubio s'y; apud Herodo- 
tum scribendum esse dicit. Nam ^ consuevit ille dicere, etsi 
in plurali eooai scribit. Sanum vero est, nisi vehementer fallimus, 
quod libri omnes habent, cT»), sed aliter, quam ad Aiacem dixi- 
mus, explicandum. Quod intelllgetur, considerata omni ver- 
borum complexione, quae hsec est : s; yag xslvcov sxao-Tog dixa 
avdpoiv Trig <rTga.Ttr,g rvjj lp,>jj avTu^iog s<jti, <tI Se ystit,riij.r/.i eUocti slvai 
kvTu^iov xu) O'JToo /AEV opSolT dv 6 Xoyog 6 Ttupa csu s'lgrjfjisvog' «i cl 
TOiouTOi Te io'vrej xa.) fxsya&Ba toitoOtoj, oJog <r6 t: xa.) o't Trap' eijt,e 
<i.oiTU>(Ti' EXXrjVwv Ig Xoyovg, auyinz ToaovTOV, opa. ^tt^ jW-aT>]V xofxyrog 
6 Xoyog outoi 6 elpYjfUBvog s1yj. Hoc dicit : si non maiorey quam 
tu atque alii Grcecorwn, guos e^o vidi, robore prcediti tantopere 
gloriaminii vide ne vana ista iaetalio foret. Loquitur, ut ssepe 
fit, negligentius, apodosi ad aliam rationem protaseos conformata ; 
id quod alio modo etiam in priore parte huius periodi fecit. De- 
bebant enim omnia hoc ordine procedere : si singidi vestrum 
decern ex nostris pares essent, recte se haberet^ quod dicis ,• sed si 
nihilo nobis meliores itu gloriarenmii, vana diceretis. At, in- 
quiat aliquis, si hoc volebat, addere debebat a v. Potuit addere : 
sed potuit etiam omittere. Recte enim omittitur hsec particula 
in altero membro orationis, quod ita comparatum est, ut pro 
parte eius sententise, cui additum est av, haberi possit. -^schylus 
Agam. 1058. 

Trei'Soi' av, si itu^Oi' uTra^otrig S' 'larwg. 

of the Medea of Euripides, 35,3 

Alin exempla vide apud Xenophontem Hier. vi. 15. xi. 11 

"i^. Ita hie, si in pauca contrahas, hoc dicit Herodotus : Ka» 

V. 313. Praefert Elmsleius oogh' aurcag cum spiritu aspero. 
Accentum enim docere, non ab ocurog derivatum esse hoc adver- 
blum, sed a femiuino uutyj, ut ovTcog a masculino ovroc. Noa 
iiitercedimus, quin ita videatur formam verbi intuentibus. Sed 
qui etiam significationem respiciunt, iis aliter videri debere con- 
tendimus. Mir urn primo, a feminino derivatum esse adverbium. 
7%^erum esto ita : quid est, quod, si cuTog et u-jtyi significatu non 
tiifFerunt, nisi quod sunt genere diversa, ouroog et a-jTuig diversis- 
5imas habeant significationes, et quidem avrcog earn, qus noii 
ab u'JTT,, sed unice ab aur/;, si femininis utendum est, petita sit ? 
Unde quis non potius coiiigat, uvrxg veram scripturam esse, 
accentum autem ab regula recedere ? Cxterum ad sensum Euri- 
pjdis versuum quod attinet, non satis planum est, quid statuat 
vir doctissimus. Verba sunt hsec : 

puMv (pvXatTasiV;, 15 (TiWTnjAoc aofog, 

AfFert scholiastos auctoritatem, qui iuXao-irsiv pro <fuAa;^5^vaj, 
i. e. TTipr,$rivaii dictum ait, activum pro passivo. Sed de hac re 
nullam coniroversiam esse. Fuisse autem, qui paxv i^uXxa-j-nv, 
etsi Grxcum esset, tamen ab hoc loco alienum esse censerent, 
quod hie (pvXc(G-(rsa-l)cn dicendum fuisset, ut Dawesium. Re- 
-spondere huic Dorvillium, (fuXua-a-uv esse observare aliquem, ne 
aiiquid faciat, auctore Demosthene, Hanc interpretationem 
,probare Heathium et Musgravium. Nisi fallimur, ipse quoque 
probat. Debet certe. Ouamquam aiiquid suspicionis pra^bet, 
se in illo acquiescere, quod dixerat, activum pro passivo posi- 
tum esse. At eo nihil efEceret. Nam etiam ^yA^crcrecrSa* si hie 
scriptum esset, activi vim haberet, ut cavere significans. Itaque 
de eo potius agebatur, utrum id verbum hie cavere, an ciistodirc 
significaret. Non potest autem aliud quam custodire. Prjc- 
terea aliud erat in his versibus, de quo accuratius qu.-erere debe- 
bat Elmsleius, quam eum fecisse videmus. Ubi scholiasts; 
verba attulit pcixv Ictti (fuXa-Tso-Sai, ^jjo-iv, o^tj^v^x^og uvi'ip, oicrwjTxg 
l\ K'JA yvv^, Dawesium dicit scripsisse a.yr,p yu.g 6^6Quf/,')c, wg 5' 
auTojj yjvjj ; sed vulgatam agnoscerealterum scholiasten, -jrua-xyap, 
(^rjTJV, 6^tjQuu.og yovrj, Ofjioicag Se xa) ccvrip, evfj-apsa-Tegov dv ipvXct^Oiir}, 
Yj 6 xguTTTMv rr^v opyriVy eamque stabiliri poetjc verbis in Andr. 

xx) (JLYj-J icro-J y ocvr^p re xu) yvvrj crSc'v?* 


354 Notice of Mr. Ehiislej's Edition 

Accidit hie quoque viro doctissimo, quod saeplus, ut in verbig 
hxrens sententiam verborum negligeret. Nihil prorsus simili- 
tudinis est inter hos duos locos, quam quod in utroque verba 
sunt Mc S' atj-aos ocvYif. Nam in Andromacha hoc dicit po'eta : 
par mulieri, si ei a marito iniuria fit, ius est, ac viro : sed vir in 
se ipso presidium habet, mulier in parentibus et cognatis. In 
Medea vero, de viro an de muliere agatur, nihil interest : sermo 
est enim de omnibus, qui ad iram proni sunt, sive vlri sint, sive 
niulieres. Quod si in Andromacha necessario dici debuit £$ ^ 
a-jTcug ccvrjp, hic autem etiam wg 8' avrxg yvvri dici potuit, quid 
Andromachse locus ad stabiliendam vulgatam in Medea confert ? 
At dicet fortasse, etiam in Medea de muliere agi. Vero : at 
non quia mulier, sed quia homo est. Iraque alio modo quseri 
debebat, utra scriptura melior esset : notandaque erat negligen- 
tia poetae in opponendis iis, quae sibi non recte opponuntur. 
Nam primo l^vlx^ioig c-iwTn^\o) opponendi erant. Nunc opponit 
£r(«!7i-r;Aouf (yofovg, quod sic demum recte fecisset, si antea (/.apovg 
ofuSu/xouf commemorasset. Deinde etsi de muliere sermo est, 
tamen, quia non proprium est mulierum, quod de Medea prjc- 
dicat, sed commune omnium hominum, nee mulieres nec viros, 
sed homines dicere debebat. At id non fecit, sed prouti banc 
aut alteram scripturam probaveris, mulierem aut virum nominat, 
et deinde sese corrigens, alterum sexum addit. Utrumque ali- 
quam rationem habet. Nam si dixit, avrig yoip 6^<jSu[x,og, wj h' 
auraig yjv^, existiniandus erit in generali sententia virum ut po- 
tiorem nominasse, sed quoniam hic de Medea loquitur, diserte 
deinde, ne propter ambiguitatem vocabuli de sohs loqui viris 
videretur, adiiciendum putasse, eamdem esse etiam mulieris 
conditionem. Sin dixit, yuvr^ yap o^vSvix^og, wg S" aurac avrj^, quo- 
niam Medeam in mente haberet, de muliere dicere incepisse, 
sed, ne quis id in solas mulieres dictum putaret, adiecisse deinde 
viros. Et hoc quidem veri similius videtur, ut quod metui, in quo 
est magis consentaneum sit. Neque vero prastereundum erat, 
quum illud a-o^og addit, respicere eum, quod ipse ante dixerat, 
a-ott-y} %s(pvxxgy et quod Medea responderat, (to^y) yoip o\)(ru, et 
qu?e sequuntur, turn, el^u,! 8' ouk ayoiv <yo'^r. 

V. 318. Repudiavit Elmsleius scripturam MS. Cott. et ed. 
L'asc. youvojv, negans ea forma usos esse tragicos contra Por- 
sonum ad Phoen. 866. qui nobis quidem sapienter scripsisse vide- 
lar : " neque ratio fingi potest, cur tragici hac forma abstinue- 
rint." Meminerit velimus Eimsleius suorum ipsius verborum, 
quae supra ad v. IM , attulimus. 

of the Medea of Euripides. 355 

V. 926. Non dixerim ego quidem utrumque bonum esse, ju,^ 
A«9>; et fiij xiQoi. Hie, ubi aperte optat, non iubet Medea, op* 
tativus unice pr^eferendus. 

V. 326. Quse Elmsleius ad hunc versum in sublecta adnota- 
tlone de elisionibus ante penultimam arsin in iambicis et trochai- 
cis versibus disputavit, non libet persequi. Satis ducimus mo- 
nere, non ipsas esse elisiones per se spectandas, sed verborum 
quoque in loco et interpunctionum rationes. Aliter et caeca 
manet haec diligentia, et corrumpendis aliquot locis ansam 

V. S28. Laudandum quidem censemus Elmsleium, qui, quod 
Matthise quoque fecit, librorum scripturam revocaverit, Trovouftey 
r^'If xoij TTovwv xe^py}fj,z&a, neque admiserit coniecturam Mus- 
gravii, quam non modo Brunckius, sed, quod mirere, Porsonus 
ut certissiraam recepit, 7r6vo§' x/^sk o' ov tovcov xsy^or^ij.z^a. ; sed 
quern sibi frigidum in his verbis iocum invenire Elmsleius vide- 
tur, ab eo alienissimus fuit Euripides. Fraudem scilicet fieri 
sibi passus est V. D. a schoHasta et Buchanano, qui vertit, cura 
premunt me^ nee egeo ciiris novis. Mirum profecto, latuisse 
viros doctos usitatissimam dicendi rationem, qua Gr3eci, ut quid 
confirment et corroborent, idem iterum dicunt negando contra- 
rio, qualia suntyvwra xoiJ>c ayvwT«, et millena alia, Itaque quum 
Creon dixisset, desine viihi laborem facessere^ respondet Medea, 
ego vero lahoroj neque indiga sum laborumy i. e. immo ego, et 
quidem plus satis laborum habeo. Similiter in Here. fur. 1245. 
yeju-oj xaxwv 8^, -noxix er eVd' otj-ow xeS^. 

V. 385. " Nescio," Inquit, " an legendum oJ<^eu£ou/x55a." Cur 
vero, quum f, p^u^ovixiSst hie potius, quam ol (p?utoij/x.s5« dicendum 
fuerit .'' Quid intersit, diximus ad Here. fur. 1236. 

V. S-iS. Iterum hie, ut supra ad v. 87., soloecum videtur 
Elmsleio £» ow : unde in Here. fur. 1315. ubi legebatur, ao»8a;y 
tmsp ou ^zv^ui Xoyoi, recte in Matthix cditione repositum dicit 
uiisv^fic. Monuimus iam ad v. 87. esse, ubi recte dieatur 
tl ov. Sed ne exempla requirantur, en qusedam. Homerus 
Od. /3. 274. 

e! 8' ou xaivov y lo-cri y</v(5j xu) 17»)veAo7re/T;j. 
Antiphanes ap. Athen. iii. p. 99. A. 

Ix TOW yxg e«vai ysyovev el 5' ovx jjv, S&fv, 
Tt'M^ eyivsT e^ ovx ovTOj ; 
Herodotus vii, 9. xa) yoip deivhv uv e?*) Trpuyixa, u Xaxaf ^ev xa.) 
' Ivlovi xa.) /JiSiWaj xou 'A(rauglo'Jif aWct rt edvea ttoXXo. xa.\ jtAsyaXa, 
ahtxr^TocvToi lUpa-ui ovth, aXXu hvvccfj,iy 7rgo<rxTacrQai ^tvXifX-tvfn, x«- 

S56 Notice of Mr. Elmsley's Edition 

TX(TTps^oi.[XevOi hvXoug e^Ofj-sv' "EXKriVag 8s, vTrup^avTag aSixs*);, oy 
Ti^ooq-^ToiuB'ia.. Eodem modo Andocides de niyster. p. 13. (51. 
Reisk.) o\)M\)V Ssjvov, ei 6;ro fj.vj xotyrwv ha. tout' a.v uTio^KoixriV, on 
ei; Ti^v ttoXjv ouSfV rj[x,ci§TOV, coa-'TTsp >ix\ srsgo'jg uTrexTBivav sv uf/,tv 
5i xpivoixsvo:, ovg ov^h xaycov TreTroir^Ka, ou a-coSyiToixai; ec joischines 
c. Ctesiph. p. 641. seq. ed. Keisk. cuius locum, quia longior est, 
nolo adscribere. Andocides de myster. p. 5. (17. Reisk.) =1 Ss 
ou6h YiixagTYiTul f/.oi. Pythagoreus incertus in Galii Opusc. p. 
725. aAAa yap favTi (he, tuiJtu |X£V KeyovTi, orav ng uCroug spuiTy 
oiKhciTo) /Xiv cro'^o), tw Uovri' to) S= y.(Xtvoy.svoi, fi oil dsl, 

V. 409. Facile accedimus viro doctissimo, futurum reponeti- 
dum indicanti. Sed quod a-rpr^ova-i in (TTsyl/ovoH mutari vult, 
non probamus, multoque melius esse censemus, quod, si illud 
displiceat, proponit, aTps^oua-i. Nam non solum mutatio minor 
est, sed ipsum etiam verbum huic loco longe est convenientius, 
ut in quo id ipsum dicere vclit pocta, conversum iri contemptum 
mulierum in laudem. 

V. 420. Adscivit Elmsleius, quod Porsonus ex sola Aldina 
posuit, TTXTpiMv pro TraTpwwv, eodem argumento, quo v. 428. 
fxivei potius quam /aiVvjj I'egendum sit. Negamus vero, parem 
utriusque verbi conditionem esse. Nam /asvs* et [ji,ip.ysi, prseter- 
quam quod durissima foret correptio ante y.v, neque significatu, 
neque colore difFerunt : quod non est in ■Trarpiog et TrarpMog, quos 
quum significatu differant, difFerunt etiam colore, i. e. potestate, 
quam ad animi afFectionem habent per ea, quse adsignificantur, 
etiam ubi ad rem ipsam idem est, utro vocabulo utare. Obscure 
jdifferentiam indicavit grammaticus in Bekkeri Anecd. T. 1. p. 
297, 30. TiuTpoooc \syovaiv ol p^ropsg y^py]^ci.Ta xx\ ktvi^utx xai 
roTTOvg, 7r«Tg»« Ss t« eSvj >cca to. voixtix/x, kou to. fx^va-TYiptu x«j raj 
kopToig, -KOLTpinov Ss <^i'Xov y] sx^po'v. DifFerunt hsec ita : TtxTpix 
sunt, quse sunt patris ; TruTpcooc, quse veniunt a patre j TrxTgrnat 
qualia sunt patris. Ita Pindarus proprie dixit TruTgla. oo-au, 
.varpioc odog Ol. VI. 106. Nem. II. 9. naTp-Jpot. autem tantum abest 
ut eadem sint quse TraTpja, ut sint ea, quae sunt xccru tx -Kotrpiu. 
Ut ad Euripidem revertar, ad rem ipsam quidem idem est, 
utrum ex TtctTpiMv, an Ix ■noi.rqMMv oUccv profuga dicatur Medea, 
sed vim tamen non eamdem utrumque verbum habet. Nam 
patris domum qui relinquit, non videtur suam reliiiquere do- 
mum j patria domo autem qui excedit, sua domo caret, in qua 
habitare eum ius erat. Ita spurio filio TraTpioc dwg est, genui- 
no TraTpwof, si proprie verba usurpamus. Quod autem ad men- 
suram medix syllabi attinet, quid impedit, quin, si yspxiog, 
hihuiog, atque alia, media correpta dicuntur, idem etiam iu 

of the Medea of Euripides. 357 

vocabulo 7r«Tpwo5 fieri potuerit ? Modo apte fiat. Neminem 
autem opinamur tam invenustum esse, ut non sponte sentiat, 
earn correptionem in vocabulo primam syllabam natura brevem 
habente non aliter sine elegantije detrimento admitti posse, nisi 
si ictus in ultimam incidat, prima autem, licet propter duplicem 
consonantem produci possit, brevis maneat. Quare nihil ofFen- 
sionis habent talia, 


At turpissimus foret versus Glyconeus Pindari Nem. II. 9. si 
sic scriptus esset : 

o^^lXzi V exi Trarpcwav. 
V. 431. Quum pro vulgato twv l\ AsxTpcov Porsonus o-wv t? 
AjxTgwv coniecisset, (sentiebat enim et articulum languidum esse, 
et prsegresso oun respondere aliquid debere) recepit earn coniec- 
turam Elmsleius. Et cwv quidem nemo erit quin verum esse 
intelligat, l\ autem nollemus mutatum, quod recte et apte hie 
ad OUTS refertur. Ssepe sibi re et 11 respondent, ubi singula mem- 
bra et verbum suum habent, et res eiusmodi est, ut quce per 
T5 et partes disiungi cccperant, etiam opponi sibi possint. So- 
phocles CEd. Col. 367. 

Trpjv jU-EV yap uuTO~ig yjv egccg Kgsovri ts 

Spovods eaaQai, fx,r,U y^^paivsaSai ttoAjv. 
Vide Brunckium ad ^sch. S. c. Theb. 835. Sic etiam Latini 
ft et autem coniungunt. Est autem in his rebus ilia quam di- 
cunt grata negHgentia posita, quse libera ab exili grammaticorum 
severitate ita quoque in loco conformat orationem, uti sententia 
postulat. Eo fine enim inventa est oratio, ut id, quod sentia- 
mus, apte accommodateque exprimat. Et hoc in genere S3epius 
videmus Elmsleium veteres scriptores ad eum modum coirigere, 
quo ludimagistri pueros solent, quum primum scribere discunt. 
At illi regulas discere debent : sed has qui iam didicerunt, his 
licet eas etiam aliquando prudenter negligere. 

G. //. 

358 Letter to Dr. Lee, 


To the Rev. Dr. Lee, Professor of Hebrew in the 
University of Cambridge, on the New Trans- 
lation oj the Scriptures^ in answer to a Letter 
received from him, May, 1820. 


The contents of your letter do not surprise me, as I do not expect 
that every gentleman in anofticial situation will approve any attempt 
to amend the authorised translation, however it may be consistent 
with the original Hebrew, except such as are determined to abide 
by the revealed truth, in preference to every other consideration. 
You may see, Sir, by my writings, that this is not the case as it 
respects myself: I am free from the shackles of prejudice, fear, 
and influence ; and if I were so circumstanced, I trust I should 
prefer the literal scriptural truth, which holds forth the unimpeach- 
ableness of the holy character of God, and of those by whom he 
has given his word, to every other consideration whatever. 

A different state of things appears to be coming forward, very 
much opposed to any thing that has ever been known, of which 
some of the clergy seem not to be sensible, or, if they be, they 
are not willing to look the danger in the face. The system 
of national instruction has prepared the present, and is prepar- 
ing the rising generation, to read and investigate ft\x themselves : 
millions of pamphlets are circulating throughout the kingdom, cal- 
culated to bring the sacred volume into contempt, and which are 
now read with eagerness by the great mass of the people ; the dire- 
ful effect of which has already begun to be manifested, not only in 
the lower orders ; but many in the higher circles are unwise enough 
to say, that the deistical publications are excellent works, and 
seem to rejoice at the exposure of the characters of the sacred 
writers as held forth in the authorised translations. What, Sir, 
could be my motive, think you, in opposing the mighty torrent of 
deism which threatens to overturn the church and government, 
and which puts those in danger, whose persons are more sacred 
than others on account of their official situations? Nothing, 
I think you will allow, but the earnest desire of putting a stop as 
much as possible to such proceedings, by removing the very ground 
of those objections with which the enemies of the Bible are e«- 
dcaTouriog to bring about a slate of anarchy and ruin. 

on the Scriptures, 359 

It is allowed by those who arc very able Hebrew seholars, 
that I have been successful in correcting many important pas- 
sao;e3, which is the only efiVctual way of silencing I lie objec- 
tious; for if such contradict.oiH be pcrii-.itled to reni;iiu as now 
pervade the pages of the common version, with the facility and 
earnestness by which deists circulate the objections to th.e Bible, it 
must appear evident to every thinking man, that deism will soon be 
the profession of more of the pfcO|)!e of Ennland. 

When you have read the Critical Examination, in answer to Mr. 
Whittaker's book, I am of opinion that yon will thiiik with all 
others who have read it, that the admission that the original Ut- 
breiv Scriptures, the in'ipired volume, is corrupt^ will greatly aid 
the cause of deism, more |)articularly so when it is known that this 
dogma is sanctioned by some in the University of Cambridge. For 
as'the Vulijateand the Septuagint are acknowledged to abound with 
errors, if the Hebrew abound with errors also, there would, if it 
Mere generally credited, be an end to the religion of the Bible, 
and to all Christian governments. It is dangerous if the incon- 
gruities in the common version be retained ; for these are the wea- 
pons with which the enemies of divine revelation will ultimately 
efiect their purpose in cutting up the very roots of the religion 
of the Bible. Nothing is more astonishing to persons of learn- 
ing and liberality, than that those, whose interest it is to obviate 
the pernicious objections of the deists, should wish to retain 
what some call " consecrated errors," poisr forth their invectives 
against all who attempt to aid the cause of the Bible, by refuting 
the objections, and who, in a spirit diametrically opposed to 
the spirit of Christianity, even descend to personal abuse in lan- 
guage too gross for repetition. But, Sir, from the tenor of your 
letter, should you think of entering the phalanx of revieweivs 
to oppose any amendment of the common version, I expect 
better thinss from you : civility, good manners, and language 
worthy of the Christian, are always more welcome to the public 
thiin rudeness and abuse ; it is either a bad cause, or a bad 
spirit, that requires the latter to support it. Should you resolve 
to take up your pen, I hope you will attempt to do that which 
none of the opposers of sacred truth have attempted to do, viv. 
to prove that the Scriptures do not impeach the moral justice cf 
(iod—that there are no contradictions in the Jlehrew text— that 
there are no exceptionable expressions in ike original. — All these 
important things have been neglected, and personal abuse resorted 
Ui instead of it. Those who cannot do good ought not to push 
themselves before the public for critics in Hebrew, because they 
iaruish an argument for the Deist, instead of aiding the cause of 
t!ie Bible. Neither is it to be taken up hastily, as has been the 
case, or by those who have not made the Hebrew their study for a 
series of vcars. 

360 Letter to Dr. Lee, on the Scriptural. 

It is our most imperious duty to remove from the erroncons 
translation whatever is contradictory and unworthy of God, as not 
any thing of this nature couhl possibly come from him. " Arid if 
we find any absurd or immoral precept, it carries its own condem- 
nation with it, and all reasonable creatures are bound to reject it," 
says an eminent commentator in the Churcii of England. Hitherto 
all the writers who have attempted to find fault with the new 
translation, have been uniform in not venturing to improve any 
passage in the translation, however absur<i or contradictory to 
other Scriptures, or however such passages may impeach the moral 
justice of God. 

If you take up the subject on thegroundof those who have hitherto 
amused their readers, — that is, on the purity and views of the trans- 
lation of Jerom, as copied in the common version, — the replies to 
such are allowed by able and impartial judges to be conclusive, 
because confirmed by other parts of the sacred record. Whatever 
may be your design, — whether you be of opinion with those eminent 
Hebrew scholars I have mentioned in the introduction to the Bible, 
or whether you be not, — I hope you will abide strictly by the 
grammar, idiom, spirit, and phraseology of the sacred language ; 
and where you find the Hebrew essentially to difier from the autho- 
rised version, I hope, for the credit of the University, you will 
endeavour to remove such objections as shake the very foundation 
of the Bible and the Ghurch. I hope that nothing will escape 
from your pen similar to a passage I have just read in a pamphlet 
published by an Oxford Divine, viz. " His proposal goes to the 
formation of a theological version, which may obviate the scoff's 
of infidelity, silence controversy, and preclude scepticism. What 
critic can approve of such a project ?" 

As it seems to be your intention to say something on the new 
translation, you can have no objection to my sending this letter to 
the periodicals for insertion. Truth being my onFy object, I think, 
in justice to myself, every thing of this nature should come before 
those who are not influenced by fear or interest. Such are the 
men I revere ; and I assure you, I sincerely pity those who think it 
prudent to swim without reflection down the stream of popular 

I am, Sir, &c. 




Discovery of a vei'se of Homer ^ and Error of Kiessling. 

The following verse is ascribed by Proclus, on theTima^us of 
Plato (p. 334:.), to Homer, but is not to be found in any of llie 
writings of that poet which are now extant. The line is, 

AWoc Zsvg TrpoTigo; yeyovsi, x«» ttXuovo. »)8s<. 
i. e. " But Jove was born the first, and more he knows." 

This verse is also alluded to by Proclus in p. 153. of the 
same work. If Proclus had not, after quoting this verse, imme- 
diately added f^a-iv Ofxiipos, 1 should have concluded from the 
manner of it, that it was an Orphic line. 

The word Ivvafjug, which is used by lamblichus in his treatise 
Tlioi Bioo nuSuyopixoo, in the sense in which it is used by mathe- 
maticians universally, was not properly understood by Kiess- 
ling, the German editor of this work, as will be at once evident 
to the Geometrical reader, from a perusal of what he says con- 
cerning it. The passage in which this word occurs in lambli- 
chus is the following: (3ovXcfxsvoi le tt^v ev toj avKTOig xai 
a(yvixiJ.STpOi§ xat aTrsipotg TrETrspacr/xsvryV xui jo">]V xsh avixiJ.iTpov , 
o;x«»ocruv>5v 'jrapaZn^ui, x«), O'UMg §£J a\JTr,v a(yxsiv, vfrjyYiCraa-Qai, ty^v 
5<xa<o(ruvr]v s^>j 7rpo(Teotxsvui tco (r^YjiJ.ciTi sxbivcu, OTieg fxovov twv ev 
yiwij^sTpia. oiuygaixixciTcov a-nu^ovs jitev £;i^ov t«5 twv ayjuiarm <rvc-- 
Tao-£»f, avo[j.oiMc 2e uKKr^Koig S<«xe»/x£VWv, Jtrwj sp^e< TWf t>)j 5uyajW.e«)j 
axohi^ciS. (p. 370'.): i. e. " Pythagoras, bein^ desirous to exhibit 
in things unequal, without symmetry and infinite, a definite, 
equal, and commensurate justice, and to show how it ought to 
be exercised, said, that justice resembles that figure, which 
is the only one among geometrical diagrams, that having indeed 
infinite compositions of figures, but dissimilarly disposed with 
reference to each other, yet has equal demonstrations of power." 

lamblichus here alludes to a right-angled triangle, and the 
Pythagoric theorem of 47. 1 . of Euclid, and not only to this 
theorem, but also to the 31st of the Glh book of Euclid. For 
in the former of these, it is shown that the square described on 
the longest side of llie right-angled triangle is equal to the two 
squares described on the two other sides. And in the latter it 
is demonstrated, thai any figure described on the longest side is 
equal to the figures which arc like and alike silu;ucd to the 

562 Adversaria Liieraria. 

former figure, and wImi h are des(Til;t d on the two other sides. 
Hence, the longest side is said b\ geoijiefricians to he in power 
equa! v> the powers of the other sides. Kiessling, iiowevtr, not 
und«^i'^ia!idiiig thus, says, " that power i.- ihe space contained 
between ihe conciirriiii; lines of fianres, and is the are.i of the 
trianj;!c " " Jovaftij idem est, qi;od £ju,/3a2ov. spa tiun), quod intra 
coneurrenles luieas tigurarunj coiuiutlui, area trigoni." 

From this pas^ajiC also it may be nifeired, that the theorem 
of 3!. 6. of JEuclid was not unknown to P\tl!a<:oras. 


The author of the following simple verses, by name Catlyn, 
was once the Master of the Grammar School at [jull, to which 
station he raised himseif entirely by his own genius and merits. 
It is said that he was originally a bricklayer, but by mere force 
oi talent and perseverance, greatly distinguished hitnself in the 
fields of science. His promotion in life, in more respects thuu 
one, resembled that of his contemporary Ben Jonson ; for it is 
said that that celebrated dramatist in his earlier years wielded 
the trowel. Like Jonson, too, Catlyn was repeatedly assailed by 
ihe shafts of envy and malice. His enemies were ever offi- 
ciously ready tauntingly to remind him of his former profession, 
and mortify his feelings on every opportunity. But, conscious 
of liis own worth and independence, he could fling back their 
unmanly taunts, and has shown us thai the recollection of his 
former mean state never called a blush on his cheek ; and 
though he was in no common degree attacked by envy, the 
sii4jlice of his adversaries only drew from him the following 

Hull, 16th April, 1820. 

Ad popularem hydram. 
Res satis nota est neque me molestat 
Dum mihi qutstum renovas priorem, 
Nee pudel trulla patrns sub armis 

Me nieruisse. 
Nam mihi quod vult vitio popellus 
invidus verti : sapitntiores 
id mihi laudi tribuere, mecum 

Non moritura\ 
Qui suis legat decus atque nomen, 
Is foret fama: melioris illo, 
Quo domus patris patriusque splendor 

Languidus exit. 

Adversaria Liter aria. 3(33 

Elegiac Ode, on the Death of Kiv<r George III. 

If you will favor tlie following Elegiur Ode on tiie death of 
our late revered Sovereign, with a plar ii your excellent 
publication, you will nuicli oblige me, and perhaps gratify some 
• ih«r of your readers, — 1 am, &c. 

PD ^Tiy\ ^-ruT} Dban 

3'?D n^« nJir"? nirr» :isn 
"tn:pD "^oi^^HD iD^TDi 

n^pi:r« nii''jin -nt^^iin "^j* 
n^v b2 i^>n TDno 

r»n2W ^3 n:Diwn -ino p 
'Dva "ii:y> ■)!:•« "id2 nrr 

TJ;€ Djke of Kent, who died a few days before his Fattier. 




IiscrJac^i. ^i 

-.}-,:i. _- u. I- 

^iil ilMi iiM— Miiifi ■ laiiii 1. 



heatri. tat lal£ c vsn Ik. €ni 

Porsoni Aristophnnica. 3(35 

Omnibus una quies esto ! quo me tuaconjux, 

^le tua progenies, me tua tota donius 
Solenni de more colat, snrgique verendis 

Ritibus, et pura Religione velit. 
Ipse Ego, rerum ingens opifex ! quum denique sexto 

Fitiieram a^terno nimiine cuucta die, 
Ipse Ego, magni operis supremo in fine quiescens 

Dixi, sancta esto septima quitque dies ! " 
1793. W. W. Ch. CL 



Flutum Comcediam, partim e>r ejusdem recens'ione, 
parthn e 3ISS. emendatam, et variis Lectionibus 
insfructam prcEmisit, et CoUatlomtm Appeiidicem 
adjecit Petrus Paulus Dobree, A. M. CoUegil 
SS. Trinitatis Soc'ms. CcuitabrigiiC, siorJibus CoUeg'd 
SS. Trin. 1820. 

It is with extreme pleasure that we have to announce a v.ork 
with the above title, x\nd though our notice of it must be brief, 
appearing, as it does, towards the close of the montii, in which 
this number is due, we cannot oniit the opportunity of congra- 
tulating the learned world on the continued publication of the 
Porsonian papers. 

^^ hatever may have been the surprise of many persons, dead 
or living, respecting the want of exertions in the members of 
the University, to rescue their body from the alleged imputation 
of giring but few proofs of their attaciiment to the learned lan- 
guages, and of their slowness in {Hitting their press into requisi- 
tion, for the publication of works connected with the golden 
days of Greece and Rome ; and whatever may have been the 
regret, that the funds of the University, small as ih.ey are, 
should have been devoted to purposes, rather of a prolitabie 
than honorary kind, the appearance of the present, and other 
preceding similar publications, proves that such surprise and 
regret ought to be cousiderabl\ diminished. And since just 
complaints repeated have, as thty ought to do, produced an 
improvement, the happiest auguries may be formed, from the 
conviction that ardent worshippers arc now to bo found By 
Granla's sed^t/ banks and cloistered shades. 

SGG Notice of Dobree's 

Amongst these worshippers of the Classic Minerva, the 
mejiibers of Trinity College have ever held the honoiable place 
of tlierophants. In support of their established character, they 
have long since favored those out of tlie pale of their society, 
with a portion, perhaps the richest, of the fruits of Porson'« la- 
bors. — And we are now presented with the second course of 
ihis intellectual banquet, every way desejving of the dead and 
living, whose united names it bears. 

Of the value set on the Porsorii Advenaria, perhaps the 
most convincing proof may be given by stating that, almost as 
soon as it appeared, the work was reprinted in Germany ; and 
such is its favor with the scholars of that country, that one of 
them has been eager to eraract some of the most beautiful emen- 
dations of Person, and to adorn the pages of two pamphlets 
with a whole host of borrowed discoveries, that shine like neic- 
horn stars midst darkness palpable. The feats of this second 
Fiorillo have been partly exposed in two numbers of this Jour- 
nal. But the whole account of these twin plagiarists is not yet 
settled. Some items, that have been overlooked, shall be given 
at a future time, and a statement of debtor and creditor drawn 
up between Charles James Blomficld and Richard Porson. — 
On ihe propensity of the English Fiorillo, a hint has been de- 
licately given before: and we had hopes ihatdl.B. would 
have spared us ihe pain of exposure. But warning neglected 
must bring on animadversion. Nor can love of justice permit 
us to exhibit the same tenderness of feelings as Kidd and 
Dobree have shewn to Fiorillo and Meineke ; a tendernsss 
which, we venture to ssy, bears no proportion to the severity 
of their real sentiments in the coiideuuiation of this conduct, it 
is true that the plagiarisms of C. J. B. are not so numerous or 
obtrusive as those of Fiorillo and Meineke; yet the very 
circumstauce of their smaller uuuibers and greater concealment, 
(though sufficiently marked, to as to leave not the shadow of 
doubt) does not, in our estimation, diminish the culpability of the 

The individual on whom Trinity College has conferred the 
honorable, ihongh by no means sinecure, office of Editor, is 
P. P. Dobree, We kno« n-itoir whom a belter choice couhl 
have fallen. Of liis classical attah<meuts, though well known 
and duly appreciated within the Witlls of his own college, and 
on the Coirtinent, the public hi ttiis ccimtry have had, till lately, 
few opportunities of judgmg. In the communications, how- 
ever, to his learned (rici>ds, and more particularly to Kidd, in 
his editions of Person's Miscellaneous Criticisms, and Dawes' 

Porsoni Arktophanka. 36? 

Miscellaneous Criticisms, the name of P. P. Dobree often ap- 
pears, and generally connecttd with some facts, indicative of 
his intimacy with R.P.; and a conviction is generatec), that to 
fcuch a friend Person himself would have wished, if his papers 
were to be published, that the publication should be entrusted. 

The volume contains a siiori preface. The Plutus of Aristo- 
phanes, ui.der the text of which are found the notes of Poison 
ftnd of the Editor — then follow Person's annotations on ilie re- 
juaining Comedies, and a few of the fragments, succeeded by 
the Editor's Appendix, containing collations of MSS. and 
printed books, and lastly the addenda, closed with three indices. 

From the fact of finding one whole play published with the 
notes of Person, the learned world might be tempted to believe 
ihat on the remaining plays Person had so drawn up his re- 
marks, that little would be left to an Editor of Aristophanes, 
^xcept to model the text according to the presumed ideas of 
Porson, by examining tlie sources of emendation pointed out 
by him. We think it right, however, to warn our readers against 
fondly indulging in such a fancy. — The truth is, that of the 
Plutus two-thirds had been transcribed by Porson, by way of 
specimen fur a new edition ; and the Editor has completed 
this play, in order that the volume might have something to 
recommend it to others than merely critical readers of Skeleton 

I'hat this step has been taken, is a subject of great delight; 
as it has enabled us to extend our knowledge of Greek, by the 
proofs the Editor has exhibited of his acquaintance with that 
language. — Some of tliese proofs we shall extract, accompanied 
by an observation or two. 

On looking over ilie notes of Porson, we find very few 
drawn to any length ; a circumstance little surprising to those 
who are acquainted with his bre\iiy of style, even in remarks 
intended for the j)ublic eye; fiom which roiiciseiie^s he would 
not sweive, when wriiiiig for Ms private use. — VVhetl'.tT the ac- 
cident that desiroved, as he himself stated, the labors of twenty 
years on other authors, was equally fatal to these on Aristo- 
phanes, we have no means of ascertaining ; nor can such an 
enquiry lead to any other result than the expression of thank- 
fulness for the escape of some portions of Uit iruil of ih se Ij- 
bours from total deslriiciion ; and ihat, ihoujih tiie temple itself", 
with all its decoialions has pciished, >et the icadolduig still 
remains, by means of which a iuttne Persou mav budil no mean 
name as an Jl.dilor of Aristophanes. 'J'hat such a work is a 
desideratum in literature, the best scholars will most readily ac- 

36s Notice of Dobree's 

knowledge, not perfectly satisiied by the editions of Kuster, 
Bruncic, and Invernizius. This undertaking, however, is to 
be achieved, if achieved at ail, by the rarest union of labor 
most continued, mind the most watchful, fancy most quick, 
and judgment most subdued. In some of these requisite quali- 
fications Porson was rich: and he has exhibited himself to 
great advantage, by the very careful manner in which he has 
noted the passages of Aristophanes cited by Suidas, in such a 
way frequently as to baffle the keenest eye of the most diligent 
observer. Nor has he been negligent in detecting latent allu- 
sions to Aristophanes, to be found in authors of every age of 
Greek and Roman literature. Much, however, remains still 
to be done by a future Editor, not only in quotations from ex- 
isting passages, but in the more difficult task of finding allusions, 
which are not at present referable to other places, than where 
faciincz may be proved to exist. Of such lacunar our readers 
will be surprised to liear that the number is, at least, a hun- 
dred ; all of which may be supplied from Suidas, and other 
writers. But, of the existence of these laciuiG, though R. 
P. has given one specimen, yet of the means of supplying 
that one, he seems not to have been aware, nor of the fact, that 
a printed work offers a nearer approximation to the lost words 
of Aristophanes, than those suggested by the conjecture of 
R. P. In the Acharnens. v. 1143, R, P. has proposed an emen- 
dation, on which the Editor remarks: *' ISullus dubilo poei(R 
itientem assecutum ease Porsonum ; sed verba non prastiterim." 
An observation in which we fully coincide ; and hope to be 
more fortunate in obtaining his assent, while we profess, in the 
following supplement, drawn from Suidas, to read — 
"Its ^Ti ^uipovvrei hn) arpaTiav 

Tw U,SV TTIveiV <TT£<pUVCCaC(jJ.iVMj 

Top 8e piyovv, (Tri:<^oi af^pjov, 

Tea 2e xafisuSf Jv fXtjci 7ra»S(Vx»]j 

'npuiOTOLTrig, Tw §? ipuXuTTHV 

'Ava,Tpi^Qfj.ivoo Vt» to Stiva. 
The words of Suidas are Sxsi^og xa\ aTefy]' -aui cti^pia (rrs'ipij ra 
1^ 'fTTsp^opiiOv KOj-t-il^ofjiivci u>i cic) sv uTTul^pM Ti^s^evoc. The Comic 
Lexicon, to which Suidas is here indebted, was transcribed by 
the compiler of a similar vocal)Mlary, to be found amongst the 
Lex. Bekker. p. So5. A'l^pix o-t£<^>]. Of this passage Mr. 
Barker seems to have been iiinoiaiit, or he would have, pro- 
bably, corrected uTtd^ri into o-T£(fr) in the following article : — 
" 2i\^ptct CTTsfrj SuidcC sunt to. s^'TTrspjBopsoov xo|xi^o'|aeva, quod sem- 
per sub dio ponantur. Itideni Ilesych. cum c Cratini Iliadibus 

Porsoni Aristophanica. 369 

attulisset hunc senarium, ' T-nepQopsovg al&pux. Ti[/.u/vTa; <rT*'(p>j 
siibjungit Ta yap'TTnpjSopEcuv Upa xara. T*va -TrccTgiov dytcrTsicicv ouy 
VTTO crTeyr;v, aAX' ott' ui^piov S(a(puAaTT=Ta»/' From this gloss of 
Hesychius it may be conjeclured Oiat Aiisioplianes wished to 
ridicule his great rival's verse, 'TTrsp^opsoug ai^piocTiixcavTaig o-T£(prj: 
for so it ought to be read, as u'lSpic*, being tlie contracted form 
of oclHpix, has the penultimate long. See Nub. 371. xa« to» 
^pr^v ccl^puxs oviTYic: although we are aware that al^piog has 
sometimes the penultimate short, — in which case we might leave 
the verse of Cratinus untouched, and read in Aristophanes tm 
8e piyoLv S=» crxs'^^r) a'i^pix, where o-Tsc^rj is shortened, as in these 
instances, /xou(r« xa» ufx-lv and Xs'iTrsrai uixcvv, in Med. 1081. IVo. 
603., and more appos^itely, KAsiQIvv) siSov, m Nub. 353. 

But on this, and indeed any points connected with the TrapaSjop- 
da)ft,ciTa. of R. P., it is almost useless to expatiate, removed as 
the Author is from the power of correction ; and equally useless 
would it be to extract any specimens of his Sjop9wju-aT«, con- 
vinced, as the scholar is, that R. P. could not have paid his 
attention to a corrupt author like Aristophanes, without giving 
proofs of his great critical talents, and little satisfied as even the 
most superficial reader must be, without a perusal of the volume 
itself. With respect, however, to the Editor himself, a different 
line of conduct may be adopted ; and we feel we should be want- 
ing injustice to him, did we neglect to call the attention of the 
classical scholar to the following notes of P. P. Dobree on 
the Plutus, v. 115. 178. 277. 314. 3f)l. 504. 586.689.758. 
826.965.980. 1021. 1062. 1115. 1 164. In all of these will 
be found a happy union of extensive erudition and delicate 
taste, joined with what may be called the tsKs'jtouov Trig ^rslpug 
e7riysvvriij,u in a critic, felicity of emendation. Similar proofs, 
favorable to the Editor's talents, might be adduced from the 
Addenda on v. 505. 555. 689. 1012. Nor are there wanting in 
the other plays equal reasons to recommend an early acquisition 
of the volume to all who take an interest in the remains of 
Aristophanes, and of the other votaries of Greek comedy, 
in whose train are seen — 

Jest, and \uuthful jollity, 

Quips and cranks and wanton wiles. 

Nods and becks, and wreathed smiles, 

Such as hang on Hebe's cheek, 

And love to live in dimple sleek ; 

Sport, that wrinkled Care derides. 

And Laughter holding both his sides. 
In enumerating the Editor's annotations, so highly creJitiblc 
VOL. XXI. a. Jl. NO. XLIl. '2 A 

370 Notice of Dobree's 

to his talents, we do not, however, mean to state that hi all 
cases we entirely agree with him ; and we beg to suggest the 
following improvement in the Lyric Fragment, the measure of 
which he has happily detected in the Addenda p. 105 

r|Su /xIAjT 'Avaxpe'jav, jjSv jtis'Xi^e, 2ia.Tr<^c!y 
ntvtapiKov SI p-OJ [J.s\oc; avyxspoca-ag T15 eyX^*' 
T« rpi'a TavTcc ju,oi Soxjj ku) diovuo'Oi sKkoov 
•^ a n<x.firj XiTTupoxpoog, 'Ail Ti;,''Epwc ttjITv av. 
The Palatine Ms. is resorted to by Fischer, in his Anacreon, 
p. 239, to exhibit the fragment in this fashion — 
Yiiu[xeXijg 'Avaxpsctiv 

Uivdapixov ToSe [^01 fJ,eXoi 
(TuyKspocaag rtg \y)(ioi 

TU Tplci TOCVTci [lOl SoXEJ 

xai nap'tYj Xi7rap6)(^poos 
xa.) uvTos 'Egwg xciv Ittisiv. 
We doubt, however, about sjo-saSwv; and suspect that the 

reading was originally ^ From which sAkcjv is easily at- 

tainable, by a mistake very common, of confounding ic and x, 
See Dobree Addend, p. 241, 2. Concerning the use of 'iXxny, 
poculum huinire, we remember to luivc seen somewhere the 
phrase sXxmv afjiva-Teis, though the identical passage is not at 
hand. We cannot be led to think that Uw^lr] without the 
article means Venus, nor to believe that there is any beauty in 
the expression olvtos "Epw;, Love himself \ and unless we err 

egregiously, we are almost sure the Ms. reads : where 

the c at the end of Epwg gave rise to the s at the beginning of 

We cannot conclude this brief notice of the Porsoniana, 
without extracting one most happy specimen of P. P. Dobree's 
initiation into the mysteries of conjectural criticism. It is well 
known that a very long fragment of Euripides has been pre 
served in the oration of Lycurgus against Leocrates ; and 
amongst other corrupt and difficult passages, the following is 
found, thus exhibited in the editio princeps. OiiS' av xeAe/aj 
^quarsug re yopyovoc Tpiatvav og^rjV aTuaav h TroXsaog fiadgoig 
EviJLoXTrog ouSe 0pa^ uyucrre^si KBoog ^re^uvoKTiv ou8ajU.ou TijU.^o-£Ta» 
Sed prcsclare, says Mr. Dobree, Codex Cripsio-Burneianus, (a 
most precious document, which, thanks to the liberality of Par- 
liament, is now deposited in the British Museum) a■Ts<pxvo^a■^ 

Porsoni Aristophanica. 571 

TTuWoi; Ss ouSaju-oD TtixYi<jsTxr Quare partiin assumtis Vuhkenaeri 
et Musgravii eme?idatioiiibus]ege Ovx eaS' exovTYig tJjj ef>,r,i ■'^jo^rig, 
uvsp, npoyovccv TraXaioi Ss(ry.i' octtjj Ix/3»A:J Ouo' olvt skaug ^pvtTscx.^ 
rs Fopyovo: Tplatvo-v ogQrjV <Troi.(Tuv Iv tzoKsmi; fSx^poig EvixoXttos ovdl 

" Nut:quam commiffam lit Eumolpus ylthenarum tulelam Pal- 
ladi Poliadi udemtam patii 5mo ^eptu/io tribuat. De IXa'a 
et Tgjai'vp //i Acropoli vide qiios citat Meiirsiiis Cecrop. xviii — 

Amongst the novelties of this work, we observe, by the col- 
lation of an edition in the possession of the Editor's learned 
friend, George Burges, that in someMss.of Aristophanes, the 
Scholia, hitherto wanting upon the Thesmophonazusaj, are, or at 
least \\ere, not long since, to be found. But we regret to add, 
that these Scholia, which are of a high order, do not extend 
beyond the 276th verse. 

We are pleased to perceive that, with the exception of Mei- 
neke, and men of his stamp, the Editor has spoken of contem- 
porary scholars in language, preserving an honorable medium 
between the extravagance of flattery, and the nig<?;ardnes3 of 
praise. As it has ever been our wish to see all the lovers of 
Greek literature united in a bond of union worthy of the good 
cause, and of the party espousing it, we will extract the close 
of the Editor's preface : 

" Transmisit vir exirnius, et de me optime meritus, J. F. 
Boissonadius, notulas in Plulum, extemporales quidem illas, at 
se dignissimas, quas in Appendice invenies. Neque silentio 
praetereundus Georgius Burges, vetus el probatus amicus, qui 
multa e codicibus excerpsit, et alia docte, ut solet, et utijiter 

We feel ourselves obliged to the Editor for pointing out some 
errors committed in the transcript of the Mss, Notes of Beniley 
on Aristophanes; and we take this opportunity of stating that a 
small supplement of corrections will hereafter be given, and 
with it some inedited Notes of Jos. Scaliger. 

As connected with the publication of the Porsoinana, we 
subjoin the following Notulae of R. P. transcribed from the 
margin of a copy of Casaubon's Athena'us, once in his pos- 
P. 248. E. stpYi<T£v STiXavflavonxaj] g^rj "vu [/,yj sTnXotv&uvcojxctt : V ide 

p. 427. E. '(•/, s^Yj, ijirj yvjoa^jg. [Eandem ronjeciura exstat 

in Advers, p. 87- verum ibi deest locus parallelus.] 
P. 269. D. /iST «,ar;T('(rxwy xcti y«(r»{rxcov] Delere x«» vaai^HMV 

voluisse videtur K. P. 

372 Literary Intelligence, 

P. 269. D. OTTTaij omittunt edd. Cas. 2. et 3. 

' ■ D. TO. livlqr^ T avTolg ops(Ti — <^uXXopo^a-ej] ra 8e hsv^pri tuv 

TO~i; ofzCTi — (^vWo^OT^asi [Aliter in Advers. p. QO.] 

P. 286. D. ea-Qis jU,o<] sVSe ju-sVou 

P. 310. E. xovipav ye As,3a;8>)] xou!p«TT;Aa)|3a;S»] vel y-en^uTTiXo^ath) 
Bentleius in Phalarin, p. 8()=6'2. Prms verum, alterum nimis 
subtile. [Nempe voluit Benll. xoDip' arreXs/SoiSrj, ve!, (iiia voce 
xg7r(p«TTsA£(3aiSr} . ] 

P. 499- C. s'lpsixe Tov Xayvvov nvig rpl^ouv'] Tpi^ol. [Non intelligi 
satis bene potest Porsoni mens.] 

P. 581. D. xa5<7r7r«o"a<] xa.^iirita.aa.d^cn. 

E. s^TS^ T hvslTTSiv'] sitnTSv SiTTEiv ISo'xej ]W,«?ov] ISoxi'jW-a^ov. 

JLtterarp intelligence. 

iNovuM Testamentum Domini Nostri Jesu Christi, ob frequentes 
omnium Interpretationum hallucinationes, nunc deiniim ex Codice 
Alexandrine, adhibitis etiam compluribus Mss. Variantibusque 
Lectionibus editis, sumnia fide ac cura Latine redditiim. Omni- 
bus Sacris Auctoiibus Grajcis, Sacris Criticis, Glossariis, et In- 
structioribus per totam Graiciani Ecclesiasticis Viris, diligentissime 
consultis. Interprete Leopoido Sehahfiani Romano, Sacrarum Mis- 
sionumin Persii quondam Praefecto. Royal 8vo. Rivington, London. 

The learned Author is well known to the classical world. His 
Edition of Lycophron, in 1803, ranks him high among the editors 
of the Classics ; and his translation of the Gospels into Persian, 
printed at Calcutta in 1813, distinguishes him as an Oriental 
Scholar. His various travels, and the account of his connexion 
with this country, detailed in the Preface, are interesting in a politi- 
cal and literary point of view. To give an idea of this translation, 
we insert the beginning of the Acts, which may be compared with 
the Vulgate, and the versions of Beza and Castalio. 

Gesta Sanctorum Apostolorum. 
Caput i. — Jesus promittit Apostolis Spiritum Sanctum, ct asceti- 

dit in ccelum : post prects sorte eligitur Matthias in locum Judce 


1. In primo quidem opere egi, o Theophile, de omnibus iis, quae 
Jesus fecit et docuit ab initio. 

Literary Intelligence. ' 373 

2. Usque ad diem, quo receptus-in-coelum-fuit, postquani per 
Spiritum Sanctum praecepta-dedit apostolis, quos elej^erat : 

3. Quibus etiam, postquam passus est, coinplnrilnis certis-ar- 
gumentis exhibuit sese viventem, in quadraginta dies versans cum 
eis, et U)queiis de iis, (\wsi pertinent ad rt-gnuai Dei ; 

4. Et veiiieus-in-eon/m-coetum, jussit eos non disctdere Hiero- 
solymis, sed ilUc expectare promissionem patris, de qua, ait, me 
audistis-dicentem : 

5. Joliaiines quidem baptizavit aqua, sed vos inter paucos dies 
baptizabiinini cum Spiritu Sanclo. 

6. li iijitur quum convenisseiil, interrogabant eura, dicenfes: 
doniine, an in boc tempore restituis regnum Israeli? 

7. Sed eis respnndit: non est vestruni nosse tempora, tempo- 
rumve-aiticulos, quorum raiionem pater reservavit potestati suae; 

8. Sed accipietis viituteni Spiriiiis Sancti, qui veniet super vos; 
et eritis mihi testes turn Hierosolymis, turn in tota Judaea ac Sa- 
maria, et usque ad extremitateiii terrae. 

9. Et bapc <'um dixi'!>set, illis spect<intibus, elevatus est ; et uu- 
bes suscepit emn ab oculis eorum. 

10. Cumque ociilos in coelum, ipso scandente, defixos haberent, 
ecce, duo viri, albi>atuicti vestibus, in eorum conspectu-astiterunt : 

11. Qui etiam dixerunt eis: viri Galilaei, quid intueii ini in coe- 
hini ? hie Jesus, qui ex vobis asumtus in coelum est, sic veniet, 
quemadmodum vidistis eum scandeutem in coelum." 

Novum Systema Etbices, sen^ PhiU)sophiae, ex optimis 
Anglis Auctoribus in Compendium redactum. Studio ac sumpti- 
bus Leopoldi Sebastiani. Rome, 18 19. 

This is a work, by the same author, of great research and con- 
siderable merit, in an easy style, and as clearly written as the nature 
of the subject will allow. It is not, like his Testament, printed in 
England ; but he professes a high admiration of the writers and the 
character of this country. As a proof of this, we shall quote the 
conclusion of his Preface, 

" Ne turpi otio insuetus niarcescerem, cogitavi tractatum de mori- 
bus conscribere, et systema, quod eaeteris omnibus plausibilius 
esset, adoptare ; sed hoc scilicet inter Anglos auctores e\ sententia 
nactus, Ubenter suscepi latinis auribus accon)modanduni, .;viaprop- 
ler, benevole Lector, te rogo, ut ([ualecunqne luijust e upnsculi 
pretium tibi esse videbitur, totum Anglis, solum mihi .stu'iuim, re- 
ferre velis. Gens ista donii et militiaj streiiua, a^quitate autem 
regiminis, ainore justitiae, legum ob^ervitntia, et poti^Miuum phiian- 
thropia sua insignis, studio liltrarum adeo claret, ut plurima scri- 
ptoruni suorura opera eruditione sententiarumque gravitate admiva- 
tioni sint," 

374 Literary Intelligence. 

We are sorry to see tliis praise qualified by the last sentence : 
" Utinam haec semper grata gencrosaque Natio antiqui mei in se 
sfudii bonorumque otficiorum nieorum, et quooiodo tandem in 
Persia pro sua et justitije caussa tuenda totius conditionis meae 
jacturam fecerim, rerainisceretur, quandoquidem spes ilia magna, 
qua nixus biennio ante e Britannia discessi, praecisa esse videtur, 
non sine dat£e accepteeque fidei dcdecore." 

We are not sufficiently informed on the subject to decide on the 
reasons of his disappointment ; but we think it due to tise Adminis- 
tration, and to the India Dijectors, to insert the conclusion of his 
Preface to the Testament : 

" Apologiam nieaiii (Constantinopoli) Romam mW\. Rescriptum 
niihi fuit, S. Congrt- gationem rationes meas sequi boiiique consuluisse, 
etad jus bonum mihi reddendum paratara esse; ideoque oportere 
me Romam petere." 

" Accepta epistol^, statim navem obsequentissimus conscendi, 
et Genuam trajeci, unde post consummatos in Iffiuiocompto qua- 
draginta dies, IJomam abii. Sed lieu! pudet dicere, quinque men- 
sibus alto silentio involutum me vidi, et jura mea, mens labores ac 
sumptiis, promerita tandem mea oblivione deleri. Quamobrem 
statui meliora auspicia tentare, et in Britanniam proticisci, justitiam 
et zequitatem illius gentis, pro qua tot adver»a pertuleraui, expertu- 
rus. It^aque ab urbe protectus, et in Mehtain tryjectiis, mde hue 
Londinum per Tamesim appuli, et paucis diebus post, libelluni 
moderatoribus Societal is Indiarum Orientalium <tbtuli: qui statita 
pro eorum jequitate mihi adfuerunt, et ad istud supremum regimen 
me remiserunt. Retuli igitur rem omnem ad hunc regiura pro ex- 
teris negotiis ministrum Vicecomitem Lord Castlereagh, qui et 
animo et genere no bills, rem meam ad rationem temporum ac con- 
ditionis meae summ^ prudentiii et sagacitate expedivit, biiirul agente 
ingenuo atque erudito viro Gulielmo Hamilton. Quamobrem turn ip- 
sis in primis, turn Societalis Indiarum moderatoribus, necnon egregio 
Comiti Thomee Elgin, qui pro sui humanitate semper mihi praesto 
fuit, debitas rependo grates, et me e Britannia de hujus supremi 
regiminis aequitate contentum discedere profiteor." 

The Enthusiasm of the Methodists and Papists considered ; By 
Bishop Lavington. With Notes, Introduction, and Appendix. By 
the Rev. R. Polwhele, Truro. In one large Vol. price l/. 1*. bds. 

Contents of the Introduction : 

"Separation of Dissenters from the Church: Character of Dis- 
senters of former times : Methodists of the present Day : Blessed 
Effects of Methodism on Society : Mischiefs of Sectarism : The 
Puritans, their successful hostilities against the Church Govern- 
ment : Sectarists of the presenlday, their rancorous abuse of Bishops ; 

Literary TntelUgence. 375 

Modern Methodists — llieir obtrusiveness — their promptness in at- 
tacking our discourses on public occasions : Their general topic of 
abuse, that we do not preach the Gospel : Pretences to inspiration : 
Official importance; Singinfr, pVaying, exhorting, preaching, style, 
and manner, and doctrine : Methodist Preacher, his f;^miliarity with 
his flock : Co-operation of Clmrchmen with Sectarists, the Evan- 
gelical Clergy: Extempore Preaching of the Evangelical Clergy : 
Mrs. H. More: The Blagdou Controversy: Mr. Wilberforce : 
Clergy and others giving way to Methodists, who circumvent us by 
Charitable Institutions: Puritans attempting the Universities, pre- 
sent Society : Female Agency : Indifference and false Candour in 
Churchmen : Qualification of Methodists : Clerical conduct with 
respect to Dissenters in general : Division of large Parishes, build- 
ing Churches : Canons and Rubric, to be cleared from ambignities, 
and confirmed by a new Statute : Education of the Clergy : Univer- 
sities, seeds of Sectarisni sown there : Intercourse between Dignified 
and Parochial Clergy : Church Catechism : Mr. Southey: Conduct 
in our families : &c. &c. &c." 

Two learned men are preparing in Holland new editions of 
Dion Chrysostomus, and of Apuleius. The latter author will be 
adorned with the posthumous observations of Oudendorp. 

Nouvelles recherches sur I'epoque de la Mort d'Alexandre, et 
sur laChronoIogie des Ptolemees ; ou Exaraen critique de I'Ouvrage 

de M. CH F intitule Annales des Lagides : par M. J. 

St. Martin. Paris, 1820. Impilmerie Pvoyale. 8vo. 

Translation of Strabo, finished.— To those among our readers 
who engage in the study of antiquities, especially of ancient 
geography, it may be interesting to learn that the translation of 
Strabo, p'ublished under the patronage of the French government, 
is at length brought to a conclusion by the publication of the fifth 
volume,'^in quarto, from the Royal press. This work has engaged 
the talents and learning of MM. de la Porte Dutheil, Gosselin, 
Coray, and Letronne, during several years ; and must be placed 
among the most eminent of its kind. In going through a perform- 
ance so extensive and laborious, it is natural that many observations 
should be made by the learned coadjutors, as well as that much 
subsequent information should be obtained ; an additional volume 
may therefore be expected, containing such addenda, with tables 
of matters, and other illustrations. 

The Greek Journal, ' Hermes Ho Logios,' for Sept. 1819, contains, 
among other articles, a memoir, in the form of a letter, of the services 
rendered during twenty years, to Greece, by the brothers Zosimas 
—they are both numerous and important. " These worthy and 

376 Literary Intelligence. 

respectable sons of the country," says the writer, "could no longer 
endure to see it covered with the shades of ignorance ; but concluded 
that to be rendered happN, it must be enlightened. They have estab- 
lished at Joanniua, in Epirus, their native country, a school of the 
first order, have enriched it with an excellent library, have assigned 
considerable funds for the emolument of professors, have granted 
pensions to poor students, and have spared no expense to assist in 
raising their unfortunate country. To their muniticence we owe 
the Greek Bibliotheca of Mr. Coray, with its excellent commen- 
taries, tlte fruit of m\ich study and learning. The ehlest of the 
brothers Zosimas has resided from his youth at Moscow. The 
venerable mother of the Emperor Alexander, being a few years ago 
in that ancient capital of the Czars, desired to see the benefactor of 
Greece, caused him to be presented, entered into conversation 
with him, with distinguished good-will, and among other things said 
to him — ' M. Zosimas, the benefits which you confer every day on 
your countrymen, are known to my son, and to me : continue them ; 
and assure yourself, that independently of our satisfaction, the 
blessings of those whom you render happy, will rise even to heaven.' 
Turning afterwards to the other Greeks who were present, 'Gen- 
tlemen,' said she, 'this is the true ornament of your nation.'" 

Messrs. Zosimas have formed at Moscow a considerable collection 
of antiquities, &c. with which they purpose some day to enrich 
their native country, Greece. 


A Vindication of our authorised Translation and Translators of 
the Bible, and of preceding Englisli versions, authoritatively com- 
mended to the notice of those Translators ; occasioned by certain 
objections made by Mr. Bellamy in his translation of the book of 
Genesis, and by Sir J. B. Burges, in his Reasons in favor of a New- 
Translation of the Holy Scriptures. By tlie Rev. Henry John Todd, 
M. A. F, S. A. Chaplain in Ordinary to His Majesty, and Keeper of 
the Archbishop of Canterbury's Records. 8vo. 

A Reply to the Rev. Mr. Todd's Vindication of our authorised 
Translation and Translators of the Bible. By Sir James Bland 
Burges, Bart. 8vo. 

Biblical Criticism on the first fourteen Historical Books of the 
Old Testament: also of the first nine Prophetical Books. By 
Samuel Horsley, LL.D. F.R.S, F.A.S., late Lord Bishop of St. 
Asaph. 4 vols. 8vo. 

Whatever is connected with Classical or Biblical literature, will 
receive an accession of strength and interest from Bishop Horsley 's 
writings. Whatever he touches, he turns to gold. These volumes 
have widely extended the sphere of the critical character of this 
country. He has not entered into the controversy on the propriety 

Literaru Intelligence. 377 

'jf llie revision of the received translation of the Scriptures. He 
speaks on that subject with the modesty cliaracterislicHl <.f true genius 
and learning. " With respect to my translation (of Hosea)" says 
he, "I desire that it may be distinctly understooH, that I gi\e it 
not as one that ought to supersede tiie use of the Public Transla- 
tion in the service of the Church." But his Translation of that 
Prophet, and his Notes on the Books of the Old Testament, ac- 
companied with a new version of many passages, \s\\\ afford a new 
argument to tlie unprejudiced, in fa\orof the propriety of a revision 
of the Common Translation. His opinion i<, that "if the phraseology 
of the Bible were not changed from time to time, to keep pace in 
some degree with the gradual changes of common speech, it would 
become unintelligible to the common people. With respect to them 
at this day, the Holy Bible, translated inio the English of Chaucers 
age, would be a translation out of one dead language into another. 
Not to say that archaisms, too long retained, instead of raising the 
style, become in the end mean, and even ludicrous." We shall 
quote the curious exemplification, which immediately follows : 
" The book of Psalms would be of little use to the vulgar, if it were 
translated into the vulgar tongue, after the manner of this speci- 
men : ' W hv gnastes the gens, and the peple thoughte ydil thingis?' 
Though the text were accompanied with tliis luminous comment: 
* The prophete, snybband him that tourmentid Crist, saies, whit 
the gt-ns — thoo were the Knyttes of Rome that crucified Crist. — 
gnasled, as bestes with out resoun. and the peple, tlioo were the 
Jews, thoughte vaynte thoughtes,' <ic. And the tragical story of 
John the Baptist, so admirably related in all its circumstances by 
the Evangelist, would not be heard with gravity in any congregation 
at this day, were the narrative to proceed in this language : ' When 
the doughtyr of that Herodias was in comyn, and had tombylde 
and pleside to Harowde, and also to the sittande at mete, the Kynge 
sales to the wench,' do. There is a limit, therefore, to the love of 
archaisms, beyond which it should not be iiidulged. But there is 
a limit also to innovation, which 1 hope I have not passed." Vol. 
III. p. 301. et seq. 

This is the medium, which, in our opinion, should be observed 
in a new Tran-lation ; and this appears to be the principle on which 
our Correspondent, C. P., proceeds in his Corrections. But man, 
influenced by partv, is the creature of extremes; and we deprecate 
the violence, and e\en the existence, of party on a subject, Avliich 
particularly demands candor and moderation. 

An Address from a Clergyman to his Parishioners. Fourth. Ed. 
Containing Morning and Evening Pravers. Bv R. Valpv, D.D. 
F.A.S. As, 6d. bds. 

VOL. XXI. a. JL NO. XUI. '2 B 

378 Notes to Correspondents. 

The Coimncnfaries of Proclus on the Tiraseus of Plato, in Five 
Books, containing a Treasury of Pythagoric and Platonic Physio- 
logy. Translated from the Greek, by Thomas Taylor. 2 Vols. 4to. 
Price 5/. 10*. 

Greek Grammar ; with Notes for the use of those, who have 
made some Progress in the Language. By R. Valpy, D.D. F.A.S. 
Seventh Ed. Pr. 6s. 6d. bds. 

New Edition of the Delphin Classics ; with the Variorum Notes. 
Parts XV. and xvi. 

The Volume of Annotations on the Etymologicum Magnum as 
reprinted by Schaefer, which have been partly collected and partly 
written by Sturz, has recently appeared from the Leipsic Press, and 
we shall feel ourselves obliged to any of our learned correspon- 
dents, who will favor us with a regular notice of this Work. In 
the 13th page of (he Preface, we find the following tribute of praise ^ 
to our countryman, Mr. E. II. Barker : 

" Et prinio quidcm summis laudibus extollendus est E. H. Bar- 
kerus, Anglus eruditissimus, qui subinde, partim Scha^fero, partim 
niihi, sua sponte et solo bonas literas juvandi studio ductus, misit 
Notas ad Etym. M. vel breviores, vel longiores, omnes autem utilis- 
feimas, et exinnam doctrinam, qua earum auctorem excellere nemo 
uescit, denuo ac certissinie deiuonstrantes. Ex his longiores illas, 
non tamen omnes, post annotationes a me coUectas, separatira et 
uiio tenore exhibui ap. 1077. ad 1130. Est hiec prteclara hujus viri 
dos, ut, si quid illustrandum snscepit, id non leviter tangat, sed 
tamdiu ab omnibus partibus verset, dcnec nihil obscurilatis rema- 
neat : id quod ille tarn Notis ad Novam Thesauri Grajcie Lingua^ 
Stcphaniani Editionem, quam Dissertatione de voce 'ArbpeiKeXov, 
quae 111. Fr. A. VVolfii Analectis Literariis (V. 1. p. 388—95.) inserta 
est, aliisque idoneis specirainibus satis superque ostendit. Quare 
non dubito, omnibus, qui de his rebus judicarc didicerunt, operara 
viri doctissinii egregie probatum iri." 


We understand that an individual, to whom allusion is made in 
the last No. of this Journal, is displeased w ith an expression reflect- 

Notes to Correspondents* 379 

ing on the " canvass to check the increase of the list of Subscribers 
to the Thesaurus," and that he wishes us to contradict it. If he is 
disposed to construe that expression as conveying a meaning similar 
to what is intended in speaking of an election for a Professor's chair 
in the University, or for a seat in the House of Commons, where the 
whole bent of the mind and every interest are employed to obtain 
a particular object, we beg to undeceive him by stating that we 
meant, by a figurative form of speech, to express strongly an injury, 
which was deeply felt by the party affected. We are ready to adopt 
any set of words that may prove less offensive; for we are well as- 
sured that the Editors of Stephens' Thesaurus are incapable of either 
malice or revenge, although obliged to ilefend themselves against 
the hostility which they have experienced. We again assert, what 
will not be denied, that the gentleman in question was among the 
most early and friendly subscribers to the work, and that he re- 
fused to receive the first No. What causes he alleged, and what 
sentiments of opposition he expressed, are well known to many. 
He cannot surely have forgotten the spirit of his observations ; 
very slight notices might bring it to his recollection. " Levis 
exoletam memoriam revocat nota." We might even appeal to his 
own candor, whether his expressions were not calculated " to check 
the increase of the list of Subscribers." Most happy indeed 
should we be, for the credit of learning, for the honor of human 
nature, to be enabled to acknowledge that no hostility had been 
used, or intended. We need scarcely add, that our pages will be 
open to any observations on the subject. 

In the course of a few days will be published, Aristarchus Anti- 
Blomfieldianus : or a Reply to The Notice of the New Creek The- 
saurus, inserted in the 44th Number of the Quarterly Review 
By E. H. Barker, O.T.N. 

Tvwcrei biba-)(6eis 6\pe y ovv to aiixft^orelv. 

^sch. Agam. 1434 = 1398. Blonif. 

To which are added the Jena-Reviews of Mr. Blomfield's Calli- 
machus, and of his Edition of the Persze of i'sdivlus, translate*! 
from the Gorman. Printed for J. H. Bohle, York "streer, Covent- 

380 Notes to Correspondents. 

We are sorry to refuse admission to the article of C. D. We 
vish to encourage fair and candid criticism ; but we must depre- 
cate the attempts of a writer, however elegant his language, and 
specious his avowed intention, to throw covert insinuations against 
the faith of our fatliers and the leligion of our country. 

In the same spirit, we shall with the highest gratification insert 
the Essay of Eusebius Devonieusis. 

On s'enipressera de donner I'examen critique de la Fable d'Her- 
cule, de M. Ouvaroft'. 

With this No. is published a general Index to the first Forty 
Numbers of this Journal, which will of course bind up at the end 
of the Twentieth Volume. The Index No. will also be found useful 
for Libraries, as a work of Reference. 


" Suum cuique. — I learn, to my astonishment, from many quar- 
ters that the Edition of the series of Greek Authors, which is pub- 
lishing by Tauchnitz at Leipsig, is even now ascribed to rat', not 
only by several private notices, but also in the pubUc prints, as re- 
cently in the instance of Strabo. That I may not api>r"priate to 
myself a merit, which does not belong to me, 1 hereby declare that 
1 have not for several years past had the smallest concern in this 
series. Professor G. H. Schcefer." 

" Leipsig, May 9, 1820."