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Full text of "A classification of living animals"

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^ Marine Biological Laboratory Library 

II Woods Hole, Mass. d 

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j Presented by j 



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2 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 

J) Jul/ 20, 1962 

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3B3^^^^^^^^^^^^^SE 







A CLASSIFICATION OF 
LIVING ANIMALS 



QJL. 

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A CLASSIFICATION OF 
LIVING ANIMALS 



LORD ROTHSCHILD 

G.M., Sc.D., F.R.S. 




JOHN WILEY AND SONS INC, 
New York, N.Y. 



PUBLISHED THROUGHOUT THE WORLD, EXCEPT THE 
UNITED STATES AND CANADA BY LONGMANS GREEN AND CO LTD 



© LORD ROTHSCHILD 1961 
FIRST PUBLISHED 1961 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN 
BY ROBERT MACLEHOSE AND CO LTD, THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, GLASGOW 



CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION 



page VII 



I. SCOPE 



11. SUMMARIZED CLASSIFICATION 



III. CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ANIMALS 



APPENDIX I: FURTHER READING 



47 



APPENDIX II: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



50 



APPENDIX III: REFERENCES 



52 



ANIMAL AND GROUP INDEX 



57 




79960 



INTRODUCTION 

The following notes may be helpful: 

(1) Chapter I explains the purpose of the book and how to use it. 

(2) Chapter 1 1 is a summarized classification of living animals. 

(3) Chapter IH is a classification of living animals, with examples of genera 
in each class, order, sub-order, etc. 

(4) Appendix I provides references for further reading. 

(5) Appendix II is a list of the authorities consulted on the classifications. 

(6) Some 4,000 examples of 'better known' genera are mentioned in 
Chapter III and the Index, which also gives the order or sub-order to 
which each genus belongs. 

(7) The Index contains more examples than the text. The reader who wishes 
to see whether a particular animal is classified should refer to the Index 
and not to the order, in Chapter III, to which he believes the animal 
belongs. 

(8) Only a certain number of English names are recorded and some of these 
might be questioned by the purist. Innumerable examples could be given 
of the confusion caused by the use of vernacular as opposed to Latin 
names. Where I live, the hedgehog, Erinaceus, is sometimes called an 
urchin. Where I often work, an urchin is called Echinus. But members of 
the order Echinoida (sea urchins), to which Echinus belongs, are also 
called sea hedgehogs, egg urchins, sea eggs, egg-fish, buttonfish, sea 
thistles, needle shells, chestnuts, burrs, spikes, zarts, porcupines and 
whore's eggs. 

(9) No species are given, only genera. The English names of some better 
known animals are, therefore, missing, because they refer to a species 
and not the genus: for example, the herring gull (Larus argentatus) and 
the crested newt (Triton cristatus). The reader will not find herring gull 
or crested newt in the Index, but will find gull, newt, Larus and Triton. 

R. 



I. SCOPE 

During my studies of spermatozoa, I have often been frustrated by having to consult a 
number of books, instead of one, to find an up-to-date classification of the animal kingdom: 
and it occurred to me that other scientists might have the same difficulty. Classifications of the 
animal kingdom are available; but the only comprehensive ones of which I am aware are that 
of my first biology teacher. D. M. Reid (1925), which is out of print and now out-of-date, and 
that prepared in 1949 for Section F of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, Zoological Names, a List of Phyla, Classes and Orders. Apart from having no table 
of contents, index or examples, this pamphlet, which is reproduced in Specter's Handbook of 
Biological Data (1956), was clearly written for zoologists and not for physiologists, bio- 
chemists, biophysicists and those biologists who are not familiar with the classification of 
animals, for whom this book is intended. 

The book and its Index can be used to find out how the animal kingdom, or parts of it, 
are classified, which are the eutherian mammals, what phasmids and Homoptera are, etc. 
Neither the book nor its Index can necessarily provide answers to questions about the 
systematic positions of individual genera, because there are some two hundred thousand 
genera in the animal kingdom.' Nevertheless, the Latin and some English names of a number 
of better known genera have been included. A genus may be well known to one person and 
unknown to another; any selection of 'better known genera' is bound, therefore, to be 
arbitrary. The reader is, therefore, almost certain to find that some genera, which are well 
known to him, are absent. Similarly, the English names of some better known animals are 
missing, because no species, only genera, are mentioned. 

No extinct groups are mentioned, although from time to time members of such groups 
turn out not to be extinct at all, as in the case of the coelacanth (Actinistia) and the mollusc 
Neopilina (Tryblidiacea). The omission of extinct orders may give the misleading impression 
that a system of classification is top-heavy. In classifications of recent birds (Class Aves), for 
example, one sub-class, Neomithes, is sometimes included; this may seem unnecessary. But if 
the classification includes extinct birds, Neornithes is seen to be one of two sub-classes, the 
other, extinct, one being Archaeornithes. 

Alternative classifications are given of the Parazoa ( = Porifera), Platyhelminthes and 
Nematoda. The nematode classification of Chitwood & Chitwood (1950) is preferred to that 
of Hyman, which is well known because her treatise The Invertebrates (1940-1959) is so well 
known. A classification of the Parazoa by Dr. Maurice Burton is preferred to that of Hyman. 
Professor Jean Baer's classification of the Platyhelminthes, as yet unpublished, is preferred to 
that of Dr. Ben Dawes, but in this case, the decision was a personal one. The preferred 
classification is given first in each case. The same genera are cited as examples in the alterna- 
tive classifications, but in the Index, genera are referred to the preferred classification. 
Alternative classifications of several other groups could have been given, e.g. the class 
Echinoidea, because systematics is a dynamic subject about which zoologists often disagree. 
But only the Parazoa, Platyhelminthes and Nematoda seemed to require this treatment in a 
book of this size and detail. 

If an English name applies to a particular genus, as in the case of 'whelk', it will be found 

in the singular after the generic name, Buccinum. But if the same English name applies to two 

or more genera, it will be found, in the plural, after the genera to which it applies, for example 

Cavolina, Limacina (sea-butterflies). When English names are available for higher groupings, 

such as sponges (Parazoa), these will be found after the Latin names. No attempt has been 

made to give a comprehensive list of English or vernacular names, interesting as it may be to 

know that everyone in the Barbados is familiar with sea eggs, but no one with sea urchins. 

Such information is outside the scope of this book. Whenever possible, therefore, Latin and 

not English names should be looked up in the Index. In a few cases where an animal causes a 

disease which has an English name, it has been put in brackets after the generic name of the 

animal, for example Entamoeba (amoebic dysentery). 

' If a genus is not in this book, the most likely place to find it is in Neave's Nomenclator Zoologicus 
(1939-1950). 



SCOPE 



When a synonym exists for a phylum, class, order, etc. and is worth mentioning, it is put 
in brackets after the preferred name, e.g. 

DISCOCEPHALI ( = Echeneiformes) 

If the group represented by the synonym is approximately equal to the group represented 
by the preferred name, the sign for 'approximately equal' is used : 

PLECTOGNATHI (= Tetraodontiformes) 

If there are two synonyms, they are recorded as follows : 

OLIGONEOPTERA ( = Endopterygota, Holometabola) 

When the relationship between a preferred name and certain synonyms or near-synonyms 
is simple, the relationship is recorded as follows, sometimes as a footnote: 

MESOGASTROPODA ( = Monotocardia, Pectinibranchia, - Stenoglossa) 

This means that the order Mesogastropoda is the same as the order Monotocardia or 
Pectinibranchia, minus Stenoglossa. A plus sign between two synonyms would have the 
analogous meaning. 

Synonyms of genera have only been given where there was good reason to do so. 
To attempt more would make several entries under orders and sub-orders cumbersome. 
For example, the palmate newt Triturus helveticus (Caudata) is, or has been, known as 
Diemictyhis palmatiis, Molge palmata and Triton palmatus, so that the inclusion of these 
synonyms would be entered as follows : 

Triturus ( = Diemictyhis, Molge, Triton) (newt) 

Even if such an entry were desirable in principle, it would be unacceptable in practice, because 
the synonyms apply to the palmate newt and not necessarily to all newts. This question, of a 
synonym often applying to one species and not to the whole genus, is another reason for 
avoiding synonyms except when they serve a special purpose. 

Some synonyms, such as Troglodytes for Pan (the chimpanzee), Auchenia for Lama (the 
llama) and a few others, may be thought surprising or unnecessary. They have been included 
because some physiologists or biochemists used these synonyms instead of the preferred 
names. 

To avoid possible confusion, I have occasionally put a warning footnote when the name 
of a group, such as Decapoda, is used in more than one part of the animal kingdom. Attention 
has not been drawn to cases of two different animals having, or having had, the same names. 
A casual glance at Neave's Nomenclator Zoologicus (1939-1950) shows that homonyms are 
far more common than many biologists realize. Aricia, for example, is cited in Neave as a 
mollusc, a polychaete, a fly and a moth. There seemed no point in trying to record all 
homonyms, irrespective of their importance for readers of this book. 

Apart from 'phylum', 'class', 'order', etc., the Index contains all the words in Chapters II 
and III. If the reader wishes to look up Mammalia, or Prototheria, or Simiae in the 
Index, no difficulties arise and the appropriate page numbers will be found after these words, 
for example, Prototheria, 43. But if the reader wishes to know the systematic position of 
Phascolarctos, a. page number would provide insufficient information because there are about 
seventy-five Latin or English generic names per page. In the Index, therefore, the generic name 
of an animal, or the English name of a genus, is followed by the order or sub-order (when these 
exist) to which the animal belongs, and then the page number, as in the following examples: 

Phascolarctos, Marsupialia, 44 
three-toed sloth (Bradypus), Edentata, 44 



SCOPE 3 

It is hardly necessary to mention that if two page numbers occur after a word in the Index, 
as in 

Acoela, 1 3, 22 

the Acoela will be found on both pages. This is because Acoela is an order within the class 
Turbellaria (phylum Platyhelminthes) and within the class Gastropoda (phylum Mollusca). 
I referred on page 2 to the inclusion in the Index of animals mentioned in a number 
of textbooks of physiology and biochemistry. The format of this book prevents all of these 
being referred to in the text, even if this were desirable, and a number have, therefore, been 
mentioned only in the Index. In such cases the entry is of the form 

*Eiiocheir, Reptantia, 31 

The entry shows to which sub-order Eriocheir belongs, while reference to p. 31 shows that 
Eriocheir is a crustacean and not a mollusc.^ If, therefore, a reader wants to look up a particu- 
lar genus in this book, reference must, in the first instance, be made to the Index and not to 
the text, as more animals are mentioned in the former than the latter. No English names are 
given of genera which are only mentioned in the Index. 

All the classifications have been discussed with specialists on the group or groups in 
question. To avoid cluttering up this chapter with innumerable acknowledgements to the 
many scientists who have had the kindness and patience to help me, an Acknowledgement 
Appendix is included at the end of this book. In fairness to those who have helped me, I should 
own that I have not always taken their advice. Any errors^ are, therefore, my responsibility 
and due to ignorance of a diverting branch of natural science which is neglected by many 
'modern' biologists. 

Since my book is, in a sense, a dictionary, I will conclude this chapter with some observa- 
tions made by a previous lexicographer (Johnson, 1755, AJ). 

'It is the fate of those who toil at the lower employments of Hfe, to be rather driven by the 
fear of evil, than attracted by the prospect of good ; to be exposed to censure, without hope of 
praise ; to be disgraced by miscarriage, or punished for neglect, where success would have 
been without applause, and diligence without reward. 

'Among these unhappy mortals is the writer of dictionaries; whom mankind have con- 
sidered, not as the pupil, but the slave of science, the pionier of literature, doomed only to 
remove rubbish and clear obstructions from the paths of Learning and Genius, who press 
forward to conquest and glory, without bestowing a smile on the humble drudge that 
facilitates their progress. Every other authour may aspire to praise; the lexicographer can only 
hope to escape reproach, and even this negative recompense has been yet granted to very few.' 

' Reptantia Is a sub-order of Decapoda (Crustacea); but Decapoda is also a sub-order of Dibranchia 
(Mollusca). 

- This book is certain to contain errors and misprints. I should be most grateful if readers would let mc 
know when they detect them. 



II. SUMMARIZED CLASSIFICATION 

The approximate number of described species in each group is given in the second column. 
Numbers followed by an asterisk diflFer greatly from those given by Mayr, Linsley & Usinger 
(1953). 



Phylum PROTOZOA 


30,000 


page 6 


MESOZOA 


50 


9 


PARAZOA 


4,200 


9 


CNIDARIA 


9,600 


11 


CTENOPHORA 


80 


12 


PLATYHELMINTHES 


15,000* 


13 


NEMERTINA 


550 


16 


ASCHELMINTHES 






Class Rotifera 


1,500 


17 


Gastrotricha 


140 


17 


Echinoderida 


100 


17 


Priapulida 


5 


17 


Nematomorpha 


250 


17 


Nematoda 


10,000 


17 


Phylum ACANTHOCEPHALA 


300 


20 


ENTOPROCTA 


60 


20 


POLYZOA 


4,000 


20 


PHORONIDA 


15* 


20 


BRACHIOPODA 


260 


21 


MOLLUSCA 


100,000 


21 


SIPUNCULOIDEA 


275 


23 


ECHIUROIDEA 


80 


23 


ANNELIDA 


7,000 


24 


ARTHROPODA 






Class Onychophora 


73 


24 


Pauropoda 1 




24 


Diplopoda 1 


9,400 


24 


Chilopoda f 


25 


Symphyla J 




25 


Insecta 


700,000 


25 


Crustacea 


25,000 


29 


Merostomata 


4 


31 


Arachnida 


30,000 


31 


Pycnogonida 


440 ■ 


31 


Pentastomida 


60 


32 


Tardigrada 


280 


32 


Phylum CHAETOGNATHA 


50* 


32 


POGONOPHORA 


43* 


32 


ECHINODERMATA 


5,700 


32 


CHORDATA 






Sub-phylum Hemichordata 


91 


34 


Urochordata 


1,600 


34 


Cephalochordata 


13 


35 



SUMMARIZED CLASSIFICATION 



Vertebrata 








Class Marsipobranchii ] 




35 


Selachii 
Bradyodonti 


1 


23,000 


35 
36 


Pisces 




36 


Amphibia 




2,000 


40 


Reptilia 




5,000 


41 


Aves 




8,590 


41 


Mammalia 




4,500 


43 



III. CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ANIMALS 



Phylum PROTOZOA 



Class MASTIGOPHORA 

( = Flagellata) 

Sub-class PHYTOMASTIGINA 

( =Phytoflagellata) 



Sub-class ZOOMASTIGINA 

( =Zooflagellata) 



Order PHYTOMONADINA 

( = Volvocina) 

Carteria; Chlorogonium; Chlamydomonas; 

Haematococciis; Eudorina; Pandorina; Vol vox; 

Polytoma 
Order XANTHOMONADEVA 

Chloramoeba; Myxochloris: Rhizochloris 
Order CHLOROMONADINA 

Gonyostomum; Vaciiolaria 
Order EUGLENOIDINA 

Euglena; Trachelomonas; Phacus; Peranenui 
Order CRYPTOMONADINA 

Chilomonas ; Cryptomonas; Cyathomouas 
Order DINOFLAGELLATA 
( = Peridineae) 

Haplodinhim; Blastodiniitm ; Ceratium; 

Dinamoebidium; Gymnodiniurn; Noctiluca; 

Peridinium 
Order EBRHDEAE 

(=Ebriaceae) 

Ebria; Hermesinum 
Order SILICOFLAGELLATA 

Dictyocha 
Order COCCOLITHOPHORIDA 

Calyptwsphaera ; Acanthosolenia 
Order CHRYSOMONADINA 

Chromulina; Mallomonas; Oicomonas; Uroglena; 

Chrysamoeba; Dinobryon; Hydrurus; 

Dendroinonos ; Ochromona.s 

Order PROTOMONADINA 

Monosiga; Leptomonas; Crithidia; Leishmania 
(kala-azar, oriental sore); Trypanosoma (sleeping- 
sickness, nagana, etc.); Schizotrypanum (Chagas' 
disease, etc.); Bodo 
Order METAMONADINA 

( =POLYMASTIGINA + HYPERMASTIGINA) 

Enteromonas; Monocercomonas ( = Eutrichomastix); 
Hexawastix ; Devescovina; Trichomonas; 
Embadomonas; Chilomastix; Lophomonas; 
Trimastix; Trichonympha 



PROTOZOA 



Class RHIZOPODA 
( = Sarcodina) 



Class ACTINOPODA 



Class SPOROZOA 
( =Telosporidia) 

Sub-class GREGARINOMORPHA 



Order DISTOMATINA 

( ^Diplomonadida) 
Hexamita; Giardia 
Order OPALININA 

Cepedea; Opalina; Zelleiiella 

Order RHIZOMASTIGINA 

( = Pantostomatida) 

Mastigamoeba; Histomonos (blackhead of poultry); 

Dientainoeba 
Order AMOEBINA 

Amoeba; Chaos; Vahlkampfia; Endamoeba; 

Entamoeba (amoebic dysentery); Endolimax; 

lodamoeba 
Order TESTACEA 

Arcella; Centropyxis; Cochliopodiiim; Difflugia; 

Nebela; Penardia; AssuUna; Chlamydophrys; 

Euglypha; Gromia; Araclvuda; Biomyxa; 

A Uogromia ; Microgromia 
Order FORAMINIFERA 

Discorbis; Elphidium ( ^Polystomella); Globigerina; 

Connispira; Penerup/is; Textularia; Nummulites; 

Planorbidina; Rot alia 

Order RADIOLARIA 

Acanthometra; Sphaerocapsa; Acanthosphaera; 

Collozoum; Sphaeiozoum; Thalassicola; 

Aulacantha; Coelodendnim 
Order HELIOZOA 

A ctinophrys ; A ctinospliaerium ; A ctinolophus ; 

Astrodiscidus; Acaiithocystis; Raphidiopbrys; 

Actinomonas; Vampyrella; Clathndina; 

Hediiocystis; Monomastigocystis 



Sub-class COCCIDIOMORPHA 



Order ARCHIGREGARINA 

Merogregariua ; Selcnidiiim ; Selenocystis 
Order EUGREGARINA 

Gonospora; Gregarina; Lecudina; Monocystis; 

Porospora; Stylocephalns 
Order SCHIZOGREGARINA 

Caul/eryel/a; Lipotiopha; Machadoella; 

Ophryocystis; Schizocystis; Syncystis 

Order PROCOCCIDIA 

Selenococcidium 
Order EUCOCCIDIA 
Sub-order Adeleidea 

Adelina; Klossia; Karyolysus; Hepatozoon; 
Haemogregarina 
Sub-order Eimeriidea 

Cyc/ospora; Isospora; Eimeria ( = Coccidium); 
Globidium; Merocystis 



PROTOZOA 



Sub-order Haemosporidia 

Haemoproteus; Leucocytozoon; Plasmodium (mal- 
aria); Babesia (=Piroplasma) (Texas cattle fever, 
etc.) ; Theileria (African East Coast cattle fever) 

SPOROZOA whose systematic position is uncertain 

Toxoplasma (toxoplasmosis); Sarcocystis (sarco- 
sporidiosis) ; HeUcosporidium 
Class CNIDOSPORIDIA 

( — Nematocystida, Neosporidia, Amoebosporidia) 

Order MYXOSPORIDIA 

Ceratomyxa; Leptotheca; Chloromyxum; 
Sphaerospora; Coccomyxa; Henneguya; Myxidium; 
Myxobolus; Myxosoma 
Order MICROSPORIDIA 
(=Cryptocysta) 
Nosema; Glugea; Thelohania; Plistophora; 
Mrazekia; Telomyxa 
Order ACTINOMYXIDIA 

Guyenotia ; Tetractinomyxon 
Order HAPLOSPORIDLA 
Haplosporidium 
Class CHJATA 
(=Ciliophora) 



Sub-class HOLOTRICHA 



Order GYMNOSTOMATIDA 

Sub-order Rhabdophorina 

Holophrya; Amphileptus ; Dileptus 
Sub-order Cyrtophorina 

Chilodonella; Nassula; Prorodon 
Order SUCTORIDA 

( = ACINETA, TeNTACULIFERA) 

Podophrya; Acineta 
Order CHONOTRICHTOA 

(=Peritricha) 
Spirochona 
Order TRICHOSTOMATmA 

Coelosomides; Tillina; Colpoda; Balantidium 
(dysentery) 
Order HYMENOSTOMATIDA 
Sub-order Tetrahymenina 

Tetrahymena; Glaucoma: Ichthyophthirius 
Sub-order Peniculina 
Frontonia; Paramecium (slipper animalcule) ; 
Urocentrum 
Sub-order Pleuronematina 
Pleuronema ; Cyclidium 
Order ASTOMATmA 

( = Anoplophryinea) 
Anoplophrya; Radiophrya; Haptophrya 
Order APOSTOMATIDA 

Foettingeria; Gymnodinioides ; Ophiuraespira; 
Spirophrya 



PROTOZOA-PARAZOA 



Sub-class SPIROTRICHA 



Order THIGMOTRICHTOA 

Thigmophrya ; Conchophthirus ; Ancistrum; Boveria; 
Ancistrocoma; Hypocomella; Hypocoma 
Order PERITRICHIDA 
( = Stomatoda) 
Vorticella; Epistylis; Zoothamnium; Trichodina; 
Urceolaria 

Order HETEROTRICHIDA 

Sub-order Heterotrichina 

Climacostomum; Condylostoma; Spirostomum; 

Stentor 
Sub-order Licnophorina 

Licnophora 
Order GLIGOTRICHTOA 

Strombidium; Halteria; Strombilidiitm 
Order TINTINNIDA 

Tintirmopsis; Tintiimus 
Order ENTODINIOMORPHIDA 

Epidinium; Entodinium; Ophryoscolex; 

Cycloposthium 
Order CTENOSTOMAXroA 
( = Odontostomatida) 

Epalxis; Saprodinium; Discomorpha 
Order HYPOTRICHTOA 

Diophrys; Euplotes; Oxytricha; Uroleptus 



Phylum MESOZOAi 



Order DICYEMIDA 

( = Rhombozoa) 
Dicyema; Microcyema 
Order ORTHONECXroA 

Rhopalura 



Phylum PARAZOA ( = Porifera, Spongiida) (sponges)^ 

Class NUDA» 

Order CALCAREA 

( = Calcispongiae) 
Sub-order Homocoela (ascon sponges) 

Leucosolenia { = Ascute) ; Clathrina 
Sub-order Heterocoela 
Leucilla; Scypha ( = Sycon); Leuconia 
( =Leiicandrd); Grantia (=Sycandra) 

* Members of this phylum are often considered to be degenerate members of phylum PlatyhelmintheSf 
pp. 13-14. 

* Classification by Burton. 

' Sometimes considered as a phylum, in which case phylum Parazoa becomes a sub-kingdom Class Nuda 
also occurs in phylum Ctenophora, p. 13. 

B R.C.L.A. 



10 PARAZOA 



Order HEXACTINELLIDA (glass sponges) 
(=Triaxonida, Hyalospongiae) 
Sub-order Hexasterophora 
Euplectella (Venus's flower basket); Farrea; 
Aphrocallistes 
Sub-order Amphidiscophora 

Hyalonema ; Pheronema; Monoraphis 



Class GELATINOSA' 



Order TETRAXONIDA 

Sub-order Homosclerophora 

(=Carnosa, Microsclerophora) 

Plakina; O scare I la; Bajulus; Hexadella; Thrombus 
Sub-order Streptastrosclerophora 

Thenea 
Sub-order Astrosclerophora 

Stelletta; Tethya; Chondrosia; Geodia; Tetilla 

( — Craniella); Cliona; Spheciospongia (loggerhead 

sponge); Suberites 
Sub-order Sigmatosclerophora 

My X ilia; Halichondria; Haliclona ( = Chalina, 

Halina); Microciona; Esperiopsis; Adocia 

( = Remera); Cladorhiza; Spongilla 
Order KERATOSA* (horny sponges) 

Spongia i—Euspongia) (bath sponge); Halisarca; 

Hircinia; Aplysina; Aplysilla 



Phylum PORIFERA ( = Spongiida, Parazoa) (sponges)^ 

Class CALCAREA 

( = Calcispongiae) Order ASCONOSA (ascon sponges) 

( = Homocoela) 
Leucosolenia{—Ascute); Clathrina 
Order SYCONOSA 

( = Heterocoela) 
Leucilla; Scypha ( = Sycon); Leuconia 
( =Leucandra); Grant la (=Sycandra) 
Class HEXACTEVELLroA (glass sponges) 
( =Triaxonida, Hyalospongiae) 

Order HEXASTEROPHORA 

Euplectella (Venus's flower basket) ; Farrea; 
Aphrocallistes 
Order AMPHIDISCOPHORA 

Hyalonema ; Pheronema ; Monoraphis 
Class DEMOSPONGIAE 

Sub-class TETRACTINELLIDA 

Order MYXOSPONGIDA 

Halisarca; Oscarella; Bajulus; Hexadella; Thenea 

' Sometimes considered as a phylum, in which case phylum Parazoa becomes a sub-kingdom. 

* The systematics of this order requires revision. ^ Alternative classification by Hyman (1940). 



(PORIFERA)-CNroARIA 



11 



Sub-class MONAXONIDA 



Order CARNOSA 

( = HOMOSCLEROPHORA, MiCROSCLEROPHORA) 

Plakina; Thrombus; Chondrosia; Haliclona 
( = Chalina, Halina) 
Order CHORISXroA 

Stelletta ; Geodia; Tetilla ( = Cranielld) 



Order HADROMERINA 

( = Astromonaxonellida) 

Cliona; Spheciospongia Ooggerhead sponge); 

Suberites 
Order HALICHONDRINA 

Halichondria 
Order POECILOSCLERINA 

Microciona; Myxilla; Esperiopsis; Cladorhiza 
Order HAPLOSCLERINA 

Adocia ( = Reniera); Spongilla 
Order EPIPOLASIDA 

Tethya 
Sub-class KERATOSA (horny sponges) 

Spongia ( = Euspongia) (bath sponge); Hircinia; 

Aplysina; Aplysilla 



Phylum CNIDARIA ( = Coelenterata - Ctenophora) 



Class HYDROZOA (hydroids, medusae) 



( = H YDROMEDUS AE) 




Class SCYPHOZOA (jelly fish) 
( = Scyphomedusae) 



Order ATHECATA 

(=Gymnoblastea, Anthomedusae) 

Hydra: Tubularia; Sarsia: Coryne; Velella (by-the- 

wind-sailor) ; Millepora; Hydractinia; 

Bougainvillia; Stylaster; Spirocodon 
Order THECATA 

(=Calyptoblastea, Leptomedusae) 

Phialidium ; Obelia; Aequorea; Halecium; 

Sertularia; Plumularia 
Order LEMNOMEDUSAE 

Gonionemus; Craspedacusta; Olindias; Limtwcnida 
Order TRACHYMEDUSAE 

Geryonia ( = Carmarind); Liriope; Aglantha 
Order NARCOMEDUSAE 

Solmissus; Aegina; Cunina 
Order SIPHONOPHORA 

Physalia (Portuguese man-of-war); Halistemma; 

Lensia; Muggiaea; Agalma 

Order STAUROMEDUSAE 

Lucernaria; Haliclystus 
Order CUBOMEDUSAE 

Carybdea; Chirodropus 
Order CORONATAE 

AtoUa; Linuche; Nausithoe; Periphylla 



12 CNIDARIA-CTENOPHORA 



Order SEMAEOSTOMAE 

Pelagia; Chrysaora; Cyanea; Aurelia { = Aurellia) ; 
Dactylometra 
Order RHIZOSTOMAE 

Cassiopea; Rhizostoma; Cotylorhiza 

Class ANTHOZOA 

Sub-class CERIANTIPATHARIA 

Order ANTIPATHARIA (black corals) 

Antipathes 
Order CERIANTHARIA 

Cerianthus 
Sub-class OCTOCORALLIA (soft corals) 

Order ALCYONACEA 

Alcyonium (dead men's fingers) 
Order GORGONACEA 

Eunicella (sea fan) ; Gorgonia 
Order PENNATULACEA 

Pennatula (sea pen) ; Virgiilaria 



Sub-class ZOANTHARIA 



Order ZOANTHINIARIA (zoanthids) 

Zoanthus; Epizoanthus; Palythoa 
Order CORALLEMORPHARIA 

Corynactis 
Order ACTINIARIA (sea anemones) 

Anemonia ( = Anthea); Actinia; Tealia; Metridium 

( = Actinolobd) : Calliactis; Adamsia; Peachia 
Order PTYCHODACTIARIA 

Ptychodactis 
Order SCLERACTINIA (true corals, stony corals) 

Fungia; Pontes; Acropora; Caryophyllia; 

Meandrina 



Phylum CTENOPHORA 
( = CoELENTERATA - Cnidaria) (comb jcUies) 



Class TENTACULATA 



Order CYDIPPIDA 

Pleurobrachia (sea gooseberry) ; Hormiphora 
Order LOBATA 

Leucothea ( =Euchans); Bolinopsis ( = Bolina); 

Mnemiopsis (comb jelly) 
Order CESTIDA 

( = Cestoidea) 

Cesium ( = Cestus) (Venus's girdle) ; Velamen 

( = Vexillum, Folia) 
Order PLATYCTENEA 
( = Ctenoplana) 

Ctenoplana; Coeloplana; Tjalfiella; Gastrodes 



CTENOPHORA-PLATYHELMINTHES 13 



Class NUDA^ 

Order BEROIDA 
Beroe 



Phylum PLATYHELMINTHES (flatworms)^ 

Class TURBELLARIA (turbellarians) 

Order ACOELA' 

Aphanostoma; Convoluta 
Order RHABDOCOELA 

Catenula; Macrostomum; Dalyellia; Gyratrix; 
Paravortex 
Order ALLOEOCOELA 

Hofstenia; Plagiostomum; Otomesostoma; 
Monocelis 
Order TRICLADIDA 
Sub-order Maricola 

Bdelloura; Uteriporus; Procerodes ( = Gunda) 
Sub-order Paludicola 

Planaha; Dugesia {= Euplanaria) ; Dendrocoelum 
Sub-order Terricola 

Geoplana; Rhynchodemus; Bipalium 
Order POLYCLADIDA 
Sub-order Acotylea 

Stylochus; Notoplana; Cestoplana 
Sub-order Cotylea 

Thysanozoon; Eurylepta; Prosthiostomum 



Class TEMNOCEPHALOroEA 



Class MONOGENEA 
( =Heterocotylea) 



Order TEMNOCEPHALIDEA 

( = Dactylifera, Dactyloda) 
Temnocephala 



Sub-class MONOPISTHOCOTYLEA 

Order CAPSALOIDEA 

Tristoma; Capsala 
Order UDONELLOIDEA 

Udonella 
Order GYRODACTYLOroEA 

Gyrodactylus ; Dactylogyrus 
Order ACANTHOCOTYLOroEA 

Acanthocotyle 
Order PROTOGYRODACTYLOroEA 

Protogyrodactylus 
Sub-class POLYOPISTHOCOTYLEA 

Order CHIMAEROCOLOIDEA 

Callorhynchicola 
Order DICLroOPHOROIDEA 

Diplozoon; Hexostoma; Mazocraes; Microcotyte; 

Gastrocotyle ; DicUdophora; Discocotyle 
* Sec Parazoa, p. 9. * Classification by Baer. ^ See Opisthobranchia, p. 22. 



14 



PLATYHELMESTHES 



Class CESTODARIA 



Class CESTODA (tapeworms) 



Order DICLYBOTHROIDEA 

Diclybothrium 
Order POLYSTOMATOIDEA 

Poly stoma; Hexabothrium 

Order AMPHILINIDEA 

Amphilina 
Order GYROCOTYLIDEA 

Gyrocotyle 



Sub-class DroESMIDA 



Sub-class TETRADESMIDA 



Class TREMATODA (flukes) 



Order PSEUDOPHYLLIDEA 

( - Bothriocephaloidea) 
Diphyllobothrium ( = Dibothriocephalus) ; Ligula; 
Schistocephalus ; Caryophyllaeus ; Wenyonia 

Order HAPLOBOTHRIOIDEA 

Haplobothrium 
Order TETRARHYNCHOIDEA 

( = Trypanorhynch a) 

Tetrarhynchus; Floriceps; Tentacularia; Grillotia; 

Hepatoxylon; Aporhynchus 
Order DIPHYLLIDEA 

Echinobothrium 
Order TETRAPHYLLIDEA 

( - Phyllobothrioidea) 

Phyllobothrium; Acanthobothrium; 

Echeneibothrium; Discocephalum 
Order LECANICEPHALOmEA 

Lecanicephalum; Parataenia 
Order TETRABOTHRIOIDEA 

Tetrabothrius 
Order PROTEOCEPHALOmEA 

Proteocephalus 
Order NIPPOTAENOmEA 

Nippotaenia 
Order CYCLOPHYLLIDEA 
( = Taenioidea) 

Bertiella; Raillietina; Dipylidium; Hymenolepis; 

Taenia i = Cysticercus); Echinococcus ; 

Mesocestoides 



Sub-class ASProOGASTREA 

(=ASPIDOCOTYLEA, AsPIDOBOTHRIA) 

Sub-class DIGENEA 
( = Malacocotylea) 



Aspidogaster 

Schistosoma ( = Bilharzia); Bilharziella; Fasciola 
( = Distoma, Distomum), Dicrocoelium (liver flukes, 
cattle & sheep) ; Parorchis; Paragonimus (lung 
fluke); Bucephalus; Clonorchis (Chinese liver fluke 
disease); Heterophyes; Paramphistomum (cattle 
rumen fluke); Strigea; Diplostomum; Echinostoma 



(PLATYHELMTNTHES) 15 



Phylum PLATYHELMINTHES (flatworms)^ 



Class TURBELLARIA (turbellarians) 

Order ACOELA 



Class TREMATODA (flukes) 



Aphanostoma; Convoluta 
Order RHABDOCOELA 

Catenula; Macrostomum; Dalyellia; Gyratrix; 
Temnocephala; Paravortex 
Order ALLOEOCOELA 

Hofstenia; Plagiostomum; Otomesostoma; 
Monocelis 
Order TRICLADmA 
Sub-order Maricola 

Bdelloura; Uteriporus; Procerodes ( = Gunda) 
Sub-order Paludicola 

Planaria; Dugesia { = Euphnaria) ; Dendrocoelum 
Sub-order Terricola 

Geoplana; Rhynchodemus ; Bipalium 
Order POLYCLADroA 
Sub-order Acotylea 

Stylochus; Notoplana; Cestoplana 
Sub-order Cotylea 

Thysanozoon; Eurylepta; Prosthiostomum 

Order MONOGENEA 

( = Heterocotylea) 
Sub-order Monopisthocotylea 

Gyrodactylus: Dactylogyrus; Protogyrodactylus; 
Udonella; Tristoma; Capsala; Acanthocotyle 
Sub-order Polyopisthocotylea 
Hexabothrium; Polystoma; Mazocraes; 
Discocotyle; Diclybothrium; Microcotyle; 
Gastrocotyle; Callorhynchicola; Diclidophora; 
Hexostoma; Diploz.oon 
Order ASPIDOGASTREA 

( = Aspidocotylea, Aspidobothria) 
Aspidogaster 
Order DIGENEA 

( = Malacocotylea) 
Sub-order Gasterostomata 

Bucephalus 
Sub-order Prosostomata 

Dicrocoelium, Fasciola ( = Distoma, Distomum) 
(liver flukes, cattle & sheep); Clonorchis (Chinese 
liver fluke disease); Heterophyes; Paragonimus 
(lung fluke) ; Paramphistotnum (cattle rumen fluke) ; 
Strigea: Diplostomum; Echinostoma; Parorchis; 
Schistosoma ( = Bilharzia); Bilharziella 

Alternative classification by Dawes. 



16 



(PLATYHELMINTHES)-NEMERTINA 



Class CESTODA (tapeworms) 
Sub-class CESTODARIA 

Sub-class EUCESTODA 



Order AMPHILINIDEA 

Atnphilina 
Order GYROCOTYLIDEA 

Gyrocotyle 

Order PROTEOCEPHALA 

Proteocephalus 
Order TETRAPHYLLIDEA 

( = Phyllobothrioidea) 
Phyllobothrium ; Acanthobothrium; Echeneibothrium 
Order LECANICEPHALA 

Parataenia; Lecanicephalum 
Order DISCULICEPITIDEA 

Discocephalum 
Order DIPHYLLIDEA 

Echinobothrium 
Order TRYPANORHYNCHA 
( =Tetrarhynchoidea) 

Tetrarhynchus ; Floriceps; Tentacularia ; Grillotia; 

Hepatoxylon; Aporhynchus 
Order CYCLOPHYLLmEA 
(=Taenioidea) 

Bertiella; Raillietina; Dipylidium; Hymenolepis; 

Taenia ( = Cysticercus); Echinococcus ; 

Mesocestoides; Tetrabothrius 
Order CARYOPHYLLIDEA 

Wenyonia; Caryophyllaeus 
Order NIPPOTAENnDEA 

Nippotaenia 
Order PSEUDOPHYLLIDEA 

Ligula; Diphyllobothrium { = Dibothriocephalus) ; 

Schistocephalus; Haplobothrium 



Phylum NEMERTINA ( = Rhynchocoela) (ribbon worms) 



Class ANOPLA 



Class ENOPLA 



Order PALAEONEMERTINA 

( = Mesonemertina) 
Cephalothrix; Tubulanus 
Order HETERONEMERTINA 

Cerebratulus; Lineus (boot-lace worm) 

Order HOPLONEMERTINA 

Sub-order Monostylifera 

Carcinonemertes; Amphipoms; Tetrastemma; 

Geonemertes 
Sub-order Polystylifera 

Drepanophorus ; Pelagonemertes; Nectonemertes 



NEMERTINA-ASCHELMINTHES 



17 



Order BDELLONEMERTINA 

( = Bdellomorpha) 
Malacobdella 



Phylum ASCHELMINTHESi 



Class ROTIFERA (wheel animalcules) 



( = Rotatoria) 



Class GASTROTRICHA 



Class ECHINODERIDA 

( = Kinorhyncha) 



Order SEISONIDEA 

Seison 
Order BDELLOIDEA 

Habrotrocha; Philodina; Rot aria ( = Rotifer); 

Adineta; Philodinavus ( = Microdina) 
Order MONOGONONTA 
Sub-order Ploima 

Brachionus; Keratella (=Anuraea); Epiphanes 

(=Hydatina); Euchlanis; Lepadella {= Metopidia) , 

Lecane i = Cathypna, Distyla); Monostyla; 

Notommata; Asplanchna 
Sub-order Flosculariacea 

Testudinella (=Pterodina); Filinia { — Triarthra); 

Hexarthra (=Pedalia, Pedalion); Trochosphaera; 

Floscularia ( = Melicerta); Conochilus 
Sub-order Collothecacea 

Collotheca {= Floscularia) ; Stephanoceros 

Order MACRODASYOffiEA 

Cephalodasys 
Order CHAETONOTOIDEA 

Neodasys; Chaetonotus 

Centroderes; Echinoderes; Pycnophyes 



Class PRIAPULIDA^ 



Priapulus; Halicryptus 



Class NEMATOMORPHA (horse-hair worms) 

( - GoRDiACEA) Order NECTONEMATOIDEA 

Nectonema 
Order GORDIOIDEA 
Chordodes; Gordius 
Class NEMATODA (roundworms)^ 
(=Nemata) 



Sub-class PHASMIDIA 

Order RHABDITmA 
Sub-order Rhabditina 

Rhabditis; Diplogaster; Cephalobus; Panagrellus 
(sour paste eelworm); Turbatrix (vinegar eelworm); 
Rhabdias (lung ntrndLiodo); Strongyloides 

^ Nemathelminthes, sometimes used as a synonym for Aschelminthes, only applies to Nematomorpha and 
Nematoda. 

^ The Priapulida may equally well be considered as a phylum. They have also been grouped with the 
Echiuroidea, p. 23 and Sipunculoidea, p. 23 as Gephyrea. 

' Classification by Chitwood & Chitwood (1950) and Thorne (1949). 



18 ASCHELMINTHES 



Sub-order Strongylina 

Strongylus {= Sclerostomum) : Oesophagostomum 
(nodular worm); Ancylostoma, Necator (hook- 
worms); Syngamus (gape worm); Haemonchus, 
Cooperia, Ostertagia (trichostrongyles) ; 
Metastrongylus, Dictyocaulus, Muellerius (lung- 
worms) 
Sub-order Ascaridina 
Ascaris (large roundworm); Parascaris (horse 
roundworm); Ascaridia (poultry roundworm); 
Porrocaecum; Heterakis (poultry caecal worm); 
Subulura; Enterobius (threadworm, pin worm); 
Aspiculuris (mouse threadworm or pinworm) 

Order TYLENCHTOA 

Ditylenchus (stem-and-bulb eelworm) ; Anguina 
(wheat gall eelworm); Heterodera (cyst eelworm); 
Meloidogyne (root- knot eelworm); Aphelenchoides 
(leaf eelworm) ; Sphaerularia 

Order SPIRURmA 

Dracunculus (guinea worm); Wuchereria (filarial 
worm); Loa; Onchocerca; Diwfilaria (dog heart 
worm); Set aria; Thelazia (eye worm); Gongylonema 
(gullet worm) ; Habronema (horse stomach worm) ; 
Gnathostoma; Philometra; Micropleura; Tetrameres 
( = Tropisurus) (poultry stomach worm) 



Sub-class APHASMIDIA 



Order CHROMADORTOA 

Plectus; Monhystera; Paracanthonchus ; 

Cylindrolaimus ; Desmoscolex 
Order ENOPLmA 
Sub-order Enoplina 

Enoplus; Tripyla; Mononchus 
Sub-order Dorylaimina 

Dorylaimus; Xiphinema; Mermis; Trichuris 

( = Trichocephalus) (whipworm) ; Trichinella 

( = Trichina) (trichina worm) ; Capillaria 
Sub-order Dioctophymatina 

Dioctophyme (dog kidney worm) ; Hystrichis 



Phylum ASCHELMINTHES 



Class NEMATODA (roundworms)^ 

Order ENOPLOIDEA 

Enoplus; Tripyla; Mononchus 
Order DORYLAJMOmEA 

Dorylaimus; Xiphinema 
Order MERMITHOIDEA 

Mermis 
Order CHROMADOROroEA 

Paracanthonchus 
» Alternative classification by Hyman (19516). 



(ASCHELMINTHES) 



19 



Order ARAEOLAIMOIDEA 

Plectus 
Order MONHYSTEROIDEA 

Cylindrolaimus; Monhystera 
Order DESMOSCOLECOIDEA 

Desmoscolex 
Order RHABDITOIDEA 

( = Anguilluloidea) 
Rhabditis; Diphgaster; Panagrellus (sour paste eel- 
worm); Cephalobus; Turbatrix (vinegar eelworm); 
Heterodera (cyst eelworm); Ditylenchus (stem-and- 
bulb eelworm); Anguina (wheat gall eelworm); 
Meloidogyne (root-knot eelworm); Aphelenchoides 
(leaf eelworm); Sphaerularia 
Order RHABDIASOIDEA 

Rhabdias (lung nematode); Strongyloides 
Order OXYUROIDEA 

Enterobius (threadworm, pinworm); Aspiculuris 
(mouse threadworm or pinworm) 
Order ASCAROIDEA 

Ascaris (large roundworm) ; Parascaris (horse 
roundworm); Ascaridia (poultry roundworm); 
Porrocaecum; Heterakis (poultry caecal worm); 
Subulura 
Order STRONGYLOroEA 

Strongylus i=Sclerostomum); Oesophagostomum 
(nodular worm); Ancylostoma, Necator (hook- 
worms); Syngamus (gape worm); Metastrongylus, 
Dictyocaulus, Muellerius (lungworms) ; 
Haemonchus, Cooperia, Ostertagia (tricho- 
strongyles) 
Order SPmUROffiEA 

Thelazia (eye worm); Gongylonema (gullet worm); 
Habronema (horse stomach worm); Gnathostoma] 
Tetrameres (poultry stomach worm) 
Order DRACUNCULOmEA 

Dracunculus (guinea worm); Philometra; 
Micropleura 
Order FILARIOIDEA 

Setaria; Wuchereria (filarial worm); Loa; 
Onchocerca; Dirofilaria (dog heart worm) 
Order TRICHUROmEA 

( = Trichinelloidea) 
Trichuris ( = Trichocephalus) (whipworm) ; 
Capillaria; Trichinella ( = Trichina) (trichina worm) 
Order DIOCTOPHYMOIDEA 

Dioctophyme (dog kidney worm); Hystrichis 



20 ACANTHOCEPHALA-PHORONIDA 



Phylum ACANTHOCEPHALA (thorny-headed worms) 

Order ARCHIACANTHOCEPHALA 

Macracanthorhynchus ; Gigantorhynchus ; Oncicola; 

Moniliformis 
Order PALAEACANTHOCEPHALA 

Polymorphus; Filicollis; Gorgorhynchus; 

Echinorhynchus 
Order EO ACANTHOCEPHALA 

Quadrigynis; Neoechinorhynchus; Octospinifer 



Phylum ENTOPROCTA 
(=Endoprocta, Calyssozoa, Kamptozoa, 
PoLYZOA Endoprocta, Polyzoa Entoprocta) 

Family LOXOSOMATIDAE 

Loxosoma; Loxocalyx 
Family PEDICELLEVTOAE 

Pedicellina; Myosoma; Barentsia 
Family URNATELLIDAE 

Urnatella 



Phylum POLYZOA 
( = Bryozoa, Polyzoa Ectoprocta, Ectoprocta) 

Class PHYLACTOLAEMATA 

( = LoPHOPOD a) Cristatella ; PI urnatella (=A Icyonella) 

Class GYMNOLAEMATA 

( = Stelmatopoda) Order CYCLOSTOMATA^ 

( = Stenolaemata, Stenostomata, - Trepostomata*) 
Crisia; Diplosolen; Hornera; Lichenopora; 
Tubulipora 
Order CHEILOSTOMATA 

Bugiila; Caber ea; Cryptosula; Flustra; 
( = Eurystomata) -! Membranipora ; Schizoporella ; Scrupocellaria 

Order CTENOSTOMATA 
L Alcyonidium; Bowerbankia; Triticella 



Phylum PHORONroA 



Phoronis; Phoronopsis 

" See Marsipobranchii, p. 35. 
' The Trepostomata are extinct. 



BRACHIOPODA-MOLLUSCA 



21 



Phylum BRACfflOPODA 



Class INARTICULATA 



Class ARTICULATA^ 



Order ATREMATA 

Lingula; Glottidia 
Order NEOTREMATA 

Crania; Discinisca 

Sub-order Thecideoidea 

Lacazella 
Sub-order Rhynchonelloidea 

Hemithyris; Cryptopora 
Sub-order Terebratuloidea 

Gryphits; Terebratulina 
Sub-order Terebratelloidea 

Argyrotheca; Dallina; Terebratella; Magellania 



Phylum MOLLUSCA 



Class POLYPLACOPHORA* 

( = Loricata) 



Class APLACOPHORA* 

( = SOLENOGASTRES) 



Class MONOPLACOPHORA 



Class GASTROPODA 



Order LEPmOPLEURIDA 

Lepidopleurus 
Order CHITONIDA 

Chiton (coat of mail shell); Cryptochiton; 
Lepidochiton ( =Lepidochitona) 

Order NEOMENIOMORPHA 

Ne omenta; Proneomenia 
Order CHAETODERMOMORPHA 

Chaetoderma 

Order TRYBLIDIACEA 

Neopilina 



Sub-class PROSOBRANCHIA 

( = Streptoneura) 



Order ARCHAEOGASTROPODA 

( = Diotocardia, Aspidobranchia) 
Acmaea (limpet); Megathura (keyhole limpet); 
Haliotis (ear-shell, ormer, abalone) ; Patella 
(limpet); Nerita; Pleurotomaria; Trochus (top-shell) 



' The Articulata (see also Crinoidea, p. 32) used to be divided into two orders, Protremata and Telo- 
tremata. Tliese overlap and have therefore been discarded. They have not so far been replaced, though the 
ordinal classification of the Articulata is under review. 

' These two classes are sometimes grouped together as Amphineura. 



22 



MOLLUSCA 



Sub-class OPISTHOBRANCHIA 



Sub-class PULMONATA 



Order MESOGASTROPODA 

( = MONOTOCARDIA, PeCTINIBRANCHIA, - StENOGLOSSA) 

Littorina (periwinkle); Strombus, Natica (necklace- 
shells); Cv/^raea (cowrie) ; Carinaria; Viviparus 
( =Paludina) (river-snail); Aponhais (pelican's foot- 
shell) ; Crepidula (slipper limpet) ; Charonia 
( = Tritoma) (trumpet-shell); Cassis (helmet-shell); 
Pterotrachea; Bithynia (=Bulimus) 
Order STENOGLOSSA 

( = Neogastropoda) 
Buccinum (whelk) ; Busy con ( = Sycotypus) 
(American whelk) ; Nassa ( —Ilyanassa) (dog- 
whelk); Murex, Ocenebra (sting-winkles); Terebra, 
Conus (arrow-tooth shells) 

Order PLEUROCOELA 

( = Tectibranchia) 
Actaeon (actaeon shell); Aplysia (sea-hare); Bulla 
(bubble shell) 
Order PTEROPODA 

Cavolina, Limacina (sea-butterflies) ; Clione 
Order SACOGLOSSA 
(=Ascoglossa) 
Elysia, Limapontia (sea-slugs) 
Order ACOELA^ 
Sub-order Notaspidea 

Umbraculum; Pleurobranchus ( = Oscanius) (sea- 
slug) 
Sub-order Nudibranchia 
Onchidoris; Glaucus; Pleurophyllidea; Doris (sea- 
lemon) ; Eolis (sea-slug) 

Order BASOMMATOPHORA 

Lymnaea ( =Limnaea) (pond snail) ; Planorbis 
(ram's horn snail); Ancylus {= Ancylastrum) (fresh- 
water limpet) 
Order STYLOMMATOPHORA 

Helix (land snail); Testacella (shell-bearing slug); 
Limax, Arion (land-slugs) 



Class SCAPHOPODA Cadulus, Dentalium, Siphodentalium, Pulsellum 

(tusk-shells) 

Class BIVALVIA 

( = Lamellibranchia, Pelecypoda) 

Order PROTOBRANCHIA 

Nucula (nut-shell); Yoldia; Solenomya 
Order FILmRANCHIA 
( = Anisom yaria) 
Area (Noah's ark shell) ; /4«ow/a (saddle-oyster); 
Modiolus (horse-mussel); Mytilus (mussel); Pecten 
(scallop) 



' SeeTurbellaria, p. 13. 



MOLLUSCA-ECHIUROIDEA 23 



Order EULAMELLIBRANCHIA 

Cardium (cockle); Ostrea (oyster); Mya (gaper); 
Anodonta ( = Anodori) (swan-mussel) ; Unio (pearl- 
mussel); Tellina (ieWin); Pholas (piddock); Teredo 
(ship-worm) 
Order SEPTIBRANCHIA 

Poromya (gaper) ; Cuspidaria 

Class CEPHALOPODA 

( = SiPHONOPODA) Order TETRABRANCfflA 

Nautilus (pearly-nautilus) 
Order DIBRANCHIA 

Sub-order Decapoda* 

Architeuthis: Sepia ( = Eusepia) (cuttle-fish); Loligo 
(squid); Spirula 

Sub-order Vampyromorpha 
Vampyroteuthis (vampire squid) 

Sub-order Octopoda 
Octopus i= Polypus) (octopus); Argonauta (paper- 
nautilus); Eledone (lesser octopus) 



Phylum SIPUNCULOIDEA2 



Golfingia ( = PhascolosomaY ; Phascolosoma 
( =Physcosoma, PhymosomaY ; Sipunculus; 
Dendrostomum; Aspidosiphon; Phascolion 



Phylum ECfflUROroEA^^ 



Order ECHIUROINEA 

Bonellia; Echiurus; Thalassema; Ochetostoma 
Order XENOPNEUSTA 

Urechis 
Order HETEROMYOTA 

Ikeda 



* See Eucarida, p. 31. 

* The Sipunculoidea and Echiuroidea have also been grouped with the Priapulida, p. 17, as Gephyrea. 

» Golfingia LankesteT=Phascolosoma (auct.). Phascolosoma F. S. Leuckan= Physcosoma Selenka, see 
Fisher (1950). 

« Poeobius is sometimes put in this phylum and sometimes in phylum Poeobioidea. In all probability, 
however, it is an aberrant polychaete, p. 24. 



24 



ANNELroA-ARTHROPODA 



Phylum ANNELIDA (=Annulata) 



Class POLYCHAETA^ 



Amphinome ; Aphrodite ; Phyllodoce ; Tomopteris; 
Syllis; Nereis; Nephthys; Glycera ( = Rhynchobolus) ; 
Eunice; Scoloplos; Polydora; Magelona; 
Chaetopterus; Ophelia; Arenicola (lugworm) ; 
Cirratidus; Capitella; Maldane; Owenia; Pectinaria; 
Ampharete; Terebella; Sabella {= Spirographis) 
(peacock fan worm) ; Serpida 



Class MYZOSTOMARIA 
Class OLIGOCHAETA'' 

Class HIRUDINEA (leeches) 



Myzostoma 

Tubifex; Clitellio; Stylaria; Chaetogaster ; 
Enchytraeus (white worm); Pelo scale x; Lumbricus, 
Pheretima, Allolobophora, Eisenia (earthworms) 

Order ACANTHOBDELLIDA 

Acanthobdella 
Order RHYNCHOBDELLroA 

Glossiphonia; Helobdella; Piscicola; Pontobdella; 
Branchellion 
Order GNATHOBDELLIDA 

Hirudo; Haemopis (=Aulastoma); Macrobdella; 
Haemadipsa; Erpobdella {= Herpobdella, Nephelis); 
Trocheta (amphibious leech); Dina 



Class ARCfflANNELroA 



Saccocirrus; Dinophilus; Polygordius; Protodrilus; 
Nerilla 



Phylum ARTHROPODA 



Class ONYCHOPHORA 
Class PAUROPODA 



Peripatus; Peripatopsis 
Pauropus 



Class DIPLOPODA (millipedes) 



Sub-class PSELAPHOGNATHA 

Order POLYXENIDA 

( = SCHIZOCEPHALA, PeNICILLATA) 

Polyxenus; Lophoproctus 

The Polychaeta, for which no acceptable ordinal classification exists, are sometimes divided for con- 
venience into sub-classes Errantia (the first nine genera) and Sedentaria (the last fifteen genera). 

* No satisfactory ordinal classification is available for the Oligochaeta, though the first six genera are 
sometimes assigned to order Limicolae and the last four to order Terricolae. 



ARTHROPODA 



25 



Sub-class CHILOGNATHA 

Super-order PENTAZONIA 
( = Opisthandria) 

Order GLOMERIDA 

( = Oniscomorpha) 
Glomeris; Sphaerotherium; Castanotherium 
Order GLOMERmESMIDA 
( = Limacomorpha) 
Glomeridesmus 
Super-order HELMINTHOMORPHA 

( = Eugnatha, Proterandria) 

Order NEMATOPHORA 
( =Chordeumida) 
Chordeuma f Microchordeuma ; Callipus 
Order STEMMIULroA 

Stemmatoiuhts 
Order POLYDESMTOA 

Polydesmus; Oxidiis; Platyrrhacus ; Orthomorpha 
Order JULIDA 

Julus; Bkmiulus; Cylindroiulus; Pachyiulus 
Order SPIROBOLmA 

Spiroboliis ; Trigoniuhis; Rhinocrkus ; Pachybolus 
(=Juliformia) \ Order SPIROSTREPXroA 

Spirostreptus; Odontopyge; Scaphiostreptus; 
Thyropygus 
Order CAMBALmA 
[ Cambala; Cambalopsis; Cambalomorpha 
Super-order COLOBOGNATHA 

Polyzonium; Platydesmus 
Class CHELOPODA (centipedes) 

Sub-class EPIMORPHA 

Order GEOPHILOMORPHA 

Geophilus; Mecistocephalus; Himantarium; Orya 
Order SCOLOPENDROMORPHA 

Scolopendra; Ethmostigmiis ; Otostigmus; Cryptops 



Sub-class ANAMORPHA 



Class SYMPHYLA 

Class INSECTA 
(= Hex APOD a) 

Sub-class APTERYGOTA 
( = Ametabola) 



Order HETEROSTIGMATA 

Sub-order Lithobiomorpha 
Lithobius; Polybothrus; Henicops 

Sub-order Craterostigmomorpha 
Craterostigmus 
Order SCUTIGEROMORPHA 
Scutigera 

Scutigerella ; Hanseniella; Symphylella 



Order COLLEMBOLA (spring-tails) 
Sub-order Arthropleona 

Podura; Or che sella 
Sub-order Symphypleona 
Sminthurus (lucerne flea) ; Neelus 



26 ARTHROPODA 



Order PROTURA 

( = Myrientomata) 
Eosentomon; Acerentulus 
Order DIPLURA 

(= After a) 
Campodea; Japyx 
Order THYSANURA (bristle-tails) 

Machilis; Petrobius; Lepisma (silver fish) ; 
Thermobia (fire brat) 

Sub-class PTERYGOTA 
(=Metabola) 

Division Palaeoptera 

( =Exopterygota, Hemimetabola, - [Polyneoptera + Paraneoptera]) 
Order EPHEMEROPTERA (may-flies) 
( = Plectoptera) 
Ephemera: Baetis 
Order ODONATA 

( = Paraneuroptera) 
Sub-order Zygoptera (damsel flies) 

Agrion; Coenagrion; Lestes 
Sub-order Anisozygoptera 

Epiophlebia 
Sub-order Anisoptera (true dragonflies) 
Aeshna; Anax; Gomphus; Petalura; Cordulegaster ; 
Libelhda 
Division Neoptera 
Section Polyneoptera 

( = Exopterygota, Hemimetabola, - [Paraneoptera + Palaeoptera]) 
Order DICTYOPTERA 
Sub-order Blattodea (cockroaches) 

Blatta; Periplaneta; Blaberus; Ectobius 
Sub-order Mantodea (mantids) 
Chaetessa; Mantis; Empusa 
Order ISOPTERA (termites, white ants) 

Mastotermes; Kalotermes; Neotermes; Hodotertnes 
Order ZORAPTERA 

Zorotypus 
Order PLECOPTERA (stone-flies) 
(=Perlaria) 
Eusthenia; Per la; Nemoura 
Order GRYLLOBLATTODEA 
(=Notoptera) 
Grylloblatta 
Order PHASMIDA 

( = Cheleutoptera) 
Carausius ( = Dixippus) (stick-insect) ; Phyllium 
(leaf-insect) 
Order ORTHOPTERA 
( = Saltatori a) 
Sub-order Ensifera (longhorned grasshoppers) 
Tettigonia ( —Phasgonura) (bush cricket); 
Gryllotalpa (mole cricket) ; Ache t a ( = Gryllus) 
(cricket) ; Nemobius; Oecanthus (snowy cricket) 



ARTHROPODA 



27 



Sub-order Caelifera (shorthorned grasshoppers) 
Schistocerca, Locusta (locusts); Chorthippiis (grass- 
hopper) ; Tetrix (grouse locust) ; Pneumora 
Order EMBIOPTERA (web-spinners) 

Embia; Oligotonia 
Order DERMAPTERA 

Sub-order Forficulina (earwigs) 

Labidura; Forficula: Labia 
Sub-order Arixeniina 

Arixenia 
Sub-order Hemimerina 

( = Diploglossata) 
Hemimerus 

Section Paraneoptera 

(=Exopterygota, Hemimetabola, - [Polyneoptera + Palaeoptera]) 
Order PSOCOPTERA (book lice) 

(=C0PE0GNATHA, CoRRODENTIA) 

Peripsocits; Psocus 
Order PHTHIRAPTERA (lice) 
Sub-order Anoplura (sucking lice) 
( = Siphunculata) 
Pediculus (human \ouse): Phthirus ( =Phthirws) 
(crab louse); Haeinatopiims (hog louse); 
Linognathus 
Sub-order Mallophaga (biting lice) 

Menopon (shaft louse); Goniodes; Lipeurus (fowl 
louse) ; Trichodectes 
Sub-order Rhynchophthirina 
Haematomyzus (elephant louse) 
Order THYSANOPTERA (thrips) 
( = Physopoda) 
Thrips; Heliothrips 
Order HEMIPTERA 

( = Rhynchota) 
Sub-order Homoptera 

Oiphysa; Magicicada (cicada); Cercopis, Philaenus 
(frog hoppers) ; Centrotus (tree-hopper) ; 
Perkinsiella (sugar-cane leaf-hopper); Empoasca 
(leaf-hopper) ; Phenax (lantern fly) ; Psylla (jumping 
plant \oviSQ); Aphis (greenfly, plant louse); 
Phylloxera (vine pest) ; Coccus (scale insect) 
Sub-order Heteroptera 
Cimex (bed-bug); Dysdercus (cotton stainer); 
Rhodnius (assassin bug); Blissus (chinch bug); 
Notonecta (backswimmer) ; Corixa (water boat- 
man) 

Section Oligoneoptera 

(^Endopterygota, Holometabola) 

Order NEUROPTERA 
Sub-order Megaloptera 

Sialis (alder fly); Raphidia (snake fly); Corydalis 
(Dobson fly) 



28 ARTHROPODA 



Sub-order Planipennia 
Chrysopa (green lacewing); Hemewbius (brown 
lacewing) ; Myrmeleon (ant lion fly) ; Ithone; 
Mantispa 
Order COLEOPTERA (beetles) 
Sub-order Adephaga 
Cicindela (tiger beetle); Carabus (ground beetle); 
Dytiscus (water beetle) ; Gyrinus (whirligig) 
Sub-order Archostemata 

Cupes 
Sub-order Polyphaga 
Hydrophilus (= Hydro us); Hister; Sphaerius; 
Lucanus (stag beetle) ; Cetonia (rose chafer) ; 
Stigmodera; Agriotes (wire wormO ; Coccinella 
(lady bird) ; Tenebrio (mealworm^) ; Tribolium (flour 
beetle); Chrysolina; Leptinotarsa (Colorado beetle); 
Dendroctonus 
Order STREPSIPTERA (stylopids) 

Stylops 
Order MECOPTERA (scorpion flies) 
( = Panorpatae) 
Panorpa; Bittacus; Boreus 
Order TRICHOPTERA (caddis flies) 
( = Phryg ANOroEA) 
Limnephilus 
Order ZEUGLOPTERA 

Micropteryx (=^Eriocephala) 
Order LEPIDOPTERA 
Sub-order Monotrysia 
Eriocrania; Hepialiis (ghost moth); Stigmella; 
Incurvaria 
Sub-order Ditrysia 
Sitotroga; Depressaria; Cossus (goat moth); Psyche 
(bag-worm moth); Castnia; Evetria (pine shoot 
moth); Tortrix; Galleria (wax moth); Ephestia 
(flour moths); Tinea (clothes moth); Attacus (atlas 
moth); Papilio (swallow-tail); Pieris (cabbage 
butterfly); Acherontia (death's head hawk moth); 
Lymantria (gipsy moth) ; Bombyx (silk moth) 
Order DIPTERA (two-winged flies, true flies) 
Sub-order Nematocera 

Tipula (daddy-long legs); Phlebotomus (sand fly); 
Culex, Anopheles (mosquitoes); Contarinia (pear 
midge); Sciara (fungus gnat); Simiilhim (black 
fly); Chironomus 
Sub-order Brachycera 

Rhagio; Tabanus (horse fly) 
Sub-order Cyclorrhapha 

Eristalis (drone fly); Drosophila (small fruit fly); 
Oscinella (frit fly) ; Calliphora (bluebottle, blowfly) ; 
Musca (house fly); Lucilia (greenbottle) ; Glossina 
(tse-tse fly) ; Melophagus (sheep tick) 

' Larva. 



ARTHROPODA 



29 



Order SIPHONAPTERA (fleas) 

( = Aphaniptera, Suctoria) 
Xenopsylla; Tunga Gigger); Pulex; 
Ctenocephalides ; Echidnophaga (sticktight) 
Order HYMENOPTERA 
Sub-order Symphyta 

( = Chalastogastra) 
Cephus (stem sawfly); Nematus (sawfly); Sirex 
(giant wood wasp) 
Sub-order Apocrita 

( = Clistogastra) 
Ichneumon, Nemeritis (ichneumon flies); Chalcis 
(chalcid fly); Blastophaga (fig-insect); 
Trichogramma ; Formica (ant); Vespa (hornet); 
Vespula (wasp) ; Bombus (bumble bee) ; Apis (honey 
bee) 



Class CRUSTACEA 



Sub-class OSTRACODA 



Sub-class BRANCHIOPODA 

Order ANOSTRACA 

Chirocephalus; Branchipus; Artemia 
Order NOTOSTRACA 

Triops (=Apus); Lepidums 
Order CONCHOSTRACA 

Cyzicus (^Estheria); Limnadia 
Order CLADOCERA (water fleas) 

Sida; Daphnia; Simocephalus ; Moina; Leptodora; 

Podon; Evadne 
Order CEPHALOCARIDA 

Hutchinsoniella 

Order MYODOCOPA 

Cypridina; Pyrocypris 
Order CLADOCOPA 

Polycope 
Order PODOCOPA 

Cypris; Cy there; Candona 
Order PLATYCOPA 

Cytherella 

Order CALANOIDA 

Calaniis; Diaptomus 
Order MONSTRILLOIDA 

Monstrilla 
Order CYCLOPOIDA 

Cyclops; Lernaea ( =Lernaeocerd)^ 
Order HARPACTICOIDA 

Tigriopus; Harpacticus 
Order NOTODELPHYOIDA 

Ascidicola 
Order CALIGOIDA 

Caligus; Lernaeocera ( =Lernaeay 

» Lernaeocera is the Lernaea of textbooks and classrooms. The fresh-water genus Lernaea used to be called 
Lernaeocera (Gurney, 1933, p. 336). 



Sub-class COPEPODA 



30 ARTHROPODA 



Sub-class MYSTACOCARIDA 



Order LERNAEOPODOIDA 

Chondracanthus ; Sphaeronella 



Order DEROCHEILOCARroA 

Derocheilocaris 
Sub-class BRANCHIURA Argulus; Dolops 

Sub-class CIRRIPEDIA 

Order THORACICA (barnacles) 

Lepas (goose barnacle) ; Balanus; Chthamalus; 

Elminius 
Order ACROTHORACICA 

Alcippe 
Order RHIZOCEPHALA 

Sacculina 
Order ASCOTHORACICA 

Laura 
Sub-class MALACOSTRACA 

Super-order LEPTOSTRACA 
( =Phyllocarida) 

Order NEBALIACEA 

Nebalia 
Super-order SYNCAREDA 

Order ANASPffiACEA 

Anaspides 
Order BATHYNELLACEA 

Bathynella 
Super-order PERACARIDA 

Order MYSIDACEA (opossum-shrimps) 

Lophogaster ; Gnathophausia ; Mysis; Hemimysis; 

Siriella; Gastrosaccus 
Order CUMACEA 

Diastylis; Iphinoe; Pseudocuma 
Order TANATOACEA 

Apseudes; Tanais; Leptochelia; Syraphus 
Order GNATHIIDEA 

Gnathia 
Order ISOPODA 

Ligia, Armadillidium (woodlice); Asellus; Idotea; 

Limnoria {gvibhXt); Bopyr us; lone; Cymothoa; 

Port union; Entoniscus 
Order SPELAEOGRIPHACEA 

Spelaeogriphus 
Order AMPHIPODA 

Ganmiarus (fresh-water shrimp); Talitms (shore 

hopper) ; Caprella (ghost shrimp) ; Hyperia; Cyamus 

(whale louse) ; Corophium; Jassa 
Super-order HOPLOCARIDA 

Order STOMATOPODA (mantis shrimps) 

Squilla; Gonodactylus 
Super-order PANCARIDA 

Order THERMOSBAENACEA 

Thermosbaena; Monodella 
Super-order EUCARIDA 

Order EUPHAUSIACEA (krill, whale feed) 

Euphausia; hanes 



ARTHROPODA 



31 



Class MEROSTOMATA* 



Class ARACHNTOA* 



Order DECAPODA^ 

Sub-order Natantia 
Penaeiis, Pandalus, Palaemon ( =Leander) (prawns); 
Crangon ( = Crago), Hippolyte (shrimps) ; 
Maaobrachium ( = Palaemon) (river prawn) 

Sub-order Reptantia 
Cambarus, Astacus (=Potamobius) (fresh- water 
crayfish); Homarus Oobster); Nephrops (Norway 
lobster) ; Jasus (kreef ) ; Palinurus Oangouste, craw- 
fish) ; Panulirus (rock lobster) ; Cancer (edible crab) ; 
Pagurus {=Eupagurus), Dardanus (=Pagurus) 
(hermit crabs); Lithodes (stone crab); Carcinus 
(shore crab) ; Maia (spider crab) ; Callinectes (blue 
crab); Potamon ( = Telphusa) (river crab); Uca 
(fiddler crab) 

Order XIPHOSURA (king crabs) 
( = Limulida) 
Limulus; Tachypleus 



( = Pedipalpi) 



Order SCORPIONES (scorpions) 

Scorpio; Apistobuthus ; Buthus; Tityus ; Pandinus 

Order PSEUDOSCORPIONES (false scorpions) 

( = Chelonethi, Chernetes) 

Microbisium; Chelifer; Garypus; Chthonius 

f Order UROPYGI (whip scorpions) 

( = Thelyphonida, Schizomida, Tartaridae) 

Mastigoproctus; Schizomus 

Order AMBLYPYGI 

( = Phrynicida) 

Damon; Phrynichus; Charinus 

Order PALPIGRADI (micro-whip scorpions) 

( = Microthelyphonida) 

Koenenia 

Order RICINULEI 

( = Podogonata) 

Ricinoides 

Order SOLIFUGAE (false spiders, sun spiders, wind 

scorpions) 

( = Solpugida) 

Galeodes 

Order OPILIONES (phalangids, harvest spiders, har- 

vestmen) 

( = Phalangida) 

Phalangium; Oligolophus 

Order ARANEAE (spiders) 

Araneus; { = Epeira); Atrax; Latrodectus; Pholcus 

Order ACARI 

A car us, Dermanyssus, Py emotes, Trombicula 

(mites); Ixodes, Argas, Ornithodoros (ticks) 

Class PYCNOGONroA^ (sea spiders) 

( = Pantopoda) Order COLOSSENDEOMORPHA 

Dodecolopoda; Colossendeis 

' See also Dibranchia, p. 23. 

• These three classes may be considered as members of sub-phylum Chelicerata. 



32 ARTHROPODA-ECHINODERMATA 



Order NYMPHONOMORPHA 

Nytnphon 
Order ASCORHYNCHOMORPHA 

Ascorhynchus 
Order PYCNOGONOMORPHA 

Pycnogonum 



Class PENTASTOMTOA 



Order CEPHALOBAENTOA 

Cephalobaena; Reighardia 
Order POROCEPHALroA 

Sebekia; Lingua tula 
Class TARDIGRADA (water-bears) 

Order HETEROTARDIGRADA 

Echiniscus; Tetrakentron 
Order EUTARDIGRADA 

Macrobiotus ; Hypsibius; Milnesium 



Phylum CHAETOGNATHA (arrow worms) 



Sagitta; Spadella; Eukrohnia; Ptewsagitta; 
Heterokrohnia 



Phylum POGONOPHORA ( = Brachiata) (beard worms) 

Order ATHECANEPHRIA 

Oligobrachia; Siboglinum 
Order THECANEPHRIA 

Heptabrachia ; Zenkevitchiana; Lamellisabella; 
Spirobrachia 



Phylum ECfflNODERMATA 



Sub-phylum PELMATOZOA 

Class CRINOIDEA 

Order ARTICULATA^ 

Antedon, Tropiometra (feather stars) ; Rhizocrinus, 
Metacrinus (sea lilies) 
Sub-phylum ELEUTHEROZOA 

Class HOLOTHUROIDEA (sea cucumbers) 

Order ASPIDOCfflROTA 

Holothuria; Stichopus; Mesothuria 
Order ELASIPODA 

Deima; Kolga; Elpidia; Pelagothuria 

^ See Brachiopoda, p. 21. 



ECHINODERMATA 33 



Order DENDROCHIROTA 

Cucumaria; Thyone; Echinocucumis; Psolus; 

Phyllophorus 
Order MOLPADONIA 

Molpadia 
Order APODA^ 

Synapta; Leptosynapta; Labidoplax 



Class ECHINOroEA 



Sub-class PERISCHOECHINOroEA 

Order CIDAROIDA (sea urchins) 
Cidaris 
Sub-class EUECHINOIDEA 

Super-order DIADEMATACEA (sea urchins) 

Order DIADEMATOIDA 

Diadema; Centrostephaims 
Order ECHINOTHURIOIDA 

Phormosoma; Areosoma 
Super-order ECHINACEA (sea urchins) 

Order HEMICroAROmA 

Salenia 
Order PHYMOSOMATOIDA 

Stomopneustes 
Order ARBACIOIDA 

Arbacia 
Order TEMNOPLEUROIDA 

Temnopleunis ; Tripneustes (=Hipponoe); 

Toxopneustes; Mespilia; Sphaerechinus; Lytechinus; 

Pseudocentrotus 
Order ECHINOroA 

Echinus; Echiiwmetra; Strongylocentrotus ; 

Psammechinus; Paracentrotus; Hemicentrotus: 

Anthocidaris ; Heliocidaris 

Super-order GNATHOSTOMATA 

Order HOLECTYPOIDA 

Sub-order Echinoneina 

Echinoneus 
Order CLYPEASTEROIDA (sand-dollars, cake 
urchins) 
Sub-order Clypeasterina 

Clypeaster 
Sub-order Laganina 

Laganum; Echinocyamus 
Sub-order Scutellina 

Me Hit a; Echinarachnius ; Dendraster 
Sub-order Rotulina 

Rotula 

Super-order ATELOSTOMATA 

Order NUCLEOLITOIDA 

Neolampas 
Order CASSIDULOIDA 

Cassidulus 

' See Gymnophiona, p,41. 



34 ECHINODERMATA-UROCHORDATA 



Order HOLASTEROmA 

Pourtalesia 
Order SPATANGOroA (heart urchins) 

Spatangus; Echinocardium; Brissopsis 
Class ASTEROroEA (starfishes) 

Order PHANEROZONA 

Astropecten; Porcellanaster; Luidia 
Order SPINULOSA 

Asterina; Patiria; Anseropoda ( =Palmipes); 

Henricia; So/aster 
Order FORCIPULATA 

Marthasterias ; Asterias; Leptasterias; 

Stichastrella; Pisaster; Brisinga 
Class OPHIUROIDEA (brittle stars) 

Order OPHIURAE (serpent stars) 

Ophiura; Ophiothrix; Ophiocomina; Ophiopsila; 

Ophiactis; Ophiopholis; Acrocnida; Amphiura; 

Amphipholis 
Order EURYALAE 

Aster onyx; Gorgonocephalus 



Phylum CHORDATA 

Sub-phylum HEMICHORDATA 

( = Stomochordata, Branchiotremata) 

Class ENTEROPNEUSTA (acorn worms) 

Protoglossus ( —Protobalamis); Saccoglossus 

{ = Dolichoglossus); Harrimania; Glossobalanus ; 

Balanoglossus ; Ptychodera; Schizocardium; 

Glandiceps 
Class PTEROBRANCHIA 

Order RHABDOPLEURIDA 

Rhabdopleura 
Order CEPHALODISCIDA 

Cephalodiscus : Atubaria 
Class PLANCTOSPHAEROIDEAi 

Planctosphaera 



Sub-phylum UROCHORDATA (=Tunicata) 

Class ASCIDIACEA (sea squirts) 

Order ENTEROGONA 
Sub-order Aplousobranchiata 

Clavelina; Polyclinum; Aplidium { — Amaroucium); 
Didemnum 
Sub-order Phlebobranchiata 

Ciona; Ascidia; Phallusia; Ascidiella; Perophora 

1 This class only contains a few larvae of unknown parentage. 



UROCHORDATA-VERTEBRATA 



35 



Class THALIACEA 



Class LARVACEA 



Order PLEUROGONA 

Sub-order Stolidobranchiata 

Styela; Polycarpa: Botryllus; Boltenia; Pyura; 

Molgula 
Sub-order Aspiriculata 

Hexacrobyhis 

Order PYROSOMIDA 

Pyrosoma 
Order DOLIOLIDA 

( = Cyclomyaria) 
Doliolum 
Order SALPIDA 

( = Desmomyaria) 
Salpa 

Order COPELATA 

Oikopleiira; Appendicularia: Fritillaria 



Sub-phylum CEPHALOCHORDATA ( = Acrania, Leptocardii) 

Branchiostoina { — Amphioxiis) (lancelet); 
Asymmetron 



Sub-phylum VERTEBRATA 



Class MARSIPOBRANCHn 

( = Agnatha) 

Sub-class CYCLOSTOMATAi 



Order HYPEROARTU (lampreys) 
( = Petromyzones) 
Petromyzon; Lampetra; Ichthyomyzon 
Order HYPEROTRETI (hagfishes) 
( - Myxini) 
Heptatretus ( = Bdellostoma); Myxine 



Class SELACHH 
( = Chondropterygii, Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) 



Sub-class EUSELACHU 



Order PLEUROTREMATA (sharks, dogfishes, 
angel-fishes) 
( = Selachoidei) 
Sub-order Notidanoidea 

( - Hexanchiformes) 
Heptranchias : Notidanus 

' See Gymnolaemata, p. 20. 



36 VERTEBRATA 



Sub-order Galeoidea 

( = Lamniformes) 
Orectolobus; Odontaspis ( = Carcharias); 
Scyliorhinus { = Scyllium) (dogfish) ; MM5/e/w5; 
Galeorhinus ( = Galeus, Eugaleus) (tope) ; Sphyrna 
(hammerhead) ; Carcharhinus 
Sub-order Squaloidea 

( =Tectospondyli) 
Squalus (^Acanthias); Echinorhinus ; Heterodontus 
( = Cestracion); Pristiophonis ; Squat ina (angel-fish) 
Order HYPOTREMATA (rays) 
Sub-order Narcobatoidea 

( = Torpedinif ormes) 
Torpedo ( = Narcobatus, Narcacion) 
Sub-order Batoidea 
Raja (ray); Pristis (saw-fish); Dasyatis ( = Trygon) 
(sting ray) 
Class BRADYODONTI 

Sub-class HOLOCEPHALI (rabbit-fishes) 

Rhinochimaera; Callorhinchus; Chimaera; Harriott a 

Class PISCES (bony fishes) 

( = OSTEICHTHYES) 



Sub-class PALAEOPTERYGU 



Order CHONDROSTEI 

( = ACIPENSERIFORMES) 

Acipenser (sturgeon) ; Polyodon (paddle-fish) 
Order CLADISTIA 

( = POLYPTERIFORMES) 

Polypterus (bichir) ; Calamoichthys 
{=Erpetoichthys) (reed-fish) 



Sub-class NEGPTERYCn 

( = TeLEOSTEI + HOLOSTEl) ^ 



rOrder PROTOSPONDYLI (bow-fins) 
( = Holostei)< Amia 

lorder GINGLYMODI (gar-pikes) 
( = Lepisosteiformes) 
Lepisosteus ( =Lepidosteus) 
Order ISOSPONDYLI 

( = Malacopterygii, Clupeiformes) 
Sub-order Clupeoidea 

Clupea (herring) ; Sardina (sardine, pilchard) ; 
Megalops (tarpon); Alepocephalus 
Sub-order Stomiatoidea 

Stomias 
Sub-order Salmonoidea 
Salmo ( = Trutta) (salmon, trout) ; Salveliniis (char) ; 
Osmerus (smelt) 
Sub-order Osteoglossoidea 
Arapaiina 

* i.e., Teleostei{=Neopterygii-Holostei. 



VERTEBRATA 37 



Sub-order Notopteroidea 

Notopterus 
Sub-order Mormyroidea 

Gymnarchus 
Sub-order Gonorhynchoidea 

Gonorhynchus 
Order HAPLOMI 

( = ESOCOIDEl) 

Esox (pike) ; Dallia (black-fish) ; Umbra (mud- 
minnow) 
Order INIOMI 

( = SCOPELIFORMES) 

Sub-order Myctophoidea 
( = Scopelidae) 
Myctophum, Lampanyctus (lantern-fishes) ; Synodus 
Oizard-fish) 
Sub-order Alepisauroidea 
Alepisaurus; Paralepis 
Order CHONDROBRACHn 

Ateleopus 
Order CETUNCULI 

Cetomimus ( =Pelecinomimus) 
Order MIRIPINNATI 

Eutaeniophorus 
Order GIGANTUROIDEA 

Gigantura 
Order LYOMERI (gulper eels) 

( = Saccopharyngiformes) 
Saccopharynx ; Eurypharynx 
Order OSTARIOPHYSI 
Sub-order Cyprinoidea 

( = Eventognathi) 
Copeina; Electrophorus (electric eel) ; Rutilus 
(roach) ; Phoxinus ( =Phonixus) (minnow) ; Cyprinus 
(carp) 
Sub-order Siluroidea (catfishes) 
( =Nematognathi) 
Silurus; Diplomystes; Malapterurus (electric cat- 
fish) 
Order HETEROMI 

( =Notacanthiformes) 
Halosaurus; Notacanthus 
Order APODES (eels) 

( - Anguilliformes) 
Anguilla: Conger; Muraena (moray) 
Order SYNENTOGNATHI 

( = SCOMBRESOCES, BELONIFORMES) 

Sub-order Scombresocoidea 

Scombresox (skipper) ; Belone (garfish) 
Sub-order Exocoetoidea 
Exocoetus (flying fish) 
Order SALMOPERCAE 

( = Percopsiformes) 
Aphredoderus (pirate-perch) ; Percopsis (sand-roller) 



38 VERTEBRATA 



Order MICROCYPRINI 

( = Cyprinodontes, Cyprinodontiformes) 
Fundulus (killifish); Oryzias (medaka, killifish); 
Lebistes (guppy); Platypoecilus (platyfish, sword- 
tail) ; Anableps (four-eyed fish) 
Order SOLENICHTHYES 

( = SVNGNATHIFORMES + AULOSTOMIFORMES) 

Macrorhamphosus (snipe-fish); Hippocampus (sea- 
horse) 
Order ANACANTHINI 

( = Gadiformes + Macruriformes) 
Gadus (cod, whiting); Merluccius (hake); 
Macrourus 
Order ALLOTRIOGNATHI 
( = Lampridiformes) 
Lampris (moon-fish) ; Trachypterus (ribbon-fish) 
Order BERYCOMORPHI 

Beryx; Monocentris 
Order ZEOMORPHI 

Zeus (John Dory) ; Capros (boar-fish) 
Order PERCOMORPffli 
Sub-order Percoidea 

Perca (perch) ; Morone (bass) 
Sub-order TEUTHrooroEA 
( = Siganoidei) 
Teuthis 
Sub-order Acanthuroidea 
Acanthurus (surgeon-fish) 
Sub-order Kurtoidea 

Kurtus 
Sub-order TRicrauROiDEA 

Lepidopus (frost fish) ; Aphanopus (scabbard fish) 
Sub-order Scombroidea 

Scomber (mackerel) ; Thunnus (tunny) 
Sub-order Gobioidea 

Gobius (goby) ; Periophthalmus (mud-skipper) 
Sub-order Callionymoidea (dragonets) 

Callionymus 
Sub-order Blennioidea 
Blennius (blenny); Anarhichas (sea catfish, wolf- 
fish) 
Sub-order Ophidioidea (cusk eels) 

Genypterus 
Sub-order Stromateoidea 

Lirus (rudder-fish) ; Nomeus 
Sub-order Channoidea 

( = Ophicephaloidea) 
Channa ( = Ophicephalus) 
Sub-order Anabantoidea 
Anabas (climbing perch) 
Sub-order Mugiloidea (grey mullets) 
( = Percesoces) 
Mugil; Atherina; Sphyraena (barracuda) 

^ Acanthopterygii which, inter alia, includes the Percomorphi, is obsolete. 



VERTEBRATA 39 



Sub-order Polynemoidea 
( = Rhegnopteri) 
Polynemus 
Order SCLEROPAREI (mail-cheeked fishes) 
(=:Cataphracti, Loricati) 
Sub-order Scorpaenoidea 

Sebastes; Trigla (gurnard); Cottus (bullhead, 
miller's thumb) 
Sub-order Cephalacanthoidea (flying gurnards) 
( = Dactylopteroidea) 
Cephalacanthus ( = Dactylopterus) 
Order THORACOSTEI (sticklebacks) 
( = G asterostoidea) 
Gasterosteus; Spinachia 
Order HYPOSTOMIDES (dragon-fishes) 
( = Pegasiformes) 
Pegasus 
Order HETEROSOMATA (flat-fishes) 
( =Pleuronectiformes) 
Bothus; Pleuronectes; Psettodes; Limanda 
(flounder) ; Solea 
Order DISCOCEPHALI (sucker-fishes) 
( = Echeneiformes) 
Echeneis; Re mora 
Order PLECTOGNATHI (trigger-fishes, globe-fishes) 
( = Tetraodontiformes) 
Sub-order Balistoidea 

( = Sclerodermi) 
Balistes 
Sub-order Tetraodontoidea 
( = Gymnodontes) 
Tetraodon (puffer); Mola ( = Orthagoriscus) (sun- 
fish) 
Order MALACICHTHYES (rag-fishes) 
( =Icosteiformes) 
Icosteus; Acrotus 
Order XENOPTERYGII (Cornish suckers, cling-fishes) 

( = GOBIESOCIFORMES) 

Lepadogaster 
Order HAPLODOCI (toad-fishes) 
( ==Batrachoidiformes) 

Opsanus; Thalassophryne 
Order PEDICULATI 

( = LOPHIIFORMES) 

Sub-order Lophioidea 

Lophiiis (angler) 
Sub-order Antennarioidea (sea toads, frog fishes) 

Pterophryne; Antennarius 
Sub-order Ceratioidea (deep-sea anglerfishes) 
Melanocetus 
Order OPISTHOMI (spiny eels) 
( = Mastacembeliformes) 
Mastacembelus; Macrognathus ( = Rhynchobdella) 



40 VERTEBRATA 



Order SYNBRANCHH 
Sub-order Alabetoidea 

Alabes (shore eel) 
Sub-order Synbranchoidea 
Synbranchus ; Amphipnous 
Sub-class CROSSOPTERYGn 

Order ACTINISTIA 

( = COELACANTHINl) 

Latimeria (coelacanth) 
Order DIPNOI (lung-fishes) 

(=DiPNEUSTi, Ceratodiformes) 
Protopteriis; Lepidosiren ; Neoceratodiis 
( = Ceratodus) 
Class AMPHIBIA 

Order CAUDATA 

( = Urodela) 

Sub-order Cryptobranchoidea 

Hynobius; Pachypalaminus ; Megalobatrachus (giant 
salamander) ; Cryptobranchits (hellbender) 

Sub-order Ambystomoidea 
Amby stoma {= Amblystomd) (mole salamander, 
'axolotl'^); Siredon (axolotl); Dicamptodon (Pacific 
giant salamander); Rhyacotriton (Olympic sala- 
mander) 

Sub-order Salamandroidea 
Salamandra (fire salamander, etc.); Triturus 
( = Tnton) (newt); Diemictylus (eastern newt); 
Desmognathus (dusky salamander); Plethodon 
(woodland salamander); Pleiirodeles (pleurodele 
newt) ; Amphiuma (Congo eel) 

Sub-order Proteida 
Proteus (olm) ; Nectiims (mud-puppy, waterdog) 

Sub-order Meantes 
Siren (siren, mud-eel) ; Pseudobranchus (dwarf siren) 
Order SALIENTIA 
( = Anura) 

Sub-order Amphicoela 

Leiopelma {^Liopelma) (New Zealand frog); 
Ascaphus (tailed frog) 

Sub-order Opisthocoela 

Discoglossus (painted frog) ; Alytes (midwife toad) ; 
Bonibina {= Bombinator) (fire bellied toad) ; Xenopus 
(clawed toad) ; Pipa (Surinam toad) 

Sub-order Anomocoela 
Megophrys (bull toad) ; Pelobates (European spade 
foot) 

Sub-order Procoela 

Biifo (toad, true toad) ; Hyla (tree frog) ; Gastrotheca 
( = Nototrema) (marsupial frog); Eleutherodactylus 
( — Hy lodes) (robber frog) ; Rhinophrymis (Mexican 
digger toad); Dendrobates (poison frog) 

1 Some three years ago the late Dr. Karl P. Schmidt proposed to the Commission on Zoological Nomen- 
clature that the name Siredon should be suppressed. He saw no reason to believe that the axolotl, Siredon 
mexicanum, belonged to a different genus from Ambystoma. Until the Commission reaches a decision, the 
axolotl is Siredon mexicanum, while mole salamanders are species oi Ambystoma. 



VERTEBRATA 41 



Sub-order Diplasiocoela 

Rana (frog, true frog); Astylosternus (hairy frog); 
Rhacophorus ( = Polypedates) (tree frog) ; Microhyla, 
Callulina 
Order GYMNOPfflONA (caecilians) 
( = Apoda^) 
Caecilia; Scolecomorphus; Hypogeophis; 
Ichthyophis ; Gymnopis 



Class REPTILIA (reptiles) 



Class AVES (birds) 



Order RHYNCHOCEPHALIA 

Sphenodon ( = Hatteria) (tuatara) 
Order TESTUDINES 
( = Chelonia) 
Sub-order Cryptodira 

Testudo (Greek tortoise, etc.); Chelone (green 
turtle); Dermochelys (leathery turtle); Chrysemys 
(terrapin) ; Trionyx (soft-shelled turtle) 
Sub-order Pleurodira 

Chelus (matamata) ; Chelodina (long necked turtle) 
Order CROCODYLIA 
( = Loricata) 
Crocodylus^ (crocodile) ; Gavialis (Indian 'gharial') ; 
Tomistoma (Malayan gavial) ; Caiman (South 
American caiman) ; Alligator (alligator) 
Order SQUAMATA 
Sub-order Sauria (lizards) 
( = Lacertilia) 
Hemidactylus (gecko); Iguana (iguana); Anguis 
(slow-worm); Heloderma (Gila monster); Lacerta 
(green lizard, wall lizard, etc.); Chamaeleo 
(chamaeleon) 
Sub-order Serpentes (snakes) 
( = Ophidia) 
Constrictor (boa); Python (python); Matrix 
( = Tropidonotus) (grass snake, water snake, etc.); 
Naja (cobra); Vipera (=Pelias) (viper, adder); 
Crotalus (rattle snake) 



Order STRUTHIONIFORMES (ostriches) 

Struthio 
Order RHEIFORMES (rheas) 

Rhea 
Order CASUARUFORMES 

Dromiceius (emu) ; Casuarius (cassowary) 
Order APTERYGIFORMES (kiwis) 

Apteryx 
Order TK^AMIFORMES (tinamous) 
( = Crypturi) 

Rhynchotus; Crypturelliis; Nothura; Nothoprocta 



1 See Holothuroidea, p. 33. 

- This is the original and, therefore, correct spelling, by Laurenti in 1 768. 



42 VERTEBRATA 



Order GAVIIFORMES (divers) 

(=Pygopodes, Colymbiformes) 

Gavia ( = Colymbus) 

Order PODICIPEDIFORMES (grebes) 

( = Pygopodes, Colymbiformes) 

Podiceps; Aechmophorus ; Podilymbus 

Order SPHENISCIFORMES (penguins) 

Spheniscus ; Aptenodytes; Eudyptes 
Order PROCELLARIIFORMES 

(=TUBINARES) 

Hydrobates (storm petrel) ; Procellaria (shear- 
water);^ Diomedea (alhatross) ; Pelecanoides (diving 
petrel) 

Order PELECANIFORMES 
( = Steganopodes) 
Phaethon (tropic bird) ; Pelecanus (pelican) ; 
Phalacrocorax (cormorant) ; Sula (gannet) ; Fregata 
(frigate bird) 

Order CICONIIFORMES 

(=Ardeiformes, Gressores) 
Ardea (heron); Balaeniceps (whale-headed stork); 
Ciconia (stork) ; Threskiornis (ibis) ; Scopus 
(hammerhead) ; Platalea (spoonbill) 

Order PHOENICOPTERIFORMES (flamingos) 
Phoenicopterus 

Order ANSERIFORMES 

Anhima (screamer); Anas (duck); Anser (goose); 
Cygnus (swan) 

Order FALCONIFORMES 

(=:ACCIPITRES) 

Cathartes (turkey vulture); Sagittarius (secretary 
bird); Aegypius (black vulture); Accipiter ( —Astur) 
(goshawk, sparrow hawk) ; Falco ( = Cerchneis) 
(kestrel, falcon, etc.) ; Pondion (osprey) 

Order GALLIFORMES 

Crax (curassow) ; Megapodius (megapode) ; 
Phasianus (pheasant) ; G alius (fowl) ; Numida 
(guinea fowl) ; Meleagris (turkey) ; Opisthocomus 
(hoatzin) 

Order GRUIFORMES 

Mesoenas (xoa.iQ\o)\ Turnix (button-quail); Grus 
(crane); Aramus (limpkin) ; Psophia (trumpeter); 
Rallus (rail); Heliornis (sun-grebe); Rhynochetos 
(kagu); Eurypyga (sun-bittern); Cariania (cariama); 
Otis (bustard) 

Order CHARADRHFORMES 
( = Laro-Limicolae) 
Jacana (lily trotter); Charadrius (ringed plover, 
sand plover, etc.); Stercorarius (=Lestris) (skua); 
Larus (gull) ; Sterna (tern) ; Alca (razorbill) ; 
Fraterculo (puffin) 

» The correct Latin name of the Manx shearwater (formerly Puffinus puffinus) is Procellaria puffinus. 



VERTEBRATA 



43 



Class MAMMALIA 
Sub-class PROTOTHERIA 



Order COLUMBIFORMES 

Treron (green pigeon) ; Columba (pigeon) ; Goura 

(crowned pigeon) ; Pterocles (sand-grouse) 
Order PSITTACIFORMES (parrots) 

Psittaciis; Nestor; Eos ; Poicephalus ; Agapornis; 

Melopsittacus (budgerigar) 
Order CUCULIFORMES 

Cuculus (cuckoo) ; Crotophaga (ani) ; Geococcyx 

(road-runner) ; Centropus (coucal) ; Musophaga 

(plantain-eater) 
Order STRIGIFORMES (owls) 

Tyto; Bubo 
Order CAPRIMULGIFORMES 

Steatornis (oil bird) ; Podargus (frogmouth) ; 

Caprimulgus (nightjar) 
Order APODIFORMES 

( = MiCROPODIFORMES, MaCROCHIRES) 

Apus ( = Micropus) (swift); Trochilus (humming- 
bird) 

Order COLUFORMES (mouse birds) 
Coliits 

Order TROGONIFORMES (trogons) 
Pharomachrus (quetzal) ; Apaloderma 

Order CORACIIFORMES 

Alcedo (kingfisher); Todus (tody); Momotus (mot- 
mot) ; Merops (bee-eater) ; Coracias (roller) ; Upupa 
(hoopoe) ; Buceros (horn-bill) 

Order PICIFORMES 

Bucco (puff bird); Galbula (jacamar); Capita (bar- 
bet) ; Indicator (honey guide) ; Ramphastos (toucan) ; 
Picus (woodpecker) 

Order PASSERIFORMES 
Sub-order Eurylaimi (broadbills) 

Smithornis 
Sub-order Tyranni 
Formicarius (antbird); Furnarius (ovenbird); 
Cotinga (cotinga) 
Sub-order Menurae 
Meimra (lyre-bird) 
Sub-order Passeres (songbirds) 
(=Oscines) 
Alauda (lark); Hirimdo (swallow); Turdiis (thrush, 
blackbird); Fringilla (chaffinch, etc.); Sturnus 
(starling); Corviis (raven, crow, etc.) 



Order MONOTREMATA 

Tachyglossiis ( = Echidna) (spiny anteater); 
Ornithorhynchiis ( ^Platypus) (duck-bill) 



44 



VERTEBRATA 



Sub-class THERIA 

Infra-class METATHERIA 



Infra-class EUTHERIA 




Order MARSUPIALIA 

Didelphis (American opossum) ; Antechinomys 
(jerboa pouched mouse) ; Dasyurus ('native cat') ; 
Perameles (bandicoot) ; Trichosurus (common 
phalanger); Vombatus {=Phascolomis) (wombat); 
Phascolarctos (koala) ; Macropus, Bettongia 
(kangaroos) ; Setonyx (quokka) ; Potorous (rat- 
kangaroo) 

Order INSECTIVORA 

Tenrec ( — Centetes) (tenrec) ; Erinaceus (hedgehog) ; 
Echinosorex ( — Gymnurd) (moon rat) ; Sorex 
(shrew) ; Crocidura (white-toothed shrew) ; Scalopus 
(eastern mole) ; Talpa (common old world mole) ; 
Chrysochloris (golden mole) ; Macroscelides 
(elephant shrew) 

Order DERMOPTERA 

Cytwcephalus ( = Galeopitheciis, Galeopterus) (flying 
lemur, cobego, colugo) 

Order CHIROPTERA 
Sub-order Megachiroptera 
Pteropus (flying fox); Cynopterus, Epomophorus 
(fruit bats) 
Sub-order Microchiroptera 

Rhinolophus (horseshoe bat); Pipistrellus (pipi- 
strelle) ; Myotis (brown bat, etc.) ; Desmodus (vam- 
pire) 

Order PRIMATES 
Sub-order Prosimii 

( = Lemuroidea) 
Tupaia (tree shrew); Loris (loris); Perodicticus 
(potto); Galago (bush baby); Lemur (common 
lemur) 
Sub-order Tarsii 
Tarsius (tarsier) 
Sub-order Simiae 

( = Anthropoidea) 
Hapale ( = Callithrix) (marmoset); Cebus (ca- 
puchin); Saimiri (squirrel monkey); A teles (spider 
monkey); Macaco (macaque); Cercocebus (mang- 
abey) ; Papio (baboon) ; Cercopithecus (African tree 
monkeys) ; Presbytis (langur) ; Hylobates (gibbon) ; 
Pongo ( = Simia) (orang); Pan { — Anthropopithecus, 
Troglodytes) (chimpanzee) ; Gorilla (gorilla) ; Homo 
(man) 

Order EDENTATA 

Bradypus (three-toed sloth); Dasypus (armadillo); 
Priodontes (giant armadillo); Myrmecophaga (giant 
anteater) ; Tamandua (lesser anteater) 

Order PHOLIDOTA 

Manis (pangolin, scaly anteater) 



VERTEBRATA 45 



Order LAGOMORPHA 

Ochotona (pika) ; Lepus (hare) ; Oryctolagus 
( =Lepus) (rabbit) ; Sylvilagus (cottontail) 

Order RODENTIA 

Sub-order Sciuromorpha 

Sciurus (squirrel); Marmota ( = Arctomys) (mar- 
mot, woodchuck); Tamias (chipmunk); Castor 
(beaver); Aplodontia (sewellel, mountain beaver); 
Xerus (African ground squirrel); Citellus ( = Sperm- 
ophilus) (American ground squirrel, gopher); 
Glaucomys (American flying squirrel); Geomys 
(pocket gopher); Anomahuiis (scale-tailed flying 
squirrel) 

Sub-order Myomorpha 
Peromyscus (deer mouse); Sigmodon (cotton rat); 
Cricetus (hamster) ; Mesocricetus (golden hamster) ; 
Mystromys (mole mouse) ; Lophiotnys (maned rat) ; 
Lemmus (lemming) ; Microtus (vole) ; Clethrionomys 
( = Evotomys) (bank vole) ; Arvicola (water vole) ; 
Ondatra (muskrat) ; Rattus ( = Epimys) (rat) ; 
Mastomys (multimammate rat, coucha rat); 
Apodennis (wood mouse) ; Miis (house mouse) ; 
Gerbillus (gerbii); Meriones{]\vd); Spalax (mole 
rat) ; Glis {=Myoxus), Muscardimis (dormice) ; 
Zapus (jumping mouse) ; Dipus (jerboa) ; Pedetes 
(jumping hare) 

Sub-order Hystricomorpha 
Cavia (guinea pig); Hydrochoerus (capybara); 
Chinchilla (chinchilla); Myocastor (coypu); Hystrix 
(porcupine) 

Order CETACEA 

Sub-order Odontoceti 

Mesoplodon (beaked whale); Physeter (sperm 
whale); Delphinus (dolphin); Tursiops ( = Tursio) 
(bottle-nosed dolphin); Orcinus (killer whale); 
Phocaena (porpoise) 

Sub-order Mysticeti 

Rhachianectes (grey whale); Balaenoptera (ror- 
qual) ; Sibbaldiis (blue whale) 

Order CARNIVORA 
Sub-order Fissipeda 

Canis (wolf, dog, jackal); Vulpes (fox); Ursus 
(bear) ; Thalarctos (polar bear) ; Procyon (raccoon) ; 
Potos (kinkajou); Ailurus (panda); Ailuropoda 
(giant panda); Miistela (=Putorius) (ferret, weasel, 
mink, ermine, polecat, stoat); Martes (marten, 
sable) ; Meles (badger) ; Tb.v/f/f'a (American badger) ; 
Spilogale (spotted skunk); Lutra (otter); Herpestes 
(mongoose); //meoa (striped hyaena) ; Viverra 
(civet); Felis (cat); Felis (=Puma) (mountain lion, 
cougar) ; Panthera ( =Leo) (lion) ; Panthera 
( = Tigris) (tiger) ; Panthera ( =Jaguarius) (jaguar) ; 
Panthera (panther, leopard); Acinonyx (cheetah) 



46 VERTEBRATA 



Order PINNIPEDIA 

Otaria (sea lion); Zalophiis (Calif omian sea lion); 

Odobetnis (walrus) ; Phoca (seal) ; Halichoerus (grey 

seal, Atlantic seal) ; Mirounga (elephant seal) 
Order TUBULIDENTATA 

Orycteropus (aardvark) 
Order PROBOSCIDEA 

Loxodonta (African elephant) ; Elephas (Asiatic 

elephant) 
Order HYRACOmEA 

Dendrohyrax (tree hyrax) ; Procavia (coney) 
Order SIRENIA 

Dugong (dugong) ; Trichechus (manatee) 
Order PERISSODACTYLA 
Sub-order Hippomorpha 

Equus (horse, donkey, zebra) 
Sub-order Ceratomorpha 

Tapirus (tapir) ; Rhinoceros, Diceros, Ceratotherium 

(rhinoceroses) 
Order ARTIODACTYLA 
Sub-order Suiformes 

Sus (pig); Tayassu (peccary); Phacochoerus (wart 

hog) ; Hippopotamus (hippopotamus) 
Sub-order Tylopoda 

Lama ( =Auchenia) (llama, alpaca, vicuna, 

guanaco) ; Camelus (camel, dromedary) 
Sub-order Ruminantia 

Tragulus (chevrotain) ; Moschus (musk deer) ; Dama 

(fallow deer); Cervus (red deer, wapiti, American 

'elk'); Alces (European elk, moose); Rangifer 

(reindeer, caribou) ; Okapia (okapi) ; Giraffa 

(giraffe); Taurotragus (eland); Bubalus (buflFalo); 

Bos (cattle); Bison (bison, American 'buffalo'); 

Hippotragus (roan antelope); Antilope (Indian 

antelope); Gazella (gazelle); Rupicapra (chamois); 

Ovibos (musk ox) ; Capra (goat) ; Ovis (sheep) 



APPENDIX I. FURTHER READING 

The classifications in Chapter III are based on the references given below, except in two cases, 
the Parazoa (by Burton) and the Platyhelminthes (by Baer and Dawes). The references, which 
also contain detailed information about the systematics of the various groups, were compiled 
in consultation with the specialists mentioned in Appendix II. They differed in their approach, 
which explains why the list is, in some respects, heterogeneous. Another, but unimportant, 
cause of heterogeneity is the method of referring to articles in general text-books such as 
Grasse's Traite de Zoologie. In the first two volumes (actually fascicules) of this work, there 
are articles on the Protozoa by nine authors. These are referred to as Grasse (1952, 1953), 
and the same policy has been adopted in analogous cases. When one or only a few authors 
were concerned with a group, as in the case of the Onychophora, the reference is given as 
Cuenot (1949a) and not Grasse (1949). 

Further references will be found in the books and papers listed below. The Zoological 
Record and Smart & Taylor (1 953) are additional and invaluable sources of information. 



PROTOZOA 
General 

Ciliata 
MESOZOA 
PARAZOA 
CNIDARIA 

General 
Hydrozoa 
Scyphozoa 
Anthozoa 

CTENOPHORA 
PLATYHELMINTHES 

General 

Turbellaria 

Cestoda 

Trematoda 
NEMERTINA 
ASCHELMINTHES 

Rotifera 

Gastrotricha 

Echinoderida 

Priapulida 

Nematomorpha 

Nematoda 

ACANTHOCEPHALA 

ENTOPROCTA 

POLYZOA 

PHORONIDA 

BRACHIOPODA 

MOLLUSCA 

General 
Polyplacophora 



Grasse (1952, 1953); Kudo (1954); Smart & Taylor (1953, pp. 

4-16) 

Corliss(1956, 1957, 1959) 

Hyman (1940); Stunkard (1954) 

Hyman (1940, 1959); Jewell (1959) 

Hyman (1940, 1959); Moore (1956) 

Eraser (1937, 1944); Russell (1953); Totton (1954) 

Mayer (1910) 

Carlgren (1949); Stephenson (1928, 1935); Vaughan & Wells 

(1943) 

Hyman (1940, 1959); Mayer (1912) 

Baer (1951); Hyman (1951a, 1959) 

Ferguson (1954); Luther (1955) 

Wardle & McLeod (1952); Yamaguti (1960) 

Dawes (1946); Sproston (1946); Yamaguti (1958) 

Coe (1943); Hyman (1951o) 

Edmondson (1959); Harring (1913); Hudson & Gosse (1886); 

Hyman (19516, 1959); Voigt (1957) 

Brunson (1950, 1959); Hyman (19516, 1959) 

Hyman (19516, 1959); Lang (1949); Zelinka (1928) 

Cuenot ( 1 922a) ; Dawy doff ( 1 959r) ; Hyman (1 95 1 6, 1 959) 

Chitwood (1959); Hyman (19516, 1959) 

Chitwood & Allen (1959); Chitwood & Chitwood (1950); 

Goff"art(1951);Goodey(1951);Thornen949) 

Hyman (19516, 1959) 

Brien ( 1 959) ; Hyman (1 95 1 6, 1 959) 

Bassler (1953); Brien (1960); Hyman (1959); Rogick (1959) 

Dawydoff& Grasse (1959); Forneris (1957); Hyman (1959) 

de Beauchamp (1960a); Hyman (1959); Muir-Wood (1955); 

Roger (1 952) ; Williams (1 956) 

Grasse(1960); Morton (1958); Thiele (1931, 1935) 
Fischer-Piette & Franc (19606); Hoffmann (1929-1930); 
Tryon & Pilsbry (1892-1893) 



47 



48 



FURTHER READING 



Aplacophora 
M onoplacophora 
Gastropoda 
Bivalvia 
Cephalopoda 

SIPUNCULOIDEA 
ECHIUROIDEA 
ANNELIDA 
General 
Polychaeta 
Myzostomaria 
Oligochaeta 

Hirudinea 



Archiannelida 
ARTHROPODA 

Onychophora 

Pauropoda 

Diplopoda 

Chilopoda 

Symphyla 

Insecta 

Crustacea 
General 
Cephalocarida 
Copepoda 
Mystacocarida 
Cirripedia 
Malacostraca 

Merostomata 

Arachnida 



Pycnogonida 

Pentastomida 

Tardigrada 
CHAETOGNATHA 
POGONOPHORA 
ECHINODERMATA 

General 

Echinoidea 
CHORDATA 

Hemichordata 

Urochordata 

Cephalochordata 

Vertebrata 

Marsipobranchii 
Selachii 

Bradyodonti 



Fischer-Piette «& Franc (1960a); Hoffmann (1929) 

Lemche & Wingstrand (1960) 

Hoffmann (1932-1940); Lemche (1948); Tesch (1946-1949) 

Franc (1960) 

Adam (1952); Chun (1908, 1910); Robson (1929-1932); 

Sasaki (1929) 

Hyman (1959); Tetry (1959) 

Cuenot (19226); Dawydoff (1959Z>) 

Grasse(1959) 

Dawydoff( 1959a); Fauvel(1923, 1927, 1959) 

Prenant (1959); von Stummer-Traunfels (1926) 

Avel (1959); Cemosvitov & Evans (1947); Dawydoff (1959a); 

Goodnight (1959); Stephenson (1930) 

Dawydoff (1959a); Harant & Grasse (1959); Harding (1910); 

Harding & Moore (1927); Mann & Watson (1954); Moore 

(1959) 

de Beauchamp (1959) 

Bouvier (1905); Cuenot (1949a) 

Attems (19266); Verhoeff( 1934) 

Attems (1926c, 1937-1940) 

Attems (1 926 J-1 930) 

Attems (1926a); Edwards (1959); Verhoeff( 1933) 

Imms (1957) ; Smart & Taylor (1953, pp. 42-73) 

Caiman (1909); Kiikenthal & Krumbach (1927) 

Sanders (1957) 

Wilson (1932) 

Delamare Deboutteville (1953) 

Kruger(1940) 

Bronn's (1940-1959) 

Fage (1949a) 

Baker & Wharton (1952); Grasse (1949); Hughes (1959); 

Kaston & Kaston (1953); Locket & Millidge (1951, 1953); 

Nuttall et al. (1908-1926); Petrunkevitch (1928, 1949); Vachon 

(1952) 

Fage (19496); Hedgpeth (1947); Heifer & Schlottke (1935) 

Cuenot (1949c); Heymons (1935) 

Cuenot (19496); Marcus (1936, 1959) 

de Beauchamp (19606); Eraser (1957); Hyman (1959) 

Hartman (1954); Hyman (1959); Ivanov (1960) 

Cuenot (1948); Hyman (1955) 

Durham & Melville (1957); Mortensen (1928-1951) 

Burdon- Jones (1956); Dawydoff (1948); Hyman (1959) 
Berrill (1950); Harant (1948) 
Drach (1948); Franz (1922) 

Berg (1947); Fontaine (1958); Regan (1936) 

Arambourg & Bertin (1958a); Berg (1947); Regan (19296, 

1936) 

Arambourg & Bertin (19586); Berg (1947) 



FURTHER READING 



49 



Pisces 
Amphibia 

General 

Salientia 

Gymnophiona 
Reptilia 

General 

Rhynchocephalia 

Testudines 

Crocodylia 

Squamata 

Aves 
Mammalia 



Berg (1947); Grasse (1958); Regan (1929a, 1936) 

Boulenger (1882); Noble (1931) 
Griffiths (1959) 
Nieden(1913) 

Bellairs(1957); Schmidt .dinger (1957) 

von Wettstein (1931-1937) 

Carr (1952); Loveridge & Williams (1957); Pope (1935) 

Mertens & Wermuth (1955) 

Bellairs & Underwood (1951); Bogert & del Campo (1956); 

Boulenger (1920-1921); McDowell & Bogert (1954) 

Mayr &. Amadon (1951); Peters (1931-1951); Stresemann 

(1959); Wetmore (1951) 

Grasse (1955); Simpson (1945) 



APPENDIX 11. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I AM most grateful to those scientists, mentioned below, who have been good enough to help 
me. R. B. Freeman gave invaluable help with Chapter III, as did Dr. J. Smart with the 
Insecta. In addition, I am indebted to George Rylands for advice about Chapter I and to 
Mrs. J. N. Thomson, who typed this book with exemplary patience and efficiency. I wish also 
to thank the Agricultural Research Council for support. 



Ch. I 
Ch. Ill 

PROTOZOA 

PARAZOA 

CNIDARIA 

CTENOPHORA 
PLATYHELMINTHES 

NEMERTINA 
ASCHELMINTHES 

Rotifera 

G astro tricha 

Echinoderida 

Priapulida 

Nematoda 

Nematomorpha 

ACANTHOCEPHALA 

ENTOPROCTA 

POLYZOA 

BRACHIOPODA 

MOLLUSCA 

SIPUNCULOIDEA 
ECHIUROIDEA 

ANNELIDA 

ARTHROPODA 

Onychophora 
Pauropoda 
Diplopoda 
Chilopoda 

Symphyla 
Insecta 



Crustacea 
Merostomata 
Arachnida 
Pycnogonida 
Pentastomida 
Tardigrada 
CHAETOGNATHA 



Prof. C. F. A. Pantin, F.R.S.; Dr. K. A. Joysey. 

Dr.C.A.Hoare,F.R.S. 

Dr. Maurice Burton, D.Sc. 

Dr. W. J. Rees, D.Sc; Dr. F. S. Russell, F.R.S.; Prof. 

T. A. Stephenson, F.R.S. 

Dr. W. J. Rees, D.Sc. ; Dr. F. S. Russell, F.R.S. 

Prof. J. G. Baer; Dr. B. Dawes; Mr. S. Prudhoe; Dr. F. G. 

Rees. 

Prof. C. F. A. Pantin, F.R.S.; Mr. S. Prudhoe. 

Miss A. Edwards; Mr. A. L. Galliford. 

Mr. S. Prudhoe. 

Mr. S. Prudhoe. 

Mr. S. Prudhoe; Dr. A. C. Stephen. 

Prof. B. G. Peters; Mr. S. Prudhoe. 

Mr. S. Prudhoe. 

Mr. S. Prudhoe. 

Dr. A. B. Hastings. 

Dr. A. B. Hastings. 

Dr. G. Owen, D.Sc; Dr. H. M. Muir-Wood, D.Sc. 

Prof. A. Graham, D.Sc; Dr. D. Parry; Dr. W. J. Rees, 

D.Sc ; Prof. C. M. Yonge, F.R.S. 

Dr. A. C. Stephen ; Dr. D. P. Wilson, D.Sc. 

Dr. A. C. Stephen; Dr. D. P. Wilson, D.Sc. 

Dr. R. Phillips Dales; Miss A. Edwards; Dr. K. H. Mann; 

Dr. B. I. Roots; Mr. N. Tebble; Dr. D. P. Wilson, D.Sc. 

Dr. G. O. Evans; Dr. S. M. Manton, F.R.S. 

Mr. J. G. Blower; Dr. G. O. Evans. 

Mr. J. G. Blower; Dr. G. O. Evans. 

Mr. J. G. Blower; Dr. G. O. Evans; Dr. S. M. Manton, 

F.R.S. 

Mr. J. G. Blower; Dr. G. O. Evans. 

Dr. W. E. China, C.B.E., ScD., and the staff of the 

Entomology Department, the British Museum (Natural 

History); Dr. H. E. Hinton; Prof. O. W. Richards, F.R.S.; 

the Hon. Miriam Rothschild; Dr. G. Salt, F.R.S.; 

Dr. J. Smart, D.Sc. 

Dr. I. Gordon, D.Sc. ; Dr. J. Green; Dr. J. P. Harding. 

Dr. G. O. Evans. 

Dr. J. L. Cloudsley-Thompson ; Dr. G. O. Evans. 

Dr. G. O. Evans. 

Dr. J. L. Cloudsley-Thompson ; Dr. G. O. Evans. 

Dr. J. L. Cloudsley-Thompson; Dr. G. O. Evans. 

Dr. F. S. Russell, F.R.S. 



50 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



51 



ECHINODER M ATA 

CHORDATA 

Hemichordata 
Urochordata 
Cephalochordata 
Vertebrata 

Marsipobranchii 

Selachii 

Bradyodonti 

Pisces 

Amphibia 

Reptilia 

Aves 

Mammalia 



Miss A. M. Clark; Prof. J. E. Smith, F.R.S.; Dr. H. G. 
Vevers, M.B.E. 

Dr. C. Burdon-Jones. 

Prof. J. Berrill, F.R.S. ; Dr. R. H. Millar. 

Dr. J. E. Webb, D.Sc. 

Mr. N. B. Marshall; Dr. E. Trewavas, D.Sc. 

Mr. N. B. Marshall; Dr. E. Trewavas, D.Sc. 

Mr. N. B. Marshall; Dr. E. Trewavas, D.bc. 

Mr. N. B. Marshall; Dr. E. Trewavas, D.Sc. 

Miss A. G. C. Grandison. 

Mr. J. C. Battersby, B.E.M. 

Dr. T. Clay, D.Sc; Dr. W. H. Thorpe, F.R.S. 

Dr. P. Crowcroft; Dr. W. C. Osman Hill, M.D., F.R.S.E.; 

Mr. G. B. Stratton, M.B.E., A.L.S. 



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(19586) Traite de Zoologie, 13, Fasc. 3, 2057-2067. 

Attems, C. 

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(19266) Handb. ZooL, Berl, 4, 1, 20-28. 

(1926c) Handb. ZooL, BerL, 4, 1 , 29-238. 

(1926^) Handb. ZooL, BerL, 4, 1, 239-402. 

(1929) Das Tierreich,^ Lief. 52. 

(1930) Das Tierreich, Lief. 54. 

(1937-1940) Das Tierreich, Liefn. 68, 69 Sl 70. 

AvEL, M. (1959) Traite de Zoologie, 5, Fasc. 1, 224-470. 

Baer, J. G. (1951) Ecology of Animal Parasites. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 

Baker, E. W. & Wharton, G. W. (1952) An Introduction to Acarology. Macmiilan, New 

York. 
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DE Beauchamp, p. (1959) Traite de Zoologie, 5, Fasc. 1, 197-223. 

(1960a) Traite de Zoologie, 5, Fasc. 2, 1380-1430. 

(19606) Traite de Zoologie, 5, Fasc. 2, 1500-1520. 

Bellairs, a. d'A. (1957) Reptiles. Hutchinson, London. 

Bellairs, a. d'A. & Underwood, G. (1951) The Origin of Snakes. Biol. Rev., 26, 193-237. 

Berg, L. S. (1947) Classification of Fishes, both Recent and Fossil. J. W. Edwards, Ann Arbor, 

Michigan. 
Berrill, N. J. (1950) The Tunicata. London, printed for the Ray Society. 
BoGERT, C. M. & Campo, R. M. del (1956) The Gila-monster and its Allies. The Relation- 
ships, Habits and Behaviour of the Lizards of the Family Helodermatidae. Bull. Amer. 

Mus. nat. Hist., 109, 1-238. 
BouLENGER, G. A. (1882) Catalogue of the Batrachia Gradientia S. Caudata and Batrachia 

Apoda in the Collection of the British Museum, 2nd edition. London, printed for the 

Trustees of the British Museum. 
(1920-1921) Monograph of the Lacertidae, Vols. I & IL London, printed for the Trustees 

of the British Museum. 
BouviER, E. (1905) Monographic des Onychophores. Ann. Sci. nat., ZooL, (9), 2. 
Brien, p. (1959) Traite de Zoologie, 5, Fasc. 1, 927-1007. 

(1960) Traite de Zoologie, 5, Fasc. 2, 1053-1335. 

Bronn's Klassen (1940-1959) 5, Abt. 1, B. 4-7. 

Brunson, R. B. (1950) An Introduction to the Taxonomy of the Gastrotricha with a Study of 

Eighteen Species from Michigan. Trans. Amer. micr. Soc, 69, 325-352. 

(1959) Fresh-water Biology,^ 406-419. 

Burdon-Jones, C. (1956) Handb. ZooL, BerL, 3 (2, Supp.) 57-78. 

Calman, W. T. (1909) A Treatise on Zoology (ed. Sir Ray Lankester), Part 7, Crustacea. 

Adam & Charles Black, London. 
Carlgren, O. (1949) A Survey of the Ptychodactiaria, Corallimorpharia and Actiniaria. 

K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl. (4), 1, 1. 
Carr, a. (1952) Handbook of Turtles. The Turtles of the United States, Canada and Baja 

California. Comstock Publishing Associates, New York. 
Cernosvitov, L. & Evans, A. C. (1947) Lumbricidae (Annelida). The Linnaean Society of 

London, Synopses of the British Fauna, No. 6. 

' i.e. Grasse, P. -P. Traite de Zoologie. Masson, Paris. 
^ i.e. Das Tierreich. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin & Leipzig. 

^ i.e. Moore, R. C. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Geological Society of America & University of 
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* i.e. Edmondson, W. T. Fresh-water Biology. (Ward & Whipple). John Wiley, New York. 

52 



REFERENCES 53 



Chitwood, B. G. (1959) Fresh-water Biology, 402-405. 

Chitwood, B. G. & Allen, M. W. (1959) Fresh-water Biology, 368-401. 

Chitwood, B. G. & Chitwood, M. B. (1950) An Introduction to Nematology. Monumental 

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Chun, C. (1908) tJber Cephalopoden der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition. Zool. Anz., 33, 

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(1910) Die Cephalopoden. I. Oegopsida. Wiss. Ergebn. ^Valdivia, 18, 1-402. 

CoE, W. R. (1943) Biology of the Nemerteans of the Atlantic Coast of North America. Trans. 

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CuENOT, L. (1922a) Faiine de France,^ 4, 25. 

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{\949b) Traite de Zoologie, 6, 39-59. 

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Dawes, B. (1946) The Trematoda. Cambridge University Press. 
Dawydoff, C. (1948) Traite de Zoologie, 11, 367-499. 

(1959a) Traite de Zoologie, 5, Fasc. 1, 594-686. 

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(1959c) Traite de Zoologie, 5, Fasc. 1, 908-926. 

Dawydoff, C. & Grasse, P.-P. (1959) Traite de Zoologie, 5, Fasc. 1, 1008-1053. 

Delamare Deboutteville, Cl. (1953) Recherches sur I'ecologie et la repartition du Mysta- 

cocaride Derocheilocaris remanei Delamare et Chappuis, en Mediterranee. Vie et Milieu, 

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Drach, P. (1948) Traite de Zoologie, 11, 931-1037. 
Durham, J. W. & Melville, R. V. (1957) A Classification of Echinoids. /. Paleont., 31, 

242-272. 
Edmondson, W. T. (1959) Fresh-water Biology, 420-494. 
Edwards, C. A. (1959) A Revision of the British Symphyla. Proc. zool. Soc. Lond., 132, 

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Page, L. (1949o) Traite de Zoologie, 6, 219-262. 

(1 949b) Traite de Zoologie, 6, 906-941 . 

Fauvel. p. (1923) Faune de France, 5. 

(1927) Faune de France, 16. 

(1959) Traite de Zoologie, 5, Fasc. 1, 13-196. 

Ferguson, F. F. (1954) Monograph of the Macrostomine worms [sic] of Turbellaria. Trans. 

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Fischer-Piette, E. & Franc, A. (1960a) Traite de Zoologie, 5, Fasc. 2, 1655-1700. 

(19606) Traite de Zoologie, 5, Fasc. 2, 1701-1785. 

Fisher, W. K. (1950) The Sipunculid Genus Phascolosoma. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (12), 3, 

547-552. 
Fontaine, M. (1958) Traite de Zoologie, 13, Fasc. 1, 13-172. 
Forneris, L. (1957) Phoronidea. Fiches d' identification du zooplancton. Sheet 69. Conseil 

international pour I'exploration de la mer. 
Franc, A. (1960) Traite de Zoologie, 5, Fasc. 2, 1845-2133. 
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' i.e. Faune de France. Paul Lechevalier, Paris. 



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Fraser, C. McL. (1937) Hydroids of the Pacific Coast of Canada and the United States. 
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Fraser, J. H. (1957) Chaetognatha. Fiches d" identification du zooplancton. Sheet 1 (1st 
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GoFFART, H. (1951) Nematoden der Kulturpflanzen Europas. Paul Parey, Berlin. 

GooDEY, T. (1951) Soil and Freshwater Nematodes. Methuen, London. 

Goodnight, C. J. (1959) Fresh-water Biology, 522-537. 

Grasse, P.-P. (1949) Traite de Zoologie, 6, 263-892. 

(1952, 1953) Traite de Zoologie, 1, Fascs. 1-2. 

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(1958) Traite de Zoologie, 13, Fascs. 1-3. 

(1959) Traite de Zoologie, 5, Fasc. 1, 1-686. 

(1960) Traite de Zoologie, 5, Fasc. 2, 1623-2164. 

Griffiths, I. (1959) The Phylogeny of Sminthillus limbatus and the Status of the Brachy- 
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GuRNEY, R. (1933) British Fresh-water Copepoda, Vol. 3. London, printed for the Ray Society. 

Harant, H. (1948) Traite de Zoologie, 11, 895-919. 

Harant, H. &. Grasse, P.-P. (1959) Traite de Zoologie, 5, Fasc. 1, 471-593. 

Harding, W. A. (1910) A Revision of the British Leeches. Parasitology, 3, 130-201 . 

Harding, W. A. & Moore, J. P. (1927) The Fauna of British India. Hirudinea. Taylor & 

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(1 929-1 930) Bronn's Klassen, 3, Abt. 1 , 1 35-382. 

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Jewell, M. (1959) Fresh-water Biology, 298-312. 

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Stresemann, E. (1959) The Status of Avian Systematics and its Unsolved Problems. Auk, 76, 

269-280. 
Stummer-Traunfels, R. von (1926) Handb. Zool, Berl., 3, 1 (2), 132-210. 
Stunkard, H. W. (1954) Life-history and Systematic Relations of the Mesozoa. Quart. Rev. 

Biol, 29, 230-244. 
Tesch, J. J. (1946) The Thecosomatous Pteropods. L The Atlantic. Dana Rep., 28. 

(1948) The Thecosomatous Pteropods. XL The Indo-Pacific. Dana Rep., 30. 

(1 949) Heteropoda. Dana Rep., 34. 

Tetry, a. (1959) Traite deZoologie, 5, Fasc. 1, 785-854; mlxviii-mlxxxi. 

Thiele, J. (1931, 1935) Handbuch der Systematischen Weichtierkunde. Gustav Fischer, Jena. 

Thorne, G. (1949) On the Classification of the Tylenchida, new order (Nematoda, Phasmidia). 

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Biological Notes on Related Specimens from other Oceans. 'Discovery'' Rep., 11, 7-162. 
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Conch., 14, 15. 
Vachon, M. (1952) Etudes sur les Scorpions. Institut Pasteur d' Algeria, Alger. 
Vaughan, T. W. & Wells, J. W. (1943) Revision of the Sub orders, Families, and Genera of 

the Scleractinia. Geological Society of America Special Paper No. 44. 
Verhoeff, K. W. (1933) Bronn's Klassen, 5, Abt. 2, B.3 (1). 
VoiGT, M. (1957) Rotatoria. Gebriider Borntraeger, Berlin-Nikolassee. 
Wardle, R. a. & McLeod, J. A. (1952) The Zoology of Tapeworms. University of Minnesota 

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Wetmore, a. (1951) a Revised Classification for the Birds of the World. Smithson. misc. Coll., 

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Zelinka, K. (1928) Monographie der Echinodera. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig. 



ANIMAL AND GROUP INDEX 

Although this Section should be used as an Index, it also provides an abbreviated classifica- 
tion of all genera mentioned. When there are sub-orders in Chapter III, sub-orders and not 
orders are given after genera in the Index, to help the reader find the genus in which he is 
interested. Normally, for example in papers, the order and not the sub-order is mentioned 
when referring to an animal which is not well known. 

Starred genera occur in the Index and not in Chapter III. When such entries have synonyms 
worth mentioning, they follow the preferred name, e.g. 

* Caret ta { = Thallassochelys), Cryptodira, 41 

because there is no other way of finding out that the synonym exists. This does not apply to 
unstarred entries, as these will also be found in Chapter III, in which some synonyms are 
mentioned. 



aardvark (Orycteropus), Tubulidentata, 46 

abalone (Ha Hot is), Archaeogastropoda, 21 
*Acanthanweba, Amoebina, 7 
*Acanthephyra, Natantia, 31 

Acanthias, see Squalus 
* Acanthi's, Passeres, 43 

Acanthobdella, Acanthobdellida, 24 

Acanthobdellida, 24 

Acanthobothriinn, Tetraphyllidea, 14 

Acanthocephala, 20 

Acanthocotyle, Acanthocotyloidea, 1 3 

Acanthocotyloidea, 13 

Acanthocystis, Heliozoa, 7 

Acanthometra, Radiolaria, 7 

Acanthopterygii. 38 (footnote) 

Acanthosotenia, Coccolithophorida, 6 

Acanthosphaera, Radiolaria, 7 

Acanthuroidea, 38 

Acanthurus, Acanthuroidea, 38 
*Acara, see Aeqiiidens 

Acari, 31 

Acariis, Acari, 3 1 

Accipiter, Falconiformes, 42 

Accipitres, see Falconiformes 

Acerentiiliis, Protura, 26 
*Acerina, Percoidea, 38 
*Achatina, Stylommatophora, 22 

Acheron tia, Ditrysia, 28 

Acheta, Ensifera, 26 
*Acholoe, Polychaeta, 24 
*Achroia, Ditrysia, 28 
*Acidaha, see Argyreiis 
* — , see Scoptila 
*Acilius, Adephaga, 28 

Acineta. Suctorida, 8 

Acineta, see Suctorida 

Acinonyx, Fissipeda, 45 

Acipenser, Chondrostei, 36 



Acipenseriformes, see Chondrostei 

Acmaea, Archaeogastropoda, 21 

Acoela, 13, 22 

acorn worms (Enteropneusta), 34 

Acotylea, 13 

Acrania, see Cephalochordata 
*Acricotopus, see Cricotopus 
*Acris, Procoela, 40 
*Acrocephalus, Passeres, 43 

Acrocnida, Ophiurae, 34 
*Acronicta, Ditrysia, 28 

Acropora, Scleractinia, 12 

Acrothoracica, 30 

Acrotus, Malacichthyes, 39 

Actaeon, Pleurocoela, 22 

actaeon shell (Actaeon), Pleurocoela, 22 

/Ic/m/fl, Actiniaria, 12 

Actiniaria, 12 

Actinistia, 40 

Actinoloba, see Metridium 

Actinolophus, Heliozoa, 7 

Actinomonas, Heliozoa, 7 

Actinomyxidia, 8 

Actinophrys, Heliozoa, 7 

Actinopoda, 7 

Actinosphaerium, Heliozoa, 7 
*Actitis, Charadriiformes, 42 

Adamsia, Actiniaria, 12 

adder (Vipera), Serpentes, 41 

Adeleidea, 7 
*Adelges, Homoptera, 27 

Adelina, Adeleidea, 7 

Adephaga, 28 

Adineta, Bdelloidea, 1 7 

Adocia, Sigmatosclerophora, 10 

Aechmophorus, Podicipediformes, 42 
*Aedes, Nematocera, 28 

Aegina, Narcomedusae, 1 1 

57 R.C.L.A. 



AEGYPIUS 



58 



AMPHITRITE 



Aegypius, Falconiformes, 42 
*Aequidens (-Acara), Percoidea, 38 
Aequorea, Thecata, 1 1 
Aeshna, Anisoptera, 26 
African East Coast cattle fever (Theileiid), 

Haemosporidia, 8 
African elephant (Loxodonta), 

Proboscidea, 46 
African ground squirrel (^Xerus), 

Sciuromorpha, 45 
African tree monkeys (Cercopithecus), 

Simiae, 44 
Agalma, Siphonophora, 1 1 
Agapornis, Psittaciformes, 43 
*Agelaioides, see Molothrus 
*Agelastica, Polyphaga, 28 
Aglantha, Trachymedusae, 1 1 
Agnatha, see Marsipobranchii 
*Agnolimax, Stylommatophora, 22 
Agrion, Zygoptera, 26 
Agriotes, Polyphaga, 28 
Ailuropoda, Fissipeda, 45 
Ailurus, Fissipeda, 45 
Alabes, Alabetoidea, 40 
Alabetoidea, 40 
Alauda, Passeres, 43 
albatross (Diomedea), 

Procellariiformes, 42 
Alca, Charadriiformes, 42 
Alcedo, Coraciiformes, 43 
Alces, Ruminantia, 46 
Alcippe, Acrothoracica, 30 
Alcyonacea, 12 
Alcyonella, see Plumatella 
Alcyonidium, Ctenostomata, 20 
Alcyonium, Alcyonacea, 12 
alder fly (Sialis), Megaloptera, 27 
*Alectn'on, Stenoglossa, 22 
Alepisauroidea, 37 
Alepisaurus, Alepisauroidea, 37 
Alepocephalus, Clupeoidea, 36 
Alligator, Crocodylia, 41 
alligator {Alligator), Crocodylia, 41 
Alloeocoela, 13 
Allogromia, Testacea, 7 
Allolobophora, Oligochaeta, 24 
*AUoteuthis, Decapoda, 23 

Allotriognathi, 38 
*Alosa, Clupeoidea, 36 
alpaca (Lama), Tylopoda, 46 



Alytes, Opisthocoela, 40 
Amaroucium, see Aplidium 
*Amazilia, Apodiformes, 43 
Amblypygi, 3 1 
Amblystoma, see Ambystoma 
Ambystoma, Ambystomoidea, 40 
Ambystomoidea, 40 
*Ameiurus, Siluroidea, 37 
American badger (Taxidea), 

Fissipeda, 45 
American 'buffalo' (Bison), 

Ruminantia, 46 
American 'elk' (Cervus), Ruminantia, 46 
American flying squirrel (Glaucomys), 

Sciuromorpha, 45 
American ground squirrel (Citellus), 

Sciuromorpha, 45 
American opossum (Didelphis), 

Marsupialia, 44 
American whelk (Busycon), Stenoglossa, 22 
Ametabola, see Apterygota 
Amia, Protospondyli, 36 
*Ammocoetes, Hyperoartii, 35 
Amoeba, Amoebina, 7 
amoebic dysentery (Entamoeba), 

Amoebina, 7 
Amoebina, 7 

Amoebosporidia, see Cnidosporidia 
*Amorpha, Ditrysia, 28 

Ampharete, Polychaeta, 24 
* Amphelocheirus,^ see Aphelocheirus 
Amphibia, 40-41 
amphibious leech (Trocheta), 

Gnathobdellida, 24 
Amphicoela. 40 
Amphidiscophora, 10 
*Amphidromus, Stylommatophora. 22 
Amphileptus, Rhabdophorina, 8 
Amphilina, Amphilinidea, 14 
Amphilinidea, 14 
Amphineura, 21 (footnote) 
Amphinome, Polychaeta, 24 
Amphioxus, see Branchiostoma 
Amphipholis, Ophiurae, 34 
Amphipnous, Synbranchoidea, 40 
Amphipoda, 30 
Amphiporus, Monostylifera, 16 
* Amphisbetia, Thecata, 1 1 
*Amphitrite, Polychaeta, 24 
* — , see Portunus 



' Amphelocheirus is a misprint for Aphelocheirus, not a synonym. As synonyms, preceded by an equals 
sign, are put in brackets after the correct name, misprints such as Amphelocheirus are not mentioned after 
the correct name. 



AMPHIUMA 



59 



APHIS 



Amphiuma, Salamandroidea, 40 
Amphiura, Ophiurae, 34 

*Ampullaria, see Pila 
Anabantoidea, 38 

Anabas, Anabantoidea, 38 

Anableps. Microcyprini, 38 

*Anabrus, Ensifera, 26 

Anacanthini, 38 

Anamorpha, 25 

Anarhichas, Blennioidea, 38 

Anas, Anseriformes, 42 
*Anasa, Heteroptera, 27 

Anaspidacea, 30 

Anaspides, Anaspidacea, 30 

Anax, Anisoptera, 26 
'''Anchistioides, Natantia, 3 1 

Ancistrocoma, Thigmotrichida, 9 

Ancistrunu Thigmotrichida, 9 
*Ancistrus, Siluroidea, 37 
*Ancula, Nudibranchia, 22 

Ancylastrum, see Ancylus 
*Ancylis, Ditrysia, 28 

Ancylostoma, Strongylina, 18 

Ancylus, Basommatophora, 22 

anemones, sea (Actiniaria), 12 

Ammonia, Actiniaria, 1 2 

angel-fish (Squatina), Squaloidea, 36 

angel-fishes (Pleurotremata), 35-36 

2ix\g\tv (Lophius), Lophioidea, 39 

anglerfishes, deep-sea (Ceratioidea), 39 

Anguilla, Apodes, 37 

Anguilliformes, see Apodes 
*Anguillula, Rhabditina, 17 

Anguilluloidea, see Rhabditoidea 

Anguina, Tylenchida, 18 

Anguis, Sauria, 41 

Anhima, Anseriformes, 42 
*Anhinga, Pelecaniformes, 42 

ani (Crotophaga), Cuculiformes, 43 
*Anilocra, Isopoda, 30 
*Anisolabis, Forficulina, 27 

Anisomyaria, see Filibranchia 
*Amsoplia, Polyphaga, 28 

Anisoptera, 26 

Anisozygoptera, 26 

Annelida, 24 

Annulata, see Annelida 

Anodon, see Anodonta 

Anodonta, Eulamellibranchia, 23 
*Anolis, Sauria, 41 
*Anomalops, Berycomorphi, 38 

Anomalurus, Sciuromorpha, 45 

Anomia, Filibranchia, 22 



Anomocoela, 40 

Anopheles, Nematocera, 28 

Anopla, 16 
*Anoplodactylus, Nymphonomorpha, 32 

Anoplophrya, Astomatida, 8 

Anoplophryinea, see Astomatida 

Anoplura, 27 
*Anoptichthys, Cyprinoidea, 37 
*Anosia, see Danaus 

Anostraca, 29 

Anser, Anseriformes, 42 

Anseriformes, 42 

Anseropoda, Spinulosa, 34 

ant {Formica), Apocrita, 29 

ant lion fly (Myrmeleon), Planipennia, 28 

antbird (Formicarius), Tyranni, 43 

anteater, giant (Myrmecophaga), 
Edentata, 44 

— , lesser (Tamandua), Edentata, 44 

— , scaly (Mam's), Pholidota, 44 

— , spiny (Tachyglossus), Monotremata, 43 

Antechinomys, Marsupialia, 44 

Antedon, Articulata, 32 

antelope, Indian (Antilope), Ruminantia, 46 

— , roan (Hippotragus), Ruminantia, 46 

Antennarioidea, 39 

Antennarius, Antennarioidea, 39 

Anthea, see Anemonia 
*Antheiaea, Ditrysia, 28 

Anthocidaris, Echinoida, 33 

Anthomedusae, see Athecata 

Anthozoa, 12 
*Anthrenus, Polyphaga, 28 

Anthropoidea, see Simiae 

Anthropopithecus, see Pan 
*Anthus, Passeres, 43 

Antilope, Ruminantia, 46 

Antipatharia, 12 

Antipathes, Antipatharia, 12 

ants, white (Isoptera), 26 

Anura, see Salientia 

Anuraea, see Keratella 
*Anuraphis, Homoptera, 27 

Apaloderma, Trogoniformes, 43 
*Aphaenogaster, Apocrita, 29 

Aphaniptera, see Siphonaptera 

Aphanopus, Trichiuroidea, 38 

Aphanostoma, Acoela, 1 3 

Aphasmidia, 18 

Aphelenchoides, Tylenchida, 1 8 
*Aphelocheirus, Heteroptera, 27 
*Aphidius ( =Lysiphlebus), Apocrita, 29 

Aphis, Homoptera, 27 



APHREDODERUS 



60 



ASCORHYNCHOMORPHA 



Aphredoderus, Salmopercae, 37 

Aphrocallistes, Hexasterophora, 10 

Aphrodite, Polychaeta, 24 
*Aphrophora, Homoptera, 27 

Apis, Apocrita, 29 

Apistobuthus, Scorpiones, 3 1 

Aplacophora, 21 

Aplidium, Aplousobranchiata, 34 
*Aplodinotus, Percoidea, 38 

Aplodontia, Sciuromorpha, 45 

Aplousobranchiata, 34 

Aplysia, Pleurocoela, 22 

Aplysilla, Keratosa, 10 

Aplysino, Keratosa, 10 

Apocrita, 29 

Apoda, 33 

— , see Gymnophiona 

Apodemus, Myomorpha, 45 

Apodes, 37 

Apodiformes, 43 

Aporhynchiis, Tetrarhynchoidea, 14 
*Aporia, Ditrysia, 28 

Aponhais, Mesogastropoda, 22 

Apostomatida, 8 
*Apotettix, Caelifera, 27 

Appendicularia, Copelata, 35 

Apseudes, Tanaidacea, 30 

Aptenodytes, Sphenisciformes, 42 

Aptera, see Diplura 

Apterygiformes, 41 

Apterygota, 25-26 

Apteryx, Apterygiformes, 41 

Apiis, Apodiformes, 43 

— , see Triops 
*Aquila, Falcon iformes, 42 

Arachnida, 3 1 
* Arachnomorpha, Polyphaga, 28 

Arachmda, Testacea, 7 

Araeolaimoidea, 19 

Aramus, Gruiformes, 42 

Araneae, 3 1 

Araneus, Araneae, 31 

Arapaima, Osteoglossoidea, 36 

Arbacia, Arbacioida, 33 

Arbacioida, 33 

Area, Filibranchia, 22 

Areella, Testacea, 7 

Archaeogastropoda, 21 

Archiacanthocephala, 20 

Archiannelida, 24 
*Arehidoris, Nudibranchia, 22 

Archigregarina, 7 
*Arehiloehus, Apodiformes, 43 



Arehiteuthis, Decapoda, 23 

Archostemata, 28 
*Aretia, Ditrysia, 28 
*Aretoeebus, Prosimii, 44 
*Aretoeephalus, Pinnipedia, 46 

Aretomys, see Marmota 

Ardea, Ciconiiformes, 42 

Ardeiformes, see Ciconiiformes 

Arenieola, Polychaeta, 24 

Areosoma, Echinothurioida, 33 

Argas, Acari, 31 

Argonauta, Octopoda, 23 

Argulus, Branchiura, 30 
*Argyreus ( = Acidalia), Ditrysia, 28 
*Argyroneta, Araneae, 3 1 

Argyrotheea, Terebratelloidea, 21 
*Arieia, Ditrysia, 28 
* — , see Helina 
*■ — , see Monetaria 
* — , see Orbinia 
*Ariolimax, Stylommatophora, 22 

Avion, Stylommatophora, 22 
*Arius, Siluroidea, 37 

Arixenia, Arixeniina, 27 

Arixeniina, 27 

Armadillidium, Isopoda, 30 

armadillo (Dasypus), Edentata, 44 

— , giant (Priodontes), Edentata, 44 
*Arphia, Caelifera, 27 

arrow worms (Chaetognatha), 32 

arrow-tooth shell (Conus), Stenoglossa, 22 

— — (Terebra), Stenoglossa, 22 

Artemia, Anostraca, 29 

Arthropleona, 25 

Arthropoda, 24-32 
*Artibeus, Microchiroptera, 44 

Articulata, 21,32 

Artiodactyla, 46 

Arvieola, Myomorpha, 45 

Ascaphus, Amphicoela, 40 

Asearidia, Ascaridina, 18 

Ascaridina, 18 

Asearis, Ascaridina, 18 

Ascaroidea, 19 

Aschelminthes, 17-18 

Ascidia, Phlebobranchiata, 34 

Ascidiacea, 34-35 

Aseidieola, Notodelphyoida, 29 

Ascidiella, Phlebobranchiata, 34 

Ascoglossa, see Sacoglossa 

ascon sponges (Homocoela), 9 

Asconosa, 10 

Ascorhynchomorpha, 32 



ASCORHYNCHUS 



61 



BATH SPONGE 



Ascorhynchus, Ascorhynchomorpha, 32 

Ascothoracica, 30 

Ascute, see Leucosolenia 

AseUiis, Isopoda, 30 

Asiatic elephant (Elephas), Proboscidea, 46 
*Asio, Strigiformes, 43 

Aspiculuris, Ascaridina, 18 

Aspidobothria, see Aspidogastrea 

Aspidobranchia, see Archaeogastropoda 

Aspidochirota, 32 

Aspidocotylea, see Aspidogastrea 

Aspidogaster, Aspidogastrea, 14 

Aspidogastrea, 14 

Aspidosiphon, Sipunculoidea, 23 

Aspiriculata, 35 

Asplanchna, Ploima, 1 7 
*Aspredo, Siluroidea, 37 

assassin bug (Rhodnius), Heteroptera, 27 

Assulina, Testacea, 7 

Astacus, Reptantia, 3 1 
* Astasia, Euglenoidina, 6 

Asterias, Forcipulata, 34 

Asterina, Spinulosa, 34 

Asteroidea, 34 
* Asterolecanium, Homoptera, 27 

Asteronyx, Euryalae, 34 

Astomatida, 8 

Astrodisculus, Heliozoa, 7 

Astromonaxonellida, see Hadromerina 
*Astronesthes, Stomiatoidea, 36 

Astiopecten, Phanerozona, 34 

Astrosclerophora, 10 
*Astroscopus, Percoidea, 38 

Astur, see Accipiter 

Astylosternus, Diplasiocoela, 41 

Asymmetron, Cephalochordata, 35 

Ateleopus, Chondrobrachii, 37 

Ateles, Simiae, 44 

Atelostomata, 33-34 

Athecanephria, 32 

Athecata, 1 1 
*Athelges, Isopoda, 30 

Atherina, Mugiloidea, 38 

Atlantic seal (Halichoerus), Pinnipedia, 46 

atlas moth (Attacus), Ditrysia, 28 

Atolla, Coronatae, 1 1 

At rax, Araneae, 31 

Atremata, 21 

Attacus, Ditrysia, 28 
*Attagenus, Polyphaga, 28 

Atubaria, Cephalodiscida, 34 
*Atypus, Araneae, 31 

Auchenia, see Lama 



Aulacantha, Radiolaria, 7 

Aulastoma, see Haemopis 

Aulostomiformes, see Solenichthyes 

Aurelia, Semaeostomae, 12 

Aurellia, see Aurelia 

Aves, 41-43 
*Axinella, Sigmatosclerophora, 10 

axolotl (Siredon), Ambystomoidea, 40 

' — ' (Ambystoma), Ambystomoidea, 40 
*Aythya { = Fuligula, Nyroca), 
Anseriformes, 42 

B 

Babesia, Haemosporidia, 8 
*Babirusa, see Babyrousa 

baboon (Papio), Simiae, 44 
* Babyrousa ( = Babirusa), Suiformes, 46 

backswimmer (Notonecta), Heteroptera, 27 
* Bactrurus, see Eucrangonyx 

badger (Meles), Fissipeda, 45 

— , American (Taxidea), Fissipeda, 45 

Baetis, Ephemeroptera, 26 
*Bagrus, Siluroidea, 37 

bag-worm moth (Psyche), Ditrysia, 28 

Bajulus, Homosclerophora, 10 
*Balaena, Mysticeti, 45 

Balaeniceps, Ciconiiformes, 42 

Balaenoptera, Mysticeti, 45 

Balanoglossus, Enteropneusta, 34 

Balantidium, Trichostomatida, 8 

Balanus, Thoracica, 30 

Balistes, Balistoidea, 39 

Balistoidea, 39 
*Banasa, Heteroptera, 27 

bandicoot (Perameles), Marsupialia, 44 

bank vole (Clethriono mys), Myomorpha, 45 

barbet (Capita), Piciformes, 43 
*Barbulanympha, Metamonadina, 6 
'''Barbus, Cyprinoidea, 37 

Barentsia, Pedicellinidae, 20 

barnacle, goose (Lepas), Thoracica, 30 

barnacles (Thoracica), 30 
*Barnea, Eulamellibranchia, 23 

barracuda (Sphyraena), Mugiloidea, 38 
* Baseodiscus (^ PoUa), Heteronemertina, 16 

Basommatophora, 22 

bass (Morone), Percoidea, 38 

bat, brown (Myotis), Microchiroptera, 44 

— , fruit (Cynopterus), Megachiroptera, 44 

— , — (Epomophorus), Megachiroptera, 44 

— , horseshoe (Rhinolophus), 
Microchiroptera, 44 

bath sponge (Spongia), Keratosa, 10 



BATHYNELLA 



62 



BRACHIATA 



Bathynella, Bathynellacea, 30 

Bathynellacea, 30 

Batoidea, 36 

Batrachoidiformes, see Haplodoci 
*Bdellocephala, Paludicola, 13 

Bdelloidea, 17 

Bdellomorpha, see Bdellonemertina 

Bdellonemertina, 17 

Bdellostoma, see Heptatretus 

Bdelloura, Maricola, 1 3 

beaked whale (Mesoplodon), Odontoceti, 45 

bear (Ursus), Fissipeda, 45 

— , polar (Thalarctos), Fissipeda, 45 

beard worms (Pogonophora), 32 

beaver {Castor), Sciuromorpha, 45 

— , mouniamiAplodontid), Sciuromorpha,45 

bed-bug (Cimex), Heteroptera, 27 

bee, bumble (Bonibus), Apocrita, 29 

— , honey (Apis), Apocrita, 29 

bee-eater (Merops), Coraciiformes, 43 

beetles (Coleoptera), 28 

Belone, Scombresocoidea, 37 

Beloniformes, see Synentognathi 
*Belostotna, Heteroptera, 27 

Beroe, Beroida, 13 

Beroida, 13 

Bertiella, Cyclophyllidea, 14 

Berycomorphi, 38 

Beryx, Berycomorphi, 38 
*Betta, Anabantoidea, 38 

Bettongia, Marsupialia, 44 

bichir (Polypterus), Cladistia, 36 

Bilharzia, see Schistosoma 

Bilharziella, Digenea, 14 
*Bimastus, Oligochaeta, 24 

Biomyxa, Testacea, 7 

Bipalium, Terricola, 1 3 

birds (A ves), 41-43 

Bison, Ruminantia, 46 

bison (Bison), Ruminantia, 46 
*Bispira, Polychaeta, 24 

Bithynia, Mesogastropoda, 22 

biting lice (Mallophaga), 27 

Bittacus, Mecoptera, 28 

Bivalvia, 22-23 

Blaberus, Blattodea, 26 

black corals (Antipatharia), 12 

black fly (Simulium), Nematocera, 28 

black vulture (Aegypius), Falconiformes, 42 

blackbird (Turdus), Passeres, 43 

black-fish (Dallia), Haplomi, 37 

blackhead of poultry (Histomonas), 
Rhizomastigina, 7 



Blaniulus, Julida, 25 
*Blanna, Insectivora, 44 

Blastodinium, Dinoflagellata, 6 

Blastophaga, Apocrita, 29 

Blatta, Blattodea, 26 
*BlatteUa, Blattodea, 26 

Blattodea, 26 

Blennioidea, 38 

Blennius, Blennioidea, 38 

blenny (Blennius), Blennioidea, 38 
'''Blephanpoda, Reptantia, 31 
* Blepharisma, Heterotrichina, 9 

Blissus, Heteroptera, 27 
*Blitophaga, Polyphaga, 28 

blowfly (Calliphora), Cyclorrhapha, 28 

bluebottle (Calliphora), Cyclorrhapha, 28 

blue crab (Callinectes), Reptantia, 31 

blue whale (Sibbaldits), Mysticeti, 45 

boa (Constrictor), Serpentes, 41 

boar-fish (Capros), Zeomorphi, 38 

Bodo, Protomonadina, 6 
*Boiga ( = Dipsadomorphus), Serpentes, 41 

Bolina, see Bolinopsis 

Bolinopsis, Lobata, 12 
* Bolitophila, Nematocera, 28 

Bol tenia, Stohdobranchiata, 35 
* — , see Laevoleacina 
*Bolteria, Heteroptera, 27 

Bombina, Opisthocoela, 40 

Bonibinator, see Bombina 

Bombus, Apocrita, 29 

Bombyx, Ditrysia, 28 

Bonellia, Echiuroinea, 23 

bony fishes (Pisces), 36-40 

book lice (Psocoptera), 27 

boot-lace worm (Lineus), 
Heteronemertina, 16 

Bopyrus, Isopoda, 30 
*Borborodes, see Scymnorhinus 

Boreus, Mecoptera, 28 

Bos, Ruminantia, 46 
*Botai4rus, Ciconiiformes, 42 

Bothriocephaloidea, see Pseudophyllidea 
*Bothriocephalus, Pseudophyllidea, 14 

Bothus, Heterosomata, 39 

Botryllus, Stohdobranchiata, 35 

bottle-nosed dolphin (Tursiops), 
Odontoceti, 45 

Boiigainvillea, Athecata, 1 1 

Boveria, Thigmotrichida, 9 

Bowerbankia, Ctenostomata, 20 

bow-fins (Protospondyli), 36 

Brachiata, see Pogonophora 



BRACHIONUS 



63 



CAMBALOMORPHA 



Brachionits, Ploima, 17 

Brachiopoda, 21 

Brachycera, 28 
*Brachydanio, Cyprinoidea, 37 
*Bracon, see Habrobracon 

Bradyodonti, 36 

Bradypus, Edentata, 44 

Branchellion, Rhynchobdellida, 24 
* Branchiomma, Polychaeta, 24 

Branchiopoda, 29 

Branchiostoma, Cephalochordata, 35 

Branchiotremata, see Hemichordata 

Branchipus, Anostraca, 29 

Branchiura, 30 

Brisinga, Forcipulata, 34 

Brissopsis, Spatangoida, 34 

bristle-tails (Thysanura), 26 

brittle stars (Ophiuroidea), 34 

broadbills (Eurylaimi), 43 
*Brosmius, Anacanthini, 38 

brown bat (Myotis), Microchiroptera, 44 

brown lacewing (Hemerobius), 
Planipennia, 28 
*Bruchus, Polyphaga, 28 

Bryozoa, see Polyzoa 

Bubalus, Ruminantia, 46 

bubble shell {Bulla), Pleurocoela, 22 

Bubo, Strigiformes, 43 

Buccinum, Stenoglossa, 22 

Bucco, Piciformes, 43 

Bucephalus, Digenea, 14 

Buceros, Coraciiformes, 43 

budgerigar (Melopsittacus), 
Psittaciformes, 43 

buffalo {Bubalus), Ruminantia, 46 

' — ', American (Bison), Ruminantia, 46 

Bufo, Procoela, 40 

bug, assassin (Rhodnius), 
Heteroptera, 27 

— , bed- (Cimex), Heteroptera, 27 

— , chinch (Blissus), Heteroptera, 27 

Bugula, Cheilostomata, 20 

Bulimus, see Bithynia 

bull toad (Megophrys), Anomocoela, 40 

Bulla, Pleurocoela, 22 

bullhead (Cottus), Scorpaenoidea, 39 

bumble bee (Bombus), Apocrita, 29 

bush baby (Galago), Prosimii, 44 

bush cricket (Tettigonia), Ensifera, 26 

bustard {Otis), Gruiformes, 42 

Busycon, Stenoglossa, 22 
*Buteo, Falcon iformes, 42 

Buthus, Scorpiones, 3 1 



button-quail (Turnix), Gruiformes, 42 
by-the-wind-sailor {Velelld), Athecata, 1 1 

C 

cabbage butterfly {Pieris), Ditrysia, 28 

Caberea, Cheilostomata, 20 

caddis flies (Trichoptera), 28 

Cadulus, Scaphopoda, 22 

Caecilia, Gymnophiona, 41 

caecilians (Gymnophiona), 41 

Caelifera, 27 
*Caems, Ephemeroptera, 26 
*Caenolestes, Marsupialia, 44 

Caiman, Crocodylia, 41 

caiman, South American {Caiman), 
Crocodylia, 41 

cake urchins (Clypeasteroida), 33 

Calamoichthys, Cladistia, 36 
*Calandra, see Sitophilus 

Calanoida, 29 

Calanus, Calanoida, 29 
*Calappa, Reptantia, 31 

Calcarea, 9 

Calcispongiae, see Calcarea 

Califomian sea lion {Zalophus), 
Pinnipedia, 46 

Caligoida, 29 

Caligus, Caligoida, 29 
*Caliphylla, Sacoglossa, 22 

Calliactis, Actiniaria, 1 2 
*Callianassa, Reptantia, 31 
*Callichthys, Siluroidea, 37 
*Calligrapha, Polyphaga, 28 

Callinectes, Reptantia, 31 

Callionymoidea, 38 

Callionymus, Callionymoidea, 38 

Calliphora, Cyclorrhapha, 28 

Callipus, Nematophora, 25 

Callithhx, see Hapale 

Callorhinchus, Holocephali, 36 
*Callorhinus, Pinnipedia, 46 

Callorhynchicola, Chimaerocoloidea, 1 3 
*Callosciurus, Sciuromorpha, 45 

Callulina, Diplasiocoela, 41 
*Calotermes, Isoptera, 26 
*Calotes, Sauria, 41 

Calyptoblastea, see Thecata 

Calyptrosphaera, Coccolithophorida, 6 

Calyssozoa, see Entoprocta 
*Camallanus, Spirurida, 1 8 

Cambala, Cambalida, 25 

Cambalida, 25 

Cambalomorpha, Cambalida, 25 



CAMBALOPSIS 



64 



CEPHALODASYS 



Cambalopsis, Cambalida, 25 

Cambarus, Reptantia, 3 1 

camel (Camelus), Tylopoda, 46 

Camelus, Tylopoda, 46 
*Camnula, Caelifera, 27 

Campodea, Diplura, 26 
*Camponotus, Apocrita, 29 

Cancer, Reptantia, 3 1 

Candona, Podocopa, 29 

Canis, Fissipeda, 45 

Capillaria, Dorylaimina, 1 8 

Capitella, Polychaeta, 24 

Capita, Piciformes, 43 

Capra, Ruminantia, 46 

Caprella, Amphipoda, 30 

Caprimulgiformes, 43 

Caprimulgus, Caprimulgiformes, 43 

Capros, Zeomorphi, 38 

Capsala, Capsaloidea, 1 3 

Capsaloidea, 13 

capuchin (Cebus), Simiae, 44 

capybara (Hydrochoerus), 
Hystricomorpha, 45 

Carabus, Adephaga, 28 
*Carassius, Cyprinoidea, 37 

Carausius, Phasmida, 26 

Carcharhinus, Galeoidea, 36 

Carcharias, see Odontaspis 
*Carchesium, Peritrichida, 9 

Carcinonemertes, Monostylifera, 16 

Carcinus, Reptantia, 3 1 
*Cardita, Eulamellibranchia, 23 

Cardium, Eulamellibranchia, 23 
*Carduelis, Passeres, 43 
*Carebara, Apocrita, 29 
'''Caretta ( = Thalassochelys), Cryptodira, 41 

Cariama, Gruiformes, 42 

cariama {Cariama), Gruiformes, 42 

caribou (Rangifer), Ruminantia, 46 

Carinaria, Mesogastropoda, 22 

Carmarina, see Geryonia 

Carnivora, 45 

Carnosa, see Homosclerophora 

carp (Cyprinus), Cyprinoidea, 37 
*Carpocapsa, see Laspeyresia 

Carteria, Phytomonadina, 6 

Carybdea, Cubomedusae, 1 1 

Caryophyllaeus, Pseudophyllidea, 14 

Caryophyllia, Scleractinia, 1 2 

Caryophyllidea, 16 

Cassiduloida, 33 

Cassidulus, Cassiduloida, 33 

Cassiopea, Rhizostomae, 12 



Cassis, Mesogastropoda, 22 

cassowary (Casuarius), 
Casuariiformes, 41 

Castanotherium, Glomerida, 25 

Castnia, Ditrysia, 28 

Castor, Sciuromorpha, 45 

Casuariiformes, 41 

Casuarius, Casuariiformes, 41 

cat (Felis), Fissipeda, 45 

' — , native' (Dasyurus), Marsupialia, 44 

Cataphracti, see Scleroparei 

Catenula, Rhabdocoela, 1 3 

catfish, electric (Malapterurus), 
Siluroidea, 37 

— , sea (Anarhichas), Blennioidea, 38 

catfishes (Siluroidea), 37 

Cathartes, Falconiformes, 42 

Cathypna, see Lecane 
*Catocala, Ditrysia, 28 

cattle (Bos), Ruminantia, 46 

cattle fever, African East Coast (Theileria), 
Haemosporidia, 8 

, Texas (Babesia), Haemosporidia, 8 

cattle rumen fluke (Paramphistomum), 
Digenea, 14 

Caudata, 40 
*Caudina, Molpadonia, 33 

Caulleryella, Schizogregarina, 7 

Cavia, Hystricomorpha, 45 

Cavolina, Pteropoda, 22 

Cebus, Simiae, 44 
*''cecropia\ see Samia 
*Celaenia, Araneae, 31 
*Celerio, Ditrysia, 28 

Centetes, see Tenrec 

centipedes (Chilopoda), 25 
*Centrina, see Oxynotus 

Centroderes, Echinoderida, 1 7 
*Centrophorus ( =Lepidorhinus), 
Squaloidea, 36 

Centropus, Cuculiformes, 43 

Centropyxis, Testacea, 7 

Centrostephanus, Diadematoida, 33 

Centrotus, Homoptera, 27 

Cepedea, Opalinina, 7 

Cephalacanthoidea, 39 

Cephalacanthus, Cephalacanthoidea, 39 

Cephalobaena, Cephalobaenida, 32 

Cephalobaenida, 32 

Cephalobus, Rhabditina, 17 

Cephalocarida, 29 

Cephalochordata, 35 

Cephalodasys, Macrodasyoidea, 1 7 



CEPHALODELLA 



65 



CHIRODROPUS 



*Cephalodella ( = Diaschiza), Ploima, 1 7 

Cephalodiscida, 34 

Cephalodisciis, Cephalodiscida, 34 
*Cephalophus, Ruminantia, 46 

Cephalopoda, 23 
*Cephalopterus, Tyranni, 43 

Cephalothrix, Palaeonemertina, 1 6 

Cephus, Symphyta, 29 

Ceratioidea, 39 

Ceratiiim, Dinoflagellata, 6 
*Ceratocephale, Polychaeta, 24 

Ceratodi formes, see Dipnoi 

Ceratodus, see Neoceratodus 

Ceratomorpha, 46 

Ceratomyxa, Myxosporidia, 8 
*Ceratophyllus, Siphonaptera, 29 
*Ceiatoplana, Acotylea, 13 

Ceratotherium, Ceratomorpha, 46 

Cerchneis, see Falco 

Cercocebus, Simiae, 44 

Cercopis, Homoptera, 27 

Cercopithecus, Simiae, 44 

Cerebratulus, Heteronemertina, 1 6 

Ceresa, Homoptera, 27 

Ceriantharia, 12 
*Cerianthus, Ceriantharia, 12 

Ceriantipatharia, 12 
*Ceriodaphnia, Cladocera, 29 
*Cerna, see Epinephelus 
*Cerura, Ditrysia, 28 

Cervus, Ruminantia, 46 

Cestida, 12 

Cestoda, 14 

Cestodaria, 14 

Cestoidea, see Cestida 

Cestoplana, Acotylea, 1 3 

Cestracion, see Heterodontus 

Cestum, Cestida, 1 2 

Cestus, see Cestum 

Cetacea, 45 

Cetominuis, Cetunculi, 37 

Cetonia, Polyphaga, 28 
*Cetorhinus, Galeoidea, 36 

Cetunculi, 37 

Chaetessa, Mantodea, 26 

Chaetodenna, Chaetodermomorpha, 2! 

Chaetodermomorpha, 21 

Chaetogaster, Oligochaeta, 24 

Chaetognatha, 32 

Chaetonotoidea, 17 

Chaetonotus, Chaetonotoidea, 1 7 

Chaetopterus, Polychaeta, 24 

chaffinch (Fringilla), Passeres, 43 



Chagas' disease (Schizotrypanum), 
Protomonadina, 6 

Chalastogastra, see Symphyta 

chalcid fly (Chalcis), Apocrita, 29 

Chalcis, Apocrita, 29 

Chalina, see Haliclona 

Chamaeleo, Sauria, 41 

chamaeleon {Chamaeleo), Sauria, 41 

chamois (Rupicapra), Ruminantia, 46 

Channa, Channoidea, 38 

Channoidea, 38 
*Chaoborus ( = Corethra), Nematocera, 28 

Chaos, Amoebina, 7 

char (Salvelinus), Salmonoidea, 36 

Charadriiformes, 42 

Charadrius, Charadriiformes, 42 
*Charax, Cyprinoidea, 37 
* — , see Puntazzo 

Charinus, Amblypygi, 3 1 

Charonia, Mesogastropoda, 22 

cheetah (Acinonyx), Fissipeda, 45 

Cheilostomata, 20 

Cheleutoptera, see Phasmida 

Chelicerata, 3 1 (footnote) 

Chelifer, Pseudoscorpiones, 3 1 

Chelodina, Pleurodira, 41 

Chelone, Cryptodira, 41 

Chelonethi, see Pseudoscorpiones 

Chelonia, see Testudines 
*Chelonus, Apocrita, 29 

Chelus, Pleurodira, 41 
*Chelydra, Cryptodira, 41 
*Chermes, Homoptera, 27 

Chernetes, see Pseudoscorpiones 

chevrotain {Tragidus), Ruminantia, 46 

ChUodonella, Cyrtophorina, 8 

Chilognatha, 25 

Chilomastix, Metamonadina, 6 

ChUomonas, Cryptomonadina, 6 

Chilopoda, 25 
*Chiloscyllium, Galeoidea, 36 

Chimaera, Holocephali, 36 

Chimaerocoloidea, 13 

chimpanzee (Pan), Simiae, 44 

chinch bug (Blissus), Heteroptera, 27 

Chinchilla, Hystricomorpha, 45 

chinchilla {Chinchilla), Hystricomorpha, 45 

Chinese liver fluke disease {Clonorchis), 
Digenea, 14 

chipmunk (Tamias), Sciuromorpha, 45 
*Chiridota, Apoda, 33 

Chirocephalus, Anostraca, 29 

Chirodropus, Cubomedusae, 1 1 



CHIROLEPTES 



66 



COBITIS 



*Chiroleptes, see Cy dor ana 

Chironomus, Nematocera, 28 
*Chironys, see Daubentonia 

Chiroptera, 44 

Chiton, Chitonida, 21 

Chitonida, 21 
*Chlaeniiis, Adephaga, 28 
*Chlamydodon, Cyrtophorina, 8 

Chlamydomonas, Phytomonadina, 6 

Chlamydophiys, Testacea, 7 
*Chlamydoselachus, Notidanoidea, 35 
*Chlamyphorus, Edentata, 44 
*C/iheopsis, see Cloeon 
*Ch/oraema, see Flabelligera 

Chloramoeba, Xanthomonadina, 6 
*Chlons, Passeres, 43 

Chlorogonium, Phytomonadina, 6 
*Chlorohydra, Athecata, 1 1 

Chloromonadina, 6 

Chloromyxum, Myxosporidia, 8 
*Chologaster, Microcyprini, 38 

Chondracanthus, Lernaeopodoida, 30 

Chondrichthyes, see Selachii 

Chondrobrachii, 37 

Chondropterygii, see Selachii 

CAow^ra^/a, Astrosclerophora, 10 

Chondrostei, 36 

Chonotrichida, 8 

Chordata, 34-^6 

Chordeuma, Nematophora, 25 

Chordeumida, see Nematophora 

Chordodes, Gordioidea, 1 7 

Choristida, 1 1 
*Chorophilus, see Pseudacris 

Chorthippus, Caelifera, 27 
*Chortophaga, Caelifera, 27 

Chromadorida, 18 

Chromadoroidea, 18 

Chromulina, Chrysomonadina, 6 

Chrysamoeba, Chrysomonadina, 6 

Chry sacra, Semaeostomae, 1 2 

Chrysemys, Cryptodira, 41 

Chrysochloris, Insectivora, 44 

Chrysolina, Polyphaga, 28 

Chrysomonadina, 6 

Chrysopa, Planipennia, 28 

Chthamaliis, Thoracica, 30 

Chthonius, Pseudoscorpiones, 3 1 
*Chydorus, Cladocera, 29 

cicada (Magicicada), Homoptera, 27 
*Cichla, Percoidea, 38 

Cicindela, Adephaga, 28 

Ciconia, Ciconiiformes, 42 



Ciconiiformes, 42 

Cidaris, Cidaroida, 33 

Cidaroida, 33 

Ciliata, 8-9 

Ciliophora, see Ciliata 

Citnex, Heteroptera, 27 

Ciona, Phlebobranchiata, 34 
*Circotettix, Caelifera, 27 
*Circus, Falconiformes, 42 
*Cirolana, Isopoda, 30 

Cirratuliis, Polychaeta, 24 

Cirripedia, 30 
*Cistudo, Cryptodira, 41 

Citellus, Sciuromorpha, 45 

civet ( Viverra), Fissipeda, 45 

Cladistia, 36 

Cladocera, 29 

Cladocopa, 29 

Cladorhiza, Sigmatosclerophora, 10 
*Clangula, Anseriformes, 42 
*Clarias, Siluroidea, 37 

Clathrina, Homocoela, 9 

Clathrulina, Heliozoa, 7 
*Clava, Athecata, 1 1 

Clavelina, Aplousobranchiata, 34 

clawed toad (Xenopus), Opisthocoela, 40 
*Clenimys, Cryptodira, 41 

Clethrionomys, Myomorpha, 45 
*Clibanarius, Reptantia, 31 

Climacostomum, Heterotrichina, 9 

climbing perch (Anabas), Anabantoidea, 38 

cling-fishes (Xenopterygii), 39 

Cliona, Astrosclerophora, 10 

Clione, Pteropoda, 22 

Clistogastra, see Apocrita 

ClitelHo, Oligochaeta, 24 
* Cloeon ( - Chloeopsis), Ephemeroptera, 26 

Clonorchis, Digenea, 14 

clothes moth (Tinea), Ditrysia, 28 

Clupea, Clupeoidea, 36 

Clupeiformes, see Isospondyli 

Clupeoidea, 36 

Clypeaster, Clypeasterina, 33 

Clypeasterina, 33 

Clypeasteroida, 33 
*Cnemidophorus, Sauria, 41 
*Cnesterodon, Microcyprini, 38 

Cnidaria, 11-12 

— , see Ctenophora 

Cnidosporidia, 8 

coat of mail shell (Chiton), Chitonida, 21 

cobego (Cynocephalus), Dermoptera, 44 
*Cobitis, Cyprinoidea, 37 



COBRA 



67 



COTURNK 



cobra (Naja), Serpentes, 41 

Coccidiomorpha, 7-8 

Coccidium. see Eimeria 

Coccinella, Polyphaga, 28 

Coccolithophorida, 6 

Coccomyxa, Myxosporidia, 8 

Coccus. Homoptera, 27 

Cochliopodium, Testacea, 7 

cockle (Cardium), Eulamellibranchia, 23 

cockroaches (Blattodea), 26 

cod (Gadus), Anacanthini, 38 

coelacanth (Latimeria), Actinistia, 40 

Coelacanthini, see Actinistia 

Coelenterata. see Cnidaria 

— , see Ctenophora 

Coelodendrum, Radiolaria, 7 
*Coelogenys, see Cunicuhts 

Coeloplana, Platyctenea, 1 2 

Coelosomides, Trichostomatida, 8 

Coenagrion, Zygoptera, 26 
*Coenobita, Reptantia, 31 

Coleoptera, 28 
*Colias, Ditrysia, 28 

Coliiformes, 43 

Colius, Coliiformes, 43 

Collembola, 25 
*Collocalia. Apodiformes, 43 

Collotheca, Collothecacea, 1 7 

Collothecacea, 17 

Collozoum, Radiolaria, 7 

Colobognatha, 25 

Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa), 
Polyphaga, 28 

Colossendeis, Colossendeomorpha, 3 1 

Colossendeomorpha, 3 1 
*Colpidium, Tetrahymenina, 8 

Colpoda, Trichostomatida, 8 

colugo iCynocephahis), Dermoptera, 44 

Columba. Columbiformes, 43 

Columbiformes, 43 

Colymbiformes, see Gaviiformes 

— , see Podicipediformes 

Colymbus, see Gavia 

comb jellies (Ctenophora), 12-13 

comb jelly (Mnemiopsis), Lobata, 12 

common lemur (Lemur), Prosimii, 44 

common old world mole (Talpa), 
Insectivora, 44 

common phalanger (Trichosurus), 
Marsupialia, 44 
*Compsus, Polyphaga, 28 

Conchophthirus, Thigmotrichida, 9 

Conchostraca, 29 



Condylostoma, Heterotrichina, 9 
*Condylura, Insectivora, 44 

coney (Procavia), Hyracoidea, 46 

Conger, Apodes, 37 

Congo eel {Amphiuma), 
Salamandroidea, 40 
* Congromuraena, Apodes, 37 

Conochilus, Flosculariacea, 1 7 
*Conotrachelus, Polyphaga, 28 

Constrictor, Serpentes, 41 

Contarinia, Nematocera, 28 

Conus, Stenoglossa, 22 

Convolute/, Acoela, 13 

Cooperia, Strongylina, 1 8 

Copeina, Cyprinoidea, 37 

Copelata, 35 

Copeognatha, see Psocoptera 

Copepoda, 29-30 

Coracias, Coraciiformes, 43 

Coraciiformes, 43 

Corallimorpharia, 12 

corals, black (Antipatharia), 12 

— , soft (Octocorallia), 12 

— , stony (Scleractinia), 12 

— , true (Scleractinia), 12 

Cordulegaster, Anisoptera, 26 
*Cordylobia, Cyclorrhapha, 28 
*Coregonus, Salmonoidea, 36 
*Corella, Phlebobranchiata, 34 
*Corethra, see Chaoborus 

Corixa, Heteroptera, 27 

cormorant (Phalacrocorax), 
Pelecaniformes, 42 

Cornish suckers (Xenopterygii), 39 

Cornuspira, Foraminifera, 7 

Coronatae, 1 1 

Corophium, Amphipoda, 30 

Corrodentia, see Psocoptera 

Corvus, Passeres, 43 

Corydalis, Megaloptera, 27 
*Corymorpha, Athecata, 1 1 

Corynactis, Corallimorpharia, 12 

Coryne, Athecata, 1 1 

Cossus, Ditrysia, 28 
*Cothurnia, Peritrichida, 9 

Cotinga, Tyranni, 43 

cotinga {Cotinga), Tyranni, 43 
*Cotinis, Polyphaga, 28 

cotton rat (Sigmodon), Myomorpha, 45 

cotton stainer (Dysdercus), Heteroptera, 27 

cottontail (Sylvilagus), Lagomorpha, 45 

Cottus, Scorpaenoidea, 39 
*Coturnix, Galliformes, 42 



COTYLEA 



68 



CYCLOPH\ LLIDEA 



Cotylea, 13 

Cotylorhiza, Rhizostomae, 12 
coucal {Centropus), Cuculiformes, 43 
coucha rat (Mastomys), Myomorpha, 45 
cougar (Felis), Fissipeda, 45 
cowrie (Cypraea), Mesogastropoda, 22 
coypu {Myocastor), Hystricomorpha, 45 
crab, blue (Callinectes), Reptantia, 31 
— , edible (Cancer), Reptantia, 3 1 
— , fiddler {Uca), Reptantia, 31 
— , hermit {Dardanus), Reptantia, 3 1 
— , — (Pagurus), Reptantia, 31 
— , river (Potamon), Reptantia, 3 1 
— , shore (Carcinus), Reptantia, 31 
— , spider (Maia), Reptantia, 31 
— , stone {Lithodes), Reptantia, 31 
crab louse (Phthirus), Anoplura, 27 
crabs, king (Xiphosura), 3 1 
Crago, see Crangon 
crane {Gnis), Gruiformes, 42 
Crangon, Natantia, 3 1 
Crania, Neotremata, 21 
Cranie/la, see TetilJa 
Craspedacusta, Limnomedusae, 1 1 
*Crassostrea ( = Gryphaea), 
Eulamellibranchia, 23 
Craterostigmomorpha, 25 
Craterostigmus, 

Craterostigmomorpha, 25 
crawfish (Pa/mMn/5), Reptantia, 31 
Crax, Galliformes, 42 
crayfish, fresh-water {Astacus), 

Reptantia, 3 1 
— , — (Cambariis), Reptantia, 31 
*Crenilabrus, Percoidea, 38 
*Creophilus, Polyphaga, 28 
Crepidula, Mesogastropoda, 22 
Cricetus, Myomorpha, 45 
cricket (Acheta), Ensifera, 26 
— , bush (Tettigonia), Ensifera, 26 
— , mole (Gryllotalpa), Ensifera, 26 
— , snowy (Oecanthus), Ensifera, 26 
*Cricotopus ( = Acricotopus), 
Nematocera, 28 
Crinoidea, 32 
*Crioceris, Polyphaga, 28 
Crista, Cyclostomata, 20 
Cristatella, Phylactolaemata, 20 
Crithidia, Protomonadina, 6 
Crocidura, Insectivora, 44 
crocodile {Crocodylus), Crocodylia, 41 
Crocodylia, 41 
Crocodylus, Crocodylia, 41 



Crossopterygii, 40 

Crotalus, Serpentes, 41 

Crotophaga, Cuculiformes, 43 

crow (Corvus), Passeres, 43 

crowned pigeon (Goura), 
Columbiformes, 43 

Crustacea, 29-3 1 

Cryptobranchoidea, 40 

Cryptobranchus, Cryptobianchoidea, 40 
*Cryptocercus, Blattodea, 26 
*Cryptochaetum, Cyclorrhapha, 28 

Cryptochiton, Chitonida, 21 

Cryptocysta, see Microsporidia 

Cryptodira, 41 

Cryptomonadina, 6 

Cryptomonas, Cryptomonadina, 6 

Cryptopora, Rhynchonelloidea, 21 

Cryptops, Scolopendromorpha, 25 

Cryptosula, Cheilostomata, 20 
* Crypt Otis, Insectivora, 44 

Crypturellus, Tinamiformes, 41 

Crypturi, see Tinamiformes 

Ctenocephalides, Siphonaptera, 29 
*Ctenolabrus, Percoidea, 38 

Ctenophora, 12-13 

— , see Cnidaria 

Ctenoplana, Platyctenea, 12 

Ctenoplana, see Platyctenea 

Ctenostomata, 20 

Ctenostomatida, 9 

Cubomedusae, 1 1 

cuckoo (Cuculus), Cuculiformes, 43 

Cuculiformes, 43 

Cuculus, Cuculiformes, 43 

Cucumaria, Dendrochirota, 33 

Culex, Nematocera, 28 

Cumacea, 30 
*Cumingia, Eulamellibranchia, 23 
*Cunicuhis ( = Coelogenys), 
Hystricomorpha, 45 

Cunina, Narcomedusae, 1 1 

Cupes, Archostemata, 28 

curassow {Crax), Galliformes, 42 

cusk eels (Ophidioidea), 38 

Cuspidaria, Septibranchia, 23 

cuttle-fish (Sepia), Decapoda, 23 

Cyamus, Amphipoda, 30 

Cyanea, Semaeostomae, 1 2 

Cyathomonas, Cryptomonadina, 6 

*Cyathura, Isopoda, 30 

Cyclidium, Pleuronematina, 8 

Cyclomyaria, see Doliolida 

Cyclophyllidea, 14 



CYCLOPOroA 



69 



DIADEMA 



Cyclopoida, 29 

Cycloposthium, Entodiniomorphida, 9 

Cyclops, Cyclopoida, 29 
*Cycloptenis, Scorpaenoidea, 39 
*Cyc/orana ( = Chiroleptes), Procoela, 40 

Cyclorrhapha, 28 

Cyclospora, Eimeriidea, 7 
*Cyclostoma, see Pomatias 

Cyclostomata, 20, 35 

Cydippida, 12 

Cygnus, Anseriformes, 42 

Cylindroiuhis, Julida, 25 

Cylindrolainms, Chromadorida, 1 8 
*Cymbium, see Melo 

Cymothoa, Isopoda, 30 
*Cynips ( = Dryophanta), Apocrita, 29 

Cynocephalus, Dermoptera, 44 
*Cynomys, Sciuromorpha, 45 

Cynopterus, Megachiroptera, 44 
*Cynoscion, Percoidea, 38 
*Cyphoderia, Testacea, 7 

Cypraea, Mesogastropoda, 22 

Cypridina, Myodocopa, 29 

Cyprinodontes, see Microcyprini 

Cyprinodontiformes, see Microcyprini 

Cyprinoidea, 37 

Cyprimis, Cyprinoidea, 37 

Cypris, Podocopa, 29 

Cyrtophorina, 8 

cyst eelworm (Heterodera), Tylenchida, 1 8 

Cysticerciis, see Taenia 
*Cystophora, Pinnipedia, 46 

Cythere, Podocopa, 29 

Cytherella, Platycopa, 29 

Cyzicus, Conchostraca, 29 

D 

Dactylifera, see Temnocephalidea 
Dactyloda, see Temnocephalidea 
Dactylogyrus, Gyrodactyloidea, 13 
Dactylonietra, Semaeostomae, 1 2 
Dactylopteroidea, see Cephalacanthoidea 
Dactylopterus, see Cephalacanthus 

* Dacus, Cyclorrhapha, 28 
daddy-long-legs (Tipula), Nematocera, 28 
Dallia, Haplomi, 37 
Dallina, Terebratelloidea, 21 

* Dallingeria, Metamonadina, 6 
Dalyellia, Rhabdocoela, 1 3 
Dama, Ruminantia, 46 
Damon, Amblypygi, 31 
damsel flies (Zygoptera), 26 

*Danaus ( = Anosia), Dilrysia, 28 



*Danio, Cyprinoidea, 37 

Daphnia, Cladocera, 29 

Dardanus, Reptantia, 3 1 

Dasyatis, Batoidea, 36 
* Dasybranchus, Polychaeta, 24 

Dasypus, Edentata, 44 

Dasyurus, Marsupialia, 44 
* Daiibentonia ( — Chironys), Prosimii, 44 

dead men's fingers (Alcyoninm), 
Alcyonacea, 12 

death's head hawk moth (Acherontia), 
Ditrysia, 28 

Decapoda, 23, 3 1 
*Decticus, Ensifera, 26 

deep-sea anglerfishes (Ceratioidea), 39 

deer, fallow (Dama), Ruminantia, 46 

— , musk (Moschus), Ruminantia, 46 

— , red (Cervus), Ruminantia, 46 

deer mouse (Peromyscus), Myomorpha, 45 
*Deilephila, Ditrysia, 28 

Deima, Elasipoda, 32 

Delphinus, Odontoceti, 45 

Demospongiae, 10-11 

Dendraster, Scutellina, 33 

Dendrobates, Procoela, 40 

Dendrochirota, 33 

Dendrocoelum, Paludicola, 13 

Dendroctonus, Polyphaga, 28 
* Dendrodoa, Stolidobranchiata, 35 

Dendrohyrax, Hyracoidea, 46 

* Dendroides, Polyphaga, 28 
* Dendrolinuis, Ditrysia, 28 

Dendromonas, Chrysomonadina, 6 
Dendrostomum, Sipunculoidea, 23 

* Denisonia, Serpen tes, 41 
Dentalium, Scaphopoda, 22 
Depressaria, Ditrysia, 28 
Dermanyssus, Acari, 31 
Dermaptera, 27 

* Dermestes, Polyphaga, 28 
Dermochelys, Cryptodira, 41 
Dermoptera, 44 
Derocheilocarida, 30 
Derocheilocaris, Derocheilocarida, 30 

* Derostonuh Rhabdocoela, 13 
Desmodus, Microchiroptera, 44 
Desmognathus, Salamandroidea, 40 
Desmomyaria, see Salpida 
Desmoscolecoidea, 19 
Desmoscolex, Chromadorida, 1 8 
Devescovina, Metamonadina, 6 

* Diacrisia, Ditrysia, 28 
Diadema, Diadematoida, 33 



DIADEMATACEA 



70 



DONUSA 



Diadematacea, 33 

Diadematoida, 33 

Diaptomus, Calanoida, 29 
* Diaschiza, see Cephalodella 

Diastylis, Cumacea, 30 
*Diazona, Phlebobranchiata, 34 

Dibothriocephalus, see Diphyllobothrium 

Dibranchia, 23 

Dicamptodon, Ambystomoidea, 40 
* Dicentrarchus ( =Labrax), Percoidea, 38 

Diceros, Ceratomorpha, 46 

Diclidophora, Diclidophoroidea, 1 3 

Diclidophoroidea, 13 

Diclybothrium, Diclybothroidea, 14 

Diclybothroidea, 14 
* Dicranophorus, Ploima, 17 

Dicrocoelium, Digenea, 14 

Dictyocaulus, Strongylina, 1 8 

Dictyocha, Silicoflagellata, 6 
*Dictyoploca, Embioptera, 27 

Dictyoptera, 26 

Dicyema, Dicyemida, 9 

Dicyemida, 9 

Didelphis, Marsupialia, 44 

Didemnum, Aplousobranchiata, 34 

Didesmida, 14 
* Diediocephala, Homoptera, 27 

Diemictylus, Salamandroidea, 40 

Dientamoeba, Rhizomastigina, 7 

Difflugia, Testacea, 7 

Digenea, 14 

Dileptus, Rhabdophorina, 8 

Dina, Gnathobdellida, 24 

Dinamoebidium, Dinoflagellata, 6 

Dinobryon, Chrysomonadina, 6 

Dinoflagellata, 6 

Dinophilus, Archiannelida, 24 

Dioctophymatina, 18 

Dioctophyme, Dioctophymatina, 1 8 

Dioctophymoidea, 19 
*Diodon, Tetraodontoidea, 39 
*Diodora, Archaeogastropoda, 21 

Diomedea, Procellariiformes, 42 

Diophrys, Hypotrichida, 9 

Diotocardia, see Archaeogastropoda 

Diphyllidea, 14 

Diphyllobothrium, Pseudophyllidea, 14 

Diplasiocoela, 41 
* Diplodinium, Entodiniomorphida, 9 

Diplogaster, Rhabditina, 1 7 

Diploglossata, see Hemimerina 
* Diplolepis ( = Rhodites), Apocrita, 29 

Diplomonadida, see Distomatina 



Diplomystes, Siluroidea, 37 

Diplopoda, 24-25 

Diplosolen, Cyclostomata, 20 

Diplostomum, Digenea, 14 

Diplozoon, Diclidophoroidea, 1 3 

Diplura, 26 

Dipneusti, see Dipnoi 

Dipnoi, 40 
* Dipodomys, Sciuromorpha, 45 
* Dipsadomorphus, see Boiga 

Diptera, 28 

Dipus, Myomorpha, 45 

Dipylidium, Cyclophyllidea, 14 

Diwfilaria, Spirurida, 1 8 

Discinisca, Neotremata, 21 

Discocephali, 39 

Discocephalum, Tetraphyllidea, 14 

Discocotyle, Diclidophoroidea, 1 3 

Discoglossiis, Opisthocoela, 40 

Discomorpha, Ctenostomatida, 9 

Discorbis, Foraminifera, 7 

Disculicepitidea, 16 
* Dissosteira, Caelifera, 27 

Distoma, see Fasciola 

Distomatina, 7 

Distomum, see Fasciola 

Distyla, see Lecane 
*Ditrema, Percoidea, 38 

Ditrysia, 28 

Ditylenchus, Tylenchida, 1 8 
*Diurella, see Trichocerca 

divers (Gaviiformes), 42 

diving petrel (Pelecanoides), 
Procellariiformes, 42 

Dixippus, see Carausius 

Dobson fly (Corydalis), Megaloptera, 27 

Dodecolopoda, Colossendeomorpha, 31 

dog {Canis), Fissipeda, 45 

dog heart worm (DirofHaria), Spirurida, 1 8 

dog kidney worm (Dioctophyme), 
Dioctophymatina, 18 

dogfish (Scyliorhinus), Galeoidea, 36 

dogfishes (Pleurotremata), 35-36 

dog-whelk (Nassa), Stenoglossa, 22 

Dolichoglossus, see Saccoglossus 

Doliolida, 35 

Doliolum, Doliolida, 35 
* Dolium, see Tonna 

Dolops, Branchiura, 30 

dolphin (Delphinus), Odontoceti, 45 

— , bottle-nosed (7M/-5/o;j5'),Odontoceti, 45 

donkey {Equus), Hippomorpha, 46 
*Donusa, Phasmida, 26 



DORIS 



71 



EEVIERIA 



Doris, Nudibranchia, 22 

dormouse {Glis), Myomorpha, 45 

— (Muscardinus), Myomorpha, 45 

Dorylaimina, 18 

Dorylaimoidea, 18 

Dorylaimus, Dorylaimina, 18 

Dracunculoidea, 19 

jDrafM/7fw/w5, Spirurida, 18 

dragonets (Callionymoidea), 38 

dragon-fishes (Hypostomides), 39 

dragonflies, true (Anisoptera), 26 

Drepanophorus, Polystylifera, 16 
* Drilocrius, Oligochaeta, 24 

dromedary {Camelus), Tylopoda, 46 
*Dromia, Reptantia, 31 

Dromiceius, Casuariiformes, 41 

drone fly (Eristalis), Cyclorrhapha, 28 

Drosophila, Cyclorrhapha, 28 
* Dryocopus, Piciformes, 43 
* Dryophanta, see Cynips 

duck {Anas), Anseriformes, 42 

duck-bill (Ornithorhynchus), 
Monotremata, 43 

Dugesia, Paludicola, 13 

Dugong, Sirenia, 46 

dugong (Dugong), Sirenia, 46 

dusky salamander {Desmognathus), 
Salamandroidea, 40 

dwarf siren {Pseiidobranchus), Meantes, 40 

Dysdercus, Heteroptera, 27 

dysentery (Balantidiiim), 
Trichostomatida, 8 

— , amoebic (Entamoeba), Amoebina, 7 

Dytiscus, Adephaga, 28 



ear-shell (Haliotis), Archaeogastropoda, 2 1 
earthworm (Allolobophora), Oligochaeta, 24 

— (Eisenia), Oligochaeta, 24 

— (Lumbricus), Oligochaeta, 24 

— (Pheretima), Oligochaeta, 24 
earwigs (Forficulina), 27 

eastern mole (Scalopus), Insectivora, 44 
eastern newt {Diemictylus), 

Salamandroidea, 40 
Ebria, Ebriideae, 6 
Ebriaceae, see Ebriideae 
Ebriideae, 6 
'''Ecdyonurus, Ephemeroptera, 26 
Echeneihothrium, Tetraphyllidea, 14 
Echeneiformes, see Discocephali 
Echeneis, Discocephali, 39 
Echidna, see Tachyglossus 



Echidnophaga, Siphonaptera, 29 
Echinacea, 33 

Echinarachniiis, Scutellina, 33 
Echiniscus, Heterotardigrada, 32 
Echinobothrium, Diphyllidea, 14 
Echinocardium, Spatangoida, 34 
Echinococcus, Cyclophyllidea, 14 
Echinocucmnis, Dendrochirota, 33 
Echinocyamus, Laganina, 33 
Echinoderes, Echinoderida, 1 7 
Echinoderida, 17 
Echinodermata, 32-34 
Echinoida, 33 
Echinoidea, 33-34 
Echinometra, Echinoida, 33 
Echinoneina, 33 
Echinoneus, Echinoneina, 33 
Echinorhinus, Squaloidea, 36 
Echinorhynchus, Palaeacanthocephala, 20 
Echinosorex, Insectivora, 44 
Echinostoma, Digenea, 14 
Echinothurioida, 33 
Echinus, Echinoida, 33 
* Echiostoma, Stomiatoidea, 36 
Echiuroidea, 23 
Echiuroinea, 23 
Echiurus, Echiuroinea, 23 
Ectobius, Blattodea, 26 
Ectoprocta, see Polyzoa 
Edentata, 44 

edible crab {Cancer), Reptantia, 31 
eel, Congo (Amphiuma), 

Salamandroidea, 40 
— , electric {Electrophorus), Cyprinoidea, 37 
— , mud- {Siren), Meantes, 40 
— , shore {Alabes), Alabetoidea, 40 
eels (Apodes), 37 
— , cusk (Ophidioidea), 38 
— , gulper (Lyomeri), 37 
— , spiny (Opisthomi), 39 
eelworm, cyst (Heterodera), Tylenchida, 1 8 
— , leaf {Aphelenchoides), Tylenchida, 1 8 
— , root-knot {Meloidogyne), 

Tylenchida, 18 
— , sour paste (Panagrellus), 

Rhabditina, 17 
— , stem-and-bulb (Ditylenchus), 

Tylenchida, 18 
— , vinegar {Turbatrix), Rhabditina, 1 7 
— , wheat gall (Anguina), Tylenchida, 18 
*Egernia, Sauria, 41 
* Eidolon, Megachiroptera, 44 
Eimeria, Eimeriidea, 7 



EIMERHDEA 



72 



ESOCOroEI 



Eimeriidea, 7 

Eisenia, Oligochaeta, 24 

eland (Taurotragus), Ruminantia, 46 

Elasipoda, 32 

Elasmobranchii, see Selachii 

electric catfish (Malaptenirus), 

Siluroidea, 37 
electric eel (Electrophorus), Cyprinoidea, 37 
Electrophonis, Cyprinoidea, 37 
Eledone, Octopoda, 23 
elephant, African (Loxodonta), 

Proboscidea, 46 
— , Asiatic (Elephas), 

Proboscidea, 46 
elephant louse (Haematomyzus), 

Rhynchophthirina, 27 
elephant seal (Mirounga), Pinnipedia, 46 
elephant shrew (Macroscelides), 

Insectivora, 44 
*Elephantulus, Insectivora, 44 
Elephas, Proboscidea, 46 
Eleutherodactylus, Procoela, 40 
Eleutherozoa, 32-34 

'elk', American {Cervus), Ruminantia, 46 
elk, European {Alces), Ruminantia, 46 
Elminius, Thoracica, 30 
Elphidiiim, Foraminifera, 7 
Elpidia, Elasipoda, 32 
Elysia, Sacoglossa, 22 
Embadomonas, Metamonadina, 6 
*Emberiza, Passeres, 43 
Embia, Embioptera, 27 
Embioptera, 27 
*Emerita, Reptantia, 3 1 
* Emplectonema, Monostylifera, 16 
Empoasca, Homoptera, 27 
Einpusa, Mantodea, 26 
emu {Dromiceius), Casuariiformes, 41 
*Emys, Cryptodira, 41 
*Enallagma, Zygoptera, 26 
*Enarmonia, Ditrysia, 28 
Enchytraeus, Oligochaeta, 24 
Endamoeba, Amoebina, 7 
Endolimax, Amoebina, 7 
Endoprocta, see Entoprocta 
Endopterygota, see Oligoneoptera 
*Engraulis, Clupeoidea, 36 
Enopla, 39 
Enoplida, 18 
Enoplina, 18 
Enoploidea, 18 
Enoplus, Enoplina, 18 
Ensifera, 26 



*Ensis, Eulamellibranchia, 23 

Entamoeba, Amoebina, 7 

Enterobius, Ascaridina, 1 8 

Enterogona, 34 

Enteromonas, Metamonadina, 6 

Enteropneusta, 34 

Entodiniomorphida, 9 

Entodiniiim, Entodiniomorphida, 9 

Entoniscus, Isopoda, 30 

Entoprocta, 20 
*Entosphenus, Hyperoartii, 35 
*Entylia, Homoptera, 27 

Eoacanthocephala, 20 

Eolis, Nudibranchia, 22 

Eos, Psittaciformes, 43 

Eosentomon, Protura, 26 

Epalxis, Ctenostomatida, 9 

Epeira, see Araneus 

Ephemera, Ephemeroptera, 26 
*Ephemerella, Ephemeroptera, 26 

Ephemeroptera, 26 

Ephestia, Ditrysia, 28 

Epidinium, Entodiniomorphida, 9 
*EpUachna, Polyphaga, 28 

Epimorpha, 25 

Epimys, see Rattus 
*Epinephele, Ditrysia, 28 
* Epinephelus { = Cerna), Percoidea, 38 

Epiophlebia, Anisozygoptera, 26 

Epiphanes, Ploima, 1 7 

Epipolasida, 1 1 

Epistylis, Peritrichida, 9 

Epizoanthus, Zoanthiniaria, 1 2 

Epomophorus, Megachiroptera, 44 
*Eptesicus, Microchiroptera, 44 
*Eqimla, Percoidea, 38 

Eqiius, Hippomorpha, 46 
*Erannis ( = Hybernia), Ditrysia., 28 
*Encymba, Cyprinoidea, 37 

Erinaceus, Insectivora, 44 

Eiiocephala, see Micropteryx 
*Eriocheir, Reptantia, 3 1 

Eriocrania, Monotrysia, 28 
*Enphia, Ditrysia, 28 
* — , Reptantia, 31 

Eristalis, Cyclorrhapha, 28 
*Erithacus, Passeres, 43 

ermine (Mustela), Fissipeda, 45 

Erpetoichthys, see Calamoichthys 

Erpobdella, Gnathobdellida, 24 

Errantia, 24 (footnote) 
*Erythrimis, Cyprinoidea, 37 

Esocoidei, see Haplomi 



ESOX 



73 



FLEA, LUCERNE 



Esox, Haplomi, 37 
Esperiopsis, Sigmatosclerophora, 10 
Estheria, see Cyzicus 
Ethnwstigmus. Scolopendromorpha, 25 
*Etmopterus, see Spinax 
*Eubranchipus, Anostraca, 29 
Eucarida, 30-31 
Eucestoda, 16 
Eucharis, see Leucothea 
Euchlanis. Ploima, 1 7 
Eucoccidia, 7-8 
*Eucrangonyx ( — Bactrurus), 

Amphipoda, 30 
Eudorina, Phytomonadina, 6 
Eudyptes, Sphenisciformes, 42 
Euechinoidea, 33-34 
Eugaleus, see Galeorhinus 
Euglena, Euglenoidina, 6 
Euglenoidina, 6 
Eiiglypha, Testacea, 7 
Eugnatha, see Helminthomorpha 
Eugregarina, 7 
Eukrohnia, Chaetognatha, 32 
Eulamellibranchia, 23 
Eunice, Polychaeta, 24 
Eunicella, Gorgonacea, 1 2 
Eupagunis, see Pagurus 
Euphaiisia, Euphausiacea, 30 
Euphausiacea, 30 
Euplanaria, see Dugesia 
Euplectella, Hexasterophora, 10 
*Euplectes ( =Pyromeland), Passeres, 43 

Euplotes, Hypotrichida, 9 
*Eupolymma ( =Polymnia), Polychaeta, 24 
*Euproctis, Ditrysia, 28 
European elk (Alces), Ruminantia, 46 
European spade foot (Pelobates), 

Anomocoela, 40 
Euryalae, 34 
Eurylaimi, 43 
Euiylepta, Cotylea, 1 3 
Eurypharynx, Lyomeri, 37 
Eurypyga, Gruiformes, 42 
Eurystomata, 20 
*Euscorpius, Scorpiones, 3 1 
Euselachii, 35-36 
Eusepia, see Sepia 
Euspongia, see Spongia 
Eusthenia, Plecoptera, 26 
*Eustrongylides, Dioctophymatina, 18 
Eutaeniophorus, Miripinnati, 37 
Eutardigrada, 32 
*Eutettix, Homoptera, 27 



Eutheria, 44-46 
*Eutonina, Thecata, 1 1 

Eutrichomastix, see Monocercomonas 
*Eutyphoeus, Oligochaeta, 24 

Evadne, Cladocera, 29 

Eventognathi, see Cyprinoidea 

Evetria, Ditrysia, 28 

Evotomys, see Clethriotwmys 

Exocoetoidea, 37 

Exocoetus, Exocoetoidea, 37 

Exopterygota, see Palaeoptera 

— , see Paraneoptera 

— , see Polyneoptera 

eye worm (Thelazia), Spirurida, 1 8 



*Fabncia, Polychaeta, 24 
Falco, Falconiformes, 42 
falcon {Falco), Falconiformes, 42 
Falconiformes, 42 
fallow deer (Dama), Ruminantia, 46 
false scorpions (Pseudoscorpiones), 3 1 
false spiders (Solifugae), 3 1 
*Fannia, Cyclorrhapha, 28 
Farrea, Hexasterophora, 10 
Fasciola, Digenea, 14 
feather star (Antedon), Articulata, 32 

(Tropiometra), Articulata, 32 

Felis, Fissipeda, 45 

ferret (Mustela), Fissipeda, 45 

fiddler crab (Uca), Reptantia, 31 

fig-insect (Blastophaga), Apocrita, 29 

filarial worm {Wuchererid), Spirurida, 18 

Filarioidea, 19 

Filibranchia, 22 

Filicollis, Palaeacanthocephala, 20 

Filinia, Flosculariacea, 1 7 

fire bellied toad (Botnbina), 

Opisthocoela, 40 
fire brat (Thermobia), Thysanura, 26 
fire salamander (Salamandra), 

Salamandroidea, 40 
fishes, bony (Pisces), 36-40 
Fissipeda, 45 
*Fissurella, Archaeogastropoda, 21 
*Flabelligera ( = Chloraemci), Polychaeta, 24 
*FlabelMa, Amoebina, 7 
Flagellata, see Mastigophora 
flamingos (Phoenicopteriformes), 42 
flat-fishes (Heterosomata), 39 
flatworms (Platyhelminthes), 13-14 
flea, lucerne {Sminthurus), 

Symphypleona, 25 



FLEAS 



74 



FURNARIUS 



fleas (Siphonaptera), 29 

— , water (Cladocera), 29 

flies, caddis (Trichoptera), 28 

— , damsel (Zygoptera), 26 

— , may- (Ephemeroptera), 26 

— , scorpion (Mecoptera), 28 

— , stone- (Plecoptera), 26 

— , true (Diptera), 28 

— , two-winged (Diptera), 28 

Floriceps, Tetrarhynchoidea, 14 

Floscularia, Flosculariacea, 1 7 

— , see C olio thee a 

Flosculariacea, 17 

flounder (Limanda), Heterosomata, 39 

flour beetle (Tribolium), Polyphaga, 28 

flour moths (Ephestia), Ditrysia, 28 

fluke, cattle rumen (Paramphistomum), 

Digenea, 14 
— , liver, cattle and sheep (Dieroeoelium), 

Digenea, 14 
— , — (Faseiola), Digenea, 14 
— , lung (Paragonimus), Digenea, 14 
flukes (Trematoda), 14 
Flustra, Cheilostomata, 20 
fly, alder (Sialis), Megaloptera, 27 
— , ant lion {Myrmeleon), Planipennia, 28 
— , black (Simulium), Nematocera, 28 
— , chalcid (Chalcis), Apocrita, 29 
— , Dobson (Corydalis), Megaloptera, 27 
— , drone (En'stalis), Cyclorrhapha, 28 
— , frit (Oscinella), Cyclorrhapha, 28 
— , horse (Tabanus), Brachycera, 28 
— , house (Musca), Cyclorrhapha, 28 
— , ichneumon (lehneumon), Apocrita, 29 
— , — {Nemeritis), Apocrita, 29 
— , lantern (Phenax), Homoptera, 27 
— , sand (Phlebotomus), Nematocera, 28 
— , small fruit {Drosophila), 

Cyclorrhapha, 28 
— , snake (Raphidia), Megaloptera, 27 
— , tse-tse (Glossina), Cyclorrhapha, 28 
flying fish (Exoeoetus), Exocoetoidea, 37 
flying fox (Pteropus), Megachiroptera, 44 
flying gurnards (Cephalacanthoidea), 39 
flying lemur (Cynoeephalus), 

Dermoptera, 44 
flying squirrel, American (Glaueomys), 

Sciuromorpha, 45 
, scale-tailed {Anomalurus), 

Sciuromorpha, 45 
Foettingeria, Apostomatida, 8 
Folia, see Velamen 
Foraminifera, 7 



Forcipulata, 34 

Forfieula, Forficulina, 27 

Forficulina, 27 

Formiea, Apocrita, 29 

Formiearius, Tyranni, 43 

four-eyed fish {Anableps), Microcyprini, 38 

fowl (Gallus), Galliformes, 42 

■ — , guinea (Numida), Galliformes, 42 

fowl louse (Lipeurus), Mallophaga, 27 

fox (Vulpes), Fissipeda, 45 

— , flying (Pteropus), Megachiroptera, 44 

Fratercula, Charadriiformes, 42 

Fregata, Pelecaniformes, 42 

fresh-water crayfish {Astaeus), 

Reptantia, 31 
— - — (Cambarus), Reptantia, 3 1 
fresh-water limpet {Ancylus), 

Basommatophora, 22 
fresh-water shrimp (Gammarus), 

Amphipoda, 30 
frigate bird (Fregata), Pelecaniformes, 42 
Fringilla, Passeres, 43 
frit fly (Oscinella), Cyclorrhapha, 28 
Fritillaria, Copelata, 35 
frog (Rana), Diplasiocoela, 41 
— , hairy (Astylostenms), Diplasiocoela, 41 
— , marsupial (Gastrotheca), Procoela, 40 
— , New Zealand (Leiopelma), 

Amphicoela, 40 
— , painted (Discoglossus), Opisthocoela, 40 
— , poison (Dendrobates), Procoela, 40 
— , robber (Eleutherodactyhis), Procoela, 40 
— , tailed (Ascaplms), Amphicoela, 40 
— , tree (Hyla), Procoela, 40 
— , — (Rhacophorus), Diplasiocoela, 41 
— , true (Rana), Diplasiocoela, 41 
frog fishes (Antennarioidea), 39 
frog hopper (Cercopis), Homoptera, 27 

(Philaenus), Homoptera, 27 

frogmouth (Podargiis), 

Caprimulgiformes, 43 
Frontonia, Peniculina, 8 
frost fish (Lepidopus), Trichiuroidea, 38 
fruit bat (Cynopterus), Megachiroptera, 44 

(Epomophorus), Megachiroptera, 44 

fruit fly, small (Drosophila), 

Cyclorrhapha, 28 
*Fulica, Gruiformes, 42 
*FuUgula, see Aythya 
Fundulus, Microcyprini, 38 
Fitngia, Scleractinia, 12 
fungus gnat (Sciara), Nematocera, 28 
Furnarius, Tyranni, 43 



GADIFORMES 



75 



GLOSSIPHONIA 



G 

Gadiformes, see Anacanthini 

Gadiis, Anacanthini, 38 
*Gaidropsarus ( = Motella, Onos), 
Anacanthini, 38 

Galago, Prosimii, 44 
*Galathea, Reptantia, 31 

Galbula, Piciformes, 43 

Galeodes, SoHfugae, 3 1 

Galeoidea, 36 

Galeopitheciis, see Cynocephalus 

Gakopterus, see Cynocephalus 

Galeorhinus, Galeoidea, 36 
*Galerucella, Polyphaga, 28 

Galeus, see Galeorhinus 

Galleria, Ditrysia, 28 

GalHformes, 42 

GaUus, GalUformes, 42 
*Gambusia, Microcyprini, 38 

Gammarus, Amphipoda, 30 

gannet (Sula), Pelecaniformes, 42 

gape worm (Syngamus), StrongyHna, li 

gaper (Mya), Eulamellibranchia, 23 

— (Poroniya), Septibranchia, 23 

garfish (Belone), Scombresocoidea, 37 

gar-pikes (Ginglymodi), 36 
*Gairulus, Passeres, 43 

Garypus, Pseudoscorpiones, 3 1 
*GasterophUus, Cyclorrhapha, 28 

Gasterosteus, Thoracostei, 39 

Gasterostoidea, see Thoracostei 

Gasterostomata, 15 
*Gastnmargus, Caelifera, 27 

Gastrocotyle, Diclidophoroidea, 1 3 

Gastrodes, Platyctenea, 12 
*GastrophUus, see G aster ophUus 

Gastropoda, 21-22 

Gastrosaccus, Mysidacea, 30 

Gastrotheca, Procoela, 40 

Gastrotricha, 17 

Gavia, Gaviiformes, 42 

gavial, Malayan (Tomistoma), 
Crocodylia, 41 

Gavialis, Crocodylia, 41 

Gaviiformes, 42 

Gazella, Ruminantia, 46 

gazelle (Gazella), Ruminantia,^46 
*Gebia, Reptantia, 31 
*Gecardnus, Reptantia, 31 

gecko (Hemidactylus), Sauria, 41 

Gelatinosa, 10 
*Gelis, Apocrita, 29 

Genypterus, Ophidioidea, 38 



Geococcyx, Cuculiformes, 43 

GeoJ/fl, Astrosclerophora, 10 
*Geograpsus, Reptantia, 31 

Geomys, Sciuromorpha, 45 

Geonemertes, Monostylifera, 1 6 

Geophilomorpha, 25 

Geophilus, Geophilomorpha, 25 

Geoplana, Terricola, 1 3 
*Geotrupes, Polyphaga, 28 

Gephyrea, 17, 23 (footnotes) 

gerbil (Gerbillus), Myomorpha, 45 

Gerbillus, Myomorpha, 45 

Geryonia, Trachymedusae, 1 1 

'gharial', Indian (Gavialis), Crocodylia, 41 

ghost moth (Hcpialus), Monotrysia, 28 

ghost shrimp (Caprella), Amphipoda, 30 

giant anteater (Myrmecophaga), 
Edentata, 44 

giant armadillo (Priodontes), Edentata, 44 

giant panda (Ailuropoda), Fissipeda, 45 

giant salamander (Megalobatrachus), 
Cryptobranchoidea, 40 

, Pacific (Dicamptodon), 

Ambystomoidea, 40 

giant wood wasp (Sirex), Symphyta, 29 

Giardia, Distomatina, 7 

gibbon (Hylobates), Simiae, 44 
*Gibbula, Archaeogastropoda, 21 

Gigantorhynchus, Archiacanthocephala, 20 

Gigantura, Giganturoidea, 37 

Giganturoidea, 37 

Gila monster (Heloderma), Sauria, 41 

Ginglymodi, 36 

gipsy moth (Lymantria), Ditrysia, 28 

Girajfa, Ruminantia, 46 

giraffe (Girajfa), Ruminantia, 46 
*Girardinus, Microcyprini, 38 
*Girella, Percoidea, 38 

Glandiceps, Enteropneusta, 34 

glass sponges (Hexactinellida), 10 

Glaucoma, Tetrahymenina, 8 

Glaucomys, Sciuromorpha, 45 

Glaucus, Nudibranchia, 22 

Glis, Myomorpha, 45 

globe-fishes (Plectognathi), 39 

Globidium, Eimeriidea, 7 

Globigerina, Foraminifera, 7 

Glomerida, 25 

Glomeridesmida, 25 

Glomeridesmus, Glomeridesmida, 25 

Glomeris, Glomerida, 25 

Glossina, Cyclorrhapha, 28 

Glossiphonia, Rhynchobdellida, 24 



GLOSSOBALANUS 



76 



GYMNOLAEMATA 



Glossobalanus, Enteropneusta, 34 

Glottidia, Atremata, 21 

Glugea, Microsporidia, 8 

Glycera, Polychaeta, 24 
*Glycy men's (—Pectunciilus), 
Eulamellibranchia, 23 

gnat, fungus (Sciara), Nematocera, 28 

Gnathia, Gnathiidea, 30 

Gnathiidea, 30 

Gnathobdellida, 24 
*Gnathonetnus, Mormyroidea, 37 

Gnathophaiisia, Mysidacea, 30 

Gnathostoma, Spirurida, 18 

Gnathostomata, 33 

goat (Cap) a), Ruminantia, 46 

goat moth (Cossus), Ditrysia, 28 

Gobiesociformes, see Xenopterygii 

Gobioidea, 38 

Gobius, Gobioidea, 38 

goby (Gobius), Gobioidea, 38 

golden hamster (Mesocricetus), 
Myomorpha, 45 

golden mole (Chrysochloris), Insectivora, 44 

Golfingia, Sipunculoidea, 23 

Gomphiis, Anisoptera, 26 
*Gonepteryx, Ditrysia, 28 

Gongylonema, Spirurida, 18 

Goniodes, Mallophaga, 27 

Gomonemiis, Limnomedusae, 1 1 

Gonodactylus, Stomatopoda, 30 

Gonorhynchoidea, 37 

Gonorhynchus, Gonorhynchoidea, 37 

Gonospora, Eugregarina, 7 

Gonyostonnirn, Chloromonadina, 6 
*Goodea, Microcyprini, 38 

goose (Anser), Anseriformes, 42 

goose barnacle (Lepas), Thoracica, 30 

gopher (CiteUus), Sciuromorpha, 45 

— , pocket (Geomys), Sciuromorpha, 45 

Gordiacea, see Nematomorpha 

Gordioidea, 17 

Go/y//»5, Gordioidea, 17 

Gorgonacea, 12 

Gorgonia, Gorgonacea, 12 

Gorgonocephahis, Euryalae, 34 

Gorgorhynchus, Palaeacanthocephala, 20 

Gorilla, Simiae, 44 

gorilla {Gorilla), Simiae, 44 

goshawk (Accipiter), Falconiformes, 42 
Goura, Columbiformes, 43 
Grantia, Heterocoela, 9 

*Grapsus, Reptantia, 31 
grass snake (Matrix), Serpentes, 41 



grasshopper (Chorthippus), Caelifera, 27 

grasshoppers, longhorned (Ensifera), 26 

— ; shorthorned (Caelifera), 27 

grebes (Podicipediformes), 42 

Greek tortoise (Testudo), Cryptodira, 41 

green lacewing (Chrysopa), Planipennia, 28 

green lizard (Lacerta), Sauria, 41 

green pigeon (Treron), Columbiformes, 43 

green turtle (Chelone), Cryptodira, 41 

greenbottle (Lucilia), Cyclorrhapha, 28 

greenfly (Aphis), Homoptera, 27 

Gregarina, Eugregarina, 7 

Gregarinomorpha, 7 

Gressores, see Ciconiiformes 

grey mullets (Mugiloidea), 38 

grey seal (Halichoenis), Pinnipedia, 46 

grey whale (Rhachianectes), Mysticeti, 45 

gribble (Limnoria), Isopoda, 30 

GnY/o^m, Tetrarhynchoidea, 14 

Gromia, Testacea, 7 

ground beetle (Carabiis), Adephaga, 28 

ground squirrel, African (Xeriis), 

Sciuromorpha, 45 
, American (CiteUus), 

Sciuromorpha, 45 
grouse locust (Tetrix), Caelifera, 27 
Gruiformes, 42 
Grus, Gruiformes, 42 
Grylloblatta, Grylloblattodea, 26 
Grylloblattodea, 26 
Gryllotalpa, Ensifera, 26 
Gryllus, see Ache t a 
*Gryphaea, see Crassostrea 
Gryphus, Terebratuloidea, 2 1 
guanaco (Lama), Tylopoda, 46 
*Guerinia, Cyclorrhapha, 28 
guinea fowl (Numida), Galliformes, 42 
guinea pig (Cavia), Hystricomorpha, 45 
guinea worm (Dracunculus), Spirurida, 1 8 
gull (Larus), Charadriiformes, 42 
gullet worm (Gongylonema), Spirurida, 18 
gulper eels (Lyomeri), 37 
Gunda, see Procerodes 
guppy (Lebistes), Microcyprini, 38 
gurnard (Trigla), Scorpaenoidea, 39 
gurnards, flying (Cephalacanthoidea), 39 
Guyenotia, Actinomyxidia, 8 
Gymnarchus, Mormyroidea, 37 
Gymnoblastea, see Athecata 
Gymnodinioides, Apostomatida, 8 
Gymnodinium, Dinoflagellata, 6 
Gymnodontes, see Tetraodontoidea 
Gymnolaemata, 20 



GYMNOPHIONA 



77 



HEMIFUSUS 



Gymnophiona, 41 

Gymnopis, Gymnophiona, 41 

Gymnostomatida, 8 
*Gymtwtus, Cyprinoidea, 37 

Gymnura, see Echinosorex 
*Gypaetus, Falconiformes, 42 
*Gyps, Falconiformes, 42 

Gyratrix, Rhabdocoela, 1 3 

Gyrinus, Adephaga, 28 

GvraroO'/^, Gyrocotylidea, 14 

Gyrocotylidea, 14 

Gyrodactyloidea, 13 

Gyrodactylus, Gyrodactyloidea, 1 3 

H 

*Habrobracon ( = Bracon), Apocrita, 29 

Habronema, Spirurida, 1 8 

//oZ)ra/rac/?a, Bdelloidea, 17 

Hadromerina, 1 1 

Haemadipsa, Gnathobdellida, 24 

Haematococcus, Phytomonadina, 6 

Haematomyzus, Rhynchophthjrina, 27 

Haematopinus, Anoplura, 27 
*Haematopus, Charadriiformes, 42 

Haemogregarina, A dele idea, 7 

Haemonchus, Strongylina, 18 

Haemopis, Gnathobdellida, 24 

Haemoproteus, Haemosporidia, 8 

Haemosporidia, 8 

hagfishes (Hyperotreti), 35 

hairy frog {Astylostenms), Diplasiocoela, 41 

hake (Merluccius), Anacanthini, 38 

Halecium, Thecata, 1 1 

Halichoerus, Pinnipedia, 46 

Holichondria, Sigmatosclerophora, 10 

Halichondrina, 1 1 

Haliclona, Sigmatosclerophora, 10 

Haliclystus, Stauromedusae, 1 1 

Halicryptus, Priapulida, 1 7 

Halina, see Haliclona 

Haliotis, Archaeogastropoda, 2 1 

Halisarca, Keratosa, 10 

Halistemma, Siphonophora, 1 1 
*HaIla, Polychaeta, 24 
* Halocordyle {-Pennaria), Athecata, 1 1 

Halosaurus, Heteromi, 37 
*Halosydna, Polychaeta, 24 

Halteria, Oligotrichida, 9 
*Haminea, Pleurocoela, 22 

hammerhead (Scopus), Ciconiiformes, 42 

— (Sphyrna), Galeoidea, 36 

hamster (Cricetus), Myomorpha, 45 

— , golden (Mesocricetus), Myomorpha, 45 



Hanseniella, Symphyla, 25 

Hapale, Simiae, 44 
*Hapaleniur, Prosimii, 44 

Haplobothrioidea, 14 

Haplobothriunu Haplobothrioidea, 14 

Haplodiniiim, Dinoflagellata, 6 

Haplodoci, 39 

Haplomi, 37 

Haplosclerina, 1 1 

Haplosporidia, 8 

Haplosporidiuin, Haplosporidia, 8 

Haptophrya, Astomatida, 8 

hare (Lepus), Lagomorpha, 45 

— , jumping (Pedetes), Myomorpha, 45 

Harpacticoida, 29 

Harpacticus, Harpacticoida, 29 
*Harpahts, Adephaga, 28 

Hanimania, Enteropneusta, 34 

Harn'otta, Holocephali. 36 
*Ha)tmanneUa, Amoebina, 7 

harvest spiders (Opiliones), 31 

harvestmen (Opiliones), 31 

Hatteria, see Sphenodon 

hawk, sparrow (Accipiter), 
Falconiformes, 42 

heart urchins (Spatangoida), 34 

hedgehog {Erinaceus), Insectivora, 44 

Hedn'ocystis, Heliozoa, 7 
*Heleioporus, Procoela, 40 
*Helicella, Basommatophora, 22 

Helicosporidium, Sporozoa (end), 8 
*Helina (-Aricia), Cyclorrhapha, 28 

Heliocidaris, Echinoida, 33 

Heliornis, Gruiformes, 42 
*Heliothis, Ditrysia, 28 

Heliothrips, Thysanoptera, 27 

Heliozoa, 7 

Helix, Stylommatophora. 22 

htWocndtr (Cryptobranchus), 
Cryptobranchoidea, 40 

helmet-shell {Cassis), Mesogastropoda, 22 

Helminthomorpha, 25 

Helobdella, Rhynchobdelhda, 24 

Heloderma, Sauria, 41 
*Heloecius, Reptantia, 31 

Hemerobius, Planipennia, 28 

Hemicentrotus, Echinoida, 33 

Hemichordata, 34 
*Hemichromis, Percoidea, 38 

Hemicidaroida, 33 
*Hemiclepsis, Rhynchobdellida, 24 

Hemidactylus, Sauria, 41 
* Hemifusus, Stenoglossa, 22 



HEMIGRAPSUS 



78 



HOOPOE 



*Hemigropsus, Reptantia, 3 1 
Hemimerina, 27 
Hemimerus, Hemimerina, 27 
Hemimetabola, see Palaeoptera 
— , see Paraneoptera 
— , see Polyneoptera 
Hemimysis, Mysidacea, 30 

*Hemiomscus, Isopoda, 30 
Hemiptera, 27 
Hemithyris, Rhynchonelloidea, 21 

*Hemitripteriis, Scorpaenoidea, 39 

Henicops, Lithobiomorpha, 25 

Hennegitya, Myxosporidia, 8 

Henrkia, Spinulosa, 34 

Hepatoxylon, Tetrarhynchoidea, 14 

Hepatozoon, Adeleidea, 7 

Hepialiis, Monotrysia, 28 

Heptabrachia, Thecanephria, 32 

Heptatretus, Hyperotreti, 35 

Heptranchias, Notidanoidea, 35 
*Hermaea, Sacoglossa, 22 

Hermesimim, Ebriideae, 6 
*Hermione, Polychaeta, 24 

hermit crab {Dardanus), Reptantia, 31 

(Pagurus), Reptantia, 31 

heron (Ardea), Ciconiiformes, 42 

Herpestes, Fissipeda, 45 

Herpobdella, see Erpobdella 

herring (Cliipea), Clupeoidea, 36 
*Hesperoctenes, Heteroptera, 27 

Heterakis, Ascaridina, 1 8 
*Heterandria, Microcyprini, 38 

Heterocoela, 9 

Heterocotylea, see Monogenea 

Heterodera, Tylenchida, 1 8 

Heterodontus, Squaloidea, 36 

Heterokrohnia, Chaetognatha, 32 

Heteromi, 37 

Heteromyota, 23 

Heteronemertina, 16 

Heterophyes, Digenea, 14 

Heteroptera, 27 

Heterosomata, 39 

Heterostigmata, 25 

Heterotardigrada, 32 
*Heteroteuthis, Decapoda, 23 

Heterotrichida, 9 

Heterotrichina, 9 

Hexabothrium, Polystomatoidea, 14 

Hexacrobylus, Aspiriculata, 35 

Hexactinellida, 10 

Hexadella, Homosclerophora, 10 
*Hexagenia, Ephemeroptera, 26 



* Hexagrammos ( =Labrax), 

Scorpaenoidea, 39 
Hexamastix, Metamonadina, 6 
Hexamita, Distomatina, 7 
Hexanchiformes, see Notidanoidea 
Hexapoda, see Insecta 
Hexarthra, Flosculariacea, 17 
Hexasterophora, 10 
Hexostoma, Diclidophoroidea, 13 
*Hiatella ( = Saxicavd), 

Eulamellibranchia, 23 
Himantarium, Geophilomorpha, 25 
Hippocampus, Solenichthyes, 38 
*Hippodamia, Polyphaga, 28 
Hippolyte, Natantia, 31 
Hippomorpha, 46 
Hipponoe, see Tripneustes 
Hippopotamus, Suiformes, 46 
hippopotamus (Hippopotamus), 

Suiformes, 46 
Hippotragus, Ruminantia, 46 
Hircinia, Keratosa, 10 
Hirudinea, 24 

Hirudo, Gnathobdellida, 24 
Hirundo, Passeres, 43 
Hister, Polyphaga, 28 
Histomonas, Rhizomastigina, 7 
* Histriobdella, Polychaeta, 24 
hoatzin {Opisthocomus), Galliformes, 42 
Hodotermes, Isoptera, 26 
Hofstenia, AUoeocoela, 1 3 
hog louse (Haematopinus), Anoplura, 27 
Holasteroida, 34 
Holectypoida, 33 
*Holocentrus, Berycomorphi, 38 
Holocephali, 36 

Holometabola, see Oligoneoptera 
Holophrya, Rhabdophorina, 8 
Holostei, 36 
— , see Neopterygii 
Holothuria, Aspidochirota, 32 
Holothuroidea, 32-33 
Holotricha, 8-9 
Homarus, Reptantia, 3 1 
Homo, Simiae, 44 
Homocoela, 9 
Homoptera, 27 
Homosclerophora, 10 
honey bee (Apis), Apocrita, 29 
honey guide (Indicator), Piciformes, 43 
hookworm (Ancylo stoma), Strongylina, 18 
— (A^eca/or), Strongylina, 18 
hoopoe (Upupa), Coraciiformes, 43 



HOPLIAS 



79 



IPHINOE 



*Hoplias, Cyprinoidea, 37 

Hoplocarida, 30 

Hoplonemertina, 16 

*Hoplosternuni, Siluroidea, 37 

Hormiphora, Cydippida, 1 2 

horn-bill (Buceros), Coraciiformes, 43 

Honiera, Cyclostomata, 20 

hornet (Vespa), Apocrita, 29 

horny sponges (Keratosa), 10 

horse (Equus), Hippomorpha, 46 

horse fly (Tabaniis), Brachycera, 28 

horse roundworm (Parascaris), 
Ascaridina, 18 

horse stomach worm {Habronema), 
Spirurida, 18 

horse-hair worms (Nematomorpha), 17 

horse-mussel {Modiolus), Filibranchia, 22 

horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus), 
Microchiroptera, 44 

house fly (Mused), Cyclorrhapha, 28 

house mouse (Mus), Myomorpha, 45 

human louse (Pediculus), Anoplura, 27 

humming-bird (Trochilus), Apodiformes, 43 
*Huso, Chondrostei, 36 

HutchinsonieUa, Cephalocarida, 29 

Hyaena, Fissipeda, 45 

hyaena, striped (Hyaena), Fissipeda, 45 

Hy alone ma, Amphidiscophora, 10 

Hyalospongiae, see Hexactinellida 
*Hyas, Reptantia, 31 
*Hybernia, see Erannis 

Hydatina, see Epiphanes 

Hydra, Athecata, 1 1 

Hydractinia, Athecata, 1 1 

Hydrobates, Procellariiformes, 42 
*Hydrobia, Mesogastropoda, 22 

Hydiochoerus, Hystricomorpha, 45 
*Hydroides, Polychaeta, 24 

hydroids (Hydrozoa), 1 1 

Hydromedusae, see Hydrozoa 

Hydrophilus, Polyphaga, 28 
*Hydropotes, Ruminantia, 46 
* Hydropsy che, Trichoptera, 28 

Hydrous, see Hydrophilus 

Hydrozoa, 1 1 

Hydrurus, Chrysomonadina, 6 
*Hyemoschus, Ruminantia, 46 

Hyla, Procoela, 40 
*Hylambates, Diplasiocoela, 41 
*Hylecoetus, Polyphaga, 28 
*Hylemyia, Cyclorrhapha, 28 

Hylobates, Simiae, 44 

Hylodes, see Eleutherodactylus 



Hymenolepis, Cyclophyllidea, 14 

Hymenoptera, 29 

Hymenostomatida, 8 

Hynobius, Cryptobranchoidea, 40 

Hyperia, Amphipoda, 30 

Hypermastigina, see Metamonadina 

Hyperoartii, 35 
*Hyperoodon, Odontoceti, 45 

Hyperotreti, 35 
*Hypnarce, see Hypnos 
*Hypnos ( = Hypnarce), Narcobatoidea, 36 

Hypocoma, Thigmotrichida, 9 

Hypocomella, Thigmotrichida, 9 

Hypogeophis, Gymnophiona, 41 
*Hypomesus, Salmonoidea, 36 
*Hypopomus, Cyprinoidea, 37 

Hypostomides, 39 

Hypotremata, 36 

Hypotrichida, 9 

Hypsibius, Eutardigrada, 32 
* Hypsiprynmodon, Marsupialia, 44 

Hyracoidea, 46 

hyrax, tree (Dendrohyrax), Hyracoidea, 46 

/f>'5//-/c/?/j', Dioctophymatina, 18 

Hystricomorpha, 45 

Hystrix, Hystricomorpha, 45 

I 

ibis (Threskiornis), Ciconiiformes, 42 

Ichneumon, Apocrita, 29 

ichneumon fly {Ichneumon), Apocrita, 29 

{Nemeritis), Apocrita, 29 

Ichthyomyzon, Hyperoartii, 35 

Ichthyophis, Gymnophiona, 41 

Ichthyophthirius, Tetrahymenina, 8 

Icosteiformes, see Malacichthyes 

Icosteus, Malacichthyes, 39 

Idotea, Isopoda, 30 

Iguana, Sauria, 41 

iguana (Iguana), Sauria, 41 

Ikeda, Heteromyota, 23 

Ilyanassa, see Nassa 

Inarticulata, 21 

Incurvaria, Monotrysia, 28 

Indian antelope (Antilope), Ruminantia, 46 

Indian 'gharial' (Gavialis), Crocodylia, 41 

Indicator, Piciformes, 43 

Iniomi, 37 

Insecta, 25-29 

Insectivora, 44 

lodamoeba, Amoebina, 7 

lone, Isopoda, 30 

Iphinoe, Cumacea, 30 



IPHITA 



80 



LANGOUSTE 



*Iphita, Heteroptera, 27 

*Jps ( = Tomicits), Polyphaga, 28 

Isopoda, 30 

Isoptera, 26 

Isospondyli, 36-37 

Isospora, Eimeriidea, 7 
*Isotoma, Arthropleona, 25 

Ithone, Planipennia, 28 

Ixodes, Acari, 3 1 



jacamar (Galbula), Piciformes, 43 

Jacana, Charadriiformes, 42 

jackal (Canis), Fissipeda, 45 

jaguar (Panthera), Fissipeda, 45 

Jaguarius, see Panthera 

Japyx, Diplura, 26 

Jassa, Amphipoda, 30 

Jasus, Reptantia, 3 1 

jelly fish (Scyphozoa), 1 1-12 

jerboa (Dipiis), Myomorpha, 45 

jerboa pouched mouse (Antechmomys), 

Marsupialia, 44 
jigger (Tunga), Siphonaptera, 29 
jird {Meriones), Myomorpha, 45 
John Dory {Zeus), Zeomorphi, 38 
Julida, 25 
Juliformia, 25 
Julus, Julida, 25 

jumping hare (Pedetes), Myomorpha, 45 
jumping mouse (Zapus), Myomorpha, 45 
jumping plant louse (Psylla), Homoptera, 27 

K 

kagu (Rhynochetos), Gruiformes, 42 
kala-azar (Leishmania), Protomonadina, 6 
Kalotermes, Isoptera, 26 
*Kaloula, Diplasiocoela, 41 
Kamptozoa, see Entoprocta 
kangaroo (Bettongia), Marsupialia, 44 

— (Macropus), Marsupialia, 44 
Karyolysus, Adeleidea, 7 
Keratella, Ploima, 1 7 
Keratosa, 10 

kestrel (Falco), Falconiformes, 42 
keyhole limpet (Megathura), 

Archaeogastropoda, 21 
kidney worm, dog (Dioctophyme), 

Dioctophymatina, 18 
killer whale (Orcinus), Odontoceti, 45 
killifish (Fundulus), Microcyprini, 38 

— (Oryzias), Microcyprini, 38 
king crabs (Xiphosura), 31 



kingfisher (Alcedo), Coraciiformes, 43 

kinkajou (Potos), Fissipeda, 45 

Kinorhyncha, see Echinoderida 

kiwis (Apterygiformes), 41 

Klossia, Adeleidea, 7 

koala (P/iascolarctos), Marsupialia, 44 

Koenenia, Palpigradi, 3 1 

Kolga, Elasipoda, 32 

kreef (ya5W5), Reptantia, 31 

krill (Euphausiacea), 30 

Kurtoidea, 38 

Kurt us, Kurtoidea, 38 



Labia, Forficulina, 27 

Labidoplax, Apoda, 33 

Labidura, Forficulina, 27 
*Labrax, see Dicentrarchus 
* — , see Hexagrammos 
*Labriis, Percoidea, 38 

Lacazella, Thecideoidea, 21 

Lacerta, Sauria, 41 

Lacertilia, see Sauria 

lacewing, brown (Hemerobius), 
Planipennia, 28 

— , green (Chrysopa), Planipennia, 28 
*Lacuna, Mesogastropoda, 22 

lady bird (Coccinella), Polyphaga, 28 
*Laevo!eacifia ( = Boltenia), 
Stylommatophora, 22 

Laganina, 33 

Lagamnn, Laganina, 33 
*Lagidium ( = Viscaccia), 
Hystricomorpha, 45 

Lagomorpha, 45 
*Lagopus, Galliformes, 42 

Lama, Tylopoda, 46 

Lamellibranchia, see Bivalvia 

Lamellisabella, Thecanephria, 32 
*Lamna, Galeoidea, 36 

Lamniformes, see Galeoidea 

Lampanyctus, Myctophoidea, 37 

Lampetra, Hyperoartii, 35 

lampreys (Hyperoartii), 35 

Lampridiformes, see AUotriognathi 

Lampris, AUotriognathi, 38 
*Lampyris, Polyphaga, 28 

lancelet (Branchiostomd), 
Cephalochordata, 35 

land snail (Helix), Stylommatophora, 22 

land-slug (Arion), Stylommatophora, 22 

— (Limax), Stylommatophora, 22 

langouste (Palinurus), Reptantia, 31 



LANGUR 



81 



UCE 



langur (Presbytis), Simiae, 44 

lantern fly (Phenax), Homoptera, 27 

lantern-fish (Lampanyctiis), 
Myctophoidea, 37 

— (Myctophian), Myctophoidea, 37 

large roundworm (Ascaris), Ascaridina, 1 8 

lark (Alauda), Passeres, 43 

Laro-Limicolae, see Charadriiformes 

Larus, Charadriiformes, 42 

Larvacea, 35 
*Lascoderma, see Lasiodenna 
*Lasioderma, Polyphaga, 28 
*Lasius, Apocrita, 29 
*Laspeyresia ( = Carpocapsa), Ditrysia, 28 
*Lateolabrax, Percoidea, 38 

Latimeria, Actinistia, 40 
*Latreutes, Natantia, 3 1 

Lati'odectus, Araneae, 3 1 

Laura, Ascothoracica, 30 

leaf eelworm (Aphelenchoides), 
Tylenchida, 18 

leaf-hopper (Empoasca), Homoptera,[27 

— , sugar cane (Perkinsiella), 
Homoptera, 27 

leaf-insect (Phyllium), Phasmida, 26 

Leander, see Palaemoii 

leathery turtle (Dermochelys), 
Cryptodira, 41 

Lebistes, Microcyprini, 38 

Lecane, Ploima, 1 7 

Lecanicephala, 16 

Lecanicephaloidea, 14 

Lecanicephalum, Lecanicephaloidea, 14 

Lecudina, Eugregarina, 7 

leech, amphibious (Trocheta), 
Gnathobdellida, 24 

leeches (Hirudinea), 24 
*Leifnonia { = Limonia), Ditrysia, 28 

Leiopebna, Amphicoela, 40 
*Leipoa ( =Lipoa), Galliformes, 42 

Leishmania, Protomonadina, 6 

lemming (Lemmus), Myomorpha, 45 

Lemmus, Myomorpha, 45 

Lemur, Prosimii, 44 

lemur, common (Lemur), Prosimii, 44 

— , flying (Cynocephalus), Dermoptera, 44 

Lemuroidea, see Prosimii 

Lensia, Siphonophora, 1 1 

Leo, see Panthera 

leopard (Panthera), Fissipeda, 45 

Lepadella, Ploima, 1 7 

Lepadogaster, Xenopterygii, 39 

Lepas, Thoracica, 30 



Lepidochiton, Chitonida, 21 
Lepidochitona, see Lepidochiton 
*Lepidononotus, Polychaeta, 24 
Lepidopleurida, 21 
Lepidopleurus, Lepidopleurida, 21 
Lepidoptera, 28 
Lepidopus, Trichiuroidea, 38 
*Lepidorhim(s, see Centrophorus 
Lepidosiren, Dipnoi, 40 
Lepidosteus, see Lepisosteus 
Lepidurus, Notostraca, 29 
Lepisma, Thysanura, 26 
Lepisosteiformes, see Ginglymodi 
Lepisosteus, Ginglymodi, 36 
Leptasterias, Forcipulata, 34 
Leptinotarsa, Polyphaga, 28 
Leptocardii, see Cephalochordata 
Leptochelia, Tanaidacea, 30 
*Leptodius, Reptantia, 3 1 
Leptodora, Cladocera, 29 
*Leptograpsus, Reptantia, 3 1 
Leptomedusae, see Thecata 
Leptomonas, Protomonadina, 6 
*Leptophlebia, Ephemeroptera, 26 
Leptostraca, 30 
Leptosynapta, Apoda, 33 
Leptotheca, Myxosporidia, 8 
Lepus, Lagomorpha, 45 
— , see Oryctolagus 
Lernaea, Cyclopoida, 29 
— , see Lernaeocera 
Lernaeocera, Caligoida, 29 
— , see Lernaea 
*Lernaeodiscus, Rhizocephala, 30 
Lernaeopodoida, 30 
lesser anteater (Tamandua), Edentata, 44 
lesser octopus (Eledone), Octopoda, 23 
Lestes, Zygoptera, 26 
Lestris, see Stercorarius 
Leucandra, see Leuconia 
*Leucichthys, Salmonoidea, 36 
Leucilla, Heterocoela, 9 
*Leuciscus, Cyprinoidea, 37 
*Leuckartiara ( = Turris), Athecata, 1 1 
Leucocytozoon, Haemosporidia, 8 
Leuconia, Heterocoela, 9 
*Leucophaea, Blattodea, 26 
*Leucorrhinia, Anisoptera, 26 
Leucosolenia, Homocoela, 9 
Leucothea, Lobata, 1 2 
LiheUuhi, Anisoptera, 26 
*Libinia, Reptantia, 31 
lice (Phthiraptera), 27 




LICE, BITING 



82 



LOUSE, ELEPHANT 



lice, biting (Mallophaga), 27 

— , book (Psocoptera), 27 

— , sucking (Anoplura), 27 

Lichenopora, Cyclostomata, 20 

Licnophora, Licnophorina, 9 

Licnophorina, 9 

Ligia, Isopoda, 30 

Ligiila, Pseudophyllidea, 14 

lily trotter (Jacana), Charadriiformes, 42 

Limacitm, Pteropoda, 22 

Limacomorpha, see Glomeridesmida 

Limanda, Heterosomata, 39 

LUnapontia, Sacoglossa, 22 

Umax, Stylommatophora, 22 

Limicolae, 24 (footnote) 

Limtmdia, Conchostraca, 29 

Linmaea, see Lymnaea 

Linmephilus, Trichoptera, 28 

Limnocnida, Limnomedusae, 1 1 
*Limnodnlus, Oligochaeta, 24 
*Lmmodynastes, Procoela, 40 

Limnomedusae, 1 1 

Limnoha, Isopoda, 30 
*Limonia, Nematocera, 28 
* — , see Leimonia 
*Limosa, Charadriiformes, 42 

limpet (Acmaea), Archaeogastropoda, 21 

— (Patella), Archaeogastropoda, 21 

— , fresh-water (Ancylus), 
Basommatophora, 22 

— , keyhole (Megathura), 
Archaeogastropoda, 21 

— , slipper (Crepidula), Mesogastropoda, 22 

limpkin (Aramiis), Gruiformes, 42 

Limulida, see Xiphosura 

Linmlus, Xiphosura, 3 1 
*Lina, see Melasoma 

Linens, Heteronemertina, 1 6 

Linguatula, Porocephalida, 32 

Lingula, Atremata, 21 
Linogriathus, Anoplura, 27 
Linuche, Coronatae, 1 1 

lion (Panthera), Fissipeda, 45 
— , Californian sea (Zalophus), 

Pinnipedia, 46 
— , mountain (Felis), Fissipeda, 45 
— , sea (Otaria), Pinnipedia, 46 
Liopelma, see Leiopelma 
*Liopeltis, Serpen tes, 41 
Lipeurus, Mallophaga, 27 
*Lipoa, see Leipoa 
Lipotropha, Schizogregarina, 7 
Liriope, Trachymedusae, 1 1 



Lirus, Stromateoidea, 38 

Lithobiomorpha, 25 

Lithobius, Lithobiomorpha, 25 

Lithodes, Reptantia, 3 1 

*Litomastix, Apocrita, 29 

Littorina, Mesogastropoda, 22 

liver fluke, cattle and sheep (Dicrocoelium), 
Digenea, 14 

(Fasciola), Digenea, 14 

lizard, green (Lacerta), Sauria. 41 

— , wall (Lacerta), Sauria, 41 

lizard-fish (Synodus), Myctophoidea, 37 

lizards (Sauria), 41 

llama (Lama), Tylopoda, 46 

Loa, Spirurida, 18 

Lobata, 12 

lobster (Homarus), Reptantia, 3 1 

— , Norway (Nephrops), Reptantia, 31 

— , rock (Panulims), Reptantia, 3 1 

locust (Locusta), Caelifera, 27 

— (Schistocerca), Caelifera, 27 

— , grouse (Tetrix), Caelifera, 27 

Locusta, Caelifera, 27 

loggerhead sponge (Spheciospongia), 
Astrosclerophora, 10 

Loligo, Decapoda, 23 
*Lomechusa, Polyphaga, 28 

long necked turtle (Chelodina), 
Pleurodira, 41 

longhorned grasshoppers (Ensifera), 26 

Lophiiformes, see Pediculati 

Lophioidea, 39 

Lophiomys, Myomorpha, 45 

Lophius, Lophioidea, 39 

Lophogaster, Mysidacea, 30 
*Lophohelia, Scleractinia, 12 

Lophomonas, Metamonadina, 6 
*Lophopanopeus, Reptantia, 3 1 

Lophopoda, see Phylactolaemata 

Lophoproctus, Polyxenida, 24 
*Lophortyx, Galliformes, 42 
*Lophosaura, see Microsaiira 
*Loricaria, Siluroidea, 37 

Loricata, see Crocodylia 

— , see Polyplacophora 

Loricati, see Scleroparei 

Loris, Prosimii, 44 

loris (Loris), Prosimii, 44 
'''Lota, Anacanthini, 38 
*Lottia, Archaeogastropoda, 21 

louse, crab (Phthirus), Anoplura, 27 

— , elephant (Haematomyzus), 
Rhynchophthirina, 27 



LOUSE, FOWL 



83 



MARGARODES 



louse, fowl (Lipeurus), Mallophaga, 27 
— , hog (Haematopinus), Anoplura, 27 
— , human (Pediculus), Anoplura, 27 
— , jumping plant (Psylla), Homoptera, 27 
— , plant (Aphis), Homoptera, 27 
— , shaft (Menopon), Mallophaga, 27 
— , whale (Cyamus), Amphipoda, 30 

*Loxia, Passeres, 43 
Loxocalyx, Loxosomatidae, 20 
Loxodonta, Proboscidea, 46 
Loxosotna, Loxosomatidae, 20 
Loxosomatidae, 20 

*Loxostege, Ditrysia, 28 
Lucaniis, Polyphaga, 28 
Lucernaria, Stauromedusae, 1 1 
lucerne flea {Sminthunts), 
Symphypleona, 25 

*Lucifuga, Ophidioidea, 38 
Lucilia, Cyclorrhapha, 28 

*Luciola, Polyphaga, 28 

*LuciopimeIodiis, Siluroidea, 37 
lugworm (Arenicola), Polychaeta, 24 
Luidia, Phanerozona, 34 

*Lumbriciilus, Oligochaeta, 24 
Lumbricus, OUgochaeta, 24 
lung fluke {Paragoninms), Digenea, 14 
lung nematode (7?/?oW/fl5), Rhabditina, 17 
lung-fishes (Dipnoi), 40 
lungworm {Dictyocaulus), Strongylina, 1 8 

— (Metastrongylus), Strongylina, 18 

— (Miiellerius), Strongylina, 18 
Lutra, Fissipeda, 45 

*Lycoteuthis, Decapoda, 23 
*Lygaeus, Heteroptera, 27 
*Lygosoma, Sauria, 41 
*Lygus, Heteroptera, 27 

Lyniantn'a, Ditrysia, 28 

Lymnaea, Basommatophora, 22 

Lyomeri, 37 

lyre-bird (Menura), Menurae, 43 
*Lysiphlebus, see Aphidius 

Lytechiniis, Temnopleuroida, 33 

M 

Macaca, Simiae, 44 

macaque {Macaco), Simiae, 44 

Machadoella, Schizogregarina, 7 

Machilis, Thysanura, 26 

mackerel {Scomber), Scombroidea, 38 

Macracanthorhynchiis, 

Archiacanthocephala, 20 
Macrobdella, Gnathobdellida, 24 
Macrobiotus, Eutardigrada, 32 



Macrobrachium, Natantia, 3 1 
* Macrocentrus, Apocrita, 29 
* Macrocephalon { = Megacephalum), 
Galliformes, 42 

Macrochires, see Apodiformes 

Macrodasyoidea, 17 
*Macroglossa, Ditrysia, 28 

Macrognathiis, Opisthomi, 39 
*Macronema, Trichoptera, 28 

Macropus, Marsupialia, 44 

Macrorhamphosus, Solenichthyes, 38 

Macroscelides, Insectivora, 44 
*Macrosiphiim, Homoptera, 27 

Macrostonnuu, Rhabdocoela, 13 

Macrounis, Anacanthini, 38 

Macruriformes, see Anacanthini 
*Mactra, Eulamellibranchia, 23 
*Madrepora, Scleractinia, 12 

Magellania, Terebratelloidea, 21 

Magelona, Polychaeta, 24 

Magicicada, Homoptera, 27 

Maia, Reptantia, 3 1 

mail-cheeked fishes (Scleroparei), 39 

Malacichthyes, 39 
*Malaclemys, Cryptodira, 41 

Ma/acoMf/Za, Bdellonemertina, 17 
*Malacocephalus, Anacanthini, 38 

Malacocotylea, see Digenea 

Malacopterygii, see Isospondyli 
*Malacosoma, Ditrysia, 28 

Malacostraca, 30-31 

Malapterurus, Siluroidea, 37 

malaria {Plasmodium), Haemosporidia, 8 

Malayan gavial {Tomistoma), 
Crocodylia, 41 

Maldane, Polychaeta, 24 

Mallomonas, Chrysomonadina, 6 

Mallophaga, 27 

Mammalia, 43-46 

man {Homo), Simiae, 44 

manatee {Trichechus), Sirenia, 46 
*Mandrillus, Simiae, 44 

maned rat {Lophiomys), Myomorpha, 45 

mangabey {Cercocebus), Simiae, 44 

Manis, Pholidota, 44 

mantids (Mantodea), 26 

Mantis, Mantodea, 26 

mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda), 30 

Mantispa, Planipennia, 28 

Mantodea, 26 

Manx shearwater, 42 (footnote) 
*Margaritana, Eulamelhbranchia, 23 
*Margarodes, Homoptera, 27 



MARICOLA 



84 



MICROPODIFORMES 



Maricola, 13 

marmoset (Hapale), Simiae, 44 

marmot (Marmota), Sciuromorpha, 45 

Marmota, Sciuromorpha, 45 
Marsipobranchii, 35 

marsupial frog (Gastrotheca), Procoela, 40 
Marsupialia, 44 

marten {Mattes), Fissipeda, 45 

Martes, Fissipeda, 45 

Marthasterias, Forcipulata, 34 

Mastacembeliformes, see Opisthomi 

Mastacembelus, Opisthomi, 39 

Mastigamoeba, Rhizomastigina, 7 
*Mastigias, Rhizostomae, 12 

Mastigophora, 6-7 

Mastigoproctus, Uropygi, 3 1 

Mastomys, Myomorpha, 45 

Mastotermes, Isoptera, 26 

matamata (Chelus), Pleurodira, 41 

may-flies (Ephemeroptera), 26 
*Mazama, Ruminantia, 46 

Mazocraes, Diclidophoroidea, 1 3 

mealworm (Tenebn'o), Polyphaga, 28 

Meandrina, Scleractinia, 1 2 

Meantes, 40 

Mecistocephahis, Geophilomorpha, 25 

Mecoptera, 28 

medaka {Oryzias), Microcyprini, 38 

medusae (Hydrozoa), 1 1 
*MegacephaIum, see Macrocephalon 

Megachiroptera, 44 

Megalobatrachiis, Cryptobranchoidea, 40 

Megalops, Clupeoidea, 36 

Megaloptera, 27 

Meganyctiphanes, Euphausiacea, 30 

megapode (Megapodius), Galliformes, 42 

Megapodius, Galliformes, 42 
*Megaptera, Mysticeti, 45 

Megathura, Archaeogastropoda, 21 

Megophrys, Anomocoela, 40 

Melanocetus, Ceratioidea, 39 
*Melanoplus, Caelifera, 27 
*Melanotus, Polyphaga, 28 
* Melasoma {=Lina), Polyphaga, 28 

Meleagn's, Galliformes, 42 

Meles, Fissipeda, 45 

Melicerta, see Floscularia 
*Melittobia, Apocrita, 29 

Mellita, Scutellina, 33 
*Melo ( = Cymbium), Stenoglossa, 22 

Meloidogyne, Tylenchida, 1 8 
*Melolontha, Polyphaga, 28 

Melophagus, Cyclorrhapha, 28 



Melopsittacus, Psittaciformes, 43 

Membranipora, Cheilostomata, 20 
*Menippe, Reptantia, 3 1 

Menopon, Mallophaga, 27 

Menura, Menurae, 43 

Menurae, 43 
*Mergus, Anseriformes, 42 

Meriones, Myomorpha, 45 

Merluccius, Anacanthini, 38 

Me/-w/5, Dorylaimina, 18 

Mermithoidea, 18 

Merocystis, Eimeriidea, 7 

Merogregarina, Archigregarina, 7 

Merops, Coraciiformes, 43 

Merostomata, 31 
*Mesidotea, Isopoda, 30 

Mesocestoides, Cyclophyllidea, 14 

Mesocricetus, Myomorpha, 45 

Mesoenas, Gruiformes, 42 

Mesogastropoda, 22 

Mesonemertina, see Palaeonemertina 

Mesoplodon, Odontoceti, 45 

Mesothuria, Aspidochirota, 32 

Mesozoa, 9 

Mespilia, Temnopleuroida, 33 
*Messor, Apocrita, 29 

Metabola, see Pterygota 
*Metachirus, Marsupialia, 44 

Metacrinus, Articulata, 32 

Metamonadina, 6 

Metastrongylus, Strongylina, 1 8 

Metatheria, 44 

Metopidia, see Lepadella 

Mf /nVZ/ww, Actiniaria, 12 

Mexican digger toad (Rhinophrynus), 
Procoela, 40 

Micwbisium, Pseudoscorpiones, 3 1 

Microchiroptera, 44 

Microchordeuma, Nematophora, 25 

Microciona, Sigmatosclerophora, 10 

Microcotyle, Diclidophoroidea, 1 3 

Microcyema, Dicyemida, 9 

Microcyprini, 38 

Microdina, see Philodinavus 
*Microdipodops, Sciuromorpha, 45 

Microgromia, Testacea, 7 

Microhyla, Diplasiocoela, 41 
*Microt7}ys, Myomorpha, 45 
*Micronecta, Heteroptera, 27 
*Microneniatus, see Pristiphora 
*Microphis, Solenichthyes, 38 

Micropleura, Spirurida, 1 8 

Micropodiformes, see Apodiformes 



MICROPOGON 



85 



MOTMOT 



*Micropogoii, Percoidea, 38 
*Micropterus, Percoidea, 38 

Micropteryx. Zeugloptera, 28 

Micropus, see Apus 
*Microsaura (—Lophosaura), Sauria, 41 

Microsclerophora, see Homosclerophora 

Microsporidia. 8 
*Microsto/num, Rhabdocoela, 1 3 

Microthelyphonida. see Palpigradi 

Microtiis, Myomorpha, 45 

micro-whip scorpions (Palpigradi), 31 

midge, pear (Contarinia), Nematocera, 28 

midwife toad (Alytes), Opisthocoela, 40 
' *Miliola, Foraminifera, 7 

Millepora, Athecata, 1 1 

miller's thumb (Cottus). Scorpaenoidea, 39 

millipedes (Diplopoda), 24-25 

Milnesium, Eutardigrada, 32 

mink (Mustela). Fissipeda, 45 
- minnow (Phoxif Ills). Cyprinoidea, 37 

Miripinnati, 37 

Mirounga, Pinnipedia, 46 

mite (Acarus), Acari, 31 

— (Dermanyssus), Acari, 3 1 

— {Pyemotes), Acari, 3 1 

— (Trombicula), Acari, 3 1 
*Mithrax, Reptantia, 3 1 

Mnemiopsis, Lobata, 12 

Modiolus, Filibranchia, 22 

Moina, Cladocera, 29 

Mola, Tetraodontoidea, 39 
*Molaima, Trichoptera, 28 

mole, common old world (Talpa), 
Insectivora. 44 

— , eastern (Scalopus), Insectivora, 44 

— , golden (Chrysochloris), Insectivora, 44 

mole cricket (Gryl/otalpa), Ensifera, 26 

mole mouse (Mystromys), 
Myomorpha, 45 

mole rat (Spalax), Myomorpha, 45 

mole salamander (Ambystomd), 
Ambystomoidea, 40 

Molgula. Stolidobranchiata, 35 

Mollusca. 21-23 
*Molothrus ( = Agelaioides), Passeres, 43 

Molpadia. Molpadonia, 33 

Molpadonia, 33 

Momotus. Coraciiformes, 43 
*Monas, Protomonadina, 6 

Monaxonida, 1 1 
* Monetaria ( = Aricia), 

Mesogastropoda, 22 

mongoose (Heipestes), Fissipeda, 45 



Monhystera, Chromadorida, 1 8 
Monhysteroidea, 19 
*Moniezia, Cyclophyllidea, 14 
Moniliformis, Archiacanthocephala, 20 
monkey, spider (A teles), Simiae, 44 
— , squirrel (Saimiri), Simiae, 44 
monkeys, African tree (Cercopitheciis), 

Simiae, 44 
Monocelis, AUoeocoela, 1 3 
Monocentris, Berycomorphi, 38 
Monocercomonas, Metamonadina, 6 
Monocystis. Eugregarina, 7 
Monodella, Thermosbaenacea, 30 
Monogenea, 13-14 
Monogononta, 17 
Monomastigocystis, Heliozoa, 7 
Mononchus, Enoplina, 1 8 
Monopisthocotylea, 13 
Monoplacophora, 21 
Monoraphis, Amphidiscophora, 10 
Monosiga, Protomonadina, 6 
Monostyla, Ploima, 1 7 
Monostylifera, 16 

Monotocardia, see Mesogastropoda 
Monotremata, 43 
Monotrysia, 28 
Monstrilla, Monstrilloida, 29 
Monstrilloida, 29 

moon rat (Echinosorex), Insectivora, 44 
moon-fish (Lampris), AUotriognathi, 38 
moose {Alces), Ruminantia, 46 
moray (Muraena), Apodes, 37 
*Mormoniella, Apocrita, 29 
Mormyroidea, 37 
Morone, Percoidea, 38 
Moschus, Ruminantia, 46 
mosquito (Anopheles), Nematocera, 28 
— (Culex), Nematocera, 28 
*Motacilla, Passeres, 43 
*Motella, see Gaidropsarus 
moth, atlas (Attacus), Ditrysia, 28 
— , bag-worm (Pi>'c//e), Ditrysia, 28 
— , clothes (Tinea), Ditrysia, 28 
— , death's head hawk (Acherontia), 

Ditrysia, 28 
— , ghost (Hepialus), Monotrysia, 28 
— , gipsy (Lymaniria), Ditrysia, 28 
— , goat (Cossiis), Ditrysia, 28 
— , pine shoot (Evetria), Ditrysia, 28 
— , silk (Bombyx), Ditrysia, 28 
— , wax (Gallerid), Ditrysia, 28 
moths, flour (Ephestia), Ditrysia, 28 
motmot (Momotus), Coraciiformes, 43 



MOUNTAIN BEAVER 



86 



NECKLACE-SHELL 



mountain beaver (Aplodontia), 

Sciuromorpha, 45 
mountain lion (Felis), Fissipeda, 45 
mouse, deer (Peromyscus), Myomorpha, 45 
— , house (Mus), Myomorpha, 45 
— , jerboa pouched (Antechinomys), 

MarsupiaUa, 44 
— , jumping (Zapus), Myomorpha, 45 
— , mole (Mystromys), Myomorpha, 45 
— , wood (Apodemus), Myomorpha, 45 
mouse birds (Coliiformes), 43 
mouse pinworm (Aspiciiluris), 

Ascaridina, 18 
— threadworm (Aspiculuris), Ascaridina, 18 
Mrazekia, Microsporidia, 8 
mud-eel {Siren), Meantes, 40 
mud-minnow {Umbra), Haplomi, 37 
mud-puppy {Necturus), Proteida, 40 
mwd-skx^^QY {Periophthalmus), 

Gobioidea, 38 
Muelleriiis, Strongylina, 1 8 
Muggiaea, Siphon ophora, 1 1 
Mugil, Mugiloidea, 38 
Mugiloidea, 38 
*MuUnia, Eulamellibranchia, 23 
mullets, grey (Mugiloidea), 38 
multimammate rat {Mastomys), 
Myomorpha, 45 
*Munida, Reptantia, 31 
Muraena, Apodes, 37 
Murex, Stenoglossa, 22 
*Murgantia, Heteroptera, 27 
Mus, Myomorpha, 45 
Musca, Cyclorrhapha, 28 
Muscardinus, Myomorpha, 45 
musk deer (Moschus), Ruminantia, 46 
musk ox (Ovibos), Ruminantia, 46 
muskrat {Ondatra), Myomorpha, 45 
Musophaga, Cuculiformes, 43 
mussel {Mytihis), Filibranchia, 22 
— , horse- {Modiolus), Filibranchia, 22 
— , pearl- {Unio), Eulamellibranchia, 23 
— , swan- {Anodonta), Eulamellibranchia, 23 
Mustela, Fissipeda, 45 
Mustelus, Galeoidea, 36 
Mya, Eulamellibranchia, 23 
Myctophoidea, 37 
MyctopJwm, Myctophoidea, 37 
*Myliobatis, Batoidea, 36 
Myocastor, Hystricomorpha, 45 
Myodocopa, 29 
Myomorpha, 45 
Myosoma, Pedicellinidae, 20 



Myotis, Microchiroptera, 44 
*Myoxocephalus, Scorpaenoidea, 39 

Myoxus, see Glis 

Myrientomata, see Protura 

Myrmecophaga, Edentata, 44 

Myrmeleon, Planipennia, 28 
*Myrmica, Apocrita, 29 

Mysidacea, 30 

Mysis, Mysidacea, 30 

Mystacocarida, 30 

Mysticeti, 45 

Mystromys, Myomorpha, 45 

Mytilus, Filibranchia, 22 

Myxidium, Myxosporidia, 8 

Myxilla, Sigmatosclerophora, 10 

Myxine, Hyperotreti, 35 

Myxini, see Hyperotreti 

Myxobolus, Myxosporidia, 8 

Myxochloris, Xanthomonadina, 6 

Myxosoma, Myxosporidia, 8 

Myxospongida, 10 

Myxosporidia, 8 

Myzostoma, Myzostomaria, 24 

Myzostomaria, 24 

N 

nagana {Trypanosoma), Protomonadina, 6 

Naja, Serpentes, 41 

Narcacion, see Torpedo 
*Narcine, Narcobatoidea, 36 

Narcobatoidea, 36 

Narcobatus, see Torpedo 

Narcomedusae, 1 1 

Nassa, Stenoglossa, 22 
*Nassarius, Stenoglossa, 22 

Nassula, Cyrtophorina, 8 
*Nasua, Fissipeda, 45 
* Natalobatraehus, see Phrynobatrachus 

Natantia, 31 

Natica, Mesogastropoda, 22 

'native cat' {Dasywus), MarsupiaUa, 44 

Matrix, Serpentes, 41 

Nausithoe, Coronatae, 1 1 

Nautilus, Tetrabranchia, 23 

nautilus, paper- {Argonauta), Octopoda, 23 

— , pearly- {Nautilus), Tetrabranchia, 23 
*Neanthes, Polychaeta, 24 

Nebalia, Nebaliacea, 30 

Nebaliacea, 30 

Nebela, Testacea, 7 

Necator, Strongylina, 18 

necklace-shell {Natica), Mesogastropoda, 22 

— {Strombus), Mesogastropoda, 22 



NECTONEMA 



87 



NYROCA 



Nectonenia, Nectonematoidea, 1 7 
Nectonematoidea, 17 
Nectonemertes, Polystylifera, 1 6 
*Nectophrynoides, Procoela, 40 
Necturus, Proteida, 40 
Neehis, Symphypleona, 25 
Nemata, see Nematoda 
Nemathelminthes, 17 (footnote) 
Nematocera, 28 

Nematocystida, see Cnidosporidia 
Nematoda, 17-18 
*Nematodimiim, Dinoflagellata, 6 
Nematognathi, see Siluroidea 
Nematomorpha, 17 
Nematophora, 25 
Nematus, Symphyta, 29 
Nemeritis, Apocrita, 29 
Nemertina, 16-17 
Ne/riobii/s, Ensifera, 26 
Nemoina, Plecoptera, 26 
Neoceratodus, Dipnoi, 40 
Neodasys, Chaetonotoidea, 1 7 
Neoechinorhynchus, Eoacanthocephala, 20 
Neogastropoda, see Stenoglossa 
Neolampas, Nucleolitoida, 33 
Neomenia, Neomeniomorpha, 21 
Neomeniomorpha, 21 

Neopilina, Tryblidiacea, 21 
Neoptera. 26-29 

Neopterygii, 36-40 

Neosporidia, see Cnidosporidia 

Neotennes, Tsoptera, 26 

Neotremata, 21 
*Neoturns ( = Turris), Athecata, 1 1 
*Nepa, Heteroptera, 27 

Nephelis, see Erpobdella 
*Nephelopteryx, Plecoptera, 26 

Nephrops, Reptantia. 3 1 

Nephthys, Polychaeta, 24 
*Neptiwea, Stenoglossa, 22 

Nereis, Polychaeta, 24 

Nerilla, Archiannelida, 24 

Nerita, Archaeogastropoda, 21 
*Nentina, Archaeogastropoda, 21 
*Nerocila, Tsopoda. 30 
*Nerophis, Solenichthyes, 38 

Nestor, Psittaciformes, 43 

Neuroptera, 27-28 

New Zealand frog (Leiopelma), 
Amphicoela, 40 

newt (Tritiirus), Salamandroidea, 40 

— , eastern (Dieinictylus), 
Salamandroidea, 40 



newt, pleurodele (Pleurodeles), 

Salamandroidea, 40 
nightjar (Caprinmlgus), 
Caprimulgiformes, 43 
*Niphargus, Amphipoda, 30 
*Nippostrongyliis, Strongylina, 18 
Nippotaenia, Nippotaenoidea, 14 
Nippotaeniidea, 16 
Nippotaenoidea, 14 
Noah's ark shell {Area), 

Filibranchia, 22 
Noctiluea, Dinoflagellata, 6 
*Noctua ( =Phalaena), Ditrysia, 28 
nodular worm (Oesophagostonium), 

Strongylina, 18 
Nomeus, Stromateoidea, 38 
Norway lobster (Nephrops), 

Reptantia, 31 
Nosema, Microsporidia, 8 
*Nosopsyllus, Siphonaptera, 29 
Notacanthiformes, see Heteromi 
Notacanthus, Heteromi, 37 
Notaspidea, 22 

Nothoprocta, Tinamiformes, 41 
Nothura, Tinamiformes, 41 
Notidanoidea, 35 
Notidanus, Notidanoidea, 35 
Notodelphyoida, 29 
*Notomastus, Polychaeta, 24 
Notommata, Ploima, 17 
Notonecta, Heteroptera, 27 
Notoplana, Acotylea, 1 3 
Notoptera, see Grylloblattodea 
Notopteroidea, 37 
Notopterus, Notopteroidea, 37 
*Notornis, Gruiformes, 42 
*Notoryetes, Marsupialia, 44 
*Notostira, Heteroptera, 27 
Notostraca, 29 
Nototrema, see Gastrotheca 
*NuceUa {^Purpura), Stenoglossa, 22 
Nucleolitoida, 33 
Nucula, Protobranchia,''22 
Nuda,9-10, 13 
Nudibranchia, 22 
*A^///J7e/?/w5, Charadriiformes,'42 
Nuinida, Galliformes, 42 
Nivmmdites, Foraminifera,^7 
nut-shell (Nucula), Protobranchia, 22 
*Nycticebus, Prosimii, 44 
Nymphon, Nymphonomorpha, 32 
Nymphonomorpha, 32 
*Nyroca, see Aythya 



OBELIA 



88 



ORTHOMORPHA 



O 

Obelia, Thecata, 1 1 

Ocenebra, Stenoglossa, 22 

Ochetostoma, Echiuroinea, 23 

Ochotona, Lagomorpha, 45 

Ochromonas, Chrysomonadina, 6 

Octocorallia, 12 

Octopoda, 23 

Octopus^ Octopoda, 23 

octopus {Octopus), Octopoda, 23 

— , lesser (Eledone), Octopoda, 23 

Octospinifer, Eoacanthocephala, 20 
*Ocypode, Reptantia, 31 

Odoberms, Pinnipedia, 46 
*Odocoileus, Ruminantia, 46 

Odonata. 26 

Odontaspis, Galeoidea, 36 

Odontoceti, 45 

Odontopyge. Spirostreptida, 25 

Odontostomatida, see Ctenostomatida 
*Odontosyllis, Polychaeta, 24 

Oecanthiis, Ensifera, 26 
*Oedemia, see Oideniia 

Oesophagostomum, Strongylina, 1 8 

Oicomonas, Chrysomonadina, 6 
*Oidemia ( = Oedemid), Anseriformes, 42 

Oikopleura, Copelata, 35 

oil bird (Steatornis), Caprimulgiformes, 43 

Oiphysa, Homoptera, 27 

okapi iOkapid), Ruminantia, 46 

Okapia, Ruminantia, 46 

Oligobrachia, Athecanephria, 32 

Oligochaeta, 24 

Oligolophiis, Opiliones, 3 1 

Oligoneoptera, 27-29 

OUgotoma, Embioptera, 27 

Oligotrichida, 9 

OUndias, Limnomedusae, 1 1 

olm {Proteus), Proteida, 40 

Olympic salamander {RJivacotn'ton), 
Ambystomoidea, 40 
*Ommastrephes { = Oinmatostrephes), 

Decapoda, 23 
*Ommatostrephes, see Onvnastrephes 
*Onchidella, see Oncidiella 
*Onchidium, see Oncidium 

Onchidoris, Nudibranchia, 22 

Onchocerca, Spirurida, 18 

Oncicola, Archiacanthocephala, 20 
*Oncidiella { — Onchidella), 
Stylommatophora, 22 
^Oncidium { = Onchidium), 
Stylommatophora, 22 



*Oiicopeltus, Heteroptera, 27 
*Oncorhynchus, Salmonoidea, 36 

Ondatra, Myomorpha, 45 

Oniscomorpha, see Glomerida 
*Oniscus, Isopoda, 30 
*Onos, see Gaidropsarus 

Onychophora, 24 
*Ooencyrtus, Apocrita, 29 

Opalina, Opalinina, 7 

Opalinina, 7 

Ophelia, Polychaeta, 24 

Ophiactis, Ophiurae, 34 

Ophicephaloidea, see Channoidea 

Ophicephahis, see Channa 

Ophidia, see Serpentes 

Ophidioidea, 38 

Ophiocomina, Ophiurae, 34 
*Ophiodon, Scorpaenoidea, 39 

Ophiopholis, Ophiurae, 34 

Ophiopsila, Ophiurae, 34 

Ophiothrix, Ophiurae, 34 
'''Ophisaurus, Sauria, 41 

Ophiura, Ophiurae, 34 

Ophiurae, 34 

Ophiuraespira, Apostomatida, 8 

Ophiuroidea, 34 

Ophryocystis, Schizogregarina, 7 

Ophryoscolex, Entodiniomorphida, 9 
*Ophyra, Cyclorrhapha, 28 

Opiliones, 31 

Opisthandria, see Pentazonia 

Opisthobranchia, 22 

Opisthocoela, 40 

Opisthocomus, Galliformes, 42 

Opisthomi, 39 
* Opisthophthahnus, Scorpiones, 31 

opossum, American {Didelphis), 
Marsupialia, 44 

opossum-shrimps (Mysidacea), 30 

Opsanus, Haplodoci, 39 

orang {Pongo), Simiae, 44 
*Orasema, Apocrita, 29 
*Orbinia {=Aricia), Polychaeta, 24 

Orchesella, Arthropleona, 25 

Orcinus, Odontoceti, 45 

Orectolobus, Galeoidea, 36 

oriental sore {Leishmania), 
Protomonadina, 6 

ormer {Haliotis), Archaeogastropoda, 21 

Ornithodoros, Acari, 31 

Ornithorhynchus, Monotremata, 43 

Orthagoriscus, see Mola 

Orthomorpha, Polydesmida, 25 



ORTHONECTTOA 



89 



PARASCARIS 



Orthonectida, 9 

Orthoptera, 26-27 

Orya, Geophilomorpha, 25 

Orycteropus, Tubulidentata, 46 
*Oryctes, Polyphaga, 28 

Oryctolagus, Lagomorpha, 45 

Oryzias, Microcyprini, 38 

Oscanius, see Pleurobranchus 

Oscarella, Homosclerophora, 10 

Oscinella, Cyclorrhapha, 28 

Oscines, see Passeres 
*Osilinus, Archaeogastropoda, 21 

Osmerus, Salmonoidea, 36 
*Osphronemus, Anabantoidea, 38 

osprey (Pandion), Falconiformes, 42 

Ostariophysi, 37 

Osteichthyes, see Pisces 

Osteoglossoidea, 36 

Ostertagia, Strongylina, 18 

Ostracoda, 29 

Ostrea, Eulamellibranchia, 23 

ostriches (Struthioniformes), 41 

Otaria, Pinnipedia, 46 

Otis, Gruiformes, 42 

Otomesostoma, Alloeocoela, 1 3 

Otostigmus, Scolopendromorpha, 25 

otter {Lutra), Fissipeda, 45 
*Otus, Strigiformes, 43 

ovenbird (Furnarius), Tyranni,'43 

Ovibos, Ruminantia, 46 

Ovis, Ruminantia, 46 

Owenia, Polychaeta, 24 

owls (Strigiformes), 43 

ox, musk (Ovibos), Ruminantia, 46 

Oxidus, Polydesmida, 25 
*Oxycarenus, Heteroptera, 27 
*Oxynotus ( = Centrina), Squaloidea, 36 

Oxytricha, Hypotrichida, 9 
*Oxyuris, Ascaridina, 18 

Oxyuroidea, 19 

oyster (Ostrea), Eulamellibranchia, 23 

— , saddle- (Anomid), Filibranchia, 22 



Pachybolus, Spirobolida, 25 
'''Pachygrapsus, Reptantia, 3 1 

Pachyiulus, Julida, 25 

Pachypalaminus, Cryptobranchoidea, 40 

Pacific giant salamander (Dicamptodori), 
Ambystomoidea, 40 

paddle-fish (Polyodon), Chondrostei, 36 
*Pagrosomus, Percoidea, 38 
*Paguristes, Reptantia, 3 1 



Pagurus, Reptantia, 3 1 

— , see Dardanus 

painted frog (Discoglossus), 
Opisthocoela, 40 

Palaeacanthocephala, 20 

Palaemon, Natantia, 31 

— , see Macrobrachium 

Palaeonemertina, 16 

Palaeoptera, 26 

— , see Paraneoptera 

— , see Polyneoptera 

Palaeopterygii, 36 

Palinurus, Reptantia, 3 1 

Palmipes, see Anseropoda 

Palpigradi, 3 1 

Paludicola, 13 

Paludina, see Viviparus 

/'a/j/Z/ofl, Zoanthiniaria, 12 

Pan, Simiae, 44 

Panagrellus, Rhabditina, 1 7 

Pancarida, 30 

panda (Ailurus), Fissipeda, 45 

— , giant (Ailuropoda), Fissipeda, 45 

Pandalus, Natantia, 3 1 

Pandinus, Scorpiones, 3 1 

Pandion, Falconiformes, 42 

Pandorina, Phytomonadina, 6 

pangolin (Manis), Pholidota, 44 

Panorpa, Mecoptera, 28 

Panorpatae, see Mecoptera 

panther (Panthera), Fissipeda, 45 

Panthera, Fissipeda, 45 

Pantopoda, see Pycnogonida 

Pantostomatida, see Rhizomastigina 

Panulirus, Reptantia, 31 

paper-nautilus (Argonauta), 
Octopoda, 23 

Papilio, Ditrysia, 28 

Papio, Simiae, 44 
*Parabrotula, Ophidioidea, 38 

Paracanthonchus, Chromadorida, 1 8 

Paracentrotus, Echinoida, 33 

Paragonimus, Digenea, 14 

Paralepis, Alepisauroidea, 37 
*Paralichthys, Heterosomata, 39 
*Paralithodes, Reptantia, 3 1 

Paramecium, Peniculina, 8 

Paramphistomum, Digenea, 14 

Paraneoptera, 27 

— , see Palaeoptera 

— , see Polyneoptera 

Paraneuroptera, see Odonata 

Parascaris, Ascaridina, 1 8 



PARASILURUS 



90 



PETAURUS 



*Parasilunis, Siluroidea, 37 

Parataenia, Lecanicephaloidea, 14 

Paravortex, Rhabdocoela, 1 3 

Parazoa, 9-10 

Parorchis, Digenea, 14 

parrots (Psittaciformes), 43 
*Parus, Passeres, 43 
* Passer, Passeres, 43 

Passeres, 43 

Passeriformes, 43 

Patella, Archaeogastropoda, 21 

Patiria, Spinulosa, 34 

Pauropoda, 24 

Pamopus, Pauropoda, 24 
*Pavo, Galliformes, 42 

Peachia, Actiniaria, 12 

peacock fan worm (Sabella), 
Polychaeta, 24 

pear midge (Contan'nia), Nematocera, 28 

pearl-mussel (Unio), 

Eulameilibranchia, 23 

pearly-nautilus (Nautilus), 
Tetrabranchia, 23 

peccary (Tayassu), Suiformes, 46 

Pecten, Filibranchia, 22 

Pectinaria, Polychaeta, 24 

Pectinibranchia, see Mesogastropoda 
*Pectunculus, see Glycymeris 

Pedalia, see Hexarthra 

Pedalion, see Hexarthra 

Pedetes, Myomorpha, 45 

Pedicellina, Pedicellinidae, 20 

Pedicellinidae, 20 

Pediculati, 39 

Pediculus, Anoplura, 27 

Pedipalpi, 3 1 

Pegasiformes, see Hypostomides 

Pegasus, Hypostomides, 39 

Pelagia, Semaeostomae, 1 2 

Pelagonemertes, Polystylifera, 1 6 

Pelagothuria, Elasipoda, 32 

Pelecaniformes, 42 

Pelecanoides, Procellariiformes, 42 

Pelecanus, Pelecaniformes, 42 

Pelecinomimus, see Cetomimus 

Pelecypoda, see Bivalvia 

Pelias, see Vipera 

pelican (Pelecanus), Pelecaniformes, 42 

pelican's foot-shell (Aporrhais), 
Mesogastropoda, 22 
*Pelmatohydra, Athecata, 1 1 

Pelmatozoa, 32 

Pelobates, Anomocoela, 40 



*Pelomyxa, Amoebina, 7 

Peloscolex, Oligochaeta, 24 

Penaeus, Natantia, 3 1 

Penardia, Testacea, 7 

Peneroplis, Foraminifera, 7 

penguins (Sphenisciformes), 42 

Penicillata, see Polyxenida 

Peniculina, 8 
*Pennaria, see Halocordyle 

Pennatula, Pennatulacea, 1 2 

Pennatulacea, 12 

Pentastomida, 32 

Pentazonia, 25 

Peracarida, 30 

Perameles, Marsupialia, 44 

Peranema, Euglenoidina, 6 

Perca, Percoidea, 38 

Percesoces, see Mugiloidea 

perch (Perca), Percoidea, 38 

— , climbing (Anabas), Anabantoidea, 38 

— , pirate- (Aphredoderus), 
Salmopercae, 37 

Percoidea, 38 

Percomorphi, 38-39 

Percopsiformes, see Salmopercae 

Per cop sis, Salmopercae, 37 
*Perdix (=Perdrix), Galliformes, 42 
*Perdrix, see Perdix 

Peridineae, see Dinoflagellata 

Peridinium, Dinoflagellata, 6 
*Perillus, Heteroptera, 27 
*Perinereis, Polychaeta, 24 

Periophthalmus, Gobioidea, 38 

Peripatopsis, Onychophora, 24 

Peripatus, Onychophora, 24 

Periphylla, Coronatae, 1 1 

Periplaneta, Blattodea, 26 

Peripsocus, Psocoptera, 27 

Perischoechinoidea, 33 

Perissodactyla, 46 

Peritricha, see Chonotrichida 

Peritrichida, 9 

periwinkle (Littorina), Mesogastropoda, 22 

Perkinsiella, Homoptera, 27 

Perla, Plecoptera, 26 

Perlaria, see Plecoptera 
*Perlodes, Plecoptera, 26 
*Pernis, Falconiformes, 42 

Perodicticus, Prosimii, 44 

Peromyscus, Myomorpha, 45 

Perophora, Phlebobranchiata, 34 

Petahira, Anisoptera, 26 
*Petaurus, Marsupialia, 44 



PETREL 



91 



PIGEON 



petrel, diving (Pelecanoides), 
Procellariiformes, 42 

— , storm {Hydrobates), 
Procellariiformes, 42 

Petrobius, Thysanura, 26 

Petromyzon. Hyperoartii, 35 

Petromyzones, see Hyperoartii 

Phacochoerus, Suiformes, 46 

Phaciis, Euglenoidina, 6 

Phaethon. Pelecaniformes, 42 

Phalacrocorax, Pelecaniformes, 42 
*Phalacna, see Noctua 

phalanger. common (Trichosurus), 
Marsupialia, 44 

Phalangida, see Opiliones 

phalangids (Opiliones), 31 

Phalangium, Opiliones, 3 1 
*Phalaropus, Charadriiformes, 42 
*Phalera, Ditrysia, 28 

Phallusia, Phlebobranchiata, 34 

Phanerozona, 34 

Pharomachrus, Trogoniformes, 43 

Phascolarcios, Marsupialia, 44 

Phascolion, Sipunculoidea, 23 

Phascolomis, see Vombatus 

Phascolosoma, Sipunculoidea, 23 

— , see Golfingia 

PhasgonurcL see Tettigonia 
*Phasianella, Archaeogastropoda, 21 

Phasianus. Galliformes, 42 

Phasmida. 26 

Phasmidia, 17-18 

pheasant {Phasianus), Galliformes, 42 
*Pheidole, Apocrita, 29 

Phenax, Homoptera, 27 
*Phengodes, Polyphaga, 28 

Pheretima, Oligochaeta, 24 

Pheronema, Amphidiscophora, 10 

Phialidiimu Thecata, 1 1 

Philaenus, Homoptera, 27 

Philodina, Bdelloidea, 17 

Philodinavus, Bdelloidea, 1 7 

Philometra, Spirurida, 1 8 
*Philosamia, Ditrysia, 28 

Phlebobranchiata, 34 

Phlebotomus, Nematocera, 28 

Phoca, Pinnipedia, 46 

Phocaena, Odontoceti, 45 

Phoenicopteriformes, 42 

Phoenicopterus, Phoenicopteriformes, 42 
*Phoeincurus ( = Ruticilla), Passeres, 43 

Pholas, Eulamellibranchia, 23 

Pholcus, Araneae, 3 1 



*Pholidoptera ( = Thamnotrizon), 
Ensifera, 26 

Pholidota, 44 

Phonixus, see Phoxinus 
*Phormia, Cyclorrhapha, 28 

Phormosoma, Echinothurioida, 33 

Phoronida, 20 

Phoronis, Phoronida, 20 

Phoronopsis, Phoronida, 20 
*Photinus, Polyphaga, 28 
*Photoblepharon, Berycomorphi, 38 
*Photuris, Polyphaga, 28 

Phoxinus, Cyprinoidea, 37 
*Phragmatobia, Ditrysia, 28 
*Phrixothrix, Polyphaga, 28 
*Phryganea, Trichoptera, 28 

Phryganoidea, see Trichoptera 

Phrynichus, Amblypygi, 31 

Phrynicida, see Amblypygi 
*Phrynobatrachus ( = Natalobatrachus), 
Diplasiocoela, 41 

Phthiraptera, 27 

Phthirius, see Phthirus 

Phthirus, Anoplura, 27 
*Phycis, Anacanthini, 38 

Phylactolaemata, 20 

Phyllium, Phasmida, 26 

Phyllobothrioidea, see Tetraphyllidea 

Phyllobothiium, Tetraphyllidea, 14 

Phyllocarida, see Leptostraca 

Phyllodoce, Polychaeta, 24 
*Phyllomedusa, Procoela, 40 

Phyllophorus, Dendrochirota, 33 

Phylloxera, Homoptera, 27 
*Phymata, Heteroptera, 27 

Phymosoma, see Phascolosoma 

Phymosomatoida, 33 
*Physa, Basommatophora, 22 

Physalia, Siphonophora, 1 1 

Physcosoma, see Phascolosoma 

Physeter, Odontoceti, 45 
*Physiculus, Anacanthini, 38 

Physopoda, see Thysanoptera 

Phytoflagellata, see Phytomastigina 

Phytom.astigina, 6 

Phytomonadina, 6 

Piciformes, 43 

Picus, Piciformes, 43 

pidock (Pholas), Eulamellibranchia, 23 

Pieris, Ditrysia, 28 

pig iSus), Suiformes, 46 

— , guinea (Cavia), Hystricomorpha, 45 

pigeon (Columba), Columbiformes, 43 



PIGEON, CROWNED 



92 



POECILOSCLERINA 



pigeon, crowned (GoMra), Columbiformes,43 
— , green (Treroii), Columbiformes, 43 
pika (Ochotona), Lagomorpha, 45 
pike (Esox), Haplomi, 37 
*Pila { = AmpuUaria), Mesogastropoda, 22 

pilchard {Sardina), Clupeoidea, 36 
*Pimelodus, Siluroidea, 37 

pine shoot moth (Evetria), Ditrysia, 28 
*Pinna, Filibranchia, 22 
Pinnipedia, 46 

pinworm (Enterobius), Ascaridina, 18 
— , mouse (Aspiculuris), Ascaridina, 18 
Pipa, Opisthocoela, 40 
pipistrelle (Pipistrellus), Microchiroptera, 44 
Pipistrellus, Microchiroptera, 44 
*Pipra, Tyranni, 43 
pirate-perch (Aphredoderus), 

Salmopercae, 37 
Piroplasma, see Babesia 
Pisaster, Forcipulata, 34 
Pisces, 36-40 

Piscicola, Rhynchobdellida, 24 
*Pisidium, Eulamellibranchia, 23 
*Pista, Polychaeta, 24 
*Pitta, Tyranni, 43 
*Pitymys, Myomorpha, 45 
*Placobdella, Rhynchobdellida, 24 
Plagiostomum, Alloeocoela, 1 3 
*Plagusia, Reptantia, 3 1 
P/aA:ma, Homosclerophora, 10 
P/a/7am, Paludicola, 13 
Planctosphaera, Planctosphaeroidea,^_34 
Planctosphaeroidea, 34 
* Planes, Reptantia, 3 1 

Planipennia, 28 
*Planocera, Acotylea, 13 
Planorbis, Basommatophora, 22 
PlanorbuUna, Foraminifera, 7 
plant louse {Aphis), Homoptera, 27 

, jumping (Psylla), Homoptera, 27 

plantain-eater (Musophaga), 

Cuculiformes, 43 
Plasmodium, Haemosporidia, 8 
Platalea, Ciconiiformes, 42 
*Platemys, Cryptodira, 41 
*Platycnemis, Zygoptera, 26 
Platycopa, 29 
Platyctenea, 12 
*Platydema, Polyphaga, 28 
Platydesmus, Colobognatha, 25 
Tp\^iyfis\:\{Platypoecilus), Microcyprini, 38 
*Platygaster, Apocrita, 29 
Platyhelminthes, 9 (footnote), 13-14 



*Platynereis, Polychaeta, 24 

Platypoecilus, Microcyprini, 38 

Platypus, see Ornithorhynchus 

Platyrrhacus, Polydesmida, 25 
*Platysamia, Ditrysia, 28 
*Plecoglossus, Salmonoidea, 36 

Plecoptera, 26 
*Plecostomus, Siluroidea, 37 

Plectognathi, 39 

Plectoptera, see Ephemeroptera 

Plectus, Chromadorida, 1 8 
*Plesiocoris, Heteroptera, 27 

Plethodon, Salamandroidea, 40 

Pleuwbrachia, Cydippida, 12 

Plewobranchus, Notaspidea, 22 

Pleurocoela, 22 

pleurodele newt (Pleurodeles), 
Salamandroidea, 40 

Pleurodeles, Salamandroidea, 40 

Pleurodira, 41 

Pleurogona, 35 

Pleuronectes, Heterosomata, 39 

Pleuronectiformes, see Heterosomata 

Pleuronema, Pleuronematina, 8 

Pleuronematina, 8 

Pleurophyllidea, Nudibranchia, 22 

Plewotornaria, Archaeogastropoda, 21 

Pleurotremata, 35-36 
*Pleurotricha, Hypotrichida, 9 

Plistophora, Microsporidia, 8 
*Plodia, Ditrysia, 28 

Ploima, 17 

plover, ringed (Charadrius), 
Charadriiformes, 42 

— , sand (Charadrius), Charadriiformes, 42 

Plumatella, Phylactolaemata,'20 

Plumularia, Thecata, 1 1 
*Plusia, Ditrysia, 28 
*Pneumonoeces, Digenea, 14 

Pneumora, Caelifera, 27 

pocket gopher (Geomys), Sciuromorpha, 45 

Podargus, Caprimulgiformes,'43 

*Podarke, Polychaeta, 24 

Podiceps, Podicipediformes, 42 

Podicipediformes, 42 

Podilymbus, Podicipediformes,'.42 

Podocopa, 29 
Podogonata, see Ricinulei 

Podon, Cladocera, 29 

Podophrya, Suctorida, 8 

Podura, Arthropleona, 25 

*Poecilia, Microcyprini, 38 
Poecilosclerina, 1 1 



POEOBIOIDEA 



93 



PRISTIS 



Poeobioidea, 23 (footnote) 

Poeobius, 23 (footnote) 

Pogonophora, 32 

Poicephalus, Psittaciformes, 43 

poison frog (Dendrobates), Procoela, 40 

polar bear (Thalarctos), Fissipeda, 45 

polecat (Mustela), Fissipeda, 45 
*Folia, see Baseodiscus 
*Polistes, Apocrita, 29 
*Polistotrema, Hyperotreti, 35 
*PoUachius, Anacanthini, 38 

Polybothms, Lithobiomorpha, 25 

Polycarpa, Stolidobranchiata, 35 
*Polycelis, Paludicola, 13 
*Polycera, Nudibranchia, 22 

Polychaeta, 24 
*Polychoenis, Acoela, 1 3 
*Polycirrus, Polychaeta, 24 

Polycladida, 13 

Polycliiium, Aplousobranchiata, 34 

Polycope, Cladocopa, 29 

Polydesmida, 25 

Polydesmus, Polydesmida,'25 

Polydora, Polychaeta, 24 

Polygordius, Archiannelida, 24 
*Polykrikos, Dinoflagellata, 6 

Polymastigina, see Metamonadina 
*Polymnia, see Eupolymnia 

Polymorphus, Palaeacanthocephala,'20 

Polynemoidea, 39 

Polynemus, Polynemoidea,'39 

Polyneoptera, 26-27 

— , see Palaeoptera 

■ — , see Paraneoptera 
*Polynoe, Polychaeta, 24 

Polyodon, Chondrostei, 36 

Polyopisthocotylea, 13-14 

Polypedates, see Rhacophorus 

Polyphaga, 28 
*Polyphemus, Cladocera, 29 

Polyplacophora, 21 

Polypteriformes, see Cladistia 

Polypterus, Cladistia, 36 

Polypus, see Octopus 

Poly stoma, Polystomatoidea, 14 

Polystomatoidea, 14 

Polystomella, see Elphidium 

Polystylifera, 16 

Polytoma, Phytomonadina, 6 
*Polytomella, Phytomonadina, 6 

Polyxenida, 24 

Polyxenus, Polyxenida, 24 

Polyzoa, 20 



Polyzoa Ectoprocta, see Polyzoa 

Polyzoa Endoprocta, see Entoprocta 

Polyzoa Entoprocta, see Entoprocta 

Polyzonium, Colobognatha, 25 
*Pomatias ( = Cyclostoma), 
Mesogastropoda, 22 
*Pomatoceros, Polychaeta, 24 

pond snail {Lymnaea), Basommatophora, 22 

Pongo, Simiae, 44 

PotUobdella, Rhynchobdellida, 24 
*Popillia, Polyphaga, 28 

Porcellanaster, Phanerozona, 34 
*Porcellio, Isopoda, 30 

porcupine (Hystrix), Hystricomorpha, 45 
*Porichthys, Haplodoci, 39 

Porifera, see Parazoa 

Pontes, Scleractinia, 12 

Porocephalida, 32 

Poromya, Septibranchia, 23 
*Poronotus, Stromateoidea, 38 

Porospora, Eugregarina, 7 

porpoise (Phocaena), Odontoceti, 45 

Porrocaecum, Ascaridina, 18 
*Porthetria, Ditrysia, 28 

Portuguese man-of-war {Physalid), 
Siphonophora, 1 1 

Portunion, Isopoda, 30 
*Portumis ( =/4/77/?///7/7Y£'),[Reptantia, 31 

Potamobius, see Astacus 

Potamon, Reptantia, 3 1 
*Potamonautes, Reptantia, 3 1 

Potorous, Marsupialia, 44 

Potos, Fissipeda, 45 

potto {Perodicticus), Prosimii, 44 

poultry caecal worm {Heterakis), ♦ 
Ascaridina, 18 

poultry roundworm (Ascaridid), 
Ascaridina, 18 

poultry stomach worm (Tetrameres), 
Spirurida, 18 

Pourtalesia, Holasteroida, 34 

prawn (Palaemon), Natantia, 31 

— (Paudalus), Natantia, 31 

— (Penaeus), Natantia, 31 

— , river (Macrobrachium), Natantia, 31 
Presbytis, Simiae, 44 
Priapulida, 17 
Priapulus, Priapulida, 1 7 
Primates, 44 
Priodontes, Edentata, 44 
Pristiophorus, Squaloidea, 36 
*Pnstiphora ( = Micronematus), Symphyta, 29 
Pristis, Batoidea, 36 



PRISTIURUS 



94 



PYROCYPRIS 



*Pristiurus, Galeoidea, 36 
*Proales, Ploima, 17 

Proboscidea, 46 

Procavia, Hyracoidea, 46 

Procellaria, Procellariiformes, 42 

Procellariiformes, 42 

Procerodes, Maricola, 13 
'*Processa, Natantia, 3 1 
^Prochilodus, Cyprinoidea, 37 
*Procnias, Tyranni, 43 

Prococcidia, 7 

Procoela, 40 

Procyon, Fissipeda, 45 
*Prodema, Ditrysia, 28 

Proneomenia, Neomeniomorpha, 21 

Prorodon, Cyrtophorina, 8 

Prosimii, 44 

Prosobranchia, 21-22 

Prosostomata, 15 

Prosthiostomum, Cotylea, 1 3 

Proteida, 40 
*Protemnodon, Marsupialia, 44 
[ Proteocephala, 16 

Proteocephaloidea, 14 

Proteocephalus, Proteocephaloidea, 14 

Proterandria, see Helminthomorpha 

Proteus, Proteida, 40 

Protobalanus, see Protoglossus 

Protobranchia, 22 
*Protoclepsis ( = Theromyzon), 
Rhynchobdellida, 24 

Piotodrilus, Archiannelida, 24 

Protoglossus, Enteropneusta, 34 

Protogyrodactyloidea, 13 

Protogyrodactylus, 

Protogyrodactyloidea, 1 3 

Protomonadina, 6 
*Protopipa, Opisthocoela, 40 

Protopterus, Dipnoi, 40 

Protospondyli, 36 

Prototheria, 43 

Protozoa, 6-9 

Protremata, 21 (footnote) 

Protura, 26 

Prunella, Passeres, 43 

Psammechinus, Echinoida, 33 

Pselaphognatha, 24 

Psettodes, Heterosomata, 39 
*Pseudacris ( = Chorophilus), Procoela, 40 
*Pseudagenia, Apocrita, 29 
*Pseudemys, Cryptodira, 41 

Pseudobranchus, Meantes, 40 
*Pseudocarcinus, Reptantia, 3 1 



Pseudocentrotus, Temnopleuroida, 33 

Pseudocuma, Cumacea, 30 

Pseudophyllidea, 14 
*Pseudopleuronectes, Heterosomata, 39 

Pseudoscorpiones, 31 
*Pseudosida, Cladocera, 29 

Psittaciformes, 43 

Psittacus, Psittaciformes, 43 

Psocoptera, 27 

Psocus, Psocoptera, 27 

Psolus, Dendrochirota, 33 

Psophia, Gruiformes, 42 

Psyche, Ditrysia, 28 

Psylla, Homoptera, 27 

Pterobranchia, 34 

Pterocles, Columbiformes, 43 

Pterodina, see Testudinella 

Pterophryne, Antennarioidea, 39 
*Pterophyllum, Percoidea, 38 
*Pteroplatea, Batoidea, 36 

Pteropoda, 22 

Pteropus, Megachiroptera, 44 

Pterosagitta, Chaetognatha, 32 

Pterotrachea, Mesogastropoda, 22 

Pterygota, 26-29 
*Ptinus, Polyphaga, 28 

Ptychodactiaria, 12 

Ptychodactis, Ptychodactiaria, 12 

Ptychodera, Enteropneusta, 34 
*Ptychopoda, Ditrysia, 28 
*Ptychoptera, Nematocera, 28 
*Ptychozoon, Sauria, 41 

puffbird (Bucco), Piciformes, 43 

puffer (Tetraodon), Tetraodontoidea, 39 

puffin (Fraterculd), Charadriiformes, 42 

Puffinus, 42 (footnote) 
*Pugettia, Reptantia, 3 1 

Pulex, Siphonaptera, 29 

Pulmonata, 22 

Pulsellum, Scaphopoda, 22 

Puma, see Felis 
*Puntazzo ( = Charax), Percoidea, 38 
* Purpura, see Nucella 

Putorius, see Mustelo 

Pycnogonida, 31-32 

Pycnogonomorpha, 32 

Pycnogonum, Pycnogonomorpha, 32 

Pycnophyes, Echinoderida, 1 7 

Pyemotes, Acari, 3 1 

Pygopodes, see Gaviiformes 

— , see Podicipediformes 
*Pyrausta, Ditrysia, 28 

Pyrocypris, Myodocopa, 29 



PYROMELANA 



95 



R HOMBOIDICHTHYS 



*Pyromelana, see Euplectes 
*Pyrophorus, Polyphaga, 28 

Pyrosoma, Pyrosomida, 35 

Pyrosomida, 35 
*Pyrrhocoris, Heteroptera, 27 

Python, Serpentes, 41 

python {Python), Serpentes, 41 

Pyura, Stolidobranchiata, 35 

Q 

Quadrigyrus, Eoacanthocephala, 20 
quetzal (Pharomachrus), Trogoniformes, 43 
quokka (Setonyx), Marsupialia, 44 

R 

rabbit (Oryctolagus), Lagomorpha, 45 

rabbit-fishes (Holocephali), 36 

raccoon (Procyon), Fissipeda, 45 

Radiolaria, 7 

Radiophrya, Astomatida, 8 

rag-fishes (Malacichthyes), 39 

rail (Rallus), Gruiformes, 42 

Raillietina, Cyclophyllidea, 14 

Raja, Batoidea, 36 

RaUus, Gruiformes, 42 

Ramphastos, Piciformes, 43 

ram's horn snail (Planorbis), 
Basommatophora, 22 

Rana, Diplasiocoela, 41 
*RandaUia, Reptantia, 3 1 

Rangifer, Ruminantia, 46 
*Raniceps, Anacanthini, 38 

Raphidia, Megaloptera, 27 

Raphidiophrys, Heliozoa, 7 

rat (Rattus), Myomorpha, 45 

— , cotton (Sigmodon), Myomorpha, 45 

— , coucha (Mastomys), Myomorpha, 45 

■ — , maned (Lophiomys), Myomorpha, 45 

— , mole (Spalax), Myomorpha, 45 

— , moon (Echinosorex), Insectivora, 44 

— , multimammate (Mastomys), 
Myomorpha, 45 

rat-kangaroo (Potorous), Marsupialia, 44 

rattle snake (Crotalus), Serpentes, 41 
*Rattidus, see Trichocerca 

Rattus, Myomorpha, 45 

raven (Corviis), Passeres, 43 

ray (Raja), Batoidea, 36 

— , sting (Dasyatis), Batoidea, 36 

rays (Hypotremata), 36 

razorbill (Alca), Charadriiformes, 42 

red deer( Cervus), Ruminantia, 46 
*Reduvius, Heteroptera, 27 



reed-fish (Calamoichthys), Cladistia, 36 

Reighardia, Cephalobaenida, 32 

reindeer (Rangifer), Ruminantia, 46 
* Reithrodontomys, Myomorpha, 45 

Remora, Discocephali, 39 

Reniera, see Adocia 
*Renilla, Pennatulacea, 12 

Reptantia, 31 

reptiles (Reptilia), 41 

Reptilia, 41 

Rhabdias, Rhabditina, 1 7 

Rhabdiasoidea, 19 

Rhabditida, 17-18 

Rhabditina, 17 

Rhabditis, Rhabditina, 17 

Rhabditoidea, 19 

Rhabdocoela, 13 
*Rhabdophaga, Nematocera, 28 

Rhabdophorina, 8 

Rhabdoplewa, Rhabdopleurida, 34 

Rhabdopleurida, 34 
*Rhabdostyla, Peritrichida, 9 

Rhachianectes, Mysticeti, 45 

Rhacophonts, Diplasiocoela, 41 

Rhagio, Brachycera, 28 

Rhea, Rheiformes, 41 

rheas (Rheiformes), 41 

Rhegnopteri, see Polynemoidea 

Rheiformes, 41 
'''Rhineura, Sauria, 41 
* Rhinobatus, Batoidea, 36 

Rhinoceros, Ceratomorpha, 46 

rhinoceros (Ceratotherium), 
Ceratomorpha, 46 

— (Diceros), Ceratomorpha, 46 

— (Rhinoceros), Ceratomorpha, 46 
Rhinochimaera, Holocephali, 36 
Rhinocricus, Spirobolida, 25 

*Rhinoderma, Diplasiocoela, 41 
Rhinolophus, Microchiroptera, 44 
Rhinophrynus, Procoela, 40 

* Rhithropanopeus, Reptantia, 31 
Rhizocephala, 30 
Rhizochloris, Xanthomonadina, 6 
Rhizocrinus, Articulata, 32 
Rhizomastigina, 7 
Rhizopoda, 7 

Rhizostoma, Rhizostomae, 12 

Rhizostomae, 12 
*Rhodites, see Diplolepis 

Rhodnius, Heteroptera, 27 
* Rhodosoma, Phlebobranchiata, 34 

* Rhomboidichthys, Heterosomata, 39 



RHOMBOZOA 



96 



SAND-DOLLARS 



Rhombozoa, see Dicyemida 
* Rhombus, see Scophthalmus 
Rhopalura, Orthonectida, 9 
Rhyacotriton, Ambystomoidea, 40 
Rhynchobdella, see Mocrognatfnis 
Rhynchobdellida, 24 
Rhynchobohis, see Glycera 
Rhynchocephalia, 41 
Rhynchocoela, see Nemertina 
Rhynchodemus, Terricola, 1 3 
Rhynchonelloidea, 21 
Rhynchophthirina, 27 
Rhynchota, see Hemiptera 
Rhynchotiis, Tinamiformes, 41 
Rhyiwchetos, Gruiformes, 42 
ribbon worms (Nemertina), 16-17 
ribbon-fish {Trachypterus), 

Allotriognathi, 38 
Ricinoides, Ricinulei, 3 1 
Ricinulei, 31 
ringed plover (Charadrius), 

Charadriiformes, 42 
river crab (Potamon), Reptantia, 31 
river prawn (Macrobrachium), 

Natantia, 31 
river-snail (Viviparus), Mesogastropoda, 22 
roach (Rutilus), Cyprinoidea, 37 
road-runner (Geococcyx), Cuculiformes, 43 
roan antelope {Hippotragiis), 

Ruminantia, 46 
roatelo (Mesoenas), Gruiformes, 42 
robber frog {Eleiitherodactylus), 

Procoela, 40 
rock lobster (Pamdinis), Reptantia, 3 1 
Rodentia, 45 

roller (Coracias), Coraciiformes, 43 
root-knot eelworm (Meloidogyne), 

Tylenchida, 18 
rorqual (Balaenoptera), Mysticeti, 45 
rose chafer (Cetonia), Polyphaga, 28 
*Rossia, Decapoda, 23 
Rotalia, Foraminifera, 7 
Rotaria, Bdelloidea, 1 7 
Rotatoria, see Rotifera 
Rotifer, see Rotaria 
Rotifera, 17 
Rotula, Rotulina, 33 
Rotulina, 33 
roundworm, horse (Parascaris), 

Ascaridina, 18 
— , large (Ascaris), Ascaridina, 18 
— , poultry (Ascaridia), Ascaridina, 18 
roundworms (Nematoda), 17-18 



*Rousettus, Megachiroptera, 44 

rudder-fish (Lirus), Stromateoidea, 38 

Ruminantia, 46 

Rupicapra, Ruminantia, 46 
*Riipicola, Tyranni, 43 
*Ruticilla, see Phoenicwus 

Rutilus, Cyprinoidea, 37 



Sabella, Polychaeta, 24 
*Sabellaria, Polychaeta, 24 
sable {Maries), Fissipeda, 45 
Saccocirrus, Archiannelida, 24 
Saccoglossus, Enteropneusta, 34 
Saccopharyngiformes, see Lyomeri 
Saccopharynx, Lyomeri, 37 
Sacculina, Rhizocephala, 30 
Sacoglossa, 22 

saddle-oyster (Anomia), Filibranchia, 22 
*Sagartia, Actiniaria, 1 2 
Sagitta, Chaetognatha, 32 
Sagittarius, Falconiformes, 42 
Saimiri, Simiae, 44 
salamander, dusky {Desmognathus), 

Salamandroidea, 40 
— , fire (Salamandra), Salamandroidea, 40 
— , giant (Megalobatrachus), 

Cryptobranchoidea, 40 
— , mole (Ambystoma), 

Ambystomoidea, 40 
— , Olympic {Rhyacotriton), 

Ambystomoidea, 40 
— , Pacific giant {Dicamptodon), 

Ambystomoidea, 40 
— , woodland {Plethodon), 

Salamandroidea, 40 
Salamandra, Salamandroidea, 40 
Salamandroidea, 40 
Salenia, Hemicidaroida, 33 
Salientia, 40-41 
Salmo, Salmonoidea, 36 
salmon {Salmo), Salmonoidea, 36 
Salmonoidea, 36 
Salmopercae, 37 
Salpa, Salpida, 35 
Salpida, 35 

Saltatoria, see Orthoptera 
Salvelinus, Salmonoidea, 36 
*Samia, Ditrysia, 28 
sand fly (Phlebotomus), Nematocera, 28 
sand plover {Charadrius), 

Charadriiformes, 42 
sand-dollars (Clypeasteroida), 33 



SAND-GROUSE 



97 



SEA LION 



sand-grouse (Pterocles), 
Columbiformes, 43 

sand-roUer (Percopsis), Salmopercae, 37 

Saprodinium, Ctenostomatida, 9 

Sarcocystis, Sporozoa (end), 8 

Sarcodina, see Rhizopoda 
*Sarcophaga, Cyclorrhapha, 28 
*Sarcophilus, Marsupialia, 44 
*Sarcoramphiis, Falconiformes, 42 

sarcosporidiosis {Sarcocystis), 
Sporozoa (end), 8 

Sardina, Clupeoidea, 36 

sardine {Sardina), Clupeoidea, 36 

Sarsia, Athecata, 1 1 
*Satnrnia, Ditrysia, 28 

Sauria, 41 
*Sauromalus, Sauria, 41 

saw-fish (Pristis), Batoidea, 36 

sawfly {Nematiis), Symphyta, 29 

— , stem {Cepfuis), Symphyta, 29 
*Saxicava, see Hiatella 
*Saxostrea, Eulamellibranchia, 23 

scabbard fish {Aphanopus), 
Trichiuroidea, 38 

scale insect {Coccus), Homoptera, 27 

scale-tailed flying squirrel (Anomalurus), 
Sciuromorpha, 45 

scallop {Pecten), Filibranchia, 22 

Scalopus, Insectivora, 44 

scaly anteater (Manis), Pholidota, 44 
*Scaphiopus, Anomocoela, 40 

Scaphiostreptus, Spirostreptida, 25 
*Scapholeberis, Cladocera, 29 

Scaphopoda, 22 
*Scardafella, Columbiformes, 43 
*Sceliphron, Apocrita, 29 
*Sceloporus, Sauria, 41 

Schistocephalus, Pseudophyllidea, 14 

Schistocerca, Caelifera, 27 

Schistosoma, T)'\%tnt3., 14 

Schizocardium, Enteropneusta, 34 

Schizocephala, see Polyxenida 

Schizocystis, Schizogregarina, 7 

Schizogregarina, 7 

Schizomida, see Uropygi 

Schizomus, Uropygi, 31 

Schizoporella, Cheilostomata, 20 

Schizotrypanum, Protomonadina, 6 
*Sciaena, Percoidea, 38 

Sciara, Nematocera, 28 

*Scinciis, Sauria, 41 

Sciuromorpha, 45 

Sciurus, Sciuromorpha, 45 



Scleractinia, 12 
Sclerodermi, see Balistoidea 
Scleroparei, 39 
Sclerostomum, see Strongylus 
Scolecomorphus, Gymnophiona, 41 
Scolopendra, Scolopendromorpha, 25 
Scolopendromorpha, 25 
Scoloplos, Polychaeta, 24 
Scomber, Scombroidea, 38 
Scombresoces, see Synentognathi 
Scombresocoidea, 37 
Scombresox, Scombresocoidea, 37 
Scombroidea, 38 
Scopelidae, see Myctophoidea 
Scopeliformes, see Iniomi 
*Scophthalmiis ( = Rhombus), 

Heterosomata, 39 
*Scopula (=Acidalia), Ditrysia, 28 

Scopus, Ciconiiformes, 42 
*Scorpaena, Scorpaenoidea, 39 
Scorpaenoidea, 39 
Scorpio, Scorpiones, 31 
scorpion flies (Mecoptera), 28 
Scorpiones, 31 
scorpions (Scorpiones), 3 1 
— , false (Pseudoscorpiones), 31 
— , micro-whip (Palpigradi), 31 
— , whip (Uropygi), 31 
— , wind (Solifugae), 31 
screamer {Anhima), Anseriformes, 42 
Scrupocellaria, Cheilostomata, 20 
Scutellina, 33 

Scutigera, Scutigeromorpha, 25 
Scutigerella, Symphyla, 25 
Scutigeromorpha, 25 
Scyliorhinus, Galeoidea, 36 
*Scyllarus, Reptantia, 31 

Scyllium, see Scyliorhinus 
*Scymnorhinus ( = Borborodes, Scymnus), 

Squaloidea, 36 
* Scymnus, see Scymnorhinus 
Scypha, Heterocoela, 9 
Scyphomedusae, see Scyphozoa 
Scyphozoa, 11-12 
sea anemones (Actiniaria), 12 
sea catfish {Anarhichas), Blennioidea, 38 
sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea), 32-33 
sea fan {Eunicella), Gorgonacea, 12 
sea gooseberry {Pleurobrachia), 

Cydippida, 12 
sea lily {Metacrinus), Articulata, 32 

, (Rhizocrinus), Articulata, 32 

sea lion (Otaria), Pinnipedia, 46 



SEA LION 



98 



SIPUNCULOIDEA 



sea lion, Calif ornian {Zalophm), 

Pinnipedia, 46 
sea pen {Pennatula), Pennatulacea, 12 
sea spiders (Pycnogonida), 31-32 
sea squirts (Ascidiacea), 34-35 
sea toads (Antennarioidea), 39 
sea urchins (Cidaroida), 33 

(Diadematacea), 33 

(Echinacea), 33 

sea-butterfly (Cavolina), Pteropoda, 22 

— (Limacina), Pteropoda, 22 
sea-hare (Aplysia), Pleurocoela, 22 
sea-horse (Hippocampus), Solenichthyes, 38 
seal (Phoca), Pinnipedia, 46 

— , Atlantic {Halichoerus), Pinnipedia, 46 
— , elephant (Mirounga), Pinnipedia, 46 
— ; grey {Halichoerus), Pinnipedia, 46 
sea-lemon (Doris), Nudibranchia, 22 
sea-slug (Elysia), Sacoglossa, 22 

— (Eolis), Nudibranchia, 22 

— (Limapontia), Sacoglossa, 22 

— (Pleurobranchus), Notaspidea, 22 
Sebastes, Scorpaenoidea, 39 
Sebekia, Porocephalida, 32 
secretary bird (Sagittarius), 

Falconiformes, 42 

Sedentaria, 24 (footnote) 

Seison, Seisonidea, 1 7 

Seisonidea, 17 

Selachii, 35-36 

Selachoidei, see Pleurotremata 

Selenidium, Archigregarina, 7 

Selenococcidiutn, Prococcidia, 7 

Selenocystis, Archigregarina, 7 

Semaeostomae, 12 

Sepia, Decapoda, 23 
*Sepietta, Decapoda, 23 
*SepioIa, Decapoda, 23 

Septibranchia, 23 
*Sergestes, Natantia, 3 1 
*Serinus, Passeres, 43 
*Seriola, Percoidea, 38 

serpent stars (Ophiurae), 34 

Serpentes, 41 

Serpula, Polychaeta, 24 
*Serranus, Percoidea, 38 

Sertularia, Thecata, 1 1 
*Sesan77a, Reptantia, 3 1 

Setaria, Spirurida, 1 8 

Setonyx, Marsupialia, 44 

sewellel (Aplodontia), Sciuromorpha, 45 

shaft louse (Menopon), Mallophaga, 27 

sharks (Pleurotremata), 35-36 



shearwater (Procellaria), 
Procellariiformes, 42 

sheep (Ovis), Ruminantia, 46 

sheep tick (Melophagus), Cyclorrhapha, 28 

shell-bearing slug (Testacella), 
Stylommatophora, 22 

ship-worm (Teredo), Eulamellibranchia, 23 

shore crab (Carcinus), Reptantia, 3 1 

shore eel (Alabes), Alabetoidea, 40 

shore hopper (Talitrus), Amphipoda, 30 

shorthorned grasshoppers (Caelifera), 27 

shrew (Sorex), Insectivora, 44 

— , elephant (Macroscelides), 
Insectivora, 44 

— , tree (Tupaia), Prosimii, 44 

— , white-toothed (Crocidura), 
Insectivora, 44 

shrimp (Crangon), Natantia, 3 1 

— (Hippolyte), Natantia, 31 

— , fresh-water (Gammarus), 
Amphipoda, 30 

— , ghost (Caprella), Amphipoda, 30 

shrimps, mantis (Stomatopoda), 30 

— , opossum- (Mysidacea), 30 

Sialis, Megaloptera, 27 

Sibbaldus, Mysticeti, 45 

Siboglinum, Athecanephria, 32 

Sida, Cladocera, 29 
* Siderastrea, Scleractinia, 1 2 

Siganoidei, see Teuthidoidea 
*Sigara, Heteroptera, 27 

Sigmatosclerophora, 10 

Sigmodon, Myomorpha, 45 
*Sika, Ruminantia, 46 

Silicoflagellata, 6 

silk moth (Bombyx), Ditrysia, 28 
*Silpha, Polyphaga, 28 

Siluroidea, 37 

Silurus, Siluroidea, 37 
*Silvanus, Polyphaga, 28 

silver fish (Lepisma), Thysanura, 36 

Simia, see Pongo 

Simiae, 44 

Simocephalus, Cladocera, 29 

Simuliutn, Nematocera, 28 
*Siphlonurus, Ephemeroptera, 26 

Siphodentalium, Scaphopoda, 22 

Siphonaptera, 29 

Siphonophora, 1 1 

Siphonopoda, see Cephalopoda 
*Siphostonm, Solenichthyes, 38 
Siphunculata, see Anoplura 
Sipunculoidea, 23 



SIPUNCULUS 



99 



SProER CRAB 



Sipunculus, Sipunculoidea, 23 
Siredon, Ambystomoidea, 40 
Siren, Meantes, 40 
siren (Siren), Meantes, 40 
— , dwarf (Pseudobranchus), Meantes, 40 
Sirenia, 46 
Sirex, Symphyta, 29 
Siriella, Mysidacea, 30 
*Siteroptes, Acari, 31 
* Sitodrepa, see Stegobium 
*Sitona, Polyphaga, 28 
*Sitophihis ( = Calandrd), Polyphaga, 28 
Sitotroga, Ditrysia, 28 
skipper {Scombresox), 

Scombresocoidea, 37 
skua (Stercorarius), Charadriiformes, 42 
skunk, spotted (Spilogale), Fissipeda, 45 
sleeping-sickness (Trypanosoma), 

Protomonadina, 6 
slipper animalcule (Paramecium), 

Peniculina, 8 
slipper limpet (Crepidida), 

Mesogastropoda, 22 
sloth, three-toed (Bradypits), Edentata, 44 
slow-worm (Anguis), Sauria, 41 
slug, shell-bearing (Testacella), 

Stylommatophora, 22 
— , land- (Arion), Stylommatophora, 22 
— , — (Limax), Stylommatophora, 22 
— , sea- (Elysia), Sacoglossa, 22 
— , — (Eolis), Nudibranchia, 22 
— , — (Limapontia), Sacoglossa, 22 
— , — (Pleurobranchus), Notaspidea, 22 
small fruit fly (Drosophila), 

Cyclorrhapha, 28 
*Smaris, Percoidea, 38 

smelt (Osmerus), Salmonoidea, 36 
*Smerinthus, Ditrysia, 28 
Sminthiirus, Symphypleona, 25 
Smithornis, Eurylaimi, 43 
snail, land (Helix), Stylommatophora, 22 
— , pond (Lymnaea), Basommatophora, 22 
— , ram's horn (Planorbis), 

Basommatophora, 22 
— , river- (Viviparus), Mesogastropoda, 22 
snake, grass (Matrix), Serpentes, 41 
- — , rattle {Crotalus), Serpentes, 41 
— , water (Matrix), Serpentes, 41 
snake fly (Raphidia), Megaloptera, 27 
snakes (Serpentes), 41 
snipe-fish (Macrorhamphosiis), 

Solenichthyes, 38 
snowy cricket (Oecanthus), Ensifera, 26 



soft corals (Octocorallia), 12 
soft-shelled turtle (Trionyx), 

Cryptodira, 41 
Solaster, Spinulosa, 34 
Solea, Heterosomata, 39 
*Solen, Eulamellibranchia, 23 

Solenichthyes, 38 
*Solenobia, Ditrysia, 28 
Solenogastres, see Aplacophora 
Solenomya, Protobranchia, 22 
Solifugae, 3 1 

Solmissus, Narcomedusae, 1 1 
Solpugida, see Solifugae 
*Somateria, Anseriformes, 42 
songbirds (Passeres), 43 
Sorex, Insectivora, 44 
sour paste eelworm (Panagrellus), 

Rhabditina, 17 
South American caiman (Caiman), 

Crocodylia, 41 
spade foot, European (Pelobates), 

Anomocoela, 40 
Spadella, Chaetognatha, 32 
Spalax, Myomorpha, 45 
sparrow hawk (Accipiter), 

Falconiformes, 42 
Spatangoida, 34 
Spatangus, Spatangoida, 34 
*Spathegaster, Apocrita, 29 
Spelaeogriphacea, 30 
Spelaeogriphus, Spelaeogriphacea, 30 
*Speocarcinus, Reptantia, 3 1 
sperm whale (Physeter), Odontoceti, 45 
Spermophilus, see Citellus 
Sphaerechinus, Temnopleuroida, 33 
Sphaerius, Polyphaga, 28 
Sphaerocapsa, Radiolaria,^7 
*Sphaeroides, Tetraodontoidea,[39 
Sphaeronella, Lernaeopodoida,'30 
Sphaerospora, Myxosporidia,l8 
Sphaerotherium, Glomerida, 25 
Sphaerozoiim, Radiolaria, 7 
Sphaerularia, Tylenchida, 1 8 
Spheciospongia, Astrosclerophora, 10 
Sphenisciformes, 42 
Spheniscus, Sphenisciformes, 42 
Sphenodon, Rhynchocephalia, 41 

* Sphinx ( = Sphynx), Ditrysia, 28 
*Sphodromantis, Mantodea, 26 

* Sphynx, see Sphinx 
Sphyraena, Mugiloidea, 38 
Sphyrna, Galeoidea, 36 

spider crab (Maia), Reptantia, 31 



SPIDER MONKEY 



100 



STOMIAS 



spider monkey (A teles), Simiae, 44 

spiders (Araneae), 3 1 

— , false (Solifugae), 3 1 

— , harvest (Opiliones), 31 

— , sea (Pycnogonida), 31-32 

— , sun (Solifugae), 31 

Spilogole, Fissipeda, 45 
*SpilopeUa, see Streptopelia 

Spinachia, Thoracostei, 39 
*Spinax (=Etmopterus), Squaloidea, 36 

Spinulosa, 34 

spiny anteater (Tachyglossus), 
Monotremata, 43 

spiny eels (Opisthomi), 39 

Spirobolida, 25 

Spirobohis, Spirobolida, 25 

Spirobiachia, Thecanephria, 32 

Spirochona, Chonotrichida, 8 

Spirocodou, Athecata, 1 1 

Spirographis, see Sabella 

Spirophrya, Apostomatida, 8 

Spirostomwn, Heterotrichina, 9 

Spirostreptida, 25 

Spirostreptus, Spirostreptida, 25 

Spirotricha, 9 

Spirilla, Decapoda, 23 

Spirurida, 18 

Spiruroidea, 19 
*Spisula, Eulamellibranchia, 23 
*Spondylomomm, Phytomonadina, 6 

sponge, bath (Spongia), Keratosa, 10 

— , loggerhead (Spheciospongia), 
Astrosclerophora, 10 

sponges (Parazoa), 9-10 

— , ascon (Homocoela), 9 

— , glass (Hexactinellida), 10 

— , homy (Keratosa), 10 

Spongia, Keratosa, 10 

Spongiida, see Parazoa 

Spongilla, Sigmatosclerophora, 10 

spoonbill (Platalea), Ciconiiformes, 42 

Sporozoa, 7-8 

spotted skunk (Spilogale), Fissipeda, 45 

spring-tails (Collembola), 25 

Squaloidea, 36 

Squalus, Squaloidea, 36 

Squamata, 41 

Squatina, Squaloidea, 36 

squid (Loligo), Decapoda, 23 

— , vampire (Vampyroteuthis), 
Vampyromorpha, 23 

Squilla, Stomatopoda, 30 

squirrel (Sciurus), Sciuromorpha, 45 



squirrel, African ground (Xerus), 
Sciuromorpha, 45 

— , American flying (Glaiicomys), 
Sciuromorpha, 45 

— , American ground (Citellus), 
Sciuromorpha, 45 

— , scale-tailed flying (Anomalurus), 
Sciuromorpha, 45 

squirrel monkey (Saimiri), Simiae, 44 

stag beetle (Lucanus), Polyphaga, 28 

starfishes (Asteroidea), 34 

starling (Sturnus), Passeres, 43 

Stauromedusae, 1 1 

Steatornis, Caprimulgiformes, 43 

Steganopodes, see Pelecaniformes 
*Stegobium ( = Sitodrepa), Polyphaga, 28 
*Stegomyia, Nematocera, 28 
*Stegostonia, Galeoidea, 36 

Stelletta, Astrosclerophora, 10 

Stelmatopoda, see Gymnolaemata 

stem-and-bulb eelworm (Ditylenchus), 
Tylenchida, 18 

stem sawfly (Cep/nis), Symphyta, 29 

Stemmatoiulus, Stemmiulida, 25 

Stemmiulida, 25 
*Stenobothrus, Caelifera, 27 

Stenoglossa, 22 

— , see Mesogastropoda 

Stenolaemata, see Cyclostomata 
*Stenopelmatus, Ensifera, 26 

Stenostomata, see Cyclostomata 
*Stenostomiim, Rhabdocoela, 1 3 
*Stenotomus, Percoidea, 38 

Stentor, Heterotrichina, 9 

Stephanoceros, Collothecacea, 17 

Stercorarius, Charadriiformes, 42 

Sterna, Charadriiformes, 42 
*Sternaspis, Polychaeta, 24 

Stichastrella, Forcipulata, 34 

Stichopus, Aspidochirota, 32 

stick-insect (Carausius), Phasmida, 26 

sticklebacks (Thoracostei), 39 

sticktight (Echidnophaga), Siphonaptera, 29 

Stigmella, Monotrysia, 28 

Stigmodera, Polyphaga, 28 

sting ray (Dasyatis), Batoidea, 36 

sting-winkle (Murex), Stenoglossa, 22 

— (Ocenebra), Stenoglossa, 22 

stoat (Ml/stela), Fissipeda, 45 

Stolidobranchiata, 35 

Stomatoda, see Peritrichida 

Stomatopoda, 30 

Stomias, Stomiatoidea, 36 



STOMIATOIDEA 



101 



TAENIA 



Stomiatoidea, 36 

Stomochordata, see Hemichordata 
*Stomolop/ius, Rhizostomae, 12 

Stomopneustes, Phymosomatoida, 33 
*Stomoxys, Cyclorrhapha, 28 
stone crab (Lithodes), Reptantia, 3 1 
stone-flies (Plecoptera), 26 
stony corals (Scleractinia), 12 
*Storeria, Serpentes, 41 
stork (Ciconia), Ciconiiformes, 42 
— , whale-headed (Balaeniceps), 

Ciconiiformes, 42 
storm petrel {Hydrobates), 
Procellariiformes, 42 
Strepsiptera, 28 
Streptastrosclerophora, 10 
Streptoneura, see Prosobranchia 
*Streptopelia ( = Spilopelid), 
Columbiformes, 43 
Strigea, Digenea, 14 
Strigiformes, 43 
*Stngomonas, Protomonadina, 6 
striped hyaena (Hyaena), 
Fissipeda, 45 
*Stnx, Strigiformes, 43 

Stromateoidea, 38 

Strombidium, Oligotrichida, 9 

Strombilidium, Oligotrichida, 9 

Strombus, Mesogastropoda, 22 

Strongylina, 18 

Strongylocentrotus, Echinoida, 33 

Strongyloidea, 19 

Strongyloides, Rhabditina, 1 7 

Strongylus, Strongylina, 18 

Struthio, Struthioniformes, 41 

Struthioniformes, 41 

sturgeon (Acipenser), Chondrostei, 36 

Sturnus, Passeres, 43 

Styela, Stolidobranchiata, 35 

Stylaria, Oligochaeta, 24 

Stylaster, Athecata, 1 1 

Stylocephalus, Eugregarina, 7 

Stylochus, Acotylea, 1 3 

Stylommatophora, 22 
*Stylonychia, Hypotrichida, 9 

stylopids (Strepsiptera), 28 

Stylops, Strepsiptera, 28 

Suberites, Astrosclerophora, 10 

Subulura, Ascaridina, 18 

sucker-fishes (Discocephali), 39 

sucking lice (Anoplura), 27 

Suctoria, see Siphonaptera 

Suctorida, 8 



sugar-cane leaf-hopper {Perkinsiella), 

Homoptera, 27 
Suiformes, 46 
Sula, Pelecaniformes, 42 
sun spiders (Solifugae), 31 
sun-bittern (Eurypyga), Gruiformes, 42 
sun-fish (Mola), Tetraodontoidea, 39 
sun-grebe (Heliornis), Gruiformes, 42 
surgeon-fish (Acanthurus), 

Acanthuroidea, 38 
Surinam toad (Pipa), Opisthocoela, 40 
Sus, Suiformes, 46 
swallow (Hirundo), Passeres, 43 
swallow-tail (Papilio), Ditrysia, 28 
swan (Cygnus), Anseriformes, 42 
swan-mussel (Anodonta), 

Eulamellibranchia, 23 
swift (Apus), Apodiformes, 43 
swordtail (Platypoecilus), 

Microcyprini, 38 
Sycandra, see Grantia 
Sycon, see Scypha 
Syconosa, 10 
Sycotypus, see Busycon 
Syllis, Polychaeta, 24 
* Sylvia, Passeres, 43 
Sylvilagus, Lagomorpha, 45 
Symphyla, 25 
Symphylella, Symphyla, 25 
Symphypleona, 25 
Symphyta, 29 
Synapta, Apoda, 33 
Synbranchii, 40 
Synbranchoidea, 40 
Synbranchus, Synbranchoidea, 40 
Syncarida, 30 
*Synchaeta, Ploima, 1 7 
*Synchroa, Polyphaga, 28 

Syncystis, Schizogregarina, 7 
*Syndesmis, Rhabdocoela, 1 3 
Synentognathi, 37 
Syngamus, Strongylina, 1 8 
Syngnathiformes, see Solenichthyes 
*Syngnathus, Solenichthyes, 38 
Sy nodus, Myctophoidea, 37 
Syraphus, Tanaidacea, 30 



Tabanus, Brachycera, 28 
*Tachycines, Ensifera, 26 
Tachyglossus, Monotremata, 43 
Tachypleus, Xiphosura, 3 1 
Taenia, Cyclophyllidea, 14 



TAENIARHYNCHUS 



102 



THALASSOCHELYS 



*Taeniarhynchus ( = Taenia ?), 
Cyclophyllidea, 14 

Taenioidea, see Cyclophyllidea 

tailed frog (Ascaphus), Amphicoela, 40 
*Takydromus, Sauria, 41 
*Talegalla, Galliformes, 42 

Talitrus, Amphipoda, 30 
*Talorchestia, Amphipoda, 30 

Talpa, Insectivora, 44 

Tamandua, Edentata, 44 
*Tamarinus, Prosimii, 44 

Tamias, Sciuromorpha, 45 

Tanaidacea, 30 

Tanais, Tanaidacea, 30 
*Tangavius, Passeres, 43 
*Tanytarsus, Nematocera, 28 

tapeworms (Cestoda), 14 

tapir (Tapirus), Ceratomorpha, 46 

Tapirus, Ceratomorpha, 46 

Tardigrada, 32 

tarpon (Megalops), Clupeoidea, 36 

tarsier (Tarsius), Tarsii, 44 

Tarsii, 44 

Tarsius, Tarsii, 44 

Tartaridae, see Uropygi 

Taurotragus, Ruminantia, 46 
*Tautoga, Percoidea, 38 

Taxidea, Fissipeda, 45 

Tayassu, Suiformes, 46 

Tealia, Actinmria, 12 

Tectibranchia, see Pleurocoela 

Tectospondyli, see Squaloidea 
*Telea, Ditrysia, 28 

Teleostei, see Neopterygii 

tellin (Tellina), Eulamellibranchia, 23 

Tellina, Eulamellibranchia, 23 

Telomyxa, Microsporidia, 8 
*Telorchis, Digenea, 14 

Telosporidia, see Sporozoa 

Telotremata, 21 (footnote) 

Telphusa, see Potamon 

Temnocephala, Temnocephalidea, 1 3 

TemnocephaHdea, 13 

Temnocephaloidea, 13 

Temnopleuroida, 33 

Temnopleums, Temnopleuroida, 33 

Tenebrio, Polyphaga, 28 

Tenrec, Insectivora, 44 

tenrec (Tenrec), Insectivora, 44 

Tentacularia, Tetrarhynchoidea, 14 

Tentaculata, 12 

Tentaculifera, see Suctorida 

Terebella, Polychaeta, 24 



Terebra, Stenoglossa, 22 

Terebratella, Terebratelloidea, 21 

Terebratelloidea, 21 

Terebratulina, Terebratuloidea, 21 

Terebratuloidea, 21 

Teredo, Eulamellibranchia, 23 

termites (Isoptera), 26 
*Termopsis, Isoptera, 26 

tern {Sterna), Charadriiformes, 42 
*Terrapene, Cryptodira, 41 

terrapin (Chrysemys), Cryptodira, 41 

Terricola, 13 

Terricolae, 24 (footnote) 

Testacea, 7 

Testacella, Stylommatophora, 22 

Testudinella, Flosculariacea, 1 7 

Testudines, 41 

Testudo, Cryptodira, 41 

Tethya, Astrosclerophora, 10 

Tetilla, Astrosclerophora, 10 

Tetrabothrioidea, 14 

Tetrabothrius, Tetrabothrioidea, 1 4 

Tetrabranchia, 23 

Tetractinellida, 10-1 1 

Tetractinomyxon, Actinomyxidia, 8 

Tetradesmida, 14 

Tetrahymena, Tetrahymenina, 8 

Tetrahymenina, 8 

Tetrakentron, Heterotardigrada, 32 

Tetrameres, Spirurida, 18 
*Tetramitus, Metamonadina, 6 
*Tetrao, Galliformes, 42 

Tetraodon, Tetraodontoidea, 39 

Tetraodontiformes, see Plectognathi 

Tetraodontoidea, 39 
*Tetraopes, Polyphaga, 28 

Tetraphyllidea, 14 

Tetrarhynchoidea, 14 

Tetrarhynclius, Tetrarhynchoidea, 14 

Tetrastemma, Monostylifera, 16 

Tetraxonida, 10 

Tetrix, Caelifera, 27 

Tettigonia, Ensifera, 26 

Teuthidoidea, 38 

Teuthis, Teuthidoidea, 38 

Texas cattle fever (Babesia), 
Haemosporidia, 8 

Textularia, Foraminifera, 7 
*Thais, Ditrysia, 28 

Thalarctos, Fissipeda, 45 

Thalassema, Echiuroinea, 23 

Thalassicola, Radiolaria, 7 
*Thalassochelys, see Caret ta 



THALASSOPHRYNE 



103 



TREE FROG 



Thalassophryne, Haplodoci, 39 

Thaliacea, 35 
*Thamnophis, Serpentes, 41 
*Thamnotnzoii, see Pholidoptera 

Thecanephria, 32 

Thecata, 1 1 

Thecideoidea, 2 1 

Theileria, Haemosporidia, 8 

Thelazia, Spirurida, 18 
*Thelia, Homoptera, 27 

Thelohania, Microsporidia, 8 

Thelyphonida, see Uropygi 

Tbenea, Streptastrosclerophora, 10 
*Theodoxus, Archaeogastropoda, 21 

Theria, 44-^6 

Thermobia, Thysanura, 26 

Theimosbaena, Thermosbaenacea, 30 

Thermosbaenacea, 30 
*Theromyzon, see Protoclepsis 

Thigmophrya, Thigmotrichida, 9 

Thigmotrichida, 9 
*Thomomys, Sciuromorpha, 45 

Thoracica, 30 

Thoracostei, 39 

thorny-headed worms (Acanthocephala), 20 

threadworm (Enterobiiis), Ascaridina, 1 8 

— , mouse (Aspiculuris), Ascaridina, 1 8 

three-toed sloth (Bradvpus), Edentata, 44 

Threskiornis, Ciconiiformes, 42 

Thn'ps, Thysanoptera, 27 

thrips (Thysanoptera), 27 

Thrombus, Homosclerophora, 10 

thrush {Turdus), Passeres, 43 

Thunniis, Scombroidea, 38 
*Thylacinus, Marsupialia, 44 
*Thynnus, Scombroidea, 38 

Thy one, Dendrochirota, 33 

Thyropygus, Spirostreptida, 25 

Thysanoptera, 27 

Thysanozooii, Cotylea, 1 3 

Thysanura. 26 
*Thysanus, Apocrita, 29 
*Tiaropsis, Thecata, 1 1 

tick (Argas), Acari, 3 1 

— (Ixodes), Acari, 31 

— (Ornithodoros), Acari, 3 1 

— , sheep (Melophagus), Cyclorrhapha, 28 
tiger (Panthera), Fissipeda, 45 
tiger beetle (Cicindela), Adephaga, 28 
Tigriopus, Harpacticoida, 29 
Tigris, see Panthera 
*TiIiqua, Sauria, 41 
Tillina, Trichostomatida, 8 



*Timarcha, Polyphaga, 28 

Tinamiformes, 41 

tinamous (Tinamiformes), 41 

Tinea, Ditrysia, 28 
*Tineola, Ditrysia, 28 

Tintinnida, 9 

Tintinnopsis, Tintinnida, 9 

Tintinnus, Tintinnida, 9 

Tipula, Nematocera, 28 

Tityus, Scorpiones, 3 1 

Tjalfiella, Platyctenea, 12 

toad (Biifo), Procoela, 40 

— , bull (Megophrys), Anomocoela, 40 

— , clawed (Xenopus), Opisthocoela, 40 

— , fire bellied (Bonibina), 
Opisthocoela, 40 

— , Mexican digger (Rhinophrynus), 
Procoela, 40 

— , midwife (Alytes), Opisthocoela, 40 

— , Surinam (Pipa), Opisthocoela, 40 

— , true (Bufo), Procoela, 40 

toad-fishes (Haplodoci), 39 

toads, sea (Antennarioidea), 39 

Todus, Coraciiformes, 43 

tody (Todus), Coraciiformes, 43 
'^'Tomaspis, Homoptera, 27 
*Tomicus, see Ips 

Tomistoma, Crocodylia, 41 

Tomopteris, Polychaeta, 24 
*Tomcella, Chitonida, 21 
*Tonna ( = Dolium), Mesogastropoda, 22 

tope (Galeorhinus), Galeoidea, 36 

top-shell (Trochus), Archaeogastropoda, 21 

Torpediniformes, see Narcobatoidea 

Torpedo, Narcobatoidea, 36 

tortoise, Greek (Testudo), Cryptodira, 41 

Tortrix, Ditrysia, 28 
* Tot anus, see Tringa 

toucan (Ramphastos), Piciformes, 43 
*Toxascaris, Ascaridina, 18 

Toxoplasma, Sporozoa (end), 8 

toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma), 
Sporozoa (end), 8 

Toxopneustes, Temnopleuroida, 33 
*Toxoptera, Homoptera, 27 

Trachelomonas, Euglenoidina, 6 
*Trachinus, Percoidea, 38 
*Trachyeorystes, Siluroidea, 37 

Trachymedusae, 1 1 

Trachypterus, Allotriognathi, 38 

Tragulus, Ruminantia, 46 
*Travisia, Polychaeta, 24 

tree frog (Hyla), Procoela, 40 



TREE FROG 



104 



TURBONILLA 



tree frog (Rhacophonis), Diplasiocoela, 41 

tree hyrax (Dendrohyrax), 
Hyracoidea, 46 

tree shrew (Tupaia), Prosimii, 44 

tree-hopper (Centrotus), Homoptera, 27 

Trematoda, 14 

Trepostomata, see Cyclostomata 

— , 20 (footnote) 

Treron, Columbiformes, 43 
*Triaenophoius, Pseudophyllidea, 14 
*Trialewodes, Homoptera, 27 
*Triangulus, Rhizocephala, 30 

Triarthra, see Filinia 
*Triatoma, Heteroptera, 27 

Triaxonida, see Hexactinellida 

TriboUum, Polyphaga, 28 
*Trichamoeba, Amoebina, 7 

Trichechus, Sirenia, 46 

Trichina, see Trichinella 

trichina worm {Trichinella), Dorylaimina, 1 8 

r/7W///?£'//o, Dorylaimina, 18 

Trichinelloidea, see Trichuroidea 

Trichiuroidea, 38 

Trichocephalus, see Trichuris 
*Trichocerca ( = Diurella, Rattulus), 
Ploima, 17 

Trichodectes, Mallophaga, 27 

Trichodina, Peritrichida, 9 

Trichogramma, Apocrita, 29 

Trichomonas, Metamonadina, 6 

Trichonympha, Metamonadina, 6 

Trichoptera, 28 

Trichostomatida, 8 

trichostrongyles (Cooperia), Strongylina, 18 

— (Haemonchus), Strongylina, 18 

— (Ostertagia), Strongylina, 1 8 
Trichosurus, Marsupialia, 44 
Tif'/Wji/m, Dorylaimina, 18 
Trichuroidea, 19 
Tricladida, 13 

*Tridacna, Eulamellibranchia, 23 

trigger-fishes (Plectognathi), 39 

Trigla, Scorpaenoidea, 39 

Trigoniulus, Spirobolida, 25 

Trimastix, Metamonadina, 6 
*Trimerotropis, Caehfera, 27 
*Tringa ( = Totanus), Charadriiformes, 42 

Trionyx, Cryptodira, 41 
*Triopha, Nudibranchia, 22 

Triops, Notostraca, 29 

Tripneustes, Temnopleuroida, 33 

Tripyla, Enoplina, 1 8 

Tristoma, Capsaloidea, 1 3 



Triticella, Ctenostomata, 20 

Triton, see Triturus 

Tritonia, see Charonia 

Triturus, Salamandroidea, 40 

Trocheta, Gnathobdellida, 24 

Trochilus, Apodiformes, 43 
*Trochocochlea, Archaeogastropoda, 21 

Trochosphaera, Flosculariacea, 1 7 

Trochus, Archaeogastropoda, 21 
*Troglichthys, Microcyprini, 38 
^Troglodytes, Passeres, 43 

Troglodytes, see Pan 

Trogoniformes, 43 

trogons (Trogoniformes), 43 

Trombicula, Acari, 3 1 

tropic bird (Phaethon), Pelecaniformes, 42 

Tropidonotus, see Natrix 

Tropiometra, Articulata, 32 

Tropisurus, see Tetrameres 
*Tropoeas, see Turbonilla 

trout (Salmo), Salmonoidea, 36 

true corals (Scleractinia), 12 

true dragonflies (Anisoptera), 26 

true flies (Diptera), 28 

true frog (Rana), Diplasiocoela, 41 

true toad (Bufo), Procoela, 40 

trumpeter (Psophia), Gruiformes, 42 

trumpet-shell (Charonia), 
Mesogastropoda, 22 

Trutta, see Salmo 

Tryblidiacea, 21 

Trygon, see Dasyatis 

Trypanorhyncha, see Tetrarhynchoidea 

Trypanosoma, Protomonadina, 6 
*Trypoxylon, Apocrita, 29 

tse-tse fly (Glossina), Cyclorrhapha, 28 

tuatara (Sphenodon), Rhynchocephalia, 41 

Tubifex, Oligochaeta, 24 

Tubinares, see Procellariiformes 

Tubulanus, Palaeonemertina, 16 

Tubularia, Athecata, 1 1 

TubuHdentata, 46 

Tubulipora, Cyclostomata, 20 

Tunga, Siphonaptera, 29 

Tunicata, see Urochordata 

tunny (Thunmis), Scombroidea, 38 

Tupaia, Prosimii, 44 
*Tupinambis, Sauria, 41 

Turbatrix, Rhabditina, 1 7 

Turbellaria, 13 

turbellarians (Turbellaria), 1 3 

* Turbonilla ( = Tropoeas), 
Mesogastropoda, 22 



TURDUS 



105 



WAPITI 



Tardus, Passeres, 43 

turkey (Meleagris), Galliformes, 42 

turkey vulture (Cathartes), 
Falconiformes, 42 

Tiimix, Gruiformes, 42 
* Tunis, seeLeuckartiara 
* — , see Neotuiris 

Tursio, see Tursiops 

Tursiops, Odontoceti, 45 

turtle, green (Chelone), Cryptodira, 41 

— , leathery (Dermochelys), 
Cryptodira, 41 

— , long necked (Chelodina), 
Pleurodira, 41 

— , soft-shelled (Trionyx), Cryptodira, 41 
*Turtur, Columbiformes, 43 

tusk-shell {Cadulus), Scaphopoda, 22 

— {Dentalium), Scaphopoda, 22 

— (Pulsellum), Scaphopoda, 22 

— (Siphodentalium), Scaphopoda, 22 
two-winged flies (Diptera), 28 
Tylenchida, 18 

Tylopoda, 46 
*Typhlichthys, Microcyprini, 38 
*Typhlonectes, Gymnophiona, 41 

Tyranni, 43 
*Tyrannus, Tyranni, 43 

Tyto, Strigiformes, 43 



U 

Uca, Reptantia, 3 1 

Vdonella, Udonelloidea, 1 3 

Udonelloidea, 13 

Umbra, Haplomi, 37 

Uwbracuhim, Notaspidea, 22 

Unio, Eulamellibranchia, 23 
*Upogebia, Reptantia, 31 

Upupa, Coraciiformes, 43 
* Uranoscopus, Percoidea, 38 

Urceolaria, Peritrichida, 9 

Urechis, Xenopneusta, 23 

Urnatella, Urnatellidae, 20 

Urnatellidae, 20 

Urocentruni, Peniculina, 8 

Urochordata, 34-35 

Urodela, see Caudata 

Uroglena, Chrysomonadina, 6 

Uroleptus, Hypotrichida, 9 
*Uronychia, Hypotrichida, 9 

Uropygi, 31 

Ursus, Fissipeda, 45 

Uteriporus, Maricola, 1 3 



Vacuolaria, Chloromonadina, 6 
Vahlkampfia, Amoebina, 7 
vampire (Desmodus), Microchiroptera, 44 
vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis), 

Vampyromorpha, 23 
Vampyrella, Heliozoa, 7 
Vampyromorpha, 23 
Vampyroteuthis, Vampyromorpha, 23 

* Vanellus, Charadriiformes, 42 

* Vanessa, Ditrysia, 28 
Velamen, Cestida, 12 
Velella, Athecata, 1 1 

Venus's flower basket (Euplectella), 

Hexasterophora, 10 
Venus's girdle (Cesium), Cestida, 12 

* Vermetus, Mesogastropoda, 22 
Vertebrata, 35-46 

Vespa, Apocrita, 29 
*Vespertilio, Microchiroptera, 44 
Vespula, Apocrita, 29 
Vexillum, see Velamen 
vicuna (Lama), Tylopoda, 46 

* Vinciguerria, Stomiatoidea, 36 

vine pest (Phylloxera), Homoptera, 27 
vinegar eelworm (Turbatrix), 

Rhabditina, 17 
v'vpQX (Vipera), Serpentes, 41 
Vipera, Serpentes, 41 
Virgularia, Pennatulacea, 1 2 

* Viscaccia, see Lagidium 
Viverra, Fissipeda, 45 
Viviparus, Mesogastropoda, 22 
vole (Microtus), Myomorpha, 45 

— , bank (Clethrionomys), Myomorpha, 45 
— , water (Arvicola), Myomorpha, 45 

* Volucella, Cyclorrhapha, 28 

* Valuta, Stenoglossa, 22 
Volvocina, see Phytomonadina 
Volvox, Phytomonadina, 6 
Vombatus, Marsupial ia, 44 
Vorticella, Peritrichida, 9 
Vulpes, Fissipeda, 45 

* Vultur, Falconiformes, 42 
vulture, black (Aegypius), 

Falconiformes, 42 
— , turkey (Cathartes), Falconiformes, 42 

W 

* Waldheimia, Symphyta, 29 
wall lizard (Lacerta), Sauria, 41 
walrus (Odobenus), Pinnipedia, 46 
wapiti (Cervus), Ruminantia, 46 



WART HOG 



106 



ZYGOPTERA 



wart hog (Phacochoerus), Suiformes, 46 

wasp (Vespula), Apocrita, 29 

— , giant wood (Sirex), Symphyta, 29 

* Watasenia, Decapoda, 23 

water beetle (Dytiscus), Adephaga, 28 

water boatman (Corixa), Heteroptera, 27 

water fleas (Cladocera), 29 

water snake (Matrix), Serpentes, 41 

water vole (Arvicola), Myomorpha, 45 

water-bears (Tardigrada), 32 

waterdog {Nectwus), Proteida, 40 

wax moth (Galleria), Ditrysia, 28 

weasel (Mustela), Fissipeda, 45 

web-spinners (Embioptera), 27 

Wenyonia, Pseudophyllidea, 1 4 

whale, beaked (Mesoplodon), Odontoceti, 45 

— , blue (Sibbaldus), Mysticeti, 45 

— , grey (Rhachianectes), Mysticeti, 45 

— , killer (Orcimis), Odontoceti, 45 

— , sperm (Physeter), Odontoceti, 45 

whale feed (Euphausiacea), 30 

whale louse (Cyamus), Amphipoda, 30 

whale-headed stork (Balaeniceps), 

Ciconiiformes, 42 
wheat gall eelworm {Anguina), 

Tylenchida, 18 
wheel animalcules (Rotifera), 1 7 
whelk {Buccinum), Stenoglossa, 22 
— , American (Busycon), Stenoglossa, 22 
— , dog- (Nassa), Stenoglossa, 22 
whip scorpions (Uropygi), 3 1 
whipworm (TrichuHs), Dorylaimina, 18 
whirligig (Gyrinus), Adephaga, 28 
white ants (Isoptera), 26 
white-toothed shrew (Crocidura), 

Insectivora, 44 
white worm (Enchytraeus), Oligochaeta, 24 
whiting (Gadus), Anacanthini, 38 
wind scorpions (Solifugae), 31 
wire worm (Agriotes), Polyphaga, 28 

* Wohlfahrtia, Cyclorrhapha, 28 
wolf (Canis), Fissipeda, 45 
wolf-fish (Anarhichas), Blennioidea, 38 
wombat (Vombatus), Marsupialia, 44 
wood mouse (Apodemus), Myomorpha, 45 
wood wasp, giant (Sirex), Symphyta, 29 
woodchuck (Marmotd), Sciuromorpha, 45 



woodland salamander (Plethodon), 

Salamandroidea, 40 
woodlouse (Armadillidium), Isopoda, 30 
— (Ligia), Isopoda, 30 
woodpecker (Picus), Piciformes, 43 
Wuchereria, Spirurida, 18 

X 

Xanthomonadina, 6 

Xenopneusta, 23 

Xenopsylla, Siphonaptera, 29 

Xenopterygii, 39 

Xenopus, Opisthocoela, 40 

Xerus, Sciuromorpha, 45 
* Xestobium, Polyphaga, 28 

Xiphinenm, Dorylaimina, 1 8 
* Xiphophorus, Microcj^^rini, 38 

Xiphosura, 31 
*Xylotrechus, Polyphaga, 28 



Y 



Yoldia, Protobranchia, 22 
Yungia, Cotylea, 1 3 



Zalophus, Pinnipedia, 46 

Zapus, Myomorpha, 45 

zebra (Equus), Hippomorpha, 46 

Zelleriella, Opalinina, 7 
*Zenaidiira, Columbiformes, 43 

Zenkevitchiana, Thecanephria, 32 

Zeomorphi, 38 

Zeugloptera, 28 

Zeus, Zeomorphi, 38 

Zoantharia, 12 

zoanthids (Zoanthiniaria), 12 

Zoanthiniaria, 12 

Zoanthus, Zoanthiniaria, 1 2 
*Zoarces, Blennioidea, 38 

Zooflagellata, see Zoomastigina 

Zoomastigina, 6-7 
*Zootermopsis, Isoptera, 26 

Zoothamnium, Peritrichida, 9 

Zoraptera, 26 

Zorotypus, Zoraptera, 26 

Zygoptera, 26