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Classification of the 
Natural Communities 

of 

Massachusetts 



Patricia C. Swain 

and 

Jennifer B. Kearsley 

Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 
Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife 

Westborough, MA 



©EAFT 

July 2000 



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Classification of the 
Natural Communities 

of 

Massachusetts 



Patricia C. Swain 

and 

Jennifer B. Kearsley 

Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 
Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife 

Westborough, MA 



BMAFT 

July 2000 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

This draft classification is truly the product of the whole Natural Heritage & Endangered Species 
Program and the cadre of dedicated field ecologists and naturalists in Massachusetts. Many years of many 
people's field work and observations, with data compiled in species reports and natural community 
descriptions, contribute to the core information in the draft classification. Bruce Sorrie's extensive field notes, 
detailed reports fi^om Glenn Motzkin and Tom Rawinski, and Pam Weatherbee's Flora of Berkshire County 
as well as her field forms were particularly helpfiil in establishing the details of community composition in 
Massachusetts. Reports submitted to NHESP's Small Research Contracts Program and Ecological Restoration 
Program also contributed significant information to the classification. Descriptions of communities fi^om 
classifications fi"om surrounding states and from The Nature Conservancy have also contributed greatly to the 
information in the draft classification. Brian Reid, Karen Searcy and Sally Shaw responded to our pleas to 
contribute written descriptions on communities with which they were particularly familiar. We added the 
animal and synonym information to these, and did some editing for consistency. 

Personal communications and community and rare species field forms fi'om the following people 
provided additional habitat information and site descriptions: Henry Barbour, Michael Batcher, Jesse 
Bellemere, Robert Bertin, Beverly Brown, David Burg, Fricka Caldwell, Caren Caljouw, Nancy Childs, 
Frances Clark, Tom Cramer, Peter Dunwiddie, Ted EUiman, Tamara Enz, J. Garcia, Jennifer Garrett, Meryl 
Goldin, Matthew Hickler, D.W. Holt, David Hunt, Jerry Jenkins, B. Johnson, Jennifer Kearsley, Heather 
Lanza, Richard LeBlond, Bruce Lindwall, Robert B. Livingston, Roberta Lombardi, J. P. Lortie, David 
Lovejoy, Frank Lowenstein, Julie Lundgren, Mark Mello, Glenn Motzkin, Carol L. Nilson, PhiUp Nothnagle, 
Allison Park, Charlie Quinlan, Lloyd Raleigh, Tom Rawinski, Brian Reid, Christine Reid, Julie Richburg, 
Steven Roble, Karen Searcy, Sally Shaw, Scott Shumway, Tim Simmons, Darren Singer, Lesley Sneddon, 
Paul Somers, Bruce Sorrie, Daniel Sperduto, Valerie Stone, Patricia Swain, Elizabeth Thompson, Tom 
Tyning, Pamela B. Weatherbee, Henry Woolsey, Bob Zaremba, and Tad Zebryk. 

Pat Huckery, Matt Bume, Tim Simmons, and Brad Blodget contributed rare animal information, and 
Matt Bume and Pat Huckery identified communities that can fimction as vernal pool habitat. Brad Blodget, 
Tom French, and Tim Simmons supplied information on more common animal species, especially those using 
terrestrial communities - but the interpretations and restatements of their information should not be held 
against them. 

The data organization and availability reflect the effective management by several data managers and 
hoards of interns, work study students, and volunteers over more than 20 years. Preliminary conceptual design 
and organization was accomplished through meetings of the authors, JuUe Lundgren, Henry Woolsey, and 
Vicki Frey. Vicki Frey and Jean Collins developed the Access database. Jean wrote and enabled the clever 
*macro' that italicized the scientific names. David Szczebak and Laura Chaskelson produced the sub- 
ecoregion distribution maps. 

Several people commented on early versions of different sections of this draft classification, but like the 
zoologists, they shouldn't be held accountable for the use we made, or didn't make, of their input. We are 
very gratefiil for the comments fi-om Jesse Bellemare, Russ Hopping, Anne-Marie Kittredge, Glenn Motzkin, 
Tom Rawinski, Tim Simmons, and Pam Weatherbee. Some of the biggest issues, including names and levels 
of splitting, remain unresolved, and we hope will be addressed again in comments on this draft. Henry 
Woolsey, Marea Gabriel, and Darren Singer provided encouragement and editorial comments. 




Natural Heritage & 
Endangered Species 
Program 



Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife 
Route 135 

Westborough, MA 01581 
(508) 792-7270 ext 200 
www.masswildlife.org 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 
TABLE OF CONTENTS 
INTRODUCTION 

Page Guide Introduction - v 

TERRESTRIAL COMMUNITIES 

OPEN (sparse vegetation, less than about 25% tree, shrub, and herbaceous cover) 
Rock Substrate: 

Summits and Rock Outcrops 

Acidic Rocky Summit / Rock Outcrop T - 2 

Circumneutral Rocky Summit /Rock Outcrop T - 4 

Calcareous Rocky Summit /Rock Outcrop T - 6 

Serpentine Outcrop T - 8 

Riverside Rock Outcrop T - 16 

Rock Cliff 

Acidic Rock Cliff T-10 

Circumneutral Rock Cliff. T - 12 

Calcareous Rock Cliff. T-14 

Maritime Rock Cliff T - 20 

Unconsolidated Substrate: 

Maritime Erosional Cliflf T - 22 

Maritime Beach Strand T - 24 

Maritime Dune T-26 

HERBACEOUS (dominated by herbaceous vegetation, with less than about 25% tree and shrub cover) 

Dry Riverside Bluff T - 18 

Sandplain Grassland T-28 

Cultural Grassland T - 30 

SHRUB communities (less than about 25% tree canopy) 

Sandplain Heathland T - 32 

Maritime Shrubland T-34 

Maritime Pitch Pine on Dunes T - 36 

Maritime Juniper Woodland / Shrubland T- 38 

Scrub Oak Shrubland T-40 

Pitch Pine - Scrub Oak Community (may be more than 25% pitch pine) T - 42 

Ridgetop Pitch Pine - Scrub Oak Community (may be more than 25% pitch pine) T - 44 

FOREST / WOODLAND (Greater than about 25% tree cover) 
Talus Forest / Woodland 

Acidic Talus Forest / Woodland T - 46 

Circumneutral Talus Forest / Woodland T - 48 

Calcareous Talus Forest / Woodland T - 50 

Central Hardwoods Region: 

Mixed Coniferous -Deciduous Forest / Woodland: 

Maritime Oak - Holly Forest / Woodland T - 52 

Coastal Forest / Woodland T - 54 

Pitch Pine - Oak Forest T - 56 

White Pine - Oak Forest T - 58 

Oak - Hemlock - White Pine Forest T - 60 

Conifer Forest / Woodland: 

Successional White Pine Forest T - 62 

Hemlock Ravine T-78 

Deciduous Forest / Woodland: 

Mixed Oak Forest T-64 

Ridgetop Chestnut Oak Forest / Woodland T - 66 

Black Oak - Scarlet Oak Forest / Woodland T - 68 

Oak - Hickory Forest T - 70 

Hickory - Hop Hornbeam Forest / Woodland T - 72 

Dry, Rich Acidic Oak Forest T - 74 

Yellow Oak Dry Calcareous Forest T - 76 



Northern Hardwoods Region: 

Mixed Forest: 

Northern Hardwoods - Hemlock - White Pine Forest T - 80 

Spruce - Fir - Northern Hardwood Forest T - 92 

Conifer Forest: 

Hemlock Ravine T - 78 

High Elevation Spruce - Forest T - 94 

Deciduous Forest: 

Successional Northern Hardwood Forest T - 82 

Red Oak - Sugar Maple Transition Forest T - 84 

Rich, Mesic Forest Commimity T - 86 

Forest Seep Community T - 88 

Calcareous Forest Seep Community T - 90 

Riverside Communities 

Riverside Rock Outcrop T - 16 

Dry Riverside Bluff T-18 

Floodplain Forests See Palustrine Section 

Maritime Salt Spray Zone: 

See also Estuarine Section 

Maritime Rock Cliff T - 20 

Maritime Erosional Cliff T - 22 

Maritime Beach Strand T - 24 

Maritime Dune T - 26 

Coastal interdunal marsh/swale [Palustrine] P - 40 

Sandplain Grassland T-28 

Cultural Grassland T - 30 

Sandplain Heathland T - 32 

Maritime Shrubland T-34 

Maritime Pitch Pine on Dunes T - 36 

Maritime Juniper Woodland / Shrubland T - 38 

Maritime Oak / Holly Forest / Woodland T - 46 

PALUSTRINE COMMUNITIES 

PALUSTRINE INTRODUCTION P-ii 

FORESTED WETLANDS 

Conifer-dominated: 

Spruce-fir boreal swamp P - 2 

Hemlock-hardwood swamp P - 4 

Atlantic white cedar swamps 

i. Coastal Atlantic white cedar swamp P - 6 

ii. Inland Atlantic white cedar swamp P - 8 

ill. Northem Atlantic white cedar swamp P- 10 

iv. Alluvial Atlantic white cedar swamp P - 12 

V. Atlantic white cedar bog P - 14 

Spruce-tamarack bog P - 16 

Hardwood-dominated: 

Red maple swamp P - 18 

i. Alluvial red maple swamp P - 20 

Black ash swamp P - 22 

Black ash-red maple-tamarack calcareous seepage swamp P - 24 

Black gum-pin oak-swamp white oak "perched" swamp P - 26 

Black gum swamp P - 28 

Floodplain forests 

i. Major-river floodplain forest P - 30 

ii. Transitional floodplain forest P - 32 

iii. Small-river floodplain forest P - 34 

iv. High-terrace floodplain forest P - 36 

V. Cobble bar forest P - 38 



Table of Contents - ii Classification of the Natural Communities of Massachusetts DRAFT July 2000 



NON-FORESTED WETLANDS 

MarshesAVet meadows: 

Coastal interdunal marsh/swale P - 40 

Deep emergent marsh P - 42 

Shallow emergent marsh P - 44 

Wet meadow P-46 

i. Kettlehole wet meadow P - 48 

Pondshores/lakeshores: 

Inland acidic pondshore/lakeshore P - 50 

Coastal plain pondshore P - 52 

Calcareous pondshore/lakeshore P - 54 

Rlversides/Streamsides: 

Mud Hat P-56 

Riverside seep P- 58 

Low-energy riverbank P - 60 

High-energy riverbank P-62 

Riverine pointbar and beach P - 64 

Shrub swamps: 

Shrub swamp P- 66 

Peatlands (bogs and fens): 
Calcareous peatlands: 

Calcareous sloping fen P-68 

Calcareous seepage marsh P - 70 

Calcareous basin fen P-72 

Acidic peatlands: 

Acidic graminoid fen P-74 

Acidic shrub fen P-76 

Sea-level fen P-78 

Level bog P-80 

i. Kettlehole level bog P - 82 

ii. Highbush blueberry thicket P - 84 

Vernal pools: 

Woodland vernal pool P - 86 

ESTUARINE COMMUNITIES 
MARINE 

Marine Subtidal: 

Flats E - 2 

Marine Intertidal: 

Rocky Shore E - 4 

Gravel / Sand Beach E - 6 

Rats E - 8 

ESTUARINE 

Estuarine Subtidal: 

Saline / Brackish Flats E - 10 

Fresh / Brackish Flats E- 12 

Coastal Salt Pond E - 14 

Estuarine Intertidal: 

SaUne / Brackish Flats E - 16 

Fresh / Brackish Flats E- 18 

Coastal Salt Pond Marsh E - 20 

(Palustrine) Sea-level Fen E - 22 

Salt Marsh E-24 

Brackish Tidal Marsh E - 26 

Freshwater Tidal Marsh E - 28 

Fresh / Brackish Tidal Shrubland E - 30 

Fresh / Brackish Tidal Swamp E - 32 

REFERENCES 

APPENDIX A - Inventory Needs 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program July 2000 Table of Contents - iii 



Digitized by tiie Internet Arciiive 

in 2013 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium IVIember Libraries 



littp://arcliive.org/details/classificationofOOswai 



Introduction 

The main purpose of this classification is to provide a useful fi-amework for describing, inventorying, 
and tracking natural communities in Massachusetts. This natural community classification is biased to 
describe vegetation at a scale that is meaningfijl for conservation and land protection. A classification 
provides a convenient mechanism for reducing the complexity of natural vegetation to a relatively small 
number — 105 in this case — of somewhat homogeneous and relatively easily understood, but abstract and 
artificial, groups. Any classification requires somewhat arbitrary categories and lines between types and 
classifications differ on where the lines are drawn. Part of the reason for disseminating a draft is to encourage 
input into the categories and their delineations. Vegetation classifications are influenced by their intended use 
- the use of this one is for conservation, and indeed focuses on the uncommon. 

To protect the components of biodiversity, their patterns of distribution and their current patterns of 
conservation need to be evaluated and tracked. One aspect of this is to evaluate the conditions and distribution 
of natural communities across the state. Tracking natural communities requires having knowledge of what 
they are. A beginning of knowing natural communities is to name and describe what is known and give a 
common parlance for discussing the communities. Such a fi^amework also allows identification of what isn't 
as well known, and encourages focus on gathering that information. 

Our intent is to describe communities that can be identified in the field and to accurately (if arbitrarily) 
divide the vegetation of Massachusetts into identifiable and useful categories. Terrestrial, Palustrine, and 
Estuarine communities are included; Aquatic communities have NOT been addressed in this classification. In 
this classification of natural communities, attempts have been made to use community names that are 
recognizable and meaningful to a broad conservation audience including writers of town open space plans, 
land managers, environmental reviewers and consultants, and ecologists doing field studies. 

In defining the composition and structure of the community types, we have begun identifying variations 
within those community-types; further information on the variations may lead to further splitting or lumping 
of the identified types in later versions of the classification. In particular, there is a complex of communities 
dominated by oak trees and another group (inter-related) dominated by red maple. Increased data may lead to 
sphtting these groups differently than they are now divided. Comments on this public draft should lead to 
refinements and improved descriptions of the community types. Suggestions on other community t>pes that 
could be split or consolidated would be considered. Descriptions of t>pes of cultural communities (plant 
communities planted and maintained by humans for direct use by humans or domesticated animals such as 
forest plantations, orchards, and pastures) could be expanded, but most are not of conservation focus, so will 
probably continue to be lumped into a few groups. 

Many communities occur with others in mosaics that share conditions and processes, such as water 
flowing through a wetland complex with no one community-type independent of the others or the unifying 
conditions. Communities are most effective as units of conservation when the controlling ecological processes 
can be maintained or restored. Putting communities into the fiinctional systems of which they are a part will 
be another step in the classification. For now, some of those ideas are addressed in the part of each 
community description under the header Environmental Conditions. Such functional systems are not actually 
the same as the hierarchy of a key - that is a rock cliff face may be found in a key under non-forested, open 
communities, but is found on the ground surrounded by forest. 

The communities described here are in exemplary condition, the type communities: not all real 
communities meet the criteria of the abstract, but still qualify as that community t>pe. Many actual 
communities are disturbed by nature or humans, some are in climatic, topographic, or geological conditions 
different from the idealized, and others occupy some middle ground between described communities. Because 
communities are made up of plant species that have individual responses to environmental variables, the 
communities described grade into other community-t>pes. In addition, the role of land use histor>' is very 
important in the location and definitions of natural communities in Massachusetts. Three hundred years of 
intense use of the land in the state appears to have had a homogenizing effect that overrides some of the 



influences of climate and landscape position (for example, see Foster et al. 1998, and other papers from the 
Harvard Forest). Some of this homogenization of communities is reflected in the difficulty of defining distinct 
community types and in the prevalence of mid-successional species in many of the community descriptions, 
and in the actual community occurrences. 

The community-types that are described here are parts of the habitat for the animal species that use 
them. Birds may nest in one type of community, feed in another, and then leave entirely. Other animals also 
move between community types for different needs. Generalist species might have individuals occurring in a 
variety of different communities types. 

Despite the problems of classification, we do find recurrent groupings of plant species, and associated 
animals, that do share responses to environmental conditions. Species that have restricted ranges and 
particular environmental requirements are often used as indicators of the communities in which they occur. 
Other species are found in a range of conditions and are occur in a variety of community-types, so are less 
useful as indicators, although they may be characteristically present in a given community type. These natural 
groupings of species, or natural communities, tend to vary simultaneously in response to soil moisture 
gradients, temperature gradients, and nutrient gradients, in a multidimensional, rather than linear, way. Thus, 
there are southern and northern versions of dry to wet gradients, acidic to less acidic, and nutrient poor to 
nutrient rich communities, and all the other interactions as well. While not all the possible variations result in 
distinctly different communities, there is a lot of variation in the real world. 

Relationship to other classifications 

This classification focuses on the natural communities of Massachusetts, but they are closely related to 
the natural communities of the region and particularly the surrounding states. The Massachusetts community 
descriptions include lists of synonyms for the surrounding states, all of which have developed individual 
classifications for their natural communities. The Nature Conservancy (TNC) with the Association for 
Biodiversity Information (ABI), has been developing a classification for the region within the United States 
National Vegetation Classification (USNVC) system. We've included the USNVC/TNC synonyms for those 
who want more finely divided community-types - the TNC Associations. The accuracy of the cross-walk to 
the synonyms is variable in this draft. Synonymy with other state's classifications are, of course, confounded 
by geographic differences in species distributions in the states, as well as issues of different levels of 
definitions. Clarification of these is one goal for the more final version of the classification. We also include 
synonymy with the previously used names in Massachusetts, some of which are more broadly defined than in 
the current classification. Many of the cross-walks to the old Massachusetts classification (Rawinski 1984), 
especially for the northern forest types, lack precision. That is at least partially a result of the lack of clear 
boundaries between types. 

Organization of the classification 

This draft classification divides natural community types into three major sections: Terrestrial, 
Palustrine and Estuarine. The Tables of Contents of each section double as keys, but are not dichotomous. 
Within the sections, the structural dominance - growth form or physiognomy such as forest, shrubland, 
herbaceous, and open or sparsely vegetated - is used as a division of types. The forested categories in the 
terrestrial and palustrine sections are subdivided into evergreen, deciduous and mixed. 

We used a significant presence of water as the definer of what was palustrine, and the presence of water 
with some salinity or tide for inclusion in the estuarine category. All tidally influenced communities are in the 
estuarine category whether the tidal water is saline or fresh. Salt spray communities not influenced by tides 
are treated as terrestrial. 

Terrestrial : The vegetation of terrestrial communities is not significantly influenced by standing or 
moving water. The forested community types have more than about 25% tree canopy (50% in the palustrine 
section), which includes woodlands of USNVC/TNC and other classifications. If mature trees are absent, and 
if shrubs are present forming more than about a 25% shrub layer cover overall, the community is considered 
to be a shrubland. Herbaceous communities are relatively open communities with neither forest nor shrub 



Introduction- ii Classification ofthe Natural Communities of Massachusetts DRAFT July 2000 



canopies and have more than about a 25% vegetated cover. Open or sparsely vegetated communities are 
divided by their substrate type, rock or sand for convenience. 

Palustrine : The palustrine section of the Massachusetts natural community classification includes all 
freshwater, non-tidal wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, or persistent emergents, including mosses and 
hchens. This definition is slightly different from Cowardin (1979) who also included small, shallow aquatic 
beds with submersed and floating-leaved aquatics, and tidal wetlands where salinity due to ocean-derived 
salts was less than 0.5%. In this draft Massachusetts' classification, submersed and floating leaved aquatics 
will be included in an as yet unwritten aquatic section, and all tidal wetlands are included in the estuarine 
section. The palustrine section does include riverside communities that receive annual or semi-annual 
overbank flooding, e.g. floodplain forests. High-terrace floodplain forests (although technically terrestrial 
communities) are included in the palustrine section in order to group them with other floodplain forest 
communities. 

Estuarine : Estuarine communities are subject to varying salinity, tidal actions, and wind. Estuaries 
include tidal habitats and adjacent tidal wetlands in which ocean water is at least occasionally diluted by 
freshwater from the land. Estuarine areas extend landward and up streams to where oceanic salts (formally 
defined as above 0.5 ppt salinity in an annual average low flow period) or tides (including fi'eshwater tidal 
areas) have an influence on the vegetation. Hyper salinity (compared to the ocean) may occur temporarily in 
some areas from evaporation (such as in salt ponds). The estuarine area extends off-shore to areas with 
freshwater influence on the seawater, called subtidal communities in this classification. 

Species Nomenclature 

The scientific and common names of organisms are intended to be consistent with the following: 
Vascular plants: 

Sorrie, Bruce A. and Paul Somers.1999. The vascular plants of Massachusetts: a Count}' Checklist, 

Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Natural Heritage & Endangered Species 

Program. Westborough, MA. 
Mammals: 

Cardoza, James E. and Gwilym S. Jones. 1999. MassWildlife's State Mammal List. 4*** Edition. 

Available only from http://www.state.ma.us/dfsvele/dfw/df\vmam.htm 
Birds: 

Blodget, B.G. 1998. Checklist of the birds of Massachusetts. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries 

and Wildlife. Westborough, MA. 
Reptiles and Amphibians: 

Cardoza, James E. and Peter G. Mirick. 1999. List of the reptiles and amphibians of Massachusetts, 

3"* edition. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Fauna of Massachusetts Series No. 3. 

Westborough, MA. 

Request for information 

This classification identifies as examples sites where the community-types can be found as occurrences, 
on lands with public access in Massachusetts. Our database does include sites on less accessible land. We are 
in the process of building our database to include good occurrences of all community -t>'pes, with the most 
common being tracked only by exemplary occurrences (definitions of exemplary are being developed for each 
community type), and the rarest being tracked by all known occurrences, with a sliding scale of rarit>' and 
quality between. We would like to ultimately know what types are on protected - conservation - land, and 
what types need further protection. Then, with the management and restoration knowledge also being 
developed and collected, we will be in a better position to continue to protect the biodiversity of 
Massachusetts. We are asking for examples of additional locations, or better locations of community t>pes; 
this will not necessarily result in those locations becoming published information. See Appendix A for a list 
of estimated inventory needs by community type. 

Management needs of communities are seldom well known. In the descriptions we have included some 
of the management issues identified by field biologists who have been to occurrences of the communities 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program July 2000 Introduction- iii 



described. We hope to encourage further discussions of the management needs of the described communities 
by raising the management issues for each type. 

Refinement of described community types 

This draft of the classification of the natural communities of Massachusetts was written in order to 
provide a basis for discussing and conserving diversity of the types of vegetation in the state. The primary aim 
is to describe natural communities of conservation interest in Massachusetts, while including all the 
vegetation of the state. The overall tendency in this classification is to lump rather than to split. However, 
communities that have been well-studied (e.g. floodplain forests, acidic peatlands, Atlantic white cedar 
swamps) are usually more finely divided. Mostly, though, the many vegetation associations occurring within 
broadly defined communities are not described separately. Instead, the variation in vegetation is included 
within the vegetation description field and referred to as Associations when known and considered subtypes. 
As more data are accumulated, more divisions and reorganization will undoubtedly occur. 

This classification represents the best of our knowledge about Massachusetts' communities fi-om the 
field data and literature that we have compiled to date. It is by no means complete or absolute. Instead, it 
should be regarded as a fiamework that can be field-tested and revised. Communities can be added, deleted, 
divided, or combined as we expand our knowledge of Massachusetts' natural communities. There are 
inconsistencies, some fields are incomplete, some community descriptions overlap. Any assistance with 
refining those issues would be helpful. 

The plan is to collect data, have discussions with ecologists state-wide, and consider comments on this 
draft ~ and to produce a more definitive classification. All comments, feedback, and community information 
are welcome and appreciated. Your help will greatly improve the result. 



Introduction - iv Classification of the Natural Communities of Massachusetts DRAFT July 2000 



PAGE GUIDE 

Community Name: Name used to describe the community in Massachusetts 

Community ELCODE: Unique ten digit alphanumeric element code (ELCODE) assigned to the community. 

SRANK: Community state rank (SRANK) that reflects the community's rarity and threat 

within Massachusetts, with regard to its regional rarity and threat. The SRank s>'stem 
was developed for Natural Heritage programs by The Nature Conservanc>'. The 
SRANKs are as follows: 

Sl= Typically 5 or fewer occurrences, very few remaining acres or miles of 
stream, or especially vulnerable to extirpation in Massachusetts for other 
reasons. 

S2= Typically 6-20 occurrences, few remaining acres or miles of stream, or very 
vulnerable to extirpation in Massachusetts for other reasons. 

S3= Typically 2 1 - 1 00 occurrences, limited acreage or miles of stream in 
Massachusetts. 

S4= Apparently secure in Massachusetts. 

S5= Demonstrably secure in Massachusetts. 

SU= Status unknown in Massachusetts. 

Tracked: Yes/No field. Yes means that the community is tracked in MNHESP's database. 

MNHESP tracks examples of communities that are ranked SI -S3. Communities that 
are ranked S4 or S5 generally are not tracked, except for exemplary occurrences. 
Some newly defined S3 communities (draft) are not yet tracked. 

Map of the ecoregions and sub-ecoregions of Massachusetts: 

Ecoregions (or ecological regions) are areas of relatively homogeneous ecological systems, including vegetation, soils, 
climate, geology, and patterns of human uses. Ecoregion boundaries have been developed for the United States to 
provide an ecological framework for inventorying and assessing environmental resources. Massachusetts falls within two 
ecoregions of the United States — the Northeastern Highlands and the Northeastern Coastal Zone . Sub-ecoregions of 
Massachusetts have been delineated (Figure 1; Griffith et al. 1994), and they are particularly useful for statewide 
ecological inventory and assessment activities, including vegetation classification. 

There are thirteen sub-ecoregions in Massachusetts. Complete descriptions are given in Griffith et al. (1994), but a brief 
synopsis of their descriptions is given below: 

Northeastern Highlands: 

The Taconic Mountains sub-ecoregion is a hilly and mountainous region of western Massachusetts that includes ML 
Greylock, the highest elevation in the state (3491 feet). Streams are generally small and high-gradient, and there are few 
lakes. The vegetation is primarily northern hardwoods (maple-beech-birch) with spruce-fir at higher elevations. The 
Western New England Marble Valleys, also known as the Berkshire Valley, consists of calcitic and dolomitic marbles 
and limestones bedrock. Surface water alkalinity values in the area are the highest in Massachusetts (>1000 fieq/L; 
Griffith et al. 1994) due to the underlying limestone and marble. Alkaline groundwater results in mineral-rich and 
species-rich wetlands in the region, particularly calcareous fens. The Hoosic and Housatonic Rivers are the major 
drainages. The Green Mountains/Berkshire Highlands includes the southern extent of the Green Mountains and the 
Berkshire Hills; elevations range from 1000 to 2500 feet. Northern hardwoods and spruce-fir characterize the forested 
uplands. The Deerfield and upper Wesffield Rivers are the main river basins. The Lower Berkshire Hills is similar to the 
Green Mountains/Berkshire Highlands sub-ecoregion except that it has an overall lower elevation, generally 1000 to 
1700 feet. Spruce-fir is generally lacking, and northern hardwoods are mixed with transition hardwoods (maple-beech- 
birch, oak -hickory). Lakes and ponds are abundant compared to the rest of western Massachusetts. The Berkshire 
Transition ranges in elevation from 400-1400 feet, and forest t>pes are transition hardwoods and northern hardwoods. 
Surface waters drain to the Westfield and Connecticut River basins. The Vermont Piedmont has a similar elevation 
range as the Berkshire Transition, but underlying limestone and marble result in surface waters with higher alkaliruty 
(500-1000 |ieq/L). Surface waters drain into the Deerfield and Connecticut River basins. The Worcester/Monadnock 
Plateau contains the most hilly and mountainous area of Massachusetts' central upland. Elevations range from 500 to 
1400 feet with some peaks above 1800 feet (Mt. Watatic and Ml Wachusett). Transition hardwoods are common, but 

Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program July 2000 InU-oduction - v 



northern hardwoods also occur. Forested wetlands are conunon, and forested and non-forested peatlands are abundant 
Surface waters are acidic with alkalinity values less than 50 |ieq/L. 

Northeastern Coastal Zone; 

The Connecticut Valley is characterized by thick outwash, alluvial, and lake bottom deposits overlaying sedimentary 
bedrock. Surface water alkalinity values are generally above 500 j^eq/L. Central hardwoods (oak-hickory) and transition 
hardwoods are the major forest types. The Lower Worcester Plateau/Eastern Connecticut Upland ranges in elevation 
from 500 to 1200 feet. The soils of the area developed primarily on glacial till in the uplands, and on stratified sand, 
gravel, and silt deposits in the valleys. Surface waters are acidic and drain primarily into the Chicopee and Quinebaug 
River systems. The Southern New England Coastal Plains and Hills is the largest sub-ecoregion in southern New 
England and is variable in its topography and bedrock. Bedrock types are mostly granites, schist and gneiss. Surface 
water alkalinity values are generally lower than in the Connecticut Valley, ranging from less than 50 to 500 |.ieq/L. 
Central hardwoods are dominant The Boston Basin has low, rolling topography that is dominated by urban and 
suburban land. The Narragansett Bristol Lowlands are similar to the Coastal Plains and Hills, but bedrock outcrops are 
uncommon, and thick glacial till and outwash deposits cover the area. The lowlands are flat to gently rolling with 
elevations less than 200 feet. Surface water alkalinity values are generally between 100 to 300 )ieq/L, but several areas 
have values less than 50 fieq/L. The vegetation is mostly central hardwoods. The CapeCod/Long Island sub-ecoregion is 
characterized by terminal moraines and outwash plains left by the glaciers, and by coastal deposits. The landscape is 
influenced by wind and water. Elevations are less than 200 feet. There is a moderate maritime cUmate, and stunted oak 
and pine forests are typical. Surface water alkalinity values are low (less than 50 ^eq/L). 




NORTHEASTERN HIGHLANDS 



S8A TACONICMOUNTAMS 

58B WESTERN NEW ENGLAND UARBLE VALLEYS 

I 58C GREEN MOUNTA]NS«ERKSHIRE HIGHLANDS 

pii SSD LOWER BERKSHIRE HILLS 

r~~l S8E BERKSHIRE TRANSmOM 

gl 68F VERMONTPIEDMOHT 

[ill sec WORCESTERymONADNOCK PLATEAU 

NORTHEASTERN COASTAL ZONE 

I | 69A CONNECTICUTVALLEY 

pll 59B LOWER WORCESTER PLATEAU/EASTERN CONNECTICUT UPLAND 

r~~] S&C SOUTHERN NEWENGLAHD COASTAL PLAINS AND HLLS 

j I 59D BOSTON BASIN 

Piiil 69E NARRAGANSETT/BRISTOL LOWLAND 

rn S9F CAPE COD/LONG ISLAND 



Figure 1. Ecoregions and sub-ecoregions of Massachusetts (Griffith et al. 1994) 



Introduction- vi 



Classification of the Natural Conununities of Massachusetts 



DRAFT July 2000 



In the vegetation classification, each community description is accompanied by a sub-ecoregion Une map showing the 
sub-ecoregion boundaries. Sub-ecoregions in which the community type is known to occur (i.e. MNHESP has field data 
for the community including vegetation descriptions and/or plot data) are shaded in dark gray, and the sub-ecoregions 
with probable occurrences (i.e. field data are currently lacking but the community has been observed in the sub- 
ecoregion or the sub-ecoregion is known to have the appropriate physical conditions) are shaded in hght gray. If the 
community is not believed to occur in a certain sub-ecoregion, then that sub-ecoregion is left white. 

The community sub-ecoregion maps are intended to give the user an idea of where s/he may encounter a certain 
community type and also to identify sub-ecoregions for which community data are needed. Readers are encouraged to 
look in sub-ecoregions identified as having probable occurrences of the community (light gray). All new data and 
distribution information is welcome and much appreciated. 



Concept' 
Environmental setting: 

Vegetation Description: 

Associations: 



Habitat values for: 
Associated Fauna 

Associated rare plants: 



Plant Latin name 



Associated rare animals: 



Examples: OR 
Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 



Inventory comments: 



Brief general description or word-picture of the community. 

Detailed description of the landscape setting, soils, water chemistry, and other 
physical characteristics of the community. 

Detailed description of the vegetation structure and characteristic plant species of the 
community. 

List of the vegetation associations that have been described in Massachusetts that are 
either equivalent to the community or included within the community. For example, 
Motzkin (1991) described six Atlantic white cedar (AWC) associations in 
Massachusetts. Coastal AWC swamps are equivalent to his Coastal AWC t>pe, while 
Inland AWC swamps include both his Mixed hemlock-AWC-red maple-yellow birch 
type and his Spmce-hemlock-AWC t>pe. 

Description of the habitat that the community provides for animals, 
including birds, small mammals, amphibians, invertebrates, etc. 

A list of rare plants that are known to occur in the community type. Rare plants 
include those that are state-protected under the Massachusetts Endangered Species 
Act and those that are on the state watch list Plants on the watch list are not legally 
protected, but they are believed to be uncommon or rare. They are species for which 
information is lacking on number of sites and severity of population decline, or 
species that have been delisted. 

Plant common name Plant state status 

E= State Endangered 
T= State Threatened 
SC= State Special Concern 
WL= State Watch List 
H= State Historic 

A list of rare animals that are known to occur in the community t>pe. Rare animals 
include those that are state-protected under the Massachusetts Endangered Species 
Act (birds on the bird watch list are also included). Format and abbreviations follow 
those used for Associated rare plants (see above). 

List of representative examples of the community in areas with public 
access. For particularly sensitive communities, specific examples are 
not listed. 

A description of known threats to the community. 

A description of management activities that may be necessary to maintain 
community occurrences and the quality of those occurrences. 

Each community is ranked from 1 to 3 based on its need for inventory efTorts. 
Communities with high need (rank of 1) are lacking field data. Little is known about 
their abundance, distribution, physical setting, or species composition. They are tlie 
highest priority for field work. Communities ranked 3 have low need for inventory; 
these communities have recently been investigated in detail including statewide 
landscape analyses and vegetation classification. 

Written comments providing specifics on the inventory needs of the community. 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



Introduction- vii 



Synonyms: 



UENVCn^NC: 



MA (old name): 



ME: 



VT: 



MH 



NY; 



CT: 



Rl: 



Golet & Larson, 1974: 



Weatherbee: 



Other 



Names used for the Massachusetts community in other natural community 
classifications. If a synonym is listed without any modifier, then the Massachusetts 
community is basically equivalent to the synonym. Sometimes the following 
modifiers are used: "includes" means that the Massachusetts community includes the 
communities listed, "included within" means that the Massachusetts community is 
included within the community listed, "similar to" means that the Massachusetts 
community is similar but not equivalent to the communities listed, and "not 
described" is used when the Massachusetts community has no synonym in that 
classification. Question marks indicate uncertainty about synonyms. 

Synonyms in the National Vegetation Classification. Sneddon, L., M Anderson, and 
J. Lundgren eds. 1998. International classification of ecological communities: 
terrestrial vegetation of the Northeastern United States (July 1998 working draft). 
The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Conservation Science and Natural Heritage 
Programs of the northeastern U.S. Boston, MA. [Association codes are written in 
brackets.] 

Old name used by the Massachusetts Natural Heritage Program. Rawinski, T.J. 1984. 
New England natural community classification. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern 
Regional Office, Boston, MA. [old EOCODES are written in brackets]. 

Synonyms in the Maine vegetation classificatioiL 
Maine Natural Heritage Program. 1991. Natural Landscapes of Maine: A 
Classification of Ecosystems and Natural Communities. Department of Economic 
and Community Development, State House Station 130, Augusta, ME. 

Synonyms in the Vermont vegetation classificatioiL 

Thompson, E. 1995. Natural Communities of Vermont: Uplands and Wetlands. 
Vermont Nongame and Natural Heritage Program, Department of Fish and Wildlife, 
Agency of Natural Resources. Waterbury, VT. 



Synonyms in the New Hampshire vegetation classification. 

Sperduto, D.D. 1994. A Classification of the Natural Communities of New 

Hampshire. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Inventory, Dept. of Resources and 

Economic Development Concord, NH. (used for palustrine) AND 

Sperduto, D.D. 1997. The Natural Communities of New Hampshire: A Guide and 

Classification. Draft. November 21, 1997. New Hampshire Natural Heritage 

Inventory, Dept. of Resources and Economic Development Concord, NH. 

Synonyms in the New York vegetation classification. 

Reschke, C. 1990. Ecological Communities of New York State. New York Natural 

Heritage Program, N.Y.S. Dept. of Environmental Conservation. Latham, NY. 

Synonyms in the Cormecticut vegetation classificatioiL 

Metzler, K.J. & J.P. Barrett 1996. Vegetation classification for Connecticut, 
Organized into the modified UNESCO hierarchy. Draft report, Connecticut Natural 
Diversity Database. Hartford, CT. 

Synonyms in the Rhode Island vegetation classification. 

Enser, R. 1995. Natural Communities of Rhode Island. Rhode Island Natural 

Heritage Program, Providence, RI. 

Synonyms in Golet, F.C. and J.S. Larson. 1974. Classification of fi-eshwater 
wetlands in the glaciated Northeast US Fish and Wildlife Service Resource 
Publication 116, Washington D.C. [Used in Palustrine section.] 

Synonyms in Weatherbee, P.B. 1996. Flora of Berkshire County. The Berkshire 
Museum, The Studley Press, Inc. Dalton, MA. 123 pp. [Used in Terrestrial section.] 

Synonyms in other miscellaneous vegetation classifications. 

Author Person responsible for writing community description. Date: Date last revised. 



Introduction- viii 



Classification of the Natural Communities of Massachusetts 



DRAFT July 2000 



©EAFT 



Descriptions of 

Terrestrial communities 



©MAFT 

Classification of 

Natural Communities 

of 

Massachusetts 



TERRESTRIAL COMMUNFTIES 

OPEN (sparse vegetation, less than about 25% tree, shrub, and herbaceous cover) 

Rock Substrate: 

Summits and Rock Outcrops 

Acidic Rocky Summit / Rock Outcrop T - 2 

Circumneutral Rocky Summit / Rock Outcrop T - 4 

Calcareous Rocky Summit / Rock Outcrop T - 6 

Serpentine Outcrop T - 8 

Riverside Rock Outcrop T - 16 

Rock Cliff 

Acidic Rock Cliff. T - 10 

Circumneutral Rock Cliff T - 12 

Calcareous Rock Cliff T - 14 

Maritime Rock Cliff T - 20 

Unconsolidated Substrate: 

Maritime Erosional Cliff T - 22 

Maritime Beach Strand T - 24 

Maritime Dune T - 26 

HERBACEOUS (dominated by herbaceous vegetation, with less than about 2SVo tree and shrub cover) 

Dry Riverside Bluff T-18 

Sandplain Grassland T-28 

Cultural Grassland T - 30 

SHRUB communities (less than about 25% tree canopy) 

Sandplain Heathland T - 32 

Maritime Shrubland T - 34 

Maritime Pitch Pine on Dunes T- 36 

Maritime Juniper Woodland / Shrubland T - 38 

Scrub Oak Shrubland T - 40 

Pitch Pine - Scrub Oak Community (may be more than 25% pitch pine) T - 42 

Ridgetop Pitch Pine - Scrub Oak Community (may be more than 25% pitch pine) T - 44 

FOREST/ WOODLAND (Greater than about 25% tree cover) 

Talus Forest / Woodland 

Acidic Talus Forest / Woodland T-46 

Circumneutral Talus Forest / Woodland T - 48 

Calcareous Talus Forest / Woodland T - 50 

Central Hardwoods Region: 

Mixed Coniferous - Deciduous Forest /Woodland: 

Maritime Oak - Holly Forest / Woodland T - 52 

Coastal Forest / Woodland T - 54 

Pitch Pine - Oak Forest T - 56 

White Pine - Oak Forest T - 58 

Oak - Hemlock - White Pine Forest T - 60 

Conifer Forest / Woodland: 

Successional White Pine Forest T - 62 

Hemlock Ravine T - 78 

Deciduous Forest / Woodland: 

Mixed Oak Forest T - 64 

Ridgetop Chestnut Oak Forest / Woodland T - 66 

Black Oak - Scarlet Oak Forest / Woodland T - 68 

Oak - Hickory Forest T - 70 

Hickory - Hop Hornbeam Forest / Woodland T - 72 

Dry, Rich Acidic Oak Forest T - 74 

Yellow Oak Dry Calcareous Forest T - 76 



T- ii Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities DRAFT July 2000 



Northern Hardwoods Region: 
Mixed Forest: 



Conifer Forest: 



Deciduous Forest: 



Northern Hardwoods - Hemloclc - White Pine Forest T - 80 

Spruce - Fir - Northern Hardwood Forest T- 92 

Hemlock Ravine T-78 

High Elevation Spriice - Forest T - 94 

Successional Northern Hardwood Forest T - 82 

Red Oak - Sugar Maple Transition Forest T - 84 

Rich, Mesic Forest Community T - 86 

Forest Seep Community.... T - 88 

Calcareous Forest Seep Community T - 90 



Riverside Communities 

Riverside Rock Outcrop T - 16 

Dry Riverside Bluff T - 18 

Floodplain Forests See Palustrine Section 

Maritime Salt Spray Zone: 

See also Estuarine Section 

Maritime Rock Cliff T - 20 

Maritime Erosional Cliff T - 22 

Maritime Beach Strand T - 24 

Maritime Dune T-26 

Coastal interdunal marsh/swale [Palustrine] P - 40 

Sandplain Grassland T-28 

Cultural Grassland T - 30 

Sandplain Heathland T - 32 

Maritime Shrubland T- 34 

Maritime Pitch Pine on Dunes T - 36 

Maritime Juniper Woodland / Shrubland T - 38 

Maritime Oak / Holly Forest / Woodland T - 46 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program July 2000 T - iii 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



ACIDIC ROCKY SUMMIT / ROCK OUTCROP 

CT2A1A0000 

S4 

No 




Concept: A widespread, open, community of low shrubs, scattered grasses, mosses, lichens and occasional trees 

found on rocky summits with exposed acidic bedrock or on rock outcrops where bedrock is acidic. 

Environmental Setting: This community is found on rocky summits (balds) or ridge tops with exposed acidic bedrock or on rock 

outcrops derived from acidic bedrock. These areas are characteristically dry, with httle or no soil and 
can often be found as open patches within the ridge-top pitch pine or dry, mixed oak communities. 
Although it can be found on flat surfaces, it is more typically found on steep slopes with aspects varying 
from SE through SW. Vegetation is concentrated around the edges or is found in pockets of soil within 
the outcrop. Ridgetop Pitch Pine / Scrub Oak Communities, or other ridgetop communities are often 
around the open patches of the Acidic Rocky Summit / Rock Outcrop Community. Examples of the 
Acidic Rock Cliff Community may occur below rocky summits, sometimes with intervening ridgetop or 
other forest/ woodlands. 

Vegetation Description: Low shrubs and scattered clumps of grass dominate this community. Vegetation is discontinuous. The 

exposed rocks often have extensive patches of lichen and moss. Canopy cover is largely absent but trees 
commonly found near the margin of the bedrock areas include pitch pine {Pinus rigida\ white pine 
(Pinus stTX)bus), and red oak (Quercus rubra), and may also include Red Pine (Pinus resinosa) native in 
this habitat The dominant shrubs include scrub oak {Quercus ilicifolia), huckleberry (Gaylussacia 
baccata), early sweet bluebeny (Vaccinium pallidum\ low sweet bluebeny (V. angustifolium\ black 
chokecherry (Aronia melanocarpa\ and dwarf serviceberry {Amelanchier stolonifera). Dwarf chestnut 
oak {Q. prinoides) can also be found, but not as commonly. Herbaceous ^)ecies include little bluestem 
{Schizachyrium scoparium), poverty grass (Danthonia spicata\ common hair grass (Deschampsia 
flexuosd), Pennsylvania sedge (Carex pensylvanica\ pale corydalis (Corydalis sempervirens), and cow 
wheat {Kielampyrum lineare). 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Most animals of rock outcrop communities are not sensitive to the chemistry of the rock, but rather 
are responding to the elevation and dryness of the habitat Any differences in resident fauna between 
calcareous and acidic outcrops are most likely due to geographical differences in species distribution 
rather than to qualitative differences among the types of outcrops. Outcrops tend to be fairly small, and 
only a part of the habitat of most vertebrate animals. Small mammals of rock outcrop communities 
include those of dry habitats such as white footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), red-backed vole 
(Clethrionomys gapperi), short-tailed shrew {Blarina brevicauda) and, in grassy / sedgy areas with some 
soil accumulation, meadow voles {Microtus pennsylvanicus). Snakes would be those of dry areas, such 
as black racer {Coluber constrictor), ringneck {Diadophis punctatus), and redbelly snake (Storeria 



T-2 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



occipitomaculata). No turtles, frogs or toads would be expected. Ravens (Connis corax) are all around 
high elevations, especially near cliffs where they nest 



Associated Rare Plants: 

NONE KNOWN 

Associated Rare Animals: 

ERORALAETA 

Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCn"NC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 
NY: 
CT: 

Rl: 

Weathert>ee: 
Author 



EARLY HAIRSTREAK T 

ML Everett State Reservation — ML Washington; ML Greylock State Reservation. - Williamstown; 
ML Tekoa WMA - Westfield/Russell; Blue Hills Reservation - Milton. 

The major threat is probably the use of the areas as viewpwints. This can destroy the vegetation by 
trampling. The larger and steeper areas where the community occurs are probably stable and not likely 
to be overgrown by trees. Smaller areas may be overgrown during succession. 

Build trails to avoid these areas and/or educate the pubhc so they imderstand how to protect the fragile 
areas. Controlled bums may be useful in keeping areas open. 



This community may occur on ML Wachusett or in other parts of the state. 



In part Vaccinium (angustifolium, myrtilloides, pallidum) dwarf -Shrubland Alliance — Vaccinium 
angustifolium - Sorbus americana Dwarf- Shrubland [CEGL005094]; Danthonia spicata Herbaceous 
Alliance (possible, no associations defined for New England); Pinus strobus- Quercus (alba, rubra) 
wooded herbaceous Alliance — Pinus strobus - Quercus rubra / Danthonia spicata Acid Bedrock 
Wooded Herbaceous Vegetation [CEGL005101]; in part Pinus rigida Woodland AlUance - Pinus rigida 
/Aronia melanocarpta / Deschampsia flexuosa - Schizachyrium Woodland [CEGL0061 16]. 

SNE Acidic Rocky Summit/Rock Outcrop Community. 

In part. Acidic summit Community. 

Included in: Appalachian oak- pine Rocky ridge Woodlands/ barren; Southern Acidic Rocky Summit 
Community and Oak - Pine Rocky Summit Woodland Commimity. 

Temperate Acidic Outcrop Community; and in part - Boreal Outcrop Community. 

In part - Rock}' simmiit grassland; Successional Blueberry heath. 

Includes: Schizachyrium scoparium - Danthonia ^icata Grasslands - rock summits — S. scoparium/ 
Prunus pumila var. cuneata community; and S. scoparium/ Hypericum gentianoides Community, 
[ridgetops]. 

Not described. 

In part. Southern Acidic Rocky Summit 

Karen Searcy Date: 3/28/00 

modified PCS 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-3 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 



Tracked: 
Concept 

Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



CmCUMNEUTRAL ROCKY SUMMIT/ ROCK OUTCROP COMMUNITY 

CT2A1B0000 
S2S3 




i^'^ 



Yes 

An open community of grasses, sedges and herbaceous plants ocoining on rocky siimmits, ridges or 
outcrops where the exposed bedrock is circumneutral. 

This community is found on traprock ridges where it occurs on open ridge tops or steep slopes u-here the 
traprock is exposed. It is found on slopes facing SE through SW. These relatively small open areas are 
often found within an oak forest matrix near hickory-hop hornbeam communities with vAdch it shares a 
number of herbaceous species. The commimity is also found on other types of circumneutral substrates 
such as conglomerate. The Circumneutral Rocky Summit / Rock Outcrop Community grades into the 
Circumneutral Rock Cliif Community near clifTs. Both types of sites are dry with soil confmed to cracks 
in the rock. 

Grasses, sedges and forbs dominate this commimity. Occasional isolated trees of eastern red cedar 
(Junipents virginiana), shagbark hickory, (Carya ovata\ sweet pignut hickory (Carya glabra/C. ovalis\ 
and white ash (Fraxinus americana) can also be foimd, so that some examples have an open, savaxuia 
like appearance. The exposed rock is often covered with lichen, and mosses (Polytrichum spp.). Except 
for the Carolina rose {Rosa Carolina) and bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi\ wWch are found on a 
nxunber of sites, shrubs, including the less common hackberry (Celtis occidentalis var. pumila), are 
usually restricted to the edge of the openings. The herb layer can be patchy, occupying area between 
outcrops of rocks or can be almost continuous where rocks are brokea Dominant species include 
Pennsylvania sedge, (Carex pensylvanica), parasol-sedge (C. umhellata\ poverty grass {Danthonia 
spicataX and little blue stem grass (Schizachyrium scoparium). Other species typically encountered 
include rusty cliff fern {Woodsia ilvensis\ rock spikemoss (Selaginella rupestris\ early saxifrage 
{Saxifraga virgimensis\ arrow leaved violet (Viola sagittata), dry land bittercress (Cardamine 
parvijlora), skunk meadow-rue (Jhalictrum revolutum\ strawberry (Fragaria virginiana\ dwarf 
dandeUon (Krigia virginica\ pale corydalis {Corydalis sempervirensy, sleepy catch fly (Silene 
antirrhina\ Venus's looking gliiss {Triodanis petfoliata), blue curls (Trichostema dichotoma), several 
species of goldeiu-ods (Solidago bicolor, S. nemoralis) and other grasses (such as Aristida dichotoma. 
Panicum spp., and Sorghastrum nutans). 



Most animals of rock outcrop communities are not sensitive to the chemistry of the rock, but rather 
are responding to the elevation and dryness of the habitat Any differences in resident fauna between 
calcareous and acidic outcrops are most likely due to geographical differences in species distribution 
rather than to qualitative differences among the types of outcrops. Outcrops tend to be fairly small, and 
only a part of the habitat of most vertebrate animals. Small mammals of rock outcrop commuinities 
include those of dry habitats such as white footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus\ red-backed vole 



T-4 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



{Clethrionomys gapperi\ short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) and, in grassy/sedgy areas with some 
soil accumulation, meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus). Snakes would be those of dry areas, such 
as black racer (Coluber constrictor), ringneck {Diadophis punctatus\ and redbelly snake (Storeria 
occipitomaculata). No turtles, frogs or toads would be expected. Ravens (Corvus corax) are all around 
high elevations, especially near cliffs where they nesL Invertebrates include tiger beetles. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

ARABIS MISSOURIENSIS 
ASCLEPIAS VERTICILLATA 
MINUARTIA MICHAUXn 
POLYGONUM TENUE 
RANUNCULUS FASCICULARIS 
RANUNCULUS MICRANTHUS 
VERBENA SIMPLEX 

Associated Rare Animals: 



GREEN ROCK-CRESS 
LINEAR-LEAVED MILKWEED 
MICHAUX'S SANDWORT 
ROCKKNOTWEED 
EARLY BUTTECUP 
TINY-FLOWERED BUTTERCUP 
NARROW-LEAVED VERVAIN 



T 

T 

SC 

-WL 

-WL 

T 

E 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 

Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH 

VT 

NY; 

CT 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author 



Prospect Hill Park - Waltham; ML Sugarloaf State Reservation - Deerfield; ML Holyoke Range 
State Park - Amherst, South Hadley and Granby, Mt. Tom State Reservation - Holyoke. 

The major threats are trampling and other uses by people. Succession appears to be proceeding slowly, if 
at all, on many of these sites. However, grazing and possibly fire may contribute to helping keep the 
areas. Most sites that are not too steep have evidence of deer browse.. 

Trails should be kept away from these areas because readily accessible sites are used as view-points and 
picnic areas. Planning of trails should take the fragility of the sites into consideration. 



Sites supporting this community may be found along the Mohawk Trail (Rte. 2) in Shelbume and at 
Bardwell's Ferry in Shelbume but should probably be checked. 



Junijjerus virginiana Woodland Alliance — Junii)erus virginiana - Fraxinus americana / Danthonia 
spicata - Poa compressa Woodland [CEGL006002]; in part - Quercus rubra- Q. prinus Woodland 
Alliance — Quercus rulsa- Q. prinus -Pinus strobus / Penstemon hirsutus Woodland [CEGL006074] and 
— Quercus rubra- Q. prinus / Vaccinium spp. - Deschampsia Woodland [CEGL006134]. 

SNE CIRCUMNEUTRAL ROCKY SUMMIT/ROCK OUTCROP COMMUNITY 

Circumneutral Summit Community 

Circumneutral rocky summit and Red Pine Rocky summit Woodland Community 

Included in Temperate acidic outcrop community 

Red Cedar Rocky Summit; in part - Rocky summit grassland 

Juniperus virginiana Woodlands; Schizachyrium scoparium- Danthonia spicata Grasslands- ridgetops — 
S. scoparium/ H gentianoides 

Red Cedar Rocky Summit 

Within Southern Acidic Rocky Summit Community 

Karen Searcy Date: 3/28/00 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-5 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



CALCAREOUS ROCKY SUMMIT / ROCK OUTCROP 

CT2A1C0000 

S2 

Yes 




Concept 
Environmental Setting: 



An open community of shrubs and herbaceous plants occurring on open calcareous ridge tops of the low 
hills edging the valleys in the Western New England Marble Valleys eco-region as well as steep, mid- 
slope calcareous ledges found in the same region. 



Ridge top calcareous outcrops are dry and typically are found on the ridge tops of low hills in the 
calcareous regions of Berkshire County. Their open aspect is maintained by trees uprooting and pulling 
away from the steep ridge top areas. Because, most calcareous bedrock in Massachusetts is overlain by 
more resistant acidic rocks, the community tends to be found on rock outcrops rather than actual rocky 
summits. The substrate grades from rock outcrops to steeper, but moister, shaded cliff faces wiiich 
support Calcareous Cliff Communities. 

Vegetation Description: The ridge top community supports relatively sparse herbaceous vegetation that includes ivory sedge 

(Carex ebumea), purple clematis (Clematis occidentalis\ long-leaved bluet {Hedyotis longifolia\ 
balsam groundsel (Senecio pauperculus) and lyre-leaved rock-cress (Arabis lyrata). Shrubs include 
round-leaved dogwood (Comus rugosa\ roundleaf shadbush (Amelanchier sanguinea) as well as the 
less common northern prickly rose (Rosa acicidaris), hairy honeysxickle (Lonicera hirsuta) and downy 
arrowwood (Viburnum rafinesquianum). Calcareous rock outcrop off the summit ridges tend to be 
moister and are Ughtly shaded by trees characteristic of rich mesic forests including sugar maple (Acer 
saccharumX white ash (Fraxinus americana),ai\d hop-hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana). The herbaceous 
layer can include species characteristic of rich mesic forests but typically has a high proportion of ferns 
such as bulblet fern (Cystopteris bulbifera\ fi^le fern (C. tenuis\ ebony spleenwort (Asplenium 
platyneuron\ maidenhair spleenwort (A. trichomanes), walking fern (Asplenium rhizophyllum) and 
blunt lobed wood fern (Woodsia obtusa) as well as the rarer ferns, purple cUff-break (Pellaea 
atropurpurea) and wall rue spleenwort (Asplenium ruta-muraria). Other plants that are frequently found 
on these ledges include ivory sedge (Carex ebumea), Pennsylvania sedge (Carex pensylvanica), harebell 
(Campanula rotundifolia), peduncled sedge (Carex pedunculata\ early saxifrage (Saxifraga 
virginiensis), lyre-leaved rock-cress (Arabis lyrata), smooth rock-cress (A laevigata), columbine 
(Aquilegia canadensis) and balsam groundsel (Senecio pauperculus). 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Most animals of rock outcrop communities are not sensitive to the chemistry of the rock, but rather 
are responding to the elevation and dryness of the habitat Any differences in resident fauna between 
calcareous and acidic outcrops are most likely due to geographical differences in ^jecies distribution 
rather than to quaUtative differences among the types of outcrops. Calcareous outcrops are in the 
western part of Massachusetts, and so have the species that dont occur in coastal areas such as deer 
mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), woodland jumping mouse (Napaeozapus insignis\ and smoky shrew 
(Sorexfumeus\ as well as other, more widespread small mammals of dry habitats. Outcrops tend to be 



T-6 



Classification of Massachusetts* Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



fairly small, and only a part of the habitat of most vertebrate animals. Snakes are those of dry areas, such 
as black racer (Coluber constrictor), ringneck (Diadophis punctatus\ and redbelly snake (Storeria 
occipitomaculata). No turtles, frogs or toads would be expected. Ravens {Corvus corax) are all around 
high elevations, especially near cliffs N^iiere they nest Invertebrates include tiger beetles. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

AMELANCHIER SANGUINEA 

ARABIS LAEVIGATA 

ARABIS LYRATA 

ASPLENIUM RUTA-MURARIA 

CHAMAELIRIUM LUTEUM 

CLEMATIS OCCIDENTALIS 

HOUSTONL\ LONGIFOLIA VAR LONGIFOLL\ 

LONICERA HIRSUTA 

MINUARTIA MICHAUXn 

PELLAEA ATROPURPUREA 

ROSA ACICULARIS 

SELAGINELLA RUPESTRIS 

TRICHOSTEMA BRACHL^TUM 

VIBURNUM RAFINESQIHANUM 

Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



ROUNDLEAF SHADBUSH 
SMOOTH ROCK-CRESS 
LYRE-LEAVED ROCK-CRESS 
WALL-RUE SPLEENWORT 
DEVIL'S-BIT 
PURPLE CLEMATIS 
LONG-LEAVED BLUET 
HAIRY HONEYSUCKLE 
MICHAUX'S SANDWORT 
PURPLE CLIFF-BRAKE 
NORTHERN PRICKLY ROSE 
ROCK SPDCEMOSS 
FALSE PENNYROYAL 
DOWNY ARROWWOOD 



sc 

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-WL 

E 

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Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCrrNC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 
NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author 



Bartholomew's Cobble (TTOR) - Sheffield; Bashbish Falls State Park - ML Washington. 

These communities can be threatened by development and by invasive species. This community has a 
nimiber of non-native invasives including Morrow's honeysuckle {Lonicera morrowii), Japanese 
barberry {Berberis japonicd), and multiflora rose (Rosa multijlora). 

Control of invasive species. 

2 



Includes: Junijjerus virginiana Woodland Alhance — Juniperus virginiana- Ostrya virginiana / Carex 
ebumea Woodland [CEGL006180]; Includes part of Juniperus virginiana - Quercus muehlenbergii 
Woodland Alliance — Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana - Quercus muehlenbergii Woodland 
[CEGL003757] [Provisional]; Possibly - Schizachyrium scoparium - Bouteloua curtipendula evergreen 
or mixed wooded herbaceous Alliance — Juniperus virginiana / Bouteloua curtipendula - Carex ebumea 
Wooded Herbaceous Vegetation (CEGL006047]. 

SNE Calcareous Rocky summit/ Rock Outcrop Community. 

Not described. 

1997 - includes Rich [basic] Rocky ridge (Juniperus horizontalis); 1994 - part of Calcareous rocky 
simimit/rock outcrop community; part of calcareous cliff community. 

Calcareous Outcrop Community. 

Includes: Red Cedar Rocky Summit; Includes parts of- Rocky summit grassland; Calcareous talus slope 
woodland; Calcareous pavement barrens. 

Includes: Juniperus virginiana Woodlands; Includes a community similar to: Schizach>Tium scoparium- 
Bouteloua curtipendula temperate Grasslands. 

Includes: Red Cedar Rocky summit 

Southern calcareous rocky summit 

Karen Searcy Date: 3/28/00 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-7 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



SERPENTINE OUTCROP COMMUNITY 

CT2A1D0000 

SI 

Yes 




Concept 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Open, sparse herbaceous vegetation with little tree or shrub growth, generally under an acre in size; 
often with markedly different vegetation than in sun-ounding areas. Tree canopy is often only from 
surrounding forest: woody species growing on serpentine 

Usually on small exposed ledges or outcrops of serpentine or other ultramafic [igneous rocks with high 
percentages of magnesium, often accompanied by iron, chromium and nickel] bedrock, or shallow soil 
over such bedrock. The soils derived from ultramafic rocks present unusual growing conditions that 
inhibits growth of many plants: low levels of necessary nutrients, relatively high concentrations of 
magnesium, and droughty conditions of thin soil over rock. Deeper soils derived from glacial deposits 
over serpentine, or ultramafic, bedrock do not support a serpentine outcrop community. 

Large leaved sandwort (Moehringia macrophylla) is an absolute indicator of serpentine conditions, but 
does not occur in all locations. Field chickw^ (Cerastium arvense) is most abundant on serpentine 
outcrops, but also occurs in open woods on south -facing slopes. Serpentine areas typically are sparsely 
vegetated, have increased (relative to surrounding areas) dry adapted plants, and presence of some 
calcifiles. The vegetation is often a graminoid -savanna in larger occurrences (in Maryland, for 
example); in Massachusetts the occurrences are very small, and surrounding vegetation dominate most 
sites. In forest areas, white pine (Pinus strobus), hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), red maple (Acer 
rubrum.), red oak {Quercus rubra), and birches (Betula papyri/era and B. alleghaniensis) form a 
canopy, with witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) in a sparse shrubs layer. Other associated species 
include bracken fern {Pteridium aquilinum), maidenhair spleenwort (Asptenium trichomanes) and 
grasses. Species considered somewhat calcifilic, such as columbine (Aquilegia canadensis), harebell 
(Campanula rotundifolia) and rock spike-moss (Selaginella rupestris) are sometime present 



The Massachusetts serpentine areas are not large enough to affect larger herbivores, but small animals 
may be scarcer than normal. Plant cover is generally sparse, leading to less cover and food for animals. 
Porcupines are frequent in the canopy trees. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

MOEHRINGIA MACROPHYLLA 

Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



LARGE-LEAVED SANDWORT 



T-8 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 

Inventory Comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weather bee: 

Author: 



None known on public land in Massachus^ts 



Visits to known sites for community descriptions would be useful. 

Includes part of Cerastium arvense ^)arsely vegetated Alliance — Adiantum aleuticum - Asplenium spp. 
- Cerastium arvense Sparse Vegetation [CEGL006 1 04]. 

SNE Serpentine Outcrop Commxmity. 

Serpentine Outcrop Community. 

soils are usually stunted. 

Serpentine Outcrop. 

Similar to: Serpentine barrens. 



Serpentine Outcrop Community. 
P.Swain 



Date: 



3/28/00 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-9 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



ACIDIC ROCK CLIFF COMMUNITY 

CT2A2A2000 

S4 

No 




/^•v^ 



Concept 
Environmental Setting: 

Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



An open community of extremely sparse scattered vascular plants on ledges and in crevices within a 
sparsely vegetated vertical substrate of acidic rocks. Lichens are occasionally dense on the chfTface. 

Acidic rock cliffs form on resistant bedrock. Little soil and few nutrients are available to support plants 
on the acidic cUff faces. Although often cooler and moister than Acidic Rocky Summits because of 
aspect or shading from surrounding forests, there is a continuum of conditions and Acidic Rock Cliff 
Communities may be physically below Acidic Rocky Summits and above Acidic Talus Slopes. 

The vascular vegetation is sparse, the plant association not distinctive. Common polypody (Polypodium 
virginianum) and rusty cliff-fern {Woodsia itvensis) are often present in the crevices. Harebell 
(Campanula rotundifolia), bristly sarsaparilla {Aralia hispida), marginal wood-fern (Dryopteris 
marginalis\ fringed bindweed (Polygonum cilinode), stout goldenrod (Solidago squarrosd), and 
Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolid) are common on acidic chffs, as well as in other sterile 
acidic conditions. Purple-flowering raspbeny (Rubus odoratus) occurs on acidic cliffs in the northern 
and western parts of the state. Trees from the surrounding forest may shade the cliff face; shaded cUffs 
have less vegetation than sunny occurrences. Surrounding forests are variable: oak forest, northern 
hardwoods, hemlock, or others throughout the state. Lichens may be abundant on the rock face. Cliffs 
are small areas within surrounding forest, and reflect the vegetation of the suiroimdings. 



All types of cliffs provide nesting habitat for Ravens (Corvus corax) and, in the past. Peregrine Falcons 
(Falco peregrinus) nested on chffs before being extirpated from Massachusetts in 1955, and the 
Peregrine Falcons released in urban areas since 1 984 have not returned to the natural habitat, although 
they are breeding in the state. Cliffs were probably the native habitat of the Eastern Phoebe (Sayomis 
phoebe). No mammals, reptiles, or amphibians would be expected on the steep cliff faces. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

ADLUML\FUNGOSA 
ASPLENIUM MONTANUM 

Associated Rare Animals: 

FALCO PEREGRINUS 



CLIMBING FUMITORY 
MOUNTAIN SPLEENWORT 

PEREGRINE FALCON 



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T-10 



Classiflcation of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCn"NC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

RJ: 

Weatherbee: 

Author 



Known from the towns of Florida, Sandisfield;, New Salem, Leverett, Erving, and Leominster, 
ML Tekoa WMA, Russell; ML Everett State Reservation, Mt. Washington. 

Rock climbing can break plants off of the cliff face, remove small pockets of soil, and wear lichens off 
of the rocks. Distinct trails appear on heavily used cliffs. Development in the vicinity of cliffs, most 
cliffs themselves are seldom directly threatened by developmenL 



Includes: Asplenium montanum sparsely vegetated Alhance — Asplenium montanum Sparse Vegetation 
[CEGL004391]; Includes: Lichen vegetation - Umbihcaria mammulata Nonvascular Alliance — 
Umbihcaria mammulata Nonvascular Vegetation [CEGL004387]. 

SNE ACIDIC CLIFF COMMUNITY. 

Acidic CUff Community. 

[Large open talus] 1994- Acidic CUff Community. 

Temperate Acidic Cliff Community. 

Part of: Cliff Community. 



Southern Acidic Cliff Commimity. 
Swain 



Date: 



3/28/00 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-11 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



CmCUMNEUTRAL ROCK CLIFF COMMUNITY 

CT2A2B0000 

S3 

No 




Y^-vc^ 



Concept: 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



A community of extremely sparse scattered vascular plants on small ledges and in crevices within a 
vertical substrate of rocks. Lichens are occasionally dense on the cUff face. Circumneutral Rock Cliff 
Communities tend to be more diverse than found in Acidic Rock Cliff Communities. 

Sandstone, traprock, conglomerate or other non-acidic, non-calcareous rock. Dry to moist [variation not 
well enough known to separate communities]. Often has circumneutral traprock below the cliff, 
sometimes balds or rock outcrops above. May be shaded by trees of surrounding forest 

Species of dry open areas, including pale corydalis (Corydalis sempervirens), bearberry {Arctostaphylos 
uva-ursi), plantain-leaved pussytoes {Antennaria plantaginifolia\ columbine (Aquilegia canadensis), 
marginal wood-fern {Dryopteris marginalis), little bluestem grass (Schizachyrium scoparium), ebony 
spleenwort {Asplenium platyneuron\ Rusty cliff-fern {Woodsia ilvensis\ and mosses. In the area, 
chestnut oak (Quercus prinus\ scrub oak (Quercus ilicifolid), red cedar (Jimiperus virginiana), pasture 
rose (Rosa Carolina), and Prickly ash {Zanthoxylum americanum). 



All types of cliffs provide nesting habitat for Ravens (Corvus corax) and, in the past. Peregrine Falcons 
{Falco peregrinus) nested on cUffs before being extirpated from Massachusetts in 1955, and the 
Peregrine Falcons released in urban areas since 1 984 have not returned to the natural habitat, although 
they are breeding in the state. Cliffs were jH-obably the native habitat of the Eastern Phoebe (Sayomis 
phoebe). No mammals, reptiles, or amphibians would be expected on the steep cliff faces. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

ASPLENIUM RUTA-MURAIUA 
MINUARTIA MICHAUXn 
RANUNCULUS MICRANTHUS 
SELAGINELLA RUPESTRIS 

Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



WALL-RUE SPLEENWORT 
MICHAUX'S SANDWORT 
TINY-FLOWERED BUTTERCUP 
ROCK SPIKEMOSS 



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T-12 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Rocky Mountain Park, Greenfield; ML Tom State Reservation, Easthampton / Holyoke; 
ML Sugarloaf State Reservation, DeerfielA 

Rock climbing can break plants off of the cliff face, remove small pockets of soil, and wear lichens off 
of the rocks. Distinct trails appear on heavily used cliffs. Development in the vicinity of cliffs, most 
cliffs themselves are seldom directly threatened by developmenL 



Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCATNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author P. Swain 



Includes some of: Asplenium ruta-muraria - Pellaea atropurpurea Sparsely Vegetated Alhance — 
Asplenium ruta-muraria - Pellaea atropurpurea Sparse Vegetation. 

SNE CIRCUMNEUTRAL CLIFF COMMUNITY 

Circumneutral Cliff Community 

1994 - Circumneutral CUff community 

within Temperate Calcareous Cliff conmiunity 



Date: 



7/1/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-13 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



CALCAREOUS ROCK CLIFF COMMUNITY 

CT2A2C0000 

S3 

No 




Concept 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Extremely sparse vegetation, in cracks and small ledges of nearly vertical cliff faces. A more diverse 
commxmity than found on Acidic Cliffs. 

Vertical, or close to vertical, exposures of resistant limestone, dolomite, or other calcareous bedroclc; 
cliffs often include ledges and have talus slopes below. There is minimal soil development 
Surroundings tend to be northern hardwood forest, sometimes rich mesic forests. Calcareous rock 
outcrop and simunit commimities may occur above, although much calcareous rock in Massachusetts is 
overlain by more resistant acidic rock. The moister ledge commimities are usually mid-slope dolomite 
ledges or cUff faces with little soil. 

The vegetation is distinct and specific to the habitat I*urple chff brake (Pellaea atropurpurea\ bulblet 
fem {Cystopteris bulbifera), maidenhair spleenwort (Asplenium trichomanes), blunt-lobed cUff-fem 
(Woodsia obtusa\ walking fem (Asplenium rhizophyllum\ and columbine (Aquilegia canadensis) are 
characteristic species of vascular plants. Bearberry {Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) and harebell (Campanula 
rotundifolia) grow in drier open sites, and moister, shaded sites have early saxifrage (Sadfraga 
virginiensis), rock-pellitory (Parietaria pensylvanica), small enchanter's nightshade (Circaea alpina\ 
and rock-cresses (Arabis hirsuta, A. lyrata, and A. laevigata). Lichen and moss grow on the rock face 
and in small cracks. Surrounding forest oflen includes sugar maple (Acer saccharum\ white ash 
(Fraxinus americana\ basswood {Tilia americana\ butternut (Juglans cinerea), and black and yellow 
birches (Betula lenta and B. alleghaniensis). 



All types of cliffs provide nesting habitat for Ravens (Corvus corax) and, in the past. Peregrine Falcons 
(Falco peregrinus) nested on cliffs before being extiipated from Massachusetts in 1955, and the 
Peregrine Falcons released in urban areas since 1 984 have not returned to the natural habitat, although 
they are breeding in the state. Cliffs were probably the native habitat of the Eastern Phoebe (Sayomis 
phoebe). No mammals, reptiles, or amphibians would be expected on the sleep cliff faces. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

AMELANCHIER SANGUINEA 
ARABIS LAEVIGATA 
ARABIS LYRATA 
ASPLENIUM RUTA-MURARIA 



ROUNDLEAF SHADBUSH 
SMOOTH ROCK-CRESS 
LYRE-LEAVED ROCK-CRESS 
WALL-RUE SPLEENWORT 



SO 
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T 
T 



T-14 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



ASPLENIUM X EBENOIDES 
CRYPTOGRAMMA STELLERI 
PARIETARIA PENSYLVANICA 

Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



SCOTTS SPLEENWORT 
FRAGILE ROCK-BRAKE 
ROCK PELLITORY 



-WL 

T 

-WL 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author 



ML Toby, Sunderland; Bartholemew's Cobble Reservation (7T0), Sheffield;. 

Rock climbing can break plants off of the cliff face, remove small pockets of soil, and wear lichens off 
of the rocks. Distinct trails appear on heavily used cliffs. Development in the vicinity of cliffs, most 
cliffs themselves are seldom directly threatened by development 



includes: Cystopteris bulbifera Sparsely Vegetated Alliance — Cystopteris bulbifera Sparse Vegetation 
[Provisional] [CECL0O4394]; Includes some of: Asplenium ruta-muraria - Pellaea atropurpurea Sparsely 
Vegetated Alliance — Asplenium ruta-muraria - Pellaea atropurpurea Sparse Vegetation. 

SNE CALCAREOUS CLIFF COMMUNITY. 



1994 - Calcareous Cliff community. 
In part: Calcareous Cliff Community. 
Czilcareous Cliff Community. 



Southern Calcareous Cliff Community. 
P. Swain Date: 



7/1/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-I5 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



RIVERSroE ROCK OUTCROP COMMUNITY 

CT2A3A0000 

S3 

No 




i^--^ 



Concept 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Sparse, mostly herbaceous, vegetation limited to crevices where soil accumulates: only outcrops 
influenced by river processes are considered to be riverside outcrops. 

The community occurs on flood scoured bedrock along rivers. The outcrops may be low or steep on the 
river's edge or extending into the river channel with alluvial soil accumulated in crevices in the rocks. 
Although regularly disturbed by almost annual flooding and ice scouring, river spray and proximity to 
water may alleviate some of the harsh conditions usually encountered on sand in open areas. Related to 
Riverside Seeps, which are distinguished by being wet most of the year. 

Riverside rock outcrops support vegetation typical of other outcrops, low and scattered herbaceous 
plants; but also have fewer woody plants due to annual ice scouring. Typical plants include a mix of 
usually only a few species per site: included might be harebell (Campanula rotundifolia), Canadian 
bumet (Sanguisorba canadensis\ big blue stem (Andropogon gerardii), prostrate dogbane (Apocynum 
cannabinum var. hypericifolium\ goldenrods {Solidago spp.) or smooth, or riverside, rose {Rosa 
blanda). Nonnative species that commonly occur are Canada bluegrass (Poa compressa) and Purple 
loosestrife {Lythrum salicaria). 



These small, exposed communities have few, if any, animals that are restricted to them. Shoreline 
foragers such as otter (Lontra canadensis\ mink (Mustela visonX and raccoons (Procyon lotor) would 
use rock outcrops as part of their overall habitat Turtles are not attracted to rocks, p-eferring to bask on 
logs. Occasional bull frogs (Rana catesbeiana) or northern water snake (Nerodia sipedon) would be 
expected. Common species of Dragonflies and tiger beetles hunt over the rock areas. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

AMELANCHIER SANGUINEA 

ARABIS MISSOURIENSIS 

ASTER TRADESCANTn 

CAREX LENTICULARIS 

DESCHAMPSIA CESPITOSA SSP GLAUCA 

SOLIDAGO PTARMICOIDES 

TRISETUM TRff LORUM SSP MOLLE 



ROUNDLEAF SHADBUSH 
GREEN ROCK-CRESS 
TRADESCANTS ASTER 
SHORE SEDGE 
TUFTED HAIRGRASS 
UPLAND WHITE ASTER 
SPIKED FALSE OATS 



SO 

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T-16 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 

Inventory Comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME 

NH 

VT; 

NY 

CT 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author 



None known on public lands in Massachusetts. 

Trampling by river users and competition from exotic species. 

Removal of exotics from best sites. 

2 



SNE RIVERSIDE OUTCROP COMMUNITY. 

Similar to: Acidic Shoreline Outcrop Community and Circumneutral Shoreline Outcrop Community. 

Riverside Outcrop Communities. 

Riverside Outcrop Commimity. 

Includes: Shoreline outcrop and Calcareous shoreline outcrop. 



Part of: High-gradient Stream Community. 
P. Swain Date: 



7/1/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-17 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



DRY RIVERSIDE BLUFF 

CT2B2B1000 

S2 

Yes 




Concept An erosional gravel/sandy clifT face next to rivers or river floodplains supporting species of dry habitats 

in predoniinantly open conditions. 

Environmental Setting: High, 20^0 feet, bluffs of gravel next to river floodplains. Fire has been important in at least some 

situations, especially on drier south and southwest facing slopes. In areas of oak - pine forests, bluff tops 
and surroundings may support black oak savaiuias or dry to mesic oak - pine forests or woodlzmds. 
Wetter areas between slopes support shrub thickets or forests. 

Vegetation Description: Scattered individuals or thickets of scrub oak {Quercus ilicifolia\ American hazehiut (Corylus 

americana), gray birch (Betula populifolia), and trembling aspen {Populus tremuloides\ with little blue 
stem (Schizachyrium scopariunt), lowbush blueberries {Vaccinium angustifolium and V. pallidum\ 
sweet fern (Comptonia peregrina), goat's rue (Tephrosia virginiana), stiff aster (/onacfe linariifolius\ 
woodland sunflower {Helianthus divaricatus), and lupine {Lupimis perennis) between patches. Bare 
ground maintained by erosion, amount varies with location and recent disturbances. This community - 
type may be subdivided into Acidic and Calcareous variants with further inventory. 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Harsh, dry conditions limit the number of species expected of all types. Bank Swallows (Riparia 
riparia) 2uvi Belted Kingfisher {Ceryle alcyon) nest in sandy banks, especially of large rivers. Less 
common Northern Rough-winged Swallows also use sand and clay banks. Turtles nest in sand that 
collects at the bottom of such bluffs and tiger beetles breed at the bases and hunt in flatter near by areas. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

LUPINUS PERENNIS 

Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 

Examples with Clinton River Bluff, Clinton. 

Public Access: 



WILD LUPINE 



WL 



T-18 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Threats: 

Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms 
USNVCn^NC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author P. Swain 



Gravel mining removes the community. The substrate is easily disrupted and eroded, but bank 
stabilization interferes with the natural changes in the community.. 



hicludes: Pinus strobus -Betula populifolia Woodland Alliance — Pinus strobus - Betula populifolia / 
Comptonia peregrina/ Schizachyrium scoparium Woodland [CEGL006004]; Small eroding CUfTs/ banks 
Sparse Vegetation Alliance — Eroding CUffs Sparse Vegetation [CEGL002315]. 

DRY SANDY RIVERBLUFF OPENING. 



Part of: White pine - gray birch / swe^ fern / little bluestem woodland. 
Erosional River Bluff Commimity. 



Date: 



8/5/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-19 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracke± 



MARITIME ROCK CUFF COMMUNITY 

CT2A4B0000 

S2 

No 




Concept 



Sparsely vegetated rock areas with plants in crack and ledges wiiere soil collects, above tidal zone, but 
within salt spray. 



Environmental Setting: Ocean side of rocky headlands, above rocky inlertidal, but within the salt spray zone. 

Vegetation Description : Low, scattered plants of salt and wind hardy plants such as knotted pearlwort (Sagina nodosa ssp. 

nodosa), saltworts (Sahcomia spp.), common rush (Juncus effiisusX seaside plantain (Plantago 
maritimaX poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicansX and mosses. Species from the top of the headland, 
usually a Maritime Shnibland Commimity, occur in less exposai ledges. 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) use the rocks below the cliffs to haul out and rest The exposed rock 
face itself does not provide habitat for specialized fauna. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

SAGINA NODOSA SSP NODOSA 

Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



KNOTTED PEARLWORT 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 

inventory Comments: 



Pigeon Cove, Rockport; Brier Neck, Gloucester, Egg Rock, NahanL 



Buzzard's Bay shoreline should be checked. 



T-20 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Synonyms: 

USNVCn"NC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author 



Part of SNE Coastal Rocky Headland Community. 
Similar to part of: Open headland community. 
Part of coastal rocky headland. 
Not applicable. 



Not applicable. 
P. Swain 



Date: 



7/1/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-21 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



MARITIME EROSIONAL CLIFF COMMUNITY 

CT2B1E0000 

S2 

No 




Concept 
Environmental Setting: 



Extremely sparse vegetation on cliffs being actively eroded by the sea. 

Seaward unconsolidated cliff faces, subject to erosion, particularly in storms. In the salt spray zone, 
above beach strand communities. Vegetation is most diverse where freshwater seepage emerges through 
the bluff. Clay and sand substrates may support different communities, needs inventory. 



Vegetation Description: Vegetation typical of surrounding areas, but usually very sparse: Poison ivy {Toxicodendron radicans), 

Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia\ uild rose {Rosa Carolina and R. rugosa), bayberry 
{Myrica pensylvanica), sweet fern {Comptonia peregrind), beach plum {Prunus maritima), black cherry 
{Prunus serotina), huckleberry {Gaylussacia baccata), bearberry {Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), and catbriar 
{Smilax rotundifolia). In areas with freshwater seepage, common horsetail {Equisetum arvense) and the 
non-native Orache {Atriplex patula) will often grow. 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Tiger beetles are characteristic animals of the base of the community. Bank Swallows {Riparia riparid) 
nest in the top jjarts of the cUffs. Migrating Peregrine Falcons {Falco peregrinus) regularly perch on and 
hunt from the upper part of sea cUffs during the fall migration. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

PRENANTHES SERPENTARIA 



LION'S FOOT 



Associated Rare Animals 

CICINDELA LIMBALIS 

Examples with 
Public Access: 



Threats: 

Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 



BANK TIGER BEETLE SC 

Martha's Vineyard; Nantucket; Cape Cod; NoMan's Island; Penikese Island WS, Gosnold. 

Bank stabilization interferes with natural processes of erosion. But erosion becomes severe with added 
human induced disturbance, including from foot traffic and climbing. 

Continuing to keep pedestrian traffic off cliff faces. 

2 

Elizabeth Islands and Buzzards Bay coastline should be checked - preliminary with aerials would be 
useful. Clay and sand substrates may support different commimities, needs inventory. 



T-22 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Synonyms: 
USNVCn"NC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH 

VT: 

NY 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author 



Not described as such , but might fit within Small eroding cliffs/banks sparse vegetation alliance; also 
Smilax spp. Toxicodendron radicans vine-Shrubland Alhance — Smilax glauca - Toxicodendron 
radicans Vine Shnibland [CEGL003886]. 

Maybe part of Coastal Dunes. 

INCLUDES Maritime Shnibland Community. 

Related to: 1997 - Maritime Dune ForestAVoodland and 1994 - Coastal Dune Commimity. 

Not applicable. 

includes part of: Maritime dunes and Maritime shnibland. 

Possibly not present or maybe Terrestrial Scarcely Vegetated Erosional Slope or Terrestrial Scarcely 
Vegetated Sand Accumulations. 

Maritime Cliff. 

Not applicable. 

P. Swain Date: 1/14/00 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-23 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



MARITIME BEACH STRAND COMMUNTTY 

CT2B1A0000 

S3 

No 




Concept 



Sparsely vegetated, long, narrow community between wrack line of high tide and foredunes. 



Environmental Setting: Usually part of a barrier beach system, seaward of dunes, but above the daily high tides. Beach strands 

are subject to ovenvash during storms and spring tides. 

Vegetation Description: Sparsely vegetated community with scattered cover of sea-rocket {CaJdle edentula) and dune grass 

(Ammophila breviligulata). Beach pea (Lathyrus japomcus\ seabeach orache (Atriplex pentandra), 
seabeach sandwort {Honckenya peploides), seaside-flatsedge {Cyperus filicinus), seabeach saltwort 
(Salsola kali ssp. kali) and seaside goldenrod (Solidago sempervirens) occasionally occur at the foot of 
the dunes or protected beaches, along with the non-native Russian thistle, (Salsola kali ^p. tragus). 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Several species of shorebird are beach specialist, nesting and foraging on beach strands, including 
Least Terns (Sterna antillarum). Piping Plover {Charadrius melodus), and American Oystercatcher 
(Haematopus palliatus) Beach strands are important shorebird staging areas: migratory shorebirds use 
barrier beach systems, including the beach strand community, for resting and congregating before and 
during migration. Merlins (Falco columbarius) and Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) forage on 
beaches during migrations. No amphibians or reptiles regiilarly occur on beaches. Few mammals use the 
beaches except for hunting by midsized predators such as red fox (Vulpes vulpes\ striped skunk 
(Mephitis mephitis\ and coyote (Canis latrans) and resting by seals (mostly Phoca vitulina). 
Invertebrate speciaUsts include several species of tiger beetles, beach flies, and, on the south side of the 
Cape, ghost crabs at their northern limit of distribution. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

LEYMUS MOLLIS SSP MOLLIS 
MERTENSIA MARTTIMA 
POLYGONUM GLAUCUM 

Associated Rare Animals: 

CHARADRIUS MELODUS 
CICINDELA DORSALIS DORSALIS 
STERNA ANTILLARUM 



SEA LYME-GRASS 


E 


OYSTERLEAF 


E 


SEA-BEACH KNOTWERD 


-WL 


PIPING PLOVER 


T 


NORTHEASTERN BEACH TIGER BEETLE 


E 


LEAST TERN 


SC 



T-24 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples with 
Public Access: 



Threats: 

Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCH'NC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author 



Race Point, Provincetown; Monoraoy NWR, Chatham; Coast Guard Beach, CCNS, Eastham; 
Nauset Beach, Chatham and Orleans; Sandy Neck, Barnstable; Plymouth Beach, Plymouth; Horseneck 
Beach State Reservation, Westport; Plum Island, Parker River NWR, Newbury. 

Invasive species: seabeach poppy (Glauciumflavum = Argemone glossum); Recreational use, foot and 
vehicular traffic. 

Allow natural disturbances, deposition and erosion, and exposure to overwash and salt spray. Restrict 
vehicle traffic. 



Well known from shore bird management work. 

Includes: Sand flats- Cakile eduntula sparsely vegetated Alliance — Cakile edentula ssp. edentula • 
Salsola caroliniana sparse Vegetation [CEGL004400]. 

COASTAL BEACH STRAND COMMUNITY. 

Beach strand commimity. 

Coastal beach strand community. 

Not applicable. 

Maritime beach. 

Includes: Cakile edentula - Chenopodium album Perennial Forb Vegetation. 

Maritime beach. 

Not applicable. 

Swain Date: 7/1/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-25 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



MARITIME DUNE COMMUNFTY 

CT2B1B0000 

S2 

Yes 




Concept: 



Environmental Setting: 



This is the classic commiinity of sand dunes, with patches of herbaceous plants inter^iersed with areas 
of bare sand and shrubs. 

The maritime dune community occurs on windswept dunes, within the salt spray zone, often landward 
of the Beach Strand Community and grading into shrubland or woodlands on the more sheltered back 
dunes. Dunes are deposited by wind action or storm ovenvash. Wet areas between dunes are hiterdunal 
Swale Communities. Usually part of a barrier beach system. Ability of dunes to move is an important 
part of the habitat they provide. 

Vegetation Description: Sand dimes characterized by expanses of beach grass {Ammophila breviligulata) with seaside goldenrod 

{Solidago sempervirens\ beach pea {Lathyrus japonicus), and beach and golden heathers {Hudsonia 
tomentosa and H. ericoides). Shrubs such as bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursiX bayberry (Myrica 
pensyhanica), lowbush blueberry (Vacdnium angustifolium), sweet fern (Comptonia peregrina), and 
beach plum {Prumis maritima) grow on protected slopes and some interdunal areas, mostly sparse, but 
becoming dominant to form shrublands. Poison ivy {Toxicodendron radicans) is often dense. Salt hay 
{Spartina patens), common hairgrass {Deschampsiajlexuosd), little blue stem {Schizachyrium 
scoparium\ and poverty grass {Danthonia spicatd) are common grasses of the community. Pinweed 
{Lechea ^p.X nutrush (Cyperus spp.) and sand jointweed (Polygonella articulata) grow mixed with 
Hudsonia. Scattered pitch pine (Pinus rigida) occur in some dune systems. Actual composition and 
structure of the vegetation depends upon recent dune stability (deposition and erosion) and distance from 
the ocean. 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



A variety of seabirds shorebiids aivd song birds nest at the base and sides of dunes and in the interdunal 
area. The particular species depend upon topography, hydrologic regime, and the amount and type of 
plant cover. Vernal pools occur in some dune systems, serving as important feeding and breeding areas 
for a variety of reptiles and amphibians, invertebrates, and birds aad mammals. Diamondback terrapins 
{Malaclemys terrapin) use dunes for nesting. Northeastern Beach Tiger Beetles overwinter in the dunes. 



Associated Rare Plants: 
ARISTIDA TUBERCULOSA 



SEABEACH NEEDLEGRASS 



SC 



T-26 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Animals: 

ASIO FLAMMEUS 
CHARADRIUS MELODUS 
CIRCUS CYANEUS 
MALACLEMYS TERRAPIN 
ONCONEMIS RIPARIA 
STERNA HIRUNDO 



Examples with 
Public Access: 



Threats: 

Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 
NY: 
CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author 



SHORT-EARED OWL 
PIPING PLOVER 
NORTHERN HARRIER 
DIAMONDBACK TERRAPIN 
DUNE NOCTUID MOTH 
COMMON TERN 



E 

T 

T 

T 

SC 

SC 



Crane Beach, Ipswich; Plum Island, Paricer River NWR; Sandy Neck Barnstable; Scusset Beach, 
Sandwich; Cape Cod National Seashore - Provinceland Dunes, Coast Guard Beach dunes, Nauset Beach 
dunes; Monomoy NWR, Chatham; Black Beach, Falmouth; Nantucket; Martha's Vineyard; Horseneck 
Beach State Reservation, Westport. 

Exotics, (Lonicera morrowii, Lythrum salicaria, and Artemisia stelleriand). Traffic (foot as well as 
vehicular) breaks the surface structure and removes vegetation. Road cuts change wind patterns and so 
alter deposition, erosion, and vegetation. 

Removal of exotics at best sites. Continue closure of dunes to foot traffic. Limit roads and other cuts 
through the dunes. 



Plover and tern work maintains inventories of the habitats. 



Includes: Sand dunes - — Ammophila breviligulata Herbaceous Alliance - Ammophila breviligiJata - 
Carex silicea Herbaceous Vegetation [CEGL006274]; and Hudsonia tomentosa EKvarf-Shrubland 
Alliance — Hudsonia tomentosa - Arctostaphylos uva- ursi Dwarf- Shrubland [CEGL006143] [also in 
Coastal heathland community]; [also in Maritime Shrubland] Toxicodendron radicans vine- Shrubland 
Alliance — Smilax glauca - Toxicodendron radicans Vine - Shrubland [CEGL003886]; part of [also in 
Maritime Shrubland] Myrica pensylvanica - (Prunus maritima) Shrubland Alliance — Myrica 
pensylvanica- Rosa rugosa Shrubland [CEGL006295]. 

COASTAL DUNE COMMUNITY 

Sand dune commimity, some of Maritime shrubland community. 

Coastal Dune Community and Includes: Beach grass grassland; and part of Inland beach strand 
community and includes Hudsonia sand and gravel barren. 

Not applicable. 

Maritime dunes and part of Maritime heathland and Maritime beach. 

Includes: Ammophila brevihgulata medium-tall grasslands; Hudsonia tomentosa dwarf- Shrubland 
vegetation [also included in Coastal heathland community]. 

Includes: Maritime dune - a. Beach grass primary dune and b. beach heather- 2ry dune association. 

Not applicable. 

J. Lundgren/P. Swain Date: 7/14/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-27 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



SANDPLAIN GRASSLAND 

CT2B2A0OOO 

SI 

Yes 




Concept An open community visually dominated by grasses, although forbs and shrubs are important 

components of the community. 

Environmental Setting: A grassland community on flat outwash plains with droughty, low nutrient soils. Most occurrences arc 

near the ocean and within the influence of winds and salt ^ray of storms, although sandplains 
throughout the state support small occurrences of this grassland community. The community grades into 
sandplain heathlands, shrublands, dunes, or forest It is maintained by fu"e, salt spray, and, now, mowing. 
It often occurs as small openings within Pitch pine / Scrub oak commimities. 

Vegetation Description: Grasslands are dominated by graminoids, usually little blue stem grass {Schizachyrium scopan'um), 

Pennsylvania sedge {Carex pensylvanica\ and poverty grass {Danthonia spicata), with bearberry 
(Arctostaphylos uva-ursiX scrub oak (Quercus ilicifolid), silff aster (lonactis linariifolius, formerly Aster 
linariifolius\ bayberry (Kiyrica pensytvanica), lowbush bluebeny {Vaccinium angustifolium), and black 
huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata). Shrub clones often form patches. There is great ^)ecies overlap with 
sandplain heathlands, but sandplain grasslands are much richer in vascular species. As a group. Goat's 
rue (Tephrosia virginiana\ yeUow wild indigo (Baptisia tinctona\ butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa\ 
and bird's foot violet {Viola pedata) are good indicators of the commimity. 

Dunwiddie dL al. (1996) recognized five grassland associations: Hairgrass Grasslands were divisible into 
a Beach Grassland subtype and a Heathy Grassland subtype and Little Bluestem Grasslands divided into 
Pennsylvania Sedge Grasslands, High Diversity Native Sandplain Grasslands, and Weedy Grasslands. 

Animal species that are adapted to open areas include birds such as Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus 
savannarum) which is particularly adapted to areas with ojsen ground between grass tussocks and 
Eastern Meadowlaiks (Stumella magna) which uses areas with continuous short grass. Small mammals 
include meadow vole (Kiicrotus pennsylvanicus\ meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius), and short- 
tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda). Grasslands p-ovide hunting territory for hawks and owls. Black 
racers {Coluber constrictor) are common snakes that also live and hunt in open grasslands. 



Associations: 



Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna 



Associated Rare Plants: 

AGALINIS ACUTA 
AMELANCHIER NANTUCKETENSIS 
ARISTIDA PURPURASCENS 
ASCLEPIAS PURPURASCENS 
ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA 
ASTER CONCOLOR 
CIRSIUM HORRIDULUM 
DICHANTHELIUM COMMONSIANUM 



SANDPLAIN GERARDIA 
NANTUCKET SHADBUSH 
PURPLE NEEDLEGRASS 
PURPLE MILKWEED 
BUTTERFLY-WEED 
EASTERN SILVERY ASTER 
YELLOW THISTLE 
COMMONS' PANIC-GRASS 



E 

SC 

T 

T 

-WL 

E 

-WL 

SC 



T-28 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



GAMOCHAETA PURPUREA 

HELIANTHEMUM DUMOSUM 

LACTUCA HIRSUTA VAR SANGUINEA 

LECHEA MINOR 

LIATTUS SCARIOSA VAR NOVAE-ANGLIAE 

LINUM INTERCURSUM 

LUPINUS PERENNIS 

POLYGALA NUTTALLE 

QUERCUS STELLATA 

SCLERIA PAUCIFLORA VAR CAROLINIANA 

SETARIA GENICULATA j 

SISYRINCHIUM ARENICOLA 

SPIRANTHES VERNALIS 

Associated Rare Animals: 

AMMODRAMUS SAVANNARUM 
ASIO FLAMMEUS 
BARTRAMIA LONGICAUDA 
CINGHIA CATENARIA 
CIRCUS CYANEUS 
CYCNIA INOPINATUS 
GRAMMIA OrmONA 
GRAMMIA PHYLLIRA 
METARRANTHIS PILOSARIA 
SENGOTEilSA EREMIATA 
SPEYERIA IDALIA 



PURPLE CUDWEED 

BUSHY ROCKROSE 

HAIRY WILD LETTUCE 

THYME-LEAF PINWEED 

NEW ENGLAND BLAZING STAR 

SANDPLAIN FLAX 

WILD LUPINE 

NUTTALL-S MILKWORT 

POST OAK 

PAPILLOSE NUT-SEDGE 

BRISTLY FOXTAIL 

SANDPLAIN BLUE-EYED GRASS 

GRASS-LEAVED LADES'-TRESSES 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 

Inventory Comments: 

Synonyms: 
USNVCn"NC: 



GRASSHOPPER SPARROW 
SHORT-EARED OWL 
UPLAND SANDPIPER 
CHAIN DOT GEOMETER 
NORTHERN HARRIER 
UNEXPECTED CYCNIA 
OrmONA TIGER MOTH 
PHYLLIRA TIGER MOTH 
COASTAL SWAMP METARRANTHIS 
THREE-LINED ANGLE MOTH 
REGAL FRTTILLARY 
Katama Plains, Edgartown; Francis Crane WMA, Falmouth. 



E 

SC 

-WL 

-WL 

SC 

SC 

-WL 

-WL 

-WL 

E 

SC 

SC 

SC 

T 
E 
E 

SC 

T 

SC 

£ 

E 

SC 

SC 

X 



Exotics - Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius\ Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum\ Cypress 
spurge (Euphorbia cyparissias), and cool season grasses such as sheep fescue (Festuca avina\ sweet 
vemal grass (Anthoxanthum odorata), velvet-grass (Holcus lanatus), aivl bluegrass (Poa pratensis). 
Mats formed by cool season grasses change the character of the community. 

Fire management plans should be produced and implemented to introduce prescribed fu-e to the best 

examples. Reduce exotics vAysxe possible. 

3 



Includes: Schizachyrium scoparium - Sorghastrum nutans - Herbaceous Alliance — Schizachyrium scoparium - 
Sorghastrum nutans - Hypoxis hirsuta - Baptisia tinctoria Herbaceous Vegetation [CEGL0O6187]; Schizachyrium 
scoparium ssp. httorale shrub herbaceous Alliance [sparse woody Grassland] — Myrica pensylvanica / Schizachyrium 
scoparium s^. httorale - Danthonia spicata Shrub Herbaceous Vegetation [CEGL006067]; Danthonia ^icata 
Herbaceous Alliance [no association defined]. 

MA (old name): SANDPLAIN GRASSLAND 



ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Authon 



Sandplain Grassland Community. 

Within Pitch pine/ scrub oak barrens community. 

Inland examples within Pine- oak- heath sandplain forest 

Includes: Maritime Grassland and Hempstead Grassland (which receives no salt spray). 

Includes: Schizachyrium scoparium- Danthonia spicata Grasslands - S. scoparium- Hypericum gentianoides- sand. 

Maritime Grassland. 

Pitch Pine / Scrub Oak Barren Associated Sandplain Grassland communities. 

P. Swain Date: 8/5/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-29 



Community Name: CULTURAL GRASSLAND 
Community Code: CT2B2A1000 



SRANK: 
Tracked: 



No 




Concept 



Environmental Setting: 



This distribution map focussed on cultural grasslands occurring on sandplains. 

A human created and maintained open community dominated by grasses, normally maintained by 
mowing; primarily of conservation interest for the grassland bird commimity. 

A grassland community that generally occurs on sand or other droughty, low nutrient soils. 
Surroundings, in many areas include Pitch pine / Scrub oak communities. Many small airports with 
surrounding grasslands were built on sand plains. Pastures and hayfields occur in all areas, and 
surroundings reflect the regional variations. 



Vegetation Description: Airports, cemeteries, pastures, and hayfields provide different habitats, and support different species of 

plants and animals. Grasslands at many smaller airports are dominated by graminoids, usually little blue 
stem grass (Schizachyrium scoparium), Pennsylvania sedge {Carex pensylvanicd), and poverty grass 
(Danthonia spicatd), and many non-native species. Some cultural grasslands do have some mix of 
herbaceous ^)ecies, such as goldenrods {Solidago and Euthamia spp.) and milk weeds including 
butterfly weed (Asclepias spp. and A tuberosa). 



Associations: 



Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Grasslands at airports tend to have more native grasses than do Oelds that are, or were recently, 
cultivated. Cemeteries are variable, some older ones have more native species than do more actively 
managed, newer cemeteries. Most cultural grasslands are mowed at least annually to maintain the 
grassland stage. Hayfields have fewest native species, but do support grassland birds. 

Distance to the coast and size of the grassland strongly affect the species that use a grassland. Many 
species of birds that use grasslands are more common in the midwestem prairies and agricultural fields. 
Airports currently support Massachusetts' largest populations of Upland sandpipers {Bartramia 
longicauda). Grasshopper Sparrows {Ammodramus savannanun), and Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus 
sandwichensis). Other grassland birds are found in different habitats - such as Bobolinks {Dolichonyx 
oryzivorus) in hayfield length taller grass. Eastern Meadowlarks (Stumella magna) in jsasture length 
short grass. Other grassland birds include Killdeer {Charadrius vociferus\ Northern Meadowlarks 
{Stumella magnaX and Homed Larks (Eremophila alpestris). Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus\ 
meadow jumping mouse {Zapus hudsonius), and the northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicaudd) 
would be expected in most grasslands. They would be hunted by garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis\ 
long-tailed weasels {Mustela frenata). Kestrels {Falco sparverius), and wintering Northern Harriers 
(Circus cyaneus). Snowy Owls {Nyctea scandiacaX and Short-eared Owls (Asio/lammeus). 



T-30 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Commimities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Plants: 

ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA 
LTJPINUS PERENNIS 

Associated Rare Animals: 

AMMODRAMUS SAVANNARUM 
BARTRAMIA LONGICAUDA 
CYCNIA INOPINATUS 
CICINDELA PURPUREA 
FARONIA RUBIPENNIS 
POOECETES GRAMINEUS 



BUTTERFLY-WEED 
WILD LUPINE 

GRASSHOPPER SPARROW 
UPLAND SANDPIPER 
UNEPECTED CYCNIA 
PURPLE TIGER BEETLE 
THE PINK STREAK 
VESPER SPARROW 



-WL 

-WL 

T 

E 

SC 

SC 

T 

T 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author: 



Access is limited at airports. Massachusetts Military Reservation, Bo\ime and Sandwich; 
Orange Aiiport, Orange; Turner's Falls Airport, Turner's Falls; Logan Airport, Bostoa 

Exotics - especially cool season grasses that form mats. Common non-native ^)ecies include sheep 
fescue (Festuca ovina), sweet vernal grass {Anthoxanthum odorata), velvet-grass {Holcus lcmatus\ 
bluegrass (Poa pratensis), timothy (Phleum pmtense\ and others. 

Fixe management plans should be produced and followed to introduce prescribed fire to the best 
examples. Reduce exotics where possible. 



Related to: Schizachyrium scopmum - Sorghastriim nutans - Herbaceous Alliance — Schizachyrium 
scopariimi - Sorghastrum nutans - Hypoxis hirsuta - Baptisia tinctoria Herbaceous Vegetation 
[CEGL006187]; Schizachyrium scoparium ssp. littorale shrub herbaceous Alliance [sparse woody 
Grassland] — Myrica pensylvanica / Schizachyrium scoparium ssp. Uttorale - Danthonia spicata Shrub 
Herbaceous Vegetation [CEGL006067]; Danthonia spicata Herbaceous Alliance [possible, no 
association defmed]. 

SANDPLAIN GRASSLAND - CULTURAL COMMUNITY 



P.Swain 



Date: 



7/1/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-31 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



SANDPLAIN HEATHLAND 

CT2B2B0000 

SI 

Yes 




^ ff vrm mf 







Concept: 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 



Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



An open, shrub dominated, primarily coastal community, sharing many species with Sandplain 
Grasslands. Heathlands often have sparse clumps of plants with bare soil or lichen cover between the 
vascular plants. 

Heathlands occur on acidic, nutrient poor, droughty soils. Sandplain heathlands grade into Sandplain 
Grasslands, and both grade into other coastal communities such as Maritime Shrublands, Scrub Oak 
Shrublands, and Pitch Pine/Scrub Oak Communities, where they often occur in openings. Natural 
occurrences were likely maintained by fire and / or salt ^ray. 

Many of the dominant species in heathlands are woody: scrub oak (Quercus ilicifolia\ black 
huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata\ bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi\ and lowbush blueberry 
{Vaccinium angustifolium). Other characteristic species include hairgrass {Deschampsiaflexusoa\ 
Pennsylvania sedge {Carex pensylvanica\ little blue stem {Schizachyrium scoparium\ stiff aster 
(lonactis linariifolius, formerly Aster linariifolius), bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica\ golden heather 
(Hudsonia ericoides), chokeberry (Aronia arbutifolia), dwarf chinqu^in oak {Q. prinoides), and 
sweetfem (Comptonia peregrina). Heathlands are less species rich than grasslands and appear taller. The 
tall shrublands association particularly includes non-ericaceous tall shrubs such as beaked hazelnut 
{Corylus comuta\ befich plimi (Prunus maritima\ and dewberry (Rubus flagellaris). The species 
overlap with grasslands is great: it is the proportion of the species and the resultant structure that 
separates the communities. The communities are not distinct at some sites. 

Dunwiddie et al. 1996 recognized two large heathland associations: Tall shrub, which subdivides into 
Mixed Maritime Shrubland and Huckleberry - Scrub Oak Heathlands, and Low shrub, which divides 
into Broom Crowberry Heathlands and Bearberry Heathlands. A somewhat depauperate type of 
heathland developed on dredge spoils foxmd along the Cape Cod Canal, and could be considered a 
cultural subtype of heathland community. 

Homed Lark (Eremophila alpestris\ Savannah Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum\ and Vesper 
Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus) use sandplain heathlands. Northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) nest in 
heathlands or nearby shrublands and hunt in grasslands and open heathlands. Meadow voles (Microtus 
pennsyhanicusX short-tailed shrews {Blarina brevicauda\ and white -footed mice (Peromyscus 
leucopus) are often abundant near or under the shrubs. White-footed mice are known to be hosts of the 
deer tick (Ixodes scapularis) that carries Lyme Disease. Other invertebrates of Heathlands includes 
butterflies such as Hairstreaks and Skippers. 



T-32 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Plants: 

AMELANCHIER NANTUCKETENSIS 

CIRSIUM HORRIDULUM 

COREMA CONRADH 

DICHANTEiELIUM COMMONSIANUM 

HYPERICUM HYPERICOIDES SSP 

LECHEA MINOR 

LIATRIS SCARIOSA VAR NOVAE-ANGLIAE 

LUPINUS PERENNIS 

PRENANTHES SERPENTARIA 

QUERCUS STELLATA 

Associated Rare Animals: 

ABAGROTIS CRUMBIBENJAMINI 

ASIO FLAMMEUS 

CICINDELA PURPUREA 

CINGILIA CATENARIA 

CIRCUS CYANEUS 

HEMILEUCA MAIA 

HEMARIS GRACILIS 

NICROPHORUS AMERICANUS 



NANTUCKET SHADBUSH 
YELLOW THISTLE 
BROOM CROWBERRY 
COMMONS'S PANIC-GRASS 
ST. ANDREWS CROSS 
THYME-LEAF PINWEED 
NEW ENGLAND BLAZING STAR 
WILD LUPINE 
LION'S FOOT 
POST OAK 



SC 

-WL 

SC 

SC 

E 

-WL 

SC 

-WL 

£ 

-WL 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH 

VT 

NY 

CT 

RI: 

Weatherbee: 
Author 



COASTAL HEATHLAND CUTWORM SC 

SHORT-EARED OWL E 

PURPLE TIGER BEETLE SC 

CHAIN DOT GEOMETER SC 

NORTHERN HARRIER T 

COASTAL BARRENS BUCKMOTH T 

SLENDER CLEARWING SPHINX MOTH SC 

AMERICAN BURYING BEETLE E 

Wasque and Long Point - Martha's Vineyard; Middle Moors, Head of the Plains - Nantucket; 
Marconi - Cape Cod National Seashore, WellfleeL 

fire suppression, some exotic species such as black pine (Pinus thimbergiana) and Scotch Broom 
(Cytisus scoparius). Fragmentation, vehicular traffic, and development Domestic pets and feral 
predators are problems for ground nesting bird ^)ecies, such as Short-eared Owl {Asio Jlammeus). 

Fire management plans should be produced and implemented to reintroduce fu^e, as prescribed fire, to 
the best examples. Remove exotics where a problem. Control foot and vehicle traffic. 

2 

Need North Shore and Bristol County. 

Includes: Hudsonia tomentosa Dwarf-Shnibland Alliance — Hudsonia tomentosa - Arctostaphylos uva- 
ursi Dwarf- Shrubland (CEGL006143] [also in coastal dune community]; Vaccinium (angusti folium, 
myrtilloides, pallidum) dwarf -Shrubland AlUance. 

SANDPLAIN HEATHLAND. 

Included in sandplain grassland community. 

Within Pitch pine/ scrub oak barrens community. 

Dwarf shr\ib, if apphcable. 

Maritime heathland and some of Successional blueberry heath. 

Includes: Hudsonia tomentosa dwarf- Shrubland; Arctostaphylos uva-iirsi- Vaccinium angustifolia 
dwarf- Shrublands. 

maybe part of Maritime Shrubland or related to Inland Dune/Sand Barren and opening in Pitch Pine / 
Scrub Oak Barrens. 



Not applicable. 
P.Swain 



Date: 



7/1/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-33 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



MARITIME SHRUBLAND COMMUNITY 

CT2A4A1000 

S3 

No 




Concept 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Shrub community, dominated by patches of dense shrubs with scattered more open areas of low growth 
or bare ground. 

Coastal, within the area receiving storm salt spray, but out of the normal range of daily salt spray. 
Occurs on rocky headlands or behind dunes in protected areas of barrier beaches. 

Often dense patches of shrub, with various species dominating in different areas. Huckleberry 
{Gaylussacia baccata), bayberry {Myrica pensylvanica\ or red cedar (Junipenis virginiana) areas are 
often distinctive. Black cherry (Pruntis serotina\ beach plum {Pnmus maritima\ chokeberry {Aronia 
melanocarpa), low bush blueberry (Facc/n/Mm angustifolium\ and bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) 
may be abundant Catbrier (Smilax rotundifolia) and poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) often cover 
other plants or grow in dense patches on their own. 

Two variants: rocky headlands and on dunes, need to be field checked to see how different they are from 
each other. 

Shrub thickets provide nesting areas for Northern Harriers (Circxts cyaneus). Northern Towhee (Pipilo 
erythrophthalmus\ and Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Maritime shrublands are heavily used 
during fall migrations for cover and forage — many of the plants have fruit attractive to migrants. White- 
tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiamis) maintain large populations in shrubland habitats. In such shrub 
areas, white-footed mice {Peromyscus leucopus) are also very abundant, and in the openings meadow 
voles {Microtus pennsylvanicxis) are common. Eastern moles (Scalopus aquaticus) have an affinity to 
the sand substrate in the southern part of the state. Long-tailed weasels (Mustelafrenata) occur in the 
grass dominated areas where they hunt meadow voles. Eastern hognose snake (Heterodon platirhinos) 
occur in sandy, open areas of shrubland communities areas. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

NONE KNOWN 

Associated Rare Animals: 

CIRCUS CYANEUS 
METARRANTHIS PILOSARIA 



NORTHERN HARRIER 

COASTAL SWAMP METARRANTHIS 



T 
SC 



Examples with 
Public Access: 



Halibut Point State Park, Rockport; Nomans Land Island; Sandy Neck, Barnstable;; 

Plum Island, Parker River NWR, Newbury. In the towns of Nantucket, Aquinnah, and Gosnold. 



T-34 



Classification of Massachusetts' Teirestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Threats: 

Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 

Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 



MA (old name): 
ME: 

NH: 

VT: 
NY: 
CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author 



Invasive exotics in many occurrences - shrubby honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowii) is invasive in many of 
the locations; barberry (Berberis thunbergii), buckthorn {Rhamnus cathartica\ and Japanese black pine 
(Pinus thunbergiana) are locally dense. 

Removal of invasive exotics from otherwise exemplary occurrences. 

2 

Buzzard's Bay shores should be checked. Known from Elizabeth Islands, abundance should be 
rechecked. 



Includes: Prunus serotlna - Amelanchier canadensis - Quercus spp. Shrubland Alliance — Pnmus 
serotina - Rhus typhina / Cakile edentula Shrubland [CEGL006399]; Myrica pensylvanica - (Prunus 
maritima) Shrubland Alliance — Myrica pensylvanica- Rosa rugosa Shrubland [CEGL006295]; Prunus 
serotina - Amelanchier canadensis - Quercus spp. Shrubland Alliance — Amelanchier canadensis - 
Viburnum spp. - Myrica pensylvanica Shrubland [CEGL006379]; Toxicodendron radicans vine- 
Shrubland Alliance — Smilax glauca - Toxicodendron radicans Vine - Shrubland [CEGL003886]; 
Prunus serotina - Amelanchier canadensis - Quercus spp. Shrubland Alhance — Pnmus serotina - 
Sassafras albidum - Amelanchier canadensis / Smilax rotundifolia Shrubland [CEGL006145]. 

SNE COASTAL ROCKY HEADLAND COMMUNITY 

Includes Maritime Open Headland Community, and Maritime ShrublaiKl Commumity, part of Sand 
Dune Community. 

Includes: Maritime Shrubland / barren and Coastal rocky headland; Prunus serotina - Pinus rigida / 
Amelanchier / Parthenocissus - Toxicodendron Forest/ Woodland. 

Not applicable 

Maritime shrubland; includes parts of successional Maritime forest 

Includes parts of: Quercus coccinea- Sassafras albidum Woodlands; and Myrica pensylvanica- Prunus 
maritima Shrublands. 

Includes: Maritime dime - c. dune shrubland; Maritime Shrubland. 

Not applicable 

Swain Date: 7/1/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-35 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



MARITIME PTTCH PINE ON DUNES 

CT2A1A1200 

SI 

Yes 




Concept: 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Scattered pitch pines on active sand dunes, many with trunks at least partially buried. Open canopy with 
bare ground and scattered shrubs, herbaceous plant, and patches of lichen. 

The community occurs on moderately stabilized back dunes where storms produce active sand 
movement. The areas receive salt spray during storms and strong winds, but not on a daily basis. 

Short, scattered individuals of Pitch pine (Pinus rigida) dominates the tree layer. Open sand has 
scattered beach heather {Hudsonia tomentosa\ bearberry {Arctostaphylos %iva-ursi\ and patches of 
lichen. 



There are no animal species known to be restricted to maritime forests. The open Pitch Pine areas are 
particularly harsh and exposed, and support fewer animals than more closed communities. Generally, in 
more salt influenced environments, fewer animals will be expected. As in all commimities on peninsulas 
such as Cape Cod, or on islands, the more remote occurrences have fewer ^)ecies than those closer to 
the mainland sources. Moths, butterflies, and other insects of the southeastern oak-pine forest occur in 
maritime forests. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

NONE KNOWN 

Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 

Inventory Comments: 



Sandy Neck, Barnstable; Provincelands, Provincetown. 



T-36 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author 



Pinus rigida Woodland Alliance — Pinus rigida / Hudsonia tomentosa Woodland (CEGL0061 17] Pinus 
rigida - Quercus {coccinea, velutina) Woodland Alliance — Pinus rigida - Quercus velutina / Hudsonia 
tomentosa Woodland [CEGL006120]. 

MARITIME FOREST, DUNE SUBTYPE. 

Pitch Pine - Dune Semi forest Community. 

Included in: 1 998 Maritime Dune ForestAVoodland; 1 994 - Maritime Forest on Dunes. 

Not applicable. 

Included in: Pitch pine- oak heath Woodlands. 

Ihclxided in: Pinus rigida - Quercus stellata Woodland. 

Within the Pitch Pine - Oak Forest and Oak - Pine Forest And part of Maritime Shrubland. 

Not applicable. 

P.Swain Date: 11/30/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-37 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



MARITIME JUNIPER WOODLAND / SHRUBLAND 

CT1A2A1100 

SI 

Yes 




Concept 
Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Associated Rare Plants: 

NONE KNOWN 



Predominantly evergreen woodland / shrubland within the coastal salt spray zone. The trees tend to be 
short (less than 5 m ^about 15 feet)) and scattered. Tops of trees and shrubs are sculpted by winds and 
salt spray. 

Maritime communities occur along the coast within the area of direct influence of the ocean and salt 
spray, but not in areas flooded by salt water. They are usually somewhat protected fi-om direct spray by 
crests of dunes Juniper dominated maritime communities tend to occur on sand of interdunal areas, 
backs of dunes, and exposed blufis, and also on salt marsh borders, and, to a lesser extent, on rocky 
headlands. 

Trees are usually short relative to interior forests. The Maritime Juniper Woodland / Shrubland 
community occurs as part of continua of sparse shrubland to forest, and deciduous to evergreen 
dominants, in areas of continuous changes of levels of salt spray and substrate types. Virginia juniper, 
also called red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) dominates but occurs in variable, usually low, densities in 
association with scattered trees and shrubs typical of the surrounding forest such as Pitch pine {Pinus 
rigida), various oaks (Quercus spp.\ American holly (Ilex opaca), black cherry (Prunus serotina), red 
maple (Acer rubrum\ bayberry (Kfyrica pensylvanica) and winged sumac (Rhus copallinum). The 
herbaceous layer is highly variable, with little blue stem grass (Schizachyrium scoparium), beach grass 
(Ammophila breviligulata), and sedges, often with scattered beach heather (Hudsonia tomentosa). 
Microtopography and local conditions strongly influence the species assemblage. 



There are no animal species known to be restricted to maritime woodlands. Animal species are those of 
typical coastal oak areas such as the birds Rufous-sided Towhees (Pipilo erythrophthalamus). Gray 
Catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis). Common Yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas\ Ovenbird (Seiurus 
aurocapillus) and Black-and-\\iute Warbler (Kiniotilta varia). Small mammals such as meadow voles 
(Microtus pennsylvanicus\ white footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus)^d gray squirrels (Seiurus 
carolinensis) are common in Massachusetts' forests. Moths, butterflies, and other insects of the 
southeastern oak and oak-pine forest occur in maritime forests. Generally, in more salt influenced 
environments, fewer animals will be expected. As in all communities on peninsulas such as Cape Cod, 
or on islands, the more remote occurrences have fewer species than those closer to the mainland sources. 



T-38 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Animals 

TERRAPENE CAROLINA 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author 



EASTERN BOX TURTLE 
Sandy Neck, Barnstable; Belle Isle Marsh, Revere. 



SC 



Exotics, including Asiatic bittersweet {Celastrus orbiculata\ dune stabilization, roads through the 
dunes. 

Exotic control on the best examples. 

2 



Includes: Juniperus virginiana Woodland Alliance — Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana / Myrica 
pensylvanica Woodland [CEGL006212]. 

SNE Maritime Forest on Dunes/Maritime Juniper Forest 

Includes: part of Sand dune community. 

1998 - Maritime Dune Forest/Woodland. 

Not applicable. 

Includes: Maritime red cedar forest; includes parts of Successional Maritime forest 

Within the Pinus rigida - Quercus stellata Woodlands. 

Within the Pitch Pine - Oak Forest and Oak - Pine Forest And part of Maritime Shrubland. 

Not applicable. 

P. Swain Date: 1/26/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-39 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



SCRUB OAK SHRUBLAND 

CT2B1F1000 

SI 

Yes 




Concept 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



A shrubland dominated by scrub oak, with essentially no pitch pine, although within pitch pine - scrub 
oak areas. 

Scrub oak shrublands occur within pitch pine / scrub oak communities, particularly in frost bottoms and 
frost pockets, and on ridge tops near ridge top pitch pine / scrub oak communities. They are part of a 
mosaic in space and time of grassland and heathland openings, shrublands, pitch pine / scrub oak 
communities, and oak / pine forest The shrublands are to some extent maintained by late spring and 
early fall frosts damaging more susceptible competing tree species. 

Scrub oak (Quercus ilicifolia) and dwarf chinquapin oak {Q. prinoides) dominated shrublands, with a 
variety of other heathland plants, including a significant component of graminoid cover and interspersed 
with patches of hchen. Characteristic plants besides scrub oak are huckleberry {Gaylussacia baccata), 
low bush blueberry {Vaccinium angustifolium\ Peiuvsylvania sedge {Carex pensylvanicd), little 
bluestem grass {Schizachyrium scoparium\ and lichens {Cladina and Cladonia spp). 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 

Associated Rare Plants: 

COREMA CONRADH 

Associated Rare Animals: 

ABAGROTIS CRUMBI BENJAMINI 
ACRONICTA ALBARUFA 
ANISOTA STIGMA 
APHARETRA PURPUREA 
CATOCALA HERODIAS GERHARDI 
CICINNUS MELSHEIMERI 
CINGILIA CATENARIA 



Refugia for rare, as well as more common, lepidopteran species dependent on oaks. [Proposed for Usting 
2000, Ptichodis bistrigata. Southern Ptichodis, T.] 



BROOM CROWBERRY 

COASTAL HEATHLAND CUTWORM 
BARRENS DAGGERMOTH 
SPINY OAKWORM 
BLUEBERRY SALLOW 
GERHARD'S UNDERWING MOTH 
MELSHEIMER-S SACK BEARER 
CHAIN DOT GEOMETER 



sc 
sc 

T 

SC 

SC 

T 

T 

SC 



T-40 



Classification of Massachusetts' Tenestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



HEMTLEUCA MAIA 
ITAMESPl 
LYCIA YPSILON 
METARRANTmS APICIARIA 
ZALESPl 

ZANCLOGNATHA MARTEIA 
SENDOTHISA EREMIATA 



COASTAL BARRENS BUCKMOTH 

PINE BARRENS ITAME 

PINE BARRENS LYCIA 

BARRENS METARRANTHIS MOTH 

PINE BARRENS ZALE 

PINE BARRENS ZANCLOGNATHA 

THREE-LINED ANGLE MOTH 



T 

SC 

T 

E 

SC 

T 

SC 



Examples with 
Public Access: 



Threats: 
Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 
MA (old name): 
ME:NH:VT:NY: 
CT: 
Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author P. Swain 



Manuel F. Correllus SF, Martha's Vineyard; Long Point Reservation [TTOR], Martha's Vineyard; 
Middle Moors, Nantucket; Myles Standish SF, Plymouth; AND on ridgetops Mt Everett State 
Reservation, ML Washington. 

Development and fragmentation of the entire systems. 

Experiments are needed to ascertain the fire dependence/sensitivity of the community and its dependent 
species. 



Quercus ilicifolia Shrubland Alliance - Quercus ilicifolia Shnibland [CEGL003883]. 
SCRUB OAK SHRUBLAND. 
Within Pitch pine/ scrub oak barrens. 
Quercus ilicifolia Shrubland. 
Within Pitch pine/ scrub oak barrens. 



Date: 



8/5/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-41 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



PITCH PINE - SCRUB OAK COMMUNITY 

CT2B1F0000 

S2 

Yes 




Concept 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 



Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Shrub dominated communities with scattered to dense trees and scattered openings. Shrubs are often 
very dense. 

Pitch pine/scrub oak communities develop on droughty, low nutrient soils - usually deep, coarse, well- 
drained sands derived from glacial outwash — in the coastal plain, the Connecticut River Valley, and 
other scattered areas throughout the northeast Pitch pine/ scrub oak communities are a fire maintained 
and fire dependent community; most species in the community recover well from fire. The openings 
grade into heathland and grassland communities, wiuch are larger. The commimity grades into Pitch 
pine - oak - heath forests which have tree oak species and much less scrub oak, and usually occur in less 
dry environments. 

Pitch pines fonn an open canopy above a shrub layer domirated by shrub oaks, scrub oak (Quercus 
ilicifolia) and sometimes dwarf chinqu^in oak {Q. prinoides). Older oaks may form a nearly 
impenetrable understory 3-4 m {10- 1 5 feet) tall, or it may be more open and shorter. Huckleberries 
(Gaylussacia baccata) occur between the oak clones or under more open plants. Scattered openings of 
variable size support patches of heathland or grassland vegetation — more or less s{)arse lowbush 
blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium\ bearberry {Arctostaphylos uva-ursi\ lichen patches, little bluestem 
grass {Schizachyrium scoparium\ sedges {primarily Carex pensylvanica and C. rugosperma), and beach 
heather (Hudsonia tomentosa). Cow \viieat {Melampyrum lineare) and mayflower (Epigaea repens) are 
typically found on edges within the commimity. 

Inland variants on sand of the Pitch Pine/ Scrub Oak Community tend to have more gray birch (Betula 
populifolia), trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and black cherry (Prunus serotind) and pin (or fire) 
cherry {Prunus pensylvanica). A related community, Ridgetop Pitch Pine / scrub oak community occurs 
on b»d rock ridge tops across the state. Maritime Pitch Pine on EXmes has little scrub oak and is much 
sparser. Pitch pine over sedges with scattered heath species usually develops on previously plowed soils. 

A large number of species of lepidopterans are restricted to the pitch pine/ scrub oak community, and its 
openings. The bird fauna is generally that of oak woodlands: Rufous -sided Towhee {Pipilo 
erythrophthalmus). Pine Warbler {Dendroica pinus\ and ruffed grouse {Bonasa umbellus) are common. 
Whii>-poor-will {Caprimulgus vociferus) and Common Nighthawk {Chordeiles minor) are now 
increasingly restricted to sandy openings of pitch pine / scrub oak communities. American woodcock 
{Philohela minor) also use the openings. 



T-42 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Plants: 

COREMA CONRADH 
LUPIhfUS PERENNIS 

Associated Rare Animals: 

ABAGROTIS CRUMBI BENJAMINI 
ACRONICTA ALBARUFA 
ANISOTA STIGMA 
APHARETRA PURPUREA 
CATOCALA HERODIAS GERHARDI 
CICINNUS MELSHEIMERI 
CINGILIA CATENARIA 
EAGLES IMPERIALIS 
HEMILEUCA MAIA 
ITAMESPl 
LYCIA YPSILON 
METARRANTfflS APICIARIA 
ZALESPl 
ZANCLOGNATHA MARTHA 



BROOM CROWBERRY 
WILD LUPINE 

COASTAL HEATHLAND CUTWORM 

BARRENS DAGGERMOTH 

SPINY OAKWORM 

BLUEBERRY SALLOW 

GERHARD'S UNDERWING MOTH 

MELSHEIMER-S SACK BEARER 

CHAIN DOT GEOMETER 

IMPERIAL MOTH 

COASTAL BARRENS BUCKMOTH 

PINE BARRENS ITAME 

PINE BARRENS LYCIA 

BARRENS METARRANTfflS MOTH 

PINE BARRENS ZALE 

PINE BARRENS ZANCLOGNATHA 



SC 

-WL 

SC 

T 

SC 

SC 

T 

T 

SC 

SC 

T 

SC 

T 

E 

SC 

T 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 

.Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCn-NC: 



Southern Myles Standish SF (and Camps Cachalot and Squanto areas), Plymouth; Mashpee Pine 
Banens, Mashpee; Manuel F. Correllus State Forest, Martha's Vineyard; Montague WMA, Montague. 

Development, fragmentation, and erosion from heavy trail use. Fire suppression and severe wildfires. 

Reintroduction of fire according to fire management plans. Many areas that have not burned for more 
than 20 years may need to have fuels mechanically reduced (brush cut) before prescribed fu^s are 
attempted. 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

Y: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author: 



Includes: Pinus rigida Woodlands Alliance — Pinus rigida / Quercus ilicifolia/ Lespedeza capitata 
Woodlands [CEGL006025]and Pinus rigida Woodlands Alhance — Pinus rigida / Quercus ihcifolia/ 
Myrica pensylvanica Woodlands [CEGL006315]; Pinus rigida Woodlands Alhance — Pinus rigida/ 
Vaccinium spp. - Gaylussacia baccata Woodlands [CEGL005046]. 

NEW ENGLAND PITCH PINE/SCRUB OAK BARRENS. 

Pitch pine- scrub oak barren Community and includes Pitch pine- heath barren Community. 

Pitch pine scrub oak barrens Community. 

within Pine- oak- heath sandplain forest 

Pitch pine/ scrub oak barrens and Pitch pine- heath barrens. 

Pinus rigida Woodlands — Pinus rigida/ Q. ihcifolia comm.; and Pinus rigida Woodlands — Pinus rigida/ 
Vaccinium angustifolium. 

Pitch pine/ scrub oak barrens. 

Pitch pine/ scrub oak barren and associated Grassland community. 

P. Swain Date: 7/1/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-43 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



RIDGETOP PITCH PINE - SCRUB OAK 

CT2A1A1000 

S2 

No 




Concept: 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Ridgetop pitch pine-scrub oak woodland occurring on acidic bedrock, often occurring in a mosaic with 
Acidic Rocky Summit / Rock outcrop Communities. 

This community, tolerant of extremely xeric growing conditions, is foxmd on ridge tops and exposed 
outcrops of acidic bedrock (including schists, gneiss, granite and quaitzite), ranging in elevation (in 
Western Massachusetts) from 255 to 792 meters. Aspect may range from N to S along ridgetops, but in 
general the most typical examples have a south to southwest aspect, and are found on level crests as well 
as steep slopes and receive high solar insolation. Soil accumulation is slow and soil depths are generally 
shallow, often with considerable exposed bedrock. Communities are fire dependent— where fire has been 
infreqxient, succession to white pine-oak forest is evident 

Ridgetops and steep upper mountain slopes with an open to closed canopy of pitch pine {Finns rigida). 
Soils are thin, in places consisting only of a thin layer (2 cm) of duff and decomposed leaves over 
bedrock, ranging to several centimeters of sandy, rocky very well drained soil. The woodland canopy 
characteristically contains somewhat dwarfed pitch pines (ovg. 5 m talF), with scattered taller trees 
including red oak (Quercus rubra\ black oak {Q. velutina\ rock chestnut oak {Q. montana) and scarlrf 
oak {Q. coccinea). Gray birch {Betula tremu hides), and hickories (Carya spp.) are occasionally present 
in the canopy or subcanopy. Rarely, one may find red pine (Pimis resinosa) White pine (Pinus strobus) 
may dominate the canopy in areas that have not experienced regular fire disturbance. The imderstory is 
patchy, and often interspersed with large areas of exposed bedrock. Shrubs commonly include blueberry 
(Vaccinium angustifolium and^or V. pallidum), scrub oak {Quercus ilicifolia), and huckleberry 
{Gaylussacia baccata). Chinquapin oak {Quercus prinoides) is occasionally present Herbs are sparse 
and may include Canada mayflower {Maiandiemum canadense), bastard toad-flax (Comandra 
umbellata), cow wheat {Melampyrum lineare), tall corydalis {Corydalis sempervirens\ black 
chokeberry {Aronia melanocarpa), goldenrod {Solidago spp.), and at higher elevations, mountain white 
potentilla {Potentilla tridentata\ and bearbeiry, {Arctostaphylos uvo-um). Variants: A related pitch pine 
ridgetop community, usually lacking scrub oak, has an herbaceous layer dominated by hairgrass 
{Deschampsiaflexuosa) or poverty oats {Danthonia spicata). Another variation of acidic rocky ridgetop 
includes a shrub community dominated by scrub oak, with a similar complement of heaths and herbs, 
but lacking pitch pine. Pitch pine-scrub oak ridgetop communities may occur in patches with grassy 
balds. Acidic Rocky Summit / Rock Outcrop Communities, lacking pitch pine and scrub oak. These 
small balds usually have a more diverse herb layer. 



T-44 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



No animal species are known to be restricted to this conununity. Communities of this type Ukely provide 
part of the habitat of wide ranging mammals, perches for birds of prey, and food and shelter for flocking 
song birds prior to the fall migration. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

SOLIDAGO GLUTINOSA SSP RANDH 

Associated Rare Animals: 

APHARETRA PURPUREA 
CATOCALA HERODIAS GERHARDI 



RAND'S GOLDENROD 

BLUEBERRY SALLOW 
GERHARD'S UNDERWING MOTH 



SC 
T 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH 

VT 

NY 

CT 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author: 



ML Everett, Race ML, Alander ML, ML Washington; Pine Cobble ML. Williamstown; 
Monument ML. Stockbridge; Blue Hills, Kfilton; ML Tekoa and Mt. Shatterack. 

Forest succession, fire suppression, trampling, litter. 

Prescribed fire to keep fuel loads down, limit succession, and allow regeneration of pitch pine and 
heaths. As open summits provide great views, trails and education are needed to minimize humam 
impacts such as trampling and littering. 



TNC with Conte grant did inventory. 

Pinus rigida Woodland Alliance — Pinus rigida / Quercus ilicifolia / Aronia melanocarpa Woodland 
[CEGL006323] -and, in part, Pinus rigida / Aronia melanocarpa Woodland [CEGL0061 16]. 

Part of: New England Pitch pine/ scrub oak Barrens. 

Not described. 

Included in Appalachian oak-pine rocky ridge woodland/bairen. 

Included in Pitch pine - Oak- heath Rocky simmiiL 

related to Dwarf pine ridges and Pitch pine - oak - heath Rock SummiL 

Includes: Schizachyrium scoparium- Danthonia spicata Grasslands - S. scoparium/ Hypericum 
gentianoides - ridgetop; Pinus rigida/Quercus ilicifolia community. 



Included in: Southern Acidic Rocky SummiL 
SaUy Shaw Date: 



7/19/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-45 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



ACIDIC TALUS FOREST / WOODLAND 

CTIBIAIOOO 

S4 

No 




Concept 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Open to closed canopy on boulder strewn slopes with scattered and clumped trees, tall shrubs, and a 
lower layer dominated by vines and ferns. There is often a gradient of vegetation, with exposed rocks at 
the base of the cliff above the talus slope, and gradually more trees to the base of the slope. Small slopes 
may have closed canopy coverage from surrounding trees. 

Talus derived from Eicidic bedrock. Ground cover is exposed talus, moss or lichen covered boulders, and 
deciduous litter. Community develops on dry to mesic, loose rocky slopes often below cUffs or rock 
outcrops. Forest grades into surrounding forests which are usually taller and more diverse. Open talus 
areas are drier, and rocks covered by lichens. 

The canopy is formed by a mix of species including red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer 
saccharum\ black birch (Betula lenta\ yellow birch {B. alleghamensis\ paper birch (B. papyriferd), 
gray birch {B. populifolia\ red maple (Acer rubrum), beech (Fagus grandifoliaX hemlock (Tsuga 
canadensis), and white pine (Pinus strobus). Scattered shrubs include currents (Ribes sp^.\ large- 
flowering raspberry (Rubus odoratus\ mountain and striped maples (Acer spicatum and A 
pensyhanicum), and maple-leaved viburnum (Viburnum acerifolium). Marginal wood fern (Dryopteris 
marginalis), rock polypody (Polypodium virginianum\ bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum\ 
Pennsylvania sedge (Carex pensylvanica\ corydalis (Corydalis sempervirens\ silverrod (Solidago 
bicolor), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia\ and poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans\ 
and others make up the herbaceous and vine flora. In exposed talus slopes lichen often covers the 
exposed rocks. 



Most animals are not sensitive to the pH of the substrate, but respond to the size of boulders, cover, 
moisture, and surroundings of the talus slope. Porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) den in large boulder 
fields and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) make nests in other large boulder field, but snakes, for 
example, black racers (Coluber constrictor constrictor) and black rat snake (Elaphe obsolete) have 
hibernating dens in talus with snuller stones. Song birds of talus slopes tend to be those of the 
surrounding forests. 



Associated Rare Plants: 
CLEMATIS OCCIDENTALIS 
Associated Rare Animals: 
ELAPHE OBSOLETA 



PURPLE CLEMATIS 



BLACK RAT SNAKE 



SC 



T-46 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 

inventory Need Rank: 

Inventory Comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 
NY: 

CT: 

RI: 

Weatherbee: 

Author: I 



ML Tekoa WMA, Russell; East Mountain, Holyoke. 



Includes: Picea rubens Woodland Alliance — Picea rubens/ Ribes glandulosum Woodland 
[CEGL006250]; and Quercus rubra- Q. prinus Woodland Alliance — Quercus rubra / Polypodium 
virginianum Woodland [CEGL006320]. 

SNE ACIDIC TALUS FORESTAVOODLAND 

Acidic talus Community 

Includes: Red oak- black birch/ marginal woodfera talus forest/ woodlands; Acidic talus Spruce- birch/ 
mountain maple talus forest/ Woodland; Low elevation spruce/ rock polypody/ moss cold- air talus 
Variant; Red oak- pine/ heath Rocky ridge woodland. 

Includes: Transition Hardwoods talus Woodlands; Northern/ high elevation talus woodland. 

Part of : Acidic talus slope Woodlands and shale talus slope woodland. Ice cave talus community has 
similarities. 

Includes parts of: Quercus rubra/ Comus florida forests — Quercxis rulx^ Viburnum acerifolium 
Community. 

Not described 

Not separated, included within surroimding forest such as Dry Acidic Oak/Conifer Forest Commimity. 

Swain Date: 7/1/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-47 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



CmCUMNEUTRAL TALUS FOREST / WOODLAND 

CT1B1A2000 

S3 

No 




Concept 



Environmental Setting: 



Open to closed canopy on boulder strewn slopes with scattered and clumped trees, tall shrubs, and a 
lower layer dominated by vines and ferns. There is often a gradient of vegetation, with exposed rocks at 
the base of the cliff above the talus slope, and gradually more trees to the base of the slope. Small slopes 
may have canopy coverage from surrounding trees. 

Community develops on dry to mesic, not very acidic talus slopes of basalt or traprock, often below 
cliffs or rock outcrops. Forest grades into surrounding forests which are usually taller and more diverse. 
Open talus areas are drier, and rocks are often covered by lichens. 



Vegetation Description: A mixture of deciduous forest species contribute to the canopy cover, including sugar and red maples 

(Acer saccharum and A. rubnun\ black and paper birch (Betula lenta and B. papyrifera\ white ash 
(Fraxinus americana\ hickory {Carya glabra/ovcdis\ red oak {Quercus rubra), and subcanopy species 
hop hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) and striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum). Shrubs include round- 
leaved dogwood (also called talus dogwood) (Comus rugosa\ hazehiut (Corylus spp.X witch-hazel 
(Hamamelis virginiana), maple-leaved viburnum (Viburnum acerifolium), and bush honeysuckle 
(Diervilla lonicera). Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolid), poison ivy (Toxicodendron 
radicans\ and occasionally clematis (Clematis spp.) and climbing fumitory (Adlumia fungosa) climb 
over the rocks and other plants. Marginal wood-fern (Dryopteris marginalis\ common polypody 
(Polypodium virginianum\ and the debatably exotic herb robert (Geranium robertianum) are major 
components of the sparse herbaceous layer, which includes scattered grasses and sedges. 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Most animals are not sensitive to the pH of the substrate, but respond to the size of boulders, cover, 
moisture, and surroundings of the talus slope. Porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) den in large boulder 
fields and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) make nests in other large boulder field, but snakes such as 
Black rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta) have hibernating dens in talus with smaller stones. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

ADLUMIA FUNGOSA 
CLEMATIS OCCIDENTALIS 
LESPEDEZA VIOLACEA 
SPHENOPHOLIS NTITDA 



CLIMBING FUMITORY 
PURPLE CLEMATIS 
VIOLET BUSH-CLOVER 
SHINING WEDGEGRASS 



T 
SC 

-WL 
T 



T-48 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Animals: 

ELAPPffi OBSOLETA 



BLACK RAT SNAKE 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 

Inventory Comments 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 
NY: 
CT: 
Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author 



Prospect Hill Park, Waltham; Horn Pond Mountain, Wobum; ML Tom State Reservation, 
Northampton; Rocky ML Park, Greenfield. 



Includes: Tilia americana - Fraxinus americana Woodland Alliance — Tilia americana - Fraxinus 
eunericana - (Acer saccharum) / Geranium robertianum Woodland [CEGL005058] and Tilia americana • 
Fraxinus americana - Acer ^icatum / Cystopteris fragilis Woodland [CEGL006204]. 

SNE CIRCUMNEUTRAL TALUS FORESTAVOODLAND. 

Circumneutral Talus Community. 

part of: Rich Appalachian oak-hickory talus forest/ Woodlands; Rich red oak- sugar maple/ ironwood 
talus Forest/ Woodlands — Mesic enriched sugar maple talus variant and Dry rich red oak- ironwood 
talus variant Red oak- black birch/ marginal woodfem talus Forest/ Woodlands. 

Included in: Northern Hardwoods talus woodland. 

Includes: Shale talus slope woodland, and part of Acidic talus slope woodland. 

Includes: Campanula rotundifolia - Lechea tenuifolia Scarcely Vegetated Talus. 

Not described. 

Within Mesic Northern Hardwood forest community. 

P. Swain Date: 7/1/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-49 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



CALCAREOUS TALUS FOREST / WOODLAND 

CT1B1A3000 

S3 

No 




Concept: 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Open to closed canopy on boulder strewn slopes with scattered and clumped trees, tall shrubs, and a 
lower layer doniinated by vines and ferns. There is often a gradient of vegetation, with exposed 
calcareous rocks at the base of the cliff above the talus slope, and gradually more trees to the base of the 
slope. Small slopes may have canopy coverage firom surrounding trees. 

In rich woods, loose talus composed of calcareous boulders such as limestone or dolomite, often below a 
cliff or rock face. Soil between the boulders is usually moist and loamy. 

Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is usually the dominant species. Shrubs, abundant if the canopy is open, 
include round-leaved dogwood, also called talus dogwood (Comus rugosa\ downy arrowwood 
(Viburnum rafinesquianum\ and purple-flowering raspberries (Rubus odoratus). The herbaceous layer 
includes meadow rue (Thalictrum spp.), jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum), white avens (Geum 
canadense\ Bottlebrush-grass (Elymus hystrix =Hystrix patula), broad-leaved woodland sedge (Carex 
platyphylld), and walking-fern (Asplenium rhizophyllum =Camptosorus rhizophyllum). 



Most animals are not sensitive to the pH of the substrate, but respond to the size of boulders, cover, 
moisture, and surroundings of the talus slope. Porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) den in large boulder 
fields and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) make nests in other large boulder field, but snakes such as 
Black rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta) have hibernating dens in talus with smaller stones. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

ADLUMIA FUNGOSA 
CLEMATIS OCCIDENTALIS 
DIPLAZIUM PYCNOCARPON 
DRYOPTERIS GOLDIANA 
VIBURNUM RAFINESQUIANUM 

Associated Rare Animals: 



CLIMBING FUMITORY 
PURPLE CLEMATIS 
GLADE FERN 
GOLDm-SFERN 
DOWNY ARROWWOOD 



T 

SC 

-WL 

-WL 
T 



Examples with 



None identified on public lands. 



T-50 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Public Access: 
Threats: 

Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCn"NC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Authon 



Control of exotics on exemplary sites. 
2 



Includes: Acer sacchanun- Quercus muehlenbergii Forest Alliance - Acer sacchar\am- Quercus 
muehlenbergii / Clematis occidentalis Forest [CEGL006162]; Acer saccharum- Quercus muehlenbergii 
Forest Alliance — Acer saccharum- Quercus muehlenbergii Forest [Provisional] (CEGL005010]; Acer 
saccharum - Fraxinus americana - Tilia americana Forest Alliance — Acer saccharum - Fraxinus 
americana - Juglans cinerea / Staphylea trifolia Forest [CEGL006020]. 

SNE CALCAREOUS TALUS FORESTAVOODLAND. 

Not described. 

Related to: Transitional /Appalachian Circumneutral Talus Woodland Community. 

Included in: Northern Hardwoods talus woodland, and Transition Hardwoods Talus Woodland. 

Includes: Calcareous talus slope woodland. 

Included in: Acer sacchartim - Quercus muehlenbergii Community. 

Not described. 

Included in: Dry calcareous oak/conifer forest 

Swain Date: 7/1/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-51 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



MARITIME OAK - HOLLY FOREST / WOODLAND 

CT1A2A1000 

SI 

Yes 




Concept: 
Environmental Setting: 

Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Mixed deciduous/evergreen forest/woodland within the coastal salt spray zone. The trees tend to be 
short, less than 10 m [about 30 feet]. 

Maritime forests occur along the coast within the area of direct influence of the ocean and salt spray, but 
not in areas flooded by salt water. They occur on exposed bluffs, backs of dunes, interdunal areas, salt 
marsh borders, and rocky headlands. Tree tops are sculpted by winds and salt spray. They are best 
developed where somewhat protected from direct spray by crests of dunes. 

Trees are usually short relative to interior forests. Scarlet oak (Querctis coccinea), black oak {Q. 
velutina), other oaks, American holly (Ilex opaca\ sassafi-as (Sassafras albidum), black gum (Nyssa 
sytvaticaX black cherry (Prunus serotina\ and red maple (Acer rubrum) are commonly present. Pitch 
pine (Pinus rigida) and red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) occur in variable amounts. Vines may be dense 
especially on the edges of openings; dominants include GreentHier (Smilax rotundifolia) and poison ivy 
(Toxicodendron radicans), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolid) and/or grape (Fin.s 
aestivalis). Shrubs include bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica), winged simiac (Rhus copallinum) and sweet 
pepper-bush (Clethra alnifolia). The herbaceous layer is highly variable, and may include grasses and 
sedges. Microtopography and local conditions strongly influence the ^)ecies assemblage. Low (but not 
as wet as swales) interdunal areas oflen include species of wetlands such as azaleas (Rhododendron 
spp.), viburnums (Viburnum spp.), winterbeny (Ilex verticillata), and high bush blueberry (Vaccinium 
corymbosum). The herbaceous layer of these wetter areas sometimes includes species usually associated 
with rich, moist sites, such as columbine (Aquilegia canadensis), starry Solomon's seal (Kiaianthemum 
stellatum\ and skmik meadow-rue (Thalictrum revolutum). 



There are no animal species known to be restricted to maritime forests. Animal species are those of 
typicfd coastal oak areas such as the birds Rufous-sided Towhees (Pipilo erythrophthalamus). Gray 
Catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis). Common Yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas\ Ovenbird (Seiurus 
aurocapillus) and Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia). Small mammals such as meadow voles 
(Microtus pennsylvanicus\ white footed mice (Peromyscus leucopusXand gray squirrels (Seiurus 
carolinensis) are common in Massachusetts' forests. Moths, butterflies, and other insects of the 
southeastern oak aiKi oak-pine forest occur in maritime forests. Generally, in more salt influenced 
environments, fewer animals will be expected. As in all communities on peninsulas such as Cape Cod, 
or on islands, the more remote occurrences have fewer species than those closer to the mainland sources. 



T-52 



Classification of Massachusetts* Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Plants: 

TILIA NEGLECTA 

Associated Rare Animals: 

LITHOPHANE VIRIDIPALLENS 



COASTAL BASSWOOD 



PALE GREEN PINION MOTH 



WL 



SC 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 
NH: 

VT: 
NY: 

CT: 
Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author 



Sandy Neck, Barnstable; Horseneck Beach SP, Dartmouth. 

Exotics, such as Morrow's honeysuckle {Lonicera morrcrwii\ dune stabilization, and roads through the 
dunes. 

Exotic control on the best examples. 

2 



Includes: Quercus alba - Quercus (falcata, stellata) Forest Alliance — Quercus stellata - Q. velutina / 
Myrica pensylvanica / Deschampsia flexuosa Forest [CEGL006373]; Fagus grandifolia - Quercus alba 
Forest Alliance - Fagus grandifolia / Smilax rotundifolia Forest [CEGL006043]; Part of: Quercus alba 
(Quercus velutina) Woodland Alliance — Quercus velutina - Quercus alba / Schizachyrium scoparium 
Woodland [CEGL006351] AND part of Prunus serotina - Amelanchier canadoisis - Quercus ^p. 
Shrubland Alliance — Pnmus serotina - Sassafras albidum - Amelanchier canadensis / Smilax 
rotundifolia Shrubland [CEGL006145]; and PART OF Pinus rigida / Carex pensylvanica Woodland 
[CEGL006385], an anthropogenically derived association. 

Maritime Forest, Dune Subtype, Deciduous Forest; SNE Maritime Forest on Dunes/Maritime Juniper 
Forest and SNE Maritime Forest on Uplands/Maritime Oak Forest (in part - also Coastal forest). 

Part of Sand dune community. 

1 998 - Maritime Dune Forest/Woodland, Prunus serotina-Pinus rigida/Amelanchier/Parthenocissus- 
Toxicodendron ForestAVoodland. 

Not applicable. 

Includes: In Part Maritime Oak-Holly Forest, Maritime Oak Forest, and Maritime red cedar forest; 
includes parts of Successional Maritime forest and Pitch pine- oak heath. 

Pinus rigida - Quercus stellata Woodland. And Quercus coccinea- Sassafras albidum. 

Within the Pitch Pine - Oak Forest and Oak - Pine Forest And part of Maritime Shrubland. 

Not applicable. 

P. Swain Date: 1/26/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-53 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



COASTAL FORESTAVOODLAND 

CT1A2A2000 

S3 

Yes 




Concept: Coastal forests are oflen shorter than forests further inland, but taller tlian maritime forests. There is 

often a dense shrub layer and vines, particularly near the edges. 

Environmental Setting: Communities are found in more protected areas along the coast, sach as behind dunes and on slopes 

away from the water, and behind maritime forests. Coastal forests are sheltered from direct daily 
maritime influences [not in tl^ daily salt spray zone, but receive wind and salt during storms]. The 
community occurs within the climate area moderated by being near the ocean, with warmer winters and 
cooler summers than more inland areas. Although they oflen occur on sand or bedrock that doesnt hold 
water, fogs and increased precipitation can produce more available water than further inland. 
Historically, fire was often an important factor in coastal forests. Coastal and maritime forests and 
m£uitime shrublands grade into each other, and into dunes and more inland forests. 

Vegetation Description: Tree oaks (scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea\ black oak (Q. velutina), wiiite oak (Q. alba) and chestnut oak 

(Q. prinus)) are the dominant species of the coastal forest, with post oak (Q. stellata) important in the 
Buzzard's Bay and Island areas. Red maple {Acer rubrum\ sassafias (Sassafras albidum), black cherry 
(Prunus serotina), tupelo (Nyssa jy/va/jcaXbeech (Fagus grandifoUaX pitch pine (Pinus rigidaX and 
white pine (Pinus strobus) commonly occur, usually in low percentages, but occasionally abundant 
American Holly (Ilex opaca) is a regular associate in the southeastem Massachusetts occurrences of the 
coastal oak forest (where holly is abundant, the association may be called a coastal oak / holly forest). 
Red cedar (Juniperus virginiand) occurs in low percentages in the forests, and sometimes as a dominant 
in woodland thickets. A low-shrub heath layer dominated by low bush blueberries (Vaccinium pallidum, 
V. angustifolium) and black huckleberry (Gaylussacia haccata) is very characteristic. The herbaceous 
layer is typically sparse, with Pennsylvania sedge (Carex pensylvanica\ bracken fern (Pteridium 
aquilinum\ wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens) aivd wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis) being 
typical. Sweet pepper-bush (Clethra alnifolia), surprisingly, is abundant in many sites. Openings in the 
canopy produce a greater diversity of the herbaceous layer, where little blue-stem grass (Schizachyrium 
scoparius), Canadian rockrose (Helianthemum canadense\ bush clovers (Lespedeza spp.), milkworts 
(Lechea ^p.) and bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) occur. Most occurrences of coastal forests have 
many vines on the edges and in openings of the forest Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), Virginia 
creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia\ grape (Vitis spp.X and greenbriers (Smilax ^p.) can be locally 
abundant. 



Associations: 



Part of Oak - Pine forests. Includes White pine - oak - holly and white pine - oak - beech forests Part of 
a continuum of dry, acidic communities that contain a variety of tree oak and pine ^lecies. More work is 
needed to defme types. 



T-54 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



No animal species are restricted to coastal forests. Animal species are those of typical coastal 
oak areas such as the birds Rufous-sided Towhees iPipilo erythrophthalamus\ Gray Catbirds 
{Dumetella carolinensis\ Common Yellowthroats (Geothfypis trichas\ Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus) 
and Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia). Small mammals such as meadow voles (Microtus 
pennsytvanicusX and white footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus\ are common with gray squirrels 
{Seiurus carolinensis) common in mainland forests. Moths, butterflies, and other insects of the 
southeastern oak and oak-pine forest occur in the coastal forests. As in all communities on peninsulas 
such as Cape Cod, or on islands, the more remote occurrences have fewer species than those closer to 
the mainland sources. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

TTPULARIA DISCOLOR 



CRANEFLY ORCHID 



Associated Rare Animals: 



TERRAPENE CAROLINA 

Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 



Inventory Comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 
NH: 

VT: 
NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author 



EASTERN BOX TURTLE 



SC 



Woods east side of Olde Barnstable Fairgrounds Golf Course, Barnstable; Provincetown Beech forest, 
Provincetown. Numerous sites on Martha's Vineyard. 



Inventory Need Rank: 2 



Quercus velutina - Q. alba Forest Alliance — Quercus coccinea- Q. velutina/ Sassafras albidum/ 
Vacciniiun pallidum Forest [CEGL006375]; Fagus grandifolia- Quercus alba Forest Alliance — Quercus 
velutina- Fagus grandifolia- Sassafras albidum/ Hex opaca Forest [CEGL006378]; Includes: Fagus 
grandifolia- Quercus alba Forest Alliance — Fagus grandifolia- Quercus alba- Liriodendron tulipifera- 
Carya spp. Forest [CEGL006075]; and Fagtis grandifolia- Quercus alba- Q. rubra- Liriodendron 
tuhpifera- Forest [CEGL006377]; and Fagus grandifolia/ Smilax rotundifolia Forest [CEGL006043]; 
and Quercus alba- (Quercus falcata, stellata) Forest Alhance - Quercus (falcata, alba, velutina)/ 
Gaylussacia baccata- Vaccinium palUdum Forest [CEGL006373]; Part of: Pinus rigida - Quercus 
(coccinea, velutina) Woodland Alliance — Pinus rigida - Quercus velutina / Hudsonia tomentosa 
Woodland [CEGL006120]; Pinus (rigida, echinata) - Quercus coccinea Forest Alhance Pinus rigida - 
Quercus coccinea / Vaccinium palhdum - (Myrica pensylvanica) Forest [CEGL006381 ]; Pinus strobus - 
Quercus (alba, ruta^ velutina) Forest Alliance — Pinus strobus - Quercus alba - Bex glabra Forest 
[CEGL006382]. 

MARITIME FOREST; and parts of SNE Dry Oak/Pine Forest on Sandy / graveUy soils. [CT2E1A0000]; 
and parts of CNE Mesic hardwood Forest on acidic bedrock / till [CT2G2B20O0]. 

parts of Oak- pine Woodlands Community and Oak - Pine Forest Community. 

part of Dry Rich Appalachian oak- hickory- forest, Appalachian oak/ heath variant; in part: Beech 
Forest; in part Pitch piive- App)alachian oak- /heath forest 

not apphcable 

Includes Maritime oak holly forest and related to Maritime oak forest, and includes parts of Successional 
Maritime forest; Included in part of Pitch pine-oak forest AND Pitch pine- oak heath Woodlands and 
Coastal oak- white pine forest 

includes: Pinus rigida - (Quercus stellata Woodland; Quercus velutina- (Q. prinus) forests — Q. velutina/ 
Gaylussacia baccata community And Q. velutina/ Vaccinium pallidum community; Pinus rigida - 
Quercus coccinea Woodlands, in part 

part of Oak - pine forest and Pitch pine - Oak Forest 

not ai^hcable 

P. Swain Date: 8/5/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T.55 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



PITCH PINE - OAK FOREST 

CT1A200000 

ss 

No 



Concept: 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 




Dry oak / pine forest and woodlands of moraines, till, outwash, southerly exposures, and rocky slopes. 
Matrix forest of southeastern Massachusetts. The proportions of different species are variable, and range 
from predominantly pine with scattered oaks to predominantly oak with scattered pmes. The structure 
ranges from open canopy with a thick understory, to closed canopy with scattered clumps of shrubs. 

Dry, low nutrient, acidic soils of moraines and rocky slopes, also less distiirbed sandplains, inland away 
from regular oceanic influences. Pitch pine - oak forests surround coastal plain ponds, pitch pine / scrub 
oak communities, and grade into coastal forests towards the ocean. The commimity is fire dependent, 
supporting increased white pine (Pinus strobus) and red maple (Acer rubrum) as time since the last fne 
increases. The time since fire or other disturbance is likely to be a factor in the jx"oportion of pitch pine 
to oak. 

Pitch pine - oak forests have a canopy of pitch pine and tree oaks (black (Quercus velutina\ scarlet (Q. 
coccinea\ chestnut oak (Q. prinus), and white (Q. alba)\ with blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium 
and V. pallidum\ black huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata) and other ericaceous shrubs forming an often 
continuous low shrub layer. Scattered patches of Scrub oak {Quercus ilicifolia) and bear oak {Q. 
prinoides) can be dense. Catbriar and other briars (Srmlax rotundifolia and Smilax ^p.) often make 
dense barriere around low, damp openings. The herb layer is generally sparse, with bracken fern 
{Pteridium aquilinum), wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis\ wintergreen {Gaultheria procumbens), 
Pennsylvania sedge {Carex pensylvanica\ and, less commonly, pink lady's slipper (Cypripedium 
acaule). Oxasional white pine (Pinus strobus) and red maple (Acer rubrum) contribute to the canopy. 

Part of a continuum of dry, acidic commimities that contain a variety of tree oak and pine species. More 
work is needed to defme types. 

Supports many common and listed moths dependent on the oak and pine. The bird fauna is similar to 
that of oak woodlands: Rufous-sided Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus\ Pine Warbler (Dendroica 
pinus), and ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) are common. Most common mammals of Massachusetts 
have at least part of their habitat in pitch - pine oak forests and none are particularly characteristic, 
[proposed for listing 2000, Orange Sallow Moth (Rhodoecia aurantiago) T\ 



Associated Rare Plants: 

NONE KNOWN 



T-56 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Commimities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Animals: 

ANISOTA STIGMA 

EACLES IMPERIALIS 

TERRAPENE CAROLINA 

Examples with 
Public Access: 



Threats: 

Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 
NH: 

VT: 
NY: 
CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author 



SPINY OAKWORM 
IMPERIAL MOTH 
EASTERN BOX TURTLE 



SC 

T 
SC 



Myles Standish State Forest, Carver/Plymouth; Hyannis ponds WMA, Barnstable; Francis Crane 
WMA, Falmouth; Montague Plains WMA, Montague. 

Many acres have been lost resulting in fragmentation of occurrences. Fire exclusion is changing the 
character of the community, allowing less Ore tolerant species to establish and sometimes results in 
more severe fires when they do occur. 

Reintroduction of fire with prescribed fire in manageable conservation areas. 

3 



Pinus rigida - Quercus (coccinea, velutina) Woodland Alliance — Pinus rigida - Quercus (coccinea, 
velutina) /Schizachyrium scoparium Woodland [CEGL006166] and Pinus rigida - Quercus velutina / 
Hudsonia tomentosa Woodland [CEGL006120]; Pinus rigida - Quercus (velutina, prinus) Forest 
Alliance - Pinus rigida - Quercus (velutina, priniis) Lower New England, Northern Piedmont Forest 
[CEGL006290]; Pinus rigida - Quercus (alba, stellata) Woodland AlUance — no community described 
for New England. 

part of SNE DRY OAK/PINE FOREST ON SANDY/GRAVELLY SOILS and part of SNE DRY 
OAK/PINE FORESTS ON ACIDIC BEDROCK OR TILL [CT2G2A1000] 

Includes parts of Pitch pine Woodlands AND Oak- pine forest Community 

1998 - Pitch pine- Appalachian oak/heath forest — Pinus rigida - Quercus (rubra, velutina, alba, 
coccinea) / heath. 1 994 - Dry Pitch Pine-Appalachian Oak Forest 

included in: Pine-oak-heath sandplain forest 

Pitch pine - oak Forest 

Pinus rigida- Quercus coccinea Woodlands; also Quercus velutina - Pinus rigida forests; Pinus rigida - 
Quercus stellata Woodlands 

Pitch Pine - Oak forest 

part of Dry Acidic Oak / Conifer Forest Community 

P. Swain Date: 1/17/(X) 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-57 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



WHITE PINE - OAK FOREST 

CTIAIOOOOO 

ss 

No 




Concept: 
Environmental Setting: 



A forest of mixed dominance with oaks and vviiite pine in the canopy. 

On moraine or till, often dry but not very dry. Grades into I*ine - Northern Hardwood to the north. In 
southern areas occurs near pitch pine • oak forests, and grades into them. Often in a successional 
sequence from successional white pine forests. Also grades into mixed oak forests. In southeastern areas 
overlaps with Coastal Forest types: White pine - oak - holly and white pine - oak - beech forests. 

Vegetation Description: White pine (Pinus strobus) and oak species (Quercus rubra, Q. velutina. Q. alba, Q. coccinea, and Q. 

prinus) dominate the canopy layer in a variety of proportions. Pitch pine {Pinus rigida\ red maple {Acer 
rubrumX white birch {Betula papyri/era) and black birch {B. lenta\ occur regularly but in low numbers. 
Southern areas also have pignut hickory {Carya glabra) and Sassafras {Sassafras albidum). Chestnut 
{Castanea dentata) is frequently present as a shrubby tree. Usually has a prominent heath shrub layer, 
with lowbush blueberries {Vaccinium angustifolium and V. pallidum\ huckleberry {Gaylussacia 
baccata), mountain laurel {Kalmia latifolia), sheep laurel {K. angustifolia). Other shrubs include maple- 
leaved viburnum {Viburnum acerifolium). Characteristic species of the sparse herb layer include bracken 
fern {Pteridium aquilinum\ wild sarsaparilla {Aralia nudicaulis), Canada mayflower {Maianthemum 
canadense\ wintergreen {Gaultheria procumbensX partridge-berry {Mitchella repens\ pink lady's 
slipper {Cypripedium acaule), cow-wheat {Kielampyrum lineare), and whorled loosestrife {Lysimachia 
quadrifolia). 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Part of a continuum of dry, acidic communities that contain a variety of tree oak and pine species. More 
work is needed to define types. 

There are no species known to be restricted to the White Pine -Oak forest types, most animals in the 
forest are widespread generalists. Small mammals include white footed mice {Peromyscus leucopus), 
gray squirrels {Sciurus carolinensis) short-tailed shrew {Blarina brevicauda\ red-backed vole 
{Clethrionomys gapperi\ and chipmunks {Tamias striatus). Birds that nest in white pine -oak forests 
include Eastern Wood-Pewee {Contopus virens\ Red-eyed Vireo {Vireo olivaceus\ Brown Creeper 
{Certhia americana). Hermit Thrush {Catharus guttatus\ and Red-tailed Hawks {Buteo lineatus). If a 
community occurrence contains vernal pools, newts and Spotted Salamanders {Ambystoma maculatum) 
will live in the humus of the forest floor for most of their adult lives. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

NONE KNOWN 



T-58 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Commimities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 

Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 

Inventory Comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 
NH: 
VT: 

NY: 
CT: 
Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author: 



Myles Standish State Forest, Plymouth, Carver, Freetown State Forest, Freetown, Quabbin 
Reservation, Belchertown. Wachusett Meadow WS (MAS), Princeton. 



TNC NAC Matrix forest 



Pinus strobus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) - Fagus grandifolia Forest [CEGL006293] AND Quercus rubra 
- Q. prinus - Pinus strobus / Penstemon hirsutus Woodland [CEGL006074]. 

Part of: SNE DRY OAK/PINE FORESTS ON ACIDIC BEDROCK OR TILL [CT2G2A1000]; and part 
of: SNE DRY CENTRAL HARDWOOD FOREST ON ACIDIC BEDROCK OR TELL; and Part of: 
SNE MESIC OAK/PINE FOREST ON SANDY/GRAVELLY SOIL [CT2E2A00001. 

Included in: Oak - Pine forest community. 

Includes: Dry red oak - white pine / heath / bracken fem community. 

Part of: Pine - Oak - Heath Saixiplain forest ANDA northern variant is included in: Mesic pine-oak 
forest 

Included in: Appalachian oak - pine forest 

Not described. 

Part of: Oak - pine forest 

Dry Acidic Oak / conifer Forest conununity. 

P. Swain Date: 8/31/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-59 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



OAK - HEMLOCK - WHITE PINE FOREST 

CTIBIOOOOO 

ss 

No 




Concept: 



Environmental Setting: 



A mixed conifer - hardwood forest normally occumng in the southern part of the state, often on dry, 
acidic slopes. 

Common on midslopes on rocky, shallow well-drained soils, with few nutrients. The dry oak -hemlock - 
white pine community is not sensitive to aspect. The community grades into northern hardwood - 
hemlock- white pine forests to the north and on moister sites, which typically have more hemlock. To 
the south and on drier sites, wiiite pine - oak forest and mixed oak forest become more common. 



Vegetation Description: Oaks (Quercus alba, Q. prinus, Q. rubm), black birch (Betula lenta\ black cherry (Prunus serotina\ 

and red m^le {Acer rubrum) in association with hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and white pine (Pinus 
strobus). Relative proportions of the ^lecies vary greatly among sites. Beech (Fagtis grandifolia) is a 
common associate, and chestnut (Castanea dentata) sprouts are common. The shrub layer is patchy and 
sparse, with witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana\ mountain laurel {Kalmia latifolia\ lowbush blueberry 
{Vaccinium angustifolium\ and maple-leaved viburnum (Viburnum acerifolium) characteristically 
present. The herbaceous layer also tends to be sparse and with little diversity: Indian cucumber 
{Medeola virgimana\ wintergreen {Gaultheria procumbens\ wild sarsaparilla {Aralia nudicaulis\ wild 
oats (Uvularia sessilifolia\ star flower (Trientalis borealis), and Canada Mayflower (Maianthemum 
canadense) are typical. 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



May be on the moister end of the continuum of dry, acidic commxmities that contain a variety of tree oak 
and pine species. More work is needed to define types. 

The fauna of this community is richer than but overlaps with that of the mixed oak commimities. There 
is a large suite of neotropical migrant birds that are more likely to be foimd here, in some of the larger 
sites, including about 15-16 warblers. Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens\ and Great Crested 
Flycatcher (Miarchus crinitus). Where mountain laurel occurs with beech trees. Black-throated Blue 
Warblers (Dendroica caerulescens) may occur, and if there are low spots with large trees aiKl fairly 
dense shrubs, Canada Warblers (Wilsonia canadensis) often occur. In large sites, large mammals, such 
as bear and moose, occur with the forest as part of their habitat Common small mammals include 
smoky shrew (Sorexfumeus), masked shrew (5. cinereus), short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda\ 
woodland jumping mouse (Napaeozapus insignis\ white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), and 
gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis\ chipmunks (Tamias striatusX arvi red squirrels (Tamiasciurus 
hudsonicus), where hemlock are dominant. Amphibians would mclude the ubiquitous Northern Redback 
Salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and red efts, the juvenile stage of red-^x)tted newts (Notophthalmus 
V. viridescens). 



T-60 



Classiflcation of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Plants: 

NONE KNOWN 

Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 

Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 

Inventory Comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Ri: 

Weatherbee: 

Author 



Hiram Fox WMA, Worthington; East Brimfield Lake Property, ACOE, Brimfield; Conant 
Brook Dam Property, ACOE, Monson. 



Pinus strobus -Tsuga canadensis Forest Alliance — Pinus strobus - Tsuga canadensis Lower New 
England, Northern Piedmont Forest [CEGL006320]; Includes: Tsuga canadensis - BetiJa alleghaniensis 
Forest Alliance — Tsuga canadensis - Fagus grandifolia Forest [CEGL006088]. 

CNE MESIC TRANSITIONAL FOREST ON SANDY/GRAVELLY SOILS. 

Related to: Hemlock slope forest community. 

Acidic, hemlock- beech- oak- pine forest 

Not described. 

Included in: Appalachian oak-pine forest 

Included in: Tsuga canadensis forests. 

Related to: Hemlock - Hardwood Forest 

Part of: Mesic Acidic Oak / Conifer Forest Community. 

P. Swain Date: 8/31/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-61 



Commun'tty Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



SUCCESSIONAL WHITE PINE FOREST 

CTIAIAOOOO 

S5 

No 




Concept: 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Old field white pine, several decades since establishment Other species co-occur with the white pine, 
but seldom share dominance. The forest floor is often carpeted with needles, with only a thin herbaceous 
layer. 

Abandoned agricultural land, usually pasture. Sometimes selective logging maintains the pine as a 
dominant 

White pine (Pinus strobus) dominated forest, with scattered white oak (Quercus alba), red oak {Quercus 
rubra\ and red maple {Acer rubrum) in the canopy. The shrub layer is variable density, from sparse to 
thick: Elderberry (Sambuais canadensis), black cherry (Prunus serotina\ maple-leaved vibumimi 
{Viburnum acerifolium), and often non-native species such as buckthorn {Rhamnus frangula\ 
honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowii), or/and multiflora rose (Rosa multijlora). A variety of blackberry 
vines (often forming thicketsX and poison ivy {Toxicodendron radicans) often covers the ground near 
openings or in formerly open disturbed areas. Low bush blueberries {Vaccinium angustifolium and V. 
pallidum) form patches, mixed with black huckleberry {Gaylussacia baccata), on sites with less 
disturbed soils. The herbaceous layer is variable; large patches of Canada mayflower ( Kiaianthemum 
canadensis\ and starflower {Trientalis borealis) with clubmosses {Lycopodium obscurum and related 
species) are particularly common on formerly plowed soil. Bracken fern {Pteridium aquilinum) is often 
common. Partidgeberry (Mitchella repens), fringed polygala {Polygala unijlord), and pink lady slipper 
{Cypripedium acaule) grow in many longer est^lished sites. 



Blackbumian warblers {Dendroicafusca) are probably the bird species most closely associated with 
dense white pine forests. Other birds of the commimity include Ovenbird {Seiurus aurocapillus). Yellow 
Warbler (D. domimca\ Coopei^s Hawk {Accipiter cooperii), and Northern Goshawk {Accipiter gentilis); 
as well as generalists such as the Black-capped Chickadee {Poecile atricapillus\ Ovenbird {Seiurus 
aurocapillus), and Red-breasted Nuthatch {Sitta canadensis). 



Associated Rare Plants: 

LYGODIUM PALMATUM 

Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



CLIMBING FERN 



SC 



T-62 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 

Inventory Comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVCn"NC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 



VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author 



Townsend State Forest, Townsend; Douglas State Forest, Douglas; Oxbow NWR7 Harvard. 

Non-native qjecies such as buckthorn {Rhamnus Jrangula\ Morrow's honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowiiX 
and privet (Ligustrum obtusifolium). 

Remove exotics from good examples. 

3 



Pinus strobus — Pinus strobus/ Vaccinium spp. Forest [CEGL002444]. 

In part: SNE Dry oak/pine forest on sandy / gravelly soils. 

Part of: E^u•ly successioneil forest community. Within: Pine - Hemlock / Spruce Forest Community AND 
within: Oak - Pine Forest Community. 

1 997 - Similar to Pine part of Dry red oak - white pine / heath / bracken fem forest AND partially 
Included in Hemlock-beech-oak-pine forest — Tsuga-Fagus-Quercus rubra- Pinus strobus / Hamamelis / 
Gaultheria - Medeola - typic henilock - beech - oak - pine variant; 1 994 - Included in: Transition 
Hardwood - Conifer formation, part of Dry transitional oak - White Pine Forest 

Included in: Mesic pine-oak forest AND included in: Pine - Oak - Heath Sandplain Forest 

Included in: Appalachian Oak - pine forest 

Not described. 

within: Oak - Pine Forest 



Within: Dry Acidic oak/conifer Forest Community. 
Swain Date: 



8/19/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-63 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



Concept: 

Environmental Setting: 
Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



MIXED OAK FOREST 

CT1A300000 

ss 

No 




A broadly defined community of tree oaks that grades into other more narrowly defmed communities. 
Includes areas with open canopies that could be considered woodlands. 

The community often occurs in areas that bum regularly. Tends to be on dry soils, and exposed slopes. 

A variable mix of oak species dominate the canopy: black oak (Quercus velutina\ scarlet oak {Q. 
coccmea\ red oak {Q. rubra), chestnut oak {Q. prinus\ and white {Q. alba). The canopy is somewhat 
open. An understory of saplings of canopy species, as well as gray birch {Betula populifolia), aspen 
(Populus tremuloides), big-toothed asjjen (Populus grandidentata\ black birch {Betula lento), red maple 
{Acer rubrum\ and chestnut {Castanea dentata) is dense in patches. Blueberries {Vaccinium 
angustifolium and V. pallidum), huckleberry {Gaylussacia baccata), sweet fern {Comptonia peregrina\ 
scrub oak {Quercus ilicifolia\ and mountain laurel {Kalmia lati/olia) is also dense in patches. A 
scattered herbaceous layer includes Pennsylvania sedge {Carex pensylvanica\ wild sarsaparilla {Aralia 
nudicaulis\ poverty grass {Danthonia spicata), pinweed {Lechea mtermedia\ and pale corydalis 
{Corydalis sempervirens). 

Part of a continuum of dry, acidic communities that contain a vari^ of tree oak and pine species. More 
work is needed to defme types. 

Acorns are important for wildlife including white-tailed deer {Odocoileus virginianus), black bear 
{Ursus americanus), grey squirrels {Sdurus carolinensis), and other small rodents. Birds include Wild 
Turkeys {Kieleagris gallopavo). The understory of blueberries and huckleberries is used by many of 
these same species in areas with sufficiently large forests to provide all the habitat needs. Passerine birds 
of oak forests include Red-eyed Vireo {Vireo olivaceus), Ovenbird {Seiurus aurocapillus\ Black-and- 
white Warbler {Mniotilta varia\ Scarlet Tanager {Piranga olivacea\ Great Crested Flycatcher 
{Miarchus crinitus). Downy Woodpecker {Picoides pubescens\ Hairy Woodpecker {P. villosxis) and 
Red-bellied Woodpecker {MeUmerpes carolinus). Amphibians expected include Northern Redback 
Salamanders {Plethodon cinereus), and Spotted Salamanders {Amby stoma maculatum). Ringneck Snake 
{Diadophis punctatus) and Redbelly Snake {Storeria occipitomaculata) would be expected. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

NONE KNOWN 

Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



T-64 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 

Inventory Comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVCn"NC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 
NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author 



Mt Tekoa WMA, Russell; Minute Man National ICstoric Paik, Lexington; 
Douglas SF, Douglas. 



Quercus prinus - {Quercus coccinea, Quercus velutina) Forest Alliance — Quercus (prinus, velutina) I 
Gaylussacia baccata Forest [CEGL006282] 

SNE MESIC OAK/PINE FOREST ON ACIDIC BEDROCK OR TILL and CNE DRY HARDWOOD 
FOREST ON ACIDIC BEDROCK OR TILL [CT2G2A2000] 

Part of Oak - pine Forest Community and related to Oak - Hickory Forest community. 

1997: Dry Appalachian oak-hickory forest, including Appalachian oak/heath variant 1994: Dry 
Appalachian Oak - Hickory Forest, sub type Appalachian Oak - Heath forest 

Pine-oak-heath sandplain forest 

related to: Oak-tulip tree forest, Appalachian oak-pine forest 

?Quercus velutina - {Quercus prinus) Forests 

Part of Oak - Pine Forest and Oak - Hickory forest 

Included in: Dry acidic oak/conifer forest community. 

Swain Date: 8/31/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-65 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



RIDGETOP CHESTNUT OAK 

CT1A3A0O0O 

S4 

No 




i^'^ 



Concept: 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Open forest of dry ridgetops, dominated by chestnut oak with an often dense imderstory of scrub oak, 
heaths or mountain laurel. 

Dry upland sites with tliin soil over acidic bedrock on ridges and upper south or southwest facing slopes. 
There tends to be deep oak leaf litter with slow decomposition. 

The canopy is dominated, often completely, by chestnut oak {Querctts prirnis). Associates include other 
oaks (black (Q. velutina), red (Q. rubra), scarlet (Q. coccinea\ and^or white (Q. alba)), hickories 
(shagbark (Carya ovata) and pignut (C. glabra)\ red maple {Acer rubrum\ hemlock (Tsuga 
canadensis), and white and pitch pines (Pinus strobus and P. rigida). Red cedar (Juniperus virginiana\ 
scrub oak {Q. ilicifolia\ dwarf chinquapin oak (Q. prinoides), blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium and 
V. pallidum), huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccataX and mountain laurel (Kalntia latifolia) often form 
dense thickets. The herl)aceous layer is usually sparee, but includes false foxgloves (Aureolariajlava, A 
pedicularia, and A. virginica\ sedges (particularly Carex pensylvanica\ bracken fern (Pteridium 
aquilinum\ and wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens). 

Although fairly distinctive because of the ridgetop position, this is part of a continuum of dry, acidic 
communities that contain a variety of tree oak and pine species. More work is needed to defme types. 

Chestnut oak acorns are particularly sought after by wildlife and are important food for white-tailed 
deer (Odocoileus virginianus\ black bear (Urstu americanus\ grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), 
other small rodents, and Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and other birds. The understory of 
blueberries and huckleberries is used by many of these same species in areas with sufficiently large 
forests to provide all the habitat needs. Passerine birds of oak forests include Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo 
olivaceus). White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis), Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus\ Black-and- 
white Warbler (Mniotilta varia\ Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea\ Great Crested Flycatcher 
(Miarchus crinitus\ and Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens). 



Associated Rare Plants: 
NONE KNOWN 

Associated Rare Animals: 
ELAPHE OBSOLETA 



BLACK RAT SNAKE 



Examples with 
Public Access: 



Rocky Mountain Park, Greenfield; Blue Hills Reservation, Milton. 
Mt Toby, Leverett. 



T-66 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Threats: 

Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 
NY: 
CT: 
Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author I 



Related to oak / pine forests and other hdgetop communities. 

Quercus prinus - Quercus coccinea, Quercus velutina Forest Alliance — Quercus prinus - Quercus 
(rubra, velutina) / Gaylussacia baccata forest [CEGL006282]. 

PART OF: SNE DRY OAK/PINE FORESTS ON ACIDIC BEDROCK OR TILL 

Included in: Oak - pine Woodland Community 

Included in: Appalachian oak- pine Rocky ridge Woodland Aarren; and part of Semi-rich Appalachian 
oak- sugar maple forest 

Included in: Dry oak Woodland 

Chestnut oak forest 

Part of: Quercus velutina - (Q. prinus) forests — Quercus velutina / Gaylussacia baccata commimity 

Chestnut Oak forest 

Not described 

Sw^ Date: S/23/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-67 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



Concept: 
Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



BLACK OAK - SCARLET OAK FOREST / WOODLAND 

CT1A3B0000 

S3S4 

No 




A fairly open oak / heath coininunity maintained by regular light fire. 

A coiTununity of dry, sandy or rocky slopes, but also on otlier xeric sites. Grades into mixed oak and 
pine-oak forests, and more open communities. Except on the driest sites, v^ithout regular fire the 
community tends to change to include more white oak, chestnut oak, red oak, aiid hickories. Witliout 
fire, tliere tends to be deep oak leaf litter with slow decomposition. 

Black oak (Quercus velutina) is tlie dominant canopy species. White oak {Q. alba) and red maple {Acer 
ruhrum) are common associates. A sparse subcanopy may have species of recent disturbance such as 
grey birch {Betula poptdifolia), black cherry {Pruiius serotina), and sassafras (Sassafras albiduni), as 
well as species less tolerant of fire such as flowering dogwood {Conius flohda) or shadbush 
(Amelanchier arborea). Lowbush blueberries, {Vaccinium angustifolium and V. pallidum), huckleberry 
{Gaylussacia baccata), and scrub oak {Quercus ilicifolia) fonn a fairly dense, but clumped low slirub 
layer, with scattered maple-leaved viburnum {Viburnum acerifolium) and American hazehiut {Corylus 
americaiia). Sedges {such as Carcx pensylvanica), bracken fern {Pleridium aquilinum), and pink lady's 
slipper {Cypripedium acaule) are often scattered in the open herbaceous layer. On Martha's Vineyard, 
black oak grows with white oak {Q. alba) and post oak {Q. stellata) in open, savanna-like woodlands 
witli dense heath understories, in mosaics with grasslands, healhlands, and scrub oak communities. 

Part of a continuum of dry, acidic communities that contain a variety of tree oak and pine species. More 
work is needed to define typ>es. 

Black oak acorns are important food for white-tailed deer {Odocoileus virginianus), black bear {Ursus 
americanus), grey squirrels {Sciurus caroliuensis), other small rodents, and Wild Turkeys {Afeleagris 
gallopa\'o) and other birds The imderstory of blueberries and huckleberries is used by many of these 
same species in areas with sufficiently large forests to provide all the habitat needs. Passerine birds of 
oak forests include Red-eyed Vireo {Vireo olivaceus). White-breasted Nuthatch {Sina caroliuensis), 
Ovenbird {Seiurus aurocapillus). Black-and-white Warbler {Mniotilta vana). Scarlet Tanager {Piranga 
olivacea). Great Crested Flycatcher {Miarchus crinilus), and Downy Woodpecker {Picoides ptdbescens). 
[Listing proposed 2000, {Rliodoecia aurantiago) Orange Sallow Moth T] 



Associated Rare Plants: 

NONE KNOWN 



T-68 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Coinmunilies 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Animals: 

APODREPANULATRDC LmERARIA 



NEW JERSEY TEA INCHWORM 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 

Inventory Comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH 

VT 

NY; 

CT 

RI: 

Weatherbee: 
Author 



Green Hill Pari:, Worcester, Broad Meadow Brook Wildlife Sanctuary, Worcester, 
Quabog WMA, Brookfield; Manuel F. Correllus State Forest, Martha's Vineyard. 

fire suppression, severe wildfire, and exotics. 

Prescribed fire, exotic removal. 

2 



Quercus velutina - Q. alba Forest Alliance — Quercus coccinea- Q. velutina/ Sassafras albidum/ 
Vaccinium pallidum Forest [CEGL006375]. 

BLACK OAK SAVANNA. 

Not described. 

Part of: 1997 - Dry Rich Appalachian oak- hickory- forest, Appalachian oak/ heath variant 

Part of: Dry oak Woodlands. 

part of Appalachian Oak - pine forest 

Quercus velutina - (Quercus pinus) Forests — Quercus velutina/ Gaylussacia baccata community and 
Quercus velutina / Vaccinium pallidum community. 

Mixed oak - pine forest 

Not described. 

P. Swain Date: 8/23/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-69 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



OAK - HICKORY FOREST 

CT1B2B0O00 

S4 

No 




Concept: A hardwood forest dominated by a mixture of oaiu >vith hickories mixed in at a lower density. 

.Environmental Setting: Well drained sites, such as ui^)er slof)es, ridgetops, usually with west and south -facing aspects. 

Vegetation Description: A broadly defmed, variable, forest type. The canopy is dominated by one or several oaks (Quercus 

rubra, Q. alba, Q. coccinea, and Q. velutina). Mixed in are lower densities of one or several hickories 
(Carya ovata, C. tomentosa, C. glabra, and C. ovalis). Other trees include with ash (Fraxinus 
americana\ black birch (Betula lenta\ sassafras (Sassafras albidunt), and red maple (Acer rubrum). A 
subcanopy commonly includes hop hornbeam (Ostrya americana), flowering dogwood (Comus florida\ 
shadbush (Amelanchier arborea\ chestnut (Castanea dentata), and witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana). 
Low shrubs are common and often diverse: maple-leaved vibumimi (Viburnum acerifolium), blueberries 
(Vaccinium angustifolium and V. pallidum\ beaked and American hazelnut(Cor>'/«j comuta and C 
americana). New Jersey tea (Ceanothus americanus\ and gray dogwood (Comus racemosa) are 
characteristically present The herbaceous layer is also richer than in many oak forests. Plants typical of 
the herbaceous layer include Hepatica (Hepatica nobilis\ goldenrod (Solidago bicolor\ tick-trefoil 
(Desmodium glutinosum and D. paniculatum), wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis\ rattlesnake weed 
(Hieracium venosum\ and false Solomon's seal (Kiaianthemum racemosa\ and Peimsylvania sedge 
(Carex pensylvanica). 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Part of a continuum of dry, acidic communities that contain a variety of tree oak and pine species. More 
work is needed to defme types. Hickory is seldom dominant enough to wan^nt being part of the name. 

Wild turkey (Kfeleagris gallopavo) are foimd in primarily oak areas. Dry oak forests 
support a smaller mix of animal species than are found in moister communities. There are no species 
known to be restricted to the Oak Hickory Forest community. Common species of dry sites include 
short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda\ red-backed vole (Clethrionomys gapperiX white footed mouse 
(Peromyscus leucopus\ and chipmunks (Tamias striatus). Snakes of dry forest sites include garter 
snakes (Thamnophis s. sirtalis) and redbelly snakes (Storeria o. occipitomaculata). Birds that nest in oak 
forests include Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens\ Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus\ Scarlet 
Tanager (Piranga olivacea), and Ovenbiid (Seiurus aurocapillus). 



T-70 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Plants: 
ACER NIGRUM 
CERASTIUM NUTANS 
ISOTRIA MEDEOLOIDES 
LESPEDEZA VIOLACEA 
LYCJODIUM PALMATUM 
RANUNCULUS FASCICULARIS 
SPHENOPHOLIS NTTIDA 

Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



BLACK MAPLE 
NODDING CfflCKWEED 
SMALL WHORLED POGONL\ 
VIOLET BUSH-CLOVER 
CLIMBING FERN 
EARLY BUTTECUP 
SHINING WEDGEGRASS 



SO 

E 

E 

-WL 

sc 

-WL 
T 



Examples with 
Public Access: 



Threats: 

Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 
CT: 
Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author 



Blue Hills Reservation, Milton; Minute Man National Historic Park, Lexington; Stacy Mountain, 
Gill; East Mountain WMA, Holyoke; ML Tekoa WMA, Russell; ML Meadow Preserve, Williamstown; 
Cape Cod Canal, Bourne. 



Widespread type. Not clear how distinct from mixed oak forest, coastal forest, or oak - white pine. 

Quercus alba- (Quercus rubra, Carya spp.) Forest Alliance — Quercus (alba, rubra, velutina)/ Comus 
florida/ Viburnum acerifolium Forest [CEGL006336]. 

SNE MESIC CENTRAL HARDWOOD FOREST ON ACIDIC TILL. 

Similar to: Red oak - white oak forest 

1997 - Oak-hickory Forests; 1994 - Dry Appalachian Oak - Hickory Forest; AND Dr>' Appalachian Oak 
- Hickory Forest, Appalachian Oak / Herb Variant 

Similar to: Mesic Transition Hardwood Forest (Oak-Hickory-Northem Hardwood Forest), and Dry oak- 
hickory-hop-hombeam forest 

Appalachian oak - hickory forest 

Quercus rubra/ Comus florida forests; AND Carya glabra - Fraxinus americana forests 

Oak Hickory forest 

Included in: Dry acidic oak/conifer forest commimity 

P. Swain Date: 8/5/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-71 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



HICKORY - HOP HORNBEAM FOREST / WOODLAND 

CT1B2B1000 

S2 

Yes 




Concept: 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 

Associated Rare Plants: 

OXALB VIOLACEA 
PGA LANGUIDA 
SPHENOPHOLIS NITIDA 

Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 

Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Mixed hardwood, open forests with a sparse shrub layer. A nearly continuous cover of graminoids 
includes a rich diversity of herbaceous flora. 

Occurrences of the community are usually small (a few acres), on thin, well drained soils, generally in 
midslope on southern or eastern exposures below balds and rock outcrops on traprock ridges. The 
community occurs as pockets separated by oak forests growing on deeper, moister soils in erosion 
channels. There is great variation in environmental conditions among sites. 

Hickory - hop hornbeam communities are fairly open forests dominated by a variable mixture of 
hardwoods, including sugar maple (Acer saccharum\ white ash (Fraxinus americana\ and red oak 
{Quercus rubra), Shagbark, pignut and Sweet pignut hickories {Carya ovata, C. glabra, and C. ovalis\ 
and Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) as a regular and abundant subcanopy tree. The forest floor is 
characteristically covered by Pennsylvania sedge {Carex pensyhanicd), other sedges (C. pedunculata 
and C. laxijlorae spp\ and grasses such as bottlebrush grass (Elymus hystrix\ Poverty grass (Danthonia 
spicata) and the non-native Canada bluegrass {Poa compressa) with scattered violets {Viola triloba), 
hepaticfis (Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa), and several species of tick-trefoils (including Desmodium 
glutinosum and D. paniculatum). 

These are small community occurrences, and tend to be part of the habitat of species using the 
surroimding forests. Species of dry sites are most likely to occur in the community occurrences. 



VIOLET WOOD-SORREL 
DROOPING SPEARGRASS 
SHINING WEDGEGRASS 



T 
E 
T 



Joseph Skinner State Park, Hadley, Moxmt Holyoke Range State Park, Amherst; ML Toby, 
Sunderland; Wachusett Meadow WS (hdAS), Princeton. 



T-72 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 
NY: 
CT: 
Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author: I 



Motzkin siirveyed Connecticut Valley sites. 

Carya (glalra, ovata)- Fraxinus americana- Quercus (alba, rubra) Forest Alliance — Carya (glabra, 
ovata)- Ostrya virginiana/ Carex pensylvanica Forest [CEGL006301]. 

SNE DRY RICH FOREST - Hickory - hop hornbeam forest variant 

Not described. 

Related to : Dry Appalachian oak- hickory- forest. Rich Appalachian oak- hickory talus forest 
Woodlands; and Efry red oak-ironwood/sedge variant of Dry acidic oak-(hickory)-pine types. 

Within: Dry oak- hickory-hop-hombeam. 

Within: Appalachian oak-hickory forest 

Similar to: Carya glabra- Fraxinus americana/ Carex pensylvanica Community. 

Within Oak - Hickory Forest 

An association within Dry Calcareous Oak / Conifer Forest Community 

Swain Date: 8/10/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-73 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



DRY, RICH ACIDIC OAK FOREST 

CTIBIBOOOO 

S4 

No 




-^., 



v:^ 



Concept: 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Deciduous, predominantly oak forest with a rich understory of herbaceous plants and graminoids. The 
shrub layer has fewer ericaceous plants than other oak forests. 

Often steep slopes with warm, southwest exposure. Soil is enriched due to overwash and downslope 
movement of nutrients. Best developed on less acidic rocks. 

Mesic to dry oak forest of slightly acid, often rocky soils of intermediate fertility, occurring on well- 
drained loams on mid-slopes and coves. Tree canopy is dominated by a mixture of oaks (Quercus rubra, 
Q. velutina, and Q. alba\ sugar arvd red maple {Acer saccharum and A. rubrum\ wiiite ash (Fraxinus 
americana\ and shagbaik and other hickories {Carya ovata, C. glabra, and C. avalis). Flowering 
dogwood {Comus Jlorida) and hop-hornbeam {Ostrya americana) form an open subcanopy. A fairly 
sparse shrub layer includes saplings of canopy tree species and maple-leaved viburnum {Viburnum 
acerifolium). A rich herbaceous flora includes perfoliate bellwort {Uvularia perfoliataX four-leaved 
milkweed {Asclepias quadrifolia\ early meadow-rue {Thalictrum dioicum), false foxgloves {Aureolaria 
/lava, A. pedicuhria, and A. virginica\ wild coffee {Triosteum aurantiacum\ bush clovers {including 
Lespedeza procumbens), tick-trefoils {Desmodium rotundifolium and others), and sedges such as Carex 
retroflexa. 

On the rich end of the oak forest continuum but part of the problem of dry, acidic commimities that 
contain a variety of tree oak and pine species. More work is needed to defme types. 

Dry oak forests support a smaller mix of animal species than are found in moister 
communities. There are no species known to be restricted to the Dry, Rich Acidic Oak Forest 
community. Common species of dry sites include short-tailed sbrcw {Blarina brevicauda\ red-backed 
vole {Clethrionomys gapperi\ white footed mouse {Peromyscxis leucopus\ and chipmunks {Tamias 
striatus). Snakes of dry forest sites include garter snakes {Thamnophis s. sirtalis) and redbelly snakes 
{Storeria o. occipitomaculata). Birds that nest in dry oak forests include Eastern Wood-Pewee 
{Contopus virensX Red-eyed Vireo {l^reo olivaceus), Scariet Tanager (Piranga olivacea), and Ovenbird 
{Seiurus aurocapillus). 



Associated Rare Plants: 

RANUNCULUS MICRANTHUS 
SPHENOPHOLIS NTTIDA 



TINY-FLOWERED BUTTERCUP 
SHINING WEDGEGRASS 



T 
T 



T-74 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 

Inventory Comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author 



None identified on public lands. 

Exotics, barbeny (Berberis thunbergii) is reported from several sites. 

Removal of exotics in exemplary cases. 

2 



Quercus rubra- Acer saccharum - (Quercus alba) Forest Alliance — Acer saccharum- Quercus rubra \ 
Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa Forest [CEGL006046]; close to Carya (glabra, ovata) - Fraxinus americana 
- Quercus (alba, rubra) Forest Alliance — Carya (glabra, ovata) - Fraxinus americana - Quercus spp. 
Central Appalachian forest 

SNE DRY RICH FOREST ON ACIDIC/CIRCUMNEUTRAL BEDROCK OR TILL. 

Within Oak-Hickory Forest 

Semi-rich Appalachian oak- sugar maple forest . 

deludes Transition hardwoods Talus Woodland; related to Dry oak-hickory-hop-hombeam forest 

Part of Appalachian oak-hickory forest 

Related to Acer saccharum - Fraxinus americana / Hepatica americana commxmity. 

Within Oak - Hickory Forest 

Within, or a variant of. Dry Calcareous Oak/Conifer Forest Community. 

P. Swain Date: 8/5/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-75 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



YELLOW OAK DRY CALCAREOUS FOREST 

CT1B2A0OO0 

S2 

Yes 




Concept: 
Environmental Setting: 



A dry, often open, oak - siigar maple forest with rich understory on shallow rock. 

Well - drained slopes or low ridges underiain with calcareous rocks. The community tends to be more 
abundant in southern parts of the calcareous areas of the state (Berkshire County\ and is more restricted 
to south and southwest facing slopes in more northern parts of Berkshire Coimty. 



Vegetation Description: Yellow oak (Querais muehlenbergif) is characteristic of this community, and primarily occurs in it in 

Massachusetts. It grows mixed with sugar maple (Acer saccharum\ white oak (Q. alba) and black oak 
(Q. velutina), and associated with white ash (Fradnus americana) and shagbark hickory (Carya ovata). 
Scattered white pines (Firms strobus) and red oak (Q. rubra) occur regularly Hop hornbeam (Ostrya 
virginiana\ hackberry (Celtis occidentalis), flowering dogwood (Comus Jlorida) and, in the more 
southerly sites, bladdemut (Staphylea trifolia), are subcanopy trees that grow in the fairly open 
understory, with occasional prickly ash (Zanthoxylum americanum). The herbaceous layer tends to be 
rich in species, including four-leaved milkweed (Asclepias quadrifolia\ sickle-pod (Arabis canadensis), 
thread-leaved sedge (Carex ebumea\ broad-leaved ragwort (Senecio obovatus\ wild geranium 
(Geranium maculatum). In open (disturbed) areas, red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) and aspen (Populus 
tremuloides) may be common, often with non-native species. Although black maple (Acer nigrum) is 
associated with this community in the Midwest, it seldom occurs in this community in Massachusetts 
vdiere black maple tends to be associated with moister conditions. 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



The fauna tends to be that of generally dry forests, but with no species restricted to the Yellow 
Oak Dry Calcareous forest 



Associated Rare Plants: 

LESPEDEZA VIOLACEA 
PENSTEMON HIRSUTUS 
POA LANGUIDA 
QUERCUS MUEHLENBERGH 
VIBURNUM RAFINESQUIANUM 
WALDSTEINIA FRAGARIOIDES 



VIOLET BUSH-CLOVER 
HAIRY BEARDTONGUE 
DROOPING SPEARGRASS 
YELLOW OAK 
DOWNY ARROWWOOD 
BARREN STRAWBERRY 



-WL 

E 

E 

SC 

T 

SC 



T-76 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 
:NH: 
VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author 



Appalachian Trail, Sheffield; Bartholomew's Cobble Reservation (TTOR), Sheffield. 

Exotic species do well in disturbed forests - Asian bittersweet (Celastrvs orbiculatus), buckthorn 
(Rhamnus/rangula) shrub honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowii), and other invasive species can displace 
native ^)ecies and change the structure of forests. 

Exotic control on best examples. 

2 

mostly in Berkshire County which has been well surveyed by Weatherbee. 



Acer saccharum - Quercus muehlenbergii Forest Alliance — Acer saccharum - Quercus muehlenbergii 
Forest [Provisional] [CEGL005010]; OR Quercus muehlenbergii - (Acer saccharxun) Forest Alliance — 
Quercus muehlenbergii Woodland Alliance — Quercus muehlenbergii / Andropogon gerardii - Anemone 
cylindrica Woodland [CEGL006230] OR [CEGL003704] Quercus muehlenbergii Woodland 
[Placeholder]. 

in part SNE DRY RICH FOREST ON ACIDIC/CIRCUMNEUTRAL BEDROCK OR TILL - or aspects 
of CNE mesic hardwood forest on acidic till. 

Not described. 

Not described. 

Within: Transition Hardwoods, and Related to: Temperate Calcareous Outcrop Community and 
Transition Hardwoods Woodland. 

includes part of Oak Openings; included within Appalachian oak-hickory forest 

Acer saccharum - Quercus muehlenbergii forests [no communities defined]. 

Not described. 

Dry Calcareous Oak / Conifer Forest Community. 

P. Swain Date: 8/4/99 forests 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-77 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



HEMLOCK RAVINE COMMUNITY 

CTICICOOOO 

S4 

No 




Concept 



Environmental Setting: 



Dense canopies with 80 to 100% closure, dominated by hemlocks. Little vmderstory grows in the shade 
of the hemlocks. 

Moist, usually north facing, slopes, or along north facing ravines. Usually acidic rock. Occasional rock 
outcrops in the ravines. 



Vegetation Description: A hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) dominated community. This commimity usually occurs within the oak - 

hemlock - white pine communities. Occasional deciduous trees that grow with the hemlock, at very low 
percentages, include mixed oaks (scarlet, red, white, and black) (Quercus coccinea, rubra, alba, and 
velutina), and red maple (Acer rubrum). The shrub layer is sparse, with occasional individuals of the 
canopy species and small patches of mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia). The herbaceous layer is 
essentially non-existent The forest floor is covered by needles, twigs, and small branches. 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



The Acadian Fly-catcher {Empidonax virescens) is a near obligate to Hemlock forests 
in Massachusetts, although its habitats are broader to the north. Other species that use the hemlock 
community tend to be northern or conifer prefexring forest ^)ecies, including such birds as Black- 
throated Green Warbler (Dendroica virens\ Blackbumian warbler (D.fusca), Louisiana Waterthrush 
(Seiurus motacilld), and Winter Wren {Troglodytes troglodytes). In the winter, mixed flocks are 
common with chickadees {Poecile atricapillus\ kinglets (Regulus spp.X and nuthatches (Sitta spp.) . 
Mammals include those that are widespread and typical of northern and coniferous forests: red squirrels 
(Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi\ smoky shrew (SorexfumeusX 
and wiiite-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). 



Associated Rare Plants: 
NONE KNOWN 

Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Mount Holyoke Range State Forest, Amherst; East Brimfield Lake Property, ACOE, Brimfield; 
Conant Brook Dam, ACOE Property, Monson. 

Hemlock hosts the non-native Wooly Adelgid, which usually kills a hemlock tree after it is fully 
infested. Pre-infestation salvage of areas expected to be targets. 



T-78 



Classification of Massachusetts' Teirestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCn"NC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 
NY: 
CT: 
Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author I 



Tsuga canadensis Forest Alliance — Tsuga canadensis - (Betula alleghaniensis) Mesic Forest 
[CEGL002598]; Tsuga canadensis - Betula alleghaniensis Forest Alliance - Tsuga canadensis - Betula 
alleghaniensis - Picea rubens / Coraus canadensis Forest [CEGL006129]. 

Included IN: CNE MESIC CONIFER [Transition] FOREST ON ACIDIC BEDROCK/TILL. 

Hemlock slope Forest Community. 

1997 Hemlock Forest and Hemlock-red spruce-(yellow birch) ravine/teirace slope variant of Hemlock- 
spruce-northem hardwood forest; 1994 - Hemlock Forest 

part of Hemlock Forest 

part of Hemlock-northern hardwood forest 

Tsuga canadensis forests, no commimities defined 

peirt of Hemlock - Hardwood Forest 

part of Mesic Northern Hardwood Forest Community 

Swain Date: 1/11/00 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-79 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



NORTHERN HARDWOODS - HEMLOCK - WHITE PINE FOREST 

CTICOOOOOO 

ss 

No 




Concept: 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Closed canopy dominated by a mix of evergreen and deciduoxis trees, with sparse shrub and herbaceous 
layers. 

Widespread in dry to mesic, moderately acidic conditions with moderate levels of nutrients. North 
facing slopes and ravines, and northern areas. 

The community type ranges from Hemlock in pure stands to a deciduous forest with scattered hemlocks. 
There are variable combinations of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), yellow 
birch (Betula alleghaniensis), black cherry {Primus serotina), and red oak (Quercus rubra), and white 
pine (Pinus strobus) There are often scattered paper birch (Betula papyri/era), aspen (Populus 
tremuloides\ red maple (Acer rubrum\ and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). The shrub layer is 
usually open, but, often containing scattered clumps of hobblebush (Viburnum lantanoides), red-berried 
elderberry (Sambucus racemosa ssp. pubens\ fly-honeysuckle (Lonicera canadensis\ and striped maple 
(Acer pensylvanicum). The herbaceous layer is ^)arse, but fairiy diverse, with intermediate woodfem 
(Dryopteris intermedia), Christmas fern (Potystichum acrostichoides\ clubmosses (Lycopodium spp.X 
Canada mayflower (Kiaianthemum canadense\ white wood aster (Aster divaricatus\ and wild 
sarsap)arilla (Aralia nudicaulis). Occasional spring herbaceous species include painted trilhum (Trillium 
undulatum\ early yellow violet (Viola rotundifolia), broad-leaved spring beauty (Claytonia 
caroliniana), and trout-lily (Erythronium americanum). 



Many animal species use parts of this type of forest, but geographical variation, structure, size, and 
local conditions will affect which actual species are present. Many species of neo-tropical migrant 
songbirds nest in large numbers in larger occurrences, including a variety of warblers. Blackbumian 
warblers (Dendroicafusca) are particularly closely associated with hemlock stands. Northern Goshawk 
(Accipiter gentilis). Barred Owl (Strix varia\ and Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) are also 
to be ejqjected. Mammals include red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus\ gray squirrel (Sciurus 
carolinensis\ chipmunks (Tamias striatus\ redbacked vole (Clethrionomys gapperi\ short-tailed shrew 
(Blarina brevicaudd), masked and smoky shrews (Sorex cinereus and S./umeus\ and white-footed 
mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). At elevation, deer mouse (P. maniculatus) and woodland jumping mouse 
(Napaeozapus insignis) also occur in the forest type. Amphibians include redbacked salamanders 
(Plethodon cinereus) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica); and expected reptiles include redbelly snakes 
(Storeria o. occipitomaculata). 



T-80 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Plants: 
SOLIDAGO GLUTINOSA SSP RANDE 
Associated Rare Animals: 



SOREX PALUSTRIS 

Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 
NH: 

VT: 

NY: 
CT: 



RI: 

Weatherbee: 
Author: 



RAND'S GOLDENROD 



WATER SHREW 



sc 



Mohauic Trail S.F., Charlemont; Jug End WMA, Egremont; Holyoke 

Range State Park, Amherst; Carlisle State Forest, Carlisle; ML Toby, Sunderland. 



Exotics do well in the community. 1999- Hemlock hosts the non-native Wooly Adelgid, which usually 
kills a hemlock tree after it is fully infested. 

Exotic control. 

3 . 

Widespread. 



Acer saccharum - Betula alleghaniensis -{Fagus grandifolia) Forest Alhance — Acer saccharum - Betula 
alleghaniensis - Fagus grandifolia A^ibumimi lantanoides Forest [CEGL006252]; Tsuga canadensis - 
Betula alleghaniensis Forest AlUance —Tsuga canadensis - Fagus grandifolia Forest (CEGL006088]; and 
Tsuga canadensis - Betula alleghaniensis Lower New England, Northern Piedmont Forest 
[CEGL006109]; Pinus strobus - Tsuga canadensis Forest Alliance — Pinus strobus - Tsuga canadensis 
Lower New England, Northern Piedmont Forest [CEGL0063281. 

hicluded in: CNE MESIC CONIFER [TransiUon] FOREST ON ACIDIC BEDROCK/TILL and CNE 
DRY TRANSITIONAL FOREST ON SANDY / GRAVELLY SOILS [CT2E1B0000]. 

Mixed hardwood - conifer forest; Hemlock slope community. 

Parts of Hemlock - beech -oak- pine forest; AND Semi - rich mesic sugar maple - beech forest; 
Includes: Hemlock forest; 1994 - Beech forest, Beech - Birch - Maple forest, and Semi - rich Mesic 
Forest 

Mesic northern Hardwood forest [Beech - Birch - M^le forest] AND White F*ine - Northern Hardwood 
forest; Part of Hemlock forest 

Hemlock - northern hardwood forest AND Pine - northern hardwood forest 

Acer saccharum - Fagus grandifolia - Betula alleghaniensis forests — Acer saccharum - Fagxis 
grandifolia/ Viburnum alnifolia community AND Acer saccharum - Fagus grandifolia / Ehyopteris 
intermedia community AND Acer saccharum - Fraxinus americana - TiUa americana forests - Acer 
saccharum Fraxinus / Asarum canadensis community AND Acer saccharum - Fraxinus americana / 
Osmunda claytoniana conununity AND Acer saccharxim - Fraxinus americana / Dryopteris 
noveboracensis community; AND part of Tsuga canadensis Forests. 

Hemlock - Hardwood Forest 



Mesic Northern Hardwood Forest Community. 
P. Swain Date: 



8/27/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-81 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



SUCCESSIONAL NORTHERN HARDWOODS 

CTICIBOOOO 

S5 

No 




Concept: 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



A broadly defined time sequence of forest communities, from thick young sprouts with little diversity to 
mature, diversifying forests with undergrowth of more shade tolerant trees. The canopy is seldom 
completely closed and undergrowth may be dense or open. 

Areas with past major disturbance such as cutting, hurricane, or fuie within northern hardwood forest 
areas. 

Aspen (Populus tremuloides), white birch {Betula papyrifera\ red maple {Acer rubrum), and /or black 
cherry (Prunus serotina) dominate the community. Gray birch {Betida populifolia) tends to be more 
common on very well drained soils. Pin cherry {Prunus pensylvanica) is a common associate. As the 
forest matures, the understory is made \xp of young trees of more shade tolerant species. Shrubs and 
herbaceous species are variable, and depend on surrounding seed sources and the type of disturbance the 
established the early successional community. 



The structure of a community is important to animals. Successional communities change in structure 
quite quickly, and the animals change as the vegetation grows, and there is a sequence of use. For to 
10 years trees are dense but small, often with blackberry {Rubus spp.) below. Fugitive bird species such 
as Chestnut-sided Warblers {Dendroica pensylvanica) and Mourning Warbler {Oporomis Philadelphia) 
are common in the fust 5 years after a major disturbance even, eqjecially if there are dead snags left for 
singing perches Grouse {Bonasa umbellus) and woodcock {Scolopax minor) are classic users of younger 
forest, as is the New England cottontail {Sylvilagus transidonalis). After 30 years, the community 
should include most commonly found mammals. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

NONE KNOWN 

Associated Rare Animals: 
NONE KNOWN 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 



Birch Hill Wildhfe Management Area, Athol. 



T-82 



Classification of Massachusetts' Teirestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCn"NC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author: 



Populus tremuloides - Betula papyrifera Forest Alliance — Popxilus (tremuloides, grandidentata) - Betula 
(populifolia, papyrifera) Forest [CEGL006303] AND Populus tremuloides - Betula papyrifera / Acer 
saccharum - Mixed Hardwoods Forest [CEGL002468]; Betula papyrifera Forest Alliance— Betula 
papyrifera / Acer saccharum - Mixed hardwoods Forest [CEGL002464]. 

Part of: CNE MESIC HARDWOOD FOREST ON ACIDIC BEDROCK/TILL. 

Early successional forest community. 

successional stages not recognized. 

successional stages not recognized, part of Northern Hardwoods Forests. 

Successional Northern Hardwoods. 

Not described. 

successional stages not recognized. 

part of Mesic Northern Hardwood Forest Community. 

P.Swain Date: 1/11/00 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-83 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



RED OAK - SUGAR MAPLE TRANSITION FOREST 

CT1B300000 

S4 

No 




Concept 
Environmental Setting: 

Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Forests with species of northern hardwoods (maples) and central hardwoods (oaks) together. Has few of 
the extreme northern or southern indicators. 

Mesic forests of niid slopes, moderate nutrient availability, and not very acidic. Some sites, especially 
with abundant white pine, are old field successionaL, and others have been managed as woodlots and 
were selectively cut in the past, or may continue to be logged to the present The imderstory reflects the 
history of the sites. 

Northern red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), beech (Fagus grandi/oUa), and black 
birch (Betula lenta\ with an admixture of white pine (Pintis strobus) and hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) 
dominate the canopy in variable proportions White oak (Quercus alba\ red maple (Acer rubrum\ white 
ash (Fraxinus americana), and yellow birch (B. alleghaniensis) are regular associates. Striped maple 
(Acer pensylvanicum\ maple-leaved viburnum (Viburnum acerifolium\ and hobblebush (Viburnum 
lantanoides) are typical shrubs of primary transition forests, and lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium 
angustifolium\ is abundant in the more coniferous dominated sites. The herbaceous layer is neither 
dense nor sparse, often with patches of clonal species, includes wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis\ 
bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), hay scentoi fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula\ clubmosses 
(Lycopodium clavatum and L. obscurum), Indian cucumber (Medeola virginiana\ Canada mayflower 
(Maianthemum canadense), and whorled wood-aster (Aster acuminatus). 



This wide^read forest type provides habitat to many, particularly to oppwrtunistic, 
animal species. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are classic users of this forest type, although 
certainly not limited to it Fisher (Martes pennanti) use larger, older examples. Many species move 
through the forest between other, specific habitats: frogs and salamanders breed in vernal pools and 
other wetlands and use the uplands in the rest of the year. Most of the widesj^'ead small mammals would 
be expected in larger occurrences of the community. 



Associated Rare Plants: 

NONE KNOWN 

Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



T-84 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 

Inventory Comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVCn"NC: 



Harvard Forest, Petersham; Jug End WMA, Egremont; East facing slopes of Taconics, northern 
Berkshire County. 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 
NY: 
CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author 



Quercus rubra - Acer saccharum - (Q. alba) Forest Alliance — Acer sacchanim - Quercus rubra / 
Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa Forest [CEGL006046];Quercus rubra - Acer saccharum - (Q. alba) Forest 
Alliance — Quercus rubra - Acer saccharum / Viburnum acerifolium - Corylus comuta Forest 
[CEGL006173];Quercus rubra - Betula alleghaniensis / Osmunda cinnamomea Forest - Quercus rubra • 
Betula alleghaniensis / Osmunda cinnamomea Forest [CEGL006000];Tsuga canadensis - Betula 
alleghaniensis Forest Alliance - (associations under review) - Tsuga canadensis - Betula alleghaniensis 
Lower New England Northern Piedmont Forest [CEGL0O6109]; AND Tsuga canadensis - Fagus 
grandifolia forest [CEGL006088]. 

Part of: CNE MESIC HARDWOOD FOREST ON ACIDIC BEDROCJOTILL. 

Mixed hardwood - conifer forest community. 

Mesic Appalachian oak-sugar maple-beech-hemlock forest AND Sugar maple - beech - red oak till 
variant of semi rich mesic forests. 

Mesic Red Oak - Hardwood Forest 

Included in: Appalachian oak-hickory forest 

Quercus rubra / Viburnum acerifolium Forest; Quercus rubra - Betula alleghaniensis / Osmunda 
ciimamomea Forest 

included in Beech - Maple Forest 

Included in: Mesic Northern Hardwood Forest Commimity 

P. Swain Date: 9/1/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-85 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



RICH, MESIC FOREST COMMUNITY 

CT1C2A0000 

S3 

Yes 




i^'^ 



Concept: A variant of the northern hardwood forest where sugar maple is usually dominant and there is a diverse 

herbaceous layer with abundant spring ep^emerals in a moist, nutrient rich environment 

Environmental Setting: Rich, mesic forests arc usually found on slopes or talus below calcareous bedrock or on level areas 

where calcareous or circimineutral bedrock is near the surface [areas of enrichment can also occur where 
bedrock or till are not particularly base rich, but near the location where downslope enrichment takes 
place]. In Massachusetts, they are restricted to low to moderate elevations below 2,400 ft. (about 650 
m), and usually on north or east-facing, concave, middle to lower slopes that exjjerience downslope 
movement of nutrients and organic matter. Rich refers to rich in nutrients, although they are also rich in 
species; and mesic is the moderate moisture regime. Soils are usually deep, with rapid decomposition of 
leaves and other plant litter quickly incorporated into the soil, so that there is rarely more than one year's 
accumulation of leaves on the forest floor. 

Vegetation Description: Rich mesic forests are dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum), with white ash (Fraxinus 

americana\ bittemut hickory (Carya cordiformis), elm species (Ulmus spp.X and basswood {Tilia 
americana) being other characteristic trees. Butternut (Juglans cinerea) usually grows in rich mesic 
forests but is infrequent Hophombeam (Ostrya americana) is common as a subcanopy tree Although 
the shrub layer is usually sparse, alternate-leaved dogwood (Comus altemifolia\ witch-hazel 
(Hamamelis virginiana), leatherwood (Dirca palustris), or red-berried elderberry (Sambucus racemosa 
ssp. pubens) might be present Typically spring ephemerals are abundant. Combinations of any several 
of the following ^lecies usually indicate a rich mesic commimity: bloodroot (Sanguineria canadensis^ 
maidenhair fern (Adiantum pedatum\ blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides\ sweet cicely 
(Osmorhiza claytonii), Dutchman's breeches (Dicentra cucullaria\ squirrel com {Dicentra canadensis\ 
toothwort (Dentaria diphylla\ wild leeks {Allium tricoccum), wild ginger (Asarum canadense), white 
banebeiry (Actea pachypoda), Goldie's fern (Dryopteris goldiana\ and zigzag goldenrod (Solidago 
flexicaulis) as well as the state-listed qsecies listed below. Two semi-evergreen, fairly distinct sedges 
(Carex plantaginea and C. platyphylla) are good indicators of the community that are visible throughout 
the year. 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Most animals of rich, mesic forests are generalized deciduous forest species. Birds that often breed 
in rich, mesic forests include Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelinaX Veery (Catharus/uscescens), Black- 
and-white Warbler {Kiniotilta varia\ Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus\ Louisiana Woodthrxish (5. 
motacilla\ Scarlet Tanager {Piranga rubra), and Barred Owls {Strix varia). Vernal pools in these forests 
may be breeding sites for blue spotted salamanders (Ambystoma jejjersonianum) and other mole 
salamanders (Ambystoma spp.), and spotted turtles (Clemmys guttata). Most small mammals of forests 



T-86 



Classiflcalion of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



occur in rich mesic forests, including Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans\ grey squirrels 
(Sciurus carolinensisX woodland jumping mouse {Napaeozapus insignis\ masked shrew {Sorex 
cinereusX and red-backed vole (Clethrionomys gapperi). Larger mammals include rich mesic forests as 
parts of their habitat 



Associated Rare Plants: 

ACER NIGRUM 
APLECTRUM HYEMALE 
CDvOCIFUGA RACEMOSA 
CORALLORRHIZA ODONTORHIZA 
DDPLAZIUM PYCNOCARPON 
MILIUM EFFUSUM 
RISES LACUSTRE 
SANICULA CANADENSIS 
SANICULA ODORATA 

Associated Rare Animals: 

AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONL^NUM 
AMBYSTOMA MACULATUM 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
ELAPHE OBSOLETA 
HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 
PIERIS NAPI OLERACEA 



BLACK MAPLE 
PUTrY-RCX)T 
BLACK COHOSH 
AUTUMN CORALROOT 
GLADE FERN 
WOODLAND MILLET 
BRISTLY BLACK CURRANT 
CANADIAN SANICLE 
LONG-STYLED SANICLE 

JEFFERSON SALAMANDER 
SPOTTED SALAMANDER 
SPOTTED TURTLE 
WOOD TURTLE 
BLACK RAT SNAKE 
FOUR-TOED SALAMANDER 
MUSTARD WHITE 



SC 
E 
E 
SC 

-WL 

T 

SC 

T 

T 

SC 

-WL 

SC 

SC 

E 

SC 

SC 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



.Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH 

VT 

NY 

CT 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author 



Green River Forest, Greenfield; Maple Hill WMA, West Stockbridge; South Mountain, Pittsfield; ML 
Toby, Sunderland and Leverett; The Hopper - Mt. Greylock State Reservation, Wilhamstown. 

Invasive exotics do very well in the nutrient rich, mesic conditions associated with these forests. 
Fragmentation and isolation can be problems for the species of the community. 

Control of exotics in exemplary sites. 

3 

1999, student at Harvard Forest working on Connecticut Valley sites. 

Acer saccharum- Fraxinus americana- Tllia americana Forest Alliance — Acer saccharum- Fraxinus 
americana- Juglans cinerea/ St^hylea trifolia Forest (Rich talus slope Forest) [CEGL006020]; Acer 
saccharum- Fraxinus americana- Tilia americana Forest Alliance — Acer saccharum- Fraxinus spp.- 
Tilia americana/ Osmorhiza claytonii- Caulophyllum thalictroides Forest (CEGL005008]. 

SNE RICH MESIC FOREST (CIRCUMNEUTRAL TO BASIC). 

Cove forest Community. 

(Enriched) Rich mesic forest; Rich sugar m^le- ash- oak- hickory forest 

Mesic Northern Hardwoods. 

Maple basswood rich mesic forest 

Acer saccharum- Fraxinus americana/ Tilia americana forests — Acer saccharum - Fraxinus americana / 
Asarum canadensis community. 

Included in: Beech - Maple Forest 

Rich mesic forest. 

P.Swain Date: 1/19/00 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-87 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



FOREST SEEP COMMUNTTY 

CT1C2B1000 
S4 

No 




Concept: 



Environmental Setting: 



Hardwood forests on slopes, with small springs and seeps on mucky soils. Canopy is from or similar to, 
the surrounding forest, but shrub and herbaceous layers species are typical of wetlands or mesic areas. 

Seeps may be near stream heeidwaters, or may be isolated with the water absorbed into the surroundings. 
They occur where the top of the ground water table intersects the surface, and the water emerges. 



Vegetation Description: Canopy is usually northern hardwood species such as sugar maple (Acer saccharum), white ash 

(Fraxinus americana), red maple {Acer rubrum\ yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis\ and white birch 
(5. papyri/era). Other sites have hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) ^ruce (Picea rubens\ and scattered white 
pines (Finns strobus) among the hardwoods. Ferns are typical: cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea), 
ostrich fern (Matteuccia stnithiopteris), silvery spleenwort (Deparia acrostichoides\ rattlesnake fern 
(Botrychium virginianum), and Christmas fern (Polystichum acrostichoides). Golden saxifrage 
(Chrysoplenium americanum) primarily occurs in seeps. Scouring rush (Equisetum hyemale), false 
hellebore (Veratrum viride), water avens (Geitm rivaleX an assortment of sedges are among the other 
plants found at seeps. 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Presented as distinct from palustrine seeps, but may be just a small version. 

These small commimities provide parts of the habitats of the species of surroimding communities. 
Most tree dwelling species would not be affected by the presence of small seeps below. Star-nosed 
moles (Condylura cristata) would be expected in seeps of any kind. If the water from the seeps stays in 
topographic low areas those may function as vernal p>ools, and si^port vernal pool breeding species. 
Where even small amounts of sphagnum moss build up, four-toed salamanders (Hemidactylium 
scutatum) may be found, and in larger patches. Southern bog lemmings (Synaptomys cooperi) may be 
present 



Associated Rare Plants: 

EQUISETUM SCIRPOIDES 
PLATANTHERA DILATATA 
SPHENOPHOLIS PENSYLVANICA 
SPIRANTHES ROMANZOFFIANA 



DWARF SCOURING-RUSH 
LEAFY WHITE ORCHIS 
SWAMP OATS 
HOODED LADIES'-TRESSES 



SC 
T 
T 
E 



T-88 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Animals: 

HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 
POLYCELIS REMOTA 
SOREX DISPAR 
SYNAPTOMYS COOPERI 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Management Needs: 
inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 
MA (old name): 
ME: 
NH: 
VT: 
NY: 
CT: 
Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author: 



FOUR-TOED SALAMANDER 
SUNDERLAND SPRING PLANARL\N 
LONG-TAILED SHREW 
SOUTHERN BOG LEMMING 
Savoy Moimtain State Forest, Savoy, Sunderland Fish Hatchay, Sunderland. 



SC 
E 
SC 
SC 



Exotic species: water-cress (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum\ forget-me-not (Myosotis scirpoides\ 
Yellow Iris (Iris pseiidacorus\ and Japanese barberry (Berberis thtmbergii) can be abundant Water 
flow needs to be maintained, large wells can impact small wetlands. Several locations have had natural 
mud or rock slides. 

Exotic removals in sites where practical. 

2 

Seems to be widespread in forested areas - but calcareous types support some calcareous species. 



part of SNE SEEPAGE FOREST 
Not described 

1994: Northern Hardwood Seepage Forest 
Possibly a small type of Woodland Seep/Spring run community. 
Not described 
Not described. 
Not described. 

Calcareous variant is part of Calcareous Seep Community. 
P. Swain Date: 



8/4/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-89 



Communrty Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



CALCAREOUS FOREST SEEP COMMUNITY 

CT1C2B2000 

S2 

Yes 




Concept: 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Within hardwood forests on slopes, with small springs and seeps containing water with dissolved 
calcium emerge from the ground where the surface intersects the top of the water table. Canopy is of the 
surrounding forest although more open, but shrub and herbaceous layers species are typical of 
calcareous wetlands. Usually very small, much less than an acre in size. The community as defined is 
close to a Calcareous Sloping Fen. 

Seeps may be near stream headwaters, or may be isolated with the spring water spilling out to be 
absorbed into the surroundings. Calcareoiis forested seeps receive water that has flowed through or been 
in contact with limestone or other calcareous rock or gravel. Sites in the Berkshire highlands and 
Vermont Piedmont tend to have fewer of the rarer calcareous fen species that are thought to be restricted 
to the richest sites. 

Calcareous seeps typically occiir within rich northern hardwoods and share the tree canopy species of 
the surrounding forest such as sugar maple (Acer saccharum), white ash (Fraxinus americana\ beech 
{Fag}is grandifoUa), black birch {Betula lenta\ and red oak (Quercus rubra), although white pine (Pintts 
strobus) and hickories (Carya spp.) are also reported. The canopy is usually more open than in the 
surrounding forest Black ash, typical of wet calcareous communities, also occurs in calcareous forested 
seep communities. witch-hazel(//a/na»ie/j5 virginiana), ironwood {Carpinus caroliniana), alternate- 
leaved dogwood (Comus altemifolia\ striped maf\c {Acer pensylvanicum\ and young of the canopy 
species contribute to a scattered shrub layer. The herbaceous layer varies from sp)arse to continuous and 
includes many widespread wetland species such as sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis), yellow jewel weed 
(Impatiens pallida), aivi jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum\ Key indicator calcareous species 
include many calcareous fen indicators as well: shrubby cinquefoil {PentaphylloidesJloribunda\ alder- 
leaf buckthorn {Rhamnus alnifolia), wild black currant (Ribes americanum\ yellow sedge (Carexjlava\ 
porcupine sedge (Carex hystericina\ hoary willow {Salix cai\dida\ autumn willow {S. serissima\ purple 
avens (Geum rivale), rough-leaved goldenrod (Solidago patula\ and grass-of-pamassus {Pamassia 
glauca). 



As with other seeps, these small communities provide parts of the habitats of the species of surrounding 
communities. Most tree dwelling qjecies would not be affected by the presence of small seeps below. 
Star-nosed moles {Condylura cristata) would be expected in seeps of any kind. If the water from the 
seeps stays in topographic low areas those may function as vernal jxxjls, and support vernal pool 
breeding species. 



T-90 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated Rare Plants: 

CYPRIPEDIUM REGINAE 
EQUISETUM SCIRPOIDES 
PLATANTHERA DILATATA 
SPIRANTHES ROMANZOFFIANA 

Associated Rare Animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



SHOWY LADVS-SLIPPER 
DWARF SCOURING-RUSH 
LEAFY WHITE ORCHIS 
HOODED LADIES'-TRESSES 



sc 
sc 

T 
E 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 

Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author: 



ML Greylock State Reservation, Williamstown. 

Exotics, which are particularly invasive in calcareous conditions. Morrow's Honeysuckle {Lonicera 
morromi\ barberry (Berberis vulgaris\ common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), and black swallow- 
wort {Cynanchum louisae) are typical invaders of the commimity. Water sources need to be maintained. 

Removal of exotics. 

2 

Included in Motzkin's Coimecticut Valley study. Difference fix)m Calcareous Sloping Fen need to be 
defined. 



Within occurrences of Acer saccharum - Betula alleghaniensis - (Fagus grandifolia) Forest Alliance and 
Acer saccharum - Fraxinus america - Tilia americana Forest Alliance. 

Part of SNE SEEPAGE FOREST 

Not described. 

Not described. 

Possibly a small type of Woodland Seep/Spring run community. 

Not described. 

Not described. 

Not described. 

part of Calcareous Seep Community 

P. Swain Date: 10/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-91 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



SPRUCE - FIR - NORTHERN HARDWOODS FOREST 

CTIDIOOOOO 

S4 

No 




Concept: 
Environmental Setting: 

Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



A northern and higher elevation mixed red spruce - northern hardwood forest 

Tends to be in cool, and typically rocky soils, nutrient poor, somewhat dry, and acidic. Grades into 
northern hardwoods - hemlock - white pine forests on moister, warmer slopes. 

A community of variable dominance: red spruce may be dominant, or co-dominant with sugar maple 
and beech (or these may be dominantX vvith abundant yellow birch and smaller amounts of red spruce 
and/ or balsam fu". Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) can be abundant or scattered. Heart-leaf paper birch 
(Betula cordifolia) and paper birch (Betula papyri/era) usually occur as scattered individiials. 
Characteristic shrubs include mountain maple (Acer spicatum), red-berried elder (Sambucus racemosa 
var. pubens), northern mountain ash (Sorbus americana\ and hobblebush (Viburnum lantanoides). A 
low shrub layer has bunchbeny (Comus canadensis), creeping snowbeny (Gaultheria hispidula), and 
occasionally, twinflower (Linnea borealis). The herbaceous layer tends to be sparse, e^jecially when 
spruce is abundant; plants include intermediate fern (Dryopteris intermedia), mountain wood fern 
(Dryopteris campyloptera\ blue-bead lily (Clintonia borealis), painted trillium (Trillium undulatum\ 
and wood sorrel (Oxalis acetosella). 



Animals of this community tend to be northern species that are more typical of forests of Vermont 
and New Hampshire. Birds include Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa\ Blue-headed Vmeo 
(Vireo solitarius), and species of big warblers including Blackbumian (Dendroica Jusca\ Yellow- 
rumped (D. dominica), and Magnolia Warbler (D. Magnolia). Mammals include fisher (Martes 
pennanti), as a classic example, and northern species such as red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus\ 
snowshoe hare ( Lepus americanus), in the open areas, northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus\ 
and Pygmy shrews (Sorex hoyi). Amphibians would include the ubiquitous redbacked salamanders 
(Plethodon cinereus), wood frogs (Rana sylvatica\ and red efts, the juvenile stage of red-spotted newt 
(Notophthalmus v. viridescens). 



Associated Rare Plants: 

AMELANCHIER BARTRAMIANA 
DRYOPTERIS CAMPYLOPTERA 
HUPERZIA APPALACHIANA 
HUPERZIA SELAGO 



BARTRAM'S SHADBUSH 
MOUNTAIN WOOD-FERN 
APPALACHIAN CLUBMOSS 
MOUNTAIN FIRMOSS 



WL 



E 
E 



T-92 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



LINNAEA BOREALIS 

MILIUM EFFUSUM 

RIBESTRISTE 

SORBUS DECORA 

STREPTOPUS AMPLEXIFOLIUS VAR 
AMERICANUS 

Associated Rare Animals: 
NONE KNOWN 
Examples with 
Public Access: 
Threats: 

Management Needs: 
Inventory Need Rank: 
Inventory Comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 



TWINFLOWER 
WOODLAND MILLET 
SWAMP RED CURRANT 
NORTHERN MOUNTAIN-ASH 
WHITE MANDARIN 



WL 



WL 



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MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 
NY: 
CT: 
Rl: 

Weatherbee: 
Author: 



Mohawk Trail State Forest, Charlemont; Savoy State Forest, Savoy, Monroe State Forest, 
Monroe; Mt. Greylock State Reservation, Lanesboro. 



Old Growth examples are priority sites. 



Picea rubens - Abies balsamea Forest Alliance — Abies balsamea- (Betula papyrifera var. cordifolia) 
Forest [CEGL0061 12]; Picea rubens - Betula alleghaniensis Forest Alliance — Picea rubens - Betula 
alleghaniensis / Clintonia borealis Forest [ECGL006267]; Acer saccharum - Betula alleghaniensis - 
(Fagus grandifolia) Forest Alliance — Acer siuxharum - Betula alleghaniensis - Fagus grandifolia / 
Viburnum lantanoides Forest [CEGL006252]; Tsuga canadensis - Betula alleghaniensis Forest Alliance 
— Tsuga canadensis - Betula alleghaniensis - Picea rubens / Comus canadensis Forest [CEGL006129]; 
Pinus strobus - Tsuga canadensis forest Alliance — Pinus strobus - Tsuga canadensis - Picea rubens 
Forest [CEGL006324] 

CNE MESIC CONIFER FOREST ON ACIDIC BEDROCK/TILL and CNE DRY CONIFER FOREST 
ON ACIDIC BEDROCK OR TILL [CT2G1 A20001. 

Pine - Hemlock / Spruce Forest Community; Spruce slope forest community AND parts of Northern 
hardwood forest community. 

1 997 - Sugar maple - beech - red spruce forest; AND Northern hardwood - spruce - fu- - forest (Acer 
saccharum - Fagus - Bdula alleghaniensis - Picea rubens - Abies forest) 1 994 - Sugar maple - beech - 
red spruce forest 

Montane Spruce- Fir forest 

Spruce - Northern hardwood forest 

Not applicable. 

Not applicable. 

Mesic northern conifer forest 



P.Swain 



Date: 



8/5/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-93 



Community Name: 
Community Code: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



Concept 



Environmental Setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



HIGH ELEVATION SPRUCE - FIR FOREST / WOODLAND 

CT1D300000 

S2 

Yes 




Dwarfed trees from wind on the tops of the tallest, most exposed mountains in Massachusetts. Conifers, 
balsam frr and red ^ruce, dominate, and often form dense thiclcets. 

Often stunted trees from wind exposure, occurring at the highest, most exposed areas. Down slope it 
grades into taller, more diverse spruce - fir - northern hardwood forests. 

A low diversity coniferous forest of high elevations, usually on steep stony, upper slop)es or level 
ridgetops. Balsam fu" (Abies balsamea) is dominant, associated with red qsruce (Picea rubens). Paper 
birch, heart-leaf paper birch (Betula papyri/era and B. cordifolia), and yellow birch {B. alleghaniensis) 
occur in lower numbers. Where there is li^t, shrubs such as mountain maple {Acer spicatum), mountain 
holly (Nemopanthus mucronata), American mountain ash (Sorbtts americana), and hobblebush 
{Viburnum lantanoides) may grow. Blue-bead lily {Clintonia borealis\ mountain wood-sorrel {Oxalis 
montana), bunchberry {Comus canadensis\ and bristly clubmoss {Lycopodium atmotinum) grow 
scattered on mosses or a thick layer of needles. 



The tops of Massachusetts's highest, most exposed mountains provides habitat for some northern 
animals such as Swainson's Thrush {Catharus ustulatus) and pygmy shrew {Sorex hoyi\ as well as the 
state-protected ^)ecies listed below. Also expected would be more widespread species that use conifer 
forests, such as snowshoe hare {Lepus americanus), porci^ine {Erethizon dorsatum\ northern flying 
squirrel {Glaucomys sabrinus\ deer mouse {Peromyscus maniculatus), and birds such as Olive-sided 
Flycatcher {Contopus coopen) and Rusty Blackbird {Euphagus carolinus). 



Associated Rare Plants: 

AMELANCHIER BARTRAMIANA 
BETULA CORDIFOLIA 

LUZULA PARVIFLORA SSP MELANOCARPA 
SORBUS DECORA 

Associated Rare Animals: 

DENDROICA STRIATA 
SOREX DISPAR 



BARTRAlvTS SHADBUSH 
HEART-LEAF PAPER BIRCH 
BLACK-FRUITED WOODRUSH 
NORTHERN MOUNTAIN-ASH 

BLACKPOLL WARBLER 
LONG-TAILED SHREW 



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T-94 



Classification of Massachusetts' Terrestrial Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management Needs: 

Inventory Need Rank: 

Inventory Comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

VT: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Weatherbee: 

Author 



Mt Greylock State Reservation, Lanesboro; much poorer community examples occur at Mt. 
Wachusett, Princeton; and ML Watatic, Ashbumham 

Development of the summit, clearing for parking, trails, ski lift facilities, or communications towers. 



Much more common in states to the north and with higher mountains. 



Picea rubens - Abies balsamea Forest Alliance — Abies balsamea- (Betula papyrifera var. cordifolia) 
Forest [CEGL0061 12];Picea rubens - Abies balsamea Forest Alliance - Picea rubens- Abies balsamea- 
Sorbus americana Forest [CEGL006 128]; Picea rubens Woodland Alliance — Picea rubens/ 

Vaccinium angustifolium - Sibbaldiopsis tridentata Woodland (CEGL006053]. 

NEW ENGLAND fflGH ELEVATION SPRUCE/FIR FOREST. 

Subalpine spr\ice- fir forest commimity; Spruce slope forest; Spruce woodland. 

1997 - High-elevation spiice-fir forest; 1994 - Subalpine and alpine Community Complexes Mountain 
Spruce-fir formation.. 

Montane spruce-fir Forest, but with parts of High-elevation spruce-fir forest emd subalpine 
heath/krummolz community. 

Mountain sjMiice-fir forest 

Not applicable. 

Not applicable. 

Part of Mesic Northern Conifer Forest Community. 

Swain Date: I/U/OO 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



T-95 



©MAIFT 
Descriptions of 

Palustrine Communities 



BMAFT 

Classification of the 

Natural Communities 

of 

Massachusetts 



The palustrine section of the Massachusetts* natural community classification includes all freshwater, 
non-tidal wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent emergents, emergent mosses, or lichens. This 
definition is slightly different from Cowardin (1979) who also included small, sJiallow aquatic beds with submersed 
and floating-leaved aquatics, and tidal wetlands where salinity due to ocean-derived salts was less than 0.5%. In the 
Massachusetts' classiiication, submersed and floating leaved aquatics are included in the lacustrine section, and all 
tidal wetiands are included in the estuarine section. The palustrine section does include riverside communities that 
receive annual or semi-annual overbank flooding, e.g. floodplain forests. High-terrace floodplain forests (although 
technically terrestrial communities) are included in the palustrine section in order to group them with other 
floodplain forest communities. 

The organization of the palustrine classification is given in the palustrine table of contents, which follows. A 
primary division is made between forested (>50% tree canopy cover) and non-forested wetiands. Within the 
forested section, a second division is made between conifer-dominated (conifers providing >50% of the total 
canopy coverage) and hardwood-dominated communities. The forested/non-forested and conifer-Zhardwood- 
dominated divisions are intended to aid the user in identifying community types. It should be recognized, however, 
that there are continuous gradients in communities from forested to non-forested and from conifer- to hardwood- 
dominated. The boundaries between these types and between the named communities are not absolute. Communities 
intergrade and several may occur together within a weUand mosaic. 

The organization described above differs from that of the original classification used by Nfassachusetts 
(Rawinski 1984) which made a primary division between basin and seepage wetiands. For most of Massachusetts' 
wetiand communities, detailed environmental data (particularly hydrologic data) are lacking making distinctions 
between basin and seepage wetiands uncertain. Until there are sufBcient data to support differences between seepage 
and basin types, the types are lumped into one name that describes the overall vegetation of the community. For 
example, the previously used names Southern New England Basin Swamp and Southern New England Seepage 
Swamp are replaced by Red Maple Swamp for those swamps in which red maple is dominant. Rich and poor 
variants are described within the vegetation description. However, the names "calcareous seepage swamp" and 
"calcareous seepage marsh" are retained due to their common usage. 



P-ii Classification ofMassachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities DRAFT July 2000 



PALUSTRINE COMMUNITIES 

FORESTED WETLANDS 

Conifer-dominated: 

Spruce-fir boreal swamp P - 2 

Hemlock-hardwood swamp P - 4 

Atlantic white cedar swamps 

j. Coastal Atlantic white cedar swamp P - 6 

vi. Inland Atlantic white cedar swamp P - 8 

vii. Northern Atlantic \*iiite cedar swamp P - 10 

viii. Alluvial Atlantic white cedar swamp P - 12 

Atlantic white cedar bog P - 14 

Spruce-tamarack bog P - 16 

Hardwood-dominated: 

Red maple swamp P - 18 

i. Alluvial red maple swamp P - 20 

Black ash swamp P-22 

Black ash-red maple-tamarack calcareous seepage swamp P - 24 

Black gum-pin oaJc-swamp white oak "perchal" swamp P - 26 

Black gum swamp P-28 

Floodplain forests 

vi. Major-river floodplain forest P - 30 

vii. Transitional floodplain forest P - 32 

viii. Small-river floodplain forest P - 34 

ix. High-terrace floodplain forest P - 36 

X. Cobble bar forest P - 38 

NON-FORESTED WETLANDS 

MarsbesAVet meadows: 

Coastal interdunal marsh/swale P - 40 

Deep emergent marsh P - 42 

Shallow emergent marsh P - 44 

Wet meadow P -46 

i. Kettlehole wet meadow P - 48 

Pondshores/lakeshores: 

Inland acidic pondshore/lakeshore P - 50 

Coastal plain pondshore P - 52 

Calcareous pondshore/lakeshore P - 54 

Riversides/Streamsides: 

Mud flat P-56 

Riverside seep P-58 

Low-energy riverbank P - 60 

High-energy riverbank P-62 

Riverine pointbar and beach P - 64 

Shrub swamps: 

Shrub swamp P- 66 

Peatlands (bogs and fens): 

Calcareous peatlands: 

Calcareous sloping fen P - 68 

Calcareous seepage marsh P - 70 

Calcareous ba^ fen P - 72 

Acidic peatlands: 

Acidic graminoid fen P-74 

Acidic shrub fen P-76 

Sea-level fen P - 78 

Level bog P-80 

iii. Kettlehole level bog P - 82 

iv. Highbush blueberry thicket P - 84 

Vernal pools: 

Woodland vernal pool P - 86 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species ProgramJuly 2000 P - 1 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



SPRUCE-FIR BOREAL SWAMP 

CPlAl 10000 

S3 

Yes 




Concept: 
Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Forested wetlands of western and north-central Massachusetts dominated by red ^ruce eind balsam fir. 

Spruce-fir swamps are typically found at stream headwaters or in poorly drained basins in the 
moimtainous, northwestern part of the state. They develop in cold, poorly drained areas, typically on 
eicidic glacial till. Elevation ranges from 1 500-2000 ft. in the Berkshire Highland s [Weatherbee 1 996]. 
Peat accumulation appears to be minimal at most known sites. More work is needed to describe the 
physical setting and soil profiles of boreal swamps. 

Red spruce (Picea rubens) and balsam fir (Abies balsamed) are dominant in the overstory. Other 
canopy associates are white pine (Pintis strobusX black cherry (Prunus serotina\ tamarack (Larix 
laricina), black spruce (Picea mariana), paper birch (Betula papyri/era), hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), 
yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), and red maple (Acer rubrum). Unlike spruce-tamarack forested 
bogs, spruce-fu" boreal swamps have red spruce rather than black spruce co-dominant in the canopy, 
and they typically leick bog indicator ^)ecies like Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum) and bog laurel 
(Kalmia polifolia). The following three shrubs almost always occur in boreal swamps: mountain holly 
(Nemopanthus mucronatus\ sheep laurel (Kalmia angustifolia\ and wild raisin (Viburnum nudum var. 
cassinoides). Other shrubs include American mountain-ash (Sorbus americana), hobble-bush 
(Viburnum lantanoides), and mountain maple (Acer spicatum). Typical herbaceous species are northern 
awned sedge (Carex gynandra\ New England sedge (Carex novae-angliae\ goldthread (Coptis trifolia 
ssp. groenlandica\ creeping snowberry (Gaultheria hispidula), blu^)ead-lily (Clintonia borealis\ one- 
sided pyrola (Orthilia secunda\ bishop's cap (Kiitella diphylla\ lesser mitrewort (Mitella nuda\ 
mountain wood-sorrel (Oxalis montana\ royal fern (Osmunda regalis\ and pale St. John's-wort 
(Hypericum ellipticum). The ground is often a carpet of mosses; more information is needed on the 
characteristic moss species. Richer variants of the community can occur in areas of calcareous 
groundwater seepage, but more information is needed. 

No associations have been described in Massachus^ts. 

Spruce-fir boreal swamps can function as vernal pool habitat if water remains standing 

for 2-3 months and they lack fish; these areas provide important amphibian l^-eeding habitat 



Associated rare plants: 

AMELANCHIER BARTRAMIANA 
ARCEUTHOBIUM PUSILLUM 
RIBESTRISTE 

Associated rare animals: 

PIERIS NAPI OLERACEA 



BARTRAMS SHADBUSH 
DWARF MISTLETOE 
SWAMP RED CURRANT 

MUSTARD WHITE 



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P-2 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples: 
Threats: 

Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 



MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

RI: 

Golet & Larson. 1974: 

Other 

Author 



several spruce-fir swampK bordering Peru WMA, Peru. 

More information is needed to identify the threats to boreal swamps. 

More information is needed to assess the management needs for boreal swamps. 

I 



Picea mariana/Kalmia angustifolia/Sphagnum spp. Forest [CEGL006168]; Picea rubens-Abies 
balsamea/Gaultheria hispiduIa/Sphagnum spp. ^nice swamp of northern Appalachians 
[CEGL0063 12]; Picea nibens-Abies balsamea/Sphagnum magellanicum forest [CEGL0063 1 1 ]; 
calcareous variants correspond to Fraxinus nigra-Acer rubrum/Nemopanthus mucronata-Vaccinium 
corymbosum forest (CEGL006220]. 

NNE Acidic Seepage Swamp [CP3B2B0000]. 

Spruce-fu" swamp commxmity. 

Spruce-fu--tamarack swan^). 

Coniferous basin swamp. 

Spruce-fir swamp. 

Picea rubens/Nemopanthus mucronata community. 

not described. 

Evergreen wooded swamp [WS-2]. 

Acidic conifer swamp community [Weatherbee 1 996]. 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-3 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



HEMLOCK-HARDWOOD SWAMP 

CP1A120000 
S4 
No 





jbA 















Concept: 
Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Acidic forested swamps where hemlock is dominant or co-dominant in the canopy. 

Hemlock-hardwood swamps occur in poorly drained basins in bedrock and till throughout the central 
and western portions of the state. The soil is muck and it is saturated throughout the year. Some 
groundwater seepage appears to be typical. At sites where mixed hemlock swamp and red maple swamp 
occur [1000 Acre Swamp in Athol and Phillipston], hemlock-dominated areas appear to occupy higher 
elevations. More information is needed to characterize the envirorunental setting and physical 
characteristics of hemlock-hardwood swamp forests. 

Many swamps have hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) as a component of the canopy but "hemlock-hardwood 
swamps" are differentiated from others by having hemlock as the major canopy species. In some cases, 
hemlock forms dense stand s. In other cases, probably more commonly, hemlock is associated with a 
mixture of white pine {Pinus strobus), red maple (Acer rubrum\ and yellow birch (Betula 
alleghaniensis). The hemlock-dominated canopy allows little light into the subcanopy and shrub species 
are ^larse, but shrubs can form dense thickets in canopy gaps. Typical shrubs include alders (Alnus 
spp.), highbush blueberry (Vacdnium corymbosum), winterberry {Ilex verticillata\ and mountain holly 
{Nemopanthus mucronatus). The ground layer is hummocky and covered in various moss sjjecies. Ferns 
are common, especially cinnamon fern {Osmunda cinnamomea). Sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis) also 
occurs. Goldthread {Coptis trifolia ssp. groenlandic)a is characteristic. In areas where hemlock is mixed 
with hardwoods, there appjears to be higher q)ecies diversity. Woodfems— including spinulose woodfem 
{Dryopteris carthusiand), intermediate woodfem {D. intermedia), and crested woodfem (D. cristata)— 
can be abundant in the herbaceous layer. Rich variants of hemlock-hardwood swamps occur. One rich 
site located at the base of a steq) forested slope in Huntington has a mixture of spice bush (Lindera 
benzoin), mountain-laurel (Kalmia latifolia), and hobble-bush {Viburnum lantanoides) in the shrub 
layer, and an herbaceous layer of more than 20 ^)ecies, including jack-in-the-pulpit {Arisaema 
triphyllum), spotted touch-me-not {Impatiens capensisX Pennsylvania bittercress {Cardamine 
pensylvanica), cinnamon fem {Osmunda cinnamomea\ interrupted fem {Osmunda claytoniana\ 
goldthread {Coptis trifolia ssp. groenlandica), and blue marsh- violet {Viola cucullata). Rich hemlock- 
hardwood swamps are differentiated from calcareous seqiage swamps by their lower herbaceous species 
richness, about 20 species as compared to >40 for calcareous seepage swamps, and their lack of 
characteristic calciphiles, such as deUcate sedge {Carex leptalea), brome-like sedge {Carex bromoides\ 
long-stalked sedge {Carex pedunculata), rough-leaved goldenrod {Solidago patula\ and golden ragwort 
{Senecio aureus). 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 

Hemlock-hardwood swamps can fimction as vemal pool habitat if water remains standing 
for 2-3 months and they lack fish; these areas provide important amphibian h^eeding habitat 



P-4 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated rare plants: 

MALAXIS BRACHYPODA 
RIBESTRISTE 

Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONIANUM 
AMBYSTOMA LATERALE 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 
Examples: 



WHITE ADDER'S-MOUTH 
SWAMP RED CURRANT 



JEFFERSON SALAMAND ER 
BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER 
SPOTTED TURTLE 
WOOD TURTLE 
FOUR-TOED SALAMAND ER 



T 

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SC 
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SC 
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Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Othen 

Author 



Bear Swamp, DEM Representative Natural Areas, Beartown SF, Great Banington; 1000 Acre Swamp, 
Athol/Phillipston ; Knightville Dam property, ACOE, Huntington/Chester. 

More information is needed to determine the threats to hemlock-hardwood swamps. 

More information is needed to assess the management needs for hemlock-hardwood swamps. 

2 



Tsxiga canadensis/Sphagnum spp. forest [CEGL006226] 

not described, included within Northern New England basin swamp [CP2B2B0000] 

not described 

Hemlock swamp 

Hardwood-conifer seepage swamp-Tsuga canadensis/Taxus canadensis association 

Hemlock-hardwood swamp; Rich hemlock-hardwood peat swamp 

Tsuga canadensis seasonally flooded forest 

Hemlock-hardwood sweimp 

Evergreen wooded swamp [WS-2] 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-5 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



COASTAL ATLANTIC WHITE CEDAR SWAMP 

CPIBIAIOOO 
S2 
Yes 




Concept: 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Basin swamps dominated by Atlantic white cedar (AWC) in the overstory and a mixture of coastal 
species in the understory. 

Coastal AWC swamps typically occur at low elevations, less than 40 ft. above sea level, in basins 
overlying sand and gravel deposits or glacial lake bottom sediments. They are limited to coastal regions 
of the state. Water-saturated peat overlies the mineral sediments, and standing water generally occurs 
for half of the growing season or longer. The water and soil are nutrient-poor, and particularly low in 
nitrogen and phosphorus. There is a high iron content in the soil; the iron, called "bog iron," was mined 
in the early days of manufacturing. Soil pH is acidic, 3.1-5.5, and leaf litter decomposition is slow. 

Atlantic white-cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) is the dominant tree mixed with red maple {Acer 
rubrum). Pitch pine {Pinus rigida), white pine (Pinus strobus\ and hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) are 
infrequent associates. These swamps can have a very dense shnib layer, including high-bush blueberry 
(Vaccimum corymbosum), swamp azalea {Rhododendron viscosum), sweet pepperbush {Clethra 
alnifolia) and fetterbush {Leucothoe racemosa). In Cape Cod sites, inkberry {Ilex glabra) frequently 
occurs. The herb layer is sparse and paXchy with cinnamon fern {Osmunda cinnamomea), Virginia 
chain fern {iVoodwardia virginioaX starflower {Trientalis borealis) and wild sarsaparilla {Aralia 
nudicaulis). The ground layer is dominated by Sphagnum spp. mosses. 

Motzkin (1991) described six AWC associations in Massachusetts. Coastal AWC swamps are 
equivalent to his Coastal AWC Type. 

Yoimg AWC thickets provide excellent cover for deer, rabbits and birds. Atlantic white-cedar foliage 
and twigs are preferred winter browse for white-tailed deer, while rabbits and mice can feed on cedar 
seedlings. Although no bird species appear to be restricted to AWC communities, studies have shown 
these wetlands to be important bird habitat. Birds that have been observed nesting in AWC swamps 
include Red-breasted Nuthatch, Brown Creeper, Black-and -white Warbler and Black-capped 
Chickadee. Coastal AWC swamps can ftinction as vernal pool habitat if water remains standing for 2-3 
months and they lack fish; these areas provide important amphibian breeding habitat 



Associated rare plants: 
LISTERA CORDATA 

Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA LATERALE 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CRANGONYX ABERRANS 



HEARTLEAF TWAYBLADE 

BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER 

SPOTTED TURTLE 

MYSTIC VALLEY AMPHIPOD 



SC 
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P-6 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 
LITHOPHANE VIRIDIPALLENS 
MTTOURA HESSELI 
PARULA AMERICANA 



FOUR-TOED SALAMAND ER 
PALE GREEN PINION MOTH 
HESSEL-S HAIRSTREAK 
NORTHERN PARULA 



SC 

sc 

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T 



Examples: 
Threats: 



Management needs: 



Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCn^NC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 



Marconi AWC Swamp, Cape Cod National Sea Shore, WellfleeL 



The two greatest threats to AWC swamps are land clearing for agricultural, commercial and residential 
development, and interference of normal hydrological functioning as a result of development. Atlantic 
white-cedar has been cut extensively for posts and shingles for over three centuries. In an extensive 
statewide vegetation inventory funded by MNHESP in 1990, no uncut stand s were found, but several sites 
contained cedars that were 100-200 years old. Selective cutting is detrimental to the persistence of AWC 
swamps, because hardwoods, such as red maple, out-compete and replace AWC. Any alterations to the 
natural hydroperiod of AWC swamps threatens their persistence. 

Due to the limited distribution of AWC swamps, it is recommended that no clearing or filling of these 
wetlands be allowed. Atiantic white-cedar will regenerate best following catastrophic disturbance events 
such as hurricanes and fires. Data suggest that in the absence of disturbance, red maple and shrubs increase 
in abundance at the expense of AUantic White-Cedar. Fire suppression negatively threatens the long-term 
persistence of AWC swamps, and controlled burning fjtactices may be an appropriate restoration tool in 
many areas. Controlled burning should be accompanied by small-patch clearcuts to be most effective. By 
clear-cutting small patches, generally 20 m x 20 m, &nd removing the slash and competing vegetation, 
pure, even-aged stand s of Atiantic White-Cedar are able to regenerate. AWC swamps require a natural 
cycle of wet and dry periods for their survival and reproduction. Standing water for much of the year is 
unfavorable for both seed germination and seedling survival, and young seedlings are killed by both 
drowning and drought It is recommended that any alterations in water levels be avoided, this includes 
development and road construction in uplands surrounding AWC swamps which can alter water levels. 
Where cedar weUands are associated with river systems, it is important to maintain normal hydrologic 
regime of the river. 



Inventory and vegetation classification completed by Glenn Motzkin in 1 990. 

Chamaecyparis thyoides/Dex verticillata forest [CEGL006189]; Chamaecyparis thyoides/Dex glabra forest 
[CEGL006188] 

SNE basin swamp, coastal Atlantic white cedar association [CP2B2A1 AOO] 

Atiantic white cedar swamp community 

does not occur 

AUantic white cedar basin swamp 

Coastal plain Atiantic white cedar swamp 

Chamaecyparis thyoides/Vaccinium corymbosum community 

Atiantic white cedar swamp, Chamaecyparis thyoides-Acer rubrum-Betula alleghimiensis variant, 
Chamaecyparis thyoides/Rhododendron viscosum variant 



Golet & Larson. 1974: Evergreen wooded swamp (WS-2) 
Other 



Author 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-7 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



INLAND ATLANTIC WHITE CEDAR SWAMP 

CP1B1A2000 
S2 
Yes 




Concept: Inland basin or seepage swamps dominated by Atlantic white cedar in the overstory. Hemlock, spruce, 

red maple, and yellow birch co-occur, and coastal indicator species are lacking. 

Environmental setting: Basin or seepage wetlands generally occurring in the central part of the state. Inland AWC swamps are 

found at a wide range of elevations and may be underlain by sand and gravel, glacial lake sediments, or 
till deposits. There is typically some surface water movement, and some of the sites receive groundwater 
seepage from nearby steep till deposits. As in all AWC swamps, water-saturated pjeat overUes the 
mineral sediments, and standing water generally occurs for half of the growing season or longer. The 
water and soil are nutrient-poor, and particularly low in nitrogen and phosphorus. Soil pH is acidic (3.1- 
5.5) and leaf litter decomposition is slow. 

Vegetation Description: Canopy trees in Inland AWC swamps differ depending on elevation. In sites lower than 700 ft. 

elevation, Atlantic White-Cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) is mixed with hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), 
red maple {Acer rubrum\ and yellow birch {Betula alleghaniensis). At elevations above 700 ft., Atlantic 
white-cedar is mixed with hemlock and spruce (Picea spp.). The low elevation sites typically have sweet 
pepperbush {Clethra alnifolia) and winterberry {Ilex verticillata) in the shrub layer, and high elevation 
sites have atnmdant mountain holly (Nemopanthus mucronata). The herb layer of both low- and higher- 
elevation sites is similar with cinnamon fern, starflower and Canada mayflower {Maianthemum 
canadense) common. High-elevation sites also have northern species such as creeping snowberry 
{Gaultheria hispidula) and bunchberry {Comus canadensis). 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Motzkin (1991) described six AWC associations in Massachus^ts. Inland AWC swamps include both 
his mixed hemlock-AWC-red maple-yellow birch type and spruce-hemlock-AWC type. 

Inland AWC swamps can ftmction as vernal p)ool habitat if water remains standing 

for 2-3 months and they lack fish; these areas provide important amphibian breeding habitat 



Associated rare plants: 

RHODODENDRON MAXIMUM 



GREAT LAUREL 



Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONL\NUM 
AMBYSTOMA LATERALE 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CRANGONYX ABERRANS 



JEFFERSON SALAMAND ER 
BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER 
SPOTTED TURTLE 
MYSTIC VALLEY AMPHIPOD 



SC 
SC 
SC 
SC 



P-8 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 

MTTOURA HESSELI 

Examples: 

Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 



Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 



MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 
Other 

Author 



FOUR-TOED SALAMAND ER 

HESSEL-S HAIRSTREAK 
Wilbraliam Cedar Swamp, Wilbraham. 
See description xinder Coastal AWC swamps. 
See description under Coastal AWC swamps. 
3 
Inventory and vegetation classification completed by Glenn Motzkin in 1990. 



SC 

sc 



Chamaecyparis thyoides-Tsuga canadensis/Lindera benzoin forest [CEGL006089], two of our sites 
correspond to Chamaecyparis thyoides/Rhododendron maximum forest (CEGLX)06355]. 

SNE acidic seepage swamp, inland Atlantic white cedar association. 

not described. 

not described. 

Atlantic white cedar basin swamp; rich variants correspond to Atlantic white cedar seepage swamp. 

Inland Atlantic white cedar swamp. 

some of our inland swamps are equivalent to the Chamaecyparis thyoides/Rhododendron maximum 
community. 

Atlantic white cedar swamp-Chamaecyparis thyoides/Rhododendron maximum variant; Chamaecyparis 
thyoides-Acer rubrum-Betula alleghaniensis vfuiant 

Evergreen wooded swamp (WS-2). 

Cedar/Hemlock type in New Jersey [Karlin 1 988]. 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-9 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



NORTHERN ATLANTIC WHITE CEDAR SWAMP 

CP1BIA3000 
S2 
Yes 




Concept: 
Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 

Associated rare plants: 

NONE KNOWN 

Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONIANUM 
HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 



A variant of spruce-fir boreal swamps in which Atlantic white cedar is an associate in the tree canopy. 

Northern AWC swamps are restricted to basins at high elevations; the one described occurrence in 
Massachusetts occurs at an elevation of 1 ,1 10 feet and is currently the highest known elevation for 
Atlantic White-Cedar in the state. As with all AWC swamps, water-saturated peat overUes the mineral 
sediments, and standing water generally occurs for half of the growing season or longer. The water and 
soil are nutrient-poor, aiKl particularly low in nitrogen and phosphorus. There is a high iron content in 
the soil; the iron, called "bog iron," was mined in the early days of manufacturing. Soil pH is acidic (3.1- 
5.S) and leaf litter decomposition is slow. 

Northern conifers, such as black and red spruce (Picea mariana and P. rubens\ and balsam fir {Abies 
balsamea) dominate the overstory, and Atlantic White-Cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) occurs as an 
associate. Shrubs and herbs are similar to those found in high-elevation Inland AWC swamps, especially 
mountain holly (Nemopanthus mucronatus\ creeping snowberry (Gaultheria procumbens), and 
bunchberry (Comus canadensis). Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum) and rhodora (Rhododendron 
canadense) are also common. 

Motzkin (1991) described six AWC associations in Massachusetts. Northern AWC swamps are 
equivalent to his boreal evergreen swamp forest type. 

Northern AWC swamps can fimction as vernal pool habitat if water remains standing 

for 2-3 months and they lack fish; these areas provide important amphibian breeding habitat 



JEFFERSON SALAMAND ER 
FOUR-TOED SALAMAND ER 



SC 
SC 



Examples: 
Threats: 

Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 



a site in Westminster. 

See description under Coastal AWC swamps. 

See description under Coastal AWC swamps. 

3 

Inventory and vegetation classification completed by Glenn Motzkin in 1 990. May be more sites in 
northern Worcester Coimty. 



P-10 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Commtmities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author J. Kearsley 



Chamaecyparis thyoides-Picea rubens/Gaylussacia baccata/Gaultheria hispidula forest [CEGL006363]. 

NNE Acidic seqieige swamp, Atlantic white cedar association (CP3B2B10OO1. 

may be included within the Atlantic white cedar swamp commimity. 

not described. 

may be included within Coniferous basin swamp. 

not described. 

not described. 

not described. 

Evergreen wooded swamp (WS-2). 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natxiral Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-11 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



Concept: 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



ALLUVIAL ATLANTIC WHITE CEDAR SWAMP 

CP1B1A4000 
S2 
Yes 




Forested swamps occurring along low-gradient rivers \viiere Atlantic white cedar is co-dominant with 
red maple in the overstory. 

Alluvial AWC swamps differ from other AWC wetlands in that they occur witliin the floodplain of 
rivers and streams or at the fringes of open marshy areas along ponds. They receive annual or semi- 
annual overbank flooding making them more mineral-rich than other AWC wetland s. As with all AWC 
swamps, water-saturated peat, generally about 1 m thick in alluvial examples, overlies the mineral 
sediments, and standing water generally occurs for half of the growing season or longer. 

Alluvial AWC swamps are highly variable in their composition. Atlantic white-cedar {Chamaecyparis 
thyoides) and red maple {Acer rubrwn) domixmte the tree layer, and high-bush blueberry {Vaccinium 
corymbosum) and sweet pepperbush (Clethra alnifolia) occur in the shrub layer along with silky 
dogwood {Comus amomum). The herb layer is comprised of species common to very wet, open or 
enriched sites, including sensitive fern {Onoclea sensibilisX royal fern {Osmunda regalis), bugleweed 
(Lycopus spp.X marsh fern {Thelypteris palustris\ and marsh SL John's-wort {Hypericum virginicum). 

Motzkin (1991) described six AWC associations in Massachusetts. Alluvial AWC swamps are 
equivalent to his Seasonally flooded type. 

Alluvial AWC swamps can function as vernal pool habitat if water remains standing 

for 2-3 months and they lack fish; these areas provide important amphibian breeding habitat 



Associated rare plants: 

LYCOPUS RUBELLUS 

Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA LATERALE 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
CRANGONYX ABERRANS 
HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 
MTTOURA HESSELI 



GYPSYWORT 

BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER 

SPOTTED TURTLE 

WOOD TURTLE 

MYSTIC VALLEY AMPHIPOD 

FOUR-TOED SALAMAND ER 

HESSEL-S HAIRSTREAK 



Examples: 
Threats: 



Known examples on the Canoe, Bungay, and Shingle Island Rivers. 
See description under Coastal AWC swamps. 



SC 

sc 

SC 

sc 
sc 
sc 



P-12 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 
USNVCn"NC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 
Other 

Author 



See description under Coastal AWC swamps. 

3 

Inventory and vegetation classification completed by Glenn Motzkin in 1990. 

Chamaecyparis thyoides-Acer rubruniA/accinium corymbosum/Triadenum virginicum forest 
[CEGL006364] 

SNE Streambottom forest, Atlantic white cedar association (CT2B2A1000] 

not described 

not described 

occur in state but are not described separately, included within Atlantic white cedar swamps 

included within Coastal plain Atlantic white cedar swamp 

Chamaecyparis thyoidesA^accinium corymbosum community 

included within Atlantic white cedar swamp, Chamaecyparis thyoides-Acer rubrum-Betula 
alleghaniensLS variant 

Evergreen wooded swamp (WS-2) 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-13 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



Concept: 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



ATLANTIC WHITE CEDAR BOG 

CP1B1B2000 
S2 
Yes 




Acidic forested peatlands with a nearly continuous heath shrub layer and an open canopy in vvhich 
Atlantic white cedar is the characteristic tree species. 

Semi-forested level bogs with sphagnum mats. More information is needed on the physical 
characteristics of Atlantic \\hite cedar forested bog conununities. 

Total canopy coverage is low, but Atlantic white cedar (AWC; Chamaecyparis thyoides) is dominant 
with scattered red maple {Acer rubrum). Other occasional associates are white pine (Pinus strobus), 
grey birch {Betula populifolid), pitch pine (Pinus rigida\ and black spruce {Picea mariand). A low 
shrub layer is dominated by leatherleaf (C/jamaec/ap/ine calyculata) and sheep laurel {Kalmia 
angustifolia) mixed with clumps of tall shrubs including high-bush blueberry {Vaccinium corymbosum) 
and swamp azalea {Rhododendron viscosum). Other associated shrub species are {Gaylussacia 
baccata), rhodora {Rhododendron canadense), {G. dumasa\ and bog rosemary {Andromeda 
glaucophylla). There is typically a well-formed Sphagnum moss layer below the shrubs, and large and 
small cranbeny {Vaccinium macrocarpon and V. oxycoccus\ sundews {Drosera spp.) and pitcher 
plants {Sarracenia purpurea) occur throughout 

Motzkin (1991) described six AWC associations in Massachusetts. AWC bogs are equivalent to his 
Cedar bog type. 

The moats of AWC bogs can function d& vernal pool habitat if water remains standing 

for 2-3 months and they lack fish; these areas provide important amphibian breeding habitat 



Associated rare plants: 

NONE KNOWN 

Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA LATERALE 
MTTOURA HESSELI 
PAPAIPEMA APPASSIONATA 



BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER 
HESSEL-S HAIRSTREAK 
PITCHER PLANT BORER MOTH 



SC 
SC 
SC 



Examples: 
Threats: 

Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 



Mashpee pine barrens, Mashpee. 

See description under Coastal AWC swamps. 

See description under Coastal AWC swamps. 

3 

Inventory and vegetation classification completed by Glenn Motzkin in 1990. 



P-14 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Synonyms: 






USNVCn-NC: 




included in Chamaecyparis thyoides/Chamaedaphne calyculata woodland [CEGL006321]. 


MA [old name]: 




not tracked. 


ME: 




? 


VT: 




not described. 


NH: 




? 


NY: 




not described. 


CT: 




? 


Rl: 




? 


Golet & Larson, 


1974: 




Other 







Author 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-15 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



SPRUCE-TAMARACK BOG 

CPIBIBIOOO 
S2 
Yes 



i03 


^— 


|JI| 




iwl 




% 


■^ 







Concept: 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Acidic forested peatlands with an overstory of black spruce and tamarack and an understory of heath 
shrubs on sphagnum moss. 

Forested bogs occur in a variety of physical settings, primarily in the north-central and western parts of 
the state. They occur in kettlehole depressions, watershed divides, and along pond margins. Forested 
bogs are late-successional peatlands that typically occur on thick peat deposits. 

Black spruce (Picea mariana) and tamarack (Larix laricina) are dominant in the overstory. Red spruce 
(Picea rubens) can occur in place of black spruce. The trunks and branches are often covered and 
draped in lichens, especially Usnea spp. Other trees that occur in lesser amounts are white pine (Pinus 
strobus), pitch pine {Pinus rigida), and red mq)le {Acer rubrum), but red spnice (Picea rubens) can 
also occur. A mixture of tall shrubs and short, ericaceous shrubs provide nearly continuous cover in the 
imderstory. Labrador tea {Ledum groenlandicum) and bog-laurel {Kalmia polifolia) are good indicators 
of the community, but they do not always occur. Other common shrubs are mountain-holly 
{Nemopanthus mucronatus\ wild raisin {Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides\ and sheep-laurel {Kalmia 
angustifolia). The ground is covered in Sphagnum spp. moss with three-seeded bog salge {Carex 
trispemta), three-leaved Solomon's seal {Maianthemum trifolium\ bluebead-lily {Clintonia borealis\ 
goldthread {Coptis trifolia ssp. groenlandica), and creeping snowberry {Gaultheria hispidula). 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 

The moats of forested bogs can function as vernal pool habitat if water remains standing 
for 2-3 months and they lack Gsh; these areas provide important amphibian breeding habitat 



Associated rare plants: 

ARCEUTHOBIUM PUSUXUM 

Associated rare animals: 

NONE KNOWN 

Examples: 

Threats: 

Management needs: 

bogs. 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 



DWARF MISTLETOE 



SC 



Poutwater Pond. MDC, Sterling. 

More work is needed to identify threats to black spruce-tamarack forested bogs. 

More work is needed to assess the management needs of black spruce-tamarack forested 



1 

Statewide inventory will be important follow-up to 1 998 inventory of non-forested acidic peatlands 
reported in Kearsley (1999). 



P-16 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Synonyms: 

USNVCrrNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author 



Picea mariana/Kalmia angustifoIia/Sphagnum spp. Forest [CEGL006168] 

not described, part of Northern New England level bog [CP2C2B0OO0] 

Forested bog community 

Black spruce bog [woodland ] 

Black spruce-larch basin swamp 

Black spruce-tamarack bog 

not described 

Black spruce bog 

Wooded bog (BG-2) 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-17 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



RED MAPLE SWAMP 

CP1A2A1000 
S5 
No 




Concept: Acidic forested swamps with red maple dominant in the overstory. Red maple swamps are the most 

common forested wetlands in Massachus^ts. 

Environmental setting: Red maple swamps occxir in a variety of physical settings. Golet at al. (1 993) describe three basic 

types: hillside seeps and upland drainageways fed primarily by groundwater seepage and overland flow, seasonally 
flooded basin swamps in undrained basins; and alluvial swamps. The last category is classified separately in 
Massachusetts as Alluvial Swamp Forest. Depending on the physical setting, red maple swamps receive water 
through surface runoff, groundwater inputs, or stream and lake overflow. The hydrogeologic setting is the primary 
determinant of water regime and the plant community structure and composition. pH ranges from less than 4 to 7. 
Soils have shallow to thick organic layers overlying mineral sand s/silts. 

Vegetation Description: Red maple is usually strongly dominant in the overstory, and often provides more than 90% of the 
canopy cover. A variable mixture of tree species co-occurs with red maple, including yellow birch {Betula 
alleghaniensis), black gum (Nyssa sylvatica\ white ash (Frndnus americana\ white pine (Pinus strobus), American 
elm (Ulmus americana), and hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Pin oak (Quercus palustris), and swamp \v1ute oak 
(Quercus bicolor). Atlantic white cedar {Chamaecyparis thyoides) is a common associate in coastal areas and locally 
at sites in central Massachusetts and the lower Connecticut Valley. When Atlantic white cedar is dominant in the 
overstory, the community is classified as an Atlantic wliite cedar swamp. The shrub layer of red maple swamps is 
often dense and well-developed, generally with >50% cover but it can be variable. In eastern Massachusetts, sweet 
pepperbush (Clethra alnifolia) and swamp azalea {Rhododendron viscosum) are the dominant shrubs. Other common 
shrubs are highbush blueberry (Vacdnium corymbosum) and common winterberry (//ex verticillata\ which are often 
dominant, and spicebush (Lindera benzoin); usually in richer areas, northern arrow-wood ( Viburnum dentatum var. 
lucidum), ^jeckled alder (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa\ nannyberry {Viburnum lentago\ and poison sumac 
{Toxicodendron vemix). The herbaceous layer is highly variable, but ferns are usually abundant Cinnamon fern 
{Osmunda cinnamomea) is common; other ferns include sensitive fern {Onoclea sensibilis), royal fern {Osmunda 
regalis\ marsh fern {Thelypteris palustris), and spinulose wood fern {Dryopteris carthusiana). Graminoids are 
common, mixed with a variety of herbaceous species. Some of the most common herbaceous species are skunk 
cabbage {Symplocarpus foetidus\ false hellebore {Veratrum viride\ spotted touch-me-not {Impatiens capensis\ 
swamp dewberry {Rubus hispidus\ marsh marigold {Caltha palustris), and the bugleweeds {Lycopus spp.). Rich 
variants of red maple swamps occur, apparently associated with groundwater seepage. Two rich variants are tracked 
separately: 1 . "Calcareous seepage swamps" are black ash-tamarack-red maple associations with abundant calciphihc 
herbaceous species occurring on calcareous bedrock in western Massachusetts, and 2. "Black ash swamps" have 
black ash co-dominant in the canopy, a high diversity of herbaceous species, and appear to occur in areas with 
circumneutral seepage. There are also rich variants of red maple swamps that lack the black ash of "black ash 
seepage swamps" and the calciphiles of "calcareous seepage swamps." More information is needed on rich red maple 
swamps; they may warrant separate tracking. 

Associations: No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 



Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Red maple swamps can function as vernal pool habitat in sections that have two or three months of 
ponding and lack fish; these sections provide important amphibian h-eeding habitat. 



P-18 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Conununities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated rare plants: 

ASTER PRENANTHOIDES 
CAREX GRAYI 
CLAYTONIA VIRGINICA 
CONIOSELINUM CHINENSE 
CYPRIPEDIUM CALCEOLUS VAR 

PARVIFLORUM 
CYPRIPEDIUM REGINAE 
HYDROPHYLLUM CANADENSE 
LOBELIA SIPHILrnCA 
LYCOPUS RUBELLUS 
MALAXIS BRACHYPODA 
PEDICULARIS LANCEOLATA 
PETASITES FRIGIDUS VAR PALMATUS 
SPHENOPHOLIS PENSYLVANICA 
VIOLA BRITTONIANA 

Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONL^NUM 
AMBYSTOMA LATERALE 
AMBYSTOMA OPACUM 
CIRCUS CYANEUS 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CRANGONYX ABERRANS 
DESMOCERUS PALLIATUS 
EMYDOIDEA BLAND INGE 
GYRINOPHILUS PORPHYRITICUS 
HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 
PAPAIPEMA SULPHURATA 
SOREX PALUSTRIS 
Examples: 
Threats: 



[Many of the rare plants listed below occur only in rich variants of red maple swamps] 

CROOKEI>STEM ASTER 
GRAY'S SEDGE 

NARROW-LEAVED SPRING BEAUTY 
HEMLOCK PARSLEY 
SMALL YELLOW LADY'S-SLIPPER 



SHOWY LADY'S-SLIPPER 
BROAD WATERLEAF 
GREAT BLUE LOBELIA 
GYPSYWORT 
WHITE ADDER'S-MOUTH 
SWAMP LOUSEWORT 
SWEET COLTSFOOT 
SWAMP OATS 
BRTTTON'S VIOLET 



SC 

T 

T 

SC 

E 

SC 

E 

T 

E 

T 

E 

T 

T 

T 



JEFFERSON SALAMANDER SC 

BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER SC 

MARBLED SALAMAND ER T 

NORTHERN HARRIER T 

SPOTTED TURTLE SC 

MYSTIC VALLEY AMPHIPOD SC 

ELDERBERRY LONG-HORNED BEETLE SC 

BLAND ING'S TURTLE T 

SPRING SALAMAND ER SC 

FOUR-TOED SALAMAND ER SC 

WATER-WILLOW STEM BORER T 

WATER SHREW SC 

Broad Meadow Brook W.S. MAS, Worcester, Apponagansett Swamp, New Bedford. 

Conversion to agriculture; filling for development and highway construction; upland development 



Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 



MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 
Author: 



adjacent to swamps impacts normal hydrology and geochemistry. 

Control of European buckthorn (Rhamnusjrangula) 

2 



similar to Acer iMhT\xm-{Chamaecyparis thyoidesYRhododendron maximum forest [CEGL0063%] but 
without R. maximimi in MA; more similar to Acer rubrum-Nyssa sylvatica-Betiila alleghaniensis / 
Sphagnum spp. Forest [CEGL0060I4] 

Southern New England basin swamp (CP2B2A0000] 

Red maple swamp commimity 

Red maple-black ash swamp, red maple-black gxmi swamp, red maple-northern white cedar swamp 

Basin swamp 

Red maple-hardwood swamp 

Acer rubrum/Lindera benzoin community; Acer rubrum/Onoclea sensibilis community; Acer 
rubrum/Dex verticillata-Vaccinium corymbosum community 

Acer rubrum-deciduous shrub swamp 

Deciduous wooded swamp (WS-1) 

J.Kearsley Date: 7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-19 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



ALLUVIAL RED MAPLE SWAMP 

CPiA2AlA00 
S3 
Yes 




Concept A richer variant of red maple swamp that occurs in low areas along rivers and streams that experience 

overbank flooding. 

Environmental setting: Alluvial red maple swamp forests occur along mainstem sections of smaller rivers in eastern 

Massachusetts (Nashua Assabet, Shawsheen, Concord, and Three Mile). They experience overbank 
flooding, but they appear to be more pooriy drained than true floodplain forests. Soils are typically silt 
loams with pronounced soil mottling and a surface organic layer. 

Vegetation Description: The overstory of alluvial red maple swamps is characterized by a mixture of red maple (A. rubrum) and 

silver maple (Acer saccharinum; particularly along riverbanks) with lesser amounts of green ash 
(Fraxinus pennsytvanica) and /or swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor). Red oak (Q. rubra), white pine 
(Pinus strobus), and black cherry (Prunus serotina) occur in elevated sections. Unlike true floodplain 
forests, alluvial swamp forests have well-developed shrub layers composed of northern arrow-wood 
(Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum), silky dogwood (Comus amomum\ and the non-native plant 
European buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula). The herbaceous layer is often dominated by sensitive fern 
(Onoclea sensibilis) and false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica) mixed with a rich assemblage of herbaceous 
species tliat commonly includes royal fern (Osmunda regalis\ awned sedge (Carex crinita\ and 
bugleweeds (Lycopus sr).). 



Associations: 



Habitat values for 



One association was described in Kearsley [1998]; Type V-Alluvial swamp forests (Acer rubrum-A. 

saccharinum-Q. bicolor Association). 

Alluvial red maple swamps, especially at the upland fringe or in old meander scars and oxbows, can 
function as vernal pool habitat if water remains standing for 2-3 months and they lack fish; these areas 
provide important amphibian breeding habitat Riverine odonates use adjacent alluvial red m^le 
swamps for shelter. 



Associated rare plants: 

BETULA NIGRA 
CAREX TYPHINA 



RIVER BIRCH 
CAT-TAIL SEDGE 



-WL 
T 



Associated rare animals: 

CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
EMYDOIDEA BLAND INGH 
GOMPHUS VASTUS 
GOMPHUS VENTRICOSUS 



SPOTTED TURTLE 
WOOD TURTLE 
BLAND ING'S TURTLE 
COBRA CLUBTAIL 
SKILLET CLUBTAIL 



SC 

SC 

T 

SC 

SC 



P-20 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



NEUROCORDULIA OBSOLETA 
OPHIOGOMPHUS ASPERSUS 
OPfflOGOMPHUS CAROLUS 
SOMATOCHLORA CINGULATA 
SOMATOCHLORA ELONGATA 
SOMATOCHLORA GEORGIANA 
SOMATOCHLORA KENNEDYI 
SOMATOCHLORA LINEARIS 



UMBER SHADOWDRAGON 
BROOK SNAKETAIL 
RIFFLE SNAKETAIL 
LAKE EMERALD 
SKI-TAILED EMERALD 
COPPERY EMERALD 
KENNEDYS EMERALD 
MOCHA EMERALD 



SO 

SC 

T 

SC 

SC 

E 

E 

SC 



Examples: 
Threats: 

Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other. 

Author J. Kearsley 



parts of Fort Devens, Nashua River, sections of the Blackstone and Concord Rivers. 



Invasion of non-native plant species, including moneywort (Lysimachia nummularid) and European 
buckthorn (Rhamnusfranguld). 

Removal of non-native plant species. 

2 



Acer rubrum-Fraxinus (pennsyhanica, americanayLmilcrdi benzoin/Symplocarpus foetidus forest 
[CEGL006406]; Quercus bicolor-Acer rubrum/Carpinus caroliniana forest [CEGL006386]; Acer 
rulMiun/Carex stricta-Onoclea sensibilis woodland (CEGL0061 19]. 

Southern New England stream bottom forest (CT2B2A0OO0]. 

included within Hardwood floodplain forest community and /or Red maple swamp commimity. 

not described 

Red maple floodplain forest 

similar to Silver maple-ash swamp. 

similar to Acer rubrum/Lindera benzoin community but with swamp white oak. 

may be included within Acer nit^xmi-deciduous shrub swamp. 

Deciduous wooded swamp (WS-1). 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangaed Species Program 



July 2000 



F-21 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



BLACK ASH SWAMP 

CP1A2A2000 
S2 
Yes 




Concept: 



A variant of red maple swamps in which black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is co-dominant in the canopy. 
Black ash swamps are associated with circumneutral groundwater seepage. 



Environmental setting: 



Black ash swamps typically occur in areas with circumneutral groundwater seepiage. They can occur at 
the edge of river floodplains adjacent to the upland slope where seepage input occurs, as small seepy 
pockets within a larger matrix of red maple swamp, or at the headwaters of streams, which may be the 
typical location in northern and western parts of the state. The pH of black ash swamps in Essex Co. 
ranges between 7.0 and 7.4 [MacE>ougall, pers. comm.]. More information is needed on the physical 
characteristics of black ash seepage swamps. 



Vegetation Description: 



Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is co-dominant with red maple (Acer rubrum) in the overstory. There are 
lesser amounts of sugar maple (Acer saccharum\ Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis\ yellow birch 
(Betula alleghaniensis\ and white pine (Finns strobus). Ironwood (Carpinus caroliniana) is common 
in the sub-canopy, but it does not always occur. Common shrubs are spicebush (LinJera benzoin\ 
winterberry (Ilex verticillata), highbush bluebeny (Vaccinium corymbosum), mountain holly 
(Nemopanthus mucronata), northern arrow-wood (Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum), and occ£isional 
witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana). Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) and cinnamon fern 
(Osmunda cinnamomea) are common heib species. Other herbaceous associates include sensitive fern 
(Onoclea sensibilis\ royal fem (Osmunda regalis), lady fern (/4f/j>num_/7/ir-_/^ffH>uiX jack-in-the-pulpit 
(Arisaema triphyllum), tussock sedge (Carex stricta), swamp-saxifrage (Saxifraga pensylvanica), and 
jewelweed (Impatiens capensis). The micro-topxjgraphy is hummock and hollow with abundant 
Sphagnum spp. moss, particularly on the hiunmocks. Black ash swamps occurring in Berkshire Co. or 
the Connecticut Valley that have species-rich herbaceous layers, with more than 40 species, and 
calcareous indicator species including dehcate sedge (Carex leptalea), lx"ome-like sedge (Carex 
bromoides\ long-stalked sedge (Carex pedunculata), rough-leaved goldenrod (Solidago patula), and 
golden ragwort (Senecio aureus) are classified separately as "black ash-red maple-tamarack calcareous 
seepage swamps." 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 

Associated rare plants: 

NONE KNOWN 



No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 

Black ash swamps can fimction as vernal pool habitat if water remains standing 

for 2-3 months and they lack fish; these areas provide important amphibian breeding habitat 



P-22 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated rare animals: 

CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
EMYDOIDEA BLAND INCH 
PAPAIPEMA SP 2 
Examples: 
Threats: 



Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVCH'NC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author 



SPOTTED TURTLE 
WOOD TURTLE 
BLAND ING'S TURTLE 
OSTRICH FERN BORER MOTH 

Cedar Swamp, Reading; Satan's Kingdom WMA, Northfield. 



SC 

sc 

T 
SC 



Known threats include alteration of natural seepage and logging. More information is needed to 
determine the greatest threats to black ash seepage swamps. 

More information is needed to assess the management needs of bleick ash seepage swamps. 

1 



Fraxinus nigra-Acer riibrum/Nemopanthus mucronata-Vaccinium corymbosum forest [CEGL006220]. 

Southern New England acidic seepage swamp, black ash swamp [CP3B2A1C00]. 

not described. 

Red m^le-black ash swamp. 

Calcareous/circumneutral hardwood seepage swamp. 

not described. 

not described. 

not described. 

Deciduous wooded swamp (WS-1). 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Rentage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-23 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



BLACK ASH-RED MAPLE-TAMARACK CALCAREOUS SEEPAGE SWAMP 

CP1B2B0000 
S2 
Yes 




Concept: 
Environmental setting: 

Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Mixed deciduous-coniferoxis forested swamps occurring in areas where there is calcareous groundwater 
seepage. The qjecies-rich herbaceous layer is characterized by calcium-loving species. Calcareous 
seepage swamps can also be called forested fens. 

The occurrence of calcareous or circumneutral groundwater seepage defmes this community. The more 
calcareous the seepage, the more rare plant species are likely to be found. Soils are mineral but with a 
thin layer of peat accumulation at the surface. More information is needed on the physical 
characteristics of this community. 

A variable mixture of deciduous and coniferous trees forms the canopy, but black ash (Fraxinus nigra\ 
tamarack (Larix laricina\ and red maple {Acer rubrum) are most common. Other associeited tree 
species at low elevations, less than 1 ,000 ft., are bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa), yellow oak (Q. 
muehlenbergii), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), American elm (Ulmus americana), white pine 
(Pinus strobus), and hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). At higher elevations, red spruce {Picea rubens), 
balsam fir (Abies balsamea\ and Canada yew {Taxus canadensis) can also occur. Ironwood (Carpinus 
caroliniana) is characteristic of the subcanopy. The shrub layer can be dense, aixl characteristic ^)ecies 
are poison sumac {Toxicodendron vemix) and alder-leaf buckthorn {Rhamnus abiifolia), mixed with 
speckled alder {Alnus rugosa\ gray dogwood {Comus racemosa), winterberry (Ilex verticillata\ 
spicebush (Lindera benzoin\ meadowsweet (Spiraea latifolia), and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium 
corymbosum). Shrubby cinquefoil (Pentaphylloides Jloribunda) often occurs in open areas. The 
herbaceous layer is diverse with many calciphilic (calcium-loving) species mixed in with other 
common wetland plants Characteristic calciphiles are delicate sedge (Carex leptalea\ brome-like 
sedge (Carex bromoides\ long-stalked sedge (Carex pedunculata\ rough-leaved goldenrod (Solidago 
patula), and golden ragwort (Senecio aureus). Other typical species in the herbaceous layer are skunk 
cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus\ sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis\ royal fern (Osmunda regalis), 
jewelweed (Impatiens capensis\ and naked mitrewort (Mitella nuda). This community type also has a 
concentration of state-ix'otected rare plant q)ecies. 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 

Calcareous seepage swamps c can ftmction as vernal pool habitat if water remains standing 
for 2-3 months and they lack fish; these areas provide important amphibian breeding habitat 



Associated rare plants: 

CAREX SCHWEINITZn 
CONIOSELINUM CHINENSE 
CYPRIPEDIUM REGINAE 
TvIALAXIS BRACHYPODA 



SCHWEINTTZ'S SEDGE 
HEMLOCK PARSLEY 
SHOWY LADYS-SLIPPER 
WHITE ADDER'S-MOUTH 



E 
SC 

SC 
T 



P-24 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



PYROLA ASARIFOLIA VAR PURPUREA 
QUERCUS MACROCARPA 
QUERCUS MUEHLENBEROn 
RIBES TRISTE 

Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONIANUM 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
CLEMMYS MUHLENBERGE 
HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 
WILLIAMSONIA FLETCHERI 



PINK PYROLA 
MOSSY-CUP OAK 
YELLOW OAK 
SWAMP RED CURRANT 

JEFFERSON SALAMAND ER 
SPOTTED TURTLE 
WOOD TURTLE 
BOG TURTLE 

FOUR-TOED SALAMAND ER 
EBONY BOGHAUNTER 



E 

SC 

SC 

-WL 

SC 

SC 

SC 

E 

SC 

E 



Examples: 
Threats: 



Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCn"NC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 
Other 

Author: 



most examples occur in Beiicshire County. 

Logging, nutrient inputs such as road salts, damming by beavers, and alterations of water levels 
threaten this community. Water level disturbance can lead to the invasion by non-native plants, 
including the aggressive exotics purple loosestrife (Lythnim salicaria\ Tatarian honeysuckle (Lonicera 
tatarica), and Morrow's honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowii). Phragmites {Phragmites australis) is also 
an aggressive exotic in disturbed forested fens. 

Removal/control of non-native plant ^)ecies, especially phragmites. 

3 

Good plot data and community descriptions available. Ranking ^>ecincations need to be established. 

Fraxinus nigra-Acer rubrum-(Laiix laricinayRhamnus alnifolia forest [CEGL006009]; Fraxinus nigra- 
Acer rubrum/Nemopanthus mucronata-Vacciniimi corymbosum forest [CEGL006220]. 

SNE Calcareous Seepage Swamp [CP3B1A00001. 

not described. 

Tamarack-red maple forested fen. 

Calcareous/circumneutral hardwood seepage swamp; Hardwood-conifer seepage swamp. 

Rich hemlock-hardwood peat swamp: Red maple-tamarack peat swamp. 

similar to Acer rubrum-Fraxinus nigra/Ranunculus hispidus var. caricetorum community, Acer 
rubrum/Lindera benzoin community. 

not described 

Deciduous wooded swamp (WS-1); Evergreen wooded swamp (WS-2). 

Forested fen community [Weatherbee 1996]; Rich forested Swamp [Motzkin 1995] 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-25 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



BLACK GUM - PIN OAK - SWAMP WHITE OAK "PERCHED" SWAMP 

CP1A2A3000 
S2 
Yes 




Concept: 
Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



A red maple-dominated basin swamp in which black gum, pin oak, and swamp white oak are important 
components of the overstory. This vegetation association is limited to lakebed sediments of glacial 
Lake Hitchcock in the Connecticut Valley. 

These swamp forests generally occur in basins that have little or no slope where deposits of lake- 
bottom clays are overlain by silt and sand. The lake-bottom clays appear to be impermeable which 
creates a "perched" water table isolated from groundwater. There may be some connection to the 
groundwater along the margins of these wetlands or, to a more limited degree, through slow vertical 
movement. Periodic flooding occurs as indicated by the lack of organic matter accumulation. More 
information is needed to determine if this association is restricted to areas of perched water tables. 

Red maple (Acer nibrum) dominates the overstory, but the southern tree species— black giun (Nyssa 
syh>atica\ pin oak (Quercus palustris\ and swan^ white oak {Quercus bicolor)— are co^ominanL 
Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is a common associate. There is pronounced hunmiock-hollow 
topography, and most plants, except the sedges, are confmed to the hummocks. The shrub layer is 
similar to other swamp forests. Common species include highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum\ 
northern arrow-wood {Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum\ common winterbeny (Ilex verticillata) and 
serviceberry (Amelanchier spp.). The herbaceous layer is variable, but cinnamon fern (Osmunda 
cinnamomea) occurs at all known sites. Other common herbaceous species are Canada mayflower 
(Kiaianthemum canadense var. canadense), goldthread (Coptis trifolia ssp. groenlandica\ Indian 
cucumber-root (Medeola virginiana), and various sedge species (Carex spp.). 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 

Perched swamps can function as vernal pools in sections that have extended periods of ponding, 2-3 
months, and lack fish; these sections provide important amphibian Ineeding habitat. 



Associated rare plants: 

CLAYTONIA VIRGINICA 
LYGODIUM PALMATUM 
PETASITES FRIGIDUS VAR PALMATUS 

Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONIANUM 
AMBYSTOMA LATERALE 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 



NARROW-LEAVED SPRING BEAUTY 
CLIMBING FERN 
SWEET COLTSFOOT 

JEFFERSON SALAMAND ER 
BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER 
SPOTTED TURTLE 
WOOD TURTLE 
FOUR-TOED SALAMAND ER 



T 

SC 

T 

SC 
SC 
SC 
SC 
SC 



P-26 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples: 
Threats: 



Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 
Other: 

Author: 



Lawrence Swamp, Amherst; Great Swamp, Whately. 

It is likely that this community type once covered a larger area of the Connecticut Valley, but much of 
the lake bottom has been cleared and converted to agriculture. Only patches of these perched swamps 
remain. Current threats include alteration of water chemistry from road and farm runoff, in particular, 
the accumulation of road salts, ditching by land owners to drain water, and logging. 

Disturbed areas appear to have large amounts of European buckthorn {Rhamnus frangula). Efforts to 
prevent further disturbance may prevent the spread of this invasive plant species. 



Inventory and community characterization completed by Karen Searcy et al. in 1993. 

not described; most similar to Quercus palustris-Acer rubnim/Osmunda cinnamomea forest 

Tupelo-pin oak-swamp wiiite oak association [CT2F1A1000]. 

not described. 

not described. 

not described. 

similar envirorunental setting to Perched swamp white oak swamp but with different species. 

Acer rubrum/Onoclea sensibilis community [has pin oak and swamp white oak as associates; occurs on 
glacial lake sediments]. 

probably included within Acer rulxiim-deciduous shrub swamp. 

Deciduous wooded swamp (WS-1). 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-27 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



BLACK GUM SWAMP 

CP1B2A0OO0 
S2 
Yes 




Concept: 
Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 

Associated rare plants: 

Associated rare animals: 

CLEMMYS GUTTATA 

Examples: 
Threats: 



Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 



Forested acidic basin swamps with accumulations of peeiL Black gum is the dominant canopy tree. 

Black gum swamps are forested hummocky peatlands that occur in poorly-drained basins. There can be 
small areas of seepage, usually at the edges of the basin, where seepage indicator plants such as black 
ash and bugleweed, occur. pH is strongly acidic and ranges from 3-5. More information is needed. 

Black gum swamps have pronounced hummock-hollow topography, and woody vegetation is confined 
to the hummocks. The canopy is open, often in the 25-50% cover range. Black gum (Nyssa sylvatica) 
dominates the canopy, but red maple {Acer rubrum) and Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) are also 
abundant. Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), white pine (Pinus strobus), red spruce (Picea rubens\ 
and black ash {Fraxinus nigra) may also be common. The shrub layer is well-developed; typical species 
include common winterberry {Ilex verticillata\ smooth winterberry {Ilex laevigata), mountain-laurel 
{Kalmia latifolia), common mountain-holly {Nemopanthus mucronatus), highbush blueberry {Vaccinium 
corymbosum\ and wild raisin {Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides). Herbaceous species occur on the 
hummocks and include cinnamon fern {Osmunda cinnamomea\ beggar-ticks {Bidens jrondosa\ 
goldthread {Coptis trifolia ssp. groenlandica), northern water-horehound {Lycopus unijlorus), swamp- 
dewberry {Rubus hispidusX marsh SL John's-wort {Triadenum virginicum), and Massachusetts fern 
{Thelypteris simulata). Wet hollows are typically lined with sedges including silvery bog-sedge {Carex 
canescens ssp. arctiformis), bladxler-sedge {Carex intumescens\ tussock-sedge {Carex stricta), and 
three-seeded bog sedge {Carex trisperma). 

No £issociations have been descnbed in Massachusetts. 

Black gum swamps can function as vernal pool habitat if water remains standing for 2-3 months 
and they lack fish; these areas provide important amphibian breeding habitat 



SPOTTED TURTLE 



Satan's Kingdom WMA Northfield. 



SC 



Hydrologic alterations threaten black gum swamps. Selective logging of trees other than black gam 
may have allowed the relative abundance of black gum to increase. More information is needed. 

More information is needed to assess the management needs for black gam swamps. 

2 



P-28 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Synonyms: 
USNVCn"NC: 
MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author 



Acer rubrum-Nyssa sylvatica-Betula alleghaniensis/Sphagnuin spp. Forest [CEGL006014]. 

Southern New England basin swamp, black g\im association [CP2B2A1B00]; Southern New England 
acidic seepage swamp, black gum swamp (CPSBZAIBOOJ. 

not described. 

Red maple-black gum swamp. 

Black gum-red maple basin swamp. 

not described. 

Acer mbrum-Nyssa sylvatica / Clethra alnifolia community. 

not described. 

Deciduous wooded swamp (WS-1). 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-29 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



MAJOR-RIVER FLOODPLAIN FOREST 

CP1A2B1000 
S2 
Yes 




Concept: 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 



Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Silver maple-dominated forest community of alluvial floodplains of the Connecticut, Deerfield and 
Housatonic Rivers. 

Major-river floodplain forests are known to occur along mainstem sections of large rivers, such as the 
Connecticut, Housatonic, and Deerfield Rivers in Massachusetts. Soils are predominantly sand y loams 
without soil mottles and without a surface organic layer. Flooding at these sites occurs annually and is 
usually severe. An island variant of major-river floodplain forests [Type I in Kearsley, 1998] occurs on 
elevated sections of riverine island s and riverbanks of major rivers where there are high levels of both 
natural and human disturbance. 

Major-river floodplain forests have silver maple {Acer saccharinum) strongly dominant in the 
overstory, with over 60% cover, mixed with lesser amounts of cottonwood {Populus deltoides). 
American elm (JUlmus americana) and /or slippery elm {U. rubra) occur in the subcanopy. Shrubs are 
generally lacking. The herbaceous layer is usually dominated by a 3-6 ft. [1-2 m] tall, dense cover of 
wood-nettles (Laportea canadensis). Ostrich fern {Kiatteuccia struthiopteris) is sometimes abundant 
Whitegrass (Leersia virginica) is consistently represented, but in low amounts, typically <5% cover. 
Other common associates are woodreed (Cinna arundinacea) and jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema 
triphyllum). An island variant of major-river floodplain forests [Type I in Kearsley, 1998] has similar 
species, but silver maple is not dominant in the overstory and the herbaceous layer is typically strongly 
dominated by ostrich fern. The overstory is an even mix of silver maple, cottonwood, sycamore 
{Platanus occidentalis\ and American ash {Fraxinus americana\ with box elder {Acer negundo) and 
hackberry {Celtis occidentalis; on the Housatonic River) common in the subcanopy. Species typical of 
disturbed areas, such as staghom sumac {Rhus typhina) and bittersweet {Celastrus orbiculata), are also 
common in this variant, as are the vines, riverbank grape {Vitis riparia) and Virginia creeper 
{Parthenocissus quinquefolia). 

Two associations were described in Kearsley (1998). They are: Type I- Riverine island floodplain 
forests {Acer saccharinum-Populus deltoides-Acer negundo^atteuccia struthiopteris Association^ 
and Type II-Major-river floodplain forests {A saccharinum-P. deltoides-Laportea canadensis 
Association). 

Floodplain forests are insect-rich habitats that attract warblers, thrushes and other songbirds. In 
particular yellow-throated and warbling vireos, which like to nest in the canopies of riverside trees, are 
frequently observed in floodplain forest communities. Raptors such as bald eagles and red-shouldered 
hawics also use riverbank trees as perch sites. In spring floods, wood ducks and hooded mergansers like 
the shady edges of floodplain forests and the interior meander scar pools. Eastern comma butterflies 
feed on elm and nettles, and the shady riverbanks are patrolled by several dragonfly species such as 
beaked and fawn darners. Interior meander scars and sloughs fimction as vernal pools providing 
breeding habitat for many frog species, such as leojsard and pickerel frogs, American toads, and mole 
salamanders. Floodplain forests also provide sheltered, riverside corridors for deer and migratory 
songbirds. 



P-30 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated rare plants: 

MENISPERMUM CANADENSE 

Associated rare animals: 

CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
DESMOCERUS PALLIATUS 
GOMPHUS FRATERNUS 
GOMPHUS VASTUS 
GOMPHUS VENTRICOSUS 
HALIAEETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS 
NEUROCORDULIA OBSOLETA 
OPfflOGOMPHUS ASPERSUS 
OPHICXjOMPHUS CAROLUS 
POMATIOPSIS LAPIDARIA 
SOMATOCHLORA CINGULATA 
SOMATOCHLORA ELONGATA 
SOMATOCPTLORA GEORGIANA 
SOMATOCHLORA KENNEDYI 
SOMATOCHLORA LINEARIS 
STYLURUS AMNICOLA 
STYLURUS SCUDDERI 
STYLURUS SPINICEPS 



MOONSEED 

WOOD TURTLE 

ELDERBERRY LONG-HORNED BEETLE 

MIDLAND CLUBTAIL 

COBRA CLUBTAIL 

SKILLET CLUBTAIL 

BALD EAGLE 

UMBER SHADOWDRAGON 

BROOK SNAKETAIL 

RIFFLE SNAKETAIL 

RTVERBANK LOOPING SNAIL 

LAKE EMERALD 

SKI-TAILED EMERALD 

COPPERY EMERALD 

KENNEDrS EMERALD 

MOCHA EMERALD 

RIVERINE CLUBTAIL 

ZEBRA CLUBTAIL 

A CLUBTAIL DRAGONFLY 



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Examples: 
Threats: 



Management needs: 



Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Author: 



Fannie Stebbins, East Longmefidow; Rainbow Beach, Northampton. 

Current threats include alteration of natural hydrology through damming, loss of vegetated buffer, 
disturbance by trail cutting and the subsequent invasion of non-native plant species. In a 1997 
statewide floodplain forest community inventory, non-native plant species were observed at all 
floodplain forest sites surveyed, but they appeared to be localized to areas where the canopy was 
opened, the herbaceous layer was cleared, and the soil was disturbed. Non-native plant species were 
most abundant is the island variant of major-river floodplain forests that are heavily used by campers 
and boaters for recreatioa Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) currently poses the greatest 
tlu^at to major-river floodplain forests because of its ability to spread rapidly and shade out all other 
herbaceous plants. 

The natural hydrologic regime that created these ^)ecia] communities and their natural closed-canopy 
forest structure must be maintained. There are no truly effective ways to eradicate Japanese knotweed 
once it has established. The best way to avoid its spjread is to prevent its establishment by avoiding all 
clearing and disturbance within floodplain forest areas, particularly on the sandier banks. 

3 

Inventory and vegetation classiflcation completed by Jennifer Kearsley in 1 997. 

Acer saccharinum-Populus deltoides/Matteuccia struthiopteris Forest [CEGL006147]. 

Southern New England floodplain forest ICT2B1A0000]. 

Hardwood floodplain forest community. 

Silver maple-ostrich fern riverine floodplain forest 

Silver maple/wood nettle-ostrich fern floodplain forest 

Floodplain forest. 

Acer saccharinum-Populus deltoides forests; Acer saccharinum/ Eupatorium rugosum community. 

Maple-sycamore floodplain forest. 

Deciduous wooded swamp (WS-1). 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-31 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



TRANSITIONAL FLOODPLAIN FOREST 

CP1A2B2000 
S2 
Yes 




Concept: 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Silver maple-green ash-American elm forests occurring on alluvial soils. Transitional floodplain forests 
are intermediate in vegetation composition and soils between major- and small-river types. 

Transitional floodplain forests are known to occur on third-order or smaller tributaries of the 
Connecticut River, on portions of the Housatonic River, and in depressions within major-river 
floodplain forests of the Connecticut and Deerfield Rivers. Sites generally experience annual flooding. 
The severity of flooding, soil texture, and soil drainage of transitional floodplain forests is intermediate 
between major-river and small-river floodplain forests. Soils are either silt loams or very fme sand y 
loams, and soil mottling is generally present within 60 cm [2 ft.] of soil surface. A surface organic layer 
is typically absent 

Transitional floodplain forests have a vegetation association intermediate between major-river and 
small-river floodplain forests. Silver maple {Acer saccharinum) is dominant in the canopy, but unlike 
in major-river forests, cottonwood {Populua deltoides) is typically absent. Similar to small-river forests, 
green ash {Fraxinus pennsylvamca) and American elm (JJlmus americana) are present. A shrub layer is 
generally lacking; however, saplings of overstory trees are common. Vines are abundant with hog 
peanut (Amphicarpaea hracteata) most common. Wood-nettle {Laportea canadensis) is not dominant, 
but it is present in low amounts, about 5-15% cover. The herbaceous layer is typically an even mixture 
of wood-nettle, ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris\ sensitive fem (Onoclea sensibilisX and false 
nettle {Boehmeria cylindrical 

One association was described in Kearsley (1998): Type Hi-Transitional floodplain forests (A 
saccharinum-Arisaema dracontium Association). 

Transitional floodplain forests often contain meander scars or sloughs that can fiinction as vernal 
pools and provide important amp^bian breeding habitat 



Associated rare plants: 

ARISAEMA DRACONTIUM 
CAREXGRAYI 
CAREXTYPHINA 
MENISPERMUM CANADENSE 

Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONIANUM 
AMBYSTOMA LATERALE 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 



GREEN DRAGON 
GRAY'S SEDGE 
CAT-TAIL SEDGE 
MOONSEED 

JEFFERSON SALAMAND ER 
BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER 
SPOTTED TURTLE 



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P-32 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
GOMPHUS FRATERNUS 
GOMPHUS VASTUS 
GOMPHUS VENTRICOSUS 
HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 
NEUROCORDULIA OBSOLETA 
OPHIOGOMPHUS ASPERSUS 
OPfflOGOMPHUS CAROLUS 
SOMATOCHLORA CINGULATA 
SOMATOCHLORA ELONGATA 
SOMATOCHLORA GEORGIANA 
SOMATOCHLORA GEORGL^NA 
SOMATOCHLORA KENNEDYI 
SOMATOCHLORA LINEARIS 
STYLURUS AMNICOLA 
STYLURUS SCUDDERI 
STYLURUS SPINTCEPS 
Examples: 
Threats: 



WOOD TURTLE 
MIDLAND CLUBTAIL 
COBRA CLUBTAIL 
SKILLET CLUBTAIL 
FOUR-TOED SALAMAND ER 
UMBER SHADOWDRAGON 
BROOK SNAKETAIL 
RIFFLE SNAKETAIL 
LAKE EMERALD 
SKI-TAILED EMERALD 
COPPERY EMERALD 
COPPERY EMERALD 
KENNEDY^ EMERALD 
MOCHA EMERALD 
RIVERINE CLUBTAIL 
ZEBRA CLUBTAIL 
A CLUBTAIL DRAGONFLY 
lower Mill River, Hatfield; lower Sawmill River, Montagiie. 



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Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVCn"NC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Othen 

Author: 



Threats are similar to those for major-river floodplain forests. Non-native plant species can be abundant 
in disturbed, open areas. The most common non-native plant species are moneywort {Lysimachia 
nummularia), forget-me-not (Kfyosotis scorpioides\ and glossy buckthorn (Rhamnusfrangula). 

All efforts should be made to mechanically remove non-native plant species and to prevent fiirther 
clearing. 



Inventory and vegetation classification completed by Jennifer Kearsley in 1997. 

similar to Acer saccharinum-Ulmus americana/Onoclea sensibilis Forest [CEGL006001]. 

Southern New England floodplain forest (CT2B1 AOOOO]. 

Hardwood floodplain forest community. 

may be included within Silver m^le-sensitive fem-false nettle riverine floodplain forest 

may be included within Silver maple/false nettle-wood reed-sedge floodplain forest 

Floodplain forest. 

similar to Acer saccharinum/Onoclea sensibilis community [Matteuccia struthiopteris variant]. 

Maple-sycamore floodplain forest 

Deciduous wooded swamp (WS-1 ). 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P.33 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



SMALL-RIVER FLOODPLAIN FOREST 

CP1A2B3000 
S2 
Yes 




Concept: 
Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Silver maple/green ash-dominated forests occurring on alluvial soils of small rivers and streams. 

Small-river floodplain forests are known to occur on third-order or smaller tributaries of the 
Connecticut and Nashua Rivers, on small rivers of eastern Massachusetts where banks are low and 
overbank flooding occurs, such as the Ipswich, Assab^ Concord, Shawsheen, and Three Mile Rivers, 
and on edges of riverine island s of the Merrimack River. Annual flooding occurs, but the water 
volume and degree of scour are much less than in major-river floodplain forests. Soils are hydric silt 
loams and fme sand y loams with soil mottling within the top 60 cm [2 ft] and sometimes with a 
surface organic layer. 

As in major-river and transitional floodplain forest types, silver maple (Acer saccharinum) is dominant 
in the overstory of small-river floodplain forests, but the understory more closely resembles that of red 
maple-alluvial swamp forests. Cottonwood (Populus deltoides) and red maple {Acer rubrum) are both 
typically absent in the canopy of small-river floodplain forest communities. Pin oak (Quercus 
palustris) is a common canopy associate in the Connecticut River basin, and river birch (Betula nigra) 
in the Merrimack River basin. Small-river floodplain forests have a more substantial shrub layer than 
both major-river and transitional types, but less than alluvial swamp forests. The shrub layer consists 
mainly of silky dogwood (Comus amomum) and buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis). There is 
greater herbaceous plant diversity in small-river floodplain forests than in major-river and transitional 
types. Sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis) and false nettle (Boehmeria cylindricd) are most common, 
and associates include the moisture-loving plants, water hemlock (Cicuta maculata\ swamp candles 
(Lysimachia terrestris\ and water parsnip (Sium suave). 

One association was described in Kearsley (1998): Type IV-Small-river floodplain forests 
(Acersaccharinum-Fraxinus pennsytvanica-Quercus pcdustris Association). 

Small-river floodplain forests often contain meander scars or backwater sloughs that function as 
vernal pools and (X'ovide important amphibian breeding habitat 



Associated rare plants: 

ARISAEMA DRACONTIUM 
BETULA NIGRA 
CAREX GRAY! 
CAREX TYPHINA 
CLAYTONIA VIRGINICA 
MENISPERMUM CANADENSE 
MIMULUS ALATUS 
RUMEX VERTICILLATUS 



GREEN DRAGON 

RIVER BIRCH 

GRAYS SEDGE 

CAT-TAIL SEDGE 

NARROW-LEAVED SPRING BEAUTY 

MOONSEED 

WINGED MONKEY-FLOWER 

SWAMP DOCK 



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P-34 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONIANUM 
AMBYSTOMA LATERALE 
CINCINNATIA WINKLEYI 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
EMYDOIDEA BLAND INGH 
GOMPHUS FRATEIOWS 
GOMPHUS VASTUS 
GOMPHUS VENTRICOSUS 
HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 
NEUROCORDULIA OBSOLETA 
OPfflOGOMPHUS ASPERSUS 
OPmOGOMPHUS CAROLUS 
SOMATOCHLORA CINGULATA 
SOMATOCHLORA ELONGATA 
SOMATOCHLORA GEORGIANA 
SOMATOCHLORA GEORGIANA 
SOMATOCHLORA KENNEDYI 
SOMATOCHLORA LINEARIS 
STYLURUS AMNICOLA 
STYLURUS SCUDDERI 
STYLURUS SPINICEPS 

Examples: 
Threats: 



JEFFERSON SALAMAND ER 
BLUE-SPOTEED SALAMAND ER 
NEW ENGLAND SILTSNAIL 
SPOTTED TURTLE 
WOOD TURTLE 
BLAND ING'S TURTLE 
MIDLAND CLUBTAIL 
COBRA CLUBTAIL 
SKILLET CLUBTAIL 
FOUR-TOED SALAMAND ER 
UMBER SHADOWDRAGON 
BROOK SNAKETAIL 
RIFFLE SNAKETAIL 
LAKE EMERALD 
SKI-TAILED EMERALD 
COPPERY EMERALD 
COPPERY EMERALD 
KENNEDY'S EMERALD 
MOCHA EMERALD 
RIVERINE CLUBTAIL 
ZEBRA CLUBTAIL 
A CLUBTAIL DRAGONFLY 

small tributaries of the Connecticut River, South Hadley. 



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Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson. 1974: 

Author 



The non-native plant species, moneywort {Lysimachia nummularia), forget-me-not (Myosotis 
scorpioides), and glossy buckthorn {Rhamnus fmngula), are most prevalent in smaU-river and 
transitional floodplain forest types, especially in disturlaed areas. 

Removal of non-native plants is needed, e^)ecially in areas where they are competing with state- 
protected rare species. 



Inventory and vegetation classification completed by Jennifer Kearsley in 1 997. 

similar to Quercus palustris-Acer rubrum/Carex grayi-Geum canadense forest [CEGL0061 85] and to 
Acer saccharinum/Boehmeria cylindrica forest (CEGL0061761. 

Southern New England floodplain forest (CT2B1A0OO0]. 

Hardwood floodplain forest community. 

Silver maple-sensitive fern-false nettle riverine floodplain forest 

Silver maple/false nettle-wood reed-sedge floodplain forest 

Floodplain forest 

Acer saccharinum/Boehmeria cylindrica community, Quercus palustris-Fraxinus pennsylvanica forests. 

similar to both the Maple-sycamore floodplain forest and the Red maple-pin oak floodplain forest 

Deciduous wooded swamp (WS-1 ). 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-35 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



HIGH-TERRACE FLOODPLAIN FOREST 

CP1A2B4000 
S2 
Yes 




Concept 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 

Associated rare plants: 

ACER NIGRUM 
CLAYTOhfIA VIRGINICA 
WALDSTEINIA FRAGARIOIDES 



Mesic, deciduous hardwood forests of high alluvial terraces above the zone of annual flooding. This 
community type also occurs along riveibanks of high-gradient, northern rivers. 

High-terrace floodplain forests occur on raised banks adjacent to rivers and streams, on steep banks 
bordering high-gradient rivers in the western parts of the state, on high alluvial terraces, and on raised 
areas within major-river and small-river floodplain forests. They are river-influenced and mesic, but 
they typically are not flooded annually as indicated by the presence of a distinct surface, soil organic 
layer. Soils are typically silt loams. 

The canopy is a mixture of floodplain taxa, such as red and silver maple (Acer rubrum and A 
saccharinum), and mesic, deciduous hardwoods including sugar maple {A. saccharum), shagbark 
hickory {Carya ovata), black cherry {Primus serotina), American elm (Ulmus americana), and 
basswood {Tilia americana). Ironwood (Carpinus caroliniand) typically forms an open subcanopy and 
is a good indicator species of this conununity type. The shrub layer varies from sparse to well- 
developed with arrowwood {Viburnum dentatum), viaanybexxy {Viburnum lentago\ and winterberry 
{Ilex verticillata) most common mixed with variable amounts of non-native shrubs, including Jajianese 
barberry {Berberis thunbergif) and buckthorn {Rhamnus frtmgula, R. cathartica). The herbaceous layer 
is a mixture of the characteristic floodplain forest ferns— sensitive fern {Onoclea sensibilis) and ostrich 
fern {Kiatteuccia struthiopteris}-and rich upland herbs, such as Canada mayflower {Maianthemum 
canadense\ lady fern {Athyriumfilix-femina\ zigzag goldenrod {Solidago Jlexicaulis), white snakeroot 
{Eupatorium rugosum.\ jack-in-the-pulpit {Arisaema triphyllum) and bellwort {Uvularia sessilifola). 
Other characteristic herbaceous taxa include honewort {Cryptotaenia canadensis\ bottlebrush grass 
{Hystrix patula\ floodplain avens {Geum laciniatum), jumpseed {Tovara virginianum\ Wiegand 's 
wild rye {Elymus wiegandii\ trilliums {Trillium spp.X trout-lily {Erythronium americanum), and 
enchanter's nightshade {Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis.). Virginia creeper {Parthenocissus 
quinquefolia) and poison ivy {Toxicodendron radicans) can also be abundant 

One association was described in Kearsley (1998): Type VI-Alluvial terrace forests {Acer, rubrum- 
Carya ovata-Prunus serotina Association). 

High-terrace floodplain forests can contain low wet depressions that fiinction as vemal pools and 
provide important amphibian breeding habitat 



BLACK MAPLE 

NARROW-LEAVED SPRING BEAUTY 

BARREN STRAWBERRY 



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P-36 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONIANUM 
AMBYSTOMA LATERALE 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
EMYDOnDEA BLAND INGH 
HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 



JEFFERSON SALAMAND ER 
BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER 
SPOTTED TURTLE 
WOOD TURTLE 
BLAND ING'S TURTLE 
FOUR-TOED SALAMAND ER 



SC 

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Examples: 
Threats: 



Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVCH'NC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author 



Mill River, Northampton. 



Most high terraces have been converted to agriculture. Remaining examples are typically small and 
disturb^ by selective logging and trail clearing. The lack of natural vegetated buffers make these 
communities highly susceptible to non-native plant invasions. Most known examples have non-native 
plant species comprising a substantial percentage of overall plant cover. Because these communities 
fall outside of wetland boimdaries, they are not subject to wetland regulations making them targets for 
selective logging and clearing for agriculture. 

Removal of non-native ^jecies. 

1 

Highly fragmented community. Needs statewide inventory. 



Acer saccharum/Hydrophyllum virginianum-Tovara virginiana Forest [CEGL0061 14]. 

SNE Riverside/streamside mesic, deciduous forest [CT2F1A0000]. 

included in Hardwood floodplain forest community. 

Sugar maple-basswood-ostrich fern riverine floodplain forest 

Sugar Maple-Silver Maple- White Ash Floodplain Forest 

included in Floodplain forest 

Acer saccharum-Fraxinus americana/Carex ^rengelii community. 

not described. 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-37 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



COBBLE BAR FOREST 

CP1A2B5000 
S2 
Yes 




Concept: 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 

Associated rare plants: 

NONE KNOWN 



Associated rare animals: 

CICINDELA DUODECIMGUTTATA 
GOMPHUS FRATERNUS 
GOMPHUS VASTUS 
GOMPHUS VENTRICOSUS 
NEUROCORDULIA OBSOLETA 
OPfflOGOMPHUS ASPERSUS 
OPmOGOMPHUS CAROLUS 
SOMATOCHLORA CINGULATA 



A veiriant of high-energy riverbanks characterized by open forests dominated by stunted sycamores and 
cottonwoods growing on sand y cobble bars. 

Cobble bar forests are limited to cobble substrates that are deposited by high-energy rivers. They are 
more severely flooded and scoured than floodplain forests. More information is needed on the 
environmental setting and hydrologic regime of cobble bar forests. 

Open canopy forests dominated by sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) with associated Cottonwood 
(Populus deltoides) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). American elm (Ulmus americana) occurs in 
the subcanopy. Trees are generally younger than in other floodplain forest communities. More 
information is needed on this community type. In known examples on the Westfield River, exotic 
species are abundant in the understory. Most common are multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), various 
exotic shrubby honeysuckles (Lonicera spp.X Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculata), and Japanese 
knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum). Herbaceous species occur in the interstitial sand /silt between 
cobbles. Typical species include sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis\ false Solomon's seal 
(Maianthemum racemosa\ and horsetails (Equisetum spp.). Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) and 
Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) can be abundant More information is needed. 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 

Provide habitat for riverine odonates. 



TWELVE-SPOTTED TIGER BEETLE 
MIDLAND CLUBTAIL 
COBRA CLUBTAIL 
SKILLET CLUBTAIL 
UMBER SHADOWDRAGON 
BROOK SNAKETAIL 
RIFFLE SNAKETAIL 
LAKE EMERALD 



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P-38 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



SOMATOCHLORA ELONGATA 
SOMATOCHLORA GEORGIANA 
SOMATOCHLORA KENNED YI 
SOMATOCPILORA LINEARIS 
STYLURUS AMNICOLA 
STYLURUS SCUDDERI 
STYLURUS SPINICEPS 



SKI-TAILED EMERALD 
COPPERY EMERALD 
KENNEDYS EMERALD 
MOCHA EMERALD 
RIVERINE CLUBTAIL 
ZEBRA CLUBTAIL 
A CLUBTAIL DRAGONFLY 



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Examples: 
Threats: 

Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVCn"NC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author J. Kearsley 



lower Westfield River, Westfield. 

This is a high disturbance habitat and non-native taxa are abundant 

Maintenance of normal flooding intensity is needed to maintain community. 

2 

Inventory cobble bars of high-energy rivers— Connecticut, DeerCeld, Westfield, Farmington. Need to 
decide if this should be tracked as its own community type or included as variant of major-river 
floodplain forests or high-energy riveibanks. 

not described. 

included within Southern New England high-energy riverbank community [CT1E2A2000]. 

not described. 

Successional riverine floodplain forest 

not described. 

not described. 

may fall within Platanus occidentalis-Acer negundo forests heading but no communities have been 
described. 

not described. 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-39 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



COASTAL INTERDUNAL MARSH / SWALE 

CP2A0A1100 
SI 
Yes 




Concept: 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 



Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna 



Associated rare plants: 

ARETHUSA BULBOSA 
DROSERA FILIFORMIS 
SABATIA KENNED YANA 



Graminoid- or shrub-dominated coastal community occurring in shallow basins (swales) between sand 
dunes. 

Interdunal swales are low, shallow depressions that form between sand dunes along the coast. They 
occur as part of a dune system, and the best examples are complexes of numerous swales. Soils 
generally have a thin, about 1 cm, organic layer over coarse sand. The water regime ranges from 
seasonally flooded to permanently inundated 

Interdunal swales range from unvegetated pools to graminoid-dominated to low shrub-dominated 
communities. The most common type is a low shrub community dominated by large cranberry 
(Vaccinium macrocarpon; often with greater than 90% cover) with lesser amounts of bayberry (Myrica 
pensyhanicd). Typical associates include various rushes (Juncus pelocarpus. J. canadensis, etc.), 
spatulate-leaved and thread-leaved sundews (Drosera intennedia and D.filiformis), beak sedges 
(Rhynchospora capitellata and K alba), yellow-eyed grasses (Xyris spp.X SL John's- worts (Hypericum 
spp.), southern bog clubmoss (Lycopodium adpressum\ and several orchid species such as rose 
pogonia (Pogonia ophioglossoides), grass-pink (Calopogon pulchellus), and nodding ladies'-tresses 
(Spiranthes cemua). Arethusa (Arethusa bulbosa) and ragged fringed orchis (Platanthera lacera) are 
two orchid species that occur occasionally. Graminoid-dominated swales are characterized by a 
mixture of rushes (Juncus spp.), beak-sedges (Rhynchospora spp.) and other graminoids. Some 
interdunal swales have large numbers of Plymouth gentian (Sabatia kennedyana). Scattered pitch pine 
(Finns rigida) and sheep laurel (Kalmia angustifolia) can also occur. 

The coastal interdunal marsh/swale commvmity includes the six interdunal swale vegetation 

associations that have been described for Massachusetts [Lundgren, 1998]. Those associations are: 

Myrica pensylvanica-Vaccinium macrocarpon swale; Vaccinium macrocarpon-^nnm\.o\d swale 

(variants = V. macrocarponScirpus pungens-Panicum virgatum swale; V. macrocarpon- 

Rhynchospora capitellata swale); Juncus spp. (J. greenei, J. pelocarpus, J. canadensis, J. balticus) 

swale; Juncus spp.-{Cyperus) swale; Scirpus pungens-Juncus swale; and Scirpus pungens-Triglochin 

brackish swale. 

Interdunal sv^es can function as vernal pool habitat if water remains standing for 2-3 months 

and they lack fish; these swales provide important amphibian breeding habitat, particularly for toads, 

including American, Fowler's, and spadefoot toads. Interdunal swales have a high habitat value to birds 

and mammals for food, cover, and nesting sites. 



ARETHUSA 

THREAD-LEAVED SUNDEW 
PLYMOUTH GENTIAN 



-WL 
SC 



P-40 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated rare animals: 

SCAPfflOPUS HOLBROOKH 



EASTERN SPADEFOOT 



Examples: 
Threats: 

Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author: J. Kearsley 



Sand y Neck, Barnstable. 



Invasion of non-native species, especially phragmites (Phragmites australis) and purple loosestrife 
(Lythrum salicaria). 

Control the ^read of phragmites and purple loosestrife. 

3 



Vaccinium macrocarpon-Myrica pensylvanica dwarf-shrublaind [CEGL006141]; Spartina patens 
seasonally flooded herbaceous vegetation [CEGL006342] 

Coastal interdunal marsh/swale [CP2A2A0000] 

not described 

not described 

coastal interdunal marsh/swale 

Maritime interdunal swales 

not described 

not described 

may fall within Compact shrub swamp (SS-3) 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-41 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



DEEP EMERGENT MARSH 

CP2A0A1200 
S4 
No 




Concept: 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Tall graminoid/emergent herbaceous wetlands occurring on saturated, mucky mineral soils that are 
seasonally inundated and permanently saturated 

Deep emergent marshes generally form in broad, flat areas bordering low-energy rivers and streams or 
along pond and lake margins. The soils are a mixture of organic and mineral components There is 
typically a layer of well-decomposed organic muck at the surface overlying mineral soil. There is 
standing or running water during the growing season and throughout much of the year. Water def>th 
averages between 6 in. and 3 ft. Deep emergent marshes are associated with shrub swamps, and the two 
commumties intergrade. 

Tall graminoids, like broad-leaved cat-tail (Typha latifolia) and phragmites {Phragmites australis), 
often form extensive dense stand s. Narrow-leaved cat-tail (Typha angustifolia) occurs in more alkaline 
sites or in saline areas along roads [Weatherbee, 1996]. Other characteristic graminoids include wool- 
grass {Scirpus cyperinus), common threesquare {Scirpus pungens), Canada bluejoint (Calamagrostis 
canadensis var. canadensis), rice cut-grass (Leersia oryzoides), and tussock-sedge (Carex stricta). 
Herbaceous associates include arrow-leaf tearthumb (Polygonum sagittatumX bulblet water-hemlock 
(Cicuta bulbifera), swamp-candles (Lysimachia terrestris\ beggar-ticks (Bidens spp.), bedstraw 
(Galium spp.), common arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia var. latifolia), slender-leaved goldenrod 
(Euthamia tenuifolia) and marsh-fern (Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens). Nutrient-rich sites in 
Berkshire County typically have cat-tails mixed with soft-stemmed bulrush (Scirpus tabemaemontani\ 
hard-stemmed bulrush (S. acutus\ river-horsetail (Equisetumfluviatile\ marsh-cinquefoil (Comarum 
palustre), sweet-flag (Acorus calamus), bristly sedge (Carex comosa\ lakeside sedge (C. lacustris\ 
and giant bur-reed (Sparganium eurycarpum) among others [Weatherbee, 1996]. 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 

Deep emergent marshes are excellent waterfowl habitat and also provide important habita for frogs 
and newts, especially leojjard, pickerel, green and bull frogs, aiKl red-spotted newts. Wood frogs may 
use areas of deep emergent marsh that are fish free. 



Associated rare plants: 

CAREX ALOPECOIDEA 
LUDWIGIA SPHAEROCARPA 
POLYGONUM SETACEUM VAR 

INTERJECTUM 
SCIRPUS FLUVIATILIS 



FOXTAIL SEDGE 

ROUND-FRUrrED FALSE-LOOSESTRIFE 

STRIGOSE KNOTWEED 

RIVER BULRUSH 



T 
T 
SC 

SC 



P-42 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated rare animals: 

ARDEA HERODIAS 
BOTAURUS LENTIGINOSUS 
CIRCUS CYANEUS 
CISTOTHORUS PALUSTRIS 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
EMYDOIDEA BLAND INGH 
GALLINULA CHLOROPUS 
rXOBRYCHUS EXILIS 
PODILYMBUS PODICEPS 
RALLUS ELEGANS 
SOREX PALUSTRIS 



Examples: 
Threats: 



Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 



MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author 



GREAT BLUE HERON 
AMERICAN BITTERN 
NORTHERN HARRIER 
MARSH WREN 
SPOTTED TURTLE 
WOOD TURTLE 
BLAND ING'S TURTLE 
COMMON MOORHEN 
LEAST BITTERN 
PIED-BILLED GREBE 
KING RAIL 
WATER SHREW 



-WL 

E 

T 

-WL 

sc 
sc 

T 

SC 

E 

E 

T 

SC 



Quinebaug River, Quaboag River WMA 



Deep emergent marshes are threatened by filling and dredging, impoundments that alter natural water- 
level fluctuations, and nutrient inputs from adjacent roads, fields, or septic systems. Purple loosestrife 
(Lythrum salicaria), an aggressive non-native species, can be abundant in deep emergent marshes 
throughout the state. Phra^nites is also a problem. 

Removal of purple loosestrife and phragmites. 

2 

Statewide inventory of marshes and wet meadows is needed. 

Phalaris arundinacea Eastern Herbaceous Vegetation [CEGL006335]; Phragmites australis 
semipermanently flooded ruderal herbaceous vegetation [CEGL004141]; Typha (angustifolia, 
latifoliaHScirpus spp.) eastern herbaceous vegetation [CEEGL006153]; Pontederia cordata-Peltandra 
virginica semipermanently flooded herbaceous vegetation [CEGL0O4291]. 

Southem New England nutrient-poor streamsideAakeside marsh [CP4A2A.0000]; Southern New 
England nutrient-rich streamside/lakeside marsh [CP4A1A0000]. 

Cattail marsh community. 

Cattail marsh; Deep rush marsh. 

Deep emergent marsh. 

Deep emergent marsh. 

not described. 

Semipermanently flooded (deep) emergent marsh. 

Robust deep marsh (DM-4); narrow-leaved deep marsh (DM-5); broad-leaved deep marsh (DM-6). 

Robust emergent marsh [Weatherbee, 1996]. 

J.Kearsley Date: 7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-43 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



SHALLOW EMERGENT MARSH 

CP2A0A1300 
S4 
No 




Concept: 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Grass, sedge, and /or rush-dominated wetlands on mucky mineral soils that are seasonally inundated 
and pennanently saturated. 

Shallow emergent marshes occur in similar settings to deep emergent marshes, i.e. in broad, flat areas 
bordering low-energy rivers and streams, often in backwater sloughs, or along pond and lake margins. 
Unlike deep emergent marshes, shallow marshes commonly occur in abandoned beaver flowages, and 
in some states they are named "Abandoned beaver meadows" or "beaver flowage communities." The 
soils are a mixture of organic and mineral components. There is typically a layer of well-decomposed 
organic muck at the surface overlying mineral soil. There is standing or running waier during the 
growing season and throughout much of the year, but water depth is less than deep emergent marshes 
and averages less than 6 in. 

Vegetation composition is similar to deep emergent marshes except tliat shorter grasses, sedges and 
rushes dominate. Cat-tails, phragmites, and wool-grass, the dominants of deep emergent marshes, can 
occur but are never dominant Tussock forming species, like tussock sedge (Carex stricta) and Canada 
bluejoint (Calamagrostis canadensis var. canadensis), often cover broad areas and form a hummock- 
hollow topography. Reed canary grass {Phalaris arundinacea) can also occur. It is common to see 
tussock sedge-dominated marshes in old beaver flowages mixed with scattered shnibs like alder and 
spiraea. The shallow water typically has a mixture of bur-reeds (Sparganium spp.X sedges (Carex 
spp.), and rice cut-grass (Leersia oryzoides). Floating leaved plants, like the water-lilies (Nymphaea 
odorata and Nuphar spp.X and submergents, like pondweeds (Potamogeton spp.), occur in open areas, 
and duckweed (Lemna spp.) is abundant in still water. Based on species composition alone, it can be 
difficult to differentiate shallow emergent marshes and wet meadows, but they occur in different 
physical settings and hydrologic regimes [see concept description for wet meadows. More community 
data are needed on these communities to determine the indicator species of each. 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 

Shallow emergent marshes are excellent habitat for muskrats. As with deep emergent marshes 
shallow emergent marshes provide important habitat for frogs and newts. 



Associated rare plants: 

ELEOCHARIS OBTUSA VAR OVATA 
SAGITTARIA CUNEATA 



OVATE SPIKE-SEDGE 
WAPATO 



E 
E 



P-44 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated rare animals: 

BOTAURUS LENTIGINOSUS 
CIRCUS CYANEUS 
CISTOTHORUS PALUSTRIS 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
EMYDOIDEA BLAND INCH 
GALLINULA CHLOROPUS 
KOBRYCHUS EXILIS 
PODILYMBUS PODICEPS 
RALLUS ELEGANS 
SOREX PALUSTRIS 



Examples: 
Threats: 



AMERICAN BITTERN 
NORTHERN HARRIER 
MARSH WREN 
SPOTTED TURTLE 
WOOD TURTLE 
BLAND ING'S TURTLE 
COMMON MOORHEN 
LEAST BITTERN 
PIED-BILLED GREBE 
KING RAIL 
WATER SHREW 



E 

T 

-WL 

SC 

SC 

T 

SC 

E 

E 

T 

SC 



Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 
VT: 
NH: 

NY: 
CT: 
Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author J. Kearsley 



Nashua River marsh; perimeter of several ponds along Trout Brook; Quaboag River WMA 

Shallow emergent marshes are threatened by filling and dredging, impoundments that alter natural 
water-level fluctuations, and nutrient inputs from adjacent roads, fields, or septic systems. The invasion 
and spread of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) alters natural commimity structure and 
composition. 

Efforts are needed to control the spread of purple loosestrife. 

2 

Statewide inventory of marshes and wet meadows is needed 

Carex stricta flooded herbaceous vegetation [CEGL004121]; maybe Scirpus acutus-Carex lasiocarp)a 
herbaceous vegetation [CEGL006358]. 

Southern New England nutrient-poor streamside/lakeside marsh [CP4A2A0OO0]; Southern New 
England nutrient-rich streamside/lakeside marsh (CP4A1 AOOOO]. 

Beaver flowage community, sedge meadow community? 

Shallow emergent marsL 

Shallow emergent marsh [which they have subdivided into 5 subtypes: reed-grass meadow, tussock 
sedge meadow, medium sedge meadow, bulrush meadow, short graminoid-forb marsh]. 

Shallow emergent marsL 

not described. 

Seasonally flooded (shallow) emergent marsh. 

Robust shallow marsh (SM-1); narrow-leaved shallow marsh (SM-2); broad-leaved shallow marsh 
(SM-3). 



Acidic and circumneutral graminoid marshes [Weatherbee 1996] 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-45 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



WET MEADOW 

CP2A0A2000 
S4 
No 




Concept: 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 

Associated rare plants: 

CAREX ALOPECOIDEA 
CAREX BUSHH 
CAREX BUXBAUMn 
CAREX EXILIS 



Graminoid/emergent herbaceous communities that are similar to deep and shallow emergent marshes 
except that they are temporarily rather than seasonally flooded. The soil is saturated during the growing 
season but not generally inundated Repeated disturbance, usually from grazing or mowing, keeps these 
communities opea 

Wet meadows occur in lake basins, wet depressions, along streams, and in sloughs and other backwater 
areas with impeded drainage along rivers. The mucky mineral soils are permanently saturated and flood 
occasionally, standing water is not present throughout the growing season as in deep and shallow 
emergent marshes. As these communities flood only temporarily, continued disturbance is necessary to 
prevent encroachment by woody plants. More information is needed on the physical and biological 
characteristics of wet meadow and marsh communities. 

Tussock-forming sedges, such as tussock-sedge (Carex stricta) or marsh-sedge {Carex lacustris), are 
often dominant, with over 50% of the cover, with variable proportions of other graminoids and 
herbaceous species. Canada bluejoint {Calamagrostis canadensis var. canadensis\ wool-grass (Scirpus 
cyperinus), slender woolly-fruited sedge (Carex lasiocarpa var. americana\ slender spike-sedge 
(Eleocharis tenuis), stalked wool-grass {Scirpus pedicellatus\ rice cut-grass (Leersia oryzoides), and 
brown beak-sedge {Rhynchospora capitellata) are typical of wet meadows. Characteristic herbaceous 
associates include erect water smartweed (Polygonum amphibium var, emersum), pickerel-weed 
(Pontederia cordata var. cordata), river-horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile), nodding bur-marigold (Bidens 
cemua\ spotted joe-pye- weed (Eupatorium maculatum\ northern blue flag (Iris versicolor), and swe^ 
flag (Acorus calamus). Calcareous wet meadows have calciphihc ^jecies, including red-footed spike- 
sedge (Eleocharis erythropoda\ delicate sedge (Carex leptalea\ fen-sedge (Carex tetanica), and 
beaked-sedge (Carex utriculata). More information is also needed on calcareous wet meadows in order 
to clarify there relationship to calcareous sloping fens and calcareous seepage marshes [both of which 
are described in Uie calcareous peatlands section due to their accumulation of peat]. Wet meadows Jire 
very closely related to shallow emergent marshes, but typically have more uniform vegetation, i.e. 
often a single sedge species dominates. Wet meadows are called "sedge meeidows" in many other 
states, but "wet meadow" is used in Massachusetts because of known occurrences of meadows 
dominated by rice cut-grass and other non-sedge species. 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 

Wet meadows can ftmction as vernal pool habitat if water remains standing for 2-3 months; these 
areas provide important amphibian breeding habitat 



FOXTAIL SEDGE 
BUSH'S SEDGE 
BUXBAUM'S SEDGE 
BOG-SEDGE 



T 
E 

-WL 
-WL 



P-46 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



CAREXHAYDENn 
CAREX SCHWEINTTZn 
CAREX TRICHOCARPA 
ELEOCHARIS OBTUSA VAR OVATA 
ELEOCHARIS ERYTHROPODA 
GENTIANA CRINTTA 
OPmOGLOSSUM PUSILLUM 
PEDICULARIS LANCEOLATA 
PLATANTHERA FLAVA VAR HERBIOLA 
SCIRPUS LONGH 
SCIRPUS PENDULUS 

Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONIANUM 
AMBYSTOMA LATERALS 
AMBYSTOMA OPACUM 
AMMODRAMUS HENSLOWH 
BARTRAMIA LONGICAUDA 
BOTAURUS LENTIGINOSUS 
CIRCUS CYANEUS 
DESMOCERUS PALLIATUS 
EULIMNADIA AGASSIZH 
HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 
LIMNADIA LENTICLTARIS 
SCAPHIOPUS HOLBROOKH 
SYNAPTOMYS COOPERI 
Examples: 
Threats: 



HAYDEN'S SEDGE 
SCHWEINTTZ'S SEDGE 
HAIRY-FRUITED SEDGE 
OVATE SPIKE-SEDGE 
RED-FOOTED SPKE-SEDGE 
FRINGED GENTIAN 
ADDER'S-TONGUE FERN 
SWAMP LOUSEWORT 
PALE GREEN ORCHIS 
LONG'S BULRUSH 
PENDULOUS BULRUSH 



-WL 

E 

T 

E 

-WL 

-WL 

T 

E 

T 

E 

-WL 



Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 
CT: 
Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Author 



JEFFERSON SALAMAND ER SO 

BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER SC 

MARBLED SALAMAND ER T 

' HENSLOWS SPARROW E 

UPLAND SAND PIPER E 

AMERICAN BITTERN E 

NORTHERN HARRIER T 

ELDERBERRY LONG-HORNED BEETLE SC 

AGASSIZ'S CLAM SHRIMP E 

FOUR-TOED SALAMAND ER SC 

AMERICAN CLAM SHRIMP SC 

EASTERN SPADEFOOT T 

SOUTHERN BOG LEMMING SC 

White Brook; Russell Cove, Hadley. 

Wet meadows are threatened by filling and dredging, and by nutrient inputs from adjacent roads, fields, 
or septic systems. The invasion and spread of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) alters community 
structure and composition. 

Efforts are needed to control the spread of purple loosestrife. Continue activity that has kept the 
community open, e.g. fall mowing. 

2 

Statewide inventory of marshes and wet meadows is needed. 

?? 

Southern New England nutrient-rich streamside/lakeside marsh (CP4A1 AOOOO]. 

Sedge meadow community. 

Sedge meadow. 

Shallow emergent marsh [which they have subdivided into 5 subtyp>es: reed-grass meadow, tussock 
sedge meadow, medium sedge meadow, bulrush meadow, short graminoid-forb marsh]. 

Sedge meadow. 

not described. 

not described. 

Ungrazed meadow (M-1 ); grazed meadow (M-2). 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-47 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



KETTLEHOLE WET MEADOW 

CP2A0A2100 
S3 
Yes 




Concept: 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Associated rare plants: 

SCIRPUS TORREYI 



Graminoid/emergent herbaceous or mixed shrub/herbaceous communities that are restricted to small, 
usually less than five acres, seasonally inundated, kettle depressions in sand y glacial outwash. 

Kettlehole wet meadows are a variant of wet meadows that are restricted to glacial kettleholes in sand y 
outwash soils that have seasonal water level fluctuations. They are seasonally inundated by local runoff 
and ground water fluctuations, and they typically have no inlet or outlet For most of the summer, they 
look like shallow ponds, but by late summer they are covered by emergent vegetation. Soils are 
typically shallow, mucky peats. Deep peat does not develop due to the seasonal drawdown of water. 
The hydrology of kettlehole wet meadows is similar to coastal plain ponds. Both are characterized by a 
series of plant associations occurring along a gradient from the higher, drier margins to the lower, 
wetter centers. 

Sedges and rushes are dominant, and characteristic species include Canada rush (Jimcus canadensis), 
pondshore rush (Juncus pelocarpus), bayonet rush (Juncus militaris\ needle spike sedge (Eleocharis 
acicularis). Small's spike sedge (Eleocharis smallii), Torrey's bullsedge {Scirpus torreyi) and various 
sedge {Carex) species. Shorter plants, like pipewort (Eriocaulon aquaticum\ are found growing 
beneath the cover of sedges and rushes. Grasses, such as creeping bent grass (Agrostis stolonifera\ and 
some broad-leaved emergents, including arrowhead (Sagittaria engelmanniana), nodding bur-marigold 
(Bidens cemua\ beggar's ticks (Bidens tripartita) and conunon SL John's wort (Hypericum 
perforatum), also occur. The wettest, muckiest areas have floating-leaved aquatic plants, including 
white water lily {Nymphaea odorata) and meimaid-weed (Proserpinaca palustris). When water levels 
are high, mannagrass (Glyceria pallida and G. acutifolia) is common, with yellow pond-lily (Nuphar 
variegata) and pickerel-weed (Pontederia cordata) occurring in deeper water. Kettlehole wet meadows 
are typically fringed with shrubs, such as leatherleaf (C/jamaec/ap/j/ie calyculata), high-bush blueberry 
(Vaccinium corymbosum), buttonbush {Cephalanthus occidentalis) and water willow (Decodon 
verticillatus), aivi with trees such as tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica) and red maple {Acer rubrum). Conmion 
meadow-beauty (Rhexia virginica) and various species of sphagnum moss (Sphagnum spp.) also grow 
along the edges. Kettlehole wet meadows are best visited in the late-summer when water levels are 
down, and the basin is covered by a dense growth of narrow-leaved emergents. 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 

Kettlehole wet meadows can function as vernal pool habitat if water remains standing for 2-3 
months; these areas provide important amphibian breeding habitat The sedges, bulrushes and grasses 
of kettlehole wet meadows provide a food resource for waterfowl and other marsh birds. 



TORREY'S BULLSEDGE 



WL 



P-48 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA LATERALE 
AMBYSTOMA OPACUM 
DESMOCERUS PALLIATUS 
HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 
SCAPfflOPUS HOLBROOKH 
SYNAPTOMYS COOPERI 



BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER 
MARBLED SALAMAND ER 
ELDERBERRY LONG-HORNED BEETLE 
FOUR-TOED SALAMAND ER 
EASTERN SPADEFOOT 
SOUTHERN BOG LEMMING 



SC 

T 

SC 

SC 

T 

SC 



Examples: 
Threats: 
Management needs: 



Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 



There are currently three tracked sites, one in Douglas State Forest in Douglas and two in Minuteman 
National Park in Concord. More sites undoubtedly exist 

Alterations to mitural water-level fluctuations. The sites for which we have vegetation data have 
surprisingly few non-native plant ^)ecies, and exotics may not currently threaten these communities. 

More information is needed on the jjhysical and hydrological processes associated with Kettlehole wet 
meadows in order to make educated management recommendations. It is known that seasonal water 
level fluctuations play an important role in the occurrence of the commimity. Spring high-water levels 
prevent encroachment of woody shrubs and trees, and late-summer low- water levels allow 
characteristic narrow-leaved emergents to appear. Any alteration in natural water level fluctuations, 
such as groundwater withdrawal, would negatively affect the community. Inland Basin Marshes may 
be prone to burning during low water periods, but the role of fire in commimity dynamics is not known. 

1 

Statewide inventory needed to clarify relationsliip to marshes; wet meadows; inland acidic 
pondshore/lakeshores; and coastal plain ponds. 



Synonyms: 
USNVCH'NC: 






MA [old name]: 




SNE Inland basin marsh [CP2A3AOOOO]. 


ME: 




not described. 


VT: 




not described. 


NH: 




Inland Basin Marsh. 


NY: 




not described. 


CT: 




not described. 


Rl: 




not described. 


Golet & Larson, 


1974: 


Ungrazed meadow (M-1 ); grazed meadow (M-2). 


Other 







Author 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-49 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



INLAND ACIDIC PONDSHORE/LAKESHORE 

CP2A0B110O 
S4 
No 




V- -^L P W)"JJJjn, . y„ ,^ 








^^ 



Concept 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Sparsely vegetated exposed gravelly, sand y or muddy shores of acidic, inland lakes and ponds that 
experience seasonal drawdown of water levels. 

Inland acidic pondshores/lakeshores are submerged or saturated for a significant pait of the year or 
continuously in wet years. Plants of the community emerge during low water penods. More 
information is needed. 

Vegetative cover may be sparse and species composition is variable. An exposed pondshore in Holyoke 
has mixed graminoid vegetation with Philadelphia panic-grass (Panicum phi lade Iphicum), flat- 
stemmed panic-grass {Panicum rigidulum var. rigidulum), fall panic-grass {Panicum dichotomiflorum 
var. dichotomiJlorum\ southern ticklegrass {Agrostis hyemalis\ rice cut-grass {Leersia oryzoides\ 
lakeshore hemicarpha {Hemicarpha micrantha), autumn-funbry {Fimbristylis autumnalis), awned 
flatsedge (Cyperus sqtuirrosus), and other associated herbs including northern water-horehound 
(Lycopus uniflorus), beggar-ticks {Bidensfrondosa\ slender gerardia (Agalinus tenuifolia), and golden 
pert (Gratioia aurea). More information is needed on characteristic vegetation of acidic pondshores. 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 



Associated rare plants: 

ELEOCHARIS INTERMEDIA 
ORONTIUM AQUATICUM 
PANICUM PHILADELPfflCUM 
ROTALARAMOSIOR 

Associated rare animals: 

ENALLAGMA LATERALE 
ENALLAGMA RECURVATUM 
FERRISSIA WALKERI 
GAVIAIMMER 
PAPAIPEMA SULPHURATA 



INTERMEDIATE SPIKE-SEDGE 
GOLDEN CLUB 

PHILADELPHIA PANIC-GRASS 
TOOTHCUP 

NEW ENGLAND BLUET 
PINE BARRENS BLUET 
WALKER'S LIMPET 
COMMON LCXDN 
WATER-WILLOW STEM BORER 



T 
T 
SC 
E 

SC 

T 

SC 

SC 

T 



P-50 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples: 
Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author J. Kearsley 



Ashley Pond, Holyoke. 

More information is needed to assess the threats to acidic pondshore/lakeshore communities. Probable 
threats include trampling from ORVs, alteration of normal water-level fluctuations, tmd shoreline 
development 

More information is needed to assess the management needs of acidic pondshore/lakeshore 
communities. 



Statewide inventory needed. 



Inland New England acidic pond shore/lake shore conmiunity [CPl A200000]. 

not described. 

Outwash plain pondshore. 

Inland sand y ix)ndshore/lakeshore (outwash plain pondshore). 

Inland non-calcareous lakeshore. 

not described. 

not described. 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-51 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



COASTAL PLAIN PONDSHORE 

CP2A0B1200 
S2 
Yes 




Concept: Herbaceous communities of exposed pondshores, most commonly in southeastern Massachusetts in areas of oak and 

oak pine forests, characterized by a distinct coastal plain flora. 

Environmental setting: Shallow, highly acidic groimdwater ponds in glacial outwash, usually with no inlet or outlet Water rises 
and falls with changes in the water table, typically leaving an exposed shoreline in late summer. In wet years, the pondshore 
may remain inundated. Substrate varies from sand - cobble to muck. 

Vegetation Description: Vegetation zonation is correlated with flooding regime. A characteristic zonation pattern from dry to 
waterline, is as follows: 1 . upland oak forest, 2. Shrub border dominated by highbush blueberry {Vaccinium corymbosum) 
associated with sweet pepperbush (Clethra alnifolia), and green briar {Smilax rotundifolia\ 3. Emergent exposed pondshore 
dominated by coastal plain flat-topped goldenrod (Euthamia tenuifolid), pondshore rush (Juncus pelocarpus), rose coreopsis 
(Coreopsis rosea) and golden pert {Gratiola aurea\ with beaksedge (Rhynchospora spp.), lance-leaf violet (Viola lanceolata\ 
and dwarf SL John's- wort (Hypericum mutiluni), 4 Semip)ermanently flooded zone characterized by one or more of the 
following: bayonet rush (Juncus militans), spike-sedge (Eleocharis ^p-X pipewort (fnocaw/on aquaticum), and 5. 
Hydromorphic rooted vegetation in deeper water including yellow water-lily (Nuphar variegata), white water-Uly (Nymphaea 
odorata) and Robbins' spike-sedge (Eleocharis robbinsii). Not every pond has every zone, and zones vary in wiAh and species 
composition from year to yeeir. Coastal plain pondshores have an abundance of state-protected eind globally restricted rare 
plants. 

Associations: USNVC/TNC coastal plain pond associations include plot data from Massachusetts coastal plain pondshores. 

Habitat values for Coastal plain pondshores and ponds provide habitat for at least 43 rare animal and plant species. 

Associated Fauna: Coastal plain pondshores are important habitat for over 45 ^)ecies of dragonflies and damselflies. They are also 
important habitat for painted, musk, spotted, snapjping, and the federally endangered Plymouth red belly turtles. Larger ponds 
are used by migrating and wintering waterfowl, including common and hooded mergansers, goldeneye, and bufllehead. Coastal 
plain ponds support warm-water flsh and freshwater mussels. They function as vernal pool habitat ^vilen fish are absent 

Associated rare plants: 

DICHANTHELIUMWRIGHTIANUM WRIGHTS PANIC-GRASS SC 



drosera filiformis 
eleocharis melanocarpa 
elecx:haris tricostata 

EUPATORIUM LEUCOLEPIS VAR 

NOVAE-ANGLL^E 
FUIRENA PUMILA 
HYPERICUM ADPRESSUM 
JUNCUS BIFLORUS 
LACHNANTHES CAROLL^NA 
POLYGONUM PURTTANORUM 



THREAD-LEAVED SUNDEW 
BLACK-FRUITED SPDCE-RUSH 
THREE-ANGLED SPIKE-SEDGE 
NEW ENGLAND BONESET 

UMBRELLA-GRASS 

CREEPING ST. JOHNS-WORT 

TWO-FLOWERED RUSH 

REDROOT 

PONDSHORE KNOTWEED 



-WL 
-WL 
E 
E 

-WL 

T 

E 

SC 

SC 



P-52 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



RHEXIA MARIANA MARYLAND MEADOW BEAUTY E 

RHYNCHOSPORA INUNDATA INUNDATED HORNED-SEDGE T 

RHYNCHOSPORANTTENS SHORT-BEAKED BALD-SEDGE T 

RHYNCHOSPORA SCIRPOIDES LONG-BEAKED BALD-SEDGE SC 

RHYNCHOSPORA TORREYANA TORREY^ BEAK-SEDGE E 

SABATL^ CAMPANULATA SLENDER MARSH PINK E 

SABATL^ KENNED YANA PLYMOUTH GENTIAN SC 

SAGHTAIUA TERES TERETE ARROWHEAD SC 

SCLERL^ RETICULARIS RETICULATE NUT-RUSH - WL 

UTRICULARIA BIFLORA TWO-FLOWERED BLADDERWORT T 

Associated rare animals: 

ALASMIDONTA UNDULATA TRL\NGLE FLOATER SC 

AMBYSTOMA LATERALE BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER SC 

ANAX LONGIPES COMET DARNER SC 

CLEMMYS GUTTATA SPOTTED TURTLE SC 

ENALLAGMA LATERALE NEW ENGLAND BLUET SC 

ENALLAGMA RECURVATUM PINE BARRENS BLUET T 

FERRISSIA WALKERI WALKER'S LIMPET SC 

LEPTODEA OCHRACEA TIDEWATER MUCKET SC 

LIGUMIANASUTA EASTERN PONDMUSSEL SC 

PAND ION HALL'^ETUS OSPREY - WL 

PSEUDEMYS RUBRTVENTRIS POP 1 RED-BELLIED TURTLE E 

SPONGILLA ASPINOSA SMOOTH BRANCHED SPONGE SC 

Examples: Hyannis Ponds, WMA, Barnstable; Myles Standish State Forest, Carver, Nickerson State Park, Brewster. 

Threats: Multiple threats affect coastal plain pondshore communities. The greatest threat is from overdevelopment of 

coastal Massachusetts which impiacts pondshores directly through housing and recreation and indirectly through water 
withdrawal. Shrub and tree encroachment threaten pondshore vegetation in areas with heavy water withdrawal. 

Management needs: Natural hydrology needs to be maintained. Periodic high water prevents tree / shrub encroachment, and 
seasonal low water is necessary to exp>ose the pondshore. Vehicle use should be prohibited along pondshores. 

Inventory need rank: 2 

Inventory comments: Community information and ranking specifications needed 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: The following USNVC/TNC associations are known to occur in Massachusetts, and are included within the broad 
category of coastal plain pondshore community. They are listed according to the zones in which they occur. Shrub border 
(zone 2) includes Vaccinium corymbosum/Sphagnum spp. shrubland [CEGL006190] and a typically narrow band of 
Calamagrostis canadensis-Dichanthelium meridionale herbaceous vegetation (CEGL0O6243]. The emergent exposed 
pondshore (zone 3) is characterized by one or more of the following: Rhexia virginica-Panicum verrucosum herbaceous 
vegetation [CEGL006264]; Rhexia virginica-Crotalaria sagittalis herbaceous vegetation [CEGL006300]; and 
Rhynchospora capitellata-Sabatia kennedyana herbaceous vegetation [CEGL006210]. The semipermanently flooded zone 
(zone 4) has Lysimachia terrestris-Duhchium arundinaceum herbaceous vegetation [CEGL006035]; Juncus militaris 
herbaceous vegetation [CEGL006345]; Eleocharis (obtusa, flavesccns)-Eriocaulon aquaticum herbaceous vegetation 
[CEGL006261]; and Eleocharis flavescens-Xyris diffonnis herbaceous vegetation [CEGL006400]. Open water (zone 5) is 
common to other ponds in MA and includes Nuphar lutea ssp. advena herbaceous vegetation [CEGL004324] and 
Nymphaea odorata-Eleocharis robbinsii herbaceous vegetation (CEGL006086J. 

MA [old name]: New England coastal plain pondshore (CPl AlOOOOO]. 



ME: 


not described. 


VT: 


not described. 


NH: 


Coastal plain pondshore. 


NY: 


Outwash plain pondshore, 


CT: 


not described?. 


Rl: 


Coastal plain pond shore. 


Author 


J. Kearsley 



Date: 7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program July 2000 P - 53 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



CALCAREOUS PONDSHORE/LAKESHORE 

CP2A0B1300 
S2 
Yes 




Concept 

Environmental setting: 
Vegetation Description: 

Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 

Associated rare plants: 

NONE KNOWN 

Associated rare animals: 

ENALLAGMA CARUNCULATUM 
PYRGULOPSIS LUSTRICA 
VALVATA SINCERA 



Sparsely vegetated exposed gravelly, sand y or muddy shores of calcareous or circumneutraU inland 
lakes and ponds that experience seasonal drawdown of water levels. 

Calcareous pondshores/lakeshores are submerged or saturated for a significant part of the year or 
continuously in wet years. Plants of the community emerge during low water periods. 

Probable community type. No information is currently available on calcareous pond/lakeshores in 
Massachusetts. Inventory and community descriptions are needed. Ponds contain Chara beds. 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 

Listed animals bdlow are of the calcareous pond, not the shore line. 



TULE BLUET 
PILSBRY' S SPIRE SNAIL 
BOREAL TURRET SNAIL 



SC 

E 

E 



Examples: 
Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 
MA [old name]: 



Ponds in Berkshire Coimty, such as Stockbridge Bowl, may have a shoreline community developed. 

More information is needed to assess the threats to calcareous pondshore/lakeshore communities. 
Probable threats include disturbance from ORVs, alteration of normal water-level fluctuations, and 
shoreline development Exotic species and indiscriminate control of aquatic plants are both problems. 

More information is needed to assess the management needs of calcareous pondshore/lakeshore 
communities. 

1 

Community descriptions for Berkshire County pondshores are needed. 



New England calcareous pond shore/lake shore community [CPIBOOOOOOJ. 



P-54 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



ME: 




not described 


VT: 




not described 


NH: 




not described 


NY: 




Inland calcareoiis lakeshore. 


CT: 




not described 


Rl: 


- 


not described 


Golet & Larson, 


1974: 





Other: 



Author 



J. Kearsley 



Date:7/21/99 [PCS modified 3/31/001 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-55 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



MUD FLAT 

CP2A0B2100 
S4 
No 













H 




mm 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^V^^^>>^^^^^L 


"^ 




"■*— — ^^^ 






,'^: ;:i3j^S4 


f^ 






V i,;^^ 


-jj3 






y^ 


■^ 



Concept 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Sparsely vegetated herbaceous community dominated by low, usually annual herbs occurring on 
muddy streamsides or in shallow water of river backwaters and old oxbow ponds. 

Shallow water or open mud flats along streams, in backwaters, abandoned channels, lagoons, and 
oxbow ponds. Inundation by spring floods does occur, and the mucky, silty mineral soils are poorly 
drained. 

Although often sparsely vegetated, mudflats typically have a high species richness (i.e. number of 
species). Winged {Kiimulus alatus) and long-stalked (Mimulus ringens) moiUcey-flowers are good 
indicator species. Large and lesser water-plantains {Alisma plantago-aquatica var. americanum and 
var. parviflorum), arrowheads (Sagittaria spp.X arrow-arum {Peltandra virgimca\ and bur-reeds 
(Sparganium spp ) are often dominant Other associated species include sensitive fern (Onoclea 
sensibilis\ false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica), clearweed {Pilea pumild), water-hemlock {Cicuta 
maculata\ sweet flag {Acorus americcmus\ wild calla {Calla palustris), water-parsnip (Sium suave), 
ditch-stonecrop {Penthorum sedoides\ water-purslane {LAutwigia palustris), awned sedge (Carex 
crinita), river horsetail (Equisetumfluviatile\ smartweeds (Polygonum spp), and duckweeds {Lemna 
spp.). Floodplain forest trees, such as silver maple (Acer saccharinum) and American elm (Ulmus 
americana), often overhang these communities providing partial cover. 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 



Associated rare plants: 

ELEOCHARIS INTERMEDIA 
MIMULUS ALATUS 



INTERMEDL\TE SPDCE-SEDGE 
WINGED MONKEY-FLOWER 



T 
E 



Associated rare animals: 

FERRISSL\ WALKER! 
POMATIOPSIS LAPIDARIA 

Examples: 
Threats: 



WALKER'S LIMPET SC 

RTVERBANK LOOPING SNAIL E 

Bennett Meadow WMA; Gill; Hop Brook, Lee; Cone Brook, Richmond, 

True forget-me-not (Myosotis scorpioides) and moneywort (Lysimachia nummularia) are mat-forming, 
non-native plant ^jecies that can appear to be crowding out native plants Purple loosestrife (Lythrum 
salicaria) can also occur in these habitats. 



P-56 



Classiflcation of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

RJ: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author J. Kearsley 



Eradication of moneywort and tnie forget-me-not, especially in areas where they are associated with 
winged monkey-flower, a state-protected rare plant species. 



River mud flats sparse vegetation [CEGL0023141. 

not described. 

similar to Riveriive emergent community. 

River mud shore commimity. 

not described. 

not described. 

not described. 

not described. 

not described. 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-57 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



RIVERSIDE SEEP 

CP2A0B2200 
S2 
Yes 




Concept 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Mixed herbaceous community occurring on rocky edges of rivers where flood and ice scour maintain 
an open community and groundwater discharge provides mineral eiuichment 

Riverside seeps occur at the base of steep riverbanks where groundwater seeps out of the bottom of the 
upland slope. MineraJ-rich seepage leads to a high species diversity and periodic flooding from the 
river helps to prevent woody shrub encroachment. Calcareous (limey) riverside seeps occur along the 
Connecticut River in New Hampshire and Vermont and are characterized by their fen-like conditions 
and calcium-loving plant species, particularly false asphodel {Tofieldia glutinosa), Kalm's lobelia 
{Lobelia kalntii), and grass-of-Pamassus (Pamassia glauca). Comparable riverine limey seep 
communities are not known to occur in Massachusetts [Motzkin 1993]. The known occurrences of 
riverside seeps in Massachusetts along the Westfleld and Deerfleld Rivers lack the calcareous 
conditions and indicators of limey seeps to the north. More informaticMi is needed on the water 
chemistry of riverside seeps in Massachusetts, and on the range of conditions and species assemblages 
present in the Commonwealth. Riverside seeps are often associated with riverside outcrop communities 
and high-energy riverbank, i.e. gravel bar, communities. 

The wettest spots are typically mossy with a mixture of herbs and sedges. Characteristic herbs include 
spotted Joe-pye-weed (Eupatorium maculatum), honeset (Eupatoriunt perfoliatum\ orange jewelweed 
(impatiens capensis), and fringed loosestrife {Lysimachia ciliata). Yellow monkey flower (Kiimulus 
moschatus\ Canadian bumet (Sanguisorba canadensis), and golden alexanders (Zizia aurea) are 
indicative of minerotrophic conditions, and they are good indicator species of the community type. The 
non-native plants, colt's foot {Tussilago farfard) and purple loosestrife {Lythrum salicaria\ can also be 
abundant in the community. Graminoids known to occur in riverside seeps include wool-grass (Scirpus 
cyperinus), marsh-nish (Juncus canadensis), soft rush {Juncus ejfusus), green-fruited bur-reed 
(Sparganium erectum), sallow sedge {Carex lurida\ northern awned-sedge {Carex gynandra), and 
seep-sedge {Carex scabrata). The vegetation composition described here is probably limited to sites 
occurring in the western part of the state. 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 



Associated rare plants: 

ALNUS VIRIDIS SSP CRISPA 
CAREX TRICHOCARPA 
HALENIA DEFLEXA 
JUNCUS NODOSUS 
MIMULUS MOSCHATUS 



MOUNTAIN ALDER 
HAIRY-FRUITED SEDGE 
SPURRED GENTIAN 
KNOTTED RUSH 
MUSKFLOWER 



SO 

T 

E 

-WL 

T 



P-58 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated rare animals: 

NONE KNOWN 

Examples: 
Threats: 



Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author J. Kearsley 



Westfield River in Cummington. 

It is not known to wbat extent dam construction and the resulting altered hydrology has affected the 
occurrence of riverside seep communities. These communities are disturbed by trampling from 
recreation which leads to the invasion of non-native plant species. Purple loosestrife can be dominant 
wiiere disturbance is high. 

Removal of non-native plant species and maintenance of natural flooding regimes. 

1 

Statewide inventory is needed. 



not described. 

New England Riverside Seep Commimity. 

Riverside Seep Community. 

Calcareous Riverside. 

Calcareous Riverside Seep Community, Acidic Riverside Seep Commimity. 

Riverside Ice Meadow. 

not described. 

not described. 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-59 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



LOW-ENERGY RIVERBANK 

CP2A0B2300 
S4 
No 



..^ 1 


0'J^ 


!■ ^.^''''MKKi^^K-^^^^^ 


fS^[ ami 




h^ \ ^§i 




' 








■^-^ 



Concept 
Environmental setting: 

Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 

Associated rare plants: 

NONE KNOWN 



Associated rare animals: 

CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
GOMPHUS FRATERNUS 
GOMPHUS VASTUS 
GOMPHUS VENTRICOSUS 
NEUROCORDULIA OBSOLETA 
OPHIOGOMPHUS ASPERSUS 
OPmOGOMPHUS CAROLUS 
SOMATOCHLORA CINGULATA 



Open herbaceous/graminoid communities occurring on sand y or silty mineral soils of river and 
streambanks that do not experience severe flooding or ice scour. 

Low-energy rivers are smaller, low-gradient rivers that do not experience severe flooding. The 
riverbanks are generally sand y or silty. They lack the cobble substrate of high-energy areas and the 
muddy soils of open mud flats. These communities occur on mineral soil rather than the peaty or 
mucky soil that characterizes alluvial marshes and wet meadows. More information is needed. 

The species composition is variable but the structure is always an open mixture of herbaceous and 
graminoid species with occasional scattered shrubs and trees at the inlimd margin. Common species are 
reed canary-grass (Phalaris arundinacea\ which can be dominant, cockspur-grass {Echinochloa 
muricata\ fall panic-grass (Panicum dichotomijlonwi), rice cut-grass {Leersia oryzoides), Canada 
bluejoint {Calamagrostis canadensis var. canadensisX SL John's-wort (Hypericum spp.), smartweeds 
(Polygonum spp.), and various goldenrod species (Solidago spp.). Species typical of disturbed areas, 
such as cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium var. canadense) are common in tx)th high and low-energy 
riverbank communities. Low-energy riverbanks are more sparsely vegetated than marshes and w^ 
meadows. 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 

Can provide turtle nesting habitat, and can be used by riverine odonates 



WOOD TURTLE 
MIDLAND CLUBTAIL 
COBRA CLUBTAIL 
SKILLET CLUBTAIL 
UMBER SHADOWDRAGON 
BROOK SNAKETAIL 
RIFFLE SNAKETAIL 
LAKE EMERALD 



SC 

E 

SC 

SC 

SC 

SC 

T 

SC 



P-60 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



SOMATOCHLORA ELONGATA 
SOMATOCHLORA GEORGIANA 
SOMATOCHLORA KENNEDYI 
SOMATOCHLORA LIhfEARIS 
STYLURUS AMNICOLA 
STYLURUS SCUDDERI 
STYLURUS SPINICEPS 



Examples: 

Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson. 1974: 

Other 

Authon 



SKI-TAILED EMERALD 
COPPERY EMERALD 
KENNEDYS EMERALD 
MOCHA EMERALD 
RIVERINE CLUBTAIL 
ZEBRA CLUBTAIL 
A CLUBTAIL DRAGONFLY 

Banks of the Nashua River in Ft. Devens. 

InvzLsion by non-native plant species is the greatest threat to the community. 

Non-native plant species removal. 

2 

Inventory and community descriptions are needed. 

similar to Phalaris anmdinacea Eastern Herbaceous Vegetation. 

SNE low-energy riverbank commimity [CT1E2B10001. 

not described. 

similar to Rivershore grassland. 

similar to Riverside meadow community. 

not described. 

? 

not described 



SC 

£ 

E 

SC 

E 

E 

T 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-6I 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



HIGH-ENERGY RIVERBANK 

CP2A0B2400 
S3 
Yes 




Concept 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Sparse, open herbaceous/graminoid conununities occurring on cobble and sand substrates of steqv 
gradient, fast-flowing rivers that experience severe flooding and ice scour. 

High-energy riverbank enviroiunents are created by the alluvial deposition of cobbles, sand and silt 
during high spring flood events, and they are shaped by continued armual flood events and winter ice 
scour. DitTerences in severity of scouring and flooding create a gradient of substrate types from the 
river's edge to the upland transition. Scouring and flooding are most intense at the river's edge, 
especially the upstream end of riverine islands, which receive the full force of ice floes and debris- 
laden flood waters. In the fast-moving water, only large cobbles are heavy enough to drop out of 
suspension. As the water crosses the cobblebar it slows down and smaller piarticles drop out, creating a 
continuum from cobbles and pebbles to sand and silt. That continuum correlates to a the change in 
vegetation communities. 

Vegetation zonation within high-energy riverbank commimities corresponds to substrate type and 
severity of flooding. On op)en cobbles, false dragonhead (Physostegia virginiana), cocklebur (Xanthium 
strumarium), beggar's ticks (Bidens spp.) and lady's thumb {Polygonum persicaria, an exotic) are 
dominant As the percent sand increases, water horsetail (Equisetumjluviatile) and clawing dogbane 
{Apocynum cannabinum var, hypericifolium) occur, and there is typically a distinct baivl of switchgrass 
(Panicum virgatum). In the still sandier areas, mixed grasslaikl s of switchgrass, big and little bluestem 
(Andropogon gerardii and Schizachyrium scoparium\ Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans), and 
goldeiu'ods {Solidago spp.) are found. Intense flooding and ice scour prevents estabUshment and 
growth of trees or tall shrubs; cobble bars that do have a tree canopy (cover >30%) are classified 
separately as cobble bar forests Short shrubs such as shadbush {Amelanchier sanguinea\ silky 
dogwood (Contus amomum), sand bar willow {Salix exigua) and sand bar cherry {Prunus pumila var. 
depressa) form a vegetation zone on the sandiest sections, typically bordering floodplain forests that 
occupy siltier soils. 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 

Riverine odonates use these areas as way stations. 



Associated rare plants: 

ALNUS VIRIDIS SSP CRISPA 

ASTER TRADESCANTK 

CAREX LENTICULARIS 

DESCHAMPSIA CESPITOSA SSP GLAUCA 

PRUNUS PUMILA VAR DEPRESSA 



MOUNTAIN ALDER 
TRADESCANTS ASTER 
SHORE SEDGE 
TUFTED HAIRGRASS 
SAND BAR CHERRY 



SC 

sc 

T 
E 
SC 



P-62 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



SALDCEXIGUA 



SAND BAR WILLOW 



SC 



Associated rare animals: 

CICINDELA DUODECIMGUTTATA 
GOMPHUS FRATERNUS 
GOMPHUS VASTUS 
GOMPHUS VENTRICOSUS 



TWELVE-SPOTTED TIGER BEETLE 
MIDLAND CLUBTAIL 
COBRA CLUBTAIL 
SKILLET CLUBTAIL 



SC 
E 
SC 
SC 



Examples: 
Threats: 



Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author 



Excellent examples of the community type in Massachusetts can be found on the upstream ends of the 
Sunderland Island s north of Sunderland Bridge on the Connecticut River. 

The two major threats to high-energy river communities are alteration of natural flooding regimes due 
to river control projects and the invasion of non-native plant ^jecies. High-energy riverbank 
environments are creeited by severe flooding and ice scour, and these natural disturbance regimes are 
necessary to maintain the community. Because of the community's exposure to flooding, it is 
susceptible to colonization by exotic plants, such as purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and lady's 
thimib (Polygonum persicaria), that have their seeds washed in from upstream sources. Trampling 
from campers and boaters creates further disturbance and favors fast-growing exotic plants. 

Where possible, highly invasive exotic plants should be mechanically removed. Management to reduce 
non-native plant ^>ecies throughout a drainage basin will help preserve the native plant communities of 
high-energy riverbanks. Natural hydrologic regimes should be maintained. 



Good information available for Connecticut and Deerfield Rivers. Inventories needed for Westfield and 
Farmington Rivers. | 



not described [loosely similar to Hudsonia tomentosa-Paronychia argyrocoma dwarf-shrubland]. 

SNE High-energy riverbanks [CT1E2A1000]. 

High-energy riverbank community. 

River cobble shore community. 

Riverside Sand /Gravel Barrens. 

similar to Cobble shore and Riverside sand /gravel bar. 

not described. 

similar to Riverside sand /gravel bar. 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-63 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



RIVERINE POINTBAR AND BEACH 

CP2A0B2500 
S3 
Yes 




Concept 
Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Sparsely vegetated exposed sand y beaches of major rivers. 

A pxjorly defined community type that is similar to high-energy riverbank commxmities but occurs on 
river-deposited sand s rather than cobbles. Riverine pointbars/beaches may best be considered a sub- 
type of high-energy riverbanks. They are also associated with riverside outcrops and floodplain forests. 
More information is needed. 

Open sand bars with sparse herbaceous and graminoid vegetation cover. Much of the community may 
be bare sand with only scattered plants, such as tall beggar's ticks {Bidens vulgatd). Higher margins 
typically have smartweeds {Polygonum spp.), cocklebur {Xanthium strumarium), and graminoids, 
including soft-stemmed spike-sedge (Eleocharis obtusa\ Smith's club-sedge (Scirpus smithii), awned 
flatsedge {Cyperus squarrosusX pondshore-flatsedge (Cyperus dentatus\ and lovegrass (Eragrostis 
spp.). Sand l^r willow (Salix exigua), a state-protected plant species, can occur along the higher 
margins. More information on species composition is needed. The Hudsonia riverside barrens of New 
Hampshire and southern Maine are not known to occur in Massachusetts. 

No associations have been described in Massachus^ts. 



Associated rare plants: 

ELEOCHARIS INTERMEDIA 
ELEOCHARIS OBTUSA VAR OVATA 
SALK EXIGUA 

Associated rare animals: 

CICINDELA DUODECIMGUTTATA 
CICINDELA PURITANA 
GOMPHUS FRATERNUS 
GOMPHUS VASTUS 
GOMPHUS VENTRICOSUS 
STYLURUS SPINICEPS 



INTERMEDIATE SPIKE-SEDGE 
OVATE SPIKE-SEDGE 
SAND BAR WILLOW 

TWELVE-SPOTTED TIGER BEETLE 

PURTTAN TIGER BEETLE 

MIDLAND CLUBTAIL 

COBRA CLUBTAIL 

SKILLET CLUBTAIL 

A CLUBTAIL DRAGONFLY 



T 
E 
SC 

SC 

E 

E 

SC 

SC 

T 



P-64 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples: 
Threats: 

Management needs: 



Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNYCn^NC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author J. Kearsley 



sand y beach on Connecticut River at Hatfield bend, Hatfield; Connecticut River at Pauchaug Meadows 
WMA Northfield; Rainbow Beach, Northampton. 

Trampling from campers and boaters negatively impacts both the plant and animal communities of 
riverine pointbar and beach communities. Alterations to normal flooding regimes can impact alluvial 
deposition, resulting in expansion or reduction of beach size. 

Cocklebur (Xanthium stnanarium) and Japanese knotweed {Polygonum cuspidatum) removal may be 
necessary from areas used as larval habitat by Puritan tiger beetles. The two species grow quickly and 
shade large areas thus eliminating habitat for the tiger beetles. More information is needed to assess the 
management needs for pointbars and beaches. 

1 

Inventory riverbends of major rivers. Community descriptions and plot data are needed. 



not described. 

not described. 

River beach community. 

Riverside sand /gravel community. 

Riverside sand /gravel barren. 

similar to Riverside sand /gravel bar. 

not described. 

included within Riverside sand /gravel bar. 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-65 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



SHRUB SWAMP 

CP2A0C0000 

ss 

No 




Concept 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Shrub-dominated wetlands occurring on mineral or mucky mineral soils that are seasonally or 
temporarily flooded. 

Shrub swamps are common and widespread. They occur in basin depressions, at pond margins, and 
along river and streamsides. They can be found in any flat area vviiere the water table is at or above the 
soil surface for most of the year. Soils are generally well-decomposed organic mucks that are 
permanently saturated but only seasonally or temporarily inundated. Shrub swamps are often found in 
the transition zone between emergent marshes and swamp forests. More information is needed on their 
physical characteristics. 

Shrub swamps are highly variable communities that probably can be divided into several types; 
however, there is currently not enough information available to separate vegetation types. Shrub 
swamps typically have a mixture of the following shrub species: speckled alder (Alnus incana ssp. 
rugosa\ smooth alder (Alnus serrulata\ highbush blueberry (yaccinium corymbosum), meadowsweet 
{Spiraea alba var. latifolia), buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis\ winterberry {Ilex verticil lata), 
sweet gale {Myrica gale\ swamp azalea {Rhododendron viscosum\ silky dogwood {Comus amomumX 
northern arrow- wood {Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum\ maleberry {Lyonia ligustrina), and the non- 
native shrub European alder-buckthom {Rhamnus frangula). Scattered red maple {Acer rubrum) or 
gray birch {Betula populifolia) saplings also occur. Richer shrub swamps in areas with circumneutral 
water are often dominated by spicebush {Undent benzoin). Some shrub swamps are dominated by a 
single ^)ecies, such as black willow {Salix nigra) riverside thickets [which may best be included with 
floodplain forests], highbush bluebeiry thickets, or buttonbush swamps. Highbush blueberry thicks 
that occur on peat are described separately in the peatlands section, with more data, other types may 
also be split off and described as distinct commimity types. Since shrubs often form dense thickets, the 
herbaceous layer of shrub swamps is often sparse and species-poor. A mixture of the following species 
is typical: common arrowhead {Sagittaria latifolia var. latifolia), skunk cabbage {Symplocarpus 
foetidus\ cirmamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea), sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis), arxl royal fem 
(Osmunda regalis), sedges {Carex spp.X and Sphagniun spp. moss. More inventory work is needed. 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 

Shrub swamps often function as vernal pool habitat in sections that have extended periods of ponding 
{2-3 months) and lack fish; these sections provide important amj^'bian breeding habitat 



Associated rare plants: 

BIDENS DKCOrDEA 
SALK PEDICELLARIS 



SMALL BEGGAR-TICKS 
BOG-WILLOW 



-WL 
-WL 



P-66 



Classiflcation of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONIANUM 
AMBYSTOMA LATERALE 
AMBYSTOMA OPACUM 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
DESMOCERUS PALLIATUS 
EMYDOIDEA BLAND INGH 
HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 
PAPAIPEMA SULPHURATA 
SCAPfflOPUS HOLBROOKn 
SYNURELLA CHAMBERLAINI 

Examples: 
Threats: 

Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 



JEFFERSON SALAMAND ER 

BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER 

MARBLED SALAMAND ER 

SPOTTED TURTLE 

WOOD TURTLE 

ELDERBERRY LONG-HORNED BEETLE 

BLAND ING'S TURTLE 

FOUR-TOED SALAMAND ER 

WATER-WILLOW STEM BORER 

EASTERN SPADEFOOT 

COASTAL SWAMP AMPHIPOD 

parts of 1000 Acre Swamp, Athol and Ptiillipston. 

Invasion by purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). 

More information is needed to assess the management needs of shrub swamps. 

2 

Inventory and vegetation classification needed to describe variants. 



SC 

sc 

T 

SC 

SC 

SC 

T 

SC 

T 

T 

SC 



USNYCn^NC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

RI: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author J. Kearsley 



Salix nigra flooded shrubland [CEGL003901]; AInus incana swamp shnibland [CEGL002381]; Alnus 
serrulata eastern shrubland [CEGL005082]; Cephalanthus occidentalis semipermanently flooded 
shrubland [CEGL003908]; Decodon verticillatus semipermanently flooded shrubland [CEGL005089]. 

not described separately. 

Shrub swamp community, Black willow-alder swamp community. 

Alluvial shrub swamp/woodland ; shrub swamp; buttonbush swamp (kettle basin shrub swamp). 

Shrub swamps. 

Shrub swamp. 

Salix nigra/Panicum dichotomiflorum community, Alnus rugosa-Salix spp. Commum'ty, Alnus rugosa- 
Comus amomum-Dex verticillata community, Cephalanthus occidentalis-Salix sericea community, 
Cephalanthus occidentahs/Glyceria canadensis community, Decodon verticillatus shrubland s. 

Scrub/shrub wetland. 

Sapling shrub swamp (SS-1); bushy shrub swamp (SS-2); compact shrub swamp (SS-3); aquatic shrub 
swamp (SS-4). 

Acidic and circumneutral shrub swamps differentiated by Weatherbee (1992) for Berkshire County. 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-67 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



CALCAREOUS SLOPING FEN 

CP2B0A1OO0 
S2 
Yes 




Concept 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 



Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna 



Open, sedge-dominated wetlands occurring on slight to moderate slopes where there is calcareous 
groundwater seepage. Calcareous slopmg fens are the most nutrient- and species-rich of the three 
calcareous fen communities described in Massachusetts. They are rare ^)ecies "hot spots" with many 
associated rare plant and animal species. 

Extremely rich fen communities occurring in areas that are slightly to moderately sloping with 
calcareous groundwater seepage that is often visible as distinct rivulets. Where there is heavy 
groundwater discharge, the mineral soil is exposed There can also be small hummocks of organic 
matter accumulation. Sites that are more highly disturbed have less woody shrub growth. 

Low graminoid/herbaceous communities dominated by sedges, such as inland prickly sedge (Carex 
interior), dehcate sedge (C. leptalea\ yellow sedge (C./lava\ and porcupine-sedge (C. hystericina). 
Typical herbaceous associates include grass-of-Pamassus (Pamassia glauca\ rough-leaved goldenrod 
(Solidago patuld), fen-goldenrod {S. purshii\ and marsh-fern {Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens). 
There is a sparse tree and shrub cover. Common trees and shrubs include wtiite pine (Pinus strobus\ 
tamarack (Larix laricina\ shrubby cinquefoil (PentaphylloidesJJoribunda), autumn-willow (Salix 
serissima), and alder-leaf buckthorn (Rhamnus alnifolia). 

Seven calcareous fen vegetation associations have been described for western New England and 
adjacent New York state [Motzkin, 1994]. Calcareous sloping fens are equivalent to Motzkin's Carex 
interior-Carex leptalea-Carex flava type [Group HI]. 

Calcareous sloping fenscan function as vernal pool habitat if water remains standing for 2-3 months; 
these sections provide important amphibian breeding habitat Several state-protected rare turtle species 
inhabit calcareous sloping fens. Regionally rare ant species are also known to occur in this commimity 
type. 



Associated rare plants: 

CAREX STERILIS 

CAREX TETANICA 

CYPRIPEDIUM CALCEOLUS VAR 
PARVIFLORUM 

EQUISETUM SCIRPOIDES 

ERIOPHORUM GRACILE 

JUNCUS NODOSUS 

LOBELIA KALMn 



DIOECIOUS SEDGE 

FEN SEDGE 

SMALL YELLOW LAD YS-SLIPPER 

DWARF SCOURING-RUSH 
SLENDER COTTONGRASS 
-WL 
-WL 



T 

SC 

E 

SC 
T 



P-68 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



PETASITES FRIGIDUS VAR PALMATUS 
SALK CANDIDA 
SALDC SERISSIMA 
SPIRANTHES ROMANZOFFIANA 

Associated rare animals: 

CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
CLEMMYS MUHLENBERGE 
GAMMARUS PSEUDOLIMNAEUS 
STYGOBROMUS BOREALIS 
WILLIAMSONIA FLETCHERI 



SWEET COLTSFOOT 
HOARY WILLOW 
AUTUMN WILLOW 
HOODED LADIES'-TRESSES 

SPOTTED TURTLE 

WOOD TURTLE 

BOG TURTLE 

NORTHERN SPRING AMPHIPOD 

TACONIC CAVE AMPHIPOD 

EBONY BOGHAUNTER 



WL 
WL 



SC 

SC 

E 

SC 

E 

E 



Examples: 
Threats: 



Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 
Other 

Author J. Kearsley 



Several examples in Berkshire County. Massachusetts contains some of the best examples of calcareous 
fern in New England. 

Changes in groundwater quality and quantity, and any human activities that disturb the vegetation, 
substrate, or water supply. In disturbal areas, cattails may displace calcium-loving species. Beaver 
activity threatens calcareous fen communities by altering surface water chemistry. There is evidence to 
suggest that ponding of water by beaver dams may increase the water's relative acidity possibly due to 
the accumulation of organic acids or to dilution from acid rain [Motzkin, 1992]. 

Fires, grazing, and /or mowing may be necessary to maintain open fen habitats. More information is 
needed. 



Inventory and classification completed by Glenn Motzkin in 1 991 . 

Pentaphylloides floribunda/Carex (sterilis, hystericina, flava) shrub herbaceous vegetation 
[CEGL006326]. 

SNE Calcareous sloping fen [CP3A1A1000]. 

not described. 

Rich Fen (Calcareous Fen). 

Calcareous Sloping Fen. 

Rich Sloping Fen. 

Carex interior-Carex leptalea-Carex flava temperate grassland s [Carex sterilis/Potentilla fhiticosa 
community]. 

not described. 



Group ni [Motzkin, 1994]; Sloping graminoid fen community [Weatherbee & Crow, 1992, Weathcrbce 
1996]. 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-69 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



CALCAREOUS SEEPAGE MARSH 

CP2B0A2000 
S2 
Yes 




Concept 
Environmental setting: 

Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 



Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 

Associated rare plants: 

BETULAPUMILA 
GALIUM LABRADORICUM 
SALDC CANDIDA 

Associated rare animals: 

CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 



Mixed herbaceousf'graminoid/shrub wetlands that experience some calcareous groundwater seepage. 
Calcareous seepage marshes are intermediate in richness of the three calcareous fen communities 
described in Massachusetts. 

Marsh community with some calcareous seepage. This commimity type is found in a variety of 
physical settings— in basins, in canopy gaps in rich forested swampks, in current or former beaver 
drainages, or in level to slightly sloping sites associated with sloping fens. There is typically 50-200+ 
cm of moderate to well-decomposed organic sediments. 

Open emergent community with scattered shrubs, such as swamp-birch (Betula pumila), hoary willow 
(Salix Candida), meadowsweet {Spiraea latifolia), and poison-sxmiac (Toxicodendron vemix). The 
herbaceous layer is a mixture of typical marsh species, including marsh sedge (Carex lacustris\ 
tussock sedge (C. strictd), and marsh fern {Thelypteris palustris). Other characteristic ^jecies are 
phragmites (Phragmites australis), cat-tails (Typha angustifolia and T. latifolia\ purple loosestrife 
(Lythrum salicaria\ Labrador-bedstraw {Galium labradoricum), and swamp loosestrife {Lysimachia 
thyrsijlora). Calcareous seepage marshes are distinguished from other emergent marshes by the 
presence of calciphilic {calcium-loving) species, including swamp birch, hoary willow, shrubby 
cinquefoil {Pentaphylloides floribunda\ and fen-bedstraw {Galium labradoricum). 

Seven calcareous fen vegetation associations have been described for western New England and 
adjacent New York state (Motzkin, 1994]. Calcareous seepage marshes include four of Motzkin's 
associations [all grouped in his Group II]: 1 . Betula pumila type with a well-developed shrub layer, 2. 
Carex lacustris type which lacks extensive woody cover, 3. Carex stricta type with higher frequency 
and cover of C. stricta, and 4. Typha angustifolia-Carex lasiocarpa type which has less Pentaphylloides 
floribunda than the other types. 

Calcareous seepage marshes can function as vernal pool habitat in sections that have two to three 
months of ponding and lack fish; these sections provide important amphibian breeding habitat 



SWAMP BIRCH 
LABRADOR BEDSTRAW 
HOARY WILLOW 

SPOTTED TURTLE 
WOOD TURTLE 



T 
SO 

-WL 

sc 
sc 



P-70 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples: 

Threats: 

Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 



Greene Swamp, Sunderland [6] associated with Calcareous seepage swamp and with nam)w calcareous 
sloping fea 

See description of threats under Calcareous sloping fen. 

See description of management needs for Calcareous sloping fens. 

3 

Inventory and classification completed by Glenn Motzkin in 1 99 1 . More information is needed to 
clarify the relationship between seepage marshes, other marshes, and intermediate fens (including both 
acidic fens and calcareous basin fens). 



Synonyms: 




USNVCn-NC: 


includes Comus amomum-Salix candida/Pentaphylloides flori 
[CEGL006359]. 


MA [old name]: 


SNE Seepage Marsh [CP3C 100000]. 


ME: 


not described. 


VT: 


not described. 


NH: 


not described. 


NY: 


similar to Medium fen. 


CT: 


Potentilla fruticosa-Betula pumila/Carex lacustris community. 


Rl: 


not described. 


Golet & Larson. 1974: 




Othen 


Group n fMotzkin, 19941. 



Author 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species F*rogram 



July 2000 



P-71 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



CALCAREOUS BASIN FEN 

CP2B0A3000 
SI 
Yes 




Concept 
Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 



Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 

Associated rare plants: 
CAREX CHORDORRHIZA 
SALDC PEDICELLARIS 
SCmPUS ACUTUS 



Sedge-shrub peatlands occurring in well-defined basins that have calcareous groundwater, and 
sometimes surface water, inputs. Calcareous basin fens are the least rich of the three calcareous fen 
communities described in Massachusetts. 

Calcareous basin fens occur in well-defined basins with deep organic sediments, permanently saturated 
conditions, and consolidated or floating, sedge-dominated organic mats. They are the least rich (with 
respect to water chemistry) of the fen communities; Based on sediment core information from 
Kampoosa fen this community appears relatively stable over time (existed at the site for a few thousand 
years) and there is no evidence of rapid infilling or texrestrialization. The Carex lasiocarpa-Cladium 
mariscoides type is less mineral rich than the Carex aquatilis type. More work is needed to understand 
the range of hydrology and water chemistry of intermediate peatlands, e.g. what physical properties 
differentiate calcareous basin fens from acidic graminoid fens? 

Sedge-dominated peatlands with sparse shrub layers. The dominant species are slender woolly-fruited 
sedge {Carex lasiocarpa var. americana), water-sedge (C. aquatilis\ shrubby cinquefoil 
(Pentaphylloides floribunda), and sweet-gale (Myrica gale), which are associated with typical 
bog/acidic fen species such as pitcher plant {Sarracenia purpurea), large cranbeny (Vaccinium 
macrocarpoh), round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia\ and white beaksedge (Rhynchospora 
alba). Dominant bryophytes are Campylium stellatum, Calliergonella sp^. and Sphagnum spp. 
Calcareous basin fens diJOfer from calcareous seepage marshes by lacking swamp-bireh (Betula pumila\ 
hoary willow (Salix Candida), and typical marsh species like marsh fern (Thelypteris palustris) and 
tussock sedge {Carex stricta). Calcareous basin fens are similar to acidic graminoid fens in structure 
and species composition, but they have calciphihc species, such as shrubby cinquefoil or grass of 
pamassis. More work is needed the classify the vegetation associations of these intermediate peatland 
community types. 

Seven calcareous fen vegetation associations have been described for western New England and 
adjacent New York state [Motzkin, 1994]. Calcareous basin fens include two of Motzkin's associations 
[both grouped in his Group I]: the Carex lasiocarpa-Cladium mariscoides type and the Carex aquatilis 
type. 

Calcareous basin fens can function as vernal pool habitat in sections that have two to three montlis of 
ponding and lack fish; these sections provide important amphibian breeding habitat 



CREEPING SEDGE 
BOG WILLOW 
HARD-STEMMED BULL SEDGE 



WL 
WL 



P-72 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated rare animals: 

CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
WILLIAMSONIA FLETCHERI 



SPOTTED TURTLE 
WOOD TURTLE 
EBONY BOGHAUNTER 



SC 
SC 
E 



Examples: 
Threats: 

Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCH'NC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author 



Kampoosa Bog, Stockbridge. 

See threats under Calcareous sloping fen. 

See management needs for Calcareous sloping fen. 

3 

Inventory and classification completed by Glenn Motzkin in 1 99 1 . 

Myrica gale-Pentaphylloides floribimda/Carex lasiocarpa-Cladium mariscoides shrub herbaceous 
alliance [CEGL006068]. 

SNE calcareous basin fen [CP3A1B1000]. 

similar to Circumneutral fen community. 

similar to Intennediate Fen. 

Calcareous level fea 

Rich Graminoid Fen. 

Carex lasiocarpa-Carex aquatilis community. 

not described. 



Group I [Motzkin, 1994]. 
J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangaed Species Program 



July 2000 



P-73 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



ACIDIC GRAMINOID FEN 

CP2B0B1000 
S3 
Yes 




Concept: 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 

Associated rare plants: 

ARETHUSA BULBOSA 
CAREX LIMOSA 
SCERPUS LONCn 
XYRIS MONTANA 

Associated rare animals: 

CISTOTHORUS PALUSTRIS 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
DESMOCERUS PALLIATUS 



Mixed graminoid/heibaceous acidic peatlands that experience some groundwater and /or surfzice water 
flow but no calcareous seepage. Shrubs occur in clumps but are not dominant throughout. 

Acidic graminoid fens are sedge-Zsphagnum-dominated peatlands that are weakly minerotrophic 
[mineral-rich]. Acidic graminoid fens typically have some surface water inflow and some groundwater 
connectivity. Inlets and outlets are usually present, and standing water is present throughout much of 
the growing season Peat mats are quaking and often unstable. More information is needed on peat 
characteristics and hydrology. 

Acidic graminoid fens are diflerentiated from acidic shrub fens by their abundance of graminoid 
species and lack of extensive \eaithcT\e:a[ (Chamaedaphne calyculata) and water-willow {Decodon 
verticillatus). Beaked sedge {Carex utriculata) and slender woolly-fruited sedge (Carex lasiocarpa var. 
americana) are often dominant. Other good indicator species are white beak-sedge (Rhynchospora 
alba), twig-sedge {Cladium mariscoides), and pondshore-rush {Juncus pelocarpus). Characteristic 
herbaceous species include airow-arum (Peltandra virginica) and rose pogonia (Pogonia 
ophioglossoUes). Large cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) can be abundant. There is piatchy tree and 
shrub cover, including swamp azalea {Rhododendron viscosum\ sweet pepper-bush (Clethra alnifolia\ 
poison sumac (Toxicodendron vemix\ red maple {Acer rubrum), and Atlantic white cedar 
{Chamaecyparis thyoides). Coastal sites also have bayberry {Kfyrica pennsylvanica). 

One association has been described in Massachus^ts: the Clethra alnifolia-Carex utriculata-Carex 
l£isiocarj)a var. americana acidic graminoid fen association [TYPE H; described in Kearsley, 1999]. 

Acidic graminoid fens can frmction as vernal pool habitat in sections that have two to three months of 
ponding and lack fish; these sections provide important amphibian breeding habitat 



ARETHUSA 


T 


MUD-SEDGE 


-WL 


LONG'S BULRUSH 


E 


NORTHERN YELLOW-EYED GRASS 


-WL 


MARSH WREN 


-WL 


SPOTTED TURTLE 


SO 


ELDERBERRY LONG-HORNED BEETLE 


sc 



P-74 



Classiflcation of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



EMYDOIDEA BLAND INGH 
PAPAIPEMA APPASSIONATA 
PAPAffEMA STENOCELIS 
SYNAPTOMYS COOPERI 
VERTIGO PERRYI 
WILLIAMSONIA LINTNERI 



BLAND ING'S TURTLE 
PITCHER PLANT BORER MOTH 
CHAIN FERN BORER MOTH 
SOUTHERN BOG LEMMING 
OLIVE VERTIGO 
RINGED BOGHAUNTER 



T 

SC 

SC 

SC 

SC 

E 



Examples: 
Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 
USNVCn"NC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author J. Kearsley 



Grassy Pond, Acton. 



Nutrient enrichment from nmofffixjm roads, lawns, septic systems, and agricultural fields. Other 
threats are alterations to the natural hydrology and trampling. 

Cattails appear to proliferate in areas that exp>erience road and /or lawn runoff. Efforts should be made 
to minimize runoff into these communities. 

1 

Given high priority as follow-up to 1998 bog inventory. Also need to look at Scirpus longii sites and 
potential sea level fens. 



in part Chamaedaphne calyculata/Carex lasiocarpa-Utricularia spp. Shrub Herbaceous Vegetation but 
no leatherleaf 

SNE acidic basin fen (CP3A2B1000]. 

included in Acidic fen community. 

similar to Poor fen. 

similar to Coastal/southern acidic fen and to Boreal/transitional acidic sloping fen. 

includes Inland poor fen and Coastal plain poor fen. 

Chamaedaphne calyculata/Carex iitriculata var. rostrata commimity. 

Acidic level fen. 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-75 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



ACIDIC SHRUB FEN 

CP2B0B20O0 
S3 
Yes 




Concept 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 

Associated rare plants: 

NONE KNOWN 

Associated rare animals: 

CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
LITHOPHANE VIRIDIPALLENS 
PAPAIPEMA SULPHURATA 
WILLIAMSONIA LINTNERI 



Shrub-dominated acidic peatlands characterized by a mixture of primarily deciduous shrubs. Acidic 
shrub fens exp)erience some groundwater and /or surface water flow but not calcareous seepage. 

Acidic shrub fens are less acidic and nutrient-poor than level bogs; they appear to have more siuface 
water inflow and some groundwater connectivity. Acidic shnib fens are typically found along wet pond 
margins in the eastern half of the state, but they also characterize many wet pond margins in northern 
Worcester County [e.g. Cheshire and Lincoln Ponds, Ashbumham] and the Berkshires [Horseshoe- 
Mud Pond Bog, Otis]. More information is needed to identify the physical, geochemical, or 
hydrological differences between acidic shrub fens and acidic graminoid fens. 

Acidic shrub fens are composed primarily of low-growing, interwoven shrubs with jiatches of 
Sphagnum moss growing at the shnib bases. Evergreen and deciduous shrubs occur, typical species 
include leatherleaf, water-willow (Decodon verticillatus\ sweet-gale (Kfyrica gale), meadow-sweet 
(Spiraea alba var. latifolia), sweet-pepperbush (Clethra alnifolia), and alder {Alnus ^p.). Scattered red 
maples {Acer rubrum) and Atlantic white cedar {Chamaecyparis thyoides) can also occur. There is a 
limited number of herbaceous q)ecies, including St John's- wort {Hypericum spp.) and arrow- weed 
{Sagittaria spp.). These fissociations are similar in structure to dwarf ericaceous shrub bogs, but they 
are wetter with a less well-developed sphagnum mat 

One association has been described in Massachusetts: the E)ecodon verticillatus-Chamaedaphne 
calyculata-Myrica gale acidic shrub fen association [TYPE F; described in Kearsley, 1999]. 

Acidic shrub fens can function as vernal pool habitat if water remains standing for 2-3 months; these 
areas provide important amphibian breeding habitat 



SPOTTED TURTLE 
PALE GREEN PINION MOTH 
WATER-WILLOW STEM BORER 
RINGED BOGHAUNTER 



SC 

sc 

T 
E 



Examples: 



Mud Pond-Horseshoe Pond bog, Otis; Lowell-Dracut State Forest bog, Dracut 



P-76 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Threats: 

Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCH'NC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author 



Hydrological alterations that affect either water quahty or quantity threaten the community occurrences 
and the component species. Nutrient enrichment from surrounding land uses allows less tolerant 
species to displace low nutrient specialists. 

Maintaining water quahty and quantity are important to all wetland communities. 



in part Chamaedaphne caIyculata-(Gaylussacia dumosa)-Decodon verticillatusAVoodwardia virgiiuca 
dwarf-shrubland ; til so in part Decodon verticillatus semipermanently flooded shrublaixl and Myrica 
gale saturated shrubland. 

included in SNE acidic basin fen [CP3A2B10O0]. 

included in Acidic fen community. 

similar to Poor fen. 

not described. 

not described. 

not described. 

not described. 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-77 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



SEA-LEVEL FEN 

CP2B0B3000 
SI 
Yes 




Concept 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Herbaceous/graminoid peatlands that occur at the upland edges of ocean tidal marshes. The 
combination of upland freshwater seepage and infrequent salt or brackish overwash produces a mixed 
plant conununity of freshwater and estuahne species. 

Sea-level fens occupy the interface between estuahne marshes and upland seepage slopes, and 
therefore have a distinct species assemblage including both estuarine and palustrine species. There are 
two hydrologic influences: acidic freshwater seepage from the uplands and periodic salt or brackish 
overwash from the adjeicent marsh. Both are needed to produce the combination of species observed in 
sea-level fens. 

Probable community type in Massachusetts, but vegetation descriptions are lacking. There are two 
probable occurrences reported from Martha's Vineyard that have saltmarsh spike-sedge {Eleocharis 
rostellata) co-occurring with acidic fen species. Plot data are needed. Ludwig (1995) described the 
flora of sea-level fens from Virginia, Delaware, New York, and Connecticut. He described three 
diagnostic species: saltmarsh straw-sedge {Carex hormathodes\ saltmarsh spike-sedge {Eleocharis 
rostellata), and saltmarsh-threesquare {Scirpus americanus). Other common species include; New 
York aster {Aster novi-belgif), twig-sedge {Cladium mariscoides\ spjatulate-leaved sundew {Drosera 
intermedia), Canada rush {Juncus canadensis), pondshore-rush {Juncus pelocarpus), swamp-candles 
{Lysimachia terrestris), common reed {Phragmites australis), white beak-sedge {Rhynchospora alba), 
swamp-rose {Rosa palustris), common threesquare {Scirpus pungens), poison ivy {Toxicodendron 
radicans), and marsh SL John's-wort {Triadenum virginicum). (State Historical, deceitful spike-sedge 
{Eleocharis fallax) listed as common in more southern occurrences.] 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 

More information is needed. 



Associated rare plants: 

ELEOCHARIS FALLAX 
ELEOCHARIS ROSIELLATA 



DECEITFUL SPKE-SEDGE 
BEAKED SPIKE-SEDGE 



H 

-WL 



P-78 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated rare animals: 

METARRANTHIS PILOSARIA 
VERTIGO PERRYI 
Examples: 
Threats: 



COASTAL SWAMP METARRANTHIS MOTH 
OLIVE VERTIGO 
Possible on Martha's Vineyard and Buzzard's Bay. 



SC 

sc 



Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

RI: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Othen 

Author J.Kearsley 



Alteration to the natural hydrologic regime. Development in the uplands may have negative effects on 
uplandseepage. 

Maintain natural hydrology and upland buffer. 

1 



Cladium mariscoides-Drosera intermedia-Eleocharis rostellata herbaceous vegetation [CEGL0O6310]. 

not described. 

not described. 

not described. 

not described. 

Sea-level fen. 

Cladium mariscoides-Drosera intermedia-Eleocharis rostellata community? 

Sea-level fen. 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-79 



Community Name: 


LEVEL BOG 


Community ELCOOE: 


CP2B0C1000 


SRANK: 


S3 


Tracked: 


Yes 




Concept 
Environmental setting: 

Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 



Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Acidic dwarf ericaceous shrub peatlands, generally with pronounced hummock-hollow topography. 
Level bogs are the most acidic and nutrient-poor of Massachusetts' peatland communities. 

Level bog communities receive little or no streamflow and they are isolated from the water table, 
making them the most acidic and nutrient-poor of peatland communities. The pH of level bogs is in the 
range of 3 to 4. Level bogs develop along pond margins, at the headwaters of streams, or in isolated 
valley bottoms without inlet or outlet streams. 

Level bogs are characterized by a mixture of tall and short shrubs that are predominantly ericaceous 
(i.e. members of the Heath family). Lcaihcrleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata) is dominant Other typical 
ericaceous shrubs include rhodora (Rhododendron canadense\ sheep laurel {Kalmia angustifolia\ bog 
laurel {Kalmia polifolia\ bog rosemary {Andromeda polifolia var. glaucophylla\ Labrador tea {Ledum 
groenlandicum\ and low-growing large and small cranberry (KacCT/i/um macrocarpon and V. 
oxycoccus). Scattered, stunted coniferous trees, primarily tamarack (Larix laricina) and black spruce 
(Picea mariana), occur throughout A mixture of specialized bog plants grow on the hummocky 
Sphagnum surface, including carnivorous pitcher plants {Sarracenia purpurea) and sundews {Drosera 
rotundifolia and D. intermedia). 

Five associations have been described in Massachusetts. They are: 1 . Vaccinium corymbosum- 
Rhododendron viscosum tall shrub bog find bog border association [TYPE A in Kearsley, 1999], 2. 
Vaccinium corymbasum-Rhododendron canadense-Ledum groenlandicum tall shrub bog association 
[TYPE B in Kearsley, 1999], 3. A Chamaedaphne calyculata-Kalmia polifolia-Maianthemum trifolium 
dwarf ericaceous shrub bog association [TYPE C in Kearsley, 1999], 4 Chamaedaphne calyculata 
dwarf ericaceous shrub bog association [TYPE D], and 5. Vaccinium oxycoccus-Rhynchospora alba- 
Utricularia comuta open sphagnum lawn association [TYPE E). 

The high acidity and low oxygen content of the water make level bogs inhospitable to many reptiles, 
fish, and amphibians. However, several of the state's protected rare animal species are found in level 
bogs. Moats or pools associated with level bogs can provide important amphibian breeding habitat and 
function as vernal pools if they have two to three months of ponding and lack fish. 



Associated rare plants: 

ARCEUTHOBIUM PUSILLUM 
CAREX LIMOSA 
SCHEUCHZERIA PALUSTRIS 
XYRIS MONTANA 



DWARF MISTLETOE 

MUD-SEDGE 

POD-GRASS 

NORTHERN YELLOW-EYED GRASS 



SC 

-WL 
T 

-WL 



P-80 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Commimities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated rare animals: 

AESHNA MUTATA 
AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONIANUM 
AMBYSTOMA LATERALE 
LITHOPHANE VIRE)IPALLENS 
METARRANTHIS PILOSARIA 
PAPAIPEMA APPASSIONATA 
WILLIAMSONIA FLETCHERI 
WILLIAMSONIA LINTNERI 



SPATTERDOCK DARNER 

JEFFERSON SALAMAND ER 

BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER 

PALE GREEN PINION MOTH 

COASTAL SWAMP METARRANTHIS MOTH 

PnCHER PLANT BORER MOTH 

EBONY BOGHAUNTER 

RINGED BOGHAUNTER 



E 

SC 

SC 

SC 

SC 

SC 

E 

E 



Examples: 
Threats: 

Management needs: 



Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCn"NC: 



Ponkapoag Bog Reservation MDC, Canton; Poutwater Pond, Sterling. 



MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author J. Kearsley 



Hydrologic alteration and nutrient enrichment from road and lawn nmofT Trampling from himians 
affects peat mat integrity. 

Public should be encouraged to visit only those sites with estabhshed boardwalks. Signs need to be 
posted along boardwalks encouraging visitors to stay off the peat mat. Monitor the impact of salt and 
other nutrient runoff into bogs, and work to minimize runoff. Remove phragmites where it has become 
established. 



Site visits should be made to 71 sites identified in 1998 bog inventory that were not visited in'98. 

includes Vaccinium corymbosimVSphagnimi ^p. Shrubland ; Picea mariana/Kalmia 
angustifolia/Sphagnum spp. Forest; Picea mariana/Sphagnum ^p. (Lower New England /Northern 
Piedmont, North Atlantic Coast) Woodland ; Kalmia angustifolia-Chamaedaphne calyculata (Picea 
marianayciadina dwarf-shrubland. 

SNE Level Bog [CP2C2A0000]. 

Dwarf shrub bog community. 

Dwarf shrub bog. 

similar to Coastal/southern dwarf shrub bog and to BorealAransitional dwarf shrub bog. 

Dwarf shrub bog. 

Chamaedaphne calyculata dwarf shrubland s. 

Dwarf shrub bog. 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-81 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



Concept 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



J^sodations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



KETTLEHOLE LEVEL BOG 

CP2B0C1100 
S2 
Yes 




A variant of level bogs occurring in kettle dq)ressions in sand y glacial outwash. Vegetation is 
typically zoned in rings. 

Kettlehole level bogs are a subset of level bogs that occur in iceblock depressions (commonly called 
kettleholes) in sand y glacial outwash. They are typically small (< 3 acres\ round, and they lack inlets 
and outlets. 

Kettlehole level bogs have similar vegetation to level bogs, except that the vegetation is typically in a 
ringed zonation pattern. Often the outer wet moat is dominated by a mixture of highbush blueberry 
(Vaccinium corymbosum) and swamp azalea {Rhododendron viscosum) bordered to the interior by a 
ring of rhodora {Rhododendron canadense). The mat has a mixture of tall and short shrubs that are 
predominantly ericaceous (members of the Heath family). heaihaXaS {Chamaedaphne catyculata) is 
dominant Other typical ericaceous shrubs include rhodora, sheep laurel {Kalmia angustifolia), bog 
laurel {Kalmia polifolid), bog rosemary {Andromeda polifolia var. glaucophylla\ Labrador tea {Ledum 
groenlandicum\ arvd low-growing large and small cranberry {Vaccinium macrocarpon and V. 
oxycoccus). Scattered, stunted coniferous trees, primarily tamarack (Larix laricina) and black spruce 
(Picea mariana) occur throughout. A mixture of specialized bog plants grow on the hummocky 
sphagnimi surface, including carnivorous pitcher plants {Sarracenia purpurea) and sundews {Drosera 
rotundifolia and D. intermedia). Many of the kettlehole bogs observed in the state have drier and more 
stable sphagnum mats than level bogs not in kettleholes, and they have abundant bog laurel and three- 
leaved Solomon's seal {Maianthemum trifolium). 

One association has been described in Massachusetts: the Cbamaedaphne calycuIata-Kalmia polifolia- 
Maianthemimi trifolium dwarf ericaceous shrub bog association [TYPE C in Kearsley, 1999]. 

Moats surrounding kettlehole level bogs can function as vernal pool habitat if water remains staivling 
for 2-3 months ai^ they lack Csh; these areas provide important amphibian breeding habitat 



Associated rare plants: 

MAIANTHEMUM TRIFOLIUM 

Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONLWUM 
AMBYSTOMA LATERALE 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
LITHOPHANE VDUDIPALLENS 
PAPAIPEMA APPASSIONATA 



THREE-LEAVED SOLOMON'S SEAL 

JEFFERSON SALAMAND ER 
BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER 
SPOTTED TURTLE 
PALE GREEN PINION MOTH 
PITCHER PLANT BORER MOTH 



-WL 
SO 

sc 
sc 
sc 
sc 



P-82 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples: 
Threats: 

Management needs: 



Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 



MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author 



Arcadia bog, Belchertown. 

Hydrologic alteration and nutrient enrichment from road and lawn nmofT. Trampling from humans 
affects peat mat integrity. 

Public should be encouraged to visit only those sites with estabUshed boardwalks. Signs need to be 
posted along boardwalks encouraging visitors to stay ofT the peat mat. Monitor the impact of salt and 
other nutrient runoff into bogs, and work to minimize nmoff. Remove phragmites where it has become 
established. 



includes Vaccinium corymbosum/Sphagnum ^p. Shnibland ; Picea mariana/Kalmia 
angustifolia/Sphagnum spp. Forest; Picea mariana/Sphagnum ^p. (Lower New England /Northern 
Piedmont, North Atlantic Coast) Woodland ; Kalmia angustifoUa-Chamaedaphne calyculata (Picea 
marianayCladina dwarf-shrubland. 

included in SNE level bog [CP2C2A0000]. 

similar to Dwarf shrub bog conununity. 

included in Dwarf shrub bog. 

included in Coastal/southern dwarf shrub bog and Boreal/transitional dwarf shrub bog. 

included in Dwarf shrub bog. 

Chamaedaphne calyculata dwarf shnibland s. 

included in Dwarf shrub bog. 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-83 



Community Name: 
Community ELCOOE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY THICKET 

CP2B0C2000 
S4 
No 





1 ' > B^^^^^^^!^ 

\ J. 


1- 










\ 


l/Tj; 


!;;3^ 




u* 


-^ 


-hA 



Concept 
Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Acidic peatlands dominated by dense highbush blueberry bushes on hummocky sphagnum moss. 

Highbush blud)eTTy tliickets appear to occur in areas that are wetter and more mineral- enriched than 
dwarf shrub level bog communities. Tall shrub thickets are generally flooded in spring and early 
summer, but water levels drop below the soil surface by late summer or early fall. The sphagnum mat 
is variable; it can be paichy and unstable or thick and stable. Many of the known examples occupy 
kettleholes. 

Highbush blueberry thickets are tall shrub peatlands dominated by dense highbush blueberries 
{Vaccinium corymbosum). Swamp azalea {Rhododendron viscosum) is a common associate, and typical 
short shrubs include sheep laurel {K. angustifolid), leathalesS (Chamaedaphne calyculata), and 
huckleberry {Gaylussacia dumosd). Sphagnum moss can form a contmuous and stable mat beneath the 
shrubs, or it can be localized on small hummocks at the base of the shrubs. 

One association has been described in Massachusetts: the Vaccinium corymbosum-Rhododendron 
viscosum tall shrub bog and bog border association [TYPE A in Kearsley, 1999). 

Moats of wet, ponded areas associated with highbush blueberry thickets can fimction as vernal pool 
habitat if water remains standing for 2-3 months; these areas provide important amphibian breeding 
habitat 



Associated rare plants: 

MAIANTHEMUM TRIFOLIUM 

Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONIANUM 
AMBYSTOMA LATERALE 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 



THREE-LEAVED SOLOMON'S SEAL 

JEFFERSON SALAMAND ER 
BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER 
SPOTTED TURTLE 
FOUR-TOED SALAMAND ER 



-WL 

sc 

SC 

sc 

SC 



Examples: 
Threats: 

Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 



several kettlehole highbush blueberry thickets in Belchertown. 

Hydrologic alterations and nutrient enrichment from road and lawn runoff may impact this community. 
More information is needed. 

More information is needed. 

2 



P-84 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT; 

RI: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 
Other 



Probably common, but statewide inventory and vegetation classification needed. 

Vaccinium corymbosiun/Sphagnum spp. shrubland [CEGL006190]. 

not described. 

similar to Peatland lagg community. 

not described or included in Shrub swamp. 

included within Shrub swamp. 

Highbush blueberry bog thicket , 

Vaccinium corymbosum-Rhododendron viscosum community; Vaccinium corymbosum/Osmunda 
ciimamomea community. 

included in scrub/shrub wetland. 



Author 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-85 



Community Name: 
Community ELCODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



WOODLAND VERNAL POOL 

CPSOOOOOOO 
S3 
Yes 




^'•a 



Concept 
Environmental setting: 

Vegetation Description: 

Associations: 

Habitat values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Small, shallow dq}ressions within iqsland forest that are temporarily flooded and provide important 
breeding habitat for amf^bians. 

Woodland vernal pools are small, shallow depressions that are isolated from other surface waters. They 
flood in the spring and sometimes in the fall, but they are typically dry in the summer. They often have 
hydric soils. When dry, woodland vernal pools can often be recognized by a layer of stained leaves 
covering the dry depression. 

Woodland vernal pools often have little or no vegetation, but they are ringed by upland trees or shrubs, 
such as sweet pepperbush (Clethra alnifolia). Other forested and non-forested wetland community 
types can function as vemal pool habitat if they have long periods of standing water, i.e. 2-3 months. 
See habitat values description under other community descriptions. 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 

Vemal pools are tracked as a separate community type because of the important habitat they provide 
for amphibians and invertebrates. Since vemal pools are temporary bodies of water, they do not support 
fish populations. Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica), Eastem spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbroofdi), and 
four local species of mole salamanders (Ambystoma spp.) have evolved breeding strategies intolerant of 
fish predation on their eggs and larvae; the lack of fish populations is essential to the breeding success 
of these ^)ecies. Other amphibian species use vemal pools but they do not depend on them, those 
species include American Toads (Bu/o americanus\ Green Frogs {Rana clanutans\ and Red-spotted 
Newts {Notophthalmus viridescens). Vemal pools also support a diverse invertebrate faima, including 
fairy sluimp (Eubranchipus spp.) which complete their entire life cycle in vemal pools. 



Associated rare plants: 

NONE KNOWN 

Associated rare animals: 

AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONIANUM 
AMBYSTOMA LATERALE 
AMBYSTOMA OPACUM 
CLEMMYS GUTTATA 
CLEMMYS INSCULPTA 
EMYDOIDEA BLAND INCH 
EUBRANCHIPUS INTRICATUS 



JEFFERSON SALAMAND ER 
BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMAND ER 
MARBLED SALAMAND ER 
SPOTTED TURTLE 
WOOD TURTLE 
BLAND ING'S TURTLE 
INTRICATE FAIRY SHRIMP 



SO 

sc 

T 

SC 

SC 

T 

SC 



P-86 



Classification of Massachusetts Palustrine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



EULIMNADIA AGASSIZH 
HEMIDACTYLIUM SCUTATUM 
LIMNADIA LENTICULARIS 



AGASSIZ'S CLAM SHRIMP 
FOUR-TOED SALAMAND ER 
AMERICAN CLAM SHRIMP 



E 

SC 

SC 



Examples: 
Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 

MA [old name]: 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson. 1974: 

Other 

Author J. Kearsley 



Boxford State Forest and Wildlife Management Area have abundant vemal pools. 

Woodland vernal pools are often overlooked during the dry season, so they end up being destroyed by 
filling or grading. They are often too small to meet minimum size requirements for state wetland 
protections. Hydrologic alterations also threaten vemal pool communities. 

Inventory is needed to identify where woodland vemal pools are. Protection of suiroimding uplands is 
important for vemal [xx)! species. 



1800 vemal pools are currently certified in the state. 

not described. 
Vemal pool. 
Vemal pool commimity. 
Vemal woodland pool. 
Vemal woodland pool. 
Vemal pool, 
not described, 
not described. 



Date: 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



P-87 



©MAFT 
Descriptions of 

Estuarine Communities 



©EAFT 

Classification of the 

Natural Communities 

of 

Massachusetts 



ESTUARmE COMMUNITIES 



MARINE 

Marine Subtidal: 

Flats E - 2 

Marine Intertidal: 

Rocky Shore E - 4 

Gravel / Sand Beach E - 6 

Flats E - 8 



ESTUARINE 

Estuarine Subtidal: 

Saline / Brackish Flats E - 10 

Fresh / Brackish Flats E - 12 

Coastal Salt Pond E - 14 

Estuarine Intertidal: 

Saline / Brackish Flats E - 16 

Fresh / Brackish Flats E - 18 

Coastal Salt Pond Marsh E - 20 

(Palustrine) Sea-level Fen E - 22 

Salt Marsh E - 24 

Brackish Tidal Marsh E - 26 

Freshwater Tidal Marsh E -28 

Fresh / Brackish Tidal Shrubland E - 30 

Fresh / Brackish Tidal Swamp E - 32 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program July 2000 E- 1 



Community Name: 
Community CODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



MARINE SUBTIDAL: FLATS 

CMIAOOOOOO 

S4 

No 




Concept 

Environmental setting: 

Vegetation Description: 

Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Sparsely to densely vegetated conununities, dominated by invertebrates. Permanently submerged 
saline commimities that occur in open ocean or near shore. 

Permanently flooded by ocean water. Sandy to muddy nearshore shallow water and offshore banks. 

May include beds ofeelgrass (Zostera marina). Other plants are macro- and micro^lgae. 



Water over flats are important feeding areas for gulls, terns, diving ducks, and other water birds, 
and many winter in Massachusetts waters feeding on eelgrass and/or the fish in it. Brandt {Branta 
bemicld) are particularly dependent on four foot deep eelgrass, and feed on it in Massachusetts 
waters in the winter. Eelgrass beds are key nursery areas for larval and juvenile Osh. Loggerheads 
{Caretta caretta) and Atlantic Ridley {Lepidochelys kempii) sea turtles use deep Marine Subtidal 
Flats in Cape Cod Bay. 



Associated rare plants: 

NONE KNOWN 

Associated rare animals: 

CARETTA CARETTA 

LEPIDOCHELYS KEMPH 

Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVCn"NC: 



LOGGERHEAD 
ATLANTIC RIDLEY 
Billingsgate Shoals Wildlife Sanctuary, Wellfleet 



T 
E 



Includes: Zostera marina Permanently flooded - Tidal Herbaceous Alliance - Zostera marina 
Herbaceous Vegetation [Provisional] [CEGL0043361. 



E-2 



Classification of Massachusetts Estuarine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



MA (old name): Southern New England & Gulf of Maine Saline/ Brackish Subtidal Estuarine Community. 

ME: Marine - Mud bottom community. 

NH: Possible, not described. 

NY: Includes Marine - Eel grass meadow. 

CT: Includes Zostera marina Hydromorphic Vegetation. 

Rl: Brackish intertidal mud flat 

Other 

Author P.Swain Date: 1/1/00 



Natural Heritage «fe Endangered Species Program July 2000 E - 3 



Community Name: 
Community CODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



MARINE INTERTTOAL: ROCKY SHORE 

CM2A000000 

S2 

No 




Y^-v^ 



Concept 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



A community dominated by invertebrates and non-vascular plants, in a high-stress environment 
alternately covered by tides and exposed to desiccation and thermal stress. 

Along rocky shores, from the supratidal ^lash zone to the limits of light penetration in the subtidal 
zone. 

The communities of rocky shores are dominated by crustaceans, mollusks, and macroscopic algae. 
The algae (seaweed) provide cover and food for the animals. The rocky shore commimity shows a 
distinct zonation from the splash zone to the zone of complete inundation. 



This was probably the habitat of the extinct sea mink (Mustela vison macrodon). Wintering sea 
birds such as Northern Gannets (Moms bassanus) and Great Cormorants (Phalacrocomx carbd) 
feed among submerged rocks close to shore. Wintering Purple Sandpipers {Calidris maritima) 
forage among exposed rocks in low tide. The habitat includes tidal pools which support many 
marine invertebrates. 



Associated rare plants: 

NONE KNOWN 
Associated rare animals: 

NONE KNOWN 

Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVCn'NC: 



Halibut Point State Paric, Rockport 



[Nonvascular Sparse vegetation] 



E-4 



Classification of Massachusetts E 



stuarin( 



e Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



MA (old name): 


Southern New England/Gulf o 


ME: 


Marine: Inteitidal bedrock / bo 


NH: 




NY: 


Marine rocky intertidal. 


CT: 




Rl: 


Mariive intertidal Rocky Shore 


Other 




Author 


P.Swain 



Date: 1/1/00 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program July 2000 E- 5 



Community Name: 
Community CODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



MARINE INTERTIDAL: GRAVEL / SAND BEACH 

CM2B000000 

S4 

No 




Concept 
Environmental setting: 

Vegetation Description: 

Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Invertebrates and nonvascular plants dominate the organisms of this highly stressed community in 
the intertidal (wave action) zone of beaches. 

Marine beaches exposed between high tides: below the wrack line and above the permanent water. 
These are high energy habitats. Beach strand communities above the high tide line support ^)arse 
vascular plants. Marine subtidal communities occur below the low tide line. 

Sparse non-vascular plants. Invertebrates are the most abundant group. 



Many shorebirds, such as Sanderlings {Calidris alba). Least Sandpipers (C. mmutilla\ 
Semipalmated Sandpipers (C. pusilla\ and Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus), 
forage along shorelines during migrations. Part of important resting areas for shorebirds when 
exposed. Piping plovers {Charadrius melodus) nest on the beach strand and forage in the wrack 
line. Gulls (Larus ^p.) are ubiquitous in all shore and shallow water environments. Tiger beetles 
also forage on exposed portions of the intertidal beach. Few manunals use this portion of the beach 
for more than passing through. 



Associated rare plants: 

NONE KNOWN 

Associated rare animals: 

CHARADRIUS MELODUS 
aCINDELA DORSALIS DORSALIS 



PIPING PLOVER 

NORTHEASTERN BEACH TIGER BEETLE 



T 
E 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

inventory comments: 



Cape Cod National Seashore; Monomoy NWR, Orleans and Chatham; Horseneck Beach, 
Westport; Parker River NWR, Newbury. 

Disturbance of resting birds by domestic animals and people, and off road vehicles. 



E-6 



Classification of Massachusetts Estuarine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Other 

Author 



sand, non-vegetated 

Southern New England/Gulf of Maine Intertidal High Energy Sand / Gravel Beach. 

Marine: sand beach commxinity and gravel/ cobble beach community. 

Marine intertidal gravel/sand beach. 

Marine intertidal gravel/ sand beach. 



P.Swain 



Date: 



1/1/00 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



E- 7 



Community Name: 
Community CODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



MARINE INTERTTOAL: FLATS 

CM2C000000 

S4 

No 




Concept 



Environmental setting: 



Marine intertidal areas protected from intense wave action, with relatively stable sediments, in 
various proportions of silt, clay, sand, and organic materials. 

Found in protected, low-energy coastal sites, such as bays and coves behind headlands or barrier 
beaches, between low and high tidal limits. More protected than Marine intertidal gravel/sand 
beaches. Marine intertidal flats are sometimes bordered by salt marshes on the landward side and 
tidal channels or subtidal eelgrass beds on the seaward side. Tidal flats are physically and 
biologically linked to other coastal marine systems; organisms of tidal flats depend upon organic 
materials brought in from adjacent coastal, estuarine, riverine, and salt marsh habitats. 

Vegetation Description: Includes some areas with eelgrass (Zostera marina), but other areas are sparsely vegetated. 

Invertebrate species richness can be high. Mud areas tend to have a higher productivity than sand or 
gravel areas. Micro-algae are abundant 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Habitat is used by many of the same species as use the intertidal gravel/sand beaches: Sanderlings 
(Calidris alba). Least Sandpipers (C. mmutilla\ Semipalmated Sandpipers (C. pusilld). Stilt 
Sandpiper (C. himantopus). Greater Yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca\ Black -bellied Plover 
(Pluvialis squatarola), and Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus) for foraging and 
staging during migrating. Resting areas for water birds when exposed. Habitat for polychaetes, 
snails, clams, oysters, sand dollars, and other invertebrates. Coastal and estuarine fishes migrate 
over tidal flats during high tides and feed on organisms in and on the sediments. Ehiring high tides, 
terns and water birds fish over flats. Mammals, rq)tiles, and amphibians do not seek out this 
habitat 



Associated rare plants: 

NONE KNOWN 
Associated rare animals: 

NONE KNOWN 

Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Nauset Beach; Chatham Beach; Merrimack River mouth, Newburyport 



E-8 



Classification of Massachusetts Estuarine Natural Commimities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Other 

Author P. Swain 



Non-vegetated. 

Southern New England / Gulf of Maine Intertidal Low Energy Mud Flats. 

Marine: Intertidal mud flat community. 

Marine intertidal mud flats [mostly invertebrates]. 

Marine intertidal mud flat 



Date: 



6/9/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species F*rogram 



July 2000 



E- 9 



Community Name: 
Community CODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



ESTUARINE SUBTIDAL: SALINE/ BRACKISH FLATS 

CE3A100000 

S4 

No 




Concept 



Environmental setting: 



Estuarine areas not exposed between tides, generally without emergent vegetation. Areas less than 
two meters deep sometimes support submerged or floating plants. 

Includes beds of tidal creeks draining salt marshes and river mouths. The salinity of the water 
changes with the tides and flow of rivers or streams. Actual species present at any place depend on 
salinity, water temperature, depth, and substrate type. More protectal than Marine subtidal 
commimities. 



Vegetation Description: Eel grass (Zostera marina) and widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) may form dense beds. Waterweed 

(Elodea nuttallii \ coontail {Ceratophyllum demersum\ sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus\ 
and homed pondweed (Zannichellia palustris) may be mixed in or form locally dense beds. 
Macroalgae [seaweeds] can be locally dense. Invertebrates vary with substrate and depth. 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Submerged vegetation provides winter feeding sites for waterfowl including Brandt (Branta 
bemicla)and American Black Duck {Anas rubripes\ and sea birds. Vascular plant beds also 
provide habitat for larval and juvenile fishes and surfaces for attachment of invertelxates including 
shellfish. Fish such as Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), American shad (A. sapidissima\ and 
Striped bass (Morone saxitilus) are characteristic of estuarine subtidal habitats. 



Associated rare plants: 
NONE KNOWN 
Associated rare animals: 

NONE KNOWN 

Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 



E- 10 



Classification of Massachusetts Estuarine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVCn"NC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

RI: 

Other 

Author 



Zostera marina Permanently flooded - Tidal Herbaceous Alliance — Zostera marina Herbaceous 
Vegetation [Provisional] [CEGL004336]; Ruppia maridma Permanently Flooded - Tidal Tempierate 
Herbaceous Alliance — Ruppia maritima Acadian, Virginian Zone Herbaceous Vegetation 
[CEGL006167]. 

Southern New England & Gulf of Maine Saline/ Brackish Subtidal Estuarine Communities. 

Marine - Mud bottom community. Tidal creek community. 

Possible, not described 

Marine subtidal, eelgrass meadow, Tidal creek —Widgeon grass; Brackish subtidal aquatic bed. 

Zostera marina Hydromorphic Vegetation. 

Brackish intertidal mud flat; Tidal creek —Widgeon grass. 



P.Swain 



Date: 



6/11/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



E- 11 



Community Name: 
Community CODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



ESTUARINE SUBTTOAL: FRESH / BRACKISH FLATS 

CE3A20OOO0 

S2 

No 




7=--«b 



Concept 



Environmental setting: 



Permanently flooded freshwater to brackish areas subject to tidal fluctuations. Aquatic beds form 
uiiere water is less than two meters at low tide. 

Permanently flooded upper reaches of estuaries, including upper reaches of tidal creeks. Such areas 
tend to be warmer and shallower than closer to the river mouth, as well as less saline. Shores lined 
by Freshwater or Brackish Tidal Marshes. Seldom closed by ice. 



Vegetation Description: Sago pondweed {Potamogeton pectinatus), homed pondweed (Zannichellia palustris), tapegrass 

(Vallisneria americana), and naiads (Najas guadalupensis and N. minor) are characteristic vascular 
plants. 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Fish such as Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), American shad (Alosa sapidissima), and Striped 
bass (Morone saxitilus) are characteristic. Invertebrates include Horseshoe crabs (Limulus 
polyphemus) and mud crabs (such as Neopanope texana). Giills forage year round, and in winter 
waterfowl and eagles are common. 



Associated rare plants: 

NONE KNOWN 

Associated rare animals: 

LAMPETRA APPENDIX 

Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 



AMERICAN BROOK LAMPREY 



E- 12 



Classification of Massachusetts Estuarine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Other 

Authon 



Potamogeton pectinatus - Zannichellia palustris Permanently Flooded - Tidal Herbaceous Alliance 
— Potamogeton pectinatus - Zannichellia palustris Permanently Flooded - Tidal Herbaceous 
Vegetation (CEGL006027]. 

Southern New England & Gulf of Maine Fresh /Brackish Subtidal Estuarine Communities. 

Estuarine community: subtidal estuary community. 

Possible, not described. 

Includes Estuarine intertidal. Brackish subtidal aquatic bed; Fresh subtidal aquatic bed. 

Includes Vallisneria americana Hydromorphic Vegetation. 

Includes Brackish subtidal Aquatic Bed; Fresh subtidal aquatic bed. 



P.Swain 



Date: 



6/13/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



E- 13 



Community Name: 
Community CODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



ESTUARINE SUBTIDAL: COASTAL SALT POND 

CE3B0OOO0O 

82 

Yes 



D^r 






^ 


> 


}L 


/ vJ 


N rl 


ir^ 


>n 


M Ct 


^ 


^ ^ 


u 










..^^m 


^m Mb 








^ 


P^ 








-^ 


2j y 


^ 


^^ '»^„^ 








• 


^■^^a 



Concept: The vegetation surrounding and in coastal saline to brackish ponds with shallow water. The inland 

ends tend to be fresher, with denser, taller vegetation developing. 

Environmental setting: Salt ponds are found on the south and east sides of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and in 

Buzzards Bay. The ponds are more or less isolated from the ocean by sand spits that cut off a bay. 
When closed, the ponds tend to be brackish and have little tidal action. The ^it may become 
broken by storms or human intervention and recluse by drifting sand. Water levels fluctuate wiien 
the ponds are closed to the ocean, with freshwater inflow from streams and rain maintaining the 
levels. Shorelines often support marsh areas that are similar to brackish salt marshes. Sea-level fens 
are very restricted areas within the marshes. 

Vegetation Description: Eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds are often dominant communities of the subtidal areas. Other areas 

may not be vegetated Towards the ocean, mud or sand shores appear during dry spells tliat support 
mud flat species such as mud wort (JJmosella australis\ dwarf spikerush {Eleocharis parvula\ 
seaside flatsedge {Cyperusfilicinus), seaside crowfoot (Ranunculus cymbalaria\ false pimpernel 
{Undemia dubia\ waterwort (Elatine minima) and shore pygmy-weed (Crassula aquatica). The 
vegetation of inland ends is similar to the landward, brackish, portions of other salt n^arshes, with 
beds of narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia), common reed {Phragmites australis\ 
freshwater cord-grass {Spartina pectinata), saltmarsh sv^itchgrass (Panicum virgatum var. spissum\ 
bulrushes {Scirpus spp. Particularly S. pungens), and mock bishop's-weed {Ptilimnium 
capillaceum). 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Eel (Anguilla rostrata\ alewife {Alosa pseudoharangus\ and white perch (Bairdiella 
chrysura) are typical fish. Important for shell fish beds. 



Associated rare plants: 
CRASSULA AQUATICA 
HYDROCOTYLE VERTICILLATA 

Associated rare animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



PYGMYWEED 
SALTPOND PENNYWORT 



T 

SC 



E- 14 



Classification of Massachusetts Estuarine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCn'NC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Other 

Author 



Sesachacha Pond, Nantucket; Allen's Pond, Dartmouth; Long Pond, Tisbuiy. 

Artificially maintaining ponds open or closed. The increasingly invasive Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) 
is becoming more abumdant and displacing native species. 



Zostera marina Permanently flooded - Tidal Herbaceous Alliance — Zostera marina Herbaceous 
Vegetation [Provisional] [CEGLXX)4336]; Includes Scirpus pungens Tidal Herbaceous Alliance - 
Scirpus pungens - Eleocharis parvula Herbaceous Veg^ation [CEGL006398]. 

Coastal Salt Pond 

Marine - Mud bottom community part of Marine - Salt Pond Community. 

Similar to Coastal salt pond marsh. 

Marine eelgreiss meadow; coastal salt pond. 

Likely present, not named. 

Brackish subtidal aquatic bed (eelgrass); part of Coastal salt pond. 



P.Swain 



Date: 



6/13/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



E- 15 



Community Name: 
Community CODE: 
SRANK: 
Trackeck 



ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL: SALINE /BRACKISH FLATS 

CE2A1 00000 

S3 

No 




Concept 
Environmental setting: 

Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Non-organic substrates exposed between tides with sparse vegetation. 

Lower estuarine areas exposed between high tides, covered with bracldsh or saline water at high 
tide. Flats accumulate in areas sufficiently quiet for sediments to accumulate. Species are patchy. 
Grades into Brackish Tidal Marsh, mud flat zone, which has more organic sediments. 

Sparsely vegetated with patches of predominately rosette leaved aquatics such as riverbank 
quillwort (Jsoetes riparia\ river arrowhead (Sagittaria subulata\ sal^nd spike-rush (Eleocharis 
parvuld), and Atlantic mudwort {Limosella australis). Patches of algae and eelgrass (Zostera 
marina) can also occur. The plants are completely submerged at hi^ tide and usually coated with 
mud. 



Gulls and shorebirds feed on flats at low tide, American Black Duck (Anas rubripes), other diving 
ducks, and other water birds feed on flooded flats. Polychaetes, snails, clams, and amphipods are 
abundant in mud and sand flats. Essentially the same fauna as on marine intertidal flats. 



Associated rare plants: 

NONE KNOWN 

Associated rare animals: 

NONE KNOWN 

Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 



Flats in Brewster, Cape Cod Bay, and Joppa Flats, Meirimack River mouth. 



E- 16 



Classiflcation of Massachusetts Estuarine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Synonyms: 
USNVCn^NC: 

MA (old nanne): 
ME: 

NH: 
NY: 
CT: 
Rl: 

Other 
Author 



Isoetes riparia tidal sparsely Vegetated Alliance — Isoetes riparia Tidal Sparse Vegetation 
[CEGLOO6058]; Sagittaria subulata - Limosella australis Tidal Herbaceous Alliance — Sagittaha 
subulata - Limosella australis Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation [CEGL004473). 

Southern New England/Gulf of Maine Saline/ Brackish Intertidal flat; Southern New England/Gulf 
of Maine Fresh/ Brackish Subtidal Estuarine Community. 

Intertidal mud flat commxmity Intertidal sand - gravel flat commimity, Estuarine - Brackish tidal 
marsh community, mudflat zone, Intertidal mud flat commimity, Intertidal sand - gravel flat 
community. 

Possible, not described 

Marine intertidal mud flats (mostly invertebrates); Estuarine intertidal. Brackish intertidal mudflats. 

Sagittaria subulata - Zannichellia palustris community. 

Marine intertidal mud flat 



J. Lundgren 



Date: 



6/13/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



E- 17 



Community Name: 
Community CODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL: FRESH / BRACKISH FLATS 

CE2A200000 

S2 

No 




Concept 



A sparsely vegetated community occurring on exposed intertidal flats where plants are completely 
submerged under about a meter of freshwater at high tide. 



Environmental setting: Exposed intertidal mudflats where water is fresh, grading into Freshwater Tidal Marsh, mud flat 

zone where organic sediments have accumulated. 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Plants are predominately low growing rosette-leaved aquatics, with the lowest leaves 
characteristically coated with mud. False pimpernel {Lindemia dubia\ Arrowheads (Sagittaria 
subulata. S. graminea, and S. rigida), beggar-ticks (Bidens spp\ threesquare bulrush {Scirpus 
pungens), and wild rice {Zizania aquatica) are characteristic species. There is a natural variability 
in the composition and distribution of the plant associations. 



Foraging by seabirds and waterfowl. 



Associated rare plants: 

SUAEDA CALCEOLIFORMIS 

Associated rare animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



AMERICAN SEA-BLITE 



SC 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVCn"NC: 

MA (old name): 



North River system; Merrimack River, 



Southern New England & Gulf of Maine Fresh/ Brackish Intertidal Flat Community. 



E- 18 



Classiflcation of Massachusetts Estuarine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



ME: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

RI: 

Other 

Author 



Marine: Intertidal mud flat community; Intertidal sand - gravel flat community. 



Estuarine intertidal: Freshwater intertidal mudflaL 



P.Swain 



Date: 



6/13/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



E- 19 



Community Name: 
Community CODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL: COASTAL SALT POND MARSH 

CE2B200000 

S2 

No 




Concept 



The vegetation sxurounding coastal salt ponds. The inlaiKl ends tend to be fresher, with denser, 
taller vegetation developing. Similar to salt marsh. 



Environmental setting: Inland ends and shores of saltponds. Sea-level fens [descnbed in palustrine classification] are 

within the areas of Coastal salt pond marshes, but more restricted. . 

Vegetation Description: Beds of narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolidy, common reed {Phragmites australis), 

freshwater cord-grass (JSpartina pectinatd), coastal switchgrass {Panicum virgatum ssp. spissum\ 
bulriishes (Scirpus spp., particularly 5. pungens\ and mock bishop's-weed {Ptilimnium 
capillaceum) grow at the inland ends of the salt ponds. 

Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Associated rare plants: 

CRASSULA AQUATICA 
HYDROCOTYLE VERTICILLATA 
SETARIA GENICULATA 
SUAEDA CALCEOLIFORMIS 

Associated rare animals: 

SPARTINIPHAGA INOPS 

Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 



PYGMYWEED 
SALTPOND PENNYWORT 
BRISTLY FOXTAIL 
AMERICAN SEA-BLITE 

SPARTINA BORER 



T 
SC 
SC 
SC 

SC 



Inventory comments: 



Inventory is needed to address the serious questions about the validity of this as a commimity 
separate from the more wide^read tidal salt marshes. 



E-20 



Classification of Massachusetts Estuarine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Synonyms: 




USNVC/TNC: 


Scirpus pungens Tidal Herbaco 
Vegetation [CEGL0063981. 


MA (old name): 


Coastal Salt Pond MarsL 


ME: 


Marine - Salt pond community. 


NH: 


Coastal salt pond marsh. 


NY: 


Coa.stal salt pond. 


CT: 


Possible, not described 


Rl: 


Coastal salt pond. 


Other 




Author 


P.Swain 



Date: 



6/13/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



E- 21 



Community Name: 
Community CODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



(Palustrine) SEA-LEVEL FEN 

CP2B0B3OOO 

SI 

Yes 





Note: 
Concept 

Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 
Habitat values: 



palustrine community associated with salt ponds. 

Herbaceous/graminoid peatlands that occur at the upland edges of ocean tidal marshes. The 
combination of upland freshwater seepage and infrequent salt or brackish overwash produces a 
mixed plant community of freshwater and estuarine ^)ecies. 

Sea-level fens occupy the interface between estuarine marshes aai upland seepage slopes, and 
therefore have a distinct species assemblage including both estuarine and palustrine species. There 
are two hydrologic influences: acidic freshwater seepage from the uplands and jseriodic salt or 
brackish overwash from the adjacent marsh. Both are needed to produce the combination of species 
observed in sea-level fens. 

Probable community type in Massachusetts, but vegetation descriptions are lacking. There are two 
probable occurrences reported from Martha's Vineyard that have saltmarsh spike-sedge (Eleocharis 
rostellata) co-occurring with acidic fen species. Plot data are needed, Ludwig (1995) described the 
flora of sea-level fens from Virginia, Delaware, New York, and Connecticut. He described three 
diagnostic species: saltmarsh straw-sedge (Carex hormathodes), saltmarsh spike-sedge {Eleocharis 
rostellata), and saltmarsh-threesquare {Scirpus americanus). Other common species include: New 
York aster (Aster novi-belgii), twig-sedge (Cladium mariscoides\ spatulate-leaved sundew 
(Drosera intermedia), Canada rush (Juncus canadensis), pondshore-rush (Juncus pelocarpusX 
swamp-candles (Lysimachia terrestris), common reed (Phragmites australis\ white beak-sedge 
(Rhynchospora alba), swamp-rose (Rosa palustris), common threesquare (Scirpus pungens), poison 
ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), and marsh St. John's-wort (Triadenum virginicum). [State 
Historical, deceitful ^ike-sedge (Eleocharis fal lax) listed as common in more southern 
occurrences.] 

No associations have been described in Massachusetts. 



More information is needed. 



Associated rare plants: 

ELEOCHARIS FALLAX 
ELEOCHARIS ROSTELLATA 



DECEITFUL SPIKE-SEDGE 
BEAKED SPIKE-SEDGE 



H 

-WL 



E-22 



Classification of Massachusetts Estuarine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Associated rare animals: 

METARRANTHIS PILOSARIA 
VERTIGO PERRYI 
Examples: 
Threats: 



Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

VT: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Golet & Larson, 1974: 

Other 

Author 



COASTAL SWAMP METARRANTHIS MOTH 
OLIVE VERTIGO 



SC 
SC 



on Martha's Vineyard 



Alteration to the natural hydrologic regime. Development in the uplands may have negative effects 
on upland seepage. 

Maintain natural hydrology and upland buffer. 

1 



Cladium mariscoides-Drosera intermedia-Eleocharis rostellata herbaceous vegetation 
[CEGL006310]. 

Not described 

Not described 

Not described 

Not described 

Sea-level fen 

Cladium mariscoides-Drosera intermedia-Eleocharis rostellata community? 

Sea-level fen 



J. Kearsley 



Date: 

modified 3/30/00. PCS 



7/21/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



E-23 



Community Name: 
Community CODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL: SALT MARSH 

CE2B 100000 

S3 

No 




Concept 
Environmental setting: 



A graminoid dominated, tidally flooded coastal community with several zones. 

Salt marshes form in areas subject to oceanic tides, but are somewhat sheltered from wave energy. 
They usually occur in estuaries and behind barrier beaches and spits. A peat develops in the higher 
marshes, with marsh plants extending into flats in stabilized areas, raising the surface area and 
allowing the marsh to expand. Upper edges may be brackisL 

Vegetation Description: Saltwater cord-grass (Spartina altemijlora) dominates the low marsh area, between the low and 

mean high tide. Between the mean high tide and the spring high tide, the high marsh area, salt- 
marsh hay {Spartina patens) dominates, usually mixed with spike grass {Distichlis spicata). 
Towards the upland edge, black grass (Juncus gerardii) becomes more common. Mixed 
throughout, e^jecially towards the upper edges sea - lavender {Limonium carolinianum\ seaside 
goldenrod (Solidago sempervirens\ and salt tolerant species. At the freshest edges, salt marsh 
switch grass {Paniciun virgatum) may be common. At those upper edges and on ditch spoils, 
groimdsel-tree (Baccharis halimifolia) and saltmarsh elder (Ivafrutescens) can form shrubby zones. 
Scattered in low, poorly drained, salty areas, salt pannes form, with ]X)pulations of glasswort 
(Salicomia spp.) and saltwort (Salsola kali). 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Low marsh, high marsh, salt shrub, and salt panne are often described as separate communities 
within the salt marsh system. 

Many species of birds forage in salt marshes. A few such as Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus 
maritimus) and the Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow {A. caudacutus) nest there as well. In fall and 
winter. Short-eared Owls {AsioJlammeus\ Siowy O'wls (Nyctea scandiacaX and Northern Harrier 
(Circus cyaneus) hunt salt marshes. In summer. Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula) and Glossy Ibis 
{Plegadisfalcinellus) forage in pools at low tide. Few mammals are resident in salt marshes, but 
Meadow voles (Kiicrotus pensylvanica) use them, retreating to dryer areas during high tides. 
Fiddler crabs are invertebrates that are identified with salt marsh creelcs. 



Associated rare plants: 

Associated rare animals: 

PANDION HALIAETUS 
SPARTINIPHAGA INOPS 



OSPREY 
SPARTINA BORER 



-WL 
SC 



E- 24 



Classiflcation of Massachusetts Estuarine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 

Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 

Inventory comments: 

Synonyms: 

USNVCATNC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 



RI: 

Other 
Author 



Parker River National Wildlife Refuge, Ipswich; Salisbury Marsh, Salisbury, Great Marshes, 
Barnstable; Naus^ Marsh, Eastham; Great Sippewissett Marsh, Falmouth 



Includes Spartina alterniflora Tidal Herbaceous Alliance — Spartina altemiflora/ (Ascophyllum 
nodosum) Acadian, Virginian Zone Herbaceous Vegetation [4192]; Spartina patens - (Distichlis 
spicata) Tidal Herbaceous Alhance — Spartina patens - Distichlis ^icata - Plantago maritima 
Herbaceous Vegetation [CEGL006006] and Spartina patens - Agrostis stolonifera Herbeiceous 
Vegetation [CEGL006365]; Panicum virgatum Tidal Herbaceous Alliance — Panicum virgatum 
tidal Herbaceous Vegetation [Provisional] [CEGL006150]; Baccharis halimifolia - Iva frutescens 
Tidal shrubland AUiance - Baccharis halimifolia • Iva frutescens / Panicum virgatum Shrubland 
[CEGL006063]; Sarcocomia perennis - (Distichlis spicata, Salicomia spp.) Tidal Herbaceous 
Alliance - Sarcocomia perennis - Salicomia spp. - Spartina altemiflora Herbaceous Vegetation 
[CEGL0O4308]. 

Salt Marsh [formerly Southern New England and Gulf of Maine Salt Marshes]. 

Includes Cord-grass saltmarsh community; Salt hay saltmarsh commimity. 

Present 

Includes Low salt marsh; high salt marsh; salt shrub; Salt paime. 

Includes Spartina altemiflora commimity, Spartina patens • Distichlis spicata community. Spartina 
patens - Agrostis stolonifera community (bracldsh meadow); Panicum virgatum medium - tall 
grasslands; Iva frutescens / Panicum virgatum community, Salicomia europea - Spartina 
altemiflora community. 

Includes Low salt marsh; High salt marsh; Salt shrub; Salt parme. 



P.Swain 



Date: 



6/15/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



E-25 



Community Name: 
Community CODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



ESTUARBVE INTERTTOAL: BRACKISH TIDAL MARSH 

CE2B300000 

SI 

Yes 




Concept: Mixed herbaceous marsh that is flooded by daily tides, and occurs in brackish reach of coastal 

rivers. May also occur in smaller patches in upper zones of coastal salt marshes and salt ponds, 
usually near seepages or freshwater transition areas. 

Environmental setting: Brackish tidal marshes occur along free-flowing coastal rivers. Smaller patches often occur along 

the edges of salt marsh habitat, near stream inputs, seepages or other freshwater transition areas. 
Tidal amplitude ranges from to 150 cm [comparable to freshwater tidal marshes], while average 
armual salinity is [0.5] - 5-18 ppL The community is often structurally diverse, including high 
marsh and low marsh, with occasional occurrences along rocky shores, seepages, and ditches. 
Brackish Tidal Marsh, mud flat zone is rich in organic sediments and, grades into adjacent less 
organic Brackish Mud Flats which are classifled as Estuarine Intertidal: Saline/Brackish Flats. 

Vegetation Description: Narrow-leaved cattail {Typha angustifoUd) is typically dominant in the backmarsh, with frequent 

stands of common reed {Phragmites australis). Freshwater cord-grass {Spartina pectinata) and 
saltmarsh bub^ush (Scirpus robustus) occur along the banks, associated with saltmarsh sedge (Carex 
paleacea) and marsh bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera\ which frequently sprawls over the edge. Low 
marsh supports stands of saltmarsh cord-grass {Spartina altemiflora) and threesquare (Scirpus 
pungens). Mudflats and shores support sparse low herbs such as water pimpernel {Samolus 
valerandi var. parviflorus \ mud lily {Lilaeopsis chinensis) and creeping spearwort {Ranunculus 
jlammula var. ovalis). Plants of freshwater tidal marshes occasionally occur in the higher zones of 
brackish marshes. 



Associations: 



Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Associated rare plants: 

BIDENS EATONn 
CARDAMINE LONGH 



Massachusetts' brackish tidal marsh communities appear compatible with Connecticut's 
associations: (Spartina altemiflora - Lilaeopsis chinensis community, Typha angustifolia - Hibiscus 
moscheutos community, Spartina patens - Agrostis stolonifera community, Scirpus pungens - 
Sagittaria ^p. tall grassland). 

This community provides outstanding general wildlife habitat, with abundant food sources for 
migratory and wintering waterfowl, and is generally associated with river reaches with spawning 
habitat for anadromous fisheries. Amphibian and reptile diversity is lower than in freshwater tidal 
communities. 



EATON'S BEGGAR-TICKS 
LONG'S BITTER-CRESS 



T 
E 



E-26 



Classification of Massachusetts Estuarine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



CRASSULA AQUATICA 

RANUNCULUS FLAMMULA VAR. OVALIS 

SAGITTARIA SUBULATA VAR SUBULATA 

SETARIA GENICULATA 

SPARTINA CYNOSUROIDES 

Associated rare animals: 

CINCINNATIA WINKLEYI 
LITTORIDINOPS TENUIPES 



PYGMYWEED 
CREEPING SPEAR WORT 
RIVER ARROWHEAD 
BRISTLY FOXTAIL 
SALTREEDGRASS 

NEW ENGLAND SILTSNAIL 
COASTAL MARSH SNAIL 



T 

-WL 

E 

SC 

SC 

SC 
SC 



Examples with 
Public Access: 



Threats: 



Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCn"NC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH 

NY 

CT 



Rl: 

Other: 
Author 



Large examples are known from the North and South Rivers; also occurs on the Palmer, 
Wes^rt, Paskamansett, Weweantic, Agawam, Mashpee, and Merrimack Rivers, and probably 
along several other rivers on the north shore. Occurrences along salt marshes are not well 
documented. 

Invasive species appear to be the primary \hreai to this natural community. Brackish tidal marshes 
in several rivers are dominated by common reed (Phragmites australis\ and purple loosestrife 
{Lythrum salicaria) appears to be more aggressive in brackish marshes than in freshwater tidal 
marshes. 

Monitor invasive plant populations, and determine feasibility of control measures. 

1 



Includes Typha (angustifolia, domingensis) Tidal Herbaceous Alhance - Typha angustifolia - 
Hibiscus moscheutos Herbaceous Vegetation [CEGL004201]; Scirpus pungens Tidal Herbaceous 
Alliance — Scirpus pungens Herbaceous Vegetation (CEGL004188]; Spartina altemiflora Tidal 
Herbaceous Alliance — Spartina altemiflora- Lilaeopsis chinensis Herbaceous Vegetation 
[CEGL004193); Spartina patens - (Distichlis spicata) Tidal Herbaceous Alliance — Sp)artiTU patens 
- Festuca rubra Herbaceous Vegetation [CEGL006368]; Panicum virgatum Tidal Herbaceous 
Alliance — Paiucum virgatum Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation [Provisional] (CEGL006150]; 
Common reed (Phragmites australis) australis Tidal Herbaceous Alliance — Cormnon reed 
(Phragmites austrahs) australis Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation (CEGL004 1 87]; Spartina 
cynosuroides Tidal Herbaceous Alhance — Spartina cynosxiroides Herbaceous Vegetation 
[CEGL004195]. 

Brackish Tidal Marsh [formerly Southern New England and Gulf of Maine]. 

Similar to: Brackish Tidal Marsh conmiunity. 

Likely present, not described. 

Similar to: Brackish tidal marsh; Brackish Intertidal Mudflats; Brackish Intertidal shore. 

Includes Scirpus pungens - Sagittaria spp. Tall grassland; Spartina altemiflora - Lilaeopsis 
chinensis community, Spartina patens - Agrostis stolonifera community (also high salt marsh); and 
in part (with salt marsh) Panicum virgatum medium - tall grasslands; common reed (Phragmites 
austrahs) austrahs tall grasslands; Typha angustifolia - Hibiscus moscheutos community. 

Similar to: Brackish marsh. 



B. Reid 



Date: 



6/18/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



E-27 



Community Name: 
Community CODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



ESTUARINE INTERTTOAL: FRESHWATER TTOAL MARSH 

CE2B400000 

SI 

Yes 




Concept: Mixed herbaceous marsh flooded by daily tides, and occuning in the freshwater reach of coastal 

rivers. 

Environmental setting: Freshwater tidal marshes occur along free-flowing coastal rivers. Tidal amplitude may range from 

to 1 SO cm, and average annual salinity is less than O.S ppt. [from O.S ppt to 5 pp. salinity, there is a 
gradient of species to the more clearly brackish, which has an average annual salinity of 5-18 ppt]. 
This community occurs upstream of brackish tidal marsh, in the upper limits of tidal influence. The 
community may often be structurally diverse, including high marsl^ low marsh, mud flats, rocky 
shore, ditches and seepages. 

Vegetation Description: Dominant species include: blue joint {Calamagrostis canadensis), sedges (Carex stricta\ narrow- 
leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia), wild rice (Zizania aquatica\ smartweeds & tearthumbs 
{Polygonum punctatum, P. ari/oliunt), jcwclwced {Impatiens capensis), climbing hempweed 
(Mikania scandens) and sweet flag (Aconis calamus). Shrubs such as buttonbush (Cephalanthus 
occidentalis) and silky dogwood (Contus amomum) may occasionally be present Inundated False 
Pimpernel {jjndemia dubia var. inundata), which occurs in this community, is globally ranked by 
The Nature Conservancy but not listed in Massachusetts. 



Associations: 



Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Caldwell & Crow ( 1 992) describe eight cover types from a freshwater tidal area of the Merrimack 
River (\ ) Spartina altemiflora; (2) Sagittaria graminea; (3) Scirpus tabemaemontani: (A) 
Spartina pectinata; (5) Amaranthus cannabinus; (6) Scirpus ptmgens; (7)Acorus calamus; (8) 
Zizania aquatica. That study area did not have a well developed high marsh area. Three of the 
TWINSPAN types were on rocky substrate, but within the freshwater tidal influence: (4) Spartina 
pectinata: {S) Amaranthus cannabinus; and (6) Scirpus pungens. 

This community provides outstanding general wildlife habitat, with abundant food sources for 
migratory and wintering waterfowl, and is generally associated with river reaches with spawning 
habitat for anadromous Gsheries. It tends to have more vertebrate species than do the Brackish 
Tidal Marshes, such as freshwater snakes and muskrats. 



Associated rare plants: 

BIDENS HYPERBOREA VAR COLPOPHILA 
CARDAMINE LONGH 
CONIOSELINUM CHINENSE 



ESTUARY BEGGAR-TICKS 
LONG'S BFTTER-CRESS 
HEMLOCK PARSLEY 



£ 
E 

SC 



E-28 



Classification of Massachusetts Estuarine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



CRASSULA AQUATICA 

ERIOCAULON PARKERI 

SAGITTARIA SUBULATA VAR SUBULATA 

SCmPUS FLUVIATILIS 

Associated rare animals: 

CINCINNATIA WINKLEYI 
LITTORIDINOPS TENUIPES 



PYGMYWEED 
ESTUARY PIPEWORT 
RIVER ARROWHEAD 
RIVER BULRUSH 

NEW ENGLAND SILTSNAIL 
COASTAL MARSH SNAIL 



T 
E 
E 

SC 

SC 
SC 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Management needs: 

Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 



MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 



Rl: 

Other: 
Author 



Best examples are along the North River , and the Merrimack River. Smaller examples on the 
South, Palmer, Masl^iee, Agawam and Paiker Rivers. 

Invasive plants purple loosestrife (Lythmm salicaria) and yellow flag {Iris pseudacorus) are 
established in some systems, although long-term threat is unknown. Alteration of river hydrology 
from excessive water withdrawal may have significant effect on plant commxmities. Development 
associated with recreational activity {docks, landings) may threaten rare plants in tidal shone 
habitat In the past dams were often placed in rivers below the upper reaches of the tidal influence 
and so reduced the areas with tidal influence. 

Monitor invasive plant populations. Determine hydrologic requirements, and develop system for 
monitoring hydrologic stress. Prevent alteration of tidal shores. 

2 [Cape Cod] 



Includes: Eriocaulon paikeri Tidal Herbaceous Alliance — Eriocaulon paikeri - Polygonum 
punctatum Herbaceous Vegetation [CEGL006352]; Nuphar lutea Tidal Herbaceous Alhance — 
Nuphar lutea ssp. advena Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation [CEGL004472]; Peltandra virginica - 
Pontederia cordata Tidal Herbaceous Alliance — Mixed Forbs (High Marsh) Tidal Herbaceous 
Vegetation [Provisional] [CEGL006325]; Zizania aquatica Tidal Herbaceous Alhance — Zizania 
aquatica Tidal Herbaceous Vegetation [CEGLOO4202]; Amaranthus cannabinus Tidal Herbaceous 
Alliance — Amaranthus cannabinus Herbaceous Vegetation [CEGL006080]. 

FW Tidal Marsh [formerly Southern New England FW Tidal] 

Freshwater Tidal Marsh 



Includes: part of Brackish intertidal mudflats; part of Freshwater Intertidal Mudflats; Fresh%^'ater 
tidal marsh; Freshwater intertidal shore; Freshwater Tidal Marsh; understory of Freshwater tidal 
swamp. 

Includes: Eriocaulon paikeri - Polygonum punctatum Community; Peltandra virginica - Cyperus 
strigosus; Pontederia cordata low forb vegetation; Eupatorium - Ludwigia palustris community; 
Hypericum mutilum - Gratiola aurea community; Zizania aquatica - Pontederia cordata community; 
Acorus calamus tall grasslands; Typha latifolia tall grasslands (semipermanently flooded); 
Peltandra virginica - Sciipus fluviatihs - Typha Community; Onoclea sensibilis - Scirpus fluviatihs 
- Typha spp. Community, Carex lacustris - Calamagrostis canadensis - Elymus canadensis 
community. 

Part of Brackish intertidal mud flat [not in RI as such, no Eriocaulon parkeri]. Freshwater tidal 
marsh. 



B. Reid; P. Swain 1/25/2000 



Date: 



6/18/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



E- 29 



Community Name: 
Community CODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL: FRESH/ BRACKISH TTOAL SHRUBLAND 

CE2C0OOO0O 

SI 

Yes 




Concept 



Environmental setting: 



Vegetation Description: 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



Dense to open shrubland flooded by daily tides, occurring along the freshwater to brackish reach of 
coastal rivers. 

Normally located as a transition between freshwater tidal marsh and freshwater tidal swamp, there 
may also be patches of tidal shrublands throughout the freshwater tidal marshes. There is a great 
deal of micro-relief [tussocks and hollows] leading to high species diversity. Flood waters are 
typically slightly acid [pH less than 5] and soils are usxially mineral without significant peat 
deposits. Average aimual salinity values of less than 0.5 ppt would be e?q)ected in freshwater tidal 
shrublands, and (0.5) -S -18 {i^t in h^ckish tidal swamps. 

Tidal freshwater, or slightly brackish shrublands dominated by sweet gale (Kfyrica gale) and 
smooth alder (Alnus semdata) with some speckled alder {Alnus incana ssp. rugosa). Some 
examples may have a mixed canopy with other shrubs such as silky dogwood (Comus amomum), 
swamp-rose {Rosa palustris), winteibeny (Jlex verticillata), common elderberry (Sambucus 
canadensis), willow (Salix spp.), buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis\ tmd poison ivy 
{Toxicodendron radicans). More northern examples may contain arrow-wood {Viburnum dentatum 
var. lucidum) and meadowsweet {Spiraea alba var. latifolia). Tussock-sedge {Carex stricta) may 
also be present Some herbaceous associates are Royal fern {Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis\ 
marsh-fem {Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens), bedstraws {Galium ^p.X common cat-tail 
{Typha latifolia\ arrow-arum (Pe/randm virginica). New York aster {Aster novi-belgii\ false nettle 
{Boehmeria cylindrical, touch-me-not {Impatiens capensis), and swamp milkweed {Asclepias 
incamata). 



Becaxise the size and structure of the shrubland present are more important to most animals that 
would use a such a habitat, than are the slight fluctuations in water levels on a daily basis the 
species present are often those of maritime and coastal shrublands. Coastal shrublands are 
particularly important to migrating flocks of song birds. 



Associated rare plants: 

Associated rare animals: 

Examples with 
Public Access; 



North River, Pembroke; Probable along the following: Mashpee River, Mashpee; Red 
Brook, Mashpee; Sippican River, Marion. 



E-30 



Classification of Massachusetts Estuarine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Threats: 

Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVCn^NC: 

MA (old name): 

ME: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Other 

Author 



Disruption of tidal influence on the rivers, clearing for boat landings. 



Check probable occurrences. 

Alnus (incana, semilata) Tidal Shrubland AUiance — Alnus (incana s^. rugosa, serrulata) - Comus 
amomum Shnibland [CEGL006337]. 

Part of Southern New England / Gulf of Maine Fresh/ Brackish Tidal Swamp. 

Not described. 

Not described. 

Part of Freshwater Tidal Swamp. 

Alnus rugosa - Comus amomum - Iris verticillata community. 

Not described. 



P.Swain 



Date: 



6/20/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



E- 31 



Community Name: 
Community CODE: 
SRANK: 
Tracked: 



ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL: FRESH / BRACKISH TTOAL SWAMP 

CEIAOOOOOO 

SI 

Yes 




7^-^ 



Concept: Low stature forested wetland located along coastal rivers, at the upper limit of tidal influence, and 

flooded by daily tides. Dense shrub understory and unusually rich herbaceous layer. 

Environmental setting: Tidal swamps occur along free-flowing coastal rivers, occurring upstream of freshwater tidal 

marsh, within the upper limits of tidal influence. The commimity represents an ecotone from tidal 
marsh to more typical non-tidal forested wetlands. Another variation of this commimity occurs 
along smaller streams at the upper limit of tidal influence. Tidal amplitude may range from to 40 
cm or more (estimatedX and average annual salinity is less than 0.5 ppt. in freshwater areas, with 
gradients to 5 ppt. Brackish occurrences (average annual salinity (0.5) 5-18 ppL) are also believed 
to occur, although more study is required. The best known occurrence of the community occurs 
along the edge of a freshwater tidal marsh, at the transition to a large Atlantic >^te cedar swamp. 

Vegetation Description: Swamp white oak {Quercus bicolor) and red maple {Acer rubrum) occur on elevated hummocks, 

and form an open forest canopy. The shrub layer is often very dense, and typically includes 
arrowwood (Viburnum dentatum var. lucidum), winterberry holly {Ilex verticillata) and silky 
dogwood {Comus amomimt). Large mucicy hollows flooded by daily tides support a diverse 
assemblage of herbs and graminoids. Most of these are typical of the nearby freshwater tidal marsh 
habitat, and include jewel weed {Impatiens capensis\ sensitive fern {Onoclea sensibilis) and wild 
rice {Zizania aquatica). A similar association is dominated by more dense stands of Aflantic uiiite 
cedar {Chamaecyparis thyoidea). 



Associations: 

Habitat Values for 
Associated Fauna: 



The size of the swamp and structure produced by the forest and shrubs present are more important 
to most animals that would use a tidal swamp, than are the slight fluctuations in water levels on a 
daily basis. 



Associated rare plants: 

CARDAMINE LONGH 
CONIOSELINUM CHINENSE 
LYCOPUS RUBELLUS 

Associated r^e animals: 

NONE KNOWN 



LONG'S BFTTER-CRESS 
HEMLOCK PARSLEY 
GYPSYWORT 



E 

SC 

E 



E- 32 



Classiflcation of Massachusetts Estuarine Natural Communities 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Examples with 
Public Access: 

Threats: 



Management needs: 
Inventory need rank: 
Inventory comments: 
Synonyms: 
USNVC/TNC: 

MA (old nanne): 

ME: 

NH: 

NY: 

CT: 

Rl: 

Other 

Author 



The North River. 

Alteration of river hydrology from excessive water withdrawal may have significant effect on plant 
communities. 

I>etermine hydrologic requirements, and develop system for monitoring hydrologic stress. 

2 

Investigate occurrences along small streams and in brackish wetlands. 

Acer rubrum - Fraxinus pennsylvanica Tidal Woodland Alliance — Acer rubrum - Fraxinus 
pennsylvanica / Polygonum spp. Woodland (CEGL006165]. 

Southern New England /Gtilf of Maine Fresh/ Brackish Tidal Swamp. 

Present, not described 

Possible, not described. 

Freshwater Tidal Swamp. 

Possible, not described. 

Possible, not described 



Brian Reid 



Date: 



6/18/99 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



July 2000 



E- 33 



References 

Aizen, M.A. & W.A. Patterson III. 1995. Leaf phenology and herbivory along a temperature gradient: a spatial test 
of the phenological window hypothesis. J Veg. Sci. 6:543-550. 

Backman, A.E. 1984. 1000-year record of fire-vegetation interactions in the northeastern United States: a 

comparison between coastal and inland regions. MS Thesis. University of Massachusetts, Amherst. 

Baptisa, T.L. & S.W. Shumway. 1998. A comparison of the seed banks of sand dunes with different disturbance 
histories on Cape Cod National Seashore. Rhodora 100:298-313. 

Batcher, Michael S. 2000. Final report on survey of Three Mile Pond Wildlife Management Area. Report to: Mass. 
DepL Fisheries, Wildlife & Environmental Law Enforcement BDI & NHESP. 

Bechtel, D. A. and D.D. Sperduto. 1998. Floodplain forest natural communities along major rivers in New 

Hampshire. Unpublished report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. New Hampshire Natural 
Heritage Inventory, Concord, NR 

Bellis, Vincent J. 1995. Ecology of maritime forests of the southern Atlantic Coast: a community profile. USDI, 
National Biological Service. Biol. Rpt 30. 95pp. 

Bertin, Robert in conjunction with Brian Butler. 1998. Floristic and herpetological inventories of Quaboag Wildlife 
Management Area and Wolf Swamp Wildlife Management Area. Report to BDI & MNHESP. 

Bertin, Robert. 1999. Floristic inventory of Bolton Flats Wildlife Management Area. Report to BDI & MNHESP. 

Blodget, Bradford G. 1998. Checklist of the birds of Massachusetts. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife. 
Westborough, MA 25pp. 

Braker, N.C. 1986. Draft. Stewardship plan for Katama Plains Conservation Area. The Nature Conservancy. Dec. 
1986. and Peter Dunwiddie bum plan and comments from Mark Heillinger, 

Brooks, Robert Richard. 1987. Serpentine and its vegetation: a multidisciplinary approach. Dioscorides Press, 
Portland, OR. 454pp. 

Buttrick, S. 1994. Interagency memo re. ranking pine barrens types. The Nature Conservancy. Eastern Regional 
Office. Boston, MA. 

Caldwell, F.A. & G.E. Crow. 1992. A floristic and vegetation analysis of a freshwater tidal marsh on the Merrimack 
River, West Newbury, Massachusetts. Rhodora 94:63-97. 

Caldwell, F.A. 1990. A floristic and vegetation analysis of a freshwater tidal marsh on the Merrimack River, West 
Newbury, Massachusetts. MS Thesis, University of New Hampshire. 98 pp. 

Cardoza, I.E. & P.G. Mirick. 1999. List of the reptiles and amphibians of Massachusetts. 3rd Ed. Massachusetts 
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Classification of Massachusetts' Natural Communities DRAFT July 2000 References- 7 



Appendix . 



Inventory Needs 



INVENTORY NEEDS 



lnven_Need8 Community 



Community Name 



little information available; high inventory need) 



CE2B300000 ESTUARJNE INTERTIDAL: BRACKISH TIDAL MARSH 

CPl A2B4000 HIGH-TERRACE FLOODPLAIN FOREST 

CP1A2A2000 BLACK ASH SEEPAGE SWAMP 

CPIBIBIOOO BLACK SPRUCE-TAMARACK FORESTED BOG 

CP2A0B 1 300 CALCAREOUS PONDSHORE/LAKESHORE 

CP2A0B2200 RIVERSIDE SEEP 

CPlAl 10000 SPRUCE-FIR BOREAL SWAMP 

CP2A0A2 1 00 KETTLEHOLE WET MEADOW 

CP2A0B2500 POINTBAR, BEACH AND ISLAND SHORE 

CP2B0B 1 000 ACIDIC GRAMINOID FEN 



SRANK 



SI 
S2 
S2 
S2 
S2 
S2 
S3 
S3 
S3 
S3 



(some information available; moderate inventory need) 



2 (Cape Cod) 


CE2B400000 


2 


CE2C0OOOO0 


2 


CEIAOOOOOO 


2 


CT2B2B0OO0 


2 


CT1A2A1100 


2 


CT2B1F1000 


2 


CT1A2A1000 


2 


CT2A1C0000 


2 


CT2B2B1000 


2 


CP1A2B5000 


2 


CP1B2A0000 


2 


CP2A0B1200 


2 


CE3A200000 


2 


CE2A200000 


2 


CP1A2A1A00 


2 


CP2B0B2000 


2 


CE2A100000 


2 


CP1A120000 


2 


CP2A0A120O 


2 


CP2A0A1300 



ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL: FRESHWATER TIDAL MARSH S 1 

ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL: FRESH / BRACKISH TIDAL SHRUBLAND S 1 
ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL: FRESH / BRACKISH TIDAL SWAMP S 1 



SANDPLAIN HEATHLAND 

MARITIME JUNIPER WOODLAND / SHRUBLAND 

SCRUB OAK SHRUBLAND 

MARITIME OAK - HOLLY FOREST / WOODLAND 

CALCAREOUS ROCKY SUMMIT/ROCK OUTCROP 

DRY RIVERSIDE BLUFF 

COBBLE BAR FOREST 

BLACK GUM SWAMP 

COASTAL PLAIN PONDSHORE 

ESTUARINE SUBTIDAL FRESH / BRACKISH FLATS 

ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL: FRESH / BRACKISH FLATS 

ALLUVIAL RED MAPLE SWAMP 

ACIDIC SHRUB FEN 

ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL: SALINE /BRACKISH FLATS 

HEMLOCK-HARDWOOD SWAMP 

DEEP EMERGENT MARSH 

SHALLOW EMERGENT MARSH 



Inven_Ne€ds Community ELCODE 



Community Name 



SI 
SI 
SI 
SI 
S2 
S2 
S2 
S2 
S2 
S2 
S2 
S3 
S3 
S3 
S4 
S4 
S4 
SRANK 



July 2000 



Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program 



Appendix A 1 



Appendix . 



Inventory Needs 



2 
2 
2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 



CT2A4B0000 

CT2B1E0000 

CT1B2A0000 

CT1C2B2000 

CT2A2B0000 

CT2A2C0000 

CT2A3A0000 

CT2A4A1000 

CT1A2A2000 

CT1B1A2000 

CT1B1A3000 

CT1A3B0000 

CT2A1A0000 

CT2A2A2000 

CTIBIAIOOO 

CTIBIBOOOO 

CT1C2B1000 

CP2A0A20OO 

CP2A0B1100 

CP2A0B2100 

CP2A0B2300 

CP2B0C2000 

CE3A 100000 

CP1A2A1000 

CP2A0C0000 



MARITIME ROCK CLIFF COMMUNITY 

MARITIME EROSIONAL CLIFF COMMUNITY 

YELLOW OAK DRY CALCAREOUS FOREST 

CALCAREOUS FOREST SEEP COMMUNITY 

CIRCUMNEUTRAL ROCK CLIFF COMMUNITY 

CALCAREOUS ROCK CLIFF COMMUNITY 

RIVERSIDE ROCK OUTCROP COMMUNITY 

MARITIME SHRUBLAND COMMUNITY 

COASTAL FOREST / WOODLAND 

CIRCUMNEUTRAL TALUS FOREST / WOODLAND 

CALCAREOUS TALUS FOREST / WOODLAND 

BLACK OAK - SCARLET OAK FOREST / WOODLAND 

ACIDIC ROCKY SUMMIT / ROCK OUTCROP COMMUNITY 

ACIDIC ROCK CLIFF COMMUNITY 

ACIDIC TALUS FOREST / WOODLAND 

DRY, RICH ACIDIC OAK FOREST 

FOREST SEEP COMMUNITY 

WET MEADOW 

INLAND ACIDIC PONDSHORE/LAKESHORE 

MUD FLAT 

LOW-ENERGY RIVERBANK 

HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY THICKET 

ESTUARINE SUBTIDAL: SALINE/ BRACKISH FLATS 

RED MAPLE SWAMP 

SHRUB SWAMP 



S2 

S2 

S2 

S2 

S3 

S3 

S3 

S3 

S3 

S3 

S3 

S3S4 

S4 

S4 

S4 

S4 

S4 

S4 

S4 

S4 

S4 

S4 

S4 

SS 

SS 



Appendix- 2 



Classification of Massachusetts Natural Communities. 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



Appendix 



Inventory Needs 



Inven Needs 


Community 


3 




(good amount of information available; 




CT2A1D0000 




CT2B2A0000 




CT2B2A1000 




CT2A1A1200 




CP2AOA1100 




CP2B0A3OOO 




CT2B1B0000 




CT2B1F0O00 




CT2A1A1000 




CT1B2B1000 




CT1D300000 




CP1A2A3000 




CP1A2B1000 




CP1A2B2000 




CP1A2B3000 




CPIBIAIOOO 




CP1B1A2000 




CP1B1A3000 




CP1B1A4000 




CP1B1B2000 




CP1B2B0000 




CP2B0A1OOO 




CP2B0A2000 




CP2BOC1100 




CM2A000000 




CE3B000000 




CE2B200000 




CT2A1B0000 




CT1C2A0000 




CP2A0B2400 




CP2B0C1000 




CT2B1A0000 




CF2B 100000 



Community Name 

low inventory need) 
SERPENTINE OUTCROP COMMUNITY 
SANDPLAIN GRASSLAND 
CULTURAL GRASSLAND 
MARITIME PITCH PINE ON DUNES 
COASTAL INTERDUNAL MARSH/SWALE 
CALCAREOUS BASIN FEN 
MARITIME DUNE COMMUNITY 
PITCH PINE - SCRUB OAK COMMUNITY 
RIDGETOP PITCH PINE - SCRUB OAK COMMUNITY 
HICKORY - HOP HORNBEAM FOREST / WOODLAND 
HIGH ELEVATION SPRUCE - FIR FOREST / WOODLAND 



SRANK 



SI 
SI 

SI 
SI 
SI 
S2 
S2 
S2 
S2 
S2 



BLACK GUM - PIN OAK - SWAMP WHITE OAK "PERCHED" SWAMP S2 

MAJOR-RIVER FLOODPLAIN FOREST S2 

TRANSITIONAL FLOODPLAIN FOREST S2 

SMALL-RIVER FLOODPLAIN FOREST S2 

COASTAL ATLANTIC WHITE CEDAR SWAMP S2 

INLAND ATLANTIC WHITE CEDAR SWAMP S2 

NORTHERN ATLANTIC WHITE CEDAR SWAMP S2 

SEASONALLY-FLOODED ATLANTIC WHITE CEDAR SWAMP S2 

ATLANTIC WHITE CEDAR FORESTED BOG S2 
BLACK ASH-TAMARACK-RED MAPLE CALCAREOUS SEEPAGE SWAMP S2 

CALCAREOUS SLOPING FEN S2 

CALCAREOUS SEEPAGE MARSH S2 

KETTLEHOLE LEVEL BOG S2 

MARINE INTERTIDAL: ROCKY SHORE S2 

ESTUARINE SUBTIDAL: COASTAL SALT POND S2 

ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL: COASTAL SALT POND S2 
CIRCUMNEUTRAL ROCKY SUMMIT/ ROCK OUTCROP COMMUNITY S2S3 

RICH, MESIC FOREST COMMUNITY S3 

HIGH-ENERGY RIVERBANK S3 

LEVEL BOG S3 

MARITIME BEACH STRAND COMMUNITY S3 

ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL: SALT MARSH S3 



July 2000 



Nat;iral Heritage &. Endangered Species Program 



Appendix A 



Appendix 



Inventory Needs 



lnven_Needs Community 



3 


CT1A3A0000 


3 


CT1B2B0O00 


3 


CTICICOOOO 


3 


CT1B300000 


3 


CTIDIOOOOO 


3 


CMIAOOOOOO 


3 


CM2B000000 


3 


CM2C000000 


3 


CT1A200000 


3 


CTIAIOOOOO 


3 


CTIBIOOOOO 


3 


CTIAIAOOOO 


3 


CT1A300000 


3 


CTICOOOOOO 


3 


CTICIBOOOO 



Community Name SRANK 

RIDGETOP CHESTNUT OAK FOREST / WOODLAND S4 

OAK -HICKORY FOREST S4 

HEMLOCK RAVINE COMMUNITY S4 

RED OAK -SUGAR MAPLE TRANSITION FOREST S4 

SPRUCE - FIR - NORTHERN HARDWOODS FOREST S4 

MARINE SUBTIDAL: FLATS S4 

MARINE INTERTIDAL: GRAVEL /SAND BEACH S4 

MARINE INTERTIDAL: FLATS S4 

PITCH PINE -OAK FOREST S5 

WHITE PINE - OAK FOREST S5 

OAK -HEMLOCK -WHITE PINE FOREST S5 

SUCCESSIONAL WHITE PINE FOREST S5 

MIXED OAK FOREST S5 

NORTHERN HARDWOODS -HEMLOCK -WHITE PINE FOREST 85 

SUCCESSIONAL NORTHERN HARDWOODS S5 



Appendix- 4 



Classification of Massachusetts Natural Communities. 



DRAFT 



July 2000 



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